RUDOLF BORCHARDT: A BIOGRAPHICAL AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL STUDY

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I V 2,1941s Beerbaum, Alfred Walter, 1907- 1 Rudolf Borchardt; a biographical and bibliographical study. New York, I9 I4 .9 0 vi,161 typewritten leaves. 2 9 cm. Thesis (Ph.D.) - New York Univer­ sity, Graduate School, 1950. "Chronological list of publication of works by Borchardt": p . e1 1 8 a-135. "An alphabetical list of Borchardt works": p.c 1 3 6 3 -l!j.5 «. ""List T , . 4 - of articles~ about. Borchardt": p .c iS lj.3 -1 5 7 .

c .f\n C1 5 0 7O2% 3

: .Shelf Ifcil

Xerox University Microfilms,

Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106

THIS DISSERTATION HAS BEEN M IC R O FILM E D E XA C TLY AS RECEIVED.

LIBRARY Of Ilff YORK UNIVERSITY ORIYERSITT HEIGHTS

R U D O L F

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OF T H E

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w it h

h is t o r ia n

D IS S E R T A T IO N w orks

really

and

,

a

place

in

com petent,

w ould

have

l it e r a r y

m e d ie v a l

USED

IN

to

be

AN ES ­

h is t o r y

based

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on

FOR SO D IV E R 8 E WERE B O R C H A R D T ' 8

ONLY A BOARD C O N S IS T IN G

OF MODERN GERMAN L IT E R A T U R E

KNOWLEDGE OF TH E M A T E R IA L 8

NOT CONCERNED W IT H

h is

S P E C IA L IS T S , THAT

IS

p h il o l o g is t

COULD DO H IM T H IS

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J U S T IC E .

D IS S E R T A T IO N

IS

most

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HOW EVER,

A

ADJUDGED TO BE

II

A P R E R E Q U IS IT E Bo r c h a r d t Ge r m a n

century

FOR ANY 8 T U D Y ON H I S

WORKS OR A GENERAL

was

c o n t r o v e r s ia l

one

of

l it e r a t u r e

the

,

great

p a r t ic u l a r l y

*TWO WORLD WARS AND T H E Y E A R 8 J U S T SERVES TH E A T T E N T IO N FOR,

ALTHOUGH

TUREO F E W ,

D I S T IN C T IO N , M IG H T

AND T H E R E

HAVE GROWN,

IS

IN

NO T E L L IN G

TO RE8UM E T H E BEFORE

IN

C R IT IQ U E

THE

OF H lT L E R

T H E E N 8 U IN G A STAND.

C U LT U R A L

H E R IT A G E ,

AND A P P R E C IA T IO N

Th I 8

C O M PELLED TH E

BH O U S E C L E A N IN g " IN

THE

G ENERA LLY A P P R E C IA T E D . THE M A N .

On e

G E N U IN E

HE R E M A IN E D

plete

S IT Y

OF T O D A Y ,

ONLY

BY T H E

AS A W R IT E R

OF

CUL-

REAL

H I8

HE

CA REER A 8

SO T H A T

IT

W ELL

8EH 00VE8

OF H I S

LEGACY W H IC H WERE BEGUN

IN

ER R O R ,

BUT T H E

S E R V IC E ,

EXPO SED H I S

C LA SH ED

ERR O R S,

C O N T R IB U T IO N S TO TH E R E L A T IV E L Y

OF THE

W IT H H I S

BUT

D ID

I8 8 U E 8 ,

BORCHARDT AS

HAS NOT BEEN

BUT D ID

NOT M EET

NOT ALWAYS TAKE T IM E

C U LT U R A L

UNKNOWN O U T S ID E

N A T IO N ,

STOCK,

O'

W IT H

TH E

P R O F E S S IO N A L

THAT

NOTE AND MAKE

W H IC H E S T A B L I8 H E 8

L IF E

TO W H IC H

IN C IS IV E N E 8 8

L IT E R A R Y WORLD TO TAKE

IN T E L L E C T U A L On e

SUCH

IS 8 U E 8

TO

RE8ULT

C IR C L E S ,

S TU D Y THAT

AND RE­

IN F O R M A T IO N ABOUT H IM WA8 S C A R C E .

Ga .

DE­

BORCHARDT WAS A PO ET AND CONCERNED

HE WA8 O C C A S IO N A L L Y

DEBATEB

A D Y N A M IC FORCE

easy

AND HE C E R T A IN L Y

F IN IS H E D

HE C A L L E D A T T E N T IO N WERE ALWAYS P R E S E N T E D W IT H

L IA B L E

the

19 3 3 -

A d M IT T E D L Y ,

H IS

betw een

AND C R I T I C

C IR C L E 8

t w e n t ie t h

TO WHAT 8 T A T U R E AND P O P U L A R IT Y

HAD NOT T H E A D V E N T

ETERNAL VALUE8

in

p e r io d

BUT A P P R E C IA T E D

L IT E R A R Y

FAR A 8 T H E WORLD WAS C O NC ERNED . W IT H

H IS T O R IA N

NEVER A PO PULAR A U T H O R ,

f ig u r e s

the

P R E C E D IN G T H E M ,

OF TH E L IT E R A R Y

HE WA8 R E C O G N IZ E D

d u r in g

E S T IM A T E .

t h e r in g

So u r ce

the

®

b io g r a p h ic a l

m a t e r ia l s

w ere

and

found

P U B L IS H E D WORKS COULD NOT 8 E L IB R A R IE 8

b ib l io g r a p h ic a l

to

HAD

be

w id e l y

IN

SUCH A 8 TH O SE OF H E ID E L B E R G

data

scattered

ANY ONE P L A C E . AND T 0 B IN G E N

has

.

not

The GREAT

HAD ONLY

been

com­

U N IV E R ­ HALF A

US

111

DO ZEN T I T L E 8 the

wARt

-

den

St a t e

EACH,

Mu L ib

D IF F IC U L T Y .

L IB R A R IE S

Ma r b u r g .

r l in

r a r ie s

L IS H E D

IN

w h ic h

M IS IN F O R M A T IO N

18

RAM PANT,

R E FER EN C E TO

T H ER E

IS

L IV E D .

-

of

1905

H IS

Aber

.

m is l e a d in g

BUT ONLY

True,

B R 0C K H A U 8 A L 8 0

und

P la to n s

but

B o rc h a rd t

L y b ib

d e u ts c h

h im s e lf

ROUND

I9 0 l,

SONAL

R E C O L L E C T IO N S

Ne v e r

AND

IT

theless

IS

T IO N A L

IN F O R M A T IO N

TURED,

W IL L

TEM PT,

IT

S U F F IC IE N T

F IX E 8

of

in

these

th e

w o rk

as

THAT

on

t h is

PUB­

IN

w h ic h

IN

19 2 9 -

o c c a s io n s

w h ic h

has

p r in tin g

L E IP Z IG

ATTEM PT,

been

AND

T H E IR

IT 8

cH

A b e R FpRMEN

of

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h is IN

19 12 .

a t

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1905*

aPER­

AND A S 8 0 C IA T E 8 ,

made

IF

a v a il a b l e

TOO ,

to

t h is

O TH ERS WHO H A VE A D D I­

WHAT

IS

HERE

KNOWLEDGE AS A R E S U LT

PURPOSE A 8

TH E N E C ESSA R Y

C O N JEC ­

OF T H I 8

IN IT IA L

A T­

8TEP

L | F E OF BO RC HAR DT.

Ma

r t in

is

E

l

h e r e w it h

8

t

AND R E N D E R IN G A L L

e

r

HELP

made

,

now

,

R E8EARC H WORK AND ON

r e p r e s e n tin g

P U B L IS H E D

OF

BORCHARDT

several

OF T H E Q e S P r I

fir s t

in

HOF B E R L IN *

c it ie s

OR CAN RENDER MORE D E F I N I T E

Ha n n s

E D IT IO N .

th e

Ba ­

and

BUT NO RECORD OR

8TA TE S

AND WAS

T H E W R IT IN G

FOR A F IR S T

,

T H E T O P IC

to

IN

ON C O N J E C T U R E .

acknow ledgment

Or .

add

I 9 07 a n d

in

B R 0CK HAU 8

I 903 a n d

at

Gr a t e f u l

1s t

p u b lis h e d

was

m a t e r ia l

HAVE 8 E R V E 0

s s ia n

K o sC H WAS PRO BABLY T H IN K IN G

he

COME FORWARD W IT H

W IL L

To

.

O E 8TR O Y E O

STAND ARD R E FE R E N C E

OF BO R C H A R D T*S FORMER F R IE N D 8

that

TOWARD A D E F I N I T I V E

I.

IN

He

the

UND H O FM A N N STH A L:

H E ID E L B E R G

WA8 D E F IN IT E L Y

,

W R IT E R

g e s t in g

consulted

E VEN

IN

spoke

WERE O F T E N VAGUE AND BASED

to

and

FOR SHORT ENGAGEMENTS AS SPEAK ER OR FOR

B U 8 IN E 8 S .

g iv e n

R lL K E

NOT R l L K E .

AMONG OTHER P L A C E 8 .

is

,

PARTLY

L |T E R A T U R - L e x IK O N 1 A WORK PRESUMABLY

H o fm a n n s th a l,

OF G e O RG E,

Be

w ere

HAS E V E R BEEN F O U N D .

Rede

TALK

IN

AND E N T IT L E D

IT

B o r c h a r d t 's

.

Fr a n k f u r t .

all

K 0 8 CH C IT E S

W 0R K 8.

T h is

.

n ic h

NOT TO SPEAK OF THOSE

fo r

of

P 0 8 S IB L E

in v a l u a b l e

06sseldo

rf,

support

fo r

SUBSEQUENTLY;

sug­

TO

Ma

r ie

-L

fe r in g

B

u is e

FOR VAL UABL E LECTION

Ho r s t

r

INTO

l

i

e

m

a

in

MATERIALS

AND

Er n s t

R

THIS

Pl y m o u t h , No v e m b e r

Ru d o l f

to

Ma

ss

Dr .

Ne w

TO D r .

life lo n g

frien d

of

U

- B

D

Ol d e n b o u r g

the

h is

Yor k

LETTERS

h

E

TO THE

pamphlet

S

c

Un

FIN AL

h

Pu

r

8

RECOL­

OVER A P E R I OD

R N A Y S

b l is h in g

OF

L iter a tu r

o

r

,

h is

for

F ir m ,

Mu

n ic h

,

BROUGHT A G A I N S T

Di e

for

B orchardt,

I N CL UD IN G MANUSCRIPTS;

REMINISCENCES;

iv e r s it y

e

LAWSUIT

e

W|LLY

OF PERSONAL

FORM OF

NEW M A T E R I A L S ,

PERSONAL

ITS

W0RK8J

THE

of­

u n h e s it a t in g ly

THROUGH G L I M P S E S

IN

OF

for

HUSBAND*S

HERMANN

Al e x a n d e r

of

Br e m e n

and

PERTAINING

w ith

DISSERTATION

I9U9

L IF E

of

ILLUMINATING o s e

OF HER L A T E

USE

n

connection

La n d

of

EVIDENCE

THE n

t

HIS

TO PROFESSOR FOR

d

p u b lis h e r

USE OF THE RECORDS

Re c h t :

G IVING

a

M unich,

INSIGHT

a VARIA

K

Bo r c h a r d t

Dr .

h

AND DOCUMENTARY

S t ARNBER g / B

ih r

c

of

OF T E N Y E A R S ;

FOR THE

r

FOR USE HER L I B R A R Y

W i e g a n d

to

o

im

rare

Ka m p f e

um

a d d it io n a l

AND TO P R 0 F E S 8 0 R k in d

a s s is ta n c e

in

FORM.

.

ALFRED W. BEERBAUM

CONTENTS

PART ONE:

..............................

I n tr o d uc tio n The

Un

Ea r l y

Y ears

Bir th

-

Ea r l y

Ed u c a tio n

Be

L

Wo r l d

1

Af

Th e

I

ia n o

Or a t o r

and

it e r a t u r e

it ic s

-

.

.

.

.

.

.

-

Ch i l d h o o d

-

-

Go t t i n g e n

1293 -

Ho f ­

Sc h r Sder

-

and

Bu

and

As s o c i a t e s

Wr

-

Ma r r i a g e

Eu r o p e a n i s m

Re l a t i o n s

s in e s s

Se c o n d

-

it in g s

Ma r r i a g e

Pr o d u c t i v e

and

Be g

f ic u l t

Big

L

.

...................................

19 2 1 -

Au t h o r -

Re l a t i o n s

Troublesome

di

.

Antecedents

1296

Travels

1919 /20 -

p r e s s io n

-

-

Sp e e c h e s

u b l is h e r

Dif

.

............................................................................................. ....

-

f a ir s

D iv o r c e -P

.

....................................................................................................................

l it ic a l

Do m e s t i c

.

............................................................................

Bo n n

Ge o r g e

Wo r k s

Wa r

Po

Th e

-

-

( 19 0 1 + - 19 * U )

Ea rly

.

( 1 8 9 5 - ) ............................................................................

13 9 5

r l in

.

Pr u s s ia

if e

mannsthal

Italy

(I2 7 7 -)

Ea s t

iv e r s it y

THE BIOGRAPHICAL STUDY

-

-

in n in g s

nterlude

I

:

Mu

llness

-

Pa m p h l e t e e r vs

Trag

ic

Co m I

Tw e n t i e s

Am e r ic a n n ic h

Author

(1 929” )

m e r c ia l is m

rony:

Pr o s p e c t s Br emen -

and

The

The

-

...................................

at

V

De ­

il l a

Wo r k

............................................... L

it e r a t u r e

Ad v e n t

of

vs

H it l e r

Po l ­

VI

g.

La s t

Years

( l 9 3 3 * * ' 9 4 5 ) ...................................................................................

Re t i r e m e n t 11 9«

-

-

Fr ie n d s

Bo r c h a r d t

Ma n

the

We r k " -

Bo r c h a r d t ’ s 2.

-

Pe r s o n a l i t y

3

.

l+.

"De r Ma y

5.

Lis

by

t

of

s c r ip t iv e

L is t

L

is t

Expected Ar

Au t h o r s

t ic l e s

L

-

of

of

Lis

Wa r

94

Ch a r a c t e r

t

Ty

itera r y

of

the

p e s

P u blicatio ns

Ma

in

T

it l e s

of

...............................................

of

Works

by

Bor­

Wo r k s

by

Bo r c h a r d t ,

Be i n

g

a

IIS

in c lu d in g

....................................................................................................

in

I 03

......................................................................

Reviews

T itle s

Na c h l a s s " Be

Wo r l d

THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL STUDY

by

in c lu d in g

Al p h a b e t i c a l Poems

De

a

Wo r k

C hro n olo gical chardt,

Wo r k s -

.....................................................................

PART TWO:

"Da s

La s t

De a t h

Appearance

I.

-

8S

Co l l e c t i o n

of

Cl u e s

to

1

36

Wh a t

the

A rch iv esin

I t a l y ..................................11+6

about

Bo r c h a r d t ,

Al p h a b e t i c a l

by

...........................................................................................................................

15 4

APPENDIX "Prospect

B l B L IO G R A P H Y

zur

Bi b e l - A u s g a b e

der

Bremer

Presse"

. . .

159

162

P A R T

THE

O N E

B I O G R A P H I C A L

S T U D Y

INTRODUCTION

Th e r e

is

no

WORLD BUT THE L I P E 8 A ID ,

IS

h e r o ic

AT

OF A M AN;

THERE

18

A L80,

NO L I F E

F A IT H F U L L Y

RECO R DED,

IC

IT S

POEM OF

poem

in

the

BOTTOM A B IO G R A P H Y , IT

MAY BE

OF A M A N ,

BUT

18

A HERO­

80RT.

S i r Wa l t e r S c o t t .

To H IM S E L F

UNDERSTAND T H E WORK OF B O RC HAR DT, ONCE 8 P 0 K E

OF T H E STORY

OF H I S

ONE MUST KNOW T H E M A N .

L IF E

AS

WD I E

8AMMENBRUCHS DER D E U TS C H E N U e B E R L IE F E R U N G .. . UND D E 8 E lN Z E L N E N , len."

*

D IE 8 E

AU8

E v e r y t h in g

TH A T

IN

L08T

OR F O R G O T TE N . IT

GOT H IM

B IO G R A P H E R . IN

he

d id

was

And

E N L IS T E D IN T O

S T IL L ,

8 IN C E ,

support

of

t h is

D IF F IC U L T IE S

VeR SUCH ES E I N E 8 IN

8 IC H

cause:

HERZUSTEL-

to

restore

' 935 ). p .

AND W H IC H IN V I T E S

S O M E TIM E S

( im

U 8 TO 8T U D Y H I 8

A u ftra g e

FRE­

EMBARRASSE8 T H E

ONLY WORKS AND NOT T H E MAN B E H IN D

11

A RA TH ER

P A S 8 I0 N W H IC H

PR O JE C TE D A U TO B IO G R A P H Y HE D E P L 0 R E 8 TH E

im H a u s e , " S c h r i f t e n

32 .

HE WA8 F IG H T IN G

V IG O R AND P A S S IO N ,

BORCHARDT F A IR L Y

T H E P R E FA C E TO H I S

"D a s K in o

AS HE T H O U G H T,

ALL H I8

THEN CURRENT OF C O N S ID E R IN G

I.

in

Zu-

DE8

TH E GERMAN C U LT U R A L H E R IT A G E W H IC H WAS GOOD AND W H IC H HAD BEEN

LONE B A T T L E , Q U EN TLY

DEN TrSm M ER N ZU E R G R E IF E N UND

G e s C H IC H T E

He

L IF E ,

FOR

P R A C T IC E THEM,

vo n P e te r V o ig t ,

-

3 AS

IF

THE

HUMAN L I F E

MORE C O M P E L L IN G Th e

T IM E S

ME TO T H E IR Ge r m a n

poet

C O N S P IR A C Y ,

WERE NOT

BY T H E

C O N S P IR E D

to

fo rce

ON H I S Wi t

h

of

old

the

t r a d it io n

NOT

VERY

SHOULDER,

ED,

ASPECT

AS T H I S

EXCEPT

Bu t

I

the

H IS

fervo r

H IS

p r o je c te d

FOR 80 M E Na

A R E P R A C T IC A L L Y

is

apparent

he

w ould

that

They

ta k e

us

IN

I92J

through

"A u S

are

cause

Bu t

AND h is

,

d is m a y in g

IN

IN

1927?

T H E M flN C H E -

A

L E T T E R W H IC H FORMS T H E

H ugo v o n H o f m a n n s t h a l” r u a r y 1921+.

"0S TP R E U 88E N

o c c a s io n o f h i s

a re

TH E Y

T H E E r A N Q B -B r I E F ^

V A R IO U S

IN T R O D U C T IO N TO E r A N Q B .

on th e

and

S A T IR E .

U N IV E R S IT IE S ,

d e r A u t o b i o g r a p h i e , " N eue S c h w e iz e r R u n d s c h a u .

1 9 JANUARY

never w r it­

XX ( 1927 ) ,

UND B E R L I N , "

J u n e * 9 2 7 ; "Aus m e i n e r S c h u l z e i t , " I Ma r c h I9 2 S ; "D a s K i n d s e , " 2 7 J u n e 1 9 2 6 ; " I m Ha u s e u n d i n d e r F r e m d e , " 2 9 A u g u s t !{..

CAUSES

D E E P -S E A T ­

c h ild h o o d

.

Le b E N ,"

w it h

A C H IP

TH ER E ARE

1926

SOURCE FOR T H E EAR LY Y E A R 8 .

C O N T IN U A T IO N FOR THE YEARS S P E N T

M E IN E M

o e a l in g

NO Q U A R T E R .

GOOD HUMOR AND M IL O

EX H A U S TS T H E A U T O B IO G R A P H IC A L 8 0 U R C E S .

3.

we

h is

t h is

THAT

S T R U G G L E .^

w as u n f o r t u n a t e l y

AND T H A T

105 S - 10 6 1

a g a in s t

AND ALSO

80 M E OF THEM Q U IT E

THE

"Vom S in n

reduce

A CRUSADER W IT H

c h a m p io n

P R O V ID E S

2.

IT

THE

and

SHOW.

F R E Q U E N T L Y W IT H

OUR ONLY

me

fo ug ht

D ID

AND S U P P O R T E R S .

a u to b io g r a p h y

. 3

I

8AME T IM E

CH APTERS P U B L IS H E D

c h r ic h t e n

C H A R M IN G L Y W R IT T E N ,

18 MADE EVEN

A GERMAN AND A

A D V E R S A R IE S AND G IV I N G

F R IE N D S

D IS S E R T A T IO N W IL L

n e r Ne u e b t e n

it

AND AT T H E

C H A L L E N G IN G

EVEN

reso lutely

NATURE COULD S U R V IV E

above

S E N S I T IV E

upon

S P IR IT U A L L Y

SHOW HOW

OF B O R C H A R D T 's C H A R A C TE R ,

B o r c h a r d t *8 te n ,

of

p a t h o l o g ic a l

IN F R E Q U E N T L Y

FO R T H I S

.

AND MY A U TO B IO G R A P H Y W IL L

to ne

IN V IT A T IO N

c o r r u p t io n

TO K EEP ME FROM B EC O M ING

IS

alm ost

t h e ir

LEVEL.

the

A MAN WHO

T H IS

FO LLO W IN G S E N T E N C E I

ONLY A P A 8 S IO N A T E AND E R R IN G F rom

IM P O R T A N T .

A

5 0 th

15

Ha u 1926.

im

" F E 8 T S C H R IF T

b ir t h d a y ,

f

8

r

I Feb­

EARLY YEARS ( I S 7 7 - )

B ir t h -

Ea s t P r u s s i a - A n t e c e d e n t s Ea r l y E d u c a t io n

Ru d o l f Bo r c h a r d t Pr u s s i a ,

w h il e

h is

w as

m other

born

was

on

J u n e 9»

on a

v is it

WHERE HER HUSBAND WAS A T E A MERCHANT BERG F IR M 8 ,

80 M E

OF THEM B E L O N G IN G

HE WAS W H IS K E D AWAY TO MoSCOW , moved

to

-

know n

TH A T

B IT T E R

a

was

l it e r a l l y

He

ho m eto w n. *

also

HE FOUNO OUT ABOUT H I S

AND T H A T

U N T IL

IS 7 7 » of

in

the

HE D IS C O V E R E D

DAYS.

W haT

HOME AND F A M IL Y

ho m elan d

1. 2.

fr o m

Mo s c o w ,

B E H A L F OF A NUMBER OF KJJn I G S -

R E L A T IV E S . A FEW Y EA R S

IS

L IF E .

H IS M O R E,

correct

revealed

-

w hen

SOON A FTER H IS

IN F L U E N C E ON H IS

and

s a id

t h is

is

that

q u it e

HOMELAND ONLY A T A R E L A T IV E L Y

F A T H E R L A N D FOR H IM S E L F HE DOES

NOT E V E N C L A IM

he

had

b id

.

nev­

s ig n if ic a n t

LATE

DATE

ONLY A FTER M ATURE AND TO HAVE KNOWN A REAL

He H A 8 NO R E C O L L E C T IO N OF H I S EA R LY Y E A R 8 , AND

LATER

HAS HAD NO A P P R E C IA ­

D E V E L O P M E N T .^

"Aus m e 1nem L e b e n , " M A n c h e n e r N e u e s te N a c h r ic h t e k . ( h e n c e f o r t h r e d t o a s MNISI) . 19 J a n u a r y 19 2 7 . I

B IR T H

L A T E R THE WHOLE F A M IL Y

he

W HATEVER HE LEARNED AB OUT THEM L A T E R FROM HEA RSAY BLE

KS n ig s b e r g , E a s t

Be r l i n .

T h u s Bo r c h a r d t er

TO

IN

Ch il d h o o d -

re fe r­

NEVER TH ELE88,

HE

S P E A K 8 VERY

LEN G TH ON H I S

G E N E A LO G Y .

8TA TE

TH E V A 8 T

A G A IN S T

THE L A N D ,

L IV IN G

Ea

w as

.

It

F IX E D

FOR

st

BY

the

IT S

8HOULD

G REAT

Bu t S IA

WA8 A L 8 0

A G A IN 8 T

T EA B U 8 IN E S 8 G IN S -

IT

A B R ID G E

FA TH ER WHO HAD

PROUD VANGUARD

ID IO M

T ID E

and

FROM T H E

th r o u g h

it

D E F IA N T

He A L 8 0 C L A IM E D FO R T H I S IN

GERMANY -

AND R A C E S ,

8 P IR IT

them

OF TH E GERMAN LA N G U A G E .

IN T E L L E C T U A L K E E N N E S 8 AND

U N IQ U E

IN

OF

IT 8

8 0 C IA L

A R E S U LT O F T H E

OF QUEEN L u l S E . IN

V IE W

IN F L U E N C E

THAT

OF T H E

T H IS LATER

RE­

AS A J e w .

IT 8 E L F

ON I T S

PURE G e RMAN C H A R A C TER ,

BETW EEN ENGLAND AND R U 8 8 IA ,

IT

W H IL E

800N

TOOK O V E R ,

PRU S­

TRAD E EXPA N O E D C EN TER

B U 8 IN E S 8 HAD 80MEW HAT

OUT O F THE BORDER 8M U G G LIN G H0U8ES

IT 8

MANAGED TO BECOME TH E T H IS

Ea 8 T

NOT ONLY C U L T U R A L L Y ,

I n TH E E IG H T E E N F O R T IE S

O F G ER M A N Y.

R E S P E C T A B L E J E W IS H

He r d e r

and

UN DERSTANDABLE

A SHORT T IM E

DEVELOPED

Ha m a n n ,

H IS

TH E

THE C U LTU R A L

BACKGROUND.

AND T H E

H IM

P R ID IN G

W lT H I N

,

D E N O M IN A T IO N S ,

IS

P R U S S IA ^ AND D W E L L8 AT

A 8 GERMAN AS ANY P R O V IN C E

STEM M IN G

F U S IO N -

BUT C O M M E R C IA L L Y A 8 W E L L . GREATLY.

nt

P R U S S IA N

U N I V E R S IT Y

W H IL E

IN

D E R IV E D

A P P E A L TO BORCHARDT

C R IM IN A T IO N S

COLOSSUS,

T H E C U LT U R A L

A H A PPY

R E L IG IO U S

Ka

of

HAVE

E A ST

EA STER N P R O V IN C E

OF

W IT 8

H A L F A C EN TU R Y

FROM H I S

CLASSES,

IT S

OF E A 8 T

P R U S S IA WA8 TO H IM

S L A V IC

land

BOROHARDT MAY W ELL S P IR IT

Ea 8 T

H IG H L Y

OF P O L IS H J

OF THE

8H A 0Y

O R I­

e WB

MORE

-

AMONG THEM B O R C H A R D T * 8

GRAND­

COME FROM T H E HOME OF A 8 E A M ERC HAN T.

Gr a n d f a t h e r

Ru d o l f **

was

a

l iv e l y

,

though

d e l ic a t e

man,

respected

I AND T I T L E D .

Hib

MEANS WERE M 0 D E 8 T ,

HOWEVER,

COMPANY AND U L T IM A T E L Y

MADE K flN I6 8 B E R G



iB ifij.;

und

1 |.

"08TP R E U S 8E N

"O s t p r e u s s e n

Be

UND B E R L I N , "

r l in

, ”

HE FOUNDED H I S

TH E TEA EXCHANGE OF E U R O P E .

MNN.

MNN. 15

U N T IL

JU N E

15 J u n e

1927*

>927•

TEA H |g

6

IN T E R E S T S LO N ,

SPREAD,

V IA

MOSCOW TO C H IN A

AND V I A

A C O M M ER C IA L E M P IR E HELD TOGETHER W IT H T H E H E L P

TEr ' s

8 0 N -IN -L A W .

H e M A R R IED H IS

CU LTUR ED L A D Y . BY M A K IN G

OF H I S SHE,

W ID O W E D ,

S IO N

on

ever

,

Le

D E C L IN E .

w it h

L IK E

Sq u a r e

the

nature

,

IN K L IN G

So

IN

OF H I 8

T W E N T Y - F IV E ,

.

,

w here

of

the

IN

TOO,

he

v is it e d

E L IT E

EA R LY EDUCA­

TO H I M .

D E S C R IB E S ERA her

OF

WAS A H IG H L Y

OUR P O E T 'S

OF AN O TH ER

the

fo under

f a m il y

and

and

the

IN

I

n

ONE

HER WHEN

AN

OLD MAN­ Sunday

every

b u s in e s s

fo rtune

traveler

OF H IS

,

dreamer,

a

he

had

F A M IL Y

,

half

after

T H IS

S ID E

ORDER TO DEVOTE H IM 8 E L F

a

to

U N S E N T IM E N T A L ,

to

the

e x p e r ie n c e d

an

eventual

RUDOLF THAT HE WAS

H IS

TO T H E

RARE

A DUAL P E R S O N A L I­ ,

yo uthful

half

po et

f l in g

,

H I8

NA TU R E W IT H

a

off

GREAT TEA

C H IL D R E N KNEW H IM B U S IN E S S

O C C A S IO N S ,

INW ARD LY C H A F IN G BOTTOM OF H I S

,

cast

ALM O ST D E T E S T E D

D O M IN E E R IN G

FORMER S E L F ONLY ON V ER Y

son,

w ent

scho lar

OF

TURNABOUT T H A T

AND T H A T THAT WAS AT THE

IR R IT A B IL IT Y .

6

r l in

CO M PLETE WAS T H IS

S E N S I T IV E

POSED R U LE

"Aus

Be

s e n t im e n t a l

ONLY AS A C A L C U L A T IN G ,

5.

in

i i ow cv c r t

URGENT B E H E S T

B U S IN E S S .

T O TH E

W IF E ,

NEW HEAD OF THE F A M IL Y ^ WAS A MAN W IT H

reader

D E T E R M IN A T IO N ,

AN

A DOWAGER QUEEN

p a s s in g

father

Th e

v o r a c io u s

A T THE

OF A SON AND T H E T L A T -

EA ST P R U S S IA N BACKGROUND M E A N IN G F U L

L IV E D

AND C e Y -

RESPECT8.

Iw h e n

By

WAS SHE WHO TOOK A HAND

H IS

ip z ig

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

TY.

H is

A U T O B IO G R A P H IC A L E S S A Y S ^ BORCHARDT L O V IN G L Y

PAY H I S Ho w

It

IN D IA

DA UG HTERS O F F TO T H E S O C IA L

T H E LAND AND BECAME A ROYAL C O UN SELLO R.

T IO N

LONDON TO

MAN WHO GAVE I N D IC A T IN G

UNDER H I 8

S E L F -IM ­

U SU A L G R U FFN E S S AND

H e WAS ALREADY M A R R IE D WHEN HE TOO K O VER T H E B U S IN E S S A CIR C U M STA N C E W HICH

m e in e m

Leben, "

" 0 8 T P R E U S 8 E N UND

MNN.

IM PO SED

19 J a n u a r y

F U R T H E R R E 8 T R A IN T UPO N H I M .

1927*

BERLIN," MNN. I 5 JuNE 19S7»

AT

Soon c h ild r e n c o m p le te . a l

T IE S

chardt

a r r iv e d ,

Then

W IT H f a m il y

it

w as

and

h is

c o n fin e m e n t

th e

m o th e r w ho

to

c o n tin u e d

THE C O M M U N IT Y ,

AS HAD SO O FT E N

.

r n s t e in

,

father

tur ned

Sh e

w as

Be

a

b u s in e s s

l ik e

to

w as w e l l- n i g h

m a in ta in

th e

BEEN TH E CASE

IN

Jew

is h

her

husband

c u ltu r ­

BoR-

THE ,

blond

,

AND B L U E -E Y E D . In LEFT in

Be

Be

r l in

,

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

NO TH IN G

TO BE D E S IR E D ,

r l in

meant

he

OF W R IT IN G

A

8C H E M IN G H IS

off

R E L A T IV E

BEFORE T H E P U R S U IT

C O N T R IV E D

As

IS

S P IR IT E D

CAM E,

PARENT,

RU DO LF.

TO KNUCKLE U N D E R .

THER,

THAT

T R A IT H IS

H IS

to

h is

in c o m e

IT S

IR O N Y ,

h is

f ir s t

FOR lo ve

T H A T BY P U T T IN G

OF H A P P IN E S S ,

L IF E

B U S I­

HAD 8 0 L D

H IM

8U C H

OUT OF H I 8

FORTUNE AND R U IN

C A SE8,

C H IL D R E N SU F F E R E D

THE

H IS

THE

8 E N S IT IV E

ODDS W IT H

O B S T IN A C Y

IN

AND AT THE

H IS

FATHER,

R E F U S IN G

SUF­

STEA D ­

So S E V E R E WAS T H E VERY E X P R E S S IO N OF T H E FA­

F A M IL Y T R A D IT IO N

TH E H O U SE,

return

P E R S I8 T E D

H e WAS ALW AY8 A T

FASTLY

f ir s t

AND T H E P U L L OF SUCCESS HAD BE­

E S P E C IA L L Y

EVEN CORPORAL P U N IS H M E N T FOR

At

FOR SOON AFTERW ARD AN A V A R I C l 0 U 8 ,

IN

F E R IN G

.

NOT W IT H O U T

and

TO C H EAT H IM

NOT U N U 8U A L

FROM THE C H A G R IN OF TH E SAME T IM E

money

B u t H A B IT

SECOND CHANCE N E V E R

B U S IN E S S .

h is

AND M ERELY T H E F E E L IN G

C O N S ID E R A T IO N S

SHO RT.

l iv e

A C IR C U M S T A N C E

AND S C H O L A R S H IP .

COME TOO STRO NG , NESS

to

banker

A T T E N T IO N

HAD

WAS 8 0

OF THE FATHER T H A T

IT

TH A T

ONCE,

ARRESTED

HE TURN ED

IT

WHEN A BURGLAR ENTERED

BY T H E

TO

8T E R N N E S 8

THE WALL

IN

THE

POR­

BEFORE G O IN G ABOUT

B U S IN E S S . S till,

p e c t!

th e ir

TO W R IT E , LETTERS,

B o rc h a rd t

and

fa th e r

w e re

LO VE FOR PO ETRY AND B O O K 8.

HE WAS

IN

H IS

ELEM ENT.

AND CRAMMED THE

MADE v e r s e s .

h is

P u s h k in

and

a k in

in

WHEN H I 8

one

B y ro n w e re

s te a d y

im p o r ta n t

as­

F A T H E R HAD 8 0 M E T H IN G

He K E P T D I A R I E S ,

BACKS OF D E D IC A T O R Y

a

WROTE IN T E R M IN A B L E

P 0 R T R A IT 8 c o m p a n io n s

F U L L W IT H on h is

HOME­

tr a v e ls ,

8

AND HE WOULD TAKE T IM E OUT BETWEEN BU8INES8 APP0INTMENT8 TO TRAN8LATE ONE OF T H E IR P0EM8.

I n FAC T,

IN 8 P IT E OF TH EIR 0 1FFERENCE8*

BORCHARDT

NEVER CEASED BEING PROUD OF H IS FATHER, AND ONCE, WHILE CLOSELY OBSERV­ ING THE SLEEP ING MAN,

HE CONFESSED TO HIMSELF THAT THE HANDSOME,

ED FACE WA8, AFTER A L L , Ab o u t

h is

There

is

NAME.

talk

Of

OR S i x "

of

s is t e r s

Bo r c h a r d t

a n t a g o n is m

the

,

but

Ro b e r t

h is

a

g efallen

w as

father

in

has

r l in

The

to

the

father

No r t h e r n

w ould

be

Rh

aw ay

in e l a n d

on

,

not

b u s in e s s

MADE FOR A NORMAL FA M ILY L IF E ? AND DEC I 8 1 0N8 COSTLY

h is

Be

r l in

home

to

Wa n n s e e

t

m e in e r

"G r

a b s c h r if t

and

Me r

m ib c h t e

,

also

of

m onths

v a c a t io n s

at

a

t im e

th u s

,

to

the

w h ic h

YEARS LATER,

sea

.

hardly

BORCHARDT 8PEAK8

:

DU B I S T

J ugend

ES, T R A U E R H A U S .. .

halbverhangne

BO h n e ,

ICH VON KEINEM L |E B L IC H E 8 EMPFANGEN, n ie m a n d

u n g e k r An k t

Da

Un r e c h t

Al l e

r l in

that

I n A TOUCHING POEM,

Da

(B e

.

FROM KfliMIGSBERG TO MOSCOW TO

Da

S e P IC H T E

IS

!

carefree

Da RAUF MIR N IE E lN LEICHTER ScHRITT GEGl Oc KT;

7*

by

AN ENGINEER,

happy

m e n t io n e d

speak

fo r

m e n t io n e d

IT A L 8 0 CAUSED THE FAM ILY TO MAKE MOVES

KENNE D I C H ,

Ic H B is

than

IN TERMS OF HUMAN HAPPINESS.

in

He

IN THE F lR S T WORLD

e n t it l e d

been

WRITTEN ON THE OCCASION OF A RETURN V I S IT of

.

Le m b e r g . "7

less

already

is

P h IU P P ,

poem

vor

somew hat

Els e

only

ERN8T AND ROBERT FELL

c h il d h o o d

to

vague

plural

in

JO n g e r e ,

der

unusually

,

THERE WERE FREQUENT CHANGES OF RESIDENCE, Be

is

"MOST OF THEM YOUNGER THAN H IM S E L F ."

com m em orates

Bo r c h a r d t ' 8 His

Bo r c h a r d t

s is t e r s

OF THEM,

NEAR MUNICH.

Bo r c h a r d t

Ro b e r t

and

BROTHERS THERE WERE AT LEAST THREE.

S T IL L L IV IN G Wa r .

MORE M ILD THAN STERN.

bro thers

SPEAKS OF " f i v e

BEARD­

,

r

,

t

I

von

t ig

1 9 2 1 ).),

m ir

und

p.

gegangen,

g e d u ld e *»

97.

S lC H AUF M EIN Ha UPT ERWACH8END Ob ERTRUG.® "D a

n ie m a n d

p o l e m ic a l

u n g e k r JIn k t

w r it in g s

of

BETTER OR FOR WORSE -

the

vo n m i r

later

gegangen.

Bo r c h a r d t .1

. . . "

We

How

also

p r o p h e t ic

learn

AND BORCHARDT THINKS FOR BETTER -

that,

of

the

for

HE DREW A LES­

SON FOR L IF E FROM T H I8 EARLY HOME nDRAU8 UNSElGENSUCHT V E R T R IE B !"^ Wa 8 JE M IR WAR, M IR STEHT ES ZU Ge W INN. NoCH 1ST M IR NICHTS UMSONST GE8CHEHEN. ®

I n h is

r e c o b le c tio n s

o f e a r ly

c h ild h o o d ,* *

B o rc h a rd t sees

in s te a d

OF LOVING PARENTS ONLY INDIFFERENT P A ID SERVANTS AND GOVERNESSES,

IN ­

STEAD OF ATTRACTIVE HOUSES WITH PLAYGROUNDS AND GARDENS ONLY IMPERSON­ A L , THOUGH LUXURIOUS APARTMENT8 IN HUGE, SPRAWLED THE UNFRIENDLY METROPOLIS,

COLD BLOCKS.

A nd A LL AROUND

SURROUNDED IN TURN BY THE POOR SAN­

DY S O IL AND UNIMPOSING LANDSCAPE OF BRANDENBURG.

S o IT WAS Q U IT E NAT­

URAL

THAT

HI 8 F IR 8 T VACATION T R IP TO THE 8EA NEAR K0NIGSBERG SHOULD

HAVE

MADE

AN UNFORGETTABLE IMPRES8ION ON H IM . F o r THE F IR S T T IM E A

LANDSCAPE ATTRACTED H IM WITH A STRANGE M YSTICAL AND AWESOME F E E LIN G , AND A GOVERNE88 RELATES THAT ON THAT OCCASION, CAME OUT FOR THE F IR S T T IM E , SEA AND CONJURE THE WAVES. W IDE-O PEN ,

TOO,

THE ORATOR IN HIM

WHEN HE TR IED TO DROWN OUT THE ROAR OF THE B y VIRTUE OF THE GREAT C0NTRA8T OF T H IS

ELEMENTAL SEASCAPE WITH IT S ROCKY SHORE AND H IG H ,

C L IF F S TO GLOOMY B E R L IN , HIGH ROMANCE.

CRAGGY

HE ENDOWED IT WITH ALL THE CHARM AND MAGIC OF

He RE Uh L A N D ' s BALLADS CAME TO L IF E AND PRINCESSES WERE

RE8CUED FROM SORCERERS IN LOFTY, MANY-TOWERED CASTLES} HERE T H E T I8 ,

S.

"Wa n n s e e , " Ve r m ib c h t e Qe d i c h t e

9.

I

10 .

b ip j

(B e r

l in

,

I9 2 i|) ,

.

Ib id .

11. "Aus

m e in e m

L e b e n , " MNN.

19 J a n u a r y >927»

p.

79.

A-

C H IL L E S g a in

.

AND N e r e US WERE AT

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

L IN E S

HOME,

e d u c a t io n ,

L IV IN G

THE 8 T 0R Y

observe,

we

had

O F TRO Y A L L

W H IC H WERE TO R E M A IN TH E SAME THROUGHOUT H I S

D E E P E N IN G

As

IN

is

THE COURSE OF T IM E

often

Bo r c h a r d t ' s ,

the

the

case

fo rm al

and

WHOLE L I F E ,

a lo n g

ONLY

ANO 8 T U D Y .

w e l l - t o - do

in

begun,

alr ead y

OVER A -

e d u c a t io n

of

men's

b u s in e s s

the

c h il d r e n

w as

,

f a m il ie s

preceded

so

by

in

years

Ip OF T U T O R IN G PO ET

AND P A R EN TA L S U P E R V IS IO N *

COULD SPEAK R U S S IA N AND FRENCH

By

BEFO RE HE LE A R N E D G ERM AN.

THROUGH L E A R N IN G GERMAN HE FORGOT H I S

French . His

He

f ir s t

Ba l l a d f n

w as

ear ly

f a v o r it e s

uno

able

were

Ro m a n z e n .

OF M 0 8 T

C A 8E

A W AY,

IS

THAT,

IN

H e WAS THE F IR S T FROM A H IR E D HE R E L A T E S W IT H

TUTOR.

SOME

YOUNG P E O P L E ,

S H IN Y FLOORS

SH0E8,

I

n

p ic t u r e s

W H IL E

h im s e l f

TH E HOUSE WAS G ARDEN,

m e in e m

Ev e n

C H A P T E R *3

in

a

fresh

P IC T U R E S ,

of

OF H I S books.

of

c o llec to r' s

poetry.

R E C E IV E 0F

IT S

IN

co llar ,

B IG

IN

Th e s e B O R C H A R D T*8

II

YEAR

A U TO B IO G R A PH Y IS 8 5

V A C A T IO N new t i e

H 0U 8E

PLACE

8P E N T IN

,

CRANZ,

and

OVER P O L IS H E D

M O U N T A IN ,

OCCUPANTS WERE NOT O V E R L Y

19 J a n u a r y

H I3

IN S T R U C T IO N

WOOD C A R V IN G ,

ENC HAN TED F O R E S T ,

BOOKS TOOK A SECOND

L e b e n , " MNN.

. 7- 5 1*

TO

T H E F A M IL Y WA8

THE

13. "D a s K in d im H a u s e , " S c h r i f t e n pp

a w o rld

unknow n

OF A SUMMER MONTH OF T H E

P A N E L IN G .

GRAND AS T H E HOUSE W AS,

an

antho lo g y

ROAM ING THROUGH TH E ROOMS OF T H E

AND P A R A D I8 E TO H I M .

in

THEN,

AND M 0 8 T

BUT THE D IF F E R E N C E

A RATHER A M U 8 IN G

U T T E R F A S C IN A T IO N W IT H

1935).

l iv e d

OF T H E BORCHARDT C H IL D R E N

IN

12. "Aus

soon

E N T IR E L Y

OUR

HE NEVER OUTGREW T H E M .

IM P R E S S IO N S

He

and

Ec h t e r m e ie r ' s

TU TO R S AND A G 0 V E R N E 8 S ,

E a s t Pr u s s i a .

reao

R U S 8 IA N

Gu s t a v S c h w a b ' s S a g e n .

and

MAY BE F A V O R IT E 8

to

FOR CE O F C IR C U M S T A N C E ,

AND FANCY PALACE,

S 0 M E T IM E 8 .

Bu

A u ftra g e

,

S Y M P A T H E T IC W IT H

1927*

( im

t

v o n P e te r V o ig t,

c h il d r e n

.

Th e r e

w as

M r.

Sc

hulz

,

a

ta ll

young

man

,

more

student

than

To YOUNG RUDOLF HI 8

TEACHER, LOOKING AND LAUGHING MUCH L IK E A HORSE.

CHIEF VIRTUE WA8 THAT HE SLEPT MUCH AND NEGLECTED H IS D U TIE S .

T H I8 EN­

ABLED THE BOY TO PURSUE H IS FLIG H TS OF FANCY UNDI8TURBED AND GET AWAY WITH PRETTY SLOPPY HOMEWORK. CHEN,

THE GOVERNESS,

On c e ScHULZ CAME HOME DRUNK, AND J u S T IN -

CONSCIENTIOUSLY REPORTED THE FACT TO THE VACATION­

ING FATHER IN CRANZ.

A s A RESULT,

BOTH ScHULZ AND JuSTINCHEN WERE

F IR E D , WHILE RUDOLF WAS PUT IN THE CARE OF THE OLDER AND MUCH MORE D IS ­ AGREEABLE Mr .

Ha l b h e r r ,

FROM D IC KE N 8, S p ITZWEG, Th e n

there

was

A CARICATURE OF A TEACHER SUCH AS WE KNOW HIM AND JEAN Pa U L,

the

t im id

Mr .

Schauer ,

AND A SERGEANT ADM INISTERED LE3S0NS HEALTHY AND W IRY,

ONLY MUCH LESS AM IABLE. who

taug ht

the

IN PHYSICAL T R A IN IN G .

RUDOLF WAS NOT OVERLY STRONG.

three

R 's ,

Bu t W HILE

THE B IG C IT Y ATMOS­

PHERE AND H IS PR E D ILEC TIO N FOR B00K8 HAD NIPPED ANY PHYSICAL PROWESS IN THE BUD,

AND H IS FATHER *8 EFFORTS AT BEING AN EXAMPLE TO HIM ON THE

GYMNAST IC 8 EQUIPMENT WERE IN V A IN .

HOWEVER, HE D ID SHINE WITH H IS MEM­

ORY AND WAS OFTEN CALLED UPON TO RECITE FROM A SIZE AB LE REPERTOIRE OF

H is PRECOCI0U8NESS THERE

POEMS WHENEVER V IS IT O R S WERE IN THE HOUSE. COMPENSATED SOMEWHAT FOR H IS SHORTCOMINGS

IN H IS FATH ER 'S EYE8 AND

HELPED TO RELAX OCCASIONALLY THE OTHERWISE S TR IC T OBSERVANCE OF FIXE D RULE8 AND SOFTENED THE HARSH Y e s 1 AND N o's WHEREBY THE FAM ILY WAS GOV­ ERNED, A RIGIDNESS WHICH WA8 CARRIED OVER EVEN INTO THE R ELIG IO U8 L IF E . B o r c h a r d t *8

father

was

a

devout

protestant

and

h is

f a m il y

was

held

to

IT S PRAYERS. A FEW MONTHS AFTER H IS EIGHTH BIRTH D AY, READY FOR THE FRENCH Gy MNA8IUM,

RUDOLF WAS CONSIDERED

EVEN THOUGH HE HIM SELF FELT THAT H IS

PREPARATION WA8 INADEQUATE ANO ON E-SIDED AT B E 6 T .

He KNEW H I8 LEGEN08,

F A IR Y

TALESi

H IS T O R Y ,

AD VEN TU R E

AND HE COULD

MATES AND F R IE N D S N O IS Y

TO

GROUP OF 8 I X T Y

H E N S IO N . P U B L IC

O f CO UR SE,

SCHOOLS

IN

KNOW T H A T T H E N ,

S T R IC T ,

AS

teachers

IN

BOYS,

faculty

BUT T H A T WAS A L L . FOR T H E L I F E

EA ST

LATER

the

P R U S S IA ,

L IF E ,

p u b l ic

W IT H

A B O IS T E R O U S AND H IM W IT H

APPRE­

AND THE R H IN E L A N D ,

HE WAS O FT E N A L O N E ,

scho ols

of

IN

tho se

IN

BUT WE ALSO

S P IR IT

AND

w ere

AND A B I L I T I E S

few

,

and

and

OF T H E

fo stered

days

w ere

played

dow n,

GROWING C H IL D

scho larly

and

h e r it a g e

of

c o n s id

WAS THERE

the

,

I DEALS.

AND UNCHANG ING WAS T A U G H T . the

IN

AND C O M PR O M ISE.

H U M A N ISM AND T H E C L A S S IC S WERE T H E IR

present

guarded

He HAD HAD NO P LA Y­

FRENC H G YM NASIUM AND SEVER A L OTHER

ONLY T H A T W H IC H WAS T IM E L E S 8 ,

AND POPULAR GERMAN

THE PR O SPEC T O F W H IC H F IL L E D

HE W ENT TO TH E

l iv in g

NEEDS

l iv e d

B lB L E .

He N EVER LEARN ED TO G IV E

in

the

FOR TH E

HARDLY A N Y . The

to

C H IL D R E N 'S

P R E P A R E H IM

AND C O N S C IE N T IO U S .

Re f e r e n c e s e r a t io n

R E C IT E ,

B E R L IN ,

THE STANDS HE TO O K . The

S T O R IE S .

past

.

­

UNIVERSITY LIFE

B e r lin

1895 -

1 896 -

Bonn

H o fm a n n s th a l -

Bo r c h a r d t seem ed

to

R E A O IN G Gr im m

be

able

OF H I S

gave

P H IL O L O G Y

m a t r ic u l a t e d

h is

to

capture

w o r ld 's

o th e r

p u r s u it s

S a n s c r it

on

h is

g re a t w r ite r s

h im

,

Mo m m s e n

p e t it e

and

ON H I M .

Cu

r t iu s

FOR L E A R N IN G

Bu t

I.

IM P R E 8 S IO N

Gr e a t

although

p h il o l o g is t

who

n

BOTH R E 8 P E C T 6

and

re a d

L IF E .

and

he

.

Cl a

BE

IN S A T IA B L E .

fo ug ht

good

a g a in s t

and

BORCHARDT WA3 H I S

s s ic a l

and

in

o r ie n t a l

IN D E E D T H A T

Rom an a n d

w as

b it

IN

H IM

that

be a

s te a d y

ANO ALSO U P S E T

a t t e n t io n

save

b a r b a r is m

to

ON T H E OTHER H A N D ,

of

OF T H E M lN N E S O N G ,

OF TH E R E N A IS S A N C E

refuge

th e

fo r

A F R IE N D

sought

G re e k C ic e r o

fact

professo r

IT A L IA N ,

in

the

no

He 8 T U D IE D E N G L IS H ,

MODERN W R IT E R 8 ,

a

-

OF W lL H E L M SCHERER AND HERMANN

SCHOPENHAUER E N T E R T A IN E D

came

Ita ly

f ir s t

AND P E O P LE THOUGHT

v o r a c 1o u s L Y .

a p p r e c ia t e d

MODERN L IT E R A T U R E . I

own,

SEEMEO TO

he

O V E R -E S T IM A T IO N

LOVE,

At

d ir e c t io n

A 8 E C 0 N 0 W lL A M O W IT Z .

CO M PAN IO N THROUGH H A L F H I 8 MADE NO

im a g in a t io n

in t e l l e c t u a l

F IR S T

1898 -

S c h rS o e r

1895*

in

T h e W R IT IN G S

TH E Y WOULD SOON 8E E and

h is

r l in

OWN C H O IC E .

BECAME H I S

A r a b ic ,

Be

in

G J J ttin g e n

G e o rg e -

in

fo r

the

.

Ko n r a d

His

ap­

Bu r d a c h *

lang uag e

of

HE WARNED A G A IN 8 T

A T TH E E X P E N 8E

OF T H E

DEVO TED FO LLO W ER.

M | DOLE

THE AG E8.

Wil h

and

PRETTY

D il

elm

's

t h e y

MUCH TO H I S

p h il o s o p h ic a l

OWN D E V IC E S ,

T H E WORLD AROUND H I M . AND,

HE D IS C E R N E D ,

The

OUT OF TH E P E O P LE

SURE,

WAS A D M IR E D

S IN C E

THE

IT .

In

IT

IN

AND

IN T E R P R E T A T IO N ,

T H E W O R LD ,

IT S

STUDENT8

TH E U N IT Y

T A IN E D

IN

NEEDED

R E V IT A L IZ A T IO N

T IR E L Y

TOO FEW P E O P L E .

D e c e iv e d

tu ra l

D E C L IN E .

by

THE

C R E A T IN G

IN

ROLE

S lig h tly

2.

His

t o r ia n

c is m posed

(

e

IN E

P A ID

IN

THE

HOMAGE,

w e re

Ro m

AND

T H E E N L IG H T E N E D , th e y

AND -

s ig n s

shut

th e ir

a n t ic

PO ETRY. AND

decay.

p h il o s o p h y

E r K E N N T N IS T H E O R IE

IT

M A IN ­

BOOK T R A D E ,

IT

REACHED EN­

IN

THE

LEAST

eyes

to

MONAR­ th e

TO T H E CLASSR O O M ,

At

c u l­

REDUCED

IT

,

so

over

in

le a s t

fo under

of

SCH O O L.

GoE-

T H A T HE HAD

1870.

The

ONE TA LK EO

O ne W ATCHED T H E

changed

and

AFTER

IN S T E A D

DER W |S S E N 8 C H A F T E n )

T H E H IS T O R IC A L - P H IL O L O G IC A L

OF

GUARANTEED

T H E CLEAR U N D E R S T A N D IN G

B o rc h a rd t

ONE

ENCROACHED MORE AND MORE ON T H E

PROCESS, of

BE

C O L L E C T IN G ,

S E M I-D E M O C R A T IC

O F PO ETR Y BECAME A LO ST A R T ; A B O U T

TO

C O N T IN U A T IO N

AND TH E

T H E MASSES WERE NOT

W IT H

SYSTEM,

CU LTUR AL T R A D IT I O N ,

n 6 R E A T N E S 8 H OF GERMANY A C H IE V E D

b e w ild e r e d ,

of

W AS,

GROWN O R G A N I­

S Y S T E M A T IC

FROM S T A G N A T IN G

p r o s p e r ity ,

A N A L Y Z E D T H E C R E A T IV E th e re

IT

IT

R ESEA RCH ,

T H IS

h im

HAD NO H IS T O R Y ,

A D IR E C T

TH E T H E A T E R ,

N A TU R A L S C IE N C E 8

AND R E A D IN G

E v e ry w h e re

But

left

ONLY H U M A N IS T IC

AND P H IL O S O P H Y ,

G Y M N A 8 IU M ,

As

AND READ A GREAT DEA L W ORK,

FACT,

S C H IL L E R WAS R ELEG ATED E N T IR E L Y

P A T R O N IZ IN G L Y

NOT B E L IE V E D

IN

e c o n o m ic

The

OLD C U R R IC U L U M ,

G REECE A N D ,

TO K E E P

PLA Y T H E IR

CHY.

WAS T H E

OF L I F E .

TH E U N IV E R S IT Y ,

E D U C A T IO N A L

IT

PO ETR Y,

I S 7 •»

HAD NOT R E A LL Y

IT S

C R E A T IV E N E S S ,

iv e r s it y

L O S T WHEN HE AWOKE TO

S IN C E

M U S IC ,

Un

the

DATED FROM *T

AS A N A T IO N .

WAS E M B O D IE D

PREPA RED TO

NEW E M P IR E

OF A N C IE N T

^

HE WAS A L IT T L E

WROTE A WRONG O N E .

CA LLY

DA Y8

s e m in a r

PO ET AT

TO A T E C H N IQ U E . th o u g h t th e

a

next

school w h ic h

at

B o rc h a rd t. year

of

to

c r it i­

t im e s

op­

'5

Bo n n ,

w here,

at

the

hands

or

BA c h e l e r

Us e n e r ,

and

LAs c h e k e

J u s t i,

and

He MUST HAVE BEEN A PRECO­

HE WAS TO EXPERIENCE A GREATER D IS C IP L IN E .

CIOUS STUDENT, FOR HE NOT ONLY ABSORBED, BUT ALREADY CONTRIBUTED TO THE STUDY OF L IT E R A T U R E .5

Y e T ALWAYS THERE WAS THE STARK PRESENT WITH

CONFUSING ISSUES OBSCURING BORCHARDT'8

GOAL, -

IT S

U N T IL THERE BLAZED UPON

HIM THE REVELATION OF THE A e LTESTE Ur KUNPE DE8 Me NBCHENGEBCHLECHTEB BY Johann

G o ttfr ie d

In it

H e r d e r .

he

fo u n d

h im s e lf.

H is

life

FAR APPEARED TO HIM L IK E A JOURNEY THROUGH A DARK 8T0RMY N IG H T , IN THE E R A N O S -B R IE ri AND -

so

HE 8AY8

NOW HE FELT A GREAT WEIGHT COME OFF H IS SH0ULDER8,

H IS M IS 8 I0 N DAWNED UPON HIM .' Bu t

no

sooner

had

h is

thoughts

begun

to

c r y s t a l l iz e

,

w hen

there

CAME WITH AS MUCH R E L IE F AS WITH A 8HOCK THE 8EC0ND D E C IS IV E REVELA­ T IO N , -

THE DISCOVERY OF THE WORKS OF

H O F M A N N S T H A L .

A SHOCK

FOR IN THEM HE SAW THE F IR S T V IS IO N OF H IS DE8IGN ALREADY F U L F IL L E D .' Bu t Bo r c h a r d t

He r d e r ware

and

r a l l ie d

Ho f m a n n s t h a l

he

q u ic k l y .

had

He

fo und

OF BECOMING A MERE IM IT A T O R .

w ent

to

h i s le a d in g

I taly. stars,

knew

but

he

that

must

in be­

He MUST ESPECIALLY RIO H IM 8E LF OF

THE INFLUENCE OF Ho f MANNSTHAl ' s POETRY IN H IS 8 Y8TEM. FORMED NOT ONLY H IS EN TIR E T H IN K IN G , C LA IM E D .**

He

I t HAD TRANS­

BUT HI 8 MORAL CONCEPTS AS W ELL, HE

He MUST TAKE STOCK OF WHAT HE

HAD ACQUIRED,

8 1FT THE ESSENCE

3 * A l r e a d y i n \8 $ 8 B o r c h a r d t made a s t i r w i t h h i s H S l d e r l i n s t u d i e s . He e s t a b l i s h e d "P a t m o s " a n d "D e r Rh e i n " a s w o r k s o f a r t , w h e n t h e y WERE S T IL L CONSIDERED PRODUCTS OF A DISEASED M IN D . By C ALLIN G AT­ TENTION TO THE LOST SoPHOKLES T R A N S LA T IO N HE LED THE WAY TO TH E IR D I8C0VERY AND ADOPTION A8 RECOGNIZED W0RK8 OF H flLD E R L IN . L a TER ON HE CALLED THE FRAGMENT "H A l FTE DES L e b ENs " THE FRAGMENT OF A DESIGN, J U S T IF Y IN G IT BY CONSIDERING ONLY THE H8ANEN PART OF THE FRAGMENT WORTHY OF ATTEN TIO N , AT THE 8AME TIM E BID D IN G 8CH0LARS TO STOP TRYING TO INTERPRET THE " l N 8 ANEH POETRY OF THE LATER HSl D E R L IN . S e e "H A l D ER LIN UNO ENOLICH E lN E n D E ," Ha NDLUNGEN UND A b HANPLUMGEN (B E R L IN , I9 2 S ) , PP. 2 5 7 -2 6 0 . u . " E r a n o s - B r i e f , " Ha n p l u n g e n u n d A b h a n p l u n g e n . p p . 12 5 - 17 5 .

16

OUT OF

IT ,

Th e to

up

months

Wh e n

h is

m in d

SCHOLAR

returned

.

He

U N IV E R S IT Y

had

OTHERS

L IB R A R Y ,

were

d e c id e d

OF THAT

Cu l t u r e , IT S

s o l it a r y

to

it s

AND D I C T I O N .

p e r io d

A LR EA D Y

OF A NOTEWORTHY C A R E E R .

T IF Y IN G

TO T H I S !

is

N EVER GOT H I S A

w it h

THAT

a

of

STAKED O FF T H E

a n t iq u it y

,

in

HE A C Q U IR E D

M ax

F IE L D

order

to

T H E M A G IC V IR T U O S IT Y

RyCHNER R E L A T E S

" r e a d in g "

of

h is

T H A T D IS S E R T A T IO N

made

a

OF W ESTERN

d e r iv e

from

E X P E R IE N C E

KEY TO

P H IL O ­

GAVE H IG H

AN A N E C D O T E ^ T E S ­

d is s e r t a t io n

.

Th ir t y

years

He

HAD NEVER BEEN W R IT T E N .

ORALLY.

no d o u b t

about

it!

B o r c h a r d t w as

in

m any w a y s

a

b r il­

A t 2 2 HE KNEW EXA C TLY WHAT HE WANTED TO DO AND HE

H IS Ph.

IT .

But

F A T E TOOK A HAND NOW AND T H E N

CHANCES OF H A P P IN E 88 AND S U C C E S S . D.

TOWARD THE END OF H I 8 STAY

FOR ONE T H IN G ,

IN

G flT T IN G E N

" E r in n e r u n g e n

an

HE WENT T R A V E L IN G

Ru d o l f B o r c h a r d t , "

R A K T E R I S T I KEN UND K lU T lK E N

(Z A r IC H ,

IN S T E A D

OF C O M P L E T IN G

Z e i t g e n Ss s i s c h e I 9 U 7 )»

PP»

HE

HE S U F ­

8 E V E R E 1 L L N E 8 8 FROM W H IC H HE RECOVERED ONLY VERY 8 L 0 W L Y .

H I 8 H E A L T H WA8 R E S T O R E D ,

5.

had

He R E 8 UMED H I S S T U D IE S

BOOKS.

ZEAL AND L IN G U IS T I C

HE KNEW HOW TO GO ABOUT

AND B L IG H T E D

FERED

IT

8T U D E N T.

THOUGHT

he

more,

n o t h in g

f r u it ­

also

I t WA8 S A ID THAT ONCE HE T H R IL L E D T H E IN T E L L E C T U A L

C O N F ID E D

IM P R O V IS E D

lia n t

AND H I S

GSt t i n g e n

T h e re

IN

AS A STUDEN T

P R 0 M I8 E

HAD

but

GSt t i n g e n ,

to

scho lar,

a

,

Le o , S TE E P E D H IM S E L F I N He RDER, BECAME A D I S ­

C R IT IC IS M ,

L A T E R HE

t im e

F l o r e n t in e

the

He MANAGED TO GET A JOB I N TH E

C A L L IN G .

L O G IC A L

of

fro m

ID IO M *

AND H IG H -W A T E R MARKS NEW G A IN 8 FOR GERMAN P O E T IC

O R IG IN S

w o rld

becom e

roamed

s o u l - s e a r in g

and

AND S Y S T E M A T IC A L L Y

e s p e c ia l l y

he

t h is

TH ER E TO R EVEL

O F LaC H M A N N ,

TO BE R E D IS C O V E R E D

w here

Ge r m a n y ,

to

FO R M A LLY UNDER F R IE D R IC H C IP L E

1898,

in

r e g io n ,

he

L IK E

H I 8 OWN Y E T

IT

I taly

in

Ve n e t ia n

the

fu l.

AND AOO TO

WHEN H IS

L i t e r a t u r : Ch a -

5 9 " 7 1•

8 T U D IE S . N EVER

Then,

REALLY

to o *

he

liv e d

s o m e w h a t AT

0D D 8 w i t h

F IT T IN G

IN

Q U IT E

COMFORTABLY W IT H

ELTY

OF THOUGHT

H IM .

BUT T H EY WERE ALWAYS F A S C IN A T E D

BY H I S

Ha

new

IN

M A G N IF IC E N T

a

y a r d s t ic k

C R IT I C A L

L IT E R A T U R E

V U L G A R IZ A T IO N A P U R E LY R E A L IT Y

OR -

fo und

BECAME E X T R E M E L Y R A L IS M

OF T H E

in

IN

ERROR.

h is

OF TH E

IN S T R U M E N T , IN T IM A T E L Y

THE

T IE D

UP W IT H

We

had

t r ie d

h is

HAD T E N SAM PLES

remember

that

then

P E R IO D

OF

and

Ho f m a n n s t h a l .

of

IN T E N S IV E

A 80U L

covered

A K IN

hand

OF H I S

the

poetry

SUBMERGED

IN

OF NEW H O R IZ O N S , further

STEPS

TH E R E WERE

IN

THE

6.

" K u ltu r

IN

FOR,

W a h l,"

-

H IM

e x c e rp t

OF T H E

in

T H IS

h is

P R IN T E D

OF T H E

D IV IN E

PRONOUNCE­

.

ALO NE.

youth

,

and

There

came

D I8 C 0 V E R Y

IN

the

OF HERDER

Ho f m a n n s t h a l

SAME GOAL V I A OF T H E

D e u ts c h e

B e itr Ig e .

in

AND C IR C U L A T E D .

" B L E S S IN G ."

L IT E R A T U R E

IN

WAS NOT DEAD AND

he

d is

­

C O M PLETE BE

H e KNEW HE H IS

OWN R O U T E .

DAY TWO NEW PO LES

ONE WAS H O F M A N N S TH A L ,

in

BECOME

WHEREAS

OF S C H O L A R S H IP

in

THE

T H A T HE WAS T H R EA TEN ED TO

AT T H E

D IF F U S E

R E G E N E R A T IO N OF P O E T R Y 5

a ls

0

halted

that

IN

C

BUT ONE ALREA DY AT P E A C E AND

AND A R R IV E THE

M YSTERY

early

t e m p o r a r il y

remember

TO H I S ,

very

TH E D ELU G E OF THE HOFMANNSTHAL

R ETR A C E H IS

Now

IN

POEMS P R IV A T E L Y

stream

STUDY, We

at

P O S S E S S IO N OF WHAT HE WAS S T R IV IN G

MUST

PO ET

CAREER WOULD NOT 8 T A N 0 UNOER T H E A E G IS he

I S 9 6 HE

THE

NATU­

HAD

PATTERN8 ,

TH E

TO US THAT

,

Bo r c h a r d t

8A ID ,

HE

REDUCED TO F IX E D

S ER VE N O T IC E

ndeed

goal,

and

LA N G U A G E,

MENT 8 H 0 U L D

I

PROCESSES.

LOW EST D EPTH Y E T

URGE FOR S E L F -E X P R E S S IO N .

THAT H IS

O FT E N D IS A G R E E D W IT H

R E A 8 0 N IN G

TH E C R E A T IV E

US,

NOV­

IN T E L L E C T U A L WORLD AROUND H I M .

C U LTU R A L H E R IT A G E .

8 NATURE I S

P E O P LE

W IT H

IN

w o r ld *

T H E WORLD OF C O N V E N T IO N

d ir e c t io n

WAS ANATHEMA TO H I M ,

IN T E L L E C T U A L IT

b o u r g e o is

He WAS NEVER A V E R A G E . BU T ALWAYS E IT H E R A M A Z IN G I N

AND N O R M A LC Y.

v in g

h is

I

R E F R E 8 H IN G L Y

( 19U 7) ,

19 9 -

NEW,

IS

V E T F IR M L Y

ROOTED

ERO USLY

R EVO LT AND F IG H T IN G

IN

THOM - T H E - p a THE F 1E R V ERATURE

*

st

S P IR IT

traveled

M ER ELY

FOR

IT S

Ho f m a n n s t h a l

OF E L E G IE S , also

T H E F IR S T

TO TH E NOTE,

BUT

TH E V E R Y

w o r s h ip p e d

1900

THE

F A S H IO N A B L E

S

c

h

r

w ith

a

A

v e ry

OAYS.

id o l

e

,

THE

who

O TH ER

Bu t

IN

the

PERSON,

D E L IV E R E D

Each

R o DAUN NEAR V IE N N A .

young

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

tw een

.

M A IN

IN T E L L E C T U A L F O R C E ,

WERE GREAT

of

h is

AND H IS

works

had

IN

H iS

m om ents

to

TWO

be

*

e x c it e d

l if e

Bo r c h a r d t

sent

S tE F A N

enters

IN

L IF E

le tte r

W IT H

A 8 WAS H I S

G A tT IN G E N m eet

AND

p ic t u r e

fo r

AND A F F E C T IO N . th e re b y

ONLY M IN O R

es­ BREAKS

AN E N C O U R A G IN G

C U S TO M .

A TRULY

.

A NUMBER

G EO R G E,

the

and

L A S T W IT H

R E P L IE D

In

1902

REMARKABLE P IE C E ON T H E E IG H T H

H o fm a n n s th a l

CAME OF

OF SEP­

p e r s o n a lly

CUP WOULD SEEM TO BE F U L L . of

t r iu m p h

w rested

AND THE STR U G G LE

L IN G U IS T I C

now

c o m p lim e n ta r y

ALSO,

t

w hole

P A R T IC U L A R L Y

H O F M A N N S TH A L , r

I

COME A B R EA K ,

h is

* 9 0 '*

in t o

8 PO ETRY,

R eD E A bER HO FM A N N STH A L. OF 2 5 ,

Bo r c h a r d t .

for

L IT ­

ROAD ALONG W H IC H

throughout

l a s t in g

TO

d

THE

l ik e d

BORCHARDT WOULD APPROACH

W H IC H WERE TO

G eO R G E,

ONLY THROUGH A T H IR D

HOME

BuT

p r o m is e

h is

P R IN T E D ,

OF F R IE N D S H IP

IM P O R TA N T

BREAK W IT H

TH ER E WOULD HA VE TO

and

AND WAS TO O UTLAST

OF H IS

TW O .

OWN R O A D ,

as

He

the

I n t h e sam e y e a r B o r c h a r d t w as t o

TEM BER. H IS

a

EVENTUALLY

P R IV A T E L Y

WORK FROM A S TU D EN T

IN

w it h o u t

February

r e p lie d

B0N08

END

road

Al e x a n d e r

H o fm a n n s th a l

THE R A D IC A L

V O C IF ­

betw een

path

THE F I N E 8 T EXAMPLES OF H I

T IM E

ta b lis h e d

a

he

in

ALL

Ru d o l f

h is

G e O R G E ,

8 T Y L E # .GOMP L C T C L V - D I OOOOI ATgt>

FOR A NEW

PROGRESS ALONG H IS

g in n in g

P E R IO D IC A L L Y

was

whom

O THER S T E F A N

AND SO HE C A P IT U L A T E D .

NO VELTY.

EVERY

THE

charted

OF G EO R G E,

OF TH E D A Y ,

AND W IT H

T R A D IT IO N ,

Bo r c h a r d t

Ge o r g e

Be

IN

C 08T

S K I L L 8 N O T H IN G

TH E T A S K 8 HE S E T H IM 8 E L F WERE NO O R D IN A R Y

from

w ere

h is

H IM

few

and

in n e r m o s t

DEARLY.

H|

fa r

soul

by

8 TALENTS

L E 88 THAN A 8 T 0 U N D IN G ,

ONES E IT H E R .

be­

BUT

W hen to w a r d V E A R 8 AND THOSE THAT

th e

end

of

h is

IM M E D IA T E L Y

life

F O L L O W IN G ,

HE HAD NEVER BEEN U N H A P P IE R ,

W IT H O U T

H O P E .^

I

H IS

n

D E S P A IR ,

WHEN TH E COURSE WAS C H A R T E D , W H IC H SENT

P R O M I8 E D H IM S E L F

F IR S T

ON S O L IT A R Y

V A U L T IN G

A M B IT IO N .

W A LK S,

H IS

AT

AT M A K IN G

FOR WEEKS AT A T IM E

lo o k e d

back

upon

F IN D IN G

A START

SUPPORT,

W IT H O U T

V A C IL L A T IN G

G8t t i n g e n

th e

L A T E T W E N T IE S ,

N E V E R MORE U N 8 E T T L E O ,

NO MEANS OF F IN A N C IA L

H 1 8 FATE

he

HE C 0 N F E 8 S E 0

NEVER MORE

H IM S E L F ,

AND L A T E R ,

ON TH E D IF F IC U L T

ROAD

HE WOULO O C C A S IO N A L L Y AB­

L E A V IN G

AN A D D R E 8 S ,

P O N O ER IN G

BETWEEN UNEASY P R E M O N IT IO N

H e WOULD NOT WANT TO

L IV E

TH 08E

YEARS

AND

OVER A G A IN ,

HE S A I D . And

y e t

,

they

w ere

trem endo usly

im p o r t a n t

years

,

e s s e n t ia l

to

h is

ft GROWTH,

-

AND HE A D M IT T E D

HAD ABSORBED

IN

THEM T H E

PROVE S U F F IC IE N T

IT .

W IT H O U T

RAW M A T E R IA L S

TO D IG E 8 T

AND PROCESS

R E A L IZ IN G FOR W H IC H

IT

AT THE T I M E ,

H I 8 L IF E T IM E

HE

D ID

NOT

H |8 S T U D IE 8 TOOK H IM

THEM A L L .

FAR A F IE L D .

He C O N C E IV E D OF H IM 8 E L F AS A V E S S E L I N W H IC H WOULD BE

GATHERED

THE T R EA SU R ES

IN

A LL

A R E F IN E D

8 T A T E .9

So

TURN AS A P O E T .

OF T H E

W ELL WERE H I S

P R E V A IL E D ,

OF TH E TWO

IN

THE T R A N S L A T O R .1®

7.

" B r ie fe

an

e in e

S.

" B io

g r a p h is c h e r

ter

von

9. 10.

"K u l t u r

als

el,

Wa

hl

W H IC H HE WOULD G IV E

WHAT HE WOULD A C Q U IR E

TO T E L L W HICH

He y m

PA8T,

T A L E N T S M IX E D

D ic h te r in ,"

Ab

,"

I9 I3 )* ,"

IN

H IM

HE WOULD RE­

THAT

IT

IS

TH E SCH OLAR OR TH E PO ET OR THE PE R F E C T

ju n g e r is s

AS A 8 C H 0 L A R ,

O FF A G A IN

p

s iL B E R B O O T .

J u g e n o g e d ic h t e .

(

Ill

im

Au f t r a g e

it r

Ko

(

191* 7 ) ,

von

BLEND

295f f .

Al f r e d

1 17*

excerpt

8e e "D as W e r k ," s e c t i o n

das

HARD

I,

in

De u t s c h e

P a rt

Two,

Be

th is

e

.

I

(*9 U 7 )»

d is s e r ta tio n .

200.

Wa l ­

3-

ITALY

E a r ly

-

1 9 OI4. B o r c h a r d t

In W IT H

W o rk s

THE

ID E A

T r a v e ls

w ent

OF S E T T L IN G

to

( 190U -1911+)

-

Ita ly .

IM P R E S S IO N

A B LE TO T H IN K

AND

S C H O L A R S H IP

AND PO ETR Y

T H E W R A N G L IN G Th en

a g a in

,

IN

h is

THE move

TO E S C A P E M IL IT A R Y F IN IN G

BARRACKS

L IT E R A R Y He

PROGRAM,

AND TH E

may

least

at

THAT

co m e

A V E R IT A B L E

TO H I

8 A LR EA D Y 8 T U P E N D 0 U 8 L I N G U I 8 T I C

EA R LY TE

DEB

H ig

h

Ol d

C R Y S T A L L IZ A T IO N H e IM K E H R E N O E N .

NEEDED

Ita lia n

Fr en c h ,

lite r a tu r e ,

OF H I S

NEW

Ol d

been

SORTS

BY H IM L IF E

U N IV E R S IT IE S . by

a

d e s ir e

OF CON­

A M B IT I 0 U 8

FOUND H IM S E L F .

u n til

Ca

he

fe lt

t a l a n ic

,

BY L E A R N IN G and

M id

d le

O R IG IN A L L Y .

He

h im s e lf

AND ADDED S E V E R A L

R E P E R T O IR E

IT

WA8

Q eR M A N Y,

EFFECT

ON H I S

1898,

FOR PURE

IN

prom pted

THE

IN

PEACE,

be­

LANGUAGES PROVENCAL,

En

8 K I L L 8 WA8 D a b BuCH J q R A M .

AS HE C A LL E D

he w en t

AND PROMPTLY WENT TO W ORK.

P | 8 AN OF TH E M |D D L E A g E 8 ,

Ge r m a n ,

V IS IT ,

IM A G IN E

OF A L L

HE HAD F IN A L L Y

I N OR NEAR P l S A

a n d m e d ie v a l

have

FOR WE CAN W ELL

D a n te

d le

F IR S T

SMUG ATMOSPHERE OF T H E

partly

re a d

M id

tim e

T h E R E HE FOUND

DETACHMENT

AND R E S T R IC T IO N S

8 E T T L E O F IR S T

The

fir s t

FROM T H E HUBBUB OF TH E L IT E R A R Y

PRESS,

NOW

M a r r ia g e

w as t h e

ON H I M .

ENJO Y T H E

T R A IN IN G ,

L IF E

It

-

THERE PERM ANENTLY.

MUST H A VE MADE A G REAT CLEARLY,

A s s o c ia te s

g l is h

.

An

OR Q e s C H IC H -

M u CH L A T E R ,

IN

1932,

21

WE F IN D HI 8 8UM OP THE8E LABORS IN THE REMARKABLE H IS T O R IC A L 8TUDY Pis

a

,

a

h ig h l y

co ncentrated,

s w e e p in g

survey

of

the

r o le

of

that

c it y

AS THE CENTER OF M EDIEVAL MEDITERRANEAN ART AND C IV IL IZ A T IO N . Bu t

he

d id

not

forget

h is

o ld

c o n n e c t io n s

up

No r t h .

I n No v e m b e r

I9 0 i|. HE ADDRESSED A MAGNIFICENT TRIBUTE TO H0FMANN 8TH A L, * THE F IR S T 8 IG N

IN TWO YEARS OF A NEW RAPPROCHEMENT.

T he d a t e l i n e o f t h e poem " I n F e l d e " ( V e r m is c h t e G e d ic h t e .

d a s S tam m buch m e in e s K o m m a nd eu rs im 1924.) r e a d s ! D o r m o i s e - S t e l l u n g im M | r z

19*6.

g.

" P e r K a i s e r , " S O d d e u ts c h e M q n a t s h e f t e . V ( I 9 0 S ) , 2 3 7 —2 5 2 . A tte n tio n i s a l s o c a l l e d t o t h e r e b u t t a l b y P a u l B u s c h in g , same t i t l e a n d v o l ­ um e, 6 1 14.—6 2 0 . BU8 CHING d ra w s a m o re r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e , b a s e d o n FACTS RATHER THAN B L IN D WORSHIP.

THE CO N STITU TIO N ,

THE WORTHY 8UCCESS0R OF BlSMARCK AND M o L T K E ,^ YET MA­

LIGNED BY HI 8 F A U L T -F IN D IN G 0PP0NENT8.

>F HE MADE M ISTAK ES ,

BORCHARDT

ATTRIBUTED THEM TO HI 8 YOUTH AND LONELINESS ON THE THRONE AND BADE H IS C R IT IC 8 BE P A T IE N T .

It

IS DOUBTFUL WHETHER WlLHELM

II

EVER HAD A MORE

STAUNCH DEFENDER. A nd

yet,

d is t o r t e d

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

as

p ic t u r e

of

the

em peror

w as,

it

WAS ONLY TH E NATURAL RE8ULT OF H IS DREAM OF THE RESTORATION OF GERMANY TO IT S ANCIENT GLORY.

THE F IC T IO N OF THE M YSTICAL UNION OF PRE8ENT—DAY

ECONOMICS AND 8 0 C IA L L IF E WITH THE IMAGINED POWER AND GRANDEUR OF THE IM P E R IA L IS T IC HOHENBTAUFEN REGIME OF THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CENTU­

He WA8 A B IT OF A DREAMER HERE

R IES STEMS FROM H IS LITERARY S T U D IE S . AND AT LEAST TIO N o f t h e

IN THE P O L IT IC A L SPHERE S A T 18 F I ED WITH A ROMANTIC CONCEP­ M id d le A g e s .

He D IO ,

THE WAR.

N o r d id

he ch a n g e h is

m in d

g re a t d e a l a fte r

a

INDEED, 8AY TO S c h r Sd ER ON THE DAY THE DEFEATED

TROOPS ENTERED B E R L IN ,

"W l R HABEN DEN K r

IHN flB E R 8 T 0 R B E N ,M E A N IN G

ie

G NICHT 0BERLEBT, WIR HABEN

THAT W HILE THEY SURVIVED P H Y SIC ALLY ,

THE

OLD ORDER WAS D E F IN IT E L Y GONE AND THEY WOULD HAVE TO EXPERIENCE A S P IR ­ ITU A L R E B IR TH . w here

France

BUT WE HAVE ALREAOY LEARNED THAT HE WA8 UNFORGIVING

w as

concerned

and

that

h is

p o l it ic a l

speeches

PROVE THAT H IS OLD H0PE8 WERE NOT PERMANENTLY DABHED. AFTER THE A R M IS T IC E AS 19 * 9 HE COULD, CA8TLE Rh e INSBER g ! *

9.

Ve

R. A . buch

N .

1930

E v e n AS EARLY

IN CONTEMPLATING THE HoHENZOLLERN

F IN D WORDS FOR THE "G r A s SE OER Na T I O N . "

BUT TO H I8

"WoRTE kAnNEN NICHT DEN DANK AUSSPRECHEN, OEN WIR BlSMARCK 8CHULD E N ," AND " E r ( M o lT K e ) 1ST VON Fu88 AUF B I S IN S HeRZ 6 E D IE G E N ," HE S A ID O F THESE TWO MEN WHEN HE 8AW T H E IR 8TATUES IN BREMEN IN I 9 1 2 .

See 10.

around

Qe

r m is c h t e

S c h rA d e r, ( W u p p e r t a l,

" R h e in b b e r g ."

d ic h t e

(B e r lin ,

1921*), p . 95 .

" E r in n e r u n g e n a n R u d o l f B o r c h a r d t , " P e r B und J a h r 1 9U 7^» **•

H a n p lu n g e n

* 67 ,

und

A b h a n d lu n g e n

(B e r lin ,

I

928 ) , 37- U S *

33

CREDIT BE IT SAID THAT WHEN HE WAS ASKED BY THE AWARDS D IV IS IO N OF THE Wa r M i n i s t r y

in

1 9 *7

to

PLANNED WAR MEMORIALS,

w r it e

a

c o l l e c t io n

of

model

e p it a p h s

fo r

use

HE DECLINED OUT OF REVERENCE FOR THE DEAD.

in

He

D ID NOT WANT TO CHEAPEN T H E IR PERSONAL S A C R IF IC E WITH IMPERSONAL ACA­ DEMIC c l i c h £ e s . ^

H o w e v e r,

H IS WORDS WOULD BE

a

Bo d e n h a u s e n

von

in d iv id u a ls

AS IN THE CASE OF H IS FUNERAL ORATION FOR 19 * S , *

in

his

o b it u a r y

FUNERAL ORATION MORE LOFTY

o ther

w a r t im e

Qe f f e n t l i c h e r Qe i Ge r m a n

who

is

st

.

suddenly

n

A l f r e d He y m e l ,

and

IN THOUGHT AND GRANDER IN CHOICE OF WORDS.

pronouncement

I

fo r

I t WOULD BE D IF F IC U L T TO F IN D A

H IS EPITAPH FOR H IS BROTHER R O B E R T .^

On e

w e r e c o n c e r n e d a n d w h e re

PERSONAL TR IBU TE TO TH E IR MEMORY, HE SPOKE UP,

PROFOUNDLY AND SINCERELY, Ba r o n

w h e re

it

c alled

m e r it s

Bo r c h a r d t upon

to

our

in t e r e s t ,

s y m p a t h iz e s

take

an

w it h

in t e r e s t

the

the

in

essay

average

p u b l ic

l if e

AND HELP SOLVE THE TREMENDOUS PROBLEMS OF WAR AND PEACE WHICH 8TUMPED THE EXPERTS, WHEN FOR A WHOLE CENTURY HE HAS BEEN RUNNING AWAY FROM 8UCH TASKS.

FOR GENERATIONS HE HAS BEEN CONTENT TO LEAVE AFFAIR S OF

STATE TO THE MORE OR LESS D IV IN E L Y APPOINTED LEAD ER SHIP, HAS ENDOWED

12.

"G r a b s c h r i f t e n , " "G r a b r e d e

1925).

Il|.

auf

Ha n d l u n g e n

Eb e r h a r d

von

und

Ab h a n d lu n g e m

Bo d e n h a u s e n , "

(B e r

Au s g e w I

l in

hlte

,

1 92 S ) . We r k e

(B e r

l in

,

" E r INNERUNG, " AN ESSAY APPENDED TO THE CATALOGUE FOR THE AUCTION OF THE NaCHLASB HEYMEL. BflcHER UND GRAPH I K . I 9 I 7 .

15. " G r a b s c h r i f t ! R o b e r t B o r c h a r d t d e r J O n g e re , g e f a l l e n v o r L e m b e r g ," V erm 1s c u t e G e d ic h t e ( B e r l i n , I 92 I4. ) . p . 9 7 * 16.

p p . 2 1 9 - 2 3 2 , Ha n d l u n g e n u n d A b h a n d l u n g e n ( B e r l i n , I9 2 S ) ; w r it t e n 19 * 7 AS THE INTRODUCTION FOR A NEW8PAPER BY THE SAMENAME WHICH D ID NOT, HOWEVER, M A T E R IA L IZ E FOR P O L IT IC A L AND JO U R N A LIS TIC REA60N8.

in

3U

THE O F FIC IO U S GOVERNMENT O F F IC IA L WITH SPEC IAL P R IV IL E G E S AND THE POWER TO PU8H H IM AROUND, AND HAS SCRUPULOUSLY OBEYED THE INNUMERABLE "V eR B O TENn S IG N S ;

NOW, ALL OF A SUDDEN, THE GOSPEL OF DEMOCRACY DESCENDS UPON

H IM AND HE IS SUPP08E0 TO REJO ICE.

Now HE IS PERMITTED TO ASK "W H EN CE,"

BUT ALREADY AT THE "W H ITH E R " HE IS STOPPED BY CENSORSHIP. "WHENCE"

18 EMBARRASSING,

BECAUSE IN ANSWERING IT

HOME AND FROM THAT S T IF L IN G

HE MUST POINT THE AC­

IN THE PAST.

T he RESULT 18 THAT HE W IL L RATHER GO

SANCTUARY CONTINUE TO COMPLAIN ABOUT

GOVERNMENT

OF PU BLIC O P IN IO N .

B o r c h a r d t *s L IE S

THE

FOR H IS LETHARGY AND U N W ILLING NE 8S TO FACE

CUSING FINGER AT HIM SELF H IS R E S P O N S IB IL IT IE S

Y e t,

sym pathy

now s h i f t s

to

a d m o n is h m e n t .

an

The

fault

NOT W ITH CENSORSHIP SO MUCH AS WITH THE LACK OF AN ENLIGHTENED,

CONCERTED,

EFFEC TIV E P U B LIC O P IN IO N ,

LY PR IV ATE OPIN IO N S AND G 0 8S IP IN G CASE,

IT

HE SAYS.

I n GERMANY THERE ARE ON­

IN AN A IR OF 8ECRECY.

THAT BEING THE

18 USELES3 TO REFORM IN S T IT U T IO N S 8UCH AS CEN80RSHIP WITHOUT

F IR S T CHANGING THE H A B ITS AND IDEALS OF THE PEOPLE. COMMUNITY S P IR IT ,

AND THAT

THEY MUST DEVELOP

IS DEVELOPED WHEN ALL PEOPLE JO IN T L Y EX PE R I­

ENCE CURRENT EVENT 8 AND ASSUME R E S P O N S IB ILIT Y FOR THEM WHICH RESULTS IN a c t io n

.

Pu b l i c

or

c o m m u n it y s p i r i t

R ELATIO N S H IP OF EVERY SIN G LE He r e i n

Bo r c h ar d t

l it ic a l

touches

the a b il it y

to

sense

the

EVENT TO THE WHOLE OF THE NATIONAL L I F E . -

q u it e

astu tely

on a

pro blem

w h ic h

o c c u p ie s

po ­

LEADERS S T IL L .

B u t PERHAP8 THE MOST FR UITFU L B o rc h a rd t and f o r us E u ro p e a n C u lt u r e , K r ie g

is als o

und d ie

De u

is

h is

fir s t tsc he

IDEA TO EMERGE OUT OF THE WAR FOR

c o n c e p t o f th e

m ade a r t i c u l a t e E

in k e h r

in

P a n - E u r o p e a n Man a n d o f P a n h is

( I 9 I I 4.) a n d l a t e r

H e id e lb e r g d e v e lo p e d

speech P e r in

c o n n e c tio n

h i 8 C ro c e s t u d i e s

w ith

and t r a n s la t io n s

s u c h a s th o s e

o f D a n te a n d P i n ­

d a r.

B o rc h a rd t d is t in g u is h e s

b e tw e e n t h e

u n t r a n s la t a b le

w h ic h

is

to

deep

a concept

in d ig e n o u s

G e rm a n y ,

in

" K u ltu r ,"

s ig n ific a n c e ,

ro o te d

IN THE VERY 80U L8 OF PEOPLE AND BESPEAKING A HIGH STATE OF MORAL AND S P IR IT U A L ATTAINMENT,

AND " C I V I L I Z A T I O N , " THE G L IB WORD USED AND ABUSED

THROUGH OVER-USE FOR PROFESSEDLY THE 8 AME THING BY THE RENEGADES, THE SO-CALLED FREE 8P I R I T S ,

PROMISERS,

AND THE SNOBS OF WE8TERN EUROPE,

AMONG THEM THE MONEYED ARISTOCRACY WITH IT S VENEER OF ELEGANCE. T H IS

Of

PSEUDO-CULTURE BORCHARDT WOULD MAKE SHORT SH R IFT AS SOON AS GERMA­

NY HAO WON THE WAR, -

HE D ID NOT SAY WHETHER THROUGH A PURGE OF IN T E L ­

LECTUALS OR STRICT CENSORSHIP OF SCHOOL TEXTS. as

COM­

Ge r m a n y ' s

Eu r o p e

that

s ib il it y

r ig h t ,

Ge r m a n y

to w a r d

it

.

but

as

felt

Th is

it s

t h is

may

h o ly w ay,

sound

duty,

for

no

and

He THOUGHT OF T H IS NOT a

o ther

f a c e t io u s ,

good

t h in g

n a t io n

it

felt

Bo r c h a r d t

but

w as

any

for

respon­

w as

in

DEAD EARNEST, SO EARNEST THAT HE EVEN 8 AW AN ADVANTAGE IN THE FACT THAT VICTORY WOULD NOT BE EASY AND THE WAR WOULD NOT BE WON BY CHRISTMAS * 9 1i|.»

for

even

in

Ge r m a n y

he

s aw

large

elem ents

BY THE PRATTLE ABOUT EUROPEAN " C IV IL IZ A T IO N "

who

had

been

in f e c t e d

IN PA R IS SIDEWALK CAFES

AND HENCE WERE NOT R IPE TO TAKE OVER THE LEADERSHIP OF EUROPE. Bo r c h a r d t ' s T IM E AND AG AIN -

in t e n t io n s

w ere

good,

o nly

-

and

of

t h is

h e w as

g u il t y

HE HAD A TENDENCY TO GO OVERBOARO IN HI 8 ZEAL AND RUN

DANGER OF BEING ACCUSED OF BIGOTRY.

He EMPHASIZED THE WORD "G IV E " AS

THE WORD WHICH SHOULD CHARACTERIZE THE GERMAN-DICTATED PEACE, FOR THE D I 8 PAR ITY BETWEEN GERMANY AND THE REST OF EUROPE MUST NOT SEEM TOO GREAT AFTER THE WAR, AND THE VANQUISHED MUST BE MADE TO FEEL THAT THEY HAD BEEN COMPENSATED FOR TH E IR L 0 8 8 E 8 AND THE W AR'S

IN JU S T IC E S .

THAT

18 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GERMANY AND THE WESTERN POWERS, HE 8 A ID J

THE

36

LATTER TWO WANT TO RESTORE THE STATUS QUO, CADENT

n a t io n s ;

chardt

has

h is

Ge r m a n y , w il l

.

on t h e

hand,

other

A f t e r Na p o l e o n ,

THEN OUR SPECULATIVE

we

WHEREFORE WE CALL THEM DE­ p r o g r e s s iv e — i f

is

E u r o p e Go e t h e ,

gave

ID E A LIS M FROM Ka NT TO He GEL,

B or ­ says,

he

ROMANTICISM,

THE

C R IT IC A L METHOD OF W R IT IN G HISTORY? AFTER 1370* WE GAVE EUROPE THE BEN­ E F IT

OF OUR S C IE N T IF IC METHODS AND NEW DISCOVERIES IN THE NATURAL S C I*

ENCES, OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, PARTICULARLY THE GYMNASIUM OF W lLHELM von

Hu m b o l d t

and

Ge r m a n

the

PROPERTY AND EUROPE IS Wh a t

are

we

g o in g

to

has

been

Ge r m a n y E u r o p e a n iz e d b r id g e .

Ro d i n ,

them .

o

'A n n u n c io ,

the

It

and

, -

all

t h is

becam e

Eu r o p e a n

B U IL D IN G ON THE GERMAN BASES IN THESE F IE L D S .

g iv e

Sh a k e s p e a r e ,

u n iv e r s it y

Eu r o p e

after

c l e a r in g

is

the

the

B ib

le

house

fo r

Ria l t o ,

new

w ar?

t h is

n a t io n a l

the

m arket- p la c e

, Mo l i e r e , Ca l d e r o n ,

m ovem ents

such

as

cultur es

c u b is m

and

fo und

a

in

and

and

also

modern

home

has

in

it

the

days

,

SOMeTIMES LONG BEFORE THEY WERE ACCLAIMED IN TH E IR OWN LANDS.

Yes,

CASIONALLY G e rm a ny w e n t s o f a r

n e g le c t ­

e d TO FOSTER IT S OWN CULTURE,

in

r u n n in g

U N T IL

th e excha ng e t h a t

IT S WRITERS AND S C IE N T IS T S COULD

TRULY BE CALLED EUROPEAN F IR S T AND GERMAN NATIONALS SECOND. 18 NOT R IG H T ,

BORCHARDT 8AY 8 ,

it

OC­

BUT T H IS

BECAUSE WE CAN BE TRULY EUROPEAN ONLY

WHEN WE ARE GeRMAN IN THE L O F T IE S T DEGREE. T h u s Ru d o l f Bo r c h a r d t ,

and

r ig h t

here

t h is

w r it e r

m ust

confess

THAT HE IS A B IT C0NFU8ED BY THE SOPHISM OF THE 8P0NS0R8 OF LABELS SUCH as

"E u r o p e a n , "

"G e r m a n , "

" A m e r ic a n , "

LIT E R A T U R E , AND GENERAL CULTURE, -

" modern, "

etc.

in

the

realm

of

art,

CONCEPTS 80 VA 8 T THAT MOST PEOPLE

WHO DEAL IN THEM A R B IT R A R IL Y D E L IM IT TH EIR MEANING IN THE U8 E OF THEM WITHOUT ALWAYS IN D IC A T IN G EXACTLY WHERE THEY PUT THE 8 TAKE 8 , W ITH THE RESULT THAT T H IN K IN G BECOMES NEBULOUS AND GENERAL AND CONSEQUENTLY MORE

IM P O T E N T AND Bo r c h a r d t

LESS

could

On c e ,

in d e e d

,

S IN C E

N o V A L IS

BY P E R 8 0 N A L N A T IO N

IN F L U E N T IA L

put

he

h is

WHO A P P R O P R IA T E S

CO NC EPTS OF T H E

BA DO URS,

H IS

OWN IN N A T E

SO T H A T WHEN HE IN

OF OTHER N A T IO N S

L IT E R A R Y

OF L IT E R A R Y

concept

of

THE

Eu r o p e

IT S

H EA R TS AND M IN D S

Ge r m a n

f ir s t

TO

H ELP

d is c o v e r e d

th e

key

FOR THE NEW I -

TURN,

HE

OWN P E O P L E ,

THE

E P IC S

and

TH E PO ETRY

HE

It

the

understand

it

lo st

and

AN EXAMPLE

B E L 0N G 8 TO THE

SAYS

IN

H IS

not

FAMOUS B lS L E

a lw a y s

FATHERLAND

IS

Provencal

it

IN

b u r ie d

MUCH

A

F0R EFA TH ER 8.

make

-

OF TH E TROU­

O F HoM ER AND T H E

O uR S P IR IT U A L

p r in t e d

As

FURTHER.

GRAVES OF OUR C U LT U R A L

to

OF ONE

B O R C H A R D T 's

C L A R IF Y

HE T R A N S L A T E D .* ?

B O U N D A R IE S .

d is c o v e r e d

IN

OF H I S

T he a n c e s t o r s o f a g r e a t p e o p l e a r e

P O L IT IC A L

N A T IO N A L

F E E L IN G S W IT H

H IM S E L F

"E U R O P E A N " AND OF "E U R O P E A N !S M "

LARGER AND EMBRACES A L L T H E Frenchman

BE T H E

AND

E X P R E 8 SES

WORK AND A MAN ARE C IT E D

AND 8 T A N 0 8 A L 0 NG8 IO E

W IT H I N

ever

O F OTHER N A T IO N S

THOUGHTS

LO ST T R E A S U R E S OF OUR OWN N A T IO N A L E D U C A T IO N ,

h is to r y .

-

b e in g

.

AS W E L L .

A NUMBER OF WHOSE 8 0 N G 6

G e rm a n

as

sentences

B u t MORE C O NC RETELY AND

AR T W IT H A EUROPEAN STAMP HE C IT E S

P O S T S C R IP T ,

D O U B TFU L W HETHER

d e c l a r a t iv e

THE ART AND L IT E R A T U R E

A CHORD NOT ONLY

THOSE

A

true

s im p l e

IS

t

EXAMPLE HE UNDERSTANDS A EUROPEAN TO

S T R IK E IN

the

in

I

8 Y N 0 NYM 0 US W IT H C H R I S T I A N I T Y .

-

DEAS AND E X P E R IE N C E S ,

BUT

d e f in it io n

labels

PURPOSE OF F R U C T IF Y IN G

W IL L

ALL THE T IM E .

poetry

a v a il a b l e

,

and

a

to

OTHER N A T I 0 N 8 . Bo

rchardt's

exam ple

of

the

Eu r o pea n

WHO WA8 AWARDED HONORARY DEGREE 8 BY T H E Ma r b u r g ,

but

is

c o n s id e r e d

in

most

other

Ma n

(

e p il o g u e

).

Be n e d e t t o

U N IV E R S IT I E S places

17 . QjLE, fiR Q B fiE N T R PB A PO R B A -.PEU TB C li ( M u n i c h , CAL E S S A Y

is

in

r

o

c

OF H e ID E L B E R G

Ge r m a n y

jS

C

PP.

a

e

,

AND

shallow

W IT H A C R I T I ­

38 THINKER AND LITERARY ENTERTAINER.

BORCHARDT MET CROCE IN

1925

IN Z f l-

R IC H . WHEN THE PH IL080PH ER LECTURED THERE, AND HE WROTE H IS T ES TIM O N IAL f o r t h e M A n c h e n e r N e u e s t e j/ Na c h r i c h t e n p h i l o s o p h i c a l s y s te m t h e ro p e .

C ro c e

is

o n ly

I $ 26 , 18

in

He c a l l e d

o n e o f m a jo r p r o p o r t i o n s

n o t a m e re f o l l o w e r

o f H e g e l,

in

he s a y s ,

C r o c e 's

m o d e rn Eu­

o r he w o u ld

nev­

e r HAVE BEEN ABLE TO BECOME THE S P IR IT U A L FATHER OF A WHOLE GENERATION of

I t a l ia n s .

His

in d iv id u a l

BUT H IS WORK AS A WHOLE,

He

s c ie n c e .

•Ja k o b BA h m e , l e m ic a l

is

but

WRITER,

no t

a

may

not

appear

to

be

COUPLED WITH HI 8 PERSONALITY,

lo n e

stands

w orks

in

w o lf

the

PHILOSOPHER,

l ik e

m id s t

of

h is

w o rld,

is

Ro u s s e a u ,

j o u r n a l is t ,

to

the

OF THEM WERE DREAMER8 ,

e ig h t e e n t h ,

PROPHETS,

and po ­

As A EUROPEAN AUTHOR OF WORLD RENOWN HE

TRARCH TO THE FOURTEENTH, ERASMUS TO THE FIF T E E N T H , Vo l t a i r e

,

He D0E8 NOT ONLY W RITE,

IS TO THE TWENTIETH CENTURY WHAT ClCERO WAS TO THE F IR S T ,

TEENTH,

s t r ik in g

IS AN ACADEMY OF

Ka n t , S c h o p e n h a u e r ,

AND STATESMAN.

BUT TEACHES AND LEADS AS W ELL.

to o

and

Go e t h e

to

B .C .,

Pe -

Ba CON TO THE S IX ­

the

n in e t e e n t h .

PREACHERS, MORBID P E S S IM IS T S ,

No n e

OR V I ­

S IO N A R IE S , BUT PEOPLE IN THE PU B LIC EYE THROUGH AN EXTENSIVE CORRESPOND­ ENCE, AFTER-DINNER CONVERSATION, IN NEW8 PAPER8 AND P E R IO D IC A L S .

ORATORY, AND PU B LIS H IN G OF T H E IR VIEWS THEY A L L ,

L IK E H IM , WERE EUR0PEAN8,

IN THE SENSE OF THE FA 8HIONABLE IN T E R N A T IO N A LIS T OR COSMOPOLITE, THE SEN8 E THAT IN THE REALM OF TH E IR

NOT

BUT IN

INFLUENCE EUROPE ST0P8 BEING A

THEORETICAL NOTION AND BECOMES A BLES 8 ED R E A L IT Y .

I n THEM ALONE DO WE

SEE THE V IS IB L E PROOF OF WHAT NATIONS AND GENERATIONS CAN OWE EACH OTH­ ER AND WHAT OF TIM E AND 8PACE HAS BECOME H I8 T 0 R Y . NEIGHBORS AND THE GREAT YE 8 TERDAYS,

18.

"B e n e d e tto C r o c e ,"

I3-3U.

THEY ARE THE GREAT

NOT TO REMAIN YESTERDAYS AND N E IC H -

H a n d lu n g e n u n d A b h a n p lu n g e n

( B e r lin ,

I 92 S ) ,

pp.

BORS> BUT TO BECOME FAST FRIEND 8 AND V IT A L IZ E THE PRESENT.

ClCERO AB­

SORBED IN H IS PERSON THE GREEK WORLD OF THOUGHT AND GAVE BIRTH TO THE Gr e c o - R o m a n g ib l e

c ultur al

c o m m u n it y ,

our

c l a s s ic a l

a n t iq u it y

" the

tan­

o nly

CORE OF THE CONCEPT E U R O P E ,"*^ RENDERED EUROPEAN IN THE PERSON OF

Pe t r a r c h .

I n Er a s m u s ,

Ch

r is t ia n it y

and

c l a s s ic a l

a n t iq u it y

MAY SPEAK AS THE TWO PARENTS OF THE CONCEPT EUROPE, WE CALL HUMANI8M. IC S

,

,

vw« ch we

of

ARE FUSED INTO WHAT

I-E IB N IZ TRANSFORMED FRENCH PHILOSOPHY AND MATHEMAT­

INTO A NEW UNIVER 8 AL SCIENCE FOR EUROPE, AND IN VOLTAIRE THE ENG­

L IS H

IDEA OF P O L IT IC A L LIB E R T Y CONQUERED THE WORLD.

I n GOETHE,

ALL THOUGHT C0MPLEXE8 MET AND MERGED INTO A WORLD 8 P I R I T , AND WORLD LITE R A TU R E .

A ll

F IN A L L Y ,

WORLD SOUL,

OF THESE GREAT MEN WERE F IR S T OF ALL REPRE­

SENTATIVES o f t h e E u r o p e a n c o m m u n ity o f n a t i o n s

and o n ly

s e c o n d ly

na­

tio n a lis ts . Bo r c h a r d t p la r y

h im s e l f

Eu r o p e a n s ,

of

w anted

course,

to

and

be

h is

counted

am o n g

travels,

the

company

t r a n s l a t io n s ,

and

SCOPE OF LITERARY THEMES WOULD UNQUESTIONABLY PUT H IM THERE, in s is t e n c e

on

the

hegem ony

of

Ge r m a n y

w il l

not

be

accepted

of

by

exem­

w id e

BUT H IS all

as

a

P O S IT IV E Q U A L IF IC A T IO N .

•9» J-B I 0,1» p . *9» I n h i s " N a c h w o r t " t o P ie g r q s s e n T r o b a d q r s B o r c h a r d t SPOKE OF THE TRUE CONCEPT OF EUROPE AS BEING SYNONYMOUS WITH CHRIS­ T IA N IT Y . T h e d i f f e r e n c e i s r e s o l v e d i n t h e Hu m a n is m o f E r a s m u s .

5 DOMESTIC AFFAIRS AND

D iv o r c e

Wh e n

the

BUSINESS RELATIONS

1 9 * 9 / 2 0 - S e c o n d Ma r r i a g e 19 2 * P u b l is h e r Re l a t i o n s

w ar was

over,

Bo r c h a r d t

had

s a id

NICHT {Jb ERLEBT, WIR HABEN IHN Ob ERSTORBEN." *

!

-

A uthor—

"W i r

haben

den

Kr ie g

T h e OLD ORDER HAD CHANGED, o

f.'N_D'EIE.iOr,

AND PEOPLE HAD CHANGEO, -

ABDICATED,

OLD VALUES WERE TURNED TOPSY-TURVY,

FUSED.

MANY HAD D IE D .

T h e K aIS E R HAD

AND PEOPLE WERE CON­

Who CAN EVER TELL JUST HOW MUCH THESE THINGS AFFECT THE L IV E S

OF IN D IV ID U A LS ?

ADJUSTMENTS HAD TO BE MADE BY A L L ,

SUCCESSFUL IN THAT THAN 0THER8.

AND SOME WERE MORE

CERTAINLY THE SHOCK IS BROKEN, WHEN WE

REMEMBER THESE TH IN G 8 AND LEARN THE PERSONAL REASONS INVOLVED UPON READING THAT IN THE WINTER OF 1 9 * 9 / 2 0 BORCHARDT OBTAINED A DIVORCE FROM HI 8 WIFE KaR O LIN E . Th e r e

are

several

BEEN A SUCCESSFUL ONE,

1 . Se e

footnote

2 . Am ong

them,

patron hausen.

A

*0 ,

in d ic a t io n s

prove

that

the

m a r r ia g e

had

not

NOR PERHAPS AN OVERLY HAPPY ONE AT ANY T IM E .

page

32.

B o r c h a r d t *s He y m e l ,

lfred

to

tw o

brothers

and

h is

Ernst

b e n e f ic e n t

and

Ro b e r t , h i s g e n e r o u s Ba r o n v o n B o d e n ­

f r ie n d

For

one

t h in g

* Bo r c h a r d t

w anted

c h il d r e n ,

and

the

m a r r ia g e

As EARLY A 8 * $ 0 6 HE WROTE A POEM EN TITLED VeRSE

D ID NOT PRODUCE ANY. BEI

apparently

BETRACHTUNG VON LaNDSCHAFTS-ZeICHNUMGEN GEBCHR1EBEN WHICH HAD REF­

ERENCE TO SOME OF H IS W IF E 'S DRAWING8 . Da s L a n d

hat

It

K in d e r

k e in e

BEGIN 8 • und

k e in

L ic h t . . .

Es 1ST NUR B lL D VON AeNGSTEN, D IE WIR HATTEN. 3 SCHRADER 8TATES THAT 3 & YEARS LATER KaROLINE CONFIDED TO HIM THAT T H I 8 POEM WAS TO TURN OUT TO BE A TER R IBLE PROPHECY OF LATER E V E N T S .^ ONDLY, W HILE WE HAVE NO RECORD OF A CLASH OF P E R S O N A LIT IE S , D ID ONCE SAY* B E N O E R ."^ of

"DeR K0NSTLER, E IN GUTER FREUND,

SEC­

BORCHARDT

1ST E IN SCHLECHTER *-l E -

KaROLINE HAPPENED TO BE A GIFTED A R T IS T , AND WHEN WE TH IN K

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

tem peram ent,

H IS F IN A N C IA L D IF F IC U L T IE S ,

the

poor

success

of

h is

p u b l is h e o

AND THE RESULTANT MOODINESS,

w orks,

IT ALL MAY

HAVE ADDED UP TO AT LEAST A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR IN D ISSO LVIN G THE MAR­ R IA G E .

B o r c h a r d t a ls o

p u t th is

KE1T IN U R TEILEN 1ST K E IN K E IT

IN VORURTEILEN KE IN ES

dow n a s a n " e x p e r i e n c e ! "

IN N IG E 8 V e R h IlT N IS

IN D IE FeRNE,

"O h n e E i n i g OHNE E lN I G -

IN DER NXh E VON Da UER; D IE LETZTERE OAHER

C EINER DER VERBORGENEN T a L I 8MANE DER S H E ."

T H IR D L Y ,

A CLOSE STUDY OF

THE POETRY OF BORCHARDT REVEALS THAT NOT ALL LOVE P0EM8 WERE WRITTEN WITH H IS W IFE

IN M IN D .

K lX n G E ," ^ WRITTEN IN

ThERE I S ,

1917,

3 . JufiENDSEPICHTE, ( B e r l i n ,

FOR INSTANCE, THE SERIES OF "N a C H -

WHICH IS

I 920 ) ,

RATHER PA 8SIONATE IN TONE AND 8 A I0

p.

12 * .

U . R . A. 3 c h r 8 d e r , " E r in n e r u n g e n a n Ru d o l f Bo r c h a r d t , " b u c h (Wu p p e r t a l , f 914-7^ *66- 168. 5.

"E rfa h ru n g e n

und G e s e tz e ,"

( a p h o r is m s ) MNN.

6.

Ib ip .

7.

jfej3MJ.SCH.TE SeDICHJE (B e r l i n ,

1921+) .

Pe r Bu n d J a h r -

19 May * 9 2 9 *

1+2

TO

HAVE

BEEN ADDRESSED TO A B E A U T IF U L

T A N T A L IZ E D

TH E M EN,

AND

IN T E L L IG E N T

E N G L IS H

LADY,

WHO

BUT K E P T THEM AT A D IS T A N C E *

BORCHARDT DIO NOT PART FROM H IS W IFE

IN ANGER. HOWEVER.

On THE

CONTRARY, HE 8 EEMS TO HAVE BEEN AWARE OF HER MANY EXCELLENT Q U A L IT IE S AND FELT CONSIDERABLE COMPUfSVlON IN D ISSO LVIN G THE MARRIAGE. CEDED FOR HER IN PLACING HER IN THE EMPLOY OF D r . Br e m e r P r e s s e , a g a in

.

Ka r o l i

h is

own

p u b l is h e r ,

but

Eh r m a n n Bo r c h a r d t

ne

TYPE-SETTER AND PROOFREADER -

he

never

stayed

w it h

He INTER­

W lL L Y WlEGAND OF THE

made

the

a

move

to

see

Br e m e r Pr e s s e

her

as

IN WHICH CAPACITY SHE A L80 TRANSCRIBED

HER FORMER HUSBAND'S HANDWRITTEN MANUSCRIPTS, MAKING EVEN COMPETENT CORRECTIONS HERE AND THERE -

AND AFTER

* 9 3 0 WITH D r .

WlEGAND AS H I 8

IN DECEMBER • 9U2 THE N a Z IS DEPORTED HER, A JeWE 8 S ,

SECRETARY, U N T IL

THE DETENTION CAMP AT THERESIENSTADT IN BOHEMIA,

TO

WHERE, ALTHOUGH IT WA8

THE MOST HUMANE OF THE CONCENTRATION CAMPS, SHE D IED SHORTLY THEREAFTER, PO SSIBLY OF STARVATION, SCHR8 DER AND D r .

FOR SHE WAS OFTEN I L L AND ALWAYS VERY F R A G IL E .

WlEGAND SPOKE VERY HIGHLY OF HER CHARACTER.

H e r DE­

PORTMENT AT THE TIM E OF HER DEPARTURE FOR THERE8 IENSTADT WAS NOTHING THEY 8A ID .

LESS THAN HEROIC,

B o r c h a r d t m a r r ie d V o ig t, n ie c e T IM E

a g a in

d a u g h te r o f th e

in

I 92I.

B re m e n la w y e r R o b e r t V o i g t a n d ,

A S A N A T O R IU M ,

YOUNGER TH A N H E ,

A T T R A C T IV E ,

MUST HAVE

BEEN AT THAT

NEW L E A S E

ON L I F E .

S . Bo r c h a r d t

PROBABLY

c alled

T IM E ,

IN

19 * S .

AND V ER Y

S h e WAS F U L L Y

E N E R G E T IC .

SHE A P P A R E N T L Y

S L IM

her

"M a r e l ”

for

sho rt.

s p e n d in g some

TW ENTY Y E A R 8

i-o w AS H I S

GAVE H IM

VOLUME OF E X Q U I 8 I T E

The

in c id e n ta lly ,

He h a d m e t h e r w h i l e

o f R u d o l f A le x a n d e r S c h r S d e r . IN

H is s e c o n d w i f e w as M a r ie - L u is e ®

8P IR IT S

S O M E T H IN G L IK E

PO ETR Y,

D ig

A

S c h A p fu n G

AUB L lE B E .

WAS IN SP IR ED BY HER,

AND IN

192 0 HE DEDICATEO H IS COLLECTED

WORKS, TO BE PUBLISHED BY ROWOHLT DURING THE NEXT F IV E YEARS, REL,

DEM DER l-ESER BORCHARDT VER DANKT."

TO "M a -

T h EY SPENT SOME VERY HAPPY

DAYS TOGETHER IN Ga IENHOFEN NEAR HORN ON L a k e CONSTANCE, MADE A QUICK tr ip

to

Ita ly

THAT SAME YEAR, LY ,

19 2 I , a n d m oved t o

in

U N T IL ,

IN JANUARY

OCCUPYING THE V lL L A MaNSI

BABY AMMOuYfccb

IT CC-b r ,

WITH FOUR CHILDREN. CHARDT ACUTE, CORDINGLY,

a K u rh a u s

1922,

in

H a ls n e a r P a s s a u l a t e r

THEY MOVED PERMANENTLY TO IT A ­

IN MoNSAGRATI

NEAR L u C C A .

SOON THE F IR S T

AND IN DUE COURSE OF TIM E THE FAM ILY WAS BLES 8 ED

T H IS RENDERED THE D E C !8 1ON OF A CAREER FOR BOR-

IN ORDER TO PROVIDE THE NECESSARY REGULAR INCOME.

HE MADE UP H IS MIND TO BECOME A WRITER AND LECTURER,

THE F IC K L E MUSE IN GOOD S P IR IT S .

AND

He HAD TO FIN D

THAT MEANT FIN D IN G REGULAR TAKERS FOR H IS PRODUCTS. PUBLISHERS, SIGN CONTRACTS, MEET D EA D LIN E 8 ,

AC­

AND AT THE SAME TIM E KEEP

NeeDLESS TO SAY,

THERE WERE TO BE

T IM E S , WHEN THE S A IL IN G WAS NOT VERY SMOOTH, AND SINCE BORCHARDT REFUSED TO BECOME A HACK AND HPOPULARH WRITER AND IN 8 IBTED ON PROTECTING THE MU8E WITH H IS HIGH IDEALS ANO

A M B ITIO N TO SAFEGUARDTHE GERMAN CULTURAL

HERITAGE,

THE ONES TO BEAR THE BRUNT OF THE F R IC ­

TIO N

in

THE PUBLISHERS WERE

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

s it u a t io n

,

a lth o u g h

it

m ig h t

safely

be

added

that

SINCE THEY HAD MUCH LESS AT STAKE IN THE R E LA T I0N 8 THAN D ID THE AUTHOR, IT WAS HE, AND NOT THEY, The

f o l l o w in g

WHO ACTUALLY SUFFERED MOST.

account

of

18 GIVEN NOT WITH THE IDEA OF TER,

Bo r c h a r d t ' s r e l a t i o n s

REER, f o r t in c tio n

h is

p u b l is h e r s

8H0WING UP A NEGATIVE S ID E OF H IS CHARAC­

BUT AS A MATTER OF PER80NAL HISTORY -

MINUS SIGNS -

w it h

W ITH JUST AS MANY PLUS AS

AND AN OBJECT LESSON IN THE CHOICE OF W RITING AS A CA­

B o r c h a rd t w as one o f th e

v e ry

WHO L IV E D SOLELY BY HI 8 PEN.

fe w c r e a t i v e

w r ite r s

o f d is ­

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

f ir s t

(IS 9 6 - I 9 0 O

t io n s

HAD

SEN T TO T H E P O E T 8 ANDER S c H R flD E R . TO FOUND T H E

b ro u g h t n e w ly

and

of

IN G

IT S

SA M PLES

Bo r c h a r d t IT S

th e

nSFL.

fo re m o s t

fo rm e d

p u b lis h in g It

I

a

out

L ie d e r house

0

er

,

"E r in

nerung en

, "

Per

See nRENEGATEN8 T R E IC H E H ( i N SflppEUTSCHE M o n a t b h f f T E . 30.

auf

A BOOK BY F L A K E W H IC H

L a n GEN AND O TH ERS OF T H E 8 l M P L I Z l B S I M U S .

G O VER NM ENT.

10.

r e s p e c tiv e ly .

Bu n d

(W u

ppertal

,

I9 4 7 )»

p

*

16 6 .

RE S lM P L I Z l S S I M U S . E D IT IO N F R A N ^ A IS e ),

V ( I 9 0 S ),

759PP»

C f.

A L 8 0 FOOTNOTE 1+,

P.

An

w ith

A lfr e d

e ra ry

8 G REAT F R IE N D S H IP

IM PO R TA N T C O N N E C T IO N FOR BORCHARDT WAS H I

W a lt e r v o n

H e y m e l

(1 8 7 8 -1 9 1 1 *),

an a r t

c r it ic

and l i t ­

H IS TO R IA N FOR THE SflpDEUTBCHEM' MqnaTBHEFTE AND OTHER PER IO D IC ALS,

CO-FOUNDER OF P lE

AUTHOR OF A VOLUME OF POEMS CALLED Z r lT E N .

In S E L .

WEALTHY BENEFACTOR OF YOUNG, STRUGGLING POETS. L IO P H IL E

AND

He FINANCED DELUXE B IB ­

( I 9 O8 ) AND JllCENDGFDICMTE ( • 9 * 3 ^ »

E D IT I0 N 8 OF BORCHARDT*8 V lL L A

AND THERE 18 NO T E LLIN G WHAT BEN EFITS BORCHARDT MIGHT YET HAVE REAPED, HAD HE L IV E D LONGER. B I L IT Y

by th e

P r in c e

BUT HeYMEL,

AN

ARDENT P A T R IO T ,

R e g e n t o f B a v a r ia ,

ru s h e d t o

R AI6ED TO THE NO­

th e

c o lo r s

in

I9 *H »

WAS WOUNDED IN ONE OF THE EARLY ENGAGEMENTS, AND DEAD BY NOVEMBER. FEW DAYS LATER, UNO D IE

IN He IOELBERG,

BORCHARDT DEDICATED H IS SPEECH De R K r i f b

DEUTSCHE ElNKEHR TO H IM ,

"R e i t e r h e l d

von

Three

later

years

Na m u r he

un d

A

IN WHICH HE REFERREO TO HIM AS THE

Ch a r l e r o i "

e u l o g iz e d

h im

in

and

an

"R it t e r essay

E is e r n e n K r e u z e s . "

des

in

the

catalo g u e

fo r

the

AUCTION SALE OF H IS EFFECT8. Af t e r H IS

the

w ar a n d

Bo r c h a r d t *s

d u r in g

great

decade,

the

BUS I N E 8 S A F F A IR S WERE FOR T H E M O ST PART HA N D LED J O IN T L Y

B rem er Pr e s s e

of

Brem er Pr e s se

w as

Mu n ic h

and

fo und ed

in

Er n s t

the

19* *

by

Ro w o h lt V e r l a g D r s . Wo l d e

I DEAL18TS AND MEN OF CONSIDERABLE MEANS. THE BEST IN GERMAN LITERATURE,

and

of

t w e n t ie s ,

BY THE

Be r l i n .

Wi l l y

T he

Wie g a n d ,

both

TH EIR PROGRAM WAS5 TO OFFER

MAKE HIGHLY D IS C R IM IN A T IN G SELECTIONS OF

NEW WORKS, AND SHOW THE 8C0PE AND B A S IC U N ITY OF THE BODY OF THE NA­ T IO N *8 LITERARY CULTURE IN ANTHOLOGIES AND TRANSLATIONS. HEARD BORCHARDT's SPEECH ABOUT P lE in

He i d e l b e r g

in

1 9 *2 ,

they

knew

N E U F P o E filr . U N O

they

had

fo und

INTO T H E IR PROGRAM AND PROMPTLY SIGNED H IM UP. Ma r k s

for

three

m a n u s c r ip t s

an n u ally,

and

an

WHEN THEY

D IF A L T F Mf NSCHHEIT autho r

who

f it t e d

T H E IR TERM8 WERE 6 ,0 0 0

Bo r c h a r d t

came

t h r o u g h w it h

U6

HALF A DOZEN WHEN THE OUTBREAK OF THE WAR PUT A TEMPORARY HALT TO THE EFF0RT8 OF WRITER AND PUBLISHERS.

A SPEC IAL CONTRACT WAS MADE FOR THE

Da n t e

had

t r a n s l a t io n

,

a f t e ;r

Bo r c h a r d t

read

f iv e

canto s

to

them

.

T wo

OTHER AUTHORS OF THE BREMER PRESSE WERE H0FMANN8THAL AND ScHRflDEh,

THUS

BRINGING TOGETHER AG AIN THE TRIUM VIRATE OF THE "JaH RBU Ch" HESPERUS OF 1909 AND ASSURING THE ENTREPRENEURS OF HIGH Q U ALITY, DED THE BEST IN WORKMANSHIP.

TO WHICH THEY AD­

N o r D ID THE BE8T C R IT IC S F A IL TO NOTE

THAT THE COMBINATION WAS SETTING A NEW HIGH MARK IN THE ART OF BOOKMAKING. The " V e r la g

d e r B re m e r P r e s s e " w as f o r m a l l y

o r g a n iz e d

in

th e

sum­

m e r OF 1922 AND IM M EDIATELY ■BAl^ BI& iA >H^ i -Tfl- BORCHARDT *8 TRANSLATIONS OF T a c itu s !

THE T Y P E WAS S E T F IR M

31+ c a n t o s o f D a n t e » b C q m e p ia . f o r b o t h o f w h i c h

S s r m a m ia a n d IN

J

u

LY

CEASED TO F U N C T IO N

Ho f m a n n s t h a l ,

there

l9*U*

S U B SEQ U EN TLY AND U N T IL

AS A R E S U LT

w ere

to

appear

OF T H E D E M IS E by

Bo r c h a r d t

OF

the

1930»

IT S

WHEN T H E

G U ID IN G

com plete

STAR,

Da n t e

O 9 3 0 )»

THE THREE OUTSTANDING AN T H O LO G IE S ,11 A l t j o n is c h e G flT T E R L I f p e R

(I9 2 U ),

D ie

THINGS,

BEGUN MUCH E A R L IE R ,

was

g rq s s e n

Bo r c h a r d t

in

T ro b a p o rb

c r e a t in g

AFTER THE WAR, THAT D r .

( 19 2 1 + ),

and

s e v e r a l m in o r w o r k s .

HAD MATURED TO COMPLETION,

new

ones

as

a

result

of

h is

So

m any

AND SO P R O L IF IC s p ir it u a l

W lL L Y WlEGAND, WHO HAD TAKEN A 8PEC IAL

'IN HIM AND TAKEN HIM UNDER H IS WING AT THE BREMER Pr ESSE,

r e b ir t h

INTEREST

COULD NOT OR

WOULD NOT TAKE ALL THAT CAME FROM HI 8 PEN, BUT GAVE A CONSIDERABLE NUM­ BER OF MANUSCRIPT8 OVER TO ERNST ROWOHLT, WHOM HE HAD KNOWN 8IN C E CHILDHOOD AND AS A SCHOOLMATE IN BREMEN. PLAYS,

II.

L IM IT E D E D IT I0 N 8 OF Df R Du RANT.

De u t s c h e De n k r e o b n AN D

Per

D e u ts c h e

in

( 19 2 5 ) , per

_ PRINTED ROWOHLT BROUGHT MOST OF THE

P lE H A L B C E R E T T E T E S e e L E .

AND THE

E tflG E R V q RRAT. PEU.T.8CHER PQESIE. ( * 9 2 6 ) ,

L a n d b c h a ft

(

1927 ) .

1+7

SxOMSUStlE. TRANSLATIONS, TEN. A COLLECTION IN B e tw e e n t h e B o r c h a r d t 's d u c tiv e

tw o

AND, ABOVE A L L ,

12 VOLUMES, o f th e m ,

b e s t w o rk s .

Y e t,

THE SELECTED WORKS, OR S c H R IP -

OF WHICH ONLY SEVEN APPEARED,

W ie g a n d a n d R o w o h lt ,

th e y

HOWEVER.

to o k m ost o f

e v e n th o u g h B o r c h a r d t w as n e v e r m o re p r o ­

AND HE COULD NEVER HAVE STRUCK A BETTER BARGAIN THAN HE D ID

WITH H IS TWO PUBLISHERS, THE Y IE LD PORT HOUSE AND F A M IL Y . ONLY NATURAL.

It

IN MONEY WAS BARELY ENOUGH TO SUP­

THAT T H I 8 SHOULD MAKE HIM B IT T E R AT TIM ES

IS

MADE HIM MOODY AND CAUSED HIM TO FEEL DEPRESSED,

WHICH IN TURN CAUSED HI 8 WORK TO 8UFFER. PERIODS OF IL L N E S S .

ADDED TO THAT WERE PROLONGED

Op-JEN ONLY H IS P R ID E ,

H IS F A IT H

IN H IS TASK,

AND

R E S P O N S IB IL IT Y TOWARD H IS FAM ILY KEPT H IM GOING. Th e r e

are,

course,

of

BOOKS D ID NOT 8 E L L . bad

it

and

t h is

Bo r c h a r d t

He

w ay.

several

e x p l a n a t io n s

THE TWO OBVIOUS ONES ARE•

w rote

accused

o nly

h is

fo r

the

PROMOTING H IS W0RK8 PROPERLY.

the

fact

that

h is

TIM ES WERE GENERALLY few .

cultur ed

p u b l is h e r s ,

for

Bu t

he

d io

Ro w o h l t ,

p a r t ic u l a r l y

not

of

see

not

BORCHARDT HAD A HIGH O P IN IO N OF TH E IR

Q U ALITY AND HE THOUGHT THE READING .JPUBLIC SHARED THAT O P IN IO N . MAY BE PRETTY CERTAIN THAT ROWOHLT AND WlEGAND, WERE, D ID TH E IR UTMOST TO PROTECT TH E IR

BUT WE

BUS IN E 8SMEN THAT THEY

INVESTMENTS BY BOOSTING T H E IR

AUTHORS FOR ALL THEY WERE WORTH.

THAT THEY HAD THE BEST INTEREST 8 OF

Bo r c h a r d t

be

e s p e c ia l l y

TOOK PLACE IN

at

heart

can

g lean eo

from

an

in c id e n t

w h ic h

192l|. 5

Ip

Th e y P A ID ,

o ffered

Bo r c h a r d t

a

year's

t r ip

to

Gr e e c e ,

all

expenses

IN RETURN FOR WHICH THEY ASKED FOR,THE PU B LIS H IN G RIGHTS TO ONLY

1 2 . Ro w o h l t a n d Wie g a n d r a t h e r t h a n a Sw is s f r i e n d , a s S c h r Sd e r v a g u e l y REMEMBERS IN H IS VERY INTERESTING AND OTHERWISE GENERALLY ACCURATE " E r in n e r u n g e n a n R u d o lf B o r c h a r d t " i n t h e " J a h r b u c h " P e r B u nd (Wup­ p e r ta l,

191+7).

us

ONE MANUSCRIPT -

A RESULT OF THE GREEK EXPERIENCE.

BORCHARDT THOUGHT

T H IS OFFER EXTREMELY HANDSOME AND ACCEPTED JO Y FU LLY .

He IMMEDIATELY

SET OUT TO PURCHASE THE NECESSARY CL0THE8 AND CAMPING EQUIPMENT, T IC E TE N T -P IT C H IN G

IN H IS SMALL FLAT

RECENTLY VACATED BY R lL K E ,

PRAC­

IN A DISMAL REGION IN Mu n ICH AND

PRACTICALLY WORE H IS TROPICAL HELMET TO BEO,

AND SLEPT ON H IS HARD F I ELD—COT BY WAY OF INURING HIMSELF TO THE AN TIC ­ IPATED WAY OF L IF E

IN THE ARCADIAN LANDSCAPE.

BURST OF ENTHUSIASM HE WAVERED, AND ON Ma y OF APOLOGY AND REGRET,

Bu t AFTER THE F IR ST

12 HE

HIGHLY EMOTIONAL IN TONE,

SENT A POIGNANT P O E M ^ TO H IS SPONSORS.

He

GAVE AS ONE REA80N FOR CHANGING H IS MIND THE FEAR THAT GREECE WOULD NOT L IV E UP TO H IS EXPECTATIONS OP I T ; C H IEFLY THOSE OF F A M IL Y ,

BUT THERE MAY

HAVEBEEN OTHERS,

AS WE SHALL SEE LATER.

R o w o h lt a n d B o r c h a r d t p a r t e o

co m p a n y

in

1925 , * ^ b u t w i t h W ie g a n d

THE TEMPERAMENTAL AUTHOR REMAINED ON CORDIAL TERMS U N T IL THE BREMER Pr e s s e

clo sed

•n

I 92 S ,

I9 3 0 *

in

D r.

H anns M a r t i n

E ls te r

e n te re d

th e

p ic t u r e .

AND PUBLISHER OF THE Ho r f n . A MONTHLY PE R IO D IC AL FOR ART,

As e d i t o r PHILOSOPHY,

AND LITER ATU R E, HE HAD BEEN REVIEWING AND BOOSTING B o RCHARDt ' s BOOKS s in c e

l is h e d

ly

l9 2 U » in

Th e n ,

q u ic k

POPULAR

w h en

he

s u c c e s s io n

books:

fo und ed

th r ee

•3 *

HAS NEVER BEEN IN THE POSSESSION

•U *

Ro w o h l t Ro w o h l t .

a

hand

Da n t e ,

in

erlag

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

in

best

and

o nly

19 3 0 ,

( 1 9 2 s ) . ELEVEN OFTHE BEST

one

more

p u b l is h e d

p u b l ic a t io n j o in t l y

l in

als o

,

he

pub­

r e l a t iv e ­

P R IN T , A SECOND E D I­

PUBLISHED AND BEARS NO T IT L E . OF D r . W lL L Y WlEGAND. in

Be r

(192s), A VALUABLE COL­

M IS C E LLA N IE S LARGELY OUT OF

T IO N OF D i r S c h Ap f u n G AHA L i f b f

had

of

Ho r e n - V

Ha n d l h n c f N UND A b h a n DLUNGEN

LECTION OF ESSAYS AND

co m plete

the

by

POEMS BOR-

THEMANU8CRIPT IS

t h a t : the B r e m e r Pr e s s e

after

the

and

U9 ( I 929 ) ,

CHARDT EVER WROTE, AND Dab HOFFNUNGBL.OBE Q e s C H L E C H T

TEMPORARY TALES WHICH REVEAL A NEW S ID E OF BORCHARDT. GOT ALONG WELL WITH H IS AUTHOR, BECAUSE HE BELIEVED T h a t h e r e c o g n iz e d o u t SAYIN G , TRACT.

B o r c h a r d t 's

a b ilit ie s

FOUR CON­

E lS TE R ALWAYS

IN P L A IN D EA LIN G .

a n d a c c o m p lis h m e n ts w e n t w i t h ­

BUT AS A PUBLISHER HE IN S IS T E D ON THE TERMS OF THE CON­

He BARRED ADVANCES ON UNDELIVERED MANUSCRIPTS AND ROYALTIES

FROM THE BEGINNING AND THEREBY 8AVED HIMSELF AUTHORS 1 TANTRUMS AND EV­ ERYONE CONCERNED WEAR AND TEAR OF NERVES. ATED T H IS ,

BORCHARDT EVIDENTLY APPRECI­ AND E l -

FOR THERE IS NOTHING ON RECORD TO CONTRADICT T H IS , LEADING

STER IS TODAY PERHAPS THE ■"*©■»— *• ROOTER FOR BORCHARDT.

He

IS AC TIV ELY

ENGAGED IN F IN D IN G A COMPETENT AND SOLVENT PU BLISHER . AND HE IS C O -E D I­ TOR OF A D E F IN IT IV E E D IT IO N OF THE COMPLETE W0RK8, -

IF EVER THAT PUB­

LISH ER CAN BE FOUND. Wh e n va

Br e m e r Pr e s s e

the

, Sw i t z e r l a n d ,

He y m e l it e d

had

E D IT IO N S ,

(1 9 3 6 ), ffr

done

.

Pa r t



J O IN T L Y

Bo d m e r

w as

becam e

before

h im

,

shop,

Bo r c h a r d t ' s several

it

of

a

pla n n e d

shorter

but

w orks w ere

Ma r t i n

patron.

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

of

never

w as

next

INCLUDING THE COMEDY Pa m e l a

Ad d it io n a l

E D IT E D

who

clo sed

(> 9 3 U )

c o n t in u e d

p u b l is h e d

Bo d m er He

w o r ks

and

the

Ge n e ­

f in a n c e d ,

as

in

l im

co stly

c alled

St a u -

Co r o n a .

jo u r n a l

BY BODMER AND HERBERT S t E IN E R . the

last

to

take

a

real

in t e r e s t

in

Bo r c h a r d t

H IS WORKS A V A ILA B LE TO AT LEAST A 8 ELECT C LIE N T E LE .

and

make

A l l THOSE WHO FOL­

LOWED H IM P-BlfA u o iYF°ONLY ONE WORK EACH, JU 8T AS A HOST OF PUBLISHERS BE­ FORE THEM HAD CONTRIBUTED A PAMPHLET HERE, there.

Br i e f l y

men,

whom

to

­

Al-PFM/laFRfiAMG

pen talo g y

in

of

m e n t io n e d

Bo r c h a r d t

was

are

o nly

related

the

AN A R TIC LE OR A REPRINT

f o l l o w in g .

through

h is

Pe t e r V o i g t

second

w if e

,

of

Br e ­

sponsored

THE PR IN TIN G OF 2 5 0 COPIES EACH OF TWO S LIM VOLUMES OF SELECTED WORKS

in

I 93 U ANO • 9 3 5 *

ly

MADE AN ARBITRARY SELECTION OF TR AN SLATI0N8 FROM ENGLISH POETS AS A

C h r is t m a s

g if t

s o o f V ie n n a , F fin p th e r

of

fo r

th e

in

p u b lic a t io n s

in

was

in

o f V ie n n a a n d t h e

*9 3 ^.

B o r c h a r d t 's

19 3 7 -

T he B e r m a n n - F is c h e r V e r l a g ,

o n ly

A fte r th a t,

th e

n o v e l,

V e r e i n i cling

N a z is p u t a s t o p

the

death

f ir s t

to

and

after

r e v iv e

Wo r l d Wa r

in t e r e s t

in

GRANDLY CONCEIVED 28-VOLUME E D IT IO N OF H IS W0RK8, OF D r .

VON DeCHEND,

B o r c h a r d t fa m i­

durch

to

a l­

pen

any f u r ­

A u s tr ia .

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

Fr a n k f u r t

a u th o r

p u b li s h e d

H iN m iR C H .

S in c e

T he P h a id o n - V e r la g

ONLY PlfiA

FOR THE CO N TIN UATIO N ,

the

S c h Ot t e - V

Bo r c h a r d t .

Of

erlag

it s

UNDER THE E D IT 0 R 8 H IP

( l9 U S ) HAS APPEARED SO FAR .

LET ALONE COMPLETION,

WHAT SMALL AT T H IS T IM E .

1 1,

THE CHANCES

OF THE PROJECT 8EEM SOME­

T he ONLY OTHER BORCHARDT-VOLUME SINCE H IS

DEATH HAS APPEARED IN SWITZERLAND! Q r n i C M T F . A BOOK OF SELECTED POEMS, IN THE "KLOSTERBERG SaMMLUNG* PUBLISHED BY THE BeNNO ScHWABE VeRLAG OF Ba s e l .

T+C TROUBLESOME AND

PRODUCTIVE TWENTIES

D i f f i c u l t B e g i n n i n g s - A m e r ic a n P r o s p e c t s - De p r e s ­ I n t e r l u d e ! Mu n i c h a n d B r e m e n - V i l l a d i B i g i a no I l l n e s s - T h e A u t h o r a t Wo r k

s io n

I n J anuary Ha l s , dent

near

1922,

Pa s s a u ,

Bo r c h a r d t

to

V il l a

the

had

moved

MA n *

i

w it h

.p r e g n a n t

h is

tN Mo n s a g r a t i ,

Lu c c a ,

near

THAT A NEW AND BETTER L IF E WAS IN THE O F FIN G .

w if e

fro m c o n f i­

I n SOME WAYS THAT

CONFIDENCE WAS NOT M ISPLACED,

FOR THE FOLLOWING TEN YEARS WERE TO BE

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

s p ir it u a l

many; in

decade

as

NE NEVER WROTE MORE,

p r in t

t h is

great

.

Mo r e o v e r ,

DECADE.

TOO, -

Bu t

a

COSTLY E N TR IE S .

in t e l l e c t u a l

pow er

in

Ge r ­

LECTURED MORE, OR SAW MORE OF H IS WRITINGS

w hatever

there

and

are

r e c o g n it io n

e n t r ie s

on

he

reaped

t h e - o ther

in

s id e

h is

of

l if e

the

c am e

in

led g er,

I f HITHERTO H IS TROUBLES HAD BEEN MOSTLY IN S ID E

H IS OWN SOUL, HE WAS NOW TO BE SURROUNDED BY THEM’, AND EVEN IF THE EAR­ L IE R TURMOIL IN H IS 8 0 U L ,

CHARACTERIZED BY DOUBTS AND IN D E C IS IO N ,

AND

THE GRUELLING PREPARATIONS FOR A L IF E OF LIG H T AND H0PEFULNES8 WERE AL­ LAYED WITH THE ADVANCING YEARS, THERE CAME IN T H E IR PLACE THE DULLNESS AND LIFE-CO NSUM ING STRAIN OF HARO WORK. F rom

the

outset

he

was

beset

by

all

sorts

of

cares

LY HINDER OR RENDER MORE D IF F IC U L T H IS LITERARY WORK.

WHICH COULD ON­ He WAS HURRIED

OUT OF H18 HOTEL NEAR PaSSAU,

BECAU8E IT WAS BEING SOLO; H IS W IFE

A C H IL D

WAS EXPECTING^

AND A HOUSE HAD TO BE FOUND AND A GARDEN STARTED TO HELP

PAY RUNNING EXPENSES.

THE B r e MER P r ESSE AND ROWOHLT RAN T H E IR PRESSES

FULL SPEED,

HOWEVER, ALTHOUGH MOSTLY WITH WORKS THAT HAD BEEN STARTED

YEARS AGO.

A n d WHILE THINGS MAY HAVE WORKED OUT SATISFAC TO R ILY

END, THERE WAS ONE CIRCUMSTANCE -

COMPLETELY BEYOND ANYONE'S CONTROL -

WHICH WAS TO SPELL DISASTER FOR THE BORCHARDTS, TARY IN F L A T IO N

IN GERMANY.

IN THE

AND THAT WAS THE MONE­

Ha d BORCHARDT BEEN IN GERMANY, H IS

PU B LIS H ­

ERS MIGHT HAVE PULLED H IM THROUGH; BUT HE WAS NOT, AND THE CONVERSION OF H IS EARNINGS C o n s e q u e n t ly ,

INTO

b y May

IT A L IA N L IR A PROVED UNTENABLE IN THE LONG RUN.

1923, B o r c h a r d t was fa c e d w i t h b a n k r u p t c y a n d

FORCED TO RETURN TO GERMANY. H IS

IN -LA W S , W H ILE H E,

STAYED ON T I L L

JuN E.

H|s

FAM ILY 80UGHT REFUGE IN BREMEN WITH

IN A OESPARATE ATTEMPT TO SALVAGE THE S IT U A T IO N , I n A LETTER TO D r .

WlEGAND,

DATED 8 JUNE

8POKE OF A PLANNED LECTURE-TOUR OF THE Un|TED STATES, PROMISED H IM SELF GREAT SUCCESS.

*9 2 3 *

HE

FROM WHICH HE

He CLAIMS TO HAVE HAD AN OFFER FROM

TWO AGENCIE8 FOR AT LEAST S IX T Y LECTURES AT A RATE OF $ • 5 0 AND EXPEN­ SES,

PLUS OTHER CONSIDERATIONS.

BUT HOW ALL T H IS CAME ABOUT, WHAT THE

CONNECTIONS WERE, AND WHETHER BORCHARDT REFERRED TO A PR08PECT OR A D E F IN IT E PROMISE, IS ,

T H I8 WRITER HAS NOT BEEN ABLE TO ASCERTAIN.

THE T R IP D ID NOT M A T E R IA L IZ E .

VERY LIK E LY H IS PUBLISHERS WERE NOT

ABLE TO ADVANCE THE NECESSARY DOLLAR IN8TRUMENT8 AT THAT T IM E , L IK E L Y ALSO THE PROSPECT WAS NOT TOO D E F IN IT E ,

KNOWN EVEN IN H IS OWN COUNTRY AT THAT T IM E .

AND VERY

FOR S IX T Y LECTURES AT

$ 1 5 0 APIEC E SEEMS A L IT T L E O P T IM IS T IC FOR A MAN WHO WAS NOT TOO

TREMELY IN T E R E S T IN G ,

THE FACT

'WELL

>T WOULD HAVE BEEN EX­

HOWEVER, TO HAVE HAD BORCHARDT*8 REACTION TO THE

Un i t e d

St a t e s ,

a

country

w it h o u t

the

t r a d it io n

SO MUCH OF IN THE CASE OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, GREATER THAN ANY OF THEM.

and

h e r it a g e

he

BUT WITH A POTENTIAL

THAT HE HAD OCCUPIED HIM SELF WITH AMERICA AT

SOME TIM E WE GLEAN FROM OCCASIONAL PERTINENT PRONOUNCEMENTS. o f E o n a St .

V in c e n t M i l l a y ,

fo r

in s t a n c e ,

as th e

In s te a d la w s , ly

AN IN S T IT U T IO N WITHOUT PARALLEL

o f jo in in g

B o rc h a rd t,

v e ry

h is

fa m ily

in

DUE TO HER EDU­

IN EUROPE.*

B re m e n a n d l i v i n g

n e a r d e s p a ir th r o u g h

Hg SPOKE

g r e a t e s t p he no m e no n

AMONG THE POETS OF THE WESTERN WORLD IN MODERN T IM E S , CATION AT VASSAR,

th o u g h t

h u rt op

p r id e

w ith

h is

in ­

a n d a s e e m in g ­

HOPELE8S OUTLOOK, WENT F IR S T TO M uN IC H , WHERE HE RENTED A CHEAP

F LA T ,

TO TAKE STOCK OF H IS PLIGHT AND SEARCH FOR A WAY OUT.

H IS S P IR IT 8 ,

To KEEP UP

HE SPENT MUCH TIM E WITH H IS FRIENDS OF THE BREMER P rE S S E ,

PARTICULARLY D r . WlEGAND,

READING NIGHT AFTER NIGHT FROM H IS WORKS,

CANT08 FROM H IS DaNTE AND SONGS FROM H IS A ltjq N I B C M F Q flTTtrRL IF D F R .

BUT

OFTEN HE WAS NOT IN A MOOD TO SEE ANYONE, AND THEN HE WOULD LEAVE TOWN FOR MANY DAYS WITHOUT LEAVING AN ADDRESS. C A P ITA L OF THE IT A L IA N TyROL. TO H IS L IK IN G ,

^NE SUCH T R IP WAS TO BOZEN,

THERE HE SEEMED TO HAVE FOUND A SETTING

FOR H IS FATH ER -IN -LAW SHORTLY AFTERWARD8 NEGOTIATED FOR

THE A C Q U IS IT IO N OF A HOUSE THERE.

BUT NEITHER THAT M A T E R IA LIZ E D ,

NOR A

SECOND ATTEMPT AT AN AMERICAN LECTURE TOUR. CHRISTMA8

19 2 3 AND THE FIR ST WEEKS OF 1921+ BORCHARDT SPENT

IN BRE­

MEN, AND TH ITHER WENT WlEGAND NOW TO MAKE THE EXTRAORDINARY OFFER OF THE EX P E D ITIO N TO GREECE. WA8 REALLY UP AG AIN8T TO H IM AT F IR S T .

I.

" B r ie fe

a n e in e

IT ,

COMING,

AS IT D ID ,

AT A T IM E WHEN BORCHARDT

WE CAN WELL B E LIE V E WHAT A GODSEND IT

8EEMED

Bu t WE ALSO UNDERSTAND THAT FA M ILY CONSIDERATIONS

ju n g e D i c h t e r i n , "

DAS BILBERBQOT.

til

C1914.7 ) ,

2 9 5 ff.

WOULD BE ABLE TO PREVENT IT 8 EXECUTION. SPONSORS ASKED IN RETURN FOR TH E IR

CONSIDERING HOW L IT T L E THE

INVESTMENT OF 8 , 0 0 0 Ma RKS, A T ID Y

SUM IN VIEW OF THE SMALL S A L A B IL IT Y OF BORCHARDT*8 BOOKS, THE I DEA fWAT fFHEVrl;

WANTED TO DO H IM A FAVOR nt$G' V£RY I M U C H " ’EVIDENT1''*

IN -LA W ,

Ro b e r t V o i g t ,

who

had

been

and

seemed

l ik e l y

to

H is

FATHER-

c o n t in u e

for

a

WHILE TO BEAR THE BURDEN OF SUPPORTING THE FAM ILY LEFT BEHIND AND WHO WAS IN 8 I STING ON A PROPORT IONATE SHARE IN MAKING DEC IS I0 N 8 AFFECTING THE F IN A N C IA L S T A B IL IT Y OF THE F A M IL Y , HOWEVER.

SAW THE PROPOSITION D IFFER EN TLY,

He BARGAINED FOR A CONTRACT IN W RITING AND WANTED TO HAVE IT

UNDERSTOOD THAT THE TWO PARTIES WERE SIG N IN G ON EQUAL TERM8 AND THAT THE EXPEDITIO N WAS GOING TO BE OF MUTUAL B E N E F IT .

Of COURSE,

THE SPON­

SORS D ID NOT MIND DEALING WITH A BUS INES8 MAN; ONLY THEY D ID NOT WANT TO HAVE TH EIR

IN TEG R ITY QUESTIONED,

PARTICULARLY

A CONTRACT WAS DI3CUSSED ON FEBRUARY 9.

We kn ow t h e r e s t .

-

S e n s itiv e

IN T H IS

INSTANCE.

10 AND CONSUMMATED ON A P R IL

as B o rc h a rd t w as,

th e

chances a re

THAT H IS RELATIONS WITH HI 8 F A T H E R -IN -LA W WERE NOT TOO GOOD, AND THAT HE CANCELLED THE CONTRACT,

IN ORDER TO ESCAPE THE CHARGE OF IRRESPONSI­

B IL IT Y

We CAN ONLY SURMI8E T H IS ,

TOWARD H IS F A M IL Y .

BUT THE CIRCUM­

S TA N TIA L EVIDENCE IS STRONG. Bo r c h a r d t

then

s ig n e d

a

rency

HAVING BEEN S T A B IL IZ E D

I taly

a g a in

er

F or

,

w h it h e r

then

three

months

they

NEAR P |S T O I A .

IL LN E 8S E S ,

had

to

co ntract

returned

l iv e

w it h

A G A IN , in

Wie g a n d

w it h

IN THE MEANTIME,

TRY EARLY IN THE FALL OF *921+.

L IT T L E TOWN OF AROLO, Dl

he

new

and,

Ge r m a n

cur­

TURNED H IS TH0UGHT8 TO

w if e

and

c h il d r e n

fo r

anoth­

THE BEGINNINGS WERE D IF F IC U L T .

cramped

q uarters

in

a

ho tel

in

the

BEFORE THEY COULD F IN D AND OCCUPY THE V lL L A O dA L-

I n A D D IT IO N ,

BOTH HE AND H I8 W IFE SUFFERED SEVERE

WHICH ATE UP A GOOD PART OF T H E IR FUND8.

THE NEW V IL L A WAS

BARREN AND COLO;

IT HAD NEITHER CURTAINS NOR STOVES NOR EVEN ENOUGH

Al l THESE THINGS h ad TO BE SECURED, BEFORE THE LITERARY WORK

BEDS.

COULD BE STARTED IN EARNEST.

BUT BORCHARDT WAS DETERMINED TO HOLD OUTJ

NOT A SECOND TIM E WOULD HE BE ABLE TO STAND DEFEAT AND THE SHAME OF RE­ TURNING t o

B re m e n ,

And h e d i d w o r k h a r d ,

he w r o t e .

even

if

h is

in c o m e

D ID NOT REVEAL IT AND PEOPLE WHO MEASURED SUCCESS BY THAT DID NOT GIVE HIM CREDIT FOR I T .

FORTUNATELY,

SOME OF THE FOREMOST C R IT IC S OF GER­

MANY WERE BEGINNING TO NOTICE BORCHARDT AND LET HIM KNOW TH EIR ADMIRA­ T IO N .

Ka r l VOSSLER WROTE AN ENCOURAGING LETTER AND Na d LER WAS MOST EN­

TH U S IAS TIC

IN H IS A P P R A IS A L.

BORCHAROT NEEDED THESE S TIM U LI

TO KEEP

H IS HEAD UP IN THE FACE OF ADVERSITY. He BUSIED HIMSELF NOW WITH THE F IN A L READING OF THE P a R AD IFR . 3

of

man

Da n t e ' s D i v

in f

Co m e d y ,

and

the

c o m p il in g

of

a

new e d i t i o n

of

Pa RT Ge r ­

FOLK SONGS, A PROJECT WHICH TOOK UP A GREAT DEAL OF H IS TIM E AND

CAME VERY NEAR COMPLETION,

BUT WAS THEN DROPPED FOR GOOD, POSSIBLY BE­

CAUSE HE WAS UNABLE TO F IT

THE LAST PIECES TOGETHER IN JUST THE WAY HE

WANTED THEM.

He WAS EXCEEDINGLY CONSCIENTIOUS IN THE8E MATTERS.

'

f

A

WORK WAS NOT ONE HUNDRED PERCENT FLESH OF H IS FLE8H AND BONE OF H IS BONE, HE WOULD RATHER 8CRAP IT NEAR-SUCCESS.

THAN BE CONTENT W ITH A PAR TIAL OR EVEN

T H IS WAS AS TRUE OF ANTHOLOGIES AND TRANSLATIONS AS IT

WAS OF O R IG IN A L WORKS. To AUGMENT H IS

INCOME,

HE -WOUtrO- NOW ALSO DEVOTH3 CONSIDERABLE TIM E

TO THE PU BLIC ATIO N OF AR TIC LES

IN NEWSPAPER8, AS WELL AS GO ON FREQUENT

LECTURE TOURS, PARTICULARLY TO Z O rIC H AND MuNICHJ as

far

as

Kie

l

and

KSn iq

sberg

.

And

that

w h ic h

SOME T0UR8 TOOK HIM

started

out

as

a

hobby

AND THEN BECAME A KITCHEN N E C E 8S IT Y .

F IN A L LY ENDED UP AS AN INSPIRATION

AND MONEY-MAKER, TO W IT *

A s FAR BACK AS

GARDENING.

•9 0 6 WE HAVE ART I -

56

CLE8 T E S T IF Y IN G TO H IS LOVE FOR FLOWERS; NOW HE BECAME A REAL HORTICUL­ T U R IS T .

ORDERING GREAT Q U A N T IT IE S OF SEEDS FROM E r FURT AND W RITING POP­

ULAR ART IC LE 8 ABOUT FLOWERS, TH EIR AESTHETIC Q U A L IT IE S AND TH EIR S P IR ­ ITU AL S IG N IF IC A N C E . The

stay

Vil l a

in

FEW MONTHS LATER,

Od a l d i

w as

sho rt- l iv e b

.

THE BORCHARDTS MOVED TO V lL L A

S IO ,

A PART OF P lS T O IA ,

I 930

AT LEAS T.

IN Ca N D EG LIA.

In

s p r in g

Dl

B lG IA N O

2

o nly

a

IN S a N A l e S -

THERE THEY WERE TO REMAIN T IL L

We HAVE A RECORD OF BORCHARDT*8 CONDITION SHORTLY AFTER

THE MOVE IN A LETTER WHICH HE WROTE TO H IS PUBLISHER, GAND.

*925»

1

• T 8AYS,

D r.

W lLLY W lE -

IN PART•

A D IF F IC U L T MONTH OF PHYSICAL IL L S IS BEHIND ME. IMMEDIATELY AFTER YOUR DEPARTURE I HAD TO GO TO A DOCTOR, WHOSE DIAGNOSIS RE­ VEALED NERVOUS EXHAUSTION, COMPLICATED BY N IC O T IN E OR CAFFEINE PO ISO N IN G . T h e CURE HE PRESCRIBED WAS AS D IF F IC U L T AS THE ENDURING OF THE IL L N E S S . WHEN THE BODY HAS BEEN USED TO TEA, COFFEE, W INE, AND CIGARETTE8, AND CRAVES THEM AS STIM ULANTS, IT IS VERY D IF F I­ CULT TO RECONDITION IT TO GO WITHOUT THEM. BUT A CURE IS POSSI­ BLE, I AM TOLD, FOR MY CONSTITUTION IS OTHERWISE UNUSUALLY STRONG AND HEALTHY, - A POOR CONSOLATION, FOR L IF E TO ME HAS ALWAYS MEANT nDRAUF LOS L E B E N ," WITHOUT THOUGHT OF THE MORROW AND WITH THE USU­ AL R I S K S . . . . N a t u r a l l y , I c o u l d n ' t t h i n k o f w o r k in g f o r q u i t e a w h i l e . As SOON AS I FELT THE SLIGHTEST IMPROVEMENT, HOWEVER, I ATTENDED AT LEAST TO THE MOST PRESSING JOBS, AND • AM ENCLOSING HEREWITH THE CORRECTED GALLEY-PROOFS OF Ha r t m a n n . 3 TOGETHER WITH THE "N a c HWORT." T h a t w o u ld b e t h e WORD A N Y M O R E .... Do n ' t

2.

T h i s w r it e r Bo r c h a r d t ' s make

full

w orry

is

about

g reatly

l if e

use

b e g in n in g

of

Dr .

to h is

of

the

"D e n k r e o e n "

in d e b t e d

Wi l l y

for

end,

as

h is

Wi e g a n d ,

correspondence

if

the

co uldn' t

you

t it l e

in s ig h t

for

in t o

who g e n e r o u s l y

f il e s

the

t h is

rely

on my

a n t h o l o g y .**

p e r io d

allo w ed

h im

of to

.

3 . B o r c h a r d t 's e o i t i o n o f H a rtm a n n v o n A u e 's D fb a r m f Hf i n r i c h .

I t w as b r o u g h t o u t b y t h e B re m e r P r e s s e i n *9 25 » a f t e r t h e t y p e h a d o r i g i ­ n a l l y b e e n s e t i n 19 11+. The w a r had p re v e n te d i t s a p p e a ra n c e e a r l i ­ e r.

k•

D e u ts c h e

D e n k re d e n

(M u n ic h ,

*

925) .

57

Wh a t i f s o m e o f t h e " s p e e c h e s ” w e r e n o t a c t u a l l y m a d e i n p u b l i c .1 As FAR AS WE ARE CONCERNED THEY WERE MADE, AND FOR JJ&* We ARE NOT HERE TO BE T IE D DOWN TO OR PERPETUATE COMPLETELY UNIMPORTANT F R IL L S OF D RY-AS-DUST ACADEMIC COMMENTARY. We ARE PUTTING OUR­ SELVES ON A FRESH, NEW FOOTING IN 8EEING THE P A S T .^ I READ SOME OF THE SPEECHES AG AIN LAST NIGHT AND WAS DEEPLY M O V E D .... • HAVE STUDIED YOUR PLAN FOR THE Qr i JNDFFSTFN^ BUT MUST CON­ FESS IT HAS BECOME NEITHER CLEARER NOR BETTER TO MY WAS OF TH IN K ­ IN G . Do u b t a f t e r d o u b t r i s e s i n my m i n d . T h i s much i s s u r e : t h e THING IS NOT TO BE RUSHED. THERE IS MUCH READING JTO BE DONE AND D E C IS I0 N 8 MU8T BE WEIGHED WITH GREAT C A R E . ' . . . . Of c o u r s e y o u m a y h a v e t h e f l o w e r a r t i c l e on y o u r t e r m s . By THE WAY, DO YOU KNOW THAT I HAVE NEVER RECEIVED A COPY OF YOUR E D IT IO N OF MY MUNICH S P E E C H ? .... H ave y o u h e a r d a n y t h i n g , w h e t h e r t h e f i r m o f pa u l L i s t i n L e i p z i g h a s d e p o s i t e d 250 M a rk s w i t h R o w o h lt i n my name? I am SUPPOSED TO WRITE AN INTRODUCTION TO IT S E D IT IO N OF Don Q u iX O T F . . . . I t i s c e r t a i n l y n i c e t h a t t h e t i m e h a s f i n a l l y a r r i v e d w he n my NAME MEANS SOMETHING AND IS P A ID DECENTLY.

5 . An i m p o r t a n t s e n t e n c e . '

I n t h e l e t t e r p r e c e d in g 8 A I© : "We r e i n t e r p r e t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e w o r l d OUR OWN MANNER, EVERY CENTURY AN EW ."

t h i s one he had f o r o u r s e lv e s , in

6 . Gr u n d f e b t f m w as t h e t i t l e o f a b o o k s u g g e s t e d b y Dr . Wi e g a n d . Bo r b h a r d t LIK E O THE IDEA OF I T , BUT NE NEVER D ID VERY MUCH WITH I T . I t WAS TO TRACE W IT H IN THE TWO COVERS OF ONE BOOK THE GREAT ADVANCES IN GERMAN SCHOLARSHIP AND SCIENCE IN THE CENTURY BEGINNING 1 7 5 0 , WHEN NEW F IE L D S OF LEARNING WERE OPENED UP AND OTHERS, 8UCH AS THE STUOY OF A N T IQ U IT Y , WERE D IV ID E D INTO SUB-BRANCHES, 8UCH AS ARCHAEOLOGY, P H I­ LOLOGY, e t c . Ba s i c t e x t s a p p e a r e d i n g e o l o g y , c o m p a r a t iv e l i n g u i s t ­ i c s , C LASSICAL A N T IQ U IT Y , GEOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, E T C ., AND ALL OF THEM CONTAINED IL LU M IN A T IN G INTRODUCTIONS E X P LA IN IN G HOW EACH OF THE8E TEXTS CONTRIBUTED TO THE STOCK OF V IT A L HUMAN KNOWL­ EDGE. Wi e g a n d ' s i d e a w a s t o g a t h e r a l l t h e s e in t r o d u c t io n s i n a BOOK - AS SORT OF THE HUMANISTIC HERITAGE OF THAT AGE - FOLLOWED BY AN EPILOGUE BY BORCHARDT WHICH WOULD U N ITE THEM ALL INTO ONE ORGANIC w h ole. Wie g a n d h a d a l r e a d y s u b m i t t e d a l m o s t a h u n d r e d o f t h e s e i n ­ t r o d u c t io n s f o r B o r c h a r d t ' b p e r u s a l a n d s e l e c t i o n , b u t - t h e e d i t o r GREW WARY, A8 WE LEARN IN T H IS LETTER .

7.

T y p i c a l f o r B o r c h a r d t 's m e th o d o f w o r k i n g . T he q u a l i t y o f h i s w r i t ­ in g s IS DUE TO H IS EXTREME CONSCI ENT10USNE88 AND PAINSTAKING ACCURA­ CY IN F IT T IN G MATERIALS INTO AN ALMOST IN T U IT IV E L Y CONCEIVED SYNTHE­ S IS . He a l s o kn e w h i s l i m i t a t i o n s . To d o r e a l j u s t i c e t o t h e tw o H u m b o ld ts a n d g i v e a c o m p e te n t e s t i m a t e , a s a l s o t o r e f u t e S p e n g le r , WOULD TAKE AN ACADEMY OF SC IEN CE, HE ONCE S A ID .

We g a t h e r t h a t B o r c h a r d t w o r k e d s i m u l t a n e o u s ly je c ts .

H is w o r k m e th o d s a n d a s t o u n d in g

h im t o

do t h a t .

s is ta n c e

A n o th e r a id

w as t h a t

p o w e rs o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n

h is w if e

a ll o w e d

re n d e re d a p p r e c ia b le

as­

BY COPYING F IR S T DRAFTS OF MANUSCRIPTS AND ATTENDING TO ROU­

T IN E c o r r e s p o n d e n c e .

D r.

V IS IT IN G

01 B lG IA N O ONE FALL DAY IN

IN THE V lL L A

Bo r c h a r d t

asked

on s e v e r a l p r o ­

over

the

W ie g a n d t o l o

breakfast

th is

table,

r e v e a lin g

in c id e n t:

W h ile

19 2 6 ON BU S IN ESS ,

w hether

he

w o u ld

HE

c o n s id e r

W R ITING A PROSPECTUS FOR THE FO LIO E D IT IO N OF THE BREMER PRESSE B lB L E .

He s a i d

h e w o u ld .

HE M INDED,

When b r e a k f a s t w as o v e r ,

he a s k e d h i s

g u e s t w h e th e r

IF HE DICTATED THE PR0SPECTU8 TO HIM AT THAT TIM E AND HOW

LONG IT WAS TO BE.

WlEGAND S A ID TWO PAGES OF THE S IZ E USED IN THE B l ­

BLE AND SHOWED 8AM PLE8. UP AND DOWN IN THE ROOM.

FORTHWITH BORCHARDT BEGAN TO D IC T A T E , H |S

8PEED WAS FAST AND SO FLUENT,

GAND HAD D IF F IC U L T Y KEEPING UP WITH H IM .

A t THE END,

WALKING

THAT W lE ­

BORCHARDT L I S ­

TENED TO A READING OF H IS D IC T A T IO N AND MADE NOT A SING LE CHANGE.

WHEN

g IT HAD BEEN SET No t

o nly

IN TYPE

d id

IN MUNICH,

Bo r c h a r d t

have

IT WAS TWO PAGES TO A L IN E .

stupendo us

pow ers

of

c o n c e n t r a t io n ,

he

WAS ALSO GIFTED WITH THE IM AG IN A TIO N OF A POET, ALTHOUGH H IS MUSE AL­ WAYS HAD HAD TO SHARE HONORS WITH THE SCHOLAR IN H IM . V IV ID L Y

THUS HE WOULD

T E LL OF A TWO-HOUR INTERVIEW WITH SWINBURNE IN UjNDON IN

WHEN ACTUALLY HE HAD NEVER MET H IM .

*906,

T H IS WAS NOT DELIBERATE DECEPTION,

BUT A G IF T TO PORTRAY WITH GREAT P L A U S IB IL IT Y WHAT MIGHT HAVE TAKEN PLACE.

I t GAVE PROOF OF D ETAILE D KNOWLEDGE OF A SUBJECT,

PLUS A TALENT

S . S in c e t h i s p r o s p e c t u s h a s n e v e r a p p e a r e d in p r in t o u t s id e o f t h e VERY L IM IT E D E D IT IO N OF THE B lB L E AND D ID NOT CARRY BORCHARDT's NAME THEN, SO THAT IT IS NOT GENERALLY KNOWN HE WROTE I T , IT IS OF­ FERED IN AN APPENDIX TO T H I8 DISSERTATION AS A SAMPLE OF BORCHARDT*8 S T Y LE , WITH THE K IN D PERMISSION OF Dr . W lL LY WlEGAND.

59

FOR EMPATHY. AND. PERHAP8. -

A SENSE OF HUMOR.

THE JOKE WAS D E F IN IT E L Y

ON H IS LIS T E N E R S . WHEN HE HAD THEM GASPING WITH TALES OF H I8 WAR EXPE­ R IEN C ES .

He LIS T E D 3 2 DIFFERENT ATTACKS, ALL DIFFERENT IN NATURE?

WE HAVE

BUT

IT FROM H IS COMPANY COMMANDER THAT HE D ID NOT TAKE PART IN ANY

OF THEM.

In

J a n u a ry

we g e t t h i s

1926 , a b o u t e i g h t m o n th s a f t e r t h e

r e p o r t fro m

B o r c h a r d t 's

pen!

He i s

l e t t e r q u o te d a b o v e ,

a g a in v e r y

i l l

and

no

LONGER BE LIEVES HE W IL L EVER FULLY REGAIN H IS HEALTH. • t i s a h e a r t d i s e a s e ^ c o m p l ic a t e d b y r h e u m a t is m w h ic h m a k e s m e OUT TO BE A MERE SHADOW OF MY FORMER SELF, PHYSICALLY AND S P IR IT U ­ ALLY. I AM VERY MUCH DEPRESSED AND DO NOT CARE TO L IV E ANYMORE. • N MY MIND I 8EE MYSELF BANKRUPTED AND DRIVEN OUT OF MY HOME FOR A SECOND T IM E .' ALREADY I HAVE BEGUN TO SELL SOME OF OUR VALUABLES.

He n e e d s f u n d s ,

S to , th e

D i v i m f C o m fd v .

d e s p e r a te ly ,

W it h

DONE? Pa r a d >SF WOUI-P.

in

a little

if

he i s

h e lp

fr o m

FAC T, BE F IN IS H E D

to

fin is h

h is

th e

th ir d

p u b lis h e r * ^

IN RECORD T IM E ,

it

p a rt o f ca n be

TWO AND A

HALF YEARS, WHEREAS Hf LL AND PuRGATCRV TOOK TH IR TEEN , HE S A ID . • HAVE TOLD YOU REPEATEDLY HOW DECEIVING THE NOTION WAS THAT THE WORDS WOULD COME MORE E A S ILY TOWARD THE END. GEORGE WAS TER R IBLY RIGHT WHEN HE S A ID IN THE INTRODUCTION TO THE PART8 OF Da NTE HE TRANSLATED THAT A L IF E T IM E WOULD NOT BE S U F F IC IE N T FOR A RE-CREA­ T IO N OF THE ENTIRE POEM. I n THE LONG 8LEEPLESS NIGHTS WHEN I TR IE D TO FORCE THAT WHICH WOULD NOT BE FORCED, I LOST MY HEALTH, MY YOUTH, MY L I F E , AND THE DAY CANNOT BE FAR OFF, WHEN, IN RETRO­ SPECT, THESE L IN E S , WHICH { WRITE IN PERFECT COMPOSURE, W IL L E V IN C E TH E IR FULL MEANING. I f THE REFERENCES TO BORCHARDT's HEALTH WERE EXAGGERATED BY A DE­ PRESSED MIND OR OVERRULED BY AN OTHERWISE TENACIOUS C O N STITU TIO N ,

9.

Bo r c h a r d t

•O . A

new

before

II.

eventu ally

contract the

w as

d ie d

s ig n e d

tem porary

Bo r c h a r d t m u s t FOR HE WAS YET

have to

of

heart

w it h

c r is is

been

a

t e r r ib l y

L IV E FULLY

attack.

Br e m e r Pr e s s e

the

reached

THE

an

acute

depressed,

19 YEARS.

later

that

year,

stage.

w h en

h e w rote

t h is

,

60

ALLUSION TO Da NTE IS PROBABLY CORRECT! l if e

He

's

work,

began

( 1909) .

h is

are

to

h im

s t u d ie s

1904*

in

w as

to

p u b l is h e d

Go e t h e

the

or

f ir s t

WROTE THE EPILOGUE IN a d d it io n

,

there

19 2 1, AND PUBLISHED

19^9»

was

the

IN

COMMENTS, E p ILEGOMFNA.

cantos

1922,

1922,

No v a ,

translated

1 9 *2 ,

in

MARK OF H IS

year

F IR S T DRAFTED IN

19 2 7 Bo r c h a r d t

CAREER.

19 • 2 ,

19 2 3 * IN

r e v is e o

19 * 3*

F IN A L L Y ,

193®* in

12

reached

in

several

THERE WERE SEV-

AND IN NEWSPAPERS,

w ays

m t f r b c h i f r iim c .

the

h ig h - w a te r

He WAS IN GOOD HEALTH, WORKED INCESSANTLY,

TURED MUCH, AND CELEBRATED H IS F IF T IE T H ER LETTER , WRITTEN PROBABLY

PUB­

FOLLOWED IN THE 8AME YEAR BY A VOLUME OF

AMONG THEM Da NTE UND JPEUISCHER Da NTE AND Mq d e r n f Da n t e - U

the

Hf s p f r iis

in

AND SAW THE COMPLETED JOB IN PRINT V it a

U jth e r .

to

ALL OF HeLL AND PuRGATORV IN

ERAL MINOR STUDIES WHICH APPEARED IN THE ScH R IFTFN

In

B ib l e

the

REAO MORE CANTOS TO WlEGAND AND WoLDE IN BREMEN IN

LISHED 3 4 8ELECTED CANTOS IN

In

Fa u s t

w hat

H IS Da NTE TRANSLATIONS ARE H IS

IN JANUARY

BIRTHDAY. 1927»

LEC­

We QUOTE FROM ANOTH­

AS THE BEST WAY TO APPRE­

C IATE THE STATE OF H IS A F F A IR S . I AM GOING ON A LECTURE TOUR OF EIGHT OR NINE S w iS S AND GER­ MAN U N IV E R S IT IE S , WHICH W ILL TAKE ME FROM ZO r ICH TO K |E L AND K flNIGSBERG. I SHALL BE IN ZURICH ON THE 3 *S T ( o f J a NUARy ) , Oa VOS t h e 2 n d ( o f F e b r u a r y ) , B a s e l t h e 3 r d * F r e i b u r g t h e 4 t h , a n d M a r­ b u r g THE 6 t h ; BUT I SHALL NEED AN ADVANCE FROM YOU TO PUT ME ON the road. Ho w e v e r , I e x p e c t t o e a r n 1 ,0 0 0 Ma r k s n e x t w e e k . . . . Th e

"N a c h w o r t "

for

Pe r Qe u t s c h f

in

dfr

La n d r o h a f t

I

can

w r it e

ONLY AFTER • HAVE THE COMPLETE GALLEY-PROOF OF THE BOOK BEFORE ME. S e n d i t t o m e i n Ma r b u r g on t h e 6 t h o f F e b r u a r y ; I ' l l w r it e t h e "N a c h w o r t " on t h e 7 t h a n d fo r w a r d i t t o y o u on t h e JSt h . On a b o u t THE 1 0 th I SHALL BE WITH RUDI , 3 AND HAVE MORE T IM E , BUT, IF N E-

12. l3 *

" D a n te u n d d e u t s c h e r D a n t e , " V i I : P r o s a I ( B e r l i n , I 920 ) . R u d o l f A le x a n d e r S c h r A d e r , t h e n i n B re m e n . S c h r A d e r , a lt h o u g h o n l y s i x m o n th 8 o l d e r t h a n B o r c h a r d t , w as t e c h n i c a l l y h i s w i f e ' s u n c l e , a s o u r c e o f g r e a t a m u se m e n t t o b o t h o f th e m .

61

CESSARY

I ' ll

Yo ur

w r it e

r e m in d e r

it

betw een

that

b attles

on

Re n a is s a n c e -

the

....

the

t r ip

und

Ca v a l i e r s l v r i k l} +

is

DUE T H IS MONTH HAS UPSET ME GREATLY, BUT IT I s n ' t YOUR FA U LT. Wh a t w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n a n d a l l , m y d e s k i s a b i t u n t i d y , a n d I MUST HAVE LOST THE AGREEMENT. THE C AV ALIFR S LV BIK YOU SHALL HAVE BEFORE MY DEPARTURE, HOWEVER; BUT • HAVE DISCOVERED THAT THE E P I­ LOGUES, IF THEY ARE TO BE WORTH ANYTHING, CANNOT BE WRITTEN OUT OF the b lu e . S e v e r a l q u e s t io n s c o n c e r n in g t h e "M e i s t e r s i n g e r t r a d i t i ONn AND SIN G IN G 8CH 00L OF AuGSBURG, FOR INSTANCE, MUST BE ANSWERED F I R S T . . . . I D ID , HOWEVER, REMEMBER THE DaNTE DEADLINE OF FEBRUARY I , AND FOR WEEKS 1 HAVE BEEN WORKING VERY SUCCESSFULLY ON THE Pa HADJLER, ESPECIALLY SINCE THE TEN CANTOS WHICH • HAD BELIEVED LOST TURNED UP A G A IN .

The sed

letter

co ncludes

w it h

a

reference

to

"

ano ther

so - c a l l e d

bles­

E V E N T ." F our

m onths

later

,

Bo r c h a r d t

w r it e s :

"I

am

E A S IL Y AND MUCH AND WOULO HAVE MET MY DEADLINES, LY BEEN INTERRUPTED BY V I S I T 0 R 8 . " BEFORE H IS F IF T IE T H Ye s , CAME,

Bo r c h a r d t

happy,

e x c e e d in g l y

if

work

I HAD NOT CONSTANT­

T h IS NOTE WAS WRITTEN JUST TWO WEEKS

BIRTH D AY. w as

b e g in n in g

to

be

n o t ic e d .

Wh e n

THE WELL-WISHERS NUMBERED IN THE HUNDREDS,

SIDERABLE ECHO IN THE PRESS.

S cH rS d E R ,

NAOLER,

h is

a n n iv e r s a r y

AND THERE WA8 A CON­ F e I 8T ,

EACH WROTE A

COMPLIMENTARY A R TIC LE FOR A RESPECTABLE NEWSPAPER OR JOURNAL, AND El STER SPREAD H IS EULOGY OVER SEVERAL OF THEM. Na c h r ic h t f w

c o n s id e r e d

Bo r c h a r d t

im p o r t a n t

THE MflNCHFNFR N euE B TE ^

enough

to

p r in t

half

a

dozen

CHAPTERS OF A PLANNED AUTOBIOGRAPHY OVER A NUMBER OF MONTHS. Bu t HEAD,

let

it

not

be

s a id

that

all

t h is

r e c o g n it io n

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

FOR HE D IS TIN G U IS H E D CAREFULLY BETWEEN SIN C E R ITY AND FLATTERY.

He KNEW WHO H IS REAL FRIENDS AND HONEST C R IT IC S WERE,

Ilf.

turned

AND HE KNEW WHO

On TH18 ANTHOLOGY BORCHARDT WORKED A LONG TIME? YET IT S P U B LIC A TIO N NEVER CAME TO P A S 8. I-A8T MINUTE 00UBT8 AND UNCERTAINTIES ABOUT SOME TEXTUAL AND C R IT IC A L QUESTIONS WERE THE PROBABLE CAUSE FOR THE F IN A L CANCELLATION OF THE PROJECT.

62

WAS MERELY JUMPING ON THE BANDWAGON,

JUST

IN CA8E HE D ID TURN OUT TO

BE A POPULAR AS WELL AS A D ISTIN G U IS H ED FIGURE, YEARS HAVE PA8SED 8 IN C E THAT T IM E , REACTION, OF *927»

VERBATIM T H I8 T IM E ,

AND,

SINCE OVER TWENTY

WE ARE TEMPTED TO QUOTE BORCHARDT*8

FROM A LETTER TO Dr . WlEGAND IN THE FALL

WHICH BEGINS WITH AN EXCUSE FOR THE DELAY OF THE LETTER,

W E IL D IE NXRRISCHE GeBURTSTAGSANGELEGENHE I T M IR , WIE IMMER, WENN d ie s e N a r r e n w e lt s i c h b e d O n k t ES UNS GANZ HERRLICH RECHT GEMACHT ZU HABEN - GAR NlCHTS EINBR IN G T ALS VERMEHRTE A R B E IT , UND DAS VgN DER LAUSIGSTEN UND LEERSTEN A r t , INDEM ICH ALLEN W|CHTIGTHUERN 5 D IE M IT DEM SPIEG EL IN DER HaND GESCHWOLLENE E p IS T E LN AN MICH B E f8 rD E R N , UM SIC H AUF Du UND Du M IT OEM Z E IT G E IS T ZU fA h L E N , AUS H u M A N ItM t ETWAS ZUKOMMEN LASSEN MUSS, UND MICH SO A L L m Ih L IC H B IS AUF N o. IfS MEINER CA. 2 0 0 GraTULANTEN HINDURCHKORRESPONDIERT HABE. UND DABEI HflRT ES M IT NaCHzOgLERN NICHT AUF, GESTERN KAM NOCH DER Ob e r b Or g e r m e is t e r v o n K . . . s a m t Ma g i s t r a t m i t EINER A d r e s s e . . . A LL DAS W IL L BEANTWORTET S E IN , DAS O F FIZIE LLST-dO m M STE VORAN. Al LE W IRKLICHEN FREUNDE WARTEN NOCH.

Bo r c h a r d t

c o n t in u e s

w it h

com m ents

about

b u s in e s s

prospects

so

ad-

Ic VANTAGE0U8, THAT HE B E LIEVE S CREASED COST OF L IV IN G

IN

LYR IC AL ANTHOLOGY A G A IN ,

IN MODERATE PROSPERITY AT LAST,

IT A LY NOTHWITHSTANDING.

je d e

•5 *

•6 .

A r b e it ,

Bu t , d ie

im

THEN THERE IS

THE

AN IDEA O R IG IN A LLY SUGGESTED BY WlEGAND.

CHARDT WOULD NOT HAVE THOUGHT OF I T , FROM THE SOURCES.

THE IN ­

HE SAY8 , h Ah e r e n

BOR-

BECAUSE HE WAS TOO FAR REMOVED

THE IDEA F IT T E D S in n e

wert

is t

INTO MY PLANS, gethan

zu

AND -

w erden,

T h u s B o r c h a r d t 's o r t h o g r a p h y . T h e ht h ' s " a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i t . B u t w i t h i n h i s p e c u l i a r i t i e s h e w as c o n s i s t e n t . F o r in s ta n c e , " w o h l " he a lw a y s w r o t e " w o l . " A s f o r p u n c t u a t i o n , he p la y e d i t dow n. I n p o e t r y h e d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e s h o u ld be a n y , w h e re v e r s e e n d in g a n d t h o u g h t e n d in g f e l l t o g e t h e r . He f o l l o w e d G e o rg e IN T H IS ,T H A T PUNCTUATION WAS USUALLY EXCESSIVE AND TENDESK, TO MAKE THE READER LA Z Y . On THE OTHER HAND, BORCHARDT ADMITTED THAT, I F HE WANTED TO BE READ, - ANtJ^THAT HE WAS MORE INTERESTED +N- THA|Ja D I SC I P L IN IN G H IS READERS - HE HAD BETTER PUT IN SOME COMMAS, - WHICH HE D ID . T h I 8 HAS REFERENCE TO NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE P|PER -VER LAG , WHICH D ID NOT, HOWEVER, RE8ULT IN A CONTRACT.

BRINGT MoMENTE M IT SIC H IN DENEN S IE , OHNE DEN Dr u CK ABSOLUTER No t ODER AB80LUTER E h RE, UNGETHAN B L IE B E . Da S 1ST H IE R DER F A L L * . . . M i t d e n NA c h w o r t e n w ir s t Du w e n n Du s i e e r h X l t s t , d i e Sa m m l u n g e n VOLLKOMMEN ANGEMESSEN UND SACHLICH AUSREICHEND AUSGESTATTET F I N BEN. •cH HABE M EINE BEST INIMTEN UND WOLERWOGENEN Gr 0NDE DAf Or , DEN d i e s e r Na c h w o r t e , w i e i c h i h n m i t d e n T r o b a d o r s AUFGESTELLT u n d b i s z u r L a n d s c h a f t f o r t g e f Bh r t h a b e f Or e i n e Z e i t z u v e r l a s s e n UND EINEN V 0 L L IG NEUEN DER V 0 L L IG UNPERS0NLI CHEN, JEDE VERALLGEMEINERUNG AUSSCHLIE 8 SENDEN, PRAKTISCHEN AnWENDUNG ZUR R IC H TIG EN BENUTZUNG AN S E IN E S te L L E ZU 8 ETZEN. DaVON, ALLE D IE DlNGE ZU B E HANDELN, D IE Du D lR ERWARTEST, KANN AN EINER SOLCHEN S tE L L E AUCH NICHT ENTFERNT D IE REDE S E IN . W lE SOLLTE DAS GESCHEHEN? F0R DEN L a i e n s a g t m a n im m e r z u v i e l , f Or d e n g e l e h r t e n K e n n e r im m e r zu WENIG, UND ICH HABE LANGE GENUG MEINE 8CH0NSTEN WlSSEN 8CHAFTLICHEN Ge o a n k e n d u r c h A e u s s e r u n g a n u n g e e ig n e t e n S t e l l e n ih r e r e i g e n t l i c h e n F orm e n t z o g e n , d a f Or a b e r d e n B e d e n k e n d e r I n c o m p e t e n z u n d DER J g NORANZ UND ALLGEMEINEN UND BESONDEREN 1-EISETRETEREI AUSGEL IE F E R T . V on JE TZ T AN WIRD ALLES AN SEINE GEH0RIGE S t e l l e KOMMEN. Wa s i c h z u d i e s e n Ge d ic h t e n u n d F r a g e n i m g a n z e n Z u s a m m e n h a n g e i h ­ r e r Ge s c h ic h t e u n d m e i n e r Ge d a n k e n w e l t z u X u s s e r n h a b e , k o m m t i n E IN E AuFSATZREIHE IM EllPHORION. WO D IE WlSSENSCHAFT ES ZU SUCHEN HAT UND ZU FINDEN W EISS, UND DANN E IN BuCH, F0R DAS ICH M IR , BEI DEM GANZEN DROHEND GROSSEN ERNST DER SaCHE, SC H IC KLIC H E Z e IT LAS­ SE. Es 1ST NICHTS K L E IN E S , DEN TrAUMBAU EIN E S GROSSEN JaHRHUNDERTS ZU SPRENGEN UND ABZUR^UMEN, UND DIESE DeSTRUKTION WIRD M IT SO VIE L FROMMER We I HE UND LANGSAM SICH VOLLENDENDER SaMMLUNG V O LLZOGEN WERDEN WIE E IN E KqnSTRUKTI ON. Ty p u s

Th e

19 2 8

year

is

pretty

w ell

sum m ed

up

gand,

WHICH SPEAKS OF THE FOLLOWING MATTERS!

Da n t e

are

alm o st

ready.

i

urges:

a

chardt

as

more

than

He

proposes

a

Co n c e r n e d

c o m p r e h e n s iv e

t r a n s l a t io n

some

more

and

standard

as

about

the

pro spectus,

the

z e n it h

a n t h o l o g ie s ,

in

a

len g th y

letter

to

Wi e ­

THE LY R IC A L ANTHOLOGY AND of

h is

Da n t e ,

a n n o u n c in g

it s

p u b l ic a t io n

success

of

h is

e n t ir e

in c l u d in g

one

program.

of

the

B or ­

...

m in n e -

SONG PERIOD AS THE BRIDGE BETWEEN H IS T r OBAPORB AND C AVALIFRRLVRI S ome

day

he

w il l

also

c o llec t

the

r e l ig io u s

poetry

of

BUT ANYTHING AFTER I 6 0 0 DOES NOT INTERE 8T H I M . . . . A l S O IS

IN THE O FFIN G ,

the

Mi d d l e A g e s ,

A GREEK ANTHOLOGY

BUT F IR S T HE WOULD L IK E TO SEE H IS FlN P AR PU BLISHED ,

WHICH HAS BEEN LYIN G AROUND IN THE BREMER P r ESSE EVER SINCE JUST BEFORE

6U THE WAR WHICH PREVENTED IT S COMPLETION AND D IS T R IB U T IO N .

^AHRZEHNTE SIND flBER DEM WeRKE VERGANGEN, U N SC hItZBAR E WlRKUNG I 8T VERFRI 8TET WORDEN. DeR AbDRUCK E IN E 8 GeSANGES IN DER NfUFN S f iH w r lZER R un prcH A U h a t M IR ZU 8 CHRIFTEN GEBRACHT D IE MICH BEST IMMEN NICHT LINGER A L 8 UNBED INGT NT ALL CAME ABOUT L IK E

the

Bf b i

in f r

T ac; f r l a t t

reported

the

s u ic id e

of

ONE KAR|_ K r a (j SE, A n EMPLOYEE OF THE BOOKSTORE OF THE Ge ORG M ILLE R PUB­ L IS H IN G Ho u s e of

s e r v ic e .

in

Mu n i c h ,

Wh i l e

there

who

had

been

w as

n o t h in g

d is c h a r g e d

after

e x t r a o r d in a r y

SUCH, THE T a g f h LATT E D IT O R IA L IZ E D AS FOLLOWS•

fo urteen

about

the

years

story

as

KRAUSE WAS D ISM IS SED ,

BECAUSE P O L IT IC A L L Y HE STOOD TOO FAR TO THE L E F T , W HILE THE HouSE OF MflLLER HAD RECENTLY SHIFTED TO A COURSE LEANING FAR TO THE R IG H T. HAD, MOREOVER,

•5 *

*T

RECEIVED F IN A N C IA L SUPPORT FROM THE "D e UTSCHNATIONALEU

"F O h ru n g ,” 2 J a n u a ry

*9 3 * •

77 |^

I

HaNDLUNGSGEHIL F E N V E R B A N O , "

A N D i IT

WAS RUMORED,

EVEN FROM HuGENBERG

'

D IR EC TLY . F iv e tic le

days la t e r ,

th is

b y W e rn e r R i c h t e r

t a to r s h ip

o f th e

DHV."

M ille r

re g a rd

to

H ouse

in in

re g a rd to

e d ito r ia l

in

th e

It

a c c e p te d

K ra u s e , its

com m ent w a s f o l l o w e d

same p a p e r , th e

w ith

"T h e L i t e r a r y

d e n i a l m ade b y t h e

b u t c o n tin u e d

r e la t io n s

e n title d

up b y a n a r ­

th e

w ith

an

DHV.

D ic ­

H ou se o f

in v e s tig a tio n

o f th a t

T he H ouse had r a p i d l y

DECLINED AFTER THE DEATH OF IT S FOUNDER, Ge ORG M(Ju _e r , AND BECOME A PO­ L IT IC A L FOOTBALL OF R IG H T IS T A l b e r t Ua n g e n V e r l a g ,

and

the

INTERESTS. c o m b in e

ORGANIZATION HAD BOUGHT A CONTROLLING ING FIRMS ALREADY. BUSINESS,

< t, S IC H

30.

M A IN

POWER,

AND T H E

"D IE

aus

OF H I S

s e in e r

FAu p h n p

1 9 3 * 3 6

U h d e -B e rn a y s ,

AnGST,

D IE

FROM T HE

,

THE

CAUSES

IS

both

P O L IT IC A L CU L T U R A L

V e ra c h tu n g

AS W ELL

N IC H T

P S b e ls

D IE

MasSE

Amtw ort

an

TO

HE WAS

NOR D I P L O M A T I C

LOSE

IL L S

H| s LACK H IM

T H E IR

WOULD AT Not

8EE

IN

IM A G IN E D

L E A S T BE

ONLY B r A H IS

CONTEM PT

FOR OUT OF NEED

IT

GREW

FOR AU­

Z U rA c K S C H R E C K T .* h eraus

NUR ZU GUTEN S e I T E

DASS

iiMn V r p r f l H R U M e ;

N A T IO N ,

S P IR IT .

SPHER E T H E

des

c ir c u m s t a n c e

FOR A S O L U T I O N .

A B E R R A TIO N ,

D lK T A T U R

OF H I S R E S I D I N G I N

OF T H E N A T I O N

WAS BOUND TO

AND G u i L L E M I N

N IC H T

T HE A C C U S IN G

by

THE

ALL

B e tw e en

GeGENWART

PROPERLY,

THAT

fro m

NACH DER GeWALT

D IE

A F F A IR S

fre s h

'A k A D E M IK E R S ,'

V IR T U E was

d ire c t

F a s c is m .

P O IN T IN G

BY

manner

P O IN T

VOR E I N E R

8

,

DES

R E M E D IE S

DAS D l K T A T O R E N T U M VON E I N E R

B rA g e l,

D{JnKEL

IN S T A N C E ,

DER ME | N UNe A N ZU C H L I E S S E N ,

na

3 1*

FOR

U hde-B eR N A Y S ,

P O L IT IC A L

war

DER

DEVEL O PED THE PROPER P U B L I C

FOR T HE MASSES THE ROOT BOTH

B E H IN D H I S

FOR T H E M A S S E S ,

M IT IG A T E D ,

at

REALLY

lo n g e s t

B o rc h a rd t,

WHATEVER WAS WRONG W I T H TO A SSESS

The

a im in g

BORC HAR DT,

TOO MUCH ALOOF

SUPPORT

th a t

VeRSTANDES

IS

a r is t o c r a t ic

2

say

w as

D IE

IH R E S T H IS

THAT

PROPERLY.

RALLY

OF R E S P E C T

IN

1 S T .” -

ENOUGH E Q U I P P E D

ENOUGH TO

S IC H

Z IT T E R T

DEM M | T T E L

generally

PU L SE

NOT W ELL

G E L ,B U T

IM

M IT

AND WE MUST A D M IT

AND C H O I C E FEEL

S IE

to

charges

MUS S o l i n i ,

DES B E S S E R W I S E R S . . . . D a H I N T E R S C H R E IT ,

who

have

VON

sehr

oazu

ge­

ZU SEHEN UNO

OBEN HERAB REG I E R T

R tinoLF

Bo r c h a r d t .

(V

ie n

­

PAGES. "R u d o lf

B o rc h a rd t,"

D n iT g n M r

R n T p H cr.

I

( I

9I4.7) ,

2*S .

816

WERDEN

m Os

S E ,"

G u iL L E M ^ IN ^ essay

P O IN T S

11a .

Vi

ADDS ANOTHER

C R IT IC

IN

OUT THAT AS FAR

B o rc h a rd t

does

not

A LETTER

SACK

lo s e

a

AS

TO T H I S

19 0 S ,

s in g le

IN

w ord

W R IT E R .

THE H IG H L Y

about

th e

P R A IS E D

s o c ia l-

p o l it ic a l

SIG N IF IC A N C E OF THE V IL L A AS AN IN S T IT U T IO N ;

PRAISE

ENOUGH AS A PLACE OF CULTURE AND GLORIOUS T R A D IT IO N ,

IT

BERNARD

WHILE HE CANNOT HE DOES

NOT GO BEYOND THE FACJADE, DOES NOT MENTION THE CRUELTY AND SUPPRESSION IT

HAD BECOME GUILTY OF AS A FEUDAL

IN S T IT U T IO N .

BUT WE NEED NOT EVEN

INFER ANYTHING FROM T H IS , WE CAN QUOTE BORCHARDT D IR E C T LY . R P B itru fls r B

FflPMFM^3 HE SAYS • "D a S PuBLIKU M ALS ^ASSE GENOMMEN, KANN

IMMER NOCH NICHT T IE F GENUG EINGESC h A t ZT WERDEN." CLOSE TO THE CYNICISM OF M r » m KAMp g . The

c l im a x

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

to

IN

THE

S P R IN G

OF

H |ndenburg.- ^

And -

now

OF

I 93^

the

" K E IN E S W E G S

HE

t r a g ic

p o l it ic a l

in

d ie

ir o n y

DER E I N Z I G E

ACCUSED

Ha n d

:

Vi/e

j

half

,"

says

V e rn u n ft

Z W ISC H EN B L I N D E M W l L L E N e in e s

32.

" V illa ,"

33*

2n d

w e ith in

(

r e v ie w

e d itio n ,

D ir

(B e rlin ,

Ka r l

T h ie m e ,

" In

xLvi

(1 9 1 *6 ),

730- 735 *

35 * l a m .

T a t,

comes

when

FOR

Ka r l

Th

Bo r c h a r d t

HE R K U N F T ,

ie m e

.^ 5

He

A " V e R f Oh R T E R , "

we

learn

H |T L E R

that

INSTEAD

was a

Jew.'

DER AUS IN N E R —

S c H l A c HT ER S E L B S T

DAS LANGE ME g who

"DER

was

b e in g

IN K A R N IE R T E

ZUM A b ERGLAUBEN UND K L A R B L IC K E N D E R

W is b e n d e n .

)

NOT THE CLIMAX YET.

that

A d IS C H E R

k On F T I G E N

T H IS COMES INDEED

ONE VO TE

remember

DEU TSC HE

IS

a b e r r a t io n

AS A " V e R f A h RER, " WAS H I M S E L F

Z w iE S P A L T

31+ .

d r Ac k e n

BUT IT

RECOMMENDED TH A T

S T E R D e S O R I E N T IERUNG S E I N E M ser

*N Da b S f -

T ra g ic

XXl O 9 2 9 ) ,

iro n y ,

in d e e d

.1

For

who

6 3 5 -6 3 8 .

*9*^) p . 27.

m e m o ria m

R u d o lf

B o rc h a rd t,"

S r.u u u riy rR

R iiM n s R H A ii.

87

COULD "•cH

BE MORE GERMAN THAN BORCHARDT, HABE DEN ^UDEN

IN

M IR

WHO L E S S D E S I R O U S

E R w flR G T ,"

HE S A I D

TO BECOME MORE GERMAN THAN T H E KA I S E R E lN

DEUTSCHER S E I N ,

S E IN ,

1ST

ES AUCH G R IF F

OES E I G E N E N

T E IE N ,

DER A L L E S

SCHAFFEN HA T,

We

d o n 't

know,

but

we

LEND A H E L P I N G

E F F E C T IV E

AND THERE MUST

BE A GREAT DEAL IN

SMALL A MARKET

BOOKS.

FOR H I S

GERMANY,

O C C A S IO N S i

ONLY

HAND.

IN

IN

THE

DeUTSCHER

JENEN

UND

hAhEREN

DER G A R N IC H T S

Be-

M IT

^ARZU ^

SCHWERSTER E r Z I E H U N G . *

Bo r c h a r d t

11 T H A T

E IN

ME NSCH NUR S E I N

W IN T R Y

must

DAY

IN

felt

1933*

TO BE R E A L I Z E D ,

^N THE

CO NTRA RY,

HE K E P T

AND S W IT Z E R L A N D

H IS

ON W R I T I N G ,

"^ACH LA SS, ”

RUDO LF BORCHARDT

have

on

^ ls -

AND

L IF E TO BE

BUT HE WAS NO

AND A U S T R I A WERE TOO

HAD E X P E R IE N C E D

ANOTHER

DEATH.

D e u ts c h e

L ite ra tu r

im Ka mPF um

.1

D EU T S C H E R G e S C H I C H T E

AuFGABE

AUTHOR WAS F I N I S H E D .

LONGER A B L E TO P U B L I S H

36.

how

und

DREAM OF GERMAN GREATNESS WAS A P P E A R I N G

AS A L I V I N G ,

S P IR IT U A L

2

guess

E lN

DEU TSC HE

NAt u r

IMMER E I N E

can

Um fANG E

W lE

HI N E I N U B I LDEN,

"M a C H tO bE R N A H M E

HE WAS NOT ALLOWED TO

SURE,

AuFGABE,

DEUTSCHER

WAR SCHON

T H E M O R N IN G A F T E R T H E L IF E L O N G

D lE

VoLK STU M S M IT

IM VOLLEN

SO V E R S C H I E D E N ,

BEWUSST S E I N .

A Jew

H IM S E L F .

UND BEWUSST

VON E IN A N D E R

ON S E V E R A L

OF B E I N G

ih r

Recht

(M u n ic h ,

*9 3*^ *

p*

U O f.

LAST YEARS

Re t i r e m

-

ent

F r ie n d s

-

( I9 3 3 -I9 U 5 ^

L AST Wo r k s

-

Wo r l d

Wa r

••

-

L IF E

AFTER

*9 33 *

*93*»

AND HE WA8 TO RE­

De a t h

No t

MUCH

BEEN T H E M A IN

V lL L A

THERE H it

after

•n

a

936*

1

IS

KNOWN ABOUT B O R C H A R D T 's Sa L TO C C H IO ,

U N T IL

ler

SHO RTLY

came

le tte r

to

to

BEFORE H I S

E rik a

M |Tt e r e r ,

DEATH.

An

Kr

e is

IN

th e

NE V E R SAW GERMANY A G A I N

A u s tria n

e in g e s c h r

S T E L L E M IC H T IG E

IC H

GROSSEN A r B E I T E N

Z u r Oc k g e z o g e n h e i t ,

d l ic h e n

WERDE

JI n k t ,

Ar

p o e te s s ,

HA B E N ,

,

d ie

m ic h

HA BE, v ie l

M IC H Ze

We TURN OF

could

EVENTS

glean

from

AND THAT

t h is

that

it

in

k l e in e n

nach

w e n ig

,

S C H E M A T IS C H f

Ar

AUCH E IN E

gekostet

I .

the

only

it e m

it e n

ICH

laufend

AN M E I N E R FAr S lE

DAS SEL B ST 8(J C H —

GRAD A B G E F E R T I GTE

s p ir it

TO BE THE

was

not

,

durch

p u b l is h e d

broken

8 0 V E R E IG N

"BRIEFE AN EINE JUNGE D lC H TE R IN ," n ta s iiH F B H n n r

Staufer

M E IN E R

E R L E D IG E N .

HEUT

h a tte

302.

s s ib l y

Se

DEM

IN

m e n s c h l ic h e n

e in e n

Gr 8 ver-

IHNEN ZU B E L O H N E N .

h is

HE C O N T IN U E D

nur

I CH M I R

PLAUDERTEN SoNNTAGNACHMITTAG M IT

Po

w ritte n

UND

ganz

B e l X s T IG U N G

KANN, W IE

B E G R IF F E N

e in e n

B R I E F L I CHER

SCHWER E N T Z I E H E N

IMMER Z e I T

b e it

auf

c o r r e s p o n d ie r e

V e RG n A g EN B E R E I T E T

ssere

2.

He

WE r e a d :

UND L A S S E DEN ScHWALL

1.

S IN C E

HOME HAD

power.

l CH HABE M I C H , l

NEAR 1-uCCA,

s

by

III

by

C R IT IC

( 1 9U T)*

Bo r c h a r d t

in

the

AS B E -

2 95“

I9 3 & *

FORE.

in g

Some

.

I

n

,

fact

,

t ir e m e n t

alw ays

young

h is

it

is

sought

very

s p ir it

serenely

C R IT IC IS M

poets

c o n f id e n t

FROM ABROAD.

• 9 1S AND

•933 »

BE S O O T H IN G TO H I S

FOR THE

ALSO

AND

than

now

it

,

no

F IR S T

of

longer

B O R D E R IN G

BUT O C C A S IO N A L L Y

by

THAT A S T R O N G SUFFERED

IN

ON T HE E X C E N -

GLOOM OR O V E R - C O N F I D E N C E .'

PERSON CONCERNED,

was

harrassed

SUCH AS BORCHARDT

B E H A V IO R

re­

h is

Bo r c h a r d t

for

T IM E

ask­

w it h o u t

w aters

weakened

BE T H E

OF

got

s t il l

and

FATE,

OF M O R B ID

others

the

a b il it y

BLOWS OF

T H IS

SOMEWHAT

MAY

T R Y IN G

F R IE N D S .

HE D I D

NOT P U B L I S H

TO S EE WHAT W I L L

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

m a in

0 9 3 U /3 5 ).

THE

P

only

MUCH A F T E R

1933

after

SPONSORED BY ^ E T E R

A C * 931+)

novel

AND S T A U F E R

,

Ve r

THAT

COME TO L I G H T

p u b l ic a t io n s

S c H R IF T E N

h is

rather

WOULD NOT

IN T E R E S T IN G

Bo d m e r ;

in

LEARN FROM THE ABOVE L E T T E R

S IN C E

PLAYS

that

h is

,

a d v ic e

E X T R E M IT IE S

AS A RESU LT

L IT E R A R Y

We IN G ,

RAN T 0

of

*T

MAN WHO S U R V I V E D

E IT H E R

l ik e l y

s t if f e n e d

S P IR IT E D

T R IC ,

h is

e in ig u n g

BORCHARDT K E P T 19 3 3 *

BE E X T R E M E L Y

FROM T H E A R C H I V E S

were

two

V o iG T ,

1 (*9 3 6 ),

durch

p r i n t e d i n 1922. B a y r i s c h - I s r a e l i t i s c h e G e m e in d e z e itu n g , M u n ic h , V I I ( I 9 3 O 1 IH9 ( Z e i t i g r e g ) ; C h r i s t l i c h e W e l t , XLV ( 19 3 1 )» U 6 2 ( K a r l T h i e m e ) ; Das h u m a n i s t i s c h e G y m n a s iu m . X L I I ( I 9 3 * ) , 109 ( F . J . B r e c h t ) ; * C o r o n a , I I I ( 1 9 3 2 ) , 2I4.6-63 ( H o f m i l l e r ) . R EV IE W S :

*

"H o fm a n n s th a ls

L e h rja h re ."

"D e m a n t d e r K r o n e . "

MNN.

X X V III,

SM,

5 3 - 68 .

15 N o v e m b e r.

1931 * F A h ru n g

(sp e e ch ).

M u n ic h ,

G e o r g MAl l e r .

N o te : P o l i t i c a l speech h e ld t h e MNN, I M a r c h .

in

Brem en,

2 Ja n u a ry;

p rin te d

a ls o

by

REVIEWS: * F A h r u n g u n d V e r f A h r u n g : A n t w o r t a n R u d o l f B o r c h a r d t , V i e n n a a n d L e i p z i g , H ess a nd Company ( F r i t z B r A g e l ) ; Das n e u e Re 1c h , X I I I , 9 7 U ; D i e s c h A n e L i t e r a t u r , X X X I I , I4.7 9 ; R e i c h u nd L e n ­ d e r , K a r l s r u h e q u a r t e r l y , V IJ ( 1 9 3 3 ) * 2 3 7 ( G« B i l l i n g ) . *

"A m a r y l l i s "

(poems).

*

De u t s c h e L i t e r a t u r

im

REVIEWS:

Co r o n a . Ka m p f

um

II, ih r

7 U -86 . Re c h t .

Mu n i c h ,

Ge o r g MAl l e r .

B e r l i n e r BA r s e n z e i t u n g . 2 5 Oc t o b e r ; Be r l i n e r T a g e b l a t t , DAZ. R A u g u s t ( W e r n e r ) ; * D e u t s c h e R u n d s c h a u , L V I I , 2 5 9 (R» P * ) ; D e u t s c h e T a g e s z e i t u n g . 9 A u g u s t ; D e u t s c h e s A d e l s b l a t t . X L I X , 5 8 8 ( H a n s e n ) ; H a n d e l s w a c h t ( Z t s c h d e s DHV), X X X V II 1, 3 2 8 ; M i t t e i l u n g e n d e s d e u t s c h e n K u l t u r v e r b a n d e s . P r a g , V I , ty 5 2 ; * SM, 2 8 : 9 0 1 ( H o f m i l l e r ) ; F r J I n k i s c h e r K u r i s r . N A r n b e r g ,

31 J u l y

(F . E n g e l ) :

132

I S J a n u a r y 1932 (G . H a u p t ) ; F r e i e W e l t . R e i c h e n b e r g , X I I ( 1 3 3 2 ) , 221 ( R . v o n S c h a u k a l ) ; K A l n i s c h e V o l k s z e i t u n g . 15 J a n u a r y 193 2 (0« F o r s t de B a t t a g l i a ) ; * G r a l . X X V I I ( 19 3 3 )» 3%k (R» V° N S c h a u k a l ) .

"V e r g il "

( speech).

No t e : Vir g il "We l f i s c h e s

Di e

ik e

, V II,

106—19 .

Sp e e c h

d e l iv e r e d

at

Ch r i s t i a n A l b r e c h t Un i v e r s i t y

the

Ka i s e r t u m . "

* " P fla n z e n p o r trX ts ." "K o n s er v a ti

Ant

smus

on

C orona,

*

"A E s c h y lu s 1 P e rs e r,

d e u ts c h "

*

" P in d a r ,

Co r o n a .

REVIEW:

* MNN,

"

o c c a s io n

of

the in

2000st Kie l .

b ir t h d a y

of

MNN, 2 2 - 2 3 J u l y . I,

Hu m a n i s m u s . "

und

deutsch.

the

69I+ - 7O6 . MNN,

3 0 Au g u s t .

(a f r a g m e n t ) . II,

11+ F e b r u a r y

C orona.

II,

2 5 I - 6S.

236-1+5*

(H o f m i l l e r ) .

1932 *

" E i n e E r k l X r u n g z u d e r i n d e n MNN v om 15 J a n u a r 1932 a u s d e m B u c h h X n d l e r - B S r s e n b l a t t v e r A f f e n t l i c h t e n M i t t e i l u n g e n {Jb e r d e n A b SCHLUSS DES (Jb ER D IE BORCHARDT'SCHE S cH R IFT ENTSTANDENEN VERLEGEr i s c h e n St r e i t e s . " MNN, 2 2 J a n u a r y . No t e : ratur

"D a s Re i c h *

T h e " B o r c h a r d t ' s c h e Sc h r i f t " Ka m p f um i h r Re c h t .

als

Sa k r a m e n t . "

" L e g n a n o l ie d " II,

to

is

De u t s c h e L i t e ­

MNN,

( t r a n s l a t io n

of

2 6 Ap

r il

.

Ca r d u c c i ' s

poem;

cf.

1 9 *3 )*

Co r o n a .

61+5-U9-

"R u p p r e c h t

von

Ba y e r n .

" D e u t s c h e Re i s e n d e , X X X I I , 1+02-OS. De u t s c h e Re i s e n d e , *

referred

im

" D e u t s c h e Na m e n

Zu

s e in e m

deutsches

deutsches

h e u t ig e n

Sc h i c k s a l . "

Sc h i c k s a l .

a u s l Xn d i s c h e r

Ge b u r t s t a g . " MNN. At l a n t i s ,

a

Be r l i n

IS Ma y . monthly,

Zu r i c h , At l a n t i s - V e r l a g .

Ga r t e n p f l a n z e n . "

MNN.

22 J u ly .

1933 "STAATENBUND ODER BuNDESSTAAT."

MNN,

S AND 15 JANUARY.

I

133

I93U "P is a *

und s e in e

Pa m e l a for

L a n d s c h a ft. "

A t l a n t i s . X X X IV ,

( a three- act comedy). Ma r t i n Bo d m e r ) .

* Sc h r i f t e n

I.

Be r

l in

2 S -1+0 .

, Dr e i m a s k e n - V e r l a g

(1 0 0

c o p ie s

Br e m e n .

N o t e ; The f i r s t o f t w o v o l u m e s p r i n t e d f o r P e t e r V o i g t . S ix ty -o n e p a g e s , 250 c o p i e s . C o n te n ts : E p ip h a n ia s (p o e m ), V e r g i l ( s p e e c h ) , L e b e n s l i e d , D i e B e g e g n u n g m i t dem T o te m ( p r o s e ) , V e r s u c h u n g ( p o e m ) , A us EINEM sOdLICHEN GaRTEN.

1935 * Sc h r i f t e n

II.

Br e m e n .

N o t e : The s e c o n d o f t w o v o l u m e s p r i n t e d f o r P e t e r V o i g t . S e v e n ty t h r e e p a g e s , 250 c o p i e s . C o n t e n t s : T i e f e N a c h t ( p o e m ) , Das K i n d im H au se ( e i n e r S e l b s t b i o g r a p h i e e n tn o m m e n ) , B e im T o d e v o n . . . A . . . , L e s s i n g - e i n ROc k b l i c k a u f e i n J u b i l X u m s j a h r . " V o lte rr a ." *

C oron a.

" V ernon Le e .

E in

V,

6 0 0 -6 2 1 .

Ge d e n k b l a t t . "

Ba s l e r Na c h r i c h t e n , 9 J u n e .

1936 *

St a u f e r mer.

I : A l p e n Ob e r g a n g .

Mu n i c h ,

100

c o p ie s

p r in t e d

for

Ma r t i n

Bo d ­

No t e : T h i s i s t h e f i r s t a n d o n l y p a r t o f a t r a g i c p e n t a l o g y p r o ­ IN THE FALL OF I 9 M AS FOLLOWS: I . A lp e n A b e rg a n g . V o rs p ie l. C o m p l e t e d i n J u l y 1933* I I . M a ila n d . A tra g e d y . I I I . K a is e r H e in r ic h V I . A tra g e d y . I V . KA n i g M a n f r e d . A tra g e d y . V . A lp e n A b e rg a n g . (R A c k z u g ). A tra g i-c o m e d y .

jected

* En g l i s c h e

Dic h t e r ,

deutsch.

V ie n n a ,

Ph a i d o n - V

erlag.

No t e : c o n t a i n i n g s e l e c t i o n s f r o m B y r o n , S h e l l e y , Ke a t s , L a n d o r , Ro s s e t t i , B r o w n i n g , b u t m o s t l y Sw i n b u r n e ( two t h i r d s of t h e w h o l e ) . T h e s e l e c t i o n w a s m a d e by t h e Ph a i d o n - V e r l a g a n d p r e s e n t e d t o Bor ­ c h a r d t a s a Ch r i s t m a s g i f t .

1937 * Ve r e i n i g u n g d u r c h SCHER VERLAG.

den

Fe i n d

h in d u r c h

( novel).

V ie n n a ,

Berm ann- F i -

i .

4

I3H

N o te : T h i s n o v e l , B o r c h a r d t ' s o n l y o n e , was w r i t t e n 2 0 M a rc h t o 11+ A p r i l , 193*» a n d 2 2 O c t o b e r t o 2 N o v e m b e r, 1 93 6I t w as d e d i ­ c a t e d i n M a r c h 1 9 3 7 T0 B a r o n e s s F r a n c h e t t i o f V i l l a S e l l o s g u a r d o .

I9 3 S * P is a ,

e in

V e rsu ch .

W ith

e p ilo g u e .

Z u ric h ,

" S c h rifte n

d e r C o r o n a " XX.

No t e : Th i s book does not o v e r l a p w it h th e a r t i c l e " P i s a und s e i n e L a n d s c h a f t " ( I9 3 1 + ) * I t w as w r i t t e n b e t w e e n J u l y a n d S e p t e m b e r 1932, WITH THE EPILOGUE ADDED 26 JANUARY 1 9 3 5 * I n T H IS E D IT IO N OF t h e book B o r c h a r d t in c lu d e d a f a i r l y c o m p re h e n s iv e l i s t o f h i s PUBLICATIONS TO DATE.

I9 U 2 *

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1939 *

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zu

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Ge b u r t s t a g . "

m a n u s c r ip t

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* A us " S t e f a n G e orge s S ie b e n t e r R in g . " V e rb o te n und V e r b r a n n t (D e u t­ sche L it e r a t u r 12 J a h r e u n t e r d r (Jc k t ) . Drews a n d K a n t o r o w i c z , e d . Be r l i n , Ul l s t e i n a n d K i n d l e r V e r l a g , I 9 U 7 • *

" L lC H T E R B L IC K U N G S L I E D . "

" K u l t u r a l s W a h l." " S c h ille r." * Aus " B e n e d e tto C r o c e . " * Aus " G a r t e n p h a n t a s ie . " A l l i n De u t s c h e B e i t r K g e , *

Aus

*

Aus

*

I,

1 9 9 -2 1 1 .

" B r i e f e an e in e ju n g e D i c h t e r i n " ( E r ik a M i t t e r e r ) . das s i l b e r b o o t . S a l z b u r g , I I I , 2 9 5 - 3 ° 2 ; D ie F K h r e , M u n ic h , I I , 2 5 9 - 6 7 *



135

N o te : *

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W ritte n

B rie f."

No t e : to

h is

in

NSR,

Wr i t t e n s is t e r -

Lucca

II, in

in

-

19 3 ^ T0 t h e A u s t r i a n

p o e te s s .

S 8-90.

the law

in

fall

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of von

19If.l+ u n d e r Frey.

d if f ic u l t

c ir c u m s t a n c e s

I9US *

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* P is a ,

an

e in

* Ge d i c h t e . Ve r l a g *

e in e

jung e

Di c h t e r i n . "

und

V e rsuch .

das

Ne u e Z e i t u n g .

Di c h t e r i s c h e . "

2nd e d i t i o n .

F ra n k fu rt,

Ed i t e d b y Ha n s - U rs v o n Ba l t h a s a r . ( S a m m l u n g K l o s t e r b e r g : Eu r o p K i s c h e

"G e d i c h t e " ( t r a n s l a t i o n s ) . I n Lv r i k Mu n i c h , Ka r l Ha n s e r V e r l a g . No t e : AND ONE

Vi

S ix t e e n

s e l e c t io n s

O R IG IN A L

by

des

15 F e b r u a r y .

s i on.

Co n s t a n c e ,

I,

S ch J Jtte V e r l a g . Ba s e l , Re i h e ) .

Ab e n d l a n d e s .

Bo r c h a r d t ,

vol.

in c l u d in g

Be n n o S c h w a b e

by

15

Br

it t in g

.

t r a n s l a t io n s

POEM.

i §

3-

AN ALPHABETICAL L I S T OF BORCHARDT'S WORKS INCLUDING AN APPENDED L I S T OF POEMS

No t e : 1.

De f i n i t e .

and

in d e f in it e

a r t ic l e s

are

not

c o n s id e r e d

in

the

al­

phabet iz a t io n

2 . Da t e s a r e t h o s e o f p u b l i c a t i o n . AND R E V IS IO N ARE INDICATED AS FOLLOWS I ( P : 190I+; w : 1906 ;

Da t e s

of

p l a n n in g

,

w r it in g

,

R : 19 2 1)

3 . I f m in o r w o r k s w e re c o l l e c t e d u n d e r a g e n e r a l t i t l e , i t i s so IN D IC ATED . T h e FOLLOWING ABBREVIATIONS WERE USED FOR THE VARIOUS GEN­ ERAL t i t l e s : A AW G H HA HG J PE P S cH R -1 S c H R - 11 SL V Wh e n t h e s e t i t l e s PUBLIC ATION DATES.

1931 Am a r y l l i s I 925 AuSGEwAhLTE WeRKE ( I 9 O O - I 9 I S ) Ge d i c h t e (K l o s t e r b e r g Sa m m l u n g ) w He s p e r u s 1909 Ha n d l u n g e n un d A b h a n d l u n g e n 192s Da s h o f f n u n g s l o s e Ge s c h l e c h t 1929 JUGENDGEDI CHTE ( I 9 O O - I 9 O6 ) 1913 . 1920 1923 P o e t 1s c h e E r z I h l u n g e n Pr o s a 1 ( 1 9 0 6 - 1 9 1 2 ) 1920 Sc h r if t e n 1 I9 3 H 1935 S c h r i f t e n 11 1923 , 192s D i e S c h Ap f u n g a u s L i e b e V e r m i s c h t e G e d i c h t e ( I 906- I 9 I S ) 1921+ are

c it e d

,

they

take

the

place

of

t h e ir

r e s p e c t iv e

137

AE s c h y l u s : see : Pe r s e r . A l k e s t i s : s e e Ue b e r A l k e s t i s . A l p e n A b e r g a n g : s e e St a u f e r I . A l t j o n i s c h e GAtTERLIEDER, 1921+. Am a r y l l i s ( c y c l e o f p o e m s ) , 19 3 1• A n Ma x Re i n h a r d t . E i n o f f e n e r B r i e f : s e e Re i n h a r d t . A n k A n d i g u n g d e r B i b e l d e r Br e m e r P r e s s e : s e e B i s e l . A n s p r A c h e d e r Be t r i e b s t e c h n i k a u f Re v i s i o n d e r Ge s c h i c h t e DEUTSCHEN P H IL 0 8 0 P H IE , i HA. A n t IK E

UND DER

Arme

in r ic h

He

DEUTSCHE V A l K E R G E I S T , D i e

,

De

r

:

see

Ha r t m a n n

v o n Au e

(tw o

s p e e c h e s ),

m e in e m

Le b e n .

E ri

n n e r u n g s b l JJt t e r

,

192s .

.

A r n a u t , Da n i e l , u n d G i o v a n n i P i s a n o a l s S c h A p f e r d e r Se e l e n f o r m Eu r o p a s , 1 9 2 8 . A u f g a b e n d e r Z e i t g e g e n A b e r d e r L i t e r a t u r , D i e , 1929* A u f s t i e g d e s G r o s s e n S c h a u s p i e l h a u s e s , D e r , HA. Aus e in e m s A d l i c h e n G a r t e n : s e e G a r t e n . Au s

der

modernen

1927*

Aus m e i n e r S c h u l z e i t , I 9 2 S . A u s g e w K h l t e We r k e 19 0 0 - 19 I S , 1925* Av e a t q u e v a l e ( c y c l e of p o e m s ) , J . BeGEGNUNG M IT DEM ToTEN, D i e , 1930* S C H R - I . B e i c h t e B o c c h i n o B e l f o r t i s , D i e , ( W : 19 0 7 ) PE* B i b e l , A n k A n d ig u n g d e r d e u ts c h e n , d e r B re m e r P r e s s e , B r ie f,

E in .

An E . . .

(W: 19 I4.I4. )

B r i e f A b e r d a s Dr a m a a n Hugo v o n Ho f m a n n s t h a l : thal. B r i e f e a n e i n e j u n g e D i c h t e r i n , ( W : I 9 3 6 ) l92+7'» B r i e f e i n b e s e t z t e s Ge b i e t , 1 9 2 0 . C ro ce , Da n t e Da n t e

B e n e d e tto ,

1925,

1926,

( a r t i c l e ) , 1928. ( t r a n s l a t io n

deutsch

W: I 9O I + - I 929 )

I 909 ,

of

1922,

HA,

192+7*

the

Di v i n

1922,

e

see

192+S.

Co m e d y ) ,

1930. ( a r t i c l e ) , 19 0 S ,

Ho f m a n n s ­

(P :I9 0 2 + ;

1923,

D a n te und d e u t s c h e r D a n te Da n t e , E p i l e g o m e n a z u , I : E i n f A h r u n g (W s1 9 1 3 )

1926 .

192+7*

in

d ie

P.

Vit a

No v a ,

AW.

D a N T E -U n T E R S C H IE B U N G ,

MoDERNE,

1926.

D a n t e s V i t a N ova d e u t s c h , (VV: 1 9 1 2 ; R : l 9 2 l ) 1 9 2 2 . ( E in fA h ru n g : see E p ile g o m e n a ) . De m a n t d e r K r o n e ( a r t i c l e ) , 1930* De u t s c h e De n k r e d e n ( a n t h o l o g y ) , 1925* De u t s c h e i n d e r L a n d s c h a f t , D er ( a n t h o l o g y ) , 1927* De u t s c h e L i t e r a t u r i m Ka m p f um i h r Re c h t , 19 3 • • De u t s c h e Na m e n a u s l JKn d i s c h e r Ga r t e n p f l a n z e n : s e e Ga r t e n p f l a n z e n . De u t s c h e Re i s e n d e , d e u t s c h e s Sc h i c k s a l , 1 9 2 8 , 1 932* D i c h t e r u n d s e i n e Z e i t , De r : s e e Ge o r g e . D i c h t e r . . . D i c h t e r i s c h e : s e e Ue b e r d e n D i c h t e r u n d d a s D i c h t e ­ r is c h e . D i c h t e r . . . v e r k a n n t b l e i b e n : s e e Ue b e r d a s Re c h t d e s D i c h t e r s VERKANNT ZU BLE IB E N . Don Q u i c h o t t e d e s C e r v a n t e s , D e r : D i e K o n z e p t i o n K a s t i l i e n s , 1926.

Do n Q u i x o t e , No t i z b l a t t z u , 1 9 2 8 . D r e i R e d e n . Mi t e i n e r D e n k s c h r i f t , 1 9 * 5 D u r a n t , D e r , (W: 19 OI4.) 1920, AW; (W :I9 0 5 )

(W: 1 9 0 5 ; R;

I 9 L 7 . E r i n n e r u n g e n a n Ho f m a n n s t h a l : s e e Ho f m a n n s t h a l . E r k l JIr u n g , E i n e ( i n re De u t s c h e L i t e r a t u r i m Ka m p f Re c h t ) , 1 9 3 2 . E w i g e r V o r r a t d e u t s c h e r P o e s i e ( a n t h o l o g y ) , 1926 .

um

ih r

Fa l l Ne u r a t h , De r ; s e e Ne u r a t h . FOh r u n g ( s p e e c h ) , 1 9 3 ' * Ga r t e n , A u s e i n e m s Od l i c h e n , S c h r - I . Ga r t e n b u c h , E i n n e u e s , 1925* Ga r t e n p f l a n z e n , D e u t s c h e Na m e n a u s l K n d i s c h e r ,

1932.

Ga r t e n p h a n t a s i e , I9 25 » I91+7* Ge d e n k r e d e a n Ho f m a n n s t h a l : s e e Ho f m a n n s t h a l . G e d i c h t e ( a p o s t h u m o u s s e l e c t i o n ) , I 9 I+S. Ge l i e b t e K l e i n i g k e i t , D i e , ( W i 1 9 19 ) 1 92 3* Ge o r g e , De r D i c h t e r un d s e i n e Z e i t : D i e Ge s t a l t S t e f a n Gs , 1928, I 929 . G e o r g e s S i e b e n t e r R i n g , S t e f a n , H, P, 191+7• Ge r m a n i a : s e e T a c i t u s . Ge s c h i c h t e d e s Er b e n , D i e (N o v e l l e ) , 1 9 2 2 , PE. Ge s c h i c h t e d e s He i m k e h r e n d e n , D i e : s e e J o r a m . Ge s p e n s t , Da s (N o v e l l e ) , 19 2 9 * HS» G e s p r K c h A b e r F orm en u n d P l a t o n s L y s i s d e u t s c h , D as, ( P : 1 9 0 1 )

1901+,

1918 ,

1923, AW.

3{Jt t e r l i e d e r : s e e A l t j o n i s c h e GSt t e r l i e d e r . G ra b re d e a u f E b e rh a rd von Bodenhausen, ( W : I9 I 8 ) G r a b s c h r i f t e n , 1918, HA. Gr o s s e S c h a u s p i e l h a u s , Da s , 1 9 2 1 , 1923* Gr o s s e n T r o b a d o r s , D i e : s e e T r o b a d o r s . Gr o s s e r J o u r n a l i s t , E i n : s e e T r o g , Ha n s . Ha l b g e r e t t e t e S e e l e , D i e , 1 9 2 0 , G. Ha n d l u n g e n u n d A b h a n d l u n g e n , 1 9 2 8 . Ha r t m a n n v o n A u e : Der a r m e H e i n r i c h , 1 9 * l+» Ha u s b e s u c h , D e r ( N o v e l l e ) , HG. He r a k l e s : s e e De r r u h e n d e He r a k l e s . He s p e r u s , 1909* H e y m e l , A l f r e d , I n m e m o ria m , 19 * 7» HA.

1 925*

I923>

AW.

139 H A ld e r lin

und

Ho f f n u n g s l o s e Ho f m a n n s t h a l : Ho f m a n n s t h a l , H o fm a n n s th a l, H o fm a n n s th a l, Ho f m a n n s t h a l , Ho f m a n n s t h a l s H o fm a n n s th a ls H o fm a n n s th a l,

e n d lic h

e in

( W H 9 26 ) HA.

Ende,

Ge s c h l e c h t , Da s ( f o u r p r o s e t a l e s ) , 1929* s e e Er a n o s - B r i e f . Hug o v o n , 1 929* B r i e f A b e r d a s Drama a n H ugo v o n , (W: 19 * • ) HA. E r i n n e r u n g e n a n , 1929* Ge d e n k r e d e a n , ( g i v e n 1 9 2 9 ; no w r i t t e n r e c o r d ) . L e h r j a h r e , 1 930* P r o s a i s c h e S c h r i f t e n , ( W : 1 9 * 7 ) HA. Reoe A b e r , (W: 1902 ) 19 0 7 * 191 S.

I m Ha u s e u n d i n d e r F r e m d e . K i n d h e i t s e r i I n m e m o r i a m A l f r e d He y m e l : s e e He y m e l . I n m e m o ria m Hans T r o g , 1929 . I n t e r m e z z o , I 9 IO , P. J o r a m , Das B u c h PE. J o u r n a l is t , Ein J ugendgedjchte,

(G e s c h ic h te

des H e im k e h re n d e n ) ,

grosser,

1913*

nnerungen,

Ha n s T r o g , 1 9 2 0 , I91+7*

I m a g i n ^ r b Un t e r h a l t u n g e n , 1923.

1905»

1907*

entnommen,

I9 2 S ,

1928.

K a i s e r , De r ( W i l h e l m l l ) , I 9 OS. K a m e l 1e n , ( W : 1906 ) . K i n d i m Ha u s e , Da s . E i n e r S e l b s t b i o g r a p h i e Sc h r - 1 1 . K o n s e r v a t 1v 1smus u n d H u m a n is m u s , I 9 3 I * K r ie g und d i e D e u ts c h e S e l b s t e i n k e h r , D e r, K r ie g und d i e D e u ts c h e V e r a n tw o r tu n g , D e r, K r i p p e n s p i e l , 1922. Ku l t u r a l s Wa h l , 1 92 8, 191+7* La n d o r s

I9 2 S .

deutsch,

(W :I9 I1 + )

1915*

AW.

1916, AW.

( W :1905;

R:1 9 2 0 )

1908 , Le

e

Le

s s in g

:

see

.

Vernon E

in

Le e .

RA c k b l i c k

L ie d e r a u s den d r e i

auf

Tagen

e in

Ju

(c y c le

b il

Ku m s j a h r ,

of

p oe m s),

Schr- I I .

J.

Me l a n c h o l i a : s e e Re z e n s i o n e n . Me n s c h u n d d i e B l u m e , De r , 191+2. M | T T E L A L T E R L I CHE A l T E R T U M S W IS S E N S C H A F T

(S P E E C H ),

I927:

SEE

Ar n a u t ) .

Mo d e r n e Da n t e - U n t e r s c h i e b u n g : Na c h w o r t e :

see

Da n t e .

D i e g r o s s e n T r o b a d o r s , 1921+; A l t j o n i s c h e GAt 1921+; Ha r t m a n n v o n A u e , 1 9 2 5 , De u t s c h e De n k reden, 1 9 2 5 ; Ew i g e r V o r r a t d e u t s c h e r Po e s i e , 1 9 2 6 ; De r De u t s c h e i n d e r L a n d s c h a f t , 1 9 2 7 ; Da n t e d e u t s c h , 1 9 3 0 ; P i s a , 1932* N a d l e r , J o s e f , u n d s e i n W e r k , 1929* N e u e D i d o , D i e ,, HG. Neue P o e s i e u n d d i e a l t e M e n s c h h e i t , D i e ( s p e e c h ) , (W: 1 9 12 ) I 9 I 5 : see D re i Reden. Ne u e s Ga r t e n b u c h , E i n : s e e Ga r t e n b u c h . Ne u r a t h , De r “ F a l l " , 1 929* see

t e r l i j £e o e r ,

i 1

IIjlO

(Wl I9 I7 ) HA, 1929.

OeFFENTLICHER G e IS T ,

OsTPREUSSEN UMD BERLIN, E r INNERUNGEN, PHpstj^in

Ju tta,

Pa m e l a

(

P ater,

W alter,

co m ed y),

Pe r s e r , Pe t r a

D ie:

Die

und

1

T

(

ie r

,

s

one

und

Pr o s a

scene

E r z JI h L UNGEN,

19 2 0 . fAr d

Pr o s p e k t

a

pla y

),

1931*

1927*

Bib el

ie

Sa k r a m e n t ,

als

,

in h a r d t

A n Ma

Re i n h a r d t s

S

x

,

i eg

.

(a

r t ic l e

),

I 9I4.S.

19 3 U -

19 2 3 * Br e m e r

der

U s e r Ho f m a n n s t h a l : s

E in

,

esse

:

see

Bib

e l

.

Ho f m a n n s t h a l .

see

Da

Pr

1932. Br

offener

ie f

,

19 3 ® *

19 2 0 .

R e n e g a t e n s t r e i CHE, Re z e n

of

fragment),

193•»

La n d s c h a f t

s e in e

1,

Re i c h

(

deutsch

19 0 S , I 909 , I 9 I U . >928, 19 3 1. V e r s u c h , ( P : 1901+; W: 1932, 1935) I 93 S ,

POETISCHE

Re

I93U*

(AEs c h y l u s ) ,

das

E in

Re d e

8n d * g u n g .

d e u ts c h ,

P is a . Pis a

Verk

(W : 939)•

Pf l a n z e n p o r t r H t P in d a r

see

1927*

I9 0S .

:

s io n e n

1.

R u d olf

2.

Wi l h e l m

Kassner: He

M e la n c h o lia ,

: Au s

Dic h t u n g

I

9O S . Sa

und

ge

:

see

Zum

deut­

Al t e r t u m .

schen

J. W.

r tz

B ru in ie r:

Das

Deutsche

V o lk s lie d :

see

Z um d e u t ­

schen A lte rtu m .

8

0.

B c k el:

Das

Deutsche

V o lk s lie d :

see

Z um d e u t s c h e n

A ltertum .

(W:1919) 1921,

R h ein sb erg,

Ro s s e t t i , Ruhende

19 2 8 ,

H erakles,

Ru p p r e c h t

von

1927,

HA.

1930*

9

Der,

( W : 1 J2 )

Zu

Ba y e r n .

1921+,

s e in e m

Eranos.

h e u t ig e n

Ge b u r t s t a g e ,

1932*

ScHAU IN DIE LYRIK DER DEUTSCHEN DlCHTUNGEN DES NEUNZEHNTEN

1926.

Jahrhunderts, Scherzo

(D

S c h ille r

ie

u nver a ntw o r tlic he

(speech),

S c h Ap f u n g Sc

h r if te n

Sc

h r if t e n

aus

I,

ie b e

see

Au t o

der

S p ectato r I

(

Die

d t

poems),

),

(W :19 •3 ^

1923»

1928,

HA.

19U7•

1935*

EDITION FRANCAISEl SEE RENEGATENSTREI CHE-

b io g r a p h ie

G erm anicus

St a a t e n b u n d S taufer

,

St a

Wi d m u n g .

SlM P L IZlS S IM U S , S in n

1947*

I93U*

II,

S c h r Ad e r :

L

1920,

,

De r ,

A ufsXtze,

Bu n d e s s t a a t ,

oder

(p en talo g y):

1927* I

9I 2f f .

I933»

A lpenAbergang,

(P:1

9• * »

W :I9 1 1-1933)

1936. Sw i n b u r n e

deutsch

Ta

r n e l ii

Ta

c it i

c it

,

Co

1919. u s : Ge r

,

,

m a n ia

19 • 9» Ge r m

,

*93^»

a n ia

,

( W :1 3 1 2 )

I9US.

l a te in is c h

und

deutsch

,

19 • 1+*

1922.

I

Th eater

und

D

Trog,

Ha n s :

Ue b e r

Al

Po

ie

,

Da s ,

,

1

In

see

k e s t is

das

Re c h t

Ue b e r

den

D

und

lt h e im

Ve r

e in ig u n g

Ein

and

J

grosser

o u r n a lis t

.

P. verkannt

zu

Dic h te r is c h e

das

St a d t , ,

ie b h a b e r

1908,

,

,

1928.

b l e ib e n

(W : 19 2 6 )

,

(spe ec h ),

1920,

P,

durch

Di

D er,

:

e

Sc h e r z o .

see

HG.

AW. Fe

den

in

(

h in d u r c h

novel

),

(W :19 3 * » *93&)

1937. Ve r

(speec

g il

V e R k A n D IG U N G s tin

I93°»

•931.

Schr- I .

( d r a m a t ic

POEM,

PART

h

),

Verm ischte

G ed ic h te,

Ve r n o n

Le e

(

Vil

Ve r s u c h

.

l a

in

I

OF T H E

T R ILO G Y

1903+ { W: 190I+-O6 ; R: 19 1S )

( P:

Ju tta),

1920,

D lE

PH p -

AW.

I92H*

m em o r ia m e in e r

),

1935-

la n d s c h a f ts h is to r is c h e n

Mo n o g r a p h i e ,

1907, 190S, P. V

it a

No v a :

W elfis ch es Wi o m u n g

K a is ertu m ,

(der

Wl DMUNG

Da n t e .

see

1935*

Vo lte r r a ,

( der

( W : I 906 )

Zei

As s i s c

see

93I .

HA) a n Ru d o l f A l e x a n d e r S c h r S o e r , ( W H 927 ) HA. J ) AN Ru DOLF AL EXANDER S c h r A o ER, I 9 13» 1 9 2 0 .

Worms, tgen

I

I

her

907, Hu

P.

m a n is t

,

Ein .

Da s

We r k

Be n e d e t t o

Cr o c e s :

Cr o c e .

Zum

deutschen

Zur

G es ch ic hte

Al t e r t u m des

(

three

hAheren

book

r e v ie w s

Schulw esens,

1

),

I 9 O8 .

928.

POEMS

Ab e t o n e , Ab s a g e ,

V. V.

A lle rh e ilig s te s , Al b

DAS

A ls

ER VON

Am

u lett

An

den

V,

(

1901/ 02)

GESCHLAGENE ,

J.

1917* V*

Ru SSLAND F r I E D E N S C H L O S S ,

I HR GETRENNT WAR,

A,

G.

A.

He r o s .

AW,

Vor

e in e r

deutschen

Sw i n b u r n e - A u s g a b e ,

G.

An H o f m a n n s t h a l , ( 1901*.) J , G. An P h i l i p p , 1 9 0 8 , V. A r i e : S c h l i e s s t e u c h . . . , S L , AW. Au f

d ie

RA c

k s e ite

e in e s

Ha n d s p i e g

els

,

(1 902)

J,

AW.

HA.

1921+,

191*8.

Un v e r a n t w o r t l i c h e

Ve

19 2 7 »

D ic hters

des

ic h ter

HA,

UnwArd 1g e L

m em o r ia m

(W tig iO )

,

Ue b e r

1 92 7,

e s ie

grossen

d ie

Trobadors,

(1909)

11+2

Au f

e in e

angeschossene

S C H R IF T

Sc h w a l b e , d i e d e r D i c h t e r ( 1 9 1 I ) 1 91 2, V, AW.

B a c c h i s c h e E p i p h a n i e , ( 1 901+/05, 19 12 ) V. B a l l a d e v o n W i n d , S c h l a f u n d G e s a n g , ( 1 900 ) B e c h e r , D e r , ( 1 9 1 2 ) V. Be

im

Tode

von

fand.

Gr a b -

DER SCHWALBE,

...

An

....................

1 90 7,

J.

Sc h r - I I .

A, G. B i s m a r c k s De n k m a l i n B r e m e n , ( 1 9 1 2 ) V . Bo r c h a r d t , Ro b e r t : s e e Gr a b s c h r i f t e n . Br e m s e , V . Bil d

Ge

der

E lN E M

lie b t e n

JflN G ER EN

El e g i e n :

IN

,

DEN

"J O R A M ,"

( 19 0 6 )

J.

He r o i s c h e , Pa t h e t i s c h e , S a t u r n i s c h e . E n t z A c k e n , D a s , S L , AW. E p IP H A N IA S , 1922/ 2 9 , S c h r - I . see

Z u n g e n , ( 1902 ) J . F e b ru a r i n B e r l i n , A. F l u c h t g e d a n k e n , ( 1 9 0 1 , 1 9 0 6 ) J , G. Fu r c h t b a r e r F r i9 h lin g , (1 9 1 9 ) *922, Fa l s c h e

Ge l b e Gl

e , SL. (1 8 9 9 )

Ka i s e r k r o n e ,

Ge s a n g

Di

Du n k e l n ,

im

:

e ic h n is

see

Lie

d

AW.

.

G r a b s c h r i f t d e r S c h w a lb e , ( I 9 1 O V. Gr a b s c h r i f t e n : I . Ro b e r t B o r c h a r d t L e m b e r g ; 2 . E i n Zw e i t e r , V . Gr e n z e n , ( 1 9 0 1 / 0 2 ) J . Gr

il l e

,

Di

e

,

S L.

der

J 0 ngere,

gefallen

in

( 19 2 3 + ) .

n a l ie o , V. He l l d u n k e l , ( 1 9 0 1 / 0 2 ) J . He r o i s c h e E l e g i e , ( 1 2 9 9 ) • 9 0 0 , J . H e r z b r u d e r , ( 1906 ) J , AW. Ho f m a n n s t h a l : s e e A n Ho f m a n n s t h a l .

He l e

I m Erw ac hen, ( 1 3 0 1 / 0 2 ) J . I n d a s S ta m m b u ch m e i n e s K om m andeurs i m F e l d e , ( 19 16 ) V. I n e i n Bu c h g e s c h r i e b e n (C f . Na c h k l JIn g e ) , ( 1 9 1 7 ) J a u n d N e i n , ( 1 9 0 2 ) J , AW. J e d e r Ma n n d e r s e i n e n , A . JflNG EREN

Kl a g e

IN

DEN J o R A M ,

E lN E M !

SEE E l N E M

JflNG EREN

IN

DEN JO R A M .

Da p h n e , ( 1 9 0 2 ) V . Od e , ( I 9 l 0 V , G. Kn a b e n s c h w e r m u t , J . der

Kl a s s i s c h e

Le b

e n s l ie o

,

Schr- I .

( 1 9 0 1 ) J , G. L e t z t e s Ge d i c h t , ( 191+1+) 191+6. LlC H TER BLIC KU N G SLIED , 1 9 3 0 , 19U7* Le t z t e

Ro s e n ,

2*

1 I

L ie d ( o r i g i n a l l y e n t i t l e d G l e ic h n i s ) , L i l i e n c r o n , V, G. L u s t un d S c h a u d e r , ( 1 9 0 1 / 0 2 ) J .

SL.

MAdCHEN L IE S T DAS BuCH UND SPRICHT, DaS, ( 1902 ) J , G. M J I r z w ie s e , V . M A G N O L I E DES H e R B S T E S , ( 1905 ) J * Ma n n un d d i e L i e b e , De r : s e e De r B e c h e r . B r e m s e , V e r s a g u n g , V e n u s i m F e n s t e r , Na c h t v o r S e t t i g n a n o , N i g e l l a h i s p a n i c a a tr o p u r p u r e a i Ab e t o n e , Ab s a g e . Ma n o n ,

V.

M e l o d i s c h e E l e g i e , ( 1901* I 90L ) J * M e l u s i n e n s L i e d , ( 1 9 1 5 ) V, AW. M it E rd b e e re n u nd e in e r S c h a le , (1 9 0 1 ) J* M i t e i n e r g r i e c h i s c h e n K e t t e , SL. M i t e in e p . a n d e r n K e t t e , S L . M i t M a r g r i t e n , ( I 90 I ) J , 3 . M i t N a r z i s s e n , ( l 9 0 l ) J , AW. M i t d e n S c h u h e n , SL, AW. M i t e i n e r S t u t z u h r , SL. M o l t k e s D e n k m a l i n B re m e n , ( 19 1 2 ) V. N ach d e r L o t h r i n g e r S c h l a c h t , V . Na c h Be t r a c h t u n g v o n L a n d s c h a f t s z e i c h n u m g e n Ve r s e .

g e s c h r ie b e n :

see

Na c h k l a n g :

1. A u f j e d e m E i n AW, G.

und

Au s g a n g

m e in e s

Le b e n s . . .

2. 3.

F r e i S E IN 1ST N I C H T S . . . ( 1 9 17 ) V» AW, G. D i c h l i e b e n mOssen 1ST d i e l e t z t e S c h u le ...

u.

le u

z ie h e

m ic h

aus

Kr

ie g s

-

und

0917)

V,

G.

S t AA TSG ESC h H f T E N . . . V ,

5.

ZurQcKGENOMMEN, EHE S I CHS V O L L E N D E T . . . V. 6. D ie W e l t u m g i b t m i c h v o l l e r F i n g e r z e i g e . . . V, G. 7 . N o c h d i e S e k u n d e . . . V. 8 . Zu D E M , WAS B L E I B T . . . V. 9. S in T e i l v o n d i r i s t a l l e m b e i g e m i s c h t . . . V, G. 10. Ic H KANN N I C H T MEHR ZUR L l N K E N . . . V . 1 1 . So W I E D I E U H R . . . V. Na c h t v o r S e t t i g n a n o , V . Ne l k e i m Gl a s , ( 1 9 0 3 ) V. N i g e l l a h i s p a n i c a a t r o p u r p u r e a , V. Ode m i t

dem G r a n a t a p f e l ,

(1 9 0 7 )

P a l l a s - L i e d , ( > 9 * 5 / • 6 ) V. P a r g o l e t t a , ( 1 899 / * 900 ) 1907 , J , Pa t h e t i s c h e E l e g i e , J . Pause, J . Pe t r a : 1. Me l u s i n e n s L i e d , V . 2 . He l e n a l i e d , V. 3 . P a l l a s - L i e d , V. I f . Ma n o n , V .

H, V,

G.

AW.

(A n S c h r a d e r ) .

G.

I uu

Ph

il ip p

R is b ,

:

g ee

A n Ph

il ip p

.

( 1 9 0 1 / 0 2 ) J,- G.

S a t u r n 1g c h e E l e c i e , ( 19 0 1 ) J . SCHLECHTER T a g , (1 9 0 1 > 1 9 0 9 ) J . Sc h l i e s s t E u c h . . . : b e e A r j e . Be s t i m e d e r Se h n b u c h t , ( 1 9 0 2 ) J . S i e SAGT IM Ge h EN, 0 9 0 2 ) J , AW. So n e t t e : A b BCHIEO, ( I 901 ) J . AbSCHIEO VOM 80 NETT, ( 1909) 0* An R i c h a r d B e c r - H o f m a n n , ( 1 9 0 2 W i e n ) J . Au t u m n u b : 1. V o r a l l e n G A t t e r n . . . ( 1 9 0 1 ) J, G. 2 . D u r c h s e i n e Y / o r t e . . . ( 19O I ) J , G. 3 . M in S C H I E N , D A 8 8 . . . ( 1901 ) Jt G. 1*. D e r L ie e j e n o e : D i e BXume^ b i n d b n i c h t i / i e h r . . . ( I 3O I ) J . 5 . D e r G o t t : B l i c k h e r a u f m i c h . . . ( 19 0 1 ) J , G. 6 . Der L i e d e n d e : He r b s t a n g e s i c h t . . . 0 9 0 1 ) J * 7 . D e r G o t t : D e m O tig e d i c h . . . ( 1901 ) J . 2 . De r L i e b e n d e : Ho r c h , K l a g e r u f .' ( 1 9 0 1 ) J* G. 9 . D i e G e l i e b t e : E r i s t e i n G o t t . . . ( 19 0 1 ) J . 10. U r l a u b : Gi b Ra u m d e m Re i s e f e r t i g e n . . . ( 19 0 1 ) J . B r i e f , ( 1 901*) J . Gott, Der: B l i c k h e r a u f m i c h , Mu s i k . . . (1901) J, AW, 191+S ( L y r i k o e s A b e n d l a n d e s ) . HaUBGEIBT, ( 1900 ) J . KAr z e s t e r T a g : I n e i n e Wi u t e r f r A h e . . . ( 19 0 1 } J . Na d i r , (1901) J. Ne b e l h a u b : 1. Ic H 8TIEG AUF S t u F E M . . . ( 1900) J . 2 . I cm s p r a c h : "D u s c h l K f c t . . . " 0 9 0 0 ) J . 0 BTRENGE FeRNE.' ( 1 9 0 0 ) J . S cH W E B T E R N ,

( I9 0 1)

J.

Se p t e m b e r : 1. VOM TaGE nKhRT 8 1 CH 8CH0N D IE NaCHT VER8T0HLEN, 2 . A tm e n o e N a c h t u nd BHume, ( 1 9 0 0 ) J , AW, SoNETT AUF D IE TaNZENDE, (1901*) J , G. S o n e t r a u f b i c h b e l b b t , ( 1 9 0 2 ) J , G. They a l s o s e r v e . . . J . S tH n d ch e n , SL. St i l l e b J a u c h z e n , ( 1 9 0 1 / 0 2 ) J . S t i m m e vom B e r g e . . . A n E . A . v o n S t . . . 191*6. Sw i n b u r n e : q c e A n d e n He r o s . T a g e l i e d , ( 1 9 0 2 ) J , AW. T a u b e n d F r e u d e n , SL. T i e f e Na c h t , S c h r - I I . T i e f e u nd HAh e ( f o u r p a r t s ) , J . T r a u r i g e B e s u c h , De r , ( 19 0 0 ) J .

J.

IU5

U e b e r tr a g u n g e n ( q u a s i N e u s c h S p fu n g e n ): see S w in b u rn e . E n g l i s c h e D i c h t e r , B r i t t i n g s " L y r i k d e s A b e n d l a n d e s " (191+S), C a r d u c c i ' s L e g n a n o l i e d , D a n t e , T r o b a d o r s , H a r t m a n n , G8 t TERLIEDER - IN MAIN L I S T . U n g l A c k l i c h e A h n u n g , ( 1901/ 0 2 ) J . V e n u s i m F e n s t e r , V. Ve r g l i c h c n e r St r e i t , ( 1 9 0 1 / 0 2 ) J . Ve r s a g u n g , V . Ve r s e b e i B e t r a c h t u n g v o n L a n d s c h a f t s z e i c h n u n g e n g e s c h r i e b e n , H. J . Ve r s u c h u n g , Sc h r - I . VOLLKOMMENES We S E N . . . A . V o r dem E n d e ( t o c l o s e s o n n e t c y c l e A u t u m n u s ) , O 9 0 O W a n n se e , (1911) V. W e i d e , ( 1905 ) V.

i

"DER NACHLASS"

On

pages

S>7

2>9

and

it

w as

stated

that

Bo r c h a r d t

although

CEASED PU BLISHING AFTER H lTL E R CAME TO POWER,

cally w r it e .

Ru d o l f A l e x a n d e r S c h r A d e r

relates

that

HE HAD PRACTICALLY F IN IS H E D A BOOK ON HOMER.

at

HE D ID CONTINUE TO

the

T H IS

Bo r c h a r d t

c h iv e s

ly

,

of

of

a

t r a il

c o n s id e r a b l e

whence

year

left

Bo r c h a r d t

I9U1*.

BELONGINGS,

s iz e

and

Ex c e p t

for

of

.

clues

Th e s e

f a m il y

what

had

they

INCLUDING FURNITURE,

and

are

to

in

leave

could

L IB R A R Y ,

p o in t in g

almost

great

carry

on

of

h is

death

A L L THROUGH H IS

s u g g e s t io n s

a r c h iv e s

t im e

I S BY NO MEANS THE

ONLY IN D IC A T IO N THAT THERE MAY BE LITERARY REMAINS. l if e

p r a c t i­

wholly

haste

t h e ir

ar­

to

in

I ta­

in

the

backs,

war

t h e ir

AND UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPT8,

WERE PACKED INTO TWENTY-EIGHT B IG WOODEN BOXES AND STORED IN A BARN ON THE ESTATE OF A SlGNOR Ca S T O L D I,

OWNER OF V l L L A PoGGIO AL De BBIO

Mi c h e l e

Th i s

di

Mo r i a n o

near

Lu c c a .

w r i t e r -w e n t

on

a

p il g r im a g e

IN S a N to

THE PLACE AND BORe WITNESS TO THE DECAY TO WHICH THE PAPERS IN THE BOXES MUST BE SUBJECTED THROUGH MICE AND THE ELEMENTS. AN INVENTORY} SHAPED,

HE COULD ONLY MUSE AND SPECULATE, WHAT TREASURES THE ODD­

weather- b e a te n

THE POET’ S WIDOW, 191*9,

THERE WAS NO T IM E FOR

IS

troves

c o n t a in e d .

Mr s .

Ma r i e - L

u is e

REPORTED TO HAVE PROCEEDED TO IT A L Y

Bo r c h a r d t ,

IN THE FALL OF

IN ORDER TO RESCUE AT LEAST THE MOST IMPORTANT ITEMS,

BUT NO DEF-

F I N I T E WORD WAS RECEIVED BY THE END OF THE YEAR. Fo l l o w in g in

the

is

a

l is t

"Na c h l a s s . "

The

of

clues

l is t

to

ranges

what

from

m ig h t

reasonably

rather

p o s it iv e

be

expected

a s s e r t io n s

to

WISHFUL T H IN K IN G .

HOMER:

It

is

known

that

the

TR EATISE ABOUT HoMER. LATOR, As

in

last

th in g

S c Hr Bd ER,

on

Bo r c h a r d t

w h ic h

worked

was

a

HIMSELF A HOMER SCHOLAR AND TRANS­

COLLABORATED WITH HIM ON A BOOK AS LATE AS NOVEMBER I 91-&* the

case

PREDECESSORS, Al r e a d y

Da

of

,

Bo r c h a r d t

made

a

thorough

study

of

h is

TAKING UP THE WHOLE PROBLEM OF HOMER SINCE W O L F ,*

193*3 T H E

in

nte

plan

for

HAD TAKEN SHAPE IN HIS M IND,

"Ep il e g o m e n a

AND Mr s .

Ho m e r o s

zu

und

Ho m e r " ^

BORCHARDT POSSESSES A MANU­

SCRIPT OF ONE HUNDRED DOUBLE-SPACED TYPEWRITTEN PAGES.

HoMER

SEEMED TO HAVE BECOME TO HER HUSBAND *S LATER YEARS WHAT Da NTE HAD BEEN TO HIM In

a

IN H IS YOUTH.

letter

to

h is

s is t e r

-

in

-

law

,

Er i k a

von

Frey,

w r it t e n

a

FEW MONTHS BEFORE H IS DEATH, ^ HE PRAISES HER NATURAL "DIS COVERY11 of

hao

Ho m e r

over

traveled

the

.

a r t if ic ia l

The

books

of

route

Wi l a m

w h ic h

o w it z

the

may

scholar

be

Wi l a m

famous,

HE HIMSELF CONSIDERED THEM GOSPEL IN H IS YOUTH,

he

S I S T E R - IN - L A W

NOT THE

He R IN STIN C T TOLD HER

2.

B o r c h a r d t f i x e d t h i s t i t l e w h en h e l i s t e d i t a s b e i n g " i n p r e p a r a ­ t i o n * i n H IS L I S T OF H IS WORKS IN THE 193*3 ED IT IO N OF P l S A . - OTHER WORK8 MENTIONED THERE AS BEING " l N PREPARATION11 W ILL BE REFERRED TO IN T H IS CHAPTER AS BEING IN THE P l S A - L l S T .

3.

"E in

,"

Ne u e

Sc h w e ize r

" B e g r Bnd er

and

Fr ie d r ic h

ie f

( 17 5 9 “ • S21).) ,

,

1.

Br

A u g u s t Wo l f

IS RIGHT.

says

BUT THE STR IC TLY

AN ALYTICAL METHOD D ID NOT GET TO THE CORE OF THE I L I A D . SCHOLARS, BUT H IS

o w it z

Ru n d s c h a u .

der

XV ( l 9 U 7 ) »

Al t e r t u m s w is s e n s c h a f t .

*3*3-90.

WITH CERTAINTY THAT THE I L I A D CHARDT,

IS A WORK OF ART.

ACCORDING TO B o R-

W lE L A N D 'S TRANSLATION AND COMMENTARY ARE S T IL L UNEXCELLED.

EXCEPT FOR SOME MODERN DISCOVERIES ABOUT HoMER. TINUES WITH A REFERENCE TO H IS OWN WORK,

THE LETTER CON­

IN WHICH HE CLAIMS TO

HAVE MADE Q U IT E ACCIDENTALLY SOME IMPORTANT AND OBVIOUS, L IT T L E

THOUGH

NOTICED D I SCOVERI E 8 , THROUGH WHICH (IICH GEWI SSERMASSEN M IT

F l i Dg ELN (Jb ER UNSERE Z e I T l e r g r Ss s t e n

e in z ig s t e n

BORCHARDT AND GREECE:

HINWEG GEHOBEN WORDEN BIN UND NUN IM A L -

He i l i g t u m

leben

und w eben

DURFTE."

A f t e r we h a v e s e e n B o r c h a r d t ' s w o r k on H o m e r ,

we

SHALL REMEMBER H IS OTHER "G R E C IAN " WORKSI THE TRANSLATIONS OF P| N DAR,

THE FRAGMENT FROM THE PERSIANS BY AESCHYLUS,

SCHEN G S ttE R L IE D E R .

IN THE P| S A - L | ST.

PAGE 4 7 f )

the

I9 2 S :

AND WHAT THE T R IP TO GREECE I N

MIGHT HAVE RESULTED

Dr . WlEGAND of

And WE SHALL WONDER WHAT HAPPENED TO THE

IN DAS V eR StH nD N IS DER P | NDARISCHEN P O E S I E ,” WHICH WAS

"E lN L E IT U N G CITED

AND THE A l T J O N I -

states

Gr e e k A n t h o l o g y "D a s s

Du

f

Or

den

that

of

IT

(s E E

IN .

HE REPEATEDLY SUGGESTED A TRANSLATION

Ve r s e ,

to

g r ie c h is c h e n

w h ic h

Bo r c h a r d t

Vo r r a t ^

r e p l ie d

I nteresse

SEHR SChAn UND I CH W IL L DEN PLAN IM AuGE BEHALTEN. ” SIDERS

1921}.

hast,

in

is t

WlEGAND CON­

PROBABLE THAT BORCHARDT TRANSLATED IN D IV ID U A L GREEK PO­ The Pl S A - L | ST SUPPORTS

EMS AND THAT THEY ARE IN THE "N A C H LASS ." T H IS WHEN I T

SPEAKS OF " D l E FREMDE MUSE, " WHICH WAS TO CONTAIN

TRANSLATIONS OF POEMS OF LaTIN,

G re E K ,

PrOVENCJAL,

AND MODERN EURO­

PEAN POETS.

4*

Th e

word

scher

suggests

Po e s i e .

an

anthology

comparable

to

the

Ew i g e n V o r r a t

deut-

149

Another

by

Ma x

po s s ib le

Ry c h n e r ^

who

work

in

co nnection

speaks

of

a

WAS NEVER PUBLIS HED.

BORCHARDT THE GARDENER; ESPECIALLY

book

on

Gr e e c e

w ith

the

flora

of

is

suggested

Gr e e c e ,

w h ic h

T h IS LEADS TO ANOTHER T O P IC !

Bo r c h a r d t

was

IN H IS LATER YEARS.

an

ardent

gardener

all

h is

l if e

,

T H IS WRITER HAS A COPY OF A POSSI­

BLY UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPT ENTITLED

"K a M E L I E N , " DATED

19 0 6 .

THERE

HAVE BEEN A CONSIDERABLE NUMBER OF PUBLICATIONS ON GARDENING AND FLOWERS SIN C E , TO H IS

AND I T

IS

NO SURPRISE WHEN WE LEARN IN THE LETTER

S IS T E R - IN - L A W QUOTED ABOVE THAT BORCHARDT SHOULD SPEAK OF

AN UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPT OF A "G a RTENBUCH." TENSION OF H IS PREVIOUS, Me NSCH UND D IE B LU M E ,"

SHORTER WORKS.^

PERHAPS IT

T h e LAST OF THESE,

IS LABELLED PART 1.

"D e R

BUT NO OTHER PARTS ARE

KNOWN TO HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED UNDER THAT T I T L E . WAR INTERFERED HERE,

IS AN EX­

VERY L IK E L Y THE

AND THE "NACHLASS11 CAN REASONABLY BE EXPECTED

TO Y IE L D MORE ON THE SUBJECT. We ARE ON EVEN SURER GROUND, WHEN WE HAVE RECOURSE AGAIN TO THE P l S A - L l S T che

Ga

rtner

g e is t e s

t h is

5 . Ma x

.

:

Mit

ite m

Ry c h n e r ,

is

OF 19 3 $ . De r L

m e n sch lich e

is t e n

ready

uno

in

An

Bl u m e n b e s i t z

l e it u n g e n

m anu sc ript

"Er in n e r u n g e n

TERATUR, (Z 0 R IC H ,

6.

THERE WE READ ABOUT

an

. "

form

Ru d o l f

als

Mr s .

in

"D e R LEID EN SC H AFTLI-

It

Or d n u n g

Bo r c h a r d t

a ly

Bo r c h a r d t , "

des

says

Me n s c h e n that

.

Ze

it g e n

As s i s c

he

Li-

I 9 4 7 ^•

r t e n p h a n t a s ie , B r e m e r P r e s s e , 1 9 2 5 ? " E i n n e u e s Ga r t e n b u c h , " MNN, 7 O c t o b e r 1 9 2 5 ; " D e u t s c h e Na m e n a u s l A n d i s c h e r P f l a n z e n , " MNN, 2 2 J u ­ ly 1 9 3 2 ; "Aus E l N E M s Od l I C H E N G a R T E N , " S c H R I F T E N I . I 9 3 4 i "DER M e n s c h u n d d i e B l u m e , " NZZ, 3 0 A u g u s t 1 942.

Ga

I

BORCHARDT AND ITA LY: the

V

No v a

it a

I

Bo r c h a r d t ’ s s

d e s ig n a te d

in tr o d u c t io n

"Ep il e g o m e n a

to

zu

h is

t r a n s l a t io n

Da n t e

How

I."

WORK HAD HE ACCOMPLISHED TOWARD AN "EpILEGOMENA ZU DaNTE

of

much

II? "

But

IN THE EPILOGUE TO P |S A HE STATED THAT H IS SECOND VOLUME ON DANTE WAS TO HAVE DISCUSSED THE T R IN IT Y

"DaNTE,

A rN A U T ,

AND GlOVANNI

S A N O ," WHICH PLAN F IN A L L Y RESULTED IN THE VOLUME P l S A .

P |-

CONSE­

QUENTLY WE MAY NOT F IN D VERY MUCH MORE ON THE SUBJECT OF "BoRCHARDT AND

IT A L Y ."

POETRY AND ANTHOLOGIES:

Sh o r t l y

VoRRAT DEUTSCHER P o E S IE . SERIES OF ANTHOLOGIES, type

of

Ge r m a n

poetry

,

after

the

p u b l ic a t io n

of

the

Ew i g e r

BORCHARDT AND W|EGAND PLANNED A WHOLE

EACH TO TAKE UP A CENTURY OR A PERIOD OR A all

WRITTEN BETWEEN 1927 AND

1600.

before

1 929,

Le t t e r s

to

Dr .

W ie g a n d ,

TES TIF Y THAT A VOLUME ON "C a VA -

L I E R S - L Y R I K " AND ANOTHER ON " R e NA I SSANCE-L y R I K 11 WERE COMPLETED EX­ CEPT FOR THE EPILOGUES,

WHICH FOR SOME REASON OR OTHER BORCHARDT

NEVER GOT AROUND TO AND WHICH CONSEQUENTLY PREVENTED THE PUBLICA­ T IO N OF THE ANTHOLOGIES.

Wh IL E

IN T H IS WORK,

VELOPED PLANS FOR A BOOK OF FOLKSONGS, VOLUMES OF "TANZLIEDER UND We CHSEL, TORISCHE,

2.

ALLGEMEIN e ) . "

BORCHARDT ALSO DE­

AUGMENTED BY TWO FURTHER

UND SpIELMANNSLIEDER

( l.

H l-

He CONTINUES!

U n e RL&SSLICH WIRD S E IN , RiUc KwH r TSH I N D IE B r Oc KE ZWI SCHEN T r o b a d o r s a n d Ca v a l i e r e n d u r c h e i n e m a s s g e b e n d e u n d s c h S n LESBARE Sa MMLUNG DES MlNNESANGS ZU SCHLI ESSEN. . . . D i e a n o n y m e g e i s t l i c h e Po e s i e d e s M i t t e l a l t e r s , d i e i c h AUCH EINES T a GES NOCH SAMMELN WERDE, . . . I ST DURCH D IE UNGENlU— GENDE Be RNHARTSCHE A u SGABE D|R WOL LEIDER T E IL S VERSAGT, T E IL S VER LEIDET. Wa s NACH I 6 0 0 BEGINNT, INTERESSIERT MICH N IC H T .. . . ( I9 2 S ) No n e

of

these

ever

m a t e r ia l iz e d

.

On e

of

the

reasons

may

be

that

B o r c h a r d t w as t o o c o m p ilin g

o f h is

th o ro u g h ,

and o v e r - c o n s c i e n t i o u s

a n th o lo g ie s .

E a ch s e l e c t i o n

THE R IG ID YARDSTICK HE HAD ESTABLISHED. STANCE,

poem.

th e

On c e

he

rewrote

OF COURSE,

P isa-Lis t

m e n tio n s

in

th e

m e a s u r e up t o FOR IN ­

BUT HE NEVER SUCCEEDED

F or DAYS HE WOULD BROOD OVER A SINGLE

a

We MAY,

to

had

T lM E AND AG AIN ,

HE WOULD TRY TO TRANSLATE WOLFRAM,

TO H IS OWN S A T IS F A C T IO N .

even

passage

Wo l f r a m

from

t h i r t y - one

t im e s

EXPECT TO FIN D NEW POEMS OF H IS OWN. "N e u e G e d i c h t e . "

P O L IT IC A L POEMS WITH THE ANT I - H l T L E R

. Ev EN

Among t h e m w o u l d b e t h e

BIAS ABOUT WHICH WE READ IN

SCHRADER ’ s " E r INNERUNGEN. Then t h e r e DlCHTE

is

( 1924 ) a r e

th e m a tte r

"P b ra ."

th e

t w o a dd u p t o

BOTH M r s .

t io n s

t io n

ETS

" f r e m d e Mu s e "

from

IN

m e n t io n e d

IN

Ge -

1927 WE GOT

l y r i c a l m o n o l o g u e s a nd

ITALY CALLED " P l A UND P e T R A ."

above

I t a l i a n , F r e n c h , En g l i s h ,

TO THE CLASSICAL AUTHORS.

p r o m is e d

and

to

Am e r i c a n

b r in g poets,

re- cr ea -

in

a d d i­

T h E Ph AIDON E D IT IO N OF ENGLISH Po-

( 1 9 3 6 ) WAS PREPARED BY THE PUBLISHING HOUSE AND WAS CLEARLY

GETTING AHEAD OF BORCHARDTf S OWN, one.

th e

V e rm is c h te n

BORCHARDT AND ScHrSdER SAY THERE IS

A MANUSCRIPT OF A CYCLE OF POEMS

The

In th e

SOME LYRIC POEMS "aUS PETRA;"

" P e t r a und das T i e r : " A SCENE OF A PLAY.

of

Pa r t i c u l a r l y

LETTER TO WlEGAND,

Sw i n b u r n e

LARGER,

captured

DATED 2 g JULY

I925»

AND MORE COMPREHENSIVE

Bo r c h a r d t ' s

fancy,

and

in

a

HE REFERRED TO THE COMPLE­

TION OF SOME NEW POEMS AND A LONG TR EATISE.

R u d o l f A l e x a n d e r S c h r B d e r , "Eri n n e r u n g e n a n R u d o l f B o r c h a r d t , " Bund J a h r b u c h ( W u p p e r t a l , 1 9 4 7 ) * p p * 1 6 6 - 6 8 .

Per

152

MlSCELLANEOUS:

See f o o t n o t e

6 on p a g e 57 F0R t h e

w h i c h ' w o r k w as a b a n d o n e d

" G r u n d f e s t e n , 11 on

I 925 *

in

I 925 B o r c h a r d t f o r e s a w t w e n t y v o l u m e s

In

in

th e

s e rie s

of

S c h R IFTEN THEN BROUGHT OUT BY ROWOHLT.

SEVEN HAD APPEARED SINCE

1920.

Bo r c h a r d t

pare

Wi t h i n

the

f o l l o w in g

three

years

in t e n d e d

MANUSCRIPTS FOR THE REMAINING THIRTEEN AS FOLLOWS• Pr o s a I I S p e e c h e s - 3 v o lu m e s P la y s - 4 v o lu m e s Po l i t i c a l Wr i t i n g s - I v o l u m e Re s e a r c h P r o b l e m s ( w j s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e S c h r i f t e n ) I Da n t e E p i l e g o m e n a I I a n d I I I Annus Mi r a b i l i s - I v o l u m e .

We

pre­

to

wonder

how h e

wa s

g o in g

to

f il l

four

volumes

w it h

volume

d r a m a t ic

WORKS,

UNLESS THERE IS MORE OF " S t A U F E r " AND " Dl E P flp S T IN J U T T A fl

in

"N a c h l a s s "

the

than

has

been

TEM WHICH PUZZLES US MOST.

p u b l is h e d .

Bu t

it

is

the

i-

last

WlEGAND THINKS I T MIGHT BE A SINGLE

LONG POEM OR A BOOK OF POEMS. A t THE SAME T IM E , WHEN BORCHARDT WAS PLANNING ALL T H I S , B r e m e r Pr e s s e t io n s

Le

of

Hu m b o l d t ,

ib n iz

and

Wo r k s

t r e a t is e

Gr i m m

volumes.

chardt

w it:

regnum;

,

h is

He r d e r ,

support

Bo r c h a r d t No t h i n g

b r in g in g

S c h e l l i n g , Wi l h e l m

J a k o b Gr i m m , .

in

s e l e c t io n s

p r o m is e d

came

of

the

to

out

and

Al e x a n d e r

a c c o m p a n ie d

prepare

project

as

the

a

one- v o lu m e

by

He r d e r

whole,

von

L if e -

a

e d i­

and-

and

but

B or ­

MAY HAVE LEFT SOME INTERESTING NOTES FOR THE ESSAYS.

F in a lly , to

e n l is t e d

THE

M rs.

B o r c h a r d t knows o f t h r e e

I. A fra g m e n t Be i n g

an

P a s t and R e c e n t . "

in th e

I n q u ir y

in t o

E n g lis h the

m a n u s c rip ts

la n g u a g e ,

Ca u s e s

of

e n title d

in

Ita ly ,

"In te r­

Eu r o p e a n D i s o r d e r s ,

I t was t o h a v e b e e n p u b l i s h e d b y H e in e m a n n i n

153

London.

2.

"K l e o p a t r a

und

ih r e

Ze

it

,"

a

fragment.



"A u t o b io g r a -

PHISCHE A u f ZEICHNUNGEN Ob ER STEFAN Ge ORGE. E l N B e ITRAG ZUR Ge SCHICHTE DER DEUTSCHEN JAHRHUNDERTWENDE, " ON THE P i S A - L | S T .

A COMPLETED WORK. -

ALL THREE ARE

5.

L I S T OF ARTICLES ABOUT BORCHARDT

No t e : S ome o f t h e a r t i c l e s b e l o w h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n l i s t ­ e d UNDER REVIEWS IN SECTION 2 ABOVE. THEY ARE REPEATED HERE FOR THEIR GENERAL IMPORTANCE IN THROWING LIGHT ON B A SIC PROBLEMS. ABBREVIATIO NS ARE THE SAME AS FOR THE L I S T IN SECTION 2 . ASTERISKS ( * ) INDICATE THE ARTICLES USED IN TH18 D IS S E R T A T IO N .

B o d m e r,

M a rtin .

“ B o rc h a rd t.”

Per L e b e z ir k fl.

( I 925 ) ,

X II

101- 115.

* B o t t , Hans. " O f f e n e r B r i e f an B o r c h a r d t " and " B e k e n n t n is z u r G e g e n w a r t . " J u n g b u c h h K n d l e r —R u n d b r i e f N o. 1 6 : A u s e i n a n d e r s e t z u n g m i t R u d o lf B o rc h a rd t. E d i t e d a n d p u b l i s h e d by Hans B o t t . B e r lin , 1930.

The J u n g b u c h h X n d le r - R u n d b r ie f c o n s i s t s o f a r o u n o - r o b i n o f r e p l i e s t o B o r c h a r d t *s s p e e c h " D i e A u r g a b e n d e r Z e i t g e g e n ( J b e r d e r L i t e r a t u r " ( B r e m e n , I 929 ) . I t s t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s i s as f o l l o w s : Bo t t

Ge r h a r d

and

Sc h Sn f e l d e r :

Of f e n e r

Br

ie f

an

Bor-

charot S ch S n felder:

Zur

N ieo e rle c h n e r, Kl e

F(J g e , Kl

a tt

Er ,

Al f

Ha

ns

:

:

Volk

8

B o tt:

nst

Fr

D rin g ,

n z

,

Bo

t t

:

:

Pa

u l

:

Ein

Wort

Na t i o

Ne u e

:

L

und

Be r n h a r d :

zur L

fW r

Rudolf

Borchardt

und

moderne

L ite ra tu r

L in

it e r a t u r

der

Z e it

27-29

Gegenwart

sagt

"Kr

der

it e r a r is c h e

Kr

it ik e r it ik

"?

von

29-31 Ge s t e r n ,

3^-39 Die

w ir tsc h a ftlich en

H i n t e r g r Ande

Bu c h v e r l a g s El

Be r n h a r d

t zs c h ig

He u t e

Mo r g e n

Ge r h a r d :

,

I- 2 2- 3 3~ 0

6 -1 0 10-12 12-17 1 7-20 21 -27

Kl a s s e n g l i e d e r u n g

und

it e r a tu r

Deutsche Wa s

n

Le s e r s c h ic h t e n

Er zie h u n g

B ekenntnis

und

Me

it z

red

W erner:

Fec hter , Ra n g ,

Max:

,

in b e r g

Ho f m a n n ,

EinfO hrung

Gr

Ge o r g :

des

li.2 -1 + 6 asset

's

Un t e r

"La uns

.

chose

l it t e r a ir e

"

3 9-ty 2 L 7 -H 9

♦ B re c h t, W a lte r. "E in D e c e m b e r 1928. B r e ite n b a c h . ( 1922 ) ,

H. I.

v o rb ild lic h e r

"R u d o lf

* B r (Jg e l , F r i t z . FOh r u n g Wi e n . He s s , 1 9 3 * • ♦ B u s c h in g ,

P a u l.

B o rc h a rd t."

und

SM.

V (



.

"B orchardt. "



.

"R u d o lf B o rc h a rd t ( 1927 ) , 2 S 9 .



.

" B o r c h a r d t und d ie 508.

F e is t, —

.

Pa u l :

Hans.

♦FA g e ,

Er n s t :

♦H a a s , W. tur. H app,

A.

6 ll*.

zum 5 0 . 1927*

G e b u rts ta g ."

zum 5 0 *

G e b u r t s t a g . 11

P re s s e ."

D ie

C h r is tlic h e

KAn i g s -

1927*

P r o p y lH e n , X X IV

W e lt, X L II

(19 2 8 ),

^06-

Bo t t .

see

Bo t t .

see

f Ar

see

Ru d o l f Bo r c h a r d t .

Ne u e P r e u s s i s c h e Z e i t u n g , 2 J u l y

"B esuch

" L ebewohl

19O8 ) ,

an

Bo t t .

see

♦E l t z s c h i g , Ge o r g :

6

MNN.

G A ttin g e r U n iv e r s itK ts z e itu n g , X

E l s t e r , Hanns M a r t i n . "R u d o lf B o rc h a rd t b e r g e r H a r tu n g 's c h e Z e i t u n g . 9 June

♦Fechter,

(B o rc h a rd t).

V e r f Oh r u n g ; A n t w o r t

"D e r K a is e r . "

♦DA r i n g , We r n e r :

D e u ts c h e r"

bei

R u d o lf B o r c h a r d t."

Ru d o l f

Bo r c h a r d t . "

MNN.

18 J u l y

1927*

S c h w e i z e r Ru n d s c h a u , Ma r c h

191+6.

Bo t t .

" D e r Fa l l Ru d o l f Bo r c h a r d t . " B e r l i n , We l t - V e r l a g , 1 9 2 2 . "B o rc h a ro ts

S ch ri f t e n . "

J uden

in

per

L it e r a ­

deutschen

D ie neue D ic h t u n g , J a h rb u c h

1921+,

11*2 - 68 . Ha r i c h ,

W.

"R u d o l f B o r c h a r d t . "

Ha m b u r g e r F r e m d e n b l a t t . 21* Oc t o b e r

1925. ♦H e n n e c k e , ♦H o f m a n n ,

Ha n s . Ha n s :

"R u d o l f B o r c h a r d t . " see

Di e

FAh r e ,

I

(I9 U 6 )»

U95-1+99*

Bo t t .

♦H o f m i l l e r , J o s e f . " B o r c h a r o t s De u t s c h e L i t e r a t u r Re c h t . " SM, X X V I I I ( 1 9 3 1 ) , 9 0 1 . * —

.

"B o rc h a rd ts

P in o a r."

MNN.

II* F e b r u a r y

* —

.

"B o rc h a rd ts

D e u ts c h e r D a n te ."

C orona,

im

Ka m p f

um

ih r

I9 3 2 » II

(I9 3 2 )»

21*6- 63 .

pp.

156

*K l a t t ,

Fr

it z

:

see

Bo t t .

K l e i n , T im m . " B o r c h a r d t (Jbe r d i e W i e d e r h e r s t e l l u n g M e n sch e n ." MNN, 6 F e b r u a r y 1927* *K l e in b e r g , Al f r e d : Lange, J . x x iv *M e n z ,

see

Bo t t .

M. " B o r c h a r d t , Sc h r i f t s t e l l e r ( 192s ) , 3 S2 .

Ge r h a r d :

see

d e r W e lt und des

Po

und

l it ik e r

."

We l t b Oh n e ,

Bo t t .

* N a d le r, J o s e f. " V o n B odm er z u B o r c h a r d t : Um d i e n e u e Di c h t u n g s s p r a c h e ." W i s s e n u n d L e b e n . X X V l / X X V I I ( I9 2 1 + ), 8 8 J -8 9 2 . NSR, XX ( 1927 ) ,

* —

.

* —

. "R u d o l f Bo r c h a r d t . " L it e r a t u r g e s c h ic h t e u n d L a n d s c h a f t e n . 1 9 2 8 , v o l . 1*, p p . 730- 32 .

"R u d o lf B o rc h a rd t

zum 5 0 *

♦ N i e d e r l e c h n e r , Ma x :

see

*R a n g , B e r n h a r d :

Bo t t .

see

(1 9 2 7 ). * —

.

per

2 0 9 -2 2 6 . S t Xmme

deutschen

Bo t t .

* R e i f f e r s c h e i d t , F r i e d r i c h M. x x iv ( 1927 ) , 92- 99 . ♦R y c h n e r , Ma x .

G e b u rts ta g ."

"E x t r a b l a t t

" B o r c h a r d t s Ew i g e r V o r r a t . "

f