Renaissance Florence 9780520049192, 9780520046955

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the city of Florence experienced the most creative period in her entire histo

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Renaissance Florence
 9780520049192, 9780520046955

Table of contents :
List of Maps and Illustrations (page xii)
Two THE ECONOMY (page 51)
Three THE PATRICIATE (page 89)
Four POLITICS (page 128)
Six CULTURE (page 213)
Bibliography and Notes (page 281)
Notes on Florentine Scholarship (page 301)
Bibliographical Supplement (page 305)
Index (page 313)

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Renaissance Florence



University of California Press Berkeley, Los Angeles, London

University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California Press Ltd. London, England

Copyright © 1969, by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Supplements copyright © 1983, by the Regents of the University of California ISBN 0-520-04695-1 paper 0-520-04919-5 cloth Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 8240097 Printed in the United States of America

89 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences— Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984.



A book on Renaissance Florence does not require an elaborate justification. But the particular form of this study reflects certain interests and prejudices of the author, for which the reader deserves an explanation. This book is not a survey of Florentine Renaissance history, although I have attempted to describe the main outlines of that story from the time of Dante (1265-1321) to the age of Machiavelli, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo in the early sixteenth century. I have concentrated upon one segment of that two-century span, the years between 1380 and 1450, often described by historians as the “early Renaissance.” These years witnessed significant changes in the patterns and configurations of Florentine experience, most distinctly in the cultural sphere, but also in social and political institutions, in attitudes and values.

Save for the final section, the epilogue, the chapters treat substantive topics which have been carved, somewhat arbitrarily, out of the total context of Florentine history. The beginning chapter on the physical city—-which examines Florence as a complex of buildings, streets, and monuments— is followed by chapters which analyze the city’s economic life, social and political structures, and, finally, religious and cultural phenomena. Inevitably,

this format does violence to the reality of human experience, vil

viii Preface which is never organized so neatly. I have sought to minimize the effects of these artificial divisions by tracing connections between the various dimensions and by suggesting causal relationships.

In writing this book, I have been selective and specific rather than comprehensive and general. Each chapter contains an introductory section, which summarizes the background; I have then selected particular themes to define and illustrate the subject, analyzing, for example, the problems of the woolen cloth industry and the international merchant in the chapter on the Floren-

tine economy. While this selectivity does permit a relatively thorough and detailed examination of particular issues, it has forced me to ignore, or to treat very sketchily, other significant | facets of the city’s history. Two particularly important subjects which have been slighted are the rural hinterland surrounding the city, and the urban poor. It is natural for the historian to _ focus his attention upon the rich and the powerful, upon that patrician class which dominated Florence’s economy and govern-

ment, her religious and cultural life. The evidence concerning this urban aristocracy is more extensive than the surviving fragments of information about the lower strata of Florentine society: the artisans and shopkeepers, the wage laborers in the textile factories, the denizens of the underworld. The historical role of these urban “underprivileged” and their rustic cousins in the outlying areas deserves more careful study than it has hitherto received.

Much of the book’s illustrative material I found in the Florentine Archivio di Stato, that vast and wondrously rich depository of historical debris, which is housed in the lower floors of the

Uffizi Palace. For the early chapters (those dedicated to economic, social, and political developments), I have relied heavily upon archival documents. While I have consulted, and profited from, the writings of scholars who have worked in these areas, both my evidence and my conclusions derive largely from the sources. These chapters represent a summary of a more detailed

and comprehensive analysis of Florentine politics and their so- | cial context between 1380 and 1434, for which I have been gather-

ing material during the past decade. In those areas of Florentine

history where my knowledge is meager, I have been more de- ~

Preface ix pendent upon secondary studies (where they exist) and upon the fragmentary gleanings of my research, in those fields which have not been thoroughly explored.


Princeton, New Jersey, March 1969

Appended to this edition are Notes on Florentine Scholarship and a Bibliographic Supplement. 1983

CONTENTS List of Maps and Illustrations, xii



Four POLITICS, 128

Five THE CHURCH AND THE FAITH, 172 | Six CULTURE, 213 Epilogue THE LAST YEARS OF THE REPUBLIC, 256 Bibliography and Notes, 281

Notes on Florentine Scholarship, 301

Index, 313 | Bibliographical Supplement, 305


Cathedral 14 della Signoria 15

View of Florence from Fiesole 2 Palazzo della Signoria and the Piazza

Detail of Bigallo fresco 16 Ponte Vecchio 17

Old Market prior to demolition 17

Volta dei Girolami 18 Piazza of S. Spirito 19 Porta S. tower Giorgio| 20 19 Donati Davanzati Palace | 21 Foundling Hospital 34 S. Lorenzo, interior 35 Medici Palace on the Via Cavour 37

Masolino, detail from Brancacci chapel

fresco, S. Maria del Carmine 40

Donatello, bust of Niccolo da

Uzzano (Museo Nazionale ) — «96

Verrocchio, bust of Cosimo de’ Medici 120 Wedding scene from Adimari cassone

(Museo Nazionale ) 122, 123 S. Trinita, interior 195

Donatello, St. George (Museo Nazionale) 245

Masaccio, Trinity (S. Maria Novella) | 247

Gentile da Fabriano,

Strozzi Palace 264 Botticelli, Primavera (Uffizi) 266

Adoration of the Magi ( Uffizi ) 251

The Execution of Savonarola in the

Piazza della Signoria 271 xii |


Tuscany X1V City Plan of Florence in the Fifteenth Century 9


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In 1400, a traveler approaching Florence along the main roads did not encounter that striking view of the city and its environs which is so admired today. Winding through the steep hills north of the Arno river, the road from Bologna offers some impressive glimpses, but the view is truncated by the ridges which protrude like fingers into the plain. The ideal vantage point was Fiesole, the hill town overlooking Florence from the north. From that elevation, one could enjoy an unobstructed view of the entire city, and also of the Arno valley stretching westward to the sea. Visible too were the particular features of this urban complex: the walls and towers, the river and its bridges, the network of roads which had given birth and nourishment to Florence, the countryside which was linked to the city by a thousand bonds. Florence's river location, some fifty miles from the Mediterranean Sea, was her most distinctive physical feature. Most Tuscan towns of any size—Siena, Volterra, Cortona, $. Gimignano— are located on hilltops, from which they dominate the surrounding plain. Centuries of political disorder following the barbarian


invasions had dictated the site of these hill towns, which were more easily defended than settlements in the lowlands. With the sole exception of Pisa, a port city, the lower Arno valley did not attract large urban concentrations in the Middle Ages. The plain was swampy, poorly drained, and vulnerable to floods, and not until the late thirteenth century was it reduced to the condi-

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    38 Renaissance Florence by Vasari, he constructed a palace model for Cosimo de’ Medici,

    who rejected it on the grounds that it was too sumptuous and grandiose. But Michelozzo, whom Cosimo hired to build his house

    on the Via Larga (now Via Cavour), incorporated many of Brunelleschi’s ideas in his plan. Like all Florentine Renaissance palaces, this building was based upon the traditional form ex-

    emplified by the Davanzati palace of the late fourteenth century. Structurally, the differences between the Davanzati and the Medici palaces are minor, but architecturally, they are highly

    significant. Order, harmony, and spaciousness had been the articulated goals of Florentine planners for more than a century; in the Medici palace and in the interior of S. Lorenzo, these objectives were realized. PEOPLE

    Surviving buildings and monuments help us to visualize the physical character of Renaissance Florence, but they contribute little to our knowledge of the city as a stage for human activity. From contemporary works of art and literature, one receives glimpses, vignettes, fleeting impressions of the human scene, but the images are usually blurred, not sharp and clear. In the fresco cycle devoted to the life of St. Peter in S. Maria del Carmine, Masolino painted a Florentine street scene with a square and its adjacent houses. The architectural details are reproduced with great accuracy and fidelity, but the scene is stylized and artificial: it lacks the human dimension. The square is nearly deserted; except for the Biblical characters, one sees only two

    | elegantly dressed aristocrats and a few isolated figures in the distant background. During the hours of daylight, the streets of Renaissance Florence were crowded, pulsating with activity and movement. Today, the characteristic qualities of public life in that past age are most visible not in Florence with its tourist crowds and its normally sedate atmosphere but in the popular quarters of southern Italian cities, in Rome’s Trastevere or the Spacca of Naples. Life in the Renaissance city was regulated by the sun. After

    the gates were closed and the curfew imposed at sunset, no unauthorized persons were allowed in the streets. Officials pos-

    The Renaissance City 39 sessed. special licenses which allowed them to circulate at night,

    but except for these privileged citizens, and the members of the police watch, the streets were empty from dusk to dawn. Nocturnal crime was quite rare. For offenses committed during curfew hours, the statutes prescribed double penalties. But this was probably a lesser deterrent than the walls and fettered gates,

    which prevented escape from the city, and the locked doors of

    shops and houses, which limited the opportunity for thievery | and assault.

    Dawn was heralded by the peal of church bells and the opening of the gates, which restored the city’s communication

    with the outside world. Passing through the gates first were peasants from local farms driving their donkey carts laden with © produce for the markets. Mingling in the streets with the carts and pack animals were devout souls hurrying to early mass, and

    the stragglers who had chosen to drink and gamble all night rather than risk a fine for violating the curfew. Morning mass was a major social event as well as a religious ceremony in the Florentine day. In those relaxed moments after the consecration of the Host and before the day’s routine began, men could discuss political events informally, exchange fragments of news which had arrived from abroad, and even settle business transactions. For respectable Florentine ladies, the mass was a precious interlude of freedom in a cloistered day, which allowed few opportunities to escape from the confines of home and domestic burdens.

    As the sun moved higher above the hills on the eastern horizon, the tempo of activity and the volume of sound in the streets increased. From the working class districts of S. Frediano and

    Camaldoli came the laborers who toiled from sunup to sun- | down in the cloth factories. Others hurried along the streets to begin their day’s work in the retail clothing shops along the Calimala, or in the goldsmiths’ botteghe in the Via delle Oche. From the dark interiors of the armorers and blacksmiths’ shops came the smoke of fires lit in the forges, and the first clangs of hammer against anvil, which resounded throughout the day. By mid-morning, the narrow streets were clogged with men and animals. Peasants with empty carts were returning to their farms; merchants from Pisa and Bologna were bringing cargoes of cloth

    e . e . e delivering consi t f | d ff

    40 Renaissa Flo

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