Schools Board Regulations Affecting Teachers

Citation preview

FO R D H A M U N IV E R SIT Y G R A D U A T E SCHOOL

This dissertation prepared under my direction by

Q harles. M r d .............................................................................................................

entitled S.cMo.l. ..Board. ..R egulations... Aff.e.o.ting....T.eac.h.e.rfi....................

has been accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the

Degree o f . .DQ.Q.tor... of.. P h ilo so p h y ............................. ............................

(Faculty A d viser)

r

1

SCHOOL BOARD REGULATIONS AFFECTING' TEACHERS

BY Oil ARLES A.

BIRD

DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR TEE DEGREE OF PGGIGR OF PHILOSOPHY IN TEE GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF THE SGEOOL OF EDUCATION OF FORDBAM UNTYBRSIIY

NEW YORE I9 4 S L

J

ProQuest Number: 13846676

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.

uest ProQuest 13846676 Published by ProQuest LLC(2019). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

TABLE OF CONTENTS utje*

INTRODUCTION.................................. ........................ The P rob lem ........................................ P ro ced u re

.. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 1 8

DESCRIPTION OF THE DATA. .............................

13

THE TEACHER ENTERING THE SERVICE . . .

£9

. . ............................................

30

A p p oin tm en t. ................................................. .

34

A ssignm ent and T r a n s fe r , . . . . . .

38

P rom otion and D em otion . . . . . . .

40

E lig ib ility .

....................

48

Tenure o f O f f ic e ............................................

48

P r o f e s s i o n a l Improvement • • • « • •

50

S a la r y o f T e a ch er ....................................... ....

56

Time o f S e r v i c e .

. . . . . . . . . .

60

A b se n c e . . . . .

............................................



L eave o f A b sence ............................................

69

T a r d in e s s ...............................................................

73

THE TEACHER LEAVING SERVICE. ....................

85

THE TEACHER IN SERVICE . . .

S u sp e n sio n •

...........................................



D i s m i s s a l.

86 •

90

.........................

91

R e s i g n a t i o n , ................................................ R e tir e m e n t • • « . • • •

85

n

r

CHAPTEH V I.

PACE THE I IMITATION AND DIRECTION OF TEACHER1S CONDUCT.................................

99

U se o f S c h o o l T i m e ............................................

99

G i f t s and G r a t u i t i e s . . ....................... * .

102

E x tr a Employment

...................................103

A d v e r tis e m e n ts and A g e n ts . . . . . . .

104

C o l l e c t i o n s and S a l e s . ........................................106 S o c i a l C onduct

. . . . .

107

O b ed ien ce t o R e g u la t io n s

.............................. 110

T each er H e a lth

.............................. i l l

. i

V II.

THE TEACHER'S RELATIONSHIP TO PUPIL PERSONNEL.

................................................. 123

Management . . ........................................................... 123 D is c ip lin e

................................................................133

G u id a n c e ........................ V III.

.

140

THE TEACHER AND INSTRUCTION................................... 160 C u rricu lu m

.........................................................

160

M eth od s.............................................................................. 164 IX .

THE TEACHER AND SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. . . .

176

M ain ten an ce o f P rop er P h y s i c a l C o n d itio n s

L

........................................................... 176

C are o f S c h o o l P la n t and Equipm ent • •

179

R o u tin e M a tt e r s .

187

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CHAPTER X.

PASS TEE TEACHES AMP APMIMISTEATITE AMD 'SUPERVISORY AUTHOBITY.......................................... T each er and th e Board* . . . . . . . . T eacher and S u p e r in te n d e n t

• ..........................

301 SOI 303

T each er and P r i n c i p a l ............................ * • •

306

T each er and S u p e r v is o r • . ..........................

309

A p p ea ls from D e c is io n s o f

X I.

A u t h o r i t i e s ..................... .................................

312

SUMMARY AMD COMCLUSIOMS........................................

333

Summary. . . . . . . .

...................................

C o n c lu s io n s ............................... ..............................

333 338

BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................................

347

APPEMDIX..........................................................................................................

383

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LIST Of TABLES TABLE I.

PAGE fr e q u e n c y o f R e p l i e s to B e q u e st f o r B a t a * ....................* .....................................................

II *

P e r c e n ta g e o f B e p l i e s t o B e q u est f o r B a ta ...........................................................................

III* IV . V* V I. V II.

16

B ate o f R e g u la t io n s

18

..................... ....

.

fr e q u e n c y o f Item s w it h in R e g u la t io n s . .

20 23

fr e q u e n c y o f S i g n i f i c a n t R e g u la tio n s E n te r in g S e r v i c e . •

43

fr e q u e n c y o f S i g n i f i c a n t R e g u la tio n s in S e r v ic e . • • • •

75

fr e q u e n c y o f S i g n i f i c a n t R e g u la tio n s C o n ce rn in g T e a ch er s

X.

.............................................

fo rm a t o f R e g u la tio n s

C on cern in g T each ers IX .

15

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e g u la t io n s by S t a t e s . .

C on cern in g T ea ch er s V III.

15

L e a v in g S e r v ic e . .

94

fr e q u e n c y o f S i g n i f i c a n t R e g u la tio n s C on cern in g T e a c h e r ’ s C onduct L im it a t io n and D i r e c t i o n .

X I.

.............................

116

fr e q u e n c y o f S i g n i f i c a n t R e g u la tio n s C o n cern in g th e T each er and P u p il P erso n n el

X II#

...................

. . .

150

fr e q u e n c y o f S i g n i f i c a n t R e g u la t io n s C on cern in g th e T eacher and I n s t r u c t i o n .........................................................

L



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TABLE X III.

PAGE F req u en cy o f S i g n i f i c a n t R e g u la tio n s A f f e c t i n g t h e T each er and S c h o o l M anagement............................. ...................................... 193

XIV.

F req u en cy o f S i g n i f i c a n t R e g u la t io n s C o n cern in g th e T eacher and A d m in is tr a tiv e and S u p e r v is o r y A u th o r ity

L

...............................................................215

j

SCHOOL BOARD REGULATIONS AFFECTING TEACHERS

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CHAPTER

I

INTRODUCTION THE

PROBLEM

When e d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was a t t h e o n e room -school sta g e ,

i t was a s i m p l e m a t t e r f o r t h e B o a r d

o f S e l e c t m e n o r t h e S c h o o l C o m m i t te e o f a town t o d i r e c t and a d m i n i s t e r s c h o o l a f f a i r s .

The g r o w t h o f c i t i e s and

th e conseq uent expansion of sc h o o l system s have i n c r e a s e d th e problem s o f sc h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s ,

and c o m p e l l e d them t o

d e v e l o p t e c h n i c s and d e v i c e s f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g s c h o o l ad m in istratio n .

One o f t h e f i r s t d e v i c e s was t h e e n a c t ­

ment o f a s e r i e s o f r e g u l a t i o n s .

Today b o a r d s o f e d u ­

c a t i o n a r e c o n t i n u a l l y p a s s i n g new r e g u l a t i o n s and amend­ in g or r e v o k in g e x i s t i n g r u l e s .

These r e g u l a t i o n s determ ine

t h e s t a t u s and p o w e r s o f t h e v a r i o u s members o f s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l from t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t o t h e j a n i t o r . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s have c o n sid e re d r a t h e r th o ro u g h ly th e p o s i t i o n and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and t h e p rin cip al.

The s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n and l o c a l c o d e s w h i c h

a f f e c t the o f f i c e r s of sc h o o l system s have a ls o been analyzed.

T o a d a t e , ho¥/ever, no t h o r o u g h s t u d y h a s b e e n

made o f s c h o o l b o a r d r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t t e a c h e r s . I t i s th e p u rp o se o f t h i s s t u d y to i n v e s t i g a t e such r u l e s . The r e g u l a t i o n s o f b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t

s e c t i o n s of the c o u n tr y a re com piled under v a r i o u s t i t l e s . I n some c i t i e s ,

t h e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e known a s b y - l a w s ;

o th e rs as r u l e s ,

reg u latio n s,

s c h o o l c o d e , o r a com­

b i n a t i o n o f two o r more o f t h e s e t i t l e s . fusion,

in

To a v o i d c o n ­

t h e t e r m " r e g u l a t i o n s ’* i s u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s

stu d y to s i g n i f y th e c o d if i e d s e t of r u l e s e n acted by a s c h o o l b o a r d f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n o f i t s schools. E d u c a tio n a l a u t h o r i t i e s have d i f f e r e d in t h e i r d e f i n i ti o n of r e g u la tio n s . statem en ts of p o lic ie s , d i r e c t i o n s to em ployees.

R u le s have been d e f i n e d as

e x t e n s i o n s o f t h e s t a t u t e law ,

or

They a r e a most i m p o r t a n t s t a t e ­

m e n t o f t h e p o l i c y and p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e d if f e r e n t boards.

A board which b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f th e s c h o o l system s h o u l d r e s t s o l e l y and t o t a l l y i n t h e o f f i c e o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , e n a c t s few r e g u l a t i o n s t o r e s t r i c t h i s powers.

A nother b o a rd , however, which b e l i e v e s t h a t i t

s h o u ld r e t a i n f o r i t s e l f a l a r g e m easure o f c o n t r o l over t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m , w i l l e n a c t many r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h l i m i t t h e power o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s . I t i s r a t h e r g e n e r a lly agreed th a t education i s a

1 J e s s e B. S e a r s , " R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e Government o f G i t y S c h o o l S y s t e m s , ’* E d u c a t i o n a l Admin­ i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 2 1 : 1 8 1 , M a rch , 1 9 3 5 .

f u n c t i o n o f t h e s t a t e an d t h a t t h e l o c a l h o a r d o f e d u ­ catio n is,

therefore,

a co rp o rate su b d iv isio n of the s t a t e .

E very s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e has enacted p ro v is io n s concerning the a d m in istra tio n of sc h o o ls.

Many r e g u l a t i o n s a r e an

e x te n s i o n or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s t a t e law.

I t h as been

s t a t e d t h a t th e r e g u l a t i o n s of a board of e d u ca tio n have t h e f o r c e o f law and a r e b i n d i n g even on t h e b o a r d i t s e l f where th e r i g h t s of a t h i r d p a r t y a r e in v o lv e d .

The

r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t r u l e s a r e made u n d e r s t a t u t o r y 2 au th o rity . In any l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e r e be uniform p ro ced u re f o r c e r t a i n r o u t i n e f u n c t i o n s . S c h o o l b o a r d s e s t a b l i s h su c h r o u t i n e p r o c e d u r e t h r o u g h t h e enactm ent o f r e g u l a t i o n s . p rin cipals,

teachers,

D i r e c t i o n s a r e g iv e n to

and o t h e r employees to f a c i l i t a t e

th e fu n c tio n in g of th e school o rg a n iz a tio n , r e q u i r e d to keep uniform r e c o r d s , d e f i n i t e tim es, sence,

T eachers are

to p r e p a r e them a t

to follow s e t procedures in case of ab­

and t o p e r f o r m s i m i l a r t a s k s i n a u n i f o r m m a n n e r .

S i n c e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e a body o f q u a s i - l e g a l d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e governm ent, l o c a l sc h o o l system ,

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and g uidance of th e th ey a r e of c o n s id e r a b le im portance

2 I. M. E d w a r d s , "The Law G o v e r n i n g S c h o o l B o a r d P ro c ed u re and R e c o r d s ," E le m e n ta ry School J o u r n a l , 2 7 :3 5 6 -6 5 , 423-32, J a n u a r y , F e b r u a r y , March, 1927.

4 r

1 in any d is c u s s io n of th e s t a t u s of t e a c h e r s . determ ine,

i n many c i t i e s ,

They

th e r e l a t i o n s h i p of a te a c h e r

to th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s ,

to o t h e r s c h o o l employees,

and t o t h e p u p i l s and members o f t h e c om m u n ity .

A careful

s t u d y o f t h e s e d a t a s h o u l d t h r o w c o n s i d e r a b l e l i g h t on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p o l i c y o f c i t y s c h o o l s y s t e m s .

It

s h o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t to w h i c h t h e r e i s a g r e e m e n t on t h e f u n c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e t e a c h e r s .

I t is

t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y t o c o n s i d e r t h o s e s e c t i o n s w h ic h concern th e te a c h e r. The t e r m " t e a c h e r ” i s u s e d i n a r e s t r i c t e d s e n s e t o s p e c i f y t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , n o t a l l members o f t h e teaching p ro fessio n .

R u les which d e a l w ith t h e s p e c i f i c

d u t i e s o f s p e c i a l w o rk e rs in th e s c h o o l system ,

su ch a s

a t t e n d a n c e o f f i c e r s , v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s , and g u i d a n c e w orkers, w i l l n o t be c o n s id e re d .

The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r

i s a l s o i n t e r p r e t e d a s one who i s t e a c h i n g i n an e l e m e n t ary,

ju n io r,

or s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l.

The r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h

concern te a c h e rs in c o lle g e s or ju n io r c o lle g e s w i l l n o t be d i s c u s s e d . ALIilED STUDIES

Most o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n made i n th e f i e l d r e f e r e ith e r to s p e c if ic types of tea ch e r a c t i v i t y or to the f u n c tio n s of a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e r s . T ho se s t u d i e s w h i c h p e r t a i n e d t o t e a c h e r s w e r e l i m i t e d t o

5 «" one p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p o r to a few s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s .

The

mor e p r o m i n e n t s t u d i e s w e r e made b y J e n n i n g s , G o rw in , P roseth, P o ls te r, £ litz k e ,

and t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f 3 S u p e r i n t e n d e n c e and B e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l

E ducation A sso c ia tio n .

B ach o f t h e s e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d

in order. The s t u d y made b y J e n n i n g s ^ i s t h e most e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y o f r e g u l a t i o n s made t o d a t e , d efin ite criticism s. l a t i o n s was u s e d ,

but i s s u b j e c t to

Hot e v e r y a v a i l a b l e copy of r e g u ­

and p o l i c i e s d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d w e r e

l i s t e d i n t h e same c a t e g o r y .

J e n n in g s s t a t e s t h a t he

f r e q u e n t l y l i s t e d w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s u n d e r one g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n and m e n t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t t h e heading,

c o r p o r a l punishm ent, in c lu d e d b o th d e f i n i t e

i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e u s e of su ch d i s c i p l i n e and d e f i n i t e m easures p r o h ib iti n g it.®

Be a t t e m p t e d t o e v a l u a t e

r e g u l a t i o n s i n two wa ys, b y t h e u s e of a j u r y o f c i t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n d by c o m p a r i s o n o f s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s w h ic h b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o m p i l e f o r t h e i r em plo yed p e r s o n n e l .

3

T h i s D i v i s i o n i s no?; t h e R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ana t h e A m erican A s s o c i a t i o n of School A d m in is tra to rs . ^ Joseph Je n n in g s , R u les and R e g u la ti o n s C oncerning t h e Employed P e r s o n n e l o f P i t y S c h o o l s ( H a s h v i l i e , T e n ­ n e s s e e : G e o r g e P e a b o d y C o l l e g e f o r T e a c h e r s , 19 29) 128 p p . 5

I b i d p . 33

i

6 r

i G o r w in , F r o s e t h , B o l s t e r ,

and K l i t z k e r e s t r i c t e d h t h e i r s t u d i e s t o a l i m i t e d number o f o i t i e s . Gorw in was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d in the r e g u l a t i o n s of L o u i s v i l l e , Kentucky,

but u t i l i z e d

eighteen other c i t i e s ,

F roseth7

s t u d i e d th e r e g u l a t i o n s of f o r t y - s e v e n c i t i e s of 2,500 to 1 0 . 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n and i n f e r r e d t h a t o n l y a b o u t t w e l v e p e r c e n t o f t h e c i t i e s of t h i s

s i z e had form al r u l e s .

B o lster® c o n s id e r e d t h i r t y - f i v e c i t i e s o f 100,000 to 200.000 p o p u l a t i o n .

K litzke® i n v e s t i g a t e d th e d u t i e s of

t e a c h e r s a s s p e c i f i e d by b o a r d r e g u l a t i o n s o f c i t y s c h o o l system s.

The l i m i t a t i o n o f h i s s t u d y t o d u t i e s ,

prevent­

ed t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f many r u l e s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e teacher.

The D e p a r t m e n t o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n c e and R e s e a r c h

6 A l i c e C o r w i n , "A S t u d y o f M a n u a l s f o r T e a c h e r s , ” (u n p u b lish ed M a s te r ’s d i s s e r t a t i o n , th e U n i v e r s i ty of L o u i s v i l l e , L o u i s v i l l e , K e n t u c k y , 1 9 3 4 ) , 116 p p . 7 H i l b e r t F r o s e t h , "By-laws o f Boards o f E d u ca tio n o f Sm all O i t i e s , " (u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , C olorado S t a t e T e a c h e r s ’ C o l le g e , G re e le y , C o lo ra d o , 1932), 103 p p . 8 A r t h u r H. B o l s t e r , " R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r a S chool System in a C i t y of 100,000 t o 200,000 B o p u l a t i o n , " ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a n f o r d U n iv e rs i ty, S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 0 ) , 135 p p . 9 L y l e K. K l i t z k e , " D u t i e s o f T e a c h e r s i n C i t y S c h o o l S y s t e m s a s s p e c i f i e d by B o a r d R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s , " ( u n ­ p u b lis h e d M a s t e r 's d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i ty o f C hicago, C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , 1 9 3 2 ) , 132 p p . L

J

7 r

i

D iv isio n o f the R a tio n a l E ducation A s s o c ia tio n -^ p u b lish ed a c i r c u l a r which d e a l s alm o st s o l e l y w ith t h e fo rm a t of r e g u l a t i o n s o f c i t i e s of o v e r 3 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n .

A list­

i n g i s made, h o w e v e r , o f t h e p e r s o n n e l g r o u p s m e n t i o n e d i n r e g u l a t i o n s and o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an i d e a l l y o rg a n iz e d s e t o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s .

The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s

which have been m en tio n ed f a i l to t r e a t e x h a u s t i v e l y o r i n t e n s i v e l y th e r e g u l a t i o n s which a f f e c t t e a c h e r s . Any r e v i e w o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e i n s c h o o l m a t t e r s m u s t i n c l u d e a s t u d y o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s e n a c t e d by bo ard s of e d u catio n s in c e th e s e r u l e s i n d i c a t e the p o l i c i e s of th e board of e d u ca tio n , th e board d e s i r e s u n ifo rm ity , of s t a t e s t a t u t e .

t h e m a t t e r s on w h i c h

and t h e l o c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n

To d a t e no t h o r o u g h s t u d y h a s b e e n made

of th e r u l e s w hich a f f e c t th e t e a c h e r .

These r u l e s d e a l

w ith th e p o s itio n of the te a c h e r, h is conduct, h is r e l a t i o n ­ ship to p u p il p ersonnel,

th e i n s t r u c t i o n he i s to g i v e , h i s

f u n c t i o n i n s c h o o l m an ag em en t, and h i s r e l a t i o n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y a u t h o r i t y .

B efore c o n s i d e r ­

in g th e r u l e s in each of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , . . t h e p ro c e d u re o f t h e s t u d y w i l l be o u t l i n e d a n d t h e d a t a f u l l y d e s c r i b e d .

10 E d u c a ti o n a l R e s e a rc h S e r v i c e , "R ules and Regu­ l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g S c h o o l s i n P i t i e s ov e r £ 0 , 0 0 0 i n P o p u l a t i o n ", C i r c u l a r 4, D epartm ent of S u p e rin te n d e n c e and R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. O . i l a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n , 1930), pp. 1, 2. j

8 r

“I

PROCEDURE To a t t a c k t h e p r o b l e m j u s t d e s c r i b e d , i t

is necessary

to g iv e c o n s i d e r a ti o n to th e a v a i l a b i l i t y of c o p ie s of s e t s of re g u la tio n s ,

t h e m eth od o f c o m p i l a t i o n o f d a t a ,

tre a tm e n t of the m a tte r s e le c te d f o r stu d y .

and t h e

Since

p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i n t h e f i e l d do n o t i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h c o p i e s o f r u l e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , t h e f i r s t t a s k o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was t o s e e k d a t a ,

l e w York S t a t e was c o n ­

s i d e r e d a f e r t i l e f i e l d f o r d e v e l o p i n g an d t e s t i n g t h e tech n ic fo r securing m a te ria l.

I n q u i r y was made a t

the

l i b r a r i e s o f T e a c h e r 1^ C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , and o t h e r l i b r a r i e s , no a d e q u a t e c o l l e c t i o n o f r e g u l a t i o n s was f o u n d .

the but

I t was,

t h e r e f o r e , n e c e s s a r y t h a t c o p i e s o f r e g u l a t i o n s be s o l i c i t e d d i r e c t l y from th e v a r i o u s c i t i e s .

A l e t t e r was

addressed to th e su p e rin te n d e n ts of s i x t y c i t i e s , five v illa g es,

ninety-

and two h u n d r e d f o u r s u p e r v i s o r y d i s t r i c t s

l i s t e d in th e d i r e c t o r y p u b lish e d by th e S ta te E ducation Departm ent

11

reg u latio n s,

.

T h i s l e t t e r r e q u e s t e d a c o p y o f an y r u l e s , o r b y - l a w s which h ad b e e n e n a c t e d by t h e

B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n and r e q u e s t e d t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t t o r e p l y on an e n c l o s e d form i f t h e B o a r d d i d n o t h a v e f o r m a l reg u latio n s.

l

R e p l i e s w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o m a b o u t 50$ o f t h e

11 D i r e c t o r y o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s o f Few Y or k S t a t e 1 9 5 5 - 3 6 , (The U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e S t a t e "of l e w York, The S t a t e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t ; The U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e S t a t e o f l e w York P r e s s , " 1936.5

cities,

b u t l e s s t h a n 10% s e n t c o p i e s o f r e g u l a t i o n s .

The

r e s p o n s e from c i t i e s or v i l l a g e s of l e s s th a n 1 0 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n was n e g l i g i b l e .

The f a i l u r e o f 50% o f th e

s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s to r e p l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o f o l l o w up t h e o r i g i n a l l e t t e r w i t h one o r two f u r t h e r r e q u e s t s i f a wide s a m p l i n g of d a t a was t o be secured.

In view o f th e a p p a r e n t l a c k o f r e g u l a t i o n s i n

c i t i e s o f l e s s t h a n 1 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n i n Hew York S t a t e 12

and i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t H i l b e r t E r o s e t h *

had r e ­

c e i v e d u s a b l e m a t e r i a l f r o m l e s s t h a n 10% o f t h e c i t i e s b e tw e e n 2 , 5 0 0 and 1 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n , t h i s . s t u d y i s r e s t r i c t e d to c i t i e s of o ver 10,000 p o p u l a t i o n . The p l a n w h i c h was u s e d t o s e e u r e d a t a fr om b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n of New York S t a t e was f o l l o w e d , w i t h s l i g h t c h a x g e s , when m a t e r i a l was s o u g h t fro m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a t large.

The l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d i n d i c a t e d t h a t

c o l l e c t i o n s of r e g u l a t i o n s e x i s t in t h r e e p l a c e s i n the B ast:

th e l i b r a r y o f T e a c h e r 's O ollege, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,

th e l i b r a r y o f the N a tio n a l E ducation A s so c ia tio n , W a s h i n g t o n , D. 0 . ,

and t h e p e r s o n a l l i b r a r y of D r. W a lte r

D e f f e n b a u g h , C h i e f o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f A m e ric a n S c h o o l Systems o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u c a tio n ,

12 H i l b e r t E r o s e t h , "By-laws o f B oards of E d u c a tio n o f Sm all C i t i e s , " ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , C olorado S t a t e T e a c h e rs' C o lle g e , C re e le y , O olorado, 1932), 103 p p .

10 W a s h i n g t o n , D. 0 .

T h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , t h a t

t h e c o p i e s i n t h e s e c o l l e c t i o n s w e r e up t o d a t e o r i n force.

I t was n e c e s s a r y ,

therefore,

f o r any i n v e s t i g a t o r

i n t e r e s t e d i n r e g u l a t i o n s t o co m m un ica te d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r a r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c e r o f each s c h o o l system . A copy of t h e s c h o o l h o a rd r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s t o ­ g e t h e r w i t h a n y amendments was s o u g h t f r o m each s u p e r i n ­ t e n d e n t l i s t e d i n t h e E d u c a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r y of C i t y S c h o o l O fficers

15

.

W ith each r e q u e s t a fo rm was e n c l o s e d w h i c h

t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t m i g h t u s e w e r e he u n a b l e t o s e n d a c o p y of the re g u la tio n s .

On t h i s fo rm h e c o u l d i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r

h i s system l a c k e d a code of r e g u l a t i o n s or did n o t have copies a v a ila b le fo r d is t r ib u t i o n .

I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e he

was a s k e d f o r t h e d a t e o f p u b l i c a t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t a l i b r a r y copy m ight be p ro c u re d . To f o l l o w up t h i s f i r s t r e q u e s t ,

a second l e t t e r w ith

t h e same e n c l o s e d f o r m and s e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e was m a i l e d s i x t y day s l a t e r t o e a c h s u p e r i n t e n d e n t who h a d n o t r e p l i e d to th e f i r s t l e t t e r .

S i x t y d a ys a f t e r t h e

s e c o n d l e t t e r a t h i r d r e q u e s t was m a i l e d to e a c h who h a d n o t answered.

In t h i s t h i r d l e t t e r ,

the su p erin ten d en t

was a s k e d t o c o o p e r a t e b y m a i l i n g p e r t i n e n t m a t e r i a l o r

13

I

_

E d u c a tio n a l D i r e c t o r y , (O ffic e of E ducation, U nited S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f I n t e r i o r : G overnm ent p r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1936 and s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s . )

11 1

"by c h e c k i n g on a n e n c l o s e d f o r m t h e r e a s o n he had n o t r e ­ p lie d to e a r l i e r r e q u e s ts .

T h e s e two f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r s

g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e num ber o f r e s p o n s e s . t o s e c u r e f u r t h e r ■d a t a ,

I n an a t t e m p t

t h o s e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s who h a d

p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n s were u n d er r e v i s i o n w e r e a s k e d to f i l l

in a n o th e r form .

A rep ly ad­

v i s e d t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r w h e t h e r a r e v i s i o n h a d b e e n com­ p l e t e d and,

i f not,

the p r o b a b l e d a te of such p u b l i c a t i o n .

The p r o c e d u r e h e r e i n o u t l i n e d e n a b l e d t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o s e c u r e r e p l i e s from 9i02, o r 9 2 ^ , o f t h e 989 c i t i e s o f o v e r 1 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n l i s t e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e of E ducation. .The c o m p i l a t i o n o f d a t a p r e s e n t e d a p r o b l e m b e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t b u l k o f m a t e r i a l t o be t r e a t e d . the l i t e r a t u r e

A survey of

i n a l l i e d f i e l d s i n d i c a t e d t h a t an

a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s would b e m ost u s e f u l i f t h e c i t i e s were g ro u p ed a c c o r d i n g to p o p u l a t i o n s i z e .

A read­

in g of s t u d i e s of a s i m i l a r n a tu re i n d ic a t e d th a t c i t i e s above 1 0 ,0 0 0 m ig h t be d i v id e d i n to f i v e g ro u p s as f o l lo w s : I.

C i t i e s of 10,000 to 20,000 p o p u l a t i o n

II.

O i t i e s of 20,000 to 30,000 p o p u l a t i o n

III.

G i t i e s o f 3 0 , 0 0 0 to 5 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n

IV.

G i t i e s of 50,000 to 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n

V.

G i t i e s of over 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n

T his g ro u p in g o f c i t i e s i s used in th e t a b l e s of t h i s s t u d y and i n t h e t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s o f r e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e

j

12 r

I Appendix. The r e g u l a t i o n s o f c i t i e s o f 5 0 , 0 0 0 t o 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n w e re s e l e c t e d f o r p r e l i m i n a r y c o m p i l a t i o n and s t u d y "because an e x a m i n a t i o n o f a few s e t s o f r e g u l a t i o n s o f c i t i e s o f a l l s i z e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s g r o u p w o u l d be m o st n e a r l y a m e d i a n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e number a n d t y p e of r e g u l a t i o n s m entioned.

A ll item s which p e r t a in e d to

t h e t e a c h e r w e re l i s t e d i n c a t e g o r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d b y c o n ­ s i d e r i n g t e a c h e r a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s m e n t i o n e d i n previous s tu d ie s ,

in the l i t e r a t u r e

i n t h e f i e l d of t e a c h e r

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , . and i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . stu d y of t h i s c la ssifica tio n groups.

The

one g r o u p o f c i t i e s p r o v i d e d a fra m e f o r t h e o f d a t a f ro m c i t i e s

of o t h e r p o p u la tio n

The c o m p i l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s may h e

c o n s id e re d under s i x m ajor item s: th e p o s i t i o n of th e teacher,

th e t e a c h e r ’s conduct, the t e a c h e r ’s r e l a t i o n s h i p

to p u p il p erso n n el, th e t e a c h e r ’s fu n c tio n in i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r ’ s f u n c t i o n i n s c h o o l management,

and t h e

t e a c h e r ’ s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s u p e r v i s o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u th o rity .

T h e s e i t e m s were l i s t e d e a r l i e r ^

problem s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . t h e Appendix l i s t s

as sub-

The t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s i n

under th e s i x c a t e g o r i e s j u s t m entioned

t h o s e s e c t i o n s o f ■r e g u l a t i o n s which a f f e c t t h e t e a c h e r .

j

13 r

1 CHAPTER I I DESCRIPTION OF THE DATA The n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m makes a c a r e f u l s t u d y and an a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d a t a h i g h l y e s s e n t i a l . do t h i s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i t

To

i s n e c e s s a r y to p re s e n t a c a r e ­

f u l exam ination of th e source of m a te r ia l,

the d a te ,

the

f o r m a t , a n d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i t e m s w i t h i n the d a t a .

It

i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t ‘ t h a t a n y s t u d y which c o n s i d e r s m a t e r i a l from v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of a c o u n tr y as l a r g e as the U n ite d S tates,

s h o u l d show t h a t t h e d a t a w h i c h a r e s t u d i e d a r e an

adequate sam pling.

As a r e s u l t o f t h e m e t h o d s f o r c o l l e c t ­

in g d a ta d e sc rib e d in C hapter I ,

r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d

f r o m 92$ o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s fro m whom r u l e s w e r e so licited .

T able I i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n ly e i g h t y - s e v e n of

t h e 989 c i t i e s o f o v e r 1 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n f a i l e d t o a n s w e r the re q u e st fo r m a te r ia l.

Mos t of t h e c i t i e s w h i c h

f a i l e d to answer th e r e q u e s t l i e

in the sm a lle st p o p u latio n

g ro u p , y e t th e f i f t y - t h r e e which f a i l e d to respond con­ stitu te

only 10.4$ of a l l the c i t i e s in t h a t group.

In

th e l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n group o n ly 4 .3 $ of the c i t i e s f a i l e d to answer.

Of t h e 389 c i t i e s w h i c h r e p l i e d t h a t

th ey d id n o t have r e g u la ti o n s , p o p u latio n group.

250 w e r e i n t h e s m a l l e s t

A p p r o x i m a t e l y 50$ o f t h e c i t i e s i n t h e

s m a lle s t p o p u la tio n group, 40.3 $ of th e c i t i e s in th e 2 0 , 0 0 0 t o 3 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p , and 3 0 . 2 $ o f t h e

14 r

i

c i t i e s in th e 30,000 to 5 0,000 p o p u l a t i o n group had no r e g u l a t i o n s .

How ever,

o n l y El fo o f t h e c i t i e s i n t h e

.

5 0 , 0 0 0 t o 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p , and 15*1$ o f t h e c i t i e s in th e h i g h e s t p o p u la tio n group la c k e d r u l e s .

It

i s ev id en t th a t th e r e i s a tendency f o r c i t i e s of sm a ller s i z e to ru n t h e i r system s w ith o u t w r i t t e n r e g u l a t i o n s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f c i t i e s w i t h i n e a c h p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p w h ic h made r e g u l a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s s t u d y t e n d e d t o i n ­ c r e a s e a s th e s i z e of t h e c i t i e s grew l a r g e r f o r , w h i l e o n ly 22.4% o f t h e c i t i e s i n t h e s m a l l e s t p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s u b ­ m itted re g u la tio n s,

64.4% o f t h e c i t i e s i n t h e l a r g e s t

p o p u l a t i o n group s e n t m a t e r i a l .

T a b l e s I and I I show t h a t

a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f th o s e c i t i e s which u se r e g u l a t i o n s made c o p i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s

L

study.

J

15

TABLES

I

FREQUENCY OF REPLIES TO REQUEST FOR DATA REPLIES

POPULATION GROUP1 IY

T otal

I

II

III

R ules sent

113

47

60

54

60

334

Copies not a v a i l a b l e Und e r r e v i s i o n No b y - l a w s No a n s w e r

79 11 250 53

25 9 66 17

11 8 38 JL

12 9 21 -4

7 8 14 _4

134 45 389 87

T otal

506 164 126 100

93

989

Y

TABLE I I PERCENTAGE OF REPLIES TO REQUEST FOR DATA REPLIES

POPULATION GROUP III

IY

I

II

R ules sen t

22.4

28.7

47.6

54.0

64.4

C opies not a v a i l a b l e Under r e v i s i o n No b y - l a w s No a n s w e r

15.6 2.2 49.4 10.4

15.2 5.5 40.3 10.3

8.7 6.3 30.2 7.2

12.0 9.0 21.0 4.0

7.6 8.6 15.1 4.3

100$

100$

100$

100$

lOOfo

Y

1 As e x p l a i n e d on p a g e / / , Group I , c i t i e s 1 0 , 0 0 0 t o 2 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ; Group I I , c i t i e s 2 0 , 0 0 0 t o 3 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ; Group I I I , c i t i e s o f 3 0 , 0 0 0 t o 5 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ; Group IV, c i t i e s o f 5 0 , 0 0 0 t o 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ; Group V, c i t i e s o f o v e r 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n . L

J

16 r

i

The l o c a t i o n o f t h e c i t i e s whose r e g u l a t i o n s a r e s t u d i e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e sam pling i s n a t i o n w i d e .

C itie s

i n f o r t y - t w o s t a t e s an d t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a a r e rep resen ted .

The o n l y s t a t e s f r o m w h i c h d a t a w e r e n o t

s e c u r e d a r e : A r i z o n a , A r k a n s a s , N e v a d a , New M e x i c o , S o u t h Dakota,

and Wyoming.

T a b l e I I I l i s t s by p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s

t h e n u m ber of c i t i e s f r o m e a c h s t a t e .

C e r t a i n s t a t e s seem

t o h a v e a g r e a t e r number o f c i t i e s u s i n g r e g u l a t i o n s t h a n others.

The c i t i e s o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s seem o u t s t a n d i n g i n

the use of r e g u l a t i o n s .

T h i s may b e due t o t h e f a c t t h a t

t h e f i r s t r u l e s o f A m e ric a n s c h o o l s y s t e m s w e r e e n a c t e d i n M assachusetts.

The c i t i e s i n t h e more p o p u l o u s s t a t e s show

a more f r e q u e n t u s e o f r e g u l a t i o n s ,

b u t t h e r e a r e so many

f a c t o r s which m ig h t be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s t h a t i t d iffic u lt

to a s s i g n any r e a s o n .

is

Since the d a ta in c lu d e

m a t e r i a l s fro m t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a and f o r t y - t w o o f the f o r ty -e ig h t s t a t e s ,

th e sam pling i s t y p i c a l o f a l l

s e c tio n s of the c o u n try . TABLE I I I DISTRIBUTION OF REGULATIONS BY STATES STATE

REGULATIONS OF CITIES IN EACH POPULATION GROUP I

Alabam a C alifo rn ia Colorado C o nnecticut Delaware F lo rid a L

1 8 2 3 0

a

ii i

5 0 2 0 0

III 0 3 0 2 0 1

IY

Y

1 4 1 3 0 0

0 5 1 2 1 0

T o tal 3 25 4 12 1 3 J

17 TABLE I I I

(co n t.)

DISTRIBUTION OF REGULATIONS BY STATES STATE

G eorgia Idaho Illin o is Indiana Iow a Kansas Kentucky L ouisiana M aine M aryland M assachusetts M ichigan M innesota M ississippi M issouri Montana N ebraska New H a m p s h i r e New J e r s e y New York N orth C a r o l i n a Ohio Oklahoma Oregon P ennsylvania Rhode I s l a n d South C a r o l i n a South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont V irg in ia W ashington W est V i r g i n i a W isconsin D i s t r i c t o f Columbia

REGULATIONS OF CITIES IN EACH POPULATION GROUP I

II

1 0 7 2 1 5 1 0 1 0 16 2 2 1 1 3 2 4 11 6 1 5 1 1 8 2 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 4 0

1 1 2 1 0 0 3 0 1 0 5 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 5 5 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0

III

IV

V

T o tal

1 0 7 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 12 2 0 1 1 1 0 1 4 6 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 1 0 4 0

2 0 3 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 6 3 0 0 1 0 1 0 3

1 0 2 2 1 2 0 1 0 1 5 2 .1 0 2 0 1 0 3 6 0 4 1 1 3 1 0 0 2 2 1 0 2 2 0 1 1

6 1 21 7 7 8 6 1 3 1 44 10 4 2 7 5 4 5 26 27 3 12 2 2 18 6 1 1 4 9 2 1 8 6 1 14 1

2 1 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 2 0

1Tin l—""

Number o f r e g u l a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d - - - - - - 113 47 60 54 Number o f s t a t e s 37 22 24 21 i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e D is t r i c t of • C o l u m b i a L



60 30

mmmmm

334 42

J

18 r~

n One w ould e x p e c t t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s p r o m u l g a t e d t o

a d m i n i s t e r t h e a f f a i r s o f s c h o o l s y s t e m s w o u ld he r e v i s e d a t ra th e r frequent in te rv a ls . e d u c a ti o n , however,

The p r a c t i c e o f h o a r d s o f

in d ic ate s th a t rev isio n is a ra th e r

in fre q u e n t occurrence.

T a b l e IV shows t h a t o n l y 126,

or

38% o f a l l r e g u l a t i o n s , w e r e p u b l i s h e d b e t w e e n 1933 and 1939.

S in ety -six sets,

1928 and 1 93 3 .

o r 29%, w e r e l a s t r e v i s e d b e tw e e n

S eventy-seven s e t s ,

o r 33%, w e r e c o d i f i e d

so m e tim e p r e v i o u s t o 1928, w h i l e t h i r t y - f i v e s e t s , m e n t i o n e d no d a t e .

o r 10%,

I t w i l l be n o t e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r

t h a t v e r y few r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e p r i n t e d i n a f o rm w h i c h w o uld mahe amendment e a s y .

The f a c t t h a t more t h a n 60% o f

th e r e g u l a t i o n s were en ac te d a t l e a s t s i x y e a r s p r i o r to t h i s study,

t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s c a r c i t y o f amendments,

i n d i c a t e s the s t a t i c n a tu r e of r e g u l a t i o n s . TABLE IV DATS OS REGULATIONS DATS OF REGULATIONS

1933-1939 1938-1933 P r e v i o u s t o 1928 So d a t e T otal

NUMBER OF REGULATIONS I

II

I I I IV

43 26 28 17

17 12 10 J3

32 20 12 _6

16 21 16 _J8

29 17 12 _2

126 96 77 35

38 29 23 10

113

47

60

64

60

334

100

V

T otal

fo

J

The f o r m a t of r e g u l a t i o n s v a r i e s e x t e n s i v e l y . T a b l e Y shows t h e p r a c t i c e s f o u n d i n e a c h o f s i x c a t e g o r i e s W h i l e 307 c i t i e s p u b l i s h t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n s a s a s e p a r a t e d o c u m e n t, t w e n t y - s e v e n i n c l u d e them i n a d i r e c t o r y o r other r e p o rt.

W rite rs in the f i e l d suggest th a t a lo o se -

l e a f c o m p i l a t i o n l e n d s i t s e l f more e a s i l y t o amendment, y e t o n l y f i f t y - n i n e c i t i e s p r i n t t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n s i n s u c h form P r a c t i c a l l y a n y v o l u m e . o f d a t a w h ic h i s m ea n t f o r r e f e r e n c e has e ith e r a ta b le of c o n te n ts,

an i n d e x ,

or b o th .

There

a r e 192 r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e n e i t h e r a t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s n o r an i n d e x , f i f t y - s i x h a v e a t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s o n l y , f i f t y - o n e an i n d e x o n l y , w h i l e b u t t h i r t y - f i v e i n c l u d e b o t h an i n d e x a n d a t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s . f r o m 3 lfx 5 ’T to 8i|-nx l 4 ,T.

The p a g e s i z e v a r i e s

T h r e e s i z e s seem t o be v e r y p o p u l a r

The m o s t common p a g e s i z e s a r e t n e 4 ,Tx 6 lt, t h e 6nx9*’ , and t h e S ^ ’x l l ” .

T o g e t h e r t h e s e s i z e s a r e u s e d by 243 s c h o o l

s y s t e m s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t more t h a n t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e 334 cities.

A l a r g e v a r i a t i o n i s a l s o f o u n d i n t h e number o f

pages in r e g u l a ti o n s .

T w en ty -fo u r have l e s s t h a n f i v e

p a g e s , w h i l e t h i r t e e n h a v e o v e r one h u n d r e d p a g e s and one a c t u a l l y h a s 278 p a g e s ,

p a r t 6 of Table Y i n d i c a t e s t h a t

m o s t r e g u l a t i o n s h a v e b e t w e e n s i x and f i f t y p a g e s .

The

m e d ia n number o f p a g e s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y - f i v e , a n d 50 io o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e b e tw e e n f i f t e e n a n d f o r t y p a g e s long.

Prom t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t

d i f f e r e n c e s in form at a re v ery e x te n s iv e .

20 n

r

TABLE

V

FORMAT Of REGULATIONS FORMAT

POPULATION GROUP IV

Y

T otal

I

II

III

105 8

44 3

56 4

46 8

56 4

307 27

83 30

39 8

56 4

48 5

49 11

275 59

3. P rin te d Mimeographed Typed

68 44 1

37 9 1

52 8 0

47 7 0

52 8 0

256 76 2

4. Index & c o n te n ts Index o n ly C o n ten ts only N either

3 5 20 85

1 7 9 30

6 12 6 36

4 14 9 27

21 13 12 14

35 51 56 192

6 38 1 12 7 6 7 33 1

0 1 9 1 7 0 2 5 22 0

3 0 5 1 12 3 6 4 24 2

1 0 6 2 12 2 2 6 23 0

0 2 7 3 21 2 9 4 12 0

10 5 65 8 64 14 25 26 114 3

15 62 32 4 0

2 22 17 6 0

3 27 27 3 0

2 22 19 8 3

2 11 18 19 10

.24 144 113 40 13

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.

i n r e g u l a t i o n s i s e v i d e n t fro m

t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e l a r g e number o f i t e m s .in c o m p a r a t i v e l y few s e t s o f r e g u l a t i o n s .

Three hundred t h i r t y - f o u r s e t s of

r e g u l a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y b u t n o t one r u l e i s found u n i v e r s a l l y in t h e s e s e t s . L

The m o s t f r e q u e n t J

21 “1 rule,

"Teachers s h a l l a tte n d i n s t i t u t e s ,

c o n fe re n c e s c a l le d by S u p e rin te n d e n t" , reg u latio n s.

m eetings,

and

i s f o u n d i n 274

T a b l e VI i n d i c a t e s t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i t e m s

w ithin re g u la tio n s.

The f i r s t column o f t h i s t a b l e i n ­

d i c a t e s t h e number o f s e t s o f r e g u l a t i o n s i n w h i c h i t e m s appear;

t h e s e c o n d c olu m n ,

t h e number o f i t e m s w h ic h a p ­

p e a r i n e ac h r a n g e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e f i r s t co lu m n ; and t h e t h i r d co lu m n , t h e p e r c e n t i l e r a n k , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i t e m w h i c h a p p e a r s i n t h e r l a r g e s t num ber o f r e g u l a t i o n s a s 100$ . T h e r e a r e 1340 d i f f e r e n t i t e m s i n t h e 33 4 s e t s o f r e g u ­ latio n s.

S ix hundred t h i r t y - t w o ,

ap p ea r i n f i v e s e t s or l e s s .

or 47.2$,

o f th e s e item s

Two h u n d r e d t w e n t y - t w o i t e m s

a p p e a r b e tw e e n s i x a n d t e n t i m e s .

Together w ith th o se

w h i c h a p p e a r f e w e r t h a n s i x t i m e s , t h e s e c o m p r i s e 63$ o f a l l item s.

One h u n d r e d two i t e m s a p p e a r i n e l e v e n t o

fifteen se ts.

T h e s e , w i t h t h e r u l e s w h ic h a p p e a r a s m a l l e r

number o f t i m e s ,

c o m p r i s e 71$ o f a l l t h e r e g u l a t i o n s .

E i g h t y - f o u r item s appear in s i x t e e n to tw e n ty s e t s of r e g u l a t i o n s and s i x t y - t h r e e appear i n tw enty-one to tw e n ty f i v e s e t s m ak in g u p , w i t h t h o s e w h i c h a p p e a r f e w e r t i m e s , 82$ o f a l l i t e m s . Thus o n l y 18$ o f a l l i t e m s a p p e a r i n more than tw e n ty - fiv e s e t s .

W hereas 4 7 .2 $ o f th e ite m s appear

in l e s s than f iv e c i t i e s , in l e s s than tw e n ty -s ix ,

71$ i n l e s s t h a n s i x t e e n ,

and 82$

i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t h a t a n y r u l e

j

22 r

~]

w h ic h a p p e a r s abo v e t h e e i g h t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e i n f r e q u e n c y c an be c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t .

R u le s which

a p p e a r i n t w e n t y - t h r e e o r more s e t s a r e among t h o s e l y i n g above the e i g h t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e *

T his stu d y

s h a l l c o n s i d e r a l l ite m s f a l l i n g above t h e e i g h t i e t h percen tile

sig n ific an t.

The f a c t t h a t so m a n y i t e m s

a p p e a r i n so few s e t s o f r e g u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t many o f t h e i t e m s h a v e b e e n e n a c t e d t o s a t i s f y l o c a l co n d itio n s•

J

23

1

TABLE VI FREQUENCY OF ITEMS WITHIN REGULATIONS RANGE OF SETS OF REGU­ LATIONS IN WHICH ITEMS APPEAR

I 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96 101 106 111 121 126 131 141 146 151 156 161 166 176 181 196 246 266 271

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 10 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 125 130 135 145 150 155 160 165 170 180 185 200 250 270 275

FREQUENCY OF ITEMS WITHIN EACH RANGE

632 222 102 84 :63 38 37 30 16 9 13 4

PERCENTILE RANK OF ITEMS

47 fo 6Zfo

71$ 82 $ 88 $

9 0$ 91?«£ 92$ 93 $ 9 3$

10 9 6 10 9 7 2 3 2 3 2 2 6 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1

96$ 96$ 97$ 97$ 9 7$ 97$ 97$ 7° 98$ 9 8$ 9 8$ 99$ 99$ 99$ 99$ 99$ 99$ 100 $

1340

J

24 r

n At t h i s p o i n t i t

i s a d v is a b le to p r e s e n t th e opinion

o f a u t h o r i t i e s in the f i e l d re g a rd in g th e f u n c t i o n s of reg u latio n s,

p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y one who h a s e x am in e d r u l e s

and r e g u l a t i o n s h a s a s t a t e m e n t o f c r i t e r i a .

Most o f

t h e s e c r i t e r i a a r e a b l y sum m arize d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t made i n th e c i r c u l a r o f the E d u c a tio n a l R esearch S erv ice of th e n a t i o n a l E ducation A s s o c ia tio n 2 ,

in th is b u lle tin i t

is

s t a t e d t h a t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e s t u d y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t and a s a r e s u l t o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e g u ­ l a t i o n s c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c o n t e n t a nd form a r e deemed d e s i r a b l e *

S i x c r i t e r i a o f form a r e l i s t e d a f t e r

t h e g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e fo rm s h o u l d b e s u c h a s t o make t h e r e g u l a t i o n s m o s t u s e f u l t o t h e members o f t h e sch o ol system .

R e g u la ti o n s should be l o g i c a l l y o rg a n iz e d

u n d e r h e a d i n g s and s e c t i o n s ,

t h e ty p e s h o u ld be r e a d a b l e ,

th e volume s h o u ld be o f c o n v e n ie n t s i z e , and t h e r e s h o u l d be a t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s and i n d e x ,

provision for revision

s h o u l d b e made b y u s i n g t h e l o o s e - l e a f fo rm o r by i n c l u d i n g b lan k pages,

and t h e t i t l e

i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as to c i t y ,

page s h o u l d i n c l u d e c o m p l e t e state,

and d a t e o f a p p r o v a l .

The e x t e n t t o w h ic h t h e r e g u l a t i o n s u n d e r c o n s i d e r ­ a t i o n m eet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r fo rm i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e

2 E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , TTR u l e s a n d Regu­ l a t i o n s G o v e r n i n g S c h o o l s i n C i t i e s o v e r 3 0 , ~60o i n P o p u l a t i o n ” , C i r c u l a r 4, Department of S u p e rin te n d e n c e and R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. 0 . : N a t i o n a l L E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 0 ) , p p . 1 , 2.

25

d isc u ssio n of th e form at.

I t i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d p e r t i n e n t ~1

to t h i s stu d y to a n a ly se the o rg a n iz a tio n of th e re g u ­ la tio n s studied,

b u t i t was n o t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r

t h a t t h e s i z e o f t y p e v a r i e d t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r d i d n o t c o n s i d e r i t p r a c t i c a b l e t o even t a l l y t h e many s i z e s u s e d .

I t i s lik e w ise noted th a t

volumes were p u b l i s h e d in te n d i f f e r e n t s i z e s ,

th a t but

few h a v e t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s and i n d e x w h i c h i s r e c o m ­ mended, a nd t h a t l i k e w i s e few c i t i e s p r o v i d e b l a n k p a g e s o r l o o s e - l e a f fo rm t o make amendment e a s y . The c r i t e r i a f o r c o n t e n t l i s t s ta te m e n t of r e l a t i v e im p o rtan c e .

s i x item s w ith o u t a S e v e ra l o f th e s e have

been m en tio n ed f r e q u e n t l y i n magazine a r t i c l e s and in works i n t h e f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

The

f i r s t c r i t e r i o n w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be g u id in g p r i n c i p l e s r a t h e r than c o l l e c t i o n s of d e t a i l e d in stru ctio n s is

e m p h a s i z e d b y J e n n i n g s 3 i n h i s summary o f

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f good r e g u l a t i o n s .

O ther sta n d a rd s

i n d i c a t e t h a t l i n e s o f a u t h o r i t y and r e l a t i o n s h i p s s h o u l d be c l e a r l y s e t f o r t h , t h a t i m p o r t a n t d u t i e s s h o u l d b e d e ­ f in ite ly allocated,

t h a t th e m ajor r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of

o f f i c e r s a nd g r o u p s o f i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d b e s t a t e d , and t h a t r u l e s s h o u l d c o n f o r m t o e x i s t i n g s c h o o l l a w s and

3 J o s e p h J e n n i n g s , R u l e s a nd R e g u l a t i o n s Q o n c e r n i n g t h e E m ployed p e r s o n n e l o f ' C i t y S c h o o l s ( I f a s h v i l l e , T en­ n e s s e e : G e o r g e P e a b o d y C o l l e g e f o r T e a c h e r s , 1929) 128 p p .

26

“1 p ractices*

Since t h i s stu d y concerns i t s e l f w ith only

t h o s e r u l e s which a f f e c t

the te a c h e r,

h e r e i n m e n t i o n e d do n o t a p p l y e q u a l l y ,

a l l the c r i t e r i a The t r e a t m e n t o f

th e d a ta in t h i s stu d y em phasizes the re q u ire m e n ts t h a t r u l e s s h o u l d be g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s a n d t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s sho uld be c o n s i s t e n t w ith e x i s t i n g sch o o l p r a c t i c e .

The

e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e r e g u l a t i o n s meet t h e s e c r i t e r i a o f c o n te n t w i l l be c o n sid ere d as th e study p ro g re s s e s . SUMMARY A v e ry broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s given to th e term , d e s c r i p t i o n of d a t a .

The i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n s i d e r s p r o o f

o f ad eq u ate sam pling,

l i s t i n g of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of

r e g u l a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o p o p u l a t i o n and s t a t e , of enactm ent, th e fo rm a t,

the d ate

t h e number o f i n d i v i d u a l r u l e s ,

and a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f r e g u l a t i o n s u n d e r t h i s one h e a d i n g .

R e g u l a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d from a m a j o r i t y

o f t h e c i t i e s w h i c h h a v e them .

These c i t i e s r e p r e s e n t

f o r t y - t w o s t a t e s and t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a .

A g reater

p e rc e n ta g e o f th e l a r g e c i t i e s have r e g u l a t i o n s .

Only a

few more t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s b e a r a d a t e w i t h i n s i x y e a r s o f t h e commencement o f t h i s w o r k .

Six

i t e m s o f f o r m a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d b u t a t l e a s t two p r o ­ ced u res a re found f o r each.

Some c i t i e s p u b l i s h r e g u ­

l a t i o n s a s a s e p a r a t e d o c u m e n t, w h i l e o t h e r s i n c l u d e them in a d ire c to ry .

Some b i n d them, w h i l e o t h e r s u s e l o o s e -

le a f co n stru ctio n .

O n ly a few i n c l u d e b o t h i n d e x and

j

ta b le of c o n te n ts .

1

Ten d i f f e r e n t page s i z e s a r e f o u n d

and t h e number o f

p a g e s v a r i e s f r o m l e s s t h a n f i v e t o 278.

A g r e a t num ber o f

i n d i v i d u a l r u l e s , 1340

f o u n d i n t h e 334 r e g u l a t i o n s .

to be e x a c t, a re

A lm o st 50 Jo o f t h e s e i n ­

d i v i d u a l r u l e s a p p ea r i n l e s s than f i v e s e t s and o n ly t e n i t e m s a p p e a r i n more t h a n h a l f t h e s e t s o f r e g u l a t i o n s . A u t h o r i t i e s in the f i e l d c r i t e r i a for

s ta te th a t th ere are d e fin ite

t h e f o r m and c o n t e n t o f r e g u l a t i o n s .

The

c r i t e r i a o f c o n t e n t w i l l be a p p l i e d a s t h e r e p o r t o f t h i s study p ro g resse s. CONCLUSIONS The f o r e g o i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d a t a l e a d s one t o c e rta in conclusions. e n a c t m e n t and u se sm all c i t i e s .

There i s a g r e a t e r

tendency f o r th e

of r e g u l a t i o n s inla r g e c i t i e s than

in

T h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d s i n c e t h e l a r g e r

t h e c i t y t h e more i n t r i c a t e a r e t h e p r o b l e m s o f a d m in ­ istratio n

and the g r e a t e r i s

R e g u l a t i o n s t e n d t o be s t a t i c

th e need fo r advanced te c h n ic s s i n c e r e v i s i o n se ld o m t a k e s

p l a c e and few m e c h a n i c a l means a r e p r o v i d e d f o r e ac h amendm ent.

R e g u la tio n s v a ry to a g r e a t d e g re e .

of agreem ent i s

The l a c k

i n d i c a t e d i n two w a y s, t h e v a r i a t i o n i n

f o r m a t and t h e l a r g e number o f i n d i v i d u a l r u l e s .

The

p r e s e n t r e g u l a t i o n s do n o t m e e t t h e c r i t e r i a w h ic h h a v e b e e n s e t up b y e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r f o r m .

The

l a r g e n u m ber o f r e g u l a t i o n s w h ic h a p p e a r s i n a v e r y s m a l l n u m b er o f c i t i e s i s a r o u g h i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e y do n o t J

ZQ \

meet the c r i t e r i o n o f c o n t e n t , namely, s h o u l d be g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s r a t h e r d etailed in stru c tio n s.

th at reg u latio n s

than c o l l e c t i o n s of

I t may be s a i d i n c o n c l u s i o n t h a t

r e g u l a t i o n s a r e u s e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n l a r g e c i t i e s , t h a t t h e y t e n d t o be q u i t e s t a t i c , have l i t t l e

i_

and t h a t many s e t s

i n common w i t h o t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s .

_!

29

r

~1 CHAPTER

III

THE TEACHER ENTERING THE SERVICE

C on sid eration ed u cation study. ly

teachers

teacher.

very often and t h e w hich that

affect

Such r u l e s

take

the

d eal w ith

teach er

p la ce

in

of

three

com m unity for

to

p rom otion , le g isla te the ment

or

of the

in

of

sch ool boards.

appear f r e q u e n t ly

they are

assign m en t,

There

one

the serv ice.

co n ta c t w ith

He d i s c o v e r s

few c i t i e s

affect

in

and l e a v i n g first

large

an alyzed

the is

ru les entering:

little

th a t c o m p a r a tiv e ly few

enough t o b e c o n s id e r e d

from

tran sfer,

teacher so

that

a g r e e on r u l e s

One h u n d r e d t h i r t y - s i x that

th e board

so

f o r p lacem ent v a r i e s

appointm ent,

sta n d a rd iza tio n

is

undertaken

a p o sitio n .

ap p lyin g

on c o n d i t i o n s

in n a t u r e and

teacher

serv ice,

of

number o f r u l e s

t e a c h e r makes h i s

or d e m o t io n .

serv ice

Th e t o t a l

co m m u n ity and t h a t

elig ib ility ,

of p ra ctica l­

c h a p te r s w hich d e a l w ith

r e g u l a t i o n s w hen h e s e e k s for

eyes

determ ine th e p o s it io n

con ven ience

en terin g se r v ic e ,

procedure

the

o f them c a n n o t b e

The p r o s p e c t i v e

the

in

problem o f t h i s

o f a c o n t r a c t betw een

teach er.

As a m a t t e r

and d i s c u s s e d

the

of boards of

are co n tra ctu a l

the p o s itio n

con sid eration

is

ru les

are t h o s e w hich

in d iv id u a l

chapter.

regu lation s

teachers

The m o s t i m p o r t a n t

a ll

the

w hich

of those

agree­

sectio n s

of general

im p ort. >-

J

ELIEIBILITY1 One o f t h e ed u ca tio n a l selectio n

conferences

of

teach in g

p rom ulgated to ca lcu la ted not

t o p i c s w hich

to

set

regu lation s determ ine

w h ile

and i n

cities

of

exam in ers.

in

the

are c o n s ta n tly at

a lev el

teachers. school

It

is:

board

o ffice r

to

e d u c a t i o n a l and e x p e r i e n c e

of

a com m ittee

In m ost

of the

assign ed cities

elig ib ility

to

d irect

of

a board o f exam iners,

o f the

board perform

the e l i g i b i l i t y

o f a can d id ate

su p erin ten d en t th is

is

th is

or a board

a fu n ctio n

of

board. r e q u ir e m e n ts w hich

the

and e c o n o m ic

the

type

a board o f

o f teacher

that

edu­

the c i t y

e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and t h e

view p oin t

1 A p p e n d ix

the

sm all c i t i e s

in d ica te

s e e k s and r e f l e c t

is

th irty -fiv e

cities

d e te r m in e d by th e

enacts

that

a d m in istra tiv e

six teen

The e l i g i b i l i t y

so cia l

fin d

to d e term in e

In l a r g e c i t i e s

gen era lly

a com m ittee

set

to

R eg u la tio n s

can d id a tes,

is

req u irem en ts

d eterm inin g e l i g i b i l i t y

b od ies.

fu n ctio n .

New r u l e s

is

at

and demand c e r t i f i c a t i o n .

th e s u p e r in te n d e n t

ca tio n

the

e lig ib ility ,

fiv e

d iscu ssed

th e most e f f e c t i v e

therefore,

The d u t y o f variou s

p erso n n el.

d esign ate

req u irem en ts,

often

and board m e e t i n g s

e lig ib ility

secure

su rp risin g ,

is

p* 287

o f th e com m unity.

The

p revalen t

ru les

rea so n a b le. req u ired

s p e c i f y req u ir em en ts w hich

A c a d e m ic and p r o f e s s i o n a l

by 178

boards,

and a c e r t i f i c a t e a m o u n t and t y p e

seem v e r y

tra in in g

tea ch in g exp erien ce

o f good h e a lth

o f academ ic

are

by 131,

by f i f t y - t w o .

Th e

and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g

w hich b o a rd s r e q u ir e v a r y so w i d e l y t h a t

lim ita tio n s

t im e and s p a c e

th is

req u irem en ts, tra in in g of

are

therefore,

feel

that

as to

the

The b o a r d s

a p p lica n t

to

to

the

an e x a m i n a t i o n

boards of

p o sitio n ,

of

is

p rosp ectiv e the

other,

to

in

prove h i s

in d ica ted

teacher

to

A ll

p a rticu la r

field s

sp ecified

the

boards

elem en tary sch o o l

of th irty -th ree

that

and c i v i c

study.

T h irty-tw o

th eir

and t w e n t y - e i g h t

ed u cation

teachers

of

be w ith in

T w enty-nine boards s p e c i f y for

in

acad em ic or p r o f e s s i o n a l

certa in

should have t r a in in g

a s miEKSic a n d a r t . req u ire

exact n o ta tio n s

g r o u p e d u n d e r one h e a d i n g .

ed u cation

teachers

forb id

of

cities age li m it s .

a p p lica n t in sist

fitn ess.

such

be f i t t e d

t h a t he subm it The i n t e r e s t

a u th o rities

in

the

of

h ea lth

b y tw o r u l e s .

One d i r e c t s

the

subm it a h e a l t h

cer tifica te ,

and

en acted by tw e n ty -fiv e boards,

r e q u ir e s good

h ea lth . Many b o a r d s b e l i e v e in g p o s itio n s

that

women c a n d i d a t e s

sh o u ld be s i n g l e .

sp ecifica lly

list

eigh t

sin g le

women an d s e v e n t e e n

she

needy.

prefer

woman u n l e s s

m arriage

F o rty -fiv e

is

as a bar

It

is

for teach ­

cities

to e l i g i b i l i t y ,

in d eed

w h ile

bar th e m arried strange

that

32 r

i p o v e r t y s h o u l d be a r e q u i s i t e - f o r e l i g i b i l i t y t o t e a c h in a p u b lic school. R u l e s w hic h a p p e a r l e s s t h a n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t o f t i m e s do n o t a l w a y s r e f l e c t an a t t i t u d e

also ,

number

of fa irn e s s to

both th e p r o s p e c t i v e te a c h e r and th e b o ard . d iffic u lt,

2

It is

to c l a s s th e s e r e g u l a ti o n s as broad

statem en ts of p o lic y .

One b o a r d c o n s i d e r s u n i o n member­

sh ip a b ar to e l i g i b i l i t y ,

another i n s i s t s t h a t the

p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r h a v e a command o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , and t h r e e r e q u i r e t h a t t h e c a n d i d a t e s u b s c r i b e t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l m agazine.

The a p p l i c a n t f o r a p o s i t i o n i n

s i x t e e n c i t i e s m u st l i v e i n t h e d i s t r i c t ,

in n in eteen

c i t i e s m ust be g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e i f he i s a r e s i d e n t , and i n two c i t i e s m u s t o f f e r a d d i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i f he is a n o n -resid en t.

Those r u l e s w h ic h i n t w e n t y - o n e c i t i e s

re q u ire U nited S ta te s c itiz e n s h ip ,

in tw enty c i t i e s i n s i s t

on good m o r a l c h a r a c t e r , and i n f o u r c i t i e s p e r m i t t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a c a d e m ic t r a i n i n g f o r e x p e r i e n c e seem f a i r enough i n t h e m s e l v e s .

C e r t a i n r u l e s a tte m p t to a s s u r e

eq u itab le consid eratio n f o r a l l can d id ates. f o r b i d a n y r e l i g i o u s or p o l i t i c a l t e s t .

Two c i t i e s

Eleven s t a t e t h a t

p re s e n t te a c h e r s a re n o t s u b je c t to e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e ­ m ents.

One c i t y ,

i n e ac h c a s e ,

p r o v i d e s t h a t an e x a m i n i n g

2

D e f i n e d on page 22 a s t w e n t y - t h r e e t i m e s . !_

-I

33

board r a t e

ca n d id a tes,

that

esta b lish

graded

ra tin g

an e x a m i n i n g b o a r d ,

of

lists,

a board o f s u p e r in te n d e n ts

ap p earin g a s i g n i f i c a n t d ica te

a sin cere

ca tio n

to

seek

can not be s a id

a nd t h a t

The e l i g i b i l i t y

nu m ber o f

attem pt

the b e st

a t e a c h e r may a p p e a l

o f ma ny o f

those

ru les

tim es g e n e r a lly i n ­

on t h e p a r t teach ers

the

o f boards

a v a ila b le,

of

but

edu­

t h e same

r u le s w hich appear r a th e r

in freq u en tly . S tate

statute

is

p rob ab ly r e s p o n s ib le

r e g u la tio n s regardin g c e r t if ic a t i o n , d eterm ination The m o s t h old

th is

sig n ifica n t

a state

is

by a lo c a l

A ru le

req u irin g th a t

or

a u th o rity .

T his i s

a sp ecified

Ten c i t i e s

to

to

the

a p p lica n t

filin g v id e the

cer tifica te s to meet

state

of

the

certifica te

th at

the

teacher

tim e o f

is

ty p ica l

tim e

is

to

d u ly

128 c i t i e s . to

found in

su p erin ten d en t eigh t

seven

assignm ent,

Ho o n e o f

study.

be p r e s e n te d

teachers,

s h a l l be g r a n ted

appoin tm en t.

cer tifica tio n

found in

req u irem en ts,

before

licen se

order th e

q u a lified

of th is

the tea ch er

an e q u i v a l e n t

tw en ty-th ree c i t i e s . issu e

req u ires

such a c e r t i f i c a t e

su p erin ten d en t w ith in

the

but th e d e f in it e

beyond t h e p r o v in c e

regu lation

cer tifica te

issu ed

the

L_

of

f o r m ost o f

req u ire

demand t h e

and two p r o ­

a certifica te

the r e g u la tio n s

o f a n y one p o p u l a t io n

at on

group.

_I

34

r

n APPOINTMENT3 When t h e t e a c h e r e lig ib ility a cq u ain t

sa tisfie s

appoin tm en t,

ru les

even

in

ca tio n s

as th ir ty -fo u r

teacher

to

th e

cities

subm it a p p l i c a t i o n

the

however,

su p erin ten d en t

one h o a r d s the

that

req u ire

ap p lica n ts

to

to

s u p e r in t e n d e n t , and

o f the

su p erin ten d en t.

hy ten

boards to

p o litica l to

a p p lica n t

to

a void

in flu en ce

cope w ith

receiv e

w ith a p p ro p ria te

the

is

file

the

of the hoard ra th er the

a p p lica tio n s. to

in fo rm a tio n

th e p roblem o f

in th e

a t i m e w he n a u t h o r i t i e s

m ost d i f f i c u l t

to

so lv e^ .

to

Three o f

of

o ffice

ca n d id a tes relig io u s,

it

d iscrim in a tio n

op p ortu n ity at

T h irty-

and t e n

of p erson al,

im p ortan t b e c a u s e

than

keep a l i s t

record cards

use

Two

a p p lica tio n s.

The w a r n i n g g i v e n the

a p p li­

the p ro sp ectiv e

the su p e r in te n d e n t

d irect

filin g

There

d irect

a com m ittee

is

the

for

and c o n t r a c t s .

procedure f o r

tw en ty-seven m erely req u ir e w r itte n state,

he m e e ts

con cernin g a p p lic a tio n s

ap p oin tm en t p ro ced u re,

are v a r i a t i o n s

that

of one or s e v e r a l h o a r d s , he must

req u irem en ts

h im s e lf w ith

h im self

is

or

an a t t e m p t

and u n e q u a l

state

that

it

the fo u r c i t i e s

is w hich

3 A ppendix pp. 290-292 4. V a r ia t io n s in P e r so n n e l p r a c t i c e s A f f e c t in g T e a c h e r s , J u n e , 1 9 3 8 , C o m m i t t e e on E q u a l O p p o r t u n i t y , n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D. 0 . , J u n e , 1 9 3 8 , P . 23

J

sta te

t h a t a com m ittee o f th e hoard s h a l l c o n s i d e r ,

a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e in th e s m a lle s t p o p u la tio n group. three c i t i e s s ta te

th a t the p resen t tea ch e r need not f i l e

an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r r e - a p p o i n t m e n t , such a p p l i c a t i o n .

W hile

one c i t y r e q u i r e s

I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t two c i t i e s r e ­

q u i r e a p p l i c a n t s t o p a y a f e e f o r f i l i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n . Although a u t h o r i t i e s 5 i n th e f i e l d of e d u c a tio n a l a d m i n i s t r a t io n c o n s id e r t h a t i t i s th e f u n c tio n of the s u p e r in te n d e n t to i n i t i a t e the appointm ent of a l l c a n d i d a t e s f o r t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s , s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s do n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s u n a n i m i t y on t h i s p o i n t .

I t is

t r u e t h a t 248 "boards d i r e c t t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t o i n i t i a t e the appointm ent,

y et,

t h i s power i s r e s e r v e d f o r a

c o m m i t t e e of t h e b o a r d i n t w e n t y - t h r e e c i t i e s , m ost o f w hich a r e o f l e s s t h a n 5 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n .

A pparently

many c i t i e s Whir-eh g i v e t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t h e r i g h t t o name a t e a c h e r assume t h a t a p p r o v a l by t h e b o a r d n e e d n o t be p r o v id e d f o r s p e c i f i c a l l y . effectiv e leg ally , proves i t .

of c o u rs e ,

Fo a p p o i n t m e n t c a n be u n le s s the sch o o l board ap­

Only n i n e t y - t h r e e c i t i e s d e f i n i t e l y m ention

t h a t the b o ard s h a l l approve th e appointm ent o f th e t e a c h e r , b u t e i g h t y - e i g h t p r o v id e t h a t a comm ittee o f t h e

5 D. P . B g i n t o n , " R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , " A m e ri c a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 8 8 : 1 4 , M a rch , 1 9 3 4 . .

board s h a l l g iv e such a p p ro v a l. h alf,

F orty-four,

or ex aetly

o f t h e s e a r e i n t h e two s m a l l e s t p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s .

F o r t y - f i v e com m unities, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l population,

below 5 0 , 0 0 0

p r o v i d e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r be n o t i f i e d o f

appointm ent. Several reg u la tio n s, s m a l l number o f t i m e s , com m ittee,

a l l b u t one o f w h i c h a p p e a r a

s e t p ro c e d u re s f o r th e board,

its

or th e s u p e r in te n d e n t to e v a lu a te c a n d i d a t e s .

The m o st f r e q u e n t o f t h e s e r u l e s , which a p p e a r s t w e n t y * seven tim e s ,

s t a t e s t h a t the s u p e rin te n d e n t s h a l l i n t e r ­

view t h e c a n d i d a t e .

Ten c i t i e s s p e c i f y t h a t members o f a

b o a rd com m ittee a c q u a i n t th e m s e lv e s w ith t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of ap p lican ts,

a n d e i g h t d i r e c t t h e b o a r d t o go i n t o

e x e c u t i v e s e s s i o n when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e l e c t i o n o f teachers.

The c a n d i d a t e m u st c o n f e r w i t h t h e s u p e r i n ­

t e n d e n t i n r e g a r d t o a p p o i n t m e n t i n s e v e n c i t i e s an d a p ­ p e a r b e f o r e t h e b o a r d i n one c i t y .

Four b o ard s s p e c if y

t h a t a p p l i c a n t s b e j u d g e d on m e r i t ,

and two d i r e c t t h e

s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t o c o n f e r w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l and s u p e r v i s o r c o n c e r n i n g new a p p o i n t e e s .

Twenty o f t h e t w e n t y - s e v e n

c i t i e s which r e q u i r e t h e s u p e r i n te n d e n t to i n t e r v i e w th e c a n d i d a t e a r e in th e s m a l l e s t p o p u l a t i o n g ro u p s , and s i x o f t h e t e n c i t i e s w h ic h r e q u i r e c o m m i t t e e members t o a c ­ q u a in t them selves w ith c a n d id a te s a re in th e s m a lle s t p o p u la tio n group.

S ix c i t i e s provide th a t a s p e c ia l

p r o c e d u r e be f o l l o w e d f o r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a r e l a t i v e

o f a b o a r d member*

I t i s notew orthy th a t te n c i t i e s r e ­

q u i r e a t e a c h e r t o t a k e an o a t h o f o f f i c e *

l i n e c i t i e s in

t h e l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n group have a r u l e which s p e c i f i e s t h a t a p p o i n t m e n t s s h a l l be made f r o m e l i g i b l e l i s t s ,

and

two c i t i e s s t a t e t h a t a n a p p l i c a n t s h a l l b e d r o p p e d t e m p o r a r i l y o r p e rm a n e n tly from a l i s t f o r r e f u s i n g a position*

f h e s e two r u l e s p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t e t h e b e g i n n i n g

of a ten d e n cy to r e g u l a t e th e use o f e l i g i b l e l i s t s . E a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y i t was s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e g u ­ l a t i o n s o f many s c h o o l b o a r d s t a k e t h e p l a c e o f a c o n t r a c t w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r .

That t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y tr u e

i n t h e l a r g e r c o m m u n ities i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t f o r t y - e i g h t o f t h e s e v e n t y - t h r e e c i t i e s w h ic h r e q u i r e t h a t c o n t r a c t s b e s i g n e d arfci f i l e d w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d t i m e have l e s s than 50,000 p o p u la tio n ,

and o n l y e i g h t o f t h e t w e n t y -

seven c i t i e s which r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r t o h o ld a c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e b o a r d h a v e mor e t h a n 5 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n .

Because

o f the i n d e f i n i t e language o f s e v e r a l s e t s of r e g u l a t i o n s , it

i s n e c e s s a r y t o g r o u p t h e f i l i n g o f c o n t r a c t s and

n o t i c e o f a c c e p t a n c e u n d e r one h e a d i n g .

T ypical of the

r u l e s w hich se ek t o meet l o c a l p ro b lem s a r e t h o s e w hich d i r e c t i n two i n s t a n c e s t h a t t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , a n d i n one i n s t a n c e t h e t e a c h e r , make s u r e t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t s b e ­ tw e e n t h e b o a r d and t h e t e a c h e r a r e f a i r .

An e x am p le o f a

r u l e w hich i s a w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n r a t h e r th an a s t a te m e n t

38

n of

p o licy

d irects

make c e r t a i n

the

that

su p erin ten d en t

the c o n tr a c ts

in

three

of tea ch er s

cities

to

are sig n ed

and f i l e d .

ASSIGNMENT ANN TEAUSi’EH6 I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h -.the t h e o r y t h a t for

the

a d m in istra tio n

the

o ffice

o fficer

of

the

the

In

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pfoval

is

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and,

ru les

the

the

regu lation s

su p erin ten d en t

are

on s u c h

others

in stru cted

to

assign m en ts.

the

p rovid es

the p r in c i p a l ,

su p erin ten d en t, sch o o l. grant

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subject

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however, given

six

the a the

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of resp o n si­

tw en ty-n in e c i t i e s

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in tere stin g

teacher

to

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b ility

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by

d efin ite ly

a d v is e w ith

the c e n tr a liz a tio n

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in w hich

p rovid in g for execu tive

and t r a n s f e r

are,

p rin cip le in

that

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fh ere

t e a c h e r s and n i n e

in

s u p e r i n t e n d e n t 1s

a com m ittee o f th e hoard i s

o f th e hoard i s

to

on ly fo rty -tw o

au tom atically gran ted ,

assign

g iv e

assign m en t

assignm ents

w h ile

resp o n sih ility

sh ou ld he c e n t r a l i z e d

th e h oard m ust a p p rove t h e

assign m en ts,

power to

power in

145 c i t i e s

su p erin ten d en t

state

sch o o ls

su p erin ten d en t,

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of teachers.

of

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6

L_

A p p e n d ix p . 292 J

r

-i a s s ig n m e n t,

one c i t y d e f i n i t e l y f o r b i d s such p r e f e r e n c e .

Though f o u r t e e n c i t i e s s t a t e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r may be a s s i g n e d to any d ep a rtm en t,

t h r e e p r o h i b i t th e s u p e r i n ­

t e n d e n t from a s s i g n i n g a t e a c h e r e x c e p t w i t h i n t h e f i e l d to which he i s e l e c t e d .

Three r u l e s ,

each a p p e a r in g but

o n c e , p r e v e n t t h e a s s ig n m e n t o f a t e a c h e r t o a s c h o o l where a r e l a t i v e i s a s u p e r v i s o r , t e a c h e r , or p u p i l .

An a ttem p t

i s made i n e i g h t com m u n ities t o p r o t e c t t h e t e a c h e r from a ssig n m e n t

to

e x c e s s i v e ly la rg e c l a s s e s ,

f o u r o f th e

c i t i e s which l i m i t c l a s s s i z e a r e i n th e l a r g e s t p o p u la t io n group.

These r u l e s r e f l e c t r e c e n t demands o f t e a c h e r

a sso c ia tio n s fo r le g is la t io n

to l i m i t c l a s s s i z e .

The s u p e r in t e n d e n t i s g iv e n c o n s i d e r a b l e power i n t h e m a tt e r o f t r a n s f e r .

E i g h t y - s i x * c i t i e s g r a n t him th e r i g h t

to i n i t i a t e t r a n s f e r ,

s i x t y - o n e g r a n t him f u l l power t o

t r a n s f e r t e a c h e r s , and t w e n t y - f o u r o t h e r s m e r e ly r e q u i r e him t o r e p o r t t r a n s f e r s t o t h e b o a r d .

4?wo c i t i e s d i r e c t j

t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t to r e p o r t c o n te m p la te d t r a n s f e r s , and one r e q u i r e s a c o m m ittee o f t h e board to r e p o r t a t r a n s f e r to th e su p e r in te n d e n t.

As i n t h e c a s e o f a s s ig n m e n t , some

boards r e t a i n pow ers o f t r a n s f e r f o r t h e m s e lv e s or f o r t h e i r c o m m it t e e s .

T r a n s f e r s must be approved by a board

c o m m ittee in t w e n t y - f o u r c i t i e s and by t h e board i t s e l f in tw en ty -tw o .

In t h r e e c i t i e s a co m m ittee o f t h e board and

i n f i v e c i t i e s a co m m ittee i n c o n j u n c t io n w i t h th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t a r ra n g e t r a n s f e r s ,

f o u r t e e n board s r e s e r v e

40

r t h e r i g h t t o t r a n s f e r a t e a c h e r a t any time* endeavor to p r o t e c t th e t e a c h e r ,

Three r u l e s

The m ost f r e q u e n t , which

a p p e a r s t h r e e t i m e s , p r e v e n t s th e t r a n s f e r o f t h e t e a c h e r e x c e p t w i t h i n t h e t y p e o f s e r v i c e t o w hich he was e l e c t e d . The o th e r r u l e s , w h ich appear o n l y o n c e , p r o v id e t h a t a t r a n s f e r i n v o l v i n g a ch an ge in s a l a r y s h a l l be made o n l y w it h t h e a p p r o v a l o f ’t h e board and t h a t a t e a c h e r ’ s s a l a r y s h a l l n o t be r ed u c ed b y t r a n s f e r .

F a ilu r e to

c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l i s th e o n l y r e a s o n l i s t e d a s gro u n d s f o r c o m p u lso r y t r a n s f e r o f a t e a c h e r .

The

r u l e s in r e g a r d to t h e a s s ig n m e n t and t r a n s f e r o f i

t e a c h e r s w h ich appear a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f t im e s seem t o be i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c u r r e n t th o u g h t in e d u c a t i o n a l a d m in istr a tio n • EROMOTIOK AMD DBMOTIOH7 In v ie w o f th e a lm o s t u n i v e r s a l human d e s i r e to ad­ v a n ce w i t h i n a c h o se n p r o f e s s i o n , one would e x p e c t t h a t t h e r e would be numerous and s p e c i f i c r u l e s r e g a r d in g p r o ­ m o t io n .

O nly one o f t h e e l e v e n r u l e s , h ow ever, a p p ea rs

f r e q u e n t l y enough to b e s i g n i f i c a n t . occurs t h i r t y - f o u r tim es, recommend p r o m o tio n ,

T h is p r o v i s i o n , w h ich

i n s t r u c t s t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t to

n i n e t e e n c i t i e s d i r e c t t h e board to

ap p rove recom m endations f o r p r o m o tio n , w h i l e s e v e n r e q u i r e

7

Appendix p. 294

L

J

41

n t h a t a com m ittee o f th e h o a rd g iv e sueh a p p r o v a l .

The

f u n c t i o n o f recom m ending p r o m o t i o n i s d e l e g a t e d i n t h r e e c i t i e s to the p r i n c i p a l , two c i t i e s

i n two c i t i e s t o a c o m m i t t e e , i n

to a ho ard of exam iners,

and i n one c i t y t o

t h e s u p e r i o r s and c o - w o r k e r s o f a t e a c h e r .

T his l a t t e r

p r o v i s i o n i s found i n th e

r e g u l a t i o n s which w ere

p r o m u l g a t e d by a g r o u p of

e d u c a tio n a l experts® . S ig h t

c i t i e s d i r e c t t h a t p r o m o t i o n s h a l l d e p e n d on s c h o l a r s h i p , s u c c e s s in te a c h in g ,

len g th of s e rv ic e ,

and p r o f e s s i o n a l

a d v a n c e m e n t , w h i l e one c i t y p o i n t s o u t t h a t i t

is

u n p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r a t e a c h e r t o s e e k p r o m o t i o n on a n y h a s is o th e r than m e r it. Nowhere i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s ­ t r a t i o n can t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r f i n d a ny r u l e s which d e a l w ith t h e

ju stific atio n for

demotion of t e a c h e r s . I t

is

a s tra n g e philosophy t h a t in flu e n c e s the hoards of t h i r t e e n c i t i e s t o s e t up a p r o c e d u r e f o r d e m o t i o n and h o a r d s Of two o t h e r c i t i e s t o p r o v i d e t h a t a t e a c h e r may be d e m o te d f o r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e .

8

Hamtramck, M i c h i g a n , The E u b l i c S c h o o l C o d e ,

19 28.

u

J

42 ~1 SUMMARY The p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h s c h o o l h o a r d r e g u l a t i o n s on e l i g i b i l i t y , m en t,

tran sfer,

appointm ent,

p r o m o t i o n , and d e m o t i o n .

assign­

The r e g u l a t i o n s

v a r y t o s u c h an e x t e n t from community t o community t h a t 138 d i f f e r e n t i t e m s a r e fo u n d i n t h e 334 s e t s o f r e g u ­ l a t i o n s c o n sid ered in t h i s stu d y .

A g r e a t many o f t h e s e

p ro v is io n s appear l e s s than fiv e tim es.

The t w e n t y - n i n e

r u l e s w h i c h a p p e a r f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t a re n o ted in Table V II. E a r l i e r in th e 9 study th e i n v e s t i g a t o r s t a t e d t h a t r u l e s which a p p e a r ­ ed i n t h e s e t s o f t w e n t y - t h r e e o r more c i t i e s w o u l d he considered s ig n if ic a n t.

Ho r u l e r e g a r d i n g d e m o t i o n

a p p e a r e d f r e q u e n t l y enough t o he l i s t e d i n t h i s summary.

9 P . 22

L.

J

43

r TABLE

V II

FREQUENCY 02* SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS CONCERNING TEACHERS ENTERING SERVICE REGULATIONS

FREQUBNCY

I. E lig ib ility A.

S h a l l be D eterm ined by S u p e r i n te n d e n t

35

B. R e q u i r e m e n t s 1 . Academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g S. T e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e 3 . C e r t i f i c a t e o f good h e a l t h 4 . M a r r i e d women i n e l i g i b l e 5 . A p p l i c a n t m u s t be w i t h i n s e t age l i m i t s 6 . T raining in p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d 7. T e a c h e r must be f i t t e d f o r p o s i t i o n 8 . A p p lic a n t s h a l l submit to ex am in atio n t o prove f i t n e s s 9 . Good h e a l t h

178 131 52

45 33 32 29 28 25

G• C e r tif ic a tio n 1 . Teacher must h o ld a s t a t e c e r t i f i c a t e o r an e q u i v a l e n t l i c e n s e d u l y i s s u e d by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s 2 . C e r t i f i c a t e m u st be p r e s e n t e d t o S u p e r i n te n d e n t w i t h i n s p e c i f i e d tim e

128 23

I I . Appointment A. A p p l i c a t i o n s 1 . A p p l i c a t i o n s h a l l b e made t o S uperintendent 34 2. S u p e r in te n d e n t s h a l l keep l i s t of a p p l i c a n t s w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o h 31 3 . A p p l i c a n t s h a l l f i l e w r i t t e n a p p l i c a t i o n 27 B# P r o c e d u r e 1 . Superintendent s h a l l i n i t i a t e appointm ent 2. Board s h a l l approve a p p o in tm e n t

L_

248 93 J

TABLE V II

(e o n t.)

FREQUENCY OF SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS CONCERNING, TEACHERS ENTERING SERVICE REGULATIONS P ro c ed u r e ( c o n t * ) 3 . Com m ittee o f Board s h a l l approve appointm ent 4 . T each er s h a l l be n o t i f i e d o f a pp ointm en t 5 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l i n t e r v i e w c a n d id a t e 6 . Committee o f Board s h a l l i n i t i a t e appointm ent C* C o n t r a c t s C o n t r a c t s must be s i g n e d or o th e r n o t i c e o f accep ta n ce g iv en w ith in a s p e c i f i e d tim e S. Teacher s h a l l h o ld a c o n t r a c t w it h the Board I I I * A ssign m en t and T r a n s fe r A* A ssig n m e n t 1 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l i n i t i a t e a ss ig n m e n t 2* Board s h a l l approve a ss ig n m e n t 3 . P r i n c i p a l , s u b j e c t t o S u p e r in t e n d e n t , s h a l l a s s i g n t e a c h e r to c l a s s e s B. T ransfer 1 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l i n i t i a t e t r a n s f e r 2 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t may t r a n s f e r t e a c h e r s 3* Com m ittee o f Board s h a l l approve tr a n sfe r o f tea ch ers IV* P rom otion 1* S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l recommend

COBCLUSIOIS The s t u d y o f t h e r u l e s w h i c h g o v e r n t h e t e a c h e r e n t e r ­ ing s e r v ic e i n d ic a t e s c e r t a i n c o n c lu s io n s .

Boards o f

e ducation tend to c e n t r a l i z e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in the superintendent io r

t h e s e l e c t i o n a n d p l a c e m e n t o f new

t e a c h e r s b u t do n o t a g r e e on many p o l i c i e s w h i c h a f f e c t the a p p li c a n t f o r a te a c h in g p o s i t i o n .

Most p r o v i s i o n s

a re f a i r b o th to th e p r o s p e c t i v e te a c h e r and th e b o a rd o f e d u c a t i o n , bu t many s h o u l d b e w r i t t e n r a t h e r than s ta te m e n ts of p o l ic y . co rre latio n

in stru ctio n s

There i s v e ry s l i g h t

b e tw ee n t h e t y p e o f r u l e and t h e s i z e o f t h e

c ity . R e g u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e a d e f i n i t e te n d e n c y to c e n t r a l i z e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in th e o f f i c e of th e s u p e rin te n d e n t f o r the d e te r m in a tio n of e l i g i b i l i t y , t r a n s f e r of t e a c h e r s .

appointm ent,

assignm ent,

an d

The o n l y i m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s

i s found in th e p r o v is io n s of tw e n ty - th r e e c i t i e s t h a t a com m ittee o f t h e b o a rd s h a l l i n i t i a t e

appointm ent.

T his

i s c o n t r a r y to t h e s t a t e m e n t s of a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d th a t the su p erin ten d en t

s h o u l d h a v e t h e power t o i n i t i a t e

appointm ent. B o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n do n o t c o n c u r on p o l i c i e s w h ic h a f f e c t the t e a c h e r e n t e r i n g s e r v i c e .

W h i l e t h e r e a r e few

v a r i a t i o n s f r o m t h e p o l i c i e s " e x p r e s s e d i n t h e more f r e q u e n t ru les,

t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a g r e e m e n t on m a t t e r s w h i c h

a r e c o n t r o l l e d by r u l e s t h a t appear r a t h e r i n f r e q u e n t l y * f h e most im p o r ta n t d i f f e r e n c e was m en tion ed i n t h e l a s t paragraph*

W hile th e i n i t i a t i o n o f app ointm en t i s a

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s u p e r in te n d e n t in 248 c i t i e s ,

it is

a f u n c t i o n o f a c o m m ittee o f t h e board i n t w e n t y - t h r e e c itie s * Most s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s w hich p e r t a i n t o t h e t e a c h e r e n t e r i n g s e r v i c e a r e j u s t to tooth t h e board o f e d u ca tio n and t h e p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r *

fh e o n ly s i g n i f i c a n t r u le

w hich a p p e a r s to toe u n j u s t s t a t e s t h a t m a rried women are i n e l i g i b l e f o r a p p o in tm e n t.

S e v e r a l r u l e s w hich occu r

i n f r e q u e n t l y appear to toe u n f a i r to t h e te a c h e r *

Such

r u l e s bar t h e p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r who i s a u n io n member, r e q u i r e him t o s u b s c r i b e to p r o f e s s i o n a l m a g a z in e s, or deny him a ch an ce t o e x p r e s s p r e f e r e n c e f o r a s s ig n m e n t . Many r e g u l a t i o n s a r e n o t s t a t e m e n t s o f p o l i c i e s tout a r e r a t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r an a d m in istr a tiv e o f f i c e r .

A u t h o r i t i e s i n th e f i e l d have

i n d i c a t e d t h a t r u l e s s h o u ld toe s t a t e m e n t s o f board p o lic ie s,

y e t , a g r e a t many r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t r o l m a t t e r s

which m ig h t w e l l toe l e f t t o th e d i s c r e t i o n o f th e a d m in istr a tiv e s t a f f .

Many o f t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s appear

in fr e q u e n tly . f h e s i z e o f th e c i t y makes l i t t l e th e typ e o f r e g u la t i o n s .

d i f f e r e n c e in

F iv e r u l e s , how ever, a r e

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f sm a ller c i t i e s ,

fh ese r e g u la tio n s

47 r

I

d e s i g n a t e a com m ittee o f t h e b o a rd to d e te rm in e e l i g i b i l i t y of a c a n d id a te or to i n i t i a t e

appointm ent.

T hey a l s o d i r e c t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r be n o t i f i e d o f h i s a p p o i n t m e n t , be g r a n t e d an i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r a c t ,

and be

r e q u i r e d to r e t u r n h i s c o n t r a c t or g iv e o t h e r n o t i c e of accep tan ce of appointm ent. of c itie s

That so few r u l e s a r e t y p i c a l

of a p a r t i c u l a r s iz e ,

i n d ic a te s t h a t the s iz e

o f t h e c i t y i s a m in o r c o n t r o l i n t h e e n a c t m e n t o f reg u la ti ons. The s t u d y of t h e r e g u l a t i o n s w h ic h a f f e c t t h e t e a c h e r e n t e r i n g t h e s e r v i c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no a b s o l u t e a g r e e m e n t among b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n on ad m in istrativ e p o lic ie s.

The s i z e o f t h e c i t y a f f e c t s

t h e r e g u l a t i o n s i n o n l y a m i n o r wa y. The more f r e q u e n t r u l e s a r e f a i r to b o t h t h e t e a c h e r and t h e b o a r d . is,

also,

There

a t e n d e n c y t o i n c l u d e many i t e m s w h i c h a r e n o t

m a t t e r s o f p o l i c y b u t r a t h e r a r e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f an ad m in istrativ e o ffic e r.

J

48

CHAPTER IV THE TEAGHER I T SERVICE There i s a g r e a t v a r i a t i o n in th e sc h o o l h o a rd p o l i c i e s which a f f e c t t e a c h e r s i n s e r v i c e *

T h i s can h e

seen r e a d i l y hy th e fre q u e n c y w ith which th e t o p i c a r i s e s i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s a t r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s .

In

t h i s s t u d y 290 r e g u l a t i o n s a r e f o u n d w h ic h d e a l w i t h t h e p o s itio n of the tea ch e r in se rv ic e .

An e x a m i n a t i o n o f

t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s makes i t a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e y can h e c l a s s i f i e d un d er seven m ajo r h e a d in g s:

tenure of o ffic e ,

p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement, s a l a r y ,

tim e o f s e r v i c e , a b s e n c e ,

l e a v e s o f a b s e n c e , a nd t a r d i n e s s .

Of t h e 290 i t e m s f i f t y -

n i n e a p p e a r more t h a n t h e t w e n t y - t h r e e t i m e s p r e v i o u s l y d e c i d e d upon a s h e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t . TENURE OR ORi’IGE1 A t o p i c of c o n s t a n t i n t e r e s t to t e a c h e r s i s t e n u r e . In s p i t e of v a s t l i t e r a t u r e fo r teachers,

a d v o c a tin g perm anent t e n u r e

i t i s od d t h a t n i n e t y - e i g h t c i t i e s s t i l l

r e q u i r e th e a n n u al e l e c t i o n of t e a c h e r s and t h i r t y o t h e r s r e q u i r e the annual e l e c t i o n of p ro b a tio n a r y t e a c h e r s , w h i l e h u t e i g h t y - f o u r d e c r e e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r he g r a n t e d tenure a f t e r a probationary perio d .

There a r e tw enty-tw o

1 A p p e n d ix L_

p . 295 J

i t e m s which l e g i s l a t e on t e n u r e ,

h u t o n l y one o t h e r t h a n

t h o s e m e n t i o n e d a p p e a r s a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f t i m e s . T w e n t y - e i g h t c i t i e s d i r e c t t h a t t e n u r e be recommended by the s u p e r in te n d e n t.

T h i s p ow er i s d e l e g a t e d t o a

comm ittee o f t h e b o a rd in f i v e co m m u n ities.

The e i g h t e e n

r e g u l a t i o n s which a p p ea r l e s s than t w e n t y - t h r e e tim e s lim it

the te n u re r i g h t s of th e te a c h e r or s t a t e

c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e r e n e w a l o f an - a n n u a l c o n t r a c t .

The

b o a r d s o f t w e n t y - t w o c i t i e s i n s i s t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r be r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r y to be r e - e l e c t e d , w h i l e t e n s t a t e th a t th e te a c h e r s h a l l hold h i s p lace a t the p le a s u r e of th e board,

a nd s i x t e e n t h a t t h e s e r v i c e o f a p r o b a t i o n a r y

t e a c h e r may b e t e r m i n a t e d a t any t i m e .

The r u l e s w h i c h

d e a l w i t h t h e m a r r i e d woman t e a c h e r a r e i n t e r e s t i n g i n v iew o f t h e f a c t t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f s y s t e m s c o n s id e r m arriag e a b ar to appointm ent.

Six c i t i e s

sta te

t h a t m a r r i a g e s h a l l n o t be a d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r continued s e rv ic e ,

f i v e t h a t c o n t r a c t s w i t h m a r r i e d women

t e a c h e r s on t e n u r e s h a l l n o t b e i n v a l i d a t e d , b u t f o u r s p e c i f y t h a t c o n t r a c t s w i t h m a r r i e d women t e a c h e r s s h a l l n o t be r e n e w e d , t h u s i n d i c a t i n g two d i v e r g e n t p o l i c i e s . T h r e e r e g u l a t i o n s show t h a t a p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r h a s v i r t u a l l y no s e c u r i t y .

Two w h i c h w e r e m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r

s t a t e a p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s h a l l be r e - e l e c t e d a n n u a l l y and t h a t h i s s e r v i c e may be t e r m i n a t e d a t a n y t i m e .

The

50 r

n th ird ,

a p p e a rin g f o u r tim es,

provides th a t h is se rv ic e

may h e t e r m i n a t e d on t h i r t y d a y s 1 n o t i c e , in nine c i t i e s ,

fhe r e g u l a t i o n ,

which p r o h i b i t s a c o n t r a c t f o r lo n g e r

t h a n one s c h o o l y e a r and t h e p r o v i s i o n ,

i n two c i t i e s ,

w h i c h s p e c i f i e s t h a t c o n t r a c t s f o r l e s s t h a n one y e a r may he t e r m i n a t e d on t h i r t y d a y s 1 n o t i c e a p p e a r to he means f o r e v a d i n g s t a t e t e n u r e l a w s .

S e c t i o n s which

p r o t e c t t h e t e a c h e r s t a t e t h a t he s h a l l h e n o t i f i e d i f n o t recommended f o r r e - a p p o i n t m e n t a n d t h a t h e s h a l l he deemed r e - e l e c t e d u n l e s s n o t i f i e d t o t h e c o n t r a r y . W h i l e t e n u r e i s g r a n t e d and o f f i c i a l s d e s i g n a t e d t o recommend t e n u r e i n a s i g n i f i c a n t nurnher o f c i t i e s , four d e f in ite ly s ta te th at

only

the hoard s h a l l approve t e n u r e .

PROFESSION AD IMPROVEMENT2 B o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n e n a c t many r e g u l a t i o n s t o i n s u r e th e p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement and grow th o f t e a c h e r s .

A

s t u d y o f t h o s e r u l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y may he c l a s s i f i e d under th e headings, g e n eral p ro v isio n s f o r p r o f e s s io n a l improvement,

a t t e n d a n c e a t c o n v e n t i o n s and c o n f e r e n c e s ,

c o u r s e s a nd t r a v e l ,

in -serv ice train in g ,

of school a c t i v i t i e s ,

and o b s e r v a t i o n

l o t one o f t h e g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n s

f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement or i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a p p e a rs f r e q u e n t l y enough t o he c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t .

Among t h e

2

A p p e n d ix p . 29 7 L _

J

general provisions,

one v e r y b r o a d p o l i c y

which i s found

i n t w e l v e c i t i e s s t a t e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h a l l g row * c o n tin u a lly in e ff ic ie n c y . of fiv e c itie s

Another d i r e c t s th e t e a c h e r s

t o make p l a n s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l im p ro v e m e nt

w hile f i v e other c i t i e s d i r e c t the s u p e rin te n d e n t to e n c o u r a g e a n d p r o m o te t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h o f t e a c h e r s The s i n g l e r e g u l a t i o n w h i c h d i r e c t s

the t e a c h e r to s h a r e

in t h e s o l u t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems i s o f i n t e r e s t i n v iew of r e c e n t s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r t a k e g r e a t e r p a r t in school a d m in is tr a tio n . th ese very g e n eral p ro v isio n s I s

The m a j o r i t y o f

f o u n d i n c i t i e s b e lo w

30,000 p o p u l a t i o n . The number o f r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h c o n t r o l a n d d i r e c t th e t e a c h e r 's atten d an ce a t conventions,

in stitu tes,

and

co n feren ces in d ic a te s th a t boards of education c o n sid er s u c h a t t e n d a n c e a most p o t e n t m ethod f o r s t i m u l a t i n g te a c h e r grow th. in stitu te s,

T eachers a re r e q u i r e d to a tt e n d

m eetings,

a nd c o n f e r e n c e s c a l l e d by t h e

s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n £74 c i t i e s , c ities,

by t h e p r i n c i p a l i n 152

a n d b y s u p e r v i s o r s i n 124 c i t i e s .

The o t h e r

s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n s v*hich d e a l w i t h t h e t e a c h e r ' s a t ­ t e n d a n c e a t c o n f e r e n c e s a t t e m p t t o i m p le m e n t t h e a b o v e pro v isio n s.

J?ifty-tw o c i t i e s c o n s id e r absence or t a r d i ­

n e s s a t c o n f e r e n c e s t h e same a s a b s e n c e f r o m s c h o o l .

52 r F i f t y - o n e p r o v i d e t h a t a t e a c h e r may n o t h e a b s e n t from c o n fe re n c e u n l e s s excused by p ro p er a u t h o r i t i e s , four,

tw enty-

t h a t s a l a r y s h a l l be f o r f e i t e d f o r a b s e n c e ,

tw en ty -th ree,

n

and

t h a t the te a c h e r s h a l l r e p o r t th e cause of

absence or t a r d in e s s a t conferences*

R e g u l a t i o n s which

a p p e a r i n f r e q u e n t l y e x t e n d t h e a bo v e p r o v i s i o n s *

fw enty-

two c i t i e s r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r t o a t t e n d a n y c o n f e r e n c e c a l l e d by t h e b o a r d , s i x c i t i e s , by s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s ,

any c o n f e r e n c e c a l l e d

six other c i t i e s ,

c a l l e d by a p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n , m e e tin g s c a l l e d by r e g i o n a l g ro u p s,

any c o n fe re n c e a nd e i g h t c i t i e s ,

fw enty c i t i e s perm it

a te a c h e r to a tte n d m eetings o f p r o f e s s i o n a l groups or a s s o c i a t i o n s d u rin g sch o o l term , f o u r r e q u i r e the te a c h e r to a p p ly in advance f o r p e rm issio n ,

and tw o, i n t h e

s m a l l e s t p o p u la tio n g ro u p s, v o l u n t e e r to d e f r a y p a r t of th e t e a c h e r fs expense.

(Thirteen c i t i e s r e q u i r e

t h e t e a c h e r t o a t t e n d t h e s e m e e t i n g s when e x c u s e d from s c h o o l f o r such p u r p o s e ..

I t is in te restin g

t h a t two

c i t i e s a s k t h e t e a c h e r t o pay a f e e t o d e f r a y t h e e x p e n s e s o f i n s t i t u t e s and t h a t s i x t e e n d i r e c t th e t e a c h e r t o p e r ­ f o r m a n y a s s i g n m e n t g i v e n him a t c o n f e r e n c e s .

In a d d it i o n

t o t h e r u l e s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r t o f o r c e p ro m p t a t t e n d a n c e a t c o n fe re n c e s seven c i t i e s p ro v id e f i n e s f o r unexcused ab sen c e or t a r d i n e s s ,

one d i r e c t s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r

b e r e p r i m a n d e d f o r a b s e n c e , and f o u r t e e n d i r e c t t h e

L

j

53

r

n s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and t e n t h e p r i n c i p a l t o r e p o r t a b s e n c e fr o m i n s t i t u t e s .

P r o v i s i o n s w h i c h many w o u ld c h a r g e

v i o l a t e t h e a c a d e m ic f r e e d o m o f t h e t e a c h e r d i r e c t t h e te a c h e r s in n in e c i t i e s to jo in th e n a t i o n a l E ducation A sso ciatio n ,

in eleven c i t i e s to

asso ciatio n ,

in e i g h t c i t i e s to j o i n t h e l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n ,

and i n one c i t y t o

join the s t a t e

j o in the; p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n .

Many o f t h e s e c i t i e s a r e ‘...'in t h e s m a l l e s t p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s . The most f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h aim a t t e a c h e r g r o w t h by d i r e c t i n g a t t e n d a n c e a t c o n v e n t i o n s , c o n f e r e n c e s seem t o be e q u i t a b l e .

in stitu tes,

and

The number o f r e g u l a t i o n s

w h i c h aim t o p e n a l i z e t h e t e a c h e r f o r n o n - a t t e n d a n c e o r t a r d i n e s s a t c o n f e r e n c e s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t b o a r d s f e e l t h a t t e a c h e r s t e n d t o e v ad e t h e s e d u t i e s .

Those

r u l e s w h ic h p e r m i t and e n c o u r a g e t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t some b o a r d s h a v e a d i s t i n c t d e s i r e t o g r a n t t o t e a c h e r s th e f u l l e s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement. The num ber o f t e a c h e r s who a t t e n d summer, a f t e r n o o n , ' a n d e v e n i n g s e s s i o n s a t c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t many b o a r d s r e q u i r e t e a c h e r s t o t a k e c o u r s e s . The o n l y i t e m , h o w e v e r , w h i c h a p p e a r s f r e q u e n t l y e n o ug h t o be s i g n i f i c a n t r e q u i r e s t h e t e a c h e r s of f i f t y - t h r e e c i t i e s t o t a k e a s p e c i f i e d number o f c o u r s e s . o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s on t h i s

to p ic.

There a r e s i x t e e n

Seventeen c i t i e s d e c re e J

54 t h a t th e s u p e r in te n d e n t s h a l l approve co u rses in advance, th irteen

c i t i e s p r o h i b i t t h e t e a c h e r f r o m t a k i n g more

t h a n a s p e c i f i e d number o f c o u r s e s , t w e l v e c i t i e s r e q u i r e p r e s e n t t e a c h e r s who do n o t m e e t e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s to a t t e n d c o u r s e s t o make up t h e d e f i c i e n c y ,

and t w e l v e

c i t i e s p e rm it th e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f approved t r a v e l f o r © ourses.

Two v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g p r o v i s i o n s , which' a p p e a r

e i g h t and seven tim e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ,

g r a n t a bon u s f o r

a t t e n d a n c e a t summer s c h o o l a nd g r a n t s a l a r y a l l o w a n c e per p o in t of c o lle g e c o u rs e s .

S everal statem ents place

l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e c o u r s e s a t e a c h e r may t a k e .

As

m entioned e a r l i e r th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t 's approval of a co u rse i s r e q u ir e d in seventeen c i t i e s .

In f i v e c i t i e s

t h e t e a c h e r m u s t t a k e c o u r s e s i n h i s own f i e l d ,

i n two

he may s e c u r e c r e d i t o n l y f o r c o u r s e s s p e c i f i e d by t h e board,

a n d i n two o t h e r s he may n o t t a k e e x t e n s i o n

c o u rse s in l i e u

o f summer w o r k .

the te a c h e r to f i l e

R e g u l a t i o n s which r e q u i r e

a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of proposed

t r a v e l embrace m a t t e r s w h i c h m i g h t b e b e t t e r l e f t t o t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of the s u p e r in te n d e n t•

The one g e n e r a l

sta te m e n t t h a t the t e a c h e r s h a l l tak e c o u rs e s f o r improve­ m ent and p e r h a p s a s e c o n d i t e m t h a t t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t b e empowered t o a c c e p t s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r c o u r s e s c o u l d c o v er v e ry e a s i l y a l l t h a t i s needed as f a r as p o l i c y i s concerned. L_

J

55 r

-i

The r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h r e l a t e t o t h e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s do n o t a p p e a r f r e q u e n t l y enough t o he s i g n i f i c a n t , p o licies. in stru cts

b u t t h e y do i n d i c a t e some u n i q u e

The most f r e q u e n t , which a p p e a r s n i n e t e e n t i m e s , t h e t e a c h e r t o r e a d b o o k s and m a g a z i n e s on

teaching.

I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g m u st b e p r o v i d e d ' by t h e

s u p e r i n t e n d e n t in tw elve c i t i e s , ten c i t i e s ,

by t h e s u p e r v i s o r in

by th e p r i n c i p a l in e ig h t c i t i e s ,

b o a r d i n one c i t y .

and b y t h e

R u le s i n s e v e r a l c i t i e s a tte m p t to

d i r e c t th e t e a c h e r to r e a d p r o f e s s i o n a l books w i t h i n h i s field .

Six c i t i e s a p p o in t th e su p e rin te n d e n t to su g g e st

a nd t e s t p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a d i n g o f t h e t e a c h e r ,

one c i t y i n

e a c h c a s e d i r e c t s t h e t e a c h e r t o b u y a s p e c i f i e d number of books,

to use the l i b r a r y e x te n s iv e ly ,

and t o p r e s e n t

a reading c ir c le c e r t i f i c a t e . The o b s e r v a t i o n o f o t h e r t e a c h e r s and o t h e r s c h o o l s i s c o n s i d e r e d a p o t e n t means f o r i m p r o v e m e n t ,

s i n c e 178

boards g ra n t th e te a c h e r th e p r iv ile g e of v i s i t i n g schools f o r o b se rv a tio n .

other

S e v e n ty -six re q u ire the tea ch e r

to su b m it a r e p o r t o f such a v i s i t ,

and f o r t y - f i v e d i r e c t

t h e t e a c h e r who i s a n x i o u s t o o b s e r v e o t h e r s c h o o l s t o f i l e an a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r p r i n c i p a l . O th e r p r o v i s i o n s , which a p p e a r v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y ,

aim t o

e n c o u r a g e t h e t e a c h e r t o v i s i t o t h e r s c h o o l s or r e s t r i c t t h e t e a c h e r t o av o id th e abuse of th e v i s i t i n g p r i v i l e g e .

J

56

n

r

T w elve c i t i e s a l l o w t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t o c l o s e s c h o o l , f i v e i n s t r u c t th e p r i n c i p a l to encourage te a c h e r v isita tio n ,

and f o u r p ro v id e n e c e s s a r y t r a v e l i n g ex p en ses.

Se v e n c o m m u n i t i e s , h o w e v er ,

p r o h i b i t v i s i t i n g on d a y s

p r e c e d i n g o r f o l l o w i n g h o l i d a y s and one r e q u i r e s t h e t e a c h e r to f o r f e i t p a r t pay to v i s i t o th e r s c h o o l s .

Even

t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s which d e a l w ith th e p r o f e s s i o n a l im p r o v e m e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r i n d i c a t e t h a t many i t e m s a r e n o t s ta te m e n ts of p o l i c y but r a t h e r s p e c i f i c w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s i s s u e d by a n e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r . SALARY Of TBAGEER3 The d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a d j u s t m e n t o f s a l a r i e s a r e o f m ajor i n t e r e s t to a l l t e a c h e r s .

The r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h

c o n c e r n t h i s t o p i c may be c o n s i d e r e d u n d e r t h r e e h e a d i n g s , d e te rm in a tio n of s a l a r i e s ,

the g r a n tin g of increm ents,

the suspension or re d u c tio n of s a l a r i e s .

and

Ho r u l e a p p e a r e d

f r e q u e n t l y enough on t h i s l a s t i t e m t o be c o n s i d e r e d sig n ifican t.

The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s a l a r i e s r e c e i v e s more

a t t e n t i o n i n t h e r u l e s t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two i t e m s . Twenty-one p r o v i s i o n s ,

s i x of which a p p ea r f r e q u e n t l y

enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , salaries.

I n 164 c i t i e s

by a s c h e d u l e .

d i r e c t th e d e te rm in a tio n of the s a la r y of a te a c h e r i s fix e d

T e a c h e r s 1 recompense i s d e te rm in e d in

A p p e n d i x p . 302 L

J

s e v e n t y - s i x c i t i e s by a com m ittee of t h e b o a rd , i n f i f t y b y t h e b o a r d , a n d i n f o r t y - s e v e n by t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . Two i t e m s a p p e a r t o b e e n a c t e d t o s e c u r e e q u i t a b l e t r e a t ­ ment f o r a l l t e a c h e r S t

They s t a t e i n f i f t y - o n e e a s e s

th a t th e te a c h e r s h a l l re c e iv e c r e d i t f o r previous s e rv ic e and i n t w e n t y - t h r e e e a s e s t h a t s a l a r y w i l l b e p a i d on t h e b a s i s o f p r e p a r a t i o n a nd e x p e r i e n c e . occasionally;

Boards of e d u c a tio n

r e t a i n t h e powe r t o r a i s e o r l o w e r a

te a c h e r’s salary .

In ten c i t i e s the t e a c h e r ’s s a la r y i s

e s ta b lis h e d annually,

and i n e i g h t c i t i e s i t may be c h a n g e d

a t th e b o a rd ’s d is c r e tio n .

Four c i t i e s each s p e c i f y t h a t

t h e t e a c h e r may be g r a n t e d e x t r a c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r s p e c i a l s e r v i c e or o u t s t a n d i n g m e r i t , w h i l e two o t h e r s s p e c i f y t h a t t h e r e s h a l l be no r e m u n e r a t i o n f o r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r assignm ents.

O t h e r i n f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s do o r do n o t

p r o v id e s a l a r y p r e f e r m e n t s to s p e c i a l c l a s s e s of t e a c h e r s . S e v e n c i t i e s d i r e c t t h a t t h e s a l a r y o f men t e a c h e r s s h a l l be h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f women t e a c h e r s , w h i l e two c i t i e s i n s i s t t h a t t h e s a l a r i e s o f men and women s h a l l b e t h e same f o r e q u i v a l e n t w o r k .

One b o a r d s t a t e s t h a t no new

te a c h e r s h a l l re c e iv e a s a l a r y in excess of th a t paid a p r e s e n t t e a c h e r w i t h t h e same p r e p a r a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e . I n one i n s t a n c e a b o a r d r e s e r v e s t h e r i g h t t o p a y a t e a c h e r w i t h t a x w a r r a n t s and i n a n o t h e r c a s e i n s i s t s th a t the te a c h e r through h i s a s s o c i a t io n s h a l l

58

r

n e s t a b l i s h a fund to g u a ra n te e th e c i t y a g a in s t l o s s b e­ c a u s e he i s p a i d i n a d v a n c e . B o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e of

t e a c h e r s who s e e k s a l a r y i n c r e m e n t s .

F ifty -six c itie s

s t a t e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h a l l r e c e i v e an i n c r e m e n t f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e on r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e s u p e r i n ­ t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l and t h i r t y - e i g h t r e q u i r e t h e co m p letio n o f a normal or u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e .

A ll other

r e g u l a t i o n s a p p e a r t o o i n f r e q u e n t l y t o be c o n s i d e r e d sig n ifican t.

I n t w e n t y c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r r e c e i v e s an

increm ent i f e f f i c i e n t ,

i n s i x t e e n upon t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n

of a com m ittee o f th e b o a rd , of th e b o a rd .

and i n one upon t h e a p p r o v a l

An a t t e m p t i s made b y b o a r d s t o r e w a r d

f i n a n c i a l l y t h o s e t e a c h e r s who e x h i b i t s p e c i a l m e r i t .

A

s p e c i a l i n c r e m e n t i s p r o v i d e d by t w e n t y c i t i e s f o r t h e t e a c h e r who p e r f o r m s s p e c i a l s e r v i c e , su p e rio r teaching,

by s i x c i t i e s f o r

a n d by one c i t y f o r s p e c i a l m e r i t on

t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f s u p e r i o r s and c o - w o r k e r s .

Other

r e g u l a t i o n s which a p p e a r v e ry i n f r e q u e n t l y e i t h e r l i m i t t h e i n c r e m e n t a t e a c h e r may r e c e i v e o r d e f i n e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e g r a n t i n g o f an i n c r e a s e ,

f h e m o st s t r i k i n g o f

th e s e s t a t e in t h r e e c i t i e s t h a t the te a c h e r s h a l l p ass an e x a m i n a t i o n t o r e c e i v e an i n c r e m e n t ,

in fo u r c i t i e s

t h a t t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e of study r e q u ir e d f o r the increm ent,

and i n t h r e e o t h e r

c i t i e s t h a t a t e a c h e r s h a l l n o t be g r a n t e d an i n c r e a s e u

j

59 r

o f more t h a n a s p e c i f i e d amount p e r y e a r .

An e x c e p t i o n a l

i

r e g u l a t i o n w h i c h a p p e a r s h u t once l i m i t s t h e s a l a r y i n c r e m e n t s o f a m a r r i e d woman t e a c h e r . W h ile e i g h t e e n p r o v i s i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c e s s a t i o n or r e d u c t i o n o f s a l a r i e s , enough t o he c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t . r u l e , w h ic h a p p e a r s t w e n t y t i m e s ,

n o t one o c c u r s o f t e n The most f r e q u e n t

s t a t e s th a t the s a l a r y

o f a t e a c h e r s h a l l n o t commence u n t i l he r e p o r t s f o r d u t y . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e r e g u l a t i o n s seem t o p r o t e c t e i t h e r t h e hoard of ed u ca tio n or the in d iv i d u a l t e a c h e r ,

provisions

d i r e c t th a t th e s a l a r y o f a te a c h e r cease in seventeen c i t i e s on t h e d a t e o f r e s i g n a t i o n o r d i s m i s s a l , c i t i e s on t h e d a t e o f s u s p e n s i o n ,

in fiv e

i n f o u r c i t i e s on t h e

d a te of su sp en sio n only i f the te a c h e r i s d ism isse d , three c it i e s

i f th e schools are c lo sed ,

in

and i n one c i t y

f o r any b re a c h of c o n t r a c t . The i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r i s p r o t e c t e d h y r e g u l a t i o n s w hic h p r o v i d e i n s e v e n c i t i e s t h a t no t e a c h e r * s s a l a r y s h a l l he r e d u c e d ,

in three c i t i e s th a t th e s a la r y of a

t e a c h e r on t e n u r e s h a l l he r e d u c e d o n l y h y g e n e r a l s a la ry red uction ,

and i n t h r e e o t h e r c i t i e s t h a t t h e

t e a c h e r * s s a l a r y s h a l l n o t he l o w e r e d a t t h e t i m e of prom otion.

In fo u rte e n c i t i e s

t e a c h e r s who l e a v e t h e

s e r v i c e b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e y e a r a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o o f f e r e x p l a n a t i o n s t o r e c e i v e p r o p o r t i o n a t e summer p a y . Two c i t i e s , L

h o w e v e r , g r a n t p r o p o r t i o n a t e summer p a y o n l y J

60 r

i

to t h o s e t e a o h e r s who r e s i g n b e c a u se o f i l l h e a lt h *

Three

h o a r d s r e d u c e th e s a l a r y o f a woman t e a c h e r who m a r r ie s d u rin g t h e s c h o o l term*

A n o te w o r th y p r o v i s i o n , foun d i n

one o f th e l a r g e s t c i t i e s ,

d i r e c t s th a t the te a c h e r * s

s a l a r y s h a l l be sto p p e d i f he r e f u s e s t o subm it to a m e d ic a l ex a m in a tio n *

T h is i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t in

l i g h t o f r ee en t attem p ts in la r g e c i t i e s to f o r c e te a c h e r s t o ap p ea r b e f o r e board d o c t o r s f o r m e d ic a l e x a m in a t io n . The s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich a f f e c t th e s a l a r y o f t e a c h e r s seem to e x p r e s s p o l i c i e s w h ich a r e in a e c o r d w i t h th e th eo ry o f e d u c a tio n a l a d m in is tr a tio n .

Many o f th e

l e s s f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s w h ich have been m en tio n ed d e f i n e t h e s e p o l i c i e s but many o t h e r s m e r e ly e x p r e s s s t a t e m e n t s w h ich s h o u ld be i n c l u d e d in t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f an a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f ic e r * TIME OF SERVICE4 The amount o f tim e a t e a c h e r must spend i n s c h o o l each d a y , t h e tim e he s h a l l a r r i v e , t h e tim e he s h a l l d e p a r t , and t h e e x t r a tim e he may be a sk ed t o s e r v e a r e a l l c o n s i d e r e d i n th e c a t e g o r y ,

tim e o f s e r v i c e .

Those

p r o v i s i o n s w h ich d e te r m in e t h e t e a c h e r * s tim e o f s e r v i c e in d ic a te th ree te n d e n c ie s.

Boards o f e d u c a t io n d e s i r e

to s e t d e f i n i t e h o u rs o f s e r v i c e , e x p e c t t h e t e a c h e r to

4

Appendix p. 306 L

J

61 r

i

r e a d e r c e r t a i n e x t r a s e r v i c e s , and a tte m p t to curb t h o s e t e a c h e r s who m igh t f o r g e t t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s , freq u en t item ,

f h e most

w h ich ap p ea rs in t h e s e t s o f 268 h o a r d s ,

r e q u ir e s th e tea ch er to a r r iv e in sc h o o l a t a s p e c if ie d tim e.

T h is s p e c i f i e d tim e i s i n d i c a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways

hy v a r i o u s h o a r d s.

Some r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r t o h e in

s c h o o l a t a d e f i n i t e h ou r, su ch a s 8 : 4 5 A .M ., w h i l e o t h e r s d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r to he p r e s e n t a c e r t a i n number o f m in u te s b e f o r e th e o p e n in g o f s c h o o l .

In e i g h t y - e i g h t

cl t i e s t h e h o ard s d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r to rem ain a f t e r th e c lo s e o f th e a ftern oon s e s s io n ,

f h e t h i r d most im p o r ta n t

item d i r e c t s t h e t e a c h e r i n t h i r t y - n i n e c i t i e s t o o b s e r v e p ro m p tly th e h o u r s f o r o p e n in g and c l o s i n g s c h o o l .

L ess

f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s which e x p r e s s t h e p o l i c i e s m en tio n ed above d i r e c t i n n i n e t e e n c i t i e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s e r v e a s p e c i f i e d number o f h o u rs d a i l y ,

i n n in e c i t i e s t h a t he

l e a v e s c h o o l a t a s p e c i f i e d t im e ,

in e ig h t c i t i e s th a t

h e be prompt i n a l l a p p o in tm e n ts , and i n se v e n c i t i e s t h a t h e he i n s c h o o l e v e r y day p o s s i b l e ,

f h e demand f o r

e x t r a s e r v i c e from t h e t e a c h e r i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d h y r u l e s i n e i g h t e e n c i t i e s w h ic h r e n d e r th e t e a c h e r s u b j e c t t o c a l l b e f o r e t h e ann ual o p e n in g o f s c h o o l ,

i n se v e n c i t i e s

w h ich s u b j e c t him to c a l l a f t e r t h e c l o s e o f s c h o o l i n Ju n e, i n two c i t i e s w h ich r e q u i r e him t o s e r v e in summer s c h o o l , i n two o t h e r s w hich d e c r e e t h a t h e s h a l l he L

J

62 r

i

s u b j e c t t o s p e c i a l a ss ig n m e n t a t a n y tim e when t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e s c h o o l demands i t ,

and i n one c i t y w hich o b l i g e s him

to ren d e r s e r v i c e d u r in g summer m on th s.

Ah un iq u e

p r o v i s i o n demands t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s o f two c i t i e s do any r e a s o n a b l e work when t h e s c h o o l s a r e c l o s e d by q u a ra n tin e * In tw e n ty -o n e c i t i e s an a tte m p t i s made to p r e v e n t a t e a c h e r froM l e a v i n g h i s p o s t o f d u ty by r e q u i r i n g t h a t he s e c u r e p e r m i s s i o n i f he i n t e n d s to l e a v e s c h o o l b e f o r e t h e c l o s e o f th e s e s s i o n * ABSSNOB5 The n a t u r e o f t e a c h i n g and t h e i n t i m a t e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t e a c h e r and p u p i l make t h e a b se n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r a v e r y s p e c i a l p rob lem .

A l l a u t h o r it ie s r ec o g n ize

t h a t t h e a b s e n c e o f a t e a e h e r h i n d e r s c l a s s a c c o m p lis h ­ m ent.

There a r e c o m p e l l in g r e a s o n s ,

absence.

how ever, f o r t e a e h e r

R e g u l a t i o n s d e a l w i t h th e n o t i f i c a t i o n o f

a b s e n c e , p r o c e d u r e s f o r s e c u r i n g pay, th e e x c u s e o f a b s e n c e , p r o h i b i t i o n of a b s e n c e , c o n d i t i o n s f o r g r a n t i n g f u l l and p a r t pay t o a b s e n t t e a c h e r s , and a b s e n c e w it h o u t p a y . cf

One

th e most f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e s t h e t e a c h e r to

g iv e n o t ic e o f in ten d ed a b sen ce. i n 196 c i t i e s ,

T h is r e g u l a t i o n i s found

and tw e n ty -tw o c i t i e s a tte m p t t o e n f o r c e t h i s

dictum by a u t h o r i z i n g d e d u c t i o n s from t h e s a l a r y o f t h o s e t e a c h e r s who f a i l t o g i v e such n o t i c e .

l

^ Appendix p . 307

The se c o n d m ost

j

63 r

i freq u en t p o l i c y in regard to n o t i f i c a t i o n o f absence

d i r e c t s t h e t e a c h e r t o g i v e n o t i c e a s to t h e tim e o f r e t u r n , and t h i r t y - t w o c i t i e s a u t h o r i z e d e d u c t io n o f s a l a r y f o r t h e f a i l u r e to g i v e t h a t n o t i c e ,

T h ese two

p r o v i s i o n s o b v i o u s l y a r e f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f th e su b­ s t i t u t e who r e p l a c e s t h e t e a c h e r .

O ther r e g u l a t i o n s w hich

appear r a t h e r i n f r e q u e n t l y d i r e c t th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n six c itie s , h im se lf,

th e p r i n c i p a l i n fo u r c i t i e s , and th e t e a e h e r ,

i n two c i t i e s t o r e p o r t a b s e n c e .

E ig h t c i t i e s

e x p e c t t h e t e a c h e r t o e x p l a i n th e c a u s e o f h i s a b s e n c e . W hile th e most f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n i n r e g a r d to t h e p r o c ed u r e f o r s e c u r i n g pay f o r days a b s e n t d e e r e e s in f o r t y - f i v e c i t i e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s a b s e n c e a llo w a n c e s h a l l be c u m u l a t i v e , most o f t h e o t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s on t h i s t o p i c im p ly t h a t th e t e a c h e r must have h i s a b s e n c e approved by some a u t h o r i t y .

The r u l e s o f f o r t y - f o u r

ci t i e s s p e c i f y t h a t a c e r t i f i c a t e s h a l l be f i l e d w i t h i n a d e f i n i t e tim e a f t e r t h e a b s e n c e .

In t h i r t y - o n e c i t i e s

a b s e n c e m ust be ap p rov ed by a p h y s i c i a n , c i t i e s by t h e p r i n c i p a l ,

in n i n e t e e n

i n e i g h t e e n c i t i e s by t h e

s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , and in t e n c i t i e s by a c o m m ittee o f th e board.

Ten c i t i e s i n t h e s m a l l e s t p o p u l a t i o n g ro u p s and

one c i t y i n t h e l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n group r e s e r v e f u l l power t o g r a n t a b s e n c e r e f u n d s by s t a t i n g t h a t such s h a l l be made a t th e d i s c r e t i o n o f th e b o a rd . L

J

f h e p r o v i s i o n s in r e g a r d to th e e x c u s e and p r o ­ h i b i t i o n o f a b se n c e have so much in common t h a t i t a d v i s a b l e t o c o n s i d e r them t o g e t h e r ,

seems

f o p r o h ib itio n of

a b s e n c e and o n l y two i t e m s r e g a r d in g the e x e a s e o f a b s e n c e o c c u r f r e q u e n t l y enough t o b e c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t . In t h i r t y - o n e c i t i e s t h e a p p r o v a l o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n t must be s e c u r e d fo r a b s e n c e f o r r e a s o n s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y m en tio n e d i n th e r u l e s .

T w e n t y - e ig h t c i t i e s m e r e ly

r e q u i r e s p e c i a l p e r m i s s i o n f o r such a b s e n c e .

L ess

f r e q u e n t r u l e s g i v e t h e board i n se v e n c i t i e s and t h e p r i n c i p a l i n two c i t i e s th e power to e x c u s e such a b s e n c e . The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i s empowered i n f i f t e e n c i t i e s t o grant p e r m is s io n f o r a b se n c e f o r a s p e c i f i e d tim e and in e l e v e n c i t i e s to e x c u s e a b s e n c e w i t h o u t p a y .

Teacher a b s e n c e

from d u t y i s p r o h i b i t e d e x c e p t w i t h the c o n s e n t o f a u t h o r i t i e s in s e v e n t e e n c i t i e s ,

e x cep t in e a s e o f s ic k n e s s

or u r g e n t n e c e s s i t y i n e i g h t c i t i e s ,

and on t h e eve o f a

h o lid a y excep t fo r p erso n a l i l l n e s s in f i v e c i t i e s *

In

two c i t i e s a t e a c h e r may n o t be a b s e n t t o a t t e n d a wedding and i n one c i t y t o be p r e s e n t a t any s o c i a l f u n c t i o n . The many r e g u l a t i o n s w h ic h are c o n c er n e d w i t h th e payment o f th e s a l a r y o f a t e a e h e r who i s a b s e n t i n d i c a t e t h a t b o a rd s o f e d u c a t io n have d i v e r g e n t p o l i c i e s on t h i s m atter.

I t i s w e l l a t t h i s tim e t o r e c a l l t h a t t h e s e t

p o l i c i e s may n o t be an e x p r e s s i o n o f what b o a r d s o f

65 r

"■

e d u c a t i o n c o n s i d e r i d e a l but t h a t t h e y may be d i c t a t e d by t h e econom ic s t a t u s o f t h e community,



The a b s e n c e

a c i v i l s e r v i c e em p loyee o f a h e a l t h departm ent or a

t a x bureau d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y demand the employment o f a su b stitu te .

The a b s e n c e o f a t e a c h e r , b e c a u s e o f t h e

in h e r e n t n a t u r e o f t e a c h i n g , a lm o st i n v a r i a b l y r e q u i r e s the h ir in g o f a s u b s t i t u t e .

P a y in g an a b s e n t t e a c h e r

i n c r e a s e s th e c o s t o f e d u c a tio n s i n c e a s u b s t i t u t e must be p a id a t ..t h e ; same t i m e .

I t i s im p o rta n t t o k eep t h i s

p o i n t i n mind a s some r e g u l a t i o n s a r e m en tion ed w h ic h g r a n t f u l l or p a r t pay, w h i l e o t h e r s p r e s c r i b e l o s s o f jay.

F i f t e e n r e g u l a t i o n s g r a n t f u l l pay t o t e a c h e r s '

f o r e i t h e r an u n l i m i t e d or a s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f t im e . The m ost f r e q u e n t , e f f e c t i v e i n 199 c i t i e s ,

gran ts f u l l

pay f o r a s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f tim e t o t e a c h e r s a b s e n t b e c a u s e o f bereavem ent*

O ther s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n s

g r a n t f u l l pay f o r a s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f tim e f o r p e r s o n a l i l l n e s s i n IBS c i t i e s and f o r i l l n e s s i n t h e im m ediate fa m ily in tw e n ty -s ix c i t i e s .

The t e a c h e r may b e a b s e n t

i n s i x c i t i e s t o a t t e n d a w ed d in g , i n f o u r c i t i e s t o o b s e r v e r e l i g i o u s h o ly d a y s, and i n one c i t y t o be p r e s e n t a t an o r d i n a t i o n .

T hese p r o v i s i o n s i n d i c a t e p o l i c i e s

w hich a r e d i a m e t r i c a l l y op p osed to t h o s e o f c i t i e s w h ic h p r o h i b i t su ch a b s e n c e .

L

The m ost f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n

J

66 r

-i

u tiic h g r a n t s f u l l pay f o r an u n l i m i t e d tim e a l l o w s i t f o r a b s e n c e due to q u a r a n t i n e .

O ther s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n s

g r a n t u n l i m i t e d f u l l p ay i n t h i r t y - t h r e e c i t i e s b e c a u se o f c o u r t subpoena and i n t w e n t y - f i v e c i t i e s f o r a tt e n d a n c e a t co n v e n tio n s.

The t e a c h e r r e c e i v e s f u l l pay in t w e lv e

c i t i e s f o r a b s e n c e e x c u se d i n a d v a n ce , in n i n e c i t i e s f o r a b s e n c e due to c l o s i n g o f s c h o o l s b e c a u s e o f e p id e m ic , in se v en c i t i e s f o r a b s e n c e due t o an a c c i d e n t i n l i n e o f d u t y , i n t h r e e c i t i e s f o r a b s e n c e c o n s i d e r e d e x c u s a b l e by t h e s t a t e c o d e , and i n two c i t i e s f o r a b s e n c e due t o i l l n e s s c o n tr a c te d in l i n e o f d u ty . Some b o ard s o f e d u c a t i o n g r a n t f u l l pay f o r a s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f tim e and, i n a d d i t i o n , a l lo w p a r t pay f o r an e x te n d e d p e r io d o f a b s e n c e .

O ther b o a r d s g r a n t

f u l l pay f o r a b s e n c e o n l y where t h e c a u s e i s e x c e p t i o n a l and a l lo w p a r t pay f o r m ost a b s e n c e ,

p a r t pay i s

i n t e r p r e t e d in one o f two ways b y v a r i o u s b o a r d s .

It is

c o n s i d e r e d a s e i t h e r a f r a c t i o n a l p a r t o f th e t e a c h e r ’ s r e g u la r s a l a r y or t h e d i f f e r e n c e betw een t h e t e a c h e r ’ s r e g u l a r s a l a r y and th e s a l a r y p a id a s u b s t i t u t e .

T h ese

two m ethods must be fcept i n mind when t h e p r o v i s i o n s w hich e s t a b l i s h p a r t pay a r e c o n s i d e r e d .

The most

f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n w h ich g r a n t s p a r t pay f o r a s p e c i f i e d t im e , i n e i g h t y - f o u r c i t i e s ,

a l l o w s th e t e a c h e r who i s

a b s e n t on f u l l pay b e c a u s e o f i l l n e s s to be ou t an

L

J

67 r

"V

a d d i t i o n a l e x te n d e d p e r io d a t p a r t p a y.

P a r t pay f o r a

s p e c i f i e d p e r io d o f tim e w i t h o u t m en tio n o f p r e v io u s f u l l pay a llo w a n c e i s g r a n te d i n s e v e n t y - t h r e e c i t i e s f o r illn e s s ,

i n f o r t y - t w o f o r b e r ea v e m e n t, and i n tw enty-*three

f o r a b s e n c e e x c u s e d In a d v a n ce ,

l e s s f r e q u e n t g rou n d s f o r

su ch p a r t i a l a l lo w a n c e s a r e i l l n e s s i n t h e im m ediate f a m i l y in sev en teen c i t i e s ,

a t t e n d a n c e a t w e d d in g s i n fo u r c i t i e s ,

o b s e r v a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s h o ly d a y s i n fo u r o t h e r s , and u r g e n t b u s i n e s s m a t t e r s i n one c i t y .

The a l lo w a n c e o f p a r t pay

f b r a b s e n c e t o a t t e n d w e d d in g s i n d i c a t e s a t h i r d p o l i c y on t h i s m a t t e r .

E a r l i e r i t was n o te d t h a t some c i t i e s

p r o h i b i t such a b s e n c e and t h a t o t h e r c i t i e s a l l o w f u l l pay* P a r t pay f o r an i n d e f i n i t e p e r io d o f tim e i s g r a n t e d in tw e n ty -tw o e a s e s f o r q u a r a n t in e , i n s i x e a s e s f o r c o u r t subpoena, and i n f i v e c a s e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e a t e d u c a t i o n a l fu n ctio n s* Twelve r e g u l a t i o n s a r e fou n d w h ich r e q u i r e t h a t th e t e a c h e r s h a l l f o r f e i t pay f o r a b s e n c e due t o c e r t a i n c a u s e s . O nly two o f t h e s e appear a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f t i m e s . The more f r e q u e n t , w hich a p p e a r s t h i r t y t i m e s , d i r e c t s th e t e a c h e r t o f o r f e i t pay f o r c a u s e s o th e r th a n i l l n e s s o r b e r e a v e m e n t.

The o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s p e c i f i e s

u n ex cu sed a b s e n c e a s a c a u s e f o r l o s s o f p a y . r e g u l a t i o n s , w h ich appear l e s s f r e q u e n t l y ,

Other

s t a t e t h a t pay

Si a l l be f o r f e i t e d i n f i f t e e n c i t i e s f o r a b s e n c e n o t L

J

68

r

*1 covered by r u l e s ,

in f o u r c a se a f o r s ic k le a v e ,

c a s e s f o r a b se n c e doe to b u s i n e s s o r p l e a s u r e ,

In t h r e e in th re e

o t h e r c a s e s f o r a b s e n c e due t o i n j u r y c o v e r e d b y c o m p e n s a t i o n , and i n two c a s e s f o r f a i l u r e t o c o m p l y w i t h absence reg u latio n s*

f h o o t h e r r u l e s which a p p e a r e i t h e r

o n c e o r t w i c e . i n c l u d e some u n i q u e p r o v i s i o n s . ,

fwo c i t i e s

deduct tb s t o t a l s a la r y o f a te a c h e r fo r a h o lid a y i f be i a a b s e n t t h e p r e v io u s day f o r r e a s o n o t h e r th a n personal i ll n e s s ,

and one c i t y d e d u c t s t h e s a l a r y o f a

t e a c h e r who i s a b s e n t t o a t t e n d a r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e * Hone o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n © w h i c h p e r t a i n t o t e a c h e r a b a en e e i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e c i t i f e s i n a ny one p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p .

4 11 o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s seem t o b e

p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y d i v i d e d among c i t i e s o f a l l a i a e s ,

fhe

g e n e r a l Im p ressio n which t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s l e a v e i n th e mind o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s t h a t b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n have a tte m p te d to r e g u l a t e t e a c h e r absence i n such a way t h a t t h e t e a c h e r may b e g i v e n t h e b r o a d e s t r i g h t s a n d p r i v i l e g e s , w h ile th e b o ard i s p rotected a g a in s t the w i l f u l abuse of such p r iv ile g e s * remember, h o w e v e r ,

I t i a im p o rtan t to

t h a t many o f t h e p o l i c i e s may h a v e

b oon d i c t a t e d b y t h e e c o n o m ic s t a t u s o f t h e community*

L

J

69 r

-i LEAVE OF ABSENCE6 To men and women Who i n t e n d to make t e a c h i n g a

c a r e e r , r e g u l a t i o n s w hich d e a l w i t h l e a v e s o f a b s e n e e a r e h i g h l y im p o r ta n t b e c a u s e t h e y g r a n t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r •the t e a c h e r to do advanced p r o f e s s i o n a l work or t o w id en h i s c u l t u r a l background.

V a r io u s t y p e s o f l e a v e s o f

a b s e n c e a r e m en tio n e d in th e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d and i n r e g u l a t i o n s , but V ery o f t e n no c a r e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n i s made betw een what i s commonly r e f e r r e d to a s s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e and o t h e r t y p e s o f l e a v e .

E x c ep t where d e f i n i t e

m en tio n o f p a r t pay i s made i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n ,

i t is not

p o s s i b l e t o t e l l w h eth er t h e l e a v e i s a s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e or m e r e ly a l e a v e w i t h o u t p a y .

The r e g u l a t i o n s a r e c o n ­

s i d e r e d under f o u r c a t e g o r i e s , t h e p ro ced u re f o r o b t a i n ­ in g le a v e s,

t h e r e t u r n from a l e a v e , and the l e a v e o f

a b s e n c e w i t h f u l l or p a r t p a y . The p r o v i s i o n s f o r o b t a i n i n g a l e a v e o f a b s e n c e v a r y from community t o com m unity.

R e g u la tio n s s p e c if y the

c o n d i t i o n s w h ic h t h e te a c h e r must meet t o be e l i g i b l e f o r a le a v e .

The most f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n , a p p e a r in g f i f t y

t i m e s , p r o h i b i t s a l e a v e o f a b s e n c e f o r l o n g e r th an a s p e c i f ie d tim e.

To o b t a i n a l e a v e a t e a c h e r must have

th e approval of th e su p e rin ten d en t in f o r t y - s i x c i t i e s , o f t h e board i n t h i r t y - f i v e c i t i e s ,

and o f t h e p r i n c i p a l

6

A p p e n d ix

p . 312

j

i n two c i t i e s *

W hile t w e n t y - n in e c i t i e s d i r e c t th e

t e a c h e r t o subm it h i s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a l e a v e to t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , t h e y do n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y empower t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t to approve or d is a p p r o v e t h e r e q u e s t * The b oard s o f s e v e r a l c i t i e s e x p e c t t h e t e a c h e r to meet c e r t a i n r e q u ir e m e n ts when a p p l y in g f o r a l e a v e .

The

t e a c h e r i s r e q u ir e d to h ave s e r v e d a d e f i n i t e number o f y e a r s in tw e n ty -tw o c i t i e s ,

to req u e st the le a v e a

s p e c i f i e d tim e b e f o r e th e e f f e c t i v e d a t e in e l e v e n c i t i e s , and to a p p l y a t t h e b e g i n n in g o f t h e term i n ’ f i v e c i t i e s . The d e s i r e o f b o a r d s t o p r e v e n t d i s r u p t i o n o f s c h o o l work is

e v in c e d i n t e n c i t i e s b y a p r o v i s i o n t h a t o n l y a f i x e d

per c e n t o f th e s t a f f may be on l e a v e a t one tim e and in e i g h t c i t i e s by a m easure t h a t a l e a v e must be f o r a f u l l term or y e a r .

A

v ery l i b e r a l p r o v isio n a llo w s tea ch ers

in t h ir te e n c i t i e s

t o renew a l e a v e o f a b s e n c e .

The

r e g u l a t i o n s w h ic h appear i n f r e q u e n t l y a r e m a t t e r s w h ich m ight w e l l be l e f t to t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . The gro u n d s f o r g r a n t i n g l e a v e s o f a b s e n c e a r e most in te r e stin g .

T e a c h e r s may o b t a in a l e a v e in s e v e n t y

c i t i e s fo r stu d y, ia

th ir ty -e ig h t fo r r e sto r a tio n of

h e a l t h , i n t h i r t y - s i x f o r t r a v e l , and i n t w e n t y - e i g h t f o r m a ter n ity .

Two o f t h e r e a s o n s w hich appear t o o seldom to

be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t a r e w o r th y o f m e n tio n . se v e n c i t i e s ,

One, i n

a l l o w s t h e t e a c h e r a l e a v e to t e a c h i n

71 r a n o th e r sy stem and t h e o t h e r , in t e n o i t i e s ,

i p e r m its a

l e a v e f o r " n e c e s s a r y r e a s o n s " , a v e r y broad c o n d i t i o n *

It

i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t o n l y two o i t i e s g r a n t l e a v e s f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e and one f o r war w ork. f h e r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich c o n c e r n t h e t e a c h e r rs r e t u r n from a l e a v e o f a b s e n c e p r o t e c t b oth t h e board and t h e teach er,

f h e board i s p r o t e c t e d by two s i g n i f i c a n t p r o ­

v i s i o n s w h ich r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r i n t w e n t y ~ f i v e c i t i e s to g i v e n o t i c e o f h i s i n t e n t i o n to r e t u r n t o a c t i v e d u ty and i n t h i r t y - s i x c i t i e s to p r e s e n t a h e a l t h c e r t i f i c a t e . Ho one r u l e w h ich p r o t e c t s t e a c h e r s a p p e a r s f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t .

S ix te en c i t i e s

g u a r a n te e t h e t e a c h e r an e q u i v a l e n t p o s i t i o n on h i s r e t u r n , w h i l e n i n e s p e c i f y t h a t he s h a l l be g i v e n h i s form er p l a c e . E le v e n c i t i e s a s s u r e him t h a t h i s s a l a r y w i l l n o t be reduced a f t e r a l e a v e .

F i v e s p e c i f y t h a t he s h a l l m a in ta in

t h e same rank i n t h e s a l a r y s c h e d u le a s though he had rem ained i n s e r v i c e , and one awards him t h e r e g u l a r s a l a r y in crea se*

O nly one r e g u l a t i o n ,

in d ic a te s a d iffe r e n t p o lic y ,

in f i f t e e n c i t i e s , f h i s m easure s p e c i f i e s t h a t

th e t e a c h e r s h a l l n o t be g u a r a n te e d a p o s i t i o n upon r e t u r n from a " l e a v e " .

I t h a r d l y seems t h e t e a c h e r i s g r a n te d a

" l e a v e ” when a p o s i t i o n i s n ot g u a r a n te e d upon r e t u r n , f e a c h e r s must p r e s e n t p r o o f a s to t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f l e a v e s o f absence in f i v e c i t i e s ,

L

f e a c h e r s r e t u r n i n g from a

j

72 r

i

m a t e r n i t y l e a v e a r e o b l i g e d to c o m p le te approved c o u r s e s i n , o n e c i t y and to p a s s an e x a m in a tio n i n a n o t h e r . Very few s c h o o l s y s t e m s , a p p a r e n t l y , h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d p r o v i s i o n s t o a l l o w t e a c h e r s to e n j o y l e a v e o f a b se n c e w i t h f u l l or p a r t p a y .

l o r e g u l a t i o n i s found w h ich

a p p e a r s f r e q u e n t l y enough to be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t , f h e b o a r d s o f n i n e t e e n c i t i e s a llo w a t e a c h e r su ch a l e a v e f o r s t u d y or p r o f e s s i o n a l im provem ent,

f i f t e e n boards

I n s i s t t h a t th e t e a c h e r m ust have s e r v e d a s p e c i f i e d number o f y e a r s b e f o r e t h e l e a v e , and f o u r t e e n r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r t o a g r e e t o r e t u r n t o t h e sy stem f o r a s p e c i f i e d number o f y e a r s .

A r e g u l a t i o n , w h ich a p p ea rs

e x t r e m e ly p r o g r e s s i v e , g r a n t s a l e a v e w i t h f u l l pay to t h e t e a c h e r who a c c u m u la te s s u f f i c i e n t a b s e n c e t im e .

Of

a l l t h e r e g u l a t i o n s which d e a l w ith t h e p o s i t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r , t h o s e m easu res w h ich c o n c e r n l e a v e s o f a b sen ce a r e more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c i t i e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r s i z e . Most r u l e s w hich c o n c er n l e a v e s o f a b s e n c e a r e found i n th e c i t i e s in t h e l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s .

A great

many o f th e r e g u l a t i o n s w hich appear i n f r e q u e n t l y c o u ld w e l l be l e f t to t h e judgment o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r or a com m ittee o f t h e b o a rd .

L

j

73 r

i TARDIKESS7 T a r d in e s s i s r e g u l a t e d by e i g h t i t e m s ,

w hich ap p ear a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f t i m e s .

three o f The c e n t r a l

theme r e q u i r e s t h a t t a r d i n e s s be r e p o r t e d and i n d i c a t e s a n e g a t i v e way o f e n f o r c i n g t h e r e g u l a t i o n s w hich r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r to b e g in wofk a t a s p e c i f i e d t im e .

T eacher’ s

t a r d i n e s s must be r e p o r t e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l i n f o r t y - f i v e o i t i e s and b y t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n e l e v e n c i t i e s .

I t may

be e x c u se d by t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n n i n e c i t i e s and by th e p r in c ip a l in th r e e c i t i e s ,

f o r t y c i t i e s make

d e d u c t i o n s from t h e s a l a r i e s o f t e a c h e r s who are t a r d y , A l l o f t h e s e r u l e s a r e m e r e ly w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s to e n f o r c e th e p r o v i s i o n s t h a t th e t e a c h e r s h a l l b e g in h i s work p ro m p tly , and t h e y m ig h t w e l l be l e f t o u t o f board r e g u la tio n s. SUMMARY R e g u l a t i o n s which a f f e c t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r i n s e r v i c e l e g i s l a t e on many m a t t e r s o f a c o n t r a c t u a l n a tu re.

I t i s c u stom ary f o r a p e r so n who i s e n t e r i n g th e

employ o f a n o th e r t o be in fo r m e d a t t h e tim e o f employment a s t o t h e s a l a r y , h o u rs o f s e r v i c e ,

and s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s .

S c h o o l board r e g u l a t i o n s p u b l i c l y pronounce t h e p o l i c y o f each s c h o o l board on su ch m a t t e r s .

P r o v i s i o n s a r e found

7 A p p e n d ix p . 315 L

J

74 r

whieh d e a l w it h te n u r e o f o f f i c e , p r o f e s s i o n a l im provement, t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and a d ju stm e n t o f s a l a r y , t h e tim e o f s e r v i c e , a b s e n c e , l e a v e s o f a b s e n c e , and t a r d i n e s s * stu d y l i s t s serv ice*

fh is

290 s e p a r a t e it e m s w h ich a f f e c t t h e t e a c h e r i n

Of t h e s e 290 i t e m s , f i f t y - n i n e appear o f t e n

enough to be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t .

fw e n ty o f t h e s e

f i f t y - n i n e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s d e a l w ith a b s e n c e , e l e v e n , w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement o f t h e t e a c h e r , t e n , w i t h l e a v e s o f a b s e n c e , e i g h t , w it h s a l a r y m a t t e r s , ten u re,

f o u r , w ith

and t h r e e , e a c h , w ith t h e tim e o f s e r v i c e and

ta r d in e ss,

f h e p r o v i s i o n s w h ich app ear f r e q u e n t l y enough

t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t a r e l i s t e d w i t h t h e i r freq u en cy in f a b l e ¥111.

L

j

TABLE ¥ 1 1 1 FREQUENCY OF S IG N IF IC A N T REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE TEACHER I N SE R V IC E

REGULATIONS I,

Tenure o f O f f i c e 1 . T each er s h a l l h e e l e c t e d a n n u a l l y 2 . T each er s h a l l he g r a n t e d t e n u r e a f t e r a p r o b a t io n a r y p e r io d 3* P r o b a t io n a r y t e a c h e r sh&Ll be r e ­ e le c t e d a n n u a lly 4* Tenure s h a l l be recommended by S u p e r in t e n d e n t

I I . P r o f e s s i o n a l Improvement A. A tte n d a n c e a t C o n v e n t io n s , I n s t i t u t e s , and C o n f e r e n c e s . 1 . T eacher s h a l l a t t e n d su ch when c a l l e d by; a . S u p e r in te n d e n t b . P r in c ip a l o . S u p e rv iso rs 2 . T each er a b s e n c e or t a r d i n e s s a t c o n f e r e n c e s w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d th e same a s a b s e n c e from s c h o o l d u t i e s 3 . T eacher s h a l l a t t e n d g e n e r a l and group m e e t in g s u n l e s s e x c u se d by proper a u t h o r i t i e s 4 . T each er s h a l l f o r f e i t s a l a r y f o r f a i l u r e to a tten d c o n fer en ce s 5 . T eacher s h a l l r e p o r t c a u se o f a b s e n c e and t a r d i n e s s a t c o n f e r e n c e s B . C o u r se s and T r a v e l 1 . T each er s h a l l ta k e s p e c i f i e d amount o f c o u r s e s f o r improvement C # O b s e r v a t io n o f S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s

l

1 . T eacher may o b s e r v e a t o t h e r s c h o o l s 2 . T ea ch er who v i s i t s a n o th e r s c h o o l must subm it a r e p o r t 3 . A p p l i c a t i o n s t o make v i s i t s s h a l l be made t o S u p e r in t e n d e n t or P r i n c i p a l

76 TAB 1 E V I I I

(cont.)

FREQ U BIG Y OF S I G H I F I G M T REGULATIONS OOSrCBRNIUG THE TEAGHER I N SE R V IC E

I I I * S a l a r y o f T eacher A* D e te r m in a t io n o f S a l a r i e s

2* 3. 4* 5* 6#

f© aeh er s h a l l r e c e i v e s a l a r y t o a s c h e d u le S a l a r y may be recommended b y o f Board T each er s h a l l r e c e i v e c r e d i t p r e v io u s s e r v i c e S a l a r y may be recommended b y S a l a r y may be recommended by S u p e r in t endent S a l a r y w i l l b e p a id on b a s i s p a r a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e

a c c o r d in g 164 Committee 76 for Board

61 60 47

o f pre­ 23

B. G ra n tin g In c r e m e n ts 1* T ea ch er s h a l l r e c e i v e in c re m en t f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e on recom m endation o f S u p e r in t e n d e n t or P r i n c i p a l g • T each er must c o m p le te normal or u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s to r e c e i v e in c r e m e n t

66 38

IV . Time o f S e r v i c e 1 . Teacher s h a l l a r r i v e i n s c h o o l a t s p e c i f i e d tim e 2# T each er s h a l l rem ain a f t e r the c l o s e o f t h e P*8U s e s s i o n 3 . T each er s h a l l o b s e r v e p u n c t u a l l y t h e h o u rs f o r o p e n in g and c l o s i n g s c h o o l V* A bsence A. n o t i f i c a t i o n o f Absence 1# T eacher s h a l l g i v e n o t i c e o f i n t e n d e d a b se n c e 2 . T each er s h a l l g i v e n o t i c e o f tim e of r e t u r n from a b s e n c e

26 8 88 39

TABDB T i l l ( c o n t , 3 F E E Q U E IO Y OF S I G N IF IC A N T BBGKJLATION 8 G O I O S H I H G TH1 TBAGHBB I I S E R V IC E

BSBOLATIOIS

FREQUENCY

N o t i f i c a t i o n o f A b sen ce ( c o n t * ) 3 . T eacher s h a l l f o r f e i t s a l a r y f o r f a i l u r e t o g i v e n o t i c e o f tim e o f r e tu r n

32

B . p r o c e d u r e f o r S e c u r in g P ay f o r Absence 1# T e a c h e r ' s a b s e n c e a llo w a n c e s h a l l be c u m u la t iv e 2* T each er s h a l l f i l e c e r t i f i c a t e w i t h i n s p e c i f i e d tim e a f t e r a b s e n c e 3« Teacher must h ave a b s e n c e approved by a p h y sic ia n

45 44 31

0* E x c u se o f A bsence 1* A b sence f o r r e a s o n s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y m entioned' i n t h e r u l e s s h a l l be e x c u s e d by S u p e r in t e n d e n t 2* P e r m is s io n must be s e c u r e d f o r a b s e n c e n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y m en tio n e d i n t h e r u l e s

31 28

D. F u l l f a y D u ring A b sence

1 * T e a ch er s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f tim e f o r b ereavem ent 199 2* T each er s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f tim e f o r i l l n e s s 182 3 . T e a ch er s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l p a y f o r a b s e n c e f o r q u a r a n tin e 63 4* T eacher s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r a b s e n c e f o r c o u r t subpoena 33 5 . T each er s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f tim e f o r i l l n e s s i n im m ediate f a m i l y 26 6• T e a ch er s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay Mr ab~ s e n c e due t o o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l work (a tten d a n ce a t co n v e n tio n s, e t c .) 25

78 r

TABLE VIII (cont.)

“ S

FBBQUENOY OF 3 I G N I F I G M T REGULATIONS CONCBBNING THE TEACHER I F SE R V IC E

REGULATIONS S* P a r t p a y L u rin g

FREQUENCY senee

1 . T each er s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay d a r in g i l l n e s s f o r s p e c i f i e d p e r io d o f tim e i n a d d i t i o n t o t im e f o r w hich f u l l pay was g r a n te d 2* f e a o h e r s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r s p e c i f i e d p e r io d o f absence f o r i l l n e s s 3* f e a o h e r s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r s p e c i f i e d p e r io d o f a b s e n c e f o r b ereavem ent 4« f e a o h e r s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d o f a b s e n c e when e x c u s e d i n advance

84 73 43 23

F . A b sence W ith o u t Pay 1 . f e a o h e r s h a l l f o r f e i t pay f o r a# G a u se s o t h e r than i l l n e s s or bereavem ent b . U nexcused a b s e n c e

30 33

7 1 . L e a v e s o f A b sence A. p r o c e d u r e f o r O b ta in in g 1* No l e a v e o f a b s e n c e w i l l be g r a n t e d f o r l o n g e r th an s p e c i f i e d tim e 2 . B e q u e s t must be app roved by S u p e r in t endent 3# B e q u e s t must be approved by Board 4* B e q u e st f o r l e a v e o f a b sen ce sh o u ld be d i r e c t e d to S u p e r in te n d e n t

30 46 33 29

B* C o n d it io n s f o r O b ta in in g L eave S tu d y H ea lth 3# f r a v e l 4* P reg n a n cy

%•

L

70 38 36 28 J

79 VIII (cont.)

FREQUENCY OF SIONIFIOMf REODMTIONS CONCERTOC TEE TEACHER IN SERVICE REGULATIONS

FREQUENCY

C. R etu rn from Leave o f A b sence 1# T eacher must p r e s e n t a h e a l t h c e r tific a te 2. fea o h er s h a ll g iv e n o tic e o f in t e n d e d d a t e o f r e t u r n

36

26

V II. ta r d in e ss I t tea ch er s h a ll report 2. p r in c ip a l s h a ll report 3* p a y s h a l l he f o r f e i t e d

L

63 46 40

J

H o st o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g th e t e a c h e r i n s e r v i c e a r e a t t e m p t s on t h e p a r t o f b o a r d s o f e d u c a t io n t o e s t a b l i s h c o n d i t i o n s which g r a n t th e t e a c h e r t h e g r e a t e s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a t th e same tim e p r o t e c t t h e b o a r d . There i s , how ever, a l a c k o f agreem ent among b o a r d s on c e r ta in p o lic ie s .

P r o v i s i o n s i n many i n s t a n c e s a r e e i t h e r

s u b s t i t u t e s f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r or a t t e m p t s to s o l v e l o c a l p r o b le m s. cf

The f a i r n e s s

some r u l e s m ig h t w e l l be q u e s t i o n e d by t e a c h e r s .

Few

o f th e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c i t i e s o f a p a r tic u la r s i z e . B oard s o f e d u c a t io n d© n o t a g r e e on s e v e r a l p o l i c i e s . V a r io u s p r o c e d u r e s e x i s t f o r t h e g r a n t i n g o f t e n u r e , th e employment o f m a rr ied women, t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s a l a r i e s , and t h e e x c u s e o f a b s e n c e .

The most im p o r ta n t d i f f e r e n c e

in p o l i c y c o n c e r n s th e g r a n t i n g o f t e n u r e .

H in e ty -e ig h t

c i t i e s r e q u ir e th e annual e l e c t i o n o f te a c h e r s , w h ile e ig h ty -fo u r g ran t ten u re.

T h is would seem to i n d i c a t e

t h a t most c i t i e s do n o t g r a n t t e n u r e t o t e a c h e r s .

There

i s a l s o a l a c k o f agreem ent on t h e tr e a tm e n t o f m a rried women t e a c h e r s .

S t a t e m e n t s a r e made by some b o a r d s t h a t

m a r r ia g e s h a l l n o t be a d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n and t h a t c o n ­ t r a c t s s h a l l n o t be i n v a l i d a t e d b e c a u s e o f m a r r ia g e , w h i l e o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s g i v e m a rr ia g e a s a b a s i s f o r

c a n c e l l a t i o n o f c o n t r a c t s , and d en y in c r e m e n ts to women t e a c h e r s who m arry.

A h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t number o f c i t i e s

d i r e c t th a t th e tea c h e r s h a l l r e c e iv e s a la r y a c co rd in g to a sc h e d u le.

An a lm o s t e q u a l number d i r e c t s t h a t th e

t e a c h e r ’ s s a l a r y s h a l l be recommended by t h e b o a r d , a c o m m ittee o f t h e b o a rd , or th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t .

fe a o h er 's

a b s e n c e t o a t t e n d w ed d in g s i s p r o h i b i t e d i n s e v e r a l c o m m u n itie s,

e x c u s e d w i t h p a r t pay i n some, and e x c u se d

w i t h f u l l pay i n o t h e r s . Many r u l e s w h ich a f f e c t th e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r i n s e r v i c e m ight w e l l be th e w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r an e x e c u t i v e o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . S e v e r a l o f t h e i t e m s which appear f r e q u e n t l y enough to be s i g n i f i c a n t m e r e ly a ttem p t to e n f o r c e p o l i c i e s w hich a r e m e n tio n e d in o t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s .

Im portant p r o v i s i o n s

d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r to a t t e n d i n s t i t u t e s , m e e t i n g s , and c o n f e r e n c e s c a l l e d by th e board, s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , p r in c ip a l,

or s u p e r v i s o r s .

Four o t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s ,

each

o f which a p p e a r s more than t w e n t y - t h r e e t i m e s , p r o v id e p e n a l t i e s o f one s o r t or a n o th e r f o r t e a c h e r s who a r e l a t e or n o t in a t t e n d a n c e a t c o n f e r e n c e s .

A sig n ific a n t

number o f c i t i e s s p e c i f i e s t h a t th e t e a c h e r s h a l l r e c e i v e a s a l a r y in crem en t f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e on t h e recom m endation o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l . T h i r t y - e i g h t 'c i t i e s ,

how ever, q u a l i f y t h e i r m eaning o f

s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e toy r e q u i r i n g t h e c o m p le t io n o f u n iv e r sity cou rses.

The p r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n in g t a r d i n e s s

a r e m e r e ly i n s t r u c t i o n s to e n f o r c e th e r e g u l a t i o n s w hich r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r to toe i n s c h o o l a t a s p e c i f i e d t i m e . I f th e hoard o f e d u c a tio n c o n s i d e r s i t s e l f A p o lic y - m a k in g toody and r e c o g n i z e s th e s u p e r in te n d e n t a s t h e e x e c u t i v e empowered to d i r e c t and a d m i n i s t e r t h e s c h o o l sy s te m , t h e n su ch it e m s a r e o u t o f p l a c e i n hoard r e g u l a t i o n *

The l e s s

f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s i n d i c a t e some f l a g r a n t exam ples o f i t e m s w hich a r e r e a l l y w r i t t e n _ l n g t r $ o . t i o n s r a t h e r than a statem en t o f p o l i c y .

T y p ic a l r u l e s s t a t e th a t t h e t e a c h e r

s h a l l pay h i s own e x p e n s e s when he v i s i t s a n o th e r s c h o o l , t h a t he must f i l e a c la i m f o r s a l a r y when a b s e n t , t h a t he may toe a b s e n t f o r a m inor p a r t o f a s e s s i o n when e x c u s e d b y t h e p r i n c i p a l , and t h a t he must p r e s e n t p r o o f a s t o t h e d is p o s it io n o f a le a v e o f absen ce. I io c a l problem s a r e e v i d e n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s w hich appear r a t h e r i n f r e q u e n t l y . r u l e s s p e c i f y t h a t th e h oard may pay t e a c h e r s *

T y p ic a l

sa la r ie s

w it h t a x w a r r a n ts and t h a t t e a c h e r s must e s t a b l i s h a fund t o g u a r a n t e e th e c i t y a g a i n s t l o s s b e c a u se t h e y a r e p a id i n a d v a n ce .

A n oth er exam ple s t a t e s t h a t a t e a c h e r may

ta k e a l e a v e o f a b se n c e f o r unemployment r e l i e f .

Many o f

t h e r u l e s which attem p t t o s o l v e l o c a l problem s may a l s o be c r i t i c i z e d on t h e g ro u n d s t h a t t h e y sh o u ld b e t h e

83 r

-i

d e c i s i o n s o f an e x e c u t i v e r a t h e r th an hoard p o l i c i e s . The r u l e s w h ich govern the t e a c h e r i n s e r v i c e a r e i n most c a s e s f a i r t o t h e t e a c h e r .

The two p o s s i b l e

e x c e p t i o n s do n o t ap p ear f r e q u e n t l y enough to b e sig n ific a n t.

In some co m m u n ities t h e t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d

t o j o i n t h e n a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , th e s t a t e teachers.*

a sso c ia tio n ,

th e l o c a l t e a c h e r s 1 a s s o c i a t i o n ,

or a p a r e n t-te a c h e r a s s o c ia t io n .

In s e v e r a l c i t i e s ,

a lt h o u g h t h e t e a c h e r i s g r a n t e d a l e a v e o f a b s e n c e , t h e r u le s s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e th a t a p o s it io n i s not g u a r a n t e e d him upon h i s r e t u r n .

The v e r y n a t u r e o f a l e a v e

o f a b s e n c e seem s t o im p ly t h a t a p o s i t i o n w i l l b e a v a i l a b l e a f t e r th e le a v e . tea ch er.

The d e n i a l o f t h i s seem s u n f a i r t o th e

Most o f th e p r o v i s i o n s w hich a r e u n f a i r t o t h e

t e a c h e r a r e fou n d i n t h e s m a l l e r c i t i e s . In t h e p r e c e d in g paragraph i t was m en tio n ed th a t t h e r u l e s w h ich m ight be c o n s i d e r e d u n f a i r t o t e a c h e r s were g e n e r a l l y fou n d i n t h e s m a l l e r c i t i e s .

There a r e j u s t two

o t h e r i n s t a n c e s in w h ich r e g u l a t i o n s seem t o be c h a r a c t e r ­ istic

of c i t i e s o f a p a r tic u la r s i z e .

The s m a l l e r c i t i e s

r e g u l a t e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement o f t e a c h e r s by more g e n e r a l sta te m en ts o f p o l i c y , w h ile th e la r g e r c i t i e s ten d t o be more s p e c i f i c i n s t a t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s .

The

l a t t e r c i t i e s p r o v id e more f r e q u e n t l y f o r l e a v e s o f absence f o r te a c h e r s .

L

J

84 r

-i S t a t e s t a t u t e and t h e econom ic p o s i t i o n o f t h e

community are f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e p r o v i s i o n s which a f f e c t t h e p o s i t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r ,

fh e d e term in a tio n

and th e e x t e n t o f t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s a r e beyond t h i s s t u d y . '

I t may be t h a t t h e econom ic s t a t u s o f many o i t i e s p r e v e n t s t h e enactm ent o f r e g u l a t i o n s which would g r a n t l e a v e s o f absence w ith f u l l or part pay.

ITo r e g u l a t i o n i n r e g a r d

to a b s e n c e w i t h p a r t pay a p p e a r s f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n sid ered s i g n i f i c a n t .

I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the

s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e i s n o t y e t an a c c e p t e d f a c t i n t h e g r ea t m a jo rity o f c i t i e s ,

f h e r e g u l a t i o n s w hich d e ter m in e

t h e p o s i t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r in s e r v i c e embrace c e r t a i n p o lic ie s,

f h e r e i s , h ow ever, c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r - l a p p i n g

and d u p l i c a t i o n ,

f h e £90 r e g u l a t i o n s ,

and even th e

f i f t y - n i n e w h ich ap p ear f r e q u e n t l y enough to be c o n s i d e r ­ ed s i g n i f i c a n t , c o u ld be worked i n t o a c o n d en sed s ta te m e n t o f p o l i c y i f it e m s whieh a r e r e a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e in n a t u r e or o f s t r i c t l y l o e a l a p p l i c a t i o n w ere o m i t t e d .

L

J

85 r

i

CHAPTER

V

THE TEACHER LEAVIIG SERVICE An

examination

o f th e r e g u l a t i o n s c o v e r in g th e d i s ­

c o n t in u a n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r ’ s employment i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y may be l o g i c a l l y grouped under f o u r h e a d in g s*

T hese

a r e s u s p e n s i o n , d i s m i s s a l , r e s i g n a t i o n , and r e t i r e m e n t . The f i r s t two o f t h e s e a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n c er n t o t h e t e a c h e r b e c a u s e t h e y c o v e r t h e i n v o l u n t a r y t e r m in a t io n o f em ploym ent.

S u sp e n s io n and d i s m i s s a l must be c o n s i d e r e d

from two a s p e c t s , t h e s ta t e m e n t o f gro u n d s and th e p r o ­ cedure in v o lv e d .

S u sp e n sio n g e n e r a l l y p r e c e d e s d i s m i s s a l .

A t e a c h e r a g a i n s t whom c h a r g e s a r e made i s u s u a l l y su sp en d ed u n t i l he i s proved in n o c e n t or g u i l t y . SOSPKHSIOH1 W hile s i x t e e n ground s a r e l i s t e d a s b a s i s f o r s u s p e n s i o n , o n l y one a p p ea r s f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be sig n ific a n t.

The boards o f t w e n t y - f i v e c i t i e s c o n s i d e r

v i o l a t i o n o f r u le s a cause fo r su sp en sio n . n e g l e c t o f d u ty , due c a u s e ,

M is c o n d u c t,

i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n , in c o m p e te n c e ,

or im m o r a lit y a r e each l i s t e d betw een f i v e and n i n e t e e n tim es.

The o t h e r n i n e r e g u l a t i o n s , w h ich ap p ear fe w e r

than f i v e t i m e s , m en tion su ch c a u s e s a s f a i l u r e t o pay

1

Appendix p. 316

j

d e b t s , c o n t in u e d t a r d i n e s s , un exou sed a b s e n c e , d e lin q u e n c y , and in d ic t m e n t # f h e p r o c e d u r e f o r s u s p e n s i o n i l l u s t r a t e s th e t e n d e n c y , p o in te d out in c o n n e c tio n w ith o th er m a tte r s,

o f c e n tr a l­

i z i n g a u t h o r i t y in t h e o f f i c e o f th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . S i g h t y - t w o c i t i e s g r a n t t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t h e power to su sp en d a t e a c h e r , w h i l e t h i r t y - t w o r e q u i r e him t o r e p o r t a s u s p e n s i o n to t h e b o ard .

O ther r e g u l a t i o n s app ear to o

i n f r e q u e n t l y t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t .

I n tw e n ty

c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r ' s s u s p e n s i o n must be approved by t h e b o a rd ,

f h e power t o su sp e n d & t e a c h e r i s g r a n t e d t o a

c o m m ittee in t w e lv e c i t i e s ,

to t h e p r i n c i p a l i n f o u r c i t i e s ,

and t o t h e p r e s i 4 e n t o f t h e board i n t h r e e c i t i e s .

It is

n otew orthy th a t o n ly th r e e c i t i e s d e f i n i t e l y s t a t e th a t th e t e a c h e r may be r e - i n s t a t e d by t h e b o a rd ,

fh e g r ea t

m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich r e f e r t o s u s p e n s i o n a r e found i n t h e c i t i e s o f t h e l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s . BISMXSSAl8 M ost r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to d i s m i s s a l aim a t t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e in c o m p e te n t o r i n e f f i c i e n t t e a c h e r . Some o f th e r e g u l a t i o n s , how ever, embody o t h e r p u r p o s e s . A s t r i d i n g example i s t h e p r o v i s i o n w h ich d i r e c t s t h e d i s m i s s a l o f a woman t e a c h e r who m a r r i e s ,

f h l s i s fou n d

i n n i o e t y - o n e c i t i e s and i s t h e m ost o u t s t a n d in g example

l

2 Appendix p. 317

j

o f t h e te n d e n c y i n many c i t i e s t o v .fo r c e •- t h e m arried woman out o f t h e s c h o o l s *

I t was n o te d i n t h e e x a m in a tio n

o f e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u ir e m e n t s , a p p o in tm en t p r o c e d u r e , and s a l a r y recom m endations t h a t r u l e s e x i s t w h ich p e n a l i s e t h e m a rr ied woman*

Grounds to e l i m i n a t e t h e i n e f f i c i e n t

and in c o m p e te n t t e a c h e r , a p p e a r in g f r e q u e n t l y enough t o he sig n ific a n t, e itie s ,

a r e l i s t e d a s in c o m p e ten ce i n e i g h t y - f i v e

and unbecoming c o n d u ct i n f i f t y c i t i e s .

A lso

i n c l u d e d a r e v i o l a t i o n o f r u l e s in t h i r t y - s e v e n e i t i e s and n e g l e c t t o pay d e b t s and f a i l u r e t o c o o p e r a t e i n t w e n t y - f i v e c i t i e s each*

©f t h e f o r t y - o n e o t h e r

r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich l i s t grou n d s f o r d i s m i s s a l , many m igh t be s u b - i t e m s o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s l i s t e d h e r e t o f o r e , f h e v e r y g e n e r a l g round , "due c a u s e " , i s fou n d i n t h e r u l e s o f t w e n ty -o n e e i t i e s .

N e g lig e n c e ,

im m o r a lity , u n excu sed

a b s e n c e , th e w e l f a r e o f t h e s c h o o l s , f a i l u r e t o a p p ly f o r m a tern ity le a v e ,

im proper d i s c i p l i n e ,

o r the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e

o f th e p o s i t i o n a r e g i v e n a s c a u s e s f o r d i s m i s s a l i n e le v e n to f i f t e e n e i t i e s .

I n t e r e s t i n g c a u s e s f o r d i s m i s s a l , which

ar e fou n d i n l e s s than t e n c i t i e s ,

i n c l u d e su ch it e m s a s

s e c r e t m a r r ia g e , t h e m a rria g e o f a woman t e a c h e r n o t on t e n u r e , c o n t in u e d t a r d i n e s s , m otherhood, in te m p e r a n c e , and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f propaganda*

S im ila r r ea so n s in c lu d e

n o n - r e s i d e n c e i n t h e d i s t r i c t , un ion a f f i l i a t i o n , f a i l u r e o f an a l i e n t o become a c i t i z e n ,

th e

o u t s i d e employment,

u s e o f t o b a c c o on t h e p r e m i s e s , tam p e rin g w it h f i r e

eq u ip m en t, l a c k o f p rud en ce i n v e n t i l a t i o n ,

in a tte n tio n

t o th e d a i l y program, and f a i l u r e t o p r e p a r e l e s s o n p l a n s . A g r e a t many o f t h e l a t t e r r e g u l a t i o n s , w hich appear v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y , a r e foun d i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e s m a l l e r c itie s ,

fh e r e i s a tendency fo r a la r g e p ercen ta g e o f

s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n s t o he found i n t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s . f h e v a l i d i t y o f some o f th e grounds m e n tio n e d , such a s u n io n a f f i l i a t i o n ,

o u t s i d e employment, th e m a r r ia g e o f

a woman t e a c h e r , may he q u e s t io n e d hy e d u c a t i o n a l a u th o r itie s.

O ther i t e m s ,

such a s ndue c a u s e ? and "the

w e lfa r e o f th e s c h o o l” , are la c k in g in s p e c i f i c i t y ,

th ey

may g i v e t h e s c h o o l hoard e x c e s s i v e l a t i t u d e and may h i d e a b u se s o f pow er. le s s o n p la n s,

Ite m s such a s th e f a i l u r e to prep are

i n a t t e n t i o n to d a i l y program, and im proper

d i s c i p l i n e seem to he c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g in g in c o m p e ten ce r a t h e r th a n s t a t e m e n t s o f p o l i c i e s ,

f h e most s i g n i f i c a n t

i t e m s , w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f th e one w h ich l i s t s t h e m a rr ia g e o f a woman t e a c h e r a s grounds f o r d i s m i s s a l , w ould he c o n s i d e r e d e q u i t a b l e t o b o th t h e board and th e t e a c h e r by m ost a u t h o r i t i e s i n th e f i e l d ,

f h e same can n ot

be s a i d o f many o f th e r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich appear i n f r e q u e n t ly .

f o make un ion a f f i l i a t i o n ,

th e f a i l u r e to c o m p le te

c o l l e g e work, a s e c r e t m a r r ia g e , t h e c o a c h in g o f p u p i l s , , t h e f a i l u r e to r ea d a B i b i b a t * t h e o p e n in g e x e r c i s e s ,

or

th e l a c k o f prud en ce i n r e g u l a t i n g v e n t i l a t i o n and L

J

89

r

-]

te m p e r a tu r e , t h e s o l e o a u s e f o r d i s m i s s a l i n d i c a t e s a p o l i c y u n f a i r to t h e t e a c h e r . f h e p r o v i s i o n s s t a t i n g t h e p roced u re f o r d i s m i s s a l seem , i n g e n e r a l ,

t o be d e s i g n e d to p r o t e c t t h e t e a c h e r

from a r b i t r a r y a e t i o n .

A l l th e r u l e s w h ich d e a l w ith

p r o c e d u r e m en tio n e i t h e r t h e p e r so n t o recommend t h e d i s m i s s a l , t h e p e r s o n n e l t o app rove t h e d i s m i s s a l ,

or t h e

manner i n w h ich t h e t e a c h e r i s t o be g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . In s i x t y - t h r e e c i t i e s d i s m i s s a l i s recommended by t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , i n f o r t y - s i x t h e t e a c h e r must be warned o f im p en d in g d i s m i s s a l , i n t h i r t y - e i g h t he must b e g i v e n a h e a r i n g , and i n t h i r t y - t h r e e t h e d i s m i s s a l must be app roved by th e b o a r d ,

f h e o n ly o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e

i s th e v e r y g en era l statem en t, a t e a c h e r a t any t i m e .

t h a t t h e board may d i s m i s s

R u le s w hich appear to o i n f r e q u e n t ­

l y to be s i g n i f i c a n t e x te n d t h e p o l i c i e s o f r u l e s m en tio n ed h eretofo re.

D i s m i s s a l i s recommended in t w e lv e c i t i e s by

a c o m m ittee o f t h e board and i n s i x e i t i e s by th e p r in c ip a l.

S ev era l r u le s a ssu re th e tea ch er o f c o n s id e r ­

a tio n b efo re d is m is s a l.

In t h i r t e e n c i t i e s t h e c h a r g e s

a g a i n s t a t e a c h e r must b e w r i t t e n , and i n fo u r c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r must be g i v e n a c o p y o f su ch c h a r g e s .

O ther r u l e s

d i r e c t t h a t a t e a c h e r be g i v e n a h e a r in g b e f o r e a c o m m ittee o f t h e board or a co m m ittee o f p r i n c i p a l s .

F iv e

e i t i e s g r a n t a tea ch er the b e n e f it o f c o u n sel a t h e a r in g s.

L

J

S ix

cities

p rovid e

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a teacher

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cities.

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S m aller c i t i e s , perm it

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a h e a r in g or c o n s id e r a t io n

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sp ecific

code,

p r o v is io n s w hich

recommend o r

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a b o a r d may d i s m i s s

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RESIGfHATIOH3 V irtu a lly resig n a tio n

of

a ll

of the p ro v isio n s

the tea ch er

th e board a g a in s t th e

seem t o b e a t t e m p t s

sudden r e s ig n a t i o n

The m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t

regu lation ,

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to

a p p e a r s 121 t im e s ,

a sp ecified

of r e sig n a tio n

-----------------

A ppendix p .

w hich

T w en ty-five c i t i e s

p ro v isio n

g iv e n o tic e

w hich Gover t h e

w hich

appear i n ­

two r u l e s . certa in cities

compen­

In n in e

tim es

of the

the teacher

who r e s i g n s a t c e r t a i n t im e s o f t h e y e a r m ast f o r f e i t h i s sa la r y .

The r u l e s t a t i n g t h a t t h e t e a c h e r may n o t r e s i g n

t o a c c e p t a n o th e r t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n a p p ea r s f o u r tim es* In t h r e e c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r must h a v e th e p e r m is s io n o f a / com m ittee and i n two c i t i e s th e p e r m is s io n o f t h e board to r e sig n *

The o n ly i n d i c a t i o n o f a s e t p ro c ed u r e f o r t h e

s u b m is s io n o f a r e s i g n a t i o n i s found i n t h e r u l e o f e i g h t e e n c i t i e s w h ich s p e c i f i e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h a l l f i l e h i s r e s i g n a t i o n w it h r e a s o n s w ith t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or b o a rd . The m a j o r i t y o f th e r e g u l a t i o n s a p p a r e n t ly w ere e n a c te d a t a tim e when t h e r e was a s h o r t a g e o f te a c h e r s *

The s c a r c i t y o f p r o v i s i o n s on r e t i r e m e n t e x h i b i t s a s t r a n g e c o n t r a s t t o t h e volum e o f m a t e r i a l w hich a p p ea r s on t h i s ite m i n e d u c a t i o n a l m a g a zin es and i n t h e j o u r n a l s o f n a tio n a l s o c i e t i e s .

Much o f th e l e g i s l a t i o n w h ich

d e a l s w i t h r e t i r e m e n t , how ever,

i s s t a t e s t a t u t e and t h i s

p r o b a b ly a c c o u n t s f o r th e few p r o v i s i o n s w hich a r e fou n d i n s c h o o l board r e g u l a t i o n s *

O nly t e n p r o v i s i o n s e x i s t

i n r e g a r d to r e t i r e m e n t and but two o f t h e s e appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t * t h e s e two a r e b a r e l y s i g n i f i c a n t .

Bven

The one p r o v i s i o n ,

w h ich r e q u i r e s a t e a c h e r t o r e t i r e a t a s p e c i f i e d age

I----- A ppendix

p.

3S i

j

9Z r

i

or l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e ,

ap p ea r s b a t t h i r t y - t w o t i m e s ,

aod

t h e o t h e r , t h a t th e t e a c h e r s h a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o a p e n s io n fu n d , ap p ears but t w e n t y - t h r e e t i m e s .

The l e s s

f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s s t a t e in tw e n ty c i t i e s t h a t th e t e a c h e r s h a l l r e c e i v e a p e n s i o n upon r e t i r e m e n t ,

in

t w e lv e c i t i e s t h a t s t a t e s t a t u t e s i n r e g a r d t o r e t i r e ­ ment must be c o m p lie d w i t h by a l l t e a c h e r s , and i n n in e c i t i e s th a t th e tea c h e r retire m en t p en sio n s s h a l l be in a c c o r d a n c e w it h s t a t e la w .

I t i s most i n t e r e s t i n g

t h a t th e p r o v i s i o n s w h ich s e l e c t t h e p e r s o n n e l to recommend r e i t r e m e n t m en tio n t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t in e ig h t c i t i e s ,

and a co m m ittee o f t h e board or t h e board

i n one c i t y e a c h .

I t w ould seem t h a t th e p e r s o n n e l to

recommend r e t i r e m e n t and th e p r o c e d u r e r e q u ir e d w ou ld be c o n s i d e r e d im p o r ta n t enough t o w arran t r e g u l a t i o n s , but p r a c t i c e d o e s n o t j u s t i f y t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n .

A n other

i n t e r e s t i n g r u l e p e r m it s t h e r ea p p o in tm e n t o f a t e a c h e r a f t e r h i s r e t i r e m e n t from s e r v i c e .

The

m a j o r i t y o f th e r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o r e t i r e m e n t a r e found i n t h e r u l e s o f t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s .

L

J

93 r

SUMMARY T h is c h a p te r d e a l t w it h th e r u l e s w h ic h a f f e c t t h e tea ch er le a v in g th e serv ice*

p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s have

c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t a i l th e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r e n t e r i n g and d u r in g s e r v i c e *

The g r e a t e s t number o f r u l e s

concern th e tea c h e r in s e r v i c e .

R e l a t i v e l y few r u l e s

r e f e r to t h e t e a c h e r l e a v i n g th e s e r v i c e . in s e r v i c e i s a f f e c t e d b y 290 r u l e s ,

The t e a c h e r

but th e t e a c h e r

l e a v i n g t h e s e r v i c e n eed c o n c e r n h i m s e l f w i t h o n l y 1 1 3 . E ig h t e e n o f t h e s e ap p ear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be con­ sid er ed s i g n if i c a n t .

Of th e e i g h t e e n , e l e v e n d e a l w it h

d i s m i s s a l , t h r e e w it h s u s p e n s i o n , and o n l y two each w ith r e s i g n a t i o n and r e t i r e m e n t .

The s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s

p e r t i n e n t t o t h e s e it e m s a r e l i s t e d i n T ab le IX.

L

J

FREQUENCY OS’ SIGH IPIG AH3? REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE TEAOHEB LEAVING SERVICE RBGULATIOHS

FREQUENCY

I . S u s p e n s io n A. Grounds 1* V i o l a t i o n o f r a l e s

85

B. p r o c e d u r e f o r S u s p e n s io n 1* T each er may Toe su sp en d ed by S u p e r in t e n d e n t 2 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t must r e p o r t a s u s p e n s i o n t o Board

88 32

II* D ism issa l A* Grounds 1. 2# 3« 4* 5. 6.

C a r r ia g e o f woman t e a c h e r In co m p eten ce Unbecoming c o n d u c t Y i o l a t i o n o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f a i l u r e t o pay d e b t s F a ilu r e to co o p era te

91 85 50 37 25 25

B« D i s m i s s a l p r o c e d u r e 1* D i s m i s s a l s h a l l be recommended by S u p e r in t e n d e n t 2 . T ea ch er s h a l l be warned o f im pending d ism issa l 3* T each er s h a l l be g i v e n h e a r in g b y Board 4* D i s m i s s a l must be approved by Board 5* Board may d i s m i s s a t e a c h e r a t any tim e

63 46 38 33 28

II I* R e sig n a tio n 1* T each er s h a l l g i v e s p e c i f i e d n o t i c e 2. F a ilu r e to g iv e n o t ic e of r e sig n a tio n W i l l r e s u l t i n f o r f e i t u r e o f c o m p en sa tio n

121 25

IV* R e tir e m e n t

.

1* T each er s h a l l r e t i r e a t s p e c i f i e d age or l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e 2* Teacher s h a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o a p e n s io n fund

32 23

95 r

T

G 010L U S I0IS

The r e g u l a t i o n s w hich a f f e c t th e t e a c h e r l e a v i n g th e s e r v i c e e m p h a size t e n d e n c i e s which w ere n o t e d in t h e p r e c e d in g c h a p te r s * B oards o f e d u c a t io n a r e prone to c e n t r a l i z e i n t h e o f f i c e o f t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t t h e i n i t i a t i o n of any a c t i o n w h ich a f f e c t s t h e t e a c h e r ,

The a b s e n c e of

r u l e s c o n c e r n in g r e s i g n a t i o n and r e t ir e m e n t

is * n o te w o r th y .

Most o f th e s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n s s e t p o l i c i e s w h ich a r e f a i r to t h e t e a c h e r .

The s i z e o f t h e c i t i e s h a s l i t t l e

e f f e c t upon th e t y p e o f r e g u l a t i o n s ,

few p r o v i s i o n s ca n

be c r i t i c i z e d on t h e g rou n d s t h a t t h e y s h o u ld be t h e d e c i s i o n s or w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o ffic e r s. The t e n d e n c y to c e n t r a l i z e i n t h e o f f i c e o f th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t h e a u t h o r i t y t o i n i t i a t e an a c t i o n w hich a f f e c t s t h e t e a c h e r i s i n d i c a t e d by s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n s g r a n t i n g t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t t h e power to su sp en d t e a c h e r s and to recommend d i s m i s s a l #

JSightyrtw o c i t i e s g r a n t th e

s u p e r i n t e n d e n t th e r i g h t to suspend t e a c h e r s , w h i l e in s i x t y - t h r e e c i t i e s he i s d i r e c t e d to recommend d i s m i s s a l s # fe w c i t i e s have e n a c t e d r u l e s c o n c e r n in g r e s i g n a t i o n and retire m en t.

The l a c k o f p r o v i s i o n s on t h e s e t o p i c s may

be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t s t a t e s t a t u t e s e x t e n s i v e l y c o v e r t h e s e m a tter s#

L

J

96 r

i

Most p r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n in g t h e t e a c h e r who i s l e a v i n g th e s e r v i c e i n d i c a t e t h a t boards o f e d u c a t io n d e s i r e t o s e t p o l i c i e s w h ich are f a i r t o th e t e a c h e r .

Few o f t h e

s i g n i f i c a n t ground s f o r s u s p e n s io n or d i s m i s s a l can he c o n s i d e r e d u n f a i r to him .

In many c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r who

f a c e s d i s m i s s a l i s a s s u r e d an o p p o r t u n i t y to d e fe n d h im se lf,

t h e two im p o r ta n t r e g u l a t i o n s which a p p a r e n t l y

i n d i c a t e p o l i c i e s w h ich m ight he c o n s i d e r e d u n f a i r t o t h e t e a c h e r p erm it a hoard t o d i s c h a r g e a t e a c h e r a t an y t im e ana p r o v id e f o r t h e d i s m i s s a l o f a woman t e a c h e r who m a r r i e s . The r e g u l a t i o n s w hich ap p ear i n f r e q u e n t l y , how ever, v e r y o f t e n p r e s e n t a s gr o u n d s f o r d i s m i s s a l c o n d i t i o n s which a r e u n f a i r to th e t e a c h e r or w hich s h o u ld he th e d e c i s i o n s o f th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t .

Such r e g u l a t i o n s p r e s e n t

a s c a u s e f o r d i s m i s s a l union mem bership, l a c k o f prudence i n v e n t i l a t i o n , f a i l u r e to f o l l o w d a i l y p l a n s , in te m p e r a n c e , and t h e u se o f t o b a c c o on p r e m is e s .

I t d o e s n o t seem t h a t

any one o f t h e s e m a t t e r s i s so s e r i o u s in i t s e l f t h a t i t s h o u ld be l i s t e d i n board r e g u l a t i o n s a s a c a u s e f o r d ism issa l. The s i z e o f a c i t y a p p a r e n t l y makes l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r u l e s p rom u lg ated t o g o v e r n t h e t e a c h e r who i s le a v in g th e system .

L

In a few c a s e s , h ow ever, c e r t a i n

J

97 r

i

t y p e s o f r e g u l a t i o n s seem to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c i t i e s o f a p a r tic u la r s i z e .

Ihe m a jo r ity o f th e item s govern­

i n g s u s p e n s i o n and d e f i n i n g r e t i r e m e n t c o n d i t i o n s i s found in la r g e r c i t i e s .

Most c i t i e s w h ich p e r m it t h e board t o

d i s m i s s a t e a c h e r a t any tim e are i n th e s m a l l e r p o p u la tio n g ro u p s,

f h e p r o v i s i o n s w hich d i r e c t d i s m i s s a l

f o r c a u s e s w h ich may be c o n s i d e r e d u n f a i r t o t h e t e a c h e r a r e a l s o found i n t h e s m a l l e r c i t i e s ,

l a r g e r c i t i e s more

o f t e n d e s i g n a t e d e f i n i t e p e r s o n n e l t o recommend or app rove d i s m i s s a l and g u a r a n te e th e t e a c h e r a h e a r in g b e f o r e he i s d is c h a r g e d from t h e sy s te m . I t h a s been r e p e a t e d l y m en tio n e d i n t h i s s t u d y th a t a g r e a t number o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u ld be m a t t e r s f o r t h e d e c i s i o n or i n s t r u c t i o n s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r r a t h e r than p o l i c i e s o f t h e b oard,

f h e r u l e s c o n c e r n in g

t h e t e a c h e r l e a v i n g t h e s e r v i c e are o u t s t a n d in g b e c a u se so few o f them can be c o n s i d e r e d w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s . Only o c c a s i o n a l c a u s e s f o r d i s m i s s a l d e a l w it h m a t t e r s which s h o u ld be l e f t t o th e d i s c r e t i o n o f e x e c u t i v e o ffic e r s,

f y p i e a l a r e t h e p r o v i s i o n s w hich l i s t a s ground s

f o r d i s m i s s a l t h e l a c k o f prudence i n a t t e n d i n g t o v e n t i l a t i o n and th e f a i l u r e t o read the B i b l e .

I f th e

t e a c h e r sh o u ld be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a l l the r e g u l a t i o n s which app ear in r e g a r d t o l e a v i n g th e s e r v i c e he c o u ld

L

J

98 r

i

c h a r g e t h a t he was s u b j e c t t o u n f a i r t r e a t m e n t , b u t t h e m ajor theme o f t h e s e r u l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t b o a r d s d e s i r e to t r e a t te a c h e r s f a i r l y .

L

j

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CHAPTER V I

THE LIMITATION AND DIRECTION OE THE TEACHER'S CONDUCT A tte m p ts to l i m i t or d i r e c t th e c o n d u c t o f t e a c h e r s have been t h e s o u r c e o f many d i s c u s s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h academic fre ed o m .

R e g u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t b oards o f

e d u c a t i o n a r e e a g e r to l i m i t and d i r e c t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f th e t e a c h e r ' s l i f e b o th i n and out o f s c h o o l .

One

hundred f i f t y p r o v i s i o n s e x i s t w hich d e a l w ith t h e use o f s c h o o l tim e , g i f t s and g r a t u i t i e s ,

e x t r a employment,

a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and a g e n t s , c o l l e c t i o n s and s a l e s ,

so c ia l

c o n d u c t , o b e d ie n e e t o r e g u l a t i o n s , and t e a c h e r h e a l t h . USE OP SCHOOL TIME1 I t i s e v i d e n t from th e r e g u l a t i o n s on t h e u s e o f s c h o o l tim e t h a t s c h o o l boa rd s d e s i r e t o e l i m i n a t e a s much i n t e r r u p t i o n o f s c h o o l work a s p o s s i b l e .

The twenty-

two p r o v i s i o n s w hich r e g u l a t e t h e t e a c h e r ' s u s e o f s c h o o l tim e aim to i n s u r e t h e c o n t in u o u s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r i n s c h o o l work*

The t e a c h e r i s f o r b id d e n to

a l lo w t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n o f work by v i s i t o r s o r t o spend tim e on m a t t e r s w h ich a r e n o t d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e work o f t h e c l a s s .

The more f r e q u e n t r u l e s r e q u i r e t h e

1 A ppendix p . 321 L

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tea c h e r in e ig h t y - e ig h t c i t i e s to devote h im s e lf f a i t h ­ f u l l y and e x c l u s i v e l y t o s c h o o l d u t i e s ,

in f o r t y - n in e

c i t i e s to h ave p e r m is s io n to l e a v e s c h o o l b e f o r e th e c l o s e o f t h e s c h o o l day, and in t h i r t y - o n e c i t i e s t o r e f r a i n from d o in g c l e r i c a l work d u r in g s c h o o l hours*

In

t w e n t y - s e v e n c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r must have t h e s a n c t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p a l or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t b e f o r e he a l l o w s an o u t s i d e r to appear b e f o r e a c l a s s ,

and in t w e n t y - f o u r

c i t i e s he must r e q u e s t p a r e n t s to come f o r i n t e r v i e w s a fte r school hours.

The p r o v i s i o n w h ich p r o h i b i t s t h e

t e a c h e r from a l l o w i n g o u t s i d e r s to appear b e f o r e a c l a s s e x c e p t w i t h t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p a l or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t e l i m i n a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f th e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f propaganda and t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f p u p i l s by anyone o t h e r than a l i c e n s e d p e r s o n . The r e g u l a t i o n s which a p p ea r to o i n f r e q u e n t l y to be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t a r e i n many c a s e s d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n s to c a r r y o u t t h e more g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n t h a t th e t e a c h e r s h a l l d e v o t e h i m s e l f f a i t h f u l l y and e x c l u s i v e l y to sch ool d u t ie s .

Many o f t h e s e v i o l a t e t h e d e f i n i t i o n

o f r e g u l a t i o n s a s s t a t e m e n t s o f board p o l i c y .

T y p ic a l

r u l e s s p e c i f y i n tw e n ty -tw o c i t i e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r may n o t be v i s i t e d by f r i e n d s or t r a n s a c t p e r s o n a l b u s i n e s s d u r in g s c h o o l h o u r s and i n tw e n ty t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s may

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n o t v i s i t each o t h e r .

The t e a c h e r i s f o r b id d e n t o l e a v e

th e p l a c e o f d u ty i n e i g h t e e n c i t i e s or t o r e c e i v e v i s i t o r s e x e e p t w it h t h e p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s in seven teen c i t i e s .

S e v e n t e e n c i t i e s p r o h i b i t t h e p r o lo n g e d

i n t e r r u p t i o n o f work.

T h ir t e e n h o a rd s i n s i s t t h a t t h e

t e a c h e r perform h i s d u t i e s p r o m p tly .

Twelve com m u n ities

f o r b i d t h e t e a c h e r t o l e a v e h i s p l a c e o f d u ty d u r in g s c h o o l h o u rs e x c e p t i n c a s e o f em ergency or i l l n e s s . O ther i n f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s w h ich d i r e c t th e t e a c h e r t o r e f r a i n from any a c t i o n w h ich i s n o t i n t i m a t e ­ l y c o n n e c te d w i t h s c h o o l wor£ a r e v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g .

Twelve

*

c i t i e s s p e c i f y t h a t th e t e a c h e r may n o t be o c c u p ie d w i t h work n o t p e r t a i n i n g to s c h o o l , w h i l e se v e n and fou r r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r b i d him t o r ea d or t o s e c u r e s u p p l i e s d u r in g s e s s i o n s .

Ah u n u su a l r u l e p e r m it s t h e t e a c h e r s i n

f i v e c i t i e s t o be a b s e n t from s c h o o l a t noon o n l y i f i t i s a g r e e a b le t o t h e p r i n c i p a l or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t .

In one

c i t y t h e t e a c h e r i s rem inded t h a t f r e e p e r i o d s a r e to be u sed f o r t h e p r e p a r a tio n o f l e s s o n s and s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s . The o th e r r e g u l a t i o n s supplem ent t h o s e quoted above and a r e r e a l l y i n s t r u c t i o n s t o e n f o r c e and i n t e r p r e t t h o s e w hich a r e s i g n i f i c a n t .

The r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n in g th e

u s e o f s c h o o l tim e a r e n o t t y p i c a l o f any one p o p u l a t i o n group.

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©IfTS MD GBATUITIES2 Many b o a r d s o f e d u c a t io n r e a l i s e t h e em b a ra ssin g s i t u a t i o n s a r i s i n g from t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n or a c c e p t a n c e of g if ts .

P a r e n t s c h a r g e t h a t t e a c h e r s f a v o r th e c h i l d r e n

who b r i n g e x p e n s i v e p r e s e n t s ,

T e a ch er s r e s e n t c o l l e c t i o n s

fo r te s tim o n ia ls to su p e r v iso r s.

Only two o f th e e l e v e n

p r o v i s i o n s w h ich p e r t a i n t o g i f t s and g r a t u i t i e s ap p ea r o f t e n enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .

A ll the r u le s in d ic a te

a g e n e r a l p o l i c y f o r b i d d i n g th e t e a c h e r t o g i v e or r e c e iv e p resen ts.

The t e a c h e r may n o t a c c e p t g i f t s from

p u p i l s i n s e v e n t y - s e v e n c i t i e s or a llo w c o l l e c t i o n s f o r su ch i n t h i r t y c i t i e s #

D e v i a t i o n s from t h e s e s t r i n g e n t

r u l e s a r e n o t e d i n s i x t e e n c o m m u n ities w hich p erm it t e a c h e r s to a c c e p t g i f t s i f p e r m is s io n h a s been s e c u r e d and i n two w hich d i r e c t t h a t p r e s e n t s may be d e l i v e r e d to the t e a c h e r 's r e s id e n c e ,

©ne board a l l o w s t e a c h e r s to

a c c e p t c l a s s g i f t s o f n om in al v a l u e .

S i x t e e n and t w e lv e

r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r b i d t h e /teacher t o g i v e p r e s e n t s or p r iz e s to p u p ils ,

The aw ard in g o f p r i z e s i s a llo w e d i n

e ig h t c i t i e s i f p erm issio n i s o b ta in ed ,

The a p p r o v a l o f

a u t h o r i t i e s must be s e c u r e d t o g i v e a p r e s e n t t o a su p e r v iso r in n in e sy stem s.

T e a c h e r s a r e warned i n one

c i t y n o t t o a c c e p t g i f t s , , f r o m s u p e r v i s o r s and i n a n o th er \ rt

z A ppendix p . 323 l

j

n o t to ta k e g r a t u i t i e s f o r any work f o r w h ic h t h e y are p a id by th e board* EXTRA EMPIiOYMEHT3

B oards o f e d u c a t io n have a t w o - f o l d aim i n t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e o u t s i d e employment o f t h e t e a c h e r * They d e s i r e f i r s t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r be f r e e from any i m p l i c a t i o n o f u s i n g h i s p o s i t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l g a i n , and s e c o n d l y t h e y s e e k t o p r e v e n t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r i n any o u t - o f - s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s which m ight r e d u c e h i s e f f i c i e n c y i n s c h o o l*

The more f r e q u e n t

r e g u l a t i o n s p r e v e n t t h e t e a c h e r from e n g a g in g i n any work w h ich m ight s u b j e c t him t o th e a c c u s a t i o n t h a t he i s u sin g h is o f f i c i a l p o s it io n f o r p erson a l b e n e f i t .

They

f o r b i d t h e t e a c h e r i n t h i r t y - s i x c i t i e s t o t u t o r any p u p i l i n h i s own c l a s s ,

i n t w e n t y - s e v e n co m m u n ities to

t u t o r e x c e p t w i t h p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s ,

and i n

t w e n t y - s i x c i t i e s t o a c t a s an a g e n t i n th e s a l e o f s u p p l i e s to t h e b o a rd .

S i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s which

p r e v e n t t h e t e a c h e r from e n g a g in g in any a c t i v i t i e s t h a t m igh t im p a ir h i s e f f i c i e n c y s p e c i f y i n t w e n t y - s e v e n c i t i e s t h a t a t e a c h e r may n o t engage i n such employment and in t w e n t y - f i v e c i t i e s t h a t he may do so o n l y w it h the s a n c tio n o f a u t h o r i t i e s .

3

A p p e n d ix p .

324

104 r

i

I n f r e q u e n t r a l e s su pp lem en t and s u p p o r t th e s ig n if ic a n t ones.

In n i n e t e e n c i t i e s t h e te a c h e r i s

f o r b id d e n t o t u t o r any p u p i l i n h i s own c l a s s e x c e p t w it h th e p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s and i n f o u r t e e n c i t i e s he may n o t do any t u t o r i n g d u r in g th e s c h o o l term .

W h ile t h i r t e e n c i t i e s f o r b i d t u t o r i n g i n a s c h o o l

b u i l d i n g , s e v e n a l lo w i t i f a u t h o r i z a t i o n h a s been s e c u r e d . S even c i t i e s s p e c i f y t h a t th e t e a c h e r may n o t t u t o r d u r in g sc h o o l hours.

The t e a c h e r i s fo r b id d e n t o engage i n

o u t s i d e employment i n f i f t e e n c i t i e s ,

or to be employed

i n e x t r a s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s more than a s p e c i f i e d tim e each week i n e i g h t c i t i e s *

O nly two r u l e s a r e found

w h ich g i v e th e t e a c h e r d e f i n i t e p e r m is s io n t o engage i n e x t r a em ploym ent.

In two c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r i s a llo w e d

t o t u t o r p u p i l s from o t h e r s c h o o l s or to r en d e r community s e r v ic e w ith th e approval o f th e su p e rin te n d en t.

Only

one c i t y t h r e a t e n s t h e t e a c h e r w i t h a r e p r i s a l f o r f a i l u r e t o obey t h e r u l e s l i m i t i n g o u t - o f - s c h o o l em ploy­ m ent.

T h is c i t y warns t h a t v i o l a t i o n o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s

i s ground s f o r t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t e n u r e . ADVERTISEMENTS AND AGENTS4 B oards o f e d u c a t io n a r e e v i d e n t l y i n t e n s e l y d e s i r o u s

A p p e n d ix p . 3£5 L

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r

"i

to p r e v e n t t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f any a d v e r t i s i n g m a tte r i n p u b lic s c h o o ls .

Of t h e n i n e r e g u l a t i o n s which a f f e c t t h e

t e a c h e r * s r e l a t i o n w it h a d v e r t i s e r s and a g e n t s , s i x appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .

In 105 c i t i e s

t h e t e a c h e r may n o t i n t e r v i e w a g e n t s d u r in g s c h o o l h o u r s , and in e ig h t y - t w o t h e t e a c h e r may do so o n l y w ith t h e p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s .

S ev e n ty -n in e c i t i e s r eq u ire

th e t e a c h e r t o have t h e a p p r o v a l o f a u t h o r i t i e s b e f o r e c ir c u la t in g or d is p la y in g a d v e r tisem en ts.

S ix ty -fo u r

u n e q u i v o c a l l y f o r b i d t h e c i r c u l a t i o n or d i s p l a y o f a d v e r tis in g m a te r ia l.

T e a c h e r s in t h i r t y - e i g h t c i t i e s

a r e f o r b id d e n t o f u r n i s h names o f p u p i l s for com m ercia l p u r p o s e s , w h i l e t h o s e i n t w e n ty -o n e a r e a l lo w e d to f u r n i s h such l i s t s w i t h t h e p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s . In t w e n t y - s i x c i t i e s t e a c h e r s a r e f o r b id d e n t o a l l o w p h o to g r a p h e r s t o ta k e p i c t u r e s o f p u p i l s u n l e s s t h e a p p r o v a l o f a u t h o r i t i e s h a s b een g r a n t e d , w h i l e i n e le v e n c i t i e s t h e y a r e d e f i n i t e l y d i r e c t e d to p r o h i b i t th e p h o to g r a p h in g o f p u p i l s .

The o n l y e x c e p t i o n to t h e

g e n e r a l p o l i c y w hich p r o h i b i t s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a g e n t s a l l o w s t h e t e a c h e r t o c o n f e r w i t h th e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f l e g i t i m a t e booh com panies and s u p p ly h o u s e s i f s c h o o l work i s n o t i n t e r r u p t e d .

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COLLECTIONS AND SALES5 The r u l e s which r e g u l a t e c o l l e c t i o n s and s a l e s by t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e th a t t h e v a r i o u s b o a r d s w is h t o a v o id th e c h a r g e t h a t t e a c h e r s make u s e o f o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n to s e l l a r t i c l e s to p u p i l s .

In s e v e n t y - t h r e e c i t i e s

t e a c h e r s a r e f o r b i d d e n t o a llo w or t o make any c o l l e c t i o n from p u p i l s e x c e p t w it h t h e p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s , w h i l e i n f o r t y c i t i e s su ch c o l l e c t i o n s a r e d e f i n i t e l y p r o h ib ite d .

T h i r t y - s e v e n c i t i e s d i r e c t th e

t e a c h e r n o t to s e l l or c o l l e c t f o r t i c k e t s ,

su p p lie s,

or

hooks e x c e p t w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f - a u t h o r i t i e s , w h i l e n i n e t e e n c i t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r b i d him to c o n d u c t such s a l e s or c o l l e c t i o n s .

The o t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s , w h ich appear

i n f r e q u e n t l y , a tte m p t t o r e g u l a t e th e h a n d lin g o f p u p i l fu n d s.

In s e v e n c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d t o turn

o v e r a l l p u p i l f u n d s t o a d e s i g n a t e d o f f i c i a l and i n t h r e e c i t i e s to keep a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t o f such m o n ie s . Three c i t i e s d i r e c t him t o c o l l e c t f e e s f o r o n l y s p e c i f i c s c h o o l s u p p l i e s , and two c i t i e s r e q u i r e t h e p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s b e f o r e t h e t e a c h e r may spend p u p i l fun ds#

h A p p e n d ix p . 3 2 5

107

r

-i SOCIAL COSLUCf6 I t was m en tio n e d e a r l i e r t h a t a t t e m p t s to g o v e rn t h e

s o c i a l l i f e o f th e t e a c h e r have v e r y o f t e n been th e c a u s e o f e x te n d e d d i s c u s s i o n on academ ic fr e e d o m .

There a r e

t h i r t y - s e v e n p r o v i s i o n s w hich d i r e c t t h e s o c i a l c o n d u ct o f t h e t e a c h e r , but o n l y two o f t h e s e app ear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .

Most o f th e r u l e s aim to

mold t h e t e a c h e r * s s o c i a l l i f e l o c a l board o r community.

t o t h e s ta n d a r d s o f t h e

Few a r e g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s o f

p o l i c y and many i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e e n a c t e d to m eet lo c a l c o n d itio n s. S e v e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s a tte m p t t o b o l s t e r t h e m orale o f t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f by r e q u i r i n g t e a c h e r s t o be a m ia b le and c o o p e r a t i v e .

In t h i r t y - f o u r c i t i e s t e a c h e r s are

d i r e c t e d t o c o o p e r a t e , i n t w e l v e to be c o u r t e o u s to c o l l e a g u e s , and in s i x t o r e f r a i n from c r i t i c i s m o f one an oth er.

Three c i t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y e n j o i n t e a c h e r s t o

be l o y a l t o th e b o a r d .

The m ost s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n

w h ic h r e g u l a t e s t h e s o c i a l c o n d u ct o f th e t e a e h e r d ir e c t s in tw en ty -fo u r c i t i e s ,

t h a t th e t e a c h e r s h a l l

e x h i b i t c o n d u ct beyond r e p r o a c h .

R u le s w h ic h appear

i n f r e q u e n t l y but w h ich su p p lem en t t h i s p o l i c y s p e c i f y i n tw e n ty c i t i e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r * s co n d u ct s h o u ld be m o t iv a t e d by a p r o f e s s i o n a l s p i r i t and i n n i n e c i t i e s

6

A p p e n d ix p . 3 2 6

j

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r

1

t h a t t h e t e a c h e r he n e a t i n d r e s s and appearance* oth er r e g u la t io n s ,

The

a l l o f w h ich ap p ear t o o i n f r e q u e n t l y

to he s i g n i f i c a n t , a r e e i t h e r ite m s w h ich s h o u ld he l e f t t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f an e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r or m e r e ly a t t e m p t s t o s o l v e s t r i c t l y l o c a l p r o b le m s.

Many o f

t h e s e m ight e a s i l y be c o n s i d e r e d an i n f r in g e m e n t upon th e c i v i l l i b e r t i e s o f the te a c h e r .

Some o f th e

r e g u l a t i o n s w hich s h o u ld he th e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r d i r e c t i n tw e n ty c i t i e s t h a t the t e a c h e r s h a l l n o t u se to b a c c o about th e s c h o o l p r e m is e s and i n t h i r t e e n c i t i e s t h a t th e t e a c h e r must n o t i f y a u t h o r i t i e s o f h i s or her m a r r ia g e . th e t e a c h e r to r e f r a i n

E ig h t c i t i e s d i r e c t

from p l e a s u r e s t h a t w ou ld

i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e d i s c h a r g e o f s c h o o l d u t i e s , and se v e n i n s i s t t h a t he show c o u r t e s y to t h e p a tr o n s o f t h e s c h o o l and b e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s o c i a l and econom ic c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e community. f h e p r o v i s i o n s w hich a t te m p t to s o l v e s t r i c t l y l o c a l problem s a p p a r e n t l y aim t o p r o t e c t or a i d b u s i n e s s and o t h e r i n t e r e s t s i n t h e community.

In e l e v e n c i t i e s t h e

t e a c h e r i s r e q u ir e d to become a c q u a in te d w i t h th e r e l i g i o u s or e i v i l l i f e

o f th e community and i n n in e t o

r e f r a i n from a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l cam p aign s, f h e t e a c h e r i s warned by f o u r b o a r d s to a v o id any a c t i o n

L

J

w h ich m ight be i n t e r p r e t e d a s t a k i n g a d va n tage o f h i s p o s i t i o n to s o l i c i t from c i t i z e n s .

Three c i t i e s r e q u i r e

t e a c h e r s t o r e s i d e i n t h e c i t y w h i l e s c h o o l i s in s e s s i o n . Two c i t i e s a d v i s e t e a c h e r s t o a v o id e n ta n g le m e n ts w it h f i r m s i n t e r e s t e d in s c h o o l c o n t r a c t s .

F a c u l t y members

a r e d i r e c t e d t o spend w e e k -e n d s i n town i n one c i t y ,

to

s u p p o r t th e g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s o f t h e community i n a n o th e r , and t o r e f r a i n from c o o p e r a t i v e b u y in g i n a t h i r d .

Many

a u t h o r it ie s regard se v e r a l of th e r e g u la tio n s h e r eto fo re m en tio n e d a s i n f r i n g e m e n t s upon t h e p e r s o n a l l i b e r t i e s of th e te a c h e r .

O ther r e g u l a t i o n s r e s t r a i n t h e t e a c h e r

from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d v e r t i s i n g cam paigns i n e i g h t c i t i e s and from j o i n i n g a un ion i n one c i t y .

Several

r e g u l a t i o n s w hich app ear

t h r e e t i m e s or l e s s f o r b i d t h e

t e a c h e r to a t t e n d p u b l i c

g a t h e r i n g s u n l e s s t h e y are

approved by t h e p r i n c i p a l , to make s o c i a l engagem ents w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s , o r t o s p o n s o r or chaperon p u p i l p a r tie s. I n f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s aim t o a s s u r e t h e board o f t e a c h e r l o y a l t y and c o o p e r a t i o n .

In se v e n c i t i e s t h e

t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d to be c o u r t e o u s t o t h e p a t r o n s . Three c i t i e s each e n j o i n

th e teach ers to e x h ib it

e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t e r e s t in

t h e i r work

t h e b o ard .

and t o be l o y a l to

Two b o a r d s l i s t c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h th e p u b l i c

l i b r a r y a s a d u ty o f t h e t e a c h e r .

The f a c u l t y members

o f two c i t i e s m ost h ave th e p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s to p u b l i s h an a r t i c l e which c o n c e r n s t h e s c h o o l s .

Many o f

t h e p r o v i s i o n s whieh r e g u l a t e t h e s o c i a l co n d u ct o f t h e t e a c h e r a r e found in t h e s m a l l e r c i t i e s .

I t i s q u ite

i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e c i t i e s i n th e l a r g e s t and s m a l l e s t p o p u l a t i o n gro u p s have r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d in g s o c i a l c o n d u c t, w h i l e c o m p a r a t i v e ly few r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h i s s o r t a r e fou n d i n c i t i e s o f p o p u l a t i o n s r a n g in g betw een 2 0 ,0 0 0 and 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 .

I f th e te a c h e r i n any one s y s te m

had to com p ly w it h a l l t h e r u l e s on s o c i a l c o n d u c t, he w ould in d e e d have r e a s o n enough to c o m p la in t h a t h i s academ ic freedom was l i m i t e d .

I t i s im p o r ta n t t h a t o n l y

two o f t h e t h i r t y - s e v e n p r o v i s i o n s app ear o f t e n enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t . OBEDIEHGE SO HEGULATIOHS7 The fu n d am en tal p o l i c y o f th e p r o v i s i o n s w h ich r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r t o know and obey r e g u l a t i o n s i s w e l l e x p r e s s e d by t h e two m ost f r e q u e n t r u l e s .

T h ese s t a t e

t h a t th e t e a c h e r i n 1 3 0 co m m u n ities must be f a m i l i a r w it h r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s o f b o a r d s and, i n 108 c i t i e s , f o l l o w , r e s p e c t , and o b ey su ch r u l e s .

O ther p r o v i s i o n s a tte m p t

t o su p p lem en t and e n f o r c e t h e s e tw o .

7 A p p e n d ix

p.

328

In f i f t y - s e v e n

c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d t o e n f o r c e t h e r u l e s o f t h e b o a r d 5 and i n t h i r t y - f o u r to have a c o p y o f such r e g u la tio n s *

To r e tir e d

i n s u r e f a m i l i a r i t y w ith r u l e s t h e p r i n c i p a l i s

±B

e l e v e n c i t i e s t o r e v ie w them f o r t h e t e a c h e r ,

i n s i x c i t i e s t o n o t i f y him o f c h a n g e s , and i n one c i t y t o t e s t h i s knowledge o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s *

i’he t e a c h e r ’ s

o b e d ie n c e to r u l e s must be c h e c k e d b y th e p r i n c i p a l i n n in e c i t i e s .

O ther p r o v i s i o n s r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r t o

a c q u a in t h i m s e l f w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f th e s u p e r i n ­ t e n d e n t i n t h i r t e e n c i t i e s and to ob ey t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f th e board i n t e n c i t i e s . !Hw© p r o v i s i o n s w hich are w o r th y o f n o t e g r a n t t h e t e a c h e r t h e r i g h t t o make c l a s s r e g u l a t i o n s w it h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e p r i n c i p a l i n e i g h t c i t i e s and w i t h t h e c o n s e n t o f th e board i n sev en c i t i e s . Seven o t h e r c i t i e s r e q u i r e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h and o b e d ie n c e t o t h e s t a t e e d u c a tio n la w .

Many o f t h e s e r u l e s seem t o

be m a tter s fo r th e w r it t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e r s r a t h e r th a n p o l i c i e s o f a b o a r d . TEACHER HEALTH8 D u rin g r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has been a te n d e n c y f o r b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n to e x h i b i t c o n c er n f o r t h e h e a l t h o f

8 A p p e n d ix

p. 330

112

r

i

th e te a c h e r .

I n d u s t r i e s o f t h e c o u n t r y have d i s c o v e r e d

t h a t a h e a l t h y worker i s an e f f i c i e n t w orker and r e q u i r e p e r i o d i c a l h e a l t h e x a m in a t io n s .

L i f e in s u r a n c e com p anies

a d v o c a t e r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n s t o p r o lo n g l i f e . These movements have a f f e c t e d p u b l i c a g e n c i e s such a s hoards o f e d u c a tio n .

The r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o

teach er h e a lth f a l l in to th ree c a te g o r ie s , h e a lth r e q u ir e m e n t s , p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m e d ic a l c e r t i f i c a t e s , p r o te c tio n of tea ch er h e a lth .

and

In t h e s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s

t h e r e i s hu t one s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n .

That one

p r o v i s i o n d i r e c t s th e t e a c h e r i n t w e n t y - s e v e n c i t i e s to presen t a h e a lth c e r t i f i c a t e p e r io d ic a lly . Most o f th e h e a l t h r e q u ir e m e n t s a r e g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n s w h ich sh o u ld he i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e e x e c u t i v e i n c h a r g e o f t h e m e d ic a l d i v i s i o n o f t h e h o a r d . p r o v i s i o n o f one c i t y t h a t a t e a c h e r l i e

The

down t e n m in u te s

upon r e t u r n home from each s c h o o l s e s s i o n s h o u ld n o t h e in c lu d e d in r e g u la t io n s .

T h is r u l e i s an in f r in g e m e n t upon

t h e p e r s o n a l l i b e r t y o f th e t e a c h e r and c o u ld n o t p o s s i b l y he e n f o r c e d .

The o t h e r h e a l t h r e q u ir e m e n ts d i r e c t t h e

t e a c h e r i n e i g h t e e n c i t i e s to p r e s e n t e v id e n c e o f v a c c in a tio n ,

i n f o u r t e e n t o rem ain away from s c h o o l when

c o n t a g i o n e x i s t s i n h i s h o u s e h o ld , and i n e i g h t each t o keep p h y s i c a l l y f i t ,

L

to he f r e e from t u b e r c u l o s i s ,

and to

J

113

-i

r

rem ain away from s c h o o l i f he e x h i b i t s symptoms o f co n ta g io n .

The r e g u l a t i o n w h ich r e q u i r e s th e t e a c h e r to

Keep p h y s i c a l l y f i t seem s g e n e r a l enough t o i n c l u d e any o t h e r s i m i l a r it e m s , and r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o c o n t a g i o n sh o u ld be th e p r o v i s i o n s o f th e board o f h e a l t h r a t h e r than t h e board o f e d u c a t i o n .

In v ie w o f r e c e n t

c o n t r o v e r s i e s about m e n t a l l y u n f i t t e a c h e r s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g th a t th r ee c i t i e s d e f i n i t e l y d ir e c t the t e a e h e r t o k eep m e n t a l l y f i t . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n r e g a r d in g t e a c h e r h e a l t h r e q u i r e s th e t e a e h e r t o p r e s e n t a h e a l t h c e r t i f i c a t e p e r io d ic a l ly in tw en ty -sev en c i t i e s .

Several

o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s , w h ich appear t o o i n f r e q u e n t l y t o be sig n ific a n t,

r e q u ir e th e p r e s e n ta tio n o f a h e a lth

c e r t i f i c a t e under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s .

In s e v e n t e e n

c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r must su bm it a c e r t i f i c a t e b e f o r e r e t u r n from a b s e n c e due to q u a r a n t in e , in t w e lv e upon t h e r e q u e s t o f a s u p e r v i s o r or a m e d ic a l o f f i c e r ,

and i n e i g h t

i f th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t f e e l s t h e t e a c h e r * s p h y s i c a l or m e n ta l c o n d i t i o n i s su ch a s t o r en d e r him u n f i t f o r s e r v i c e . S i x b o a r d s r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r t o subm it m e d ic a l c e r t i f i c a t e s a t r e g u la r i n t e r v a l s d u rin g i l l n e s s ,

and

f o u r c i t i e s r e q u i r e su ch c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r a b se n c e beyond a s p e c i f i e d p e r io d o f tim e .

L

C e r t a i n e i t i e s d i r e c t th e

J

114 r

t e a c h e r t o appear f o r an e x a m in a tio n by th e b o a r d ’ s d octor fo r s p e c i f i c r e a so n s.

S i x c i t i e s r e q u i r e such

e x a m in a tio n d u r in g i l l n e s s and one c i t y upon a p p lic a tio n fo r d i s a b i l i t y r etirem en t.

The f a i l u r e o f

a t e a e h e r t o subm it t o a m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n i s deemed i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n i n two c i t i e s . The r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich c o n c e r n th e p r o t e c t i o n o f th e tea e h e r* s h e a lth in d ic a t e th ree p o l i c i e s .

Boards aim

t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e lv e s a g a i n s t c l a i m s due to a c c i d e n t s , t h e y d e s i r e t h e t e a e h e r be g i v e n i n f o r m a t io n f o r th e improvement o f h i s h e a l t h , and t h e y s p e c i f y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r ’ s h e a l t h be p r o t e c t e d by c e r t a i n p e r s o n n e l .

In

s i x t e e n c i t i e s a c c i d e n t s t o t e a c h e r s must b e r e p o r t e d t o a u t h o r i t i e s , and i n f i v e c i t i e s i t i s d i r e c t e d t h a t s t a t e c o m p e n sa tio n law s be o b s e r v e d in a l l a c c i d e n t s t o t e a c h e r s . Ten c i t i e s d i r e e t t h e m e d ic a l i n s p e c t o r

or th e n u r s e

t o i n s t r u c t t h e t e a c h e r s i n good h e a l t h p r a c t i c e s .

B u ie s

s p e c i f y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r ’ s h e a l t h s h a l l be p r o t e c t e d by th e sc h o o l nu rse in n in e c i t i e s , e ig h t c i t i e s ,

by t h e p r i n c i p a l i n

by t h e com m ittee o f th e b oard i n two c i t i e s ,

and by t h e d i r e c t o r o f h e a l t h e d u c a t io n

i n one c i t y .

In

a d d i t i o n th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i s d i r e c t e d

in s i x c i t i e s t o

i n s p e e t s c h o o l p l a n t s t o i n s u r e h e a l t h f u l w o rk in g c o n d itio n s.

L

W hile bu t one r e g u l a t i o n c o n c e r n in g t e a c h e r

J

115 r

1

h e a l t h ap p ea r s f r e q u e n t l y enough to he c o n s i d e r e d sig n ific a n t,

i t i s a p p a re n t from a s tu d y o f th e o t h e r

t h i r t y - o n e r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t h o a r d s o f e d u c a t io n a r e i n t e r e s t e d in k e e p in g t e a c h e r s h e a l t h y .

T h is g e n e r a l

p o l i c y c a n n o t h e a t t r i b u t e d to th e c i t i e s o f any p a r t i c u l a r p o p u la tio n group. SUMMARY I t i s e v i d e n t from th e numerous p r o v i s i o n s t h a t h o a r d s o f e d u c a t io n d e s i r e t o d i r e c t and l i m i t c e r t a i n p h a s e s o f th e t e a c h e r * s c o n d u c t .

T eachers* co n d u ct i s

d e f i n e d , d i r e c t e d , and l i m i t e d hy 150 r e g u l a t i o n s , t w e n t y - e i g h t o f w h ich appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o he co n sid er ed s i g n i f i c a n t .

S i x o f th e s i g n i f i c a n t

r e g u l a t i o n s d e a l w it h a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and a g e n t s , f i v e each w it h th e u s e o f s c h o o l tim e and e x t r a employment, and f o u r w i t h o b e d ie n c e t o r e g u l a t i o n s .

Three r u l e s

r e f e r t o c o l l e c t i o n s and s a l e s , two each to g i f t s and s o c i a l c o n d u c t, and ^ u st one t o t e a c h e r h e a l t h .

The

r u l e s w h ich appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o he c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t a r e n o t e d w i t h t h e i r f r e q u e n c y i n T able X.

L

J

116

r

T

TABLE

X

FREQUENCY OF SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS CONCEHNING TEACHER1S GOBLUGT LIMITATION AND DIRECTION REGULATIONS

FREQUENCY

I . U se o f S c h o o l Time 1 . T eacher s h a l l d e v o t e h i m s e l f f a i t h ­ f u l l y and e x c l u s i v e l y t o s c h o o l d u t i e s 2 . T eacher must have p e r m is s io n t o l e a v e b e f o r e c l o s e o f s c h o o l day 3 . T ea ch er may n o t do c l e r i c a l work d u r in g s c h o o l h o u r s 4 . T eacher may n o t a llo w o u t s i d e r s t o appear b e f o r e c l a s s e s e x c e p t by p e r ­ m i s s i o n o f P r i n c i p a l or S u p e r in t e n d e n t 5 . T e a ch er s h a l l r e q u e s t p a r e n t s t o come f o r in te r v ie w s a f t e r sc h o o l hours

88 49 31 27 24

I I . G ifts — G r a tu itie s 1 . T each er s h a l l n o t r e c e i v e g i f t s from p u p ils 2* T eacher s h a l l n o t a llo w c o l l e c t i o n s from c h i l d r e n f o r g i f t s

77 30

I I I * E x t r a Employment 1 . T eacher s h a l l n o t t u t o r any p u p i l i n own c l a s s 2* T eacher may n o t t u t o r e x c e p t w i t h p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s 3» Teacher may n o t engage i n o u t s i d e employment w h ich r e d u c e s e f f i c i e n c y as teach er 4 . T eacher may n o t a c t a s a g e n t i n t h e s a l e o f s u p p l ie s * e t c . t o th e Board 5 . T eacher may n o t en gage i n o u t s i d e employment e x c e p t w it h p e r m is s io n o f a u th o r itie s L

36 27 27 26 25 J

117

TABLE

X

( o o n t.)

FREQUENCY OF SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS CONCERNING TEACHER’ S GONDUCT LIMITATION AND DIRECTION REGULATIONS

FREQUENCY

IV* A d v e r t is e m e n t s - A g e n ts 1 . T each er may n o t i n t e r v i e w a g e n t s d u rin g s c h o o l h o u rs 2 . T each er may n o t i n t e r v i e w a g e n t s d u rin g s c h o o l h o u rs e x c e p t w i t h p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s 3 . T each er s h a l l n o t c i r c u l a t e or a l lo w d is p la y o f a d v ertisem en ts ex cep t w ith a p p r o v a l o f a u t h o r i t i e s 4* Teacher s h a l l n o t c i r c u l a t e or a l l o w d is p la y o f a d v e rtisem en ts 6 . T eacher s h a l l n o t f u r n i s h names o f p u p i l s f o r com m ercial p u r p o se s 6* Teacher s h a l l n o t a llo w p h o to g r a p h e r s to take p ic t u r e s o f p u p ils e x cep t w ith p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s

10 3 82 79 64 38 26

V. G o i l e c t i o n s and S a l e s 1* T each er s h a l l n o t a l lo w c o l l e c t i o n s from p u p i l s e x c e p t w i t h p e r m is s io n of a u th o r itie s 2 . T eacher s h a l l n o t a llo w c o l l e c t i o n s from p u p i l s 3* Teacher s h a l l n o t s e l l or c o l l e c t f o r t i c k e t s , s u p p l i e s , h ook s, e t c . e x c e p t w it h p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s

73 40 37

V I . S o c i a l Conduct 1 . T ea ch er s s h a l l c o o p e r a t e w ith each o th e r 2 . Teacher s h a l l e x h i b i t co n d u ct beyond reproach

34 24

V I I . Knowledge o f and O bed ien ce to R e g u l a t i o n s 1. 2.

Teacher s h a l l T each er s h a l l obey r u l e s 3* Teacher s h a l l 4. Teacher s h a l l l

be f a m i l i a r w i t h r u l e s f o l l o w , r e s p e c t , and en force r u le s have c o p y o f r u l e s

130 108 67 34 j

118

r

i TABLE X

(cont.)

FREQUENCY OF SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS CONCERNING TEACHER *S CONDUCT LIMITATION AND DIRECTION REGULATIONS

FR1QUENC Y

V I I I . T eacher H e a l t h 1 . T eacher must p r e s e n t a h e a l t h c e r tif ic a t e p e r io d ic a lly

L

27

J

119

i

r

0 OHGLUSIOUS S i x c o n o l u s i o n s may toe drawn from th e r e g u l a t i o n s w h ieh l i m i t and d i r e c t th e t e a c h e r 1s c o n d u c t.

B oards of

e d u c a t io n d e s i r e t e a c h e r s t o conform t o p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v io r a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e community.

Many r u l e s are

n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s or p r o h i b i t i o n s w h ieh s p e c i f y t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s d e n ie d t o t e a c h e r s .

S everal r eg u la tio n s

a r e a t t e m p t s to remedy l o e a l c o n d i t i o n s .

Many p r o v i s i o n s

m ight toe c o n s i d e r e d i n f r i n g e m e n t s on th e p e r s o n a l l i b e r t i e s of th e tea c h e r.

Large numbers o f th e r u l e s

a r e w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s r a t h e r than board p o l i c i e s . Few y u l e s a r e t y p i c a l o f c i t i e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r s i z e . The p a t t e r n s o f toehavior t o w h ieh co m m u n ities e x p e c t t h e i r t e a c h e r s t o conform v a r y , tout t h r e e main p o l i c i e s ar e n o t e d .

C i t i e s demand t h a t th e t e a c h e r m a in ta in

c e r t a i n sta n d a r d s o f h e a l t h . They e x p e c t him t o d e v o te h i s h o u r s in s c h o o l e x c l u s i v e l y t o th e i n s t r u c t i o n o f th e c h i l d r e n , and t h e y d e s i r e t h a t th e t e a c h e r ’ s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e p a t r o n s o f t h e s c h o o l and the members o f th e community toe su ch a s t o m a in t a in and i n c r e a s e th e p r e s t i g e * o f th e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . The p r o v i s i o n s w h ic h d i r e c t and l i m i t t h e co n d u ct o f th e t e a c h e r a r e to a g r e a t e x t e n t n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f them f o r b i d s or p r o h i b i t s a s p e c i f i c

L

J

120 r* ‘



ty p e o f t e a c h e r c o n d u c t .

"1

T y p ic a l o f th e s i g n i f i c a n t

p r o v i s i o n s w h ich a r e n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s a r e t h o s e t h a t f o r h i d t h e t e a c h e r to i n t e r v i e w a g e n t s d u r in g s c h o o l h o u r s , t o r e c e i v e g i f t s from p u p i l s ,

to c i r c u l a t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ,

or to a llo w c o l l e c t i o n s from p u p i l s . I V i l s and a b u se s i n l o c a l com m u n ities

u n d o u b ted ly,

c a u s e th e enactm ent o f many o f th e p r o v i s i o n s w hich d i r e c t tea c h e r con d u ct.

T y p ic a l r u l e s f o r b i d t e a c h e r s to r e a d

cr t o engage i n any work n o t p e r t a i n i n g to s c h o o l d u r in g s c h o o l s e s s i o n or t o be a b s e n t from s c h o o l a t noon e x c e p t w it h t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f th e p r i n c i p a l . Ilany e d u c a t o r s w ould c o n s i d e r c e r t a i n p r o v i s i o n s i n f r i n g e m e n t s on t h e p e r s o n a l l i b e r t i e s o f th e t e a c h e r . I t must be remembered, how ever,

t h a t w h i l e c e r t a i n p e o p le

i n s i s t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h o u ld have c o m p le te p e r s o n a l freed om , t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r p e o p le who f e e l t h a t th e community or i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on th e board o f e d u c a t i o n have t h e r i g h t to s t a t e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w hich t h e y d e s i r e i n t h e i r t e a c h e r s .

P e r s o n s who h o ld

t h e l a t t e r v ie w p r o b a b ly would n o t c o n s i d e r r e g u l a t i o n s w hich f o r b i d t e a c h e r s t o j o i n a u n io n , to l e a v e town f o r w e e k -e n d s , t o a t t e n d c e r t a i n t y p e s o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ,

or

t o l e a v e s c h o o l a t noon a s in f r in g e m e n t s upon t h e t e a c h e r ’ s personal l i b e r t i e s .

The more l i b e r a l s c h o o l o f th o u g h t,

how ever, would c o n s i d e r a l l o f t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s and t h o s e L

j

121

r

"i

w h ieh r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r to p a t r o n i z e l o e a l m erch an ts or t o r e f r a i n from c o o p e r a t i v e b u y in g a s i n f r in g e m e n t s upon th e t e a c h e r 's p erso n a l l i b e r t i e s * The g r e a t e r number o f th e 150 r u l e s w h ich a f f e c t t e a c h e r co n d u ct em braces m a t e r i a l w hich s h o u ld be d e c i s i o n s or w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s r a t h e r than s t a t e m e n t s o f board p o l i c i e s *

The

f a c t t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d s o f con d u ct w hich b oard s aim to m a in t a in c o u l d be summarized i n t h e t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s m en tio n ed e a r l i e r i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t m ost o f th e r e g u l a t i o n s do n o t s t a t e fu n d am en tal p o l i c i e s *

A ty p ic a l

exam ple i s w o r th y o f n o t e a t t h i s tim e a lth o u g h i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s w ere p o in t e d o u t a s ea ch ph ase o f t e a c h e r c o n d u c t was c o n s i d e r e d .

The m ost f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n i n r e g a r d

to t h e use o f s c h o o l tim e s t a t e s what can b e c o n s i d e r e d a board p o l i c y , n am ely, t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h a l l d e v o t e h i m s e l f f a i t h f u l l y and e x c l u s i v e l y to s c h o o l d u t i e s *

There

a r e , how ever, t w e n t y - o n e it e m s w h ich i n d i c a t e v a r i o u s ways i n w hich t h e t e a c h e r i s to a c t d u r in g s c h o o l h o u r s . There a r e o n l y two p h a se s o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r co n d u ct i n w h ich t h e p r o v i s i o n s a r e t y p i c a l o f c i t i e s o f a p a r tic u la r s i z e .

R e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e e x t r a

employment o f t e a c h e r s a r e more p o p u la r i n l a r g e r c i t i e s , and t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y t o r e g u l a t e t h e s o c i a l condu ct o f t e a c h e r s in c i t i e s

L

o f 1 0 ,0 0 0 t o 2 0 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n and j

122 r above 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 *

n I f any one c i t y had a l l t h e p r o v i s i o n s

which l i m i t and d i r e c t t h e c o n d u c t, a t e a c h e r i n t h a t c i t y would h ave t o e x e r c i s e v e r y g r e a t c a r e t o a v o i d o f f i c i a l censure,

f h e f e e l i n g w h ich t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r

h a s a f t e r a s t u d y o f t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s i s , how ever, th a t m ost o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s w h ich g o v e r n th e con d u ct o f t h e t e a c h e r a r e e n a c te d t o c o u n t e r a c t a b u s e s w hich a r i s e from tim e to tim e*

L

j

123 r

~i CHAPTER

V II

‘TEE TEACHER'S RELATIONSHIP TO PUPIL PERSONNEL E d ucation by i t s contacts. depends

very nature

The s u c c e s s

on h i s

connotes

or f a i l u r e

a b ility

of a t e a c h e r

to m a in ta in

p u p ils.

v isio n s

tea ch er’s p o sitio n

the

the

d iscip lin e,

and t h e

d ir e c t U is co op eration p u p il.

Two h u n d r e d e i g h t y - t ^ r o

guidance

in

t h e m anagem ent,

fo r th e w elfare

The p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d u n d e r

a sso cia tio n s.

It

is

under s e p a r a te

ca teg o ries

d iffic u lt

because

on t h e m a n a g e m e n t ,

p u p il.

T his f a c t is

of the

each of

to c o n s id e r

The t e a c h e r is

at

are

a n y one tim e

regu lated

d iscip lin e,

m ust b e k e p t

them

the r e la t io n s h ip s

m ay b e p e r f o r m i n g a f u n c t i o n w h i c h v isio n s

and

on m an y t e a c h e r - p u p i l

rea lly

freq u en tly very in tim a te.

pro­

of p u p il p erson n el,

w ith p aren ts

t h e s e main h e a d i n g s t o u c h

ru les

often

h e a l t h y happy

r e l a t i o n s w ith h i s d efin e

tea ch er-p u p il

by p r o ­

or g u id a n c e

of

i n m ind a s e a c h g r o u p

the of

co n sid ered .

MAHAS3MEH T1 The t e a c h e r

is

assign ed

o f p u p i l management,

fu n ctio n s

p ro v isio n s

d irect

in

se v e r a l phases

h im t o

take

an

1 A p p e n d ix p . 332 J

a ctiv e

part

in th e

anfl p r o m o t i o n ch ild ren and t o

in

of p u p ils.

the

th eir

for

and t h e

of

use

pu pil

h a lls,

in d iv id u a l

and a t c l a s s

h an d lin g

concerning

the

appear to

These m a tte r s

a d m in istra tio n

in

regard to

in

seventeen

on a s s i g n m e n t

is

that

d irected

a ssist

in

cities

to

m onth,

and i n

the

ad m ission

adm it f i r s t

tran sfers

three

or b ir th

cities.

the

or

in

to

in

four c i t i e s in

adm it p u p i l s Most

to

cities

two

o n ly d u rin g the

certifica tes. ad m ission

cities

seven

o f new a p p l i c a n t s ,

cities

these

the tea ch er

in ten

p rin cip a l,

grade p u p ils

other

con cernin g th e sm a ller

to

of

in d iv id u a l

p rin cip a l

t h e new p u p i l t o b e v a c c i n a t e d ,

to

the

cities

by th e

The t e a c h e r

r e f e r new a p p l i c a n t s

in

be th e f u n c t io n s

The m o s t f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n

to

la tio n s

to be c o n s id e r e d

the

sp ecifies

rather

tran sfer

of

su p erin ten d en t.

w ith

o f d ism issa ls,

than

accept p u p ils

req u ire

rou tin e

ad m ission or

sig n ifica n t.

d u ties

h eld

accid en ts,

su p erv isio n

enough

teach er.

recess

He i s

a ctiv ities,

of p u p ils occurs freq u en tly

school

su p ervise

of p u p il m essengers.

No r e g u l a t i o n

the

to

recesses.

a ssem b lies,

pu pil v a lu a b le s ,

cla ssifica tio n ,

expected

ex tra -cu rricu la r

school m atters, p rotection

tran sfer,

He i s

playgrounds,

regu late

resp o n sib le

ad m ission ,

on ly

o f the

o f new p u p i l s

first

are

regu­ found

The m o s t f r e q u e n t of

p u p ils

req u ire

the

necessary cred en tia ls cities to

to

issu e

report

m issio n

and i n

o f the

a lso

of

to

o n ly w ith

tw o c i t i e s

req u ires

in th e

the in

the g ra d e. a ssist

in

fa ilu res

the to

ex cessiv e d irects resid en t

in

the

fiv e

four c i t i e s

of

the

o n ly w ith

the

to

per­

in v estig a te

these

of

p u p ils

the

regu lation s

are

expected

and i n

of

the

fiv e

fo llo w

in ten

and t o

cities

report

to

them t o

t e a c h e r m ust have th e

In

recommend

teacher

to

a ssist to

to

to rep ort

prob ab le

sp ecified

an d t t i r e e

su p erio rs.

of

t o do t h e w o r k o f

eigh t

h is

to

cities

p u p ils, to

theory.

th irty -o n e

p u p ils unable req u ire

the

statem ents

current

th irty -th ree

cities

to

concern are

prom otion o f p u p i l s ,

teacher

the

teach er

p u p ils,

the p r in c ip a l,

p u p ils

cities

in

of

prom otion

retard ation

the

send

An u n u s u a l p r o v i s i o n ,

teacher i s

of

dem otion

the

do s o

accord w ith

o f p u p ils,

Seventeen

standards for

six

the

the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n

recommend t h e

in

p erm ission

p t o t i s i o h s w hich

he in

cities

prom otion

to

of a p u p il,

Most o f

a nd p r o m o t i o n

p o l i c y and seem t o eig h ty -sev en

cities

sm a ller c i t i e s .

Th e m o s t f r e q u e n t cla ssifica tio n

ten

the to

the

p u p il w ith d raw al.

found

regardin g th e tr a n s f e r

a p u p i l ’ s new s c h o o l ,

su p erin ten d en t.

ap p earin g tw ic e , cause

teacher in

the w ith d raw al

a tran sfer

p rin cip a l,

p ro v isio n s

to

report

One r e g u l a t i o n

search fo r

non­

a u th o rities. p erm ission

In

o f the

126 n

“i

su p erin ten d en t

to

p r o m o t e o r d e m o t e p u p i l s , an d tv?o

cities

fo rb id

term .

T h ese seem to be t h e

recogn ize

the

that

teacher

prom otion

to

prom ote p u p i l s

o n ly p r o v i s i o n s w hich

o f p u p ils

is

a fu n ction

a d m in istra to r.

An u n i q u e r u l e h o l d s t h e

resp o n sib le

errors

for

for

p rom otion .

in

Most o f

i n f r e q u e n t l y are found It w ill boards

of

be n oted

ed u cation

w hich a f f e c t reason

a g a in st

grounds,

is

tim es

to

too

su pplem ent

in

and a s

in

far

to

so lv e

b u ild in g

L_

the

su p erv isio n

and o r d e r i n g

the

recess

ch ild ren

su p erv isio n is

to guard

session

in h a llw a y s

in

on t h e w a y t o

R e g u la tio n s w hich

be co n sid ered regu lation s

lo ca l

on t h e p l a y ­

and a f t e r

as p o s s ib le

sig n ific a n t and i n d i c a t e

problem s.

r e g u l a t i o n s w hich m ight be m en tio n ed in d ire ctin g

on m a t t e r s

the

126 c i t i e s ,

eig h ty c i t i e s .

t h e more f r e q u e n t

study th at

board m ight be l i a b l e .

a nd y a r d b e f o r e

in f r e q u e n t ly to

attem pts

th is

U n d o u b te d ly one

an d a t

su p erv ise

d u ring r e c e s s

and from s c h o o l

are

fo r w hich the

cities,

in

d eal w ith

h a lls,

appear

cities.

to have r e g u la t io n s

s c h o o l grounds,

eigh ty-fou r

they

sm a llest

at variou s

d irected

150 c i t i e s ,

appear

the

p laygrou n d s,

accid en ts

T he t e a c h e r

in

in

th e boards f i n a n c i a l l y .

in

o f an

teacher

th e r e g u l a t i o n s w hich

tend

do n o t

recom mending u n p rep a red p u p i l s

f o r many p r o v i s i o n s w h ic h

o f p u p ils

du rin g the

rea lly that

Among t h e

p assin g are r u le s

of p u p ils

en terin g

ad m ission

of p u p ils

the to

school the h a lls

J

for

sh elter

and t w e l v e appears a ll

d u rin g

in clem en t w eath er.

tim es r e s p e c t i v e ly .

six teen

ch ild ren

tim es

d irects

p a s s from t h e

u n iv ersa lity

of

of

p laygrounds

p u p ils

the

in

the

ru les

frequency o f th ese

d istrib u tio n

the

such

teacher

and h a l l s

of a l l

is

the

su p erv ision

in d ica ted

to

the

the

The m o s t f r e q u e n t cities

to

p erm it

necessary.

in

The t e a c h e r

to

freq u en tly . than

tim e,

and

number o f

to

in

of th ese

d ecision s

teacher

lea v e

of

in

six teen

in

six c itie s

the

ru les

lea v e

may p e r m it of it

the

in

to fiv e

the

room allo w

room a t

one

o n ly a lim it e d

t h e room a t is

not

p r i v i l e g e , an d

t h e t e a c h e r m ay n o t

out

system .

t h e r oo m when

who a b u s e s

sex to

of

the

or s c h o o l

c h i l d r e n who l e a v e

each

be

the g r a n tin g

room p r o m i s c u o u s l y ,

two o t h e r s h e

p u p ils to

be th e

of

the

d irected

ch ild

report

one p u p i l

to

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a ctiv ities

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teacher

t h e more f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s .

o f an a c c i d e n t w h e n p u p i l s

o t h e r than

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coach team s

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fo rb id p u p il p a r tic ip a tio n

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for to

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a fte r -s c h o o l d u ties,

ap p ro p ria tely .

on t h e s e m a t t e r s b e t r a y s

req u ire

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sh ould

o f board

J

members a s t o th e f u n c t i o n o f r e g u l a t i o n s or i n d i c a t e s t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to assume t h e i r r e sp o n s ib ilitie s .

She two p r o v i s i o n s which d i r e c t

t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p u p i l a s s e m b l i e s appear bu t f i v e and two t i m e s and, t h e r e f o r e ,

are o f l i t t l e

im portance#

One s p e c i f i e s t h e t e a c h e r s h a l l be r e s p o n s i b l e fo r h i s c l a s s d u r in g a s s e m b l i e s and t h e o th e r t h a t t e a c h e r s s h a l l a t t e n d commencement e x e r c i s e s . In c a s e o f an a c c i d e n t t o a p u p i l a few b o a rd s o f e d u c a t io n seem to be i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n two i t e m s , th e r e n d e r i n g o f f i r s t a i d and th e s u b m is s io n o f r e p o r t s to be used a s e v i d e n c e i n e a s e o f l i t i g a t i o n .

In e le v e n

c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d to r e n d e r f i r s t a i d to In ju red p u p ils ,

in t h r e e c i t i e s to c a l l a p h y s i c i a n to

r e n d e r f i r s t a i d , and i n two c i t i e s to r e f e r i n j u r e d p u p ils to the sc h o o l n u r se .

Ten

c i t i e s r e q u i r e th e

t e a c h e r t o make a w r i t t e n r e p o r t o f any a c c i d e n t and one community i n s i s t s t h a t he r e f r a i n from r e n d e r in g an o p i n io n c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r an a c c i d e n t . f h e m ost f r e q u e n t o f t h e s i x p r o v i s i o n s w h ich aim to prevent th e l o s s o f v a lu a b le s in sc h o o l fo r b id s th e t e a c h e r to l e a v e v a l u a b l e s i n u n lo ck ed d e s k s .

In f i v e

c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d to l o c k v a l u a b l e s i n a d e sk drawer d u r in g t h e day and t o p ot them i n t o th e o f f ic e sa fe at n ig h t.

In two c i t i e s he i s h e l d

131

“I

r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u p i l v a l u a b l e s l e f t in h i s c a r e , and i n one c i t y h e i s f o r b i d d e n t o a l l o w p u p i l s t o l e a v e personal p ro p erty in school b u ild in g s.

The t e a c h e r i s

a c c o u n t a b l e i n one c i t y f o r a n y s c h o o l money w h ic h h e le a v e s in the b u ild in g .

T h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s m i g h t w e l l be

th e i n s t r u c t i o n s of th e p r i n c i p a l or th e s u p e r i n te n d e n t . Both t h e i n f r e q u e n c y and t h e n a t u r e o f r u l e s w h i c h d e a l w ith r o u t i n e school m a tte r s ,

p u p il assem blies,

accidents,

and t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f v a l u a b l e s i n d i c a t e t h a t m ost b o a r d s do n o t f e e l t h e n e e d o f s u c h i t e m s i n t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n s . S a f e t y i s u n d o u b t e d l y t h e aim o f m o st p r o v i s i o n s w hich p e r t a i n t o t h e d i s m i s s a l o f p u p i l s o r t h e i r u s e a s m essengers.

The m a j o r i t y of t h e r u l e s w h ic h d i r e c t t h e

t e a c h e r in th e s u p e r v i s i o n of d i s m i s s a l s d is c o u r a g e or p r o h i b i t the i r r e g u l a r d i s m is s a l of a c l a s s or i n d i v i d u a l p u p il.

The m ost f r e q u e n t i t e m o c c u r s f o r t y - t w o t i m e s .

T h i s p r o h i b i t s t h e d i s m i s s a l o f a c l a s s a t an i r r e g u l a r t i m e e x c e p t w i t h t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or prin cip al.

O ther s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s f o r b id the d is m is s a l

o f a p u p i l a t an i r r e g u l a r t i m e e x c e p t upon t h e r e q u e s t o f a p a r e n t in t h i r t y - o n e c i t i e s ,

or because of i l l n e s s

or emergency i n t w e n t y - f i v e c i t i e s ,

or o n ly w ith the con­

s e n t o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l i n t w e n t y - t h r e e c itie s.

F ourteen p ro v isio n s f o r b id the te a c h e r to d i s ­

m i s s a c l a s s a t i r r e g u l a r t i m e s e x c e p t i n an e m e rg en c y J

and e l e v e n e x c e p t upon n o t i f i c a t i o n su p e rin te n d en t•

to t h e p r i n c i p a l or

Twenty-one h o a r d s i n s i s t t h a t p u p i l s

have the s p e c i f i c p e r m i s s i o n o f th e t e a c h e r t o l e a v e th e s c h o o l g ro u n d s, and s i x warn t h e t e a c h e r t o he s a t i s f i e d w it h a n a d u l t * s

a u th o r ity

b efo re a llo w in g a c h ild to

l e a v e th e s c h o o l w i t h t h a t p e r s o n .

Four c i t i e s empower th e

t e a c h e r to deny a r e q u e s t f o r e a r l y d i s m i s s a l *

The o t h e r

r e g u l a t i o n s w h ic h appear i n f r e q u e n t l y aim to i n s u r e o r d e r l y d ism issa ls• S e v e r a l r u l e s l i m i t t h e u s e o f p u p i l m esse n g e rs* W h ile t h e t e a c h e r must have t h e p e r m is s io n o f t h e s u p e r i n ­ t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l to send a p u p i l on an e rra n d i n f o r t y four c i t i e s ,

urgent s c h o o l b u s in e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d a

j u s t i f i a b l e r e a s o n f o r u s i n g p u p i l s a s m e s se n g e r s in f o r ty -fo u r oth er c i t i e s *

The t e a c h e r i s d e f i n i t e l y f o r ­

b id d e n , however, t o sen d p u p i l s on any e r r a n d s i n s i x t e e n c itie s ,

to send p u p i l s to l o o k f o r a b s e n t e e s in two c i t i e s ,

or t o se n d them o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l grounds e x c e p t i n c a s e o f s i c k n e s s i n two c i t i e s *

The c o n s e n t o f t h e p a r e n t s i s

r e q u ir e d b e f o r e a t e a c h e r may sen d a p u p i l on an errand i n th ree c i t i e s .

The r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e g a r d to d i s m i s s a l and

th e u s e o f p u p i l m e s s e n g e r s im p ly t h a t b o a r d s o f e d u c a t io n a r e a n x io u s t o h ave p u p i l s f o l l o w a r e g u l a r s c h o o l program so t h a t th e board may n o t be i n v o l v e d i n l i t i g a t i o n i n e a s e o f an a c c i d e n t t o a p u p i l who i s n o t engaged i n r e g u la r s c h o o l w ork.

Most o f t h e r u l e s r e g a r d i n g th e

d i s m i s s a l o f p u p i l s a r e foun d in c i t i e s below 5 0 ,0 0 0 in p o p u la tio n .

The p r o v i s i o n s w hich p e r t a i n to th e manage­

ment o f p u p i l p e r s o n n e l i n d i c a t e hut few g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s . The in f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t e a c h e r management i n d i c a t e s t h a t most h o a r d s a p p a r e n t ly do n o t h e l i e v e t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s a r e n e e d e d on t h i s m a t t e r . DISCIPLINE2 D i s c i p l i n e i s a s u b j e c t much d i s c u s s e d a t a l l edu­ c a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s , and many t h e o r i e s and a t t i t u d e s e x i s t a s t o what c o n s t i t u t e s p ro p e r d i s c i p l i n e in s c h o o l situ a tio n s.

S c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t boa rd s ten d

t o t a k e a m id d le c o u r s e betw een th e s t e r n d i s c i p l i n e reeom mended by some and t h e f r e e d i s c i p l i n e a d v o c a te d by o t h e r s R e g u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e th e s ta n d a r d s o f d i s c i p l i n e w hich ^boards o f e d u c a t io n e x p e c t , t h e t y p e s o f d i s c i p l i n e which t h e y p r o h i b i t , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s on c o r p o r a l p u n ish m en t, d e ten tio n ,

e x c lu s io n ,

p r iv ile g e s,

su sp en sio n , d e p r iv in g p u p ils of

and a p p e a ls t o h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y .

Of'^the s i x t e e n p r o v i s i o n s which i n d i c a t e t h e d i s c i p l i n e w h ich b o a r d s o f e d u c a t io n d e s i r e t o have main­ ta in e d ,

s i x appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d

sig n ific a n t.

The most f r e q u e n t , w hich a p p ea rs 126 t i m e s ,

i s th e v e r y g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t t h a t th e t e a c h e r s h a l l m a in t a in d i s c i p l i n e .

2

A p p e n d ix p .

339

The o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s

134

r

n s p e c i f y i n 111 c i t i e s

t h a t th e t e a c h e r i s e n t i t l e d to th e

o b e d i e n c e and r e s p e c t o f p u p i l s ,

in f o r ty - f iv e c i t i e s

t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h a l l m a i n t a i n su ch d i s c i p l i n e a s w o u ld he e x e r c i s e d h y a k i n d and j u d i c i o u s p a r e n t ,

and i n .

f o r t y c i t i e s t h a t the te a c h e r s h a l l m a in ta in d i s c i p l i n e hy r e a s o n a b l e a n d p r o p e r m e a n s .

T h irty -n in e c i t i e s d ire c t

t h e t e a c h e r t o a c q u a i n t p u p i l s w i t h t h e r u l e s hy w h ic h t h e y a r e g o v e r n e d , a n d t h e same number r e q u i r e t e a c h e r s to govern p u p i l s ,

a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e , hy k i n d n e s s .

The

t e a c h e r m ust e x e r c i s e g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r p u p i l s a c ­ c o r d i n g t o t h e o n l y o t h e r p r o v i s i o n w h ich a p p e a r s more than tw ic e .

T his i s found e ig h te e n tim e s .

Most o t h e r

r e g u l a t i o n s , w h i c h a p p e a r h u t once o r t w i c e , d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r to p r o h i b i t or p u n ish c e r t a i n t y p e s of b e h a v i o r s u c h a s c h e w i n g , u s e o f t o b a c c o , and p o s s e s s i o n o f d a ngero us weapons.

I t i s r a th e r s u r p r is in g t h a t the ru le

whi ch r e q u i r e s t h e t e a c h e r t o t r a i n p u p i l s t o w a r d s e l f government a p p e a rs h u t tw ic e s i n c e c o n s i d e r a b l e em phasis h a s b e e n p l a c e d on s u c h t r a i n i n g i n r e c e n t y e a r s .

Another

no tew orthy r e g u l a ti o n c o n s id e rs the te a c h e r incom petent i f he c a n n o t m a i n t a i n d i s c i p l i n e .

The more f r e q u e n t r e g u ­

l a t i o n s on s t a n d a r d s o f d i s c i p l i n e

sta te p o licies,

but

t h o s e r u l e s w hic h a p p e a r b u t once o r t w i c e a p p a r e n t l y e x i s t to so lv e l o c a l problem s.

J

135

I

~!

B oards of e d u c a tio n p r o h i b i t th e use o f c e r t a i n ty p e s o f d i s c i p l i n e . So many r e g u l a t i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t a nd d e t e n t i o n t h a t t h e y must b e g i v e n sp ecial consid eratio n .

Several very g e n eral p ro h ib itio n s

on t h e t y p e o f d i s c i p l i n e a r e f o u n d .

The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t

r u l e , which a p p e a rs tw e n ty -s e v e n tim e s ,

does n o t allow t h e

t e a c h e r to u s e i n d i s c r e e t o r s e v e r e m e t h o d s o f d i s c i p l i n e , l e s s f r e q u e n t p r o v is io n s f o r b i d th e t e a c h e r in tw enty-one c i t i e s t o u se a b u s i v e l a n g u a g e t o a c h i l d o r p a r e n t , t h i r t e e n c i t i e s to use i r o n y o r sc arc asm ,

in

and i n t w e l v e

c i t i e s to r e p r o v e a c h i l d w h ile the t e a c h e r i s u n d er th e in flu e n ce of anger.

E leven boards d i r e c t th e t e a c h e r n o t

t o g i v e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f undue h a s t e i n m a t t e r s o f d iscip lin e,

seven n o t to d e g ra d e a c h i l d by punishm ent,

s i x n o t t o l o w e r a c a d e m ic g r a d e s a s a p u n i s h m e n t ,

and f o u r

t o r e f r a i n fr om r e q u i r i n g p u p i l m o n i t o r s t o c h e c k t h e b e h av io r of o t h e r s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t i s much d e ­ bated.

School boards i n d i c a t e t h a t th e y s u b s c r i b e to

d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s on t h i s q u e s t i o n , b u t t h e g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y seems t o be t o f o r b i d or d i s c o u r a g e i t .

Boards

s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o h i b i t t h e t e a c h e r i n f i f t y c i t i e s fro m i n f l i c t i n g c o rp o r a l punishm ent, punishm ent fem ale p u p i l s , in g p u p ils .

i n f o u r c i t i e s f r o m so

and i n two c i t i e s f r o m t h r e a t e n ­

O t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s l i m i t o r d i s c o u r a g e t h e u se

136

r

n o f c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t by m a k i n g i t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e t e a c h e r to have w i t n e s s e s or th e p e r m i s s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s . I n 103 c i t i e s

t h e t e a c h e r may i n f l i c t c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t

in extreme c a s e s o n ly ,

in se v en ty -n in e a p r i n c i p a l or

a n o t h e r t e a c h e r m ust be p r e s e n t ,

in s e v e n ty - s e v e n such

p u n i s h m e n t must b e r e p o r t e d t o t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or prin cip al,

and i n s e v e n t y t h e t e a c h e r m ust o b t a i n t h e

consent of th e p r in c ip a l in advance.

The u s e o f t h i s

type of d i s c i p l i n e in th e p resen c e of o th e r p u p ils i s fo rb id d en in s ix ty - o n e c i t i e s , q u i r e d t o k e ep a r e c o r d o f i t F ourteen boards i n s i s t th a t of the parent,

and t h e t e a c h e r i s r e ­ in tw enty-tw o c i t i e s .

the t e a c h e r have the c o n se n t

f i v e t h a t th e t e a c h e r a d m i n i s t e r such

p u n i s h m e n t o n l y i n t h e a b s e n c e o f known p a r e n t a l o b j e c t i o n , and f i v e o t h e r s t h a t he r e p o r t such punishm ent to th e parent.

F o r t y - t h r e e c i t i e s g r a n t the te a c h e r perm ission

to a d m i n i s t e r c o r p o r a l punishm ent, but s t a t e t h a t t h i s does not in c l u d e j e r k i n g , which a r e f o r b i d d e n .

p in ch in g , pushing,

or s la p p in g

The p r o v i s i o n s on c o r p o r a l p u n i s h ­

ment a r e n o t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c

of c i t i e s of any p a r t i c u l a r

size. D e t e n t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d b y b o a r d s of e d u c a t i o n a s l e g i t i m a t e p u n i s h m e n t , b u t r u l e s e x i s t to p r e v e n t t h e abuse o f t h i s m ethod.

The b o a r d s o f 131 c i t i e s p e r m i t

th e te a c h e r to d e t a i n the p u p i l a f t e r th e a f te r n o o n s e s s i o n f o r a s p e c i f i e d tim e only, w h ile s ix ty - tw o t—

J

137

r

n

f o r b i d th e d e t e n t i o n o f p u p i l s a t noon r e c e s s .

The o t h e r

t e n r e g u l a t i o n s appear to o i n f r e q u e n t l y t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t , bu t m ost o f them supplem ent th e g e n e r a l p o l i c y s e t down i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s .

I t i s n ote­

w o r th y t h a t two p r o v i s i o n s t a k e e x c e p t i o n to t h e r u l e which f o r b i d s d e t e n t i o n a t noon r e c e s s .

S ix teen c i t i e s

p e r m it t h e d e t e n t i o n o f p u p i l s a t noon f o r a s p e c i f i e d t im e , b u t one c i t y r e q u i r e s t h e p e r m is s io n o f th e p r in c ip a l fo r t h i s . O ther in f r e q u e n t r u l e s bar or d i s c o u r a g e t h e d e ten tio n o f p u p ils .

N in e c i t i e s warn th e t e a c h e r n o t

t o make d e t e n t i o n a h a b i t u a l means o f p u n ish m en t, w h i l e n i n e o t h e r s r e q u i r e him t o r e p o r t th e name o f each p u p i l d e t a i n e d and t h e c a u s e t o t h e p r i n c i p a l .

In f i v e c i t i e s

t h e t e a c h e r must keep a r e c o r d o f a l l p u p i l s d e t a i n e d and t h e c a u s e t h e r e o f , i n t h r e e c i t i e s he may n o t d e t a i n a p u p i l u n l e s s th e p a r e n t h a s been n o t i f i e d ,

i n two c i t i e s

h e may n o t d e t a i n a p u p i l more th an a s p e c i f i e d tim e i f o b j e c t i o n i s made by t h e p a r e n t s , and in two c i t i e s he may n o t c a u se a p u p i l to m i s s h i s b u s .

Most o f th e i n ­

f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich ta k e e x c e p t i o n t o t h e two g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s a r e found in c i t i e s b elo w 5 0 ,0 0 0 i n p o p u la tio n . The e x c l u s i o n and s u s p e n s io n o f p u p i l s i s c o n s i d e r e d by most e d u c a t o r s t o be a f u n c t i o n o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

J

o f f i c e r o f t h e s c h o o l so t h a t i t

i s not s u r p r is in g to fin d

no s i g n i f i c a n t i t e m on e i t h e r o f t h e s e t o p i c s .

The f o u r

r u l e s which d e a l w i t h th e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e p u p i l p r o h i b i t o r d i s c o u r a g e t h e t e a c h e r fro m s e n d i n g p u p i l s o u t o f t h e classroom .

In t h i r t e e n c i t i e s

p ro h ib ited .

In s i x c i t i e s

exclusion i s d e f i n i t e l y

t h e t e a c h e r may n o t s e n d a

p u p i l o u t of t h e room e x c e p t t o t h e p r i n c i p a l o r s u p e r i n ­ ten d en t.

In t h r e e o t h e r s th e t e a c h e r must g i v e d e f i n i t e

d i r e c t i o n s t o a n y p u p i l who i s s e n t o u t o f t h e room.

The

te a c h e r i s fo rb id d en to suspend a p u p il in e ig h tee n cities,

must have t h e a p p r o v a l of th e p r i n c i p a l or

su p e rin te n d e n t fo r suspension in fo u rte e n c i t i e s ,

and

may recommend s u s p e n s i o n o f p u p i l i n t h r e e c i t i e s .

The

o t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s on s u s p e n s i o n , w h ic h a p p e a r m o s t l y i n citie s

over 50,000 in p o p u la tio n ,

h a s t h e r i g h t to suspend a p u p i l .

im ply t h a t the t e a c h e r In sev en te en c i t i e s

th e t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d to n o t i f y t h e p a r e n t i f

th e

p u p i l i s s u s p e n d e d , and i n f o u r t e e n he may s u s p e n d a p upil fo r s u ff ic ie n t cause.

E le v e n 'c itie s in s is t that

h e n o t i f y t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l i f a p u p i l i s suspended,

two c i t i e s e x p e c t him t o k e e p r e c o r d s o f

p u p il suspension,

and one c i t y t h r e a t e n s him w i t h a

reprim and f o r f a i l u r e to g iv e p ro p er n o t i c e of p u p il suspension. Boards o f e d u c a tio n r e a l i z e t h a t to d e p riv e a p u p il o f t h e p r i v i l e g e o f l e a v i n g t h e room may work a p h y s i c a l

139

1

h a r d s h i p on him and c a u s e p o o r h e a l t h .

To p r e v e n t t h i s

th e te a c h e rs a re d ir e c te d in t h i r t y c i t i e s not to deprive t h e p u p i l o f r e c e s s and i n e l e v e n c i t i e s t o g r a n t a n y p u p i l who i s d e n i e d t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r e c e s s a s p e c i a l r e c e s s im m ediately t h e r e a f t e r .

In s ix c i t i e s te a c h e rs

may d e p r i v e p u p i l s o f r e c e s s w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e p rincipal,

in fo u r c i t i e s i f th e p u p i l ’ s conduct a t

r e c e s s i s d e tr im e n ta l to o th e r p u p ils , w ith th e consent o f p a re n ts .

and i n one c i t y

The o n l y two r e g u l a t i o n s

c o n t r a r y to the g e n e r a l ten d en cy allow th e te a c h e r in e ig h t c i t i e s to d e ta in a p u p il a t r e c e s s fo r d i s c i p l i n a r y p u r p o s e s and i n two c i t i e s

t o t a k e away a p u p i l ’ s

p r i v i l e g e s as a punishm ent. It

i s ev id e n t t h a t hoards of education d e s i r e t h a t

a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s he a c q u a i n t e d w i t h d i s c i p l i n a r y c a se s th a t a re e x c e p tio n a l problem s.

The t e a c h e r i s r e ­

q u i r e d to seek t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p a l in d i f f i c u l t d i s c i p l i n e e a s e s i n s e v e n t y - s i x c i t i e s and t h e c o o p e ra tio n of the su p e rin te n d e n t in tw e n ty -s ix c i t i e s . He m u s t r e p o r t p u p i l s who r e f u s e t o o h e y t h e r u l e s i n th irteen c itie s .

The more g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s w h i c h a r e i n ­

d i c a t e d i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n s on t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f p u p i l s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f c i t i e s o f a l l s i z e s and i n m o s t e a s e s i n d i c a t e a m o d e r a t e p o s i t i o n on d i s c i p l i n e .

Regu­

l a t i o n s which a p p e a r i n f r e q u e n t l y v e r y o f t e n a r e found t_

_I

140

r i n t h e s m a l l e r e i t i e s and ta k e e x c e p t i o n to or g i v e d i r e c t i o n s f o r th e e x e c u t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e more g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s . GUIDANCE3 Today t h e s c h o o l i s e x p e c t e d more and more t o o f f e r g u id a n c e t o th e p u p i l in f i e l d s w hich i n th e p a s t w ere i n th e r ea lm o f th e home, c h u r c h , and o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . W hile s p e c i a l g u id a n c e b u reaus and o f f i c e r s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n many c i t i e s t o l e a d i n g u id a n c e work, t h e u l t i m a t e r e ­ s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e g u id a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d f a l l s upon t h e c l a s s room t e a c h e r .

R e g u l a t i o n s w hich d i r e c t th e

t e a c h e r ' s g u id a n c e o f p u p i l s may b e c l a s s i f i e d under t h r e e h e a d i n g s , h e a l t h , c h a r a c t e r , and s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e . The p r o v i s i o n s w h ich d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r ' s e f f o r t s i n h e a l t h g u id a n c e i n d i c a t e two l i n e s o f a c t i o n .

The t e a c h e r

i s e x p e c t e d t o guard and promote t h e h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d r e n and t o p r o t e c t them a g a i n s t c o n t a g i o n .

Several

o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s are s o worded th a t t h e y aim to a c h ie v e b o th p u r p o s e s .

The more f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s d i r e c t t h e

t e a c h e r to p r o t e c t and prom ote t h e h e a l t h o f c h i l d r e n i n t h i r t y - s i x c i t i e s and t o a s s i s t in h e a l t h e x a m in a tio n s in t h i r t y c i t i e s .

The t e a c h e r must su sp en d a p u p i l who

r e s i d e s where c o n t a g i o n e x i s t s i n t h i r t y e i t i e s , and e n f o r c e th e r u l e s o f th e h e a l t h departm ent in

3 L

A p p e n d ix p .

344

r ea d

n

141 r

~i

tw en ty-five

cities,

the p r in c ip a l w hich

a im t o

d irect

the

in

tw enty-four

protect

teacher

d isco v er p h y sica l assign and

in

induce h a b its appearance. for

cities.

in

in

to

the

eigh teen

of clea n lin ess fiftee n

the v i s i o n

cities

of

a tten tio n

to

cities

keep a record

cities

in stru ct

and

four

eyes

in

other c i t i e s

to

v isio n ,

conduct

in sist

to

d a ily

cities

each

to

on a n e a t

in

in

fou rteen

eleven

o f p u p ils,

cities

in n in e

defects,

the m atter

cities

in

eigh t

o f p erso n a l h ygien e,

a d j u s t window s h a d e s

to

protect

the

o f the c h ild r e n . B esid es

th e

cities

in

to

t e a c h e r must h a v e

tid y ,

of p h ysical

p u p ils

to he a le r t

seventeen

the p u p ils,

the h earin g

of the p u p il

hearing,

cities

the

to

O ther r e g u l a t i o n s

size,

an d t o

s e n d home p u p i l s who a r e n o t g iv e

of illn e s s

tw enty-one

i n s p e c t i o n , . and i n

In

cases

tw enty-one c i t i e s

s e a t s w ith regard

m orning h e a l t h

a ll

an d p r o m o t e t h e h e a l t h

d efects,

sex of p u p ils,

regard

a nd r e p o r t

teacher

the is

sig n ifica n t

d irected

to

r e g u l a t i o n s w hich w ere quoted,

prevent

cities

by e x c lu d in g any c h il d

and

tw enty-one c i t i e s

in

sym ptom s, E igh teen

ce r tifica te tim e b e c a u s e

req u ire

w ith

the

suspected cases teacher

to

f r o m a p u p i l who h a s b e e n of i l l n e s s ,

fourteen

in

a con tagiou s

each by b e in g a l e r t

and b y r e p o r t i n g cities

con tagion

to

secure absent

cities

to

tw enty-tw o d isea se, d isco v er

the p r i n c i p a l . a m ed ica l a con sid erab le

in sist

th a t he

J

142

H report

a ll

the n u rse, to

the

illn ess

and t h i r t e e n

to

prevent

cases

of

school doctor.

d irected to

oases

of

report

send i l l the

suspected cases the

assistan ce

o f the n u rse

d ire ctio n s

program.

teacher

sh a ll

occur in

teacher

that

occur th ree to

the

T yp ical

a ssist

in

a tten tio n

the p u p ils

in terestin g req u ire

to

in

w h ile

h u m ilia te

of clea n lin ess.

tim es

posture

to u se

the

another c i t y

a p u p i l "by c a l l i n g Most

of the

trib u ted

of a l l

g iv e

a d m in isterin g

of

defects,

sh a ll

of p u p ils,

sh a ll

drafts,

p u p ils, see

and s h a l l

of illn e s s , is

it

is

expected

to

fa cilitie s the

the

the

of

t o m ak e

teacher

a tten tio n

i s warned to

h is

la ck

d i r e c t i o n s w hich

in the

The m ore g e n e r a l r u l e s

among c i t i e s

seek the

and w eig h t

sp ecific

a p p e a r v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y are. f o u n d sm a ller c i t i e s .

to

teacher

school

su p erin ten d en t.

or l e s s

co rrectio n

exposed to

a ll

a nd t o

sp e c ify that

of h eigh t

the

each

h ea lth m atters.

p rovision s

one c i t y

in

the

teacher for

the

is

four c i t i e s

ad vised

s e n t home b e c a u s e

u n tid y p u p ils

p rep a ra tio n , not

th at

to

are not

accompany c h i l d r e n

is

teacher

in v estig a te

to

to

such c a s e s

the classroom ,

in h an d lin g

m e a s u r e and k e e p a r e c o r d sh a ll g iv e

the

to

of con tagion

cities

sp ecific

cities

of in fectio n ,

s ic k n e s s w hich

r u l e s w hich

six

th a t he rep o rt

p u p i l s home a n d i n

In f i f t e e n

h ea lth

cities In

spread

T h irteen

and s u s p e c t e d c o n t a g i o n

ru les

are

of

the

eq u a lly d is ­

sizes.

J

143

r

q Though

m ethods of

th ere has been co n sid e r a b le character tr a in in g ,

any s p e c i a l appear

freq u en tly

and,

of

fiv e

most

the

boards o f to be

view p o in t .

six ,

The t e a c h e r careful of

is

in

of tru th ,

in in

to

is

a n eg a tiv e

the

p ro v isio n s sig n ifica n t,

statem ent.

are v a r ie d

that

the

of

the tea ch er

o f good c h a r a c te r .

in f i f t y - t h r e e c i t i e s

over

The

attem pts

they d esire

in cu lca tio n

as to

do n o t r e f l e c t

eleven

be c o n s i d e r e d

state

d irected

su p ervisio n

p u p ils,

the

ru les r e a lly

ed u cation

in tere ste d

to

o n l y one

frequent

regu lation s

S ix of

enough

d iscu ssio n

h a b its,

m orals,

to

ex ercise

and m a n n e r s

th irty -n in e

eities

to

propagate p r in c ip le s

tw en ty -eig h t

cities

to

in sp ire

la w and o r d e r ,

and in

tw en ty -eig h t

refinem ent

eities

respect

to

for

cu ltiv a te

h a b its of

so cia l

in

the p u p ils

by p r e c e p t

exam ple.

The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t

r u le , w hich

is

statem ent

en jo in s

the tea ch er

profane

and im p r o p e r

teacher

is

o f m ind

w h i ch , a p p e a r b u t fa m ilia rize to

refra in

p u p il's

learn

the

of p u p ils .

once or

h im self w ith

tw ice, the

prevent

the

In f o u r t e e n character, The

resp ect for

use o f cities

p rin cip a l

the

ru les

in

character

in regard

to

purpose

d isp o sitio n ,

teacher

of

to

o f a home r o o m ,

and t o

ed u ca tio n .

character

the

other r e g u l a t i o n s ,

req u ire th e

ou r g o v e r n m e n t ,

and

a n egative

from t e a c h in g a n y t h in g w hich m ight

the

L

to

lan g u a g e.

expected to

and q u a l i t y

/

im p air th e

be gu id ed by

The m a j o r i t y o f

p u p ils

appears

in

J

144 r

c i t i e s below 5 0 ,0 0 0 i n p o p u l a t i o n .

“1

E v i d e n t l y in l a r g e

c i t i e s b o a rd s do n o t f e e l t b a t t e a c h e r s must be g i v e n s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s on c h a r a c t e r e d u c a t i o n . A l l o f th e t w e n t y - s e v e n p r o v i s i o n s w hich p r e s c r i b e p ro­ c e d u r e s f o r t h e t e a c h e r to f o l l o w to i n s u r e th e good a t t e n d ­ ance o f p u p i l s seem to th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o be m a t t e r s t o be d e c id e d b y th e s c h o o l a d m in s tr a to r r a t h e r th a n board p o lic ie s.

The r u l e s e i t h e r d e s i g n a t e th e p e r s o n n e l t o

whom th e t e a c h e r i s t o go f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n im p ro vin g a t ­ te n d a n c e o r s u g g e s t t e c h n i c s f o r t h e a cco m p lish m en t o f t h i s .

The

te a c h e r i s in s t r u c t e d to secu re th e co o p e r a tio n of

p a r e n t s t o im prove a t t e n d a n c e by two r e g u l a t i o n s .

The

f i r s t o f t h e s e , which a p p ea r s 135 t i m e s , d i r e c t s th e t e a c h e r t o r e q u i r e a p e r s o n a l or w r i t t e n e x c u s e and th e o t h e r , a p p e a r in g t e n t i m e s , b i d s him to sen d a p u p i l home f o r a p r o p e r e x c u se u n l e s s th e w ea th er i s i n c le m e n t . n in e c i t i e s ,

In

h ow ever, th e te a c h e r , i s fo r b id d e n to sen d a

p u p i l home d u r in g s c h o o l h o u rs f o r an e x c u s e and i n f i v e c i t i e s a p u p i l may be s e n t home f o r an e x c u s e o n l y w ith t h e a p p r o v a l o f th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l .

The

t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d to s e c u r e th e c o o p e r a t i o n o f s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l by r e p o r t i n g a b s e n t e e s i n f i f t y - s i x c i t i e s t o th e p r i n c i p a l ,

in t h i r t y - s e v e n c i t i e s t o t h e t r u a n t o f f i c e r ,

i n e i g h t t o t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , i n two t o th e n u r s e , and i n one to t h e v i s i t i n g it e a c h e r .

The t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d t o

reduce absence in twenty-one c i t i e s by in v e s t i g a t i n g the Lcause o f absence, i n eig h te e n c i t i e s by demanding p u p i l

^

p u n c t u a l i t y , and i n s i x t e e n c i t i e s by i n s i s t i n g upon r e g u ­ l a r a tte n d a n c e *

t h i r t e e n c i t i e s r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r t o

f i l e p u p i l e x c u s e s and s i x each e x p e c t him t o judge th e v a l i d i t y o f s u c h , to c a l l th e r o l l each morning, and t o k ee p an a t t e n d a n c e c h a r t*

O ther s u g g e s t i o n s w hich a r e

o f f e r e d t o t e a c h e r s i n fo u r c i t i e s or l e s s i n s t r u c t th e t e a c h e r to d i s c h a r g e p u p i l s a b s e n t f o r t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e d a y s , to s e e k p ro p er a s s i s t a n c e to im prove a t t e n d a n c e , d is c ip lin e p u p ils h a b itu a lly a b sen t, m usic l e s s o n s ,

to

to f o r b i d a b s e n c e f o r

or t o en cou rag e a t t e n d a n c e by making th e

c l a s s room a t t r a c t i v e .

The r u l e w hich i n one c i t y f o r b i d s

a t e a c h e r to r e q u e s t th e a s s i s t a n c e o f an a t t e n d a n c e o f f i ­ c e r e x c e p t w i t h th e a p p r o v a l o f t h e S u p e r in te n d e n t i s i n t e r ­ e s t i n g b e c a u s e i t i s c o n t r a r y t o th e more g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e . More o f th e r e g u l a t i o n s on g u id a n c e o f p u p i l a t t e n d a n c e appear i n t h e s m a l l e r c i t i e s than i n th e l a r g e r c i t i e s . COOPEKATIOH WITH PARENTS4 The p a r e n t s o f a c h i l d are o r d i n a r i l y th e p e r s o n s m ost i n t e r e s t e d in t h e w e l f a r e and s u c c e s s o f t h e p u p i l and, t h e r e f o r e , c o n s t i t u t e a group p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t ­ ed i n th e c o n d i t i o n and s u c c e s s o f th e s c h o o l s .

It is

m ost n a t u r a l b e c a u se o f t h e s e f a c t s t h a t b o ard s o f e d u c a t i o n p r e s c r i b e t h a t t e a c h e r s r e n d e r r e g u la r and s p e c i a l r e p o r ts to p a r e n ts, seek t h e i r c o o p era tio n fo r

4 A p p e n d ix p .

350

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board,

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the

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a t e a c h e r m ust be f i l e d that of

com p lain ts

sh a ll

the c h ild r e n .

e m p h a siz e t h e means f o r

Less

s e t t l e m e n t s p e c i f y t h a t th e c o m p la in t s h a l l he i n v e s t i g a t ­ ed i n tw e n ty c i t i e s hy t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , i n n i n e t e e n e i t i e s hy t h e c o m m itte e o f t h e h o a rd , i n p r in c ip a l,

and in se v e n

ten e i t i e s h y th e

e i t i e s h y t h e hoard*

R u le s which

aim t o p r o t e c t t h e t e a c h e r s t a t e in n i n e e i t i e s t h a t a l l c o m p la in t s he s i g n e d , in s e v e n c i t i e s t h a t t h e p a r e n t may n o t i n s u l t or ahu se t h e t e a c h e r ,

in two c i t i e s t h a t th e

c o m p la in t m ust be made in p e r s o n , and in p l a i n t i f f he p r e s e n t a t

one c i t y t h a t

a hoard m e e t i n g .

th e

To i n s u r e a

q u ie t o r d e r ly d is c u s s io n o f d if f e r e n c e s th e tea c h e r in n i n e e i t i e s i s d i r e c t e d to r e f e r a l l c o m p l a in t s to t h e p r i n c i p a l b e f o r e any d i s c u s s i o n o c c u r s and in s i x e i t i e s to c o u r t e o u s l y d i s c u s s any c o m p la in t s w it h p a r e n t s .

The

aim o f a l l p r o v i s i o n s w h ich d e a l w i t h p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o o p e r a t io n i s t o im prove t h e w e l f a r e o f the p u p i l . SUMMARY The many p r o v i s i o n s w hich d e f i n e th e t e a c h e r ' s r e ­ l a t i o n to p u p i l p e r s o n n e l i n d i c a t e t h a t h o a r d s o f edu­ c a t i o n f e e l t h e n ee d o f r e g u l a t i o n s i n school a c tiv it y .

th is f i e l d of

O nly t h e r u l e s w h ich a f f e c t th e t e a c h e r

i n s e r v i c e a r e more num erous.

Two hundred e i g h t y - t w o

p r o v i s i o n s r e g u l a t e t h e t e a c h e r in t h e management, d isc ip lin e ,

and g u id a n c e o f t h e p u p i l , and i n h i s

r e l a t i o n w ith th e p u p i l 's p a r e n ts .

Of t h e s e , f i f t y - s e v e n

appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o he c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t .

149

r The l a r g e s t number o f s i g n i f i c a n t i t e m s , n i n e t e e n , d e a l s w ith d i s c i p l i n e ,

-j

f o u r t e e n each d e a l w ith management and

g u id a n c e and ten w it h r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s . The s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s w h ich p e r t a i n t o th e management o f t h e p u p i l d i r e c t t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n h a l l s , p la y g r o u n d s ,

and a t r e c e s s , t h e d i s ­

m i s s a l o f c h i l d r e n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and p rom otion , th e u s e o f p u p i l m e s s e n g e r s , and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s .

%&3Q

f r e q u e n t it e m s d e a l w i t h th e a d m is s io n and t r a n s f e r

o f p u p ils , in d iv id u a l r e c e s s , r o u tin e sch o o l m atters, p u p i l a s s e m b l i e s , a c c i d e n t s , and. th e p r o t e c t i o n o f v a lu a b le s?

The s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t e m e n t s on d i s c i p l i n e

p e r t a i n t o c o r p o r a l p u n ish m en t, th e ty p e o f d i s c i p l i n e t o be m a in t a in e d , d e t e n t i o n ,

r e p o r t s to a u t h o r i t i e s ,

d e p r i v i n g p u p i l s of p r i v i l e g e s , and g e n e r a l p r o h i b i t i o n s on c e r t a i n t y p e s o f p u n ish m en t.

R u le s p e r t a i n i n g t o

e x c l u s i o n and s u s p e n s io n do n o t a p p ea r f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .

S i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s on g u id a n c e embrace

h e a l t h , c h a r a c t e r , and a t t e n d a n c e o f p u p i l s .

B oth t h e

t e a c h e r ' s c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s and t h e c o m p la in t s o f p a r e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d by s i g n i f i c a n t s e c t i o n s w h ich p e r t a i n to r e l a t i o n s w it h p a r e n t s .

The f i f t y - s e v e n

s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s a r e summarized in T a b le XI*

L

j

150 r'

n TABLE XI FREQUENCY Off SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS GOUCBRUINC TEE TEACHER AND PUPIL PERSONNEL REGULATIONS

I.

ffREQUENCY

Management A. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n

- P rom otion

o f P u p ils

1 , T e a c h e r s h a l l recommend p r o m o t io n S. 3.

B.

of p u p ils Teacher s h a l l a s s i s t in c l a s s if i c a t io n of p u p ils T e a c h e r s h a l l recommend d e m o t io n o f p u p i l s u n a h l e t o do w o r k o f g r a d e

87 33 31

T eacher S h a l l S u p e r v ise C h ild ren 1.

On t h e p l a y g r o u n d , s c h o o l g r o u n d s , a n d y a r d b e f o r e a nd a f t e r s e s s i o n 2. L uring r e c e s s e s 3 . In h a llw a y s 4 . As f a r a s p o s s i b l e , on t h e w a y t o and f r o m s c h o o l

150 126 84 80

C* E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s 1.

Teacher s h a l l su p e rv ise e x tr a ­ cu rricu la r a c t i v i t i e s of p u p ils

39

D* D i s m i s s a l s 1.

Teacher s h a l l n o t d is m is s c l a s s a t i r r e g u l a r tim e e x c e p t w ith c o n se n t o f S u p erin ten d en t or P r in c ip a l 2* T e a c h e r s h a l l d i s m i s s p u p i l a t i r ­ r e g u l a r t i m e o n l y upon r e q u e s t o f parent 3# T e a c h e r s h a l l d i s m i s s p u p i l a t i r ­ r e g u la r tim e o n ly b ec a u se o f i l l n e s s or em ergency 4. Teacher s h a ll d ism iss p u p il a t i r ­ r e g u la r tim e o n ly w ith c o n s e n t o f S u p e r in t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l

42

31

25

23

J

151

r

n TABLE XI ( c o n t .} ffRBQUEHOY Off SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS

CONCEHNING THE TEACHER AND PUPIL PERSOHHEL REGOLATIOHS

FHEQUENC Y

* P u p il M essengers - Teachers n o t s e n d p u p i l s on e r r a n d s

sh a ll

1 . ' Except fo r urgent school b u sin ess 2. Except w ith p erm ission o f P r i n c i p a l or S u p e r i n t e n d e n t

II.

D iscip lin e

A.

D iscip lin e 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

to

44 44

be M ain tain ed

Teacher s h a ll m ain tain d i s c i p l i n e ' T eacher i s e n t i t l e d to ob ed ien ce and r e s p e c t o f p u p i l s Teacher s h a ll m ain tain d i s c i p l i n e a s w ould be e x e r c i s e d by a k in d an d j u d i c i o u s p a r e n t Teacher s h a l l m ain tain d i s c i p l i n e b y r e a s o n a b l e ana p r o p e r means Teacher s h a l l c o n t r o l p u p ils as fa r as p o s s ib le by k in d n ess Teacher s h a ll acq u ain t p u p ils w ith r u l e s by w hich th e y are govern ed

126 111

45 40 39 39

G eneral P r o h ib itio n s 1.

0.

Teacher s h a l l not use in d is c r e e t or s e v e r e m eth o d s o f p u n ish m en t

27

C o rp o ra l Punishm ent 1. 2.

3. 4* 5.

T e a c h e r may i n f l i c t c o r p o r a l p u n i s h ­ ment i n e x tr e m e c a s e s o n l y P r i n c i p a l or a n o t h e r t e a c h e r m ust be p r e s e n t w he n c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t i s a d m in istered Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t c o r p o r a l p u n ish ­ ment t o S u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l T eacher m ust have c o n s e n t o f P r i n c i p a l T e a c h e r may n o t i n f l i c t c o r p o r a l p u n i s h ­ ment i n p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r p u p i l s

103

79 77 70 61

j

152 n

n TABLE XI ( e o n t . ) FREQUENCY OB1 SIGNIFICANT REEOLATIONS CONCERNING THE TEACHER AND PUPIL PERSONNEL REGU LATION S

C o r p o r a l P unishm ent

FRSQUBNC Y (o o n t.)

6.

T e a c h e r may n o t i n f l i c t c o r p o r a l punishm ent 7 , T e a c h e r may a d m i n i s t e r c o r p o r a l p u n i s h ­ m e n t but t h i s d o e s n o t i n c l u d e j e r k i n g , p in ch in g , p u sh in g, s la p p in g , e t c . w hich are fo r b id d e n

50

43

j). D e t e n t i o n 1* T e a c h e r may d e t a i n p u p i l s a f t e r t h e P.M . s e s s i o n f o r s p e c i f i e d tim e o n l y 2. Teacher s h a l l not d e ta in p u p ils at noon r e c e s s

131 '

62

E. D e p r iv in g p u p i l s o f P r i v i l e g e s 1.

Teacher s h a ll not recess

F .0 R e p o r t t o A u t h o r i t i e s seek coop eration of 1. 2.

III. A.

d ep rive

pu pil

of m

30

- Teacher s h a l l

P rin cip a l S u perin ten d en t

76 26

G uidance H ealth 1. 2. 3.

4... 5.

T e a c h e r s h a l l p r o t e c t and p ro m o te the h e a lth o f c h ild r e n Teacher s h a l l a s s i s t in h e a l t h exam in ations Teacher s h a l l not a llo w a c h i l d r e s id i n g where e a s e s of c o n t a g io n e x i s t to a t t e n d school T e a c h e r s h a l l r e a d and e n f o r c e r u l e s o f M e d ic a l D epartm ent Teacher s h a l l rep ort a l l c a s e s of i l l n e s s to P r in c ip a l

36 30

30 25 24

153

r TABLE XI ( c o n t . )

FREQUENCY OF SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE TEACHER AND PUPIL PERSONNEL REGULATIONS

FREQUENCY

B . C h a r a c te r 1 . T eacher s h a l l e x e r c i s e c a r e f u l s u p e r v i s i o n over th e h a b i t s , m o r a ls , and manners o f p u p i l s 2 . T each er s h a l l i n c u l c a t e good m oral ch a racter 3* T eacher s h a l l i n c u l c a t e p r i n c i p l e s o f t r u t h , v i r t u e , and r i g h t l i v i n g 4 . T each er s h a l l i n c u l c a t e r e s p e c t f o r la w and o r d e r 5* T eacher s h a l l c u l t i v a t e h a b i t s o f s o c i a l r e f in e m e n t by p r e c e p t and exam ple 6 . T eacher s h a l l p r e v e n t t h e u s e o f p r o fa n e and im proper la n g u a g e

53 39 37 28 28 28

0 . A tte n d a n c e 1 . Teacher s h a l l r e q u i r e a p e r s o n a l o r w r i t t e n e x c u s e from p a r e n t s f o r a b s e n c e or t a r d i n e s s 2 . Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t a b s e n t e e s t o : a* P r i n c i p a l b . Truant O f f i c e r

135 56 37

IV . C o o p e r a tio n w i t h p a r e n t s A. C o o p e r a tio n

t-

1 . T each er s h a l l send p e r i o d i c a l r e p o r t s o f work, a t t e n d a n c e , and p u n c t u a l i t y to p a r e n t s 2 . T each er s h a l l n o t i f y p a r e n t about poor s c h o l a r s h i p 3 . T each er s h a l l s e e k c o o p e r a t i o n o f paren ts 4 . T ea ch er s h a l l n o t i f y p a r e n t about u n s a t i s f a c t o r y e x c u s e s f o r a b se n c e or t a r d i n e s s 5 . T eacher s h a l l n o t i f y p a r e n t a b o u t poor c o n d u ct 6 . T each er s h a l l n o t i f y p a r e n t a b o u t absence

106 67 53 40 38 37

154

TAB m

XI

( c o n t •)

FREQUENCY Of SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE TEACHER AND PUPIL PERSONNEL REGULATIONS

FREQUENCY

C o o p e r a tio n ( c o n t * ) 7* T each er s h a l l s e e k c o o p e r a t i o n hy p e r s o n a l v i s i t s

37

B . C o m p la in ts o f p a r e n t s 1 . Appeal may he made from d e c i s i o n o f t e a c h e r t o P r i n c i p a l , to S u p e r in ­ t e n d e n t , t o Board B. C om p lain t v s* t e a c h e r must he f i l e d in w r itin g 3 . C o m p la in ts v s . t e a c h e r s h a l l n o t he d is c u s s e d in p resen ce o f c h ild r e n

L

39 31 30

J

155 r

-i

conclusions S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn from t h e s t u d y o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich d i r e c t and c o n t r o l t h e r e l a t i o n s o f te a c h e r s to p u p ils .

A g r e a t many o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s

s h o u ld be th e d e c i s i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s r a t h e r than board p o l i c i e s .

Many it e m s a r e u n d o u b te d ly a t t e m p t s

to s o l v e l o c a l p r o b le m s.

C e rta in ty p es of r u l e s are

p e c u l i a r t o s m a ll e i t i e s .

B oards te n d t o e n a c t r e g u l a t i o n s

on m a t t e r s which c o n c e r n t h e s a f e t y o f p u p i l s and a g r e e on m ost im p o rtan t p o l i c i e s .

The o n l y fun dam ental m a t te r on

which t h e y d i s a g r e e i s t h e use o f c o r p o r a l p u nishm en t. Most o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s which d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r ’ s management, d i s c i p l i n e ,

and g u id a n c e o f p u p i l s and t h e

t e a c h e r ’ s r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s a r e o f such a n a t u r e t h a t t h e y s h o u ld be t h e d e c i s i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o ffic e r s.

T y p ic a l p r o v i s i o n s d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r to admit

p u p i l s t o th e s c h o o l h a l l s b e f o r e s e s s i o n d u r in g in c le m e n t w e a t h e r , t o r e g u l a t e t h e number o f p u p i l s who l e a v e t h e room a t any p a r t i c u l a r tim e , and t o perform s p e c i f i e d d u t ie s in co n n e ctio n w ith e x t r a - c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s . O ther exam ples r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r to be p r e s e n t a t p u p il a sse m b lie s,

to render f i r s t a id in c a se o f

a c cid e n ts to p u p ils ,

to a d d r e s s h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s by

t h e i r f a m i l y names p r e v ix e d by M is t e r o r M is s , and t o

L

-J

r e s p e c t p u p i l f s a f t e r n o o n e n g a g e m e n ts.

S im ila r p r o v isio n s

w hich r e f e r t o d i s c i p l i n e i n s t r u c t t h e t e a c h e r t o p r o h i b i t t h e u se o f t o b a c c o , t o a v o id g i v i n g t h e a p p earan ce o f undue h a s t e in d i s c i p l i n e ,

t o r e p o r t t h e names o f p u p i l s who are

d e t a i n e d , and t o r e f r a i n from d e p r i v i n g p u p i l s o f in d iv id u a l r e c e s s . The r u l e s i n r e g a r d t o p u p i l g u id a n c e a l s o have many s t a t e m e n t s w h ich a r e r i g h t l y w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s .

B u ie s

p e r t a i n i n g to p u p i l h e a l t h d i r e c t th e t e a c h e r to keep record s of p u p il d e f e c t s ,

to in v e s t ig a t e c a s e s o f sic k n e ss

w h ich occu r i n t h e s c h o o l , and t o a d j u s t window sh a d e s t o a v o id s t r a i n on t h e p u p i l ’ s e y e s .

V i r t u a l l y a l l th e

p r o v i s i o n s w hich p e r t a i n to a t te n d a n c e s p e c i f y e i t h e r t h e p e r s o n n e l whose a s s i s t a n c e t h e t e a c h e r i s t o s e e k or t h e t e c h n i q u e s he i s t o u se to im prove a t t e n d a n c e .

T y p ic a l

s e c t i o n s r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r to s e c u r e n o t e s o f e x c u s e from p a r e n t s f o r p u p i l a b s e n c e or to r e p o r t a b s e n t e e s to t h e p r i n c i p a l or t r u a n t o f f i c e r s .

I f b o a rd s o f e d u c a t io n

had s t a t e d m e r e ly th e g e n e r a l p o l i c y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h a l l keep t h e p a r e n t in fo r m ed o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f p u p i l s , m ost e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s w hich p e r t a i n to t e a c h e r - p a r e n t c o o p e r a t i o n c o u ld th e n have been l e f t t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l .

S p e c ific r e g u la tio n s

w hich r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r to send r e g u l a r or s p e c i a l r e p o r t s on p u p i l ’ s work, c o n d u c t, and p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l

157 r

n e e d s w ould th e n be u n n e c e s s a r y . Many r e g u l a t i o n s , l o c a l p r o b le m s.

u n d o u b te d ly , a r e e n a c te d to s o l v e

B u ie s r e g a r d in g t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f

p u p ils in yards, b a l l s ,

and on s c h o o l ground s which

appear i n f r e q u e n t l y a r e t y p i c a l .

T e a ch er s a r e d i r e c t e d

t o admit p u p i l s to h a l l s d u r in g in c le m e n t w e a th e r , to s u p e r v i s e t h e i r e n t r a n c e , and t o r e q u i r e a l l p u p i l s t o p a s s from t h e room a t r e c e s s .

O ther ite m s w hich

p r o b a b ly were e n a c t e d to s o l v e l o c a l p roblem s h o ld th e t e a c h e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e r r o r s i n p rom oting p u p i l s , r e q u i r e him t o n o t i f y c h i l d r e n when s c h o o l s e s s i o n s a r e n o t t o be h e l d , and d i r e c t him t o g i v e a s i g n a l f o r th e change o f c l a s s e s .

A n other t y p i c a l p r o v i s i o n f o r b i d s

t h e t e a c h e r t o a llo w p u p i l s t o l e a v e v a l u a b l e s i n s c h o o l . Many o f t h e i n f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s d i r e c t i n g th e d i s c i p l i n e w ere l i k e w i s e p a s s e d to s o l v e l o c a l p r o b le m s. In a n o th e r i n s t a n c e t e a c h e r s a r e d i r e c t e d n o t t o d e t a i n p u p i l s beyond t h e tim e when bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a v a ila b le . S e v e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s w hich e s t a b l i s h th e r e l a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s m a l l e r c itie s .

B u i e s w h ich r e f e r t o th e a d m is s io n and t r a n s f e r

o f p u p i l s and to c h a r a c t e r e d u c a t io n o c c u r l e s s f r e q u e n t l y in la r g e r c i t i e s .

S m a lle r c i t i e s i s s u e more s p e c i f i c

d ir e c t io n s fo r th e a d m in istr a tio n o f h e a lth m a tte r s. L

J

158 r

i

I n f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to p ro m o tio n , su sp en sio n , d e t e n t io n # or d is m is s a l o f p u p ils are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s m a ll e i t i e s . Humorous r u l e s on p u p i l management and d i s c i p l i n e a r e e v id e n c e o f th e t e n d e n c y o f hoard s t o r e g u l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y any a c t i v i t y w h ich i n v o l v e s t h e s a f e t y o f p u p ils. h a lls,

(Teachers a r e r e q u ir e d to s u p e r v i s e p u p i l s i n y a r d s , p la y g r o u n d s , a t r e c e s s ,

and on t h e i r way

t o and from home t o p r o t e c t them a g a i n s t any a c c i d e n t w h ic h m ight l e a d t o l i t i g a t i o n .

One r e g u l a t i o n d e f i n i t e l y

r e l i e v e s t h e board o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i f p u p i l s engaged in e x tr a r e u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s t r a v e l in c a r s n o t f u r n i s h e d b y th e b o a r d ,

T e a c h e r s a r e r e q u ir e d t o subm it

w r i t t e n r e p o r t s on a c c i d e n t s .

D ism iss a ls ,

e sp e c ia lly

ir r e g u la r d is m is s a ls ,

a r e c a r e f u l l y r e g u l a t e d t o in s u r e

teacher s u p e r v is io n .

T eachers are d ir e c te d , a ls o , to r e fu s e

p e r m is s io n to any p e r s o n , e x c e p t p a r e n t s , to communicate w it h c h i l d r e n d u rin g s c h o o l . Boards o f e d u c a t io n e v i d e n t l y a g r e e on t h e n a tu r e of te a c h e r -p u p il r e la t io n s h ip s .

The o n l y q u e s t io n on

w h ich t h e r e seem s to be an im p o r ta n t d i f f e r e n c e o f p o l i c y i s th e i n f l i c t i o n o f c o r p o r a l p u n ish m en t. in f r e q u e n c y and c o n t e x t o f r u l e s

qd

The

many p h a s e s o f p u p i l

management i n d i c a t e s t h a t b oard s r e c o g n i z e them a s

L

J

159 '

r

n

f u n c t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r a t h e r than o f t e a c h e r s .

The

l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s i n r e g a r d t o a d m is s io n and t r a n s f e r o f p u p i l s , i n d i v i d u a l r e c e s s , m atters,

r o u tin e sch ool

p u p i l a s s e m b l i e s , a c c i d e n t s , and t h e p r o t e c t i o n

o f v a lu a b le s in d ic a t e s

t h a t b o a r d s presume t h a t su ch

m a t t e r s s h o u ld be h a n d le d by an e x e c u t i v e .

I t i s lik e w is e

i n t i m a t e d t h a t th e e x p u l s i o n o r s u s p e n s i o n o f a p u p i l i s a f u n c t i o n o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r .

There i s

c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n io n , how ever, on t h e use o f c o r p o r a l p u n ish m en t.

T h is i s s p e c i f i c a l l y fo r b id d e n

i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f c i t i e s and a llo w e d o n l y i n extrem e c a s e s i n o t h e r c i t i e s .

L

J

160 J— I

1

OHAPTER V I I I THE TEACHER M3) INSTRUCTION C o m p a r a t i v e l y few r e g u l a t i o n s d e a l w i t h t h e t e a c h e r

a nd i n s t r u c t i o n .

Boards of e d u c a tio n e v i d e n t l y f e e l t h a t

t h i s f i e l d of the t e a c h e r 's a c t i v i t y i s b e s t ad m in istered by th e p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s , p rin cip al.

t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and t h e

Those r u l e s which d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n r e f e r to

c u r r i c u l u m and m e t h o d s .

The p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h p e r t a i n t o

t h e t e a c h e r and t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o v e r t h e s e l e c t i o n an d u s e of the course of study, exercises,

s p e c ia l requirem ents,

and s p e c i f i c r e s t r i c t i o n s .

opening

The r e g u l a t i o n s

w h ic h d e t e r m i n e t h e m e t h o d s o f t h e t e a c h e r a r e c o n c e r n e d w ith g e n e r a l methods,

th e p l a n n i n g o f work,

exam inations,

and homework. CURRICULUM1 The t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e t e r ­ m i n a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m and t o a d h e r e t o e s t a b l i s h e d c o u rs e s of stu d y .

E ight p ro v isio n s,

t h r e e o f w h ic h a p p e a r

f r e q u e n t l y e nough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t ,

define the

t e a c h e r ’ s f u n c t i o n i n t h e s e l e c t i o n and u s e of t h e curriculum .

The m o st f r e q u e n t a d m o n i s h e s t h e t e a c h e r i n

s i x t y - s e v e n c i t i e s to ad h ere to th e c o u rs e o f s t u d y .

The

1

A p p e n d ix p . 352 J

161

r o t h e r two s i g n i f i c a n t r a l e s d i r e c t th e t e a c h e r i n t h i r t y -

i

f i v e c i t i e s t o a s s i s t in t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y and i n t h i r t y e i t i e s t o u se o n l y such hook s a s are approved by th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r t h e b o a rd , f r e q u e n t it e m s a r e su p p le m e n ta r y .

The l e s s

S i x t e e n e i t i e s a sk t h a t

th e te a c h e r a s s i s t in th e s e l e c t io n o f t e x t book s. th ir te e n e i t i e s

th e teacher i s

In

e x p e c t e d to a c q u a in t him­

s e l f w i t h t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y and i n f i v e e i t i e s t o m o d ify it

o n l y w i t h t h e a p p ro v a l o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t .

Seven

b o a rd s s p e c i f y t h a t a c o p y o f th e c u r r ic u lu m be g i v e n each t e a c h e r , and one c i t y i n s i s t s t h a t th e s y l l a b u s be k e p t in th e te a c h e r ’ s d esk . C iv ic - m in d e d groups a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e enactm ent o f many s t a t e s t a t u t e s w hich a f f e c t th e c u r r ic u lu m .

The

r e g u l a t i o n s o f b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e many it e m s w hich e v i d e n t l y were e n a c te d a t t h e r e q u e s t o f some p a r tic u la r group.

No

r u l e a p p ea r s f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be

c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t t w e lv e a r e w o rth y o f c o n s i d e r ­ a tio n .

The two most f r e q u e n t s p e e i f y in s e v e n c i t i e s each

t h a t t h e t e a c h e r f a m i l i a r i z e t h e p u p i l s w it h p r i n c i p l e s o f p a t r i o t i s m and w i t h m ethods o f a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n . O ther p r o v i s i o n s a p p e a r in g t h r e e t o f i v e t im e s demand t h a t t h e t e a c h e r i n c l u d e i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m t h e a d v a n ta g e s o f th r ift,

t h e im p o rta n ce o f pure s p e e c h , t h e d a n g e r s o f f i r e ,

and t h e e f f e c t s o f a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s and n a r c o t i c s .

L

j

162

B ird p ro te c tio n ,

tre e planting,

of elected o ffic e rs ,

lo c a l h is to ry , the d u tie s

th e S t a r Spangled Banner,

and

o r d e r l i n e s s i n i n a r c h i n g a r e r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s i n one c i t y each.

O b v i o u s l y s e v e r a l of t h e s e i t e m s w e r e e n a c t e d t o

so lv e l o c a l problem s. O p e n i n g e x e r c i s e s m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d u n d e r t h e s p e c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , b u t so many r e g u l a t i o n s r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o them t h a t t h e y a r e w o rthy of s e p a r a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n .

Twelve r e g u l a t i o n s ,

t h r e e o f w h i c h a p p e a r f r e q u e n t l y enough t o b e c o n s i d e r e d sig n ifican t, exercises.

d e fin e th e t e a c h e r ’ s f u n c tio n a t opening The t e a c h e r ’ s a t t e n t i o n

i s c a l le d to the f a c t

t h a t t h e s e e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d be s p i r i t u a l and p a t r i o t i c n atu re.

in

The s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s d e a l e n t i r e l y w i t h t h e

s p ir itu a l natu re.

In s i x t y c i t i e s th e te a c h e r i s d ir e c te d

t o r e a d f ro m S c r i p t u r e ,

i n t h i r t y - e i g h t c i t i e s t o make no

comment when r e a d i n g fro m S c r i p t u r e , a n d i n t w e n t y - f i v e c i t i e s to read th e L o rd ’s P ra y e r.

The l e s s f r e q u e n t i t e m s

s u p p l e m e n t t h e a b o v e p r o v i s i o n s on- t h e r e a d i n g o f S c r i p t u r e and e m p h a s i z e t h e p a t r i o t i c t h e m e . c i t i e s i n s i s t t h a t t h e f l a g be s a l u t e d .

T w en ty -tw o

In tw enty c i t i e s

th e t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d t o h o ld opening e x e r c i s e s d a i l y a nd i n e i g h t c i t i e s t o h o l d s p e c i a l e x e r c i s e s f o r s c h o o l h olid ay s.

The S t a r S p a n g l e d B a n n e r and A m e r i c a m u s t be

sung a t a l l opening e x e r c i s e s i n seven c i t i e s , w h ile th e

J

163

r

n s i n g i n g o f an a p p r o p r i a t e hymn i s r e q u i r e d i n s e v e n c i t i e s . One c i t y i n s i s t s upon t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e p r o p e r u s e o f the f l a g . Two p r o v i s i o n s , w h ic h a p p e a r r a t h e r i n f r e q u e n t l y ,

are

e v i d e n t l y i n f o r c e t o g u a r d t h e r i g h t s o f p u p i l s whose r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s m i g h t d i f f e r fr o m t h o s e o f t h e m a j o r i t y of the

school group.

In f o u r c i t i e s

the te a c h e r i s f o r -

h idden to r e q u i r e a p u p il to re a d or ta k e p a r t in the r e a d in g of any p a r t i c u l a r v e r s i o n of S c r i p t u r e i f th e p u p i l ' s p a r e n t s do n o t a p p r o v e ,

and i n one c i t y t h e

s e l e c t i o n of th e p ra y e r in the opening e x e r c i s e s i s l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of th e t e a c h e r . th at a short talk ,

recitatio n ,

One p r o v i s i o n d i r e c t s

o r newspaper review he

i n c l u d e d i n t h e opening e x e r c i s e s .

T his i s t h e o n ly item

which does n o t emphasize e i t h e r t h e p a t r i o t i c o r r e l i g i o u s t h erne • The r e s t r i c t i o n s w h ic h a r e p l a c e d upon t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m aim t o p r e v e n t a n y d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h c o u l d he i n t e r p r e t e d as propaganda f o r any p o l i t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s g ro u p .

The

one s i g n i f i c a n t r e s t r i c t i o n p r e v e n t s d i s c u s s i o n s o f a p a rtis a n p o l i t i c a l c h a ra c te r in t h i r t y - f i v e c i t i e s .

The

l e s s f r e q u e n t r u l e s s p e c i f y in twenty-tw o c i t i e s t h a t th e t e a c h i n g o f s e c t a r i a n d o c t r i n e s he p r o h i b i t e d , c ities

in n in e

t h a t th e te a c h e r s h a l l n o t i n t e r f e r e w ith the

J

164 r-

n

p o l i t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s views of p u p i l s ,

in th ree c i t i e s

t h a t th e t e a c h e r s h a l l p re v e n t the d is s e m in a tio n of propaganda,

and i n two c i t i e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h a l l

a v o i d e x e r c i s e s t h a t w o u ld e m b a r r a s s a n y s e c t o r g r o u p of p u p ils.

l o n e of th e p r o v i s i o n s which d e a l w ith t h e

t e a c h e r and t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c

of c i t i e s

of any p a r t i c u l a r s i z e . METHODS2 W h i l e t h e p r o v i s i o n s w h ic h c o n c e r n t h e m e t h o d s o f th e t e a c h e r d e a l w ith g e n e r a l m ethods, work,

e x a m i n a t i o n s , and homework,

th e p lan n in g of

t h e g r e a t e r number

o f th e s i g n i f i c a n t ite m s r e f e r to th e p l a n n i n g of work. Twenty p r o v i s i o n s p e r t a i n t o t h e t e a c h e r ’ s g e n e r a l m e t h o d s , b u t t h e o n l y one w h ic h a p p e a r s f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n sid ere d s i g n i f i c a n t d i r e c t s th e te a c h e r in th i r t y - t w o c i t i e s t o g i v e d e l i n q u e n t p u p i l s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make up w o r k .

The m a j o r i t y o f t h e c i t i e s w i t h t h i s p r o v i s i o n

have a p o p u l a t i o n o f l e s s t h a n 5 0 ,0 0 0 . each o f which a p p e a rs tw en ty tim e s , p o lic ies.

Three r e g u l a t i o n s ,

s ta te general

These r e q u i r e the t e a c h e r to g i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s

to a l l p u p ils under h is charge, th e n e e d s of th e p u p i l ,

to a d ap t i n s t r u c t i o n

and t o u s e t h e b e s t m e t h o d s .

to A l­

most a l l th e o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s a p p e a r to be w r i t t e n

2 A p p e n d ix p . 555 J

i n s t r u c t i o n s r a t h e r th an s ta te m e n ts of h o a rd p o l i c y . te a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d in ten c i t i e s

The

to te a c h methods of

s t u d y and i n f i v e c i t i e s t o u s e good E n g l i s h i n s p e a k i n g to the p u p ils . duct review s,

In fo u r c i t i e s

e a c h t h e t e a c h e r m u st c o n ­

c o n s id e r the i n q u i r i e s of p u p i l s w ith o u t

p e r m i t t i n g t h e p u p i l t o become s u b j e c t to r i d i c u l e , a n d c o r r e c t an d r e t u r n a l l w r i t t e n w o rk.

Three c i t i e s r e q u i r e

t h e t e a c h e r t o r e t a i n o u t s t a n d i n g p i e c e s o f work, w h ile two a d m o n i s h him t o a v o i d t o o much w r i t t e n w o r k .

I n two

c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r m ust h a v e e ac h p u p i l r e c i t e r e g u l a r l y , a nd i n one c i t y he m u s t r e f r a i n from t e a c h i n g new work ¥/hen a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e c l a s s i s a b s e n t . r e g u l a ti o n s are p a r t i c u l a r l y notew orthy.

C ertain

I n two c i t i e s

t h e t e a c h e r i s i n f o r m e d t h a t h e c a n n o t do h i s b e s t t e a c h ­ i n g i f he i s s e a t e d a t h i s d e s k , and i n one c i t y he i s d ir e c te d to conduct r e c i t a t i o n s according to a s p e c if ie d procedure.

I n t h r e e c i t i e s th e te a c h e r i s fo rb id d e n to

r e q u i r e work a f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n h a v e r e a c h e d t h e p o i n t of fa tig u e .

Two o t h e r c i t i e s e a c h d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r t o

r e q u i r e s a t i s f a c t o r y work from t h e p u p i l and. t o r e f u s e c a r e l e s s l y p r e p a r e d work. A l a r g e number o f r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r t o a d h e r e t o a s c h e d u l e o f s t u d y and t o p l a n w ork r e g u l a r ­ ly .

Of t h e f i f t e e n p r o v i s i o n s which p e r t a i n t o t h e

p l a n n i n g o f w o r k , f i v e a p p e a r f r e q u e n t l y e n o ug h t o be

sig n ifican t,

The two m o s t f r e q u e n t r u l e s i n d i c a t e

general p o lic ie s .

I n 108 c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d

t o f o r m u l a t e a p r o g r a m o f s t u d y and i n s e v e n t y - o n e c ities

to prepare d a ily lesso n p la n s .

The o t h e r

s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v is io n s r e a l l y p ro v id e f o r the enforcem ent o f t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e two r u l e s .

The t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d

to g iv e a copy o f h i s program to the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t in f o r t y - o n e c i t i e s and to th e p r i n c i p a l in t h i r t y - s i x cities.

I n f w e n t y - t h r e e c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r m a y .c h a n g e

h i s program o n ly w ith t h e c o n sen t of th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , p rin cip al,

or s u p e r v i s o r .

Two i n f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s

a l s o aim t o p r e v e n t t h e t e a c h e r f r o m v a r y i n g t h e p r o g r a m . I n t h r e e c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d to r e p o r t v a r i a t i o n s i n p r o g r am and i n one c i t y t h e t e a c h e r i s g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n t o d e p a r t from t h e d a i l y l e s s o n p l a n only i f

i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t can i n t h a t way be

b e t t e r developed.

S ev e ra l of the l e s s freq u e n t r e g u l a ti o n s

i n s i s t t h a t th e te a c h e r have h i s schedule or d a i l y plans a p p r o v e d by some a u t h o r i t y .

The t e a c h e r must, h a v e h i s

program approved by th e p r i n c i p a l in e ig h t e e n c i t i e s , the s u p e rin te n d e n t in eig h t c i t i e s , i n one c i t y .

by

a n d by a s u p e r v i s o r

H i s d a i l y l e s s o n p l a n s m ust be a p p r o v e d by

th e s u p e r in te n d e n t o r p r i n c i p a l in te n c i t i e s .

The

t e a c h e r ' s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s c h o o l w ork i s d i r e c t e d by p r o v i s i o n s w h ic h i n n i n e t e e n c i t i e s r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r

X67

t o p r e p a r e w ork b e f o r e s c h o o l h o u r s a nd i n s e v e n c i t i e s h i d him s p e n d t i m e a f t e r s c h o o l p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e n e x t day’s lesso n .

Two r e g u l a t i o n s g i v e s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s

f o r the f o r m u la tio n o f a program .

The t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t ­

ed so t o a r r a n g e h i s p r o g r a m i n f o u r t e e n c i t i e s t h a t p u p i l s w i l l h a v e p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e e a c h s e s s i o n and i n two c i t i e s

t h a t t h e y w i l l h a v e a t l e a s t one p e r i o d o f

r e l a x a t i o n each s e s s i o n .

The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r o ­

v i s i o n s w h i c h d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f w ork a r e found i n c i t i e s o f l e s s t h a n 50,000 p o p u l a t i o n . Though t w e n t y - t w o p r o v i s i o n s d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r ’ s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f e x a m i n a t i o n s , n o t even t h e s o l e s i g n i f i c a n t one seems t o h e a m a t t e r w o r t h y o f c l a s s i f i ­ c a t i o n as a board p o l i c y .

In tw e n ty -th re e c i t i e s th e

te a c h e r i s in s tr u c te d to give w r itte n t e s t s .

T h i s seems

t o d e a l w i t h a m a t t e r w h i c h s h o u l d he l e f t t o t h e d ecisio n of p r o f e s s io n a lly tra in e d p e rso n n el.

Several

p r o v i s i o n s i n s t r u c t t h e t e a c h e r s to c o n d u c t o r a s s i s t in t e s t i n g programs d i r e c t e d hy s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r s .

The

tea ch e r i s re q u ire d in seven c i t i e s to a s s i s t in t e s t i n g programs a t th e r e q u e s t of a u t h o r i t i e s ,

in seven o th e r

c i t i e s t o e x am in e p u p i l s a s d i r e c t e d hy t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , in fiv e c i t i e s

to conduct t e s t s in accordance w ith

specific d irectio n s,

and i n one c i t y t o e xam in e p u p i l s a s

d i r e c t e d hy th e p r i n c i p a l .

T h e r e c a n be l i t t l e

doubt th a t

168

n th e rem ainder of th e p r o v is io n s , than s ix tim es, au th o rities.

a l l o f w h ic h a p p e a r l e s s

s h o u ld he i n s t r u c t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

The t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d t o s u b m i t t e s t

q u e s tio n s f o r a p p ro v a l to th e p r i n c i p a l in f i v e c i t i e s a nd t o t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n one c i t y . t y p e a n d e s s a y t e s t s i n two c i t i e s h i s own q u e s t i o n s i n one c i t y .

He m u s t g i v e new

and t y p e o r mim eograph

The g r a d i n g o f e x a m i n a t i o n s

i s r e g u l a t e d hy p r o v i s i o n s which r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r p e rs o n a lly to grade papers in four c i t i e s ,

t o do so i n

a c c o r d a n c e w i t h d i r e c t i o n s o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n two c i t i e s , to r e f r a i n from a ll o w i n g c h i l d r e n t o r a t e p u p i l s ’ p a p e r s i n two c i t i e s ,

a n d t o g r a d e p a p e r s c a r e f u l l y i n one c i t y .

S e v e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s aim t o p r e v e n t p u p i l s f r o m c h e a t i n g h y r e q u i r i n g t h e t e a c h e r t o c o n d u c t e x a m i n a t i o n s i n s u c h a way a s t o d e v e l o p h a h i t s o f f a i r n e s s a nd h o n e s t y i n f o u r c i t i e s , to d evote h i s tim e e x c l u s i v e l y to th e s u p e r v i s i o n of c h i l d r e n d u r i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s i n two c i t i e s ,

to grade as zero

a p u p i l who i s d e t e c t e d c h e a t i n g i n two c i t i e s ,

and t o

r e p o r t su c h a p u p i l t o t h e p r i n c i p a l i n one c i t y .

The

t e a c h e r s a r e r e q u i r e d to r e c o r d r e s u l t s o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s on p e r m a n e n t r e c o r d c a r d s i n f i v e c i t i e s , e x a m i n a t i o n m a r k s t o p u p i l s i n two c i t i e s ,

to give

and to w i t h h o ld

e x a m i n a t i o n m a r k s fr o m p u p i l s i n two o t h e r c i t i e s .

A very

i n t e r e s t i n g p r o v i s i o n o f one c i t y d i r e c t s t h e t e a c h e r to see th a t p u p ils stu d y fo r exam inations.

i_

The n a t u r e o f a l l



I

169

1

t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s which c o n t r o l e x a m in a tio n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t th e y were ad o p te d to s o l v e l o c a l problem s o r to ta k e th e p la c e o f i n s t r u c t i o n s from the p r i n c i p a l or sup erin ten d en t. $ o n e o f t h e f i v e r e g u l a t i o n s w h ic h d i r e c t s t h e t e a c h e r ' s a s s i g n m e n t o f homework a p p e a r s f r e q u e n t l y enough t o he s i g n i f i c a n t .

These r u l e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n c e r t a i n

com m unities th e h o a rd s o f e d u c a tio n have re s p o n d e d to r e a l or i m a g i n a r y c o m p l a i n t s o f p a r e n t s t h a t c h i l d r e n h a v e t o o much homework.

In sev en teen c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r i s

d i r e c t e d t o a s s i g n o n l y a l i m i t e d amount o f homework i n th e upper g ra d e s ,

in elev en c i t i e s n o t to a s s i g n any

homework i n t h e l o w e r g r a d e s ,

in ten c i t i e s to e x e r c i s e

c a r e i n a s s i g n i n g homework, and i n two c i t i e s n o t t o a s s i g n homework i n t h e f i r s t s i x g r a d e s .

The s o l e p r o ­

v i s i o n w h i c h d o e s n o t r e s t r i c t t h e amount o f homework a p p e a r s o n l y o n c e and d i r e c t s t h e t e a c h e r t o c h e c k home­ work a s s i g n m e n t s e a c h m o r n i n g .

The i n f r e q u e n c y and t h e

n a t u r e o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s on homework i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d he t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r a t h e r than hoard p o l i c i e s . SUMMABY The p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r i s t h e i n ­ s t r u c ti o n of the p u p ils under h i s ch arg e.

R eg ulatio ns

d e t e r m i n e h o t h t h e m a t e r i a l h e i s t o t e a c h and t h e m e t h o d s i_

J

170

he i s t o employ*

N inety-nine ru le s d efine the t e a c h e r ’s

f u n c t i o n s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n and u s e o f c u r r i c u l u m and m ethods. its

The r u l e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o v e r

s e l e c t i o n and u s e ,

f o r opening e x e r c i s e s ,

s p e c ia l requirem ents,

programs

and s p e c i f i c r e s t r i c t i o n s .

The

p r o v i s i o n s w hich a f f e c t m e t h o d s l e g i s l a t e on g e n e r a l procedures,

t h e p l a n n i n g o f w ork , and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n

of exam inations.

Of t h e n i n e t y - n i n e i t e m s , f o u r t e e n

a p p e a r f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t . F iv e s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a ti o n s d e a l w ith th e p lan n in g of w ork,

t h r e e e a c h w i t h t h e s e l e c t i o n and u s e o f t h e

c u r r i c u l u m and t h e c o n d u c t o f o p e n i n g e x e r c i s e s , one e a c h w i t h r e s t r i c t i o n s m ethods,

and e x a m i n a t i o n s .

and

on t h e c u r r i c u l u m , g e n e r a l The p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h

a p p e a r f r e q u e n t l y e nough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t a r e l i s t e d w ith t h e i r f r e q u e n c y in Table X I I .

L_

171

TABLE

X II

FREQUENCY OF SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE TEACHER AND INSTRUCTION REGULATIONS

FREQUENCY

! • C u rricu lu m A* S e l e c t i o n and Use *» ^ e a c h e r s h a l l a d h ere to c o u r s e o f s t u d y s h a l l a s s i s t in r e v is io n o f course o f stu d y 3# T ea ch er s h a l l u se o n l y su ch boohs a s a r e approved b y S u p e r in t e n d e n t or Board

2* t e a c h e r

67 36 30

B* O pening E x e r c i s e s 1* Teacher s h a l l r e a d from S c r i p t u r e d u r in g o p e n in g e x e r c i s e s 2* T e a ch er s h a l l make no comment when r e a d in g from S c r i p t u r e , 3 . T eacher s h a l l r ea d t h e L o r d 's P ra y er a t o p e n in g e x e r c i s e s

60 38 26

0* S p e c i f i c R e s t r i c t i o n s 1* T each er s h a l l p r e v e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f q u e stio n s of p o l i t i c a l c h a r a cter t h a t may become p a r t i s i a n

v 35

I I , M ethods An G en er a l Methods 1* T each er s h a l l g i v e d e lin q u e n t p u p i l s o p p o r t u n i t y t o make up work

32

B. p l a n n i n g o f Work 1 . T e a ch er s h a l l make o u t a program o f stu d y 2 . T e a ch er s h a l l p r e p a r e d a i l y l e s s o n p la n s 3# T eacher s h a l l f u r n i s h co p y o f program t o S u p e r in t e n d e n t

108 71 41

178 n

r TABLE XII

(cont.)

FBEQUMGY Of SIGNIFICMT REGULATIONS GONCBRNIEG THE TEAGHIR MD IISTRUOTIOH REGULATIONS

FREQUENCY

P la n n in g o f Work ( c o a t . ) 4 . T eacher s h a l l f u r n i s h copy o f program to P r i n c i p a l 6 . t e a c h e r may ch an ge program o n ly w i t h c o n s e n t o f S u p e r in t e n d e n t , P r i n c i p a l , or S u p e r v i s o r

36 83

0 . E x a m in a tio n s I t T each er s h a l l g i v e w r i t t e n t e s t s

L

83

J

173

r

n OQUQLUSIOffS I n s t r u c t i o n i s t h e c h i e f f u n c t i o n o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l of a s c h o o l sy ste m ,

A board of e d u ca tio n i s

expected to e n ac t g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s to guide the p ro ­ fessio n al leaders,

t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and p r i n c i p a l s ,

t h e s u p e r v i s i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n .

in

If a

b o a r d d e l e g a t e s f u l l p o w e rs and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p to i t s

su p erin ten d en t, i t w ill

e n a c t few er r e g u l a t i o n s d i r e c t i n g t e a c h e r s ’ m ethodology. A lm ost one h u n d r e d p r o v i s i o n s , h o w e v e r , w ith the t e a c h e r ’ s i n s t r u c t i o n .

a re concerned

O n l y a few o f t h e s e

item s a re d e f i n i t e l y s ta te m e n ts of board p o l i c i e s . S e v e r a l u n d o u b t e d l y a r e a t t e m p t s t o m eet l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s , a nd o n l y one p r o v i s i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a rtic u la r size.

of c i t i e s

of a

C h a r g e s m i g h t be made t h a t many o f t h e

r u l e s a r e u n f a i r to t e a c h e r s . The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e n i n e t y - n i n e p r o v i s i o n s r e a l l y should be i n s t r u c t i o n s of the s u p e r in te n d e n ts or p rin cip als.

T y p ic a l o f th e p r o v is io n s r e g a r d in g the

c u r r i c u l u m w h ic h s h o u l d be w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e t h o s e which r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r t o a s s i s t i n t h e s e l e c t i o n of t e x t books,

t o k e e p a co p y o f t h e c o u r s e

of s tu d y in h i s desk, to h o ld opening e x e r c i s e s d a i l y , o r to g i v e s h o r t t a l k s on c u r r e n t e v e n t s d u r i n g o p e n i n g

J

174

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n exercises.

I l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s i n r e g a r d to

m e t h o d s w h i c h s h o u l d h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t o r a r e t h o s e w h ic h d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r t o t e a c h m e t h o d s o f study,

t o a v o i d t o o much w r i t t e n w o r k , and t o c a l l upon

each p u p i l r e g u l a r l y .

O thers i n s i s t t h a t th e te a c h e r

have h i s program approved hy t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p rincipal,

give w r i t te n t e s t s ,

the p r in c ip a l,

submit t e s t q u e s t i o n s to

grade papers p e rs o n a lly ,

o r r e f r a i n from

e x c e s s i v e homework a s s i g n m e n t s . Numerous p r o v i s i o n s a r e a t t e m p t s t o s o l v e l o c a l problem s.

The i n f r e q u e n c y o f many r u l e s i s one i n d i c a t i o n

t h a t t h e y a r e a tt e m p t s o f i n d i v i d u a l com m unities t o so lv e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problem s by b o a rd r e g u l a t i o n s .

T ypical

ite m s r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r to in c lu d e in th e c u rric u lu m f i r e prevention,

tre e planting,

d u tie s of e le cted o ffic e rs .

local h isto ry ,

or th e

' I l l u s t r a t i o n s of a tte m p ts

t o r e g u l a t e t h e t e a c h e r ’ s m e t h o d t o re m e d y a l o c a l s i t u a t i o n a r e item s such a s th o se which r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r t o u s e go o d E n g l i s h ,

t o r e f r a i n from t e a c h i n g

new work when a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e c l a s s

is absent,

o r t o l i m i t t h e amount o f homework. There i s

o n ly one p r o v i s i o n w hich

ch a ra cteristic m a jo rity o f d elin q u en t

L.

the

of c i t i e s cities

p u p ils

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of a p a rticu la r

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175 “ I

l e s s th an 50,000 p o p u l a t i o n .

A p p a re n tly the s i z e o f t h e

c i t y d o e s n o t a f f e c t r u l e s g o v e r n i n g t h e t e a c h e r and in stru ctio n . Since i n s t r u c t i o n i s r e a l l y a p r o f e s s i o n a l f u n c tio n , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f so many p r o v i s i o n s w hich s h o u l d h e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o r d e c i s i o n s of th e p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s of t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m may h e c o n s i d e r e d u n f a i r t o t h e con scientious tea ch e r.

The c o n s c i e n t i o u s t e a c h e r may

i n s i s t t h a t h e s h o u l d he c o n t r o l l e d i n h i s i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p u p i l hy h i s own p r o f e s s i o n a l e t h i c s and h y t h e a d v i c e and c o u n s e l o f h i s s u p e r i o r s , hoard r e g u l a t i o n s .

r a t h e r th a n hy

On t h i s g r o u n d m o s t o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s

i n r e g a r d t o t h e t e a c h e r a n d i n s t r u c t i o n m i g h t he c a l l e d u n fair.

C e r ta in r u l e s m ight le a d to v e ry u n f a i r t r e a t ­

m en t o f t h e t e a c h e r .

T h e r e may he d o u h t a s t o t h e e q u i t y

o f t h e r u l e s w h i c h r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r t o sp e n d t i m e a f t e r e a c h s c h o o l s e s s i o n t o p r e p a r e t h e n e x t d a y ’ s work, to conduct r e c i t a t i o n s a cc o rd in g to s e t p ro c e d u re s , avoid s i t t i n g a t h i s desk.

or to

The g e n e r a l c r i t i c i s m o f t h e

r u l e s which p e r t a i n t o th e t e a c h e r and i n s t r u c t i o n i s t h a t m o st o f them d e a l w i t h m a t t e r s v/hich s h o u l d h e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r r a t h e r t h a n hoard p o l i c i e s .

176 r

"i

CHAPTER I X

THE TEACHER AND SCHOOL MANAGEMENT W hile th e management o f th e s c h o o l i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a tte r c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s must he d e le g a te d to th e te a c h e r . teach er i s

R eg u la tio n s in d ic a te th a t th e

e x p e c te d t o t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e

m a in te n a n c e o f prop er p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ,

in t h e c a r e o f

t h e s c h o o l p l a n t and eq u ip m en t, and i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c e r ta in r o u tin e m a tte r s. MAIHTEHAHCE OF PROPER PHYSICAL COHDITIOHS1 The r e g u l a t i o n s which c h a r g e t h e t e a c h e r w ith th e m a in te n a n c e o f proper p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s e x p e c t him to g i v e a t t e n t i o n to v e n t i l a t i o n ,

te m p e r a tu r e , and l i g h t i n g ,

to m a in t a in c l e a n l i n e s s and o r d e r , and t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h th e ja n it o r .

Of th e e l e v e n p r o v i s i o n s w h ich d i r e c t t h e

t e a c h e r in t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e m a t t e r s ,

t h r e e ap p ear

f r e q u e n t l y enough to he c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t .

The

t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d to a t t e n d t o tem p er a tu r e in 167 c itie s ,

v e n t i l a t i o n i n 166 c i t i e s , and l i g h t i n g in

fifty ~ th r e e c i t i e s .

The in f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s s p e c i f y

th e p r o c e d u r e th e t e a c h e r i s t o f o l l o w i n o r d e r t o c a r r y out t h e p o l i c i e s s t a t e d i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s .

1 A p p e n d ix L

p.

359 .j

177

r When t h e te m p e r a tu r e i s abnormal t h e t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d t o n o t i f y t h e p r i n o i p a l i n tw e n ty -tw o c i t i e s , s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n two c i t i e s ,

the

and t h e j a n i t o r i n one c i t y .

He may d i s m i s s t h e p u p i l s i n n i n e c i t i e s i f t h e tem p er a tu r e i s above o r b elow s p e c i f i e d p o i n t s ,

The t e a c h e r i s r e ­

q u ir e d t o keep a r e c o r d o f t h e tem p er a tu r e o f t h e room i n e ig h te e n c i t i e s , teen c i t i e s ,

to a v o id s t r o n g d r a f t s on p u p i l s i n f o u r ­

t o k e e p windows c l o s e d when t h e fa n i s i n

o p e r a t i o n i n two c i t i e s , l i g h t in e i g h t c i t i e s .

and t o a v o id w a s te o f e l e c t r i c A l l o f th e p r o v i s i o n s , w i t h th e

e x c e p t i o n o f t h e t h r e e m ost f r e q u e n t , seem t o be m a t e r i a l f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l . The r u l e s i n e i g h t y c i t i e s d e f i n i t e l y p l a c e th e r e s p o n s ib ility fo r th e c le a n lin e ss,

o r d e r , and n e a t n e s s

o f t h e s c h o o l room on th e t e a c h e r .

S ix te en c i t i e s expect

t h e t e a c h e r t o prom ote h a b i t s o f n e a t n e s s i n p u p i l s reg a rd in g sc h o o l p r o p e r ty .

The o t h e r f o u r p r o v i s i o n s ,

w hieh appear i n f r e q u e n t l y , e i t h e r su p p lem en t or i n t e r p r e t th e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v is io n .

In e le v e n c i t i e s th e te a c h e r

i s h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e n e a t and o r d e r l y c o n d i t i o n o f the fu r n itu r e *

In s i x c i t i e s he m ust c l o s e t h e

windows and i n f i v e a d j u s t t h e sh a d e s and b l i n d s t o u n ifo rm h e i g h t a t th e c l o s e o f a s e s s i o n .

In one c i t y

t h e t e a c h e r p e r s o n a l l y must r e g u l a t e windows and s h a d e s .

L

J

178

r These p r o v i s i o n s o b v i o u s l y a r e n o t b o a rd p o l i c i e s . A l l t h e p r o v i s i o n s which r e g u l a t e th e relatio n

-l

t e a c h e r 1s

t o t h e j a n i t o r seem t o b e o f s u c h a n a t u r e t h a t

t h e y s h o u l d be t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r r a t h e r th an a m a t t e r . o f board p o l ic y .

Two o f t h e

n i n e p r o v i s i o n s a p p e a r f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d sig n ific an t.

They r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r i n t h i r t y - t w o c i t i e s

to re p o r t i n e f f i c i e n t

j a n i t o r i a l s e r v ic e to the p r i n c i p a l

or su p e rin te n d e n t and in tw e n ty -fo u r c i t i e s

to r e l i n q u i s h

t h e room a d e f i n i t e l e n g t h o f t i m e a f t e r d i s m i s s a l t o perm it the j a n i t o r to c le a n .

The l e s s f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s

e it h e r in d ic a te the co o p eratio n the the

j a n i t o r or a t t e m p t t o r e s t r a i n

e x c e s s i v e demands on h im .

te a c h e r i s to give t h e t e a c h e r ' from m ak ing

The t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d in

n in e c i t i e s t o a i d th e j a n i t o r as f a r as p o s s i b l e in k e e p i n g t h e room c l e a n , the

in fo u r c i t i e s to c o o p e ra te w ith

j a n i t o r by h a v i n g s e a t s and d e s k s a d j u s t e d t o make

cleaning e a s ie r,

in th re e c i t i e s to n o t i f y th e j a n i t o r i f

p o o r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n t h e c l a s s room, and i n two c i t i e s c ities

to t r e a t the. j a n i t o r r e s p e c t f u l l y .

In t h i r t e e n

the t e a c h e r must s e c u r e t h e s e r v i c e of th e

c u s to d ia n through th e p r i n c i p a l , f ro m s e n d i n g him on e r r a n d s ,

in fo u r c i t i e s r e f r a i n

and i n one c i t y make a s few

demands on him a s p o s s i b l e d u r i n g w i n t e r m o n t h s .

L

J

CARS OF SCHOOL PLANT AND EQUIPMENT2 The r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r in t h e c a r e o f th e s c h o o l p l a n t and equipm ent c o v e r a r a t h e r w ide fie ld #

The t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d to guard and make p r o p e r

u s e o f th e b u i l d i n g ,

i t s fu r n itu r e ,

and eq u ip m en t, t o u s e

p r e m is e s a c c o r d in g t o r e g u l a t i o n s # to t a k e c a r e o f s c h o o l k e y s , t o a v o id ab u se o f t h e s c h o o l t e l e p h o n e , and t o u s e s u p p l i e s and books c a r e f u l l y .

I t h a s b e e n p o i n t e d out

t h a t b oard s o f e d u c a t io n te n d to e n a c t r e g u l a t i o n s on m atters o f f in a n c ia l concern.

A lm ost a l l t h e r u l e s g o v e r n ­

i n g t h e c a r e o f s c h o o l p l a n t and equipment aim t o p r o t e c t t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e s e h o o l d i s t r i c t and to r e d u c e r e p a i r co sts. Of t h e tw e n ty r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich p e r t a i n t o b u i l d i n g , f u r n i t u r e , and eq u ip m en t, t h r e e appear f r e q u e n t l y enough to b e s i g n i f i c a n t . in g s ,

T h ese p r o v id e t h a t damages t o b u i l d ­

f u r n i t u r e , and equipm ent b e guarded a g a i n s t by th e

t e a c h e r i n e i g h t y ^ n i n e c i t i e s and be r e p o r t e d t o p r o p e r a u t h o r i t i e s in e ig h ty -o n e c i t i e s .

They a l s o p l a c e the

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e c a r e o f s c h o o l p r o p e r t y upon t h e tea c h e r in s ix t y - n i n e c i t i e s .

The m a j o r i t y o f th e

r e g u l a t i o n s w hich appear i n f r e q u e n t l y su p p lem en ts or i n t e r p r e t s th e s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s .

2

A ppendix

p . 361

The t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d

180

r

In s i x t e e n c i t i e s t o s e e t h a t damage t o s c h o o l p r o p e r t y i s made good , i n s i x c i t i e s t o f o r b i d t h e t a c k i n g or g lu e in g m a te r ia ls to w a lls ,

in four c i t i e s to f o r h id th e

u s e o f s c h o o l p r o p e r t y f o r o th e r th a n s c h o o l p u r p o s e s , and i n t h r e e c i t i e s t o t e a c h p u p i l s t o p r o t e c t s c h o o l p r o p e r ty *

Two c i t i e s each r e q u i r e him to have t h e a p p r o v a l

o f th e p r i n c i p a l i n s e t t i n g f i n e s f o r damage t o s c h o o l p r o p e r t y and to r e p o r t t h e t h e f t o f s c h o o l equipm ent to t h e p r i n c i p a l , w h i l e one c i t y warns him n o t t o l e a v e v a l u a b l e equipm ent u n s u p e r v i s e d .

The t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d

t o examine t h e f u r n i t u r e and equipm ent i n h i s room i n th ir tee n c i t i e s ,

to keep an i n v e n t o r y o f d e s k s and

fu r n itu r e i n e ig h t c i t i e s , fiv e c it ie s ,

t o keep t o o l s i n good o r d e r i n

and t o f o l l o w r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e e a r e o f

equipm ent i n f o u r c i t i e s .

W h ile e i g h t c i t i e s e x p e c t t h e

t e a c h e r t o r e p o r t t h e n ee d o f r e p a i r s , two h i d him n o t to a sk t h e h oard o f p u b l i c works t o make su ch r e p a i r s .

An

u n iq u e p r o v i s i o n s p e c i f i e s t h a t a t e a c h e r s h a l l n o t c la im th e r i g h t to u s e a p p a r a tu s o r a room b e c a u s e t h a t t e a c h e r had t h e u s e o f i t o v e r an e x te n d e d p e r io d o f t i m e .

T h is

a p p a r e n t l y i s an a tte m p t t o s o l v e t h e problem o f th e t e a c h e r who becomes s o e n t h u s i a s t i c i n h i s work t h a t he b e l i e v e s t h e p a r t i c u l a r room i s h i s p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y .

The

t e n d e n c y t o p a s s p r o v i s i o n s t o guard t h e s a f e t y o f p u p i l s L

J

181

r

I s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e r u l e o f fo u r c i t i e s w hich i n s i s t s t h a t t e a c h e r s who u s e d a n gerou s m ach in ery t a k e s t e p s t o a v o id a c c i d e n t s to p u p i l s ,

The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s

which d e a l w i t h b u i l d i n g , f u r n i t u r e , and equipm ent i s foun d i n c i t i e s o f l e s s th an 6 0 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s w hich r e g u l a t e t h e u s e o f p r e m is e s a r e i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e te n d e n c y o f b o a r d s o f e d u c a t io n t o e n a c t l e g i s l a t i o n p u p i l s and o f s c h o o l p r o p e r t y .

to i n s u r e t h e s a f e t y o f In t w e n t y - f o u r c i t i e s no

s c h o o l room may be opened t o p u p i l s e x c e p t by th e teach er,

and i n t w e n t y - t h r e e t h e t e a c h e r must be s u r e t h a t

h i s room i s v a c a t e d when he l e a v e s ,

The o b v io u s i n t e n t

i s t o p r e v e n t u n s u p e r v is e d p u p i l s from g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e w h i l e on s c h o o l p r o p e r t y .

In th ree c i t i e s th e

t e a c h e r i s fo r b id d e n t o a l lo w t h e d o o r s t o be l o c k e d or b o l t e d d u r in g s e s s i o n .

O ther it e m s d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t

t h e t e a c h e r ’ s u s e o f th e p r e m i s e s .

The t e a c h e r i s

f o r b id d e n t o u s e t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g o u t s i d e o f r e g u l a r h o u rs e x c e p t f o r a d e f i n i t e p e r io d b e f o r e or a f t e r s c h o o l i n two c i t i e s and e x c e p t by s p e c i a l arrangem ent w it h t h e p r i n c i p a l i n one c i t y .

The a p p r o v a l o f th e

board i s n e c e s s a r y f o r th e t e a c h e r to u se th e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g d a r in g v a c a t i o n i n two c i t i e s *

In one community

f a c u l t y members a r e n o t a llo w e d t o park e a r s on s c h o o l grounds. l

j

182 r

1

Bo r e g u l a t i o n w hich g o v e r n s t h e u se o f s c h o o l k e y s a p p e a r s more than s i x tim es*

The i n f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s e

r u l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y a r e e n a c te d t o s o l v e l o c a l p r o b le m s .

I t would he b e t t e r t o l e a v e su ch m a t t e r s t o th e

d i s c r e t i o n o f th e p r i n c i p a l or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t .

A ll th e

it e m s aim t o p r o t e c t s c h o o l p r o p e r t y o r t o i n s u r e th e c a r e f u l h a n d lin g o f s c h o o l k e y s .

The t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d

in s i x c i t i e s t o r e t u r n k e y s to th e p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i e e a t th e

end o f

each day, i n s i x o t h e r c i t i e s t o r e t u r n k e y s

to th e

p r i n c i p a l a t t h e b e g i n n in g o f a l e n g t h y v a c a t i o n , a n d

i n two

c itie s

o f th e

school year.

to r e t u r n k e y s to t h e j a n i t o r a t th e c l o s e In s i x c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r must l o c k

t h e d o o r s when l e a v i n g a t noon or n i g h t , and i n t h r e e c i t i e s h a v e k e y s f o r h i s own c l a s s room.

In t h r e e c i t i e s

ea ch he i s fo r b id d e n t o le n d k e y s and d i r e c t e d t o r e p l a c e lo s t keys,

Two c i t i e s r e q u i r e d e p o s i t s f o r k e y s .

Bone o f th e s e v e n r e g u l a t i o n s w hich p e r t a i n to t h e u s e o f th e s c h o o l t e l e p h o n e a p p e a r s f r e q u e n t l y enough to be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t .

The most f r e q u e n t , which

a p p e a r s tw e n ty -tw o t i m e s , p r o h i b i t s t h e t e a c h e r ' s u se o f t h e t e l e p h o n e d u rin g s c h o o l h o u r s .

T e a ch er s a r e r e f u s e d

t h e u se o f t h e t e l e p h o n e e x c e p t i n em ergency i n s i x t e e n c i t i e s or f o r s c h o o l b u s i n e s s i n n i n e c i t i e s .

F ifte e n

c i t i e s p e r m it th e p r i n c i p a l t o ta k e u r g e n t m e s sa g e s f o r

L

J

f a c u l t y members.

The t e a c h e r i s

fo r b id d e n i n f i v e c i t i e s

t o u s e t h e s c h o o l t e l e p h o n e f o r lo n g d i s t a n c e c a l l s and i n t h r e e c i t i e s i s r e q u i r e d t o pay f o r a l l p r i v a t e m essages.

The aim o f a l l t h e p r o v i s i o n s w h ich h ave been

q u o te d i n r e g a r d t o t h e u se o f th e t e l e p h o n e i s t o p r e v e n t or r e s t r i c t i t s u se by t h e t e a c h e r .

The o n l y item w hich

i s c o n t r a r y t o t h i s g e n e r a l te n d e n c y p e r m it s t h e t e a c h e r o f two c i t i e s t o u s e th e t e l e p h o n e f o r l o c a l c a l l s . Most o f th e r u l e s r e g a r d in g s u p p l i e s a r e o f su ch a n a t u r e t h a t t h e y s h o u ld be t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f an a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e r . a t y p i c a l ex am p le.

The m ost f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n i s

In fo r ty -tw o c i t i e s th e tea ch er i s

d i r e c t e d t o r e q u i s i t i o n s u p p l i e s from t h e p r i n c i p a l . C e r t a i n l y t h i s c a n n o t be c a l l e d a board p o l i c y .

The

te a c h e r i s d ir e c t e d in t h i r t y - f o u r c i t i e s to use s u p p lie s c a r e fu lly , s u p p lie s,

i n t w e n t y - f o u r c i t i e s to k eep a r e c o r d o f and in t w e n t y - f o u r o th e r c i t i e s n o t t o g i v e out

orders fo r s u p p lie s .

There m ight be some q u e s t i o n a s t o

w h e th e r t h i s l a s t ite m sh o u ld be a board p o l i c y .

In

e v e r y s c h o o l sy s te m t h e r e a r e t e a c h e r s who need s p e c i a l m a t e r i a l s w h ich must be o r d e r e d t o m eet c u r r e n t n e e d s . I t i s p e r f e c t l y p r o p e r , how ever, f o r a board t o e s t a b l i s h a p o l i c y th a t the tea ch er h im s e lf s h a l l n o t ord er s u p p l i e s .

T h is p o l i c y i s f u r t h e r s t r e s s e d i n

se v e n c i t i e s w h ich h o ld t h e t e a c h e r p e r s o n a l l y

r e s p o n s i b i l e f o r any l i a b i l i t y in c u r r e d w ith o u t t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f p ro p er a u t h o r i t i e s *

Two c i t i e s r e q u i r e

th e t e a c h e r t o subm it an i t e m i z e d a c c o u n t t o r e c e i v e pay­ ment f o r a u t h o r i z e d e x p e n d i t u r e s .

Humorous r e g u l a t i o n s

i n d i c a t e t h e p e r so n from whom th e t e a c h e r s h a l l r e q u e s t su p p lie s.

In s i x c i t i e s he s h a l l r e q u i s i t i o n s u p p l i e s

from t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , i n two c i t i e s from t h e j a n i t o r , i n two c i t i e s from t h e s e c r e t a r y o f th e b o a r d , and in one c i t y from t h e b u s i n e s s m anager.

Two r e g u l a t i o n s e x i s t

i n r e g a r d t o th e b ook s and s u p p l i e s w hich a t e a c h e r may a sk a p u p i l t o p u r c h a s e .

In n i n e c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r

may n o t r e q u i r e t h e p u p i l t o p u rch ase b o o k s and s t a t i o n e r y u n l e s s su ch p u r c h a s e s a r e a u t h o r i z e d by t h e board, and i n f o u r c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r must f u r n i s h t h e p u p i l s w it h * l i s t s o f n e c e s s a r y b ook s and s u p p l i e s . p e r s o n a l u se o f s u p p l i e s i s

The t e a c h e r ’ s

r e g u la t e d by t h r e e p r o v i s i o n s

w hich r e q u i r e him to r e t u r n a l l s u p p l i e s lo a n e d t o him i n f i f t e e n c i t i e s , f o r b i d him to u se s u p p l i e s f o r p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t in one c i t y ,

and i n s i s t t h a t he s u p p l y h i m s e l f

w ith n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l s i n a n o th e r c i t y .

The r u l e w h ich

p r o h i b i t s t h e t e a c h e r from o r d e r in g s u p p l i e s i s found more o f t e n in c i t i e s b elow 5 0 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n . -

T h is i s

t h e o n l y r u l e w hich i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c i t i e s o f a p a r tic u la r s i z e .

185

r The c o n t e n t o f t h e t w e n t y - s i x p r o v i s i o n s w h ic h p e r t a i n t o th e t e a c h e r ’ s h a n d lin g o f hooks can he v e r y w e l l summarized hy t h e m ost f r e q u e n t r u l e .

T h is s p e c i f i e s i n

s e v e n t y c i t i e s t h a t th e t e a c h e r he r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c a r e o f hooks p r o v id e d f o r h i s room.

All

the o th er

r e g u l a t i o n s can he c o n s i d e r e d w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s t o e x e c u t e and i n t e r p r e t t h i s p o l i c y .

Iven th e s i x r u le s

w h ich appear f r e q u e n t l y enough to he c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t su p p lem en t t h i s i t e m .

The t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d i n f i f t y - o n e

c i t i e s to k e e p a r e c o r d o f a l l hooks i s s u e d to p u p ils * i n t h i r t y - f o u r c i t i e s t o s e e t h a t damages t o hooks a r e made good, in t h i r t y - t w o c i t i e s t o s e e t h a t hook s lo a n e d t© p u p i l s a r e d u ly r e t u r n e d , i n t h i r t y c i t i e s to examine hook s p e r i o d i c a l l y ,

in tw en ty -sev en c i t i e s to rep o rt the

d e s t r u c t i o n o f hooks t o t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l , and i n t w e n t y - s i x c i t i e s to guard a g a i n s t damages t o hook s.

The i n f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s s i m i l a r l y a tte m p t to

a c h i e v e t h e main p o l i c y hy p r o v i d i n g f o r a r e g u l a r c h e c k on h o o k s, t h e r e p a i r o f h o o k s, or co m p en sa tio n f o r damage t o h o o k s .

The t e a c h e r i s o r d e r e d i n tw e n ty c i t i e s

to make an i n v e n t o r y a t s p e c i f i e d t i m e s , i n s e v e n c i t i e s to stamp hooks a s d i r e c t e d hy th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ,

and

i n f o u r c i t i e s t o a s s i s t th e p r i n c i p a l i n t a k i n g in v e n to r ie s.

L

In f i f t e e n c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d

J

186

r

t o t r a i n p u p i l s i n t h e c a r e o f b o o h s, i n s i x c i t i e s t o s e e t h a t p u p i l s * names a r e in b o o h s, and i n two c i t i e s t o s e e t h a t th e b e s t boohs a r e in t h e hands o f p u p i l s who w i l l ta k e o a r e o f them.

In e i g h t c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r

i s r e q u i r e d to tu rn o v e r t o t h e p r i n c i p a l a l l money c o l l e c t e d f o r l o s t o r damaged b o o h s, i n t h r e e c i t i e s t o f i n e p u p i l s w i t h a p p r o v a l o f th e p r i n c i p a l f o r l o s s o f b o o k s, i n two c i t i e s t o r e p o r t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f b o oh s to p a r e n t s , and i n one c i t y t o r e p o r t a b ooh s h o r t a g e . S e g u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t n o t a l l b o a rd s o f e d u c a tio n f u r n i s h boohs w i t h e q u a l l i b e r a l i t y .

The r u l e s w h ich

s t a t e t h a t t h e t e a e h e r may a l l o w p u p i l s t o ta k e boohs home i n d i c a t e t h a t b o a r d s do n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e y must f u r n i s h b ooh s t o t h e p u p i l f o r home u s e .

The s i x c i t i e s

w hich p r o v id e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r le n d booh s t o c h i l d r e n o f i n d i g e n t p a r e n t s and th e one c i t y w hich p r o v i d e s t h a t f e e s be c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e l o a n o f books i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y f e e l t h a t o r d i n a r i l y c h i l d r e n sh o u ld be r e q u i r e d to p g r q h a se t h e i r own b o o k s.

In t h r e e c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r

i s e x p e c t e d to make m inor r e p a i r s t o b oo h s and i n two c i t i e s to have p u p i l s mend b o o h s.

T ea ch ers t h e m s e lv e s

ar e n o t immune from r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich c h e e k t h e i r u se o f sch o o l boohs.

In t h r e e c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r i s r e ­

q u ir e d t o r e t u r n a l l booh s b e lo n g in g to t h e d i s t r i c t

L

j

187

r

n

to th e p r in c ip a l,

i n t h r e e o th e r c i t i e s t o f u r n i s h

h i m s e l f w it h a s e t o f h ook s, and i n on© c i t y to r e f r a i n from b o r r o w in g books from t h e c h ild r e n *

fh e very

n a t u r e o f most o f t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s marks them as w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s r a t h e r th a n p o l i c i e s o f b o a r d s . ROUTIIE MATTERS3 A t e a c h e r must g i v e h i s a t t e n t i o n t o c e r t a i n r o u t i n e m a t t e r s t h a t a r e p a r t o f a s c h o o l management program.

R e g u l a t i o n s w h ich d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r on such

m a t t e r s d e a l w ith g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n s , t h e u se o f b u lle tin s,

emergency d i s m i s s a l s ,

and e x t r a d u t i e s .

r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s ,

Of t h e f o u r g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n s w hich

a r e g i v e n t e a c h e r s , 1&e o n l y one w hich ap p ea r s f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t s p e c i f i e s in f o r t y c i t i e s t h a t th e t e a c h e r s h a l l r e g i s t e r h i s tim e o f a r r i v a l and d e p a r tu r e#

O ther r u l e s r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r

i n t w e lv e c i t i e s to p o s t h i s name and g r a d e on th e d oor,

i n f i v e c i t i e s t o f o l l o w s p e c i a l d i r e c t i o n s few

t h e f i r s t day o f s c h o o l , and i n f o u r c i t i e s to s y n c h r o n iz e h i s t i m e p i e c e w i t h th e o f f i c i a l s c h o o l c l o c k , f h e r u l e s w h ich s p e c i f y t h e t e a c h e r ’ s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b u l l e t i n s appear e x t r e m e ly i n f r e q u e n t l y ,

3 A p p e n d ix - p .

366

f h e most

188

r

*1

f r e q u e n t d i r e c t s th e t e a c h e r i n fo u r c i t i e s to p r e s e r v e a l l n o t i c e s and b u l l e t i n s .

In t h r e e c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r

i s h e l d ' r e s p o n s i b le f o r a l l m a t t e r s w hich appear in b u l l e t i n s and i n one c i t y i s d i r e c t e d t o s e c u r e such n o t i c e s from th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ,

fh e v e r y n atu re o f th e

r u le s in d ic a t e s t h a t th e y are in s t r u c t io n s to so lv e lo c a l p r o b le m s. f h e r u l e s which p e r t a i n t o em ergency d i s m i s s a l s a r e fu r th e r i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f th e ten d en cy of boards to enact p r o v i s i o n s on any item w hich i n v o l v e s t h e s a f e t y o f p u p ils.

Of t h e n i n e p r o v i s i o n s w hich c o n c e r n em ergency

d i s m i s s a l s t h e two w h ich appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n sid ered s i g n i f i c a n t s p e c if y in t h ir t y - f o u r c i t i e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r be i n s t r u c t e d a s t o h i s d u t i e s i n e a s e o f f i r e and i n t w e n t y - s e v e n c i t i e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r t r a i n p u p i l s f o r em ergency d i s m i s s a l s ,

fh e in freq u en t

p r o v i s i o n s supplem ent t h e s e two s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s .

In

t w e l v e c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r i s .e x p e c te d t o be i n c h a r g e o f h i s c l a s s d u r in g an em ergency d i s m i s s a l ,

in e le v e n

to ta k e p a r t w i t h h i s p u p i l s in a l l f i r e d r i l l s ,

and

i n s i x to be f a m i l i a r w it h t h e s i g n a l s and p la n f o r fir e d r ills .

He must a s c e r t a i n t h e p ro p er e x i t b e f o r e

t a k i n g c h a r g e o f a room i n t h r e e c i t i e s ,

keep r e c o r d s

o f f i r e d r i l l s in two c o m m u n itie s, and have p u p i l s

L

j

189

r

i

p r a c t i c e l e a v i n g t h e s c h o o l w it h o u t wraps or hooks i n one c i t y ,

f h e r u l e o f one hoard w hich r e q u i r e s t h e

t e a c h e r t o t a k e p r e c a u t i o n s t o p r o t e c t p u p i l s d u r in g e a r th q u a k e s ,

i n d i c a t e s d e f i n i t e l y an a tte m p t t o s o l v e

a l o c a l problem . f h e t w e n t y - f o u r p r o v i s i o n s whieh d e a l w it h t h e t e a c h e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , f o r th e m ost p a r t , a r e w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s which d e a l w it h th e method and t h e tim e f o r such work,

f h e two most

f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s may he c o n s i d e r e d s t a t e m e n t s o f p o lic y ,

f h e s e d i r e c t t h e t e a e h e r i n 156 c i t i e s to keep

su ch r e c o r d s a s a r e r e q u i r e d hy a u t h o r i t i e s and i n 151 c i t i e s to keep a r e c o r d o f p u p il a t t e n d a n c e , p u n c t u a l i t y , p r o f i c i e n c y , and c o n d u c t ,

fwo o f t h e o th e r s i g n i f i c a n t

p r o v i s i o n s i n d i c a t e m ethods f o r p r e p a r in g r e p o r t s , and t h e t h i r d p r o v i d e s a p e n a l t y f o r f a i l u r e t o keep r e c o r d s p r o p e r ly ,

fh e t e a e h e r i s d i r e c t e d i n s e v e n t y - s e v e n

c i t i e s t o make out r e c o r d s prom ptly and n e a t l y and i n t h i r t y - e i g h t c i t i e s to f o llo w s p e c if ie d d i r e c t io n s .

In

t h i r t y - t w o c i t i e s he i s t h r e a t e n e d w it h the l o s s o f pay f o r f a i l u r e to r en d er r e p o r t s .

I n s t r u c t i o n s w h ic h

ar e found t o o i n f r e q u e n t l y t o he c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r i n n i n e t e e n c i t i e s to hand i n a l l r e c o r d s b e f o r e b e g in n in g v a c a t i o n ,

L

in t h r e e c i t i e s to

j

190 r

r e f r a i n from making o u t permanent c l a s s r e c o r d s u n t i l th e c l a s s i s s e t t l e d ,

and i n one c i t y to l e a v e r e c o r d s

and r e p o r t s t o g u id e h i s s u c c e s s o r .

Humorous r u l e s

i n s i s t upon d e f i n i t e t y p e s o f r e p o r t s ,

The t e a c h e r i s

e x p e c t e d in s i x t e e n c i t i e s to make a s e a t i n g p la n o f p u p i l s and i n f i f t e e n c i t i e s t o f i l e h i s home a d d r e s s w ith a u t h o r i t i e s .

In s i x c i t i e s each he must subm it

a t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s p e r i o d i c a l l y t o t h e p r i n c i p a l and make t h e p rop er r e c o r d upon t h e a d m is s io n and w ith d r a w a l o f a p u p il.

The t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d t o i s s u e r e p o r t c a r d s

on s p e c i f i e d d a t e s i n t h r e e c i t i e s , of a v i s i t

t o f i l e a sta te m e n t

t o a p u p i l ' s home i n two c i t i e s ,

a tten d a n ce r e p o r ts in one.

and t o s i g n

p r o o f o f e x p e r i e n c e and

c r e d e n t i a l s f o r academ ic c r e d i t must he s u b m itte d i n th ree c i t i e s .

The te a c h e r i s r e s t r i c t e d i n h i s r a t i n g

o f p u p i l s by r u l e s which r e q u i r e him in se v e n c i t i e s t o u se a sy stem o f marks a u t h o r i z e d by t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , in t h r e e c i t i e s to u se c a r e i n g r a d in g , and i n two c i t i e s t o f o l l o w th e norm al c u r v e i n m ark ing.

In two c i t i e s th e

home room t e a c h e r i s h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o m p ilin g and i s s u i n g r e p o r t s , and i n one c i t y t h e t e a c h e r s a r e i n s t r u c t e d to send marks to t h e o f f i c i a l t e a c h e r a t a s p e c i f ie d tim e.

One r e g u l a t i o n w h ich e v i d e n t l y aims to

p r e v e n t t h e embarrassm ent and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f any p u p i l

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-i

d ir e c t s th e tea ch er t o g iv e th e sc h o o l sta n d in g of p u p ils o n l y to a u t h o r i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s .

One hoard s p e c i f i e s t h a t

th e a c c u r a c y o f a t e a c h e r Ts r e c o r d s s h a l l he c o n s i d e r e d i n teach er r a t in g ,

The c o n t e n t o f t h e s e r u l e s i n d i c a t e s

t h a t many o f them a t t e m p t to s o l v e l o c a l problem s and sh o u ld he w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s r a t h e r th a n hoard p o l i c i e s . B oards g e n e r a l l y a g r e e on th e p o l i c y t h a t t e a c h e r s may he r e q u i r e d t o perform e x t r a d u t i e s .

The most

f r e q u e n t r u l e g r a n t s th e p r i n c i p a l i n e i g h t y - f o u r c i t i e s t h e power t o a s s i g n a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s to t h e t e a c h e r . T h is p r e r o g a t i v e i s d e l e g a t e d to t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t in f i f t e e n c i t i e s and t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r in one c i t y .

Seven

c i t i e s d i r e c t th e t e a c h e r t o perform a l l e x t r a d u t i e s to w h ich he i s a s s i g n e d , and s i x e x p e c t him t o t a k e p a r t i n any s c h o o l a c t i v i t y i f h i s s e r v i c e s a r e n e e d e d .

In

one c i t y t h e t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d t o a s s i s t a p r a c t i c e t e a c h e r a s much a s p o s s i b l e .

W hile c i t i e s o f a l l s i z e s

ar e r e p r e s e n t e d i n th e e i g h t y - f o u r w h ich g r a n t th e p r in c ip a l a u th o r ity to a ssig n ex tr a d u t ie s to te a c h e r s , f

t h ir t e e n o f th e s ix te e n c i t i e s d e le g a tin g t h i s fu n ctio n to th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t h ave p o p u l a t i o n s o f l e s s than 5 0 , 0 0 0 . T h is i s p r o b a b ly due t o th e f a c t t h a t i n s m a l l e r c i t i e s t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t e n p erform s t h e work w hich i s a ssig n e d to a p r in c ip a l in a la r g e r c i t y .

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SUMMARY B oards o f e d u c a t io n d e f i n e t h e t e a c h e r ' s f u n c t i o n s i n s c h o o l management by 155 r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich d e a l w ith t h e m a in te n a n c e o f p ro p er p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , th e c a r e o f s c h o o l p l a n t and eq u ip m en t,

and r o u t i n e m a t t e r s .

Of

t h e s e 155 p r o v i s i o n s , t h i r t y - o n e appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t ,

The m a in ten a n ce

o f proper p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h r e e r e g u l a t i o n s on v e n t i l a t i o n , te m p e r a tu r e , and l i g h t i n g , two on c o o p e r a t i o n w it h t h e j a n i t o r , and one on c l e a n l i n e s s and o r d e r .

S even s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s d e a l w it h t h e

c a r e o f b o o k s, fo u r w i t h s u p p l i e s ,

th r e e w ith b u ild in g ,

f u r n i t u r e , and eq u ip m en t, and two w i t h t h e u se o f p r e m is e s . The t e a c h e r ' s u s e o f k e y s and t h e s c h o o l t e l e p h o n e are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d under s c h o o l management but t h e p r o v i s i o n s w hich p e r t a i n t o them do n o t appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t ,

R o u tin e m a t te r s

a r e r e g u l a t e d by f i v e s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s on r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , two on em ergency d i s m i s s a l s , and one each on g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n s and e x t r a d u t i e s . r e g u la t io n s d ea l w ith b u l l e t i n s .

In freq u en t

The r e g u l a t i o n s w hich

appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t a r e l i s t e d w i t h t h e i r f r e q u e n c y in T able X III*

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. 193 r TABLE X I I I

PBEQUEHCY OP SIC1OTICAM BESCLATIOHS APFEOTIEGr IBS TEACHES ASS SCHOOL MAiTAGEBEST HECrULATIOU3

FHBQUMCY

I* H a in te n a n c e o f P ro p er P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n s A* V e n t i l a t i o n , T em perature, l i g h t i n g ^ T eacher s h a l l g i v e a t t e n t i o n t o th e m a in te n a n c e o f 1# P ro p er tem p er a tu r e Zm P ro p er v e n t i l a t i o n 3* P ro p er l i g h t i n g

16? 166 63

1* C l e a n l i n e s s and Order 1# t e a c h e r s h a l l he r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c l e a n l i n e s s , o r d e r , and n e a t n e s s o f t h e s c h o o l room

80

0* C o o p e r a t io n w i t h J a n i t o r 1* T each er s h a l l r e p o r t i n e f f i c i e n t j a n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e to p r i n c i p a l or S u p e r in t e n d e n t Z♦ Teacher s h a l l r e l i n q u i s h room a t d e f i n i t e l e n g t h o f tim e a f t e r d i s ­ m i s s a l to p e r m it th e j a n i t o r t o c l e a n

38 84

I I * C are o f S c h o o l P la n t and Equipment A* B u i l d i n g , jJP urniture, and Equipment 1 . T each er s h a l l guard a g a i n s t i n j u r y to b u i l d i n g s , equip m en t, and f u r n i t u r e 8. T each er s h a l l r e p o r t i n j u r y t o b u i l d ­ i n g s , equipm ent, o r f u r n i t u r e t o P r i n c i p a l or p r o p e r a u t h o r i t y 3* Teacher s h a l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c a r e o f b u i l d i n g s , equipm ent, and fu r n itu r e

89 81 69

j

194

TABU

X III

(con t.)

FREQUENCY OF SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS AFFECTINS THE TEACHER AHD SCHOOL MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS B* U se o f P r e m is e s 1 . No s c h o o l room s h a l l he opened t o p u p i l s e x e e p t by a t e a c h e r 2• T eacher s h a l l s e e t h a t s c h o o l room i s v a c a te d when he l e a y e s

1* T each er s h a l l r e q u i s i t i o n s u p p l i e s from P r i n c i p a l 2* T eacher s h a l l u se s u p p l i e s c a r e f u l l y 3# T each er s h a l l k ee p a r e c o r d o f a l l su p p lie s 4* T each er s h a l l n o t g i v e out o r d e r s fo r su p p lie s

24 23

42 34 24 24

D* Books 1 . T each er s h a l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f a r c a r e , o f books p r o v id e d f o r h i s room 2 . T e a ch er s h a l l k eep r e c o r d o f a l l books i s s u e d t o p u p i l s 3* T each er s h a l l s e e t h a t i n j u r i e s t o b ook s a r e made good 4* T ea ch er s h a l l s e e t h a t books lo a n e d t o p u p i l s are d u ly r e t u r n e d 5* T eacher s h a l l examine b ook s p e r io d ic a lly 6 . T each er s h a l l r e p o r t i n j u r y t o books t o S u p e rin t e n d en t or P r i n c i p a l 7* T eacher s h a l l guard a g a i n s t i n j u r y t o books

70 §1 34 32 30 27 26

I I I * R o u tin e M a tt e r s A* G en er a l D i r e c t i o n s 1* T each er s h a l l r e g i s t e r tim e o f a r r i v a l and d e p a r tu r e L

40 j

195

TABLE X I I I

(oon t.)

EKEQUEHOY OS SISBII’IOAIT HEGULATIOHS Ai'SEG TISG THE TEACHER AED SCHOOL MAHASEMEHT RSS0LATI0H3

SBEQOEICT

B. Emergency D i s m i s s a l 1* T ea ch er s h a l l he i n s t r u c t e d a s to d u t ie s in c a se o f f i r e 2* T each er s h a l l t r a i n p u p i l s f o r em ergency d i s m i s s a l s

34 27

G* R eco rd s and R e p o r ts 1 . T eacher s h a l l keep such r e c o r d s a s a r e r e q u i r e d by a u t h o r i t i e s Zm T eacher s h a l l k e e p r e q u i r e d r e g i s t e r or r e c o r d o f p u p i l a t t e n d a n c e , p u n c t u a l i t y , p r o f i c i e n c y , and co n d u ct 3* T each er s h a l l make ou t r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s prom ptly and n e a t l y 4 . T eacher s h a l l f o l l o w s p e c i f i e d d i r e c t i o n s f o r making ou t r e p o r t s 5» T e a c h e r ’-a pay may be w i t h h e l d i f r e p o r t s a r e n o t made

136

151 77 38 32

D. B x t r a D u t i e s 1 . T each er may be a s s i g n e d to e x t r a s c h o o l d u t i e s by p r i n c i p a l

L

84

J

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i

r g o iq lusio h s

R e g u la tio n s a s s ig n te a c h e r s v a r io u s fu n c tio n s in s c h o o l management.

S e v e r a l o f th e r u l e s r e p r e s e n t hoard

p o l i c i e s h u t many d e a l w i t h m a t t e r s which s h o u ld he t h e d e c i s i o n s or w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s o f s c h o o l e x e c u t i v e s . L o c a l problem s u n d o u b te d ly i n f l u e n c e d th e enactm ent o f p r o v i s i o n s w h ich d i r e c t t h e te a c h e r i n t h e m ain ten an ce o f proper p h y sic a l c o n d itio n s ,

th e c a r e o f s c h o o l p l a n t ,

and th e h a n d lin g o f r o u t i n e m a t t e r s .

Boards were

c o n c e r n e d w it h t h e s a f e t y o f p u p i l s and th e p r o t e c t i o n o f s c h o o l p r o p e r t y when t h e s e r u l e s w ere p r o m u lg a te d . V i r t u a l l y none can be c o n s i d e r e d u n f a i r to t h e t e a c h e r . There a p p e a r s t o be no c o r r e l a t i o n betw een t h e s i z e o f t h e c i t y and th e ty p e o f r u l e s e n a c t e d . The n a t u r e o f th e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t e a c h e r ' s f u n c t i o n s i n s c h o o l management i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y d e a l w i t h m a t t e r s w h ich s h o u ld be t h e d e c i s i o n s or i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t o r p r i n c i p a l .

W hile h o a r d s s e t g e n e r a l

p o l i c i e s w h ich d e f i n e t h e t e a c h e r ' s p a r t i n t h e m a in te n ­ ance o f p ro p e r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l th e i n f r e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s which p e r t a i n to th e m a in te n a n c e o f p rop er v e n t i l a t i o n , te m p e r a tu r e , and l i g h t i n g and c l e a n l i n e s s and o r d e r c o u ld b e t t e r be l e f t to th e d i s c r e t i o n o f an a d m i n i s t r a t o r .

L

The same can be s a i d o f

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r

i th e r u l e s w h ich d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r t o c o o p e r a t e w it h t h e ja n ito r *

T y p ic a l p r o v i s i o n s r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r to n o t i f y

t h e p r i n c i p a l or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i f th e te m p e r a tu r e i s abnorm al, t o k eep a r e c o r d o f c l a s s room t e m p e r a t u r e s , t o c l o s e windows and to a d j u s t sh a d e s to u n iform h e i g h t . In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s t h e t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d to r e p o r t i n e f f i c i e n t j a n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e , to v a c a t e th e c l a s s room e a r l y enough to a llo w tim e f o r c l e a n i n g , and t o have s e a ts ad ju sted at d is m is s a l. S e v e r a l r u l e s w hich d e a l w ith t h e t e a c h e r 1s c a r e o f s c h o o l p l a n t and equipm ent r e a l l y su p p lem en t and i n t e r p r e t g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s and, in str u c tio n s.

V ery s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s r e q u i r e t e a c h e r s

to he r e s p o n s i b l e fo r equip m en t, t o guard i t d e str u c tio n .

t h e r e f o r e , c o u ld w e l l he w r i t t e n

th e proper u s e o f th e p l a n t and. a g a i n s t damage, and t o r e p o r t any

I n f r e q u e n t r u l e s , how ever, d i r e c t th e

t e a c h e r t o k eep i n v e n t o r i e s , a u th o r itie s,

to r e p o r t t h e f t s t o

t o f o r b i d t h e u se o f p i n s and ta c k s i n w a l l s ,

or to s e e t h a t damage to s c h o o l p r o p e r t y i s made g o o d . N e a r l y a l l th e p r o v i s i o n s w h ich d e a l w it h t h e t e a c h e r ’ s u se o f p r e m i s e s , k e y s , and th e s c h o o l t e l e p h o n e p e r t a i n t o m a t t e r s which s h o u ld be l e f t t o t h e d e c i s i o n s o f a d m in istr a tiv e o f f i c e r s .

A r e g u l a t i o n which a l l o w s a

t e a e h e r t o u s e t h e t e l e p h o n e o n l y i n e a s e o f emergenoy

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r p l a c e s th e u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e t e a c h e r ' s u se o f t h e t e l e p h o n e on th e a d m i n i s t r a t o r who must d e f i n e "em ergency” •

I t would seem s e n s i b l e t o l e t him b ea r

th e f u l l r e s p o n s ib i li t y .

A l l of th e p r o T i s i o n s w hich

d e a l w i t h t h e t e a c h e r ' s h a n d lin g o f books c o u ld become t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f th e p r i n c i p a l or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i f b oard s e n a c te d the r e g u l a t i o n t h a t t h e t e a e h e r s h a l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b o o k s,

p r o v i s i o n s such a s t h o s e which

r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r to k e e p r e c o r d s o f b o o k s, t o a s s i g n b o o k s, and to stamp books r e a l l y su pp lem en t t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c y j u s t q u o te d . W hile s e p a r a t e r e g u l a t i o n s on r o u t i n e m a t t e r s d e a l w ith g e n e r a l d i r e c t io n s , b u l l e t i n s ,

em ergency d i s m i s s a l s ,

r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , and e x t r a d u t i e s , i t seem s t h a t a l l o f t h e s e c o n t r i b u t e t o f o u r main p o l i c i e s .

T hese d i r e c t

t h e t e a e h e r t o r e g i s t e r t h e tim e o f a r r i v a l and d e p a r t u r e , t o t r a i n p u p i l s f o r em ergency d i s m i s s a l s , t o keep r e c o r d s r e q u ir e d by a u t h o r i t i e s , and t o a c c e p t e x t r a a s s ig n m e n t s . A l l o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s supplem ent th e r u l e s w h ich s e t t h e s e p o l i c i e s .

T y p i c a l are th e g e n e r a l

d i r e c t i o n s w h ich r e q u i r e t h e t e a c h e r t o p l a c e h i s name on t h e door o r t o f o l l o w s p e c i a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r th e f i r s t day o f s c h o o l .

Ite m s w h ich p e r t a i n t o b u l l e t i n s i n d i c a t e

by t h e i r f r e q u e n c y and c o n t e x t t h a t t h e y a r e n o t m a t t e r s

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i

f o r board p o l i c i e s .

A t y p ic a l p ro v isio n d ir e c t s tea ch ers

to p r e s e r v e a l l b u l l e t i n s .

The r u l e s which r e g u l a t e t i e

t e a c h e r ’ s p a r t i n f i r e d r i l l s supplem ent t h e more g e n e r a l p o l i c y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r t r a i n th e p u p i l s f o r em ergency d ism issa l.

The r e g u l a t i o n s w h ic h augment th e g e n e r a l

p o l i c y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r keep su ch r e c o r d s a s ar e r e q u i r e d b y th e a u t h o r i t i e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w it h th e ty p e o f r e c o r d s to be k e p t or t h e m ethods f o r making r e p o r t s .

The

v a r i o u s exam p les w hich have been c i t e d on each o f th e t o p i c s c o n s i d e r e d under s c h o o l management i n d i c a t e th e e x t e n t t o w hich r e g u l a t i o n s have become t h e v e h i c l e fo r tr a n sm ittin g th e in s tr u c t io n s of a d m in istr a tiv e o f f i c e r s to t e a c h e r s . B oards o f e d u c a t io n a p p a r e n t l y e n a c t many r u l e s to s o l v e l o c a l p r o b le m s.

Some o f t h e s e f o r b i d th e

t e a e h e r to r e q u e s t t h e board o f p u b l i c works t o make r e p a ir s,

t o u se s e n o o l p r e m is e s a f t e r s c h o o l h o u rs or

d u r in g v a c a t i o n s ,

or t o park h i s e a r on s c h o o l g r o u n d s.

O th e rs warn t h e t e a c h e r n ot to borrow a p u p i l ' s books or c la im th e u se o f a room b e c a u se o f e x te n d e d occupaney.

The p r o v i s i o n t h a t t h e t e a e h e r must guard

t h e p u p i l s d u r in g e a r th q u a k e s e e r t a i n l y i s an a tte m p t t o s o l v e a l o c a l problem . The t e n d e n c y o f b o a rd s o f e d u c a t io n to e n a c t r u l e s

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r

on m a t t e r s w hich a f f e c t t h e s a f e t y o f th e p u p i l s or t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s c h o o l p r o p e r t y i s n o t i c e a b l e i n th e r u l e s on t h e t e a c h e r and s c h o o l management.

The fr e q u e n t

p r o v i s i o n s w h ich d e a l w i t h t h e c a r e o f s c h o o l p l a n t and equipm ent i n d i c a t e t h a t b o a r d s a tte m p t to make t e a c h e r s f e e l a d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the equipm ent under th e ir su p e rv isio n .

The r e g u l a t i o n s which r e q u i r e

t e a c h e r s who u s e m ach in ery to guard t h e s a f e t y o f p u p i l s , w h ic h f o r b i d t e a c h e r s t o a l lo w u n s u p e r v is e d p u p i l s t o e n t e r or rem ain on s c h o o l p r o p e r t y , and w h ich r e q u i r e d r i l l i n g f o r em ergency d i s m i s s a l s aim t o p r o t e c t both t h e p u p i l and s c h o o l p r o p e r ty *

The r u l e s which d e f i n e

t h e t e a c h e r ' s p a r t i n s c h o o l management do n o t seem to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c i t i e s o f any p a r t i c u l a r s i z e . They do n o t i n d i c a t e any fu n d a m en ta l d i f f e r e n c e o f p o lic y ,

or i n c l u d e ite m s which c o u ld be jud ged a s u n f a i r

to t h e te a c h e r ,.

L

J

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1

CHAPTER

X

THE TEACHER AND ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY AUTHORITY S in c e t h e t e a c h e r i s h i g h l y c o n c er n e d w it h h i s r e l a t i o n to h i s s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r s ,

th e r e g u l a t i o n s which

d e f i n e th e r e l a t i o n s o f th e t e a c h e r t o t h e h oard , su p e rin te n d en t, p r in c ip a l, t o him .

or s u p e r v i s o r a r e im p o r ta n t

He i s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f

a p p e a l i n g th e d e c i s i o n s o f h i s s u p e r i o r s .

B oards o f

e d u c a t i o n e v i d e n t l y a r e i n agreem ent a s to th e p o l i c i e s w hich s h o u ld r e g u l a t e th e r e l a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r and h ig h er a u t h o r it ie s ,

s i n c e o f t h e 113 p r o v i s i o n s ,

f o u r appear f r e q u e n t l y enough to h e s i g n i f i c a n t ,

th ir ty pro­

v i s i o n s d e f i n e and d i r e c t b o th t h e t e a c h e r s r e l a t i o n t o h i g h e r a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e r e l a t i o n o f h ig h e r a u t h o r i t i e s t o t h e t e a c h e r , a n d .t h e method o f a p p e a l s from t h e d e c i s i o n s o f s u p e r i o r s . TEACHES AIJD THE BOAHD1 The v e r y l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n s on t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r and t h e board i n d i c a t e s t h a t most h o a r d s c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and p r i n c i p a l ,

as

e x e c u t i v e h e a d s o f t h e s y s t e m and s c h o o l r e s p e c t i v e l y , s h o u ld m a in ta in a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t a c t s w ith th e t e a e h e r .

1 l

A p p e n d ix

p.

369

J

F i f t e e n p r o v i s i o n s do e x i s t , how ever, w h ich d e f i n e teach er-b oard r e l a t i o n s .

Numerous r e g u l a t i o n s g r a n t

c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s t o a co m m ittee o f the h o a r d .

A

c o m m ittee i s d i r e c t e d t o s u p e r v i s e t h e t e a c h e r i n e i g h t e e n c itie s ,

t o r a t e him i n n in e c i t i e s ,

to c o n sid e r q u e s tio n s

r e l a t i n g t o h i s c o n d u c t in t h r e e c i t i e s ,

and to c o n s i d e r

such q u e s t i o n s i n e x e c u t i v e s e s s i o n i n two c i t i e s .

A

c o m m ittee i s a l s o d i r e c t e d t o make recom m endations to t h e board a f t e r a v i s i t

to a t e a e h e r r a t e d in c o m p e te n t by

t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n two c i t i e s , t o t h e t e a c h e r i n one c i t y . tea eh er to a s s i s t th e board.

and t o make s u g g e s t i o n s

S e v e r a l r u l e s r e q u i r e th e I n t e n c i t i e s he i s

d i r e c t e d t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e board and i n two c i t i e s each to p erform such d u t i e s a s th e board may d e s i g n a t e and t o p r e s e n t s u g g e s t i o n s t o t h e board b y p l a c i n g them i n a box i n ea ch s c h o o l .

S in c e most a u t h o r i t i e s a g r e e

t h a t i n d i v i d u a l members o f a board o f e d u c a t i o n have no corp orate a u th o r ity , i t

i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t in s i x

c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r may be v i s i t e d by i n d i v i d u a l members and i n two c i t i e s he i s d i r e c t e d t o f u r n i s h board members w i t h any in f o r m a tio n t h e y may r e q u e s t .

3?wo o f

th e l a r g e r c i t i e s g r a n t t h e te a c h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t board m e e t in g s th r o u g h a t e a c h e r s * c o u n c i l , and one o f th e s m a l l e r c i t i e s g r a n t s th e t e a c h e r t h e r i g h t to p e t i t i o n t h e board.

In one c i t y t h e p r e s i d e n t o f th e

BOS

r

i

board i s a llo w e d t o em ploy c o u n s e l to d e fe n d a te a c h e r * S e v e ra l o f th e s e r u le s in d ic a t e th a t th e y are attem p ts to s o l v e l o c a l p r o b le m s. TEACHES A1JD SUPBBBffiffllDEHT2 The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t 1s p o s i t i o n as e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r o f t h e s c h o o l sy s te m i m p l i e s t h a t r a t h e r w id e pow ers must be g r a n t e d him to a d m i n i s t e r and e x e c u t e board p o l i c i e s . T w e n ty -fo u r r e g u l a t i o n s , n i n e o f w hich ap p ea r f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t ,

d e f i n e t h e s u p e r in te n d e n t *s

r e l a t i o n to th e t e a e h e r .

The m ost f r e q u e n t r u l e s g r a n t

t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t more g e n e r a l powers w h i l e th e l e s s f r e q u e n t ten d to be more s p e c i f i c .

The p r o v i s i o n s w hich

o ccu r m ost o f t e n g r a n t t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n 129 c i t i e s g e n e r a l a u t h o r i t y ov e r a l l t e a c h e r s and d i r e c t him i n 128 c i t i e s t o a d v i s e , c o u n s e l ,

and d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r

i n m a t t e r s o f s c h o o l management, d i s c i p l i n e , in str u c tio n .

and

In n i n e t y - s i x c i t i e s t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i s

expected to v i s i t

th e t e a c h e r , i n e i g h t y - s i x c i t i e s t o

be th e a g e n t o f com m unication between t h e board and t h e te a c h e r , in s i x t y - n i n e c i t i e s to r e p o r t th e tea c h e r fo r i n e f f i c i e n c y , and i n s i x t y - t h r e e c i t i e s t o r a t e th e teaeh er.

I t i s t h e d u ty o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n

2 A p p e n d ix p .

L

370

j

204 r

i

t h i r t y - o n e co m m u n ities t o c h e c k th e t e a e h e r 1a o b ser v a n c e o f r e g u la tio n s,

in t w e n t y - e i g h t t o r e p o r t t h e t e a c h e r f o r

v i o l a t i o n o f r u l e s , and i n t w e n t y - t h r e e to e h e ck t h e t e a c h e r ’ s r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s .

T h is s e r i e s o f p r o v i s i o n s

d e m o n s t r a te s t h e te n d e n c y w h ic h i s m en tio n ed above t h a t t h e more f r e q u e n t it e m s te n d t o be more g e n e r a l .

Numerous

r u l e s w h ich appear l e s s f r e q u e n t l y d i r e c t t h e s u p e r in te n d e n t t o i n s p e c t c e r t a i n p h a se s o f th e t e a c h e r ’ s work and t o r ep o rt th e tea c h e r for v a r io u s w eakn esses,

fh e su p erin ­

te n d e n t i s r e q u i r e d i n f i f t e e n c i t i e s t o c h e c k th e t e a c h e r ’ s a d h eren ce t o t h e c o u r s e o f s tu d y and i n f o u r c i t i e s t o se e th a t th e tea e h e r has c o p ie s o f th e r e g u la t io n s .

He

i s a l s o i n s t r u c t e d t o r e p o r t t h e t e a c h e r t o t h e b oard i n t w e lv e c i t i e s f o r i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n , i n t e n c i t i e s f o r n e g lig e n c e ,

i n one c i t y f o r th e i n f l i c t i o n o f punishm ent

w h ich l e a d s to p h y s i c a l i n j u r y , and i n a n o th er c i t y f o r p h y sic a l d is a b ilit y . £he a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n a tu r e o f some r e g u l a t i o n s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h o s e w hich d i r e c t th e s u p e r in te n d e n t i n n in e c i t i e s to keep o f f i c e h o u rs f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s , i n e i g h t c i t i e s to make r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s t o g o v e r n t e a c h e r s , and i n e i g h t o t h e r c i t i e s t o keep a record o f the t e a c h e r ’ s s e r v i c e .

O ther i n f r e q u e n t r e g u ­

l a t i o n s aim to i n s u r e a p r o f e s s i o n a l r a p p o r t b e tw e en th e

L

j

s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and t e a c h e r *

They r e q u i r e t h e s u p e r i n ­

te n d e n t to a s s i s t a t e a c h e r b e f o r e r e p o r t i n g him t o t h e board f o r i n e f f i c i e n c y i n n i n e c i t i e s ,

t o in form t h e

t e a c h e r o f th e r e a s o n s f o r an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r a t i n g i n fiv e c it ie s ,

and t o s e c u r e harm onious r e l a t i o n s between

p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s i n f i v e o t h e r s .

The s u p e r in te n d e n t

must f u r n i s h p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p i n t h r e e co m m u n ities and r e f r a i n from rep rim a n d in g t h e t e a c h e r i n th e p r e s e n c e o f p u p i l s i n one e i t y .

One p r o v i s i o n f o r b i d s t h e

su p e rin te n d en t to charge th e tea ch er fo r l e s s o n s . W h ile t h e t e a c h e r ?s r e l a t i o n t o t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t i s r e g u l a t e d by s i x p r o v i s i o n s , enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .

o n ly two appear f r e q u e n t l y

T hese two i n s i s t i n f i f t y - t h r e e

c i t i e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r o b ey a l l d i r e c t i o n s and o r d e r s o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and i n f i f t y - t w o c i t i e s t h a t he co o p era te w ith th e a d m in is tr a to r .

The f o u r i n f r e q u e n t

p r o v is io n s in d ic a t e by t h e ir n atu re th a t th e y are a t ­ tem p ts t o s o l v e l o c a l p r o b le m s.

In s e v e n c i t i e s t h e

t e a c h e r s a r e g r a n t e d th e r i g h t t o e l e c t a com m ittee to r e p r e s e n t them t o t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , i n t h r e e c i t i e s t h e y a r e a d v i s e d t o s e e k t h e c o u n s e l o f th e s u p e r i n ­ te n d e n t on s c h o o l p ro b lem s, i n t h r e e o t h e r c i t i e s t o p r e s e n t s u g g e s t i o n s t o t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , and i n one c i t y to keep th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t in form ed o f a l l m a t t e r s w hich a f f e c t t h e i n t e r e s t and w e l f a r e o f t h e s c h o o l s .

TEACHER AHD HRIHCI PAH3 The r u l e s g o v e r n in g t h e r e l a t i o n o f th e p r i n c i p a l and su p e rin ten d en t to th e tea c h e r are s im ila r .

S in ce th e

p r i n c i p a l i s t h e im m ediate s u p e r i o r o f t h e t e a e h e r ,

th e

s t a t e m e n t s o f h i s : r e l a t i o n to t h e t e a c h e r a r e more s p e c i f i c .

The

t e n d e n c y f o r t h e more f r e q u e n t r u l e s to he g e n e r a l and

t h e l e s s f r e q u e n t r u l e s to he s p e c i f i c i s n o t q u i t e a s p rnounced a s i n th e c a s e o f t h e r u l e s w h ic h r e g u l a t e su p e rin ten d en t-tea ch er r e l a t io n s .

The two p r o v i s i o n s w h ich

o c cu r most o f t e n s e t v e r y g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s .

The p r i n c i p a l

i s d i r e c t e d i n 115 c i t i e s t o s u p e r v i s e t h e t e a e h e r and i n n i n e t y - n i n e c i t i e s t o a d v i s e , c o u n s e l , d i r e c t , and a s s i s t him .

The o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s d e l e g a t e

v e r y s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s to t h e p r i n c i p a l .

In s e v e n t y -

f i v e c i t i e s he i s d i r e c t e d t o r e p o r t t e a c h e r a tt e n d a n c e and p u n c t u a l i t y ,

in s i x t y - e i g h t t o r a t e t h e t e a c h e r , and

i n s i x t y - s e v e n t o v i s i t him .

The p r i n c i p a l i s r e q u ir e d

to r e p o r t th e t e a c h e r to th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r hoard f o r i n e f f i c i e n c y in f i f t y - t h r e e c i t i e s ,

to in s p e c t h is

r e c o r d s i n f i f t y - t w o , and t o he r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s e f f i c i e n c y in t h ir t y - t w o .

In t w e n t y - e i g h t com m u n ities

th e p r i n c i p a l i s named t h e a g e n t o f com m unication b etw een t h e t e a c h e r and h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y .

3 A p p e n d ix

p.

373

Numerous p r o v i s i o n s

r e q u i r e t h e p r i n c i p a l to c h e c k some p h a se e f t h e t e a c h e r 1s work o r t o r e p o r t him t o a u t h o r i t i e s f o r s p e c i f i c weak­ nesses*

T w e n ty -fo u r c i t i e s d i r e c t t h e p r i n c i p a l t o c h e c k

t h e t e a c h e r ’ s a d h er e n c e t o t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y , t h i r t e e n c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r ’ s prompt perform ance o f d u ty , se v e n c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r ’ s program, and f o u r c i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r ’ s p la n .

Two h o ard s r e q u i r e him t o s e e t h a t th e t e a c h e r

d o e s n o t l e a v e t h e room u n t i l a l l p u p i l s h a ve l e f t w h i l e in one c i t y i t i s th e d u ty o f th e p r i n c i p a l t o i n s p e c t th e t e a c h e r ’ s rep o rt o f p u p il d e te n tio n .

The p r i n c i p a l

i s o r d e r e d t o r e p o r t a t e a e h e r t o t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or hoard i n tw e n ty -tw o c i t i e s f o r t h e v i o l a t i o n o f r e g u ­ la tio n s,

i n t e n f o r i n e f f i c i e n c y p r o v id e d he h a s t r i e d

to rem edy t h e c a u s e ,

in f i v e f o r n e g l i g e n c e i n c a r e

o f s c h o o l p r o p e r t y , and i n one c i t y f o r u n u su a l p u n is h ­ m en t.

In t w e lv e c o m m u n ities t h e p r i n c i p a l must r e c o r d

and r e p o r t th e c a u se o f a t e a c h e r ’ s a b s e n c e .

C e r t a in

p r o v isio n s s p e c if y th a t th e p r in c ip a l e x h ib it le a d e r sh ip w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l by s e t t i n g s ta n d a r d s f o r t h e t e a c h e r in n in e c i t i e s , c itie s ,

by c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e t e a c h e r i n s e v e n

and by a d v i s i n g t h e t e a e h e r on m a t t e r s o f

d i s c i p l i n e in s i x c i t i e s .

The t e a e h e r i s p r o t e c t e d

a g a i n s t th e t a c t l e s s or u n sc r u p u lo u s p r i n c i p a l by r u l e s w hich i n s e v e n i n s t a n c e s f o r b i d t h e p r i n c i p a l t o c r i t i c i s e a tea c h e r in the p resen ce o f c h ild r e n ,

in

208 r

-i

se v en o t h e r i n s t a n c e s d i r e c t t h e p r i n c i p a l t o g i v e t h e t e a e h e r a cop y o f h i s r a t i n g ,

and i n one i n s t a n c e r e q u i r e

t h e p r i n c i p a l t o have th e t e a c h e r s i g n h i s r a t i n g .

In one

sy s te m th e p r i n c i p a l i s fo r b id d e n t o ch a rg e t h e t e a e h e r f o r le sso n s.

Many o f t h e s e i n f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s i n d i c a t e by

t h e ir natu re th a t th e y are attem p ts to s o lv e l o c a l problem s and ought to be w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s o f th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t r a t h e r than board p o l i c i e s . The aim o f t h e two m ost f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s w h ich d e f i n e t h e t e a c h e r ’ s r e l a t i o n to t h e p r i n c i p a l i s t h e same a s t h e two m ost f r e q u e n t r u l e s w hich d e f i n e t h e t e a e h e r * s r e l a t i o n to th e s u p e t i n t e n d e n t .

The t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d

in s e v e n t y - t w o c i t i e s t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l and i n f o r t y - s e v e n c i t i e s t o obey a l l h i s o r d e r s and d ir e c tio n s.

The o t h e r s i x p r o v i s i o n s appear v e r y i n ­

f r e q u e n t l y and, w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , s i g n i f i c a n t ite m s.

supplem ent t h e two

The one v a r i a t i o n from t h e g e n e r a l

t r e n d p e r m it s t e a c h e r s i n two c i t i e s to e l e c t a co m m ittee to r e p r e s e n t them t o th e p r i n c i p a l .

O ther i n f r e q u e n t

p r o v is io n s d i r e c t th e teaeher in s i x c i t i e s to a tten d i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h th e p r i n c i p a l , s u g g e s t i o n s to t h e p r i n c i p a l ,

i n two to make

in two o t h e r s to r e p o r t

to th e p r i n c i p a l any c o n d i t i o n t h a t i s u n f a v o r a b le to th e s c h o o l , and i n one t o rem ain i n th e room d u r in g the

L

j

809

i

r

v i s i t o f th e p r i n c i p a l .

T hese i n f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s do

n o t e x p r e s s p o l i c i e s w hich a r e d i v e r g e n t from t h e sig n ific a n t r u le s .

TEACHER AID SUPERVISOR4 The t e a c h e r ' s r e l a t i o n t o th e s u p e r v i s o r i s n e c e s s a r i l y d i f f e r e n t from h i s r e l a t i o n w ith t h e s u p e r i n ­ t e n d e n t o r p r i n c i p a l b e c a u se o f th e in h e r e n t d i f f e r e n c e in th e p o s itio n s *

In t h i s s t u d y t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s

i n t e r p r e t e d a s a s t a f f o f f i c e r who comes to t h e t e a c h e r i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y f w h il e t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and p r i n c i p a l a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s l i n e o f f i c e r s to whom t h e teaeh er i s 5d i r e c t ly r e s p o n s ib le .

Three o f t h e f o u r

s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s w h ich d e f i n e t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r e l a t i o n to t h e t e a c h e r d e f i n i t e l y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r comes t o t h e t e a c h e r a s an a d v i s e r .

The

s u p e r v i s o r i s d i r e c t e d in e i g h t y - f i v e c i t i e s t o c o u n s e l , i n s t r u c t , and h e l p th e t e a c h e r , i n s i x t y - o n e to v i s i t t h e t e a c h e r , and i n t h i r t y - e i g h t to co n d u ct model l e s s o n s . The f o u r t h s i g n i f i c a n t it e m i n d i c a t e s t h a t b o a rd s o f e d u c a t io n do n o t e n t i r e l y a g r e e t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s an a d v i s o r y o f f i c e r b e c a u s e i n t h i r t y - t w o c i t i e s he i s e x p e c t e d t o r a t e th e t e a e h e r .

S ev era l of th e l e s s

f r e q u e n t r u l e s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h a t in some c a s e s

4 A p p e n d ix p .

375

j

210

r~ s u p e r v i s o r s a r e e x p e c t e d to r a t e or ch eck th e te a c h e r * The s u p e r v i s o r i s d i r e c t e d t o r e p o r t th e t e a c h e r t o th e p r i n c i p a l f o r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y work i n se v e n c i t i e s and f o r f a i l u r e t o c o o p e r a t e in s i x c i t i e s .

In two

co m m u n ities he must c h e c k t h e c l a s s work o f th e t e a c h e r , h u t i n f o u r he i s f o r b i d d e n t o c r i t i c i z e t h e t e a c h e r in t h e p r e s e n c e o f th e c l a s s .

Two hoards warn him n o t to

a c c e p t c o m p en sa tio n f o r s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n t o th e teaeh er.

The o t h e r i n f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s d e l e g a t e

t o th e s u p e r v i s o r th e p la n n in g and s u p e r v i s i o n o f work in sp e c ia l su b je c ts.

He i s g i v e n c h a r g e o f t h e work o f

t e a c h e r s i n s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s i n tw e n t y - o n e c i t i e s .

The

m e d ic a l i n s p e c t o r i s d i r e c t e d to i n s t r u c t t e a c h e r s c o n ­ c e r n i n g th e d e t e c t i o n and p r e v e n t io n o f d i s e a s e i n e i g h t c itie s ,

and t h e m e d ie a l departm en t i s g r a n te d s u p e r v i s i o n

o v e r t h e t e a c h e r s i n m e d ic a l m a t t e r s i n two c i t i e s .

An

un iq u e p r o v i s i o n s p e c i f i e s t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r : , o f p h y s i c a l and h e a l t h e d u c a tio n s h a l l make p r o v i s i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o rtu n ities fo r te a c h e r s.

S everal o f th e se in freq u en t

p r o v i s i o n s seem to be m a t t e r s f o r th e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t r a t h e r than s t a t e m e n t s o f board p o l i c i e s . The aim o f th e r e g u l a t i o n s w h ieh d e f i n e t h e t e a c h e r * s r e l a t i o n to t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s to i n s u r e t h e t e a c h e r o f th e g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t from h i s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r .

L

j

Gf th e n i n e p r o v i s i o n s , f i v e appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t and a s i x t h ap p ears tw e n ty -tw o t im e s . The s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s d i r e c t th e t e a c h e r i n f o r t y c i t i e s to c o o p e r a t e w it h s u p e r v i s o r s ,

in th ir ty -fo u r c i t i e s not

t o he a b s e n t d u r in g t h e v i s i t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r , and in t h i r t y - t w o c i t i e s to c o n t r o l t h e room d u rin g such v i s i t . They a l s o e x p e c t t h e t e a c h e r t o f o l l o w and obey a l l d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r in t w e n t y - s i x c i t i e s and to a t t e n d i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h him i n t w e n t y - f i v e . A p r o v i s i o n w h ich a p p e a r s tw e n ty -tw o t im e s o r d e r s t h e t e a e h e r to c o o p e r a t e w it h th e s u p e r v i s o r d u r in g a model le s so n .

T h is p r o v i s i o n i s a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t and m ight

w e l l i n c l u d e th e r u l e s w h ich f o r b i d th e a b s e n c e o f th e t e a c h e r d u r in g a v i s i t o f a s u p e r v i s o r and w h ich d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r to d i s c i p l i n e th e c l a s s d u r in g t h e su p e r v iso r 's v i s i t .

Two o f t h e t h r e e o t h e r i n f r e q u e n t

r e g u l a t i o n s su p p lem en t t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s .

The

t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d in two c i t i e s to have t h e c l a s s i n r e a d i n e s s a t t h e tim e s c h e d u le d f o r th e s u p e r v i s o r ' s v i s i t and in one c i t y to s u p p ly t h e s u p e r v i s o r w i t h a c o p y o f th e c l a s s program.

One c i t y e v i d e n t l y d e s i r e s

t o have t h e t e a c h e r c h e c k th e s u p e r v i s o r b e c a u se t h e t e a c h e r i s r e q u e s t e d t o keep a r e c o r d o f t h e tim e o f th e s u p e r v i s o r ' s v i s i t .

APPEALS FROM DECISIO0S OF AUTHORITIES5 The r u l e s w hich d e f i n e t h e r i g h t s o f t e a c h e r s to a p p e a l from th e d e c i s i o n o f a u t h o r i t i e s seem to e s t a b l i s h th e p r i n c i p l e t h a t th e t e a c h e r may u l t i m a t e l y a s k th e board o f e d u c a tio n to r e v ie w h i s a p p e a l .

The two r u l e s

w h ich ap p ea r f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t e s t a b l i s h th e order o f a p p ea l.

In f o r t y - f i v e c i t i e s th e

o r d e r o f a p p e a l i s from th e p r i n c i p a l to t h e s u p e r i n ­ te n d e n t to th e b o a r d .

I n t h i r t y c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r i s

g r a n t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e r i g h t o f a p p e a l to a com m ittee o f t h e board or t o t h e board i t s e l f .

Xiess fr e q u e n t

r e g u l a t i o n s d e s c r i b e th e method o f e n t e r i n g a p p e a l s and c o m p l a in t s or i n d i c a t e means f o r th e s e t t l e m e n t o f d i s ­ agreem ents w it h o u t r e v ie w by th e b o ard .

In s e v e n t e e n

c i t i e s c o m p la in t s or a p p e a l s must b e f i l e d i n w r i t i n g , in f o u r c i t i e s c .o p ie s o f t h e c o m p l a in t s must b e r e n d e r e d t o a l l p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d , i n two c i t i e s th e p l a i n t i f f must ap p ea r i n p e r s o n , and i n one c i t y t h e c o m p la in t must be f i l e d w ith in a s p e c i f ie d tim e.

In an a ttem p t to s e t t l e

a m ic a b ly d i s p u t e s a r i s i n g from d i s a g r e e m e n t s betw een members o f t h e s c h o o l s t a f f ,

six te e n c i t i e s d ir e c t

s e t t l e m e n t by th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t .

F iv e c i t i e s d ir e c t

th e t e a c h e r s t o make t h e i r c o m p la in t s to t h e p r i n c i p a l

IT

~

A ppendix p . 377

213 r

i

b e f o r e g o i n g to any h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y .

One c i t y i n s i s t s

t h a t th e d e c i s i o n o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t he c o n s i d e r e d f i n a l u n t i l a c t i o n by t h e b oa rd , and a n o th e r c i t y p r o t e c t s t h e t e a c h e r by s t a t i n g t h a t an a p p e a l s h a l l n o t be p r e j u ­ d i c i a l t o th e p e r so n making i t .

The ite m w hich r e q u i r e s

t h a t c o m p l a in t s be r e g i s t e r e d w it h t h e p r i n c i p a l seems t o b o r d e r on th e u n f a i r .

I f a t e a e h e r d e s i r e s to a p p e a l th e

d e c i s i o n o f h i s p r i n c i p a l i t d o e s n o t seem f a i r t o r e q u i r e him t o a s k th e p r i n c i p a l t o t r a n s m it t h e a p p e a l t o h ig h e r a u th o r ity .

I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t th e r u l e s w h ich s t a t e

p r o c e d u r e s f o r a p p e a ls from t h e d e c i s i o n s o f a u t h o r i t i e s a r e n o t more s p e c i f i c s i n c e t e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s have c o n t i n u a l l y cam paigned f o r th e p r o t e c t i o n o f t e a e h e r r ig h ts. SUMM&RY The t e a c h e r ’ s r e l a t i o n to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and su p e r ­ v i s o r y a u t h o r i t y i s d e f i n e d by 113 p r o v i s i o n s w h ich p e r t a i n t o th e t e a c h e r ’ s c o n n e c t i o n w ith th e b o a r d , s u p e r i n ­ ten d en t, p r in c ip a l,

or s u p e r v i s o r , or t o t h e t e a c h e r ’ s

a p p e a l from t h e d e c i s i o n s o f a u t h o r i t i e s .

In com parison

w it h t h e o t h e r m ajor t o p i c s a l a r g e number o f p r o v i s i o n s appear f r e q u e n t l y enough to be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e l a t i o n s o f th e t e a e h e r and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t a r e c o n ­ t r o l l e d by e l e v e n s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s ,

t h o s e o f th e t e a c h e r

and p r i n c i p a l by t w e lv e s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s , and t h o s e o f l

J

t h e t e a c h e r and s u p e r v i s o r by n in e s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s .

Ho

r u l e w h ich d e f i n e s t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e board and t h e t e a c h e r a p p e a r s f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .

Only

two s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s a f f e c t th e t e a c h e r who d e s i r e s to appeal the d e c is io n o f a su p e r io r ,

f h o s e r u l e s w h ich

a p p ea r f r e q u e n t l y enough to be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t are l i s t e d w it h t h e i r f r e q u e n c y i n f a b l e XIV.

215-

TAME

XIV

FREQUENCY OF SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE TEACHER AND ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY AUTHORITY REGULATIONS

FREQUBNC Y

I* T each er and S u p e r in t e n d e n t A# S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s R e l a t i o n t o Teacher 1 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l have g e n e r a l a u t h o r i t y ov er a l l t e a c h e r s 2* S u p e r in te n d e n t s h a l l a d v i s e , c o u n s e l , and d i r e c t t e a c h e r i n m a t t e r s o f s c h o o l management, d i s c i p l i n e , and in str u c tio n 3 . S u p e r in te n d e n t s h a l l v i s i t t e a c h e r 4 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l he a g e n t o f com m unication between th e Board and th e t e a c h e r b . S u p e r in te n d e n t s h a l l r e p o r t •t e a c h e r t o Board f o r i n e f f i c i e n c y 6 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l r a t e t e a c h e r 7 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l c h e c k t e a c h e r ' s o b s e r v a n c e o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s 8 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l r e p o r t t e a c h e r t o Board f o r v i o l a t i o n o f r u l e s and r e g u la tio n s 9 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l c h e c k t e a c h e r ' s r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s

129

128 96 86 69 63 31 28 23

B . T e a c h e r 's R e l a t i o n to S u p e r in te n d e n t 1 . T each er s h a l l ohey a l l d i r e c t i o n s and o r d e r s o f S u p e r in te n d e n t 2 . T each er s h a l l c o o p e r a t e w ith S u p e r in t e n d e n t II.

53 52

Teacher and P r i n c i p a l

A. P r i n c i p a l ' s R e l a t i o n to Teacher 1 . P r in c ip a l s h a l l su p e rv ise teach er 2. P r in c ip a l s h a ll a d v ise, co u n sel, d i r e c t , and a s s i s t t e a c h e r

L

115 99

J

216

TABLE X I V

( o o u t •}

EREQUEWOY OF SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE TEACHER ALT) ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY AUTHOHITY R1GULAT 10 Wo

FREQUENC Y

P r i n o i p a l * s R e l a t i o n to t e a c h e r ( o o n t . ) 3 . P r i n c i p a l s h a l l r e c o r d and r e p o r t t e a c h e r a t t e n d a n c e and p u n c t u a l i t y 4* P r i n c i p a l s h a l l r a t e t e a c h e r 5 . P r in c ip a l s h a l l v i s i t teacher 6* P r i n c i p a l s h a l l r e p o r t t e a c h e r to S u p e r in te n d e n t or BOard f o r i n ­ e ffic ie n c y 7* P r i n c i p a l s h a l l c h e c k t e a c h e r * s records 8* P r i n c i p a l s h a l l he r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e t e a c h e r 9 . P r i n c i p a l s h a l l he a g e n t o f communi­ c a t i o n b etw een t e a c h e r and h i g h e r a u th o rity 1 0 . P r in c ip a l s h a l l check t e a c h e r ’ s ad h er e n c e t o c o u r s e o f s t u d y

75 68 67 53 52 32 28 24

B . T e a c h e r ’ s R e l a t i o n to P r i n c i p a l 1. 2.

T ea ch er s h a l l c o o p e r a t e w ith P r i n c i p a l T eacher s h a l l obey a l l d i r e c t i o n s and orders o f P r in c ip a l

72 47

I I I . T each er and S u p e r v is o r A. S u p e r v i s o r ’ s R e l a t i o n to T eacher 1 . S u p e rv iso rs s h a l l c o u n se l, in s t r u c t , and h e l p t e a c h e r 2 . S u p erv iso rs s h a l l v i s i t tea ch er 3 . S u p e r v i s o r s s h a l l c o n d u ct m odel le s s o n s f o r tea ch er 4 . S u p e r v is o r s h a l l r a t e t e a c h e r

85 61 38 32

B. T e a c h e r ’ s R e l a t i o n t o S u p e r v is o r 1 . T each er s h a l l c o o p e r a t e w it h S u p e r v iso r s L

40 j

217 TABLE XIV

(cont.)

FRHQUE1I0Y OF SIGNIFICANT REGULATIONS CONCERN IKG M B TEACHER AND ADMIIJISTH ATI VE M D SUPERVISORY AUTHORITY

REGULATIONS T each er's R e la tio n 2. 3. 4. 5.

IV.

2.

L

to S u p ervisor

(co n t.)

Teacher s h a ll not ahsant h im s e lf during v i s i t o f S u p e r v is o r T e a c h e r s h a l l c o n t r o l room d u r i n g v i s i t of S u p ervisor T e a c h e r s h a l l f o l l o w an d o b e y a l l d ir e c tio n s o f S u p erv iso rs Teacher s h a l l a tten d in d iv id u a l co n fere n c es w ith S u p ervisor

A ppeals 1.

FREQUENCY

from D e c i s i o n s

34 32 26 25

of A u th o rities

The o r d e r o f a p p e a l s h a l l b e f r o m the p r i n c i p a l , t o S u p e r in te n d e n t, to Board Teacher s h a l l have r ig h t to a p p ea l to Board or C om m ittee

45 30

j

218

r

i

couciusioirs C e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn from t h e s t u d y o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich d e f i n e t e a c h e r s 1 r e l a t i o n s t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y a u t h o r i t i e s #

Boards o f

e d u c a t io n a p p a r e n t l y h e l i e v e t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l m a t t e r s s h o u ld he c e n t e r e d i n t h e o f f i c e o f th e su p e rin te n d en t.

A g r e a t many o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s ,

h ow ever, d e a l w i t h m a t t e r s w h ich s h o u ld he th e in s t r u c t io n s o f a sc h o o l a d m in is tr a to r .

The r u l e s which

appear m ost f r e q u e n t l y a r e more g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s o f p o l i c y w h i l e t h o s e w h ich appear l e s s o f t e n a r e s p e c i f i c d ir e c tio n s.

Many o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s

e n a c te d t o s o l v e l o c a l p r o b le m s.

a p p a r e n t l y , w ere

Few it e m s can be c o n ­

s id e r e d u n fa ir to t e a c h e r s . The p r o v i s i o n s w h ic h d e f i n e th e t e a c h e r ’ s r e l a t i o n ­ s h i p to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y a u t h o r i t y seem to a g r e e w i t h th e e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s t h a t t h e s u p e r i n ­ t e n d e n t s h o u ld be t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l head o f th e s c h o o l system* and t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s c h o o l a f f a i r s s h o u ld be d e l e g a t e d t o him and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s .

The

s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and p r i n c i p a l a r e g r a n te d t h e power t o su p e rv ise ,

i n s p e c t , and c h e c k t h e work o f t e a c h e r s .

The

l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n s to d e f i n e t h e r e l a t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r and th e board i s a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t b o a rd s o f e d u c a t io n do n o t c o n s i d e r i t L

th e ir fu n c tio n to j

219 r

d e a l w i t h th e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y m a tte r s* The c r i t i c i s m

t h a t many m a t t e r s w h ich are s u b j e c t o f

board r e g u l a t i o n s m ig h t b e t t e r have been l e f t to th e d i s c r e t i o n o f th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l a p p l i e s h ere*

Most o f th e r u l e s w h ich appear to o i n f r e q u e n t l y

t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t supplem ent th e more f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s and s h o u ld be th e d e c i s i o n s o f a u t h o r i t i e s . T y p i c a l it e m s s p e c i f y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r a s s i s t th e board o f e d u c a t i o n , t h a t t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t c h eck t h e t e a c h e r s a d h e r e n c e to th e c o u r s e o f s t u d y , t h a t th e p r i n c i p a l c h e c k t h e t e a c h e r * s prompt p erform an ce o f d u t i e s , and t h a t t h e t e a c h e r rem ain i n th e room d u r in g th e v i s i t o f th e su p e rv iso r . The r u l e s w hich c o n s i d e r th e t e a c h e r * s a p p e a ls from th e d e c i s i o n o f a u t h o r i t i e s p r e s e n t a p e c u l i a r problem because o f t h e ir n a tu re .

W hile t h e more f r e q u e n t r u l e s

e s t a b l i s h a p o l i c y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r may a p p e a l from th e d e c i s i o n o f th e p r i n c i p a l ,

to t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , and th en

t o t h e b o a r d , i n f r e q u e n t r u l e s supplem ent t h i s p o l i c y and g i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r th e f o r m u l a t i o n or p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a p p ea ls.

T h ese i n f r e q u e n t r u l e s s h o u ld have been t h e

i n s t r u c t i o n s o f th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t .

T e a c h e r s, h o w ever,

u n d o u b te d ly f e e l th e y have more p r o t e c t i o n i f t h e m ethods f o r a p p ea lin g th e d e c is io n s o f s u p e r io r s are d e f i n i t e l y L

J

820 r

■ 7

s t a t e d i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e hoard* There i s a d e f i n i t e te n d e n c y f o r t h e more f r e q u e n t r u l e s in t h i s o a t e g o r y to he g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s o f p o l i c y and f o r th e l e s s f r e q u e n t r u l e s to r e f e r t o s p e c i f i c item s* A v e r y f r e q u e n t r u l e d i r e c t s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to a d v is e t e a c h e r s on m a t t e r s o f management, d i s c i p l i n e , in str u c tio n .

and

L e s s f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s , how ever, d i r e c t

s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and p r i n c i p a l to c h e c k t e a c h e r s * r e c o r d s and to r e p o r t them f o r v i o l a t i o n o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . S e v e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s a r e a t t e m p t s o f co m m u n ities t o s o l v e l o c a l problem s by hoard r e g u l a t i o n s *

T y p ic a l r u l e s

d i r e c t t e a c h e r s t o e l e c t a c o u n c i l t o r e p r e s e n t them t o th e b o a rd , to c h o o s e a co m m ittee to r e p r e s e n t them to t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , and t o keep t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t in fo rm ed on a l l m a t t e r s which a f f e c t t h e i n t e r e s t and w e l f a r e o f th e s c h o o ls *

In one i n s t a n c e t h e t e a c h e r s a r e a sk ed to

p l a c e s u g g e s t i o n s in a box in each s c h o o l . Other exam ples o f r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich s e e k t o s o l v e l o c a l problem s f o r b i d th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r p r i n c i p a l to c h a r g e t e a c h e r s f o r l e s s o n s and s p e c i f y t h a t th e d i r e c t o r o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t io n s h a l l make p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e r e e r e a t i o n o f tea ch ers* E x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s show a t e n d e n c y toward u n f a i r tr e a tm e n t o f t e a c h e r s in two r e s p e c t s .

One p r o v i s i o n

r e q u i r e s t h e t e a c h e r t o p r e s e n t c o m p la in t s t o t h e

221

r

p r in c ip a l*

i

T h is i s u n f a i r i f th e p r i n c i p a l i s th e p e r s o n

ahou t whom t h e t e a c h e r i s c o m p la in in g .

Another p r o v i s i o n

d i r e c t s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s betw een a t e a c h e r and p r i n c i p a l o r s u p e r v i s o r s h a l l be s e t t l e d by th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . T h is r e g u l a t i o n m ight p erm it t h e s m o th e r in g o f c o m p la in t s i n th e o f f i c e o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t .

B ecau se o f th e l a r g e

number o f it e m s w h ich ap p ear to be m a t t e r s f o r th e d e c i s i o n s o r i n s t r u c t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t i e s r a t h e r than board p o lic ie s,

t h e t e a c h e r can f e e l t h a t he i s b e in g s u b j e c t e d

t o board r e g u l a t i o n s in m a t t e r s on w hich he s h o u ld be c o n t r o lle d by h is s u p e r io r s .

The m ajor c r i t i c i s m o f th e

r u l e s w h ich d e f i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e t e a c h e r w it h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y a u t h o r i t y i s t h a t many r u l e s d e a l w it h m a t t e r s w hich s h o u ld be t h e d e c i s i o n s or i n s t r u c t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r a t h e r than p o l i c i e s o f boards.

L

j

222

r

i CHAPTER XI SUMMARY AND GOHGLUSIQHS SUMMARY The t e a c h e r s i n any s c h o o l sy s te m a r e s u b j e c t t o

v a r io u s c o n t r o l s .

They a r e g o v e rn ed d i r e c t l y b y t h e i r

im m ed iate s u p e r i o r s , th e p r i n c i p a l and t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . Of th e powers w h ich p r i n c i p a l s ,

s u p e r v i s o r s , and

su p e rin te n d en ts e x e r c is e over te a c h e r s ,

se v e r a l are

m a t t e r s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l custom , some a r e g r a n te d by s t a t e la w , and o t h e r s a r e p r e s c r i b e d by s c h o o l board r eg u ­ la tio n s*

The t e a c h e r ' s r e l a t i o n s t o t h e board and t o

p u p i l s a r e l i k e w i s e d i r e c t e d by cu stom , s t a t e la w , and s e h o o l board r e g u l a t i o n s .

I t i s t h e p u rp o se o f t h i s s t u d y

t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s c h o o l board r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich c o n cern th e t e a c h e r .

In t h e f i r s t chapter^* i t was s t a t e d t h a t

r e g u l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h t h e p o s i t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r , l i m i t and d i r e c t th e t e a c h e r ' s c o n d u c t, a f f e c t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to p u p i l p e r s o n n e l , c o n t r o l h i s i n s t r u c t i o n , d e f i n e h i s f u n c t i o n i n s c h o o l management, and d e te r m in e h i s r e l a t i o n t o s u p e r v i s o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y .

The r u l e s

w hich p e r t a i n t o each o f t h e s e i t e m s have been d i s ­ c u s s e d a t. l e n g t h .

1

P. L

7

223 r

D ata fo r the i n v e s t i g a t i on were s o u g h t from th e 989

American c i t i e s

o f ov e r 1 0 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n .

Three hundred

t h i r t y - f o u r o f t h e s e com m u nities forw ard ed c o p i e s o f t h e i r r e g u la tio n s .

T h is sa m p lin g i n c l u d e s c i t i e s from f o r t y - t w o

s t a t e s and th e D i s t r i c t o f C olum b ia.

T h is m a t e r i a l was

t a b u l a t e d a c c o r d in g t o th e s i z e o f th e c i t i e s and t h e su b -p ro b le m to w hich i t r e f e r r e d . in to f iv e c la s s i f ic a t io n s : p o p u l a t i o n ; Group I I ,

The c i t i e s were grouped

Croup I , 1 0 ,0 0 0 to 2 0 ,0 0 0

2 0 ,0 0 0 t o 3 0 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ;

Group I I I , 3 0 , 0 0 0 to 5 0 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ; Group IV, 5 0 ,0 0 0 t o 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ; Group V, o v er 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n .

A

s t u d y o f th e e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e form at o f

t h e s e d a t a r e v e a l s t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s a r e found more fr e q u e n tly in la r g e r c i t i e s , c o n s i d e r a b l y i n page s i z e ,

a r e seldom r e v i s e d , and v a r y

arrangem ent, and amount o f

m a t e r ia l in c lu d e d . The p r o v i s i o n s w hich d e a l w ith t h e p o s i t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r a r e so numerous t h a t t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h r e e c h a p t e r s which d e a l w ith t h e t e a c h e r e n t e r i n g t h e s e r v i c e , th e t e a c h e r i n s e r v i e e , se r v ic e .

and th e t e a c h e r l e a v i n g t h e

Each of th e o t h e r su b -p ro b le m s i s c o n s i d e r e d i n

a s in g le ch ap ter.

The t a b u l a t i o n o f the p r o v i s i o n s

i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e 1340 d i f f e r e n t r u l e s which ap­ pear one to

274 t i m e s .

Most p r o v i s i o n s appear l e s s than

ten tim e s.

I t was d e c id e d t o c o n s i d e r as s i g n i f i c a n t

t h o s e r u l e s w h ich appear in t w e n t y - t h r e e or more s e t s o f l

r e g u la tio n s.

n

224 r

-i

The 138 r u l e s w hich a f f e c t th e p o s i t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r e n t e r i n g t h e s e r v i c e d e a l w it h e l i g i b i l i t y , a p p o in tm e n t, a s s ig n m e n t , t r a n s f e r , p r o m o tio n ,a n d d e m o tio n . (The t e a c h e r who i s s e e k i n g a p o s i t i o n can e x p e c t to have h i s e l i g i b i l i t y jud ged by v a r i o u s p e r s o n n e l , most fr e q u e n tly th e su p e rin te n d en t.

He must o f f e r p r o o f o f

p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and p r e s e n t a c e r tific a te . be f i l e d ,

To s e c u r e app ointm en t an a p p l i c a t i o n must

and i n m ost c i t i e s i t must be approved b y th e

s u p e r in t e n d e n t and t h e b o ard ,

The t e a c h e r i s n o t i f i e d

o f ap p oin tm en t and r e q u i r e d to f i l e a c o n t r a c t or s i g n i f y a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p o s i t i o n in many c i t i e s .

An

a ss ig n m e n t or t r a n s f e r must be recommended by fh e s u p e r in t e n d e n t and approved by t h e b o a r d .

P ro m o tio n s

m ust, a l s o , be i n i t i a t e d by t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t .

O nly a

few r e g u l a t i o n s d i r e c t t h e dem otion o f a t e a c h e r . Two hundred n i n e t y r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n t o th e te a c h e r in s e r v i c e .

T h is l a r g e number may be due to th e

f a c t t h a t i n many c i t i e s t h e s e r u l e s t a k e fh e p l a c e o f co n tra cts.

T hese p r o v i s i o n s d e a l w i t h te n u r e o f o f f i c e ,

p r o f e s s i o n a l im provement, s a l a r i e s , tim e o f s e r v i c e , a b s e n c e , l e a v e s of:..ab sen ce, and t a r d i n e s s .

F ifty -n in e

appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t . There a r e c o n f l i c t i n g p o l i c i e s on th e g r a n t i n g o f t e n u r e .

L

j

f h e c i t i e s w h ich p r o v id e f o r t h e annual e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s and t h o s e w h ich g r a n t te n u r e a f t e r a p r o b a t io n a r y p e r io d a r e abou t e v e n l y d i v i d e d .

In many c a s e s te n u r e

must be recommended b y t h e s u p e r in te n d e n t *

Boards o f

e d u c a t i o n a tte m p t t o i n s u r e th e p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement o f t e a c h e r s by r e q u i r i n g them to a t t e n d c o n f e r e n c e s and c o n v e n t i o n s , t a k e c o u r s e s , or t o o b s e r v e t h e work o f o t h e r s T e a ch er s who f a i l to o b s e r v e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l im provem ent a r e p e n a l i z e d in v a r i o u s ways*

The s a l a r i e s

o f t e a c h e r s a r e d e te r m in e d i n about h a l f o f th e c i t i e s by a s c h e d u l e and i n o t h e r s b y t h e a c t i o n o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , a c o m m ittee o f t h e b o a rd , or th e b o a r d . D e f i n i t e a s s u r a n c e i s g i v e n t h e t e a c h e r i n many c i t i e s t h a t h i s p r e v io u s s e r v i c e , p r e p a r a t i o n , and e x p e r i e n c e w i l l be g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n th e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h i s sa la ry *

A t e a c h e r must have h i s s e r v i c e r a t e d s a t i s ­

f a c t o r y by th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p r i n c i p a l to s e c u r e a s a l a r y in crem en t*

S e v e r a l c i t i e s combine s a l a r y

in c r e m e n t s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement by r e q u i r i n g t h e t e a c h e r t o c o m p le te normal or u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s t o r e c e i v e an i n c r e m e n t .

About

8Qfo

o f th e boa rd s e x p e c t

th e t e a c h e r t o be i n s c h o o l a t a s p e c i f i e d tim e and s e v e r a l e x p e c t him t o remain a f t e r th e a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n . The t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d i n more than h a l f o f t h e c i t i e s t o g i v e n o t i c e o f in t e n d e d a b s e n c e and i n many to n o t i f y

th e a u t h o r i t i e s when he i s rea d y to r e t u r n . The p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e g r a n t in g o f pay f o r days ab­ sen t vary c o n sid er a b ly .

Some b o a r d s a l lo w f u l l or p a r t

pay w h i l e o t h e r s deny s a l a r y f o r a b s e n c e due to th e same cause.

In c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s t h e t e a c h e r i s g r a n t e d

c u m u la t iv e pay a l l o w a n c e .

He i s g iv e n f u l l pay f o r a

s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f tim e f o r a b s e n c e due t o b erea v em en t, personal i l l n e s s ,

q u a r a n t in e , c o u r t subpoena, i l l n e s s i n

th e im m ed iate f a m i l y , and a t t e n d a n c e a t e d u c a t i o n a l c o n v en tio n s.

He r e c e i v e s p a r t pay i n o t h e r co m m u n ities

f o r a b s e n c e due to p e r s o n a l i l l n e s s , a b s e n c e e x c u s e d in a d v a n c e .

b ereavem ent, and

S e v e r a l c i t i e s r e f u s e com­

p e n s a t i o n f o r a b s e n c e due to any c a u s e s o t h e r than i l l n e s s or b e r e a v e m e n t,

f h e e x c u s e o f s p e c i a l a b se n c e i s p e r ­

m i t t e d on t h e recommendation o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n several c i t i e s .

In o t h e r s th e t e a c h e r must f i l e

a

m e d ic a l c e r t i f i c a t e . f h e t e a c h e r who s e e k s a l e a v e o f a b sen ce f i n d s i n m ost c i t i e s t h a t th e l e n g t h o f t h e l e a v e i s l i m i t e d and t h a t t h e r e q u e s t f o r a l e a v e must be approved by t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or t h e b o a rd ,

f h e most f r e q u e n t r e a s o n s

f o r g r a n t i n g a l e a v e are s t u d y , h e a l t h , m o th erh o od ,

t r a v e l , and

f h e t e a c h e r who r e t u r n s from a l e a v e i s ex­

p e c t e d i n many c i t i e s t o p r e s e n t a h e a l t h c e r t i f i c a t e and t o g i v e n o t i c e o f t h e e x a c t d a t e o f h i s r e t u r n .

227 r

-i

B oards o f e d u c a t io n a tte m p t t o d i s c o u r a g e t e a c h e r s ' t a r d i n e s s by r e q u i r i n g t h a t i t be r e p o r t e d or b y d e d u c t in g s a la r y fo r l a t e n e s s ,

f h e r u l e s w hich c o n c er n th e

t e a c h e r in s e r v i c e r e a l l y s t a t e th e c o n d i t i o n s o f employment f o r th e t e a c h e r . p r o v i s i o n s w hich p e r t a i n t o s u s p e n s i o n , d i s m i s s a l , r e sig n a tio n ,

and r e t i r e m e n t a f f e c t t h e t e a c h e r who i s

le a v in g th e s e r v ic e .

Of th e 113 r u l e s ,

e i g h t e e n appear

f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t .

The

s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r seem s t o be a p r e lu d e t o d ism issa l.

The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i s g i v e n t h e power to

su sp en d t h e t e a c h e r by about o n e - f o u r t h o f th e c i t i e s . In s e v e r a l c o m m u n ities he i s r e q u i r e d to r e p o r t a s u s ­ p e n s io n t o t h e b o a r d .

The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t ground f o r

su sp en sio n i s th e v i o l a t i o n o f r u l e s .

The s i x grounds

f o r d i s m i s s a l w h ich appear more than t w e n t y - t h r e e t im e s are m a r r ia g e o f a woman t e a c h e r , con d u ct, v i o l a t i o n o f r u l e s , f a ilu r e to co o p era te.

in c o m p e te n c e , unbecoming

fa ilu r e

to pay d e b t s ,

and

The d i s m i s s a l o f a t e a c h e r must

o r d i n a r i l y be recommended b y th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t .

In

s e v e r a l c i t i e s th e t e a c h e r must b e warned in advan ce and i s e n t i t l e d to a h e a r in g by th e b o a r d .

Many b o a rd s r e s e r v e

t h e r i g h t t o d i s m i s s a t e a c h e r a t any t im e .

The o n l y

s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i c y w h ich p e r t a i n s to r e s i g n a t i o n r e q u i r e s

L

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228

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the te a c h e r to g iv e a s p e c i f ie d n o t ic e o f h i s in te n tio n to r e s i g n and t h r e a t e n s him w i t h l o s s o f c o m p en sa tio n f o r f a i l u r e t o g i v e such n o t i c e .

Several c i t i e s d ir e c t

t a a e h e r s to r e t i r e a t a s p e c i f i e d tim e or a f t e r a d e f i n i t e p e r io d of s e r v i c e . to a p e n s io n fu n d .

Many r e q u i r e a c o n t r i b u t i o n

The l a r g e s t number o f s i g n i f i c a n t

p r o v i s i o n s w h ich p e r t a i n to th e t e a c h e r l e a v i n g th e s e r v i c e dea3s w ith d i s m i s s a l .

I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t so

few p r o v i s i o n s d e a l w it h r e s i g n a t i o n or r e t i r e m e n t . An a tte m p t i s made to l i m i t and d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r ’ s c o n d u c t b y p r o v i s i o n s w hich r e f e r t o t h e u se o f s c h o o l t im e , g i f t s and g r a t u i t i e s ,

e x t r a employment, a d v e r t i s e ­

m ents and a g e n t s , c o l l e c t i o n s and s a l e s ,

s o c i a l , c o n d u c t,

o b e d ie n c e t o r e g u l a t i o n s , and t e a c h e r h e a l t h .

O nly

t w e n t y - e i g h t o f t h e 150 r u l e s which r e f e r to t h e s e i t e m s appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t . The more f r e q u e n t r u l e s i n d i c a t e t h a t b o a r d s o f e d u c a t io n e x p e c t th e t e a c h e r t o d e v o t e h i m s e l f f a i t h f u l l y and e x c l u s i v e l y t o s c h o o l d u t i e s and t o r e f r a i n from l e a v i n g sc h o o l b e fo re th e c lo s e o f th e sc h o o l day.

He i s b a r r ed

from d o in g c l e r i c a l work d u rin g s c h o o l h o u rs or from a l l o w i n g t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n o f r e g u l a r s c h o o l work by o u t s i d e r s or p a r e n t s .

To a v o i d a b u s e s , t e a c h e r s ar e f o r ­

b id d e n to a c c e p t g i f t s from c h i l d r e n or t o a l lo w c o lle c t io n s fo r g i f t s ,

fh e tea ch er i s r e s t r ic t e d in h is

229

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e x t r a employment in s e v e r a l e i t i e s which p r o h i b i t th e tu to r in g o f p u p ils in th e t e a c h e r 's c l a s s ,

o u tsid e

employment, or i n t e r e s t in t h e s a l e o f s u p p l i e s t o th e hoard*

B oards s e e k to p r e v e n t t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n o f work

or t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n qf t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s by co m m ercia l in te re sts*

T ea ch er s are r e q u i r e d to have th e p e r m i s s i o n

o f a u t h o r i t i e s to i n t e r v i e w a g e n t s or d i s p l a y a d v e r t i s e ­ m e n ts.

In some com m u n ities i n t e r v i e w i n g a g e n t s and

d i s p l a y i n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y banned. T e a c h e r s a r e r e s t r a i n e d from f u r n i s h i n g t h e names o f p u p i l s f o r com m ercial p u r p o se s or a l l o w i n g p h o to g r a p h e r s to t a k e p i c t u r e s o f p u p i l s .

C o l l e c t i o n s from s t u d e n t s

a r e p r o h i b i t e d in s e v e r a l e i t i e s and a l lo w e d o n l y w i t h t h e p e r m is s io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s i n many o t h e r s . The o n l y two s i g n i f i c a n t r u l e s a f f e c t i n g th e s o c i a l c o n d u ct o f t h e t e a c h e r r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r s t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h e a ch o t h e r and t o e x h i b i t c o n d u ct beyond r e p r o a c h . Many o f t h e l e s s f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h i s ite m m igh t be c o n s i d e r e d i n f r i n g e m e n t s on t h e r i g h t s o f tea ch ers.

B oards e x p e c t t e a c h e r s t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h ,

fo llo w , r e sp e c t, r e g u la tio n s .

o b ey , and e n f o r c e t h e b o a r d ' s r u l e s and

S e v e r a l b o a r d s r e q u i r e t h e t e a e h e r t o have

a c o p y o f the board r u l e s .

I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t o n ly

one r e g u l a t i o n ap p ea r s f r e q u e n t l y enough to be s i g n i f i ­ c a n t in r e f e r e n c e t o t e a e h e r h e a l t h . L

Several e i t i e s J

r e q u i r e t h e t e a e h e r to p r e s e n t a h e a l t h c e r t i f i c a t e p e r io d ic a lly .

Few

of

th e s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich

p e r t a i n t o t e a c h e r c o n d u ct can he s a i d t o i n f r i n g e upon t h e p e r s o n a l r i g h t s or l i b e r t i e s o f th e t e a c h e r . S i n c e t h e t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s fu n d a m e n ta l i n the s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t

282

i s not su r p r isin g to fin d

p r o v i s i o n s w h ich r e f e r to i t .

ed i n t h e management, d i s c i p l i n e , and i n r e l a t i o n s w it h p a r e n t s .

The te a c h e r i s d i r e c t ­ and g u id a n c e o f p u p i l s

F i f t y - s e v e n r u l e s ap p ea r

f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t .

The

more f r e q u e n t r u l e s d e a l i n g w it h th e management o f p u p i l personnel l i s t c la s s ific a tio n ,

t e a c h e r s 1 f u n c t i o n s in t h e p ro m otion , and s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t s .

The

t e a c h e r i s r e q u ir e d to s u p e r v i s e c h i l d r e n n o t o n l y on th e s c h o o l ground s b e f o r e and a f t e r s e s s i o n and d u r in g r e c e s s bu t a l s o a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e on th e way to and from s c h o o l He i s e x p e c t e d to s u p e r v i s e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s o f p u p ils,

t o d i s m i s s p u p i l s a t i r r e g u l a r t im e s o n l y i n

c a s e of em ergency or w i t h t h e c o n s e n t o f a u t h o r i t i e s , to r e f r a i n from s e n d in g p u p i l s on e r r a n d s e x c e p t f o r u r g e n t s c h o o l b u s i n e s s or w ith th e p e r m is s io n o f a u th o r itie s. The p r o v i s i o n s which r e f e r t o d i s c i p l i n e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t e a e h e r must m a in t a in d i s c i p l i n e ,

bu t v a r i o u s

o p i n i o n s a r e e x p r e s s e d a s t o t h e t y p e and method o f

and

d i s c i p l i n e w h ic h i s d e s i r a b l e .

A v e r y l a r g e number of

e i t i e s s t a t e s t h a t th e t e a e h e r i s e n t i t l e d to the o b e d ie n c e and r e s p e c t o f p u p i l s .

O th e rs d i r e c t the

t e a e h e r t o m a in ta in d i s c i p l i n e by k i n d n e s s , by r e a s o n a b l e or p r o p e r means, or by such means a s w ould be e x e r c i s e d by a j u d i c i o u s p a r e n t .

S everal e i t i e s p r o h ib it in d is c r e e t

or s e v e r e m ethods o f p u n ish m en t.

On t h e m a tte r of

c o r p o r a l punishm ent t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e d is a g r e e m e n t . W h ile many c i t i e s perm it c o r p o r a l punishm ent i n extrem e cases,

some p r o h i b i t i t e n t i r e l y , and o t h e r s i a ttem p t to

d is c o u r a g e i t s

u se by r e q u i r i n g w i t n e s s e s or r e p o r t s ,

t e a c h e r s a r e d is c o u r a g e d from u s i n g u n l i m i t e d d e t e n t i o n a s a means o f pu nishm ent by p r o v i s i o n s w h ich l i m i t th e tim e a t e a c h e r may d e t a i n a p u p i l or w hich p r o h i b i t d e te n tio n a t noon.

S e v e r a l e i t i e s f o r b i d t h e t e a c h e r to

d e p r i v e t h e p u p i l s o f i n d i v i d u a l r e c e s s a s p u n ish m en t, t e a c h e r s a r e d i r e c t e d t o s e c u r e th e c o o p e r a t i o n o f th e p r i n c i p a l or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t in th e h a n d lin g o f d i f f i c u l t d isc ip lin e ea ses.

Most o f th e s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t i o n s

w hich c u r t a i l t h e r i g h t s o f t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e m a tt e r o f d i s c i p l i n e aim t o p r e v e n t p u nishm en t w hich c o u ld be h arm fu l t o t h e c h i l d or c a u s e p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m . R e g u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r * s g u id a n c e o f p u p i l s s h o u ld be c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e a l t h , c h a r a c t e r , and sch o o l a tten d an ce,

f h e aim o f t h e r u l e s r e g a r d i n g

232

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t e a c h e r and p u p i l h e a l t h i s t h e p r o t e c t i o n and prom otion o f t h e h e a l t h o f th e c h i l d r e n . t h is in very gen eral p r o v isio n s .

Several c i t i e s s ta te O th e r s , w hich a r e more

s p e c i f i c , r e q u i r e t h e t e a e h e r to a s s i s t a t h e a l t h e x a m i n a t io n s , to e x c lu d e p u p i l s who may sp r e a d c o n t a g i o n , t o e n f o r c e t h e r u l e s o f th e m e d ic a l d ep artm en t, or to rep o rt c a s e s o f i l l n e s s to a u t h o r it ie s . l e a r l y a l l th e s i g n i f i c a n t d ir e c t io n s fo r th e g u id ­ ance o f p u p i l c h a r a c t e r s e t up g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d s .

The

t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d to e x e r c i s e s u p e r v i s i o n over t h e h a h i t s , m o r a ls , and manners o f p u p i l s .

He i s d i r e c t e d

to i n c u l c a t e good moral c h a r a c t e r , r e s p e c t f o r law and o r d e r , and i d e a l s o f t r u t h , v i r t u e , and r i g h t l i v i n g . In more s p e c i f i c r u l e s th e t e a c h e r i s e n j o i n e d t o he a good example to p u p i l s and to p r e v e n t th e u s e o f im proper la n g u a g e.

To s e c u r e t h e r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e o f p u p i l s ,

t e a c h e r s m ust r e q u i r e e x c u s e s from t h e p a r e n t s f o r p u p i l a b s e n c e o r must r e p o r t a b s e n t e e s to a u t h o r i t i e s . R e g u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h e im p orta n ce o f c o o p e r a t i o n b e tw e en t h e home and t h e s c h o o l .

B a r e n ts must be i n ­

form ed o f t h e s c h o o l p r o g r e s s o f t h e p u p i l .

The t e a c h e r

i s r e q u i r e d to sen d r e g u l a r and s p e c i a l r e p o r t s t o p a r e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w ork, a t t e n d a n c e ,

and p u n c t u a l i t y

o f p u p i l s and to s o l i c i t t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f p a r e n t s . In some e a s e s t h e t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d t o seefc t h i s l

j

233 r

i

c o o p e r a t i o n by p e r s o n a l v i s i t s *

To i n s u r e an e q u i t a b l e

s e t t l e m e n t o f c o m p l a in t s , p a r e n t s a r e g r a n te d t h e r i g h t t o a p p e a l th e d e c i s i o n o f th e t e a e h e r , b u t a r e r e q u ir e d t o su bm it t h e i r c o m p l a in t s i n w r i t i n g and to r e f r a i n from d i s c u s s i n g them in t h e p r e s e n c e o f c h i ld r e n *

fh e

r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r ' s r e l a t i o n t o p u p i l p e r s o n n e l e i t h e r p r o h i b i t d e f i n i t e a c t i o n s or s e t sta n d a r d s # C o m p a r a tiv e ly few r e g u l a t i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h th e t e a c h e r and i n s t r u c t i o n .

M in e t y - h in e p r o v i s i o n s , f o u r ­

t e e n o f which appear f r e q u e n t l y enough to be s i g n i f i c a n t , d e a l w i t h c u r r ic u lu m and m eth od s.

T e a ch er s a r e r e q u i r e d

t o a d h ere to or a s s i s t i n t h e r e v i s i o n o f th e c o u r s e o f s t u d y and t o u se o n l y such book s a s a r e approved by th e a u t h o r i t i e s .

They must t e a c h many s p e c i a l i t e m s such

a s t r e e p l a n t i n g and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , b u t none o f t h e s e it e m s a p p e a r s o f t e n enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t * S p e c i a l d i r e c t i o n s a r e g i v e n t h e t e a c h e r on t h e eo n d u et o f op en in g e x e r c i s e s .

He i s e x p e c t e d t o r e a d t h e L o r d 's

P r a y e r o r e x c e r p t s from S c r i p t u r e and i s v e r y o f t e n i n s t r u c t e d to make no comment. The m ost im p o r ta n t r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e t e a c h e r a s f a r a s c u r r ic u lu m i s c o n ­ c er n e d p r o h i b i t s t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f q u e s t i o n s o f a p o l i t i c a l ch aracter.

L

The s t a t e m e n t w hich a p p e a r s most

j

234 r

o f t e n i n r e g a r d to g e n e r a l m ethods r e q u i r e s th e t e a e h e r t o g i v e d e l i n q u e n t p u p i l s an o p p o r t u n it y t o make up work. B oard s o f e d u c a t io n seem to he c o n c e r n e d w i t h th e programs and d a i l y l e s s o n p l a n s o f t e a c h e r s .

T e a ch er s must p r e p a r e

programs and d a i l y l e s s o n p l a n s , f u r n i s h c o p i e s o f t h e s e t o th e a u t h o r i t i e s , p erm issio n .

and change them o n l y w i t h s p e c i f i c

T e a ch er s are r e q u i r e d t o g i v e w r i t t e n t e s t s

i n a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f c i t i e s . The t e a c h e r i s a s s i g n e d f u n c t i o n s in s c h o o l manage­ ment by 153 r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich d i r e c t him in t h e m a in te n ­ ance o f p r o p e r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , th e c a r e o f s c h o o l p l a n t and eq u ip m en t,

and r o u t i n e m a t t e r s .

T h ir t y - o n e

p r o v i s i o n s appear f r e q u e n t l y enough to h e c o n s i d e r e d sig n ific a n t.

The t e a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d to m a in ta in p ro p er

t e m p e r a tu r e , v e n t i l a t i o n ,

and l i g h t i n g .

He i s h e ld

r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e c l e a n l i n e s s and o r d e r o f h i s s c h o o l room.

H evm ust r e l i n q u i s h h i s room a r e a s o n a b l e l e n g t h

o f tim e a f t e r d i s m i s s a l t o p erm it t h e j a n i t o r t o c l e a n , and he i s ask ed to r e p o r t i n e f f i c i e n t to a u t h o r i t i e s .

ja n it o r ia l se r v ic e

The t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d t o assume h i s

sh a r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e c a r e o f t h e s c h o o l p l a n t and e q u ip m en t.

Many co m m u n ities make th e t e a e h e r

r e s p o n s ib le fo r th e ca re o f b u ild in g s ,

equip m en t, and

f u r n i t u r e , r e q u i r e him t o guard a g a i n s t damage, and d i r e c t

L

j

him t o r e p o r t each to th e p ro p er a u t h o r i t i e s .

The

t e a c h e r i s f o r b id d e n to a l lo w u n s u p e r v is e d p u p i l s to be on t h e s c h o o l p r e m i s e s .

He must u s e c a r e i n t h e handling:

o f k e y s and a v o id ab u se o f th e s c h o o l t e l e p h o n e .

Sp e& iai

d i r e c t i o n s are g i v e n f o r t h e r e q u i s i t i o n and u s e o f su p p lie s. to them.

T e a ch er s must a c c o u n t f o r a l l books i s s u e d S p e c i f ic d ir e c t io n s r eq u ire th e tea c h e r to

exam ine books p e r i o d i c a l l y ,

to p r o t e c t them a g a i n s t

damage, and to s e e t h a t lo a n e d books a r e r e t u r n e d . F u r th e r p r o v i s i o n s r e q u e s t t e a c h e r s t o r e p o r t d e s t r u c t i o n o f b o o k s t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s and to s e e t h a t r e p a r a t i o n i s made. R u le s d i r e c t th e t e a e h e r on s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s w h ich are c la s s e d as r o u tin e m a tte r s.

These r e q u i r e th e

t e a c h e r to r e g i s t e r th e tim e o f h i s a f r i v a l and d e p a r t u r e , t o t r a i n p u p i l s f o r em ergency d i s m i s s a l s ,

to keep r e c o r d s

and r e p o r t s , and to a e c e p t a s s ig n m e n ts t o e x t r a s c h o o l d u tie s.

The d i r e c t i o n s on t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f r e c o r d s

and r e p o r t s a p p ea r f r e q u e n t l y .

The te a c h e r i s d i r e c t e d

t o keep su ch r e c o r d s a s a u t h o r i t i e s r e q u i r e and t o prepare r e g i s t e r s o f p u p il a tten d a n ce, p u n c tu a lity , p r o fic ie n c y ,

and c o n d u c t.

He must make ou t r e c o r d s

p r o m p tly and n e a t l y , f o l l o w s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n , and be s u b j e c t t o l o s s o f pay i f r e p o r t s ar e n o t made.

The r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich d i r e c t the t e a c h e r in

236 r

“l

s c h o o l management aim to p r o t e c t s c h o o l p r o p e r ty and to i n s u r e i t s most e f f i c i e n t u s e . The t e a c h e r ’ s r e l a t i o n to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y a u t h o r i t y i s d e f i n e d by 113 p r o v i s i o n s , f o u r of which are s i g n i f i c a n t . t e a c h e r ’ s r e l a t i o n to th e board,

th ir ty -

The r u l e s d e a l w i t h the su p e rin te n d en t, p r in c ip a l,

and s u p e r v i s o r , and w i t h the t e a c h e r ’ s a p p ea l from th e d e c isio n s of a u th o r itie s . r e la tio n

The r u l e s d e f i n i n g t h e t e a c h e r ’ s

to t h e board do n o t appear f r e q u e n t l y enough to

be s i g n i f i c a n t .

The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i s g r a n t e d g e n e r a l

a u t h o r i t y over a l l t e a c h e r s ana i s d i r e c t e d to a d v i s e t e a c h e r s on m a t t e r s o f s c h o o l management, d i s c i p l i n e , in str u c tio n .

and .

He must v i s i t t e a c h e r s , check t h e i r

o b s e r v a n c e o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s ,

in sp e ct t h e ir record s

and r e p o r t s , r e p o r t them f o r i n e f f i c i e n c y or th e v i o l a t i o n o f r u l e s , and be t h e agen t of com m unication betw een t e a c h e r s and th e b o a r d .

The t e a e h e r i s r e q u ir e d t o obey

th e d i r e c t i o n s and o r d e r s o f t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t and to c o o p e r a t e w ith him . The p r o v i s i o n s w h ic h d e f i n e th e p r i n c i p a l ' s r e la tio n

to the t e a c h e r a r e v e r y s i m i l a r to t h o s e w hich

d e f i n e th e s u p e r in t e n d e n t ’ s r e l a t i o n

to th e t e a e h e r .

p r in c ip a l i s d ir e c te d to s u p e r v is e , r a te ,

and v i s i t

the t e a c h e r , t o keep a r e c o r d of h i s a t t e n d a n c e and p u n c t u a l i t y , t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s e f f i c i e n c y ,

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r e h e ek rih is r e c o r d s and h i s a d h e r e n c e t o t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y , t o r e p o r t him to h ig h e r a u t h o r i t i e s f o r i n e f f i c i e n c y , and t o he t h e a g e n t o f com m unication betw een th e t e a e h e r and h ig h er a u th o r ity ,

f h e t e a c h e r i s e n j o i n e d t o obey t h e

d i r e c t i o n s and o r d e r s o f th e p r i n c i p a l and t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h him . Two d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f th e s u p e r v i s o r a r e i n d i c a t e d b y t h e r u l e s w hich d e f i n e th e r e l a t i o n s o f th e t e a c h e r and t h e s u p e r v i s o r .

Many e i t i e s

i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s an a d v i s o r y o f f i c e r by d i r e c t i n g him t o c o u n s e l , i n s t r u c t , k e l p , and v isit

th e t e a c h e r , and t o co n d u ct m odel l e s s o n s f o r h i s

b e n e fit.

A n other group o f e i t i e s ,

h o w ever, i n d i c a t e s

t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r s h o u ld have a d m i n i s t r a t i v e powers by r e q u i r i n g him to r a t e th e t e a e h e r .

K u le s d i r e c t th e

t e a c h e r to c o o p e r a t e w i t h th e s u p e r v i s o r by p r e p a r in g and c o n t r o l l i n g t h e c l a s s d u r in g t h e v i s i t o f th e s u p e r v i s o r , by f o l l o w i n g and o b e y in g a l l t h e s u p e r v i s o r s d i r e c t i o n s , and b y a t t e n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s c a l l e d by him . The t e a c h e r i s g i v e n t h e r i g h t t o a p p e a l the d e c i s i o n s o f th e p r in c ip a l,

to t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ,

and th e n to a

c o m m ittee o f th e board or t h e board i t s e l f ,

fh e regu ­

l a t i o n s w h ich d e f i n e t h e r e l a t i o n o f th e t e a e h e r and h ig h e r a u t h o r i t i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t b o a r d s b e l i e v e t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t e a c h e r s s h o u ld L

j

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r e s t i n t h e hands o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x e c u t i v e s ,

th e

s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and p r i n c i p a l . GOIOLUSIOJJS C e r t a in c o n c l u s i o n s may he drawn from t h e s t u d y o f s c h o o l h oard r e g u l a t i o n s w h ic h a f f e c t th e t e a c h e r .

There

i s c o n s i d e r a b l e l a e k o f u n i f o r m i t y h o th in fo rm a t and co n ten t.

Many p r o v i s i o n s d e a l w ith m a t t e r s w h ich seem

t o be m a t e r i a l f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n or d e c i s i o n s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r r a t h e r than board p o l i c i e s .

It

seems t h a t many such r u l e s w ere e n a c te d to s o l v e l o c a l p r o b le m s.

I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t boards o f e d u c a t i o n

t e n d t o e n a c t r e g u l a t i o n s t o i n s u r e th e s a f e t y o f t h e p u p i l or t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s c h o o l p r o p e r t y .

Very l i t t l e

d i f f e r e n c e o f o p in io n e x i s t s on more im p o r ta n t p o l i c i e s and i t c a n n o t be s a i d t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c i t i e s o f any p a r t i c u l a r s i z e .

C o n s id e r a b le em phasis

i s p l a c e d upon r e g u l a t i o n s w hich a r e c o n t r a c t u a l i n n a t u r e . B oards o f e d u c a t io n a g r e e w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l f u n c t i o n s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or s u p e r v i s o r y n a t u r e sh o u ld be d e l e g a t e d to t h e s u p e r i n ­ te n d e n t or h i s s t a f f .

.R e g u la tio n s w h ich m igh t be c o n ­

s i d e r e d i n f r in g e m e n t s on th e l i b e r t i e s or r i g h t s o f t e a c h e r s a r e in f r e q u e n t # The r e g u l a t i o n s o f 334 e i t i e s i n d i c a t e a g r e a t l a c k o f u n i f o r m i t y i n b o th form and t e x t . L

Page s i z e ,

sty le J

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o f p r i n t i n g , and method o f b in d in g show a v a r i e t y o f form . R e g u l a t i o n s a r e p u b lis h e d s e p a r a t e l y or a s p a r t s o f a d ir e c to ry .

Some h o a r d s bind th e c o p i e s o f t h e i r r u l e s

w h i l e o t h e r s i s s u e them i n l o o s e l e a f form. e i t h e r p r i n t e d , mimeographed, or t y p e w r i t t e n .

C o p ie s a r e Some

c o n t a i n an in d e x o r a t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s , but many have n e ith e r .

The page s i z e v a r i e s from 3^x5” t o 84^x14%

f h e v a r i e t y o f t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e it e m s i s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t 1340 s e p a r a t e p r o v i s i o n s e x i s t and t h a t a lm o s t 50% o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s appear l e s s than s i x tim e s s A g r e a t many o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e n o t c o n c e r n e d w it h it e m s w hich i n t h e m s e lv e s c o u ld be c o n s i d e r e d board p o l i c i e s . There seem s t o be a te n d e n c y t o i n c l u d e i n th e r e g u l a t i o n s o f th e b o a rd s many it e m s w h ich Should be i n s t r u c t i o n s or d e c i s i o n s o f a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , p r in c ip a l,

or o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r .

T h is would

i n d i c a t e e i t h e r t h a t b o a rd s o f e d u c a t io n do n o t f e e l th a t t h e ir a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e r s are s u f f i c i e n t l y com p eten t to h a n d le a l l m a t t e r s or t h a t t h e s e o f f i c e r s have t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s e n a c te d i n t o board r e g u l a t i o n s . There i s s c a r c e l y a t o p i c w h ich d o e s n o t have p r o v i s i o n s w h ich m ight b e t t e r have been l e f t t o t h e d is c r e t io n o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e r s .

Most o f t h e i n ­

f r e q u e n t s e c t i o n s o f a l l t h e su b -p r o b le m s c o n t a i n many L

j

r "i p r o v i s i o n s w h ich are w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s r a t h e r than hoard p o lic ie s.

T y p ic a l o f such r u l e s a r e t h o s e which attem p t to

prevent t a r d in e s s .

A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f b o a r d s r e q u ir e

t h e t e a c h e r to be i n s c h o o l a t a s p e c i f i e d t i m e .

The many

r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o t a r d i n e s s a r e n e g a t i v e ways o f p ro v id in g fo r th e e x ec u tio n of t h i s p o lic y . A n other example o f r u l e s w hich sh o u ld be i n s t r u c t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s i s f u r n i s h e d by th e r e g u l a t i o n s w h ich d i r e c t t e a c h e r s * c o n d u c t .

The 150 p r o v i s i o n s under

t h i s h e a d in g c o u ld be summarized i n t h r e e main p o l i c i e s . The summary o f t h e s e t h r e e p o l i c i e s i n C h apter

sta ted

t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d f i r s t t o keep t h e m s e lv e s h ea lth y ,

s e c o n d l y to d e v o t e tim e i n s c h o o l e x c l u s i v e l y

to t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f p u p i l s , and t h i r d l y to e n jo y such r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e members o f t h e community a s would m a in ta in and i n c r e a s e th e p r e s t i g e o f th e t e a c h i n g p ro­ fe ssio n .

The f a c t t h a t i t t o o k 150 r e g u l a t i o n s t o e x p r e s s

t h e s e t h r e e p o l i c i e s i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t to w hich i n s t r u c t i o n s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n r e g u l a t i o n s . The r u l e s w h ich d e a l w it h th e t e a c h e r ’ s management, d i s c i p l i n e , and g u id a n c e o£ p u p i l s c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n s w h ich r e f e r t o t h e a d m iss io n and t r a n s f e r o f p u p i l s , to p u p il r e c e s s , p u p ils.

t o a s s e m b l i e s , and to th e e x p u l s i o n o f

P r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y one o f t h e s e it e m s i s m a t e r i a l

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fo r in s t r u c t io n s of a d m in istr a to r s,

The same can be s a i d

o f many o f t h e r u l e s w hich d e a l w i t h t h e t e a c h e r and i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e t e a c h e r ' s f u n c t i o n i n s c h o o l manage­ m en t.

I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e in th e p r o v i s i o n s

w hich d e a l w it h th e t e a c h e r and h ig h e r a u t h o r i t y t h a t t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r r u l e s t o become more s p e c i f i c a s th e f r e q u e n c y o f th e r u l e s d e c l i n e s .

Throughout th e

s t u d y m ost o f t h e r u l e s w h ich appear i n f r e q u e n t l y d e a l w i t h m a t t e r s w h ich c o u ld be w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s . The n a t u r e o f many o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s w h ich appear to be m a t e r i a l f o r th e d e c i s i o n s or i n s t r u c t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y may have been e n a c te d t o s o l v e l o e a l p r o b le m s.

Such p r o v i s i o n s

p e r m it th e board to pay t e a c h e r s w i t h t a x w a r r a n t s , and d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r s t o e s t a b l i s h a fu n d t o g u a r a n t e e th e c i t y a g a i n s t l o s s b e c a u s e s a l a r i e s a r e p a id i n a d v a n ce . O ther r u l e s w h ich i l l u s t r a t e th e a tte m p t t o s o l v e l o c a l p roblem s r e q u i r e th e t e a c h e r t o n o t i f y c h i l d r e n i f s c h o o l s e s s i o n s w i l l n o t be h e l d ,

to i n c l u d e in t h e c o u r s e o f

s t u d y c e r t a i n ite m s such a s l o c a l h i s t o r y or t r e e p l a n t ­ i n g , or t o r e f r a i n from u s in g th e s c h o o l p r e m is e s d u rin g v a c a t i o n s or a t c e r t a i n t i m e s a f t e r s c h o o l s e s s i o n s . B oard s o f e d u c a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y e n a c t r e g u l a t i o n s on m a t t e r s w h ich are c o n c e r n e d w i t h p u p i l s a f e t y o r t h e p r o te c tio n of sch ool p ro p erty . l

One r e a s o n f o r su ch j

242

r

i

l e g i s l a t i o n i s u n d o u b te d ly to a v o id l i t i g a t i o n .

T ea ch ers

a r e d i r e c t e d b y r u l e s on p u p i l management and d i s c i p l i n e t o s u p e r v i s e p u p i l s on s c h o o l p r e m is e s and a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e on t h e way t o and from s c h o o l .

P u n ish m en ts w hich

m igh t t e n d to c a u s e p h y s i c a l i n j u r y t o p u p i l s are fo rb id d en .

T e a c h e r s who have d an gerou s m ach inery under

t h e i r c a r e a r e warned to guard t h e s a f e t y o f p u p i l s . T e a c h e r s a r e fo r b id d e n t o a l lo w u n s u p e r v is e d p u p i l s to u se s c h o o l p r e m is e s and a re r e q u i r e d to d r i l l p u p i l s f o r em ergency d i s m i s s a l s .

They a r e e x p e c t e d to c a r e f o r s c h o o l

p r o p e r t y , t o guard i t a g a i n s t m u t i l a t i o n ,

and t o r e p o r t

damage to p ro p er a u t h o r i t i e s # B oards o f e d u c a t io n seem t o be i n agreem ent on most p r o v i s i o n s w hich a p p ea r f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r ed s i g n i f i c a n t .

In o n l y a few i n s t a n c e s do s i g n i f i c a n t

r u le s exp ress d iv e rg e n t p o l i c i e s .

About t w o - t h i r d s o f th e

c i t i e s r e q u i r e t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t to i n i t i a t e t h e a p p o i n t ­ ment o f a t e a c h e r b u t a s i g n i f i c a n t number d e l e g a t e s t h i s f u n c t i o n t o a co m m ittee o f t h e b o a r d .

A sig n ific a n t

number o f c i t i e s g r a n t s te n u r e t o t h e t e a c h e r , w h i l e an­ o t h e r l a r g e group r e q u i r e s t h a t he be e l e c t e d a n n u a l l y . Many c i t i e s p r o v id e t h a t a t e a c h e r be p a id a c c o r d in g to a s a la r y sc h e d u le , w h ile o th e r s d ir e c t th a t h is s a la r y be d e te r m in e d a n n u a l l y .

S ev era l c i t i e s s t a t e th at

m a r r ia g e s h a l l n o t be a bar f o r c o n t in u a n c e in s e r v i c e . L

J

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-i

A g r e a t many have n o t h i n g to s a y on t h i s m a t t e r , w h i l e o th e r s c o n sid e r i t a reason fo r d is m is sa l*

The p r a c t i c e

o f g r a n t i n g t e a c h e r s f u l l or p a r t pay f o r a b s e n c e doe to s p e c if ie d cau ses v a r ie s w id e ly .

The economic c o n d i t i o n

o f th e community i s an im p o r ta n t d e t e r m in in g f a c t o r in su ch m a t t e r s .

C om m unities h o ld t o d i f f e r e n t v ie w s on

c o r p o r a l p u n ish m en t.

S e v e ra l hoards p r o h ib it i t

e n tir e ly ,

some a l lo w i t i n s p e c i a l e a s e s , and o t h e r s d is c o u r a g e its

u se b y r e q u i r i n g w i t n e s s e s or e x t e n s i v e r e p o r t s . T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n d o e s n o t r e v e a l t h a t th e s i z e o f

c i t i e s a f f e c t s th e ty p e or q u a l i t y o f r e g u l a t i o n s .

The

few d i f f e r e n c e s do n o t seem to be i n d i c a t i v e o f any d e f i ­ n i t e ten dency.

S m a ll c i t i e s a l l o t a com m ittee o f t h e

board th e d u ty o f d e te r m in in g th e e l i g i b i l i t y o f a p p l i c a n t s , w h i l e l a r g e c i t i e s g r a n t t h i s f u n c t i o n t o th e s u p e r i n ­ ten d en t.

P r o v i s i o n s w hich d i r e c t t h a t th e t e a c h e r be

n o t i f i e d o f a p p o in tm e n t, be g r a n t e d an i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r a c t , and be r e q u i r e d to r e t u r n t h e c o n t r a c t o f g i v e n o t i c e o f a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p o s i t i o n appear more f r e q u e n t l y i n sm a ller c i t i e s .

L e s s p o p u lo u s co m m u n ities r e g u l a t e t h e

p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement o f t e a c h e r s by g e n e r a l s t a t e ­ m en ts, w h il e t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s l i s t s p e c i f i c r e q u ir e m e n t s . The p r o v i s i o n s which p e r t a i n t o d i s m i s s a l d i s c l o s e c e r t a i n p r o c e d u r e s w hich m ig h t be u n f a i r to t e a c h e r s .

T hese p r o ­

c e d u r e s a r e most o f t e n found i n s m a ll c i t i e s .

R u le s

L

244 r

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which p e r t a i n to t h e s u s p e n s io n or r e t i r e m e n t o f t e a c h e r s appear more f r e q u e n t l y i n l a r g e c i t i e s #

S m all c o m m u n ities

ten d t o r e g u l a t e and d i r e c t t e a c h e r c o n d u ct hy r u l e s w hich f o r h i d union m em bership, r e q u i r e th e te a c h e r to rem ain i n t h e community f o r t h e w e e k -e n d , o r a d v i s e him to p a t r o n i z e l o c a l m e r c h a n ts .

The l a r g e c i t i e s te n d t o

r e g u l a t e t h e e x t r a employment o f t e a c h e r s .

S m a ll c i t i e s

have more r u l e s w h ich d i r e c t t h e t e a c h e r i n th e g u id a n c e o f p u p i l h e a l t h and c h a r a c t e r .

Hone o f t h e r u l e s w hich

appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d e x tr e m e ly s ig n if ic a n t i s p e c u lia r to c i t i e s o f a p a r tic u la r s i z e . There i s a te n d e n c y f o r b o a rd s o f e d u c a t i o n to e n a c t r u l e s w hich are c o n t r a c t u a l i n n a t u r e .

Many c i t i e s do

n o t grant in d iv id u a l c o n t r a c t s to te a c h e r s . c o n d i t i o n s o f employment, s a l a r y ,

The

t e n u r e , and a b s e n c e

r e g u l a t i o n s a r e s t a t e d i n th e board r u l e s .

V ir tu a lly a l l

th e r u l e s w h ich p e r t a i n to t h e t e a c h e r in s e r v i c e and many o f t h e r u l e s w h ich c o n c e r n th e t e a c h e r l e a v i n g th e s e r v i c e d e a l w it h m a t t e r s w hich m ight w e l l appear i n a c o n t r a c t betw een t h e board and t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r . T e a ch er s th rou gh t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s u n d o u b te d ly h ave worked t o s e c u r e t h e enactm ent o f su ch p r o v i s i o n s . The c o n t r o l o f th e t e a c h e r in p r o f e s s i o n a l m a t t e r s i s v e r y f r e q u e n t l y d eleg^ ® ^ p r in c ip a l, L

th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ,

or an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r .

T h is i s i n j

2 45 r

ac co r d a n ce w it h th e t h e o r y t h a t i t i s th e f u n c t i o n o f t h e hoard o f e d u c a t i o n to d e l e g a t e th e e x e c u t i o n o f a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s - t o the t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l e x ec u tiv es.

The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or th e p r i n c i p a l i s r e ­

q u ir e d t o i n i t i a t e m ost a c t i o n s which c o n c e r n t h e t e a c h e r , such a s a p p o in tm en t, a s s ig n m e n t , t r a n s f e r , and d i s m i s s a l .

su sp en sio n ,

Sch ool e x e c u t iv e s are d ir e c t e d to

d e te r m in e th e t e a c h e r ' s e l i g i b i l i t y , him, and t o c h e c k h i s w ork.

to a d v i s e and r a t e

In t h i s m a tt e r r u l e s and

r e g u l a t i o n s seem t o he i n a c c o r d w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y . V ery few r u l e s w hich appear f r e q u e n t l y enough t o he c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t seem t o he i n f r in g e m e n t s upon th e p e r s o n a l l i b e r t i e s or academ ic freedom o f th e t e a c h e r . Many p r o v i s i o n s , h o w ever, w h ich appear i n f r e q u e n t l y may he c o n s i d e r e d u n f a i r t o t e a c h e r s .

Gf th e s i g n i f i c a n t

r e g u l a t i o n s w h ic h r e s t r i c t t e a c h e r s , th e m ost im p ortan t seem s t o be c o n c er n e d w i t h th e m a rr ia g e o f women t e a c h e r s . M arried women a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n e l i g i b l e f o r app ointm en t i n many c i t i e s .

The m a rr ia g e o f a woman t e a c h e r i s c a u s e

fo r d is m is s a l in s e v e r a l c i t i e s .

f$ie r u l e w h ich p r o v i d e s

t h a t t h e hoard may d i s m i s s a t e a c h e r a t any tim e e r r s n o t so much i n t e x t a s i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s w hich i t o f f e r s . I t seems somewhat u n f a i r t h a t t h e t e a c h e r i s r e g u l a t e d i n many p r o f e s s i o n a l m a t t e r s by hoard p o l i c i e s r a t h e r

L

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246

r

i

th a n by th e d e c i s i o n s o r i n s t r u c t i o n s of h i s s u p e r i o r officers.

A g r e a t many i n f r e q u e n t p r o v i s i o n s c o u l d he

i n t e r p r e t e d as u n j u s t to th e t e a c h e r ,

T ypical of such

p r o v i s i o n s a r e t h o s e w h ich b a r u n i o n m e m b e r s h i p , d e n y the t e a c h e r a chance to e x p re s s p r e f e r e n c e in a ssig n m en t, r e q u i r e him t o j o i n d e f i n i t e a s s o c i a t i o n s ,

t h r e a t e n him

w ith d is m is s a l f o r la c k of prudence in v e n t i l a t i o n , h o l d him r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e r r o r s i n p r o m o t i o n .

or

I f a n y one

t e a c h e r were c o n fr o n te d w ith a l l th e i n f r e q u e n t r e g u ­ l a t i o n s w h i e h c o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s i n f r i n g e m e n t s on h i s r i g h t s , he w o u l d h a v e g e n u i n e c a u s e f o r c o m p l a i n t . Most o f t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r b u t once o r tw ice. I f s c h o o l b o a r d r u l e s an d r e g u l a t i o n s a r e t o b e t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f p o l i c i e s w hic h e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s b e ­ l i e v e th e y should be,

i t w i l l b e n e c e s s a r y f o r b o a r d s and

t h e i r s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s to be e d u c a te d t o t h i s v ie w .

The

1340 p r o v i s i o n s , w h i c h t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r t a b u l a t e d ,

in­

d i c a t e t h a t r u l e s an d r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t a i n many s t a t e m e n t s whieh a r e n o t b oard p o l i c i e s .

The i n v e s t i g a t o r b e l i e v e s

t h a t i t w o u ld be t o t h e a d v a n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s t o w o r k through t h e i r l o c a l ,

state,

and n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s to

s e c u r e g r e a t e r u n i f o r m i t y and a b e t t e r u n d e rs ta n d in g of th e purpose of r e g u l a tio n s .

L

j

247

BIBLIOGRAPHY

L

j

BOOKS ADD ARTICLES

A b e l l , E . L . , "A S a l a r y S c h e d u l e f o r T e a c h e r s , ” Am-erican S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 7 0 : 4 4 , May, 1 9 2 5 . A n d e r s o n , E a r l W., The T e a c h e r ’ s C o n t r a c t and O t h e r Legal phases of T each er’s S ta tu s . Hew York: T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 2 7 . 180 p p . A r n o l d , E. J . , ’’The Job and S t a t u s o f t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , ” A m e ri c a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l . 8 8 : 1 4 , A p r i l , 1934. Bowman, L e o n a r d , ’’D e m o c r a t i c S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h r o u g h a L o c a l S c h o o l C o d e , ” A m e ri c a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 9 1 : 1 5 - 1 6 , Decem ber, 19 3 5. Can a B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n D e l e g a t e t o a C o m m itte e A u th o r ity to D ism iss T each ers?, E lem en tary School J o u r n a l . 3 6 : 6 4 5 - 6 4 6 , May, 1 9 3 6 . C h a d s e y , C h a r l e s E . , R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m itte e on Admin i s t r a t i v e L e g i s l a t i o n . Department o f S u p e r in ­ tendence, n a t i o n a l E ducation A s s o c ia tio n , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . , 1 9 1 8 . C h a m b e r l a i n , L. M ., T e a c h e r an d S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n . Eew York: P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 3 6 . 656 p p . C h a n c e l l o r , W i l l i a m B s t a b r o o k , ’’C o m p l e x i t y a n d M u l t i ­ p l i c i t y o f R u l e s , ” American S chool Board J o u r n a l . 6 9 :3 8 -3 9 , O c to b e r, 1924. C l a r k , Amos E dwin, ’’R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e C i t y Board o f E d u c a t i o n , ” U n p u b lish e d M a s t e r ’s d i s s e r t ­ a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 1 . 101 p p .

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O o rw in , A l i c e , "A S t u d y o f M a n u a l s f o r T e a c h e r s , ” Un­ p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of L o u i s v i l l e , L o u i s v i l l e , K entucky, 1934. 116 p p . D i r e c t o r y o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s o f Dew York S t a t e . A l b a n y , Dew York: S t a t e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t ­ m e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f S t a t e o f Dew York p r e s s , 1 9 3 6 . D i x o n , J o h n , " T e a c h e r and t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , " Amer­ ic a n School Board J o u r n a l , 8 1 :3 5 -3 6 , O c to b er, 1930. D o u g l a s s , B e n n e t t 0 . , "The S t a t u s o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , ” F i r s t Y e a r Book o f t h e D a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , D e p a r t m e n t o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D. 0 . , 1 923. E a r l e , J e s s e , "What a b o u t S c h o o l B o a r d s a n d S u p e r i n ­ t e n d e n t s ? " A m e ric a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 6 9 : 4 2 , J u ly , 1924. E d u c a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r y . W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . : O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n t e r i o r , Government p r i n t ­ i n g O f f i c e , 1936 and s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s . E d w a r d s , I . M ., "The Law G o v e r n in g S c h o o l B o a r d p r o ­ cedure and R e c o r d s ," E le m e n ta ry Sch o o l J o u r n a l 27:356-365, 423-432, 518-528, Ja n u ary , F eb ru ary , M arch, 1 9 2 7. E g i n t o n , D a n i e l P . , " R u l e s a nd R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , " A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 84:1 4 1 , March, 1934. ' E t h i c s o f a C o n t r a c t b e t w e e n T e a c h e r a n d B o a r d , " Amer i c a n S chool Board J o u r n a l , 6 9 :6 8 -6 9 , J u l y , 1924. F o rd , W i l l a r d S . , " R e l a t i o n o f t h e Board o f E d u c a tio n to th e S t a f f , " jjn e ric a n School Board J o u r n a l , 79:3 5 -3 7 , Rovember, 1 9 2 9 .

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F r o s e t h , H i l b e r t I n g w a l d , " B y - l a w s of B o a r d s o f E d u c a t i o n of Sm all C i t i e s , ” U n p u b lish e d M a s t e r 's d i s s e r t a t i o n , Colorado S t a t e T ea ch e rs' C o lle g e , G reeley , C olorado, 1932. 103 p p . F r o s e t h , H i l b e r t I . and 0 . 1 . T r o x e l , " R u l e s and R egu­ l a t i o n s o f School Boards of Sm all C i t i e s , " A m e ric a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 8 5 : 2 5 - 2 6 , D ecem ber, 1 9 3 2 . G ard n er, J . Haul, "C o o p e ra tio n f o r A d m i n is tr a t iv e E f f i c i e n c y , " A m e ri c a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 8 4 : 3 3 , F e b ru a ry , 1932. 'G o in g Over t h e H e a d s o f R e c o g n i z e d A u t h o r i t y , " A m e r i c a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l . 7 0 : 7 8 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 2 5. G o s l i n g , Thomas W., "A S a l a r y S c h e d u l e f o r T e a c h e r s i n a C i t y o f F o r t y T h o u s a n d , " A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 6 9 : 3 7 , O c t o b e r , 192 4. G o s l i n g , Thomas W., " S c h o o l B o a r d O r g a n i z a t i o n i n a C i t y o f F o r t y T housand," American S chool B oard J o u r n a l , 6 9 : 3 9 - 4 0 , A u g u s t , 19 2 4 . H a r t , F . W. a n d L . H. P e t e r s o n , "The B u s i n e s s o f t h e * Board of E d u c a t i o n , " American S chool Board J o u r n a l , 74 :3 8 , A p r i l , 1927. H u r l o c k , F r a n c e s B . , " Po w er o f B o a r d s o f E d u c a t i o n t o Make R u l e s C o n c e r n i n g P u p i l s a n d T e a c h e r s , " Un­ published M a s te r's d i s s e r t a t io n , U n iv e rsity of C h i c a g o , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , 1928* 125 p p . J e n n i n g s , J o s e p h , R u les and R e g u l a t i o n s C o n c ern in g th e Employed P e r s o n n e l o f C i t y S c h o o l s . D a s h v i l l e , Tennessee: George Peabody G o lle g e f o r T e a c h e rs, 1 9 2 9 . 128 p p .

K l i t z k e , Lyle X ., "D u tie s of T eachers in C i t y School Systems as S p e c i f i e d hy Board Hules a n d R e g u l a t i o n s , U n p u b lis h e d M a ste r* s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of O h i c a g o , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , 1934# 132 p p . M elhy, E r n e s t C . , "A C he ck L i s t f o r t h e P r e p a r a t i o n o f R u le s , R e g u la tio n s , and Y fritten I n s t r u c t i o n s , " A m e r i c a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 7 4 : 4 1 - 4 2 , 1 5 8, A p r i l , 1927. M elh y, E r n e s t 0 . , " R u l e s , R e g u l a t i o n s , a n d W r i t t e n I n s t r u c t i o n s a s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C o n t r o l s , " A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 7 4 : 4 3 - 4 5 , May, 1927. Moore, C l y d e B . , "Some F u n c t i o n s a n d R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , " A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l 9 0 : 1 5 - 1 6 , F e b r u a r y , 1 935. Moore, C l y d e B . , "The P o l i c y D e t e r m i n i n g F u n c t i o n s o f t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , " A m e ri c a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 9 2 :2 , F e b ru a ry , 1938. M o r r i s o n * J . C a y c e , "The L e g a l R e l a t i o n s h i p T hat S h o u l d E x i s t Betw een t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t a n d t h e B o a r d o f E du catio n w ith S p e c ia l R eferen ce to I l l i n o i s , " A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 7 1 : 3 7 , 1 4 1 , December, 1926. M o r r i s o n , J . C a y c e , "The V a l u e o f C a r e f u l l y D e f i n e d R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , " A m e r i c a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 72:48-50, F e b ru a ry , 1926. " P e r s o n a l L i b e r t y o f t h e S c h o o l T e a c h e r , " A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 7 1 : 6 7 , Decem ber, 1 9 2 5 . • B o l s t e r , A r t h u r H . , " R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r a S c h o o l Sy s te m i n a C i t y o f 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 t o 20Q,000 P o p u l a t i o n , " U npublished M a s t e r 's d i s s e r t a t i o n , S ta n fo rd U n iv e r­ s i t y , S ta n fo rd , C a li f o r n ia , 1930. 135 p p .

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n

R o g e rs, B r o d e r ic k S . , "Fundam ental P r i n c i p l e s of P e r s o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and C o n t r o l , " American S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 8 8 :2 5 , F e b ru a ry , 1934. R o n a l s o n , P e t e r , "A S c h o o l B o a r d C a t e c h i s m , " A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 7 0 : 3 6 , May, 19 2 5 . R o n a l s o n , P e t e r , " S c h o o l B o a r d M e m b e r s h i p , " A m e ric an S chool Board J o u r n a l , 7 0 :3 6 , F e b r u a r y , 1925. R o u d e b u s h , Roy R. and John R u s s e l l , "The S c h o o l B o a r d a n d t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , " A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 7 4 :4 3 , June, 1927. ~ R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s G o v e r n i n g S c h o o l s i n C i t i e s o v e r 3 0 , OOP i n P o p u l a t i o n , C i r c u l a r 4, W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . ; R a t i o n a l Bd u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , E d u c a t i o n a l R e se a rc h S e r v i c e , Departm ent of S u p e rin te n d e n c e and R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n , 1 9 3 0 . 14 p p . S c a t t e r g o o d , M rs. J . , " R e l a t i o n s h i p of th e S ch o o l Board to t h e T e a c h e r s and t h e P u b l i c , " A m e ric a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 85: 2 3 - 2 4 , IIovember , 1 9 3 2 . ' " S c h o o l B o a r d R u l e s a s an E x p r e s s i o n o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c i e s , " A m erican S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 7 0 : 1 2 7 , May, 1 9 2 5 . S e a r s , J e s s e B . , " R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e G o v e rn ­ ment o f C i t y S c h o o l S y s t e m s , " B d u c a t i o n a l Admin­ i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 2 1 : l 8 l , M a r c h , 1935'. S enger, H a r r y ! . , " S ta tu s Teacher R atin g in 1936," A m erican S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 9 3 : 5 6 , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 6 . S t u d e b a k e r , J . W., " S c h o o l B o a r d O r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , " ' A m erican S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 6 8 :3 7 , A p r i l , 1924. Tobey, S i l a s B . , " S c h o o l B o a r d o r S u p e r i n t e n d e n t - Which?" A m e ric an S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 8 9 : 1 4 , J u l y , 1 9 3 4 .

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Van Dyke, G. B . , " B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f G i t y S c h o o l S y s t e m s a s Shown hy B u i e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , " A m e ric a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , 8 1 : 4 7 - 4 8 , 5 8 - 5 9 , November, De cem ber, 1 9 3 0 , V/in s l o w , I s a a c 0 . , " A d j u s t m e n t o f T e a c h e r s ’ S a l a r i e s , " Am erican School Board J o u r n a l , 7 0 :4 2 -4 3 , F e b ru a ry , 1925.

CITY SCHOOL BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS

ALABAMA A nniston

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . A n n is to n , A l a . , B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

Dothan

B u l l e t i n o f E x t r a c t s f r o m Regu­ l a t i o n s f o r P r i n c i p a l s and T e a c h e r s D othan, A l a . , Board o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

M obile

By-Laws. R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e Board o f School C o m m issio n ers. M o b ile, A l a . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , August 1, 1923.

CALIFORNIA Alameda

R u le s o f t h e Board o f E d u c a t i o n . A lam eda, C a l . , B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , November 5 , 1 9 3 5 .

A lh a m b ra

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , A l h a m b r a , C a l . , B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , Nov. 5 , 1934.

B akersfield

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , B a k e r s f i e l d , C al, Board o f E d u c a tio n , O ct. 11, 1928.

• B e r k e le y

Code R e l a t i n g t o t h e D u t i e s o f t h e B oa rd o f E d u c a t i o n a nd t h e S u p e r ­ in te n d e n t of S ch o o ls. B erkeley, C a l . , B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , Aug. 5, 1936.

B everly H i l l s

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s t o be F o l l o w ­ ed by T e a c h e r s o f B e v e r l y H i l l s U n ified School D i s t r i c t . B everly H i l l s , C a l . , Board o f E d u c a ti o n , 1936.

B ra w l e y

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , B r a w l e y , C a l B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , J u n e 1 4 , 1 9 3 5 .

CALIFORNIA Burbank

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . B u r b a n k , C a l . , Board o f E d u c a ti o n , 1933.

Fresno

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . F r e s n o , G a l . , B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , Aug. 1 , 1935.

Long B e a c h

The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Code o f t h e Long B e a c h C i t y S c h o o l s , Long Beach, C a l . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , S e p t . 26, 1929.

Los A n g e l e s

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . Los A n g e l e s , G a l . , Board o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 6 .

Modesto

A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C ode, Modesto, G a l . , Board o f E d u c a ti o n , S e p t . 2, 1936.

M onrovia

S p e c i a l R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s o f t h e Monr o v i a - A r c a d i a - D u a r t e H igh S c h o o l D i s t r i c t G overning t h e A tte n d a n c e a n d Work o f T e a c h e r s . M o n r o v i a , C a l . , Board o f E d u c a ti o n , S e p t . 2, 1931.

Oakland

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . Oakland, C a l . , B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , Aug. 1936

Pasadena

R u le s o f t h e Board o f E d u c a t i o n . P a s a d e n a , C a l . , Board o f E d u c a t i o n , 1931.

Pomona

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s . Pomona, C a l . B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , Mar. 1 5 , 1 9 3 2 .

Richmond

R u l e s o f t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n and t h e H ig h S c h o o l B o a r d , Richm ond, C a l . , Board o f E d u c a ti o n , Feb. 1, 1937.

R iverside

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , R i v e r s i d e , C a l . , B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

CALIFORNIA Sacram ento

The R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e Board o f E d u c a t i o n , Sacram ento, C a l . , Board o f E d u c a ti o n , June 25, 1934.

San D iego

The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Code o f t h e S a n D i e g o C i t y S c h o o l s , San D i e g o , C a l . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , Oct. 19, 1936.

Sa n F r a n c i s c o

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , San F r a n c i s c o , C a l . , B o a r d o f Edu­ c a t i o n , J a n u a r y 20, 1937.

Santa B arbara

The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Code o f t h e S an ta B arbara C ity S c h o o ls, Santa B a r b a r a , C a l . , Board o f E d u c a ti o n , No d a t e .

S a n t a C ru z

R u l e s a nd R e g u l a t i o n s . S a n t a C r u z , C a l . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , A p r . 1 9 3 6 .

S a n t a R osa

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , S a n ta R osa, C a l . , Board o f E d u c a ti o n , 1920-1921.

Stockton

R u l e s a nd R e g u l a t i o n s , S t o c k t o n , G a l . , B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , J u n e , 1929

V allejo

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e G o v e r n ­ in g B o a rd , V a l l e j o , C a l . , Board o f E d u c a t i o n , Aug. 2 6 , 1 9 3 6 .

COLORADO B oulder

R e g u l a t i o n s , B o u ld e r , C o l o ., Board o f E d u c a tio n , S e p t . 7, 1936.

Denver

Ma nu al o f R u l e s a n d P o l i c i e s , D e n v e r C o l o ., Board o f E d u c a tio n , 1932,

F o rt C o llin s

G e n e r a l R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s , F o r t C o l l i n s , C o l o ., Board o f E d u c a tio n , 1936.

Pueblo

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , P u e b l o , C o l o . , Board o f E d u c a ti o n , 1926.

257

CONNECTICUT B ridgeport

L

R u les of th e Board o f E d u c a ti o n , B r i d g e p o r t , C o n n . , B o a r d o f Edu­ c a t i o n , 1926.

Danbury

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s . D a n b u r y , C o n n . , Town S c h o o l C o m m i t te e , S e p t. 1915.

Derby

R u le s o f t h e Board o f E d u c a t i o n . Derby, C o n n ., Board o f E d u c a ti o n , 1927.

H artfo rd

R u le s o f t h e Board o f E d u c a t i o n t H a r t f o r d , C onn., Board o f E d u c a ti o n , Nov. 2 8 , 1 9 3 1 .

M eriden

R u l e s a nd R e g u l a t i o n s . M e r i d e n , C o n n . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 5 .

New B r i t a i n

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s . New B r i t a i n , C onn., Board o f E d u c a ti o n , F eb. 14, 1936.

N o r w a lk

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . N o r w a l k , C o n n . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 3 .

S h elton

By-Laws o f t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n . S h e l t o n , C o n n . , B o a r d o f Edu­ c a t i o n , June 2, 1924.

Stam ford

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . S t a m f o r d , C o n n ., Board o f E d u c a ti o n , 1931.

S tratfo rd

R u l e s o f t h e Town S c h o o l C o m m i t t e e , S t r a t f o r d , C o n n . , Town S c h o o l Com­ m i t t e e , 1930.

W aterbury

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . W aterb u ry , C o n n . , B oa rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 193*7.

West Haven

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s . West Haven, C o n n ., Board o f E d u c a ti o n , S e p t . , 1927.

J

DELAWARE W ilm ington

DISTRICT OP COLUMBIA W ashington

FLORIDA Pensacola

R u le s of th e Board of P u b lic E d u c a t i o n , W ilm ington, D el*, Bo a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , S e p t *18, 1 9 3 3 .

B y-law s, R ules and R e g u l a t i o n s , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . f B o a r d o f E d u c a ti o n , J u l y 1, 1937.

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , P e n s a c o l a , P l a . , B o a r d of E d u c a t i o n , 1 935.

S t. A ugustine

R ules, R e g u la tio n s , Course o f S t u d y and G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e E l e m e n t a r y an d High S c h o o l s , S t . A u g u s tin e , P l a . , Board o f E d u ca tio n , 1927.

Sanford

R e g u la tio n s f o r T eachers of Schools', "Sanford, P l a . , Board of P u b l i c 4I n s t r u c t i o n , J u n e 3 , 1 9 3 1 .

GEORGIA Albany

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , A l b a n y , G a . , B o a r d of E d u c a t i o n , S e p t . 1, 1926.

A tlanta

By-Law s, R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s , At 1 an t a , Ga. , B o a r d o f Educ a t i o n , Dec. 1 9 3 4 .

A ugusta

Manual o f G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n , A u g u s t a , G a . , B oa rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1930.

Columbus

R u l e s , a n d R e g u l a t i o n s , Columbus, G a . , B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , 1923.

Mac on

F i f t y - s e v e n t h A n n u a l R e p o r t of th e P u b lic Schools of the C ity o f Macon, G e o r g i a , [ R u l e s on p p . 4 7 - 6 6 . ) Macon, G a . , B o a r d of E d u catio n , 1929-30.

259

GEORGIA Rome

The B u l l e t i n , . R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s , Rome, G a s, B o a r d o f E d u c a tio n , August 1936.

IDAHO Boise

ILLINOIS A lton

R u l e s a nd R e g u l a t i o n s , B o i s e , I d a h o , B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s , Mar. 1 1 , 1933.

Manual o f A l t o n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , ( i n c l u d e s R u l e s a nd R e g u l a t i o n s o f Board o f E d u c a t i o n . ) , A lto n , 1 1 1 . , Board o f E d u c a ti o n , 19271928.

Aurora

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e Board of E d u catio n E ast Side P u b lic S c h o o l s , A u ro ra , 1 1 1 ., Board o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

B loom ington

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , B loom ington, 1 1 1 . , B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , S e p t . 1, 1934.

Blue I s l a n d

R u l e s a nd R e g u l a t i o n s f o r T e a c h e r s . B l u e I s l a n d , 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , No d a t e .

Chicago

R u les o f t h e Board o f E d u c a t i o n , C hicago, 1 1 1 . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , F eb. 23, 1933.

Chicago H e ig h ts

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , C h i c a g o H e i g h t s , 1 1 1 . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , J u l y 1920.

E a s t M oline

By-Laws, R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . E a s t M o l i n e , 1 1 1 . , B o a r d o f Edu­ c a t i o n , 1929-1930.

E vanston

G eneral R ules f o r th e S c h o o ls , E v a n s t o n , 1 1 1 . , B oa rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , No d a t e .

Jack so n v ille

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s , J a c k s o n ­ v i l l e , 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , J a n . 21, 1931.

ILLINOIS J o lie t

M anual o f R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B o a rd o f S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r s , J o l i e t , 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , May, 1 9 2 5 .

Kewanee

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . K ew anee, 1 1 1 . B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , J a n . 1 , 1 9 2 8 .

Maywood

H andbook f o r P u b l i c S c h o o l s . May­ wood, 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 6 -1 9 5 7

M o lin e

F i f t y - s e v e n t h A n n u a l R e p o r t Of t h e M o lin e P u b l i c S c h o o l s . M o l i n e , 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 0 .

P a r k R id g e

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . P a r k R i d g e , 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

P e k in

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s . P e k i n , 1 1 1 , , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , D ec. 1 9 2 6 .

P e o ria

R u l e s . R e g u l a t i o n s and C h a r t e r o f t h e B o a rd o f S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r s . P e o r i a , 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , D ec. 1 9 3 0 .

Q u in c y

R u l e s o f t h e B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n . Q u in c y , 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1934.

R o ck fo rd

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . R o c k fo rd , 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , May 2 8 , 1928.

R ock I s l a n d

G e n e r a l R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n . Rock I s l a n d , 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , J u n e 1 5 , 1926.

S p rin g fie ld

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . S p r i n g f i e l d , 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , F e b . 2 , 1927.

S tre a to r

By-Laws o f t h e B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n a n d R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s C o v e r in g t h e C onduct o f th e S c h o o ls, S t r e a t o r 1 1 1 . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , Nov. 1 9 3 0 .

261

INDIANA C ra w fo rd sv ilie

O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f th e C ity S c h o o ls , C raw fordsv i l l e , I n d . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , M ar. 21, 1951.

E v a n sv ille

H andbook o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , E v a n s v i l l e , I n d . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , 1955-1936.

In d ia n a p o lis

R u l e s o f t h e B o ard o f S c h o o l Com­ m is s io n e rs o f th e C ity of In d ia n a ­ p o lis '- f o r t h e G overnm ent o f i t s S c h o o l s an d L i b r a r i e s . I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , S e p t• 8 , 1931.

L a P o rte

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . L a P o rte , I n d . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 9 .

M i c h ig a n C i t y

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s G o v e rn in g t h e M i c h ig a n C i t y . I n d i a n a P u b l i c S c h o o l s . M ic h ig a n C i t y , I n d . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 9 .

M uncie

A B u l l e t i n o f R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e M uncie P u b l i c S c h o o l s . M u n c ie , I n d . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1929.

T e r r a H a u te

R u le s and R e g u la tio n s o f th e B o a rd o f S c h o o l s T r u s t e e s . T e r r a H a u t e , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 6 .

C e d a r R a p id s

H andbook P u b l i c S c h o o l s . C e d a r R a p i d s , Io w a , B oard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1935-1956.

D avenport

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e I n d e ­ p e n d e n t S c h o o l D i s t r i c t o f D aven­ p o r t I o w a . D a v e n p o r t , Io w a , B o a rd o f E d u c a tio n , J u l y , 1955.

Des M oines

By-Laws o f t h e B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n . Des M o in e s , Io w a , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , A p r. 2 7 , 1 9 3 1 .

IOWA

L

J

IOWA

Dubuque

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . D u bu que, Io w a , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , May 23 , 19 2 7 .

M a rsh a llto w n

R u les and R e g u l a t i o n s . M a r s h a ll­ to w n , I o w a , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , Feb. 1 , 1929.

S io u x C i t y

R u les and R e g u l a t i o n s . S io u x C ity , Io w a , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , A ug. 3 , 1931.

W aterlo o

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . W a t e r l o o , Io w a , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 0 .

KANSAS A rkansas C ity

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . A r k a n s a s , C i t y , K a n s , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , J u l y 6, 1925.

Dodge C i t y

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s . Dodge C i t y , K ans, S u p t. o f S c h o o ls , S e p t. 50, 1935.

K ansas C ity

B y - l a w s . R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , K a n s a s C i t y , K a n s . , B oard o f Edu­ c a t io n , 1930.

L aw re n ce

A Handbook o f I n f o r m a t i o n a n d Re­ g u la tio n s f o r th e ftu b lic S c h o o ls . L a w r e n c e , K a n s . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a tio n , S e p t. 1928.

M a n h attan

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s and B y -L aw s. M a n h a t t a n , K a n s . , B o ard o f Edu­ c a t io n , 1932.

P ittsb u rg

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . P i t t s b u r g , K a n s . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , N o v ., 1936.

T o p ek a

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B o ard o f E d u c a tio n w ith C o n s t i t u t i o n a l P r o v i s i o n s an d S t a t u t e s A p p l i c a b l e t o t h e C i ty S c h o o ls . T opeka, K ans. B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , J a n . 4 , 1 9 2 6 .

KANSAS W ic h ita

KENTUCKY A s h la n d

B y - l a w s . R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . W i c h i t a , K a n s . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n 1928.

B y -la w s and R e g u l a t i o n s . A s h la n d , K y . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

H enderson

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s . H e n d e r s o n K y . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

L e x in g to n

R u l e s G o v e r n in g t h e B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n . i t s O f f i c e r s and t h e S c h o o l s . L e x i n g t o n , K y . , B o a rd o f E d u c a tio n , 1933.

N ew port

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . N e w p o rt, K y ., B o a rd o f E d u o a t i o n , 1 9 3 1 .

Ow ensboro

R u l e s G o v e r n in g t h e B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n . i t s O f f i c e r s and t h e S c h o o l s , O w ensboro, K y . , B o a rd o f E d u c a tio n , 1922,

Paducah

R u les and R e g u l a t i o n s . P adu cah , K y . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 4 .

LOUISIANA New O r l e a n s

MAINE Bangor

R u le s and R e g u la tio n s o f t h e O r l e a n s P a r i s h S c h o o l B o a rd and t h e New O r l e a n s P u b l i c S c h o o l s . New O r l e a n s , L a . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , 1930.

R u les and R e g u la tio n s o f th e S c h o o l C o m m itte e . B a n g o r, M a in e , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , J a n . 1 9 2 8 .

L e w is to n

By-Laws o f t h e L e w i s t o n S c h o o l B o a rd a n d R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e S c h o o l s . L e w i s t o n , M a in e , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 5 .

S o u th P o r t l a n d

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s . S o u th P o r t l a n d , M a in e , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , M ar. 7 , 1 9 3 3 .

264

MARYLAND B a ltim o re

MASSACHUSETTS A rlin g to n

R u l e s o f t h e B o a rd o f S c h o o l C o m m i s s i o n e r s , B a l t i m o r e , M d ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , S e p t . 1 , 1 9 3 5 .

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C om m ittee and R e g u la tio n s f o r th e P u b lic S c h o o ls, A r l i n g t o n , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1934.

A ttle b o ro

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , A t t l e b o r o , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , M ar. 2 , 1936.

B o sto n

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C om m ittee an d R e g u la tio n s o f th e P u b lic S c h o o ls. B o s t o n , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , J a n . 1 , 1935.

B ra in tre e *

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . B r a i n t r e e , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 3 2 .

B ro c k to n

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , B r o c k t o n , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 2 4 .

B ro o k lin e

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C om m ittee and R e g u la tio n s f o r th e P u b lic S c h o o ls, B r o o k l i n e , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1926.

C am bridg e

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C o m m itte e , C a m b rid g e , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1933.

C h e lse a

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . C h e ls e a , M a s s . , S c h o o l Committee-, S e p t . 1 4 , 1925.

C h ic o p e e

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . C h ico p e e, M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 3 7 .

E a s th a m p t o n

R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e S c h o o l C o m m itte e . E a s th a m p t o n , M a s s . , S c h o o l Comm i t t e e , J u ly 11, 1927.

E v e re tt

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , E v e r e t t , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 3 5 .

265 MASSACHUSETTS F a l l R iv e r

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C o m m itte e , F a l l R i v e r , M a s s . , S c h o o l Com­ m i t t e e , M ar. 1 , 1 9 3 2 .

.F itfc h b u rg

R u les o f th e S chool B o a rd . F i t c h b u r g , M a s s . , B o a rd o f E du­ c a t i o n , Dec. 1 9 3 3 .

G re e n fie ld

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e School D e p artm en t, G r e e n f ie ld , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , A p r. 1 9 2 4 .

H a v e rh ill

S c h o o l C o m m ittee R e g u l a t i o n s . H a v e r h i l l , M a s s . , S c h o o l Com­ m i t t e e , 1923.

H o ly o k e

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . H o l y o k e , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 2 7 .

Lynn

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C o m m itte e . L y nn, M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , O c t . 9 , JL934.

M a ld en

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C om m ittee and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s . M a ld e n , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , Dec. 2 1 , 1 9 2 8 .

M a rlb o ro

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s .. M a r l b o r o , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 3 3 .

M e d fo rd

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . M edford, M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 2 9 .

M elro se

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . M e l r o s e , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , D ec. 1 9 3 0 .

M e th u en

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . M e th u e n , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 3 0 .

M ilto n

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . M ilto n , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , J a n . 5 , 1924.

Needham

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s . Needham, M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , F e b . 5 , 1935.

New B e d f o r d

R u le s . R e g u la tio n s and S a l a r y S c h e d u l e s . New B e d f o r d , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , May 1 9 2 2 .

MASSACHUSETTS N e w b u ry p o rt

R u l e s o f t h e N e w b u ry p o rt S c h o o l C o m m itte e . N e w b u r y p o r t, M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , F e b . 1 , 1 9 3 6 .

N evrton

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C o m m itte e , N ew ton, M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , May, 1 9 3 4 .

N o rth a m p to n

A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e S c h o o l Com­ m i t t e e . ( i n c l u d e s R u l e s and R e g u la tio n s of th e School D e p art­ m en t a s a d o p t e d by t h e S c h o o l Com­ m i t t e e . ) N o r th a m p to n , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , Dec. 3 1 , 1 9 3 5 .

N o rth A ttle b o r o

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . N o r t h A t t l e b o r o , M a s s . , S c h o o l Com­ m i t t e e , S e p t ., 1935.

Norwood

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . Norwood, M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , J u n e 2 3 , 1936.

Peabody

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s . P e a b o d y , M a s s . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 2 .

P ittsfie ld

P u b l i c S c h o o l C o m m itte e R u l e s and R e g u la ti o n s . P i t t s f i e l d , M a s s ., S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 3 0 .

P ly m o u th

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f S c h o o l D e p a r t m e n t , P ly m o u th , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , J a n . 1 , 1 9 1 7 .

Q u in c y

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C o m m itte e . Q u in c y , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1930.

R evere

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . R e v e r e , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 3 7 .

S alem

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C o m m itte e . S a le m , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , S e p t. 27, 1926.

S o u th b rid g e

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . S o u t h b r i d g e M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 1 8 .

MASSACHUSETTS S to n e h am

B a l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s , S to n e h a m , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , J a n . 1 7 , 1927.

Swamp s c o t t

S c h o o l C om m ittee R e g u l a t i o n s , S w a m p s c o tt, M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , O c t. 24, 1934.

Taunton

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , T a u n t o n , Mass S c h o o l C o m m itte e , No d a t e .

W a k e fie ld

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e S c h o o l C om m ittee o f t h e Town o f W a k e f i e l d , M a ssa c h u se tts, to g e th e r w ith th e R e g u la tio n s f o r th e P u b lic S c h o o ls, W a k e f i e l d , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , F e b . 2 5 , 1 9 1 0 ; am endm ents t o 1 9 3 6 .

W altham

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C om m ittee and R e g u la tio n s of th e P u b lic S c h o o ls. W altham , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1936.

W e stfie ld

R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e S c h o o l C o m m itte e . W e s t f i e l d , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1931.

W in c h e s te r

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . W i n c h e s t e r , M a s s . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , S e p t . 1 , 1926.

MICHIGAN Bay C i t y

By-Laws o f t h e B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n . Bay C i t y , M i c h . , B oard o f E d u c a t i o n , Feb. 8 , 1929.

D earborn

By-Laws o f t h e B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n o f th e F ordson School D i s t r i c t , D e a r b o r n , M i c h . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , J u ly 1, 1931.

D e tro it

D i r e c t o r y and B y-L aw s, D e t r o i t , M i c h . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 5 -1 9 3 6

G ran d R a p id s

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , G rand R a p i d s , M i c h . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o h , 1 9 3 4 .

268

MICHIGAN G rosse P o in te

T e a c h e r s * B u l l e t i n No. 2 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 , G r o s s e P o i n t e , M i c h . , B o a rd o f E duc a t i o n , S e p t. 8 , 1936.

Ham tramck

The P u b l i c S c h o o l C o d e , H am tram ck, M i c h . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 8 .

Iro n w o o d

R u l e s , O r d e r o f B u s i n e s s , an d B yLaws f o r t h e G overnm ent o f t h e B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , I r o n w o o d , M ic h o , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 6 .

K alam azoo

By-Laws o f t h e B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , K a la m a z o o , M i c h . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , Aug. 2 0 , 1 9 2 8 .

M a rq u ette

R u lesan d R e g u la ti o n s . M a rq u e tte , M i c h . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

P o r t H uron

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e G o v e rn ­ m ent o f t h e P u b lic S c h o o ls , P o r t H u ro n , M i c h . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , a d o p t e d M ar. 1 2 , 1 9 2 8 , amended Aug. 2 5 , 1 9 3 6 .

MINNESOTA B ra in e rd

By-Laws and R u l e s o f O r d e r G o v e rn ­ i n g t h e B oard o f E d u c a t i o n , B r a i n e r d , M i n n . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

M ankato

By-Laws G o v e rn in g t h e B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n an d t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , M a n k a to , M i n n ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

M in n e a p o lis

C h a r te r , R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n . , B o ard o f Edu­ c a t i o n , 1933.

,]

W inona

M IS S IS S IP P I C la rk s d a le

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s G o v e r n in g t h e B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n and P u b l i c S c h o o l s , W inona, M i n n . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , No d a t e .

P o lic ie s o f th e C la rk sd a le School B o a r d , C l a r k s d a l e , M i s s . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

M IS S IS S IP P I M e rid ia n

MISSOURI Cape G i r a d e a u

M anual o f G overnm ent o f P u b l i c S c h o o l s , M e r i d i a n , M i s s . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s , Cape G i r a d e a u , M o ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , J u l y 8 , 1 9 2 9 .

H a n n ib al

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s , H a n n i b a l , M o ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 6 .

J e f f e r s o n C ity

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , J e f f e r s o n C i t y , M o., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , S e p t. 11, 1933.

Jo p lin

M anual o f R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , J o p l i n , M o., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , Aug. 1 5 , 1 9 3 3 .

K ansas G ity

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . K a n s a s C i t y , M o ., B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , M ar. 2 5 , 1936.

S t. Joseph

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , S t . J o s e p h , M o ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , J u l y 2 8 , 1931.

S t . L o u is

R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f I n s t r u c t i o n , S t . L o u i s , M o., B o a rd o f E d u c a tio n , P e b . 1 , 1934.

MONTANA B illin g s

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , B i l l i n g s , M o n t ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , A p r. 4 , 1 9 3 0 .

B u tte

R u l e s R e l a t i n g t o t h e Employment o f T ea ch e rs i n th e P u b lic S c h o o ls . B u t t e , M o n t . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

G reat P a l ls

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . G r e a t P a l l s , M o n t ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , A p r. 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 .

H elen a

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , H e l e n a , M o n t ., B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , O c t . 1 8 , 1928.

MONTANA M isso u la

NEBRASKA G rand I s l a n d

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , M i s s o u l a , M o n t ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 19E9.

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , G ra n d I s l a n d , N e b r . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , A p r. 2 1 , 1923.

L in c o ln

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , L i n c o l n , N e b r . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , N o v ., 1 9 2 5 .

N o rfo lk

B o a rd P o l i c i e s , N o r f o l k , M e b r . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , May 6 , 1 9 3 5 .

Omaha

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . . Omaha, N e b r . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , A p r . , 1 9 2 5 .

NEW HAMPSHIRE D over

R u l e s o f t h e S c h o o l C om m ittee w i t h E x t r a c t s fro m t h e C i t y C h a r t e r P u b l i c S t a t u t e s a n d S e s s i o n L a w s. D o v e r, N .H ., S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1 9 3 3 .

L ac o n ia

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , L a c o n i a , N .H ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 4 .

N ash u a

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , N a s h u a , N .H ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 1 .

P o rtsm o u th

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , P o r t s m o u t h , N. H . , B o a rd o f I n s t r u c t i o n , 1 9 2 8 .

R o c h e ste r

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , R o c h e s t e r , N. H . , S c h o o l D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 3 5 .

NEW JERSEY Bayonne

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . B a y o n n e , N. J . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , F e b . 1 , 1933.

B lo o m fie ld

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s . B l o o m f i e l d , N. «T., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

B u rlin g to n

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . B u r l i n g t o n , N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

NEW JERSEY C lif f s id e P ark

R u les f o r T e a c h e r s , C l i f f s i d e , P a r k , N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n No d a t e .

C lifto n

R u l e s o f t h e B o a rd and S c h o o l R e g u la tio n s, C lifto n , N . J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , F e b . 1 5 , 1933.

C ran fo rd

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . C r a n f o r d N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

E liz a b e th '

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s R e l a t i n g to I n s tr u c tio n , P u p ils . P r in ­ c ip a ls , T eachers. S u p e rv is o rs , H eads o f D e p a r t m e n t s , e t c . , E l i z a b e t h , N. J . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , F e b ., 1934.

G a rfie ld

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , G a r f i e l d N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , J a n . 1927,

H a rris o n

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , H a r r i s o n N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , A pr. 12, 1917.

J e r s e y C ity

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e G overnm ent o f S c h o o l s . J e r s e y C i t y , N. J . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n S e p t. 9, 1936.

K e a rn y

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , K e a r n y , N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1923

L in d e n

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s . L i n d e n , N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , F e b . 1 ,# 1 9 3 4 . i

New B r u n s w ic k

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s . New B ru n sw i c k , N.. , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , J a n . , 1928.

N u tley

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s C o n c e r n ­ i n g T e a c h e r s , N u t l e y , N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , J u n e , 1 9 3 4 .

NEW JERSEY P a ssa ic

M anual o f t h e B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , P a s s a i c , N. J . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t io n , J u ly 1, 1933.

R id g e fie ld P ark

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , R i d g e f i e l d , P a r k , N. J . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , May, 1 9 3 7 .

R o se lle

R u l e s and B y -L aw s, R o s e l l e , N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , J a n . 9 , 1 9 3 1 .

R u th erfo rd

R u les and R e g u la ti o n s , R u th e r f o r d , N. J . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , Deo. 9 , 1 9 3 5 , am endm ents t o S e p t . , 1 9 3 6 .

S o u th R i v e r

T e a c h e r s * N o te b o o k , S o u th R i v e r , N. J . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

Summit

R u l e s , Sum m it, N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , M ar. 1 1 , 1 9 3 5 .

T ren to n

R e g u l a t i o n s and S a l a r y S c h e d u l e Re­ la tin g to I n s tr u c tio n a l S e rv ic e . T r e n t o n , N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , S e p t . , 1922.

U nion

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s , U n io n , N . J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 6 .

U nion C i t y

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , U n io n C i t y , N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , D e c . , 1926.

W e stfie ld .

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , W e s t f i e l d , N. J . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 0 .

W est O ra n g e

R e g u la tio n s o f th e P u b lic S c h o o ls, W est O ra n g e , N. J . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t io n , J u l y 1 , 1923.

W o od brid ge T o w nship

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s f o r P r i n ­ c i p a l s . T e a c h e r s and P u p i l s , W o o d b rid g e , N. J . , B o ard o f Edu­ c a tio n , 1928.

NEW YORK A lb a n y

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , A lb a n y , N. Y i, D e p a r tm e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u ­ c t i o n , 1931.

273

few

YORK lo b u rn

R o l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . . A ubu rn , 11. X., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , M ar. 1 , 1927.

B a ta v ia

P u b l i c S c h o o l s H and B oo k, B a t a v i a , H. Y.*, B o a rd of E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 .

B u ffa lo

By-Laws and R e g u l a t i o n s , B u f f a l o , H. Y ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , Mar* 1 0 , 1906.

D u n k irk

By-Laws and S c h o o l L aw s, D u n k i r k , H. Y ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , Ho d a t e .

Grieve r s v i l l e

R e g u l a t i o n s and By-Law s, O l o v e r s v i l l e , H * Y ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , Ho d a t e .

H udson

B y -L aw s, H ud so n , H. Y*, B o a rd o f E d u c a tio n , F eb . 7, 1927.

Ith a c a

M anual o f t h e B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , I t s By-Laws and S c h o o l R e g u l a t i o n s , I t h a c a , H. ¥ . , B o a rd of E d u c a t i o n , 1934.

Ja m esto w n

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , Jam esto w n, M. Y . , B o a rd of E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 9 .

M&maroneck

B y -L aw s, M am aroneck, H . Y ., B o a rd of E d u c a tio n , J u ly , 1935.

M id d le to w n

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s , M id d le to w n , H* Y . , B o a rd of E d u c a t i o n , Ho d a t e .

Mount V erno n

B y-L aw s, Mount V e rn o n , H. Y ., B o ard o f E d u c a tio n , J a n . 5, 1931.

le w b u r g h

B y -L aw s, Hewburgh, H. Y ., B o ard o f E d u c a tio n , June 24, 1930.

Hew Y ork

B y-L aw s. Hew Y o rk , H . Y ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , M a r. 9 , 1 9 2 7 ; l o o s e l e a f am endm ents to A u g ., 1 9 3 8 .

Hi a g a r a F a l l s

D i r e c t o r y , H i a g a r a F a l l s , I . Y*, D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 .

274

NEW YORK O le a n

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , C l e a n , N. Yt., B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , Nov. 1 0 , 1 9 2 5 .

Oswego

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , Oswego, N. Y . , B oard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 3 .

P e e k sk ill

B y-L aw s. P e e k s k i l l , N. Y . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , F e b . 1 3 , 1 9 3 4 .

P la ttsb u rg

By-Laws and R u l e s , P l a t t s b u r g , N. Y . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , A p r. 1 2 , 1932.

P o u g h k e e p sie

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , Poughk e e p s i e , N. X , , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , 1932.

Rome

By-Laws and R e g u l a t i o n s , Rome, N. Y . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , S e p t . , 1926.

S c h e n e c ta d y

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . S c h e n e c ta d y , N. Y . , B oard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 8 .

\

S y racu se

B y -L aw s, S y r a c u s e , N. Y . , B oard o f E d u c a t i o n , A p r . 2 7 , .1932.

T ro y

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . T r o y , N . Y . f B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , M ar. 2 3 , 1905'.

U tic a

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , U t i c a , N .Y ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 1 9 .

W a te rto w n

By-Laws and R e g u l a t i o n s , W a te r to w n , N . Y . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 2 .

Y o n k e rs

By-Law s, R e l a t i n g t o t h e O rg a n ­ i z a t i o n o f t h e B o a rd an d t h e T r a n s ­ a c t i o n o f i t s B u s in e s s . Y onkers, N. Y . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 0 .

NORTH CAROLINA C h a rlo tte

L

By-Laws and R u l e s , C h a r l o t t e , N . C . , B o a rd o f S c h o o l C o m m is s io n e r s , 1 933-34.

J

275

NORTH CAROLINA New B e rn

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s , New B e r n , N. C . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , Aug. 6 , 1 9 2 6 .

W in s to n - S a le m

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , W in s to n S a le m , N. C . , C i t y P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 19 50-31.

A kro n

D i r e c t o r y . A k ro n , O h io , B o a rd o f E d u c a tio n , 1935-36.

C a m p b e ll

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . C a m p b e ll, O h io , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , M ar. 1 , 1922.

C a n to n

Handbook o f G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n f o r T e a c h e r s . C a n to n , O h io , B o ard o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 34-35.

C le v e la n d

A d m in is tr a tiv e Code. C le v e la n d , O h io , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , J u l y 1 , 1925.

C o s h o c to n

H a n d b o o k . C o s h o c t o n , O h io , B o a rd o f E d u c a tio n , 1936.

E a s t L iv e rp o o l

R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s . E a s t L i v e r p o o l , O h io , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , J a n . 19, 1922.

F in d la y

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . F in d la y , O h io , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , J u l y , 1929.

Parm a

A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C o d e . P a rm a , O h io , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , Aug. 3 0 , 1 9 3 5 .

S p rin g fie ld

A n n u a l R e p o r t . R u l e s o f t h e B oard o f E d u c a t i o n . S p r i n g f i e l d , O h io , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 6 .

S tru th e rs

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . S t r u t h e r s , O h io , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , Aug. 8 , 1919.

T o le d o

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s G o v e rn in g t h e T o le d o P u b l i c S c h o o l s . T o l e d o , O h io , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

OHIO

L

-I

OHIO W arren

OKLAHOMA Oklahoma C i t y

Okmulgee

OREGON K la m a th

P o rtla n d

PENNSYLVANIA A r n o ld

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s .W a r r e n , O h io , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . Oklahoma C i t y , O k l a . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , Aug. 1 4 , 1 9 3 3 . R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . O km ulgee, O k l a . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , S e p t. 11, 1933.

A M anual o f I n s t r u c t i o n s and P r o ­ c e d u r e . K l a m a t h , O r e g . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 5 , S u p p le m e n t w i t h r e v i s i o n s 1937. S c h o o l B o a rd R u l e s . P o r t l a n d , O r e g . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , Amend­ m e n ts t o 1 9 3 5 .

M anual o f t h e B o a rd o f S c h o o l D i­ r e c t o r s and R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e G overnm ent o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s . A r n o l d , P a . , B o ard o f E d u c a tio n , J a n . 1934.

B e th le h e m

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . B e th le h e m , P a . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , M ar. 1936

C h a m b e rsb u rg

G eneral D ire c tio n s to T e a c h e rs. C h a m b e rsb u rg , P a . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , 1926.

C h e ste r

R u l e s G o v e r n in g P u p i l s . T e a c h e r s . S u p e r v i s o r s and D i r e c t o r s o f S p e c ia l S u b je c ts . C h e ste r, P a ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , Aug. 1 2 , 1 9 2 9 .

D o n o ra

B u l l e t i n . D o n o ra , P a . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , Aug. 3 1 , 1 9 3 6 .

E a s to n

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B o a rd o f D i r e c t o r s . E a s t o n , P a . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , May, 1 9 3 7 .

277 PENNSYLVANIA E llw o o d C i t y

L

R u l e s R e l a t i n g t o T e a c h e r s and P u p i l s , E llw o o d C i t y , P a . , B o ard o f E d u c a tio n , 1934-1935.

E rie

R u l e s o f B oard o f S c h o o l D i r e c t o r s , E r i e , P a . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a te .

H a rrisb u rg

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B o a rd o f School D i r e c t o r s , H a rris b u rg , P a . , B o a rd o f S c h o o l D i r e c t o r s , A p r. 24 , 1 9 3 1 .

L a n c a s te r

R u l e s ' a n d R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B o ard o f School D i r e c t o r s , L a n c a s te r, P a . , B o ard o f S c h o o l D i r e c t o r s , 1927.

P h ila d e lp h ia

By-Laws and R u l e s o f t h e B o a rd o f E d u c a tio n , P h ila d e lp h ia , P a ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 6 .

P h o e n ix v ille

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f P h o e n i x ­ v i l l e P u b lic S c h o o ls . P h o e n ix ­ v i l l e , P a . , . B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1932.

P ittsto n

P r i n c i p l e s and R u l e s f o r G u id a n c e in th e A d m in is tra tio n o f th e P i t t s t o n C ity S c h o o ls , P i t t s t o n , P a . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 2 .

P ly m o u th

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r P ly m o u th B o ro u g h T e a c h e r s . P ly m o u th , P a . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , S e p t . , 1 9 3 6 .

H e a d in g

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , R e a d i n g , P a . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 0 .

W est C h e s t e r

M anual f o r T e a c h e r s , W est C h e s t e r , P a . , . B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 4 .

W ilk es-B arre

R u les o f th e W ilk e s -B a rre C ity P u b lic S c h o o ls, W ilk e s-B a rre , P a ., B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , Amended t o O c t. 5, 1936.

Y ork

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B o a rd o f S c h o o l D i r e c t o r s , Y o rk , P a . , . B o ard o f S c h o o l D i r e c t o r s , D ec. 1 2 , 1 9 2 9 . -I

RHODE ISLAND B risto l

By-Laws o f t h e S c h o o l C o m m itte e , B r i s t o l , R . I . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , Deo. 2 1 , 1 9 3 4 .

C e n tra l F a l l s

R u les and R e g u la tio n s , C e n tra l F a l l s , R. I . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1933

C ra n sto n

By-Laws o f t h e S c h o o l C o m m itte e . G r a n s t o n , R. I . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , 1929.

N o r t h P r o v i d e n c e By-Laws o f t h e S c h o o l C o m m itte e , N o r t h P r o v i d e n c e , R. I . , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , No d a t e . P ro v id e n ce

By-Laws and R e g u l a t i o n s , P r o v i d e n c e , R . I . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 0 .

W arwick

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s and B y -L aw s, W arw ick, R. I . , , S c h o o l C o m m itte e , M ar. 1 7 , 1 9 3 2 .

SOUTH CAROLINA Rock H i l l

SOUTH DAKOTA A b e rd e e n

TENNESSEE B risto l

By-Laws and R u l e s o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , Rock H i l l , S. C . , B o ard o f E d u c a tio n , 1928.

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e A b e r­ deen P u b lic S c h o o ls . A berdeen, S. D . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , A p r. 3 , 1933.

B y-L aw s, R u l e s an d R e g u l a t i o n s , B r i s t o l , T e n n . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

Johnson C ity

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B o ard o f S c h o o l C o m m is s io n e rs f o r t h e P u b lic S c h o o ls. Johnson C ity , T e n n ., B o a rd o f S c h o o l C o m m is s io n e r s , 1935-1936.

K n o x v ille

A d m i n i s t r a t i v e H andbook. K n o x v i l l e C i t y S c h o o l s , K n o x v i l l e , T e n n ., B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 6 -1 9 3 7 .

279

r

n

TENNESSEE N a sh v ille

TEXAS A u stin

R u l e s f o r t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and G overnm ent o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , N a s h v i l l e , T e n n . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , 1928.

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , A u s t i n , T e x . , B o ard o f Edu­ c a t i o n , 1926-27.

Beaum ont

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , B e au m o n t, T e x . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , S e p t . , 1 9 3 4 .

C o rsie an a

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . C o r s i c a n a , T e x . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 7 .

D a lla s

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s . D a l l a s , T e x . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 3 .

D e n is o n

B y-L aw s. R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e D e n is o n B o a rd o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s . D e n i s o n , T e x . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1928.

E l Paso

H andbook f o r T e a c h e r s . E l P a s o , T e x . , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 1 .

G a lv esto n

R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , G a l v e s t o n , T e x . , . B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 0 .

P o r t A rth u r

R u l e s f o r t h e G overnm ent o f t h e B o a rd of T ru s te e s of P o r t A rth u r In d ep en ­ d e n t School D i s t r i c t . P o rt A rth u r, T e x . , B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 934 .

W ic h ita E a l ls

P o l i c i e s and R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e W i c h i t a F a l l s P u b liG S c h o o l s . W i c h i t a F a l l s , T e x . , B o a rd o f Edu­ c a t i o n , A u g ., 1 9 3 1 .

P ro v o

O r g a n i z a t i o n and R u l e s o f t h e B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v o , U ta h , B o a rd o f E d u c a tio n , 1933.

S a l t L ake G i t y

R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s . S a l t L ake G i t y , U ta h , B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n , No d a t e .

UTAH

L

J

r VERMONT B u r l in g t o n

VIRGINIA Lynchburg

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s ‘o f t h e Board o f S c h o o l C o m m issio n er s. B u r l i n g t o n , V t . , S c h o o l D epartm ent, O ct. 1 , 1928

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s A f f e c t i n g T e a c h e r s . P u p i l s . J a n i t o r s , Lynch­ b u r g , V a . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , S e p t. 9, 1929.

Newport News

By-Laws. R u le s G overning T e a ch er s and R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , Newport News, V a . , . Board o f E d u c a tio n , 1930

N o r f o lk

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . N o r f o lk , V a l, Board o f E d u c a tio n , A u g ., 1 9 3 4 .

P o rtsm ou th

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s and By-Laws G overning t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f t h e C i t y o f P o rtsm o u th , V i r g i n i a , P o r tsm o u th , V a . , . Board o f E d u c a tio n Nov. 1 , 1 9 3 5 .

Richmond

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , Richmond, Va. S c h o o l Board, Mar. 2 3 , 1 9 3 4 .

Roanoke

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , Roanoke, V a . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , Feb. 1 1 , 1 9 2 7 .

W in c h e ste r

Handbook o f th e W in c h e ste r P u b li c S c h o o l s , W in c h e s te r , V a . , l o h n H andley F o u n d a tio n , 1 9 2 1 .

WASHINGTON A berdeen

E lem e n ta r y S c h o o l Handbook o f R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s f o r P r i n c i p a l s and T e a c h e r s , A b erdeen , W ash., Board o f E d u c a tio n , A p r ., 1 9 3 2 .

E verett

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . E v e r e t t , W a sh ., Board o f E d u c a tio n , 1936*

Olympia

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , Olympia, W a sh ., Board o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 6 .

S e a ttle

The P r i n c i p a l s Handbook, S e a t t l e , W a sh ., Board o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 6 .

rWASHINGTON Spokane Yakima

WEST VIRGINIA M ound svill©

W heeling

WISCONSIN A p p le to n

R u l e s ».and R e g u l a t i o n s , Sp okan e, W ash., Board o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 5 . R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , Yakima, W ash., Board o f E d u c a tio n , No d a t e .

M a r s h a ll County P u b l i c S c h o o ls G en eral I n f o r m a t io n f o r T e a c h e r s , M o u n d s v i l le , W. V a . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , No d a t e . O u t l in e o f D u t i e s and R e s p o n s i­ b i l i t i e s f o r Em ployees o f Board o f E d u c a tio n o f Ohio County S c h o o l s , W h e e lin g , W. V a . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , No d a t e .

By-Laws. R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , A p p le t o n , W i s . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , No d a t e .

B e lo it

By-Laws o f th e Board o f E d u c a t io n , B e l o i t , W i s . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , Ia n . 14, 1935.

Cudahy

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , Cudahy, W is. Board o f E d u c a tio n , Apr. 1 6 , 1 9 3 0 .

Eau C l a i r e

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . Eau C l a i r e , W i s . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , June 1 , 1935.

Green Bay

Handbook f o r T e a c h e r s , Green Bay, W i s ., Board o f E d u c a tio n , No d a t e .

M adison

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , M adison, Wis Board o f E d u c a tio n , S e p t . 1 7 , 1 9 2 9 .

M ilwaukee

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e Board o f S c h o o l D i r e c t o r s . M ilw aukee, W i s . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , lu n e 3 0 , 1924.

Oshkosh

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . Oshkosh, Wis Board o f E d u c a tio n , May 5 , 1 9 3 6 .

WISCONSIN R a c in e

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . R a c in e , W i s . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , F eb . 6 , 1 9 2 2 .

Shorewood

R e v i s e d R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f th e S c h o o l Board o f D i s t r i c t #4 V i l l a g e ~ o f Shorewood, M ilwaukee C ou nty, W i s c o n s i n , Shorewood, W i s . , Board o f E d u c a tio n , Aug. 1 , 1 9 3 4 .

S o u th M ilwaukee

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , Sou th M ilw au kee, W i s ., Board o f E d u c a tio n , No d a t e .

S u p e r io r

By-Laws, R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . S u p e r i o r , W i s ,, Board o f E d u c a tio n , 1932.

Watertown

S c h o o l Law, R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s , H a ter to w n , W i s ., Board o f E d u c a tio n , 1923.

West A l l i s

R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s . West A l l i s , W i s ., Board o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 7 .

283

APPE1IDIX

L

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284

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TABULATION OF REGULATIONS CONCERNING TEACHERS

PAGE A. THE TEACHER ENTERING SERVICE I . E l i g i b i l i t y ............................................... I I . A p p o i n t m e n t ............................................................... I I I . A ssignm ent and T r a n s fe r . . . . . . . . IV . P rom otion . . . . . . . . . V. Demotion

.......................................

287 290 292

.........................

294

. . . . . .

295

B . THE TEACHER IN SERVICE I . Tenure o f O f f i c e . ................................................

295

I I . P r o f e s s i o n a l Im provem ent..................................

297

I I I . S a l a r y o f T e a c h e r .................................................

302

IV. Time o f S e r v i c e V. A bsence

. . . . . . . . . . . .

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V I. L e a v e s o f A bsence V I I . T a r d in e s s

306 307

..............................

312

...............................................................

315

C. THE TEACHER LEAVING SERVICE I . S u s p e n s io n , • • • I I . D ism issa l I I I . R e sig n a tio n



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316

................................................

317

......................................

319

IV . R e t ir e m e n t . . . . . . . .

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321

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PAGE D. TEACHER1S CONDUCT - LIMITATION AND DIRECTION ............................

X. U se o f S c h o o l Time.

• 321

I I . G i f t s - G r a t u i t i e s ........................................................ 323 I I I . E x tr a Employment.................................................... IV . A d v e r t is e m e n t s - A g e n ts •....... ¥ . C o l l e c t i o n s and S a l e s .

. 324

............................ 325

........................

325

¥ 1 . S o c i a l C o n d u ct...........................................................326 VII* Knowledge o f and O bed ien ce t o R e g u la tio n s

.....................................................

328

¥111* T ea ch er H e a l t h ...........................................................330 E. TEACHER AND PUPIL MANAGEMENT I . Management.

............................

IX. D i s c i p l i n e ........................ 1X1. G u id a n ce .

332 339

....................................................

I ¥ . C o o p e r a tio n w it h p a r e n t s . . . . . . . . .

344 350

P . THE TEACHER AND INSTRUCTION .

X. C u rr icu lu m .................................................... I I . M e t h o d s ..........................................

352 .3 5 5

G. THE TEACHER AND SCHOOL MANAGEMENT I . M ain ten an ce o f P ro p er P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n s

359

I I . Care o f S c h o o l P l a n t and Equipm ent. • • • 361 I I I . R o u tin e M a tte r s

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.......................

366

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286

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PAGE E . THE PEACHBR AND HIGHER AUfHORIfY I . f e a c h e r and th e Beard * . ...............................................369 II# fe a c h e r III* fea ch er IV. f e a c h e r

and S u p e r i n t e n d e n t .............................................. 370 and P r i n c i p a l .................................................

373

and S u p e r v i s o r .............................

375

V. A p p e a ls from D e c i s i o n s o f A u t h o r i t i e s • . .

L

377

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287 TABULATION OS’ REGULATIONS CONCERNING TEACHERS

REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE POSITION OE THE TEACHER sjs

A.

sfc

9):

THE TEACHER ENTERING SERVICE yl

I

II

4 4 1

4 4 0

6 3 0

10 2 1

11 3 3

35 16 5

49 36 13 13

16 13 3 7

42 28 5 11

31 20 14 7

40 34 17 7

178 131 52 45

4

4

5

6

14

33

1

5

8

0

18

32

6

7

4

0

12

29

1 6 2 2

2 5 0 3

2 3 1 4

4 0 3 4

19 11 15 7

28 25 21 20

4

3

3

4

5

19

III

IV

T

E lig ib ility .. P e r s o n n e l to D eterm ine 1 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t 2 . Com m ittee o f Board 3 . Board o f Exam iners >• R eq u ir e m e n ts 1 . Academic and p r o f e s s i o n ­ a l tr a in in g 2 . T e a c h in g e x p e r i e n c e 3 . C e r t i f i c a t e o f good h e a l t h 4 . M arried women i n e l i g i b l e 5 . A p p lic a n t must be w i t h i n s e t a ge l i m i t s 6 . T r a in in g i n p a r t i c u l a r fie ld 7 . T e a ch er must be f i t t e d fo r p o s itio n 8 . A p p lic a n t s h a l l subm it t o e x a m in a tio n to p ro v e fitn e ss 9 . Good h e a l t h 1 0 . U. S . C i t i z e n s h i p 1 1 . Good m oral c h a r a c t e r 1 2 . R e sid e n t o f d i s t r i c t s h a l l be g i v e n p r e f e r ­ ence 1

Group I , c i t i e s 1 0 ,0 0 0 t o 2 0 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ; Group I I , 2 0 ,0 0 0 t o 3 0 ,0 0 0 ; Group I I I , 3 0 ,0 0 0 t o 5 0 ,0 0 0 ; Group IV, 5 0 ,0 0 0 t o 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 ; Group V, ov e r 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 . L

J

288 R equirem ents ( c o n t . ) 1 3 . M arried women e l i g i b l e o n ly i f needy 1 4 . R e s id e n c e in s c h o o l d i s t r i c t req u ired 1 5 . Academic t r a i n i n g may he p r e s e n t e d i n l i e u o f e x p erien ce 16. P r a c tic e tea c h in g 1 7. P resent tea ch ers not s u b j e c t to e l i g i b i l i t y p r o v isio n s 1 8 . E x p e r ie n c e in t e a c h i n g s p e c ia l su b ject 1 9 . S i n g l e women p r e f e r r e d 2 0 . Penmanship c e r t i f i c a t e 2 1 . T r a v e l and e x p e r i e n c e may be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r p a r t o f academ ic t r a i n i n g 2 2 . S u b s c r i p t i o n to p r o ­ f e s s i o n a l m a gazin e 2 3 . Board s h a l l pay f o r m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n 24. S u ita b le p e r s o n a lity 25. S u c c e s s f u l ex p e rien ce may be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r p r a c tic e te a c h in g 2 6 . C o n n e c tio n w ith t e a c h i n g p r o fessio n w ith in f iv e years '2 7 . A d d itio n a l ex p erien ce r e q u i r e d o f non­ r e sid e n ts 2 8 . T each er may be removed from g rad ed l i s t by E xam in in g Board 2 9 . Graded l i s t s or l i c e n s e s may e x p i r e a f t e r s p e c i ­ f i e d p e r io d 30* T eacher s h a l l pay s p e c i ­ f i e d amount as exam i­ n a tio n f e e 3 1 . Mo r e l i g i o u s or p o l i t i ­ c a l t e s t may be r e q u ir e d 3 2 . T each er must be i n sym pathy w i t h p h i l o s o ­ phy o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s 33. p r o fe ssio n a l a ttitu d e toward work L

I

IX

III

IY

V

T

6

1

4

1

5

17

3

1

4

1

7

16

3 5

2 0

5 2

0 2

4 2

14 11

2

0

4

0

5

11

4 3 2

0 2 2

1 0 2

0 1 0

5 2 0

10 8 6

1

0

1

1

2

5

1

0

0

0

2

3

1 1

2 2

0 0

0 0

0 0

3 3

2

0

0

0

0

2

2

0

0

0

0

2

1

0

0

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

2

2

0

0

0

0

2

2

1

0

0

0

1

2

0

0

0

1

1

2

1

1

0

0

0

2

1

0

1

0

0

2 J

289

R e q u ir e m e n ts ( c o n t . )

Y

f

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

2

2

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

G

0

Q

0

1

0

0

0

G

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

G

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

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0

1

1

0

0

0

0

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30

15

23

29

31

128

XX

III

1

0

0

.

00

3 4 . R ecord o f c o o p e r a t i o n , l o y a l t y and good w i l l 3 5 . R eq u irem en ts f o r r e ­ e n tr a n c e s h a l l be same as fo r i n i t i a l a p p o in t­ ment 36 . E x p e r ie n c e r eq u ire m en t may be w a iv ed upon recom m endation of S u p e r in t e n d e n t 3 7 . R u le s o f S e c t i o n a l A s s o c i ­ a t i o n s h a l l be s t a n d a r d s fo r d e t e r m in in g e l i g i ­ b i l i t y o f ca n d id a te 3 8 . Exam ining Board h as power to a c c e p t g r a d e s from o t h e r exam ining b o a rd s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s 3 9 . Board o f S u p e r in t e n d e n t s s h a l l e s t a b l i s h graded l i s t s of c a n d i d a t e s 4 0 . f e a c h e r may a p p e a l r a t ­ in g o f E xam ining Board 4 1 . R e l a t i v e s o f Board n o t e lig ib le 4 2 . E ear r e l a t i v e s o f p r e s e n t t e a c h e r s may not a p p ly 4 3 . Command o f E n g li sh la n g u a g e 4 4 . U n ion membership i s a bar 4 5 . R eq u irem en ts o f F e d e r a l Laws must be met 4 6 . P en sio n e rs not e l i g i b l e f o r appointm ent 47. S a tisfa c to r y p r o fessio n ­ a l s e r v ic e req u ire d fo r r e -a p p o in tm e n t A p p lic a n t f o r r e - e n t r a n c e must take e x a m in a tio n

IY

I

C. C e r t i f i c a t i o n 1 . f e a c h e r must h o ld a s t a t e c e r t i f i c a t e or an e q u iv a ­ l e n t l i c e n s e d u ly i s s u e d by l o c a l a u t h o r it ie s l_

J

C e rtifica tio n

(c o n t.)

2. C e r t i f i c a t e s m ust be presen ted to Superin­ ten dent w ith in s p e c ifie d tim e 3 . Superintendent s h a ll is s u e c e r t i f i c a t e to t e a c h e r found q u a l i f i e d 4 . A p p l i c a n t m u st m e e t s t a t e requirem ents 5 . C e r t i f i c a t e m u s t be f i l e d i n o f f i c e of Board b e f o r e assignm ent to p o s i t i o n 6 # Teacher s h a l l be g ra n te d c e r t i f i c a t e a t tim e of appointm ent I I* Appointment A* A p p l i c a t i o n s 1* A p p l i c a t i o n s h a l l b e made to S u p e rin te n d e n t 2* S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l k e e p l i s t of a p p l i c a n t s w ith a p p ro p ria te inform ation 3. A pplicant s h a l l f i l e w ritte n ap p licatio n 4 . A p p lic a n t sh o u ld avoid th e use of p e r s o n a l , p o l i t i c a l , or r e l i g io u s influence 5* A p p l i c a n t s s h a l l f i l e reco rd cards in o ffic e of S uperintendent 6 * C o m m itte e o f B o a r d s h a l l consider a p p lic a tio n s 7. P r e s e n t te a c h e r need n o t f i l e ap p licatio n for r e ­ appointm ent 8 . A p p l i c a t i o n s h a l l be made t o C o m m i t te e o f Board 9. A pplicant s h a l l pay fee fo r ap p licatio n 10. P r e s e n t te a c h e r s h a l l f i l e ap p licatio n fo r r e ­ appointm ent 1 1 . A p p l i c a n t s m u s t renew ap p licatio n s

291 B. A p p o i n t m e n t p r o c e d u r e X. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l i n i t i a t e appointm ent 2 . Board s h a l l approve appointm ent 3 , O o m m it t e e o f B o a r d s h a l l approve a p p o in t ­ ment 4 . f e a c h e r s h a l l he n o t i f i e d o f appointm ent • Su perin ten den t s h a l l in terv iew candidate 6 . O om m ittee b f B o a r d s h a l l i n i t i a t e appointm ent 7 . Oom m ittee s h a l l a c q u a i n t them selves w ith q u a l i f i ­ catio n s of ap p lican ts 8 . f e a c h e r s h a l l ta k e oath of o ffice 9 . A ppointm ents s h a l l he made f r o m e l i g i b l e l i s t s 1 0 . B o a r d s h a l l go i n t o e x e c u t i v e s e s s i o n when considering e le c tio n of teachers 1 1 . O o m m itte e s h a l l c o n f e r ^ w i t h S u perin ten den t in r e g a r d to ap pointm ents 12 . S p e c ia l procedure r e q u i r ­ ed f o r a p p o i n t m e n t o f a r e l a t i v e of a hoard memb e r 1 3 . B oard s h a l l Judge a p p l i ­ c a t i o n on m e r i t 14. S u p e rin te n d e n t s h a l l ad­ v i s e with P r i n c i p a l and S u p e rv iso r r e g a r d in g ap­ p o i n t m e n t o f new t e a c h e r 15. A p p lic a n t s h a l l h e dropped t e m p o r a r i l y or p e r m a n e n t l y fr o m l i s t f o r r e f u s i n g p o sitio n 1 6 . B o a r d may r e - e m p l o y a n y t e a c h e r whom t h e S u p e r i n ­ tendent re fu se s to recommend 1 7 . A p p l i c a n t m u s t make p e rs o n a l appearance b e ­ f o r e Board L

II

III

77

33

48

44

46

248

28

18

17

3

27

93

34

10

13

20

11

88

14

7

16

0

8

45

14

6

4

0

3

27

8

4

8

0

3

23

4

2

4

0

0

10

4

2

0

0

4

10

0

0

0

0

9

9

4

0

3

0

1

8

0

3

3

0

1

7

0

0

0

4

2

6

3

0

0

0

1

4

1

1

0

0

0

2

0

0

1

0

1

2

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

s'’

IV

V

I

T

J

292 rA p p o i n t m e n t

procedure

(c o n t.)

18. P re fe re n c e s h a l l be given tea ch e r dism issed because of d isc o n tin u a n c e of p o sitio n

I

II

0

0

25 7

III

IV

V

Tn

0

0

1

1

8

15

14

11

73

4

8

0

8

27

0

1

3

0

0

2

0

0

2

G. C o n t r a c t s 1 . C o n t r a c t s must be sig n e d and f i l e d w i t h i n s p e c i ­ f i e d tim e or o th er n o tic e of acceptance given 2. T eacher s h a l l h o ld con­ t r a c t s w i t h Board 3. S u p erin ten d en t s h a l l see t h a t c o n t r a c t s of te a c h ­ e r s a r e s i g n e d and f i l e d 4 . T eacher sh o u ld be su re c o n t r a c t i s f a i r and ju s t before sig n in g 5 . Teacher s h a l l a g re e to rem ain i n s e r v i c e f o r d e f i n i t e tim e ‘ 6 . C o n tr a c ts s h a l l be sub­ j e c t to a p p ro v a l of Board 7. Teacher s h a l l f u l f i l l c o n t r a c t in l e t t e r and s p i r i t unless re le a se d therefrom 8 . Superintendent s h a l l see th a t c o n tra ct offered teacher i s ju st III.

1

1

1 1

0 1 1

0 0

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

16 2

28 4

25 0

33 3

145 42

2

6

5

11

29

5

4

0

4

14

1

1

0

3

9

Assignment and T r a n s f e r

A. A s s i g n m e n t 1. Superintendent s h a ll in itiate 43 2 . Board s h a l l ap p ro v e 33 3. P r in c ip a l, su b je c t to a p p r o v a l of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , s h a ll assig n teacher to c l as ses 5 4 . T e a c h e r may b e a s s i g n e d to any departm ent 1 5 . C o m m i t te e s h a l l a d v i s e w ith S up erintendent 4

293

A ssig n m en t ( o o n t . )

6 . T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t he a s s i g n e d more t h a n d e f i n i t e maximum num ber of p u p ils 7 . O o m m ittee s h a l l a s s i g n teach er 8 * Teacher s h a l l h e given chance to ex p re ss p r e ­ ference 9 . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l make assignm ent only w ith in ty p e of s e r v i c e f o r which te a c h e r has heen d u ly elected 1 0 . Teacher s h a l l n o t he g iv en p re fe re n c e in assignm ent 11. Teacher s h a ll not he a s ­ sig n e d to sc h o o l where p rin c ip a l or S upervisor i s a hlood r e l a t i v e 12. P erso n s r e l a t e d to each o t h e r w i l l n o t he a s s i g n ­ ed t o same s c h o o l 13. T eacher s h a l l n o t he a s ­ s i g n e d t o s c h o o l w h ic h r e l a t i v e atten d s 1 4 . T e a c h e r may h e a s s i g n e d t o l o w e r g r a d e and l o w e r s a l a r y a t own r e q u e s t

IV

V

T

0

0

4

8

0

3

0

2

6

1

0

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1

2

4

1

0

0

0

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3

1

0

0

0

0

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0

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0

1

0

1

0

0

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0

1

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0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

30

15

4

24

13

86

8

7

21

0

25

61

11 7

1 2

4 3

2 3

6 7

24 22

4

1

11

0

6

22

4

4

4

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2

14

3

0

1

0

1

5

1

1

1

0

1

4

I

II

3

1

1

III

B. T r a n s f e r 1. S u perintendent s h e l l in itia te tran sfer 2 . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t may t r a n s ­ f e r teach ers 3 . Oom m ittee o f B o a r d s h a l l approve t r a n s f e r 4 . Board s h a l l approve 5. S uperintendent s h a l l r e ­ p o r t t r a n s f e r to Board 6 . Board r e s e r v e s r i g h t to t r a n s f e r t e a c h e r a t any tim e 7 . O o m m ittee i n c o n j u n c t i o n with S u p e rin te n d e n t s h a l l h a v e powe r t o t r a n s f e r 8 . O om m ittee s h a l l recommend t r a n s f e r of t e a c h e r

294 n

T ransfer

/ \ (o o n t.)

II

0

1

1

III

IY

Y

Tn

1

0

2

4

1

1

0

0

3

1

1

0

0

1

3

1

0

0

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

2

2

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

7 7

3 0

3 1

7 7

14 4

'34 19

3

0

1

0

4

8

5

0

0

1

1

7

1

0

0

1

1

3

1

0

0

0

2

3

0

0

0

0

2

2

• i— 1 1— 1

9. R equests fo r tr a n sfe r s h a l l h e made t o s u p e r i n ­ t e n d e n t or C o m m itte e 1 0 . C om m ittee s h a l l have charge of tr a n sfe r 55^Snper i n t e n d e n t s h a l l make tr a n s f e r o n ly w ith in type o f s e r v i c e to w hich t e a c h ­ er was e l e c t e d 12 .' S u p e r i n t e n den t s h a l l r e ­ p o rt con tem p lated t r a n s ­ fers 1 3 . T e a c h e r may be t r a n s f e r ­ red by p r i n c i p a l w it h ap proval o f S u p erin ten d en t 1 4 . C om m ittee s h a l l r e p o r t tr a n s fe r to S u p erin ten d en t 15. T r a n sfe r in v o lv in g change i n s a l a r y s h a l l b e mad e o n ly w ith ap p roval o f Board 16. Teacher’s sa la ry s h a ll n o t . b e red u ced by tran sfer 1 7 . T e a c h e r m ay b e t r a n s f e r ­ red for f a i l u r e to c o ­ op erate w ith p r in c ip a l

I

.

IY. P rom otion 1. 2. 3.

4* 5. 6•

7.

S u p erin ten d en t s h a l l recommend Board s h a l l approve P r o m o t i o n s h a l l d e p e n d on s c h o l a r s h i p , s u c c e s s in tea ch in g , len g th o f serv ice, p ro fessio n a l advancem ent, e t c . C om m ittee o f Board s h a l l approve P r i n c ip a l s h a l l recom­ mend T eacher s h a l l be ad­ v a n c e d i n s a l a r y upon prom otion C om m ittee s h a l l recom ­ mend

295 P ro m o tio n

(o o n t.)

Board o f E xam iners s h a l l recommend 9* S u p e r i o r s a n d c o - w o r k e r s

I

II

III

0

0

IV

V

Tv

8.

s h a l l recommend 10, I t i s u n p ro fe s sio n a l

0

0 . 2

2

0

0

0

1 0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

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fo r te a c h e r to seek pro­ m o t i o n on a n y o t h e r b a s i s

than m e rit 11# P r o m o t i o n s h a l l b e o n l y at b eg in n in g

o f term

V. D e m o t i o n 1.

S.

D em otion o f a t e a c h e r s h a l l be recommended b y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t and a p ­ p r o v e d by th e B oard T e a d h e r may b e d e m o t e d for u n sa tisfa c to r y serv ice

B.

I.

Tenure 1# 2•

3#

4. 5.

6.

7. 8*

9.

1

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THE TEACHER'IN SERVICE

of O ffice

T eacher s h a l l be e l e c t e d an n u a lly Teacher s h a l l be g ra n ted tenure a f t e r a p ro b a tio n ­ ary p eriod P rob ation ary teach er s h a l l be r e - e l e c t e d a n n u ally • Tenure s h a l l be recom ­ mended b y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t T ea ch er must b e r a t e d s a t is f a c t o r y to be re­ elected S e r v ic e of p rob ation ary t e a c h e r may b e t e r m i n a t e d a t any tim e Teacher s h a l l h old p la c e a t p l e a s u r e o f Board BO c o n t r a c t s h a l l b e made f o r m o r e t h a n one s c h o o l year Teacher s h a l l b e . n o t i f i e d i f not r e -e le c te d

I

II

III

IV

28

15

22

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13

11

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Tenure

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(o o n t.)

10. M arriag e s h a l l n o t be a d i s q u a lif ic a tio n for continued s e rv ic e 1 1 . T e n u r e s h a l l be r ec o m ­ mended b y O om m ittee o f Board 12. C o n tr a c ts w ith m arried women t e a c h e r s on t e n u r e s h a l l n o t be in v a li d a te d 13. S e rv ice of p ro b a tio n a ry t e a c h e r may be t e r m i n a t e d on t h i r t y d a y s ? n o t i c e 14. H o tic e s h a l l be s e n t to a l l t e a c h e r s recommended f o r re-appointm ent 15. C o n tra c ts w ith m arried women t e a c h e r s s h a l l n o t be re n e w e d 16. Board s h a l l approve tenure 1 7 . T e a c h e r m u st t a k e n o r m a l o r c o l l e g e c o u r s e s t o be re-elected 18. Tenure w i l l be g r a n t e d in accordance with S t a t e Code 19. C o n tra c ts fo r l e s s than one y e a r may be t e r m i n a t e d by t h i r t y days* n o t i c e 2 0 . T e a c h e r a l r e a d y i n em p lo y i s deemed r e - e l e c t e d u n l e s s n o t i f i e d to t h e contrary 21. T eacher s h a l l be a p p o i n t ­ ed f o r f u l l y e a r u n l e s s otherw ise s p e c if ie d 2 2 . T e a c h e r on t e n u r e f a i l i n g to keep r e q u i r e d degree o f e f f i c i e n c y may b e p l a c e d upon a n n u a l electio n l i s t

297 r

II.

P r o f e s s i o n a l Im p ro vem ent

I

II

III

7

0

3

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T

A. C a n e r a l p r o v i s i o n s 1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l grow c o n ­ tin u a l l y in efficien cy 2 . T e a c h e r s h a l l make p l a n s fo r p r o f e s s i o n a l im prove­ m en t 3 . S u p e r in te n d e n t s h a l l en­ c o u r a g e and p ro m o te p r o f e s s i o n a l growth of teachers 4. Teacher s h a l l in c re a s e e f f i c i e n c y by i n t e l l i g e n t experim enting 5. Superintendent s h a l l pass on r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p r o ­ f e s s i o n a l improvement o f teachers 6 . Teacher s h a l l sh are in s t u d y and s o l u t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problem s of school

3 2

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53

34

36

274

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152

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B. A t t e n d a n c e a t C o n v e n t i o n s , I n s t i tu t e s , etc. 1. Teacher s h a l l a tte n d i n s t i t u t e s , m e e t i n g s , a nd c o n f e r e n c e s c a l l e d by S uperintendent 112 2. Teacher s h a ll a tte n d i n s t i t u t e s , m eetings, and c o n f e r e n c e s c a l l e d by P r i n c i p a l 61 3. Teacher s h a l l a t t e n d i n s t i t u t e s , m eetings, and c o n f e r e n c e s c a l l e d 25 by S u p e r v i s o r s 4 . Teacher ab sen ce or ta rd in e s s a t conferences w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d th e same a s a b s e n c e f r o m 19 school d u tie s 5. Teacher s h a l l a tte n d g e n e r a l and g r o u p m e e t i n g s u n le s s excused by p roper a u th o rities 4

39

8

16

7

14

0

17

51

A tten d an ce a t C onventions, I n s titu te s , e tc . (co n t.) 6. Teacher s h a l l f o r f e i t sa la ry f o r f a i l u r e to a tte n d conferences 7. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t c a u s e o f a b s e n c e and ta rd in e s s a t conferences 8 . Teacher s h a l l a tte n d i n s t i t u t e s , m eetings, and c o n f e r e n c e s c a l l e d by t h e B o a r d 9 . T e a c h e r may a t t e n d m e e t ­ in g s of p ro fe s s io n a l a s s o c ia tio n s during school term 10. Teacher w ill,.be re q u ire d t o p e r f o r m any a s s i g n m e n t ^ g i v e n him i n te a c h e r s 1 conferences 1 1 . T e a c h e r a b s e n c e and t a r d i n e s s at^ c o n f e r e n c e s s h a l l be r e p o r t e d - b y . S uperintendent 12. T each er s h a l l a t t e n d a l l s e s s i o n s o f m e e t i n g s when e x c u s e d from s c h o o l f o r such 13. Teacher s h a l l Join s t a t e .association . 1 4 . T e a c h e r a b s e n c e and ta rd in e s s at conferences s h a l l be r e p o r t e d b y P rin cip al 1 5 . T e a c l i e r s h a l l J o i n K.B.A . 16. Teacher s h a l l a t t e n d reg io n al ed u catio n al m eetings 17. Teacher s h a l l Join lo c a l asso ciatio n 18. T eacher s h a l l pay f i n e f o r u nexcused, absence or ta r d in e s s a t conf erences 19. Teacher s h a l l a tte n d i n s t i t u t e s , m e e t i n g s and c o n fe re n c e s c a l l e d by sta te au th o rities

299 r

A ttendance a t C o n v en tio n s,

In stitu tes, 20.

j

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28...

29.

0.

(co n t.)

I

II

III

Teacher s h a l l a tte n d i n s t i t u t e s , m eetings, and c o n f e r e n c e s c a l l e d by Parent-T eacher A sso cia tio n 4 1 T eacher m ust a p p ly in advance fo r p er m issio n to a tte n d con ven tion 1 0 Teacher s h a l l subm it rep ort of the proceedin gs o f any m e e tin g he atten d s 0 0 Board w i l l d e f r a y p a rt of a c tu a l expense of teacher atten d in g con ven tion 1 1 Teacher a tten d a n c e at ed u cation al m eetin gs s h a l l be s u b je c t to a rra n g em en t b y Board 1 1 T eacher s h a l l pay a f e e to d e fr a y exp en ses of in stitu te s 0 1 Teacher s h a ll a tten d in s t it u t e s , m eetings, and c o n f e r e n c e s c a l l e d b y C om m ittee 0 0 S u perin ten d en t s h a l l r e p o r t to Board, t e a c h e r ’ s f a i l u r e t o d ov 'w ork a s s i g n e d for c o n fere n c e 1 0 Teacher s h a ll be s u b je c t to reprim and f o r a b sen ce from c o n f e r e n c e s 1 0 Teacher s h a l l jo in P aren tTeacher A s s o c ia t io n 0 0

1

IV

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C o u r s e s and T r a v e l 1.

2.

L

etc.

Teacher s h a l l take s p e c i f i e d amount o f c o u r s e s f o r im provem ent S u p erin ten d en t s h a l l ap­ prove s e le c te d cou rses or t r a v e l b e f o r e work i s done

24

8

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300 r O ourses

and

Travel

(c o n t.)

3. Teacher s h a l l n o t take more t h a n s p e c i f i e d n um b er o f c o u r s e s e x c e p t w ith p e rm is s io n of a u th o rities 4 . T e a c h e r now i n e m ploy who does n o t meet e l i g i b i l i t y req u ire m e n ts i s expected t o a t t e n d c o u r s e s t o make up d e f i c i e n c i e s 5 . A p p ro v e d t r a v e l may be s u b s titu te d fo r courses 6 * Teacher s h a l l f i l e t r a n s ­ c r i p t s o f work c o m p le te d to d a te 7 . Bonus s h a l l be p a i d f o r a t t e n d a n c e a t summer school 8 . teacher sh a ll receive s a l a r y allow ance p e r point fo r co lleg e courses 9 . Oourses taken by te a c h e r s h a l l be i n f i e l d in which t e a c h e r w o r k s 10. S p e c i a l program o f s tu d y may be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r courses .■ 1 1. Board s h a l l r e t a i n r i g h t to decide w hether c r e d i t s h a l l be g iv e n f o r sp e c ifie d courses or trav el 1 2 . C orrespondence and e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s may n o t be s u b s t i t u t e d i n l i e u o f summer s c h o o l o r t r a v e l 1 3. T e a c h e r s l i a l l f i l e d e t a i l ­ ed d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o p o s e d trav el 14. Teacher s h a l l s e c u re penmanship c e r t i f i c a t e 1 5 . B o a r d may e x c u s e t e a c h e r from c o u r s e s f o r s p e c i f i e d tim e 16. A tten d a n ce a t e d u c a tio n a l c o n v e n t i o n s may b e s u b ­ s t i tu t e d forcourses 1 7 . T e a c h e r may w r i t e b o o k in ste a d ofta k in g courses 0

I

II

III

IY

V

T

2

1

2

4

4

13

5

0

5

1

1

12

8

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3

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12

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3

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301

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1

D.

In -S erv ice T rain in g

1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l r e a d “boohs and m a g a z i n e s on t e a c h i n g 2. In - s e r v ic e tr a in in g s h a ll he p ro v id e d by S u p e r i n ­ tendent 3# I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g s h a l l h e p r o v i d e d by S u p e r ­ viso rs 4* ln - r s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g s h a l l he p r o v i d e d b y P r i n c i p a l 5* S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l s u g ­ g e s t and t e s t p r o f e s s i o n a l reading o f teacher 6 . Teacher s h a l l pursue p ro ­ f e s s io n a l reading p re ­ scrib ed f o r school year 7. I n - s e r v ic e t r a i n in g s h a l l h e p r o v i d e d by B o a r d 8 . Teacher s h a l l buy s p e c i ­ f i e d amount o f b o o k s f o r use in I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n ­ i n g work 9* T e a c h e r s h a l l u s e l i b r a r y more e x t e n s i v e l y 10. Teacher s h a l l p re s e n t reading c i r c l e c e r t i f i cat e

I

II

10

3

2

III £

2

3

IV

V

T

3

1

19

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8 6

E. O b serv atio n of School A c tiv itie s 1 . T e a c h e r may v i s i t o t h e r schools to observe 2 . T e a c h e r who v i s i t s a n ­ o t h e r s c h o o l must subm it a report 3 . A p p l i c a t i o n s t o make v i s i t s s h a l l be made to S u p e rin te n d e n t or P rin cip al 4 . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t may c l o s e sch o o l to allow te a c h e r to v i s i t 5 . T e a c h e r may n o t v i s i t o t h e r s c h o o l s on d a y s p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g a h o liday

48

28 37

28

37

178

22

13 15

13

13

76

4

19 12

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10

45

5

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18

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302

O b s e r v a t i o n of School A c tiv itie s (co n t.) 6 . P r in c ip a ls s h a l l encour­ age t e a c h e r to v i s i t 7. n e c e s s a r y t r a v e l i n g e x ­ p e n s e s o f t e a c h e r who v i s i t s other schools w i l l be p a i d b y B o a r d 8 . T e a c h e r s h a l l p a y own expenses in c o n n ec tio n with v i s i t i n g sc h o o ls 9. Teacher s h a l l f o r f e i t p a r t pay t o v i s i t o t h e r schools III.

III

IT

Y

H T

1

1

1

1

5

1

1

0

1

1

4

1

2

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48

23

31

25

37

164

19

15

13

16

13

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51

4

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I

II

1

S a la r y of Teacher

A. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f S a l a r i e s 1 . Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e s a la r y according t o a schedule 2 . S a l a r y may be recommend­ ed. b y O om m ittee o f B o a r d 3. T eacher s h a l l r e c e i v e c r e d it fo r previous service 4 . S a l a r y may be recommend­ ed b y B o a r d 5 . S a l a r y may be recommend­ ed b y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t 6 . S a l a r y w i l l b e p a i d on b a s i s o f p r e p a r a t i o n and experience 7. Teacher s a l a r y s h a l l be e sta b lish e d an n u ally 8 . S a l a r y may be c h a n g e d b y Board 9 . S a l a r y o f men t e a c h e r s s h a l l be h ig h e r than t h a t o f women t e a c h e r s 1 0 . Teacher s h a l l r e c e iv e e x t r a com pensation i f duties req u ire tra v e lin g 1 1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l be g r a n t e d e x t r a com pensation f o r e x tra service 1 2 . Teacher s h a l l re c e iv e e x t r a com pensation f o r outstanding m erit

303

r

D eterm ination of s a l a r i e s

(co n t,)

1 3 . Bonos may b e p a i d 14. Teacher s h a l l not re c e iv e ad d itio n al sa lary for e x tra -c u rric u la r assig n ­ ments 1 5 . S a l a r i e s o f men and women s h a l l be t h e same f o r e q u iv a le n t work 16. Teacher s h a l l re c e iv e s a l a r y c r e d i t f o r sub­ s t i t u t e work 17. T eacher t r a n s f e r r e d from low er to h ig h e r s c h e d u le d u rin g year s h a l l be paid a c c o rd in g t o low er schedule 1 8 . T e a c h e r who h a s r e s i g n e d s h a ll not, i f r e - e le c te d , be e n t i t l e d to c la im in ­ c r e a s e o f p a y due to past service 1 9 . h o new t e a c h e r w i l l r e ­ ceiv e s a la r y in excess of th at paid p re s e n t tea ch e r w i t h same p r e p a r a t i o n a nd experience 2 0 . B o a r d may p a y t e a c h e r ! s s a l a r y w ith t a x w a rra n ts 21. Teacher thro u g h h i s a s s o c i ­ a t i o n must e s t a b l i s h fund to g u a ra n te e c i t y a g a in s t l o s s because te a c h e r i s paid i n advance

I

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B. G r a n t i n g I n c r e m e n t s 1 , Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e i n ­ crem ent f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e on r e c o m m e n d a t i o n of S up erin ten d en t or P rin cip al 2 , T e a c h e r must c o m p l e t e normal o r u n i v e r s i t y c o u rs e s to re c e iv e increm ent 3, Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e i n c r e m e n t b a s e d on efficien cy i_

14

56

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304 1 G ran tin g

In crem en ts

(c o n t.)

4. Teacher perform ing s p e c i a l s e r v i c e may r e c e i v e e x t r a in crease 5# T e a c h e r s h a l l r e c e i v e i n ­ crem ent f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e on r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f C o m m i t t e e o f B o a rd 6 . I n c r e m e n t may he g r a n t e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r upon v o t e of th e Board 7. S a l a r y i n c r e a s e s h a l l he allow ed f o r s u p e r i o r teaching 8 . S u p erin ten d ent s h a l l de­ term ine n a tu r e of study re q u ir e d f o r increm ent 9. P ro b a tio n a ry tea ch e r s h a ll not re c e iv e increm ent 1 0 . T e a c h e r s h a l l p a s s an exam ination to r e c e iv e increm ent 1 1 . h o t e a c h e r w i l l be g r a n t ­ ed i n c r e m e n t f o r more t h a n s p e c i f i e d amount p e r year 1 2 . T e a c h e r may n o t a d v a n c e more t h a n s p e c i f i e d amount beyond minimum u n t i l e lig i b il i ty d eficien cies a r e made up 1 3 . I n c r e m e n t s h a l l be g i v e n only a t b e g in n in g of school year 14. Teacher s h a ll re c e iv e in ­ crement f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e on r e c o m m e n d a t i o n of Board 15. I n c r e m e n t c r e d i t n o t given f o r c o rresp o n d en t stu dy course 16* S p e c i a l " m e r i t " i n c r e m e n t may b e g r a n t e d - o n r e c o m ­ m endation of s u p e r i o r s and c o - w o r k e r s 1 7 . M a r r i e d women t e a c h e r s w i l l n o t advance beyond specified salary

I

II

III

IV

V

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8

2

3

4

3

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n 0 . C e s s a tio n o r R eduction of S a la ry 1 . S a l a r y s h a l l n o t "begin u n t il teacher re p o rts f o r duty 2 . S a l a r y s h a l l c e a s e on d a te of r e s i g n a t i o n or dism issal 3 . T e a c h e r who l e a v e s s e r v i c e "before end o f y e a r s h a l l r e c e i v e summer pay p r o ­ p o r t i o n a t e t o t e r m he served 4 . T e a c h e r whose a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s do n o t meet r e q u i r e m e n ts s h a l l su ffe r sa lary lo s s unless d e f i c i e n c y i s made up 5 . S a l a r y o f no t e a c h e r s h a l l be red u ced 6 . S a l a r y s h a l l c e a s e on d a te o f suspension 7 , S a l a r y s h a l l c e a s e on d ate o f suspension only i f teacher i s dism issed 8 • S alary s h a ll cease i f schools a re clo sed 9 . T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t be p a i d for c e rta in h o lid ay s 1 0 , S a l a r y o f woman t e a c h e r m arrying d u rin g sch o o l term w i l l b e re d u c e d to su b stitu te salary 1 1 * S a l a r y o f t e a c h e r on t e n u r e s h a l l n o t be r e ­ duced e x c e p t by g e n e r a l sa la ry reduction 1 2 . T e a c h e r p a s s i n g fro m one g rad e to h ig h e r s h a l l not re c e iv e s a l a r y l e s s than low er 1 3 . T e a c h e r who r e s i g n s b e ­ cause of i l l h e a lth s h a ll receive a p ro p o rtio n al p a r t o f summer p ay 1 4 . S a l a r y o f t e a c h e r may be a ttach ed 1 6 # S a l a r y s h a l l be f o r f e i t e d for breach of c o n tra c t

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r. C e s s a t i o n or S e d u c t io n o f S a la r y ( c o n t . ) 1 6 . T eacher r a t e d u n s a t i s ­ f a c t o r y may have s a l a r y red u ced 1 7 , S a la r y s h a l l be sto p p e d i f t e a c h e r r e f u s e s to sub­ m it to m e d ic a l exam­ in a tio n 18. I f fun ds are not a v a ila b le fo r payment o f t e a c h e r 1s s a l a r y , S u p e r in t e n d e n t may s e c u r e h i s c o n se n t to f i l e c la im

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IV. Time o f S e r v i c e 1 ,' T eacher s h a l l a r r i v e in s c h o o l a t s p e c i f i e d tim e 90 2 . Teacher s h a l l rem ain a f t e r th e c l o s e o f th e P.M. s e s s i o n 36 3 . T eacher s h a l l o b se r v e p u n c t u a l l y th e h o u r s f o r o p e n in g and c l o s i n g school 6 4 , T each er s h a l l n o t l e a v e s c h o o l b e f o r e p e r m it t e d 3 tim e w i t h o u t p e r m is s io n 6 . Teacher s h a l l s e r v e a s p e c i f i e d number o f h o u rs 6 d a ily 6 . Teacher s h a l l be s u b j e c t t o c a l l to s e r v i c e b e f o r e an n u a l o p e n in g o f s c h o o l 8 7 . T eacher s h a l l l e a v e 3 s c h o o l a t s p e c i f i e d tim e 8. T each er s h a l l be prompt i n a l l r o u t i n e and s p e c i a l a p p o in tm e n ts 1 9 . T eacher s h a l l be s u b j e c t to c a l l t o s e r v i c e a f t e r c l o s e o f s c h o o l i n June 4 1 0 . Teacher s h a l l be in s c h o o l e v e r y day p o s s i b l e 1 1 1 . T eacher s h a l l s e r v e in summer s c h o o l 1 Teacher s h a l l be s u b j e c t 12. to s p e c i a l a ssig n m e n t on S a tu r d a y or any o th e r tim e when b e s t i n t e r e s t o f s c h o o l may be s e r v e d 1

307

Time o f S e r v i c e ( c o n t . ) 1 3 . T each er s h a l l do any r e a s o n a b le work when s c h o o l i s c l o s e d by q u a r a n tin e 1 4 . T each er s h a l l b e o b l i g e d t o r e n d e r s e r v i c e d u rin g summer months

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V. A bsence A. n o t i f i c a t i o n o f A bsence 1 . T each er s h a l l g i v e n o t i c e o f i n t e n d e d a b sen ce £ . Teacher s h a l l g i v e n o t i c e o f tim e o f r e t u r n from a b s e n c e 3 . T each er s h a l l f o r f e i t s a l a r y f o r f a i l u r e to g i v e n o t i c e of tim e o f r e tu r n 4 , T ea ch er s h a l l f o r f e i t s a la r y f o r f a i l u r e to g i v e n o t i c e o f a b sen ce 5 . T each er s h a l l r e p o r t reason fo r absence 6 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l r e p o r t a b s e n c e to Board 7. P r in c ip a l s h a ll report a b se n c e 8 . Teacher who l e a v e s s c h o o l d u r in g s e s s i o n s h a l l be c o u n te d a b s e n t f o r su ch tim e 9 . T each er s h a l l r e p o r t own a b se n c e 1 0 . S u p e r in te n d e n t s h a l l k eep r e c o r d o f a b sen ce B. P r o c ed u r e f o r S e c u r in g Bay f o r Days A b se n t 1 . T e a c h e r 's a b se n c e a l lo w ­ ance s h a l l be c u m u la tiv e 2 . T each er s h a l l f i l e c e r t i ­ f i c a t e w ith in s p e c ifie d tim e a f t e r a b se n c e

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• P ro ced u re f o r S e c u r in g Pay f o r Days Absent ( c o n t . ) 3 . T eacher must have a b s e n c e approved b y a p h y s i c i a n 4 . Teacher must have a b sen ce approved by p r i n c i p a l . 5 . Teacher must have a b sen ce approved by S u p e r in te n d e n t 6. A llo w a n ce f o r a b sen ce may be made at d i s c r e t i o n o f Board 7 . T eacher must have ab sen ce approved by Oommittee o f Board 8 . T eacher s h a l l f i l e c la im fo r s a l a r y 9. T each er n o t a llo w e d to make up i n s u c c e e d in g y e a r s a b s e n c e a c cu m u la ted i n p r e c e d in g y e a r s

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0 . E xcuse o f A bsence 1 . A bsence f o r r e a s o n s n ot s p e c i f i c a l l y m en tio n e d i n t h e r u l e s s h a l l be e x c u s e d by S u p e r in te n d e n t 2. P e r m is s io n must be s e c u r e d fo r absence n o t s p e c i f i ­ c a l l y m en tion ed i n the ru les 3 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l g ran t t e a c h e r p e r m is s io n to be a b s e n t f o r s p e c i f i e d tim e 4 • S u p e r in te n d e n t may e x c u se a b se n c e w i t h o u t pay 5* A bsence f o r r e a s o n s n ot s p e c i f i c a l l y m en tio n ed i n t h e r u l e s s h a l l be excu sed , by Board 6 • P r i n c i p a l may e x c u s e t e a c h e r a b s e n t from d u ty fo r minor p a r t o f s e s s i o n 7 . A b sence f o r r e a s o n s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n tio n e d i n t h e r u l e s s h a l l be e x c u s e d by P r i n c i p a l

309 E xcuse

of

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8* T ea ch er must have p e r ­ m i s s i o n o f Board t o be e x c u se d f o r a b s e n c e to engage i n a c t i v i t y f o r w h ich he w i l l r e c e i v e com p en sation

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B . P r o h i b i t i o n on Absence 1 . T eacher s h a l l n o t a b s e n t h i m s e l f from d u ty w ith o u t consent of a u t h o r it ie s 2 . T eacher s h a l l n o t a b s e n t h i m s e l f from d u ty e x c e p t i n c a s e of s i c k n e s s or urgent n e c e s s i t y 3 . T eacher s h a l l n o t be a b s e n t on t h e day p r e c e d ­ in g a h o lid a y except f o r personal i l l n e s s 4 . Teacher s h a l l n o t a b se n t h i m s e l f from s c h o o l f o r p e r s o n a l b u s i n e s s or p le a su r e w ith o u t per­ m issio n 5* T eacher may n o t be a b s e n t t o a t t e n d a w edd in g 6* T each er may n o t b e a b s e n t to a t t e n d s o c i a l m e e t in g s 7 . l e a v e s h a l l n o t be g r a n t ­ ed to t e a c h e r to engage i n a n o t h e r o c c u p a t io n 8 . Teacher a b s e n t b e c a u se o f i l l n e s s s h a l l not l e a v e c i t y e x c e p t w ith p e r m is s io n o f m e d ic a l d iv isio n 1* P u l l Pay D uring A b sence 1 . Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l p ay f o r s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h 57 o f tim e f o r bereavem ent E. Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h 59 o f tim e f o r i l l n e s s 3 , Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r a b s e n c e f o r 14 q u a r a n tin e

J

ff n ll Pay D u rin g

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(c o n t.)

4 . Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r a b s e n c e f o r c o u r t subpoena 5 . T ea ch er s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f tim e f o r i l l n e s s i n im m ediate f a m i l y 6 . T each er w i l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r a b s e n c e due to o th e r e d u c a t i o n a l work (a tten d a n ce a t con­ v e n tio n s, e t c .) 7. T each er s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r a b s e n c e '. * e x c u s e d i n advance 8 . T eacher s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay fo r a b s e n c e f o r c l o s ­ in g o f s c h o o l s b e c a u se o f eip d e m ie 9 . T each er s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r a b s e n c e due t o a c c i d e n t s i n l i n e o f duty 1 0 . T eacher s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f tim e f o r a t t e n d a n c e a t w ed d in gs 1 1 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t .’W i l l d e s i g n a t e l e n g t h o f p e r io d o f a b s e n c e w i t h pay 1 2 . Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f tim e f o r o b s e r v a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s h o ly d a y s 1 3 . T eacher s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r a b s e n c e c o n s i d e r e d e x c u s a b le by S t a t e Code 1 4 . Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r a b s e n c e f o r i l l n e s s c o n t r a c t e d in p e r fo r m in g duty 1 5 . T eacher s h a l l r e c e i v e f u l l pay f o r s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h o f tim e f o r a t t e n d a n c e a t o rd in a tio n s

I*. P a r t Pay P u r in g Absence 1 . T each er s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay d u r in g i l l n e s s f o r s p e c i f i e d p e r io d o f tim e in a d d i t i o n to time fo r which f u l l pay was g r a n te d 2* T each er s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r s p e c i f i e d p e r io d o f a b s e n c e f o r illn e ss 3 . Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r s p e c i f i e d p e r io d o f a b s e n c e f o r bereavem ent 4 . Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r s p e c i f i e d , p e r io d o f a b s e n c e f o r a b s e n c e e x c u se d in a d ­ van ce 5 . Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r a b se n c e f o r q u a r a n tin e 6 . T eacher s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r s p e c i f i e d p e r io d o f a b s e n c e f o r i l l n e s s i n imm ediate fa m ily 7 . T eacher s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r a b s e n c e fo r c o u r t subpoena 8 . T eacher s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r a b s e n c e fo r atten d an ce a t ed u c a tio n a l fu n c tio n s ( c o n v e n tio n s) 9 . Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r s p e c i f i e d p e r io d o f a b s e n c e fo r a t t e n d a n c e a t w edding 1 0 . T eacher s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d o f a b sen ce f o r o b s e r v a n c e of r e l i g i o u s h o ly d a y s 1 1 . T each er s h a l l r e c e i v e p a r t pay f o r s p e c i f i e d p e r io d o f a b s e n c e f o r urgent b u sin e ss m a tters

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1 . Teacher s h a l l f o r f e i t pay f o r : 1 . C auses o th e r th an i l l ­ 13 n e s s or b ereavem en t 2* U n ex cu sed a b s e n c e 2 3*. A bsence not c o v e r e d 3 by r u l e s 4 . S ick le a v e 1 5 . Absence due t o b u s i n e s s or p l e a s u r e 1 6 . L o ss o f tim e due to i n j u r y c o v e r e d by co m p en sa tio n 1 7 . F a i l u r e to comply w it h absence r e g u la tio n s 2 8 . H o l i d a y s i f a b s e n t th e p r e v io u s day f o r r e a s o n o t h e r than p e r s o n a l 0 illn e s s 9 . A tte n d a n c e a t r e l i g i o u s 0 se r v ic e s 1 0 . Employment a t n ig h t s c h o o l on day o f ab­ 0 s e n c e from day s c h o o l 1 1 . A b sence beyond s p e c i ­ 0 f i e d tim e 12. Absence b e c a u s e o f su b ­ poena in c a s e where teach er i s party 0

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VI# L e a v e s o f Absence A. P roced u re f o r o b t a i n i n g 1 . No l e a v e o f a b s e n c e w i l l b e g r a n t e d f o r l o n g e r th an s p e c i f i e d tim e 2. R e q u est must be approved by S u p e r in te n d e n t 3* R e q u est must be approved by Board 4 . R e q u est f o r l e a v e o f ab­ s e n c e sh o u ld be d i r e c t e d to S u p e r in te n d e n t 5 . T each er must have s e r v e d a s p e c i f i e d tim e i n a sy stem l

j

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6 , Leave o f a b s e n c e may be renewed by r e - a p p l i c a t i o n o f te a c h e r 7 . T eacher s h a l l r e q u e s t l e a v e a s p e c i f i e d tim e b e f o r e e f f e c t i v e d a te 8* Only a f i x e d per c e n t o f t h e s t a f f may be on l e a v e a t one time 9 . Leave must be f o r a f u l l term or year 1 0 . P r o b a t io n a r y t e a c h e r s may n o t a p p l y 1 1 . T each er s h a l l a p p ly f o r le a v e o f absence o n ly a t b e g i n n in g o f term , e x c e p t in ca se of t o t a l d i s ­ a b i l i t y or s p e c i a l emergency IE . R e q u e s t f o r l e a v e o f a b ­ s e n c e s h o u ld be d i r e c t e d to P r i n c i p a l 1 3 . Oommittee s h a l l have power to gran t l e a v e o f absence 14. R e q u e s t f o r l e a v e o f ab­ s e n c e s h o u ld be d i r e c t e d to Board 1 5 . Board may r e v o k e any le a v e , ex ce p t m a tern ity , a t a n y tim e f o r c a u s e 1 6 . Leave s h a l l become v o i d i f teach er a ccep ts p o s i t i o n in o th er p la ce or ch a n g es v o c a t i o n

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Study H ea lth T r a v el pregnancy H ecessary reasons T eacher m ust p r e s e n t c e r t i f i c a t e to be g r a n t ­ ed l e a v e f o r h e a l t h 7 . To t e a c h in a n o th e r sy stem 8 . Unemployment r e l i e f

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p C o n d i t i o n s f o r O b ta in in g 1 ; le a v e (c o n t.) 9 . ’ M ilita r y se rv ic e 1 0 . War work 1 1 . L eave o f a b s e n c e w i l l n o t be g r a n te d t o c o n t i n u e c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t i o n , but such te a c h e r w i l l be g iv e n p r e f e r e n c e in f i l l ­ i n g v acan cy a t e x p i r a t i on o f absence

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G. R etu rn from Leave o f Absence 1 . T each er must p r e s e n t a h ea lth c e r t i f i c a t e 2 . T each er s h a l l g i v e n o t i c e o f in t e n d e d d a te o f r e ­ turn 3 . T each er s h a l l be g i v e n an eq u iv a len t p o s itio n 4 . Teacher s h a l l n o t be g u a r a n te e d a p o s i t i o n 5 • T eacher s h a l l r e c e i v e t h e s a la r y in e f f e c t a t th e b e g in n in g o f l e a v e 6 . T eacher must be g i v e n form er p o s i t i o n 7 . Teacher r e t u r n i n g from l e a v e f o r stu d y s h a l l be p la c e d a t same rank i n s a l a r y s c h e d u le a s though he had rem ained i n s e r v i c e 8 . Teacher must p r e s e n t p r o o f a s to d i s p o s i t i o n o f l e a v e 9 . Teacher s h a l l be g i v e n s a l a r y i n c r e a s e upon p r o o f o f b e n e f i t d e r iv e d from l e a v e 1 0 . T eacher r e t u r n i n g from m a t e r n i t y l e a v e must have co m p leted approved c o u r s e s Teacher r e t u r n i n g from 11* m a ter n ity le a v e s h a l l pass ex a m in a tio n b e f o r e Board o f E xam iners

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(D# Leave o f Absence w i t h F tail or p a r t P ay.

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1* T each er may have l e a v e fo r stu d y or p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement 1 a. Teacher must have s e r v e d ' s p e c i f i e d number o f y e a r s .1 3 . Teacher must p^gree to r e t u r n to sy stem f o r a a s p e c i f i e d number o f y e a r s 4 . T eacher must h ave ree'omm endation o f S u p e r in te n d e n t ; 1 5. T eacher must b e g r a n t e d l e a v e b y a v o t e of th e Board 0 6. T each er must subm it r e ­ p o r t s to S u p e r in te n d e n t d u rin g s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e 1 7 . T eacher who a c c u m u la te s s u f f i c i e n t a b se n c e tim e may ta k e l e a v e w ith f u l l 0 pay 8. Board may te r m in a t e l e a v e i f tea ch er engages in r e m u n e r a tiv e o c c u p a tio n 0

15

4

T a r d in e s s 1 . T each er s h a l l r e p o r t a. P r i n c i p a l s h a l l r e p o r t 3 . Pay s h a l l be f o r f e i t e d 4 . T eacher s h a l l r e p o r t r e a so n 5. S u p e r in t e n d e n t s h a l l report 6. S u p e r in te n d e n t may excuse 7 . T a r d in e s s s h a l l be c o u n te d as p a r t day ab­ se n c e 8. P r i n c i p a l may e x c u s e

as ie

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0 . THE TEAOHFiR LEAVING SERVICE S u s p e n s io n

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.• Grounds 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

14. 15. 16.

V io la tio n o f r u le s M iscon d u ct N e g l e c t o f d u ty Due c a u s e In su b o rd in a tio n In com p eten cy Im m o r a lity W e lfa r e o f s c h o o l F a i l u r e t o pay d e b t s C on tin ued t a r d i n e s s U nnecessary s e r v i c e s F a ls e rep o rt o f cause of absence T each er may be su sp en ded d u r in g i n v e s t i g a t i o n and h e a r in g l e a d i n g to d ism issa l U n excused ab sen ce D e lin q u e n c y In d ic tm e n t

. P roced u re f o r S u sp e n sio n 1 . Teacher may he su sp en d ed by S u p e r in te n d e n t 2 . S u p e r in t e n d e n t must r e ­ p o r t t o Board 3 . T e a c h e r ’ s s u s p e n s io n must be approved by Board 4 . Teacher may be su sp en ded by Committee 5 . Teacher may be su sp en ded by P r i n c i p a l 6 • T each er may be su sp en ded by P r e s i d e n t o f Board 7 . Teacher may be r e i n s t a t e d by Board

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9 17 7

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2 1

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14 11

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11 11

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1 0 5

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0

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1

4

7

0 0

1 2

2 1

3 4

7 7

0 0 0

1 0 2

2 1 1

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5 5 4

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1

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1 1

0 1

1 0

4 3

1

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M a r r i a g e o f woman t e a c h e r 31 Incom petence 25 13 Unbecom ing c o n d u c t V i o l a t i o n o f r u l e s an d reg u latio n s 9 4 F a i l u r e to pay d e b ts 7 F a i l u r e to c o o p e ra te 3 Due c a u s e ifegligence 1 3 Im m orality A b s e n c e from s c h o o l w i t h ­ out s a t i s f a c t o r y cause 4 2 W elfare of sc h o o ls F a i l u r e to a p p ly f o r 2 m a te rn ity leave Im proper d i s c i p l i n e 1 D iscontinuance of p o s itio n or la c k of funds 4 3 D i s c r e t i o n o f Board 3 S e c re t m arriage M a r r i a g e o f woman t e a c h e r n o t on t e n u r e 1 F a i l u r e to give n o t ic e of in te n tio n to re tu rn f ro m l e a v e 1 0 111 h e a l t h F a l s e r e p o r t as to cause 0 of absence 3 C ontinued t a r d i n e s s 0 Pregnancy; m otherhood F a i l u r e to com plete c o l l e g e w o rk 1 A b s e n c e fr om i n s t i t u t e s , conferences w ithout 2 caus e A b s en c e b e y o n d s p e c i f i e d period 1 0 Intem perance I n e f f i c i e n c y c a u s e d by 0 o u t s i d e employment D i s s e m i n a t i o n of 0 propaganda F a ilu r e to continue 0 r e s id e n c e in d i s t r i c t Union a f f i l i a t i o n 1 F a i l u r e o f f o r e i g n born t e a c h e r t o become a 0 c itizen

14 8 3

21 19 11

3 2 1 2 2 1

IV

.. G r o u n d s 1. 2. 3. 4fc• 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 2 4. 25. 26. 27 . 28. 29. 30. 31.

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318

rounds f o r D i s m i s s a l ( c o n t . ) 3 2 . C oaching p u p i l s or o t h e r o u t s i d e employment 3 3 . M i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on a p p lic a tio n 3 4. F a ilu r e to read B ih le at o p e n in g e x e r c i s e s 3 5 . S o l i c i t a t i o n or p e r m i t t i n g o f same from p u p i l s f o r g i f t s to Board or t e a c h e r 36. I n t e r e s t in c o n tr a c ts o f the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t 3 7 . A c tiv e p a r t ic ip a t io n in p o l i t i c s p e r t a i n i n g to school a ffa ir s 38. S ta tu to ry o ffen se 3 9 . Use o f t o b a c c o on p r e m is e s 4 0 . F a i l u r e to g i v e n o t i c e o f p u p i l s u s p e n s io n 4 1 . Tampering w i t h f i r e equipment 4 2 . P e r m i t t i n g c h i l d r e n to tamper w ith f i r e e q u ip ­ ment 4 3 . Lach: o f prudence in a t ­ t e n d in g • to v e n t i l a t i on and te m p e r a tu r e 4 4 . F a i l u r e to o b s e r v e h ou rs o f o p e n in g and c l o s i n g sc h o o ls 4 5 . I n a t t e n t i o n to d a i l y program 4 6 . F a i l u r e to p re p a r e p l a n s and c o u r s e o f stu d y 4 7 . F a i l u r e to g i v e proper n o t ic e o f r e sig n a tio n

III

IV

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0

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2

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o

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1

1

0

0

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0

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1 0

0 o

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17

63

10

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11

8

11

46

3

2

7

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15

38

6

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0

19

33

I

II

0 0 0

,

B. D i s m i s s a l P ro c ed u r e 1 . D i s m i s s a l s h a l l h e recom mended b y S u p e r in te n d e n t 2 . Teacher s h a l l be warned o f im pending d i s m i s s a l 3 . T eacher s h a l l be g iv e n h e a r in g or c o n s i d e r a t i o n b y Board 4 . D i s m i s s a l must be ap­ p roved by Board

j

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r

h

D is m is s a l procedure ( c o n t .) 5 , Board may d i s m i s s t a te a c h e r a t any tim e 6 . M i t t e n c h a r g e s must he p r eferred b e fo re the d i s ­ m issa l of a tea ch er 7 . D i s m i s s a l s h a l l be recom­ mended by Committee o f Board 8 • Teacher s h a l l be g i v e n h e a r in g or c o n s i d e r a t i o n by Committee o f Board 9* D i s m i s s a l s h a l l be recom ­ mended by P r i n c i p a l 1 0 . Board may d i s m i s s t e a c h e r in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h p r o ­ v i s i o n s o f S t a t e Code 11 • T eacher may have b e n e f i t o f c o u n s e l or a f r i e n d a t h e a r in g 1 2 . Teacher s h a l l be g iv e n copy o f c h a r g e s p r e f e r r e d 1 3 . S u p e r in te n d e n t s h a l l n o t i f y Board o f d i s m i s s a l 1 4 . Teacher s h a l l be d i s m i s s e d f o r in c o m p e te n c y i f S u p e r in t e n d e n t has u sed a l l means to im prove tea ch er 1 5 . Teacher s h a l l be g iv e n h e a r in g or c o n s i d e r a t i o n by a r b i t r a t i o n co m m ittee p ic k e d by Board and teacher 16 • Teacher s h a l l be g i v e n h e a r in g or c o n s i d e r a t i o n by Committee o f P r i n ­ c ip a ls 1 7 . D i s m i s s a l must be ap­ p ro v ed by Comm ittee o f Board

III

IV

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8

4

10

0

6

28

2

0

2

3

6

13

5

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2

1

1

12

4

1

0

3

1

9

3

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1

2

6

4

1

1

0

0

6

0

1

0

1

3

5

0

0

0

2

2

4

1

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2

0

0

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1

0

0

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1

34

13

33

19

22

121

8

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0

7

85

I I I . R e sig n a tio n 1 . T eacher s h a l l g i v e s p e c ifie d n o tic e F a i l u r e to g i v e n o t i c e 2. o f r e sig n a tio n w i l l r e ­ s u l t in f o r f e i t u r e o f com p en sation

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1

R esignation (c o n t.) 3* T e a c h e r s h a l l f i l e r e s ig n a tio n w ith reasons in w r i t in g w ith S u p erin ­ te n d e n t o r Board 4 . T e a c h e r may n o t r e s i g n w ithin s p e c if ie d periods except f o r i l l h e a lth 5* T e a c h e r may n o t r e s i g n w ith in sp e c ifie d periods except w ith f o r f e i t u r e of s a l a r y 6 # B o a r d a l o n e may g r a n t release 7. Teacher w i l l n o t he r e ­ lea se d to accept teaching p o s itio n during s p e c ifie d tim e 8 * T e a c h e r who h a s r e s i g n e d may h e r e - a p p o i n t e d 9 . T e a c h e r may n o t r e s i g n w ithin s p e c ifie d periods except w ith perm ission o f Com mittee 1 0 . T e a c h e r s 1 C om m itte e s h a l l approve r e s i g n a t i o n be­ fo re ^p resentation to Board 11. S u p e rin te n d e n t s h a l l sub­ m it tea c h e r* s r e s i g n a t io n to Board f o r a p p r o v a l 1 2 . T e a c h e r may n o t r e s i g n w ith in s p e c ifie d periods except w ith perm ission of Board ' 13. Teacher n o t r e q u ir e d to g iv e any advance n o t i c e 1 4 . I f Board r e f u s e s to r e ­ l e a s e te a c h e r , th e term o f c o n t r a c t s h a l l he fu lfilled 1 5 . C o m m i t te e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w ith S uperintendent s h a ll accept re sig n a tio n 16. Teacher s h a l l r e s i g n i f unable to c o o p e ra te w ith school p o lic ie s

I

II

3

III

3

IV

V

T

8

18

4

0

1 2

4

1 1

9

1 4

1

1

7

3

0

2

0

1 0

1

0 0

1

1

5

4

0

0

0

0

4

4

2

1

0

0

0

3

0

3

2

0

3

0

1

2

1

1

1

1 0

1 0

0 0

1 0

0 0

0 0

1 0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

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0

1 0

1

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321

r IV. R e t i r e m e n t 1. Teacher s h a l l r e t i r e a t s p e c i f i e d age or l e n g t h ofs e r v i c e 2. Teacher s h a l l c o n t r i hute to a pension fund 3. Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e pension a t re tire m e n t 4. A ll s ta tu te s r e la tiv e to R e tire m e n t Assoc­ ia tio n are a p p lic a b le an d m u s t h e c o m p l i e d w ith by a l l e l e c t e d teachers 5 . T e a c h e r Vs r e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n s h a l l be i n accordance w ith S t a t e Law 6 . S u perintendent s h a l l recommend r e t i r e m e n t 7 . T e a c h e r may b e r e ­ appointed a f t e r r e t i r e ­ ment 8 . C o m m itte e s h a l l r e c o m ­ mend r e t i r e m e n t 9 . B o a r d s h a l l recommend re tire m e n t because o f i l l h ealth 10. R etirem en t fund cannot be w ith d ra w n u n l e s s te a c h e r i s dropped out of p ro fe ssio n *

D. I.

Use

I

II

6

3

4

3

3

2

1

1

1

1

III

2

0

6

13

32

3

6

8

23

0

9

8

20

9

12

3

9

4

8

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V

1

IV

TEACHER’ S CONDUCT - LIMITATION AMD DIRECTION o f S c h o o l Time

1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l d e v o t e h im ­ s e l f f a i t h f u l l y and e x c l u s i v e l y to school du ties 2. T eacher must have p e r ­ m is s io n to le a v e b e f o r e c l o s e of s c h o o l d a y

I

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III

IV

25

16

20

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13

6

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8

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88

2

11

49

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Use of S c h o o l l i m e ( c o n t . )

I

3 . T e a c h e r may n o t do c l e r i c a l work d u r i n g school hours 14 4 . T e a c h e r may n o t a l l o w o u t s i d e r s t o appear be­ f o r e c l a s s e s e x c e p t by p e r m i s s i o n of P r i n c i p a l or S u p e r i n te n d e n t 6 5. T e a c h e r s h a l l r e q u e s t p a r e n t s t o come f o r i n t e r ­ view s a f t e r s c h o o l h o u rs 7 6 . T e a c h e r may n o t b e v i s i t ­ ed by f r i e n d s o r on p e rs o n a l b u s in e s s during scho ol hours 6 7 . T e a c h e r s may n o t v i s i t each o th e r 7 8 . Teacher s h a l l not leave p l a c e of d u t y 9 9. Teacher s h a l l not perm it prolonged i n te r r u p ti o n 0 o f work 1 0 . T e a c h e r may n o t r e c e i v e v i s i t o r s except w ith p e r ­ 3 m issio n of a u t h o r i t i e s 1 1 . Teacher s h a l l perform 10 d u tie s prom ptly 1 2 . Teacher s h a l l le a v e sc h o o l d u r in g hours- of s e s s io n only in c a se 3 of e m e r g e n c y o r i l l n e s s 1 3 . T e a c h e r may n o t b e o c c u p i e d w i t h work n o t p e r t a i n i n g 2 to school 1 4 . T e a c h e r may n o t r e a d during school hours 3 15. T e a c h e r may. b e a b s e n t from s c h o o l a t noon t i m e only i f agreeable to P rin c ip a l or S u p e rin te n ­ dent 1 16. T each er s h a l l p ro ce ed w i t h work when v i s i t o r s e n t e r room 1 17. R e g u la r s c h o o l work m ust continue u n t i l clo sin g 0 hour T e a c h e r may n o t g e t su p p lies during se ssio n 1 CD •

r

II

III

IV

V

T 1

6

2

4

5

31

5

6

1

9

27

3

2

4

8

24

1

7

5

3

22

3

-4

5

1

20

3

3

1

2

18

3

7

3

4

17

2

5

2

5

17

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0

2

13

4

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1

1

12

4

1

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5

3

1

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5

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323

Use o f S c h o o l Time ( c o n t . ) 1 9 . T e a c h e r s h a l l welcome v i s i t o r s who d e s i r e t o s e e work o f s c h o o l 20. T eacher s h a l l r e q u e s t a l l v i s i t o r s t o h i s room to r e g i s t e r i n r o l l ho o k 21. V a c a n t p e r i o d s a r e f o r purpose of p e rm ittin g t h e t e a c h e r t o do l e s s o n preparation, e tc . 2 2. T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t h o l d conferences w ith v i s i t o r s during school se ssio n II.

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1 0

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4

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11

13

21

18

77

8

5

3

10

4

30

4

3

4

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2

17

3

3

5

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8

S ifts - O ratu ities 1. Teacher s h a l l n ot re c e iv e g i f t s from p u p i l s 2. T eacher s h a l l n o t a llo w c o l l e c t i o n s from children fo r g i f t s 3 . Teacher s h a l l not g iv e g i f t s to p u p ils 4. Teacher s h a l l not r e c e iv e g i f t s from p u p i l s ex ce p t w ith p e rm iss io n of au th o rities 5. Teacher s h a l l not give p r i z e s to p u p i l s 6 . Teacher s h a l l not give g i f t s t o S u p e r v i s o r s ex­ cep t w ith perm ission o f au th o rities 7. Teacher s h a l l n o t give g i f t s o r p r i z e s to p u p i l s w ith o u t p erm ission of a u th o rities 8 . T e a c h e r may a c c e p t p u p i l s 1 g i f t s only i f d e liv e r e d to t e a c h e r ' s residence 9 . T e a c h e r may a c c e p t c l a s s g i f t s of o n l y n o m i n a l value 10. Teacher s h a l l not a c c e p t g r a t u i t i e s f o r any work f o r w h i c h he i s p a i d b y Board o f E d u ca tio n 11. Teacher s h a l l not r e c e iv e g i f t s from S u p e r v i s o r s

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324

I I I * E x t r a Employment 1 . Teacher s h a l l n o t tu to r a n y p u p i l i n own c l a s s 2 . T e a c h e r may n o t t u t o r except w ith perm ission of a u th o ritie s 3 . T e a c h e r may n o t e ng ag e i n o u t s i de employment which r e d u c e s e f f i c i e n c y as teach er 4 . T e a c h e r may n o t a c t a s agent in the s a l e of s u p p l i e s , e t c . to th e Board . 5 . T e a c h e r may n o t e n g a g e i n o u t s i d e e m p lo ym en t except w ith perm ission of a u th o ritie s 6 . Teacher s h a l l not t u to r a n y p u p i l i n own c l a s s except w ith perm ission of a u t h o r i t i e s 7. T e a c h e r may n o t e n g a g e i n o u t s i d e e m ploym ent 8 . T e a c h e r may n o t t u t o r d u rin g s c h o o l term 9. Teacher s h a l l not t u to r in sch o o l B uilding 1 0 . T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t he employed i n e x t r a s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s more t h a n s p e c i f i e d t i m e each we ek T eacher s h a l l not t u to r 11. i n s c h o o l B u i l d i n g ex-* c ep t w ith perm ission o f a u th o rities 1 2 . T e a c h e r may n o t t u t o r during sch o o l hours 1 3 . T e a c h e r may t u t o r p u p i l s fro m o t h e r s c h o o l s 1 4 . T e a c h e r may w i t h a p p r o v a l of S u p e rin te n d en t ren d er community s e r v i c e 'IS*- F a i l u r e t o com p ly w i t h ru le s regarding e x tra employment s h a l l n u l l i f y t e a c h e r ’ s r i g h t s under ten ure

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n IV* A d v e r t i s e m e n t s - A g e n t s

I

1 . T e a c h e r may n o t i n t e r v i e w a g e n t s d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s 39 2 . T e a c h e r may n o t i n t e r v i e w agents during school hours ex c e p t with p e rm issio n o f a u th o ritie s 34 3. Teacher s h a l l not c i r c u ­ l a t e or allow d i s p l a y of ad v ertisem en ts except w ith approval o f a u th o rities 30 4* T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t c i r c u ­ l a t e or allow d i s p la y of a d v e rtis e m e n ts 12 5* T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t f u r n i s h names o f p u p i l s f o r com m ercial p u rp o se s 9 6 . Teacher s h a l l n o t allow p h o t o g r a p h e r s to t a k e p i c t u r e s of p u p ils ex­ c e p t w ith perm ission of au th o rities 7 7. Teacher s h a l l not fu rn is h names o f p u p i l s f o r commercial p u r p o s e s ex­ cept w ith p erm ission of a u th o rities 5 8 . T e a c h e r may i n t e r v i e w rep resen tativ es of l e g i t i m a t e book com panies and s u p p l y h o u s e s i f s c h o o l work i s n o t i4 terru p ted 5 9 . Teacher s h a l l n o t allow p h o to g ra p h e rs to ta k e p ic tu re s o f p u p ils 6

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IV 20

2

V. C o l l e c t i o n s and S a l e s 1. Teacher s h a l l not allow o r t a k e up a n y c o l ­ l e c t i o n s from p u p i l s except w ith p erm issio n of a u t h o r i t i e s '2* T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t a l l o w o r t a k e up a n y c o l ­ l e c t i o n s from p u p i l s

18

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15

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40 J

C o l l e c t i o n s a nd S a l e s ( c o n t . ) 3. Teacher s h a l l not s e l l or c o lle c t fo r tic k e ts , s u p p lie s , books, e t c . except w ith perm ission of a u th o r i ti e s 4 . Teacher s h a l l n o t s e l l or c o l l e c t fo r t i c k e t s , s u p p l i e s , books, e t c . 5. Teacher s h a l l t u r n over a l l p u p i l f u n d s to a designated o f f i c i a l 6 . Teacher s h a l l c o l l e c t fee s fo r s p e c if ic school supplies 7. Teacher s h a l l keep accu rate account of p u p il funds 8 . T eacher s h a l l spend p u p i l funds o n ly w ith perm ission of a u t h o r i t i e s V I. S o c i a l Conduct 1. Teachers s h a l l c o o p e ra te w i t h each o t h e r 2 . Teacher s h a l l e x h i b i t conduct beyond r e p r o a c h 3. T each er’s conduct should be m o t i v a t e d b y a p r o ­ fessio n al s p ir it 4 . Teacher s h a l l n o t use tobacco about sch o o l prem ises 5 . T e a c h e r must n o t i f y a u t h o r i t i e s of m a r r i a g e 6 . Teachers a re re q u ire d to be co u rte o u s w ith each other 7 . T e a c h e r s h a l l become i d e n t i f i e d w ith r e l i g io u s or c i v i l l i f e of community 8 . T e a c h e r s h a l l be . n e a t i n d r e s s and a p p e a r a n c e 9 . Teacher s h a l l r e f r a i n fro m a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in p o l i t i c a l campaigns

'S o c i a l Conduct ( c o n t . ) 10. T each er s h a l l n o t engage in p le a su re s o u tsid e of s c h o o l w hich would i n t e r ­ f e r e w ith d isch arg e of d u ties 111. T eacher s h a l l r e f r a i n from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d v ertisin g co n tests 1 2 . T e a c h e r s h a l l show c o u r t e s y to p a t r o n s o f school 13. Teacher s h a l l he f a m i l i a r w i t h s o c i a l and e c o n o m ic c o n d i t i o n s o f community 14. Teachers s h a l l not c r i t i c i s e each o th e r 15. Teacher sh a ll, n o t take advantage of h i s p o s i t i o n to s o l i c i t from c i t i z e n s 1 6 . T e a c h e r s h a l l pay d e b t s 17. Teacher s h a l l e x h ib it en th u siastic in te re s t i n h i s work 1 8 . T e a c h e r s h a l l be l o y a l t o Bo ard 19. Teacher s h a l l r e f r a i n f r o m h a b i t s and p r a c t i c e s f o rb id d e n to p u p ils 2 0 . T e a c h e r may n o t a t t e n d any stu d e n t g a th e r in g u n le ss i t is recognized by th e p r i n c i p a l 21. T eacher s h a l l n o t wear d r e s s or i n s i g n i a i n ­ d i c a t i n g m e m b e r s h ip i n a relig io u s sect 22 . T e a c h e r must r e s i d e i n c i t y w hile school is in s e s s io n u n le s s excused 2 3 . T e a c h e r s h a l l pay a l l t a x e s r e q u i r e d o f him b y law 24. T each er s h a l l c o o p e r a te w ith p u b lic l i b r a r i e s 25. Teacher s h a l l have p e r ­ m ission b efore su b m ittin g f o r p u b l i c a t i o n an y a r t i c l e concerning schools

328

r

S o c i a l Conduct ( c o n t . ) 2 6. T e a c h e r s h a l l a v o i d a n y entanglem ent w ith firm s com m ercially i n t e r e s t e d in schools 27. T eacher s h a l l be l o y a l t o U. S. 28, Teacher s h a l l not a tt e n d p riz e f i g h t s or public dances 29. T eacher w i l l a v o id s o c i a l e n g a g e m e n ts w i t h i n ­ d iv id u al p u p ils w ithin s c h o o l system 3 0 . The h o a r d d i s a p p r o v e s o f tea ch e r spo nsoring dances o f school p u p ils o r d a n c i n g w i t h th em 3 1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of chaperon­ i n g p r i v a t e p i c n i c s where such m i g h t c r e a t e t h e im pression th a t th e school was s p o n s o r 32. Board s h a l l b e s o l e judge of t e a c h e r 's p e rso n al c o n d u c t w i t h i n and w i t h ­ out sc h o o l h o u r s 3 3 . T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t make assignm ent o f s a l a r y w i t h o u t c o n s e n t o f Board 3 4 . T e a c h e r m u st s p e n d w e e k - e n d s i n town 35. Teacher s h a l l by h i s f i n a n c i a l aid support general business of community 36. Teacher s h a l l n o t be member o f -union 37, Teacher s h a l l not engage in c o o p e r a t i v e buying VII

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130

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. Knowledge and O b e d i e n c e to R e g u la tio n s 1 , Teacher s h a l l be f a m i li a r w i t h r u l e s and regu l a t i o n s

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Knowledge a n d O b e d i e n c e t o R egu lation s (c o n t.) 2. Teacher s h a l l fo llo w , r e s p e c t , an d o b e y r u le s and re g u la tio n s 3. Teacher s h a l l e n fo rc e r u l e s an d r e g u l a t i o n s 4 . T e a c h e r s h a l l h a v e co p y of r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s 5. Teacher s h a l l acquaint him self w ith in s tr u c tio n s of S u p e r i n te n d e n t 6 . P r i n c i p a l s h a l l review more i m p o r t a n t r e g u ­ la t i o n s fo r teacher 7. Teacher s h a l l obey i n s t r u c t i o n s of B o a r d 8 . P rin c ip a l s h a ll see that te a c h e r com plies w ith r u l e s o f B o a r d and S u p erintendent 9. Teacher s h a l l , w ith ap­ p r o v a l of P r i n c i p a l , make s u c h r e g u l a t i o n s a s h e deems p r o p e r 1 0 . T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t make c la s s r u le s c o n tr a r y to re g u la tio n s of the Board 11. T each er s h a l l be f a m i l i a r w i t h a nd o bey t h e S t a t e E d u c a t i o n Law 1 2 . T e a c h e r s h a l l be n o t i f i e d of changes in r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s by P r i n c i p a l 1 3 . T e a c h e r s h a l l be n o t i f i e d o f c h a n g e s i n r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s by S u p e r i n ­ tendent 1 4 . T e a c h e r s h a l l be e x am in e d by P r i n c i p a l on k n o w l e d g e o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s 1 5 . B o a r d s h a l l be s o l e j u d g e o f t e a c h e r ' s compliance w ith r e g u la tio n s 1 6 . GTommittee s h a l l s e e t o th e enforcem ent of r u l e s and r egu 1 a t i ons o f teach ers

330 t i l l . Teacher H e a lth

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A. H e a l t h R e q u i r e m e n t s 1 . T e a c h e r m u st h a v e e v i d e n c e of v a c c i n a t i o n 2. Teacher r e s i d in g in a h o u se h o ld where con" t a g i o n e x i s t s may n o t a tte n d school 3 . T eacher s h a l l keep p h y sically f i t 4 . T eacher must he f r e e o f pulmonary t u b e r c u l o s i s 5. Teacher e x h i b i t i n g symptoms o f c o n t a g i o n may n o t a t t e n d s c h o o l 6 . T eacher s h a l l keep m entally f i t 7 . T e a c h e r may n o t c o n t i n u e activd serv ice i f i l l 8 . T e a c h e r must h a v e g ood h e a r i n g 9 . T e a c h e r s h o u l d l i e down t e n m i n u t e s on r e a c h i n g home a f t e r e a c h s e s s i o n 10. p rin cip al sh a ll report t e a c h e r f o r m e n t a l and physical d i s a b il i ty B, M e d i c a l C e r t i f i c a t e s 1 . T eacher must p r e s e n t a h ealth c e r tif ic a te p erio d ically 2. T each er s h a l l be s u b j e c t to ex am ination by d o c to r b e f o r e r e t u r n from a b ­ s e n c e due t o q u a r a n t i n e 3. Teacher s h a l l p re s e n t m e d i c a l c e r t i f i c a t e or subm it to exam ination upon r e q u e s t of S u p e r ­ v i s o r or m edical o f f i c e r 4. S u p erin ten d ent s h a ll c a u s e t o b e e x a m in e d by m e d ic a l exam iner any t e a c h e r whose p h y s i c a l or m ental c o n d itio n i s s u c h a s t o r e n d e r him u n fit fo r service

1

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r M edical C e r t i f i c a t e s ( c o n t.) 5* T e a c h e r s h a l l h e s u b j e c t to exam ination by d o c to r o f B oa rd d u r i n g i l l n e s s 6 . Teacher s h a l l p re s e n t a p h y s ic ia n 's c e r t i f i c a t e p e r i o d i c a l ly during illn e ss 7. T eacher a b sen t over s p e c i f i e d t i m e m ust g e t n u r s e ' s or p h y s i c i a n ' s approval befo re r e tu r n in g to duty 8 . Board s h a l l pay p a r t of co st of p e rio d ic a l m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i cn 9 . F a i l u r e o f t e a c h e r to s u b m i t t o m e d i c a l exam­ i n a t i o n s h a l l be deemed insubordination 1 0 . T e a c h e r on m a t e r n i t y l e a v e sh all f i le c e rtific a te of c h ild 's b i r t h w ithin s p e c i f i ed t im e 1 1 . T eacher s h a l l subm it to exam ination by M edical B o a r d when so r e q u e s t e d upon a p p l i c a t i o n f o r d is a b ility retirem ent 0. P ro tectio n

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of T e a c h e r H e a l t h

1. A ccidents to te a c h e r s h a l l be r e p o r t e d t o a u t h o r i t i e s 2 . T e a c h e r ' s h e a l t h s h a l l be p r o j e c t e d b y .School ‘.d octo r 3. M edical i n s p e c t o r or nurse s h a l l i n s t r u c t te a c h e r in b e t t e r h e a lth p ractice 4 . T e a c h e r ' s h e a l t h s h a l l be p r o t e c t e d by. s c h o o l n u r s e 5. T e a c h e r 's h e a l t h s h a l l be p ro te c te d by P r in c ip a l 6 . Superintendent s h a l l i n s p e c t school p l a n t to in s u r e h e a l t h y working conditions f o r te a c h e rs

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P r o t e c t i o n of Teacher H ealth (o o n t.) 7• S t a t e C o m p e n s a t i o n Laws s h a l l he o b s e r v e d i n a l l c a se s o f a c c id e n ts to teacher 8 , C o m m i t te e o f B o a r d s h a l l a t t e n d to h e a l t h of teacher 9 . T e a c h e r s h a l l he s u b j e c t t o same h e a l t h r e ­ s t r i c t i o n s as c h ild ren 10. Teacher*s h e a l th s h a l l he p r o t e c t e d by d i r e c t o r o f p h y s i c a l and h e a l t h education 11. M edical in s p e c to r s h a l l ren d er f i r s t a id to teacher



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TEACHER AM) PUPIL P1RS0UIEI

I . Management

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A. A d m i s s i o n o f Mew P u p i l s 1. Teacher s h a l l accept p u p i l s o n l y on a s s i g n ­ ment by P r i n c i p a l or S u p e rin t endent 2. Teacher s h a l l r e q u ir e new p u p i l t o b e v a c c i n a t e d 3 . T e a c h e r s h a l l r e f e r new p u p i l s to P r i n c i p a l 4 . Teacher s h a l l a s s i s t in a d m i s s i o n o f new ap p lican ts 5 . Teacher s h a l l not admit a n y new f i r s t g r a d e p u p i l e x c e p t d u r i n g f i r s t month 6 . Teacher s h a l l n o t adm it p u p il w ithout tr a n s fe r card 7 . T e a c h e r may o n l y t e m p o r ­ a r i l y accept c h ild w ith ­ o ut b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e

333

r B. T r a n s f e r o f p u p i l s 1 . T eacher s h a l l send n e c e s s a r y c r e d e n t i a l s to s c h o o l t o w hic h p u p i l i s tran sferred 2. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t w i t h ­ draw al of p u p i l to P rincipal 3. Teacher s h a ll not t r a n s ­ f e r p u p il w ithout p e r­ m ission of P r i n c ip a l 4. Teacher s h a l l n o t t r a n s ­ f e r p u p il w ithout p e r­ m ission of S u p erin ten d en t 5. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t w i t h ­ draw al of p u p il to Superintendent 6 . Teacher s h a l l i n v e s t i g a t e a l l causes of w ithdraw al

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2

1

2

3

3

10

4

2

0

1

1

8

G. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n - p r o m o t i o n of Pupil 1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l recommend p r o m o t i o n of* p u p i l s 2. T eacher s h a l l a s s i s t in c la s s if i c a t io n of p u p ils 3 . T e a c h e r s h a l l recommend demotion o f p u p i l s un ab le t o do work o f g r a d e 4. Teacher s h a l l a s s i s t in prom otion o f p u p i l s 5. Teacher s h a l l search f o r n o n - r e s i d e n t p u p i l s and r e p o r t such to a u t h o r i t i es 6 . Teacher s h a l l re p o rt p r o b a b l e f a i l u r e s to prin cip al 7 . T e a c h e r m u st h a v e p e r ­ m i s s i o n of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t t o p r o m o t e o r demote pupils 8 . Teacher s h a l l follow sp e c ifie d standard fo r prom otion or c l a s s i f i ­ c a t io n of p u p ils 9. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t excessive r e ta r d a tio n to s u p e r io rs

4

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C lassification

(con t.)

10* Te a ch er may n o t promote p u p i l s d u rin g t e r n 11* T e a ch er s h a l l he r e s p o n ­ s i b l e for e r r o r s in recommending unprepared p u p i l s f o r promotion

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D. S u p e r v i s i o n o f P u p i l s i n P l a y g r o u n d s , H a l l s , and at B ecess 1 . Teacher s h a l l s u p e r v i s e c h i l d r e n on t h e p lay g r o u n d , s c h o o l g r o u n d s, and yard b e f o r e and a f t e r s e s s i o n 2* T e a ch er s h a l l s u p e r v i s e c h ild r e n during r e c e s s e s 3* Teacher s h a l l s u p e r v i s e ch ild ren in hallw ays 4 . Teacher, as fa r as p o s s ­ ib le , s h a ll supervise p u p i l s on t h e way t o and from s c h o o l 5* Teacher s h a l l r e q u i r e a l l p u p i l s t o p a s s from room a t r e c e s s 6* Du ring i n c l e m e n t w e a th e r t e a c h e r may admit p u p i l s to h a l l s 7 . T e a ch er s h a l l s u p e r v i s e entrance of p u p ils

49

21

28

25

27

150

45

21

83

20

17

126

26

13

14

13

18

84

25-' 11

18

16

10

80

6

2

3

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5

16

4

4

2

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2

12

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2

5

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3

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8

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6

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5

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B* I n d i v i d u a l B e o e s s 1 . T each er s h a l l perm it p u p i l t o l e a v e room when n e c e s s a r y 2* Teacher s h a l l n o t permit p u p i l s to l e a v e room prom iscuously 3 . Teacher s h a l l pu n is h c h i l d who a b u s e s p r i v i l e g e o f l e a v i n g room 4 . T each er s h a l l r e p o r t to P r i n c i p a l or S u p e r i n ­ t e n d e n t any c h i l d who makes a p r a c t i c e o f l e a v ­ i n g room f r e q u e n t l y

j

335

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Individual Recess (c o n t.) 5 . Teacher s h a l l n o t a l l o w more than one p u p i l o f each s e x to l e a v e room a t same time 6 . Teacher s h a l l a l l o w o n l y l i m i t e d number of p u p i l s t o l e a v e room a t one tim e

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P. R xtra-C urricular A c t i v i t i e s 1 . Teacher s h a l l s u p e r v i s e ex tra-cu rricu lar a c t i v i t i e s of pupils 14 4 7 4 10 E. Teacher s h a l l n o t a rra n g e ex tra-cu rricu lar a c t i v i t i e s w ithout per­ m ission of a u th o r itie s 6 1 4 0 6 3 . T e a ch er s h a l l have appro ­ v a l of Superintendent far e n t ertainm en t when adm i s s i o n i s c harged or p u b lic admitted ' £ 1 0 0 5 4 . Teacher s h a l l n o t a l l o w p u p ils to p a r t ic ip a t e i n any a c t i v i t i e s during s c h o o l h o u rs n o t i n v o l v ­ ing th e ir education 2 E 0 0 E 5 . Teacher s h a l l have w r i t t e n c o n s e n t of p a r e n t b e f o r e p u p i l g o e s on e x c u r s i o n £ 1 1 - 0 0 6 . Teach er s h a l l com ply w i t h P r in c ip a l’ s of Superintend e n t ’s req uest con cern in g extra-^cur r i c u l a r a ctiv ities 1 1 0 0 1 7 . T ea ch er s h a l l p l a n e x t r a ­ c u r ricu la r a c t i v i t i e s only in accordance w ith regu­ la tio n s E 0 0 0 0 8 . Teacher and n o t Board i s l i a b l e i n c a s e of a c c i d e n t when, c a r s o t h e r than t h o s e o f Board are u sed f o r tr a n s p o r t a t io n of p u p ils on t r i p s 1 0 1 0 0 9 . Teacher s h a l l d i s c o u r a g e entertainm ents o f s o l e l y commercial v a l u e 1 0 0 1 0

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39

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336

p Extra-G u r r i c u l a r A c t iv it ie s (con t.) 1 0 . Male p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g teacher i s expected to c o a ch teams w i t h o u t e x t r a c o m p en sa tio n 1 1 . Teacher s h a l l a c t as treasurer for p u p ils 1 funds

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4

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0 . Routine Sch ool M atters 1 . Teacher s h a l l d i s c o u r a g e e a r ly a r r iv a l o f pupils 2 . Teach er s h a l l d e a l j u s t l y w ith every c h i l d without p r e j u d i c e or p r e f e r e n c e 3 . Te acher s h a l l n o t i f y c h i l d r e n when i t i s necessary to can cel.sch o o l f o r one or more days 4 . T ea ch er s h a l l g i v e s i g n a l f o r change o f c l a s s e s 5 . Teacher o f h i g h s c h o o l s h a l l address h is p u p ils by t h e i r l a s t names p r e ­ f i x e d by M iss or M i s t e r 6 . T e a ch er s h a l l have c o n ­ sid era tio n for p u p ils' s t a n d i n g engagements or after-sch ool d u ties 7 . Te acher s h a l l r e q u i r e p u p i l s to d r e s s app rop riately for school

1

0

3

H. P u p i l A s s e m b l i e s 1 . Teacher s h a l l be r e s p o n ­ s i b l e f o r c l a s s during a s s e m b ly 2 . Te ach er s h a l l a t t e n d commencement e x e r c i s e s

0

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I . Accidents 1 . T each er s h a l l r e n d e r f i r s t a i d to p u p i l s i n ­ ju r e d a t s c h o o l 2 . Teacher s h a l l make a w r i t t e n r e p o r t o f any a c c i d e n t to a p u p i l

2 1 1

E

11 10

337 r A ccidents (c o n t.) 3 . Teacher s h a l l c a l l p h y s ic ia n to render f i r s t a i d to p u p i l 4 . Teacher s h a l l r e f e r i n ­ ju r e d p u p i l to s c h o o l nurse 5 . Teacher s h a l l n o t r e n d e r an o p i n i o n or g i v e i n ­ formation con c er n in g r e s p o n s ib ilit y for accident

n

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J. P ro tectio n o f Valuables 1 . Teacher s h a l l not l e a v e v a l u a b l e s i n d e s k s or ro oms 2# Te acher s h a l l not l e a v e v a lu a b le s in unlocked desks 3* Teacher s h a l l l o c k v a l u a b l e s i n drawer dur­ i n g day and put in o f f i c e s a f e a t n i g h t or remove from b u i l d i n g 4 . Teacher s h a l l be r e s p o n s i ­ b le f o r v a lu a b le s l e f t in h i s c a r e du rin g s c h o o l day 5 . Teacher s h a l l n o t p e r m it the p e r so n a l property of p u p i l s to be k e p t i n school bu ild in gs 6 . Teacher s h a l l be r e s p o n s i ­ b l e f o r any s c h o o l moneys l e f t in b u i l d i n g s

K*

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1

Supervision of D ism issa ls 1 . Teacher s h a l l no t d i s m i s s c l a s s a t i r r e g u l a r time e x c e p t w i t h c o n s e n t of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t or P r i n ­ cip al 2 . T eacher s h a l l d i s m i s s p u p i l a t irregulcar time o n l y upon r e q u e s t o f parent 3 . T each er s h a l l d i s m i s s p u p i l a t i r r e g u l a r time o n l y b e c a u se o f i l l n e s s or emergency

17

6

10

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42

11

6

9

3

2

31

10

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8

3

3

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338

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h

Supervision of D ism issals (c o n t.)

I II

III

IV

Y

4. Teacher s h a l l d ism iss p u p i l ' a t i r r e g u l a r tim e only w ith consent of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t or P rin cip al 75 7 1 3 5* T e a c h e r s h a l l s u p e r v i s e pu pils a t dism issal 8 3 6 0 5 6 . Teacher s h a l l give p u p il perm ission to lea v e school grounds 10 4 4 0 3 7. T eacher s h a l l n o t d ism iss • c l a s s a t i r r e g u l a r tim e except i n case of emergency 7 0 5 1 1 8 . Teacher s h a l l n o t i f y S u p e rin te n d e n t or P r i n c i ­ p a l o f emergency d i s m i s s a l 41 6 0 0 9. Teacher s h a l l d ism iss p u p i l s prom ptly a t tim e set 3 4 1 0 0 10. Teacher s h a l l n o t perm it p u p il to lea v e b u ild in g w i t h a d u l t u n l e s s he i s s a t i s f i e d w ith a d u l t ’ s au th o rity 1 1 4 0 0 11. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t th e name o f p u p i l and t h e reason fo r ir r e g u la r d ism issal 2 1 2 0 0 1 2 . T e a c h e r may r e f u s e t o g ran t d ism issal a t i r r e g u l a r tim e 1 2 0 0 1 1 3. T e a c h e r s h a l l p e r s o n a l l y supervise th e d ism issa l o f p u p i l s who h a v e b e e n d etain ed 0 1 0 0 1 14. Teacher s h a l l in su re q u ie t d is m is s a l of c l a s s dism issed a t ir r e g u l a r tim e 0 0 0 1 0

T

23 22 21

14 11 8

6

5 4

2

1

L. P u p il M essengers 1 . Teacher s h a l l n o t send p u p i l s on e r r a n d s e x c e p t fo r urgent school business

16

3

11

9

5

44

P u p il M essengers

(co n t.)

2* T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t s e n d p u p i l s on e r r a n d s e x c e p t w ith perm ission of p r i n c i ­ p a l or S u p e r i n te n d e n t 3 , T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t send p u p i l s on e r r a n d s 4 , T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t se nd p u p i l s on e r r a n d s e x c e p t w ith c o n s e n t of p a r e n t s 5* T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t send p u p i l s t o l o o k up a b ­ sentees 6 . T eacher s h a l l n o t send p u p ils outside of school yard except in case of sick n ess or accident II* D is c ip lin e A. D i s c i p l i n e t o b e M a i n t a i n e d 1 . Teacher s h a l l m a in ta in d iscip lin e 2. Teacher i s e n t i t l e d to o b e d i e n c e and r e s p e c t of pupils 3. Teacher s h a l l m a in ta in d i s c i p l i n e as w ould be e x e r c i s e d b y a k i n d and Ju d icio u s parent 4 . Teacher s h a l l m a in ta in d i s c i p l i n e by r e a s o n a b l e and p r o p e r means 5# T e a c h e r s h a l l c o n t r o l pup ils as fa r as possible by kindness 6 . Teacher s h a ll a cq u a in t p u p ils w ith r u l e s by vihich t h e y a r e g o v e r n e d 7. Teacher s h a l l e x e rc is e g e n e ra l s u p e rv is io n over c o n d u c t of a l l p u p i l s 8 * Teacher s h a l l t r a i n p u p i l s tow ard s e l f g o v e rn m e n t 9. Teacher s h a l l te a c h p u p ils to r e s p e c t p a t r o l boys

340 D i s c i p l i n e t o be M a i n t a i n e d ( c o n t . ) 10. 11.

12. 13.

14.

15. 16.

B.

I

Teacher s h a l l keep d a i l y r e c o r d of p u p i l punishm ent Teacher s h a l l i n v e s t i g a t e r e p o r te d m isconduct o f p u p ils Teacher s h a ll not provoke c o r p erm it im p ertin en ce Teacher s h a l l p r o h ib it e a t in g or chew ing o f a n y t h in g w i t h i n rooms Teacher s h a l l p r o h ib it u s e o f t o b a c c o on s c h o o l p rem ises Teacher s h a l l s e i z e danger­ o u s w e a p o n s an d k n i v e s T each er u n a b le to c o n t r o l rooms a f t e r due t r i a l s h a l l be c o n s id e r e d i n c o m p e t en t

II

III

IV

V

T

0

0

0

1

2

0

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0

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1

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1

0

0

0

0

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0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

General P r o h ib it io n s

1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t use in d is c r e e t or severe methods of punishm ent 10 2. T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t u s e a b u siv e language to c h i l d or p a re n t 10 3 . T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t u se ir o n y or sarcasm 1 4. Teacher s h a l l n o t r e ­ prove a c h i l d w h ile te a c h e r i s under i n f l u ­ ence of anger 5 5. Teacher s h a l l avoid ap p ear­ a n c e o f undue h a s t e i n m atters of d is c ip lin e 1 6 . Teacher s h a l l not degrade c h i l d by p u n i s h m e n t s 3 7. T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t l o w e r academic g r a d e s as a punishm ent 3 8 . Teacher s h a ll not re q u ire p u p i l s to a c t a s m o n i t o r s to check th e b e h av io r of others 2 9. Teacher s h a l l not a s s ig n w r i t t e n work a s d i s c i p l i n a r y m easure 0

27

5

6

1

4

2

2

4

3

1

2

1

1

5

0

4

11

1

0

3

0

7

0

1

1

6

0

1

0

4

0

1

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0

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21 13

4

3

12

General P ro h ib itio n s

(oont.)

10. T eacher s h a l l not r e q u i r e p u p i l s to r e p o r t t h e i r own m is d e m e a n o r s 11. Teacher s h a l l n o t ex ercise a r b itr a r y au th o r­ ity 0 . C o rp o ra l Punishment 1 . T e a c h e r may i n f l i c t c o r p o r a l punishm ent in extrem e c a s e s on ly 2 . P r i n c i p a l or ano th er t e a c h e r must be p r e s e n t when c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t i s adm inistered 3. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t c o r p o r a l punishm ent to S u p e r i n t e n d e n t or p ri ncipal 4 . Teacher must have con­ sent of P rin c ip a l 5. T e a c h e r may n o t i n f l i c t c o rp o r a l punishm ent in presence of other p up ils 6 . T e a c h e r may n o t i n f l i c t c o r p o r a l punishm ent 7 . T e a c h e r may a d m i n i s t e r c o r p o r a l punishm ent but t h i s does not in c lu d e je rk in g , p in ch in g , push­ ing, slapping, e tc . which are f o r b i d d e n 8 . T e a c h e r m u st k e e p r e c o r d s of a l l c a s e s of c o r p o r a l punishment 9 . Teacher m ust have c o n s e n t of p a re n t 1 0 . T e a c h e r may a d m i n i s t e r c o rp o ra l punishm ent o n ly i n a b s e n c e o f known p a re n ta l o b jection 11. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t c o r p o r a l punishm ent to parent 1 2 . T e a c h e r may n e v e r i n f l i c t c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t on fem ale p u p i l s

Corporal

Punishm ent

(cont.)

1 3 . Teacher must have c o n ­ se n t of Superintendent 14# Teacher s h a l l n o t t h r e a t e n p u p ils with corp oral punishment B. D e t e n t i o n 1 . Teacher may d e t a i n p u p i l s a f t e r t h e P.M. s e s s i o n fo r s p e c i f i e d time o n ly 2 . Teacher s h a l l n o t d e t a i n p u p i l s a t noon r e c e s s 3 . Teacher may d e t a i n p u p i l s a t noon f o r s p e c i f i e d time 4 . Teach er must remain w i t h a l l p u p i l s who are detained 5 . Teacher s h a l l not g e n e r a l ­ l y p r a c t i c e d e t e n t i o n as a means o f punishment 6. Teacher must r e p o r t to P r i n c i p a l t h e c a u s e and name o f p u p i l d e t a i n e d 7 . Teacher must keep a r e ­ c o rd o f a l l p u p i l s d e t a i n ­ ed and t h e c a u s e t h e r e o f 8 . Teacher may d e t a i n p u p i l s t o make up work 9 . Teacher s h a l l n o t d e t a i n p u p ils u n le s s parents have been n o t i f i e d 1 0 . Teacher s h a l l n o t d e t a i n p u p i l s more t h a n s p e c i ­ f i e d time i f o b j e c t i o n i s made by p a r e n t 1 1 . Teacher s h o u l d n o t d e ­ t a i n p u p i l s so t h e y m i s s the bus 1 2 . Teacher may d e t a i n c h i l d a t noon w ith p e r m i s s i o n of P rincip al EU E x c l u s i o n 1 . Teach er s h a l l not send c h i l d r e n t o c o r r i d o r or cloak room a s punishment

E xclusion

(cont.)

2. I f p u p i l i s s e n t f r o m room, he m u s t he s e n t to P r i n c i p a l or S uperintendent 3 . T e a c h e r m ust d e s i g n a t e w h e r e p u p i l i s t o go when s e n t from room 4 . Teacher s e n d in g p u p i l to P r i n c i p a l 1s of f i c e~ s h a l l r e q u i r e him t o t a k e h o o k s to study P . Suspension 1 . T e a c h e r may n o t s u s p e n d pupil 2. I f p u p il is suspended, te a c h e r .sh all n o t i f y parent 3 . T e a c h e r may s u s p e n d a p u p il w ith the approval o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t or principal 4 . T e a c h e r may s u s p e n d a pupil fo r s u f f ic ie n t cause 5* I f p u p i l i s s u s p e n d e d , teacher s h a ll n o tify Superintendent or P r i n c i pal 6 . T e a c h e r may recommend s u s p e n s i o n of p u p i l fo r cause 7. T eacher s h a l l keep r e ­ c o r d of p u p i l s u s p e n s i o n 8 . T e a c h e r may h e r e p r i m a n d ­ ed h y B o a r d f o r f a i l u r e to g iv e pro p er n o t i c e o f p u p i l su s p e n s i on G. D e p r i v i n g p u p i l s o f p riv ileg es 1 . Teacher s h a l l not deprive p u p i l of r e c e s s 2# T e a c h e r s h a l l a l l o w p u p i l d e ta in e d a t r e c e s s to l e a v e room i m m e d i a t e l y th ereafter

344

D epriving P u p ils of P riv ile g es (co n t.) 3 , Teacher may d e t a i n p u p i l at r e c e ss for d i s c ip lin a r y purposes 4 . Teacher s h a l l not d e p r i v e p u p i l of r e c e s s e x c e p t with the approval o f P rin cip al 3 . Teacher s h a l l n o t d e p r i v e p u p i l of r e c e s s f o r d i s c i p l i n a r y p u r p o se s un­ l e s s h i s c o n d u c t on s c h o o l ground s i s harmful t o other p u p ils 6 . T each er may t a k e away p u p i l ’ s p r i v i l e g e s as punishment 7. Teacher s h a l l n o t d e p r i v e p u p il o f r e c e s s except w ith approval of parent

I

II

I I I IV

1 3

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T

2

0

2

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3

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6

3

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29

10

9

14

14

76

13

5

5

1

2

26

7

3

3

0

11

5

10

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7

36

10

6

5

6

3

30

13

3

4

2

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30

2

H. R e po r t t o A u t h o r i t i e s 1* In d i f f i c u l t d i s c i p l i n e c a s e s , te a c h e r s h a l l sbek cooperation ofP rin c ip a l 2 . In d i f f i c u l t d i s c i p l i n e ca ses, teacher s h a ll seek cooperation o f Superin­ te n d e n t 3 . Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t p u p i l s r e f u s i n g t o obey rules "

0

13

I I I # Guidance A, H e a l t h 1 . Teacher s h a l l p r o t e c t and .promote th e h e a l t h of child ren 2# Teacher s h a l l a s s i s t i n h e a lt h exam inations 3 . Teacher s h a l l n o t a l l o w a c h i l d r e s i d i n g where cases of contagion e x ist to a t t e n d s c h o o l

j

345

H ealth

(con t.)

4 . T e a ch er s h a l l r e a d and e n f o r c e r u l e s o f M ed ic al Department 5 . Teacher s h a l l report a l l c a s e s o f i l l n e s s to P rincip al 6 . Teacher s h a l l n o t a l l o w a c h i l d with contagion to attend school 7 . Teacher s h a l l he a l e r t to d is c o v e r p h y sic a l defects 8 . Teacher s h a l l a s s i g n s e a t s w i t h r e g a r d to s i z e , hearing, v i s i o n , and s e x o f p u p i l s 9 . T e a ch er s h a l l he a l e r t t o d i s c o v e r symptoms o f contagion 1 0 . Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t s u s p e c t e d c a s e s of c o n ta g io n to P r i n c ip a l 1 1 . Te ach er s h a l l c o n d u c t h e a l t h i n s p e c t i o n each morning I S . Teach er s h a l l r e q u i r e m e d i c a l c e r t i f i c a t e from p u p il absent a c o n s id e r ­ a b l e tim e b e c a u se o f illn ess 1 3 . Teacher s h a l l t r y to induce h a b i t s o f c l e a n l i ­ ness . 1 4 . Teacher s h a l l i n s i s t on n e a t a ppearance 1 5 . Teacher s h a l l g i v e a t ­ t e n t i o n to s i g h t of pupils 1 6 . Teacher s h a l l r e c e i v e a s s is t a n c e o f nurse 1 7 . Teacher s h a l l s e n d home p u p i l s who a r e n o t t i d y and c l e a n i n p erson 1 8 . Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t a l l e a ses o f i l l n e s s to nurse 19 • Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t suspected cases of c o n t a g i o n to s c h o o l n u r s e

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346

H ealth

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20. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t s u s p e c t e d c a s e s of contagion to school d o ctor 21. Teacher s h a l l g iv e a t ­ t e n t i o n t o h e a r i n g of p up ils 22. Teacher s h a l l keep r e ­ cord of p h y sic a l d e fe c ts of p u p ils 23. Teacher s h a l l i n s t r u c t p u p ils in m a tte rs of p e rs o n a l hygiene 24. T ea ch e r s h a l l s e l e c t t h o s e c h i l d r e n who a p ­ p e a r t o he i n n e e d o f a m edical exam ination 26. T eacher s h a l l send i l l p u p i l s home 26. T ea ch e r s h a l l a d j u s t window s h a d e s to p r o t e c t th e eyes o f c h i l d r e n 27. Teacher s h a l l take c a r e t o p r e v e n t s p r e a d of in fectio n 28. T eacher s h a l l i n v e s t i g a t e a l l cases of sickness o c c u rrin g in classroom 29. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t suspected cases of contagion to S u p erin ­ tendent 30. Teacher s h a l l observe r u l e s of hygiene i n th e classroom 31. Teacher s h a l l a s s i s t in securing c o rre c tio n o f d efects 3 2 . T e a c h e r s h a l l m e a s u r e and keep r e c o r d o f h e ig h t and w eight of p u p ils 33. Teacher s h a l l give a t ­ t e n t i o n t o p o s t u r e of pup ils 34. Teacher s h a l l see p u p ils are not su b je c t to d r a f t s 35. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t names of p u p i l s e x c l u d e d by m e d i c a l i n s p e c t o r t o Superintendent or P rin cip al

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r

H ealth (co n t.) 36. Teacher s h a l l re q u ir e u n t id y p u p i l s to use school f a c i l i t i e s to make p r e p a r a t i o n 37. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t to n u r s e a n y p u p i l whose c o n d itio n has not im prov­ ed a f t e r b e i n g s e n t home because of u n c le a n lin e s s 38. Teacher s h a l l n o t h u m ilia te p u p il by c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n to a l a c k of c lean lin ess 39. Teacher s h a l l avoid sand­ i n g c h i l d r e n to n u r s e need lessly 4 0 . T e a c h e r s h a l l accom pa ny c h i l d s e n t home b e c a u s e of i l l n e s s or acc id e n t 41. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t suspected cases of con­ t a g i o n to p a r e n t s 42. T eacher s h a l l re -a d m it p u p ils a f t e r contagion o n l y by p e r m i s s i o n o f p rin cip al

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n

B. C h a r a c t e r 1. Teacher s h a l l e x e rc is e c a r e f u l su p e rv isio n over t h e h a b i t s , m o r a l s , and manners of p u p i ls 2 . Teacher s h a l l i n c u l c a t e good m o r a l c h a r a c t e r 3 . Teacher s h a l l i n c u l c a t e p r in c ip le s of tr u th , v i r t u e , and r i g h t l i v i n g 4. Teacher s h a l l i n c u l c a t e r e s p e c t f o r law a n d order 5. Teacher s h a l l c u l t i v a t e h a b its of s o c ia l r e f i n e ­ ment b y p r e c e p t and exam ple 6 . Teacher s h a l l prevent t h e u s e o f p r o f a n e and improper lan g u a g e

17

_j

348

Character

(cont. )

7. T e a c h e r s h a l l s e e k t o learn character, d is ­ p o s i t i o n , c a p a c i t y , and q u a l i t y o f m ind o f e ac h pupil 8 . Teacher s h a l l f a m i l i a r i z e s e l f w ith purpose of homeroom 9. T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t t e a c h a n y t h i n g w h i c h t e n d s to im pair p u p i l s ’ re s p e c t f o r a nd c o n f i d e n c e i n our government 10. Teacher s h a l l be guided by P r i n c i p a l i n t e a c h i n g c h a ra c te r education 11. T eacher s h a l l not be p r e j u d i c e d by p u p i l ' s low s c o r e on s t a n d a r d t e s t

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0• A ttendance 1 . Teacher s h a l l r e q u i r e a p e r s o n a l or w r i t t e n e x ­ c u se from p a r e n t s f o r absence or t a r d i n e s s 2. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t ab ­ sen tees to P rin c ip a l 3. T e a c h e r s h a l l r e p o r t a b s e n t e e s to t r u a n t of f i c e r 4. T e a c h e r s h a l l i n v e s t i ­ g a te cause o f absence or t a r d i n e s s 5. Teacher s h a l l r e q u i r e p u p i l s to be p u n c tu a l 6 . Teacher s h a l l r e q u i r e re g u la r attendance 7. T e a c h e r s h a l l f i l e e x ­ cuses f o r p u p il absence or t a r d i n e s s 8 . Teacher s h a l l im m ediate­ l y s e n d p u p i l home f o r p r o p e r excuse u n l e s s th e we a t h e r i s i n c l e m e n t 9. T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t send p u p i l home f o r e x c u s e during school hours 10. Teacher s h a l l d e c id e v a l i d i t y of excuse

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A ttendance ( c o n t , )

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tS> i— 1

1 1 . 'T each er s h a l l r e p o r t absentees to Superin­ ten dent 12. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t unexcused t a r d i n e s s Teacher s h a ll c a l l r o l l o f p u p i l s each m orning 14. T eacher s h a l l keep a t ­ t e n d a n c e c h a r t s i n rooms 15, T eacher s h a l l n o t send p u p i l s home f o r e x c u s e s w ithout app ro v al of S uperintendent or P r i n ­ cip al 16. T eacher s h a l l drop from r o l l s any p u p il absent fo r th r e e consecutive days 17. Teacher s h a l l n o t p erm it i r r e g u l a r atten dance be­ cause of o u ts id e i n t e r e s t (m usic l e s s o n s , e t c . ) T eacher s h a l l seek a l l 18. p ro p er a s s i s t a n c e to im p rov e a t t e n d a n c e 1 9 . T e a c h e r may s p e c i a l l y d i s c i p l i n e any p u p i l h a b itu a lly absent 2 0 . Teacher s h a l l encourage good a t t e n d a n c e b y m aking c l a s s r o o m pleasant 21. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t ab sentees to nurse 2 2 . Teacher s h a l l c o o p erate w ith atten d an ce o f f i c e r 23. T eacher s h a l l use d is c re tio n in i n f lic tin g p e n altie s fo r tard in ess 24. T eacher s h a l l r e p o r t ab­ se n te e s to v i s i t i n g teacher 25, T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t make r e q u e s t of a t t e n d a n c e o f f i c e r w ithout approval of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t 26. T e a c h e r s h a l l k e e p r e ­ p o r t of a tte n d a n c e officer

IV

I

A ttendance ( c o n t . ) 27. Teacher s h a l l r e q u i r e t r u a n t t o make up work IY, C o o p e r a tio n w ith P a r e n t s A. C o o p e r a t i o n 1. T eacher s h a l l send p e r i o d i c a l r e p o r t s of w o r k , a t t e n d a n c e , and p u n c t u a l i t y to p a r e n t s 2. T eacher s h a l l n o t i f y p a re n t about poor scholarship 3 . Teacher s h a l l seek co­ o p e r a t i o n of p a r e n t s 4 . Teacher s h a l l n o t i f y p aren t about u n s a tis ­ f a c t o r y excuses fo r absence or t a r d i n e s s 5. Teacher s h a l l n o t i f y p a re n t about poor conduct 6 . Teacher s h a l l n o t if y p a re n t about absence 7. Teacher s h a l l se ek co ­ o p e r a t i o n by p e r s o n a l v isits 8 . Teacher s h a l l have n o t i c e t o p a r e n t s a p p r o v e d by P r i n c i p a l or S u p e r i n ­ tendent 9. Teacher s h a l l n o t a llo w persons o th e r th an p a re n ts t o c o m m u n i c a te w i t h c h ild re n except in em e rg en c y 10. Teacher s h a l l seek co­ o p e r a t io n by l e t t e r 11. Teacher s h a l l d e li v e r emergency m essages to pupils 12. Teacher s h a l l n o t i f y p a re n t about ta r d in e s s 13. Teacher s h a l l n o t i f y p a r e n t a b o u t n e e d o f med­ ic a l atten tio n

351

C ooperation ( c o n t .) 14. Teacher s h a l l n o t i f y p a re n t about p u p il* s suspension 15. Teacher s h a ll c o o p e ra te w ith p a re n ts 16. Teacher s h a l l n o t i f y p a r e n t a b o u t h o o k s and m a t e r i a l s which c h i l d requi res 17. Teacher s h a l l check a l l re tu rn e d r e p o r t cards to s e e t h e y h a v e been p r o p e r l y signed hy p a re n ts 18. Teacher s h a l l seek co­ o p e r a t i o n hy t e l e p h o n e 19. Teacher s h a l l c o o p e r a te w ith P a re n ts ' A sso ciatio n 20 . Teacher s h a l l n o t i f y p a r ­ ent about lack of c l e a n l i ­ n e s s and t i d y n e s s 2 1 . Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t t o p a r e n t s a s d i r e c t e d hy P rin c ip a l or S uperin­ tendent 2 2 . Teacher s h a l l send c o rre c te d t e s t papers to p a r e n ts

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B • C om plaints of p a r e n ts 1* A p p e a l may Be made from d e c isio n of Teacher to P r i n c i p a l ,t o Superin­ t e n d e n t , to B o a r d 2. C o m p l a i n t v s , t e a c h e r m u st he f i l e d i n w r i t i n g 3. C om plaints v s. te a c h e r s h a l l n o t he d is c u s s e d in p resen c e of c h i l d r e n 4 . C om plaint s h a l l he i n ­ v e s t i g a t e d by S u p e rin ­ tendent 5 . C o m p l a i n t s h a l l he i n ­ v e s t i g a t e d hy C o m m itte e of B o a r d 6 . C o m p l a i n t s h a l l he i n ­ v e s t i g a t e d hy P r i n c i p a l

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352

nC o m p l a i n t s

of P a ren ts (c o n t.)

7. Teacher i s fo rb id d e n to d is c u s s g rie v a n c e s or engage in a l t e r c a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s , b u t must r e f e r a l l such t o P r i n ­ cip al 8 . Com plaint v s . t e a c h e r s h a l l be s i g n e d 9 . p a r e n t or g u a r d i a n s h a l l n o t i n s u l t o r abuse any teacher 10. C om plaint s h a l l be i n ­ v e s t i g a t e d by B o a r d 11. Teacher s h a l l c o u rte o u s ­ l y d i s c u s s any c o m p la in ts w ith p a re n ts 12 . P a r e n t or g u a r d i a n s h a l l p re s e n t com plaint in order s p e c if ie d 13. C om plaints s h a l l be f i l e d w ith S u p e rin te n d e n t 1 4 . A ppeals from d e c i s i o n of C o m m i t t e e may be made to t h e B o a r d v 15. Com plaint v s . t e a c h e r m ust be made i n p e r s o n 16. P e rso n s having co m p lain t t o mahe s h a l l c o n f e r w i t h te a c h e r out o f sc h o o l, to g e th e r w ith Superin­ tendent o r D irec to rs 1 7 . C o m p l a i n t must be p r e s e n t ­ ed a t r e g u l a r m e e t i n g of Board

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THE TEACHER AID USf STRUCT 101 I.

C urriculum

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A. S e l e c t i o n a n d Use 1 . Teacher s h a l l a d h e re to course o f study 2. Teacher s h a l l a s s i s t in r e v is io n of course o f ' study

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353

r C urriculum - S e le c tio n and U s e ( c o n t . ) 3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

(Teacher s h a l l use only such books a s a re a p p ro v ­ ed by S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r Board Teacher s h a l l a s s i s t in s e l e c t i o n o f t e x t books Teacher s h a l l a c q u a in t h i m s e l f v*,?i t h c o u r s e o f study T e a c h e r w i l l ]be g i v e n copy o f c o u rs e o f s t u d y Teacher s h a llnot o m it or c h a n g e any p a r t o f c o u r s e of s t u d y w i t h o u t c o n s u ltin g S u p erintendent T e a c h e r s h a l l k e e p a co p y of c o u rs e of study in h i s desk

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B. S p e c i a l R e q u i r e m e n t s The t e a e h e r s h a l l t e a c h the fo llo w in g ; 1 . p rin c ip le s of p a trio tism 2. A ccident p re v e n tio n 3. T h rift 4 . . I m p o r t a n c e of p u r e s p e e c h 5. Dangers o f f i r e 6 . E ffe c ts of alco h o lic b e v erag e s and n a r c o t i c s 7. B ird p ro te c tio n 8 . Tree p l a n t i n g 9. lo c a l h is to ry 10. D u tie s of e le c te d o fficers 11* S t a r S p a n g l e d B a n n e r 12. O r d e r li n e s s in m arching 0 . Opening E x e r c i s e s 1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l r e a d from S c r i p tu r e during open­ ing e x ercises 2 . T e a c h e r s h a l l make no comment when r e a d i n g f ro m S c r i p t u r e 3. Teacher s h a l l re a d th e l o r d ’s p r a y e r a t open­ ing e x e rc is e s

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354 Opening E x e r c i s e s ( c e n t * )

1

4 . F l a g s a l u t e s h a l l be g iv en a t s t a t e d tim es 10 5. Teacher s h a l l conduct opening e x e r c i s e s d a i l y 6 6 . Teacher s h a l l hold s p e c i a l e x e rc ise s fo r school h olidays 5 7. S t a r S p a n g l e d B an n er a n d A m e r i c a s h a l l be s u n g a t opening e x e r c i s e s 3 8 . Teacher s h a l l have p u p i ls s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e hymns a t opening e x e r c i s e s Z 9 . Teacher s h a l l n o t r e q u i r e p u p il to read or take p a r t in re a d in g any p a r t i c u l a r v e rs io n of S c r ip tu r e i f paren t does n o t approve 1 2 1 0 . p ra y e r in opening e x e r c i s e s s h a l l be a t o p t i o n o f teacher 1 1 1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l know p r o p e r use of f l a g 1 IS. Short t a l k , r e c i t a t i o n , or newspaper re v ie w s h a l l be i n c l u d e d in opening exercises 1 0

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35

D. S p e c i f i c R e s t r i c t i o n s 1. Teacher s h a l l p rev e n t d is c u s s io n of q u e stio n s of p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r t h a t may become partisian 2 . Teaching of s e c t a r i a n d o ctrin es is p ro h ib ited 3 . Teacher s h a l l n o t i n t e r ­ f e r e w ith p o l i t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s of p u p ils 4. Teacher s h a l l p rev e n t dissem ination of propaganda 5. Teacher s h a l l avoid e x e r c i s e s t h a t would i n a n y way b e e m b a r r a s s ­ i n g to a n y s e c t o r group o f p u p ils

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355 r I I * Methods

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8

A. G e n e r a l M e t h o d s 1 . Teacher s h a l l g iv e d e l i n q u e n t p u p i l s op ­ p o r t u n i t y to make up w o r k 2 . Teacher s h a ll g iv e i n s t r ­ u c tio n s to a l l pup ils under h is charge 3. Teacher s h a l l use the b e s t methods 4. Teacher s h a l l ad ap t i n s t r u c t i o n s to needs of the p u p ils 5. Teacher s h a l l te a c h methods of stu d y 6 . Teacher s h a l l speak to p u p i l s i n good E n g l i s h 7. Teacher s h a l l conduct review s in v a rio u s branches o f study a. T e a c h e r s h a l l g i v e c o n ­ s i d e r a t i o n to i n q u ir i e s of p u p ils w ithout perm it­ t i n g p u p i l to be s u b j e c t to r i d i c u l e 9. T eacher s h a l l c o r r e c t and r e t u r n a l l w r i t t e n work 10. Teacher s h a l l te a c h sub­ j e c t s f o r which th e y a re q u alified 1 1 . T ea ch e r s h a l l n o t work ch ild ren a f t e r p o int o f fatigue. Work s h o u l d be v a r i e d and s h o r t r e s t p e r i o d s given 12. Teacher w i l l re s e r v e o u tsta n d in g p ie c e s of wo r k 13... T e a c h e r c a n n o t do h e s t te a c h in g se ate d a t desk 14. Teacher s h a l l have e v ery pupil r e c ite re g u la rly 15. Teacher s h a l l n o t have t o o much w r i t t e n work 16. Teacher s h a l l have "aim” for lesson 17. Teacher s h a l l conduct r e c i t a t i o n s according to s p e c if ie d procedure

j

G e n e ra l Methods (c o n t* ) 18. te a c h e r s h a l l n o t teach new work when a l a r g e p ercen tag e of c la s s is absent 1 9 . T e a c h e r s h a l l make p u p i l do w o r k s a t i s f a c t o r i l y b e f o r e e x c u s i n g him 20. Teaoher sh o u ld n o t a c ­ cept c a r e le s s ly prepared w r i t t e n o r o r a l w ork B. P l a n n i n g o f Work 1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l make o u t a program of s tu d y 2. Teacher s h a l l p r e p a r e d a ily lesson plans 3. Teacher s h a l l f u r n i s h co p y o f p r o g r a m t o S uperintendent 4. Teacher s h a l l f u r n i s h copy of program to P rin cip al 5 . T e a c h e r may c h a n g e program o n ly w i t h con­ sent of S up erin ten d en t, P rin c ip a l, or S upervisor 6 . Teacher s h a l l p r e p a r e work b e f o r e s c h o o l h o u r s 7. Teacher s h a l l have p r o ­ gram a p p r o v e d by P rin cip al 8 . Teacher s h a l l a rra n g e p r o g r a m so p u p i l s w i l l have p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e each s e s s i o n 9. Teacher s h a l l have d a i l y l e s s o n p l a n s approved by S u p e r in te n d e n t or P rin cip al 10. Teacher s h a l l have p r o ­ gram a p p r o v e d b y S u p e r i n ­ tendent 11. T eaoher s h a l l spend tim e a f t e r school p reparing fo r next day’s lesso n 12. T eacher s h a l l r e p o r t v a r i a t i o n s i n program

357

r P l a n n i n g o f Work ( c o n t . ) 13. Teacher s h a l l a r r a n g e a t l e a s t one p e r i o d o f r e l a x a t i o n each s e s s i o n 14. Teacher s h a l l have program approved hy Supervisor 1 3 . T e a c h e r m ay d e p a r t fro m d a ily plan of le sso n whenever i t i s f e l t th e s u b j e c t can be b e t t e r developed

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0 • Bxamin a t i on s 1. Teacher s h a l l give w ritten te s ts 2. T eacher s h a l l a s s i s t in t e s t i n g programs a t req u e st of a u t h o r i t i e s 3 . T e a c h e r s h a l l e xam ine p u p i l s a s d i r e c t e d by Super i n t e n d e n t 4. Teacher s h a l l conduct t e s t s in accord w ith sp ecified d irectio n s 5. Teacher s h a l l subm it q u e stio n s fo r approval of P rin c ip a l 6 . Teacher s h a l l r e c o r d r e s u l t s of s ta n d a r d t e s t s on p e r m a n e n t r e c o r d cards 7. Teacher s h a l l co n d u ct e x a m i n a t i o n s so a s t o insure h a b its of fa irn e s s and h o n e s t y 8 . Teacher s h a l l p e r s o n a l l y grade p ap ers 9 . T e a c h e r s h a l l g i v e new t y p e and e s s a y t e s t s 10. Teacher s h a l l n o t d i s ­ c l o s e m ark s to p u p i l s 1 1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l g i v e exam­ i n a t i o n m ark s t o p u p i l s 1 2 . T e a c h e r s h a l l d e v o t e tim e e x c lu s iv e ly to th e su p e r­ v i s i o n of c h i l d r e n d u r i n g exam i n a t i o n

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Exami n a ti on s

(con t. )

13. T e a c h e r s h a l l g r a d e z e r o p u p il d etected c h ea tin g 14. Teacher s h a l l grade p a p e rs in accordance w ith d ir e c tio n s of Superin t endent 1 5 . T e a c h e r may n o t a l l o w p u p i l s t o g r a d e e ac h otherfe p a p e r s 1 6 . T e a c h e r s h a l l e x am in e p u p i l s as d i r e c t e d hy p rin cip al 17. Teacher s h a l l subm it q u estio n s f o r approval of S u p erintendent 18. Teacher s h a l l g iv e o r a l tests 1 9 . T e a c h e r s h a l l t y p e and mim eograph own exam­ in a tio n q u estions 2 0. T e a c h e r s h a l l s e e t h a t p u p i l s s t u d y f o r exam­ inatio n s 21 . T e a c h e r s h a l l r e p o r t p u p il d e te cted ch eatin g to p r i n c i p a l 2 2. T e a c h e r s h a l l g r a d e papers c a re fu lly P . Homework 1. Teacher s h a l l a s s ig n only a l i m i t e d amount of home­ wor k i n t h e u p p e r g r a d e s 2. T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t a s s i g n homework i n t h e l o w e r grades 3. Teacher s h a l l e x e rc is e c a re in assignm ent of home wo r k 4. Teacher s h a l l not a ssig n homework i n t h e f i r s t s ix grades 5 . T e a c h e r s h a l l c h e c k home­ work a s s i g n m e n t e a c h m orning

359

r

~1 Gr.

THE TEAOHER AM) SOHOOI MMAGEMSHT

"I. M aintenance o f p r o p e r P h y sic a l C onditions

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A. V e n t i l a t i o n , T e m p e r a t u r e , lig h tin g . 1 . Teacher s h a l l g iv e a t t e n t i on t o t h e m a i n t e n a n a e of p r o p e r t e m p e r a t u r e 52 23 33 2. Teacher s h a l l g iv e a t ­ t e n t i o n to m a i n t en ah c e of p ro per v e n t i l a t i o n 53 25 33 3 . Teacher s h a l l g i v e a t ­ te n tio n to m aintenance of proper lig h tin g 17 6 13 4 . 'When t e m p e r a t u r e i s abnorm al, t e a c h e r s h a l l n o tify P rin cip al 6 1 5 5* T e a c h e r s h a l l k e e p a re c o rd o f the te m p e ra tu re of t h e room 5 2 6 6 . Teacher s h a l l a v o id s t r o n g d r a f t s on p u p i l s 4 2 5 7 . T e a c h e r may d i s m i s s p u p i l s when t e m p e r a t u r e i s a b o v e o r b e lo w sp e c ifie d tem perature 2 3 4 8 . Teacher s h a l l avoid w aste of e l e c t r i c l i g h t 3 3 0 9. Teacher s h a l l keep windows c l o s e d w h i l e f a n i s in o p e ra tio n 1 0 0 1 0 . When t e m p e r a t u r e i s ab ­ norm al, te a c h e r s h a l l n o tif y S up erin ten d en t 1 0 1 1 1 . When t e m p e r a t u r e i s a b ­ norm al, te a c h e r s h a l l n o tify Jan ito r 0 0 0

1 1 0

8 1

2

0

0

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B. C l e a n l i n e s s a n d O r d e r 1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l be r e s p o n ­ sib le fo r the c le a n lin e s s , o r d e r , a n d n e a t n e s s of s c h o o l room 2. T each er s h a l l te a c h n e a tn e s s in c a re of school p ro p erty L.

23

18

17

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16 J

360

r C lea n lin ess

and

O rder

(c o n t.)

3 . T e a c h e r s h a l l be r e s p o n ­ s i b l e f o r t h e n e a t and o r d e r l y c o n d it i o n of d e sk s and f u r n i t u r e 4. Teacher s h a l l clo se windows b e f o r e l e a v i n g a t c lo se of a sessio n 5* T e a c h e r s h a l l s e e t h a t s h a d e s an d b l i n d s a r e a t uniform h e ig h t of m iddle of sa sh a t c lo s e of afte rn o o n session 6 . T e a c h e r must p e r s o n a l l y r e g u l a t e windows and shades

I

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C. C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h J a n i t o r 1 . Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t in e ffic ie n t jan ito r ser­ v ic e to p r i n c i p a l or S u p erintendent 2. Teacher s h a l l r e l i n q u i s h room a d e f i n i t e l e n g t h of tim e a f t e r d i s m is s a l to p e rm it the j a n i t o r to clean 3. Teacher s h a l l se cu re th e se rv ice s of ja n ito r through th e P r i n c i p a l 4. Teacher s h a l l aid j a n i t o r as f a r as p o s s ib l e in k e e p i n g room c l e a n 5. Teacher s h a l l c o o p e r a te w ith j a n i t o r s by h a v in g s e a t s and desks a d ju s te d as convenience in c le a n ­ ing 6 . Teacher s h a l l n o t se n d , j a n i t o r s on e r r a n d s 7. Teqcher s h a l l n o t i f y ja n ito r i f conditions c o n t r a r y to good c l a s s ­ room c o n d i t i o n e x i s t 8 . Teacher s h a l l t r e a t jan ito rs resp ectfu lly 9 . T e a o h e r s h a l l make a s few demands a s p o s s i b l e on ja n ito r during w in te r mon t b s '

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361

n II.

Care o f S ch o o l E q u ip m en t

P lan t

A# B u i l d i n g , F u r n i t u r e , E q u ip m e n t

and

1 I

II

III

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and

1 . Teacher s h a l l g u ard a g a in ­ s t i n j u r y to b u ild in g s , e q u i p m e n t an d f u r n i t u r e S. T e a c h e r s h a l l r e p o r t i n ­ j u r y to b u i ld i n g s , e q u ip ­ ment, or f u r n i t u r e t o P r i n c i p a l or p r o p e r au th o rity 3 . T e a c h e r s h a l l he r e s p o n ­ s i b l e f o r the c a re o f b u i l d i n g s , equipm ent, and f u r n i t u r e 4 . Teacher s h a l l see t h a t i n j u r i e s to s c h o o l p r o < p e r t y a r e made good 5 . T e a c h e r s h a l l exam in e f u r n i t u r e and equipm ent i n h i s room 6 . Teacher s h a l l k eep an in v e n to r y o f desks and fu rn itu re 7. T e a c h e r s h a l l r e p o r t need of r e p a i r s 8 . Teacher s h a l l not p erm it t h e use o f p i n s , t a c k s , g l u e , or p a s t e on w a l l s 9 . T e a c h e r s h a l l make room attractiv e 1 0 . Manual t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s h a ll keep to o ls in good o r d e r 11. Teacher s h a l l fo llo w reg u la tio n s regarding care of b u ild in g s and equipm ent 1 2. T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t p e r m i t s c h o o l p r o p e r t y to be used f o r a n y th in g o th e r than sc h o o l p u rp o se s or rem o v e d f r o m b u i l d i n g 13. Teacher using dangerous m achinery s h a l l guard the s a f e ty o f p u p ils

35

10

15

18

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r B u i l d i n g , F u r n i t u r e and Equipm ent ( c o n t . ) 14. Teaoher s h a l l te a o h p u p ils to p r o te c t school p ro p e rty 1 5 . T e a c h e r m ust h a v e a p ­ p ro v a l of P r i n c i p a l in s e t t i n g f i n e s f o r damage to school p ro p e rty 16. Teacher s h a l l n o t re q u e st B o a r d of P u b l i c Works t o do r e p a i r work 17. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t t h e f t of s c h o o l equip­ ment t o P r i n c i p a l 1 8 . T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t pejrmit i n d is c r i m a t e use of p e n c il sh a rp en e rs during school hours 19. Teacher s h a l l not c la im r i g h t to use of a p p a ra tu s o r room b e c a u s e o f u s e o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d of time 20. T eacher s h a l l n o t le a v e room h o u s i n g v a l u a b l e equipm ent u n s u p e r v i s e d B. Use o f P r e m i s e s 1 . Ho s c h o o l room s h a l l be opened to p u p i l s e x c e p t by a t e a c h e r 2. T e a c h e r s h a l l s e e t h a t s c h o o l room i s v a c a t e d when he l e a v e s 3 . Teacher s h a l l n o t a llo w doors to be lock ed or b o l te d during sch o o l sessions 4 . T e a c h e r may u s e ' s c h o o l prem ises fo r s p e c i f i e d p e r io d b e f o r e and a fte r session s 5 . Teacher s h a l l not use b u ild in g during v a ca tio n e x c e p t b y c o n s e n t of Board

se

o f P rem ises

(c o n t.)

6 . Teacher s h a l l g a in ad­ m ittan ce to b u ilding ' a f t e r h o u rs by s p e c i a l arrangem ent w ith P r i n ci pal 7. Teacher s h a ll n o t park c a r on s c h o o l g r o u n d s 0. keys 1 . Teacher s h a l l r e t u r n keys to P r i n c i p a l ’s o f f i c e a t end o f e a c h d a y 2 . Teacher s h a l l lo c k doors when l e a v i n g room a t noon o r n i g h t 3. Teacher s h a l l r e t u r n keys to P r i n c i p a l a t b e g in ­ n in g of l e n g t h y v a c a ti o n 4 . Teacher s h a l l have keys t o own c l a s s r o o m and s p e c i a l rooms u n d e r h i s charge 5. Teacher s h a l l not lend keys to p u p i l s or o t h e r p e r so ns 6 . Teacher must r e p l a c e l o s t keys 7. T ea ch e r s h a l l l o c k desk a n d d o o r and r e t u r n k e y s to j a n i t o r a t c lo s e of school year 8 . T e a c h e r s h a l l make r e ­ q u ired d e p o s its f o r keys p . Telephone 1 . T e a c h e r may n o t u s e t e l e ­ p h on e d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s 2 . T e a c h e r may u s e t e l e p h o n e o n l y i n emergen cy 3. U rg en t m essages f o r t e a c h e r s w i l l be tak en by P r i n c i p a l 4 . T e a c h e r may u s e t e l e p h o n e only fo r school b u sin e ss 5. Teacher s h a l l n o t use sc hool phones f o r long distance c a lls

364

r

T e l e p h o n e ( c o n t *)

I

II

6 . T e a c h e r s h a l l pay f o r a l l p r iv a te telephone c a l l I s 7 . T e a c h e r may u s e t e l e p h o n e for lo cal c a lls 8

1

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IV

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E. Supplies 1 . Teacher s h a l l r e q u i­ s i t i o n s u p p l i e s from P rin cip al 2. Teacher s h a l l use supplies c a r e f u lly 3. T each er s h a l l keep a record of a l l su p p lies 4 . T e a c h e r may n o t g i v e out o rd ers f o r s u p p lie s 5. Teacher s h a l l r e t u r n a l l c o u r s e s of s tu d y , l o o s e l e a f c o v ers, e t c , loaned t o him 6 . Teacher s h a l l not r e q u i r e p u p i l s to p u r c h a s e books, s t a t i o n e r y , e tc . not a u t h o r i z e d b y Board 7 . T e a c h e r s h a l l be p e r s o n ­ a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any l i a b i l i t i e s incurred w ith­ out the a u t h o r i z a t i o n of •proper a u t h o r i t i e s 8 . Teacher s h a l l r e q u i ­ s i t i o n s u p p l i e s from Superintendent 9i T eacher s h a l l f u r n i s h p u p ils w ith l i s t of n e c e s s a r y b o o k s and supplies 10. T eacher s h a l l r e q u i ­ s i t i o n s u p p l i e s fro m jan ito r 1 1 . T e a c h e r m ust s u b m i t i t e m ­ iz e d acco u n ts to r e c e i v e payment f o r a u t h o r i z e d expens e s 18. Teacher s h a l l not use shool su p p lies f o r personal b en efit 13. Teacher s h a l l r e q u i ­ s i t i o n s u p p l i e s fro m S e c r e t a r y t o B oard

365

r

“i

S u p p lie s

(c o n t.)

14* Teacher s h a l l r e q u i ­ s i t i o n s u p p l i e s from B u s i n e s s Manager 15. Teacher s h a l l s u p p l y him­ s e l f w ith n e c e s s a r y su p p lies

I

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17

8

11

5

10

51

12

8

5

4

5

34

11

3

7

3

8

32

12

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4

2

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8

5

6

2

6

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4

2

26

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F . Books

L.

.



to i— i

1 . Teacher s h a l l he r e s p o n s i h l e f o r c a r e o f hooks p r o v i d e d f o r h i s room 2 . T e a ch er s h a l l ke e p r e c o r d o f a l l hook s i s s u e d t o pupils 3 . T e a ch er s h a l l s e e t h a t i n j u r i e s t o ho oks a r e made good 4 . Teach er .sh a ll s e e t h a t hooks loaned to p u p ils are duly returned 5 . T e a ch er s h a l l examine hooks p e r i o d i c a l l y 6 • T each er s h a l l r e p o r t i n j u r y t o hooks t o S u p erin ten dent or p r i n ­ cip a l Te ach er s h a l l guard 7. a g a i n s t i n j u r y t o hooks 8 . Teacher s h a l l make i n ­ ventory a t s p e c i f i e d time s 9 . Teacher s h a l l t r a i n p u p i l s i n c a r e o f books 1 0 . Teacher may a l l o w p u p i l s to t a k e hooks home 1 1 . Teacher s h a l l t u r n o v e r a l l moneys c o l l e c t e d f o r l o s t or damaged books to P rin c ip a l 1 2 . Teacher s h a l l stamp hooks as d i r e c t e d hy Superintendent Teacher s h a l l l o a n hooks to c h i l d r e n o f i n d i g e n t parents 1 4 . Teacher s h a l l s e e t h a t p u p i l s names a r e i n hooks

j

366

r

,

,

Books ( c o n t . )

1 5 . Teacher s h a l l a s s i s t t h e P r i n c i p a l i n making in ven tories 1 6 . Teacher s h a l l w i t h ap­ proval o f P r in c ip a l, fin e pupil fo r l o s s of or damage t o hook s 1 7 . Te ach er s h a l l make minor r e p a i r s t o books 1 8 . Teacher s h a l l f u r n i s h s e l f w i t h s e t o f bo oks 1 9 . Teacher s h a l l r e t u r n a l l books b e l o n g i n g to t h e d i s t r i c t to t h e P r i n c i p a l 2 0 . Teacher s h a l l s e e b e s t book s are i n hands o f p u p i l s who w i l l c a r e f o r them 2 1. Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t i n ­ j u r y t o b o o k s to p a r e n t 2 2. Teacher s h a l l have p u p i l s mend books 2 3 . Teach er s h a l l r e p o r t book s h o r t a g e 2 4 . Teacher s h a l l c o l l e c t f e e s f o r loa n o f books 2 6 . Teacher s h a l l a c q u a i n t h i m s e l f w i t h books kept i n h i s room and make u s e o f them when a d v i s a b l e 2 6 . Teacher s h a l l n o t borrow books from c h i l d r e n

I

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I I I . Boutine M atters A. G en eral D i r e c t i o n s 1 . Te ach er s h a l l r e g i s t e r time o f a r r i v a l and departure 2 . Teacher s h a l l p o s t name and grade on door 3 . Teacher s h a l l f o l l o w s p e c i a l d ir e c t io n s for f i r s t day o f s c h o o l 4 . Teacher s h a l l s y n c h r o n i z e t im e p i e c e w i t h o f f i c i a l school clo ck

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367 B.

B u lletin s

1* Teacher s h a l l p r e s e r v e a l l n o t i c e s and b u l l e t i n s 2. Teacher s h a l l be r e s p o n ­ s i b l e fo r a l l m atter a p p ea r in g i n b u l l e t i n s 3* Teacher s h a l l s e c u r e b u l l e t i n s from Superintendent

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0 . Emergency D i s m i s s a l 1 . Teacher s h a l l be i n s t r u c t ­ ed as t o d u t i e s i n c a s e of f i r e 2 . Teacher s h a l l t r a i n p u p i l s f o r emergency d ism issals 3 . Te ach er s h a l l be i n c h a r g e o f c l a s s e s during emergency d i s m i s s a l s 4 . Teacher and p u p i l s s h a l l take part i n f i r e d r i l l s 5# Teacher s h a l l be f a m i l i a r w i t h s i g n a l s and p l a n f o r fir e d r ill 6 . Teacher s h a l l a s c e r t a i n pr oper e x i t b e f o r e t a k i n g c h a r g e o f room 7 . T ea ch er s h a l l keep records o f f i r e d r i l l s 8 . T ea ch er s h a l l t a k e p r e ­ cautions to protect p u p ils d u rin g e a r t h q u a k e s 9 . Teacher and p u p i l s s h a l l leave school build in g w i t h o u t wraps or books

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51

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25

28

29

156

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151

D. R e co r d s and R e p o r t s 1 . Teacher s h a l l ke e p such R eco rds as are r e q u i r e d by a u t h o r i t i e s 2 . Teach er s h a l l k e e p r e ­ quired r e g i s t e r or r ec o rd o f pupil attendance, p unctuality, p ro ficien cy , and c ondu ct

J

1

368 Records

and

R eports

(c o n t.)

3* T e a c h e r s h a l l make o u t r e c o r d s a nd r e p o r t s p r o m p t l y and n e a t l y 4 . Teacher s h a l l fo llo w sp ecified d ire c tio n s fo r m aking o ut r e p o r t s .5. T e a c h e r ’ s p a y may he w ith h e ld i f r e p o r t s are n o t made 6 . t e a c h e r must hand i n a l l re c o rd s b efo re beginning v a c a t i on 7 . T e a c h e r s h a l l make and keep a v a i l a b l e a s e a tin g p l a n of p u p i l s 8 . T e a c h e r s h a l l f i l e home ad dress w ith a u t h o r i t i e s 9. Teacher s h a l l use system o f m a r k s a u t h o r i z e d by Superi ntendent 10. Teacher s h a l l subm it a t ­ tendance r e c o rd to P rin cip al p erio d ically 1 1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l make p r o p e r r e c o r d upon a d m i s s i o n of pupil 1 2 . T e a c h e r s h a l l make p r o p e r r e c o r d upon w i t h d r a w a l o f pupil 13. Teacher s h a l l g iv e school s t a n d i n g of p u p i l s o n l y to a u th o rize d in d iv id u a ls 1 4 . T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t make o u t perm anent c l a s s records u n til class is d e fin ite ly se ttled 15. T eacher s h a l l use care i n m ak ing m ^ r k s 16. T eacher s h a l l i s s u e p u p il r e p o r t s on s p e c i f i e d d a t e 17. T eacher s h a l l f i l e re c o rd o f expe r i en c e an d a c a d e m ic c r e d i t s 1 8 . Homeroom t e a c h e r s h a l l be re s p o n s ib le fo r com piling and i s s u i n g r e p o r t s 1 9 . T e a c h e r s h a l l make r e p o r t o f v i s i t to p u p i l ' s home

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369 1 R ecords

and R e p o r ts

(c o n t.)

X

2 0. T e a c h e r m ark s s h a l l f o l lo w normal c u rv e 21. T eacher s h a l l s i g n a t ­ tendance r e p o r t s 2 2. T e a c h e r s h a l l s e n d m a r k s t o homeroom t e a c h e r s a t s p e c i f i e d tim e 2 3. T e a c h e r r e t i r i n g s h o u l d l e a v e r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s to guide su c c e ss o r 24. A ccu racy of t e a c h e r ’ s re c o rd s s h a l l he c o n s id e r ­ ed i n r a t i n g

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84

E. E x t r a D u t i e s 1 . T e a c h e r may h e a s s i g n e d to e x t r a sch o o l d u t i e s hy P r i n c i p a l 2 . T e a c h e r may h e a s s i g n e d to e x tr a school d u tie s hy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t 3. Teacher s h a l l perform a l l e x t r a d u t i e s t o w h ic h he i s a s s i g n e d 4 . Teacher s h a l l ta k e p a rt in any sch o o l a c t i v i t y i f h i s s e r v i c e i s needed 5 . T e a c h e r may h e a s s i g n e d to e x t r a school d u t i e s hy Supervisor 6 . Teacher s h a l l a s s i s t p r a c t i c e t e a c h e r a s much as p o ss ib le $

H. I.

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THE TEACHER ADD HIGHER AUTHORITY

Teacher and th e Board

I

II

1 . Teacher s h a l l he s u b j e c t to s u p e rv is io n o f a C o m m i t te e o f t h e B o a r d 2. Teacher s h a l l c o o p e ra te ' w i t h B o a rd

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370

'T each er

and. t h e

Board

(c o n t.)

3 . Teacher s h a l l he r a t e d by C o m m itte e o f B o a r d 4 . Members o f t h e B o a r d . s h a ll v i s i t teacher 5 . C o m m i t te e s h a l l c o n s i d e r questions r e l a ti n g to teacher conduct 6 . Teacher s h a l l perform such d u t i e s as d e s ig n a te d by B o a r d 7 . T e a c h e r may p r e s e n t s u g ­ g e s t i o n s to B o a r d b y p l a c ­ i n g them i n a bo x i n e ac h school 8 . Teacher s h a l l f u r n is h B o a r d members w i t h such i n f o r m a t i o n a s t h e y may require 9* C o m m i t te e s h a l l c o n s i d e r q u e s t i o n s of t e a c h e r conduct in executive session 1 0 . C o m m itte e s h a l l v i s i t t e a c h e r a nd make r e c o m ­ m en dation s t o Board in c a s e s o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t 1s r e p o r t of in co m p ete n cy 11 . Teachers* C o u n c il s h a l l be r e p r e s e n t e d a t m e e tin g of Board 1 2 . T e a c h e r s h a l l have r i g h t to p e t i t i o n B o a r d 1 3 . C o m m u n i c a t i o n s from t e a c h e r t o B o a r d s h a l l be in w ritin g 1 4 . C o m m i t te e s h a l l make s u g ­ g e s t i o n s to t e a c h e r 1 5 . P r e s i d e n t o f B o a r d may e mploy c o u n s e l t o d e f e n d teacher II.

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T e a c h e r and S u p e r i n t e n d e n t

A. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t *s R e l a t i o n to Teacher 1 . S u p e r in te n d e n t s h a l l have g e n e ra l a u th o r i t y over a l l teachers

39

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129 j

S u p e r i n t e n d e n t 1s R e l a t i o n to Teacher ( c o n t .)

2. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l ad­ v i s e , c o u n s e l , and d i r e c t t e a c h e r i n m a t t e r s of s c h o o l m anagem ent, d i s ­ c i p l i n e and i n s t r u c t i o n 3. S uperintendent s h a l l v i s i t teach er 4 . S u p e r i n te n d e n t s h a l l be a g e n t of com m unication b e ­ tw e en t h e B o a r d a nd t h e teacher 5. S uperin ten d ent s h a ll r e ­ p o r t t e a c h e r t o Board for in e f f ic ie n c y 6 . Teacher s h a l l be r a t e d by S u p e r i n t e n d e n t 7 . S upe r i n t end e n t sh a l 1 check t e a c h e r ’s o b se r­ v a n c e o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i ons 8 . S uperin ten d ent s h a l l r e p o r t t e a c h e r to Board for v io la tio n of ru le s and r e g u l a t i o n s 9. S uperintendent s h a l l check t e a c h e r ' s r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s 1 0 . S uperintendent s h a ll check te a c h e r adherence t o c o u r s e of s t u d y 11. S u perintendent s h a l l r e p o r t t e a c h e r to B o a r d for in su b o rd in atio n 12. S u p e r i n te n d e n t s h a l l r e p o r t t e a c h e r t o Bo a rd f o r negligence 13. S u p e rin te n d e n t s h a l l k e e p o f f i c e h o u r s so c o n s u lta tio n w ith te a c h ­ e r may b e c o n v e n i e n t 1 4 . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l en­ deavor to a s s i s t te a c h e r b e fo r e r e p o r t i n g to Board f o r d e f i c i e n c y 15. S u p e r in te n d e n t s h a l l make r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s governing te a c h e rs

S u p erin ten d en t's R ela tio n to T ea ch er ( c o n t . }

16. S u p e rin te n d en t s h a l l keep r e c o r d of t e a c h e r service 17. Teacher s h a l l have r i g h t to l e a r n from S u p e r i n ­ te n d e n t w hether or not h i s work i s s a t i s f a c t o r y and i f n o t t h e r e a s o n s 18. S up erin ten d en t s h a ll endeavor to se c u re harm onious r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n p a r e n t s and teachers 19. S u p e rin te n d e n t s h a l l se e t h a t te a c h e r has copy o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s 20* S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l furnish p ro fessio n al le a d e rsh ip for tea ch e rs 2 1 . S u p e r i n te n d e d ! t s h a l l r e p o r t t e a c h e r t o B o a rd fo r punishm ent te n d in g to i n f l i c t p h y sical in ju ry 22. S u p e r in te n d e n t s h a l l r e p o r t t e a c h e r t o Board for p hysical d i s a b il i ty 23. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l n o t reprim and te a c h e r in presence of p u p ils 24. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l n o t charge te a c h e r f o r 1 e s sons B. T e a c h e r ’ s R e l a t i o n t o S u p e r i n t e n den t 1 . T e a c h e r s h a l l o bey a l l d i r e c t i o n s and o r d e r s of S u p e r in te n d e n t 2. T e a c h e r s h a l l c o o p e r a t e w ith S up erintend en t 3 . T e a c h e r s m a y e l e c t a com­ m i t t e e from a l l s c h o o ls t o r e p r e s e n t them t o S u p e r i n t e n d e n t and Board 4. Teacher s h a l l seek ad­ v i s e of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t in s c h o o l problems

373

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T e a c h e r's R e la tio n to Superintendent (c o n t.) 5 . T e a c h e r may p r e s e n t su g g e s tio n s to S u p e rin ­ tendent 6 . Teacher s h a l l keep S u p e rin te n d en t inform ed of a l l m a tte rs a f f e c tin g i n t e r e s t s and w e l f a r e o f schools III.

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T e a c h e r and P r i n c i p a l

A. P r i n c i p a l ' s R e l a t i o n to Teacher 1. P rin c ip a l s h a ll su p er­ v ise teacher E. P r i n c i p a l s h a l l a d v i s e , counsel* d i r e c t , and a s s i s t teacher 3. P rin cip al s h a ll record and r e p o r t t e a c h e r a t ­ tendance and p u n c t u a l i t y 4. P rin cip al sh a ll ra te teacher 5. P rin c ip a l s h a ll v isitteacher 6 . P rin cip al sh a ll report t e a c h e r to S u p e r i n t e n ­ d e n t o r B o a rd f o r i n ef f ic ie n c y 7. P r i n c ip a l s h a l l check te a c h e r's records 8 . P r i n c i p a l s h a l l he r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Hie e f f i c i e n c y of t h e t e a c h e r 9. P r i n c i p a l s h a l l he a g e n t of c o m m u n i c a ti o n b etw een t e a c h e r and h i g h e r a u t h o r ity 10. P r i n c i p a l s h a l l , check t e a c h e r 's adherence to c o u rse o f stu d y 11. P r i n c i p a l s h a l l r e p o r t t e a c h e r to S u p e r i n t e n d e n t or B o a r d f o r v i o l a t i o n of r u le s and r e g u la tio n s

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P r i n c i p a l 's R e la tio n to Teacher ( c o n t.) 12. P r i n c i p a l s h a l l r e p o r t t e a c h e r to S u p e r i n t e n d e n t or B o a r d f o r l a c k o f cooperation 13. p r i n c i p a l s h a l l check t e a c h e r ' s p ro m p t p e r ­ formance of d u t y 14. P r in c ip a l s h a l l record and r e p o r t c a u s e of t e a c h ­ e r absence 15. P r i n c i p a l s h a l l r e p o r t te a c h e r to S u p e r in te n d e n t or B o a r d f o r i n e f f i c i e n c y only a f t e r P r i n c i p a l has t r i e d t o rem e d y c a u s e P rin cip al sh a ll set stan d ard s for teacher P rin c ip a l s h a ll cooperate with t e a c h e r P r in c ip a l s h a l l give tea ch e r copy of r a t i n g P rin cip al sh a ll not c r i t i c i s e te a c h e r in p re s e n c e of p u p i l s or v isito rs P r i n c i p a l s h a l l check t e a c h e r ' s program P r i n c i p a l s h a l l , upon re q u e s t o f te a c h e r, give a d v i c e on m a t t e r s of d iscip lin e P rin cip al sh a ll report teacher to Superintendent or Board f o r n e g lig e n c e i n c a r e of s c h o o l p r o p e r t y P r i n c i p a l s h a l l check t e a c h e r 's plan P r in c ip a l s h a l l see th a t no t e a c h e r l e a v e s room u n t i l a l l p u p i l s have left P rin cip al sh a ll require te a c h e r to sig n r a t i n g P r i n c i p a l s h a l l check te a c h e r's report regard­ ing p u p ils d etain ed a f t e r school

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Teacher (c o n t.) 27. P r i n c i p a l s h a l l r e p o r t teacher to S uperinten­ d e n t or Board f o r u n u s u a l punishm ent 2 8. P r i n c i p a l s h a l l n o t c h a r g e teach er f o r le sso n s

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B. T e a c h e r ’ s R e l a t i o n t o P rinci pal 1. Teacher s h a l l c o o p e r a te w ith P r i n c i p a l 2 . T eacher s h a l l obey a l l d i r e c ti o n s and o rd ers of P rin c ip a l ' 3. Teacher s h a l l a t t e n d in d iv id u a l conference w ith P r i n c i p a l 4., T e a c h e r s h a l l s e e k a d ­ v i s e of P r i n c i p a l 5 . T e a c h e r s h a l l make s u g ­ g e stio n s to P r in c ip a l 6 . Teacher s h a l l r e p o r t to P r i n c i p a l any c o n d i t i o n or o c c u r r e n c e t h a t i s u n f a v o r a b le to s c h o o l 7 . T e a c h e r s may e l e c t a com­ m i t t e e i n each s c h o o l to r e p r e s e n t t h e m to p r i n ­ c i p a l and h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y 8 . Teacher s h a l l rem ain in room d u r i n g v i s i t of p rin cip al IV.

Teacher and S u p erv iso r

A. S u p e r v i s o r ’ s R e l a t i o n to T e a c h e r . 1 . Supervisors s h a l l c o u n s e l , i n s t r u c t , and help teach er 2. S u p e rv is o rs s h a l l v i s i t teacher 3. Supervisors s h a ll con­ d u c t m odel l e s s o n s f o r teacher 4 . T e a c h e r s h a l l he r a t e d hy S u p e rv is o r

4

! S u p e r v i s o r Ts H a l a t i o n T eacher (c o n t.)

to

5. S u p erv iso r s h a l l , under d i r e c t i o n of S u p e r i n te n ­ d e n t , h a v e c h a r g e and o v e r s i g h t o f work o f te a c h e rs in s p e c ia l sub j e c t s 6 . M edical I n s p e c to r s h a l l i n s t r u c t teach er concern­ i n g d e t e c t i o n and p r e ­ vention of disease 7. S u p e r v is o r s h a l l r e p o r t te a c h e r to P r i n c i p a l f o r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y work 8 . Supervisor s h a ll re p o rt t e a c h e r to P r i n c i p a l f o r f a i l u r e to cooperate 9. S u p e rv is o r s h a l l not c r i t i c i s e te a c h e r in p re s e n c e of c l a s s 10. S u p e r v is o r s s h a l l check c l a s s work o f t e a c h e r 11. Supervisor s h a ll not ac­ c e p t com pensation fo r s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n to teacher 1 2. M e d i c a l d e p a r t m e n t s h a l l h a v e su p e r v i s i on o f te a c h e r in m edical m a t t e r s 1 3 . D i r e c t o r s o f p h y s i c a l and h e a l th education s h a l l make p r o v i s i o n f o r re c rea tio n a l oppo rtu n ities f o r t e a 0. h e r s a f t e r s c h o o l hours B. T e a c h e r 1s J R e l a t i on t o S upervisor 1 . Teacher s h a l l c o o p e r a te ■with s u p e r v i s o r s 2. T e a c h e r s h a l l n o t a b s e n t h im self during v i s i t of Supervisor 3. Teacher s h a l l c o n t r o l room d u r i n g v i s i t o f Supervisor 4 . T e a c h e r s h a l l f o l l o w and obey a l l d i r e c t i o n s o f Supervisors

377 r

T eacherf s R e la tio n S u p erv iso r (c o n t .)

to

5. Teacher s h a l l a tte n d i n ­ d iv id u a l conferences w ith Supervisor 6 . Teacher s h a l l c o o p e ra te w ith S u p e rv iso r d u rin g model l e s s o n 7. Teacher s h a l l endeavor to have c l a s s in r e a d i ­ n e s s a t tim es scheduled for Supervisor 8 . Teacher s h a l l keep r e c o r d of tim e of S u p e r v i s o r 's v isit 9. Teacher s h a l l su p p ly S u p e r v i s o r w i t h copy o f program

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Y# A p p e a l s / f r o m D e c i s i o n s o f A u th orities 1 . The o r d e r o f a p p e a l s h a l l h e from t h e p r i n c i p a l , t o S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , t o B o a r d 12 2 . Te aoh e r s h a l 1 h a v e r i gh t t o a p p e a l t o B o a r d or C o m m i t te e 11 3. C om plaints o r a p p e a ls must h e f i l e d i n w r i t i n g hy te a c h e r 5 4 . D i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n t e a c h ­ e r s , P r i n c i p a l s , and Super­ v i s o r s s h a l l he s e t t l e d , hy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t 6 5 . C o m p l a i n t s s h a l l h e made to P r i n c ip a l 1 6 . C o p i e s o f c o m p l a i n t s m ust he ren d ered to a l l p a r t i e s concerned 1 7. Com plainant s h a l l appear in person 2 8 . D ecision of S u p e rin te n ­ d e n t on t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s s h a l l he f i n a l u n t i l a c t io n o f Board 1 9 . T e a c h e r m u st f i l e a com­ p la in t w ithin s p e c ifie d tim e 0 10. Appeal s h a l l n o t he p r e ­ j u d i c i a l t o p e r s o n m akin g it 1

VITA

Name

C h a r l e s A. B ir d

Date o f B i r t h

January 8, 1906

Elem entary School ■graduated

P u b l i c S c h o o l 24, Manhattan New York, 1920

High S c h o o l graduated

M o rr is High S c h o o l 1924

B a c c a l a u r e a t e Degree C ollege D ate

A. B. C o l l e g e o f C i t y o f New York 1928

Other D e g r e e s C ollege .Date

M. A* Columbia U n i v e r s i t y 1931