Russian Handbook of Spoken Usage [1 ed.]

The intent of the handbook is to present a collection of detailed information about the Russian language, especially the

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Russian Handbook of Spoken Usage [1 ed.]

  • Commentary
  • Page 8 should be used as the book's cover.

Table of contents :
Front Cover
-Она от меня осталась вдовой. ...
AH (Many dialectal variants and equivalents: аж, ...
БАДЁГА (dialectal: Southern) (Related to Spanish ...
пятью пять будет двадцать пять. ...
Prf Pres (- of Fut.): ...
-Ты можешь поднять этот диван. Давай! ...
BOT... XE ...
-What's wrong with the car? ...
Вот- то приятно было гулять-то по реке. ...
BOT: TAK BOT что ...
Preceding page blank ...
ГОВОРИТЕ? (-when telephoning) ...
83 ...
Preceding page blank ...
Repetitions of this kind are used in matter-of...
92 ...
ДА И ТО ...
- Поздравляю. ...
Summary ...
ДЕ ...
— Пришли-то вы рановато. ...
ЕШЕ: И НЕ ТО ...
Preceding page blank ...
2. pop. sp.: used also in an unfavorable ...
ЗАЧИТАТЬ (official jargon) ...
'All. ...
ЗНАЮ: НЕ ЗНАЮ КАК (3 words run together ...
+ как ...
ИATII HA + Loc. ...
-Well, in the middle, sort of near this...
ИНИЦИАЛЫ (colloq.) ...
KAжиCь (popular speech & regional) ...
Проверьте данные, как бы чего не вышло. ...
c. with a Subjunctive form replaced by a Past ...
- Что вы видели там? ...
Славный парень. Не знаю как уважаю. ...
-Рад? ...
KAK-TO PA3 ...
Значит, у меня такая картина: через два дня ...
Kубыть (dialectal) ...
ЛАБУДА (slang) ...
211 ...
However, the expression мочи нет is also found used ...
В ночь на 5-ое января пошел снег. ...
НАДОТЬ = НАТЬ (dialectal: Northern) ...
НЕ: (и) и не. ...
НУ ДА . A. . . . ...
НУ И ЧТО Ж, ЧТО... ...
-Не знаю, что с ним. Будто болезнь какая- ...
ОБОИ (pop. sp.) ...
номель ...
За ним осталось четыре рубля. ...
ПОДСКАЗАТЬ (рор. sp.) ...
ПРИВЕТИК! (slang) ...
297 ...
PAI -following a verb ...
Мы сегодня не вернемся, разве что поздно вечером. ...
Париж? Она-то три года жила там. ...
СЕБЯ: ...
Я скажу ему сделать это. ...
-Что, Анатолий Кипиллович ваш отец, ...
385 ...
TOT-TO 'Such-and-such a ...
Они в самом деле прибыли вовремя, то ли пешком...
-Gentlemen, I wish you would convince the chief physician ...
Если знаешь что-нибудь об этом, тогда скажи ...
тогды ...
Только я лег спать, позвонили мне. ...
1. The next word after the и is always the ...
и только ...
To an inappropriate response: ...
Он взвешивал свои слова, точно будто стоили по рублю ...
туды ...
-They're late for work all the time. ...
2. Strengthened form of HA TO ...
545 ...
infinitive ...

Citation preview

This is a reproduction of a library book that was digitized by Google as part of an ongoing effort to preserve the information in books and make it universally accessible.




Security Agency

Fort George G.

Meade ,



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Technical Information Service



Russian Handbook


Spoken Usage








Report Nos :


Title : Russian Handbook of Spoken Usage . Date : 1989 Authors : W. H. Girvan .

Performing Organization : National Security Agency /Central Security Service , George G. Meade , MD .


Supplementary Notes : Text in Russian and English . NTIS Field/ Group Codes : 92D Price : PC$ 60.00/MF$60.00 Availability : Available from the National Technical Information Service , Springfield , VA. 22161

Number of Pages : 618p

Keywords : *Russian language , * Languages , Abstract : The intent of the

* Grammars ,

Linguistics ,

Syntax ,

Speech .

handbook is to present a collection of detailed

information about the Russian language , especially the colloquial language . Most of the information is not assembled elsewhere in English . Much of it is not available in Russian sources in any form that is at all convenient for reference . The principal focus of this work is on words and phrases that serve some grammatical purpose rather than refer to a concept , the words and phrases that are components of constructions rather than vocabulary items . They are important because they often determine the tenor of the whole sentence , but are generally not given enough attention because they are on the border between grammar and vocabulary . In other words , their value is syntactic and modal . The book is not meant as a simple compilation of idioms , but as a lexicon of constructions .


Russian Handbook


Spoken Usage

William H. Girvan

PG 2121 .G57 1989



The intent of this handbook is to present a collection of detailed information about the Russian language, especially the colloquial language. Most of this information is not assembled elsewhere in English. Much of it is not available in Russian sources in any form that is at all convenient for reference . The principal focus of this work is on words and phrases that serve some grammatical purpose rather than refer to a concept, the words and phrases that are components of constructions rather than vocabulary items. They are important because they often determine the tenor of the whole sentence, but are generally not given enough attention because they are on the border between grammar and vocabulary. In other words, their value is syntactic and modal . I am convinced that it is these "bits" that cause the most trouble for the foreign student of Russian. It is often said that every language has a number of shadings and subtleties "which foreigners can never learn." That every language has fine points which are not taught and that foreigners frequently do not learn them is true enough, but is not saying the same thing. Claiming that a language contains elements which are second nature to the dullest native but are forever beyond the understanding of any foreigner is romanticism and mystification. Idiom can be analyzed . The book is not meant as a simple compilation of idioms, but as a lexicon of constructions. Every construction or locution is listed alphabetically under a Russian word that is a characteristic and necessary part of the construction . Borderline or overlapping cases are cross-referenced . Some items are labelled as Common, Rare, Dialectal, or Substandard where such information seemed especially pertinent. I have not hesitated to include rarities, on the ground that they are the very things that are so exceedingly hard to look up. An example is the verbal form in -мши. Admittedly, its use is dialectal and out ofthe ordinary. But it does occur, and very few books on the language mention it. Occasionally, familiar information is included for the sake of completeness and clarity . For example, the subjunctive particle бы is reviewed at length . But this kind of treatment is not the rule. Standard Russian authors are sometimes quoted as authority for a syntactic usage - preferably authors from the Soviet period, but older authors as well when they offer an especially clear and convenient example. In syntax, the language does not change so rapidly. Although the primary interest of the book is in the present-day spoken language, a few older usages and constructions have been included, with some comment such as "Considered bookish and old-fashioned. " They were included partly for completeness and contrast, partly because the student may meet them in his reading if not in conversation, but most of all because experience has shown repeatedly that many supposedly obsolete expressions are still used in popular speech or at least by some individuals. I have tried to be concise , but where brevity could be attained only by ignoring special cases and exceptions or by pretending that complicated matters are simple, brevity was abandoned. As a general principle, nothing was included here that could be found in either Smirnitsky's Russian-English Dictionary or the Dictionary of Spoken Russian first published by the War Department as TM30-944 and later by Dover · two widely used and readily available dictionaries. However , some such items have been included in the present work either in order to explain them in greater detail, or else , occasionally , simply by oversight. Naturally, no work of this kind can pretend to be either exhaustive or flawless. If this book can serve as a prototype for larger and better reference aids, I will feel well satisfied .


A 1.

Used when trying to get someone's attention . is

The name of the person addressed

always repeated.


I say there !



! '

Мать, а мать? Mother, ... Mother?

Вася , а Вася! Vasya !


Hey, Vasya!

Used in questions , either alone or at the end of a question.




isn't it?' /' doesn't he? '/ etc.

'What?' -Коля! -A? -Kolya ! -What? Попробуй этого супа .

Нравится, а?

Try some of this soup .

You like it, eh?

Жарко сегодня , а? Hot today, isn't it?



Always first in its sentence ; practically always in reply to a question . Expresses some degree of displeasure , unwillingness to answer, or annoyance . Suggests that the question was about something of little interest or importance , or was about something obvious or commonly known .

Дa in this use is a little

stronger than A. Replies of this type always consist of ( 1 ) a repetition of the other speaker's question ,

either in its entirety or reduced to the most essential part, + (2 ) a

statement in answer to the question . The a or да may stand either (a ) first in the repeated question or (b ) first in the answering statement.



-Куда ( ты) ездил? —А куда ( я ) ездил?

Всё туда же .

-Where were you making those trips to? -Uh , where was I making trips to?


To the same place all the time .

— Что там произошло вчера?

-Произошло ?

А ничего!

-What happened there yesterday? -Happened?

4. A (BOT) + dem. pron.

Why, nothing !

--In reply to interrog. pron .

+ dem . adv .

interrog, adv.

'Just this: . . . '

'Why , 'Well,

'Just what I said: ...

'What I mean is that ... '

(Need not always be translated)

--IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS . --A demonstrative pronoun in the reply always repeats the form (gender, number, and case) of an interrogative pronoun in the preceding question. Matter-of-fact replies to questions may take up the interrogative word in the question (interrog. pron. or adv. ) and answer it with an a (or, less commonly , да) + the corresponding demonstrative word (dem. pron. or adv . ) .

An additional

BOT is sometimes inserted between the a and the demonstrative . Like other answers introduced by a or дa, these replies have the effect of dismissing the question as being of little interest or importance , or as having a self- evident answer.

-Да что же это такое!

-вскричал я .

-А то такое , что и не знаю, что с ней делать · -But what does this mean?

I cried .

-It means I don't know what to do with her ..

-Что ж вам так слова мои не по нраву пришли ?

—проговорил он.

-А то не по нраву , что не люблю , коли говорят неправду . -Why did what I said strike you as so distasteful? -Just this :

he said.

what is so distasteful about it is that I don't like it if

people say things that aren't so.


-Она от меня осталась вдовой. -То есть как же? -А так же : вдовой .

Меня ведь нет .

-She's been left as my widow . -How is that?

-Why, it's like this : as a widow.



I'm not there , you see .



' Oh , I see ,


' Oh , that's right , . . . '


' Oh , that's how it was ,


' Ah , yes , · . •


‘ Oh ,

Normally stands first in the reply. Used in replies that express recollection , realization , sudden grasping of something previously not understood , satisfaction at being reminded or informed of something.

-Почему он к нам не зашел? -А он ведь только завтра должен прийти .

-Ах , вот как , завтра! -Why hasn't he come to see us? -But he isn't supposed to get here until tomorrow, you know . -Oh , that's right, it's tomorrow!

-Когда закончат?

- Уже всё закончено . -А ну, всё закончено?


-When will they finish up? -It's all finished already . -Oh , all finished? Great!

А И А И ... ЖЕ (Strengthened forms of И $ 4 ( intensive ) .

See under И. )


A TO A HE TO 1. ' otherwise, ' ' if on the contrary , ' ' or else . ' Здесь скользко .

Осторожно , а не то упадёшь .

Be careful , or you'll fall down .

It's slippery here .

2. ' actually, ' ' as a matter of fact , ' ' as it is.' Если б я только мог остаться здесь !

А то нельзя .

If only I could stay here ! As it is , I can't . 3. ' because , ' ' since , ' ' as . ' Торопись , а то поздно , будут кричать на нас . Hurry, because it's late and they'll yell at us . 4. (when changing one's mind )

'(Or) come to think of it , ·

-Как? Заехать ли за ними? — -Нет , не надо . . .А то , пожалуй , лучше бы заехать . -What do you think? Shall I stop at their place and pick them up? -No, there's no need to... Come to think of it , I guess it would be better to do that. 5.

+ interrog. pron . or interrog.



A Tо что ж? - ' What else? ' (lit .: "Otherwise what? " )

· А то куда?

' Where else? ' ( i.e. , Of course that's where to . )

6. in wishes , trying to get another person to agree to doing something. А не то провели бы несколько дней в Москве. I do wish we could spend a few days in Moscow.




'How could it help being .

• ?'

'You think maybe it's ( not ) ... . ., or something?' 'Do you mean to say you think it's (not) . . .?'


in reply to a question .

A то не is used in reply to a positive

question; a ro is used in reply to a negative question .

The particle (a To or

а то не) normally stands first in the repetition of the other speaker's question , a but may stand last . Contradicts the other speaker by expressing surprise that he should ask his question at all , and that he should even believe that what he asks could be any other way .

-Небось , страшно? -А то не страшно ?

( OR :

Не страшно а то? )

-I suppose it was dreadful ? -You think it wasn't dreadful?


- Он ходил по деревне, просил денег . . Что ж, не дала? - А то дать! - He was going around the village asking for money. - My, you didn't give him any, did you? -As ifI would!

АУЖ A Yж...TO (See under YX.)


(dialectal: Southern/Western) = чтобы, только бы: 'I wish that ... ,' 'If only ...'

АВТОМАТИЧЕСКИ (popular speech) 'regularly' ,




АЖ (See also under AH .)

1. (as intensive particle) = даже: 'indeed' , 'really'. Пришла откуда-то такая бумага, что хозяин мой аж завертелся. A document came from someplace, and it put my boss in a real dither. (lit.: 'A document arrived from somewhere which was such that my boss really went into a dither.") 2. (as conjunction) = так что : 'so that... ,' 'so that indeed...'. Often preceded by Tak. Солнышко-то так и греет, так печет, аж глазам больно. The sun is so warm, it's so baking hot, that it hurts one's eyes.


(dialectal) .

= даже. See ДАЖЕ .

АЖУР: В АЖУРЕ (popular speech) (from French à jour, ' as ofcurrent date' (bookkeeping)) 'the way it should be'



АЙ 1. (interjection ) = ax, ax и, аxтé, etc.

+ concrete noun 2. (interjection ) Aй АЙ ДА proper name verb predicate Nom. , often preceding the logical subject. Used in vivid expressions of reaction to something, or appraisal of it . admiration; less commonly, disapproval. a.

Ай /АйдА + concrete noun . (MOST FREQUENT USE . ) Ай да жена! Вот люблю! Oh, what a wonderful wife ! I love her so!

Often conveys



АЙ АЙ ДА + proper name. (FREQUENT. ) Ай да Михаил Андреевич! Настоящий Цыган! Oh, that Mikhail Andreevich ! He's a regular gypsy!



Ай да валяет ... музыкантша .. Битховен ! See how she goes slopping along ... (and she claims to be) a musician ... Beethoven, hah! d.

АЙ/АЙ ДА + predicate Nom. , often preceding the logical subject. Ай да молодец Петька Бурков! Ah, what a fine young fellow Pet'ka Burkov is!

3. (conjunction) = аль , али. Vulg. for или. See ИЛИ.

4. (particle) = аль , али . = разве. See ИЛИ,




= как, 'like' аки бы = будто бы, 'allegedly', 'supposedly'


(pop. sp.)

'exactly,' 'right on the dot'

В АККУРАТ (pop. sp. ) = АККУРАТ В АККУРАTE (pop. sp.) 'properly,' 'the way it should be'



' accurately'


(colloq.) 'carefully'


(colloq.) ' regularly,' 'punctually'


See АЙ, # 3 and # 4, and see ИЛИ


See АЙ # 3 and # 4, and see ИЛИ



(Many dialectal variants and equivalents: аж, аже , ажно, ально, альни, анно, анда, ажинолича; ин, инно, инда, ильно.) 1. 'but,' 'but in fact,' 'but as it turned out'

Думал отдохнуть , ан опять командировка. I thought I'd get some rest, but again there was an assignment. Я думал, она его забыла; ан, видно, нет. I thought she had forgotten him, but apparently not. 2. Used at the beginning of replies that contradict the preceding remark.

- Дай мне денег. - Ан нет, не получишь! - Give me some money. - No. I won't either! You're not getting any! - Ну что, проигрался? ·- Ан нет, семнадцать рублей выиграл. -Well, did you get cleaned out? Not at all. I won seventeen rubles.



(dialectal : Southern) (Related to Spanish bodega?)

a cheap cafe (popular speech, dialectal, & Ukrainian.)





= болтать





= хороший




(parenthetical) (dialectal: Northern)


= говорят, говорит: (from баить.)

they say,' 'people say,' 'he says,' 'he claims.'

Он, бат, тебе хорошо заплатил. He claims he paid you well. 2.

= может быть : 'perhaps ,' 'maybe'

Он у них. Встретили, бат, в городе и туда привезли. He's at their place. Maybe they met him in town and brought him there. 3.

= ведь, же : ' after all ,' 'you know .'

От чаю бат не опьянею. I'm not going to get drunk on téa, you know.

Она бат не девочка. She's not a little girl , after all. 4.

= прежде, когда-то, бывало: 'formerly,' ' at one time.’ Бат баяли. They used to chat.


(dialectal : (1 ) Central; (2) Southwestern and Ukrainian)


(Central) 'talk'


(SW/Ukr) 'look at,' 'see;' бачится: 'it seems ,' 'it looks as if ... '

БАЯТЬ = баить, басти. See БАИТЬ.


бегу Standard Present forms: бежишь бежит

бежим бежите бегут

бежат for бегут.

Substandard 3 pl .: Substandard Inf.:

бечь бог бежать.

Dialectal Inf.:

бежить for бежать.

(with Past бег, бегла, бегли, but Pres. forms same as of бежать.)


БЕЗ : БЕЗ НИКОГО (popular speech) : = один: 'without anyone else," 'alone' БЕЗ НИЧЕГО (popular speech) :


= безо всего, ни о чем»'without anything' (lit.: "without nothing")

'as it is ,' 'in any case ,' ' withoutthat,' 'aside from that,' 'even so,' 'anyway,' 'anyhow ' ( = и так, —ито #к)

Человек он и без того молчаливый, а тут и вовсе замкнулся. He's not a talkative man in any case, but at this point he clammed up entirely. К чему все эти мелодраматические сцены? ... Ей богу, тяжело и без того. What's the idea of all these melodramatic scenes? ... Things are tough enough anyhow, for heaven's sake .


Used in evasive and reluctant replies


'I suppose so '

'I guess so'

'More or less'

To some extent'


'I'mafraidso 'There is something to that' 'I suppose one could say that' ..

(lit.: "It's not without that." -I.e. , It's not entirely untrues) е

- Были прогулы? -Не без того. -Were there any absences? -I'm afraid so. -Опять пьян? -Не без того.

-Drunk again? -Somewhat .

БЕСПОКОить In expressions ofpoliteness when making a telephone call . Это Чурбанов беспокоит вас. Такой вопрос, значит ... This is Churbanov; let me trouble you about a problem ... (lit.: This is Churbanov troubling you . This is my problem ...) БЕСПРЕМЕННО

(popular speech and regional...

= непременно, обязательно: 'without fail


(popular speech)



(from баешь / баишь, 'you say' . ) (particle) (SAID TO BE OBSOLESCENT)

Used in questions when the speaker is trying to recall something. Implies that the other speaker knows the answer or in fact has recently said it.

-Что значит это письмо? -А что бишь там написано, -What's the meaning ofthis letter? -Well, what does it say there?

-Где бишь он работает? -Where was it again that he works?


-Мне говорил на днях один человек ... как бишь его (зовут), -The other day some fellow was telling me ... Now, what was his name? TO БИШЬ (SAID TO BE OBSOLESCENT.)

'Or no, ...'

' I mean to say ...’

Used when correcting something the speaker has said by mistake. Дайте мне красный карандаш. -- То бишь не красный, а синий. Hand me the red pencil . -- Or no, not the red one . The blue one. БЛАГО Indicates approval, positive attitude toward what is spoken of. 1. (as particle) In independent clauses, благо may stand either first in its clause or inside the clause.

f 'ortunately'

'It's a good thing that ...'

Он, благо, скоро уехал, -не узнал об этой путанице. It's a good thing he left soon - he didn't find out about this mixup. Благо ему сегодня выходной день. У него зверский насморк. Fortunately for him it's his day off. He has an awful cold . 2.

(as conjunction) In dependent clauses, благо occurs at the beginning of its clause only. Use of благо as a conjunction is non-literary, but common in colloquial speech . 'because'

'especially since'

' since'

'seeing that ...'

Собаки заснули, благо не на кого было лаять. The dogs went to sleep since there was no one to bark at. Прямо с аэродрома я поехал к нему -- благо весь мой багаж составлял маленький чемоданчик. I went directly to his place from the airport, seeing that all my baggage consisted of a small suitcase.




БОЛЕЕ: более + Comparative adj / adv

(colloq., substandard)

e.g. , более сильнее (lit.: "more stronger") = сильнее, более сильный / более сильно. более интереснее более красивее более лучше etc.

See САМЫЙ+ Superlative , used in the same way. более - менее (colloq. ) = более или менее: ' more or less,' 'partly' более и менее 'Everything .. OK' / 'Everything is normal' / 'Everything is as it should be.' более не менее (colloq.) = не более и не менее (как): ' neither more nor less (than) ,' 'exactly'



(dialectal: Northeastern) 'exceedingly'



БОЛЬШЕ: Больше нет лучше. = They don't have better (ones) anywhere.


(used as pronoun) : (colloq.)

на брата = на каждого три рубля на брата: 3 rubles per person

Possessive pronoun + брат: наш брат: People like us, the likes of us Ваш брат: Реople like you , the likes of you Не для вашего брата! Not for the likes of you (I won't)!



Roughly like '... , dammit, ...', etc. (Literally, 'whore'.) Used in vulgar speech as an expletive, inserted into the sentence in this form without other case endings and without any grammatical connection with the surrounding words.


'not working'

'out oforder'

'broken down' (-of equipment )

БОЛЬШЕ 'mainly'

' mostly'




for the most part' '

Шли мы больше горами; оно хоть труднее, но зато безопаснее. (-Короленко) We went mostly by way of the mountains ; it was of course harder going, but on the other hand, it was safer. Читал Маркелов немного - и больше всё книги, идущие к делу: -Герцен в особенности. (-Тургенев) Markelov had not read a great deal · and for the most part it was always books that related to the cause: - Herzen in particular. Я думаю, Антон Антонович, что здесь тонкая и больше* политическая причина. (-Гоголь) I think, Anton Antonovich, that there is a subtle and mainly* political reason here . (* If 'more political' had been meant, it should have been более политическая.)



= В большинстве случаев 'usually'






Работа там в большинстве канцелярская. Thejob there is mainly clerical . Солдаты взвода в большинстве натирали полы, мыли грузовики. The soldiers in the platoon were waxing floors and washing trucks most ofthe time.

БОРОНИ БОГ ГРЕХÁ 'God forbid' Боронить (old-fashioned & regional) = оборонить; takes Genitive object. Грех can mean 'misfortune' as well as 'sin' or 'fault.' .Что, конечно оно можно ехать, отчего не ехать! А только борони бог греха, середь лесу ночью сядем, кто виноват останется? (-А.Н. Островский) Well , of course it's possible to go . Why not? Only, if we have a breakdown in the middle of the woods at night , God forbid, who's going to get blamed for it?


(from брать) (dialectal : Western, especially Southwestern)

= -бранный (-which occurs only in prefixed verbs in standard Russian) E.g. , забраден = забран, blocked up' *In dialects, -ой is the m Nom sg ending, even when unaccented .



(pop . sp. )

1. ' get , ' ' obtain '

2. 'buy'




БРОСЬТЕ ЕЩЕ May stand at either the beginning or the end of a reply .

In either case , бросьте /

бросьте там /бросьте еще is set off from the rest of the reply by a slight pause. May also stand alone as an exclamation. Used in scornful denials and rejections of what has just been said. ' Oh , for Pete's sake ! .... , he says !'

. . . . indeed ! ' ' Oh , don't give me that ! ... -Говорит , ты часто бездельничаешь. -Бросьте там - бездельничать ! У меня дела по горло! -He says that often you're loafing. -Oh , don't give me that !


I'm up to my neck in things to do !

БРЯКАТЬ /БРЯКНУТЬ (slang) = ЗВЯКАТЬ /ЗВЯКНУТЬ (also slang) , ' call by phone ' , ' ring up ' .


(pop . sp . and Northern dialectal) = если : ' if' (Usually used with Prf Fut) Эй ты !

Слушай !

Буде спросит

кто о чём · молчи , коли жив быть хочешь!

Понял? Hey you ! Listen ! If anybody asks you about anything - shut up , if you want

to live ! Understand? 2. (Northern dialectal) (parenthetical modal) ' it seems , ' ' I should think , ' ' I guess '

БУДЕМ + Ipf Inf In addition to its regular meaning of ' we will . . . . ' , the combination of будем (ог будемте ) + lpf is used as an equivalent of давай (те ) to form a 1 pl Imperative , "Let's ...." . .8

Будем ( те) начинать . Let's begin.

Давай(те) начинать.


Давай(те) будем начинать

( Ipf)

Начнём( те) .



In negative sentences : Не будем спорить . (The Prf is not used in 1 pl negative Imperatives . ) Let's not quarrel .

Не будем опаздывать. Let's not be late . In negative sentences with a predicate Nom.: ' Let's not be ..

В следующий раз не будем такие простаки , чтоб верить ему . Next time let's not be such simpletons as to believe him.

Давай не будем !

(pop . sp. )

' Stop that ! /' Knock it off!' /' Let's not have any of that stuff! ' ( Lit .:

Let's not (be doing that) . )

Слушай! Давай не будем!

Не люблю таких штук!

Listen ! Cut that out ! I don't like tricks like that !


(See also under БЫТЬ.)

1. (impers . )

' That's enough . ( --of what has been done or has been going on . )

a . (used independently)

Будет . / Да будет ! That's enough . ' /' That'll do . ' / 'Stop it ! ' (e.g. , Stop talking like that !) Будет этого .

Enough of this . Я заплатил им столько же , сколько я им должен был , и будет . I paid them exactly what I owed them, and that's enough. b . будет ( + Dat ) + Inf (Полно is used in the same way.

See ПОЛНО . )

Будет (тебе) работать над этим . You've done enough work on this . Будет ( вам) беспокоиться об этом. Don't worry any further about that.

с . будет + c + pers . pron. Будет с тебя.

That's enough for you . / You've got enough . Помаялся , пошатался лет 50 по чужой стороне . I've

Будет с меня!

worked like a dog and I've knocked around for about 50 years

away from home .

I've had enough of that!

2. Used to convey that something is regularly the case at all times . (collog.i ' is ' /' would be ’


пятью пять будет двадцать пять. 5 times 5 is 25. Столица Польши - это будет Варшава. The capital of Poland - that would be Warsaw.

БУДЕТЕ ГОВОРИТЬ telephone switchboard operators' expression: 'You've got the line now.' 'You can go ahead now.'

'I have your connection now.'

БУДТО : 1.

with many variants and equivalents: словно будто ровно словно бы ровно бы будто бы словно бы как словно и будто и словно как будто как* ровно как словно как будто словно будто *

как будто как бы


: точно как точно как будто

как ровно как бы словно

*Sometimes separated in the sentence: будто... как, словно... будто. These particles are used in expressions of uncertain supposition, doubt, and conjecture. The particle usually stands before the word it applies to, but may also stand after it. 'apparently' 'it seems' 'it seemed'

'I guess' ' as far as I can see' '(it was) asif

Услышал, что кто-то будто плачет. I heard what sounded like someone crying. / I thought I heard someone crying. Ты б, чудак, сказал ей, может- не рассердится, она будто добрая. You kook, you ought to tell her ; maybe she won't get angry. She's a kind person, as far as I can see. Шибко мол, раненый парень был, а теперь будто и ничего ... He said the fellow was badly hurt, but he seems to be all right now ... The particle may be used even with verbs like казаться and чудиться, which themselves mean 'to seem': И чудилось ему, что-то еще слышно: будто где-то железо о железо нозиякивает. And it seemed to him there was another sound too: it was like iron ringing on iron somewhere. а сама будто, показалось мне, как улыбается. ... , - and I got the impression that she herself was smiling. (будто ... как and показалось мне mean the same thing and reinforce each other.)



будто будто и будто уж как будто

I suppose ' ' 'Do you think ...?, 'As if ...! 'Do you suppose ...?' me ...? to)tell (try Do you mean to Am I supposed to believe that ...?'

Used in what in form are expressions of uncertain supposition doubt, or conjecture, but in meaning are assertions of conviction that the opposite is the case . I.e. , будто # 2 is будто # 1 with the possibility of uncertainty or doubt only pretended.

- А ты почему это знаешь, что я плакала, - Да я ж будто не слышал? - But how come you know I was crying? - And do you suppose I didn't hear you?

· Я надеюсь,что ты не думаешь расстаться со мной ... - Будто это так огорчит тебя? -I hope you aren't thinking of leaving me ... -Am I supposed to believe that that will grieve you so much?

- А вы будто уж и не замечали ничего? - And do you mean to try to tell me you haven't noticed anything? - Тебя Александра Васильевна научила, - Будто я уж сам и не могу додуматься до такой простой вещи. - Did Alexandra Vasilievna put you up to that? - As ifI couldn't come up with such a simple thing as that myself. - In Replies Containing Repetitions: будто 'Oh, really, ...? будто бы 'Do you really think ...? будто бы уж 'Do you mean to say ...?' и '... indeed!' будто

уж будто Уж будто будто будто

'...! A likely story! ' 'As if...! уж уж и

'Oh , so it's supposed to be ... '

Of the above particle-combinations, those that contain an и always stand at the beginning of the repetition; those without the и may stand either at the beginning or at the end of the repetition . All of these combinations express either doubt or complete disbelief of what the other speaker has just said. Often there is also a shading of opposition, mockery, irritation, being pained, or being offended. - Все они мошенники! · Будто уж и все? OR: Уж будто все? -They're crooks, all of them!

OR: Все уж будто,

- Do you really think they all are? / Do you mean to say they all are? Ты что же не пришла? - спросил он горячим шопотом. -· Голова болела... -· уж будто голова! · Why didn't you come? he asked in a fierce whisper. - I had a headache ...

- Headache! A likely story! - Это мы здесь все починили. -· Так уж будто и 'мы"? -We're the ones that fixed everything here. Oh , so it's supposed to be ' we', is it?



будто (Standing alone , used as reply.) 'Really?', 'Is that so?"

БУДЬ: 1.

ну, будь/ну, будьте ( роp. sp.) = Будь здоров/Будьте здоровы 'Goodbye ,' 'So long' (See also БЫВАЙ / БЫВАЙТЕ and ЖЕЛАЮ, used similarly.)


будь аѕ Subjunctive of быть . The form будь is used regardless of whether the subject is singular or plural. Used to make conditional sentences (-- always conditions contrary to fact.)

Будь письма написаны, я успел бы их отправить. Ifthe letters had been written, I would have had time to mail them. Не будь так поздно, я непременно остался бы. Ifit weren't so late, I would certainly stay.

И будь не они, он пропал бы Ifit hadn't been for them, he would have been done for. (Lit.: And be they not (there), ...)

БУДЯ + Inf

'that's enough' (Cf БУДЕТ, # # 1) Чуть свет Алексашка толкнул его : " будя спать-то, вставай." At first light Alexander poked him, and said, "That's enough sleeping, get up!"


БЫ :

(contracted form : 6) Basically, any Russian construction that contains the particle б

refers to a

situation that is regarded as an imagined possibility but not an actual fact and not a definite and likely possibility. (The particle бы is derived from an old past tense (the Aorist ) of быть, and was originally an auxilliary verb used with other verbs . ) Bы is used (1 ) with a Past tense form , ( 2 ) with Infinitives , ( 3 ) with a Participle , and (4 ) without any verb in the predicate.

1. 6ы with Past-tense verb A. In conditional sentences referring to imagined possibilities . The standard type of the conditional sentence consists of two clauses , a condition and a conclusion .

Sentences that refer to imagined possibilities

normally have a бы in both clauses . 1. Time : Time is indicated only by context or by the addition of words that refer to time :


Если бы они попросили ( раньше ) , я им сообщил бы об этом. If they had asked me to (before ) , I would have informed them about it.

Present :

Если бы они попросили ( сейчас) , я им сообщил бы об этом . If they asked


me to (now) , I would inform them about it.

Если бы они попросили ( после ) , я им сообщил бы об этом . If they asked

me to (later on ), I would inform them about it.

(*OR were to ask OR should ask)






no special rules for the choice of aspect in conditional

Either clause may be in either aspect, according to the sense of

the remark. w . Prí:

Если бы он помог им, они бы скорее закончили работу . If he had helped them, they would have finished the job sooner.

w . Ipf:

Если бы он помогал им , они бы скорее заканчивали работу (каждый день) . If he helped them, they would finish work sooner (every day).

But verbs that refer to continuing states , e.g. быть ' be ' , знать ' know ', хотеть ' want' , мочь ' be able to ' , ждать ' wait ' , держать ' hold , keep' , etc. , are regularly Imperfective because of their meaning: Если бы я знал об этом , я им сообщил бы.

(Ipf. + Prf. )

If I had known about it, I would have informed them. Если бы они мне сообщили , я знал бы об этом .

(Prf. + Ipf. )

If they had informed me , I would have known about it . Если бы я был там , я знал бы об этом . If I had been there , I would have known about it.

(Ipf. + Ipf. )


3. Condition -clauses without conjunction


e.g. Был бы отец здесь, ...

If Father were here, . (The same as older-style English "Were Father here , . . . ) 4. Conditions

without 6ы :


sentences that refer not to an imagined

possibility but rather to a known fact or to a definite and likely possibility do not contain быl . Если ( = Когда ) они попросят , я им сообщу об этом . If (= When ) they ask me to , I will inform them about it.

Если станет так холодно , река замерзнет . If it gets that cold, the river will freeze . Если ( = Раз) они знали , зачем не сообщили нам об этом ? If (= Once /Since /Seeing that ) they knew , why didn't they inform us of it?

Если ( = Насколько ) кто виноват , то я один . If (= Insofar as ) anyone is at fault , it is I alone . 5. 6ы in the condition but not in the conclusion .


A mixture -type of conditional sentence , with 6ы ( i.e. , Conditional ) in the condition and a plain Indicative in the conclusion , is occasionally encountered , usually in colloquial implies

speech .

The underlying idea is

exactly what the choice of forms

that the condition is only an imagined possibility , but the conclusion

is undoubtedly true. a . With verbs that express continuing states . in the past .

When referring to a situation

Если бы они меня попросили , я мог им сообщить об этом . If they had asked me to, I could have informed them about this.


· я мог бы им сообщить об этом = I would have been able to inform them about this


я мог им сообщить об этом = I was able to inform them about this

(i.e., At any time during that period I was in a position to inform them about this . ) Since the distinction in meaning here is just as slight in Russian as it is in English, either conclusion-clause , with or without бы , may be used .

b. With a Future form in the conclusion .

When expressing a general truth.

In conditional sentences where the condition may or may not be true, but if it is , then the conclusion is absolutely certain and inevitable . Была бы спина , найдется вина.


Lit. Should there be a back ( to put it on ) , a fault

will be found .

i.e. If there is someone around who can be hectored , they will be.


Была бы шея , (а) хомут найдется (OR найдем OR будет ) .


Lit. If there should be a neck , a yoke will be found . i.e.: If a worker is available , work will always be found for him . Было бы болото , а черти будут ( OR найдутся ) .


Lit. If there should be a swamp, the devils will be there . i.e.

If there is some despised job , someone can be found who is willing to do it (for his own advantage ) .

Было бы корыто , а свиньи будут ( OR найдутся ) .


Lit. If there should be a trough , the pigs will be there . i.e.

If there is an advantageous opportunity, there will be no lack of takers .

c. When referring to the present .

The condition is an imagined possibility ,

contrary to fact in this situation , but the conclusion is a matter of no doubt at all to the speaker.

" (Лиза :) Ударюсь об заклад , что вздор , И если 6 не к лицу , не нужно перевязки . " ( Грибоедов ) (Liza :) I'll bet that's claptrap And if it weren't that it looks good on him, there is no need for a bandage .

B. Other clauses containing бы wish ,

request ,

suggestion ,



advice ,


obligation ;

theoretical possibility ,

with negative :


worry, warning, reproach.

Some Russian sentences either (a ) consist of only one clause and contain a бы with a Past form or

(b ) consist of more than one clause , only one of which contains a бы with a Past form.

Most sentences of this kind can be most easily explained by regarding them as either the first half or the second half of a conditional sentence -- as either a condition or a conclusion .. with the other half left unstated . 1. Condition type : usually expresses a wish . wish :



Если бы они мне сообщили! (- я перестал бы волноваться.) If only they would let me know ! ( I would stop worrying.)

Sentences of this kind are of course somewhat dependent upon the context. Compare : wish :

Если бы они узнали об этом !


то мы могли бы закончить планировку . )

If only they would find out about this! (-we could finish the planning.) misgiving : Если бы они узнали об этом! (- мы попали бы в переплет . ) If they should ever find out about this ! (-we would be in the soup . )


2. Conclusion type :


хотелось книг , которые волновали бы и радовали , как чудесный

Бальзак. "

( Горький )

I felt a desire for some books that would excite and cheer me the way that marvellous Balzac did .

(i.e. , some books that would excite me

if I had them . )


Я зашел бы завтра к вам . I would like to come to see you tomorrow . (Literally: I would come to see you tomorrow (- if you wouldn't mind/- if that would be convenient , etc. ) )

STRONG WISH : Ах , уж оставили бы они меня в покое! Oh, I do wish they would leave me in peace ! (Lit. They would leave me in peace (- if I had my way) .)


I hope they don't hear us!


Поспал бы ты часок . You ought to take a nap for an hour. (Lit.: You would take a nap for an hour ( - if you took my advice ) . ) Note how closely the ideas of what is possible or desirable or beneficial or advisable or proper overlap and merge into each other: Пoспал бы ты can be rendered as You might take a nap . ( i.e. , if you were willing to) I wish you would take a nap . ( i.e. , if you did what I would like you to) You should take a nap .

( i.e. , if you did what would be best for you)

You ought to take a nap . ( i.e. , if you did what would be best for you ) You had better take a nap . ( i.e. , if you did what would be best for you)


Кто бы это подумал ! Who would have thought that !

(i.e. , if in fact anyone had )


PROPRIETY AND OBLIGATION: Постыдились бы они! They ought to be ashamed !

C. Word-order:

(i.e. , if they took the proper view)

Position of бы in its clause .

1. Commonly after the Past form of the verb . (See examples under A and B, conditions , wishes, etc. )

2. Regularly after the conjunction in the combinations

если бы когда бы


-'if' , ' whenever '

если бы даже-'even if'

Даже если бы

хотя бы

-'even if' -'even if ' (DIFFERENT: хотя ... (VERB) бы = ' although '.)

3. Often after a pronoun . The pronoun may be emphatically stressed or not. Он бы хотел , чтоб... ( - Он хотел бы, чтоб ... )

He would like . . . Я бы отдохнул немного . ( - Я отдохнул бы немного. ) I'd like to rest a little . "1 " Нет ничего в мире , что бы могло прикрыть Днепр. " There is nothing in the world that could cover up the Dnieper.

Кто бы это подумал! Who would have thought that!

" Ну, в деле сердца я бы не послушался маменьки . " Well , where love comes into the picture, I wouldn't obey mama .

The placement of бы after a pronoun is especially common after a 2nd person pronoun in giving advice or a suggestion:

Ты бы , дядя , рассказал нам сказку . Uncle , it would be nice if you would tell us a story.

Ты бы поспал.

You should take a nap . (The difference between Поспал бы ты and Ты бы поспал is a matter of putting slightly more emphasis on whichever word is placed first. In Попал бы ты, the emphasis is on the action and how advisable it is . In Ты бы поспал , there is more of an appeal to the person addressed . Постыдились бы они !

is saying that ashamed is what they ought to

be . Ты бы, дядя , рассказал нам сказку is an appealing plea to Uncle . )


4. Often after any word that has been placed first in its clause for emphasis . Я бы этого не сказал .

I wouldn't say that .

Этого бы я не сказал .

That I wouldn't say . Какая музыка !

Век бы слушал и не наслушался !

What music ! I could listen for an age and not hear enough! Дождя бы не было !

I hope it doesn't RAIN ! " Ох ,

знать бы , каждый бы день ей надо было писать о себе хоть

два словечка ! "

Oh ,

(Алексей Толстой )

if I could only know ( how she is ) .

She ought to write every

day about what she's doing, even if it's only a couple of words! (-i.e. , It should be every day that she should write . . . ) Опять проспал !


Бросил бы ты это !

Overslept again !

You ought to quit doing that!

$$ 2 ,

suggest , there is a strong tendency to have бы

3 , and 4

stand second in its clause . Thus

( Бы is never the first word in its clause . )

in the great majority of cases , бы stands either ( 1 ) after the

Past form of the verb or ( 2) in the second position in its clause .

5. Less commonly , бы can stand elsewhere in its clause . " И на Царицыном Лугу с поля бы не прогнали . " (Л. Толстой ) Even on the Tsaritsyn Meadow review ground they wouldn't order (that regiment) off the field . 6. The word order is fixed in combinations with an interrogative of the type

кто бы .. • НИ • · · -no matter who где бы · • • ни • · • -no matter where когда бы ·

-no matter when.

• НИ ..

D. Repetition of бы . 1. In

standard literary usage , when there are two or more verbs in the

same clause the particle бы is not repeated with each verb . " Мне хотелось книг , которые волновали бы и радовали , как чудесный Бальзак . " ( Горький ) I felt a desire for some books that would excite and cheer me the way that marvellous Balzac did .


11 " Ты бы не читал , а спал .


You should be sleeping , not reading.

Я поел бы и ушел . I'd like to have something to eat and be off.

2. But in practice , an " unnecessary" бы is sometimes inserted for reinforcement, especially if the verbs are separated by a good many intervening words . Спать бы шел и гостью 6 покой дал . " (Полевой) You ought to go to bed and let our guest have some peace. " " Как вольно вздохнули бы нивы , если бы извечные степные ветра " вместо жгучей суши принесли бы на пашню и рассеяли туманы. (Федин) How freely the grainfields would breathe , if instead of burning- hot dryness the age-old winds of the steppe were to bring mists to the plowed land and scatter them there. " Если бы каждый человек на куске земли своей сделал


может ,

как прекрасна

была бы земля наша . "




If every man were to do all he can on a piece of ground of his own , how beautiful our earth would be. " Нет

сейчас такого советского оперного театра, где бы оперы на

сюжеты Пушкина, ставшие национальной гордостью, не бы

ведущего положения в репертуаре,


не были бы поставлены с

огромной любовью и тщательностью. " There is now no such thing as a Soviet opera theater where operas on themes from Pushkin , which have become a proud national possession, would not occupy a leading position in the repertoire and would not be presented with enormous love and care .

E. Omission of бы. 1. In the conclusion of a conditional sentence referring to an imagined possibility . (RARE AND NONSTANDARD . ) " А ты Семен, не допускаешь такого предложения :

если бы я не

просто " был " в Гремячем , а работал бок о бок с вами , то , возможно , и промахов меньше было . * " (Шолохов)

* fоr было бы. But Semyon, you're not considering this sort of idea: If I were not to just " be there "

in Gremyachii , but rather worked right

along with you, then maybe there would be fewer slip- ups .


2. In the colloquial expression надо было ' should be/should have/should have been ' ( = надо было бы) . Вот тут по- старому надо было . In this case it should have been done the old way. Надо было вот что :

вычистить карбюратор .

What should have been done was to clean out the carburetor.

II. ɓы with Present-tense verb Vinogradov (Pyсский язык, 6ы





1947 , p 602 ) says that in colloquial speech Present-tense forms to express an imagined

possibility: " Сын- то мой и хорошо бы учится , да только часто хворает . " My son would do well in school , except that he's often sick. (So far, I have not been able to find another example of this construction . In fact , in the 1972 edition yчитcя is changed to yчnaca. ) III . Бы + Inf .

+ бы + Inf. Dat.

+ 6ы

+ Inf.


+ бы

+ было

+ бы


+ 6ы

+ Dat.

+ Inf.

как бы не kak бы


+ Inf.

+ Dat .


+ Inf.

with the Infinitive expresses the same ideas as clauses containing бы

with the Past :

possibility, hope , wish , desirability, advisability, obligation ;

with He: misgiving, warning , or reproach. The subject is usually left unnamed if it is implied by the context who the actor would be ; if the subject is specified , it is in the Dative case . With regard to word-order, the positions that can be occupied by бы when used with the Infinitive are essentially the same as for бы with the Past :


usually stands after the Infinitive , after a (Dative) pronoun , after interrogatives like kaк and гдe, or after an important word. Since using the Infinitive always means naming the action , бы with the Inf. differs from 6ы with the Past in that there is somewhat more emphasis and concentration of attention on the idea of performing the action at all ; when бы with the Past is used, attention is rather more spread over the situation as a whole. Either Infinitive , Perfective or Imperfective , may be used . Perfective occurs more often .

In practice , the


Он думал , думал , как бы осуществить это. He thought and thought about how one might bring that about .

(OR how he could OR how he might, etc. )


WISH , DESIRABILITY : Прочитать бы эту статью полностью .

I'd like to read this article all the way through.

Покурить бы теперь . It would be nice to have a smoke now.

WISH (WITH если) :

Если бы забыть прошлое! If I could forget the past ! / If one could forget the past !


(Almost always preceded by an interjection - usually Ax , Ox, or Эх. )

Эх , сесть бы на пару минут ! Whew !

If I could just sit down for a couple of minutes !

Ох , знать бы, что там происходит !

Oh , how I'd like to know what's going on there !


Вам бы собираться в путь. You ought to be getting ready for your trip. Пора бы ему отправиться в город. It's time he started out for town. With было added , the бы + Inf. construction indicates desirability/advisability/ obligation in the past : Вам было бы записать все подробности . You ought to have written down all the details .

NEGATIVE WISH = MISGIVING/ WARNING / REPROACH : Не опоздать бы! / Не опоздать бы нам! I hope we aren't late ! Не упасть бы вам !

Тут скользко .

Watch out that you don't fall .

It's slippery here .

Как бы ему не захворать! I hope he doesn't get sick !

IV . Бы +

Past Active Participle .


FASHIONED . ) The construction бы + Past Active Participle is a rather bookish equivalent of a relative clause containing 6ы that refers to an imagined possibility that has not materialized .

In the example that follows ,


· обретший бы = ум , который обрёл бы .. •


"1 Спит ум , может быть , обретший бы внезапный родник великих средств . " ( Гоголь) The mind which might have discovered an unexpected source of wealth , perhaps , is asleep.

V. Бы without any accompanying verb. A. With a conjunction .

In abbreviated replies .

-Не буде помогать нам . -Хотя бы! -They aren't going to help us . -Even if they aren't !

( -- we'll go ahead anyway. )

-Он приезжает домой сегодня? —Нет .

Если бы .

-He's coming home today?

-No .

If only he were .

B. With an Accusative object in expressions of desire . The person who desires it is in the Dative .

Мне бы заведующего. I want (to talk to) the manager.

Еще бы чашку чаю . I'd like another cup of tea. Нам бы три порции мороженого .

У вас какие сорты?

We would like three orders of ice cream . What flavors do you have?

C. With an interrogative . Кто бы это вон там с ними? Who could that be over there with them?

С чего бы это? Why would that be?/ What could be the cause of that?

С чего бы это они так Why would they act that way?/ Why would they talk like that ?/ Why would they say that? /Why would they think that? ( Depending on context )

In all of these three questions , the бы could be omitted.

Бы, when inserted

in these questions , emphasizes the fact that the questioner is rather puzzled and very eager to find out the answer to his question .


Compare: О че это ои? - What is he talking about? О чем бы это он? What can he be talking about? What could he be talking about? D.

In other verbless sentences that do not contain an interrogative, бы regularly stands for был бы/была бы/было бы/были бы. (In # C. , above , it is the interrogative expression that helps to imply some verb other than быть. For example, it is the o чём that implies О чём (говорил) бы это он? / О чём (думали) бы они? etc.)

Трудно бы теперь. That might be difficult now.

That would be pretty difficult now.

Молода бы она, кажется, водить трактор. It seems to me she's a little young to be driving a tractor. (Lit.: It seems to me she might be too young...)

Давно бы так! It should have been done long ago! Не худое бы что! ( = Не было бы что-то худое!) I hope nothing bad happens!

Вот бы хорошо! That would be great! / Now that's what would be really fine!

Вор избежал бы нас, если бы не Гриша. The thiefwould have gotten away from us, if it hadn't been for Greg. ( = если бы не был.Гриша / если бы не был там Гриша - if Greg hadn't been there.)

Если бы не льдины, я бы перевез их на лодке. Ifit weren't for the blocks of ice, I could take them across in the boat. Если бы не дождь, мы катались бы на лодке. If it weren't for the rain, we would go boating.


'It would be better to ...' See under ЛУЧШЕ , p 210 .


НАДО БЫ + Inf 'should have' See under НАДО , p 228.

БЫВАЕТ (as parenthetical expression) 1. (colloq.) It happens that ...' '.... , as sometimes happens' 2.

(dialectal. Central .) = может быть: 'perhaps,'

' maybe.'

Бывает, и не все вышли. Maybe they're not all gone. А может, бывает, прежде не так называлась. But perhaps formerly that wasn't the name she used to be called.


3. (dialectal . Southern. )

-случайно :

' by any chance , '

' possibly. '

Не осталась она, бывает , на рынке? Didn't she stay at the market, by any chance?

У вас , бывает , нет яблок? You don't possibly have any apples , do you?

( pop. sp. )

быВАй (ТE )

* Бывай(те) здоров( ы) =Будь ( те) здоров(ы) . 'Goodbye ,' ' So long. '


(Cf. Bудь and жEЛA


+ ( 1 ) Ipf Pres

(as particle)

(2) Ipf Past

(3) Prf Pres -Fut (4 ) Ipf Past of old unprefixed frequentatives in - ыва- , • ива- . (OLDER USAGE ) (5) Separated from the verb, and used to introduce its clause , in which it stands first.

(6) (dialectal ) =было

'from time to time' 'would (sometimes ) . . .'

'(sometimes) used to ..

Used in any of the first five constructions abovе , бывало еmphasizes the idea that the action is something that occurred repeatedly at irregular intervals in the past . бывало can stand in three positions :

if it does not stand first in its clause , then it

stands either immediately before or immediately after the verb. In the first four constructions , with бывало immediately before or after the verb, the expression is spoken without any pause between бывало and the verb , in spite of the fact that in writing бывало is frequently (though not always ) set off with commas .



can be read as

simply the Past of бывать :

' It used to be

But since бывало regularly occurs


• .' ,


the conjunction что , бывало is considered a particle used with verbs to

' It used to happen ( that) . . .' .

form a construction .

1. + Ipf Pres Играют бывало в карты целый день . They would play cards the whole day . 11 Я , бывало , говорю ему : " • · •

I used to say to him , ".


2. + Ipf Past Мы бывало убеждали его в этом . From time to time we would try to convince him of this.

Я бывало говорил ему :

· . ""

I used to say to him,

3. + Prf Pres-Fut "

Я бывало скажу ему :

. ""

I used to say to him, Старик сядет , бывало , заведет рассказ, ... The old man would sit down and start a story ...

4. + Ipf Past of unprefixed verb in - ыва- / - ива- .


Вечером он бывало сиживал , писывал до полуночи . In the evening he would sometimes sit writing until midnight.

5. Separated from the verb and used to introduce its clause . Бывало , при хорошей погоде мы ходили по берегу. Sometimes when the weather was nice we used to walk along the shore.

Note that бывало can be used in a sentence which contains two or more verbs that have the same subject and apply to all of them, and that the verbs do not have to be all exactly alike in form .

(Prf) (Ipf) Бывало .. выйдешь с вечера и всю ночь шлепаешь по казанскому тракту , иногда -- под осенним дождём , по глубокой грязи . " ( Горький) ( - Бывало я выходил с вечера и всю ночь шлёпал • •

Gorkii is

referring to himself.) Sometimes you'd go out in the evening and tramp along the Kazan highway all night , sometimes you'd be out in an autumn rain and deep mud. (Prf)


" Неслышно отворит бывало дверь маменькиной комнаты , неслышно прокрадется

(Prf) (lpf) в уголок, сядет и , словно очарованный, не сводит глаз с маменьки .

( Салтыков - Щедрин) Sometimes he would noiselessly open the door of his mother's room, noiselessly steal to a corner, sit down , and as if entranced he would never take his eyes off his mother.


6. + Past


In Northern dialect , meaning is different .

бывало can also occur with the Past ,


here the

In Northern dialectal use , бывало can refer to one-time

actions in the past and было сan refer to repeated actions in the past, which is the

reverse of the use of бывало and было in standard Russian .

(See also

under БЫЛО, § 15(c) . ) In this dialectal use , бывало simply emphasizes the fact that the event referred to is thought of as belonging to past history.

Я бывало перва родилась. I was the first born./ I was the eldest child . Это потоп- то бывало был , потоп - то .

That was some flood then. У нас бывало гроза была-

дом сгорел от грозы . We had a storm--the house burned down as a result of the storm.


(colloq . ) See БЫВАЛО , above .

(particle )




See БЫВАЛО , above .



1. быле - может быть , возможно.

2. быде - если .


(colloq. )



See БУДТО , above .


• только что : 'just , ' 'just now , ' ' just then . ’ Хотела бы к спать ложиться , а она пришла. Just as I wanted to go to bed , she arrived .


(dialectal )

= БЫЛО (particle used with Past : Resultless action . ) See БЫЛО , below .


( strengthened forms :

уже совсем было , совсем уже было , совсем уж был . )

+ (1 ) Prf Past ( FREQUENT) (2) Prf Past + Prf Inf


(3 ) Prf Past + Ipf Inf (4) Ipf Past ( UNCOMMON) (only with some vbs . See $4 below . )

(5) Ipf Past + Prf Inf (6) Ipf Past + Ipf Inf

(7) Ipf Pres (VERY RARE ) (8) Past Act Prtc (often Rfl ) (9) Past Pas Prtc (RARE ) (10) Past Gerund (RARE ) (11 ) Without a verb (12 ) Special meaning in colloq. speech : " I think" ( 13 ) Prf Inf + Prf Inf ( UNCOMMON ) ( 14) Inf + Dat

(15) dialectal : 3 uses

' started to. 'had started to.

' tried to. 'was about to


' was on the point of

Used in the above combinations , было indicates that an action in the past was begun but came to nothing.

The basic meaning of these constructions is resultless

action in the past. The action expressed by the main verb is always thought of as having been begun, but it can be barely begun and immediately nipped in the bud , begun and fairly well along when interrupted , or begun and actually completed but subsequently undone or reversed . What the particle было conveys is that ULTIMATELY the action had no effect . Thus , the sentence Он ушел было , но раздумал,

' He started to leave , but

changed his mind, ' does not specify whether he stopped when he had scarcely stirred from the spot, when he was half way across the room, when he had reached the door, or after he had actually left and was outside .

Other words would have to be added

to indicate this circumstance . Note that in the case of combinations of verbs which convey intention (e . g., хотеть , думать , etc. ) + было + Inf . , the action gets no farther than the stage of being intended. Inf.

Grammatically, the было applies to the verb of intending, not the

taken literally, xотел было means

' (had) started to want to, ' думал был

means ' (had) started to think of, ' and the action of the Infinitive is not begun at all. Thus , Он думал был уйти ,

но раздумал , ' He thought of leaving, but changed

his mind, ' means literally ' He started to think of leaving, . . . , ' (NOT ' He thought of leaving and started to do so ' ) . In this case , he got no farther than the thought, and did not move .


However, the fairly common combination стал было . . . does not mean ' started to begin

‚' but rather is a special case .

Verbs which themselves have the mean-

ing of ' begin ' (e.g. , стать, начaть) are used with an Ipf. Inf. in the было- construction when the verb that is in the Ipf. Inf. form represents an action that is thought of as going on for some length of time or else as being done intermittently from time to time .

Here , cтал is added to carry the idea of beginning and было , as always ,

carries the idea of lack of result. Thus ,

Он написал было письмо , да опять изорвал ,

' He started to write a

letter, but tore it up again. ' refers to the writing of one letter on a single occasion. But Он стал было писать стихи , да бросил , ‘Нe started writing poetry, but dropped it.' refers to an activity that was taken up and performed from time to time but was eventually discontinued without producing any lasting results . In the same way :

Он было заснул, но его разбудили . He had gone to sleep, but they woke him up.


Он было стал засыпать , как зазвонил телефон . He had started going to sleep (i . e . , being the phone rang .




The particle 6ыло may stand either before or after the main

verb . Он было ушел = Он ушел было .

Он было думал уйти - Он думал было уйти . The subject , the particle было , and the verb (--or, in the other order, subject , verb , and было) most often stand immediately next to each other, as in the examples above .

Other words may intervene between them, however:

Простились , и она совсем уже было к двери пошла, вдруг оборачивается и спрашивает


The goodbyes were said, and she had already started to go to the door (OR : she already was about to go to the door) ; suddenly she turned around and asked ... Note the word-order in one of the examples in Smirnitsky's Russian-English dictionary:

" He was on the point of not coming at all " : " Он было вовсе не Xотел

приезжать " instead of the expected Он было хотел вовсе не приезжать .


1. было + Pгf Past (FREQUENT) Куда ты? - спросила было мать, но Фаина быстро вышла .

( Бажов)

"Where are you going?" her mother started to ask her, but Faina quickly left the room.


Я сперва было предположил , что он шутит , а потом понял , что нет . At first I had assumed that he was joking, but then I realized that he was

not .

2. было + Prf Past + Prf Inf Захар, с подносом в руках,

наклонился было поднять булку ,

вдруг увидел , что обе руки заняты и поднять нечем .

но ,

присев ,


Zakhar, with the tray in his hands , had started to bend down to pick up the bun, but after squatting down he realized that he had both hands full and had no way to pick it up.

3. было + Prf Past + Ipf Inf (--with the Prf Past a verb expressing either beginning or else an action preliminary to the action of the Ipf Inf) Я было стал читать , да печать очень мелка. I started to read it, but the print is awfully small . Она начала было протестовать , но потом замялась и села. She started to protest, but then faltered and sat down . Конь . . . на ходу потянулся было пить , но всадник заторопил его ... (Шолохов) As he walked along, the horse tried to reach out to drink, but the rider urged him on . Он попробовал было бороться, но тотчас же махнул рукой. He was about to try to put up a fight, but immediately gave up the idea.

4. было + Ipf Past (UNCOMMON )

Они шли было туда, но передумали и вернулись . They were on their way there but changed their minds and came back.

5. было + lpf Past + Prf Inf (In this construction , хотеть is by far the most commonly used main verb . "Had it in mind to " " (had) meant to '' ' ' (had ) thought of --ing" are often good translations of хотел было .)

Он думал было уйти , но раздумал. He thought of leaving, but changed his mind .

Он хотел было отказаться , но его уговорили . He wanted to* refuse , but they talked him into it . *(OR had it in mind to OR had meant to)

--In some examples of хотел было , like the one just given , хотел было comes close to the meaning of хотел бы:

Он хотел было отказаться ... He wanted

to refuse , but was persuaded (and did not) /Он хотел бы отказаться ...- Не would have liked to refuse , but was persuaded .


6. было + Ipf Past + Ipf Inf (LESS COMMON ) Я ложился было спать , как мне позвонили . I had just started going to bed when they phoned me. Он хотел было жаловаться , так уж я насилу отговорил .

( Салтыков- Щедрин)

He wanted to make a complaint , but, with difficulty , I talked him out of it .

7. было + lpf Pres (VERY RARE) Федор Иваныч

садится было за газету .

(Л. Толстой)

Fyodor Ivanych was about to sit down to his newspaper.

8. было + Past Active Participle (Often Reflexive ) Вспыхнувшую было на востоке зарю тотчас опять заволокло тучами. (Арсеньев) The dawn, which had just started to light up in the east , was immediately obscured again by clouds. Прекратившийся было дождь вдруг снова полил .

( Симонов)

The rain, which was just on the point of stopping*, suddenly poured down again .

* (OR: which had stopped)

Погибшего было моряка спасли . They saved the sailor who was about to lose his life.

9. было + Past Passive Participle (UNCOMMON) Посланная было книга оказалась не той , да возвратил . The book that was sent turned out to be not the right one , and I returned it.

10. было

+ Past Gerund (UNCOMMON)

Умерши было , он стал поправляться. After being on the point of dying, he began to get well .

11. было without any accompanying verb The Past form of the verb that would normally accompany было may be omitted when it is clear from the context what the omitted verb would be.

Я было что- то насчет этого , но не дал мне кончить. I started to say something about that , but he didn't let me finish .

Он было наутёк, да задержали . He tried to get away, but they stopped him.

Мы было к тебе , но . .. We were going to go to your place , but place , but . . .

• ./We had just arrived at your


12. Special meaning in colloquial speech : ness




assertion .

Expresses uncertainty, hesitancy, doubtfulUsually



containing repetitions.

-Эту деталь надо дырочками вниз ставить . -Я было так и ставила . -You have to put this part with the holes down. -Uh , I thought I was putting it that way.

-Ты ее пересолила. -Да я было чуть- чуть посолила. -You've oversalted it. -But I just barely put any salt on it, it seemed to me.

13. было + Prf Inf A somewhat similar shading of undecidedness and deliberation is expressed in the following construction with the Infinitive: (Скотинин :) Все меня одного оставили .

двор .

Пойти было прогуляться на скотный

(Фонвизин )

(Skotinin:) They've all left me alone . I guess I'll go take a walk to the pigpen.

14. было + Inf + Dat (CONSIDERED OLD-FASHIONED AND PROVINCIAL) Conveys that something was imminent but did not take place after all .

Сегодня быть- было гулянью в Марьиной роще , да дождь помешал . (quoted in Словарь современного русского литературного языка , 1,728-9) Today we were to take a walk* in Mary's Grove , but the rain prevented it . *Lit.: "there was to be a walk"


Northern dialectal :

3 uses

In Northern dialect , было is widely used , and has three sharply differing uses :

a . Exactly as in general Russian usage, with Ipf or Prf Past forms of the verb and referring to an action in the past that was begun but came to nothing and ultimately had no effect.

Я хотел было табак посеять , да раздумал . I had meant to plant tobacco , but I changed my mind. b . With Prf Past forms of the verb and referring to an event in the past that did take effect .

Here , the particle было simply emphasizes that the speaker

is looking back to the past .

Было год сей в апреле вышел лед .

This year the ice went out in April .


c. With Ipf Past, Prf Past , Ipf Pres , or Prf Pres-Fut and referring to repeated action in the past , while at the same time . бывало can refer to one -time actions in the past , all of which is the reverse of the uses of было and бывало in standard Russian.

+ Ipf Past:

(See under БЫВАЛО, 6. )

Было Семеныч мне всё носил рыбу . Semenych used to bring me fish all the time .

+ Ipf Pres :

Зимой было дрова вожу . In winter I used to haul firewood.

+ Prf Pres-Fut :

Я было когда заболею , он мне все таблеточки . I'd get sick every so often; he was always giving me pills .


+ Prf Past The combination было и always precedes the verb .

The use of было и is

closely related to the было constructions above that refer to resultless action in the past, but note that in the following examples containing было и the remark refers to something that the subject did not intend or desire to do .

Я было и забыла совсем . .. I really had just forgotten it completely. . . Этого я сперва было и не заметил . I had at first actually failed to notice this.


Special and idiomatic uses .

(See also under БУДЕМ and БУДЕТ . )

1. Future: polite inquiry. In popular speech, the Future is sometimes substituted for the Present of 6ыть in questions in order to convey an added shading of politeness or friendliness . This

is because " Bы кто будете? " , for example, is thought of as

sounding less blunt than " KтO Bы?" вы кто же будете , молодцы? And who might you young fellows be? -Вы будете начальник отдела?

—Я буду . -Would you be the chief of the department ? -Yes, I would.

2. He ✦ Fut + Ipf Inf ( = negative of Ipf Fut ) : strongly negative intention . With the negative , the Ipf Fut is sometimes used in emphatic statements that convey that it is not merely now expected that something will not be so ,


but rather that it is in fact determinedly intended that it will not be so.


often, expressions of this kind occur in the 1st person (sg or pl ), though not necessarily. That is , не буду can be used emphatically exactly like English 'I'm not going to ·

. ' , with the idea of ' I haven't any intention of

_-ing, '

'I'll be darned if I'll . . . ' , ' I'm not about to . . .'. When a negative Ipf Fut has не буду is frequently placed in the last position in the sentence : this shading, He ... не буду . '

Не стану . . . , 'I'm not going to start

„-ing' is used in the

same way . Вот что :

вставать в пять часов только для того не буду.

Now I'll tell you something: I'm not going to get up at 5 a.m. just on

that account. Слушай! Не будем переписывать всего этого . Listen! We haven't any intention of retyping all this stuff. Вот ! Торчать здесь целый день не будешь Look! You're not going to stick around here all day.

Так и знай, нам помогать не будут. They don't mean to help us , and you can bet on it.

3. не я буду + если + не:

strong conviction.

я не я буду 'I'll bet anything . . .'

..., or my name isn't ... 'As sure as shooting, .. (Lit.: I won't be I if ... not . . ./ I am not myself if . . . not ...) Не я буду , если не сидит пьет в кабаке каком- нибудь. Sure as shooting, he's sitting around drinking in some tavern.

4. а . Есть /Было /Будет + что * + Inf** + Dat subject b . Есть /Было /Будет + что * + Inf**

с . Есть /Было/Будет


Есть /Было /Будет

+ что*

+ Inf**

Any form of что **Ipf or Prf Inf

'There is something to ...'/ 'There was plenty to ... .'/etc. Of the four patterns shown above, the commonest is b.


а . Было от чего * прокатиться волне пессимизма среди людей в городе . There was plenty of reason * for a wave of pessimism to sweep over** the people in the town. ( * Lit .: " There was why " )

( ** Lit .: to roll through among)

b . Будет что рассказать ребятам! That will be /We'll really have something to tell the kids about ! -Они очень беспокоятся.

-Есть о чём беспокоиться. -They're feeling very uneasy . -There's plenty to be uneasy about . И правда , у них было чем и похвастаться . And indeed, they did have something to boast about . У вас там есть на чём отправить сюда рабочих? Do you have something ( i.e. , any vehicle) there to send the workmen to us in?

с. Они очень радуются ; и есть чему . They are very glad ; and they do have something to be glad of.

d. Было заслушивать там в этом* в кабинете. ( * в этом = в этом деле) There was plenty to hear in the office there about this matter. У нас тут передать ему есть.

We have something to forward to him.

5. быть (always Inf) + Dat : inevitability .

In statements :

Быть грозе. There's going to be a thunderstorm./There's sure to be a thunderstorm . Быть беде . There's going to be trouble./There's sure to be trouble .

In questions : Наверно мираж - подумал он . - Откуда быть воде ? '' It's probably a mirage , "

he thought .

(from a magazine story)

" How could there be any water? "

( Lit.: Where is any water to be from?)


6. быть ( Inf) + Dat + Inf (dialectal : Western) + Inf (dialectal : wide area)

быть (Inf) Expresses



of obligation ,




possibility .




= Нам рано не управиться .

нам рано не управиться.

We aren't supposed to finish up work early.

Ведь быть же нам в праздник

= Ведь придется же нам в праздник работать.


We're going to have to work on the holiday, you know.

= Значит , суждено тому случиться.

Значит , быть тому случиться . Well , it's bound to happen .

Быть дождю идти.

- Быть дождю . * /Пойдет дождь. ( *As in $5 above)

It's sure to rain. Быть опоздать тебе сегодня.

Опоздаешь ты сегодня .

You're ( undoubtedly) going to be late today.

Сколько ни плакать , а быть

- Сколько ни плачешь, а придется



No matter how much one weeps , one will have to stop (sometime ) . Бегом бежить , а быть опоздать.

- Бегом бежать , а всё ещё опоздать можно.

You can run like the devil and still be late.

7. быть (Past ) + Ipf Past or Prf Past

(dialectal :


Used when referring to an event a long time ago in the past .

( Compare $ 15b

under БЫЛО. The difference is that there the было is invariable ; here , in the following examples , all 4 forms --был , была , было , были– аre used. ) Он был пришел . He arrived./He had arrived ( prior to some other event) .

Она была с дочерью жила . She used to live with her daughter. Сын в Ленинграде был работал . * Their son was working in Leningrad (at that time ) . Метра два было снегу напало . About two meters of snow fell. Ягоды росли были . The beries had grown . /The berries were (already ) ripe .



быть, быт (as reply) (dialectal) 'Yes, that's right'

Yes, I think so' '

'Yes, certainly'

- Ты давно здесь? - Быть, давно. -Have you been here a long time? - That's right, it's been a long time. - Проеду ли я тут? или снег глубок? - Быт. Проедешь. -WillI be able to get through here? Or is the snow too deep? - Oh , yes. You'll make it through. 9. быть + Dat case of short-form adjective (ARCHAIC) Used in reference to exhibiting a quality on a particular occasion. быть упряму: be stubborn ( = быть упрямым) Зачем же быть, скажу вам напрямик, Так невоздержну на язык? (Грибоедов) I'll tell you point-blank : Why be so intemperate in what one says? 10.как + быть (Past) + Dat + Inf in questions

'How was ... supposed to ....? ?'

'How could you expect ... to ...?

'How could ... (have) ...?

Вот чудак!-удивился Ершов. Как же мне было бежать? Батька у нас вовсе хворый был - он раз на Иордани в прорубь оступился, так и не мог оправиться. Чахотку, что ли, нажил, -каждой весной помирать собирался. (-Соболев) "You really are an odd one!" said Ershov in surprise. "How was I supposed to run away? Our father was a total invalid. He fell in a hole in the ice once, at a 'Blessing of the Waters' ceremony and he just couldn't get well again. It was consumption he got, I suppose: every spring he almost died. "




' extremely ' .

See XYTb .

B: Nom Noun + не B + Acc of same Noun .

See under HE .

В ОБЩЕМ Often faded and used simply as a filler when continuing with what one was , .. saying. Often like English ' Anyway.

anyway ' , ' Anyhow,

how ' , ' In any case , · ..', ' At any rate ,


·, any-

rather than in the stronger and fuller

sense of ' in general ' or ' on the whole.'

ВАжнЕUкИй :

Рop. sp. for важный , but only in the sense of ' good ' , not in the sense of

'important. '


А вдруг

Any tense

'Suppose (that) . . . '

( = неравно)

'What if ...'



получили ?





будет ?

Suppose they didn't get the telegram? What if they won't be there?

ВЕДЬ The fundamental use of ведь is to call the hearer's attention to an idea and urge him to take it into consideration .

Beдь can be used when informing him of a

fact for the first time , or when reminding him of a fact already known to him. In practice, reminders of old facts are commoner. It is also characteristic of ведь that while some particles , such as xe, - TO, and BOT, emphasize a word, ведь regularly emphasizes a whole clause rather than a single word . With regard to position in its clause, ведь is one of the freest of all particles . It most often stands first in its clause , but may also stand last, especially in short sentences , or

inside its clause next to an important word.

USES: 1. Substantiating---In clauses that give supporting reasons for what has just been said before . THIS IS BY FAR THE COMMONEST USE OF BЕдь.

'You see, ...' • •, you see '

'That's because

' after all '

' Remember , . . .'


' surely'

'Keep in mind that .

seeing that ...'

'Don't forget that . . .

Preceding page blank


Лисы должны быть где- то здесь . Ведь следы в снегу вот вижу. There must be foxes around here somewhere , because I see tracks in the snow . Не подходите ближе ко мне .

Ведь я болен гриппом .

Можно заразиться .

Don't come any nearer to me. You see , I've got flu.

You might catch

it. Откуда я знаю?

Вам ведь и это .

How should I know?

You're the one that's supposed to handle this ,

after all. a . The


for the preceding thought may be in the form of a question:

Я собираюсь упражняться на баяне .

Ведь никто не спит еще ?

I'm getting ready to practice on the accordion.

Surely nobody is still

asleep? 2. Reminding:

' Remember , . . . '

' Keep in

mind that

..' 'Don't forget that ...' ..

‘ Understand , . . . ' Торопись ! Ведь мы обещали прибыть туда в пять часов. Hurry up! Remember, we promised to get there at 5 o'clock. 3. Of what is regarded as obvious , natural , a matter of common knowledge, a general truth .

'After all, ... ', 'Of course, •

., you know, . . . ' 'Undoubtedly, . .. . , '

'As everyone knows , . . .' Ведь голых случайностей на свете не бывает .

( Федин )

After all, there are no such things as pure coincidences in the world. А между тем ничего ведь не может силы.

быть легче , как переценить свои

But at the same time , you know, there is nothing easier than to overestimate one's own capabilities. 4. Strong contrasts. Vehement Denials .

Indignant contradictions.

'though ' , ' however ' , ' but ' , ' . . . , I tell you ' , ' Hang it,. . . ' , ' for heaven's sake' Он ни за что ни про что обрушился на меня . He tore into me for no reason at all . Pete's sake . Я ведь не украла .

And I hadn't said anything, for

Она сама дала мне на время.

I tell you , I didn't steal it . Что!

А я ведь ничего не сказал.

Танцевать не хочешь?


herself gave it to me for a while .

Не старуха ведь.

What ! You don't want to dance? You're not an old lady, for heaven's sake . 5. In concessive clauses :

' although ' .


Ведь сильно ранен, он убежал . Although severely wounded , he escaped.



In exclamations: Ведь действительно бывают такие случаи! To think that such incidents really happen!

7. Demonstrative-Intensive , used much like вот :


"Ведь как котенок растет быстро!" ( Горький) See how fast the kitten is growing! 8. Often faded in meaning in colloquial and popular speech, used simply as an attention-getter at the beginning of a remark : I say, ...', ' Look here, ...' , 'Really, now, ...'. А скажите- ка, старина, правду: Ведь прежде в ваше-то время лучше было? But tell the truth, old fellow: Really now, were things better before , in your time?

ВЕДЬ...ЖЕ Strengthened form of ведь.

ВЕДЬ ВОТ ВОТ ВЕДЬ Strengthened form of вот. = вот уж/уж вот. See under BOT. Reinforces the meaning ofthe whole construction. Regularly stands first in its clause.

'for sure ,'



Удивился: вот ведь неожиданно вышло! I was amazed. That certainly turned out unexpectedly!

ВЕДЬ И ТО Strengthened form of и то # 3 . See under И ТО .




НО ВЕДЬ but'. Here ведь strengthens a, да, & но.


See under ECТЬ: И ЕСТЬ , # 3 , p 115 .


See TAK #26b , p 346 .

ВЗЯДЕН (from Взять) (dialectal : Western, especially Southwestern) ВЗЯДЕНОЙ •

= Взят Взятый * In dialects, -ой is the m Nom sg ending, even when unaccented .


ВЕСТИ - вести себя, ' behave ' (pop. sp . ) Учительница говорит , что ты плохо ведешь на уроках. The teacher says you behave badly in class . Дети хорошо вели целый день.

The children were good all day .

ВЕСТИТЬ (Dialectal )

. вести

ВЕЧЕРКОМ 'in the evening' (colloq)

ВЕЧОР 1. = вчера вечером

' yesterday evening '

(Dialectal )

2. = вчера


(Dialectal )

3. - сегодня вечером ' this evening'

(Dialectal )


- вчeра, ' yesterday , '


(Dialectal )

( + да /и /да и ) + Verb ' simply,' ' just, ' ' go and . . ., ' ' up and ..

USAGE : 1. The Perfective взять is always used in this idiomatic construction , never бpать. 2. Bзять and the verb it accompanies may occur in any Perfective form (Prf-Pres or Past, Imperative , Infinitive , Past with 6

or Infinitive with 6ы, etc. )

3. Взять and the verb it accompanies almost always match each other in form (--both Past, both Imperative , etc. ) Departures from this rule are possible but rare . 4. The да or и ог да и between the two verbs is optional , but it is more usual to use it. 5. Взять usually stands before the other verb, but may also follow it, though this is far less common . 6. A strengthening BOT often precedes the взЯTь .

MEANING: Independent action. In general , when a verb is modified by a matching form of взЯть, the action is thought of as having no evident relation to surrounding circumstances-apparently neither caused nor affected by them: tears , '

' simply snapped in two, '

' up and burst into

'just went ahead and finished the job himself . '


The primary idea of independent action is often accompanied by any of some closely associated ideas :

1. Uncomplicated action -action accomplished without any special effort , without encountering any obstacles or complications , 2. Arbitrary decision --decision quickly and easily arrived at, without much thought, without consulting anyone , sometimes a mere whim, 3. Abrupt, unexpected action -action that comes as a surprise to other people , not to the doer.

(Many grammars and dictionaries give abrupt and unexpected action

as the only meaning, but actually it is a frequent shading, not the fundamental meaning. ) These associated shadings need not always be present .

That the shading of

arbitrary decision is not always present , for example , is shown by the fact that the взЯть construction can have an inanimate subject and can refer to results that are not desired by the subject :

inanimate subject :

Данилов и сам знал , что его не убьют . просто взять и оборваться .

Не может

его жизнь так вот


Danilov himself knew they weren't going to kill him .

His life couldn't

simply break off just like that . undesired result :

а на другой- то год она взяла умерла . •

but the following year she up and died .

Надеялись на поездку в Москву , так нет , он возьми да и захворай . We were looking forward to a trip to Moscow , but no , he had to go and get

sick all of a sudden . *

( * Note : It is the Imperative form that

corresponds to the English rendering "all of a sudden . " ) FORMS USED WITH ВЗЯТЬ : Any Perfective form may be used, and with all the meanings the Perfective always has when not modified by взять.

Examples :


Prf Past :

Никто не заметил , как я вошел .

No one noticed when I came in .

И взял я сел .

And I simply sat down .

Prf Pres (--of repeated action in the past):

Часто возьмет начнет

французские песни петь .

Often he'd just start in singing French songs .


Prf Pres (- of Fut . ): Какая


Удавлю вот возьму!

Of all the nerve !

I'll up and strangle him !

WITH ДА/И /ДА И : Prf Pres (-- of Fut): Кстати, я еще не твоя жена, и если ты будешь так глупо вести себя, я вот возьму и выйду за другого .


By the way , I'm still not your wife, and if you're going to behave in such a silly way , I'll just go and marry someone else . Prf Pres + neg:

Она хочет уедет .

остаться здесь ..

Возьмет и скажет :

кто ей может

запретить ?!


возьмет и не

" Володичка, ты как хочешь , а я не уеду " . (Панова)

She wants to stay here, and who can tell her not to? She'll simply fail to leave . She'll just say " Walty boy , you do as you want , but I'm not leaving. '' Prf Imp ( - of sudden past event ) : Я пришел к нему записаться на курс, а он вдруг возьми да и пригласи меня к себе на вечер.


I had gone to his office to sign up for a course, and he suddenly proceeded to invite me over for the evening.

Prf Inf + бы: Взять бы да и стукнуть по носу! How I'd like to just go ahead and give him a punch in the nose !


. sp. )

- видно .

( Слыхать is used in the same way for слышно . )

1. (as impersonal verb) 'One can see ... , ' ' . . . is visible , ' ' . Темно здесь внутри . It's dark in here.

can be seen'

Ничего не видать. You can't see a thing.

Отсюда легко видать дорогу. One can see the road easily from here.

Видать , что он очень силен .

One can see that he is very strong. 2. (as



' as one

can see, '

' undoubtedly . ' Она,

видать , образованная женщина.

She is evidently a well -educated woman .

' evidently, '

' plainly, '

' clearly, '





knows better', '

'understand(s) (it) better,'

' know(s) more about it'

Мне всё равно,что она говорила! Мне виднее! I don t care what she said! I know better! Согласовать это сперва с ним? Хорошо, вам эти дела виднее. Check it out first with him? Okay, you know more about these matters. вить


(as verb:) 'wind,' 'twist.'

2. (as particle :) Variant of ведь. -Что, батюшка, слепы-то, что ли? -сказал ключник. -Эхва! А вить* хозяин-то я! (Гоголь: Мертвые души 1, 6.) "What's this, my dear sir, are you blind?" said the [supposed**] steward. "Why, for heaven's sake, I'm the master!" *Spelled Вить ог Ведь in different editions. **In the story, Chichikov has mistaken the landowner for a steward.

ВИШЬ (ты)

( = ишь (ты)).

(See also under ИШЬ. C. КАК ЖЕ .)

-In Replies Containing Repetitions. May stand at either the beginning or the end ofthe repetition. Expresses amazement that the other speaker would take that attitude . Usually in indignant or strongly disapproving replies. - Поторопись! - Вишь, "поторопись. " Я всё бегаю. - Get a move on! - For Pete's sake! "Get a move on , " he says! I'm running all the time.

во · Pop. sp. for вот. 1.Ги. Непонятно. Кажется, тут что-то не так ... Во, во, во, ясно. Hm. I don't get it. Something seems to be wrong here ... Oh , I get it , I get it, now I see. 2. Во, во, во, что ты делаешь там? Hey, hey, hey, what are you doing there?

ВОБЩЕМ Incorrect for B в общем, 'anyway', 'anyhow' , p 43 & 262.


(prep + gen.)

Pop. sp. for вне , 'outside of,' 'disregarding,' 'not subject to'

See ВОВНУТРЬ, used similarly for внутрь . ВОВНУТРЬ

(ргер + Gen. & adv.) (prep

-Pop. sp. for внутри, внутрь, ' inside ,' 'within.' ВОДЮТ


= водят they lead'




= по возможности, ' insofar as possible ' , ' as much as possible ' . возможно подробный доклад : ' a report in as much detail as possible '

BO3MOXHO + Comparative

(colloq . )

как можно + Compar. , ' as . . . as possible '. = Kaк возмOжно Cкорee :

' as soon as possible'

возможно больше :

' as much as possible '

BOHA 1. (Pop. sp. & Regional) (adverb/particle ) = вOH (a) ' there, ' ' over there ' ; (b) (with pronouns and adverbs of quantity & degree) ' How. . .! ,' 'What a . . . !'

2. (Colloq. ) a. In

exclamations . Expresses


astonishment :


' Holy smoke!'

-Вас переведут на Владик на будущей неделе. -Вона! -They're transferring you to Vladivostok next week. -Wow! b . Exclamation




repetitions .

In popular

practically always stands at the beginning of the reply.



Expresses great

surprise at what has just been said, and when joined with a repetition always expresses

some sort of negative ,


or contrary reaction :


approval , annoyance, mockery, indignation, or scorn.

' Oh my gosh !'

'Hell !'

'For Pete's sake!'

'Ye gods !'

' Oh great!'

'Good Lord!'

-За что же ему такое нехорошее прозвище прилепили? -Вона! За что? Кому следует .. сразу прилепят . (Троепольский) -What did they stick such an unpleasant nickname on him for? -Oh honestly, for gosh's sake ! stick one on him right away.

во сколько

(pop. sp. )

at what time? when?

What for? Whoever has it coming, they


BOT (1 )The basic and most familiar use of BOT is in pointing out and calling attention to something, and it is from this that the specialized uses derive .

(2) Bor can em-

phasize nouns , verbs , predicate adjectives , pronouns , and adverbs , and also whole phrases or clauses .

(3 ) As a rule, BOT is unstressed and stands before the word or

words it applies to, but there are some exceptions .

1. Simply

pointing out a fact :

(BOT + Noun :)

Вот моя машина.

This is my car.

(BOT + Verb:)

Вот приехали .

They've arrived .

Вот солнце всходит .

The sun is coming up .


whole clause :)

2. Reinforcing demonstrative pronouns and adverbs ( этот , тот , такой , таков , туда , сюда , оттуда , отсюда, тогда , так , там , тут , здесь , etc ) .

With a demonstrative ,

the BOT can stand either before or after it , unless standing after it would make BOT the last word in its phrase . If there is any special emphasis , it is on the demonstrative ,

not the BOT .

Так вот случилось ; такое вот дело : (OR Вот так случилось ; вот такое дело : ... .) It happened like this ; it was one of those deals : Он жил вот здесь .

(NOT " .... . здесь вот . " )

He used to live right here. In matter-of-fact remarks , neither the BOT

nor the demonstrative is emphasized:

Дайте мне вот эту бумагу.

Hand me that piece of paper there . When a

demonstrative is









preposition: Он жил вот здесь , вот на этой самой улице .

He used to live right here, right on this very street. Все телефонные номера он заносит вот в эту книжку . He puts down all the telephone numbers in this notebook here.

3. Combining with interrogative/relative pronouns and adverbs ( кто , что , чей , какoй , каков , куда , как , где , почему , etc ) to point out something thought of as at one time not known, or the answer to a question one had in mind .

Unlike the case of

the demonstratives ($2) , here the BOT is stressed , not the interrogative , and the BOT always stands before the interrogative.

Вот кто спёр карандаши . That's who swiped the pencils .


Так , вот

почему они так торопились .

So that's why they were in such a hurry .

Вот как он это делал . Here's how he used to do it. When special emphasis is meant , both the BOT and the interrogative are stressed : Вот что , Михаил Петрович : Вы лучше отправьте ответ на эту телеграмму скорее . See here, Mikhail Petrovich --You'd better send off an answer to that telegram as fast as you can. Хозяин сказал вот что: Чтоб впредь никто не .... I'll tell you (exactly ) what the boss said.

He said that from now on no

one is to . .. When


interrogative is governed by a preposition, BOT

stands before the

preposition :

Вот за кого она вышла. That's the man she married.

4. Pointing out that a number of actions form a sequence , expecially when recounting a succession of events clearly visualized . The BOT may come at the beginning of the series only, or may be repeated before each item.

Я не шевельнулся , следил за ними. выглянули , вот


вскочили и побежали






через дорогу. . .

I didn't move and kept watching them.

They crouched down in the

reeds , peered out , jumped up and ran across the road...

5. Contrasting and contradicting .

Since BOT is used to call for attention , to stress

and emphasize, it is natural that it is often used in pointing out a contrast or in contradicting what someone else has just said:

In expressions of this kind,

BOT stands either first in its clause or inside it , but preceding the word or phrase it emphasizes . Вам- то вот смешно , а нам слёзы.

To you it's funny, but we feel like crying. -Боюсь, вы забыли об изменении срока. —Нет , вот не забываю . -I'm afraid you've forgotten about the change in deadline. -No, I'm not either forgetting about it.

-Где пропадал? -Пропадал или не пропадал , а вот нашелся.

-Where did he disappear to? -Disappeared or not , he's turned up again .


6. Inserted between words that express a unified idea . a . Bor can also stand between a subject and a predicate and emphasize the two of them together.

This word order usually occurs in contrasts .

Играйте в карты всю ночь если хотите , а я вот не буду . Play cards all night if you want to , but I'm not going to.

Он вино , а мы вот пиво пьём . He's having wine , but we're drinking beer. b. Similarly, when an object precedes its verb, BOT can stand between them and

emphasize both as a whole . Денег вот дать не обещаю .

I'm not promising to give them any money . Велосипед вот купил .


He bought a bicycle .

It's a swell one .

7. At times BOT is weakened to a mild attention -getter, or even little more than a filler: На курсы электротехников вот просится . Как думаешь , отпускать? He's asking to go to the school for electricians . What do you think , shall we let him go?

8. In assertions of opinion .

Characterizing .

Here BOT points out that the word or

phrase it applies to is a very apt description of the subject at hand.

(Viewed the

other way around, BOT emphasizes that the subject is an outstanding example of whatever the speaker is calling it, an example of it " in the fullest sense of the word . " ) Assertions of opinion are frequently in the form of exclamations , though not necessarily.

The BOT always precedes the word it applies to .

In popular speech, BOT is sometimes pronounced " or" this kind .

in expressions of

See also under BОТ ВЕДЬ ВЕДЬ ВОТ , p 45 & 55 , BOT- TO /BOТ ЭТО . . .TO , p 64 , and BOT УЖ / УЖ ВОТ , P p 66 . a. With nouns :

Вот вздор! That's nonsense ! Вот гадость ! What a rotten trick! Вот диковина!

What an odd thing! Вот комик! Now there's a comedian for you !


b. With noun & verb:

Вот будет потеха! That's really going to be fun!

c. With verb: Вот танцуют ! Look at them dance !/Just see how they dance ! Вот не ожидала! She certainly wasn't expecting that ! d . With predicate adjective ( including participles ). Вот неожиданно!

That was unexpected ! e. With inflected adjective Вот адская эта погода. . .. This ghastly weather. . . f. With Infinitive + бы

Вот бы устроить вечеринку .

It would be great to have a party . g. With adjectival predicate Вот интересно бы сравнить их.

( = было бы интересно)

It would be interesting to compare them.

h. With a Subjunctive expression А мне то что -- они оба дураки . What do I care?

9. In expressions

Вот бы и дрались.

They're both idiots .

Let them go ahead and fight .

of a negative or ironic opinion of something.

In independent

constructions with this meaning BOT never occurs alone , but rather is always in combination with another particle or a pronominal word; the only time that BOT can occur alone and have this meaning is in REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS (--See BOT /BOT ЕЩЕ /НУ ВОТ ЕЩЕ $ 3. )

Thus Вот работники! - What (good) workers ! But Вот они работники! - What (lousy) workers! Вот еще работники !

= What ( lousy) workers!

Вот работники тоже ! = What (lousy) workers ! See under BOT . . .ЕЩЕ + Noun/Verb , BOT OH/ОНА/ОНО/ОНИ + Noun , BOT. . (-ТО) ТОЖЕ . " 10. IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS : 44 horseradish !'' See under BОТ ЕЩЕ .

" The heck it is ! " ,

indeed!, ''



A BOT ... И ... ДА ВОТ И вот

НУ ВОТ When compounded with one of the particles a , да, и ог ну , вот always stands at the beginning of its sentence and emphasizes not the word or phrase that directly follows it , but instead emphasizes the overall meaning of the whole sentence and its relation to what preceded it. Вы взломщика видели ?


You saw the burglar?

Ну вот расскажите всё об этом .

You did ?

Well , then , tell all about it .

- Вы сейчас чем занимаетесь?

-Да вот готовлю бумаги к докладу . -What are you doing right now? -I'm getting my papers in shape for a report, that's what.

ВОТ ВЕДЬ (--See also BOT УЖ / УЖ ВОТ , which is the same in use and meaning. ) ВЕДЬ ВОТ In combination with ведь , вот is an intensifier applying to the whole construction that


it .

Often in remarks about something that has just come to one's

attention. Удивительно!

Вот ведь тип ! Вот экземпляр! Ну и ну!

Amazing! He really is a strange one ! What a specimen ! Really !

Вот ведь неожиданно вышло ! That certainly turned out unexpectedly ! Ведь вот уехали на нашей машине ! Возмутительно! Look, they've gone off in our car !

Outrageous !


НУ ВОТ! НУ ВОТ ЕЩЕ! -As independent exclamation ; not connected with other words. 'What an idea !,' ' What nonsense !, ' 'What rot !, ' ' Oh come on now !, ' ' Don't be silly!'

In denials and expressions of disagreement . -Я тебя к себе заберу , бабушка .

-Не поеду.

Ты больна.

Вот еще !

-I'll take you to my place , grandma . -I won't go .

What nonsense !

You're sick .


N -Ты можешь поднять этот диван . -Ну вот еще !

Давай !

С ума сошел разве,

-You can lift that sofa.

-What an idea!

Go on !

Have you gone crazy?

ВОТ ЕЩЕ ... ! ВОТ ... ЕЩЕ !

+ Noun or Verb (See also EшE , A EWE . )

Expresses derision and scorn . (The same as BOT §9 , BOт он/она/оно/они + Noun,

and BOT ... . . тоже. ) Вот воин еще ! A fine soldier he is !/Isn't he the soldier, though !

Вот еще выдумал ! And that's the idea he came up with ! /Some idea he cooked up! Вот еще проблема .. пера не найти ! Some problem !


Can't find a pen !


ВОТ ЕЩЕ НУ ВОТ ЕЩЕ 'The heck ... !'

'Don't tell me . . . !'

'... indeed!'

'Don't give me that stuff about . . . !'

'... horseradish !'

'How do you like that , . . . !'


offended or annoyed disagreement with what has just been said.

May stand either first or last in the reply.

May or may not be set off by a pause

if it stands first ; always set off by a pause when it stands last.

-Ты, пожалуйста, не сердись . -Вот , сердиться ! -Please don't be mad.

-How do you like that !

"Be mad!"'

-Мой пиджак тебе не влезет . -Вот еще , не влезет ! ( OR :

Не влезет , вот еще ! )

-My jacket won't fit you. -Baloney it won't fit !


Won't fit, baloney ! )

-Ошибся, не так ли? -Вот еще ошибся. -You were mistaken , weren't you? -The heck I was mistaken .


BOT ... XE Strengthened form of BOT $ 5 (Stressing and contrasting) . А чтоб ты треснул! Хотел было даром отдать , но теперь вот не

получишь же ! Blast you ! I was going to give them to you for nothing, but now you're not getting them !

Сам больной , а вот пришел же . He was sick himself, and yet he came.

вот и The combination вот и , with its compounds (а вот и , вот тебе и , вот тут и , etc ),

has two main meanings , each of which has minor shadings .

The two main

meanings are (1 ) pointing out that something is a natural consequence , an expected result, and (2) pointing out something sarcastically, expressing a low opinion of it because it fails to be what it was claimed to be , did not measure up, or was a fiasco. 1. Pointing out natural consequences and expected results . When used in the following combinations .


a. BOT BOT ...


' and naturally', ' and of course ' .

вот тебе * И (*When reбe is inserted, it does not refer to any person in particular, but instead is generalizing and impersonal, used in the sense of " There's a fine case of

for you" , " as anyone can see " , " just as one would imagine " ,

etc. In other words, here reбe is itself a particle, not a real pronoun .) Expresses recognition that something is a natural consequence . Ему всегда удается отделаться от неприятностей, вот и отделался. He always manages to get out of jams , and naturally he got out of it. Я заранее отправился, вот и заранее приехал .

I started out ahead of time , so of course I got here early. Унять- то его некому , вот и ссорится со всяким . There's nobody to shut him up, and so he quarrels with everybody . Играть в карты он совсем не умеет , вот тебе и проиграл .

He doesn't know a thing about playing cards , and as you might know, he lost.




а вот




вот тебе



Calls attention to the realization of an expectation .

Often in reference to

something that has been expected long and impatiently,

or apprehensively .

Вот ты и приехала, слава богу.

You've (finally) got here , thank goodness . А вот и магазин. And here's the store . /Here we are (at last ) at the store.

Вот я и дома! Home at last!

Ah !

Вот и весна наступила. Spring has (finally ) come . с. вот и -- IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS In replies containing repetitions , BOT и introduces firm and unyielding contradictions : '' It is too " etc. '' , '' It isn't either '' , '' I do too -Борис , весь случай с дракой пропускаешь . -Вот и не пропускаю.

Ты об этом расскажи !

Я только дохожу до этого .

-Boris , you're leaving out the whole story about the fist fight.


them about that ! -I'm not either leaving it out . I'm just getting to that. d. а вот и


In replies containing repetitions , а вот и expresses disagreement with what has just been said , teasing the other speaker by hinting that there is something about the situation that he does not understand , does not know, or is mistaken about :

' Oh yes , it is ' , ' You just think it is/isn't. ' etc.

-Да тебя маменька на порог не пустит. -А вот и пустит .

И еще спасибо скажет .


- Mama won't let you set foot in the house. -Oh yes, she will .

And she'll thank me , too ...

-Кто его послушает , Болтунова ! -А вот и послушают !

Вас уверяю.

- Boltunov? Who'll listen to him!

-Oh , but they will , I assure you. 2. Sarcastic expression of a low opinion . a. BOT и

Scorn of what has failed to measure up.

вот тут и + Imperative ( Regularly Imperative singular. )


и ... тут


Used in ironic expressions of the conclusion that what was supposed to be the right and proper thing to do has been tried and found by experience to be impossible , useless ,


pointless .

( Literally , it is a sarcastic parroting of a real or imagined command , as in " Oh . . "' and similar formulas . ) to .... sure , I'm supposed to Вот и делай так , как тебе велят , а не обдумывай! Oh yeah , it's always " Do as you're told and never mind thinking it over! ''

Вот и верь после этого добрым соседам ! So much for believing our good neighbors after this! Вот и угоди на вас! Just try to please you !

Вот и разберись тут ! Try and figure that out! Вот тут и толкуй с упрямой старухой .

Just try to reason with a stubborn old woman ! b . вот ( вам /тебе /те * ) и + Past (with subject of Past verb omitted ) ( * те =тебе ) Only a little different from $ 2a .

Used to refer with heavy irony to an action

that failed to be done , did not succeed , or produced undesirable results . Говорила я , так ты слушать не хотел . I

Вот и дождался !

kept telling you , and you wouldn't listen .

That's what you got by

keeping it up ! Он обещал напомнить мне об этом .

Вот тебе и напомнил !

He promised to remind me about that . A swell job of reminding he did! с . Вот вам /тебе / те * и + Noun

( * те = тебе)

Used in scornful denials that the subject has the quality ( named by the noun) that the subject has been assumed to have or would naturally be expected to have. Он всё проповедует щедрость , а сам скупой .

Вот вам и гуманитарность

вся его . He's always preaching generosity , and he himself is a tightwad. what all his humanitarianism amounts to. Вот тебе и знаток ! Some expert !

Он об этом ни в зуб ногой.

He doesn't know beans about it .

Скоро встретят и не узнают .



Вот те и дружба !

a short time they'll run into you and not recognize you .

friendship for you ! d . вот ( тебе ) и + words quoted from another speaker's remark . Expresses ironic disagreement with the other speaker. —Минутку , я сейчас ! -Вот тебе и сейчас!



-Just a minute. I'll be with you right away! -Right away my foot!


e. BOT


вот те( = тебе) (и) вот вам


The particle combination always stands first in the repetition .


what is expressed is a critical or annoyed and derisive attitude ; sometimes , an ironically sympathetic attitude.

—Что вы, шутите? -Вот те шутите !

Факт .

-You don't say ! -Joking nothing!

Are you joking? It's a fact .

-Что вы! -Вот тебе и что вы!

-You don't say! -The devil I don't!

ВОТ ИМЕННО 1. (With personal or demonstrative pronoun ) ' exactly ' , ' just ' , ' the very...' Вот именно он первоначально задал вопрос. He's the very one who asked the question in the first place. 2. (As an introductory phrase , followed by a clause that is complete in itself. ) 'The thing is , ... , ' ' You see , . . . , ' ' Actually, . . .' . Вот именно, я знаком с ним не был , .

The thing of it is, I wasn't acquainted with him ; . . . 3. (Standing alone and used as an answer) 'Yes indeed ' , ' Exactly so ' , ' That's it exactly. '

-Значит , нам недостает данных.

—Вот именно. -In other words, we don't have enough data. -That's it exactly.

ВОТ КОГДА 1. ' That's when . . .? (See BOT §3 . )

2. 'Whenever' (used as conjunction)


BOT HET (As an answer , when contradicting , especially in expressions of strong disagreement ) 'No, it's not either'/' No , I don't either'/' No , you don't either ' , etc. —Он улетит завтра в Париж. В Лондон !

-Вот нет !

-He's going to fly to Paris tomorrow. -No he's not either! It's to London !

ВОТ НУ Это Used when explaining and clarifying.

-Почему не был на совещании ? —Не мог . И не мог туда дозвониться . Так что туда позвонил. -Куда " туда " ? -Вот ну это на вашу контору затем .

-Why weren't you at the conference ? -I couldn't. And I couldn't get a phone call through . So I called there. -Where do you mean by " there "? (Lit .: Where is " there " ?)

-Why , it was to your office that I called next .

BOТ он/она/оно/они + Noun (+ particle - To) Expresses disapproval and irony . The sense is that of having discovered or

concluded that the subject is not all it is claimed to be. 'And this is what they call . . . ! '

'So this is . . . !'

' And these are . . . ! Great , aren't they?' 'And this is supposed to be . . . ! '

. ' " 'Take a look at him, the great . · .!

'So much for ...!'

Вот деньги потеряны !

Вот они , его мечты!

The money is lost ! So much for his great dreams ! Всё хлопоты да суета ! Вот она , семейная жизнь ! Troubles and fussing all the time ! And this is supposed to be family life ! " Я же , по милости сынов ( = сыновей) моих , горбом пропитание добываю.

Это как?

Вот оно , потомство .

Да пропади оно пропадом ! "

"And I , thanks to my sons , get my living by my own hard work . come?





what they call posterity !



How damn


ВОТ он /она/оно/они

+ Infinitive


Expresses the same disapproval and irony as the same construction with a noun . ОЙ! Вот так история !

Вот оно-- откровенно с вами говорить!

Oh, boy! A fine mess ! So much for being frank with you!


1. As reply, unaccompanied by additional words . "That's it ' , ' Right . ' 2. As a concessive clause . 'That's true, (but . . . ) ' , 'That may all be, (but . . . )' . —Нет , Доклад не готов.

Никто не может печатать так скоро !

—Ну вот так , только хозяин хочет сейчас.

-No, the report isn't ready. Nobody can type that fast! -Well, that's true , only the boss wants it right now. 3. In explaining and placating 'That is ...', ' I mean, . . . ' , 'That is to say,. Он просил , если он не нужен, то . • •9 значит , он просит чтоб тогда задержаться там по всей возможности , вот так по возможности , конечно. He was asking, if he's not needed , then . . ., he's asking to stay there in that case if it's at all possible, that is if it's possible , of course.


+ Noun or Verb The Tak is never stressed when BOT TAK is used in this way.

BoT Tak

always stands at the beginning of the construction. It lends emphasis to expressions

of opinion.

The opinio:

may be either favorable or unfavorable ,

although in practice opinions introduced by Bór Taк are more often unfavorable

ones : Some


What a



(favorable :) Ребята вот так пушка! — Да ! Уж оченно , сейчас умереть , большая ! Boys, that's some cannon ! one !

Yeah !

Hanged if that ain't a mighty big

(favorable or unfavorable , depending on context:) Вот так день выбрал для этого ! What a day he picked for it!


(unfavorable :)

на два аршина под землей всё видит . Вот так старичок задался : Lookit how the old goat has put on airs --acts as if he could see five feet into the ground .

BÓT TAK BÓT (COMMON) Cf BOT ËTO BOT 1. Often said when agreement has been satisfactorily reached and the subject is

being dismissed : ' That's it , then . '

'Okay, then . '

' That's the stuff. '

'Then that's what we'll do . ' 'That takes care of it. '

'All right, fine . ' -Не умею связываться с ними . -Не беспокойся.

Я позвоню им .

-Вот так вот .

-I don't know how to get in touch with them. -Don't worry .

-Okay .

I'll phone them .

Great .

—Всё до сих пор записал? -Всё , да. —Вот так вот .

Следующее : ...

-Have you got it all written down up to now? -Yes , all of it . -Okay, then .

The next item is ...

2. Said

maintaining that however surprising or un-

at the end of an explanation ,

satisfactory the answer just given may be , nevertheless it is true . ' That's the way it is . '

' That's how things stand. ' -Свои ключи забыл . Можно ли взять ваши? —Нельзя .

Не имею права отдать эти ключи .

—Как не имеешь права отдать?

—Ну вот так вот . -I've forgotten my keys . -We can't do that .

Can I take yours?

I'm not authorized to let anyone have these keys .

-What do you mean , you're not authorized to? -Well, that's the way it is.

-Что с машиной? —Не

знаю .

Мотор действует ,

больше ; вот так вот с мотором .

но так километров может

быть 40 ,



-What's wrong with the car? -Don't know.

The engine runs , but you get oh, perhaps 40 kilometers

an hour -- not more than that.

That's how it is with the engine .

BOT TAK 3TO - IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS Used in derisive replies expressing disbelief and displeasure. 'Now you're going to give me that stuff about .

'Now it's ...

'That's great, that . . . stuff. ' Или опять забыла?

-Ты принесла? -Мама !

Я принесла.

Я почти никогда не забываю, да что ты.

-Ну да .

Вот так это " что ты " .

На прошлой неделе два раза забыла.

-Did you bring them? Or did you forget again? -Mama! I brought them.

I practically never forget.

How can you say

that? -Oh sure.

Now it's " how can you say that?"

Last week you forgot

them twice .


'That's the one .' Легко найти . BOT .

За углом стоят три дома из кирпича.

It's easy to find.

Третий-- вот такой

Around the corner are three brick houses.

The third-

that's the one.


- TO

BOT 3TO ———————- TO

+ Noun or Verb or Predicate Adjective

BOT- TO Strengthened form of BOT §8 (In assertions of opinion & characterizing.) 'What a ...' 'Now there's a ... (for you) . ' 'Now that's what I call a real . . .'

'Now that's really

-ing . '

Вот это художник- то! Now there's a real artist ! Трагедию вздумал писать .

Вот чудит- то .

He took it into his head to write a tragedy . being eccentric.

Now that's what I call


Вот- то приятно было гулять- то по реке . What was really pleasant was walking along the river.


(See also under TOXE . )

Expresses disgust and disapproval . (The same as BOт §9, вот он/она/оно/они + №оun , and BOT ( . . . ) eшe. ) Note :

Like вот еще and other еще -combinations (еще , а еще , еще и , а еще и) ,

Toxe and BOT TOжe are usually used sarcastically.

This means that the word that

these expressions are used with is an expression of what the person spoken of thinks is right and the speaker thinks is wrong: 8 Вот еще моряк ! Вот моряк тоже ! And he calls himself a sailor! Вот еще проектировщик !

8 Вот проектировщик тоже!

A fine planner he is! 8 Вот гений тоже!

Вот еще гений !

Huh, some genius ! Occasionally, BOT ... Toxe is used directly: the word that BOT • • . тоже is used

with expresses what the speaker actually thinks , Ах , вот дурак- то тоже !

instead of its opposite :

( Фадеев)

Lord, what an awful fool! Вот BOT ... TOжe can also be applied to a whole sentence :

Вот этого бездельника держат тоже! And they persist in keeping that good-for-nothing around!

BOT TO- TO BOT TO- TO XE BOT TO- TO . . . И -- elucidating, Strengthened form of TO- TO $ 2c -

enlarging, illustrating .


especially of something that has just come up that illustrates what one has said before.

'There you are: ..

'That's just it. '

'That's exactly what I've been saying. ' 'Now here's a perfect example of .. ' This is just what . .

means . '

-Честное слово , я это только случайно . -Вот то-то случайно . Внимание обращать надо . -Honest , I only did it by accident. -That's just the point , it was by accident . you're doing .

(OR: There

you are:

You have to look what

it was by accident ·

• .)



-А где он теперь? —Вот то- то я и не знаю. -But where is he now? -That's exactly what I don't know . Вот то- то детки!

Всё хлопоты!

Trouble all the time !

That's what it is to have children !

BOT TÝT TAK ' Here's what the situation here is'



(Similar to BOT ВЕДЬ /ВЕДЬ ВОТ. ) Reinforces the meaning of the whole construction . ' certainly, ' ' really , ' ' I must say . ' Вот уж спасибо. I certainly thank you

Вот уж не скупой . He's certainly not a bit stingy. Здравствуйте, вот уж не ждали. Hello there ! I must say we haven't been waiting any length of time

Вот что 1. As introductory phrase:

(Literally :

" Here's what ' . )

' Here's the story on that : . . . 'Here's how it is: . . . ' 2. As parenthetical phrase : · • well , it's like this, · •

the thing of it is,

· , you see, .. 3. As pronominal combination:

'whatever' И вот что он говорил , они да еще дакали .

And whatever he said , they kept saying "yes" .




Perhaps a combination of Taк BOT and Bот чтO : • here is, ... ' , ' The thing about it is that ...'

' Here's the story ' , 'The point

Такое дело, Коля ! Так вот что , этот мотор производят в двух вариантах. Какого надо, знаешь? It's like this , Kolya ! The point here is , this engine is manufactured in two models . Which do they need , do you know?

BOT : ТОЛЬКО ВОТ ЧТО : ' only on one condition :

вот это

+ Verb (See BOT $ 3 . ) (that you will . . . etc) '

(See BOT §2)

1. 'Here's what . ..', 'That's what ... (I want, etc) Вот это мне куска проволоки длинее надо было . What I needed was a longer piece of wire./That's what I needed , a longer piece of wire. 2. "The point is that

.", "Here's why . . ." , "You see, . . . " , " Look here,

..", ' Here's the thing of it, .. (Used when explaining something that the hearer has failed to understand . ) -Журнал посылаете мне ?

Какой журнал?

- Который вы просили , который вы. • . .Вот это , Жуликов читал, и вы хотели прочесть тоже , помните? -You're sending me a magazine ? What magazine?

-The one you asked for, the one you .

Look here, Zhulikov was

reading it and you wanted to read it through too. Remember? 3. BOT 3TO + Noun Strengthened form of BOT §8 ( In assertions of opinion & characterizing. ) Similar to BOT $ 8 and BOT



, except that BOT

Tо regularly occurs with Nouns , and regularly expresses approval and admiration . Note that the 3To here is an invariable particle , and does not change to agree with the noun that follows it.

• 'What a ... '

' Now they're what I call some real

'Now there's a real . . .'

'That's some · .. !'

Вот это стрелки ! Now those are real marksmen !

Вот это постройка! That's some piece of construction !


вот это вот


1. ( Upon reaching an agreement)

' That's it ' , ' That's the stuff. ' , ' That's what we'll do ' 2. (In explaining something the hearer has failed to understand.

Often with a

shading of impatience . )

-Ну вот , они должны завтра прибыть к вам . -Кто ?

—Ну , вот это вот , инспекция . -Look here , they're supposed to arrive at your place tomorrow . -Who? -Why, the inspection team , that's who .

ВОТ ЭТО ТАК Expanded form of вот так.

In expressions of one's reaction to something, or

opinion of it (often unfavorable ) . Их нет дома.

Вот это так мило!

They're not home .

Isn't that just dandy!

Вот это так собака!

Wow, some dog !


( adv )

(The first three meanings are standard literary usage ; the fourth is colloquial and substandard. ) 1.

' forwards , ' ' ahead , ' ' up front . '

2. ' in the future , ' 'for the future ' , 'from now on' . ( впредь , на будущее время , отныне ) 3. ' ahead , ' ' in advance , ' ' before falling due ' . заплачен за год вперёд paid a year in advance 4. first, before (-i.e. , before doing something else), to start with ( * прежде , раньше , сперва, сначала) Вперёд подумай , а потом ответь.

Think a minute first, and then answer. Вперёд поработаю , а после почитаю. First I'll do some work, and then I'll do some reading. Побудьте , я загляну вперёд , готовы ли они . Wait a minute .

I'll take a look first and see if they're ready.



'one way or the other' Бензина нету.

Ну , я обращусь к друзьям .

There's no gasoline .

Вправо или влево достану .

Well , I'll try my friends .

One way or another

I'll get some .

used for G. sg . времени.



Сейчас сколько время у вас? What time do you have right now? Нельзя теперь вдаваться в подробности .

Время у меня нет .

I can't go into details now . I don't have time.

ВРЕМЯ : ВО ВРЕМЯ бно (colloq . & substandard ) ' (at) some time or other. ' (--in the FUTURE . ) ( In standard literary usage , во время оно is a rather old-fashioned and bookish phrase like English '' in days of yore , ' ' and refers to the past only . ) Теперь уж мы удивимся, наверно , во время бно . Now we're probably going to be surprised sooner or later.

ВРЁШЬ Used as a one-word exclamatory sentence . ' Nonsense! '

'You're kidding!'

' Ahh , you're out of your mind ! '

'You're crazy!'

' Oh , that can't be right ! '

' Oh , no it's not ! '

The literal meaning of врёшь is “ You're lying . "

However, in many expressions

of disbelief what is meant is not a blunt accusation of deceit , but only a strong conviction that the other speaker is mistaken . -Он очень болен . Лежит дома в постели , говорят .

-Врёшь !

Я только что увидел его в ресторане.

-He's very sick.

He's home in bed , they say.

-Ahh, you're out of your mind! I just saw him in a restaurant .


-As adverbial particle ( colloq . & pop . sp. ) БЫ











adverbial particle ,


conveys a

feeling of uncertainty and


indefiniteness . It indicates that the speaker is not sure that what he is saying is accurate, or not sure that he is choosing quite the right word. Вроде is used in this meaning either alone or compounded with other particles , as shown above . It usually stands immediately before or after the word it most directly applies to , and may stand first , last , or in the middle in a sentence . (In literary Russian , вродe is supposed to be used only as a preposition that takes the Genitive case:

' a sort of

a . . . ' , ‘ a kind of . . .' Note that in colloquial English ' sort of' and ' kind of' are used in exactly the same way : вроде:

Он был вроде сердит :

He was sort of mad . Я боюсь ,

I'm afraid, kind of. ) There are many possible translations :

' sort of'

'it seems'

' somewhat'

'more or less'

'I guess '

' mainly'

'one could say'

' I suppose '

' as it were'

'something like . . .' ... , really ' actually'

Всё вроде хорошо. Everything's all right , I guess. -Ну, как моя прическа? -Ничего вроде . -Well, how do you like my hairdo? -Not bad, all in all.

-Идут часы? -Вроде бы как идут.

-Is the clock running? -It seems to be running all right, I guess . ненужные усложненности, но я понял · вроде бы. любит Он He loves to make things unnecessarily complicated , but I understood it, after a fashion . Он сперва вроде бы не воспринимал всерьёз того , что происходит . At first he more or less didn't take seriously what was going on.


(followed by an enumeration of items ) . Note that Bроде does not take the Gen.

case in this construction.

The case of the words after вроде is determined by the ' such as' , ' including' ( кaк- то , а именно)

construction of the whole sentence . (colloq .)

Нам только нужны некоторые данные , вроде адрес , телефонный номер, и так далее. We only need a few facts , like address , phone number, etc.




(pop. sp . )

' and so forth , " and things like that' . Нам


нужны некоторые

данные -- адрес ,




вроде. We only need a few facts --address , telephone number, and things like that.


+ G. case

КАК НАСЧЕТ ' as in the


of, '

(pop.sp. )

' like the business about

' 'like the time it was

about . . .' Он только изредка так шумит , вроде как насчет дела, что вы задевали . He only raises the devil like that once in a while , like the time it was about the file that you mislaid.


(as reply)

'Nothing like that . ' -Ну ,

должно быть , так случилось тогда .

-Да нет !

Сомнений нет , ничего?

Вроде нет .

-Well , that's the way it must have happened , then.

There aren't any

doubts about it or anything, are there? -Oh no! Nothing like that .

BCË 1. (Usually + Verb or predicate adjective . ' always the same ') .

Also with pronouns , e.g. всë то же ,

' all the time ' , ' right along '.

Indicating that something has been going on or has been the case for a long time, constantly , and predominantly.

Вы всё шутите , а мне уж не до шуток , право . You're always kidding , but I'm not in the mood for jokes , and that's a fact .

2. (+ Verb, predicate adjective , or pronoun) ' still ' ,' continued to . . . ' , ' went on

- ing ' , ' kept on.


Indicating that an action or state is of some duration , the focus of interest , and continued from before . Сядь ! " кричали , но он всё стоял.

"Siddown !" they shouted , but he kept on standing. Её здоровье всё нехорошо? Ls her health still poor?/Is she still in poor health?


3. (+ Noun, pronoun , or predicate adjective )

' all ', ' entirely'. Indicating that something is exclusively so and is the only important fact. " ( Анисья :) На отца сворачиваешь , а умыслы-- твои всё * " (- ЛНТолстой , Власть тьмы , 1,8 . ) ( * Note : всё , not sce . ) (Anisya:) You're trying to push the blame off onto your father, but the intentions were yours entirely. 4. (+ Noun , Pronoun , or Infinitive)

' all' Indicating what is clearly the sole cause or reason or source for an event. Всё ты ! It was all your fault ! Ошибок тут воз .

(Lit.:(It was) all you OR you (did it ) all . )

Всё нерашество!

There's a load of mistakes here . It's all (due to) sloppiness ! А к чему?

Всё отличаться .

And what for? All for the sake of distinguishing themselves .

5. (+ Comparative of Adjective )

' more and more

,'. '

er and

-er' , ' ever

_ -er'.

всё ближе nearer and nearer

6. (+ Present Participle) всё расширающийся ever-expanding






' nevertheless ' , ' all the same ' , ' still , anyway' .


+ a form of делать + another verb referring to the same subject 8 - всë, что ' all that' -Что там делаешь?

-Hy, всё делаю я сижу, жду его . -What are you doing there? -All ' r doing is sitting and waiting for him.


ВСЕ ДО ЕДИНОГО/ЕДИНОЙ 'without exception ' , ' every last one of them ' , ' to the very last one ' .

BCE TAK + adversative conjunction (--any word for ' but ' or ' however' ) 'That's all very well , (but... ) ' , ' That's fine , (but . . . ) ' , 'That's all perfectly true, (but...)' Всё так, но это ты забыл ключ. That's all true enough , but you're the one that forgot the key.

BCE - TO Strengthened form of BCE $ 1 : ' all the time ' , ' right along' .

BCEгo (as introductory word) 'The whole thing is that ...'

'(Considered ) All together ,. . . ' ' In a word, . . .



+ Gen. case (Сf. только + Gen. , with same meaning)


ВСЕГО ЛИШЬ И ' only' , 'the only———————_ is_____ '' ,, '' the the. _' , ' all there is to the

is nothing but

' , ' the whole


is —————————' .

Всего- то дела грузить овощи на телегу да возить в город. All there is to the job is to load the vegetables on the wagon and haul them to town.


' only ', ' nothing but . . .' " Какой же из меня командир?

И всего- то- навсего я кочегар " .


старый матрос . "What kind of a commander would I make? When I'm nothing but a stoker' , said the old sailor.


ВСЕГО ПОНЕМОГУ ВСЕГО ПОНЕМНОЖКУ ' a little of everything ' , ' a conglomeration of stuff' Здесь в ремонтной мастерской нужно всего понемножку. Here in the repair shop we have to have a little of everything.


+ Dat . pl . Noun + Nom . sg. of same noun

' a really fine.

' , ' what I call a real .

Expresses a high opinion of a person or thing, characterizing it as the best of its kind .

Всем молодцам молодец. Now there's a fine young fellow. Всем писателям писатель. He's an outstanding writer.


( colloq . )

- насчёт чего? -- ' About what? '



' all the time ' ( Lit .: ' the whole way " )

ВЫДУМАТЬ in sarcastic expressions , regularly with the verb in the Prf Past :

e.g. вот

выдумал, что выдумал , с чего выдумал, etc.

Смех да и только!

Вот выдумал подать в суд.

That's a laugh! Что!

He got the great idea of taking it to court.

Я дать ему взаймы? What !

Да с чего ты выдумал?

Me lend him anything? And where did you get that idea?


(рор . sp. /substandard)

Irregular imperative of выйти .

ВЫЗНАТЬ (pop . sp./substandard) ' to find out . ' ( = узнать. )

Выдь - выйди , ' Go out ' .


ВЫЛЕТЕТЬ ' to give out ' , ' to go bad ' .

( = полететь . )

(Apparently a cut -down version of the expression вылететь в трубу , ' go up the flue ' , ' be a dead loss' . )

Автомобиль не действует . The car won't work .

Аккумулятор вылетел .

The battery has given out .


1. ' to quit ' , ' to knock off work' 2.

' to switch off ' , ' to turn off' , ' to cut out ( a motor or electrical circuit . ) '


НА ВЫХОДЕ ' on the way out ' , ' on its last legs ' , ' pretty well shot' . Опять сгорела лампа!

Это радио совсем на выходе .

A tube burned out again ! This whole radio is pretty well shot.



Preceding page blank



'to shoot off one's mouth ' , ' to yap' .

ГДЕ -- used in the sense of куда , ' to what place? ' , ' where to?' (1 ) Ukrainianism (2 ) Dialectal Russian : Southern (3 ) widely used, but uneducated & non-standard in Russian

Где вы идете? Where are you going? Где делась моя книжка? Where has my notebook gotten to?/What became of my notebook?


(colloq . ) -где- нибудь Нет ли где сквозняка тут ? Isn't there a draft here someplace?

гдЕ Bы

(+ Dat )

+ Inf

'instead of.

(С. ЧЕМ (БЫ)

+ Inf)

-ing ' , ' whereas (he , she , etc ) was supposed to

Где бы ему спешить , он стал возиться с мелочами . When he should have hurried , he started fussing over trifling details . Где бы помочь, они мешали нам . Instead of helping, they hindered us .

(1) + Dat + Inf


(See also under КУДА)

(2) + Dat




+ Inf



(4) + Prf 2 sg (used impersonally in generalizations )



(5) Standing alone , used as a reply

(6) IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS . ГДЕ УЖ ТУТ 'How could ... (possibly) ...?'

'What chance has . . • got of ____--i ing ng ... ?' 'How is • possibly supposed to . . .?' 'A fat chance . . . has of ever. -Used to express the

-ing ... !'

speaker's complete conviction that something cannot

possibly be done . If it is only a certain person who cannot do it , that person is always in the Dative . ( --See §6b . )

The гдe usually stands first in the construction ,

but can also stand last or directly before the Infinitive . way with the same meaning .

Kyдa is used in the same



Dat + Inf Ох , какая бездна подробностей ! Где мне одному справляться с ними ? My gosh , what an endless lot of details !

How could I ever manage with

them by myself?

2. + Dat Он учился электронике , он- то понимает , а уж нам где? He's



and he



but how are we

supposed to? 3. + Inf Вы слыхали про него? Нет ? Ну , да где же и слыхать! Have you heard about him? You haven't? Well , I don't see how you possibly could!


+ Prf 2 sg (-used impersonally in generalizations ) Конечно искали , да где там найдешь без всякого света? We looked, of course , but what chance of finding it do you have without any light at all?

5. Standing alone , used as a reply. -Ну , поправился?

-Где уж тут ! -Well , did he get well again?


-Боюсь , он запутается. -Где уж запутается! Он хорошо знает лес . -I'm afraid he'll lose his way. -Of course he won't lose his way! He knows the woods well .

(Lit.: How could he lose his way?)

: Repetitions of the verb frequently change a personal verb-form taken from the preceding speech into an Infinitive .

When the change to Infinitive is used ,

the implication is that not only is the person named (in the Dative ) unable to do it, but also that the situation is beyond the control of anyone at all , and that the result is inevitable .

Changing what was originally a Perfective

personal form to an Imperfective Infinitive heightens this implication still further. Either Infinitive , Perfective or Imperfective may be used, however. -Боюсь , он запутается . -Чушь ! Где запутываться там ?

-I'm afraid he'll lose his way. -Nonsense !

How could anybody get lost there?


b. In repetitions that do not repeat the verb but do repeat the subject,


repeated subject may be changed from Nominative to Dative as if the verb were repeated in Infinitive form . -Он сам поставит это.

-Где уж самому? Он уже очень занят . -He'll attend to it himself. -How can he possibly do it himself? He's very busy already .

ГДЕ- ГДЕ ' here and there '

ГДЕ - НИБУДЬ (colloq. ) - когда- нибудь , ' at some time or other'

( что- нибудь is also used with this meaning .) • где- нибудь в декабре . sometime in December.


(colloq . )

' approximately ' (в районе is also used alone with the same meaning. ) где- то в районе пяти часов . ... somewhere around 5 o'clock

где- то в районе 150 кг . somewhere around 150 kg/ something like 150 kg .

ГДЕ- ТО ... , ГДЕ- ТО . . . , ГДЕ - ТО ...

' First .. .


and finally ... ' . then ....

Used in describing a long, slow and elaborate process . Старик где- то вылез из машиной , где- то поднял капот , где- то слушал Двигатель, где- то завернул пару винтов. First the old man climbed out of the car, then he lifted the hood , then he listened to the engine, and finally he tightened a couple of screws.


гляди 1. гляди + Imperative 2 sg. (-Often with He + Imp. , but not necessarily.) In warnings : ' See that you....', ' Make sure you . . . ', (With He: )' ' Watch out,

or ... Смотри iѕ more common than гляди in this construction. Быть начеку надо .

Гляди , не усни !

You have to be on the ball . See that you don't fall asleep! Это единственный экземпляр .

Гляди из рук не выпусти!

This is the only copy . Make sure you don't let it out of your hands .

2. In similar warnings , but without the Imperative .


'Watch out ' , ' Look sharp ' , ' Watch it . ' Верить этим людям опасно , гляди! Believing these people is dangerous . He тронь этих вещей! Гляди у меня! Don't touch those things !

Watch out !

Watch yourself or I'll see that you really

get it!

3. гляди глядь глядь и Used as a parenthetical interjection in expressions of surprise .

Often referring

to something that has already happened . ' all of a sudden ' , ' I'll be darned if . . . didn't didn't/hasn't /hasn't .. . . ' , ' By gosh ...'

Тихоня- тихоня, а гляди -разбуянилась. She was always such a goody-goody, and darned if she hasn't made an awful row . Сколько у тебя народу перебывало , а всех , гляди , запомнил !

What a lot of people have come to call on you , and by George you remembered them all!

4. гляди глядишь

.. usually with a Perfective verb, referring to the future .

Other construc-

tions are possible , however. In expressions of supposition :

' Very likely' , ' Before you know it ' , ' I'll bet ' ,

'I imagine ' , ' In a second' , ' First thing you know ' (colloq . )

Надеюсь, что Вася зайдет к нам сегодня.

И то , гляди зайдет .

I hope Vasya stops by to see us today . And in fact, most likely he will .


Краюху большую она мне дала, а, гляди, всю съем . It's a big chunk of bread she gave me , but I imagine I'll eat it up . Учись !

Глядишь , и профессором станешь .

Study! Before you know it , you'll be a professor. Вот

вскочить бы на этот поезд, а к вечеру, глядишь, и были бы дома. It would be nice to hop on this train, and I'll bet we'd be home by evening.

5. того


(того и смотри , того и жди , того и жду аre used in

того и гляди

the same way. )

того и гляди, что

• ' Any minute '

' Before you know it , . . . ' When

' As soon as you turn your head, · • 'Before you can say " knife " , . .

' First thing you know ,


in combination with того ог того и , гляди

regularly refers to an

undesirable event that the speaker fears may happen at any moment. The phrase with гляди may stand first or last in its sentence , or in the middle next to the word it most directly relates to. The accompanying verb is regularly Prf. Дайте мне записать : ведь такие вещи забудутся того гляди . Let me make a note of that , because things like that get forgotten the minute you turn your head. Мы очень боимся , что опять , того и гляди , случится как в прошлом году. We're very much afraid that any minute it'll happen again like last year. Ведь уж слишком много рыси . Того и гляди , что сломит себе шею . Look here ,

now ,

really that's

too much friskiness .

First thing you

know, he'll break his neck.



Глядь и

(cf. ХВАТЬ И)

'the next minute '

' all of a sudden '

' what do you know'

' of all things '

Similar to ГЛЯДИ $ 3 .

Refers to something unexpected, most often something

expectedly seen. Expresses surprise or unpreparedness on the part of the beholder. Мы завернули за угол , да глядь : там целая орава народу . We turned the corner , and what do you know: there was a whole mob of people there .


ГОВОРИТЕ? (-when telephoning) 'Is there anyone on this line?"

'Are you using this line?"

ГОВОРИТЬ: Будете говорить telephone operators' expression: 'You've got the line now' 'You can go ahead now'

'I have your connection now'


Я ГОВОРЮ 1. (When repeating, either because the other speaker could not hear or did not understand, or because he did not believe it.) 'I said, ... ' (Note that Russian regularly uses Present where English would use Past.) ' ... , I tell you .'

2. (When explaining) 'I mean to say, ...' That is to say, ...'



= говорят


(Standing last in the sentence)


'... , so to speak .'


... , I tell you!'

.... dammit!'

' ... , for heaven s sake!'

'I'm warning you, ...'

Газуй, тебе говорят! Step on the gas, I tell you!

Говорят вам, ускорьте дело там! I'm warning you, hurry that job there up!


(Referring to large quantities) 'lots', 'loads', ' up to one's neck in ...'

У меня работы по горло. I'm up to my neck in things to do. 2.

(Referring to annoyance or disgust) ' fed up with ...' ,'sick and tired of ...'

А по горло (мне) это путаница. I've had it right up to here with this foul- up.

ГРАНИЦЕВ (uneducated) = границ ( Similar: делов for дел, местов for мест, разов fоr раз.




= кажется, 'it seems', 'I guess'.



= говорит. грите = говорите; грить = говорить.


= говорить.




Preceding page blank

ДА The fundamental meanings of да are (A ) ' yes ' , ( B ) ' and ' , ( C ) ' but ' , and ( D ) to call attention to and place emphasis upon the words that follow it. 1. The uses of да that relate to the basic meaning of ' yes ' are uncomplicated and cause no difficulty: a. Standing alone , used as a reply in the form of a question , often with some shading of mild surprise or doubt:--Дa? ' Is that so? ' , ' Really?' b. As an interrogative attached to the end of a sentence : . . .‚ ,да?: ‚ Äа?: ' . • that right? ' , ' . . . , don't you think so? ' c. In replies expressing skepticism or disbelief.

Any construction may follow

the дa , but an Imperative is especially common : ! '

sure ,


' Oh , yeah,

. .


' Oh

( Cf. да , ну да , да уж ; etc , р 90 )

Да , рассказывай! Oh sure! Do tell ! -Не плачь . Найдем . -Да, найдете . А как это? -Don't cry. We'll find it. -Yeah , you'll find it .

But how are you going to do that ?

d . (Separated by a pause from the next word . )

Upon arriving at the conclusion

of a train of thought: ' Yes , . . .' , ' Truly, . . . ' , ' There's it, ....' , 'All in all , . . .. ' Вот

четыре месяца я работал над этим заданием .

no getting away from

Да , такие задачи

всегда оказываются сложными. I worked on that assignment for four months . There's no getting away from it, problems of that kind always turn out to be complicated . 2. Used with the meaning ' and' , да can connect two nouns , two pronouns , two verbs , This meaning of ' and ' also occurs in a specialized form as a _____ : — _ — _ — — _ — _ — _ — _ — _ — ____ да _ member of doubled-word constructions of the pattern _ two clauses , etc.

a . Doubled noun .

Expressing the ideas of great multitude and vast expanse .

Море бурно. Волны да волны . The sea is rough .

There are waves and waves .

Везде снег да снег . Everywhere, it's snow and more snow.

b. Doubled verb. of time.

Expressing constant , uninterrupted action over a long period

Present, Past, Imperative , Infinitive , Infinitive + бы , etc may be used .

Пароход шел да шел узлов по восьми . The steamship(just ) kept on going at about eight knots .

Сосны растут да растут . The pine trees are growing and growing.


Откладывай да откладывай , и в конце концов из этого ничего не выйдет . Keep putting it off and putting it off, and in the end nothing will come of it.

После экзаменов мне спать бы да спать. After exams , I'd like to sleep and sleep. c. Doubled adjective один.

Intensifies the meaning.

Он один да один . He's all alone. d. Any word doubled .

When quoting with irony and disapproval what someone

has often said before . else's .

The words quoted may be either one's own or someone


Она стала приставать ко мне : купи да купи. She started nagging me : “ Buy it , buy it , buy it . " -Ну, как у вас там дела?

-Да ничего, сносно.

—Вот всё ты так :

сносно да сносно , а я этого терпеть не могу .

-Well, how are things with you people there? -Oh, not bad, middling. -That's what you always say , always “ Middling, " and I can't stand that . e. Doubled verb.

Expressing intensiveness of action .


Поехали да поехали! Boy, that was some ride we had! f. Doubled verbal root: unprefixed Ipf verb + дa + Ipf verb of the same root, prefixed (-usually with no-) . Expressing action performed over a length of time in complete freedom, without any outside interference, entirely independent of other circumstances .

Сиди да посиживай там . Sit there to your heart's content .

Дождь льет да поливает . The rain just keeps on pouring down .

Здесь жить бы да поживать. I'd like to just live on and on here.

3. In the sense of ' but ' , да is simply a synonym of нo and a : Я хотел спрашивать об этом , да там не было никого .

I wanted to ask about that, but there was no one there . This adversative aa has a few specialized and characteristic uses also : a. The use of да in the sense

of ' but ' is especially common among northern

speakers , while a and нo predominate in the usage of the south .


b. Дa is used in exclamations and incredulous questions where some obvious and surprising contrast is involved .

The дa always stands between the two

components that are contrasted. If the two components are ( 1 ) phrases or clauses , then the result is much like a similar English construction with ' and' or ' but'.

But (2) the да can also stand between the subject and verb ,

or object and verb, of the same clause , which does not have any near counterpart in English , apart from voice-inflexion . The да is always unaccented . Да чтобы means the same thing .

See also under ДА ЧТОБЫ .

(1 ) between a phrase and a clause :

В своем родном городе да улицу не найдешь ? In your own home town , and (you mean to say) you can't find the street?

between two phrases : С его способностями да не учиться! With his abilities and not to study ! (2) between subject and verb , or object and verb , of the same clause : Ты да не поймешь? (You mean to tell me) YOU don't understand it?

К другу да не зайти ! The very idea of not stopping to visit a friend ! (More nearly literal : A friend and not to call on him ! ) Начальника да как отчитал ! And how he lectured the boss himself!

(Cf the non-standard English construction " Him the boss yet and what a lecture he gave him".) c. Indefinite pronoun or Indefinite adverb + дa + verb (any form ) ' I don't know who /what/where /why it is , but . . . '

'Whatever/Whoever/Wherever/Whyever it is , there is no doubt that . Дa between an indefinite pronoun or adverb and a verb forms a fixed construction whose meaning is that the circumstance referred to by the indefinite is unknown or uncertain , but the idea expressed by the verb is not in doubt at all.

Кто- нибудь да сделает . Whoever it is, somebody is going to do it (without fail ) .

Это чего- нибудь да стоит . It's certainly worth something, at any rate./I'm not sure how much , but it's certainly worth something.

Куда- нибудь да поеду . I don't know where , but I'm certainly going.


Кому- нибудь да убитым или раненым быть-- уж это верно . Someone or other is sure to be killed or wounded--that's certain . d. Хоть . .., да · • ·

11 Да






of the pattern " Хоть • •

' Although ... , nevertheless . . . ' , ' Although . .

да ·

still ...'.

4. Дa is frequently used to lend force , conviction , and emphasis to the words that follow it .

Typically , the да stands at the beginning of its clause , although it can

also stand inside its clause , accentuating the word or phrase directly after it , as in



Having a remark introduced by да is often an indication that the

remark represents the speaker's reaction to what he has just heard (or seen) immediately before . the дa

In linking the remark in this way to whatever provoked it,

shows its kinship with the other meanings of ' and ' and ' but ' .

Indeed ,

' and ' and ' but ' are often good English translations of this introductory да .


following are ways in which assertive да is used :

a. Used to add forcefulness or express conviction : 'Now, . . . ' , ' Really , . . .' Да я вам скажу, еле ноги унёс .

I want to tell you , I barely got away./I kid you not , I barely got away. Да это вздор ! Now, that's nonsense !

b. At the beginning of questions , before an interrogative pronoun : Да кто это? Now, who is that?/And (just ) who is that?

Да что это он сделал? But what was it that he did? c. Expressing surprise :

Да пошел снег ! Why, it's started snowing! Да что ты ! Why, how can you say that ?!

d. At the beginning of a reply , expressing surprise at being asked: -Кто тот человек вон там? -Да он заведующий!

-Who's that man over there? -Why , that's the manager ! e . At the beginning of a reply containing a repetition . being asked, as in d, or annoyance .

and also

Expresses surprise at

some displeasure , unwillingness to answer,

The underlying attitude is that the question was about some-

thing uninteresting,

unimportant ,

or something obvious or commonly known .

Replies of this kind consist basically of a repetition of the original question ,


either entire or skeletonized , plus a statement . The particle a is used in the same way, but дa is a little stronger than a.

-Как у тебя часы пропали? -Да как пропали ?

Вытащили .

-How did your watch get lost? -How did it get lost? Why, they stole it.

— Кто пустил эту утку? -Да кто пустил , вот кто пустил : эти плуты !

-Who started this phony story? -If you want to know who started it , here's who started it : these wise guys! f. Дa is sometimes used very much like ведь. (See BЕДь §1 , Substantiating, §2 , Reminding, and §3 , Referring to what is obvious , natural , a matter of common knowledge , or a general truth . )

Это письмо от него-

да почерк его можно узнать сразу.

This letter is from him, because anybody can recognize his handwriting right away. К Новогодней встрече не прибыть !

Что вы !

Да там все !

Not come for the New Year's party! What an idea !

Why, everyone will

be there ! Да оно всегда так бывает : никто не хочет быть первым . Indeed, it's always like that : no one wants to be the first one.

g. Дa (Hу) + Imperative


'Come on, now, . . .', ' Here , now, . . . ' , ' Now , really, . . .' Frequent in persistent urging, repeating an Imperative already said before .

Да садись! Чего стоишь? Here, now, sit down ! What are you standing for? Стало поздно! Да вставай же !

It's gotten late ! Come on , now , get up ! h . дa + Imperative ( --as if-clause in a conditional sentence) Да будь я богат , · And even if I were rich , ... . . . i. Standing inside its clause , accentuating the word after it .

Clauses of this

kind often express some sort of supposition or possibility. Ночной сестры нет .

А вдруг да умрет кто за ночь?

There isn't any night nurse .

But what if someone actually DIES during

the night? Если она да мое место возьмет , то ·

If she takes my seat, then . . .


j . Upon suddenly recalling something that had been left out of the preceding discussion

or upon changing the subject of conversation :

' Oh , yes : ... ' ,

'Oh , another thing: . Ну , я побежал. -- Да ! Well ,

Ты слышал , что он воротился?

I've got to run .--Oh , yes : did you hear that he's come back?

Кажется, это всё . Да ! Чуть было не забыл .

Телеграфируйте им , узнайте ,

на каком поезде они приедут . That seems to be all .

Oh , another thing!

I almost forgot .


them and find out what train they're coming on.

ДА,. . . НУ ДА ,. . .

ДА УЖ , .

НУ ДА,. . .

ДА УЖ , .


НУ ДА , КАК ЖЕ , .. ' Oh sure ,


ДА $ 1.c .

' .· . . , hah ! ' , ' . . . indeed ! ' , ' Like hell it's ... !

.. The particle or particle combination is always set off from the repetition by a pause . It expresses emphatic disagreement, sometimes with a shading of defiance or derision.

The last three combinations (ну да, да уж, and ну да, как же) аccentuate

the sense of disbelief and annoyance. , он позаботится об этом . -Не беспокойтесь -Ну да , позаботится !

Всё забывает.

-Don't worry, he'll attend to that .

-The hell he'll attend to it ! 'He forgets everything. -Пусть он поговорит с ними .

-Да уж чуткий -- похоже !

Он весьма чуткий. 1

-Let him talk it over with them. He's very tactful. -Tactful , hah !

That's just like him , of course , isn't it ?

-Вам бы извиниться перед ним . —Ну, да , как же , я извиниться ! -You should apologize to him . -Oh , great !

I should apologize !

ДА ( УЖ / BOT) + dem . pron . in reply to corresponding interrog . pron . or dem . adv . in reply to corresponding interrog. adv . --IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS . Demonstrative pronouns repeat the

form ( gender ,

number , and case ) of interrogative pronouns without change .

inserted yx or BOT adds emphasis .



Repetitions of this kind are used in matter-of-fact replies .

Like other answers

introduced by a or дa, these replies have the effect of dismissing the question as being of little interest or importance , or as having a self-evident answer. (A is more common than да in this use . ) -Как так?

—Да уж так.

-Why is that? -Well , it just is that way .

ДА : АХ , ДА

' Oh , yes,

.!', ' Oh, that's right : . . . ! ' , 'Oh , another thing: •


upon suddenly recalling something that had been forgotten or left out.

See also A §5 ( A , АХ , АХ ДА , АX BOT KAK , etc. ) and ДА $ 4.j .

- К тебе кто- то . -Ко мне? Ах , да . .. по поводу новой машинки . -There's someone to see you. -To see me? Oh , yes ... About the new typewriter.



A very frequent combination at the beginning of a sentence . stantiating, reminding, known.



Used when sub-

pointing out something thought of as obvious or well-

Cf BEДь § 1 , 2 , and 3 .

ДА !



(pop. sp. )

'That's the stuff! ' , ' That's what I like ! ' , ' Boy , I'll go along with that !' --or any expression of enthusiastic approval .


ДА ГДЕ ТЕБЕ ДА КУДА , etc. Used as a reply or as an interjection after one's own remark: ' And how would he be able to?' , ' But what chance is there?' , etc. --See under ГДЕ /ГДЕ ТАМ / ГДЕ ТЕБЕ / etc and under КУДА .

' But how can I ?' ,



ДА ЕЩЕ ' and also' , ' and besides , ' ' and indeed , " ' and . . . at that .' Эти ботинки хорошие , удобные , да еще дешевые . These shoes are good , they're comfortable , and they're cheap besides. Непонятно.

Он прямо лютовал , да еще из - за мелочи .

I can't understand it. He was absolutely furious, and about a trifle at that .

ДА И 1. = да ( $ 2 ) : and ' .

Sometimes a little stronger : ' and besides . '

2. -да (§3 ) : but . '

Sometimes a little stronger: ' but actually ' , 'but even .

3. Да и joining two verbs sometimes means ' and ' with an added implication that the second verb represents a surprising occurrence or an unexpected result: ' and', ' and then ' , ' and wound up by

-ing' , ' and instead ' .

Я искал шайбу , что я уронил , да и нашел монету. I was looking for the washer that I dropped and instead found a coin.

4. In doubled-word constructions of the pattern

да и .


Any part of

speech and any grammatical form may be thus doubled . a. Expressing long, uninterrupted action , usually with an additional suggestion of intensiveness , concentrated attention , purposeful effort .

Сидит там каждый день , читает да и читает . He

sits there every day

and just reads and reads .

(i.e. earnestly ,

attentively) Грабят в этом округе . There

Гляди да и гляди .

are robberies in this

neighborhood .

You have to watch out

every minute . b . Expressing intensity, high degree . больно да и больно

very sore, very painful Ты слишком их щадишь ! С народом этим надо руки да и руки . You're too easy on them !

With this bunch you have to keep a firm hand.

c . Expressing an unconditional assertion .

-Не хочу танцевать сейчас. -Что с тобой? Неможется тебе?

-Не хочу да и не хочу, и только . -I don't want to dance right now. -What's the matter with you? Don't you feel good? -I just don't want to , that's all .


ДА И ТО Strengthened form of И TO $ 3 .




И ... ЖЕ

See under И TO .


ДА УЖ И Strengthened forms of

$4 (Intensive ) .

See under И.


НУ КАК ЖЕ See under KAK .

Also cf ДА §4e .



ДА ГДЕ , etc. Used as a reply or as an interjection after one's own remark:

' But how can I ? ' ,

' And how would he be able to? ' , ' But what chance is there?' , etc. --See under КУДА .


See also ГДЕ /ГДЕ ТАМ /ГДЕ ТЕБЕ , etc.

(as reply ) (VERY COMMON)

'Oh , no. ' , ' Absolutely not . ', ' Hell , no ! ' , ' Not in the least . ' - Как , сказал ему об этом? -Да нет ! -What did you do , did you tell him about it? -Certainly not !


(as reply)

' Really? ' , ' No kidding? ' , ' You mean it?' , 'Are you serious?' Expresses

surprise ,

usually with the implication that the speaker has some

reason for finding it hard to believe .


-Поздравляю . -С чем? -Говорят , новый председатель комитета. -Да ну?! -Congratulations. -On what?

-They say you're the new chairman of the committee . -Are you serious?

ДA HY + Imperative

ДА НУ + Comparative Adds

a note of insistence or impatience when urging someone to do something. Да ну, поторопись ! Come on, there, get a move on!

Да ну, погромче !

Не бормочи так.

Hey there, louder!


Don't mumble like that .

See under НУ.


ДА УЖ И Strengthened forms of YX.

See under YX.


--IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS . -- dismissal of the preceding §2) ( = ( А /ДА /НУ) ЧТО ( Ж/ТАМ /ТУТ)

remark as unimportant .)


+ Past OR Inf (Prf or Ipf), between contrasting elements . and . . . ! ' , ' . . . , and then . . . ! ' , ' You mean to tell me that . . .' , ' and then , ..!'


incredulous exclamations and questions .

The same as ДA $ 3b .

The да

чтобы stands between two components that are thought of as logically contradictory and making no sense together. When да чтобы is used instead of дa, there is usually an especially heavily marked pause between the two things that are contrasted .


Разумный человек , как он , да чтоб не понять этого? An intelligent man like him, and not understand that? В таких укрепленных позициях, да чтобы сдаваться? Отчего же? In fortified positions like those , and then surrender? But why? У заведующего , да чтоб данных об этом не было! Do you mean to tell me the man in charge doesn't have any figures on that?

ЭТО ДА ! - Вот да!

- Вот это да !

See ДА :

Вот ( это) да, р. 91 .



(See Summary chart at end of this entry. )

These forms , naturally, have literal meanings as ordinary Imperatives of дать ' give ', ' let ' . particles

At the same time , they have acquired an independent existence as

which are

used in various combinations with other verb-forms , with a

number of specialized meanings .

There is considerable disagreement among dictio-

naries and grammatical works in regard to both combinations and meanings .


following is an attempt to summarize and reconcile them :

1. The basic sense of ‘ let ' and its derivative shadings . The uses of дать in the sense of ' let ' are strikingly similar to the uses of ' let' in English: a. Ordinary Imperative . дай/дайте + Dat . pron. ( 1st or 3rd person) + Inf ( Ipf or Prf) "" " Let me/us /him/her/them . . . .' (1 ) Simply asking someone to permit something to be done . Дайте нам тоже прийти .

Let us come along too. In the negative, давай/давайте is used :

Не давай ему убежать . Don't let him get away. ( 2) Telling someone to let a thing be done without interference.

Дайте ему рассказать всю историю. Let him tell the whole story (without being interrrupted) . b. Proposing a course of action/Offering to do something.

In meaning, these ideas seem to derive from §1.a ( 1 ) (Asking permit something to be done) . But a different construction is used :




дай /дайте / давай /давайте + Nom pron ( 1st person sg/pl ) + Prf 1 sg/pl ( Дай is used more often than давай . )

I'll... if . 'I'll 'Let me/us ... ' , ' Allow me/us to . ..', 'I'll ..., okay?', ' you like' (1 ) Proposing a course of action . Asking for someone's agreement :

-Дай я пойду. -Нет , спасибо , я сам .

-I'll go, okay ? -No thanks, I will myself. (The

plurals дайте/давайте would not be used

in this typically


exchange . )

(2) Offering to do something : Давай я позабочусь об этом . I'll attend to that , if you like . Дайте- ка мы вам поможем .

Here, let us help you. c. Asking or telling someone to wait until something is done. Sometimes relating to §1.a (1 ) (Asking permission), but more often to $ 1 . a (2) (Telling someone to let a thing be done and

not to interfere ), is the

following set of ideas : ( 1 ) Asking or proposing being allowed to finish doing something (before doing something else ). Much the most frequent construction is the use of даž(те) with a first-person Perfective (most often 1st sg), and with the expression of a Nominative pronoun subject optional : дай/дайте ( + я /мы) + Prf 1 sg/pl According to Виноградов,

Грамматика русского


1960 :

I , p498 , §771 , this usage is limited to the 1st person singular, and at the same time both давай /давайте for the particle and the Imperfective Future for the

verb are

also permissible ,

and in any combination:

Дай ( те) спою .

Давай(те) спою.

Дай(те) буду петь

Давай( те) буду петь .

" Let me sing first . " (--i.e. before starting to do something

else) However, it is true that дª¤/¤ªйте and the Prf 1 sg is the formula most often encountered : На дворе холодно.

Дайте обогреюсь у печки.

It's cold outside.

Just let me get warmed up by the stove .

(-before taking up anything else . ) Погоди .

Дай я попробую починить .

Wait a minute.

Let me see if I can fix it, first.


(2) As in English, ' Just wait till . . .' comes to amount to meaning ' as soon as . . . ' . Дaвa¤ is not used in this sense , and the singular дaй is usually found in this idiomatic use where there is no real addressing of an Imperative to any particular person . The subject may be 1st , 2nd, or 3rd person, sg. or pl . The verb is Prf.

Вот дай только кончишь вуз , получишь хорошее место . Just wait till you finish school and you'll get a good job. As soon as you finish school you'll get a good job. (3) Another extension of the idea of telling someone to wait until something is done is its use in warnings, threats, and promises . Дaй is the only form used in this idiomatic use where no particular person is really addressed. The verb is Prf in all the examples observed . Говорят ,

на пристани идет большая драка.

Дай , мы придем , то

ли еще будет ! They say there's a big brawl going on, on the wharf.

Just wait,

we'll go there, and then won't the fun really begin ! 2. Proposing a joint activity/Urging participation in an action together with the speaker: "Let's . . .". The sense of ' Let's • pressed




Пойдёмте туда.



alone ,

--Let's go there .

can of course also be ex-

of either aspect :

Идём/ Идёмте/ Пойдём/

But the use of the particle давай/давайте is

far more common in the spoken language . a. There are three particle-constructions : (1 ) давай/давайте + Prf 1 pl Давай рассмотрим .

Let's look it over.

(2) давай/давайте + Ipf Fut 1 pl

Давай будем рассматривать.

Let's look it over.

(3 ) давай/давайте + Ipf Inf

Let's look it over .

Давай рассматривать. b. Pronoun subjects are regularly omitted .

c . The давай(тe) ordinarily precedes the verb, but occasionally follows it , at least when the verb is Prf: Сядем давайre · Let's sit down . d. In the negative , the Ipf forms are used: Давай не будем спорить. Let's not quarrel .

Давай не спорить.

Let's not quarrel .

e. In popular speech , Давай не будем ! become a set phrase :






' Cut that out !' , ' Let's have none of that !' , ' Now,

we're not going to start that stuff!' f.

Виноградов says that давай.


( Грамматика

" less

often "


языка ,

1960 :

II.1 ,

399-400 ,

himself quotes no example containing дaй , however.

certainly safe to say that давай is the normal usage and дaй common .

$ 489)

дай is used in these constructions instead of It


is far less


3. Forcefully/Insistently urging someone to do something (--without the participation

of the speaker): 'Come on, ...!' , ' Come on, now, .. .!', ' Go ahead and . . .. ' , ' Please . . .. ' , 'Please .... ' , ' Please do . . .. ' а . дай /дайте/давай /давайте + Prf/Ipf Imp 2 sg/pl (1 ) This construction is

considered unacceptable in the standard written

language, but is very common in the spoken language. (2) Давай/давайте is more often used than дай/дайте. But although most dictionaries

and grammars maintain that only давай/давайте is used

with the Imperative , дай /дайте also occurs with it in popular speech. (3) It might be expected that the particle and the Imperative would match in aspect and number.

In fact, they often do, but not necessarily .


plural forms дайте , давайте аге гegularly found with plural Imperatives , but the more popular and idiomatic singulars дай and давай оccur with both singular and plural Imperatives . оoccuг: дай (те)

with a


And all four aspect-combinations

OR Ipf Imperative ; давай (те) with an Ipf

OR Prf. (4) The particle commonly precedes the Imperative ; but can also follow it. EXAMPLES: Пей давай! Come on, drink up !

Давай, расскажи нам . Please do tell us about it. Дай яснее объясняйте! Come on, now, give clearer explanations ! Дайте, спойте нам это . Please, sing it for us . Телеграммы от них не поступило .

Давай позвоните.

We haven't gotten any telegram from them. them up .

b . давай/давайте

Go ahead and call

without any verb.

The Imperative may be omitted when it is clear from the context what the verb would be. Ну, так вот

- давайте, хлопчики , по домам .

Скоро будет темнеть .

Пора ужинать . Look, you kids go home now. It'll be getting dark soon., It's supper time. Тяни !

Сильнее , давай!

Pull ! Come on, harder! -Позвольте , я доложу вам результаты опыта. -Давай. -Let me report the results of the test to you . -Let's have it./Go ahead.


c. (??) давай/давайте + Ipf Inf? (Ordinarily this construction is used for urging someone to participate in an activity together with the speaker , as already described in § meaning " Let's . . ." .


with the

Occasionally a doubtful case is encountered where

it appears that the action may not necessarily include the speaker, or that if the speaker is included in the action it is mainly in the role of a supervisor or merely an interested onlooker.

Up to now, a decisive example has

not been found . )

4. Expressing a casual decision: '(Well, ) I think I'll . . .' , ' I guess I'll . . . ', ' I believe I'll . . . ' .

а. Дай ( -ка) /Давай ( + я ) + Prf 1 sg. (1 ) Decisions referred to by this construction are generally on matters of personal preference rather than important , urgent,

" official " matters .

The implication is that the decision is not the product of long thought or consultation with others , but rather is quite offhand . often

occurs together with думаю ,

подумал ,

The construction


себе ,

or other

words of similar meaning when the speaker is telling someone what he decided





given to



" inward

decision. " (2) Only the singular forms дай and давай are used. (3) Дай is used much more commonly than давай in this construction . (4) The pronoun subject я may be either expressed or omitted . (5) The particle ordinarily precedes the verb, but can also follow it. EXAMPLES : Глядит интересным .

Прочитаю , дай- ка, после обеда.

That looks interesting. I think I'll read it through after dinner. Одиннадцать часов .

Дай лягу спать .

It's eleven o'clock. I guess I'll go to bed. Был прекрасный день , так дай , думаю , я пойду погляжу на выставку. It was a beautiful day, so I thought " I believe I'll go and take a look at the exhibit. " Давай, подумал он , я зайду к ним . 'I think I'll stop in to see them , " he thought to himself. b. Дaй (-кa ) without a verb.

The Prf verb may be omitted when дaй is accompanied by any periphrasing expression referring to what it was decided to do :

" I guess I'll . . . ' , ' Well ,

then, I'll . . . ' , ' All right then , I'll . . . ' Лопата не берет , дай ломом . The spade won't work on that ; all right , then , I'll try it with the crowbar. OR: If/Since the spade won't work on that, then I guess I'll try with the crowbar.


На машине не проехать - дай верхом. (If one can't get through there by auto , well , then , I'll go on horseback .

Напиться хотел - ковша нет; дай, думаю, из пригоршни. I wanted a drink and the dipper wasn't there; all right , I thought, I'll drink out of my hand. Мне нужно поговорить с ним, да нынче у них гостей полно - дай лучше завтра. I must speak to him; but right now they've got the place full of visitors - well , I think it's better to come tomorrow. 5. In narration, indicating the beginning of action in the past, usually concentrated and done to the exclusion of anything else. давай + Ipf Inf

- 'started to' a.


'started ... ing'

'began to'

Давай is the only particle-form used in this construction. Он схватил и давай бежать. He grabbed it and started running.

Они давай кричать и ругать. They started velling and cursing.

I Я вскочил на ноги и давай шагать оттуда. I jumped to my feet and started making tracks away fromthere. 6.

Expressing tentative action in the past. Perhaps related to the idea of starting to do something, but made up of different forms is the following construction:

дай + PrfInf

' tried ... ing, (Лягушки) Сперва перед царем ничком;, А там, кто посмелей, дай сесть к нему бочком; Дай попытаться сесть с ним рядом. (Крылов) (quoted in Словарь современного русского литературного языка, III , 524.) At first they were face down before the tsar. But then, whoever were bolder than the rest tried taking a seat sidewise to him; (Then) they tried making the experiment of taking a seat beside him. 7.

As an expression of leave-taking at the close of a conversation. Давай alone, as a sentence in itself.

'So long.',

Take it easy.' '

Давай до следующего. Давай. So long until next time. Take it easy.



person w-o prtcl prtcl дай дайте давай давайте Dat Nom | Prf Ipf| Fut Imp Inf 1 2 3 sg pl vb prcdg fllwg pron pron Давай дай дайте давай дай дайте давай Давай дай Давай

давайте давайте давайте давайте

2. дай дайте давай давайте давай давайте

X X (x)

(x) (x)

Fut Fut Fut Fut Fut

1 1 1 1 1

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg

prcdg prcdg prcdg prcdg fllwg prcdg fllwg

Ipf Fut Ipf Fut


1c1 Wait, ... prcdg prcdg fllwg 2a2 Let's ...

Prf Ipf

3. дай дайте давай давайте| давай давайте х давай давайте давай давайте давай 5.

Prf Prf Prf Prf Prf







Prf Ipf Ipf Ipf Ipf


2 Inf 1

sg pl 3 sg pl




2. дай дайте давай давайте


давай давайте давай

II 1. дай дайте дай дайте давай давайте дай дайте давай давайте дай ? дай

x (x) X

(x) (x)

1b1 proposing 1b2 offering 1c1 Wait, ... 2a1 Let's ... 4a | I think I'll ...

prcdg fllwg 3a

Come on,.

1a1 predg prcdg fllwg 2a3 3c prcdg 5 prcdg

NEG: Don't let him Let's .... Come on, ... [??] started to ...

prcdg prcdg

3b Come on, ... 7 So long!

prcdg prcdg prcdg prcdg prcdg

1b1 1b2 1c1 1c2 1c3

Prf Prf Prf Prf Prf ?

Fut Fut Fut Fut Fut

1 sg 1 sg 1 sg 1 2 3 8g 1 ?





prcdg fllwg 4a

Ipf Fut




sg pl

prcdg fllwg 3a | Come on,.....

3. дай дайте давай давайте!

Prf Ipf

4. дай дайте дай дайте дай дайте дай

Prf Ipf Prf Ipf Ipf Prf

5. Дай


Imp❘ Inf 1 Inf 1 Inf Inf


pl pl pl pl

3 sg pl 3 sg pl


proposing offering Wait, ... as soon as warning, threatening, promising I think I'll ...

1c1 Wait, ...

prcdg prcdg prcdg prcdg

lal 1a2 2f 6

Let's ... Let's ... Let's ... tried


4b I think I'll ...

The uses of давай/давайте and дай/дайте have been presented in terms of seven meanings, 1 through 7. In the above chart, they are presented from the point of view of the five grammatical constructions that they occur in: in combination with (1 ) Perfective, (2) the Imperfective Future, (3) the Imperative, (4 ) the Infinitive , and (5) without any verb-form . They are sorted first by (I) давай/давайте combinations and then by (II) дай/дайте combinations, with the result that there are some duplications in I and II. A question mark in any column means that no example containing that form was found, although there is no common-sense reason against it. An xin the columns for Dative pronoun and Nominative pronoun is used to save space . The columns for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person and singular or plural number tell which pronouns are used . The abbreviations prtel prcdg and prtcl fllwg stand for ' particle preceding' (i.e. , the verb) and 'particle following' . The column headed ' §' contains references to the discussion in terms of meanings ( 1 through 7) that precedes this. Since the translations in the last column are only shorthand for a set of meanings , the paragraphs should be referred to. The symbol -- in the column 'Without any verb' simply stands for just that: no verb.









ДАВИЧКА = недавно, recently', 'not long ago' -Больно уж старишь себя, смеешься надо мной! Я и то Раечке даве говорю: "Витечкина сила, говорю, долго еще будет противиться!" -Когда же ты с ней говорила, -А даве, прибегала без тебя! (-Леонов) -You're making yourself out to be awfully old, you're making fun of me! As a matter of fact, I said to Raisa just a while ago, 'Vic's constitution is going to stand up a long time yet!'I said. -When was it that you were talking with her? -Why, just a while ago. She dropped in when you weren't here.

ДАДЕН, -A, -О (from дать) (popular speech & dialectal : Western, especially Southwestern) = дан,-а,-о, 'given'. So too выдаден, отдаденой * *In dialects, -ой is the m Nom sg ending, even when unaccented. - Сегодня две недели с того дня. Будем о будущем думать. Сегрей в земле лежит -а мы жить остались. Значит, нам слово дадено. (Помолчав) Шагающий из ремонта выходит, в экипаже одного человека недостает -как поступать решим? (-Арбузов) Today it is two weeks since that day. Let's think about the future. Sergei is lying in the ground - and we are still here to live. Well then, an order has been given to us . (After pausing:) The self-propelled [excavator] is coming out of the repair shop, and the crew is short one man - how shall we decide to deal with this?

ДАДИТ (substandard) (COMMON)

= даст, 'will give' So too передадит, 'will hand over to', 'will pass along to'



2. 'indeed', 'to be sure' , ' certainly'; 'in fact', ' actually', 'positively', 'really', 'truly', 'quite'. 3. (in a reply) 'very much!', 'Yes indeed !', 'indeed!'

4. (In Replies Containing Repetitions:) a.

(questioning:) ' Would you really say ...?', 'Really? ...?'


(insisting :) 'Oh yes it is', 'I do too', 'They do so ... ', etc.

The stock translation of даже is # 1 , ' even'. However, there are many instances where 'even' will not make any sense , and a good many more where it is not as good as #2, 'indeed' or 'in fact' or 'really'. -Даже always sets off and emphasizes an idea . -Даже can apply to a subject , an object , or a predicate.


--Даже саn stand either directly before or directly after the word it applies to . EXAMPLES :

( * marks sentences


' even '



possible ,



preferable . )

Вот это даже совсем напрасно. It is really entirely useless to do that. -А вас интересует русская драматургия? —И очень даже !

-And are you interested in Russian drama? -Indeed, very much so! Вот это одобряю .

Очень даже одобряю .

Now this I approve . ( Note :

In fact , I approve of it highly .

In dialogue , даже is frequently found before or after очень . )

" Лето готовило ему даже радость : на его жалобные письма нежно отозвалась мать и обещала приехать погостить у тетки . " ( Федин ) Summer was bringing him a pleasure indeed:

his mother sent a loving

answer to his plaintive letters and promised to come to stay with his aunt. -Ты? Водить машину?

Чай , не знаешь , как заводить мотор!

-Я знаю , я даже знаю! -You?

Drive a truck ?

I'll bet you don't even know how to get the engine

started. -I know! I do too know! Теперь даже трудно поверить , что в то время так думали . Today it's actually * hard to believe that in those days that's what they thought .

А деньги он за ничто считает , он даже презирает их . But money he regards as nothing, in fact * he despises it . (* Also possible : . . . , he even despises it . ) Редакция так изменила мой рассказ , что даже возмутительно .


The editors changed my story so much that it's downright infuriating. настаивает на то, чтоб всякая мелочь была занесена в протокол .

Смешно даже ! He insists that every little thing be entered in the minutes . It's positively* funny ! -Ему награду дадут , да вероятно повышение .

-Даже ( и) повышение? -They're going to give him an award, and probably a promotion . -Would you really say /Do you really think * a promotion?



Strengthened form of ДАЖЕ $ 1,2 , & 4a .



ДАXЕ ... и TOT/TA/TO /TE ( and other cases) . . . 'even' .

Даже. · .и тот. . . means the same thing as даже # 1 , ' even ' .

This con-

struction , perhaps a little more emphatic than дaxe alone , can be used when either a subject or an object precedes the verb. The даже applies to the subject or object , and the и TOT joins the verb to it. Даже сорняк , и тот пахнет по- своему . Even a weed has a smell all its own . ( Lit .: " Even a weed , that too has a smell all its own " . )

Даже пообедать , и то не всегда успеваешь . You don't always even get time to eat ( i.e. , on this job). --The даже can also be omitted . See under И TOT .


ДАЙ ( & ДАВАЙ) See under ДАВАЙ.


( slang)

'That's for sure !'

ЛАК / ДЪК Vulgar pronunciation of тak. E.g. , in the combination BÓT ASK . . . ! , 'What a fine . . . ! '


(pop. sp . & regional )

- далеко


(as introductory word)

'As I was saying, . . . ' , ' Furthermore , . . . ' .




' as . · .as can be ' , ' as . . .as . . .can get ' , ' as . . .as they come ' , ' so .. .that it just beats everything. ' ( Lit .: so...that after that there's nowhere to go.) Он такой ловкий , что дальше некуда.

He's as slick as they come . Там у них в конторе такие тупые , что дальше некуда. Over there in their office, they're so dumb that it just beats everything.


Nom pron + Dat pron + Prf of дать + Inf/Inf clause / noun /prepositional phrase / repetition from previous remark

e.g. Я тебе дам . . . / Она ему даст . . ./etc . ' I'll give you /him/them/etc ... ' ' She'll show you/him/them/etc ... ' 'They'll teach you /him/them/etc to . . . ' Used in warnings and threats .

Other verbs can be used in this construction besides

Дать : задать , показать , прописать.

Я им дам озорничать . I'll show them some acting up . /I'll give them Play Rough . Я вам покажу шуметь ! I'll teach you to make a racket !

-За это в суд! -Даст он вам в суд! -We'll take this to court ! -He'll give you Take It To Court !


( pop . sp.)

' run away ' , ' get away' .

ДВУМЯ =оба , вдвоём :

' both ' , ' the two of us' /' the two of them ' /etc .

ДВУМЯ РУКАМИ ' doing one's utmost ' , ' making an all -out effort '



(pop . sp. )

(Always unstressed )

' he says , ' ' he said ' , ' they said ' , etc. Used to indicate that the remark is taken from someone else , and does not originate with the speaker.

Дескать and мол агe used similarly .

Сообщите ему , работа- де стоит там . Tell him that they say the work is at a standstill there . Он сказал мне , что вот - де очень короткий срок, но успеют . He told me they said it's very short notice , but they'd get it done .



--IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS ' Like hell ... '',, ' The hell it's . . . ' , ' The devil . . . '

-По- моему он поступил совсем как следует . -Это действительно , как следует ! -I think what he did was absolutely right . -The hell it was right!


' Get busy ! ' Вот , всё остальное давай планируй , делай.

Look, go ahead and plan all the rest of it , get busy.


( slang)

' That's good ! '


Possessive pronoun + ДЕЛО + Nom . noun

Conveys that whatever is expressed by the noun is the one salient fact or the only significant thing about the person at this time . sense .

Мое же дело .. бабьё .

The noun is usually rather abstract in

А он .. учёный.

I am just an ordinary woman .

But he is a scientist.

( Lit : (one of) the women . ) Мое дело ·· солдат.

I'm just a simple soldier. Твое дело ·· сторона . This doesn't concern you./The only thing for you to do is keep out of it .


Его дело - труба. (idiom) He's finished/washed up/done for. ( Lit.: As far as he's concerned, it's the flue.)



= в этом деле, 'in this matter' , 'on this subject'.

ДЕЛОВ Dialectal & uneducated for дел, G. pl. of дело. (So too границев for границ, местов fог мест, разов for раз, etc.)


(Dialectal) = дней ( - Ну что ж, соврать вам что-нибудь? . Проповедь* бы мне написали. Уж сколько дён прошу. - Языком действительно владею, а к бумаге у меня дара нет. (-Леонов) - Well now, shall I make up a story for you? - I wish you'd write a sermon* for me. I don't know how many days I've been asking you to. (* In the play, this speaker is a local priest.) - When it comes to talking, I'm really good at it, but I don't have any talent for putting things on paper.

ДЕНЁГ (dialectal: Northern)

= денег (

ДЕНЬГА,-Й,- У, etc (sg .) (pop . sp .) =деньги

ДЕРЖИВАТЬ (non-standard)

= держать, hold', 'keep', 'maintain' etc.


(pop . sp. )

=добро бы пускай бы еще = пусть бы That would be all right, if ... , (but the fact is that ...).' 'It would be understandable , if ... , (but what happened was that ... ),. 'It would make sense , if ... , (but actually ...) . 'One could see why, if ... , (but in this case ...) . , Диви бы always stands first in its clause. The but' clause is often introduced by a тo or a то и, but does not have to have any conjunction to introduce it. Уж диви бы охотник, а то и ружья-то никогда в руки не брал. That would be okay if he were a hunter, but actually he's never had a gun in his hands. И диви бы с ними незнаком был, а то вот так сказал! I could understand it if he wasn't acquainted with them, but under the circumstances what a thing to say!


ДИКИЙ (slang) 'rightful','unusual', 'extraordinary (-practically all the slang meanings of 'wild' in English .) Это, знаешь, по голове был удар дикий у меня. You know, it was a great shock to me.


+ Gen. (pop. sp. )

= ради + Gen. , 'for the sake of' , 'for'. За ради is also used in popular speech .

ДЛЯ ЧЕ? (dialectal)

'Why? ( = для чего.) Обождать-то , для че не обождать, это ведь всё в наших руках. As for waiting a while , why not do that? It's entirely up to us, after all .

ДНИ (dialectal) = дня


Ревет моя девка после этого ровно два дни ... (Писемский) After that my lass cried for two whole days; ...

ДНЯМИ (pop. sp.)

= на днях. either 1. or 2.

'in the last few days', 'a few days ago' (with verbs in the Past) 'in the next few days', 'one ofthese days' (with verbs in the Future)

Интересный случай был буквально днями. There was an interesting thing that happened just a few days ago.

Днями выставка будет открыта. In a few days the exhibition will be opened .

ДО + Gen. (often with verbs of motion) (1. Dialectal : Southern. ) (2. Ukrainianism.)

= k + Dat. Пойдемте до них. = Пойдемте к ним. Let's go to their place. Мне надо зайти до соседа. = Мне надо зайти к соседу. I have to stop in at my neighbor's. У меня до вас просьба. = У меня к вам просьба. I have a request to make of you.

(Dat + ) НЕ ДО + Gen. (Dat + )

ДО + Gen. + ЛИ

Used in dismissals of a subject as of no interest, inopportune at present, eclipsed by something of more urgent concer: ... don't/doesn't/didn't care about ... ' ' ... can't/couldn't be bothered with ... ' '(But) Who has/had time for ...?'

'What do/does/did ... care about ...?'

' ... don't/doesn't/didn't have time to worry about ...'


Мне не до мнений, мне надо фактов! I'm not interested in opinions, I need facts!

О старых перебранках они забыли; не до того было тогда. They forgot about their old quarrels; there was no time for that then. Теперь всем вообще не до проформы; дело не терпит. Right now nobody wants to be bothered with formalities at all; this matter won't wait. (Note how English 'nobody wants to be bothered with' = Russian 'всем ... не до’.) Я знаю. Провалился. До того ли мне? I know. He flunked. Does that have anything to do with me?/Am I supposed to worry about that?

ДО ЧЕГО ( + Aсс?)

(Or repeating whatever case-form the repeated word had in the preceding remark?)

= что до, 'as for', 'regarding', 'as far as ... is concerned' - Я уже постарался уяснить себе обстановку там. Кажется, она очень запутанная. -До чего обстановку, есть ведь два вопроса. Давайте я объясню вам .... -I've already tried to figure out the situation there. It seems it's awfully involved. -As for the situation, you see, there are two problems. Let me explain it to you .... ДО ЧЕГО + predicate adjective/ adverb/ verb with qualitative meaning Expresses high degree of some quality. До чего may precede or follow the word it applies to. The sentence is usually in the form of an exclamation. Как and какой are used very similarly. До чего хорош лес! (OR Хорош до чего лес! OR Хорош лес до чего!) What a fine forest that is! Note: Not to be confused with the construction where a short-form adjective standing before a noun is used to express sarcasm and contempt : xoрош лес! 'Huh, a swell forest that is! In our example here , the presence of a modifier, in this case до чего, shows that the remark is sincerely and not sarcastically meant. До чего устала! How tired I am!/How tired she is!/How tired you are!

До чего ловко! How clever! /How cleverly he did that! До чего он их обошел! How he fooled them! /How he took them in! ДОБРО БЫ (colloq .) (СfЕСЛИ БЫ ... А ТО ... & ПУСТЬ БЫ .) 'That would be all right if ...' 'It would be understandable if ... '

'One could overlook it if ...' 'It wouldn't be so bad if ...'

'It would be different if ...' 'It would make sense if ...'

Often followed by a contrasting clause introduced by a то. Добро бы is the same as диви бы . For examples, see ДИВИ БЫ . ДОБРО ( ...) ЕЩЕ


= добро бы = диви бы Запрет он вас · добро еще со мной , А то ... ( Грибоедов) ( Liza to Sofya:) If he locks you up , it's all right as long as it's both of us , But what if ...



ЗА ДОБРА УМА (old traditional & regional)

(Cf ПО ДОБРУ, ПО ЗДОРОВУ below.) ' while the going is/was good', 'prudently', 'before something might happen', 'while one still can without a lot of trouble', 'in good time'

Уж не воротиться ли, за добра ума, домой? Shouldn't we get back home while the going is good? Я советую вам поговорить с ним за добра ума. I advise you to have a talk with him, before any trouble can get started. Я спешил улизнуть оттуда за добра ума. I hurried to slip away from there while I still could.


ПО ДОБРУ, ПО ЗДОРОВУ (Also written подобру- поздорову. )

1. ' satisfactorily', 'nicely'. Мы поживаем здесь подобру- поздорову. We're getting along very nicely here. 2.

=за добра ума (above): 'while the going is/was good', 'prudently', etc.

Довольно ПОМНОГУ

'quite a lot' ... сибирская зима хочет всё-таки дать себя знать. Но я уже несколько привык, что ли, к морозам, только гуляю каждый день довольно помногу. (-Ленин: letter, 14 Feb 1898) ... all the same, the Siberian winter aims to make itself felt. But by now, I've gotten somewhat used to the freezing weather, I think; I just go walking quite a lot every day.

ДОЖИДАЙСЯ! -In replies containing repetitions or in remarks where the speaker is ironically parroting what he imagines that another person typically would say. The дожидайся may stand either first or last. In either case, it is set off by a slight pause. Expresses derision and certainty that the other person's thought is completely mistaken:

'Just wait and see!' 'Don't bet on it!'

'Don't try holding your breath until it happens!' 'Afat chance!"

Так и даром отдаст вам! Дожидайся! So you think he'll hand it over to you for nothing! A fat chance there is of that!




доколь ДОКУДА

допоки = пока



'It won't take long to ...',

'It won't be long before ...'

Долго ли дать маху, если так торопливо работать. It won't be long before you goof up, if you work in such a rush .

должнÓ (popular speech and regional) = должно быть = надо быть = вероятно, 'probably', 'evidently', 'must (have)' Мещане разбудили извозщика. Говорят: пойдем-ка, любезный, посмотрим, что там такое? Должно, с каретой что случилось (-Н . В. Успенский) The city people woke the driver up. They said , 'Come on, my good man , let's see what's the matter there. Something must have happened to the carriage .' А удочку вашу мне пожалуйте: у вас червячок, должно, съеден ... Съеден и есть. (-Тургенев) But hand me your fishing rod. Your worm is probably eaten up. ... Eaten up is right. Голова у меня что-то разболелась ... Должно, к непогоде ... (-Чехов) My head has started aching for some reason ... Very likely it's a sign of bad weather coming. -Не пьет он, -И, что ты, матушка! Ни маковой росинки. А должно, что запьет, я так полагаю, надо быть, в скорости. (-А.Н. Островский) - Doesn't he drink? - Oh, how you talk, my dear! Not a drop. But it's probable that he will take to drink, I suppose most likely pretty soon. (i.e., in that awful job he's got. )

должно (as predicate)

'is proper ',

'is fitting',

'should be',


'ought to be'

У него был тот здравый смысл посредственности, который показывал ему, что было должно. Теперь должно было ехать, если не в отставку, то в отпуск. Почему надо было ехать, он не знал. (-Л.Н. Толстой) He [Nikolai Rostov] had that common sense that a mediocre person has, which told him what was appropriate . At this time it was appropriate to go: if not into retirement, then at any rate on leave. Why it was necessary to go he did not know. Хорошая книга та, говорит он,в которой сочинитель говорит то,что должно, Не говорит того, чего не должно, и говорит так, как должно. (-А.Ф. Вельтман) A good book, he [Aristotle ] says, is one in which the author says what is proper, does not say what is not proper, and says it in the way that is proper. Должно заметить, что Авенир ... нисколько не обманывал себя насчет своей болезни. (-Тургенев) It ought to be noted that Avenir ... did not deceive himself at all about his illness .

ДОЛЬШЕ + Gen 'some time after' ... дольше десятого марта .. some time after the 10th of March ...




= прежде чем, before'



'all the time'



'run away', 'get away', bug out'

Драпанём! Let's get out of here! дък =дак, vulgar pronunciation of так. ДЮЖЕ / ДЮЖО


'very', 'very much' , ' greatly', ' exceedingly' . As reply: 'Very much so!" ДЮЖИЙ / ДЮЖОЙ / ДУЖИЙ


'healthy', 'strong', 'sound', 'solid' ДЯДЕНЬКА / ДЯДЬКА


' stranger', 'strange man', 'guy', 'geezer'. Стук. Я открыла дверь. Вот там стоял этот дядька с портфелем ... There was a knock . I opened the door, and there stood this geezer with a briefcase ...

ЕВОННЫЙ (unedu:ated) ЕВОНЫЙ EBOHOB Possessive adjective,

ero, 'his' , 'its'

ETO (as adverbial particle) Ero sometimes occurs in expressions of doubt, uncertainty, and perplexity as a vague reference to the surroundings and the circumstances in general. The ero conveys that the speaker finds himself in an unfamiliar and complicated situation that he does not understand. Thus a fair English equivalent of ' чорт его знает' is 'Gosh, the devil knows' or The devil only knows' (NOT "The devil knows it') . That the ero is an adverbial particle and not an object is shown by the fact that it occurs with verbs that do not take an object: Где б его присесть? Now where-all might I sit down?

Куда б его еще* пойти? Where the heck CAN one go, anyway? (*See EIIE II.4.b (3) , page 124.)


Other examples: Что ж его делать? What the deuce are we going to do? Что б его еще предпринять? Blast it, what IS there that anybody can do?

А кто его знает? I'll be darned ifI know.

Что-нибудь его something or other ( This ero is invariably neuter because it is impersonal and generalized . Slightly resembling it, but referring to a definite person or thing already mentioned is the construction пусть его/ее/их + Ipf Pres . e . g. Пусть его думает, Let him think anything he likes'. See under ПУСТЬ.)

ЕДИНСТВЕННО: ВСЕ ЕДИНСТВЕННO (popular speech & regional)

'all the same',


'without regard to that',

‘it makes no difference'

(as adverbial particle) Cf ЕГО , p112. Expresses doubt, uncertainty, perplexity about the circumstances in general.

·- Здорова ли твоя Дуня? -продолжал я. Старик нахмурился. ·- А бог ее знает - отвечал он. (-Пушкин) -'Is your daughter Dunya well? I went on. The old man frowned. -'God only knows,' he replied. Обломову видна была только спина хозяйки, затылок, и часть белой шеи да голые локти. -Что это она там локтями-то живо ворочает? -спросил Обломов. Кто ее знает! Кружева, что ли, гладит. (-Гончаров) Only the landlady's back, the back of her head, and part of her white neck and her bare elbows were visible to Oblomov. ' What is it she's doing there, moving her elbows so briskly?' Oblomov asked. ' Who the deuce knows! Ironing lace, maybe .'

ЕЖЕЛИ (pop. sp.) = если, 'if In the 20th century ежели has gone out of general use in the written language, and is now considered characteristic of popular speech .

ЕЙНЫЙ (uneducated) Possessive adjective, = ей, 'her’.





Good grief, ...!

Blazes, ... !


for heaven's sake!

In Replies Containing Repetitions


Used similarly:


разве Ну разве


Ну разве что

разве что разве уж Expresses vacillation, hesitation, unconvinced and unenthusiastic acceptance of what is said. May stand at the beginning or end of a reply containing a repetition unless there is a preceding Hy; in that case, always stands first.

We-ell, ifyou say so.' ' Well, if it really is/does..'

' Well, ifyou really think it's ... ' Well, okay, ...' '

' Well , all right then, it's ...' ' Well, as long as it's ..."

-К брату пойдешь? -Разве если к брату. -Will you go to your brother's? -Well , okay, as long as it's to my brother's. -Я то и дело водочки пью, для ревматизма. -Ну, если для ревматизма. -I drink a little vodka now and then, for the rheumatism. -Hm, well , if it's really for the rheumatism ...

ЕСЛИ БЫ ... А ТО ... (СҒ ДОБРО БЫ & ПУСТЬ БЫ.) 'It would be all right if ... but (as it is) ...' 'It would be a different matter if ... but (as things stand) ...' Старший офицер просил нас держать бегство Лютикова в секрете от матросов ….. - Если бы бежал какой-нибудь негодяй, а то лучший унтер-офицер. (Станюкович) The senior officer asked us to keep Lyutikov's escape secret from the sailors ... It would have been different ifsome worthless fellow had run off, but this was the best non-com.


ЕСТЬ : И ЕСТЬ Shows conviction that the word it applies to expresses exactly what is the case and is absolutely appropriate :

and that's all there is to it'

'Now there's what I call ...' '... is an absolute . . .'

... and nothing but . . .'

' a . • · if there ever was one '

.. and no getting away from it' .. is the word for it , all right ' There are four constructions with и eсть :

1. Following a doubled noun , and (optionally ) a Nom . pronoun that agrees with the doubled noun : N N ( он /она/ оно / они ) и есть ! Опять прогулял ! Лентяй лентяй он и есть ! Skipped work again !

He's a


and that's all there

is to


Какой красивый дом ! Дом-- дом и есть ! What


beautiful house ! Now there's a house that is

a house !

2. Following a noun repeated from a preceding remark of one's own . The noun is therefore repeated instead of doubled. Он злой , как аспид .

Да аспид и есть !

He's mean as a viper. And viper is just the word for him! Назвали его плутом , да были совершенно правы . Плут и есть ! They called him a crook, and they were absolutely right . there ever was one !

He's a crook if

3. With a verb, either preceding or following it. А ведь и есть-- потерял . Well , there's no getting away from it--I've lost it . 4. With any word ( noun , verb , pronoun , predicate adjective , etc. ) in a reply containing a repetition from the other speaker's words . The compound particle и еcть stands . most often at the end of the reply, but may also stand at the beginning of it . In either case, there is no pause between и есть and the repeated word or words . The repeated words are usually nouns or verbs that make up the predicate of the preceding remark ; less commonly it is some other word that was stressed because of the sense .

(Cf KAK ECTь §3b , p 118 , which is quite similar .

'You bet it's

' right. '

'It sure is /was /does /did . . . ' .

'I'll say it's . . . ' .

'You're darned right it's . . . ' .

-Не признал ошибку , видно? -Не признал и есть . -He didn't acknowledge the mistake , I take it? -You're darned right he didn't .


—Пришли - то вы рановато . -Рановато и есть . -You got here pretty early . -I'll say it's pretty early . -Он разобрал всё это?

Должно быть , он гений!

-И есть, гений. -He figured all that out? He must be a genius! -Genius is right .

(NOT " Yes, he's a genius . "')

-Да кому вперед- то их везти?

Коле , что ли ?

—( Коля :) Мне и есть . -And who's supposed to haul them from now on? Kolya , maybe? -You bet it's me.

ЕСТЬ : КАК ЕСТЬ 1. Expresses completeness ; conveys that something is the case throughout and that it is true unmistakably and beyond any doubt .

Kaк ecть is most often used with

nouns and adjectives ( especially in short clauses where the noun or adj . is the predicate and the subject is not specifically expressed) .

However, it is also used

with verbs and full clauses where both subject and verb are expressed . The kak ecTь stands either immediately before or immediately after the word it applies to. 'for sure' 'absolutely' ' completely ' ' entirely'

' really'

' throughout '

' certainly '

' perfectly '

' undoubtedly '

На нем была старая куртка , как есть все в клочках.

He had an old jacket on , absolutely all in rags . Болваны как есть !

Вот теперь уронили !

Now they've dropped it ! Dunderheads through and through!

Как много народу !

Полон театр , как есть .

What a lot of people ! Да- да- да скользко .

The theater is chock full .

Брякнулся .

Как есть брякнулся !

You bet your life it's slippery. I fell down like a ton of brick. Boy, did I ever fall down!

a . Kак еcть is often used in this intensive meaning with Beсь, ' all '

(adj or

pron), один in the senses of ' alone ' , ' only ' , and with some other expressions of measure or quantity .

все , как есть

every single one of them


всё , как есть

every last bit of it одна как есть /одна , как есть одна all alone Всю ночь, как есть , до утра пели. They sang the whole livelong night , until morning.

2. Expresses extreme likeness , complete resemblance . When used in this meaning, the кaк еcть stands first in its clause .

'an absolute . • • a perfect ...'

'just like a ...' 'like a regular . . .'

Комната была полна шляпок.

a downright ...' 'a

Как есть целый магазин .

The room was full of hats . It was just like a whole store. Лицо у него было как- то странное-

как есть лиса .

There was something strange about his face--he looked exactly like a fox. Вот еще суп !

Как есть клеем пахнет !

Huh, some soup !

It smells just like glue!

a. Kak ecть is also used with this same meaning of striking resemblance in another arrangement : inside a doubled-noun construction : N как есть N. Да рабочих навезли , ну , полк как есть полк. And they brought a whole lot of workmen, a perfect regiment of them. Что и говорить , шикарно- то ты сегодня одет - шёголь как есть щеголь ! You certainly are dressed like a cool cat today--a downright dandy !

3. Expresses complete conviction about an opinion of one's own , or strong agreement with an opinion of another person's . In this meaning , кaк есть usually stands last in its clause. •

'indeed' 'for certain '

'for sure '

and you can bet on that'

• and that's a fact' • ., beyond a doubt '

И тогда я понял , что он во всём виноват , как есть . And then I saw that it was all his fault , beyond a shadow of a doubt . Ничего ты от меня , миленький , не получишь , ни одного грошика , как есть . You're not going to get anything from me , dearie , not one red cent and that's a fact .


а . Как

есть осcurs most commonly of all in dialogue , in replies expressing

strong agreement , usually in set phrases like the following: это так как есть это

как есть

уж это

как есть


как есть

' That's right . ' ' That's absolutely right. ' 'That's exactly the way it is /was. ' Всё это вы верно говорите , вот как есть . Everything you're saying is true , it's exactly right .

-Вот гайка- то отвертелась , вот и беда. -Это так как есть. -The nut came unscrewed, see . That was the trouble. -That's just how it happened .


May stand at the beginning or

If как есть stands at the beginning, there is no pause

end of a repetition .

between it and the repeated word ; if it stands at the end, setting it off with Usually when как есть is used , only one word- from the

a pause is optional .

preceding speech is repeated --usually a noun or verb that made up the predicate of the preceding speech, or else a significant or emphasized word . -

И ЕСТЬ $ 4, p 115.

Expresses acknowledgement or recognition of what is

repeated as being exactly right and undoubtedly true .

' you bet it's ....

' It sure is /was /does/did . •

' . . . is right . '

'You're darned right it's . ·

'I'll say it's . . .. '

' You bet your life it's

-Настоящая каторга, значит? -Как есть каторга.

Ни днём , ни ночью покоя не знаю .

-It's really drudgery , right? -You

bet your life it's drudgery .

I never have any peace day or night.

-Ведь это разбой !

Бессовестно запрашивают!

-Как есть разбой!

Вот не куплю!

--Why, this is robbery! They're asking a criminal price ! -Robbery is right !


I won't buy any !

Interrogative pronoun or adverb + НИ ( НА ) ЕСТЬ Expresses the idea that it makes no difference which of several possibilities is

The compound suffixes ни есть and ни на есть have a rather бы ни : нибудь and broad range of meaning, equivalent to both

actually the case .


someone or other/it makes no difference who / no matter who/

KTO ни есть:

never mind who /etc как ни на есть : какой ни есть : где ни на есть :

somehow or other/one way or another /regardless of how /etc . some


of/whatever /whichever/regardless

of which/etc .

it doesn't matter where'never mind where / somewhere or other /

etc. Он старается чем ни на есть держаться на виду . He tries to keep himself in evidence in any role at all. А этот цветок какой?

Какой ни есть , да красивый !

What kind of flower is this? Whatever it is , it's certainly beautiful ! Решени

всех вопросов не знаем , но надо как ни на есть начинать.

We don't know any answers to all the problems , but one way or another we have to make a start .

Может , вы

думаете , что я какой ни на есть мошенник?

Is it possible you think I'm some sort of crook?

ЕСТЬ : ЧТО НИ ( НА ) ЕСТЬ + adjective ( usually Superlative) The phrase что ни (на ) есть always precedes the adjective .

If the Superlative

is the compound Superlative ( самый + adj ) , then что ни ( на ) есть may stand either before the самый оr between the самый and the adjective . Indicates that the quality expressed by the adjective is found here in the highest possible degree ,

in the highest degree imaginable , absolutely without exception . ' couldn't be more . . . '

' the very most .


' the most

• of all '

Да какой же тебе еще ? Уж это что ни есть лучшая. Well , what other one could you want? Really , this is the best of all . Это была что ни на есть самая обыкновенная заминка, а он ломал руки , не знал , что предпринять. It was the most commonplace snag imaginable , but he wrung his hands and didn't know what to do. У этой микстуры что ни на есть отвратительный вкус .

This medicine has a most repulsive taste . Доставляли самый что ни на есть последний сорт бревен . They supplied logs of the very lowest grade . (Note : There seems to be a noticeable tendency in popular speech to use самый + что ни на есть + an adjectival form that is itself a Superlative and does not require the world самый :

Все были .

Самое что ни на есть высшее начальство.

They were all there . The very top bigshots.





медведь на

лучшие ульи таскать .


ходить ,

и самые что ни на есть

(Новиков- Прибой)

The bear got in the habit of coming to our apiary and stealing the very best beehives. Perhaps this is because the intervening чTO ни на есть makes the connection between the caмый and the adjective less close and obvious , and because the самый may have come to be thought of as regularly associated with что ни на есть.)


Imperative forms . According to the literary standard , no Imperative is formed from exать ; поезжай

is used as a substitute , and in less cultivated speech eзxaй also . formation






However, the

and also, at least in prefixed verbs ,

еди / едите :

Подьедите к нам сюда . Drive over here to our place.

ЕЩЕ Eme has a wide range of uses , broadly dividing into two kinds :

( 1 ) as an adverb

referring to time, and ( II ) as a particle idiomatically conveying a number of emotional shadings .

I. TEMPORAL When referring to time ,, actually eme is used to point out one time in relation to another. The fundamental meaning of ewe is to place something before the end of some other period or state of affairs. In the majority of cases , eme corresponds very well to English ' yet' or ' still ' , or, when referring to past time , to ' as long ago as' (--plus the sense of ' (one) more ' , ' (some ) more ' ) .

However, the following additional

uses and translations may be pointed out as well :

1. только еще + Ipf Pres ' only now ' , ' just .

• now .. •·

-Ты вчера написал ему письмо , не правда ли?

-Нет , я только еще пишу . -You wrote a letter to him yesterday, right? -No, I'm just doing it now. 2. eme + Fut (Ipf or Prf) in statements of intent

a. With words referring to time ' 'before the end of' , ' by the end of' , ' before . .. is over ', ' not later than


Они еще будут сегодня звонить нам вечером . They're going to phone us not later than this evening.

Я еще завтра зайду к ним когда. I'll call on them some time before tomorrow is over. b . Without words referring to time . (1 ) ' later on ' , ' in the near future ' , ' shortly ' Ну ладно , я еще лично с ним поговорю . Okay, I'll talk with him personally later on. (2) ' still ' , ' for a while yet , ' ' for now' . В настоящее время ее не переводят . Так она еще останется у вас , да?

At the present time she's not being transferred .

So she'll remain

at your place for a while yet , okay? 3. еще + Past ( Ipf or Prf) . . ' , ' not later than . . . ' , ' as Through the meanings ' before the end of .... long ago as ... ' , еще when referring to past time has come to be used much like colloquial English " back " :

' back in . . . ' , ' back around . . . ' , ' a while

ago' . -Папирос нет .

-Как это нет? -Да ведь и вчера еще у нас вышли . --There aren't any cigarettes.

-What do you mean , there aren't any? -Why, we ran out of them back yesterday. -Ты что?

Забыл вчерашний мой разговор с тобой?

-А чего хотел? -Вот я тебе когда * вчера еще говорил , так ты мне говорил Понятно , и мне так далее.

Ладно ,

А сегодня ничего не помнишь.

-What's the matter with you?

Have you forgotten my conversation

with you yesterday? -What did you want? -I was just talking to you back some time during yesterday , and

you kept saying '' All right '' and ' I see

and all that stuff.


today you don't remember a thing. когда = когда- то Я еще с ним говорил по этому вопросу. I was talking with him about this problem a while ago. " Как вам известно , Тамань отвоевал у хазар еще Святослав . "

(- Первенцев) As you know, it was Svyatoslav who won Taman from the Khazars back in his day.


11 Истрясли мы в ту пору

рублей больше тысячи

на тогдашние еще

деньги , и схоронили - таки родителя по своему обычаю. " ( -Салтыков Щедрин) In those days we squandered more than a thousand rubles , more or less , in the money that was used back in those days, and we buried our father according to our custom . II. IDIOMATIC 1. In recollections , especially in a series of remarks reflecting gradual recollection , where eme either introduces or emphasizes additional details known in the past and successively remembered. Ewe usually stands first in the sentence , or else directly before or after the the most significant word. It usually applies to a verb, and because of the context of recollection , usually a verb in the Past. ' And another thing, ...'

'He /She was the one that . . .

'And ...'

'Oh, yes, and . . .' Разве не знали его?

Он жил недалеко от Тугодумовых.

Хромал . . . .Еще он

любил удить рыбу . Didn't you know him? He lived not far from the Tugodumovs .

He had a

limp ... . . . .Oh , yes , and he loved to go fishing. А помнишь , когда мы ехали в Москву . По срочному делу было .

Мы еще чуть

не опоздали на поезд . Remember the time we were going to Moscow? It was on urgent business . And we almost missed the train. 2. In expressions of misgiving, pointing out an undesirable


Since the

reference is to a fear of what may happen , the verb is ordinarily Future .


may stand first or last in the sentence, or inside the sentence next to an important word.

Sentences of this kind often contain other expressions in addition to the

ewe , such as пожалуй , ' perhaps ' , ' very likely ' , чeго добрoro , ' for all I know' , 'I'm afraid (that ) ' , 'There's a good chance that ' , смотри , ' very easily ' , ' before you know it ' , Tого и гляди , ' before you know it ' ,

' first thing you know' , etc.

The sense of ewe here is very similar:

'like as not'

'before you know it'

' very easily'

'I'll bet'

' most likely'

'It wouldn't surprise me if . . . '

' Next thing,.

Приедет он , да , пожалуй , еще нагрубит . He'll come , and I suppose like as not he'll be rude. А то еще жена Позвони к себе домой ИЗ КОНТОВЫ , что задержимся тут . подумает, что метелью нас где то занесло. Call home from the office about our being kept late here . Otherwise your wife will very easily think we've gotten snowed in somewhere by the storm .


Вот я запишу это .

Еще забуду , чего доброго .

I'll just write that down .

It wouldn't surprise me if I forget it , very

likely . Беги бегом , согреешься на ходу!

А то сразу замерзнешь еще .

Run real fast , and you'll get warm as you go .

If you don't , you'll get

frozen right away before you know it.



а еще еще и

а еще и

вот еще In indignant criticisms , pointing out the contrast between what is actually the the case and what is supposed to be . Eme occurs most often together with a noun ,

but may also be used with a verb .

its clause or, less commonly , at the end .

Еще may stand at the beginning of If еще stands at the beginning, it

is frequently used in the strengthened forms А еще , Еще и , ог А еще и .


the еще applies to a noun , verbs like называться , зваться , считаться , etc. are often used to state the idea in full , but are frequently omitted . a. WITH NOUNS

' A fine . . .!'

'And that's what they call a . . . ! '

'And he's supposed to be a ..• . !'

' And you call yourself a .. .. . (too) ! '

'And he claims to be a ... !' Так, отказываешь мне в такой мелочи -- сосед еще ! So, you refuse to do such a little thing as that for me--and you call yourself a neighbor! Разве поверил этой сказке?

Еще и разумный человек .

Do you mean to say you believed that story? And you're supposed to be a sensible fellow. Проиграл князь!

два двугривенных , а шум делаешь на трёшницу . ·

. Еще

( Горький , На дне , II)

You lost forty kopecks ,

and you make enough noise for three

rubles... And you call yourself a prince ! b. WITH VERBS 'And '

' And of all things '

' And yet '

'And he has the nerve to...'

' And still ' И еще смеётся .

Подумаешь-- смешно !

And she has the nerve to laugh . funny !

Can you imagine , she think it's


11 Мы рабочие ! "

Что это вы так поздно? А хвастаете еще :


are you so

late getting here ? And yet you brag: "We're

workmen !'' 4. In various expressions of displeasure , irritation, censure , mistrust , doubt , etc. ( Cf sarcastic ' yet '

in colloquial English . ) Cf вот еще , under BOT , p 56 .

a . With a verb, noun , or adjective predicate . -Вы это совсем не так делаете —Ну да , вот ты еще разговаривать станешь .

-You people are doing it all wrong. -Oh sure, now you're going to start jawing too , of course. Целы ли еще деньги- то?

Is the money all there , I trust ? b. With an Imperative .

The еще follows the Imperative .

(1 ) In irritated threats .

(See also §4d , below . )

Кричи еще на меня , работу не закончу вообще . Just keep up that yelling at me , and I won't finish the job at all . (2) In expressions of nonagreement , displeasure , irritation , etc. Поспорь еще !

А вот как окажется .

Sure , argue all you want !

But that's how it'll turn out .

-Осторожно . Держи гвоздь прямо . Не ударь пальца. —Учи меня еще .

-Be careful . -Great .

Hold the nail straight . Don't hit your finger.

Give me lessons onhow to do everything.

(3) In questions , with ewe in combination with an interrogative pronoun (кто, какой , etc. ) or adverb (зачем , куда , etc. ) . Expressing displeasure , irritation, annoyance , etc. Олухов приехал? Какой еще тут Олухов? Olukhov has arrived? Who the blazes is Olukhov? Это еще зачем нам понадобилось ? What the heck did we have to have that for? Кто- то стучит в дверь .

Кто там еще?

Someone's knocking at the door.

Who the devil is that there ?

Когда еще они прибудут? When ARE they ever going to get here? (4) With the verb дождаться .

In threats.

Да еще дождётся он у меня . Самому начальнику жаловаться буду . Just let him wait and see what I do. chief himself.

I'll make a complaint to the


5. In concessions and assumptions . Всех подвезти туда не могу . Если бы еще два , три человека , а то семь . I can't give them all a ride there .

Sure, if there were two or three people

I could , but there are seven of them . Еще здесь можно присесть , а жара такая ! At least one can sit down here , but it's so hot ! " (Лиза ( Софьей) :)

Запрет он вас , добро еще со мной , А то .. " ( Грибоедов)

( Liza (to Sofya ) :) If he locks you up , it's all right as long as it's both of us , But what if . . .

6. In emphasizing, used to set off with particular stress . Сколько тебе нужно? есть.


Пять рублей? Хорошо ! Еще как нарочно у меня при себе

How much do you need? Five rubles? with me .

Good !

It just so happens I have it

" Я , кажется , человек и честный и не то чтобы совсем глупый --напротив , люди еще " головой " зовут , -- а ни за что- таки приняться не могу . " ( Салтыков ) I'm an honest man , I think , and not what you'd call stupid--on the contrary , people call me " a man with a head on his shoulders " in fact --but I can't settle down to anything. В этом плане нужно еще много подробности разработать . There are an awful lot of details in this plan that need to be worked out.

7. In combination with как ог какой , reinforcing them . Ведь вот человек удумал штуку .

И как еще ловко подвел .

It seems the fellow thought up a trick. And how extremely cleverly he worked it in.

-Разве мальчик музыкант , -Ого !

Еще какой!

-Is the boy really a musician?

-Oho! And WHAT a musician! -Что случилось? -Еще какие !


-What happened?

Did you run into difficulties?

-I'll say I did !



See ЕЩЕ , $ II . 3 , р 123 .


ЕЩЕ БЫ ЕЩЕ БЫ НЕ 1. In isolation , independent of any other words .

(Only the form eme бы is used when

a break follows , because eшe бы не would have to be followed by additional words .)

Еще 6ы ! a. Standing alone , used as a reply: Eшe 'I should say so!'

'You bet!'

'I should think so!'

' Absolutely ! '

'I'll say!'

-Пьесу смотреть пойдешь? -Еще бы !

-Are you going to see the play? -You bet ! b. Set off by a break from the sentence that follows it.

'Of course it was they did etc. 'Naturally' 'That's natural :. . .' Он был очень счастлив.

Еще бы :

сегодня получил аттестат .

He was very happy. Naturally he was :

today he had received his

diploma . 2. IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS . Eшe ōы ( нe) always precedes the word or words repeated from the other speaker's remark, repeated

and is not separated from them by any pause .

The word

is whatever word was logically stressed in the preceding speech :

usually a verb or noun that constituted the predicate ; less commonly, an adverb or a direct object .

An inflected verb is often replaced by the Infinitive of the

same verb. Used in strong assertions ,

made with a great deal of conviction.


assertion may be either in agreement or in disagreement with the other speaker's last remark . NOTE :

The choice of еще бы ог еще бы не is not related to whether the

reply agrees or disagrees with the preceding remark. еще бы and еще бы не both mean the same thing :

Odd though it seems ,

simply that the key word

(which is the word picked up and repeated) is strongly asserted . This is because the underlying idea , which eme оы не expresses in a very abbreviated way, is something like " (what ) else would it be (if) not . . .?" / " (What ) other (possibilities ) could there be ( if) not . . .?" , and eшe бы is an even briefer expression of the same idea :

" (What ) else could be possible (other than ) . . . ? " There

appears to be a tendency to use еще бы in replies to remarks that contain a не , and еще бы


in replies to remarks that do not


contain a не .


' Of course ·

' Naturally .


' can't be anything else (but) '

' How could . . .not


' Obviously ,

- " (Наталья :) А я-- не люблю . -(Людмила :) Она это знает . -(Наталья :) Да , еще бы не знать . " ( Горький) -(Natalya :)

But I -- I don't love her.

-(Lyudmila :) She knows that . -(Natalya :) -Не волнуйся .

Of course she knows it . Ничего не вытаскивают .

-Еще бы они вытащили ! -Take it easy. Nobody's swiping anything.

-They did too swipe things !


MEANING . ) " (Ласуков :)


еще бы не грибы . "






. ( Пробует )

Конечно ,

грибы ,

( Некрасов)

(Lasukov:) What's this? Aren't these mushrooms?. . ( Tries them) Of course , they're

mushrooms ,






mushrooms .

3. With a verb in the form of the Past. ' It wouldn't be nice if ...' ' It would be extremely out of line if . . . ' ' It would be the last straw if . . . '

' . . . had just better not . . . 'I certainly hope ..

. not ..

' It would really be the living end if . . . '

— Не волнуйся .

Ничего не вытаскивают .

- Еще бы они вытащили !

-Take it easy. Nobody's swiping anything. -They'd just better not swipe anything !

(See $ 2 , ABOVE . )

Еще бы он отказался! It wouldn't be very nice if he refused ! /It would be the last straw if he refused ! Еще бы ты был недоволен !

I certainly hope you're not dissatisfied ! Еще бы он узнал об этом ! It would be the living end if he found out about this!



See under BOT .







See under TO . ·




= разве . неужели , ' really ' , ' really , now, . .



(pop. sp. )

' That doesn't amount to anything. '

'That doesn't matter.'

' That isn't anything serious. '

'That doesn't make much difference .'

' That's nothing much . Он , правда , иногда божится , но это еще ничего.

А его брат - чуть что , он

и станет рвать и метать. It's true he swears occasionally , but not to amount to anything.

But his

brother! The least little thing and he'll start having a raving fit.

Кашляю немножко , но это еще ничего. I have a slight cough , but it isn't anything serious . Дело не в том , что сегодня идет дождь , это бы еще ничего.

Но становится

холодно , на улицах замерзнет . It's not that it's raining today; that wouldn't matter much . cold, it'll freeze on the streets'.


' so far'

'up to now'



See under TOXE .

But it's getting




того ( и ) глgaи : Same meaning as тoгo

imminent possibility of something undesirable .

The accompanying verb is regularly Prf.

'Any minute

'As soon as you turn your head ..

' Before you know it ...'

' Before you can say " knife " . . . '

'First thing you know ... Он бежал по льду .

Того и жди , что упадет .

He was running over the ice. He was in danger of falling down at any moment. Берегись !

Стена того и жди повалится .

Look out ! First thing you know , that wall is going to fall over.


1. Contrasting: ' but ' , ' while ' , ' whereas '. Most commonly after a noun or pronoun subject , but also after other words referring to circumstances .

Он пошел в театр , мы же домой. He went to the theatre , but we went home. Снаружи было темным-темно , внутри же было ярко освещено . Outside it was pitch dark, but inside it was brightly lighted. 2. Continuing:

Adding further information about someone or something or some situation just mentioned before : and /and . · too /and in fact/you see/actually.

In this meaning, xe is often followed by an и .

Sometimes the added statement

gives the grounds for the first one . Сf ведь.

Мост очень интересует меня .

Я ж инженер .

The bridge interests me a great deal . I'm an engineer, you see./I myself am an engineer. Сад был порядочный , он же и огород .

( Гончаров)

The garden was a fair-sized one . It was a kitchen- garden , actually. Нет никакого смысла в этом .

Перебрасываем же все эти вещи туда,.

There's no sense to this at all . Получается 4,2 .

Here we ship all this stuff there ,

Это же показывает , что .

The figure obtained is 4.2 .

And that indicates that . . .

3. Emphasizing the word it follows . In its

general emphasizing sense , xe can be used after practically any

word of any grammatical type :

noun , verb, pronoun , adjective , adverb, etc. With

some grammatical forms , it has acquired a more specialized meaning as well . a. General emphatic use :

(1 ) After an Imperative :




Дайте же мне сесть ! Do let me sit down ! /Darn it , WILL you give me a chance to sit down!

Так высылайте ж к нам ! Then by all means send it to us!

(2) After an adjective applied to a noun : Но на первом же шагу наткнулись на препятствие . But at the very first step we came up against an obstacle. (3 ) After an interrogative pronoun or adverb :


Да кто же всё это сделает ? And just who is going to do all that? Когда же это будет ? When exactly will that be? Не пойти туда?

А отчего же нет?

Not go there? But why the heck not? Зачем же возмущаться так?

Не стоит .

What ever do you get so steamed up for? It's not worth it . (4) After an adverb: Я думаю выехать сегодня же . I figure on leaving this very day/before the day is out. Сейчас же!

Right away ! Да как же милы они! And how exceedingly kind they are !

(5) After any verb : Прежде были же затруднения здесь у нас. In those days there really were problems around here.

Вот , я не выдумал же . Look here, I didn't just imagine it.

(6) After нет : Нет же , он совсем не такой. Oh , no , really .

He's not like that at all .

(7) After a noun : Ой !

Кусачки же забыли !

Oh , no !

You know what we forgot ? The wire-cutters !!

А братья ж твои?

Разве не могут помогать ?

But how about your brothers ? Can't they help? Да бумага ж вышла, тебе говорят ! But as for paper, we've run out of it , I keep telling you !


b. Specialized uses: (1 ) After demonstrative pronouns and adverbs :

" same " .

Apparently an

outgrowth of the general emphatic value of xe is its use with demonstratives in the sense of " same " : тOT

жe :

the same man (Lit:

'that very one ' ) , To xe : the same thing, oттуда же : from the same place , тaк жe : the same way , just like it , тогда xе : at the same time ,

at that same time , такой же :

the same kind, столько жe:

just as much/many, the same amount . (2) After personal pronouns Tы and Bы :


Xe after any personal pronoun form can of course always have the senses of ' but' or ' and ' given above in $ 1 and $ 2 .

However, after the

form Tы (or Bы ) it can also have the effect of calling the hearer's attention to the fact that he is being addressed , to the remark as a whole that is being addressed to him, and to the seriousness with which it is meant. This is often the meaning when Tы is followed by an Imperative ,

but other sentences can have this

sense also :

Ты же лучше объясни!

You darn well better explain ! Стёпа , ты же не уходи , подожди нас . Steve, don't go away. Wait for us.

Ты же , Дуня, наглая. Really, Dunya , you've got a lot of nerve . Юра, Юра. . .ты же матрос. · • Ну " .Держись, Юра ! " ( Соболев ) Now Georgy, you're a sailor , remember

... Chin up, Georgy!

(3) After adjectives and nouns referring to a quality. When a predicate is made with a word expressing something that can occur in various degrees of intensity , the addition of a xe conveys that here is an instance where the degree is high, often surprisingly high. Typically, the predicate - adjective , noun, or verb - is before the subject. WITH SHORT-FORM ADJECTIVE :

Ну и пуглив же ты ! My, you really are timid!

Глуп же он ! He's really dumb ! WITH LONG-FORM ADJECTIVE : Нахальная же какая девчонка! What a perfectly brazen dame !



Чудак же ты !

Well , now , if you aren't a strange one ! WITH VERB : Перепугал же ты меня!

Ох !

Ooh ! You really startled me! (4) After nouns that refer to masses and substances: Conveys that here we have an unusual quantity or quality or both. The noun is regularly first in the sentence . " Беда! Совсем не думали орудия увезти.



была " .

(Л.Толстой) It was awful ! We didn't believe at all that we'd get the guns out of there. The mud was really something. Сено же будет ! It's going to be a great crop of hay! (5) After verbs : Conveys that the case is a remarkable one , and that it is surprising that it should happen at all . the sentence .

The verb is always at the beginning of

(a) Characteristically, the verb is Perfective .

A form of тaкой

often follows the necessarily:

verb-and-particle combination , Prf + же xe (+ такой) .

though not

взбредёт же в голову! ( OR : Взбредёт же такое в голову! ) What ideas come into your head! /To think that such an

idea could occur to you ! Вот создаст же такое природа!

To think that nature can create such a thing! "

. Наградит же ведь господь бог такими глазенапами . (НОВИКОВ - Прибой) To think that the Lord God endowed

anybody with

peepers like that!

Ну, скажет же такое ! Now, what was the idea of saying a thing like that? ( b ) The

Imperfectives бывать

and есть occur with this same

meaning. Бывают же такие мошенники! Would you believe that there are such swindlers?!



(pop . sp . ) -Желаю всего хорошего. ' Goodbye ' /' So long .


(Cf будь(те) & бывай (те).)


' Fine !' , ' Great !'


(dialectal : Northern)

' in (one's ) whole life' Мне бы ни за что не окунуться :

я живучи не купывалась.

I wouldn't want to get in the water for anything:

I've never been swimming

in my life .


(pop . sp . & regional .

Sometimes used humorously )

* жизнь , ' life '



= до жути , ' extremely ' .

Надоели мне они в жуть ! I'm so fed up with them I could scream./I've gotten dreadfully sick of them .



Preceding page blank

3A + Acc


'about' , ' concerning ' . ' in regard to' (Usually with verbs of saying, knowing, thinking , feeling, etc. ) 1. Ukrainianism . 2. dialectal Russian : Southern. 3. widely used, but uneducated and non-standard in Russian. Ну вот , я знаю за одного из них, но не знаю за тех. Look, I know about one of them, but I don't know about those fellows .

За нас не беспокойся . Don't worry about us . О чём мы с ним разговаривали? Так , знаешь , вообще-- " за жизнь " , как говорят . What were he and I talking about ? You know :

just things in general --"about

life " , as they say .

3A + Acc after a Comparative

(dialectal : Western)

' than' Он старше за Сашу. He's older than Sasha .

Она приедет быстрей за мать . She'll get here quicker than her mother.

3A + Noun derived from verb

Refers to starting to do something " Такое житьё , что как поутру встал , так и за вытьё . "

(- Горький, На дне , І. ) It's such a (terrible) life that when one has gotten up in the morning one starts in wailing right off.

( Popular saying, A humorous way of charac-

terizing an absolutely miserable life . )


(pop . sp . & dialectal ) Often unnecessarily prefixed to words that mean the same thing without it . See also пoд- , similarly overused in popular speech . завсегда = всегдá, ' always'


B дáром , (1 ) ' free ' , at no charge ' , ( 2 ) ‘ in vain '

= Задарма задешево

задаром = даром =

дëшево, ' at a low price ' , ' cheaply'


задорого зазря

= дóрoго, ' at a high price ' , ' at great expense ' 8 зря, ' in vain'


Bмécтo, ' instead of' , ' in place of'

заполучить = получить , ' receive ' , ' obtain ' , ' get ' See also зÁПРOCTO : 3 meanings . Page 138 .


+ Gen

(pop. sp. )

= ради + Gen, ' for the sake of' , 'for'. (для ради is used in the same way . )

ЗА СЧЕТ + Gen 1. ' at the expense of' , ' by taking from ' .

(standard literary)

Увеличили эту комнату за счет другой. They enlarged this room by taking from another one. 2. 'by means of' , ' by the way of' , ' through the method of'.


Подняли урожай за счет расширения посевных площадей. They increased the harvest by expanding the area under cultivation.


'for that reason ' (DIFFERENT: зaro, ' on the other hand' , ' in return ' .)



' why? ' , ' what for?'



'turn up (somewhere ) ' , ' show up (at some place )' . (Dictionaries

give заворачивать/ заворотить

' stop in briefly on one's way somewhere else ' )


(pop. sp. & dialectal )

= всегда, ' always ' .

See 3A-.





' drop in ' ,



* даром , ( 1 ) ' free ' , ' at no charge ' (2 ) ' in vain ' .

See 3A- .

(in threats: Я тебе задам ... )


Used like дать .

See ДАТЬ , р . 105 .

' I'll give you ... ' I'll show you some •

' I'll teach you to . . .

ЗА́ДЕШЕВО - дёшево , ' at a low price ' , ' cheaply ' .

See 3A- .


* дорого , ' at a high price ' , ' at great expense ' .

See 3A- .


* зря, ' in vain ' .


See 3A- .

(pop . sp. )

' get ' , ' obtain ' , ' acquire ' .


(pop. sp. )

' break off (a conversation , a long story ) ' , ' wind up ' , ' knock it off. '

ЗАМЕСТО * вместо , ' instead of' , ' in place of ' .

See 3A- .

ЗАМЕЧАТЕЛЬНО 1. Normally used in a favorable sense : a. ' exceptional ' , ' extraordinary ' , ' unusual ' , ' remarkable ' , ' amazing ' , ' wonderful . ' b . ' outstanding ' , ' excellent ' , ' splendid ' .


2. pop. sp .: used also in an unfavorable sense :

' amazingly bad ' , ' way out ' , ' really something '. Мы замечательно живем здесь . Ты знаешь , чуть не плачем . It's really something , the way we live here . You know, we could practically cry ..·


(colloq . )

'get busy ' Он должен заниматься этим . He's got to get busy on that. IN THE IMPERATIVE + ANOTHER IMPERATIVE :

get busy and · Вы сейчас насчет этого займитесь напишите письмо.

You get busy and write a letter about this right away.


= получить.

(pop. sp . )

See 3A-.

ЗАПРОСТО 1. (colloq . ) ' simply ' , ' without ceremony ' , ' as a close friend ' . 2. (pop . sp . ) ' easily ' , ' without special effort ' , ' without any trouble ' , ' easy to do ' . 3. (pop. sp . ) ( As an answer:) ' Yes ! ' , ' Certainly ! ' , ' Of course ' .


1. ' all at once ' , ' in one session ' , ' at one blow'.

2. ' immediately ' , ' right away ' .



(standard literary)

(regional & nonstandard )


Expresses manifest displeasure at what has just been said. 'What nonsense ! . . . !'

' ... baloney ! ' ! What an idea !'

-Вот кровь !

-3 !

Надо позвать врача .

Какие затеи


-Look at the blood! We'll have to call a doctor. -Huh! What an idea!

- A doctor!


(official jargon)


' read aloud' (e.g. , a resolution , an order)


(slang) ' call by phone ' . ' ring up' . • БРЯКАТЬ /БРЯКНУТЬ .



'That's just great ' . Вот здорово , вы не знаете ; это и вас не украшает , что вы не знаете . That's just great .

You don't know . It's certainly not to your credit that

you don't know.



Ipf Pres 3 sg (USUALLY)



Ipf Imp 2 sg without any verb (UNCOMMON)


Use : with 1. Definite subject--a certain person or thing just mentioned a. With Indicative : Imperfective ( usually Pres 3 sg) .


( 1 ) знай may precede or follow the verb. (2 ) знай себе may only precede the verb. (a ) The verb may stand between знaй and ceбe ( RARE ) . (3 ) знает is not nearly as commonly used as знай and знай себе .

b. With Imperative . ( 1 ) знай usually follows the verb, but does not have to . ( 2 ) знай себе usually precedes the verb, but does not have to. (3) знает is not used with the Imp. c. Without any verb . ( UNCOMMON ) . d. With the conditional (RARE ) . 2. Indefinite subject-- generalizing : " one " , " a person " , " anybody " .

a. With Imperative ( REGULARLY ) . ( 1 ) знай usually precedes the verb (--as opposed to 1.b. ( 1 ) -- ) . It can follow. ( (2) No example of знай себе with an indefinite subject & the Imp was found . ) ( (3 ) знает is not used . )


Meaning: Indicates

action carried on without regard to surrounding circumstances , unin-

fluenced by them , unconcerned about them , or in spite of them . ' just '

. - ing'

' goes /went right on

' simply '

'keep(s ) right on


(s ) away '

Examples : 1.a. Definite subject + lpf Pres 3 sg .

Около него шум и суета, а он знает себе пишет .



OR :

Около него шум и суета , а он знает пишет .

OR :

Около него шум и суета , а он знай себе пишет .

OR :

Около него шум и суета , а он знай пишет .

OR :

Около него шум и суета, а он знай пишет себе .

OR :

Около него шум и суета , а он пишет , знай .




Around him there is noise and bustle , but he just keeps on writing. Я сто раз спрашивал его об этом , а он знай сидит молчит .

I asked him a hundred times about that, but he simply sits and says nothing. 1.b : Definite subject + Ipf Imp 2 sg. Не твое дело , шевелись , знай . It's none of your affair.

( Новиков - Прибой)

Get a move on and don't worry about it .

Пусть его мелет в свое удовольствие, а ты, знай , посмеивайся ! (А. Н. Островский) . Let him rave on to his heart's content, and as for yourself, just go ahead and laugh every once in a while . 1.c : Definite subject + no expressed verb .


Бывало , жена-то воет- воет , а мы знай свое.

( Г. Успенский)

His wife would wail and wail , but we would just keep on doing our own work. 1.d : Definite subject + Conditional .


" Своей болтовней я отнял у теба последнее утешение . Знала бы себе до смерти лечила мужиков , да не ела мяса, так нет же , язык ! " ( Чехов )


меня черт


I've taken your last consolation away from you with my gabbing. You would have just gone right on doctoring peasants to the last gasp and not eating meat .

2.a :

But no, the devil possessed me to talk !

Indefinite subject + Imperative . Хорошая тропинка там есть .

Только знай иди .

There's a good path there . All you have to do is go ahead and walk .



работа-- служить

кассиршей :

знай сиди ,

получай денежки , давай

сдачи . It's a good job, working as a cashier--just șit and take in money and give change . Additional observations and commentary : 1. At least in practice , the form of an Imperfective verb used with знай /знай сeбе/ знает

is nearly always Present and nearly always 3 sg. The quotation from

Chekhov ( 1d) containing the Conditional is the only instance of any form other than Present that was found ; it is cited here for the sake of completeness , but it is quite unusual .

A verb in this construction with знай оccurs in the Present

even when other verbs in the sentence are in the Past and the whole sentence evidently refers to a past time : " На улице первым делом парнишки налетели , дразниться стали . . знай , идет своей дорогой . "

Федюня ,

( Бажов )

On the street, the first thing the boys did was come in a swarm and start their horseplay. . . Fedyunya ( Fyodor) simply went his own way without paying any attention . 2. Although the знай + Ipf Рres construction , with its basic idea of action uninfluenced by surrounding circumstances , usually has a person as subject , nevertheless it can also be used with an inanimate subject : " Ишь льет - поливает ! (Салтыков )

рожь только что зацветала, а он * , знай , поливает . "

( * он = дождь . )

See how it pours and pours ! The rye has just started to bloom, but it goes right on dumping down.

3. The знай 'знай себе , знает is sometimes preceded by только ог только и , stating the idea of ' just ' /' simply ' /' only '

explicitly. Note the two other constructions

with Tobкo and только и , оп рage 142 , which are different in meaning. In them , только and только и аrе required parts of the construction and must be present .

ЗНАЙ : ТО И ЗНАЙ + Ipf Pres Very similar to то и


' constantly ' ,

' continually ' , ' incessantly ' ,

' keeps on

-ing'. Тут на большой станции поезда то и знай прибывают , уходят . Here in the big station there are trains arriving and leaving constantly.



ЗНАМО ДЕЛО ( pop . sp . & regional ) = известно / ясно : ' it is well known ' , ' it is plain ' , ' certainly ' . . -Не тут !

А кто взял?

-Знамо кто : Воришкин . Всё таскает . -It's not here ! But who took it? -It's plain who did : Вот проси Иванова .

Vorishkin .

He swipes things all the time .

Он , знамо, крупная птица в отделении , он сумеет помочь .

Look, ask Ivanov .

Everybody knows he's a big wheel in the department ;

he'll be able to help. Знамо дело , с потолка не взял , он знал об этом .

А как же это?

He certainly didn't just make that up--he knew about it .

ЗНАТЬ (-as parenthetical adv . )

1. + Past verb :


But how did he?

( colloq./'pop . sp. ) -ed/must have ______________- ed

2. obviously / apparently /evidently Куда он делся?

Знать пошел в кладовую.

Where did he go? He must have gone in the store -room. Знать , планы полностью еще не разработаны. Obviously, the plans are not yet fully worked out .


Ipf Pres

( 1st , 2nd, or 3rd person ) + ТОЛЬКО + Inf

Ipf Past ' All ______ know / knows / knew how to do is/was(to) ——————_ . ' 'The only thing-know /knows /knew how to do is /was(to) ' Practically all_does is (to ) / did was (to)



Они знали только на совещания ходить да спорить . All they knew how to do was go to meetings and argue. OR : Practically all they did was go to meetings and argue .


Только и +

Noun :


Ipf Pres


Ipf Past


Prf Pres

in Aspect , Tense ,


Prf Past

and Person.


+ ЧТО + vb matching 'делать


' All .

does is

' All

did was

'The only thing — does is .

'The only thing

did was

does nothing but did nothing but Он только и знает , что ходит взад и вперёд . He does nothing but pace back and forth . For other examples of this construction see under ТОЛЬКО И.



' play a role' This expression has grown out of the confusion of two other expressions : роль ,

‘ play a role '

and иметь значение ,

Usually in some form such as


' have importance ' ,


' be of importance . '

большое значение , играют очень важное

значение , не играет никакого значения- -'plays a large role ' , ' play a very important role ' , ' plays no role ' .


ПРИНЯТЬ ЗНАЧЕНИЕ С ЧЕГО- НИБУДЬ ( рор . sp . / non-standard)

' to take something seriously '

( = придать значение чему- нибудь , the usual formula . )


(equating the two words that it stands between )

( Literally , ' means ' .

Need not always be translated . )

опять забыли .


Вот ,

смотрите ,


говорю ,


напоминания приносить

мне почту. Поступает значит принесли , понятно, You forgot again. Now, see to it ; I'm telling you , you're to bring the mail to me without being reminded . When something comes in , you bring it at once, got that ? ( Lit. , ' something comes in means you bring it at once ' )


• значит , ' that is .

' I mean , ·

Значит так , не понял вас That is , I didn't get what you said .



НЕ ЗНАЮ КАК (3 words run together in pronunciation) .

(pop . sp . )

'You just can't imagine how. . . ' , ' hugely' , ' immensely ' , ' like anything'. Вот я его за это не знаю как уважаю!

I really respect him enormously for that . У нас народ этому не знаю как радуется. You just can't imagine how glad of that the people at our office are .

ЗРЯ ' incorrectly ' , ' wrongly ' . ( pop . sp./non-standard ) Вы зря понимаете этот вопрос . You've got the wrong idea of this point./You misunderstand the problem here .

Часы зря идут. The clock isn't running right .


И (as conjunction and particle) И is very frequent , especially in the spoken language .

The following points

are only a collection of observations , and are far from attempting to account for every occurrence of и . . There is some disagreement among Russian grammars and dictionaries on when to regard И as a conjunction or a particle . But from the point of view of the Englishspeaking student , the significant fact is that и has all the uses of English ' and ' , plus some others that ' and ' does not.

1. As a general rule , when и stands in any position in a sentence where ' and ' can stand in English, и can be read as ' and ' , and will have essentially the same meanings:

' and ' , ' and also ' , ' and then ' , ' and indeed ' , ' and even ' , ‘ and (although ) ' ,

The commonest positions are : a . Between similar words --two nouns , two verbs , etc.


b. Between two clauses , forming one sentence . c. At the beginning of a sentence . 2. Russian и occurs in a number of word-orders where English ' and ' does not appear. There are several meanings associated with и in these constructions : the broad and general meaning common to all of them is that one way or another и emphasizes and reinforces not only the most significant word in its clause but also the clause as a whole , emphasizing that what the clause says is indeed and undoubtedly so in the case here at hand , regardless of whatever may very well be so on other occasions. a. Simply emphasizing that something is indeed so in this instance . The и often stands between the subject and the predicate , which ' and ' cannot do in English. Most often in this construction , и is found between a pronoun and a verb, although the subject can be a noun , and the predicate can be a noun or an adjective .

Не кричи .

У меня есть уши , я и слушаю.

Don't yell. I've got ears , and I AM listening . А для чего я его с собой и взял - то?

Он ведь знаток .

And why did I bring him with me? (--i.e, why at all?) Because he's an expert.



любви родители и

строги - то

к вам бывают .

. . (Островский )

Don't you realize that it's out of love that your parents are strict with you,... (--i.e . , in the case of these parents)


( 1 ) И is common with a negated verb in emphatic denials : -Спору нет , он бригадир очень хороший . -А я и не сказал , что он плохОЙ . -There's no question about it, he's a good brigade leader. -But I didn't say he was a bad one./But I never said he was a bad one. (2 ) И can stand between a form of весь and its noun :

Вот поди ж ты!

Всё и похмелье соскочило .

What do you think of that ! My hangover is all gone ! Остальные бы договорились , так нет , он спорить.

Всё и горе в этом .

The rest would have arrived at an agreement , but no, he had to start arguing.

That's the whole trouble about this thing.

b. Emphasizing that something is indeed so in this instance , though different from what would ordinarily be expected . Commonly with и between the subject and the predicate . Извините меня , пожалуйста .

Когда вызвал меня хозяин, я про тебя и

забыла. Please excuse me . When the boss called me away, I actually forgot about you . (1 ) This use of и is especially common in negative clauses .

' Not even '

is usually a good translation of и не (ог и . . .не ). Разные есть науки , про которые мы с вами и не слыхали . There are various sciences that you and I have not even heard about. Я и не знал , что тут канавка. I didn't even know there was a ditch there . /1 really had no idea there was a ditch there. Старик и умер не так , как умирают другие люди . The old man didn't even die the way other people do. (2 ) When the predicate contains an inflected verb with an Infinitive , either of two word-orders may be used :

Subject + и + не + Inflected

b + Inf

or : Subject + и + Inf + не + Inflected Vb .

Скрягин и не думал нас выручить. It never even occurred to Skryagin to help us out. Писать ! Он и читать не умеет .

Write! He doesn't even know how to read. ( Lit .: " He doesn't know how to even -read . " ) Я на них и смотреть не желаю . I don't even want to look at them . look at them. )

( Lit .:

I don't want to even


(3 ) Similarly, when the object of the main verb is a question , the и stands inside the question , between the interrogative word and the question's verb : Не знаю , что и сказать об этом . I really don't know what to say about this . Не знаю , где и спать- то их всех положить . I don't even know where we can sleep them all . Я не помню , когда эти деревья и сажали . Очень стары они . I don't remember when the heck they planted these trees . They're very old. c. Emphasizing that there is indeed a case of something corresponding or fitting or suiting, coming at the same time or coming at an opportune time , coinciding or turning out to be the same one .

' Indeed ' or ' in fact ' or ' just then ' are

often useful in translation ; sometimes :

' the same ' .

(1 ) The и is often between the subject and the predicate .

Я только что думала о вас , а вы и пришли . I was just thinking about you , and just then you arrived .

А , да вот он и подходит . Ah , here he comes now , as a matter of fact. Я и хотел сказать это , а потом они перебили меня . I was just going to tell you that , but then they interrupted me . Тропа вывела на дорогу , по которой мы и въехали в город . The path came out on the same road by which we had driven into the town. (Lit.

The path came out on the road by which we had

in fact driven into the town.) -У вас беспризорные унесли , а я детдомовский. -Вот детдомовские- то и разбойники .

( Каверин )

-It was homeless kids that stole it from you , but I belong to the children's home . -It's exactly the children's home kids that are a bunch of robbers . (2 ) When expressing the idea that one thing is in fact identical with another, the object of the verb or some other modifying element

(e.g. a


ositional phrase ) that would ordinarily follow the verb is placed first for emphasis , and the и stands between it and the verb . Sentences of this kind correspond to English ' It was . . . that . . . ' .


она ,

поняла , -- караулят

кого- то .




караулили .

(Бажов) She listened and understood --they were lying in wait for someone . And it was she that they were lying in wait for.


В кабинете директора два окна.

Из них и свет идет .


The director's office had two windows . It was from them that the

light came . .... d . Used in a sentence of two clauses , emphasizing that the second thing does indeed happen without fail when --and only when-- the first thing happens. The и can stand either at the beginning of the second clause , as in English , or between the subject and predicate of the second clause , as has already been shown to be common in Russian . ( 1 ) With the и at the beginning of the second clause , as in English : Диспетчеры велят водителям ехать куда- то , и они едут . The dispatchers tell the drivers to go somewhere , and they go. Семечко , взойдет .

допустим ,

живое ,



всхожее .



его-- и оно

(Троепольский ) .

The seedlet is alive but not germinating, let us say.

But just

warm it, and it sprouts . (2 ) With the и between the subject and predicate of the second clause :

Взял толью в руки эту штучку , а она и развалилась . All I did was pick it up, and it came apart in my hands . а . . .и . . . .) (This is a frequent pattern : . . . . , a Говорят :

сегодня вот чем занимайтесь , я и занимаюсь .

They say " Here's what you're to work on today'' , and I work on it.

Не мешаю я вам , вы и оставьте меня . I'm not bothering you , and you let me alone too. e. Used in concessive and contrastive clauses : ' Even if ...', ' Even though ... ', 'It's true ..., but . . . ' .

If both subject and predicate are stated in normal

order, with the predicate following the subject , the и stands between them . If the predicate is emphasized by putting it before the subject, or if either the subject or predicate is not expressed , then the и stands directly before the principal element in the clause --which in practice usually puts the и first in the clause . Sentences of this kind are sometimes introduced by воT. Вот он и хитёр, тем не менее он очень мил . It's true he's tricky, but nevertheless he's very likable .

Они и менее опытны тебя , а лучше работают. Even though they're less experienced than you , they're doing a better job . И крупный человек Костя , а стушевался .

( Троепольский)

Kostya was indeed a big fellow, but he made himself unobtrusive . И убьешь - то его , так проку от него нет .

( Салтыков)

Even if you kill him , there's no good to be got out of him.


f . Used at the beginning of exclamations , asserting that something is an outstanding and notable instance of its kind . А

ога Да .


The и is often preceded by an

The word that refers to what is'notable comes directly after

u , and is very commonly followed by a же .

subject or verb , or both , they follow thereafter.

If there is an expressed

To summarize , the type is :

( 1 ) ( А / Да / Да ну Да уж +) и + Adj , long ( + же/уж) ( + Noun / Pron , Nom) (+ Vb) (2 ) ( А /Да / Да ну /Да уж + ) и + Adj , short ( + же/уж) ( + Noun/Pron , Nom) (+ Vb) (3 ) (А / Да’Да ну /Да уж

(4) ( (5) (

+ ) и + Adverb ( + же / уж) ( + Noun/ Pron , Nom) ( +Vb) "" "" ).( ) ( ") ) и + Noun , Nom ( "" ) И + Noun , Gen ( ) (") ) (

( 1 ) И веселый же ты сегодня!

My , you certainly are cheerful today ! Вся округа его знает .

Да и неприятный же сосед!

The whole neighborhood knows him. What an unpleasant neighbor !

Да и мировая же у тебя , брат , машина! Wow , what a swell car you've got , fella!

(2 ) И горяч ты , нечего сказать ! Well , you ARE hot -tempered , I must say !

(3 ) И ловко она правит . She certainly does drive skillfully.

(4 ) Да и жара же! What awful heat!

А и аспид же он ! What a stinker he is! И мастерица уж она стряпать ! Is she ever a whiz at cooking!

What a cap you've got on !

Да и погода же была! What weather that was!

Да и грязь же какая! What awful mud ( there was ) !

(5 ) Да и грязи же ! What a lot of mud (there was ) !


Да и шапка же у тебя !


g. Used at the beginning of other exclamations , where the и can be translated with an ' And' or ' Now ' , referring to the remarks that have preceded or to the situation that forms the background .

The exclamation is often in the

form of a question , and hence the word after the и is often an interrogative word.

И не стыдно тебе? And aren't you embarassed? И не убьет же бог громом этакого аспида !


And to think that God doesn't strike a viper like that dead with a thunderbolt !

И зачем я сказал им это! Now , what ever did I tell them that for?! И откуда все это берется? And where does all this stuff come from?/Now, where are we getting all this ? h . Often

after demonstrative

and correlative adverbs and pronouns ,


emphasis or reinforcement , sometimes only slight . (1 ) After demonstratives вот , так, это:

Вот тут - то Алексей и совершил промах .

( Полевой )

Right at this point Aleksey made a mistake . Вот эти деньги он и отложил .

This money he put aside . Так и работать нельзя . That's no way to work.

Так ему и надо. That's what he deserves./It serves him just right . Так и быть.

Well, all right then ( , that's what we'll do) . Так оно и есть , они улизнули . That's just the way it is . ( --i.e . , Just as I thought . ) They've bugged out . Хорошо ! Fine !

Так вы ему и скажете . You tell him exactly that .

Это и есть наука. This is what Science really is . Этим разговор и кончился . With that the discussion ended .


Demonstratives with a reinforcing и sometimes refer to an expected result . (See also under BOT & TAK . )

Я думал , можно они в саду .

Так оно и было .

I thought they might be in the garden .

And so it was.

А вот и вокзал . But here is the railroad station ./And here we are at the station. (2 ) After an interrogative used to introduce a clause : (See also $ 2c , a question as the object of the main verb . ) Он переселился в Москву , где и жил еще двадцать лет .

He moved to Moscow , where he lived another twenty years . Тригорин


следовало ожидать . Trigorin




привязанностям ,

как и

( Чехов)


to his former affections , as was to be




( Л.



Толстой , (Nikita's



видала ,


И слышала

не слыхала .

Власть тьмы) mother (having come

upon him flirting with his

master's wife ) :) What

I saw

I didn't see ,

and what I

heard I didn't hear.

( --i.e . , If anyone asks me , I won't tell what I saw and heard. )

И in DOUBLED- WORD CONSTRUCTIONS : See also under Doubled -Word Constructions . 1. Positive a . Ipf Pres or Past + n + same form Noun ( naming an action ) + n + same form --long , constant , uninterrupted action .

(Similar to English . )

Говорит и говорит без конца. He talks and talks endlessly . Они спали и спали целый день. They kept right on sleeping all day.

Крики и крики . There was yelling and more yelling. b . Adj (Nom short ) + u + same form Noun

+ и + same form

Vb ( Ipf or Prf)

+ и + same form

--intensity, high degree of a quality


Ты неправ и неправ. You're completely wrong. Там скука и скука. It is an utter bore there ..'There's nothing there more boredom.




Не понимаю и не понимаю.. I simply can't understand it at all .




He kept at us and at us about it. c . Any form + и + same form

--categorical , insistent assertion . Учитесь и учитесь! Study ! Above all study ! Нет и нет ! No! Absolutely no! d . Any form + и + same form ""

--admission , assumption : " All right , let's say


-Глуп , говорит , ты! —Ну , глуп и глуп .

Не впервые мне это от него слышать .

-He says you're stupid ! -All

right , let's say I'm stupid .

This isn't the first time I've

heard that from him. e . Noun ( Nom ) + и + same form (Similar to KАК §8 . ) --ordinariness , typicalness (especially of appearance)

лошадь и лошадь a horse like any other horse/just a plain old horse f. Any form + и + same form --in referring to what someone was always saying.

А он только в свое время и в свое время. But all he ever said was " in due time , in due time . ' Прежде



Степой и Степой, а теперь называют Степан

Андреевичем . Before , he was always " Stepa " , but now people call him Stepan Andreevich . g. Interrogative pronoun + n + same form of interrog. pron .

--multiplicity , numerousness Кто и кто эти люди?

Who ARE all these people?


2. Negative и не .


и не .

--uncertainty , dubiousness

Он верил и не верил этому слуху. He believed the rumor and he didn't believe it either. Он и похож и не похож на него. He resembles him, but not entirely.



вот и

ДА И НУ И Always precedes the repeated word or phrase . The word repeated is sometimes a noun , but is usually a verb. The form of the verb is normally changed to fit the point of view of the second speaker. Two very common patterns are : 1. a 1st person sg or pl Future (usually Prf) in reply to an Imperative, 2. an Imperative in reply to an Indicative or an Infinitive. Replies of this kind are used when the second speaker agrees with the basic idea ( --which is expressed in the word that he picks up and repeats- ) , but objects to the spirit in which it was mentioned to him.

He feels that the first speaker fails

to see his point of view. He regards the first speaker's remark as in some way unwarranted : as needless advice , or as nagging, or as an unreasonable demand , or as an uninformed opinion , or as an unwanted opinion , or as a meddlesome assumption of authority, or as in some such way inappropriate and objectionable . The attitude is one of " Yes , but stop making such an issue of it . ” The second speaker's assertion of his own point of view may be either aggressive and insistent or else defensive and placating, sometimes even apologetic . The particle

by itself is used for either attitude :

aggressive or defensive .

The compound form да и is associated with the more aggressive and self-assertive attitude . The compound form нy и is usually associated with the more defensive and placating attitude .

EXAMPLES : -Иди ! -11 пойду , ей богу ! -Come here ! -Well, I AM going to come , for Pete's sake !


- Мы сами устроим все эти дела.

-Вот и устройте. -We'll arrange all these things ourselves . -Fine !

Go ahead and arrange them .

-Тогда, что хотите . . .хоть расстреляйте . . .

-И расстреляем! -строго сказал Дубов .

( Фадеев )

-Then do whatever you like ... Shoot them, if you want to... -"We certainly will shoot them ," said Dubov sternly.

-Ваше дело богу молиться .

-Я и молюсь , да уж что- то бог моих молитв не слушает .


-The thing for you to do is pray to God. -1

do pray , but for some reason God doesn't listen to my prayers .

-Ты на меня рассчитивай , Павло ,

я не подведу.

-Я и рассчитываю . ( Макаренко) -You count on me , Pavlo , I won't let you down.

-( Indeed ) I AM counting on you . -А я думала, что все знают этот способ . -И знают , да не все им пользуются . -I thought everybody knew this way of doing that. -They do know , but they don't all use it .

Николай смеялся: —Зенитчица, фронтовичка... —Ну и зенитчица и фронтовичка , а грозы боюсь. Nikolai laughed . and . . . !"

( В. Некрасов)

"She's an anti-aircraft gunner, a front-line soldier,

-" Yes , I'm an anti -aircraft gunner and a front-line soldier, but I'm afraid of a thunderstorm. ' (Сатин : ) ... Я был образованным человеком ... знаешь? (Бубнов : ) Слыхал ... сто раз . Ну и был ... . . . эка важность ! ( Горький) • you know? (Satin:) I was an educated man .

( Bubnov :) I heard it ... a hundred times . what?

И ЕСТЬ See under EСТЬ .

All right , so you were . So


+ как 44

predicate adj + verb

И- И + какой 44

(+ repetition)

+ predicate noun + attributive adjective

Same uses and meanings as ax in same combinations . See under AX.

и то 1. Characterizes

whatever is referred to as independent of other circumstances .

pointing out that it was true all along , and was NOT brought about by them. The characteristic pattern is this : the и To occurs in the second of two statements , and conveys that the second statement is already true regardless of whether the first statement ever comes to be true . The point of view is one of looking from the present to the immediate future .

' as it is'

' as things stand now '

' even so '

' in any case'

' anyway'

' entirely aside from that'

' and anyway'

'without that'

' already (Compare и тaк and (и ) без тогo , similar in meaning . ) Не попрекайте , не попрекайте , я уж и то себя проклинаю . Don't reproach me , don't reproach me , I'm already cursing myself as it is . Непременно


их да привези .

Мне и то один раз досталось за то ,

что я на прошлой неделе забыл о них . Get them and bring them without fail. I've already caught hell once as it is for forgetting about them last week.

- Вы свободны теперь? - Садитесь !

У нас новый вопрос есть .

Я и то хотел поговорить с вами .

-Are you free now? We've got a new problem.

-Have a seat ! I wanted to talk with you in any case. 2.

и то

да и то Similar to something,


Characterizes whatever is referred to as NOT affected by

contrary to the result that might naturally be expected .

The и тo

stands in the second of two statements and emphasizes that the second statement is true even though the first has also been true . of looking from the present back to the past .

The point of view is one

Often in appended afterthoughts

that enlarge on the preceding remark or comment further. ' and even then' •

' and even so , and . . . at that . '


Словом , в конце полугодия мы с Катей только раз собрались на каток-- и то не катались .

( Каверин )

In a word, at the end of the half year Katya and I had made the decision to go to the skating rink only once --and even then we didn't skate . Мы не знакомы .

Встретились три года назад , и то вскользь .

We aren't acquainted . We met three years ago , and even then it was casually . (OR:

. , and at that it was casually. )

Он лишь изредка пьет водки , да и то немного . He drinks any vodka only once in a while , and not much at that. Вы хоть слушаете , я и то благодарен .

( Л. Толстой )

You have at least listened to me , and for even that I am grateful . ( --In this last example , the contrast is by implication :

Simply listening

is all the hearer has done , but even then the speaker is grateful . ) 3.

и то ведь и то да и то Introduces remarks that affirm or substantiate what has just been said . (See И TO in replies containing repetitions , below . )

'indeed '

' And in fact . . .'

'And so it is'

' actually'

' As a matter of fact , . . .'

Никак он закончил?

И то он .

So he seems to have finished? That he has indeed! Скоро наступит весна . ' И то зелено всё уже . Spring will come soon . And in fact everything is green already .

и то



ДА И ТО May stand at the beginning of a reply containing a repetition , or at the end of it. In either case , in speaking there is no pause between the particle -phrase and the rest of the reply . preceding speech :

The word repeated is whatever word had the logical stress in the usually a verb or noun that contituted the predicate ; less

commonly, an adverb or an object .

Sometimes the repeated word appears in the form

of a related word : the same root with a different prefix, or simply a synonym . 1. Expresses affirmation , agreement with the point of view of the other speaker, friendly acceptance of a piece of advice or an invitation or a reminder, etc. The meaning of и то is the same as that of и то # 3 ( и то / ведь и то /да и то) , above ; it is only that it occurs more commonly in replies containing repetitions .


'I sure will • · ./I sure am .. ./1 sure did . ..

' That's right, · ' . . . is right '

' sure enough '

' You're darned right I'll . .

'You bet . . .'

-Тебе бы поторопиться. -И то поторопиться .

( OR :

Торопиться и то . )

-You'd better get a move on . -Get a move on is right .

—А он , стало быть , сердит был , что ли ? -А и то сердит .

Бешенствовал .

-But I suppose he was mad , then , huh ? -You bet he was mad . He was raving .

2. Expresses agreement , but also indicates that what was advised or suggested or pointed out by the other speaker is in fact what is actually the case , or is already being done anyway . ' That's what I'm doing'

' But I AM


'Sure I did '

-Торопись , торопись !

-И то тороплюсь. -Hurry, hurry ! -I AM hurrying. -Водки , чай , привез,

—И то привез. -You brought some vodka , I suppose?

-Sure I brought some . -Что это ты так говоришь ?

Точно профессор какой.

-Да и то профессор . -What do you talk like that for? It's just as if you were some sort of professor .

-But I am a professor. -Ты в кабаку не пойди сегодня .

Драка будет , как всегда.

-Я и то не пойду. -Don't you go to the tavern today . There'll be a brawl , as always . -I'm not going anyway.

(ДА) И ТО СКАЗАТЬ And in fact , . .

And the fact is , And it must be admitted that ... There's no getting away from it that . . .


11 ТОТ (И ТА ,’И TO’И TE , etc. )

(Cf. II TO $ 2 . Cf. ДАЖЕ ( + И ТО ) . )

Equivalent in sense to и то $ 2 , things

rather than instances .

has been said before .

and even then ' , but used to refer to persons and

Often in appended afterthoughts that amplify what

Sometimes preceded by даже .

'even ' 11 даже милиционеры-- и те засмеялись . And even the policemen started laughing. Главный редактор -- и тот не поймет . The editor-in-chief--even he can't understand it .

Здесь нечего читать .

Стенную газету и ту убрали .

There isn't anything to read here . They even took away the bulletin board newspaper .

IT : Numerous variants in dialects







иттить Forms in - ть are typically Southern , though иттить is widespread and occurs in the West and Northwest also.

Пить is Southwestern .

ИЗТИ К МОКРУ ' get wet ' , ' get soaked through ' ( мокру : old Dative short form . )

II дожди здесь ! Пока доберёшься через двор , всё идет к мокрую And the rains they have here!

By the time you get across the yard , every-

thing you've got on is soaked through .


НА + Асс

(literary:) ' accept ' , ' agree to ' ; ( slang:) ' go along with ' , " buy" .

Первые летчики шли на страшные опасности . The earliest flyers accepted frightful dangers . Забастовщики пошли на мировую. The strikers agreed to a peaceful settlement . Вот это да! Я пойду на это ! That's the ticket !

I'll go along with that ! I'll buy that !

Он убеждал- убеждал , доказывал- доказывал , но не пошли на то. He tried and tried to persuade them, he argued and argued , but they wouldn't go along with it .


ИATII HA + Loc . (of rates:) ' be based on ' , ' go by' У нас зарплата идет на основных работах . At our place , wages go by basic jobs .

ИЗ СЕБЯ See under CЕБЯ .



Stands at the beginning of a repetition . The word repeated is whatever word was logically stressed in the preceding speech :

usually a verb or noun or adjective

that constitutes the predicate ; less commonly, an adverb or an object . Used in strong affirmations of what has just been said . 'Yes indeed (it's ) ...'

' certainly' 'That's right,. . . ! ' 'You're darned right ,

—Умный он. - Известно умный . -He's a smart fellow . -You're darned right he's a smart fellow.



Ipf Inf

'deign to .. ..' Now often used ironically to Originally, ' be willing to · · express displeasure , like English ' be so good as to . . ' 'see fit to ., ' ' decide to

. ,'' ' have to ..., ' ' go and ...' Куда ты изволил пропасть?

Where did you decide to disappear to? Совещание было назначено на пятое :


нет ,



заболеть. The meeting was scheduled for the 5th ; but no , the chairman went and got sick. Вы взяли бумажки .

Так извольте отдать .

You took the papers . All right , be so good as to hand them over. Ты по магазичам шляешься , а я- то тебя на углу изволь дожидаться .

You run around in the stores , and I'm supposed to just kindly wait on the corner for you.




Used to express agreement , consent . 'All right ,

' Fine !, ' ' Okay , ' ' Very well , ' ' Whatever you want.'

Изволь , я схожу за ним . All right , I'll go after them. Вы хотели знать , что мы тут делаем .

Извольте , я вам скажу .

You wanted to know what we're doing here. Very well , I'll tell you .

ИЗ - ПОД =113-3a. ' because of , ' ' due to , ' ' out of, ' ' through ' (popular & dialectal ) из- под неосторожности , ' due to carelessness ' из- пол уважения к нему , ' out of respect for him '

из- поз стрaxa , ' from fear'

11.711 1. Used when changing one's mind or correcting oneself, much as in English . ' Or no , I mean . . .' ' Or no .

guess I'll . ....'

' Or come to think of it, . . .' Ты пожалуйста ступай туда за . . . , или нет , тебя здесь надо будет . You please go there to get the . . ., or no, we'll need you here. Нет , не стоит пойти туда . . . ,’ или пойду ! No, it's not worth while going there . ·

or come to think of it , I will

go! 2. ии/иль & (popular speech :) али/альай Used when suggesting alternative ideas , when the speaker is not sure what is the case or what is the explanation of some situation . the same way .

Пейте же чай .

' Or' is used in English in

Или слишком крепок,

Drink your tea.

Or is it too strong?

А ты чего так рано? Поезд- то будет через час ...Иль с женой поругался? ( В.

Лукашевич) But why are you here so early? It'll be an hour before the train is here. Or did you have a fight with your wife?

3. или /иль & (popular speech :) али /аль /ай Derived from # 2 above is a use that English ' or' does not have , where или simply introduces a question . Questions of this kind often have a чтo or что же before the или .


' maybe '

' Could it be that . . . ?

' perhaps '

(The или need not always be translated . )

Is it possible that . . . ?

А что ж , аль зазяб? What's the matter, are you cold? Что ж , или не признаешь меня? What ! Don't you know me?

Ай болит что?

Do you have a pain somewhere? Аль не рад , что это так вышло ? Aren't you glad it turned out this way? 4. Also derived from $ 2 , above , but carried even farther than $ 3 , is a use where the question introduced by или али etc. is only a rhetorical question :

the sentence

is in form a question but in meaning is an expression of the speaker's absolute conviction that the opposite of the words used is what is really so . In this use , или, али is similar to разве and неужели .

' Do you think . . . ?' ' Do you mean to say . . . ? '

' Is anybody going to try to tell me (that) . . .? ' ' ... or something? '

Я спрошу его .

Или я боюсь?

I'll ask him. Do you think I'm afraid to? ( Lit .:

Or am I afraid to ( , do you think) ?)

Вот так оправдывается !

Да али мы дураки .

That's some excuse he gives ! What are we supposed to be , fools or something?

Или ты не знал об этом? Do you mean to say you didn't know about that?


or else . .. . . , or , on the other hand , . . .

.... ИЛИ КАК

'... or whatever ' -Так , труба перебита .

А какая?

Где она крепится к двигателю?

-ily , посреди , ну около этого ... а... как его . . .насоса, насоса это , или как . -Okay , there's a tube broken . the engine?

But which one? Where does it fasten onto


-Well , in the middle , sort of near this .

. .uh . . .whatchamacallit . . .near

the pump, this thing near the pump or whatever.

. . .ИЛИ НЕ . . . , А / НО . . . Refers to a circumstance that will make no difference in the outcome , much as in English , except that the following clause that states the outcome is regularly introduced by an a оr а но .

e.g. рад или не рад : like it or not сердись или не сердись : ( whe ther you ) get mad or not охота или не охота:

feel like it or not

Уж рад или не рад , а туда пойдешь .

Like it or not , you're going to go there. Охота или не охота, а сделают , как им велено . Feel like it or not , they're going to do as they're told . Хозяин тебя извинит или не извинит , но я тебе дам по носу , милый мой . The boss can let you off or not , but I'm going to punch you one in the nose, buster.


ЧТО (Ж) ..

Или ...

See ИЛИ, §3 .

ильно See under AX .

ИМАТЬ + Ipf Inf Forms : sg

(dialectal :

Northern. ) pl

-имём OR имем

1. имӳ 2. имёшь OR ймешь —имёте OR ймете 3. ИМЕТ OR имет


Used as alternative to быть for forming Ipf Fut . Что ты им сказать- то имешь? What are you going to tell them? See also under ИМЕТЬ.


11MEHHO 1. Expressing that what is said is beyond doubt , and that the word used is absolutely the right word for it. 'absolutely '

' simply'


'nothing but'

Поверьте мне , это не так .

Они мечтают , да именно мечтают !

Believe me , that's not the way it is .

They're daydreaming , absolutely

daydreaming! Страшный , можно сказать , день был !

Именно уж страшный , никогда не

забуду! It was a really frightful day !

Absolutely frightful ! I'll never forget it!

2. Expressing that one thing coincides with another, that two things that are mentioned are in fact one and the same . Так бы , кажется , взял да и уехал ; а уехать- то именно и нельзя . In the circumstances , it seems as if he would simply leave ; but leave is just what he can't do. Он , именно он мудрит , он эту канитель разводит ! ( Салтыков) It's him , he's the one that is splitting hairs ; he's the one that's dragging this business out !

3. In replies ' Exactly ' 'That's exactly right Replies of this kind often contain repetitions from the preceding remark : —Так я это ему посылаю , не так ли? - Именно ему .

-So I'll send it to him, right? -That's exactly right . Send it to him./Right , he's the one.


as Future auxiliary .

(NONSTANDARD IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIAN . ) (See also IIMATb , still used as an auxiliary verb in some Northern dialects . ) Considered old-fashioned and flavored with officialese , but still occasionally encountered , is иметь used as an auxiliary verb. The use of иметь with an Infinitive indicates action in the future , with a suggestion that it is obligatory : the action is not simply predicted , but is expected because it has the weight of authority behind it . Заседание имеет быть в девять часа.

The meeting is to be at nine o'clock .


Note also that while имать in present-day dialectal use is used with Imperfective Infinitives , and simply indicates futurity , иметь is found with Perfective Infinitives : " Барклай за обедом передал . • что князь Андрей имеет явиться в квартиру Бенигсена , в шесть часов вечера.

( -Л .


After dinner Barclay brought the order that Prince Andrei was to appear

in Benigsen's quarters at six p.m. Seemingly similar , but not quite the same in construction or meaning is иметь + что( -то) + Inf , used exactly like ‘ have something to

''' in English :

Вы еще что имеете сказать , товарищ? Do you have something further to say, Comrade?

ино/инось ин /

(pop . sp . )

Used in expressions of decision to do something or agreement to do something. Indicates that it is a decision made in view of the circumstances .

Often indicates

that the speaker is changing his mind and deciding to abandon a previous course of action. The и

usually stands at the beginning of its clause ; less commonly , inside it.

' All right ,. . . '

' Okay , ... ' ' Then ...

' All right , then , .. • · 'Very well ,

' In that case , . . . '


' Very well , then , · · Вот уж шестую неделю так- то с ним маемся! Ин искать уж другого! Here it is the sixth week that we're having such a terrible time with him !

All right , then , we'll look for another one !

Ин возьми , если тебе нужно. Okay, take it , if you need it. Ну ладно , пусть будет ин по- твоему !

All right , have it your way , then !


(dialectal & pop . sp. ) (Cf. аж . )

1. ' indeed , ' ' really' , ' actually' , ' positively. ' С ярости инда она плакала. She positively wept with rage . 2. 'so that, ' ' to the point where , ' ' until . '

Я учился исчислению , инда и теперь помю. I studied calculus so that even now I remember it.



(colloq. )

-имя и отчество, ' first name and patronymic . ' Сейчас вспомнил , Павел Николаевич его инициалы, вот как. I just remembered , his first two names are' Pavel Nikolaevich , that's what they are.

ино 1. = ведь .

( pop. sp . ) Не ляг ! Ино заниматься надо. Don't lie down !

2. = же

Because we've got to get busy.

( regional)

Пойди ино посмотри! Just you go and take a look ! Ты где ино теперь? Just where are you now? 3. ино/ нино . (dialectal : Southern) .ино or . ино. · . ' either..

. ' ; нино . . .нино.

' either. . .or. •


Инно -ИНДА $2 , so that , ' ' to the point where . '

See ИНДА .



(AS REPLY) (colloq.)

Used as a sprightly all -purpose positive answer, like English ' Oh , absolutely , ' ' Oh , definitely , ' ' You bet , ' etc. -Тебе понравился фильм? -Исключительно! -Did you like the movie?

-Definitely ! -Ну , как , много пришлось поработать? -Исключительно! -Well , what say , did it give you a lot of work to do? -Absolutely !


ИСПОЛЬЗОВАET (pop. sp. & dialectal : Northern)

= использует, 'makes use of The -OBа- appears in all the forms ofthe Present Tense. It appears in the same way in the Present Tense forms of all verbs in -овать, of which использовать is the commonest example. In other words, popular and Northern dialectal speech treat verbs in -овать like verbs in -ывать and -ивать.

ИСПОЛЬЗОВАЕТСЯ (nonstandard)

= использует, 'makes use of This form has not only -ова- instead of the literary standard -y-, but also a gratuitous -ся, apparently due to confusion with пользоваться.

ИТТИТЬ / ИТИТЬ / ИДИТЬ (dialectal)

See under ИДТИ .

ИТЬ (pop. sp. )

= ведь Горяч ои, дюже горяч, а ить любим мы его геройство: жизии он своей не жалеет. (Фадеев) He's hasty, very hasty, but you see, we love him for his heroism: he's not concerned about his own life. Вечером дед Михайла потирал руки: -Ить и ничего решили министеры-то мои Долговолосые. А, Алекса? (Полевой) That evening Gramp Mikhail rubbed his hands as he said, 'I tell you, Aleksei, it's not bad at all, the plan my long-haired cabinet ministers (i.e. , the women of the collective) have decided on. "

ИХ (as adverbial particle) Cf ЕГО, p112, & EE, p113 . Expresses doubt, uncertainty, perplexity about the circumstances in general .

- Сапоги-то нашлись, Яша? - He-e! Черт их знает, куда делись. (-Панфёров) Have the boots been found, Yasha? - No! The devil knows where-all they've gotten to.


ИХНОЙ (-dialectal) Possesive adjective, = их, 'their'. Popular speech . More commonly used than евонный and ейный. Лошадь точно ихняя-с; только продать они ее не продавали. (-Тургенев) The horse is theirs, for a fact, sir; only as for selling it, they never have. В ихнем кругу всегда так делают. (А.Н. Островский) In their set they always do things that way.


Поклажа-то стоит дешевле ихнего проезда. (-Достоевский) The luggage costs less than their travel. Люблю интеллигентных людей за безкорыстие ихнее, за честное отношение к работе.с. (-Горький) I love educated people for their unselfishness, and for their honest attitude toward work.

ИШО (dialectal)

= еще

ИШЬ ( = ВИШЬ = ВИДИШЬ) (рор. sp. ) Ишь ты is a frequent combination. 1. Expresses surprise: either surprise alone or surprise accompanied by either pleasure or displeasure. Ишь ты usually indicates displeasure, though not invariably.

Ишь ведь, а у меня и не записано! Good gosh , I don't have that down here in my notes! Ишь, какой разумник! My, what a clever fellow! И

-то ведь как! Well, what do you think of that!


Used to call someone's attention to something. Ишь, льет- поливает! Just look at the way that rain pours down! Ишь, всё в пыли! Hey, there's dust all over everything!

3. In Replies Containing Repetitions: Ишь, ишь ты, and вишь, вишь ты are all used. Expresses surprise, usually with displeasure. The particle ишь, ишь ты, etc. , may stand at either the beginning or the end ofthe repetition. -Взял лист, и пиши! ."Пиши”, ишь, ты! Писать что? -Take a piece ofpaper and start writing! -"Write,"for heaven's sake! What am I supposed to be writing?

ИЩО (dialectal)

= еще.



-KA (colloq .) (Regional & pop. sp. variants:

- KO - кась - KOCь

- тка - TKO ·• ткась

- ткось.) 1. -кa + Ipf/Prf Imp 2 sg/pl The suffix -ka makes an Imperative less peremptory and more personal, friendly, and familiar. It is used for asking, inviting, and urging. It can also be used ironically, lending an edge ofpretended pleasantness to what is really a threat.

genuine urging:


'Please ...'

'Do ...' 'Come on, please ...'

'Won't you ...' 'Please do ...'

'What do you say, ...'

'Just ...' 'You'd better ...'

'Be so good as to ...'

'Kindly ...'

Зайдите- ка к нам Please do drop by and see us. Просмотри-ка вот это. Двух минут не займет. Won't you please look this over? It won't take two minutes. Расскажи- ка нам об этом. Do tell us about it. Это я принимаю решения здесь. Запомните-ка это! I'm the one that makes the decisions here. Kindly keep that in mind! Убирайся-ка, милый мой, а не то достанется тебе! You just get out of here, buster, or you're going to get it!

2. -кa + Imp 2 sg in if-clause of a conditional sentence The suffix -ka, when added to an Imperative used to form an if- clause, adds a shading ofthe suggestion that it is only necessary for the person being spoken to to try doing the same thing himself, in order to see immediately what the inevitable result is: 'Just ..., and ...' 'Butjust ..., and ...'

'Just try ...-ing ..., and ...' 'But just let someone .... and ...'

'Just you try ...-ing ..., and ...'

Поработай- ка с зари - будешь сердит! (Эртель) Just you try working from dawn on - you'll be bad-tempered! А возрази- ка кто, так она разбушуется. But just let anyone raise an objection, and she flies offthe handle.

3. -Ka + 1 pl As in #1 , -ka adds a tone of personal appeal to a 1 pl. used in the sense of ' Let's ...'. Поедем- ка в Ленинград Do let's go to Leningrad.

particles 4. -кa As in # 1 -кa adds a tone of familiarity and insistence to various particles which themselves are used when urging someone to accept a point of view or to do something, e.g. Давай, на, ну, поди, полно, пусть.

Preceding page blank


А ну- ка, прочь с дороги! All right now, clear the way! Полно- ка вам ругаться. Now that's enough of that quarreling of yours. Ты бы угостила его чаем, поесть дала бы, голодный, поди- ка. (Горький) . It would be a good thing if you'd treat him to some tea and let him have something to eat. He's hungry, one would certainly think.

5. - ка + Prf 1 sg. In expressions of casual decision. Very similar to дай(-ка)/давай ( + я) + Prf 1 sg. See ДАВАЙ/ ДАВАЙТЕ, ДАЙ / ДАЙТЕ, # 4а . 'I think I'll ...' 'I believe I'll ...'

'Maybe I'll ...'

'I guess I'll ...'

Why don't I ...' '

Схожу- ка, что ли, я за ними? Why don't I go and get them, okay? Не имею понятия. Спрошу-ка его об этом. I haven't got the slightest idea. I think I'll ask him about this.

А поеду-ка в город. I think I'll drive into town.

КАЖЕТСЯ (AS PART OF A REPLY) ' I should certainly think so.'

'I should hope so.'

-Вы знаете об этом, -Да!! Кажется. Это я написал эту цтатью. -You know about this? -Yes!! I should hope so! I'm the one who wrote this article.









= Каждый. Кажный is probably the variant most often used in representations of popular speech in fictional literature.


KAжиCь (popular speech & regional ) = кажется, ' it seems , ' ' I suppose . '

KAK In addition to its ordinary meanings of ' how , ' additional uses :

' like , ' ' as , ' kaк has a number of

1 . = как- ниōудь , ' somehow , ' ' somehow or other , ' ' some way . ' (colloq . ) На препятствие натолкнулся , но это я как устраню .

I've run into a snag , but I'll dispose of it somehow or other.

- koгдa, ' when ' (colloq . ) a . 'when , ' ' as soon as' Я поговорю с ним , как сюда вернусь . I'll talk with him when I come back here. b. 'when , ' ' whenever' Как мерзла река , мы переходили на льду . When the river froze , we used to go across it on the ice . c . 'when, ' ' if, ' ' once ' Как она захочет сделать что- то , ( то /так) отговорить нельзя . If she decides she wants to do something, there's no talking her out of it.


■ с тех пор , как , ' since ' . Прошло два года , как мы с ним увиделись .

Two years have gone by since he and I have seen each other. 4. = тak kak , ' as , ' ' seeing that , ' ' since , ' ' because ' (pop . sp . )

Я не вдавался в подробности , как такая штука его не интересует . I didn't go into the details , since this sort of thing doesn't interest him . = 5. Tak, ' that way, ' ' like that' (pop . sp . ) А что это ты как помыкаешь ими? What's the idea of you ordering them around like that?

6.что, ' that ' (often need not be translated ) Мы видели, как они бежали через улицу . We saw them run across the street. = чeм , ' than ' (after a Comparative ) не позднее как два часа

not later than two o'clock 8.

+ Prf.

kak + Prf. Past

+ Prf. Imp .


Expresses suddenness , unexpectedness , strength, intensity , or violence of an action , usually in the past .

(Often said to be expressed by как + Prf only , but all

three forms - Prf, Prf Past , or Prf Imp -- are in fact used with kak . )

споткнётся Он как споткнулся о что- то . СПОТКНИСЬ All of a sudden he stumbled over something.


ordinariness ,


typicalness ,





most commonly used in this construction , but other words may be used as well . (Similar to И IN DOUBLED-WORD CONSTRUCTIONS , & le , p 152. )

'Alike any other 'Just a plain old.

' simply' город как город. a town like any other town/a nondescript sort of town .

Она была одета как одета. She was just dressed in the usual way .

Я здесь живу как живу. I just get along the way everybody else here does . 10. IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS :


2 /Да как —


Always stands at the beginning of the repetition , without any pause between the Kak and the repeated expression . The repeated expression is usually reproduced without change in grammatical form, but nouns with a qualitative

and charac-

terizing meaning may be changed to Nominative or left unchanged. Expresses surprise , incomprehension , and a demand for an explanation of what

has just been said, combined with various shadings of other emotions :

hostility , disbelief, mistrust, bewilderment, disapproval , displeasure , irritation , indignation , distress , etc. Sometimes there is no real failure to understand, and the form of a question is being used to express displeasure , irritation , etc. , exactly as is also done in English . (See also under КАКОЙ : ?' 'What do you mean ,


'What do you mean by. 'What's this about ____

(ДА ) КАКОЙ (ТАМ /ТУТ / , ЕЩЕ , etc. ) . )


-Туда с такими пустяками не ходят . -Как пустяки ?!

( OR : Как с пустяками?! )

-People don't go there with such trifling matters . -What do you mean , ( with ) trifling matters?!


—Почему ты не писал? -Как не писал?

Я писал .

-Why didn't you write?

-What do you mean , didn't write?

I did write .

КАК БУДТО - See under БУДТО .


$1 .


§2 .

КАК БЫ -1. как бы ( + Dat ) + Inf

' How can one

in questions

..? '

' How is one supposed to ... ?'

А как бы нам собрать такую массу данных? But how are we supposed to collect such a mass of figures? 2. как бы + Inf -- in indirect-statement clauses

как бы + Past -- in indirect -statement clauses ' how ... . . . would . . . , '

' how ... . . . might ... , '

' how .. . . . could .. . . .

Он придумывал , как бы объяснить это хозяину .

He was thinking of how he might explain this to his boss./ He was thinking up ways he could explain it to his boss. Он воображал себе , как бы он объяснял свое открытие хозяину . He imagined how he would explain his discovery to the boss . ( i.e. , how he would enjoy explaining his discovery to the boss . ) 3. как бы + Past -- in exclamations ' how ... would . . . ! Как бы мне хотелось его видеть!

How I would like to see him! 4. как бы + Gerund ‘ as if . . .———————- ing , ' ' as if . . . were

_- ing '

Он упомянул это только мимоходом , как бы не считая важным . He mentioned it only in passing , as if he did not consider it important.

5. как бы + Inf -- in parenthetical phrases .

(colloq. )

' as ( one ) ... might ... ' Работа отстала.

Нам нужно , как бы сказать , выйти на орбиту!

The work has fallen behind . get out in orbit !

What we need , as one might put it, is to


как бы + any expression 6. кak -БУДТО §1 .

(colloq . )

See under БУДТО .

Expresses uncertainty , doubt , conjecture .

' apparently '

'I guess '

' it seems '

' as far as I can see'

' it seemed'

'(it was) as if'

Лица некоторых из них выражали как бы удивление .

The faces of some of them seemed to express surprise./


The faces of some of them expressed surprise , it seemed . как бы + Past . · • + Past + быl -- in conditional sentences . = если бы , ‘ if . . . were . . . '

(pop . sp. )

Как бы услышали об этом , обрадовались бы . If they had heard about it , they would have been glad . 8. как бы не + Past . . . ! - in negative wishes and expressions of fearing как бы не ( + Dat) + Inf . . . !

' if only ... doesn't . . . !'

' I'm afraid that . . .'

' I hope ... doesn't /won't ... ! ' Used to express misgiving and apprehensiveness of some undesirable

event. Как бы не опоздать! I hope (we/they/etc ) won't be late !

Как бы мы не опоздали ! I hope we won't be late!

Как бы не гроза! If only there isn't a rainstorm !

Как бы не худое что! I hope nothing bad happens ! Сейчас вошел кто- то .

Как бы не Вася!

Somebody just came in. I hope it's not Vasya ! Боюсь , как бы нам не заблудиться!

I hope we don't lose our way ! /I'm afraid we might lose our way. Смотри , как бы не попасть в беду! Watch out you don't get into trouble !

КАК БЫ ЧЕГО НЕ ВЫШЛО 'to be on the safe side '

( lit .: ' lest anything come of it' )

'just to make sure ' This set phrase is derived from the construction with кaк бы не in negative wishes and expressions of fearing just described above , under KAK Bы $ 8.


Проверьте данные , как бы чего не вышло . Check the figures , just to be on the safe side .


See under БУДТО .

Expresses uncertainty , doubt , conjecture .


( regional)

= как раз ( и) Indicates that something is opportune , timely , or coincides with something else . ' just , ' Я

' just then , ' ' just at that moment , ' ' just at this time ' только хотел позвонить ему ,

а тот




в контору .

I was just about to call him up , but just then he walked into the office . Indicates that something is near, real , quite likely to happen . ' just , '

' right , ' ' before you know it , '

' any time now , ' ' any minute , '

' in a

moment ' Да вишь , как снег идет ! Как быть с дороги собьешься . Look how it's snowing !

You'll be off the road before you know it .

Indicates that something corresponds completely to what is desired , to what is the model or norm .

' just , ' ' exactly , ' ' precisely , ' ' just right ' Он




нас .




предмете ,

энергичный , весёлый -.. как быть учитель . He's








energetic , jolly - he's everything a teacher should be . Indicates that something is exactly the way it is described . ' right . . . , ' ' exactly '

Этот магазин как быть против вокзала. That store is right across from the railroad station .






(vulg . )




+ Verb


subject ,





КАК - ТО ЛИ ( pop . sp . ) Уж


Expresses high degree of a quality, intensity of effect , concentration of effort . The particle or particle -combination nearly always stands directly before the word it applies to. ·. "

' Oh , how

' like nobody's business '

' Boy, how .

' like anything'

'Is it ever · · ·

'something awful'

Если бы я получил место там , уж я бы как старался ! • If I got the job there , would I ever try hard! Ох , болит у меня зуб .

Вот как болит !

Ohh, my tooth hurts .

Boy , does it ever hurt !

В понедельник будет экзамен .

Даже вот как учимся:

There'll be a test on Monday . Леса



We're studying like everything .

не знают .


как- то ли заблудятся ,

They don't know the woods hereabouts . awful ,

эво как!

They'll get lost something

and how they will !

Он вот как ждет ответ на письмо . He's anxiously awaiting a reply to his letter.

КАК ЕГО = как его зовут / называют .

Said when unable to think of the name of someone or something. Я встретился вчера с • .. а .. · как его . . . Сидоровым . uh . . . what's his name ... Sidorov . Yesterday I ran into . . . uh На прошлой неделе вышел из строя . . . как его . . . карбюратор . Last week the . . . the whatdoyoucallit . . . the carburetor went bad.

КАК ЕСТЬ See under ECТЬ , р 116 .

КАК ЖЕ 1. как же


Emphatic form of как : ' just how . . . ? ' ' how exactly . . . ? ' Как же он услышал об этом?

Just how did he hear about that?


как же



как же


то как же


как же

ну и

как же



May stand either at the beginning or at the end of a reply repetition . In either case , the кaк xe is set off by a slight

containing a

pause .

There is

usually no essential change in the repetition . Expresses


conviction .

Reaffirms what is said as self-evident ,

necessarily so , undoubtedly so.

' ' Of course .. . ! 'Naturally

'Sure , why not?'

.! ‫י‬

'No question about it , . . 'But of course'

'Certainly ...!'

-Ты когда- нибудь в Ленинграде бывал? -Бывал , как же ! -Have you ever been in Leningrad?

-Of course I have! -Вы приедете в субботу?

—А как же . -You'll come on Saturday? -Naturally ! 3.

как же


да , как же May stand either at the beginning or at the end of a reply


In either case , the кaк xe is set off by a

'. ..? How?'

containing a

slight pause .

'...? What nonsense !'

? Ridiculous !' ' ... ! Oh sure !'

'What an idea ! . . .!' '...! What chance is there of that?'

The predicate of the preceding remark may be repeated in any of three ways:

a . without change , or without any significant change . -Он восторгается моими планами . -Да, как же , восторгается !

Он тебя обманывает .

-He's enthusiastic about my plans . -He's enthusiastic ! What nonsense ! He's fooling you. b. with a personal verb-form replaced by another verb-form used in izations , e.g. 2nd sg.

-Золото украли? -Украдешь , как же ! ( Бажов)

-Did they steal the gold? -Steal it!

How is anybody going to do that?



c. with a Subjunctive form replaced by a Past form.

This is an idiomatic Past

used to refer ironically to something that is sure to turn out to be very hard to do , if not impossible . -Оттого и

Были бы денежки да хорошего

что денег нет .

строго ,

, небось оправдали бы , ловчака нанять




.Тот ,

лохматый , носастый ,. · .из воды сухого выведет . —Как же , взяла,

как бишь его , Кабы его взять .

(Л. Н. Толстой)

-The reason she got a severe sentence is that she didn't have any money .

If there'd been money to hire a good smart lawyer, you

bet they'd have acquitted her . . . . That man , what was his


again, the shaggy-haired one with the big nose . . . he'd get you off clean no matter how it looked .

If only she could have gotten

him! -Gotten him !


как же

What chance was there of that ? . . •


да как да как же

Ну как ну как же Usually in reply to a question. Expresses incomprehension of the point of the question , surprise at being asked , and slight annoyance , or else mild irritation at having to explain something that is entirely natural and obvious . ‫י‬ ' Huh , .. .! ‫"ד‬ ' Hah , • •

' You want to know . · .! " .. .. for Heaven's sake !'

· indeed !'

'What's all this stuff about . . . ?' Сколько у тебя при себе денег ?

-Послушай !

-Да как сколько? -Look here !

А ты уже знаешь , денег у меня совершенно нет! How much money have you got with you?

-You want to know how much I've got?

Why , you know I

haven't got

any at all ! -Молоток?

На что тебе?

-Помилуйте !

Как же на что?

Свой молоток прошу , а не чужой!

-The hammer? What do you want it for? -For pity's sake !

What's all this

stuff about what for?

for my own hammer, not anybody else's !

I'm asking


-Что вы видели там? -Ну , как что !

Я вообще ничего не видел !

-What did you see there? -Huh , what did I see?


I didn't see a blasted thing!















See also KAK ЭТО , p186 .

Expresses bewilderment , incomprehension , and astonishment , sometimes with an additional


of disbelief ,

'What do you mean ,

mistrust ,

disagreement ,


or readiness

'Where do you get this stuff about . . . ? '

—Ну , будь .

— Это как так будь? -Well , so long! -What do you mean , so long? -Так говорили у полковника. -То есть как это у полковника? -That's what they were saying at the colonel's . -What's all this about "at the colonel's"? -Он ударил меня , говорю , ни за что ни про что ! —Как же это так ни за что ни про что? -He hit me , I tell you , for no reason at all ! -Where do you get this stuff about for no reason at all ?

НЕ ЗНАЮ КАК (all three words run together in pronunciation)

May stand before or after the word it applies to . Expresses intensity , high degree . ' You just can't imagine how ' ' I just can't tell you how '


' What do you mean by that , ... ?'

'What's this about . . .?'



(colloq . )


Славный парень .

Не знаю как уважаю.

He's a great guy.

I just can't tell you how much I admire him .

Это ей понравится не знаю как . You just can't imagine how much this will please her.

KAK MOXHO 'when/if you get a chance' Вы как можно давайте сюда к нам приезжайте . Drive over here and visit us when you get a chance .



May stand either at the beginning or at the end of a reply containing a repetition . Always set off in intonation from the repeated word. Expresses indignant disagreement . 'Where do you get that stuff about ...?' 'What makes you think . . . ?' 'What an idea !

•. "

'How can you say that? .. ...! , -Не пожертвуешь . -Туг !

Ты туг .

Как можно туг !

-You won't contribute .

You're tight.

-Tight ! How can you say I'm tight?


What was the use of . . . -ing? Как надо было домой писать? What was the use of writing home?

KAK ... HE ... 1. + inflected verb, Ipf OR Prf Expresses immediate possibility that something is about to happen. ' on the point of———————-ing'

'just about ready to

' on the verge of of________- ing '

'about to

В каких только лавках мы не бывали ! Мы как с ног не валимся . The stores we've been in!

We're about ready to fall off our feet !


У меня уж , кажется , как глаза от слез не вылезут , голова как не треснет , я до смерти устала. I think my eyes are about to fall out from crying ; my head is on the verge of splitting, and I'm dead tired . Ах, наелся!

Как не лопну !

Ah , I've had all I can eat !

I'm ready to burst !

2. a. + Noun b. ( + Dat) + Inf

In these uses , the кak is always first in its clause . Expresses confident assertion , mentally contrasted with a possible doubt

or contrary assertion . ' really '

' of course '

'... is an absolute . .


'to be sure' Ну, как же не дурак!

Well now, what an absolute fool! Как мне здешние места не знать ! Of course I know the places around here!

KAK (... ) HE








popular and uneducated speech as synonyms



of как не . )



(See also КОГДА НЕ and КОЛИ НЕ , used in

Always precedes the repeated word or words .

The word repeated is whatever

word was logically stressed in the preceding speech :

usually a verb or noun that

constituted the predicate ; less commonly, some other word emphasized because of the sense of the preceding remark. Change of form of the repeated word is common , though not obligatory: 1. Inflected verb-forms are changed to Infinitives . (--Note that in this use the replacement for нer is быть. ) 2. Adjectives , adverbs , and impersonal predicate -words (adjs in -o) are also changed to Infinitives , NOT Nominative case . Expresses convinced assertion , reaffirmation . rhetorical question .

The reply takes the form of a

The underlying sense is that of amazement at the

idea that

whatever is mentioned could possibly be thought to be otherwise than it in fact is . Frequently a reassertion of the same fact or an explanation of it follows .


' Of course . •

'You're darned right,


'What makes you think,

'to be sure'

'You better believe . . .'

I'll say : · '

'How could . .. . fail to .. .?'

not ... ?'


-Что ж , тебе было скучно там ? —Уж как не скучно ! Три часа разглагольствовали !

Ужас !

-What's the matter, did you have a dull time there? -I'll say it was dull ! Three hours of speechifying !

It was ghastly !

-Ты услышал об этом ? —Как, чай, не услышал ?

Ведь весь город говорит об этом .

-You heard about that? -How could I fail to hear about it , after all?

The whole town is talking

about it. -Так это- то по- вашему мошенники? -Как же не мошенники?

-So you think they're crooks? -You better believe they're crooks !


—Что ж , ты скучал там? -Да как не скучать! -What's the matter, did you have a dull time there? -I'll sa

it was dull !

-Разве помнишь ? -Да как же не помнить!

-Do you actually remember that? -Of course I do! -Неужели у тебя денег нет ? -Ну как у меня денег не быть ?

-Do you mean to say you haven't got any money? · -Certainly I have !


-Что ж , тебе было скучно там? -Да как не скучать! -What's the matter , did you have a dull time there? -I'll say it was dull!


-Рад ? -Как же не радоваться? -Are you glad ? -Why shouldn't I be glad? -Что- то он сегодня грустный. -Да как же не грустить? -For some réason he's feeling low today . -Naturally he does !

КАК НЕ НАДО + Comparative adverb

( pop . sp . )

= как нельзя ; ' couldn't be more ... '

'as . . . as you could want ' ' extremely' Опыты оказались как не надо лучше. The tests turned out extremely well . Он был изумлен как не надо больше. He couldn't have been more flabbergasted .


'later on '

КАК- НИКАК (, А) ' in spite of all that '

' be that as it may '

' in the end '

' all the same'

' still '

' one way or another '

' nevertheless ' 'however' Как- никак , а работу завершили . In spite of everything they got the job finished. Я убеждал его, что как- никак, а поездки не миновать . I tried to convince him that in the end there would be no getting out of making the trip . Дорогу занесло снегом .

Как- никак, он добрался сюда .

The road is drifted full of snow .

All the same , he got here .


КАК НИ (НА) ЕСТЬ - как бы ни ( было) /все равно как/ безразлично как ' somehow or other, ' ' one way or another , ' ' regardless of how .' See under ЕСТЬ :


Interrog . pron . or adv . + НИ (НА) ЕСТЬ , p118-9 .


But it isn't anything serious .


= как следует , ' properly , ' ' the way it ought to be .

КАК РАЗ (И) = как быть.

See under КАК БЫТЬ .

KAK PA3 + adv. Подожди ! Wait !

Ты как раз быстро .

Как пишется это ?

You went so darned fast .

How do you spell that ?



See under БУДТО .

Expresses uncertain supposition , doubt , conjecture .


See under KAK :


" ( ТО ЕСТЬ ) КАК (ЖЕ ) (ЭТО) ( ТАК) etc" , р . 179 .

( pop. sp . )

' what the situation is '

' the details '

' what's going on '

' the scoop'

Поехали туда , посмотрели , как там и что. They went there and saw what was going on there.

Чтоб доложил как и что , как вернется. Have him report what the situation is as soon as he gets back.


KAK-TO 1. ' somehow, ' ' somehow or other' Он как- то выдержал экзамены. Somehow he got through the examinations . 2. 'somehow, ' ' for some reason '

Этот роман как- то мне не нравится . For some reason I don't care for that novel . 3. 'somehow , ' ' sort of, ' ' rather , ' ' somewhat , ' ' in a . . . sort of way, ' ' what you might

if you know what I mean .'

call ..

Used when the speaker either feels that the matter he is talking about

is not

entirely clear to him, or cannot think of a word that exactly fits . Он ничего не отвечал .

Он только как- то усмехнулся и ушел .

He didn't answer at all . Я возьму эту шляпу .

He just sort of grinned , and left .

Она как- то солиднее .

I'll take this hat . It's more dignified , if you know what I mean . Ежиков посмотрел на бумажку как- то рассеяно и возвратил ее молча Федору.

( Фурманов)

Ezhikov looked at the piece of paper in an absent-minded sort of way and handed it back to Fyodor without saying anything. 4. ' at some time or other ,' ' once , ' ' one day. '

Я как- то на днях увидел его на улице . I saw him once a couple of days ago on the street . Как- то поздно ночью я ходил на берегу . Once late at night I was walking on the shore . 5. (emphatic in questions ) ' how ?' , ' just how . . .? ' , ' how the deuce ...?' Как- то успели сделать всё это ? How the deuce did they have time to do all that? 6. (at the beginning of an enumeration)

' like , ' ' such as , ' ' namely, ' ' which are , ' ' for example , ' ' including' Целый

набор инструментов

принес ,

как- то молот ,

клещи ,

отвертки , и

т . д.







tools ,

including a hammer ,

screwdrivers , etc.

KAK- тO лИ

(рop . sp. ) See p 176 .

Strengthened form of кak expressing intensity or high degree . Уж как- то ли заблудятся , эво как! Boy are they ever going to get lost , and how! (Cf. Eng. pop . sp. "Boy are they some kind of going to get lost !"' )

pliers ,




4 , ' at some time or other,' ' once'


Strengthened form of ( BOT ) кaк expressing intensity or high degree .

See (BOT) KAK,

p 175-6. Да уж вот как стараться буду , уж вот как . . .

Boy, am I really going to try, I really will . . .



See under KAK :

" ( TO ECть ) KAK ( XE ) ( TO ) ( TAK) etc. " -- p 179 .

When the repeated word from the preceding speech is a verb , the verb may 1. have its its personal ending changed in the reply if the second speaker is simply thinking of how he himself is affected by this situation , or 2. be quoted without change of form , showing a stronger emotional reaction . 'What do you mean , .... ? ' 'Who says ...? ' 'What's this about . . .?'

'What do you mean by that , . . . ?'

'Where do you get this stuff about . . .?'


—Он уходит ! -Как это ухожу?

-He's leaving! -Who says I'm leaving? -Вы ведь обещали. -Как это обещал?

-After all , you promised . -Where do you get this stuff about how I promised?


—Он уходит ! -Как это " уходит " ?

-He's leaving ! -What's this stuff about " he's leaving" ? -Вы ведь обещали . -Как это " обещали " ?

-After all , you promised . -What's this about " you promised'' ?




See under KAК :

" ( ТО ЕСТЬ ) КАК (ЖЕ ) ( ЭТО ) (ТАК) etc. " --р 179 .

‘ What do you mean by . ..?' 'What's this about . . .?' --etc .

—Он бывший председатель . -Бывший? -Да . -Как это так бывший председатель? -He's the former chairman . -Former?

-Yes . -What's this about " former chairman "?



See under ЗАТЕЯ .

'What nonsense ! .. •


" • baloney! '


= какое ( какое там / какое тут / да какое там). See КАКОЙ , § 11 .

Stands before the repeated word or phrase. Expresses contradiction based on strong conviction , usually with a refutation or reason for disagreeing given immediately after.

-Чай- то от хозяйки , что ль ? - спросил он . . . -Како от хозяйки !

( Достоевский)

-(A cup of tea) from the landlady, eh? -From the landlady indeed !

КАКОГО ? = Какого числа?

On what date was that?



(as reply)

he asked

• •


КАКОЙ Kakoй has several well -known uses which requires no discussion here : 1. (interrogative ) ' what kind of . . .?'

2. (interrogative ) ' which?' , ' which one?' 3. (in exclamations , with nouns and adjectives ) ' What a . . . ! ' , ' How . ... !' 4. ( usually coordinated with такой ог тот ) такой . that ... ' ; TOT . . . какой :

. какoй:

' the kind of ...

' the . . . that . . .

The following additional uses , some of them more colloquial or less common or even non-standard , should also be pointed out : 5.


adj . ) = kакой- нибудь ,

' some ,' ' some . . .

or other; '


questions :) ' any .'

(colloq . ) In this meaning кaкoй may come either before or after the word it applies

to. Он смешил нас небылицей какой. He'd make us laugh with some yarn or other . Что ты стоишь , точно статуя какая?

What are you standing there like some statue for? Нам нужно здесь какого молодого человека , способного к арифметике . What we need around here is some young fellow who's good at arithmetic . Нет

ли дополнительных каких сведений о них? Isn't there any further information about them?

6. (as pronoun ) ' some ' ( pop . sp. Use as pronoun is considered substandard) . Чай , удивились какие из вас . I'll bet some of you were amazed . 7. (as

pronoun). When

kaкoй precedes

instead of follows TOT

(see KAKOй


above ) , the кaкoй is equivalent to ' whichever' . ночь хором





поют ,


какая выше

голосом забирает ,

той и

They used to sing in chorus the whole night , and whichever girl reached the highest note , he gave her a reward.


■ (as relative pronoun) 8


' who, '

' which , '

' that . '


sp. & regional)

Although found in standard works of fiction , kakoй in the sense of ' who, ' ' which , ' ' ' that '


characteristic of popular speech,

rather than formal writing.

especially frequent in the speech of southern Russia . Поглядели на бумажку , какую он нашел . We looked at the piece of paper that he had found . Чтоб женщины , у каких маленькие , стали в эту очередь. Have the women with small children stand in this line.

It is


9. какой

какой уж



какой уж это какой




какой же




Used to express disapproval , negative reaction to whatever is named noun , denial that the noun is fittingly used in the instance at hand .

'What kind of a ... is that? ' Huh , some ... ! Какой он руководитель! Huh, some manager he is ! /Why , he's no manager at all !

Какая уж это жизнь! What kind of a life to lead is that? 10. Interrogative pronoun or adverb + какой

' different in different instances , ' ' not the same ... . . all the time ' где какой : not the same in all places когда какой : not the same at all times кому какой : not the same to all people -- IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS 11. какой /какая/ какое /какие :

какой какой







там еще


тут еще






к чёрту

какой же

какой же тут

какой уж какой уж там

какой уж тут а какой

а какой уж а какой




какой же

там уж

by the


да какой уж да какой там

да какой


Ну какой ну какой же ну какой уж уж какой The use of kakoй to introduce repeated words is one of the commonest of all replies containing repetitions .

MEANING : The basic meaning of кaкoй + a word or phrase repeated from the preceding remark is always confident contradiction , with the idea of questioning what the first speaker



said because the

second speaker believes

something entirely

different and finds it ( or pretends to find it) amazing that the first speaker would say what he did , cannot imagine why he would think that, etc.

REINFORCING PARTICLES : In general , the additional particles а, да, ну, yx, xe simply reinforce the sense of surprise and disagreement ; the demonstratives там, тут , теперь add a scornful and disparaging note ; phrases

using eme

are still more scornful

and impatient .

USAGE IN CONSTRUCTIONS : Within the basic meaning, there are several variations in grammatical usage : a. The word or phrase repeated from the preceding speech may be either (A) quoted directly and without change or

(B ) converted into another grammatical form .

b. The word kакой may be used either

( 1 ) in the forms


какая ,

какое ,

какие :

always Nominative

case, but treated as variable in gender and number so as to agree with the repeated word or phrase,



(2) with the neuter Nom. sg. Kakoe treated as an invariable form that does not agree with the quoted word or phrase that follows it. (In popular speech, this kaкoe is sometimes pronounced " kakoй " . )

The underlying explanation of these variations in grammatical construction is this :

the basic sentence -type is кaкoй

+ repeated word (Nom case ) with the idea

of asking " N? What kind of an N do you call that?" In practice , there are three constructions used , which may be called

A1 , B1 ,

and A2, taking the symbols A, B, 1 and 2 from what has just been said above about usage and using them in combinations :



A. repeated







in form

1. with an agreeing Α1




какой /какая /

какое /какие 2. with an invariable какое that does

(does not occur)

not agree

(1 )

If the


word is a noun , pronoun , or adjective

that actually

occurred in the Nom . case in the preceding remark, the construction is very easily formed :

it is simply a matter of choosing one of the four

Nom. forms of какой ( какой , какая , какое , какие ) that agrees with it , and the type is Al :

Direct quotation of the repeated word , introduced

by an agreeing Nom form of какой.

-Слушай ! Волк? -Какой волк! -Listen!

( OR Какой тебе волк ! ) Is that a wolf?

-Nonsense ! Wolf indeed!

-Всё твои уловки! -Какие же мои?

Никакие не мои.

-You and your tricks !

-What do you mean , ' mine '? They aren't mine at all . (Note : The

change of твои to мon to fit the

sense of the

reply is a different kind of change and is not the point here . The

point here is only that no change of case

occurs . ) (2) If the repeated word was a noun , pronoun , or adjective that originally occurred in some other case ( Gen. , Dat . , Acc . , Ins . ) , only one adjustment is needed :

the repeated word is converted to Nom . case

troduced by a form of кaкoй as

before .

The type is

form of кaкoй + converted form.

—У тебя, почитай , много денег . -Какие ( OR Какие там , Какие еще , etc. ) деньги?

-I'll bet you've got lots of money . -Huh! What money?

and in-

B1 : Agreeing


—Чем ты живешь теперь? Жалованием? -Да какое же жалование? -What are you living on now? A salary? -Good night, where did you get the idea of a salary? (3) If the repeated word is a verb or adverb and does not have cases , or is a short -form adjective ( used as a predicate ) , not considered usable as a regular Nominative , then there are two ways of dealing with it : (a ) The word is converted to a noun , preferably a noun derived from the same root but at least a noun allied in meaning, and is put in the Nom .


The type is still Вl :


+ converted

form . -Спишь ?

-Какой там сон! -Are you asleep?

-Sleep hah ! -Говори серьезно , этим не шутят !

Я и серьезно говорил .

-Какие шутки !

-Talk seriously !

This is something people don't joke about .

-What jokes are you talking about?

I was serious .

-Богат ? -Какое богатство ! Гол, как сокол !

-Is he wealthy? -What

do you

mean ,

wealth ?


poor as



(b) The effort to arrive at Nom. case with agreeing кakoй is abandoned . The repeated word (vb . , adv . ,

short-form adj . ) is quoted directly

in its original form and introduced by the invariable form kaкoe, which

makes no pretense of agreeing with it, but simply stands

as an absolute form used to introduce the construction . is A2 :

The type

Directly quoted word introduced by the invariable кaкoе.

-А что он лечит , точно?

-Какое лечит !

Ну , где ему !

-But what is he treating him for, exactly? -Treating indeed ! -Не рано ли?

A lot he knows about it!

Чуть светает .

-О нет , какой* рано! -Isn't it pretty early?

It's just getting light.

-Oh no! What do you mean , early? (* Note :







kakoe, not the masculine Nom. sg. )



-Значит ,

видели его?

-Да какое там видели ?

Мы встречаемся очень часто .

-Then you've seen him?

-What do you mean, have we seen him, for heaven's sake ? We

meet very often . (c) Note that the use of Type A2 , Directly quoted word introduced by the invariable кaкoe , has now spread to words that could be put in the Nom . case .

Nouns , pronouns , and adjectives may also be

quoted directly in the case -form in which they occurred , if they are then introduced by какое .

-Новые ведь еще сапоги- то . -Какое новые !

( OR :


Какое! )

-The boots are still new , you know . -What do you mean , ' new ' !

(OR : You call them new?!)

-А ведь , право , они очень добрые . -Какое добрые !

Мошенники !

-But you know, it's true , they're very kind people. -Where do you get that ' kind ' stuff? (d ) The


They're swindlers !

B2 , Converted form introduced by an invariable кakoe ,

does not occur , since once the conversion to Nom . is made at all , there is no point in using the invariable kaкoe to avoid the issue of agreement . SPECIAL IDIOMATIC USE OF PLURAL :

A noun, pronoun , or adjective may occur in the first speaker's remark in the or in the sg . of any other case and be converted to Nom . pl . in the repetition . Also, a verb, a short-form adjective , or an adverb may be converted to a related noun in the Nom. pl .

The use of the plural has the effect of giving additional emphasis

to the second speaker's disagreement with the preceding remark, and also to his feeling of irritation and scorn or disdain toward either the subject of discussion or the first speaker's opinion , or both .

This is a special case of Type B1 :

word in the repetition is always какие

(never кaкoe) .

Reinforcement of the word

кaкие by adding там or TуT is common in repetitions of this kind . The plural can be used in the same way in English : -I think that as a precaution we should .. -Oh , you and your everlasting precautions !

-У тебя в кубышке- то небось не мало . -Какие у меня кубышки! -I'll bet you've got plenty in the old cashbox . -What cashboxes have I got?

The first


-Не будет ли какого приказания от вас ? —Какие приказания !

Я уеду сейчас .

-Don't you wish to give an order of some kind?

-What orders !

I'm leaving right now .

12. какое какое там

какое тут 'No such luck!'

' No indeed!'

'Nothing of the sort ! ' 'Just the opposite ' Less often ,

какое ,

какое там ,

and какое тут аrе used to express

the same

ideas of contradiction of what was previously said or thought as were just described under $ 11 above ,

but without being in a reply containing

a repetition .


dictionary has Только собрался выходить-- какое там ! I




to go

out -No

опять дождь пошел . such

luck !



raining again .

КАКОЙ НИ ( НА ) ЕСТЬ - какой бы ни. See under ЕСТЬ :


Interrog . pron . or adv . + НИ (НА ) ЕСТЬ , р . 118-119 .


' not for anything ' ' not under any circumstances' Я хотел рано утром отправиться, а он ни в какую . I wanted to set out early in the morning, but he wouldn't hear of it .

( Lit.:

but he (said , ) " Not under any circumstances . " )


(collog. )

- какой- нибудь - КАКОЙ $ 5 ,

some , ' ' some ... or other '


* , наверно , найдется у вас какая- никакая комнатка .


е что ни на есть захудалый.

Уголок какой ,


Surely some little room or other can be found in your corner , nothing special -- the shabbiest one there .

house . Just some


КАКОЙ ТАКОЙ 1. ' What sort , exactly? ' ' Just what kind of . . . ? ' Какой такой он человек?

Just what sort of fellow is he? 2. -

какой там / какой тут .

See КАКОЙ §11 .



'What do you mean , • • .?' ' Nonsense! ... indeed ! 'Where do you get that stuff about . . . ? ' -Это представляет собой большой шаг вперёд . -Какой- такой шаг вперёд !

-This represents a great advance. -Nonsense!

Advance indeed !

КАКОЙ- ТО 1. ' kind of . · ' sort of · Не очень люблю его .

Он неприветливый какой- то .

I don't like him very much .

He's sort of unfriendly .

2. (IN NUMERAL EXPRESSIONS) - какой- нибудь , ' about , ' ' аррroximately , ' ' something like' В каких- то пятидесяти метрах от дороги был пруд . About 50 meters from the road was a pond .




1. ' wages , ' ' pay ' 2.

' bribe , ' ' bribery , ' ' graft' (-from Turkish .

Originally , money paid by a bridegroom to the bride's parents )

КАРТИНА -in the sense of ' situation ' .


через два дня я Должен докладывать о … . ..

Значит , у меня такая картина :

Well , the situation I've got here is that in two days I'm supposed

to be

giving a report on . . .


(dialectal/pop . sp . )

Variant of · кa.

See -KA.


'Hi !'

(Humorous greeting. language . meaning

Perhaps derived from a phrase common to many Turkic languages ' Welcome ! ' ,

килдегез ,


Said to come from "Tatar, " which often means any Turkic

' Glad to


you ! ' :



geldiniz ,

etc. )


' sleep '

КЛЕВАТЬ ' go, ' ' go well, ' ' work, ' ' work out , ' ' come off, ' ' click, ' ' succeed '

-Ну, как жизнь? -Так, не клюёт . -Не клюёт ? -Да. -Совсем?

—Ну, клюёт , но плохо. -Hy!

-Well, how's life? -Oh, it's not going very well. -It's not?

-That's right. -Not at all ? -Well, it's coming along, but it's not good.

-Hm ! Хорошую уловку майор выдумал .

Клюёт !

That's a good stratagem the major thought up .

It's working!

Tatar xyш



(Сf как and какой. ) In addition to its ordinary meaning of ' when, ' the following other uses of когда

should also be pointed out:

1. = иногда, ' sometimes , ' ' from time to time '

Мы когда посещаем их . We visit them every so often . 2 . - когда- нибудь , ' ever, ' ' at any time , ' ' (at ) some time'

пуще чем когда more so than ever Читал ли ты когда роман Доктор Живаго?

Have you ever read the novel Doctor Zhivago? a. This meaning perhaps provides the best explanation for the following colloquial construction : Захочешь когда и покушай.

( Горький , На дне , I , 2. )

When ( OR If ) you feel you want to , eat some of this . In expanded form , the equivalent would probably be Если захочешь когда- нибудь , тогда и покушай . 3.

= если , ‘ if' ( --And similarly , когда бы - если бы . ) a . As in some other languages , it is only a short step from ' when ' to ' whenever' to ' if' : Ну , хорошо тогда.

Дай мне помогать , когда устанешь.

Well , okay then .

Let me help you if you get tired .

Когда ясна цель , когда мы организованны и единодушны , для невыполнимых задач .

нас нет


If the goal is clear , and if we are organized and united , there are no tasks we cannot fulfill . b . когда бы - если бы: Очень заинтересовались бы , когда бы знали об этом . They would have taken a great interest in it , if they had known about it. с . когда бы ( не) + Past form/Inf. /Noun/any predicate.

In wishes :

(pop . sp. )

Когда б они были здесь !

If only they were here ! Когда бы не опоздать !

( = Как бы не опоздать !

- Не опоздать бы ! ) I hope I /we /they won't be late !

Когда бы не гроза ! ( - Как бы не гроза ! ) I hope there won't be a rainstorm !

198 4. Introducing a clause that is the object of a verb.

Ordinarily this use is similar to that in English and causes no difficulty:

Он не любит , когда дети шумят. He doesn't like it when the children are noisy . Less like English, however, is the frequent use of когда after ждать in the sense of ' until . '

The verb after когда is regularly Prf.

Мы будем сидеть дома и ждать когда ты позвонишь . We'll stay home and wait until you phone us.


(as reply) (pop . sp. )

'Yes , certainly' 'Yes .

Of course !'

-Вы знакомы с ними?

—Когда же нет! -Have you met them? -Yes , of course I have !



(pop . sp . )

- как не - коли не . In popular and uneducated speech , когда не and коли не are used in the same way as кaк не.

See under KAK HE for detailed explanation of constructions and

meaning, p181-3.

' You're darned right . . 'I'll say · · ·


'It sure is · · 'Is it ever ..

-Разве выгоднее ездить в извоз , чем дома хлебопашеством заниматься? -Когда не выгоднее , ... Дома- то лошадей кормить нечем . (Л. Н. Толстой) -Do you mean to say it's more profitable to be a freight · hauler than to be a farmer at home? -I'll say it's more profitable , ... .At home there's nothing to feed the horses on .


(as reply )

(pop. sp. )

'Certainly that's true'

' Of course that's right' -Действительно так? —Когда не так? -Is that really so? -Of course it's so!

'What else could it be?'


--DOUBLED-WORD CONSTRUCTION . (УЖ) КОГДА ... , TAK ... так ... See under TAK , $ 20 . Expresses possession of a high degree of the quality indicated by the doubled word ; refers to something that is an outstanding example of its kind . Уж когда вечеринка, так вечеринка! Once we decide to have a party , it's really going to be some party!




Kоли HE


(pop . sp.)

- как не - когда не In popular and uneducated speech , когда не and коли не аre used in the same way as кaк не .

See under KAK HE for detailed explanation of constructions and

and meaning, p181-3 .

'You're darned right . . .'

'It sure is . . . '

'I'll say . . .'

'Is it ever ..

'Certainly . . .'

-А ты точно сам видел , как они деньги брали?

-Коли не сам! -And you yourself actually saw them take the money? -I certainly did see it myself!


' specialty,' ' special field' Понимать электронику?

(slang ) Я?

Understand electronics ?


(dialectal/pop. sp . )

Variant of -ka.

See -KA .


The familiar meanings are 1. 'which, ' ' that ' and 2. 'which ... ?', ' which one?'

Да ведь это мой комплекс ! Me? Why , that's my field!


But the following should be noted : 3.

, = какой- нибудь 'some,' 'some ... or other,' 'one ,' 'a,' 'any.' (pop . sp. ) Если который человек позвонит, сообщи мне. If some fellow calls up, let me know. После того, как переедем туда, я выучусь ремеслу которому. After we move there , I'll learn some trade or other. Которые вышли до того, как собрание кончилось. Some people left before the meeting had ended.

4. (Of times. With words referring to times: год, месяц, день, ночь, утро, вечер, раз, etc. Often accompanied by уже.) 'not the first (time)' Я который раз уже вас предупреждаю. This isn't the first time I'm warningyou.

КОФЕ In standard literary language kope is masculine and indeclinable..(-From French le café (masculine).) In popular speech , кофе is often treated as neuter, though still not declined . (Apparently the issue of other case-forms is regularly avoided by using the word in the Nom . or Acc.)

КОФЕЙ КОФИЙ Common in popular speech. Masculine, and declined in all cases ( кофей, кофея ог кофею, ... , and кофий, кофия ог кофию, ... etc.)


'queen' (in playing cards)


'attractive woman', 'a beauty' (pop. sp.)


'woman' (i.e. , any woman) (slang)


'mistress' (slang)

KPOME (used adverbially, without any Genitive object)

= кроме того, besides,' 'in addition.' (See ВРОДЕ, used as adv. in the same way.) Вот три предложения. Мы после что-нибудь придумаем кроме. Here are three proposals. We'll think up something in addition later on. Было кроме много карандашей там в ящике. There were a lot ofpencils in the drawer there besides .

КРУТИТЬ 'get started ,' 'expedite' (slang)

Это дело крутить. Get this job started./Get this show on the road.


KTO: AGREEMENT When referring to unidentified or indefinite persons Kтo is ordinarily treated as masculine singular, even when plainly referring to persons of both sexes or to a considerable number of people. Кто не хочет, не обязан присутствовать. Whoever doesn't want to is not obliged to be present.

Кто был за, кто против. Some were for it, and others were against. кто Besides 'who?' the following meanings should be noted: 1.

= кто- то, кто- нибудь, ' somebody,' ' anybody' Если кто придет, скажите, что я скоро вернусь. Ifanybody comes, tell them I'll be back soon.

Кто в лес, кто по дрова. One pulls one way and the other pulls the other way.


= который 'who,' 'that' Вот человек, о ком я говорил. There's the fellow that I was talking about.

KTO -referring to occupation - А кем быть надеешься, Антон? - Доктором. (-Арбузов) - And what do you hope to be , Anton? - A doctor. Кем же ты стал теперь, Порфирий? ... Планы какие у тебя? ... Расскажи. (-Леонов) What kind of job have you taken up now , Porfiry? ... What plans do you have? ... Tell us about them. Кто :

IN DOUBLED-WORD CONSTRUCTIONS 1. Doubled case-form ( ...) + не Who ... not ...?

'Lots of people'

'Practically everybody'

Кого- кого там не спросил. Whom didn't he ask there. / He asked practically everybody there.

Кому- кому это не известно. Who doesn't know that? / Loads of people know that. 2. Doubled case-form + а

'Of all people ( ... certainly)' Кто-кто, а он должен знать как это делать. Of all people, he certainly should know how to do that. Кому-кому, а им сказал об этом. Of all people, they were the ones he told about it.

KTO + interrog .

'One person

one ... ; another ... another ...’

'Some ... one ... ; others ... other ... '

Кто что. One person did one thing; others did something else.


Кто как. Some people did it one way , and others did differently . Кто куда .

Various people went to various places .

Note : Кто куда, а я в кино. I don't care what the rest do , I'm going to the movies./Other people can go where they want , but I'm going to the movies .

( Lit .:

Different individuals

can go to different places , but ... )



' anybody , '

(See also under ЕСТЬ :

' everybody , '

Interrog. pron./adv . + НИ (НА ) ЕСТЬ)

' it makes no difference who , '

' regardless of

who , ' ' one

person or another' Разве вы позволяете , чтобы кто ни на есть входил в эту кладовую? Do you mean to say you let just anybody go into that storeroom?



' Exactly what sort of person? '

А ты кто такой? /Да кто вы такое? And just who are you?

Стой !

Кто такие ?

крикнул сторожевой .

Who are you ?''

" Halt !

shouted the guard .

Мы хорошо знаем , кто он таков /Мы хорошо знаем , кто он такой. We know very well what sort of person he is. Видите ли эту девушку вон там ? Кто она такая? See that girl over there? Just who is she?

КТО + ТАКОЙ + Inf.

Да ты кто такой командовать над нами? And just who are you to order us around?


(pop . sp . )

- кто- это - кто- то , ' someone ' --In popular speech , 3тo is sometimes substituted for · To in making indefinite pronouns .

In the same way , " кудайте " • куда- это -

куда- то ,

' someplace !


(dialectal )


- может быть ,

' maybe ' .

КУДА Besides the basic meaning of ' where to?'

the following meanings should be

noted, which may not all be equally well known :


куда- нибудь, ' to some place ,' ' somewhere , ' ' someplace' Если нужно будет поехать куда, сообщите мне . If you have to make a trip anywhere , let me know.

2. ■ к чему? зачем ? на что? для чего? ' why ?' ' what for?' Куда мне молоток?

Зачем принес ,

What am I supposed to do with a hammer? What did you bring that for? Куда же ты так насолила суп? What did you put so much salt in the soup for?

3. куда + Compar. of Adj .: ' much (more) ..

' 'far (more) ..

куда лучше : much better куда более интересно : far more interesting 4.


+ Dat.

қуда уж/же /ж

+ Dat. pron. + Inf.

+ Inf (Ipf. or Prf. )


+ Inf.

уж куда

+ Inf.


+ Inf.



+ Dat. pron.

да куда

+ Dat. pron .


там /тутDat. pron.

куда уж /же /ж

+ Dat. pron .


+ Dat. Noun


куда уж /же /ж! там /тут !


куда уж /же/жтам /тут ! kyда + ANY word (IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS )

куда! (--last in its sentence . ) Kуда! (--alone .

As exclamation . )

Although the diagram above seems to present a rather large and complex picture , nevertheless it does in fact represent only one basic construction :

a highly flexible

construction, capable of an unusually great number of variations .

The fundamental

form of the construction is the one in the first line : three


куда + Dat . + Inf. , with these

typically occurring in that order . The




made more emphatic by the addition of yx ( or xe or x ) , or of там ( or TуT) , or of


both, with yx regularly preceding Taм.

The great variability of the construction lies

in the fact that not only can the Dative be omitted when it is obvious who is meant , and the Infinitive be omitted when it is obvious what action is meant , but also both can be omitted , leaving only the куда and an emphatic particle , or the куда all alone. This could be condensed into the formula

кyлa ( уx / xe/x ) (Tам/TуT)

( + Dat . pron. )

(+ Inf. ) . The construction is used in confident denials and strong objections to what has just been said, expressing utter disbelief that the person referred to is able to perform some action , or (with the Dative omitted ) that the action can be done at all by anybody, or that the whole idea is impractical , unrealistic in view of the facts , or not pertinent to the discussion :

'A fat chance . . . has . . . of . . . - ing . . .'

'How could ... possibly . . .? ' 'What chance is there of . . . -ing . . . ?'

'How do you expect ...?' 'Where do you get this stuff about . . .?'

'What would be the point in .. .-ing ...?' Куда ж мне подвести итоги?!

Здесь всех данных нет .

How am I supposed to add up the totals? The figures aren't all here . Уж куда отремонтировать его?

Запчастей нет .

What chance is there of fixing it up? There aren't any spare parts . О крысах беспокоиться? Куда крыоам ! Всё в стальных ящиках. Worry about rats? What can the rats do? Поссорились .

Everything is in steel boxes .

Вы конечно будете говорить , я должен был удержать их.

Да куда мне ! They quarreled .

Of course you'll say I should have stopped them .


how could I?

-Мы и сами переедем , как потеплее будет , недели через три . -Куда недели через три !

Управляющий говорит , что через две недели

рабочие придут : ломать все будут . ( Гончаров) -We'll move in any case , when it gets a little warmer, in around three weeks . -Where do you get this stuff about agent

" in around three weeks ?"

is saying the workmen will come in two weeks ,


and they'll

tear up the whole place .

-Хочешь , чтобы у тебя папка знаменитостью стал? -Это как?

- спросила Аночка .

-- Это , как артисты?

-Куда артистам ! Так, чтобы меня все знали .

( Федин)

-Would you like it if your papa became a celebrity?

-How's that? asked Anochka . -You mean , like actors ? -Actors indeed ! What I mean is that everybody would have heard of me.



его любили , мужа?

—Куда любила ! Говорю вам : чисто на каторге .

( Панова)

-Did you love him, your husband? -Did I love him? What an idea ! It was just like being on the chaingang.

5. куда + Dat . + до + Gen/за + Ins . Expressions

of this type are related in construction and meaning to those in

§4 , above . They are used to assert with great conviction that the second person or thing (after the preposition до or зa) is in some way far beyond the capabilities or powers of the first ( in the Dative) : '# 1 can't begin to keep up with #2' ' #1 is completely outclassed by #2' '#2 is completely beyond # 1' Фадеев хорошо писал , но куда ему до Толстого !

(OR : но куда ему за Толстым ! ) Fadeyev was a good writer, but he's just not in the same class with Tolstoy . Куда мне до таких теорий . Theories

Я мало понимаю по математике для этого .

like that are completely beyond me . I don't know enough

mathematics for that. ( Lit .: What chance have I got of attaining to theories like that ?)


(pop . sp . )

• куда- это = куда- то , ' somewhere , ' ' someplace '

· --In popular speech , 3тo is sometimes substituted for Кудайте is a contraction of куда- это . "in the same way .


To in making indefinites :

See КТОЙТЕ , made from кто- то , ' somebody '

(pop. sp. and regional ) (COMMON)

- куда .



Note the following construction used to connect the two clauses :

Я не в курсе дела этого , почему ушли . I don't know the story on why they left.


КУШАТЬ ' eat' --Formerly used almost entirely in the 2nd person , in expressions

Now also used of oneself: " я куша


of politeness .








А мне до лампочки . (slang)

That doesn't interest me . / I don't care about that.


= если

(dialectal: Southern)


ЛЕПШЕ , ЛЕПШИЙ = Лучше, лучший From Ukrainian ліпше, ліпший.


In strong assertions

The fundamental use of ли is in questions that expect either 'Yes' or 'No' as an answer. Derived from this is an idiomatic use in a number ofexpressions which in meaning are strong assertions, because in form they are questions that clearly expect the answer 'No.' The implication is that no one would think the answer was 'Yes. ' When imbedded in a context, this meaning is sometimes less obvious than it may seem that it ought to be.

Шутка ли. That's nojoke' / 'It's no small thing' /'It's not a trifling matter' (Literally: ' Is it a joke?' / '(Do you think) that's ajoke?") Легко ли мне спешить так? It's certainly not easy for me to rush like that. (Lit.: (Do you think) it's easy for me to rush like that?) Теперь мне до того ли? Do you think I'm interested in that stuff at a time like this?

Всё это сказал ему, и кстати ль! I told him all that. And you don't suppose it did any good, do you? Чёрт ли сладит с ней. Мегера какая! The devil himself can't manage her. What a shrew!

Чёрт ли в этом. That doesn't amount to anything./That's not important. See also under МАЛО ЛИ.

линия : 1.

по линии + Gen. (popular speech; originally officialese .) 'regarding,' 'in connection with'


по линии a. 'on the (phone) line to'

b. 'through N's office' c. 'in N's line of work,' 'in N's specialty' 3.

под (кого- нибудь) линией 'under N's supervision,' 'under N's command'


ЛИШЕК: С лишком

(Not слишком)

See under C ЛИШКОМ. p324. ЛИШЬ БЫ

+ Past + Inf

1. Only wish, sole desire: 'if only'

Да что мне? Лишь бы заплатил! Пускай ночнуют ночью. (-Некрасов) But what difference does it make to me? Ifhe just pays! Let them stay for the night. Я мальчиком оденусь. Верно буду Тебе служить, дорогою, в походе Иль на войне --войны я не боюсь, Лишь видела 6 тебя. ( Пушкин) I'll dress as a boy. I'll serve You truly, travelling by land or sea ... I'm not afraid of war Ifonly I can see you. 2. Only aim, sole purpose : 'if only' , ' as long as', 'provided that', just so that'. Sometimes overlapping in sense with # 1 , Only Wish . Да ишь ты, с вами не скоро сообразишь, бралиантовые. Тятенька-то твой ладит за богатого: Мне, говорит, хотя Федот от проходных ворот, лишь бы денежки водились, да приданого поменьше ломил. (-А.Н. Островский) (Matchmaker:) Honestly, with you people one can't arrange something that fast, darlings. Your daddy is aiming for a rich man. 'I'll take any Joe Blow that comes in off the street,' he says, 'just so he has money, and doesn't ask for too much ofa dowry.' Все что угодно говорить, подхалимничать, стелиться травкой, лишь бы старик оставил эту идею --уходить с завода. (-В . Панова) He was willing to say whatever he wanted to hear, to fawn, to grovel,* if only the old man would give up this idea ofleaving the factory. (* Lit.: 'spread himselfout like a lawn') Честнейшая душа, не извольте беспокоиться! Он свое проживет, лишь бы доверителю угодить. (-Гончаров) He's a thoroughly honest fellow: there's nothing for you to worry about. He'll use up his own money if he can just oblige a client. [The man is being recommended as an estate manager.] Пили они это пили; кажется, ничего не жалел, лишь бы глотку-то его поганую залить - так нет, вот мало ему и того. (-Салтыков-Щедрин) They drank and drank; apparently he was not sparing anything, and all he wanted was to sluice his foul gullet -- but no, that wasn't enough for him.



Past Inf Adv

no following word Reinforced form of лишь бы, above . Cf ТОЛЬКО БЫ, etc. p414. 1.

Only wish, sole desire : 'if only' Лишь бы только она поправилась! If only she gets well!


2. Only aim, sole purpose: 'if only' , 'as long as' , 'provided that', 'just so that', just to', 'only to' Листовки должны наклеиваться не кое-как -лишь бы только держались, а так, чтобы их трудно было содрать. (-Катаев) The posters should be pasted on not just any old way just so they'll stay up, but in such a way as to be hard to tear off. - Нет, лучше я надену цветное. - Цветное! Право, говоришь лишь бы только наперекор. (-Гоголь) No, it'll be better ifI put on the print dress. - The print dress! Really, you're saying that just to be contrary. И с какой стати ему смотреть на тебя? - Право, маменька, все смотрел: .. - Ну, может-быть, один какой-нибудь раз, да и то так уж, лишь бы только . (-Гоголь) - ... And what reason would he have to look at you? - It's the truth, mama, he kept looking at me the whole time: ... - Well, maybe once some time, and even then, he just happened to , that was all he did it for.... Вы, насмешники, лишь бы только посмеяться над провинциальными. (-Гоголь) You mockers, all you want to do is have a laugh at us provincials.


'no matter ...'

'it makes no difference ...'

лишь бы только когда-нибудь: лишь бы только какой-нибудь: лишь бы только где-нибудь: лишь бы только что-нибудь :


'regardless of ...'

regardless ofwhen it makes no difference which it makes no difference where no matter what

See under ТОЛЬКО, p 410 # 4, 4 , & p 416

Лишь только is simply an intensive, made by combining the two synonymous words лишь and только. 1. 'exclusively', 'solely', 'only', 'just', 'nothing but', СТОЛЬКО #4, p410. Охота быть тебе лишь только на посылках? (-Грибоедов) What ever is it that you like so much about doing nothing but run errands?

Она, как под крылышком у сна, Так тиха, свежа лежала, Что лишь только не дышала (-Пушкин : Сказка о мертвой царевне и о семи богатырях.) She, as under the wing of sleep Lay so quiet and fresh-complexioned That the only thing was that she did not breathe. 2.

' as soon as', ' no more than ... when ...', 'no sooner ... than ... ', 'the minute that ...' Марьяна, только лишь настанет ночи мгла, К палатам Анджело идти должна была. (-Пушкин) Mariana was to come to Angelo's palace As soon as the darkness of night should come on .


Лишь только мы въехали на самую высокую точку горы, лошади вдруг совсем остановились. (-Гончаров) As soon as we rode up onto the highest point of the hill, the horses suddenly came to a complete stop. Лишь только она начала ходить, ее уже заставили возиться с маленькими братьями и сестрами. (-Решетников) She had no sooner started to walk than they had her taking care of her little brothers and sisters.


(popular speech)

= класть

put' '

ЛУЧШЕ ЛУЧШЕ И УЖ ЛУЧШЕ Used to refer to what is believed to be a preferable or more advisable course of action, much as 'better' is in English. In Russian, this idea can be expressed by quite a variety of constructions:

1. лучше + Imperative (Ipf or Prf) (COMMON) Посмотри, который час ... Нет, лучше дай мне сюда часы. (Гаршин) See what time it is ... No , you'd better hand me the watch. Лучше ты переночуй у нас. You'd better stay overnight at our place. a.

As in English, this construction is also used in threats:. Ты же лучше убирайся! Youjust better get out ofhere!


When the course of action that is less preferable or less advisable is specified, this is done by using чем and the Infinitive: Чем ехать всю ночь, лучше переночуй у нас. Rather than drive all night, you'd better stay overnight at our place.

2. лучше + Prf Я лучше пойду. Уже поздно. I'd better go. It's already late.

Лучше я пойду посмотрю, что там у них происходит. I'd better go and see what's going on at their place.

3. лучше + Dat. + Inf. Нам лучше спешить, осталось только пять минут. We'd better hurry, we've only got five minutes.


лучше + Subjunctive Вы бы лучше взяли с собой все бумаги. You'd better take all the papers with you.


without verb

'it would be’ Буду ждать от вас в Питере письма, а лучше бы еще вас самих. (-Римский-Корсаков: letter) I'll be expecting a letter from you in St Petersburg, but it would be better still to be expecting you yourself.




(popular speech) 'otherwise'

(-in warnings)

Положи в карман,лучше не потеряешь. Put it in your pocket or you'll lose it.


(popular speech)

= людьми, Ins. pl . of люди.


МАБУДЬ (dialectal : Southern & Western) = может статься = может быть


'it may be'

-Afrequent Sholokhovism, often the first word in a reply. МАЛЕНЕЧКО МАЛЕНИЧКО 'a little bit'

'a little'

-Ты грамотный ли? -Маленечко учился. (-Короленко) -Can you read and write? -I went to school a little. [С детьми] все как бы маленечко повеселее (-Григорович) [With children] everything seems a little jollier. -Маленечко ошибся, -промолвил мой возница: -в сторону, знать, взял грешным делом, ... (-Тургенев) "I was a mite off on that," said my driver. "It looks like I bore off to one side, I must admit . ” [-He had missed the ford and gotten the carriage into a deep place in the stream. ]

-Книг маленичко зачитался, -заметил хозяин: -в голове-то у него и тово ... Что денег на эти книги изводит! (-Горбунов) "He's read a few books too many," remarked the host . "He's got something not quite right in the head. ... What a lot of money he spends on those books!" МАЛО:

Constructions with MAJO and МАЛО ЛИ.

Мало is the basis of a large family of expressions whose usage is fundamentally perfectly clear and systematic, but has been complicated by later variant and derivative uses. 1. There are two basic sets of constructions: a.

those introduced by мало, 'little,' 'few,' and


those introduced by мало ли , 'many,' 'lots of,' 'plenty of.' ( Мало ли is literally "Is it few that ...?". This is a case of ли being used to make up what in form is a question, but in meaning is a question that so obviously expects the answer 'No' that it amounts to being a statement of the opposite . For other examples, see under "ЛИ in Strong Assertions . ")

2. The same three sets of forms are used after both мало and мало ли: a.

Genitive case of

(1) nouns (2) personal pronouns

(3) demonstrative pronouns (4) adjectives b.

Any case of interrogative pronouns and adjectives (кто, что, какой, чей) - whichever case would be required by the rest of the clause if the мало ог мало ли were not there.


Interrogative adverbs (где, когда, откуда, как, сколько, почему, отчего, зачем, etc.)


У него мало денег. He has very little money.


Мало ли у него денег . He has lots of money.

Мало ли он писал писем, но ответа не получил. He wrote a lot of letters, but he didn't get any answer. (Lit.: Was it few letters that he wrote, (do you imagine,) but ...) Уж мало нас осталось, старых друзей! Truly, there are not many of us old friends left! Мало ли нас на вечеринке было. There were a whole lot of us at the party. Таких, как он, мало. There aren't many like him.

Об этом положении можно сказать мало хорошего. There isn't much of anything good that can be said about the situation. WITH INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES Мало кто знал об этом. Few people knew about that. Мало ли кто знал об этом. Lots ofpeople knew about that. Он мало кому это сказал. He told that to very few people. Мало ли кому он это сказал. He told that to lots ofpeople.

Весь сарай горел. Они мало что могли сделать. The whole shed was on fire . There wasn't much they could do. Тот вариант мало чем отличается от этого. That model differs very little from this one. Мало ли какие дела бывают! Lots ofthings like that happen! Отец у него почтальон, а почтальон пока из дома в дом ходит, мало ли чего наслушается. (Гайдар) His father is postman, and a postman is sure to hear plenty of things as he goes from house to house. (Note: наслушаться takes Gen.) (IN REPLIES TO QUESTIONS:) -Мы у них поучиться можем. .Чему это? -Мало ли чему. -We could learn from them. -Learn what? -Lots.

WITH INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS Мало где я мог потерять это. There aren't many places where I could have lost that.

Мало ли где я мог потерять. There are lots of places where I could have lost it. Я мало когда говорил с ним. I have rarely talked with him.


Я мало ли когда говорил с ним. I have talked with him a number oftimes.

Мало ли куда они ездят. They go to loads ofplaces. Ему мало зачем приходится видеться с ними. He has very little occasion to see them. WORD ORDER. In combinations of this kind waлo often stands between the subject and the verb, and мало ли often stands first in its sentence, but these are not hard-and-fast rules, and either мало ог мало ли can stand in either position, e.g. Мало когда я бываю там OR Я мало когда бываю там, 'I am not often there ' All the examples given so far illustrate the basic, straightforward uses of maлo 'little,' f 'ew' and мало лè 'lots,' 'plentу' (whеге мало ëи has its origin in ironic questioning: “Do you think it's not much that ...?", as explained before) . Several further points should be observed: 3. The combination мало ли + interrog. (-pron. or adv.) has evolved a further meaning: from saying that there are lots of people who ... , lots of places where ..., lots of times when ..., lots of things that happen, etc. , it is not a very long step to meaning that there are lots of them and that it is of very little interest which one of them it is. To look at the same thing another way, мало ли 'lоtя' began as an ironic use of мало 'little,' and мало ли with an interrogative is in turn sometimes used ironically and given still another new twist. Мало ли кому это нужно! Lots ofpeople need it!: (Yeah, sure,) lots of people need it: What do I care who needs it. Мало ли что говорят! Мне виднее! I don't care what they say! I know better! (They say lots of things: I don't care what they say. I know better!) a.

Any interrogative pronoun or adverb can be used in combination with мало ли in this meaning, but in practice it is mало ли что that is most often used in this way.

b. малоли что can also stand by itself as a reply: 'So what?"/ "What ofit?' c.

In popular speech, чero is sometimes substituted for чro: Мало ли чего бывает. = Мало ли что бывает. Lots ofthings happen.

Мало ли чего, что сердится. So what if he IS mad at us? d.

In some cases, the что becomes so faded in meaning that it loses its value as a pronoun, and hence has no strong grammatical connection with the words that follow it, with the result that a whole clause can be placed after it. The effect is that the pronoun чTo seems to become practically indistinguishable from the conjunction что, 'that'. -Он болен. -Мало ли что болен! -He's sick. -I don't care if he IS sick

Мало ли что вам удобно - надо и о других подумать. (Dictionary of Spoken Russian , TM 30-944, p295 (under другой) .) It may be convenient for you, but you've got to think of others.



Occasionally the что is dropped, leaving мало ли alone :

-Они же сразу пошлют характеристику. -Мало ли они сразу пошлют. Они не имеют права послать. Мало ли что пошлют. -They'll send a performance evaluation immediately. -It doesn't make any difference whether they send it immediately. They aren't authorized to send any. I don't care if they send one. f.

As an expression of this attitude that what has just been said is of no interest , immaterial, not worth any serious consideration, not worth talking about (-as in # 3 above) , мало (ли) что/чего lends itself naturally and often to use in Replies Containing Repetitions . It can stand either first or last: - Я тебе сказал. -Мало ли что сказал! (OR: -Сказал? Мало ли что!) -I told you that. -I don't care what you told me. (Lit. "Yas, you told me lots of things. ")


Less commonly, in popular speech the ли is sometimes absent , although the meaning is still the same as in # 3. Admittedly, this last usage seems to contradict the original contrast between мало and мало ли, and one is forced to rely on context to tell which sense is meant. Apparently, either the ли has been dropped, or else the combination мало что/чего is also used ironically in the sense of "Oh sure , very little indeed"/" Oh of course, not much at all ," hence " lots, " " plenty, " and hence "There are lots of them like that; I don't care a thing about them. " Мало что бабы болтают! (Горбунов) The women jabber all kinds ofstuff! /I don't care what the women jabber! -Ведь я тебе велел. -Мало что велели? А когда мне? (Островский) -Now, I did tell you to do that. -Yes, you told me to do heaps of things. But when did I have time to? (Possibly : " It's not much you told me to do , is it?”) -У нас в школе говорили ... -Мало что в школе. Ты учись, а стариков не суди. (Бажов) -In our class at school they were saying ... -The heck with what they say in school . You study, and don't pass judgment on . your elders

4. Other derivative usages and set phrases: Ты бы лучше взял калоши. Мало ли чего, вдруг пойдет снег. You'd better take your galoshes. You never know what may happen, it may start snowing any time. Мало ли чего! What next! Мало чего нет! Oh sure! Why don't you go ahead and hog it all! МАЛО НЕ / МАЛО ... НЕ

= чуть не/едва не

(popular speech)





Я мало не проспал. I almost overslept . Хлопнул его по спине так, что Морозкина голова мало не отделилась от туловища. (Фадеев) He gave him such a thump on the back that Morozka's head nearly came off his body. Огромный сейф-мало в эти двери не войдет. It's an enormous safe - it will barely go through this doorway.


Об этом поступила в редакцию мало не сотня писем. The editorial office received nearly a hundred letters about that.


(popular speech)

= маленько

= немного

'a little bit'

'a little'

Ай-ай, ровно бы горчит маненько, а? ... Пригаринка, видно. (Леонов) Oh boy, I guess it tastes a little bitter, huh ? ... It must be a burned spot. МАТЬ:


As might be expected, 'Mother' has a great many affectionate forms, much like English 'mom,' 'momma, ' 'mommy' etc. The same person was once heard to use all seven of the following in the course of a few minutes of talking with her mother: мама мамаша мамка

Мамуль Мамулька мамуля мамуся

(Папуля, 'daddy' was also used.)


( popular speech / regional)

= маленький 'little,' 'small ,




'... short,'

'lacking ... ,'

'with ... missing

Что это? Тут шесть банок, а только пять крышек. У меня получается крышкой меньше.


What's this? There are six jars here and only five lids . I've come out one lid short.


ПО МЕРЕ + verbal noun in Gen. sg . ПО МЕРЕ ТОГО КАК

'as ( + verb)' 'as ... continued to ...'


+ Ipf.

'with ( + verbal noun)' 'with continuing ... '

'with further ...' 'with increasing ...'

The Russian construction по мере + Gen. sg. verbal noun has exactly the same meaning as the commoner по мере того как + Ipf. , just as there is no difference in meaning between the English translations using ' as' with a verb and ' with' with a noun. The clause with по мере того как always has its verb in the Imperfective, but the other clause of the sentence may have its verb in either aspect, depending only on the shade of meaning intended. The two clauses need not have the same subject.


По мере прочитывания, всё становилось (OR стало) ему ясно. = По мере того как прочитывал, всё становилось (OR стало) ему ясно. As he read it over, everything became clear to him. MECTÓB

Dialectal and uneducated for мест, G. pl . of место. (So too границев for границ, делов for дел, разов for раз, etc.) МЕСЯЦ

(after the name of a month) COMMON

" The month of ... Taken from the style of official documents. Месяц is declined to match the name of the month : в январе месяце , etc. Often decried as bad style , but often used.




(popular speech)

= мирово МИРОВÓ

(popular speech)



MHE (бы) + Acc. of person OR thing in expressions of desire . (Cf. БЫ, # V B , p 27. ) Бы is used when the requestor means to be polite and ingratiating, as in English requests with "I would like ... "; a plain мне with the Acc. is used when the request is urgent or peremptory, and the бы is absent.

Мне Болтунова. Get me Boltunov. (-i.e. Get him for me on the telephone.)

Мне заведующего. Get me the manager. Фонарь мне, фонарь! A light! Bring me a light!

МНОГО + Comparative (popular speech) Oftenused colloquially, instead of the more literary гораздо. ' much more expensive' 'far louder'

Много дороже Много громче НЕ МОГИ

See under МОЧЬ, p 219. МОЖЕ МОЖЕТ

(regional) (-as adv.)


- может быть


МОЖНО СКАЗАТЬ See under CКАЗАТЬ. MOHETOB Dialectal and uneducated for монет, of монета, (1 ) 'coin', (2) ruble (in popular speech). But also found in Tolstoy: Хотя конь и не хорош был, по его мнению, однако стоил по крайней мере сорок монетов (-Л.Н. Толстой: Казаки 22) Although the horse was not a very good one in his opinion, nevertheless it was worth at least forty rubles.


Dialectal forms.

The very common verb мочь cccurs in an unusual number of regional variants. In the summary below , the 3 sg, 1 pl , and 2 pl are formed like the 2 sg, just as in the case of the standard forms (может, можем, можете).

могу " " " "

2 sg. можешь могешь могёшь могошь могешь могёшь

3 pl . могут


Pres. 1 sg Standard : Dialectal:

могут "


Pres. 1 sg.

2 sg.

3 pl .

Morý "1


могут "1


11 можешь "1

можут " 1

можу "




11 можут

могу можбшь


МОЧЬ + Inf : - in expressions of possibility and probability . Like English‘can ' and ' may , ' мочь is used to refer to the possibility of something happening.

Possibility ,

likely possibility, and probability easily merge into each

other. В комнате зверски холодно , она может захворать. It's villainously cold in the room--she may get sick . Note that in referring to something that was a possibility in the past , the plain Past of мочь is commonly used , even in referring to a possibility that never became a reality , rather than the Subjunctive with the particle бы:

Старый котел мог в любую минуту разорваться. The old boiler might have blown up at any minute . Заходил он , нибудь

собственно , не к ней лично , их встреча была случайной .




ему .



могло не быть дома ,

Кто •

(Панова) Actually , he didn't come to see her personally ; their meeting was accidental . Anyone else could have opened the door for him. She might not have been at home at all , .

(Cf. bbl ,

I.A.5.a , p . 19. )

МОЧЬ with the negative : не мочь + Inf ' be unable to_ мочь не + Inf ' be able to avoid ______- ing , ' ( Lit .: ' be able to not


"be able to refrain from —- ing , ' 'be able to manage without

-ing , ’

' not have to —________ 'may (possibly) not , не мочь ( чтоб ) не + Inf ' be unable to help

-ing' ( Lit .:

' be unable to do without ' be unable to fail to

-ing '

' not be able to not



The general rule is that He logically applies strictly to the word that immediately follows it.

(A preposition and its object are treated as a single unit :

inserted between them. ) The difference


is not

between Russian and English usage


thrown into sharp contrast when мoчь + Inf is negated in the various possible ways : Вы не можете смеяться над ним . You can't laugh at him. ( - e.g. , considering his misfortune ) Вы можете не смеяться над ним . You can (just) refrain from laughing at him. (--and you'd better)

You can manage very nicely without laughing at him. You needn't laugh at him./You don't have to laugh at him .

It's possible that he won't make you laugh . Вы можете смеяться не над ним . You can laugh, but not at him. You can do your laughing at somebody besides him. ( = Не над ним можете смеяться .

Him you can't laugh at . ) Вы не можете не смеяться над ним . You can't help laughing at him. You can't fail to laugh at him.


нE моги + Inf (pop . sp . & regional .

Sometimes used jokingly , )

Used in strong prohibitions

'Don't you dare . . . !' 'See that you don't . . . !'

'Now, don't you Не прерви!

Не моги прервать !

Don't interrupt !

Don't you dare interrupt !

Починить его я постараюсь , только мешать не моги ! I'm going to try to fix it, only see that you don't bother me!

МОЧЬ (f) :

(Dat + ) НЕ В МОЧЬ (УЖ)

= мочи нет / мочи не стало

МОЧЬ (f) :

... can't stand it '

МОЧИ НЕТ -- phrase used as adverb

Usually мoчи нет , ' . . . can't stand it , ' is used as the basis of an ordinary clause : Постылы вы мне все !

Мочи моей нет видеть вас!

You all are hateful to me ! I can't stand looking at you!


However, the expression мочи нет

is also found used adverbially :

Мы мочи нет друг другу надоели .

( Грибоедов)

We bored each other beyond endurance. Досадно мочи нет , чем больше думать станешь . ( Грибоедов) It's intolerably annoying, the more you start thinking about it .



( + Inf)

Мудрёный alone = ' intricate , ' ' strange , ' ' hard to understand , ' ' tricky , ' ' hard to do . ' Thus Что ( ж ) ( тут ) мудрёного /Мудрёного нет /Мудрено ли / не мудрено ( что ... ) all mean about the same thing :

' It's not surprising , '

' There's nothing strange about . . forward derivatives of

' Is it any wonder (that .

. .), '

. , ' etc. , and all of them are regular and straight-

мудрёный .

BUT note the expression мудрёное дело , used ironically (as if it were мудрёное ли дело) with the opposite of what the literal meaning of the words suggests : Мудрёное дело дать мне определённый ответ . It's just not all that hard to give me a definite answer.


( verb -ending)

= —вши . i.e.

(dialectal : Southern)

In dialectal usage, the Gerund can be used as the main verb of a sentence ,

as the equivalent of a simple Past tense.

221 HA The great majority of the uses of нa can be regarded as applications of a few fundamental senses such as location on or at , orientation toward , and future intent . They are well presented in dictionaries , and are not reviewed here . Only non-standard

HA + Acc .









a few

this book .

(See also under C + Gen. )

= B, referring to a destination .

( pop . sp. ) (VERY COMMON )

'From ... to ...' is expressed by из . . . B ... in the standard literary language when referring to travel between named geographical points or between other definite · B • • • is very locations . However , the use of c ... Hа . . . instead of из frequent in popular speech : В понедельник летит с Москвы на Лондон . On Monday he flies from Moscow to London .

5 Судно отходит с Ленинграда на Гавану 10 - ого января . The ship sails from Leningrad for Havana on the 10th of January . Ha is also used instead of the literary в when the

' from ..

' is not expressed :

На другой день они вернулись на деревню . The following day they returned to the village . Отнеси все эти письма на контору . Take all these letters into the office .

NOTES : 1. A few expressions with Hа



standard literary

usage :

на Kавказ

'to the Caucasus ' , на урал ' to the Urals ' , нa украину ' to the Ukraine ' . 2. Not popular speech only , but also standard literary , are some expressions using

на Ha

+ Acc .

instead of B when the city is a destination on the route

but not

necessarily the terminal :

Дорога на Смоленск . the road to Smolensk (and perhaps farther)

Он сел в поезд на Варшаву. He got on a train to Warsaw. (i.e., He got on a train going to Warsaw , among other places . )

HA + Acc .:

В Hочь HА + date

' in the early morning of the

-th ' , ' early on the______-th '

Note that the English expression ' on the night of the 8th ' refers to the time from nightfall to midnight of the 8th and does NOT correspond to the Russian в ночь на 8- oe, which refers to the time from midnight to sunrise of the 8th .


В ночь на 5 - ое января пошел снег . The snow started early on the 5th of January . Затем поехал я в город, в ночь с 7 на 8 марта. Then I drove into town on the night of 7-8 March.

НА + Acc ( of a person or group) 'for' , ' for the benefit of' , ' for the purposes of' , ' in the interests of' Старуха варежки вяжет на армию . The old lady is knitting mittens for the army . Я не хочу и не буду работать на немцев .

( Фадеев)

I don't want to work for the Germans and I'm not going to.

HA + Acc . ' on ' , ' on the subject of ' , ' in regard to '

( pop . sp . )

А мы с ним разговаривали уже на эту тему. But we're already had some discussions with him on this subject . Личные дела не держатся здесь у нас .

И только в

лучшем случае к концу

месяца материал на вас поступит . The personnel records aren't kept here at our office . fortunate

And only in the most

case will the material on you come by the end of the month .

Не забыли ничего 1

И науки ради Исписали на него Толстых

три тетради .

( Твардовский)

They didn't leave out a thing, And in the interests of Science they filled three thick notebooks on him. ( i.е. , 3 notebooks devoted to him and his case = 3 notebooks subject of him. )

НА + Acc . with работать

(pop . sp. )

' work at ' , ' work on ' ( = над + Ins . ) Приказал всё прекратить и работать на этот вопрос. He ordered them to drop everything and work on this problem.

— О каких машинах он говорил? -Ну , эти самые , на которые мы работаем . -What vehicles was he talking about ? -Why, the ones we're working on.

on the


НА + numerals ( Acc . )

(pop . sp . ) (VERY COMMON )

' nearly' , ' close to ' ( --but not more than) , ' just about' (Cf. American regional ' nigh onto ' . )

' amounting to ' , ' some , ' ( Need not always be translated . ) Отсюда далеко .

Километра на четыре .

It's a long way from here .

It's close to about four kilometers .

Отправили на десять человек на помощь. They sent some ten men to help .

( OR :

They sent ten men . . .)

Там стояла сосна высотой на тридцать метров. A pine tree stood there , some thirty meters in height. ( Standard literary usage :

высотой в тридцать метров . )

Из необходимого железного лома поступило в завод на 680 тонн . Of the required scrapiron , 680 tons have arrived at the plant . На сома поохотиться не желаете , господин? ... Сомок -- пуда на два. ( Горький) Wouldn't you like to go fishing for sheatfish* , sir? A nice little sheatfish is close to about two poods**. (*A very large fish something like a catfish . ) ( ** About 70 pounds .)

HA + Loc . .. of stages or points along the way in a process . —У нас одна машина неисправна.

-Сколько времени вам для ремонта надо? -Ну , сейчас на определении в каком месте . -We've got one vehicle out of order.

-How much time do you need for repairs ? -Well , right now they're on the decision of where it should be done . Затем ставят канаты , полиспаст , и крюк .

На этом заканчивается монтаж

крана . Then they attach the cables , the compound pulley , and the hook .


point the assembling of the crane is finished .


НА- КА ПОДИ НА- КО ПОДИ ' Look at . . . ! ' (And) What do you think (of that) ? ' ' How do you like that ? . . . !'

At this


'And what does . . . do? . . . !'

'What do you know?' Used






displeasure . ,

Often follows


Nom .

pronoun . Я всё устраивал , а ты на- ка!


I was making all the arrangements , and what do you do? Find fault ! На- ка!

Совершенно забыл об этом , на- ка !

How do you like that? I forgot all about it ! На- ка , теперь у нас молокосос руководителем !

What do you think of that !

Чёрт !

What do you know , now we've got a greenhorn as a boss ! Blast !

НА ПОДИ ДА И НА ПОДИ ' no matter what you do'

' dreadfully '

' can't do a thing about it'

' something awful'

Expresses bewilderment and inability to cope with some problem. Три раза проверили данные , а всё что- то не так , да и на поди . We've checked the figures three times , and still something isn't right , no matter what we do. Краска всё сходит со стены , да и на поди . The paint keeps peeling off the wall something awful . Он разошелся так , что и на поди . The way he blew his top , we couldn't do a thing with him.

HА TO (И ) + Nom noun 'That's what . . . is . '

'That's how it goes with . .

'That's the way . . . is . '

'That's ... for you.'

Originally , this construction referred to purpose :

'That's what . . . is for.' hence: 'That's what . . . is supposed to be .' & hence : ' That's how

I always is .'

This older meaning of purpose is still sometimes found, as in the first example . На то он и помощник заведующего , чтобы слушать жалобы.

That's what he's an assistant manager for: to listen to the complaints . Одержи

победу - все


гением ;


потерпи -

дураком .

На то командир . Win a victory and everybody will call you a genius ; suffer a defeat and everybody will call you a fool .

That's what it is to be a commander.



Многие зябнут , голодают , погибают .

На то и война.

Many people are freezing , starving, and dying.

That's the way war

always is. Скучно тебе , так не прогневайся, друг мой -- на то и деревня ! ( Салтыков) If you find it boring, don't be angry , my friend .

That's just living in

the country for you !

НА ЧТО ? 'What for?'


'For what purpose?'

HA чTO + Dat + Acc . . .? 'What do/does .

• need ... for? '

'Who needs ...?' 'What do/does .... care about .. .?'

'Why should ... care about ...?' 'Who cares about . . .?' -А я? -сказал слепой жалобным голосом . -На что мне тебя? —был ответ .


" But what about me?" said the blind boy in a plaintive voice . "What do I need you for?" was the answer . -Да на что вам мое отчество? What do you

Зовите меня просто Марианной.

have to know my patronymic for?

Just call

(Тургенев) me Marianna .


1. + Adj . , long or short + Adj . , Compar. + Vb.

+ Noun + Gen. of (Adj +) Noun

( = descriptive Gen. )

Expresses completeness , thoroughness , intensity , high degree of some quality. Often found in constructions where one thing is contrasted with another . The particle combination regularly precedes the word it applies to . 'exceedingly'

'(as) ... as can/could be

'absolutely '

'couldn't be more . . .'

'extremely '

'What could be more .

.?/ '


with adj : Он уж на что умен .

Всю задачу решил .

He's clever as can be . Какой пейзаж !

He solved the whole problem .

Уж на что красиво!

What scenery !

What could be more beautiful?

w. Compar.: Погода скверная .

На что хуже.

The weather is vile . w . Vb .:

Вот рубашки чистенькие .

Now ,

It couldn't be worse . Уж я на что стирал .

there are some nice clean shirts .

w . Noun : Hе даст .

I washed them like

all hell .

На что уж жмот .

He won't give us any. He's an awful tightwad . w . Gen. Adj . + Noun : Его отец был старик уж на что большого разума. His father was an old man of enormous intelligence. a

2. + Adj . , long or short


+ Adj . , Compar.

+ но

+ Vb. + Noun


+ Gen of ( Adj . +) Noun

a •

• И

НО И When the statement made in one clause is contrasted with the statement made in the other, the second clause is usually introduced by some conjunction , such as а , и , но , а и , ог но и with the meaning of ' but ' , ' but even . '

Frequently the result is

a concessive sentence of the type ' ... was indeed exceedingly . one


.' .

The particle combination (на ,

что ,

уж на что ,

. but even that

на что уж) regularly

precedes the word it applies to. Конструкторы у нас на что умны , а и те еще не решили задачу. The designers at our place are extremely clever, but even they haven't yet solved the problem . На что уж черное лицо было у Павла, но и оно теперь покраснело . ( Макаренко) Pavel had an extremely dark face , but even that now turned red. Даже наш


на что был ленив ,

и тот почти поголовно поднялся .

(Салтыков) Even our district, dreadfully inactive though it was --even ours rose almost to a man ...

up 1

Мы уж на что перебиваемся , а и нам шесть рублей в пять месяцев, что у нас прожила, задолжала .


We live dreadfully poorly , but in the five months she lived with us she came to owe even us six rubles .

3. +


+ prep. + Noun + adj . + Noun

. . . + и тот / та/то/те


A somewhat similar concessive sentence of the type 'Even in the case of the .... even that one ...' is made with noun phrases. Here the particle combination (на что, уж на что, на что уж) may either precede or follow the words it applies to. Уж на что баба-и та от него всю жизнь худого слова не слыхала ... (Горбунов) Even his wife - even she in all her life never heard an ill word from him ...

У мужиков на что, и то эта самая мода завелась. (Л. Толстой) Even among the peasants this same fashion has taken hold. (Lit.: Even among the peasants, even there this same fashion has taken hold . ) НА.

(Prefix) : не + на- Verb (-ся) ( + на) Verbs used in this construction usually refer to some attitude or emotion. They are found most often in the Prf Pres-Fut form; less commonly, in the PrfPast. Most, though not all , of these verbs are reflexives in -ся.

Mope красиво. Не нагляжусь (на него). The sea is beautiful . I never can get tired of looking at it. Какой он чудак! Не надивлюсь на него. What a strange fellow he is! I can't stop wondering at him. Он так ее любит, не налюбится на нее. He loves her so, he is lost in admiration of her. То не везло ему, а теперь прямо не нарадуются. At that time he wasn't having any luck, but now they just dote on him. (Lit.: can't be glad enough about him / couldn't be more pleased with him. ) HA-

(Prefix): WITH ADVERBS 1. The prefix на- is sometimes used with adverbs as an intensifier. This наis related to the prefix наи-.

набольно наскоро

'exceedingly painfully' 'extremely fast'

2. Adverbs prefixed with на- are often used to make a Doubled -Word Construction :

больно-наобольно строго-настрого HABEPHO

'excruciatingly' 'most strictly'

(Used parenthetically)

'... , I should think , ...'

(Cf по- моему, used similarly.)

Ну что мне говорите когда я лучше вас знаю, наверно, где есть рыба а где нету. Now what stuff are you trying to tell me, when I should think I know better than you do where there are fish and where there aren't.


(popular speech)

for ever' for good', ' = навсегда,' НАВРОДЕ

= вроде,


'sort of

'I guess'


'more or less'

'I suppose'


-А я слышал, будто в снохи берешь ... Степана Астахова Аксиню. - Я? От живого мужа ... Да ты что ж, Платоныч, навроде смеешься ? А? (-Шолохов ) -But I've been hearing as how you're getting a daughter-in-law ... Stepan Astakhov's Aksinya. -I'm what? From her husband while he's alive? ... Why, what are you saying, Platonych? I suppose you're joking? Right?


НАВРОДЬ+ Gen. (prep. ) (popular speech) 'like' = вроде ... безразлично. Гнедой или вороней --все равно. Пристрелить. С жеребёнком мы навродь цыганев. (-Шолохов) ... it makes no difference . Bay or black, it's all the same. Shoot it . With the foal, we're going to do like the gypsies. Эту палку называет своей "тросточкой." Вернее, навродь дубины. He calls this stick his "cane". Actually, it's more like a club . НАДО - with Acc . OR Gen. When надо is used as a predicate and takes an object, the object may be in either the Accusative or the Genitive. The Genitive is more characteristic of the colloquial language, though both cases are accepted standard usage. The same is true of нужно. Теперь нам надо времени (OR время) . What we need now is time.

НАДО - asadv. (popular speech) = надо быть, должно быть. See НАДО БЫТЬ.

' probably'

' evidently'

' I guess'

' apparently'

'It must be that ...'

Вечеринка там надо в семь часов начинается, да? The party must be starting at seven o'clock, right? Там на дворе, надо будет ветер разбрасывать бельё. In the yard there the wind will undoubtedly throw the washing all over. НАДО

with Nom . subject , + Inf(substandard)

Often incorrectly substituted for должен/должна/должны when referring to people . Cf. НУЖЕН, used similarly in substandard speech. Я за ними надо ехать. I am to go and get them.



1. ' One/ I/We/etc. really must/certainly ought to ...' Прекрасный день! Надо бы устроить поездку какую. It's a beautiful day! We'll certainly have to get up some kind of an outing . Надо бы зайти к ним, да сейчас некогда. Зайдем после. We really must stop in to see them, but we don't have time right now. Later on we will. 2. (Referring to the future:) 'should', 'ought' Commonly standing first in its sentence. Надо бы костыли сделать, -сказал Ветрин, но Светлов не обратил внимания на его слова. (-Забелин) "We ought to make crutches, "said Vetrin, but Svetlov paid no attention to what he said. Надо бы сочинить какой-нибудь фокус . Покажем новому обитателю Кунцово все его многочисленные красоты. (-Тургенев) We ought to cook up some sort of scheme. We'll show the new resident of Kuntsovo all its many beauties.


Надо бы и с Любовью Гордеевной проститься ... Что ж , ведь в одном доме жили ... (-А. Н. Островский) I ought to say goodbye to Lyubov Gordeyevna too . After all, we've lived in the same house ... 3. (Referring to the past:) 'should have' Observe that in suggestions of what should have been done in the past, the надо бы is often not first in the sentence. жаль! Вам, хоть не всю сумму, а все-таки что-нибудь получить надо бы по этому векселю. (-А.Н. Островский) A pity! Even if you didn't get the whole amount, still you should have gotten something on that bill. -Незадача, братец, дьявольская незадача! Выход нехорош был, вернуться 6 надо: заяц дорогу перебежал, какая уж тут охота! Что ни приложусь, паф! ... либо пудель, либо осечка. (-А.Н. Островский) -Rotten luck, my dear fellow, devilish rotten luck ! I got off to a bad start, and I should have come home: a hare ran across the road. What a time I had! Every time I took aim, bing! ... either my shot went wide, or the gun misfired. НАДО БЫЛО + Inf 1.

Basically, надо было simply refers to necessity in the past :. Present: На небе черные тучи. Надо ждать дождя. There are heavy black clouds in the sky. We must expect rain. Past: На небе были черные тучи. Надо было ждать дождя. There were heavy black clouds in the sky. Rain was to be expected.


BUT note that the past form надо было is also used to refer to things in the past that in fact did not take place, but are now regarded as desirable or advisable. Надо было is used in this way either with or without бы . (See also under БЫ: #I.E.2 .) Дома его не застали. Нам бы надо было позвонить ему по телефону. (OR simply: Надо было позвонить ему по телефону.) We didn't find him at home. We ought to have called him on the phone.

Надо было раньше об этом думать. You should have thought about that before.

НАДО БЫТЬ (-as parenthetical adverb) = должно быть

'probably' 'It looks as if ...'

(popular speech & regional) 'evidently' ' apparently'

'very likely' '... must be ...’

Его тут нету! Перелез , надо быть, через забор. He's gone! He must have climbed over the fence.

Она уже легла спать, и, надо быть, заснула. She had already gone to bed , and, presumably, fallen asleep. НАДО БЫТЬ

+ Dat


'evidently there will be ...'

(See БЫТЬ # 5 : быть + Dat.)

Посмотри на небо! Надо быть буре . Take a look at that sky! There's sure to be a storm.

'presumably' '... must have ...'



'no doubt'

' I suppose'

'It looks as if

'It looks as though'

Пожалуй, будет и мне удача в моей работе. Надо думать, шоссейную дорогу из области к себе мы в этом году закончим. (-Паустовский) I think I'm going to succeed at what I'm doing. It looks as though we'll get the paved road from the regional capital to our village finished this year.


(popular speech) (+ Dat)


Used in exclamations of amazement at something not previously expected: Ведь надо же было ему поехать по старой дороге!, What ever possessed him to go by way ofthe old road! Надо же было им вернуться! Well , of all things! For some reason they've come back!

Надо же, какая нелепость! Honestly, what ridiculous drivel! Как она жалуется! Надо же так! How she does complain! It's really something!



Как надо было домой писать? What was the use of writing home?


КАК НЕ НАДО + Comparative adverb (popular speech)

= как нельзя

'couldn't be more ...'

'as .... as you could want'


For examples, see under KAK, p 183.





(popular speech) (COMMON)

'Cut that out!'

'Stop it!'

'Knock it off!'



'couldn't be better'



Каникулы хоть куда! Погода что надо с неделю кряду. A marvellous vacation! The weather has been great for about a week straight.


(dialectal variants)

= надо


(Obsolete in literary usage, but still found in popular speech)

= надо, необходимо



(dialectal: Northern)

= надо, необходимо





'a while ago'


= найти. Similarly, пайсти = пойти.

НАЙТИ: Used in scornful and sarcastic assertions with the meaning that whatever is mentioned is far from being what it was supposed to be and is thoroughly undesirable. 'Afine ... that is!

What a swell ... !'

'Huh, some ... !'

' ... really picked a great ...'

1. Prf Past of найти + interrog. pron or adv + Inf Нашли чем хвастаться! Huh, a lot they have to brag about! Нашел когда красить лестницу! Boy, what a great time he picked to paint the stairs! Нашла где хранить деньги! A fine place to keep her money in that is! 2. (тоже + ) PrfPast of найти(сь) + noun (See also under TОЖЕ) Тоже философ нашелся! Huh , some philosopher! Тоже герой нашелся! So what makes him a hero?/Oh sure, that makes him a hero! Note : Derived from this construction is the set phrase Нашел (or нашли) дурака! which has become an expression of blunt refusal: 'Not on your life!, 'Nothing doing!' 'Me? Forget it!' . The literal sense is 'You think you succeeded in finding a fool . Well, you haven't!' Other verbs - e.g. вздумать 'take it into one's head to ...', выбрать 'choose , pick out', выдумать 'think up' , выискать(ся) 'find, hunt up' , задаться ' occur , turn up', отыскать(ся) 'find, hunt up', 'be found' - are used to make up similar ironic expressions, often introduced by тоже ог вот ог ну и, but the one most often used is найти(сь).

НАКОНЕЦ Often in expressions of impatience and vexation where ' at last' or 'finally' are not good translations . Frequently last in its sentence . Often after an Imperative , though not necessarily. Ольга (нетерпеливо): Андрей, иди же, наконец! (-Чехов) Olga (impatiently) : Andrei, will you please hurry up and come! Варя (сердито): Да уходите же, наконец! (-Чехов) Varya (angrily): Will you just go away, for heaven's sake!


-Да стойте, наконец! Все равно догоню, чудак! -крикнул ему Бабаев. (-Сергеев-Ценский) "Stop, dammit! I'll catch up with you anyway, you nut"! Babayev shouted at him. -Прикажите мне дать воды! Ну, я вас прошу, наконец. (-А.Н. Островский) -Tell him to give me some water! Please do it, will you? Все томились одним неотвязным ... вопросом: когда же, наконец, домой, (-Вересаев) Everyone was oppressed by one obsessive question: Just when, in Heaven's name,are we going home? [during long family quarrel:] -Это уж гадко, наконец! Это безнравственно! (-А.Н. Островский) That does it! That's revolting! It's immoral!



- даже.


'the other day'



For other dialectal variants, see under ОНОМЕДНИ .

НАПРИМЕР 'indeed'


'really' 'honestly'

'I assure you' 'believe me'

'to be sure'

Originally so used under the influence of French par exemple, which can have this sense also. A nineteenth century expression, but still heard. Фамусов:

Сергей Сергеич, к нам сюда-с,


Прошу покорно, здесь теплее; Прозябли вы, согреем вас; Отдушничек отвернем поскорее. Зачем же лазить, например,



Самим! Мне совестно, как честный офицер. (-Грибоедов) Sergei Sergeyich, come in here , sir , I humbly pray you; it's warmer here; You're chilled through , we'll get you warmed up; We'll open the vent right away. Why should you climb up there yourself, Upon my word! -I'm embarassed, as an upright officer.

-Этого я еще наверно не знаю, и признаюсь, ждал тебя, чтоб с тобой посоветоваться. Ну на каком, например, основании я буду ее у себя держать? -Э, чего тут, да хоть в виде служанки. (-Достоевский) -"That I don't know yet for certain, and the fact is, I've been waiting for you so as to get your advice. Now, on what footing, really, am I going to keep her with me?" -"Huh , what's the problem? Why, as a servant, for instance.

Видите ли: хоть мне и было всё равно, но ведь боль-то я, например, чувствовал. (-Достоевский) Do you see, although I didn't care about anything, nevertheless I could indeed feel pain.



-Это давно вам разъяснили. -Что разъяснили? Я ничего не знаю например. -They told you all about this a long time ago. -What do you mean, told me all about this? I don't know a thing about it, I assure you .


Superl . самый настоящий

(popular speech)

The meaning of настоящий, ' a real....', 'a regular ...', 'an absolute ...' (-- , for that matter, its other meaning 'the present' --) would seem to make it logically impossible to form a Comparative or Superlative of this word. However, in the spoken language a Superlative самый настоящий is used to give an added expression of vehemence: Вот так дела! Нечего сказать! Ну, это безобразие самое настоящее, Товарищ Безмозгин. A fine mess, I must say! Well , this is a most absolutely outrageous business, Comrade Bezmozgin. Там у них когда составляют месячный доклад, каждый с ума сходит, и причём самым настоящим образом. At their place when they're compiling the monthly report everyone is going crazy, and boy, they really do.


(popular speech)




(dialectal: Northern)

= надо, необходимо

НАШТО (-spelling sometimes used in representations of popular speech in printed works offiction) 'as ... as can be'. 'exceedingly' = на что/уж на что/на что уж For examples of usage, see under НА ЧТО , p 225 .


(As reply) (regional) (Often lengthened in pronunciation: He- e!)

= Нет. -Куда это он завтра? В Ленинград? -Не! В Архангельск. -Where is it that he's going tomorrow? To Leningrad? -No, it's Archangel.

-Бумаги нашлись там, -Не- е! Черт их знает, куда делись. -Did those papers turn up there? -No! The devil only knows where they got to.


forming opposites as well as negating. In Russian as in English, it is often only a very short step from negating a word to asserting its opposite : for example , неприятный means not merely 'not pleasant', but in fact means 'disagreeable' , just as unpleasant does in English . Russian не рекомендуется, like


English is not recommended, in fact means 'is advised against', 'is to be discouraged' . He лбл , English 'I don't like, ' frequently means 'I dislike'. In spite of the close similarity in this respect between the two languages in a great many cases, a few Russian negative expressions come as a surprise to the speaker of English, such as нe велеть in the meaning of 'forbid' and He crать when it amounts to meaning 'cease':

Пленным не велят разговаривать. The prisoners are not allowed to talk.

Спить в библиотеке не велено. Sleeping in the library is forbidden. Няня! Не видишь, что ребенок выбежал на солнышко! Уведи его в холодок, напечет ему головку- будет болеть, тошно сделается, кушать не станет. (Гончаров) Nurse! Don't you see the child has run out in the sun! Take him away in the shade. If he gets his head overheated, he'll be sick, he'll get nauseated, he'll quit eating.


In Replies Containing Repetitions Used when brushing aside questions or objections and refusing to listen to any further talk. Frequently some contrasting expression follows, in which the speaker insists on what he wants.

'No ....

'Never mind that stuffabout ...,'

'Don't give me that " ..." stuff, ...'

-Карандашей надо. -А на что? -Не "на что", а отдавайте! -I need some pencils. -What for? -Don't give me that stuff about "what for?”, just hand over the pencils!

-Э, полно! Я ведь изнурён. -Да что ты! Не изнурён, а тяни, я тебе говорю. -Hey, let's stop! I'm really exhausted. -What do you mean? Never mind that stuff about being exhausted. Keep pulling, I tell you!


1. In Doubled -Word Constructions: ..., не ... There is a sizable family of doubled-word constructions characterized by a нe between the words ofthe doublet-pair: " ... нe ..." a.

The doubled word can be any part of speech that carries a major portion of meaning in itself: ordinarily it is a noun, verb, adjective , or adverb, but not a pronoun , conjunction, preposition or particle.


The doubled word is the SAME in grammatical form both times.


The doubled word construction is often, though not necessarily, followed by a contrasting conjunction: most frequently a but also однако and others. Whenever there are two clauses, the "... He ..." construction is in the first clause.


Basically, when a speaker uses the doubled-word construction " ... He ...", he is in some way questioning the applicability of the idea expressed by the doubled word.

There are three distinct uses of this construction: ( 1) The " ... нe ..." construction may express a cautious and dubious negation of the doubled word, lacking in certainty or conviction.



Either (a ) The speaker does not know whether the doubled word is the right word to use in describing the situation , and is reluctant to use it ,

or (b) The speaker knows that the doubled word does not really fit the situation , but cannot think of a word that is more exact . > • ' not exactly 'I wouldn't say · 'I don't know that it's .

' not really

' I wouldn't call it exactly

' not quite . . or no . ·

' may or may not be •

or not '

' not necessarily •

with short adj : Пьян не пьян , а как - то странно вёл себя . (COMMON ) with long adj :

I don't say he was drunk , but he was acting rather oddly . Краденые не краденые , однако откуда взялись или у кого купил , он объясниться не мог . I don't know that they were stolen , but he couldn't explain where they came from or whom he bought them of.

with noun :

- промолвил Панталей Еремейч . - Жена не жена , Вот , рекомендую , — а почитай что жена.

( Тургенев)

"Here , I'll introduce you , " said Pantalei Eremeich.

"She's not

exactly my wife , but she practically is . " Не знаю , что это . Ягоды не ягоды , а фрукты какие- то . I don't know what those are .

They're not exactly berries , but

but they're fruit of some kind. with

verb :

Парням поверили не поверили , а одно было точно : что- то там нечисто.

(RARE ) They didn't really believe what the fellows said , but one thing was certain : there was something fishy going on there. Уехали неделю тому назад . Доедут не доедут до конца месяца . They left a week ago .

There's no telling whether they'll get

there before the end of the month . " 1 не construction with verbs may convey that the action (2) The " is performed only slightly or partially or poorly , that there is something vague and indefinite about the way it is done , that the way it is done does not really come up to the full meaning of the word. Паршивые дрова.

Сыры .

It's lousy firewood .

Горят не горят .

It's damp . (OR :

It burns very poorly.

It will hardly burn at all . )

Вы- то чистите не чистите этого коридора .

You people are just sort of half cleaning that hallway .


А вот такой " юрист "

вспашет тебе не вспашет , поцарапает почву--

ну , и жди урожая с этого поля !

But a


scratch at it.

( Овечкин)

like him won't really plow up the

soil , he'll

Just wait for the crop that comes from that field!

На собрании забьется в дальний угол , насупится : и

спит не

спит ,


слушает не слушает . At


meeting he'll get way back in a

remote corner

and he'll

scowl , and he sort of half sleeps and half listens . construction may be used in the first clause of


(3) The "

a two-clause sentence with the meaning that whatever is referred to in the first clause is a matter of indifference and has no effect on what is referred to in the second clause . with verbs :


Спал не спал , а вставай .

Whether you've slept or not , get up . Придут не придут они , поехали ! Whether they're coming or not , let's go!

Воля ваша, Иван Петрович, гневайтесь не гневайтесь,


больше не намерен. Suit yourself,

Ivan Petrovich , be angry if you like ,

but I I

don't intend to do any more of that .

Крутись не крутись , а всё равно эту работу закончишь . Squirm all you like , but you're going to finish this job. with nouns : Правила не правила , ему хоть бы что . Rules or no rules , he couldn't care less .

Гроза не гроза, пойду. Storm or no storm , I'm going .

HE : 2. IN










construction , with its basic meaning of questioning the

applicability of a word , lends itself very easily to use in replies containing repetitions :



a/нO ...

хоть не

9 a/нo ...

A word referring to something that the first speaker has

expressed some

doubt about is taken up by the second speaker and doubled , with He , and the second speaker's answer then follows , and expressing



an inserted

introduced by an a or a нo

speaker's desire to dispel the doubt ,

conciliatory partial concession and asserting a reduced claim.

making a


-Дело в шляпе .

Я всех здешних шишек знаю.

-Неужели всех? -Всех не всех , а порядочно знаю как здесь и что . -It's in the bag .

I know all the bigshots here .

-Really? All of them? -Whether it's all of them or not , I know pretty well what's what around here .

дел ведь сразу не переделаешь.


-Ну всех , хоть не всех, а всё же много . -After all , you can't get everything done all at once .

-Well , maybe not all , but a lot . -Хоть римский огурец велик , нет спору в том Ведь с гору , кажется , ты так сказал о нём? . . . -Гора хоть не гора , но , право , будет с дом .

( Крылов )

-Even though the Roman cucumber is big, and there's no doubt of that , About the size of a hill , I think--Isn't that what you said about it? -Well, maybe

not a hill , but certainly it would be about the size of a

house . b. Inf

He + Pres / Past of SAME verb + a/да/но . . .

This pattern may be regarded as a special case of # 1 : applies only to verbs. that

make a

не .

This ".

concession ,



a special case that

" construction is used in sentences in form ,

followed by

the positive

assertion of some reservation or stipulation: . . . .' ' As for . . . - ing , . . . do/does /did not ( . . . ) , but . . . 'I certainly don't . . ., but I do indeed . . .'

'It's true •

· didn't . ·

-Там был?

but ... certainly did


Понимал , что они там делали ?

-Понимать не понимал , но описывать могу. -You

were there? Did you understand what those people were

doing there? -I must say I didn't understand it , but I can describe it.





(,a • • .) (RARE )

- To He

The doubled word is the SAME in grammatical form both times . The strengthening particle

To is in practice not often used in this con-

struction . The

contrasting clause introduced by a may be omitted , but

actually is

nearly always there .

" The


is quite

similar in meaning to # 1 :





struction is used in replies that concede that the preceding remark has something


11 to it , but deny that it is exactly the essential point .

( Cf also


§1 ( 1 ) , p 234. )

'Well , I don't know that it's .

but ..·

'Well now, I wouldn't say . . ., but ...' 'It's not so much (a matter of)

.. it's ...'

'Well, maybe not exactly ..... but anyway -А ты нешто хочешь бросить курение ? —Бросить не бросить , а чтобы сберегать деньги . -And do you really mean to say you want to give up smoking? -It's not whether to give it up or not , what I want is to save money . -Неправильно работали .

Указания получили ...

-Да уж указания , не указания , а это не дело , да и только ! -They did the job wrong. They were given instructions . . . -The instructions aren't the point.

This is no way to do things , and that's

all there is to it! d.

не или не ли не

ли не Another use , only a little different from the above , is the following: The

doubled word is always the SAME in grammatical form

both times .

The doubled word is usually repeated in the same grammatical form had in the other speaker's remark, but

as it

Infinitives , inflected verb-forms , and

adverbial forms used as predicates are sometimes changed into Imperatives of corresponding verbs . ( 1 ) WITHOUT CHANGE OF FORM : -Это болезнь , иначе нельзя объяснить , - сказал штабротмистр . -Уж там болезнь , не болезнь , а не попадайся он мне на глаза - - убью! кровожадно прокричал Денисов .

(Л. Толстой)

-"It's an illness , it can't be accounted for any other way , " said the staff cavalry- captain .

-I don't care if it's an illness or not , he'd better keep out of my sight or I'll kill him!" shouted Denisov ferociously .

-Ты чего пришел? -Зашел погутарить .


-Помешал не помешал , а садись , не выгонять же тебя . ( Шолохов) -Why did you come? -I stopped by to have a talk.

Have I inconvenienced you?

-Inconvenienced or not , sit down . I'm certainly not going to run you out.



-Чай , стыдно, -Стыдись не стыдись , а коли назвался груздём , так полезай в кузов . -l imagine it was embarassing? -Embarassed or not , one can't back out at a time like that .

-А темноты боюсь . . . -Да бойся не бойся , все равно надо пойти туда . -But I'm afraid of the dark. . . -Afraid or not , all the same we've got to go there .




Similary, the "


construction is used in replies that convey

a somewhat scornful attitude toward what has just been said , dismissing it as unimportant , not a serious matter, not worth discussing . —Совещание будет затягиваться . Вы хорошо знаете его , он любит спорить . —Что спорить , не спорить ? Надо так .

Другого выхода нет .

-The meeting is going to drag out .

You know perfectly well how he is :

he likes to argue . -What does it matter whether anyone argues or not? It has to be done this way.

-Подожди !

We have no choice .

Несколько гвоздей уронил .

-Уронил не уронил . —Wait a minute !

У нас много их есть . I dropped a couple of nails .

-Who cares if you did or not ?

HE :

We've got plenty of them .

Nom . + HE B + Acc of SAME noun ( --INANIMATES ONLY ) Used to designate something which is felt to have lost all its inherent meaning .

just isn't— ' The

-just doesn't seem like a real . just doesn't seem the same any more . '

Среди незнакомцев чай не в чай.

It's hard to be at ease among strangers. ( Lit.:

Among strangers tea just doesn't seem like tea .)

Умерла сестра , и жизнь ей стала не в жизнь .

Her sister died , and life just didn't seem the same to her any more . Без него и праздник не в праздник. Without him it doesn't seem like a real holiday.


НЕ :

( и)


и не . Conveys


something is



and yet at the same time is

not ; that

something is superficially so but in its true and essential meaning is not . Он верил и не верил этому слуху. He believed this rumor, and at the same time he didn't either. OR:

He half believed this rumor .

Она была похожа и не похожа на него. She resembled him and yet she didn't .

НЕ ТАК, ЧТОБЫ ( often followed by some word meaning ' verу ’ :

очень , больно , шибко ,

крепко, etc) (Cf не то что /чтобы , below . )

' not so very ·

'I wouldn't actually say . •

' not really too . •

'not such an awful lot'

' not all that . . . -Что , встать можешь ?

Или слишком больно?

-Нет , не так чтобы очень болит. -What do you think, can you get up?

Or is it too sore?

-No, it doesn't really hurt an awful lot .

Смелее !

Экзамены не так чтобы жутко тяжелы.

Don't let it get you down ! The exams aren't really all that dreadfully hard .


(DIFFERENT : Hет (того) чтобы .

See below . )

НЕ ТО ЧТОБЫ The combination не то что ( ог чтобы) always stands directly before the word or phrase it applies to. It can be applied to a very wide variety of forms :


( long or short form ) , Verb (ANY form) , Noun (Nom) , Noun (Genitive of description) , some pronouns ,

prepositional phrase, adverbial phrase , etc.


that in this construction что and чтобы are interchangeable , the -бы оf чтобы simply adding a further note of indefiniteness , with the result that не то чтобы

may be

followed by a

Past or


in ANY form:

Ipf or Prf personal forms as well as

Infinitive, OR by an adjective or a noun .

There are several meanings : 1. Indicating that the immediately following word is close , but not quite the word for what is being described .


Usually a contrasting phrase follows , introduced

by a or нo and giving the word that the speaker feels is more suitable . In this meaning, the construction is often used IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS.


Compare нe так чтобы , above , which is somewhat similar.

' not exactly

. (, but . . .)' • ( , but . . . )'

' not really

' not what you'd call

·. (, but . . . )'

'It wasn't that it was ... ( , but . . . ) ' 'I wouldn't say it's .. · (, but • • .)'

Он был не то что груб , а , правда, неприветлив. He was not exactly rude , but he certainly was ungracious . Вид у него был не то чтоб наглый , а настойчивый . His manner was not what one would call brazen, but it was aggressive .

Не то чтоб обиделся , а уж очень удивился . It wasn't that he was offended , but he was

indeed very

much surprised.

-Чай , ненавистным находишь?

-Не то чтобы ненавижу , а мне не нравится . -I imagine you find it detestable ? -I wouldn't say I hate it , but I do dislike it . -Что ж , богато жили?

-Не то что богачи , а жили справно . -And did they live on a grand scale?

-I wouldn't call them rich people , but they lived comfortably. 2. Regularly followed by a contrasting phrase introduced by a or Ho .

' not merely .

' not only ..., but . . .'

but in fact . . .'

let alone ...'

., not to speak of . . .'

Очень любезны они. Тяжелый ящик не то что в дом , а в квартиру внесли . They're very obliging .

They carried that heavy box not only into the

building, but into the apartment . Я бы мог съесть не то что одну булочку , а их все . As for me , I could eat up all the buns , let alone one of them.

3. ' not like' Так- то люди работали , а не то что как теперь . That's the way people did their work , and not the way it is nowadays . Какие высокие деревья !

What tall trees !


Совсем не то что у нас дома .

Not at all like the ones we have at home.

(pop. sp . )

- небось.

НЕБОСЬ 1. Of probabilities & in conjectures .


' very likely ' , ' probably ' ; ' I imagine ' , ' I suppose ' , ' must ' , ' must be ' , ' must have '


Они, небось, будут спрашивать его об этом. Very likely, they will ask him about that. OR: They are very likely to ask him about that. Они, небось, вернутся в пятницу. Iimagine they'll be back Friday. Небось, взяли с собой. They must have taken it with them.

2. In expressions of disbelief. (LESS COMMON) = разве: 'Surely you don't mean to say ...' 'Are you going to try to tell me ...?" 'I suppose you're going to claim that ...' А1 А история, небось, совсем неважна? And are you going to try to tell me that history is totally unimportant?

3. In pointing out something thought of as obvious and well-known. (LESS COMMON) ' Naturally, ... '


'after all'

'to be sure'

Надо найти новую работу. Питаться воздухом, небось, нельзя. I've got to find a newjob. One can'tjust live on air, after all. Пригласили, и он, небось, не отказался. They invited him, and naturally he did not refuse. 4. In Replies Containing Repetitions (LESS COMMON ) You're darned right it's ...'

"You better believe ...'

Who wouldn't ...?" '

-Испугались, да? -Небось, испугаешься там.

-You were scared , right? -You're darned right you'll be scared there. HEKÁK See НИКАК,


' it seems',





НЕМЕДЛЯ (colloquial) = немедленно,

'at once,'

Директор сказал, чтобы ты немедля в Кубовку ехал. (-Полторацкий) The director said that you were to drive immediately to Kubovka. -6.53. Да. Спасибо. Кто? Вы, Яков Львович? Пожалуйте к нам. Нет, сейчас, немедля. (-Горький) -6-53 . Yes . Thank you . Who? Is that you, Yakov Lvovich? Come and see us. No, right now, right away.

Командиром отряда был назначен Гудович. Он немедля приступил к делу. (-В. Попов) Gudovich was appointed commander of the detachment . He went to work at once.

НЕРОВЕН ЧАС 'like as not'

(pop. sр. ) 'before you know it'


Refers to something undesirable that the speaker is afraid might happen. .... Слышу -гомонят где-то на проулке. Семка, думаю, выйду, гляну, неровен час, кто услышит. (Шолохов) I heard people talking somewhere out in the alley. I thought, "I guess I'd better go out and take a look. Before you know it someone will hear. "



= нести


= нет,

'there isn't any ...,'

'there is no ...'

-Obsolete. Sometimes used for humorous effect in the present-day language. НЕСЬ See under НИСЬ.

HET Sometimes used to show that the sentence it introduces represents a return to a previous line ofthought , or to call attention to the sentence it introduces as a particular idea distinct from other ideas about the same situation. 'But what I want to know is …..'

'No , (what I mean is ...)'

-Следующее совещание будет в среду. -Нет, с кем мы будем совещаться? -The next conference will be on Wednesday. -But what I want to know is with whom we'll be having the conference.

НЕТ ДА НЕТ! НЕТ И НЕТ! НЕТ КАК НЕТ! 'Absolutely no!', 'I said No and I mean it!'


+ Inf(COMMON) + Past (LESS COMMON) + any element used as a predicate (LESS COMMON)

Expresses exasperation, from the idea that what the speaker desires or needs and feels he could naturally expect is exactly what is not being done, and that it is typical of the person spoken ofto fail to do it. 'He/They/etc. just won't/wouldn't ... ' 'Ifthere's one thing he won't do, it's ...' With him there's no' '

'But no, of course he/they/etc won't ...' The last thing he'd do is ... ' ' Youjust can't get him to ... '

Нет чтобы подождать! Theyjust wouldn't wait a minute, darn them!

Нет чтобы подумали! The last thing they'd do is use their heads! Нет того чтобы осторожно! You just can't get him to do it carefully! Нет того чтоб извиниться, грубый такой! The last thing he'd do is apologize, a roughneck like him!


In the present-day language, this construction is practically always used to express condemnation for a fault. An unusual example of the same construction being used to express praise for a good quality is found in Война и мир , I , 1 , xiv:. -Экое золото у меня этот Митенька - прибавил граф улыбаясь ... Нет того , чтобы нельзя. Я же этого терпеть не могу. Все можно. What a gem that Mitenka of mine is, the Count added with a smile ... With him there's no such thing as "impossible". I simply can't abide being told that. Everything's possible. НЕТ, НЕТ (ДА) И + PrfPres (USUALLY) + IpfPast (LESS COMMONLY)

+ PrfImp. (LESS COMMONLY) + IpfPres (VERY RARELY) 'everyonce in a while' 'every now and then'

'everyso often'

'from time to time'

'now and again'

Он нет, нет да и упомянет об этом. Every so often he would mention that. (.i.e . , in the past) OR: Every so often he'll mention that. (-i.e. , now) Он нет, нет и упоминал об этом. Everyso often he would mention that. Ты нет, нет да и подумай об этом. Think about it once in a while. Я нет, нет да и думаю обэтом. Every once in a while I think about it.

HETO (regional) 1.


2. ?? Apparently 'I think ...', 'I guess ...' Терпел он, терпел, да и говорит: -Пойду, нето, я к дедку Ефиму жить. А мачехе что? (-Бажов) He put up with it and put up with it, and then he said, "I guess I'll go to grandad Efim's to live . " And what did his step- mother care?

НЕУЖ (regional) = неужели.

НЕУЖЕЛИ: неужели vs. разве 1.

Both неужели and разве can be placed at the beginning of a question to indicate that the speaker believes that what is expressed in the question is NOT the case . Разве они еще не отправились? Неужели они еще не отправились? They really haven't started out yet? (The speaker does not believe they have . )

When they are used in this way to introduce expressions of doubt and disbelief, most dictionaries treat неужели and разве as synonyms. There is, however, often a slight difference : Разве carries more conviction ;, the speaker is almost sure that whatever he is asking about is not the case . Неужели conveys more doubt and uncertainty; often there is an implication that the speaker is less sure, but he would prefer that what he asked were not the case , e.g.:


Неужели они уехали? Don't tell me they've left? (The speaker is not sure whether they have left, but hopes they have not.) 2. Разве has a wider range of uses than неужели. For other uses, see under • РАЗВЕ .

НЕУЖТО (pop. sp .) = неужели.

НЕХАЙ (dialectal : Southern) = пусть/пускай 'let him ...', 'let them ...' Нехай побудут. ( = Literary Standard: Пусть останутся.) Let'em stick around.

НЕЧА + Inf ( regional) = нечего/незачем + Inf: 'It's no use to ...' ' There's no need to ...'

There's no point in ...-ing' НЕЧЕГО

--In Replies Containing Repetitions НЕЧЕГО ТАМ

ДА НЕЧЕГО The particle or particle-phrase always precedes the repetition. The repetition is regularly a direct quotation, without any conversions of grammatical forms. Expresses blunt and rude objection strongly indicating displeasure, disagreement and readiness to argue.

'... nothing!

There's no ... about it!'

'Don't give me that stuff about ...!'

-Согласитесь, голубчик,что ... -Нечего голубчик! Я совсем не согласен! -You must agree, my dear fellow, that ... -"My dear fellow" nothing! I don't agree at all! •Правда я это сказал, но всё-таки ... -Нечего там "но все-таки"! Вы обещали. -It's true I said that, but nevertheless ... -There's no "but nevertheless" about it! You promised. НЕЧЕГО СКАЗАТЬ See under CКАЗАТЬ.

CЕ НИЧЕГО СЕБЕ , # 3 , p 321 . НЕЧТО 1.



Pronounced the same , but spelled нешто and used as a particle in popular speech : See under НЕШТО .

НЕЧТО (pop. sp .) (NOT COMMON) 'certainly'

'by all means'

'just as you said'


НЕЧТО (popular speech) (Also spelled нешт6 ) 1.


'of course',

'not otherwise'


(as reply)

That's all right', '

'It doesn't make any difference',

'So what?

-Вид необыкновенный! Красота! Душа радуется. -Нешто! -Восторг! А ты "нешто "! (-А.Н. Островский) -A remarkable view! Lovely! One's soul rejoices. -So what? -Rapture! And you say "So what?"! -Да может быть вода-то хорошая? -спросил я. -Нешто: лучше морской,-ответил один. (-Гончаров) -"And the water is good, maybe?" I asked. -"It's not too bad. It's better than seawater," one of them answered. Ну, еще нешто, кабы один, а то у меня жена да четверо ребятишек. (.А.Н . Островский) .... Well , it would be all right if I was single, but I've got a wife and four kids.

НЕШТО (pop. sp. ) 1. (as particle , in question) = разве/неужели: 'Do you really mean to say ...?'

'Do you seriously think ...?'

'Don't tell me ...!

Нешто я целый день с этими буду возиться? Do you think I'm going to fuss with these all day?

Да нешто не посмеет? Дожидайся! You think he won't dare? Don't bet onit! 2.

(as cnj.) = если только/разве только/разве что 'unless'


Не догоним их, нешто нас не подождут. We won'tbe able to catch up with them, unless they wait for us. Куда я иду? Да куда пойти нешто домой? Where am I going? Why, where would I be going, if not home?

3. (as particle) = наверно/кажется/пожалуй : I guess' -Где он? -Нешто вышел в сени, а то все тут ходил. (Л. Толстой) -Where is he? -I guess he went out in the hall , because he's been walking around in here all the time. НЕШТО НЕЖТО

(dialectal: various)


(dialectal: Southern)

The spelling нешто is used in fiction, drama, and reportage when нечто, 'something', is not what is meant. Historically, however, нешто is the same thing аѕ нечто, and the oldest meaning is ' something' . The formation is on the same pattern as нéкто ' someone' , and некоторый, ' some' . Comparison of examples suggests that among the next- earliest meanings may have been 'perhaps ,' ' maybe ,' and that other present-day meanings derive from this one, e.g. with ' Do you really think ...?' coming from an ironic ' Maybe you think ...?' and 'unless'from ' unless maybe'.



Ешь! Или нешто дать тебе водочки выпить? (-Чехов) Eat! Or perhaps how about giving you some vodka to drink? А то нешто водочки пойти выпить? (-Вересаев) Or maybe how about going and drinking some vodka? Нешто поддёвку снять. Оно слободнее будет. (-Л.Н. Толстой) Maybe I should take off my coat. I'd be more at ease.


пригласил с собою старика напиться чаю. -Да что, уже пили нынче, -сказал старик ... -Нешто для компании. (-Л.Н. Толстой) Levin ... invited the old man to have some tea with him. "Well , actually we've already had some today," said the old man. ... "Perhaps for the sake of company. " Да, нынче не грибное лето-сказал солдат, -нешто постом пойдут. (-Л.Н. Толстой) "Yes, this isn't a good summer for mushrooms, " said the soldier. "Maybe they'll start growing at fasting-time." НИ В КАКУЮ 'not for anything in the world' --See under КАКОЙ , р p 194 . 'not under any circumstances'

НИЗАЧТО (pop. sp. ) 'never', 'not for anything in the world', 'not under any circumstances'.

Я низачто не пошел бы туда. I wouldn't go there for anything. (Note: Always written as one word. Ни за что, 'for nothing' , 'for free', 'gratis';, 'for (practically) nothing', 'at a negligible price', is written as three words.) НИ (НА) ЕСТЬ See under ECТЬ: Interrog pron or adv + НИ (НА) ЕСТЬ. НИ: ЧТО НИ НА ЕСТЬ See under ECТЬ: ЧТО НИ НА ЕСТЬ + Adj . НИ НА СКОЛЬКО See under НИСКОЛЬКО.


1. Intensifies a negative. a.

Никак не

'not at all,' b.

- нисколько не = ничуть не = нимало не = вовсе не = совершенно не = отнюдь не. 'not in the least,' 'not a bit' 'by no means ,'

(As answer:) Никак! Absolutely not! Никак нет! Absolutely not! / Absolutely no! (Lit.: 'Not nohow! Note the striking resemblance to American colloq . 'No way!")


in Replies Containing Repetitions


-Интересно ли? -Никак не интересно! -Is it interesting? -It's not interesting in the least! -Придумал этот рассказ! -Никак не придумал! -You made that storyup!

-I didn't either make it up! -Молчи! -Никак не молчи! Я им скажу! -Keep your mouth shut -Keep my mouth shut nothing! I'm gonna tell'em! 2. (As particle)

(popular speech)

Indicates that the remark it accompanies is a conjecture or assumption, based on something that the speaker has just noticed, but not a certain fact. There is a strong tendency for никак to stand at the begining of a question and inside of a statement, although this is not a hard and fast rule.

'it seems', 'It looks as if,

'apparently', 'I think',

'evidently', 'I guess '

(In questions:) 'Is that ...? -Что это братец нейдет, вон, никак, гроза заходит. (-А.Н. Островский) Why doesn't my brother get here? It looks as if there's a thunderstorm coming on. -Эй, вы бабы, -полно вам бесперечь к люлькам бегать! ... Авдотья, ты никак с самого обеда торчишь у люльки, ни одного снопа не связала ... (-Григорович) Hey, you women, stop that everlastingly running to the cradles! ... Avdotya, I think You've been hanging around a cradle ever since dinner. You haven't tied a single sheaf ... Под утро дед Фишка застонал, приохивая. Степанида Ионовна поднялась на кровати, спросила: Ты, никак, Фишка, стонешь? (-Марков) Toward morning grandpa Fishka started groaning, moaning slightly. Stepanida Ionovna sat up in bed and asked " Is that you groaning, Fishka?" Никак гарью пахнет? Так и есть! Уж эти мне новые оси ... (-Тургенев) Isn't that a smell ofsomething burning? Just as I thought! Darn these new axles ... Что это? Никак, народ от вечерни тронулся? (-А.Н. Островский) What's going on? Are those the people coming from vespers? Никак, кто-то идет? Не заперла я дверь-то. (-А.Н. Островский) Isn't that somebody coming? I didn't lock the door.


(pop. sp. )

= никак, 'not possibly'. Никаких is more emphatic than никак. НИКАКИХ Хорошо им .. едут себе, и никаких. (Фадеев) They're lucky--they ride in any way that suits them , and no one objects. (и никаких = и возражений никаких нет)


(pop . sp. ) In Replies Containing Repetitions.

Always stands first in the repetition , without any pause between it and the next word.


Expresses forceful objection , complete disagreement. . "Ну, Константин Николаич, мне ехать пора .. -Никаких "ехать", ночевать оставайся ... " (Рыбаков) -Well, Konstantin Nikolaich, it's time for me to be going ... -" Be going" nothing! Stay here overnight ... НИКАКОЙ:


'not for anything in the world' --See under КАКОЙ р 194. 'not under any circumstances' НИКАКОЙ/-АЯ/-ОЕ/- ИЕ HЕ

In Replies Containing Repetitions

May stand either before or after the repeated word or phrase. Since никакой agrees with the repeated word, the repeated word can be only a noun, pronoun, or adjective, not a verb or an adverb. The phrase formed by никакой and the repeated word is always in the Nom sg or Nom pl. Expresses categorical disagreement, complete rejection ofan idea: '... am not/is not/are not either a ...'

-Ну и лентяи же они! -Никакие (они) не лентяи! OR: Не лентяи (они) никакие! -What loafers they are! -They aren't either loafers! -Все твои лжи! -Какие же мои? Никакие не мои. -You and your everlasting lies! -What do you mean, mine? They aren't mine at all.

НИКТО: with preposition before the ни instead of after it. See under НИЧТО, with prep. before the ни р 250 . НИСКОЛЬКО: НИ НА СКОЛЬКО + Gen. 'none,' 'none whatever', 'not the least bit' (-of a quantity) Similar to the use of Ha + numeral (Acc.). See that. Я все советую ей а проку-то ни на сколько. I keep trying to give her advice, but there isn't the least use in it.

-НИТЬ (colloquial & rapid speech) = -нибудь

НИЧЕГО : as Adverb = нимало, нисколько, ничуть: 'not at all', 'not in the least' Ему ничего их не жалко. He isn't the least bit sorry for them. (In Replies Containing Repetitions:)

-Вот смешная история! -Нет, ничего не смешная! -That's a funny story! -No, it's not funny at all .



А как ничего. But it isn't anything serious. НИЧЕГО: НИЧЕГО НЕ СКАЖЕШЬ See under CКАЗАТЬ.

НИЧЕГО СЕБЕ --In Replies Containing Repetitions (Cf НЕЧЕГО СКАЗАТЬ, under СКАЗАТЬ, -- # 3, p 321.) In addition to its independent meanings of'not bad at all', 'passable', 'во-во', ничего себе has the following special use in replies containing repetitions: Ничего себе may stand first in the reply, either with or without an intervening pause after it, or else at the end of the reply, always with a pause before it:. -Он очень серьезный человек. -Ничего себе серьезный! OR: • Ничего себе, серьезный! OR: -Серьезный, ничего себе! The ничего себе is used here in the same way as нечего сказать to express derisive and ironic disagreement :.

That's a hot one! ...!"

'...! You've got to be kidding!

'You're kidding it's ...!"

-Он очень серьезный человек. -Ничего себе серьезный! -He's a very serious man. -That's a hot one! Serious! - Я не знал об этом. -Ничего себе не знал! -I didn't know about that. -Didn't know! You've got to be kidding!


(pop. sp.)


'nothing at all'


' nothing whatever'

(pop. sp.)

= ничей, 'no one's'

НИЧТО: with preposition before the ни instead of after it. Exceptions to the rule that prepositions are inserted into negative pronouns (ни для кого 'for nobody', ни о чем 'not about anything', etc.) are occasionally met when the negatives никто and ничто are used figuratively to mean 'a nobody', 'a person of trifling importance' and 'a mere nothing','a trivial thing . Some of these have become set expressions . гнев из ничего (INSTEAD OF ни из чего) anger over practically nothing/anger for a trivial reason.


Он считает их за никого. He regards them as nobodies./ He considers them people of trifling importance.


(as interjection) 1.

Но, но , но , ...! = Во , во , во , ...! = Вот, вот, вот , ...! -А куда делись ребята? -Она зашла за ними. -Но, но, но, теперь ясно! -But where have the kids gone? -She stopped by and picked them up. -Oh , yeah , right, now I see!


Used when urging or prohibiting, with a suggestion of threatening. Но! Но! Чего перестали? Толкайте! Come on, Come on! What did you stop for? Push!

Но- Но! Это мне не нравится. Now, watch it! I don't like that. 3.

Used in questions when reacting with surprise and doubt to what has just been said. Н-н-о-о-о? Wha-a-at?


--In Replies Containing Repetitions

Used in sarcastic expressions ofdispleasure at what has just been said. ' Oh , that's great! ... !

'Oh, thanks a lot! ...!'

Well, that's really nice to hear! ...! '

- После, после. Теперь некогда. -Э! Вот новости! После! -Later, later. There's no time now. -Oh, great! Later! HOMEP:


'right on schedule'


(regional )

- ныне , now

НОНЕЧА ( regional) = ныне now HOPM:


BCË HA HOPME 'Everything is as usual' ;

'Everything is the way it should be', 'Everything is all right' .

-Как дела у вас? -Всё ещё на норме. -How are things with you? -Everything is still the same as always.


НОРМАЛЬ = нормально .

Similar to Хорош !

fоr Хорошо !,

' Fine ! '

НОРМАЛЬНО ' all right ' , ' okay ' ; ' as usual ' .

( ' normal ' /' normally ' is SOMETIMES a good translation ,

but often is not the best. ) Всё в порядке , вернулись нормально .

Everything's okay , they got back all right .


( as cnj . )

( pop . sp./dialectal)

' but ' In dialectal and popular speech , Hy is sometimes used as practically a synonym оf но , ' but ' . Она очень хотела найти дешёвый экземпляр .

Ну никак не могла.

She wanted very much to find a cheap copy of the book.

But she found it

impossible. Он много разглагольствовал , ну всё - таки не прошёл . He did a lot of speechifying , but all the same he wasn't elected .

НУ + Acc

А НУ " ДА НУ " 1. With an Acc . 2nd person pronoun : ' Oh , cut it out ! ' ' Knock it off ! ' ' Stop that ! ' ' Oh , let me alone ! ’ А ну вас всех!

Перестаньте дурачиться!

Oh cut it out , all of you !

Cut out the clowning!

2. With Acc. of others : ' the heck with . . . ' , ' Oh , forget about ... ' Пойдём !

Все готовы?

Вовка не здесь ?

Ну его !

Пойдём !

Let's go! Is everybody ready? Vovka isn't here?

The heck with him!

Let's go!



HY --IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS . Stands at the beginning of the repetition , without any intervening pause between it and the repeated word or phrase. 1. IN ANSWER TO A QUESTION , expresses annoyance caused by the the question is a foolish one , is out of place ,


unnecessary ,

feeling that




answer, or shows that the person who asked it is ill- informed about the situation . The repeated word or phrase is either ( a ) the interrogative pronoun or


rogative adverb taken from the question , or ( b ) the whole predicate of the question . 'What do you mean , . ... ? '

'. . . indeed!'

'... ? !' 'Why

-Стой !


А Митька?

Это он украл .

-Как украл? -Ну , как украл? -Wait!

Спёр коробку и смылся .

What about Mitka?

( Макаренко )

He's the one that stole it.

-What's this about how he stole something? -What do you mean , what's this about how he stole something?

He swiped

the box and beat it.

-Поедем в ремонтную мастерскую .

-Это где ? -Ну где .

Разве не знаешь ?

-We're going to the repair shop . -Where is that? -Where is it indeed !

Do you mean to tell me you don't know?

2. Used in a forced , unwilling , or irritable and ungracious affirmation of the other speaker's peated .

idea . It is usually the predicate of the preceding speech that is re-

The preceding speech is often a question of fact ( i.e. , a

question that

can be answered with "Yes " or " No " ) , but does not have to be .

'Well , yes , . . .'

'Well , yes , I suppose ,

• •

'Well, yes , actually , ..

' As a matter of fact ,

-У вас есть насос?

—Ну есть , а что? -Do you people have a pump? -Well , yes , I suppose we do , but what about it ? -Есть у тебя машина?

-Ну есть , а какое ваше дело?

-Do you have a car? -As a matter of fact , I do , but what business is it of yours?






и ... жЕ ( " ..." represents intervening words .)



• ЖЕ The Hу or Hу-phrase is always first in its clause , and is spoken with no pause between it and the next word.

Expresses opinion of, reaction to. 'What a ... !'

'Boy, what a . . . !'

'How . . .!'

' Mmm , some . . . !'

'My, how ...! 1. When the words to which the particle applies are neutral in meaning, then the particle construction expresses only surprise or wonder at what is named . Ну люди !

What (amazing) people ! Ну и память же у тебя ! My , what a memory you have ! Ну и была ж партия !

(OR : Hу и партия ж была! )

Boy, that was some game !

Ну , пел ! My, how he sang! 2. When the words to which the particle applies carry some qualitative terizing meaning,

or charac-

or when they are adjectives or verbs referring to something

that can occur in a greater or less degree of intensity , then the particle construction

expresses surprise


wonder together with


reaction: approval or disapproval . Ну уж чудак !

( OR : Ну уж и . . . OR Hy и ..


What a strange person! Ну уж и напугал ты меня ! My, how you scared me! Ну и костил же он их! Boy, what a tongue lashing he gave them! Ну и денёк же сегодня выдался ! What a perfectly peachy day this has turned out to be!

Ну уж и рады же они ! Boy are they ever glad!






(Variant : Hy- KO)



(Note that except for Hy alone , there is no combination





of Hy

with other particles here that coincides with any combination of Hy in the preceding entry . )

The particle or particle - combination always stands first in its sentence . The sentence is usually a question or an exclamation . Usually used with verbs , with or without an expressed subject ; less commonly = with a noun unaccompanied by a verb (e.g. , А ну как дожlь ? А ну как будет дождь ? ) . When there is a verb , it is regularly Perfective . Expresses misgiving , uncertainty , fear that something undesirable may be about to happen.

'Suppose ... !'

'But what if . . . ? '

'May be

'I'm afraid ·

. . will . . .'

· will ..

Ну услышит кто- нибудь ? Suppose someone should hear us? А ну опоздаем? What if we're late? Ну- ка да не справлюсь с этим делом . I'm afraid I won't (be able to) manage to do that. А ну- ка да застанет их там?

Suppose she finds them there?

НУ ВОТ ЕЩЕ See under BOT , p 55 and 56 .


(as reply)

1. 'Yes , I know that .'

2. 'But of course . '

'Why , naturally . '

3. 'Yes , that's right ' ' That's what I said . ' ' That's what I meant . ' 4. (after looking at something a second time :) in fact it is . ..' 'Well , yes , it is . . . '

' Ah , it is . . . after all . ' ' To be sure ,


A. . . . НУ ДА .... .

(as cnj . )

'It's true that ...) but . . .' ' Actually , .

but ..

'It's all very well that ..., but . . .' Ну да так запрещено , а иначе как? It's true it's forbidden to do it that way , but what other way is there ?




See under 1A, p 90 .


IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS In this use , нy и is an inseparable compound particle . The нy и always precedes the repeated word or phrase , in accordance with the

rule that all particle -combinations that contain an и must stand first in their clause . Basically ,


containing repetitions introduced by ну и

convey that the

speaker who is replying accepts what has just been said as true enough , but considers it not highly significant for the situation at hand , and certainly not the most important point to give one's attention to.

This basic meaning is applied in two diverging ways : 1. combative and defiant ( Often in reply to a reproof) : 'It's all very well to say ... (but · · .)' 'All right , so .... So what?' -Из- за тебя все ждут .

-Ну и ждут .

Скорее нельзя было .

-Everybody's waiting because of you. -All right , so they're waiting .

I couldn't make it any faster.

2. conciliating and emphasizing that there is no disagreement : 'Sure, you're right about . . .(but . . . )' 'All right then , (go ahead and ) . . .' -Надо заплатить мальчику за газеты.

-Ну и заплати ему. -We've got to pay the boy for the newspapers . -All right , pay him then .



( + значит / вот )

( separable )

НУ .. · и ... Consequential . precedes ,

Indicates that what is said after the particle follows from what

either in a preceding clause in a complex sentence , or in

remark by another speaker, or in something implied.

a preceding

Frequently reinforced by значит

ог вот . 'Well , then , ..

'So . . .’

' All right , then , ... '

'And (so)...'

Так, затем вы пошли туда .

Ну, и что же ?

Okay, after that you went there .

And what did you do next?

Дежурила я в ту ночь . Ну и промокла до ниточки , а заря- то была холодная . I was on duty that night .

And so I got soaked to the skin , and at dawn

it was cold. Плохо поработали ?

Ну , плохо и получайте по трудодням . ( Овечкин )

You didn't do a good job? Very well, then , don't get good pay for the work-days you put in . ( --i.e . , don't expect to get good pay)

Ты посылал за мной , ну , вот я и пришел . You sent for me and so I came .

НУ И ( inseparable ) Emphatic.


in emphatic assertions , with a shading of dissatisfaction or

some similar unfavorable reaction to what has just been said .

' Baloney ! '

' Nuts to that . ’

' Fudge !' -Можно бы в две недели дойти .

-Ну и врёшь ! -One could get there in two weeks .

-Baloney ! You're crazy ! -За это требует рубль . —Ну и полтинник довольно . -For doing that he wants a ruble .

-Nuts to that!

Half a ruble is enough.

НУ И ЧТО- Ж 'Well , what difference does it make? '


НУ И ЧТО Ж , ЧТО ...

( pronounced " НУ И ШТОШШТО ... " )

' So what if .· . . ?'


(as reply)

' Of course . '

НУ КАК ...?

' But of course. '


' What do you mean , . . . ? -Понимаете меня?

- Да отчасти . -Ну как отчасти?

Понимаете или нет?

-Do you understand me?

-Well , partly . -What do you mean , partly ?

Do you understand or not?



Strengthened form of KAK (XE ) ; see under KAK XE.


НУ- КО ДА Variant of ну- ка ( да ) .

See under НУ/А НУ /НУ- КА/А НУ- КА/НУ- КА ДА , р 255.


А НУ ТАК , Used when agreeing to some policy or course of action .

' Well then , • 'Well okay, ' All right then,



See under НУ (НУ /НУ И /НУ ДА И /НУ УЖ И /etc . )



НУ УЖ In this use , Hy уx always stands first in its clause . The two words that form this compound particle , нy and yx , are run together in pronunciation , with the stress on the нy:

" Hý - yx " .

The whole compound , нý yж ,

is in turn usually run together in pronunciation with the word that follows it. The run-together pronunciation is practically always found when the following word is either (a ) a

personal pronoun ,

or ( b ) a

verb that expresses doubt ,

mistrust , or

objection .

Expresses disapproval or dissatisfaction . Ну уж планировщики . Planners , bah !

Всезнайки они !

Know -it -alls , that's what they are !

-Он большая дока по этой части . —Ну , уж сомневаюсь . -He's a real whiz at this sort of thing. -Huh , I doubt it . В том направлении кино?

Ну уж врешь !

The movie theater is in that direction ? Oh come on, that can't be right! Ну уж , как хочешь . Oh very well .

As you wish.

НУ УЖ Strengthened form of YX.


See under

IA YX /HY YX /etc.


НУУЖ И Always precedes the repeated word or phrase. Expresses

an attitude

of contempt , mistrust , or doubt toward the

the discussion . ' Oh sure , (really) . . .'


Oh , come on now !'


'..., oh ye -e- a -ah '

.. humph ! '

-Дела идут блестяще . -Ну уж и блестяще !

-Things are going splendidly . -Oh sure , really splendidly! —Они починили машину сами . -Ну уж и сами ? -They fixed the car all by themselves .

-All by themselves?

Oh , come on now!

subject of


-Не знаю , что с ним .

Будто болезнь какая- то.

-Ну уж и болезнь ! -I don't know what's the matter with him .

It seems it's a sickness of

some sort .

-A sickness !


Humph !


НУ ЧТО Ж See under ЧТО .


+ Inf

( in substandard usage)

Often incorrectly substituted for должен when referring to people .

Cf. НАДО ,

used similarly in substandard speech . Они нужны быть здесь завтра. They are supposed to be here tomorrow. Он нужен к вам заехать .

Заедет к вам вскоре.

He is to stop in at your place .

He will stop there shortly.

Мы нужны закончить эту работу сегодня . We are supposed to finish this job today.



Of what is a desired result : Рысь, загнанная собаками ,

обыкновенно заскакивает на первое


Дерево, а охотнику того и нужно. The lynx, chased to exhaustion by the dogs,

usually jumps up the first

tree it comes to, and that's what the hunter wants him to do.



( pop . sp. )

In standard usage , a general rule concerning the choice of these three forms is that 1. O is used before most words that begin with consonants ( --and before vowels in some set phrases ) ; 2. 06 is used before words that begin with vowels (--and before consonants in some set expressions);

3. 060 is used before some words that begin with more than one consonant , e.g., обо мне . But in popular speech these rules are far less strictly kept . kinds , e.g.: all of

One hears variations

1. о Испании , о армии , о его делах, о их делах, etc.

2. об нём , об тебе , об складе , etc. 3. обо многом , etc.

0/06 + Gen. instead of Loc .

(dialectal :

Southern & some parts of the

' about' , ' concerning'

Девки думают об ребят . The girls are thinking about the children . Об стариков не заботились . They did not trouble about the old fellows . Об уроков беспокоится .

She is uneasy about her homework .

0/05 + Loc. OR ( less commonly) Acc .

= прë , ‘ in times of' 'when there is ...'

(pop. sp . & dialectal :

various areas)

' at the time of' ' on the occasion of'

О свадьбе никто не работал . Nobody worked on the day of the wedding. О рождестве все наряжались . At Christmas-time everybody would get dressed up. Об страдну * пору приезжали .

( * страдну - страдную . )

They used to arrive during the busy season .

Об ту пору там никого не было . At that time there was no one there.

Central area)


ОБОИ (pop . sp.) = оба (m. & n . ) and = обе (f. ). (Uneducated) обои окна, both windows', обои комнаты, both rooms

обоими руками, 'with both hands' (instead of обеими)



See under НАСТОЯЩИЙ.



Давай как тем угодным образом, ты сам в курсе дела этого. Go ahead any way you like; you yourselfknow what the story is on this.

ОБРАТНО (pop.sp./uneducated) = опять, снова, 'again' Ты обратно опоздал на работу. You're late for work again.

Хозяин обратно кричал на нас сегодня. The boss yelled at us again today.

ОБРАТЬ (dialectal) = обратно



Frequent in popular speech. Used more in the sense of ' anyway' , ' anyhow', 'in any case' than in the literal meaning of 'in general'.

ОДНА ЦЕНА Apparently 'It comes to the same thing'

-Не пьет он, -И, что ты, матушка! Ни маковой росинки. А должно, что запьет, я так полагаю, надо быть, в скорости. -Отчего так? -Не стерпит, невозможно. У нас все одно: что честно себя содержи, что пьянствуй ... все одна цена-то; от хозяина доброго слова не дождешься; так что за напасть, из чего себя сокращать-то .... (-А.Н. Островский) -Doesn't he drink? -Oh, how you talk, my dear! Not a drop. But it's probable that he will take to drink , I suppose most likely soon -Why is that? -He won't be able to stand it, it's impossible . Around here, it's all the same whether you stick to the straight and narrow or whether you're a heavy drinker ... it all comes to the same thing; you'll never get a pleasant word from the owner; so why should anybody care, why should a person stint himself? ...




Like но, but', однако is used to make a sentence more emphatic and show that the thought expressed is something that the speaker feels strongly. The underlying idea is that there are a number of things that could be said about the situation, but that the idea expressed here is the one that claims the speaker's attention, or, sometimes, that the idea is something that the speaker has thought before but now feels especially impelled to give expression to . Often, though not necessarily, the exclamation contains а как оr а какои . Note that но always stands at the beginning of its clause, but однако may be first, internal, or last.

'My, but ...!'

.... , though!'

'Honestly, ... !'

'Really, ...! ,'

Какой вы скупец, однако! Honestly, what a tightwad you are!

Какой ты, однако же, хлопотун! What an awful busybody you really are! Как, однако, ты устала, бедненькая! My, but how tired you are, you poor thing! Однако квартира у тебя! My, that's some apartment you've got though!


(роp . sp . & dialectal)

= однако .


(as reply) Expresses doubt of what has just been said.

'Oh, really?' "You think so, huh?"

'No kidding?' 'Are you really sure?'

'Do you really think so?' 'Oh, is that so?'

-Не бойся, тебе говорят. Дело в шляпе. -Ой ли? -Don't worry, I tell you . We've got the whole thing sewed up. -You're sure, huh?

OKPÓME + Gen. (popular speech and regional) ОКРОМЯ

= кроме :


'besides' ,


'other than'

(as emphatic-demonstrative particle ) (pop. sp . ) Вот он я! HereI am!


'also known as'.


Это был изменник родины, военный преступник Леонид Павловский, он же Пылаев, Шамров, Октябрев, 1912 года рождения,. . (-from a propaganda brochure) He was the traitor to his country and war criminal Leonid Pavlovsky , alias Pylaev , Shamrov, and Oktyabrev, born in 1912 , ...



(pop. sp. ) See under CAM .

'the boss'

Ты лучше брось! Он сам не любит, когда так делают. You better stop that. The boss doesn't like it when people do that.


(as reply)

' That's the one' /'They're the ones' / etc. -Они должны позаботиться об этом. -Да, они. -They are to see to that. -Yes, they're the ones. (Lit.: "Yes, it is they. ")

оно Occasionally substituted for он ог она as an expression of extreme contempt for the person being mentioned.


(in impersonal expressions ) (pop. sp. ) In popular speech, impersonal constructions often contain an oнo as grammatical subject where the same construction would have no stated subject in the standard literary language. The онo does not refer to any neuter word mentioned before, but instead simply refers vaguely to the whole situation in general: "it" , "things", "the whole business", "the matter". Standard literary: Вот так и вышло. Popular speech:

Оно вот так и вышло. That's the way things turned out.

Standard literary: Хорошо,что так произошло . Popular speech:

Хорошо оно,что так ппоизошло. It's a good thing that it happened that way.

Standard literary: Хватит. Popular speech:

Оно хватит. That will be enough.

Standard literary: Сегодня холодновато. Popular speech:

Оно сегодня холодновато. It's pretty cold today.

Ну, пока мы к заводам обязанные были, так оно некуда было деться, а теперь совсем другое . (Мамин- Сибиряк) Well, when we were under an obligation to the works, there was no place to go, but now it's an entirely different matter. То ли бы дело выпили, разговорились, --оно все само бы и наладилось. How much better it would be if they would have a lot of drinks and get started talking -the whole business would straighten itselfout. Оно конечно, он очень способен, никто не противоречит. Of course he's very capable, no one is denying that.


In the same way, оно appears in a number of set expressions: Вот оно что = So that's what it is! Вот оно как = That's the way (to do it). Вот оно в чем дело = That's what the point is.. OHO is used similarly to strengthen doubled-word constructions of the type ... -TO .... a / но / да ... Хорошо-то оно хорошо здесь, а всё, знаете, как-то уединённое место. It's as nice as can be here, but still , you know, it's a sort of lonely place. Жалко-то оно жалко, а что же поделаешь? It's most regrettable, but what can you do about it?

Оно и At times oнO и functions as a compound particle that lends emphasis to the sentence, where the Oно cannot be regarded as the grammatical subject ofits clause as described above under OHO. Ведь в те поры, хошь оно и строгий закон был, а золотом торговали, как все равно крупой. (Мамин- Сибиряк) Remember, in those times, although in fact there was a severe law, still they dealt in gold as ifit were the same as barley.

ОНОМЕДНИ (dialectal)

= намедни,

'the other day',


There are many variant forms in different dialects: намедни намедних намедь

ономедни онамедни ономядни

ономедь онамель ономаль

ономни ономня ононя









ономясь ономясь

ОПОСЛЯ ПОСЛЯ (regional )

= после , ‘ after' , ' afterwards '



' crowd ' , ' group ' , ' set ' , ' clique ' .

наша орава = '' '' our crowd' , as in English .


( pop . sp. )

= особенно , ' especially ' .


+ Inf.

+ Num . or other expression of quantity. Оставаться /остаться

' remain ' ,

' be

aspects and tenses like any other verb.

left '

can ,

of course ,


all its

In idiomatic usage, however, the Prf Past

is often encountered when it plainly refers to present time . осталось

be used

The literal meaning of

here is that something has been left WITH THE RESULT THAT it still

remains now .

It turns out that осталось осcurs in this usage when it is accompanied

by an Infinitive or a

Numeral or other expression of quantity and refers

to what

remains to be done or attended to or gotten out of the way or used up or disposed of in some way or other.

Because of its use with an Infinitive or Numeral ,

the Prf

Past of остаться is usually in the neuter singular , but it can occur in other forms , as the first example here shows :

Осталась только


несколько ступенек All that

is left







( Олеша) is



I hear voices

already . The

remaining that I have to do is to make it up a few steps .

На поезд не опоздаем .

Нам осталось ещё десять минут .

We won't miss the train .

We still have ten more minutes .

Осталось только подписать эти письма. The only thing that remains to be done is signing these letters .

only thing


За ним осталось четыре рубля . He owes four rubles . ( Lit .: There are four rubles left on his account . )

OT + Nom .

( pop . sp. )

A colloquial pronunciation of BOT .

От чортова баба ! What a perfectly awful woman !


(dialectal : Northern ) = -то .

See under -TO .

O-TO Variant of TO- TO & 2b ( assertion , affirmation , reinforcement )

See under TО- ТО . О- то болван ! Heavens , what a blockhead !


Variant of TO- TO § 2b (assertion , affirmation , reinforcement ) See under TO - ТО . От - то танцует !

You should see him dance !

ОТДАТЬ (pop . sp . ) ( VERY COMMON ) = дать , in the sense of ' hand over' , ' turn over to ' , ' hand ( to ) ' . Почтальон отдал мне два письма и пакет . The postman handed me two letters and a package . Завтра нам отдадут зарплату за неделю . Tomorrow they'll give us our pay for the week .


(pop . sp . & regional )


откуль = откуда


ОТКУДА ЖЕ ВЫ УЖЕ + Inf Откуда же вы уже спереть ? Just where did you get the idea of swiping it?


(pop . sp . & regional )

= откуда


( regional)

= откуда

ОТСЮДА --in temporal sense

'from now on ' -- Cf Eng. pop . sp . ' from here on out'


(pop . sp . & regional )

= отсюда


( pop . sp. & regional )

= оттуда


(pop . sp./uneducated )

'leave there ' , ' go away from there' Не знаю , когда будет оттудовать . I don't know when he will leave there .

OтчEго ( XE ) (HE )


May stand at the beginning or at the end of a reply containing Always set off from the repeated word or phrase by a slight pause .

a repetition . The repeated

word or phrase is always either the predicate or the most significant

element of

the preceding speech . Expresses



what is

spoken of, affirmation ,


of doubt.

Often in the form of a counterquestion . Пoчeмy ( жe ) (нe ) is used in the same way .


When the He is omitted , orчero ( xe ) is used in the sense of "Why do you ask?" just like почему ( же ) and как же .

The не is present when there is a repetition of

the main verb or some other key word taken from the preceding remark: " Why not


WITHOUT HE : -Можно с тобой пойти?

-Отчего же , конечно можно . -May I go along with you?

-Sure , why? Of course you may . WITH HE : -Да нельзя ли обождать до следующего квартала? -Обождать- то , отчего не обождать .

-Couldn't we wait until next quarter? -Sure , why not wait .



(pop . sp . )

8 вне /без /помимо очереди

'out of (regular) order ' , ' without waiting one's turn' Получили квартиру не в очереди . They got an apartment without waiting their turn .


(pop . sp./regional )

' slowpoke ' , ' sluggard ' ; ' sloven ' ; ' down-and-outer' , ' hobo'

OXOTA + Dat + Inf Note the two meanings of this construction , which are opposite to and can be distinguished only by context : 1. = xочется, ‘ feel ( s ) like . . .-ing . -ing ... ' , ' would like to . .

Охота мне выпить чаю .

I'd like to have some tea. Очень мне была охота смеяться .

2. ■

I felt a great desire to laugh . ( IRONIC ) ( Сf полнó ( + Dat ) + Inf. ) BOT OXOTа какая охота

( + Dat ) + Inf

что за охота 'What do/does .. • want to ... for? '

'What's the point in . . .-ing?' 'What possesses ... to ...?'

each other


Охота тебе торчать там . What do you want to stick around there for? Охота мне читать такую дрянь .

What's the point in my reading trash like that? Охота ему препираться с ними часами . What possesses him to wrangle with them by the hour? Была охота


IRONIC , like §2 on preceding page .

'What would anybody want to do that for?' ' Oh sure , that would be a real blast . ' ' The heck I will . ’ —Вам бы заниматься гимнастикой .

-Была охота. -You ought to do exercises . -Oh sure , I'd just love to . ’


( pop . sp . & regional )

= очень


ПАЙСТИ (dialectal : Central) = пойти. Similarly, насти = найти.

ПАЦАН (slang) 'kid'

'young fellow '


(-i.e. , any boy not yet an adult) ПАЦАНЧИК

'little boy'

'little kid'


(--said by dictionaries to be obsolete , but actually still used)

= больше (See also ПУЩЕ.)

ПАЧЕ ЖЕ 'most of all'


Я очень уважаю их всех, а паче же Александра Петровича. I have great respect for all of them, but especially Alexander Petrovich. ПАЧЕ ТОГО

= более того 'moreover'


= передать

(pop . sp.; substandard) (Cf. ДАДИТ = даст .) 'turn over to' 'pass along to'

'will turn over to'

передадит = передаст

'forward to'

'will pass along'

Свяжитесь, пожалуйста, с ним. Нам передадить не нужно. Это дело срочное. Please get in touch with him. It isn't necessary to turn it over to us. This matter is urgent. ПЕРЕЖИВАТЬ --WITHOUT AN ACC . OBJECT (recent)

'be upset'

' worry',

' fret'

' stew'

' ' sweat it' '

Брось переживать! Вовремя будут здесь. Stop sweating it! They'll be here on time.


(pop. sp.)

'odd situation'

'ridiculous situation'

'ridiculous performance'


(originally: Punch-and-Judy show.)

ПЕЧКИ-ЛАВОЧКИ: И ПРОЧИЕ ПЕЧКИ- ЛАВОЧКИ (slang) 'and so forth and so on'

'and all thatjazz'

Письма писала, и он ей отвечал: " Здравствуй, уважаемая Анна Петровна! Пишет вам вами известный Валерий Кирпиченко ... ·· и прочие печки-лавочки. (Аксёнов) She wrote letters to him and he would reply to her "Hello there, dear Anna Petrovna! This is your friend Valerii Kirpichenko writing to you ...” - and all that jazz .




"There goes ..."

... has gone down the tubes'

' ... can kiss ... goodbye'

' ... can forget about ...'

The well known expression is Плакали ( чьи-либо) денежки, There goes (someone's) money', ' (Someone) can kiss the money goodbye . ' However, both Past and Present forms of плакать, in both singular and plural, can be used. In the Russian expression, the thing that is lost is always the grammatical subject of the verb плакать and usually follows the verb. Денег нам все-таки не отдадут ... плакали наши денежки. (-Салтыков-Щедрин) They aren't going to let us have any money anyway ... we can kiss our money goodbye. Как крепко связаны эти задачи, Знает по опыту любой финансист: Если народные денежки плачут -Значит на руку кто-то нечист! (-В . И. Лебедев-Кумач) How closely connected these problems are Every financial specialist knows from experience: Ifthe people's money has gone down the pipe It means somebody has sticky fingers! Валя: На лодке кататься поедем сегодня? Виктор:

Не могу. Батя в восемь вечера экипаж собирает ... обсуждать будем, как работать по-новому. Валя: Плакал, значит, выходной вечерок ... (-Арбузов) Valya: Are we going boating today? Viktor: I can't. The boss is getting the crew together at 8 p.m. We're going to have a discussion on how to do the work under a new system. Valya: There goes our evening off, then.

ПЛОХОЙ : НЕ БУДЬ ПЛОХ (phrase used as adverb) 'without getting rattled in the least'

'with complete assurance'

'without batting an eye'

Назначили цену, а он не будь плох и говорит: Возьму. They quoted a price, and without batting an eye he says " I'll buy it . ”

ПЛОШЕ (pop . sp.) = хуже , 'worse'

ПО + Dat of a Noun naming an action -- instead of Loc. (pop. sp. ) 'upon',

' after'

Where the literary standard prescribes no with the Locative of the name of an action after which or as soon as which something else will be done, popular speech sometimes uses the Dative: по его приходу, по получению, as soon as he arrives , ' upon receipt of ...' instead of по его приходе, по получении. Обещали отправить машины по железной дороге по их приходу в Ленинград. They have promised to ship the machinery by rail upon its arrival in Leningrad . По получению этих данных телеграфьте итоги. Upon receipt of these figures send the totals by telegraph.


ПО + Loc ofNoun --instead of Dat. (dialectal : Southwestern)

Разъезжали по всех дворах. They drove around to all the farmsteads. Встречаются по праздниках. They get together on holidays. По твердых ценах покупали. They did their purchasing at fixed prices.

ПО + Loc of a personal or interrogative pronoun --instead of Dat. Note the following usage, where for any use of no + a noun in the Dative the corresponding pronoun-construction is no + a pronoun (personal or interrogative) in the Locative: Он вышел на широкий бульвар и гулял по нем. (NOT 'по нему”) He came out on a wide boulevard and strolled along it. Это им не по нраву. Тоже не по нас. They don't like it . It doesn't suit us either. А как эти сведения поступили сюда? По телеграфу или по телефону или по чём? But how did this information come here? By telegraph or by telephone or by what? (See also under ПОЧЕМ.).

ПО + Numeral (Acc. instead of Dat.) (pop . sp. ) According to the literary standard, по + numeral meaning "so-and-so many each" takes the Accusative of the numbers 1 1/2 (полтора / полторы) , 2 , 3 , 4 , 200 , 300 , 400 , the Dative of 1 and of 5 through 100, and a special form for 500 , 600 , 700, 800 , and 900 : пятисот, ..., девятисот (--i.e. , the Dative of the first part of the number) . But in popular speech all numbers except 1 are made Accusative.

ПО in compounded prepositions (dialectal : (1 ) + Dat or Ins -- Northeastern по- над (commonly) = над. по- за (occasionally) = за. по- под (occasionally) = под. ПО: ПО ВСЯКДЕНЬ

(2) + InsSouthwestern) --

(ПО + Асс!) (dialectal: Urals)

А он, слесарь, по всяк день молотком играет. Хоть с локтя, хоть с плеча без промаху бьёт. На то и слесарь. (Бажов) But he, the metalworker, handles the hammer every day. Swinging from the elbow or from the shoulder, he never misses. That's what it is to be a metalworker. ПО :

ПО СИХ ПОР See under ПОРА , p 283 .

под, подь

(pop. sp . )

= пойди 'go', 'come', (Cf. выйдь(те), выдь(те), выйди(те).)

Ты подь-ка туда посмотри. Youjust go there and take a look.



(pop. sp.) Frequently used in colloquial speech prefixed to verbs that have a different prefix in the written language. Conveys a general idea of the action's being directed to some definite place or person, e.g.: for подойти подъехать for подослать for for подвезти for поднести подсказать for

пойти, прийти поехать, приехать послать, прислать повезти, довезти понести, донести сказать, сообщить

'go to' 'drive to', 'travel to' 'send to' ' haul to' bring to' 'carry to', ' 'tell', 'inform', 'let know'

ПОДИ + Imperative (Ipf or Prf) (Especially often in generalized statements.) '(You)just try ...-ing ...’

'Just see what happens when you ...'

'So much for ...-ing ...'

'How is anybody supposed to ...?' Когда сын разглагольствовал о принципах, он всегда отвечал "Поди- ка поживи, не то заговоришь. ” When his son held forth about principles, he always answered "Just see what happens when you live a while, and you'll start talking differently." Черт! В таких вопросах не осведомлен, обсуждай поди! Blast it! How is a person supposed to discuss problems like that when he isn't familiar with them? Вот поди верь тут учёным! Я и ничему не учился, да поскорей их собственным умом добрался, в чём штука-то. So much for taking the word of learned people on this! I never studied anything, and I figured out what was going on faster than they did, using my own head. ПОДИ-КА Strengthened form of поди. Used in all the meanings of поди:

(1 ) 'Go!', 'Go on, now!, (2) 'probably', 'it must be', 'I imagine' , 'one would think' (3) Tll be darned if ... didn't ...' , 'And would you believe it, ...', '... , of all things!', 'And strangely enough, ...'

НА ПОДИ ДА И НА ПОДИ See under HА , p224.

НА-КА ПОДИ НА- КО ПОДИ See under HA-KA, p223.

ПОДИ -ЧАЙ Strengthened form of поди in the sense of 'most likely', 'it must be (that ... )', 'I shouldn't wonder', 'I imagine.' ПОДОГНАТЬ 'get caught up' (on a backlog),

'catch (something) up' (pop. sp.)

Отсюда обратите внимание на расписания учёты там, и всё это. Подгони немедленно, поняли? From now on, pay attention to the schedules, the records there, and all that. Get caught up immediately, understand?


ПОДСКАЗАТЬ (рор. sp.) = сказать, сообщить, 'tell', 'inform', 'let know' See under ПОД-, p 274. ПОДУМАЕШЬ -- In Replies Containing Repetitions May stand either at the beginning or at the end of the reply. Always set off by a pause. Expresses ironic disagreement. 'Well now isn't that just too terrible ! ...!'

'Now what do you think of that! ... !

Well now isn't that something! ... !'

....! Big deal!'

-Вы обидели их. -Поду- умаешь! Оби- идел! -You offended them. -Offe-ended them! Bi-ig deal !


= подходят. See under ХОДЮТ.

ПОДЪЕДИ / ПОДЪЕДИТЕE (Substandard) = подъезжай / подъезжайте . See under EXХАТЬ: Imperative forms. ПОДЫГРЫВАТЬ / ПОДЫГРАТЬ (pop . sp. )

'collaborate with',

' work in support of ,

'help out'

Ну вот: когда хозяин спросит об этом, надо стоять на своём, будем подыгрывать друг другу. Now look, when the boss asks about this, we've got to stick to our guns; we'll back each other up.


'I guess'


... may very well ...'

'for all I know'

'very likely'

Compared to вероятно, наверно, ог должно быть, with which it is often equated in dictionaries, пожалуй reflects an attitude that is less definite, less decided , and less actively interested . Where вероятно, наверно, and должно быть indicate that the speaker has every reason to consider something to be probable , пожалуй often indicates no more than that the speaker has no particular reason to consider it improbable.

Ну, пожалуй, они правы. Well , perhaps they're right . / Well , they may be right . Было уже, пожалуй, за полдень когда уехали. It may well have been past noon when they left. ПОЖАЛУЙ СКАЖУТ, (ЧТО) ... 'one would have thought (that) ... ' (Literally, "Very likely people will say that ... ") Он вдруг вскочил на ноги. Пожалуй скажут,что ужалила пчела. He suddenly jumped to his feet. One would have thought a bee had stung him.


ПОЖАЛУЙСТА Besides the three meanings of пожалуйста in expressions of politeness, (1 ) requesting: 'please', (2) agreeing to do something: 'Certainly', 'By all means' , and (3) in reply to thanks : 'Not at all', 'Don't mention it', 'Glad to' , the following uses should be noted: (4) пожалуйста + Imperative

Expressing neutrality and indifference toward an intention to do something: 'Go ahead and ... ',

'Sure, ... ',

'By all means , ....'

Пожалуйста, проверьте итоги, если хотите. Sure, go ahead and check the addition, if you want to. (5) пожалуйста as an Interjection Referring to an unexpected and spontaneous event: 'what do you know',

' and oops!' ,

'and / when all of a sudden',

'of all things'.

-Да за этой рекой разве угонишься. Чуть оглянулся, а она - пожалуйста! завалила уже песком весь фарватер. (Паустовский) You really can hardly keep up with this river. You've · scarcely turned your head, and oops! It's already blocked up the whole channel with sand. ПОЖЕВАТЬ



ПОЙТИ НА + Асс 'agree with',

'go along with',


See under ИДТИ НА.



become (different)', 'change', 'arise (in contrast to an earlier kind)'


with Noun as subject

b. с.

with Adjective + Noun as subject' with Noun as subject & Adjective as predicate


with Comparative Adjective

begin', 'start', 'take to ... -ing'

with IpfInf EXAMPLES 1a .


Нынче заведение такое пошло, что всякая тебе лапотница в дворянство норовит. (-А . Н. Островский) Nowadays a custom has grown up that every peasant girl tries to get into the gentry. ... Нынче образованные да бойкие девицы пошли, не как в наше время. (-Мамин- Сибиряк) Nowadays a generation of educated and bold girls has come along that aren't the way they were in our day. -От старинки-то как есть ничего не осталось. Да и люди совсем другие пошли. Разе где старички еще держатся. (-Мамин-Сибиряк) There is absolutely nothing left ofthe old ways. And the people have become entirely different. Except maybe where the old people live.


Люд-то нынче пошли злы-обманчивы, лукавы-подходчивы. (-А.Н. Островский) People nowadays have gotten mean and deceitful , sly and devious. ... -Какова пошла наша молодежь! (-Гайдар) What have our young people come to be like!



-Вообразите, лифчики пошли еще длиннее, впереди мыском, и ... (Гоголь) Just imagine, under-bodices have gotten longer, and come to a point in front, and ... [Long list offashion details follows. ] -Валяй! ободрил его хозяин. -Да нет ли каких посмешнее, -Нет, -с сожалением сказал поэт, -смешных больше не сочиняю, стих у меня пошел больше драматический! (-Скиталец) -"Go on!" the host encouraged him . "Aren't there any that are a little funnier?" -"No," said the poet with regret . " I don't write funny ones any more. My mood has become mostly dramatic now!"


Язык его стал мешаться, и он пошел перескакивать с одного предмета на другой. (-Л . Н. Толстой) His speech began to be slurred, and he started to jump from one subject to another. Офицер сам ключом открыл замок и пошел вынимать да раскладывать по столу и вино, и масло, и сыр, и консервы, и шоколад, и копченое, и соленое ...все что хочешь. The officer opened the lock with the key himself, and started taking out and spreading out on the table wine, butter, cheese, canned goods, chocolate, smoked meat, and pickles ... everything you could want. До прошлой осени был все еще Степой и Степой. А вот женился, и пошли его величать по отчеству. (-Холендро) Until last fall he was always called Stepa. But he got married, and people started dignifying him with his patronymic. Бывало, пойдет говорить ... век бы не спал, слушая его! (-Горький) He'd get started talking, and you could stay awake for ages listening to him! -Известное дело. Что ж, Самсон Силыч, все это в наших руках. -Знаю, что в наших руках; да сумеешь ли ты это дело сделать-то? Ведь вы народец тоже! Я уж вас знаю! На словах-то вы прытки, а там и пошел блудить. (-А. Н. Островский) -That's nothing new. After all , Samson Silych, we've got this whole thing sewed up. -I know we've got it sewed up, but are you going to be able to put this thing through? Oh, [you lawyers, ] you're fine ones, you are! Boy, do I ever know how you are! You guys put up a great line of talk, and before you know it, you've been had! (Lit.: and then you've started to get off the track.)

ПОЙТИ + Ipf Inf 'begin to',

'start in ...-ing'

'take to ...-ing'

(often with an ironic , disapproving tinge) Я хорошо знаю их обоих. Немедленно пойдут спорить. I knowthem both very well. They'll start arguing immediately. Вернулся в наш город, и все пошли сплетничать. He returned to our town, and everybody started in gossipping. ПОКА Basically, пока characterizes a state of affairs as temporary, and implies a contrast with the situation that follows. From this basic meaning a number of different senses are derived: 1. As adverb:


'for a time', 'for a while' Я пока останусь здесь. I'll stay here a while.


'for the time being', 'temporarily', 'until the time comes / came'

Жили там пока, ожидая, когда закончится постройка нового дома. They lived there temporarily while they waited for the construction of the new house to be finished.



'meanwhile', 'in the meantime', 'while that is / was going on' In this meaning, the sentence containing пока •is often introduced by a contrasting A. Вы возьмите лопати, копайте немного. А мы с Борисом передохнем пока. You take the shovels and dig a while, and in the meantime Boris and I will get our breath .


'at first', ' for a while', ' for some time' Пока все молчали, думали. А потом несколько человек стали говорить одновременно. At first all ofthem thought in silence . But then several people started to talk at once.


'so far', 'up to now' Вот Быкову пока везёт, ничего не скажешь. А дальше что будет? (Саянов) Up to now Bykov's been lucky, there's no getting away from that. But what'll happen next?


just now', 'at the moment', 'at the present time' Надеюсь,что завтра придет мне перевод на пятьдесят рублей, а пока денег у меня никаких нет. I hope that tomorrow a money order for 50 rubles will come for me, but right now I haven't got any money at all.


As conjunction:. a.

'while' , 'while at the same time'


Пока Вася готовил рыбу, Юрий разводил костёр. While Vasya was getting the fish ready, Yuri made a fire. 'until' (Most often with a не and a Prf verb, though not necessarily. Omission of не is more colloquial .) Всегда играем в теннис пока не станет темнеть. We always keep playing tennis until it gets dark. Подождите здесь пока я (не) вернусь. Wait here until I come back.


'by the time that' И дожди здесь! Пока доберешься через двор, всё идет к мокру. And the rains they have here! By the time you get across the yard, everything you've got on is soaked through .

ПОКА ЕЩЕ 'so far' 'as yet'

'It will be some time before ...' 'It will be a while (before ... will ...),

'up to now' 'No telling how long till ...'

-Как? Вопрос уже решен, -Нет, пока еще. -Well , is the problem resolved yet? -No, it will be a while yet. Ну, сядем, пока еще будут готовы. Well, let's sit down . No telling when they'll be ready. ПОКА ЧТО 'in the meantime'

'for the time being'

Еще несколько времени продолжались толки о новом старшем офицере. Все решили пока что ждать поступков. (-Станюкович) Talk about the new senior officer went on for a while longer . Everybody decided for the time being to wait and see what he did.


Она была не в силах сдержать рыдания. Шамет понял ... пока что не надо ее ни о чём расспрашивать. (-Паустовский) She did not have the strength to hold back the sobs . Shamet realized that for the present it was not the time to question her about anything. ПОКАЗАТЬ

+ Dat + Inf

(In threats: Я тебе покажу ... 'I'll show you ... ' / 'I'll teach you to ... ,) Used like ДАТЬ. See ДАТЬ, p 105 . ПОКАМЕСТЬ ПОКАМЕСТЬ ПОКÉЛИЧА










ПокЕль поки








= пока. ПОЛЕТЕТЬ: idiomatic meanings 1. 'be removed from one's position ' , 'be fired', После осмотра директор полетел. After the inspection, the head ofthe place was fired. 2.

'give out', 'go bad', 'get out of order (Cf. вылететь.) Надо побежать туда, поговорить с ними. Телефон полетел. I'll have to run over there and talk with them. The telephone has gone on the blink.

полно 1. (As neu . short adj . predicate word) a.

полно ( + ты / вы / тебе / вам)

'That's enough',

'That'll do',

'Stop it'

Да полно ты (OR тебе) , перестань! Не о чём сокрушаться-то. Now, that's enough . Stop it! There's nothing to grieve over.

Полно вам, Василий Максимович! Вы не должны так шутить. (Ажаев) That'll do, Vasilii Maksimovich! You don't have to clown around like that. b.

полно / полноте ( + Dat) + Inf

'That's enough ...- ing ...' That's enough of that ...-ing'

'Cut out the ...-ing' 'Quit ...-ing'

Полноте огорчаться. Now, don't upset yourself any further. Полно хныкать-то! That's enough of that snivelling! 2. (As adv.) a.

Objecting and remonstrating

'Come now, ...'

'Really, now, ...'

'Now honestly , ...'

'Now really, ...'

.. 'Do you really mean to say .... 'Actually, ...'

-Простите что я вас беспокою. -Полно, садитесь! -I'm sorry to disturb you. -Nonsense! Sit down!

Да ты, полно, не сочинаешь ли? Now honestly, you're not making that up?

'Nonsense , ... '


-Они все смеются надо мной ... -Ну полно,что ты! -They're all laughing at me. -Nonsense! How you talk!

-Иван Сергеевич круглый дурак. · -Да это полно тот же самый Иван Сергеевич? -Ivan Sergeevich is a complete fool. -Really now, is that the same Ivan Sergeevich? b.

The same as # 2a, objecting and remonstrating, in Replies Containing Repetitions. • Другой год уж не пью. -Полно- ка, полно не пью! -I haven't taken a drink in over a year. -Oh , don't give me that "haven't taken a drink" stuff of yours! (Lit.: Oh cut it out, that's enough of "I haven't taken a drink"!)

ПО ЛНо О ( + Dat) + Inf полн (COXONA + Dat + Inf, # 2 .) "...!What would anybody do that for?" ' What was the point of ... 's ...-ing ...?

Why would ...?' ' 'What did ... have to ... for?'

Полно ему было вмешиваться в эту драку. What did he have to get into that brawl for? ПОЛОЖЕНО :


'the way it ought to be'

(COMMON) 'properly'

Я проверил все записки, снова составил протокол как положено. I checked all the notes and drew up the report over again, the way it should be done. А что там мямлишь так? Вот договори как положено или же перестань. What are you hemming and hawing like that for? Say what you have to say in a proper manner or else stop. ПОЛОЖИМ 1.

In suggestions and proposals. 'suppose we say'

'let's say'

Я имею честь предложить вам следующее: драться завтра рано, положим в шесть часов, за рощей, на пистолетах; барьер в десяти шагах ... (-Тургенев) I have the honor of proposing to you the following: to fight a duel early tomorrow morning, suppose we say at six o'clock, on the other side of the grove, with pistols, at ten paces ... 2. In rhetorical assumptions of an idea for the sake of argument, without admitting it to be a fact. 'Let's assume' 'Let's say'

'Supposing' 'Assuming (that)'


Положим, и она тебя любит, -я этого не думаю, -но положим так! (-Горький) Suppose she does love you. I don't think so, but let's suppose it's true.... Если он, положим, расстрелял этих предателей, кто из вас станет плакать по негодяям? (-Фурманов) If he did shoot those traitors, supposing he did, which of you is going to cry over the rats?


-Положим, нехорошо, и, хотя никто не говорит, все или многие знают. (-Л. Н. Толстой) -Let's grant that it's not a good thing and that although no one says so , everybody, or anyway a lot of people, know about it. 3.

In admissions of a known fact into the discussion. 'It's true ... ' 'Let's face it'


'of course'

'All right'

'Let's agree that' 'I'll admit ...'

'Admittedly ...' 'It's a fact that'

Introducing a whole sentence. Я с вами откровен буду. Слышали? Отказала жениху, ни у кого спросивши ничего. Оно, положим, я никогда этому браку не радовался. ... (-Л. Н. Толстой) ... I'll be frank with you . Have you heard? She has broken off her engagement without consulting anyone . I'll admit I was never enthusiastic about the marriage . ... Чего мне врать? Положим, наш брат, бродяга, сказки рассказынатӣ мастер. (-Горький) Why should I kid about it? It's a fact that guys like us, tramps, are masters at telling stories. Положим, хоть у нее муж и дурак, да свекровь-то больно люта. (.А.Н . Островский) Let's face it : of course her husband is a sap, but her mother- in-law is hell on wheels.


Marking a concessive clause, with a following assertion-clause introduced by но Similar to хоть ... а / но / да ... Cf ХОТЬ # 1 B (a) , p 631 , and Examples #c , p 632 . Положим, он хороший человек, но что ж, против воли отца счастья бы не было, и Наташа без женихов не останется. (-Л.Н. Толстой) Of course he's a fine man, but after all they wouldn't have been happy opposing his father's will, and Natasha won't be left without suitors. Ведь мое сердце начало биться давно: положим, билось фальшиво, невпопад, но это самое научило меня различать его правильное биение от случайного. (-Гончаров) After all, my heart started beating a long time ago. Admittedly, it beat wrongly, and out of rhythm, but this is just what has taught me to distinguish the correct. beat from the incidental one. Мне больно еще то, что это разрывает нашу дружбу. Положим, не разрывает, но ослабляет. (-Л . Н. Толстой) The other thing that pains me is that this destroys our friendship. Or all right, it doesn't destroy it , but it does weaken it. Вы ее обманули, положим; но вы сами обманулись. (-Тургенев) You deceived her, it's true; but you deceived yourself, too.


In exclamations expressing disagreement or disbelief.

'Oh, come on!'

Ну положим! Hey, just a minute now! Ну это еще положим! Oh , come on!

'Hey,just a minute!'


-Вы прежде согласились на это. -Э! Ну, положим! Никаких! -You agreed to this before. -Hey, come on ! I did not! ПО- МОЕМУ

- in exasperated insisting and reiterating

'I believe'

'I should think'

(Cf. наверно and кажется)

-А мне надо, говорю, видеть его сегодня. - Я уже сказал, по- моему, что он ушел в отпуск. -But I have to see him today, I tell you. -I already told you , I believe, that he has gone on vacation. ПОМНОГУ:


See under Довольно , р 110 . ПОНАВЕЧНО

(popular speech / regional)

= Навечно

'for ever'

'for good'

ПОНЕСКОЛЬКУ 'a little at a time'

'a little'

-Берете только понемногу, потому что мне еще не доплатили. -Ну давай хоть понемножечку нам. -Я вам дам понескольку рублей. -You're only getting a little , because I still haven't been paid in full. -Well, give us a little bit, at least. -I'll give you a few rubles. ПОРА:


'this far'

'to this point'

'to here'

- Я больше с женщинами никогда не говорю. Десять слов, и довольно, готово, вот по сих пор. (Показывает на уши.) (-А.Н. Островский) -I never do any more talking than that with women. Ten words, and that's enough , that's it, she's in love with me right up to here. (Points to his ears.) Я ПОПРОШУ -- Prf used to express politeness and deference. (COMMON) 'I'd like to ask you, ... ' 'Let me ask you, ...' 'May I ask you, ..., (Lit .: I will ask you (i.e. , if that's all right with you).) The use of я попрошу in this sense is common in present-day colloquial speech . other verbs in this "Perfective of politeness " occur also, at least in the written language:


Я предпочту - I would prefer Я откланяюсь - I will take my leave (--a 19th century expression) Напомним, что ... We would remind you that ... ПОПРЫГАТЬ 1. ' jump up and down ,' ' get all excited,' 'be all worked up' (slang) Нам хоть бы что. Если докладов не поступило, то вот эти попрыгают, а не мы. We couldn't care less . Ifno reports have come in, they're the ones that are going to be all excited, not us.



'persist,' 'be obstinate ,' 'get stubborn' ( popular speech) Иногда с ним очень трудно соглашаться, но - попрыгав соглашаешься (Горький) Sometimes it's very hard to agree with him, but - after holding out for a while - you do agree.


(popular speech)




'get along'

(Прыгать is used in this same sense.)

Как попрыгаешь? How are you? Прыгаю помаленьку, не жалуюсь. I'm not doing badly; I'm not complaining.


(dialectal : Northwestern & North Central)

- очень


( slang)

'eat ,' ' have something to eat' (--Prfof рубать) ПОРЯДОК:

ПОРЯДКА + Numeral


'of the order of

'on the order of 'around'

'in the range of

скорость порядка 250 км в час a speed somewhere around 250 km per hour. цена порядка ста рублей a price in the neighborhood of 100 rubles.


В ПОРЯДКЕ + Noun (Gen) B + Adj (Loc) + ПОРЯДКЕ Adj (Ins) + ПОРЯДКОМ

Used as a device for making adverbial expressions based on the meaning of the Noun or Adjective that accompanies порядок. with Gen. Noun:

в порядке контроля: as a check в порядке дружбы: 'for the sake of friendship,' 'by way of friendship' в порядке самокритики: based on self-criticism'

with Loc. Adj. :. в приказном порядке:

by official order,' 'in the form of an order'.

в обязательном порядке: ' without fail' ( = обязательно) в спешном порядке: 'quickly' ( = спешно) by administrative order' в административном порядке: 'administratively,' '

with Ins. Adj.: законным порядком: 'legally' сепаратным порядком: by separate action' организованным порядком: 'in an organized manner'

опытным порядком: ' experimentally,' by trail and error' ПОСТАВИТЬ

See under CTАВИТЬ, p 327 .



( = постановлять) / ПОСТАНОВИТЬ

resolve , decide (standard literary)

2. install, set up (regional & non- standard)


(Ipf поставать ) (Ukrainianism)

Not listed in Russian dictionaries . A common word in Ukrainian , however, and used by some speakers of Russian. 1. Ukrainian meanings include: a. 'crop up,' 'appear,' ' arise,' 'form,' 'take share' b.

'arise,' 'ensue ,' 'result'


'originate,' 'be born( in such-and-such a place) ,' 'be from,' 'hail from'


'begin,' ' set in,' 'descend (upon the scene)' (--of a mood or an atmosphere)

e. 'come to mind (as),' 'be pictured (as),' 'seem like' f. 'cometo a stop'

h. i.

'come to a spot and occupy it,' 'go to' 'take up a position,' 'take one's stand' (on an issue) 'stand out' (from surroundings) , 'be noticeable,' 'tower (above) ,' 'loom (over),' 'dominate'


'be tired'



'become,' 'change into'

2. Also:

Russian стоять, постоять in the sense of

'stand,' 'be located,' 'be positioned ,' 'occupy (a position in a sequence)'



= До тех пор

'up to that time'

'until then'


'quietly,' 'softly,' ' silently'


' secretly,' ' stealthily,' ' on the sly,' 'on the quiet'


'confidentially,' just between us'


'slowly,' 'without hurrying'


'slightly,' ' a little'


'then,' ' and then,' ' and next'


' afterwards,' 'later on'

3. ' and besides,' ' and furthermore,' ' and on top of that'

-Что такое?, -Да, это, бензина нет, потом жидкости тормозной не найдем сейчас. -What's the matter? -Well, it's this: there's no gas, and on top of that we can't find any brake fluid just now.


(popular speech )

- потому, что


Вам можно всё: вы капиталу не проживете, потому его нет. (-А.Н. Островский) You can do everything. You won't spend any capital , because there isn't any. Коновалова никто не обидет, потому ... он сам никого не обижает. (-Горький) No one is going to offend Konovalov , because he himself never offends anybody.


(popular speech)

= потому, что



- так как


'seeing that'

-- As epithet



' rat'

(Cf. потроха ( ) 'giblets,' 'innards ,' 'guts')

Кирпиченко через весь стол ударил его по скуле. Банин отлетел в угол, тут же вскочил и схватился за стул. -Ты, потрох! -с рычаньем наступал на него Кирпиченко ...(Аксенов) Kirpichenko hit him on the cheekbone from all the way across the table. Banin flew into a corner, immediately jumped up, and grabbed a chair. "You, you scum!" snarled Kirpichenko as he advanced upon him .... ПО-ФИЗИЧЕСКИ 'actually'

' physically' ПОХОЖЕ

1. (As reply) 'It looks that way'

'I guess so'

.Кажется, будет драка. -Похоже. -Apparently there's going to be a brawl. -It looks that way. 2. (As parenthetically inserted comment)


'as far as one can / could see',


Они, похоже, только что проснулись. Apparently they had just waked up. 3. (As predicate: похоже на то, что / похоже, что) 'It looks as if

Поздно. Похоже, что его не будет. It's late. It looks as if he won't be here. (older spelling : почом) (popular speech)


From по + чём . instead ofDat. , p 273.

See under ПО:

ПО + Loc. of a personal or interrogative pronoun

1. (interrog & relative) ' how much each?,' which'

2. (in combination) a.

with знать: ' why?,' 'on what basis? Почём знаю, Why should I know? / How would I know?


with зря (popular speech)

'at what price?,'

' at the price


почём зря = как попало / как угодно, 'any old way' 3.

= 0чë

'about what?,' 'concerning what?" (dialectal )


= куда = зачем = почто etc. 'why?,' 'what for?'


= по какой линии 'viа what?,' ' through which official channel?,' what route?,' 'through what office?"


(-Ог по чëм??) 'in whose line of work?"


Note also the negative combinations , derived from пo + ничто and пo + нeчто , variously written as one , two, or three words:


ни по чём, ни почём, нипочём не по чём, не почём, непочём Им нипочем танцевать до зари. They find it easy to dance until dawn. / They think nothing of dancing until dawn. (Lit.: It costs them nothing to ...) Какая бы ни была погода, ему все нипочем. No matter what the weather is like, he doesn't care. Это не почём. a. That is perfectly easy to do. (Lit.: There is nothing that it costs. ) b. That has no value.

ПочEму (XE) (HE) In Replies Containing Repetitions Used in affirmative and reassuring answers, in the sense of "Why do you ask?” in the same way as oтчeго (же) (не) and кaк же. May stand at the beginning or at the end of the reply. Always set off from the repeated word or phrase by a slight pause. The repeated word or phrase is always either the predicate or the most significant element ofthe preceding speech. When the He is absent, пoчexy (жe) is used in the sense of "Why do you ask?” and a positive assertion follows. The нe is present when there is a repetition of the main verb or some other key word taken from the preceding speech: "Why not ...?”

' Why ...? ' Why not ...?' '

' What's wrong with that?" ' What makes you think it's not?'

Why do you ask?" '

-А помог бы ты мне тогда? -Почему же? Помог бы. -But would you help me then? -Why do you ask? I'd help you .

-И бензина нет, что ли? -Есть , почему же. -And there isn't any gasoline, huh? -Yes,there is! What makes you think that? -Неужели ты не заинтересован в том, чтобы ваш колхоз собирал высокие урожаи? -Почему не заинтересован? Заинтересован ... (Овечкин) . -Do you mean to say you aren't interested in your kolkhoz's collecting big harvests? -What makes you think I'm not interested? I'm interested ...




ПОЧЕСТЬ что 'almost'

= почти



Вот куртка почесть новая и осталась. Thejacket has stayed nearly new.


(popular speech)

(--also: почитай что) = почти, 'almost, 'nearly,' 'practically'


Ведь ты нам почитай что родной. After all , to us you're practically a member of the family.

Да мы его и не видали почитай: все в Москве жил (Л. Толстой) But we didn't see him at all, almost - he lived all the time in Moscow. T'll bet' I think ,' ' I guess,' ' 2. 'probably,' ' Об этом он-то, почитай, тридцать книг прочитал. I'll bet he's read thirty books on that subject.

почти чТО = почти




Я узнал его почти что сразу же. I recognized him almost immediately.





'what for?'

Ты почто это принес, What did you bring that for?


(popular speech) 'as a matter offact' 'infact' (--as opposed to what might have been expected. )

'actually '

This newer sense may have been evolved partly through the idea of 'in practice' (на практике) and partly through confusion with фактически .

ПРЕДСТАВЛЯТЬ ПРЕДСТАВЛЯТЬ ИЗ СЕБЯ = представлять собой , be’

(popular speech)

Это ничего не представляет. That doesn't amount to anything. / That is of no importance.

ПРИ + Gen. - instead of Loc. (dialectal: Southern & some Central dialects) При хозяина нельзя так бездельничать. You can't loafaround like that in front of the boss.


ПРИ ТОМ 1. One ofthe uses ofпри is to indicate an attendant circumstance that accompanies the action of the verb:

при свечах при свежем ветре

-by candlelight -with a fresh breeze

при солнце

-when the sun is out, in sunlight

The noun introduced by при is often a verbal noun denoting an action:

при проверке счетов

-at the time ofhis departure -in the course ofthe audit

при обнаружении

-upon the discovery (of)

при его отъезде

This meaning is not nearly so readily apparent, however, in the expressions при том and при этом, where the demonstratives то and это refer to a whole preceding clause whose action accompanies the next action described and provides the background for it. Here, при том and при этом саn usually be interpreted as 'when ... did so', 'while ... was doing that', ' while so doing', 'in so doing', 'in the course of it', 'while this was going on', etc.

При этом вошел директор. While this was going on the director walked in. Он копал колодец и при том нашел золото. He was digging a well , and in so doing found the gold . Она каждый день разносила письма по отделениям и при том услышала все слухи. Every day she carried the letters around to the departments, and in the course of it heard all the gossip . An explanation of the following more difficult example is provided by what is apparently a still further extended use of this при том:

Всегдашние занятия Троекурова состояли в разъездах около пространных его владений, в продолжительных пирах, и в проказах, ежедневно при том изобретаемых и жертвою коих бывал обыкновенно какой-нибудь новый знакомец; ... (Пушкин) Troyekurov's regular activities consisted in riding around his extensive estates, in lengthy feasts, and in pranks, which were devised daily on the spot, and whose victim was usually some recent acquaintance; ... (*On the spot : i.e. , while the feasting and other activities were going on . On the spur ofthe moment. ) 2. It appears that in general when при has the meaning of 'in spite of, itis regularly accompanied by a form of весь. And when it is accompanied by a form of весь, it can be expected to have this meaning: при всём его образовании

-despite all his education

при всех их достоинствах

-in spite ofall their virtues

при всех трудностях положения

-regardless ofall the difficulties in the situation

при всём тои

-in spite ofall that

However, the expression при всём том саn have either of two meanings : 'moreover' a. 'besides ' 'furthermore'


'in spite of all that'

'for all that'





8 Привет !,


' Greetings ! '


• приедет , ' will arrive ' --Incorrect , but used by many people in both speaking and writing.


+ number, time , or quantity

( pop . sp. )

' about ' , ' approximately ' , ' somewhere around ' , ' something like' Примерно


так саn both

have this meaning when used alone ,


in popular

speech they are often needlessly combined. Скажите ему , что я примерно так в двенадцать , пол первого позвоню . Tell him I'll phone around twelve or twelve -thirty . Сейчас нельзя , но примерно так после обеда я пойду к ним . I can't do it right now , but some time after dinner I'll come to see them .


(pop . sp. )

' take a thing seriously' The





чему- нибудь





language . Я еще получил злое письмо от него , но с этого не принял значения . I got a nasty letter from him a while ago,


but I didn't take





' for this very reason' —Вот он я пришел ! -Хорошо , добрый день по этой причине . -Here I am !

-Fine . Good morning, and your arrival makes it a good one .

it seriously .


(pop . sp . )


8 пробовать , ' test ' , ' try out ' In the standard literary language , пробировать is used only of testing or assaying metals , alloys , and ores , usually of precious metals .

But in popular speech it can

be used like пробовать in reference to testing or trying out anything . -Здесь просушить нечем .

Подогреватель неисправный .

-Непонятно , пробировали здесь , он исправный был . -There's nothing here to dry anything out with . -I can't understand it .


The heater is out of order.

They tried it out here , and it was working.

(pop . sp. )

= проводить , in the sense of ‘ lead someone on ' , ‘ trick someone ' , ' kid someone ' , ‘ put someone

on '

Как это?

Билеты распроданы?. . . .А вы раньше достали?

Ах, значит ,

проваживаете меня. What ? The tickets are sold out? . . . .But you got some before? Ah, in other words you're putting me on .



' wait ' , ' be patient ' , ' hang on ' , ' find something to do for a few minutes ' (Lit.: ' chew blotting paper for a while ’ . )

Подожди ,

я сейчас справлюсь в архивах, ты пожуй пока промокашку .

Wait a minute , I'll look it up in the files right away, and you just wait a bit .


(In threats :

Я вам пропишу . . . ' I'li show you some .. . - ing ' , I'll teach you to .. .')

Used like дать .

See ДАТЬ , р 105 .


'What a job it is,

. .


+ Inf or Noun of action

. -ing'

' Just try .. . -ing' | Прошу разговаривать с глухой старухой! What a job it is conversing with a deaf old lady !

Там битком набито , прошу продраться . It's jam-packed in there .

Just try to force your way through .





И ВСЕ ТАКОЕ ПРОЧЕЕ = и прочее , ‘ and so forth ' , ' and everything that goes with that'

ПРЫГАТЬ 'live ' , ' do ' , ' manage ' , ' get along ' See under ПОПРЫГИВАТЬ .




Used much like вот еще and туда же . May stand either first or last in the reply.

May or may not be set off by a pause

if it stands first ; always set off by a pause when it stands last . Expresses derisive contradiction , scornful disagreement . ' The heck ... !'

' Baloney

' Don't tell me . . . !


' Don't give me that stuff about . . . ! '

' ... horseradish !'

'Oh no (it's not . . . ) !' -Мой пиджак тебе не влезет . -Прямо не влезет !

( OR : Не влезет , прямо ! )

-My jacket won't fit you . -Baloney it won't fit !

(OR : Won't fit , baloney ! )

-Ваших побьют !

-Прямо уж побьют ! -They're going to beat your team ! -The heck they will !

-Что он , не починит , что ли? —Не чинил , прямо ! -What's he doing? Can't he fix them or something? -Don't try to tell me he hasn't been fixing them !


пусть .


Пусть is sometimes a little stronger and more closely associated with commands , and пускай is somewhat milder and associated more with giving permission .


ПУСКАЙ БЫ ЕЩЕ = диви бы = добро бы = пусть бы §2.

See these .

'That would be all right if . . . ' 'It would be understandable if . • 'It would make sense if . . . ' 'There would be some excuse if . . . '


+ 3 vb, Ipf or Prf

1. пусть ( + он / она / оно /они ) ( + ero/ee/erо/ иx ) ( + ceбe ) ( + ceōe)

Omission of the pronouns is frequent .

The difference between the Nom. and the

Acc. of the 3rd person pronoun is that the Acc . is more colloquial and conveys more unconcern on the part of the speaker.

The pronoun -particle ceбe conveys that on the

part of the doer the action is to be done freely, independently, without ference , and without being influenced by any attendant circumstance .

any inter-

(For more on

ceбe with this meaning in other constructions , see under CEBE . ) a . commanding , strongly advising 'Let him ... ' , 'Tell him to . . . ' , ' Have him . . . ' Если хочет получить больше зарплаты , пусть больше работает ! If he wants to earn more pay , let him do more work!

Пусть он приведет лодку к пристани . Tell him to bring the boat to the dock.

Пусть они внесут всё в протокол . Have them enter everything in the record. (1 ) Пусть is often found following verbs of telling, commanding, advising, etc. Поди скажи им , пусть приведут лодку . Go and tell them to bring the boat .

Торопите их , пусть они закончат скорее . Hurry them up, have them finish up everything as soon as possible . Передай Чаху , —приказал Штерн , пусть проверит , как закреплен груз в трюмах.

Надвигается шторм .


"Tell Chakh to check on how the freight is made fast in the holds , " Stern ordered .

" There's a gale coming on . "

b. acquiescing , dismissing a matter, giving consent. ' Let ... then ' , ' All right , so let .

Хорошо , пусть будет по- твоему . All right, have it your way . ( Lit .: All right , let it be your way . )


всё равно .

Пусть их думают что им угодно об этом .

I don't care .

Let them think whatever they like about it .


Пусть их курят себе .

Мне не мешает .

Let them go ahead and smoke .

It doesn't bother me.

c . wishing, desiring ' Let him ... ' , ' May he .. . ' , ' I hope that . . . ' , ' I wish . . . ' Пусть сбудутся все твой надежды. May all your hopes come true. Пусть будут счастливы .

May they be happy./I hope they'll be happy. Пусть они благополучно доедут туда.

I hope they get there safely.

Пусть он придет . I wish he would get here . d. warning and threatening , 'Let · • 'Just let . . .' Пусть он только попробует сделать это ! Just let him try to do that !

2. пусть ( + я /мы ) + 1 sg/pl vb , Prf wishing, desiring; often asking someone not to interfere . " ' Let me /us ... Пусть останусь здесь .

Let me stay here. Пусть я расскажу, не прерывайте . Let me tell it , don't interrupt .

"1 3. Following a complete clause : " ххх ... пусть ! "

ххх -- пусть ! " " ххх . Пусть . "

Various kinds of concession and consent : unconcerned, resigned, or defiant . Любят спорить . . . пусть . They like to argue . Значит , так надо .

Let them .


So it has to be that way . All right then. Так стоят на своем .

Пусть .

So they're sticking to that .

Very well.

Хорошо , им не нравится-- пусть ! All right , they don't like it .-- That's perfectly okay !

4. пусть... ( но ... ) contrasting

(See also ПУСТЬ ДАЖЕ /ПУСТЬ ХОТЬ , $ 1 , p 295. )

' though ' , ' although ' , ' perhaps ... ( but . . . ) ' , ' indeed . . . (but . . . ) ' Положение , пусть трудное , не беспокоит его . The situation is certainly difficult , but it does not worry him.


Пусть не все , но многие присутствовали . Not all , to be sure , but a good many were present .

5. пусть as conjunction : a . concessive , ' Let . . . ' , ' Admitting that . . . ' , ' even if' , ' even though ' Пусть они сердятся на меня , но всё равно останусь здесь. Let them be angry at me , but I'm staying here all the same . Пусть уже поздно , но работу мы должны закончить сегодня. Even though it's late , we're supposed to finish the job today . Пусть дождь , я всё равно пойду .

Rain or no rain , I'm going anyway . Пусть он вытащил меня из огня, разве это дает право насмехаться? (Фадеев) Even though he pulled me out of a tight spot , does that give him the right to jeer? Hypothetical possibility .

b. + Prf.

( pop . sp . )

' Supposing that . . . ' , ' Assuming that .. . ' , 'What if . .. . '

Пусть я скажу ему, что тогда? I were to tell him , what then? Supposing I Пусть мы пойдем на то , как мы сделаем всё это? Suppose we go along with it , how are we going to do all this?

ПУСТЬ БЫ 1. wishing, desiring, requesting 'I wish' a. First in its clause

Пусть бы это уже кончилось . I wish this were already over with . b . Often after a verb of telling , advising, requesting, etc. ( Cf. ПУСТЬ § 1.а.( 1 ) . ) Скажите ей , пусть бы она ждала нас .

Tell her I wish she would wait for us. Написал бы ты им , пусть бы приезжали к нам . It would be nice if you would write them and ask them to come to see us. 2. conditional

and concessive

а. 8 добро бы = диви бы = если бы еще . ' It would have been all right if . . . ' Пусть бы отложил , но он просто отказался . It would have been all right if he had postponed it , but he simply refused to do it.



= лучше бы = было бы лучше , если бы ' It would have been better if . . . ' , ' I would rather that.. · Уж пусть бы ( лучше ) она им ничего не , сказала , а то в заблуждение повела. It would have been better if she hadn't told them anything; was ,

as it

she misinformed them .

с . = если бы ' Supposethat ... ' , ' supposing .. . . . ' , ' if ...

Ну , пусть бы ты нашел тысячу рублей , что бы ты сделал? Well , supposing you found a thousand rubles , what would you do ?

ПУСТЬ ДАЖЕ ПУСТЬ ХОТЬ 1. Contrasting .

Like ПУСТЬ § 4 .

' though indeed ' , ' although certainly ' . ' perhaps ... . but . . . ' Это задание , пусть даже трудно выполнимое , нравится ему . Although this task is certainly hard to do , he likes it.

2. Hypothetical possibility ' even ' , ' and even ' , ' or even ' , ' even if ' Я ожидал , что он рассердится , пусть даже придет в ярость , но на это молчание я совершенно не рассчитывал. was expecting that he would get angry ,

or even fly into a rage ,

but I

never expected this silence . Ему хотелось сказать всем друзьям , пусть даже совершенно неизвестным ему

людям . He had a desire to tell all his friends , and even complete strangers .

ПУСТЬ И 1. Contrasting .

Like ПУСТЬ $ 4 and ПУСТЬ ДАЖЕ , $ 1 .

' though ' , ' although ' , ' even ' Изъян , пусть и малый , снижает стоимость изделия. A flaw , even though small , lowers the value of the product . Этот опыт , пусть и трудоемкий , очень важный .

This experiment , though laborious , is a very important one.



1. пусть так но ... That's all very well but ...'

'Maybe so, but ...'

'Okay, but ...'

Пусть так, но я все же не убежден. Maybe so, but I'm still not convinced. Пусть так, но надо признать,что .. That's all very well, but it must be admitted that ...

2. Standing alone, as reply: the same as ПУСТЬ #3 . 'All right then, let it be that way'

'Very well!'

'So be it!"

-Вы пойдите, а я останусь дома. -Пусть так! -You go. I'mstaying home. -Very well then!





(popular speech)

properly,' 'well' ' Это надо путём обдумать. This needs to be well thought over. Под шум машин не мог путём разобрать,что он говорил. In the noise ofthe machinery I couldn't properly make out what he was saying.

Путём не знаю. I don't rightly know.



= пускай.


(popular speech)

= пускать В те поры ... по всем дорожкам цветные фонари горели; за рекой феверки пущали, (-А.Н. Островский) In those days ... they had colored lanterns lighted along all the roads; on the other side of the river they'd set offfireworks. -Вот и увидались ... Что же ты, старик, слезу пущаешь? (-Шолохов) Here we've met again. Why are you shedding a tear, old man? ПУЩЕ


'more,' 'more so' Она боится микробов пуще огня. She's scared ofgerms worse than fire.




(slang) junk,' 'trash,' 'drivel' (Lit.: millet) .Ищу книгу. -Эту не бери! Лабуда! Пшено! -I'm looking for a book. -Don't take that one! It's horseradish! Trash!




-following a verb

.for joy' Вишь , не опомнится , рад .. сказала Дуняша .. ( Л. Толстой)

'. . . , he's so glad ' ,

"You see, he can't come to his senses , he's so happy , "

said Dunyasha .

(pop . sp . & regional ; no longer used in standard literary ) бы ы БЫ PAД,-a,РАД, -а, -ы glad would to ... (but ) . . .' be 'I'd love to ... (but ) . . .' 'I Said of things that would be desirable but are difficult

or impossible to do .

Уж я рада бы читала , да не могла не засыпать . I'd be glad to read it , but I couldn't keep from falling asleep . -Не пойди к ним ! —Я бы рад не пошел , ну они пошли сюда . -Don't go to see them. -I'd be glad not to go, but they came here . И рад бы в рай , да грехи не пускают . ( Popular saying) I would if I could , but I can't. (Lit .: I'd be glad to go to heaven , but my sins won't let me . )


HE PA 11


И CAM HE PAJ ' sorry'

(-Cf . " HE : forming opposites as well as negating . " )

(that something happened ; especially something that the speaker himself brought on or participated in. )

'regret --ing ' И сам не рад , что поднял этот вопрос . I'm sorry I ever brought this point up . НЕ РАД ЖИЗНИ -- ЖИЗНИ НЕ РАД Emphatic form of HE PAI. - ' extremely sorry' , ' sorry as hell ' . -- САМ НЕ РАД БУДЕШЬ . НЕ РАД БУДЕШЬ ЖИЗНИ . 'You'll be sorry you did . ' / ' You're going to wish you hadn't . '



☐ в который ра3, ' by no means for the first time ' ,


' for the umpteenth time '


- BOT тебе раз !

' Well , what do you know ! ' , ' Well , what do you think of that !'

Expresses surprise upon perceiving something unexpected .

Preceding page blank

300 РАЗ :

ДРУГОЙ РАЗ ( pop . sp . )

• иной раз , ' sometimes ' (BUT NOTE ALSO : В ДРУГОЙ РАЗ , ' another time ' , ' some other time ' . )


' (the) next time ' —А чего ты всю дорогу сычом сидел , слова со мной не сказал , а ? Говори же в другие разы! Why did you sit like an owl the whole time and didn't say a word to me? Talk, the next time !



'by no means for the first time ' , 'for the umpteenth time '

PA3 TAKOE ДЕЛО = раз так = если так , ‘ if that's the case ' , ' if that's the way things are ' , ' in that case ’

-Нам больше нечего делать здесь. -Ну что ж , тронулись , раз такое дело . -There isn't anything further for, us to do here . -Well then what the heck, let's start out , if that's the way things stand .

РАЗ : ТЕПЕРЬ ЭТО РАЗ . ' This time just this once ( we'll let it go we'll do it this way/etc. ) . '


TOT РАЗ ' the other day ' , ' last time '


B TOT PA3 , ' (the ) next time ' . )

Но жену повидай непременно . привел тебя.

Мне и то досталось за то , что я тот раз не

(Л. Толстой)

But come to visit my wife without fail . As it is , she gave me the devil for not bringing you last time .

РАЗ ЧТО = paз, ' if' , ' once ' , ' since ' , ' insofar as ' , ' seeing that'



' It's hard to make any sense of it ' ' One can't make head or tail of it '

( pop . sp . )


PA3BE In addition to the more usual translations of разве , note the following: 1. ' may be ’

Разве вот Борис зайдет к нам сегодня . Maybe Boris will come to see us today. 2. (In rebukes :)

Разве так говорят? Is that any way to talk?

3. ' hardly ' -Да за этой рекой разве угонишься .

Чуть оглянулся , а она —пожалуйста !


( Паустовский )

уже песком весь фарватер .

You really can hardly keep up with this river. head and oops !

You've scarcely turned your

it's blocked up the whole channel with sand .

4. ( In assertions :) ‘ really not all that (bad , etc ) ' Потонуть кораблю здесь трудно .

Разве вовсе плохое судно .

It's not easy for the ship to sink here .


( Станюкович)

It's really not as bad a boat as all that .

... A TO ... When разве introduces an " unless '

clause , the other clause may be introduced

by an optional a то . Разве погода испортится , а то непременно устроим пикник . Unless the weather turns bad, we will have a picnic without fail . ( Lit .: . . . otherwise we will go . . . )



PA3BE РАЗВЕ ЧТО 1. + Inf. = разве , ' perhaps .... . had better . -И в комнате , наверно , на аршин грязи . полы?

Уж пожалеть разве тебя , помыть


And I'll bet the dirt in the room is a yard deep. on 2.

Maybe I'd better take pity

you and wash the floors , huh ?

= разве только / только разве , ' except perhaps ' , ' unless ' , ' if anything ' , ' if at all Не поеду вообще , разве если пошлют машину . I won't go at all , unless they send a car.

Приду , разве что дождь помешает . I'll come , unless the rain prevents me .


Мы сегодня не вернемся, разве что поздно вечером . We won't be back today , unless maybe we do late in the evening. -Пойдем , Никита , по колхозу , и я тебе не сто , а двести гектаров

такои земли найду! -Hy , разве что пустыри ... (Овечкин) - Let's go around the kolkhoz , Nikita , and I'll find you not a hundred but two hundred hektars of ground like that !

-Well , if any , perhaps the vacant lands . .





НУ РАЗВЕ ЧТО Of these compound particles , the ones that begin with Hy always stand at the beginning of the reply.

The others may stand at either the beginning or the end of

the reply . In this construction , repeated words are repeated without change of case ; they are never changed to Nominative . Expresses vacillation , hesitancy , unconvinced and not especially eager agreement to what has just been said by the other speaker. Если уж and Ну если are used in the same way . See p 114 .

'well , all right if it's . . . ' 'Well , if you really think it's ..

'Well, if it really is /does .. •

-Выпей чашечку. -Разве чашечку . (OR : Ну разве что чашечку . OR :

Разве если чашечку .


Разве уж чашечку.

OR :

Чашечку разве. )

-Drink a small cup of it . -Well , all right if it's a small cup. -Пойдем к ним на пять минут . -На пять минут разве что . -Let's go to see them for five minutes .

-Well , for five minutes okay .


РАЗВОРАЧИВАТЬ .. additional meanings ( pop . sp . ) 8 развёртывать , ' get (a job , a project ) going / started ' ; (often with no


stated direct object :) ' get set up to go ' , ' get things started ' ' speed (things ) up ' .


РАЗВОРАЧИВАТЬСЯ -- additional meaning (pop . sp . ) ' rush ' , ' go hastily '


( slang)

' Really? ' , ' On the level ? '


( Expresses doubt . )

(colloquial pronunciation )

- разве.


(dialectal )

• разве .


(pop . sp . & dialectal )

* раз (G. pl . ) So too границев fог границ , делов fог дел , местов for мест .



( pop . sp . )

ГДЕ - ТО В РАЙОНЕ ' around ' , ' approximately ' , ' about ' Это легко починить.

Понадобится в районе получаса.

This is easy to fix . It will take about half an hour.

Встретимся в районе двух часов . We'll meet around two o'clock .

РАССКАЖЕТ /РАССКАЖУТ These forms are used in expressions of doubt about someone's say anything reliable on some subject .

'A lot ... knows !' ' . . . will tell you a lot of baloney about ... '

competence to


Париж ?

Она- то три года жила там .

Paris ? She


Они тебе расскажут !

there for three

years .

A lot they know


it !

Вот , расскажут " Надо взять больший предохранитель . " Sure , they'll give you the business about “ What you need to do is get a bigger fuse. "

РАССКАЗЫВАЙ ,’ РАССКАЗЫВАЙТЕ These forms are used in replies , either containing repetitions or not , that convey blunt expression of complete disbelief and mistrust .

' Oh sure ! '

' That's a hot one !'

' Do tell ! '

'Don't give me that !'

(Cf. СКАЖИ . )

-Я ведь совсем не знал , на что он это .

-Да, рассказывай !

Совсем не знал !

-I tell you , I had no idea what he wanted it for. -Yeah, that's a hot one !

Had no idea !

-Охота тебе по дождю ходить!

-Не ходил . -Рассказывай .

По туфлям видать .

-What do you want to walk around in the rain for? -1 didn't . -Don't give me that .







I can tell by your shoes .



'planning to . . .'

' in such a way as to . . . '

' figuring on ...-ing'

' so as to . ..

' with a view to . . . -ing '

'in order to · •

'with the idea that . . .'

Записку на кухонном столе оставил , из расчета, что тут ее сразу найдут . He left the note on the kitchen table , with the idea that they would find it there right away . Отправил посылку с расчетом , чтобы доставилась к среде . He posted the package so as to have it arrive by Wednesday .



'only here and there' 'only in a few places'

There are not many places where ...' ' It is not in many places that ...,

Стало очень тихо. Редко где собака лаяла. It got very quiet. Only here and there a dog barked.

Редко где бывают такие крепкие морозы. There aren't many places where there are such bitter frosts.

РЕДКО КОГДА 'onlyonce in a while' 'hardly ever'

It's very seldom that ... ' ' 'It's not at all often that ...'

Теперь я редко когда вспоминаю о тех временах. I hardly ever think about those times now.


(--Кто may be in any case.)

'only a few people' 'hardly anybody'

There are / were not many people who ...' 'It isn't / wasn't many people who ...'

Жара была страшная. Редко кто не прихварывал. The heat was dreadful. Hardly anybody was not unwell. Это на самом деле редко с кем случалось. Actually, there are not many people that this has ever happened to. Мимо них прохаживались делегаты ... редко-редко у кого на груди не блестят ордена, медали. (Бабаевский) The delegates walked along past them: ... there were very few who did not have decorations and medals glittering on their chests.



= = работать POBHO The more well known uses of ровно are the following: 1.

(as adv. of ровный:) 'equally,' 'evenly,' ' smoothly'.

2. (with expressions of quantity and measure:) 'exactly,' 'just'.

Приехали ровно в пятьчасов . They arrived at exactly five o'clock. Стоит ровно на два рубля больше. It costs exactly two rubles more. a.

(often with negative pronouns and adjectives with the meaning of " none":)




У них не было ровно никакого понятия о трудоёмкости этого. They had simply no conception of the laboriousness of it. Изо всего, что он говорил, я ровно ничего не понял. I could understand absolutely nothing of all he said.

Дело окончилось ровно ничем. The affair came to absolutely nothing.


В зале ровно никого не было. There was no one whatever in the auditorium . Characteristic ofpopular colloquial speech are these additional uses: 3. (in comparison:) (popular speech) a.

(with nouns:) 'like,' 'as'. Раздался такой крик,что кровь у меня похолодела в жилах ровно лед. There was a shriek that froze the blood in my veins like ice. Отчего ты рычал на меня ровно зверь? What did you snarl like an animal at me for?


(with clauses:) 'as if Забыл о нем, ровно* его никогда не знал. * OR: ровно бы. I had forgotten about him as ifI had never known him.

4. (as parenthetical clause-modifier:) ' it seems,' 'it's as if,' ' I think,' ' I guess ,' 'evidently,' ' as far as I can see,' 'it looks like'. (popular speech & regional) Used in conjectures. Sometimes expresses uncertainty or doubt (--example 2 below). Я это ровно когда-то читал. It seems to me I've read that at some time or other. Ты чья же, девушка, будешь? Ровно не из нашего конца. (Бажов) Who might you belong to, girl? It seems to me you're not from around here. А ведь ты, кая- сякая, помолодела ровно. Что ж ты делала? But you, you so-and-so, it seems you're looking younger. What have you been doing?








POBHO # 4,

'it seems,' 'I guess,' 'evidently,' 'as far as I can see,' 'it looks like', etc. (popular speech & regional)

Ай- ай, ровно бы горчит маненько, а? Пригаринка, видно. (Леонов) Oh boy, I guess it tastes a little bitter, huh? There must have been a burned spot there. Ну, я на него смотрю, что он ровно как болел. Well, I saw by looking at him that apparently he was sick.



Take it easy' '

'Don't get excited'

'Don't let it throw you'

РОЗНЬ: Nomsg / pl + Datsg / plofSAME word + PОЗНЬ (Doubled-Word Construction) There are ...-s and ...-s .’

' Not all ...-s are the same.'

Работа работе рознь. Эта очень интересная. There are jobs and jobs. This one is very interesting. -А вы вот родных и знать-то не хотите? •Родня родне рознь . -And you don't want to know your own relatives? -Relatives aren't all alike .


Хотя судья судье рознь , а закон для всех один. (Семенов) There may be different judges, but it is the same law for everyone.





'eat with gusto'

'chow down'

(dialectal & uneducated)

= рублей, of рубль.


(popular speech) (COMMON)

РУБЛЕЙ ДЕНЬГАМИ Literally, "rubles in money" . Often said, although the second word adds nothing to the meaning.

РУКА + Dat ( + Inf) 1.. be suitable, natural , regular for someone to do - by disposition, position, or profession. (Уездный лекарь.) Утонул ли кто в реке, с колокольни ли упал и расшибся - всё это ему рука.. (Салтыков) (The district doctor.) If someone has drowned in the river, if someone has fallen from the belltower and hurt himself- all this comes under his department. 2. be proper, be fitting for someone to do obligations.

· by customs , morals, or

-Hy, брат, теперь скоро и на поправку. Не рука матросу долго валяться. (Станюкович) Well , fella, you'll soon be on the road to recovery now . It isn't proper for a sailor to be lying around in bed a long time. РУКА:


'no good to'

'no use to'

А что тебе столько бумаги? Это тебе не к рукам. But what do you want all that paper for? You haven't any use for that.


(popular speech)

= рубль РЯДОМ

( + c + Ins) (as adv of time)

'at the same time'

Тут же рядом вошёл он. Just at that moment he walked in. Снизилась температура. Рядом с этим ветер изменился. The temperature dropped. At the same time the wind shifted . РЯДОМ + Gen. (popular speech / nonstandard.)

= рядом + c + Ins, ' next to,' ' beside' Это он на занятиях сидел рядом меня. He's the one that sat next to me in classes .


Гараж был совсем рядом дома. The garage was right next to the house.



C + Gen. (popular speech) (VERY COMMON) Often used in popular speech in constructions where из is used in the written style:

1. referring to places. (Cf. HA + Acc .) 'From ... to ...' is expressed in popular speech by c ... на ... , instead of the standard literary из ... B ....

Вернулся с города. He's back from town. Поехали с Ленинграда на Москву. They travelled from Leningrad to Moscow.

Она не с нашего завода. She's not from our plant. 2. referring to a.

the material something is made out of. Я сварю варенье с этих ягод. I'll make jam out ofthese berries.


the elements something consists of. обед с двух блюд. a dinner of two dishes


the group ofwhich individuals are members трое с девушек three ofthe girls никто с рабочих none ofthe workmen.

C + pl lst / 2nd person pronoun

+ Ins personal pronoun

pl 1st / 2nd pers. possessive pronoun adj + Ins Noun In expressions of the type Мы с братом, ' my brother and I', мы с тобой, 'you and I', вы с Ваней, 'you and Vanya' , the second element is of course always Instrumental because it follows the preposition c, regardless ofthe case of the first element:

Nom + Ins: Мы с тобой составим доклад. You and I will compile the report. Acc + Ins:

Хозяин велел нас с тобой составить доклад . The boss told you and me to compile the report.

Note that the second element remains the same even when the first is a possessive:. Он только что услышал о нашем с тобой * докладе . He had just heard about our report.

( * NOT твоем)

C + Ins (in exclamations) Expresses annoyance, impatience, disapproval . 'You're always talking about ... '

'Oh , you and your ... !'

Все ты со своими проектами! Да что же завершено, You're always talking about your plans! And what has been accomplished? (Lit .: Always you with your plans!)


C + Ins (in greeting) (COMMON) -Доброе ытро. -С добрым утром. -Good morning. -Good morning. С новогодним приветом. New Year's greetings to you.

C + Ins 'have' Вот ты вечно с пятнами на жилете. You always and everlastingly have spots on your vest.

Запусти мотор. Ну, что? С зажиганием или нет там? Start the motor. Well , what's the matter? Have you got any ignition there or not?

САДИТЬСЯ 'sit down (and get busy)' (--as in English) Дело срочное. Вот, и пусть садится о том, что мне посылает, пусть вот садится и делает. The matter is urgent. So concerning what he is sending me, let him sit down, let him sit right down and do it.



(popular speech)

'the boss' See under OH CAM .

Молчать! Сам идет! Be quiet! The boss is coming!

САМ ТЫ ... in Replies Containing Repetitions '... yourself

'... nonsense'

'... nothing'

Тетерев! -в восторге крикнул он в лицо подскочившему от грохота выстрелов Светлову. -Сам ты тетерев, -недовольным тоном спросонья ответил тот. -Глухарь, должно быть! (-Забелин) -"A black grouse!” he shouted delightedly at Svetlov, who had jumped up at the crash of the shots. -"Black grouse yourself,” answered the other , only half awake and in a peevish tone. "A wood grouse, probably. "

CAMOE + Inf (colloq.) Used to characterize an action as thoroughly opportune and advisable. Highly colloquial . The main thing is to ...' The thing to do now is to ... '

' What we need right now is to ...' 'Now is the time to ...'

Сейчас самое уйти. The thing to do now is to leave. Самое и быть готовы до того, как они придут. The main thing is to be ready before they get here.


-Что ты скоро так? Сиди! ... -Нельзя, брат, -Метелица развел руками, -самое разведать, пока темно ... (Фадеев) -" "What are you going so soon for? Stay put!" -"I can't, buddy." Metelitsa spread his hands. "Now is the time to get the scouting done, While it's dark ... "

САМЫЙ / -АЯ / -ОЕ / -ЫЕ

--In replies

Used in answers to questions requesting an identification.

-Федя, ты? - Я самый. ( = Именно я.) -Fedya, is that you? -That's right. -Эта твоя машина? -Эта самая. ( = Именно эта) -Is that your car? -Yes, that's it.

-Да кто это? -Самый мой зять. -And who is that? -Why, that's my brother-in-law.


АЯ / -ОЕ / -ЫЕ + Noun

1. Emphasizing that what is said is exactly and literally true. a.

( + Noun only: 'the very ... ,' 'the ... itself'

Это самая суть вопроса. This is the very crux ofthe problem .


b. (prepositionсамый + Noun :) (pop. sp. & dialectal .

' right ' , ' just '


Доехали до самой реки. They rode right to the river/all the way to the river. С самого начала были заминки . Right from the start there have been snags . В эту самую минуту порыв ветра задул свет .

Just at that moment a gust of wind blew out the light. Живут около самой лавки . They live right next to the shop. 2. Characterizing a thing as suitable and appropriate . Он тоже методично работает .

Самая пара мне . Just the partner for me .

He too is a methodical worker. Это самая по нему работа. That's just the job for him.


тысяч будет , пожалуй , самая цена .

( Паустовский)

Ten thousand -- that'll be the right price , I guess . 3. (+ Noun derived from a verb and naming an action)

CAMOE + Inf, but less common . Used to characterize an action as opportune and advisable .

'The main thing is to . .

'The thing to do now is to ...

'What we need right now is to . . . '

'Now is the time to . . .'

Самая теперь езда.

( = Теперь самое ехать)

The thing to do now is to go.

CAMый + Superlative adj /adv (pop . sp . , substandard) (VERY COMMON) e.g. самый новейший ( lit .: " most newest " ) = самый новый/новейший самый сильнейший ( '' most strongest ' ') самый интереснейший ( '' most interestingest ' ) самый ближайший ( ' ' most nearest ' ) etc.

See ɓOлЕЕ + Comparative , used in the same way .

CAMый :


(pop . sp. ) ( VERY COMMON )

Especially in popular speech , caмый is used with great frequency after pronouns as an intensifier. 'this

very thing ' ,

thing ' ,

As an outgrowth of this, the neuter Nom/Acc зто caмoе ( Literally , ' this particular thing ' ; 'It's this very thing ',

'This is the very

' This is it ' . ) has hardened into an invariable unit with several specialized

uses of its own :


1. Marking the introduction of a new topic . 'What about this :. . . ?'

'Tell me this : . . .?' 'What I want to know is , . . . ' Пятое ноября .

Спасибо .

Буду иметь в виду .

Теперь это самое , как

мне попасть в бухгалтерский отдел . On the fifth of November.

Thank you .

I'll keep it in mind .

Now tell me

this : How do I get to the accounting department? 2. After a Dat . pronoun .

Stating the point that is of particular interest to the person,

often in contrast to some other point .

"The thing I'm interested in is .. 'What's important to ... is . . .' Теперь мне не до того .

К делу ! Трактор , мне это самое .

I'm not interested in that now . Get to the point !

The tractor , that's


I'm interested in. Он конечно жаждет уехать , но мне это самое : я должен покончить с итогами. Of course he's dying to leave , but what's important to me is this :


supposed to get finished with doing the totals . 3. After



conjunction :

Used as

an abbreviated


for a whole clause.

'This is the ticket'

is it.'

'This is the thing to do' В общем , я думаю что это самое .

Прислать его в июле , пусть он у вас

пока побудет там . Anyhow, I think that this is the thing to do : Send him here in July ; let him stay there at your office for the time being.

Ты сделай так, чтоб заседание на месяц отсрочилось;

я же постараюсь

с Андрей Николаевичем договориться чтобы это самое . You arrange things so that the meeting is postponed a month; I'll try to fix it with Andrei Nikolaevich so that this is done. 4. Often (but not necessarily ) preceded by ну, а, понимаете , and similar hemming-andhawing words in expressions of different kinds of hesitation : a. Hesitating while thinking of what one is going to say , either trying to recall something or considering possibilities .


' let us say '

'Well now, ...

'perhaps '

'let me see now, • •

' uh'

'hm '

Я постараюсь у вас скоро быть . . .вот немножко тут • · · ну, это самое • · • в четверг , может быть , приеду к вам .

I'll try to be at your place soon . . . here there's a certain amount

of •

well , let me see now . . . on Thursday, perhaps , I'll come

to your place .



бы попытался здесь, если .

.ну ,

это самое ,


мне помогут

там , это самое , я поговорю с начальником там , это самое , можно через них там . I'd try

it here ,

hmm •

if .



well now ,

if they'll help me there ....

.. I'll talk with the boss there and · .

uh ... , maybe

it can be done through their office there. b. Hesitating out of a feeling of awkwardness and reluctance to name someone or something openly.

' this thing '

' that is to say'

' well , ah , ... '

'the thing of it is '

'I mean'

' you see '

Доклад был по адресу, а ..., понимаете


это самое . • · известному

учреждению . There was a report addressed to , uh . ah , .. the you-know-what office .


. , you know · ·



' you -know-what ' Used to avoid referring to a thing directly .


ЭТОТ САМЫЙ + personal name

' this guy.

СвоЁ : Он всё своё . He keeps harping on the same subject all the time.


1. In sentences that have a 3rd-person subject , the possessive свой must be used to refer to anything belonging to the subject.


Он надел свой плащ. He put on his raincoat .

( --i.e . , his own raincoat)

Он надел его плащ. He put on his raincoat . (i.e. , someone else's)


2. But in sentences that have a 1st -or 2nd- person subject , свой means the same as мой , твой , наш , ог ваш , and either свой or one of these four possessives may be used : Ищем своего брата.


Ищем нашего брата.

We're looking for our brother. 3.

In generalizing sentences that do not refer to any definite person , свой corresponds to English ' one's ' :

Своя ноша не тянет . A burden of one's own choosing does not weigh one down.

Здесь все свои . None of the people here are strangers to each other .

СВОРАЧИВАТЬ -- additional meanings ( pop . sp . )

1. ' get busy ' , ' get going on the job ' 2. ' speed things up ' , ' hurry the job up '

СВЯЗЬ : В связи с + Ins 1. ' as a result of' , ' owing to ' , ' because of' 2. ' in connection with ' , ' in view of'

СЕБЕ ( as adverbial particle ) Most commonly stands after the verb , but may also stand before it . Indicates action independent of surrounding circumstances , performed without regard to them , uninfluenced by them, unconcerned about them, or in spite of them . Cf. ЗНАЙ . See also ВЗЯТЬ .

'just '

' (just) goes ahead and . . .

' simply '

'(just) keeps (right ) on ————————-ing'

' away '

' as unconcerned as you please '

Там всё хлопотня , суета, а он храпит себе , горя мало ему . There everything is bustle and confusion , but he just snores away,

and nothing bothers him. Хорошо им -- едут себе , и никаких .

( Фадеев )

That's fine for them - they just ride , and nobody objects . Хамса с пролива уходит ! Шторм не шторм , а она идет себе и идет . (Холендро) The " Khamsa" is leaving the sound ! Gale or no gale, she just keeps on going.

316 На

его глазах



грязью человека ,

и стукнуть кулаком по столу ,

бумажке .


а он ,

вместо того , чтобы

себе и рисует

что- то на

(В. Некрасов)

They do that mudslinging at a person right before his eyes , and instead of getting up and thumping on the table with his fist , he simply sits there and draws something on a piece of paper.


Strengthened form of CEBE , above .


Не ответит , а всё коптит себе да себе над делами . He won't ever answer, he just goes on plugging away at the files all the time .


+ Vb (Ipf 3 sg or pl)


+ Vb (Ipf 3 sg or pl)



+ Noun or Adj as predicate

In the construction of the type " пусть + 3 sg /pl vb " , the pronominal particle себе stands directly after пусть о

пускай , ог after the 3 sg/pl verb .

Ceбe indicates action performed without regard to surrounding circumstances . Thus , when пусть , ' let' , is used with a 3rd-person verb with the sense of agreeing to something and dismissing it (See ПУСТЬ $ 1b ) , the meaning of an added себе that the

subject may go ahead and do whatever he wants without


expecting any

outside interference from the speaker, because it is of little concern or interest to the speaker.

'just '

'(just) go right ahead and ...

' away'

'for all I care '

Пение не мешает .

Пусть поют себе на здоровье .

The singing doesn't bother us .

Let them sing away to their hearts'

content . -Барыня страсть не любит простого табаку . —А пусть себе не любит !


-The lady dislikes cheap tobacco something awful . -Well , let her go right ahead and dislike it ! Его тянет в театр .

Пусть его себе !

He's dying to go to the theater.

Let him; for all I care !

-Новые начальники , они всегда хорошие . новый , пускай себе старый .

Пускай себе


-New bosses , they're always nice. .


· Я при чём?

. What has that got to do with

Let him be new or old , for all I care .




1. Popular speech for coбoй in expressions referring one's appearance : хорош из себя - хорош собой , ' handsome ' , ' good- looking ' красавица из себя - красавица собой , ' a beauty ' .

2. Живет из себя. He makes his own way in the world . /He gets by without help .


(pop. sp . & regional ).


+ (a) Prf 1 sg/pl Vb


(b) elliptical clause with Prf 1 sg/pl Vb implied .

CEM-HY Always stands first in its clause . Expresses a casual decision .

Similar to дай ( -ка ) and давай (See under ДАВАЙ ,

$4, p 99. ) Decisions referred to by this construction are generally on personal preference rather than important, urgent,

" official "

matters .

matters of The impli-

cation is that the decision is not the product of long thought or of consultation with others ,

but rather is quite offhand . The construction often occurs together with

думаю , подумал , говорю себе , or other words of similar meaning when the speaker is telling someone what he decided earlier.

Use of a plural verb with this particle

is far less frequent than the use of the singular.

Cem with the Prf 1 pl is not very

different from давай (те) with the Prf 1 pl , meaning ' Let's .

'Suppose I /we . . .' 'How about

See ДАвАй

§2 a ( 1 ) .

1 guess I'll . . . '

- ing ...?'

'I think I'll . . .'

'Maybe I'd better . . .' 'It might be a good idea to . . . '

Сем- ка я сыграю с ним в шашки . I think I'll play a game of checkers with him . Сем- ну я хоть встану по двору погуляю или в сад пройдусь . I guess I'll get up and take a walk around the yard , maybe , or I'll go into the garden . •

Слышу ..


где - то

гляну , неровен час , кто услышит .

на проулке .



выйду ,

(Шолохов )

I heard people talking somewhere out in the alley . I thought, "I guess I'd better go out and take a look . hear ." Сём и я с тобой.

I think I'll go with you. Сем пойдем к нему . Suppose we go to see him.

Before you know it,

someone will



1. jump , throw oneself, rush 2. walk, go


( pop . sp . )


(pop . sp . , substandard )

= сидят , ' they sit ’



' Great ! '


' Swell !'

B + Loc + СИЛА

'the essence of the matter lies in ...' 'it's a matter of . . . ' 'the whole point is ( in ) . . . ' 'the basic cause is . . .'

He в том сила, что кто- то ошибся , а в том , что задача не выполнена . The point is not that someone made a mistake , but that the job didn't get done . Не в учёности тут It's





Эти опыты требуют


erudition .


прежде всего тщательности .




carefulness .

(OR :)





требуют .


These experiments don't require erudition . Да,



выдающийся математик.

Но не в нём

Yes ,


him .

What we need is an engineer.


outstanding mathematician .

сила тут

в тщательности .

The whole thing here is care . Нам надо инженера . сила . But we aren't

concerned with

(pop . sp./regional )

8 силой , ' by force' , ' by coercion '

СКАЗАТЬ ( + Dat) + Inf

(pop . sp . )

' tell someone to do something ' (--either giving permission or ordering) In the standard literary language , сказать ‘ tell ' is supposed to be followed by чтобы and a verb-form in -л . But in popular speech сказать is used with the Dative and an Infinitive exactly like велеть , приказать , позволить , and разрешить , and like ' tell ' in English .


Я скажу ему сделать это . I'll tell him to do that .


Ну скажет же такое ! What an odd thing to say!




Expresses strong disagreement , usually with scorn or derision . 'Nonsense !'

' Baloney!'

-Не выйди во двор без пальто !

Захвораешь !

-Скажешь ! -Don't go out in the yard without your overcoat !

You'll get sick !

-Nonsense !




Expresses surprise ; sometimes disbelief and/or annoyance. 'You don't say!'

'Do tell ! '

'Oh, is that so?!'

' Oh , sure !'


' Oh , really? '

-Ай да молодец Алексей Петрович !

Обаятелен , умён , ...

-Скажите ! -Oh ,




young fellow


Petrovich is !


clever, ... -You don't say !



'and indeed ' , ' and it must be admitted that . . . ' 'and as a matter of fact, ...' На другой день рабочие жаловались на холод .

И то сказать , был сильный мороз.

The next day the workmen complained about the cold . a bitter frost .

And indeed , there was




' so to speak'

' what you'd call a .. .'

' as it were' ' you might say ' Он хорошо знает музыку . He


Настоящий знаток , можно сказать .


a lot


A regular connoisseur, you

might say.

Машина , можно сказать , не в духе сегодня. The car is out of sorts today, so to speak.



1. In expressions of indignation , strong annoyance and disapproval :

' ... , I must say ! '

' ... , to say the least !'

' . . . indeed !'

( Lit :

Обсчитали нас!

There is nothing to be said about it . )

Хороши , нечего сказать !

They shortchanged us ! Ну уж гостиница!

Nice people indeed!

Собачья дыра !

Huh , some hotel !

Нечего сказать !

A lousy dump , I must say !

Вот так путаница, нечего сказать! That's a fine mixup, to say the least! 2. In assertions that something is exactly what is the case , that some word exactly fits

what it is used to describe . ,, can say."

Literally " There's nothing (more)

that one

- ничего не скажешь. · ·

and no getting away from it' there's no getting away from that'

, and that's a fact ' .. and that's just the word for it' 'I must say , . . . ' /' . . . , I must say ’ 'One must admit that . . .'

.... , and no mistake' 'certainly ' Ox, какая гроза!

Форменный ливень, нечего сказать .

Oh , what a storm!

A regular deluge , and that's a fact .

Он , нечего сказать , блестящий конструктор. He's a brilliant designer, there's no getting away from that. Он , нечего сказать, знает все ходы и выходы этого дела. He knows all the ins and outs of this business , and no mistake . Эти туфли , нечего сказать , модны , но не удобны. These shoes are certainly stylish, but they're not comfortable.


3. In Replies Containing Repetitions. (Cf НИЧЕГО СЕБЕ.) Нечего сказать may stand (1 ) first in the reply, spoken either with or without a pause after it, or else (2) at the end of the reply, always with a pause before it.

-Еще рано. -Нечего сказать рано. OR: -Нечего сказать, рано. OR: -Рано, нечего сказать. When used in this way, нечего сказать is synonymous with ничего себе, and is used in the same way in forming constructions. It expresses derisive and ironic but goodnatured disagreement: '...! You're kidding !” 'You call that ...?' ..... ! Don't make me laugh! (Literally: 'There's no reason to say ...")

-Еще рано. -Нечего сказать, рано - уже седьмой час! -It's still early. -Early! Don't make me laugh! It's already seven o'clock.

-Боже! Холодно! -Нечего сказать холодно! -Lord, it's cold ! -You call that cold? СКАЗАТЬ:


= НЕЧЕГО СКАЗАТЬ # 2. Это трудно-раструдно сделать, ничего не скажешь! That's an awful hard thing to do, and no mistake! СКАЗАТЬ:


There are a lot ofifs and ands about that.' It's an iffy question' ' There are a lot of things about it that make it hard to be sure.' СКАЗАТЬ:


'Remember, I told you so'

'And don't forget it.'

А я тебе скажу что если ты так поведешь себя, ты будешь мошенник. Я сказал. (Л. Толстой) And I tell you that ifyou behave the way they do you will be a rascal. And don't forget it.


(popular speech)

= сложить, the literary Prf of складывать, 'put together. '


(colloquial & rapid speech)

= сколько сколько

= сколько времени. Мы бы ещё сколько ловили Воронцова! Да и вряд ли бы так просто поймали. (Нилин) We would have spent a lot longer trying to catch Vorontsov! And it's not likely we would have caught him so easily.



(popular speech, substandard .)

= сколько времени. Сейчас сколько время у вас, What time have you got right now?


(popular speech)

= сколько = как много, 'how many,' 'how much,' 'What a lot of ...' сколько ИХ НИ БЫЛО 'the whole dratted lot ofthem'

'everylast one ofthem'

Веришь ли, что офицеры, сколько их ни было, сорок человек одних офицеров было в городе . ... Как начали мы, братец, пить ... (-Гоголь) Would you believe it, the officers, the whole blasted lot of them,* forty people and all officers, were all in the town. ... As soon as we started drinking, my friend, ... (*Lit ...'regardless of how many there were of them'.)

СКОРЕЕ / СКОРЕЙ 1. 'very quickly' ' very soon'

'real quick'

'right away'

'as soon as possible'

( = как можно скорее)

'right now'

The so-called Absolute Comparative is a Comparative used alone without any explicit statement of whom or what a comparison is being made with (-i.e. , without any 'than' expression: without any noun or pronoun in the Genitive or any word or phrase introduced by чем) . It can be with or without the prefix поAn Absolute comparative is understood as greatly intensified, and amounts to being equivalent to a Superlative or to the как можно ... construction: 'as ... as possible'. In practice, the word most often used in this way is скорее cкopee.. Because the Absolute Comparative conveys a strong sense of intensification, it is very natural to find it often used in conjunction with an Imperative.

Скажи скорее. Tell us right away. Нет, нет, ты должен идти, Герман ...Возвращайся скорее, я буду ждать тебя ... (-Арбузов) ... No , no , you ought to go , Herman ... Come back as soon as you can, and I'll be waiting for you.

Любимейшая мечта Вильгельмины Карловной выдать дочь скорее, чтоб скорее нянчить внучат. (-Григорович) Wilhelmina Karlovna's dearest wish is to get her daughter married as soon as possible so that she can play nursemaid to her grandchildren as soon as possible. Вали скорей до дому, до дому вали (-Фадеев) Get home as fast as you can, go on home. Ему захотелось, чтобы хозяин воротился скорее. (-Горкий) He began to wish that his boss would come back as soon as possible.

Ах, скорее бы уйти! (-Чехов) Oh , if only we could get away right now! Хватил скорее котел и давай бежать. (-Гоголь) He made haste to seize the kettle and started running.


Other uses of скореe: 2. In a correction to what has just been said: exact, ... ')

'or rather ...'

'or, to be more

Похаживал взад и вперед по столовой 0009 изредка отхлебывая из рюмки ..., И еще реже произнося какое-нибудь замечание или скорее восклицание вроде "а! эге! гм!" (-Тургенев) He paced up and down in the dining room ..., occasionally taking a sip from a wineglass ..., and even less often coming out with some remark, or rather an exclamation, such as 'hah !,' 'oho!,' or 'hm!' 3. In comparisons, saying that what is stated applies more in one case than in another, that what is stated is truer in one case than in another: 'more ,' 'rather'. Анель похожа была скорее на женщин из Гренады,чем на славянку. (-Павленко) Anel looked more like the women from Grenada than like a Slav. 4.

In statements of preference: 'rather,' ' more willingly,' 'preferably'. Князь выразил сенату намерение скорее отказаться от жизни,чем от престола. (-Чернышевский) The prince expressed to the senate his intention rather to give up his life than the throne .

СКОРЕЕ / СКОРЕЙ = скорее всего 'very probably,' 'most likely' - Смотри туда, кажется - пожар. … В то время горизонт слегка окрасился в кровавый отблеск -И то пожар, скорей. (А. Н. Толстой) -Look there. It looks as if there's a fire ....Just then the horizon was faintly tinged with a blood-red reflection. -It is a fire, most likely.



= скоро , 'soon' СКОРЕЯ


= скорее, 'rather,' 'sooner' СКОРО:





'As soon as'


(slang )

'weakling' (either physically puny or morally spineless . )


( + Dat) ( + Inf)


'isn't strong enough to ...'

'doesn't have the guts to ...'

Тебе слабо поднять этот ящик. (I'll bet) You can't lift this box. Жалобу подать ему слабо. He hasn't got the guts to put in a complaint.

'(I'll bet) ... can't ...'


СЛЕДСТВЕННО (popular speech) - следовательно: 'therefore'



= с лишним:

'... with some left over'

.... and then some'

(NOT = слишком, 'too ,' 'excessively'.)

-'with more than 20 men'

С двадцатью с лишком человеками сорок верст с лишком

-'40 versts and then some'

два с лишком часа

-'over 2 hours'


(popular speech )

free' = свободный, ' Словно словно





КАК БУДТО = БУДТО , # 1. For synonyms and examples see under БУДТО, p 15 . Used in expressions of uncertainty, doubt , and conjecture.



'I guess'

'it seems'

'as far as I can see'

'it seemed'

'(it was) as if

(popular speech )

(Видать is used in the same way.) 1.

(as impersonal verb) = слышно, 'One can hear ... ,' ' ... is audible ,' 'can be heard'.


(as impersonal verb) = слышно, 'One hears ,' 'People say ... ,' ' There is news (that / of) ...'


(as parenthetical adverb) 'as one hears,' ' as people are saying,' 'it seems'



'refuse to hear ofdoing something' Теперь он в юнгородок просится и слышать не хочет вернуться домой. (Панова) Now he's asking to get into youth housing and won't hear of going back home.


(popular speech)

= слышат , 'they hear' (Similarly: говорют, сижут, стоют, хочут.)

СЛЫШЬ 1. '... , understand?

'... , see .'

.... , get that?"

Ступай скорее на улицу, или нет, беги прежде в комнату, слышь! и принеси оттуда шпагу и новую шляпу. (-Гоголь) Go out on the street right away - or no, before that run to my room, understand. And from there bring my sword and new hat.



'See here, ...'

Listen here, ... '

I say, ...

'Look here, ...’

Слышь, дядя! Какой ястреб во-тут на чинаре живет! Как вечер, так и вьется. (-Л.Н. Толстой) Hey, Uncle! There's some hawk living there in the plane-tree! When it's evening, he circles in the air. 3. In explanations = видишь ли, знаешь ли, ведь 'you know' 'you see' 'you understand'


Стоял, стоял да и пойди за водой к колодцу: слышь, пить захотелось. (Тургенев) He stood there and stood there and then went to the well for water. Because he'd gotten thirsty. 4. 'one hears'

'they say'

I hear' '

'people say'

-Палагеюшка, слышь, в Мазулине хорошо живет. (-Салтыков-Щедрин) They say Palageya's living very well at Mazulino. Барин, слышь, не поладил с Кириллом Петровичем, а тот и подал в суд. (-Пушкин) People say the master quarreled with Kirill Petrovich and was taken to court by him.


(Cf ГЛЯДИ .)

+ Imperative (Often with не + Imp, but not necessarily.) In exhortations, warnings, and threats:

'See that you ...'

'Make sure you ...'

(with He:) 'Watch out, or ...'

Смотри не урони. Make sure you don't drop it.

Смотрите, слушайте внимательно. See that you listen attentively. 2. In similar exhortations and warnings, but without the Imperative , (LESS COMMON )

Смотри. это приказ полковника. Now, get this right. This is an order from the Colonel . Смотри, нарвёшься, паренёк. (Аксёнов) Watch out or you're gonna git it, Buster. 3.

смотри / смотришь / смотрю / смотрим Used as a parenthetical interjection in referring to an unexpected and surprising event. Смотришь tends to be used when generalizing about something that happens over and over whenever the circumstances are right, but always comes as a surprise. Смотрю and смотрим tend to be used when referring to an event that occurred only once . Смотри can be used in either case. 'the next thing you know'

'it turns / turned out that ...'

Они всё говорят " Позаботимся об этом, не бойтесь", а смотришь, опять ушли. They always say "We'll see to it, don't worry", and the next thing you know they've left again .

Высмеивали ее, да, смотрим, награду получила. They used to make fun of her, and the next thing you know she won an award. 4.

смотри / смотришь Usually with a Perfective, referring to the future. 'very likely''I'll bet' 'before you know it' 'I imagine''first thing you know''just watch' Поезд скорый. Смотри, к пяти часам приедем. It's a fast train. I'll bet we arrive by five o'clock .


5. того и смотри / того и смотри, что = того и гляди = того и гляди, что

'any minute'

f 'irstthing you know'

'before you know it'

'before you can say "knife”

When in combination with того и, смотри, like гляди, regularly refers to an undesirable event that the speaker fears may happen at any moment. The accompanying verb is regularly Prf. Осторожно! Того и смотри, что уронишь. Careful! First thing you know, you'll drop it. СМОТРИШЬ

'and then again'

'you see'

'on the other hand'

'and then too'

Трудно в этом письме разобраться. Ведь почерк очень нечетко, да, смотришь, недостает листа. It's hard to make any sense of this letter. The handwriting is very unclear, and then too there's a sheet missing.



Used in expressions of strong negative intention: 'have no intention of ...'

'not be going to ...'

'... will be darned if ... will ...' .

С БЫТЬ #2, p 37-38, and cf СТАТЬ: НЕ СТАТЬ + Ipf Inf. -#3 , p 328 .

Не собираюсь терять форму из-за того. I have no intentuon of letting that bother me. Мы не собираемся тут за тебя кашу расхлебывать. We'll be darned ifwe'll go around after you straightening out the messes you make.

СОБОЙ Used with nouns and adjectives in expressions referring to personal appearance. Cf H3 СЕБЯ , used in the same way but more colloquial.

Каков он собой? What does he look like? Он постарше тебя, а собой молодой. He's a little older than you, but he looks young.


+ Gen. - instead of Dat. (popular speech) 'in accordance with'

'according to'

'acting upon'

протокол составили согласно устава. They have drawn up a record in accordance with the regulations.

Изменили проект согласно его советов. They made some alterations in the plan , following his advice. СПОЗАРАНОК


СПОЗАРАНКОВ = спозаранку, 'very early in the morning' СРОЧНО В НОМЕР

'right on schedule '



(--as Ipf to стать) (popular speech & regional)

1. ( + Noun or Adj) = становиться , become' Последнее время очень худая стаёт. She's getting very thin lately. 2. (+ Gen ofthing) 'be enough,' ' suffice' Представить себе не могу, как ставало у них терпения на это. I can't imagine how they had enough patience to do that. 3. ( + Gen of person + на + Acc of thing) be capable of Красть, на это его никак не ставало. As for stealing, he was incapable of doing it. 4. (+ Acc or + в + Асс) = стоить, 'cost,' ' be sold at' Здесь пачка папирос стаёт гривенник. A pack ofcigarettes sells for ten kopecks here.


(--as Ipf to статься) (popular speech)

'happen' Ставалось и не то.


More important things have been known to happen. СТАВИТЬ / ПОСТАВИТЬ 'organize'


'set up'

'see to'

'attend to'

'take care of

Поставьте всё. Приедут во вторник. You see to everything. They'll arrive on Tuesday.

Хорошо, поставлю. Okay, I'll attend to it.


(popular speech)

= стало быть



'and so'

'I take it'

Не появился. Так, стало, не пойдет с нами. He hasn't shown up. So I take it he's not coming with us.

СТАНОВИТЬ = ставить

(popular speech)

' put'


стать + Ipf Inf

Стать is used very much like 'start' in colloquial English : Мне было бы легче, если бы он стал ругать меня. Но он молчал и молчал. (Каверин) I would have felt better ifhe had started scolding me. But he simply said nothing. 2. стать + Ipf Inf (dialectal) In some northern dialects crанет is the usual auxiliary verb used to form the Imperfective Future, instead of будет: Стану зиму жить в Ленинграде. I'm going to live in Leningrad through the winter.


Корову, буде, резать станут. I guess they'll slaughter the cow. Если придете,дак приглашать станем. Ifyou come here, we'll invite you to things. 3. не стать + Ipf Inf (СҒ БЫТЬ # 2, p 37-38, and cf CОБИРАТЬСЯ : НЕ СОБИРАТЬСЯ + Ipf Inf.) In negative sentences, стать with the Inf regularly expresses not merely lack of intention todo something, but rather a strong determination not to do it : 'not going to ... ,' 'have no intention of ... ,' 'will be darned if ... will'

A frequent pattern is to put the Infinitive first in the sentence and нe + a form of стать last: Ждать их не станем. We're not going to wait for them. Unlike the auxiliary verb буду / будет etc. , стану / станет etc. can also be used in the form ofthe Past.

Не стал слушать. He would not hear ofit. Пол мести твоя очередь. Я за других не стану работать. It's your turn to sweep the floor. I'll be darned if I'll do other people's work for them.

Слушай! Стоять на этом углу до пяти часов не стану. Listen! I'm not going to stand on this corner until five o'clock. Начальник участка уговаривал его пойти отдохнуть. ... Но Бычков не стал его слушать. (Нагибин) The boss ofthe section tried to persuade him to go and get some rest. ... But Bychkov would not listen to him. СТАТЬ: Dat + Ipf Inf + не + СТАТЬ (--regularly in the negative.) The стать in this construction is the feminine noun meaning 'need' or 'reason,' not the verb meaning 'start.'

Богатый человек Михей Зотыч,и не стать ему обижать старого солдата. (-Мамин-Сибиряк) Mikhei Zotych is a rich man, and there is no reason for him to insult an old soldier. СТОИТ ТОГО


СТОИТ того Expresses disagreement with what has been suggested, unwillingness to follow a suggestion, doubt ofthe need for doing something. ' It isn't worth while' It's not worth doing' ' NOTE that the three variants all mean the same thing, regardless of whether the He is present . The third, не стоит того is a word-for-word statement : 'It's not worth it. The first two, often used as replies, are ironic: 'Oh sure, it's worth doing, of course!' See OXOTA ( + Dat) + Inf and МУДРЕНОЕ ДЕЛО for other examples of ironic expressions. Я не забыл упомянуть это, но я думал,что не стоит того. I didn't forget to mention it, but I thought it wasn't worth doing.


-Вы бы лучше сделали с наброска чистовик. -Ну, стоит того! -You'd better make a clean copy from the draft. -Oh, it's not worth it!

столько МНОГО

(popular speech)

= столько = так много, 'so many,' 'such a lot of CTOIOT

(popular speech, substandard)

= стоят, 'they stand'


(popular speech)

= срамить , 'put to shame' "Ты, говорит, нас страмишь, всю нашу фамилию: в чем ты ходишь?" (-А.Н.Островский) "You," she said, "bring shame on us, our whole family. What are those clothes you're going around in?" СТРЕКАЧА / СТРЕЧКА: ДАТЬ СТРЕКАЧА / СТРЕЧКА 'run away' 'get away'



(Dialectal: Eastern) (popular speech)

= сомневаться, 'doubt' - А что, тоже сумлеваетесь? - В истории науки сомнение бывало иногда более прогрессивных фактором, чем абсолютная вера. (-Леонов) -What do you mean? Do you have doubts too? -In the history of science doubt has sometimes been a more progressive factor than unconditional belief.


(popular speech)

= сомнение, 'doubt' СУПРОТИ


(popular speech) " (






(Dialectal: Southern & Western)


= против A. prep. w . Gen. 1.

opposite to, across from


against, contrary to, in opposition to


compared to, in comparison with

B. adverb


opposite, across


in comparison


(Dialectal : Northwestern) as required, when required, accordingly, commensurately (Dialectal : Northwestern) just now; now; right away




(popular speech)

= серьёзный , 'serious' СХВАЧЕНO?

(slang) 'Got it?'



СХЛЁСТЫВАТЬСЯ / СХЛЕСТНУТЬСЯ ( + c + Ins) (slang) ' fight with' (--either verbally or physically) (Literally, 'tangle with,' as in English) Prf схлестнуться: 'start a fight with' 'pick a fight with'


(Prf) (slang)

'get punched' (especially for making a nuisance ofoneself) (Literally: 'to succeed in getting it as a result ofgreat efforts”) Молчать, а не то схлопочешь по морде! Shut up, or you're going to get one in the snoot!


(popular speech) 'almost'

just about'


В цехах тесно, холодно, станки старые, пасы рвутся, считай каждую минуту: всё старьё. (Макаренко) In the workshops it's crowded, it's cold, the machines are old, the drive-belts break just about every minute; it's all old junk . Мы с ними, считай соседи. Мы живем этажом выше. We're practically neighbors of theirs. We live one floor up.


(popular speech)

= снимать:


'take off

'take out'

(dialectal: Odessa)

= сюда. (So too тудою for туда.)

'take away'



-TA = -то. See -TO , p 379 ff.

TA (Ukrainian) = да At the beginning of a reply, indicating that the answer is obvious : ' of course,' 'naturally,' 'obviously'.

.Что это была за книга? -спрашиваю я рыбака. -Та Диккенс, -говорит он с досадой. (-Паустовский) -"What book was that?" I asked the fisherman. -"Why, Dickens, of course, " he said with annoyance.

ТАДЫ (regional) = тогда.

TAE , TAË = того, тово. See p P 399 f . TAK

(See also ТАК И, p 349-353 .) From the fundamental meanings of так, 'thus,' ' so,' like that,' 'the way it is,' a number of extended and colloquial uses are derived: 1. Introducing and calling attention to the statement that follows. COMMON . 'like this: ...'

this way: ...' '

'as follows : ...'

'hus: ...'

У нас здесь так : дизель не работает, и у нас запчастей нету. The situation here with us is this: the diesel engine isn't working, and we don't have any spare parts. Я сейчас получил от хозяина задание так*: разобрать весь вопрос там, после этого составить доклад об этом. I just got the following job to do from my boss: investigate the whole problem there, and after that draw up a report on it. (* Less colloquial and more literary would be задание такое , ог такое задание.) Иван Антоныч, Я понял так* ,что он должен был нас встретить там. (* OR: я так понял, что .. ) Ivan Antonych, the way I understood it (was that) he was supposed to meet us there. В общем так, никуда не уходи, понял? Сиди у телефона пока не позвоним. Anyway, the point is this: don't go away anywhere, understand? Sit by the phone until we call.


In replies a.

это так.

That's so,' '

'That's right,'

'That's true'

-- as in English.

-Как, вы переедете в новый поселок, -Да, это и так. -What's this, you're moving to the new housing development? -Yes, that's right. b.



'That's right'



-Что, Анатолий Кипиллович ваш отец, -Tax. -What, is Anatolii Kirillovich your father? -Yes .


Tak, ...! In Replies Containing Repetitions Так ...! That's what I said, ...!' 'Justthat, ...!'

'You heard me! I said ...' 'Just what I said, ...!' 'Yes! ...!' 'Exactly that: ...!'

Used in answers to questions in the form of Kaк ? ' What do you mean, ...?' The answer is a derisive or impatient reassertion of something that the other speaker questioned because he either did not understand it or was surprised to hear it. (Taкoй is used similarly, in reply to a similar question containing кaкoй. See under TAKOй in impatient replies, p 370.) -Всю комнату надо убрать. Вовка, возьми швабру! -Как швабру? -Так, швабру! -The whole room needs cleaning up. Vovka, take the mop! -What do you mean, the mop? -You heard me, I said the mop!

-Грабитель ушел ни с чем. Она его избила. -Как избила? -Так избила.


-The burglar went away empty-handed. She beat him up. -What do you mean, beat him up? Just what I said, she beat him up. Tax.

Так, так. 'Yes,'


'I see ,'

'M -hm'

Often used to indicate at intervals that one is following a long recital of events with interest or a long set ofdetailed instructions attentively. COMMON .

-Выедут в понедельник. -Tak .И приедут сюда на следующий день. -Tak

-И будут у вас в среду. -Так, так. -They'll start out on Monday. -I see. -And they'll get here the next day. -Yes. -And they'll be at your office on Wednesday. -Right, right.


3. As an interrogative at the end of a phrase, clause , or sentence. 6 see?' · • ... right?' understand?'


This use may be viewed as the interrogative counterpart of the reply just described in §2d:

the speaker is asking his hearer whether he is paying attention

and understands . Вот где труба перебита, как раз у входа в котел . That's




is broken ,


right where it goes into

the boiler.

Understand? Хорошо ,


вас заберем .

У второй

автобусной остановки,


В пять

часов , так? Okay,

we'll pick you up.

At bus-stop Number 2,


At 5 o'clock,


4. As adverb or predicate .


'the way it should be'

'properly '

'the way that was wanted'

In practice, the negative нe так ' wrong' is of more frequent occurrence, perhaps because its being a two-word combination makes it easier to identify than Tak ' right' , which in some contexts might be hard to distinguish from some of the many other uses of Tak given below.

' Right' is more often expressed bу правильно, верно, ог

some other synonym, but raк is used when it fits well in context.


слово многие люди не так произносят . Many people pronounce this word wrong.

Всё пошло не так. Everything has gone wrong. -А что , не так перевели? -Всё так, прекрасно ! -What's the matter, did we translate it wrong? -It's entirely right, it's fine!

From the basic meaning of ' thus ' , ' the way it is ' comes the sense of ' as is ' , ' with nothing added' , ' without anything further' , ' the way it comes/came ' , ' with nothing extra', ' nothing special ' , from which several closely related colloquial uses derive :

5. 'Without charge ' , ' free' , ' for nothing' Лампу починил так, а часы за полтинник . He fixed the lamp for nothing, and the clock for half a ruble. ALSO : за так for nothing, free


6. 'Without

consequences ' ,

' scot- free' ,

'just like that'

Это им так не пройдет . They aren't going to get away with this just like that. 7. 'Nothing special ' , ' nothing much ' a. Often with a following expression, usually a noun or a verb but sometimes a whole


which explains or enlarges upon what is


With or

without a pause between the Taк and the following expression. 'nothing much--merely . . .'


' merely'

'nothing but a ..

'simply' Кроме




городе , собственно, ничего и не было --так,

слободки , ничем не отличавшиеся от деревень.

( Н. Чуковский)

Except for the main street, there was, in fact, nothing in the town-- it was nothing special , merely suburbs that were no different from country villages . Я думал , что это так золотая безделушка, не представляющая никакого документа.

( А. Н. Островский)

I thought it was nothing but a gold trinket, and not that it carried a document in it.

b. With какой- нибудь ог что- нибудь. Не слушал того , что он говорил-- так ерунду какую- нибудь. I didn't listen to what he was saying-just some nonsense or other. c. With Tak alone,

constituting the entire predicate of its clause:

' nothing

special' , ' nothing much'. Он уверял , что это так.

Настаивал на том , что никакой роли

в этом

не играе . He assured us that it was nothing much.

He insisted that

it had

nothing to do with this. Прежде он был секретарем Before, he



комсомола , а теперь он так.


secretary, but now he's not

much of

anything . d. In replies, when the speaker either cannot think of any definite answer, or

does not wish to explain:

'Oh , nothing'

'Oh, nothing special '

'Oh, nothing much ' Cf. §9d, below. -О чем ты это?

-Tak , -What were you talking about when you said that? -Oh , nothing.


-Что с вами? -Так.

-What's bothering you?/What's the matter with you? -Oh , nothing, /Oh , it's all right , -Ты куда идешь?

-Так. -Where are you going? -Oh , nowhere special.

-Ты что , Коля?

—Так. -What are you doing, Kolya?

-Oh , nothing. 8. 'Without any special effort ' , ' simply' , ' just' (In this sense и так is very similar and is more frequently used .



p353. ) Порез так заживет , перевязки не надо. The cut will heal without having anything done to it ; there's no need for a bandage. -Ты сходи сам , посмотри . -Что мне ходить ! Я так знаю. -You go and take a look for yourself. -What do I need to go for? -Доброе утро .

I know without going.

Это Григорьев говорит .

-Ну , я так по голосу тебя сразу узнал . -Good morning.

Доброе утро !

This is Grigoriev speaking.

-Well , I recognized you right off by your voice immediately .

Good morning!

9. 'For no special reason ' , ' simply' , ' just' , ' just happened to . . .' a. Before or after the verb it applies to. -На какой улице доктор Строгов?

-На следующей улице . -Нет .

А что , вам надо пойти к врачу?

Я так спрашивал .

-What street is Doctor Strogov on? -The next street. -No .

But what's the matter, do you need to see a doctor?

I was just asking.

Он не знал , что я этим интересуюсь , он так упомянул об этом , совсем случайно . He didn't know I'm interested in that; he just happened to mention it, entirely by chance .


нет , я зашла так.

There isn't any news , I just thought I'd drop in .


Он не принял участия в игре , но так подсел к друзьям . He didn't take any part in the game, but simply sat down by his friends.

b . Often in the combination просто так. -А зачем ты расчеты этим способом сделал? —0 , так я это просто так. -But why did you use this method to do the figuring? -Oh , I just happened to do it that way . Я помню, когда вы , бывало , приезжали к нам на каникулы или просто так,

(Чехов) I remember how, when you came to visit us for the holidays, or for no special reason , ....

c. After a complete clause and followed by a further expression that offers a possible answer to a question that was raised in the first clause .


$7a, which is somewhat similar but not the same.

'let's call it .. . •

'perhaps ...' well--. . . '

'more or less . · 'not for any special reason, maybe · •

' well , let's say (Баронесса:)

Не знаю отчего , но я его люблю ,

Быть может , так , от скуки , от досады, От ревности . ( The Baroness:)


I don't know why , but I love him, Maybe, well , let's say it's from boredom or from irritation'

Or from jealousy. Сначала по самолетам палили из винтовок, так, из спортивного интереса. ( Вершигора) At first they fired their rifles at the airplanes, not for any special reason, but more or less from a sense of sport. Вопили


деревне охотно

настроению :


всякому поводу и


повода-- так, по


People in the village were given to wailing on every occasion and when there was no occasion--not for any particular reason , but simply because of the mood they were in : . . . (Лоскутков :) .

. . . А я говорю, не угодно ли вам будет что- нибудь подарить . . . так • • · В знак родственного расположения.

( Н. А. Некрасов) ( Loskutkov :) . . . . But what I mean is , wouldn't you like to make me a present of something . . . let's call it . . . as a sign of family affection .

337 d . In replies, when the speaker either cannot think of any definite answer, or does not wish to explain: Cf $7d, above.

'Oh , nothing' 'Oh , no special reason'

-К чему вы это?

-Tаk. -What did you do that for?

-Oh, no special reason. 10. 'Approximately ' , ' about' , ' . . ., oh, about .


or so ' , ' somewhere around' ,

'perhaps ' , ' some' With an expression of quantity or time . COMMON . The Tak usually precedes , but may follow. (This construction is similar in pattern to $ 9c, ' no special reason , let's call it ... ' , where a sense of indefiniteness is introduced by the Tak , followed by a suggested answer to the question just raised. ) Я вам потом еще раз позвоню , так минут через 15 .. I'll call you back in , oh , about 15 minutes .

Было так часов около восьми утра. It was about eight o'clock in the morning. Она уже давно работает у нас .

Вот , ну так лет 36- 37 ей .

She's worked at our place quite a while .

She's, oh, around 36 or 37

years old. Приедут , ну , в час 11 туда ... в 11 , пол 12 - ого так. They'll arrive there around 11 o'clock .



at 11 or 11:30 or so.

From the basic meaning of ' thus ' , ' so ' comes the sense of ' thus ' , ' accordingly ' , from which another large family of related colloquial uses derives :


. . : так, · • ...-- так, например, .. • Thus, ·


For example: . . .'

До невероятности рассеян был : так, он был вечно с охапкой бумаг да с портфелем пустым. He

was unbelievably


For example ,


was always

carrying around an armful of papers and an empty briefcase.

В ящике



всячина ,


например ,


карандашей ,

скрепки, пугавицы , марки , винты, и гайки. There was all kinds of stuff in the drawer, such as pencil stubs , paperclips , buttons , stamps, screws, and nuts, for example.



' and' Continuative: used to introduce the second clause of a two-clause sentence ,

indicating that the second clause is thought of as enlarging upon or illustrating what was said in the first clause. Еще тогда у нас гостила барышня , племянница барыни, так я с ней по целым Вечерам разговаривала.

( А. Н. Островский)

In those days there was a young lady staying with us, a niece

of the

mistress, and I used to talk whole evenings with her. У нас в деревне был солдат Африкан , так тот , бывало , как начнет псалтырь честь... ровно барабан бьет . . .Ловко читал ! (Горький) We had a soldier in our village named Afrikan , and that fellow,

when he

would start reading in the psalter- it was like a drum beating. . . He knew how to read!

-А проезжие вспоминают ли его? -Да





проезжих; летом



заседатель завернет , барыня ,

смотрителе и ходила к нему на могилу.



да тому



не до старом


-And do the travellers remember him? -Well , there aren't too many travellers these days ; the court assessor will stop by once in a while maybe, but he's not interested in the dead .


in summer there was a lady coming through here, and she did ask about the old stationmaster, and she visited his grave. 13.

Tаk так вот


( ...) и

так вот ( ... ) и

ну так ' SO '

'and hence'

' and so'

' and that's how it is/ was that ... '

' and as a result' Consequential :


at the

beginning of the

second of two

clauses and

indicates that what is referred to in the second clause is thought of as resulting from what was referred to in the first. Целую ночь пришлось им работать , так и усталы. They had to work all night, so they're tired.

Хозяин кричал на них, так вот они и брюзгливы. The boss has been yelling at them, and that's how it is that they're grouchy. Я никогда не слушаю их, так никогда меня не раздражают . I never listen to them, so they never annoy me.


Прибудут сюда через час, так я пришел вас предупредить . They'll be here in an hour, so I came to tell you in advance. Вот я вчера к портнихе за выкройкой для воротничка ходила , так видела платье . . .

( А. Н. Островский )

I went to the dressmaker's yesterday to get a pattern for a collar, and so I saw the dress . . . 14.


так и

ну так ну так и 'Then'

'All right then,

'In that case'

'Well then , ·


'If so , then · • Consequential/Conditional :

Often at the beginning of a reply.


after a question , which the speaker asks and then answers himself, or after a statement made by the speaker.

In all of these , the statement introduced by

Tak is in the nature of a result that follows or a conclusion that is drawn from what precedes it:

the idea is that since (or if) the preceding remark is true,

then/in that case the second remark applies .

-Все готово . -Ну так поедем . -Everything is ready.

-Then let's go./Let's go, then . -Темно .

Огней надо.

-Так сходи принеси. -It's dark there .

We need some lights .

-Then go and get some. Вам не угодно , чтоб я убил вас? Так уходите !

( А. Н. Островский)

You wouldn't like me to kill you? Then get out of here ! Хорошо , ты поехать с нами не хотела , так оставайся дома . All right, you didn't want to go with us, so stay home. Об этом уже знали !

Так зачем же спрашивали?

They already knew about it ! 15.

Then why did they ask?

' So...' , 'I see that . . .'

Inferential :


at the beginning of a reply , or,

frequently ,

beginning of a remark not directly preceded by any other speech

at the

at all .

Tak indicates that the words that follow it represent a conclusion


that the

speaker has drawn , and an estimate that he has arrived at of the situation as a whole .

The sentence introduced by тak is usually in the form of a question ,

or, sometimes , an exclamation .

The Tak is unaccented.

340 А ! Так ты боишься, а?

Aha ! So you're scared, eh? Так ты мне не веришь? So you don't believe me? Так ты совершенно отказываешься заплатить? So you absolutely refuse to pay? Так поженились!

I see you two got married! 16.

' So ' ,

' So . . . , then ' ; ' Well , . . . ' ; 'I see , . . . ' , ‘ Uh -huh , . . .'

Summing up :

Similar to $ 15,

Inferential .

sums up a discussion that has gone before .

The remark introduced by Tak

The тak is unaccented.

Так завтра отправимся на охоту. So tomorrow we'll go out hunting, then. Так, из этого ничего не вышло в конце концов . So in the end nothing came of it. -Что он сказал? -Так, они не готовы.

-What did he say? -Well, that they're not ready. Кто из вас болел малярией? руки .


Все болели .

Всех, кто болел малярией прошу поднять

Паустовский ) .

How many of you have had malaria? Will all those that have had malaria please raise their hands? ' Uh-huh , you've all had it.

17. так так вот 'So' , 'Let's see now,.

.' , ' Okay, now about . . . ' , 'Now ,

Resuming: Stands at the beginning of a remark that resumes a train of thought after an interruption or digression.

· Ясно.

Хорошо . --Так, как насчет ремонта?

• • I see. Fine. --Now, what about the repairs? Так о чем , бишь , я говорил ? Let's see now, what was I talking about?

• Так, второй вопрос: •

18. 'then' ( 'if .

· Okay , now, about the second point: · • then .. • • 'when that's when . . . · ' Often need not be

translated . )



at the beginning of the second part of

a two-part

sentence referring to one event that depends on the happening of another.


two parts of the sentence may be full clauses , or may be reduced to phrases or even to single key words . The Tak is unaccented .

Compare TO as correlative conjunction , page 379.


CONSTRUCTIONS WITH INTRODUCTORY CONJUNCTIONS : Если помогать хочешь , так возьми кисть да начинай .

If you want to help, ( then) grab a paintbrush and start in. Когда дело идет о здоровье , так вкуса в лекарствах не разбирают . (А. Н. Островский) When

it's their health that's at stake , people aren't finicky

medicines taste.

( Russian :

about how

When it's their health . ... , that's when people

aren't finicky . . . ) Как только я вошел в комнату , так все закричали. As soon as I came into the room , everybody started yelling. (Russian : As soon as I came into the room, then everybody started yelling. ) CONSTRUCTIONS WITHOUT INTRODUCTORY CONJUNCTIONS: Эге !

Разве он кого боялся?

Да приди к нему сатана со всей своей свитой,

так он бы коли б не пустил в него ножа , то наверно бы крепко поругался. ( Горький) Ha! You think he was afraid of anybody? If the devil was to come to him with all his gang, (then) if he didn't stick a knife in him, he'd sure do some hearty cursing. Не мытьём , так катаньем , а я до него доберусь !

By hook or crook , I'll get him! Умирать , так с музыкой . If one must go down, then let it be gloriously. Подписано , так с плеч долой .

( Грибоедов)

Once a document is signed, (then) I stop worrying about it.

19 .



так и

( RARE )

'If it's.'If it's 'If


is it.'

" then all right it's ————— . ' be_________ is what it's to be, then let it be .

The doubled word may be

any major part of speech, e. g.

noun , verb ,

adjective , or adverb, and in any form . The raк is unaccented, and the combination тaкis run together in pronunciation . Occasionally a whole phrase is doubled , instead of a single word. Expresses the speaker's acceptance of the idea of having something take place .


that the

speaker feels

unconcerned about how it turns out. In

indifferent about the matter,

and is

some instances , the speaker has a

preference , but is resigned to the idea of seeing the opposite tum out to be the case .


This doubled-word construction is a special case of the " If. ·

then.. ·

construction without an introductory conjunction just described in §18.


the two -part sentence has the same word in both parts .. It is this having the same word in both parts that brings in the sense of indifference and unconcern . Ну, я целый рубль поставлю. Проиграю , так проиграю . Well ,

I'll bet a whole ruble .

If I lose it, then all right I lose it.

Что же , простудился, так и простудился . Well , what of it? If I've caught a cold I've caught a cold. Ждать так ждать.

Кажется , неизбежно .

If we have to wait we have to wait.


unavoidable, apparently.

Она пусть делает то , что вытекает из ее душевного состояния , -- шашни с фельдшером , так шашни с фельдшером-- это ее дело . (Л. Н. Толстой) Let her do whatever results from her state of mind.

If it's amours

with the medical assistant, then amours with the medical assistant it is. It's her business. -Новых

газет сегодня не поступило .

У нас только вчерашняя .

-Ну, вчерашняя так вчерашняя . Я все равно возьму. -No new newspapers came today. -Well ,

if it's



All we have is a yesterday's paper. yesterday's. I'll


it anyway.

Наташа (указывая на дверь в кухню) : Туда иди , дедушка. · • Лука : Спасибо , девушка!

Туда , так туда . ( Горький)

Natasha (pointing to the door into the kitchen):

Go in there, grandpa.

Luka: Thank you , lass . If that's where I'm to go , that's where I'll go.

20 .


_______ DOUBLED-WORD CONSTRUCTION ( See also §22) .

так чтобы


'If the idea is to ..., then one should really do it.' 'If one is going to ..., then one should do it to the full.' 'If there's to be a . . ., then do it properly.' 'When there's a . . ., make it a good one.' 'When he ..., he really does it.' The doubled word may be any of a variety of forms : verb, noun , or adjective . word.

infinitive , inflected

A whole phrase may be doubled as well as a single

The Tak is unaccented, and the combination_Takis run together

in pronunciation . Expresses (a) the speaker's feeling that if a thing is to be done at all , it should be done in eamest, or ( b) his observation that whenever a thing happens it happens with intensity. Like $ 19, this is a special case of the " If.. ." then... " construction described in §18 :

as in $ 19 , the two-part sentence creates its special effect

by having the same word in both parts.

343 Уж торопиться так торопиться . If you're going to hurry , then really hurry . Ехать так ехать! If we're going, let's go!

Воровать так воровать . If you're going to steal , then steal big. Сказать , так сказать все . If you're going to tell it , tell it all . Вот я мою , так мою . When I wash anything, I wash it good and proper. Сержусь так сержусь. When I'm mad I'm really mad. Он мне по душе : веселый так веселый , серьезный так серьезный . He's a man after my own heart.

When he's having fun he has fun , and when

he's serious he's serious . Там дождь, так уж дождь . When it rains there it really rains. Вечеринка так чтобы вечеринка.

Давай не будем скупиться .

If we're going to have a party , let's make it a real one . 21.

Let's not skimp .

' Okay, then ... ' ' All right, let's say that's so .

But ... '

'That's all very well , but . . . ' 'That's fine . Now , . . . ' Used when accepting what someone has just said and going on to discuss it. Вы говорите, что заслуги Барклая были признаны , оценены, награждены. Так, но кем и когда? . . Конечно , не народом ,

и не в 1812 году. · (Пушкин)

You say that Barclay's merits were recognized and assessed warded.

All right , but by whom , and when?

and not in 1812 .

-Думает , что у него аппендицит . -Так, где у него болит?

-He thinks he's got appendicitis. -Okay, where does he have the pain?

A fourth group of uses centers around emphasis and contrast:

22. ' BOT


вот уж


вот это


вот это

так уж


так уж


and re-

Certainly not by the people ,


'Now there is/ was a real 'Now there is /was a

for you '

'Now that's what I call a

'Now that's my idea of a

'This is/was some, Widely used in popular speech .

The BOT is heavily stressed .

The 9тo is an

invariable particle , not a pronoun , and does NOT change to agree in gender with the doubled word.

In practice , the doubled word is most often a noun, though not

necessarily . If it is a noun , it is most often in the Nominative case, but may be in any case the construction of the sentence requires. If it is a verb, it may be of any person or tense. Conveys the speaker's opinion that something is an outstanding example of its kind, that it fits the ideal of the type , and is everything




Вот удочка так удочка! Now that's my idea of a real fishing rod !

Вот это игра так игра!

This is some game! Вот был механик так механик. Now there was a real mechanic for you . /Now he was what I call a real mechanic.

Вот на вечеринке я встретил девушку так девушку . At the party I met a perfectly wonderful girl . Вот это угостил так угостил. Now that was a real treat he stood us. Вот уж мошенничают так мошенничают .

Those people really cheat like anything. Вот я сердит так уж сердит . I'm as mad as mad can be . The four-volume Словарь русского языка of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Vol IV, p455, $ 12, quotes one example where the word signalized in this way by Tak is NOT doubled, although this is uncommon :

Вот Косолапый - так лошадь! - внезапно сказал он , кивая на коренника. -Цены нет

коню !

( Скиталец : В дороге)

"Now Tanglefoot - there's some horse! " said he the wheelhorse . 23. ' indeed' ' darned' 'very '


suddenly , nodding at

" There's just no price for that horse!"

' quite' ' pretty'

Emphatic after adjectives and adverbs denoting a quality.


Когда я сказал , что Федя человек честный и умница , он погладил бороду гордо

так заявил :

" Мы,

Сизовы ,

в своей семье плохих


людей не имеем ! " |не

(Горький) When I said that Fedya was an honest fellow and a clever man, he stroked his beard and proudly it was that he declared, " We , the Sizovs , don't have unworthy people in our family !'' Хорошо так рассказывает . He's a darned good story-teller.

В читальне удобно так. It's real comfortable in the reading-room . Вот здесь веревка наполовину протерта так, как раз у края ящика. Right here the rope is wom half way through, just about, right at the edge of the box.

-Ну, как работает кран теперь? -Да срывка так.

В трубе пузырки воздуха ведь .

-Well , how does the faucet work now?


-Well , in jerks , pretty much . There are air bubbles in the pipe , you see. dialectal: Northern & Siberian 'indeed' ' for a fact' ' really'

' certainly '


' you see'

at the

stantiating, like " дак " , or " дък " .

end of a

ведь .






Sometimes sub-


northern dialects , pronounced

Брат- то у меня помер дък .

My brother has died , you see. Никого дома нет дак. There's nobody home , for a fact.

А без денег не дадут дък. But without any money they certainly won't let us have it. А на чем же он приедет так? На автобусе или на поезде, But just what is it that he's arriving on ?



The bus or the train?

' really '

' certainly' Emphatic at the beginning of its clause or inside it. Чем не жених? По моему мнению , так всякую девушку может осчастливить (Писемский) What's wrong with him as a fiancé? In my opinion he could certainly make any girl happy.


-Мне заведующего , пожалуйста. -Теперь нельзя.

Он занят .

-Девушка ! Так мне заведующий нужен . -Get me the manager, please. -I can't now. He's busy. -Miss !

I really have to get the manager.

Смотрите- ка на удальца; Затеям у него так, право , нет конца .

( Крылов)

Just look at the bold fellow; Indeed, there really is no end to the frolics he has. 26. 'but ' , ' all the same' , ' however' , ' on the contrary '

Contrastive a. Introducing the second clause of a compound sentence, as in English : Надеялся на него, так не явился.

I was counting on him , but he didn't show up . убеждал убеждал, так он и слышать об этом не хотел . I tried and tried to persuade him , but he wouldn't hear of it. Он почесть каждый божий день брился , так, бывало , и пробивает борода.

( Бунин)

He shaved almost every single day, but his beard would keep growing out. Similar:

TAK HET , p357-8.

b. At the beginning of a reply, as in English :

-Мне надо ключ от шкафа. -Так мы уже вам дали ключ. -Так тот ключ не подходит . -I need a key to the cabinet.

-But we already gave you a key. -But that key doesn't fit. -Папа, мы пойдем в кино с Надей.

—Ну, идите . -Так деньги ! (Макаренко) -Daddy, Nadya and I are going to the movies. -Well, go ahead. -But the money! c. Inside its clause, either after the subject and before the predicate or after some complement ( e.g. , direct object, indirect object, adverb, prepositional phrase,

etc. )





( verb,



English , 'however' can stand in such a position, but ' but' can not. in popular speech .

etc. )



The contrast pointed out in this way by rак may be with a


statement that has actually just been made , or the remark containing the Tak may be made simply in reaction to a situation that has long been well known. The clause containing the так is often introduced by an a , a вот , оr an а вот . А я так всегда открыто говорю.

Myself, I always speak frankly ( i.e. , although some others do not. ) Ленив? Я не ленив а вот ты так ленив! Lazy? I'm not lazy , YOU are lazy!

-Не знаю , как его зовут . -А вот я так знаю. -I don't know what his name is . -But I do . (Чацкий :) - Я глупостей не чтец ,

А пуще образцовых. (Молчалин :)

- Нет , мне так довелось с приятностью прочесть. . . ( Грибоедов)

(Chatski :) - I'm not given to reading pieces of drivel,

And still less exemplary ones. (Molchalin :) - No, I , on the contrary, have had occasion to read this over

with enjoyment . Видно ,

у всякого свое горе , Антон Иваныч ; вот я так сына провожаю .

(Гончаров) Plainly everyone has his own sorrow ,

Anton Ivanych ; as for me, I'm

seeing my son off.


ведь с


kak -отвечал


половой . — Иную ,


упаси ,


истреплют , а другая так почесть новая и останется . · • (Писемский) " That's the way it always goes '' , replied the waiter.

" One issue will

get worn to rags something awful, and another one will stay practically like new, on the other hand. (Лоскутков :) . • ·

.Деньги великое дело , я за деньги готов на все

решиться .

Вот черта так совсем в свете нет :

раз призывал его-- хотел душу продать , ей- богу ,



верь тут ученым !

(Loskutkov:) ..

• ·


бы . Не

и дешево бы взял ,

является !



( Н. А. Некрасов)

• .Money is a big thing.

mind to anything,

я несколько

for money .






times--I wanted to

I'm willing to

make up my

But no matter what people say , in


the my

world. soul .



summoned him I would have

taken a cheap price , by gum , I would have let him have it for a trifle.

He never shows up !

scholars say!

So much for believing what the


(This last is a good example of тaк contradicting an idea that has long been well the speaker

known rather than just now stated . It is several lines later that refers to the theological scholars who have said it .)

ТАК БЫ + Inf ,

'How I'd like to . . . = Взять бы да и . . . (See p 48. )

Expresses strong wish. Так бы поставить ему палки в колёса! How I'd like to put a crimp in his plans !

ТАК ВЕДЬ Introducing a clause .

Like TAK $ 26b, p346.

' but' , ' on the contrary' , ' all the same ' , ' nevertheless ' ( Окоемов : ) .... С какой стати я стану рассказывать . Я вам позволяю считать меня плутом , но никак не дураком ; я хочу сам воспользоваться Всеми



пребывания этот


Оболдуевой ;




предмет , так какой же расчет накликать

конкурентов? ( Сосипатра :) Откровенно . ( Окоемов :) Перед вами- то !

Что ж , мне святым , что ли , прикидываться?

ведь не поверите .


( А. Н. Островский)

Why would I tell it? I let you call me a crook, but certainly


. . not a fool; I want to make use of all the advantages of Oboldueva's being here myself; I myself want to exploit this business , so whatever sense would there be in my bringing on a bunch (Sosipatra:)

of competitors?

That's frank.

( Okoemov :)

In front of you , I am. Why should I pretend to be a saint or something? But you won't believe me.


'Isn't that right?' ' Don't you think so?' Used either independently as a sentence in itself or attached to another clause, forming a larger sentence.

Always interrogative.

Анна вчера поговорила с ними .

Так ведь , Анна,

Anna had a talk with them yesterday .

Isn't that right, Anna?

Мировой фильм , ведь так? That's a swell movie , don't you think so?


TAK BOT TAK BOT И See TAK $ 13, p 338.

ТАК ( ... ) BOT (... ) И

See TAK И § 4, p350 .

TAK: BOT TAK See under BOT , p 62.

ТАК И 1.

See TAK §13 ( Consequential) , p338 , and § 14 ( Consequential/Conditional ) , p339.




так. . .


Strengthened form of rak in its basic sense of ' thus ' :

'just' ,

' just the

way ' ,

' exactly ' . Often used when affirming something that has already been stated .

Я так и скажу им . That's just what I'm going to tell them . /That's exactly what I'm going to tell them.

Я так и думал. I thought so./Just as I thought./That's exactly what I thought. Sometimes with an additional

shading of displeasure or impatience when the

speaker feels that what he has just said has been disregarded or has been doubted . А я так и делаю.

But I AM doing it that way. Sometimes with an additional

shading of displeasure upon observing

that an

undesirable result has materialised just as the speaker had anticipated. Так я и знала, что ты забудешь.

I just knew you'd forget . OR: It's just the way I always knew it would be : you forgot. 3. так и (Not separated . ) Characterizes a state of affairs as both ( a) predictable and ( b) final : (a) a natural and predictable result of a lengthy process , arrived at without any sudden changes , and

(b) a conclusion after which no change occurs . ' simply' 'just'


'and wound up by . . . -ing'

' and eventually '



слабел , слабел , так и умер .

The patient got weaker and weaker and eventually died. • Он долго искал среди сорных трав , но так и не нашел. He looked for it among the weeds for a long time, but he never did find it.

Он долго доказывал, но так и не убедил их. He argued for a long time , but he never did convince them. Она так и не узнала, что случилось с ними.

She never did find out what happened to them . Он обещал обещал , но так и не привез. He promised and promised but he never did bring it. Он сначала очень интересовался этим вопросом , а потом так и забыл о нем . At first he was greatly interested in this problem, but later he simply forgot about it. А что?

Неужели они так и не вернулись?

But what happened? Do you mean to say they just never came back?

4. так так · • •





и + Verb






• · И


так .. · BOT

• И


Always stands directly before the verb. Characterizes the action as an effect produced by some sort of force of unusual power, either physical or emotional .

In practice, the construction is used most often

with reference to (a ) phenomena of nature and the behavior of substances and (b) personal reactions and behavior.

From the basic idea of the action's being due to

some powerful cause, it is only a short step to several derivative shadings :

that the

action itself takes place with great intensity, that it comes in great quantities, that it is impossible to withstand, that the action is involuntary , that the action is performed with remarkable energy or speed or skill , and so on . is the idea that the verb used is the perfect word to

Another resulting sense


what happened.

Note how closely the English translations ' just' and ' simply' correspond to the sense of the Russian , not only here but also in $ 2 and $ 3 , above.


'absolutely '

' simply '


a. Of natural phenomena & behavior of substances. Ветер так и воет .

The wind is simply howling. Дождь так и Лил .

The rain absolutely poured.


Дым так и валил из трубы . Smoke was positively pouring from the chimney. Щепки так и летели из- под топора его. The chips just flew from his axe .

Земля так и тряслась от разрыва. The ground absolutely trembled with the explosion. Доски под ним так и гнутся , так и трещат .


The floor boards just bent and creaked under him. Так вот на ней всё и горит , особенно башмаки .


All her clothes just wear out in no time , especially shoes. b . Of personal reactions and behavior. ( 1) INVOLUNTARY У меня глаза так и слипаются .

I just can't keep my eyes open . К военным людям так и льнут . ( Грибоедов) (The girls) just stick like glue to military men . Улыбка так и застыла у него на лице ,

как они


в дверь .

The smile positively froze on his face when they came in the door. Он так и таращился на меня, когда я сказал это .

He simply stared at me when I said that . Она так и пыхала гневом . She was absolutely seething with rage. Я видел , они так и рвались спросить меня о происшествии



I saw that they were just bursting to ask me about what happened at the market. (2) VOLUNTARY , WITH GREAT ENERGY, QUICKNESS OR SKILL (LESS COMMON) Бросил

вожжи :

держи ,


ваше сиятельство ;

сам так в сани и

" Hold them yourself,

your excellency , ''

повалился . (Л. Н. Толстой)

I threw down the reins .

I said, and I simply collapsed into the sleigh. -А мастер танцевать. . . .так и строчит , так и строчит ! (Л.Н.Толстой) My ,

he's a marvellous dancer .

· .--he makes his

feet positively

flash .

5. так


Prf Pres

+ Tаk


Prf Past Prf Subj (-UNCOMMON )

In exclamations expressing scomful and derisive disagreement. The speaker is stating his conclusion which he has drawn from the other speaker's words ,

but is


saying it with heavy irony, meaning that he thinks the opposite.

(For тak alone ,

used when drawing conclusions and summing up, see TAK $$ 15 and 16. ) The

verb is

always in the Perfective:



or Subjunctive .


Subjunctive is used far less commonly than the other two forms . NOTE that the Prf Past is often used idiomatically to refer, like the Prf Pres, to future occasions, The Prf Past can of course also refer to an occasion in the past,

and therefore it

must be determined from the context whether a Prf Past with rak . .

. и refers to

something that has happened yet or to an envisioned event in the future. If this can not be determined from the context, the question can be left open by

using some

translation such as ' Some chance there is of his doing that!' or ' Do you think he'd do that?' Unlike тaк и in §4, where тaк and и usually stand together directly before the verb, in this use the и stands directly before the verb, but the Tax is always the first word in its clause, and is often separated from the и by one

or more words:

the subject of the verb or the object, or both . The construction is often reinforced by additional derisive expressions like нy да как же ог дожидайся.

'So . . . !'

'Like hell... ! '

'Oh sure, of course. . . !'

'You think...? Hah !'

'The devil . . . !'

'Oh sure, I should . .

' 'Some chance of ...! Ключи от машины?

'You expect . . . ? !'

Так я их им и отдам!

The keys to the car? Like hell I'll hand them over to them! Ключи от машины? Так я их им и отдал ! The keys to the car? Like hell I'll hand them over to them !


Like hell I handed them over to them!

Так они и взяли на себя ответственность за это! So you think they'll take (OR they took OR they'd take) the responsibility for that? Hah ! Ну да, как же ! Так я и вымою ( OR вымыл) все эти окна один! Oh sure, naturally ! course !

I'm going to wash all these windows by

Так мы и заплатим (OR заплатили) за него?

myself, of


So we're supposed to pay his way? Nothing doing! Так я и извинился перед ним !

Дожидайся !

Oh sure, I should apologize to him! Так будут шуметь . All right,

Don't try holding your breath until I do!

Так их и побоялся.

so they'll make a fuss .

You expect him to be afraid of them?!

Так бы я ей и сказала это! You think I'd tell her that? Not a chance!



Ipf Fut


Prf Pres

так тебе и

Prf Past

6. так так • · ·


Very similar in use and meaning to $ 5 . displeasure at being told to do something.

REPETITIONS Expresses indignant disagreement and Other verb-forms (Imperative, Infinitive,

Subjunctive) are changed in the repetition into one of these three forms :

Ipf Fut,

Prf Pres, or Prf Past, with change of personal form of the verb to fit the point of view of the person replying.

The verb may also be changed to another verb related

in derivation and meaning. Since the reply is in response to being told to do something, it refers to the future.

'Oh sure, I should ...!' 'Oh , so I'm the one that's supposed to .. . ‫י‬ 'Oh great, I've got to . . .!'

"Thanks a lot, I'm elected to .. .! ' -Позвонил бы ты им . -Так я и позвоню (OR позвонил OR буду звонить) . -I wish you'd phone them. -Oh , so I'm the one that's supposed to phone them! -Надо поднатуживаться .

-Так тебе и натужусь ! -You've got to make a little effort. Oh sure, I should make an effort !

- Вынеси свёртки в машину. —Так я и буду нести все эти свёртки сам .

-Take the packages out to the car. -Oh sure, I should carry all these packages myself. -Вы бы лучше объяснил ей . -Так я и объяснил ей .

-You'd better explain to her. -Thanks a lot , I'm elected to explain to her. 7. так и IN DOUBLED-WORD CONSTRUCTION ( RARE)

See TAK $ 19, p341-2.



И ТАК- ТО Characterizes a thing as happening independently of any other circumstances , and NOT brought about by them . same thing.

I TO $ 1 , p 155, and ( и ) ÁЕз того , р10 , both mean the

See also TAK §8 , p335.


Usually precedes the predicate, but may also follow it. When two clauses are contrasted, the ' but' is usually expressed by a, but Ho may be used also. Заниматься с этим мне некогда; я и так очень занят . I haven't any time to spend on that; I'm very busy without that . Я ему напомню , а (OR но ) он и так приедет .

I'll remind him, but he'll come without my doing that. Я готов помочь ему, а он и так сможет сделать это . I'm willing to help him, but he'll be able to do it in any case. Лизавета Андреевна прислала мне записку , чтобы я приехал . к вам нынче вечером , .. : Lizaveta

А я и так собирался

(Л. Н. Толстой)

Andreevna sent me a note asking me to come. But I was intending to

visit you this evening anyway . Не принеси больше гвоздей , у меня их достаточно и так. Don't bring any more nails, I've got enough as it is. И так трудно это , а он всё и мешает нам . This is hard to do in any case, but he keeps bothering us all the time.


May stand either first or last in its sentence. and you can bet on it.'

'Get this straight : . . . '. ' . . . , and don't forget it . '


and that's a fact'

Так и знай , не уйдешь пока не закончишь эту работу. Get this straight: you're not leaving until you finish this job. Нам помогать не будут , так и знай. They aren't going to help us, and you can bet on that . А я не проваливалась , если хочешь знать, ·· шепчет Галка .-- Я и не поступала, так и знай.

( Аксенов)

"But I didn't ever flunk it, if you want to know, " never even showed up for it, and that's a fact. " Так и знай , этим дело не кончится. We haven't heard the last of this , and don't forget it. • • ТАК И СЯК, И ТАК И СЯК

И ТАК И ТАК 'one way and another' : 1.

так и так

'either way'


whispered. "I


-Как правильно? -Разницы нет .

" Поотношению По отношению к чему " или " в отношении чего " ?

И так и так можно .

-Which is right? "With regard to " or " in regard to" ? -There isn't any difference . 2.

You can say it either way.

так и сяк и так и сяк так и так и так и так так и этак и так и этак то так то сяк


' first one way and then another' 'this way and that' Он вертел ящик и так и сяк , но не мог открыть. He tumed the box first one way and then another, but could not open it. Он и так и так пробовал , но никак не мог их обмануть . He


tried first one way and then another,

but he

couldn't fool them.

' variously'

' various ' ,

'sometimes good and sometimes bad' -Так, как дела? -Ну, и так и сяк .

Пожаловаться не могу.

-So how are things? -Well , it's been good and bad off and on .


I can't complain .

так и сяк И так и сяк

так- сяк a.

' not bad' ( --but not outstanding) 'fair'

' middling'

' tolerable'

'passable '

' so-so' Often preceded by еще in the sense of ' at least' . (See ЕЩЕ $ 5, p125. )

В языках я был еще так и сяк , а в математике-- тупица. In







' difficult '

( --but not impossible)

' with difficulty ' 'barely '

'just about '


not bad, but in mathematics I

was a





нужно .


так- сяк,





нельзя. There are a lot of things we need .

Gasoline isn't easy to

get, and

brake fluid is absolutely impossible.



See under TAК : И ТАК , р353 .











'Why is that?', 'How come?' Used when the speaker is surprised and puzzled by what he has just

been told.

-У меня не было возможности поговорить с ним .

-Как так? -Его там не было вчера. -I didn't get a chance to talk with him. -How come?

-He wasn't there yesterday . -Уедем завтра в шесть часов утра! -Да как это так?

-We're leaving tomorrow at 6 a.m. -But why is that?


( Cf ТАК ЧТО ЖЕ , p362. )


Strengthened form of кaк. answer.

Used when the speaker is interested and anxious to hear

'Now tell me, how . . . ?'

' well now, how .. .?' Ну так как же, как? Now tell me , how did it turn out? Так как же дела там у вас?

Well now, how are things at your place?


КОГДА .... . . TAK . . .

See TAK §§ 18 & 20 .




1. In replies to questions .

Expresses mild unenthusiasm .

'Not so very'

'Nothing extra' ,

'Not too much '

'Not a whole lot'

'Not terribly' -Ну, вас интересует? -Не так чтобы очень. -Well, does it interest you?

-Not a whole lot. -Ну, как вышли результаты? -Не так чтобы очень , не блестяще. -Well, how did the results turn out? -Nothing extra, not outstandingly . 2. In statements . See p 240.

See also HE TO , чтоыы , р240.

Не так чтобы очень сердит был , но изумился .

It wasn't that he was very angry, but he was flabbergasted .

TAK HET 1. In replies .

Emphatic and insistent.

'Oh , no ! '

'No , damn it! '

'No, I tell you ! '

'No, it isn't either!'

-Я вам говорил об этом уже .

-Нет . -Ну да нет . -Нет !


Так нет!

-I was telling you about this before. -No , you didn't. -"No" nothing! It was a long time ago. -No!

No, I tell you!

-Это за тобой дело стало .

-Так нет !

Слушай , я ...

-You're the one that caused the delay.

-No , I wasn't either! 2. As conjunction .

Listen , I . . .

Expresses annoyance at something that turned out contrary to

expectation . (For Taк alone as ' but' see TAK §26 . ) 'but oh no , ... 'but no , · · 'but no, he had to ..


Надеялся ,

что будет ясная погода, так нет , утром пошел

зверский дождь.

I was hoping that there would be fair weather, but no, in the moming a beastly

rain started to fall .

Что бы им уладить дело потихонечку, так нет же, он




об этом . What they should have done was settle the affair quietly, but oh

no, he

had to tell the whole town about it.


НУ ТАК НУ ТАК И 'Then' , 'In that case, then ...'

See TAK $ 14, p339.


'Just as I thought' Так оно и есть, бумага вся вышла. Just as I thought , the paper is all used up .



See TAK §9b, p336.



= если так = раз такое дело .

See p300 .

'if that's the case' , ' if that's the way it is ' , ' seeing that's so' К тому

же ты член правления ,

а раз так,

то я рассчитываю

на твою

полную поддержку. ( Бабаевский) Furthermore, you're a member of the board, and seeing that's so, I'm counting on your full support.

ТАК СЕБЕ 1. not especially well or badly: ' not bad' , ' fair' , ' middling' , ' so-so' , ' all right' -Ну , как дела? -Ну , так себе , неплохо .

-Well , how are things going? -Well, fair, not bad. Сыграл недурно .

какую - то пьесу . Играл не бог знает как , но так себе ,

пожалуй, и

( Чернышевский)

He played some piece or other.

There was nothing wonderful about the way

he played, but it was all right , I guess , and not at all bad.


2. not distinguished in any way, without any pronounced characteristics: 'just a plain old

' ordinary ' ,

§7 . . ' , ‘ a .... like any other . . .' Cf TAK $7.

Он парень так себе , ничем не замечательный . He's just an ordinary guy , not remarkable in any way. Это была комната опрятная , небольшая , так себе , обычная гостиничная комната. It was a neat room of no great size , hotel room .

nothing particular about it ,

a typical

3. not for any special reason , not with any particular purpose: 'just happened to . . .',

' for no particular reason ' ,

' just for the

heck of it'.

Cf TAK $ 9. Она запела песню , не от веселости ,

не от скуки , а так себе, бессознательно .

She started singing, not from gaiety, not from boredom ,

but for no¹ particular

reason , unconsciously.


ТАК -ТАКИ И Essentially, Taк- таки is a strengthened form of так. 1. Expressing certainty about what is asserted.

(Сf TAKи §1 , p 363-5 . )

In colloquial English , the word that

corresponds most nearly to Taк- таки in usage and meaning is ' really ' .

( Cf TAK

$25, p345-6 . ) This basic meaning has several applications : a. Affirming that something is indeed actually the case. -В деревне мне уже теперь нечего делать. -Отчего же нечего? -Да так- таки нечего .

( Тургенев)

-There isn't anything for me to do in the country now. -How come there isn't anything? -There really isn't./Well , there absolutely isn't. Иван


всё знает


этом деле ,

так- таки


до малейшей

подробности. Ivan Sergeevich knows everything about this matter, absolutely everything down to the smallest detail . b. Affirming that the words used in the assertion are an exact and appropriate representation

of what is the case.

Теперь я так- таки и сплоховал .

This time I've really put my foot in it. c. In questions .


Taк- тaки is often used in questions that ask for confirmation that what was just said is literally true .

Questions of this kind are frequently introduced by

неужели ог неужто , or may be replies containing repetitions .


Неужели уж так- таки и его не знаете? Do you mean to say you actually don't known him at all? Вы думаете, я так- таки и вымою всю посуду сам? ( СҒ ТАК И , $ 6 , p353. ) by myself?

Do you think I'm really going to wash all the dishes -Завтра

будут готовы.

-Так- таки завтра? -They'll be ready tomorrow . -It'll really be tomorrow? -Нет , батя , без электричества нам жить нельзя. —Так- таки и нельзя? Сколько жили —и ничего .

А теперь нельзя?

(Бабаевский) -No , Pop, without electricity we can't live . -You really can't? You lived I don't know how long, and it

was all

right. But now you can't? d. Pointing out that what is asserted is indeed the case , even though it is not what might easily have been expected . Их было трое , но так- таки и не могли поднять . There were three of them, but even so they could not lift it.

Они так- таки прибыли вовремя. They did arrive on time after all./

They really did arrive on time. 2. Indicating the absence of any particular reason for doing something.

In the present-

day language так and просто так аrе more usually used to express this meaning (See TAK §9, p335-7). —Вы желали меня видеть , - начал он, - насчет размежевания? -Да,


размежевания ,

но я и так- таки желала вас

близкие соседи и чуть ли не сродни . -" You -" Yes,






TAK- TO 1. Strengthened form of так, ' thus' , ' so' А вот так- то (это) я сказал. But that's exactly what I said.

Так- то сейф отпирается . That's how the safe opens .

Ведь мы

( Тургенев) settling


I wanted to see you about settling the

wanted to see you anyway . almost related. "

видеть .

After all,



boundaries ,


we're near neighbors

began . I


and we're


2. Reinforcing an assertion: ' certainly '

' sure '

'really' Так- то, были сердиты!

They sure were mad!/Boy, they were really mad! 3. Summing up a situation that has just been described: 'And that's how things stand' 'And that's the way it is' 'And that's it'

Уголь у нас совсем вышел, так- то . We've run completely out of coal , and that's the situation. Не знаю , что он говорил , там не был . I don't know what he said.



Так- то !

I wasn't there .

And that's all I have to say!

(Cf HE TAK YX , p362. )

1. ' not so very . . . ' , ' not all that . . .' , ' not especially . . . ' Но это не так- то важно.

But it isn't all that important .

2. ' not so · • " ' , 'not at all ...', 'by no means ...' Он не так- то глуп! He's not so dumb!/He's not stupid in the least!

ТАК- ТО (OHO) ТАК , НО/А/ДА ...• 'That's perfectly true , but ... ' , 'That's all very well , but . . .' Так- то так, но дело не в том. That's all very well , but that's not the point.


ТОЛЬКО ТАК ТАК ТОЛЬКО 'not for any special reason'

'without any particular purpose' 'just happened to . . .' 'just for the heck of it'

(See TAK §9 , p335, & See TAK CEBE §3 , p358-9. )

Это я только так ( сделал) , на досуге.

В мои



входит ,


деле .

I did that just for the heck of it, in my spare time . It isn't actually part of my job.


-Кто он?

-Это Добродушнов .

А почему?

-0 , я так только. -Who is he? -That's Dobrodushnov. Why? -Oh, I was just asking.



Used in questions and exclamations that express strong doubt that what was said in the preceding remark is really the case.

Cf TAK- TAKи §lc, p359.- The

difference is

that while так- таки expresses doubt that what was just said is right, так уж еxрrеѕѕеѕ near certainty that it is not right. ‘Oh , I can't believe that !. ...!'

'Not really... !'

'Oh, hardly ... !'

'Oh, surely not . . . !'

'Do you really mean to say ... ?'

' 'Oh , come on now !...!

-Всю работу кончили за час. -Так уж и час? -They finished the whole job in an hour. -Oh come on now!


An hour?



See under будтО , p17 .



See under YX И




(Cf HE TAK-TO , p361 .).

'not all that ...'

' not so terribly . Фильм на самом деле не так уж мировой.

The movie isn't really all that great. Он не так уж занят , как утверждает. He's not as terribly busy as he claims to be.

ТАК ЧТО ЖЕ ? -TAK KAK XE?, p356 . Used when the speaker is interested and is anxious to hear the answer. Ну так что же , Вася? Well


Как же дело сошло?

what's the



Just how did the

affair come off?




1. (flippant) 'Well , so what? ' ( --as in English) 'Well, what of it?' 2. (concerned) ' Well then what ( am I going to do)? ' Мне

надо заведующего.

На обед, да?

Ну , так что , мне срочно надо с ним

перетолковать что- то . I need to talk to the manager.

Gone to lunch , huh?

Well now, what am I

going to do? There's something I urgently need to discuss with him. 3. (resigned)

' Well , then what ( can anyone do about it)?'

У них нету?

Ну так что, ни у кого нет .

Don't they have any? Well , it can't be helped, no one has any.



- TAK $ 20 , p342-3. 'If there's to be a . . ., then do it properly. '

'When there's a ..

make it a good one. '

'Let's have a ... the way it should be . ' 'Let's have a . . .that is a ....'

Я люблю , чтоб у меня все было в порядке ·· библиотека так чтоб библиотека. I like to have everything in order -- a library that is a library.



See under HE , p240 .

TAKИ -ТАКИ (There is no difference between таки and - таки .

The use of a hyphen before таки is

a convention of printing, intended to point out to the reader that the word before тaки is stressed, owing to the sense of the sentence , and that the таки is unstressed and follows it closely in pronunciation . ) MEANING: The fundamental meaning of rаки is to reinforce an assertion : what is stated here is indeed fact.


emphasize that

The таки shows that the speaker has reason to think

that he is describing an outcome that may well not be what his audience is expecting. As

a result, the applications of таки include statements about outcomes of situations

where there were adverse circumstances,

where there were obstacles to

be overcome,

where the result was a long time in coming, where considerable effort was required , where in some way the outcome was not a foregone conclusion .


'contrary to what might be expected'

' really did-'

'after all'

'although you may not have thought so'

'in the end'

'in fact'

' in spite of everything'

' finally'


'nevertheless '

'really '

' certainly '


'... and no mistake'

' managed to.


' . . . and that's a fact'

' succeeded in


WORD-ORDER : Таки applies to its clause as a whole , and hence its position is not rigidly fixed. However:

1. Таки is most often placed next to the verb, either after it or before it . 2. There is a strong tendency to embed таки between principal words of its clause: Subject

( noun or pronoun )



( noun or pronoun )



+ Verb +



таки + таки


Subject (noun or pronoun)


+ таки


Object (noun or pronoun)

Inflected Verb

+ таки

+ complementary Infinitive

Subject Object



+ таки




+ Subject +



3. Nevertheless , таки can also stand either first or last in its clause , although this is less common . 4. The one other place where таки commonly occurs is after

adverbs , especially

adverbs that refer to intensity or extent, e.g. гораздо












EXAMPLES : Поначитался таки Ломоносова, Державина ... (А. Н. Островский) You may be surprised, but I've read quite a lot of Lomonosov and Derzhavin .

Он был совсем не сердит , и таки улыбался . He wasn't angry at all , and in fact he was smiling. Несмотря на свое горе , она смогла таки принять участие в

моих заботах.

In spite of her own trouble , she was able nevertheless to take an interest in my concerns. Господин Голядкин —старший за ним и , к неописанному своему удовольствию, таки нагнал его на последней ступеньке и схватил за воротник его шинели . (Достоевский) Mr. Golyadkin Senior went after him and, to his own indescribable satisfaction, succeeded in catching up with him on the last step and seized him by the collar of his overcoat.



Вася !

- закричал ,

рыдая ,

Аркадий таки протеснился к нему.


Иванович .

Вася остановился ,



" Vasya ! Vasya ! " shouted Arkady Ivanovich , sobbing.

Vasya stopped, and

Arkady eventually managed to force his way through to him.

А те трое- то , которые убежали , вышли таки к своим .


But those three men who ran away really did finally get away to their own troops. Сучок карабкался , болтал ногами , прыгал и таки выбирался на более мелкое место .

( Тургенев)

Suchok would flounder and scramble and hop and finally manage to get to a shallower place. А

главное ,

остановился ,

все равно , я ничему не могу учиться теперь , покраснел





когда .


таки : - Когда отечество в

опасности . (Л. Толстой) “ But the main thing is , anyway , I can't be studying anything now, when... " Petya stopped, flushed until the perspiration came, and at last managed to 66 bring out ... when the country is in danger. ” Как он ни маялся , как ни убеждал , что к языкам туп . . . - ничего у него не получилось , пришлось таки сесть за учебник .

(В. Некрасов)

No matter how he struggled, no matter how he argued that he was dull at languages, nothing got him anywhere.

In the end he had to sit down to the


Мне таки прямо везло . Truly, I've been lucky .

-Разве он пьет? - спросила Юлия . —Пьет , матушка , и порядочно таки этим занимается . (Писемский) "Do you mean to say he drinks?" asked Julia. "He does , ma'am, and he really does a good job of it. " ТАКИ IN QUESTIONS : Note

that in questions asked in response to an assertion made by the other

person , the point of view represented by таки shifts , and the таки indicates surprise on the part of the speaker, who is responding with a question , instead of surprise that the speaker is anticipating in his hearer.

The result is that in questions тaки is

very similar in meaning to неужели , and in fact can be used in combination with it . Как?

Таки явился на собрание?

What ? He actually did show up for the meeting? Неужели таки не можешь? You really mean to tell me you can't?



+ Adj or Adv

(pop . sp. & regional )

- Tak + Adj or Adv, ' so ——————— ' , ' so greatly. У нас в конторе таково жарко , что дальше некуда. It's so hot in our office, it's just beyond anything. Жаль , что ты там не была .

Он изумился , смешно таково.

It's too bad you weren't there . He was flabbergasted .


(Adj . & Pron . )

It was so darned funny.

(pop . sp. )

8 такой, таков 'like that'

'... is like that.'

'that kind'

'That's the way . . . is . '

It is characteristic of таковский to be used to sum up what has just been said before . Таковский often

conveys disapproval or condemnation,

expressions of approval . the speaker:

but can also be

used in

Taковский сarries a certain amount of feeling on the part of

it therefore is often found in exclamations , and would not appear in neutral

statements of fact. Таковский is mostly used to refer to people rather than things. Вечные придиры .

Я таковских людей никогда терпеть не мог .

Everlasting fault- finders .

I never could stand people like that.

Скоро начинать да дело делать-- мы таковские ! Get started fast and keep right after the job--that's the kind of people we are!


ЧТО (ЖЕ ) (ТУТ) . . . ТАКОГО ?

See under ТАКОЙ :



Interrog. Pronoun (all cases) Interrog. Adjective (all cases) + TAKOE ( or TAKOй*) INVARIABLE Interrog. Adverb *The TAKOE is sometimes shortened in regional pronunciation to TAKOй . 'exactly', 'just'

In popular speech, this тaкoe is an invariable particle ,

and is NOT declined to

match a preceding pronoun . It adds emphasis to the word it follows .

The most common

and familiar combination is чTо такое , but all other combinations are possible .

Что такое кибернетика? Exactly what is cybernetics?

Кому такое он позвонил? Whom did he call , exactly? С кем такое ты говорила, Just whom were you talking with?


Откуда такое ты это взял? Just where did you get that idea? У каких такое людей такие пропуска? Exactly which people have those permits? В каких такое случаях это было сделано? In exactly which cases was this done?

Still popular speech , but closer to the literary style , are constructions declined to match :

TAKOE + Verb:

Кто ты такой?

Кто они такие?

with такой




Used in threatening and belligerent expressions. ' something' , ' a thing or two ' , ' a few things'

Вот я про них такое знаю. I know a few things about them. Я ему такое еще покажу .

I'll show him a thing or two yet . Мы бы могли такое сказать о том , что там на заседании происходило. We could really tell you something about what went

on there at that meeting.

Я ей такое скажу , если станет жаловаться.

I'll tell her a thing or two if she starts complaining. Я ему такое устрою, когда я вернусь. I'll fix up something just dandy for him when I come back.

ТАКОЕ ДЕЛО A formula used when introducing a new topic: 'Here's how things stand'

'Here's another thing:

'Here's how it is : . . . '

' Another point: . . . '

' This is the setup' Теперь значит такое дело ; там у вас этот Каменев просил меня вчера, чтоб 1 я узнал . . . All right, now, another thing: that fellow Kamenev at your place asked me yesterday to find out ...



' Okay ' , ' All right ' , ' That's what we'll do'





Что ж












1. Used when asking what is special or unusual or noteworthy about what is spoken of. 'What... that is/was unusual?' 'What. . . that's new and different?' 'What was there about what . . .?' Ну что же там ты услышала такого? Well , what did you hear over there that's new and different?

Что же я сказал такого? What was there about what I said? 2. Hence, used when asking why the other speaker is making such an issue


something. ' What's so special about this?' ' All right, so what's the point?' 'Well what about it?' ' So what?'

' So what if ...?'

Ну, скажи мне , ради бога, что в ней такого: белобрысая ...

Удивляюсь !


сухая, вертлявая,

( Мамин- Сибиряк)

All right, for heaven's sake tell me what's so special

about her!


little, scrawny, fidgety, towheaded. . .I don't get it! Ну что ж такое , что я ошибся? All right, so what if I did make a mistake?

-Вы разговаривали об этом с ним вчера. -Ну и что ж тут такого? -You were talking with him yesterday about that.

-All right, so what's the point?

ТАКОЙ ( all cases) --postpositive after Adjectives (colloq.) postpositive after Nouns with qualitative meaning Intensifies and emphasizes the word it follows . The meaning is essentially the same as it is when тaкoй stands before the adjective or noun it modifies and means ' so ' , ' such a ' , as in English . adjective or noun is characteristic of the colloquial language.

Placing the такой after its

369 'so'

'so very '

'a most'

'such a'

'so extremely'

' the most'

' extremely '

У него был мрачный такой вид . He had such a sombre look.

Он болван такой. • He's such a dunderhead. Это он мне налгал с сияющей такой улыбкой. He told me this pack of lies with the most beaming smile.

Й ТАКО TAKOй-postpositive after Nouns Used to point out to the hearer that what is spoken of is in fact already familiar to him .

'one of those. . .' 'one of those... you know' 'one of those. . . You know what I mean .' 'one of those... You know the kind.' Посмотрите в эту книгу.

Это справочник такой.

Look it up in this book. It's one of those reference handbooks .

Последовала нескончаемая дискуссия такая. There followed one of those interminable debates. You know the kind.


Indefinite Pronoun

+ ТАКОЙ /ТАКАЯ /ТАКОЕ Indefinite Adverb


1. A form of raкoй may be used with indefinites made from an interrogative + -TO to increase the sense of indefiniteness.

The neuter тaкoе is used with adverbs .

Он как- то такое выглядел виноватым. Somehow or other he had a guilty look.

Кто-то такой стоял там на углу. Someone or other was standing there on the corner.

-Теперь где они? -Где они?

Не знаю.

Куда-то такое ушли .

-Now where are they? -Where are they? I don't know. 2. With


They're gone off somewhere or other.

indefinite in -нибудь, a following такой can carry the idea

something special or noteworthy, as it does in questions of the


of being тo (xe)

(тут) такое/такого, р368 . Теперь писать нечего .

Как будет нового , я тебе буду звонить .

А если что-

нибудь такое-то, тогда напишу , все подробно разъясню . There isn't anything to write now. you. But if there's anything at all everything in detail .

When there's anything new, special,

then I'll write

I'll call

and explain



In impatient replies. See A $4, p2, and TAK $ 2c, p332.

Used in answers to questions containing a form of какой , much as так is used in answers to questions containing кaк.

The answer is a derisive or impatient reassertion

of something that the other speaker questioned because he either did not understand it or was surprised to hear it. ' 'Just what I said, .. .!

'Just that . ... !

'Exactly that: .. -Путаница получилась . -А какая? -Такая.

Телеграмму послали не по тому адресу.

-There's been a mixup. -What sort of one? —Just what I said.


A mixup.

They sent the telegram to the wrong address.

+ Name

Used to refer to a person whom the speaker knows by name but not by personal acquaintance . Этот iѕ used in the same way.

a. man named

'someone named

' This man

'some fellow called В ремонтную мастерскую отнеси. Take it to the repair shop .

Есть такой Давыдов там .

Все умеет починить.

There's a man named Davydov there. He

can fix

anything. Скажите ,

у вас работает

такой Устинов ,

еще недавно в Огоньке была.

Егор Устинов?

Вот его фотография


Tell me, is there someone named Ustinov, Egor Ustinov, working at your place? I remember there was a picture of him in Ogonyok recently.


as invariable particle (regional)

Regional pronunciation of Taкoe when used after interrogative pronouns and adverbs in the sense of ' exactly, ' 'just' .


See TAKOЕ , p366 .

( pop. sp. )

- в таком случае, ' in that case'


' so- and- ao '

' you so-and-so' , etc.

A genteel substitute for more abusive words. Used both goodnaturedly and in real anger, as in English.


Стой ,

такой- сякой !

Куда ускользаешь?

Stop right there, you so- and- so !

Where are you sneaking off to?

Ах, такие- сякие , кто мою машинку спер? Oh , the rats!

Who swiped my typewriter?

ТАКОЙ-ТО 1. Strengthened form of такой in exclamatory statements about the high which

degree in

some quality is exhibited. 'How . . . !' , 'What a . . . !' , ' such a . . . ’

Уж такая-то эта комната приятная! My, what a pleasant room this is!

Он такой- то жмот , что дальше некуда. He's such a tightwad that it just beats everything.


= именно этот , ' this particular. .. . ' , ' this and no other. . . ' , ' exactly this ... ' , ' a certain . . . ' Он настаивал на том , чтобы во всех докладах пользовались только такими-то формулами . He insisted that in all reports they should use certain particular wordings only.


= вот какой , ' Here's what a . . . .' , 'This is the . . .' , ' Let me tell you what (a) . . ' .. Often used in introducing an explanation of a state of affairs or a description of

a situation . Такой- то вопрос возник в ходе обсуждения . Here's the problem that arose in the course of the discussion. Такие- то дела здесь у нас сегодня .

Из наших два в отпуску , да три больны.

Here's how things stand here at our place today .

Two of our people are on

vacation, and three are sick.

Такая- то картина получилась : · · This is the situation that's come up : .... 4. ' such-and-such ' , ' so- and- so' Used when describing a set of data without giving a specific example, because the specific case is not the point. Каждая карточка гласит :

фамилия такая- то,

имя-отчество такое-то, адрес

такой- то номер телефона такой-то , и так далее .


card reads

" Surname :

such -and- such , Address : and so forth .


(dialectal )

= тогда

such - and- such ,

First name

such - and-such , Telephone number :

and patronymic : such -and- such ”



( dialectal )

' even then'

TAM In addition to its ordinary locative meaning of ' there ' (as opposed to ' here' ) , Taм has a number of additional uses : 1. Temporal, sequential .

Introduces a reference to one event that follows another.

That the following event is contrasted, at least mildly, with the one that precedes it is shown by the fact that this тaм often occurs in the combination a тaм. other words , this тaм places an event in a series in some position


other than

first, like пoтoм , rather than simply locating it in time, like тогда .


'and after that'

' and then'

'and afterwards'

' and next'

'and later'

' and thereupon' Сперва план придумать надо , а там начнём . First we have to think up a plan , and then we'll begin . Там поверишь мне .

Вот установку тебе покажу .

See here , I'll show you the directive .

Решено было , что


Then you'll believe me .

Слава переночует


городе ,

а завтра с утра


самостоятельно пешком .

вернется на аэродром-

на десятом номере трамвая , а там

( Н. К. Чуковский)

It was decided that on that day Slava would stay overnight in town , and would go back to the airfield on his own the next day--on the Number 10 streetcar, and then on foot. 2. Pointing out an instance . ' in that case' 'in that instance'

Counterpart to TуT, which is used in the 'under those circumstances'

same way .

'in that connection'

Тут он был прав , а там нет . In this matter he was right, but in that he was not. Ничего там не нужно делать .

Они обо всём позаботятся.

It isn't necessary to do anything in that connection . They'll see to everything. Гораздо легче изображать характеры большого размера : краски со всей руки на полотно .

там просто бросай

( Гоголь)

It is much easier to depict flamboyant figures. In that case, all you have to do is fling paints on the canvas with a lavish hand. 3. Indefinite. tried

At a pause during an enumeration , indicating that the speaker has not

to think the

possibilities . Note

situation that the

through там

enumeration or after a later one.



and is only suggesting


come either after the first item in the


' or something'

'for instance'

'or whatever'

'and so forth '

' or anything like that'

'perhaps '

' and things like that' Возьмите что хотите-- книгу там, журнал, газету. Take what you want--a book or a magazine or the newspaper or whatever. Взглянешь

в окно :


мой Гаврило

улицу или там канавки подчищает .

(Короленко ) If you look out the window, my Gavrilo is sweeping the street or cleaning up the gutters or something.

насосом .

Он с чем- то у мотора возился- с карбюратором там , да с топливным

He was tinkering with something on the engine--with the carburator and the fuel pump and so forth. 4. Indefinite





that a thing is not definite

in the

speaker's mind because he has not thought about it ( §3 ) , it is only a short step to meaning that he has not thought about it because he has no interest in it, does not think highly of it, or in fact is scomful of it .

English ' some ' and ' some . . . or

other' are used in the same way to disparage and dismiss something as petty and insignificant. Taм in this meaning often stands ( 1 ) first in its clause , (2) (3) after a pronoun , or (4) after a pronominal

adjective or adverb,

after a verb, especially

какой , какой-то , ог какой- нибудь. • and such'

' some'

' some ... . or something'

(with verbs :) ' go ahead and . . .'

' some ... or whatever' В ту неделю приехала к нам какая-нибудь там инспекция , дня три всем мешали . That week some inspection team or something came to our place and bothered everybody for about three days. Этого курса я терпеть не могу.

I can't stand this course .

Ну , провалюсь там , пожалуй .

Well , I'll fail the darned thing, I suppose .

( OR :

Well , I'll just go ahead and fail it, I suppose . ) Там обижайтесь или нет , а я всегда правду - матку скажу .

(Л. Н.

Толстой )

You can go ahead and take offense or not, but I always call a spade a spade. Может быть ,

по научным там всяким законам мы (рабочие) людьми станем

через сотню лет .


Maybe according to all them there scientific laws and such people) will be somebody in about a hundred years.

we (working


5. Also related to the disparaging sense of ram pointed out in $4 is the use of taм after


сколько ,



interrogatives (е.g.



какое ,

какой ,

когда, куда,

чей , что) in confident disputations or rejections of an idea

that has

just been proposed, either by the speaker himself or by the other speaker. Confident contradictions of this kind often take the form of replies containing repetitions introduced by the Interrogative + тaм, though repetition of the disputed thought is not obligatory. The Interrogative + там,

with or without the repetition, is

frequently then

followed by some statement of the speaker's grounds for disagreeing. Often the tendency is to use где там and куда там to express a belief that something cannot be done , and to use какое там and что там to express a belief that something is not true or is not pertinent, but this distinction is not always made. .?'

' What do you mean ,

'What's ... about it?'

'... nonsense !'

'How can ...?'

' . . . nothing!'

'Impossible !'

'Nothing of the sort!'

-Тяжело. Тачки надо. -Какое там тяжело? -It's heavy .

Мы вдвоем сможем нести .

We need a wheelbarrow.

-What do you mean , heavy? The two of us can carry it. OR:

-Что там тачка!

Мы вдвоем сможем нести.

-Wheelbarrow nonsense!

-А что!

трудно служить?


там трудно ? .

The two of us can carry it .

· Придется , может быть в

управе , и то только папироски покурить .





(Н. Успенский )

*Popular speech pronunciation of какое .

-Well now ! Is it a hard job? -What's hard about it?

You have to be at the board maybe

about once a

week, and even then all you do is smoke cigarettes .

-Обшивать хозяйка должна. -Куда там !

Любе некогда.

( Афикогенов)

-The lady of the house is supposed to do the sewing. -Impossible !

Lyuba doesn't have any time to .

Не раз я принималась уговаривать ее пожить со мной хотя бы те немногие дни, которые мы с Саней проводили в Москве- - какое там , не хотела и слышать ! ( Каверин)

More than once I started in to try to persuade her to stay with me, if only for those few days that Sanya and I spent in Moscow .--Nothing of the sort, she wouldn't hear of it!


For other examples , see

где там , р77-79 . какое там , р189-194, $ 11 & 12. какой там , р189-194, $ 11.

куда там , р203-205 , §4 . что там 6. With Imperatives

and in expressions of urging,

much like

' there '

in English.

Carries some of the disparaging and contemptuous tone of §4. Эй ты !

Торопись там!

Hey you ! Hurry up there! Давай попытайся !

Чего там !

Go ahead and try! What are you hanging back for there?

Эй !

Что с тобой там?

Осторожно !

Hey ! What's the matter with you there? 7. Там

is used simply for emphasis in

Be careful !

constructions of the type . Interrogative +

бы + ни · • · (a) .. кто бы там ни - кто бы ни ' no matter who' что бы там ни - что бы ни ' no matter what' как бы там ни - как бы ни ' no matter how' где бы там ни - где бы ни 'no matter where' когда бы там ни = когда бы ни ' no matter when' куда бы там ни = куда бы ни ' no matter where ( to)' Что бы там ни говорят , я это по-моему сделаю.

No matter what they say , I'm going to do it my way . Как бы там ни постарались, а не смогли открыть. No matter how they tried, they could not manage to open it.

ТАМ ГДЕ 'The place where ' , ' where ' (lit: " there where ") So too тогда когда = ' the time when ' , ' when' .



■ там , ' there'

TAMO (pop . sp . & regional) = там, ' there ' .

Used in locative sense only , not as particle.

тамоди = там, ‘ there' .

Used in locative sense only , not as particle .


TAMOKA (dialectal : Northern)

- там

TAMOTKA (dialectal ) TAMOTKO - там, ' there' .

Used in locative sense only , not as particle.

ТАПЕЙ (dialectal) .

■ теперь , 'now' See under ТЕПЕРЬ : dialectal variants, p377 .


(pop . sp. ) 8 ( 1) тебе (Dat. ) (2) тебя (Асс. )

-TE (dialectal)

--TO, the emphatic particle. Другого-те времени нельзя было выбрать? (Леонов) You just couldn't pick some other time , could you?


( " ethical Dative' )

' There you have . .

(Need not always be translated. )

' There you are , …… ' There's a . . . for you ' В наше время жених- то приехал в дом , поглядел невесту издальки ,

а потом

тебе и свадьба. |А нынче, тянут- тянут , ходят- ходят, говорять говорят по- умномуто, а глядишь-- дело и рассохлось. (Мамин- Сибиряк) In our day the groom came to the house, distance, and then you had a wedding.

got a look at the

bride from a

But nowadays they delay and delay,

they go back and forth and back and forth, they talk and talk and look wise , and before you know it the whole business has dried up .

Нынче заведение такое пошло , что всякая тебе лапотница в дворянство норовит.

(А. Н. Островский)

Nowadays the custom has gotten started where you see every peasant woman trying to get into the nobility.

ТЕЛЁШИТЬ (dialectal) 'treat roughly ' , ' be tough with '




сейчас , тотчас , ‘immediately ' , ' right away' (Cf Polish ten = тот . )

ТЕПЕРИЧА (dialectal) - теперь


dialectal variants

" Теперь " was originally то перво , ' first thing' , 'first of all ' . Severely altered forms :

тапей топри.

Forms created by adding suffixes : теперетка


топерва теперево








теперача теперека тапери






теперече тепереко








тепериче топериче









теперичка топеричкася








ТЕПЕРЬ ТАК ( C TAK $ 17 .) Used when resuming after a digression and passing on to a new topic.

Now w,, ...' ‘'No 'Now then, ...

'Now, another thing: . . . '


Ясно , поставлю.

Теперь насчет запчастей, я разговаривал сегодня с другим,

так? Он тоже ничего не обещает , но ... I understand. I'll see to it. Now, about the spare parts, I was talking to another fellow today, Хорошо.

see? He isn't promising anything either,


• •

Теперь так, машина там у вас есть, да?


Now, another thing:

You've got a truck there, right? ... . . .

ТЕПЕРЬ ЭТО РАЗ This time just this once(we'll let it go/we'll do it this way/etc. )

TEPE 'Hello !' , 'Hi !' ( -From Estonian tere . )

Used humorously as a greeting.

(dialectal : Western & Southwestern)



( from чи же) Interrogative particle.

Used most often in questions that can be

answered with

Yes or No, but can be used also in questions that contain an interrogative pronoun or adverb. Note that unlike лn, these particles can stand first in the question as well as inside it. Tи occurs in the West Russian area near the border of the Belorussian Republic . чn occurs in the West Russian area near the border of the чиx occurs in the area around Voronezh . Чи знаешь ты его?

Do you know him? Дрова чи вам надо?

Do you need firewood? Ти кто там? Who is there? Чих как вас зовут?

What's your name?


Variants of -KA.

See · KA, p169.

Ukrainian Republic.


ΤΟ In the example that follows, To appears to mean 'then' in the sense of ' at that time' although dictionaries do not list that meaning. Another conceivable explanation is that here is a case of the construction To 0009 ΤΟ ... 'first .... and then ...', 'now .... now ...', with the second To replaced by а теперь. То всё приставала: Женись да женись. Я хоть бы поглядела на тебя, на женатого! А теперь поедóм ест, проходу не даст …… (-А.Н.Островский) Before, she was at me all the time with " Get married, get married, if only I could see you married!" But now she nags the life out of me, she never lets up, ... ΤΟ

--as correlative conjunction When a main clause is preceded by a subordinate clause, a ro may optionally be placed at the beginning of the main clause to emphasize how closely connected the two clauses are, how inevitably the second follows from the first, etc. (The тo need not always be translated . ) Probably the most familiar pairing ofthis kind is the combination если ..., тO ..., 'if ..., (then) ...', but many others are possible:

когда бы 0009 TO .. когда ..., то ... как ΤΟ ... так как ●009 ΤΟ ……


раз ..., то что ..., то что касается ..., то .

'if..., ..., (then) ...' 'when ... (then) ...' 'as ...,(so) ...' 'since ..., (then) ... .. 'since/seeing that ..., (then) ...' 'whatever ..., (that) ...' ' as far as ... is concerned , (that) ...'


(popular speech) A. The emphasis-particle -ro is characteristic of the colloquial style. B. Fundamentally, To adds emphasis to the word it follows. This emphasis is ordinarily rather mild, however, and is seldom as strong as that imparted by жe. C. It appears that -To has a strong tendency to be used to accentuate the SECOND MOST important word or phrase in its clause. This second most important word nearly always stands in a very close relationship to the most important word of all, modifying it in one way or another, limiting the scope of its application to the instance at hand, and combining with it to form a single unified idea which is the basic point of the sentence. For example, if the most important word in a clause is the verb, then a -ro may be attached to the subject or an object or an adverb , whichever is the second most important item: who the doer is, or what the thing acted upon is, or what the circumstances or intensity of the action are. But the most important word need not always be a verb; other patterns are possible and will be pointed out below.


In the examples that follow, a double underline will be placed under the most important word, and a single underline will be placed under the second most important word and its emphasis- particle -To .)


Example of this principle: Ведь от любви родители и строги-то к вам бывают, от любви вас и бранят-то, всё думают добру научить. (А. Н. Островский) Don'tyou see, it's out of love that your parents are strict with you, it's out of love that they scold you; they're always thinking about teaching you what's good. (Here in fact the most important and emphatic word is not the verb in either ofthe first two clauses. The most important expression is от любви: the mother's whole purpose is to say why all these things are done, and for this reason she puts it at the beginning of the sentence. The second most important word іs строги: it answers the question " Out of love what?" Родители, who does these things, is third in importance, к вам, то whom, is fourth, and in this case the colorless verb бывают, which could have been supplied even if it were missing, is last of all . Taken together, от любви строги, "strict out of love" makes up the shortest possible formula for the basic thought of the whole sentence . In the second clause, от любви із геpeated because it is most important, and this time the second most important word is бранят. The fact that the second most important word was a predicate adjective the first time and a verb the second is evidently immaterial.)

Further examples:. Subject + -то. В наше время жених-то приехал в дом, поглядел невесту издальки, а потом тебе и свадьба. А нынче ... (Мамин - Сибиряк) In our day the suitor came to the house, took a look at the girl from a distance, and then you had the wedding. But nowadays ... Метель- то, видно, взаправду взялась, - визжит да повизгивает! (Салтыков - Щедрин) The snowstorm, it seems, has really gotten going, - it's shrieking and howling! Эге! видно, правда-то кусается! (Салтыков- Щедрин) Aha! Evidently the truth hurts!

Лошади-то молодые, пужливые, -дернули, а он вскричал - они пуще … . . ВОТ И беда. (Достоевский) The horses were young and skittish, they gave a jerk, he yelled - they got more so ... and the accident happened. Кожи-то мол у тебя краденые. (Салтыков-Щедрин) The hides are supposed to have been stolen from you.



краля - то



из - за




(Л. Н. Толстой) " She's a beauty , my princess is , '' said the nurse, who had come in through the doorway .

Object (in various cases) + -то : Я

тогда деньги-то пропил , ведь это все от скуки . (Л. Н. Толстой) At that time I drank away my money, and it was all from boredom, you see .

Ведь я было чуть не женился на Ларисе , -- вот бы людей- то насмешил ! (А. Н. Островский) Look , I almost married Larisa .

Then I'd have really made people laugh


me! Что ж ты должок-то , забываешь , что ли ?


What are you doing about that little debt, forgetting it, maybe? Уж диви бы охотник, а то и ружья-то никогда в руки не брал . ( А. Н. Островский) " That would be okay if he were a hunter, but actually he's never had a gun in his hands . Да


вы это

все меня мальчишка да мальчишка .

перестать мальчишкой- то звать меня .

Полно вам ;




Dam it, why are you always calling me a boy ?

Cut it out; it's time people -

stopped calling me a boy.

Adverb or adverbial expression + -TO: Не очень- то нынче старших уважают .

( А. Н. Островский)

They don't respect their elders an awful lot these days . Да отвори , жив аль нет ? И всё-то он дрыхнет ! (Достоевский) Come on , open up ! Are you alive or not? He's always sleeping! Ах ты, господи !

Вот уж шестую неделю так- то с ним маемся !

( Салтыков-

Щедрин) Lord! him! A


Here it is the sixth week that we're having such a terrible time with

тянут - тянут ,

ходят- ходят ,

глядишь-- дело и рассохлось

говорят- говорят

по - умному- то ,


( Мамин- Сибиряк)

But nowadays they delay and delay , they go back and forth and back and forth ,

they talk and talk, trying to sound smart, and before you know it

the whole deal has gone sour.


-Разве выгоднее ездить в извоз , чем дома хлебопашеством заниматься? (Л.Н. Толстой)

-Когда не выгоднее , ... Дома- то лошадей кормить нечем.

-Do you mean to say it's more profitable to be a freight-hauler than to be a farmer at home? . At home there's nothing to

-I'll say it's more profitable , · horses on .

feed the

Молоду тебя замуж-то отдали , погулять- то тебе в девках не пришлось ; вот у тебя сердце-то и не уходилось еще .

( А. Н. Островский)

They married you off young, you didn't get to have a good time as a young girl; your heart hasn't calmed down yet.


verb + -то :

Жаль, что она едет- то скоро, а то бы он показал ей себя .

( А. Н. Островский)

It's too bad she's going away right away; if she weren't , he would make himself better known to her. Достает


смотрит :

Выиграла- то Елена. He




на триста



gets the tickets and looks at them:


number 318

are two lines.

It is Elena who has won.

Prepositional phrase + -то : Эх , ты жизнь !

Как подумаешь , так мурашки у тебя по спине-то заползают .

(А. Н. Островский)

Oh, what a thing life is! (Lit.:



знаешь , -- ну

When you think about it, it gives you the creeps.

Then the ants start crawling along your back. )

кустам -то



я ее и срезал .

важная растет

хворостина ,

с комельком ,


I looked around at the bushes and saw a pretty good stick growing there, with

a good butt-end on it ,

you know.



went over and

cut it.

Поежился маленько-- вишь , холодно в избе-то было по осеннему времени .... (Бажов) He huddled up small--you see, it was cold in the hut in the autumn time . Ждали




обеду-то ...


двое суток не были !


We waited for you for dinner and waited for you ... you were gone for two whole days !

Adjective + -то : ( See also adjective examples in $ E.1 , p384 . )

Били его больно махонького- то . еще он жив- то !

Столько этот парень побой принял , -- как

( Горбунов) ( побой: popular speech for побоев. )

They beat him badly, the little fellow . it's amazing he's alive !

This fellow took such a beating



+ -то :

А Сережа- то прост , ох, как прост , Данилушка . But





Нет , Лазареву- то какое счастье !


( Мамин- Сибиряк)

believe how dumb,


(Л. Н. Толстой)

I say, what a piece of luck for Lazarev ! Как же , так и бросят Москву- то ?

(Л. Н. Толстой)

What, are they going to simply abandon Moscow?

Pronoun + -то : Новые начальники , они всегда хорошие ... Я - то при чем? пускай себе старый .

Пускай себе новый ,


New bosses , they're always nice ... What has that got to do with me?


him be new or old, for all I care . Ты-то

тоже не спал сегодня?


You didn't sleep today either? Из себя- то они какие?

( А. Рыбаков)

What do they look like? Так это- то по - вашему мошенники? -- прибавил он, усмехаясь. (Достоевский) "So you think these people are crooks? " he added, with a grin . Ну вот еще !

Ты сама- то , смотри не проговорись как- нибудь .

(А. Н. Островский) What nonsense!

See to it that you yourself don't let the cat out of the bag

some way. Уж кому- кому , а мне-то пора было этому научиться !


It was time I of all people learned this! Все цветы мой погибнут за это время . Попросила Ксению Петровну за ними следить, да она и своих-то не поливает .

( В. П. Некрасов)

All my flowers will die during that time .

I asked Ksenia Petrovna to look

after them , but she doesn't even water her own . А у тебя- то теперь собственный дом ! — сказала она. " Oh , you've got a house of your own now! ”

she said .

D. The second most important word, marked by a -ro, after the most important word.

In practice,


can come

either before or

the second most important word

seems to come before rather than after in about three cases out

of four.


sentences where it comes before , the effect is often one of calling attention to what is represented by the second most important word, focussing the hearer's thoughts on it, indicating that this is what the rest of the sentence is going to be about, AND THEN going on to say something about it, with this statement about it being centered in the most important word. called a Topic-Comment construction.

This is what is sometimes

384 А отец - то что ж?

Так и не простил?

But her father, what did he do? Тарантас- то на двор бы втянуть .


You mean he just didn't forgive her at all ? (Лесков)

The carriage, it would be a good idea to pull it in the yard. Тетенька-то твоя , батюшка, Марья Николаевна, --померла . (Писемский) Your aunt, old chap, Marya Nikolaevna, has died. Нынче народ- то какой?

Только денег и ищут .

People nowadays, what are they like?

( А. Н. Островский)

All they're after is money.

Человек- то ты сумасшедший вовсе ! ( Тургенев)

What kind of a person are you? Absolutely crazy, that's what! Дежурила я в ту ночь . Ну и промокла до ниточки , а заря- то



(Д. Остров) I was on duty that night.

Did I ever get soaked through to the skin , and

the dawn was cold. Вот воин еще ! Глупости- то оставь : учиться надо. A soldier indeed !

(Л. Н. Толстой)

Give up that foolishness : you've got to study.

E. A number of frequent patterns are observable: 1.

The ro regularly stands between an attributive adjective and its noun . This is also true of possessive pronouns . Поди, чай, старого- то места жалко?

( Салтыков- Щедрин)

I guess you must feel bad about the old place, huh? Так, сынок, но первый- то шаг самый трудный . ( А. Н. Островский) Yes, son , but that first step is the hardest one.

Из большой- то квартиры да придется в одной комнатке жить ; приятно это будет? (А. Н. Островский) You're getting out of a big apartment, and you're going to have to live in one room. .... ;

а время- то ,

Are you going to like that? за наши грехи все короче и короче

что умные- то люди говорят .



( А. Н. Островский)

.... ; and time keeps getting shorter and shorter, because of our sins . That's what the smart people say. Там ведь, в вашем- то Петербурге иль Москве , всё бедовый народ живет . (Мамин- Сибиряк) There, you see, in your Petersburg or Moscow, there are sharp people living all the time.

Ведь ,



крайней мере ,

с моей- то стороны было

искренее ,


( А. Н. Островский)

After all , at least on my part it was a sincere and profound feeling! А моя- то Дарья пласт- пластом лежит ... (Мамин- Сибиряк ) But my Darya is lying flat on her back...



2. A

To is frequently attached to the infinitive in a variety of constructions


with auxiliary verb, with negative pronoun in не- , with neu . sg. adjs

or other words ( e.g. жаль ) used as predicates , etc.) : Укажи мне тут настоящую пчелу.

Здешняя и ужалить-то не умеет , а у

нас... (Павленко) Show me a real bee .

The kind they have around here can't even sting,

but where we live ... Хапуга и созреть- то не даст яблокам , все оборвет , стащит на базар ... (И. Арамилев) The chiseler won't even let the apples get ripe, he'll pick them all and drag them off to market ... Унять- то его некому , вот он и воюет . ( А. Н. Островский) There isn't anybody to calm him down, so he goes ahead and quarrels . · Только плакать- то уж незачем . Настоящая девочка ! (Л. Н. Толстой ) Only there isn't any reason to cry.

That's just like a girl!

Некуда нам торопиться- то , милая, мы и живем ! не спеша. (А. Н. Островский) There isn't anyplace for us to hurry to, my dear; we live without ever being in a rush . Полно


болтать- то !

У меня серьезное дело .

хитрость не



I've got something serious in mind.

That's enough of your gabbing! Паясничать-то

( А.






( А.


Островский) It doesn't take any great cleverness to clown .

But just try to be a

tragedian! Рассказать- то мудрено , поворотов много ; разве я тебе дам девчонку , чтобы проводила. (Гоголь)

It's a complicated thing to tell you ; there are a lot of turns .


I'd better give you the wench to guide you. Жаль

его разочаровывать- то !


хороший человек !

Мечтает себе

и счастлив . (А. Н. Островский)

It's too bad to disillusion him!

What a good fellow !

He just goes on

dreaming, and he's happy.

3. In the pattems вот

...- то and вот-то ...

Вот тут-то Алексей и совершил промах.


Right at this point Aleksey made a mistake. -У вас беспризорные унесли , а я детдомовский . -Вот детдомовские-то и разбойники . ( Каверин) -It was homeless kids that stole it from you, but I belong to the children's home. -It's

exactly the

children's home kids that are

a bunch





дурак- то ! -- продолжал "Now there's a fool ! "




собой Калинович. (Писемский)

Kalinovich went on thinking to himself.

А вы свиней выкармливаете?

Вот выгодно- то !

(Л. Н. Толстой)

You raise pigs? Now that's a profitable thing! Вот - то



с ним

служить !

старший офицер и добрый товарищ !

Вот - то






Serving with him was what I call nice ! Now there was an expert and sensible senior officer and a good shipmate ! Вот - то разинет он рот , когда отец преподнесет ему не линючее , окрашенное фуксином яйцо , а настоящее мраморное , ... (Л. Андреев) You should see him gape when his father presents him not with

an egg

that's liable to fade , painted with fuchsine, but with a real marble one ...

4. Often after the verb in questions containing an interrogative word. Э!

Почему не встаешь-то ты?

Hey! Why aren't you getting up? Чего ищешь-то? - спросил один из солдат добрым, веселым

голосом. (Л. Н.

Толстой ) What are you looking for?

asked one of the soldiers in

a good-natured,

jolly voice.


для чего ж я его с собой взял- то ?

Без дураков ведь

скучно .

(А. Н.

Островский) And why did I bring him with me? After all , Что она это делает- то ?

without fools

Что она только придумывает ?

( А. Н.

it's dull.


What is she doing? What ever is she thinking up? Нет ,

ты скажи ,



прёшь- то ,



-- наступал

хозяин .

(Мамин - Сибиряк) ''I say, you tell me where are you going, you so- and- so , "

the owner pressed


( Compare : Куда ты с деньгами -то? (Мамин - Сибиряк) Where are you going with the money? In this sentence the speaker is more concerned about the money than the going, as is shown by the fact that the verb of going is not even stated. )

5. In names between the first name and the patronymic :


будто бы Иван- то Петрович пьяный- распьяный ,

стоит да на меня

пальцем грозит . ( Горбунов) It's just that Ivan Petrovich is apparently extremely drunk; he's standing there shaking his finger at me.



сударыня !



и забыла совсем ,

Иван- то

Петрович приказывал ...

( А. Н. Островский) Goodness , my lady, orders to ...

I'd clean gone

6. Last of all in its clause .

and forgotten .


Petrovich gave

In such clauses , the -To sometimes tends to apply

to the clause as a whole and make the whole clause more emphatic. Заедем , что ли , к Ермилычу на мельницу? то.

Надо на него поглядеть дома-

(Мамин- Сибиряк) Suppose we stop in at the mill to see Ermilych?

You have to

get a

look at him at home . Вот




ученым !





собственным умом добрался , в чем штука- то .


да поскорей их

( Некрасов)

So much for taking the word of learned people on this !

I never studied

anything, and I figured out what was going on faster than

they did,

using my own head. Что ,

за Марфой ходила девка-то ?

(Л. Н. Толстой)

I say, has the girl gone for Martha? Никак кто- то идет ?

Не заперла я дверь- то .

( А. Н. Островский)

Is that somebody coming? I didn't lock the door. Есть-то , почитай что не ем ничего , а вода- -вон она в кружке-то. (Тургенев) I eat practically nothing,

but there's water over there in the jug.

F. In addition to the patterns just noted in SE , which can occur freely in sentences of various construction ,

ro frequently occurs inserted into several fixed con-

structions . In most of these cases, the -To is optional, and is simply an intensifier.

1. A -TO is sometimes used IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS of the type where the repetition is in the form of a question , or, an exclamation . sentence,



The repeated word can be any main word from the preceding

but in practice it is most often a noun or

instead of single words can be repeated as well .

a pronoun .


Repetitions of this kind

are the same as in English. a . In

reply to a question , a question containing a repetition is outwardly

a request to the other speaker to confirm that the word indeed the point of his question .

Often there is a

repeated is

slight implication

that the person replying was not expecting the question and perhaps does not see why it was asked or is not anxious to discuss it.

At the

same time, inwardly the person replying is delaying while he thinks about how he will answer.



умница, есть у тебя жена?

-Жена- то ?

Есть .

Как не быть жене .

-Ты ее бьешь ? -Жену- то ?


Всяко случается .

( Тургенев)


about you ,

-A wife? Yes , I do .







a wife?

Why wouldn't I have a wife?

-Do you beat her?

-My wife? Everything happens sometimes . Как прошли экзамены ?

-Боря !

-Экзамены-то? -Boris!


How did your exams go?

-The exams? I passed them. -Куда ты теперь? -Я-то?

А я домой.

-Where are you going now? -Me? Why, I'm going home.

-Сколько вам лет? Двадцать три.

- Мне лет- то?

-How old are you? Twenty-three.

-How old am I ?

b. In reply to a statement, a question containing a repetition introduces a calm and unexcited reaction to what has just been said, such

as mild

surprise , gentle disapproval , or good-natured disagreement.

-Решили пойти в кино. -В кино- то?

Это далеко .

-We've decided to go to the movies.

-To the movies? Скажешь им : Самогон- то ? хворобу




Вот посмотрите ,


самогон! ··

они смеются:

выпьем по сто грамм

.. ВСЮ

как рукой снимет ! (Панова)

You tell them, they

That's a long way.


" Comrades, homemade booze is




booze? Oho !

bad for you ! '' And Just



drink a hundred grams apiece , and whatever ails you just disappears entirely !'' c. Less commonly, a repetition in the form of an exclamation expressing indignation

and strong disagreement may contain a

pronoun subject. -Он не пригоден для такого места. -Он-то не пригоден !

Он знаток по этой части .

-He's not qualified for a job like that . -He's not qualified !

He's an expert in that field.

To attached to a


2. A -то is frequently inserted in DOUBLED-WORD CONSTRUCTIONS, all of which have the basic meaning that whatever is expressed by the doubled word is certainly true in the instance at hand.

a. Inf + -то + inflected form of SAME Vb ( any tense and aspect) The literal meaning of the Infinitive is ' As for _

by a contrasting clause.

(1 ) Accompanied

Постараться- то He

-ing' .


постарался , но ему не удалось.

certainly tried, but he didn't succeed. ( Lit.: As for trying, he did try, but ... )

Искать- то искали, но не нашли . They certainly looked for it , but they didn't find it. OR : They looked for it all right, but they didn't find it. Учиться-то учатся , да мало. They do study, but not enough . Поднять- то подняли дизель , но в машину не влез .

They did manage to lift the diesel, but it wouldn't fit in the truck. (2) The

same as

# (1 ) ,





( COMMON) —А дизель , можно ли было поднять да поставить на машину? -Поднять- то

подняли , но в машину не влез .

-How about the diesel , were they able to lift it and put it on the truck? -They managed to lift it all right , but it wouldn't fit in the truck. -Если поднажмем , завтра к обеду будем . -Быть-то будем , но застанем ли мы там кого- нибудь?

(В. П. Некрасов) -If we step on it a little , we'll be there for dinner tomorrow . -We'll

be there all

right ,

but will we find

anybody there?

-Ну, как думаешь? Купить ли? —Купить- то купишь , но имей в виду , для обмена не возвратишь. -Well ,

what do you think?

Shall I buy it?

-You certainly can buy it , but remember you won't be able to take it back to change it. (3) In questions .


Ты сваривать- то сваривал прежде? Have you ever actually done any welding before?


(4) In statements ( LESS COMMON)



обедать- то




следует .



You really haven't been eating the way you should. (5) The same as in #(4) , IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS. -Ну , как дрова, Горят?

-Гореть- то они горят хорошо . -Well , how is the firewood?

Does it bum all right?

-It burns fine.

b. Inflected form of Verb + -то + SAME form of SAME Verb. (1 ) Accompanied by a contrasting clause (which may be in a separate sentence ).

Similar to

$ F.2. a ;, Inf + -то

+ inflected

form of

SAME Verb, but LESS COMMON . -Hy, - говорит, - жаль мне тебя , Александр Петрович , а делать нечего -надевай , брат , таки разоришься

кандалы .

А разоришься-то ты, все-

(Салтыков- Щедрин)

"Well," he said, "I'm sorry for you , Alexander Petrovich , but there isn't anything that can be done. on him , my friend. the same. "

(2) The




Put the shackles

But you're certainly going to ruin , all




Ничего , поправится ... — Поправится- то ,

конечно ,






приходится . ( Мамин- Сибиряк) -It -Of

doesn't matter, course he'll


get his affairs

get them

straightened out.

straightened out all

right ,


right now he's having a tough time.

—Что ж , прошло? -Прошло, то прошло , да все хворает ... (Л. Н. Толстой)

-What happened?

Did she get over it?

-She got over that, but she's always got something wrong with her.

-Извольте садиться. -Да ось сломалась . -Сломалась- то она сломалась ;

ну а до выселок доберемся ...

(Тургенев) -Please get back in the cart. -But the axle is broken. -It's true it's broken, but we can make it as far as the new settlement.


(3 ) In statements , without a contrasting clause. -Он , папенька, стоил этого. -Стоил- то стоил .

( А. Н. Островский)

-He deserved it, papa .

-He certainly did deserve it.

c. Short Adj + -то + SAME Short Adj Accompanied by a contrasting clause .

This is the predicate-adjective

counterpart of the verbal constructions given in $ F.2.a.

and F.2.b.

Cf. also $F.2.e. , below .

Мал- то мал , но сил .

He's small , but he's strong. ( Lit .: As for being small , he is small , but...) Права- то









You're right, of course , but did you have to make a scene? Жалко- то жалко .

А что же поделаешь?

It's certainly too bad . Женское злей - то

сердце мягко .

But what can one do? Мягко, то оно мягко ; зато уж ведь и

женщины ничего на

чувствительно .


нет ,




( А. Н. Островский)

The female heart is soft.

It's exceedingly soft.

On the other

hand , there's nothing in the world more malicious than a woman if you offend her deeply.

d. Predicate Adj ( Long or Short) + -то + SAME form of SAME Adj --IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS -Он такой приятный молодой человек. —Приятный- то он приятный , но хитрый . -He's such a pleasant young fellow .

-It's true he's pleasant , but he's a sly one . -Вот золотой - то человек ! Я его в поминание запишу ... -3 олотой- то он, точно золотой , а я вам вот что скажу ... (А. Н. Островский) -Now there's an

excellent person !


keep a memory of

him ... -He









392 e . Noun (Nom ) + -то + SAME Noun (Ins). Accompanied by a contrasting clause .

This is the noun counterpart of

the verbal constructions given in $$ F.2.a and F.2.b and the | construction in


$ F.2.c.

Шутки- то шутками , но дело делать надо. Jokes are all very well , but we've got to get down to business . (Lit.: Jokes are jokes , but ...)






проходимца, - разорение- то

разорением , да кого еще в родню - то введет !

( А. Н. Островский )

That's the kind of rascal she's going to go and marry. one thing, but who the devil is she bringing into Я уж и сначала догадывалась ,

Ruin is

the family?

что...уроки- то уроками ,

а цель у

вас другая. ( Чернышевский) I had it figured out from the first that lessons are lessons, but you had some other object.

Пароходы- то

пароходами ,





не • проживешь.

(Мамин- Сибиряк) Steamboats are fine, but without cabbage soup you won't survive either.

f. Noun + -то + SAME form of SAME Noun --IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS. -А у тебя-то теперь собственный дом ! - сказала она ... -Дом-то дом,- сказал Лукашин . —Возня с ним большая . ( Панова) " You've got a house of your own now! ”

she said .

“ It'sa house , all right, ” said Lukashin .

'' It's a lot of bother. ''

3. A - то is common IN EXCLAMATIONS of the following kinds: a . Nom.

noun .







surprise (either

admiration or disgust) at what an outstanding one of its kind a thing is. Стрелок - то !

Стрелок - то !

Нас всех побил.

Wow, what a shot he is! He beat us all . Эх, рожа- то , рожа-то ! Holy smoke, what an awful face ! b. Gen. noun . The noun is usually doubled in exclamations of this kind. The · To is not required, and when it is used it may be attached either to the first noun in the doubled-noun pair or to both nouns in the pair. Expresses amazement at the great quantity in which a thing is encountered. Ишь , пыли- то , пыли- то ! Все покрыто пылью здесь. My ,

what a lot of dust!

Людей- то , людей !

Everything is covered with dust here.

Фойе битком набито.

What a lot of people !

The lobby is jammed.


c. Verb . Ходит- то , сукин сын !

Будто всей земле хозяин !

Lookit him walk around , the so - and- so !

( Шолохов)

As if he was the boss of

the whole world!

G. A natural outgrowth of the basic use of - To, emphasis of the word it follows , is the use of · To to point up a contrast: Вам- то вот смешно , а нам слёзы.

( Мамин- Сибиряк)

To you it's funny, but we feel like crying. Нет ,

таким- то всегда счастье , а хорошие барышни жди да пожди .

(А. Н.

Островский) No, girls like that have all the luck, and nice girls can just wait and wait. В своих- то местах, да дороги ты не знаешь !

( Горбунов)

Right in your own home district, and you don't know the road! И убьешь- то его, так проку от него нет .

( Салтыков- Щедрин)

And even if you do kill him , there isn't any good to be got out of him.

H. Another application of the emphatic and contrasting force of

To is to introduce

a new aspect of what is being discussed, or to return to one that was mentioned earlier. А постройка- то когда будет закончена? But what about the building? When will that be finished? А ты- то где был когда туго стало?

Yaas, and where were you when the going got rough?


Use in forming indefinites · A. To interrog. pron. or adv. The particle - To when suffixed to interrogatives makes indefinites of the type . ' some illustration .

· This is probably the best known use of To and requires no special


'someone '


' something'

где- то


откуда- то

'from somewhere'

когда- то

'at some time '

какой- то

'some kind of ' ; ' some ... or other'

B. · To

dem . pron . or adv.

The particle -To when suffixed to demonstrativ es makes indefinites of the type ' such -and-such a ...' , ' a certain ...'.


TOT- TO ' Such-and- such a person' , ' so-and- so' TO-TO ' such-and-such a thing' , ' a certain thing' , ' this or that' Taм- To ' at such-and- such a place ' , ' at a certain place'

тогда- то ' at such-and- such a time ' , ' at a certain time' такой- тo ' such-and-such a . . . ' , 'a certain ·





занят :


· надо



туда- то,

присутствовать тогда- то на такой- то совещании , поговорить с тем- то , устроить то- то. He was busy every day:

he was always having to go to such-and- such

a place, be at such -and- such a meeting at such - and- such a time, talk to so-and-so, and arrange this or that.


Variant forms in dialects

In some northern dialects, what is basically the particle -ro is varied to match the final sound of the word it is attached to, not only in the different genders (e.g. Toпop- oт , рыба- та, дерево-то ) , but also in different cases of the same word ( e.g. рыба-та, рыбы- ти , рыбу- ту) .


See under A, p 4-5.

и то See under И, p 155-157 . cf also ( И ) БЕЗ ТОГО , p 10 , И TAK, p 353-354, and TAK , P335.

ТО И ЗНАЙ See under ЗНАЙ , Р 141 .

ТО ЛИ . •

ТО ЛИ ...

'either ... or . . .' , 'whether . . . or ... Note that the use of this ' either . . . or . . .' expression is confined to occasions when the speaker is naming possible explanations of some state of affairs and is emphasizing that he does not know what is the answer. То ли догадался , то ли кто- то сказал ему , но обо всем деле знал. Either he guessed or somebody told him, but he knew about the whole business .



Они в самом деле прибыли вовремя , то ли пешком , то ли автобусом . They certainly arrived on time , whether it was on foot or by bus.




These particle phrases are used to refer to some phenomenon that is in the same vein as another one just mentioned but outdoes it, and is a more striking example of the same kind of thing. The next word after the particle phrase is usually a verb :

было , будет , or else a

a verb of perceiving, noticing, encountering, or the like . The literal meaning of the Russian phrases is certainly not

immediately obvious .

Perhaps it may be regarded as something like ' And is it that alone ? Besides that there is /was /will be ...' , ' And that isn't it entirely: besides that there is ... ' . A wide variety of English phrasings and constructions are needed to render these Russian expressions in different sentences :

' And not only that ; ...' 'And that's not all : ...'

' And what is more , ...' 'And what is really something' ' really something'

' really something else ' If you think that's something , ... '

That isn't anything compared to ... ' -Он совершенный неумёха .

-То ли еще было с ним .

Это он испортил киноустановку в клубе .

Слышали ли вы о том , как он наехал трактором на корову,

-He's a complete bungler.

He's the one that messed up the movie projector


the club . -That's not the only story about him .

Did you hear about how he ran into a cow

with a tractor? Вот

в газетах

будет !

писано , бунты везде идут

у нас ... Дай , мы приедем , то ли еще


It says in the newspapers that we've got riots going

on everywhere ....

wait , we'll come and then something will really happen !

- Господа, убедите главного врача, чтобы он нанял проводчика . — Днем плутали , - то ли еще будет ночью ! ( Вересаев )



-Gentlemen ,

I wish you would convince the chief physician that

he should

hire a guide . -Got lost in the daytime ; --it's going to be really something at night ! - Считайте , Карабас Барабас , что ваш ключик уже найден . -Найдем , найдем , и не то находили .

( А. Н. Толстой)

-Consider your key already found , Karabas Barabas . -We'll find it , we'll find it , and that's not all we've been finding.



'lots better' 'what a lot better'

'I'd far rather have . . ' . То ли дело саn be followed by any word in any form that makes sense in the context . In other words , the тo ли дело hаs по influence in determining this choice of word or form at all , and the choice depends only on the sense and construction of the whole remark . In practice , this following word often parallels the idea and construction of a preceding clause , with which the phrase introduced by Tо ли дело is сontrasted . NOUN (any case) : Я не очень люблю кофе ; то ли дело чай! I don't especially care for coffee .

How much better tea is !

Трудно попасть туда трамваем , то ли дело автобусом . It's hard to get there by streetcar, it's lots better by bus .

PRONOUN : Я плохо печатаю.

То ли дело она .

I don't type very well .

She does it lots better.


То ли дело у них. It's lots better at their place . VERB : Note the interesting construction with an inserted бы in the following example : То ли бы дело выпили , разговорились , .. оно все само бы и наладилось. (Мамин- Сибиряк) How much better it would be if they would have a drink and get into a conversation. The whole thing would be settled .

То лИ нЕ

+ Noun

Characterizes whatever is named as an outstanding example of its kind , an instance of excellence . Used only in favorable comments . The time may be past , present , or future .


'What a ... !'

' What a grand ... !'

' Isn't that some (great) ... ?' Мы проведем все лето в деревне .

То ли не жизнь будет?

We're going to spend the whole summer in the country .

Won't that be


wonderful life? То ли не дошлый парень !

( Мамин- Сибиряк)

What a shrewd fellow he is! А



ли не общественник был Иван Данилович !

выступал пространно и , надо сказать , довольно дельно .


всех собраниях


And what a man in public affairs Ivan Danilovich was ! At all the meetings he spoke at length and , it must be said , to the point .

TO :

НА ТО ( И ) +

Nom noun

See under HA, p224 .



= A HE TO , A TO .

TO :

See p 4.


See under HE , p 240-241 .

TO :

НЕТ ТОГО , ЧТОБЫ See under HET , p 243 .

TO :


See p426-434 .


See under ТОГО , p399 .



товодня товоднясь Derived from того дни = того дня , ' on that day '

ТОГДА .. Inferential Exactly like English ' then ' , Russian тогда can mean not only ' at that

time ' but

also ' in that case ' , ' if so ' , ' under those circumstances ' , and is used when the speaker is drawing a conclusion .

Cf TAK $ 14 , p 339.


Если знаешь что- нибудь об этом, тогда скажи нам! |

If you know anything about this , then tell us! Все готовы начинать?

Тогда хорошо .

Is everybody ready to begin? Зачем не пойти пораньше?

All right , then .

Тогда нам не надо будет бежать так.

Why not go earlier? Then we won't have to run so. Распродано? Sold out?

Ну , можете ли вы тогда порекомендовать мне что- нибудь другое? Well , can you recommend me something else , then?

ТОГДА КАК Тогда как, ‘ while ' , is used in references to circumstances that not only occur at the same time but occur at the same time even though they are contradictory to each other. English ' while ' can of course have this meaning , but does not always have it . 'while'

' whereas'

' while at the same time'

' even though '

' while on the other hand '

' although '

Братец родной!

- говорила она, нежно прижав его голову к груди своей , тогда

как слезы оросили вдруг лицо ее .

( Достоевский)

"My own dear brother!" she said , tenderly pressing his head to her bosom while at the same time tears suddenly ran down her face . -Here the contrast is not very pronounced, but the implication is there that not only did she embrace her brother and weep simultaneously, but that the two actions are not consistent with each other. In most sentences the contrast is plainer: Сестра всегда заступилась за него, тогда как она сама осуждала его

выходки. His sister always took his part, while at the same time she disapproved of his escapades herself. Отрицают , тогда как ясно , что это они это сделали . They deny it, although it's plain they're the ones that did it .

ТОГДА, КОГДА 'The time when ' , ' when ' ( lit: " then when " ) So too там , где = ' the place where ' , ' where '

тот , кто = ' the person who' , ' the one that '

то, что

= ' the thing that ' , ' that which '

столько , сколько

= ' the amount that ' , ' as much as '





= тогда = тады So too куды = куда



(Also spelled тово) As particle .


& туды

Expresses hesitation .

Basically, Toro is said when the speaker is hesitating while he tries to think of a word for what he has in mind. ' uh '

' you know what I mean'

' what do you call it'

' ... well , ... '

Его рекомендовали мне для некоторых занятий ; ну я того , знаете ли , попытал его , что , мол , ты за птица !

( А. Н. Островский)

He was recommended to me for several jobs ; well , I , ah , ... what do you call it ...

I tried him out , don't you know .

I thought to myself, " Let's see what sort

of bird you are ! "'

Я их упреждаю — останьте, мол !

Я им (ворам) кричу :

ах вы!

пошли прочь !

... А они , значит , на меня с топором ... А то сейчас - стрелю ! .... Ну , я уж того...

осердился ... за топор- то , знаешь !

( Горький)

I yelled at them (the thieves ) " Hey you ! came at me with an axe . now ! ”

I warned them:

....Well , I .... uh …..

Get away from there ! " " Stop! " I said.

But then they

" Or I'll shoot right

sort of .... well .... I was mad.

Because of the

axe , you know. Ведь


насколько мне известно ,

кажись ... ээ ..


... подполковник?


Now you , ... , as I understand it are , I think ... uhh ... a what-do-you -call-it ... a lieutenant colonel?

А- а ... того ... что бишь я хотел спросить ?


Uhh ... let's see ... What was it I meant to ask you? Нельзя сказать , кто виноват .

Все это было из- за ... того

It's impossible to say who was at fault . a misunderstanding .

Мне совестно просить деньги назад .

... недоразумения.

The whole thing was due to ... uhh ...

Это так ... того ... неловко .

It's embarassing for me to ask for the money back .

It's so ... you know what I

mean ... awkward.

As predicate or a part of the predicate : 2.

By an easy transition , roro is also used when the speaker can indeed think of the word for what he has in mind , but hesitates because he does not like to come out and say it .


'you know '

'just what you think'

'you know what' a . The speaker's hesitation and reluctance may be because the

subject is

improper or indecent .

...- Ведь он ... тово !

Ведь он бабёнку- то ... тово!

( Салтыков-Щедрин)

...You see , he was , ... well , you know . You see , what he was doing with the wench was ... just what you think . b.

But even more commonly , Toro has come to be a discreet reference to being drunk .

При четвертом стакане они были совсем того. By the time they were

on their fourth glass they

were completely

you-know-what . Он пришел на собрание немножко того. He came to the meeting slightly you-know-how. 3. In a more general sense , roro can refer to anything's being out of the ordinary, not all right, not the way it is supposed to be , somehow in an unsatisfactory state .

' not all right'

' odd '

'not the way it should be'

' messed up '

' something wrong'

' not very good '

Другая машина у нас работает нетак.

' no good'

Топливный насос , кажется, того.

Our other truck isn't running right .

The fuel pump apparently has

something wrong with it. -Ты, наверное, простудилась ?

- спросил Петька.

-А что? — Голос того .


-I guess you've got a cold , huh? Pete asked . -Why?

-Your voice is funny. 4.

HE TOгo means the same thing as Toro does in $ 3 , contradictory though this certainly seems at first glance .

Perhaps this is because of the extreme indef-

initeness of Toro, which can be used to stand for almost any word .

Perhaps too,

He Toго is sometimes thought of as forming a parallel to Hе так.

(See TAK

$4, p 333. ) С карбюратором там что- то не того. Something is wrong there with the carburetor. (Поэт ) прочитал стихи жене, -ей тоже понравились . - первое четверостишие как будто не того .

-Только , - сказала она,

( Горький)

The poet read the verses to his wife ; she liked them too . said, " the first quatrain isn't quite right somehow . "

" Only , " she




" Новая

жизнь "

не того , заменять надо .

шестнадцатый по счету председатель оказался


At the "New Life" collective farm the sixteenth chairman in succession has turned out to be not up to it and will have to be replaced .




ТОГО И ЖДИ All the same in meaning. See under ГЛЯДИ, р 81 .


(Dialectal )

1. = то ли дело , ' what a difference' , ' how much better' 2. = то и дело , ' continually ' , ' over and over again'

(Dialectal )


' right ' , ' true ' , ' correct'




- того, тово.


ADVERB ' too'

' likewise '

' also'

' as well'


(IN NEGATIVE : тоже ... не ... = ' not ... either')

In its basic meaning of ' also ' , ' too ' , тоже behaves very much as ' too' does in English .


Like English ' too ' , тоже саn apply either (a ) to one of the elements of the sentence or (b) to the sentence as a whole .

402 a. When Toxe applies to one element of the sentence , that element represents another instance where the remainder of the sentence also applies ( --in. addition to some other instance previously noticed . ) Он инженер.

Отец- то его тоже инженер .

He's an engineer.

His father too is an engineer.

Контора вся сгорела, сарай тоже. The office burned down completely , and the shed did too .

-Табаку у меня нету. -И у меня тоже вышел .


-I don't have any tobacco.

-I've run out of it too. Мы тоже не услышали об этом We didn't hear about that either. b. When тoxe applies to the sentence as a whole ,

it is being used to

bring up an additional idea and point out that this idea is true and is relevant as well as another idea that has already been stated .

Again ,

' too ' is used in this way in English . Когда

вы отмякнете

и время надо знать .

сколько- нибудь ?



а тоже

(А. Н. Островский)

When are you going to let up on me some? Money is money, but you have to know the right time to bring it up, too. Да, тоже , видно , жизнь-то никому не легка. Well , as for that , you can see life isn't easy for anybody. В твои года долго ли полюбить , только не будь разборчива.


молода, так ищи молодого ; тебе хочется на своей воле жить , самой большой быть ,

--так найди бедного ,

он по твоей дудочке будет

плясать ; у тебя ума- то тоже не очень чтоб через край , так выбирай попроще , чтоб он над тобой не возносился.

( А. Н. Островский)

At your age you can easily fall in love , only don't be choosy . You're young, so look for a young man ; you want to do things your way and be the boss , so find a poor man , that way he'll dance to your piping; you're not especially brainy either, so pick a man who's a little simpler, so he won't feel superior to you . (1 ) In this sense of calling attention to another idea that is


true , with the implication that the speaker does not think that his hearer

has been taking that into consideration , тоже comes to be



in sense to ведь (See p 43 ) , and sentences

with this

meaning quite often contain both а тоже and a ведь: -Дай- ка подарок- то ! -Да ведь вы видели , серьги и брошка.

-Да я убрать хочу. Островский)

Ведь тоже не малых денег стоит . ( А.Н.


-Give me your present ! -But you've seen it , you know . It's earrings and a brooch . —Well ,

I want to put it away .


it's worth

plenty of

money , too. Только уж ты, коли добра себе желаешь , сама не мудри, а на меня расположись.

Ты меня слушай, благо мне забота об тебе припала.

Не обо всякой ведь

я тоже хлопотать- то буду,


кого полюблю.

( А. Н. Островский) Only don't you try to be clever yourself, if you want to do yourself a favor, but rely on me . interest in you .

You listen to me , because I've taken an

You see , I'm not going to go to a lot of trouble

over everybody either, but just who I take a liking to . (2) In the same way , а тоже is sometimes accompanied by a

вот in

sentences where a new idea is being introduced , with the implication that the new idea is something in the same vein as the preceding thought . Вот


требует .





здесь ·· доброе,



( Салтыков- Щедрин)

And then there's those meadows you've got .

It's a good place

here , all it takes is some brains . Всякий за своим ведь ; и мы вот тоже два столика под орех, да в спальню к барышне ... (А . Н. Островский) Everybody's here to collect what's owed him, you see ; and then there were two tables we did in walnut and brought to the lady's bedroom ... (3 ) Ведь , вот, and тоже саn all occur together : Ведь вот тоже табак-- знаю , что вредно , а отстать не могу. ведь , тоже, не знаешь , что спрашивается.



And then there's tobacco too--I know it's bad for me , but I can't stay away from it .

But then too , you don't know what's

involved here .

3. There is considerable freedom about the positioning of Toxe in the sentence , when it has the basic meaning of ' too ' , ' also ' .

As the examples given in $A2a

suggest , Toxe standing immediately after the word it especially applies to and followed by a verb or noun predicate is a common pattern.

This pattern is not

obligatory, however : the word that it especially applies to can be separated from the following Toxe by intervening phrases , and also тoxe can apply to words that come after it instead of before .

For example , it is perfectly possible to say


У нас табаку тоже нету. We don't have any tobacco either . --meaning

either " Others don't have any tobacco, and neither do we . " or " There are several things we don't have , and tobacco is another one .

Note that the English translation can have either meaning in exactly the same way. Similarly, in the sentence

Я тоже хотел поздравить его. I wanted to congratulate him too.

both the Russian and the English can mean either “ I too wanted to congratulate him (along with many others who wanted to ) , ” or "Another thing I wanted to do while I'm here was congratulate him " . OTHER EXAMPLES : Барон фон- дер- Беринг ( старший офицер) пришелся как- то " не ко двору " со своими новыми порядками и взглядами на дисциплину. нового старшего офицера тоже невзлюбили .

В кают- компании

( Станюкович)

Baron Von der Bering (the senior officer) somehow didn't go over very well with his new procedures and his views on discipline .

They took a dislike

to the new senior officer in the ward-room, too. -А вы его очень любите? —Да ; и вот

- спросила вдруг Наташа.

я тоже хотела вас спросить и ехала с тем :

что именно вы его любите?

скажите мне, за


-And you love him very much ? ' Natasha suddenly asked . -Yes , I do , and there's something else I ( Katya ) wanted to ask you , and I came with that intention :

Tell me exactly what it is you love about

him. —Не о платье же мы будем говорить , это не мой предмет ; по этой части я в преподаватели не гожусь.

-Ox, мне теперь не преподавание нужно , а деньги. —Ну, и по этой части я тоже швах.

(А. Н. Островский)

-Let's not talk about a dress , that's not my subject ; I'm not suited to be

a teacher in that department. -Darn it , what I need right now isn't teaching , it's money . -Well , I'm weak in that department , too.


PARTICLE Used in expressions of ironic disapproval and contempt . 1.

тоже тоже мне тоже вам

+ Nom. Noun (+Vb of naming, finding, etc. )


тоже тоже мне

Nom. Noun +

тоже вам

Expresses an emphatically low opinion of whatever is named by the Noun, with the idea that it flagrantly fails to live up to the meaning of that noun . The тoxe commonly precedes the Noun , but can also follow it .

In practice , this construction

is most often used when speaking of people , rather than things . mocking and derisive .

The attitude is

Perhaps the idea behind this use of Toxe was originally

something like " And then besides there's this so-called !

' Some

'And he's supposed to be a -

' !

.! '

' Huh , what a swell

he makes !'

' A fine Тоже, агрономша !

Двух слов не свяжет .

Тоже женщина! Причесаться не умеет.

(Николаева) Huh, some agronomist ! She can't put so much as two words together and say anything. A fine woman ! Doesn't know how to fix her hair. Побирается





He lives by begging, using music .




Some servant of art!

Его вся деревня осмеет , если увидят , что он несет

кровать вместе с Марийкой: .

тоже мужчина-- не может сам перенести такую пустяковину.


The whole village will make fun of him if they see him carrying a bed with Marika helping.

"Some man, " they'll say.

" Can't carry a little thing like that

by himself. '' a . The мне ог вам simply strengthens the тоже. Тоже (мне) Механик!

Huh , a fine mechanic he is ! OR And he's supposed to be a mechanic ! b . Optionally ,

the Noun may be followed by a verb of

naming , designating,

finding, selecting, etc. Тоже председатель сыскался ! Hah, some chairman they got themselves ! Тоже -- передовик называется ! That's great!


And he's called a model worker !

Тоже, философ нашелся! My, my, haven't we discovered the profound philosopher, though ! c . Note that ведь can occur in this construction as well as in the construction pointed out in $A2Ь( 1 ) .

Perhaps ведь is meant here as an ironic reminder

of what the subject was originally supposed to be. Знаю,

что в наших

руках ;

Ведь вы народец тоже !


сумеешь ли ты

Я уж вас знаю !



сделать- то?

На словах - то вы прытки , а там


и пошел блудить .

( А. Н. Островский)

I know we've got it sewed up, but are you going to be able to put this thing through? Oh, (you lawyers , ) you're fine ones , you are ! do I ever know how you are !


You guys put up a great line of talk,

and before you know it, you've been had! d. In the same way, BOT too occurs with Toxe in expressions of disapproval and contempt .

See BOT... TOXE , p 65.

e. The use of Toxe in expressions of disapproval and contempt aroused by the perception of a discrepancy between what is actually the case

and what

ought to be is quite similar to that of eme (See EME, p 123 , $ II.3 . ) , and so it is not surprising that roxe and eme can also occur together in the same sentence , reinforcing each other.

Страшно ему ... Ну, нее?

а ежели б резали бабу?


дело вступиться за

А еще тоже старый человек, крещёный ... (Чехов)

A dreadful thing for him... Well now, would they really cut a woman's business

throat? Whose

is it to stand up for her? And

here he's

supposed to be an old man, a baptised Christian ... f. In some expressions of disapproval and disgust , roxe stands

by itself,

separated by a pause from the rest of the construction. Прихожий - тоже !

Говорил бы - проходимец ... все ближе к правде- то ...

(Горький) A passer by--my foot ! He ought to say a rascal..that would be a lot closer to the truth ... Лука (в кухне напевает) :

Середь но- очи ... пу- уть- дорогу не- е видать ,,,

Клещ (уходя в сени) : Ишь воет ... тоже...


Luka (singing in the kitchen): ' Midst the cannot see - ee the roa-oad... Kleshch (going off into the hallway) :


Listen to him yowl ...Honestly!

тоже (и) + Vb

Vb + тоже (и ) Expresses a mocking and contemptuous reaction to whatever action is signified by the Verb.

The sense of the construction is that the speaker considers the action

to be in some way a failure :

poorly or wrongly or foolishly done .

stand either before or after the Verb. 'And he went and .

'Get the way he 'That's a great job of ___- ing they did !'

'And you had to get the brilliant idea of

-ing ! '

The Toxe may

407 .

-Вот мы ясли думаем организовать, поступай туда. -Нет уж, спасибо! Своих детей не имела, да чтоб теперь с чужими нянчиться? Тоже выдумали! (Шолохов) -...Well, we're thinking of setting up a day-care center. Why don't you go and work there? -Heck no! Thanks a whole lot! I've never had any kids of my own, and now I'm supposed to play nursemaid to other people's? What a peachy idea you thought up! Тоже воображает о себе, рыжий дьявол! Проходу на кухне не дает ... (Станюкович) Oh, he has a marvellously high opinion of himself, the red-haired devil! He won't let anybody in the kitchen have a moment's peace ... А подъезды не для спанья понаделаны. Расселся тут тоже ... (Соболев) The doorways aren't put there for sleeping. Sprawling here - that's just lovely!

-в небо выглянь:чье гудит-то ... Наши аль ихние? -Тоже спрашивает. Рази они по своим станут палить! (Леонов) -Take a look out at the sky: whose is making that buzzing - Are they our (planes) or theirs? -Now that's a really brilliant question! You don't think they (the Germans) are going to start shooting at their own planes, do you? Со всех сторон там к ней лезут, да подлипают, да глупости разные в уши шепчут ... Вот князь Дулебов повадился, тоже на старости лет ухаживать вздумал ... (А. Н. Островский) From all sides they come hanging around her, and make up to her, and whisper all kinds offoolishness in her ears ...Here Prince Dulebov has taken to coming. In his old age he's taken the splendid idea into his head of paying court to her ... Когда он был у нас в третий раз, помните, в пятницу, я ему стихи читала любовные; он тоже, кажется, ничего не понял. (А. Н. Островский) When he was calling on us for the third time, remember, on Friday, I read love-poetry to him. It seems he was just blithely unaware ofit all.

3. In Replies Containing Repetitions Not surprisingly, тоже and тоже мне also occur in replies containing repetitions, and in these the repeated word is not confined to nouns and verbs. The тoxe may stand either at the beginning or at the end of a repetition, either with or without a pause separating it from the repeated word. Repetition with roжe expresses derisive and scornful contradiction of what hasjust been said.

-Хушь бы ты ... посовестился … -Тоже - совеститься! Что мне тут еще совеститься ... (Лесков) -You ought to ... be ashamed of yourself ... -Be ashamed ofmyself- Oh sure! What the devil is there about it for me to be ashamed of? -Как пора честь знать? Да вы мне еще тысячи полторы должны. -Должны! Тоже должны! ... (А. Н. Островский) -What do you mean, time I was going? Why, you owe me another thousand and a half! -Owe it! Owe it, he says! ТОЖЕ МНЕ ИСКУССТВО! 'Baloney!'



(dialectal: various dialects)



= даже






'afterwards,' 'later on'


(popular speech)

= только



(colloquial & rapid speech)

= только


( regional)

'as soon as' Дверью рыпнул, серников нарочно не зажигаю, а слышу, что на кровати возня ... Тольки это приподнялся мой пан, я его кнутом, а кнут у меня был с свинчаткой на конце .... (Шолохов) I made a squeaking sound with the door, I purposely didn't light any matches, but I heard there was a stirring around on the bed ... As soon as my gentleman raised himself up a little, I gave it to him with the whip, and my whip had a lead weight on the end ...



только The general similarity in meaning and use between Russian только and English 'only' is evident .

Certainly it is nearly always helpful to try the primary meaning ' only'

in an initial literal reading of a sentence before deciding on a final translation . There are some differences and special uses of только to take note of, however. As comparison with сколько and столько suggests , только was originally a quantityexpression meaning " this much . " From this , the fundamental meaning has come to be "nothing other than, " with the following applications': 1. = ' not more than ' , ' no more than ' a. With quantity-expressions : только три, ' only three '

только немногие, ' only a few’ b . With words that express a ranking, either formal or implied : только младший сержант , ' only a junior sergeant ' только рассыльный , ' only an errand -boy ' , ' nothing but an errand -boy' 2. = ' not sooner than ' , ' not until ' , ' not before '

With adverbs and adverbial phrases referring to time : a. With dates : только в 1935 годy, ' not until 1935 ' , ' only in 1935'

b. With nouns naming times : только на закаre, ' not until sunset , ' ' only at sunset' только весной , ' not until the spring'

c. With adverbs : только тогда, ' not until then, ' ' only then'

только позже, ' not until later, ' ' only later' 3. = ' not later than,' ' no more than', ' just' , ' just now' With verbs a. As adverb modifying the main verb : Только уеxали .

'They've just left . '

Я только начинал.

' I've just started . '

b. As adverb modifying the verb of a subordinate clause and thus functioning as a conjunction , ' as soon as ' , ' the minute that' .

Только вошел , все стали засыпать меня вопросами . ( =Только вошел, как все стали засыпать меня вопросами . )

I had no more than walked in , when everyone started bombarding me with questions . Ключ вы еще прошлый раз в двери оставили . торчит в скважине.

Только вы уехали ,



You left the key in the door again last time . As soon as you had left I looked , and it was sticking in the keyhole .

410 Только я лег спать, позвонили мне. The minute I got to bed , they phoned me .


' solely ', ' exclusively ' , ' nothing else but ' With any major sentence element :

noun or pronoun subject, noun or pronoun

object, verb , adverb , adjective , prepositional phrase , subordinate clause introduced by conjunction , etc. The placement of только in a sentence cannot be related to its meaning and application by a set of simple rules . a . It is true that when used in the sense of ' solely ' , ' exclusively ' , normal

position for только is immediately before the word it

as with English ' only ' .

' just ' , the applies to ,

Note that in speech the word that только applies to

is stressed.

Только он думал об этом вопросе сегодня. He was the only one who was thinking about

this problem today.

(Lit .: " Only he. . . ” ) Он только думал об этом вопросе сегодня. All he did about this problem today was think

about it.

(Lit .:


only thought ... ) Он думал только об этом вопросе сегодня. The only thing he thought about today was this problem.

( Lit .: He

thought only about this problem. .. )

Он думал об этом вопросе только сегодня. He did not think about this problem until today.

(Lit .: He thought

about this problem only today.)

(Or perhaps more commonly

Только сегодня думал он об этом вопросе. ) b. However, только can also stand immediately after the word it applies to . Note that here too in speech the word that только applies to is stressed. Недавно только этого кругосветного путешествия. из вернулся ( Козлов) It's

only recently that I returned from this around -the -world trip .

Да я шучу только . Of course , I'm only joking .

-Вы вчера поздно воротились? -Нет , прокатился только .


-Was it late when you got back yesterday? -No, I only went for a ride .

-А где он?

-Я не знаю.

Я Только здесь.

-Where is he? -I don't know. I'm here alone./I'm the only one here .



c . The только is sometimes embedded in a phrase where the first word is the more significant one , and would naturally take the stress : Взял только в руки эту штучку , а она и развалилась .

( Гончаров )

All I did was pick this thing up in my hands , and it simply fell apart . Отвечайте мне коротко и искренно на один только вопрос. Give me a short and candid answer to just one question . d . Note that when English ' only' follows the word it applies to, the expression is made more emphatic (e.g.

" Exit Only ” ,

" For Emergency

Use Only " ) ,

but that in Russian, expressions with the только following tend to be less emphatic , often carrying an idea that the statement is one that the hearer is expected

to have no trouble understanding or agreeing with (Да

я шучу

только , Недавно толью вернулся) . 5. = 'but ' .


can also apply to the whole clause or sentence , and

in this

case becomes a conjunction with the sense of ' But ' (just like colloquial English ' Only ' ) :

' It's just that ... ' .

Again , the только саn stand first or last .

Пошел бы на собрание, только не услышал о нем . I would have gone to the meeting , only I didn't hear about it . Шестнадцать .

Морячок хороший .

Тихоня только .

( Соболев)

He's sixteen. He's a good sailor. It's just that he's a slow mover . 6. Apparently derived from the fundamental meaning of ' nothing other than ' , ' nothing else but ' is the occasional use of только to emphasize a word . except with interrogatives (See below . ) .


In this use , только always follows


word it emphasizes . ' really'

'I kid you not'

' indeed'

' ...all right' " I'm telling you '

Ох, и потеха толью была.

Я думал , что мы никогда не найдем.

Oh , it was fun , I'm telling you .


(И) + Gen. of Noun

I thought we'd never find it .

( + ЧТО)


' the only ... is ...' ' all the ... is ...' У нас только заботы теперь , что окуривать , обмывать , обрызгивать . (Л. Н. Толстой) All we worry about around here lately is fumigating, washing, and sprinkling. Весь вечер в " башне " только и разговору было , что о бюро .

( В.


All evening in " the tower " the only thing people talked about was the office .


Даже обидно:

семилетка -- в колхозе , а по сельскому хозяйству не учат .

и знаний дают , как * фасоль прорастает .


( Троепольский)

(*Here the чro is omitted , evidently because the ,conjunction кak

takes its

place .) It's

really a shame :

the seven-year school is in a kolkhoz , and

teach them anything about agriculture .

they don't

All the knowledge they give them is

how a bean sprouts . Не грех ли тебе , Борис Павлович, --писала она между прочим : -- забывать меня старуху?

У тебя ведь только и родни, что я .


"Isn't it wicked of you , Boris Pavlovich, " she wrote at the same time , "to forget me when I'm an old lady ? After all , all the family you have is me . (Тимофей Петрович) всюду слыл за дурака, которому только и занятия было ; что быть на побегушках.


(Timofei Petrovich) had a universal reputation as a fool whose only occupation was to run errands for people .

У него только их и было. Those were the only ones he had.



in threats and warnings : ' just ' .

The только can stand directly

before the

Imperative or directly after it. Только тронь пироги, тебе достанется!

Just touch the pies and you're going to get it!

1 ТОЛЬКО + Interrogative or Relative Pronoun

Interrogative or Relative Adverb Interrogative or Relative Adjective Places

strong emphasis on the interrogative or relative , with the idea that

speaker cannot imagine what the answer or outcome will be .

The только


most often

follows immediately after the word it emphasizes , but may be separated from it by intervening words .

Sentences containing this combination are often introduced by an и .

cf. ТОЛЬКО #6 .

Cf. это , which is used similarly .

' ... the deuce? '

' ... , for heaven's sake?'

" ... ever?'

' ... , of all things?'

' ... in the world?'

' ... in creation?'

' ... on earth ?’

‘ ... ever ( ... ) possibly?'


Зачем только это приносят? What ever are they bringing that for?


Откуда только они вызнали? Where on earth did they find out? Уж какие чудаки на этой вечеринке были! И где только она выкапывает их? Wow, what weirdos there were at that party! And where in creation does she dig them up? И что я только сделаю? And what on earth am I going to do? INTERROGATIVE WITH NEGATIVE:

Где я только не искал? Where-all haven't I looked? Чего он только не знает, What on earth doesn't he know? Кто только его не любит? Whom can you imagine that doesn't like him? RELATIVE:. Везде, где только можно, наводил справки. I made inquiries everywhere, wherever I possibly could. Он бежал как только мог. He ran as hard as ever he possibly could. Если мужчина заплачет, так его бабой назовут, а эта кличка для мужчины хуже всего, что только может изобресть ум человеческий. (А. Н. Островский) If a man cries, they'll call him an old woman, and that name for a man is the worst of all that the human mind can ever think up. ТОЛЬКО :


' but,' 'only' (C. ТОЛЬКО # 5.) Compound conjunction, made up of synonymous conjunctions combined. Не знаю какая эта книга, не то литовская не то латышская, а только не русская. I don't know what kind of a book this is, whether it's Lithuanian or Latvian, only it's not Russian.


но только но только что

'at any rate'


'in any case'


До сих пор в палатке не знали, что Сенька самострельщик. То ли часовые об этом никому не говорили, то ли открытое, ясноглазное, с редкими оспинками лицо его не внушало подозрения, то ли просто каждый занят был самим собой и своими ранами, - в палатке были в большинстве тяжело раненные, - но только никто ничего не знал. (-В.П. Некрасов) Up to now, the people in the ward did not know that Senka was a patient with a self-inflicted wound . Whether it was that the sentries had not talked about it to anybody, or that his open, clear-eyed face with a few pockmarks on it did not excite any suspicion, or that everyone simply was occupied with himself and his own wounds, -the people in the ward were mostly severely wounded ones-, at any rate no one knew anything about it.


-Что же прикажете делать? Но только что и много они врут. Послушать их ... все невинные ... (Л.Н. Толстой) What would you have us do about it? In any case, they say a lot of things that aren't true. If you listen to them, they're all innocent ...






ХОТЬ БЫ ТОЛЬКО 'ifonly,' 'as long as' Used in various contexts when speaking ofwishes and desires.

Лишь бы только она поправилась! Ifonly she gets well! Вы бы только посмотрели, что он за письмо написал! You should just see what a letter he wrote me! Мне все равно, куда мы идем, только бы вы шли с нами I don't care where we go, as long as you come with us. Я не прочь ждать здесь, только бы сесть. I don't mind waiting here ifonly / as long as I can sit down.

Эка бездельник! Только 6 уткнуть нос в книгу! What an idler! All you want to do is bury your nose in a book! ТОЛЬКО


только что вот ВОТ ТОЛЬКО ВОТ ТОЛЬко что

Augmented forms of ТОЛЬКО # 4, 'solely,' 'nothing other than,' 'all that ...'

Только вот уплатить по счету, и все в порядке. All we have to do is pay the bill, and everything is all set. Отец мой, правда, мужик был, а я вот в белой жилетке, желтых башмаках. Со свиным рылом в калашный ряд ... Только что вот богатый, денег много, а ежели подумать и разобраться, то мужик-мужиком ... (Перелистывает книгу) Читал вот книгу и ничего не понял. Читал и заснул. (Чехов) ... It's true, my father was a peasant, and here I am in a white vest and yellow shoes. I've shoved my way into higher circles ... The only thing is, I'm rich , I've got lots of money, but come to think and sort things out, and I'm a regular peasant ... (Leafs over a book. ) I've been reading this book and didn't get a thing out of it. I was reading it and fell asleep. Да ведь, братец, я, ей-богу, даже очень скуп: спросите хоть жену, вчера вот только, черт ее знает, как-то промахнулся. (Писемский) Really, brother, I swear I'm actually very tight-fisted - ask my wife for instance; but as for yesterday alone, the devil knows just how it was that I slipped up.

415 вот только 1.

= только вот .

See above .

2. ' just now ' , ' right now ' Ну вот я вижу самолет , на разбеге, да?

Взлетает вот только , да?

There , I see the plane , it's on the takeoff run , right ?

It's taking off right

now, right?

только вот что ' only on condition that ' Ну,

ладно ,

пойти с нами

удить рыбу можешь .



что молчать

будешь , понял? Well ,

okay, you can come fishing with us .

Only on condition

you keep

quiet , understand?

ВСЕГО ТОЛЬКО ТОЛЬКО ВСЕГО И Augmented forms of ТОЛЬКО # 1 , ' not more than ' , ' no more than ' У меня при себе всего только два рубля. I've only got two rubles with me .

Были здесь всего только десять минут . They were here no more than ten minutes . m Только всего и сказал: " Я вернусь завтра. All he said was “ I'll be back tomorrow . ' '


1. ' ... and that's all '

' just '

“ ... , and that's all there is to it ' " and that's that'

' simply 'an absolute

(cf. Только и всего , р421 . ) a . Often after a noun that constitutes the predicate of a Ах, какой он выдающийся актер! What a brilliant actor he is ! Ругались так , что и на поди .

one -word sentence .

Гений , да и только ! A genius , and that's all there is to it !

Ужас , да и только !

They were ripping up at each other something awful . It dreadful . b. After a whole sentence .

Обманщики !

Usually stands last .

Вот не отдам, да и только!

The crooks ! I won't pay it , and that's that !

was simply


Это не пройдет , да и только ! That simply won't work. Это не правда, да и только.

That just isn't true . 2. 'and that's all'

s on and on '


' just keeps on

Indicates that an action is done persistently and to the exclusion of everything else .

Болтает , да и только . He just keeps on yakking .


as soon as ... ' , ' no more than ...

when ... ' ,

' no sooner ... than ... ' , ' right after ... ' , ' the minute (that) ... ' , ' scarcely ... ’ Рано утром, едва только Павел и Андрей ушли , в окно тревожно постучала Корсунова. Early

( Горький), in the



and Andrei had

no more than left when

Korsunova knocked agitatedly at the window. Как только получилась его телеграмма, они отправились в Ленинград. As soon as his telegram came , they set off for Leningrad . Лишь только он сказал это, осознал он свою ошибку. The minute he said that, he realized his mistake . Лишь только она начала ходить , ее уже заставили возиться с маленькими братьями и сестрами .


She had no sooner started to walk than they had her taking care of her little brothers and sisters . Чуть только мы пришли домой , пошел дождь. We had no sooner gotten home than it started to rain. Чуть только приблизились проволоки , сверкнула большая искра.

The moment the wires came near each other, there was a

big spark.




' still only '

' no more than'

' still just'

'all that still (remained, etc.) '

A frequent combination, but actually only the literal sum of the meanings of the two words . Они еще только собираются выехать. They're still just getting ready to start out. Только еще всходил солнце когда приступили к работе. The sun was still only coming up when they started work. Только еще неделю тому назад с ними говорили . We were talking with them no more than a week ago.

только и

+ Gen of Noun

( + ЧТО)


See under ТОЛЬКО (И) + Gen. , p411 .

только и Used

+ Imperative

in relaxed and

expectedness .


narration . Conveys


of unpreparedness , un-


' up and ... '

' then all of a sudden ... '

' went and ...’ Только и обратись к нам какой- то незнакомец.

Then all of a sudden a stranger spoke to us . Всё было готово , только и откажи у меня машина. Everything was ready , and the car went and conked out on me .



Только ... И + Vb только


(...) ЧТО ...



' the only thing (that) ... is ...'

'all the ... that ... '

' nothing but ...'

' the only ... that ... ' Augmented forms of ТОЛЬКО #4 , ‘ solely ' , ' exclusively ' , ' not other than ' . In regard to the optional что , see under ТОЛЬКО ЧТО .

Note that


1. The next word after the и is always the verb, regardless of whether there are any intervening

words between the только and the и

or not..

· 2. A considerable variety of sentence the только and the

elements can occupy the position between

и, e.g. a Nominative subject , an Accusative

adverb, a prepositional phrase , etc.

object, an

There is more often only one such sentence

element in this position, but less commonly there can be a string of them before the и and the verb .

In this arrangement, the тoлько applies to the word directly

after it . 3. If the construction of the sentence requires a conjunction or an interrogative (е.g. чтобы, как, когда, где, кто, что , etc. ) , it will occupy the position of the optional чтo, and that чro will not be present. 4. If the optional чro is present, or if there is a conjunction or an interrogative in the position that would be occupied by the чro, then a frequent pattern is to have the только and the и stand together, without any intervening words between them, and the sentence elements that sometimes come between the только and the и (§2) come after the чтo , conjunction , or interrogative . 5. Только (... ) и regularly precedes the verb ($ 1 ) , but applies to the subject , object , or modifier, NOT the verb. I.e. , there is never any question of whether the action expressed by the verb takes place , but rather there is a question of who does it, or of whom or what it is done to , or of how it is done .


WITH ТОЛЬКО И : Он только и интересуется математикой. The only thing he is interested in is mathematics .

Хлеб и капусту только и едят . Bread and cabbage are all they eat . На работе только и слышишь о футбольном матче. At work the only thing you hear about is the soccer game . Приезд Степана Астахова взволновал весь хутор: в каждом курене, на каждом гумне об этом только и говорили .


The arrival of Stepan Astakhov had the whole village

excited :

in every

hut and at every barn this was all people talked about. Ведь только и храбриться ему одному , пока его никто не видит . (Л. Н. Толстой ) You see, he can only show off when he's alone , as long as no one sees him.



WITH Только и ... ЧТО ... : На работе только и слышишь что о футбольном матче. At work the only thing you hear about is the soccer game . Он в отставке , только и живет что на пенсию He's retired ; all he lives on is his pension . Ее младшая сестра только и получает что поношенные платья.

Her younger sister never gets anything but hand-me -down dresses . А земли самая малость , только и есть что господский лес . (Тургенев) There's just a tiny bit of land , and all there is is timberland of the master's . Только и слышались , что рассыпчатые голоса




полями , да в самой роще две- три птички , .не торопясь , выводили свои коротенькие коленца.


All that were heard were the fragile voices of skylarks over the distant fields ,

and in the grove itself two or three birds unhurriedly

sang forth

their brief calls .

WITH ТОЛЬКО И + CONJUNCTION OR INTERROGATIVE : Я только и хочу, чтоб вы этот проклятый ключ нашли. The only thing I want you to do is find that blasted key . Они только и подметают пол , когда будет приезжать инспекция. The

only time they sweep the floor is when the inspectors are coming.

Он только и думал , как отделаться от посетителя. The only thing he was thinking of was how to get rid of his visitor.

WITH ТОЛЬКО ... и ... Теперь только трубку и курю . Nowadays all I smoke is a pipe. Только чертополох и растет там . Nothing grows there but thistles . Отцы друг ко другу не ездили , она Алексея еще не видала , между тем как все молодые соседки только об нем и говорили .


Their fathers did not visit each other, and she still had never seen Aleksey while all her young neighbors were talking of nothing but him.


WITH ТОЛЬКО ... и ... WITH SEVERAL SENTENCE -ELEMENTS BEFORE THE И : (LESS COMMON ) Только из - за Петляева у меня катер и ходит без отказа , все знают ! ( Соболев ) It's only due to my friend Petlyaev that my boat keeps running; everybody knows that!



Моя любовь уже не казалась батюшке пустою блажью, а матушка только того и желала, чтоб ее

Петруша женился на милой капитанской дочке . (Пушкин) father now, and my mother's now , and My love did not seem like a mere caprice to my

only desire was that her Petrusha should marry the captain's sweet daughter .


и +

Ipf Pres

делать Vbs : сделать, знать Noun : дело

+ ЧТО + Vb matching

Ipf Past

делать in Aspect ,

Prf Pres

Tense , and Person.

Prf Past

Any vb-form may be used with |дело /дела.


'All ... does is ... '

' ... does nothing but ... '

' All ... did was ... '

' ... did nothing but ... '

'The only thing ... does is ... ' 'The only thing ... did was ... '

Он только и знает ,

что жалуется.

All he does is complain . Он только и знал , что краснел да заикался.

All he did was blush and stammer. Жить ей у брата было не очень- то весело , только и знали , что по целым дням спорили и ругались.

( Чехов)

Living at her brother's was not especially jolly for her:

all they did for

whole days was quarrel and snarl at each other.

Они только и делали , что сидели играли в карты. They did nothing but sit and play cards . Он только и сделал , что волком посмотрел на меня .

The only thing he did was give me a savage look. Теперь критики только и дело , что расхваливают его нарасхват .

( Писемский)

Now the critics are doing nothing but vie with each other in showering praise on him.



только только и ВСЕГО ТОЛЬКО- ТО ' and that's all'

'and that's the end of it'

' and that's all there is to it'

'and that's that'

' and that's all I have to say about it' Скажи им, что им придется закончить эту работу, только и всего . Tell them they're going to have to get that job finished and that's all there is to it .

-Вот вам гривенник. -Только - то?

-Here's a dime for you . -Is that all ?


.... KAK ...

( ЧТО)

Только- только

.... KAK ...

' no more than

' no sooner

when ... '

... , than ... '

= ТОЛЬКО # ЗЬ , p409 . See also under ТОЛЬКО- Только # 2 , p424. These formulas are essentially equivalent to как только , ' as soon as ' . Только приедешь куда- нибудь, только скинешь с себя все и расположишься теплой печки , как уж * говорят , что лошади готовы.


( Гончаров)

You no more than arrive somewhere , you no more than chuck all your things off and get settled by a warm stove when they tell you the horses are ready . * Уж( е ) is fairly common in ТОЛЬКО ... KAK ... constructions . See under УЖЕ , p468-469. Только что выдавалась свободная минута , как я начинал искать Петю. (Каверин) I would no sooner get a free minute than I would start looking for Petey. Мы только что отправились , как пошел снег . We had no sooner set out than it started snowing . Только- только успели мы притаиться за кустами , как внизу показалось сразу пятеро всадников.


We had no more than had time to hide behind the bushes when a group of five horsemen immediately appeared below.




= ЕДВА ТОЛЬКО, p 416. 'as soon as'


'no more than ...'

'no sooner ... than ...'

'the minute (that) ...'

= ТОЛЬКО # 4, p 410. 'solely'


Лишь только is simply an intensive, made by combining the two synonymous words лишь and только.


но только но только что



BOT РАЗВЕ ТОЛЬКО Разве только is a frequent combination, but in meaning it is only the sum of passe and только. The meaning of the только is #4, 'solely', 'exclusively', 'nothing other than'. The meaning of the разве ,'except', 'unless', is here concessive, sometimes reluctantly concessive. The idea is that if something was ever the case at all , then it was only so-and-so. And the speaker is not convinced that that was indeed the case. The чтo is merely colloquial, and adds only to the style and tone, not the meaning.

'only .... ifat all'

'only´..., maybe'

'only .... ifever'

'unless perhaps ... , only'

'only ... , if anything'

Успеешь! 000 вот разве только ты взволнован теперь, рассеян, так работа тяжелее пойдет. (Достоевский) You'll manage! ... Maybe you're just a little upset right now and distracted , and so the work'll go harder. Летом по этим лесам ни проходу, ни проезду, разве только по речке. (Серафимович) In summer these woods were impassable, walking or riding, except perhaps along the stream only. Схожи они разве только глазами -синими, широкими и близко поставленными друг к другу. (В.В. Иванов) They resembled each other only in the eyes, if at all, which were dark blue, wide, and placed close together.


Я еще никогда не слышал ,

чтобы он сказал лишнее

когда подашь бумаги , спросит :

слово .

Только разве,

" Каково на дворе ? " ( Гоголь )

I have never heard him say an unnecessary word .

Perhaps only when you

give him some papers he asks , " How is it out of doors? " Ничего нет внушительного в моей жалкой фигуре ; только разве , когда бываю я болен tic'om , у меня появляется какое-то особенное выражение. ( Чехов) There is nothing impressive in my wretched appearance , unless perhaps only when I am ill with tic , I acquire a certain particular expression. А надворный советник тот же полковник, только разве что мундир без эполет . (Гоголь) A court councillor is the same as a colonel , except maybe only the uniform doesn't have epaulets . Не всякий и сумеет войти в избу к


упросит ее

к нему


к лесу задом , а

(Of a house overhanging a ravine :)

разве только что посетитель передом . ( Гончаров)

Not everybody can get

into Onisim's

hut , maybe only if the visitor prevails upon it " to stand with its back to the woods and facing him . "

ТОЛЬКО ТАК 1. = именно так, точно так, ‘ ехactly like this , ' ' no way but this ’ Только так, упаковать книги в деревянные ящики , да занумеровать все ящики . Do it exactly this way :

pack the books in wooden boxes and number the

boxes . 2. = так = так только , ' not-for any particular reason ' , 'just off hand , '

'just happened to' p 335-337 . See TAK $ 9 , P

See TАК ТОЛЬКО , p 361-362 .

— Скажите , вы написали что- нибудь для женского голоса? - Я почти ничего не пишу, - возразил Паншин, · я ведь это только так, между делом.


-Tell me , have you written anything for a female voice? -I scarcely write anything, -said

Panshin , -You see ,

I wrote this

hand , in the midst of other things I was doing.

-Аркаша? -Что? —Нет , я так только , я ничего


-Arkasha? -What?

-No , I just happened to say that , I didn't have anything to say ...

just off


ТОЛЬКО · только 1. ' just barely'

a .+ Inflected Verb: Мы только- только предотвратили страшное столкновение. We just barely avoided having a dreadful collision.

b . + Inf: Сама по себе речка эта-- не особенная, так себе, только - только двум лодкам разъехаться.

( Гайдар)

In itself this stream was nothing out of the ordinary ; it was not at all impressive: two boats could just barely get past each other

on it.

2. ' just now ' , ' just a moment ago ' Поздравляю вас .

Очень рад .

Congratulations .

Женя только - только сказал мне.

I'm very glad .

Gene just this minute told me .

Врач сейчас здесь, он только- только приехал. The doctor is here now ; he just now got here.

только что The combination только что is characteristic of colloquial speech .

However, every

one of the four meanings of только что given below can also be expressed by только alone (See ТОЛЬко $ 3 , 3 , 4 , 5) .

Thus it appears that the что does not modify the

force of the только in any substantial way. 1. (Adv) ' only' , ' just , ' ' just barely ' , ' just now ' , ' just a moment ago' , ' just this minute ' cf только $3a . The next word after the только is ordinarily a verb , though

not necessarily .

WITH AN INFLECTED VERB: У меня нет никакого представления, о чем идет речь.

Я сам ведь только

что пришел. I haven't got the least idea what they're talking about .

I just got here




Наташа сидела не двигаясь, не сводила глаз с купола тогда только что построенного собора.


Natasha sat without moving and did not take her eyes from the dome of the cathedral , which at that time had just been built . 2. (Cnj ) ' only', ' as soon as ' , ' no sooner ... than ... , ' ' the minute (that) ... ' Cf только $зь Только что он открыл дверь , свеча погасла. As soon as he opened the door, the candle went out.


3. ' only ' , ' nothing other than ' , ' solely ' , ' exclusively ' , cf только Но наш певец не пел , а только что пищал.

( Крылов)

But our singer didn't sing, but only squeaked. (Разумихин) поднес к его рту ложку супу, несколько раз предварительно подув на нее, чтоб он не обжегся.

Но суп был только что теплый. (Достоевский)

(Razumihin) raised a spoonful of soup to his mouth after blowing on it several times by way of preparation so that he would not burn himself.


the soup was only warm.

4. ' only' , ' but' cf только $5 . Есть у меня водительские права, только что у меня при себе нету. I do have a driver's license , only I don't have it with me . Только ( что) is sometimes found used redundantly together with а, да, which themselves mean ' but ": Но только что и много они врут . But they do tell a lot of lies .



ог но,

Послушать их-- все невинны. (Л. Н. Толстой ) To hear them talk, they're all innocent .


'all but '

(lit .: "' only not ' )

' practically,' ' just about '

' only just short of'

Актер , игравший роль глупого сына управителя, только что не куверкался, стараясь смешить публику, однако никто не смеялся . ( Писемский) The actor that played the role of the steward's stupid son all but turned somersaults trying to get a laugh out of the audience , but no one laughed . Его братья , однодворцы, только что не молились на него , шапки перед ним ломали, гордились им . His

brothers ,


( Тургенев) were

smallholders ,



him ,

obsequiously to him, and took pride in him. И верно : на пасеке And it's true :


у меня --только что не рай ... ( Фадеев)

it's just about a paradise on that bee-farm of mine ...


' not to mention'

' let alone '

' to say nothing of'

( lit .:

" and not only " , " and not just '')

Иван Васильич будет в ярости, не только что его жена. Ivan Vasilich will be furious , to say nothing of his wife .


426 Угостили

всех соседей, не только что детей.

They treated all the neighbors , not to mention the children.

ЧУТЬ ТОЛЬКО лишь только



ЕДВА ТОЛЬКО , p416 .


. теперь See ТЕПЕРЬ :



dialectal variants , p 377 .


= тот или другой, ' one person or another'

TO - TO The literal meaning to то- то is " That is it " , " That's the thing " .

То- то focuses

attention on something that precedes it : a preceding remark that the speaker has heard (or has made himself) , a preceding scene that the speaker has witnessed , or something else in the preceding experience of the speaker. To-To has developed several applications': 1. Standing alone , or separated by a pause from following words . In reply to the preceding remark. TO- TO TO- TO BOT

BOT TO- TO BOT TO- то же

ну то- то ну то- то же a. Expressing satisfaction with the preceding remark, which itself is often the answer to a question.

' That's it '

' That's right '

' Good '

' That's the stuff'

- Вы составил доклад, -Составил.

-То- то. -You've drawn up a report? -Yes .

-Good .


- Я приготовила все мои уроки .

-То- то: -I've done all my homework. -That's nice . -Титка !

Корове дал соломы- то ? То- то , а то все вы только и норовите

работу бросить. -Titka !

( Гладков)

Did you give the cow some straw ? ...That's good , because the

one thing you're always anxious to do is leave your work. Крутицкий : .... Дядя не видал твоей работы? Глумов:

Как можно ! Как же бы я осмелился!

Крутицкий : Ну , то- то же .

Он только говорит , что умен, а ведь он болван

совершенный. ( А.Н. Островский)


Your uncle hasn't seen your work?


What an idea !

As if I would dare !

K: That's good .

He just claims to




actually he's


complete /fathead . b. Often the thought behind the reply To- To is that the other person has finally arrived at the idea that the speaker (the one who replies " To- To " ) has had in mind all along.

In saying “ То - то ” , the speaker is therefore agreeing with

what has just been said and at the same time is often expressing at least a slight impatience with the other person for taking so long to come around to that idea . (1 ) In reply to a statement . 'Well , you see now?'

'What did I tell you ? '

' Well , there you are then '

' That's what I've been saying'

-Поезд еще не прибыл . -То- то .

Не надо было торопиться так.

-The train hasn't come yet . -What did I tell you?

There was no need to rush like that .

-Дождь стал сильнее. -То- то .

Дай поезжай с нами.

-The rain has gotten worse . -Well , there you are then .

Why don't you ride with us?

— Не купим . Очень дорого это .

-То- то. -Let's not buy it .

It's awfully expensive .

-Well , that's what I've been saying. Липочка : Я совсем, маменька , не воображала , что Лазарь Елизарыч

такой учтивый кавалер !

А теперь вдруг вижу, что он '

гораздо почтительнее 'других.



Вот то- то же , дурочка !

Уж отец тебе худа не пожелает .

( А.Н.Островский)

Lipochka: Mama , I never imagined at all that Lazar Elizarych was such a polished gentlemen . But now all of a sudden I see that he's far more respectable than the others . Agrafena :

There , you see now , you foolish girl !

Your father isn't going to

want anything bad for you , for heaven's sake . ..... Барышня в это время тишину любят и чтоб никто их беспокоил,


особливо об деньгах.

Вы то подумайте :

когда они приедут из

собора, сядут в размышлении и подымут глазки кверху, где душа их в это время бывает? Подрядчик: Староста : Павлин:

Высоко , Павлин Савельич, высоко. Уж так- то высоко , что ах1

Ну, вот то- то же ! ...... Деньги деньгами, а тоже и время надо знать... (А.Н.Островский)

Pavlin (the butler) : ... Madame likes quiet at this time , and doesn't have

anybody bother her,

especially about money .

like to

You people just

think this over: when she comes from the church and sits down absorbed in meditation and raises her eyes to heaven, where do you think her soul is then? On high , Pavlin Savel'ich , on high .

Contractor :

Village elder: Pavlin :

So high up that you just can't imagine it !

Well, there you are now ! .....Money is money , but you have to know

the right time to bring it up too. -Ребята мои ... воры ... ; при первой неудаче они свою шею выкупят моею головою. -То- то ! —сказал я Пугачеву. —Не лучше ли тебе отстать от них самому? (Пушкин) -My boys ...are thieves ... ; the first time we have a setback, they'll turn me in to save their own necks . -Exactly, I said to Pugachev . -Wouldn't you be better off to break with them yourself? (2 ) . In reply to an apology or concession .


' You'd better'

IN REPLY TO A NEGATIVE : 'You'd better not'

' I should hope so'

IN REPLY TO A NEGATIVE': ' I should hope not '

'See that you do '

IN REPLY TO A NEGATIVE : ' See that you don't '

—Я больше не буду так поступать.

-То- то. -I'm never going to do that again .

should hope not.


- Я брошу пьянство. -Ну то- то же .

-I'm going to quit getting drunk. -You'd certainly better. -Я отсюда очень осторожно буду водить машину. -Hy то- то. -From now on I'm going to be very careful driving the truck.

-See that you do . 2. As part of a sentence , without any pause between TO- TO and the words that follow it .

Note how the TO- TO is usually followed directly by whatever is em-

phasized , without any connecting words , although a чтo is sometimes join the то- то with what follows it .

See $ 2a .

used to

The то- то is regularly first in its

clause . a. Identifying the key point TO- TO BOT TO- TO





ну то- то ну то- то

же что



И есть

то- то вот и есть TO- TO

и есть, что

то- то вот и есть, что BOT TO- TO

и есть, что


, что И есть


И оно


и оно, что


и оно, что




и оно- то

' That's it'

' The point is , ... '

' That's the thing'

' The point is that ... '

' That's exactly it'

' That's the point : ... '

' That's just it '

' That's the trouble': ... ,

The particle phrases containing и есть and и оно аrе especially characteristic of popular speech .


To- To is used in seizing upon one idea out of several and asserting that this one is the essential point in what has just been said .



bring the situation under discussion into sharper focus .

is that of trying to

Often this

clarifying re-

statement is followed by additional amplifying words .

Naturally, in practice clarifying restatements with TO- TO often take the form of REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS .

However, the speaker can also be clarifying

a preceding remark of his own. -Она это с таким волнением рассказывала ... -То- то с волнением , — отвечал я. -Волнения- то ей теперь вредны. (Достоевский ) . -She told about it with such agitation ... -That's just it :

with agitation , -l replied . Agitations aren't good for her

right now . -Ты, Вася, возьми к себе племянницу- то ... -А на твоей квартире разве нельзя?

-То- то что негде.


-Vasya , why don't you take the niece in with you ? . -But do you mean to say you can't have her in your apartment? -That's just the point , that there isn't any room. -Эх вы, ученые люди , - сказал третий , мужественный гопос, перебивая обоих .


-То- то вы, артиллеристы, и учены очень оттого, что все с собой свезти можно , и водочки и закусочки .


-Oh , you smart people put me all out of patience , -said a third , manly voice, interrupting both of them . -The thing that's so awfully smart about you is that you can bring everything along with you , vodka and snacks and all that . -Да ведь ты слышал , она при тебе даже сказала, что она будет сидеть нынче у

окна, на пруд смотреть. -Да это она так сказала. -Вот то- то я и не знаю, нечаянно или нет

.... Why, you heard that .

она это сказала. (Л.Н.Толстой)

She did indeed say , with you

there , that

she'd be sitting at the window now and looking at the pond .

-Oh, she just said that offhand . -That's just the trouble :

I don't know whether she just said it at random or

not. -А зачем же вы стоите? ... Разве вам места нет? -То- то и есть , что нет .. Я уж искал , да все стулья заняты . (Достоевский) -But why are you standing?

There really aren't any seats ?

-That's just it , that there aren't . occupied.

I've been looking, and all the chairs



-Да что -- земля , что ли , такая тайная есть , откуда хорошие люди приезжают ?

-Земли такой нет. ( Горький) -What's the idea -- there's such a secret land the good people come from ,

-То- то и оно .

is that it? -There isn't any such land .

-That's exactly the point. -А эти люди , кто они такие ?

Да откуда они ?

Мы ничего о них не знаем .

—Вот то- то и оно , что не знаем. -But these people , just who are they? And where did they come from? We don't know anything about them . -That's just the point : that we don't know .

b. Intensifying Noun

(1 ) TO- TO TO- TO







'What a

'That's really . !‫י‬

'How extremely

'Is that ever In exclamations .

" '

'Now that's what I call


! '

'Now there's a real ———_____ !'

Indicates that whatever follows it is an instance where some

quality is exhibited in great measure , to an unusually high degree , " in the fullest sense of the word" . It is common in this use of TO- TO to have the TO- TO simply followed by a noun ,

adjective , or verb that constitutes a predicate , without any

However, the subject is also sometimes specifically expressed .


То- то удовольствие! What a pleasure ! Опять обманули нас .

То- то мошенники !

They've swindled us again . Посмотри только ! Just look!

What crooks they are !

То- то солдат !

Now there's a real soldier!

WITH PREDICATE ADJECTIVES : То- то там в лесу темно было ! Was it ever dark there in the woods !

То- то хорошо - то ! That's really great !

expressed subject .





глупо- то!

образование- то состоит ,



песни петь ?

То- то


Are you going to try to tell me that education means. singing idiotic songs? Now that's what I call really stupid ! То- то ему, небось , жалко !


I'll bet he's feeling awfully bad .

WITH VERBS : Если бы Тыбурций тебя здесь увидел , то- то бы рассердился! (Короленко) If Tyburcius saw you here , he'd really get angry ! Тото родные волновались , как она не позвонила. Her family were worried something awful when she didn't call . То- то , поди , Костя соскучился по тебе , ждет не дождется. (Мамин- Сибиряк) I'm sure Konstantin has missed you just terribly .

He simply

can't wait .

То - то бы тебя, Зикин , на коня посадить ; ловок бы ты был , —шутил ефрейтор... (Л.Н.Толстой) “ It would be really something to stick you on a horse ,

Zikin .

You'd be

swell at it ," a corporal jeered. (2 ) то- то

+ Gen of quantity .

То- то смеху было. There was a big laugh .

То- то было радости. There was great rejoicing. То- то было удивления этому. There was great surprise at this . c . Pointing out the cause . то- то то то




то- то ... и

' That's why .. ' ' So that's why ... ' To- To is used when picking out something as the cause of an observed situation . When TO- TO has this meaning, the usual pattern is to have the ro- To followed by a full clause , with both subject and predicate expressed . (When TO- TO is used as an intensifier ($ 2b) , the то- то is more often followed by a predicate alone , subject is only sometimes

and the

explicitly expressed . )

Again, there is по что ог other word connecting то- то with the words that follow .


Пассажир носил с собой большую сумму денег ; то-то он казался стесненным. The passenger was carrying a large sum of money ; that's why he seemed

uneasy . -Он был на прошлой неделе в отпуску. -То- то я не дозвонился к нему. -He was on leave last week. -So that's why I couldn't get him on the phone . - Отрезало нас .


We've been cut off.

То- то я смотрю , что в лугах пусто . By flood-water.


That's why I've been noticing that

there's no one around in the meadows . Оно и видно , что вам делать нечего; то- то вы по всей Москве и ходите. (А.Н.Островский) It's plain that you don't have anything to do ; that's why you go around all over Moscow. -У меня нога немного побаливает . -То- то я слышу, что йодоформом пахнет .


-My leg has been hurting a little ... -So that's why I smell iodoform . d . IN REPLIES CONTAINING REPETITIONS TO- TO BOT TO- TO TO- TO BOT то- то же BOT то- то же

indeed !'


nonsense !'


' Oh sure,. ' Oh great !

' !

is it?'


'That's a great answer.

__indeed !'

Used in contemptuous rejections of what the other person has

just said .


repetition with TO- TO expresses the speaker's displeasure and impatience with what he considers a foolish remark - foolish because it is inappropriate or because it shows failure to understand the situation or because it is a transparent attempt to evade or deceive . It may be that in origin TO- TO in contemptuous repetitions is TO- TO §la , an expression it,

of satisfaction ,




express dissatisfaction : "That's

!", "Oh sure !! " This is one use of TO-TO where the TO-TO can stand last as well as first , although

even here TO- To in last position is less common . When To- To does stand last , it is separated by a pause from the words that precede it . When it stands first, it may or may not be followed by a pause .


To an inappropriate response : Мне надоело слушать это .

- Хватит.

-То- то хватит .

Разве так говорят?

-That's enough .

I'm sick of listening to that.

-" That's enough '' indeed !


Is that any way to talk?

Я совсем забыл ...

-Виноват .

То- то.

-Sorry .

I completely forgot to ...

-You forgot .

That's just great .

To a false estimate of the situation : 1 -Не волнуйтесь.

Склеим ...

—Вот то- то же склеим !

Это никак не пройдет.

-Don't worry. We'll glue it ...

| -Oh sure !

We'll glue it !

That won't possibly work.

- Он очень сердился на это. -Ну ничего. -То- то ничего.

Он имеет большую заручку у них там .

-He was awfully mad about that. -Well, what the heck?

What the heck ." That's brilliant.

He has a lot of influence with those

people there . To an attempt to evade or deceive': -Виноват . Я совсем забыл ...

-То- то же забыл . -Sorry.

Не хотел .

I completely forgot to ...

-Oh yes , you forgot !

You didn't want to .

-Лиза : Нет , сударь, я ... лишь невзначай ...

- Фамусов : Liza :

Вот то- то невзначай.

За вами примечай . (Грибоедов)

No , sir, I ... just accidentally ...

Famusov: Accidentally indeed ! You people have to be watched .


' so-and-so'

(neu. )

See TOT- TO , below .


Cf ТАКОЙ- ТО #4 , p 371 .

' so-and-so' , ' this ... that '

Used when giving a shortened account of what someone else said .

The TOT- TO is |



substituted for details that are immaterial to the main idea that the speaker wishes to convey. Целый день мной помыкали .

Убери те- то , достань то- то от того- то , позвони

тому- то, а потом сделай то- то и то- то .

А я вот до точки дошел .

They kept ordering me around all day . so-and-so ,

It was put away these , get that from

get so-and -so on the phone , and then do so-and-so

and so -and- so.

I've had it .

Точно Some uses of точно are immediately clear, and need no particular illustration here : 1. (as ordinary adverb applying to a single element in the sentence :) ' exactly ' , ' precisely ' точно так

'exactly so'

точно определить

' determine with precision'

точно в два часа

'at exactly two o'clock'

точно по плану

' exactly according to the plan'

2. (in replies :) 'Yes ', ' exactly' , ' exactly so ' , 'that's right'

Others are : 3. (as conjunction in comparisons :) ' just like ' , ' like ' , ' as ' , ' as if' , ' as though ' , ' as if ... were ...'

Some common patterns are :

а . точно + Noun : Недалеко от стен фабрики .. стояла толпа народа и гудела, точно рой шмелей. ( Горький) Not far from the walls of the factory..stood a crowd of people and buzzed like a swarm of bumblebees . За месяц до его смерти я с ужасом

стал примечать, что умственные

способности его тухнут , слабеют , точно догорающие свечи. (Герцен) A month before his death , I was horrified at beginning to notice that his mental faculties were waning, weakening like candles burning down . b . точно + Prepositional phrase : Княгиня протянула ему кисть правой руки --- очень красивую , беловатожелтую , точно из пергамента


The princess extended to him her right hand

-00 very beautiful , whitish

yellow, as if it were made of parchment . Откуда- то тянуло затхлой сыростью , точно из погреба . ( Мамин- Сибиряк) From somewhere there was a draft of musty dampness , like that from a cellar.


Ноздри ее

раздувались , вздрагивая , точно у лошади . ( Горький)

Her nostrils dilated , quivering like a horse's .

с . точно + Verb : Кусты шевелятся и шелестят , точно тихо разговаривают . (Гаршин) The bushes stir and whisper as if they were softly conversing . Всякие слухи о нем замерли , точно он исчез с лица земли . (Тургенев) All talk of him died away as if he had disappeared from the face of the earth. Минуты две было тихо , точно обоз уснул .

( Чехов)

There was silence for two minutes or so , as if the wagon train had gone to sleep . В грязные улицы прикрытые густыми тенями старых облезлых домов , осторожно , точно боясь испачкаться, заглядывало мартовское солнце .


( Горький) The March sun peered cautiously into the muddy streets covered with the thick shadows

of shabby old houses , as if afraid of

Пошел подпрыгивая, точно вдруг охромев .

getting dirty.

( Горький)

He started to walk with a bobbing gait , as if he had

suddenly gone

lame .

точно с цепи сорвался ' wildly' , ' madly' 4. (as adverb applying to the whole sentence :) a . as the focal word in sentences concerned with whether something is really true .

Точно что (often written точно- что) is a more colloquial variant .

' indeed '

'it is /was true that'

' definitely'


' it is /was a fact that'

'for a fact'

' as a matter of fact'

'certainly '

' truly'

точно alone : Мне послышалось что- то похожее на рыдание ; слепой мальчик точно плакал , и долго , долго .


It seemed to me I heard something like sobbing; the blind boy was indeed crying, and for a long, long time . Если же тревога была не пустая , если точно человек или зверь приблизится к стае быстро поднимаются старики , и стремглав бросаются за ними молодые .

( С. Аксаков)

But if the alarm was not a false one , if a man or an animal really is about to approach the flock , the old ones get up quickly , and the young ones rush headlong after them .



точно ее , .. BOT

437 и прореха на самой

серединке .

( Григорович)

It's her kerchief, it's definitely hers ,'s the rip right in the middle . и точно: А лошадь его славилась в целой Кабарде , -- и точно , лучше этой лошади ничего выдумать невозможно .


And his horse was famous in all of Kabardia , --and indeed ,

nothing better

than this horse could be imagined .

-Не успеете, .. сейчас второй звонок. вагонов, как раздался звонок.

И точно , я не успел дойти до конца

(Л.Н.Толстой )

" You won't have time , .. that's the second bell now ." And indeed I had not had time to walk to the end of the cars when the bell rang.

точно ли : Арина Петровна встает с своего места и высматривает в дверь , точно ли Улитушка ушла. ( Салтыков- Щедрин) Arina Petrovna got up from her seat and looked out through the

door to

see whether Ulita had really left . Наступили сомнения.

Да верно ли так силен он?

Точно ли умен , талантлив,

смел? ( Горбатов) Some doubts arose .

Was he truly that strong?

Was he really clever, gifted ,

and bold? точно что: -А ведь он будет потолковее вас, как вы думаете? -Да- с , они ( =он ) точно что посолиднее- с .


-Actually , he's probably somewhat smarter than you are , don't you think? -Yes sir; he is in fact rather more sound , sir. Ну , я точно- что услышал , что он полетел , но дальше ничего не слышал. Well , it's true I heard he was fired , but I haven't heard any more than that . А в командировках я точно- что не бывал ни разу, ... (Короленко) But truly , I haven't been making any trips , not even one ... b. as an unemphasized parenthetical aside added to an assertion.

Обед, точно , был отличный . The dinner was , indeed , an excellent one . Я показала Владимиру Николаевичу вашу кантату; я была уверена, что он ее оценит , -- и она , точно, очень ему понравилась .

( Тургенев)

I showed your cantata to Vladimir Nikolaevich ; I was sure he would t