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Secondary teacher load in Illinois (teachers’ teaching load in Illinois)?

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TEACHERS1 TBACSIHG LOAD ^

XI ILLINOIS

BT

JOBS DAVID. MESS

V

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for' the degree of Doctor of Education in the School of Education Indiana University June, 1950

ProQ uest N um ber: 10295228

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The q u a lity o f this re p ro d u c tio n is d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e q u a lity o f th e c o p y su b m itte d . In th e unlikely e v e n t th a t th e a u th o r d id n o t send a c o m p le te m anuscript a n d th e re are missing p ag e s, th e se will b e n o te d . Also, if m a te ria l h a d to b e re m o v e d , a n o te will in d ic a te th e d e le tio n .

uest ProQ uest 10295228 Published b y ProQuest LLC (2016). C o p yrig h t o f th e Dissertation is h e ld b y th e A uthor. All rights reserved. This w ork is p ro te c te d a g a in st u na u th o rize d c o p y in g u n d e r Title 17, U nited States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQ uest LLC. ProQ uest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 A nn Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

Accepted by the faculty of the School of Education, Indiana 'University, In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of education•

irector offJTe&i Doctoral Committee:

Chairman

ACKNOw'LKDGM £$T 3 The writer wishes to take this opportunity to express his appreciation to the sponsor of this study, Dr, Carl G. F. / Fransen, for his personal guidance and counseling throughout the development of this study. He also wishes to express his appreciation to Dr. Nicholas A. Fattu for his suggestions and ideas in this study. Further credit should he given to the administrators and faculty of the participating high schools for their time and effort in helping to make this study possible*

d *D # *

ill

TABLE OF OOFTENTS

Ohapt©r I.

II.

Page

INTRODUCTION ....................................

1

The Problem Stated . , . . . ...................... The Purpose of the Problem ........ .. * Defining the Terminology ........................ Limitations of the Study . . . . . ............ , Importance of the Problem ............ .. .

1 2 4 5 6

SURVEY OF j-iITEItATORE.............................. 7 Conclusions

III.

..........

DOLL TOTING DAT;',

.

............................. 44

Limitation of the Problem Method of Collecting Data IV.

.42

.

................... 44 ............. 44

ANALYSIS AND IN TER BRET A7 1Oh OF D A T A ............. 53 Problem of Weighting . . Preparation of the '■sighting "beet ............. Administering the sighting Sheets . . . ........ Results ..............

v.

summary^

c o n c l u s i o n s , ado

irvcopovfp u p a t i o n s

53 60 63 03

. . . .136

Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s ......... Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

136 .144

BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................... J.48 APPENDIX

............................

, .151

Appendix A: How to express a ten chin;-load . . Vppendix B: Introductory letter sent to principals . . . . •‘.'hat Constitutes the Teaching Load in. the Secondary Schools’* . . .......... Postal card accompanying the introductory letter sent to p r i n c i p a l s ............ iv

152 154 153

157

Chapter

Fage

Letter number 2sent to principals . . . . . . 15# Explanation of teaching load questionnaire for extra curricular duties 159 Teaching load questionnaire for extracurricular d u t i e s .......... . ................... .. . * 163 Letter number 3sent to principals............. 164 Follow-up letter number 1 . . . . . . . . . . 165 Follow-up letter number 2 , ................. 166 Weighting sheet number 1 . . . . . . . . . . 16? Weighting sheet number 2 ................... 169 Weighting sheet number 3 • * ............ - . 173 Weighting sheet number 4 177 Appendix 0: Participating Illinois High Schools 17#

v

LIST

or

TABLES

Table

Page

1, Result© of Poll of 20 Professors Showing What They Thought to be an Approximate Increase in Difficul­ ty for each Added Preparation and for each Additional Teaching F i e l d ............. . 11 2, Comparison of the Different Duties Performed to Make up the Teacher Load kmon% Different ....................... . .25 Enrollment Groups 3, Time Distribution of Weekly Load in the Performance of the Various Teacher Duties According to Sis© of Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4* Teachers1 Weights for Total extracurricular Load

.

5. Corrected Weight© to Equalise Weighting for Total Extracurricular Load Plus Pupil L o a d ........... 33

6. What is the Best Way to Handle the Demand of Certain Teachers for Extra Pay for a Heavy Extracurricular Load? , . . . • * . ..........

39

7* Kumber and Percentage of High Schools Participat­ ing in Teaching Load S t u d y ................... . 4 9

£f. Kumber of Schools Participating According to the? Length of Periods ........ * ................... 50 9* Kumber of Faculty Participating In 'reaching Load Stuoy According to wise of Schools . . . . . . .

51

10 • Weighting of Regular Teaching Duties According to .Subject A r e a s ........., ............... . . o5 11. Average Weights for Regular Teaching Activities Using 10 as has© . . . . . . . ............

6?

12* Weighting for Duplicate FourPeriods ofRegular . . . 6S Teaching Activities * * * ................ 13.

Weights for Duplicate Sections inRegular Teaching Areas . • . * ............. .

vi

*• 69

Table

Page

14. Duties Other Than Regular Teaching Duties with Weightingsfor Bach D u t y ..................

71

15. Average heights for Other Activities, Using 10 as B a s e ..............................

79

16. Weighting for Duplicate Five Period© for Other Activities .. ....................

SO

I?. Weights for Duplicate Five Periods in Other Activities . ........................

Pi

1c, Weighting for dumber of Pupils in an Activity Excluding Study Hall . ........ . . . . . .

$2

19. Weighting for Humber of Pupils in Study Halls .

S3

20. Calculations of a Teaching Load for a Teaching Having Regular Teaching. Activities and Other Activities in a School with the Shortened Period .............. . . . . . . ........

$4

21. Calculations of a Teaching Load for a Teacher Having Regular Teaching Activities, Other Activities, and Duplicate Sections in a School with the Lengthened Period . . . . . . . . .

BB

22. Calculations of a Teaching Load for a Teacher Having Regular Teaching Activities, Including Study Hall and Homeroomf Other Activities, and Duplicate Section in a School with the Shortened Period . . . . . . . . ..........

92

23. Teaching Load for Teachers in Schools with 40-54 Minute Periods According to .Rise of School

9b

24. Teaching Load for Teachers in Schools with 55-60 Minute Periods Ac cording to of School

93

25. Teaching Load for Teacher3 in Schools with 40-54 Minute Periods According to Sex within Sach Group . . . . . . . . ........... . vii

101

Table 26. Teaching Load for Teachers in Schools with 55-60 Minute Periods According to Hex TIthin Lach Group . « • • • ................... 103 27*

Teaching Load for TeachersIn Schools with 40-54 Minute Periods According to Jex and Jixe of School ........ • •

106

2$, Humber and Percentage of Male and female Teachers within La eh Group ana n.ll Groups with the shortened Period Having 35 or fewer Periods and 36 or Mar© Periods . . . . . . . 29.

109

Teaching Load for Teachers in Schools with 55-60 Minute Periods According to ex and 3i ze of S c h o o l ........... ........................ 113

30. Humber and Percentage of Male and female Teachor3 Within Sach Group and -11 Oroups with the Lengthened Period Having 30 or fswsr Periods and 31 or MorePeriods .............. 115

31. Teaching Load for Teachers in 54 Minute Periods According Excluding Teachers who have of the Maximum Permitted in Account of Added Duties for Additional Compensation . .

Schools with 40to Sisse bat a Load in .xcess Regulation 10 on hich They useeivs . . . . . . . . . 119

32. Kustber ana Percentage of Teach ora ;-r week cl,,or recites 7* m •tel number of pupilo ‘or roel: in class S. Total number of pupils per ueok in study nulla 9* Periods per week for class work 10. Periods per we ok for study hall

11. Periods per week unassignoa 12. Periods per we el:for adminisfc rut lor, 13*

Homeroom periods

per

week

14* Number of pupils

per

week in

or supervision

homeroom

15. Marne of extracurricular activity 16. Humber of hours per ween required lor activity

17* average number of pupils per week in activity 1$. Nam© of before and after school assignment

19. Number of hours per week required for after school assignments

20. Average number of pupils per week in after school assignments According to Pauly, Vie have been able to avoid an additional 10 per cent salary reduction through increasing class size and through decreasing total teaching load. On membership basis, the senior high school has nearly 30 per class and the junior high school has more than 36 per class. Tost net increases have come through elimination or consolidation of classes. {20:20} According to hard *the logical way to think of the teaching load is in terms of the time it requires per week.*

(26:22)

H© suggested that an estimate of the time be obtain©

and that consideration be given to the following separate items; 1. Figure the time per week spent in classes, study halls, homerooms, and all other duties given a definite allotment on the schedule. 2. Allow about 20 minutes daily for each separate lesson preparation for the week. 3* Allow three minutes per pupil per class for the week for grading papers. 4.

Allow reasonable time for coaching, sponsoring,

pupil conferences, and any other extracurricular activity.

Find the sum of these four Items and express it in hours per week*

The first item is sat by time allotted in schedule, the second iter* is only a suggestion, the third item is to take care of the differences in the teaching load resulting from large classes, and the fourth item requires the principal to

make a fair estimate* According to Ward, "some think the relative difficulty of teaching subjects should be taker, into consideration*”

(26:22)

H© claimed that this can be taken care of by increas­

ing or decreasing items two or three. In 1936, Douglass and Taylor (5) sent requests to superintendents and principals of all Montana high schools asking for a Copy of class schedules showing number of pupils in each section, length of class periods, number of periods class met per week, number of periods each teacher spent in non-instructional activities, such as study hall and library, and estimated number of hours spent per week in extracurricular

activities.

Ninety-one replies were received from $4 of the

213 schools to which letters were sent,

be:'Lies were received

from 767 teachers out of 1 ,329* "Instructional load" covered all phases of the actual teaching of classes, including preparation and correcting of papers.

"Cooperating load" stood for all activities that

were not directly concerned with class discussion.

The Douglass formula (5:36) was used:

19 t. l. * scf* - ^

]

([ « L y o c | ^

]

t

The teaching load unit was theoretically equivalent to teaching for one period a class which requires preparation, in which there ar© 20 pupils, and which meets for 15 minutes. In point of

of load, Kngltsh and science teachers

led, with teachers of social studies next in order.

Accord­

ing to this study, teachers with light loads were those in physical education and music, mainly because of lower coefficients assigns to them by the Douglass formula.

The

study also showed that m m carried slightly heavier loads than women, that men carried greater cooperative loads, that women carried slightly heavier instructional loads, and that beginning teachers were given heavier loads. Potthoff (21) made a study of teaching combinations,

which showed that 3,490 teachers taught a total of 716 differ­ ent combinations. five.

The average number was slightly less than

Ke stated that it was altogether impossible for teacher-

training institutions to prepare teachers for the great number

and variety of combinations now used.

The conclusion reached

was that teachers should be prepared in two fields; therefore, it becomes necessary to determine what these two fields should

b©. Be stated that the problem of setting up teaching combinations is intimately related to the question of what the computation of the pro grass of studies in the secondary

20

schools should be*

There has also been an absence of organ­

ised effort to guide or regulate the manner in which the high

school subjects should be combined for assignments to teachers. It appeared as if the Morth Central Association committee

on

subject matter preparation of secondary school teachers in 1934 represented one of the first real efforts to arrive at

& body of principles relative to determining the combinations of subjects to toe assigned to high school teachers. In 1937* Selvidge {22) stated that overloading usually results in lowered efficiency of teachers, increased nervous­ ness, irritability, contentiousness, petty difficulties with pupils* and a general decline in the morale of the organiza­ tion.

He also contended that industrial arts teachers teach

more periods than other teachers. Selvidge listed some of the demands the shoe teacher must meet over and above those of the academic teaching.

A

few of these demands are*. 1. He must care for* store, and distribute materials

and supplies. 2. He must keep an inventory of supplies.

3 . lie must be on the alert to avoid th e waste of mate­ rial a and supplies. 4.

H m u s t [email protected] an account of the coat of the materials.

5.

He must care for

m

keep in oroer and good condi­

tion a great many tools and pieces of equipment *

21

6. He must constantly b* on the alert to -revent accidents and injuries. 7. H e m u s t remain on his f e e t constantly.

8. The noise incident to the many activities and the greater variety of demands on the teacher create such a ner­ vous strain that at the end of the day he is exhausted*

9 * oince students generally are working on a great variety of problems, constant adjustment of the teacher in the supervision of the work of the different typos is required. He concluded t h a t , in t h o interest of good t e a c h i n g and humane consideration, the shop teacher

shoulu have at least as

many non-class periods as the academic

teacher.

Diettort (?) seamed to think that extracurricular duties are not equally divided, and that, if they are not, it is largely the fault of the administration.

H e suggested the

following avenues of approach:

1 . every teacher should be required to give some regular time to some activity. 2. The principal should plan for a well-balanced nrogram of activities. 3. The whole activity program should be adjusted to the curricul&r pro gram.

4 . The special abilities of the teachar-3ponsor should be considered. 5* The proper financial support of the activity should be provided.

22

6 * A carefully worked out program will eliminate competition between the various activities. ?. Adequate recognition should be given to all activi­ ties; a little praise for work well done will help any teacher#

8 # The whole faculty should cooperate to support every worthy activity* Diettert stated that, if a program is based upon these broad, reasonable principles, no school, however small, need be without a wholesome program of extracurricular activities.

E e l l s (fc) seemed to think that there are two methods of measurement: 1. The simplest and probably the most widely used measure of teeeher load is the pupil-te&cher ratio. virtue is its simplicity and esse of computation. comings are:

The chief The short­

(a) no allowance is made for difference in si&e

of classes, length of class perio is, or degree of responsibil­ ity for extracurricular activities; {b} provision is lacking for comparing the load of one teacher with that of another. 2. The Douglass formula t a k e s into account the follow­ ing things:

(a) number o f pupils, (bj n u m b e r o f c l a s s periods,

(c) different preparations, (d) n a t u r e o f subfeet, {e) amount

o f time in non-cla&sroo'n activities, ( f ) length of class variod.

It gives a measure of each teacher* s l o a m separately.

It uses, a s a unit, the -isjount of v;ork required in the p r e p a r a ­ tion for and teaching o f o n e c l a s s o f 20

upii.s iu foreign

language or mathematics f o r one c l a s s period of 45 minute:?,

23

and converts the other factors into equivalent a -aunts of work.

The Douglass formula makes possible a comparison on

thermometers between aiaes of schools 'oj ua!n;i; these two

methods, namely, pupil-teacher ratio and teacher load. One thermometer showed the relationship between the 50 poorest

schools and the

5$ best schools as reported by the

Cooperative etude of Secondary School Standards.

The differ­

ence between the norms for the two different groups of schools was only nine or ten points on t h e percentile scale,

if 104

thermometers constructed to display different phases of school

progress, only eight had a s l i g h t difference in teacher load. iTthis would indicate that the degree of relation --a ;p between

teacher load, however measured, and general excellence of a school is not so great as that between general excellence and many

other measures of the school. •hile this doss not

prove that the working load

teachora has no effect on th

of the

school1s program, is does sug­

gest that a good educational program may be.carried out despite hv'svy teacher loads, and that poor pro grans say be carried out despite relatively light teacher loaas* The chief objection to the Douglass formula, according to lel'ls, has bean the relative difficulty of computing it. If the form that was developed for the criteria was used, the average time to compute the load was 2 1/3 minutes, when computing entirely by hand•

2U

In 1936-1939, the hepart moot or JX&ssroom Teachers in 3an Joaquin UFallsy (27) circulated a questionnaire among 3,500 teachers♦

Two thousand six hundred were returned*

They sought to answer the following creations:

(1> Bow much

tine do teachers actually spenu In school work'

(2) how is

the weekly hour load distributed?

(3 ) Bow rauch do separate

fields of teaching differ in their time requirements?

(4) How

much time is spent in serving the community before and after

school hour-iV The teacher load in this stuay was defined to include the following factors: 1* Size of class 2* humber of periods 3. dumber of supervisory periods

4 * dumber of different subjects taught 5* Amount of time required for executive and community work 6. Amount of time required for‘clerical ana office work 7. Amount of time spent on preparation #. Type of subjects or grades taught The findings of the study are summed up in Table 2 (27:23).

25 TABLE 2. COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT BUTT'' ■ PERFORMED TO MAKE UP TBS TEACHER LOAD AMONG DIFFERENT ENROLLMENT GROUPS

Enroll­ Clock ment hours worked per week

Pupils Icaching supervis­ Total Number per of periods ory periods subjects class periods taught

0-250

50.a

4*61

19.3

5*3

1.3

7.1

250-500

49*2

3*74

26.4

5.3

1.7

7.0

500-300

42.2

1.63

29*4

5.6

• f A' •O

6.4

B00-1200

44.1

1*34

27.6

5.2

.5

5*7

1200-up

43*3

1 .0^

29.3

4.9

•4

5.3

Total

46.3S

9

27.6

5.2

.9

6.1

9

The average working week is well over the 40-hour week of the trades and industry*

In fact, the teacher of the small

high school crowds into nine months nearly as much time as the average worker distributes over 12 months.

The number of hours

worked each week is shown in Table 3 (27:24)*

26 Tn ;, V iv Tn>. !- li ■ i' ■' S. TABLE 3. TIMfc LISTKIB \ m c u 0 OF THE VARIOUS TEACH ER DUTI iW >5U ./Jit,v ) ! 1.3 * '-J CiEe. OF SCHOOLS t .t

>

1 ■:

i'i

0-250 250-500 500-800 800-1200 1200-up

Hours per week

All

Class teaching

23.98

25*6

23.70

25.92

23.20

23.10

Supervisory work

3.71

5.3

7.08

3.68

2.13

1.64

Pro paration

11.72

10.7

10 Uo

11,02

41

12.82

4.76

4.2

5.06

6.50

4.78

4 •01

.45

.8

1.333

.24

.16

•O4

1.76

3*7

2,02

.93

1,42

1.71

46.38

50.6

49.25

46,29

44.10

43.32

Extracurricular work Community work Miscellaneous

Total

.

1

2

,

eS SK SSK SH KK S:

from 1932 to 1940, Stocker (23:7-$) made a study designed to determine the following factors:

1 , that duties compose the teacher load of teachers in the public secondary schools accredited by the Middle States Association 2 * How the teacher load varies according to the size of the school 3. How the teacher load varies according to the subject-fields taught 4* How the teacher load, varies according to type of organization of the schools

5* How the teacher load of man teachers differs from that of women teachers According to 3took or J23:8 }, his investigation was limited

07 iCf 1. To public secondary schools accredited by the Middle States Association.

2. To accredited secondary schools which were scheduled to submit a biennial report to the associa­ tion in 1932 3* To a study of the teacher load of teachers of academic and commercial subjects 1. To a study of the teacher load of teachers of only one subject field 5# To a study of the teacher load of teachers who devote their full time to grades 9 to 12

6 . In the study of teacher load and tyo© of school organisation, to teachers in schools enroll-' ing 500-999 pupils He sent a questionnaire to ail schools that submitted a biennial report to the Association in .1935* thirty-one schools were finally selected.

One hundred

The study was also

based upon the teacher load reports of 761 men and 1,445 women teachers of academic and commercial subjects who devoted full time teaching to grades 9 to 12 in schools enrolling; 100 or more pupils in these grades*

The study indicated tnab the

teachers in the larger schools were assigned the lowest weekly loads and that the teachers in the smaller schools were assigned the highest weekly loads.

It was indicated that

the weekly pupil-period loads of the teachers in the smallest schools were the lowest, and that the loads gradually increased according to siee of school to the highest in the largest schools.

According to his study, th© modal classroom teaching

load in terms of periods per week was 25 periods per week.

The mean load in periods of classroom teaching per week of teachers In schools enrolling 2,500 or more pupils was less than the mean for all the teachers.

Teachers who were assigned

fewer than 25 periods of classroom teaching per week carried a lower mean pupil-period load than did teachers who were as sign­ ed 25 or more periods.

The mean pupil-period loads carried by

the groups of teachers increased according to the sia© of the school.

The mean size of classes also increased according to

the siae of th© school.

The weekly pupil-period load of class­

room teaching assigned to the men teachers was slightly larger than that assigned the women teachers.

His study also indicat­

ed that, on th© average, the teachers were assigned three periods of study hall duty per week.

The more periods of classroom

teaching assigned, the fewer were th© periods of study hall duty. Homeroom duty was commonly assigned to a large proportion of teachers. According to Stocker, nearly one third of the teachers were assigned no extracurricular duty.

On the average, men

teachers were assigned a slightly heavier extracurricular load than were women teachers.

Teachers in school© enrolling fro a?

100 to 499 were given more extracurricular assignments than those in the larger schools.

The extracurricular assignments

reported most frequently were homeroom activities and club sponsorship.

Stocker stated that it appeared evident that

all assigned duties should be included in the teacher load. Differences in teacher load among teachers in schools of different sizes indicated the desirability of classification

of schools according to sis© for th© purpose of administering the teaching load standard* Meyers (15) stated that two important aspects of teacher load measurement, need to be distinguished , namely, the optimum teacher load for a school, and the optimum teacher load, for a

particular teacher. The first aspect mentioned related to internal school organisation.

If one school is more inefficient in the

organization of its work than another, thereby creating more work to no good end, It does not have a heavier teacher load

than the more efficiently organised school*

According to

Meyers {15s6): The factors of class siae, length of period, and non-classroom assignment are all vital elements in the internal organisation, control, ana management of the school rather than the measurement of the total work performed by them. If schools are of a type sufficient­ ly similar to be compared, the simple pupil-teacher ratio appears to be the proper measure for this pur­ pose. for comparing the teacher load carried by different teachers, Douglass’ formula seems to be the more desirable, Meyers Lx

5

5

10

114

43

.157

501-1000 1001-over

dumber of schools with lengthened period

T'W

According to the information shorn in Table B, 74 schools in the enrollment group of 1 to 15b nave the shortened period and seven schools in the same group have lengthened periods*

Of all schools in the study, 114 have the snortened

period, and 43 schools have the lengthened period• The number of faculty members participating in the study is shown in fable 9*

TABLE 9. CORBEL OF FACULTY FART I2J :7.'TV pG STUDY AQCORDIM G TO SIZE OF SCHOOLS S3 z®

of

school

Hum ber o f s c h o o ls

IE

T L nC H ] EG LOAD

F a c u lty galo

female

Total

I Co 1 ca i 1 1

1*150

81

249

151-500

55

357

418

775

501*1000

11

154

179

333

1001-over

1

20?

305

572

1027

1166

2193

Total

157

513

.According to f a b l e 9, i n t h e e n r o l l m e n t group o f 151-

500, there a r t 357 n o n a n d 4 ! c wo^an p a r t i c i p a t i n g , v-hich g i v e s a c o m b i n e d total o f 775 t e a c h e r s ,

in ere are in all

1,027 aten and 1,166 wo;aen p a r t i a l m a t i n g , vdiicti g i v e s a combin total o f 2 , 1 9 3 p a r t i c i p a n t s .

52

o

1

-

150

151 - 500 501

-

1,000

1,001 and over

Figure 1, Location oi‘ the Illinois co-oDerating high schools which participated in the teaching load study

53

JHAPTEft TV ANALYSIS

A h T > I h T . h i h u h ' - ? I O h 0?" D A T A

In making a study of what constitutes a teaching load, many problems arc encountered*

Some oi these are the treat­

ment that should be given the regular teaching; areas, the activities usually called extracurricular, the number of pupils in each class, and duplicate sections.

The duties wore

divided Into regular teaching duties, which included the 13 major teaching areas, namely, agriculture, art, business, English, foreign language, hom^making, industrial arts, mathematics, music, physical education, science, social studies, and vocational shop, and to three duties usually listed, in the class schedule, namely, homeroom, librarv, and study hall. The duties listed as other activities included such activities as athletics, publications, clubs, committees, programs, administrative duties, plays, and miscellaneous duties.

Problem of Weighting Pany factors should be taken into consideration in doternlnlng the teaching load of a teacher,

Yost authors seam

to agree that the number of pupils in a clast, relative diffi­ culty in teaching different subjects, number of preparations, and number and type of extracurricular activities should be taken into consideration•

For example, the Douglas?* formula

takes into account the number of punt Is, number of class

54 periods, different preparation3, nature of the subject, amount of time in non-classroom activities, and the length of the clsss period, rteyere (16) stated that there ore eight items on which the teacher and administrator should agree, namely, class periods, duplicate a s s i g n m e n t a , number of p r e p a r a t i o n s , number of pupils, cooperations, length of class p e r i o d , and standard teaching load.

s u b j e c t weight,

He also stated that an acceptable

formula should weight t h 3 principal it&as o b j e c t i v e l y t h e y can contribute proportionu t ely t o the f i n a l

so that

index.

He

seemed t o think the C o u g l a s s formula does bids satisfactorily by mathematical m e t h o d s . Irw in

scorned t o

th in k

tho f i r s t

step i n

d e te rm in in g

reason aa 1e o^unix 2■a 13.-j1i an te&ct>in4j, lo-ad 13 toe reduction of as many load f a c t o r s

as p o o 3 i b i s

to

a nath© m a t i c a l formula.

He stated that Douglass used differential coefficients to classify teaching assignments, but made for extra assignments.

uj

sue/, dLstlnction was

Ha says that teachers and ad­

ministrators working together could develop a set of coef­ ficients for extra activities similar to those used by Douglass for class subjects. In lv4t 1 bung mu us a stno $ to x ev iuu and to va^.Juoate the coefficients used in the Douglass formula for duplicate sections, subjects, study hall, homeroom, and co-curx'icuuar activities.

55 It seems only reasonable to assume that son© types of activities are cosier to do than others*

One can talk v/itfc

any group of teachers and easily obtain agreement on this point.

Teachers admit that physical education entails less

daily preparationt grading of papers, etc., than social studies;, science, and Enylish.

It also see-is reasonable, in

attempting to take into account such factors as daily prepara­ tion, nature of subject, grading of papers, etc., that the factor of "what do you think of subjects you have not taught in terms of the factors mentioned in previous statement?* should also be considered.

Therefore, it appearc as if weights

should fee established for each of the subject areas, such as English, social studies, mathematics, and homemo ki ng, in order to attempt to equalise the factors mentioned in preceding statements. The teachers seem to have the same feeling about duties classified as other activities.

For example, it is a common

fact that most teachers prefer clubs in lieu of publications, administrative duties, or interscbolastic -athletics,

fould

It be the nature of tie activity, th? responsibility connected with it, or pressure from the public that goes with the activi­ ty which is responsible for this preferone a?

linee It appears

to be racognlsud that activities vary in such factors as nature of the activity, preparation for the activity, and responsi­ bility in line with the activity, it seems that weights should, be established for similar activities by grouping then into

broader classification-*

FataWi^hing weights for the factors

which seem to vary within regular tes.chin.g- activities and duties classified as other activities would have a somewhat equalizing effect, which in turn would show up in the total teaching load. Many schools consider the curriculum as all the expert* ences of the child which are supervised by the teachers of a school.

If this definition is accepted, then the teaching

load should Include all activities of a teacher. Sine® it seems that activities classified as other activities have been included as a part of the curriculum, and since faculty members are expected to accept such assign­ ments, It appears reasonable that these activities should have equal weight with those assigned to regular teaching activities.

The factors which influence the weight of the

regular teaching activities also influence the weight of the other activities.

Some of these factors are the nature of

the activity, number of pupils, number of preparations, amount of preparation, responsibility connected with the activity, and duplicate sections,

’'/hen a now course is added, there

seems to be no question concerning the weirht assigned to this course on the teacher*s teaching load,

thy should other

activities not be given the same treatment'"

For exam pi®, some

schools allow credit for the year book or newspaper in lieu of one section of a regular teaching activity.

The same practice

is also followed in some schools for directing plays.

57 In the light of the more modern concept of the work of the teacher, it seems only reasonable that appro ,'riate weights

should be established for other activities on the same basis as for the regular teaching activities.

It also seems justi­

fiable for the reason that other activities have alreadytaken their place in the curriculum along with the regular teaching activities.

If equal weight is given other activi­

ties, teachers who have talent for certain activities will accept such assignments more willingly.

It. will also allow

administrators to utilise teachers in a better way by assign­ ing to ofher activities only those teachers who have the ability and interest for other activities.

In this way it

will not be necessary for administrators to assign other activities to all teachers for the purpose of equalising their assignments , Authors have indicated, prior to this time, that the number of pupils should have an effect on the total teaching load.

?or example, Douglass’ formula includes the total

pupils for all subjects in. which a teacher teaches, but, does not include the number of pupils in duties classified as other activitii. s.

The. forth 1 antral Association employs the

pupil-teacher ratio for the entire school and not for the individual teacher.

It is reasonable that weights should be

established for the number of pupils in all a c t i v i t i e s where pupils are involved and to use the weight for the number of pupils in each

activity-

rather than the total number of pupils

j;u

who are under the direction of a part l o w j o r t o a e ' o r for one day. The Douglass formula takes into account d u p l i c a t e preparation by reducing th e load f o r th 3 p a r t i c u l a r d u p l i c a t e activity by 20 per cent provided q u a l i t y of propar a t tor i s held constant.

In ■Jun-’q recent study to revise :r:d tw

validate the corffleicuts for duplicnta * 3 onions, the per­ centage was reduced from 20 per coat to approximately 10 per cent. By establishing weights separately for the different activities, number of pupils, end duplicate sections in the ways just described, it seems reasonable that the teacher’3 teaching load within a school system will be aouewhat uora ne 3rly q ouali»od, Since it se-oed desirable to yet tone typo of weighting, a decision was reached to get a group of graduate atuoeats to give their opinion as to what weight they would assign to such factors as regular teaching activities, duties classified as other activities, and individual claa:

sise.

far

on lass

uses fury’s recent revision of 1 as a tentative coefficient based on a unit of average time required i.n social studies and science, and other s u b j e c t coefficients were, expressed as decimal fractions of this basic coefficient, ranging from •

to 1*2.

In this study, in order to avoid t h e use of

decimals, the range of numbers selected to foe used by parsons expressing an opinion on the weighting sheet for the regular

59

teaching activities and for other activities was set between 10 and ,20.

The number 10 voulu Indicate the least weight

assigned and 20 v:oul,d indicate the highest.

For example, if

physical education took leea preparation ana was less diffi­ cult to teach than English, it might bn given a. weight of 12, whereas uiglish eight be giver a woirht of 1$. fact individual ftiling In the weighting sheet asked to assign a weight between tha numbers 10 and 20 to each subject he had taught and had not taught.

For example,

•an individual who may have taught mathematics and assigns a weight of 15 to this subject area would write the number 15 in a column designated j\.

"f this same our son had also taught

in the social studies area and assigns it a weight of 17, he vtoulJ al 'O write the number 17 in column JU

If the same per­

son had not taught in any other areas, he would write in the weightings of all other subjects in a column designated as B* By asking the person to weight subjects both taught and not taught, it vh 5 porf.ible to get his ides of what he thought the other parson v.*o« ^oir:g.

For nxn^^la, the writer has heard

it aa.id many tiara U v t a t each nr in s. certain fleoart.me.nt has an easy job; he has no preparationb: nil cl ao aus;

but

I,

the

,.oor

Fnrrlisb

teacher

does is meet his have to grade all

the papers nr.X nnkt? coars Id ora hi a ore pant ion.

It seemed as

if it was just as important in computing the weight of a teach­ ing duty to include in the combined voi ; \hf the factor of what other teachers think a sub4set should be weighted.

60 P r e p a r a t io n o f t h e

.elglhin*.- f l e e t

A weighting sheet*' was prepared for the regular teach­ ing duties, which Included the 13 subject areas as well as the study hall and library.

The regular teaching; areas were

arranged in a vertical column and two blanks were arranged to the left of each duty,

one column was entitled nsubjects

taught” and the second column was entitled "subjects not taught.,f The person filling in the weighting sheet was to indicate with a number between 10 and 20 the weights that he would assign, first, to the subjects he had taught (in column £), and second, to the subjects which he .had not taught (in column j£) •

In other words, he would have a number between 10

and 20 to the left of all regular teaching duties in either column £ or B, but not in both.

k second weighting sheet'*' was prepared to include other activities not included in the regular teaching duties.

These

activities were arranged in a vertical column with two blanks to the left of each activity.

.Jolumn ^ was to include activi­

ties in which the person had experience and Column B was to include activities in which the person had no experience.

The

person was to assign a weight by using a number between 10 and 20 for each of the activities listed on this sh jet in either column A. or B, but not in both.

" A p p e n d ix

h,

p p .

1 6 7 - 1 6 8 .

.Appendix B, pp. 169-172.

01 A third weighting, sheet-- was prcp&reQ m

o r d e r to es­

tablish [email protected] for duplicate sections in the regular teach­ ing activities, for the duplicate five periods-" for activities classified as other activities and for th«? hoaxercom, because the homeroom was not Included in the weighting sheet for the regular teaching activities,

rfoo f irst page of the third

weighting sh^at was included in order* to coll set d a ta so that weights could be obtained for duplicate sections,

if the

duplicate sections were to receive the same weight, the rater was to check, after the word "yes,"

If a different weight was

to be assigned, the rater was to check ?Tno*v*

ihen. the person

was to fill in the table at the bottom of the page in column 3 after the first duplicate, second duplicate, etc, Thu secono page of the third weighting sheet was includ­ ed in order to collect data so that weights could be obtained fcr duplicate five perioaa for activities classified as other activities*

duplicate five periods were used to correspond

to a five-period class.

If the

o weight was to foe assigned

to the duplicate five periods as xor the original period, a check mark was placed after ’’yes. ”

II Uv: weight was to foe

ditlereiit, a check mark was placed alter

no."

Then tr*e

weights were placed in column 1, opposite the first auplicate five periods, second duplicate five periods, etc* -Appendix, pp. 1 7 3 -1 7 6 . fDuplicate five period a correspond to a ouplicate sec­ tion consisting of five class period?/ in a regular teaching activity such as an English class.

ij2

The third page of the third weight An. sheet wso includ­ ed in order to obtain n weight between 10 and fn for homerooms. If th? person rating the homeroom thou _ht no preparation was needed, no oarers needed to bo grated, and little difficulty was encountered in conducting the howorooy, be would oncircle 10,

however, i f another person thrught i t was a difficult

job an! considerable ore pa rati,on was needed, thin o ^roon right weight the- li^e'-noi 16,

Therefore, the rater was asked

to encircle one of th 1 numbers which were located at the bottom of pare 3. * fourth weighting sheet'

was prepared in o r d e r to

establish a weight for the number of pupils in jach class or activity,

k weight of 1.0 was assigned to a close or activity

of 0-1:/, pupils.

The person fill It.g An the weighting sheet

was asked what decimal increase should be used for a class or activity of 25-40 pupils and what decimal Increase for a class or activity of 50 h e ig h t,tu g firs t,

sheets

b y the f - c v . l t r

Illin o is ,

:.r)

f t 1; " " c h o o l .

or more rur H r . 1,

2 , an 1 3w e r e

o f U n iv e rs ity

•’ c b o o l ,

second, bv th v f r c u l t y o f \fttr

tw o

friy-i. r v r . s , i t

I n f o r v a t i on d e s i r e d

was

i t clewed

5.t t h

in g

g iv e n

a tria l

run.

s h e e t 4 was n o t

w Appendix, p. 177,

g ive n

ot r i a l

run,

i-rb o n ia l

,

' r b o n d a l ■ ; o :»" a m i t y

r,e -*1$«■? ...s i f if z ~ w; : r i “ mne 1 1 e .

rig h t­

63 Administering the Weighting; .Sheet 3 Weighting sheet 1 was administered to three graduate classes at Southern Illinois University, Gar bondale, Illinois, and to one graduate class at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, during the summer of 1949 •

It was also administered

to the faculty of University .chool, Carbondale, Illinois, in September, 1949.

2 was administered to three graduate

Weighting sheet

classes at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, and to one graduate class at Indiana University, Bloomington,

Indiana, during the summer t e m of 1949.

It wao also adrainis~

tered to the faculty of University School, Carbondale, Illinois,

in 3eotember, 1949. Weighting sheet 3 was administered to the faculties of University 3chool, Carbondale, Illinois; Community High

School, Carbondale, Illinois; University High School, Macomb, \

Illinois; Community High School, Macomb, Illinois; and Thorn­ ton Township High School, Harvey, Illinois.

Weighting sheet 4 was administered to a graduate class at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

Results

The results of th c? weighting sr.eets are ta Delated, in a series of tables which vd.ll be grouped in the following order:

regular teaching duties, other duties, duplicate

64 sections, and number of pupils.

Table 10 includes the total number of ratings and average weights for the subjects t a u g h t and not t a u g h t .

The

weights are classified, according to s u b j e c t areas for t h e regular teaching duties, According to the data, in Table 10 in the column of wsubjects t a u g h t there were 11 ratings for agriculture with .an average weight of 15 •£ •

In the column of ’’subjects not

taught*” there were 157 retinas, with an average weight of 13.7.

When the ratings of subjects taught and subjects not

taught were combined, there were 16# ratings, with an average

weight of 13*#.

In physical education, in the column nsub­

jects t a u g h t th&re were 60 ratings, with an average weight

of 12.1, while in the column ’'subjects not taught,” there were 100 rating's, with an average weight of 11,B.

then the

two columns are combined in the column "subjects taught and not taught,” there were 160 ratings, with an average weight of 11.9. In order to establish a common base, the average weights of subjects taught and not taught included I., the last column of Table 10 wore reduced to a brso of 10.

I \nee ghya1eal edu­

cation had the lowest weight, it was uauign-d « base of 10 and all other regular teaching duties were changed ac uu dingly. The formula used was as follows:

H 10 *

Ij , X

65

p CO *1 !

e-* faS 13 £3

tr*

:.n 3— 4

«» 03 31 tOjp e? p is tu tb 03

j c 4 — •H E *H S tH C M © s rf P O J h 1 6 i , t* -I X! © .© S *T 4 *3 © o c •rt © — t~ 3 s+ X, >

C © *H p ttO

r~*

m m *r-J T ?

o. © x: 0 3

r— • r4 ■ f-' i— : 0 0 3C a «{ P © o O r-{ .f~■ p f ' t P O '0 *r4 m w •HT 3 C (0 ©3 1© P rC o OP o v v r£ V ,C OA OC * ■ - 0 ©

represents the average weight for physical educa­ tion, namely, 11.9*

The number 10 represents the base assigned represents the number to be reduced

to physical education*

to a base of 10, and. X represents the unknown •

The average

weight, using 10 as a base, was changed to the nearest wdiolo number*

For example, art has an average weight of 12*9* 1 ' I

stituting this number in the formula.

^

s 10

A

"j 1

Eub# a K ©

0 © «H ^ l* J

*>

& U 9 >

g


an wn Hr-H-an u\an

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■ rf/v

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taft

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h JpH

# - 4 C4 pH < H

o n Hf- 04 • « * H f ’U N - 4 H H H

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QNO 0N * • * UN UN 04 pH p H pH

A\£?N{NC7S‘CM30 CM A\UNCM tC» ->4*vnCM an -4’#*4iH ON SV

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20 15 g 6

H

'5 v O'£ >£M» OtO O tr\ a^O ©-rH bCp ©x:

© C q •rH f pupils

in an activity, excluding study hall, Is shewn.

TABLE IS. VJEIGfiTIKU EOa MMJbER OF PUPILS I 1m STUDY HALL Size of class or activity

Lumber of rating®

0-24

69

25-49

69

50 or more

69

Average weight

Total weight .3

1.0

of . 0

1.3 1.6

1Xu #X

According to the data shown in Table 11, 69 me,.i pars of a graduate class at Indiana Inivers ity, Bloomington, Indiana, gave an average rating of 1.3 to a c l a s s o r

.otivity

having an e n r o l l m e n t from 25 to 49 s t u d e n t s and; a r a t i n g of 1.6 to a class or activity with an enrollment of 50 or more stud on 13. Since the enrollment in study halls is usually rather large and since there is no preparation, no rrariirg

oi papers,

orri no actual teaching, It seems onl* logical to make an adjustment upward in class sir...

T^oie If slx m tnc weights

assigned to study halls by classifying them in throe groups. According to the data shown in Table 19, a stauy hall ranging in size from 1 to 49 pupils was given a weight of 1.0.

83 A study hall ranging in size from 50 to 99 pupils was given a weight of 1.3, and a study hall to which 100 or more pupils were assigned was given a weight of 1.6.

TABLE 19.

WEIGHTING FOB NUMB Eli Of PUPILS IN STUDY HALLS

Size of study hall

A ss 1pried weights

1-49

l.C

50-99

1.3

100-over

1.6

Table 20 is a worksheet showing calculations of a teach* ing load for a teacher having regular teaching activities and

other activies in a school with the shortened period.

The

number for each class and the number of students shown,

respectively, to the left of each five regular teaching ac­ tivities ore listed, and two duties listed as other activities have the same length of period, but the one entitled 'direct

play’* meets for only 12 weeks while the dramatics club meets for 36 weeks.

#4 TABLE 20* UAjLiOULh'kIOr 0 Ji* A TbaW'II bOAW FOB A TEATHEE HAV ING REGULAR TEACHING ACT).VITIED AT .0 QTtlEU ACTIVITIES IH A 31H0 Ob ,>ITH THU ShORTEHEI IEHI0D Weight Activity or class

Weight Humber Number Length oi Numoer of of periods of students periods in min­ weeks utes

13

English 1

1.3

30

5

42

36

13

World History

1.0

22

5

42

36

13

English II

1.3

32

5

42

36

13

English III

1.3

29

5

42

36

13

American History

1.3.

35

5

42

36

Dramatics club

1.3

30

42

36 36

Direct play

1,0

15

1 3 $

10 12

English I World History English 11 English III American History Dramatics PIair

13 13 13 13 13 10 12

x x x x x x x

1,3 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.0

x x x x x x x

L2

n

5 - 84.5 5 = 65.0 5 — $4.5 5 * £4.5 5 « $4.5 1 m 13*0 3 = 36.0 15.6)452.0( 2H,9 or 29

In calculating the teaching load in Table to :.o get the final result of 29 as being t h teaching lo&i for this particular case, the number oi classes, the number ar.-l kind of activities, the number of students in each class and in Other activities, and the number of periods were considered. Weights were used in determining the teaching load.

For example, the weight given a subject is multiplier by the weight assigned to class si sc and by tb the class meets per week•

numb :-r of p riods

Substituting; in the worksheet, we

have the weight of 13 for English I, as shown in Table 11, multiplied by 1.3, the weight established for a class with an enrollment of 30, as shown in Table 17, and by the 5, the number of periods the English X class meets oer week, which gives a total of $1*5*

In the case of world history,

we have 13, the weight established for social studies classes as shown in Table 11, multiplied by 1, the weight assigned to a class having an enrollment of from 0 to 2 k pupils as shown in Table IB, and by the $ periods the world history class meets per week, giving a total of 65.

The same procedure is

followed for English II, English ITT, and American History. Substituting for the dramatics club, we have a weight of 10, the weight established for clubs as shown in Table 15, multiplied by 1.3* the weight established for an activity having an enrollment of 30 students as shown in Table 18, and by 1, the number of periods the club meets par week, which gives a total of 13*

In the directing of a play, as it

appears on this teacher1s worksheet, only 12 weeks were ©pent with this particular activity*

In order to get a valid pictur

of the teaching load, the 12 weeks must be extended to 36, since all other regular teaching activities and other activi­ ties were calculated on a basis of 36 weeks, and the number of periods per week reduced accordingly*

The following

66 formula may be used to fir:! the exact number of periods to assign to play direction, since the 12 weeks must be extended: Mx ^ X W

N2

represents the number of weeks indicated on the worksheet that must be extended to 36.

The letter W

number of weeks school is in session.

represents the

represents the num­

ber of periods per week as indicated on the worksheet, namely 9, that must be reduced, proportionately as the number of weeks must be extended.

I represents the unknown.

the formula JjL = W »2

Substituting in

we have rf = -|j-; 36 X = 108

x =

3

In solving this particular problem, we get X. equal to 3.

Thus, the weight assigned to play activities, i.e. 12, is

multiplied by 1.0, the weight assigned to an activity having an enrollment of 15 students, and by 3, the number of periods the play is being directed each week, which gives a total of 36. ties

'Then all regular teaching activities urn

ether activi­

are calculated in the above manner, a total of 452 is

obtained.

This number has no comparative significance.

One

part of our problem is to test regulation 10, which is in terms of class periods.

4 divisor-- was contrived which could be

used to convert all totals to a class period basis. — Appendix* p.

153 ,

By

$7 averaging all the weights assigned to the regular teaching activities and other activities, and multiplying this average by the average weight for the number of pupils in activities, we obtain the number 15*6*

For example, the weights for the

regular teaching activities, such as 13 for English, 11 for art, 14 for science, etc*, ware added and the total, 189, was divided by the number of regular teaching activities, which was 16, as shown in Table 13*

The result was 12, which

represents the average weight for the regular teaching activi­

ties* The weights for the eight groups of other activities were added and divided by the total number of groups which was eight, as shown in Table 15.

The result was 12, which

represents the average weight for other activities*

The

number of students in an activity was divided into three groups, namely, 0- 24, 25-49, and 50-over, weight as shown in Table 18*

bach group had a definite

then the three weights are added

and then divided by the number of groupings, which is three, the result is 1.3, which represents the average weight for

student® in an activity.

By multiplying the average weights

for the teaching activities and other activities, which is 1 2 , by the average weight for the number of pupils in activi­ ties, which is 1.3, the result is 15.6, which is the divisor used to obtain the number of periods in the teaching load. By using this method, we find that 452, as computed in the illustrative exercise, divided by the divisor 15*6,

gives a weekly class period load of 29. Table 21 is a worksheet showing calculations of ®. teach ing load for a teacher having regular teaching activities, other activities, and duplicate sections in a school with the lengthened period *

The teacher’s activities listed in this

table show the length of periods and the number of weeks as the same for each activity.

TABLE 21. CALCULATIONS OF A TEACHING LOAD FQn A TEACHER HAV­ ING REGULAR TEACHING ACTIVITIES, OTHER ACTIVITIES, aKD DUPLICATE SECTIONS IN A SCHOOL WITH THE LENGTHENED PERIOD

Weight Activity or class

a eight

dumber Length of Number Humber periods of of Df weeks students periods in min­ utes

1?

Typing I

1.3

25

5

60

36

11

Typing 1

1.0

22

5

60

36

11

Typing I

1.0

20

5

60

36

10

Typing I

A. *

0

21

5

60

36

12

Bookkeacing

1*3

p

5

60

36

10

Treasurer activity

1.0

1

1

60

36

Yearbook

1.3

30

8

60

36

13 12

Typing I Typing I Typing I Typing I Bookkeeping Activity Yearbook

0

1 2 x 1 . 3 x 5 s ?S 11 x 1.0 x 5 = 55 11 x 1.0 x 5 - 5 5 10 x 1.0 x 5 = 50 12 x 1.3 x 5 - 78 10 x 1.0 x 1 - 10 13 x 1.3 x 5 - S4.5 12 X 1.3 X : 4S.8

Trm



The teaching load of 30 in Table 21 was derived in a manner similar to the one in Table 20*

There are two dif­

ferences on this worksheet, however, which involve a slight variation in assigning weights.

These differences are bh©

three duplicate five periods of Typing 1 and the duplicate three periods of the yearbook sponsorship*

*;eights were es­

tablished for duplicate periods for regular teaching activities as shown in Table 13 and for other activities an shown in Table 17. In calculating this load, for example, Id, the weight assigned to typing as shown in Table 11, was multiplied by 1*3, the weight assigned to a class having an enrollment of 25 to 49 pupils as shown in Table lb, and by 5, the number of periods the class meets per week, giving a total

of 7$.

The

first duplicate five periods of Typing I would be calculated as follows:

the weight assigned to the first duplicate five

periods of Typing I as shown in Table 13, namely 11, would be multiplied by 1, the weight assigned to a class with an

enrollment of from 0 to 24 pupils as shown in Table Id, and by 5, the number of periods the class meets

a total of 55.

per week, giving

The second duplicate five periods of Typing X

would be calculated as the first duplicate five periods of Typing: I were calculated, since the weighting giver for the second duplicate five periods of Typing I is 11, as shown in Table 13•

The third duplicate five periods of Typing 1 would

be calculated as follows:

the weight assigned to the third

duplicate five periods of Typing I as shown in Table 13, namely 10, 'would be multiplied by 1, the weight assigned to a class with an enrollment of from 0 to 24 pupils, as shorn in Table 10, and by 5, the number of periods the typing class meets per week, giving a total of 50, In the case of bookkeeping, we have 12, the weight established for business classes as shown in Table 11, which would be multiplied by 1*3 > the weight -assigned to a class having an enrollment of from 24 to 49 pupils, as shown in Table IS, and by 5* the number of periods bookkeeping meets per week, which gives a total of 76•

The weight for the

treasurer of the activity fund is 10, as established for mis­ cellaneous duties, shown in Table 15v

Multiplying by 1, the

weight established for an activity having an enrollment of from 0 to 24 pupils, as shown in Table 1$, an

by i, the

number of periods spent per week on this activity, we have a total of 10,

In the case of the yearbook sponsorsnip, we have

13, the weight assigned to publications as shown in

Table 15,

multiplied by 1.3, the weight assigned to an activity having an enrollment of from 25 to 49 pupils, as shown in Table 10, and by 5, the number of periods the activity is sponsored per week, which gives a total

of 64*5*

the three duplicate sec­

tions of yearbook sponsorship would be calculated as follows; the weight assigned to the first five duplicate sections of publications as shown in Table 17, namely 12, multiplied oy 1,3» the weight assigned to an activity having an enrollment of

from 25 to 49 pupils as shown in Table 18, and by 3 , the num­

ber of periods the yearbook is sponsored per weak, gives a total of 46 .0 .

Then all regular teaching .activities and othar

activities are calculated In the above manner, a total of 457.3

Is obtained.

This number, when divided by 15.6, gives the

teaching load as 19. Table

22 is a worksheet showing calculations of a teach­

ing load for a teacher

having regular teaching activities

including study hall, homeroom, other activities, and dupli­ cate sections in a school with shortened periods .

The activi­

ties listed in this table aeet £ :*r t h e aame number o f w e e k s , but the length of the homeroom period is 20 minute a as compared with 40 minutes for all other activities. In Table 22 such duties as homeroom, study hull, duplicate sections, committee work, and. school paper are taken

into consideration.

Before the number of periods spent each

week on homeroom is multiplied by the weight assigned tc homeroom, it is necessary to convert the 20 minutes to the 40 minute period, which is the common period for this particular school. In doing this the number of periods spent per week ..quIt be changed.

The following formula may be used in determining the

relative number of 40 minute periods the honeroom in kept dur-

92 TABLE 22. CALCULATION? OF A TEA CUTtiC LOAF F-'A A TF.-VJ.HER HAV­ ING REGULAR TEACHING ACTIVITIES, INCLUDING STUDY HALL AND HOMEROOM, OTHER ACTIVITIES, AID DUPLICATE -.■on K Th SCHOOL WITH THE SHO R T ®ED PERIOD

Weight Activity or class

Weight Humber tiHiber Length of of of periods students periods

Humber of weeks

40

Homeroom

2.5

11

1.3

35

$

n

36

10

Study Hall

1.3

60

5

40

36

13

English II

1.3

30

5

40

30

12

English II

1.3

28

5

4o

36

13

English III

1.3

35

5

40

36

13

English I?

1.3

36

5

40

36

13

American History

1.3

40

5

40

36

13

School paper

1*0

20

5

40

36

11

Curriculum Committee

1.0

0

1

40

36

......... ..

Homeroom Study Hall English IX English II nnglish III English IV American History School paper 3urri culum Jomui 11e e

11 10 13 12 13 13 13 13 11

X 1.3 X 2.5 X 1.3 X 5 A . 1.3 X 5 X 1.3 X 5 X 1.3 X 5 X 1.3 X 5 X 1.3 X 5 X 1*0 X 5 X 1.0 X i

= * = « *

35-6 65 64 *5 78 Gif*

84.5 64*5 «S 65 * 11 15.6 J592.8 » *

In this case T. represents the amount of time, namely, 20 minutes, spent each day conducting the homeroom, as shown on the worksheet, which must be extended to 4.G minutes.

T,

93

represents the length in minute? of the common period for this particular school, namely, 40 minutes, number of

P represents the

periods, namely, 5, spent each week conducting

the homeroom, as shown on the worksheet, that must be reduced proportionately as the length of X represents the unknown,

periods must be extended.

oubstitutimr 'n the formula li r«A'2

w© have

20



&

- y r

~

s

40 1 =

100

1 -

2.$

p ’

In solving this problem, we get X e^uai to 2.5, which represents the number* of 40 minute periods a week spent con­ ducting the homeroom,

how, the weight eat&olished for the

homeroom as indicated In fable 1.1, namely, 11, is lultipiied by 1.3, the weight established for ai; activity having an en­ rollment of from 2$ to 49 pupils aa indicated in

Table 18,

and by 2.5, the number of periods a week the homeroom is in session.

Tne result is 35*8.

In th,. case of the study hall,

10, the weight established for study hall as indicated in Table 11, is multiplied by 1.3, the weight established for a study hall with an enrollment of 60 pupils as indicated in Table 19, anu by 5, the number of parioas a wuck study hall is in session, giving a total of 65 .

jtiext, 13, the weight

established for English as Indicated in Table 11, is multiplied by 1.3, the weight assigned to a class having an enrollment between 25 to 49 as indicated in Table id, and by 5, the number

94

of periods English II meets

week.

The result is 84.5.

The duplicate five periods of English 11 are calculated as follows:

the weight established for the first duplicate five

periods of English as shown in Table 13, namoly, 12t is multi­ plied by 1.3, the weight assigned to a class with an enrollment between 25 to 49, as shown in Table IS, and by 5, the number of periods English II is in session each week, which gives a total of ?S.

The sane procedure is followed for English III,

English IV, American History, and school paper, 'since each is taught or sponsored for five 40 minute periods a weak.

In the

case of the curriculum committee, w« have 11, the weight established for committees as shown in Tabl-'-. 15, multiplied by 1, the weight assigned to an activity having an enrollment of 0 to 24 pupils as shown in ^able 18, rrrj by 1, the number of periods the committee meets a week, riving a total of 11. teaching activities and otb «?r activities are

l,rhers all regular

calculated in the above manner, a total of '592.8 is obtained. This number divided by 15.6 gives the teaching load as 38.

The remaining part of the attidy ---ill be sri at tern?fc to answer the questions stated ir the introduction.

'Tie questions

will be answered in the order in which they aim vteto' ■• The statist!col anal’'si 5 in this stu^y is 1levIt ed t c the calcula­ tion of the mean. mean is:

The formula (19:98) 113rd t,o calculate the

X * 12, ft

The data in Table 23 show

the to cello

l^ac Tor teachers

in schools with the shortened period one):winy to tec eite of

95

the schools.

The teaching loads are grouped iron the lightest

load of 15 to the heaviest load of 02.

The eeaas are shown at

the end of each group. As shown in Table 23 the mean is 30.9 for the teachers in Group i, which represents the average teaching loux in this

group.

The ,ui©ao in 'aroup 11

is 31 .o, wuicr* r ©pr ©aonts the

average teaching loan in this group.

The mean lii Ul'OU :’ TX1

is 31.7, which represents the average teaching load for this

group.

The mean for Group IV is 3d.6, which represents the

average teaching loa*. for teachers in Group IT,

fn© difference

between Group III, with the highest avenge of >1*? and Group XV with the lowest average of 36.6, is l.i.

groups with the shortened period is 31*1*

The

for all

96 TABLE 23. TEACHING LOAD FOB TEACHERS Iff SCHOOLS V.ITH 40-5/, MJHJT& PaftiuDS AO.miiiNG TO SiaE o# aCtidOf,

Teachin g Group I load Number of cases

Group II

Group III

Group IV

Total

buubur of cases

numb-sr of cases

Ouuhar of cases

bu.ibor of cases

15 16 17 1$ 19

0 2 X 3 5

1 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 0

1 0C i 0 0

20 21 22 23 24

6 10 10 21

3 6 10 11 24

1 0 1 0 X

£i 3 11 15(T*»

M vu;.ntl)i.ftG Tvji Blab 04 6Or 000 Mn>u w«.taMr»»«v4>w Group III Group IV Group 11 Teaching Group J load lluaber Number E tr-ibsr fOrnbcr of cases of cases of cases of cases

Total Bhrnber of cases

15 16 17 16 19

0 0 2 0 4

0 I 5 Q 9

1 3 0 4 11

2 0 1 3 B

3 4 a 13 33

20 21 22 23 24

4 4 5 5 4

17 25 19 20 22

11 15 22 * ii* lotal,!1 is 26,1.

The data in Table 25 shovs the teaching load for teachers

in school?', with shortened period sc cording t o s e x within ©ach group.

It also shows the total teaching loads for all male

and female teachers.

The teaching load ranges from 15 to 62,

The mean'.- for both sexes within each group and for all groups arc shown at the end of the table.

As s h o r n i n Table 25 in G r o u p I t h e .sean f o r t h e male t e a c h e r s is 32,4 and the mean f o r the female teachers is 29*5* The difference between the moans for the male and female teach­ ers in Group I

Is

2 .9 ,

which indicates that the male teachers

carry approximately three periods more per wee1 -* than the female teachers.

The mean for the main teachers in Croit XI is 33*^

and that for the female teachers le 29.S.

The d i f f e r e n c e between

the means for the male and female teachers in Group II is 4.0,

which indicates that male teachers carry approxl ..it&ly four periods mors per week than the female teacher •.

The mean for

the male teachers in Group III is 31*•- and that for the female teachers is 29.2.

The difference between the me:wi3 for the male

and fanele teachers in Group III la 5.5, which indicates that male teachers carry approx! lately 5k period a more p a r wo ok than the female teacheri. TV I s

3 2 , 4 and t h a t

The mean for the male teachers in Group for the f e m a l e be...chars i s

ference b e tw e e n the me 3 .6 ,

2 6 .6 .

The dif­

f o r t h e m a le and f e " & i o teach era i s

which i n d i c a t e s u v * t m a H t e a c h e r s carry approx i :,V sly 3d

.101 TABLE 26. TE^OHHK.' LOAD FGH TEAGtUiid 19 SCHOGU TFH 40-54 MIRUTF POH IOPS ACCORDING TO SEX „;XTHIE £*uH GROUP ! e& cfl­ Cirob-P x ing load Mist1© He­ mal e

Group Ii

Gro u1■ ill

Group■> ;tv

d&le P ca­ rnale

Hale He­ mal a

Hi&l© fe­ male

Total Gala

Pe­ rnale

16 1? IS 19

0 0 1 2 3

0 2 0 1 ^*■4

0 0 0 0 I

1 0 1 1 1

G 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

1 1 0 0 1

0 1 0 0 1

s 1 1 2

rJ '

1 3 1 2 4

2Q 21 22 23 24

4 2 4 7 9

2 6 o 7 -i*-4*

1 2 5 4 3

7 4 5 7 lu

0 0 0 0 1

1 0 I 0 0

3 0 i 4

£«■ 3 d4*, ■ WA 11

y

u

a 4 10 15 Pi

7 15 2 25 34

0r

lo IS 17 16 15

6 6 12 12 10

Ip IS 19 17 ?Q * *“>

0 0 2 2 *

* > , 3 2 3 3

d.

27 2S 29

9 $ 10 13 12

10 lA C 11 l? 10

17 20 33 39

5

6 9 12 $

44 46 50 53 59

a y< ^ 31 32 33 34

15 10 11 11 6

23 16 IV 14 10

14 13 la 12 5

21

3 2 1 3 2

> 2

10

9

10

10

1 1 4

11 10 t>

7 7 4

if.*;. 35 41 36 19

56 33 4fc* 31fK

35 36 37 3S 39

13 15

11 7 13

t\

u o 7 3

V/

u 2 1 0 1

o

9 4

9 2 7 3 4

j

34 31 10 20 19

16 21 9 13

40 41

2 2 2 1 1

0

0 0 0 1 0

"h .1

•j

Jl 1 4 r

-A.

■13

4 5

X.

Ju v )

•> Mr

43 44

11 9 4 4 4

45 46 47 4d 49

2 1 1 4 1

0 0 1 I 0

0 0 u 0 Li

15

26

U,(L

7 6

10 19 Q 10 16 10 6 3 5

r*

2 1 1 1

3 0 2 1

2 0 1

0 0 (C 0 0

1

0 1 1

1 1 0

3

1

0

i

0

0

2 /'W

B 5 3 9

1 2

1 u

1 0

1 u c " 1 -JU 0

0 1

J>*+

8 7

4 7 3

/CO

21

6 3 2 1 2 a 0 **

T&BJVft 25 (Continued) Teach­ ing load

Group I

Group 11

Group ill

Hal e g©MO mol e

Male Fe­ male

Male Fe­ Mai e Feme! • ; maU

Group IV

50 *51 52 53 54

1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

2 3 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

1 0 i

55 56 5? 5$ 59

X 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1

0

2

0 0

u 0 0 0 0

60 61 62

0 0 0

0 0 0

O V 0 1

0 0 0

229

291

216

253

Total .■loan

00 !■ 29-5

VF\J 0

33-^ 29.$

Total Hal e Fe­ rntile

r

0 0 0 ‘-'jT

0

u

0 0 0 0 0

i 0 u 0 If

0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0

0 w 1

0 0 0

29

19

147

14 s

621

677

0

u 0 0

**y •9 •& 32.4, 2 7 . B 34.$ OO

9 I, 1 2 1

0 0 0 0 0

2 2 0 1

2

Q U 0 p s 'w / 0

v #

The Tiean for all male teachers in the four groups is 32.$ and the mean for all female teachers in the four groups is 29.4* The difference between the means of the male ana female teachers is 3.2, which indicates that male- teachers carry threo periods more per week than female teachers. The data in Table 26 show the teaching load for teachers in schools with the lengthened period according to sex within each group.

It also shows the total teaching load for all male

and fetaale teachers,

the t each in r load ranges from 15 to 50.

Tho means for both sexes within each group arid fu.; *11 ,roups are shown at the end of the table.

103 ABLE 26. TEAOHTKC 1,0'E TO'l "VS- 71> 3:;:'AG„a MIKUT$ Pa*iIQJ)3 AGCOHBIKG 70 6161 vvITfLlli aiAuH GftQUP

Teach­ ing load

Group I

Orou.r> 11

Group H i

Gryer > IV

»*•.. .■>(.f ’ S'r'5Hi mal e

licAa f e-

Hale Fe­ male

Hal. a: 1 Fe­ rna1©

raalo

0 0 1 0

0 0 *nL 2

19

0 0 1 0 1

3

4

5

0 0 3

20 21

1 1

3 3

i)

11

5

Xt> 14

0 6

5

9 5 9

11

9

2

6

16

11

8

14

Q

14 10 10

13

10 11 7 0 7

16

16 11 10 11

11 11 3

5 5 5

4 5 2

7

0

0 2

5 7 6 7 1

1 I 2 0 0

1 1 0 3 4

15 lw 17

U

Ojfr > A ., 23 24

L 0 2

1

25

1

0

jCO

0 0 3 1

i

1

33 36

4 0 0 1 0

35

0

06

6 0

27 '"l 0c

♦A*n

30 31 32

37 ^ ra JJ& 39

0

40 41 42 43 4*

0 0 0 0 0

0

2 0 1 0

o 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

2 1 5 4

0 1 3

1 jC

2

1

n ’ i.' 0

0 0

U

1

l

0

0

0

I

0

u

0 1

0

0

55-60

Total •\v.l2 «0— male

0 1 0

2

0

3

0

2

0

"3

1 2

2 5

4 a

u I AX

6

10

10 22

6

5 0

etf 16 16 15

c

2 0 2

2 0 0 1

2 0 0 ' i4 0 0 0

6 9 13 13 16

17 2m&/c'5

16 19 17 14 9

26

14 6 £‘ i 9 6 3 5 3

6 4 3

1 6 5

ti

1

0 a 4 3

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

24 24 •U»

r

Jt* r

23 29 30

37 44 .47 49 46 47 41 35

24

20 15 16 17 6

IS 11 5 4 5

8

1 1 3 2 0

4 e

10

u

0

4 2 0 4

1 1 I

0

0

1

3

0

22

26

G

104 TABLE 26 ( ’ontinued)

i ©ach­ ing load

Group X' Male F©male

45 46 47 4$ 49 50

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

‘ Total

20

23

Mean

£5.2 22,7

Group II t .i_ mai © r 6mole

Group IV

Male Be­ rnala

Halo i'0— male

0 0 0 0 0 rV\

X nj 0 0 1 1

141

Group [XI

165

27. & 25.4

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

G 1 0 n 0 0

125

144

120

27.3 24.7

As shown in Table 26, th

Total Male F e— male

0 0 0 0 0 (1 157

28.0 25.2

1 1 0 0 I 1 406

0 0 0

0

0 0 W9

27.6 24.9

Tor ■wiiv5 male teachers in

Group I for the lengthened period is 2 5 . 2 and the mean for the female teachers in Group I is 22.7. the means for the male m d

The difference between

female teach or® in Group ! la 2.6,

’ *hich Indicates that male teachers carry approximate!/ 2-k periods more per week than the female teachers.

The nean for

the male teachers in Grauo II is 2?.$ and that for tha female teachers Is 25.4*

The difference between the means for the

mala and female teachers in Group I I

is 2 . 4 which indicates

that male teachers carry two periods more per week than female teachers*

The mean for the male teachers in Group I I I

is

27*3 and that for the female teachers in this group is 2 4 * 7 . The difference between the means for the aai© and female

105 teacher? in Group I II is 2 . 6 , ml.' o' 3 roil cate a t h a t

.ale

he?oh©re cerrv aporoxlw&b el y pa per 1od? more per the female teachers.

than

The mean for the rale teachers in Group

IV is 78.0 and that for the female teachers

Is 25.2.

The

difference between the me'-ns for the male &rH f © nal e teachers in Group IV is 2,8, which indicates that male teachers carry

approximately three pvrioJs more per weak than the female teachers.

The mean for all male teachers in- thn four groups

is 2?,6 and the ine&n for all fernola teachers in the four groups is 24*9.

The difference between the roeens o f tha male and

female teachers ip 2.7, which indicator toed, main benchers carry approxi ately three p-riods .10re per wee: t h e n the female teachers for all four prouos.

T a b l e 27 shows t h e teaching lot-2 f o r t e a c h e r s In schools with the shortened p e r i o d s according t o t h e sl o e of the? school

and s e x of t h e teacher.

Any teacher

who i n tumefied n o re t h a n

35 p e r i o d s p e r week o f t h e shortened p e r i o d s h a s e l o a d in excess o f the standards a s stated in iiemulation 1 0 o f the Jiorth .ortral i s s o c i &*■0 on . broken l i n e i n d i c a t e t h v

oil m a i l e r s a n pea r i n g a b o v e t h e

t e a c h e r s whose: l o a d ia. legs? t h a n t h e

m a x i m u m p e m i t t e d by the regulation»

a?11 number? a opearlng

b e l o w t h e b r o k e n X in e i n d i c a t e t e a c h o r s v b a - a lo-'" is ir-. e x c e s s of

. e n d at ion 10.

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115 Table JO shows the number and percentage or -rale and Temple teachers within each group ano all groups with the lengthane 7 period having 'JO or fewer periods art. 31 or more periods*

TABLE 30* 1TUMBLE A M r1mCh;LTAGi:- OF Ma L „ A20 2 -< ?«LA liAOhKr.:' Vi'iTUIK LkCii GllLt ? m j ALri GhOli do -; >lOh T!1a. a ■E G T M M F PSHIOD HAVIHO 30 Oil F 'fLVEL PEeIudo all 31 Oh * KOHa E10D i Group and sex

inisjber with 30 or less periods

dumber with 31 or -nore periods

Total number

19 23 42

1

20

5.0

0 1

23 43

0

103

38

149

141 165

252

16 54

Percentage with 31 or more periods

GROUP X Male F ©male Total

2.3

GROUP II Male Fe. irile Total

306

26.9 9.7 17.6

GROUP H I Male Female Total

125 144 269

27.2 13. £

7 XA a-A; 157

44

277

26.3 6.3 15.$

107 36 143

40 b 4$9 $95

26.4 7.4 15.9

91

34

124

20

215

54

06 147

34 10

233

299 453 752

20.1

GROUP IV Male F O'ra1© Total all g r o u p , 5

Mai 0 Fenale Total

116 According to the data in Table 30, 19 stale teachers in Group 1 have 30 or fewer perioda per week and 1 male teacher has 31 or more periods per week, which showa that five per cent of the male teachers have an excess load*

Twenty three

female teachers have 30 or fewer periods per week and there are no female teachers with 31 or more periods, which indi­ cates that no female teacher has an excess load*

Of the

male and female teachers in Group I, 42 have 36 or .fewer periods per week and only 1 teacher has 31 or more periods per week, which shows that only 2*3 per cent of the teachers in Group I have a load in excess of the maximum permitted in Reflation 10. As Indicated in Group II, 103 male teachers have 30 or fewer periods per week and 3$ male teachers have 31 or more periods per week, indicating that 2o.9 per cent of the male teachers have an excess load.

In Group IX, 149 female

teachers have 30 or fewer periods per week and 16 famale teachers have 31 or more periods per week, which shows that 9.7 per cent of the female teachers In Group II have an excess load.

In Group £1 252 male and female teachers have JO or

fewer periods per week and 54 male and female teachers have 31 or more period© par week, which Indicates that 17.6 per cent of the teachers have a load in excess of the maximum permitted In Regulation 10. Ninety-one male teachers in Group III have 30 or fewer periods par week and 34 mala teacher© have 31 or more periods

117 p©r ^©@k, which indicates that 27*2 per cent of the 73ale teach* @rs have an excess load*

In Group III, 124 female teacaere

have 30 or fewer periods per week and. 20 female teachers have 31 or toore periods per week, which shows that 13*0 per cent of

the facial© teachers have an excess load.

In Croup III, 215

male anI female teachers have 30 or fewer periods par week and 54 sale and female teachers have 31 or aore periods per week, which indicates that 20.1 per cent of the teachers have a load in excess of the maximum permitted in Regulation 10. As indicated in Group IV, $6 of the male teachers have 30 or fewer periods per vieoh and 34 'Male teachers

have 31 or

more periods per weak, indicating that 2d*3 per cent of the stale teachers in Group IV have m

excess load*

in Group IV,

147 female teachers have 30 or fewer periods per week and 10 female teachers have 31 or more periods per week, which shows

that 0.3 pax* cent of the femle teachers have an excess load. Of male and female teachers, 233 have 30 or fewer parlous per week and 44 male and female teachers have 11 or more periods per week, which shows that 15*3 per cent of the teachers have a load in exceao of the

maximum permitted in Regulation 10.

In the four groups, 299 male teachers have 30 or fewer periods per week and 107 stale teachers in the four groups have

11 or more periods per week, indicating that 20.4 par oerrt of the male teachers in the four groups have an excess loan.

In

all groups, 453 female teachers have 30 or fewer periods per week m d

16 female teachers have 31 or more periods per week,

118 which shows that 7.4 per cent of the female teachers in the

four groups have an excess load.

In all groups, 752 male and

female teacher© have 30 or fewer periods per week and 143 male and female teachers have 31 or more periods per week, indicat­ ing that 15*9 per cent of the teachers in the four groups have a load in excess of the maximum permitted in Regulation 10. According to the data in Table 30, a greater percent­ age of men teachers than women teachers in the different groups of schools with the lengthened period carry a teaching load in excess of Regulation 10. Table 31 shows the teaching load for teachers in schools with the shortened periods according to the sis© of the school and sex of the teacher, but excluding those teach­ ers who have an excess load on account of added duties for which they receive additional compensation.

All numbers

appearing above the broken line Indicate the teachers whose load is leas than the maximum permitted by the regulation, and all numbers appearing below the broken line indicate teachers whose load is in excess of Kemulation 10.

However,

the numbers appearing below the broken line represent only those teachers who have an excess load for which they receive no additional

com pensation.

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(1) ^ U) TelglrtActTHtyoF" Glass _______ _

(3)

U)

(5)

(o>

{?}

Number of of of of students periods periods weetvs

146 b. Insert the appropriate weights to the left of each type of activity. c. Insert, the appropriate weights in the column to the left of the number of students. d. Aonvert all periods to eoi'respom to the normal length of periods for a particular school by using the formula, 0 li 1•>

V -

/

e. Change the number of weeks an activity meats to comes pond to the normal school year by an equal redact 5.on in the number of periods.

The formula, to be used is T h _ i_ w \ 2

f . Multiply the weight in column one by the weight in colu'an three by the number of period,-, in column five. g. Carr Q?J

t/liS 2 01

out the san.; procedure for each activity listed

..

h. /niu tno j-eau l.ts oj. t-baso cni.cux;..tona an,, uiviuG

bJ

15.6. rT:e result is t.ho teaching Iona for this each or in number of periods a week * 2• It is also reasonable to recommend that, if a school is not in agreement with the mights established in this study, the iacuity could use th e wo Ic:,ht m g .>1> .e©t

a.u. esvdull oh Caa©

weights indicated by a poll among thorn

Ives.

Th.-) method of

calculating tie i o .< should be siiu\1ar.

ilovjWvoi , r».

mi ©

Wvi^bts

should be different, the divisor would also be changed into the

147 average of the weight© used by the faculty for the regular teaching activities, other activities, and class size. 3. It might be worth-while for a committee of the North Central Association to study the teaching load in light of this study. 4. Further study could be macse of the correlation between the pupil-teacher ratio and the teacher load as developed in this study. 5. It is recognized that the study is quantitative in nature, and that there are various qualitative aspects which should be investigated. 6. Further study should be made of the weights given by teachers known to have had experience as against the weights given by teachers know, to have had no experience in order to test the validity of the method used in this study and the reliability of the weights established.

X4$

xslBLXOGiiAi’HY

149 3IBL.TOCJFJ rKT 1. Brown, £. J.t and Fritaemeier, L. H ., "Some Factors in Measuring. Teacher Land/’ Educational T:!ministration and Supervision 17:64-69, Juni7'T93T7~™ 2. Douglass, Bari R* t "Measuring the Teaching Load in the High School/' Nation* a Schools 2:22-25, yCtoher, 1922.

3* Douglass, iiarl 2 ., Or/yen,la at Ion end 5TM.nx "tratior of Secondary 3chooXs» Ginn'rantT So., TJhicago/ 1932, 579 pp. 4. Douglass, Harl R,, and 3aupe, Lthel 2 ., "The Professional Load of Teachers in the ''econdary .Schools of Iowa, School Review 43 :426-433, June, 1935* 5. Douglass, Bari R*, and Taylor, V;., "Light Loads and Heavy," Bat ion 1a Schools 18:35-37, August, l°3o.

6 . r'ouglass, Harl ft,, Organisation an„ A .aaleirG.T:--t:lon o f Secondary Schools , Ginn "arid Jo .,"li’ hTeago ^”’151^5, rev • pp.

7# Diettert, 5, £., "Teacher Load and Sxtracurricuiur Activi­ ties," School Activities 9:203-245, June, 1938. 8. delis, Kenneth T., "Measuring Teacher Load," nation*s Schools 23:49-51, .February, 1939.

9. frost, Horton, "That Teaching Lo&dAn Journal 102:43-45, March, 1941.

American ..•-shool Hoard

10. Garland, Philip L., "The Extra-Ourriculum and the Teacher*s no ■otdj■f Jloaring tiauoe 19:82

11. Irwin, Leonard L « j

Li liEiry each or Loada in econdary Schools/’ American School toard Journal 112:27-29, r ebruc ry, TvlST**

12. Jung, Christian aood. The Development of a Proposed Revision of the Douglass F ormula For Tea surir g Teach lag »oal In the ~Tf'ocorxfery "ccfool t foot or*a '"‘h no 1r», school of .,Puca115n"i— tfri1versi ty "6F ""Co1ora Go, noulder, 1949, 211 PP* 13. Lee, J. Murray, and Lee, Dorris dav, The Jhild and Bis Curriculum . D. AppUtoR-Gentinv ..377 ” "7o7I37 194' SfjiT’pp* 14. McKown, Harry 0., Extracurricular .-..I...-...- .Inn„Tmiln,L,_armni ^Activities, .miwihiibi>-ww«»"W‘—-1■" ' ‘ ■t,"r^r|T‘T' The Macmillan so *, Lew lort, 194u, r o v « ad.

734 pp.

150 15. Meyers, Charles Everett, "Measuring the Teaching Load/’ Nation* $ School a 25 :o4* April, 1940. 16* Meyers, L. L. , deeded: An Objective Met nod oi determining Teaching Load.,n N at Ion *s Oohools 31:30-31, April, 1943*" 17. Nelson, Thomas L., "Teaching Load/ Journal lii$0, July, 1945*

Rmarlcan School hoard

16* udell, 0* A., Statistical .jfethou in .education. j). appietonCentury do*7'Tncrrt“'",ll'e^ York,'''3.^5' X ^ bp. 19. Odell, C* ••>•, 11Teacher Load in Tlltnoio nl^h Schools/1' Illinois Education 362 71-74, Hovemoer, 1947. 20* Pauly, F. a., ,TStudying Clast oise and Teacher uoad,n M ntion *3 Schools 16:20, October, 1035* 21* Potthoff, E. S., "Special Problems Hesuitin? froun the Humber of sections taught,** North Central association ;uarterly 11:288-295, June, 19371 ‘ ~ ' ~ ~ 22, Oelvidge, R. R'.f "The Te ^china Load in Hlyh "'ehool/ Education 58:142-143> November, 1937.

23. Stocker, C, G.,

teaching Load in Fu al1e iecondary Schools, Doctor’s thesis, School™? 'Y.dncnt ion,University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1940, 62 pp.

24* Tritt, G. o., and .Reyes, Marion ^^stiiuating leeching Loads by r'oans of Subject Tocfficlento/' Lstfon’0 Schools 5:01-6$, April, 1930. 25* Walker, Helen s., Elementary statistical .Methods, Uenry Holt and Co., Mow York, 1943, 368 'ptI " 26#ard, R. A♦, "flourin'* the Teacher Losd,’* Ysti >n ’3 17:22, March, 1930. 27. "Load of the Teacher/* El err a buucational October, 1940.

Rchools

36:22-44,

2$. "that About Extra Pay for r-'xtra ’ork1’? N at ion*a 3 ;hools 39: 30, June, 1947#

151

?PE&PIi

152

Appendix A Bow to express a teaching load Let

;>i s weight assigned to first subject * weightassigned for number of students in class s number of periods class meets during week

and

32 as weight assigned second subject C2 * weightfor number of students in class f*2 s number of periodsclsss meets during week

continue the plan of notation for a third and fourth subject, and set up the following table:

Now

Sub­ jects taught (1)

SubStudent Periods Weight Con­ ject weight per factor vertweight (3) week (5) ing (;,) factor (2) (6)

Subjset 1

SH

PiX

"1

Con­ verted factor

m

b1GX

X ^j^ur* Jv L

—~T“ (P"X| i .*1 j.-j0 ~ \ .- , / Ii•i

S^C*p 3m oCo Av

Zn

Subject 2

331

Convert­ ing factor x periods per week (7)

...

'

wW

1 't Su d jec t 3

- " '3

s 3

'3

;3

v O

"33

'3'T3

•.c *•»



Subject 4

rt

h

'"4

14

V ;4

34,.;

ou

m

*r'}

:A V 4 SC

-

*S in this notation represents the average weight for all sub­ jects in the curriculum. This average was obtained by sampl­ ing opinions of teachers, C represents the average weight for classes of all enrollments ano was obtained by sampling opinions of teachers. To show how the table is used, consider the first subject (English I) listed on work sheet (Table 20). Substituting values in the above table, wo have:

153

(1 ) English I

(2)

(3)

13 1.3

U)

(5)

13(1.3)

(6)

13(1.;

I 2TTT3

(7)

(3)

iijhj!i;)

The converting factor in column 6 is obtained by expressing the r a t i o between the weight factor for the particular class and the weight factor for all classes as established by sampling of teacher opinions. In this particular calculation, the converting factor is 13/12, which means that the average can be obtained for English 1 by multiplying the number of weekly periods by this factor. This gives 5*416 for the subject. Obviously the summation of a l l converted values found in column It would express the total for the given teacher whose load was being converted to the average. In practice, the calculations in column S could be shortened by adding all the numerator;-- and diviilng by t h e denominator once, since it is ths same denominator in all fractions. Inasmuch as d and C are fixed values chrouyaoui, the whole study, respectively equaling 12 and 1.3» 60 always equals 15.6 in the calculations.

154

Appendix B Introductory letter sent to principals

Mr* John J* Doe, Principal Oakdale High School Oakdale, Illinois Dear Mr* Do©: I am attempting to make a study of th® teaching load problem in Illinois for which I shall need a limited amount of information. I thought possibly your school might b® interested in supplying this information to m e sometime during the first semester of the school year 194&-1949. It will take each teacher approximately five minutes to fill out a form for extracurricular duties a n d your office a short time to make a duplicate copy of the schedule of your classes which you send to th© State D e p a r t m e n t in your annual report. 1 realise that this does take additional time, but I believe that all of us will benefit by this study. I am enclosing a brief explanation of what material I want and also a card on which you can designate whether you would like your school to be included in this study* I shall appreciate an early reply. Sincerely,

John P. Mess, Principal University School edw Enclosure 2

155 what Constitutes the Teaching Load in the Secondary Schools? Since the Korth Central Association of Collages and Secondary Schools has revised its regulation for the approval of secondary schools concerning the teaching load, it is my desire to find out what really constitutes a. teaching load and if the association is justified in considering all of the phases mentioned in regulation 10 which is as follows: In determining the teaching load, consideration is given to the following components: the number of periods of class teaching, the number of different preparations, study hall duty, class size, total number of pupils taught daily, the demands made in the way of any guidance and supervisory activities, and. the duties involved in the sponsorship of pupil activities. Due allowance Is made in computing the teacher load for special assignments to committee work whose purpose is to improve any phase of the school program. Naturally all of us would like to have teaching; loads equalized as nearly as passible. To make a. study of this nature, it is necessary to obtain adequate data in order to find out what duties constitute the teaching loadand to arrive at a formula for calculating the load. Since so manyof the Illinois high schools are members of the North Jentral Association and practically all Illinois high schools are recognised by the state, this study will be limited to recognized high schools in the state of Illinois. for this it. Th©

Since your school was selected to provideinformation study, it is my hope that you may findtime to supply following information will be needed: (1) k copy of your class schedule with th© number of pupils in each class, study hall, and home room. Since the number of students fluctuates from day to day in the study halls, either list the number of pupils for each day of the week or record the average for the week. This schedule can probably be a duplicate copy of the schedule sent to the State Department when you make your annual report. (2)

If home rooms are not listed on the schedule and time is provided for them, a separate schedule with the number of pupils for each home room will need to ba included.

156

(3) Each teacher will be asked to fill out a brief form on which all other duties, except classes, study halls, and. home rooms may be listed* This form should not take more than five minutes of the teachers’ time. If you desire to cooperate in this study, please check the enclosed card and return to John D. Meas, Principal, Univer­ sity High School, darbondale, Illinois.

157

Postal card accompanying the introductory letter sent to principala

Pear Mr* Pees: I do wish to participate in the teaching load study. 1 do not wish to participate in the teaching load study * .................

Principal or Super inteindent

158 Letter number 2 sent to principals

Mr, John J* Doe, Principal Oakdale High School Oakdale, Illinois Dear Hr. Doe: Thank you for expressing a desire to participate in the. teaching load study. As I mentioned in my previous letter in August, X would like to have the following information: (1) k copy of your class schedule with the number of students in each class. (2) A copy of your study hall schedule with the number of pupils in each study hall. Sine© the enrollment in the study halls fluctuates from day to day, the average for the week may be used. (3) A copy of your homeroom schedule with the number of students in each room. (4) The length of the class period, the home­ room period and the study hall period if the time is not shown on the schedule. Since the annual report asks for most of the above information, I thought possibly this would be fin appropriate time to ask for the information without causing you too much additional work. I will send the blanks for each teacher to list his or her extracurricular duties sometime later this fall. Sincerely,

John D. Ileea, grind p&l University Jchool

15? Explanation of teaching load questionnaire for extra curricular duties It is my desire to find out what really constitutes a teaching load. To do this it is necessary to have a selected number of schools which will supply adequate data for this study, Th© principal of your school has indicated that your school would participate. The principal is supplying all information concerning your class, study hall, and homeroom teaching load. In order to get data for all other duties performed by you, it is necessary to list them in the table prepared on page three. When you have listed all your extra, duties, return page three to th© principal* s office so that he may semi it along with the other teachers* data to me. In order to simplify the listing as much as possible, I will attempt to list numerous examples. Please write your name at the top just aa it appears on your high school schedule of classes. In this way I can easily add your extracurricular load to your curricular load. I. If you have 50 boys in football from 3;00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. for four days per week and spend from 6:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. at a game per week, this information would apoear in the table as follows:

Name of activity

Football

Number of Number of Number of weeks clock hours ■pupils pursued per week 16

50

10

Do you receive ad­ ditional compensa­ tion for this duty's

no

Ba s k.©t ball y b•i%©ball, ter a La, tr a c k , swirlining, etc.,

may be Inc Xuded in thl s group, II, If you sponsor the yearbook and the st aJY of 15 meets from p.m. twice per week for 36 weeks, the 3:00 p .m. to inform ation would appear as follows:

160

Carrie of activity

Yearbook

group.

Number of clock hours per week

dumber of pupils

Number of weeks pursued

15

36

4-

do you receive ad­ ditional compensa­ tion for this duty? no

School paper and maga*ines are also included in this

H I . If you coach a play which has a cast' of 15 for four days from 7:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. for 18 weeks, the informa­ tion would appear as follows: Name of activity

Directing plays

Nuxaber of clock hours per week

Humber of pupils

Humber ox weeks pursued

15

18

12

ho von receive ad­ ditional compensa­ tion for this duty?

yes

IV. If you sponsor the Science Club of 25 metiers for one night per week from 7:00 p.m. to $:00 p.m., the informa­ tion would appear as follows: Name of activity

Number of clock hours per week

pursued

ilor* for this duty?

i

«\ CV

1

! j

I

Science Club

liiWibev ?'o you receive adOI V*£&aS dit10na1 componsa­

Number of pupils

36

no

161 If you sponsor a Foreign Language Club of 18 members from 4:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. which meets every two weeks, the information would appear as follows:

Marne of activity

Number of clock hours per week

Foreign Language 1 (biweekly) Club

Humber of pupils

18

Lumber of weeks pursued

36

Do you receive ad­ ditional compensa­ tion for this duty?

no

If you sponsor the Home Economics Jlub of Ji) members from 10:30 s,.m. to 11:00 a.m. once per week, the information would a ppear as follows: Marne of activity

Home Eco­ nomics Club

Lumber of clock hours per week

1/2

Mumher of ■pupils

Lumber of weeks pursued

30

36

Do you receive ad­ ditional compensa­ tion for this duty?

no

All clubs in the school may be listed as those in the examples above. V. If you are a member of a committea which moots once per week for three hours, the information would appear ss follows: Lame of activity

Curriculum Committee

Number of clock hours per week

14umber of pupils

Lumber of weeks pursued

3

0

36

Ho you r? ceive addittonal compensation for this duty?

no

162 ¥1* If you are a dean, supervisor, assistant principal, etc*, and spend three hours per day for five days a week in this work, the information would appear as follows: Kama of act!vi ty

fte&n of Girls

dumber of clock hours per week

15

(lumber of pupils

dumber of weeks pursued

0

36

Do you receive ad­ ditional compensa­ tion for this duty?

no

teaching, load questionnaire for extra­ curricular duties Ham©

_________

r________ behoof _ _ _ ___ __ ______

Your principal has reported your class, study hall, and homeroom teaching load* All other duties should be reported on this sheet* Do you have other duties in addition to your class, study hall, and homerooms? Yes __

If your answer was yes, please fill in the necessary information in the blank.-; below.

Name of activity

Number of clock hours per week

Humber of pupils

humber of weeks pursued

H*o you receive ad­ ditional compensa­ tion for this duty'

*nAdditional compensation" means extra pay for work performed in addition to what is considered oy your school us above the normal load* For example, some coaches prefer to teach the normal load and then receive additional pay for their coaching duties after school hours*

164 Letter number 3 sent to principals

Mr* John D. Doe, Principal Oakdale High School Oakdal 0 , 111inoIs Dear Mr* Doe: I stated in my last letter of October 5, that 1 would send the extracurricular questionnaire for the Teaching Load Study sometime In the near future* You will find enclosed a sufficient number of questionnaires for each member of your faculty* Pages one and two include typical examples of dif­ ferent duties performed by teachers* Page three is the questionnaire to be filled out by each teacher. Please return only page three to me, but a questionnaire should be included for each member of your faculty whether they have any extracurrTcuTar duties or not, X am enclosing a self-addressed envelope for your convenience* You iu*ed not return any unused questionnaires because I purposely included additional ones in case that you needed them. 1 wish to express my appreciation for your cooperation, and you can rest assured that when the results are published, you will receive a report. Sincerely,

John 1. Tees, Principal University School edw

Enclosures

165

Follow-up letter number 1

Mr. John J. Doe, irincipal Oakdale High School Oakdalev Iilinois Bear Mr. Doe: I received your class schedule with the desired in­ formation but have not as yet received the extracurricular questionnaires foreach teacher, i am sending you additional copies of the extracurricular questionnaires for each see. I will appreciate receiving these as soon as possible in order that 1 may include your school in the Teaching Load. Study. Sincerely,

John !'). keen, Principal University wChooi edw Lnclosures

166

Fol.lov-.ijn letter number 2

M r,

John

J*

Doe,

P rin c ip a l

Oakdale Hifb Iehoo1 O a k d a le ,

Illin o is

D e a r M r*

v,to o :

L a s t f e l l yo u r e t u r n e d a c a rd i n d i e - t i n y t h a t you w e re i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c t p o t l r : i n t h e T e a j f l r.- I.o n e * t u r f y v h i c h I a r c o n d u c ’- i n ^ i n t h e s t a t e o f I l l i n o i s , • have n o t re c e iv e d y o u r c la s s s c h e d u le s h o w in g t h e n u a b e r o f s t u d e n t s in each c la s s , study h a l l , ho- ie r o o : iw I a l s o 3 o ut- e x t r a c i i r r i c u l a r q u r ' i t i o n r o i r o s f o r e a c h t e a c h e r t o f i l l i n and a s y e t h a v e n o t r e c e i v e d th e n *. I w o u ld l i k e t o r e c e i v e th e ,;; a a s o o n a s p o s s i b l e I n o r d e r t h a t I a a y c o n t in u e w it h t h e T e a c h in g Load S tu d y i t . i l l in c lu d e y o u r s c h o o l as o n e o f t h e 140 s c h o o ls . I f y o u w o u ld l i k e a d d i t i o n a l e x t r a c u r r i c u l nr q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , I s h a l l be h a p p y t o s u p p l y them. S in c e r e ly ,

vohn ...

t e a , >rinci pal

Uni veraity ;iehoo 1 edw

.167 Weighting sheet number 1 In studying the problem of what constitutes a teaching load-, we encounter many- questions.

One of these is vh&t weights

should be assigned to the different areas grouped as regular teaching activities.

For example, should a class in science

have the same weight as a class in physical education provided the number of pupils are the same?

Indicate in lolumn A below,

by means of a number between ten and twenty, what weight you would assign to each subject area in which you have taught..

Do

likewise in Joltnm b for the subject areas in which you have not taught •

A number should be placed either in doluran a or |

to the left of each subject area but not in both.

For example,

if you have taught agriculture and wish to assign a weight of fifteen to it, you should place this number in lolumn £.

If

you have not taught music ana wish to assign a weight of twelve

to it, then you should place this in Column juj.

1r

gn xng

these weights to the different subject areas, such factors as preparation, grading of papers, difficulty of teaching, etc., should be taken into consideration.

Agriculture art business English Foreign Language

16$ Homeinaklng Industrial Arts Mathematics Music Physical Education Science Social Studies Vocational Shop

169 Weighting sheet number 2 A second question is what weights should be assigned to the different areas grouped as other activities,

for example,

should coaching a basketball team have the same weight as sponsoring a class provided the number of pupils are the same. Indicate* In Column A below, bv means of a number between ten and twenty, what weight you would assign to each activity under the eight general headings which you have directed*

Do

likewise in Column B for the activities which you have not directed*

A number should be placed either in Column A or B

to the left of each activity but not in both*

for example, if

you have coached basketball and wish to assign a weight of seventeen to it, you should place this number in Column A,

If

you have not sponsored a commerce club but wish to assign a weight of eleven to it, then you should place this number in Column B.

In assigning these weights to the different activi­

ties, such factors as preparation, difficulty of sponsoring, etc., should be taken into consideration* OTHEti ACTIVITIES a

B «

«.

ATHLETICS —

A

B

Baseball Basketball

_ _ _

_ _ _

~ _

«.

Football

. _____

Golf Intramurals

______

COMMITTEES Advisory council Committee meetings Faculty meetings Departmental meetings Social committee

170 ATHLETICS (ContM)

A

B

PLAYS

Swimming

Dramatic activi­ ties Speech team

Tennis

tjeou te teaui

Track

Speech contests

Wrestling

Operetta

Softball

Build stage sets CLUBS Pep Club Future Farmers of America Future Homemakers of America Commerce club

A _____

B ___

^ __

__ _

MlS CELL AftKGU3 DUTIES Selling tickets at ball games Taking tickets at t.&ll games Chaperon Pus

Girls* Athletic Association Dramatic club

Treasurer, activity fund Concessions

Science club

Loon supervision

Industrial arts club Library club

Mlmeagrapfting

National Honor Society Foreign language club Dance club

Game timer

Text book rental

Knitting club

Cheerleaders

Letters an* r> club

Lockers

Trips

Oorrldor duty

Discussion club

Magazine sales

Camera club

Duplicating

Airplane club

Gym supervision

Journali sm club

3hoo upkeep

Hi-Y club

Attendance records

171 CLUBS (Cont’d)

jb

MI D 'jiifjU)jAh LOU3

uuTI.Si { C o a t ’d) PIa y g r o u n d supervision Library assistant

Junior Red Cross Future Teachers of Amer i ca Student speakers1 bureau X-teen

_

Extra driving Fence police Extra band rehearsals Special projects

Thespian club Music club 4-B club

_

Visual aids

Boy Scouts

.

Fosters c h e c k rooi-j

Girls’ club Stamp club

^

bookstore

Bribersf club

__ _

Policing

Art club

3 ©11 r e f r e s h ­

Conservation club

ments Inventory

bowling club

m _

Clerical

___ U s h e r .'U B LIC A TTori

Projection crew

Magaaine

Sapor

d

r’iiO Lit *u43

Yearbook

Junior-senior banquet

ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES Class sponsor

Carnival

Community service

Spring concert __ _

Christm/-. s p r o g r a m

Counseling

ensembles

Deans

J u n i o r prora

Da par t