Selected Writings: Volume VIII Major Works 1976-1980. Completion Volume 1 9783110862744, 9783110103793

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Selected Writings: Volume VIII Major Works 1976-1980. Completion Volume 1
 9783110862744, 9783110103793

Table of contents :
Preface (Stephen Rudy)
PART ONE THE SOUND SHAPE OF LANGUAGE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
NOTE ON TRANSCRIPTION
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION (Linda R. Waugh)
Chapter One Speech Sounds and Their Tasks
I. Spoonerisms
II. Sense Discrimination
III.Homonymy
IV.Doublets
V.Early Search
VI. Invariance and Relativity
VII. Quest for Oppositions
VIII. Features and Phonemes
IX. Speech Sounds and the Brain
X. Redundancy
XI. Configurative Features
XII. Stylistic Variations
XIII. Physiognomic Indices
XIV. The Distinctive Features in Relation to the Other Components of the Speech Sound
XV. The Identification of Distinctive Features
XVI. Sense Discrimination and Sense Determination
XVII. Autonomy and Integration
XVIII. Universals
XIX. Speech Perception
XX. Life and Language
XXI. Role of Learning
XXII. Speech and Visualized Language
XXIII. Multiformity and Conformism
XXIV. Inner Speech
Chapter Two Quest for the Ultimate Constituents
I. To the Memory of Pierre Delattre
II. Vowel ~ Consonant
III. Syllabicity
IV. Markedness
V. Grave ~ Acute
VI. Production and Decoding
VII. Compact ~ Diffuse
VIII. Sharpness and Flatness
IX. Interrelation of Tonality Features
X. And What Now?
Chapter Three The Network of Distinctive Features
I. Significance of the Distinctive Features
II. The Two Axes
III. Nasality
IV. Voiced ~ Voiceless and Tense ~ Lax
V. Strident ~ Mellow
VI. Consonantal Correspondences to the Prosodic Features
VII. Vowel Harmony
VIII. Glides
IX. The Nascent Sound Shape
X. Dynamic Synchrony
XI. Vistas
Chapter Four The Spell of Speech Sounds
I. Sound Symbolism
II. Synesthesia
III. Word Affinities
IV. Sound-Symbolic Ablaut
V. Speech Sounds in Mythopoeic Usage
VI. Verbal Taboo
VII. Glossolalia
VIII. Sound as the Basis of Verse
IX. Children's Verbal Art
X. Saussure's poétique phonisante Seen from Today
XI. Inferences from a Cummings Poem
XII. Language and Poetry
AFTERWORD
APPENDIX ONE The Role of Phonic Elements in Speech Perception
APPENDIX TWO On the Sound Shape of Language: Mediacy and Immediacy by Linda R. Waugh
REFERENCES
PART TWO SIX LEÇONS SUR LE SON ET LE SENS
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
PART THREE LA THÉORIE SAUSSURIENNE EN RÉTROSPECTION
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
PART FOUR БЕСЕДЫ (DIALOGUES)
Вместо предисловия
I. На пути к поэтике
II. Подступы к фольклору
III. Стих и звуки речи
IV. Роль согласных в открытии фонологических оппозиций
V. Роль международной среды в развитии лингвистической теории
VI. Общая проблематика звуков речи
VII. Временной фактор в языке и литературе
VIII. Пространственный фактор
IX. Время в систематике знаков
X. Понятие признака
XI. Параллелизм
XII. Поэзия и грамматика
XIII. Сходство и смежность в языке и литературе, в кино и в афазии
XIV. Биография поэта, поэзия и миф
XV. Семиотика
Послесловие. Кристина Поморска
Основные источники
APPENDIX PRELIMINARIES TO SPEECH ANALYSIS: THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES AND THEIR CORRELATES
Preface
I The Concept of the Distinctive Feature
1.1 Resolving Speech into Ultimate Units
1.2 Invariance and Redundant Variations
1.3 Identification of Distinctive Features
1.4 Inherent and Prosodic Distinctive Features
1.5 The Distinctive Features Compared to Other Sound Features
II A Tentative Survey of the Distinctive Features
2.1 Prefatory Acoustical Remarks
2.2 Fundamental Source Features
2.3 Secondary Consonantal Source Features
2.4 Resonance Features
2.5 Conclusion
Appendix: Analytic Transcription
Addenda et Corrigenda
Figures
Supplement: Tenseness and Laxness
INDEX OF NAMES
INDEX OF LANGUAGES DISCUSSED
INDEX OF SUBJECTS

Citation preview

R O M A N JAKOBSON SELECTED W R I T I N G S VIII COMPLETION VOLUME ONE

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COMPLETION VOLUME ONE

Major Works, 1976-1980 Edited, with a preface, by Stephen Rudy

1988 MOUTON DE GRUYTER B E R L I N · N E W YORK · A M S T E R D A M

Mouton de Gruyter (formerly Mouton, The Hague) is a Division of Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin. CIP-Kurztitelaufnähme der Deutschen Bibliothek Jakobson, Roman: Selected writings / Roman Jakobson. Berlin ; New York ; Amsterdam : Mouton de Gruyter Text teilw. engl., teilw. franz., teilw. russ. NE: Jakobson, Roman: [Sammlung] 8 = Completion vol. 1. Major works, 1976-1980 / ed., with a pref., by Stephen Rudy. - 1987. ISBN 3-11-010379-6 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data (Revised for volume 8) Jakobson, Roman, 1896-1982 Selected writings. Vols. edited by Stephen Rudy. English, Czech, French, German, Polish, and Russian. Includes other eds. of some vols. Imprint of v. 1 covered by label: New York : Humanities Press. Vol. and 2nd ed. of v. 1 have place of publication: The Hague. Vols. have place of publication: The Hague ; New York. Vol. have place of publication: Berlin ; New York ; Amsterdam. Includes bibliographies and indexes. Contents: 1. Phonological studies - - 2. Word and language - - - - v. 8. Major works, 1976-1980. 1. Philology- -Collected works. I. Rudy, Stephen. II. Title. P27J332 410 63-3775 ISBN 90-2793-178-X (v. 3) ISBN 0-89925-175-7 (v. 8) (alk. paper)

Printed on acid free paper © Copyright 1987 by Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin. All rights reserved, including those of translation into foreign languages. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form - by photoprint, microfilm, or any other means - nor transmitted nor translated into a machine language without written permission from Mouton de Gruyter, a Division of Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin. Typesetting : Georg Appi, Wemding and J J. Augustin, Glückstadt. Printing: Druckerei Gerike GmbH, Berlin. - Binding: Lüderitz & Bauer GmbH, Berlin - Printed in Germany.

CONTENTS

Preface (Stephen Rudy)

XIII

PART ONE THE SOUND SHAPE OF LANGUAGE by R O M A N J A K O B S O N and L I N D A

R.WAUGH

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NOTE O N TRANSCRIPTION

XIX XX

PREFACE TO THE S E C O N D EDITION (Linda R. Waugh)

1

Chapter One Speech Sounds and Their Tasks

7

I. Spoonerisms II. Sense Discrimination III. Homonymy IV. Doublets V. Early Search VI. Invariance and Relativity VII. Quest for Oppositions VIII. Features and Phonemes IX. Speech Sounds and the Brain X. Redundancy XI. Configurative Features XII. Stylistic Variations XIII. Physiognomic Indices XIV. The Distinctive Features in Relation to the Other Components of the Speech Sound

7 8 9 12 13 17 22 29 32 39 41 43 45 46

VI XV. The Identification of Distinctive Features XVI. Sense Discrimination and Sense Determination XVII. Autonomy and Integration XVIII. Universals XIX. Speech Perception XX. Life and Language XXI. Role of Learning XXII. Speech and Visualized Language XXIII. Multiformity and Conformism XXIV. Inner Speech

53 57 59 60 64 67 73 74 77 81

Chapter Two Quest for the Ultimate Constituents

83

I. To the Memory of Pierre Delattre II. Vowel — Consonant III. Syllabicity IV. Markedness V. Grave-Acute VI. Production and Decoding VII. Compact-Diffuse VIII. Sharpness and Flatness IX. Interrelation of Tonality Features X. And What Now?

Chapter Three The Network of Distinctive Features

83 87 89 92 95 98 101 113 119 123

125

I. Significance of the Distinctive Features 125 II. The Two Axes 128 III. Nasality 134 IV. Voiced — Voiceless and Tense — Lax 138 V. Strident-Mellow 142 VI. Consonantal Correspondences to the Prosodie Features . 145 VII. Vowel Harmony 149 VIII. Glides 153 IX. The Nascent Sound Shape 156 X. Dynamic Synchrony 168 XI. Vistas 176

VII

Chapter Four The Spell of Speech Sounds I. Sound Symbolism II. Synesthesia III. Word Affinities IV. Sound-Symbolic Ablaut V. Speech Sounds in Mythopoeic Usage VI. Verbal Taboo VII. Glossolalia VIII. Sound as the Basis of Verse IX. Children's Verbal Art X. Saussure's poétiquephonisante Seen from Today XI. Inferences from a Cummings Poem XII. Language and Poetry AFTERWORD

181 181 191 198 203 208 211 214 218 220 224 225 233 235

A P P E N D I X ONE

The Role of Phonic Elements in Speech Perception

241

APPENDIX TWO

On the Sound Shape of Language : Mediacy and Immediacy by Linda R. Waugh

255

REFERENCES

273

ILLUSTRATIONS 1. Magic runes from Bryggen 2. Neuroanatomical schema for the auditory asymmetries . . . . 3. Delattre's spectrograph^ pattern of French consonants . . . . 4. Spectrograms of American English ba, da, and ga 5. X-ray photographs of Czech vowels and consonants 6. Title page ofC.F. Hellwag's dissertation of 1781 7. The vowel triangle in C. F. Hellwag's dissertation 8. A cubic graph of the Turkish vowel system

16 35 97 103 106 129 130 151

Vili PART TWO SIX LEÇONS SUR LE SON ET LE SENS by ROMAN JAKOBSON

I II III IV. V. VI

321 334 347 362 374 386

PART THREE LA THÉORIE SAUSSURIENNE EN RETROSPECTION by ROMAN JAKOBSON

1 II II I IV V VI VI I Vili

393 403 408 410 417 421 425 429

PART FOUR E E C E f l b l (DIALOGUES) by ROMAN JAKOBSON and KRYSTYNA POMORSKA

BMecTO npe^HCJiOBHa I. H a nyTH κ no3THKe

II. noflCTynbi κ (JjoubKJiopy III. Cthx h 3ByKH penn

439 440

449 454

IX IV. P o Jib comacHbix Β ο τ κ ρ μ τ η η φοΗΟϋΟΓΗπεοκΗΧ 0ΠΠ03ΗΙΙΗΗ

460

V. Pojib MEACAYHAPOFLHOÑ cpe^bi

Β P [ft] > [xt]) ;

26

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

and the Dutch shift to [xt] from [ft] with achter for after (Kaiser 1929: 119); or - for stops - the Celtic change of vesper into fescor; or the interchange between [f] and [x] in various Slavic dialects, for instance in Polish na ftórym, xtorek and Slovenian kozuch> kozuf, chruska> fruska, krxka> krfka, plexko>plefko, and the reverse Czech substitution of the labial preposition by a velar one, [x] before voiceless obstruents: ch Turnovë, chpravit, eh Cechách and [y] before voiced ones: hbëhnou, h Vysokym, h Jablonci, or Russian dialectal forms with velars instead of labials: déxka, verëxka, xlex kúzox, x cérkox (ν cerkov), krox, oxtórnik, and a corresponding change of [v] into [γ]: γ lése, γ w{lú(vuglu), yriuk, ydovéc, γ dom, as well as reverse changes of velars into labials : fio, leflcó, if,fodít',fájat\The Russian dialectal changes of [g] or [γ] into [v] may be exemplified by the masculine genitive ending of adjectives and pronouns, -ovo, and also by such forms as povóst from pogóst or muòvo from mnógo, as well as the exchange between [x] and [f] in words of foreign origin, such as kufârka instead of kwcárka, xrancús instead offrancús, and xrukt instead offrukt. In some Indonesian (namely Eastern Toba-Batak) dialects, [p] in general changes into [k]: for instance piso 'knife' > kiso (see Meillet & Cohen 1924:418f.). Also typical are the Czech dialectal variant karez instead of parez and such children's oscillations between velars and labials as Czech telefon and vousy changed into exon and xosi or in Peking Chinese xurj from furj (see Ohnesorg 1959: 30,44). It was especially in this and similar connections that the question of a property joining labials with velars in opposition to the common feature of dentals and palatals, as well as the question of the feature common to labials and dentals in contradistinction to that of velars and palatals, was brought into consideration, especially since each of these paired groups displays characteristic interchanges in the history of world languages. The preliminary solution to this complex of questions and to the problem of interconnections between the consonantal and vocalic patterns was presented for discussion at the Third International Congress of Phonetic Sciences in Ghent in 1938 (See RJ I: 272 ff.), on the eve of the world events which put an end to the Prague phonological deliberations and in general radically changed the topography of international scientific activities. Any notion of opposites is inseparable from the notion of opposition as such and neither of the two opposites can function in the neighborhood of other concurrent or successive features if such a neighborhood excludes the appearance of the other opposite. If instead of the

S P E E C H SOUNDS AND T H E I R TASKS

27

explicit designation of an opposition, for example nasality ~ nonnasality, we use the abbreviation 'the nasality feature', ambiguities cannot arise, because the feature is present only in those contexts where both members of the opposition - nasal and nonnasal - are admissible. In Russian the opposition of voiced and voiceless obstruents functions only before phonemes other than obstruents ; therefore the voicelessness of the word-final consonant in [luk] loses its distinctiveness, and the nominatives of the two nouns whose datives are púku] 'to the bow' and [lúgu] 'to the meadow' become homonymous. The soundform [d'étka] corresponds to both d'etka 'kid' and d'edka 'grandpa'; and in the sentence - highly improbable precisely because of its flagrant homonymy - èto ne [d'étks] a [d'étks] prokazit 'it's not the youngster but the grandpa (or not the grandpa but the youngster) who plays tricks', the question of the detected trickster remains ambiguous. Compare cognate derivatives with an initial vowel of the second, antecedent suffix, such as [d'étuska] 'kiddy' and [d'éduska] 'grandpa'. It is self-evident that to look for a distinctive feature in positions where no distinction is possible is a gross contradiction in terms. If in certain contexts only one of the opposites can appear, the feature loses its distinctiveness and becomes inactive and disabled. The opposition is alive when both opposites are able to occur in the same context, given, that is, the identity of concurrent and adjacent features. The question of whether the dichotomous scale is inherent in the structure of language or whether it is only a profitable principle for inquiry into that structure, a device imposed by the analyst upon the linguistic material, has been repeatedly raised. The Russian linguist Vjaceslav V. Ivanov has devoted several penetrating studies to binary relations as an intrinsic qualitative property "permeating the entire system of language and enabling one to describe it as a monolithic whole and not an accumulation of scattered data" (1972). Far from being a mere heuristic guide, the question of binary choices faces any interlocutor, for example whenever it is necessary for the addresser to bring to the knowledge of the addressee whether in the sentence cited near the beginning of this chapter, deal or zeal, showed or shows, tailor or sailor, etc., are meant. A choice between the two alternatives, stop or continuant, through the recognition of the appropriate one, is of course demanded not only from the linguistic inquirer, but first and foremost from the listener of the message, regardless of whether the identificational process is conscious or subliminal (cf. Muljacic 1977; Mel'cuk 1977: 292 ff.).

28

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

The difference between a single and a multiple distinction is palpable for the speakers. Thus, there is a single binary distinction between seal and zeal·, similarly, the distinction between seal and feel is single but that between seal and veal is double, a simultaneous pair of two binary distinctions ; between zeal and dill there is a sequentially double distinction - one in the initial consonant and the other in the vowel. Finally, the discrimination of sill and bill is based on a triple concurrent distinction. And again we must say that the difference between a single and a multiple distinction and between a simultaneous and a sequential one is a palpable operation both for linguistic analysis and for actual interlocutors. Lev Tolstoj acknowledged that he endowed some characters of War and Peace with generally known aristocratic Russian family names, which he changed only slightly, so that they would sound familiar to his readership. In each case he played with one single featural distinction: he made Bolkonskijfrom Volkonskij and Drubeckoj from Trubeckoj. These names sound quite natural, whereas with a double distinction they would have become grotesque, for instance *Dolkonskij or *Polkonskij or *Zrubeckoj. Children also show an acute feeling for single distinctions. As Cukovskij (1966) reported, a Russian child complained about the word doslyj ('shrewd'), which he felt to be too close to doxlyj ('putrid'). Among various characteristic examples, Willem Kaper (1959) quotes a four-year-old Dutch boy who amused himself with the sound-meaning differences between the rhyming words peertje 'little pear' and beertje 'little bear'. Another Dutch boy, according to Kaper's report, announced with pleasure to his mother that both Piet (proper name) and biet 'beet' really exist. A similar pleasure is felt by children in the juxtaposition of an extant word with an invented one distinguished by a single feature: pink is bink, bink is pink. Of course, any speech sound exists for its producer as well as for the perceiver both as a whole and as a concurrence of those parts which are imposed by the code of their language and imply single distinctions. The parts are exemplified for the consonant [s] by its distinctions from [z], [t], [f], and [s] in French and also from [Θ] in English and from palatalized [s'] in Russian. In an analogous way, seal exists simultaneously for speakers of English both as a lexical whole and as a sequence of its speech sounds, just as in turn a whole conventional sentence, such as take it easy, necessarily coexists in the mind of speakers both as a phraseological whole and as a set of single words. When discussing the pattern of features (1973), the adept analyst of speech Gunnar Fant

S P E E C H S O U N D S A N D T H E I R TASKS

29

rightly viewed their pattern as "a matter of coding convenience only", but the code and its conveniences are much more enrooted in the users of language than in its explorers despite the fact that the users of the verbal code may be unaccustomed to taking its conveniences into deliberate examination. For the sake of efficiency the perception of the sense-discriminative cues naturally has recourse to the polar differentiators facing the native decoder with a set of bare yes-or-no decisions between any two members of binary oppositions. In this way, the need for maximal simplicity, not only in the scientist's approach to the sound pattern of language, but first and foremost in the daily strategy of the language user, is fulfilled, especially since the number of oppositions in any given language is prefabricated and strictly limited for the apprehension of its speakers and perceivers.

VIII. F E A T U R E S A N D P H O N E M E S

It has been questioned whether linguistic operations with phonemes would not be more advantageous than those dealing directly with their ultimate constituents. The comparison of phonemes and distinctive features with respect to the most productive concept of opposition shows, as mentioned above (pp. 25 f.), that this concept, consistently applicable to the distinctive features, cannot be extended to the phoneme. A phoneme, being a bundle of distinctive features, proves to be an ever important but derivative unit, a complex, simultaneous construct of a set of elementary concurrent units. It can be compared in this respect to the syllable, which is a constructive complex unit within the verbal sequence. However, it is to be noted here that the sequence implies concurrence, while the reverse is not always the case. For instance, French vocabulary offers such homonymous words as / u / 'where' and / u / 'or'. And the Latin imperative / i / 'go' may function as an entire utterance. The difficulty or even the impossibility of a consistent segmentation of a sequence into phonemes has again and again been confirmed by instrumental studies both on the motor and on the acoustic level. The process of multifarious coarticulation was first thoroughly pursued by Paul Menzerath (1883-1954) and was impressively demonstrated by him with the help of an X-ray sound film at the Rome International Congress of Linguists in 1933. Through manifold experiments and instrumental observations of the articulatory process of speech, he came

30

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

to the conclusion that "a speech sound has no position; speech is a continuous, uninterrupted movement, irregardless of whether the sounds are vowels, diphthongs, or consonants, even plosives. All of them are gliding sounds (...) A sound sequence in an articulatory sense does not exist. The parts combined into a word prove to form not a chain but an interweaving. An acoustically later sound may begin articulatorally before the acoustically earlier sound" (Menzerath & Lacerda 1933). These observations have recently been supplemented by the comprehensive acoustic, primarily spectrographic data of Haskins Laboratories. Yet, these impediments disappear as soon as we go from the level of phonemes to the segmentation of the speech sequence into the succession of distinctive features. The diverse features can exhibit different limits of duration in the sequence, for they often capture a large portion of the preceding phoneme or on the contrary begin in the middle of the phoneme to which they belong; they may spread over into the next phoneme or cease in the middle of their own phoneme. The relative order of these features, however, usually remains the same, apart from rare and insignificant digressions. As a rule, the divergence between the limits of the implementation of different features does not cancel their concurrence in a certain at least minimal segment of the string, so that localization of their co-occurrence is usually preserved, except in the negligent, elliptic variant of speech. Thus, the segmentation of a sequence into successive features permits its further segmentation into phonemes. The temporal order of phonemes remains an undeniably significative factor - cf. Russian rvu Ί tear' vs. vru Ί lie', or Czech vre 'boils' vs. rve 'shouts' vs. rev 'roar'. One cannot but agree that "we are a long way off from a really welldeveloped model of the speech perception process" (cf. Pisoni 1975: 98), yet indeed direct recourse to "the basic primes" defended by Sheila Blumstein and William Cooper (1972: 208) is indispensable, for "within any language system every phoneme is characterized by the minimum number of features needed to distinguish it from all other phonemes of that system", and such direct recourse ensures the most exact application of those two vital principles of relativity and invariance which underlie any present scientific task. The strategy of these fundamental tasks will be touched upon below, but the direct approach to the listener's experience seems to be often a simpler pathway than the search for the speaker's commands to the articulatory muscles, especially since "we cannot at the present time observe those pro-

SPEECH SOUNDS A N D THEIR TASKS

31

cesses nor can we directly measure their output" (Liberman, Cooper, et al. 1967:446 ff.) ; moreover, "when the temporally overlapping gestures for successive phonemes involve more or less adjacent muscles that control the same structures, it is of course more difficult to discover whether there is invariance or not". In a recent survey volume edited by Ljudmila Cistovic on theories of speech perception, the motor theory is said to have been veiy popular some ten years ago; although this theory gave hope for finding the key to speech perception by detecting the "motor commands", the unjustified assumption of their standard nature was superseded by proof of their high variability. It became obvious that "in order to describe and model the process of governed speech production, it is necessary to turn to such a notion as the aim of the motor act, and the solely evident aim is the production of a definite acoustic effect accessible and 'understandable' to the listener" (Cistovic et al. 1976: 31 ff.). At the beginning of our century, one of the most perspicacious phoneticians of his time, Alexander Thomson (1860-1935), again and again rejected the still ineradicable efforts to exaggerate the articulatory criteria for the listener's speech interpretation: "It is not the movements of the speech organs but the speech sounds themselves which are primary in language. The sounds are a more uniform and more constant element in language." Deprived of acoustic analysis, the "physiology of any sounds whatever remains incomprehensible, since the articulation is only a means to an end". Through the analysis of consonants, Thomson brings to light the fact that "the dorsal or coronal way of articulation, a difference which fallaciously is highly regarded, is by itself quite inessential for the sound and the choice is chiefly determined by the height of the tone assigned to the noise" (Thomson 1909 and 1934). An additional reason for following the path of analysis from the features to phonemes and not vice versa and for the advantages of a featural transcription over a simple notation of mere unanalyzed phonemes is the possibility of an unambiguous answer to the question of the presence vs. absence of a given distinctive feature in its two terms, whereas the makeup of a phoneme is different according to the context. Thus for instance, in the Russian adverb zdes' 'here', the initial consonant lacks two distinctive features proper to the phonemes /z/, /z'/, /s/, and /s'/ in prevocalic position, e.g. zad = [zat] 'back', zjat' = [z'at'] 'son-in-law', sad = [sat] 'garden', sjad'[s'at'] 'sit down'. Hence the initial sibilant appears here as an 'incomplete phoneme', because

32

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

before obstruents the normally distinctive opposition of voicing and voicelessness is canceled and likewise the opposition of palatalized and nonpalatalized dentals is discarded before another dental. The question of rendering such 'incomplete' phonemes in transcription creates unavoidable complications and disagreements as long as spelling is based not on features themselves but on entire phonemes. The distinction between such tense and lax consonants as / t / and / d / or / s / and / z / is lost in English after obstruents (cf. the final [d] and [z] in ribbed and ribs and the final [t] and [s] in ripped and rips). In German dialects where only [z] occurs initially and only [s] finally, the phonemes / s / and / z / do not display the tense ~ lax distinction in other than some internal positions (e. g., weisse and weise) and this distinction remains valid only as long as the antecedent diphthong [ay] in relation to the following consonant does not carry its own significant distinction. In those positions where the tense ~ lax distinction is not operative, the German hissing sibilant phoneme is quite incomplete : nondistinctively lax in a prevocalic and nondistinctively tense in a postvocalic position. Cf. Saus [zaus] 'rush', gen. Sauses [zauzas].

IX. SPEECH S O U N D S A N D THE BRAIN

The frequent French designation of distinctive features as traits pertinents easily leads to misconceptions; besides distinctive features the sound shape of language contains a few other kinds of likewise pertinent, functional features. Only the degree and not the fact of their pertinence can be questioned. One may be an adamant 'featurist', but one should not disregard the manifest copresence and functioning of classes of features other than the distinctive ones. It should not be forgotten that speech sounds are tools of verbal communication and that their entire makeup is an ensemble of diverse types of features, all of which fulfill an interplay of tasks essential for communication. In the process of communication, none of these features remains insignificant or immaterial. The obsolete but recurrent view of a phonetic description of articulatory and physico- and psycho-acoustic phenomena as one which disregards their role in language and their communicative significance not only inhibits inquiry, but above all arbitrarily suppresses the fundamental question of the manifold goals that these phenomena pursue. Such lack of respect for the multifold significance of sound shapes

S P E E C H SOUNDS A N D T H E I R TASKS

33

causes a dangerous truncation of the analyst's task and curbs rational classification. Particularly vain is psychoacoustic, perceptual speech analysis if done without regard for those diverse linguistic values of the sensory stimuli which are picked up by the native perceiver, whose selectional response to such stimuli depends precisely on their informational cues, most of them socially codified. In light of the functional load of these sensory elements, which all fulfill some semiotic duty, the view of phonetics as abstraction faite de fonction now appears to us to be outdated, unrealistic, and emasculated. More and more we realize that speech sounds as a whole are an artifact built precisely for speech and are thus self-evidently goal-directed. The idea of "gross, raw" phonic matter, "amorphous substance", is a fiction. Discrete articulated sounds did not exist before language, and it is pointless and perverse to consider such "phonic stuff" without reference to its linguistic utilization. The growth of language and the development of the human supralaryngeal vocal apparatus are interconnected innovations (cf. Lieberman 1975: 35); in particular the hominid dental evolution turned the oral cavity into the best resonating chamber for linguistic use (Sheets 1977). And it is for their verbal purpose that speech sounds were formed and submitted to a special hierarchical organization. The Old Indie theoreticians of language made a clear-cut distinction not only between varria sphofa, the sense-discriminative constituent in speech sounds, and dhvani 'speech sound' in general, but also between the latter and sabda 'nonspeech sound'. Any individual uttering of a speech sound, which Bhartfhari named vaikrta-dhvani 'modified sound', presents differences of diction, but behind these fluctuations inherent in given messages there is a codified, fixed sound-design, prakrta-dhvani 'primary sound', encompassing all those sound properties which are normally produced by the speakers and perceived by the listeners of a given speech community. Only some of these integral properties, those connected with meaning, pertain to the varria sphofa. Thomas Aquinas opposed speech sounds, voces, to sounds emitted naturaliter by animals. The former he characterized as voces significantes, ex institutione humanae rationis et voluntatis. His definition of speech sounds as significantia artificialiter and given ad significandum appears to be the most valid one, especially now that a radical division between speech and nonspeech sounds is becoming increasingly evident (cf. Manthey 1937). Sapir taught that "speech sounds exist merely

34

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

because they are the symbolic carriers of significant concepts and groupings of concepts" (1921: 184). In his study of 1925 cited above, he compared the candle-blowing "wh" with the externally similar speech sound [hw] (wh), pointing to the essential difference between the two sounds, the latter of which is " 'placed' with reference to other sounds" and to "relational gaps" between all of them, whereas its candle-blowing homonym is "not spaced off from nor related to other sounds - say the sound of humming and the sound of clearing one's throat." In his later, 1933 paper on the psychological reality of phonemes, Sapir presaged that "it may even be seriously doubted whether the innervation of speech sound articulation is ever actually the same type of physiological fact as the innervation of 'identical' articulations that have no linguistic context" (see 1949). Since the early 1960s (Kimura 1961,1967; cf. also Broadbent 1954) the widespread, constantly progressing and developing experiments with dichotic hearing, that is, with listening to different stimuli presented simultaneously to both ears, have proved the privileged position of the right ear and correspondingly of the left (dominant) hemisphere of the brain for the perception of speech sounds within real, meaningful words, synthetic nonsense syllables, and even in speech played backwards (see Mattingly et al. 1971). On the other hand, the left ear and correspondingly the right (nondominant) hemisphere of the brain showed a greater capacity for all other auditory stimuli, such as musical tones and melodies (both unknown and familiar), sonar signals (see Webster & Chaney 1967), and environmental noises such as a car starting, the sharpening of a pencil, water running, and oral emissions apart from speech - coughing, crying, laughing, humming, yawning, snoring, sniffling, sighing, panting, or sobbing (see Figure 2). Doubts expressed at the outset of these experiments as to the advantage of the right ear for discerning separate vowels were dispelled by the confirmation of this laterality whenever isolated vowels were pronounced at the average speed of spoken language or when the fact that they pertain to speech had been anticipated by the listener (Spellacy & Blumstein 1970; Haggard 1971; Lisenko 1971; King & Kimura 1972). The greater efficiency of the contralateral auditory pathways in comparison with the ipsilateral direction, as well as the dependence of speech recognition and discrimination on left temporal acuity, were powerfully proved by these significant experiments, which disclose not only the divergent treatment of speech constituents from all other sound matter, but also the relative perceptual recognizability and dis-

35

SPEECH S O U N D S A N D THEIR TASKS

LEFT HEMISPHERE (DIGITS )

RIGHT HEMISPHERE (MELODIES)

LEFT EAR

RIGHT

EAR

Figure 2. Neuroanatomical schema for the auditory asymmetries. From D. Kimura,1967, in Cortex 3, p. 174.

criminability of diverse categories of speech sounds. While some initial hints at further insights into these matters may be found in extant reports (cf. for instance Studdert-Kennedy & Shankweiler 1970; Berlin et al. 1973 ; and Darwin 1971), and while material other than English is beginning to attract the attention of experimenters (cf. Kok et al. 1971 ; Shimizu 1975), more active cooperation with linguists in this search and in the interpretation of the results may throw further light on these critical problems. Although so far only the first steps in the linguistic analysis and interpretation of the dichotic listening technique have been ventured (cf. particularly Blumstein 1974), it is already evident that speech sounds, at least from the moment they are perceived by the listener, occupy an obviously particular place directly opposite to all other aural percepts ; therefore, in view of this new criterion, the earlier attempts to include speech and nonspeech sounds in a common classificatory table can no longer be justified. Previous surmises that "the controlling mechanisms of non-speech sounds are quite similar to

36

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

those of speech sounds" (cf. Pike 1943: chap. 2, sec. 8) are invalidated by the research on the different pathways of speech and nonspeech sounds to the brain of the listener. Split-brain studies connected with section of the cerebral commissures of epileptics have been pursued since the 1960s (see Gazzaniga & Sperry 1967). They show that speech, writing, and calculation depend almost exclusively on the major hemisphere. In his rich, critical summary of experiments with split-brain subjects, Stephen D.Krashen concludes that after left lesions only stereotyped, automatic language remains (1976:176) and he refers to the convincing case of left hemispherectomy described by A.Smith: after surgery, the patient suffered from global aphasia but preserved his ability to curse and swear. Attempts have been made to analyze responses to natural speech stimuli recorded from scalp electrodes symmetrically placed over the two cerebral hemispheres simultaneously (see Wood, Goff, & Day 1971 ; Morrell & Salamy 1971 ; Cohn 1971 ; Neville 1974; Molfese, Freeman, & Palermo 1975; Harnad et al. 1977). This research has contributed to grasping the functional specialization of the two hemispheres and in particular the respective ways in which they treat auditory stimuli both linguistic and nonlinguistic (cf. Mosidze & Akbardija 1973, as well as the surveys in the 1977 Segalowicz & Gruber volume). However, through the last ten years it has been the intensive Russian investigation of changes - in both perception and execution manifested by schizophrenic and depressive patients during the first few minutes after unilateral applications of electroconvulsive therapy which has given the deepest and most consistent insight into the speech and hearing capacities of the two hemispheres. The very promising results of the systematic inquiry into the far-reaching differences between the functions of the two hemispheres and into their vital complementarity have been instructively outlined in Lev Balonov and Vadim Deglin's absorbing Russian monograph of 1976, Hearing and Speech of the Dominant and Non-Dominant Hemispheres (with an exhaustive bibliography). The comprehensive content of this book gives evidence of a continuously growing understanding of the part played by each of the two hemispheres in the organization of speech production and perception. The temporary inactivation of the left hemisphere causes a proclivity toward a "desemantization" of words and reduces the comprehension and active mastery of words and phrases as well as the intelligibility of phonemes. The perception and reproduction of single speech

SPEECH SOUNDS A N D THEIR TASKS

37

sounds is severely inhibited. Selective attention to words and their components breaks down. This is not a disintegration of hearing as such, but the loss o f speech hearing only (cf. Traugott & Kajdanova 1975); the categorial apperception of phonemes and of their distinctive features is shaken. According to a pertinent remark by Balonov & Deglin (1976), the paradigmatic frontiers between phonemes undergo a kind o f "erosion" (p,160f.). The orderly hierarchical organization of sense-discriminative elements and of their bundles into phonemes is judiciously viewed by the two authors as a "supra-sensory formation" (p.144). Under the inactivation of the left hemisphere this network of distinctive features loses its stability and equilibrium, but the disintegration o f this system in turn reveals a hierarchical order in the deficits suffered by patients. The authors are right in their assertion that the featural composition of phonemes remains the decisive symptom at all stages of the patients' responses. The most common types of confusion between phonemes are limited to one single distinctive feature, and the various features manifest different degrees of resistibility. Thus, the vocalic opposition compact ~ diffuse (see below, pp.101 ff.) and the optimum of compactness, /a/, are the steadiest constituents, whereas the distinction / o / ~ / e / and /u/ ~ / i / easily disappears (Balonov & Deglin 1976:132,142,181). It is noteworthy that shock therapy of the right hemisphere has proved that "the perception of vowels when they are close in duration to vowels in the ordinary speech stream is performed by the left hemisphere" (p.141). The comparison of such disruptions with spontaneous aphasie disturbances suggests itself, especially since "aphasie disorders in general result essentially from lesions on the left hemisphere" (Hécaen 1969: 308). Pathologists o f language have maintained that 'sensory' aphasia with its decoding impairments is tied to posterotemporal lesions o f the cortex, whereas frontotemporal lesions are responsible for 'motor' aphasia with its encoding impairments (cf. Luria 1958: 27ff.; RJ I : 289-305). The current inquiry into the effects o f unilateral electric shocks with respect to the difference in the left-side position of the convulsive electrodes reveals that their posterotemporal location effects mostly syndromes of sensory aphasia with disturbances in the perception of speech sounds. On the other hand, the frontotemporal placement o f electrodes most frequently results in syndromes of motor aphasia and in a lowering of speech activity (see Balonov & Deglin: p.191). Briefly, there appears an instructive analogy between the localization o f electrodes in shock therapy and that o f brain lesions in apha-

38

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

siology, an analogy which opens new vistas to the cerebral topography of diverse linguistic manifestations. No doubt the gradual restoration of the disturbed system at the end of the short-lived aphasie stage caused by the electric shock must attract the special attention of observers and inquirers into the patient's linguistic experience. And indeed it had already been noted in 1940-41 in analogous cases of insulin shock that the gradual recovery of speech corresponds in its relative chronolgy to the progressing sound pattern of children's language (see RJ I: 370). In one such case, Professor Β. I. Jacobowski, director of an Uppsala psychiatric clinic, asked a schizophrenic who was recovering from insulin shock and had started to regain his speech capacity to recite the Swedish alphabet. Beforehand, the medical assistants were given copies of the alphabet with marginal indications by RJ (prompted by his linguistic experience with children) as to what spelling names would be omitted or distorted at first by the patient and what the order of their restitution would be at his repeated performances. The expected order of mistakes and their corrections, based on the analogy between children's acquisition and patients' reacquisition of the speech sound pattern, for the most part was confirmed. The recognition of all auditory stimuli outside of language is supervised solely by the right hemisphere (Balonov & Deglin: p.77 ff.). Its inactivation affects neither speech sounds nor word units, but has a totally destructive effect on all other auditory stimuli: noises of humans and animals, of industry, transport, and of natural forces, as well as musical tones, chords, and melodies (cf. Gordon 1970; Mindadze et al. 1975), even when these auditory stimuli are quite familiar to the patient. Subjects with a temporarily inactivated right hemisphere were helpless when faced with a succession of the following auditory stimuli, which were perfectly recognizable as long as this hemisphere remained active: the ringing of a clock, singing birds, splashing water, neighing horses, a howling snowstorm, a roaring lion, a crying child, the clatter of crockery, peals of thunder, a grunting pig, the clank of metal, the call of a rooster, snoring, a barking dog, a lowing cow, the sound of a furnace, footsteps, a cooing dove, the rumble of a plane, cackling geese, a ringing telephone, the thundering of waves at high tide (Balonov & Deglin: p.77). During the inactivation of the right hemisphere, the noise of applause was actually taken for the winnowing of grain, laughter for crying, thunder for an engine, the squeal of a pig for the noise of a caterpillar tractor, the honking of geese for the

SPEECH S O U N D S A N D THEIR TASKS

39

croaking of frogs, a dog barking for the cackling of hens, the noise of a motorcycle for that of an animal, etc. (pp. 80 ff.). On the other hand, with respect to language the right hemisphere acts as a "brake" or "censor" ; it exerts a "damping" influence on the language centers of the left hemisphere (pp.l45f., 182ff., 186; for the role of the right hemisphere as a 'speech framer' see below, pp. 49 f.). The recent copious report of Eran Zaidel of the California Institute of Technology about the verbal conduct of split-brain patients (1978: 229 ff.) corroborates the signal results of the electrotherapeutic experiments reported by Balonov & Deglin. Unlike the left hemisphere, which performs a consistent "distinctive feature analysis", the right hemisphere, with its "reduced efficiency" and poor discriminatory ability, fails particularly "to analyze correctly long non-redundant sentences in which order is important and the context is not helpful". According to Zaidel, this "limitation may be attributed to a restricted (perhaps as small as a 3-item) short-term verbal memory" (p. 269). The right hemisphere proves to be "3 times" less efficient in sound pairs that differ in two features than in pairs differing in one feature (p. 243), and it recognizes more easily the unmarked varieties than their marked counterparts, e. g. plosives and orals than the marked continuants and nasals (p. 241). Finally, once again it was made evident that the motor theories of speech perception "are not physiologically necessary to account for comprehension" (p. 258). The endeavor of the international research to separate out the activities of the two hemispheres has actually succeeded in bisecting the brain, cere comminuti brum, according to the audacious word figure of Quintus Ennius (239-169 B.C.; see Vahlen 1854: 85), and herewith has opened a broad outlook for an insight into the brain and its language mechanisms.

X. R E D U N D A N C Y

Redundant features occupy a considerable place in the sound shape of speech and must be accounted for by speech analysis. Rather than being superfluous and useless, as the age-old term "redundancy" infelicitously suggests, they serve to support and enhance the distinctive features, yet must at the same time be carefully distinguished from them. The auxiliary role of redundancy is to provide complementary information about the identity of contiguous distinctive features which are either adjacent (preceding or subsequent) in the sequence or

40

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

concurrent with the redundant features. We may quote a still valid remark by the psychophysicist Stanley Smith Stevens (1906-1973): "The fact of redundancy increases the reliability of speech communication and makes it resistant to many types of distortion. By limiting the number of discriminations required of the listener and by assisting his choice through the redundant coding of information, we make talking to one another a reasonably satisfactory business" (1950:690). Both a lack of attention on the analyst's part to the framework of redundant features and the danger of intermingling distinctive features with redundancies without respect for the obvious, natural hierarchy of the two classes must be prudently avoided in order to allow an adequate description and hierarchic explanation of linguistic wholes and parts. Against the aprioristic doubts of detached onlookers (cf. BarHillel 1957:326 f.), an objective and exhaustive examination of linguistic data unfailingly shows that the discrimination of distinctive and redundant features is an intrinsic task. The difference between the "independently significant" (in Sweet's terms) distinctive features and the redundant ones is objectively contained in the data, notwithstanding the hypotheses of critics who are unfamiliar with technical linguistic requirements but prone to interpret the delimitation of distinctive and redundant features as an arbitrary decision and terminological contrivance on the part of linguists. The lucid example of vocalic nasality in such American English vocables as win, whim, and wing shows that, in contradistinction to the consonants, where nasality occurs not only in postvocalic but also in other positions, the nasal vowels are always bound to the nasal consonants that follow, whether the latter are fully or at least allusively implemented. (Cf. p. 10 above, and Malécot 1960.) Consequently, consonantal nasality in English is independently significant, whereas vocalic nasality is a mere redundancy anticipating the ensuing nasal consonant, notwithstanding the fact that at times, especially in elliptic speech, this anticipatory redundant feature may nearly take over the discriminative function of the consonantal nasality. The independently significant opposition of palatalized (sharp) and nonpalatalized consonants in Russian occurs both with and without a following vowel, and especially at the end of a word. The opposition is supported in prevocalic consonants by a redundant difference between a more advanced and a more retracted articulation of vowels after palatalized and after nonpalatalized consonants respectively. Hence, for instance, the front [i] and the back [ui] prove to be two con-

SPEECH S O U N D S A N D THEIR TASKS

41

textual implementations of one and the same phoneme and their difference is a redundant feature signaling the opposition between the antecedent presence or absence of palatalization ; however, in other positions the same distinction of these two kinds of consonants is deprived of this redundant support: cf. kel't [t] 'Celt' and sel'd' [t'] 'herring'; kost [st] 'living expenditures' and void' [st'] 'leader'. The opposition of voicing and voicelessness carries its independently sense-discriminative capacity in Russian obstruents when a vowel either follows immediately or is separated from the obstruent by a nasal, a liquid, or a / v / (see RJ1978). In all other situations, the voicing or the voicelessness of these obstruents is redundant; it can merely point to a subsequent voiced or voiceless phoneme, as for example in the case of the initial continuants ¿gut und skura. With / δ / and / c / the lack of voicing before a vowel is a redundant feature: it points to the concurrent distinctive features which build the affricate (abruptness combined with stridency) and in this way it underlines the difference between such words as cykat' 'hush' and zykat' 'shout', cugovój 'harnessed one before the other' and dugovój 'bow-shaped'. A feature occuring in Russian as redundant solely is tenseness. For example, the tense [e] in contradistinction to the lax [ε] occurs at present only between two palatalized consonants, e.g. [m'el] 'chalk' and [m'el'] 'shoal'. Among consonants, the difference lax ~ tense is a redundant feature which in Russian only accompanies the actual distinctive feature voicing ~ voicelessness (see chap. 3). The redundant feature reinforces a given distinctive feature, but only in the latter's sense-discriminative function, and not in the sense-determinative role. In this regard the loss of the opposition voicing ~ voicelessness at the end of a word in Russian can cancel a word distinction, as we see for example in the nominative [ab'ét] 'dinner' or 'vow' versus some other case form of the same nouns, such as dative [ab'édu] ~ [ab'étu] respectively.

XI. CONFIGURATI VE FEATURES

Since Trubetzkoy's guiding initiative of the early 1930s, summed up later in his posthumous Principles of Phonology (Grundzüge der Phonologie), linguists (such as Bloomfield 1939; Harris 1951 and 1963; Chomsky & Halle 1968; and others) have paid increasing attention to the complex class of configurative features, which, as is generally known, "signal the division of the utterance into grammatical units of

42

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

different degrees of complexity", namely into phrases, words, and their diverse morphological components. The integration and delimitation of words and their constituents are achieved either by particular rules for the use of distinctive features and of their combinations or by other, quite special signals. To exemplify the utilization of distinctive features for delimitation, let us note the widespread difference between the repertory of phonemes and of their groupings at the beginning, at the end, and in the interior of words and smaller grammatical units. We may cite, as a means of integration, the use of so-called 'free' stress in those languages where its position is not in a unilateral dependence on the word boundary: here the opposition of stressed and unstressed vowels fulfills both a sense-discriminative and an integrational, namely culminative, function. For example, in Russian, stress distinguishes the meanings of plâcu Ί cry' and placú I Ί pay' ; even in long words such as presmykájusciesja 'reptiles', one single stress signals the unity of a word. Another device which fulfills such an integrating role is known as vowel harmony and, according to Baudouin's favorite metaphor, serves to "cement" all the syllables of words or of smaller grammatical units (see below, p. 149). In languages with a fixed word-accent, for instance in Czech, where stress falls on the first syllable of the word, the difference between stressed and unstressed vowels is not a distinctive, but merely a configurative means. It serves only for the demarcation and integration of words and separates them both from the neighboring stressed words and from the proclitic conjunctions (cf. the word group alogicky a logicky 'illogical and logical', with the stress on the initial vowel of both adjectives). There is an essential functional difference between the distinctive and the configurative features which is comparable to the hierarchical difference between letters and punctuation marks. The absence of commas and even, as ancient scripts testify, the total omission of spaces between words do not hinder the comprehension of the texts, as the complete lack of letters would obviously do. Thus the role of sense-discriminative items is primary as compared to the subordinate implementation of the configurative features. It has been emphasized that grammatical units and their boundaries exist for the speaker and listener even if they are not expressed. For a wider scrutiny of fixed and free accent from this point of view, see the comparative study of Czech and Russian verse (RJ 1923) and particularly its argumentation: "May the word boundaries serve as a factor which conditions certain sound phenomena or is it on the contrary

43

SPEECH SOUNDS A N D THEIR TASKS

Czech stress that determines the word boundaries? In the latter case Czech stress would unquestionably be a meaningful, innerly conditioned element. Yet the word exists in the linguistic mind irrespective of indispensable acoustic limits." In American linguistics, in reply to some endeavors to attach boundary signals to the class of phonemes as a subsection of "secondary phonemes" (Bloomfield 1933), Chomsky has adopted the traditional Praguian viewpoint: " T h e phrases are 'abstract' in the sense that neither their boundaries nor their categories need be physically marked" (1975: 32). The relative primacy of the sense-discriminative elements of the speech sounds is thus duly acknowledged.

XII. STYLISTIC VARIATIONS So-called 'free' or, to be more precise, 'stylistic' variations are, to a high degree, ways o f coloring and diversifying speech by digressing from neutral style to emotive varieties of the overall code. T o such subcodes belong the slowed-down or on the contrary the slurred, the exclamatory or the softened, the excited or the subdued styles of expression which apply the diverse devices of prolonging or reducing the tempo of articulation and of strengthening and heightening or weakening and lowering various sounds. "There is", as the phonetician Daniel Jones (1881-1967) thought, "what we may call the 'ordinary' or 'slow conversational' style, there are very rapid familiar styles, and there is formal style used for instance in reciting or reading aloud to a large audience, and there are styles intermediate between these. With some speakers (...) the differences are considerable and may involve the use in formal and in very rapid styles of sounds not occuring at all in the 'ordinary' style" (1962: 197). In his once-renowned manual of natural stage speech, S.Volkonskij warned actors and reciters not to impart to their diction the tinge of one particular vowel, for instance in tragic style the habitual shift of [a] toward [ui], e.g. zn[ui\es tone of elegant ease the shift of [a] to [ε], e.g. [ckr£\gój

;[νέ]η

li, or in a i[vk\novic.

H e also condemned the [u] or [uo] nuance of the mincing feminine Moscovite style: m[w] ίί[ιί] èto /afc[w]e(1913: 55). A similar labialization of vowels in the "sweet prattling" of Latvian women has been noted (Rü^e-Draviija 1952: 68 ff.). The manière

affectée

of pronouncing [a],

[a] almost as [ce], [ae] by many Parisian ladies was observed by Passy (1891:248).

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THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

Such effects are ordinarily superposed onto the distinctive features of a given language without conflicting with them. Thus for instance, according to Georg von Gabelentz, in those dialects of Saxony which do not have the front rounded phonemes / ü / , / o / , and /ce/, these sounds occur when one is talking about gloomy and deep things "von einer tüfen Fünsternüss" (1891: 362). If a language has at its disposal a distinction between long and short vowels, usually only the long ones may undergo further lengthening and only the short ones are subject to an expressive shortening. But the strong intervention of an emotive tinge is able to threaten the distinctive oppositions themselves. When approaching such variations of English as the use or omission of the prevocalic glottal catch between words in close syntactic interdependence, one observes that the occurence of this sound belongs to a style seeking a sharper segregation of words within a sequence. "Lumps" of emotive function, such as interjections, tend to use sounds and clusters otherwise alien to a given language or to language in general ; cf. English examples such as the interjections conventionally spelled (especially in comic strips) tut, described by Webster's as "placing the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge and suddenly sucking in air - used to express disapproval or disbelief' ; brr, a bilabial trill ; and phooey. Dwight Bolinger quotes such conventionally written exclamations as uh-huh and hunh-uh ("the latter with a distinctive glottal stop"), phew, and hynah-hynah, in addition to the warning Pa>V](1963:122f.). The emotive features superimposed upon notional speech differ from the distinctive features by their gradual, rather than binary, oppositional character: the emphasis can be of different degrees. Moreover, these features are not necessarily confined to a single segment of the speech sequence and show a tendency to expand and cover a longer section. For instance, we observe durational variations in several successive speech sounds. The distinctive features are compulsory elements of the linguistic code, whereas emotive features occur as an optional property of individual speech performances. Emotive features are socially coded rather than mandatory; therefore, examples of their salient misinterpretation by members of an alien speech community are quite frequent. Since Gyula Laziczius (1896-1957) drafted his groundbreaking remarks on the emotive and conative ingredients in the sound shape of language, both cognate sets called 'emphatica' by him (1935; cf. Trubetzkoy in 1939a: 14ff.), much remains to be done in this still fecund field (cf. Stankiewicz 1964).

SPEECH S O U N D S A N D THEIR TASKS

45

In his "Introduction to the Study of Speech" (1921 : chap. 1), Sapir asserted that "ideation reigns supreme in language", while "volition and emotion come in as distinctly secondary factors". However, the author's broad view of language in his prescient essay of 1927 enabled him to overcome the ingrained assumption "that the task of language is a pure denotive one", and to bring up those "peculiar characteristics of language" which have not as yet been "sufficiently understood" and are likely to be overlooked by linguists. In fact, the denotive function of speech is always compounded with certain expressive factors (...) which are always present in the actual life of language. It is impossible to pronounce even so indifferent a word as "horse" without a lesser or greater show of interest, without some change of emotion. This expressiveness may relate to our attitude toward the person that we are speaking to or thinking of, or to our general state of mind. (...) In the course of our speech activities we are really doing two rather distinct things, though these are never to be completely sundered except by a process of abstraction. [1927:425 f.]

As Ivan Fónagy has newly demonstrated, "each concrete sound necessarily contains two pieces of information differing profoundly both at the level of content and of expression". To specify the rules of procedure, he has shown "the mechanism for the acoustic encoding of emotions analyzed by two x-ray films containing neutral and emotional variants (anger, hate, sadness, joy, tenderness, irony) of six Hungarian phrases. Each attitude is expressed by an articulatory pattern peculiar to it. This oral gesture can be seen as superimposed on the neutral articulation" (1976: 31 ff.).

XIII. P H Y S I O G N O M I C

INDICES

Finally, the physiognomic indices ('identifiers') which enable the addressee to identify the sex, the age, the areal, social, and ethnic origin, and the personality of the addresser, including his kinesthetic type - in other words, a kind of vocal ID or "passport" - may, along with the discrimination of the speech content, be the focus of the addressee's attention. Here he may find highly informative signs to be interpreted; and we have to discern which of these signs depend on the will and purpose of the addresser. For example, in their ways of articulation and even in their voices, men and women may be interested in underlining or dissimulating their age or sex. The process of a speaker's

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THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

conforming his voice to the volume and strength of the listener's voice is a widespread adaptational behavior, going as far back as prelinguistic infancy. Geographically or socially dialectal elements may be deliberately effaced by the speaker or, on the contrary, proudly emphasized. Ladefoged's & Broadbent's assessment of the information conveyed by vowels has enabled them to put forward the tentative hypothesis that "sociolinguistic information does not depend on the absolute values of the formant frequencies, but is like linguistic information, a matter of the relative formant structure of vowels", whereas "the personal information conveyed by vowels does seem to depend on the absolute values of the formant frequencies" (1957: 103; cf. also Sievers 1924). Calls to pursue and extend the investigation of all these factors should be responded to by a wide recognition of this socio- and psycho-linguistic program and of its strictly systematic fulfillment (cf. Ladefoged & Broadbent) and at the same time by a resolute methodological warning against any confusion of these questions with the nuclear and omnipresent sound-meaning problem.

XIV. THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES IN RELATION TO THE OTHER COMPONENTS OF THE SPEECH S O U N D

If the analyst accounts for the different constituents of speech sounds, no conflict can arise between the study of linguistic and physical units, since any physical unit must be defined in intimate association with the role it fills in the perception of language. Any signans should be approached in relation to its signatum (see above, p. 17). The preoccupation with the entire variety of features and their tasks must in no case conceal the profound, hierarchical, and multilateral difference between the distinctive features and all other features carried by the speech sounds. The striking divergence between these "independently significant" features and the rest of the features can be exemplified in various ways. The emotive use of vocalic lengthening does not help a speaker whose native language lacks the long ~ short opposition to acquire such a distinctive feature when confronted with a language endowed with it. And the occurence of interjectional clicks in a speaker's mother tongue does not facilitate his learning of, for example, South African sense-discriminative clicks. The occurence of redundant nasality in English vowels is of little help to Americans seeking to master the

SPEECH S O U N D S A N D THEIR TASKS

47

French category of nasal vowels. The sense-discriminative distinction in Russian between consonants with and without palatalization, easily grasped by any native from earliest childhood, creates great difficulties for most Western listeners and speakers. When faced with the minimal pair / j e r / and /jer'/ (spelling names of two Russian letters), West European, for instance Norwegian, listeners apparently apprehend no difference between them or else assign the difference to the distinction of the lower vs. higher openness of the preceding / e / , a variation which for an ordinary Russian observer is nearly imperceptible. At the same time, certain consonants at the end of Norwegian words are definitely palatalized, but the average Norwegian speaker remains deaf to the Russian distinction of the noun sáxar 'sugar' and the imperative sóxar"sweeten!', especially in connected speech. And he proves to be unaware even of his native configurative feature when pronouncing the six final [r']'s in the following two lines from the national anthem : Elske[r'], elske[r'] det og taenke[r'] pà vojr'] fa[r'] og mo[r']. The chief difference between the distinctive features and all other kinds of features lies in the fact that the distinctive features are the only ones which, according to Sapir's concise formulation, have "no singleness, or rather primary singleness, of reference" (1949:34). The nasality of the initial consonant in the word mill signals that, all other things being equal, another word beginning with the corresponding consonant without nasality will, with a probability near to 1.0, not have the same meanings as the word with the nasal consonant. The same relationship exists between nil and dill, or between rim and rib. The sole signatum of any distinctive feature in its primary, purely sense-discriminative role is 'otherness' ; as a rule a change in one feature confronts us either with a word of another meaning or with a nonsensical group of sounds : cf. mesh and *besh. Distinctive oppositions have no positive content on the level of the signatum and announce only the nearly certain unlikeness of morphemes and words which differ in the distinctive features used. The opposition here lies not in the signatum but in the signans: phonic elements appear to be polarized in order to be used for semantic purposes. Such a polarization is inseparably bound to the semiotic role of distinctive features. In the Danish science of language of the middle of this century, socalled 'glossematic' theory, developed and propounded by Louis Hjelmslev (1899-1965), argued against feature analysis as a new jump

48

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

from linguistic form to physical substance ; but as Eli Fischer-Jorgensen (1966) rightly sensed, the artificial separation of substance from the plane of linguistic form does not account for the buildup of oppositions as a manifestly formal, logical operation profoundly inherent in the verbal code. Moreover, the idea itself of a sound substance independent of linguistic patterning disregards the fact that speech sounds, made solely for the needs of language, are adapted to its purpose (cf. above, p. 33 f.). The dichotomy of substance and form proves to be fictitious. All features other than the distinctive features are invested with a "singleness of reference". The positive signatum of a redundant feature is the presence of a certain contiguous distinctive feature. Thus in French the point of constriction between the postdorsum of the tongue and the palatovelar arch is sharply affected by the adjacent vowel, and before front vowels such a consonant "can be almost palatal" (Delattre 1968 a: 204). This palatal proclivity is a redundant feature unambiguously signaling the distinctive palatal feature of the ensuing vowel, e.g. in quitter versus the velar vowel of coûter. And yet, in Macedonian (see Lunt 1952:10,12) the velar and palatal varieties, spelled A: and k', carry a sense-discriminative opposition grave ~ acute (kuka 'hook' - kuk'a 'house', plur. kuki - kuk'i), and the difference between the palatal and velar characters signals nothing else than the high probability of belonging to semantically distinct words. A configurative feature may signal the limit or the unity of a word. Emotive features import to the addressee certain feelings of the addresser. As a rule, physiognomic features ('indices') such as a soprano voice indicate a female speaker. In all these cases, there is a much more immediate path from the signans to the signatum than there is in dealing with distinctive features. This lack of immediacy, as well as the usual orientation of the listener toward the ideational content of the message, requires him to concentrate his chief, mostly subliminal, attention on the distinctive features in contrast to all other types of features. From this angle Sapir was right in having come "to the practical realization" that among the sound phenomena which face "the naive speaker, he hears above all phonemes" (1949:47) and (as we may now specify) their distinctive features. Recent studies by Blumstein & Cooper (1972, 1974) clearly show that the intonation contours which encompass, diversify, and characterize sentence types point with surprising consistency to left-ear superiority, in contradistinction to the sense-discriminative word tones of a

SPEECH SOUNDS A N D T H E I R TASKS

49

polytonic language like Thai (investigated by Abramson and Erickson). The tones of this language, according to the dichotic data collected by van Lancker & Fromkin (1973), are perceived more readily by the right ear, "since here pitch is used linguistically to distinguish one lexical item from another". Russia's recent scientific experience with unilateral inactivations of the brain hemispheres has confirmed and enhanced these findings on dichotic hearing. The inactivation of the left hemisphere sharply obstructs the recognizability and the reproducibility of speech sounds and the accentual design of the word, but leaves intact the recognition and reproduction of the sentence intonations, whereas the inactivation of the right hemisphere preserves intact the structure of the word for a speaker or a listener undergoing electric shock, but sharply renders the patient unable to recognize or even notice sentence intonations. The affective intonations are particularly likely to disappear. (For a detailed comparative survey of "psychoacoustic syndromes" which follow from the inactivation of the two hemispheres, see Balonov & Deglin: Table 21.) The strict hemispheric distribution of these two classes of linguistic phenomena has indeed been surprising and revealing, but the significant linguistic difference between the two sets in question was presumable in advance (cf. Bolinger 1964; Nikolaeva 1977). Nearly forty years ago in a Copenhagen University discussion, it was noted that such sound elements as sentence intonation, sentence accent, sentence pauses, etc., may play within the limits of the referential function merely a dividing and subordinating role. {...) In referential speech the sequential sound devices serve merely for delimitation, segmentation, and gradation of meanings but not for their semantic differentiation as is the case with the distinctive sound devices within the frame of the word. (...) Perhaps one would guess that the interrogative intonation prompts a special meaning of the sentence, but it could hardly be justified to view the interrogative sentence as one of the kinds of reference. The interrogative sentence is not a reference but only a kind of appeal for reference. [RJ 1: 289]

In short, interrogative intonation announces the end of an utterance and at the same time a requirement addressed to interlocutors for a continuation of the discourse; in contradistinction to mediators of meaning such as phonemes and distinctive features, the interrogative intonation stands like any conative or affective expression in a direct, immediate relation to its signatum.

50

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

One can differentiate those constitutive elements of linguistic signs which serve either independently or as a redundant auxiliary to discriminate the meanings of morphemes, words, and their syntactic constructions from the contoural, framing properties of the verbal messages. It is to these properties that the sentential prosody and the emotive factors of speech belong. All these framing components are regulated by the right hemisphere, and the specifically physiognomic properties of discourse belong to the same kind of components. It is highly characteristic that patients submitted to a temporary inactivation of the right hemisphere lose the ability to distinguish between men's and women's voices or to tell whether two utterances belong to one and the same speaker or to two different people, as well as to identify even the most familiar individuals by sound only; moreover, the patient also loses the ability to regulate his own voice in accordance with a given emotional situation (see Balonov & Deglin: pp,164ff., 171 ff.). Furthermore, as has been pointed out, a mere hum (mmm, uh) can be modulated with different intonations to transmit intelligible messages. "Question intonation symbolizes the question independently of the content of the sentence. The interrogative intonation can even do without any words and be implemented by a mere murmur." In newspaper style this type of bare question is often symbolized by - ?- (RJ I: 289; cf. Stokoe 1975). In a similar way, the subjects of dichotic experiments perceive, notice, and understand only the interrogative intonation itself, while characterizing the words as sounding like the "muffled" vocalization of "someone speaking into a can" (Blumstein & Cooper 1974:151). Whereas sentence intonation proves to be controlled by the right hemisphere, the sound pattern of the word is still supervised, let us repeat, by the left hemisphere, even if the listener is presented with speech played backwards, as long as he feels it consists of intended, though distorted, speech sounds. In concluding their monograph, Balonov & Deglin venture an ingenious hypothesis, plausible both phylogenetically as well as ontogenetically: "The mechanisms of sound production and the auditory functions of the right hemisphere prove to be considerably older than the mechanisms of sound production and the auditory functions of the left hemisphere which secure speech articulation and the discrimination of speech sounds on the basis of distinctive features" (p. 194). The asymmetric arrangement of the human brain and in particular the development of the left, dominant hemisphere have been apparently interconnected with the origin and growth of

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51

language. An uncommon case has been systematically examined by Victoria Fromkin et alii. When a fourteen-year-old girl who had been deprived of all language was found and given careful education, she showed a very limited capacity for language acquisition and no prospect for its further development. The investigation testified that "the inadequate language stimulation during her early life inhibited or interfered with language aspects of left hemisphere development", and due "to a kind of functional atrophy of the usual language centers", the right hemisphere, as experiments proved, was "doing all the work" in her linguistic rudiments (1974: 98ff.; cf. Curtiss 1977: 213, 216f., 234). This experience adds new proof in favor of the hypothesis concerning the relative age of the two hemispheres. In the hierarchy of percepts the distinctive feature dominates all other features. However, none of the other types of features remains unperceived. In fact, the entire makeup of a speech sound is apprehended by the naïve speaker with regard to the ensemble of featural functions. Therefore a scholarly observer of the linguistic sound shape who abstracts the shape alone from all the diverse functions it carries displays, in Sapir's terms, the "reverse of a realistic point of view" (1949: 46 f.) and appears to be much more arbitrary than the naive speaker. As Claude Lévi-Strauss underscored in a well-timed remark, "both the natural and the human sciences concur to dismiss an outmoded philosophical dualism. Ideal and real, abstract and concrete, 'emic' and 'etic' can no longer be opposed to each other. What is immediately 'given' to us is neither the one nor the other, but something which is betwixt and between, that is already encoded by the sense organs as by the brain" (1972). If in the customary scientific parlance one confines 'emic' to distinctive features, ignoring all the rest, and excludes from the notion 'etic' all references to the goal of the sound phenomena observed, the dyad emic ~ etic loses its applicability to the present-day science of language. In particular, such an 'etic' level, in Lévi-Strauss's words "too long taken for granted by mechanistic materialism and sensualist philosophy", becomes a curtailed construct. On the one hand phonology, which stops at phonemes and their distinctive components, and on the other hand speech analysis, which discards all question of purpose, seem equally obsolete in their narrow isolationism and futile abstractionism. A perceptual constancy enables interlocutors to go beyond particular contexts and, either consciously or subliminally, to extract the invariant cues from the different featural environments of concurrent

52

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

features and surrounding phonemes. Two auditory percepts are felt to be equivalent. Thus, members of the Russian speech community identify the opposition between palatalized (sharp) and nonpalatalized consonants within varied phonemic contexts, despite the considerable difference between the physicomotor implementation of diverse palatalized consonants in different surroundings. Studies (cf. Bondarko & Zinder 1966) have pointed out the salient particularities displayed by the palatalization of Russian consonants in its dependence on the presence or absence of various neighboring vowels and on the concurrence of this palatalization with other features of the phoneme in question ; thus, there are differences between the palatalization of sibilants, labials, and dental stops. The opposition of the presence or absence of palatalization remains the categorial invariant of perception throughout all the transformations of the sequential and concurrent environment. Difficulties in the analysis of linguistic sound shape into distinctive features occur only if the inquirer takes as his point of departure not the mutual relation of opposites (e.g., that between sharp and nonsharp), but each opposite in and of itself ; a strictly relational sequence of operations is here the only one able to grasp the speaker/listener's goal. Thus, for example, as long as the three sound units of Gilyak, the strong, aspirated [kh], the weak [k], and the continuant [x], were treated as three separate entities, we were faced with two relations, one between stops and continuants and the other between two stop varieties. Yet if we realize that in the initial, strong position the strong [kh] is opposed solely to the weak [k], and that the noninitial, weak position [k] is confronted only by the continuant [x], we are forced to recognize the equivalence of the two oppositions between strong and weak, a relation which in the strong position is implemented as a stronger occlusion vs. a weaker one and in the weak position as the presence of occlusion vs. its absence. It is noteworthy that in the strong position the [k] functions as the weak member and in the weak position as the strong member of one and the same opposition: here we face an eloquent example of what has been erroneously taken for the imaginary "overlapping of two phonemes" (Bloch 1941). In a consistently relational approach, the subjective, uncontrollable notion of similarity has been deliberately replaced by the more compelling principle of equivalence, inseparably connected in science with the concepts of relativity and invariance. Moreover, the complementarity between the extraction of invariance and the determination of variables shows up clearly

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53

in the Gilyak example: the aspiration of [kh] and the continuant Charakter of [x] signal the initial and noninitial position respectively. It has been emphasized by Jakobson & Halle (see RJ1:468 f.) that since the differentiation of semantic units is the least dispensable among the sound functions in language, speech participants learn primarily to respond to the distinctive features. It would be deceptive, however, to believe that they are trained to ignore all the rest in speech sounds. Besides the distinctive features, the speaker has at his command other types of coded information-bearing features which any member of a speech community has been trained to manipulate and which the science of language has no right to disregard.

While attending to the whole complex of all these diverse features, the listener perceives the distinctive features as different from the other functional constituents of speech sounds. They are discrete percepts which, according to neurobiologists, are changed into categorial concepts through a polarization method used by the nervous system.

XV. THE IDENTIFICATION OF DISTINCTIVE FEATURES

In debates about distinctive features the question of their recognizability by supposedly "naïve" speakers has given rise to a number of controversies. The 'commutation test', to use the term proposed by Louis Hjelmslev, enables the linguist to give an unambiguous answer to this question, but proves to be a shaky device for dealing with an inexperienced native informant. As Hockett suggested (1955:144 f.), the question of whether two speech events sound "the same" or "different" puts a native speaker in a perplexing situation because different shades of meaning, in particular emotive variants deprived of a sensediscriminative value, may be rightly appraised by him as "sounding different". Even if we change the question and ask whether the two utterances "mean the same or not", a misunderstanding can easily occur because the verb "mean" for the informant may cover emotive differences as well. The once proposed replacement of "sounding same or different" by "rhyming or not" would lead the native even more astray because the rhyme conventions in most oral and written traditions cancel some distinctive oppositions. Thus, for instance, in Serbo-Croatian poetry vowels with rising or falling accent rhyme with each other and long vowels

54

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

rhyme with short ones. It suffices to compare, for example, the codes of Chinese rhyming, the so-called "generic" rhymes of Irish medieval poetry (cf. Murphy 1961 and Ó Cuiv 1966), and Scandinavian rhymes to see how different and artificial the rules of sound equation are in diverse conventions of rhyming technique. As Janos Lötz (1913-1973) summarized, rhyme "is a culture-bound phenomenon" and in various poetic patterns "admits diverse and often substantial deviations from requirements of identity" (1972:20). The question of so-called 'differential' (same or unlike) meaning posed to the naïve speaker is insufficient, and additional information must be requested: "What in fact is the meaning of each of the two distinguished utterances?" The native informant is even less effective in treating the problem of the equivalence between distinctive oppositions in different sequential or simultaneous contexts of features. The decision concerning the equivalence of a relation such as initial t:initial d ξ final t:final d, or further such as t:d = s:z, can be made only by the analyst via a search for the invariant contained in the variables. Rather than being a mere contrivance of the linguist, such invariants are intrinsic to the objective code or, in other words, to the actual, albeit unconscious, competence of the members of the speech community. Despite the motor-acoustic difference between initial and final p, t, k, the reduplication of one and the same entity in such vocables as tit, tot, pap, pup, pip, kick, keck is "intuited" by the ordinary speaker, according to Sapir's favorite locution (1949: 548). Among the proofs for the manifest givenness of equivalent distinctive oppositions is the fact that the productive device of 'vowel harmony', which is widespread in diverse languages and prohibits the use of two opposite classes of vowels within one and the same word unit, resorts to one or two (even three) of all the inherent oppositions existing in the vocalic patterns of the world: back~ front, or in more relative terms retracted ~ advanced (grave ~ acute) ; rounded ~ unrounded (flat~ nonflat); high~ low (diffuse — compact); lax~ tense; nasalized ~nonnasalized (cf. pp. 149 ff. below). Moreover, verse systems make use of the oppositions long ~ short and stressed ~ unstressed, and the poetry of some tonal languages displays so-called 'tonal counterpont', a wordplay based on an opposition between two polar tones, typical particularly of Yoruba poetry (Bamgbosç 1970: 112); see for instance the variation between the high tone of / k ú / 'die' and the low tone of / k ù / 'remain' :

55

SPEECH SOUNDS A N D THEIR TASKS Eni tí yó. kú yó. kú Eni tí ó. kù ó. kù Eni tí ó, kù ni a kò mò

"Those that will die will die Those that will remain, will remain It is those that will remain that we do not know"

The variety of vowel harmony which opposes lower (compact) vowels to higher (diffuse) ones - / o / to / u / , / e / to / i / - implements the pair of retracted unrounded vowels as (1) an / a / actually lower than / o / or / e / and (2) its opposite either as / a / ('schwa'), actually lower than / u / and / i / , or as / u i / parallel to those vowels in height. These two varieties of the vocalic pattern are also spread among languages lacking this type of vowel harmony or even devoid of vowel harmony altogether (cf. Havránek 1932: 31 f.): o u

a a

a e i

o u

ui

e i

In the strictly relational terms of distinctive features, only the equivalence of the relations between the two opposites within each of the three pairs matters, so that both variants of patterning are merely two implementations of one and the same system: o u

a s/ui

e i

A persual of the manifold material on the vocalic systems of the world by Sedlak (1969) reveals a striking divergence between the seemingly asymmetric, disorderly vocalic patterns constructed from absolute articulatory data and the strongly regular structure of the consistent relational laws of distinctive features which underlie the languages in question. Thus, in the four-vowel systems (p. 32) comprising / e / and / i / as the lower and higher advanced vowels and / a / and / u / or / o / as the corresponding retracted vowels, the difference between the / u / and / o / implementations is irrelevant. Even the four-vowel system with / e / and / i / as advanced and / o / and / u i / as retracted vowels is relationally equivalent. In a language with / o / and / u / on the one hand and / a / and / u / on the other, the system is constructed in the same way, but the opposition advanced ~ retracted is replaced by unrounded ~ rounded. The physically "asymmetric" Czech pattern, with its set of consonantal pairs carrying the opposition voiced ~ voiceless, implements the voiced opposite of the velar / x / as a voiced laryngeal / f i / and thus offers another argument for the relativist cause.

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THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

The search for both compulsory and probabilistic distributional rules is a pertinent task within the study of distinctive features, but it is neither self-sufficient nor even achievable without constant recourse both to the sound matter and to the semantic facet of any feature. Stubborn arguments intended to vitiate the indispensability of both of these aspects have been raised repeatedly in linguistic literature. The distinctive features consist of formal oppositions specified and individualized by the phonic prerequisites they are built of. Radical partisans of glossematics have endeavored to extract the system of primitive constituents with no reference to sound substance at all. On May 26,1959, in a lively discussion in the Copenhagen Linguistic Circle, a staunch partisan of glossematics, which presumed to liberate 'form' from 'substance', attacked the Praguian views of language (cf. Fischer-Jorgensen 1966: 26 ff.). For an artificial language with such formatives as a, pa, ta, and at, this discussant believed he had found a practicable way to extract the vowel a by characterizing this constituent as the only one able to appear by itself. Such an operation, however, presupposes the knowledge that the [a]'s of this whole series implement one and the same entity. If all reference to the phonic matter is prohibited, the idea of the four equated [a]'s appears to be, as was polemically stated in a methodological argument, "bought on the black market of sound substance". Such contraband, uncontrolled use of sound material unsubjected to analytic operations which would transmute this raw material into a linguistic form, creates an illegitimate, unbridgeable chasm between form and inarticulate substance. On the other hand, attempts have been made to determine the phonemes of a given language through purely distributional criteria. Thus, for instance, Polish voiced obstruents were tentatively defined as consonants which do not occur at the end of a word. Such methodological tentatives gave rise to a witty definition popular a while back among American linguists : "a dining car is a car which cannot occur between two freight cars." We cannot use this definition as a point of departure in an analysis of the train's composition because in order to state this distributional law we must know beforehand which of the train's constituents may be identified as freight cars and which as dining cars, and we must recognize the specific tasks of these two kinds of cars (which even gave rise to their names, referring to "freight" and "dining"). The primary function of a dining car is to serve meals, just as the primary aim of the feature voiced ~ voiceless is to serve as a device for the distinction of verbal meaning (and this task brought about the addition of

S P E E C H S O U N D S A N D T H E I R TASKS

57

the attribute 'distinctive' to the noun 'feature'). Both a dining car which is not destined to provide meals and a distinctive feature which does not serve to differentiate meanings are contradictions in terms. The distributional rules applied to the features specify the latter's sensediscriminative role, the constraints on this role, and the interplay between the distinctive, redundant, and configurative features, but such rules can hardly underlie the definition and specification of the distinctive features. This situation implies the primacy of the features over the rules which limit the operativeness of distinctive oppositions. It is the existence of a system of such oppositions which enables sounds to carry a meaning and language to fulfill its functions. "Traffic rules" help to regulate communication, but without vehicles there would be no traffic.

XVI. S E N S E D I S C R I M I N A T I O N A N D S E N S E D E T E R M I N A T I O N

One must keep in mind both functions of the distinctive features. The obviously primary function, the sense-discriminative (purely distinctive) one, assigns to the feature the capability of signaling - with a probability near to 1.0 - the semantic likeness or nonlikeness of two meaningful verbal units. The second task, which necessarily presupposes the first, is a sense-determinative or, in the terminology launched by the Prague Circle, 'mor(pho)phonologicar function; the arrangement of features supplies information about the derivational and/or flexional structure and grammatical meaning of the units in question. The delimitation of the two interconnected but still discriminable functions of phonemes (and likewise of distinctive features) was already accomplished by Baudouin de Courtenay from the beginning of his concern with the question of sound and meaning and with the diversified morphological utilization of the significant sound differences. He repeatedly posited a clear-cut difference between two employments of phonemes : lexicalized (i. e., sense-discriminative) on the one hand and grammaticalized (i. e., sense-determinative) on the other. Discussions about the relation between these two different functions of phonemes have continued in Russian linguistic tradition for a century (cf. Reformatskij 1970). For any given language, the interconnection of the two heterogeneous and at the same time kindred tasks of phonemes "is to be translated into a set of exact rules," as the Pragui-

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THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

ans emphasized from the time of the First Congress of Linguists. As Trubetzkoy stated in a message of 1930 (see 1975:153), "along with the actually general structural laws of phonology, there exist laws constrained by a particular type of morphological (and perhaps also lexical) structure of languages. Since language is a system, a close connection between the grammatical and phonological structure consequently must exist." The question of the interdependence "between the phonemic and grammatical facets of language" was scheduled for a plenary meeting of the Sixth International Congress of Linguists, held in Paris in 1948, and the report (cf. RJ II: 103 ff.), summing up the numerous contributions, stated that "neither does the autonomy of these two linguistic aspects mean independence nor does their coordinate interdependence imply a lack of autonomy". The report expressly warned against all attempts "to confine oneself to a simple inventory of the distinctive features and of their simultaneous and successive configurations without any grammatical specification of their use". Different configurative arrangements of distinctive features used to mark morpheme and word boundaries were cited, as were examples of sets of features circumscribed for certain classes of grammatical units, such as the Russian rule limiting the admissibility of monophonemic morphemes in inflected words: only grammatical desinences may consist of one single vowel and only pronominal (thus also grammatical) roots may be limited to one single consonant. Likewise, consonantal stem alternations in Russian are confined to conjugational paradigms as opposed to declensional ones. The truncation of verbal stems with a final vowel before the vowel of the inflectional suffix is one of the manifestations of this rule. A further characteristic example is furnished by the limitation of final consonants in English inflectional suffixes to one single series of obstruents - [d] and [z] (with their contextual, automatic substitution by [t] and [s]) and [n] in unproductive forms, while the velar nasal [η] of the -ingdesinence tends to disappear in this function (likin'vs. Viking). Even more explicit information is furnished in English by the confinement of the initial lax (voiced) interdental / d / to purely grammatical, mainly deictic words "of demonstrative and relative meanings", judiciously defined in this respect by Leonard Bloomfield as "words whose meaning resembles that of a pointing gesture", such as this, that, they, their, thee, thou, then, there, thus, than, though, the. In a similar way, / h w / figures as a characteristic constituent of the English inter-

S P E E C H SOUNDS AND T H E I R TASKS

59

rogatives what, which, where, when, why, whether, how (with an inversion), and who (with a merger of [w] und [u]). The sense-determinative role of distinctive features is brought to the foreground by such examples as the appearance of nasality, either consonantal or vocalic, in all the various desinences of the Polish instrumental - /-em, -ami, -im, -imi, - δ / . In the Russian declensional desinences, m occurs solely in the three marginal cases - instrumental, dative, and locative (for further examples, see R J I I : 178 f.). The process of the inquiry into the sense-determinative function of distinctive features promises an ever deeper analysis of subjects such as the makeup of morphemes, their selection and combinations, so that morphology will evolve into a phonological description of "grammatical processes" indissolubly connected with a semantic scrutiny of corresponding "grammatical concepts", according to Sapir's application (1921: chap. 4) of these two correlative terms. For the last hundred years, up until recently, most efforts to uncover the grammatical utilization of the sound pattern of a given language have been almost uniquely, and in any case chiefly, preoccupied with the variability in the makeup of grammatical units, primarily stems. Much has been done toward the adequate interpretation of such diverse and quite differently founded alternations, such as those in the Russian root of the verb vedu Ί lead' - [v'id-] in vedu, [v'id'-] in vedët, [v'is'-] in vestí, [ν'ó] in vël, [v'ét-] in vétsi, [vad'-] in vodit', [vód'-] in vódit, [vót-] in uvód, [vaz-] in vozù, [váz-] in νάζι val, [vazd'-] in vozdí, and [vóst'] in vóid' - while the constructional rules in invariable morphemes (and some languages exclude alternations) require a much greater attention from investigators than they have received in the past.

XVII. A U T O N O M Y A N D I N T E G R A T I O N

Considerable progress in the study of grammatical units, variable in their sound composition, has been made by Chomsky & Halle (1968). One can only agree with Chomsky's statement that "phonology as a whole cannot be studied, without distortion, in total independence of higher level structure", and with his negative attitude toward the "absurd thesis of inseparability of phonology" from grammar. Quite naturally, the sense-discriminative function of distinctive features, as opposed to their sense-determinative role, involves no direct appeal to grammar. Around this necessary delimitation there unfortunately has

60

THE SOUND SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

arisen a vacuous discussion of whether phonology is an "autonomous" discipline or not, as if "autonomy" were synonymous with "independence". In fact, the notion of autonomy is inseparably linked with that of integration and thus long ago showed its incompatibility with the abhorrent slogan of "total independence" or "isolationism" (cf. RJI: 314). The newly sharpened insight into the rules of alternations and into their morphological and syntactic prerequisites asks also that greater attention be paid to the structure of nonalternating morphemes and of their groupings into higher grammatical units. On the other hand, the expanding preoccupation with the grammatical use of distinctive features calls for a new and deeper inquiry into their sensediscriminative employment, their functional load, first brought to attention by Vilém Mathesius (1882-1945), and necessarily into their own structure and interrelations. In connection with the structure of the ultimate constituents of language, let us once more refer to Peirce, specifically to his theory of groups: "How it possible for an undecomposable element to have any differences of structure? Of internal structure, it would be clearly impossible. But, as to the structure of its possible compounds, limited differences of structure are possible" (1: 289).

XVIII. UNIVERSALS

The set of distinctive oppositions existing in the languages of the world, with certified selections of a group of oppositions capable of coexisting in one and the same language, laws restricting such coexistence and laws governing the combinability of distinctive features in their concurrent bundles (in particular implicational laws of irreversible solidarity), and the hierarchical relations both between and within the different oppositions - all these aspects inherent in the network of distinctive features are of the highest interest as the pivotal, utterly structured totality of links between the signans and the signatum. The system of distinctive features, the basic formal prerequisite for the semiotic aims of language, is far from being, to use Cassirer's imagery, "a mere mosaic, a mere aggregate of scattered sensations". A bare mechanical catalogue of features would lead us astray from a genuine insight into "the inner configuration of the sound system of a language, the intuitive 'placing' of the sounds with reference to one another" (see Sapir 1949: 35 f.). The attentive inquiry into the gradual acquisition of a first language by children in various linguistic areas is uncovering

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SPEECH SOUNDS AND THEIR TASKS

common sets of ordered laws, or at least tendencies, similar to the rules which subtend the structure of languages throughout the world. These correspondences are particularly valuable when one takes into account the fact that the unfolding of sound laws begins in child language with the early, holophrastic stage, i. e. before the emergence of the first strictly grammatical (i. e. morphological and syntactic) rules. The problem of two vitally interconnected linguistic aspects - universality and diversity - has been an age-old topic of philosophical discussions and has become an essential issue for the current science of language. The increasingly solvable questions and attainable prospectives of a linguistic typology uncover constant connections between fundamental properties in grammar and in the sound patterning of languages and bring us steadily nearer to an insight into linguistic universale without recourse to metaphysical speculations. The a priori and intuitively cognizable phenomenal unity of languages necessarily merges with the empirical data obtained from a continually greater number of the world's tongues. Unquestionably, discovering universal properties demands the greatest caution. A n y parochial spirit, any universalizing statement based on one's own mother tongue

(e.g.,

English) or academic language (such as Latin), is most hazardous. A n d a mere stock of assumed universale is, like any mechanical catalogue, an imperfect attainment: the place of these properties in the internal organization of languages should not be lost from view. Pessimistic voices, despairing of knowing exactly the past, present, and future stages of the linguistic world, have been and will still be raised against the quest for universale : " M a i s qui pourrait se vanter d'avoir fait un examen exhaustif de toutes les langues existantes ou attestées? Et que dire des langues disparues sans laisser de traces et celles qui apparaîtront demain sur la terre?" (Martinet 1955: 74). In short, where is the guarantee that the language contradicting some of the alleged universale will not be discovered in the jungles of Brazil or will not emerge somewhere in the fourth millennium A . D.? Actually, a f e w isolated tribal tongues have been found to be devoid of some property once assumed to be universal. As long as the Australian echidna and the Tasmanian duckbill platypus - both of which lay eggs - remainded unknown to zoologists, viviparous reproduction was considered an essential property o f all mammals. The discovery o f oviparous mammals led to a new difinition of viviparousness as a property of the overwhelming majority of mammals and to a closer insight into the highly exceptional occurrences o f oviparous mammals.

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If in linguistics the properties assumed to be universal proved to be merely near-universal, and if among the over one thousand languages more or less familiar to the scholarly world a minute number of languages with a handful of speakers offered single deviations from the patterns used by the preponderance of languages and speakers, these rarissime exceptions would require a special investigation of the intrinsic and extrinsic conditions which engender such an "anomaly", and in addition they would ask us to seek the reasons for the near-universality of the property in question. In the search for universale, as in all linguistic operations, one has to deal not only with certainty, probability 1.0, but also with cases of probability less than but near to 1.0, whose overpowering majority must be taken into account. It is also notable that some of the rarest particularities are exhibited by languages with a highly limited radius of communication and number of speakers, especially by languages near extinction - in short, by languages of a lowered communicative load. In his introductory lecture of 1870 (see 1963:1: 57) Baudouin maintained that exceptions, subjected to an exact analysis, prove to depend on certain causes, certain forces which prevented the causes or forces underlying the given law from encompassing the apparent exceptions. Subsequently we will have to recognize that our generalized formulation of such a law was inadequate and that the genus proximum of the posited law has to be complemented by a limitative differentia specìfica. Then the imaginary exception will become, strictly speaking, a clear confirmation of the general law.

The seminal distinction between 'context-sensitive' and 'contextfree' languages finds a wide application in contemporary communication sciences and is eloquently exemplified by the large difference between the context-sensitive character proper to the "natural" languages and the context-free organization of various "formalized" languages. The firm interrelationship between invariance and contextual variants which characterizes any "natural" language on all its levels must be recognized and investigated also in the comparative analysis of languages with respect to their universal foundations ; the diverse languages must be viewed as diverse contexts naturally offering contextual variations with underlying invariants. This view is the logical corollary to the recognition of linguistic universals. If in a given language there is an opposition between a plain, unrounded consonant and a corresponding consonant with lip-rounding and if in another context, for instance before a certain class of vowels, the same plain consonant is opposed not to a rounded but to a pharyn-

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gealized consonant, we then must take into account the fact that the narrowing of the anterior, labial orifice and the narrowing of the posterior, pharyngeal orifice of the oral cavity give an equivalent lowering of the timbre ; we thus consider the rounding and the pharyngealization as two contextual variants of one and the same distinctive feature (see below, pp.116 ff.). Similarly, if certain consonants are distinguished in a language by the presence and absence of rounding and certain other consonants by the presence and absence of pharyngealization, then rounding and pharyngealization prove to be two contextual variants conditioned by a difference of concurrent features. The same method is to be used in the comparative analysis of different languages. If some of the languages oppose plain consonants to rounded ones while others oppose them to pharyngealized ones, both oppositions can only be interpreted as variants of one and the same distinctive feature, in agreement with Ockham's principle: Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem. The comparative study of the feature patterns of languages should pay attention both to the invariant essence of a given opposition and to its variable implementations, without confusing the latter with the former. It is self-evident that such a comparative analysis should never be equated with an "instructional" textbook of pronunciation. Otherwise, one would we have to assign to diverse, separate features some ten or twelve variants of a classified in the manuals of phonetics as occurring in different languages. Trubetzkoy was precise in his statement of 1932 that many languages utilize in a sense-discriminative function the difference between a lighter and a darker variety of consonants. For that aim, quite different articulatory means can be used (...) The darker coloring may be achieved through rounding of the lips or through retracting the body of the tongue ('velarization') or through the combination of this retraction of the tongue with a pharyngeal shift (the 'emphatic sounds' of Semitic and African languages) or, especially for dentals, through the retraction of the tip of the tongue ('retroflexion'), etc. All these processes are articulatorily different and can be unified solely from an acoustic point of view. But for phonological purposes such a unification is very important. [1975: 461]

Trubetzkoy's observations proved to be applicable not just to the acoustic effect of the consonants cited. The common peculiarities of all these classes of consonants are actually apparent both on the acoustic level and in sound production; the lowering of the timbre is due both to a decrease in the opening of the orifice and to a subsidiary increase in the volume of the cavity itself (cf. below, pp. 97 f.).

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The perusal of strict, exceptionless universale and near-universals in regard to the distinctive features reveals a system of rigid internal rules. The universal repertory of possibilities from which a given language makes a selection reflects the capability of the human mind to polarize certain sound elements for their efficient use as distinctive oppositions. The highly restricted number of distinctive features extant not only in a single language but also in the world's languages as a whole shows that in comparison with the great variety of acousticomotor productions, only a very small number appear to be utilizable as discrete perceptional values. Among the multifarious physical minutiae which occur in an infant's babbling, there are elements which find no use at all in human speech or at least in its ideational, noninterjectional units. Thus both the voiced and voiceless varieties of the bilabial trill, spelled as brrr or prrr and frequent in babbling and in interjectional use, are not to be found in the world inventory of phonemes, as Jespersen noted (1931 : § 16). His survey describes a sound intermediate between fp] and [t] or [b] and [d] or [m] and [n] formed through an occlusion of the tip of the tongue with the upper lip : "yet although it's one of the articulations which children particularly enjoy in their first years of life it hardly occurs in genuine language" ; the author quotes this phonation as an expression of disgust in the Danish interjection which is usually written ptoi (§ 30). Even among those numerous varieties of sounds which the phoneticians are able to detect in our utterances, only a few are suitable for fulfilling the sense-discriminative function and thus for being exploited by distinctive features.

XIX. SPEECH PERCEPTION

The perceptual value of the distinctive features controls their physicomotor aspect and is directly linked with the acoustic level, which in speech is equally at the disposal of the speaker and of the addressee (see above, pp. 30 f.). "L'impression produite sur l'oreille", as Saussurre's still valid lesson stated, "est la base naturelle de toute théorie. La donnée acoustique existe déjà inconsciemment lorsqu'on aborde les unités phonologiques ; c'est par l'oreille ques nous savons ce que c'est q'un b, un t, etc." (1916:100; cf. Malmberg 1968). Through recent years, the question of motor feedback for the listener has been raised and followed with particular attention and insistence. Such feedback unquestionably reinforces the perceptual capability of the listener.

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Moreover, the major importance of immediate auditory perception for the listener (cf. D. B. Fry's slogan "perception precedes production") may be corroborated by many convincing examples. In Hans-Lukas Teuber's (1916-1977) wording, "the case of the preverbal child, with his amazing ways of classifying speech sounds that he cannot yet articulate, certainly detracts from any idea that we pattern our perceptions of sound only after we have managed to adopt correctly the corresponding gestures of our vocal apparatus" (1976). Even before their first attempts at speaking, children show an ability to discern and to understand spoken language. Bruner refers to a well-attested game: in answer to their mother's requests to show the mouth, the eyes, the nose, etc., infants touch the corresponding parts of their own as well as their mother's heads (1977: 275); however, one should not exaggerate the auditory capabilities of the neonate by bringing forward in this connection fetal responses to the speech of the mother several weeks before birth (cf. Bernard & Sontag 1947; Cutting & Eimas 1974; Truby 1971). In the early stages of a child's acquisition of language, significant distinctions in adult speech are recognized by the child not yet able to produce these distinctions himself. The particularly salient trait of this period is the youngster's objections to attempts by adults to imitate his way of speaking by omitting those distinctive features which he has not yet developed in his own performance (see below, p. 162). Another manifest instance of the significant features perceived and understood by the listener who is incapable of reproducing them in his own speech is observable in the experience of people who are accustomed to the speech of their alien surroundings and grasp all the minimal pairs presented to them in this language, but who themselves consistently omit these features in their own pronunciation. In this way, according to valuable information we owe to the Georgian linguist Thomas V. Gamkrelidze, several fundamental oppositions of the Georgian consonantal pattern are suppressed in Russian pronunciation: (1) the aspirated consonants change into their unmarked unaspirated opposites ( / t h / ~ / t / , / p h / ~ / p / , / k h / ~ / k / ) - (¿ari 'musical instrument' ~ tari 'handle', ¡/'uri 'cow' —puri 'bread', kf'ari 'wind' ~ kari 'door'); (2) the glottalized (checked) affricate changes into the nonglottalized (/δ V ~ / δ / , / c V ~ / c / ) - (cHri 'sorrow' ~ciri'dried fruit', c?eli 'year' ~ celi 'scythe') ; (3) the post-velar glottalized consonant changes into a voiceless velar stop (q 'barking' ~ kept1 a 'back of the head'). As Gamkrelidze testifies, such modifications when used by Georgian native speakers are immediately noticed and objected to by Russians

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although they are themselves accustomed to marking these same substitutions. The development of the child's ability to select the primary distinctive features from the stock of features he perceives in the speech addressed to him by adults cannot be interpreted as testimony to the gradual and slow growth of his articulatory skill. The prelinguistic, babbling phase of the infant's experience often shows the remarkable variety of his motor production, which subsequently gives way to a surprising scarcity of "functional sounds" in his early use of language. For instance, Natalie Waterson in her keen observations of her son's linguistic growth notes that the lateral [1], very common in his babbling, was for a while lacking in his early speech (1970:6). A. N. Gvozdev, the observant pioneer of a systematic inquiry into children's language, noted that in their babbling children pronounce "sounds that bring to mind snapping, dripping, splottering, and the twitter of birds, sounds which not only are lacking in adults but which adults are sometimes even unable to produce. Later, during the acquisition of his native language, the child himself loses the ability to emit such sounds and clusters" (1961:120). Those commentators who are inclined to derive the first verbal utterances of a child at the end of his infancy from his babbling activities disregard the relevant fact that babbling and the beginnings of verbal activities are as a rule clearly separated in children's behaviour either as two concurrent yet quite distinct forms of activity or rather as two temporally delimited stages - a shorter or longer interval of reticence or even silence often detaches the new, speech era from the earlier, babbling phase - and that the variety and opulence of the babbled sounds yield to a rigorous sparseness of speech sounds. There is nothing puzzling in the fact that the child in his initial steps of language acquisition progressively chooses those sound oppositions which are the most salient for perception and reproduction, the most easily memorizable, and hence the most suitable as a stable and significant means of communications between speaker and listener in their interchangeable roles. The child's spontaneously selected system of distinctive features ensures close ties between the acoustic stimuli and the articulatory responses as a necessary prerequisite for his activities as an interlocutor in nuclear family dialogues. Several strong pieces of empirical evidence for the primary role played by the auditory factor in speech perception have been offered for discussion by David S. Palermo (1975) and at least two of his arguments should be cited: speech perception develops prior to speech

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production and in pathological cases is possible without productive capacities, while "the reverse is never the case". The congenitally deaf child's incapacity to develop normal speech is the result of disabilities in the area of speech perception, and if deafness occurs after speech is acquired, speech production, no longer supported by perception, gradually disintegrates (p. 150 f.). Let us add that we possess innumerable eloquent illustrations from ancient times to the present concerning people who, as a result of illness, accident, or violence, lose some of their speech organs, such as part of the tongue or some of the teeth, and regain their ability to speak distinctly as long as their hearing remained unimpaired and thus renders possible the substitutive adaption of the speech apparatus (see below, pp. 99 f.). Palermo leaves open the question of how a motor (erroneously labeled "phonetic") theory could account for these facts, but in order to show that speech perception continues to precede speech production even at ages later than infancy, he notes that the learning of a second language requires a discriminative auditory perception before an appropriate sound production (p. 151). The relation between the two levels of sound events reveals a substantial difference: one and the same acoustic result can be obtained by diverse means, whereas one and the same motor means cannot attain a diversity of acoustic results. Björn Lindblom et al. (1977) showed the striking ability of their examined subjects to compensate immediately for unnatural jaw openings and assumed the existence of a listeneroriented neural coding of vowels which guarantees an auditory invariance regardless of interfering articulatory impediments. The inquirers consider these outstanding compensatory abilities to be further testimony to the primacy of the perceptual stage, the sensory goal, of the speech event over its antecedent, motor stage.

XX. LIFE A N D LANGUAGE

The nineteenth-century nativist mode of thought repeatedly hypothesized that the predisposition to 'role-switching' between speech emitter and receiver is a genetic endowment and that moreover there exists a universal, innate design of language with its system of fundamental rules and prohibitions facilitating and accelerating the infant's mastery of language. Yet the enormous stock of pertinent particularities prompted by the adult milieu from which the infant learns his primary

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language still must be accounted for. In this stock lies the specific contribution of the diversity of human languages, "Die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaus", as it was termed by the title of Humboldt's final work (1836: 6.1, 111-303). This diversity contributes a multitude of extraordinary intricacies to the pattern of sounds and grammatical categories and forms, and requires the particularly effective and persistent influence of the interaction between people of a different type and age. If one shares the belief in the inborn fundamentals of language, it must be assumed that it is the universal sound patterning of speech, the lowest stratum of the linguistic system, which is the most enrooted in the psychobiological nature of humans. Of the two tasks of the distinctive features, their sense-discriminative utilization actually exhibits (as one could expect) the highest number of universal and near-universal laws compared to the much more regional rules regulating the sensedeterminative application of the features. These rules naturally display a greater variety of local particularities. The decisive import of the dyadic principle in the sound pattern as well as in the grammatical structure of language, and the consistently hierarchical relations within any dyad, between the given dyads (cf. below, pp. 92 f.), and apparently within the whole framework of language, advance the imperative question of isomorphisms between verbal coding and the central neural processes. In particular, the universal implicational laws in the patterning of distinctive features and the tempting question of their presumably biological foundations require careful and critical interdisciplinary research (see below, p. 72 f.). As the geneticist François Jacob wrote in his monumental account (1970), the two turning points in evolution are, first, the emergence of life and, some two billion years later, the evidently conjoint emergence of thought and language. Thus, perhaps, the biological comparison of these two widely separated evolutionary gains - life and language made from the perspective of the earlier turning point, may be supplemented by a comparison made in the light of the later attainment, namely by a retrospective, viz. linguistic, interpretation. Jacob himself has convincingly ascribed to the linguistic model "an exceptional value for the molecular analysis of heredity" (1974). At the first steps of biology in the sixteenth century, to which Jacob's Logic of Life refers, "the play of unknown forces was hidden behind that of language". But now a comparative view of the not-yet-unraveled natural and verbal mysteries may be of use to unbiased stu-

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dents of both disciplines, the rapidly advancing science of life and the millennially old science of language. In the sciences of life and language - let us quote and supplement Jacob's thesis - "one can no longer separate a structure from its signification not only in the organism [and in language as well], but in all the sequence of events that have led the organism [as well as language] to become what it is". Both biologists and linguists have observed an impressive set of attributes common to life and language since the latter's consecutive emergence. These two information-carrying and goaldirected systems imply the presence of messages and of an underlying code. From the first appearance of a vital minimum, "the special status assigned to living organisms by their origin and purpose" consists of coded messages which specify the molecular structures and are transmitted as instructions from generation to generation. The respective makeups of the two codes - the genetic, discovered and deciphered in our time by molecular biology, and the verbal, scrutinized by several generations of linguists - have displayed a series of noticeable analogies. Through a significant coincidence, the Prague Linguistic Circle and the geneticist Jacob have defined the object of their studies as "a system of systems". The principle of gradual integration governs the structure of the two codes. Both of them equally display a hierarchy of discontinuous units. As the biologist points out, each of these units, labeled "integron", is built by assembling intégrons of the level below it and takes part in the construction of an integron of the level above. In a similar way the linguist Emile Benveniste (1902-1976) states that a unit of the verbal code may be conceived of as such only insofar as it appears identifiable within a higher unit (1966:119ff.). Among all the information-carrying systems, the genetic code is the only one which shares with the verbal code a sequential arrangement of discrete subunits - phonemes in language and nucleotides (or 'nucleic letter') in the genetic code - which by themselves are devoid of inherent meaning but serve to build minimal units endowed with their own, intrinsic meaning (cf. above, pp. 13 ff., 47). In genetic information each of these meaningful units consists of three "letters" and is termed "code word" or "triplet". The equivalence between a triplet of nucleic letters and one of the twenty diverse protein units into which the given triplet is translated has permitted Jacob to emphasize that "a genetic code is like a language" and to refer in this connection to the relation between signans and signatum, the fa-

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mous twofold delineation of verbal signs. The three triplets which find no protein equivalents fulfill a syntactic, demarcative function: a sequence - sentence or gene - begins and ends with special "punctuation marks". In accordance with the subdivision of phonemes into distinctive features, two binary oppositions of polar properties underlie the fourletter alphabet of the genetic code. This dichotomy allows the conversion of the abundant inventory of synonymous triplets into a set of ordered rules analogous to the linguistic operations with the sound structure of grammatical units. Of the four "nucleic letters", two larger ones, namely purines - A(denine) and G(uanine) - are opposed to two smaller ones, namely pyrimidines - T(hymine) and C(ytosine) - and the "letters" within each of these two pairs display two polar orders between the donor and recipient. In the final third of the triplet the difference between the two purines is always redundant, with two further specified exceptions. When G is the medial component of the triplet, the difference between the final purines and pyrimidines is always redundant, whereas in triplets with a medial T, such a difference is always significative. But when the medial position belongs neither to G nor to T, the semantic status of the final component is determined by the first component of the triplet. Then the initial G or C entails the redundancy of all four final components, while either Τ or A in the initial position endows the four final components with an autonomous reference to two distinct protein units. Such a divergence between the treatment of the pairs G / C and T / A is to be compared with the bifurcation of the four nucleic letters into two indissoluble associations in both complementary fibers of the linear sequence: "the symbols go in pairs", and one pair of conjoint associates is formed by G and C, the other by Τ and A. Some sets of four synonyms with a G in the initial or medial position are supplemented by two further synonyms with Τ or A as their initial component. The two triplets devoid of synonyms have C in their final position. The synonymy rules impose severe limitations upon the semantic variety of the sixty-four different triplets by reducing their translational equivalents to twenty distinct protein units. It is not the vocabulary itself, but only the syntactic and suprasentential level of genetic messages that permits their broad diversification. When proceeding from the simplest to more complex organisms, Jacob makes it clear that in each of them the interaction of the constituent parts underlies "the organization of the whole" and that the inte-

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gration confers upon the whole new structural properties. With the rise of cybernetics, such an interaction between the constituents of a living organism or between the organism and its surroundings, as well as between members of a human society, has been approached as a problem of communication, and language becomes a model example "of interaction between elements of an integrated whole". If the formation of a mammal or especially of a human being is written down in the genetic message and baffles the scientist's imagination as "a marvel of exactitude and precision", just the same may be said about human language as an extraordinary, faultless, and subtle device of both outer and inner communication. This device displays a context-sensitive structure, an array of supportive redundancies, a variety of creative transpositions, and above all a rich gamut of two-way transitions between explicitness and ellipsis. Finally it is a unique and universal system capable of generating jugdments and equational propositions. Insofar as the "aptitude for language" is supposed to be the final genetic endowment in the rise of the human species, then presumably the fundamental plan of language, its indispensable design common to all verbal codes of the world, must belong to this endowment. The 'double articulation' of language (see below, p. 181) or, in other words, the composition of meaningful units from discrete subunits devoid of their own inherent meaning, is common solely to these two codes among all communication systems. The isomorphism displayed by the verbal and by the genetic codes proves to be deeply rooted in the entire model and mechanism of the two codes. Obviously we are not yet in a position to explain this salient correspondence, as long as for linguists the origin of language and, similarly, for geneticists the genesis of life remain unsolvable problems: "But then how did it all begin? (...) What is the origin of the genetic code? (...) Why does one nucleic-acid triplet 'mean' a certain subunit and not another? (...) Nothing indicates that the transition between the organic and the living can ever be analyzed". Moreover, "one does not yet know how acquired circuits are superimposed on the heredity network, nor how the innate and the acquired fit together". Language, the primary vehicle of human society, was assessed by Sapir as "a great force of socialization, probably the greatest that exists". Another powerful socializer and individualizer in the history of the living world was the far earlier and "most important invention" of sex, whose role has been eloquently outlined in Jacob's book. As sexuality emerged and developed from a seemingly "superfluous gad-

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get" to an obligatory method of reproduction, it gave rise to communication between individuals and to the process of integration on a higher level than the single organism. It created such novelties as choice of partners, radical reassortment of programs, and maximal individualization of progeny. Briefly, this "complication elaborated in the course of evolution" canceled the insipid prospect of "a rather boring universe without sex, (...) a universe peopled only by identical cells reproducing ad infinitum ". "As exchanges increase during evolution, there appear new systems of communication that no longer operate within the organism, but between organisms". Such is the line of development from the earlier innovation to the later one, from sexual intercourse to the wider radius of verbal intercourse, according to the Anglicism introduced by Saussure into French linguistic terminology. "Death imposed from within" as a compulsory, integral part of the sexualized system prompts us to recollect the conjoint imagery of love and death in world poetry and moreover suggests a comparison with the substantial part assigned to oblivion in the perpetual mobility of language. The decisive evolutionary role played by "new systems of communication, just as much within the organism as between the organism and its surroundings", becomes, despite all incessant hesitations, ever clearer both to biologists and to linguists. Even the reference to random mutations based on chance, reproductional errors, accidental additions, omissions, and casual Spoonerisms in the genetic messages, finds a rectification in the reminder that the notion of an evolution resulting exclusively "from mutations, which occur each at random", proves to be "denied both by time and by arithmetic" ; even on the microscopic level the simplest organisms "are built by a series of integrations". Since "little is yet known" of the ways cells communicate with each other, since the differentiation of the living world, especially the development of its higher forms, is still waiting for elucidation, and since the danger of premature generalizations is never excluded, queries from other related fields of knowledge could hardly be out of place. In particular, students of linguistic evolution may ask whether the agglomeration of mistakes in the genetic messages which direct the multiplication of living systems happens by mere chance. To the older linguistic dogma of blind and fortuitous changes, which only afterwards might be followed by a reassortment, later studies of language are inclined to oppose the finality of "oriented lapses", as the topologist René Thom

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terms them. Such reiterative slips are deviations rather than simple mistakes. Whatever the answer to such tentative questions might be, the amiable and unprejudiced interdisciplinary dialogue demands to be continued and developed, particularly since the permanent "struggle between what was and what is to be, between the sameness of reproduction and the novelty of variation" is deeply implanted in the subject matter of the two kindred sciences.

XXI. ROLE OF LEARNING

There emerges from time to time the view of oral speech as a mere accidental human choice for verbal shape. This bias seems facetious when confronted with the genuine universality of spoken language. Oral speech rests upon universally elaborated acoustico-motor instrumentalities which are at the disposal of all sane human, and only human, offspring of the globe. This availability is inseparably tied to the necessity for all children of the world to follow an adult model in acquiring a language and to the fact that any extant language used by this model is masterable by the infant learner. The doubt sometimes intimated about the universal indispensability of learning and tutorship is based merely on a somewhat superficial, bureaucratic attitude toward the meaning of the words tutor and learn. Learning and imitation or more exactly, replication (cf. L. G. Jones 1967:5), are widely creative phenomena, and tutorship frequently appears in a covert and latent form (cf. Whorf 1956: 70 ff., 88 ff., 105ff.). The delicate and complex processes of children's gradual learning and of the continuing instruction by the older members of the nuclear family and of the environment still require an intense observation on the part of psycho- and socio-linguists and anthropologists. As Ben G. Blount rightly concluded (1972: 128) on the basis of adult-children conversations collected in Luo and Samoa, "the social enviroment is not a mere data-bank in the language acquisition process" and "the language models which serve the children cannot be dismissed as raw, undifferentiated linguistic information". The conventionalized 'baby-talk' initiated and taught by adults to children "until the baby has completely mastered the normal flow of language" is in Bengali used at least until the child's sixth year, and throughout the world it fulfills a substantial task in children's verbal development (see particularly Ferguson 1964 and Dil 1971). The total acquisition of the first language, far from being an avalanche-

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rush, proves to entail, as Carol Chomsky (1969) masterfully showed, a nearly decade-long process.

XXII. SPEECH A N D VISUALIZED LANGUAGE

There is a substitutive system called 'sign language'. This label is deceptive since it obscures the fact that "natural" language likewise consists of signs (in this case verbal signs) and that in general language is a topic of the science of signs, alias semiotics. In any case, so-called 'sign language' is a humanly important and structurally attractive topic, but as William C. Stokoe noted (1975), "the proportion of native speakers to native signers is about ten thousand to one" and thus in the study of universal human speech this marginal system may be left aside. Despite the enormous importance of reading and writing, we must take into account the omnipresent fact that these are but a secondary attainment in human life. Moreover, almost half the world's people are still totally illiterate and the actual use of reading and writing is the asset of a scarce minority. At the end of the sixties, according to official UNESCO data, the number of illiterates had risen by almost 60 million to about 800 million, out of a total adult population of 2,225,000,000. Since producers and receivers of written messages exclusively are exceptional, we must distinguish the speakers and listeners of mere oral messages from those who have recourse to reading and writing also. Between these two varieties of language users there are a number of characterological differences which have even led some investigators such as Goody & Watt (1963) to distinguish sociology, the science of man as a writing species, from social anthropology, the science of man as a merely talking animal. It is true that a logographic script such as the Chinese one leads to a certain autonomization of the written word vs. speech (cf. Karlgren 1962), but even the reading of Chinese characters requires, to a high degree, their recoding into speech sounds. As experiments show, "the phonetic reading of visually presented nonphonetic symbols such as Chinese characters suggests that even if lexical readout may occur directly from visual input, speech recoding is still needed for the working memory stage" (Tzeng et al. 1977). It is interesting that in spite of evident graphic differences the reader's performance "was found to be impaired by the introduction of phonemic similarity into the test materials". But an alphabetic system necessarily prompts its user to asso-

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cíate it, to a high degree, with speech and to transpose the script into an oral performance. It is characteristic that the first stage of learning to read is reading out loud, and that the internalization of reading is a secondary, later process. An instructive and popular example is St. Augustine's account of his youthful surprise at finding his master reading a book silently and without moving his lips. In a recent comic strip, a youngster asks : "Daddy, how can you read to yourself?" "What do you mean?" "I mean if you read to yourself, how do you know what it says if you don't hear anything?" While the distinctive features and their combinations into phonemes differ from other linguistic constituents by the phenomenon of 'otherness' as the only or at least the main content of their signatum, the nature of letters is different. In general, the signatum of any given letter is a certain phoneme of the language in question. In diverse spelling systems there may be constraints such as homophonous letters or other limitative rules imposed upon the simple relation between letter and sound, but the essence of the relation between graph as signans and phone as signatum remains valid. In logographic script, a graphic entity is in turn endowed with a singleness of its signatum, but here the signatum consists of a lexical unit instead of a phonic one. It is indeed significant that of the two Japanese types of graphic symbols, the syllabic (Kana) and the logographic (Kanji), only the former is impaired in aphasie disorders of the sound pattern (Sasanuma 1975). Thus the distinctive features of the speech sounds and their graphic rendering prove to be intimately associated with each other, and this association shows that aphasie impairments of speech sounds are intrinsically linguistic and not automatically motor or auditory losses. Scholars insist on the autonomous and effective properties of written language on all levels, from the ultimate constituents up to the selection and organization of vocabulary, syntax, and even entire texts; the problems of alternating divergences and convergences between the two domains of communication demand a heightened and widened attention, as do the comparative characteristics of the varying social and cultural communalities and particularities of these two types of verbal activity (for emphasis on the study of written language, cf. Vachek 1976:112-146 and Derrida 1967). The growing substitution of printed and typed messages for handwritten ones reduces the emotive and physiognomic roles of script; in this connection one could cite the tra-

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ditional and still extant custom of writing intimate and ceremonial messages by hand. Listening to speech is a sequential process dealing with just-vanished sounds, words, and sentences and involving the repetitive use of so-called 'simultaneous synthesis' (a transposition of a sequential event into a synchronous process) in the short-term memory of the perceiver. The question of the fading of the last word of the sentence as soon as the final sound of this word is uttered and the correlate problem of the reconstruction of the vanished sequence in the mind of the hearer thanks to his faculty to retain the right order of the evaporated strings and to remember the difference between such words as nadi and dîna or rasa and sara - all this was pervasively discussed in the Indie speculations on language (cf. Brough 1951 ; Ruegg 1959) and demands further exploration. Carol Chomsky (1971) and C.Read (1971) have brought forward eloquent data on individual spelling reforms hazarded by unschooled children who were rigidly oriented toward a consistent endowment of English letters with the stable sense-discriminative value of the corresponding speech sounds. It is noteworthy that the expenditure of hours devoted in grade school to the acquisition of spelling is incomparably higher in English-speaking countries than, for instance, in Finland, Yugoslavia, or Czechoslovakia, where the orthographic system primarily reflects the sense-discriminative employment of the distinctive features and where, therefore, the percentage of spelling mistakes is correspondingly lower among average pupils and adults. In this connection, Luria's observations (1960) should be remembered: bilingual subjects suffering from agraphic disturbances undergo much more serious losses in the mastery of the spelling patterns of French and English than of Russian and German orthographic systems, which pay closer attention to the sense-discriminative elements. Reading allows one to linger on single passages or even to turn back to preceding lines or pages. Reading and writing involve space while speech is an essentially temporal experience. The virtually lasting character of written communications is, both individually and socially, a most influential factor, which on the one hand secures the relative permanence, the testamental, memorial aspect of the written text, and which on the other hand diminishes the task of memorizing, as can be eloquently illustrated by the astounding memory of the illiterate reciters of thousands of epic verses. The natural, indispensable differences between written and oral style nonetheless allow deeper reciprocal in-

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fluences of script on speech and vice versa and frequent occurences of spelling pronunciation. For a long time in the competition between oral and written communication, the latter seemed to be gained predominance in our culture, but at present the ever-expanding use of radio, TV, sound films, telephone, records, and tapes is effecting a number of changes in the mutual relation of the two rival systems. The spelling and grammatical rules and the standardized vocabulary of written languages enjoy relative stability, prescriptibility, and uniformity of the code under the influence of school and various institutional interventions. Corresponding phenomena in spoken language, such as orthoepy in comparison with orthography, unquestionably play an appreciable role in the modern culture of spoken language, but in most cases to a lesser and less regularized degree than the requirement of norm and normalization imposed upon script.

XXIII. MULTIFORMITY A N D CONFORMISM

Linguists, even when interested chiefly in oral speech, often unwittingly give way to the hypnosis of written language. It is peculiar that in discussing the order of some verbal units in a sequence they use the terms "left" and "right" instead of "before" and "after" and speak about the "left-hand" and "right-hand" environment of a speech sound. In their examples of linguistic ambiguities they quote sentences ambiguous merely in writing and perfectly distinguishable in their explicit oral form. It is perhaps under the influence of the higher uniformity proper to the code of written language that sometimes the idea of a rigorously monolithic code of language in general captures theoreticians and tempts them to believe in the puerile myth of a perfectly invariable speech community with equally competent speaker-hearers and to apply the delusive idea to concrete operations. However, "real individuals command a variety of related linguistic systems", a variety of styles of speech used in a range of social situations (as was succinctly noted by Chomsky & Walker 1976): "Individuals within a speech community may differ in these respects and speech communities sometimes may vary quite widely in the systems represented within what is popularly called a single language" (p. 21). Hence, any actual linguistic status contrasts strongly with the assumption of a grammar "uniformly represented as a single invariant system in the mind of each English speaker".

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Witold Doroszewski (1899-1976), who was hostile to the idea of relational invariance in the sound structure of language, paid particular attention to the abundant diversity of variants in the everyday speech of Polish peasants which he recorded in his field work. These minute observations are particularly valuable because, contrary to the observer's anti-unitarian tenet, they bring to light the orderliness within the obvious variety. The several exponents of the Polish nasal ç used by all members of a rural Polish speech community near Plock were recorded and described in his French paper of 1935 (p.28ff.) and, with more detail, in a previous Polish report of 1934 (p.249ff.). The basic variants stand out against the marginal ones and the preponderant cases display competition and compromises between opposite tendencies : nearer vs. more distant in space or time, and either disappearing or developing; rural traits compete with urban influence; articulatory memory clashes with lexical borrowings preserving their sound shape. A closer interpretation of this eloquent "jeu des formes flottantes" could to a large degree find the key to this selection in the changeability of contexts and topics, momentary universe of discourse, difference of speech functions, and switching relations between speakers and hearers. According to Doroszewski's belief, the individual himself is completely passive and makes no deliberate choice between diverse possible solutions ; he is influenced by opposite tendencies, whatever the difference between them: "les deux le travaillent, coexistent en lui". Doroszewski concluded that the system is a "Procustean bed", but his dialectal material is in fact an excellent plaidoyer {or the pluralism of the verbal code both against the narrowly empirical denial of system and against the reductionist denial of multiform systems. The expert observer William Labov (1964, 1970) exemplified the motivated and structured variability of sound forms in their interpersonal and personal usage and uncovered "a pattern of continuous and regular variation through different styles and contexts". He noted specific properties of speech "used in informal situations where no attention is directed to language" and in particular occurrences of spontaneous, excited speech "when the constraints of a formal situation are discharged". The science of language cannot but agree with Jacob's reference to the two apparently opposite properties of living beings stability and variability - as "an inherent quality of the very nature of living systems". Any unbounded generalization of the stability and uniformity principle proves to be an impoverishing, stultifying "idealization" of the heterogeneous linguistic reality. "The association be-

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tween structure and homogeneity is an illusion", as Weinreich et alii state, following in the footsteps of the Praguians; "the concept of a variable as a structural element makes it unnecessary to view fluctuations in use as external to the system, for control of such variation is a part of the linguistic competence of members of the speech community" (1968:185-187). Like any other social system, language is in continuous motion and self-generating development (cf. Lange 1962: 73 ff.). The verbal code and in particular the sound pattern of any language constantly undergo changes. In contradistinction to daylight savings time or to spelling reforms, which can be decreed and enter into common practice on a definite date, the start and finish of a sound change in spoken language go through a period of coexistence; they belong to two styles, two subcodes of the same language, and are actively used either by different speakers or by one speaker who oscillates between the "archaism" and the "modernism". Speakers and hearers may be aware of the time axis to which both items belong, and time itself thereby enters into the verbal system as a semiotic value. The belief earlier voiced among linguists that the process of linguistic change is never directly observed does not take into account the vital phenomenon of speakers' preoccupation with speech itself and their habitual metalinguistic talk about talking. There are frequent cases of a generational difference between interlocutors, the youngest of whom make use of the nascent innovations which the older ones understand but have not included in their speaker repertory. Similarly, the younger speakers comprehend the older ones although the younger no longer actively use the elements they deem "outdated". Besides such cases of manifest division between speakers and listeners, there obviously also occur frequent instances of mutual adaptation in intercommunication between people of different generations. Members of a speech community are competent to use both the start and the finish of the change, and the overall code of the given language must correspondingly be conceived of as convertible. Thus the two stages of a change in progress should be interpreted in terms of a dynamic synchrony. Concurrence and successivity are, therefore, interrelated both in single utterances and in the "overall code" of language (cf. Hockett 1958). The tendency of Saussure's Cours to reduce the structure of any language system to concurrence (simultaneity) with disregard for successivity (temporal succession) - "l'axe des simultanéités, concernant les rapports entre choses coexistantes, d'où toute intervention du temps

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est exclue" (1:177) - is as equally arbitrary and impoverishing a tendency as is the reverse attempt of the same Cours to discard concurrence from the structure of linguistic units and to confine them to a mere linearity - "caractère linéaire du signifiant" (Saussure I: 157; cf. LW 1976: 39 ff.). With respect to the variable radius of communication from the nuclear family to interdialectal and even crosslingual verbal intercourse, the multiplicity of tasks again involves different subcodes adapted to changing interlocutors ; herewith space enters into the overall code of the speech community and its members as a semiotic value. In both their temporal and spatial aspects the code and the circuit of messages exhibit a perpetual interplay between conformism and nonconformism. A spatial conformism, adaption to neighbors, usually implies a temporal nonconformism, in other words, a temporal discontinuity. On the other hand, there is normally a linkage between temporal conformism and discontinuity with the neighbor's pattern, alienation from it. The repeated assumption of an essential difference between the 'source' (Saussurian foyer) of a linguistic innovation and the area of its "contagion" and propagation clashes with the fact that any change is a phenomenon of propagation, from a slip of the tongue to its repetition and acceptance first by a narrow and then by a wide collective body; a change and its diffusion appear to be but two facets of one and the same ongoing "contagion". The plurality of subcodes and of the transitions from one subcode to another is an essential constituent of linguistic competence possessed by an individual and mutatis mutandis by his milieu. Doroszewski's records, discussed above, belong to a series of papers compiled by various field workers in order to prove that individual speakers do not use any integral system, since the texts recorded and published exhibit an extremely mixed character. If, however, one subjects these variables to an attentive analysis, then, may we repeat, all the supposedly conflicting textual peculiarities easily find a natural explanation in the alternation of thematic and stylistic factors and of addressees, and these variations display a complex integral system. The belief of the recorders in variability without integration is no less illusory than the belief of a theoretician in integral competence without inner variation. Also, in conditions of close contact between two dialects or two languages, people with bidialectal or bilingual competence can enjoy a prestigious position in their linguistic environment, and the partial merger of two neighboring codes which is typical of bilingual individuals or groups favors a wider expansion of certain

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particularities of one language, especially of its sound shape, to the adjacent tongue.

X X I V . I N N E R SPEECH

On the threshold of the transition from infancy (literally 'speechlessness') to language, a child starts his interpersonal communication by addressing one of the nearest adults, most usually his mother. Later, his one-to-one communication is complemented by a more-than-two person system with a plurality of participants and with a developing distinction between the true addressee of the child's messages and unaddressed auditors. On the other hand there arises a less-than-two person system - dialogues with an older interlocutor are complemented by the child's gradual mastery of a narrowed intrapersonal network of communication. Thus, the child's interlocutor becomes the child himself "as he will be a second after", according to Peirce's view of inner "dialogue between different phases of the ego" (4.6). Here arises a distinction between two kinds of communication, namely "the transmission of meaning by signs from mind to mind and from one state of mind to another" (Peirce: 1.445). There emerges the so-called 'egocentric speech' of the youngster in the presence of others: the child's former interlocutor becomes a mere auditor while the child himself assumes the roles of both the addresser and the addressee. This "intermediate link between overt and inner speech" has been inspiringly sketched by Lev Vygotsky (1962). He pointed to the fact that structural peculiarities of inner speech and its functional differentiation from external speech increase with age; "the decrease of egocentric speech indicates no more than the diminution of one quality of this speech: its vocalization". Out-loud, half-dream, presleep soliloquies may follow as the next step in the absence of any possible human replier to the child but in the presence of such speechless addresses as a doll or a dog (cf. Weir 1962). Whispered, and then actually inner, silent speech are further steps in the internalization of language. It is noteworthy that the sound shape preserves its motor traces in the unconscious movements of the tongue which usually, though to a lesser extent, accompany even the adult's inner speech. A. N . Sokolov's investigation of the relation between thought and inner speech shows how the latter "arises genetically on the basis of outer speech as its interior projection and constantly develops and improves under the direct

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influence of external speech. In spite of its elliptic and generalized character, inner speech does not possess any separate, idiosyncratic, logical and grammatical structure" (1959: 513; cf. his conclusive book of 1968). Inner speech is radically elliptic; the sound shape of words receives a merely fragmentary evocation in our mind, and frequently they totally lose their phonic makeup ("zero signant). However, neither these losses nor the tendency to replace verbal signs by other semiotic units permit us to return to an assumption of wordless, or even signless, asemiotic thinking. It would be a perverse castration to separate the cardinal idea of verbal communication from its vital and normally undetachable constituent, inner speech. In an authoritarian state, a scientist, asked by a police searcher what the Greek book on his desk was, answered, "Plato's Dialogues". - "Dialogues? But with whom?" - "With himself' was the alleged and intrinsically right answer. Both inner and uttered speech form a bridge between the person and his environment and both of these linguistic performances are rich in quoted speech and in verbal creativity; both exteriorized and interiorized speech carry the legacy of the past and the anticipation of the future. It is an essential fact that the representation of the sound shape of the words which function elliptically in our internal speech remains in our thought, as was pointed out by the sagacious linguist F. F. Fortunatov (1848-1914). He realized that "in a certain respect, the phenomena of language themselves appertain to the phenomena of thought", and that "language as such, when our thoughts are expressed in speech, has its being precisely because it exists itself in our thinking" (1956: lllff.). It is difficult to pursue more consistently the idea of the inseverable ties between the sound shape and its semantic counterpart. The structure of language underlies all of its manifestations, both patent and latent, and there can be no rupture between the structure and its purposes: an afunctional structure and a nonstructured function are both pointless and empty fictions. Our concepts are apprehended and delineated by the very fact of being named; this verbalizing activity endows them with permanence in time and continuity in space, and in this way secures and enhances our conservative ties with the past and creative connections with our future by securing and enforcing our intercourse with the environment. Our thought turns into an object of our naming and propositional activities, and our words and sentences in their interaction are converted into independent objects of our thought.

CHAPTER TWO QUEST FOR THE ULTIMATE CONSTITUENTS The important thing about a transformation is what it doesn't transform, i. e. what it leaves invariant. S.S.Stevens

Mathematics, Measurement, and Psychophysics Tout est bilatéral dans le domaine de la pensée. Les idées sont binaires. Janus est le mythe de la critique et le symbole du génie. Il n'y a que Dieu de triangulaire. Honoré de Balzac

Illusions perdues

I . T O T H E MEMORY OF PIERRE DELATTRE

Pierre Delattre, born in the French town of Roanne on the Loire in 1903, early in his career linked his scholarly activities with American universities-Michigan, Wayne State, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Colorado, and from 1964 the University of California at Santa Barbara. His rich and remarkable works in experimental phonetics gradually gained in precision and originality and by degrees moved toward the search for the ultimate constituents of language. Delattre's comprehensive address, "From Acoustic Cues to the Distinctive Features", delivered in a plenary session of the Vllth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences in September 1967 and published in a French version in the Proceedings of the Congress (1970 a) and also in a slightly different, English version in Phonetica (1968 a), marked a new stage in the creative work of this persevering, courageous seeker. From their first, friendly meetings at the Ghent Congress of Phonetic Sciences in 1938, Delattre and RJ closely followed each other's research. When at the end of the VI Ith Phonetic Congress Delattre airmailed to RJ the complete, original version of his paper, a close cooperation developed between them. In the summer of 1968 during RJ's three-day visit to the eminent phonetician, their discussions and tests

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"dans la tranquilité et l'intimité" of Delattre's house and of the magnificent laboratory he built up for the University of California at Santa Barbara matured into a plan for a joint, systematic outline of the psychoacoustic correlates of the system of distinctive features. An agreement arose on the need for a further and more consistent application of the slogan "economize and binarize," which Delattre advocated in the Prague debates, as he informed RJ in the coda of his letter of October 6, 1967. Delattre came a long way from his early skeptical remarks about the apologists for "binarism and alleged distinctive features" to his final work guided by the motto cited above. To explain the development of his thinking, the scholar himself stated in the introduction to his Prague address that "the patient testing of numerous acoustic variables of speech for nearly twenty years has led us to a point where it is perhaps possible to assemble the pieces of the phonetic puzzle and look at the acoustic elements of a language as a system" (1968 a: 198). The original introduction to the Prague paper, inserted avowedly "pour détendre les esprits tendus" and almost entirely omitted in the drier printed texts of 1968a and 1970a, faithfully renders the author's scientific attitude and goals: In their endless quest for the Grail (la Queste del Graal), the Knights of the Round Table (les chevaliers de la Table Ronde) remind us of the phoneticians of today - they did not know what the Grail was, but they never gave up the hope of finding it. It was the mystery of the Grail that obsessed them, as it is the mystery of distinctive features that fascinates us today. In our quest for the Grail of phonemics, that is, for the Distinctive Features by means of which phonemic perception operates, there are good reasons for starting with acoustic correlates rather than with articulatory correlates.

À paragraph of resigned words closes Delattre's manuscript: So ends our quest for the Grail. And I dare not venture any further, because it is written in the second book of Perceval that when Galahad was finally able to contemplate the mystery of the Grail with his own eyes, he died instantly.

However, without superstitious fear, the mutual efforts to reach an ever-closer solution continued and developed, until in July 1969 the scheduled program of further personal meetings and the plan of collaboration and joint publication were abruptly cancelled by the tragic news of Delattre's sudden death. We venture to dedicate this chapter to his memory as our modest attempt to pursue this search in keeping with the late scholar's intentions.

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One may note that it was at the Ghent Congress of 1938 that Delattre came into direct contact with phonology and with the Prague linguistic school for the first time, and it was on this occasion that he attended the first international discussion of the distinctive features ("qualités différentielles") and their binary oppositions. The delivery of his lecture on distinctive features at the Prague Congress almost thirty years later was for Delattre, as he himself acknowledged, a symbolic turn toward the Prague phonological tradition. The final, printed text of his Prague paper (1968 a) begins by declaring: In our search for the distinctive features by means of which phonemic perception operates, there are good reasons for starting with acoustic correlates rather than with articulatory correlates. (...} The most objective approach to discovering the nature of distinctive features appears to be through their acoustic correlates. (...) We propose to look at the complete consonantal acoustic structure of a language and to extract from it the categories of acoustic cues which are relevant to linguistic perception, in isolation and in various combinations.

The paper concludes that if distinctive features are perceptual signals which can only be envisioned indirectly through their acoustic and articulatory correlates, and if the articulatory correlates can only be specified after the acoustic correlates have been isolated by synthetic manipulation and perceptual tests, there seems to be no better means of closing in on the distinctive features than by reaching a complete knowledge of what is distinctive in the acoustic signal.

Two basic concepts dating back to Delattre's fruitful cooperation with Haskins Laboratories and consistently applied in his Prague address were concisely defined by the speaker in its printed versions'. In the Proceedings (see 1970 a) he describes 'formants' as "bandes étroites de son filtrés par la résonance sélective au tractus vocalique", and in the English version (1968 a: 201) in connection with his "locus theory" of consonantal distinctive features he defines 'locus' as "the frequency point toward which all the transitions that are related to the perception of the same consonantal distinctive feature converge, regardless of the vowel that precedes or follows". Despite the clarity of Delattre's position and the cogency of his Prague-toned experimental attempt, the widespread reluctance to recognize his highly objective approach to the analysis of the ultimate constituents of language was sometimes quite stubborn. For instance in a detailed critical survey of 1974, Delattre's final lessons were totally

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disregarded and his earlier, still hesitant attitude was held up as a forecast for the future: It is quite possible that in the long run, Delattre's pessimism about the feasibility of finding an exclusively articulatory or exclusively acoustic set of correlates for distinctive features will turn out to be justified. [Lipski 1974: 428]

This surveyor (following Fudge 1967) cites the eloquent example of the four-member Mazatec vowel system of /i, e, o, a / analyzed by Nida (1949: 31) as front high low

e

back o a

and warns against the danger of establishing patterns with no measurable physical correlates and hence of positing "bizarre" and "arbitrarily constructed" correlations. The presumably random and abstract status of distinctive features is, however, due to a current confusion of void abstractness with purposeful relativity. The distinctive features and the auditory cues for their recognition, far from constituting an "abstract framework" (cf. Fudge 1967), assume a concrete and detectable invariance of relation between the two opposite members within each pair. From time to time the tabulation of distinctive features meets with imaginary arguments which question the accuracy of measurements and the degree of descriptive precision. These objections are in most cases based on the substitution of a crude metrical attitude for a sane, relational, topological treatment. The opposition of /{/ to / e / and correspondingly of / o / to / a / symmetrically confronts narrower vowels to wider ones (relatively diffuse vowels to relatively compact ones). The pair of advanced vowels / i / and / e / stands in an identical relation of acuteness to the gravity of the retracted vowels / o / and / a / . This grave ~ acute opposition acquires a redundant enhancement by the parallel confrontation of a narrower advanced vowel to a wider retracted vowel - / i / to / o / and / e / to / a / . For further examples of the same type as the Mazatec vowel pattern, see Liljencrants & Lindblom 1972: 845 f., Four-Vowel Systems (a), (b). The imaginary deviations b', c, and d are actually due to the methodological crudity of the schemes (Sedlak 1969: 32 f.) they used as a source; Sedlak's diagrams also give the erroneous impression that only quasi-symmetrical vocalic patterns exist in higher numbered types of systems.

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II. V O W E L - C O N S O N A N T

In Morris Halle's evaluation (1976: 88 ff.), perhaps the chief question raised by the gradual discovery of distinctive features has been the consistent comparative analysis of vocalism and consonantism. The comparative investigation of this pair remained paralyzed for a long time by an unswerving abnegation of communalities between the two subsystems, and survivals of this abnegation "continue in wide use to this day" (Halle ibid.). Whatever definition for vowels and consonants could be considered the most precise, there is not the slightest doubt that this is the cardinal and most obvious bifurcation of speech sounds for linguists, for investigators of speech in its motor, acoustic, and perceptual aspects, for poets, and finally for the intuition of ordinary speakers. If the problem of the structural relationship between these two classes of speech sounds has become so involved and at times even controversial, it is because of the unique, most particular character of this relation as compared to the interrelations within each of these two classes (cf. RJ & LW 1979). The main principle of intravocalic or intraconsonantal differentiation lies in the commutability of the members within each class. The essential function of such intravocalic and intraconsonantal distinctions rests upon their sense-discriminative role, beginning with the most elementary examples, such as sheep~cheap, sip~tip, sheep~ship, sheep ~shape, sheep ~sheet, sip ~sick. Whereas the relations between the diverse members of the consonantal or likewise of the vocalic pattern are basically and chiefly paradigmatic, the mutual relation of vowels and consonants is built on their sequential interconnection. In agreement with the formulation made popular by Saussure's Cours (I : 282), "le rapport syntagmatique est in praesentia; il repose sur deux ou plusieurs termes également présents dans une série effective", in contradistinction to the relation which is now labeled 'paradigmatic' and which unites terms "in absentia dans une série mnémonique virtuelle". Any sequence is built of syllables ; they are the fundamental divisions of any sequence, and in all languages they follow a clear-cut constructional model which consists of a nucleus (also called peak or crest) and margins (also called slopes or slants). Vowels function in languages as the only or at least as the most usual carriers of the syllabic nuclei, whereas the margins of syllables are occupied chiefly or solely by consonants. As frequently occurs with the fundamental constituents of a prov-

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ince of knowledge, the strict definition of the paramount property which specifies the vowels on the one hand and the consonants on the other has proved to be perhaps the most entangled task in the multifaceted investigation of speech sounds. As stated by Kenneth Pike, "the most basic, characteristic, and universal division made in phonetic classification is that of consonant and vowel. Its delineation is one of the least satisfactory" (1943 : 66). The phonetician Georges Straka's comprehensive survey of the attempts at an empirical delimitation of the two categories led him to favor the recognition of two opposite types of articulation : vowels as "mouth-openers" (ouvreuses) and consonants as "mouth-closers" (fermeuses) (1963: 72 ff.). And Nikolaj Zinkin's astute inquiry into the difference between these two competitive and alternating muscular activities led to his "pharyngeal conception of syllable formation" (1968: 287) and his illuminating inquiry into the mechanisms of speech. (For the history of the syllable concept, see particularly Laziczius 1961:156-193.) The traditional etymology of the Sanskrit name for consonant, vyañjana, as 'revelative' seems to carry the "suggestion that the consonants rather than the vowels are responsible for the differentiation of meanings" (Allen 1953: 81). And in fact the higher informativeness of consonants is a widespread phenomenon which finds expression in those alphabetic systems limited to signs for consonants only. In children's language the sense-discriminative role of consonants as a rule antedates that of vowels (i. e., oppositions within the consonantal system appear before those in the vocalic system). The primarily consonantal encoding of meanings, far from being confined to such extreme cases as the Caucasian Ubykh language with its two- or three-vowel phonemes and nearly eighty consonantal ones (see Vogt 1963:13 ff.), shows up also in English. It is noteworthy that the authorities of acoustic laboratories in the United States were ready to disclose the images of vowels in the "visible speech experiment", whereas those of consonants were concealed until the end of World War II in order to hinder the deciphering of secret messages. Yet it is precisely the rich and semantically revealing class of consonants which still provokes complaints from acousticians because of the difficulty of determining the common essence of the consonantal feature. The attempt by Hugo Pipping (1864-1944) to define the common denominator of the consonantal phonemes still remains the most realistic. According to him, "all consonants carry a noise element. In fricatives it is inherent in the continuant noise, in nasal stops and laterals it is contained in the temporal

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contrast between sound segments with different excitation patterns along the basilar membrane. The sudden transition has the effect of a step excitation of the peripheral receptors which in turn is associated with a specific auditory quality." (See Pipping 1922; cf. Fant 1967.) A thorough inquiry into the total sound systems of languages reveals the necessity of viewing the relation between vowels and consonants as two-faced. While consonants are opposed to vowels by the noise element, as Pipping noted, at the same time vowels are opposed to consonants through a clear-cut "sonority" (Schallfîille), a concept enrooted in speech sound analysis since Edward Sievers (1850-1932) in his Grundzüge (see 19015: § 528-535) and Jespersen in his Lehrbuch (see 1904: § 196 ff.) defended it. This problem has been dealt with in psychoacoustic studies from the point of view of the discriminable aspects of tones and particularly "tonal density" (see S.Stevens 1934 and Stevens & Davis 1938: 163 ff.). The combination of the two features - the consonantal and the vocalic - characterizes the liquids as concurrently consonantal and vocalic, and enables one to delineate the shifting class of sonorants.

III. S Y L L A B I C I T Y

It is the mutual sequential contiguity of consonants and vowels which plays the main role in their interrelation within any given language. And it is the contiguity of the two contrastive functions within the syllable which contraposes both of its constituents - syllables and nonsyllabics. Apparently, it has been precisely the predominant role played by the contiguity criterion as a principium divisionis that has caused some hesitations : it was difficult to decide whether the fundamental role in a paradigmatic classification of distinctive oppositions belongs to the duality of vowels and consonants or to that of syllables and nonsyllabics. The recourse to syllabicity as a distinctive feature and even as the decisive one in the "coding tree" of features (cf. Fant 1973:180) seems to be a rather arguable operation. Instead of following Chomsky & Halle's cogent appeal to make "use of the fact that the features have intrinsic content" (1968: 400), this operation employs a traditional, until recently favored distributionalist technique, the less recommendable since the roles of syllables and nonsyllabics are as a rule automatically assigned in languages first and foremost to the vowels and consonants respectively.

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Within those languages in which liquids and nasals can have a syllabic function, their primary, more diversified use remains nonsyllabic, and the syllabic variant of liquids is generally determined by strictly distributional rules (cf. Vachek 1976: 30). For example, Czech / r / and / l / are syllabic only when preceded by a consonant and not followed by a vowel within the same word; thus the liquid phoneme is here endowed with a syllabic contextual variant (cf. [lku] Ί weep' - (vlku] 'to the wolf', [jedl] 'he ate' - [jedla] 'she ate' - [jel] 'he rode'). In many languages syllabic liquids may function as stylistic variants: e.g., in certain styles of Russian speech the final, postconsonantal liquids and nasals are optionally used as syllables and in other styles as nonsyllabics. In the latter case the liquid is devoiced after a voiceless consonant: e. g. [t'igr] or [t'igr] 'tiger' and [v'ixr'] or [v'ixj'] 'whirl-wind' (see Panov 1967: 269 f.). In Majakovskij's comedy Klop ( The Bedbug), an ironically vulgar rhyme with a final syllabic nasal provides a telling example: sel ja vérxom, sel ja nízom [zam] stróil móst ν socialízm [izm],

while on the other hand, the same word socializm appears with a nonsyllabic final m in a lofty oxytonic line of the poet's solemn proclamation Jubilejnoe (Celebrational): postróennyj ν bojáx socialízm [izm].

The coadjacency of diverse segments of the sequence and particularly in the syllable as the cardinal constructive unit of the sequence confronts vowels and consonants as two fundamentally contrastive classes of phonemes. Yet it admits on the one hand transitional formations between pure vocalism and consonantism, and on the other hand extreme offshoots of consonantism such as obstruents, which differ from all other, sonorant types of speech sounds by the "direct" ("pluck") formant transitions and by turbulence and the absence of a "low link" (see Delattre 1968a: 212ff.; Cutting & Rosner 1974,1976; and RJ I: 496, 505). In such types of liquids as the Czech sibilant / r / and in geographically scattered lateral fricatives and affricates the turbulence is, if not eliminated, at least reduced, thanks to the freer flow of air either through lateral corridors or in the intervals proper to the intermittent variety of liquids - trills, flaps, or taps (cf. Trubetzkoy 1939a: 139f. and Romportl 1973: 84ff.). The existence of a unitary genus 'liquid' cannot be doubted, despite the efforts of some critics to deny all propinquity between the various

QUEST FOR THE ULTIMATE CONSTITUENTS

91

exponents of r, and also between those and /. Grammont underscores the distance between the uvular and the lingual r in French and states that from the expressive point of view their respective effects are to such a degree analogous that there is no reason for separating the two sounds from each other (1901:276). Delattre cites the relation between 'dark' [1] and pharyngeal [κ] as "an extreme example but a revealing one of how distant two speech sounds can appear to be at the articulatory level, yet how close they are at the acoustic level" (1968 a: 223). The affinity between the two varieties of liquids, the intermittent [r] and the lateral [1], whatever their place and manner of articulation, finds manifold confirmations in the languages of the world. Besides a few languages devoid of liquids, such as, in particular, numerous North American Indian languages, there is, especially around the Pacific, an overwhelming number of systems with a single liquid phoneme which is either intermittent or lateral or which exhibits a contextual or stylistic variation of these two implementations. Among languages which discriminate between intermittent and lateral liquid phonemes, the two liquids often show a strong mutual constraint in their distribution within the word, e. g. only one of them is admissible at the beginning of the word and only the other at the end (cf. Benveniste 1939: 32 ff.). The protracted substitution of one liquid for the other before the two are differentiated is a typical trait of children's language. The coexistence of two widely different articulatory variations of a liquid phoneme proves to be fully tolerated in many languages (e.g. rolled r and uvular r in French or Swedish ; [1] and [1] in many North Russian dialects). One cannot but agree with Daniel Jones' statement (1962: 205 f.) that "one of the most noteworthy cases" of the unity of the liquids is the so-called Japanese r: in the pronunciation of many if not most Japanese this 'sound' is very variable; they sometimes use a sound resembling an English fricative r, sometimes a lingual flap, sometimes a kind of retroflex d, sometimes a kind of /, and sometimes sounds intermediate between these. One and the same speaker will use all these forms indiscriminately (...) without being aware that his pronunciation varies. (...) In the absence of special training Japanese can neither hear the difference between these members nor make any of them at will. (One result of this is the well-known difficulty they have in hearing or making the difference between r and / when they speak European languages.)

Whereas all the paradigmatic sets within the consonantal and the vocalic classes are determined by a clear system of unambiguous op-

92

THE SOUND SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

positional features, the delimitative line between the consonantal and vocalic pattern and correspondingly between the nuclear and the marginal positions in the syllable remains naturally flexible. This flexibility can go as far as the rarissime case of those languages in which a syllable or even a disyllabic word may consist solely of obstruents with optional support by ultra-brief indeterminate glottal releases, the presence of which is denied by native speakers - for instance, such Korlak words as dissyllabic [ktkt] 'frozen snow crust' or [vtvt] 'leaf or [qvqv] 'narrow', analyzed by the precise and observant linguist E. A. Krejnoνίδ. (For examples of Bella Coola "words containing only nonsyllabic consonants" such as [ícxlc] Ί looked', see Newman 1947: 132 and Hockett 1955: 57 ff.) Similarly, in the Berber language Shillja, according to Applegate's analysis, "not only /I m η r / but all consonants in certain environments have syllabic allophones" (1958:13). Alan Bell's survey of syllabic consonants asserts that in languages "described as possessing syllables without vowels, such as Bella Coola, we always find that phonetically there is a release or transitional vocoid present. The question that must be asked is, 'how should such syllables be specified in phonetic representation?' " (Bell 1970: Β 29). In this connection the delineation of the category 'syllabic' becomes an extremely intricate task (cf. Greenberg 1962: 78 ff.). The contiguity of consonants and vowels in the speech sequence creates varied forms of interconnection between these two classes, in particular mutual assimilation and dissimilation. And the tendency toward the differentiation of the vocalic and consonantal roles in the verbal string requires at the same time an intrinsic identifiability of the systems of features which underlie each of the two patterns, vocalism and consonantism, a comparability which implies shared structural principles, but differing textures and interrelations. With respect to both vowels and consonants, binary oppositions remain the overwhelming, nearly exclusive form of organization. Hierarchical rules control the place of the diverse features within the system. And in turn the two opposite terms of each binary feature stand in the hierarchical interdependence of marked vs. unmarked with respect to each other.

IV. MARKEDNESS

In a letter of July 31,1930, Trubetzkoy sketched his new reflections on the interconnection between correlative phonemes:

QUEST FOR THE ULTIMATE CONSTITUENTS

93

Statistics has nothing to do with it. And the essence lies in the so-to-speak 'intrinsic content', of the correlation. Apparently any (or might it not be 'any'?) phonological correlation acquires in the linguistic consciousness the form of a contraposition of the presence of a certain mark to its absence (or of the maximum of a certain mark to its minimum). Thus, one of the terms of the correlation necessarily proves to be 'positive', 'active', and the other becomes 'negative', 'passive'. For instance, the tonality differences between correlative consonants are objectively confined to a 'maximally high tonality vs. maximally low tonality', but subjectively they are always transformed into an opposition 'heightened tonality vs. non-heightened tonality' ( = 'maximally high vs. minimally high') or into an opposition 'unlowered vs. lowered tonality' ( ='minimally low vs. maximally low'): the former type is implemented for instance in the correlation 'palatalized vs. non-palatalized' consonant and the latter for instance in the North Caucasian correlation 'labialized vs. non-labialized' consonant (probably also in the Semitic correlation 'emphatic vs. non-emphatic' consonant). In both cases, only one of the terms of the correlation is conceived of as actively modified and positively endowed with a certain mark, while the other is merely conceived of as non-endowed with this mark and thus passively modified. [Trubetzkoy 1975:162f.]

The addressee of this letter (RJ ibid.) answered: I am coming increasingly to the conviction that your thought about correlation as a constant mutual connection between a marked and unmarked type is one of your most remarkable and fruitful ideas. It seems to me that it has a significance not only for linguistics but also for ethnology and the history of culture, and that such historico-cultural correlations as life ~ death, liberty ~ non-liberty, sin ~ virtue, holidays ~ working days, etc., are always confined to relations a~ non-α, and that it is important to find out for any epoch, group, nation, etc., what the marked element is. For instance, Majakovskij viewed life as a marked element realizable only when motivated; for him not death but life required a motivation. Cf. the way the relation of life and death differs for the two heroes of Tolstoy's 'Master and Man'. Another example: the Chekists said that everyone is a man of the White Guard, and if not, it must be proved in every separate case. Here the Soviet allegiance is a marked element. At present in Soviet print there has emerged a slogan ; they used to say that 'all those who are not against us are with us', but now they say 'all those who are not with us are against us'. That points to a shift of the elements, i. e. to a generalization of the Chekist standpoint. I'm convinced that many ethnographic phenomena, ideologies, etc. which at first glance seem to be identical, often differ only in the fact that what for one system is a marked term may be evaluated by the other precisely as the absence of a mark.

Trubetzkoy's discovery was first applied in the lecture on sound systems which he addressed to the International Phonological Congress held in Prague in December 1930 (see 1931 a). In 1931 the first attempt

94

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

to use the idea of markedness in the study of grammatical meanings was devoted to the structure of the Russian verb (RJ II: 3-15). In the search for general meanings of paired grammatical categories it was found that one category signals a certain grammatical concept which the other one leaves unsignaled. In French, with its grammatical distinction of the feminine and masculine genders, the marked feminine lionne 'lioness' specifies the female; the unmarked, called "masculine", lion 'lion' may include both the male and the female. Thus, the general meaning of lion, in contradistinction to that of lionne, implies no sexual specification, and only the "basic meaning" (Grundbedeutung) of lion prompted by informative contexts suggests a sexual specification : e. g. lions et lionnes. There is an intrinsic communality between markedness on the level of grammatical categories and markedness on the level of distinctive features. This communality is, however, combined with the considerable difference between these two types of opposition, one based on the semantic level of signatum, the other on the sound level of signans. The constraining, focusing character of the marked term of any grammatical opposition is directed toward a more narrowly specified and delimited conceptual item. In the dyads of distinctive features the marked term is opposed to the unmarked one by its closer concentration on a certain, either positive or negative perceptual sound property polar to that of the unmarked term, and is accordingly characterized by a restriction of occurrence to specific sequential or concurrent contexts (cf. below, examples of such compulsory limitations, p. 136). The dyadic structures obligatory in the grammatical framework of language also widely permeate the field of lexical meanings and open new possibilities for the application of markedness concepts in lexis as well (see van Schooneveld 1978 and LW 1976 b, 1977, & 1979 c). The linguistic couples of marked and unmarked terms belong to the dyadic forms with a preeminence of one of the two opposites. Such dyads are deeply enrooted in the cultural anthropology of the world. Their discussion, launched at the beginning of our century by Robert Hertz ([1909] 1973), has opened wide perspectives for the comparative analysis of ethnic structures. Linguists of the Prague Circle investigated the sound and the meaning problems of markedness and developed them further after the forced demise of the Circle itself (contrary to the apocryphal claims that the search for markedness was abandoned in the 1940s and 1950s), and this inquiry has now found a wider and more promising acceptance (cf. LW 1976: 89ff., 1978,1979a & b; Greenberg

QUEST FOR THE ULTIMATE CONSTITUENTS

95

1966a & b; Chomsky & Halle 1968: 400ff.; Gamkrelidze et al. 1977: 98ff.; Melikisvili 1974 & 1976). V. GRAVE - ACUTE

Among those features based on the tonal quality inherent in the speech sound - briefly, the tonality features grave ~ acute, sharp ~ nonsharp, flat ~ nonflat - the primary feature rests upon the opposition grave ~ acute. The question of the basic features common to vowels and consonants, particularly the obstruents, offers no difficulties as long as we adopt a strictly relational attitude toward the chief significant formants. The perceptual difference between grave and acute depends primarily on the interrelation between two formants, the third and second transitional formants for the consonants and the second and first formants for the vowels - as shown especially by Plomp's analysis (1970, 1975) of the variance between the spectra of different vowels; also, in the spectra of the vowels the first and second formants, in Delattre's formulation, "always comprise the most intense harmonics and suffice to characterize the timbre of the oral vowels" (1966:237). This strictly relational approach eradicates such supposed dissimilarities as the one pointed out by Pavle I vie: "compact vowels are marked by a convergence of Fl and F2, whereas in the transitions of the compact consonants the coverging formants are F2 and F3" (1965:59). Thus, to use the determinant formants, for the vowels the second formant is the Superior one and the first the Inferior one, whereas for the consonants the third formant is the Superior and the second the Inferior. (A more precise appraisal of the Superior Formant for the vowels could be taken over from present-day acoustics, which for this purpose makes use of the symbol F' 2 in referring to "an estimated perceptual mean of F2 and higher formants" [see e.g. Fant 1973:194 f.].) Thus, instead of the absolute values of the first, second, and third formants, it is the binary relation between the Superior and Inferior Determinant Formants which should be used as the classificatory criterion within each of the two patterns: Determinant Formants Vowels (V) Consonants (C)

Superior(SF) 2 (F' 2 ) 3

Inferior (IF) 1 2

96

THE S O U N D SHAPE OF LANGUAGE

The equivalence in the relation between these two fundamental criteria of division becomes quite obvious if, instead of using the absolute figures for the first, second, and third formants, we turn to the relational invariant which underlies both the system of vowels and that of consonants. In applying the dyad SF ~ IF one unfailingly obtains an identical formula for the grave ~ acute distinction in both vocalism and consonantism. The high locus of the Superior Formant (F'2 in vowels, F3 in consonants) opposes an acute phoneme to the corresponding grave one: grave acute SF high low Delattre's Prague paper (1968 a) includes "a structural chart of the spectrographic patterns of French consonants based on acoustic features alone": see Figure3. (Delattre's [f], [3], and [p] correspond to [s], [z], and [ñ] in our transcription.) If we compare the first column depicting all the labial consonants with the second column displaying the corresponding dentals, we clearly see the invariant property of all the labials, as opposed to that of all the dentals : the downward direction of the Superior Formant (i. e. F3 in the consonants) of the labial, grave consonants vs. the upward direction of the same formant in the dental, acute consonants. It is to this difference that the perception of the lower tonality of grave phonemes vs. the higher tonality of acute phonemes proves to be closely tied. In languages in which velar consonants are paired with palatal consonants, all other things being equal - / k / with /t v / and / x / with / s / (e.g. in Czech [see Romportl 1973:104], Slowak [see Pauliny 1961 and Isacenko 1968], and Hungarian [see Tompa 1968]) - the Superior Formant shows the same relation: a downward direction in the grave velars and an upward direction in the acute palatals. The high-frequency components of the consonantal bursts displayed by the acute obstruents contribute to their distinction from the grave obstruents endowed with low-frequency components in their specific bursts. This complementary phenomenon becomes decisive in certain contexts, chiefly when the obstruents are not adjacent to vowels and are thus deprived of perceptible formant transitions to neighboring vowels. Cf. for instance the Czech stops in such usual initial clusters as /tk, tx, tr, tr, pt, px, ps, ps, pr, pr, bd, bz, bz, br, br, kt, kp, ks, ks, kx, kf, kr, kr, db, dz, dr, dr, gd, gb, gz, gz, gr, gr/ and such Czech words as pstruh 'trout' and pstros 'ostrich', both of which can be accompanied by the preposition k

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QUEST FOR THE ULTIMATE CONSTITUENTS

97

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HA ΠΥΤΗ Κ Π03ΤΗΚΕ

445

BHJicH uejibiH ρηλ cjiOBOTBopHecKHx οτκροΒβΗΗΗ BejiHHaHuiero pyccKoro no3Ta Harnero BeKa, B. XneÖHHKOBa (1885—1922), HaBceraa MeHa 3aqapoBaBiiiero, h HaKOHeu yBJieKaTejibHbie nporpaMMbi h fleKJiapauHH "Cnoea KaK TaKOBoro". 3tomy pacuBeTy HOBOH pyccKOH Π033ΗΗ npe¿uuecTB0Baji0 3aMeHaTejibHoe pa3BHTHe HOBOH 5KHBOIIHCH. paHUy3CK0e nOCTHMnpeCCHOHHCTHqeCKoe H3o6pa3HTejibHoe ncKyccTBO η yeeHiaBiuHH ero ^ocTHaceHH« KyÖH3M LUHpOKO npOHHKaJIH Β ÄOBOeHHyiO MocKBy, He TOJibKo β penpo^yKUHHx η nenaTHbix o63opax, ho η β opHrHHajiax, κοTopbie 3aHHJiH cymecTBeHHoe MecTo Ha mockobckhx BbicTaBKax η β HacTHbix KapTHHHbix rajuiepeax. Λ poc cpe^H xyaoacHHKOB, Η HX COCpeflOTOHeHHbie o6cy»ZieHHa OCHOBHblX 3JieMeHTOB 5KHB o n H C H o r o npocTpaHCTBa, ueeTa, hhhchhoh x a p a K T e p H C T H K H h

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446

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447

HA ΠΥΤΗ Κ Π03ΤΗΚΕ

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jieKTHBHoii ueH3ypbi. C x o a c H H a ô j n o a e H H a A j i e K c a H ^ p a IlaBJioB H H a 0 κ 3 φ τ Μ Μ 0 Β 3 ( 1 8 9 0 — 1 9 6 8 ) Haxt a r a m e c K o i i n o 3 3 H e ñ h p a H H H e pa3bicKaHH8

no

THnoJiorHH

HapoflHbix

paccKa30B

aHeKflOTHHec-

κογο xapaKTepa, npo^HCKyTHpoBaHHbie β Mockobckom ληηγβηο-

n o f l C T y n t i κ «DOJibKjiopy

453

THHecKOM Kpyaoce, Kor^a β 1919 ro/iy EorarwpeB nponeji HaM apKHH flOKJiaa o cioaceTHOH ΙΟΜ(ΧΗΦΗΚ3ΙΙΗΙΙ cKa30K H aHeimoTOB o aypaKax. KaaceTca, bo BTopyio KaTeropHio ero cxeMbi nonajiH ^ypaKH, ^ejiaBiiiHe pa3yMHbie BemH, ho β HeypoHHbiH μομθητ: HanpHMep, BCTpenaBuiHe cea/ibóy B03rjiac0M "Be^Haa navurrb", a noxopoHbi noîKejiaHHeM — "HocHTb BaM, He nepeHOCHTb". Β 3TOH CBH3H üOKjia^HHK LuyTJiHBO Ha3Baji EBreHHfl OHerHHa AypaKOM ΒτοροΗ KaTeropHH. Mbi 3aTparHBajiH c BoraTbipeBbiM He TOJibKo HOBbie Bonpocbi HHTepnpeTauHH φoJΊbKJIopa, ho h HOBbie 3aaaHH coÖHpaTejibCTBa. Β hecthocth EoraTbipee, HacTaHBaa Ha Ba)KHOCTH COÔHpaHHH CyeBepHH Β pa3JIHHHbIX ΠροφβΟΟΗΟΗβ^Hbix Kpyrax, HanenaTaJi cboh Ha6jno,qeHHS HaM xapaKTepHbiMH cyeBepHSMH aKTepoB h cnopTCMeHOB, h Bce coÖHpajica 3aHHTbca cyeBepHSMH nporpeccHBHbix ^enyTaTOB nexocjiOBauKoro napjiaMeHTa. HeBbinojiHeHHbiMH ocTanHCb HaiiiH 3aMbic;ibi 06 H3yHeHHH ΟΛΗΟΓΟ H3 HaHÔOJiee yHHBepcajIbHblX H MCHByHHX yCTHblX ^caHpoB, a HMeHHo cnjieTeH h Booôme poccKa3Heö 0 cjibiuiaHHOM h ΒΗΛβΗΗΟΜ. HccTapH TpaaHUHOHHyK) npHpo,oy 3τογο acaHpa HarjiaflHO HJiJiiocTpHpyeT acH3HeHHbiH οπητ H3BecTHoro HevieuKoro φoJIbKJΊopHCτa Ajib6epTa BecejibCKoro (Albert Wesselski, 1871— 1939). Cjibinia β oômecTBe paccica3 τογο hjih ηηογο tocth 0 3aöaBHOM npoHcmecTBHH, KOTopoMy oh, aecKaTb, 6biJi CBH^eTejieM, npHMepHO β npaaccKOM aBTOÔyce HecKOJibKO MMCM TOMy Ha3aa, yneHbiH cnoKOHHO BCTaBJiHJi 3aMenaHHe, hto s t o t α ο κ β τ BnepBbie oÔHapyacHBaeTca β τ3κομ-το naMSTHHKe boctohhoíí apeeHOCTH, flanee MHrpwpyeT Ha 3anaa η npnoGpeTaeT nonyjiapHOCTb β jiaTHHCKHX cpeflHeBeKOBbix TeKCTax... Κ . Π . OTpHaaHHe caMoueHHOCTH pyccKoro φoJ^bKJ^opa h HenoHHMaHHe ero ocoöoro xapaxTepa noKOJieHHeM, OTíiejieHHbiM nOJIOBHHOK) C JIHUIHHM BeKa OT 3ΠΟΧΗ ρ0Μ3ΗΤΗ3Μ3, ΠρΗΒΟΛΗΤ Ha yM KpacHopeHHByK) napajijiejib: KaK "meCTH^ecathhkh" — HaTypajiHCTHHecKH η couHOJioranecKH HacTpoeHHbie JiHTepaTypHbie KpHTHKH uiecTHflecHTbix ΓΟΛΟΒ npouuioro BeKa — He ποηημ3λη coôcTBeHHO poMaHTHHecKOH JiHTepaTypbi. TaK J\. H . ÜHcapee OTpHuaji caMoueHHOCTb Eezenm Onezuna KaK jiHTepaTypHoro mefleBpa. 3aKOH oihhöok β hctophh HayKw!

III. CTHX H 3BYKH PEHH

Κ. Π.

B o n p o c O THnaX CBSBH M e ^ y

Π03ΤΗΗβΟΚΗΜ a3bIK0M Η

φοΗΟΛΟΓΗΗβοκοή τ ε ο ρ Η β ή OKa3biBaeTca Bee ô o j i e e MHororpaHHbiM h MHorojiHKHM. C o o r a e c e H H e no3THiecKoro MaTepHajia, aa

h

MaTepHajia H3o6pá3HTejibHbix HCKyccTB,

c oöujhmm

Bonpo-

CaMH 3HaMeHHH — 3TO npH BC6H βΓΟ BaaCHOCTH TOJIbKO ΟΛΗΗ H3 acneKTOB Been cjioacHOH npoÔJieMbi. H e MeHee cymecTBeH φακτ HarjiaaHOH H e p a p x H i H o c r a , κοτοργιο BCKpbiBaeT n e p e a HaMH caMaa cTpyKTypa cTHxa.

Cthxom

3aHHManHCb

β Pocchh

n3xtaBHa,

H ΗΜΘΗΗΟ Ha 3TOH ΠΟΗΒβ BCerfla B03HHKajIH BOnpOCbl H pa3paHcanHCb cnopbi o npHpcwe caMoro a3biKOBoro MaTepnana. I l p o c o aasi pyccKoro

a3biKa BOJiHOBajia

yace

Tpe^bSKOBCKoro h JIomo-

HOCOBa, 3THX nepBblX ρβφθρΜ3ΤθρθΒ pyCCKOrO CTHXOCJIOKeHHH h KaH0HH3aT0p0B pyccKoro JiHTepaTypHoro »3biKa β X V I I I eeKe. n o c j i e HeyTHxaiomHX AHCKyccHH n p o n u i o r o CTOjieTHa Tpa^HUHH npocoflHHecKHX pa3bicKaHHH nepeKoneBajia κ CHMBOJiHCTaM, oco6eHHo κ ynoMHHaBuieMyca

3^ecb

KaK

tojihok

/yia B a m e n

co6ct-

ΒβΗΗοή paöoTbi A H ü p e i o BejiOMy, κ ο τ ο ρ π ή o b e n a n cjie^yiomHH orpoMHbiH m a r e n e p e a

h h3o6jihhhji oihhôkh β TpaKTOBKe

craxa,

a TaiOKe yKa3aii, η τ ο κροΜβ H^eanbHOH cxeMbi onno3HUHH — MeTpa — cymecTByeT e m e zipyraa, MeHee cneKyjiaTHBHaa h 6ojiee 3MnHpH^ecKaa cxeMa, cxeMa "oTCTynjieHHH" ο τ MeTpa. KaK oica3aJiocb,

h

OHa

β cboio

o n e p e ^ b o6pa3yeT HepapxHio.

Moncho jih

CHHTaTb, HTO Β KaKOH-TO CTeneHH 3ΤΟ ÖbIJIH OCHOBbl /Uia KOHUenUHH ÖHHapH3Ma? Β rHMHâ3HMeCKHe roflbl Bbl 3aHHMaJIHCb HMeHHO TpeflbaKOBCKHM n o cxeMe E e j i o r o . B o Been HepapxHqecKOH

chctêmê CTHxa BaacHyio pojib HrpaioT nepTbi npocoziHohh Toace, KaK Bbi yKa3ajiH β Tpy/ie O neiucKOM cmuxe,

necKHe. H

conocTaBJiaa nemcKHe noKa3aHHa c pyccKHMH, cjiaraioTca β ς τ ρ ο r o ÖHHapHbie onno3HijHH.

Cjie^a 3a pa3BHTHeM ΗβκοτορΗΧ noHaTHH Ha ocHOBaHHH Bahihx paöoT n o nosTHKe, MHe Bcer/ja Ka3ajiocb, hto Hoeeüiuan

CTHX H 3ByKH PEHH

455

(1921) eme TOJibKO ροδκο noflcrynaeT κ BonpocaM φοΗοποΓΗΗ. Ha npoTaaceHHH Been κηηγη npHMeHaiOTca τερMHHbi Tpa^HUHOHHOH φοΗβτΗΚΗ. JlHinb β ο λ η ο μ cjiynae xapaKτερΗΟ CKa3aHO β npHMenaHHH: Έ β Φ ο η η ^ onepHpyeT He co 3ByKäMH, a C φθΗβΜ3ΜΗ...". Ho HâCTORLUHH φΟΗΟϋΟΓΗΗβΟΚΗΗ aHaJIH3 npHineji TOJibKO β KHHre O uemcKOM cmuxe, .neyMa roaaMH ri03>Ke. BepHO JiH noJiaraTb, hto peuiaiomHM φ8ΚΤ0ρ0Μ 3,aecb 6bui caMblH npe^MeT HCCJie^OBaHHa: ΜβΤρΗΗβΟΚΗΗ H npOCOflHHeCKHH coCTaB flByx KOHTpacTHbix cmctcm — neiiicKoro h pyccKoro CTHxa? BHHMaHHe HCCJie^oBaTeitH .hojdkho 6bijio cocpejioTOMHTbca HMeHHO Ha cTporo MepapxHHecKHX, ÔHHapHbix CTpyKTypax, β t o BpeMH KaK β paôoTe o XjieÖHHKOBe β ueHTpe BHHMaHHa CToajio CBoeo6pa3He cbohctb nosTHnecKoro a3biKa XueÖHHKOBa Booöme. Il03T0My β paöoTe o XjieÖHHKOBe Ha nepBOM miaHe napoHOMa3HH h napajinejiH3M, τ. e., no BbipaaceHHio MajieBHHa, "κομποηηpoBaHHe cjioBecHbix Macc".

pyccrna no33UH

P. Ä. Bonpoc 06 OTHOHieHHH MejK^y BHeillHeÖ, 3ByKOBOH CTOPOHOH peMH H ee BHyTpeHHHM njiaHOM — οφεροή 3HaneHHH — KaK yace ynoMHHajiocb, BbicTynan β n03THHecK0M a3biKe oco6eHHO HCHO. 3to 6bijio ο λ η η μ H3 ruaBHbix noöyHcaeHHH, 3aCTabjihbuihx Hac npeo,qojieTb oTpbiB yneHHa o 3ByKax penn ο τ aHaJlH3a 3HaieHHH. ΟτρΜΒ ΤΗΠΗΗΗΗΗ ÜJIÍÍ BCeÄ HaiUeH TOr^aiUHeH yHHBepcHTeTCKOH yneöbi. K o r ^ a β 1919 roziy, pe^aKTHpya BMecTe c XjieÖHHKOBbiM ero, yBbi, β t o BpeMa HeocymecTBJieHHoe Co6paHue coHUHeHuù, a nbiTajica yjiOBHTb jiHHTBHCTHHecKHH acneKT pa3Hoo6pa3Hbix πρΗβΜΟΒ aBTopcKoro cjiOBecHoro HCKyccTBa, TpyziHO 6bmo HaiiTH no3Ta, y KOToporo 3ByKoeaa CTpyKTypa öbiJia η tbopHecKH, h TeopeTHMecKH 6ojiee npoMHO cjiHTa c ceMaHTHHecKHM njiaHOM. 3eyKOBOH aHajiH3 nosTHnecKOH φaκτypbI XneÖHHKOBa 3Baji κ Hcn0Jib30BaHHK) H3biKOBe/iHecKHX ^aHHbix 0 3ByKax penn, a c APyroH ctopohw τ ο HOBoe oceemeHHe, κοτοροβ npno6pejiH 3TH 3ByKH Β OpHrHHajlbHOM TBOpHeCTBe n03Ta, HeBOJIbHO 3aCTaBjiajio 3a^yMaTbca Ha,a π ρ η β μ η η ο η jiHHrBHCTHHecKoñ pacueHKOH 3ByKOBoro MaTepnajia η no^BeprayTb TaKOBOH ocHOBaTejibHoviy nepecMOTpy. TyT B03bMH η πρΗΓθ/XHCb yneHHe Bo^ysHa zie KypτβΗ3 (1845—1929) η ero nyHuiHx yneHHKOB, npoTHBHBiueeca οφκUHajlbHOH ΛΟΚΤρΗΗβ H CyjIHBIIiee HOBbie B03M03KH0CTH, BOnpeKH BCeM CBOHM HeH3»HTbIM ΓφΟΤΗΒΟρβΗΗΗΜ. ΠΟΗβΤΗβ φΟΗβΜΗ, BbiABHHyBmee Hepa3pbiBHyio CB83b Meac^y 3ByKOM h 3HaneHHeM

456

EECEßL·!

Β HHTepnpeTaijHH JIbBa Bjia/iHMHpoBHHa I l i e p ô b i (1880—1944) η EßreHHfl /ÍMHTpHeBHHa IIojiHBaHOBa (1891—1938), nbiTJiHBbix neTepôyprcKHx yneHHKOB BoayaHa, cbirpajio nyTeBO/myio pojib β HarneM H3yneHHH 3ByicoBbix cpe^cTB XjieÔHHKOBa h no3THHeCKoro a3biKa Boo6me. C .apyroH »ce CTopoHW, πρΗΜβΗβΗΗβ s t o t o ΠΟΗΗΤΗΗ Κ n03THHeCK0My aHaJIH3y HeH3Öe»CHO BJieKJIO Κ BHHMaTejIbHOMy nepeCMOTpy H pa3BHTHIO ΤβΟρΗΗ φΟΗβΜ Β MX B3aHMOOTHOnieHHH, nOTOMy HTO, HanOMHHaiO, BCaKOe JIHHrBHCTHHeCKOe nOHHTHC Β paMKaX Π03ΤΗΚΗ CTaBHT HeH36e>KHO Ha nepBblH njiaH ΗΜβΗΗΟ H^eio B3âHMOOTHOIIieHHH. E m e 6 o j i e e 3HaHHTe;ibHbiM iiiaroM Ha n y r a ο τ

πρηβμηηοη

φΟΗβΤΗΚΗ Κ HOBaTOpCKHM OCHOBaM φΟΗΟΠΟΓΗΗ 6bIJIH HeycraHHbie h 5KHBHTe;ibHbie ,qe6aTbi MocKOBCKoro JlHHrBHCTHHecKoro KpyacKa n o BonpocaM CTpyKTypbi CTHxa. Κor/ia β 1920 r o ^ y Henocpe^CTBeHHO n o c j i e s t h x npeHHH a n o n a j i H3 M o c k b m β I l p a r y h yBJieKCH BonpocaMH nemcKoro CTHxa, KaK η ο β ο γ ο , TaK η cpeaΗβΒβΚΟΒΟΓΟ, CpaBHHTejlbHblH ΠΟΛΧΟΛ Κ 5φΚΗΜ CXOflCTBaM η Ηβ MeHee 3HaHHTejibHbiM pacxoac^eHHaM HemcKOH h pyccKOH BepΟΗφΗ^ΙΙΗΗ npHBejI ΜβΗΑ Κ pa3MbIHIJieHHHM Hafl HX CyilJHOCTbK) Η Κ p03bICKy ΚΟρΗβΗ 3THX paCXOHCfleHHH Β 3ByKOBOH, a ΗΜβΗΗΟ npocoflHHecKOH CTpyKType o 6 o h x η3μκοβ. Π ο nyTH h3 M o c k b m nepe3 3 c t o h h k > β I l p a r y , Ha n a p o x o a e

Meacay TajiJiHHOM η

ΙΙΙτετΗΗΟΜ, a BHHTajiCfl β CTHXH 3aMeHaTejibHoro HemcKoro poMaHTHKa, M a x H ( K a r e l H y n e k Mâcha, 1810—1836), h nonpocHJi exaBuiero τ β Μ ace napoxo,aoM nexa npofleKJiaMHpoBaTb MHe 3 t h c t h x h . M e H f l nopa3HJio r j i y 6 o K o e pa3JiHHHe Meac,oy pyccKOH η neincKOH CTpyKTypoñ neTbipexcTonHoro siMÔa h β h s c t h o c t h pa3Hoo6pa3He nemcKHX phtmhmcckhx oTCTynJieHHH ο τ MeTpHneCKOH cxeMbi, β pyccKOM HMÔe 3anpeTHbix. Ά peiiiHJi nopaôoTaTb Haa 3THM BonpocoM cpaBHHTejibHOH ΜβτρπκΗ, h β I l p a r e 3aroBOpHJI 06 3ΤΟΜ C TOrflaiHHHM TJiaBOH yHHBepCHTeTCKOH ^ φ β , Τ φ Μ nemcKoro

JObiica,

CMeTaHKOH

( E m i l Smetánka,

1875—1949).

"EpocbTe s t o iiejio, — OTBenaii MHe ,qo6po,ayiiiHo προφβΰϋορ, — a BaM o6i>hchk> 3 t h OTCTynueHHH. IlpocTO

Harun no3Tbi — Jiozibipn

h jieHHTCH nHcaTb n o npaBHJiaM." 3 τ ο o ô t a c H e H H e ΜβΗΗ pa3BecejiHjio h e m e 6oJibine noôy^HJio 3aHHTbca nocTaBjieHHbiM BonpoCOM, noyHMTejIbHblM H Β JTHHrBHCTHHCCKOM, H Β JIHTepaTypHOM pa3pe3e. TaKOB 6biJi nepBbiñ HMnyjibc κ noaroTOBKe ΜΟβή κ η η γ η O ueiucKOM cmuxe, npeiwyufecmeeHHO

β conocmaeneHuu

c pyccKUM

(1923). BblHCHHJiaCb CBH3b npOTHBOnOCTaBJieHHS CHJIbHblX H CJia-

CTHX H 3 BYK H PEHH

457

6 b i x BpeMeH c r a x a c « η κ ο β μ μ η n p e ^ n o c b i J i K a M H η He M e H e e

BaacHaa

CBH3L· pHTMHMecKOH

φρ83ΗροΒΚΗ

craxa

c pacnpe,aejie-

H H 6 M CJIOBOpa3/iejIOB H CHHTaKCHHeCKHX rpaHHIJ, HaKOHeU pOJIb pHTMHHecKHx B a p H a u H H , KOTopyio H r p a i o T , H a n p H M e p , β neiii-

CKOM CTHXOCJIOÄeHHH TaKHC 3HaHHMbie SJieMeHTbl, KaK npOTHBOnOCTâBJieHH6 Λ Ο Π Γ Η Χ H KpaTKHX TJiaCHblX, — BCe 3TO 3aCTaBJWJIO npHCTynHTb Κ nJiaHOMepHOH paÖOTe Ha,Q CHCTeMaTHKOH 3ByKOBbix 3H6MeHTOB pe™. Ά nbiTanca pa3paÖ0TaTb stot njiaH πολ yrjiOM 3peHHH 3aaan, BbinojmaeMbix b c c m h 3jieMeHTaMH β a3biKe. TaK B03HHKJia Hflea ΗβοβχΟΛΗΜΟΟΤΗ HayHHOH TpaKTOBKH 3ByKOB penn c yieTOM Bonpoca o cooTHOixieHHH Meac^y 3ByxoM η 3Η3ΗβΗΗ6Μ. H h W M H CJlOBaMH, HaMeHajiaCb HOBaa JIHHrBHCTHHecKaa flHcunnjiHHa, Ha KOTopyio β ηηληηηοη HaynHOH jiHTepaType mo»cho 6biJio 6bi cbicKaTb TOJibKO HHflHBHflyajibHbie npe^BapHTejibHbie HaMeKH. Bnepßbie β Moeñ Ha3BaHHOH KHHre o nemcKOM CTHxe MHe npeflCTaBHJiocb yMecTHbiM B0cn0Jib30BaTbca tcpmh-

HOM "φΟΗΟϋΟΓΗΗ", ΓφΗ BCeH MH0r03HaMH0CTH βΓΟ ΠρΗΜβΗβΗΗΗ β CTapmeíi HayHHoñ JiHTepaType.

KaKHMH nyTHMH iHJio aajibHeHiuee pa3BHTHe Φ ο η ο λ ο γ η necKOH T e o p H H ? BbiJio j i h o h o Bce TaK »ce TecHO CB»3aHo c H3yΗβΗΗβΜ n o 3 T H H e c K o r o H3biKa? K a K H e / i p y r n e a3biKOBbie h b j i c h h h cbirpajiH 3 ^ e c b p o j i b yaoÖHoro, t . e . HarjiHjjHoro h noaaTJiHBoro

Κ. Π.

M a T e p H a j i a a n a npHJioHceHHH h pa3BHTH» 3 t o h T e o p H H ? K a K Bbi-

pa6aTbiBajica Ma?

Ha SMnnpHHecKOM M a T e p n a j i e π ρ η η η η π ÔHHapH3-

Ρ. Ά. Te pa3HHHHH yziapHOCTH—6e3yziapHOCTn η λ ο λ γ ο τ μ — KpaTKOCTH, KOTOpbIMH MHe npHIIIJIOCb 3âHHTbCH BnJIOTHyiO, HCcjieaya MemcKHH c t h x n o cpaBHeHHio c pyccKHM, s b h o β μ λ β η HyjiH Ha nepBbiH ruiaH myneHHe napHbix npoTHBonocTaBjieHHH, Bblfle/IHIOmHX, C Ο Λ Η Ο Η CTOpOHbl, CaMOe CBOHCTBO ΠΡΟΤΗΒΟΠΟ-

CTaBJieHHH, HanpHMep KanecTBO rjiacHoro, a c apyroH CTopoHbi — B3aHMHo npoTHBonojioacHbie npoHBJieHHa TaKoro oTHomeHHa, b

aaHHOM cnyMae ¿tojiroTy h KpaTKOCTb ruacHbix. M a n o τογο, aHaJ1H3 3THX OTHOineHHH 3acTaBJi8Ji aöcTparnpoBaTb napHoe προτκBOnOCTaBJieHHe ΛΟΙΙΓΟΤΜ h KpaTKOCTH OT OT^ejIbHblX rjiaCHblX, no^BepraBHiHxca AaHHOMy npoTHBonocTaeneHHio. TaKHM o6pa30M B03HHKaJia, C ΟΛΗΟΗ CTOpOHbl, H/ieH KâHeCTBeHHO pa3^eJIbHbix rjiacHbix, HanpHMep noHarae a β OTpbiBe οτ KOJiH^ecTBeH-

EECEßbl

458

Horo npoTHBonocTaBJieHHH, c a p y r o H « e CTopoHbi H ^ e a aöcTpaKTHoro KOJiHHecTBeHHoro OTHOiueHHH M e x i i y neyMa

nomocaMH

iUiHTejibHOCTH, τ. e. /ΙΟ/ΙΓΟΤΟΗ η KpaTKOCTbK). C npocoflHHecKHX CBOHCTB, r a e BO3MOÄHOCTL· H HEOÖXO^HMOCTb TaKoro aHajiH3a Qbma. ocoôeHHO OTiCTjiHBa h HacToaTejibHa, Hccjie^OBaTejibCKoe BHHMaHHe HeH3Öe>KHo nepexo^HJio Ha n p o n n e cepHH 3ByKOBbix nap, aonycKaiomHx n o a o Ô H o e ztejieHHe, KaK, HanpHMep, pa3JinHHe 3BOHKOCTH H r n y x o c r a , xapaKTeproyiomee TaKHe napbi corjiacHbix, KaK (d)-(t),

(z)-(s),

(b)-(p),

( v ) - ( f ) η τ . λ . , πρΗΗβΜ

OTHeTUHBO npOflBJianaCb Β a3bIKOBOH CHCTeMC Η Β 5J3MKOBOM MbiuiJieHHH OTHOCMTejibHaa caMOCToaTejibHOCTb TaKux

conpa-

aceHHblX CBOHCTB, KaK 3BOHKOCTb H TJiyXOCTb, a C apyrOH CTOpOHbl — OTflejIbHblX e^HHHII KOHCOHaHTH3Ma (d/t, Η Τ. Π.), 6e3OTHOCHTCJibHO κ pa3flBaHBaiomeMy HX ynacTHio H OTcyTCTBHK» rojioca. 3 T H c o o 6 p a » e H H a npHBCUH MeHa Ha CKjioHe aßa/iuaTbix r o ΛΟΒ Β MoeH paöoTe Hau ΦΟΗΟΛΟΓΗΜΟΟΚΟΗ 3B0Jii0UHeH pyccKoro Η ^PyrHX CJiaBaHCKHX a3bIKOB Κ npH3HaHHK) o c o ö o r o THna φ ο HOJIOrHHeCKHX ΟΤΗΟΙΗβΗΗΗ, flJia ΚΟΤΟρΟΓΟ a

B0Cn0JIb30BaJICa

JIOrHHeCKHM TepMHHOM KOppeAMfUU. 3 Τ 0 nOHaTHe OKa3ajIOCb n n o ZIOTBopHbiM Η ÄJia onHcaHHa 3ByKOBbix CHCTeM, H ¿yia o ö t a c H e HHH HX HCTOpHHCCKHX Η3ΜβΗ6ΗΗΗ. H a pa3ÖOpe TaKHX KOppejiaIJHH OCHOBaH npeflJIOaceHHblH MHOK) nepBblH OnbIT HCTOpHqeCKOH

φθΗθϋθΓΗΗ — Remarques sur l'évolution phonologique parée

à celle des autres langues

poii TOM Tpydoe IIpajtccKoeo

de russe com-

slaves. 3 T a KHHra cocTaBHjia BTO-

JlmzeucmmecKozo

Kpyotcm,

Bbimea-

IIIHH ΟΛΗΟΒρβΜβΗΗΟ C nepBbIM TOMOM, KOJIJieKTHBHblM CÔOpHHKOM CTaTCH Ha TeMbI φΟΗΟ,ΓΙΟΓΗΗβΟΚΗΧ H apyrHX BOnpOCOB 83bIK0BOH CTpyKTypbi. Β Hanajie HauiHx 3aHaTHH 3ByKOBbiMH aBJieHHaMH peMH ΠΟΛ yrjioM 3peHHa HX 3HaHHMbix φyHK^HH Mbi ONPE/IEJIAJIH φoHeMy KaK MHHHMaJIbHblH 3JieMeHT a3bIKa, CnOCOÔHblH CJiyXHTb pa3JIHΗβΗΗΚ» cjioBecHbix 3HaHeHHH; Ha Tor^aiiiHeM 3Tane JIKHTBHCTHKH φθΗεΜ3 BocnpHHHMajiacb KaK CBoero p o ^ a He^ejiHMbiH aTOM. Me>K/iy τβΜ yacHeHHe ΦΟΗΟΙΙΟΓΗΗΒΟΚΗΧ KoppejiauHH yace H e r o ÔOKHO cTaBHjio ΠΟΛ COMHCHHÊ HeaejiHMocTb. HanpHMep, pyccKaa φθΗεΜ3 ( b ) nozmaeTca pa3Jio)KeHHK) Ha 0T,gejibHbie cnoBopa3JiHHHTe^bHbie CBOHCTBa — 3BOHKOCTb Β npOTHBOBeC rJiyXOCTH Β CHJiy nponopuHH ( b ) : ( p ) = ( d ) : ( t ) ; CMMMHOCTL· ripoTHBonocTaBjiaeTca φρΗΚ3ΤΗΒΗΟΟΤΗ BBH/iy ΠρΟΠΟρίΧΜΗ ( b ) : ( v )

= (p):(í).

HaKOHeií,

CTHX H 3BYKH PEHH

459

OTcyTCTBHe Ha3ajibH0CTH β φοΗεΜβ (b) oco3HaeTca κεκ TaKoeoe β CHjiy nponopuHH (b):(m) = (d):(n). HeBOJibHO HanpauiHBajiocb onpe^eneHHe Φ ο η θ μ μ KaK ny^Ka pa3JIHHHTeJIbHbIX CBOHCTB, H TaKHM 06pa30M HCXOflHOe nOHHTHe φ ο Η β Μ Η ycTynajio MecTO npocTeöuiHM CMbic^opa3xiHHHTeiibHbiM e^HHHUaM, TaKHM KaK 3BOHKOCTb, CMbIHHOCTb Η Τ. Π., Η ΗΜβΗΗΟ 3TOMy 3aKJHOH6HHK) Η CJie^OBajI Β CBOHX OnpeaejieHHHX φ θ Η 6 Μ Μ c caMoro Hanana TpnzmaTbix γολοβ. O o H e M a coxpaHHJia, pa3yMeeTca, cboio 3HannMOCTb, ho h3 πθρβηηηοη ezmHHUbi npeepamajiacb β npoH3Bo^Hyio, τ. e. coHeTamie o^HOBpeMeHHbix 3JieΜβΗΤΟΒ, TaK ace KaK cjror cjiyacHJi προη3βοληοη e^HHHueñ bo BpeMeHHÓH IlOCJlCilOBaTCJTbHOCTH 3ByKOB peHH. ΒπρΟΗβΜ, Β flaHH O M cjiynae HOBoe TeoperanecKoe onpe^eneHwe φ ο Η ε Μ Η onepeacano HacTo$rrejibHo TpeöyeMbie 3MnHpHHecKne noKa3aHHa. Ecjih TpyôeuKOH β I TOMe Tpydoe Πραοκοκοζο JlumeucmmeCK020 KpyMCKCL 6jIH3HJIC5I Κ pa3JIO>KeHHK) rJiaCHblX φ Ο Η β Μ Ha CMbicnopa3JiHHHTejibHbie cocTaBHbie 3JieMeHTbi, το aHajiH3 corjiacHbix λολγο ocTaeanca no3aan.

IV. POJIL· C O r j I A C H b l X Β Ο Τ Κ Ρ Μ Τ Η Η «DOHOJIOrHHECKHX 0 Π Π 0 3 Η Ι Ζ Η Η

Κ. Π. BcKpbiTHe BonpocoB ΦΟΗΟΛΟΓΗΗ Hananocb c BOKajiH3Ma, HTO MOMCeT 6bITb CHOBa nOCTaBJieHO Β CB5I3L· C TOH OCHOBOIIOJIOHCHOH pojibK), KOTopyK) ΗΜΒΗΗΟ macHbie BbinojmaioT Β CTHxe. TpyôeuKOH Toace, Kaie acHO cjieziyeT h3 e r o nepenncKH c BaMH, ΗΜβΗΗΟ C BOKajIH3Ma HAIHHACT CBOH HAÔJHO^eHHH Haa CHMMeτρΗβή 3ByKOB. Kor/ia H KaK HaqajiHCb Barnn po3bicKH Β oÔJiacTH φΟΗΟΠΟΓΗΗ KOHCOHaHTH3Ma? 3 Τ 0 ΤβΜ ÖOJiee HHTepeCHO, ΗΤΟ 3flecb HanpaiiiHBaeTCfl napajijieiib c onpe^ejieHHbiMH npoueccaMH Β NPAKTHKÊ H TeopHH caMHx xyaoacHHKOB cjiOBa. H Β POCCHH, Η Ha 3ana,ae Bonpoc o pojiH corjiacHbix 6biJi BnepBbie Bbi^BHHyT ABAHRAPFLHBIMH NOSTAMH, Β TO BP e MS KAK AAACE CHMBOJIHCTM Bee EME HHTEPECOBAJIHCB ΠΟΗΤΗ HCKJIIOHHTEJIBHO ΒΟΚ3ΙΙΗ3ΜΟΜ. ECJIH paHbiue ApTyp PeMÖo (Arthur Rimbaud, 1854—1891) rmcaji CBOK) o^y BO cjiaßy macHbix, τ ο pyccKHH aBaHrapflHbrà no3T-3KcnepnMeHTaTop, ^aBHfl BypjiiOK (1882—1967), COHHHHJI CTHXH, "repoeM" KOTopbix OKa3ajica "cornacHbiH 3ByK, ropamHH Myxc". BnaΛΗΜΗρ MaaKOBCKHH peKOMeH^OBaji npn6eraTb Β CTHxax κ caMbiM "acecTKHM" corjiacHbiM H3 cocTaea pyccKOH 3ByKOBOH CHCTeMbi. I I p 0 B 0 3 r n a m e H H e KOHCOHAHTH3MA OCHOBHHM MATEPWAJIOM n o 3 -

3HH Ka3aJIOCb ΟΛΗΗΜ H3 Λβρ3ΗΟΒβΗΗεΗΙΠΗΧ Te3HCOB HHTaTeJIHM aeaHrapaHbix MaHi^ecTOB. JIioôonbiTHO, HTO BaiiiH lOHomecKHe CTHXH nOCTpoeHbl Ha ΛΗΚΟΒΗΗΗΗΧ COHeTaHHHX corjiacHbix. BHOTMO, K0HC0HaHTH3M cTaBHT Taxace H Hccjie,aoBaTejiH nepefl HeπβΓκοή npoÖJieMOH. H e ΟΤΤΟΓΟ nu, HTO KOHCOHaHTH3M cocTaBJiaeT Β H3biKe öojiee "cKpbrryio" CHCTeMy n o cpaBHeHHio c BOK3JIH3MOM, H cjioroBaa φaκτypa Bbi^BHraeT rjiacHbie Ha nepBbiH njiaH? XoTeJIOCb 6bl 3HaTb, eCTb JIN Zina 3THX HBJieHHH Β pa3BHTHH φΟΗΟϋΟΓΗΗ Η Β P33BHTHH Π033ΗΗ napaJIJiejIH Β HCTOPHH a p y r n x AHCUHIUIHH, HanpHMep aKycTHKH HJIH ΠΟΗΧΟΠΟΓΗΗ BOC-

npHSTHa?

OTKPblTHE ΦΟΗΟΛΟΓΗΗΕΟΚΗΧ OIIITO3HUHH Ρ . Η.

461

HaH&nbHbIM TOJIHKOM nOCJiyaCHJIH MHe CHOBa Bonpocbi

Π03ΤΗΚΗ. Yace Β MoeH paôoTe o XjieÔHHKOBe 0Ka3aji0Cb HeoöxoflHMblM OTMCTHTb, HTO ΑΠΗ ρΗφΜΜ Β HOBOH pyCCKOH Π033ΗΗ "COrjiacHbie

6ojiee

BajieHTHbi, neM macHbie", η HTO "STO Booöme

MepTa COBpeMCHHOH 3ΒφθΗΗΚΗ". Β npOTHBOnOJTO^CHOCTb BeKy, peKOMeH^OBaBiiieMy

ΧΟΛΟΒΟΗ scTeTMce pyccKoro

XIX CTHxa

H36eraTb "He6jiaro3ByHHoro" cKonneHwa comacHbix, Mbi nojiio6HJIH ΗΜβΗΗο 3TH noBTopHbie xuepoxoBaTbie cuenjieHHa, Η a aoHbiHe ΠΟΜΗΚ), KaK MHe npHxoziHJiHCb n o ziyuie CTPOKH ocyKÄaBiiierocH 3a HeyKnioacecTb Tpe^baKOBCKoro, HanpHMep β ero "Ozie BeuiHeMy Tenjiy" cTpoica "B XBpacTHHHbix cKyTaBiuHCb KycTáx". K o r ^ a yTOHMeHHbiH HCLUCKHH ΠΟ3Τ η npoHHuaTejibHbiH CTHxoBe/i ^ p o c j i a B ,Hypnx (Jaroslav D u r y c h , 1 8 8 6 - 1 9 6 2 ) 0ny6jiHK0Baji pa36op neincKOH BepcHH Moeñ ΚΗΗΓΗ n o nemcKOMy CTHxy, Meac^y HEMH 3aBa3ajiacb nepenHCKa no BonpocaM MemcKOH no3THKH. Β nncbMe 5-ro Maa 1926 r o a a ^ p o c j i a e /JypHx oaazianHji ΜβΗΗ BOnpOCOM, m é

M03KH0 HaHTH Β φΟΗεΤΗΗβΟΚΟΗ JlHTepaType

HayHHyio CHCTCMâTHKy corjiacHbix. O rjiacHbix, n o ero cjioBaM, OH CbicKaji HAFLJIOKAMNE noKa3aHHa, Tor^a KaK corjiacHbie ΟΠΗcaHbi H pacnpeaejieHbi HHCTO MexaHHHecKH. IjHTHpyK) ΛΟΟΠΟΒΗΟ: " X O T H , cornacHO ΦΗ3ΗΟ;ΙΟΓΗΗ, cornacHbie noflpa3^ejiflK>Tca Ha

Ρaa

rpynn, OOTaKo

ansi

ΠΟ3ΤΗΚΗ BCH 3Ta rpynnnpoBKa jiHuieHa

3HaHeHHa." EyjiyHH yeepeH, HTO corjiacHbie "cocTaB/iaioT CBoero pofla iiiKany", n o s T .aoÔHB&nca φΗ3ΗΗβοκΗΧ aaHHbix "o TeM6pe, n p H c y m e M Ka^cflOMy H3 comacHbix, He3aBHCHM0 ο τ e r o nojioACEHHA". M H E npHixiJiocb oTBeraTb, HTO, CO6CTB6HHO roBopa, paUHOHajibHOH

comacHbix, κ coacajieHHio, e m e He

cymecTByeT. Ά He paccTaeajica c nHCbMOM ZiypHxa, Η nocTaBJieHHbiH HM B o n p o c Ha roflbi onpeaejiHJi o^Hy H3 OCHOBHMX τ β Μ MOHX pa3MbIUIJieHHH H pa3bICKaHHH.

roTOBacb κ φοΗοποΓΗΗβοκοή κοΗφβρβΗΐχΗΗ, C03BaHH0H ripa»CCKHM JlHHrBHCTHHeCKHM KpyXCKOM Ha fleKa6pb Toro 7KQ ro.ua, a npHineji κ y6e>K,aeHHK> o BHyTpeHHeñ aHanoran JleTOM 1930 roxia,

MEAC^Y CHCTeMaTHKOH rjiacHbix H comacHbix Η o HCO6XO/IHMOCTH

nocjie^OBaTejibHoro BCKpbiTHa CTpyKTypHbix CXOÜCTB H pa3JiHHHH Meacfly 3THMH HByMH OCHOBHblMH KJiaCCaMH φΟΗβΜ. ΟκβΠΤΗnecKaa OTnoee^b T p y ö e i j K o r o β ero nwcbMe 17-ro a e r y c r a (1930 r.) He n0K0Jie6ajia Moeñ Bepbi Β onepeaHbie 3a/iaHH cpaBHHTejibHoro

rjiacHbix Η corjiacHbix. HecMOTpa Ha ΤΟ, HTO ΦΗ3ΗΟΛΟΓΗΒ 3ByKOB penn 6bma

aHaJiH3a

Β ΤΟ

462

BECE^BL

BpcMH pa3pa6oTaHa HecpaBHeHHO noapoÖHee, qeM CTopoHa aicyCTHHecKaa, MHE cbi3Hanajia 6biJio acHo, HTO HMSHHO c/iyxoeaa CTOpoHa cjiyacHT ijejibio Hamen apTHKyjiaijHOHHOH .qeaTejibHOCTH h HTO aKycTHMecKan K J i a c c i ^ H K a u H a 3ByKOB p e n n , a β nacTHOCTH

corjiacHbix, flOJiacHa H MoaceT ^aTb 6ojiee OTHeTUHBbiH οτΒβτ Ha 3ajiaHHbiH XlypHXOM Bonpoc. OcoôeHHO ansi HHTepnpeTauHH CTHxa KaK pa3 cjiyxoBOH MOMCHT HrpaeT pemaiomyio pojih. OCHOBHbiM KpHTepweM zuiH o n p e ^ e j i e H H a c o r j i a c H b i x CHHTanocb MecTO apTHKy jiaiiHH. Β yneÖHHKax p n c o B a n a c b xuiHHHaa i i i e p e H r a OTjiHMHTejibHbix TOH6K, Ha^HHaa ο τ ÔHJiaÔHanbHbix, JiaÖHO-iieHTajibHbix, anHKajibHbix c o r j i a c H b i x , Η ΛΟ najiaTajibHbix, e e j i a p H b i x , 3a/iHeBejiapHbtx, φapHHΓaJIbHbIX H jiapHHrajibHbix. B3aHMOOTHOuieHHe Bcex STHX apTHKynauHOHHbix p a ^ o B o c T a e a j i o c b c o B e p m e H H O HeacHbiM: KaKOBbi Te nepBHHHbie CBOHCTBa, KOTopbie jieacaT Β ocHoee Bcex 3THX MHOrOHHCJieHHblX PA3JIHHHH? Β ΗΒΜ COCTOHT 3TH o6lIJHe CBOHCTBa, n o 3 B O J i a i o m H e Β n p o u e c c e p e n e e o r o o ö m e H H a

6bi-

CTPO yjIOBHTb Η 6e30LUH60MH0 OTJIHHHTb KaXC/IblH H3 ΜΗΟΓΟΗΗcjieHHbix c o r j i a c H b i x 3ByKOB? A B e ^ b HMCHHO 3TH o ö i a w e CBOHCTBa n03B0JiajiH wrpaTb corjiacHbiM p e m a r o i n y i o p o j i b Β (Jjaiaype CTHXOB. Π ο MecTy apTHKyjiaijHH J i a 6 n a n b H b i e Η BejiapHbie c o rjiacHbie OKa3biBajiHCb ziajieKO OTCTOHIUHMH ,qpyr ο τ a p y r a , a Meac^y ΤΒΜ HCTopH^ecKaa ΦΟΗΒΤΗΜ noica3biBajia, MTO 3 t h ÄBa THna c o r j i a c H b i x jierKO n e p e x o / i a T xipyr Β zipyra Β pa3jiHHHbix a3biKax. HeincKHÎi φ ο Η ε τ κ κ , Φ Ρ Η Η Τ 3 , He Haxo.ua

o6i>acHeHHa

3T0My φ a κ τ y , n o n y n i y T a HanHcan: "KpaÜHOcTH conpHKacaioTca". ECJIH MM n o c j i e / i y e M öyKBajibHOMy 3HaneHHK) 3ΤΟΓΟ a φ o p H 3 M a , τ ο H a ^ o 6 y ^ e T n p e c j i o e y T y i o JIHHHIO OT n e p e ^ H M X ΛΟ aa/IHHX c o r j i a c H b i x c e e p H y T b Β Kpyr. H a n p H M e p , JIHHHH OCHOBHMX π ε τ ω p e x HemcKHX c o r j i a c H b i x (jiaÔHajibHoe ρ, ^ e H T a j i b H o e t, najiaTajibH o e t\ B e j i a p H o e k) n p e e p a m a e T c a Β CHCTeMy: Ρ k

(t' -

t t'

ycjiOBHoe neiiJCKoe o6o3HaMeHHe m y x o H

pa3H0BHüH0CTH

n a j i a T a j i b H o r o ΟΜΜΗΗΟΓΟ). T o r ^ a HeH3Öe»cH0 B03HHKaeT B o n p o c , B o - n e p e b i x — KaKoe aicycTHHECKOE CBOHCTBO O6I>EFLHHAET ρ H t π ρ ο τ Η Β ku t\ a BO-BTOPHX— KAKOE CBOHCTBO OÒTEZUIHAET ρ H k ΠΡΟΤΗΒ tut'.

Β NCHXOAKYCTHME-

O T K P b I T H E

Η

Harneo

ceöe

cyme-

CTBeHHyK) n o z m e p a c K y Β 3ByKOBOM a H a j i H 3 e Π Ο 3 3 Η Η , Β c e ö e B P E M A HCnpOÔOBaHHOM 3HâMeHHTbIM φ ρ 3 Η Ι ^ 3 ϋ Κ Η Μ φΟΗβΤΗΚΟΜ H CTHx o B e a o M MopHCOM TpaMOHOM ( M a u r i c e G r a m m o n t , XOTH

BOCnpHSTHe

xoaKycTHHCCKHM

1866—1946).

3 B y K O B HBJTHeTCH Β I i e p B y i O O H e p e i l b

Φ&ΚΤΟΜ, HeoüHOKpaTHO

pa3/iaBajiHCb

nCH-

O6BHHC-

H H H Β Cy6T>eKTHBH3Me, T p e Ö y i O m e M 06τ>βΚΤΗΒΗ0Γ0 O Ö O C H O B a H H S . Meacziy

τβΜ φΗ3ϋκο-3κγ0ΤΗΗ60ΚΗΗ

MOKflyBoeHHyK)

snoxy

flaeaji

Β

aHajiH3 3ByKOB p e n n yace

ocHoee

β

yflOBjieTBopHTejibHbie

OTBeTbi Ha B o n p o c b i o c o c T a B e r j i a c H b i x , 3 H a H H T e j i b H o o T C T a e a a Β H c c j i e f l O B a H H H c o r j i a c H b i x . T E M H e M e H e e H3 Φ Η 3 Η Η Θ Ο Κ Η Χ o n b i TOB

Toro

B p e M e H H y a c e M O Ä H O 6 b i J i o H3BJieMb p y K O B O , a a m H e c e e -

β β Η Η a ο φΗ3ΗΗβΟΚΟΗ Π ρ Η ρ Ο Λ β OCHOBHblX

ΖΙΗφφερ6ΗΙΙΗ&7ΉΗΜΧ

CBOHCTB KOHCOHâHTHOH CHCTeMbl. M a j I O ΤΟΓΟ, ρ β Η Τ Γ β Η Ο ϋ Ο Γ Η Η ε CKHe CHHMKH npOH3HOCHMbIX 3ByKOB Η OCHOBaHHbie Ha HHX H3M e p e H H a z t a e a j i H B03M0acH0CTb o n e p r a T b Β OÖIIJHX JIHHHHX M O T o p H b i e n p e ^ n o c b i j i K H a K y c T H q e c K H X pa3JinHHH, HaHÔoJiee x a p a i c TepHbix Β

fljia

CHCTeMbi c o r n a c H b i x .

upaMaTHHecKOH 06cTaH0BKe

3 7 - r o Η 38-ΓΟ Γ Ο Λ Ο Β ,

npe^Be-

m a B U i e H 6 j l H 3 0 C T b pOKOBblX COÖblTHH, MblCJlb HeBOJIbHO OTBJieKajiacb

OT

noöoHHbix aKa^eMHHecKHX τβΜ

Ha B o n p o c a x

H

cocpe/ioTOHHBajiacb

H a H Ö o j i b m e ö , KaK MHe n p e a c T a B J i a j i o c b ,

HayHHoii

3HaHHMOCTH H CpOHHOCTH. ' Ή 3 Μ OCTaJIOCb COBCeM Η Β Μ Η Ο Γ Ο B p e MeHH Ä H H 6 e c n p e n a T C T B e H H O H HayHHOH p a 6 o T b i " , — r o B o p n n MHe MOH z i p y r

Πετρ

HHKOJiaeBHH

CSBHLIKHH

(1895—1968),

nHOHep

C T p y K T y p H o í í Γ e o Γ p a φ H H . ü o ö b i B a B Ha n o p o r e 3 8 - r o r o ^ a Β B e H e y T p y ô e u K o r o , c o c p e ^ o T o n e H H O p a ö o T a e i i i e r o H a a CBoen ΚΗΗΓΟΗ o 6 OCHOBAX φοΗοποΓΗΗ

(Grundzüge der Phonologie),

a OTHCTJIUBO

o c o 3 H a j i , HTo H ^ e a φ ο Η Ο ί ΐ Ο Γ Η Η ε ο κ ο ή CHCTeMbi npozioxi)KaeT r p e UIHTb 3JTOnOJiyHHOH φ ρ 3 Γ Μ ε Η Τ 3 ρ Η 0 σ ΐ ^ Κ > , n O K a n o n o a c e H H b i ñ

Β

e e o c H O B y n p H H U H n a B y n j i e H H b i x o n n o 3 H U H H He π ρ ο Β β , Α Β Η ,αο KOHua. M o a c e T 6 b i T b , Β M o e n acH3HH He 6 b i n o T a i c o r o J i H x o p a a o H H o r o H a n j i b i B a H O B M X H C K 3 H H H H M b i c j i e ö , KaK Β H a n a j i e

38-ro

r o z i a , K o r ^ a MHe, a y M a j i H z i y M a i o , y a a j i o c b z i o B e c r a zio KOHua pa3JioaceHHe c o m a c H b i x Ha o c H O B H b i e o n n o 3 H U H H . 3 T H c n a c T j i H Bbie H a x o ß K H H O T K p b i B â B i H H e c a , KaK a n o j i a r a n , φ ο Η ο η ο Γ Η π ε ο κ κ ε H o6mejiHHrBHCTHHecKHe nepcneKTHBbi —

Bce 3To

rroôyacaajio

MeHa HeMe/uieHHo o ô c y z u f T b Ha3peBuiHe B o n p o c b i c T p y ô e u K H M , H a

cHOBa H a r p a H y n

κ HeMy Β cepe^HHe

ΦΒΒΡ3ΛΒ

38-ro

rozia.

464

BECERI

M b l JXB3. Π,ΗΚ B3B0JIH0BaHH0 OÔCyîKflajIH B03M0)KH0CTb

ΗΟΒΟΓΟ

nOflXOfla Κ COrjiaCHblM Η κ BOnpOCaM φΟΗΟΙΙΟΓΗΗβϋΚΗΧ 0ΠΠ03Ηijhh Booôme. HacTbK) npHHHMaa, nacTbio ynopHo ocnapneaa moh cooôpaaceHHa, Tpy6euKoö BbiHec 3aKjiioH6HHe, ητο λ ο oKOHHaHHa CB06H κηηγη oh y>Ke He MoaceT nepecMaTpHBaTb ee ochobHbie n p o 6 j r e M b i η β nacTHOCTH n p H H a T y i o β η θ η K j i a c c t ^ H K a i j H i o ΜΟΚ,Σ^φΟΗβΜΗΜΧ OTHOIII6HHH, Η OH npe^JIOaCHJl ΜΗβ nOCJie Bbl-

xofla ero κηηγη BbiCTynHTb c otbcthmmh Te3HcaMH. HarpaHyBiime coöbiraa hhluhjth Hac bo3mo>khocth hoboh BCTpeiH η aceCTOKO npH6jiH3HJiH CMepTb TpyGeuicoro (18 HioHa 1938 ro^a). Κ. Π .

KaK cjiOÄHnacb pa6oTa nocjie κ ο η η η η μ

TpyôeuKoro?

K a K 3Ta CMepTb OTpa3Hjiacb Ha c r a n e B a m n x HaynHbix HCKaHHH, n o Tex n o p hbho

OTajiora^ecKHx,

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OTCKyc-

cHOHHbiH xapaKTep BceM HOBbiM n p o ö n e M a M h 3a/iaMaM?

P. Ά .

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HeTHHecKHX HayK β ΓβΗτβ a nponeji aoKJia/i "Observation sur le classement

phonologique

des consonnes",

noabiTOHCHBaBiiiHH

pe3yjibTaTbi mohx ToraauiHHX pa3bicKaHHH. Β το BpeMa MHe CTajio ocoôeHHo acHo, hto 3aKOHHHJica nepBbiH 3Tan β nocTaHOBKe h pa3BHTHH φΟΗΟπΟΓΗΗβϋΚΗΧ BOnpOCOB. Y > K e M05KH0 6bIJIO Β φ ο ρ -

Me npeaBapHTejibHbix HaôpocKoe π ρ η η τ η κ BbiBoaaM o cTpyicType CHCTeMbi 3ByKOB pein. ÜBCTBeHHO oÔHapyacHJiocb, hto Bce MHoroo6pa3He φοΗβΜ β 6ecHHCJieHHbix a3biKax MHpa pa3JiaraeTca co CTporoH nocjieflOBaTenbHOCTbK) Ha orpaHHHeHHoe, HHCJio ,αΗφφβρβΗΐΐΗβι^ΗΜχ

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apTHKyjiaTopHbiMH npeanocbiJiKaMH, — npHoôpeTano, mar 3a iiiaroM, Bce 6ojiee προστοή h acHbiH οτΒβτ. OKa3ajiocb, ητο β motophom njiaHe οτηκ)/η> He Mecrá apTHKyjiauHH caMH no ce6e, a 6ojiee CHHTeTHiecKHe npoaeneHHa aeaTejibHOCTH peneBoro

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nepBeH-

CTByiomyio pojib η nojxaaiOTca Bce 6o;iee TOHHOMy yqeTy. BcraBaji p a a HOBbix, φyHz^aMeHτaJlbHbIX 3a/iaH. Ha,ao 6biJio c öoJibiueH

ΟΤΚΡΜΤΗΕ ΦΟΗΟΛΟΓΗΗΕΟΚΗΧ 0 Π Π 0 3 Η Ι ( Η Η

465

HeTKOCTbK) yCTâHOBHTb C ΟΛΗΟΗ CTOpOHbl MOTOpHyK) nOflOnJieKy, C ΛΡΥΓΟΗ

ΦΗ3ΗΚΟ- H nCHXO-aKyCTHHeCKHe OCOÔeHHOCTH Λ Η φ -

φερβΗυΗΗΛΙιΗΜΧ 3ΫΒΜΒΗΤΟΒ. A Π Ή Β Η Ο Β , TIIjaTejIbHOH p a 3 p a 6 o T KH T p e ô o B a j i o y n e m i e Ο Β3&ΗΜΟΟΤΗΟΧΙΙ6ΗΗΗΧ B c e x 3THX suetvieHTOB H HX JIHHrBHCTHHeCKOH 3HaHHMOCTH. T e HCXOflHbie ΠΟΗ5ΙΤΗΗ H TepMHHbl, KOTOpbIMH H OnepHpOBajl, HaHHHaH C ΜβΤρΗΗβΟΚΟΗ ΚΗΗΓΗ 1923 r o f l a , a HMÊHHO " φ ο Η ο π ο Γ Η Η ε ο κ Η β s j i e M e t r r b i " H " φ ο HOJiorHMecKaa cHCTeMa", T p e ô o B a j i n n e p e c M O T p a H yTOHHemifl. CJIOBOM, npe^CTOHjia ö o j i b i u a a , OTBETCTBEHHAA HCCJIEAOBATENB-

CKaa pa6oTa. Β 3TOH CBH3H o c o ö e H H O THMcejio OLuymajiacb yTpaTa T p y ô e u ΚΟΓΟ. KOHHHJICH iiojiroJieTHHH π ε ρ κ ο , α H a r n e r o c o B M e c T H o r o Tpyn a , HOCHBiuero, n o B T o p a i o , B c e r ^ a ziHajiorHHecKHH, xiHCKyccHOHHbiH xapaKTep. n p e ^ C T O A J I O p a ô o T a T b OCO6HHKOM H caMOMy n p o BepflTb o M e p e ^ H b i e HaxoflKH h rHnoTe3bi. M a n o ΤΟΓΟ, cTaHOBHJlOCb B C e ΟΗΒΒΗΛΗΒΗ, HTO COMTeHbl RUH ΜΟΒΓΟ >ΚΗΒΟΓΟ COTpyflHHHeCTBa C HeHCCaKaeMbIM .QHCKyCCHOHHblM ΙίβΗΤρΟΜ, ripa»CCKHM JlHHrBHCTHHeCKHM K p y » K O M , Râ COÔCTBeHHO TâK}Ke H Λ Η Η RQSlTCJibHOCTH c a M o r o Kpyacica. JXna MÔHS HacTyriHJiH rozibi BbiHyacΛβΗΗΜΧ 6e3flOMHbix 6jiy>K,aaHHH H3 CTpaHbi Β cTpaHy.

V. POJIb Μ Ε ^ Κ Ή Υ Η Α Ρ Ο Λ Η Ο Η Β PA3BHTHH

Κ. Π.

CPE^bl

JIHHrBHCTHMECKOH

TEOPHH

Β ο π ρ β Κ Η BCCM TpyflHOCTHM Η ΠΟρΟΚ) CypOBblM OnaCHO-

CTHM, KapayjTHBLUHM TOflbl BaiHHX BbIHyMCaeHHblX CTpaHCTBHH, ΗΜβΗΗΟ 3TH γ ο λ μ npHHecJiH ôoraTbie HayHHbie ^ocTHaceHHfl, β TOM HHCJie ΟΛΗΗ H3 BaiIIHX OCHOBHblX TpyflOB, KHHry O Í16TCKOM H3biKe, aφa3HH h o 6 m H x 3ByKOBbix 3aKOHax, saayMaHHyio β 1939 rofly Β

JXannH

H H o p e e r a n Η HanHcaHHyio Β IIIBCIÍHH Ha py6e»ce

1940 η 1941 ro.ua β ncTopnMecKHX ycjiOBHsix, KOTopbie, Ka3ajiocb 6bi, MeHee Beerò ΜΟΠΙΗ cnoco6cTBOBaTb HanpaaceHHOH H a y i H o ö pa6oTe. J\a HejierKHMH 6bi;iH jwh

HayHHOH paôoTbi η B a i m i n e p -

Bbie aM6pHKaHCKH6 ΓΟΛΜ. K a i c o e BJiHaHHe OKa3ajiH CTpaHCTBHa Η CTpaHbl, HaHHHaa ClCaHXlHHaBHeH Η KOHHaa aMepHKaHCKHMH r o poflaMH, Ha Β amy HayHHyio Mbicjib? Ρ. Ά.

Pa3yMeeTca, STH BHe3anHbie npeMeHbi He pa3 HapyuiajiH

H MeHHUH PAÖOMHE njiaHbi, HO C a p y r o H cTopoHbi a AOJIACEH o r o BopHTb, MTO CMeHbi Β HayHHoií cpezie Η Β MecTHbix 3anpocax Η ji03yHrax n03B0JianH no-HOBOMy CTaBHTb coöcTBeHHbie Bonpocbi η paciimpHTb HX Kpyr. T a x , Mecaubi β ,IIaHHH, β TecHOH 6JIH30CTH c KoneHrareHCKHM ΙΙΗΗΓΒΗΟΤΗΗΘΟΚΗΜ K p y » K O M H /leôaTbi C KOHreHHaJIbHbIMH

npeeMHHKaMH

AaTCKOH

BbICOKOnpOÖHOH

jiHHrBHCTHHecKOH TpazmuHH ΒΗΓΓΟ Ep3H,aajieM (1887—1942)

η

JlyH EjiMCJieBOM (1899—1965) η ο τ ρ ε δ ο Β & Π Η ο τ M e r a öojibiiieH KOHtieHTpauHH Ha TeopeTHHecKHX ocHOBax ΦΟΗΟΗΟΓΗΗ. OcnapHBaa nonbiTKH KoneHrareHCKoro Kpyacica H3T>aTb H3 Kpyra ΉΗΗΓBHCTHHecKHx 3a^aH 3ByKOByK) cyôcTaHHHK) penn, a HacraHBaji Ha HeOÖXO^HMOCTH CTpororO BHHMaHHa Κ COOTHOIUGHHK) φ ο ρ Μ ω H cyôcTaHHHH, η Β ΤΟ « e BpeMa 3Ta flHCKyccHa noôyaHJia MeHa κ 6ojiee TinaTejibHOMy BbinoimeHHio 3a^an nocjieaoBaTenbHOH pejiaTHBH3aHHH ΦΟΗΟΙΙΟΓΗΗ6ΟΚΟΓΟ aHajiH3a. 3 τ ο τ j i o 3 y H r 6 b m

BbixiBHHyT eme Β nepBbix TOMax Travaux du Circle Linguistique

PA3BHTHE JIHHrBHCTHHECKOH TEOPHH

467

de Prague, r/ie caMoe noHarae Φ ο η 6 μ μ HHTepnpeTHpoBajiocb KaK BTOpHHHOe, a ΗΜβΗΗΟ KaK aepHBaT Η/ΙβΗ φΟΗΟ-ΠΟΓΗΗβΟΚΗΧ OTHOiiieHHÖ. Bce ace, HecMOTpa Ha 3Ty TeoperanecKyio πρε,αποcbiJiKy, β φοΗοποΓΗπεοκΗβ pa6oTbi npaaccKoro TOJiKa β TeHeHHe 20-x η 30-x γολοβ HeoüHOKpaTHO npocaMHBajiHCb onpe,gejieHHa OTJieJIbHblX φΟΗΟϋΟΓΗΗβΟΚΗΧ eUHHHU He Β peJIHTHBHblX, a Β aÖCOJTIOTHblX φΗ3ΗθπθΓΗΗεθΚΗΧ HJIH φΗ3ΗΜεθΚΗΧ TepMHHaX. ΗβοβχΟΛΗΜΟ npH3HaTb, ΗΤΟ ΜβΤΟΛΟΛΟΓΗΗβΟΚΗβ ZjeÔaTbl C ΚΟΠβΗrareHuaMH HaynHjiH Me Ha ôojiee cTporoMy caMOKOHTpojiio bo H3ÖeacaHHe KOHTpaôaHziHOH πο,ποτ3ηοβκη MaTepHajibHbix a6COJIIOTOB B3aMeH HeyKJlOHHO pejiHTHBHbix onpe^ejieHHÖ, TpeöyeMblX TOHHOH HayKOH.

He cjiyMaHHO hmchho β ,Π^ηηη jieTOM 1939 ro,aa bo3hhk moh flOKjia^ o 3ByKOBbix 3aKOHax üeTCKoro a3biKa. ^oKJiaji stot 6biJi nocjiaH zma V Meac^yHapo^Horo CT>e3^a ΙΙηηγβηοτοβ, HMeeiiiero co6paTbca β Epioccejie, β ceHTaôpe τογο ace ro.ua, ho οηητογο c OHepeOT HanajioM Βτοροή mhpoboh βοηημ. OTBenaa Ha Bonpocbi MOHxflaTCKHXcjiyinaTejieñ η coöeceuHHKOB, a pa3BepHyji β Ha3Β3ΗΗ0Μ iioKjia^e aee npoÔJieMbi, nocTaBJieHHbie mhok) yace c KOHua /iBa/maTbix γολοβ, a hmchho H^eio mhpoboh Φ ο η ο λ ο γ η HeCKOH ΤΗΠΟΛΟΓΗΗ H JIHHrBHCTHHeCKHX yHHBepcajiHH. PyKOBO^amHM ΠΡΗΗΗΗΠΟΜ JieacailJHM Β OCHOBe 3THX 3a^aHHH, HBJIHeTCH, KaK 6biJio no^nepKHyTo β yKa3aHH0M .aoKJia/ie, 3aK0H cynepΠ03ΗΗΗΗ UeHHOCTeH. BceMHpHbiH xapaKTep HepapxHnecKoro pacnopH/uca, npoHBJiHioluhhch He TOJibKO β c T p y K T y p e 3ByK0Bbix CHCTeM, h o TaKace β

CHCTeMaTHKe rpaMMaTHHecKHX 3HaqeHHH, Tpeôoeaji προΒβρκΗ nyτ β Μ aHajiH3a H3biK0B MHpa, a TaKace n y T e M H3yneHHa p e n n β e e CTaHOBneHHH, η moh flaTCKHe M e c a u b i 03HaMeH0BajiHCb noribiTKOH o6l>eflHHeHHH BOnpOCOB Η3ΜΚ0Β0Γ0 φΗ.ΓΙ0Γ6Η633 H OHTOre-

He3a, τ. e. ömjih nocBameHbi npeac^e Beerò aHajiH3y ycBoeHHa φοΗΟΛΟΓΗΜβοκοή CHCTeMbi /jeTbMH pa3JiHHHbix H3biKOBbix apea-

jiOB. TeH^eHUHH, oÔHapyacHBaeMbie πρκ H3yneHHH nopaßKa πρκo ö p e T a e M b i x peôeHKOM Φ ο η ο π ο γ η η θ ο κ η χ

npoTHBonocTaBjieHHH,

BCKpblJIH UeJIblH p a a CymeCTBeHHblX COOTBeTCTBHH c τ η π ο λ ο γ η necKHMH HaôJiioiieHHaMH Ha/i a3biKaMH H a p o ^ o B MHpa. C y m e -

CTBeHHbiM pe3yjibTaT0M conocraBHTejibHoro no^xo^a κ pa3BHTHK) /xeTCKOH peMH Η Κ CTPOK) pa3H006pa3HbIX 3THHHeCKHX a3bl-

KOB 6buio BCKpbiTHe aeHCTByiomHX β oöeHX οφερ3χ 3aK0H0B HMnjiHKauHH: HajiHHHC οληοη cocTaBHOH eflHHHUbi npe/mojia-

468

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r a e T HJiH, H a n p o T H B , H C K J i i O H a e T n p H c y T C T B H C z i p y r o H e f l H H H i j b i Β τ ο ή »ce C H C T e M e . C T a H O B H T c a

B c e a c H e e , HTO T a i c n e

3aKOHbi

jieacaT H e TOJibKO Β o c H O B e φ ο Η Ο ΐ ι ο Γ Η Η ε ο κ ο Η C T p y i n y p b i a 3 b i K a , HO a e í í c T B y K ) T Taicace Β n j i a H e Μ ο ρ φ ο π ο Γ Η Η β ο κ ο Μ η CHHTAKCHNECKOM; OHH c j r y x a T

noKa3aTejibHbiM

npHMepoM

HepapxHnecKOH

C T p y K T y p b i a 3 b i K a Β e r o p a 3 J i H H H b i x a c n e K T a x ; OHH ace

onpe^e-

jiHiOT H e p a p x H K ) ο τ Η ο π ι ε Η Η Η M e a c a y a 3 b i K O M η a p y r H M H o Ö J i a c T a M H KyjibTypbi. Β C B o e n He/iaBHeir K H H r e

Signes et symboles, I l a p n a c

1 9 7 7 , H a Ô J i i o a a T e i i b H b i H u i B e j i c K H H ,ΓΙΗΗΓΒΗΟΤ B e p T H J i M a j i M 6 e p r c n p a B e / y i H B O y c M O T p e j i r j i a B H y i o H H T b MOHX H a y n H b i x

HHTepe-

c o B H n o i i c K O B Β T o m o ö i n e M ΠΡΗΗΗΗΠΒ H e p a p x H H e c K O H

CTpyK-

T y p a i í H H , K O T o p o M y n o z i B e p r H y T b i H e TOJibKO H e j i O B e n e c K n e a 3 b i KH, HO η B c e n p o H H e c H C T e M b i c e M H O T H H e c K o r o IlpHiiJibiB

H3 K o n e H r a r e H a

yKjiaaa.

Β OCJIO n e p e o r o

ceHTaöpa

r o ^ a Β n e p B b i H z i e H b BOHHM, a B C T p e r a j i c a H 6JIH3KO

1939

comenca

c Α.ΓΉΦΟΜ Ο Ο Μ Μ Β Ρ Φ Ε ^ Τ Ο Μ ( 1 8 9 2 — 1 9 6 5 ) Η CO B c e M T e c H O c r u i o HeHHbiM

KpyacKOM

HopBeaccKHX

a3biKOBeflOB,

cneijuajmcTOB

Β

o ö x i a c T H p a 3 H o o 6 p a 3 H e H i i i H X H3biKOB. r u y ö o K H H H H T e p e c κ C T p y K T y p H O M y c o n o c T a B j i e H H i o 3THX a 3 b i K O B , o n n p a i o m e M y c a H a n p o n HOe

eflHHCTBO

MeTO/ÌOJlOrHHeCKHX

npe^nOCblJIOK,

HeBOJIbHO

3BaJi κ o p r a H H 3 a u H H KOJIJICKTHBHOM p a ö o T b i Β o Ô J i a c T H y B j i e i c a B i u e n B c e x H a c c p a B H H T e j i b H O H ΦΟΗΟ-ΠΟΓΗΙΙ. B o n p o c b i ΦΟΗΟΙΙΟΓΗH e C K O H Γ β Ο Γ ρ 3 φ Η Η , Β Τ β Η β Η Η β 30-Χ ΓΟΛΟΒ >KHBO 3 ü H H M a B I I I H e p a 60THHK0B

IlpaaccKoro

K p y a c K a , K a 3 a j i o c b , MOIMIH 3,qecb

HaiÎTH

ΚΟΗΚρβΤΗΟβ n p H M e H e H H e . , ^ H φ φ y 3 H a φΟΗΟΛΟΓΗΗβΟΚΗΧ aBJieHHH, ι ι ι κ ρ ο κ ο B b i x o / i a m a a 3a n p e ^ e j i b i o x a e j i b H b i x a3biKOB h snbiKOBbix ceMeñcTB, h φ a κ τ H e p e ^ K o r o c x o ^ C T B a φοΗΟιιοΓΗΗβοκΗΧ CHCTeM y Γβο^φΗ^εοκκ

C M e a c H b i x H a p o ^ o B , a a a c e n p H IIOJIHOM O T c y T -

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imuih

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H H r a e H a c B e T e T a K ΛΟ CHX n o p H H e o c y m e c T B J i e H H b i H ,

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PA3BHTHE JIHHRBHCTHMECKOH TEOPHH

469

rpaMMaTHHecKHX C T p y i n y p a a j i 6bi ο τ Β β τ , aanacTyio He)K,aaHHbiH, Ha ΜΗΟΓΟ OHepe^HblX JIHHrBHCTHHeCKHX BOnpOCOB H IIOCTaBHJI 6bl Ha o n e p e ^ b

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KOH CTENEHH HOPEEACCICAA APYACHAA HCCJIEAOBATEJIBCICAA PAÖOTA OTKpbiBajia nyTb hobmm TeMaM pa3bicicaHHH. HopBeaccKHH ceMHT o j i o r TappHC BHpKejiaH^ (Harris Birkeland, 1904—1961), ΠΟΛΓΟTOBHBIUHH CBOHMH φΟΗΟπΟΓΗΗβΟΚΗΜΗ HAÖJIKJ/IEHHHMH HAFL ΠρΟcoíiHHecKOH 3BOJiK)i4neH apeBHeeepeHCKoro a3biica .aaubHeHiime cymecTBeHHbie οτκρωτΗΗ, 3aziyMaji Β KOHue 1939 rozia coBMecTHYIO CO MHOK) PAÖOTY HAA Μ β τ ρ Η κ ο ή ÔHÔJIEHCKHX NPOPONECKHX IMANEN Β CEETE ΦΘΗΘ-NORHHECKORO AHAJIH3A. 3 T A PAÖOTA, C CAMORO Habana noica3aBiiiaa HEMAJIYIO nnoflOTBopHOCTb ΦΟΗΟΫΟΓΗΠΕΟΚΗΧ ΠΡΗΗΙΪΗΠΟΒ juin BCKpbITHfl 3ΗΚΟΗΟΒ FLAHHOH CTHXOTBOpHOH CHCTEMBI, ÖBIJIA Β CBOK) OHEPENB CMETEHA ΗΒΜΒΑΚΗΜ ΒΤΟΡΚΒΗΗΒΜ. Koraa

B Mae 40-ro r o j a Η ΛΗΚΟΒΗΗΗΜΜ cTeneHHeM

cyae6

floöpajiCH Λ Ο CTOKROJIBMA, MECTHBIE ycjioBHa cHoea ONPEAEJIHJIH OHepe/IHOH ceKTop MOHX ΦΟΗΟΫΟΓΗΠΕΟΚΗΧ 3aH8THH. BoraTCTBy IIIBE^CKHX MC^HUHHCKHX ΌΚΌΛΗΟΤΒΚ H TORFLAUMEMY /WPEKTOPY NCHXHATPHHECKOH KJIHHHKH YNCAIIBCKORO YHHBCPCHT6TA, B .

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PA3BHTHE JIHHrBHCTHMECKOH TEOPHH

479

ÔbITbfl). CpOßHH TOH »ce ΤβΗΛβΗΙίΗΗ ÔbIJia H B a i l l a KpHTHKa 3ΠΗΓΟΗΟΒ h B y j i b r a p i o a T o p o B 6;iyM(i)n.rr,qHaHCTBa, KOTopyio B b i β CBoe BpeM» pa3BepHyjiH β B a u m x KeMÔpHflaccKHx jieKUHHx.

VI. Ο Β Π ί Α Λ n P O B J I E M A T H K A 3 B Y K O B

PEHH

Κ . Π . Β Barnen c h h t c t h h c c k o h paöoTe "Linguistics and Poetics" μηογο MecTa OTBefleHO eme o^HOMy acneKTy 3ByKOB peiH, a HMeHHO 3KCnpeCCHBHbIM Η H36bIT0HHbIM (pe^yHflaHTHblM) ΗβρTaM, He BXQflainHM Henocpe^CTBeHHO Β CMbiciiopa3JiHwrejibHbiH penepTyap. Hmchho BBH^y TaKoro HeexoHmeHHa HeicoTopbie 5I3bIKOBeilbI, nO-BHflHMOMy, CKJIOHHbl CMHTETb 3TH 3JieMeHTbI 3a HenoflJieacamHe jiHHrBHCTHHecKOMy aHajiH3y. Bbi ace npH3HaeTe HX BaHCHblMH Cpe^CTBaMH ρβΗβΒΟΗ ΗΗφορΜΕίΙΜΜ, KOTOpyiO Ηβ cjieayeT cBo^HTb κ hhcto κογηητηβηοη φγΗκυιΐΜ. Β το »ce caMoe BpeMH 3KCnpecCHBHbie — HJIH SMOTHBHbie — H H30bIT0HHbie nepTbi He HrpaioT ponn β CTporo chctcmhom a3biKe CTHxa, κοτοpblH CMHTaeTCa TOJIbKO CO CMblCJIOpâSJIHHHTejIbHblMH HepTaMH. C apyroH »ce cTopoHbi Bbi npnBoztnTe npHMep smothbhoh hhTOHaUHH, rfle ee Η3ΜβΗβΗΗ8 CnOCOÔHbl CymeCTBeHHO H3MeHHTb HHφopMaTHBHyK) CTOpOHy Beerò peneBOrO TeKCTâ. E c j i h s t o otHecTH κ cTHxy, — το moncho j i h CKa3aTb, h t o 3M0THBHbie nepTbi HrpaioT pojib β cnocoôe HcnojiHeHH» craxa, β cthxoboh aeicnaMaUHH, Β TO BpeMH KaK OHH He HrpaiOT POJIH Β CaMOM CTHXOBOM cTpoe? P. Ά . ΠρΗ Bceñ Kap^HHajibHOH be^chocth caMOCToaTejibHbix, CMbicjiopa3JiHMHTejibHbix 3JieMeHTOB a3biKa, 3ByKH peHH co^ep»caT eme HeMajio HHbix pa3HopoflHbix περτ, β cbok) onepe^b HrpaiomHX HeMajiyio pojib β peneeoH aeaTejibHOCTH. OnsTb-TaiCH, TpeöyeTca CTporoe pa3Me»ceBaHHe Meamy chctcmoh ΛΗφφβρβΗHHajIbHblX 3JieMeHTOB Η OCTajIbHbIMH 3ByKOBbIMH HepTaMH, HO Ά Bee 3TH npoMHe qepTbi, jih6o pa3Horo po^a H36biTOHHbie, jihöo pa3Horo pofla 3KcnpeccHBHbie, cocTaBJiaioT HeorbeMjieMyio nacTb jiHHrBHCTHHecKoro paccMOTpeHHa. H a j o OTKa3aTbca οτ HaHBHoro B3rjiaaa Ha Bce s t h "ocTajibHbie" nepTbi KaK Ha rpyöyio MaTepnio, jieacamyio BHe a3biKOBe,QHecKoro Kpyro3opa, MarepHio ιιηηγβη-

ΟΒΙΙΙΑΛ nPOEJlEMATHKA 3ΒΥΚΟΒ ΡΕΜΗ

481

CTHHecKH ôecueHHyio. Β HacToainee BpeMa 3Byic p e ™ BO BCCM CB06M uejioM ecTCCTBCHHO 0C03HaeTCH KaK co3^aHHoe h cymeCTByiomee ΗΜβΗΗΟ ana peneBbix 3a^aM HCKyccTBeHHoe sobiKOBoe C p e f l C T B O , BH6 peHH HeH3BeCTHOe.

Κ. Π.

Β Baiueñ "Linguistics and Poetics" 3aTpoHyT Bonpoc 3By-

ΚΟΒΟΓΟ CHMBOJIH3Ma, ΟΛΗΗ H3 CaMblX Kap^HHaJIbHblX BOnpOCOB Π033ΗΗ Η Π03ΤΗΚΗ X X BeKa. IT03THHeCKafl npaKTHKa Η Teopwa

chmbojihctob caenajia H3 3τογο npnevia i y r b jih He rjiaBHoe coaepacaHHe πο33ηη KaK τ3κοβοη, BbmBHraa KaK ee cyTb KpacHopeHHBbie 3ByKOBbie cooTBeTCTBHa ("correspondances"). ΠομHHTCfl, KaK-TO β jieKijMH Bbi cKa3ajiH, hto yBJieneHHe chmbojihCTOB CHMBOJIH3MOM 3ByKOB, He pa3 OCMeHHHOe 3a HeCOCTOHTejIbHblH HMnpeCCHOHHCTHMeCKHH Cy6teKTHBH3M, CHOBa npHOÖpeTaeT HHTepec β cBeTe nocjiejjHHx HaynHbix HccnejioBaHHH h ncHΧΟ-φΗ3ΗΟΛΟΓΗΗβΰΚΗΧ SKCnepHMeHTOB. ITocjie,imHe pa6oTbI Β 3TOH oöJiacTH, HanpHMep φpaH^y3cκHe coo6pa>KeHHH Λορω Bajibe

(Dora Vallier) o CHCTeMe KpacoK b ee cooTHomeHHH c ΦοηολοTHHeCKOH CHCTeMOH, nOKa3bIBaiOT, HTO OÖJiaCTb CHH3CTe3HH CTaHOBHTCfl BOHCTHHy ÔJiaTOflapHblM ΠρβΛΜβΤΟΜ HHTepflHCUHIIJIHHapHoro H3yneHH5î.

P. Ά. Ha pyöeace nponinoro h HbiHeumero BeKa ynacrajincb yneHbie aeôaTbi H ^ora^KH o cHHSCTeTH^ecKHX CBH3»X Meaojy pa3JIHHHbIMH CeHCOpHblMH θ φ β ρ 3 Μ Η . ECJIH BHaHajie HaÓJIIOfleHHa Haa TaKHMH cxoacTBaviH, KaK HanpHMep vieac^y 3ByKaMn penn H KpacKaMH, aajio HeMajio cyöteKTHBHbix H cnopHbix 3aKjnoHeHHH, το T e n e p b O T K p b i e a e T c a B 0 3 M 0 » H 0 C T b 6ojiee nJiaHOMepHoro, OÔteKTHBHOrO H MeTOflOJIOI-HHeCKH OÔOCHOBaHHOrO HCCJie^OBaHHs 3THX yBjieKaTejibHbix BonpocoB, 3acTaBjiaiomHx npe.mio.nar a T b cymecTBOBaHHe rjiyôoKHX ncHxo-HeBpojiorHHecKHX COOTBeTCTBHH. Β HaCTHOCTH COOTHOUieHHe pa3JIHHHTejIbHbIX npOTHBonocTaBJieHHH β H3biKe c CHCTeMaTHKOH KpacoK OTKpbiBaeT cepbe3Hbie, MHoroo6emaK>mne nepcneKTHBbi coBMecTHoíí pa6oTe ΦΗ3ΗΚΟΒ, aHTpOnOJIOrOB, nCHXOJlOrOB, HCKyCCTBOBe^OB H JIHHrBHCTOB,

ΠρΗ

yCJIOBHH

nOCJieZIOBaTeJIbHO

pejiaTHBHCTHHe-

cKoro noflxo^a κ 3thm conocTaBjieHHHM. Eme 6oJiee noywrejibHbiMH pe3yKbTaTaMH 03HaMeH0BajiHCb onbiTbi JIHHFBHCTOB Haa 3ByKOBbIM CHMBOJIH3MOM, T. e. aBCTBeHHOH H 0ΛΗ03Η3ΗΗ0Η a C -

couHauHeH Meac^y npoTHBonocTaBJieHHaMH 3ByKOB penu h ce-

482

EECEßtl

M a H T H H e C K H M H n p O T H B O n O C T a B J I C H H S M H , T ä K H M H KaK B b l C O K H H —

paflOCTHblft—MpaHBbIHCHHeTCH, HTO 3 B y K O B b i e 0 Π Π 0 3 Η Ι Χ Η Η Π Ο Μ Η Μ Ο CBOeH Π Ο Λ Η Η Η β Η Η Ο Η , riOCpeflCTByiOmeH, yCJIOBHO-pa3JIHHHTeJIbHOH POHH Β OTHOmeHHH Κ Ha^eJieHHblM COÖCTBeHHbIM 3HaqeHHeM rpaMMâTHHecKHM e^HHHuaM »3biKa, pacnojiaraioT co6ctb6hhoh, HenOCpe/ÍCTBCHHOH, CKpbITOH 3HaHHMOCTbK), H HTO TaKOBaH HaxoΛ η τ ce6e 3HaHHTejibHoe npHMeHeHHe β opraHH3aunH η3μκοβογο jieKCHHecKoro cocTaea, a π ο μ η μ ο τογο npHOÖpeTaeT OTKpbiTyio, Hepe^KO /lOMHHupyiomyK) pojib β pa3JiHHHbix npoaBjieHHHx peneBoñ ΜΗφοποΓΗΗ h /locTHraeT HaHÓojibuieñ cHJibi β iiosthhcckom H H 3 K H H , C B e T ^ b l H — T e M H b l H , OCTpblH—TynOH, H b l H , Η Τ. Π.

H3bIKe.

Ecjih β Havane Moeñ HayHHOH paôoTbi c t h x h ero 3ByKOBOH cocTaB nocTaBHJiH MeHa nepea 3a^aMaMH nocTpoeHH» φ θ Η θ ϋ θ ΓΗΗ, ΤΟ ΜΗΟΓΟ JieT CnyCTS H3yHeHH6 φΟΗΟϋΟΓΗΜβΟΚΗΧ 0ΠΠ03Η-

ijHH npHBejio ΜβΗΗ κ yacHCHHio noTaÜHOíí c y r a HX co^epacaHHa, Ha KOTopyio hmêhho no3TnnecKoe ncKyccTBO 6pocaeT HaH6ojiee a p K H H C B 6 T H K O T o p a a , Β cBOK> o n e p e / i b , a a e T H a M H O B M Í Í KJIIOM

Κ nOCTH»CeHHK) Π033ΗΗ.

VII. B P E M E H H O H

Κ. Π.

ΦΑΚΤΟΡ

Β JBBLKE H

JIHTEPATYPE

Β ΟΛΗΟΜ Η3 B a i I I H X n O C n e f l H H X CHHTeTHMeCKHX 0 Ö 3 0 P 0 B

3 a f l a H HayKH o a 3 b i i c e c p e / w c o B p e v i e H H b i x H a y K , Β

Scientific American 1 9 7 2 R., B B I Β KpaTKOM o n e p i c e HCTOPHH a 3 b i K 0 3 H a H H a 3 a -

T p o H y n H B o n p o c M J i a ^ o r p a M M a T H M e c K O H ΛΟΚΤΡΗΗΜ. M e T 0 / I 0 . N 0 ΓΗΗ

MJiaZIOrpaMMaTHKOB

C06cTBeHH0

CBO^HJiaCb

Κ

HCTOPHH

» 3 b i K a . Π ρ β ο Λ ο π β Η Η β ΛΟΛΓΟ r o c n o ^ c T B O B a B i i i e r o y n e H H a M J i a z i o r p a M M ä T H K O B ö b i j i o OAHOH H3 a a c r i y r C o c c i o p a . H o Β C B o e M

de linguistique

générale

OH o n a T b - T a K H

CBeji a a a a n y

Cours

H3yHeHHfl

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S.

BpeMH KaK T a K O B o e öbijio H, ayMaro, ocTaeTca H a c y i n H O H

ΤβΜΟΗ H a i l i e H 3 Π 0 Χ Η . Β MOCKOBCKOH T a 3 e T e " H C K y C C T B O " ,

προ-

cymecTBOBaBLueH Beerò HecKOJibKo Mecauee 1919 r o ^ a , β CTaTbe, nocBameHHOH φyτypH3My, a Η H3rHaHHe

ratean:

" I I p e o f l o ^ e H H e CTaTHHHOCTH

aôcojitoTa, T a K O B a c y m e c T B e H H a a 3 a f l a n a ΗΟΒΟΓΟ Bpe-

MÊHH, 3TO B o n p o c b i » c r y n e 3 J i o 6 o f l H e B H b i e . " H a m e n

HenocpencT-

ΒΒΗΗΟΗ IMCOHOH B nOMblCJiaX O B p e M S H H 6 b I J i a I U H p H B U i a a c a ÍIHCK y c c H a B O K p y r H O B o p o a c a e H H O H τ β ο ρ κ π OTHOCHTejibHOCTH, c e e 0 T K 3 3 0 M OT a Ö C 0 n H ) T H 3 a U H H BpCMÊHH H C e e HaCTOHHHBOH y e a 3 KOH n p o Ô J i e M B p e M e H H H n p o c T p a H C T B a . / I p y r H M OÖJIHKOM TOH a c e niKOJibi 6 b i J i CJJYTYPROM, c y a a p H b i M H J i 0 3 y H r a M H e r o

MaHH-

φ ε ΰ Τ Ο Β Η 5KHBOIIHCHbIMH 3 K C n e p M M e H T â M H . " C T a T H H C C K O e BOCn p H H T H e — 3 T 0 ΦΗΚΙΧΗΗ", — o T B e n a j i a Β TOH a c e c T a T e H i c e H a Tpa^HLiHOHHbie y c H J i H a »CHBOIIHCH "pa3JiotvtHTb ÄBH>KeHHe Ha c e PHK) o 6 o c o 6 n e H H b i x CTaTHHecKHX s n e M e H T O B " .

TaKOBbi öbiJiH npezinocbiJiKH Moeñ nepBOH BCTpenn c yneHHeM Cocciopa 0 6 aHTHHOMHH COCTOaHHa, T. e. CHHXPOHHH, H HCTOPHH a3biKa, T. e. OTaxpoHHH. Ilpeac^e Beerò ôpocajiocb Β

484

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rjia3a, h t o c h h x p o h h i o , t . e. oKpyr 8 3 μ κ ο β μ χ m e c T B y i o m H X β .aaHHOM

HBjieHHH,

peneeoM κ ο π π β κ τ Η Β β , Cocciop

cocy-

η τερΜΗ-

HOJIOrHHeCKH, Η TeopeTHMeCKH OTOaC^eCTBJIHJI CO CTaTHKOH, ΠρΟT H B o n o n a r a a TâKOByK) B e p e β TOxc^ecTBO j i n a x p o H H H η KH. Β

λημμη-

κρΗΤΗκε 3ΤΟΗ KOHijenijHH a He cjiynaHHO o ö p a T H J i c a κ

n p H M e p y KHHOBOcnpHHTHfl. H a B o n p o c CHHxpoHHHecKoro x a p a K T e p a — HTO Bbl BHÜHTe β 3TO ΜΓΗΟΒβΗΗβ Ha 3 K p a H e ? — 3 p H T e j I b HeH3ÖeaCHO a a C T CHHXpOHHHeCKHH, HO OTHIOflb He CTETHMeCKHH ο τ Β β τ , TaK KaK o h β η λ η τ , η τ ο β a a H H b i ö m o m c h t J i o m a z i H 6 e r y T , KjioyH KyBbipKaeTCH, h H a c r a r H y T b i H n y j i e ö n a / i a e T 6aHziHT. C j i o bom,

oToacflecTBJieHHe

^eyx

"CHHXpOHHH—OTaxpOHHH" CHHXpOHHfl nOJIHa

peajibHbix

npoTHBonocTaBJieHHH,

H "CTaTHKa—flHHaMHKa",

flHHaMHHeCKHX

φΗΚΤΗΒΗΟ.

3πβΜβΗΤΟΒ, H CHHXpOHHie-

CKHH π ο λ χ ο λ T p e 6 y e T h x y q e T a . E c j i h c h h x p o h h h jiHHaMHHHa, τ ο β CBOK) o n e p e ^ b a3biKOBaa ¿ m a x p o H H a , τ . e . p a c c M O T p e H H e η c o n o c T a B j i e H H e pa3JiHHHbix s T a n o B a 3 b i K a β T e n e H H e n p o a o j i a c H T e n b H o r o x o a a BpeMeHH He μ ο κ θ τ η He a o j i a c H a o r p a H H H H B a T b c a ΟΛΗΟΗ JIHUIb HHHaMHKOH a3bIKOBbIX Η3ΜβΗβΗΗΗ;

HeOÔXOflHM

y n e T c T a T H ^ e c K H x (jjaKTOB. B o n p o c o t o m , m t ó h s m c h h / t o c L ·

h

Η τ ό o c T a n o c b HeH3MeHHbiM b o φ ρ 3 Η ΐ ^ 3 ΰ κ ο Μ a 3 b i K e Ha n p o T a a c e HHH Μ Η Ο Γ Η Χ ΒβΚΟΒ βΓΟ pa3BHTH3, HUH HaHKC, HTÓ COXpaHHJIOCb HeH3MeHHbIM Β Τ β Χ HJIH HHblX ΗΗ,αΟβΒρΟΠβΗϋΚΗΧ 83bIKaX Β ΤβHeHHe h x T b i c a H e j i e T H H X n e p H n e T H H c o B p e M e H n p a a 3 b i K O B o r o e^HHCTBa, T p e 6 y e T o ö c T o a T e j i b H o r o p a c c n e ^ o B a H H a . C o c c i o p ,

η

3/iecL· e r o ö o j i b i u a a 3 a c j i y r a , n o c T a B H J i Ha n e p B b i H n j i a H H3yHeHHe CHCTeMbi a 3 b i K a β e r o u e j i o M η β cooTHOineHHH B c e x e r o

co-

CTaBHbix l a c r e n . C a p y r o ò CTopoHbi, e r o y n e m i e n o / m e a c H T p e iiiHTejibHOMy n e p e c M O T p y , n o c K O J i b K y o h o c h j i h t c b y n p a 3 f l H H T b CBa3b M e » c ^ y CHCTeMOH a 3 b i K a η e r o μ ο λ η Φ η ^ η η α μ η ,

paccMa-

T p H B a e T CHCTeMy a 3 b i K a KaK HCKjuoHHTejibHoe c b o h c t b o c h h x p o h h h Η CBOflHT n p o u e c c Μ Ο Λ Η φ Η ^ α κ ή Κ ΟΛΗΟΗ JIHUIb

OTaxpOHHH.

M e a c f l y τβΜ, KaK C B H ^ e T e j i b C T B y e T pa3BHTwe pa3JiHHHbix c o u w a j i b HblX HayK, nOHaTHa CHCTeM Η HX Η3ΜβΗβΗΗΗ He TOJIbKO COBMeCTHMbl, HO H CBa3aHbI ΛΡΥΓ C CBecTH Η3ΜβΗβΗΗ8 κ OKpyry

flpyrOM

OTaxpoHHH

Hepa3pbIBHO.

Ποπμτκη

rjiy60K0 npoTHBopeiaT

jiHHrBHCTHHecKOMy o n b i T y . H e n b 3 5 i c e 6 e n p e z i c T a B H T b a3biKOBbix Μ Ο Λ Μ φ Μ ^ α Η ή ,

coeep-

iHHBiHHXca β a3biKOBOM KOJiJieKTHBe c ο λ η ο γ ο Λ Η 3 Ha . a p y r o i i . C T a p T η Φ η η η ι ι ι K a a c a o r o H3MeHeHHa B c e r , a a c o c y m e c T B y i o T β T e n e H H e H e K O T o p o r o BpeMeHH β aaHHOM KOJiJieKTHBe h B O c n p H -

ΒΡΕΜΕΗΗΟΪΪ ΦΑΚΤΟΡ Β Λ 3 Η Κ Ε Η JIHTEPATyPE

485

HHMAIOTCA KAK TaKOBbie. HCXO^HMH NYHKT H 3aBepiiieHHe ΜΟΛΗ(J)HKauHH p a n p e z i e j i a i o T c a

n0-pa3H0My:

CTapaa

φορΜ8

Μθ>κετ

6biTb xapaKTepHOH npHHa,zyie>KHOCTbK> C T a p m e r o noKOJieHHa, Β TO BpeMa KaK HOBaa cjiyscHT oTJiHHHTejibHOH π β ρ τ ο ή ΠΟΚΟΧΙΘΗΗΛ ΜΟΛΟΛΟΓΟ, HJiH >κβ Λ β φ ο ρ Μ Μ MoryT BHaH&rce p a c u e H H B a T b c a KaK OCOÖeHHOCTH OTyX pa3HbIX a3bIKOBbIX CTHJieH, pa3HbIX CyÖKOflOB e f l H H o r o o ö m e r o κ ο / i a , Η Β 3TOM c j i y n a e ΟΛΗΗ Η Te ace coHJieHbi KOJiJieKTHBa 0 K a 3 b i B a i 0 T c a κ ο Μ π β τ β HTHH He TOJibKO κ BOCIIHHTHK) Ο6ΟΗΧ BapnaHTOB, HO η κ aKTHBHOMy B b i ô o p y Meacíty O6OHMH BapwaHTaMH. ΗΗΜΜΗ cjiOBaMH, n o B T o p a i o , c o c y m e c T B o e a H H e H H3MeHeHHe He T o n b K o He HcmiioHaioT zipyr . a p y r a , HO 0Ka3biB a i o T c a , HanpoTHB, Hepa3pbiBHO CBa3aHbi. A nocKOJibKy h CTapT, Η φΗΗΗΙΙΙ ΟΛΗΟΒρβΜβΗΗΟ npMHa/IJlOKaT o 6 m e M y KOpy H3bIKOBOH CHCTeMbi, HeH36e»cHO BCTaeT

Bonpoc He TOJibKO o CMbicjie cTa-

THMeCKHX ΚΟΜΠΟΗβΗΤΟΒ CHCTeMbI, HO Η O CMblCJie H3MeHeHHH in statu

nascendi,

b c e e T e iKxaBepaceHHOH 3 t h m H3MeHeHHaM CH-

CTeMbi. C o c c i o p o B C K a a H ß e a H3MeHeHHH, c j i e n b i x H cjiynaHHbix ( a v e u g l e s e t f o r t u i t s ) c TOHKH 3peHHa CHCTeMbI, T e p a e T

noHBy.

K a a c f l o e H3MeHeHHe nepBOHaiajibHO n p o H c x o ^ H T Β CHHXPOHHMecKOM ruiaHe h TaKHM 0 6 p a 3 0 M OKa3biBaeTca κ ο Μ π ο Η β Η τ ο Μ CHcTeMbi, T o r ^ a KaK Ha /IOJIIO ^ H a x p o H H H n p H x o ^ a T c a TOJibKO pe-

ayAbmambi H3MeHeHHH. C o c c i o p o B C K a a H ^ e o J i o r n a HCKjiioHajia coBMecTHMocTb xpoHOJioranecKHX

aeyx

acneKTOB: 0,aH0BpeMeHH0CTH H n o c j i e f l O B a -

TeJibHOCTH. Pe3yjibTaTOM 6 b m o H3rHaHHe ΑΗΗ3ΜΗΚΗ H3 aHajiH3a CHCTeMbI Η oöpaTHO, CBefleHHe 3ByKOBoro yKjiajia penw ( s i g n i f i a n t ) Κ HHCTOH JIHHeapHOCTH, Η 3TOT peflyKUHOHH3M ynpa3flH«JI B 0 3 MOMCHOCTb o c o 3 H a T b φ o H e M y KaK n y n o K OflHOBpeMeHHbix pa3JiHHHTejibHbix Ηβρτ. 3 T H xiea, B3aHMHO npoTHBopeHHBbix T e 3 H c a , ΟΛΗΗ

nocTynaiomHHca

BpeMeHHOH

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p a 3 B H T H H J i H T e p a T y p b i . 3 B 0 J H 0 i | H 0 H H b i e HayKH B e e HacTOJibKO 3an y m e H b i β Μ β τ ο , ζ ι ο ι ι ο Γ Η Η β ο κ ο Μ OTHOuieHHH, h t o c e n n a c 3a/iaHeH MOMeHTa HBJiaeTca h m c h h o H a n p a B J i e H H e M e T O / i a Ka>K^OH H3 h h x β O T ^ e j i b H O C T H . B p e M a CHHTe3a e m e He H a c T y n H J i o . H o , B M e c T e c τβΜ,

He

no^JieacHT

3BOJIIOUHH

pa3Hbix

coMHeHHio,

hto

KaKoñ-το

napajijiejiH3M β

CTopoH KyjibTypbi cymecTByeT, — a cjieaoBa-

T e j i b H o c y m e c T B y e T η KaKaa-το 3aK0H0MepH0CTb, s t o t

napajijie-

JIH3M o ô y c j i o B j i H B a i o m a a . "

Κ. Π.

HHKy

K o M M e H T a p H H κ Ha3BaHHOMy B a M H TbiHaHOBCKOMy c 6 o p ^eHCTBHTejibHO

noKa3biBaeT,

Kaieoñ

ihhpokhh

otkjihk

η

oacHBJieHHe B b i 3 B a n a B a r n a zieKJiapauHH β p a ^ a x p a c n a z i a B i i i e r o c a β τ ο BpeMa O n o a 3 a . ΚOMMeHTaTopbi π ρ η β ο λ η τ o t p m b k h

coxpa-

HHBUIHXCa n H C e M ΟΛΗΟΓΟ H3 CaMblX aKTHBHblX 0 π 0 8 3 0 Β Ι Ι β Β , B . B . IIlKJioBCKoro, β

οτΒβτ Ha npH3biBbi

Bamen

fleiuiapaijHH

κ »chbh-

T e j i b H O M y n e p e c M O T p y π ο 3 η ι ι η η O n o a 3 a . C p e / i H "B3BOJiHOBaHHO n n m y m n x " o T B e T b i Ha a e i c j i a p a i j H i o Ha3BaH B b i f l a i o m n n c a j i H T e paTypoBe/i

η

MaTeMaTHK

Β.

B.

ToMaineBCKHH,

Cepren

BepH-

ΒΡΕΜΕΗΗΟΗ ΦΑΚΤΟΡ Β JBblKE Η JIHTEPATYPE

491

ΠΙΤβΗΗ, CTHXOBeZl Η φΟΗβΤΗΚ, ynOMHHaiOTCH OTKJIHKH CTHXOBe^a H npHBepaceHUa CTaTHCTHHeCKHX OnepaUHH B. H . Λ ρ χ ο , H3BeCTH o r o jiHTepaTypoBeaa-TeopeTHKa B . M . 3 w x e H 6 a y M a h 3 a M e i a r e n b H o r o jiHHrBHCTa BOCTOKOBejia E . J\. IIoJiHBaHOBa. T p e ô y e T pacnrnpeHHa B a r n e 3aMenaHHe, η τ ο β Komje 20-x r o Λοβ Bonpocbi HCTopHH CHJibHo 3axB3THJiH yMbi. 3 τ ο KacaeTca, KOHeHHO, He TOJibKO nio/ieii HayKH, h o h j i i o ^ e H HCKyccTBa, TaK CHJIbHO B TO BpeMH CBH3âHHbIX C HayKOH. IlepBblM Ha yM npHXOΛΗΤ Π03Τ H np03aHK BopHC IlaCTepHaK. HMeHHO BO BTOPOH nOJIOBHHe 20-x γολοβ o h oôpaTHJica κ BonpocaM h c t o p h h , kotopmmh He nepecraBaji 3aHHMaTbca λ ο KOHua cBoeñ hch3hh. Κ TejibHOMy

paccKa3y

3aMeia-

IlacTepHaKa "Bo3,ayniHbie nyTH", cjioaceHHO-

My hm b cepe^HHe a e a z m a T b i x γολοβ, h mo»cho npHMeHHTb c n o e a T p y ô e u K o r o n o n o B o a y napajuiejiiOMa Meacziy pa3HbiMH cTopoHaMH KyjibTypbi b h x sbojiioijhh. IlacTepHaK He TojibKo craBHT bonpoc 06 HMMaHeHTHbix CHjiax h c t o p h h , o n p e a e n a e M b i x c o o t h o uieHHeM "nacTHoro" h " o ô m e r o " : o h OTpnnaeT MepTByio cxeMy npHHHHHblX CB83eñ, B KOTOpyiO JIIOZIH nbITaiOTCa HaCHJIbCTBeHHO BTHCHyTb Bce aBJieHHH acH3HH, MejKfly τβΜ KaK acH3Hb HeyMOJiHMO BbipbIBaeTCH H3 3TOH CXeMbI, TOMHO H3 ΗβΠρΗΓΟΛΗΟΓΟ H TeCHOIO c o c y ^ a . BMecTo Kay3ajibHOH n e n n 06ycji0BJieHH0CTeH πο3τ β μ λ BHraeT npaBHJIO CTeneHHH 06cT0aTe;ibCTB, ΠρΗΗβΜ HCTOpHHeCKOe h ncHXOJiorHHecKoe Hanaiio — 06a c o B n a ^ a i o T n o cbohm φyHKUhhm: o h h oflHHaKOBO 06e30py»HBai0T Henoeexa π ρ ο τ η β HaBa3aHHOH, npOH3BOJlbHOH CXeMbI npHHHHHOCTH. "MCTOpHHeCKOe" «e

Hanajio nmi IlacTepHaKa — s t o BOBce He

nporpeccHBHaa,

BOCXOflSimaH J1HHHH npHHHHHO-CJieflCTB6HHbIX CB83eH, a BHe HenoBeKa, n o "B03,qyinHbiM nyTaM" nocTynaiomee CTeneHHe o6cToaTejibCTB. Πο-BHaHMOMy, HecnynaHHo Barna coBMecTHaa c Π . Γ . BoraTbipeBbiM fleKjiapaiiHfl " Κ npoöjieMe pa3MeaceBaHHa φο,τ^ιυιορΗοτΗKH h JiHTepaTypoBefleHHa" öbiJia HanncaHa π ο η τ μ β t o « e c a M o e BpeMa, KaK η Barna c Τ μ η η η ο β μ μ JiHTepaTypoBe^necKaa ß e m i a p a u n a , β 1928—1929

ropy.

YcTHoe Hapo^Hoe TBopnecTBO, KaK

3ΒβΗ0 Meacay a3biKOBe,nHecKHMH h jiHTepaTypoBeOTecKHMH aBJieHHaMH, ¿iojdkho 6buio 3aHHTb Ha,zuie)Kaiuee MecTO β HH3aUHOHHO-MeTOaOJIOrHHeCKOH P. Ά.

Ilocjie

npezuiojKeHHH

jiHHrBHCTHHecKOMy

cT>Q3ay η

Bameñ

orpa-

fleHTejIbHOCTH. TaarcKOMy

MOK/iyHapo/iHOMy

" I I p o ö J i e M H3yMeHHa jiHTepaTypbi η

492

BECERI

H3biKa" nocjieOTHM H3 Tpex fleKJiapaTHBHbix BbicTynjieHHH, COCTOaBIIIHXCH no M06H ΗΗΗΙΪΗΗΤΗΒβ Β KOHIje .ZIBa^UaTblX ΓΟΛΟΒ, öbuiH ΗΜβΗΗΟ BoraTbipeea Η MOH COBMCCTHMC Te3HCbi " Κ προÖJieMe pa3Me«eBaHH« φoJIbKJIopHcτHKH H jiHTepaTypoBeaeHHfl", φορΜ)ΊΐΗροΒ3ΗΗΜ6 Β 1929 ro/iy napajuiejibHo c yace ynoMaHyroH Bbime CTaTbeio "OoJibKJiop KaK ocoôaa $opMa TBopnecTBa", Η OnyÔJIHKOBaHHbie ΒOTCKyCCHOHHOMΠΟρΗΛΚε nOJIbCKHM 3THOJIOTHHecKHM acypHajiOM Lud Siowiañski β 1931 ro^y. HaMH 6bui nocTaBjieH Bonpoc o pa3JiHHH0M co^epacaHHH ΠΟΗΗΤΖΗ: "öbiTHe φΟϋΒΙΟΙΟρΗΟΓΟ Πρ0Η3ΒβΛβΗΗ3 Η JIHTepaTypHOIO npOH3BeaeHHfl", Η COOTBETCTBEHHO COFLEPACAHHE ΠΟΗΗΤΗΗ — JIHTEPAIYPHAA

Η

ΦΘΙ^Κ.ΠΘΡΗΗ3 npeeMCTBCHHOCTb. HenpepbIBHOCTb ΦΟ-^ΚΛΟΡΗΟΗ Tpa^HUHH npOTHBOnOCTaBJianaCb npepblBHCTOCTH Β HCTOpHH JIHTcpaTypHOH CHCTeMbi ueHHOCTeñ. IIpHBbmHaa n,qea "Be^Hbix cnyTHHKOB" cMeHajiacb uneeü BBHHMX BCTpen H pa3JiyK. 3a6brrae nHcaTejiH BOCKpemajiHCb Ha npoTaaceHHH SBOJUOIJHH xy/ioacecTBeHHblX BKYCOB H CTaHOBHJIHCb COyMaCTHHKaMH Β CHCTeMe JIHTepaTypHbix UCHHOCTCH ΜΗΗΟΓΟ MOMßHTa HapaBHe C coBpeMeHHbiMH xy^oacHHKaMH cjiOBa. Κopone roBopa, BCTaeajia Ha OHepe/ib Hiiea npepbiBHCToro ΒρβΜβΗΗ h oôpaTHoro BpeMeHHÓro xoaa, T. e. B03M0aCH0CTb B03BpaH(6HHa Κ KJiaCCHKäM HJIHfla»CeB03M0ÄHocTb BKJiioHCHHa Β ΟΗβρε,αΗΟΗ penepTyap xyzioacecTBeHHbix ijeHHOCTeH, nepBOHanajibHO HenpH3HaHHbix, HX nocMepTHaa peaÔHJiHTauHH Η BocKpemeHne. Bea 3Ta JiHTepaTypHaa npoÖJieMaTHKa öpocajia CBST Ha xapaKTep ΒρβΜβΗΗόή JIHHHH pa3BHraa a3biKa, Β nacTHOCTH Ha pa3JiHHHa Meayjy a3biKOM ycTHbiM, a c zipyroH CTOPOHM NNCBMCHHBIM, ΛΟ3ΒΟ;Ι»ΒΙΙΙΗΜ YCBOEHHE H peCTaBpaUHK) CTapOflaBHHX KaHOHOB.

Κ. Π.

OueHHBaa

CBOH

coôcTBeHHbie H^en KacaTejibHO φθ-ïibK-

j i o p a Η JiHTepaTypbi c nepcneKTHBbi B c e x STHX JieT, B b i ΒΗΛΒΗ-

raeTe KaK BaacHbiH ΜΟΜΘΗΤ Bonpoc o ueHHOCTax. MoacHO ¿laace

ΗβκοτορΜή ΟΛΒΗΓ: TpaHcno3HUHH Β ΠΟΗβΤΗβ UEHHOCTH, ΠρΗΗβΜ ΟΟΒβρίΙΙβΗΗΟ 3aKOHOMepHaa. Β τβ ace ΓΟΛΜ cxoacHe npoÔJieMbi cocpe^OTOHHBajiH BHHMaHHe TpyöeuKoro. Β CBoeM o6opHHKe CTaTeñ o pycCKOM caMono3HaHHH OH nbiTaeTca onpeaeuHTb coijHajibHbm MexaHH3M BbipaöoTKH Η oÖMeHa ueHHOCTeñ. OômecTBO — Β POCCHH flopeBOJiiouHOHHoro BpeMeHH — cocToajio H3 aeyx rjiaBHbix cjioeB: BepxHero H HHacHero. BepxHHH CJIOH onpe^ejiaeT H 3acKa3aTb, HTO y B a c n p 0 H 3 0 i i i e j i

NOHATHA 3BOJIIOUHH

BPEMEHHOH ΦΑΚΤΟΡ Β í O b l K E Η JIHTEPATYPE

493

K p e n j i a e T H e p a p x H i o ueHHOCTen, "ΗΗ3Μ" ΠΡΗΗΗΜ3ΪΟΤ e e . C y m e CTByeT H3BecTHbiH " n e p e n j i b i ß " 3THX ΠΟΗΗΤΗΗ UCHHOCTH M e a m y BepXHHM Η HHXHHM CJIOeM: U6HHOCTL·, CerOflHH KOTHpOBaBUiaaca Β

BepxHCM cjioe, 3aBTpa CXO^HT Β HH3M oömecTBa, HTO6H Bep-

H y T b c a o r r y a a o n a T b κ B e p x a M Β cooTBeTCTBCHHO n p e o 6 p a 3 0 B a H -

HOM BH^e. Baum / l e K j i a p a u H H , HSCOMHCHHO, c o n p n i c a c a i O T c a c npoÖJieMOH n e p e n j i b i B a ueHHOCTeii. C o H H a j i b H b i ö MexaHH3M Bbip a ô o T K H o u e H O K , n p e a n o a c e H H b i f í T p y ö e u K H M , KOHCHHO, He ΠΟΛΧΟΛΗΤ κ c e r o f l H a i i i H e M y ΛΗΙΟ: HH Ha B o c T O K e , HH Ha

3anazie HeTy

TOH CTpyKTypbi o ö m e c T B a , KOTopaa e e j i a 6 b i κ nozioÖHOMy c o 3 flaHHio

ueHHOCTeH Η M e x a H H 3 M y h x ZIBH>KEHNA. ¿LEJÍO OÖCTOHT

HecKOJibKo H H a n e Η c j i o î K H e e . Ο ζ ΐ Η β κ ο caMbiH ΠΡΗΗΙΖΗΠ M e x a H H 3 Ma MO)K6T 0 K a 3 a T b c a n o j i e 3 H b i M j u i n n p H M e H S H H a κ HOBOH o 6 c T a HOBKe. K o r , a a Β CB33H c j i H T e p a T y p o ñ p e n i . 3 a x o O T T ο

ΒρβΜβΗΗόή

npeeMCTBSHHOCTH Η e e OÖpaTHMOCTH, T. e . O BpéMeHHblX B 0 3 B p a Tax

xy^o^ecTBeHHbix

qeHHOCTeH,

CHOBa B c n j i b i e a e T

Bonpoc,

nocTaBJieHHbiH Β CBH3H C y n e m i e M C o c c i o p a : B o n p o c o c o c y m e c T BOB3HHH a3bIKOBbIX aBJieHHH. IlO-BHflHMOMy, ΒρβΜβΗΗΟΗ (J)aKτ ο ρ HaxoziHT c e 6 e Β a3biKe a a M e n a T e j i b H o e M H o r o o 6 p a 3 H e

npo-

aBJieHHH. H e j i b 3 a Λ H CKa3aTb, HTO HMCHHO Β TâKOM M H o r o o 6 p a 3 H H CKa3biBaeTca ocHOBHaa T B o p n e c K a a cuna a3biKa? ΠΟΜΗΗΤΟΗ, Β π ε κ U H a x B b i He p a 3 n o / m e p K H B a j i H , HTO OcHOBHaa cHJia a3bitca, H COOTBeTCTBeHHO n p H B H J i e r n a r o B o p a m e r o , COCTOHT Β TOM, MTO JBMK CnOCOÖeH nepeHOCHTb Hac BO ΒρβΜβΗΗ Η npOCTpaHCTBe. Ρ . Ά.

T p y n H O HaHTH o 6 j i a c T b , m e 6 b i H ^ e a B p e M e H H Ó ñ n o c j i e -

ÄOBaTeubHOCTH Β TaicoH M e p e n e p e r u i e T a n a c b c H ^ e e H c o c y m e c T BOBaHHa, KaK 3TO npOHCXO^HT Β 5KH3HH H3bIKa H CJIOBeCHOrO HCKyccTBa.

,H,0CTaT0HH0

HecKOJibKHX

HarjiaflHbix

npHMepoB.

Ο Λ Η Η H3 HHX CBa3aH c B o e n p H a r a e M ycTHOH p e n n . P e n b H e c e T c a 6 b i c T p b i M ΠΟΤΟΚΟΜ H T p e 6 y e T ο τ c j i y m a T e j i a OBJiaaeHHa e c j i H Η He BceMH e e 3JieMeHTaMH, τ ο BO BCHKOM c j i y n a e HX 3HaMHTejibHOH HacTbK), ΗΒΟΒΧΟΛΗΜΟΉ ansi n o H H M a H H a CKa3aHHoro. C j i y m a T e j i b o c o 3 H a e T c j i o e a , c j i o a c e H H b i e H3 y a c e o T 3 B y q a B i u H X

cocTaBHbix

e/iHHHU, η φ ρ 3 3 Μ , c o c T o a i i j H e H3 cjiOB y a c e n p o p o H e H H b i x .

C

BHHMaHHeM κ p e n e B O M y noTOKy c o n e T a i o T c a H e o 6 x o f l H M b i e a n a n o H H M a H H a p e n n ΜΟΜΘΗΤΜ o a H O B p e M e H H o r o CHHTe3a, KaK HX Ha3BajT poBHO CTO JieT TOMy neuaji

pyccKHH H e e p o n o r Η n c H x o -

J i o r Η . M . C e n e H O B ( 1 8 2 9 — 1 9 0 5 ) Β CBOHX JJIEMEHMAX MÒICAU. T a -

494

EECEßbl

k o b npouecc, ο6τ>εΛΗΗΗΐοχΐίΗΗ yace ycKOJib3HyBiiiHe ο τ HenocpeacTBeHHoro BocnpHHTHH η npHHaaneacamne HenocpeacTBeHHOMy BOCnOMHHaHHK) 3JieMeHTbI, OÔte^HHHeMbie Β 6ojiee βΜΚΗβ βΛΗHHUbl, 3ByKH Β CJlOBa, CJIOBa BO φρα3ί,Ι, φρ33Μ Β nejiocTHoe BbICKa3bIBaHHe. Pojlb naMaTH, Η KpaTKOCpOHHOH Η .ZUTHTÖJIbHOH, cocTaBJiaeT ozmy h3 ueHTpanbHbix, KaK m h c KaaceTca, npoÔJieM o6meñ JIHHrBHCTHKH Η ΠΟΗΧΟϋΟΓΗΗ H3bIKa, Η Β 3TOH o6jiaCTH MHoroe npe^CTOHT nepecMOTpeTb h npo^yMaTb TOHHee, c yneTOM pa3Hoo6pa3Hbix nocjie^cTBHH. Π θ 3 τ Louis Aragon β ο λ η ο μ h3 CBOHX nOCJie^HHX pOMaHOB CBOeBpeMeHHO HanOMHHJI nOflCKa3aHHyiO eflHHHHHblMH JIHHrBHCTaMH Β KOHUe ΠρΟΙΙΙΠΟΓΟ BeKa MblCJIb o nepeöoax naMara η 3ü6bchhsi β pa3BHTHH a3biKa η o 6 h c t o pHqecKOH pojiH 3a6ßeHMH, B03MemaeMoro η 3 μ κ ο β μ μ TBopnecTΒΟΜ. H a y K a o a3biice β T e q e H H e ΒβκοΒ He pa3 n o ^ H H M a n a Bonpoc o peneBOM sjurancHce, npoaBJiaiomeMca Ha pa3Hbix a3biKOBbix ypOBHflX



3ByKOBOM,

CHHTaKCHHeCKOM,

nOBeCTBOBaTejIbHOM.

Ha/io CKa3aTb, η τ ο η 3 t h Bonpocbi pa3pa6oTaHbi no 6ojibiueñ HaCTH JIHIIIb 3ΠΗ30ΛΗΗβΰΚΗ Η φpaΓMeHTapHO; HO Λ 0 CHX nop e m e M e H e e n p o a y M a H o s j u i n n T H H e c K o e BoenpnaTHe, TexHHKa BocnonHeHHa n p o n y c K O B c j i y m a T e j i e M , o n a T b - T a K H Ha B c e x a3biK0Bbix

ypoBHax, η Bee eme He,qoyHTeH cy6i>eKTHBH3M c;iyiiiaTe;ia, t b o p necKH BOcnojiHaiomero SJiJinnTHHecKHe npoöejibi. 3 j e c b jieacHT H^po t o h npoôJieMbi, KOTopaa 3a ποαπβ,κΗΗβ γ ο λ μ H e M a j i o ne6àTHpyeTca β Hayice o a3biKe, τ . e. aapo BonpocoB npHHaraa peneBOH ABy3HaMH0CTH h u h MH0r03HaHH0CTH h ee npeO/lOJieHHe (désambiguation). Β CBa3H c 3aTpoHyTbiMH BonpocaMH ziaeT o ceöe 3HaTb ΟΛΗΟ H3 rjiaBHblX pa3JIHMHH Meac^y a3bIK0M yCTHbIM H nHCbMeHHbiM. H 3 h h x nepBbiH HÖCHT HHCTO BpeMeHHÓH xapaKTep, a n o c j i e ^ H H H CBa3biBaeT B p e M a c npocTpaHCTBOM. E c j i h Mbi cjiyLuaeM yôeraiomHe 3ByKH, τ ο nnraa, mm oöbiHHo β η λ η μ n e p e a c o 6 o h HenoflBHacHbie ôyKBbi, η BpeMa nncbMeHHoro noTOKa cjiob ana Hac o6paTHMo: mm MoaceM HHTaTb η nepeHHTbieaTb, Mano Toro, Mbi MoaceM 3a6eraTb Bnepezi. CyÖT>eKTHBHaa aHTHHHnauHa cjiymaTejia npeepamaeTca β oöteKTHBHpyeMoe npe^BocxHineHHe HHTaTejia: o h MoaceT ^ocpoHHO 3arjiaHyTb β KOHei; nncbMa HJIH poMaHa. Mbi ocTâHOBHjiHCb Ha cyiijccTBeHHOM ana noHHMaHHa 03Hanaiomero KOMnoHeHTa Bonpoce o cooTHomeHHH Meacziy φοΗβMaMH Η ΗΧ COCTâBHblMH SJieMeHTaMH, T. e. pa3JIHHHTeUbHbIMH

ΒΡΕΜΕΗΗΟΗ ΦΑΚΤΟΡ Β ÍOblKE Η JIHTEPATYPE

495

HepTaMH. Β nnaHe 03HaqaeM0r0 KOMnoHeHTa H3biKOBbix 3HaKOB HajiHHHK) cBoero pozia 3ByK0Bbix aKKopzioB, τ. e. ny^KaM ο λ η ο BpeMeHHblX pa3JIHHHTejIbHbIX Ηβρτ, aHaJIOrHMHbl ny^KH OflHOBpeMeHHbix rpaMMaTH^ecKHX SHaneHHH, c u m u l des signifiés, Kaie h x Ha3Ban npeeMHHK C o c c i o p a Ha HceHeBCKOH ^ φ β Λ ρ β λ η η γ β η ο τ η kh, Charles Bally. 3jieMeHTapHbiH npHMep — oKOHHaHHe -o JiaraHcKoro amo 03HanaeT ΟΛΗΟΒρβΜβΗΗΟ h j i h u o rjiarojia, η e r o hhcjio, h BpeMH. riepe^ana nyHKa cocymecTByiomHX κ ο μ π ο η θ η τ ο β ΟΛΗΗΜ CHHTeTHHeCKHM cerMeHTOM Β nOTOKe peHH, HHbIMH CJIOBaMH BbiineoroBopeHHbiH c u m u l des signifiés, xapaxTepHa Jina HauiHX, Tax Ha3biBaeMbix CHHTeraHecKHx H3biKOB, Tor^a KaK ΒΜβCTO 3τογο npHeMa h3mkh arrjnoTHHaTHBHoro CTpoa, HanpHMep TiopKCKHe, Ha/iejiHioT Kaac^biH cyφφHκc ο λ η η μ eziHHCTBeHHhiM rpaMMaTHHecKHM 3HaHeHneM h c o o t b c t c t b c h h o npeepamaioT 3TH φaκτHHecκH cocymecTByiomHe SHaneHHa bo BpeMeHHyio nocjie^OBaTejibHOCTb Ha/jeneHHbix οτ/iejibHbiMH 3HaHeHHHMH cyφφΗΚΟΟΒ. ECJIH β JiaTHHCKOM H3bIKe MHO>K6CTBO 3HaHeHHH HaXOflHT c e 6 e BbipaaceHHe β c/ihhom cyφφHKce, τ ο , H a n p o r a e , β TypeuKOM cocymecTBOBaHHe 3HaneHHH npeepamaeTca bo BpeMeHHyio uenb. CoHeTaeMocTb Η B3aHMOfleñcTBHe a e y x KOHKypHpyiomHx Η Β ocHOBe CBOeH npOTHBOnOHOMCHblX φaKTOpOB, T. e. ΟΛΗΟΒρβΜβΗΗΟΓΟ cocymecTBOBaHH« c ο λ η ο η cTopoHbi η ΒρβΜβΗΗόή nocjie^oBaTejibHOCTH c apyroH, aBjiaeTca, noacajiyfi, HaHÖojiee xapaKTepHblM npOHBJieHHeM ÜJIQH ΒρβΜβΗΗ Β CTpyKType Η 5ΚΗ3ΗΗ a3bIKa. Bo3HHKaH)T MHoroo6pa3Hbie κ ο η Φ λ η κ τ μ Meacjiy OTyMa acneKTaMH ΒρβΜβΗΗ. 3 τ ο e ο λ η ο η CTopoHbi le temps de l'énonciation, h c a p y r o H CTopoHbi le temps é n o n c é . CTOJiKHOBeHHe s t h x a e y x o ô j i h k o b ΒρβΜβΗΗ ocoöeHHo apKO npoaBJiaeTca β cjiOBecHOM hcKyccTBe. riocKOJibKy penb, β nacTHocTH penb xy^oacecTBeHHaa, pa3BepTbiBaeTca bo ΒρβΜβΗΗ, HeoziHOKpaTHo β h c t o p h h HanpauiHBajiocb coMHeHHe, B03M0acH0 u h npeoflOJieTb β HCKyccTBe cnoBa 3TOT φ a κ τ HenpepbiBHoro BpeMeHHÓro TOKa, π ρ ο τ κ Β ο π ο CTaBJiaiomHH πο33ηκ> CTaTHHecKOMy xapaKTepy hchbohhch. BcTaBajl BOnpOC, Β03Μ05ΚΗ0 J1H Β HCHBOIIHCH ΛΒΗ>ΚβΗΗβ, Η 33ΚΟΗΟΜβρHa jih CTaTHHecKaa onncaTejibHOCTb πο33ηη. Mohcho jih nepeaaTb cpe^cTBaMH p e n e e o r o noTOKa onncaHHe cH/iamero Ha κοΗβ h BOopy^ceHHoro pbiuapa, h j i h 3aKOHbi a3biKa Tpe6yioT, m t o ô u Taicaa cueHa 6buia no/iaHa KaK paccKa3 ο n p o u e c c e oöJianeHHa pbiuapa η o 6 oce/uiaHHn KOHa. Β 3tom CMbicjie apryMeHrapoBaji Π03Τ HeMeuKoro KJiaccHUH3Ma G o t t h o l d E p h r a i m Lessing (1729—

496

BECERI

üOSTHHeCKOM 5KHB0nHCaHHH 3aM6HHTb COCymeCTBOBaHHe ΒρβΜβΗΗΟΗ nOCJie^OBaTejibHOCTbK). Ho MJiafliiiHH coöpaT JleccHHra, Johann Gottfried Herder ( 1 7 4 4 — 1 8 0 8 ) OTBenaji 3amHT0K> 0,qH0BpeMeHHbix HBJieHHH Β Π033ΗΗ, npH/iaiOIUHX βΗ CnOCOÔHOCTb npeOflOJieTb JIHHeÖHyK) nocjie^OBaTejibHOCTb nepe^aeaeMbix coömthh. HeB03M0»CH0CTb coHeTaTb β a3biKe HeycTaHHbiH χο,α paccKa3a C φaKTOM pa3JIHHHbIX ΟΛΗΟΒρβΜβΗΗΜΧ H ΠρΗΤΟΜ pa3HOMeCTHbIX ^eñcTBHH oÖHapyacHBaeTca, KaK noKa3an HaÔJïKwaTejibHbiH nojibCKHH KnaccHHecKHH φΗϋοποΓ Taaeyiu 3ejiHHCKHH ( 1 8 6 9 — 1 9 4 4 ) , Β 3ΠΗΗβοκοΗ TpaflHUHH Hjiuddbi, r ^ e flesTejibHOCTb ΟΛΗΗΧ coynacTHHKOB paccKa3a conpoBoac^aeTca ΟΛΗΟΒρβΜβΗΗΜΜ hcHe3HOBeHHeM h naccHBHbiM 6e3^eñcTBHeM npoHHX nepcoHa»ceH. HHbie no3THHecKHe π ο λ χ ο λ μ , HanpoTHB, oTKpbieaiOT BO3MO)kHOCTb AHHaMHHeCKOH nepe^aHH pa3HOMeCTHOH ΟΛΗΟΒρβΜβΗHOCTH. noBecTByeMoe BpeMa 06paTHM0. PaccKa3 npii6eraeT κ peTpOCneKTHBHbIM BOCnOMHHaHHHM HJIH npOCTO HaHHHaeTCa c pa3B83KH Η ΠβρβΧΟΛΗΤ Κ 3aB«3Ke. HaKOHeiJ, paCCKa3HHK MOHCeT Henocpe^CTBeHHO npHnwcaTb Bbi/iyMaHHOH fleñcTBHTejibHocra oöpaTHbrä χ ο λ aeöcTBHH, KaK STO 6bijio 3aMeMaTejxbHo ocymecTBJieHO 3HaHHTejibHeHLUHM pyccKHM Π03Τ0Μ Harnero BeKa BejinMHpOM XjieÖHHKOBblM, ΠρΗΗβΜ ΓβρΟΗ IIOB6CTBOBaHHa, ΠβρβΧΟ,αΒ ruar 3a maroM οτ KOHua >kh3hh κ ee MJiafleHMecKOMy HCTOKy, β 1 7 8 1 ) , npeZUiaraBLUHH Β

np0CTpaHCTB6HH06

τ ο »ce BpeMa 6ece,qyK>T ο π ρ ο ι π π ο Μ h ö y ^ y m e M β Ο6ΜΗΗΟΜ,

cpejmeBeKOBaa nacxajibHaa ZipaMa, coneraioinaa β ce6e MHCTepmo npaBe^HHKOB η (jjapc 3aypflflHbix, napoOTHHbix nepcoHaxceñ, HaBH3biBaeT noc.rie,aHHM flea BpeMCHHbix njiaHa: OHH c ΟΛΗΟΗ CTopoHbi coynacTByioT β χο,αβ eeaHrejibCKHx co6biTHH, npezmiecTBytOLUHX B o c K p e c e H H i o XpHCTOBy, c i i p y r o H »ce CTopoHbi npe^BKyiuaiOT r o ^ n M H o e n a c H e n e p e e e p H y T O M n o p a ^ K e . HaKOHeu,

xajibHoe nHpmecTBO, TaK HTO eeaHrejibCKHe c o ô h t h h BbicTynaiOT ΟΛΗΟΒρεΜβΗΗο KaK (})aKT / l a j i e K o r o

npouuioro h KaK ΠΟΒΤΟΡΗΜΗ

ο 6 ο ρ ο τ o n e p e ^ H o r o K a n e H ^ a p H o r o r o j i a . CJIOBOM, noBecTBOBaTejibHoe BpeMa, 0 C 0 6 e H H 0 β nosTHHecKOH p e ™ , MoaceT 6biTb

OilHOJIHHeHHbIM Η ΜΗΟΓΟΛΗΗβΗΗΜΜ, npaMbIM H 06pameHHbIM, cnJioiiiHbiM h npepbiBHCTbiM, h flaace coHeTaTb, KaK β n o c j i e / m e M npHM"epe, jiHHeHHOCTb c Kpyroo6pa3HocTbK). Tpy^HO, ziyMaio, HaHTH npHMep, pa3Be ητο β My3biKe, 6ojiee ocTpo nepeacuBaeMoro BpeMeHH. Ά yôeacaeH, hto MaKCHMajibHo aeñcTBeHHbiM nepeacuBaHtieM

ΒΡΕΜΕΗΗΟΗ ΦΑΚΤΟΡ Β Λ3ΜΚΕ Η JIHTEPATYPE

497

CJIOBeCHOrO ΒρβΜβΗΗ aBJlSeTCfl CTHX, ΠρΗΗβΜ 3ΤΟ Β paBHOH CTeπεΗΗ KacaeTCH cTHxa ycTHoro, cjxxnbKjiopHoro, a TaKace KHHHCΗΟΓΟ, jiHTepaTypHoro, noTOMy HTO CTHX, KAK CTporo ΜβτρΗΗβCKHH, Tax H BOJIBHBIH (vers libre), HeceT β ceöe οΛΗΟΒρβΜβΗΗΟ o6e H3bIK0BbIX pa3HOBHflHOCTH ΒρβΜβΗΗ — ΒρβΜΗ ΟΟΟθΐΙΙβΗΗΗ Η cooömeHHoe BpeMa (the announcement's time and the time announced). CTHX npHHazuieacHT κ ρβπβΒΟΗ, ΜθτορΗθ-aKycTHHeCKOH, Henocpe^cTBeHHo nepeacHBaeMOH .aeaTejibHocTH, Η B TO x e BpeMS CTHXOTBOpHblH CTPOH nepeHCHBaeTCa H3MH Β TeCHOH CB33H — 6yab το conimene HUH KOHCJUIHKT — c ceMäHTHKoii CTHXOTBOPΗΟΓΟ TeKCTa H, T3KHM 06pa30M, aBJiaeTca ΗβοτρΜΒΗοή HacTbio pa3BHBaeMOH (J)a6yjibi. TpyaHO ce6e ^a»ce npe/rcTaBHTb 6oJiee npocToe Η ΟΛΗΟΒρβΜβΗΗΟ 6oJiee cjiOMCHoe, öojiee Harjia^Hoe H 6ojiee OTBJieneHHoe nepe>KHBaHHe BpeMeHHÓro TOKa. Κ. Π. XapaKTepHo, KaK omymajiH ΒρβΜβΗΗόή tJjaKTop β cTHxe caMbie 3HaHHTejibHbie nosTbi Hanajia Bexa. TaKHx .qea pa3Hbix no3Ta, KaK BJIOK Η MaaKOBCKHH, 06a CHHTajiH ΒρβΜβΗΗόή 3JieΜΒΗΤ onpeaeiraiomHM HaqajioM TBopnecKoro aKTa β co3/iaHHH CTHxa. PHTM ,zyia HHX 6biJi nepBHneH, CJIOBO — BTOPHHHO. MaaKOBCKHH B CBoeÄ H3BecTHOH öponiiope Κακ òenamb cmuxu nncaji o Hakane paöoTbi Ha/i JHOÖMM HOBUM CTHXoTBopeHHeM: "Ä xoacy, pa3MaxHBaa pyKaMH H Mbma eme ΠΟΗΤΗ 6e3 CJIOB, το yKopaHHBaa mar, HTOÖM He MemaTb MbinaHHio, το noMbiKHBaio öbicTpee β TaKT uiaraM. — TaK o6cTpyrHBaeTca H o4>opMJiaeTca PHTM — ocHOBa BcaKoii n03THHecK0H BemH, npoxoflamaa nepe3 Hee ryJIOM. IIOCTeneHHO H3 3 Τ 0 Γ 0 ryjia HaHHHaetUb BblTHCKHBaTb οτZiejibHbie cjiOBa. ...OTKyaa ΠΡΗΧΟΛΗΤ 3TOT OCHOBHOH ryji-ρκτΜ — HeH3BecTHO. UNA MeHa STO BcaKoe ποΒΤορβΗΗβ BO MHe 3ByKa, rnyMa, noKaHHBaHHa HJIH aa»ce Booöme ποΒτορβΗΗβ Ka^c/ioro aBjieHHa, κοτοροβ a Bbwejiaio 3ByKOM." BJIOK Β CTaTbe "ΠΟ33ΗΒ 3aroBopoB H 3aKjiHHaHHH" Β CBOIO onepe^b roBopHJi o TOM, KaK TpopnecKaa CHjia pHTMa "no/jHHMaeT CJIOBO Ha Χρβ6τβ My3bIKaJIbHOH BOJIHbl, Η pHTMHieCKOe CJIOBO 3aocTpaeTca KaK cTpena, jieTamaa npaMO Β uejib".

P. Ά. KaK no£CKa3biBaeT caMaa STHMOJiorna JiaTHHCKoro τβρMHHa versus, CTHX 3AKJIK)HAET H^eio peryjiapHoro B03BpaTa, Β προTHBOnOJIOHCHOCTb Γφ03β, KOTOpyiO 3THMOJIOrHHeCKHH COCTaB JiaTHHCKoro TepMHHa prosa (provorsa) pncyeT KaK ziBHaceHHe, Hanpa-

498

EECEßbl

BjiCHHoe πρΗΜΟ Bnepefl. Β nepeacHBaHHH c r a x a ποοτοηηηο coaep>KHTCH h Henocpe^cTBeHHoe omymeHHe HacToamero BpeMeHH, η omaflKa Ha HMnyjibc npeamecTByiomnx c t h x o b , h >KHBaa aHTHiiHnauHH c t h x o b nocjieayiomHX. 3 t h τ ρ κ conpaaceHHbix nepeacHBaHHH cjiaraioTca β 5KH3HeHHyio n r p y HHBapnaHTa h BapnaiiHH, t . e. BHymaiOT h aBTopy, h MHTaTejiio, h ^eiuiaMaTopy, h cjiymaTenio KOHCTaHTy c t h x o t b o p h o t o pa3Mepa, pacuBeneHHyio h o6orameHHyK) OTCTyruiCHHSMH h yicnoHaMH. Β rjiyÖOKOH CBA3H C ρ33ΒΗΤΗΘΜ H3bIKa ΟφορΜΓΊΗβΤΟΗ nepeHCHBaHHe BpeMeHH y peôeHKa. Jlnuib cpaBHHTejibHO He/iaBHO HaôjifoaaTejiHMH ^eTCKoro ocBoeHHa peHH 6biJio 3aMeneHO, h t o peöeHOK HepeflKO π ο μ η η τ CTapniHH 3Tan CBoero objt a n e m i a H3biKOM. PeöeHOK jik>6ht roBopHTb o H3biKe, misi Hero MeTaa3biKOBbie onepauHH — cymecTBeHHoe opy^He jiHHrBHCTHnecKoro pa3BHTHa. O h BcnoMHHaeT: " K o r ^ a a 6biJi ManeHbKHM, a γοβοPHJi TaK-TO, a Tenepb HHane, b o t TaK." M a n o τογο, β η γ ρ ο β ο μ nopaflKe h j t h « e /yia τογο, η τ ο 6 η CHHCKaTb öojibme h o k h o c t h η ÖJiaroacejiaTejibHocTH co cTOpoHbi B3pocjibix, oh π ο ρ ο ή πρΗHHMaeTca roBopHTb no-npeacHeMy, πο-MJiazieHHecKOMy. TpoMaflHyio pojib β zieTCKOM npHoôpeTeHHH a3biKa HrpaeT aBJieHHe, κοTopoe rjiyôoKHH aaTCKHH aHajiHTHK a3biKa Otto Jespersen (I860— 1943) OKpecTHJi shifters. IIonbiTKa nepeeo^a s t o t o TepMHHa Ha a p y r a e a3biKH, HanpHMep, φpaH^y3Cκaa — "embrayeurs" h j i h pycCKaa — "nepeioiioHameAu", He npHBHJiacb, h HâHMeHOBaHHe shifters Boiujio β MeacayHapoflHbiH ο 6 η χ ο λ . MHe noHaTHe shifters H3^aBHa npeacTaBjiaeTca ο λ η η μ h3 KpaeyrojibHbix KaMHeñ j i h h t b h c t h k h , He/iooueHeHHbiM β npornjiom h Tpe6yiomHM Bee öojiee npHCTanbHOH pa3pa6oTKH. 0 6 m e e

SHaneHHe rpaMMaranecKOH φορΜΜ, HMeHyeMoñ "ηΐΗφτβρ", o t j i h HaeTCH τβΜ, Ητο β cocTaB ee o ô m e r o 3HaqeHHa β χ ο λ η τ ccbiJiKa Ha aaHHbiH peneBOH aKT, t . e. Ha peneBOH 3κτ, β cocTae κ ο τ ο ρ ο Γ ο

BKjiHDMeHa 3Ta φορΜ3. TaK, HanpHMep, n p o m e a m e e BpeMa — "ΐΗΗφτερ", noTOMy h t o 6yKBanbHoe 3HaMeHne npomezuuero BpeMeHH — 3ΤΟ yKa3aHHe Ha coôbiTHe, npe,qmecTByioinee ziaHHOMy peneBOMy aKTy. IlepBoe j i h u o rjiarojia, h j i h ace MecTOHMeHHe nepΒΟΓΟ JIHIja — 3TO "ΠΙΗφτερ" nOTOMy, HTO Β OCHOBHOe 3HaneHHe nepBoro JiHua β χ ο λ η τ ccbiJiKa Ha aBTopa aaHHoro peneeoro aKTa, TaK ace KaK MecTOHMeHHe BToporo jiHua co^epacHT ccbijiKy Ha

a^pecaTa, κ KOTopoMy ziaHHbm peneBOH aKT oôpameH. MeHaioTca aapecaHTbi h a^pecaTbi 6ece,gbi, cooTBeTCTBeHHo MaTepnajibHoe

ΒΡΕΜΕΗΗΟΐί ΦΑΚΤΟΡ Β Λ 3 Η Κ Ε Η Λ Η Τ Ε Ρ Α Τ Υ Ρ Ε 3HaHeHHe φ ο ρ Μ Μ " a " η φ ο ρ Μ Μ " τ μ " nepeKJiioHaeTCfl (it

499 shifts).

>KejiaTe^bHOCTb b k j i i o h s h h s r p a M M a r a n e c K o r o ΒρβΜβΗΗ β »3biΚΟΒΟΗ 00ΗΧ0Λ peÔeHKa B03HHKaeT Β TOT OTHOCHTejIbHO paHHHH 3Tan e r o OBjia^eHHa nepBbiM a3biKOM, K o r ^ a /jeôfOTaHT peneBOH zieflTejibHocTH n e p e c T a e T yzzoBJieTBopaTbca

HenocpeacTBeHHOH

CJIOB6CHOH peaKUHeH Ha n p o n c x o , a a m e e β ^ η η η η m o m c h t npaMO β c o 6 c t b 6 h h o m K p y r e e r o 3peHHa. Β e r o p e ™ BnepBbie b o 3 h h KaeT φpa3a c c y ö t e i c T O M h ripe/micaTOM, n03B0Jiai0maa npHiiHCbiBaTb c y ö i e K T y pa3JiHHHbie npe^HicaThi h o t h o c h t L · KaaoibiH n p e ^HKaT κ pa3JiHHHbiM c y ó t e r r a M . 3 τ ο ΗΟΒΟΒΒβ,αβΗΗβ ocbo6o>kflaeT peôeHKa, n o r a i n a e T e r o 33BHCHMOCTb ο τ hic et nunc, τ . e. ο τ HenOCpe/ICTBeHHO /laHHOH ΒρβΜβΗΗΟΗ H npOCTpaHCTBeHHOH 0 6 CTaHOBKH. OTHbIHe OH MOaceT TOBOpHTb O TOM, MTO npOHCXOÄHT Ha BpeMeHHÓM h npocTpaHCTBeHHOM paccToaHHH ο τ H e r o , h c n e peMeHHOCTbK) η ο χ ο λ η μ χ nyHKTOB BpeMeHHbix h npocTpaHCTBeHHbix o h ycBaHBaeT Taicace Η,αβιο H e p e a y i o m H x c a

coynacTHHKOB

p e n e B o r o o ö m e H H a . Β penb p e ö e H K a npoHHKaeT H ^ e a ΒρβΜβΗΗ, a TaKHce H ^ e a 6 o j i b m e H 6 j i h 3 0 c t h h j i h OT^aneHHOCTH β π ρ ο CTpaHCTBeHHOM n j i a H e : λ h mu, Moe η meoe, 3decb η mau,

cwòa

η

myòa. Κ. Π.

M s B e e r ò BaMH cica3aHHoro aecTByeT, mto Ka>KZibiH a3biKO-

BOH aKT h icaamoe a3biK0B0e aBjieHHe — ο τ Φ ο η θ μ μ

no

npow3-

ΒβΛβΗΗΗ CJlOBeCHOrO HCKyCCTBa — HeH36eHCHO ΒΧΟΛΗΤ Β ΛΒΟβΚΗβ BpeMeHHbie paMKH: TaKoea c ο λ η ο η CTopoHbi jiHHeHHaa n o c j i e ^OBaTejibHocTb, a c .qpyroH CTopoHbi CTporaa o^HOBpeMeHHOCTb. Β 3TOM h cHJia, h OTHOCHTejibHaa orpaHHHeHHOCTb a3biKa KaK c p e a c T B a BbipaaceHHa, c o m a c H O BbimeynoMHHyTOMy KJiaccHnecKOMy c n o p y Meacqy J l e c c H H r o M η T e p a e p o M . /lyMaeTca, h t o 6 o p b 6 a 3a n p e o a o j i e H H e s t h x paMOK, aim

»ce

Ha060p0T — HX HCn0JIb30BaHHe ÄJia BCe HOBblX 3φφβΚΤΟΒ, Β 3HaMHTejibHOH CTeneHH o n p e a e j i a e T HOBbix

HCKyCCTBa. O f l H a

pa3BHTHe η π ο η ο κ η

H3 caMbix

coBpeMeHHbix

ero

pa3Hbix φορΜ

— KHHO — H a r j i a ^ H e e e c e r o nbiTaeTca coe^HHHTb ΟΛΗΟΒρβΜβΗHOCTb c jiHHeHHOCTbK), η s t o τβΜ ö o j i e e xapaKTepHO, η τ ο c o e p e MeHHoe KHHO c o n e T a e T c j i o b o η o6pa3. C M e j i y i o nonbiTKy 3 T o r o p o f l a npe,anpHHaji A l a i n R e s n a i s β φ κ ^ Μ β

"Ποαπε,αΗΗΗ γ ο λ β

M a p H e H Ö a n e " ( " L I A n é e D e r n i è r e a M a r i e n b a d " ) , r a e icazipbi n p o u i e , m u e r o ΒρβΜβΗΗ "HacKaKHBaioT" Ha Ka,apbi H a c T o a m e r o n e ñ c T BHH — Β TOCTO TeXHHHeCKOM, ΚΗΗεΜ3ΤΟΓρ3φΗΗβΟΚΗ flOCHOBHOM

500

BECE/IM

CMbicjie. TaKHM 06pa30M CO3AAETCA ΘΛΗΗΟΤΒΟ OÖOHX ΚΟΜΠΟΗΒΗTOB 83biKa — o3HaHaioLnero h 03HanaeMoro, τ. κ. HHTpHra nocTpoeHa BOKpyr ΠΟΟΤΟΗΗΗΟΓΟ cnjieTeHHH npouie^mero c HacToaIHHM Β BOCnpHHTHH ΓβρΟβΒ. Β TOM » β HanpaBJI6HHH ABHÄyTC« ycHjiHa HeKOTopbix coBpeMeHHbix CKyjibiiTopoB, nbrraiomHxca npeo,aojieTb CTaTHKy caMoro MaTepnana H nocTpoHTb cKyjibnTypHblMH

Cpe^CTBaMH

HCKHH

IIOBeCTBOBaTCJIbHO-CHMBOJIHMeCKHH

ρ«Λ, nepe^aiomHH npoTeicaHHe BpeMßHH.

VILI. N P O C T P A H C T B E H H B L H

ΦΑΚΤΟΡ

Κ. Π . Π ο ο π β Λ Η Η Η KOMnjieKC npoöjieM — Bonpoc o "mmJjTepax", 0C06eHH0 Hx pojib Β πρΗοόρβτβΗΗΗ fl3biKa peôeHKOM — nepeHOCHT Hac COÔCTBeHHO Β OÖJiaCTb npOCTpaHCTBa. 3 τ ο τ Bonpoc Β Π ρ Η Μ β Η β Η Η Η Κ H3bIKOBbIM Π β ρ β Μ β Μ Μ ÖbIJI B a M H ΒΠβρΒΗβ ΠΟHOBOMy nocTaBJieH nojiBeica TOMy Ha3a,a Β paöoTe Κ xapanmepu-

cmme eepa3uùcKozo ΛΜκοβοζο comía. Πο-HOBOMy ocBemajiacb npoÖJieMa 3ByKOBOH 3BOJIK1UHH H3biKa. OKa3ajiocb, HTO Hapa^y C rCHCTHHSCKHM Β 83bIK0B0H 3BOJIKDUHH CKa3bIBaeTCa npOCTpaHCTBeHHbiH (jjaKTop. Cocedcmeo B3aMeH podcmea. K a x Bbi πρΗίιυΐΗ κ 3TOH Hflee? C y m e c T B O B a n H JIH ΛΠΗ Hee TeopeTHHecKHe npeanocbiJiKH Β ToraaiiiHeH HayKe? P. Λ. HeH3Öe»cHO paccToaHHe Meacny jjeyMH co6ece,oHHKaMH, h paccTOHHHe MeHaeTca Β 3aBHCHMOCTH OT Toro, κ KOMy oôpaïqeHa peHb. HaiiiH a3biKOBbie cpeacTBa no/uioKaT nepeMeHaM Β 33ΒΗCHMOCTH OT Toro, orpaHHHHBaeTca JIH ynacTHe Β pa3roBope ΛΟMaiiiHHM KpyroM HJIH ace Mbi o ö p a m a e M c a c penbio κ coce^HM, κ ΛΙΟΛΗΜflpyrorooKOJioTKa, apyroH nacTH ropoaa, apyrnx oicpyΓΟΒ CTpaHbi. Pa3yMeeTca, κ pa3JiHHHaM MHCTO npocTpaHCTBeHHbiM npHCoe^HHaioTca pa3,aejieHHa couHajibHoro Η KyjibiypHoro xapaKTepa. CJIOBOM, Mbi nona^aeM Β Kpyr BonpocoB reorpa({)HHeCKOH Η COIIHaJIbHOHflHajieKTOJIOrHH.Ka5KflbIH H3 Hac B ÖOJIbUieH HJIH MeHbinen cTeneHH o6jiaaaeT HHTepzmajieKTHOH cnocoôHOCTbK). Mbi 0C03HaeM peieBbie pa3JiHHHa Me^cay Η3ΜΗ H HaiiiHMH COÔECEFLHHKAMH ANA ΤΟΓΟ, HTOÖM noHHMaTb nocjieaHHX, Η

TaKHM 06pa30M no MeHbiueii Mepe naccHBHo, τ. e. Β POJIH cjiyiiiaTejieH, OEAAAEBAEM CMCXHUMH anajieKTaMH. Majio ΤΟΓΟ, MM

ecTecTBeHHO CTpeMHMca β ôojibiiieH HJIH MeHbineÄ CTeneHH πρκ6jìH3HTbca κ roBopy coôece^HHKa h TaKHM 06pa30M nacTHHHO OBJiaaeeaeM ocoöeHHOcraMH ero anajieKTa. Β τ ο μ HaiiieM peneΒ Ο Μ κοΛβ, KOTOpbiH cocciopoBCKaa JiHHrBHCTHKa Ha3biBaeT langue,

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parole,

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p a 3 H O p O O T b I X 3 J i e M e H T O B , K O T O p b I M H M b l Β 3 a B H C H M O C T H OT Ηβp e f l b i M e H a i o m H x c H c o ô e c e ^ H H K O B n o j i b 3 y e M c a η KaK a ^ p e c a T b i , h KaK a ^ p e c a H T b i . Β s t o m j i o k h t o ^ H a H3 n p e ^ n o c b i j i O K a K T y a j i b HOH M H o r o c o c T a B H O C T H

Harnero Ko^a —

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j i H u o K O M n e T e H T H O ( h m c h h o κ ο Μ π β τ β Η Τ Η ο ) CBOÖOflHO flHTb

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n o Mepe H a a o Ö H O C T H ο τ ο λ η ο γ ο cyÖKO^a κ a p y r o M y .

E c j i h Μ Η φ o H e n o f l B H Ä H o e T H C H C T C M b i H C H e 3 a e T H3 H a r n e r o n O f l X O f l a Κ H3bIKOBbIM H 3 M 6 H C H H S M , Η B p e M f l Β KaHSCTBö

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T p e H H e r o φ a κ τ o p a β χ ο λ η τ β a H a j i H 3 η 3 μ κ ο β μ χ c h c t c m , t o β cbok> O H e p e f l b 3TOT a H a j i H 3 n o 6 y » c a a e T B K J i i o M H T b n p o c T p a H C T B o β K p y r BHyTpeHHHx

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H3biKOBOH C H C T e M e H a p a a y c H H B a p H a H T a M H m m o Ö H a p y a c H B a e M MHOaceCTBO K O H T Ê K C T y a j I b H b l X B a p H a U H H . Π θ Λ K O H T C K C T y a j I b H b I M pa3JiHHHeM 3^ecb cjie^yeT n o H H M a T b β n e p e y t o o n e p e ^ b pa3JinHHe K p y r a c o ö e c e ^ H H K O B , h o c e e p x τ ο γ ο m m n o J i b 3 y e M c a ^ H a n e K T H b l M H B a p H a U H S M H Β Ka^eCTBe CTHJIHCTHHeCKHX C p e a C T B . C O O T BeTCTBCHHO, Β 3 a B H C H M O C T H OT T e M b l Η H a i l i e r O Κ Η β Η OTHOIIieHHfl, M b i j i h 6 o y c H a m a e M H a i i i H B b i c K a 3 b i B a H H a π ο λ ο 6 η μ μ η jieKTH3MaMH, j i h 6 o HanpoTHB, CTapaTejibHO ο τ h h x

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.aejie 3 T H K a H O H b i c o c T a B J i a i O T e r o H60TT>6MJi6Myi0 n a c T b . Β cBeTe 3 t h x cooöpaaceHHÖ pa^HKajibHo MeHaeTca H a m e π ο η η M a H H e Λ Η φ φ γ 3 Η Η . OTna,qaK>T T p a f l H U H O H H b i e n o n b i T K H n p o B e c T H npHHUHnHajibHyio, aôcojiioTHyK) rpaHHuy Meacay n o H a r a e M onar a H 3 M C H C H H H Η 3 0 H 0 Í Í H X 3 K C n a H C H H . C a M O ΠΟ C e 6 e H 3 M e H e H H e aBJiaeTca HecoMHeHHO η HeroöeacHO SKcnaHCHeft. T o j i b K O Korzia n e p B H H H a a OÔMOJIBKa C T a H O B H T C a Π Ο Β Τ Ο ρ Η Μ Μ φ 3 Κ Τ 0 Μ Β p e n e B O M o Ô H x o ^ e ee 3aHHHiijnKa h no,axBaTbiBaeTCfl e r o ö j i p w h h m h , OHa H3 e a H H H H H O Ö Η3ΜβΗβΗΗ3,

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Β COIJHajIbHblH

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jiHiiib roziaMH cnycTfl, H3MeHeHHe npHoôpeTaeT

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Bo3mo>kho j i h , HTo6bi 3anaTKOM H3MeHeHHa 6biJi c z i h h h h -

HbiH Jiancyc, h — cue^OBaeTJibHO — cocToaTejibHO j i h c a M o e n o H a THe " j i a n c y c " ? M o a c e T 6biTb, 3 a e c b .aeÄCTByioT KaKHC-το .apyrae CHJlbl?

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nPOCTPAHCTBEHHblfi Φ Α Κ Τ Ο Ρ P. Ά.

Π ο λ CJIOBOM "jiancyc", h j i h "oÖMOJiBKa" a no,apa3yMeBaio

eOTHHMHbiH yKjiOH OT cymecTByiomeH HopMbi, β ο 3 η η κ ι ι ι η η y ο τ ZiejibHbix r o B o p y H O B , h o He CTaBJiK) Bonpoca o t o m , 6biji u h 3 t o t yioioH HHCTOH c/iynaiiHOCTbK), h j i h »ce β ΗβΜ TaHJiHCb 3JieMeHTbi

xoTH 6bi He0C03HaHH0H npeanaMepeHHOcTH. E c j i h s t o 6 b m o ο λ HOH JIHLUb ΗβΗΗΗΗΗΟΗ ΟΓΟΒΟρΚΟΗ, TO Ηβ OCTaeTCa OCHOBaHHH a n a ee noBTopeHHa caMHM o ö m o j t b h b l u h m c h h j i h ace ero oicpy»caiomHMH. E c j i h noBTopeHHe npoHcxo^HT η m h o ä h t c h , t o HanHuo, BHe BCHKoro coMHeHHfl, .aojiaceH 6biTb, nycTb 6ecco3HaTejibHblH, cnpoc Ha ero ΠρΗΜβΗβΗΗβ, ΠρΗΗβΜ npe^ejlbl, npe^Ha3HaHeHHbie Ha nepBbix nopax TaKOMy noBTopHOMy πρΗΜβΗβΗΗΐο, MoryT 6biTb pa3JiHHHbi η β OTHouieHHH Kpyra r o B o p a m n x j i h i j , η npHMeHHTejIbHO Κ PRMKHM ΤΟΓΟ CTHJIH p e H H , Β ΚΟΤΟΡΟΜ 3TO HOBrnecTBO HaxoflHT c e 6 e n o i B y . E r o ,najibHeHiiiHH n e p e x o f l h3 ο a Horo CTHJIH β a p y r n e η B e e 6 o j i e e iunpoKoe o6o6meHHe ero π ρ κ MeHHMOCTH β H3biKe onaTb-TaKH npeanojiaraeT φ3κτ

cnpoca,

φ3ΚΤ 3aHHTepeCOBaHHOCTH, Hy»JlbI β ßaHHOM HOBIIieCTBe no/i yrjioM 3peHHa η 3 μ κ ο β ο η CHCTeMbi η ee HocHTejien. Ο λ η η μ

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nyTeH, CO^eHCTByiOmHX BSCHBaHHIO, yCTOHHHBOCTH Η ZiaJIbHeHi n e M y pacnpocTpaHeHHio HOBiuecTBa aBJiaeTca sjuinnTHHecKHH cTHJib penn, r a e , HanpHMep, yTpaTa

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yTpaTOH φοΗοιιοΓΗΗεϋκοΓο

pa3JiHHHa,

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TaKH, TOJibKo β t o m cjiynae, ecjiH β CHCTeMe ecTb cnpoc Ha ero ynpa3OTeHHe, τ. e. Ha Tax Ha3biBaeMyio £e0oHOJiorH3auHio, h j i h ace HMeeTca cnpoc Ha 3aMeHy ο λ η ο γ ο φ0H0JI0ΓHι^ecκ0Γ0 pa3JiHHHa flpyrHM, npeac^e η 3 6 μ τ ο η η μ μ . 3 t o ο λ η η h3 acneKTOB m h o r006pa3H0r0 SBJieHHa Τρ3ΗΰφθΗθπθΓΗ33ΙΙΗΗ, COrjiaCHO TepMHHy, KOTopbiH a npHMeHHJi, BnepBbie π ο λ ο η λ α

κ s t o h npoôJieMe β

1923 rofly, Ha οβιυβφοΗοποΓΗΗβΰΚΗΧ cTpaHHuax κ η η γ η o neinCKOM CTHXe. Oco6eHHO

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3ByKOBbIX

Η3ΜβΗβΗΗΗ,

npoHCxoflamnx Ha HaiiiHX rjia3ax β a3biKax, aocTynHbix nocToaHHOMy Ha6jiK)zieHHK) pa3JiHHHbix j i h h t b h c t o b . TaKOBa TeHfleHuna κ yTpaTe 3HaHHMoro pa3JiHHHa Meacjiy HanpaaceHHbiMH h HeHanpaaceHHbiMH rjiacHbiMH φρ3Ηίΐγ30κθΓθ a3biKa, KaK HanpHMep

saute - sotte, pâte - patte, πρκπβΜ β ο λ η η χ zinajieKTax 3Ta yTpaTa He BbiiiiJia h3 n p e ^ e j i o B HeöpeacHoro, öbicTpoTeMnHoro, 3JiJiHnTHMecKoro cTHJia p e n n , β A p y r a x ace roBopax, no KpaHHen Mepe

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Β HeKOTopbix napax CJIOB, OHa pacnpocTpaHHjiacb Ha B c e pa3HOBHflHOCTH peHH. XlpyrHM xapaKTepHbiM c/iynaeM 6biJio ΟΤΜΒΜΒΗHoe (J)paHijy3CKHMH HaÖJiioflaTe^flMH y»ce Β KOHize npoiiijioro Bexa CTHpaHHe rpaHHu MEAC^Y HOCOBHMH rjiacHbiMH jia6Hajin30BaHHbi-

MH h Hejia6HajiH30BaHHbiMH: brun - brin, bon - ban. rioJiHoe ocymecTBjieHHe STOH TetmeHiWH ceejio 6bi HHBeHTapb HOCOBWX rjiacHbix κ pa3JiHMHK) Meacziy aa^Hen H n e p e ^ H e â apTHKyjiauHeH. OflHaKo TOJibKo ,aejia6HJiH3aijHH n e p e ^ H H x

jia6HajiH30BaHHbix

rjiacHbix HaiiiJia ce6e 3HaHHTejibHoe pacnpocTpaHeHHe,

jierKO

oô-bacHHMoe BTopHHHocTbK) coneTaHHa jia6HajiH30BaHH0H h najiaTajibHOH apTHKyjiaijHH, a Taiotce CKy^ocTbio ΟΜΟΗΗΜΗΗΘΟΚΜΧ nap, npoHCTeKaiomHx ο τ TaKoÄ .aejiaÖHaJiroaiiHH. YTpaTa pa3JIHHHH Meacfly BSJiapHblMH HOCOBbIMH, Jia6HajIH30BaHHbIMH Η ΗΒjia6HajiH30BaHHbiMH, He Hamna c e ö e cxoacero pacnpocTpaHeHHS H y^epMcajiacb jiHuib Β y3KHX paMKax HeöpeacHoro CTHJIH pe^H n o FLBYM NPHHHHAM: NEPBHHHOCTB CONETAHHFL JIAÔNAJIIOALIHH C BE-

napHOH apTHKyjraiíHeñ rjiacHbix H oÔHjme OMOHHMOB, B03HHKaBιιΐΗΧ npH yTpaTe .qaHHoro pa3JiHHH», HanpHMep r p o 3 a m a a Ηβ,αοPA3YMEHNAMH OMOHHMHH

cheveux blonds

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cheveux blancs.

ripocjieacHBaa HCTOPHIO Kaic 3ByKOBbix, TaK H rpaMMaraqecKHX Η3ΜβΗβΗΗΗ Β pa3JiHHHbix a3biKax, a Bce ô o j i e e npoHHKajica y 6 e « Λ β Η Η β Μ Β HeoÖXOflHMOCTH ΠΟΟΤΟΗΗΗΟΓΟ COHeTaHHa /iByx προTHBOnOJIOHCHblX CHJI, a HM6HHO Τ8ΓΗ Κ COXpaHCHHK) H, HaOÔOpOT, κ H a p y i i i e H H K ) QAHHORO p a B H O B e c n a . Β

STOM COCTOHT

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a3bIKOBOrO CAMOFLBHXCEHHA. Γ,ΤΜΒΗΜΜΗ npOBOflHHKaMH ΟΛΒΗΓΟΒ

paBHOBecHa

aBJiaioTca 3JIΛΗΠΤΗΗ6CKHH H 3KcnpeccHBHbiH

ac-

neKTbi peHH. CymecTBeHHyio pojib Β n e p e x o ^ e ο τ cTapmero n o pa,mca κ HOBOMy HrpaioT H3M6HeHHa, HanpaBJieHHbie κ BoccTaHoBJI6HHK) HapymeHHoro paBHOBecHa Β o 6 m e ñ JBMKOBOH cHCTCMe. Β 3TOM OTHOineHHH OHEHB YÖE^HTENBHBI npHBbiMHbie c p a B H S H H a

a3bIKOBOH 3BOJIIOUHH C IIIâXMaTHOH ΗΓρΟΗ. Pa3yMeeTca, BO3MOSKHM MHoroJiHMHbie HJIH ^aace MHoroMecTHbie npHMepbi ΒΟ3ΗΗΚΗΟΒΒΗΗΒ H noflXBaTa OT^ejibHbix jiancycoB, HO Η Β 3TOM CJiynae n e p e ^ HaMH CTOHT Bonpoc Ο BHyTpeHHHX a3biKOBbix n p e a n o c b m K a x , cnocoöcTBOBaBiiiHX MHoacecTBeHHOMy Β03ΗΗΚΗ0ΒβΗΗΚ) Η MHOÄCCCTBCHHOMy nOflXBaTy ΜΗΗΟΓΟ HOBiiiecTBa. KoHKypeHUHa Meacay n p H a r a e M Η H e n p H a r a e M HOBrnecTB OAHHaKOBO cnocoÖHa np0H30Ïira KaK Β onare, Tax Η Β ô o j i e e IHHPOKOH, ΒΤΟΡΗΗΗΟΗ 30Ηβ. Ü3BeCTHbIH KOH(j)OpMH3M npHCyiIJ K a ^ a o M y a3biKOBOMy KOJiJieKraey H Kaac^OMy e r o MjieHy. OCHOB-

nPOCTPAHCTBEHHblfi ΦΑΚΤΟΡ

505

HÖH BOnpOC Jie»CHT Β BblÔope BpeMCHHÓH HJIH npOCTpaHCTBeHHOH pa3HOBHjJHOCTH Κ0ΗΦ0ΡΜΗ3ΜΕ. YCBaHBaeTCa (})aKT, C6JIHÄaiOmHH flaHHblH KOJIJieKTHB C COCeflHMH, Β peHH KOTOpblX 3TOT ΦΗΚΤ yace yKopcHHJica, τ. e. φ a κ τ c ô n H x c a i o m H H h coaeHCTByiomHH OÖnerneHHIO B3aHMHOH KOMMyHHKaiJHH. IlpOCTpaHCTBeHHbie ΚΟΗΦΟΡΜΗΟΤΜ, yCBOHBIUHC 3T0T φaKT, OKa3bIBaiOTCa OTLUeneHUaMH OT COÔCTBÊHHOH 33bIKOBOH Tpa^HLlHH, T. β. ΒρβΜβΗHblMH ΗΟΗ-ΚΟΗφορΜΗΟΤβΜΗ. IIpOTHBOnOJIOHCHOe HBJICHH6 — OTKa3 OT ycBoeHHH c o c e / i c K o r o Η3ΗΚΟΒΟΓΟ ΛΟΟΤΟΑΗΗΗ BO HMH y q e p acaHHH C 0 6 C T B 6 H H 0 H J p a ^ H U H H , ABJiaeTCH OÖpaTHbIM npHMepOM Κ0Ηφ0ρΜΗ3Μ3 BpCMCHHÓrO Β COHCTaHHH C Η0Η-Κ0Ηφ0ρΜΗ3Μ0Μ npOCTpaHCTBeHHbIM. Ha3BaHHbIH npOCTpaHCTBeHHblH Κ0Ηφ0ρΜΗ3Μ He OrpâHHHH-

BaeTca οτΗοιιιβΗΗΗΜΗ HHTepanajieKTHbiMH, HO pacnpocTpaHaeTc a Η Ha oTHouiCHHa Meac^ya3biKOBbie. Β HaiiieM ΒΒΚΒ ΛΗΗΓΒΗΟΤΗ-

Ka BnepBbie Bcepbe3 CTOJiKHyjiacb c BonpocoM pacnpocTpaHeHHa φ 3 κ τ ο Β , xapaKTepHbix ansi a3biKOBbix CHCTËM, 3a n p e a e j i b i 3THX a3biKOB, πρΗΗβΜ TaKoe p a c n p o c T p a H e H H e , KaK oKa3ajiocb, o n e H b nacTO 3axBaTbiBaeT a a n e K H e n o CTpoio Η n o npoHCXoacueHHio H3bIKH, HHOrfla OrpaHHMHBaaCb npH 3TOM JIHIIIb MaCTHHHbIMH HX apeanaMH. 3 τ ο aBjieHHe no6y,QHjio npHHaTb τερΜΗΗ, n p e z u i o a c e H HbiH Η 060CH0BaHHbiH Tpy6eijKHM Β 1 9 2 8 r., Ha TaarcKOM M e » -

ayHapoflHOM Ci>e3zie ΙΙΗΗΓΒΗΟΤΟΒ, H npHCTynHTb κ pa3pa6oTKe noHBTHa "a3biK0Bbix COK)3OB" KaK Β ο φ ε ρ ε Μ 0 ρ φ 0 ϋ 0 Γ Η Η H CHHTaKCHca, TaK Η Β

Bonpocax 3ByKOBOH CTpyKTypbi. ΉΚ)6ΟΠΜΤΗΟ,

Ητο TaKHe M e » a y a 3 b i K O B b i e cTpyKTypHbie 0C06eHH0CTH, npHBJieKaa κ c e 6 e BHHMaHHe Hccjie/iOBaTejieH Ty3eMHbix a3biKOB A M e p H -

KH Η Α Φ Ρ Η Κ Η , ocTaBajiHCb öojibmeH HacTbio He3aMeHeHHbiMH Β a3biKax eBponeHCKo-a3HaTCKoro KOHTHHeHTa. TaKOH Bbi^aioinHHc a HaÖJTHD^aTejib OÔIIJHX 3ByKOBbix Η rpaMMaraHecKHx aBJieHHH, OXBaTHBUIHX ΙΙΙΗρΟΚΗβ 30HbI aMepHKaHCKO-HHFLHHCKHX H3bIKOB He33BHCHM0 OT HX n p o H c x o » c f l e H H a , KaK «DpaHij B o a c ( 1 8 5 8 — 1 9 4 2 ) , noHHJi, HTo 3TH o ö i i t f i e nepTbi OTHioflb He aBJiaiOTca noKa3aTejieM reHeTHHecKOH OÖIHHOCTH a3biKOB, HO Β τ ο ace BpeMa n p e a n o j i a r a n , HTO TaKaa M e a c ^ y H a p o ^ H a a SKcnaHCHa, BHAHMO, OKa3biBaeTca OCOÖeHHOCTbK) TOJIbKO aMepHKaHCKOH Η ΑΦΡΜ^ΗΟΚΟΗ a3bIKOBOH »CH3HH. O H 6biJi

paaocTHo H3yMJieH, K o r a a a n e p e ^ a n eMy CBOH

p a 6 o T b i Ο ΦΟΗΟΠΟΓΗΗΒΟΚΚΧ coK)3ax, HaÔJiioflaeMbix Β n p e ^ e j i a x C T a p o r o C e e T a . K o r a a Β τβπβΗΗβ 3 0 - x ΓΟΛΟΒ a BbicTynHJi Β n e n a TH C Π0Κ333ΗΗΒΜΗ θ 6 OÖUIHpHOM "6Bpa3HHCKOM a3bIKOBOM COJO-

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φΟΗΟΙΙΟΓΗΗβΟΚΙΙΜ

npOTHBOnOCTâBJieHHeM

co-

rjiacHbix c HajiH^iHeM h oTcyTCTBHeM najiaTajiH3auHH, u n o n y T H O 0xapaKTepH30Baji c o i o 3 H3MKOB, oKpyacaiomHX BajiTHHCKoe Mope H Ha^ejieHHbix φοΗοποΓΗπεοκΗΜ npoTHBonocTaBJieHHeM

ziByx

HHTOHaUHOHHO npOTHBOnOJIO)KHbIX ΤΗΠΟΒ y f l a p e H H « , 3 T H ΜΟΗ nenaTHbie p a ö o T b i h A O K j i a ß b i B b i 3 B a j i H H a n e p B b i x n o p a x ρ β 3 κ ο KpHTHieCKHe

OT3bIBbI φΜϋΟΙΙΟΓΜΗβΟΚΗΧ a B T O p H T 6 T O B ,

KOTOpbie

He n o f l B e p r a j i H c o m h c h h i o c o ô p a H H b i e mhoio φ a κ τ M , h o OTKa3biB a j i H C b n p H i i H c a T b T a K H M 3 H a K a M o ö i h h o c t h K a K o e 6bi τ ο h h 6 b m o HayHHoe Mepbi

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npocTOK)

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cjiyqaHHOCTbio.

MHoroHHCJieHHbie

BbißaioiHHHca

npw-

rojiJiaH^CKHH

van W i j k (1880—1941), β n e n a r a o M

oôcyacaeHHH

Bbl^BHHyTblX MHOIO aBJieHHH COnpOBOflHJI CBOe n p H 3 H a H H e HeAoyMeHHbiM B o n p o c o M : KaKHM 06pa30M B c ë STO o6i>acHHTb?

Β

H a c T o a m e e BpeMa H ^ e a a3biK0Bbix COK)3OB, KaK rpaMMaranecKHX, TaK h φ ο Η ο π ο Γ Η ΐ ε ο κ Η Χ , r j i y ö o K O yKopeHHJiacb β HayKe, η τ ο , κ ο ΗβΗΗΟ, He HCKJiioHaeT 6e3MOJiBHoro npoflOJiaceHHa 0nn03HijH0HHoro OTHOmeHHa npOTHB B03M0HCH0CTH npHCOe^HHHTb Κ Tpa^HUHOHHOMy, HHCTO r e H e r a n e c K O M y

noHaTHio

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a3bIKOBOrO pO^CTBa HOBOe, ΓβΟΙΤ^φΗΗβΟΚΗ OÔOCHOBaHHOe nOHarae

6 n a r o n p n o 6 p e T e H H O H OÔIIJHOCTH. H e M a j i o ΗΟΒΟΓΟ 6MJIO c,qe-

jiaHO c T e x n o p Β pa3bicKaHHH Η ö o j i e e t o h h o m

onpe^ejieHHH

pa3JIHHHbIX φΟΗΟπΟΓΗΗβΟΚΗΧ Η TpaMMaTHieCKHX C0I030B, HO, Κ coacajieHHK), Bcë e m e npo,qo;i)KaioT T0pM03HTb pa3BHTHe STHX HCcjieziOBaHHH TaKHe HenpocTHTejibHbie n o M e x H , KaK yace ynoMHHyT o e MHOIO OTcyTCTBne φ ο Η ο π ο ΐ Ή π ε ο κ ο ΐ Ό aTjiaca. 3 a r a ^ K a ziajreKO H e p e a K o r o β ο 3 η η κ η ο β 6 η η β h c y m e c T B O B a H H a TaKHX C 0 I 0 3 0 B j i e r K o p a 3 p e i u H M a . M b i y a c e KOCHyjiHCb Χ Ο Λ Ο Β Μ Χ n p H M e p o B c o n e T a H H a , j i h ô o n o j i H o r o , j i h ô o H a c T H i H o r o , pa3JiHHHblX XIHâJICKTOB Β HX H H f l H B H f l y a J I b H O M ynOTpe6jieHHH. Κ 3 T O M y a B j i e H H K ) n p H M b i K a e T K a a c ^ O M y H3BecTHbiñ, h o B c e e m e

He/io-

CTaTOHHO H3yMeHHbiH φ a κ τ flBya3biHHa h BHyTpeHHero ueHHOCTHoro cooTHomeHHa Meacay

flßyMa

a3biKaMH,

coBMemaiomHMHca

Β a 3 b i K O B O M MbiiiuieHHH HHflHBH^a. Β n o n e p e M e H H O M y n o T p e 6 j i e HHH 060HX a 3 b I K 0 B , Β HX OTHOCHTeJIbHOM c i u i a B e h p a 3 M e > K e B a HHH H a ô j n o f l a e T c a H e M a n o e pa3Hoo6pa3He. TaK,

HanpHMep,

pyccKHe

HHTejiuHreHTbi M o e r o

noKOJieHHa

J i e r K o n e p e x o z i a T Β p a 3 r o B o p e c o CBOHMH c o n j i e M e H H b i M H c e e p c T -

507

nPOCTPAHCTBEHHblfi ΦΑΚΤΟΡ

HHKâMH OT pyCCKOrO 83bIKa Κ φραΗυγ30ΚΟΜγ H OÔpaTHO. Β p y c CKoe BbicKa3biBaHHe OHH Bce e m e ropa3jibi BKJiKmTb 0paHuy3cKHe φpa3bI, a Β pyccKHe φρο3Η — 0paHuy3CKHe cJioBa H BbipaaceHHH. ranjiHiíH3M Haxo/iHT c e 6 e ecTecTBeHHoe MecTO β pyccKOH pa3rOBOpHOH ρβΗΗ CO ΒρβΜβΗ, OnHCaHHblX TOJICTblM Β

Borne u

Mupe Η no He^aBHero n p o u i j i o r o . C TOMKH 3peHHa .neñcTByiomHX JIHIJ 3ΤΟΓΌ HCTOpHHCCKOrO pOMaHa φρ3Ηαγ3ΚΗΗ H3bIK HBJIfleTCfl He nyacHM H3biKOM, a CKopee ΟΛΗΗΜ h3 CTHJieö pyccKOH p e n n . Metfcay τβΜ juia τ ε χ ace pyccKHx, BJiaaeioinHX ΗΘΜΘΙΙΚΗΜ a3biKOM, BCTaBKa repMaHH3MOB Henocpe^cTBeHHO Β pyccKyio peMb o ö b i H H O cTHJiHCTHHecKH HenpHeMJieMa: Β H a i i i e M co3HaHHH r p a HHua Meacay STHMH

otymh

H3biKaMH Ηβτκο npoBeaeHa. Β ceeT-

CKOM 83bIKe pyccKOH 3HaTH raJTJIHLlH3MbI He OrpaHHHHBaJIHCb JieKCHKOH η φρ33εοιιοΓΗεΗ, a Hepe^KO 3axBaTbiBajiH Henocpe^CTBeHHo 3ByKH penn, Η, HanpHMep, I l y m K H H OTMenaeT Β time

Eezenuu One-

CBeTCKoe yMeHHe n p e e p a m a T b pyccKHe coneTaHHa rjiacHbix

c H o c o B b i M H c o r j i a c H b i M H BO φ ρ 3 Η ΐ ^ 3 0 Κ Η β HocoBbie r j i a c H b i e . T y 3 e M U b i , B J i a ^ e i o m H e c o c e ^ c K H M a3biKOM H n o T O M y c n o c o 6 Hbie ÖJIHHCe OÔmaTbCH C HHOa3bIHHbIMH COCeflHMH, nepeBO,UHTb c H x H3biKa Ha CBOH H o ö p a T H o , 3 a n a c T y K ) n o j i b 3 y i o T c a

cpe^H

3eMJiflKOB noBbimeHHbiM npecTHaceM. K a K

CBoen

6bi m e r o j i a a

H M n O H H p y K ) m e H 6jIH30CTbK> C COCe^CKHM 83bIKOM, OHH, KaK ΗΒρ β , π κ ο O T M e n a j i o c b , BHOCHT HHOsoHHbie 3ByKOBbie HJIH r p a M M a r a HecKHe

HepTbi Β CBOK) p o ^ H y i o penb. 3 T H Ha nepBbix nopax CTH-

jiHCTHHecKHe 3aHMCTBOBaHHa CTaHOBHTCH KaK 6 b i 3M6JICMOH LLIHpoTbi a3biKOBoro ropH30HTa H jierKO Bbi3biBaioT B c e 6 o ; i e e m n p o K o e no/ipascaHHe CPEZIH ΟΛΗΟΑ3ΜΗΗΜΧ c o n j i e M e H H H K O B . Π Β Ρ Β Ο HaqajibHbiH

npHMep n 0 f l p a ) K a T e i i b H 0 H ΜΟΛΜ a a j i e e

nouynaeT

n o j i H o e n p a B O rpaac,qaHCTBa H CTaHOBHTca H e p a 3 a e J i b H b i M ΚΟΜΠΟHeHTOM ΡΟΛΗΟΗ a3bIKOBOH CHCTeMbl. T a K 3apO)K,aaeTCfl a3bIKOBOH COH33, Η HTO OCOÖeHHO nOyHHTejIbHO, 3TO ΓΦΗΗΗΗΠΜ OTÖOpa 3ΚCnaHCHBHblX, COK)3HbIX ΗβρΤ. ΠΟΗΒΜΓ ΗΜΒΗΗΟ ΓΒΗΕΤΗΗΒΟΚΗ HeCxoacee, HO cTpyKTypHO

o6mee PA3BHTHE NPOCOOTNECKHX sjieMeH-

TOB j i e r j i o Β ocHOBy uHpKyM6ajiTHHCKoro c o n m a3biKOB, HJIH CMbicjiopa3JiHMHTejibHaa pojib najiaTajiH3aiiHH c o m a c H b i x n o c j i y acHJia 06PA30BAHHK) TAK H a 3 b i B a e M o r o e B p a 3 H H C K o r o coK)3a? Η 3TOT ο τ 6 ο ρ , H HanpaBJieHHe sKcnaHCHH, Η ee npe/iejibi — Bce STO B o n p o c b i , T p e G y i o m n e HOBWX NO^cTynoB Η κρΗτερκβΒ Β ΙΙΗΗΓBHCTHMecKOH, aTaKace Β HHTepzmcijHnjiHHapHOH HHTepnpeTauHH, uiHpe Η uiHpe oÖHapyxcHBaeMbix npHMepoB a3biKOBbix 6paTaHHH.

508

DECERLI

HecoMHeHHO, Ha Kaac^OM iiiary 3,qecb OTKpbiBaeTca uejibiw pa,a noKa eme He nojiyqHBUiHX OTBeTâ npoÖJieM, η TaM, r a e ao chx nop MHoroe npeflCTaBJiHJiocb M03aHK0H cjiyiañHocTeH, HaMeHawTca η ac^yT CBoero oö^acHeHHa reojiHHTBHCTHHecKHe 3aK0HOMepHOCTH.

TojibKo aTJiacbi 3acTaeaT /ιηηγβηγγοβ nocjie^oBaTejibHo 3a,ayMaTbca Ha^ TaKHMH H3omoccaMH, KaK, HanpHMep, rpaHHua Me^cay 3anaflHoeBponeÄCKHM MaccHBOM η3βικοβ c HajiHHHeM HJieHa (article) Η BOCTOHHbIM KpyrOM H3bIKOB, JIHIHeHHblX TaKOBOIO, ΓφΗΗβΜ η Ha ceeepe η Ha lore rpynnnpyiOTca norpaHHHHbie h3mkh, xapaKTepH3yeMbie β o6ohx cjiynaax π ο ο τ π ο 3 η τ η β η μ μ HjieHOM β οτjiHHHe οτ npeno3HTHBHoro HJieHa Bcex ocTajibHbix 83μκοβ 3ana^HOH Eeponbi: ποοτπο3ητηβημη ηλθη OTjiHHaeT, c ο λ η ο η ctopoHbi, CKaH/iHHaBCKHe H3biKH, c .apyroH — TaKHe 6ajiKaHCKHe a3biKH, KaK pyMbiHCKHH h 6ojirapcKHH. KaKOBa npHHHHa c x o a c t b β 3THX ziByx rpynnax, pa3MemeHHbix o/iHa Ha ceeepe, a ßpyraa Ha lore οτ rpaHHUbi Meac^y a3biKaMH c ap-raioieM h 6e3 οηογο? MHe xoTejiocb 6bi eme pa3 noBTopHTb Te MHoro3HaHHTejibHbie ατΐ0Β3)Κ03βφ3,αεΜ6σ^(1753—1821),K0T0pbiMH3aKaHHHBaeTca MOH Tom pa6oT o cJioBe h a3biKe (Word and Language): "Ne parlons donc jamais de hasard ...". CaMO co6oh HanpauiHBaeTca o6"bacHeHHe npoMeacyTOHHoro nojioxceHHa, κοτοροε a3biKH c n0CTn03HTHBHbIM MJ1ÊHOM 3aHHMaiOT Ha rpaHHIje 83bIKOB c HjieHOM 3ana^Horo, npeno3HTHBHoro THna, h s3biKOB 6e3 apTHKjia C flpyroñ CTOpOHbl. A ΗΜβΗΗΟ npen03HTHBHbIH apTHKJIb φyHKUHOHHpyeT KaK oxaejibHoe cjiobo (cp., HanpHMep, le garçon h le jeune garçon), Tor/ia KaK ποοτπο3ητηβηηη apTHKJib cjiyacHT npocTO cyiJ)(l)HKcoM, TaK h t o OTcyTCTBHe OTflejiHMoro cjiOBa-apTHKjia ΛΟ H3BeCTHOH CTeneHH OÖTbe^HHHeT a3bIKH n0CTn03HTMBH0r0 THna C H3bIKaMH, JIHUieHHblMH apTHKJIfl. HeOÔXOflHMO OTMeTHTb, HTO ΛΜφφγ3ΗΗ 3ByKOBbIX H rpaMMaTHnecKHX Ηβρτ He oÔHapyacHBaeT ηηκ&κοη 3aBHCHMOCTH οτ a3biKa, β KaKOM-HHÔo oTHomeHHH ÄOMHHHpylomero h noTOMy, aecKaTb, cjiyacamero hctohhhkom, 06pa3U0M s t h x περτ. 3^ecb 6bmo 6bi ouihöohho npe/inojiaraTb BJinaHHe jbmkob ôojibmeH KyjibTypbi, öonbiiiero couHajibHO-noJiHTHHecKoro aBTopnTCTanjin öojibmeH 3KOHOMHHeCKOH MOIHH Ha H3bIKH ΠΛβΜβΗ ÔOJiee CHa6bIX H 3aBHCHMblX Β ΟΛΗΟΜ H3 3ΤΗΧ ΟΤΗΟΙΙΙβΗΗΗ. HepeflKO BOJIHa HfleT CO cjia6oH β CHUbHyio cTopoHy, h HaKOHeu cjie^yeT OTMeTHTb, h t o oöbiHO TaKHe mnpoKHe H3orjioccbi Haxo^aT ceöe HejierKO o6i>ac-

nPOCTPAHCTBEHHblíí ΦΑΚΤΟΡ

509

HHMOe COBna^eHHe C HHbIMH ΗΗΤρΟΠΟ-ΓβΟΓρΗφΗ'ίβΟΚΗΜΗ JIHHHH-

ΜΗ ιιΐΗροκοΓο oxeara. Bonpoc ΠΟΛΟ6ΗΙ>ΙΧ, 3anacTyK) HeoMCH^aHHbix, cBfl3eô TpeôyeT MHorocTopoHHero reorpa(J)HHecKoro oceemeHH«, corjiacHO nporpaMMHOMy Te3Hcy, BbiflBHHyTOMy aapoBHTblM npOBH^UeM CTpyKTypHOH ΓβΟΓρ3φΗΗ, ΠβΤρΟΜ CaBHUKHM. ECJIH «3bIKOBbie

COK)3bI flBJiaiOTCfl KpaHHHM

ΠρΟΗΒΠβΗΗβΜ

JIHHrBHCTHHeCKOrO K0Hφ0pMH3Ma, TO C HpyrOH CTOpOHbl ΗΜβΗΗΟ

Β Meac^yH3biKOBbix oTHomeHHflx HaôjnoziaeTCH TaioKe oöpaTHoe aBJieHHe H0H-K0Hφ0pMH3Ma, a ΗΜβΗΗΟ H3bIKH, ΠΟΛΒβρ5ΚβΗΗΜβ OnaCHOCTH nOniOmeHHH COCeflHHMH 5I3bIKaMH, ΗβρβΛΚΟ pa3BHBaioT ΫΠΕΊΊΗΦΗΗΒΟΚΚΕ nepTbi, pa3HTejibHO OTJiHHaiomHe HX OT CTpyKTypbi

Hace^aiomHx

coce^cKHx

H3MKOB.

HanpHMep,

H3

CJiaBHHCKHX H3bIKOB JIHHIb T e , KOTOpbIM rp03HJia OöaCHOCTb ΓβρMaHH3aUHH HJIH HTajlb3HH3aiJHH, COXpaHHJIH, flaHCe HaCTbK) pa3BHJIH Β CBOCH ΜΟρφΟΠΟΓΗΜβΟΚΟΗ CHCTSMe KaTeropHH) XIBOHCTΒβΗΗΟΓΟ HHCJia, a ΗΜβΗΗΟ Jiy>KHUKO-Cep6cKHH H CJIOB6HCKHH. ΒΒΒ npOtUJIbie Η CaMOHOB6HIÜH6 ΠΟΠΜΤΚΗ OTOpBaTb H3yMeHHe «3bIKOBOH CHCTeMbI OT BOnpOCOB ΒρβΜβΗΗ H npOCTpaHCTBa o ö e c r u i o acHBaiOT H MepTBHT BCK) T y acH3HeHHyio, ocHOBonojioHCHyio H ^ e i o 83BIKOBOH CHCTEMBI, KOTOPAA HA .neue HEH3ÖE»CHO CONETAET MHOr o r p a H H y i o TeMaTHKy KaK ΒρβΜβΗΗ, Tax Η npOCTpaHCTBa.

Κ. Π. CpeflH pyccKHX yneHbix 3apy6e»coM HAÔJIIOFLAETCH Β TO « e ΒρβΜΗ OÖOCTpeHHblH HHTepeC Κ BOnpOCaM Ο pa3JIHHHbIX φyHKUHHX Γ60ΓΡ3ΦΗΗΕΘΚΟΓΟ npOCTpaHCTBa. Β CÖOpHHKe pyCCKHX ΒΒPA3HHUEB Tpudifambie

zodbi MBSLH C a e e j i b e e (Ha ΛΒΛΒ Π β τ ρ B o -

raTbipee) 3aHHMajica ponbio ΦΟ.ΓΉΚ.ΠΟΡΗΗΧ H3orjiocc. üpeacTaBJieHHbie HM ΗΛΒΗ pacnpocTpaHeHHH Η CKpemHeaHH» pyccKOH HapoflHOH cjiOBecHocTH MeTOflOJiorHHecKH coBna^aioT c npoöjieMaTHKOH &3bIKOBbIX C0I030B. Π . H . CaBHUKHH OnyÖJIHKOBajI Β TOM »ce c ô o p H H K e r j i a e y H3 ΚΗΗΓΗ n o ynoMSHjrroH BaMH CTpyKTypHOH ΓβΟΓρ3φΗΗ, Γ^Β OH ΠΗΙΗΒΤ θ 6 OCOÖeHHOCTHX Η φyHK^HHX ö o j i b i i i o r o " c n j i o u i H o r o npOCTpaHCTBa", o x B a n e H H o r o P o c c n e n , a 3aTeM CoBeTCKHM C01030M. 3 Τ Η Ο ^ Φ 3 . R. X a p a - ß a e a H pa3ÔHpaeT φ y H K ^ H H C T e n H o r o npOCTpaHCTBa Β ΚΟΠΒΒΟΜ 6biTe Η Β pa3BHTHH φΗ3ΗΗβϋΚΗΧ CBOHCTB ΚΟΗΒΒΟΓΟ HacejieHHfl.

Barn Eepa3uücmú mbiKoeoü com3, πρκ CBoeiï nHOHepcKOH pojiH ana /lajibHeHuiero pa3BHTHa jiHHrBHCTHHecKHX Η,ΑΒΗ poflCTBa, cooömecTBa H 3BOJIK>UHH ÎBMKOB, 6bm, ΒΗΛΗΜΟ, HEMAJIO oßsuaH AAHHOMY KOHTeiccTy H Β CBOIO ONEPE^B 3HAHHTEJIBHO NOBJMAJI

Ha 3TOT caMbiH KOHTeKCT.

IX. B P E M f l Β C H C T E M A T H K E

3HAK0B

Κ. Π. Bee, Ητο 6bmo BaMH CKa3aHO o pojiH ΒρβΜβΗΗ η προCTpaHCTBa npHMeHHTejIbHO Κ φΟΗΟΛΟΓΗΗ Η rpaMMaTHKe, CTaBHT Ha onepeflb eme 6ojiee υικροκγιο npoöjieMy oTHoiiieHHH Meacay ΒρβΜβΗβΜ Η CJIOBeCHbIMH 3Η3Κ3ΜΗ, MajIO ΤΟΓΟ — ΤβΜγ ΒρβΜβΗΗ

β e r o OTHOineHHH κ 3HaxaM B o o ô m e .

Ρ . Ά.

MoaceT 6 b i T b , c a M b i i í c y m e c T B e H H b i ü

η πλολοτβορημη

BOnpOC fl3bIKa Η ΒρβΜβΗΗ 6 b I J I nOCTaBJieH TaKHM

flapOBHTeHUIHM

aMepHKaHCKHM MbicjiHTejieM KaK Charles Sanders Peirce (1839— 1914). Β cBoeH cHCTeMaTHKe τρβχ 3HaKOBbix τηποβ Flape c οληοη CTopoHbi 0xapaKTepH30Ban "HH^eKc" {index) η "o6pa3" (icon), β oôohx cjiynaax nocTpoeHHbie Ha (fianmimecKou cbh3h Μοκ/iy 03HaHaiomHM h 03HaHaeMbiM. "HH^eKc" oTCbiJiaeT ο τ 03HaMaiomero κ 03HanaeM0My β CHJiy φ3ΚΤΗΗβοκοή cMeotcHocmu Meac/iy o6ohmh, Toraa KaK "o6pa3" (icon) OTCbiJiaeT ο τ o6o3HaHaiomero κ o6o3HanaeMOMy β CHJiy φaκτHHecκoro exodemea Meac^y oöohmh. C apyroH ace ctopohm, τ ρ ε τ κ ή τηπ 3Η3κοβ, "chmboji" (symbol) β OTJIHHHe ΟΤ nepBblX AByX ΤΗΠΟΒ nOCTpOeH Ηβ Ha φ3ΚΤΗΗβϋΚ0Η, a Ha npeOTHcaHHOH, ycjioBHOH, BbiyneHHOH cb»3h Me»my o6o3HaHaiOmHM Η o6o3HaHaeMbIM. A ΗΜβΗΗΟ "chmboji", β CBOeOÔbIHHOH τβρΜΗΗΟϋΟΓΗΗ Ebpca, OTCbiJiaeT ο τ o6o3HaHaiomero κ o6o3HaHaeMOMy β CHJiy npe/inncaHHOH, ycnoBHOH cmokhocth Meacay 060ΗΜΗ. Β npoTHBonojioacHocTb KaK "HH^eKcy", TaK h "o6pa3y", "chmboji", corjiacHO yneHHK) Ilapca, OTHio^b He πρβΛΜβτ, a JiHiiib oöpaMJiaiomHH 3aKOH (frame-law), KOTopbiH aaeT MecTo pa3Hoo6pa3HbIM φ3ΚΤΗΗβΰΚΗΜ KOHTeKCTyajIbHbIM ΠρΗΜβΗβΗΗΗΜ, TaK Ha3biBaeMbiM penjiHKaM (occurrences). C006pa3H0 c chctcmoh ΠΟΗΗΤΗΗ Η TepMHHOB, yCTaHOBJieHHblX Ü3PCOM, H3bIKOBbie 3HaKH no cymecTBy hbjihiotch "CHMBOJiaMH", 3aKJH0Hai0mHMH β ce6e β τ ο » e BpeMH Taioice 3JieMeHTbi "HH^eKca" h "o6pa3a". OcoöeHHO npHMenaTejieH B3rji$m Ebpca Ha Bce τ ρ κ KaTeropHH

511

ΒΡΕΜΛ Β C H C T E M A T H K E 3 Η Α Κ 0 Β

3HâK0B ΠΟΑ yrJIOM 3ρβΗΗΗ ΗΧ COOTHOLUeHHa C IipoÖJieMaTHKOH ΒΡΒΜΒΗΗ. Β T p y ^ e ΠΟΛ 3ar0Ji0BK0M " M O H m e f l e e p " , OH o u e H H BaeT " o 6 p a 3 " KaK C B e p u i e H H o e OTOöpaaceHHe y a c e c o c T o a B i u e r o c a , n p o i i i J i o r o o n b i T a , T o r a a KaK "HH/ICKC" C B i o a H c n e p e a c H B a e M b i M o n b i T O M HacTOHLuero ΒρβΜβΗΗ. Β o c H o e e CHMBOJia, B c e r a a HaAEJIEHHORO OÖIUHM 3HANEHHEM, JIBJKHT OÖLUHH 33ΚΟΗ: " B c ë ΠΟΛjiHHHO o 6 m e e o r a e c e H o κ H e o n p e / i e j i e H H O M y ö y a y m e M y . ΠΡΟΙΙΙj i o e — coBepniHBiiiHHCH φ a κ τ , M e a c ^ y τ β Μ KaK OÖLUHH 3aKOH He MoaceT 6 b i T b n o j i H O C T b i o 3 a B e p n i e H . 3 τ ο

noTeHUHajibHOCTb,

η

M o a y c e r o ö b i r a a — '6biTb Β 6y/iyineM."' I^eHHOCTb CHMBOJia, Η Β HaCTHOCTH CHMBOJia H3bIKOBOrO, COCTOHT Β TOM, HTO OH " q a e T HaM B03M0»CH0CTb npe,QCKa3aTb 6 y a y m e e " . H e p a 3 p b i B H a a cBH3b c j i o e a c ô y ^ y m H M ΒρβΜβΗβΜ, TaKOB ο λ η η HS r e H H a j i b H e H i u H X Te3HCOB a M e p H K a H C K o r o M b i c j i H T e j i a . JICHO, HTO o ö p a M J i a i o m H H 3aKOH a B J i a e T c a TOJibKO n p e a n o c b u i KOH BCeB03M0MCHbIX ÔyflyiHHX penJIHK H HTO HHBapHaHT CJIOBeCH o r o 3HaKa, e r o o 6 i n e e aHaneHHe, n p n o ö p e T a e T Β KOHTeKCTe KaacΛΟΗ p e n j i H K H c B o e HOBoe, n a c T H o e 3HaneHHe. Κ ο Η τ ε κ σ τ Η3ΜβΗHHB, Η Β Ka»CflOM HOBOM KOHTeKCTe HaCTHOe 3HaHeHHe CJIOBa ΗβΗ3ΜβΗΗ0 oÖHOBJiaeTca. Β 3TOM J i e » H T T B o p n e c K a a CHJia c j i o e e c H o r o 3HaKa. T e o p H e c K a a CHjia 3HaKa OTKpbiBaeT e M y n y T H Β H e o npeaeJieHHoe

6y,aymee,

τ.

e.

aHTHUHnnpyeT,

npej3CKa3biBaeT

r p a , a y m e e . Β 3 t h x KpaTKHX n o j i o a c e H H a x JieacHT c y T b HayKH o TBOpneCKOH MOLUH 83bIKa BOOÔlUe H 83bIKa n03THHeCK0r0 B o c o ÖeHHOCTH.

Χ. Π Ο Η Λ Τ Η Ε

Κ. Π.

ΠΡΗ3ΗΑΚΑ*

FBPCOBCKAA KJIACCHC^HKAUHH «3ΜΚΟΒΟΗ CHMBOJIHKH ΒΟ3-

BpamaeT Hac κ Bonpocy ο MapKHpoBaHHocra H HeMapKHpoBaHHOCTH. Π ο CHCTeMe F b p c a noJiyqaeTca, ΗΤΟ Β a3biKe CHMBOJI, n o ΟΤΗΟΙΙΙβΗΗΚ) Κ HH^eKCy C ΟΛΗΟΗ H HKOHe C apyrOH CTOpOHbl, BbicTynaeT KaK KaTeropna HeMapKHpoeaHHaa. 3 τ ο τ Bonpoc Hepa3pblBHO CBH3aH C np06jieM0H 6HHapH3Ma, Ο ΚΟΤΟΡΟΜ Mbl rOBOpHJIH paHbiiie. C

cero/iHaiiiHeH nepcneKTHBbi pa3BHTHa

Bameñ

cTeMbi Bonpoc HepapxHH KaaceTca HeoxqejiHMbiM ο τ

CH-

Bonpoca

ÔHHapHOCTH. OflHaKO H^ea MapKHpoBaHHOcra H HeMapKHpoBaHHOCTH noaBHJiaCb He ΟΛΗΟΒρβΜβΗΗΟ C BOnpOCOM 6HHapH3Ma, a HecKOJibKO no3»ce. TojibKO Β nncbMe 1930 Γ Ο Μ Tpy6euKOH BO36yqH.II ÄHCKyCCHK) O POJIH MapKHpOBaHHOCTH Β φΟΗΟΠΟΓΗΗβΟΚΟΜ njiaHe. HHTepecHO, KaK 3το n o H a r a e 3apo^HJiocb h pa3BHJiocb? O H O ace noJiynaeT Bee 6ojiee uinpoKoe πρΗΜβΗβΗΗβ κ .apyrHM oöJiacTaM 33ΜΚΟΒΟΗ .aeaTejibHocra, neM TOJibKO ΦΟΗΟ,ΓΙΟΓΗΒ Η rpaMMâTHKa. ΒπροΜβΜ, Bbi 3TO y»ce HaM6THjiH Β τβ ΓΟΛΜ, OCO6ÊHHO Β ΟΤΗΟΙΠ6ΗΗΗ κ BOiipocaM couHajibHOH aHTponojiorHH Η

Yace Β οτΒβτβ Ha Ha3BaHHoe nHCbMO T p y ö e u K o r o Bbi npHBOziHTe HHTepecHeiimee cooöpaaceHHe, h t o "OJIA MaancHxoJiorHH.

KOBCKoro acH3Hb 6bi;ia npH3HaKOBbiM p a a o M , peajiH3yeMbiM TOJibΚΟ n p n MOTHBHpoBKe; /ma Hero He CMepTb, a acH3Hb TpeôoBana MOTHBHPOBKH". ΒΗΛΗΜΟ, ΠβρΟΠβΚΤΗΒΜ ΠρΗΜβΗβΗΗβ KaTeropUH MâpKHpOBaHHOCTH Κ XyZIOHCeCTBeHHOH np03e ααΐοτ LUHpOKHe B03MOaCHOCTH. Ρ. Ά.

B o n p o c Ο HepapxHH NEHHOCTEII Η Ο nepapxH^ecKOM OTHO-

MEHHH MEAC^Y ^EYMA HJIEHAMH npoTHBonocTaBJieHHa 6biJi

ansi

Κ HCTOpHH TCpMHHOB "npH3HaKOBMH"—"6eCnpH3HaKOBbIÖ" H "MapKHpOBaHhmh"—"HeMapKHpoBaHHbiñ" cm. P. JIkoöcoh, "KpyroBopoT jiHHrBHcraHecKHx TepMHHOB", εκτΗΒΗοε BpeMH e r o npoTeKaHHa, 6biJi ana

M e H a k/ik>hom κ n o H H M a H H i o

Bbi3biBaBiuero β Te γ ο λ μ H e M a j i o c n o p o B c o o T H o m e H H a MOKZiy Μ β τ ρ ο Μ h pHTMOM. ripoTHBonocTaBJieHHe npu3HaKoeocmu

npu3Ham n o H a T H K ) 6ec-

n03B0Jian0 pa3BepHyTb npHMeHHTejibHO κ c t h x o -

Be^eHHK) HacToaTejibHyio npoôJieMy η η β ε ρ η 3 η τ ο β h BapuauHH. Β M o e H nepBOH k h i d k k c Hoeeüiuaa.

pyccmn

no33UH,

HanHcaH-

HOH β M o c K B e BecHOK) 1919 r. h HanenaTaHHOH β I l p a r e Ha n o pore

1921 r., 6biJia h β η θ Μ β τ ρ κ κ κ 3aTpoHyTa n o c y m e c T B y Ta

ace T e M a K o p e H H o r o pa3HHHHa Meac^y OTyMa, Ka3ajiocb 6 b i , 3mIIHpHHeCKH paBH03HaHHbIMH ΠΟΗΗΤΗΗΜΗ — ΠΟΒΟβΛΗβΒΗΟΗ 6eCnpH3HaKOBOH HaroTOH T p o r j i o ^ H T a h o r o j i e m i e M e e p o n e n u a b h k TOpHaHCKOH 3ΠΟΧΗ. IIpOTHBOnOCTaBJieHHe MapKHpOBaHHblX ΚΟΜΠΟΗΒΗΤΟΒ H e M a p KHpOBaHHblM n03B0JIHJI0 pa3BepHyTb npHMeHHTejibHO Κ CTHXOB e ^ e H H K ) H a c T o a T e j i b H y K ) npoÖJieMy HHeapnaHTOB h B a p u a u H H . I I o H a T H e BHyTpHnapHbix w e p a p x H ^ e c K H X O T H o m e H H H HocHJiocb Β B 0 3 a y x e , h o T p e 6 o B a j i o J i o r a n e c K o r o y a c H e H H a h TexHHHecKHx 3aKJIK)HeHHH. Β KOHue Hiojia 1930 r o a a , r o T o e a c b o h flOKjia^ ο φ ο Η ο π ο Γ Η Η β CKHX CHCTeMaX m i a

C03BaHH0H IIpaHCCKHM

JlHHrBHCTHHeCKHM

KpyacKOM Ha a e x a ô p b T o r o ace rozia Meac.qyHapo.aHOH

Φοηολο-

r H i e c K O H Κ ο Η φ ε ρ ε Η ΐ ί Η Η , T p y ö e u K o ö H a n w c a j i MHe o 3aMeneHHbix hm " c y m e c T B e H H b i x n p o 6 e j i a x " β HaiiieM y q e H H H o K o p p e j i a -

udemoM codepotcanuu K o p p e j i a u H H " . T p y ô e u K O H n o H a j i , h t o ÖHHapHaa o n -

THBHbix φ o H e M a x : " a e . n o 6biJio β caMOM, Tax cxa3aTb,

n03HUHa " n p H O Ô p e T a e T Β a3bIKOBOM C03HaHHH φ o p M y ΠΡΟΤΗΒΟΠΟCTaBJieHHa HajiHHHa KaKoro-HHÖyzib npH3HaKa e r o ( h j i h MaKCHMyMa KaKoro-jiHÔo npH3HaKa e r o

OTcyTCTBHK)

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n p H U i e j I Κ BblBO^y, HTO "TOJIbKO O.QHH Η3 HJieHOB KOppejiaiJHH C03HaeTCa

KaK aKTHBHO

ΒΗΛΟΗ3Μ6ΗβΗΗΜΗ

H KaK

nOJIOÄHTeJIbHO

514

BECE^LI

oÔJia^aiomHH H3B6CTHbiM npH3HaKOM, flpyroH »ce HJieH oco3HaeTCH KaK JIHIIIÊHHblH Ha3BaHHOrO npH3HaKa H naCCHBHO HeH3MeHHblH". Ha IIpaaCCKOH ΚΟΗφβρβΗΙίΗΗ npoÖJieMa MapKHpOBaHHblX H HeMapKHpoBaHHbix 3JieMeHTOB 6biJia nocTaeneHa H Β ^oKJia^e Tpy6eUKOrO Ο φΟΗΟ-ΓΙΟΙΉΗΒΟΚΗΧ CHCTCMaX, H Β MOeM o npocoflHMecKHx CTpyKTypax. "Bce öojibiue yöeac^aiocb, — nHcaji a Β Hoaöpe 1930 r. Β οτΒβτ TpyôeijKOMy, — ητο Β ama Mbicjib o tom, HTO KoppenauHH ecTb Bceraa cooTHOuieHHe npH3HaKOBoro Η 6ecnpH3HaK0B0r0 pa,qa, ozma H3 BaniHx caMbix 3aMeqaTejibHbix H npoflyKTHBHbix Mbicneñ. ZlyMato, HTO OHa 6y^eT HMeTb 3HaMEHHE HE TOJIBKO ΛΠΗ ΛΗΗΓΒΗΟΤΗΚΗ, HO Η win

3ΤΗΟ.ΓΙΟΓΉΗ H HCTO-

PHH KyjibTypbi, Η MTO TaKHe HCTopHKO-KyjibTypHbie KoppenaijHH, KaK acH3Hb—cMepTb, CBO6OM—HECBO6OAA, rpex—aoöpofleTejib, npa3^HHKH—6y^HH Η τ. π. Bcer^a CBOjiaTca κ OTHomeHHSM a — He-α, Η Ητο BaacHO ycTaHOBHTb juin KaxAoñ 3Π0ΧΗ, rpynnbi, Hapo^a η τ. A., — HTÓ aBJiaeTca pa^OM npH3HaKOBbiM... Ά yôexcΛβΗ, ΗΤΟ ΜΗΟΓΗβ ^THOΓpaφH^eCKHe aBJieHHa, MHp0B033peHHa H nponee, KOTopbie Ha nepBbiH B3rjia,a KaacyTca TO^caecTBeHHbiMH, HEPE^KO PA3JIHHÜK)TCA HMCHHO τ β Μ , ΗΤΟ TO, HTÓ z u i a ΟΛΗΟΗ CH-

CTeMbi aBnaeTca pa^OM npH3HaKOBbiM, Β .apyroH oueHHBaeTca KaK pa3 KaK OTCYTCTBHE npH3HaKa." Β ΤΟ BpeMa MM 06a ocTpo nepeacHBajiH anpejibCKoe caM0y6nñcTB0 MaaKOBCKoro; Mbi noHajiH ero CTHXH o 6ecnpH3HaKOBOH, "HeTpy^Hoô" CMepra, Ο tom, HTO "C^enaTb HCH3Hb 3HaHHTejIbHO Tpy^HeH", Η Β 3TOM οπροκΗHyTOM MHpoco3epuaHHH He CMepTb, a »n3Hb "TpeôoBajia MapKHPOBKH". Pan MOHx nocjieayiomHX ΟΠΜΤΟΒ, BnxroTb no HbiHemHero BpeMeHH, noceameH pa3BHraio Bonpoca o cooTHomeHHH MapKHpOBaHHOCTH H HeMapKHpOBaHHOCTH Β 0ΠΠ03ΗΙΪΗΒΧ pa3JIHHHTejIbHblX HepT Η O 3aBHCHMOCTH 3ΤΗΧ COOTHOIIieHHH OT CTpyKTypbi Been φοΗοκοΓΗΗβοκοή cHCTeMbi, πρΗΗβΜ Bce acHee o6HapyacHBajiocb, HTO MecTO MapKHpoeaHHoro Η HeviapKHpoBaHHoro KOMnoHeHTa Β nepeyio onepeflb 3aBHCHT ΟΤ cocTaea Η ΚΟΜΠΟ3ΗUHOHHbix cooTHomeHHH Beerò nyHKa pa3JiHHHTejibHbix Ηβρτ. TaK, HanpHMep, Β 0CH0B0n0JI05KH0H 0nn03HL(HH KOMIiaKTHOrO Η Λ Η φ φy3HOΓO xapaKTepa nepBbiH MapKHpoeaH Β corjiacHbix, a nocjießHHH Β rjiacHbix, Η STO pa3JiHHHe npHo6peTaeT πετκοε o6i>acHeHHe Β OnTHMajIbHOH KOMIiaKTHOCTH TJiaCHblX Η Β OriTHMajIbHOH

ΛHφφy3HocτH corjiacHbix.

3/iecb

Haxo^HT ce6e nojiHoe npHMe-

HeHHe 3HaMeHHTbiH Te3HC, KOTopoMy ymm Antoine Meillet (1866—1936) h κοτορωή nocjiyacmi o c h o b h w m 3ΠΗΓρ3φθΜ asín

515

ΠΟΗΛΤΗΕ ΠΡΗ3ΗΑΚΑ MOHX Remarques

sur l'évolution

phonologique

(1928): " C h a q u e fait

l i n g u i s t i q u e fait partie d ' u n e n s e m b l e o ù t o u t se tient." Β AMepwice BOnpOC 0 6 "nneÔHOM COíiepacaHHH" φΟΗΟΠΟΓΗΗβΟΚΗΧ 0ΠΠ03ΗUHH, τ ο e c T b o x a p a K T e p e h M e c T e h x α ι β π Η φ ι ΐ Η β ο κ ο Γ Ο npH3HaKa M o n r o e BpeMH o c x a B a n c a β τβΗΗ h jiHiub 3a n o c u e z i H H e . a e c a T i m e THH BCTaji, HaKOHeii, Ha o n e p e a b . C o CTaTbH 1931 rom

0 CTpyKType p y c c K o r o r n a r o j i a a Hanaji

h λ ο c a M o r o n o c j i e f l H e r o BpeMeHH n p o ^ o j i a c a j i pa3pa6aTbiBaTb o n b i T b i n e p e H O c a t o h ace .QHJieMMbi npH3Haica, n p o T H B o n o c T a B j i e H H o r o 6ecnpH3HaKOBOCTH ( m a r k e d - n o n - m a r k e d ) , β o ô n a c T b rpaMMaTHHecKOH, β n e p e y i o o n e p e f l b ΜορφοποΓΗΗβοκοΗ CTpyKTypbi, η Bee ö o j i e e y6e)K,aajica β t o m , h t o caMbie cuoacHbie c h CTeMbi cmioHeHHH, cnpaaceHHa η npoHHx napa/ΐΗΓΜ n p H o 6 p e T a i o T jiorHHecKyK) n p o c T O T y η acHOCTb n p w n o c j i e f l O B a T e n b H O M p a 3 J i o HCeHHH Ha HepapXHHeCKyiO COBOKynHOCTb ΚΟΜΠΟΗβΗΤΟΒ, nOnapHO npOTHBOnOCTaBJieHHblX flpyr a p y r y n o HajIHHHIO H OTCyTCTBHIO npH3HaKa. O c o ö e H H o BhiHrpbiBaeT π ρ κ TaKOM n o ^ x o a e h , c a p y γ ο η CTopoHbi, n o M o r a e T e r o H a H Ö o n e e noJiHOMy πρΗΜβΗβΗΗΐο κ rpaMMaTHKe οτ/iejibHbix a3biK0B cpaBHHTejibHoe H3yHeHHe pa3JIHHHblX rpaMMaTHHeCKHX CHCTeM. ΜορφοιιοΓΉΗεοκαΗ ΤΜΠΟϋΟΓΗΗ H3bIKOB, H3flaBHa MCHTüBUJüHCa JIHHrBHCTaM, Β H a C T O a m e e ΒρβΜΗ npHOÖpeTaeT TaKHM n y r e M H a ^ e » H b i e o c H o e a H H a h , cooTBeTCTBeHHo noKa3aHHaM yTOHHHBineiica τ η π ο ι ι ο γ η η , Ββ,αετ Hac κ BbiacΗβΗΗΐο η ö o j i e e C T p o r o M y o n p e / i e n e H H i o r p a M M a T H H e c K H X

yHH-

BepcajiHH. IIoHHMaHHe Kaac^OH ÔHHapHofi ο π π ο 3 η ι ^ η η Ha j i k > 6 o m y p o B H e H3biKOBOH CTpyKTypbi KaK OTHOiiieHHa Meac/iy npH3HaKOM η o t cyTCTBHeM npH3HaKa λ ο β ο λ η τ no n o r a n e c K o r o KOHua Η,αειο HepapxHHecKoro nopa/iKa, ^ e a c a m e r o β ocHoee Been β 3 μ κ ο β ο η chCTeMbi, b o B c e x e e p a 3 B e T B J i e H H a x η n p o a B J i e H H a x . Β ο π ρ β κ κ c o m HeHHaM CKenTHKOB, p a c n p e ^ e j i e H H e npw3HaKOBoro h 6 e c n p H 3 H a KOBoro p a ^ a β ÔHHapHbix o n n o 3 H U H a x He MoaceT p a c c M a T p H B a T b c a KaK c y ö t e K T H B H a a o n e p a u n a TO/iKOBâTejieH, a ziaHO H e n o c pe^CTBeHHO β caMÓH β 3 μ κ ο β ο η cHCTeMe, η e r o t o B J i e n e H H e Ha ocHOBe jiHHrBHCTHHecKoro aHajiH3a aBJiaeTca B c e q e j i o ο6τ>εκτΗΒHbiM npneMOM. P a 3 y M e e T c a , c y m e c T B y i o T TaKHe n a p b i ο π π ο 3 η τ η β Hbix HJieHOB, KOTopbie CTaBaT aHajiHTHKa β ö o j i e e Tpy/iHoe n o n o x e H H e β B o n p o c e o MecTe npH3HaKa, β ¿ φ η η ο η ÖHHapHoii ο π π ο 3HUHH, HO C yTOMHeHHeM aHaJIH3a 3Ta TpyHHOCTb, KaK nOKa3bIBaeT p a , a n p H M e p o B , HecoMHeHHO n p e o / t o J i e e a e T c a .

516

BECE/lbl

Β φοΗοποΓΗΗβϋκοΜ njiaHe nojioaceHHe MapKHpoeaHHoro MJieHa Β K a K f l O H aaHHOH o n n o 3 H U H H o n p e a e j i a e T c a c o o T H O i u e H H e M 3TOH 0ΠΠ03ΗΙΙΗΗ C ΠρΟΗΗΜΗ 0ΠΠ03Η1ίΗΗΜΗ φΟΗΟϋΟΓΗΗβΟΚΟΗ CHCTeMbl, TO eCTL· C pa3JIHHHTejIbHbIMH HepTaMH, CMeaCHblMH Β ΠΟpaziKe c o c y m e c T B O B a H H a HJTH B p e M e H H Ó ñ n o c j i e a o B a T e j i b H o c T H . M e » c a y τ β Μ , β r p a M M a T H i e c K H x ΟΠΠΟ3ΗΙΧΗΗΧ pa3JiHHHe M e a c a y MapKHpOBaHHWM Η HSMapKHpOBaHHbIM COHJ16HOM Jie5KHT Β ΰ φ β ρ β o6mero

3HaH6HHH K a a m o H h 3 c o n o c r a B J i a e M b i x

φορΜ.

06mee

3HaH6HHe M a p K H p o B a H H o r o HJieHa x a p a K T e p H 3 y e T c s 6 o j i e e yTOHH6HHOH, ΟΠΒΙΊΗΦΗΗΒΟΚΟΗ, A 0 6 a B 0 H H 0 H ΗΗΦΘΡΜ3Ι^Η6ΊΊ ΠΟ CpaBHeHHK> C HeMapKHpOBaHHbIM HJieHOM. H a n p H M e p , Β H3bIKaX c n p o THBOnOCTaBJICHHSM p p y x rpaMMaTHHeCKHX ΒρβΜβΗ — n p o m e f l x i i e r o H H a c T o a i n e r o — n e p B o e Bcer/ia M a p K H p o e a H o , a n o c j i e j i H e e j i H i u e H o MapKHpoBKH. 0 6 m e e 3 H a n e H n e n p o m e ^ m e r o M6HH COCTOHT Β n p e z i i i i e c T B H H c o o ô m a e M o r o aKTa n o

Bpe-

OTHorne-

ΗΗΚ) κ aKTy c o o ô m e H H a , T o r ^ a KaK o 6 m e e 3 H a q e H H e H a c T o a i i j e r o BpeMeHH

He

ycraHaBJiHBaeT

BpeMeHHÓro

OTHOiiieroïa

Meac^y

0 6 0 H M H aKTaMH, H 3Ta r p a M M a r a n e c K a a K a T e r o p H a M o a c e T 6 b i T b ynoTpeöjieHa

β pe™

/ma n e p e a a n n

caMHM aKTOM n e p e ^ a H H HJIH » c e

fljia

3KTOB 0 / i H 0 B p e M e H H b i x

c

n e p e ^ a H H aKTOB n o c T o a H -

H b i x , HE o r p a H H H e H H b i x ΒΡΒΜΒΗΒΜ, HJIH NPEFLMECTBYIOMHX aKTy

penn, HanpHMep: " H a n o j i e o H y M H p a e T Β 1821 r . " , HJIH, HaKOHeu, a n « c o o ô m e H H a o n p e j j c T o a i n u x aKTax, HanpHMep " 3 a e T p a a n o K H f l a i o r o p o / i " , T o m a KAK φ ο ρ Μ Μ n p o u i e ^ i n e r o B p e M e H H , ΠΟΜΗMO c j i y n a e B KpaHHe φ Η ΐ - y p a j i b H o r o y n o T p e ô j i e H H a , M o r y T

0603-

H a n a T b TOJibKO M H H y B H i e e , KaK cTpeMHJica n o K a 3 a T b yace L u c i e n T e s n i è r e (1894—1954), ΠΟ6ΟΡΗΗΚ C T p y K T y p a j i b H o ñ JIKHTBHCTHKH, T e c H O CBa3aHHbiH c n p o r p a M M O H I l p a a c c K o r o J l H H r B H C T H H e c K o r o K p y a c K a . H a ΠΟΛΟ6ΗΜΧ OCHOBAHHAX OH 6JIH3HJICA κ π ο ο τ ρ ο β Η Η Κ » CHCTeMbi φ ρ 3 Η ΐ ί γ 3 ϋ Κ 0 Γ 0 r j i a r o j i a Η ΠΡΗΗΙΪΗΠΟΒ o ô m e r o CHHTaKCHca. C o B p e M e H H b i H y n o p Ha a ™ n p o Ö J i e M b i H e c o M H e H H O ΠΟΛΒ Η Η β τ B n e p e a p a 3 p a 6 o T K y Kap/iHHajibHbix s a r j a n aHajiH3a Η Ο6Τ>ΗΟH e H H a c a M b i x OCHOB r p a M M a r a n e c K O H c T p y K T y p b i , π ρ κ y c j i O B H H n o c j i e / i O B a T e j i b H o r o y n e T a CBJOH Me»c,qy / ΐ Η φ φ β ρ β Η η Η ρ ο Β 3 Η Η Η -

MH rpaMMaTHHeCKHMH npOUeCCaMH H COOTBeTCTBeHHO pa3JlMHHblMH rpaMMaTHHeCKHMH ΠΟΗΒΤΗΒΜΗ, — CBa3H Hep33pbIBH0H KaK z m a c a M o r o a3biKa, TaK Η una

e r o HCCJie.qoBaTe.na.

XI. ÜAPAJIJIEJIH3M

Κ. Π. Bonpoc 6HHapH3Ma Η MapKHpOBaHHblX ΚΟΜΠΟΗ6ΗΤΟΒ CHCTeMbl ΒβΛβΤ Κ OflHOMy H3 OCHOBHblX Η, ΒβρΟΗΤΗΟ, IiepBHHHblX 3JieMeHTOB ciiOBecHoro HCKyccTBa, η β nacTHOCTH κ οληομυ h3 nepBbix BaiiiHx HaynHbix yBJieneHUH — napanjiejiH3My. IlapajijieJIH3M — 3TO coneTaHHe ÔHHapHoe. Bbi Bcer^a rio/mepKHBaeTe, HTo napanjiejiH3M — STO 3KBHBajieHTHOCTb, a He ToacaecTBO. Ho Η noHarae 3KBHBajieHTH0CTH KaK 6yaTO cTHpaeT HepaeeHCTBO aeyx HJI6HOB, crjiaacHBaeT HepapxHHecKoe nepBCHCTBo Ο Λ Η Ο Γ Ο H3 HJI6HOB. KaK 3/ieCb 6bITb C MapKHpOBaHHbIM HJieHOM napbl? M eme HHTepecHO 3HaTb: KaK nocTynaTb c BbiöopoM sKBHBajieHTHbix 3JieMeHTOB? Β Baiueñ OCHOBOIIOJIOKHOH paöoTe Grammatical Parallelism and Its Russian Facet ('TpaMMaTHHecKHH napajuiejiH3M Η ero pyccKHH o6pa3HHK"), HaneqaTaHHOH Β HcypHajie Language Β 1966 roay, Bbi HaMenaeTe 3Ty npoÔJieMaTHKy πρκ ποMomH pHflaOTpeKTHBHbixBonpocoB: "[B03HHKaeT Bonpoc], BOO6me UH, Β KaKoñ CTeneHH η Β KaKOM acneKTe sjieMeHTbi, Haxo^amneCH BO B 3 Â H M H O M IipOCTpâHCTBeHHOM COOTHOIIieHHH FLBJISIOTCH C X O X H M H " , "...KaKHe... KaTeropHH MoryT HrpaTb pojib 3KBHB3N E H T O B Β ZIAHHOM YKNA^E".

Bbi npeKpacHO noKa3ajiH, HTO "...H3BecTHbie cxo,acTBa 06513aTejibHbi HJIH ace pacnojiaraioT npeHMymecTBeHHbiM ynoTpe6jieHHeM", Ha npHMepe neceHHoro BapnaHTa tnynaeMOH BaMH Β τεHeHHe Λ Ο Λ Γ Η Χ JieT noBecTH XVII BeKa o 'Tope-3JioHacTHH". ΟΛHaKO cymecTByeT no-BH^HMOMy H3pa/XHoe KOJiHnecTBO cjiynaeB, r^e Hccne^OBaTejib BCTpenaeT öojibiiiHe aaTpy^HeHHH β onpe/ieJieHHH JIHÖO CeMaHTHHeCKOH nO/lOnJieKH nOCTOHHHblX napHblX SJIEMEHTOB, JIH6O BO B C K P U T H H caMoro napajinejiH3Ma. Ilepeyio pa3HOBHflHocTb npozieMOHCTpHpoBaji James Fox β CBoen He^aBHeñ pa6oTe 'The Comparative Study of Parallelism" Ha npHMepe cHJibHo 3amHKziajin BapnauHH 3τογο CTHxa no 3aMeHaTejibH0H 3anHCH HapOflHblX 3ΠΗΗβΟΚΗΧ ΤβΚΟΤΟΒ Β CHÖHPCKOM CÖOpHHKe X V I I I BeKa, H3BecTH0M π ο λ HMeHeM ynoMaHyToro β 3 t o h pyKonHCH K h p h i h XlaHHJiOBa. Β t o m »ce 1915 r o a y M o c k o b c k h m yHHBepcHTeTOM 6biJio npeflji0»ceH0 Ha coHCKaHHe npeMHH HMeHH Bycnaeea, 3HaMeHHToro φθ-nbKJiopHCTa h a3biK0Beaa, HccjieaoBaHHe a3biKa ceeepHopyccKHX 6mjihh, 3anHcaHHbix β öacceÄHe peKH M e 3 e H H cneijHajiHCTOM A . JJ,. TpHropbeBbiM β Hanajie Harnero BeKa, η , paöoTaa Haa 3 t h m h TeKCTaMH, a CHOBa CTOJiKHyjica c BonpocaMH pyccKoro Hapo/iHoro annnecKoro CTHxa, nocTaBjieHHbiMH β nbiTJiHBbix HaöpocKax Φ. E . Kopma, h o Bce eme ziajieKHX OT KOHeHHoro pemeHHa. HaKOHeii, β t o m ace r o a y MHe aoßejiocb onymaTb npHBeseHHyio β MocKBy H3 ApxaHrejibCKOH ry6epHHH 3aMeqaTejibHyio cTapyxy CKa3HTenbHHijy HapoßHoro snoca Mapbio KpHBononeHOBy (1843—1924) η npoeepHTb c b o h HaÖJiioaeHHa Ha.n 3nnneCKHM CTHXOM Ha 5KHBOM MaTepHajie. Κ BOnpOCaM pyCCKHX ÖbIJIHH MHe xioBejiocb BnocjieacTBHH He pa3 B03BpamaTbca. C ο λ η ο η

nAPAJIJIEJIH3M C T o p o H b i , n p o c o ^ M M e c K a a c T p y K T y p a HX CTHxa

519

nana. MHe

Β .aajib-

H e f t m e M B03M0acH0CTb m a r 3 a m a r o M BO3BCCTH STOT CTHX π γ τ β Μ c p a B H H T e j i b H o r o a H a j i H 3 a c n e p e a κ npacnaBHHCKOH, a 3 a T e M Η Κ H H f l o e B p o n e H C K O H BepcH(J)HKauHH; c a p y r o H ace C T o p o H b i , p a 6 o T a Ha/i c i o a c e T a M H 6WJTHH n o M o r j i a MHE ΒΗΗΟΗΗΤΈ HX ^peBHOCTb Η Β HacTHocTH h x H C T o p H H e c K y i o Η MHcJjojiorHHecicyio n o ^ o n j i e K y . H o 3THMH BOnpOCaMH MOH 33Η3ΤΗΗ pyCCKOH yCTHOH nOSTHTCCKOH T p a ^ H U H e H H e orpaHHHHJiHCb. C o CTyaeHMecKHX π β τ M e H a n o p a a c a j i Bee a p q e oÔHapyacHBaBniHHCH φ a κ τ B H y T p e H H e H o r p a H H 3 a u H H p y c c K o r o H a p o ^ H o r o p e HHTaTHBHOrO

CTHxa,

a

ΗΜΒΗΗΟ napajIJiejTH3M,

CBa3bIBaiOIUHH

CMe»(Hbie CTpoKH ο τ HX H a n a j i a Η ΛΟ KOHija, Η M e H a 0 C 0 6 e H H 0 y a H B J i a . n o n o H T H n o j T H o e OTcyTCTBHe BHHMaHHa κ 3TOMy c y m e c T BeHHOMy φ a κ τ y c o CTopoHbi öoJibtuHHCTBa p a 6 0 T H H K 0 B H a f l p y c CKHM φ0JIbKJ10p0M. ΙΠπρΟΚΟΗ H3BeCTH0CTbK) n 0 J I b 3 0 B a j i a C b n o c n e a o B a T e j i b H O n o n a p H a a o p r a H H 3 a u H a CTPOK Β ÖHÖJieHCKOM CTHx o c j i o a c e H H H , ¿ m a κ ο τ ο ρ ο ή caMbiH TepMHH "napaJ7xiejiH3M" 6 b m y c B o e H POBHO

flBecTH

JieT TOMy Ha3a,n. C H e i o

conocTaejiajiacb

He M e H e e n o c j i e ^ o B a T e n b H a a napajiJiejiHCTHHecicaa o p r a H H 3 a u H a Φ Η Η Ο Κ Ο Γ Ο s n o c a . Π ρ κ ö o j i b i n e H CBOÔOfle Η ι ι ι κ ρ ο τ β

BapnauHH

p y c c K H H n o 3 T H H e c K H H n a p a j u i e j i H 3 M B e e ace TecHO n p H M b i K a e T κ 3THM CHCTeMaM. Β 1 9 1 7

ropy

a npe/mpHHaji nonbiTKy pa3o6paTb-

c a ΠΟΛ 3THM y r j i o M 3 p e H H a Β O T ß e n b H O M τ ε κ ο τ ε , B o i n e z m i e M Β c ö o p H H K KHPIHH ^ a H H J i o B a H C T o a m e M Ha r p a H H u e JIHPHKH Η s n o c a , a HMCHHO Β KpaTKOM ( e c e r o 2 1 C T p o x a ) o 6 p a 3 H H K e 3 a M e n a T e u b H o r o UHKJia CTHXOB o rope-3HOHacTHH. Ά Ha 3 T y T e M y

mia

OMepe^Horo

A3bim, no/troTaBJiHBaBiueroca Ο π ο » 3 θ Μ . 3 t o t r o í i y /LEHCTBHTEJIBHO B b i m e j i ,

o6emaji

CTaTbio

Côopmim no meopuu noammecKozo CÖOPHHK Β 1 9 1 9

ΒπροπβΜ, TAK Η HE ^OACAABUIHCB

M o e H CTaTbH. Ά n o n p a e y CHHTaji e e H e 3 p e n b i M 3CKH30M, T p e ö y i o II|HM

flajibHeñiueH

o ô p a ô o T K H Η n e p e p a ö o T K H Β CBeTe n o c j i e f l o -

BATEJIBHO YTOHHABUIHXCA NPHHIMNOB JIHHRBHCTHHECKORO AHANH3a. 3 t o t MOH 3 a M b i c e j i ΗΟΒΟΓΟ n o a x o ^ a κ . n B a / m a ™ ΟΛΗΟΗ ς τ ρ ο κ β CTHxa o r o p e a o 3 p e n n o j i e e x a c n y c T a Η J i e r Β o c H O B y M o e í i MOHOΓ ρ 3 φ Η Η o rpaMaTHHecKOM n a p a j i J i e j i H 3 M e η e r o pyccKOM o 6 p a 3 HHKe, H a n e n a T a H H O H β aMepHKaHCKOM a c y p H a j i e

Language

β 1966

r o z i y . H o Η 3Ty B e p c H i o a cHHTaio B e e r ò n H u i b n p e ^ B a p H T e j i b H b i M 3CKH30M. y « e 3 a B6K z i o M o e r o H a 3 B a H H o r o o n b i T a , Β 1 8 6 5 r o / i y ΟΛΗΗ h 3 y B J i e K a T e n b H e H i i J H x ΠΟ3ΤΟΒ n p o u u i o r o cTOJieTHa h H e c o M H e H H O

520

EECEßbl

yBjieKaTejibHeHinHH τβορετΗκ no3THiecKoro MacTepcTBa Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844—1889), β t o BpeMa eme iohmh CTy/iem, HanHcaji, HTO "XyaoHcecTBeHHbiH njiaH Π033ΗΗ c b o ^ h t c » κ πρηηUHny napajiJiejiH3Ma. CTpyKTypa Π033ΗΗ 6a3HpyeTca Ha HenpeCTaHHOM napajiJiejiH3Me, HaHHHaa c ΤΆΚ Ha3biBaeMoro TexHHHe-

^peBHeeepeHCKOH Π033ΗΗ η λ ο 3 η τ η Φ ο η uepKOBHOH My3HKH, η λ ο yMy,qpeHHoro rpenecKoro, HTajibaHCKOro hjih aHrjiHHCKoro CTHxa." Hopkins rjiy60K0 npae β cbocm npeacKa3aHHH, h t o Ta BaxcHaa, h o λ ο chx n o p Heono3HaHHaa pojib, KOTopyio "napajiJiejiH3M BbipaaceHHa" HrpaeT β Harneó no33HH, "n3yMHT Ka^^oro, Kor^a oh BnepBbie c Heio ocbohtch". CüCTeMa HeyKJioHHbix c o o t b c t c t b h h β cocTaee h pacnopa^Ke CKoro napajijiejiH3Ma

CHHTaKCHMeCKHX KOHCTpyKUHH, rpaMMaTHHeCKHX φ ο ρ Μ Η rpaMMa-

THHecKHX KaTeropHÄ, jieKCHKanbHbix chhohhmob η

nojiHbix

τοκ-

aecTB, HaKOHeu, 3ByKocoHeiaHHH η npocoíWHecKHx cxeM — Bee

3TO Ha^ejiaeT hctkhm c ^ h h c t b o m h b t o k BpeMa π ι η ρ ο κ η μ p a 3 Hoo6pa3HeM cBa3aHHbie napajuiejiH3MOM ctpokh. H a φοΗβ uejiocthoh MaTpHUbi KpacHopeHHBO BbicTynaiOT BapnauHH 3ByicoBbix, rpaMMaTHHeCKHX H JieKCHKaJIbHblX φ ο ρ Μ H 3HaqeHHH. Oöcyac^aa β CBoe BpeMa T p y a BoJlbφΓaHΓa IIlTeHHHija o na-

paJinejIH3Me Β φHHCKO-KapeJIbCKOH HapOflHOH Π033ΗΗ, OTKpblBuiHH HOBbie n y r a η BbimefluiHÄ β XejibCHHKax β 1934 ro,oy, a nHcaji, HTO Heoôxo^HMO aaubHeHuiee yniyÖJieHHe aHajiH3a: β nacTHOCTH napHbie coneTaHHa Ka3ajiocb 6 ω pe^KO

oÔHapyacHBaioT

CBoeo6pa3Hyio

οληηοκηχ

στροκ He-

napajiJiejiHCTHHecKyio

CB83b, ycKOJib3HyBinyK) OT HCCJieaoBaTejibCKoro BHHMaHHa.

Β

CBOK) o n e p e ^ b , Ha φοΗβ HeycTaHHbix BapnanHH noBTopHbie e^HHCTBa CTaHOBaTca HecpaBHeHHO omyTHMee. YcTaHOBKa Ha napan-

jiejiH3M Hapaay co cxo^ctbom BHyTpH c t h x o b m x nap Bbi3bieaeT noBbimeHHoe BHUMaHne ko BcanecKOMy cxoacTBy h BcanecKOMy pa3HHHHK) Meac^y CMeacHbiMH napaMH στροκ h Meamy nojiycTHniHaMH BHyTpH ctpokh; ο λ η η μ cjiobom, Kaacaoe c x o ä c t b o η Kaacfloe npoTHBonocTaBJieHHe npnoöpeTaeT ocoömh Bec. C e a 3 b Meacay BHeuiHeH φ ο ρ Μ ο ή h 3HaHeHneM Henocpe^cTBeHHO n e p e -

ÄHBaeTca, η κ BOcnpHaTHK) c x o ^ c t b η CMeacHocreñ BHyTpH ο6τ>βΛΗΗβΗΗΟΓΟ napajiJiejiH3M0M ÄBycTHuiHa HeBOJibHO npncoeOTHaeTca

Hyaena β n0,qc03HaTejibH0H pa3raflKe, neM »ce cea3aHbi

o6e napajuiejibHbie ctpokh — acconnanneH no cxo,acTBy /ih6o KOHTpacTy, hjih ace acconnauneH no cMeacHOcra, — a ecjiH no CMeacHocTH, το KaKoñ, npocrpaHCTBeHHOH hjih BpeMeHHÓñ? Ha-

nAPAJIJIEJIH3M

521

KOHeu, BCTaeT pemaiomHH /ma ποηημ&ηηη c t h x o b Bonpoc, KaKOBO HepapxHHecKoe OTHOineHHe napajuiejibHbix e^HHHu: κοτοpaa H3 HHx noOTHHeHa zipyroH, τ ο ecTb KaK pacnpe/iejiaiOTCH, coniacHO y^aHHOH pHTopH^ecKOH τ6ρμηηοπογηη, "vehicle" η "tenor", η ΗβΜ n0flCKa3aH0 aaHHoe cooTHOiiieHHe — ΒΗγτρβΗΗΗΜ coflepxcaHHeM οτροκ hjih npocTO riepBHHHOCTbio ο λ η ο η η βτοpHHHOCTbK) flpyrOH, HJIH, H3KOH6U, MeCTOM BCerO flByCTHIIIHH BHyTpH KOHTeKCTa. Bea 3Ta opKecTpoBKa nacTen h uejioro KaTeropniecKH cbo^ht κ HyjiK) npa3AHbre aoMbicjibi o ôe^HOCTH h m o h o t o h h o c t h napaiiJiejiHCTHHecKHx cHCTeM craxa. 3 t h m h öoraTbiMH bo3mo)kHOCTHMH, 3aJIOMCeHHbIMH Β TeCHOM IIOSTHHeCKOM COHeTaHHH eZlHHCTB H npOTHBOnOJIO)KHOCTeH, OÖ^aCHSeTCH Φ3ΚΤ LUHpOHaHiiiero pacnpocTpaHeHHa, 6biTb MoaceT aaace nepeeHCTByiomeH pojiH napajiJiejiHCTHHecKHX CHCTeM β μ η ρ ο β ο η Π033ΗΗ, KaK ycTHOH TaK Η ÜHCbMeHHOH (^OCTaTOHHO BCnOMHHTb Ο ΜΗΟΓΟΒβΚΟBOM rOCnOÄCTBe napaJIJiejIH3Ma Β KHTaHCKOM CTHXOCJIOHCeHHH). M b i npHcyTCTByeM πρΗ ο τ κ ρ ω τ κ β χ bo Bcex nacTax ceeTa Bee HOBbix CHCTeM ycTHoro TBopnecTBa, 6a3Hpyiomnxca Ha KaHOHHnecKOM napajiJiejiH3Me. Majio τογο, ÖJiaro^apa HCCJieaoBaHHaM c6jIH3HBIHHXCa C JIHHrBHCTHHeCKOH ΜβΤΟΛΟΛΟΓΗβΗ aHTpOnOJIOΓΟΒ, Kax HanpHMep J. Fox, MM oÖHapyacHBaeM TecHyio cea3b Me>K,ny no3THHecKHM naparuiejiroMOM η ΜΗφοποΓΗβπ, BKJiioHaa f)HTyaji, πρΗΗβΜ pojib napajiJiejiH3Ma β ΜΗΦοπογηηθοκοη Tpa¿mIJHH η TBopiecTBe OTKpbiBaeT β CTpyirrypHbix CBOHCTBax napajijiejiH3Ma Bcë HOBbie HenpeaBH^eHHbie BO3moxchocth. Β qacTHOcΤΗ pacuiHpaeTca 3HanHMOCTb 6nHapHbix cTpyKTyp β pa3JiHHHbix nnaHax KyjibTypHOH aHTponojiorHH. 3,qecb HaMenaiOTca 3aMaHHHBbie nepcneKTHBbi napamiejiH3Ma KaK TeMbi HHTep,zmcijHnjiHHapHoro H3yHeHHa. Bo3Bpamaacb κ nocTaBJieHHOH Γ ο π κ η η ο ο μ cpohhoh 3aaane pacnpocTpaHHTejibHoro npHMeHeHHa pa3biCKaHHH o napajuiejiH3Me, paBHO η κ τβΜ CHCTeMaM no3THHecKoro TBopnecTBa, rae KaHOHHMecKoro napajiJiejiH3Ma Hex, a aeñcTByeT jiHiiib no^cnyjiHbiH πρΗΗΐχΗπ napajiJiejibHbix kohctpykuhh, 3,qecb η θ ο 6 χ ο λ η μ ο ynecTb t o t njio^OHOCHbiH onbiT, kotopmh noflCKa3ajiH Cocciopy ero OTBaacHbie Bbijia3KH β o6jiacTb, oxapaKTepH30BaHHyio hm KaK poétique phonisante. H3 h h x cjiaraeTca ero MOHyMeHTajibHbiíí Tpyfl 06 aHarpaMMax, κ coacaneHHio, noHbme onyßjiHKOBaHHbiH β ο λ η η χ TOUbKO OTpbiBKax. Β 3TOM oöieMHCTOM Tpy,qe aCHO

522

BECERI»!

noKa3aHo, h t o no3TnnecKne crpyKTypbi, β npoTHBonojiOHCHOCTb au langage habituel h, npHÖaBHM, β npoTHBonojioacHOCTb napajijiejiH3My KaHOHHHecKOMy, nopbieaioT c npuHijHnoM BpeMeHHÓH nocjie^oBaTejibHOCTH, TaK h t o cHCTeMa 3ByKOBbix h rpaMMâTHHeCKHX COOTBeTCTBHH, a Β OCOÔeHHOCTH COOTBeTCTBHH ÔHHapHbix, npnoôpeTaeT uinpoKyio CBOÖOAy pacnpe^ejieHHa; roBopa cjioBaMH C o c c i o p a , "Il est d'emblée accordé que l'on peut se rattraper pour u n couple sur le vers suivant, et m ê m e sur l'espace de plusieurs vers." M a n o τ ο γ ο , β TaKHX ycjioBHax BbipacTaeT h o Boe npoTHBonocTaBjieHHe coneTaHHH h λ ο π ο λ π η η η ο He Haxo.uaiiíhx c e 6 e napbi eziHHHij, KOTopbie MvteHHO β CHJiy c e o e ô e^HHHHHOCTH apKo Bbi^ejiaioTCH Ha φοΗβ rocnoacTByiomHx nap. Κ. Π.

KaKOBa pojib napajuie.riH3Ma β xyfloacecTBeHHoñ npo3e?

H e roBopa, k o h c h h o , o cjiynaax TaK Ha3biBaeM0H pHTMHnecKOH np03bl HJIH np03bl ÔHÔJieHCKOH. HeKOTOpbie HCCJie^OBaTejIH CHHTaioT, h t o Barn npHHiinn B c e o ö t e M j n o m e r o napajiJiejiHCTUHecKOro CTpoa β Π033ΗΗ pacnpocTpaHaeTca h Ha npo3y, c τοκ) JiHiiib pa3HHuefo, h t o β npo3e npHHUHn 3T0T pa6oTaeT Ha öojiee oöniHpHbix, nevi β CTHxe, KOMnoHeHTax. ÜHbie, Hao6opoT, ayMaioT, h t o ΗΜβΗΗο HajiHHHe napajurejiroMa β npo3e η κ ο 6 μ προτΗΒορβΗκτ B a u i e ñ κΐΉΰϋΗφΗ^ΐίΗΗ npo3bi KaK nocTpoeHua

npeHMymecT-

BeHHO MeTOHHMHHecKoro η Π033ΗΗ — KaK npenMymecTBeHHO Μβτ3φορΗΗεϋΚθΓθ. M e a m y τβΜ HajiHHHe napajiJiejiH3Ma β npo3e, pa3yMeeTca, HecoMHeHHO. H a 3το yKa3biBajiH yace paHHHe φορMajiHCTbi, HeKOTOpbie e m e .qoBOJibHO HeyKjiiOHce, ,apyrne, KaK HanpHMep Π β τ ρ Bhu;hjijih, oneHb t o h k o . BbiaejiaeMbie hmh komnoHeHTbi KaK 06a3aTejibH0 napHbie nocTpoeHHa — s t o rjiaBHbiM 06pa30M nepcoHaacH β h x xapaKTepoJioranecKOM acneKTe. KpoMe TaKHX, aBHO 6ÓJibUJHX κ ο μ π ο η 6 η τ ο β , Jienco HañTH h

flpyrae,

6ojiee aôcTparupoBaHHbie TeMaranecKHe eztHHHijbi. M o n c h o 0 6 HapyacHTb η cnjioniHoe napanuejiHCTHHecKoe nocTpoeHHe Beerò cK»KeTa β TaKHX npoH3BeaeHHax, KaK napoaHHHaa npo3a T o r o j i a HJiH MopajiHCTHHecKHe paccKa3bi T o j i c t o t o . H o 3 t h npHMepbi TaK HjiH HHane CBa3aHbi c φoJTbKJIopoM. X o T e j i o c b 6bi nocTaBHTb Bonpoc 6ojiee c h c t c m h o η npHHijHnHajibHo: moncho jih cnnraTb, h t o β OTHonieHHH napajiJiejiH3Ma cymecTByeT HeKaa cTporaa rpaHHua Meac^y versus

h provorsaì

OcoôeHHO β CBeTe B a m e ô τ ε ο -

pHH nocTpoeHHa npo3bi n o npHHHHny CMeacHOCTH, a Π033ΗΗ — n o npHHHHny cxo^cTBa?

523

riAPAJIJIEJIH3M P. iL

P o j i b napajiJiejiH3Ma a a j i e K O He orpaHMHHBaeTca n p e / i e -

jiaMH CTHXOTBOPHOH peHH. H e M a j i o 06pa3U0B xyfloacecTBeHHOH n p o 3 b i n o c T p o e H o n o npHHUHny n o c n e a o B a T e n b H o r o jiH3Ma, h o h 3ziecL· mutatis

mutandis

napanjie-

Mbi MOMceM npHMeHHTb c o -

o ô p a K e H H e T o n K H H c a o t o m , KaK H3yMHT Ha6jiio,aaTejifl no.acny.aHoe HajiHHHC

fleñcTBeHHoro

n a p a j u i e j i H 3 M a .aaace β OTHOCHTejibHO

CBOÔOflHOH K0Mn03HUHH np03aHHeCKHX ΠρθΗ3ΒβΛ6ΗΗΗ, ΓΛβ n a pajiJiejiHCTHHecKHe

ποστροβΗΗΗ

npHo6peTaioT

npnxoTjiHBbiH

cKJiafl h HaHÔOJiee o T C T y n a i o T ο τ 6 e c n p e K o c j i O B H o r o π ο λ η η η β η η η sneMeHTapHOMy

npHHUHny

ΒρβΜβΗΗόή

nocjieaoBaTeiibHocTH.

K a K 6 b i τ ο HH 6biJio, Meac^y CTHXOTBopHbiM h

npo3anHecKHM

napajiJiejiH3MOM K p o e T c a 3HaMeHaTejibHoe H e p a p x H ^ e c K o e pa3jiHHHe. Β Π033ΗΗ HM6HHO CTHX ^HKTyeT caMbiH CK/iafl n a p a j i n e jiH3Ma: n p o c o ^ H H e c K a a CTpyKTypa CTHxa β i j e j i o M , M e j i o a n n e c K o e e^HHCTBO h noBTopHOCTb CTpoKH, a TaKace e e cocTaBHbix m c t p h necKHX HacTeit no,acKa3biBaeT n a p a j u i e j i b H o e p a c n o n o a c e H H e 3JieΜβΗΤΟΒ rpaMMaraneCKOH H JieKCHKaJIbHOH CCMaHTHKH, H ΗβΗ36 e » H O 3ByK ΒβρΧΟΒΟΛΗΤ 3HaH6HHCM. O ö p a T H O , β n p o 3 e CeMaHTHMecKHM eziHHHuaM pa3JiHHHOH eMKOCTH npHHa^neacHT npHMaT β opraHH3auHH n a p a n j i e j i b H b i x CTpyKTyp, h

3/iecb napajiJie.riH3M

CBH3aHHbIX n o CXOflCTBy, KOHTpaCTy HJIH CMeXCHOCTH eflHHHU aKTHBHo CKa3biBaeTCfl β cioaceTHOM ποστροβΗΗΗ, β x a p a K T e p H c r a i c e Cy6l>eKT0B H 00Τ>βΚΤ0Β ÍISHCTBHH η β HaHH3bIBaHHH ΜΟΤΗΒΟΒ nOBeCTBOBaHHH. X y f l o a c e c T B e H H a a n p o 3 a 3aHHMaeT npoMeacyTOHHoe n o j i o x c e HHe Me»C^y Π033ΗβΗ KaK TaKOBOH H H3bIKOM 06bIKH0B6HH0H, npaKTHHeCKOH KOMMyHHKaUHH, H HeOÔXOflHMO nOMHHTb, HTO aHaJIH3 Ka»cfloro n e p e x o z i H o r o , npoMexcyTOHHoro h b u c h h h HecpaBΗβΗΗΟ TpyxiHee, q e M HCCJie^OBaHHe η β ^ θ η μ η n o j i a p H b i x . P a 3 y MeeTCH, s t o He 03HanaeT 0TKa3a ο τ H3yHeHHfl CTpyKTypHbix c b o h c t b np03aHHecK0H HappauHH, h o 3 ^ e c b T p e ô y e T c a 6 o / i b i i i e e h30m p e H H e μ θ τ ο λ ο β h nocTOHHHaa naMHTb o t o m , η τ ο Ηβτ βΛΗΗοή xyzioacecTBeHHOH np03bi, a TOJibKo u e j i b i ñ pua C T y n e H e ü , c ô j i h »CaiOmHX peHb C ΟΛΗΗΜ Μ Ha3BâHHbIX nOJlIOCOB H OTflejiaiOmHX e e ο τ n p o T H B o n o j i o ) K H o r o n o j i i o c a . Β nacTHOCTn, H a c y m H y i o 3aa a n y CTaBHT c n e u ^ H K a K y ^ a 6 o j i e e ycTOHMHBOH h np03paMH0H φ Ο ^ Κ Λ Ο ρ Η Ο Η np03bl n o CpaBHeHHK) C HHflHBH^yajIH3HpOBaHHOH, jiHTepaTypHOH np030H c e e r j i y ö o K H M M H o r o o 6 p a 3 H e M

cthjih-

cTHHecKOH opHeHTauMH. H e M ö r a i a c e JiHHHasi n p o 3 a κ φο/ibKJiopy, τ β Μ CHJibHee n p o H B j i a e T c a n a p a j u i e j i H 3 M . K o r \ a a JleB T o j i c t o h

524

EECEßbl

3a,qaji β n p o r p a M M H O H CTaTbe B o n p o c

" K o M y y κογο

yHHTbca

n H c a T b , KpecTbHHCKHM peÔHTaM y H a c , h j i h HaM y KpecTbaHCKHX p e Ö H T ? " ( 1 8 6 2 ) h , H a c r a H B a a Ha n p e H M y m e c T B e p e ö a n b H X p a c c K a 30B n e p e / i m e ^ e B p a M H Γ β τ β , c a M n b i T a j i c a β c b o c m T B o p n e c T B e npH6nH3HTbca κ "aeTCKOH M y a p o c T H " , npaMOJiHHeñHocTb n a p a j i jiejiHCTHHecKHX πρΗβΜΟΒ HaniJia β 3THX o n b i T a x 3 n e M e H T a p H y i o

(frOJIbKJIOpHyiO H6TKOCTL·. Κ ο Η β Η Η Ο , nOÄCKa3Ka 3ByKOBbIX KOHCTpyKIJHH Η Β OCOÖeHHOCTH n p o c o f l H H e c K H X c p e f l C T B c o 3 ^ a e T Hpe3BbiHaÔHO ycjioBHe

ana

omyTHTejibHocra

ÔJiaronpnaTHoe

nosTHHecKoro

napajijiejiH3Ma

πρΗ ΗβρβΛΚΟΗ 3aByajiHp0BaHH0CTH c a M o i i T a K o i i no^CKa3KH. H a n p H M e p , n e p e H H T b i B a a τ β κ ο τ K h p i h h ,/JaHHjioBa o

rope-3JiOHa-

CTHH, a He c p a 3 y 3aMeTHJi cKpbiTbiH β τ β κ ο τ β π ρ κ β Μ B b w e j i e H H a

napajiJiejiHCTHHecKHx c t h x o b h xiBycthiiihh. Β nepBoô noJiOBHHe 3τογο CTHXOTBopeHHa CMexcHbie aBycTHiiiHa, a bo Βτοροή CMe»cHbie c T p o K H o K a 3 b i B a i o T c a n p o T H B o n o c T a B j i e H b i i i p y r . q p y r y : β e r o HanajIbHOH 6e3JIHMHOH MaCTH ÄHCTHXH C KOHeMHblM CJTiOBeCHblM

y^apeHHeM π ο λ ο λ η η μ h3 ß ß y x n e p B b i x h k t o b σ τ ρ ο κ ή p e r y j i a p H O H e p e a y i o T c a c ziHCTHxaMH, jiHineHHbiMH c j i o e e c H o r o y a a p e H H a ; BO BTOPOH 5Κβ, JIHHHOH HaCTH H e p e j i y i O T C a CTPOKH C ΚΟΗβΗΗΜΜ H BTOpblM OT KOHIja yZjapHblM CJIOrOM ΠΟΑ n e p B b I M HKTOM. Β KOT o p b i H τ ο p a 3 a CHOBa y ö e f l H j i c a β n p a e o T e h ruioflOTBOpHOCTH

jiaHCHpoBaHHoro qyTKHM ληηγβηοτομ Π. Β. IliepöoH Te3Hca o Tom, i t o φΗΛΟποΓΗβ — s t o HayKa Me/meHHoro η ποβτορηογο HTeHHa. Κ ο Η β Μ Η ο , T a K a a cHCTeMaTHHecKH KOHTpacTHaa p a 3 B e p c T K a y ^ a p e H H H h c j i o B o p a 3 a e j i o B o 6 o c T p a e T BHHMaHHe k o B c e M n p o a BjieHHaM 3ByKOBoro H ceMaHTHHecKoro napajiJiejiH3Ma. E c J I H C T p o r H H JlHHrBHCTHHeCKHH aHaJIH3 n 0 3 B 0 J i a e T OXBaTHTb pa3Hoo6pa3Hbie n p o a e j i e H H a πο3τηηθοκογο napajiJiejiH3Ma, τ ο β

CBOK) OHepe^b no3THHecKnñ napajiJiejiH3M aBJiaeTca cymecTBeHHbiM n o f l c n o p b e M a n a JiHHrBHCTHHecKoro a H a j i H 3 a p e n n , a h m c h h o o h a a e T HaM TOHHbie n o K a 3 a H H a , KaKHC rpaMMaTH^ecKHe KaTer o p H H HJIH KaKHe ΚΟΜΠΟΗβΗΤΜ CHHTaKCHHCCKHX

KOHCTpyKUHH

0C03HaK)TCa flaHHblM a3bIKOBbIM K0JIJI6KTHB0M KaK 3KBHBajieHTHbie η cooTBCTCTBeHHO n p H H H M a i o T Ha c e 6 a p o j i b n a p a j u i e j i b H b i x

e^HHHií. HanpHMep, oÖHapyxcHBaeTca KaK Ha cji3bhhckom TaK η Ha ÔHÔJieHCKOM M a T e p n a j i e , h t o BOKaTHB h H M n e p a T H B

cnocoÔHbi

3aH8Tb ο λ η ο η τ ο ace M e c T O β flByx n a p a j u i e j i b H b i x p a z i a x , τ . e . H a p a ^ y c pa3JiHHHeM M e a c ^ y h m c h h o h η r j i a r o j i b H o ñ

φορΜοκ

3flecb npoaBjiaeTCH η o^epacHBaeT Bepx κ ο η 3 τ η β η μ η xapaKTep,

rtAPAJIJIEJIH3M

525

o ô i i j h h ο β β Η Μ KareropHHM. TOHHO TaK ace c o n o c T a e j i e H H e a e y x φρ33, ο λ η ο η c r j i a r o j i b H b i M npe^HKaTOM, a flpyroH c 3 λ ή η π τ η necKHM n p o n y c K O M τ ο γ ο »ce npe^HKaTa, τ. e. c HyjieBbiM npe^HKaTOM, HHCKOJibKo He H a p y m a i o T napajiJiejiH3Ma o ö e H X pa3. Π ρ Η paöoTe H a a n o a r a n e c K H M napajiJiejiH3MOM β sobiicax c c h CTeMaMH, üajieKHMH ο τ H a r n e r o η 3 μ κ ο β ο γ ο M b i m n e H H S , rpaMMaTHHecKHH napajijiejiH3M cnyacHT ijeHHbiM n o c o ô w e M a n a o n p e a e jieHHa Tex o c h o b h w x rpaMMaTHHecKHX π ε ρ τ , KOTopbie JieacaT β ocHOBe TaKOH, Ha n e p B b i i i B i r n a u , 3aMbicji0BaT0H CHCTeMbi. C e MaHTHHecKHe c6jiH»ceHHfl, npHMeHaeMbie β aaHHOH n a p a j u i e j i H CTHHeCKOH CHCTeMe, aaiOT BaHCHblH KJIIOH He TOJIbKO κ nOHHMaHHK) ceMaHTHHecKoro c K j i a a a ^aHHoro H3biKa, h o η κ o c o ö e H HOCTHM MblIIIJieHHS flaHHOrO Η3ΜΚΟΒΟΓΟ KOJLTieKTHBa, n p H BCeH HeOÖXO^HMOH OCTOpoaCHOCTH Β XOJIG 33ΚΛΚ)ΗβΗΗΗ OT H3bIKOBbIX 0C06eHH0CTeH κ M b i n u i e H H i o . B o b c h k o m cjiyqae τ ο , h t o 6 b i j i o cae^aHo β 3 t o m HanpaBJieHHH π ρ κ pa3Öopax napajiJiejiH3Ma, Jieacaiuero β o c H o e e μ η ο γ ο β β κ ο β ο η KHTaücKOH π ο 3 3 η η , öoraTO n o y HHTejIbHblMH BbIBOaaMH H B03M0HCH0CT5IMH HOBblX OTKpbITHH.

XII. Π 0 3 3 Η Λ

Κ. Π.

Cpe.au

Η

3jieMCHT0B,

ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΗΚΑ

cocTaBjiaioinHx

3KBHBaneHTHbie

napbi, Bbi Ha3biBaeTe H rpaMMaranecKHe KaTeropHH. O c o 6 a a pojib rpaMMâTHKH Β Π033ΗΗ — 3ΤΟ BaUI HOBblH BKJiafl Β ü03THKy, OTHOcamHHca coöcTBeHHO κ aMepHKaHCKOMy nepHo^y. H o HHTepec κ 3THM BonpocaM B03HHK y Bac, KaK KaaceTCH, e m e Β npaaccKHe BpeMeHa, Β cbs3H C pe/iaKTHpoBaHHeM neiucKHX nepeeo^OB r i y m KHHa. Tor^a-To, BepoHTHo, H noaBHJiacb tutea HenepeBojjHMOc™ onpeaejieHHbix KaTeropHH aaHHoro a3biKa Ha zipyroH ecTecTBeHHbiH H3biK, pa3BepHyTaa ΜΗΟΓΟ no3»ce Β o c o ö y i o TeoperanecKyio npoôneMy, Β paôoTe " O n Linguistic A s p e c t s of Translation" 1958 rofla. Β 3TOH cTaTbe roBopHTca o npoÖJieMe

uHmepnpemayuu

BMecTO TOHHOH nepe^anH a3biK0Bbix e^HHHU (code-units) π ρ κ nepeBOfle c ΟΛΗΟΓΟ a3biKa Ha zipyroH. E m e no3»ce, Β 1968 ro^y, Β TeopeTHHecKOH craTbe, o6o6inaioineH yace ΜΗΟΓΟΒ3ΜΗΗΜΗ ΟΠΗΤ aHajiH3a MHoacecTBa nosTHHecKHX TCKCTOB — "Poetry of G r a m m a r and G r a m m a r of Poetry", pa3BepHyTa Mbicjib aMepHKaHCKHX JiHHrBHCTOB 0 6 oöJiHraTopHOM xapaKTepe rpaMMaTHHecKHx KaTeropHH /ma Kaacfloro OTaeiibHoro 83biKa. M e a m y o6jiHraTopHocTbio H3biKOBbix KaTeropHH Η HX HenepeBo/mMocTbio cymecTByeT, ΠΟ-ΒΗílHMOMy, rjiyöoKaa CBa3b. H e

H3 3ΤΟΓΟ JIH KOMnneKca 6Μ;ΙΗ

c^enaHbi oKOHiaTejibHbie BbiBoabi OTHOCHTEJIBHO OCO6OH ρ O JIH rpaMMaTHKH Β Π 0 3 3 Η Η ?

P. Ά.

/leñcTBHTejibHO, κ Bonpocy 0 rpaMMâTHKe ΠΟ33ΗΗ MeHa

npHBejiH pa3Hoo6pa3Hbie npeanocbuiKH. ΟΛΗΟΗ H3 HHX B3anpaeay

6bm HejierKHH onbiT peaaKTopcKOH paôoTbi Haa

HOBMMH

HeUICKHMH nepeBOMMH nyUIKHHCKHX JlHpHMeCKHX, SnHHeCKHX H flpaMaTHHeCKHX CTHXOB Β CBH3H C HX K)6HJieHHbIM H3^aHHeM BOKpyr COTOÍÍ ΓΟΛΟΒΙΙΖΗΗΜ ero CMepra. 3 T H nepeeo^t-i öbiJiH n o a rOTOBJieHbl JiyHLUHMH HeiHCKHMH Π03Τ3ΜΗ, H Ka3ajIOCb, HHOH3bIHHbiii nepecKa3 ToneH H n o pa3Mepy, H n o ρκφΜΟΒκε; Ka3ajiocb,

Π033ΗΛ Η ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΗΚΑ

527

nepeaaHbi cjiOBecHbie τροπΜ η φκΓγρ« opHrHHajia η caMbiH ero CTHJib. Meac^y τθμ, τβκστ n e p e e o M abho xpoMaji, η 0C06eHH0 CpaBHHBaa M a C T e p C T B O OßHOH HS BejIHHaHUIHX nyiUKHHCKHX Π03Μ, MeÒHbiù ecaÒHUK, c ee nerncKOH nepe^aneH BoryMHnoM Ma-

T63HycoM (1888—1952), a TaiOKe c ee nojibCKofí TpaicTOBKOH y Taκογο BbwaiomerocH no3Ta h nepeBOOTHKa cthxob, KaK K)JiHaH TyBHM (1894—1953), a ocTpo omyinaji, mto BOHCTHHy hto-to xpoMaeT, h 3aMeTHO TycKHeioT CHJibHeHtuHe ctpokh noariHHHHKa.

ABTOHOMHaa pojib rpaMMaraqecicoro ocTOBa β cthxobmx CHCTeMax, nocTpoeHHbix Ha rpaMMaranecKOM napajuie.HH3Me, flaeajia MHe yôeziHTejibHyio no,qcKa3Ky, r^e HCKaTb oôtjîîchchhh. H HaKOHeu, c rnMHa3HHecKOH CKEMbH a npHBbiK HHTaTb β yneÖHHKax TeopHH CJlOBeCHOCTH o CymeCTBOBaHHH Π033ΗΗ 6e3Ó6pa3HOH, r^e HKoöbi ΟΛΗΟ Jimiib n/ieHHoe Η 3M0UH0HajibH0e co^epacaHHe cocTaBJiaeT bck) ee cyTb h ueHHOCTb. A rjiaBHoe, Ha p e u i H T e n b Hyio noMomb npHxoAHJia jiHHrBHCTHKa, OTKpbiBaBiiiaa HaM rjia3a, no Mepe CBoero η Harnero pa3BHTHa, Ha ocHOBono.noHCHyio pojib CHCTeMbI Η OpraHH3aUHH rpaMMaTHHeCKHX 3Η3ΗβΗΗΗ Β H3bIK0-

BOM MblIIIJieHHH Η Β ρβΗβΒΟΜ o6lIjeHHH. Hay nenne ρκφΜω, HanaToe MHOK) β 1919 ro/iy Ha CTHxax XjieôHHKOBa, a 3aTeM MaaicoBCKoro, κ cjioBy cica3aTb, Ha j a n e — 3a ολHHM CaflOBbIM CTOJIOM C nOCJie^HHM aBTOpOM, HTO flaBajIO B03MOMCHOCTb HenocpeflCTBeHHoro o6cyxc,aeHHa nosTHHecKHX npHeΜΟΒ c caMHM πο3τομ, ocoôeHHO 8CH0 noKa3ajio MHe KpenKyiO CJIHHHHOCTb BOnpOCOB CTHXa H ero 3ByKOB C rpaMMaTHMeCKOH npoÖJieMaTHKOH. HMCHHO Tor/ja, β tom cene IlyiiiKHHe, r a e BCKope poflHJicH pa3roBop MaaKOBCKoro c cojiHueM, μ θ η η oceHHua Mbicjib, HTo He cymecTByeT arpaMMaTH3Ma ρ η Φ μ μ , a TOJibKO ^Ba nojiioca: rpaMMaTHHecKasi ριιφΜ&, nocTpoeHHaa Ha coneTaHHH C03ByHHa C ΜΟρφΟϋΟΓΗΗβΟΚΗΜ pOflCTBOM HJIH TOÄßeCTBOM, Ά C flpyroH CTopoHbi pHφMa aHrarpaMMaTHHecicaa, npoTHBamaaca TaKOMy coMeTaHHK), h HaicoHeu, Meacay STHMH aeyMa nojnocaMH pa3JiHHHbie nepexo/iHbie τ η π μ ρηΦμοβκη. Bbmo BaacHO noHaTb, HTo β aHTHrpaMMaTHHecKOH ρπφΜβ οτΗοιιιβΗΗβ κ rpaMMaTHKe nepe>KHBaeTca He MeHee CHJibHO, ΗβΜ β ρκφΜβ rpaMMaranecKOH, τ. e. npoTHBonocTaBJieHHe He MeHee coBna^eHHa co3,aaeT conpHcyTCTBHe OÖOHX nuaHOB, 3ByKOBoro h rpaMMaTHMecKoro. Π ο λ ο η λ » BnjioTHyio β KOHue naTHjjecaTbix γολοβ κ ochobhhm BonpocaM CBa3H Meac^y ληηγβηοτηκοη η πο3τηκοη, a nponen η noBTopaji β pa3JiHHHbix BapHaHTax o6o6maioiimH .aoKjia/i Ha 3Ty

BECERI

528

TeMy, 3aTeM onyÖJiHKOBaHHbiH β 1 9 6 0 ro,qy β côopHHKe Style in Language

h cocpe^OTOHHJicfl β τβΗβΗΗβ .aajibHeñinHX jieT Ha pac-

npe^eJieHHH h xy^oacecTBeHHOH pojiH pa3JiHHHbix rpaMMaranecKHx KaTeropHH β npejjeiiax oT^enbHbix nosTHnecKHx npoH3ΒβΛβΗΗΗ. C nepBblX HCe IIiarOB ΜβΗΑ H3yMHJia CHMMeTpHHHOCTb H 3aKOHOMepHOCTb

rpaMMaTHHeCKHX

npOTHBOnOCTaBJieHHH

y

CaMblX pa3JIHHHbIX Π03Τ0Β pa3JIHHHbIX 3Π0Χ h Hapo^OB. Ha KascΛΟΜ rnary no^TBepac^ajiacb K0Mn03HUH0HHaa pojib noBTopaeMblX HJIH Mce, HanpOTHB, KOHTpaCTHpyK>mHX rpaMMaTHHeCKHX KaTeropHH. BbiflBHHyToe Γ ο π κ η η ο ο μ i i o h s t h c

"rpaMMaraqecKHX

φHΓyp" oÔHapyacHBajio no cpaBHSHHio c ' ^ n r y p a M H 3ByKOBhiMH" He MeHbiiiyio 3HanHMocTb, »cHBynecTb h aencTBeHHOCTb β π ο 3 τ η necKOM MacTepcTBe. B o H3ÖeacaHHe KaKoö 6bi τ ο h h 6bijio ηρε,αB3ATOCTH η BbiÖHpaji TeKCTbi Hayaany h j i h »ce n o no^cKa3Ke CTyΛβΗΤΟΒ H KOJIJier, CJiyiiiaBLUHX ΜΟΗ JieKUHH n o 3TOM BonpocaM Η Ha nepBbix nopax OTKa3biBaBUiHXca BepHTb β npHcyTCTBHe 3 t h x rpaMMaTHHeCKHX φHΓyp y caMbix pa3Hoo6pa3Hbix π ο 3 τ ο β . TaK

nocjie ο λ η ο η H3 mohx jickuhh npncyrcTByioinHH npocfreccop aHrjiHHCKOH jiHTepaTypbi BbicKa3aji pernnrejibHoe coMHeHHe β bo3M05KH0CTH HaHTH nOSTHHeCKyK) OpraHH3aUHK) rpaMMaTHHeCKHX KaTeropHH β meKcnnpoBCKOM coHeTe 1 2 9 ; β Ty »ce HOHb a c jik>60nbITCTB0M B38JICH 3a 3TH CTpO(J)bI H BCKOpe MbI OnyÔJIHKOBaJIH, a h ΜΟΗ 6biBuiHH CTpy/ieHT L a w r e n c e Jones, He^BycMbicjieHHO OTHeTJiHBbie ^aHHbie, ecTecTBeHHo HanaeHHbie β 3 t o m coHeTe, a I v o r Richards β MacTepcKoñ cTaTbe e m e 3aocTpHji 3 t h noKaaaHHa. M H e flOBejiocb noziejiHTbca β Meac^yHapoziHOH n e n a r a pe3yjibTaTaMH rpaMMaTHHecKoro aHajiH3a c t h x o b aHrnHHCKHX, HeMeuKHX, φpaH^y3cκHX, HTajibaHCKHX, nopTyrajibCKHx, pyMbiHCKHX, rpeneCKHX, pyCCKHX, HeniCKHX, CJIOBattfCHX, nOJIbCKHX, CJIOBeHCKHX, cep6oxopBaTCKHX, ôojirapcKHX, CTapocjiaeaHCKHX h anoHCKHX, β o ö m e ö cjioacHocTH noKpbiBaiomHx nocjie^HHe TpHHaauaTb b ë k o b

ΜΗρΟΒΟΗ Π033ΗΗ. B o j i b m e ñ HacTbK) cjiymaTejiH h HHTâTejiH 3aaaBajiH MHe n o cymecTBy ο λ η η h Te ace npHHijHnHajibHbie Bonpocbi, BapbHpyiomHe naTb o c h o b h m x τβΜ. I l o n e M y a orpaHHHHBaiocb pa30opoM KOPOTKHX CTHXOTBOpeHHH — OT KynJieTa ΛΟ HeCKOJIbKHX ^eCHTKOB CTpoK? ΚοΗβΗΗΟ, η β ΛΠΗΗΗβΗηΐΗΧ no3Max rpaMMaTHKa ocTaeTca >KH3HeHHbIM φaKTOpOM, HO 3aKOHhI OrpaHH3aU,HH npOCTpaHHblX nosTHHecKHX TeKCTOB b o μ η ο γ ο μ OTHHHHbi στ nocTpoeHHa KpaTKHX CTHXOTBOpeHHH, Tex, m e , KaK t o h k o 0T03Bajica Edgar A l l a n

Π033ΗΛ Η ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΗΚΑ

529 Hanajia

P o e , HHTafl K O H e u , OTHeTJiHBO n o M H H i i i b B e c b τ β κ σ τ , ΛΟ

BKJIKDHHTCJIbHO. M H C JIOBejIOCb p a Ô O T a T b H H a f l rpaMMaTHKOH ö o j i b i i i H x Π03Μ, HO 3 ^ e c b H H T e p n p e T a i j H H C T p y K T y p b i

TpeôyeT

HHOH, ÖOJiee CJIO)KHOH n O f l a H H n o CpaBHCHHK) C ΤΒΜΗ n p H e M a M H , KOTOpbie HaM OTKpblBaiOT KpaTKHH, 3aMKHyTbIH TÊKCT, Η Η Β CTaT b H x Η jieKUHHx e m e B03^ep»cHBaK)Cb ο τ n p e a m e e p e M e H H o r o n e p e x o ^ a κ T a K o i í , ΗΗΟΡΟΛΗΟΗ 3a,aaHe. 0 / i H a K O , p a 3 y M e e T C H , Η a n o -

(1572), H nyuiKHHCKHH Medmiü ecadHUK( 1833), H 1836), κοτοροκ» yBJieic MeHH neiiiCKHH poMaHTHK K a r e l

nes Camoëns'a n o 3 M a Màj(

H y n e k M â c h a , B c e STO H a c j i e ^ H e Β β κ ο Β , n o c j i y ^ c H B i i i e e MHe 6 j i a r o f l a p H b i M M a T e p n a j i O M Π,ΠΧ MOHX n p e , Q B a p H T e j i b H b i x

ΟΠΜΤΟΒ,

noKa3biBaeT HeMeHbinyio H30mpeHH0CTb Β CBoeM rpaMMaTHneCKOM c T p o e , n e M KpaTKHe o 6 p a 3 b i MHPOBOH JIHPHKH. M O H ΠΟΚΟΗHbiH r a p B a p f l C K H H KOJiJiera R e u b e n B r o w e r

(1908—1975),

HCTHH-

HbiH 3HaTOK h noKJioHHHK Π033ΗΗ A ; i e K c a H , q p a n o n a ( 1 6 8 8 — 1 7 4 4 ) , y r o B a p H B a j i ΜΒΗΗ n o f l ß e p r H y T b a H a j i H 3 y HTO-JIH6O H3 e r o

xyao-

H c e c T B e H H o r o T B o p M e c T B a . Β ο τ Β β τ Ha MOH ΛΟΒΟΛ — " n p e n a T C T B y e T z u i H H a " , — MOH a p y r o 6 e m a j i c H a Ö O T T b ΜβΗΗ u e n o c r a b i M H φ p a Γ M e H τ a M H , HO H B 0 3 p a a c a j i , ΗΤΟ 3TO ΠΟΧΟΛΗΤ Ha p a c c e n e H w e o ö t e M H C T b i x HTajibHHCKHX

φρεοοκ

Ha K y c K H , n p a K T H K y e M o e ajiM-

HblMH aHTHKBapaMH, Η Ha φaJΊbIIIHBbIÍ^ ΠΟΛΧΟΛ Κ 3THM KyCKaM, cjiOBHO κ u e j i O M y .

Βτοροή 3aaaBaBniHHCH MHe Bonpoc xacajicH rpaMMaTHKH n j i o x H x CTHxoTBopeHHH. M O H οτΒβτ: Β 3TOH M a K y jiaType JIH6O uapHT 6e3BbixoflHbiH xaoc, JIH6O rpaMMaranecKHe OTI>HBjieHHO

c p e a c T B a Hcn0Jib30BaHbi c 6 a 3 H a a e » H 0 H

6aHajibHocTbio.

ΤρβΤΗΗ Bonpoc — B03M0HCHbI JIH B b l B O f l b l θ6 HHOTBHflyajTbHOCTH no3Ta, o CTHJie uiKOJibi, o xapaKTepHbix nepTax 3ΠΟΧΗ H a OCHOBaHHH 3aHHTHH "rpaMMaTHKOH Π033ΗΗ" — ΗβΟΟΜΗβΗΗΟ OTKpbiBaeT nepea Hccne^oBaTejieM HeMajioeaacHbie 3a,aaHH. OjiHaico MHe KaaceTCH, nepBbie rnarn Tpe6yioT npocTO aHajiH3a H HHTepnpeTaiíHH Β ηρΗΜβΗβΗΗΗ Κ ßaHHOMy npOH3BeaeHHK). HeT COMHeHHH, yace o6Hapya(HBaK)TCH xapaKTepHbie 0C06eHH0CTH Toro HJIH ΗΗΟΓΟ n03Ta, OÖLUHe ero pa3JIHHHbIM Πρ0Η3ΒβΛβΗΗΗΜ, H a PH^y CO ΰΠβΙΙΗφΗΗβΰΚΗΜΗ HepTaMH βΓΟ OTflejIbHblX MCaHpOB, OTaejibHbix 3TanoB ero TBopnecTBa HJIH aaace oxaejibHbix CTHXOTBopHbix ΟΠΜΤΟΒ. y»ce M O X H O roBopHTb BHepHe 0 6 O6LUHX OCO6eHHOCTHX n03THHeCK0H UIKOJIbl HJIH 3ΠΟΧΗ, HO H 6 o K ) C b

flOCpOH-

Hbix o6o6meHHH. ΗεοδχοΛΗΜΟ β nepeyio onepe/ib aocKOHajibHoe H3yHeHHe MaTepnana, He cBH3aHHoe npeaczieBpeMeHHbiMH HCTO-

530

EECE/Ihl

p u K o - J i H T e p a T y p H b i M H c x c m s m h h apjibiicaMH, HeBOJibHO HaBa3biBaiomHMH

HCCJie^OBaTejiK)

Hpe3MepHyio

.qojiio

npe^HaMepeH-

H o c T H . Β n e p B y i o »ce o n e p e ^ b M e H a 3 a 6 o T H T B o n p o c o B b i p a ö o T K e HaHÖojiee tomhoíí, o ö t e i e r a B H O H η π;ΐ0,α0ΤΒ0ρΗ0Η τβχΗΗΚΗ, πο3BOJIHIOmeH BCKpblTb rpâMMaTHHCCKHe KOHTypbl ΛβΗΗΟΗ Κ0ΜΠ03Ηi j H H h ocBeTHTb ee xyflOHcecTBeHHbiH 3φφβκτ. Π ρ Η 3aHHTHH rpaMMaTHHeCKHM O Ô J I H K O M Πρ0Η3ΒεΛβΗΗΗ Ο Λ Η Ο Η 3 Π Ο Χ Η Cpa3y CKa3bIBaeTCH pa3JIHHHe Β CTeneHH ΠρΗΜβΗβΗΗβ HM6HHO rpaMMaTHHCC K H X (J)Hryp e p e ^ H π ρ Ο Η Η Χ Π ρ Η β Μ Ο Β O p K e C T p O B K H C T H X O B y p a 3 jiHHHbix πο3τοβ. H a n p H M e p , 3HaHHTejibHO 6ójibiiiaa pojib h

60-

raTCTBO rpaMMaTHHecKHX c p e ^ c T B β π ο 3 3 η η X j i e Ö H H K O B a h O c n n a M a H ^ e j i b i u T a M a (1891—1938) n o cpaBHeHHio c h x coBpeMeHHHKOM MaaKOBCKHM, y KOToporo Ha nepBbiô njiaH BbiCTynaioT

HHbie

H3biKOBbie c p e f l C T B a . Ο ο τ ρ ο ή r p a M M a r a H e c K O H o 6 p a 3 H O C T b i o oica3 b i B a i O T c a o z i a p e H b i c t h x h " o T B e p r H y T b i x " û o s t o b {poètes dits),

mau-

H a KpyTOM, H e n o c p e ^ c T B e H H O M n e p e x c w e ο τ n o 3 ^ H e r o p o -

MaHTH3Ma κ cHMBOJiH3My, KaK, HanpHMep, C h a r l e s

Baudelaire

( 1 8 2 1 - 1 8 8 3 ) h cjioBaK Janko K r á l ' ( 1 8 2 2 - 1 8 7 6 ) . HeTBepTbiH B o n p o c n i a c H T : HeyacejiH Bbi a y M a e T e , h t o no3T c03HaTejibH0 n o j i b 3 y e T c a β c b o h x CTHxax paccTaHOBKOô rpaMMaTHieCKHX Κ Ο Μ Π Ο Η β Η Τ Ο Β ? 3 Τ 0 Τ BOnpOC MHOrOKpaTHO CTaBHJICa ΠΟ nOBO^y pa3H006pa3HbIX ΠρΗβΜΟΒ nOSTHqeCKOH TeXHHKH H T p e ô y e T o T B e T H o r o HanoMHHaHHa c ο λ η ο η CTopoHbi ο t o m , h t o H e M a j i o 3JieMeHTOB n o s T H H e c K o r o MacTepcTBa h o c h t b TBopneCTBe xy^o^cHHKa noflco3HaTejibHbiH xapaKTep, a c .apyroH c t o pOHbl H Β nHCbMeHHblX, H Β yCTHblX CBHfleTejIbCTBaX CaMHX Π03TOB, H Β nOKa3aHHHX HX HepHOBHKOB ΗβρβΛΚΟ OÔHapy>KHBaeTCH n o i u i H H H o e noHHMaHHe pa3Hbix 3aTaeHHbix npneMOB p a ô o T b i Haa cnoBecHbiM, β nacTHOCTH rpaMMaTHHecKHM MaTepnanoM. Κ sTOMy B o n p o c y TecHO npHMbiKaioT BbicKa3biBaeMbie c o m h ö h h h n o π ο β ο a y aeHCTBHH rpaMMaTHnecKHX conocTâBJieHHH h n p o T H B o n o c r a B jieHHH Ha c j i y m a T e j i a h j i h w r a T e n a c t h x o b . Ha. pa3Be o h qyBCTByeT 3ΤΗ t o h k o c t h , TpeeoacHTca B o n p o m a i o m H H . 3 ^ e c b H e o ö x o Λ Η Μ Ο aCHO OTJIHHaTb nepe»CHBaHHe φopMaJIL·HbIX Κ Ο Μ Π Ο Η β Η Τ Ο Β ο τ h x a ô c T p a K T H o r o oco3HaHHa. r j i y 6 o K a a pa3HHua M e » c ^ y s t h m h XPyMa B03aeñcTBHaMH o c o ô e H H o o m y m a e T c a Ha n p H M e p e My3biKajibHbix npoH3BeaeHHH. C p e / i H c j i y m a T e j i e H , r n y ô o K o nepeacHBaioinHX My3biKajibHyK) n b e c y , HeBejiHK π ρ ο υ β Η Τ τ β χ 3HaTOKOB, KOTopbie oT^aiOT c e 6 e ο τ π ε τ , icaKHM sjieMeHTaM e e n o c T p o e H H a o h BHHMaeT η β ΗβΜ c o c T o a T TaHHbi e e MexaHH3Ma. K p O M e ΤΟΓΟ,

531

Π033ΗΛ Η ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΗΚΑ

Haflo CHHTaTbCH c pü3JiHHHbiMH CTeneHHMH oco3HüHHa. 3acjiyiuaB ΛΒA BAPHAHTA ΟΛΗΟΗ Η TOH ace ο τ ρ ο φ ω , Η3 κ ο τ ο ρ ω χ ΟΛΗΗ HAAEjieH ô o j i e e crymeHHbiM H u e n e H a n p a B j i e H H b i M r p a M M a r a n e c K H M cKJiaaoM, M H o r n e 6 e 3 T p y ^ a o n p e a e j i H T , κ ο τ ο ρ ω ή H3 3THX . q e y x BapnaHTOB CHJibHee 3axBaTbiBaeT, HO He 6y,ayT Β COCTOHHHH pa3p e m H T b M y a p e H b i H TexHHHecKHH B o n p o c : a coöcTBeHHO n o n e M y ? M a n o T o r o , fljiH ΜΗΟΓΗΧ nepeacHBaHHe x y ^ o ^ c e c T B e H H o r o n p o H 3 ΒβΛβΗΗΗ

H ero

pa3JioaceHHe

Ha o c o 3 H a H H b i e

cocTaBHbie

3Jie-

MeHTbi, KaK Β c B o e B p e M a OTMCTHJI E d g a r A l l a n P o e , OKa3biBaiOTcfl H e c o B M e c T H M b i . K o p o n e r o B o p a , r p a M M a r a n e c K a a CTpyKTypa, ΠΟΛΟ6ΗΟ ΜΗΟΓΗΜ .apyraM acneKTaM CTHXOTBopeHHH, n p o ö y a c A a a Β OÔbIHHOM HHTaTene CnOCOÔHOCTb Κ 3CTeTHMeCKOMy BOCnpHfl-

THK), He BbI3bIBaeT Β ΗβΜ HH Hyac^bl, HH CHOPOBKH Β ee HayHHOM pa30ope. riHTblH H3 TpeBOacamHX ayßHTOpHK) BOnpOCOB CTaBHT ΠΟΛ COMHeHHe o6"beKTHBHyio no,nonjieKy c y ^ e H H H o r p a M M a r a n e c K O H CTpyKType CTHXOB. HacKOJibKO B b i ô o p COOTB6TCTBHH NOACKA3AH caMHM MaTepHajiOM, a He cy6i>eKTHBHbiM n p e ^ p a c n o j i o a c e H H e M HCCJIE/IOBATEJIA? E c T b UH Β KAPTHHE TAKHX COOTB6TCTBHH HTOJIHÖO AEHCTBHTEJIBHO ΟΠΕΙΊΗΦΗΗΕΟΚΟΕ ΑΠΗ ΠΟ33ΗΗ, HJIH « e M e p b i ΠΟΛΟ6ΗΟΓΟ pacnopa/uca MoryT 6biTb Han^eHbi

npn-

Β ra3eT-

Hbix cTaTbax? B n p o n e M , B c e ΠΟΠΜΤΚΗ BonpomaiOLUHX HaÖTH Β HayHHOH HJIH ra3eTHOÖ CTATBE XOTH 6bi o T ^ e u b H b i e pacnojioaceHHH,

no^oÔHbix

TOH CTpyKTypauHU,

npHMepbi

KOTopyio

HaM

KpacHopeHHBo noKa3biBaeT rpaMMaTHKa Π033ΗΗ, OKa3ajiHCb 6e3ycneuiHbi H 3ByiaT r j i y 6 0 K 0 öecnoMOinHOH n a p o ^ H e n . Ά HeymioHHO CTpeMJIIOCb Κ MaKCHMaJIbHOMy 06T>eKTHBH3My Β pa3bICKaHHH rpaMMaTHHecKoro CKna^a nosTHnecKHX u e j i b i x , πρΗΗβΜ c nonHOH acHocTbK) 0Ka3biBaeTca, KaKOBbi Te r p a M M a r a n e c K H e KaTeropHH, KOTopbie CBOHM p a c n p e ^ e ^ e H H e M cjiyacaT saflanaM xy^oacecTBeHHOH HHZÍHBH/iyaJIH3aiiHH HaCTeH Η HHTerpaiíHH B e e r ò CTHXOTBOpeHHa, Η KäKue, HanpoTHB, ocraiOTca naccHBHbiM MaTepnajiOM. HeTpy/iHO n p o e e p H T b CTaTHCTHHecKHMH n o a c n e T a M H eepHOCTb Η TOHHocTb npoH3BefleHHoro Bbiôopa. K o m a a p a ö o T a i o Hafl pa3HOa3bIHHbIMH

CTHXaMH,

a

OÖbIHHO

npe^nOHHTaiO

COTpyüHH-

necTBO co cneuHajiHCTOM, RJISI κ ο τ ο ρ ο τ ο H3biK a a H H o r o TeKCTa — poflHaa p e q b , Η BO BCSKOM cjiynae n p o B e p a i o CBOH H a ô n i o f l e H H a , coBeTyacb c conjieMeHHHKaMH H3yHaeMoro no3Ta. KpHTHKaM He y ^ a n o c b , HecMOTpa Ha Bce HX ycHJiHa, H a n r a B3anpaB/iy HH ΟΛΗΟΗ NHHRBHCTHNECKOH OUIHÖKH Β MOHX o 6 p a 3 u a x

532

EECEßbl

rpaMMaTHHecKoro aHajiH3a. B e e β η λ μ CHMMSTpuHecKHX nocTpoeh h h He^BycMbicjieHHO BbicTynaiOT β CTHxax: Hapa^y c npaMOH ΟΗΜΜβτρΗβή HaxoíiHT ce6e mnpoKoe πρΗΜβΗβΗΗβ TaK Ha3biBaeMaa 3epKajibHaa CHMMCTPHH H HCKycHaa aHTHCHMMeTpna, ΠΟΛΟ6h o TOMy uiHpoKOMy π ρ Η Μ β Η β Η Η Κ ) , KOTopoe BcrpeiaiOT cxoacHe npneMbl Β CTHXOTBOPHOH ρΗΤΜΗΚβ. 06lHeH3BeCTHbie Τ Η Π Μ ρ Η φ M O B K H — pncj)Ma cMeacHaa ( p l a t é s ) , ajibTepHHpyiomaa (croisées) h o x B a T H a a ( e m b r a s s é e s ) (aabb,

abab,

abba)

— H a x o a a T ce6e 6jih3-

Kyio napajijienb β rpaMMaranecKHX φHΓypax, OTJiHHaiomHX, HanpHMep Β Η β Τ Β ί ρ β Χ Ο Τ ρ ο φ Η Ο Μ CTHXOTBOpeHHH, Λ Β β nepBblX CTpOΦμ

OT flByx nocjieAHHX, HJiH neTHbie OT HeqeTHbix, h j i h

o6e

BHeiuHHX α τ ρ ο φ ώ OT o 6 e n x B H y T p e H H H X . r o J i o c j i o B H b i e 3aBepeHHa, HTO M03KH0 BbIHCKaTb IipOH3BOJIbHOe HHCJIO CHMMeTpHHeCKH cooTHeceHHbix

KaTeropHH,

npoTHBopenaT

BceM

KOHKpeTHbiM

oribiTaM aHanH3a. EcjIH ΚΡΗΤΗΚ yCMaTpHBaeT Β 3âHaTHHX rpaMM3THKOH Π033ΗΗ TaHHbiH yMbicen Hccjie,qoBaTejia ceecTH π ο 3 3 η ι ο κ rpaMMaraice — 3TO flocy^caa φaHτa3Ha. 3aHHMaacb aHajiH30M ρκφΜ, h h k t o He coÔHpaeTca nocTaBHTb 3 h s k paBeHCTBa Meamy ρ η Φ μ ο η h

nos-

3ΗβΗ; ΤΟΗΗΟ TaK »Ce Π033ΗΚ> Hejlb3a CBeCTH HH Κ ΜβΤ3φθρΗΚβ, h h κ στροφΗκβ, h h κ KaKOMy-JiH6o HHOMy h 3 ee pa3Hoo6pa3Hbix aeHCTBeHHbix acneKTOB. T e M He MeHee M3yMeHne ρκφΜ, h j i h τ ρ ο ΠΟΒ, HJIH CTHXOTBOPHOH pHTMHKH, H J I H "rpaMMaTHΗβCKHX φHΓyp", o6jiio6oBaHHbix Γ ο π κ η η ο ο μ ,

cocTaBjiaeT BaxcHbie

οπβαπφΗΜε-

CKHe 3aaaHH c r a x o B e a n e c K o r o aHajiH3a. E c j i h β Teneroie ^ o j i r o r o BpeMeHH He n o a e e p r a j i a c b CTporo HayHHOH pa3pa6oTKe CTpyKTypa CTHxa, a 3aTeM Ha o n e p e ^ b BCTaji η μ θ η η ο aHajiH3 Β ε ρ ΰ Η φ Η Κ 3 ΐ { Η Η , t o cennac n o TaKoñ ace npHHHHe npnoôpeTaeT oco6yio aKTyajibHOCTb rpaMMaTHHecKHH aHajiH3 Π033ΗΗ. O n p e ^ e j i e H H e npHHUHπ ο Β ρ η Φ μ ο β κ η y ziaHHoro n o 3 T a h j i h β μ η η ο η n o s T H i e c K O H Tpa/IHUHH cocTaBjiaeT caMo n o ce6e HHTepecHyio h nojie3Hyio 3aaaHy He3aBHCHMO σ τ nocTâHOBKH a a j i b H e ñ m e r o Bonpoca o u e j i e e o M ynaCTHH 3THX CBOHCTB Β θ 6 ΐ Ι ί β Μ "3φφβΚΤβ" Π03ΤΗΗβϋΚ0Γ0 ΤΒΟρHecTBa. PeiHHTejibHO TaK x e o 6 c t o h t a e j i o c H3yHeHHeM rpaMMaTHHecKHX φHΓyp. Ecjih kphthk

noynaeT a v e r n a CTpyKTypHoñ JiHHrBHCTHKH o

Tom, Η τ ο h h ο λ η ο Η 3 3 Τ Η Χ MacTHbix a B J i e H H H H e M o a c e T paccMaTpHBaTbca KaK caMouejib η h t o Bee 3 T h nacTHbie acneKTbi no3THHecKOH CTpyKTypbi cooTHeceHbi c e^HHbiM uejibiM, o h CTyHHTca β aaBHO OTKpbiTyK) flBepb, h o h m c h h o c t o h k h 3peHHa CTpyKTyp-

533

Π033ΗΛ Η ΓΡΑΜΜΑΊΉΚΑ

HÖH JIHHrBHCTHKH Η Π03ΤΗΚΗ 6bIJIO 6 b l r p y Ö O H OIIIHÖKOH H a H a T b a H a j i H 3 c o n p e a e j i e H H H " 3 φ φ β κ τ ο Β " n o 3 M b i , n o T O M y HTO o n p e ^ e JieHHe 3THX 3 φ φ β Κ Τ Ο Β 6 β 3 3HaHHH HaJIHHHblX C p e f l C T B B 6 Ä 6 T κ HaHBHO

HMnpecCHOHHCTHMeCKHM

CyXC^SHHHM.

ΟβΓΟΛΗ»

JIHHr-

BHCT 3 H a e T , HTO HejIb3H O T p b I B a T b B O n p O C Ο φθρΜ6 OT B o n p o c a o 3 H a i e H H H , HO

6biJio

6 b i H e M e H b i n e H ΚΡΗΒΛΟΗ

peuieHHe

eonpoca

o 3HaHeHHH c T H x o T B o p H o r o u e j i o r o 6 e 3 H a y H H o r o y n e T a T e x c o C T a B H b i x 3 J i e M e H T 0 B , H3 K O T ö p b i x c j i a r a e T c a STO u e j i o e . P a 3 y M e e T c a , BblHCHeHHe r p a M M a T H H e C K O H K0MFI03HIJHH C T H X O T B O p e H H a Β O T H O i n e H H H κ a p x H T e K T O H H K e e r o ο τ ρ ο φ — STO TOJibKo n e p B b i H B O n p O C , Η OTBßTOM H a ΗβΓΟ C J i e ^ y e T

flajIbHeHUIHH

3aMaHHHBbIH

B o n p o c o n p H ^ H H a x HUH B e p H e e u e j i a x , n p e c j i e ^ y e M b i x

flaHHHM

p a c n o j i o a c e H H e M H 3 6 p a H H b i x r p a M M a r a H e c K H x K a T e r o p H H Β ,aaHHOM n 0 3 T H q e c K 0 M u e j i o M . O f l H a K O y a c e π ρ κ H a i a n b H O M r p a M M a THHecKOM a H a j i H 3 e a n o M e p e BO3MO>KHOCTH H a M e n a i o n y T H κ c e MaHTHHecKOH HHTepnpeTaiíHH o6HapyacHBaeMoro

rpaMMarane-

CKoro njiaHa. Κ MoeMy rnyöoKOMy coacajieHHio, ΠΡΗΧΟΛΗΤΟΗ npH3HaTb, HTO K O H K p e T H b i e B03pa»ceHHa KPHTHKOB oÖHapyacHBaioT

npocTo-Ha-

n p o c T o H e ^ o c T a T O H H o e 3HaKOMCTBO a a » c e c s j i e v i e H T a p H b i M H b o npocaMH TpaKTOBKH jiHHrBHCTHHecKoro MaTepHajia. TaK J o n a t h a n C u l l e r , B b i n y c T H B i i i H H npeTeHUH03Hyi0 K H H r y Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism, Linguistics and the Study of Literature, London, 1975, o 6 c y » ^ a e T Η o c y a m a e T Β r j i a e e " J a k o b s o n ' s P o e t i c A n a l y s e s " MOH ΠΟΛΧΟΛ κ n o c j i e ^ H e M y 6 0 , m i e p 0 B C K 0 M y " C n j i H H y " . Β MoeM pa36 o p e 3ΤΟΓΟ CTHXOTBOpeHHH H3 ΠΗΤΗ HeTBepOCTHUIHH a OTMeTHJI ΗβτκΗΗ

KOHTpacT,

οτροφω,

HaaejieHHbie

npoTHBonocTaBjiaiomHH npoHOMHHajibHbiMH

τρΗ

φopMaMH

HeneTHbie nepeoro

JIHIja, O Ö e H M HeTHbIM C T p o φ a M , JIHIIieHHbIM n p O H O M H H a j I b H b l X φ ο ρ Μ n e p e o r o JiHua. KPHTHK H e a o y M e e a e T , n o n e M y a

cocpe^o-

TOHHJI BHHMEHHe ΗΜΒΗΗΟ H a n p O T H B O n O C T a B J i e H H H φ ο ρ Μ

Πβρ-

B o r o JiHua φ ο ρ Μ 3 Μ T p e T b e r o , η n a H C w p y e T π ρ ο τ Η Β MeHa H e n e n b i ö flOMbiceji,

6 y O T O a H a n e p e K o p φ a κ τ a M C H J i i o c b BO HTO 6 b i τ ο ΗΗ

CTajio aoKa3aTb CHMMCTpunecKyio pa3BepcTKy neTHbix ο τ ρ ο φ Η H e n e T H b i x . O H He 3 H a e T , HJIH He χ ο π β τ 3 H a T b , HTO ΠΡΟΤΗΒΟΠΟCTâBjieHHe K a T e r o p H H r o B o p a m e r o JiHua φ ο ρ Μ α Μ T p e T b e r o , Bopa

jiHHrBHCTHMecKH,

"HyjieBoro",

HeMapKHpoBaHHoro

ro-

JiHua

( p e r s o n z é r o ) a B j i a e T c a Β K p y r y r p a M M a T H H e c K H X K a T e r o p H H ΟΛHHM H3 K a p f l H H a j l b H b l X n p O T H B O n O C T a B J i e H H H . ΗΜΒΗΗΟ 3 T 0 n p o THBonocTaBJieHHe jiexcHT Β o c H o e e T p a / m u H O H H o r o o n p e ^ e j i e H H a

534

BECE/Ütl

JIHpHKH KaK Π 0 3 3 Η Η ΠβρΒΟΓΟ JIHIja Β ΠρΟΤΗΒΟΒβΟ 3nOCy, KaK Π 0 3 3 H H j m i j a T p e T b e r o . TaKOH KOHTpacT M e » c a y c τ p o φ a M H MacTO n p H M e H a e T c a β π ο 3 3 η η juin

HepeflyiomHMHca

H a r n a ^ H o ñ ajibTep-

HaijHH " d e m o d e s l ' u n s u b j e c t i f et l ' a u t r e d é t a c h é " , KaK h 6biJio OTMeneHO β MoeM p a 3 Ô o p e " C n j i H H a " . M a n o τ ο γ ο , ccbuiKa Ha orpaHHMeHHoe pacnojioaceHHe φ ο ρ Μ n e p B o r o jiHija ,/iaeT BepHbiii KJIIOH H Κ Onpe^ejieHHK) pa3BepCTKH npOHOMHHajIbHblX

φορΜ

T p e T b e r o JiHua, h κ coBOKynHOCTH rpaMMaTHnecKHX 0 C 0 6 e H H 0 CTeH HeTHblX ο τ ρ ο φ , H κ CeMaHTHHeCKOH Κ 0 Μ Π 0 3 Η Ι Ι Η Η B e e r ò CTHXOTBOpeHHH. 3 τ ο τ k p h t h k He 3aMeTHJi, η τ ο β npoTHBonojioacHOCTb HeneTHbiM σ τ ρ ο φ 3 Μ o 6 e neTHbix ο τ ρ ο φ Μ Ha^eneHbi B03BpaTHbiMH MeCTOHMeHHHMH, ΠρΜΗβΜ COXpaHaeTCH TOT x e p a c n o p a / i o K , ITO H β HeneTHbix ο τ ρ ο φ 3 χ , a h m c h h o n o c n e ^ H H H c t h x K a x ^ O H H3 n a r a σ τ ρ ο φ BbiaejieH o6fl3aTenbHbiM npiicyTCTBHeM JiHMHbix npoHOMHHajIbHblX φ ο ρ Μ . O h He 3aMeTHn h τ ο γ ο n o K a 3 a T e j i b H o r o φ a κ τ a , η τ ο β 3aKJiioHHTejibHOM CTHxe B c e x T p e x HeneTHbix σ τ ρ ο φ φ ο ρ \ » JiHua πρΗΜΟ c o n o c T a B j i e H a

c οληοροληοη

φορΜοή

nepBoro TpeTbero

jiHija, npHHeM n e p e a a h 3 s t h x a e y x φορΜ cHHTaKCHHeckh h ceMaHTHHecKH nous

noOTHHeHa

nocne^HeH.

TaKOBbi

napbi

β 3aKJiK)HHTejibH0H CTpoKe nepBOH σ τ ρ ο φ Μ , ses

KOHije T p e T b e f t ο τ ρ ο φ Η , mon

-

son

-

il

-

nos

β

β n o c j i e / m e M CTHxe naTOH

στροφω.

K p h t h k He y n e j i , η τ ο npHTaacaTejTbHbie φορΜΜ nepBoro η T p e T b e r o jiHiia BbiCTynaiOT Kaacaaa n o p o B H y : MHoacecTBeHHoe h ses n o oflHOMy p a 3 y h eziHHCTBeHHoe mon

h son

nos

n o ziea pa3a.

TpOHHHblM n p H T a » a T e j I b H b I M φ θ ρ Μ 3 Μ — ΤρβΜ ΠβρΒΟΓΟ H ΤρβΜ T p e T b e r o JIHIja — COOTBeTCTByiOT

τρκ B03BpaTHbIX φ ο ρ Μ Μ .

Ο τ KpHTHKa 0Ka3ajiCH CKpbiT η n e p e x o a ο τ a e y x φ ο ρ Μ nous nos

η

κ noBbimeHHO HH/iHBH,ayajiH3npyK)meM η cy6i>eKTHBHpyïo-

meH φορΜβ mon, BnepBbie h π ρ η τ ο μ ^ByKpaTHO BbicTynaioineñ Β ΚΟΗβΗΗΟΗ οτροφβ. Oöcyac^aa

npoTHBonocTaBJieHHe

HeneTHbix σ τ ρ ο φ

hcthmm,

He n o f l o 6 a e T o c T a e a T b c a r j i y x H M κ oTMeneHHOMy m h o i o KOHTpaCTy Me^K^y KOopaHHanHeñ BHyTpn HeneTHbix σ τ ρ ο φ h CTyrieHHaTblM ΠΟΛΗΗΗβΗΗεΜ, XapaKTepHblM ZIJIH ο τ ρ ο φ HeTHblX. HaKOHeu, KpHTHKy He cjiezi o ö x o i i H T b

MOJinaHHeM

^HaMe-

TpajibHoe ceMaHTHHecKoe pa3JiHHHe Meacay OTHaceHHeM "cHH3y B B e p x " neTHbix σ τ ρ ο φ η x o ä o m " c B e p x y b h h 3 " ,

xapaKTepH3yio-

535

Π033ΗΛ Η ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΗΚΑ

iHHM σ τ ρ ο φ Μ H e n e T H b i e , M e a c o y τ β Μ KaK Bea Μ ε τ Ε φ ο ρ κ κ α " C I U I H H a " nOCTpOeHa KaK pa3 Ha 3TOM aHTHTeTHHeCKOM pa3BHTHH. H e n O H H T H O , KaKHM 0 6 p a 3 0 M KpHTHKH-nOny/ISpH3aTOpi>I CHJIHTc a n p e H e ô p e H b r p a M M a r a H e c K H M H Φ Η Ι 7 Ρ 8 Μ Η CTHXOB E o / u i e p a , M e ^ c í i y τ β Μ KaK π ο 3 τ H e y c T a e a n H a n o M H H a T b ο MarHH ( " s o r c e l l e r i e

ΛβΗΟΤΒβΗΗΟΗ

évocatoire") rpaMMaranecKOH crpyKTypbi,

o

Bbipa3HTejibHOH c u n e r p a M M a T H M e c K H X K a T e r o p H H η ο n o 3 T H n e CKOH 3HaMHMOCTH CTOJib HBCTBeHHbix φ α κ τ ο ρ ο Β , KaK " p e r y j i a p HOCTb H CHMMeTpHH", Η Κ Ο Γ Μ TaKOH 3HaTOK βΓΟ TBOpHeCTBâ, KaK T h é o p h i l e G a u t i e r (1811—1872) o ö p a m a j i o c o ô o e

BHHMaHHe Ha

" c e K p e T b i M a c T e p c T B a " , T a a m w e c a Β T B o p n e c T B e 3ΤΟΓΟ n o 3 T a Η "κοΗ-KOMy HenpHCTynHbie". CHCTEMA RPAMMATHMECKHX KATEROPHH CJIYACHT ΦYH,^AMEHT0M K a a c z i o r o 83biKa, H, KaK ö b i j i o Β CBoe B p e M a 0 C 0 6 e H H 0 a c H O o c BemeHO

TaKHMH ΓΦΟΗΗΚΗΟΒΒΗΗΜΜΗ

aMepHKaHCKHMH

CT3MH, KaK F r a n z B o a s ( 1 8 5 8 — 1 9 4 2 ) Η E d w a r d S a p i r ,

JlHHrBH3HaneHHa

3THX K a T e r o p H H x a p a K T e p H 3 y i O T c a C B o e ö 0 6 a 3 a T e j i b H 0 C T b K ) A n a a3biK0Bbix KOJiJieKTHBOB. T o B o p a Ha a3biKe, o Ö J i a z i a i o m e M φ ο ρ \ ^ MH e^HHCTBeHHOrO H ΜΗ03ΚΒΣΓΒΒΗΗ0Γ0 MHCejI, Mbl H e ΜΟΜΊΒΜ Β Hamen

p e n n OÔOHTH MOJinaHHeM B b i 6 o p M e a c a y

MHoacecTBeH-

H o c T b K ) Η e f l H H C T B e H H o c T b i o , T o r ^ a KaK Ha JHOÖOM H3 τ ε χ a M e pHKaHCKO-HHaeiicKHX a3biKOB, K O T o p b i e j i H i u e H b i Β C B o e i í r p a M M a THKe

φορΜ

HHCJia, Mbl

Μ05ΚΘΜ ΠΡΗ

)Ke;iaHHH

JieKCHHeCKHMH

n p H e M a M H Bbipa3HTb 3TO pa3JIHHHe, HO nOCKOJIbKy OHO H e n p H H a a n e K H T r p a M M a T H K e STHX a3biKOB, Mbi H e o 6 a 3 a H b i

oroBapH-

BaTb, HzteT JIH p e n b 0 6 OÄHOM HUH ô o j i b i i i e ΗΒΜ O 6 ΟΛΗΟΜ K o n a H e KyKypy3bi. C e T b rpaMMaTHMecKHX

KaTeropHH o n p e ^ e j i a e T

CKJiafl H a m e n p e n n , H T e x a p a K T e p H b i e n e p T b i 3TOH c e ™ ,

Becb κοτο-

p b i e Harna o ö b w e H H a a p e n b o c r a B J i a e T Β τ β Η Η , n o J i y n a t o T Β ΠΟ33ΗΗ, KaK H a r n a ^ H O n o K a 3 b i B a e T r p a M M a T H n e c K H H n a p a j i J i e j i H 3 M , ΗΒΗ3ΜΒΡΗΜΟ ÖOJIbHiyiO Bbipa3HTejlbHOCTb H 3HaHHMOCTb. XIOCTaTOHHO BCnOMHHTb nOHHHCeHHyiO, n p H r j i y m e H H y i O p o j l b pa3JlHHHH r p a M M a T H M e c K H X ΡΟΑΟΒ, CKaaceM, M y a c c K o r o Η » c e H C K o r o , M e » c a y τ β Μ KaK Β ΠΟ33ΗΗ MM H a Ö J i i o f l a e M Ha K a » n o M i n a r y aBHO o 6 p a 3 H o e , Hepe^KO p e m a i o m e e 3HaneHHe s T o r o npoTHBonocTaBJieHHa, nOCKOJIbKy OHO ΗΆΧΟΑΜΤ

ce6e

Bbipa»ceHHe

Β rpaMMaTHMecKOH

CHCTeMe ^ a H H o r o » 3 b i K a . T a K O B b i ΜΟΤΗΒΗ, TOJiKHyBiiiHe MÊHS Ha flOJirOCpOHHbie

3aHHTHH Π033ΗΒΗ TpaMMaTHKH H

rpaMMaTHKOH

Π033ΗΗ, ó p o c a i o m n e ΜΒΜ a a i i b i i i e , τ β Μ ô o j i b m H H CBeT Ha o c T a BaBUIHeca Β ΤΒΗΗ BOnpOCbl Π033ΗΗ, paBHO KaK Η Ha BOnpOCbl r p a M MaTHKH.

536

BECE/ILI

Κ. Π. Ilocjie Beerò cKa3aHHoro xoTejiocb 6bi eme no^KpenHTb BaillH yTBepaC^eHHH OTHOCHTejIbHO pOJIH rpaMMHTHKH Β Π033ΗΗ. ECJIH caMOH xapaKTepHoñ Η Β το ace BpeMa yHHKajibHOH Μβρτοή rpaMMaTHiecKHX KaTeropHH aBJiaeTca HX oÖJiHraTopHbiH xuia roBopamero xapaKTep, το τβΜ caMbiM OHH CTaHOBaTca ocoöoro pofla a3biKOBbiM 3HaKOM, φΗΓγροή, ΜΗΦΟΜ. HMCHHO ΠΟΤΟΜΓ HX ocoôbiH ceMaHTHMecKHH noTeHUHaji H peajiH3yeTca Β ΠΟ3ΤΗΗΘCKOH CTpyKType Β TaKOH BMCOKOH CTeneHH, nepexoaa, KaK Bbi OTMeTHjiH, H3 CKpbiToro, noacnyzmoro COCTOHHHH Β HBHoe, cyry6 0 3HaK0B0e, CHMBOJiHHecKoe. He TOJibKO TaKHe ceMaHTHnecKH ocTpo OMepHeHHbie 3JieMeHTbi, KaK ynoMaHyTbie BaMH KaTeropHH po.ua HJTH MecTOHMeHHbie φορΜΜ, HO h na^eacHbie pa3JiHHHa HrpaiOT noanac pOJIb TeMaTHHeCKOHflOMHHaHTblΒ CTHXOTBOpeHHH. Bbi yace noKa3ajiH 3avieMaTejibHyio nrpy npaMbix H KOCBeHHbix na^eacen Β H3BecTHOM jinpHqecKOM nocjiaHHH IlyiiiKHHa Bac HK)6H/I". XoTejiocb 6bi ao6aBHTb, MTO HanpHMep Β CTHxax IlacTepHaKa "CecTpa Moa — >KH3Hb..." ocoôyio pojib npnoGpeTaeT TaKOH CBoeo6pa3HbiH Β pyccKóñ, m h Booöme c^aeaHCKOH CHCTeMe na^eac, KaK TBopHTejibHbiH. K o r ^ a HHTaenib STH CTHXH IlacTepHaKa, y/mBJiaeinbca qacTOTe H pa3BepcTKe 3ΤΟΓΟ naxieaca η pa3Hoo6pa3HK> Bcex ero MHoroHHCJieHHbix φyHK^HH: οτ npocToro Instrumentalis modi, RO CJIOHCHOH ΦHΓYPBI CPABHEHHA {simile). OKa3biBaeTca, HTO 3TOT na^eac c ero OÔIIÎHM 3HaHeHHeM — περΗφβpHHHOK) pojibK) Ha3BaHHoro npe^MeTa — HeceT Ha ce6e BCK) τβMaTHKy CTHXOTBOpeHHa: o H a CBOZIHTCH HMCHHO κ o c o ô o M y ΒΗΛ-

ΒΗ3ΚβΗΗΚ> aCH3HeHHOH pOJIH ΤβΧ 3ΛβΜβΗΤΟΒ, KOTOpbie 06bIMH0 CHHTaiOTca BTopocTeneHHbiMH, περΗφβρΗΗΗΜΜΗ. ECJIH rpaMMaTHHecKHe φορΜΜ MoryT o6paTHTbca Β nosTHHecKne φHΓypbI, το rpaMMaTHKa no CBoeñ no3THHecKoö φyHK^HH, KOHeHHO, He orpaHHHHBaeTca 3ΚΤΗΒΗΟΗ pojibK) Β TaKHX nocTpoeHHax, KaK ρκφΜ3. E e 3HaHHMOCTb 0Ka3biBaeTca ropa3flo BaacHee: OHa npnoöpeTaeT 6oJiee ΙΗΗΡΟΚΗΗ η yHHBepcajibHbiH xapaKTep.

XIII. CXOßCTBO H CME)KHOCTL· Β Ü3MKE H JIHTEPATyPE, Β ΚΗΗΟ Η Β ΑΦΑ3ΗΗ

Κ. Π. BcTaeT Ha OHepe^b OÄHH h3 y3JiOBbix BonpocoB Bauieá TeopHH — ΠΟΗΗΤΗΗ ΜθΤβφορΗ Η ΜβΤΟΗΗΜΗΗ KaK ΠΟΙΙίφΗΜΧ HBJieHHH. XoTa HajIHHHe 3THX /IByX nOJIIOCOB Β H3bIKe HaMeTHJI Ha Hexode npomnoro Bexa noubCKHH ΠΗΗΓΒΗΟΤ HHKOJiaH KpytueBCKHH, TOJIbKO Β BameM HCTOJIKOBaHHH OHH BnepBbie OKa3ajIHCb OCHOBOnOJIOÄHbIMH CHJiaMH, ZjeHCTByfOllíHMH Β 83bIKe, a paBHO Η BO Bcex BH^ax HCKyccTBa. HeBOJibHO nopaacaeT t o t φ3κτ, h t o Β nOCTeneHHOM pa3BHTHH BaMM 3THX ΠΟΗΗΤΗΗ OHH ΛΟϋΓΟβ ΒρβΜΗ pa3pa6aTbiBaK)TCH y B a c H e CTOJibKO Β CBH3H c ΛΗΗΓΒΗΟΤΗΚΟΗ,

CKOJIbKO C Π03ΤΗΚ0Η Η ΤβΟρΗβΗ HCKyCCTBa. BnepBbie 3TOT Bonpoc 6biji, KaaceTca, BaMH nocTaBJieH Β oneHb paHHen CTaTbe "yTyPH3M" (1919), a 3aTeM Β TaKHX BbicTynJieHHax Hanajia 30-x ΓΟΛΟΒ, KaK "Yna^oK φΗ.ίΉΜ3?" h o6a BapnaHTa (lemcKHH η ΗβΜβακκή) BaniHx "3aMeTOK o npo3e nosTa IlacTepHaKa". 3aTeM yace Β a\iepHKaHCKHH nepHOZl Β CBH3H C 3aHflTHHMH aφa3HeH Η fleTCKHM «3HKOM B03HHK Tpya "Rea acneKTa a3biKa h aea THna 3φ33ΗΗβcKHx noBpeacfleHHH" (πο-aHrjiHHCKH, 1956). JlHiiib CHHTeTHHeCKHH OMepK — "Linguistics and Poetics" — cHOBa CTaBHT TOT » e Bonpoc n p e H M y m e C T B e H H O Β CB33H CO CJIOBeCHbIM HCKyCCTBOM. CoÔCTBeHHO JIHHrBHCTHHeCKOe HCTOJIKOBaHHe ΜβΤ3φθρω Η ΜβΤΟHHMHH, C OÔOCHOBaHHeM φΗ3ΗΟΛΟΓΗΗβΟΚΟΓΟ H ΗβΒρΟΛΟΓΗΗβ-

CKoro nopaziKa, nosBHJiocb TOJibKO Β ΑΜβρκκε, b TO BpeMa KaK Β ocTajibHbix BaiiiHX no^cTynax κ TOMy « e icnyÖKy BonpocoB BbiflBHHynacb HHTepnpeTauHa ceMHOTHHecKoro x a p a i c r e p a . HHTepecHO y3HaTb, KaKOBbi ΠΡΗΗΗΗΜ TaKoro HMCHHO KOHTeKCTa 3THX BaiiiHX OTKpblTHH? P. Ä.

IIpOÖJieMa ΜβΤ8φθρΜ H ΜβΤΟΗΗΜΗΗ paHO BOIIIJia Β MOK)

HayMHyK) »cH3Hb. E m e n 0 í i p 0 C T K 0 M - j i a 3 a p e B u e M , n b i T a a c b p a 3 0 6 p a T b c a Β 3jieMeHTapHbix B o n p o c a x , a n03HaK0MHjica Β y i e Ô H H Kax ΤβΟρΗΗ CJIOBeCHOCTH c Τ ρ 3 φ 3 ρ β Τ Η Η Μ Η O n p e f l e j i e H H H M H 3THX

BECERI»!

538

JtfjyX Π0Η8ΤΗΗ Η ΠρΟΗΗΧ CJlOBeCHblX ΤρΟΠΟΒ H φΗΓγρ, yBepHJICH Β CyXOCTH Η 6ecnnOflHOCTH npHBblHHblX φορΜγϋΗρΟΒΟΚ Η Β TO »ce BpeMH yôe^HJica Β Heo6xozmMOc™ nepecMOTpa Beerò 3ΤΟΓΟ oÔBeTmanoro apceHana AJia ero npeo6pa30BaHHa Β opyziHe HaynHbix onepauHH, BO HTO H no-npeacHeMy ΤΒβρ,αο Bepio, KaK Β o^Hy H3 Y^APHBIX 3AAAN HAYKH O NOSTHIECKOM, na. H HE TOJIBKO ΠΟ3ΤΗ-

necKOM H3biKe. Β KJiaccHiecKOH ρΗτορκκε 6biJio, Ha npoBepKy, HeMajIO 3flOpOBbIX ΚΟρΗβΗ, JlHHIb BnOCJieflCTBHH 06e3)KH3HeHHbIX H 3aMbi3raHHbix jierHOHOM yHeÖHHKOB. TaK, Koraa HeaaBHaa τβοPHFL HH(J)OpMaiJHH B e p H y j i a 33bIK03HaHHK) TepMHH H KOHUenT "H3ôbiTOHHOCTH" ( r e d u n d a n c y ) , 3 τ ο 6buio u e H H o e npHOÔpeTHHe, HO OHO npHHUIO nyTHMH MaTßMaTHKH, H MaJIO KTO H3 HaïUHX CBep-

CTHHKOB nOMHHJI Ο βΓΟ ΛρβΒΗΗΧ, BOCXOßamHX Κ ΚBHHTHJIHaHy ΓθΛΜ OTXO^a Π033ΗΗ ΟΤ rjiy60K0 M6Ta(J)OpHHeCKH

HCTOKâX.

o p n e H T H p o B a H H o r o c n M B O n n 3 M a CTaBHJiH Ha o n e p e ^ b aHTHTe3y M e τ a φ o p b I , τ ο e c T b MCTOHHMHK). Β y B J i e K a T e j i b H b i x ^ o c r a a c e H H a x ÄHBONHCH KYÖHCTOB .AABAJIA c e 6 a 3HATB METOHHMHHECKAA Η OCO6eHHO TecHO c p o ^ H a a

c ΜβτοΗΗΜΗβή CMHeK^oxHHecKaa ceMaH-

THKa — pojib n a c r a , n p o T H B o n o c T a B J i e H H O H u e j i O M y . Κ

cjiOBy CKa3aTb, HaM, no,qpacTaiomHM jiHHrBHCTaM, ceMaH-

THKa öbuia x j i e ö o M HacyinHbiM, Mex/iy τβΜ KaK 3Ta c a M a a npoÔJieMa 3HaneHHa B e e e m e ocTaeajiacb qyac^a BbipocuiHM Ha ΓΗΠH03e BHeuiHeH φ ο ρ Μ Μ KpyraM xyaoacHHKOB h KHHMCHHKOB. Β 1919 roxiy, Korna β MocKBe n3/iaTejibCKaa ceKUHH O T ^ e n a H3o6pa3HTejibHbix HcKyccTB n p n KoMHCcapnare IIpocBemeHHa o6cy>K,qajia nnaH 3HunKJione,anH HcKyccTB, η Ha Bonpoc o MoeM ynacTHH a OTBeTHJi npeanoHceHHeM CTaTbH o ceMaHTHKe >ΚΗΒΟΠΗmnxca ο τ pa6CKoro cjie^OBaHua maÔJioHaM npocTpaHCTBeHHoñ 6jih30cth h MexaHHHecKOH BpeMeHHÓH npcjie^OBaTe^bHocTH, Ty npo3opjiHByio Hrpy, KOTopaa omejiOMJiajia Hac β t b o p t c c k h x onbiTax TaKHX r e HHajibHbix MacTepoB η HoeaTopoB, KaK Charlie Chaplin (1889— 1977), Buster Keaton (1895-1966) h C e p r e ñ 3Η3βΗΐΗτβΗΗ ( 1 8 9 8 1948). 3 τ ο ΟΗΗ ocBo6o»caajiH ΜβτοΗΗΜΗΚ) ο τ paôcKoro cjiyaceHHa HHCTO MexaHHHecKHM accouHauHaM n o CMeacHocra, a β npneMax ΜβΤ3φθρΗΚΗ nopblBaJlH C ΗΓΟΜ CaMOOHeBHflHOrO, HaBa3HHBOrO CXOaCTBa. Β 3TOM ΟΤΗΟΙΗβΗΗΗ Xy^OaCHHKaM KHHOHCKyCCTBa 6bIJl cpo^HH E o p h c IlacTepHaK ( 1 8 9 0 — 1 9 6 0 ) , BHpTyo3 m c t o h h m h h η β CTHxax, η β n03THiecK0H npo3e. HecjiynanHO ο τ BonpocoB φ κ τ ^ Ma a pa30M n e p e m e j i κ c j i o ä h o h npoÖJieMaTHKe npo3bi s T o r o no3Ta. Β CBoeM onwTe, nocBameHHOM e r o paccKa3aM, β 1 9 3 5 ro/iy a nwcaji, h t o accouHauna n o cMeacHocra "cTaHOBHTca y IlacTepHaKa nocjiyniHbiM opyzineM x y ^ o x H H K a , 3aHaToro nepepacnpeΛβπβΗΗβΜ npocTpaHCTBa η npeo6pa30BaHHeM BpeMeHHÓñ nocjieflOBaTejibHOCTH". Tax

HaKanjiHBajica onbiT HapoHHToro conocTaBJieHHa

nojiapHbix

xy/ioHcecTBeHHbix

τροποΒ

^Byx

— μ θ τ ο η η μ η η KaK TBopne-

CKOH Τρ3ΗθφθρΜ3ΗΗΗ CMeSCHOCTeH Η ΜβΤ3φθρΜ KaK TBOpieCKOH Τρ3ΗθφθρΜ3Ι-ΙΗΗ CXOZICTB — nO-pa3HOMy 0praHH30BaHHbIX Η COOTHeceHHbix β pa3JiHHHbix HCKyccTBax. Β Hanajie n a r a a e c a T b i x r o ΛΟΒ, β pa3rape mohx ο π μ τ ο β Haa ycTaHOBJieHHeM λ η η γ β η ο τ η -

CXOflCTBO H CME>KHOCTb

541

leCKHX CHHÄPOMOB AJia pa3JIHMHbIX pa3HOBHflHOCTeH άφθ3ΗΗ, TO ecTb a n a pa3JiHHHbix HapyineHHÄ penn, βο3ηηκηκ>ιιχηχ β pe3yjibTaTe M03r0Bbix noBpeacfleHHH, a BHe3anHO oÔHapyacHJi, h t o

m

OTyX OCHOBHblX ΤΗΠΟΒ aφa3HH ΟΛΗΗ COCTOHT Β ÖOJIbineH HJIH M e H b i u e f t p a 3 p y x e a c c o u n a n H H n o c x o ^ c T B y , a a p y r o H — β pa3Hbix cTeneHHx p a 3 p y x H a c c o u n a i i H H n o c m c h c h o c t h .

Μετ3φορκ-

qecKHe χ ο , α ω p e n n CTpa^aiOT y ο λ η η χ , MeTOHHMHHecKHe y ß p y γ η χ , n p w n e M Η3 j3Byx OCHOBHblX p e n e B b i x o n e p a u H H B b l ö o p ( n a paflHrMaTHHecKaa o c b ) CTpa^aeT β nepBOM c j i y n a e , a KOMÖHHa-

UHH (CHHTarMaTHHeCKaa OCb) — BO BTOPOM. ΠβρΒΜΗ ΤΗΠ ΛβφβκTOB CKa3biBaeTca npeac^e Beerò β nponecce BocnpHaraa, τ ο ecTb aeKOflHpyiomeH .aeaTejibHOCTH cjiymaTejia, a Βτοροή — β 3mhcc h h , το ecTb β KOíiaMce pe^H roBopamHM jihuom. 3 T a peHHTepnpeTauHH T p a ^ H U H O H H o r o pa3JiHHeHHa TaK Ha3biBaeMoñ ceHCopHOH η MOTOPHOH aφa3HH n o B e j i a M e H a κ u e j i o M y p a ^ y a a j i b H e ñ -

iiihx pa3bicKaHHH η β μ β ο λ ο β ; BO-nepBbix, OHa nocjiyacHJia ecTeCTB6HHOH oTnpaBHOH TOHKOH a n a 6 o j i e e pacHJieHeHHoñ h yTOHH6HHOH

JIKHTBHCTHHeCKHX CHHflpOMOB aφa3HH,

πρΗΗβΜ 3 T a . . T H n o j i o r a a

Haxozmjia c e 6 e

aBCTBeHHyio yea3Ky

c

Ha6jnofleHHaMH HeeponoroB Haa OTHOCHTejibHOH τ ο π ο ^ φ κ β Η M03r0BbIX nOBpeacaeHHH, Jie>KamHX Β OCHOBe j i h h f b h c t h h c c k h x

pa3HOBH/lHOCTeÖ. 3 t h MOH HCCjreflOBaHH» nOCJiy»CHJIH ΟΛΗΗΜ H3 TOJIHKOB Κ B b W e j i e H H K ) HOBOH, HHTepjlHCtlHnjIHHapHOH fleaTejibHOCTH,

ϋφβρΗ

B o u i e f l u i e n β npaicTHKy nozi h m c h c m H e B p o j i H H r -

BHCTHKH. ripaB^a, cpe^H HeeponoroB HaiiuiHCb, KaK nojiaraeTca, H KOHcepBaTopbi, a o m e a u i H e λ ο yTBepac^eHHa, HTO jiHHrBHCTaM He3aneM coeaTbca β Bonpocbi aφa3HH η h t o HeepojioraM HexqeMy CMHTaTbca c noica3aHHaMH πηηγβηοτοβ. M e a c ^ y τβΜ pyKOBOflaIHHH Η HeCKOJlbKHMH

flecaTHJieTHaMH

CHCTeMaTHHeCKHX HCCJie-

flOBaHHH B 3 p O m e H H b I H CneUHaJIHCT n o 8φ33ΗΗ A j i e K C a H A P J l y p n a

( 1 9 0 2 — 1 9 7 7 ) β uejiOM pa^e cTaTeii nocjieflHHx πβτ npH3Haji npaBOTy Η nJIOaOTBOpHOCTb ΜΟΗΧ ΚΛ&ΟΟΗφΗΚ3ίΙΗΟΗΗΙ>ΙΧ OnblTOB. HoBbie noflTBepacfleHHa μ ο 3 γ ο β ο η τ η π ο π ο γ η η JiHHrBHCTHHecKHX CHHflpOMOB 3φ33ΗΗ OKa3ajIHCb npHBHeceHbl ΗΟΒ6ΗΙΙΙΗΜΗ MOCKOBCKHMH H JieHHHrpaACKHMH 3KCnCpHMeHTajIbHbIMH pa3bICKaHHHMH 0 6 OTHOineHHH M e a m y μ ο 3 γ ο μ h penbio. iïajIbHeHIIIHM pe3yJIbTaTOM ΜΟΗΧ JIHHrBHCTHH6CKHX 3aHaTHH aφa3HeH a CHHTaio yacHeHHe HecKOJibKHx, ¿uia jiHHrBHCTHHecKoro aHajiH3a cymecTBeHHbix λ η χ ο τ ο μ η η , KaK c o o T H o m e H n e

Me»ay

napaxiHrMâTHMecKOH h C H H T a m a T H H e c K O H o c b i o p e ™ (τ. e. B b i ô o -

542

EECEßtl

POM H KOMÔHHaiiHeÂ) H MOKZiy 3MHCCHeÖ H ΒΟΟΠρΗΗΤΗβΜ ρβΗΗ. H a K O H e u , nepBbie jiHHrBHCTHqecKHe Ha6jiio,aeHHa nan

aφa3H-

MecKHMH 3a6ojieBaHHHMH, a y M a e T c a , noKa3ajiH, KaK μ η ο γ ο n o y -

ΗβΗΗΗ 06 HepapXHHeCKOM CTpoe H3MKOBOH CHCTeMbl Β ee pa3JIHMHbix njiaHax MoaceT ,qaTb loyneHHe MHoroo6pa3Hbix φορΜ a(f)a3HnecKoro pacna^a penn: nopaaoK jiHHrBHCTHHecKHX yTpaT β pa3jiHHHbix THnax aφa3HH OKa3ajicH He MeHee noynnTejieH, neM nopaäok zieTCKHx πρΗοδρβτβΗΗΗ, um HCCJieaoBaTeubCKOH pa6oTbi H a a ycTaHOBJieHHCM cTpyKTypHbix c o o T H O i i i e H H H Meacay κ ο μ π ο HCHTaMH a3bIKOBOH CHCTeMbl. H a K O H e u aHajiH3 pa3Jio»ceHHa CMeacHocreH h c x o x i c t b β ziByx C H H ^ p o M a x a φ a 3 H H nan, ziaeT η β 6 y z i y m e M ;iojiaceH a a T b e m e Gombine A n a n o H H M a H H a o ö p a T H o r o φ a κ τ a , τ ο ecTb MaKCHMajibHOH, caMOijeHHOH pojiH, n p H 0 6 p e T a e M 0 H c x o ^ C T B a M H h CMeacHocTaMjî β cjioBecHOM HCKyccTBe. H e c j i y n a H H O h m c h h o n p o 6 j i e MaTHKa cjiOBecHbix c x o z i c t b h CMeacHOCTen, B03Be,aeHHbix β u e jieByio h uejiocTHyK) CHCTeMy n o s r a n e c K o r o a3biKa, cTajiKHBajiacb C OTKpOBeHHblM H e i I O H H M a H H C M H H e ^ O y M e H H b l M H B03paaceHHaM H KPHTHKOB. M o H Te3HC, HTO CTHX " n p o e U H p y e T npHHLJHII 3KBHBajieHTHOCTH c o c h B b i ô o p a Ha o c b c o n e T a H H a " , n p H H H M a j i c a 3a florMaT

Bepbi,

xapaKTepHbiñ

ana

oxaejibHoñ

nosTHHeckoη

LUKOJIbl, HyaCflblH, ΠΟ ΜΗβΗΗΙΟ KpHTHKOB, UejlOMy p a ^ y

HHblX

xyíloacecTBeHHbix HanpaBJieHHH. H e 6biJi π ο η η τ t o t sjieMeHTapHblH φ3ΚΤ, HTO n p H B e ^ e H H b l H TC3HC — H H ΗΤΟ HHOe, KaK pa3BepHyTaa TaBTOJioraa. O h n p o c T O - H a n p o c T O β χ ο λ η τ β c a M o e o n p e AejieHHe cTHxa. T a M , rxte Η β τ c n c T 6 M â T H H e c K H n o B T o p H b i x e ^ H h h i j , Η β τ CTHxa, KaKOBa 6bi h h 6bijia Jieacamaa β o c H o e e λ ^ η η ο η c t h x o b o h CHCTeMbl o T n p a B H a a e n H H H u a : c u o r p a B H b i ñ cjiory, yjiapeHHe y p a B H e H H o e κ y a a p e H H i o , KOJiH^ecTBeHHaa MepKa, τ ο ecTb TaK Ha3biBaeMaa M o p a , h j i h .qaace o a h o jiHiub φρ33ΗΟΗ HHTOHaHHH. A

TaM, ΓΛβ Jima

0 3 H a H a K ) i n e r o " (unités du signifiant),

nOBTOpHOCTb

c^hhctbo "e^HHHU

TaM H e n p e M e H H O B03HHKaeT

B o n p o c o c o o T H o m e H H H Meacay c o o T B e T C T B y i o m H M H " e ^ H H H u a M H 0 3 H a H a e M o r o " (unités du signifié),

KaK mm yace o t m c t h j i h Ha

n p H M e p e ρ κ φ Μ , HeH36eacH0 n p H H a z u i e a c a m n x κ o 6 o h m m i a H a M — signifiant h signifié. 3aKjiK»HaiOT j i h B 3 a H M H 0 cooTHeceHHbie c t h x h h j i h c o o T B e T C T B y i o m n e a o j i h c t h x o b CBa3b n o cxo/iCTBy h j i h ace n o cMeacHOCTH, — 3Ta cBa3b HeH36eacHo oca3aTejibHa: n y c T b 3 τ ο 6 y ^ e T cxoflCTBO a e y x r p a M M a T H H e c K H X K a T e r o p H H h j i h ace a e y x jieKCHKajibHO 6 j i h 3 k h x c/ihhhij, j i h 6 o n y c T b s t o 6y,aeT cHHTâK-

543

C X O ß C T B O H CMEJKHOCTb

CHHecKaa HJIH npocTO HappaTHBHaa CMOKHOCTL·. C o o T H o m e H H e n o MeTpHHecKOMy M e c T o n o j i O Ä e H H K ) no^XBaTbieaeT H BbiziejiaeT CHHTaKCHHecKyio cxoacecTb ß B y x noaJieacainHX,

Μορφο,ποΓΗΗε-

CKyio cxoacecTb j ß y x HMCH cymecTBHTejibHbix HJIH ace jieKCHKaubHyio, a π ο ρ ο ή T a x x e 3ByKOByio cxoacecTb TaKHX, npHMepHO,

cjiOB, KaK father and mother HJIH père et mère. TaicoBbi pa3HonjiaHHbie

CBH3H,

ycyry6jieHHbie

SKBHBaneHTHbiM

nono^ceHHeM

Β

C M e » H b i x MeTpHHecKHX eflHHHuax. C o o T H o n i e H H e π ο ΜβΤρΗΗβCKOMy MecTonojio»ceHHK) noztxeaTbiBaeT H Bbi/iBHraeT CHHTaKCHnecKyio CMeacHOCTb no/uieacamero H CKa3yeMoro η n o B e c T B o e a TejibHyio CMe»CH0CTb ziByx CJIOB, TpaKTyiomHX o a e y x

coceu-

CTByiOIIIHX aBJieHHaX Β npOCTpaHCTBeHHOM HJIH Βρ6ΜβΗΗ0Μ ΠΟρΗΛκε. TaKOBbi CMOKHOCTH,

noanepKHyTbie

CXO>KHM nojioace-

HHßM Β CMeacHbix MeTpHHecKHX e ^ H H H u a x . I I o B b i m e H H a a poJib noBTopHOCTH uejKHT Β caMOH cyinHOCTH CTHxa, HO pa3yMeeTca, A e j i o He orpaHHMHBaeTCH MexaHHHecKHM π ο Β τ ο ρ ε Η Η β Μ ;

cxoa-

CTBO HeH3Öe»CHO HeceT Β c e 6 e 3JieMeHTbi ¿IHCCHMHJIHUHH. M b i npHBejiH cjiOBa, c x o ^ H b i e η n o 3ByKOBOMy cocTaey η n o 3HaHeHHK) — père/mère,

h o Β 3ByKOBOM oTHOiiieHHH o 6 a c j i o e a o c o ô e H -

Ho pa3HHTca npoTHBonocTaBJieHHeM Ha3ajibH0CTH e e OTcyTCTBHio Β HanajibHOM corjiacHOM, a 3HaneHHa O6OHX CJIOB Hapaziy c 0 6 iilHM ceMaHTHHecKHM HApoM — ο λ η η H3 ροΛΗΤβϋβΗ — coiiepacaT ΗβτκΗΗ KOHTpacT MyaccKoro h »ceHCKoro p o ^ a h n o j i a . H HaKOHeu Henb3fl 3a6biBaTb, HTO M e » c a y CXOXICTBOM H cMeacHocTbio Ηβτ Heπ ρ ο χ ο Λ Η Μ ο ή rpaHHUbi, H ΟΗΗ o 6 a coneTaiOTca Β κοΗΤβκσΓβ " ο τ β η H MaTb n o e x a j i H BMecTe Β ropozi". ECJIH KPHTHK n p o T H B o n o c T a BjiaeT HeaaBHioK) no33Hio C ee o p b e H T a u H e ñ Ha " o 6 o 6 m e H H o e CXO^CTBO" ( s i m i l a r i t é généralisée)

TaKOMy 3aBe^0M0My Bpary Bca-

KHX noBTopeHHH KaK F r a n ç o i s M a l h e r b e (1555—1628), τ ο 3Ta B p a » jieÔHOCTb aBCTBeHHo orpaHHHeHa: H cneT c j i o r o B , H MecTO u e 3ypbi, H KOHeHHaa nay3a CTHxa CTporo c o ö j n o a e H b i , H Β TaKOM OÔpaMJieHHH BCeB03M0HCHbie CXOÄCTBa, KOHTpaCTbl H CMe^CHOCTH jieKCHHecKHX eaHHHii H rpaMMaTHnecKHx φ ο ρ Μ OTHCTUHBO n p o a BJiaiOTca. H a n p H M e p , 3 H a M e H H T a a c T p o K a —

ce que vivent les roses —

Et rose elle a vécu

o 6 H a p y ) K H B a e T 3 e p K a j i b H y i o ΟΗΜΜβτρπκ)

nojiycTHiuHH, ΗΜΘΗΗΟ n o B T o p a a OZIHO H TO ace cymecTBHTejibHoe, Β p a 3 H b I X HHCJiaX, C Ο Λ Η Η Μ H ΤΒΜ )Κβ r j i a r O J I O M Β p a 3 H b I X HHCJiaX H BpeMeHax, H nepeaya HbiM, He

roBopa

Μβτ3φορΗΗβοκοβ

3HaqeHHe c 6yKBajib-

y a c e o c H H T a K C H n e c K O H ÎIHCCHMHJIHUHH

HblX ΚΟΜΠΟΗβΗΤΟΒ.

ηοΒτορ-

544

BECE^tl

EcJIH .HBOHHHOCTb CXOflCTBa H CMeHCHOCTH npHOÔpeTaeT BCe ö o j i b i i i e e npH3HaHHe β paôoTax n o nosraice, τ ο BCTaiOT Ha onep e ^ b conyTCTByiomHe Bonpocbi OTHOuieHHH Mexcay cxojictbom η pa3JIHHHbIMH npOHBJICHHSMH KOHTpaCTa, a TaJOKÖ Meac^y CMeMCHOCTbK) h npoTHBonocTaBJieHHOK) 6jih3koh CMeacHOCTH OT^ajieHHOCTbK), a rjiaBHoe, TpeöyeT TmaTejibHoro pa3Me»ceBaHHa

η

HCTOJiKOBaHHH cymecTBeHHoe pa3JiHHHe Meac^y flßyMa BHüaMH CMe»CHOCTH — BHeniHHM (ΜβΤΟΗΗΜΗΗ Β COÖCTBeHHOM CMbICJie CJIOBa) H BHyTpeHHHM (τ. e. CHHeKflOXa, 6jIH3Kaa Κ ΜβΤΟΗΗΜΗΗ η Bee ace ο τ Hee npuHUHrmajibHO OTjiHHHaa). HacTo He aoyqHTbiBaeTCH t o t (JjaicT, mto noKa3 β πο33ηη hjih β φππΒΜβ nacryinecKHx pyK cymecTBeHHo OTjinnaexcH ο τ noKa3a nacTynibero CTaaa hjih e r o majiama. CHHeKfloxHqecKaa onepauHa nacTbio bmöcto ΗβπΟΓΟ HJIH UejIblM BMeCTO HaCTH aBHO OTJIHHaeTCH ΟΤ ΜβΤΟΗΗMHHecKoro coceflCTBa π ρ κ Been HecoMHeHHOH o ô i h h o c t h s t h x AByX CMeXCHOCTHblX ΤρΟΠΟΒ, npOTHBOnOCTaBJieHHblX ΜβΤ3φθρΗHeCKOH CBH3H, OCHOBäHHOH Ha CXOflCTBe. KaK JIHHrBHCTHKa Β CBoeM rpâMMâTHMecKOM aHajiH3e, TaK h no3THica α ο ι ο κ η μ nocjieZlOBaTejIbHO npHHSTb BO BHHMaHHe CXOHCeCTb ΜβΤΟΗΗΜΗΗ H CHΗβΚΛΟΧΗ Β HX OTJIHHHe ΟΤ ΜβΤ3φθρΜ, à C flpyrOH CTOpOHbl — pa3HHuy Meacay BHyTpeHHen h BHeuiHeö c m o k h o c t m o , t . e. rpaHHüiy Meacziy CHHeK^oxoô h Henocpe/iCTBeHHO ΜβτοΗΗΜΗβή. EcJIH JIHHrBHCTHHeCKOe H3yneHHe ΗφΕ3ΗΗ, TeCHO CBH3âHHOe c T e o p n e ò H3biKa B o o ô m e h no3THMecKoro a3biica β MacTHOCTH, cymecTBeHHo coaeìicTByeT He TOJibKo ιοήοοηΦΗ^ΗΗΗ ckhx 3a6ojieBaHHH, h o Taicace noHHMaHHio «3μκοβοη CTpyKTypbi h ^aace yrjiyßjieHHio Μβτο,αοΒ πο3τηκη, t o Ha oHepezui c t o h t flaJibHeHHiaa

3aaana: onbiT jiHHrBHCTHMecKoro

aHajiH3a peHH

ΙΗΗ30φρβΗΗΚ0Β. Π θ BCCH BHflHMOCTH, paCCJieflOBaHHe JIHHTBHCTHHeCKHX CHMnTOMOB H CHH^POMOB ΙΙΙΗ3θφρβΗΗΗ Β COCTOHHHH nOMOHb Me^HIIHHCKOH ΚΙ^ΟΟΗφΗΜΗΗΗ Η flHarHOCTHKe pa3H0p0üHbix »BJieHHH, o6T>eaHHHeMbIX ΠΟΛ OÖIHHM apjIblKOM ΙΗΗ3θφρβHHH. 3 t o mnpoicaa h Hejiericaa HHTepflHCiiHnjiHHapHaa nporpaMMa. BejiHKHH HeMeuKHH π ο 3 τ Friedrich Hölderlin (1770—1843), .aecHTHjieTHH cTpaziaBiiiHH TaacejioH φορΜοή 3τογο He^yra η π ο λ ΚΟΗβΗ ΠΟΗΤΗ JIHHieHHblH CnOCOÖHOCTH ρβΗβΒΟΓΟ θ6ΐΗβΗΗΗ C oKpyacaiomHMH, nncaji ,αο caMoñ CBoen CMepTH 3aMeqaTejibHbie h HenoBTopHMO CBoeo6pa3Hbie c t h x h . H a h x aHajiH3e a cHoea nonbiTajica CBSBaTb Bonpocbi πο3τηκη, naTOJiorHH pe^H η o 6 m e ñ TeopHH a3biKa η peneBoñ KOMMyHHKaHHH. Π ρ κ 3tom y^ajiocb

CXOßCTBO H CME2KHOCTL

545

BbIHCHHTb OCHOBHOH H3HKOBOH CHMÜTOM ΙΙΙΗ3θφρβΗΗΗ, ΤΟΗΗββ rOBOpa — ΤΟΓΟ, ΠΟ-ΒΗΛΗΜΟΜγ, IlIUpOKO pacnpocTpaHeHHoro THna ιΐΜ3θφρ6ΗΗΗ, κ KOTopoMy npHHazuieacan Hölderlin. Β Taacejio 60JibH0M no3Te Haiiina ceöe MaiccHMajibHoe npoHBJieHHe yTpaTa CnOCOÔHOCTH H BOJIH Κ .QHaJIOrHHeCKOH ρβΜΗ, Η XapaKTepHCHIIIHH ΠρΗ3Η3Κ 3TOH yTpaTbl — ΠΟΛΗΟβ HCHe3HOB6HHe "ΠΙΗφΤβρΟΒ", Β HacTHOCTH rpaMMaTHHecKHx JIHU Η BpeMeH. Ά yöeaczieH, ΜΤΟ 3Ta nepBaa peKoraocunpoBKa aojiacHa nojioacHTb Habano nocjie^oBaTeJIbHblM JTHHrBHCTHMeCKHM pa3bICKâHHHM O nCHXOTHHeCKOH peHH Η Π033ΗΗ, H HTO TaKHe CpaBHHTeJlbHbie pa3bICKaHH8 Β HaCTHOCTH Ηβθ6χθΛΗΜΜ ΛΠΗ BCeCTOpOHHerO Π0ΗΗΜ3ΗΗ8 93bIKa Β POJIHX HHCTpyMeHTa B3aHMHOH KOMMyHHKaUHH H HHHHOrO Π03HaHHH.

XIV. Β Η Ο Γ Ρ Α Φ Η Λ

Κ. Π.

Π03ΤΑ,

Π033ΗΑ

Η

ΜΗΦ

ΟΛΗΗΜ Η3 HacymHbix BonpocoB β HayKe Havana eeica

öbijia 6opb6a 3a HOBoe ocMbicjiemie POJIH 6ΗΟΓΡ3ΦΗΗ Β jiHTepaTypoBefleHHH. 3 τ ο τ Bonpoc 6biji ocoöeHHO ÄHBO no^XBANEH Η pa3BepHyT 0π0Η30Μ, Η TyT 0n0a30Bijbi cziejiajiH oneHb ΜΗΟΓΟ no nyra κ npeo^ojieHHio ByjibrapHoro 6κοΓρ3φΗ3Μ3 cTapoH iiiKOJibi; HO BMecTe c ΤΘΜ 6κοΓρ3φΗ8 KaK πρβΛΜβτ HayHHoro HHTepeca ôbijia HeKOTopbiMH onosnoBuaMH Β cyinHocTH ΠΟΗΤΗ ynpa3,zmeHa. H e r o B o p a o IIIKJIOBCKOM, T a x a a TETMEHUHH 3aMeTHa H y ΤΗΗΗ-

HOBa, H y 3HxeHÖayMa, H aaace TpyöeijKOH Β cBoeM BCHCKOM icypce JieKUHH OfloCTOeBCKOM,HbIHe H3BeCTHOM Β KHHHCHOH φορΜβ, C öojibinoÄ 3Heprn6H onpoBepraeT BCHKHH 6κοΓραφΜ3Μ Β poyneHHH BejiHKoro KJiaccHKa. Β Β aure ή paHHeñ paöoTe Hoeeüuiaa pycCKÜJI U033UH B b i Toace οτ/iajin aaHb STOH τεΗ,αβΗΐΐΗΗ, Β 6opb6e 3a roMoreHHOCTb MeToaa pesKO oTBepraa BcaKyio "HHopo/myio" npHMecb, c 6ΗΟ^ΦΗ3ΜΟΜ BKjiiOMHTejibHO. O^HaKO xapaKTepHo, HTO Β 30-e roflbi Barne BHHMaHHe o6paTHJiocb ΗΜβΗΗΟ κ önorpaΦΗΗ ßpyx 3aMeHaTenbHbix ΠΟ3ΤΟΒ: IlyiiiKHHa H MaaKOBCKoro. Ilocjie caMoy6niicTBa BToporo H3 HHX (1930) Bbiiiuia Β BepjiHHe Baina CTaTba "O noKOJieHHH, pacrparaBineM CBOHX ΠΟ3ΤΟΒ", onyÖJiHKOBaHHaa Β ΟΛΗΟΗ 6poiiiiope co CTaTbeñ MnpcKoro, o6cy>K/laiomeñ ΚΟΗΘΙΙ MaaKOBCKoro Ha φοΗε nyimcHHCKoro TparaneCKoro KOHua. ÜCHa CTaHOBHTca oömHOCTb Β cy^böax Ο6ΟΗΧ ΠΟ3TOB, ÄHBymHX Β "»CeCTOKHH Ββκ", ΧΟΤΗ ΗΜΒΗΗΟ UeJIblH ΒβΚ pa3/ l e j i a e T ΗΧ BO BpeMeHH. T o »ce JIH c o n o c T a B J i e H H e n p H B e j i o B a c κ c j r e a y í o m e M y 33ΗΗΤΗΚ) ΔΗΟΓ^ΦΗΒΉ, ΠΡΗΤΟΜ ΗΜΘΗΗΟ nyiiiKHH-

CKOH? Ά HMGK) Β Bn/iy pa6oTy "CTaTya Β cHMBOJiHKe IlyiiiKHHa". H BepoHTHO HecjiynaHHO, MTO KaK pa3 β 30-e γ ο λ μ , nocjie CTOJib TparanecKOH H n0Ka3aTejibH0H CMepra MaaKOBCKoro, β MOHorpaΦΗΗ o6 H3BaaHHH Β CHMBOJiHKe IlymKHHa, Bbi CTajIH pa3MbIIHJiaTb Haa acH3Hbio no3Ta, mia ero cyxiböoH, a He naji ΟΛΗΟΗ jiHiiib CHMBOJIHKOH HJIH PHTMOM βΓΟ CTHXOB — ΒΗβ >ΚΗ3ΗβΗΗΟΗ ΠΟΛΟ-

njieKH?

ΕΗΟΓΡΑΦΚΗ Π 0 3 Τ Α , Π 0 3 3 Η Λ H ΜΗΦ Ρ. Ά.

547

Κ ο Γ Μ Β 1919 r o f l y Η COBMeCTHO C XjieÖHHKOBbIM rOTOBHJI

κ nenaTH, yebi, He o c y m e c T B H B i u e e c a c o ö p a H H e e r o coHHHeHHH, a β ββοληοη

cTaTbe κ HeMy, nepBOHaHajibHo

03amaBjieHH0H

" I I o a c T y n b i κ XjieÖHHKOBy", c Havana zio KOHua npocjieacuBaji ΛΒβ τ η π η η η ο xjieÖHHKOBCKHX HepTbi — oÔHaaceHHe " n p H e M a " OT onpaBMTejibHbix

μοτηβηροβοκ

h "peajiH3auHio npneMa",

ero

" n p o e K U H K ) β x y ^ o » c e c T B e H H y i o peanbHOCTb, n p e e p a n j e H H e n o 3 THHCCKoro T p o n a β no3TH i iecKHH (JjaKT, β c K ) » c e T H o e n o c T p o e H H e " , H a n p H M e p n p e T B o p e H H e Μ ε τ 3 φ ο ρ Μ β M e τ a M o p φ o 3 y . J I CTpeMHJica noKa3aTb, KaK " c j i o b o β π ο 3 3 η η XiieÔHHKOBa yTpaMHBaeT npe/iMeTHocTb, 3aTeM BHyTpcHHioio, HaKOHeu .aaace BHeniHioio φ ο ρ ν ^ " h cTpeMHTca, KaK κ CBoeMy n p e ^ e j i y , κ 3ayMHOH p e n n . T o j i b K O TyT, β π ο ο Λ β Λ Η β ή φρ33β onepKa, a n e p e i i i e j i ο τ cjiOBecHbix 3kcnepHMCHTOB aBTopa κ e r o nepeacHBaHHK) c b o h x « e

SKcnepHMeH-

TOB. Β JiHTepaTypHOH 3 β τ ο 6 η ο γ ρ 3 Φ η η " C b o h c h " , KOTopyio X j i e 6 h h k o b , n o M o e M y npe/moHceHHK), H a n n c a j i /uia c b o h x c o ö p a H H b i x coHHHeHHH, o h paccKa3biBaeT, KaK b o Bp e Ma HanHcaHHa "3ayMHbie c j i o e a y M H p a i o m e r o 3 x H a T e H a [ r e p o a n o s T H n e c K o ñ n o e e c T H aBTopa] ... Mam,

Mam!

Bbi3biBajiH π ο η τ η ô o j i b ; a He μ ο γ h x mh-

TaTb, BH^a MOJTHHK) Meac/iy c o ô o h h hmh; T e n e p b o h h ¡ m a MeHa HHHTO. ΟΤΗβΓΟ — a CaM He 3HaiO." H M e H H O 3TOH He^OyMeHHOH ccbiJiKOH Ha nepeacHBaHHa n o s T a a 3aKOHHHJi c b o i o CTaTbio, h m o h Te3HC, HTO Kaac^biH φ 3 κ τ n o 3 T H H e c K o r o a3biKa coepeMeHHOCTH BOCnpHHHMaeTCa HaMH Β HeH36eaCH0M COnOCTaBJieHHH " c npe/icToameñ

ziaHHOMy

npoaBJieHHio

no3THHecKoñ

τβΗΛβΗ-

u n e n " , κοΗβΗΗο, o n H p a j i c a Ha T y »ce 3 β τ ο 6 η ο ^ Φ η η 6 0 ^ κ > n o B e ^ b XjieÔHHKOBa: " K o r a a

a 3aMeqaji, h t o

CTapbie

hc-

ctpokh

B f l p y r TycKHejiH, K o r ^ a CKpbiToe β h h x coziepacaHHe cTaHOBHj i o c b c e r o n H a u i H H M ΛΗβΜ, a n o H a j i , mto poOTHa T B o p n e c T B a — ô y a y m e e . O r r y , a a xiyeT Β β τ ε ρ 6 ο γ ο β c u o B a . " 3 τ ο npH3HaHHe h c κοΗΗ nepeacHBaeTca nosTaMH. /ïocTaTOHHO BcnoMHHTb I l e p c H B . IIIejuiH

(1792—1822),

nncaBiiiero

β

CBoen

3aiqume

no33uu:

" I l o s T b i — 3epKajia rnraHTCKHx T e H e ñ , ô p o c a e M b i x 6y,aymHM Ha HacToamee." O y T y p H 3 M y , Becb ι ^ φ ο ο κ ο τ ο ρ ο Γ ο 6 b m o ö p a m e H κ ö y a y m e M y , 3ΤΟΤ Ji03yHr 6biJi o c o ö e H H O 6hh30K, h noTOMy n p e e a T b i e öyziyiuhm cuoBa p y c c K o r o n o s T a β t o BpeMa 3ac;iOHa;iH HaM e r o π ρ ο acHTyio » H 3 H b . H o β 1930 roziy, n o c j i e rHÔejiH MaaKOBCKoro, a 3anHcaji: " M b i c j i h u i k o m nopbiBHCTO η aca^HO peaHyjiHCb κ 6 y a y m e M y , h t o ô m y Hac o c T a j i o c b n p o u u i o e . F l o p e a j i a c b cBa3b e p e -

548

BECEatl

M6H, Mbl CJIHI1IK0M 5KHJIH 6y,0ymHM, flyMaJIH O H6M, BepHJIH Β Hero, h ô o j i b i i i e Ηβτ ¿ma Hac caMO^OBJieioineH 3Jio6bi ansi, Mbi pacTepajiH h y b c t b o H a c r o a m e r o . . . y Hac 6 m j i h TOJibKO 3axBaTbiB a i o m n e n e c H H o ô y o y m e M , h B^pyr s t h n e c H H h3 λ η η ε μ η κ η cero^HHUiHero λ η η n p e e p a m r i H C b β HCTopHKO-jiHTepaTypHbiñ κ ) " Η β KOHue jiaKOHHneCKOH 3anHCKH pa3pa3HJica JIHHHOH pe30JiK>uneH — " J l y H a n a p c K o r o ceHb 3a cjiaBHHCKoro snHHecKoro HacJie/uia, BbmBHraBiiiHX ΜΗφοποΓΗΗβCKHH cyôcTpaT, JiHTepaTypHbie aaHMCTBOBaHHsi h HCTopHnecKHe OTpaaceHHa. H o Bce STH sjieMeHTbi noaneMcaT TIUATEJIBHOMY onpe^ejieHHK) H aojiacHbi TpaKTOBaTbca He KaK pa3po3HeHHbie cjiaraeMbie, MexaHHnecKH cuermeHHbie, a KaK opraHHHecKne KOMnoHeHTbi eíiHHoro xyaoacecTBeHHoro ijejioro. Ο τ yBJieKaTejibΗΟΓΟ Bonpoca o npeTBOpeHHH ΜΗΦ3 Β 3II0C nyTb Bejl Κ CHCTeMaTHHeCKOH nOCTaHOBKe 3aaa^ CpaBHHTejIbHOH peKOHCTpyKIJHH CJiaBHHCKOH ΜΗφΟΙΙΟΓΗΗ H Κ ee UIHpOKOMy HCn0JIb30BaHHK) flJIH BOCCTaHOBJieHHH ΜΗφΟΛΟΓΗΗ 06meHHfl0eBp0neÔCK0H. 3THM 3aAANAM ÔBIJIH NOCBAMEHBI MOH JIEKUHH 6 0 - x ΓΟΛΟΒ Β Tapeap^CKOM

yHHBepcHTeTe H BnocjieacTBHH onyÖJiHKOBaHHbie ÄOKJiaflbi Ha MeacflyHapoflHbix cte3flax — aHTponoJiorHMecKOM Β M o c K B e (1964) Η CJIABHCTHHECKOM Β Ilpare (1968), HO 6ÓJibuia$i nacTb coöpaHHbix MHOK) MaTepnajioB H 3aKjnoHeHHH Bce eme >κ,πετ ΟΚΟΗHaTejibHOH pa3pa6oTKH. Β ocHOBy 3THX paöoT 6bijiH noJioaceHbi cjie^yiomne ΜβτοΛΟjiorHHecKHe 3aflaHH». B3aMeH anpHopHoro CKencHca, oTBepraBrnero CBH^eTejibCKyio aocTOBepHOCTb cpe^HeeeKOBbix nncbMeHHblX H MCHByHHX φθ.ΙΉΚΠθρΗΜΧ IIOKa3aHHH O pejIHKTaX C/iaBHHCKOH ΜΗφοποΓΗΗ, BCTajia 3a^aMa CHCTeMaraqecKoro ncn0jib30Ba-

Ε Η Ο Γ Ρ Α Φ Η Λ Π 0 3 Τ Α , Π 0 3 3 Η Λ Η ΜΗΦ

557

ΗΗ8 3ΤΗΧ HCTOHHHKOB JUIÍÍ nOCHJIbHOH ρCCTäBpäUHH ^OXpHCTHaHCKHX CJiaBHHCKHX BCpOBaHHHJ ΜΗφοπΟΓΗΗβΟΚΗβ HMßHa, 3aCBH^eTejlbCTBOBaHHbie Β ÜHCbMCHHOM H yCTHOM φΟϋΙιΚϋΟρΗΟΜ HaCJieΛΗΗ, BMeCTe C φρ3ΓΜ6ΗΤ&ρΗΜΜΗ yKa3aHHHMH Ha CIOaCeTHbie KOHTeKCTbl Η φγΗΚΙΙΗΗ 3ΤΗΧ ΗΜβΗ ÜOCTaBHJIH HaC Πβρβ,Π Η β θ 6 χ θ Λ Η -

MOCTbK) nOflBeprHyTb CpaBHHTejIbHOMy aHaJlH3y CJiaBHHCKHH HHBeHTapb ΠΟΛΟ6ΗΜΧ ΗΜβΗ, a TaKHce yuejieeimix τβρΜΗΗΟΒ ρπTyajibHoro Η pejiHrH03H0-3THHecK0r0 xapaKTepa. Becb 3τοτ icpyr COÔCTBeHHblX ΗΜβΗ Η ΤβρΜΗΗΟΒ ΠΟΛΠΟΚίΠ TLUaTejIbHOMy CpaBΗβΗΗΚ) C aHajIOrHHHbIM HaCJie^HeM ΓφΟΗΗΧ HHÄOeBpOneHCKHX ΒβΤΒβΗ, ΠρΗΜβΜ ΠβρβΛ HaMH CTOHJia 3a,flaHa Β33ΗΜΗΟΓΟ pa3Me»eeaHHa 3ΠΒΜΒΗΤ0Β, npeanoJiaraBiiiHX O6IHHH npaHCTopHHeCKHH reHe3HC H, C flPyrOH CTOpOHbl, ΗΒΛβΗΗΗ MOK/iyruieMeHHOH KyubTypHOH ,^Hφφy3HH. Bce 6oJibiue TaKHX npHMepoB oÔHapyacHBaeTCa Β HCTOpHH CJiaBHHCKHX flyXOBHblX ΟΤΗΟΙΙΙβΗΗΗ C ΗΗΛΟ" HpaHCKHM MHPOM, npeHMyiljeCTBeHHO C ero HpaHCKOH OÔJiaCTbK). Π ο M e p e p a 3 B H T H f l ΟΡ3ΒΗΗΤ6.ΓΛΗΟ-ΜΗΦΟ.ΓΙΟΓΗΗ6(:ΚΗΧ HCCJieflOBa-

HHH Bce apne CKa3biBaeTCH BbicoKan apxaHHHOCTb CJiaBHHCKHX nepe»cHTKOB, no cpaBHeHHio c 6ojiee apeBHHMH, HO 3aTO ΠΟΛBepruiHMHCH jiHTepaTypHOH nepepaôoTKe naMHTHHKaMH ΜΗφοJTORHH aHTHHHOH, repMaHCKOH H Be^HHeCKOH. H a e e p T b i B a e T c a B o n p o c : Β n e M »ce COCTOHT OÖIIIHH 3HaMeHa-

Tenb Bcex 3THX 3aHHTHH ΜΗφΟΜ, OT nyUIKHHCKOrO UHKJia COHHHeHHH O fleMOHHHeCKOM H3BaHHHH ΛΟ ΜΗΦΟΠΟΓΗΜΒΟΚΟΗ ΠΟΛΟn j i e K H Β p y c c K O M Hapo/iHOM s n o c e H, HaKOHeu, ΛΟ ΟΠΜΤΟΒ π ρ κ ΜβΗβΗΗΗ ΜβΤΟΛΟΒ CpaBHHTejIbHOH JIHHrBHCTHKH Κ OÔLLjeCJiaBHHCKOH H Κ HHflOeBpOneHCKOH

ΜΗφΟΛΟΓΗΗ?

IIpHHllHnHaJIbHbie

BbiBOflbi, nepemiHKaiomHecH c yBJieKaTejibHbiMH zieôaTaMH HbiHeuiHHX aHTponojioroB ο xapaKTepe, 3HaHHMOCTH H nmpoTe πρκΜβΗβΗΗ» ΗΛβΗ MHφa MoryT 6biTb BHepHe φopMyπHpoBaHbI TaK: Π033ΗΗ Η ΜΗφ — ΛΒβ CHJIbl, TeCHO B3aHMOCBH3aHHbie H OCTpO npOTHBOpeHHBbie. Pa3Ho6oH o6eHx CTHXHH ΛΆΗ ycraHOBKOH ΠΟ33ΗΗ Ha BapHaUHK), a ΜΗΦ3 — Ha HHBapHaHTHOCTb. C 3THM CXOFLCTBOM H pa3JIHΗΗβΜ JJJia MeHH CBH3aHbI pa3H006pa3Hbie aCneKTbl ΟΤΗΟΙΙΙβΗΗΗ MeHCfly ΜΗφΟΜ Η Π033Ηβή: B03M05KH0CTb TJiyÖOKO HHflHBHJiyaJIbΗΟΓΟ, 3aBeTHOrO n03THH6CK0r0 ΜΗφ&, KpOIOmerOCH 3a ero pa3HOo6pa3HbIMH OTKpblTbIMH BapHaHTaMH, KaK HanpHMep, H3BaaHHbiMH CKyjibiiTypHbiMH BepuiHTenaMH cy^eö Β nyiiiKHHCKHx nosMax; npeepameHHe sTHHHecKoro ΜΗφα Β rjiyGoKo jiHHHbie 6an-

558

BECERI

j i a f l b i H e m c K o r o p o M â H T H K a 3 p 6 e H a ; n p o e i o j H a Μ Η φ & Β HCTOPHK) β ycTHOM 3noce o KHa3e-Ky^ecHHKe h, HaicoHeu, cyztbôbi

HH^oee-

p o n c H C K O H ΜΗΦΟΠΟΓΗΗΒΟΚΟΉ c H C T e M b i , n p e o 6 p a 3 0 B a H H b i e Β n a Μ5ΠΉΗΚΗ HHflHBHflyajlbHOrO, c T B a HUH » c e z i o a c H B a i o m H e

ΟΟΚρΟΒβΗΗΟΓΟ CJIOBeCHOrO

HCKyC-

CBOH Β β κ Β Π Ο 3 Λ Η Η Χ H a p o ^ H b i x

r o j i o c K a x . B e e STO T O J i b K o n e p B b i e , n e p H O B b i e H a ô p o c K H ,

οτ-

TOJibKo

3CKH3bi κ S y a y m H M p a ô o T a M H c c j i e ^ O B a T e j i e ñ Ha yBJieKaTejibHyio TEMY: ΜΗΦΟΤΒΟΡΠΕΣΤΒΟ H TBOPHÊCTBO NOSTHHECKOE. Κ . Π.

Β T p a K T O B K Ê n 0 3 T n n e c K 0 H ΜΗΦΟΛΟΓΗΗ B a u i H T p y ^ b i

06-

H a p y a c H B a i o T a c H B y i o CBH3b c ΕΒΤΟ6ΗΟΓΡ3ΦΗΒΜΗ M a f l K O B C K o r o H naCTepHaiCa.

Π Ρ Η B C e M ΒΗΒΙΙΙΗΒΜ p a 3 J I H H H H Β 3THX

aBTOpCKHX

T S K C T a x e c T b ΜΗΟΓΟ o 6 m e r o , OCOÖCHHO n o K a 3 a T e j i b H a

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c p e ^ c T B e H H O c o n p m c a c a e T c a C B a u i H M Π Ο Λ Χ Ο Λ Ο Μ Κ ΦΗΚΤΟΜ 6 H O Γ ρ 3 φ Η Η 6 0 Κ Η Μ Η φ β Κ Τ β Μ CHMBOJIHMeCKHM. ^Cn3HeOIIHCâHHe

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peajibHbie

φ 8 Κ Τ Μ co6cTBeHHO He cymecTByioT. Kaac/iaa >KH3HeHHaa

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Κ. Π. CHHTeTHHecKH o x e a r o n HayKofí o 93biKe, KaK CHCTeMe 3HaKOB, no BCeH BHflHMOCTH HBJIfleTCH CeMHOTHKa. 3 Τ 0 H AOJDKHO 6biTb τβΜοή Moero noc.ne,aHero eonpoca. H o ero cKHBOnHCH h a3biKa h B o n p o c b i n p e T B o p e H H a o 6 e n x

pa3HOBHOTOCTeH

3HaKa β npe^eirax öecnpe/iMeTHOH acHBonncH h 3ayMHofi πο33ηη 6biJiH Meacay mhoh h μολολημη mockobckhmh xy^oacHHKaMH ΠρβΛΜβΤΟΜ OÄHBJieHHblX flHCKyCCHH Β TOÍlbl HaKaHyHe ITepBOH BOHHbi. TeMaTHKa η TepMHHOJiorHa 3η&κοβμχ BonpocoB μβηο npHBJieKajia BHHMâHHe KDHbix HCKaTejieH, h Korna Mbi 03H3K0mhjiHCb c pa3MbimjieHHaMH Cocciopa, Bonpoc HayKH o 3HaKax (hjih

560

BECERI

ceMHOJiorHH, KaK Ha3biBaji ee Cocciop, paTya 3a Hoeyio .qhcijhn j i H H y ) TOTHac Bornen β Kpyr HaiiiHX 6ecej3 h rniaHOB, nojiyHH-

BiiiHX flajibHeHiuee pa3BHrae β HOBopoac^eHHOM üpaaccKOM JlHHrBHCTHHecKOM Kpyaoce. Ha KpuranecKOM pyôeace Tpn/maTbix h copoKOBbix γολοβ β 3TOM HanpaBJieHHH ocoôeHHo npeycneji HemcKHH 3CT6THK äh MyKapÄOBCKHH (1891—1975). Bee ace h3 pa3H006pa3HbIX 3HaK0BbIX Τ Η Π Ο Β a3bIK, a HS B c e x HCKyCCTB HC-

KyccTBO cjiOBecHoe ocTaeajiHCb β Meac^yBoeHHyio anoxy o c h o b HOH H3HK)6jieHHOH ΤβΜΟΗ 3aH«THH KpyHCKa. JXna ΜβΗ3 JIHMHO MecTO H3biKa β KyjibType η ero 3HaneHHe β Kpyry apyrnx 3HaKOBbix cHCTeM CTajiH OHepeflHOH τβΜοή β cbh3h c yBxieKaTejibHbiMH nepeneKTHBaMH 3aHaTHH CJiaBSHCKHM, OCOÔeHHO MeXOCJIOBaUKHM cpe^HeeeKOBbeM, a o j i r o He μ χ ο λ η β ι η η μ ce6e h h aocTaTOHHO npHCTaJlbHblX H BCeCTOpOHHHX HCCJieaOBaHHH, HH HaflJie>KamHX ΠΟΛΧΟΛΟΒ H OUeHOK. OaKTOM, ΒΗΛΗΜΟ, peiUaiOIUHM He TOJIbKo an a nexoc^oBauKOH, h o h ¿uia Bceö cjiaBHHCKOH h c t o p h h 6biJia bo Βτοροή nojioBHHe I X BeKa TaK Ha3biBaeMaa MopaecKaa MHccHa, pyKOBOflHMaa 3aMeHaTejibHbiM a3biKOBe/iOM h MbicjiHTejieM KoHCTaHTHHOM-KupHjTJiOM (827—869) H3 MaKeaoHHH, ΠΗTOMueM h paôoTHHKOM eflHHCTBeHHoro β τ ο BpeMa β Eepone KoHCTaHTHHonojibCKoro yHHBepcHTeTa. O c h o b h o h BKjia/i K o h CTaHTHHa η ΜεφοΛΗΗ, ero CTapiuero 6paTa h aeaTeubHoro coTpy^HHKa (?—885), β h c t o p h k ) He TOJibKO cjiaeaHCKOH KyjibTypbi, h o η caMoro cjiaßaHCKoro öbiraa η npeeMCTBeHHOCTH 6bm neρβΒΟΛ Ha H0B0C03flaHHbIH CJiaBHHCKHH JIHTepaTypHblH H3bIK C B 3 -

meHHblX ΚΗΗΓ Η TeKCTOB ΙΙβρΚΟΒΗΟΓΟ OÔHXOfla. TajKejiaH 6opb6a 3a cjiaBHHCKyio uepKOBb Bejiacb ôpaTbaMH-BepoyHHTejiaMH η η χ cjiaeaHCKHMH yneHHKaMH ΠΟΛ 3HaKOM HecKOJibKHX H^eojiorHHeCKHX JI03yHr0B, Hpe3BbIHaHH0 HHTepeCHblX JUlfl CeMHOTHqeCKOH HHTepnpeTaiiHH. B3aMeH cocciopobckoh "ceMHOJiorHH" a jipHÔeraio κ HbiHe BXO,oameMy β o6mee ynoTpeÖJieHHe TepMHHy ceMuomma, KOTopbiM β X V I I c t o j i c t h h B0cn0Jib30Banca John Locke, a ^Ba Bexa cnycTa Charles Sanders Peirce, π ο ο β η τ η β ι ι ι μ η bcio cbok) )KH3Hb rjiyöoKOH pa3pa6oTKe τβορΗΗ HejiOBeqecKHX, β nepByio onepe^b cjioeecHbix, 3HaKOB η BonpeKH HenoHHMaHHio cobpeMeHHHKOB HanepTaBUIHH ÄHBOTBOpHyiO npOrpaMMy HOBOH Hay-

KH. Ha CKJioHe aeeaToro BeKa, τ. e. yace 3a Tbicany JieT a o acHOBHflHecKHx Te3HCOB, c KOTopbiMH BbicTynHJi lOHbiH Peirce Β AMepHKaHCKOH AKaaeMHH HayK, 6biji cuoaceH β cjiaeaHCKHX craxax

CEMHOTHKA

561

KoHCTaHTHHOM 3aMeHaTejibHbiH " ü p o j i o r " κ ero »ce cjiaeaHCKOMy nepeBo^y HeTBepoeBaHrejiHJi. 3 τ ο τ npojior, no-cjiaeaHCKH "nporjiac", uenbK) KpacHopeHHBbix τροποΒ Η φΗΓγρ HmeT Η cxBarbiBaeT Β yCJlblLUaHHOM, npOHHTaHHOM H nOCTHrHyTOM BepXOBHyiO HEJIOBENECKYK) CYMHOCTB:

CjiyiiiaHTe HbiHe n o cBoeMy pa3yMeHHio,

H6o BaM AaHO 6wjio cjibiiiiaTb, cjiaeaHCKHH Hapo.ii! CjiymaHTe CJIOBO, rpaaymee ΟΤ Bora, CJIOBO, nHTaiomee MEJIOBENECKHE ayuiH, CJIOBO, K p e n a m e e cepaue H pa3yM, CJIOBO, noöyacaaiomee NO3HATB Bora. KaK 6e3 ceeTa pa^ocra He 6y/ieT, Koi\na OKO, B3Hpas Ha Bee ôoacbn TBopeHHa, H h β ΗβΜ He BHflHT 6jiarojienHa, TaKOBa H ynacTb Bcex 6ecnHCbMeHHbix a y u i , H e BeziaiomHX 6oacbero 3aKOHa,

3aKOHa, OTKpbiBaiomero öoxcecKHH paw. Κτο »ce KOPHTCA nepea ΒΟΓΟΜ, ECJIH cjiyx He BHeMJieT rpoMOBbiM yaapaM? KaK nopa3yMeTb 6oHCbeMy n y o y , ECJIH ΗΟ3ΛΡΗ HE nyioT 3anaxa UBCTOB? PaBHO ycTa, ôeciyBCTBeHHbie κ cjiacTH, I l p e e p a m a i o T nenoBeKa β KaMeHb.

Α τβΜ 6ojiee ôecKHHXCHaa ayuia OKa3biBaeTca MepTBa Β JIIO^HX. H BOT, OCO3HABAA Bee 3το, öparaa, Mbi jiaeM BaM Ha^nexcamHH c o e e T ,

KoTopbiH OTMeacyeT nejiOBenecTBO Οτ CKOTCKORO npo3a6aHHa Η ΠΟΧΟΤΗ: He CjiyiiiaHTe CJIOBO Ha nyxcoM a3biKe, HeBpa3yMHTejibHOM pa3yMy, KaK ecjiH 6bi BM cjiyiuajiH r o j i o c ΜΘΛΗΟΓΟ KOJioKOJia...

cooTBeTCTBeHHO oôocHOBaji ziojir H npaBO Kaacaoro Hapom Ha a3biK0B0e caMoonpe^eneHHe H npoTHBonocTaBHJi CTapo3aBeTHOMy CHMBOJiy BaBHjioHCKoro CMeineHHa a3biKOB, KaK 6o*cbeH Rape, H0B03aBeTHbiH CHMBOJI — aap, HHcnocjiaHHbiñ C B H T H M XlyXOM H yTBepAHBIlIHH MHOHCeCTBeHHOCTb HejIOBeneCKHX a3bIKOB KaK npoaBJieHHe ÖJiaroaaTH. Kaac^OMy a3biKy, Β xiaHHOM cjiynae a3biKy cjiaBaHCKOMy, corjiacHO yneHHio MopaecKOH MHCCHH, npHHaaJieacano npaeo Ha ynacTHe Β TaHHCTBe eexapHCTHH, τ. e. Β HaHBbicmeH H3 cpeflHeeeKOBbix .qyxoBHbix ueHHOCTeñ, OTKyjia aBTOMaTHHecKH cjie^OBano npaeo Ha peuiaiomyio pojib BO Bcex oômecTBeHHbix UCHHOCTHX. HO Hac nouuia Β cjiaeaHCKHX CTHxax ABTOP

562

EECEßbl

KoHCTaHTHHa mojihtbs, np0H3H0CHMaa CB»meHHOc;iy)KHTe;ieM h npe/iBapaiomaH npeTBopeHHe BHHa h xjieôa β KpoBb η Tejió XpwCTOBO, η He TOJibKO rycHTCKaa snoxa β peBOJiiouHOHHOH 6opb6e 3a HapoflHoe caMOonpe^ejieHHe ccbinajiacb Ha cTapocjiaBHHCKHH npeue^eHT, ho aaace β oöcTaHOBKe TopscecTByiomeH κοΗτρρβφορΜ3αΗΗ HCLLICKHH yneHbiH Bohuslav Balbin (1621—1688) npeB03H0CHJI CJTaBHHCKHH A3bIK TaKOH MOJIHTBbl O TpaHCCyÔCTaHUHa-

uhh KaK Bbicmee npaBo, /laHHoe Hapoay, h6o s t h cjioea cBameHHHKa B3biBaiOT κ nyay eme ôojibineMy, neM ôoacecicoe coTBopeHHe φΗ3ΗΗβΟΚΟΓΟ MHpa. CßH3b MeaC^y flByMH CHCTeMaMH CHMBOJIOB, CJIOBOM H OÖpsmOM, ÖbIJia TaK ace ΚΡΟΒΗΟ ÖJIH3Ka ΚOHCTaHTHHyKHpHJIJiy, KaK CBfl3b UepKOBHOrO CJIOBa H o6pnm CO 3pHTejIbHbIM HCKyccTBOM, h xapaKTepHO, hto cTapocnaeaHCKoe >KHTHe K o h cTaHTHHa BOcxBajiaeT ero 3a HpaBCTBeHHyio no6e^y β 3amHTe 06pa30B προτΗΒ Bbiciiiero Hepapxa HKOHOKiiacTOB. 3Ta CB«3b Me>KZiy PHTyajIbHbIMH 3Η3Κ3ΜΗ o6pflíia, CJIOBeCHbIMH 3Η3Κ3ΜΗ ΡΟΛΗΟΓΟ 83bIKa Η 3HaKaMH HKOHOriHCHblMH, Β HCTOpHHeCKOH 6opb6e 3a oömenoHHTHbiH H3biK öorocjiyaceHHH, a τβΜ caMbiM η Bceñ KyjibTypbi, η 3a paBHonpaene Bcex β Hapoae h Bcex HapozioB Monroe BpeMs ocTaeajiacb He/iooueHeHa CKenTHHecKoii IHKOJIOH HCTOPHKOB CpeflHeBeKOBbH. H e TOJibKO cnop C 3TOH ΠΙΚΟjiOH, o^apaiomHH HayKy Bee hobumh HeoÄHaaHHbiMH aoKa3aTejibCTBaMH uinpoTbi h rnyÔHHbi MopaBCKoro no^BHra, ηο h t o t oômeceMHOTHHecKHH ypOK, κ ο τ ο ρ κ κ HaM ,aaH sthm hpkhm npHMepoM rjiaeeHCTByiomeH pojiH H3biKa β ero MHoroo6pa3Hoñ TBopHeCKOH CBH3H C ZipyrHMH CHCTeMaMH 3HaKOB, BCe 3TO npH3bIBaJIO Hac Κ BKJIIOHeHHK) JIHHrBHCTHKH Β Kpyr ÔOJiee IHHPOKHX KyjlbTypHblX H COUHaJIbHO-nOJIHTHHeCKHX npOÔJieM. B o n p o c o KyjibTypHo-oömecTBeHHOM oôpaMjieHHH «3biKa h o 6 HCTopHHecKHx

3a,aaHax, Bbina^aiomnx

Ha λ ο λ ι ο

nocjie^Hero,

npeflCTaBjiaeTCH μηθ Heoöxo/iHMbiM iionoiiHeHneM κ BcecTopoHHeMy aHajiH3y BHyTpeHHen j b m k o b o h CTpyKTypbi. C o ô c t b c h h o a n p e z m o i e j i 6bi roBopHTb He o ^onojiHeHHH, a o ^ ß y x njiaHax

aHajiH3a, hbho cooTHeceHHbix, ho 6e3 anpnopHoro ποληηη6ηηη ο λ η ο γ ο H3 njiaHOB zipyroMy. HenpH3HaHHe HajiHHHH η BaacHocTH OÔOHX aBTOHOMHblX Η Β TO ace BpeMH cooTHeceHHbix nuaHOB TaK »ce 6jiH30pyK0, KaK OTpHuaHHe t o h HecoMHeHHoii h c t h h m , h t o H3biK conpHHafljieîKHT uejioMy Kpyry 3HaK0Bbix CHCTeM. KaKOBO

6bi HH 6bijio nepapxHHecKoe cooTHOiueHHe Meamy BceMH s t h m h CHCTeMaMH Η Β naCTHOCTH Me»C^y a3bIKOM Η ÍJpyrHMH ϋφβρ3ΜΗ

CEMHOTHKA

563

3HaKOB, cpaBHHTejibHaa Hayna o H3biice h Bcex προπΗχ 3HaKOBbix coBOKynHOCTax, β TeneHHe bckob njiaHHpoBaHHaa uejibiM pa/ioM MbicjiHTejißH, β HacTOflmee BpeMa hbho c t o h t Ha onepe/iH, η 6buio 6bi—noBTopaio—6jiH30pyK0 οτ 3toh 3a,aaHH OTKpemnBaTbca. C p e ^ H MHOJKecTBa ueHHbix HaôpocKOB, HaMenaiomHx nyTH κ nocTpoeHHK) TaKOH HayKH, nonaziaiOTca craThH 6ojiee noBepxHOCTHoro η xiHJieTaHTCKoro xapaKTepa, h 3,aecb HajiHuo λ ο β ο λ npOTHB TaKHX JierKOBeCHblX BblCTynjieHHH, HO OTHIOÎIb He npOTHB HayKH, TepMHHbi h ji03yHrH κοτοροή aBTopbi TaKHX noTyr HeoCTOpOHCHO npHCBOHJIH. ΗβΤ HH ΟΛΗΟΗ HayKH Η HH ΟΛΗΟΓΟ ΗΟΒΟΓΟ 3Tana β HCTopHH OT^ejibHbix HayK, rae 6bi Ha nepBbix nopax, β noroHe 3a μ ο λ ο η η 3a co6na3HaMH η ο β η 3 η μ , He o6i>aBjia;iHCb nceB^OHOBaTopbi η npHÄHBanbiitfiKH. TaK 6buio c jik)6oh h o b o h "LUKOJTOh" JIHHrBHCTHKH, ΠΟ KpaHHeH Μβρβ HaMHHaa C 3ΠΟΧΗ IIpocBemeHHH, no ceri /leHb. .HpyrHM xapaKTepHbiM npoaBJieHHeM BcaKoro ΗΟΒΟΓΟ 3Tana hbjihiotch cyryôo TeoperanecKHe pacnpn o peKOMeH^yeMbix rpaHHuax Hapoac^aiomeHca HayKH. Κ npHMepy, KaKoro poaa 3Η3κη β χ ο λ β τ β npe.qe.ribi c c m h o t h k h ? ΟτΒβτ MoaceT 6biTb TOJibKo ο λ η η : ecjiH ceMHOTHKa, KaK no,acKa3biBaeT STHMOJiorna TepMHHa, aBJiaeTca HayKOH o 3HaKax, το HHKaKHe 3HaKH He no^JieacaT ocTpaKH3My, a ecjiH β pa3Hoo6pa3HH 3HaKoBbix CHCTeM oÖHapyacHBaiOTca CHCTeMbi, OTjinqaiomHeca οτ npoHHX CBOHMH COÖCTBeHHbIMH CneiJH(j)HHeCKHMH 0C06eHH0CTaMH, το 3Ta cepHa MoaceT 6biTb Bbi^ejieHa β oco6mh KJiacc, ocTaeascb τβΜ He MeHee β npe.ne.riax o6meíi HayKH o 3HaKax. HHCJieHHOCTb Η 3HaHHMOCTb KOHKpeTHblX 3a^aH, CTOamHX nepefl CeMHOTHKOH, roBopHT 3a cBoeepeMeHHocTb Hx njiaHOMepHOH Meac^yHapoaHOH pa3pa6oTKH, 6e3 HeyMecTHbix ceKTaHTCKHx ποπο.γι3ηοβ6ηηη HaBa3aTb bo HTo 6bi το HH CTajio npHXOiicKOH a y m o K ("esprit de clocher") Been 3τοή MHororpaHHoii η μ η ο γ ο ι ι η κ ο η paôoTe.

NOCJIECJIOBHE KpHCTHHa IToMopcKa

YBJIEKATEJIBHWH pyccKHH

ΙΙΗΗΓΒΗΟΤ B a n e c j i a B

BceBOJioflOBHH

MEAHOB Β CB06H HeflaBHeíí p a ö o T e " C o B p e M e H H a a HayKa H T e a T p " , Teamp, N ° 8, 1977, y ö e a n T e j i b H o noKa3aji, κ η κ η μ η κρβπκΗΜΗ η ΤΟΗΚΗΜΗ y3aMH CBa3aHa coBpeMeHHaa HayKa C TeaTpajibHbiM HCKyccTBOM. C a M o e BaacHoe 3^ECB — HTO STO He npaMaa ΠΡΗΗΗΗHaa cBa3b, a cHCTeMa oöpaTHOH CB83H. T e a T p ΜΗΟΓΗΜ o6a3aH COBpCMCHHOH φΗ3ΗΚβ, ΗβΒρΟϋΟΓΗΗ Η ΠΟΗΧΟ/ΙΟΓΗΗ, HO 3ΤΗ flHCUHnjiHHbi Β CBOJO o^epe/jb ΜΗΟΓΗΜ o6a3aHbi TeaTpy. Oco6eHHO aKTHBHyio p o j i b a n a Ha3BaHHoro c o c T a e a OTCUHHJIHH cbirpajia T e o p H a ABH^ceHHa, BbipaöoTaHHaa e m e K j i e ñ c T O M Β 1810 r o ^ y , H 3aTeM Hepe3 TeaTp K p a r a , M e ö e p x o n b ^ a H q e p e 3 φHJIbM 3 Ä 3 e H iiiTeHHa noBJiHaBiiiaa Ha c o B p e M e H H y i o ÖHOMexaHHicy. 3HaMeHaTejibHaa 3aBHCHMOCTb: OHa yKa3biBaeT Η Ha cjioacHOCTb OTHOiiieHHH Meac^y pa3HbIMH OÖJiaCTaMH, Η Ha HeoaCH^aHHOCTb POJIH HCKyccTBa Β HejioBenecicoH »CH3HH. PÎMeHHO Taicaa ananeKTHKa OöpaTHOH CBH3H npnnoacHMa Η Κ TpynaM, Η κ ziyxoBHOMy cKJia^y P o M a H a ü i c o ö c o H a .

Oôcyacaaa

coöcTBeHHoe TBopnecTBO, OH B c e r ^ a noßHepicHBaeT CB83b CBOHX HOBâTOpCKHX yCTaHOBOK C He^aBHHM 3KCnepHMeHTajIbHbIM HCKyCCTBOM. Β aHHIHHCKOM nOCJieCJIOBHH Κ I TOMy e r o fÍ36paHHblX COHUHEHUÜ, B b i m e ^ m e M y Β 1962 H BTOPHMHO — Β 1971 r o a y , 3 τ ο τ B o n p o c nocTaBjieH H a H 6 o ; i e e Η β τ κ ο : Perhaps the strongest impulse toward a shift in the approach to language and linguistics, however, was - for me, at least - the turbulent artistic movement o f the early twentieth century. T h e great men of art born in the 1880's - Picasso (1881-1973), Joyce (1882-1941), Braque (1882-1963), Stravinsky (1882-1971), Xlebnikov (1885-1922), L e Corbusier (18871965) - were able to complete a thorough and comprehensive schooling in one o f the most placid spans of world history < . . . > T h e extraordinary capacity o f these discoverers to overcome again and again the faded habits o f their own yesterdays, together with an unprecedented gift for seizing and shaping anew every older tradition or foreign model without

nOCJIECJIOBHE

565

sacrificing the stamp of their own permanent individuality in the amazing polyphony of ever new creations, is intimately allied to their unique feeling for the dialectic tension between the parts and the uniting whole, and between the conjugated parts, primarily between the two aspects of any artistic sign, its signans and its signatum. ... Those of us who were concerned with language learned to apply the principle of relativity in linguistic operations; we were consistently drawn in this direction by the spectacular development of modern physics and by the pictorial theory and practice of cubism, where everything "is based on relationship" and interaction between parts and wholes, between color and shape, between the representation and the represented. HTaK, n e p e / i η&μη onaTb aBJieHHe TecHOH b3: HeTy h h "yneHHMecKoro n e p H o ^ a " , h h "pa3BHTHa". B c e cpa3y 3aaaHO, KaK nporpaMMa Ha acH3Hb. CpeziH nncaTejieH aHajiorHHHbiM npHMepoM MoaceT nocjiyacHTb T o r o j i b . H o BepHeMca κ xy,aoacecTBeHHOMy KOHTeKCTy HCKâHHH yneHoro. Β Hana^e HaniHx 6 e c e a Ρ. Ά . cKa3an:

uíí

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KOB." O h paccKa3biBaeT o c b o h x oTHomeHHax c M a n e e n n e M η o 6

567

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HHKaMH h no3TaMH, HaHHHaa c c a M o r o p a H H e r o BpeMÊHH. 3 a ^ o j r r o Χίο BCTpeH c MajieBHMeM, c paHHHX π ε τ , Ρ . Ά.

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C B O H M H CBepCTHHKaMH, Π3ρΤΗ33Η3ΜΗ HCHBOIIHCHblX HCKaHHH, C . M . BaHOTHbIM, OÜHHM H3 nepBblX MOCKOBCKHX Ôecnpe^MeTHHKOB, H H . JI. KaHOM, BnOCJie^CTBHH KOHCTpyKTHBHCTOM-apXHTeKτοροΜ. E m e β 1 9 1 1 — 1 2 r o ^ y o h c6jih3hjich c neH3aacHCTOM XleP 3 H O B C K O T O TOJIKa, AflOJIbílJOM MHUbMaHOM. 3 τ θ HM6HHO M m i b MaH, ^eHTejibHbiH M/ieH r p y n n b i "EyÖHOBbiH B a n e T " , n o ß e j i e r o nepBbiíí pa3 β r a j i e p e i o m y K H H a , ο λ η ο γ ο

h3 τ ε χ

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MHJijiHOHepoB Hanajia BeKa, KOTopbie yBJieicajiHCb nepe^OBbiM ΙΙΙΗΜ

y n o p c T B O M , H a e e p H o e 3 H A K O M B I M B c e M , κ τ ο ÖJiHHce C K o r o , OH 3 a z i B H r a j i CKyjiaMH: — A CMEPTH HE

ôyaeT.

Β ya y τ

3Han MaaKOB-

a c o B e p i u e H H o y ö e a c a e H , HTO

BocKpeuiaTb

MepTBbix.

Ά

HAN/iy φ Η 3 Η Κ 3 ,

KOTopbiH ΜΗ e n o n y H K T a M p a c T O J i K y e T K H H r y 3 H H i i r r e H H a .

Benb

H e M o a c e T 6 b i T b , HTO6 a T a x Η He ΠΟΗΗ/Ι. Ά STOMy ΦH3HΚY a K a zieMHHecKHH n a e K n n a T H T b 6 y z i y . " H e n b 3 a n y m u e B b i p a 3 H T b B e c b Μ Φ Ο Ο noHCKOB ΤΟΓΟ B p e M e H H , B e c b K p y r H H T e p e c o B n o K O j i e H H a Η

cpeflbl,

Β KOTOPOH

BbipOC

H 5KHJI P .

Λ.

,ZI,pyroH apKOH φ Η ^ ρ ο ή 6 b i j i y » c e Ha3BaHHbiH Β H a i m i x ; m a j i o r a x n o 3 T - 3 a y M H H K A j i e K c e n E j i H c e e B H H K p y n e H b i x . P . Ά.

no3Ha-

KOMHJica c HHM, KaK H C X n e Ô H H K O B b i M , e m e ΛΟ n o c T y n j i e H H a Β y H H B e p C H T e T , H c HHM, KaK H c X j i e Ô H H K O B b l M , OH HaCTO 0 6 majica H

Tor/ia

H

neperiMCbiBajTca. M O J I O A O H yneHHK Ι Ι Η Η Γ Β Η Ο Τ Η Κ Η 6bui apbiM φyτypHcτoM, nncan 3ayMHbie C T H X H Π Ο Λ nceBflo-

572

BECE^bl

HHMOM P. AjiarpoB. 3THM ΗΜβΗβΜ noanncaHO ΟΛΗΟ H3 coxpaHHBUIHXCH ΠΗΟβΜ Κ KpyHeHbIXy OT 1914 Γ., Β KOTOPOM 17-JieTHHH aBTop cooömaeT MOCKOBCKHC jinTepaTypHbie HOBOCTH: "...ra3eTbi, »cypHajibi, BHTPHHM Mara3HHOB HaBozmeHbi cTaTbaMH o φyτypH3Me, HHbie c npeTeH3HeH Ha cepbe3. B3ajiHCb 3a φyτypH3M MycareTUbi [o6T.eaHHeHHbie BOKpyr H3aaTenbCTBa "MycareT" nHcaTeJIH, 6jIH3KHe Κ CHMBOJlH3My]: HaflHHXnOCBHTHJI eMy nOJI-JieKUHH CTenyH. B a i . ÜBaHOB HHTaji jieKijHH aicoöbi o HypjiHOHHce, β aeñcTBHTejibHocTH o öy^euiHHax..." ,ZJajibme κ,αβτ oueHica HOboh, öyaeTJiaHCKOH ΠΟ33ΗΗ, 6jiH3icaa no ¿lyxy h CTHJIK) φyτypHCTHHeCKHM ΜΗΗΗφεθΤ3Μ — C ΤΗΠΗΗΗΜΜ flJia ΗΗΧ 3a^OpOM CaMblX LOHBIX H 6oeBbix ΛβΗτεπβή HCKYCCTBA: "Be AB AO CHX nop NO33HA 6biJia UBCTHTIMH cTeKJiâMH (Glasbilder): KaK cTeKJiaM COJIHCHHWH CBeT, eH pOMaHTHHeCKHH ,HeMOHH3M npHaaBan HCHBOnHCHOCTb CKB03H. Ho BOT no6e,na Han cojiHueM [HaMeK Ha oziHOHMeHHyio nbecy KpyneHbixa, nocTaBJieHHyio Β üeTepöypre Β 1913 Γ.] Η 3φJiyH (HS BailIHX 5Κβ npOH3Be^eHHH). ΟτβΚΛΟ B30pBaH0, U3 OCKOAκοβ... co3ÒaeMy3opbipadu oceoóootcdemui. [KypcHB MOÍÍ.] íÍ3 ζιβΜΟHH3Ma, HyjIH, TBOpHM JIIOÖyK) yCJlOBHOCTb, Η Β ee HHTeHCHBHOCTH, CHJie 3ajior apHCTOKpaTH3Ma Β ΠΟ33ΗΜ." Β 3ΤΟΜ riHCbMe, noxoaceM Ha 3anHCb TeoperaHecKHX pa3ayMHH, c ΟΛΗΟΗ CTopoHbi 3ByHHT φyτypHCTI^ι^ecκaa TeopHa "caMOΒΗΤΟΓΟ cjiOBa", c apyroH — opHrHHajibHaa MHQX CTpocHHa uejioro "H3 OCKOJIKOB" η "JIK>6OH ycjiOBHOCTH H3 Hyjia", KOTopaa 6JIH3KO nepeKJiHKaeTCH c H,aeaMH XjieÖHHKOBa 06 OCHOBHMX "cTpoeBbix e^HHHuax" ΗΟΒΟΓΟ acaHpa — CBepxnoBecra. BOT h3 xjieÖHHKOBCKoro ΒΒβΛβΗΗΗ Β no3My-,zipaMy 3anze3u 1922 r.: β OTjiHHHe οτ npOCTOH nOBeCTH, KOTOpafl CTPOHTCH H3 CJIOB, "CßepxnOBeCTb HJiH 3anoBecTb CKJia^biBaeTCH H3 caMOCoaTejibHbix ΟΤΡΜΒΚΟΒ, Kaacíibiñ c CBOHM OCO6WM 6ΟΓΟΜ, OCO6OH Bepoñ h oco6biM ycraBOM... CTpoeeaa e/iHHHua, KaMeHb CBepxnoBecTH, — noeecTb nepBoro nopa^Ka. OHa noxoaca Ha H3BaaHHe h3 pa3HOUBeTHbix rjibiô pa3HOH nopoflbi... OHa BhrrecaHa H3 pa3HoiiB6THbix rjibiô cjioea, pa3Horo CTpoeHHa." Πο cuoBaM P. no3^HHe pa3MbiuuieHHa Xjie6HHKOBa "ποροή OTpa>KaK)T Harnn o6mne ôece^bi Ha TeMy o cjioee β ΠΟ33ΗΗ". C nepBOH BCTpeHH co CTHxaMH XjieÔHHKOBa Β 1912 rony P. Ά. HeH3M6HHO BHiiejl Β ΗβΜ BejlHHEHLLierO n03Ta 3pbl, Η Κ 3TOMy onpeflejieHHio npHMKHyji ΤΟΗΗ3ΗΙΙΙΗΗ 3HaTOK H ueHHTeitb cjioBecHoro HCKyccTBa Angelo Maria Ripellino Β cßoeö KHHre 1963 r. Poesie

nOCJlECJIOBHE di Chlébnikov

(TypHH).

"ÜKOÖCOH

573

BbinycTH/i H c c j i e a o B a H H e

o

MHe", — c n e i i i H j i c o o 6 i n H T b Xjie6HHKOB c B o e i i MaTepH Β a n p e n e 1922 r o a a , β cBoeM n o c j i e ^ H e M n n c b M e κ Ηβή. ÜHCbMa P . Ά . κ XjieÔHHKOBy nacTbio coxpaHHJiHCb Β apxHBe B e j i H K o r o 3HaTOKa p y c c K o r o H e e p o n e n c K o r o aeaHrapzia, H . H . X a p f l a c H e e a . CoziepjKaHHe ΟΛΗΟΓΟ h3 nHceM ^ K o 6 c o H a κ X j i e Ô H H KOBy, n o xap^acHeBCKOH nyÔJiHKaijHH 1 , 6JIH3KO h n o

BpeMeHH

(1914 r . ) , H n o n p o ô n e M a T H K e e r o ace n n c b M y κ K p y n e H b i x y : " Π Ο Μ HHTe, BHKTOP Bua^HMHpOBHM, rOBOpHJlH Bbl MHe, HTO Haina a36yKa cjiHiiiKOM ô e ^ H a juin Π033ΗΗ H KaK 6bi c ôyKBeHHbiMH CTHxaMH He 3añTH Β TynHK. Ά Bee ô o j i b i n e y ô e a c ^ a i o c b , mto Bbi OLUH6ajiHCb. H b r n e n p H i n e j i a κ ΛΙΟ6ΟΠΜΤΗΟΗ HOBHTKe [sic!], n o n e M y H n w m y BaM. 3 T a H0BH3Ha — c n j i e T b i 6yKB, HeKOTopaa a H a j i o r n a My3biKajibHbiM aKKopíiaM. 3,qecb . a o c r a r a e T c a o^HOBpeMeHHOCTb OTyx HJTH 6 o j i e e 6yKB H, κ ρ ο Μ β ΤΟΓΟ, pa3Hoo6pa3He HanepTaTejibHbix KOMÖHHauHH, ycTaHaBJiHBaiomee pa3jmHHbie B3anMOOTHOiueHHH 6yKB. B c e STO ö o r a T H T CTHXH H oTKpbieaeT HOBbie nyTH... K o r a a a cnpocHJi B a c , κ neMy η ρ κ ι ι υ ΐ Η Bbi, ο τ Β β τ 6bin — κ HHCJiy. 3 H a e T e , BHKTOP Bna/IHMHPOBHH, MHE KAACYTCA o c y m e c T B H M b i M H

CTHXH H3 HHCejI.

HHCJIO

— ßByOCTpblH Me H — KpaHHe KOHKpeTHO

H KpaHHe OTBJieqeHHO, np0H3B0JibH0 H φaτaJIbHO TOHHO, ΙΙΟΓΗΜΗΟ h öeccMbicjieHHO, orpaHHHeHHO h öecKOHeMHO... B a M BejioMbi HHCJia, a noTOMy, e c j i H Bbi no33Hio HHCJia npH3HaTe XOTH 6bi HenpneMJieMbiM napa^oKCOM, HO OCTPMM, n o n b r r a H T e c b , noacajiyHCTa, a a T b MHe x o T b H e ô o j i b i n o H o6pa3HHK TAKHX CTHXOB." K a K c o o 6 m a e T Xap^ACNEB, "B n n c b M e P . J l K o ô c o H a aaHbi H npHMepbi e r o HenpOH3HOCHMbIX, 'ÔyKBeHHblX' CTHXOB". Β UHTHpOBâHHOM n n c b M e P . Ά.

κ K p y n e H b i x y A j i a r p o B 3AHHT C X O Ä H M SKCNEPHMEH-

TOM — CTHXaMH H3 rjiaCHblX, a TaiOKC H flpyrHMH φορΜΕΜΗ " r p a ΦΗΗΒΰΚΟΉ" ΠΟ33ΗΗ: " B b i c n p a m H B a j i H MEHA — η κ ΐ Η β τ OH — R^E NPHXO^HJIOCB MHE BCTPENATB CTHXH H3 r j i a c H b i x . K a K

o6pa3Ubi

TaKOBbix, HHTepecHbi MarnnecKHe ΦOPMYJIBI THOCTHKOB. ΠΟΜΗΗT e , B b i ROBOPHJIH, HTO JIK>6OH Ρ sia 6 y K B Β ΠΡΗΜΟΜ H 0 6 P A T H 0 M n o PA^KE — e c T b n o 3 3 H a , H HA3BIBAJIH 3ΤΟ XIEMOHHHECKOH HJIH Π Ο Λ -

nOJIbHOH TOHKOH 3ρβΗΗΗ." T a x a » »ce cea3b Mbicuen 3aMenaeTca Me^cay M a j i e B H H e M h moj i o f l b i M ^KOÔCOHOM. Β HauiHX ö e c e ^ a x

ynoMHHaeTca

nncbMO

1 H. XapflîKHeB, "Remua h acHBonHCb", Κ ucmopuu pyccKozo aeaneapda, Hylea Prints, Stockholm, 1976.

574

BECERI

MajieBHHa MaTioiiiHHy (1916), Β KOTOPOM aBTop ΠΡΟΒΟΛΗΤ aHajioΓΗΚ) Meacjiy öecnpeflMeTHOH, Β MacTHOCTn cynpeMaTHHecKOH acHBOnHCbK) H 3ayMHOH Π033ΗΒΗ, ΗΤΟ — KaK ΓΟΒΟρΗΤ Ρ. Ά. ~

"BO

ΜΗΟΓΟΜ COBNA^AET C HauiHMH aaBHHMH ÔECEAAMH". ΠΡΗΒΒ,ΑΕΜ caMbie xapaKTepHbie H3 pa3MbiiniieHHH M a n é e n l a , 3aKJiioHeHHbix Β nHCbMe: " Π Ρ Η Λ Η κ HZIEE 3ByKa, noJiyHHJiH HOTa-6yKBbi, BbipaacaiomHe 3ByKOBbie Maccbi. MoaceT 6biTb Β ΚΟΜΠΟ3ΗΗΗΗ STHX 3ByKOBbix Macc (öbiBiuHX CJIOB) Η Hañ^eTca HOBaa a o p o r a . TaKHM 06pa30M, Mbi BbipbiBaeM 6yKBy H3 CTPOKH, H3 ΟΛΗΟΓΟ HanpaBJieHHa, H .aaeM eii B03M0ACH0CTB CBO6O^HORO ZIBNACEHHA. (CTPOKH HyacHbi MHpy HHHOBHHKOB H zuia ^OMauiHeH nepenHCKH). C j i e j i o BaTejibHO Mbi ΠΡΗΧΟΛΗΜ Κ... pacnpe^eneHHio öyKBeHHbix 3ByKoBbix Macc Β npOCTpaHCTBC nOflOÖHO 5KHBOIIHCHOMy CynepMaTH3My. 3 T H Maccbi noBHCHyT Β npocTpaHCTBe H .aaziyT B03M0»H0CTb HAINEMY co3HaHHio npoHHKaTb Bee .aajibiue Η ziajibme ο τ 3eMJiH." ÜHCbMO MajieBHHa conpHKacaeTca h C caMHM CTHJieM n n c e M Mojiofloro ÜKo6coHa. B e e 3TH nocjiaHHa HocaT x a p a r r e p CBOÖO/IHOH 3anncH Mbicjien 0 6 HCKyccTBe, Ha HTO yKa3biBaeT aa»ce rpaΦΗΜΒΟΚ3Β ΦΟΡΜΑ: Λ-fiHHHbiH TËKCT pa36HT Ha OTpbiBKH, pa3,ae.neHHbie He a63aijaMH, a 3Be3^0HKaMH. P. Ά . roBopHJi MHe, ΗΤΟ Β e r o riHCbMax

KpyneHbixy

H

XjieÔHHKOBy

6biJiH

Hcn0Jib30BaHbi

MbicjiH, KOTopbie OH nocTeneHHO 3anHCbiBan, pa3Mbinuiaa ο no33HH H n03THHeCK0M 33ΜΚβ BO ΒΡΒΜ3 Me/UieHHbIX ripOryjIOK BOKpyr IIojTHTexHHHecKoro My3ea Β MocKBe, n o BenepaM nocjie IHKOJIbHblX 33HaTHH. BepHyBIUHCb ΛΟΜΟΗ, OH BHOCHJI ΗΧ Β ΗΒöojibiiiHe MepHbie TeTpa^KH. 3 τ ο τ ΤΗΠ nepenHCKH, c ee ycTaHOBKOH Ha ΠΟΛΛΗΗΗΟ HHTejieKTyajibHoe o6ujeHHe, xapaKTepeH ά π α 3ΠΟΧΗ H ocoöeHHO zuia JIKD/ICH pyccKoro aeaHrap^a. HacTb nHCbMa κ KpyneHbixy noceaineHa onncaHHio co6cTBeHΗΟΗ Π033ΗΗ aBTopa: " H c n o j i H a i o c y r y ô o earny npocbôy, AneKcew EjiHceeBHM, H nocbmaio BaM Β ΗβκοτοροΜ pozie cjiOBecHoe CTHxoTBopeHHe, HanHcaHHoe τ ρ κ He/ienn TOMy HSUSLJI. Β ΗβΜ CJIOBO He caMOBHToe, HO raÔHymee ο τ pa3pbiBa cep/ma Β ycrpeMJieHHH Κ JiaKOHH3My Η Κ apHTMHMHOCTH. B e e CJlOBa Β ΗβΜ MyaccKoro p o ^ a (BM TaK npocHjra). CJIOBO y MeHa He caMOBHToe, H6O caMOBHToe CJIOBO no,apa3yMeBaeT H3BecTHyio cTaranHOCTb Β aBTOpe,

ΒΠρΟΗβΜ

BnOJIHe

Η He

ΛΟ CTH5KHMO —

sjieMeHTapHbie

HCTHHbi." KaK ΒΗΛΗΟ, MOJTOflOH napTH3aH φyτypH3Ma CTapaeTca npeB30HTH caMoro KpyneHbixa — KaK Β τβορΗΗ, TaK Η Β npaKTHKe — Λβρ3ΗΟΒβΗΗΗΜΗ 3KCnepHM6HTaMH.

nOCJIECJIOBHE

575

HecKojibKo nojiyHeHHbix Β 1914 r o a y ο τ P. Ά. ΟΠΜΤΟΒ 3ayMHOH Π033ΗΗ C yCTSHOBKOH Ha HeOÖbIHHbie COMeTaHHH COrJiaCHblX K p y n e H b i x HanenaTaji Β HbiHe p e a n a f í i i i e M cöopHHKe, ποΜβΗβΗ-

HOM 1916 ΓΟΛΟΜ η 03arjiaBjieHH0M 3ayMHaa enuza (c Bbi3biBaiom e ö KOHTaMHHauHeH muza

η ¿nuda):

CTHXH K p y n e H b i x a h A j i h -

rpoBa c UBeTHbiMH rpaeiopaMH xy,ao>KHHUbi O j i b r a P03aH0B0H. HacTb ajiarpoBCKHX 3KcnepHMeHTOB ΤΟΓΟ »CE BpeMeHH Bouuia Β ö p o i m o p y K p y n e H b i x a 3ayMHum

(1922).

C KpyneHbixoM P. Ά. BCTpeianca onaTb, ΜΗΟΓΟ JieT cnycTH, Koraa, HanHHaa c 1956 r., OH npneacaji β MocKBy Ha pa3Hbie MOKayHapo^Hbie HayHHbie ci>e3zibi. KpyneHbix »CHJI Toraa β KOMMyHanbHOH KBapTHpe HanpoTHB IloHTaMTa, 3aHHMaji KOMHaTyuiKy, Β KOTopyio Hejib3H 6biJio BOHTH: OHa BCH, ceepxy a o m o y , 6biJia 3aBaneHa ueHHeniuHMH KHHraMH h pyiconwcaMH β oÔJiaice nbiJiH. Χθ39ΗΗ npHHHMaJI CBOHX ΓΟΟΤβΗ Ha KyXHe HJIH Β "OflOJiaceHHOH" KOMHaTe cocefleñ. AjieKceñ EjiHceeBHH πο-CBoeMy oneHb pa^oBanca KaaczioMy nocemeHHio CTaporo coTpyaHHKa h zipyra, n o m i rocTeH npHHeceHHbiM HMH ace bhhom, a c e 6 e npHroTOBjraji CMecb H3 BHHa η r o p a n e ò ΒΟΛΗ. Β ΟΛΗΗ h3 npwe3flOB o h no/iapn/i P. Ά. KHHÄKy öojibmoH pe^KOCTH: nocne^HHH BbinycK HemdauHozo XneÓHUKoea. O^eTbiö β cTpaHHbiñ xanaT, c ropjiOM, o6ßfl3aHHbiM eine 6ojiee cTpaHHbiM ôejibiM icanme, β CTonTaHHbix ôaiuMaicax Ha 6 o c y Hory — KpyneHbix Bce »ce 6bm 6ΟΖΦ h nojiOH BOHCTHHy φyτypHCTHHecκHX H^en. B o BpeMH CTeneHHoro, HO »ΗΒΟΓΟ pa3roBopa OH 3aaaji HaM HecKojibKo jiHTepaTypHbix 3ara,aoK H, pa3yMeeTca, caM HX peuiaji. H3 HHX MHe 3anoMHHjiHCb a e e . IlepBaa: κβΜ 6biJia 6ji0K0BCKaH "He3HaK0MKa"? ΟτΒβτ: MaHeKeHiueíí. Βτοpaa: Kaicoea TeMa noeecTH Γογολα "BHH"? ΟτΒβτ: TypHHp 3ayMHHKOB. PeHb y AneKcea EuHceeBH^a öbijia "c ΛβφβκτοΜ", τ. e. n o (fryTypHCTHiecKOMy npHHUHny — "3aTpyaHeHHafl": OH HapoHHTO iiienejiHBHJi. 3 τ ο τ "ποροκ penn" BnpoieM HaHHCTO npona^an, Koraa KpyneHbix hht3ji CTHXH. A MHTÜJI OH BejiHKOJienHO. C e o e coöcTBeHHoe craxoTBopeHHe "BecHa c /iByvia npHniaineHHaMH" OHflpaMaTH3HpOBaJIBCaKHMH 3ByKOBbIMH 3φφεΚΤαΜΜ: ΤΟΠΟΤΟΜ ΗΟΓ HJIH pHTMHHeCKHXM CTyHaHHeM CTyjia, 3a KOTOpblH OH BO Bce BpeMH HTeHHa .aepacanca. CnHHKa CTyjia cnyacHna eMy He τ ο nepHjiaMH TpHÔyHbi, He τ ο HHCTpyMeHTOM jvia 3THX caMbix 3ByKOBblX 3φφβΚΤΟΒ, He TO 3aiIJHTOH OT nyÔJÏHKH... Β nOCne^HHH pa3, aeeHafluaTb JieT TOMy Ha3aa, OH HHTaji y»ce MeHee 3biHHbiM roJIOCOM, HO Bce »ce npeeocxoziHO, h onaTb c neoôbiMHbiM 3ByKOBbiM

576

BECE/Ibl

τ ρ ι ο κ ο Μ : " X j i i o c T p a ! Y n a j i a Ha JibiCHHy CTaporo 6apHHa..." — π ρ κ H6M nepBOe CJIOBO OH BblKpHKHBaJI, npHKpblBafl POT JiaaOHbK) Η TaKHM 06pa30M HanpaBJiaa r o j i o c Β cTopoHy noTOHKa, Ha HacToam y i o JiiocTpy, KOTopaa .aonacHa 6bi;ia OT^aTb 3Βγκ Η 3a,apo)KaTb. M e a c a y CTapbiMH apy3baMH He 6 b m o HHKaKHX pa3roBopoB

"o

CTapHHe", HHKAKHX BocnoMHHaHHH. O H H 6 Y ^ T O paccTajiHCb Bnepa, roBOpHJiH Ha TeKymwe TeMbi, rjiaBHoe — o KHHrax, ο Π033ΗΗ. COÖCTBEHHO, roBopHJi K p y n e H b i x , HJIH HHTaji CBOH CTHXH. Π ο n p n e 3 A e Β HexocjiOBaKHio, Β 1920 r., P. Ά . cpa3y Η Β nepByio roJTOBy c6jiH3HJica c n o s T a M H H JiioflbMH HCKyccTBa. Π Ο Β TOpHJICa MOCKOBCKHH OnbIT nepBOH MOJIOflOCTH, a TOHHee — 3T0T OnbIT npOJlOJT^KHJICa. IlepBblH MeiUCKHH Π03Τ, C KOTOpbIM OH BCTpcTHJica Η noflpyacHjica, 6 b m CTaHHcnaB K o c T K a

HeÄMaH

( N e u m a n n , 1875—1947), HanenaTaBiHHH Β ΟΛΗΟΜ H3 CBOHX a e y x öoeBbix acypHajioB TOJibKO MTO HanncaHHyio

pa6oTy Υ . Ά . " O xy-

a0»cecTBeHH0M peajiH3Me", a Β a p y r o M — n e m c K H H n e p e e o j i ΒΒΟΛHOH rjiaBbi e r o »ce Hccjie^OBaHHa o XjieÔHHKOBe. OziHaKO HecpaBHeHHO 6ÓJibinyio 6jiH30CTb HCKaHHH H B3rjiaflOB P. Ά.

Hainen

cpe^H npaaccKHX MOJIOAMX n n c a T e j i e ñ h xy,qoxcHHKOB, C6JIH3HBniHCb 0C06eHH0 c no3TaMH BHTecjiaBOM H e 3 B a n o M H ^ p o c j i a e o M Ceñ(|)epTOM, np03aHK0M Bjia/xncjiaBOM B a H H y p o H Η ΤΒΟΡΕΤΗΚΟΜ K a p j i O M T e ô r e , opraHH3aTopaMH Ο6Τ>ΒΛΗΗΒΗΗ8 ΠΟΛ Ha3BaHHeM "Devëtsil", BCKope H36paBuiero P. Ά. CBOHM COHJICHOM. H H K o r q a a He cjibimajia TaKoro 3aMeHaTejibHoro πτβΗΗβ qeniCKOH Π033ΗΗ, KaK CTHXH He3BaJia Β HCnOJIHeHHH P. Ά . TBOpqeCTBO H e 3 B a n a H C E ^ e p T a OH Bcer^a Ha3biBaeT c p e a n BbicuiHX jiHTepaTypHbix aocTHXceHHH Harnero BeKa. He3Baji β CBOHX 3 a n n c a x Ο TOM ΒρβΜβΗΗ, Β ΚΗΗΓβ H3 MOeÜ OKU3HU (1959), ΠΗΠΙβΤ CJiejiyK)m e e : " Β PoMaHe Ü K o ö c o H e a Ha^ojiro Hatueji c e 6 e /ipyra, c κοTOpblM Β B o n p o c a x Π033ΗΗ Mbl XOpOIIIO ΟΛΗΗ ß p y r o r o nOHHMaJIH. O H öbiji TOBAPHINEM MaaKOBCKoro, üacTepHaKa, pyccKHX (JIYTYPHCTOB, H Hac HHTepecoBan e r o ο π ω τ . O H H a c 3amHmaji ΠΡΟΤΗΒ p e T p o r p a a o B HCKyccTBa, η nacTO β c n o p a x c HHMH n o n a a a n He Β 6poBb, a Β rjia3, noTOMy η τ ο β ποπβΜΗκβ OH 6biji HeflocraacHM. O H oôjia/iaji ôojibiiiHM ziapoM c o ö n p a T b 3a O6LUHM CTOJIOM JHOAEÜ, KOTopbix HHKTO a p y r o H He cyMeji 6bi coöpaTb πο,α ΟΛΗΟΗ KpbinieH... E r o JHOÔHJI Bjia^HCJiae BaHMypa 3a noHHMaHHe pa6oTbi nHcaTejia Ha/i CJIOBOM H ee p e m a i o i n e H poJiH." P. Ά . oneHb BbicoKO ueHHT B a H H y p y — Η KaK nenoBeKa, Η KaK nHcaTena, Bcer,aa BOCTopraeTca HOBH3HOH e r o np03bi.

577

nOCJIECJIOBHE

ffead-

Β CBOHX HHTepeCHblX H TaJiaHTJIHBblX BOCnOMHHaHHaX ifartib uiecmb

npeKpacmix

nem (Ilpara, 1967) BAoea B^a^HCJiaBa

BaHHypbi, repoHqecKH noraòiiiero b o BpeMa HeMeuKoii oiocynaUHH, nocBATHJia 3TOMy 3HaKOMCTBy oflHy H3 rjiaB. " C p e f l H Apy3eÄ BaHHypbi ocoôeHHbiH icpyr cocTaBnajiH j i i o a h jiHHrBHCTHMecKoro KpyacKa, β nepeyio onepe/ib >Iko6coh, MyKapxcoBCKH, TaBpaHeK, BoraTbipee. 3 τ ο öbina apyacôa, ocHOBaHHaa Ha ropanHocra 06LU.HX HHTepecoB h Ha B3aHMHOM BocxHiueHHH h yBaxceHHHj flpyac6a 3Ta, ocoôeHHo c ü k o 6 c o h o m h MyxapacoBCKHM, yrjiyÔHjiacb h pacnpocTpaHHJiacb TaKHce h Ha ceMbH. PoMaH ü k o ö c o h ,

no

npOHCXOHCAeHHK) pyCCKHH, 6bIJI ΟΛΗΗΜ H3 flapOBHTeHIUHX CJiaBHCTOB H ÖOreMHCTOB, HejIOBeK Heo6bIHHbIH H ΠΟ BHeniHeMy OÖJIHKy, h no HaType. MoryHHH, roJioBacTbiii, c oÖHJibHOH ceeTjioH meBejiKjpoH, c o ô j i h k o m pHMCKoro 6ora, nocTpaiiaeniHM οτ Kocamero nna3a. H o o h He 6biJi h3 τ ε χ , κ ο γ ο π ο λ ο 6 η μ η η 3 έ η η crecHaeT. O h e e c b KHneji acHBOCTbio, r o B o p n j i c yBJieneHHeM h c τβΜnepaMCHTHOH acecTHKyjiauHcñ... Bjia^HCJiae nyBCTBOBaji ce6a cnacTjiHBbiM c p e a H TaKHx a p y 3 e ó — e r o yejieicajia cTpacTHocTb h é l a n ^ K o 6 c o H a , h o h ;ik>6hji a e ô a T b i c MyicapacoBcicHM, k o t o p m h HHKor/ia He T e p a j i aKaaeMH^ecKOH cepbe3HocTH." CpeAH

cjioBaKOB

aea

BbiaaiomHxca

/leaTejia

KyjibTypHoro

aeaHrapzia, no3T Ladislav N o v o m e s k y (1904—1976) h o 6 m e c T B e H HbiH ^ e a T e j i b V l a d i m i r C l e m e n t i s ( 1 9 0 2 — 1 9 5 2 ) , o c o ö e H H o c 6 j i h 3 h -

jiHCb c P. i l . h κ e r o ceMHflecaTHjieTHio HoBOMecKHH OTKpbiJi BbinycK acypHajia Slovenská

literatura

CTaTbeñ π ο λ 3arjiaBHeM " C

aeaHrapAOM h β aeaHrapzie": "PoMaH ü k o ö c o h — HpaBHTca s t o KOMy-jiHÔo HjiH Ηβτ — aBJiaeTca HeoTbeMJieMbiM 3bchom β u e n w n e m c K o r o , a paBHO h c j i o B a i j K o r o x y a o ^ c e c T B e H H o r o h H a y i H o r o

aeaHrap^a h 3aHHMaeT 3acjiy»ceHHoe MecTO β h c t o p h h

Hamen

K y j i b T y p t i — h m a P o M a H a ^ K o 6 c o H a He ¿ í o j d k h o h He MoaceT β

Heñ oTcyTCTBOBaTb... O h TaK κρεπκο cpocca C npo6jieMaMH Ham e n HayKH h HCKyccTBa, η τ ο n a c T O Mbi 3 a T p y z m a e M C H cKa3aTb,

KTO o h — pyccKHH yneHbiH, k o t o p m h n p o e e j i cbok» MOJiOAOCTb β HexocjiOBaKHH, h j i h ace HexocjioeaijKHH yieHbiH, κοτοροΓο b h x p h HauH3Ma 3aHecjiH ο τ Hac K y a a - τ ο a a j i e K o , β TapBapflCKHH yHHBepCHTeT." C MexocjiOBaLiKHx B p e M e H c o x p a H H J i c a 3HaMeHaTejibHbiH

floxy-

ΜβΗτ: ManeHbKaa KHHace^Ka, 03arjiaBJieHHaa: " P o M a H y ^KOôcoHy — πρΗΒβτ h Ô J i a r o a a p H O C T b " . E e B b i n y c T H j i H CTy^eHTbi y r o r o e p CHTeTa β Β ρ Η Ο , β 1 9 3 9 r o A y , K o m a

π ο λ HaracKOM EepjiHHa P. Ά .

578

BECERI

6bIJI B b l H y ^ e H

nOKHHyTb CBOK) ΚΕΦΒΛΡΥ, Η Β 3ΤΟΗ ΚΗΗΚΒΗΚΒ

flCHo OTpa3HJiacb Ta cea3b P. Ά. c Hayicoö H no33Hen, KOTopaa 6 b i J i a HaMH H a 3 B a H a o ö p a T H O H C B a 3 b i o . Y n e H b i H ρ β κ τ ο ρ Β ρ Η β Η 3HaMeHHTbIH HCTOPHK HeilICKOH jiHTepaTypbi, 6jih3KHH apyr Ρ. Ά. Arne Novák (1880—1939) nocßaraji eMy cTâTbio πολ 3amaBHeM "TBopnecKHH 3HaTOK cTaponenicKOH no33HH" C 3aKJiK)HCHHeM: "Bor ziacT, MM CHOBa CBH^HMCH Β HecjiHiiiKOM aajieKOM 6y,aymeM c ΛκοόοοΗΟΜ-προφβοοοροΜ TaM, r a e ero no/uiHHHoe MecTo. )KHTb HayHHO H KyjibTypHO 6bmo 6bi Η Β Β 0 3 MoacHO, ecjiH 6bi öeccpoHHo npeacToano HenpH3BaHHbiM pernaTb 0 6 H36paHHbix." KHHÄKy OTKpbiBaiOT CTHXH He3Bana c ziBycTHιιΐΗβΜ — "6ojibiiie Bcex OTBenaeuib, PoMaH, MOHM CKPMTMM pbiHaraM", a ero ace "ÜHCbMO PoMaHy ^Ko6coHy", 3aMbiicaK>mee KHHry, KOHHaeTca CTHXOM "PoMaH, cnacHÖo 3a Bcë!" (Romane, diky za vsecko!). 3 τ ο 6naroíiapHocTb 3a Bee το, MTO B03Bemai0T npe^biaymHe CTPOKH: 3a HMnyjibCbi κ "npeTBopeHHio ^oicyMeHTOB Β CTHXH" Η Κ "oöpameHHio Beerò ceeTa Β ρκφΜγ, ΠΟΛΟ6ΗΟ TOMy, KaK 6oraq o6pamaeT ero Β peHTy". TaKOBbi HMnyjibCbi, CBa3biBaiomHe no33Hio C HayKOH aeaHrapaa. CKOrO yHHBepCHT6Ta,

I T o n a B Β HKJHe 1 9 4 1 r . Β H b i o - H o p K , Ϋ.Ά. nojibCKHX

n03T0B-6e»ceHueB

H3

Hameji 3 ^ e c b rpynny

OKKynnpOBaHHOH

STO öbiJiH J u l i a n T u w i m , J ó z e f W i t t l i n Η K a z i m i e r z

BapmaBbi: Wierzyñski.

E m e c npa>KCKHX B p e M e H P . . 8 . a p y a c H J i c TyBHMOM ( 1 8 9 4 — 1 9 5 3 ) , B o c x H m a j i c a e r o nojibCKHMH n e p e B o z i a M H p y c c K H x ΠΟ3ΤΟΒ Η Ο 6 c y a c f l a j i c HHM B o n p o c b i ΟΤΗΧΟΤΒΟΡΗΟΓΟ n e p e e o ^ a Η π ρ κ B c r p e Max, Η Β n H C b M a x . ^ C H B b i e 6 e c e / t b i c TyBHMOM

npoflOJmaJiHCb

Β H b K ) - H o p K e h pa3BepHyjiHCb Β ;mcKyccHK> o

pa3Hoo6pa3Hbix

B o n p o c a x nojibCKoro Η pyccKoro c n o e e c H o r o ncKyccTBa, o no3Me

Ijeembi IIoAbiuu, na.j\ κ ο τ ο ρ ο κ p a ô o T a j i Β TO BpeMH T y B H M , Η O T e o p H H n e p e B O ^ a , 0 C 0 6 e H H 0 Β CB5I3H C HOBOH B e p c n e n n e p e , a a H H o r o TyBHMOM nojibCKHMH CTHxaMH

Cjioea o noAKy Hzopeee.

Β

1 9 6 0 - x r o i i a x Ρ . Λ . 6JIH3KO c o n i e j i c a c BeacHHbCKHM ( 1 8 9 4 — 1 9 6 9 ) , B b i c o K o ueHHJi e r o CTHXH, p a ô o T a n H a a HX a H a j i H 3 0 M . Ρ . Ά.

Bceraa

c c b u i a e T c a Ha OT3biB noJiOHHCTa K . H n n a , ΗΤΟ Β ΠΟ33ΗΗ BeHCHHb-

BepniHHHaa HOBH3Ha c o n e T a e T c a c BepuiHHHOH nojibCKOH a3biice, c j i e ^ H J i 3 a e r o CTaTbaMH Η n o j i y m y T a nncan MHe: "fi HonaMH CKoro

T p a ^ H i i H e H . Π θ 3 τ TOJiKOBaji e y n e H b i M η o c r a x a x , Η Ο flOJi»ceH

y H H T b c a , H T O 6 m He c o B c e M ο τ H e r o OTCTaTb Β e r o ΙΙΗΗΓ-

BHCTH^ecKHx q y ^ a n e c T B a x . O H ΓΟΒΟΡΗΤ, HTO Ha6jiK),naeT y M e H a Β 3TOM o T H o m e H H H HeKOTopbie y c n e x H . . . " .

579

nOCJIECJIOBHE

HS OnbITOB COBMeCTHblX 33HHTHH P. Ά. BOIipOCäMH CJIOBeCHOrO HCKyccTBâ c no3TaMH BHecjiaeaHCKoro MHpa cjie^yeT Ha3BaTb yBJieKaTexibHyK) nonbiTKy Henocpe/icTBeHHoro coTpy^HHHecTBa c BeJIHKHM MeKCHKaHCKHM Π03Τ0Μ OKTaBHO I l a 3 0 M Hafl rpaMMaTHMeCKHM H 3ByKOBbIM aHaJIH30M ero CTHXOB. >KmBOH OÔMeH HaÔJIIOΛβΗΗΗ Η ΒΗΒΟΛΟΒ CBfl3ajI Ρ. Ά. TaiOKe C $φΚΗΜ 6pa3HHbCKHM Π03τοΜ h κρΗΤΗκοΜ, MacTcpoM no3THHecKoro nepeBO,aa Haroldo de C a m p o s . 3 τ ο τ onbiT 0Tpa3HJica β nenaTHOM nwcbMe "à Haroldo de C a m p o s sur la texture poétique de Martin C o d a x " . HaKOHeu

ynoMHHeM uenKHe hhth, CB«3yK>mHe jiHHrBHCTa Ρ.Λ. c ApaΓΟΗΟΜ, aBTopoM poMaHa Blanche

ou

l'oubli.

CncTeMa oöpaTHOH cbh3h β οτηοιπθηηηχ Meacay ληηγβηοτομ η no3TaMH MHpoBoro aBaHrapM, kohchho, He cboähtch κ προCTOMy oÔMeHy M b i c j i e á h CTHMyjioB. O H a 3HaHHTejibHo TOHbuie,

h

ee κορΗΗ BXoaaT

β

caMyio rayÖHHy HayHHoro MeTO/ia

c oähoh

h cjioBecHoro HCKyccTBâ c zipyroH CTopoHbi. PaccKa3biBaa o c o b MecTHOH pa6oTe c XjieÖHHKOBbiM

β

1919 roziy Haü

πολγοτοβκοη

ero CTHXOB κ nenaTH, Ρ. Λ . 3aMenaeT, h t o "Tpy^HO 6buio HaHTH no3Ta, y KOToporo 3ByKOBaa CTpyKTypa 6bijia

h tbophêckh, η

τβο-

peTHHecKH öojiee προπΗο cjiHTa c ceMaHTHHecKHM ruiaHOM. 3 e y KOBOH aHajiH3 n03THHecK0H φaκτypbI XjieÖHHKOBa 3Ban κ HcnoJib30BaHHH) H3bIKOBeflHeCKHX MHHblX O 3ByKaX peHH, a C ZipyrOH CTopoHbi τ ο HOBoe ocBemeHHe, κ ο τ ο ρ ο ε npHo6pejiH 3 t h 3ByKH β opHrHHajibHOM TBopnecTBe no3Ta, HeBOJibHO 3acTaBJiajio 3a,oy-

MaTbca Ha^ π ρ η β μ η η ο η ληηγβηοτηηβοκοη pacueHKOH 3ByKOBoro MaTepHajia h no^BeprHyTb TaKOBOH ocHOBaTejibHOMy nepecMOTpy." T o x e caMoe, mutatis mutandi, MOHCHO npHMeHHTb KO BceM TOHKaM conpHKOCHOBeHHfl fl3biKOBeaa c ΜΗροΒΟΗ πο33Ηβή h ee TBopuaMH. BnepBbie 3Ta H,aea 6bma ocymecTBjieHa b 1 9 2 3 roziy, Β φορΜβ ΚΟΗΚρβΤΗΟΓΟ aHaJIH3a MH0r0a3bIHH0r0 CTHXOBOrO MaTepHajia npH pa6oTe Ha/i

κηηγοη

O WIUCKOM

cmuxe...

AßTopy yaa-

jiocb π ε τ κ ο pa3rpaHHHHTb cymecTByioiuHe β a3biKe a e a p a a a 3ByKOBbix aBjieHHH: 3HaHHMbie, φοΗΟϋΟΓΗπεοκΗε,

β

npoTHBOBec

aBjieHHaM, jiHiueHHbiM 3HaqeHHa. 3 τ ο öbijio 0C06eHH0 acHO, nocKOJibKy 0Ka3aji0Cb,

hto ochobhmmh

a n a CTHxa aBJiaioTca TOUbKO

3ByKOBbie 3JieMeHTbi n e p e o r o pa^a. TaK no33Ha CTajia Henocpe^cTBeHHbiM φπκτοροΜ β paöoTe Haa yacHeHHeM η y n i y 6 ; i e ΗΗβΜ φΟΗΟϋΟΓΗΗβΟΚΟΗ ΤβΟρΗΗ Η BOIHJia Β HenOCpeflCTBeHHyK) CBa3b C JIHHrBHCTHKOH KaK HayKOH. CXOMCHM 06pa30M pe/iaKUHOHHaa paöoTa Han nepeBoaaMH IlymKHHa Ha nenicKHH a3biK nocTa-

580

BECE^bl

BHjia nepezi yqeHbiM yace β npaaccKHH n e p n o a t o t Bonpoc 06 o6a3aTejibHocTH η HenepeBOjiHMOcra rpaMMaTHHecKHx KaTeroPHH, KOTopbiii no3»ce Hainen ce6e HOByio noaaepacicy β paôoTax CanHpa. ^onojiHHTejibHOH π ρ η η η η ο η , cnocoôcTByiomeH π ο λ ο 6 HOMy HaÖJiioaeHHK), ocTaeajica, HecoMHCHHO, (JjaicT o c o 6 o h HyTKOCTH Κ BOnpOCaM n03THHeCK0H CSMaHTHKH, npH06peT6HHbIH onbiTOM oömeHH» c nosTaMH aeaHrapaa, 3KcnepHMeHTHpyiomHMH Β OÖJiaCTH φΟΗΟπΟΓΗΗ, ΜΟρφΟΙΊΟΓΗΗ Η CHHTaKCHCa. C caMoro paHHero nepucmaP. ft. cjie/ioBaji o^HOMy npHHiinny: npoBepaTb pe3ynbTaTbi paöoTbi, npoflenaHHoñ Ha ο λ η ο μ MaTepnajie, nyTeM nepexo^a κ HHOMy MaTepHajiy. O h nocToaHHo CTaBHJi ce6e Bonpoc: " A ne My ziaHHoe aBJieHHe cooTBeTCTByeT β flpyroM BH^e HCKyccTBa?" TaK ο τ anajieKTOnorHH η φoJIbKJIopa o h nepexoflHJi κ « η β ο π η ο η , φHJIbMy, »cypHajiHCTHKe. Β qeuicKHH πβρκοΛ, pa6oTaa Ha,a φHJIbMOM, o h Taicace 3aHHManca /jpyrHMH φορΜ&ΜΗ MOHTaaca—maBHbiM 06pa30M JiHTepaTypHoro, HHTepec κ KOTopoMy 6bi;i Toraa πικροκο pacnpocTpaHeH cpe^H aBaHrapaHbix yneHbix. CoTOBapnmH P . Ü . no Onoa3y, Ι Ο ρ κ ή TbiHaHOB, B h k t o p I I I k j i o b c k h h h Bopwc SÄxeHÖayM, μ η ο γ ο nHcajiH n o 3 τ η μ BonpocaM. Β neiiicKOH npecce 30-x γ ο λ ο β P. Ά. onyöuHKOBaji co6CTBeHHbie onbiTbi /iHTepaTypHoro MOHTaaca — β 1934 r. π ο λ 3arjiaBHCM "Perpetuum mobile MaaTHHKa", CMecb Bbipe30K H3 κ η η γ η TepueHa o coöbrraax 1848 ro,qa β πρΗΜβΗβΗΗΗ κ MeacayHapoaHOH oöcTaHOBKe 1934 rozia. HeTbipe r o ^ a cnycTa, π ο λ 3arjiaBHeM "PyccKHe Bbma3KH β öyoymee", o h HarteqaTaji necTpbiH nepe6oH npe^CKa3aHHH peBOJIIOUHH, BblÖpaHHblX H3 KJiaCCHHeCKOH npo3bi η Π033ΗΗ — " ο τ Pa/iHineea, qepe3 ^ocToeecKoro h TojicToro h ΛΟ nosTOB^yTypHCTOB, KOTopbie ^aace ßarapoBaiiH acejiaHHbiM nepeBopoT...". OôiiiHpHoe

o6o3peHHe pyccKHx

jiHTepaTypHbix

CBHfleTejibCTB h cyac^eHHH 0 paHqHH h φpaH^y3ax β KHHre O . CaBHHâ h H . 3peHÖypra, ΜΗ U OHU (1931) 6buio Hcn0Jib30BaH0 ü k o 6 c o h o m a n a cacaToro MOHTaaca, 3apHC0BaBiiier0 "pyccKHH ΜΗφ o