Representation of Chinese Grammar with Diagrams
 7561927959, 9787561927953

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实•用•汉•语•语•法•学•习•丛•书 Books for Learning Practical Chinese Grammar

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議h Diagrams 琢秀对照 Annotated in Chinese and English

汉语语法 耿二岭编著

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实•用•汉•语•语•法•学•习•丛•书 Books for Learning Practical Chinese Grammar

耿二岭编著 谢亚琴钟秀平

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BEIJING LANGUAGE AND CULTURE UNIVERSITY PRESS

图书在版编目(CIP)数据 图示汉语语法/耿二岭编著. 北京:北京语目 大学出版社,2010.6 (2013.11重印) 一

ISBN 978-7-5619-2795-3

i.①图… n.①耿…瓜.①汉语一语法一对外汉语 教学一教学参考资料IV.①H195. 4 中国版本图书馆CIP数据核字(2010)第115824号

书名:图汉语语法 英文审校:孙玉婷 责任印制:汪学发 出版发行:方•请言六莩出版让 社址:北京市海淀区学院路15号 邮政编码:100083 网 址:www. blcup. com 次本数号价 电 话:发行部82303650/3591/3651 版幵字书定

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致外国读者

To Foreign Readers / I

致中国教师和研究者

To Chinese Teachers and Researchers / IV

略语表

/ VI

Abbreviation

—、关于汉语语法的一般特点

L__J

1.语序

General Characteristics of Chinese Grammar

/I

Word Order / 2

2.词类和句子成分的对应关系 The Corresponding Relationships heXween Parts of Speech and Sentence Elements / 3 3. 合成词的构词方式Ways of Composing C ompouncl Words / 6 4. 前缀/后缀

二、关于词类 5. 名词重叠 6. 方位词

Prefixes and Suffixes / 8

Parts of Speech

/17

Reduplication of Nouns / 18

Nouns of Locality / 19

7. 后缀:-们 8. 动调重叠

The Suffix “-们 ”

Reduplication of Verbs / 27

9. 能愿动词:要

The AuxiHary Verb 6零

10. 能愿动词:会/能 11. 离合动 i司 12. 形容词重叠

/ 26

The Auxiliary Verbs

会” and “能” / 30

Separable Verbs /32 Reduplication of Adjectives / 37

1

_I

:靈

W MMh w! !h

變,:二

13. 数词:半

The Numeral “半”

14. 数词:两 /



15. 量词

/ 39

The Numerals “两” and

Measure Words

:”

/41

/ 46

16. 量词和数量词组的重叠 Redoplication of Measure Words and Numeral-Measure Word Phrases 17. 人称代词:我们/咱们

The Personal Pronouns

18. 介词:往 /

朝(向)The

19. 介词:给

The Preposition “给”

20. 动态助词:着

Prepositions “往” and

“我们 ”

and

“朝(向)”

“咱们”

/48 /50

/52

/ 57

The Aspectual Particle “着”

/ 58

21. 动态助词和语气词:了 The Aspectual Particle and the Modal Particle “了” 22. 动态助词:过

The Aspecioa! Particle

/ 67

23. 语气词



The Modal Particle

.•啊”

/68

24. 语气词



The Modal Particle “吧”

/II

25. 语气词

0尼

The Modal Particle “呢”

/74

26. 语气词



The Modal Particle “賴”

/77

27. 语气词:的

The Modal Particle “的”

/78

28. 基本语气词的区别

/63

The Differences among the General Modal Particles

29. 语气词的连用

Using Modal Particles Consecutively

三、关于句法成分

Syntactic Constituents

/ 80

/ 82

/85

L_J

30. 定语和结构助词“的”

Attributives and the Structural Particle “的”

31. 多项定语Multiple Attributives 32. 状语和结构助词“地” 33. 多项状语

/ 88

Adverbials and the Structural Particle “地”

Multiple Adverbials

/86

/96

34. 补语的一般情况G eoeral Usages of Complements

/ 99

/90

35. 结果补语





The Potential Complement, and the Complement of State

/ 105

The Complement of Result

36. 可能补语/状态补语 37. 程度补语

/ 102

The Complement of Degree

/109

38. 简单趋向补语

T+:he Simple Complement of Direction

39. 复合趋向补语

The Compoimd Compiement of Direction

40. 时量补语

The Complement of Duration

41. 多层补语的顺序

/ 112 / 114

/ 118

The Order of Multiple Complements

/ 123

42. 动词前后的处所结构“在.”

“在……”

The Locative Structure

四、关于句型 Sentence Patterns 43. 形容词谓语句

before ami after a. Verb

/ 125

/133

The Sentence with an Adjectival Predicate

/ 134

44. 名词谓语句

The Sentence with a Nominal Predicate

45. 主谓谓语句

The Sentence with an S-P Phrase as the Predicate

46. 紧缩句

The Coniracted Sentence

五、关于句式。 Sentence Types

/ 135 / 137

/ 138

/141

L_A

47.

“把”字句

The

“把”

Sentence

/142

48.

“被”字句

The

“被”

Sentence

/145

49. 介词:把

/



T.he Prepositions

/150

51. “有”字句

The “有” Sentence

/153

52. “连”字句

The “连” Sentence

/155

53. 双宾语句

The

“是”

“把' “被”

Sentence

50.

“是”字句

/被

The Double-Object Sentence

and

“由”

/ 158

54. 连谓句

The Sentence with Verbal Constructions in Series

55. 兼语句

The Pivotal Sentence

/ 166

/ 148

/ 163

56. 存现句

The Existential Sentence

57. 除了……以外

/ 170

The Construc* don “除了……以外”

/175

58. 越来越……/越……越…… The Constructions “越来越…• "” and “越……越……”

Sentence Categories 59. 双重否定

Double Negation

/ 176

/179

/180

60. 选择疑问句

The Mt.emat.ive Question

61. 正反疑问句

The Affixmative-Negative Question

/ 184 / 186

62. 疑问代词在句子中的位置 The Position of Interrogative Fionoum in. a. Sentence

/187

63.疑问代词的非疑问用法 The Non~ioteiTogahve Usages of Interrogative Pronouns

Expressive Function 64. 年、月、日、星期 65. 时间的表示法

/193

Year, Month, Date and Week

Expression of Time

/ 194

/ 196

66. “ 比较”的表示法Ways of Expressing Comparison 67. 序数Ordinal Numbers 68. 概数的表爪法

/ 189

/ 197

/ 201

Ways of Indicating Approximate Numbers

69. “ 增加”的表爪法

Ways of Expressing Increase

/ 209

70. “减少”的表爪法

Ways of Expressing Decrease

/ 212

Vocabulary-Grammar Phenomena 71. 不 /



/216

72. 又/再/还/217

/ 201

/ 215

73. 千万/万万/219 74. 常常/往往/220 75. 从来/

一直/始终/224

76. 究竟/到底/终究/毕竟/225 77. 关于/对/对于/至于/227 78.

为 / 为了

79.

和/跟/同/与/及/以及/而/232

80.

因此/因而/因为/235

81.

只要/只有/237

82.

又.又./也……也……/边……边……/_边……—边……/239

83.

刚(刚刚)/刚才/243

84.

每/各

85.

中/之中/中间/之间/249

86.

一点儿/有点儿/251

/231

/244

87. 好容易/好不容易/254

'

呈现在您面前的,是一本别开生面的汉语语法书。 它是用一定的图表(其构成元素包括公式、字母、符号、

外国读者

数字、代码、字体及字号的变化、颜色等并辅以文 字)——而主要不是用文字,把汉语语法的脉络勾勒出来,把主要的语法规则缀辑起 来,把语法学习的重点、难点表示出来。这种方法可以称做“图示语法”。 这些图表是语法规则的形象提炼和整理,简单明确,一目了然,易懂、易记、易 查。与图表对应的"说明’’和“注意”两个栏目,则通过正误句例进行解说。这样, 就可以使学习者对某一结构形式既知其骨架,又通其功能(便于使用),使形式结构 和语义结构的联系在学习者的头脑中很快建立起来——这也是成年人学好第二语言的 不二法门。 用图表来显示语言结构及层次(即语法图解,Diagram),是语言学界语法分析的 种辅助方法,为诸多流派相沿袭用。但很少有学者拿来显示语法规则并用于语言教



学与学习,倒是在学生笔记本的涂鸦里,经常能够发现一些他们自创的"语法公式”、 “语法关系图示”或是“语法规则对照表”什么的。尽管这些“图表”可能设计太过 粗劣,表达失之浅陋,描画也不美观,然而它们实用!好用! 一般情况下也够用!这 些“图表”简明扼要,画龙点睛,提纲挈领,脉络分明,直观形象,让人经久不忘。 可以说,这既是简明的表示法,也是快捷的学习法和形象的教学法。而本书正是受此 法启发而成。 本书的编撰,意在引起汉语学习者和研究者的兴趣,为汉语语法学习与教学提供 点滴帮助。希望本人这个朴素的愿望不会是奢望。 最后,应该特别感谢本书的英文翻译,我的朋友谢亚琴、钟秀平二位教授,她们 以辛勤而又出色的劳动在本书和外国读者之间搭设了一座方便的桥梁。 耿二岭 于中国•天津大学

This Chinese grammar book before you will bring you a completely fresh learning experience. By adopting certain diagrams

(containing formulas, letters, symbols,

numbers, variation of the size and font of letters, various colors and assisting text ex¬ planations) rather than texts as the main content, it outlines the structure of Chinese grammar, interlinks the main grammatical rules and illustrates the pivots and difficul¬ ties of grammar learning. This is what we call “Diagram Grammar”. These diagrams present grammatical rules in a concise, vivid and systematical way and, therefore, are easy to understand, memorize and look up. The parts uExpla¬ nationand “Note” corresponding to those diagrams elucidate grammar through cor¬ rect and wrong examples. Thus, it enables learners to grasp both the framework and functions ( convenient for language use ) of certain structure forms so that they could rapidly build up a connection between form and its semantic meaning in their mind, which is the best way for adults to learn a second language successfully. In the field of language study, using diagrams to exhibit the structure and layers of a language (i.e. Diagram) is an assistant method for grammar analysis adopted by many schools throughout years. However, they are seldom used in language teaching and learning or to show grammatical rules. Somehow, you may discover some self-invented

“grammatical formula”,“dia¬

gram of grammatical relation”,“comparison table of grammatical rules”,etc. among the sketches in students' notebooks. Although these “diagrams” may be a little shab¬ by in design, primitive in expression and clumsy in drawing, they are very practical

n

and easy to use and can be applied to most common situations! They are concise, clear, illustrative and hard to be forgotten. We can say that it is a method that fosters compendious expression, rapid learn¬ ing and vivid teaching. It is this method that renders the writing of this book. The purpose of writing this book is to stimulate the interest of Chinese learners and researchers and help those who are learning or teaching Chinese grammar. I hope this down-to-earth wish won't be too excessive. Finally, I want to express my special appreciation to my friends and the transla¬ tors of the book—Professor Xie Yaqin and Associate Professor Zhong Xiuping, who build a convenient bridge between this book and foreign readers through their diligent and excellent work.

Geng Erling Tianjin, China

本书力图推出一种直观化、形象化的语法描写和分析范式,具体说来,就是用一 定的图表(其构成元素包括公式、字母、符号、数字、代码、字体及字号的变化、颜 色等并辅以文字)——而主要不是用文字,把汉语语法的脉络勾勒出来,把主要的语 法规则缀辑起来,把语法学习的重点、难点表示出来。这种方法可以称做"图示语 法”。 用图表来显示语言结构及层次,是诸多语言学流派在作语言分析时相沿袭用的一 种辅助方法,例如历史比较语言学时期的对照表格、叶斯柏森(Jens persen

-

Otto Harry Jes

)《句法分析》中所用的"符号代码分析法’’、美国结构主义的树形图、派克 )的法位学学派的“法位学图”、弗斯(John

(Kenneth Lee Pike

)的伦敦学

Rupert Firth

派的系统方法图、层次语法的关系类型图以及生成语义学派的模式推导图等,都在其 经典论著中有一"图”不易的地位。究其原因,就在于图表等格式相对于文字,更为 直观形象,可以平面阅读,其某些职能是只能作线性阅读的文字所不能为、不易为的。 国内也早就有学者把这个"舶来品”拿来用,采用汉语语法图解最早也最著名的 是黎锦熙先生。他自己说是采用自诺曼福司脱(Norman

)的《句子和思维》

Foerster

一书。黎氏的名著《新著国语文法〉〉一书就采用了许多图解,后又出版有《〈笑〉之图 解》、《〈实践论〉语法图解》等书,用树形图分析句子结构层次。(参见朱星《汉语 语法学的若干问题》,1979,河北人民出版社。)著名语言学家朱星先生在这方面也用 力颇多,他曾用代码法分析过全部《论i吾》句型。 不难想象,图表也好,代码也罢,固然都不大会构成语言分析法的基本经纬;但 令人多少有些遗憾的是,迄今为止,很少有教材设计专家、教师和语法学家以图表、

代码为主来描写语法规则并用于语法教学。其实它们可能极适用于语言教学,可能是 一种最简明的语法规则展示法、最快捷的语法规则学习法和最形象的语法规则教学 法。 本书旨在尝试用"图示语法”描写和诠释汉语语法的一些主要规则,并且把主要 的读者群确定为外国的汉语学习者和研究者。对学界原有的语法教学法和语法教材, 并无除旧布新的意思。 本人学疏才浅,本书又是探索之作,对“图示语法”诸环节的设计一定有考虑不 周之处,还望得到方家指教。

耿二岭 于天津大学

S -Subject …………………………主语 P - Predicate ………………………谓语

0 -Obj ect …………………………宾语 Noun………… …………………名词

N

NP -Noun phrase………………名词词组 ''6,

--

金■a®®®®®®®®®®®®*©®®**®

金*



VP -Verbal phrase •… …………动词词组 Adj

Adjective ………‘……………形容词

Nlim - Numeral………………………数词 fVI -Measure word …………………量词 Adv——

Adverb ………… ……"…“…“副词

Pron -Pronoun…………………………代词

Prep -

Preposition -•介词

\

关于汉语语法的一般特点 General Characteristics of Chinese Grammar 特点是通过比较或对比才能显现的。总结汉语的语法特点,当然要联系其他语

言,而比较、对比的对象不同,抽象出来的汉语语法特点的数量和方面自然也会不 同。本书仅就目前教学实际情况,论及几个可能最具普遍性的问题。 Characteristics are shown through comparison or contrast. To describe grammatical characteristics of Chinese, it is necessary for us to associate it with other languages. Compared and contrasted with different languages, the quantities and aspects of Chinese grammatical characteristics would be different. In this book, we will discuss some pervasive issues based on present teaching practice.

Word Order 在汉语里,语序是重要的语法手段之一。 .

Word order plays an important grammatical role in the Chinese language

汉语的语序,一般有这样的规则: ,

Generally

:

the rules of Chinese word order are as follows

主语

谓语'

11

P

S

->A

J

说明 I

Explanation I:

:主语在前,谓语在后。例如:

A

,

The subject precedes the predicate

说明 D



你II好。



孙老师II有词典。



北京H很美丽。

:

for example

Explanation II:

:动词在前,宾语在后。例如:

B

,

The verb precedes the object



学习一> 汉语



买—杂志

:

for example

-

-

关于汉语语法的一般特点

v_

修饰语 Modifier

+ +

中心语 Modified word

J

_^

/

定语 Attributive

\

状语 Adverbial

说明HI

Explanation III:

:修饰语(定语或状语)在前,中心语在后。例如:

C

The modifier

)

(an attributive or adverbial

,

precedes the modified word



好孩子/坏天气/中国老师(定语+中心语attributive +



不买/没有/容易学(状语+中心语adverbial +

鲁參 •

•參







:

for example

)

modified word

)

modified word



®汉语的一般语序是:

The general word order of the Chinese language is:

’定语 V

经常

姑娘

这个 +

主语

+

状语

热闹的

去 +

谓语

+

定语

超市。 +

Attributive + Subject + Adverbial + Predicate + Attributive +

宾语、 Object

词类和句子成分的对应关系 The Corresponding Relationships between Parts of Speech and Sentence Elements 汉语和英语的词类和句子成分的对应关系很不相同,英语的这种对应关系比较简 [1]:本节参考了朱德熙的研究(1985a: 4—5/1985b,邵敬敏主编《现代汉语通论》,2001,上海教 育出版社)。

单,汉语的情况比较复杂。汉语词类的语法功能(只列出部分词类和主要的句子成 分)大致是: ¬

The corresponding relationship between parts of speech and sentence elements of Chi

.

nese is very different from that of English

.

The former is more complicated than the latter

The grammatical functions of Chinese parts of speech

)

main sentence elements are listed

Subject

(here only some parts of speech and

:

are roughly as follows

Predicate

Attributive

Adverbial

宾语 Object 实线:表示学f充当某成分 Real line: Frequently serving as a certain sentence element

虚线:表示夸"学„充当某成分 Broken line: Conditionally serving as a certain sentence element

说明

Explanation: 汉语里某一类词往往不止充当一种句子成分,例如名词可以做主语、宾语、定 籲

♦•參

••鲁

•參

•參參

•參

••

语,这些是名词经常充当的句子成分;名词也可以做谓语,但这是要有条件的,因此 这不是名词的主要语法功能。 ,

In Chinese

.

ments

¬

a certain kind of words often acts as more than one kind of sentence ele

:

For example

,

a noun can be used as the subject

.

the object and the attributive

,

noun can also be used as the predicate under certain conditions

.

matical function of a noun to serve as the predicate

A

¬

for it is not the main gram

—关于汉语语法的一般特点 汉语里旱—宇琴:寧,例如谓语可以由动词、 形容词来充当——这是一般的规律;谓语也可以由名词来充当——但这是有条件的一 条特殊规律,也就是说,名词做谓语是要有一些条件限制的。 .

A certain sentence element is not always acted by one type of words in Chinese

:

ample

,

while

.

it is a general rule that a verb and an adjective can be used as the predicate

,

according to another special rule

¬

For ex

¬

Mean

nouns can be used as the predicate under certain

.

conditions

因此,要学习汉语词类的基础知识,首先就要了解哪一种或哪几种功能最能反 映出某一类词的本质特征,即某一类词经常做什么成分以及可以有条件地做什么成 參

泰參參

參參



♦•參

分。 ,

Therefore

,

while learning the basic knowledge of Chinese parts of speech

one has to

learn which function or functions can best indicate the main features of a certain type of

.

words

,

That is to say

,

which sentence element a part of speech can usually act as

,

sentence element a part of speech can serve as

.

with certain limitations

试比较英语词类的语法功能: :

Compare the following grammatical functions of English parts of speech

名词

动词

形容词

副词

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

主语

谓语

Subject

Predicate

宾语 Object

定语 Attributive

状语 Adverbial

or which

Ways of Composing Compound Words 合成词,是由-个寧寧构成的词,其中至少要有一个词根(即体现主 体概念意义的语素)。合成词的构词方式见下表: ,

Compound words are composed of two or more morphemes

)

root (the one embodying the basic meaning of the word

at least one of which is the

.

of the compound word

The following

.

chart shows the ways that compound words are formed

构词成分 Elements of compound words

构词类型

例词

Types of compound words

Examples

同义、近义联合 Compound words with synonymous meaning

相关义联合 Compound words with

联合型

related meaning

Coordinative

反义、对义联合

compound

Compound words with

words

antonymous meaning

词根1 +词根2

复合式 (复合词)

偏义联合

Rooti + Root?

Compound words with

Compound words with

Root! + Root2

the lexical meaning on one root

语言/关闭/ 寒冷/美好 骨肉/背心/ 眉目/尺寸 开关/买卖/ 反正/天地

国家/人物/ 忘记/动静

A

定语+中心语 偏正型

Attributive + the modified

冰箱/学历

word

Endocentric compound words

状语+中心语 Adverbial + the modified word

火红/迟到

一关于汉语语法的一般特点

(续表)

构词成分 Elements of compound words

构词类型

例词

Types of compound words

Examples

动宾型

有限/美容

Verb-object compound words

动词+形容词/动词

词根j词根2

复合式 (复合词)

Rooti + Root2

Compound words with

补充型

Verb + Adjective / Verb

Complementary compound words

Rooti + Root 2

名词+量词 Noun + Measure word

主谓型

海啸/地震/ 自动/腹泻

Subject-predicate compound words

前缀型

阿姨/小王/ 老师/第一

Compound words

词根+词缀 Root + Affixes

with prefixes

附加式 (派生词)

后缀型

Derivatives

Monosyllabic suffixes

桌子/木头/ 作家/学者

叠音后缀

红通通/香喷喷/

单音节后缀

Compound words with suffixes

Reduplicated suffixes

词根,+词根2 Rooti + Root〗

笑哈哈/泪汪汪

妈妈/姐姐/ 哥哥/爸爸/ 爹爹/刚刚/ 仅仅/偏偏

重叠式 (复合词) Reduplicated compound words B

说明

提高/推广/ 降低/扩大/ 改进/推翻 书本/人口/ 车辆/房间/ 花朵/马匹

Explanations:



A

“偏义联合”的特点是,两个词根联合以后,只有一个词根的词汇意义在起

作用,另一个词根的词汇意义完全消失了(即寧冬,辛等了个,準丰}。例如: The characteristic of

“偏义耳关合” ,

root expresses the lexical meaning

,

is that when two roots are combined together

only one

¬

while the lexical meaning of the other completely disap

),

pears (the lexical meaning of a compound word rests on one root

:

for example

① 人物(这个词只保留了 “人物 ”,the

meaning of

“人”的意思,“物”的意思消失了。In the phrase

人”

has been maintained, while the meaning of

“物”

has disappeared.)



忘记(这个词只保留了;‘忘”的意思,“记”的意思消失了。In the phrase 忘” has been maintained, while the meaning of “记” “忘记”,the meaning of has disappeared.)

B: “重叠式复合词”有两个语素,这与单纯词(即由一个语素构成的词)中的 “叠音词”是不同的,尽管形式上很相像。单纯词中的“叠音词”,每个音节都没有词

汇意义(不能拆开来解释),必须两个音节合在一起以后才产生词汇意义。试比较: A reduplicated compound word has two morphemes. Although reduplicated compound words and reduplicated single-morpheme words are the same in form, they are different in meaning. Each syllable in a reduplicated single-morpheme word is meaningless by itself (the two syllables cannot be separated in meaning). The two syllables of a reduplicated single¬ morpheme word must be combined together to express the lexical meaning. Please compare:

重叠式复合词

叠音单纯词

Reduplicated compound words

Reduplicated single-morpheme words

哥哥/爸爸/刚刚/仅仅/偏偏

猩猩/狒狒/姥姥/潺潺/皑皑

前缀/后缀 Prefixes and Suffixes 词缀(前缀/后缀)是附加在词根上的语素。词根是体现词的丰乎-夸寧冬的语 素,而词缀是丰-寧iff彳f序的语素。 Affixes

(including prefixes and suffixes) are elements attached to roots. Roots embody

the basic meaning of words, while affixes perform grammatical functions.

前缀和后缀都是构成“派生词”的成分: Both prefixes and suffixes are elements of derivatives:

一关于汉语语法的一般特点

构词格式 The patterns

例词 Examples

前缀+词根

可爱/阿姨

Prefix + Root



词根+后缀



桌子/记者

Root + Suffix





派生词 Derivatives

汉语里,前缀较少,后缀较多。常见的词缀分别列在下面两个表里: In Chinese, there are more suffixes than prefixes. The commonly used prefixes and suf¬ fixes are as follows:

o

前缀类 Prefixes

表I 前缀 Prefixes 第-

初-

小-

老-

所构成的词的词类 Parts of speech 数词 Numerals

例词 Examples 第一 /第二(次)/第三(名)/第四(卷)

名词

初一 /初二/初三/初四(中国农历记日法)/初伏/

Nouns

初旬(“初”是“第一”的意思)

名词 Nouns

小姐/小张/小辫儿

名词

老师/老板/老乡/老总/老婆/老百姓/老虎/老鼠/

Nouns

老鹰/老张/老大

形容词 Adjectives

可爱/可恶/可观/可笑/可恨/可靠/可贵/可悲/ 可耻/可敬/可惜/可信/可疑/可取/可怕/ (他很)可怜

可动词 Verbs

(我很)可怜(他)

图示汉语语法 (续表) 前缀

所构成的词的词类

例词

Prefixes

Parts of speech

Examples

名词 Nouns

副词 Adverbs

非金属/非晶体/非导体

非常(好)

非形容词 Adjectives

连词 Conjunctions

阿-

名词 Nouns

方位词 Nouns of locality

非法/非分/非凡/非常(事件)

非但/非独 阿姨/阿妹/阿哥/阿爸/阿婆/阿宝/阿香(小名、昵 称) 以前/以后/以上/以下

以连词 Conjunctions

之-

方位词 Nouns of locality

形容词 Adjectives

不-

副词 Adverbs

连词 Conjunctions

10

以及/以便/以免/以致/以至

之前/之后/之上/之下/之间/之外

不法/不力/不利/不轨

不时

不但/不只/不单/不光

一关于汉语语法的一般特点

o

后缀类 Suffixes

表II 后缀

所构成的词的词类

例词

Suffixes

Parts of speech

Examples

名词 Nouns

-子

数量词 Numeral-measure words

名词 Nouns

-儿 动词 Verbs

名词 Nouns

-头

方位词 Nouns of locality

-者



-贝 -生

-性

-家

-手 -化

名词 Nouns

名词 Nouns

名词 Nouns

名词 Nouns

名词 Nouns

名词 Nouns

动词 Verbs

桌子/椅子/镜子/帽子/鼻子/孩子/笼子/胖子/ 痩子/傻子/聋子/垫子/掸子/骗子

一下子/ 一伙子(人) 花儿/鸟儿/事儿/字儿/ (干)活儿/画儿/盖儿/塞儿/ 尖儿/亮儿/ (豆腐)干儿/零碎儿/ (高)个儿/ (盐)粒儿/ (笔记)本儿 玩儿/火儿(了) 木头/石头/骨头/舌头/罐头/念头/嚼头儿/看头 儿/听头儿/来头/盼头/奔头/准头/甜头儿/苦头儿 上头/下头/前头/后头/里头/外头 读者/作者/学者/编者/记者/爱好者/演奏者/强者/ 老者/长者/二者/文艺工作者 教员/学员/雇员/演员/裁判员/服务员/售货员/ 收银员/会员/队员/店员/职员/议员 医生/学生/考生/实习生/研究生/老生/小生(中国 戏曲行当)/书生 纪律性/思想性/艺术性/逻辑性/创造性/适应性/ 普遍性/流行性/优越性/准确性/重要性/积极性 大家/作家/画家/专家/科学家/歌唱家/艺术家/ 政治家/经济学家/社会活动家/行家/东家/农家/ 老人家/女人家/冤家 选手/能手/骑手/猎手/扒手/助手/对手/歌手/ 棋手/旗手/水手/新手/凶手 绿化/美化/简化/深化/僵化/恶化/绝对化/自动化/ 现代化/大众化/机械化/科学化/格式化

11

图示汉语语法 (续表) 后缀

所构成的词的词类

例词

Suffixes

Parts of speech

Examples

名词

护士/勇士/助产士/女士/男士/人士/学士/博士/ 院士/卫士/传教士/大力士/武士/烈士/道士

-士

-师

-夫

Nouns

名词 Nouns

名词 Nouns

副词 Adverbs

-然

形容词 Adjectives

连词 Conjunctions

-汉

名词 Nouns

动词 Verbs

介词 Prepositions

-于

连词 Conjunctions

副词 Adverbs

-气

-边



名词 Nouns

方位词 Nouns of locality

方位词

[B4

Nouns of locality

-迷

-品

12

名词 Nouns

名词 Nouns

医师/工程师/讲师/律师/厨师/技师/魔术师/ 摄影师 丈夫/姐夫/妹夫/姑夫/农夫/渔夫/轿夫/船夫/ 清道夫/懦夫 忽然/猛然/骤然/蓦然/居然/果然/仍然/竟然/ 公然/全然/依然/截然 突然/显然/欣然/寂然/哗然/轰然/赫然/默然/ 茫然/偶然/枉然/了然 既然 好汉/硬汉/老汉/懒汉/醉汉/男子汉/英雄汉/ 庄稼汉/彪形大汉/单身汉/门外汉 属于/合于/在于/位于/基于/等于/綱于/善于/ 敢于/勇于/易于/难于/急于/便于 关于/对于 由于/至于/以至于/甚至于 过于/终于 娇气/神气/霸气/朝气/暮气/孩子气 前边/后边/上边/下边/左边/右边/里边/外边/ 北边/旁边 前面/后面/上面/下面/左面/右面/里面/外面/ 南面 球迷/戏迷/棋迷/扑克迷/电影迷/财迷 食品/药品/产品/商品/印刷品/豆制品/次品/毒品

关于汉语语法的一般特点

(续表)

后缀

所构成的词的词类

例词

Suffixes

Parts of speech

Examples

-以

动词

借以/予以/用以/得以/难以/足以/可以

Verbs

代词

什么/那么/这么/怎么

Pronouns

-么

连词

要么

Conjunctions

副词

'

Adverbs

连词

因而/从而/然而/甚而/继而/进而

Conjunctions

-而

副词

忽而/反而/时而

Adverbs

形容词

热乎/玄乎/粘乎/全乎

Adjectives

动词

合乎/

Verbs

-乎

副词

连词

于是乎

Conjunctions

Pronouns

-们

名词 Nouns

叠音后缀 Reduplicated suffixes

注意

形容词 Adjectives

(不)在乎/关乎/出乎/超乎

似乎/断乎(不可)

Adverbs

代词

多么

-

我们/你们/他们/它们 孩子们/老师们/人们/猴子们 香喷喷/甜滋滋/笑哈哈/颤悠悠/泪汪汪/汗津津/ 干巴巴/可怜巴巴

Notes:

1.词缀的主要作用是表示语法意义和语法功能。 Generally, affixes express the grammatical meaning and perform the grammatical functions.

13

图示汉语语法 语法意义,主要指词的各种附加意义(如感情色彩等)。例如: •



參*

The grammatical meaning refers to the connotational meaning of a word, for example:

老李——词根“李”只是简单的姓,加上前缀“老以后,就表示亲昵而 随便的称呼。 The root

李”

“李”

is a family name. When the prefix

“老”

is attached to

“李”,“老

becomes a friendly and informal term.

语法功能,主要是确定词类,使构成的派生词具备某一词类的性质。例如: ♦





參參參

The grammatical function indicates the part of speech of a derivative, for example:

-员——它使所构成的派生词具备名词的性质,或者说,它是名词的标志。 原来不是名词性质的词根,和员”组合以后,新词也成了名词,例如:教员、 学员、演员(“教” As a suffix,

“员”

“学”

“演”都是动词性质的词根)。

has the property of a noun. Combined with

“员 ”,the

root, which

is not a noun, becomes a noun, for example:教员,学员,演员(The roots “教”,“学” and “演” are verbs.)

应当说明的是,词缀与所构成的词的词类常常不是一对一的关系,例如后缀“然”,可以构成形容词(突然、茫然),也可以构成副词(忽然、公然),还可以构成 连词(既然)。 It is obvious that a prefix or suffix and the part of speech of the compound word that is formed are not always in a one-to-one relation. For example, a compound word attached with the suffix

“然”

may be an adjective (“突然” or

“茫然”),an

adverb (“忽然 ” or

“公然”)or

a conjunction (“既然”).

2.表i和表n,只是为读者记忆派生词提供一种辅助手段。其实,汉语里的前缀 和后缀并孕这一点和英语、俄语等欧洲语言是很不相同的。例如: The purpose of providing the above two tables — Table

I

and Table

II —

is to help the

reader easily remember derivatives. Generally, the usage of Chinese prefixes and suffixes cannot be analogized like this, which shows that Chinese is different from European lan¬ guages such as English and Russian. For example:

子”构成的表示“人体部位”的派生词有鼻子、脖子、嗓子、脑瓜子、 •



•參

脑门子、肚子、肠子、身子、腕子、脚脖子、屁股蛋子等,但不能类推岀“胸 子、背子、耳子、嘴子”(汉语里有“嘴子”这个词,但不是“嘴”的意思)。

14

二::::::—:二—:二

_馨雙__藝麵等賴謹_灘§3§$$§1^;觀_

关于汉语语法的一般特点

“子” are as follows: “鼻子”,“脖子”,“嗓 子”,“脑瓜子”,“脑门子”,“肚子”,“肠子”,“身子”,“腕子”,“脚脖子,,,“屁股蛋子”, The derivatives of the human body with

etc. But one cannot say mean

“胸子”,“背子”,“耳子”,“嘴子,’(In

Chinese,

“嘴子”

does not

“mouth”). “-子”构成的表示“餐具”的派生词有:盘子,碟子,勺子,杯子,筷子, •



刀子,叉子等,但不能类推出“碗子”。 The derivatives of tableware with

“杯子”,“模子”,“刀子”,“叉子”,etc.

“子”

are as follows:

But one cannot say

“盘子”,“碟子”,“勺子”,

“碗子”.

15

..

二、关于词类 Parts of Speech 汉语的词类,是主要根据f字;(即不是根据寧冬或词的-_孪咚)划分出来 的类,这一点与英语、俄语、‘®4‘洲语言很不相姑。•汉语词“图•示•如•下: Parts of speech in Chinese are classified on the basis of grammar function

(i.

e. they are not based on the meaning or morphological changes of words) , which is quite different from English, Russian, French and other European languages. The chart of parts of speech in Chinese is as follows:

/名词Nouns

(水/空气/中国/妹妹/桌子/护士)

方位词Nouns of locality (东/西/南/北/前面/中间) 数词Numerals (—‘ /二/三/千/万/三分之一-) 量词Measure words (条/根/位/点/刻/分) 区别词Distinctive words (男/女/大型/长期/人造/急

实词 Notional words

性)

I动词Verbs

(找/看/说/出现/好像/应该)

形容词Adjectives (大/小/好/坏/和气/可爱) 副词Adverbs (也/难道/忽然/不过/格外/再三) 词类

代词Pronouns (我/你/这儿/其他/谁/什么)

Parts of

象声词Onomatopoeias (嗅/扑通/咕嗜/兵兵/叮叮当当/

speech

丁零当啷) '叹词Interjections (啊/嘿/咦/哟/喂/还) r介词Prepositions (朝/往/在/从/对于/自从) 虚词

连词Conjunctions (和/跟/既然/所以/只要/于是)

Function words

助词Particles (的/地/得/着/ 了 /过) ^语气词Modals (吧/呢/吗/啊/的/

了)

17

Reduplication of Nouns 人



高兴 O





旅游 O

名词i

名词i Ni

\7

单音节 有量词意义 Monosyllabic nouns with the meaning of a measure word A

说明

Explanation:

A:可重叠的名词一般是竽考f和亨零-事冬的名词,例如:人、家、天、月

、年。

Some monosyllabic nouns and nouns with the meaning of a measure word can be reduplicated, for example:人,家,天,月,年.



我们班人人都会游泳。/我们班每个人都会游泳。



每条鱼都很漂亮。/*鱼鱼都很漂亮。(名词“鱼”没有量词意义。 “鱼”





參參參

is a noun without the meaning of a measure word.)



每条胡同都住着十几户人家Q

/ *胡同胡同都住着十几户人家。 (名词

“胡同”是双音节词,也没有量词意义。“胡同” is a disyllabic noun without the meaning of a measure word.)



我年年出去旅游。 • 參



春节时家家都吃饺子。 •



他天天都骑车上班。 •



18





这个公司月月亏损。 參



关于词类 注意

Notes: 1. 名词重叠后表示“每一……”的意义,例如“人人”的意思就是“每一个人”,

“年年”的意思就是“每一年”。 The reduplicated nouns express the meaning of everyone , and

牛牛

means

“every”. For example:

“人人”means

every year .

2. 名词重叠做主语时,句子的谓语动词前常加范围副词“都”或“全”。 When a reduplicated noun is used as the subject, the adverb indicating the scope,“都” or “全,’,comes before the verb predicate.

方位词 Nouns of Locality 方位词是表示方向、位置的词,是名词的一种。分为两类: Nouns of locality are one kind of nouns showing direction and location. There are two kinds of them:

❶ 单音方位词 Monosyllabic nouns of locality 也叫单纯方位词。常用的有: Monosyllabic nouns of locality are also called the simple nouns of locality. The com¬ monly used ones are as follows: 东

西







、t -











里/内



中 旁

19

s':::繼:

图示汉语语法 ❾ 双音方位词 Disyllabic nouns of locality 也叫合成方位词,是由单音方位词加上“之、以、边、面、头”等组成的双音词。 按其构成,还可以分成三种: A disyllabic noun of locality is also called the compound noun of locality which is formed by attaching

“之”,“以”,“边”,“面” or

“头”,etc. to the monosyllabic noun of

locality. According to the formation, disyllabic nouns of locality can be divided into three kinds:

.

1









前缀(之/以) Prefixes (之 / 以)

+

+

单音方位词 Monosyllabic nouns of locality

两个前缀与单音方位词的组合关系是: The relationship between the two prefixes and the monosyllabic noun of locality is as fol¬ lows:

以-

+

+



+

+

西

+

+



+

+



+

+



+

+







+

20

单音方位词

之-

Monosyllabic nouns of locality

二关于词类



单音方位词

之-

以-

+



+

+

边面上头

+

+





+



+

+



+

+



+











Monosyllabic nouns of locality 右

东东前

.

2

单音方位词

+

Monosyllabic nouns of locality

+

后缀(边/面/头) Suffixes (边 / 面 / 头)

“头”念轻声

“头” reads softly.

单音方位词与三个后缀的组合关系是: The relationship between the monosyllabic noun of locality and the three suffixes is as follows:

21

单音方位词

-头(tou)

-边

-面



+

+



西

+

+





+

+





+

+





+

+

+



+

+

+



+

+





+

+





+

+

+



+

+

+



+

+

+







Monosyllabic nouns of locality

内 外

+

+









-

3.



下 后

说明 II -3 Explanation 11-3: A:这种方位词是由两个表示方位的语素(不一定是单音方位词)复合而成的。

22

二关于词类 常用的有: This kind of nouns of locality is usually composed of two morphemes

(not necessarily

monosyllabic nouns of locality) which express location. The commonly used ones are as follows:

对举的

其他的

Comparative use

Others

前后/左右/上下

注意

中间/当中/底下/里头

Notes:

1. 方位词主要是加在别的词语后面,组成亨华,寧,表示处所、方向、时间、范 围、数量及界限。例如:

* _ * *

The noun of locality is mainly placed after another word to form a phrase of locality ex¬ pressing the place, direction, time, range and quantity limit, for example:



教室里/桌子上/椅子旁边/桌子底下(表处所Indicating place)



车站以北/大楼东边/铁路以西(表方向Indicating



留学生中间/群众当中(表范围Indicating



开会前/春节前后/假期当中/天黑之后(表时间Indicating time)



三斤左右/

direction)

range)

50以内/ 60公斤上下/ 25岁以上(表数量及其界限Indicating

quantity limit)

2. 方位词也可以单用,表示方向或者位置。例如: The noun of locality can also be used by itself to express the direction or location, for example:



左边是一个很宽阔的广场,右边是一个很安静的花园。 參



•參



这间房子朝南,光线很好。



往卒,穿过树林,就是图书馆。



+女天堂,了有苏杭。

3. “卒”•按照一定A层次关系与方位词“丰”

“下”

“宁”

“旱”组合,除了可以

表示上-方位等意义外,还可以表示某些更“抽象^引申意义:* According to certain level of relation,“在” can be used together with the noun of locality

“上”,“下”,“中

or

“里

to express not only the position described above but also some

more abstract and extended meanings.

23

图示汉语语法 (1)

ri

^上(下)、

\_/

_SZ_ 名词N 名词性词组NP

V_y

说明3-(1) B:

Explanation 3-(1):

“在……上(下)”中间如果插入名词或名词性词组,“在”是介词,“……上 參參

•參參





(下)”是方位词组,“在……上(下)”是介词词组。 If a noun or a noun phrase is inserted in the middle of the prepositional phrase

上(下)”,“在”

“在.

is a preposition,.上(下)” is a noun of locality and “在.上(下)” is

a prepositional phrase.



这项研究工作在方法上有很多长处。(表某一方面Indicating some aspect) •



在这个问题上,他作过很多调查研究。(表事物范围Indicating range) »



24



»

»





在老师的亨助下,安娜进步很快。(表条件Indicating condition)



在时间很紧的情况下,他们按时完成了任务。(表条件Indicating condition)

“在……中”中间可插入名词或名词性词组。例如: 參鲁參

參《

••參

A noun or a noun phrase can be inserted in the middle of



在工作中他积累了丰冨的经验。(表某一^方面Indicating some aspect)



在学习汉语的过程中,他得到了很多乐趣。(表事物范围Indicating range)

说明3-(2) C:

“在.中”,for example:





Explanation 3-(2):

“在.中”中间如果插入动词或动词性词组,“在”就是动词,“.中” •

參參



•參



是它的宾语,“在……中”表示动作正在进行。例如: 參

••參

If a verb or a verbal phrase is inserted in the middle of and

.中” is its object.



“在.中” indicates that the action is going on, for example:

大剧院在建设中。 參



“在.中”,“在 ” is a verb



新一代在成长中。 •



(3)





处所名词Place nouns 表示物体的名词 Nouns that indicate

objects

D

① 我们都在教室里自习。(表处所Indicating place) •





星期日我在家里休息。(表处所Indicating place) 拳



钥匙放在书包里了。(表物体Indicating objects) •



说明3-(3)



他整个下午都在水里游来游去。(表物体Indicating objects)

Explanation 3-(3):

D:在这个格式里,处所名词不能是国名、城市名。例如: •



♦•參

In this structure, the place noun cannot be the name of a country or a city, for example:



氺在中国里(应当说“在中国”。One should say “在中国”.)



*在北京里(应当说“在北京”。One should say “在北京”.) 25

The Suffix

们,,

“们”是表示复数的后缀,附在名词或人称代词的后面构成新词:

“-们 ” indicating plurality can be attached to a noun or a personal pronoun to

The suffix

form a new word.

厂 v_

老师







名词(人称代词) N (Personal pronouns)

+

“们”

+

“们”

}

指“人,, Indicating people A

说明

Explanation:

A:这个名词或人称代词一般应当是指“人”的。例如: This noun or personal pronoun generally refers to “人”,for example:

学生们/孩子们/委员们/人们/我们/你们/他们/ *教室们/ *圆珠笔们/ *电视节目们/ *事情们 “们”有时也可以放在指动物的名词后边,这是近年来的新用法。例如: “们” sometimes can also be put after a noun indicating an animal, which is a new us¬ age in recent years, for example:

老虎们/老鼠们/大象们/蚂蚁们

注意

Notes:

汉语名词本身没有表示“数”的标志,就是说,一个名词可以表示单数,也可以 表示复数。所以,当句子里已经有表示复数的词语(或上下文已经表明名词是复数) • ••參 ••鲁 •參 •♦鲁 参參 參 •參參 參鲁參 參參鲁 鲁鲁蠢 时,名词的后边就不能再用“们”。例如:

26

关于词类

In Chinese, there is no sign in nouns indicating 44singularity or plurality”,that is to say, a noun can be singular or plural. So, if there is a word or phrase in the sentence indicating plurality of the noun (or the context indicates that the noun is plural), “们” can not be used after the noun, for example:



一些人在那里聊天儿。/ * 一些人们在那里聊天儿。



我们学院有很多学生。/ *我们学院有很多学生们。



我们班有二十个学生。/ *我们班有二十个学生们。



你们班有几个女生? / *你们班有几个女生们?



我们系老师很多。/ *我们系老师们很多。

动词重叠 Reduplication of Verbs 动词原型

重叠形式

例子

Verbs

The reduplicated forms

Examples

XX

(第二音节念轻声。The

second sylla¬

ble is in the neutral tone.)

单音节:X X — X Monosyllabic verbs neutral

is in the

(“了”是动态助词。“了” aspectual particle.)

X



(“一” 读轻声。“一” tone.)

X

is an

念念/看看/听听

念一念/看一看/听一听 念了念/看了看/听了听

双音节:XY

商量商量/学习学习/复习复习

XYXY Disyllabic verbs

动词重叠的意义,是表示动作经历的时间短、尝试或说话口气轻松。例如: •

•參

♦參









The reduplication of a verb indicates a short and quick action or an attempt, or a light and relaxing tone of the speech, for example:

27

① 你可以看看这些图片。 ②

请念一念这封信。



上午上课的时候,老师说了说上海的情况。



课文很难,你们要多复习复习。



咱们商量商量这件事吧。

能愿动词 The Auxiliary Verb “要” 能愿动词又叫“助动词”,应当放在一般动词前边。“要”主要有两种用法: A verb that helps other verbs to express willingness is also called an auxiliary verb and should be put before a general verb. “要” can be used in the following two ways:

表示“愿望” Expressing a desire to do something 格式 Forms

要+动词 肯定式 Affirmative form

否定式 Negative form

28

、要 ① ②

+

V /

要买《英汉词典》 要参加篮球比赛

!

■ ■ .藤.

关于词类 说明 I

Explanation I:

A:表示“愿望”的“要”,否定时用“不想”,不是用“不要”。例如: 參參







•參

“要” expresses a desire to do something, its negative form is

When

“不想”,not

‘‘不

要”,for example: ①

他要买《汉英词典》,不想买《英汉词典》。 參





小王打算参加篮球队,可是不想参加篮球比赛。 參



®表示“需要、应该”

Expressing an actual need 格 式 Forms

要 [要

动词A

+ +

V J ① 这个词不常用,要翻译一下。

肯定式 Affirmative form



这本词典很有用,要买这本词典(



阅览室里要保持安静。

不用 不用

否定式

动词

+ +

V

Negative form

B

说明 n

Explanation II:

B:表示“需要、应该”的“要”,否定时用“不用”,不是用“不要”。例如: •









參參

When “要” expresses an actual need, its negative form is “不用”,not “不要”,for ex¬ ample:

①-这个词要翻译吗? ——这个词很简单,不用翻译。 •



29

②——要在这儿签字吗? ——不用签。 參

注意



Notes:

1. “不要”可以做状语: “不要” can be used as an adverbial.

不要+ V

不要+

动词 V

j

这时有禁止的意味。例如: •



Here “不要” has the meaning of prohibition, for example:



办公楼里不要吸烟。 參



不要穿越草地。 參







不要乱扔果皮。 參



2. “要”也可以做一般动词,直接支配一个宾语。例如: “要” can be used as a general verb and takes an object after it, for example:



我号这本书。



安‘要三斤苹果。



我想要回我的书。

能愿动词 The Auxiliary Verbs “会” and 能愿动词“会”和“能”要放在动词或形容词谓语前边。在意义上,它们的主要 区别是: The auxiliary verbs “会” and “肯旨” should be put before the verb or adjective predicate. The differences in meaning between them are as follows:

二关于词类





Can 掌握某种技能, 有某种能力 Master some skill, have certain capability

胜任 Be competent for

能够 Be capable of

可能 Be likely to

Be able to

+ + ① 他会开汽车Q ① 他能开汽车。 ② 彼得会说汉语。 ② 彼得能说汉语。 ③ 这个孩子一岁了,会走了。③ 这个孩子一岁了,能走了。 + ① 小王会圆满地完成任务。 ① ② 别担心,他的病会好起来②

+ 小王能圆满地完成任务。 别担心,他的病能好起来

的。 的。 ③ 医生说,老刘应该会很快③ 医生说,老刘应该能很快 恢复的。 恢复的。 + 我想他不会不懂。

+ 我想他不能不懂。 +

意义 Meaning

应该

(只用否定式Only —

Ought to

negative form is

used.)

你不能这样不负责任。 恢复了某种能力 一

Restore some ability

达到某种效率和水平 Attain certain efficiency



and certain level

许可 Permit

容许 Allow



+ 他病好了,能下床走路了。

① ②

+ 他一分钟能打200个字。 这个孩子能游一千米。

+ ① 这儿能吸烟吗? ② 飞机上不能打手机!

离合动词 Separable Verbs “离合动词”中的“离”是“离开、分离”的意思,“合”是“结合、组合”的意 參



思。离合动词都有两个构词成分(两个音节),这两个构词成分既可以紧密地结合在 一起(“合”),也可以分离(“离”)——可以拆开使用,中间插人别的成分,或变换 •



前后的位置。 In “离合动词” (separable verbs), “离” means “to separate” the two parts of the verb, and “合”means to

“put together” the two parts. Each verb of this type has two syllables,

which can be either put together or separated from each other, with some elements inserted between them. Meanwhile, the position of the two syllables is reversible in a sentence.

o

拆开使用 Using separable verbs separately

32



两小时

w



二T



—■

M-

o

变换位置 Reversing the position of the two elements



跳完了





了三节

®紧密结合 Putting the two elements of the verb together

说明









课了

Explanation:

A:离合动词的两个构词成分之间,应当是动宾(V-0)关系(例如:站-岗,发一

榜,赶-集,挂-钩),或者二者虽然不是动宾关系,但人们习惯上把它们看做是动宾 •



••參



••參

••

关系(例如:游-泳,洗-澡,鞠-躬,睡-觉)。 參



33

The two elements of a separable verb are a verb-object construction (for example:站-

岗,发-榜,赶-集,挂-钩),or although they are not a verb-object construction, people gener¬ ally regard them as a verb-object construction (for example:游-泳,洗-澡,鞠-躬,睡-觉). (1) 站岗-(离Separating)①这个警察站了两小时的岗。 •



(合Combining)②他一直在大门口站岗。 •



(2) 游泳-(离Separating)①爸爸太忙了,一个夏天都没游过一次泳。 • 參

②游完泳要好好儿洗洗澡。 •



(合Combining)③每天下午我都去体育馆游泳。 參 • (3) 上课-(离Separating)①张老师的课上冗了吗? 參





今天上了八节课,太累了。 •





正上着课呢,别说话。 參

'



(合Combining)④明天上午我不能去公园,我得上课。 參 • (4) 吃亏-(离Separating)①我吃了不懂外语的亏。 參



(合Combining)②在这次交易中,他吃亏了。 參 • (5) 帮忙-(离Separating)①这个警察帮了我的大忙。 參



(合Combining)②我愿意帮忙。 參 • (6) 洗澡-(离Separating)①洗了个凉水澡。 參



(合Combining)②先洗澡,再吃饭。 •



(7) 鞠躬-(离Separating)①他向老师深深地鞠了 一躬。 •



(合Combining)②他向老师鞠躬。 參

注意





Notes: 1.离合动词一般不能带宾语,应当用介词词组的形式把宾语提到离合动词前面 • 參 •參

去。例如: Generally speaking, a separable verb cannot take an object after it. The object should be placed before the verb as a prepositional phrase, for example:



*我明天要见面一个朋友。



我明天要跟一个朋友见面。

二关于词类 2. 也有极少数离合动词可以带宾语,但如果带了宾语,这个离合动词就不能拆幵

使用了。试比较: A small number of separable verbs can take an object, but the two elements of the verb cannot be separated. Compare:



他担心小华明天来不了(阽0)。(“担心”是离合动词,“小华明天来不了”

是宾语。“担心” ②

is a separable verb, and “小华明天来不了” is the object.)

*他担小华明天来不了的心。(有宾语,离合动词不能拆开。As a separable verb, “担心” cannot be separated because it is followed by an object.)



他担(的)什么心?(无宾语,“什么”是定语,离合动词可以拆开。 Since there is no object taken by the verb, and “什么” is an attributive, “担心、” can be separated.)



没有必要担这个心?



他确实很担心。

3. 数量补语只能放在离合动词的动宾结构之间: The quantitative complement can only be placed between the two elements of the sepa¬ rable verb.



一会儿



离合动词的 第一个成分

+

数量补语

+

(“的”)+

离合动词的 第二个成分

The first element

+

Quantitative

+

(“的”)+

The second element

complement

of a separable verb

of a separable verb

① 我跳了两个小时的舞。/*我跳舞了两个小时。 •









••鲁

我们游了一会儿泳。/*我们游泳了一会儿。 •









摯參參

小王睡了半天觉。/*小王睡觉了千孕。

4.离合动词与复•‘趋向补语一起用时,‘备动词要拆开: The two elements of a separable verb should be separated when used together with a compound directional complement.

35

示汉语语法





天儿



离合动词的 第一个成分

+

第一个 趋向动词

+

离合动词的 第二个成分

+

第二个 趋向动词

First element of

+

First

+

Second element

+

Second

a separable verb

directional verb

of a separable verb

1

directional verb

\7

限用“来” Only “来” can used.

① 生起气来



放下心来



吵起架来



鼓起掌来



偷起懒来

5. 有些离合动词可以重叠,其重叠形式是冬$^。例如: Some separable verbs can be reduplicated, and the pattern is AAB,for example:

游游泳/见见面/洗洗澡/跳跳舞/聊聊天儿/散散步/帮帮忙 6. 常见的离合动词还有: Some general separable verbs:

熬夜/搬家/办公/报名/备课/吃饭/出差/走路/做梦/出国/ 出院/吹牛/存款/打的/打工/得意/点头/动身/读书/丢人/ 发火/放假/放学/放心/分手/干活儿/挂号/关门/回信/加油/ 开会/开门/看病/留学/录音/买单/拍手/拍照/跑步/起床/ 请客/入学/上街/生病/说话/听话/下山/想家/摇头/招手/ 着急/着凉/照相/住院

be

二关于词类

形容词重叠 Reduplication of Adjectives 一部分形容词可以重叠,表示程度减轻(在定语、谓语位置上)或者加重(在状 參

蠢參參





语、补语位置上)。重叠形式如下: Some adjectives can be reduplicated to weaken the degree of some quality (of the attrib¬ utive or the predicate) or to intensify the degree of some quality

(of the adverbial or the

complement). The forms of reduplication are as follows:

形容词原型

重叠形式

例子

Adjective

Forms

Examples

单音节:X

XX

Monosyllabic adjectives

双音节:XY-性质 • • Disyllabic adjectives:

XXYY

XY-property or quality A

双音节:XY-状态 • • Disyllabic adjectives:

XYXY

XY-state

大大/长长/圆圆/慢慢 漂漂亮亮/干干净净 清清楚楚/仔仔细细 认认真真/顺顺利利 笔直笔直/冰冷冰冷 雪白雪白/鲜红鲜红 油亮油亮/滚烫滚烫

B

XZZ

C

绿油油/红通通 亮晶晶/胖乎乎 热腾腾/冷飕飕

① 她有一双大大的眼睛Q (做定语As an attributive) 參



她的眼睛大大的◦(做谓语As a predicate) •





一个老人慢慢地走过马路。(做状语As an adverbial) •







我们的教室打扫得干干净净,桌椅摆放得整整齐齐。(做补语As a complement) 參

••參



籲參參



地里的菜绿油油的。(做谓语As a predicate)



墙刷得雪白雪白的。(做补语As a complement)

37

说明

Explanations: A:形容词分为两类:性质形容词和状态形容词。性质形容词(XY-性质)是简 •





单形式的形容词。例如:大,小,快,慢,漂亮,干净,清楚,仔细,认真。 •





Adjectives can be grouped into two kinds: qualitative and stative adjectives. Qualitative adjectives are simple adjectives, such as “大”,“小”,“快”,“慢”,“漂亮”,“干净”,“清

楚”,“仔细,,and “认真”• B:状态形容词(XY-状态)是复杂形式的形容词。例如:笔直,冰冷,雪白,鲜 參











红,通红,油亮。一般前一个成分修饰后一个成分,如“笔直”在意义上可以理解为 “像笔那样直”。 Stative adjectives are complicated adjectives, such as

“笔直”,“冰冷”,“雪白”,“鲜红”,

“通红” and “油壳”.The first element generally modifies the second. For example,

“笔直”

means “as straight as a pen”.

状态形容词本身已经表示程度,所以不能受“很”修饰,例如不能说“很笔直”。 状态形容词的重叠形式与性质形容词的重叠形式不一样。 Stative adjectives cannot be modified by “4艮”.For example, one cannot say “很笔首”. The reduplicative forms of the above two kinds of adjectives are different,

c: zz是重叠词尾,一般有指小、表示喜爱的意味。 ZZ is the reduplicative ending, normally expressing meanings of smallness and fondness.

注意Note: 因为重叠后表示程度,所以重叠的形容词就不能再受程度修饰了,也就是说,它 的前边不能再加程度副词“很”

“非常”

“挺”

“太”等,后边也不能加“极了”或

其他表示程度的补语。试比较: Since a reduplicated adjective indicates degree, it cannot be modified by an adverb of degree, that is to say, adverbs of degree such as placed before a reduplicated adjective.

“极了 ”

“很”,“非常”,“挺,,and “太” cannot be or other complements indicating degree can¬

not be used after them either. Compare the following examples:



高个子/很高的个子/高高的个子/*很高高的个子



大眼睛/很大的眼睛/大大的眼睛/ *非常大大的眼睛



教室很干净/教室干干净净/ *教室干干净净极了

关于词类

The Numeral “半” “半”表示二分之一。与量词、名词、数词连用时,有三种格式: “半” indicates a half and can be used together with a measure word, a noun or a nu¬ meral. There are three patterns:

西瓜



半 “半”

+

“半”

+

般量词



M

+

(名词)

+



① 写了半张纸。 ②

每次吃半片。



病了半个月。



在那儿住了半年。



倒了半瓶酒。



半 ‘‘

^



+

“ \|/ ”

+



度量衡量词 Measure wd of units

\7 “丈”除外 Except “丈”

例如

For example:

半两/半吨/半磅/半亩/半厘/半斗/半寸/半尺/半米/半里/半升/ *半丈

39

四斤

©

半大米

① 她买了一米半花布。

注意



现在是五点半。



糖还有两袋儿半。



产量增加了四倍半。



花了三天半的时间。



Note: “半”和“天”

“年”

“月”(尤其是“月”)组合时所表示的意义值得注意。

“天”和“年”既是名词,也是量词;“月”只是单纯的普通名词,所以它们与“半”

组合时会有不同的层次关系,产生不同的意义。.例如: The meaning of the combination of “半,’ and “天”,“年 ” or should be noticed.

“天”

“月”(“月,’

in particular)

or “年” here can be used as both a noun and a measure word; “月”

is simply a general noun. So “天”,“年” or “月” combined with “半” may indicate different levels of relation and different meanings, for example:



三天半= 3天

+ 1/2天 three days + half a day



三年半= 3年+



*三月半(汉语里没有“三月半”的说法。We cannot say

1/2年three years + half a year

“三月半”

in Chi_

nese.)



三个半天儿=

3 x 1/2天(“半天儿” g|Il/2天,是一个计量单位。“半天儿”

is a measuring unit and it means half a day.)

40

二关于词类 组合层次是The •





levels of meaning:



⑤三个半年:=

三个 n—

半天儿

~~a

3 x 1/2年(在一定的上下文里才把“半年”作为计量单位。On-

ly in certain context, “半年” can be used as a measuring unit.)

组合层次是The

levels of meaning:

⑥三个半月= 3个月+

三个

半年

1/2个月= 3.5个月(汉语里“半月”不能构成计量单

位。“三个月”指一共三个月。而“三月”是指第三个月。“半月” be taken as a measuring unit in Chinese.

“三月” •



means three months, while

means March.)

组合层次是The •

“三个月”

cannot

levels of meaning:



三个





~X

The Numerals “两” and “二” “两”和“二”都表示2,但用法不同: Although both ‘‘两” and

“二”

represent the number “2” in Chinese, they have different

usages:

❶两 “两”只能表示基数。有两种格式: “两”

can only be used to express a cardinal number. There are two forms:

41

wmm,

|臟_纖画麗飄働霸飄纖_露纖■讎游











桌子

两 “ TTTT ” 两

“ 7TTT ”

+

星词

+

M

E==t

wum



\Z=1

J

\z

只能表示基数 Only expressing a cardinal

2.



'天





两 “ 7TTT ” 两

“ TTT7 ”

不需要量词的名词

+ +

Noun without a measure word \7

_3Z_

天Day 年 Year 小时Hour

只能表示基数 Only expressing a cardinal

I

说明 I -2

A

Explanation 1-2:

A:不需要用量词的具体名词很少。 There are a few concrete nouns which can be used without a measure word.



两小时/两个小时



两个钟头/俩(俩lid =两个two)钟头/*两钟头(“钟头”是需要量词的 參

名词。.“钟头” ③

is a noun which should be used with a measure word.)

两个月/俩月/*两月(“月”是需要量词的名词。“月” is a noun which should be used together with a measure word.)

42



两个星期日/俩星期日/*两星期日



休息两天/*休息两个天(“天”是不能用任何量词的名词,比较特殊。

“天” is a special noun which cannot be used with any measure word.)

⑥出国两年/*出国两个年(“年”是不能用任何量词的名词,比较特殊。 “年”

is a special noun which cannot be used with any measure word.)

只有在书面语色彩的上下文里,一些原来需要量词的名词才可以不用量词。例如: 修參







Only in written Chinese can some nouns which should be used with a measure word be used without it, for example:



两人见状,迅即撤离。



此项工作异常艰难,持续达两月有余。

❿二 “二”可以表示基数(用于各种“数”,如整数、分数、小数等),也可以表示序 数。表示序数时有两种格式: “二”

may indicate the cardinal number (in all kinds of

“数”,for example: integer,

fraction, decimal, etc.), and the ordinal number. There are two patterns when representing the ordinal number:

第 \





弟 ,, 弟 ”

“ A-A-

+ +

46 - 99 — ‘‘ — ” —









星1司

+ +

M

J

2.第二



第二



+ “



+

“—,, “-”

+ +

不需要量词的名词 Nouns without a measure word

天Day 年 Year 小时Hour

示汉语语法

遍-.

©区别 The differences

这里把“两”和“二”的区别列表如下: The differences between “两” and “二” are as follows:



二 +

,一,一,四. ② 十,一十,一十. ③ 四百二十二 ①

在个位数和十位数里 —

In a digit or a tens digit

+

在多位数里 In a multi-digit number

+

大的数用“两”(也可与“二” 小的数用“二”(也可与“两”通 “二” can be used in a small 通用)0 “两” can be used in a 用)。 big number (“两” and “二” may number (“ 两” and “ 二” may also also be used interchangeably).



两万二千二百



两万两千

be used interchangeably).

两万二千二百 ② 两万二(千) ①

+

二点二(2.2) ② 二十二点二(22.2) ①

表示小数/分数/百分数 Expressing a decimal /



fraction / percent

表示基数/序数 Expressing a cardinal number / ordinal number

44

基数

Cardinal number

这两页表格,第一页要填 写,*第两页不要填写。

二分之一 (1/2) ④ 三分之二(2/3) ⑤ 百分之二百(200%) ⑥ 百分之二十(20%) ③

基数 Cardinal number / 序数Ordinal number

这两页表格,第一页要填写, 第二页不要填写。

二关于词类

(续表)





+

出现在各种量词前面 Before a measure word

① ② ③



两张桌子 两盒名片 两双鞋



两对夫妻(共四个人Altoge¬

ther four people)

+



表示不定的数目 Expressing indefinite number

过两天再说吧!(这里的

“两天”不表示确定的数目,一般



“ 李老师网球打得很好。 參



—网球李老师打得很好。 ②

她回答语法问题回答得很对。她语法问题回答得很对。 •







—语法问题她回答得很对。

简单趋向补语 The Simple Complement of Direction 可分为两种类型:i.动词不带宾语,只带简单趋向补语;n.动词既有宾语,也 有简单趋向补语。 The simple complement of direction can be divided into two forms: I. The verb does not take an object, but only the simple complement of direction; II. The verb has both an object and a simple complement of direction.

o动词不带宾语,只带简单趋向补语 The verb does not take an object but a simple complement of direction.





v

三关于句法成分

说明 I

Explanation I:

A:如果动作是朝着说话人进行的,用“来”;如果是朝着相反的方向进行的,就

用“去”。“来”和“去”做趋向补语时,一般读轻声。例如: tion proceeds in the opposite direction, “去” is used. “来” and “去” are generally read softly when they are used as complements of direction, for example:

① 他慢慢地向我走来。 ②

汽车朝校门口开去。



飞机向东北方向飞去了。



小猴子在树上跳来跳去。



他思考问题时经常走来走去。

o动词既有宾语,也有简单趋向补语

The verb has both an object and a simple complement of direction. 如果动词既有宾语,也有简单趋向补语,那么印寧冬(表示处所/不 表示处所)有关: If the verb has both an object and a simple complement of direction, the word order is determined by the meaning of the object (indicating location / not indicating location).



博物馆

去(*到去博物馆)



我这儿

来(*到来我这儿)

动词+ V

+

表示处所意义的宾语

+

“来” / “去”

The object indicating location

+

“来” / “去”

113

'蠢:纏纏:% 圓酬閫哪__纖

矛4又i吾i吾法 2.

(1) 借



那本书







一些水果



动词 V

V

(“ 了”) + (“ 了”) +

+ +

不表不处所意义的宾语

H-“来”

The object not indicating location

/ “去”、 4-“来” / “去”,

⑵ 借





那本书







一些水果

动词+ V +

WB

“来” / “去” “来,’ / “去”

+ (“ 了”) + (“ 了”)

+ +

不表不处所意义的宾语 The object not indicating location

复合趋向补语 ■

The Compound Complement of Direction 复合趋向补语由两个简单趋向动词组成(两个简单趋向动词合在一起时,也可以 看做是一个双音节词——复合趋向动词)。可分为两种类型:I.动词/形容词只带复 合趋向补语,没有宾语;n.动词既带复合趋向补语,也带宾语。 The compound complements of direction are composed of two simple verbs of direction. (When two simple verbs of direction are put together, they can be regarded as one disyllabic word, that is, the compound verb of direction.) There are two kinds: I. The verb / adjective takes only a compound complement of direction without an object; II. The verb has both a compound complement of direction and an object.

114

^mm

■,難

vCV".

^;;:,

..'■;.'



三关于句法成分

o动词/形容词只带复合趋向补语 The verb / adjective takes only a compound complement of direction

走进



安静





意义:“实”义/ “虚”义

+~高单趋向动iiT'

/动词1+简单趋向动词1 (形容词)

The concrete meaning /

Vi+Simple directional verbi+Simple directional verb2 、_)

Meaning:

_

.



\7

上,下,进,出,

限用 Limited to:

回,过,起

The extended meaning A

来,去

V_;___J

\_/

① 校长从对面走ii来,笑着和我打招呼。 ②

汽车开进去了。



他身体好多了,已经能从病床上坐起来了 參



这么高的山,你能爬上去吗?



上课了,教室里安静下来了。 參





听了老师的话,他立刻高兴起来。 •

说明 I



Explanation I:

A:在这种格式里,趋向动词既可以表示“实”义,也可以表示“虚”义。“实”

义指的是基本义、空间义,“虚”义指的是引申义。我们重点说明“虚”义: In this pattern, the verb of direction can express both the basic meaning and the ex¬ tended meaning. “实义” indicates the basic meaning or the space meaning, while “ 虚义” in¬ dicates the extended meaning. The explanation will be focused on the extended meaning.

115

1.谓语是动词时: The predicate is a verb:

« 动词

+

Verb

+

复合趋向动词 The compound directional verbs

复合趋向动词 The compound directional verbs

“虚”的意义

例句

The extended meaning

Examples

表示动作完成或有了结果 Indicating that an action is completed or has had

①汽车慢慢地停了下来。 •

a result

下来

表示成功(指说、唱、背诵等) Indicating a success

(here the success may refer

②这篇课文他背下来了。 •

to the telling, singing or reciting of something)

表继续(过去—现在) 參 • Indicating continuation (past —1 present)

下去

表继续(现在一 參 • *将来) Indicating continuation (present —> future)

③书里面写的是古代流传工 来的故事。 ④你要勇敢地生活下去。 參 •

表示成功(指说、唱、背诵等) 上来

Indicating a success (here the success may refer

⑤那个问题他答上来了。 參

to the telling, singing or reciting of something)

表示开始并且继续 Indicating the start and continuation of an action

⑥他俩坐在沙发上聊起来了。 •

起来 表示动作有了结果 Indicating that an action has had a result

116

⑦妈妈想起来了,这个人五 年前是她的学生。

沒繼?钱4淡资〜纖

关于句法成分 2.谓语是形容词时: The predicate is an adjective:

复合趋向动词 The compound directional verbs

形容词

+

Adjective

+

复合趋向动词 The compound directional verbs

“虚”的意义

例句

The extended meaning

Examples

下来 “下来” here

形容词要表示

① 天黑下来了。 消极的、非正面 ② 夜籴了,校园安静下来了。

indicates gradual

的意义

change.





The adjective expresses a

下去

negative or

“下去” here expresses the deterioration of his illness.

non-positive

表示程度的增加

③他的病会继续恶化下去。 參

meaning



Indicating the increase of degree

形容词要表示 积极的、正面 的意义 The adjective expresses an

起来

④ 天亮起来了。 ⑤ 一炎早市场就热闹起来了。 ⑥ 他的病一天天存4来了。 •

“起来” here indicates

active or a positive meaning

a gradual change.

表示某种情况开始出现并且在继续 -

Indicating that certain situation has emerged and continues.

⑦到了九月,天气就渐渐凉爽起 来了。

* •

117

o动词既带复合趋向补语,也带宾语 The verb takes both a compound complement of direction and an object.





教室



















动词

简单趋向动词i

+ +

V

Simple directional verbi

+宾语+ + O +

简单趋向动词2 Simple directional verb2

J

艾——X 上,下,进,出,

(-

限用

回,过,起

例如 ①

脱下一件衣服来 •

拿出一个本子来 參





走出房间去 •





爬上山来 參



来,去 ^__:__J

For example: 參



Limited to:

N



飞上天去 參



时量补语 The Complement of Duration 时量补语是说明一个动作或一种状态持续时间的补语。这种补语所补充说明的动 •







4



词,一般应当表示可持续的意义。 The complement of duration is a complement expressing the duration of an action or a state.

A

verb with a complement of duration usually indicates how long the action lasts.

mm

三关于句法成分

时量补语有三种类型: There are three patterns:

®用“可持续”意义动词 Using a verb which indicates an action that can last 如果动词还带有宾语,那么“宾语”与“时量补语”的次序,要由“宾语”的意 參參





义类别来决定。有下面三种情况: 參

•參

If the verb has its own object, the order of the object and the complement of duration should be decided by the meaning of “the object”. There are three kinds of objects: 1.宾语是表示人的名词 •





The object is a noun expressing people.

找了

安娜

动词+ V

三十分钟

表示的宾语

+

时量补语

+ Noun as the object expressing people + The complement of duration

k___J \7

表不

音义^

Indicatintg lasting

_ _J

或者or:

找了

三十分钟

动词+

时量补语

V

+

The complement of duration

V

安娜 + +

表不的

宾语

Noun as the object expressing people

J

\7 表示持续意义 Indicating lasting \_J

119

2.宾语是人称代词 參

•籲参

The object is a personal pronoun.

找了



动词

一个小时

人称代词宾语

+

+

时量补语

~1

Personal pronoun as the object + The complement of duration

V

J

_ ____



^^

人称代词 Personal

表示持续意义

我,你,他,她,

Indicating lasting \_

pronouns:

_/

我们,你们,他们

\___/

① 大家找了他一个小时。(不说“找了一个小时他”。One 參

cannot say “找r

一个小时他”.) ②

老师问了我半个钟头。(不说“问了半个钟头我”。One

cannot say

“问了

半个钟头我”.) 3.宾语是其他词语 ♦







The object is other words.

看了

两个小时

'动词-t-

时量补语

—-The

V

(的)

电视

+ (“的”)+

其他宾语

complement of duration + (“的”)+



Other words used as objects

J

__5Z

/

v.

表示持续意义 Indicating lasting

①奶奶找了 一小时画报。(不说“找了 _报一'小时”。One •

画报一小时”.) •

120









cannot say

“找了

三关于句法成分 ②同学们打了三十分钟的网球。(不说“打了网球三十分钟”。One •



»

cannot



say “打了网球三十分钟”.) •



®用“不可持续”意义动词 Using a verb which indicates “not lasting”

动词+ V

宾语+

+

o

时量补语

+

The complement of duration

J

\7

表示不可持续意义 Indicating not lasting

A

\___J

说明 n

Explanations II:

A:有些动词表示的动作是不能持续的,例如“离开” 參

“起(床)”

“死”

“到”

“来”

“去”

“毕(业)”

•參*

“到达”,但是这些动词也可以带时量补语。

Although some verbs express actions that cannot last, for example: “离开”,“来”,“去”, “毕(业)”,“起(床)”,“死”,“到” and “到达”,these verbs can be followed by a complement of duration. B:句子用f,时,表示的意义是从ff、-。

例如: When a verb that cannot last is used in a sentence, the complement of duration indi¬ cates a period of time from the beginning of the action to the present, for example:

①她到北京一个星期了。

一个星期 one week

•-H 到达北京时

现在说话时

The time of arriving in Beijing

The present

121

② 我起床半个小时了。 ③

刘老师离开中国两年了



他来学校好几天了。



小王毕业三年了。

0重复动词

Repeating the verb 如果动词带宾语,也可以重复这个动词,这时时量补语要放在重复的动词后边。 • • • • If the verb is followed by an object, it can be repeated. Then the complement of dura¬ tion should be put after the repeated verb.

网球

打 /动词i

+

^



宾语+

动词

+

(“了”)

+

Vi

+

(“了,’)

+

+

o

+

r



^

Indicating lasting v.. )

两个钟头

(了)

C

时量补语 The complement of duration

、 J

① 看电视看(了)一个小时 參





学汉语学(了)三年 參





复习功课复习(了)半个小时 •





»

找他找了两个钟头



吃饭吃(了)二十分钟 •





下雨下(了)两天 •

说明 HI

»



Explanation III:

C:在汉语里,重复出现的第二个动词被认为是句子的“丰-f,,,。补语作为最

重要、表义最丰富、与动作关系最密切的附加成分,当然应主要动词”之 后。例如: 122

三关于句法成分

In Chinese, the second repeated verb should be considered as

“the main verb”. Being

the most important, meaningful element with the closest relation to the action, the comple¬ ment should be put after “the main verb”,for example:



他写作业写了一个小时Q

(动态助词“了”和补语放在主要动词之后。The

aspectual particle “了” and the complement should be put after the main verb.)



*他写了作业写一个小时。(动态助词“了”应当放在主要动词之后。The 參



aspectual particle “了” should be put after the main verb.)



*他写一个小时写了作业。(时量补语应当放在主要动词之后。The complement of duration should be put after the main verb.)

多层补语的顺序

::

The Order of Multiple Complements 在一个句子里,主要动词可能带多层补语(一般是两三层)。多层补语包括结果 补语、处所补语、数量补语和趋向补语四种类型。它们的排列顺序是: In a sentence, the main verb may be followed by multiple complements (two or three in general). There are four kinds of multiple complements: the complement of result, the com¬ plement of location, the complement of quantity and the complement of direction. The order of them is as follows:

动词 V

+

结果补语

+ The complement of result

+ +

处所补语

数量补语

+

+

趋向补语

The complement + The complement

The complement +

of quantity

of location

/

\7

时量

of direction

\

\7

Duration

动量 Frequency

123

'

示汉语语法 ① 老人摔倒在地。(动词+结果补语+处所补语V + The complement of result + The complement of location)



警察把他打翻在地。(动词+结果补语+处所补语V + The complement of result + The complement of location)



他被叫醒三次。(动词+结果补语+动量补语V + The complement of result + The complement of frequency)



小船被冲到海岸上来。(动词+处所补语+趋向补语V + The complement 參

of location + The complement of direction)



我回到北京三天了。(动词+处所补语+时量补语V + The complement of location + The complement of duration)



葡萄酒放在桶里二十年了。(动词+处所补语+时量补语V + The 參

«

complement of location + The complement of duration)



国家队打赢三次了。(动词+结果补语+动量补语V + The complement of result + The complement of frequency)



他可能饿死在荒岛上半个月了。(动词+结果补语+处所补语+时量补语 參

.

Y + The complement of result + The complement of location + The complement of duration)



游客们走散到各个景点去了。(动词+结果补语+处所补语+趋向补语V + 參

The complement of result + The complement of location + The complement of direction)

说明

Explanation: 主要动词也可能带两个趋向补语,也就是说,动词既带宾语,又带复合趋向补

语。例如: The main verb may also be followed by two complements of direction. That is to say, the verb may be followed by the object and the compound complement of direction as well, for example:



他拿盅曰记本来。



赵经理走选屋里圭。

关于句法成分

动词前后的处所结构“在

,,til

The Locative Structure

” before and after a Verb

“在

表示处所的结构“在……”是一个介词词组,它既可以放在主要动词之前,也可 以放在主要动词之后,但是二者的功能意义不同。分别叙述如下: The Locative structure

“在.is

a prepositional phrase. It can be put either before or

after the main verb. But it has two different functions described as follows:

o

“在……”在动词前 ‘‘在.’’ before the verb



在厨房里



在桌子上



“在•• “在••



+ +

95



动词 V

J

\7

动作发生的处所 The place where an action takes place

说明 I

Explanation I:

A: “在……”在动词前边,指的是施动者做出的动作行为所在的地方。例如: When

“在.is

put before the verb, it indicates the location where the agent of the

action carries out the action, for example:

①她在厨房里哭。(“哭”这个行为发生的地方是“厨房里”。The •





location

»

where the action “哭” takes place is “厨房里”.)

[1]本节参考了 [美]James H-Y Tai (1975)和赵元任(1968)的研究。

125

② 周先生在桌子上写字。(“在桌子上”表明“写”这个动作的处所。“在桌 •

子上”

••參

indicates where the action “写” takes place.)

李四在床上把张三推倒了。(“在床上”是表明施动者李四在进行“推”这





•参

个动作时,其处所是在床上。“在床上”

indicates where the agent of the ac¬

tion “李四” does the action “推”.)

“在.”在动词后 “在.” after the verb



在地上



把字写 ’

在桌子上 “在……,’



“在……”

动作的结果 The result of an action

说明 n

Explanation II:

B:

“在……”在动词后边,指的是具体事物的处所,这个处所是等作彳^^7印亨

果。例如: When

“在.is

put after the verb, it indicates the location of a specific thing. Here

the location shows the result of the action, for example:



雨下在地上。(“下”的结果是“在地上”,是具体事物“雨”的处所。 “在地上” is the result of the action “下” and is the place where



“雨” falls.)

周先生把字写在桌子上。(动词后面的“在桌子上”,表明“字”被写在什 •

•參



么地方——作为“写”的结果,“字”是在桌子面上。“在桌子上”

put af¬

ter the verb indicates the place where “字” was written. As the result of “写”, “字” is written on the table.)

126

③李四把张三推倒在床上。(“在床上”表明受动者张三被推倒后,一定是倒 •

在床上了





在床上”

indicates the receiver of the action “ 张三” is pushed

over and surely falls down on the bed.)

®比较 Compare “在……”

在. “在……”的语法作用

綱+

+

Verb

Verb

+

“在……”

“在……”

做状语

做补语

As an adverbial

As a complement

The grammatical function of

“在……,’

+动词

不一定表示受动者处于那个地方,也 表示受动者肯定处于那个地方,不 不一定表示施动者处于那个地方,这 表示施动者处于那个地方。It 要依语言环境而定。It neccessarily

indicate

that

does not indicates that the receiver is surely in

either

the that place, but it doesn’t indicate that

receiver or the agent is in that place. It the agent is in that place.

④他把钱存在银行里了。

depends on the context.



他在银行里把钱存了。(“在银 行里”指的是施动者存钱这个动作 发生的地方。“他”肯定在银行里,

(“在银行里”指的是“钱”存

在了什么地方,只表明“钱” 在银行里,施动者“他”可能 本人不在银行里,而是派人去

受动者和施动者

“钱”也在银行里。“在银行里”

处于什么地方

indicates the place where the agent

银行存钱,或是把钱汇到了银

The place where the

does the action — putting the money

行。“在银行里”

receiver and the agent are.

in the bank. bank and



“他”

“钱”

is surely in the

is also in the bank.)

李四在床上把张三推倒了。 (施动者李四做“推”这个动作时

indicates the

place where the money is. That means

“钱”

the agent

is in the bank and

“他”

may not be in

the bank. He may send somebody

肯定是在床上,但未必表明受动者

to the bank to deposit the money,

张三被推时或被推倒以后也是在床

or the money is remitted to the

上,张三可能当时是站在靠床边的

bank.)

地上,被推后也倒在地上。The agent “ 李四” surely does the action

127

(续表) “推”

in the bed, but it doesn’t mean

the receiver “

张三”

⑤ 李四把张三推倒在床上。

is also in the

(受动者张三在倒了以后一定是

bed when he is being pushed or after

在床上,但未必表明施动者李四

he is pushed

推人时或完成“推”的动作后也

over. He might

have

been standing near the bed and falls

在床上。The

down

surely falls down on the bed. That

on

the

ground

after

he

is

pushed over.)

“张三”

receiver

might not mean the agent “

③周先生在桌子上写字。(根据

does the action

“推”

李四”

in the bed or

语境和一般常理判断,施动者周

he is in the bed after having comp¬

先生不会在桌子面上,他写的

leted the action

“字”即受动者也不会在桌子面 上,而会是在一■张纸上。 According

to

the

周先生把字写在桌子上Q (“在桌子上”表明动作“写”的

and

结果,受动者“字”肯定是在桌

“周先生”

子面上,施动者周先生则肯定不

context

common sense, the agent



“推”.)

is not on the table and the receiver

会在桌子面上。“在桌子上”

“字”

the result of

which is written by him is not



on the table either. It is on a piece

“字”

of paper.)

and the agent

i式 1:匕_ Please compare:

写”.The

is

receiver

is surely written on the table

“周先生”

is definitely

not on the table.)

周先生在宣纸上写字。 周先生在黑板上写字。

“在……”表示动作的结果,具体事 物的处所,即受到动作影响的 .号f的处所。上面④⑤⑥例 受到^作影响的“动作参与者”分别

“在……”的 语义功能 The semantic function of

是“钱” “在……”表示动作本身的处所 • • • • 在.

indicates the place where the

action itself takes place.

“张三”和“字”。

在. action, thing,

and that

expresses the result of an the is

place the

of a

place

specific

where

the

……" participant who is influenced by the action is. In the above examples and

⑥,the

④,⑤

participants influenced by

the action are “

钱”,

‘‘字"respectively.

“张三”

and

三关于句法成分

注意HI

Notes III:

1.有些动词要求“在……”只能岀现在它的前面(做状语),这与动词的语义有 參參

♦參

••



參參

參參參

•參

_•

关。“在……”出现在动词后面(做补语)时,是表示受到动作影响的动作参与者的 处所,^

因此这些

动词的后面就不能带处所结构“在……”。例如: Some verbs require

“在.”

to occur only before them

(acting as an adverbial). This

is related to the meaning of the verb. When “在.is put after the verb (acting as a com¬ plement), it indicates the place where the participant of the action is influenced by the ac¬ tion. While according to the semantic meaning, some verbs usually cannot influence “the participant” and change its location. So these verbs cannot be followed by the locative struc¬ ture

“在.,’,for

example:

f①她在厨房里哭。(“在厨房里”表示“哭”这一动作的处所。“在厨房里” indicates the place where the action “哭” takes place.)

@*她哭在厨房里。(一个人不会因为受到自身“哭”的影响而改变他的处 、

所。One

will not change his place because of the influence of

“哭

"(D王老师在食堂里吃午饭。(这里的“在食堂里”表示“吃午饭”这个动作的处所。 Here “在食堂里” indicates the place where the action “吃午饭” takes place.)

④*王老师吃午饭在食堂里。(“午饭”不会由于“吃”而改变处所,由某个地方 改到了食堂里,这是毫无意义的。“午饭”

will not change its place by “吃”.It

is meaningless to change the place from a certain place to the dining room.)

、⑤*王老师把午饭吃在食堂里。

f⑥他在操场上跑。 [email protected]*他跑在操场上。 r⑧刚才我在邮局寄信。 刚才我寄信在邮局。 /⑩我在北京大学学汉语。 1⑪*我学汉语在北京大学。 /⑫鸟在空中飞。 1⑬*鸟飞在空中。

129

J⑭鱼在水里游。 *鱼游在水里。

2.有些动词要求“在……”只能出现在它的后面(做补语),这也要依据语义原 •



•••••••••

则来解释。例如: Some verbs require

“在.”

to occur only after them

(acting as a complement). This

is explained according to the semantic principle, for example: f①雨落在地上Q

(这里的“在地上”是表明雨从天空落下后所在的处所,即地

面是“落”这个动作停止的地方,是“落”的结果。Here “在地上”

indi¬

cates the place where the rain falls from the sky. The ground is the place where the action “落” stops and is the result of “落”.)

I

②*雨在地上落。(“在地上”不会是“落雨”这个动作发生的地方。“在地



上”

will not be the place where the action “落雨” takes place.)

(由于使用了

f③把水倒在脸盆里。

“把”字句,强调对受动者的处置及处置结

果-水出现在脸盆里,所以句子是正确的。Because

of using “把” sen¬

tence, it emphasizes the treatment and the result the receiver receives— water is in the washbasin, so the sentence is correct.)

(“倒”的动作不是发生在脸盆里,而是在脸盆上方某处。

@*在脸盆里倒水。

只能说“往脸盆里倒水”。The

\

action “倒” does not take place in the wash¬

basin, but somewhere above the washbasin. So we can only say

“往脸盆里倒

水”.) ⑤叫到水在脸盆里。(没有强调“倒”的结果的意思。The result of “倒” ^

emphasized.)

f⑥雪下在屋顶上。 L⑦*雪在屋顶上下。 j■⑧皮球掉在井里。 1⑨*皮球在井里掉。

子弹打在木板上。 *子弹在木板上打。

is not

三关于句法成分 3.有时处所结构“在……”既可以出现在某一动词之前,也可以出现在这个动词 參參

••參







參參參

•參

••參

•參鲁

••參

••參



之后,但句义不同。选用哪一种句式,取决于表义功能的需要,要看强调的是哪一方 參參

»»

••參

•鲁

參參參

參參

••參

面。例如: Sometimes the locative structure sentence with

“在.,’

“在.”

can be put before or after a verb. But the

used before a verb has different meaning from the one with

“在.”

after the verb. The selection of the sentence pattern depends on the requirement of the sentence meaning. It depends on which aspect to be emphasized, for example: f①小猴子在马背上跳。(这里的“在马背上”做状语,是表明“跳”这个动作

的处所-这时小猴子是在马背上。As

the adverbial, here “在马背上”

indicates the place where the action “跳” takes place. The monkey is on the horseback.)

,,所指的人或事物

有一定的关系,一般来说,早例如:在主谓谓丨吾句“他身体很好” 里,“身体”是属于“他”的;在主谓谓语句“我们学校学生很多”里,“学生”是 属于“我们学校的”;在主谓谓语句“小张个子最高”里,“个子”指的是“小张”的 个子。 In this kind of sentences, there must be some relationship between the sentence” and the person or thing that

“S—the subject of

“S! —the subject of the S-P phrase” refers to.

Usually, the latter belongs to the former. For example: In the sentence with an S-P phrase as the predicate

“他身体很好”,“身体”

as the predicate

belongs to

“他In

“我们学校学生很多”,“学生”

with an S-P phrase as the predicate

the sentence with an S-P phrase

belongs to

“小张个子最高”,“个子”

“我们学校In

the sentence

indicates the size of

“小张”.

紧缩句 The Contracted Sentence 紧缩句是由复句紧缩而成的,形式上像单句。可以说,它是与宁、学、 ¥-了了學@¥的特殊复句。 The contracted sentence is formed by contracting a complex sentence to a simple sen¬ tence. That is to say, it is a special complex sentence in which there is no pause in between and some of the words are contracted.

这种句子有“紧”(紧凑)和“缩”(缩减)的特点,所以显得精炼、明快。例如: This kind of sentence has the characteristics of

“紧”

(compact) and

“缩”

(contracted).

So the sentence is concise and easy to understand, for example:

[1]:本节参考了黄伯荣、廖序东主编的《现代汉语》(1991,高等教育出版社)“紧缩句” 一节。

138

四关于句型

-①只要天气好,就去海滨游泳。(复句。包括两个分句,表示一种逻辑关系。 It is a complex sentence with two clauses that express a kind of logic relation.)

、②天气好就去海滨游泳。(是例①的紧縮句。It is the contracted sentence of example

①.)

〃③你愿意信,你就信;你不愿意信,就不信。(多重复句。包括四个分句,表 示多重逻辑关系。It



is a multiple complex sentence containing four clauses that

express a multi-logic relation.)

^④你爱信不信。(是例③的紧缩句。It is the contracted sentence of example ③.)

紧缩句内部可以用成对的关联词语或只用一个关联词语来显示分句间的关系,有 •



參參

时还可以不用关联词语。常用的关联词语和所表示的复句关系如下表: •



In the contracted sentence a pair of associated words or only an associated word can be used to show the relationship between the clauses. Sometimes the associated word (s) may not be used. The relationship between the commonly used associated words and the complex sen¬ tence is as follows:

成对的关联词语 Pairs of correlatives

关联词语

关系

例句

Correlative

Relationship

Examples

不……不……

假设 Suppositive

不问不说话。

非……不……

条件 Conditional

非说不行。

不……也……

假设 Suppositive

不看也会。

再……也……

假设 Suppositive

再解释也没有用。

承接 Successive

她们一见面就哭了。

条件 Conditional

一想起她就失眠。

.就.

139

(续表) 关联词语

关系

例句

Correlative

Relationship

Examples



承接

Successive

看了一遍再看一遍。



条件

Conditional

诚实才是好孩子。

并列

Coordinative

看了又看。

转折

Transitional

想笑又不敢笑。

假设

Suppositive

说了又怎么样。

条件

Conditional

学学就能会。

假设

Suppositive

你请我就来。

条件

Conditional

你上班就要干活儿Q

因果

Cause and effect

有课就得早起。

承接

Successive

想想也有几分高兴。

假设

Suppositive

不睡觉也要做完作业。

条件

Conditional

想起他也会感动。

转折

Transitional

条件不好也干出了成绩。

因果

Cause and effect

他因为下雨不能来。 他因病请假一天。

承接

Successive

雨过天晴。

转折

Transitional

他有劲儿使不上。

条件

Conditional

深水有肥鱼。

假设

Suppositive

人勤地不懒。



单个的关联词语



Single correlative



因为,因

不用关联词语 Without correlative(s)

140

五、关于句式 Sentence Types 句式,就是根据句子的特点划分出来的句型,是句型的下位概念。“把”字 句、“被”字句、“是”字“有”字句、兼语句等,都是根据句子的某个局部特 点单独划分出来的句式^ Sentence types are classified according to the partial characteristics of sen¬ tences, and are a sub-concept of sentence patterns. The

"把” sentence, the

“被” sentence, the “是” sentence, the “有” sentence, the pivotal sentence and so on are sentence types classified according to certain partial characteristics of sentences.

141

The “把” Sentence “把”字句是指用介词“把”引出动作受事者的一种句式。格式是: The “把” sentence is a sentence type that uses the preposition “把” to lead the receiver of the action. The pattern is as follows:



142

没能



那件事





五关于句式

说明

Explanations:

A,:否定词要放在“把”字前面: •





The negative adverb should be put before “把” ••



她没把那件事办好。



你不要把话说绝。

A2:能愿动词要放在“把”字前面: •

••參

The auxiliary verb should be put before “把,’:



你能把那张图画好吗?



老 夸把行李拿走。

i

a3:时间副词要放在“把”字前面: 參







The time adverb should be put before

b:

“把’:



她已经把这件事告诉别人了。



他4丄把那把椅子搬走了。

“把,,_‘后面的介引成分应当是mi言乎亨㊁坪印,,弯w窄白》。

The object of “把” is definite and refers to a person or thing known to both the speaker and listener.



他把那本书借走了。(“那本书”有确指性,不是随便的一本书。“那本书” •





refers to “that particular book’’,not some randomly selected book.)



*他把一本书借走了。(“一'本书”是不确定的。“一^本书” is not definite.)



他把•^音k•了。(这个句子里的“书”虽然没有定指的标志,但在一定的上 下文k,并不是泛指任何书,而是交谈双方已知的某一本书或某些书,所 以可以构成“把”字句。Although

there is no indicator for “书” in the sen¬

tence, “书” here is known to both the speaker and the listener in the context. So the “把” sentence is used.) c:动词要表示举尽的动作,能够寧地影响事物。所以“把”字句的动词,不

能是“心理动词”

“kb动词”

“表示#-、变化、消失的动词”

“判断动词”

“趋

向动词”。 The verb of the “把” sentence can express a strong action, and actively govern or influ¬ ence people or things. The verbs that express mental activities, denote senses, indicate exis¬ tence, development or vanishment, show judgments or indicate directions cannot be used in the “ 把” sentence.

143

图示汉语语法 ① *我把她喜欢。(“喜欢”是心理动词。只能说“我喜欢她”。“喜欢” ex參



“我喜欢她,’.)

presses a mental activity. We can only say



*孩子们都把他怕。(“怕”是心理动词。只能说“孩子们都怕他”。“怕” expresses a mental activity. We can only say



“孩子们都怕他”.)

*他把这位老师认识。(“认识”是认知动词。只能说“他认识这位老师”。 •



“认识” denotes a sense. We can only say “他认识这位老师”.) ④

*他把这件事的经过知道了。(“知道”是认知动词。只能说“他知道了这 參



件事的经过”。“知道” denotes a sense. We can only say “他知道了这件事的 经过,,.) ⑤

*小王把新书有了。(“有”是表示存在的动词。只能说“小王有了新书”。 參

“有” indicates the existence of something. We can only say “小王有 了新书”.) ⑥

*他对下棋把兴趣发生了。(“发生”是表示变化的动词。只能说“他对下 •



棋发生了兴趣”。“发生” indicates development. We can only say “他对下棋 发生了兴趣”.) ⑦

*村里把一头牛死了。(“死”是表示消失的动词。只能说“村里死了一头 牛”。“死” indicates vanishment. We can only say “村里死了一'头牛”.)

D:

“把”字句的动词谓语要复杂化,就是说,这个动词不能是光杆儿动词,尤其

不能是一个单音节的光杆儿动词,在f孕亭华率兮。常用四种方式使 动词谓语复杂化: The verb in the

“把” sentence must be a complex one, which means a verb, especially a

monosyllabic verb, cannot be used by itself. Some other element is always used before or af¬ ter the predicate verb. Usually there are four patterns: D1:*他把那间房子卖。/他把那间房子卖了。(动词后面加时体助词“了”。The aspectual particle “了” is attached to the verb.) D2: *咱们把房间收拾吧。/咱们把房间收拾收拾吧。(动词重叠。The verb is •

•參



reduplicated.) D3: *我要把今天的课文复习。/我要把今天的课文复习一遍。(动词后面有补 參

语。The complement follows the verb.)

144



五关于句式 D4: *不要把人推。/不要把人往外推。(动词前面有状语。The adverbial is •



placed before the verb.)

注意

Note: 如果整个句子不强调对事物(介引成分)的处置及结果,那么即使谓语是具有

“处置性”的动词,也不能构成“把”字句。有两种情况: A “disposal” verb cannot occur in the “把” sentence when the sentence does not mean to emphasize how something is disposed of and what result is brought about. There are two cases:

错句

原因分析

正句

Incorrect forms

Explanations

Correct forms

时体助词“过”用来表示经历和过

动词+

① *保姆把这个房 去的动作的过程,并不强调对事物 ① 保姆打扫过这个 间打扫过。 的处置及其结果。 房间。 ② *以前我把这套The aspectual particle “过” express¬ ② 以前我学过这套 es a certain experience or an action 教材学过。 教材。 in the past; it does not emphasize the

“过”

Verb + “过”

disposal or its result.

③ *他把作业做得 冗。

动词+可能补语 Verb

+

the potential

complement



这种结构只是表示一种可能,不强 调对事物的处置及其结果。 This construction only indicates possi¬

*我把这件事决bility; 忘不了。

it does not emphasize the dis¬

③ 他做得完作业。 ④ 我决忘不了这件 事。

posal or its result.

The “被” Sentence

“被”字句是指用介词“被”引出动作施事者,用来表示被动的一种句式。句子 的主语是动作的受事者。 The

“被”

sentence denotes passiveness in meaning by using the preposition

to in¬

troduce the agent of the action and the receiver of the action is the subject of the sentence.

145

树叶







落了 Q





大家



为班长

名/代词主语

+ “被”

+名/代词

+

动词

+

其他成分

N / Pron subject

+ “被”

+ N / Pron

+

V

+

Other elements

(受事者)

(施事者)

(Receiver of the action)

\7 定指

,

/

(Agent of the action)

\7_

\

Definiteness

动作性 及物动词

A

Action

Complex

transitive verb

predicate

B v_J

l C J

J

\_

说明

___V

使谓语1 复杂化



Explanations:

A:受事主语须是“定指”的事物。 參



The receiver of the action (subject) must be something definite. “定指”就是有确切所指的,已知的。例如: “定指” means “definite”,something already known, for example:





这本书被她买下了。(“这本书”是定指的事物。“这本书” is something •



definite.)



* 一本书被她买下了。(“一本书”是非定指的事物。“一本书” is some•

•參

thing indefinite.)





书被她买下了。(这个句子里的“书”虽然没有定指的标志,但在一定的上

下文里,并不是泛指任何书,而是交谈双方已知的某一本书或某些书,所 以可以构成“被”字句。Although the sentence,

there is no definite indicator for “书” in

“书” here is known to both the speaker and the listener in the

context, so the ‘‘被,’ sentence is used.)

146

五关于句式 B:谓语动词须是动作性及物动词。 參





The predicate verb must be a transitive verb indicating an action.



我打碎了那个杯子。/那个杯子被我打碎了。(“打”是动作性动词。“打” 參



is an action verb.)



她当了班长。/*班长被她当了。(“当”不是动作性动词。“当” •

is not an



action verb.) C: “被”字句谓语动词的后边要带别的成分。也就是说,“被”字句谓语动词不

能是单个动词,动词后边要有补语或“了”等其他成分。例如: The verb predicate in the“被” sentence is followed by some other element, which means the predicate verb of the“被” sentence cannot be a verb alone and must be followed by some other element like a complement or the aspectual particle “ 了”,for example:



他被汽车撞着了。/*他被汽车撞。 參



注意

孩子们被大雨淋湿了。/ *孩子们被大雨淋。

Notes:

1. “被”字后面的名词或代词(施事者)有时可以省略。例如: The noun or pronoun after the preposition“被” (the agent of the action) can be omitted sometimes, for example:



王老师被深深地感动了。(试比较Compare:王老师被这件事深深地感动了。)



敌人被打败了。(试比较Compare:敌人被我们打败了。) •







2. 否定词、时间副词和能愿动词要放在“被”字的前面。例如: The negative adverb, time adverb or auxiliary verb is placed before “ 被”,for example:



他没被汽车撞着。(“没”是否定词。“没” is a negative adverb.)



这件事将永远被人们记住。(“将”是时间副词。“将” is a time adverb.)



我们能被困难吓倒吗?(“能”是能愿动词。“能” is an auxiliary verb.)

3. 主语是受事者的句子,不一定都用“被”字句来表达。当表亦积极意义或中性意

义时,句子在形式上常不出现“被”(或“叫”

“让”等表示被动意义的介词),这是语

言中的常态。实际上是构成一种意义上的被动句(不是形式上的被动句)。例如: •



••參

••

拳春

參籲参

■馨

147

图示汉语语法 The “被” sentence is not always necessary when the subject of a sentence is the re¬ ceiver of an action. Normally, when the meaning of the sentence is positive or neutral, “被” (or other preposition like “口or “让”)is not used. These sentences are passive sentences in meaning (not in form), for example:



书放在桌子上。/ *书被放在桌子上。 參



肥皂我买了。/*肥皂被我买了。

The Prepositions “把”,“被

and “由

这三个介词可以分别构成“把”字句、“被”字句和“由”字句,而这三种句式之 间是有一^定的关系的。 The three prepositions “ 把”,“被” and “由” can form the “把” sentence, the “被” sentence and the “由” sentence respectively. There is some relation among the three sentence types.

o

把/被 -

介词的作用 Functions of the prepositions

“把”字句

不同点(语序)

相同点

The differences (sentence order)

Similarities

引出受事者 Introducing the

施事+

The ‘‘把"sentence

receiver of the

(“把” +受事)+动词词组

Agent +

(“把’’

+ receiver) + VP

都强调动作对动作的对象 (受事者)竿丰寧,,使

它产生某种“燊i釭于某

种状态。

action

They both emphasize that

“被”字句

引出施事者 Introducing the

The

‘‘被"sentence

148

agent of the action

the

受事+

(“被” +施事)+动词词组 Receiver + (“被 ” + agent) + VP

action

will

influence

the receiver of it and bring about a certain result or certain state.

五关于句式 试比较 ①

Compare the following sentences:

我打碎了那个杯子。/我把那个杯子打碎了。/那个杯子被我打碎了。 »



»

»

♦參

•參

小王借走了那本书。/小王把那本书借走了。 /那本书被小王借走了。 參

參參*







®由/被 介词“由”也可以引出施事者,构成“由”字句。常用的格式是: The agent of the action can also be introduced by the preposition “由,’ to form a

“由

sentence. The basic sentence pattern of the “由” sentence is:

名词主语

+

“”

+

Noun subject

+

“由”

+

动词词组

+

VP

(施事者)

(受事者)

(Agent of the action)

(Receiver of the action)

例如

N / Pron

+

For example:



合唱团由留学生组成。 參



參拳*

这项工作由他们来做。

“由”字句和“被”字句的区别: The differences between the “ 由” sentence and the ‘‘被’’ sentence:



“由”字句 The “由” sentence

“被”字句 The “被” sentence

一般没有动作性,不强调动作使受事者产生什么结 动词的动作性 The action of the

果,只是表示一般意义上的“承担、完成、实施” 等含义。 Generally it does not focus on the result the receiver is

verb

强调动作性 It emphasizes the action of the verb.

subject to, but only generally indicates “to undertake, to complete or to carry out”,etc.

149

(续表) “由”字句 The

‘‘由’’

“被”字句 The “被” sentence

sentence

受事者既可以在动词前做主语,也可以在动词后做宾 受事者一定要放在动词前 做主语。

语。例如:

句子中

The receiver can be the subject before the verb or the The receiver must be put

受事者的位置

object after the verb, for example:

before the verb as the sub¬

receiver in a



这项工作由他负责。/由他负责这项工作。

ject.

sentence



/乂现么 > 始,班长由你担任Q

The position of the

/

在开③

房顶被风刮坏了。



*被风刮坏了房顶。

始,由你担任班长。 參



The “是” Sentence 用判断动词“是”做谓语的句子叫“是”字句。汉语里表示判断,一般用“是” 字句(表示判断也可以用名词谓语句,但是名词谓语句的使用范围很有限)。 The sentence with

“是”

“是”

as the predicate is known as the

“是”

sentence. In Chinese, the

sentence is generally used to define or judge (the sentence with a nominal predicate can

also be used, but in a limited way).

“是”字句有四种类型: The

“是”



sentence has four patterns:





英国人。

主语

+

“是”

+

名词性宾语

S

+

“是”

+

Nominal object

v_

V

,

应当轻读

N

It should be pronounced in the neutral tone. v

150

■..,,-■57

J

名词词组NP 数量词组N-Mw phrase

1_^__J

关于句式

说明 I

Explanation I:

A:名词性宾语就是由名词、名词词组或数量词组构成的宾语。例如: A nominal object may be a noun, a nominal phrase or a N-Mw phrase. For example:



小刘是学生。 •





汉语是我的专业。 •

•參





这是新建的图书馆。



我的房间是605号。 # # #







同意





O

主语

“曰”



+

动词性宾语

+

“的”

S

“曰”

+

Verbal object

+

“的”



应当轻读

动词V

It should be pronounced

动词词组VP

in the neutral tone. \_ _J

B

说明 n

C

Explanations II:,

B:动词性宾语就是由动词或动词词组构成的宾语。 A verbal object may be a verb or a verbal phrase.



我是同意的。(“同意”是动词。“同意” is a verb.) •





她是两点钟回来的。(“两点钟回来”是以动词为中心的偏正词组。“两点

钟回来” ③

is an endocentric phrase with the verb as the center.)

老杨是开车走的。(“开车走”是偏正词组,属于动词性质。“开车走” •



is



an endocentric phrase.)



这幅画是老李画的。(“老李画”是主谓词组,属于动词性质。“老李画” is an S-P phrase.)



他是愿意帮助别人的。(“愿意帮助别人”是动宾词组。“愿意帮助别人” 151

is a V-0 phrase.)



他是很爱我的。(“很爱我”是动宾词组。“很爱我” is a V-0 phrase.)



房间是打扫干净了的。(“打扫干净了”是动补词组。“打扫干净了” is a 參參參





V-C phrase.) C:这种格式表示对一件事情、一种情况的判断,一般指的是已经实现的或已经决 參參

參參

•參參







定的事。例如: 參



This pattern is used to judge a thing or a certain situation. Usually it is something that has been done or decided.



我是晚上去图书馆的。



小陈是从学校去网吧的。



他们是完全赞成的。 參



••參

我们是打的去天安门广场的。

他的发音是

I I

非常正确

主语~~+"""^

+

形容词性宾语

“是”

+

Adjective object

'

S

+

\7 '

It should be pronounced

说明 HI

J

形容访Adj

v

D

Explanation III:

D:形容词性宾语就是由形容词或形容词词组构成的宾语。 An adjective object may be an adjective or an adjective phrase.

那台电脑是旧的。



我的大衣是新的。



房间是很干净的。 •



152

拳*

风是非常大的。

+

Adjective phrase

in the neutral tone.



+"""^

\7

应当轻读

v

的〔

J

“的”

王老师



®这本词典 主语 S

十“是”

+

“是,’

+

+

d>

的o

名词/人称代词

+

“的”

N / Personal pronouns

+

“的”

\7

应当轻读

“的”字词组、 “的” phrase

'

It should be pronounced v

说明 IV

in the neutral tone.

E

^_J

J

Explanation IV:

E:句式中的“名词/人称代词+的”是一个“的”字词组,它在意义上相当于一 •

•參*

个名词。例如: The structure “Noun / Personal pronoun + 白勺,’ is a “ 白勺” phrase, and it may be equiva¬ lent to a noun in meaning, for example:

① ②

那本书是小孙的。(小孙的=小孙的书) 參





书包是他的。(他的=他的书包) •



The “有” Sentence “有”字句就是以动词“有”做谓语的句子。 The sentence with the verb

“有”

as the predicate is known as the

主语

+

“有”

+

宾语

S

+

“有”

+

O

sentence.

J

V

其基本格式与一^般动词谓语句的格式“s

“有”

+ VP + 0”

是一样的,只是因为动词

“有”使用频率高,而且有多个常用义项,所以我们把“有”字句单列为一种句式。

153

示汉语语法 The basic pattern of the “有” sentence is generally the same as the pattern of the sen¬ tence with a verbal predicate “S + VP + 0”. The frequency of using the verb

“有” is very

high and it has several commonly used meanings. Therefore the “有” sentence is usually re¬ garded as a sentence pattern. “有”字句里,“有”的主要义项有七个: “有” mainly has seven different meanings:

序号 Numbers

1

领有,拥有 Have; possess

2

存在 There be

3

多项存在(并列) There be

4

包含 There be

达到一定数量 5

或某种程度 Reach a certain amount or degree

6

发生,出现 Take place; emerge

所领有的事物多或大 (常为抽象事物) 7

Have a large amount or big volume of something (usually something abstract)

154

例句

“有”表示的意义 The meanings of “有”

Examples

① 他有一本俄文词典。 ② 我有两本英文原版书。 ③ 小李有一个姐姐。 ④ 年轻人有朝气。 ① 屋里有十几个人。 ② 桌子上有一封信。 ③ 他手里有那个文件。 ① 飞机上有日本人、韩国人、越南人和美国人。 ② 明天去长城的有张老师、李老师和刘老师。 ① 一年有十二个月。 ② 这里一年只有两季:旱季和雨季。 ① 水有一丈多深。 ② 那棵树有三层楼那么高。 ③ 黄河有5000多公里长。 ① 老人有病了。 ② 事情有了变化。 ③ 他很有进步。 ① 工程师们都非常有经验。 ② 对办好这件事他有把握。 ③ 赵教授很有学问。 ④ 60岁算是有了年纪了。



五关于句式 注意

Notes:

1.

“有”的否定形式是“没有”,不能用“不有”。例如: •





The negative form of



“有”

•參

is

“没有”.We

cannot say “不有”,for example:



他没有英汉词典。/ *他不有英汉词典。



方案没有变化。/ *方案不有变化。

2. 我们所说的“有”字句不包括“有”字兼语句(见“兼语句”)。试比较: •

“有”

The

•參參



“有”

sentences mentioned above do not include the

pivotal sentence. Please

see “The Pivotal Sentence” and try to compare the following sentences:



楼下有几个人。(“有”字句。The “有” sentence)



楼下有人找你。(“有”字兼语句。The “有”



我有个好朋友。(“有”字句。The “有”



我有个好朋友说法语说得非常好。(“有”字兼语句。The “有” pivotal sen¬

pivotal sentence)

sentence)

tence)

The “连” Sentence “连”字句是由介词“连”和副词“都”

“也”相呼应形成的一种句式。

The “连” sentence is a sentence in which the preposition “连” and the adverb “都” or “也” are used together.



北京

连草



没去过



不长

(

-

“连”

N

-♦A

……“都” / “也”……

v___/

说明

Explanation:

A-如果是一个单句,那么这个单句有一种“隐含比较”的语法意义。例如: •







155

图示汉语 If it is a simple sentence, it has a grammatical meaning of “implied comparison”,for example:



她连北京都没去过。(隐含着“别的地方就更不用说了”。The •

ing is





implied mean-

♦參

“not to mention other places’’.)

刚出生的小妹妹连站也不会。(隐含着“当然更不会走了”。The

implied

meaning is “she cannot walk, of course’’.)

实际上,“连”字句的语法作用主要就是“隐含比较”。 Actually, the grammatical function of the

“连”

sentence is mainly to indicate “implied

comparison”.

注意

Notes:

1.

“连”字句经常在寧毕孝罕葶$中充当一个分句。例如: “连”

The

sentence often acts as a clause in the complex sentence which indicates the

progressive relation,for example:



她连北京都没去过,别的地方就更不用说了。



她的小妹妹刚刚出生,连站也不会,当然更不会走了。

与“连”字句相呼应的分句也常常隐去,那就成为一个表示“隐含比较”的单句 •



了(见“说明”中的两个例句)。 The clause which echoes with the

“连”

sentence can also be omitted. In that case it be¬

comes a simple sentence expressing “implied comparison”. (See the examples in the above explanation.)

2.

“连”字能附加在所有语法成分(定语、补语、宾语……)的前边,构成 參參

鲁參參

•參參

••

•參

參《

•參

••參

“连”字句。常用的格式是: “连”

can be put before all grammatical components

the object, etc.) to form the



r L

156

“连”

sentence. The commonly used patterns are as follows:





“连”

+

“连”

+

主语 s

(the attributive, the complement,

+

“都” / “也”

+

“都,,/ “也”

没有 •i-谓语>

Hh

P

^ J

五关于句式 ① 连小孩儿都会回答这个问题。 參參







连老师们也来参加我们的联欢会了











知道



我 主语 S



不知道。

+ “连” H-谓语动词

+

“都,,/ “也”

-t-

谓语否定式

+ “连” H卜 Predicate verb

+

“都,’ / “也”

4

Predicate negative

① 去年他出国的时候,我连知道都不知道 Q 參 •參 ②

他连想都没想,就把钱借给了朋友。 參



李经理







主语

H卜“连”

+

S

H卜“连”

+

不喝。

宾语Hh

“都” / “也”

+

谓语动词

ih

“都” / “也”

+

Predicate verb

O

① 他连这个字都不认识。 參



參參*

你连这件事都知道? • 參 • •

小赵 主语 S





他是谁

+ “连” +小句+ + “连”

+ Clause

+

不知道。

“都” / “也”

+

谓语动词

“都” / “也”

+

Predicate verb

_5Z_ —般要有疑问代词或不定数词 Generally it should contain an interrogative pronoun or indefinite numeral \___/



我连他住在哪儿都不知道。(别的情况更不知道了)



连这篇文章有土字他都记住了。(更不用说这篇文章的内容了)



••參

J

J

双宾语句 The Double-Object Sentence 动词谓语句中,有的谓语动词可以有两个宾语,在前面的叫“近宾语”(也叫 “间接宾语”),在后面的叫“远宾语”(也叫“直接宾语”),这样的句式叫“双宾语

句”。有I式、I[式之分。 Some sentences with the verbal predicate can have two objects. The first one is called the indirect object (the “indirect object” is next to the predicate verb), and the second one is called the direct object

(the

“direct object” follows the indirect object) . There are two

patterns:

❶I式 Pattern I

主语

s







动词

+ +

V

+ +

宾语i

O,

去哪儿Q +

宾语2



+

o2

J

\Z 表示“人”

表示“行为”

Meaning:

Referring to

Referring to

verbal activity

people

activity

意义••

\7 动词词组 VP

v

158

A J

五关于句式

说明 I

Explanation 1:

.A: “动词词组”就是以动词为中心的词组。当“远宾语”是“动词词组”时,谓

语应当是在语义上表示言语活动的动词,即意义和“说话”有关,如“问” “夸”

“嘱咐”

“告诉”

“教导”

“责备”

“批评”

“骂”

“责怪”。例如:

A “verbal phrase” has a verb as its center. When the direct object is a “verbal phrase”, the predicate should be a “verbal activity” verb, which has something to do with “speaking”, such as “问”,“骂”,“夸”,“嘱咐”,“告诉”,“教导”,“责备”,“批评” and “责怪”,for example:



老师教导我们要努力学习。(“要努力学习”是动词词组。“要努力学习” 參



is a verbal phrase.)



李经理嘱咐他早点儿去机场。(“早点儿去机场”是动词词组。“早点儿去 •



机场” is a verbal phrase.) ③

奶奶夸她口齿伶倒。(“口齿伶俐”是主谓词组,在语法性质上与动词词组 相同。“口 齿伶例,’ is an “S-P phrase”. Grammatically it is the same as the “verbal phrase,’.)



管理员告诉我们今天停电。(“今天停电”是主谓词组,在语法性质上与动 •



词词组相同。“今天停电”is an “S-P phrase”. Grammatically it is the same as the “verbal phrase’,.)



老王问我哪个办法好。( “哪个办法好”是主谓词组,在语法性质上与动词 參 词组相同。“哪个办法好” is an “S-P phrase”. Grammatically it is the same as the “verbal phrase’’.)



老师批评我上课不认真听讲。(“上课不认真听讲”是主谓词组,在语法性 參



质上与动词词组相同。“上课不认真听讲” is an “S-P phrase”. Grammati¬ cally it is the same as the “verbal phrase,’.)

159

❽n式 Pattern II



告诉

'予•.给予\ 予 means v

to give

大家

名词N 名词性词组NP

夺•.取得> ‘‘夺’ means


李阿姨把那本书给我了。(“远宾语”提前。改

成“把”字句后,介引成分要“定指”,谓语也要复杂化。The ject” is moved forward. In the “把” sentence, the object of

“把

“direct ob¬

’ is “definite”,and

the predicate is complex.)



大家叫他小男生。^——>大家管迆叫小男生。(“近宾语”提前。The “in參

direct object” is moved forward.)

161

3.容易混淆的一些句式: The followings are some sentence types which may be easily mixed up:

’①叔叔叫她姥姥。(这是表示“称说”的双宾句。This is a double-object sen•



tence meaning “to call”.)



(已经八点多了,他还没起床,)叔叔叫她两次了。(这是带数量补语的主 參

谓句。“两次”是数量补语。This

,



is an S-P sentence with the quantitative

complement “两次”.)



叔叔叫他明天动身。(这是“兼语句' “让”。This is a pivotal sentence.



“叫”是“兼语动词”,相当于

“口” is a “pivot verb”,the same as “让”

here.)

f④我问老师一个问题。(n式双宾句。名词性词组做“远宾语”。动词为“夺”

义。This

is a double-object sentence of Pattern II, with a nominal phrase as the

“direct object”. The verb here means “to get”.)

I

⑤我问老师何时动身。(I式双宾句。动词词组做“远宾语”。“问”是表示 參

“言语活动”的动词。This is a double-object sentence of Pattern I, with a ver¬ bal phrase as the “direct object”. “问” is a verb expressing verbal activity.)

广⑥大家叫她祥林嫂。(这是表7K “称说”的双宾句。This is a sentence with 參

double objects, meaning “to call”.)

^

⑦大家管她叫祥林嫂Q ^

(这是“把”字句的变式,“管”是介词。This is a

variation of the “把” sentence with the preposition “管”.)

广⑧(明天我去长城旅游,)我借他一部相机。(意思是“我”没有相机,向他 參

借。是n式双宾句。动词为“夺”义。

t means “I don’t have a camera, so I

borrowed one from him”. This is a double-object sentence of Pattern II. The verb means “to get’’.)

I⑨(他没有相机,)我借他一部相机。(意思是“我”把相机借给他。是n式 參

双宾句。动词为“予”义。⑧⑨两例中的动词“借”是双向动词。It

means

“I lent my camera to him.” This is a double-object sentence of Pattern II. The verb means “to give”. “借” in the above two examples may mean “to borrow (⑧)



or to lend

(⑨)

天于句式

连谓句

V---

The Sentence with Verbal Constructions in Series 他

推开门

走了。

大家

听了

很兴奋Q

主语

+

动词i

S

+

Vx

+ +

动词2 /形容词性谓语 V2 / Adjectival predicate J

\7

语义关系

V

Semantic relation B

说明

Explanations: A:连谓句是两个或两个以上谓词(即动词或形容词)连用,陈述同一个主语。 參

•參

连用的谓词的先后顺序是固定的,一般不能改变。 The sentence with verbal constructions in series is a sentence in which two or more predicate words (verbs or adjectives) are used in series as the predicates of the same subject. Normally the order of the two predicate words cannot be changed.





安娜去超市买 东西。(• 两个动词共用的主语是 “安娜”:“安娜”去超市, • • • •

“安娜”买东西。“安娜”先“去”,然后“买”,先后顺序不能变。“安

女那”

is the subject of the two verbs:

“ 安娜” goes to the supermarket first, and

then she buys something. The order cannot be changed.)





大家听了很兴奋。 (“听”是动词。 “很兴奋”是形容词性词组。“听” is • • • ••••••

the verb. “很兴奋” is an adjective phrase.)



我去听讲座。



上车买票。(句中主语省略。The

subject of the sentence is omitted.)

163

B: Vi和乂2之间有各种关系: Vj and V2 may have various kinds of relation:

① ②

我们每天去教室上课。(\^2是V〗的目的。V2 is the purpose of Vi.) 參



我游完泳回宿舍。(V,和V2是先后发生的连续动作。Vi and V2 are succes•

•參



sive actions.)

③ ④

老王常躺着看书。(V!表示V2的方式。V,indicates 參

the manner of V2.)



他借了图书馆一本书没还。(、,和%,从正、反面叙述同一件事。V!

and V2

參參



describe the same thing from opposite angles.).



学生们看书看累了。

(V,和V7.表示因果关系。Vi 蠢

and V2 are of cause-effect



relation.)



他们有权发言。⑺是“有”。Vi和乂2有学吁吁疗冷的关系。Vi

is “有,’.Vi

and V2 are of conditional relation.)



你没有资格申请。(Vi®

“没有”。Vi和V2有学吁-疗多的关系。V2 is

“没有”.V! and V2 are of conditional relation.)



他听到这个消息难过得直流泪。(后面的“性状”表示前面动作行为的“结 參

果 ”。The

注意





state that V2 indicates is the result of V。)

Notes:

1.一个句子中的两个谓词之间,如果是联合、偏正、述补、动宾或主谓等语法关

系,那么这不是连谓句: A sentence with two predicate words indicating coordinative, endocentric, complementary, verb-object or subject-predicate relation is not a sentence with verbal constructions in series.



同学们國_皇呈座。(不是连谓句。“团结互助”是动词性联合词组。It not a sentence with verbal constructions in series because “

团结互助”

is

is a co¬

ordinative phrase.)



他吃得都哇了。(不是连谓句。两个动词之间是述补关系。It

is not a sen¬

tence with verbal constructions in series because the verbs are of complementary relation.)



老人喜欢散步。(不是连谓句。两个动词之间是动宾关系。It

is not a sen¬

tence with verbal constructions in series because the verbs are of verb-object rela¬ tion. )

164

关于句式 ④院长派他调查这件事o

(不是连谓句,是兼语句。It is not a sentence with

verbal constructions in series, but a pivotal sentence.) 2. 连谓句的两个谓词之间,应当没有语音停顿;如果有,应当看做是复句。 There should be no phonetic pauses between the two predicate words, and if there is, the sentence should be considered as a complex sentence.



他走过去,把门打开。(不是连谓句。比较:他走过去把门打开。It

is not a

sentence with verbal constructions in series. Compare:他走过去把门打开•)



车上的人都跳了下来,绕到车后,帮忙推车。(不是连谓句。It is not a sentence with verbal constructions in series.)

3. 连谓句的两个谓词之间,不应有“关联词语”;如果有,应当看做是复句的 •

o





“紧缩句”——“紧缩句”是由复句紧缩而成的,“紧”的意思是“紧凑”,指复句的

分句间的语音停顿没有了;

“缩”的意思是“缩减”,指一些词语被压缩掉了。比较:

There should not be any correlatives between the two predicate words, and if there is, the sentence should be considered as a contracted complex sentence. A contracted complex sentence is one which expresses the meaning of a complex sentence in the form of a simple one. “紧” here means

“to omit the phonetic pause between the clauses”,and “缩” means

“to leave out some words”. Please compare:



他坐下来看书。(连谓句。It is a sentence with verbal constructions in series.)



他一坐下来就看书。(表7K假设关系的紧缩句。It is a contracted complex •





_

sentence indicating suppositive relation.)

再如 ①

For example:

咱们说干就干。(表示承接关系的紧缩句。It •



is a contracted complex sen-



tence indicating successive relation.)



能干多少就干多少。(表示假设关系的紧缩句。It is a contracted complex •





sentence indicating suppositive relation.)



他睡了午觉才出去的。(表示承接关系的紧缩句。It is a contracted complex •





sentence indicating successive relation.)



你洗个澡再走吧。(表示承接关系的紧缩句。It is a contracted complex sen•





tence indicating successive relation.)

165

⑤ 安娜想笑又不敢笑。(表示转折关系的紧缩句。It •



is a contracted complex



sentence indicating adversative relation.)



我不睡觉也要做完作业。(表示让步关系的紧缩句。It 參參



is a contracted com-



plex sentence indicating concessive relation.)

兼语句 The Pivotal Sentence 一个句子里有两个动词,第一个动词的宾语同时是第二个动词的主语,这个做宾 •



if-日;tjf丰亭印寧兮亭琴i’,这样的句子就是兼语句。换句话说,兼语句是由

一个动宾词组和一个主谓词组套合在一起组成的,动宾词组里的宾语兼做主谓词组里 的主语。 Of the two verbs in a sentence, the object of the first one is at the same time the subject of the second one. This element, which is used as both the object and the subject in the sen¬ tence, is called the pivot, and the sentences of this kind are known as pivotal sentences. In another word, the pivotal sentence is formed by nesting a verb-object phrase with a subjectpredicate one. The object of the verb-object phrase is at the same time the subject of the subject-predicate phrase.

(我)





来北京。

(我们班)



一个同学

叫安娜Q

主语i Sx

+动词:(词组D +

V^YPO

+ +

+

兼语 Pivot

166

动词2(词组2) v2 (VP2)

兼语句有两种:i.一般(使令)兼语句;n.

“有”字兼语句。

The pivotal sentence has two patterns. Pattern I is the general Pattern II is one with

o

(command)

one and

“有

-般(使令)兼语句 The general (command) pivotal sentence





动词i (词组J Vi(vPi)

出去!

+

兼语

+

动词2 (词组2)

+

pivot

+

V2 (VP2)

J

使令动词 Verb indicating command or request A

说明 I

Explanation I:

A:

一般兼语句,也可以叫“使令”兼语句。在这种句子里,兼语前的动词(VD

都有,就是说,这个动词早¥弓.1寧(y2)

o例如:

“我叫.他.出•去”,“出去”这个动“由•:‘叫•”•这•个•动•作•引-的。•常•用•的.这•样•的动词有 “请”

“叫”

“让”

“使”

“派”

“命令”

“组织”

“发动”

“号召”等。

The general pivotal sentences are also called the “command” pivotal sentences. The verb before the pivot (Vj) indicates request, command, etc. That is to say, this verb can cause the action of the verb after the pivot (V2). For example, in the sentence “我口H tion

“出去”

is caused by the action

令”,“组织”,“发动”

like

ac¬

“请”,“叫”,“让”,“使”,“派”,“命

and “号召” are used very often in pivotal sentences.



妈妈让我洗衣服。



大家选王平当班长。 •

“叫 ”.Verbs

他出去”,the



167

③ 他的话使我很感动。 ④

学校组织留学生去长城。



这件他懂得+—个道理。

注意 I









Notes I:



1. 否定词、能愿动词一般要放在第一个动词(V,)前。例如: A negative adverb or an auxiliary verb is normally placed before the first verb

(Vj), for

example:



我不请朋友看电影。



老师没让我们写作业。







公司可能派他去中国。 •





我们想请他来作报告。 參

2. 否定词“别”放在第一个动词(V,)或第二个动词(V2)前都可以,但表示的 參

意思不太一样。例如: The negative adverb “另can be placed before either the first verb (V!)

or the sec-

ond verb (V2), but the meanings are a little different, for example:



你别叫他去北京了。(意思是“你不要叫他去北京了”。It means “Don’t ask him to go to Beijing.”)



你叫他别去北京了。(意思是“你告诉他不要去北京了”。It means “Tell 參

him not to go to Beijing.”) 3. 兼语句有时和连动句同时出现在一个句子里,形成比较复杂的句式。例如: Sometimes a pivotal sentence may take a verbal construction in series to make the sen¬ tence complex, for example:



老师叫我去办公室取HSK的成绩。(整句是兼语句/ “叫”是兼语(使令) 參



动词。这个兼语句里又包含了一个连动句“去办公室取HSK的成绩”。The sentence is a pivotal sentence.“口H ” is the pivotal (command) verb. The pivotal sentence has a sentence with verbal constructions in series.)



妈妈让女儿跟她一起上街买东西。 •



168

请他快来开会。



.

“有”字兼语句

®

The “有” pivotal sentence



有 动词i(词组J Vi (VPi)

跳水!

+

兼语

+

+

Pivot

+

动词2(词组2) v2 (VP2)

表的名词 或代词 Noun or pronoun of personal reference C

说明 n

Explanations II:

B:这种兼语句中的第一个动词(V!)是“有”或“没有”。 •

The first verb (V]) of this kind of pivotal sentence is





“有 ” or “、没有,’.

c:兼语一般是表示“人”的名词或代词。例如: The pivot is normally a noun or a pronoun of personal reference,for example:



楼下有人找你。



我有个朋友说汉语说得非常好。 •





教室已经有人打扫过了。



我们班没有人去过法国。 參



今天没有人迟到。

The Existential Sentence 表示人或事物f辛、半f或增年的动词谓语句叫存现句。这种句子可分为三类:

I.存在句;n.出现句;n.消失句。 A sentence that indicates the existence, appearance or disappearance of a thing or per¬ son is known as an existential sentence. Existential sentences can be classified into three kinds: Pattern I. sentences indicating existence, Pattern

II.

sentences indicating appearance

and pattern El. sentences indicating disappearance.

o存在句

Sentences indicating existence

窗台上





盆花 o

处所词语

+

动词



+

宾语

Noun of place

+

V

曹,

+

O

f

数量名词组

\7 句子幵头

r必要、

At the beginning

Necessary

of the sentence

B

V

J

V_

A numeral-measure

phrase _J ^_____J

\7

V

'必要、

'

Necessary A v___J



l

不确指性 Indefiniteness

C

"

J

wmmm

mmm 说明

五关于句式

Explanations I:

I

A:句子开头一定要有表示处所的词语,否则句子就不成立。这是存在句的结构

特点。 As the structural feature of the sentence, a noun or phrase of place must be placed at the beginning of an existential sentence.



大楼门口挂着两块牌子。



教室里坐着两个人。/*坐着两个人。



里屋的窗台上摆着几盆花。/ *摆着几盆花。

B:动词后面一般要有动态助词“着”。 The aspectual particle “着” is normally attached to the verb.



墙上挂着一幅画。



沙发上躺着一个人。/ *沙发上躺一个人。



口袋里装着许多玩具。/* 口袋里装许多玩具。

C:宾语一般是数量名词组,往往表示不确定的人或事物。 Normally the object is a numeral-measure phrase indicating an indefinite thing or person.



桌子上放着一本书。/*桌子上放着这本书。(“一本书”是不确定的,不

确指的;“这本书”是确定的,确指的。“一本书”

is indefinite; “这本书”

is definite.)



大厅里摆着三张桌子。/ *大厅里摆着这三张桌子。(“三张桌子”是不确定

的,不确指的;“这三张桌子”是确定的,确指的。“三张桌子” nite;

注意 I

“这三张桌子”

isindefi-

is definite.)

Note I:

存在句有两种类型: The sentences indicating existence can be classified into two types:

171

静态存在句 ES indicating a static state

例句 Examples

① 衣架上挂着一件黑呢子大衣。 ② 大门口蹲着两只狗。 ③ 树上有一只鸟。(特殊A special

动态存在句 ES indicating a dynamic state

case)

动词不表示动作,只表示存在的方式。 • • • • The verb does not indicate an action but the

① 天上飞着几只鸟。 ② 楼顶上飘着一面红旗。 ③ 河里漂着两只船。

动词表示动作,而且都是持续性动词。 • • • • • The verb indicates a continuous action.

manner of existence.

“着”不能换成“了”。 着—了

(“着”换成“了”,意思不变。“着” “着”

is replaced by

“了”

without changing the mean¬

ing.)

例如 特点

For example:

墙上挂着/ 了一幅画。

Features

cannot be replaced by “了”.

例如

For example:



天上飞着两只鸟。



*天上飞了两只鸟。



鸟笼里飞了两只鸟。(表“消失” Indicating disappearance)

“着”不表示动作进行,只表示静止的状态。 • •

“着” indicates only the static state, not the action.

“着”表示动作正在进行。 • 參 “着”

indicates the action is on-going.

用动词“有”时,后面不能加 “着”。(否定 • 式为“没有”。) “着”

cannot be used after the verb “有”。(The

negative form is

172

不能用“有”。 “没有”•)

“有” cannot be used.

五关于句式

o

出现句 Sentences indicating appearance

胡同里

来了

工厂门口

(一)个卖西瓜的



從所词语/时间词语)+ (Noun of place / time)

+

过去

一队学生。

趋向动词

+

宾语

Directional verb

+

O

ttfc所词语/时间词语)+动词

+

趋向动词

+

宾语

(Noun of place / time)

+

Directional verb

+

O

f

不一定有

+

V

^

A

Not necessary D

v

数量名词组

'

"

A numeral-measure phrase

J

\7

不确指性 V

说明

Indefiniteness

___

Explanation II:

n

D:出现句的句子开头,一般也有处所词语,但不是非有不可。另外,处所词语和

时间词语可以同时并用。例如: Normally the sentence indicating appearance begins with a noun of place, but the noun of place is not always necessary. A noun of time can be used together with the noun of place, for example:



楼上下来两个女生。(句子开头有处所词语。The

sentence begins with a

noun of place.)



上个星期来了一名新同学。(句子开头没有处所词语。There

is no noun or

phrase of place at the beginning.)

173

③ 远远地走过来一个人。(句子开头没有处所词语。There

is no noun or phrase

of place at the beginning.)



昨天教室里发生了一件不愉快的事情。(处所词语和时间词语并用。A noun of time is used together with a noun of place.)

®消失句 Sentences indicating disappearance

教室





四把椅子

鸟笼里





两只鸟。

⑽所词语/时间词语)+ (Noun of place / time)

f

+

动词

+

“了”

+

宾语

V

+

“了”

+

O

\7_

不一定有

\7

>

\7

_

'必要\ Necessary

Not necessary



E

数量名词组

'

"

A numeral-measure phrase

J

\7

.

不确指性 Indefiniteness

\_

说明DI

_/

Explanation III:

E:表示“消失”的句子,动词后要带“了”。例如: The verb of the sentence indicating disappearance must be followed by example:

J①桌子上少了 一个茶杯。 t②*桌子上少着一个茶杯。 參

174

“了,’,for

五关于句式 ③ 羊圈里跑了几只羊。(这是“消失句”,意思是羊圈里丢失了几只羊。It is a

“sentence indicating disappearance”,which means several sheep have been

lost.)



羊圈里跑着几只羊。(这是“存在句”,意思是有几只羊正在羊圈里跑。It 參

is a

“sentence indicating existence”,which means several sheep are running in

the sheep pen.)



羊圈外边跑过去几只羊。(这是“出现句”,意思是有几只羊跑着经过羊圈 參

夕卜边。It

is a



“sentence indicating appearance”,which means several sheep are

running past the sheep pen.)

The Construction “除了

以外

“除了”是介词,常和“以外”连用,表示不寸等辛有两种用法: “除了,’ is a preposition and is often used together with “ 以夕卜 ” to express the meaning of “with the exception of” or “except”. It has two usages:

大家都

小王,

❹除了

来了

O

表示排除 “除了”

(“以外,,),

“都”

〉Expressing except A

说明

I

Explanation I:

A:整个句子表示“排除”义。 •



The whole sentence expresses the meaning of “with the exception of” or “except”.



除了我以外,别人都没答对这个问题。



除了他,别人都去桂林旅游了。



老陈觉得,除了工作,其他事都不重要。

175

学汉语

f,除了

以外,



还学韩语和日语。 表示

“除了”… …(“以外,’),… …‘‘还”.…"[ (“也”)

Expressing in addition to or besides B

说明 n

Explanation II:

B:整个句子表示“补充 ”义。 • • The whole sentence expresses the meaning of “in addition to” or “besides”.



除了田中以外,山下也是曰本同学。



暑假里,除了西安,我还去了上海、南京和苏州。



大部分同学学习都很努力,除了课上认真听讲,课下也认真复习、预习

越来越 The Constructions “越来越.” and “越.越.” 这两个句式都表示事物的程度由于某种原因的影响而加深,但具体的意思和用法 有所不同。 They both indicate that the degree of something is being intensified for some reason. But they have specific meanings and different usages.

越来越……

o

The construction “越来越

越来越

天气



了。

“越来越”

+形容词

(+ “ 了”)

“越来越”

+

(+ “ 了”)

Adj

V

^_SZ_v f性质形容_' Property adjective

176

->A J

五关于句式

说明 I

Explanation I:

A:这个格式表示程度随时间的变化而发展。例如: The construction “越来越” indicates that degree develops as time goes by, for example:



她越来越漂亮了。 參





安娜的汉语说得越来越好了。



人们的生活水平越来越高。



我希望世界越来越和平。







❿M……越…… The construction “越.越.”









大。

身体



不好



要锻炼。

“越”

+

“越”

+

动词/形容词 (动作或状态) V / Adj

+

“越”

+

+

“越”

+

(Action or state)

动词/形容词 (动作或状态) V/Adj (Action or state)

“后”随“前”变 The latter changes with the former

B \_:_/

说明 n

Explanation II:

B:这个格式表示,第二个“越”后面的“动作或状态”是随第一个“越”后面

的“动作或状态”的变化而变化的。两个“动作或状态”的主语可以一致,也可以不 • ••••• 參 •參參 一致。例如: •



This structure indicates that the the “action or state” after the first

“越

“action or state” after the second “越” changes with The two actions or states may share the same sub¬

ject or have different subjects, for example:

177

① 你越忙越应该注意休息。(主语一致:你—忙/你—应该注意休息。 參



With the same subject:你