Secondary Schools Teachers in the Territories and Possessions of the United States

Citation preview

FORDHAM UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL

This dissertation prepared under my direction by

M h e r ta .C r e s p i..........................................................

entitled ...Secpndary....§.chp^

sessio n s...p f..th e...n n ited

t h e „ .£ e r r it o r ^

.....................................................................

has been accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the

Degree of ...JDoctor... o f ...Ehil.QSop.hy..........................................................

(Faculty Adviser)

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SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN I Hi TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

BY ALBERTA R. CRESPI B.A ., Smith C ollege, *12 M«A«, Fordham U n iversity, *30

DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION OF FORDHAM UNIVERSITY

NEW YORK 1942

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ProQuest Number: 13846671

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER LIST OF TABLES IN TEXT LIST OF TABLES IN APPENDIX, I . THE PROBLEM AND PROCEDURE The Problem The Need fo r the Study The Scope and L im itations o f the Problem The Procedure Treatment o f the Data I I . THE TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS..... .............. D escrip tion o f the T er rito ries and P ossessions H istory and Present Statu s o f Education

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14

I I I . ADMINISTRATION OF TEACHER PERSONNEL................................. Regulations on Appo intment Regulations on Salary Regulations on Extra Compensation R egulations on Sick Leave, Leave o f Absence, and Transfers Provisions fo r Improvement in Service Regulations on Tenure Regulations on Pension and Retirement

57

IV. SOME SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS.............................. Race B irthplace Occupations C itizen sh ip Sex and M arital Status Age Leisure Time A c t iv itie s and Community P a r ticip a tio n

84

V. TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE F ie ld fo r Which Teacher Received Most Training Number o f Years o f Teaching Experience Transiency Highest Level o f Training Number of Degrees Sources o f Degrees

130

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iv i" CHAPTER

PAGE Semester Hours Credit Earned in Subject F ields Credit in Education and Practice Teaching

VI. TEACHING PATTERNS........................................................................ Number o f D ifferen t F ield s in "Which Teachers Give Instru ction Subject Combinations Taught by Teachers Teaching Load

167

V II. ECONOMIC STATUS ................................................................. Demand fo r New Teachers Sources o f New Teacher Supply S a la ries

205

V III. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

......................................

250

APPENDIX....................... Tables Questionnaires o f This Study Questionnaire o f the National Survey L etter o f Dr. John W. Studebaker, Commissioner o f Education o f the United S tates

252

BIBLIOGRAPHY

314

.....................

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LIST OF TABLES IN TEXT TABLE 1. Number o f Secondary Schools and Secondary School Teachers in the T er rito ries and Outlying P ossessions o f the United S ta te s , and Number o f R eplies to Q uestionnaires, 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2. Corresponding Terminology in This Study and the C en su s..........................................................

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86

3. Percentage o f Each Race in General Population and in Teaching P ro fession , Public and Private S ch ools, A ll L ev e ls, in Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

4 . R e c la s sific a tio n o f Hawaiian Teachers, by R ace.

90

5. Teachers, by Race• • • • • .........................

92

6. Ranking, fo r Each Area, o f Occupations o f Fathers o f Teachers, in Order of Prevalence ............

101

7. Ranking, fo r A ll Areas, o f Occupations of Fathers o f Teachers, in Order of Prevalence ............

101

8 . Fathers o f Teachers and General Populations, by Occupations............................................

102

9 . C itizen sh ip and B irthplace of Teachers and Their F ath ers..............

108

10. Percentage o f Men Teachers in Secondary Schools o f the T er rito ries and P o ssessio n s• • • • • ..........

112

11. Men and Women Teachers, According to the N ational Survey and This S tud y. ............................

113

12. Percentage o f S in g le Women and Married Women in the Teaching Groups of the United S ta tes and of the T e r r ito r ie s, According to the National Survey and This Study..............

115

13. Ranking o f Bata f o r Age o f Teachers.• • • • • • • • • ..........

118

14. Requirements fo r Appointment and Age o f T eachers.*•

119 j

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TABLE

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15.

Ranking of

Leisure Time A c t iv itie s by P o p u la r ity ... 122

16.

Ranking o f

Teachers by Median Years of E xperience.. 135

17. Percentage o f Teachers Who Have Taught in One Sehool System and in More Than One, According to the N ational Survey and This S tu d y ............... ..

139

18. Percentage o f Teachers Who Have Taught in Only One School System, According to the N ational Survey and This S tu d y. ...............................

140

19. Ranking o f the Areas in This Study by Percentage o f Teachers Having Pour or More Years o f C o lle g e . ..........

142

20. Percentage o f Teachers, According to This Study, Who A ttained, Exceeded or F e ll Below the Standard o f Four Years o f C ollege.........................

143

21. Percentage N ational Exceeded Years o f

o f the Teachers, According to the Survey and This Study, Who A ttained, or F e ll Below the Standard of Four C ollege........................... .... .............. .....................

144

22. Percentage o f the Teachers P ossessin g Degrees, According to the National Survey and This S tudy..

148

23. Degrees Earned by Teachers in This Study, D istributed by Type of in s t itu t io n Awarding ........................... Degree

150

24. Percentage o f Degrees Granted by P u b licly Owned C olleges or U n iv e r sitie s to Teachers, According to the National Survey and This S tu d y .. . .................

153

25. Range o f Median C redits in Subject F ield s o f Secondary School Teachers, According to the National Survey and This Study..............

159

26. Credit in P ractice Teaching of Senior High School Teachers, According to the National Survey and This Study, Who Have Had Four Years of College Work...................

164

27. Median C redits in Education and P ractice Teaching in the T e r rito r ie s and P o ssessio n s..................

164

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88. Credit of Senior High School Teachers in Education and P ra ctice Teaching, According to the National Survey and This Stud y. ...............................................

165

89. Degree o f S p ec ia liz a tio n and Location o f High School......................• • • • • • ...........

169



30. Size o f Secondary S ta ff and Number o f E ield s in Which Faculty Members Give I n s t r u c tio n ..

171

31. D istrib u tio n o f Junior and Senior High School Teachers, According to the National Survey and This Study, by Number o f F ie ld s Taught.

173

38. S ize o f School and Number of Subjects Taught by Each Junior High School Teacher, According to 'fcJie National Survey and This Study.................

174

33. Percentage o f Teachers Reporting from Each Type o f School, According to the N ational Survey and This Study. • • . • • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . • ....................

175

34. D istrib u tio n of Teachers in A ll Schools, by S o le , Major, or Major Plus Sole Subject o f In stru ctio n .

178

35. Minor Most Often Combined With Each Major, and Percentage of Cases in Which I t Occurs.• • • • • • • • • •

180

36. Combinations of Major and Minor Subjects Appearing Most Often, Arranged in Order of F r e q u e n c y . . . . . . .

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37. D istrib u tio n o f the Teachers in the Senior High Sch ools, According to the National Survey and This Study, by Sole Plus Major Subjects of In stru ctio n . ............

184

38. Minor Most Often Combined With Each Major, and percentage of Cases in Which I t Occurs, fo r the Senior High Schools o f the N ational Survey and ....................... This S tu d y.

188

39. Number o f Class S ession s Per Week Per Teacher

193

40. Number o f C lasses Per Week Per Teacher in the Senior High School, According to This and Other S tu d ies ..........

194

41. Junior and Senior High School Class Size Contrasted ..............

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42. Median and Mean o f Average Class S i z e , According to This and Other S t u d i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196

43. Pupil C o n ta c ts..

197

.....................................

44. Mean Weekly Contacts Per Teacher, According to This and Other S tu d ies ............

198

45. Non-Teaching Assignments D istrib u ted

200

by Frequency. *

46. Seasons fo r New Teacher Demand, D istrib u ted by G reatest Frequency o f Occurrence......... ................

210

47. Reasons fo r Demand fo r New Teachers, According to the National Survey and This S t u d y . . . . . . 212

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48. New Teachers and A ll Teachers, D istributed by B irth p lace • • • • . . • • * • • • • • • • ..........

218

49. Median S a la ries o f Teachers, by Population Group...

226

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r LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES TABLE I. II. III. IV. V. VI.

D istrib u tio n o f Teachers, by Areas o f Varying P o p u la tio n ...................................................................

252

The T er r ito r ies and P ossessions of the United S t a t e s ..........................................

253

Appointment of Teachers.............. . . . . . ' .............

254

Teachers1 S a la r ies and Other A dditional Compensation 255 Estimated Value in D ollars o f Additional Compensa­ tio n to A ll Secondary School Teachers, 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 . . . .

256

Teachers* Sick Leave, Leave of Absence, and Transfer 257

VII.

P ro fessio n a l Improvement of Teachers in Servi ce. . . . .

258

VIII.

Tenure..............................................................................................

259

..........................................................

260

R acial Composition o f P o p u la tio n ....................................

261

B irthplace o f Teachers..................................

262

IX. X. X I. XII •

Race o f Teachers

...............

263

XI I I .

C itizen sh ip o f Teachers and th e ir Fathers....................

264

XIV.

D istrib u tio n o f Teachers, by S ex .......................................

265

Occupation o f Fathers of Teachers

XV.

D istrib u tio n o f Teachers, by Sex and M arital S ta tu s. 266

XVI.

D istrib u tio n o f M arital Status o f Teachers, by S e x . . 267

XVII. XVTII. XIX. XX. XXI. L

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Age at Nearest Birthday o f Teachers.................................

268

Leisure A c t iv itie s of Teachers in Present P o s itio n s . 269 Leisure A c t iv itie s of Teachers for Five Preceding Y e a r s . . . . ...............................

270

Community P a r tic ip a tio n o f Teachers

.........................

271

F ield for which Teacher Received Most T r a i n i n g . . . . . .

272

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n TABLE XXII* XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII* XXVIII. XXIX. XXX. XXXI* XXXII. XXXIII* XXXIV. XXXV. XXXVI. XXXVII*

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PAGE Total Humber o f Years Teaching Experience of ........................... . . . . . . ................ Teachers

273

Number o f D iffer en t School Systems in which Teachers Have T au gh t*.................................. . .....................

274

H ighest Level o f Training o f Junior High School Teachers, by Location and T errito ry .......................• • • •

275

Highest Level o f Training o f Senior High School Teachers, by Location and T errito ry..............

276

Highest Level of Training of Junior and Senior High School Teachers..............................................................

277

Highest Level o f Training o f A ll Secondary Teachers, by Location and T e r r i t o r y . . . . . . . . . ................

278

D istrib u tio n o f Earned Degrees o f Teachers....................

279

Teachers P ossessing Earned D egrees...................................

280

Sources of Earned Degrees o f Teachers, by T e r r ito r ie s ..............

281

Sources o f Earned Degrees of Teachers, by Level o f School System ••••

282

Semester Hours Credit in Sole Teaching F ield of Teachers In stru ctin g in One F ie ld ...........................•• • •

283

Semester Hours Credit in Major Teaching F ield of Teachers In stru ctin g in Two or More F ie ld s ..............

284

Semester Hours Credit in Minor Teaching F ield o f Teachers In stru ctin g in Two or More F ie ld s ...............

285

Semester Hours Credit in Major Fi e l d , by Highest Level o f T raining.............................

286

Semester Hours Credit in Minor F i e l d , by Highest Level o f T ra in in g . ..............................................................

287

Semester Hours Credit Earned by Teachers in Sole F ie ld , P r in cip a l, and Next Main F ield s of T eachin g. ...........................................................

288

Semester Hours Credit in Education, by H ighest Level o f Training. . . . ............

289

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XXXIX*

Semester Hours Credit in P ractice Teaching, by Highest Level of T raining............... ................ .......... ..

290

Semester Hours Credit in P ractice Teaching, of Teachers Having Four Years of College Work in Teachers C olleges and Other C olleges or U n iv e r sitie s . . . . ........... . . . . . .......................*. • ...............

291

Semester Hours Credit o f Teachers in Education and P ractice Teaching.................................................................

292

Number o f D ifferen t F ield s in which Teachers Give I n s tr u c tio n .. ...........................

293

Teachers D istributed by Number o f F ield s They Teach.

294

Size o f Secondary S ta ff and Number o f F ield s in which Teachers Give I ns t ruct i o n. . * • • ..........

295

D istrib u tio n o f Teachers In stru ctin g in One Fi el d, Only, by Sole F ield of Teaching.........................

296

D istrib u tio n o f Teachers In stru ctin g in Two or More F ie ld s , by Major and Minor F ield s o f Teaching

297

D istrib u tio n o f Teachers Instru ctin g in Two or More Fi e l d s , by Major and Minor F ield s o f Teaching, Continued.....................................................................................

298

XLVII.

Number o f C lasses Taught, per Week.. . . • • . • • • • * . . . . . . •

299

XLVTII*

Class S i z e ......................................................................................

300

XLIX.

Number o f Non-Teaching Assignments per Week.................

301

D istrib u tio n o f Non-Teaching Assignments o f Teachers .....................................

302

D istrib u tio n o f Teachers by Number o f D ifferen t Types o f Non-Teaching Assignments*. ..........................

303

Reason for New Teacher Demand Part 1 ........................................ Part 2 ...................................

304 305

Sources o f Supply Meeting the Demand for New Teachers Part 1 ................................. Part 2 ............................................................................................

306 307

XL*

XLI. XLII. XLIII. XLIV* XLV. XLVI* XLVI.

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LIII.

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TABLE LIV. LV. LVI. LVII. LVTII. LIX.

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PAGE Number o f Years Teaching Experience o f New Teachers . . ............

308

B irthplace o f New Teachers ............... . ............................

309

S a la ries o f Men and Women Teachers..........

310

........... . ...

S a la ries o f Men and Women Teachers in the P h ilip p in e Islands by Type of Secondary S c h o o l . . . .

311

S a la ries o f Teachers D istributed byAreas o f Population..............

312

Average Number o f Years o f Teaching Experience of Teachers . . . • • • ..............

313

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SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN THE TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS OE THE UNITED STATES

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND PROCEDURE