A sourcebook on the Roman lifestyle and Roman history, from the kingdoms to the Empire.
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The "domus" (household) was the basic unit of Roman society. This sourcebook illustrates the activities associ
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A selection of the most important sources for the cultural and political context of the early Roman Empire and the New T
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Since the publication of Foucault's History of Sexuality the volume of Classical scholarship on gender, sexuality a
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In this volume the author presents a full study of the topography and landscape of Roman Dacia (roughly present-day nort
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In this new edition of Greek and Roman Technology, the authors translate and annotate key passages from ancient texts to
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Ancient Egypt, based on articles Kees wrote for the great German classical dictionary, is nothing less than an all-embra
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In this volume the authors translate and annotate key passages from ancient authors to provide a history and an analysis
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The years from the battle of Actium to the death of Nero stand at the very heart of Roman history. Yet the sources of th
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This book makes available to students and other nonspecialists a varied collection of over three hundred translated text
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REMUS A SOURCE BOOK FOR ROMAN TOPOGRAPHY ST. STEPHEN’S SCHOOL THE AVENTINE ROME
“Romulus accordingly selected the Palatine as his station for observation, Remus the Aventine.”
Livy, History of Rome 1, 9
Topography Detailed, precise description of a place or region. Graphic representation of the surface features of a place or region on a map, indicating their relative positions and elevations. The surface features of a place or region.
Taken from “topography.” YourDictionary.com. American Heritage Dictionary, 2017. 21 Aug 2017. yourdictionary.com/topography#americanheritage.
1. Map of Rome from Platner, S.B. The Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome. 1911. By Joris, via Wikimedia Commons.
History What has happened in the life or development of a people, country, institution, etc. All recorded events of the past. The branch of knowledge that deals systematically with the past; a recording, analyzing, correlating, and explaining of past events.
Taken from “history.” YourDictionary.com. Webster’s New World College Dictionary, 2017. 21 Aug 2017. yourdictionary.com/history#websters.
2. Quote on history by Theodore Roosevelt. “History Quotes The More YOu Know About The Past The Better Prepared You ARe For The Future.” Picsmine, 2016, 1. picsmine.com/47-best-historyquotes-sayings-pictures/history-quotes-the-more-you-know-aboutthe-past-the-better-prepared-you-are-for-the-future .
Archaeology The scientific study of the life and culture of past, esp. ancient, peoples, as by excavation of ancient cities, artifacts, etc.
Taken from “archaeology.” YourDictionary.com. Webster’s New World College Dictionary, 2017. 21 Aug 2017. www.yourdictionary.com/archaeology#websters.
3. Pope, Helen. “St Stephen’s students excavating in Cetamura, Chianti.” May 2016.
Primary and Secondary Sources Taken from “Primary Sources - CEE 262: Structures and the Urban Environment LibGuides at Princeton University.” Princeton University, The Trustees of Princeton University, 2016. 21 Aug 2017. libguides.princeton.edu/cee262/primary_sources.
What is a primary source? A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. These sources were present during an experience or time period and offer an inside view of a particular event. Some types of primary sources include: • ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (excerpts or translations acceptable): Diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, autobiographies, official records •
CREATIVE WORKS: Poetry, drama, novels, music, art
RELICS OR ARTIFACTS: Pottery, furniture, clothing, buildings
Examples of primary sources include: • Livy’s History of Rome •
Pliny the Younger’s Letters
Basilica Julia in the Roman Forum
Pottery fragments or coins found during an archaeological excavation
What is a secondary source? A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them. Some types of seconday sources include: * PUBLICATIONS: Textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias
Examples of secondary sources include: * A journal/magazine article which interprets or reviews previous findings * A history textbook like Scarre’s Chronicle of the Roman Emperors * A book about Augustan culture
Roman Primary Sources a. Written sources Livy, History of Rome 1, 1 Now, if any nation ought to be allowed to claim a sacred origin and point back to a divine paternity that nation is Rome. For such is her renown in war that when she chooses to represent Mars as her own and her founder’s father, the nations of the world accept the statement with the same equanimity with which they accept her dominion.
b. Inscriptions (epigraphy)
4. Epitaph of Quintius Comicus. Capitoline Museums, Rome. Thayer, Bill. “I Lived With Her Thirty Years.” LacusCurtius, 26 Jan. 2004, penelope.uchicago.edu.
5. Dog mosaic from House of Orpheus, Pompeii; now in National Archaeological Museum, Naples. Nguyen, Marie.Lan. “Casa Di Orfeo.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Sept. 2011.
6. Acqua Claudia, Rome. “Acquedotto Claudio.” By Chris 73, by Wikimedia Commons.
7. Roman pottery - foot-shaped lamp. “Roman Pottery Foot-Shaped Lamp.” By AgTigress, via Wikipedia Commons.
f. Coins (numismatics)
8. Denarius of Julius Caesar, 49 BC. “CaesarElephant.” By Alexandar.R.~commonswiki, via Wikimedia Commons.
Legendary History Livy, History of Rome 1, 1 - 7 1 To begin with, it is generally admitted that after the capture of Troy, whilst the rest of the Trojans were massacred, against two of them - Aeneas and Antenor - the Achivi refused to exercise the rights of war, partly owing to old ties of hospitality, and partly because these men had always been in favour of making peace and surrendering Helen. Their subsequent fortunes were different. Antenor sailed into the furthest part of the Adriatic, accompanied by a number of Enetians who had been driven from Paphlagonia by a revolution, and after losing their king Pylaemenes before Troy were looking for a settlement and a leader. The combined force of Enetians and Trojans defeated the Euganei, who dwelt between the sea and the Alps and occupied their land. The place where they disembarked was called Troy, and the name was extended to the surrounding district; the whole nation were called Veneti. Similar misfortunes led to Aeneas becoming a wanderer, but the Fates were preparing a higher destiny for him. He first visited Macedonia, then was carried down to Sicily in quest of a settlement; from Sicily he directed his course to the Laurentian territory. Here, too, the name of Troy is found, and here the Trojans disembarked, and as their almost infinite wanderings had left them nothing but their arms and their ships, they began to plunder the neighbourhood. The Aborigines, who occupied the country, with their king Latinus at their head, came hastily together from the city and the country districts to repel the inroads of the strangers by force of arms.
9. Aeneas leaves Troy with his father Anchises and son Ascanius. By Unknown - Ottův slovník naučný, vol. 1, p. 541, Public Domain, 1 Jan. 1888, via Wikimedia Commons.
landed in Latinus’ territory. When he heard that the men were Trojans, that their leader was Aeneas, the son of Anchises and Venus, that their city had been burnt, and that the homeless exiles were now looking for a place to settle in and build a city, he was so struck with the noble bearing of the men and their leader, and their readiness to accept alike either peace or war, that he gave his right hand as a solemn pledge of friendship for the future. A formal treaty was made between the leaders and mutual greetings exchanged between the armies. Latinus received Aeneas as a guest in his house, and there, in the presence of his tutelary deities, completed the political alliance by a domestic one, and gave his daughter in marriage to Aeneas. This incident From this point there is a twofold confirmed the Trojans in the hope that they tradition. According to the one, Latinus had reached the term of their wanderings and was defeated in battle, and made peace with won a permanent home. They built a town, Aeneas, and subsequently a family alliance. which Aeneas called Lavinium after his wife. According to the other, whilst the two armies In a short time a boy was born of the new were standing ready to engage and waiting for marriage, to whom his parents gave the name the signal, Latinus advanced in front of his of Ascanius. lines and invited the leader of the strangers 2 In a short time the Aborigines and Trojans to a conference. He inquired of him what became involved in war with Turnus, the king manner of men they were, whence they came, of the Rutulians. Lavinia had been betrothed what had happened to make them leave their to him before the arrival of Aeneas, and, furious homes, what were they in quest of when they 10
at finding a stranger preferred to him, he declared war against both Latinus and Aeneas. Neither side could congratulate themselves on the result of the battle; the Rutulians were defeated, but the victorious Aborigines and Trojans lost their leader Latinus. Feeling their need of allies, Turnus and the Rutulians had recourse to the celebrated power of the Etruscans and Mezentius, their king, who was reigning at Caere, a wealthy city in those days. From the first he had felt anything but pleasure at the rise of the new city, and now he regarded the growth of the Trojan state as much too rapid to be safe to its neighbours, so he welcomed the proposal to join forces with the Rutulians. To keep the Aborigines from abandoning him in the face of this strong coalition and to secure their being not only under the same laws, but also the same designation, Aeneas called both nations by the common name of Latins. From that time the Aborigines were not behind the Trojans in their loyal devotion to Aeneas. So great was the power of Etruria that the renown of her people had filled not only the inland parts of Italy but also the coastal districts along the whole length of the land from the Alps to the Straits of Messina. Aeneas, however, trusting to the loyalty of the two nations who were day by day growing into one, led his forces into the field, instead of awaiting the enemy
10. Woodcut for German translation of Giovanni Boccaccio’s De mulieribus claris, ca. 1474. “Woodcut Illustration of Ascanius Greeting His Stepbrother Silvius (Left) and Lavinia with Her Newborn Son Silvius (Right) - Penn Provenance Project.” Wikimedia Commons, 18 Nov. 2015.
behind his walls. The battle resulted in favour of the Latins, but it was the last mortal act of Aeneas. His tomb - whatever it is lawful and right to call him - is situated on the bank of the Numicius. He is addressed as “Jupiter Indiges.” 3 His son, Ascanius, was not old enough to assume the government; but his throne remained secure throughout his minority. During that interval - such was Lavinia’s force of character - though a woman was regent, the Latin State, and the kingdom of his father and grandfather, were preserved unimpaired for her son. I will not discuss the question - for who could speak decisively about a matter of such extreme antiquity? - whether the man whom the Julian house claim, under the name of Iulus, as the founder of their name, was this Ascanius or an older one than he, born of Creusa, whilst Ilium was still intact, and after its fall a sharer in his father’s fortunes. This Ascanius, where ever born, or of whatever mother - it is generally agreed in any case that he was the son of Aeneas - left to his mother (or his stepmother) the city of Lavinium, which was for those days a prosperous and wealthy city, with a superabundant population, and built a new city at the foot of the Alban hills, which from its position, stretching along the side of the hill, was called “Alba Longa.” An interval of thirty years elapsed between the foundation of Lavinium and the colonisation of Alba Longa. Such had been the growth of the Latin power, mainly through the defeat of the Etruscans, that neither at the death of Aeneas, nor during the regency of Lavinia, nor during the immature years of the reign of Ascanius, did either Mezentius and the Etruscans or any other of their neighbours venture to attack them. When terms of peace were being arranged, the river Albula, now called the Tiber, had been fixed as the boundary between the Etruscans and the Latins. Ascanius was succeeded by his son Silvius, who by some chance had been born in the forest. He became the father of Aeneas Silvius, who in his turn had a son, Latinus Silvius. He planted a number of colonies: the colonists were called Prisci Latini. The cognomen of Silvius was common to all the remaining kings 11
of Alba, each of whom succeeded his father. Their names are Alba, Atys, Capys, Capetus, Tiberinus, who was drowned in crossing the Albula, and his name transferred to the river, which became henceforth the famous Tiber. Then came his son Agrippa, after him his son Romulus Silvius. He was struck by lightning and left the crown to his son Aventinus, whose shrine was on the hill which bears his name and is now a part of the city of Rome. He was succeeded by Proca, who had two sons, Numitor and Amulius. To Numitor, the elder, he bequeathed the ancient throne of the Silvian house. Violence, however, proved stronger than either the father’s will or the respect due to the brother’s seniority; for Amulius expelled his brother and seized the crown. Adding crime to crime, he murdered his brother’s sons and made the daughter, Rea Silvia, a Vestal virgin; thus, under the presence of honouring her, depriving her of all hopes of issue.
suck and was so gentle towards them that the king’s flock-master found her licking the boys with her tongue. According to the story, his name was Faustulus. He took the children to his hut and gave them to his wife Larentia to bring up. Some writers think that Larentia, from her unchaste life, had got the nickname of “She-wolf ” amongst the shepherds, and that this was the origin of the marvellous story. As soon as the boys, thus born and thus brought up, grew to be young men they did not neglect their pastoral duties, but their special delight was roaming through he woods on hunting expeditions. As their strength and courage were thus developed, they used not only to lie in wait for fierce beasts of prey, but 4 But the Fates had, I believe, already decreed they even attacked 11. Antoninus Pius, 140A.D., Rome. AE the origin of this great city and the foundation brigands when loaded As. Mars seducing Vestal Virgin Rhea of the mightiest empire under heaven. The with plunder. They Silvia. The VRoma Project. Vestal was forcibly violated and gave birth to distributed what they twins. She named Mars as their father, either took amongst the shepherds, with whom, because she really believed it, or because the surrounded by a continually increasing body fault might appear less heinous if a deity were of young men, they associated themselves in the cause of it. their serious undertakings and in their sports But neither gods nor men sheltered her or and pastimes. her babes from the king’s cruelty; the priestess was thrown into prison, the boys were ordered 5 It is said that the festival of the Lupercalia, to be thrown into the river. By a heaven- which is still observed, was even in those sent chance it happened that the Tiber was days celebrated on the Palatine hill. This hill then overflowing its banks, and stretches of was originally called Pallantium from a city standing water prevented any approach to of the same name in Arcadia; the name was the main channel. Those who were carrying afterwards changed to Palatium. Evander, an the children expected that this stagnant water Arcadian, had held that territory many ages would be sufficient to drown them, so under before, and had introduced an annual festival the impression that they were carrying out from Arcadia in which young men ran about the king’s orders they exposed the boys at the naked for sport and wantonness, in honour nearest point of the overflow, where the Ficus of the Lycaean Pan, whom the Romans Ruminalis (said to have been formerly called afterwards called Inuus. The existence of Romularis) now stands. The locality was then a this festival was widely recognised, and it wild solitude. The tradition goes on to say that was while the two brothers were engaged after the floating cradle in which the boys had in it that the brigands, enraged at losing been exposed had been left by the retreating their plunder, ambushed them. Romulus water on dry land, a thirsty she-wolf from the successfully defended himself, but Remus was surrounding hills, attracted by the crying of the taken prisoner and brought before Amulius, children, came to them, gave them her teats to his captors impudently accusing him of their 12
own crimes. The principal charge brought against them was that of invading Numitor’s lands with a body of young men whom they had got together, and carrying off plunder as though in regular warfare. Remus accordingly was handed over to Numitor for punishment. Faustulus had from the beginning suspected that it was royal offspring that he was bringing up, for he was aware that the boys had been exposed at the king’s command and the time at which he had taken them away exactly corresponded with that of their exposure. He had, however, refused to divulge the matter prematurely, until either a fitting opportunity occurred or necessity demanded its disclosure. The necessity came first. Alarmed for the safety of Remus he revealed the state of the case to Romulus. It so happened that Numitor also, who had Remus in his custody, on hearing that he and his brother were twins and comparing their ages and the character and bearing so unlike that of one in a servile condition, began to recall the memory of his grandchildren, and further inquiries brought him to the same conclusion as Faustulus; nothing was wanting to the recognition of Remus. So the king Amulius was being enmeshed on all sides by hostile purposes. Romulus shrunk from a
direct attack with his body of shepherds, for he was no match for the king in open fight. They were instructed to approach the palace by different routes and meet there at a given time, whilst from Numitor’s house Remus lent his assistance with a second band he had collected. The attack succeeded and the king was killed. 6 At the beginning of the fray, Numitor gave out that an enemy had entered the City and was attacking the palace, in order to draw off the Alban soldiery to the citadel, to defend it. When he saw the young men coming to congratulate him after the assassination, he at once called a council of his people and explained his brother’s infamous conduct towards him, the story of his grandsons, their parentage and bringing up, and how he recognised them. Then he proceeded to inform them of the tyrant’s death and his responsibility for it. The young men marched in order through the midst of the assembly and saluted their grandfather as king; their action was approved by the whole population, who with one voice ratified the title and sovereignty of the king. After the government of Alba was thus transferred to Numitor,
12. Floor mosaic from Frikya, Maarat an-Numan Museum (Sean Leatherbury/Manar al-Athar). The ASOR Blog.
were seized with the desire of building a city in the locality where they had been exposed. There was the superfluous population of the Alban and Latin towns, to these were added the shepherds: it was natural to hope that with all these Alba would be small and Lavinium small in comparison with the city which was to be founded. These pleasant anticipations were disturbed by the ancestral curse - ambition which led to a deplorable quarrel over what was at first a trivial matter. As they were twins and no claim to precedence could be based on seniority, they decided to consult the tutelary 13. Romulus and Remus, disputing over the founding of Rome, deities of the place by means of augury as to consult the augurs, engraving by Giambattista Fontana, 1575, who was to give his name to the new city, and Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco. who was to rule it after it had been founded. Romulus accordingly selected the Palatine on his strength, and captivated by the beauty as his station for observation, Remus the of the oxen, determined to secure them. If he drove them before him into the cave, their Aventine. hoof-marks would have led their owner on his 7 Remus is said to have been the first to receive search for them in the same direction, so he an omen: six vultures appeared to him. The dragged the finest of them backwards by their augury had just been announced to Romulus tails into his cave. At the first streak of dawn when double the number appeared to him. Hercules awoke, and on surveying his herd Each was saluted as king by his own party. The saw that some were missing. He proceeded one side based their claim on the priority of towards the nearest cave, to see if any tracks the appearance, the other on the number of pointed in that direction, but he found that the birds. Then followed an angry altercation; every hoof-mark led from the cave and none heated passions led to bloodshed; in the towards it. Perplexed and bewildered he began tumult Remus was killed. The more common to drive the herd away from so dangerous a report is that Remus contemptuously neighbourhood. Some of the cattle, missing jumped over the newly raised walls and was those which were left behind, lowed as they forthwith killed by the enraged Romulus, who often do, and an answering low sounded from exclaimed, “So shall it be henceforth with the cave. Hercules turned in that direction, everyone who leaps over my walls.” Romulus and as Cacus tried to prevent him by force thus became sole ruler, and the city was called from entering the cave, he was killed by a blow after him, its founder. His first work was to from Hercules’ club, after vainly appealing for fortify the Palatine hill where he had been help to his comrades. The king of the country brought up. The worship of the other deities at that time was Evander, a refugee from he conducted according to the use of Alba, but Peloponnesus, who ruled more by personal that of Hercules in accordance with the Greek ascendancy than by the exercise of power. rites as they had been instituted by Evander. He was looked up to with reverence for his It was into this neighbourhood, according knowledge of letters - a new and marvellous to the tradition, that Hercules, after he had thing for uncivilised men - but he was still more killed Geryon, drove his oxen, which were of revered because of his mother Carmenta, who marvellous beauty. He swam across the Tiber, was believed to be a divine being and regarded driving the oxen before him, and wearied with with wonder by all as an interpreter of Fate, in his journey, lay down in a grassy place near the the days before the arrival of the Sibyl in Italy. river to rest himself and the oxen, who enjoyed This Evander, alarmed by the crowd of excited the rich pasture. When sleep had overtaken shepherds standing round a stranger whom him, as he was heavy with food and wine, a they accused of open murder, ascertained from shepherd living near, called Cacus, presuming them the nature of his act and what led to it. 14
As he observed the bearing and stature of the immortality won through courage, of which man to be more than human in greatness and this was the memorial, would one day be his august dignity, he asked who he was. When own reward. (Roberts) he heard his name, and learnt his father and his country he said, “Hercules, son of Jupiter, hail! My mother, who speaks truth in the name of the gods, has prophesied that thou shalt join the company of the gods, and that here a shrine shall be dedicated to thee, which in ages to come the most powerful nation in all the world shall call their Ara Maxima and honour with thine own special worship. Hercules grasped Evander’s right hand and said that he took the omen to himself and would fulfil the prophecy by building and consecrating the altar. Then a heifer of conspicuous beauty was taken from the herd, and the first sacrifice was offered; the Potitii and Pinarii, the two principal families in those parts, were invited by Hercules to assist in the sacrifice and at the feast which followed. It so happened that the Potitii were present at the appointed time, and the entrails were placed before them; the Pinarii arrived after these were consumed and came in for the rest of the banquet. It became a permanent institution from that time, that as long as the family of the Pinarii survived they should not eat of the entrails of the victims. The Potitii, after being instructed by Evander, presided over that rite for many ages, until they handed over this ministerial office to public servants after which the whole race of the Potitii perished. This out of all foreign rites, was the only one which Romulus adopted, as though he felt that an
How did ancient Rome get buried?
2.5 metres per century!
Numerous fires, like the famous one that Taken from “How did ancient Rome get ravaged the city under the reign of Nero, buried?” Nerone, November 1996. literally reduced Roman buildings to ashes. New buildings were built on the site where One of the first things that strikes any the old structures had stood. In such cases, the newcomer to Rome is the confusing “layered” street level must have suddenly risen by a few look of the city, as the ruins are all on a level metres! lower than the present street level. A great example of multiple-layer construction “How did ancient Rome get buried?” is the can be seen by visiting the church of San question that puzzled every tourist. Answering Clemente on Via di San Giovanni in Laterano the question proved no easy matter. Now, (south of the Colosseum). however, I can reveal all . . . This church was built in 1099 by Pope Pasquale The primary cause was the actual ruin of the II on the ruins of another basilica built 750 ancient buildings themselves. It was calculated years previously. by the archaeologist Rodolfo Lanciani that a one floor Roman house, let’s say 10 metres This in turn had been built on the remains of high, generates a layer of debris about 1,85 a Roman house dating from the 2nd century metres high when it falls down. Just think: beneath which the ruins of an anonymous in 4th century Rome there were about building from Republican Rome can still be 42,000 houses, 1,790 Palaces and thousands seen! of temples, baths, theatres, porticoes etc. The As a matter of interest, when Palazzo Farnese height of these buildings was considerable; and the Chiesa del Gesù were being built at the indeed, Emperor Augustus thought it beginning of the 16th century, the soil removed necessary to introduce a law limiting the height to make way for the foundations was dumped of a building to 21 metres. Trajan lowered the on the Palatine Hill, thus increasing the layer limit again, to 18 metres! If you consider that of debris covering part of the Imperial Palace, only a tiny fraction of the ancient city remains debris which was then excavated some three standing today, the rest must have literally hundred years later by excited archaeologists! crumbled down, so it’s hardly surprising if the To make matters worse, the Tiber flooded city was buried beneath its own ruins! regularly and with devastating consequences, Another factor was the natural accumulation depositing yet more debris over the city! This of dust and soil due to rain and wind. This problem was solved only at the end of the 19th adds up to about 2.5 centimetres per year, or
15. Elevation San Clemente, Rome. Antonio Thiery.
16. Aeneas’ family tree from Cunliffe, Barry. Rome and her Empire. Bodley Head, London, 1978.
17. The Journey of Aeneas. van Rossen Classical Studies. Creative Commons.
The Kings of Rome Taken from “Ancient Rome People - The Seven Kings of Rome.” Ancient Rome, ancient-rome.com/ppl_f.htm. 1. Romulus
753 - 715 BC
2. Numa Pompilius
715 - 673 BC
3. Tullus Hostilius
673 - 642 BC
4. Ancus Martius
642 - 617 BC
The fifth king, Tarquinius Priscus (617 - 579 BC), was an Etruscan, though how he secured his kingship is unknown. He continued the work of conquest, but found time to build the first sewer, the Cloaca Maxima, laid out the Circus Maximus, and began to erect on the Capitoline Hill a great temple to Jupiter.
The sixth king, Servius Tullius (579 - 535 BC), was a celebrated monarch of great 5. Tarquinius Priscus 616 - 579 BC achievements. He made the division of the people into tribes and classes, thus setting 6. Servius Tullius 578 - 535 BC up a constitution in which wealth was the dominant consideration. Also he is said to 7. Tarquinius Superbus 534 - 510 BC have enlarged the city by building a wall It was under the Roman Kings that the Roman around it, five miles in circumference with ability to create an empire of sorts first came to nineteen gates, embracing all the seven hills the fore, even though any original intentions of Rome. He transferred the regional festival of Diana from Aricia to the Aventine Hill of will hardly have been of an imperial nature. Rome. Shortly afterwards a massive temple In all there was said to have been seven kings of of ca. 60 metres length and 50 width (begun Rome covering a period of over two hundred by Tarquinius Priscus) was dedicated on the years. Capitoline Hill to Jupiter. The first king of Rome was the mythical Romulus (753 - 715 BC), the fabled founder, was the first. To him is attributed the founding, the extension to four of the Roman hill, - the Capitoline, Aventine, Caelian and Quirinal -, and the infamous rape of the Sabine women.
The seventh king, Tarquinius Superbus (534 - 510 BC), was Rome’s last. He continued with great vigour the work of extending the power of the city, and the founding of colonies by him was the beginning of Rome’s path to supremacy of the world. But on other The second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius matters Tarquinius was less politically astute. (715 - 673 BC) , owing to the influence of his He irritated the people by the burdens he adviser, the nymph and prophetess Egeria, placed upon them. And when his son Sextus outraged Lucretia, the wife of a prominent enjoyed a peaceful reign. Roman, Tarquinius was exiled, the lead being The third king, however, Tullius Hostilius taken by a rich citizen named Brutus, whose (673 - 642 BC), was responsible for the father’s property he had seized. destruction of Alba Longa and the removal of its inhabitants to Rome. With the literal destruction of this opponent they took over the sacred festivals of Latium and all the regional prestige and status that came with it. The fourth king, Ancus Marcius (642 - 617 BC) , extended the city further, built the first bridge across the across the Tiber and founded Ostia at the mouth of that river to serve Rome as a seaport.- All evidence of the city’s increasing power. 19
The Site of Rome Livy, History of Rome 5, 54, 4
more easily secured such extensive power.”
[After the city was sacked and burned by the Gauls in 390 BC, the general Camillus persuaded the Romans not to relocate their city:] “Not without good reason did gods and men choose this spot as the site of a City, with its bracing hills, its commodious river, by means of which the produce of inland countries may be brought down and over-sea supplies obtained; a sea near enough for all useful purposes, but not so near as to be exposed to danger from foreign fleets; a district in the very centre of Italy—in a word, a position singularly adapted by nature for the expansion of a city. The mere size of so young a City is a proof of this.
Cicero, On the Republic 2, 5 - 10 [Scipio Africanus the Younger begins his summary of Roman history] “In choosing an advantageous site for his new city – a choice which required careful consideration if you wish to found a lasting republic – Romulus showed great forethought by not placing his city directly on the coast. … The primary drawback of a coastal location is a city’s vulnerability to surprise attacks. In addition, maritime cities are more vulnerable to the corruption and degeneration of morals, since various languages and customs get mixed together in such cities. Not only are goods imported from abroad, but ways of life as well, with the result that none of the traditional institutions can remain uncontaminated and pure. [Seaside cities nonetheless enjoy one great advantage: convenience for importing and exporting goods.] Who then could show more divine guidance than Romulus, who was able to secure the advantages of seacoast cities and avoid their vices by founding Rome on the banks of a broad river that flows down the sea with a smooth and unfailing current. … Even back then he must have divined that the city would one day furnish the seat and home of a mighty empire. In all probability, no other city located in any other part of Italy could have 20
18. Map of the seven hills of Rome. Wikimedia Commons.
Strabo, Geography 5, 3, 2; 5, 3, 7; 5, 3, 5 After Numitor regained his rightful seat as ruler of Alba Longa, Romulus and Remus returned to their home to found the city of Rome. They site must not have been of their own choosing but rather dictated by necessity, since the location was not easily defended and comprised neither enough of the surrounding territory nor enough citizens to support a city.… In my opinion, the founders of the city adopted a line of reasoning valid for both their time and for subsequent generations: the Romans ought to depend for their security and wellbeing not on their walls, but on their weapons and native valor. Walls, they reasoned, did not defend men, but men defended walls. Since in the beginning most of the fertile lands around them belonged to others, and the terrain of their own city was so open to attack, there is no reason to attribute any special good fortune to the site of Rome. But once the Romans acquired the territory around them by their
own brave virtue and industry, there was an accumulation of resources that surpassed all natural advantage.… The entire region of Latium is blessed with fertility, except for a few areas which are marshy and pestilential … and some other areas that are mountainous and rocky. Even these places, however, are not entirely barren and useless, since they provide abundant pasturage and wood, as well as some fruits that do well on marshy or rocky soil.… The Romans enjoy an amazing abundance of quarries and timber, as well as rivers that accommodate the transportation of such materials, such as the Anio. The Romans enjoy an amazing abundance of quarries and timber, as well as rivers that accommodate the transportation of such materials, such as the Anio.
Ovid, Fasti 6, 401 - 402 The land where the forums of Rome now spread was once a swamp And ditches were dank with the waters that flowed back from the river.
Cloaca Maxima Livy, History of Rome 1, 38, 6
700 years since the time of Tarquinius Priscus and are almost indestructible. It is said that By means of sewers sloping into the Tiber, the Tarquinius had the channels made large king Tarquinius Priscus [616 – 578 BC] dried enough to accommodate the passage of a out the low and flat areas of difficult drainage wagon loaded with hay. both around the Forum and in between the Cassius Dio, Roman History 49, 43, 1 hills.
Livy, History of Rome 1, 56, 2 Under Tarquinius Superbus [534 – 510 BC], the work of the plebeians was directed to two other projects, the construction of the seating of the Circus, and the building of the subterranean Cloaca Maxima as a receptacle for all the city’s waste – two works that even the most recent marvels of construction [in the late first century BC] have scarcely been able to match.
As aedile, Agrippa carried out all his repairs on public buildings and streets in Rome without using any public money. He also had drainage channels cleaned and then inspected them by boat, floating underground to the Tiber.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 36, 104 - 106, 108 [No wonders of the world equal the splendor and wealth of Rome, although by the late Republic the excesses had become obvious.] Even then, however, the older people still marveled at the huge expanse of the Rampart and the substructures on the Capitoline, as well as the project deserving the greatest praise of all, the drainage channels, tunneled through the hills, laid beneath a suspended city, and even navigated by Agrippa when aedile [in 33 BC]. Seven streams, collected into one channel, traverse the city, rushing like a mountain torrent and sweeping off everything in their path. When further swollen by a mass of rainwater, the currents pound the sides and bed of the channels, and when the Tiber on occasion floods and backs up into them, the waters inside clash from opposite directions; still the structures hold firm against the pressure. Floods might sweep away massive material above them, buildings collapse upon them, and earthquakes shake the earth around them, but the channels have endured 22
19. Map of the cloacas of Rome. Ann Albright. Engineering Rome Wikispaces.
20. Cloaca Maxima, Domitianic tract. Sotterranei di Roma.
Myth Livy, History of Rome 1, 8 - 10 8 After the claims of religion had been duly acknowledged, Romulus called his people to a council. As nothing could unite them into one political body but the observance of common laws and customs, he gave them a body of laws, which he thought would only be respected by a rude and uncivilised race of men if he inspired them with awe by assuming the outward symbols of power. He surrounded himself with greater state, and in particular he called into his service twelve lictors. Some think that he fixed upon this number from the number of the birds who foretold his sovereignty; but I am inclined to agree with those who think that as this class of public officers was borrowed from the same people from whom the “sella curulis” and the “toga praetexta” were adopted - their neighbours, the Etruscans - so the number itself also was taken from them.
of the founders of cities to get together a multitude of people of obscure and low origin and then to spread the fiction that they were the children of the soil. In accordance with this policy, Romulus opened a place of refuge on the spot where, as you go down from the Capitol, you find an enclosed space between two groves. A promiscuous crowd of freemen and slaves, eager for change, fled thither from the neighbouring states. This was the first accession of strength to the nascent greatness of the city. When he was satisfied as to its strength, his next step was to provide for that strength being wisely directed. He created a hundred senators; either because that number was adequate, or because there were only a hundred heads of houses who could be created. In any case they were called the “Patres” in virtue of their rank, and their descendants were called “Patricians.”were only a hundred heads of houses who could be created. In any case they were called the “Patres” in virtue of their rank, and their descendants were called “Patricians.” Rape of Sabine Women
21. Rape of the Sabine Women. Republican coin, 89 BC, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome. The VRoma Project.
Its use amongst the Etruscans is traced to the custom of the twelve sovereign cities of Etruria, when jointly electing a king, furnishing him each with one lictor. Meantime the City was growing by the extension of its walls in various directions; an increase due rather to the anticipation of its future population than to any present overcrowding. His next care was to secure an addition to the population that the size of the City might not be a source of weakness. It had been the ancient policy
9 The Roman State had now become so strong that it was a match for any of its neighbours in war, but its greatness threatened to last for only one generation, since through the absence of women there was no hope of offspring, and there was no right of intermarriage with their neighbours. Acting on the advice of the senate, Romulus sent envoys amongst the surrounding nations to ask for alliance and the right of intermarriage on behalf of his new community. It was represented that cities, like everything else, sprung from the humblest beginnings, and those who were helped on by their own courage and the favour of heaven won for themselves great power and great renown. As to the origin of Rome, it was well known that whilst it had received divine assistance, courage and self-reliance were not wanting. There should, therefore, be no reluctance for men to mingle their blood with their fellow-men. Nowhere did the envoys meet with a favourable reception. Whilst their proposals were treated with contumely, 23
there was at the same time a general feeling of alarm at the power so rapidly growing in their midst. Usually they were dismissed with the question, “whether they had opened an asylum for women, for nothing short of that would secure for them intermarriage on equal terms.” The Roman youth could ill brook such insults, and matters began to look like an appeal to force. To secure a favourable place and time for such an attempt, Romulus, disguising his resentment, made elaborate preparations for the celebration of games in honour of “Equestrian Neptune,” which he called “the Consualia.” He ordered public notice of the spectacle to be given amongst the adjoining cities, and his people supported him in making the celebration as magnificent as their knowledge and resources allowed, so that expectations were raised to the highest pitch. There was a great gathering; people were eager to see the new City, all their nearest neighbours - the people of Caenina, Antemnae, and Crustumerium - were there, and the whole Sabine population came, with their wives and families. They were invited to accept hospitality at the different houses, and after examining the situation of the City, its walls and the large number of dwellinghouses it included, they were astonished at the rapidity with which the Roman State had grown. When the hour for the games had come, and their eyes and minds were alike riveted on the spectacle before them, the preconcerted signal was given and the Roman youth dashed in all directions to carry off the maidens who were present. The larger part were carried off indiscriminately, but some particularly beautiful girls who had been marked out for the leading patricians were carried to their houses by plebeians told off for the task. One, conspicuous amongst them all for grace and beauty, is reported to have been carried off by a group led by a certain Talassius, and to the many inquiries as to whom she was intended for, the invariable answer was given, “For Talassius.” Hence the use of this word in the marriage rites. Alarm and consternation broke up the games, and the parents of the maidens fled, distracted with grief, uttering bitter reproaches on the violators of the laws of hospitality and appealing to the god to whose solemn games they had come, only 24
to be the victims of impious perfidy. The abducted maidens were quite as despondent and indignant. Romulus, however, went round in person, and pointed out to them that it was all owing to the pride of their parents in denying right of intermarriage to their neighbours. They would live in honourable wedlock, and share all their property and civil rights, and - dearest of all to human nature would be the mothers of freemen. He begged them to lay aside their feelings of resentment and give their affections to those whom fortune had made masters of their persons. An injury had often led to reconciliation and love; they would find their husbands all the more affectionate, because each would do his utmost, so far as in him lay, to make up for the loss of parents and country. These arguments were reinforced by the endearments of their husbands, who excused their conduct by pleading the irresistible force of their passion a plea effective beyond all others in appealing to a woman’s nature.
22. The Intervention of the Sabine Women, Jacques-Louis David, 1799. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Web Gallery of Art. Public domain.
10 The feelings of the abducted maidens were now pretty completely appeased, but not so those of their parents. They went about in mourning garb, and tried by their tearful complaints to rouse their countrymen to action. Nor did they confine their remonstrances to their own cities; they flocked from all sides to Titus Tatius, the king of the Sabines, and sent formal deputations to him, for his was the most influential name in those parts. The people of Caenina, Crustumerium, and Antemnae were the greatest sufferers; they thought Tatius and his Sabines were too slow in moving, so these three cities prepared to
make war conjointly. Such, however, were the impatience and anger of the Caeninensians that even the Crustuminians and Antemnates did not display enough energy for them, so the men of Caenina made an attack upon Roman territory on their own account. Whilst they were scattered far and wide, pillaging and destroying, Romulus came upon them with an army, and after a brief encounter taught them that anger is futile without strength. He put them to a hasty flight, and following them up, killed their king and despoiled his body; then after slaying their leader took their city at the first assault. He was no less anxious to display his achievements than he had been great in performing them, so, after leading his victorious army home, he mounted to the Capitol with the spoils of his dead foe borne before him on a frame constructed for the purpose. He hung them there on an oak, which the shepherds looked upon as a sacred tree, and at the same time marked out the site for the temple of Jupiter, and addressing the god by a new title, uttered the following invocation: “Jupiter Feretrius! these arms
opima’ which posterity following my example shall bear hither, taken from the kings and generals of our foes slain in battle.” Such was the origin of the first temple dedicated in Rome. And the gods decreed that though its founder did not utter idle words in declaring that posterity would thither bear their spoils, still the splendour of that offering should not be dimmed by the number of those who have rivalled his achievement. For after so many years have elapsed and so many wars been waged, only twice have the “spolia opima” been offered. So seldom has Fortune granted that glory to men. (Roberts)
Varro, The Latin Language 6, 20 The Consualian Games were named for the god Consus. It was during games to this god, being celebrated by the priests near his altar in the Circus, that the Sabine maidens attending the games were abducted.
24. Mosaic of chariot team in procession. Piazza Armerina. 4th century AD. VRomaProject.
23. The Rape of the Sabines: The Invasion, Charles Christian Nahl, 1871. Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento. Wikimedia Commons.
taken from a king, I, Romulus a king and conqueror, bring to thee, and on this domain, whose bounds I have in will and purpose traced, I dedicate a temple to receive the ‘spolia 25
Palatine Hill Propertius, Elegies 4, 1, 1 - 4
priests sacrifice not wolfs but goats, after which some of them touch the bloodied sacrificial knives to the foreheads of two young men of Visitor to mighty Rome: wherever you look Was simply grass and hill before Aeneas came; noble birth, who are required to laugh when others wipe the blood away with wool soaked Along the Palatine’s crest in milk. After this ceremony, they cut the where Apollo’s temple stands goat-skins into strips, and clad in nothing but Evander’s cattle roamed and ruminated at these they run through th city using the swags will. of goat-skin to lash people along th course. Women of child-bearing age make no effort to Dionysius, Roman Antiquities 1, 79, 8 avoid contact, believing it promotes fertility and an easy delivery. In another peculiarity of [The wolf suckled the abandoned infants the ritual, the Luperci sacrifice a dog. where she found them near the Tiber. When some shepherds approached, she calmly left the twins and walked away.] Not far off there was a holy place, thickly shaded by tress surrounding a cave with springs. It was said that this was the grove of Pan, and there was an altar here to that god. This is where the wolf went and hid herself. Today [20 BC] the grove is gone, but the cave and spring are still pointed out, built into the side of the Palatine along the road that leads from the hill to the Circus, and there is a sacred precinct nearby which contains a bronze statue of an ancient workmanhip commemorating the event, depicting the wolf suckling the two boys,
Dionysius, Roman Antiquities 1, 80, 1 [Romulus and the other young men living near the Palatine prepared to celebrate the festival of the Lupercalia on February 15.] After offering sacrifice to Pan, the young men ran a course around the city, naked accept for loin-cloths fashioned from the animals just sacrificed. This was - and still is [c. 20 BC] performed as a traditional rite of purification for the community.
25. The Lupercalian Festival in Rome: Cupid and personifications of Fertility encounter the Luperci dressed as dogs and goats. Brown pen drawing by circle of Adam Elsheimer (1578 – 1610), via Wikimedia Commons.
Augustus, Res Gestae 19 [Among my many works in Rome] I built the Lupercal.
Suetonius, Divus Augustus 72, 1 - 2
He lived at first near the Forum Romanum, above the Stairs of the Ringmakers, in a house which had belonged to the orator Calvus; [The festival called Lupercalia derives its name afterwards, on the Palatine, but in the no from the she-wolf (lupa) story.] We see that less modest dwelling of Hortensius, which the course that the Luperci run around the was remarkable neither for size nor elegance, city begins where Romulus was left to die as having but short colonnades with columns of an infant. The rites of the Lupercalia, however, Alban stone, and rooms without any marble rather obscure this connection, since the decorations or handsome pavements. For more
Plutarch, Romulus 21, 4 - 5
than forty years too he used the same bedroom in winter and summer; although he found the city unfavourable to his health in the winter, yet continued to winter there. 2 If ever he planned to do anything in private or without interruption, he had a retired place at the top of the house, which he called “Syracuse” and “technyphion.” In this he used to take refuge, or else in the villa of one of his freedmen in the suburbs; but whenever he was not well, he slept at Maecenas’s house. For retirement he went most frequently to places by the sea and the islands of Campania, or to the towns near Rome, such as Lanuvium, Praeneste or Tibur, where he very often held court in the colonnades of the Temple of Hercules.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 53, 16, 5 The royal residence is called Palatium, not because it was ever decreed that this should be its name, but because Caesar dwelt on the Palatine and had his military headquarters there, though his residence gained a certain degree of fame from the mount as a whole also, because Romulus had once lived there.
the Circus, and it is preserved holy by those who have charge of these matters; they add nothing to it to render it more stately, but if any part of it is injured, either by storms or by the lapse of time, they repair the damage and restore the hut as nearly as possible to its former condition.
27. Romulus’ hut on the Palatine Hill in the imperial period. Gatteschi Collection of Roman Architecture and Reconstructive Drawings of Imperial Rome, 1900 - 1935. The Digital Humanities Center (DHC) of the American Academy in Rome Gatteschi.131.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 54, 29, 8 The star called the comet hung for several days [in 12 BC] over the city and was finally dissolved into flashes resembling torches. Many buildings in the city were destroyed by fire, among them the hut of Romulus, which was set ablaze by crows which dropped upon it burning meat from some altar.
26. Map of Rome in 753 BC. By Cristiano64 derivative work: Richardprins, via Wikimedia Commons.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 1, 79, 11 But their [Romulus and Remus’] life was that of herdsmen, and they lived by their own labour, generally upon the mountains 28. Villanovan culture (8th century BC) cinerary in huts which they built, roofs and all, out of hut-urn, showing the likely shape of Romulus’ sticks and reeds. One of these, called the hut Hut in Rome: a simple mud-and-straw shelter. of Romulus, remained even to my day on the Walters Art Museum, via Wikimedia Commons. flank of the Palatine hill which faces towards 27
Capitoline Hill Varro, The Latin Language 5, 41
Even then the site inspired the country folk With religious dread, and they The Capitoline hill gets its name from the shuddered at its woods and cliff. human head [caput] that they say was found “This grove, this hilltop when the foundations for the Temple of crowned in leaf,” Evander said, Jupiter were being excavated. Before then “A god inhabits, we know not which: the hill was called Mt. Tarpeius, after the Arcadians among us think they’ve seen Vestal Virgin names Tarpeia, who was killed Jupiter himself on the hill, swirling again by Sabine shields and buried on the hill. A His black mantle to summon up the storm. reminder of her name endures, since the cliff Seneca the Elder, Debates 1, 6, 4 here is called Tarpeian rock. Climb down the family tree of anyone you wish: at the bottom you will find a humble birth. Why go into individual instances when I can prove my point by calling as a witness the entire city of Rome: these hills were once entirely devoid of buildings. In fact, amidst all 29. Denarius of L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus, 89 BC. Obverse: King Tatius right. Reverse: Tarpeia abou0t to be crushed by the shields of two soldiers. By my Diomede, via Wikimedia Commons.
Livy, History of Rome 1, 8, 4 – 6 The city’s defensive works kept expanding to incorporate one location after another, since they fortified the town with an eye on future population rather than the existing numbers. Then, lest large parts of the city remain empty, they had recourse to an old tactic used by city founders for increasing population: they attract outsiders of obscure and humble origin who they then claim are native to the land. To this end, they designated a location (now an enclosure between the two groves as you ascend the Capitoline) as an asylum; a crowd of commoners, both free and enslaved, poured in from the neighboring territories, eager for new conditions. This was the first step towards the strength Romulus envisioned for Rome.
Vergil, Aeneid 8, 347 - 354 [Centuries before Rome was founded] Evander led Aeneas To the Tarpeian seat and the CapitolineAll golden now, then bristling with wild brambles. 28
of today’s towering structures, nothing is more respected than the humble hut of Romulus, even though the Temple of Jupiter shines out above it, gleaming with pure gold. Can you find fault in the Romans for displaying their humble origins, which today could easily be hidden, and for believing that nothings is great unless it appears to have started small?
30. Plan of the Capitoline Hill. VromaProject.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 3, 69 and 4, 61 Tarquinius Priscus [ruling 616 - 578 BC] undertook the construction of a temple to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, which he had
vowed to the gods during the last battle against the Sabines. The hill on which he planned to place the temple needed a great deal of preparation, being neither accessible nor level, but rather precipitous and sharply peaked. Tarquinius surrounded the hill with high retaining walls and filled in the space between these walls and the summit to create a level platform able to support temples. He died, however, before he was able to lay the foundation for the Temple of Jupiter, outliving the end of the war by only four years. Many years later, Tarquinius Superbus, the second king after him (the one who was deposed) laid the foundations and built much of the structure, though he too did not complete it. … The Roman finished the Temple of Jupiter [in 507 BC] in the third consulship of the Republic. Built on a high podium, the perimeter of the temple is 800 feet. Each of its sides is about 200 feet; in fact, the length of the temple does not exceed the width by a full fifteen feet. Although rebuilt a generation ago after it burnt down [in 83 BC], it rests on the same foundations and differs from the old temple only in the costliness of its materials. The front of the temple, towards the south, has three rows of columns; there is a single row of columns down each side. Inside there are three chambers, although they are under one pediment and one roof. Each of the side chambers - one for June, one for Minerva shares a wall with the center one, which is dedicated to Jupiter.
31. Ground plan and reconstruction of Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. By Studyblue, ARTH 101. StudyGuide (2014-15 Hopkins).
Taken from De la Bedoyère, Guy. The Romans by the Assyrians, then by the Persians, and For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons, 2007. finally by Alexander the Great who established a Macedonian dynasty of pharaohs, whose last Roman civilisation lasted from about 753 ruler: Cleopatra Vll, had affairs with Julius BC up to AD 476 in the West. That’s pretty Caesar and Mark Antony. Antony’s defeat at remarkable when you think about it, but Actium in 31 BC brought ancient Egypt to an where do the Romans fit into world history? end and the longest-established of all civilisations After all, the Romans didn’t exist in some sort ever became just another Roman province. of historical isolation. Although the Romans thought they were the be-all and end-all, Mesopotamia there were other civilisations about. So here’s a potted look at the ancient civilisations who Mesopotamia is the land between the rivers existed before, during, and after the time of Tigris and Euphrates in what is now modern Iraq. The Sumerians (3500—2300 BC), who the Romans. wielded their power from the cities of Ur, Eridu Egypt and Uruk, had palaces and built temples on the top of towers called ziggurats. By 3000 BC, they By the time the Romans got up and running, had made a vast stride that set them apart from the Egyptian civilisation had been going for the hundreds of thousands of years of human nearly 5,000 years. By around 2700 BC, what development: They invented writing. you and I think of as ancient Egypt really got going — that’s about 2,000 years before Rome was founded. During this period, the pyramids, built by the pharaohs, first started to appear. By about 1550 BC, Egypt had the astonishing pharaoh Akhenaten, and Tutankhamun, whose tomb is for sure the most famous ancient burial ever found. This period, called the New Kingdom, was the age of the Valley of the Kings, the great temple at Karnak: and other massive monuments like Abu Simbel, built by Ramesses Il, the most 33. Cyrus cylinder, 539 BC. British Museum London. Trustees of the British Museum. famous of all pharaohs. After the Sumerians came the Akkadians (2300—2150 BC), who were highly skilled in bronze sculpture. But Mesopotamian civilisation came to a climax with the Assyrians (1400—600 BC), whose kings commissioned magnificent relief sculptures. Then came the Babylonians (625—538 BC), whose most famous ruler is Nebuchadnezzar Il, who built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 32. A house altar showing Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three of their daughters. 18th dynasty, reign of Akhenaten, 1340 BC. Tell el-Amarna, Egypt. Egyptian Museum of Berlin. Wikimedia Commons.
But Egypt was already past her peak: Divided by rival dynasties Egypt was invaded, first 30
Phoenicians and Carthaginians Phoenicia was where the coast of Lebanon and Syria is today, at the eastern end of the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians were brilliant seafarers, which incidentally the Romans never were, and one story is that they might even have sailed right round the coast of Africa.
Major traders, the Phoenicians shipped their products, which included cloth, dye, and timber, everywhere they could and set up colonies all around the Mediterranean, including Spain, Malta, and Sicily. The most important Phoenician settlement was Carthage, which became Rome’s most deadly rival. Founded by the ninth century BC in what is now modern Tunisia on the north coast of Africa Carthage’s wealth and influence spread north into Sicily and Italy, providing the biggest threat Roman expansion faced. It took the three Punic Wars to wipe out Carthage, finally destroyed in 146 BC, leaving the way open to the Romans to take total control of the Mediterranean.
34. Head of a bearded man. Glass, 4th–3rd centuries BC. Found in the Punic necropolis of Carthage, Tunisia. Louvre Museum. Wikimedia Commons.
have seriously damaged many settlements. Meanwhile, in Greece famous strongholds like Mycenae and Tiryns had developed. On the north-west coast of Turkey was Ilium, or Troy. Somewhere around the time Minoan civilisation collapsed, the famous Trojan War took place but no-one really knows how much of the story is myth or true. All we do know is that by 800 BC Homer’s poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, had been composed. They set the pace for Greek literature. while Greek art was being developed, too. During this time, the Greek city states like Athens and Sparta developed. By the fifth century BC, Athens had reached its climax with the development of a sophisticated democracy and political theory in the age of Pericles, Greek colonies were dotted all around the Mediterranean, including southern Italy and Sicily. But the Greek city-states were forever fighting with one another. Athens and Sparta brought each Other to virtual ruin in the Peloponnesian War. Weakened, Greece was easy prey first for Philip Il of Macedon (357—338 BC) and then the Romans in 146 BC. But Greek art, culture, literature: and sport remained immensely popular in the days of the Roman Empire. Today, the Greeks are still heralded as the fathers of modern democracy and civilisation.
35. View of the Acropolis in Athens. By Christophe Meneboeuf, via Wikimedia Commons.
The Greeks Greece, called Achaea in ancient times was always the story of city-states dotted about the mainland and the various islands across the Aegean Sea. The first phase of Greek civilisation is called Minoan, after Minos, the mythical king of the island of Crete who lived at Knossos Minoan civilisation started around 3000 BC and lasted till about 1400 BC when a natural disaster seems to
The Etruscans The Etruscans lived in what is now Tuscany and Umbria in Italy. Most of what is known about them comes from the excavation of their magnificent painted tombs and the grave goods, which were designed to make the afterlife as much like home life as possible. They were particularly good sailors and traders, but to this day scholars know little 31
because their language still cannot be read properly. It was thanks to the Etruscans that Rome got off to a good start. The Etruscans built Rome’s first walls, its temple to Jupiter, and also the great sewer called the Cloaca Maxima. Some of Rome’s Rome’s first kings were Etruscans too, including the last one, Tarquinius Superbus.
37. Detail of the Alexander Mosaic, 100 BC. House of the Faun, Pompeii. National Archaeological Museum Naples. Wikimedia Commons.
36. Bronze liver of Piacenza, late 2nd century BC, Municipal Museum of Piacenza. Creative Commons.
Macedonians and Alexander the Great Ancient Macedonia was just a small mountainous area of northern Greece and part of what is now Bulgaria. ln 338 BC, the Macedonian king, Philip Il, took control of Greece, setting the pace for things to come. ln 336 BC he was succeeded by his son Alexander, who proceed to conquer a vast swathe of territory across the area of modern Turkey, Iraq, and Iran by defeating the Persian Empire and reached as far as the Indus valley on the fringes of India. He then seized Egypt and made one of his generals, called Ptolemy, pharaoh. Alexander died in 323 BC from a fever in Babylon at the height of his powers. But his empire was built totally around his own personality and with him gone it fell apart quickly, with his various generals ruling different parts of it. Along with the rest of Greece. Macedonia fell to Rome in 146 BC, with Egypt and Asia Minor following afterwards.
The end of the monarchy
Livy, History of Rome 1, 57 - 60 The Rape of Lucretia
She was sitting at her wool work in the hall, late at night, with her maids busy round her. The palm in this competition of wifely virtue was awarded to Lucretia. She welcomed the arrival of her husband and the Tarquins, whilst her victorious spouse courteously invited the royal princes to remain as his guests. Sextus Tarquinius, inflamed by the beauty and exemplary purity of Lucretia, formed the vile project of effecting her dishonour. After their youthful frolic they returned for the time to camp.
57. This people, who were at that time in possession of Ardea, were, considering the nature of their country and the age in which they lived, exceptionally wealthy. This circumstance really originated the war, for the Roman king was anxious to repair his own fortune, which had been exhausted by the magnificent scale of his public works, and also to conciliate his subjects by a distribution of the spoils of war. His tyranny had already produced disaffection, but what moved their special resentment was the way they had been so long kept by the king at manual and even servile labour. An attempt was made to take Ardea by assault; when that failed recourse was had to a regular investment to starve the enemy out. When troops are stationary, as is the case in a protracted more than in an active campaign, furloughs are easily granted, more so to the men of rank, however, than to the common soldiers. The royal princes 38. Lucretia at the loom by Willem de Poorter, sometimes spent their leisure hours in feasting 1633. Musée des Augustins de Toulouse. and entertainments, and at a wine party given Wikimedia Commons. by Sextus Tarquinius at which Collatinus, the 58. A few days afterwards Sextus Tarquinius son of Egerius, was present, the conversation went, unknown to Collatinus, with one happened to turn upon their wives, and companion to Collatia. He was hospitably each began to speak of his own in terms of received by the household, who suspected extraordinarily high praise. As the dispute nothing, and after supper was conducted became warm, Collatinus said that there was to the bedroom set apart for guests. When no need of words, it could in a few hours be all around seemed safe and everybody fast ascertained how far his Lucretia was superior asleep, he went in the frenzy of his passion to all the rest. “Why do we not,” he exclaimed, with a naked sword to the sleeping Lucretia, “if we have any youthful vigour about us, and placing his left hand on her breast, said, mount our horses and pay our wives a visit “Silence, Lucretia! I am Sextus Tarquinius, and find out their characters on the spot? and I have a sword in my hand; if you utter What we see of the behaviour of each on the a word, you shall die.” When the woman, unexpected arrival of her husband, let that be terrified out of her sleep, saw that no help the surest test.” They were heated with wine, was near, and instant death threatening her, and all shouted: “Good! Come on!” Setting Tarquinius began to confess his passion, spur to their horses they galloped off to Rome, pleaded, used threats as well as entreaties, and where they arrived as darkness was beginning employed every argument likely to influence to close in. Thence they proceeded to Collatia, a female heart. When he saw that she was where they found Lucretia very differently inflexible and not moved even by the fear of employed from the king’s daughters-in-law, death, he threatened to disgrace her, declaring whom they had seen passing their time in that he would lay the naked corpse of the slave feasting and luxury with their acquaintances. by her dead body, so that it might be said that 33
had been slain in foul adultery. By this awful in my power, and I will not suffer them or any threat, his lust triumphed over her inflexible one else to reign in Rome.” chastity, and Tarquinius went off exulting in having successfully attacked her honour. Lucretia, overwhelmed with grief at such a frightful outrage, sent a messenger to her father at Rome and to her husband at Ardea, asking them to come to her, each accompanied by one faithful friend; it was necessary to act, and to act promptly; a horrible thing had happened. Spurius Lucretius came with Publius Valerius, the son of Volesus; Collatinus with Lucius Junius Brutus, with whom he happened to be returning to Rome when he was met by his wife’s messenger. They found Lucretia sitting in her room prostrate with grief. As they entered, she burst into tears, and to her husband’s inquiry whether all was well, replied, “No! what can be well with a woman when her honour is lost? The marks of a stranger, Collatinus, are in your bed. But it is only the body that has been violated, the soul is pure; death shall bear witness to that. But pledge me your solemn word that the adulterer shall not go unpunished. It is Sextus Tarquinius, who, coming as an enemy instead of a guest, forced from me last night by brutal violence a pleasure fatal to me, and, if you are men, fatal to him.” They all successively pledged their word, and tried to console the distracted woman by turning the guilt from the victim of the outrage to the perpetrator, and urging that it is the mind that sins, not the body, and where there has been no consent there is no guilt. “It is for you,” she said, “to see that he gets his deserts; although I acquit myself of the sin, I do not free myself from the penalty; no unchaste woman shall henceforth live and plead Lucretia’s example.” She had a knife concealed in her dress which she plunged into her heart, and fell dying on the floor. Her father and husband raised the death-cry. 59. Whilst they were absorbed in grief, Brutus drew the knife from Lucretia’s wound, and holding it, dripping with blood, in front of him, said, “By this blood—most pure before the outrage wrought by the king’s son—I swear, and you, O gods, I call to witness that I will drive hence Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, together with his cursed wife and his whole brood, with fire and sword and every means 34
39. The Death of Lucretia by Gavin Hamilton, 1763 - 1767, Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection. Wikimedia Commons.
Then he handed the knife to Collatinus and then to Lucretius and Valerius, who were all astounded at the marvel of the thing, wondering whence Brutus had acquired this new character. They swore as they were directed; all their grief changed to wrath, and they followed the lead of Brutus, who summoned them to abolish the monarchy forthwith. They carried the body of Lucretia from her home down to the Forum, where, owing to the unheard-of atrocity of the crime, they at once collected a crowd. Each had his own complaint to make of the wickedness and violence of the royal house. Whilst all were moved by the father’s deep distress, Brutus bade them stop their tears and idle laments, and urged them to act as men and Romans and take up arms against their insolent foes. All the high-spirited amongst the younger men came forward as armed volunteers, the rest followed their example. A portion of this body was left to hold Collatia, and guards were stationed at the gates to prevent any news of the movement from reaching the king; the rest marched in arms to Rome with Brutus in command. On their arrival, the sight of so many men in arms spread panic and confusion wherever they marched, but when again the people saw that the foremost men of the State were leading the way, they realised that whatever the movement was it was a
serious one. The terrible occurrence created no less excitement in Rome than it had done in Collatia; there was a rush from all quarters of the City to the Forum. When they had gathered there, the herald summoned them to attend the “Tribune of the Celeres”; this was the office which Brutus happened at the time to be holding. He made a speech quite out of keeping with the character and temper he had up to that day assumed. He dwelt upon the brutality and licentiousness of Sextus Tarquinius, the infamous outrage on Lucretia and her pitiful death, the bereavement sustained by her father, Tricipitinus, to whom the cause of his daughter’s death was more shameful and distressing than the actual death itself. Then he dwelt on the tyranny of the king, the toils and sufferings of the plebeians kept underground clearing out ditches and sewers—Roman men, conquerors of all the surrounding nations, turned from warriors into artisans and stonemasons! He reminded them of the shameful murder of Servius Tullius and his daughter driving in her accursed chariot over her father’s body, and solemnly invoked the gods as the avengers of murdered parents. By enumerating these and, I believe, other still more atrocious incidents which his keen sense of the present injustice suggested, but which it is not easy to give in detail, he goaded on the incensed multitude to strip the king of his sovereignty and pronounce a sentence of banishment against Tarquinius with his wife and children. With a picked body of the “Juniors,” who volunteered to follow him, he went off to the camp at Ardea to incite the army against the king, leaving the command in the City to Lucretius, who had previously been made Prefect of the City by the king. During the commotion Tullia fled from the palace amidst the execrations of all whom she met, men and women alike invoking against her her father’s avenging spirit.
ways. Tarquinius found the gates shut, and a decree of banishment passed against him; the Liberator of the City received a joyous welcome in the camp, and the king’s sons were expelled from it. Two of them followed their father into exile amongst the Etruscans in Caere. Sextus Tarquinius proceeded to Gabii, which he looked upon as his kingdom, but was killed in revenge for the old feuds he had kindled by his rapine and murders. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus reigned twentyfive years. The whole duration of the regal government from the foundation of the City to its liberation was two hundred and fortyfour years. Two consuls were then elected in the assembly of centuries by the prefect of the City, in accordance with the regulations of Servius Tullius. They were Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus. (Roberts)
40. Capitoline Brutus, 4th-3rd centuries BC. Capitoline Museums. By Jastrow, via Wikimedia Commons.
60. When the news of these proceedings reached the camp, the king, alarmed at the turn affairs were taking, hurried to Rome to quell the outbreak. Brutus, who was on the same road had become aware of his approach, and to avoid meeting him took another route, so that he reached Ardea and Tarquinius Rome almost at the same time, though by different 35
Roads OMNES VIAE ROMAE DUCUNT
41. Map of Roman roads in Italy. By NielsF, via Wikimedia Commons.
Frontinus, Aqueducts 5 In the consulship of Marcus Valerius Maximus and Publius Decimus Mus [in 213 BC], the Aqua Appia was led into the city by Appius Crassus [later known as ‘the Bind‘] while he was censor - the same man who was in charge of building the Appian Way from the Porta Capena all the way to the city of Capua.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 31, 41, 88-89 We may conclude, then, by Hercules! that the higher enjoyments of life could not exist without the use of salt: indeed, so highly necessary is this substance to mankind, that the pleasures of the mind, even, can be expressed by no better term than the word “salt,” such being the name given to all effusions of wit.
All the amenities, in fact, of life, supreme hilarity, and relaxation from toil, can find no word in our language to characterize them better than this. Even in the very honours, too, that are bestowed upon successful warfare, salt plays its part, and from it, our word “salarium” is derived. That salt was held in high esteem by the ancients, is evident from the Salarian Way, so named from the fact that, by agreement, the Sabini carried all their salt by that road. King Ancus Martius gave six hundred modii of salt as a largess to the people, and was the first to establish salt-works. Varro also informs us, that the ancients used salt by way of a relishing sauce; and we know, from an old proverb, that it was the practice with them to eat salt with their bread. But it is in our sacred rites more particularly, that its high importance is to be recognized, no offering ever being made unaccompanied by the salted cake. 37
Pliny the Younger, Letters 2, 17 You are surprised, you say, at my infatuation for my Laurentine estate, or Laurentian if you prefer it so. You will cease to wonder when you are told the charms of the villa, the handiness of its site, and the stretch of shore it commands. It is seventeen miles distant from Rome, so that after getting through all your business, and without loss or curtailment of your working hours, you can go and stay there. It can be reached by more than one route, for the roads to Laurentium and Ostia both lead in the same direction, but you must branch off on the former at the fourth, and on the latter at the fourteenth milestone. From both of these points onward the road is for the most part rather sandy, which makes it a tedious and lengthy journey if you drive, but if you ride it is easy going and quickly covered. The scenery on either hand is full of variety. At places the path is a narrow one with woods running down to it on both sides, at other points it passes through spreading meadows and is wide and open. You will see abundant flocks of sheep and many herds of cattle and horses, which are driven down from the high ground in the winter and grow sleek in a pasturage and a temperature like those of spring.
Martial, Epigrams 6, 28 Glaucias, the well-known freedman of Melior, at whose death all Rome wept, the short-lived delight of his affectionate patron, reposes beneath this marble sepulchre close to the Flaminian Way, He was a youth of pure morals, of simple modesty, of ready wit, and of rare beauty. To twice six harvests completed, the youth was just adding another year. Traveller, who laments his fate, may you never have ought else to lament!
Cassius Dio, Roman History 54, 8, 4 ... he [Augustus] was chosen commissioner of all the highways in the neighbourhood of Rome, and in this capacity set up the golden mile-stone, as it was called, and appointed men from the number of the ex-praetors, each with two lictors, to attend to the actual construction of the roads.
42. Miliarum Aureum (Golden Milestone), Roman Forum. By Longbow4u, via Wikimedia Commons.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 3, 9, 66 Romulus left the city of Rome, if we are to believe those who state the very greatest number, having three gates and no more. When the Vespasians were emperors and censors, in the year from its building 826, the circumference of the walls which surrounded it was thirteen miles and two-fifths. Surrounding as it does the Seven Hills, the city is divided into fourteen districts, with 265 cross-roads under the guardianship of the Lares. If a straight line is drawn from the mile-column placed at the entrance of the Forum, to each of the gates, which are at present thirty-seven in number (taking care to count only once the twelve double gates, and to omit the seven old ones, which no longer exist), the result will be [taking them altogether], a straight line of twenty miles and 765 paces. But if we draw a straight line from the same mile-column to the very last of the houses, including therein the Prætorian encampment, and follow throughout the line of all the streets, the result will then be something more than seventy miles. Add to these calculations the height of the houses, and then a person may form a fair idea of this city, and will certainly be obliged to admit that there is not a place throughout the whole world that for size can be compared to it. On the eastern side it is bounded by the agger of Tarquinius Superbus, a work of surpassing grandeur; for he raised it so high as to be on a level with the walls on the side on which the city lay most exposed to attack from the neighbouring plains. On all the other sides it has been fortified either with lofty walls or steep and precipitous hills, but so it is, that its buildings, increasing and extending beyond all bounds, have now united many other cities to it.
43. Cross section of Roman road. By PocklingtonDan, via Wikimedia Commons..
44. Groma. By MatthiasKabel (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Ovid, Metamorphoses 15, 622 - 745 Asclepius’ arrival in Rome
You Muses, goddesses present to poets, reveal, now (since you know, and spacious time cannot betray you) where Aesculapius, son of Coronis, came from, to be joined to the gods of Romulus’s city, that the deep Tiber flows around. Once, plague tainted the air of Latium, and people’s bodies were ravaged by disease, pallid and bloodless. When they saw that their efforts were useless, and medical skill was useless, wearied with funeral rites, they sought help from the heavens, and travelled to Delphi, set at the centre of the earth, to the oracle of Phoebus, and prayed that he would aid them, in their misery, by a health-giving prophecy, and end their great city’s evil. The ground, the laurel-tree, and the quiver he holds himself, trembled together, and the tripod responded with these words, from the innermost sanctuary, troubling their fearful minds: ‘You should have looked in a nearer place, Romans, for what you seek here: even now, look for it from that nearer place: your help is not from Apollo, to lessen your pain, but Apollo’s son. Go, with good omens, and fetch my child.’ When the senate, in its wisdom, heard the god’s command, it made enquiries as to the city where Phoebus’s son lived, and sent an embassy to sail to the coast of Epidaurus. As soon as the curved ship touched shore, the embassy went to the council of Greek elders, and begged them to give up the god, who, by his presence, might prevent the death of the Ausonian race: so the oracle truly commanded. They disagreed, and were of various minds: some thought that help could not be refused: the majority recommended the god should be kept, and their own wealth not released, or surrendered. While they wavered, as dusk dispelled the lingering light, and darkness covered the countries of the earth with shadow, then, in 40
your dreams, Aesculapius, god of healing, seemed to stand before your bed,Roman, just as he is seen in his temple, holding a rustic staff in his left hand, and stroking his long beard with his right, and with a calm voice, speaking these words: ‘Have no fear! I will come, and I will leave a statue of myself behind. Take a good look at this snake, that winds, in knots, round my staff, and keep it in your sight continually, until you know it! I will change into this, but greater in size, seeming as great as a celestial body should be when it changes.’ The god vanished with the voice, at once: and sleep, with the voice, and the god: and as sleep fled, kind day dawned.
45. Asclepius (Giustini type) found in Rome, Tiber Island second century AD, Roman copy of Greek original from first quarter of fourth century BC. National Archaeological Museum, Naples. By Jastrow, via Wikimedia Commons.
When morning had put the bright stars to flight, the leaders, still unsure what to do, gathered at the temple complex of that god whom the Romans sought, and begged him to show them by some divine token where he himself wanted to live. They had hardly ceased speaking, when the golden god, in the likeness of a serpent with a tall crest, gave out a hiss as a harbinger of his presence, and by his coming, rocked the statue, the doors, the marble pavement, and the gilded roof. Then he stopped, in the middle of the temple, raising himself breast-high, and gazed round, with eyes flashing fire. The terrified crowd trembled, but the priest,
his sacred locks tied with a white band, knew the divine one, and cried: ‘The god, behold, it is the god! Restrain your minds and tongues, whoever is here! Let the sight of you, O most beautiful one, work for us, and help the people worshipping at your shrine!’ Whoever was there, worshipped the god, as they were told, and all re-echoed the priest’s words, and theRomans gave dutiful support, with mind and voice. The god nodded, and shook his crest, confirming his favour, by hissing three times in succession, with his flickering tongue. Then he glided down the gleaming steps, and turning his head backwards, gazed at the ancient altars he was abandoning, and saluted his accustomed house, and the temple where he had lived. From there the vast serpent slid over the flower-strewn ground, flexing his body, and made his way through the city centre to the harbour, protected by its curved embankment. He halted there, and, appearing to dismiss the dutiful throng, with a calm expression, settled his body down in the Ausonian ship. It felt the divine burden, and the keel sank under the god’s weight. The Romans were joyful, and, sacrificing a bull on the shore, they loosed the twisted cables of their wreath-crowned ship. A gentle breeze drove the vessel: the god arching skyward, rested his neck heavily on the curving sternpost, and gazed at the dark blue waters.
46. Asclepius’ staff, Tiber Island. By Joris, via Wikimedia Commons.
avoided the rocks of Amphrisia to larboard, the cliffs of Cocinthia to starboard; he coasted by Romethium, by Caulon and Narycia: he passed the narrow strait of Sicilian Pelorus, and the home of King Aeolus, and the mines of Temese, and headed for Leucosia and the rose-gardens of gentle Paestum. From there he skirted Capri, and Minerva’s promontory, and Surrentum’s hills wellstocked with vines, Herculaneum, Stabiae, and Parthenope, born for idleness, and headed for the temple of the Cumean Sibyl. By Baiae’s hot pools; and Liternum’s lentisk trees; and the River Volturnus, dragging quantities of sand along in its floodwaters; and Sinuessa, frequented by white doves; and unhealthy Minturnae; and Caïeta, named after her whom Aeneas her foster-son buried; and the home of Antiphates; and marsh-surrounded Trachas; and Circe’s land; and Antium’s firm shore. When the sailors steered their ship, under sail, to the place (since the sea was now rough) the god unwound his coils, and gliding along, fold after fold, in giant curves, entered his father Apollo’s temple, bordering the yellow strand. When the sea was calm, the Epidaurian left the paternal altars, and having enjoyed the hospitality of his divine father, furrowed the sandy shore as he dragged his rasping scales along, and climbing the rudder, rested his head on the ship’s high sternpost, until he came to Castrum, the sacred city of Lavinium, and the Tiber’s mouths. All the people, men and women alike, had come thronging from every side, in a crowd, to meet him, along with those who serve your flames, Trojan Vesta, and they hailed the god with joyful cries. As the swift ship sailed upstream, incense burned with a crackling sound on a series of altars on either bank, and the fumes perfumed the air, and the slaughtered victims bled heat on the sacrificial knives.
Now it entered Rome, the capital of the world. The snake stood erect, and resting his neck on the mast’s summit, turned, and With gentle breezes he reached Italy, over the looked for places fit for him to live. The river Ionian Sea, on the sixth morning. He passed splits here into two branches, flowing round the shores of Lacinium, famous for Juno’s what is named the Island, stretching its two temple, and Scylaceum; he left Iapygia, and arms out equally on both sides, with the land 41
between. There the serpent-child of Phoebus landed, and, resuming his divine form, made an end to grief, and came as a health-giver to the city. (Kline)
Livy, History of Rome 10, 47, 6 - 7 The many incidents which helped to make the year a happy one served to console the citizens for one calamity, a pestilence which raged in the City and country districts alike. The mischief it did was looked upon as a portent. The Sacred Books were consulted to see what end or what remedy would be vouchsafed by the gods. It was ascertained that Aesculapius must be sent for from Epidaurus. Nothing, however, was done that year, owing to the consuls being engrossed with the war, beyond the appointment of a day of public intercession to Aesculapius. (Roberts)
47. Anatomical votive reliefs. The Votives Project.
Livy, Summary (Periocha) Book 11 When Rome was suffering from a plague, ambassadors traveled to Epidaurus [in 293 BC] to transfer the cult statue of Aesculapius to Rome. They came back instead with the snake that the divine power of the god himself was said to inhabit. In Rome, the snake left the ship and went ashore at the island in the Tiber, where the Romans then founded the temple to Aesculapius.
48. Relief showing a healing by the hero Amphiaraos (left) and a snake (right), found at Oropos, near Athens, 4th century BC. Holy Land Photos.
49. Comparison between a true arch (left) and a corbel arch (right). By Anton~commonswiki, via Wikimedia Commons
50. Schematic illustration of an arch. 1. Keystone 2. Voussoir 3. Back 4. Impost 5. Intrados 6. Rise 7. Clear span or bay 8. Abutment. By MesserWoland, via Wikimedia Commons.
51. From an arch to a barrel vault to a dome with a groint vault. By Steven C., Art History Final on www.studyblue.com.
Plutarch, Numa 9, 1 - 4
To Numa is also ascribed the institution of that order of high priests who are called Pontifices, and he himself is said to have been the first of them. According to some they are called Pontifices because employed in the service of the gods, who are powerful and supreme over all the world; and “potens” is the Roman word for powerful. 2 Others say that the name was meant to distinguish between possible and impossible functions; the lawgiver enjoining upon these priests the performance of such sacred offices only as were possible, and finding no fault with them if any serious obstacle prevented. But most writers give an absurd explanation of the name; Pontifices means, they say, nothing more nor less than bridge-builders, from the sacrifices which they performed at the bridge over the Tiber, sacrifices of the greatest antiquity and the most sacred character; for “pons” is the Latin word for bridge. 3 They say, moreover, that the custody and maintenance of the bridge, like all the other inviolable and ancestral rites, attached to the priesthood, for the Romans held the demolition of the wooden bridge to be not only unlawful, but actually sacrilegious. It is also said that it was built entirely without iron and fastened together with wooden pins in obedience to an oracle. The stone bridge was constructed at a much later period, when Aemilius was quaestor. 4 However, it is said that the wooden bridge also was later than the time of Numa, and was completed by Ancus Marcius, the grandson of Numa by his daughter, when he was king.
the State by receiving its enemies into Roman citizenship, he transferred the whole of the population to Rome.  The Palatine had been settled by the earliest Romans, the Sabines had occupied the Capitoline hill with the Citadel, on one side of the Palatine, and the Albans the Caelian hill, on the other, so the Aventine was assigned to the new-comers.  Not long afterwards there was a further addition to the number of citizens through the capture of Tellenae and Ficana. Politorium after its evacuation was seized by the Latins and was again recovered; and this was the reason why the Romans razed the city, to prevent its being a perpetual refuge for the enemy.
 At last the whole war was concentrated round Medullia, and fighting went on for some time there with doubtful result. The city was strongly fortified and its strength was increased by the presence of a large garrison. The Latin army was encamped in the open and had had several engagements with the Romans.  At last Ancus made a supreme effort with the whole of his force and won a pitched battle, after which he returned with immense booty to Rome, and many thousands of Latins were admitted into citizenship. In order to connect the Aventine with the Palatine, the district round the altar Pons Sublicius of Venus Murcia was assigned to them.  The Janiculum also was brought into the city Livy, History of Rome 1, 33 boundaries, not because the space was wanted, but to prevent such a strong position from  After handing over the care of the various being occupied by an enemy. It was decided sacrificial rites to the Flamens and other priests, to connect this hill with the City, not only by and calling up a fresh army, Ancus advanced carrying the City wall round it, but also by a against Politorium, a city belonging to the bridge, for the convenience of traffic.  This Latins. He took it by assault, and following the was the first bridge thrown over the Tiber, and custom of the earlier kings who had enlarged was known as the Pons Sublicius. The Fossa 44
52. Drawing of the site of the Pons Sublicius. Illustration of Rome during the time of the Republic, published by Friedrich Polack in 1896. By Editor at Large, via Wikimedia Commons.
Quiritium also was the work of King Ancus and afforded no inconsiderable protection to the lower  and therefore more accessible parts of the City. Amidst this vast population now that the State had become so enormously increased, the sense of right and wrong was obscured, and secret crimes were committed. To overawe the growing lawlessness a prison was built in the heart of the City overlooking the  Forum.
Horatius Cocles Livy, History of Rome 2, 10 On the appearance of the enemy the country people fled into the City as best they could. The weak places in the defenses were occupied by military posts; elsewhere the walls and the Tiber were deemed sufficient protection. The enemy would have forced their way over the Sublician bridge had it not been for one man, Horatius Cocles. The good fortune of Rome
would very soon be more of the enemy on the Palatine and the Capitol than there were on the Janiculum. So he shouted to them to break down the bridge by sword or fire, or by whatever means they could, he would meet the enemies’ attack so far as one man could keep them at bay. He advanced to the head of the bridge. Amongst the fugitives, whose backs alone were visible to the enemy, he was conspicuous as he fronted them armed for fight at close quarters. The enemy were astounded at his preternatural courage. Two men were kept by a sense of shame from deserting him, Spurius Lartius and Titus Herminius, both of them men of high birth and renowned courage. With them he sustained the first tempestuous shock and wild confused onset, for a brief interval. Then, whilst only a small portion of the bridge remained and those who were cutting it down called upon them to retire, he insisted upon these, too, retreating. Looking round with eyes dark with menace upon the Etruscan chiefs, he challenged them to single combat, and reproached them all with being the slaves of tyrant kings, and whilst unmindful of their own liberty coming to attack that of others.
For some time they hesitated, each looking round upon the others to begin. At length shame roused them to action, and raising a shout they hurled their javelins from all sides on their solitary foe. He caught them on 53. Horatius Cocles defending the Sublicius his outstretched shield, and with unshaken bridge. Coin from the reign of Antoninus Pius resolution kept his place on the bridge with (138 – 161 AD). Fröhner, W. Les Médaillons firmly planted foot. They were just attempting de l’Empire romain depuis la Règne d’Auguste to dislodge him by a charge when the crash jusqu’à Priscus Attalle, 1878. blogs.kent.ac.uk. of the broken bridge and the shout which the provided him as her bulwark on that Romans raised at seeing the work completed memorable day. He happened to be on guard stayed the attack by filling them with sudden at the bridge when he saw the Janiculum taken panic. by a sudden assault and the enemy rushing Then Cocles said, “Tiberinus, holy father, I down from it to the river, whilst his own men, pray thee to receive into thy propitious stream a panic-struck mob, were deserting their posts these arms and this thy warrior.” So, fully and throwing away their arms. He reproached armed, he leaped into the Tiber, and though them one after another for their cowardice, many missiles fell over him he swam across tried to stop them, appealed to them in in safety to his friends: an act of daring more heaven’s name to stand, declared that it was famous than credible with posterity. in vain for them to seek safety in flight whilst leaving the bridge open behind them, there The State showed its gratitude for such 45
his statue was set up in the Comitium, and as much land given to him as he could drive the plough round in one day. Besides this public honor, the citizens individually showed their feeling; for, in spite of the great scarcity, each, in proportion to his means, sacrificed what he could from his own store as a gift to Cocles.
Plutarch, Life of Publicola 16, 4 - 7
two of them older men, Spurius Larcius and Titus Herminius, who commanded the right wing, and one a younger man, Publius Horatius, who was called Cocles from an injury to his sight, and one of his eyes having been struck out in a battle, and was the fairest of men in philosophical appearance and the bravest in spirit.
This man was nephew to Marcus Horatius, one of the consuls, and traced his descent from Marcus Horatius, one of the triplets who conquered the Alban triplets when the two cities, having become involved in war over the leadership, agreed not to risk a decision with all their forces, but with three men on Some, however, say that his nose was flat and each side, as I have related in one of the earlier sunken, so that there was nothing to separate books. his eyes, and his eye-brows ran together, and These three men, then, all alone, with their that for this reason the multitude wished to backs to the bridge, barred the passage of the call him Cyclops, but by a slip of the tongue enemy for a considerable time and stood their the name of Cocles became generally prevalent ground, though pelted by many foes with all instead. sorts of missiles and struck with swords in This Cocles, standing at the head of the bridge, hand-to-hand conflict, till the whole army had kept the enemy back until his companions had crossed the river. Horatius Cocles, however, first, and with him two of the most illustrious men of the city, Herminius and Lartius, defended the wooden bridge against them. Horatius had been given his surname of Cocles because he had lost one of his eyes in the wars.
cut the bridge in two behind him. Then, all accoutred as he was, he plunged into the river and swam across to the other side, in spite of a wound in the buttocks from a Tuscan spear.
Publicola, out of admiration for his valour, proposed that every Roman should at once contribute for him as much provision as each consumed in a day, and that afterwards he should be given as much land as he could plough round in a day. Besides this, they set up a bronze statue of him in the temple of Vulcan, to console him with honour for the lameness consequent upon his wound.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 23, 3 - 24
54. Horatius Cocles defending the bridge. Painting by Charles Le Brun, c.1642/1643. By DcoetzeeBot, via Wikimedia Commons.
When they judged their own men to be safe, two of them, Herminius and Larcius, their defensive arms being now rendered useless by the continual blows they had received, began to retreat gradually. But Horatius alone, though not only the consuls but the rest of the citizens as well, solicitous above all things that such a man should be saved to his country and his parents, called to him Those who checked the enemy’s attack and from the city to retire, could not be prevailed saved the whole army were three in number, While they were all fleeing to the city and endeavouring to force their way in a body over a single bridge, the enemy made a strong attack upon them; and the city came very near being taken by storm, and would surely have fallen if the pursuers had entered it at the same time with those who fled.
upon, but remained where he had first taken his stand, and directed Herminius and Larcius to tell the consuls, as from him, to cut away the bridge in all haste at the end next the city (there was but one bridge in those days, which was built of wood and fastened together with the timbers alone, without iron, which the Romans preserve even to my day in the same condition), and to bid them, when the greater part of the bridge had been broken down and little of it remained, to give him notice of it by some signals or by shouting in a louder voice than usual; the rest, he said, would be his concern.
own weapons against them, and hurling these into the crowd, he was bound, as may well be supposed, to find some mark every time.
Finally, when he was overwhelmed with missiles and had a great number of wounds in many parts of his body, and one in particular inflicted by a spear which, passing straight through one of his buttocks above the hipjoint, weakened him with the pain and impeded his steps, he heard those behind him shouting out that the greater part of the bridge was broken down. Thereupon he leaped with his arms into the river and swimming across the stream with great difficulty (for the current, being divided by the piles, ran swift and formed large eddies), he emerged upon the shore without having lost any of his arms in swimming.
Polybius, The Histories 6, 5
55. 3D model of a Roman bridge under construction using a cofferdam. Exhibition “Artifex. Ingeniería romana en España”, Archaeological Museum, Seville, 2005. By Hispa (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
It is narrated that when Horatius Cocles was engaged in combat with two of the enemy at the far end of the bridge over the Tiber that lies in the front of the town, he saw large reinforcements coming up to help the enemy, and fearing lest they should force the passage and get into town, he turned round and called to those behind him to retire and cut the bridge with all speed.
His order was obeyed, and while they were cutting the bridge, he stood to his ground receiving many wounds, and arrested the Having given these instructions to the two attack of the enemy who were less astonished men, he stood upon the bridge itself, and at his physical strength than at his endurance when the enemy advanced upon him, he and courage. struck some of them with his sword and beat The bridge once cut, the enemy were prevented down others with his shield, repulsing all who from attacking; and Cocles, plunging into the attempted to rush upon the bridge. For the river in full armour as he was, deliberately pursuers, looking upon him as a madman who sacrificed his life,2 regarding the safety of his was courting death, dared no longer come to country and the glory which in future would grips with him. At the same time it was not attach to his name as of more importance easy for them even to come near him, since he than his present existence and the years of life had the river as a defence on the right and left, which remained to him. and in front of him a heap of arms and dead bodies. But standing massed at a distance, Such, if I am not wrong, is the eager emulation they hurled spears, javelins, and large stones of achieving noble deeds engendered in the at him, and those who were not supplied with Roman youth by their institutions. these threw the swords and bucklers of the slain. But he fought on, making use of their 47
population. Caesar brought no charge against him, understanding well that on account of his associates he would not be convicted; 2 Livy, History of Rome 40, 51, 1 - 7 but he divorced his wife, telling her that he did The censors chose the senate faithfully and not really believe the story, but that he could harmoniously. The princeps senatus selected no longer live with her inasmuch as she had was Marcus Aemilius Lepidus himself, a censor once been suspected of committing adultery; and the pontifix maximus; three were expelled for a chaste wife not only must not err, but from the senate; Lepidus retained some who must not even incur any evil suspicion. 3 had been passed over by his colleague.  Following these events the stone bridge, called Public works, out of the money assigned and the Fabrician, leading to the little island in the divided between them, they carried out as Tiber, was constructed. follows.  Lepidus built a mole at Tarracina, a work which brought him censure because he owned property there and had included with expenditures chargeable to the state some private expenses; he contracted for a theatre and proscenium-building3 at the temple of Apollo, and for the cleaning and whitening of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline and of the columns around it; and from these columns he removed the statues which seemed to be so placed as to obstruct the view, and he took down the shields from the columns and the military standards of every sort which were affixed to them.  Marcus Fulvius contracted for additional works and of greater 56. Reconstruction drawing of the Pons Aemilius (Ponto Rotto). utility: a harbour and the piles for a bridge From Bender, Herman. Rom und römisches Leben im Alterthum. over the Tiber, the piles on which many years 1879. By Sindala, via Wikimedia Commons. later Publius Scipio Africanus and Lucius Mummius in  their censorship contracted Inscription on the Pons Fabricius for the construction of arches, a basilica (ILS 5892 = CIL 1305) behind the new shops of the silver-smiths and a fish-market with shops about it which he L(ucius) FABRICIUS, C(ai) F(ilius), sold for private  use; also a portico outside CUR(ator) VIAR(um), FACIUNDUM the Porta Trigemina, and another behind the (pontem) COERAVIT EIDEMQVE dock-yards, and near the shrine of Hercules, PROBAVIT. and behind the temple of Spes on the Tiber, and near the shrine of Apollo  Medicus [Note: coeravit = curavit]
Pons Fabricius Cassius Dio, Roman History 37, 45 45 1 It was at this time that Publius Clodius debauched Caesar’s wife in Caesar’s own house and during the performance of the rites which according to ancestral custom the Vestals carried out at the residences of consuls and praetors out of sight of the whole male 48
57. Weustink, Inge. “Inscription on Pons Fabricius, 62 BC.” August 2017.
Lucius Fabricius, son of Gaius and Curator of Roads, undertook the construction of this bridge [in 62 BC] and after inspection approved it.
Pons Cestius Polemius Silvius, Laterculus IV Pontes VIIII: Aelius, Aurilius, Aemilius, Milvius, Staricius, Ercius, Gratiani, Probi et Adriani.
58. Dream of Constantine I and battle of the Milvian bridge. Homilies of Grégory de Nazianzus (BnF MS grec 510), folio 355. AD 879-882. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. By Neuceu, via Wikimedia Commons.
While engaged in this enquiry, the thought
Eusebius, Life of Constantine 1, 26 - 31 occurred to him, that, of the many emperors 26. While, therefore, he regarded the entire world as one immense body, and perceived that the head of it all, the royal city of the Roman empire, was bowed down by the weight of a tyrannous oppression; at first he had left the task of liberation to those who governed the other divisions of the empire, as being his superiors in point of age. But when none of these proved able to afford relief, and those who had attempted it had experienced a disastrous termination of their enterprise, he said that life was without enjoyment to him as long as he saw the imperial city thus afflicted, and prepared himself for the overthrowal of the tyranny. 27. Being convinced, however, that he needed some more powerful aid than his military forces could afford him, on account of the wicked and magical enchantments which were so diligently practiced by the tyrant, he sought Divine assistance, deeming the possession of arms and a numerous soldiery of secondary importance, but believing the co-operating power of Deity invincible and not to be shaken. He considered, therefore, on what God he might rely for protection and assistance.
who had preceded him, those who had rested their hopes in a multitude of gods, and served them with sacrifices and offerings, had in the first place been deceived by flattering predictions, and oracles which promised them all prosperity, and at last had met with an unhappy end, while not one of their gods had stood by to warn them of the impending wrath of heaven; while one alone who had pursued an entirely opposite course, who had condemned their error, and honored the one Supreme God during his whole life, had found him to be the Saviour and Protector of his empire, and the Giver of every good thing. Reflecting on this, and well weighing the fact that they who had trusted in many gods had also fallen by manifold forms of death, without leaving behind them either family or offspring, stock, name, or memorial among men: while the God of his father had given to him, on the other hand, manifestations of his power and very many tokens: and considering farther that those who had already taken arms against the tyrant, and had marched to the battle-field under the protection of a multitude of gods, had met with a dishonorable end (for one of them had shamefully retreated from the contest without a blow, and the other, being slain in the midst of his own troops, became, as it were, the mere sport of death); reviewing, 49
I say, all these considerations, he judged it to be folly indeed to join in the idle worship of those who were no gods, and, after such convincing evidence, to err from the truth; and therefore felt it incumbent on him to honor his father’s God alone. 28. Accordingly he called on him with earnest prayer and supplications that he would reveal to him who he was, and stretch forth his right hand to help him in his present difficulties. And while he was thus praying with fervent entreaty, a most marvelous sign appeared to him from heaven, the account of which it might have been hard to believe had it been related by any other person. But since the victorious emperor himself long afterwards declared it to the writer of this history, when he was honored with his acquaintance and society, and confirmed his statement by an oath, who could hesitate to accredit the relation, especially since the testimony of after-time has established its truth? He said that about noon, when the day was already beginning to decline, he saw with his own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the heavens, above the sun, and bearing the inscription, CONQUER BY THIS. At this sight he himself was struck with amazement, and his whole army also, which followed him on this expedition, and witnessed the miracle. 29. He said, moreover, that he doubted within himself what the import of this apparition could be. And while he continued to ponder and reason on its meaning, night suddenly came on; then in his sleep the Christ of God appeared to him with the same sign which he had seen in the heavens, and commanded him to make a likeness of that sign which he had seen in the heavens, and to use it as a safeguard in all engagements with his enemies. 30. At dawn of day he arose, and communicated the marvel to his friends: and then, calling together the workers in gold and precious stones, he sat in the midst of them, and described to them the figure of the sign he had seen, bidding them represent it in gold and precious stones. And this representation I myself have had an opportunity of seeing. 50
31. Now it was made in the following manner. A long spear, overlaid with gold, formed the figure of the cross by means of a transverse bar laid over it. On the top of the whole was fixeda wreath of gold and precious stones; and within this, the symbol of the Saviour’s name, two letters indicating the name of Christ by means of its initial characters, the letter P being intersected by X in its centre: and these letters the emperor was in the habit of wearing on his helmet at a later period. From the cross-bar of the spear was suspended a cloth, a royal piece, covered with a profuse embroidery of most brilliant precious stones; and which, being also richly interlaced with gold, presented an indescribable degree of beauty to the beholder. This banner was of a square form, and the upright staff, whose lower section was of great length, bore a golden half-length portrait of the pious emperor and his children on its upper part, beneath the trophy of the cross, and immediately above the embroidered banner. The emperor constantly made use of this sign of salvation as a safeguard against every adverse and hostile power, and commanded that others similar to it should be carried at the head of all his armies. (Richardson)
59. The Battle of Milvian Bridge by Giulio Romano. 1520 – 1524. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City. By Scewing, via Wikimedia Commons.
of three-fold Geryon, driving his great bulls along as victor, The Tale of Hercules and Cacus and his cattle occupied the valley and the river. When hunger had been banished, and desire And Cacus, his mind mad with frenzy, lest for food sated, any King Evander said: ‘No idle superstition, or wickedness or cunning be left un-dared or un-tried ignorance
Vergil, Aeneid 8, 184 – 305
of the ancient gods, forced these solemn rites of ours,
drove off four bulls of outstanding quality, and as many
this ritual banquet, this altar to so great a heifers of exceptional beauty, from their stalls. divinity, upon us. and, so there might be no forward-pointing We perform them, and repeat the honours spoor, the thief due, dragged them into his cave by the tail, and, Trojan guest, because we were saved from reversing cruel perils. the signs of their tracks, hid them in the stony Now look first at this rocky overhanging cliff, dark: how its bulk no one seeking them would find a trail to the is widely shattered, and the mountain lair cave. stands deserted, Meanwhile, as Hercules, Amphitryon’s son, and the crags have been pulled down in was moving mighty ruin. the well-fed herd from their stalls, and There was a cave here, receding to vast depths, preparing to leave, untouched by the sun’s rays, inhabited by the the cattle lowed as they went out, all the woods were filled fell shape of Cacus, the half-human, and the ground was with their complaining, and the sound echoed from the hills. always warm with fresh blood, and the heads of men, insolently
One heifer returned their call, and lowed from the deep cave,
nailed to the doors, hung there pallid with sad decay.
and foiled Cacus’s hopes from her prison.
Vulcan was father to this monster: and, as he moved his massive bulk, he belched out his dark fires.
At this Hercules’s indignation truly blazed, with a venomous dark rage: he seized weapons in his hand, and his heavy
Now at last time brought what we wished, the knotted club, and quickly sought the slopes of the high mountain. presence and assistance of a god. Hercules, the greatest of avengers,
Then for the first time my people saw Cacus afraid, confusion
appeared, proud of the killing and the spoils
in his eyes: he fled at once, swifter than the 51
East Wind, heading for his cave: fear lent wings to his feet.
be seen from above, and the spirits tremble at incoming light.
So Hercules, calling upon all his weapons, As he shut himself in, and blocked the entrance hurled missiles securely, at Cacus from above, caught suddenly in throwing against it a giant rock, hung there in unexpected daylight, chains penned in the hollow rock, with unaccustomed by his father’s craft, by shattering the links, howling, behold and rained boughs and giant blocks of stone Hercules arrived in a tearing passion, turning on him. his head He on the other hand, since there was no this way and that, scanning every approach, escape now and gnashing from the danger, belched thick smoke from his teeth. Hot with rage, three times he circled his throat the whole (marvellous to tell) and enveloped the place in Aventine Hill, three times he tried the stony blind darkness, doorway in vain, blotting the view from sight, and gathering three times he sank down, exhausted, in the valley. smoke-laden night in the cave, a darkness mixed with fire. A sharp pinnacle of flint, the rock shorn away Hercules in his pride could not endure it, and on every side, stood, tall to see, rising behind he threw himself, the cave, a suitable place for vile birds to nest. with a headlong leap, through the flames,
He shook it, where it lay, its ridge sloping where the smoke towards the river gave out its densest billows, and black mist on the left, straining at it from the right, heaved in the great cavern. loosening its deepest roots, and tearing it out, then suddenly hurling it away, the highest heavens thundered with the blow, the banks broke apart, and the terrified river recoiled. But Cacus’s den and his vast realm stood revealed, and the shadowy caverns within lay open, no differently than if earth, gaping deep within, were to unlock the infernal regions by force, and disclose the pallid realms, hated by the gods, and the vast abyss 52
60. Statue of Hercules and Cacus by Baccio Bandinelli, 1525 - 1534. Piazza della Signoria, Florence. By Jebulon, via Wikimedia
Here, as Cacus belched out useless flame in a joyful libation on the table, and prayed to the darkness, the gods. Hercules seized him in a knot-like clasp, and, Meanwhile, evening drew nearer in the clinging, choked him heavens, the eyes squeezed, and the throat drained of and now the priests went out, Potitius leading, blood. clothed in pelts as customary, and carrying Immediately the doors were ripped out, and torches. the dark den exposed, They restarted the feast, bringing welcome the stolen cattle, and the theft Cacus denied, offerings were revealed as a second course, and piled the altars with to the heavens, and the shapeless carcass heaped plates. dragged out Then the Salii, the dancing priests, came to by the feet. The people could not get their fill sing round of gazing the lighted altars, their foreheads wreathed at the hideous eyes, the face, and shaggy with sprays bristling chest of poplar, one band of youths, another of old of the half-man, and the ashes of the jaw’s men, who praised flames. the glories and deeds of Hercules in song: how Because of that this rite is celebrated, and as an infant he strangled happy posterity the twin snakes in his grip, monsters sent by remembers the day: and Potitius, the first, the Juno his stepmother: founder, with how too he destroyed cities incomparable in the Pinarian House as guardians of the war, worship of Hercules, Troy and Oechalia: how he endured a set up this altar in the grove, which shall be thousand hard labours spoken of for ever destined for him by cruel Juno, through King by us as ‘The Mightiest’, and the mightiest it Eurystheus: shall be for ever. ‘You, unconquerable one, you slew the cloudCome now, O you young men, wreathe your born Centaurs, hair with leaves, bi-formed Hylaeus and Pholus, with your hold out wine-cups in your right hands, in hand: the monstrous honour of such great glory, Cretan Bull: and the huge lion below the cliffs and call on the god we know, and pour out the of Nemea. wine with a will.’ The Stygian Lake trembled before you: He spoke, while grey-green poplar veiled his Cerberus, Hell’s guardian, hair lying on half-eaten bones in his bloodwith Hercules’s own shade, hanging down in a drenched cave: knot of leaves, No shape, not Typheus himself, armed and and the sacred cup filled his hand. Quickly towering they all poured upwards, daunted you: your brains were not 53
lacking when Lerna’s Hydra surrounded you with its swarm of heads.
The boundaries of the pomerium as extended by Claudius are easy to recognize and also documented in the public records.
Hail, true child of Jove, a glory added to the gods, visit us and your rites with grace and favouring feet.’ Such things they celebrated in song, adding to all this Cacus’s cave, and the fire-breather himself. All the grove rang with sound, and the hills echoed. (Kline)
Tacitus, Annals 12, 23 – 24 Claudius also extended the pomerium of Rome [in AD 49], by an ancient custom whereby those who extended the empire might also expand the boundaries of the city. However, Rome’s leaders, even those who greatly expanded the empire, had not availed themselves of this privilege, with the exception of Sulla and the deified Augustus. The pomerium’s expansion under the kings (whether in accordance with their vainglory or their true achievements) is variously reported, but I think that the beginning of Rome’s foundation and the pomerium that Romulus established can be reliably traced as follows. From the point in the Forum Boarium where the bronze statue of the bull stands today (appropriately, since this is the species yoked to the ritual plow), a furrow was plowed to designate the city limits. It ran first to the Great Altar of Hercules and then along the base of the Palatine hill, in a line preserved today by regularly spaced boundaries stones. From here, the line extended to the Altar of Consus, then to the Old Assembly Grounds [Curiae Veteres] nearby, then to the Shrine of the Lares and on past the Roman Forum. Sources report that the Forum itself and the Capitoline hill were not part of Romulus’s original city but added by Titus Tatius. The pomerium was soon enlarged to keep pace with Rome’s fortunes. 54
61. Weustink, Inge. “Pomerium marker of the emperor Claudius, Via del Pellegrino, Rome.” August 2017.
CIL VI. 1231 = ILS. 213 Ti(berius) Claudius Drusi f(ilius) Caisar Aug(ustus) Germanicus, pont(ifex) max(imus), trib(unicia) pot(estate) 5 VIIII, imp(erator) XVI, co(n)s(ul) IIII, censor, p(ater) p(atriae), auctis populi Romani finibus, pomerium amplia((v))it termina((v)) itq(ue). Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, son of Drusus, chief priest, in the ninth year of his tribunician power, imperator for the 6th time, consul for the 4th time, censor, father of fatherland, having increased the territory of the Roman people, extended and demarkated the boundary of pomerium.
Livy, History of Rome 26, 10, 2 – 5; 26, 11, 5 – 6 [As Hannibal approached the city with his army in 211 BC, the Senate and consuls deliberated.] They decided on the following plan: the consuls would place their camps near the Colline and Esquiline gates; Gaius Calpurnius, the city praetor, would take command of the Capitoline and Citadel fortifications; and the full Senate would remain in the Forum in case there was a sudden need for their deliberation.
Hannibal, meanwhile, arrived at the Anio River and stationed a permanent camp there three miles from the city. Hannibal himself left camp with two thousand horse and rode towards the Colline gate, right up to the Temple of Hercules, and then rode along the walls as close as he could, studying the defenses and the terrain of the city. Hannibal’s careful and leisurely review struck the consul Flaccus as such an insult that he sent out cavalry against him to drive the enemy back to their camp.…
in worth from their surroundings. This can be observed in the case of flowers and wreaths: they have one order of worth when sold by the flower vendors in the precinct of Portunus, and another altogether when offered by the priests in a temple.
Varro, The Latin Language 5, 146
Merchandise of the same product can provide the distinguishing name to a part of the city.… For instance, the area along the Tiber near the Temple of Portunus they call the Forum A small incident soon occurred which helped Piscarium, for its fish [“pisces”]. to sap Hannibal’s determination to take the city. He learned from a Roman who was taken prisoner that the very field upon which his army was encamped had just been sold to a new owner in the city, with no reduction in price.
Varro, The Latin Language 6, 19 The Portunalia Festival [on August 17] is named after the god Portunus; it was on this day that his temple in the Portus Tiberinus was dedicated and his holiday was established.
62. Personification of the Tiber. Cast of the Mattei sarcophagus (ca. 220 AD), Museo della Civiltà romana. By Giovanni Dall’Orto (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Calendar Inscription (Fasti Amiterni) The dedication date of the Temple of Portunus near the Pons Aemilius is August 17.
Fronto, Letters 1, 7, 2 Many items which lack an intrinsic value gain 55
Building Techniques (walls)
63. Opus poligonale in the theatre of Pietrabbondante, Molise, Italy. By Massimo Baldi, via Wikimedia Commons.
64. Opus quadratum. a) stretchers b) headers and stretchers. By M.violante, via Wikimedia Commons.
65. Weustink, Inge. “Servian Wall in Via di Sant’Anselmo, Aventine.” August 2017.
66. Opus caementicium. Taken from www. romanoimpero. com.
67. Opus incertum, opus reticulatum, opus testaceum. By Isabel A., Roman Urbanism, www.studyblue.com.
68. Map of Rome with Roma quadrata, Servian Wall and Aurelian Wall. By Joris1919, via Wikimedia Commons.
Defensive Walls Livy, History of Rome 1, 7, 3
walls (not an easy thing to do, since buildings are now incorporated into the walls for much [After gaining sole power] Romulus’s first act of their course, leaving visible however some was to build a wall around the Palatine, the traces of their ancient structure), Rome would appear to be not much larger than the walled place of his own childhood. section of Athens.
Strabo, Geography 5, 3, 7
The first founders of Rome walled in the Capitoline, Palatine, and Quirinal hills.… The fourth king Ancus Martius extended the walls across the Caelian and Aventine hills and the valley floor between them, … and the sixth king Servius added the Esquiline and Viminal to Rome’s walled area.
Livy, History of Rome 1, 44, 3 [The census report undertaken by the king Servius in the C6 BC reported that 80,000 (sic) citizens lived in the city, many of them newcomers.] To address the needs of this population, it was clearly necessary to expand 69. Weustink, Inge. “Servian Wall in Piazza Albania, Aventine.” the city. Servius added two more hills—the August 2017. Quirinal and the Viminal—and then enlarged the enclosed area of the Esquiline as well, where he himself took up residence to lend this quarter some status. He surrounded the city with rampart, trench, and wall, thus Dionysius, Early Rome 9.68.3-4 extending the pomerium. The section of the wall between the Esquiline Dionysius, Early Rome 4, 13, 2 - 5 and Colline gates has been made stronger by engineering. In front of the wall outside the Servius enlarged the city by the addition of city a trench was excavated one hundred feet two hills, the Viminal and the Esquiline.… wide at the narrowest point and thirty feet This was the last king who enlarged the circuit deep. The wall rises above this trench and is of the city, adding two hills to the existing five supported on the inside by an earthen rampart that is so high and wide that the wall cannot be …. shaken apart by battering rams or undermined Today [c. 20 BC] the homes of the city by sapping. This portion of the walls is a little spread far beyond the walls, unprotected and less than a mile long and is fifty feet wide vulnerable to attack, should an enemy come. [including the banked earth]. Indeed, the extent of the city is deceptive for any observer trying to determine where it Livy, History of Rome 6, 32, 1 begins and where it ends, since the urban area is closely intertwined with the countryside Additional debts were incurred by the poor around it and gives the impression that the city [in 377 BC] when the censors contracted to stretches on forever. If however you judge the build a wall of cut stone. size of the city from the circumference of the 58
Livy, History of Rome 26, 10, 2 - 5; 26, A small incident soon occurred which helped to sap Hannibal’s determination to take the 11, 5 - 6
city. He learned from a Roman who was taken prisoner that the very field upon which his [As Hannibal approached the city with army was encamped had just been sold to a his army in 211 BC, the Senate and consuls new owner in the city, with no reduction in deliberated.] They decided on the following price. plan: the consuls would place their camps near the Colline and Esquiline gates; Gaius Horace, Satires 1, 8, 14 - 16 Calpurnius, the city praetor, would take command of the Capitoline and Citadel Today the Esquiline is wholesome enough for fortifications; and the full Senate would homes, remain in the Forum in case there was a sudden need for their deliberation. And one can stroll along the sunny Rampart, where lately Hannibal, meanwhile, arrived at the Anio River and stationed a permanent camp there One gazed across a landscape littered with three miles from the city. Hannibal himself bleached bones. left camp with two thousand horse and rode towards the Colline gate, right up to the Juvenal, Satires 5, 153 - 154 Temple of Hercules, and then rode along the walls as close as he could, studying the defenses [At dinner parties, the wealthy get served the and the terrain of the city. Hannibal’s careful choicest fruits] and leisurely review struck the consul Flaccus as such an insult that he sent out cavalry While you’re stuck with a rotten apple given against him to drive the enemy back to their to monkeys camp.… Performing tricks on the Rampart in a shield and helmet …
Juvenal, Satires 6, 588 [The rich go elsewhere to have their fortunes told] But plebeian fates are told by the Circus and on the Rampart.
Juvenal, Satires 8, 43 [You foolishly think that you yourself deserve some credit] Because your mother glows with aristocratic blood Instead of weaving for hire at the base of the windy Rampart.
Juvenal, Satires 3, 10 - 11 70. Map of Rome with Servian Wall and its gates from Smith, William. The student’s manual of ancient geography, based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography. J. Murray, London, 1861. By Internet Archive Book Images, via Wikimedia Commons.
When all my friend’s possessions were packed on a single cart He lingered by the ancient arcade and the dripping Porta Capena. 59
Martial, Epigrams 3, 47, 1 Where big drops rain from the Porta Capena…
Imperial Lives, Aurelian 21, 9 Responding to the tribal invasions that occurred earlier under the Emperor Gallienus, the Emperor Aurelius expanded the walls of Rome [in AD 271] after consulting with the Senate, although he did not enlarge the pomerium until a later date.
Imperial Lives, Aurelian 39, 2 The Emperor Aurelian enlarged the walls of the city of Rome to such an extent that their circuit was nearly 50,000 feet.
ILS 797 = CIL 6.1189 Because our Illustrious [etc.] Emperors Arcadius and Honorius restored the walls, gates, and towers of the Eternal City [in AD 401] while removing massive quantities of rubble, as recommended by the distinguished … General Stilicho and carried out under the direction of the urban prefect … Longinianus, the Senate and the People of Rome set up these statues of the two emperors in lasting memory of their name.
Claudian, On the Sixth Consulship of Stilicho, 531-6 [AD 404] Rome’s new walls, built to the recent alarms of tribes That threatened our borders, have given a fresh young face to the city. Thus was fear the father of beauty and a strange renewal: The city, grown old in peace, with war sloughed off its age, Erecting sudden towers, rejuvenating all The seven hills of Rome with one continual wall. allowed or forbidden 60
71. Weustink, Inge. “Pyramid of Caius Cestius and Porta San Paolo, one of the gates in the Aurelian Wall.” August 2017.
Taken from Claridge, Amanda. Rome, an Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 37 - 43.
From the C6 BC onwards most major building in Rome used solid blocks of stone if at all possible and finely dressed masonry is an immediate clue to a building of high status. Even when the whole structure is not made of stone, when concrete substituted for the bulk, the concrete is commonly made with stone aggregate and faced with stone in the form of nodules, pointed cubes, or small blocks.
Tufa Until the end of the C2 BC, the only general purpose stones available were the local volcanic conglomerates, called tufas (or tuffs), of which there are different varieties, characteristic of particular periods. Cappellaccio from the hills of Rome during the C7-C5 BC. For the great projects of the C6 BC (terracing, drainage, city walls) huge networks of caverns were mined under the Palatine, Capitoline and Quirinal Hills.
Grotta Oscura (18 km up the Tiber, right bank, various localities near Prima Porta). Yellowish, rather porous tufa, much used in the C4 BC (after the defeat of Veii in 396 BC brought the whole territory under Roman control) but occasionally used before then. Quarrying declined at the end of C2 as better alternatives opened up (Monteverde, Anio, Peperino). Fidenae (16 km up the Tiber, left bank, at Castel Giubileo). Yellowis tufa with large black inclusions, much used from the later C5 to C2 BC, then gives ways to Monteverde and Peperino. Monteverde (behind the Janiculum ridge and 10 km downriver at Magliana). A light greyish brown tufa peppered with white and darker (red and black) inclusions. Quarrying began in C2 BC and continued until modern times. Anio (up the Anio, a tributary of the Tiber, 8 km west of Rome near Tor Cervara). Reddish brown tufa. Quarried from the mid-C2 BC, characteristic of the C1 BC and C1 AD. Peperino, Lapis Albanus (20 km SE of Rome in the Alban Hills, near Marino).
72. The foundations of the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus in cappellaccio. Capitoline Museums., Ro,e. By Joris, via Wikimedia Commons.
Ashy blue-grey in colour, even-textured, hard, and compact. Some already being used in Rome for sculpture and other stone artifacts in the C4 BC but appears as a high-quality building stone from the C2 BC onwards. It is harder to work than the normal tufas but weathers better, often being employed on the outer face of a building, whereas the internal work could be of other tufa. Another peperino, Lapis Gabinus came from Gabii (16 km west of Rome, beside the Via Praenestina, near Osteria dell’Osa). Very similar to the Alban but rather coarser texture, introduced towards the end of the C2 BC.
Basalt, silex (Italian ‘selce’)
Used in large polygonal blocks for paving streets and main roads, came mainly from old lava flows from the volcanoes of the Alban Hills which outcrop near Frattocchie, Aqua Acetosa, Borghetto (Frascato) and closer in, beside the Via Appia antica (near the tomb of Cecilia Metella). A flow from the Bracciano volcano north of Rome was also tapped, near S. Maria di Galeria.
The earliest recorded marble buildings in Rome are a temple to Jupiter Stator vowed in 146 BC and a decade later one to Mars, both commissioned by triumphing Roman generals from a Greek architect Hermodorus of Salamis and both presumably employing marble (and marble workers) shipped in from Greece or the Aegean. Such practice became the hallmark of the capital city, the physical emodiment of its empire and the capacity of the imperial regime literally to move mountains. White or greyish white marble, metamorphosed chrystalline limestone, had been the traditional medium for fine architecture in the eastern world for generations, and by common consent there was nothing better. If Rome was to have the best, it had to have marble, but there is none worth speaking of in central or southern Italy; the closest sources lie in the Apuan Alps 350 km to the north (modern Carrara), which had hardly been touched before the Romans got there in the 2C BC and which they did not begin to exploit until the mid-C1 BC. Even then, although Italian quarries were able to furnish the bulk of supplies, without which marble architecture on the scale achieved in Rome would have been unthinkable, great quantities of white marble were regularly imported from elsewhere, together with a whole range of coloured stones: where they came from was as important as the purity of their tone and the vividness and variety of their colouring - and (at least for the emperors’ projects) long-distance transport was no object. From the early C1 AD until well into the C3 the emperors kept direct control of all the major sources, employing their own officials to run the quarries and oversee supplies (rather than contracting out).
73. Basalt pavement on the Via Appia, near Quarto Miglio. By Kleuske, via Wikimedia Commons.
Travertine . The hard white limestone found in deep beds on the plane between Rome and Tivoli (currently enjoying a great revival in modern architecture). More durable than any of the volcanic stones, and takes a strong edge and sharp detail far better. Roman quarrying probably started in the 2C BC, but its use in buildings was very selective until the early 1c BC; thereafter an excellent substitute for white marble in public architecture and widely employed for paving, steps, thresholds, doorframes, keystones and springers of arches, stone corbels, well-heads.
Parian Pure, highly translucent white marble from the island of Paros in the Cyclades, rated the best of all marbles by the Greeks. It was quarried from the C6 BC or earlier until late antiquity, in two qualities, one with fine, the other medium-coarse chrystals; the coarser stone also came in a greyish white variety. From the very beginning Parian was accustomed to travel, being shipped with or without the
necessary sculptors to execute commissions all around the eastern Mediterranean and sometimes further afield. The Romans were able to plug into an existing system and Parian, together with Pentelic, constituted the mainstay of supplies to the city during the C1 BC.
Rome, and continued under imperial control until at least the C3 AD. A range of variegated light-medium greys with streaks or veins of white and dark grey were much sought out for column shafts and veneer in the C2-C3 AD. Docimium
From the highlands of Phrygia in central Turkey, 500 km from the sea and without The white marble of Athens, quarried on a navigable river; one of imperial Rome’s Mount Pentelikon and Mount Hymettos maddest enterprises, instigated by the emperor since the C5 BC. Like Parian, during the C4- Augustus. The quarries produced both a fine C2 BC it had been exported together with its chrystalled, translucent white, very similar sculptors quite widely among the Hellenistic to Pentelic, and the particularly desirable kingdoms, and was an early import to Rome. Phrygian purple (see below). Finely chrystalled and translucent, the beds exploited during the Roman period were of Thasian variable quality, often full of greenish, pink, or A brilliant white with coarse, shimmering grey micaceous faults and a general tendency crystals, from the island of Thasos in the to split along the bedding lines. Employed for northern Aegean, where it had been quarried both architecture and statuary at all periods, since the C6 BC. At Rome it was generally especially during the reign of Domitian (AD favoured for veneer but is also found in 81 – 96) and in the early C4 (perhaps using architecture and statuary, especially in the C2 older reserves). AD and C4-C5. Pentelic
Proconnesian From the island of Marmara (ancient Proconnesos) in the sea of Marmara in NW Turkey. Medium crystalled, translucent, greyish white or strongly marked horizontal bands of grey and white. Although quarried for local regional use ever since the 6C BC it does not appear at Rome much before the end of the reign of Hadrian (AD 130s) but is then employed in huge quantities, especially under the Severans in the first half of the C3.
74. Weustink, Inge. “Temple of Hercules Victor with columns in Pentelic marble, Forum Boarium, Rome” August 2017.
Coloured marble and other hard stones
Although the Romans took their lead in the A very strong, fine grained white marble, matter from the Hellenistic kings of the C2 often slightly grey and rather dull compared BC, especially the Ptolemies of Egypt, they with the Greek, from the Apuan Alps of Italy, developed a passion for coloured stones in north of Pisa (modern Carrara), shipped to architecture and interior decoration that far Rome through the port-colony of Luni (hence outstripped anything seen before. The first its name). Large-scale quarrying probably signs are found in the 1C BC, when the consul started around 50 BC, promoted by Julius for 78 BC Marcus Lepidus caused a stir by Caesar for the great projects he planned in installing thresholds of yellow stone from 63
Numidia (North Africa) in his own house, and four years later the consul L. Lucullus shipped in a black/red marble from Asia Minor which thereafter took his name; M. Aemilius Scaurus had 38-foot monolithic column shafts of it in his house by 58 BC- Other colours were also beginning to come in from Greece by the 40s BC, such as green from Carystos and red from Cape Tenaros, and the choice blossomed when Egypt, the heartland of polychromatic stone architecture and sculpture, was taken over by Rome in 31 BC to be run as the emperors’ private estate. The Nile valley and the eastern desert are rich in white and brightly variegated red, yellow, and brown alabasters, black, pink, grey and green granites, green gabbrodiorites, dark green and black basalts. Imperial surveyors not only checked out all the existing sources, but in the first decades of the C1 AD identified many which had not been previously worked, especially far off in the eastern desert, including the deep red porphyry which was to become synonymous with imperial power. The Egyptian quarrymen (with practice born of generations) were particularly adept at extracting huge monoliths for column shafts up to 50 and even 60 Roman feet (15-18 m) long. Their other specialities were enormous stone tubs and basins for Rome’s imperially sponsored public baths. In due course new stones were also identified and brought into production in Greece, Asia Minot, Mauretania (Algeria), Spain and Gaul (Pyrenees), many of them operated by local entrepreneurs both for local use and export. It is not clear to what extent imperial ownership and administration was intended to keep certain stones in the imperial gift or simply ensured adequate supplies for imperial projects with any surplus being available for sale. Certainly ‘imperial’ marbles regularly ended up in non-imperial circles. Vast quantities of the coloured stones brought into the city during the Roman period are still around, but are rarely to be seen in their original settings, having been recycled, over and over, into the decoration of churches, palazzi, other monuments right down to the present day. Consequently a whole subculture of stone appreciation exists, with its own Italian nomenclature distinguishing hundreds of different types, mostly by the characteristics 64
of their colouring, occasionally by reference to a location in Rome. However, since modern studies have been able to determine what parts of the empire many of the stones came from, a new terminology is coming into use, which tries to place appropriate weight on provenance. The following are those most frequently encountered in this guide and some others it is useful to know about (the old Italian names are given in square brackets): Numidian yellow [giallo antico] From Chemtou (Tunisia), first quarried by the local kings of Numidia, attested in Rome by 78 BC. Plain yellow chrystalline limestone of varied intensity, brecciated red and yellow, and brecciated yellow and white. The same source could also produce a strong black and a pale green limestone. Used for columns, paving and veneer. Lucullan black/red [africano] From Teos, on the coast SW of Izmir (western Turkey). A breccia of red, fleshy pink, white and grey marble in a black (tending to dark green) matrix, it took its name from the Roman general L. Lucullus, who first brought it to Tome in 74 BC. Columns, paving and veneer Phrygian purple [pavonazzetto] From Docimium (see under white marbles, above). White marble strongly variegated with purplish blotches and veins. Columns, paving, veneer, basins, table supports, and statuary.
75. Weustink, Inge. “Different kinds of marble, Circus Maximus.” November 2016.
Chian pink/grey [portasanta] From the island of Chios, eastern Aegean. Under imperial control by the mid-C1 AD but already being imported to Rome in the late C1 BC. Columns, paving, veneer, basins, and table supports. Carystian green [cipollino] From Carystos, on the island of Euboea (Greece). Strongly marked streaks of green, with veins of grey and white, its Italian name likens the effect to a sliced onion. Cut on the bias the streaks form wave patterns. Columns, paving and veneer. Tenaros or Iasos red [rosso antico] From Cape Tenaros (southern tip of Mani, Greece) and similar beds near Iasos (SW Turkey). Some veneer but primarily used for edging strips and quarters moldings. The burgundy-wine colour inspired some exotic imperial commissions for statues of satyrs, companions of the wine-god Bacchus. Red porphyry [porfido] From Mons Porphyrites in the eastern desert of Egypt. Discovered by AD 18 and exploited down to the C5, a deep red/purple evenly sprinkled with tiny pink or white flecks, the quintessential imperial stone. Columns, paving, veneer, basins, sarcophagi, statuary. Grey Egyptian granite [granito del foro] From Mons Claudianus in the eastern desert of Egypt, grey flecked with white and black. The name implies the quarrying began in the reign of Claudius (AD 41 – 54) and the stone is found in the veneer of imperial buildings soon afterwards. Its large-scale use for columns is characteristic of Trajan and Hadrian. Another very similar granite was obtained from the Troad (Kozani, NW Turkey). Pink Egyptian granite [granito rosso] Rose pink speckled with black and white quartz from Aswan, along the banks of the upper Nile, quarried by the Pharaohs since 1800 BC; most really large obelisks are made of it. Came into widespread use at Rome in the late 1C AD, very popular in the late
empire. Columns, paving, veneer, basins, some Egyptianizing statuary. Green porphyry [serpentino] From near Sparta, southern Greece. Dark green with tiny mid-green or yellow rectangles. Its ancient name was the Lacedemonian stone. Exported to Rome from mid-1C AD. Paving and veneer, small columns and capitals, rare statuary. Thessalian green [verde antico] Found in various parts of Thessaly (northern Greece), the main quarries at Kastri and in the Larissa valley. Pale green limestone breccia with white marble and black flecks/veins. Under imperial control by the earl 2C AD, when imported to Rome in quantity; still being exploited by the emperors in the C5-C6 for projects in Constantinople and occasional gifts elsewhere. Spanish breccia [broccatello] From the Ebro valley, near Tortosa. Golden yellow with dark Purplish-red blotches and shelly incusions. Characteristic of the C2-C4 AD, in floor and wall veneer. Celtic black/white [bianco e nero antico] From Aubert, near St Girons at the foot of the Pyrenees. Principally exploited in the C4-C6 AD.
Concrete A combination of lime mortar and rubble aggregate at first used only as infill in structures which main load-bearing elements were made of stone, but developed in the course of the C2 BC into a major building material which could do everything stone could do – and more. Its success was largely due to the particular qualities of the mortar, made with the volcanic sand (pozzolana) which occurs in plentiful deposits in and around Rome, and lime, generally obtained by roasting limestone and gypsum, which had to come from further afield, brought by the river 65
from the Sabine hills behind Tivoli, Mount Soracte 30 km up the Tiber, or Terracina 120 km down the coast. Between them the two main ingredients produced a very strong and durable mix which had excellent hydraulic properties (capable of hardening even under water). Unlike modern concretes Roman concrete was not poured but laid in courses, the aggregate usually consisting of recycled offcuts of tufa, peperino, and/or brick (but chunks of travertine, marble, wall plaster and stucco, amphora handles, pegs, rim and body sherds would do) carefully graded to suit the job at hand. From the 1C BC concrete constituted the normal general purpose material for foundations and walls but could also be used to construct vaults and roofs. In the latter, the aggregate might consists of lumps of pumice (another volcanic products in good supply), to lighten the structure. The lime-pozzolana mortar mix could be refined by sieving the sand to make a smooth coating for finishing work.
76. Weustink, Inge. “Concrete dome of Pantheon, Rome, 126 AD; in the foreground Bernini’s elephant and obelisk, 1667.” August 2017.
Brick The Tiber basin has deep deposits of alluvial clays suitable for shaping and firing (‘terracotta’) into roof-tiles, plaques and bricks, some good sources being the valleys on the right bank very near Rome, just behind the Vatican and Janiculum ridge. In the early days the bricks were simply sun-dried, but by about 100 BC, as every other aspect of Roman building practice was being revolutionized, the kilns began to fire bricks as well and from the early 1C AD fired brick became one of the principal material for facing concrete. During the 2C AD brickyards were operating to supply the city’s needs as far away as Narni, 100 km up the Tiber valley. The standard form was nothing like a modern brick but a large flat slab – a bipedalis – two Roman feet (59 cm) square and an inch to two inches (2,5-5 cm) thick. Some were used whole, for the roofs and floors of drains, to cap off concrete foundations, or form levelling courses at intervals higher up a concrete wall. Most were sawn or split into smaller triangles (18 from one brick), for the wall facing. Smaller slabs, of 1,5 feet (sesquipedalis) and 8 inches (bessalis) square were made for lining the underside of vaults. Circular bricks were also produced, to be cut into quarters of smaller segments for building columns, and other preformed shapes could be supplied which combined to make cornices and other decorative mouldings.
77. Weustink, Inge. “Brick remains of Baths of Caracalla.” May 2016.
Brickstamps Stamping, though not unknown elsewhere (the army often did it), is a particular feature of brick production in the Roman area. The large numbers of contractors and subcontractors involved in the business often found it necessary to be able to distinguish their products from someone else’s. During the 2C AD and occasionally later, probably by imperial decree, the stamps were actually dated (in the normal Roman fashion by the names of the consuls for the year) and as a result the dating of a brick building can be equally precise.
Vitruvius, On Architecture 2, 6, 1 - 2 There is a naturally-occuring powder that produces remarkable results. It is found near Baiae, in the territories of the municipalities that surround Mt. Vesuvius. When mixed with lime and gravel it produces a strong building material, especially useful for piers built out into the sea, as the mixture hardens even under water. ... I should say, moreover, that the fires [sc. of Vesuvius] were stronger in the past and that the plentiful flames within the mountain had emerged and burned fields thereabouts. It is for this reason that the rock called “sponge” or “Pompeian pumice” seems to have been formed from some other sort of rock by the heat. (www.pompeiana.org)
78. Stamp on a hypocaust brick, used by the third cohort of Roman citizens from Thrace: [Coh(ors)] III Thr(acum) c(ivium) R(omanorum). Museum Quintana, Kürzing, Germany. By Wolfgang Sauber, via Wikimedia Commons.
Cocciopesto (opus signinum) A mixture of lime, pozzolana, and crushed brick or pottery (hence its Italian name), general purpose waterproofing for heavy duty floors, pavements, concrete roofs, lining cisterns and bathing pools. See figure 84.
79. Orders of columns. Institute of Historic Building Conservation, Conservation Wiki. By Editor, www. designingbuildings. co.uk.
80. Greek temple types. By Napoleon Vier; vectorization by B. Jankuloski, via Wikimedia Commons.
81. Etruscan temple type. By FinnWikiNo, via Wikimedia Commons.
82. Elevation and ground plan of Temple of Hercules Victor, Forum Boarium, Rome. Claridge, Amanda. Rome. An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 255.
83. Elevation and ground plan of Temple of Portunus, Forum Boarium, Rome. Fletcher, Banister. A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. Sixth edition, rewritten and enlarged. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1921. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. quod.lib. umich.edu/lib/colllist.
Building Techniques (floors)
84. Opus signinum floor, Kerkouane, Tunisia. By Rais67, via Wikimedia Commons.
85. Opus tesselatum. Pavement mosaic with a duck, 3rd century AD, from the area of the Monte della Giustizia in Piazza della Stazione Termini. National Museum of Rome – Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. By Marie-Lan Nguyen, via Wikimedia Commons.
86. Opus vermiculatum. Central panel of a floor mosaic with a cat and two ducks, first quarter of the 1st century BC, from the triclinium of a suburban villa in the Cecchignola area. National Museum of Rome – Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. By Marie-Lan Nguyen, via Wikimedia Commons.
87. Opus sectile floor from Herculaneum. By AlMare, via Wikimedia Commons.
88. Cosmatesque floor from Basilica of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. By Manfred Heyde, via Wikimedia Commons.
89. Map of he Roman Forum in the Republic from The Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome (1904). Original diagram by Samuel Ball Platner, scan by Felix Just, S.J., alterations by Amadscientist/Mark James Miller, via Wikimedia Commons.
Varro, The Latin Language 5, 145
The “forum” is so named because it is the place where people take issues to court [conferrent] and where people bring [ferrent] their merchandise to sell it.
Comitium and Lapis Niger
auction to the highest bidder. (Ruebel)
Plautus, Curculio 467 – 482 I’ll show you where you’ll find each sort of man in town, To save you the trouble of tracking them down, be it men of virtue You seek, or men of vice, men with and without morals. If you need a man to perjure an oath, the Comitium’s the place; But for liars and braggarts, go to the shrine of Venus Cloacina. Wealthy husbands incautious with cash haunt the Basilica—
90. Comitium and Lapis Niger. The VRoma Project.
There too the busiest hookers and the pimps who strike the deal. Members of the dinner clubs you’ll find in the Fish-market. Gentlemen stroll at the end of the Forum, men of money; In the center, near the Canal, linger the pure pretenders.
91. Lapis Niger inscription. From www.imperioromano. com. By Paulusgreat, via Wikimedia Commons.
Above the Lacus Curtius the slanderers gather, bold Malicious men who brazenly accuse the innocent
Translation of the Lapis Niger But who themselves make truer targets for inscription (ILS 4913 = CIL 6.36840) their charges. Whosoever defiles this spot, let him be forfeit to the spirits of the underworld; whosoever contaminates it with refuse, after due process of law, it shall be proper for the King to deprive him of his property. And whatsoever persons the King shall discover passing on this road, let him bid the Herald seize the reins of their draught animals, to force them to turn aside forthwith and to take the approved detour. And whosoever shall fail to take the approved detour and shall persist in traveling this road, let him after due process of law be sold at
At the Old Shops are those who lend or borrow money, And others behind the Temple of Castor— trust them at your peril. On Tuscan Way, more hookers, of either sex; On the Velabrum, bakers, butchers, and prognosticators, And swindlers, or those who rent the stalls for swindlers’ work. 73
Pliny, Natural History 15, 20, 7 – 8
death. By a like accident, too, a vine and an olive-tree have sprung up in the same spot, In the Forum even, and in the very midst of which have ever since been carefully tended the Comitium of Rome, a fig-tree is carefully by the populace for the agreeable shade cultivated, in memory of the consecration which they afford. The altar that once stood which took place on the occasion of a there was afterwards removed by order of the thunderbolt which once fell on that spot; and deified Julius Cæsar, upon the occasion of the still more, as a memorial of the fig-tree which last spectacle of gladiatorial combats which he in former days overshadowed Romulus and gave in the Forum. Remus, the founders of our empire, in the Lupercal Cave. This tree received the name of “ruminalis,” from the circumstance that under Temple of Vesta it the wolf was found giving the breast— rumis it was called in those days—to the two infants. A group in bronze was afterwards Livy, History of Rome 1, 3, 10 - 11 erected to consecrate the remembrance of this miraculous event, as, through the agency  Proca ruled next. He begat Numitor of Attus Navius the augur, the tree itself had and Amulius; to Numitor, the elder, he passed spontaneously from its original locality bequeathed the ancient realm of the Silvian to the Comitium in the Forum. And not family. Yet violence proved more potent without some direful presage is it that that tree than a father’s wishes or respect for seniority. has withered away, though, thanks to the care Amulius drove out his brother and ruled in his stead.  Adding crime to crime, he of the priesthood, it has been since replaced. destroyed Numitor’s male issue; and Rhea Silvia, his brother’s daughter, he appointed a Vestal under pretence of honouring, her, and by consigning her to perpetual virginity, deprived her of the hope of children.
Livy, History of Rome 1, 20, 3 [Numa, king of Rome after Romulus, founded many religious institutions.] He appointed virgins to the cult of Vesta, to be supported by payments from the public treasury so that 92. Ficus, olea, vitis: fig-tree, olive-tree and grapevine in the Forum. By Cassius Ahenobarbus they could remain constant attendants at (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. her temple. To confer sanctity and awe upon theses priestesses, he set them apart with There was another fig-tree also, before the virginity and a variety of ceremonies. temple of Saturn, which was removed on the occasion of a sacrifice made by the Vestal Ovid, Fasti 6, 265 - 269; 295 - 298 Virgins, it being found that its roots were gradually undermining the statue of the god The current temple’s shape preserves the shape Silvanus. Another one, accidentally planted of old. there, flourished in the middle of the Forum, There is solid reason for its roundness: the upon the very spot, too, in which, when from Earth, a direful presage it had been foreboded that the growing empire was about to sink to its You see, and Vesta are one; for each, an very foundations, Curtius, at the price of undying fire, an inestimable treasure—in other words, by And Earth, like hearth-place, signifies the sacrifice of such unbounded virtue and the Center. piety—redeemed his country by a glorious 74
The Earth, also, is round like a ball… . Foolishly I used to think that Vesta had a statue,
Their rescue calls for human hands, not prayer.”
… Until I learned her curving dome held none. Metellus scooped up water, then lifting his hands he prayed: A perpetual flame burns hidden in that temple, “Forgive me, sacred ones! I go, a man, But neither Vesta nor the flame have where a man should not. sculptured form. If this be a crime, let the punishment fall on me, not Rome: Let the city be redeemed by the price of my own life.” So saying, in the temple he burst; and the goddess, saved By the actions of her pontiff, approved the deed. 93. Silver denarius with depiction of Nero and Temple of Vesta. Rome mint, struck circa 65-66 AD. Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
Ovid, Fasti 6, 421 - 454 People believe that the image of Minerva clad in armor, The Palladium, sprang down from heaven to the hills of Troy. … Whoever it was who took it from Troy, it is Roman now, And Vesta guards it here with her always watchful light. Imagine the fear the senators felt, the time that Vesta
Caught on fire!
… The pontifex Metellus ran to the scene and shouted, “Vestals, run to the rescue! It will not help to weep! Lift up the pledges of Rome’s power in your virgin palms:
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 2, 67 67 1 The virgins who serve the goddess were originally four and were chosen by the kings according to the principles established by Numa, but afterwards, from the multiplicity of the sacred rites they perform, their number was increased of six, and has so remained down to our time. They live in the temple of the goddess, into which none who wish are hindered from entering in the daytime, whereas it is not lawful for any man to remain there at night. 2 They were required to remain undefiled by marriage for the space of thirty years, devoting themselves to offering sacrifices and performing the other rites ordained by law. During the first ten years their duty was to learn their functions, in the second ten to perform them, and during the remaining ten to teach others. After the expiration of the term of thirty years nothing hindered those who so desired from marrying, upon laying aside their fillets and the other insignia of their priesthood. And some, though very few, have done this; but they came to ends that were not at all happy or enviable. In consequence, the rest, looking upon their misfortunes as ominous, remain virgins in the temple of the goddess till their death, and then once more another is chosen by the pontiffs to supply the vacancy. 3 Many high honours have been 75
granted them by the commonwealth, as a result of which they feel no desire either for marriage or for children; and severe penalties have been established for their misdeeds. It is the pontiffs who by law both inquire into and punish these offences; to Vestals who are guilty of lesser misdemeanours they scourge with rods, but those who have suffered defilement they deliver up to the most shameful and the most miserable death. 4 While they are yet alive they are carried upon a bier with all the formality of a funeral, their friends and relations attending them with lamentations, and after being brought as far as the Colline Gate, they are placed in an underground cell prepared within the walls, clad in their funeral attire; but they are not given a monument or funeral rites or any other customary solemnities. There are many indications, it seems, when a priestess is not performing her holy functions with purity, but the principal one is the extinction of the fire, which the Romans dread above all misfortunes, looking upon it, from whatever cause it proceeds, as an omen that portends the destruction of the city; and they bring fire again into the temple with many supplicatory rites, concerning which I shall speak on the proper occasion.
95. Statue of Vestal Virgin. Atrium Vestae, Roman Forum. By NoJin (Own work), Wikimedia Commons.
for a Vestal. After the trial was postponed, she was acquitted, but the Pontifex Maximus, speaking officially for the priesthood, ordered her to restrain her wit and to dress in a fashion more prim than prom-like.
Livy, History of Rome 28, 11, 1, 3, 6 [In 206 BC, the war against Hannibal dragged on.] In a country worn by the stress of a perilous war, people attributed the causes of all events, favorable and unfavorable alike, to the gods, and numerous prodigies were reported. ... North of the city of Caere, a two-headed pig was borne, as well as a lamb that was both male and female; in Alba, they say two suns were seen. ... But more terrifying than any of the portents, whether reported from other towns or seen in Rome, the fire in the Temple of Vesta went out, and the Vestal in charge of the fire that night was whipped, by the order of the Pontifex Maximus, Publius Licinus.
Livy, History of Rome 8, 15, 7 - 8 94. Plans of the Temple of Vesta in Tivoli and of the Temple of Vesta in Rome. From Morgan, M.H. Vitruvius. The Ten Books on Architecture. Oxford University Press, 1914.
In that year [337 BC] the Vestal Minucia, having first come under suspicion because she dressed more stylishly than was proper for a Vestal, was then accused of unchastity by one of her servants. The pontiffs who heard the Livy, History of Rome 4, 44, 11 - 12 charge ordered her to abstain from her sacred duties, and to retain her servants (so that, as During the same year [420 BC], the Vestal slaves, they might be tortured for further Virgin Postumia was put on trial for the evidence). She was convicted and buried alive charge of unchastity. She was innocent, but near the Colline Gate, to the right of the paved had come under suspicion because she dressed road in the Accursed Field – named, I believe, too attractively and showed too free a spirit as a result of her unchastity. 76
Inscription (ILS 4938 = CIL 6.32422) In recognition of her chastity, purity, and her outstanding
of the god under whose rule the wealth of the community was held in common.
…Apollodorus says that the statue of Saturn is bound in wool fetters throughout the year, knowledge in ritual and religious matters, the and is freed of them only on the day of the pontiffs, festival in his honor. under the illustrious Pontifex Maximus, Inscription on the architrave (ILS Macrinius Sossianus, (dedicate this) to C[--]a, head priestess of the Vestal Virgins.
3326 = CIL 6.937)
SENATUS POPULUSQUE ROMANUS INCENDIO CONSUMPTUM RESTITUIT
Temple of Saturn
The Senate and People of Rome restored this temple after it was destroyed by fire.
Macrobius, Saturnalia 1, 8, 3 - 5 The founders of the Temple of Saturn wanted the building to be Rome’s treasury as well, because it was said that under the reign of Saturn no robberies took place within Italy’s borders, or because under his rule private property did not exist. “It was forbidden to own the earth and to divide up fields with borders; everyone strove for the common good,” as Virgil describes that time [in Georgics 1.126-127]. Therefore, the public funds of the people were lodged in the temple
97. Detail of inscription on architrave of Temple of Saturn, Roman Forum. By Cassius Ahenobarbus, via Wikimedia Commons.
Statius, Occasional Poems 1, 6, 1 - 7; 25 - 27; 43 - 45 Father Apollo and stern Minerva: Take holiday with the polished Muses: We will call you all back on the first of the year. Now Saturn, slip your shackles and reign With drunken December, insolent Wit And the smiling god of Mockery. Let Jupiter wrap the world in cloud And threaten to flood the fields With winter rain, so long as Saturn Showers us with abundant gifts. Today one table feasts us all In common, mixing young and old,
96. Portrait of a woman as a Vestal Virgin by Angelica Kauffman, 1770s. ThyssenBornemisza Museum, Madrid. By Mattis, via Wikimedia Commons.
Men and women, high and low: Here Liberty puts Rank in its place. 77
Temple of Castor and Pollux Dionysius, Early Rome 6, 13, 1 - 4 1 It is said that in this battle two men on horseback, far excelling in both beauty and stature those our human stock produces, and just growing their first beard, appeared to Postumius, the dictator, and to those arrayed about him, and charged at the head of the Roman horse, striking with their spears all the Latins they encountered and driving them headlong before them. And after the flight of the Latins and the capture of their camp, the battle having come to an end in the late afternoon, two youths are said to have appeared in the same manner in the Roman Forum attired in military garb, very tall and beautiful and of the same age, themselves retaining on their countenances as having come from a battle, the look of combatants, and the horses they led being all in a sweat. 2 And when they had each of them watered their horses and washed them at the fountain which rises near the temple of Vesta and forms a small but deep pool, and many people stood about them and inquired if they brought any news from the camp, they related how the battle had gone and that the Romans were the victors. And it is said that after they left the Forum they were not seen again by anyone, though great search was made for them by the man who had been left in command of the city. 3 The next day, when those at the head of affairs received the letters from the dictator, and besides the other particulars of the battle, learned also of the appearance of the divinities, they concluded, as we may reasonably infer, that it was the same gods who had appeared in both places, and were convinced that the apparitions had been those of Castor and Pollux. 4 Of this extraordinary and wonderful appearance of these gods there are many monuments at Rome, not only the temple of Castor and Pollux which the city erected in the Forum at the place where their apparitions had been seen, and the adjacent fountain, which bears the names of these gods and is to this day regarded as holy, but also the costly sacrifices which the people perform each year through their chief priests in the month called Quintilis, on the day known as the Ides, 78
the day on which they gained this victory. But above all these things there is the procession performed after the sacrifice by those who have a public horse and who, being arrayed by tribes and centuries, ride in regular ranks on horseback, as if they came from battle, crowned with olive branches and attired in the purple robes with stripes of scarlet which they call trabeae. They begin their procession from a certain temple of Mars built outside the walls, and going through several parts of the city and the Forum, they pass by the temple of Castor and Pollux, sometimes to the number even of five thousand, wearing whatever rewards for valour in battle they have received from their commanders, a fine sight and worthy of the greatness of the Roman dominion.
98. Pair of Roman statuettes depicting the Dioscuri as horsemen, with their characteristic skullcaps, 3rd century AD. Metropolitan Museum of Art. By Ad Meskens (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Cicero, Against Verres 1, 130 – 133, 145 [When Verres, one of the most corrupt politicians ever produced by Rome, was praetor,] he wanted the Temple of Castor and Pollux to be the most famous memorial of his corruption, something we would not just hear about occasionally but be able to see on a daily basis. He asked who was responsible for turning over the Temple of Castor in a state of good repair, and learned that it was the son of the late Junius, who was still a minor. He was also told that the statuary and gifts to the temple were all accounted for, and that the temple itself was in fine condition all around.
For someone such as Verres, it seemed a shame Ovid, Fasti 1, 705 - 708 if such a large and magnificent temple should go unused to make himself richer, especially at January the twenty-seventh is the dedication the expense of a minor. date So Verres personally goes to inspect the temple. He sees that the ceiling is beautifully paneled everywhere and that everything else was maintained in good order. Verres turns and asks one of the dogs in his pack of followers what he could possibly do with the place, and is told: “Verres, there’s nothing here for you to work on, unless you want to put the columns on the perpendicular.” “‘On the perpendicular?’” this most incompetent of humans asks; “What does that mean?” They tell him that no column can be set exactly on the perpendicular. “By Hercules, that’s what we’ll do then: these columns must be realigned on the perpendicular!”
Of the temple built in honor of Leda’s immortal twins: Close by the Pond of Juturna two brothers built this temple, Brothers from a house divine in honor of brothers divine.
Temple of Divine Julius Caesar Appian, Civil Wars 2, 143 - 148
All those columns that we see there, freshly whitened, were taken down with a scaffoldprop in their place, and then put back up using the very same stone as before. For this work, Verres, you accepted a bid of 560,000 sesterces. Furthermore, your contractor never even touched some of the columns, but simply scraped and re-coated them!
143 Caesar’s will was now produced and the people ordered that it be read at once. In it Octavian, the grandson of his sister, was adopted by Caesar. His gardens were given to the people as a place of recreation, and to every Roman still living in the city he gave seventy-five Attic drachmas. The people were again somewhat stirred to anger when they saw the will of this lover of his country, whom they had before heard accused of tyranny. Most of all did it seem pitiful to them that Decimus Brutus, one of the murderers, should have been named by him for adoption in the second degree; for it was customary for the Romans to name alternate heirs in case of the failure of the first. Whereupon there was still greater disturbance among the people, who considered it shocking and sacrilegious that Decimus should have conspired against Caesar when he had been adopted as his son. 99. Aureus of Nerva and Concordia. Rome, 97 AD. By Classical When Piso brought Caesar’s body into the Numismatic Group, Inc. By Steerpike, via Wikimedia Commons. forum a countless multitude ran together with arms to guard it, and with acclamations Suetonius, Tiberius 20 and magnificent pageantry placed it on the rostra. Wailing and lamentation were renewed With spoils [from the war in Germany] for a long time, the armed men clashed their Tiberius rebuilt the Temple of Concord as shields, and gradually they began to repent well as the Temple of Castor and Pollux, and themselves of the amnesty. Antony, seeing dedicated them in his own and his late brother how things were going, did not abandon his Drusus’s name [in AD 6]. purpose, but, having been chosen to deliver the funeral oration, as a consul for a consul, 79
a friend for a friend, a relative for a relative (for he was related to Caesar on his mother’s side), resumed his artful design, and spoke as follows:—
100. Bust of Gaius Julius Caesar. Farnese Collection. Now in National Archaeological Museum Naples. By Marcus Cyron, via Wikimedia Commons.
144 “It is not fitting, citizens, that the funeral oration of so great a man should be pronounced by me alone, but rather by his whole country. The decrees which all of us, in equal admiration of his merit, voted to him while he was alive — the Senate and the people acting together — I will read, so that I may voice your sentiments rather than my own.” Then he began to read with a severe and gloomy countenance, pronouncing each sentence distinctly and dwelling especially on those decrees which declared Caesar to be superhuman, sacred, and inviolable, and which named him the father, or the benefactor, or the peerless protector of his country. With each decree Antony turned his face and his hand toward Caesar’s corpse, illustrating his discourse by his action, and at each appellation he added some brief remark full of grief and indignation; as, for example, where the decree spoke of Caesar as ‘the father of his country’ he added “this was a testimonial of his clemency”; and again, where he was made ‘sacred and inviolable’ and ‘everybody else was to be held unharmed who should find refuge with him’ — Nobody,” said Antony, “who found refuge with him was harmed, but he, whom you declared sacred and inviolable, was killed, although he did not extort these honours from you as a tyrant, and did not even ask for them. 80
Most lacking the spirit of free men are we if we give such honours to the unworthy who do not ask for them. But you, faithful citizens, vindicate us from this charge of lacking the spirit of free men by paying such honours as you now pay to the dead.” 145 Antony resumed his reading and recited the oaths by which all were pledged to guard Caesar and Caesar’s body with all their strength, and all were devoted to perdition who should not avenge him against any conspiracy. Here, lifting up his voice and extending his hand toward the Capitol, he exclaimed, “Jupiter, guardian of this city, and ye other gods, I stand ready to avenge him as I have sworn and vowed, but since those who are of equal rank with me have considered the decree of amnesty beneficial, I pray that it may prove so.” A commotion arose among the senators in consequence of this exclamation, which seemed to have special reference to them. So Antony soothed them again and recanted, saying, “It seems to me, fellow-citizens, that this deed is not the work of human beings, but of some evil spirit. It becomes us to consider the present rather than the past, since the greatest danger approaches, if it is not already here, lest we be drawn into our former civil commotions and lose whatever remains of noble birth in the city. Let us then conduct this sacred one to the abode of the blest, chanting over him our accustomed hymn and lamentation.” 146 Having spoken thus, he gathered up his garments like one inspired, girded himself so that he might have the free use of his hands, took his position in front of the bier as in a play, bending down to it and rising again, and first hymned him as a celestial deity, raising his hands to heaven in order to testify to Caesar’s divine birth. At the same time with rapid speech he recited his wars, his battles, his victories, the nations he had brought under his country’s sway, and the spoils he had sent home, extolling each exploit as miraculous, and all the time exclaiming, “Thou alone hast come forth unvanquished from all the battles thou hast fought. Thou alone hast avenged thy country of the outrage put upon it 300 years ago, bringing to their knees those savage tribes, the only ones that ever broke into and burned the city of Rome.” Many other things
Antony said in a kind of divine frenzy, and then lowered his voice from its high pitch to a sorrowful tone, and mourned and wept as for a friend who had suffered unjustly, and solemnly vowed that he was willing to give his own life in exchange for Caesar’s. Carried away by an easy transition to extreme passion he uncovered the body of Caesar, lifted his robe on the point of a spear and shook it aloft, pierced with dagger-thrusts and red with the dictator’s blood. Whereupon the people, like a chorus in a play, mourned with him in the most sorrowful manner, and from sorrow became filled again with anger. After the discourse other lamentations were chanted with funeral music according to the national custom, by the people in chorus, to the dead; and his deeds and his sad fate were again recited. Somewhere from the midst of these lamentations Caesar himself was supposed to speak, recounting by name his enemies on whom he had conferred benefits, and of the murderers themselves exclaiming, as it were in amazement, “Oh that I should have spared these men to slay me!”47 The people could endure it no longer. It seemed to them monstrous that all the murderers who, with the single exception of Decimus Brutus, had been made prisoners while belonging to the faction of Pompey, and who, instead of being punished, had been advanced by Caesar to the magistracies of Rome and to the command of provinces and armies, should have conspired against him; and that Decimus should have been deemed by him worthy of adoption as his son.
101. The Assassination of Julius Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini, 1804 – 1805. Galleria Nazionale D’Arte Moderna, Roma. By Hohum, via Wikimedia Commons.
147 While they were in this temper and were already near to violence, somebody raised above the bier an image of Caesar himself made of wax. The body itself, as it lay on its back on the couch, could not be seen. The image was turned round and round by a mechanical device, showing the twenty-three wounds in all parts of the body and on the face, that had been dealt to him so brutally. The people could no longer bear the pitiful sight presented to them. They groaned, and, girding up their loins, they burned the senatechamber where Caesar was slain, and ran hither and thither searching for the murderers, who had fled some time previously. They were so mad with rage and grief that meeting the tribune Cinna, on account of his similarity of name to the praetor Cinna who had made a speech against Caesar, not waiting to hear any explanation about the similarity of name, they tore him to pieces like wild beasts so that no part of him was ever found for burial. They carried fire to the houses of the other murderers, but the domestics besought them to desist. So the people abstained from the use of fire, but they threatened to come back with arms on the following day. 148 The murderers fled from the city secretly. The people returned to Caesar’s bier and bore it as a consecrated thing to the Capitol in order to bury it in the temple and place it among the gods. Being prevented from doing so by the priests, they placed it again in the forum where stands the ancient palace of the kings of Rome. There they collected together pieces of wood and benches, of which there were many in the forum, and anything else they could find of that sort, for a funeral pile, throwing on it the adornments of the procession, some of which were very costly. Some of them cast their own crowns upon it and many military gifts. Then they set fire to it, and the entire people remained by the funeral pile throughout the night. There an altar was first erected, but now there stands the temple of Caesar himself, as he was deemed worthy of divine honours; for Octavian, his son by adoption, who took the name of Caesar, and, following in his footsteps in political matters, greatly strengthened the government which was founded by Caesar, and remains to this 81
day, decreed divine honours to his father. From this example the Romans now pay like honours to each emperor at his death if he has not reigned in a tyrannical manner or made himself odious, although at first they could not bear to call them kings even while alive.
Cicero, Philippics 2, 90 - 91 Mark Antony, you were the one who shamelessly presided over the funeral rites of Caesar – if you can call chaos a ritual. You delivered the eloquent funeral oration, the moving lament, you provided the incitement to riot: in a real sense, you lit the flames by which the great Caesar was half-burnt.
Augustus, Res Gestae 19, 21 I built the Temple of the Divine Julius … and from the spoils of war I consecrated precious gifts to the temple.
on for Venus Genetrix… . Augustus declared his pleasure publicly: “During the very days of my games a comet appeared for seven days… . The people believed the comet signified that the spirit of Caesar had been received among the immortal gods; because of this, we added an emblem of this comet to the bust of Caesar that we consecrated in the Forum a short time later.”
Ovid, Metamorphoses 15, 840 - 842 [ Jupiter consoles Venus after the death of Caesar:] “Meanwhile make his soul, torn from his butchered body, A radiance; then from his lofty temple he can gaze Forever on my temple and the Forum, divine.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 35, 915, 9 It is not easy to say which of Apelles’ paintings are his best. His painting of Venus emerging from the ocean (called Venus Anadyomene) was dedicated by the Divine Augustus to the temple of his father Caesar. This painting however decayed with age, and Nero replaced it with a painting by a different artist.
102. Reconstruction of the Temple of Divus Iulius according to the interpretation of the archaeological area by Christian Hülsen, Bretschneider und Regenberg, 1904. By Public Domain Book: Christian Hülsen, Bretschneider und Regenberg, 1904, via Wikimedia Commons.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 2, 93 - 94 The only place in the world where a comet is worshipped is at a temple in Rome. The Divine Augustus judged the comet to be propitious to himself, since it appeared at the beginning of his rule during the games that he was putting 82
Spring and Pool of Juturna Varro, The Latin Language 5, 71 The water-nymph Juturna got her name because she helps (juvaret) people. On account of this reputation, many sick people seek water from her spring.
Frontinus, Aqueducts 4 For 441 years after the Founding of the City [until 312 BC] the Romans were content to use the water they might draw from the Tiber, from wells, or from springs. The reverence for
old springs exists to this day, since they are bravery of her citizens. Silence fell. Curtius, believed to restore health to ailing bodies, such gazing up at the Capitolium and the temples as the springs of Camenae … and of Juturna. that rise around the Forum, stretching his hands first to the heavens and then to the pit and the gods below, consecrated himself to the Underworld. Then, armed for battle and mounted on his horse in full caparison, Curtius leapt into the chasm, and the crowd of men and women threw gifts and fruits of the field in after him. Accordingly, the Pool of Curtius is, they say, named for this Marcus Curtius, and not for the ancient Curtius Mettius, the Sabine soldier serving under Titus Tatius. In truth, the more recent event recounted here is the more prevalent story for 103. Lacus Iuturnae (Spring of Juturna). By the origin of the pool’s name.
Michiel1972, via Wikimedia Commons.
Pool of Curtius Varro, The Latin Language 5, 149 In his histories, Piso recounts how during the Sabine War between Romulus and Tatius [in the late C8 BC], a brave Sabine named Mettius Curtius, forced to retreat in the face of a charge that Romulus and his men made from the heights of the Palatine, escaped into the marshy area that occupied the Forum area before the drains were constructed. Making his way out again, he rejoined his troops on the Capitolium. Such is Piso’s account of how the Pool of Curtius got its name. It is said that [in 362 BC] the ground, whether from an earthquake or some other agency, caved in almost in the middle of the Forum, creating a gaping chasm of unknown depths; no amount of dirt that everyone brought and tossed into the pit was able to fill it. Then they learned from an oracle of the gods that if they wanted the Republic of Rome to endure, they would have to sacrifice, on that spot, that which above all else made them strong.
Livy, History of Rome 7, 6, 1 - 6
Livy, History of Rome 8, 9 - 10 [When he saw that the Roman troops under his command were losing a battle against the Latins south of Rome in 340 BC,] the consul Decius cried out to the pontifex: “Marcus Valerius, we need the help of the gods! As public pontiff of the Roman people, come and administer the oath with which I may devote myself to the Underworld in place of the legions.” The pontiff told him to put on the purple-bordered toga, to extend a hand from under the toga to touch his own chin, and to repeat the following words while standing upon a spear that lay upon the ground: “Janus, Jupiter, Father Mars, Quirinus, Bellona, Lares, gods both local and foreign, to whose power both we and our enemies are subject, and you gods below, I beseech you with prayer and seek your favor with supplication: may you promote the might and victory of the Roman people and afflict the enemies of the Roman people with terror, panic, and death. In speaking these words, on behalf of the Republic of the Roman people, the army, its legions and its allies I hereby devote the legions and allies of the enemy, along with my own self, to the gods of the underworld and to Earth.”
Then Decius, with his toga draped in Gabine They then say that Marcus Curtius, an manner, jumped fully armed onto his horse exceptional young soldier, criticized the others and galloped off into the enemy’s midst. To for doubting that Rome’s strength could men on both sides he appeared to take on a reside in anything other than the weapons and more than human majesty, as if he were sent 83
from heaven to expiate in full the anger of the gods and to turn destruction away from his own people and bring it upon the enemy.… The praise for victory in the battle went to the consuls, one of whom diverted towards himself alone all the menace and danger of the gods both above and below.
Ovid, Fasti 6, 403 - 404 The Pool of Curtius, which now supports dry altars On solid ground, was once a pool in fact.
Suetonius, Augustus 57,1 [There is evidence that Augustus was widely popular during his reign.] Each year men from every class would throw a small coin in the Pool of Curtius, in fulfillment of a vow for his health.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 15, 77 There is a fig tree worshiped in the Forum itself, in the Comitium. It is considered sacred, first, because it is planted where objects struck by lightning have been buried, and even more so as a memorial of the Ruminal fig under which the wolf who nursed Romulus and Remus had originally sheltered these founders of the empire.… The withering away of this fig is always a portent, and priests are responsible for planting a new one.… There is another tree of the same species, sown there by chance, in the middle of the Forum, at the spot where Curtius, using his most precious possessions—that is to say, his courage, his commitment, and his glorious death—shored up the foundations of Roman power that where slipping away in a portent of disaster.
104. Marble relief depicting Marcus Curtius. By Lalupa, via Wikimedia Commons.
The Comitium is so-called because the Romans came [coibant] here for meetings of the Comitia Centuriata and to hold trials. As for Curia (“Senate House”), there are two kinds: one, such as the Curiae Veteres, is where priests take care [curarent] of divine matters; the other is where senators take care of human affairs, such as the Curia Hostilia, which the king Tullus Hostilius first built. In front of this stands the speaker’s platform, called the Rostra because of the beaks [rostra] of captured ships that are fastened to it. To the right of this (looking from the Comitium) is a lower platform where the foreign ambassadors to the Senate wait (although the ambassadors can be from any nation, this platform is called the Graecostasis—part for the whole, as is so often the case in our names for things).
Livy, History of Rome 1, 30, 2 Romulus appointed one hundred men as senators. [After Rome defeated the nearby city of Alba, c. 650 BC,] the king Tullus Hostilius selected the leading men of Alba for enrollment in the Roman Senate in order that this component of the republic might also grow. In addition to enlarging the senatorial order, he made the Senate House a ritually consecrated space; as a result, it was called the Curia Hostilia even into the times of today’s senators.
Gellius, Attic Nights 14, 7, 7
Comitium and Curia Varro, The Latin Language 5, 155 84
Varro has written of the locations in which the Senate may legally pass a decree, and he demonstrates that if a decree is passed at a site which is not designated with augury as a
“templum,” then the decree is not valid. For this reason, the Curia Hostilia, the Pompeia, and the Julia—all of them profane sites—were designated “templa” by the augurs, so that the Senate’s business could proceed properly there in the tradition of our ancestors.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 40, 48 50
Cassius Dio, Roman History 44, 5 , 2 [The Senate itself heaped excessive honors and commissions on Caesar before his assassination.] They assigned him the construction of a new Senate House, since the Curia Hostilia, although rebuilt since the fire, had been torn down.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 47, 19 , [Rome, amid factional fighting, descended 21 into chaos.] Milo, for instance, a candidate for the consulship, happened upon Clodius, his old enemy and opposing gang leader, on the Appian Way. In the confrontation, Milo first wounded Clodius and then, fearing retribution, killed him.… The tribunes carried the corpse of Clodius into the Forum at dawn, placed it on the Rostra so that all might see him, and gave voice to their grief. The people, stirred by the spectacle, … lifted up the body of Clodius and bore it into the Senate House, where they laid it out properly. Then, after heaping benches up into a pyre, they burned the body and with it the Senate building.…
[As part of their policy of linking themselves to the deified Julius Caesar,] the triumvirs Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus, following an earlier vote [in 43 BC], built the new Senate House (called now the Curia Julia in Caesar’s honor) next to the Comitium [in 42 BC]
Augustus, Res Gestae 19, 34 I built the Senate House and the Chalcidicum adjoining it [in 29 BC]. During my sixth and seventh consulships [28-27 BC], with the power of the state entirely in my hands by universal consent, I extinguished the flames of civil wars, and then relinquished my control, transferring the Republic back to the authority of the Senate and the Roman people. For this service I was named Augustus by a decree of the Senate, … and a golden shield was placed on display in the Curia Julia. An inscription on this shield states that the Senate and the Roman People gave me the shield because of my courage, mercy, justice, and devotion.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 51, 22, 1 -2
105. Layout of the different phases of the Curia, Comitium and Rostra with Lapis Niger. By Mark Miller, via Wikimedia Commons.
The Senate soon met under Pompey’s guard outside the pomerium near his theater and resolved to collect the bones of Clodius. They also charged Faustus, the son of Sulla, with the rebuilding of the Senate House, the Curia Hostilia, which Sulla had remodeled.
After the triumphal procession celebrating Egypt’s subjugation, Octavian dedicated the [portico of ] Minerva (also called the Chalcidicum) and the Curia Julia, built in honor of his father, Caesar. Inside the Senate House he set up the statue of Victory that stands there today [c. AD 200], no doubt intending to signify that he owed his rule to her. Bringing it to Rome from Tarentum, he had it placed in the senate chamber and decorated with Egyptian spoils.
Symmachus, Relationes 3, 3 - 4
the Senate House.
From the Senator Symmachus to Emperor Theodosius: [AD 384] [The Altar of Victory was unjustly removed from the Senate House in deference to Christianity.] Let us restore the state of religion which proved so advantageous to our country for so long. Certainly emperors may be found of both religions, of both beliefs; the earlier ones worshiped in the same ceremonies as the Senators, and the more recent ones did not prohibit these ceremonies. If the piety of the former does not provide you with a model, let the tolerance of the latter do so. Who is so far from civilization that he does not expect to find the Altar of Victory in the Senate House? … Your eternal glory owes much to Victory, and will depend on her greatly in the future; let them scorn her power, who have not benefited so greatly from it. Do not reject the support of a divinity so conducive to triumphs. All of us are in debt to her efficacy; no one would deny that that which must be sought after must also be worshipped. But however unjust the refusal to worship this spirit, it is at least proper that the ornaments of the Senate House remain intact. We beseech you: allow us as elders to pass down to our descendants that which we received in our youth.
St. Ambrose, Letters 18, 31 The Bishop Ambrose to the Emperor Valentinianus [AD 384]: … These senators seek to have the Altar of Victory erected again in the Senate House in Rome, that is to say, where many Christians convene. … Must it be tolerated, that a pagan sacrifices in the presence of a Christian?
Republican Rostra Diodorus Siculus, Library 12, 26, 1 The consuls [in 442 BC] engraved the legislation on twelve bronze tablets and affixed these to the Rostra that was then in front of 86
106. La Justice, painting by Bernard d’Agesci (1757 – 1828), Musée Bernard d’Agesci in Niort, France. By Jeffdelonge (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Livy, History of Rome 8, 14, 12 [After the Romans defeated the people of Antium (modern Anzio) in 338 BC, they captured all their ships, made the people citizens, and forbid them all use of the sea.] Some of the ships were transferred to the dockways in Rome and some were burnt. A motion was approved to use the ships’ beaks [rostra] to adorn a raised platform that was constructed in the Forum. Accordingly, they called this platform, which was also inaugurated as a templum, the Rostra.
Asconius, on Cicero’s Milo 37 The Rostra [in 52 BC] was not where it stands today [c. AD 55], but nearly adjoined the Senate House.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7, 212 -5 In measuring the hours of the day in Rome only the rising and setting of the sun are distinguished in the laws of the Twelve Tables [from the fifth century BC]. Years later, noon was also officially announced. This was done by an assistant of the consuls, who
declared it noon when looking [south over inscription on the Rostra. the Comitia] from the Senate House he saw the sun positioned between the Rostra and the Graecostasis. When the sun passed to the Carcer side of the Column of Maenius, the assistant announced the final hour. Such reckoning (which was possible only on clear days) lasted down to the time of the First Punic War [264-241 BC]. Varro reports that the first public sun-dial was erected during this war, and that it was located on a column next to the Rostra. Quintus Marcius Philippus, when censor [in 164 BC], later located a more accurate dial next to it. Even then, however, cloudy weather obscured the hours, until in the next census when Scipio Nasica was the first to reckon Rome’s official time with a water clock that divided the days and night into equal hours. He dedicated this time-piece, lodged under a protective roof [in the Basilica Aemilia, according to Varro, LL 6.4], 595 years after the founding of Rome [159 BC]: for so many years did the Roman people live in unmeasured light.
Cicero, Philippics 9, 4 When Lars Tolumnius, the king of Veii, murdered four ambassadors of the Roman people, statues of these men were placed on the Rostra, where they stood down to my own memory. And rightly so: for in such manner did our ancestors distinguish those who died in the service of their country, granting them lasting fame in exchange for their shortened lives.
107. Coin from Hadrian struck between 125 and 128 AD with a clear representation of the Rostra ad Divi Iuli and the Temple of Divus Iulius during a speech by Hadrian himself. By MjMenuet111 from Public Domain Book: Christian Hülsen, Bretschneider und Regenberg, 1904, via Wikimedia Commons.
Plutarch, Caesar 61, 3 - 4 [Shortly before his assassination, Caesar and Mark Antony contrived the following test of public opinion during the festival of the Lupercalia.] Dressed in triumphal attire, Caesar observed the Lupercalia festival from a golden chair placed upon the Rostra. When Antony, who was consul at the time and accordingly one of the runners in the Lupercal rites, raced into the Forum, the crowd gave way as he approached Caesar to offer him a golden crown entwined with laurel. There was some applause, but it was more scattered and contrived than enthusiastic. As Caesar pushed the crown away, however, the entire crowd burst into applause. Antony offered it once more with the same result: offered, it drew faint clapping; rejected, loud applause. Seeing that their experiment had failed, Caesar stood and ordered that the crown be carried up to the Capitoline.
Plutarch, Antony 19-20; Cicero 49 Cassius Dio, Roman History 43, 49, 1 Seeing that Cicero clung to the cause of
liberty, Octavian no longer allied himself with When Caesar was appointed dictator for him, and approached Antony through some the fifth time [in 44 BC], … the Rostra was friends to settle their differences. So the three moved from the middle of the Forum back of them—Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus— to the position it now occupies [c. AD 220], met on an small island in the middle of a river and statues of Sulla and Pompey were restored and spent three days in close conference. They to it. Caesar received praise for this, as well as agreed on most matters quite easily, quickly for allowing Antony to take the credit in the dividing up the entire empire as if divvying 87
up ancestral property, but the issue of which men to put to death was a major source of contention. At first the desire of each man both to kill his enemies and save his relations led to conflicts between them, but in the end their anger against those they hated won out over concern for family and friends, and Octavian let Antony have Cicero.… When the three of them reached an agreement, three hundred men were marked for death, and killed. After Cicero was murdered, Antony ordered his head to be cut off, along with the right hand—the one guilty of writing those speeches [the Philippics] against him.
like compartment below this concealed his body. In full view on the couch, however, was a wax effigy of the late emperor in triumphal garb.… Following in procession behind the bier came the images of his ancestors (excepting Julius Caesar, who had been enrolled in the ranks of the demigods) and images of Romans who had distinguished themselves over the centuries, beginning with Romulus himself.… The couch was then laid for display on the Rostra of the orators, where Drusus delivered the family’s eulogy for Caesar; from the other Rostra (called the Julian Rostra), Augustus’s successor Tiberius delivered the public eulogy.
When the head and hands of Cicero were brought to Rome … Antony ordered them to be fastened over the ships’ beaks on the Basilicas Rostra. It was a sight that caused the Romans to shudder, thinking that what they saw was Vitruvius, Architecture 5, 1, 4 not so much the face of Cicero as the image of Antony’s soul. The basilicas ought to be placed in the warmest part of forums so that the businessmen can meet for business there throughout the winter without being disturbed by bad weather. The width of a basilica should be no less than a third and no more than a half of its length, unless difficulties of the site demand some other proportion. If the site does require a length of greater proportion than twice the width, put vestibules [chalcidica] at the ends, as at the Basilica of Julia Aquiliana.
Pliny the Younger, Letters 6, 33, 2 - 4, 6
108. Replica of the rostral column of Caius Diulius that once stood in the Roman Forum celebrating the naval Battle of Mylae (260 BC). Museo della civiltà romana, EUR. By Lalupa (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 56, 34, 1-4 For Augustus’s funeral, a couch of ivory and gold was constructed, decorated with purple coverings embroidered in gold, while a coffin88
My speech [c. 100 AD], which was in defense of one Attia Viriola, was remarkable for the rank of the woman, the rarity of the case, and the number of jurors. This woman, of noble parentage and married to a praetorian senator, was disinherited by her octogenarian father eleven days after the lovesick old man married and brought my client’s new stepmother home. Her suit to regain her patrimony was being tried before a quadruple panel: all 180 jurors from the four courts combined. There was a host of lawyers on each side, benches filled with supporters, and a ring of standing spectators several rows deep around the entire court. Add to this crowd the jurors packed together up on the tribunal and still more
spectators, women as well as men, leaning Porcia. from the balconies above in their eagerness to see the proceedings (easily done) and hear Livy, History of Rome 40, 45, 6 - 7; 51, 5 (almost impossible). The outcome of the trial was awaited with great suspense by fathers and daughters, not to mention stepmothers.… The stepmother, who was herself in line to get one sixth of the estate, lost.
[In 179 BC] an election was held for the censors. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (who was also the Pontifex Maximus) and Marcus Fulvius Nobilior were elected—both men of noble families but bitter opponents of each other.… [Although both men undertook Livy, History of Rome 26, 27, 2 - 3 building projects in Rome,] Marcus Fulvius’s projects were more numerous and of greater At this time [in 210 BC] the seven shops use. They included…the basilica behind (which were later the five) and the bankers’ the New Shops of the bankers, and the Fish offices that are now called the “the New Shops” Forum, which he surrounded with shops that [Tabernae Novae] burned down; next to catch he sold to private owners. fire (since at that time there were no basilicas) were the private houses, and then the quarter Pliny the Elder, Natural History 36, of the Quarries [Lautumiae], the Fish Forum 102 [Forum Piscatorium], and the Hall of Kings [Atrium Regium]. Among Rome’s marvels, how could we Sextus Aurelius Victor, Illustrious not mention the Basilica of Paullus and its columns of Phrygian marble, one of the most Romans 47, 5 beautiful works that the world has ever seen? Marcus Porcius Cato was the first to build a Plutarch, Caesar 29, 3 basilica named after its builder. [While in Gaul, Caesar worked tirelessly to build support in Rome to counter those working against him in the city.] In the year after his enemy Marcellus was consul, Caesar put large quantities of the wealth he acquired in Gaul at the disposal of those engaged in public affairs in Rome, … including 1,500 talents to the consul Lucius Aemilius] Paullus, who used it to build his famous basilica in his family’s honor, in the Forum where the Basilica of Fulvius used to be.
Cicero, Letters to Atticus 4, 16, 8 109. Map of the Roman Forum, 200 BC. By Hpflanzer (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Livy, History of Rome 39, 44, 7 [In 184 BC] Cato bought up two halls (the Maenius and the Titius, in the area of the Lautumnian quarries) and four shops, and, after donating the land to the state, built in their place the basilica which is called the
Cicero sends greetings to Atticus: [54 BC] Paullus has almost roofed over the basilica in the middle of the Forum, reusing the columns from the older one. The other basilica, however, the one that he has contracted out, he builds in magnificent style. In truth, no other monument equals it for popularity and prestige.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 49, 42, 2 Cassius Dio, Roman History 56, 27, 5 Aemilius Lepidus Paullus finished the Basilica The Basilica [Stoa] Julia, as it is called, was [stoa] of Paullus, as it is called, out of his own built in honor of Gaius and Lucius Caesar and funds, and dedicated it in the year he was dedicated at this time [in AD12]. consul [in 34 BC].
Quintilian, Oratorical Training 12, 5, Cassius Dio, Roman History 54, 24, 5 - 6 1-3
At this time [in AD 22] Lepidus [probably a grandson of the L. Aemilius Paullus in Cicero’s letter] sought permission from the Senate to restore and embellish with his own funds the Basilica of Paullus, the Aemilian family’s public monument.… Though of modest fortune, Lepidus carried out this restoration of his family’s honor.
In our own days [c. AD 80] the orator Trachalus seemed to tower above his contemporaries, possessing an imposing physique, intense eyes, a commanding brow, and highly expressive gestures. His voice, moreover, rather than equaling a tragic actor’s, as Cicero desired, surpassed any actor’s that I have ever heard. In fact, Trachalus was speaking once in the Basilica Julia before the court of the First Tribunal, when all four courts were in session at once, as is usual, and I remember that in spite of the crowd that had gathered and filled the whole building with noise, he could not only be heard and understood above the din, but to the chagrin of the other speakers he was even applauded by spectators of the other three trials.
Suetonius, Augustus 29, 4
Suetonius, Caligula 37, 1
The Basilica of Paullus burned down [in 14 BC] …. It was rebuilt in Aemilius’s name (a descendant of the man who had built the earlier one), but in truth the work was carried out by Augustus and the friends of Paullus.
Tacitus, Annals 3, 72
Augustus also constructed buildings in the name of others, including his grandsons, his wife, and his sister, such as the portico and the basilica of his grandsons Gaius and Lucius.
For squandering fortunes in prodigality, the Emperor Caligula [AD 37-41] had no equal.… On one occasion he even went out on the roof of the Basilica Julia for several days running and scattered large sums in coins onto the Inscription on Porticus of Gaius and commoners below.
Lucius [CIL 6.36908]
To Lucius Caesar, son of Augustus, grandson of the deified [ Julius Caesar], Prince of the Youth, Consul Designate at the age of 14, Augur. Dedicated by the Senate [in 3 BC].
Augustus, Res Gestae 20 I completed two works that Caesar had begun and nearly finished: the Forum of Caesar and the basilica located between the Temple of Castor and the Temple of Saturn. When this basilica burned down, I began its reconstruction after enlarging its site, now giving it the names of my sons, Gaius and Lucius. 90
110. A derivative work by Amadscientist of a computer-generated 3D model of the Basilica Aemilia by Lasha Tskhondia, via Wikimedia Commons.
Slavery Varro, On Agriculture 1, 17
may follow his example, and also understand that there is good reason for his being over them — the fact that he is superior to them in knowledge. 5 They are not to be allowed to control their men with whips rather than with words, if only you can achieve the same result. Avoid having too many slaves of the same nation, for this is a fertile source of domestic quarrels. The foremen are to be made more zealous by rewards, and care must be taken that they have a bit of property of their own, and mates from among their fellow-slaves to bear them children; for by this means they are made more steady and more attached to the place. Thus, it is on account of such relationships that slave families of Epirus have the best reputation and bring the highest prices. 6 The good will of the foremen should be won by treating them with some degree of consideration; and those of the hands who excel the others should also be consulted as to the work to be done. When this is done they are less inclined to think that they are looked down upon, and rather think that they are held in some esteem by the master. 7 They are made to take more interest in their work by being treated more liberally in respect either of food, or of more clothing, or of exemption from work, or of permission to graze some cattle of their own on the farm, or other things of this kind; so that, if some unusually heavy task is imposed, or punishment inflicted on them in some way, their loyalty and kindly feeling to the master may be restored by the consolation derived from such measures. (Hooper)
“I have now discussed the four divisions of the estate which are concerned with the soil, and the second four, which are exterior to the soil but concern its cultivation; now I turn to the means by which land is tilled. Some divide these into two parts: men, and those aids to men without which they cannot cultivate; others into three: the class of instruments which is articulate, the inarticulate, and the mute; the articulate comprising the slaves, the inarticulate comprising the cattle, and the mute comprising the vehicles. 2 All agriculture is carried on by men — slaves, or freemen, or both; by freemen, when they till the ground themselves, as many poor people do with the help of their families; or hired hands, when the heavier farm operations, such as the vintage and the haying, are carried on by the hiring of freemen; and those whom our people called obaerarii and of whom there are still many in Asia, in Egypt, and in Illyricum. 3 With regard to these in general this is my opinion: it is more profitable to work unwholesome lands with hired hands than with slaves; and even in wholesome places it is more profitable thus to carry out the heavier farm operations, such as storing the products of the vintage or harvest. As to the character of such hands Cassius58 gives this advice: that such hands should be selected as can bear heavy work, are not less than twenty-two years old, and show some aptitude for farm labour. You may judge of this by the way they carry out their other orders, and, in the case of new hands, by asking one of Inscription CIL XV 7172 = ILS 8727 them what they were in the habit of doing for their former master. I am Asellus, slave of Praeiectus, who is an “Slaves should be neither cowed nor high- administrative officer in the Department of spirited. 4 They ought to have men over them the Grain Supply. I have escaped from my post. who know how to read and write and have Capture me, for I have run away. Return me to some little education, who are dependable and the barbers’ shop near the temple of Flora. older than the hands whom I have mentioned; for they will be more respectful to these than Inscription CIL XV 7194 = ILS 8731 to men who are younger. Furthermore, it is especially important that the foremen be men I have run away. Capture me. When you have who are experienced in farm operations; for returned me to my master, Zoninus, you will the foreman must not only give orders but also receive a reward. take part in the work, so that his subordinates
Inscription CIL XV 7193 TENE ME NE FUGIA ET REVO CA ME AD DOMNUM EVVIVENTIUM IN ARA CALLISTI
degrading for a man to dine with his slave. But why should they think it degrading? It is only because purse-proud etiquette surrounds a householder at his dinner with a mob of standing slaves. The master eats more than he can hold, and with monstrous greed loads his belly until it is stretched and at length ceases to do the work of a belly; so that he is at greater pains to discharge all the food than he was to stuff it down. 3. All this time the poor slaves may not move their lips, even to speak. The slightest murmur is repressed by the rod; even a chance sound, – a cough, a sneeze, or a hiccup, – is visited with the lash. There is a grievous penalty for the slightest breach of silence. All night long they must stand about, hungry and dumb.
4. The result of it all is that these slaves, who may not talk in their master’s presence, talk about their master. But the slaves of former days, who were permitted to converse not only in their master’s presence, but actually with him, whose mouths were not stitched up tight, were ready to bare their necks for their master, to bring upon their own heads 111. Bronze tag for a dog or possibly a slave, any danger that threatened him; they spoke inscribed with information about return, 4th at the feast, but kept silence during torture. century AD, British Museum London. 5. Finally, the saying, in allusion to this same high-handed treatment, becomes current: “As Transliteration: many enemies as you have slaves.” They are Tene me ne fugia(m) et revoca me ad dom(i) not enemies when we acquire them; we make them enemies. num Viventium in ar(e)a Callisti Translation: Hold me, lest I flee, and return me to my master Viventius on the estate of Callistus. (British Museum)
Seneca the Younger, Letters 47 1. I am glad to learn, through those who come from you, that you live on friendly terms with your slaves. This befits a sensible and welleducated man like yourself. “They are slaves,” people declare. Nay, rather they are men. “Slaves!” No, comrades. “Slaves!” No, they are unpretentious friends. “Slaves!” No, they are our fellow-slaves, if one reflects that Fortune has equal rights over slaves and free men alike. 2. That is why I smile at those who think it 92
I shall pass over other cruel and inhuman conduct towards them; for we maltreat them, not as if they were men, but as if they were beasts of burden. When we recline at a banquet, one slave mops up the disgorged food, another crouches beneath the table and gathers up the left-overs of the tipsy guests. 6. Another carves the priceless game birds; with unerring strokes and skilled hand he cuts choice morsels along the breast or the rump. Hapless fellow, to live only for the purpose of cutting fat capons correctly – unless, indeed, the other man is still more unhappy than he, who teaches this art for pleasure’s sake, rather than he who learns it because he must. 7. Another, who serves the wine, must dress like a woman and wrestle with his advancing years; he cannot get away from his boyhood; he is dragged back to it; and though he has
already acquired a soldier’s figure, he is kept beardless by having his hair smoothed away or plucked out by the roots, and he must remain awake throughout the night, dividing his time between his master’s drunkenness and his lust; in the chamber he must be a man, at the feast a boy. 8. Another, whose duty it is to put a valuation on the guests, must stick to his task, poor fellow, and watch to see whose flattery and whose immodesty, whether of appetite or of language, is to get them an invitation for to-morrow. Think also of the poor purveyors of food, who note their masters’ tastes with delicate skill, who know what special flavours will sharpen their appetite, what will please their eyes, what new combinations will rouse their cloyed stomachs, what food will excite their loathing through sheer satiety, and what will stir them to hunger on that particular day. With slaves like these the master cannot bear to dine; he would think it beneath his dignity to associate with his slave at the same table! Heaven forfend! But how many masters is he creating in these very men! 9. I have seen standing in the line, before the door of Callistus, the former master, of Callistus; I have seen the master himself shut out while others were welcomed, – the master who once fastened the “For Sale” ticket on Callistus and put him in the market along with the good-for-nothing slaves. But he has been paid off by that slave who was shuffled into the first lot of those on whom the crier practises his lungs; the slave, too, in his turn has cut his name from the list and in his turn has adjudged him unfit to enter his house. The master sold Callistus, but how much has Callistus made his master pay for!
112. Roman matron and two slaves. Baths of Sidi Ghrib, Tunisia. Bardo Museum, Carthage. By Fabien Dany - www. fabiendany.com, via Wikimedia Commons.
10. Kindly remember that he whom you call your slave sprang from the same stock, is smiled upon by the same skies, and on equal terms with yourself breathes, lives, and dies. It is just as possible for you to see in him a freeborn man as for him to see in you a slave. As a result of the massacres in Marius’s day, many a man of distinguished birth, who was taking the first steps toward senatorial rank by service in the army, was humbled by fortune, one becoming a shepherd, another a caretaker of a country cottage. Despise, then, if you dare, those to whose estate you may at any time descend, even when you are despising them. 11. I do not wish to involve myself in too large a question, and to discuss the treatment of slaves, towards whom we Romans are excessively haughty, cruel, and insulting. But this is the kernel of my advice: Treat your inferiors as you would be treated by your betters. And as often as you reflect how much power you have over a slave, remember that your master has just as much power over you. 12. “But I have no master,” you say. You are still young; perhaps you will have one. Do you not know at what age Hecuba entered captivity, or Croesus, or the mother of Darius, or Plato, or Diogenes? 13. Associate with your slave on kindly, even on affable, terms; let him talk with you, plan with you, live with you. I know that at this point all the exquisites will cry out against me in a body; they will say: “There is nothing more debasing, more disgraceful, than this.” But these are the very persons whom I sometimes surprise kissing the hands of other men’s slaves. 14. Do you not see even this, how our ancestors removed from masters everything invidious, and from slaves everything insulting? They called the master “father of the household,” and the slaves “members of the household,” a custom which still holds in the mime. They established a holiday on which masters and slaves should eat together, – not as the only day for this custom, but as obligatory on that day in any case. They allowed the slaves to attain honours in the household and to pronounce judgment; they held that a household was a miniature commonwealth. 15. “Do you mean to say,” comes the retort, “that I must seat all my slaves at my own 93
table?” No, not any more than that you should invite all free men to it. You are mistaken if you think that I would bar from my table certain slaves whose duties are more humble, as, for example, yonder muleteer or yonder herdsman; I propose to value them according to their character, and not according to their duties. Each man acquires his character for himself, but accident assigns his duties. Invite some to your table because they deserve the honor, and others that they may come to deserve it. For if there is any slavish quality in them as the result of their low associations, it will be shaken off by intercourse with men of gentler breeding. 16. You need not, my dear Lucilius, hunt for friends only in the forum or in the Senate-house; if you are careful and attentive, you will find them at home also. Good material often stands idle for want of an artist; make the experiment, and you will find it so. As he is a fool who, when purchasing a horse, does not consider the animal’s points, but merely his saddle and bridle; so he is doubly a fool who values a man from his clothes or from his rank, which indeed is only a robe that clothes us.
and love and fear cannot be mingled. 19. So I hold that you are entirely right in not wishing to be feared by your slaves, and in lashing them merely with the tongue; only dumb animals need the thong. That which annoys us does not necessarily injure us; but we are driven into wild rage by our luxurious lives, so that whatever does not answer our whims arouses our anger. 20. We don the temper of kings. For they, too, forgetful alike of their own strength and of other men’s weakness, grow white-hot with rage, as if they had received an injury, when they are entirely protected from danger of such injury by their exalted station. They are not unaware that this is true, but by finding fault they seize upon opportunities to do harm; they insist that they have received injuries, in order that they may inflict them.
21. I do not wish to delay you longer; for you need no exhortation. This, among other things, is a mark of good character: it forms its own judgments and abides by them; but badness is fickle and frequently changing, not for the better, but for something different. 17. “He is a slave.” His soul, however, may be Farewell. (Gummere) that of a freeman. “He is a slave.” But shall that Suetonius, Claudius 25, 2 stand in his way? Show me a man who is not a slave; one is a slave to lust, another to greed, Since some people were abandoning slaves another to ambition, and all men are slaves weakened by illness on the island of Aesclepius to fear. I will name you an ex-consul who is instead of troubling to care for them, the slave to an old hag, a millionaire who is slave Emperor Claudius decreed that such slaves to a serving-maid; I will show you youths of were to be set free if they recovered. the noblest birth in serfdom to pantomime players! No servitude is more disgraceful than that which is self-imposed. You should therefore not be deterred by these finicky persons from showing yourself to your slaves as an affable person and not proudly superior to them; they ought to respect you rather than fear you. 18. Some may maintain that I am now offering the liberty-cap to slaves in general and toppling down lords from their high estate, because I bid slaves respect their masters instead of fearing them. They say: “This is what he plainly means: slaves are to pay respect as if they were clients or early-morning callers!” Anyone who holds this opinion forgets that what is enough for a god cannot be too little for a master. Respect means love, 94
Spartacus Appian, Civil Wars 1, 116 – 120 116 1 At the same time Spartacus, a Thracian by birth, who had once served as a soldier with the Romans, but had since been a prisoner and sold for a gladiator, and was in the gladiatorial training-school at Capua, persuaded about seventy of his comrades to strike for their own freedom rather than for the amusement of spectators. They overcame the guards and ran away, arming themselves with clubs and daggers that they took from people on the roads, and took refuge on Mount Vesuvius. There many fugitive slaves and even some freemen from the fields joined Spartacus, and he plundered the neighbouring country, having for subordinate officers two gladiators named Oenomaus and Crixus. As he divided the plunder impartially he soon had plenty of men. Varinius Glaber was first sent against him and afterwards Publius Valerius, not with regular armies, but with forces picked up in haste and at random, for the Romans did not consider this a war yet, but a raid, something like an attack of robbery. They attacked Spartacus and were beaten. Spartacus even captured the horse of Varinius; so narrowly did the very general of the Romans escape being captured by a gladiator.
these he manufactured weapons and collected equipment, whereas Rome now sent out the consuls with two legions. 117 1 One of them overcame Crixus with 30,000 men near Mount Garganus, two-thirds of whom perished together with himself. Spartacus endeavoured to make his way through the Apennines to the Alps and the Gallic country, but one of the consuls anticipated him and hindered his flight while the other hung upon his rear. He turned upon them one after the other and beat them in detail. They retreated in confusion in different directions. Spartacus sacrificed 300 Roman prisoners to the shade of Crixus, and marched on Rome with 120,000 foot, having burned all his useless material, killed all his prisoners, and butchered his pack-animals in order to expedite his movement. Many deserters offered themselves to him, but he would not accept them. The consuls again met him in the country of Picenum. Here there was fought another great battle and there was, too, another great defeat for the Romans. Spartacus changed his intention of marching on Rome. He did not consider himself ready as yet for that kind of a fight, as his whole force was not suitably armed, for no city had joined him, but only slaves, deserters, and riff-raff. However, he occupied the mountains around Thurii and took the city itself. He prohibited the bringing in of gold or silver by merchants, and would not allow his own men to acquire any, but he bought largely of iron and brass and did not interfere with those who dealt in these articles. Supplied with abundant material from this source his men provided themselves with plenty of arms and made frequent forays for the time being. When they next came to an engagement with the Romans they were again victorious, and returned laden with spoils.
118 1 this war, so formidable to the Romans (although ridiculed and despised in the beginning, as being merely the work of 113. Marble relief with Roman collared slaves from Smyrna, Turkey. Collection of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. By Jun, via gladiators), had now lasted three years. When the election of new praetors came on, fear Wikimedia Commons. fell upon all, and nobody offered himself as After this still greater numbers flocked to a candidate until Licinius Crassus, a man Spartacus till his army numbered 70,000. For distinguished among the Romans for birth 95
wealth, assumed the praetorship and marched against Spartacus with six new legions. When he arrived at his destination he received also the two legions of the consuls, whom he decimated by lot for their bad conduct in several battles. Some say that Crassus, too, having engaged in battle with his whole army, and having been defeated, decimated the whole army and was not deterred by their numbers, but destroyed about 4000 of them. Whichever way it was, when he had once demonstrated to them that he was more dangerous to them than the enemy, he overcame immediately 10,000 of the Spartacans, who were encamped somewhere in a detached position, and killed two-thirds of them. He then marched boldly against Spartacus himself, vanquished him in a brilliant engagement, and pursued his fleeing forces to the sea, where they tried to pass over to Sicily. He overtook them and enclosed them with a line of circumvallation consisting of ditch, wall, and paling.
glory of the war. Spartacus himself, thinking to anticipate Pompey, invited Crassus to come to terms with him. When his proposals were rejected with scorn he resolved to risk a battle, and as his cavalry had arrived he made a dash with his whole army through the lines of the besieging force and pushed on to Brundusium with Crassus in pursuit. When Spartacus learned that Lucullus had just arrived in Brundusium from his victory over Mithridates he despaired of everything and brought his forces, which were even then very numerous, to close quarters with Crassus. The battle was long and bloody, as might have been expected with so many thousands of desperate men. Spartacus was wounded in the thigh with a spear and sank upon his knee, holding his shield in front of him and contending in this way against his assailants until he and the great mass of those with him were surrounded and slain. The Roman loss was about 1000. The body of Spartacus was not found. A large number of his men fled from the battle-field 119 1 Spartacus tried to break through and to the mountains and Crassus followed them make an incursion into the Samnite country, thither. They divided themselves in four parts, but Crassus slew about 6000 of his men and continued to fight until they all perished in the morning and as many more towards except 6000, who were captured and crucified evening. Only three of the Roman army along the whole road from Capua to Rome. were killed and seven wounded, so great was (White) the improvement in their moral inspired by the recent punishment. Spartacus, who was expecting a reinforcement of horse from somewhere, no longer went into battle with his whole army, but harassed the besiegers by frequent sallies here and there. He fell upon them unexpectedly and continually, threw bundles of fagots into the ditch and set them on fire and made their labour difficult. He also crucified a Roman prisoner in the space between the two armies to show his own men what fate awaited them if they did not conquer. But when the Romans in the city heard of the siege they thought it would be disgraceful if this war against gladiators should be prolonged. Believing also that the work still to be done against Spartacus was great and severe they ordered up the army of Pompey, which had just arrived from Spain, as a reinforcement. 120 1 On account of this vote Crassus tried in every way to come to an engagement with Spartacus so that Pompey might not reap the 96
114. The last events of the Third Servile War in 71 BC, where the army of Spartacus broke the siege by Marcus Licinius Crassus’ legions. By Cethegus, via Wikimedia Commons.
Plutarch, Life of Crassus 8 – 11 The rising of the gladiators and their devastation of Italy, which is generally known as the war of Spartacus, began as follows. A man called Lentulus Batiatus had an establishment for gladiators at Capua. Most of them were Gauls and Thracians. They had done nothing wrong, but, simply because of the cruelty of their owner, were kept in close confinement until the time came for them to engage in combat. Two hundred of them planned to escape, but their plan was betrayed and only seventy-eight, who realized this, managed to act in time and get away, armed with choppers and spits which they seized from some cookhouse. On the road they came across some wagons which were carrying arms for gladiators to another city, and they took these arms for their own use. They then occupied a strong position and elected three leaders. The first of these was Spartacus. He was a Thracian from the nomadic tribes and not only had a great spirit and great physical strength, but was, much more than one would expect from his condition, most intelligent and cultured, being more like a Greek than a Thracian. They say that when he was first taken to Rome to be sold, a snake was seen coiled round his head while he was asleep and his wife, who came from the same tribe and was a prophetess subject to possession by the frenzy of [the god of ecstasy] Dionysus, declared that this sign meant that he would have a great and terrible power which would end in misfortune. This woman shared in his escape and was then living with him.
and was closely guarded by Clodius; in every other direction there was nothing but sheer precipitous cliffs. The top of the hill, however, was covered with wild vines and from these they cut off all the branches that they needed, and then twisted them into strong ladders which were long enough to reach from the top, where they were fastened, right down the cliff face to the plain below. They all got down safely by means of these ladders except for one man who stayed at the top to deal with their arms, and he, once the rest had got down, began to drop the arms down to them, and, when he had finished his task, descended last and reached the plain in safety. The Romans knew nothing of all this, and so the gladiators were able to get round behind them and to throw them into confusion by the unexpectedness of the attack, first routing them and then capturing their camp. And now they were joined by numbers of herdsmen and shepherds of those parts, all sturdy men and fast on their feet. Some of these they armed as regular infantrymen and made use of others as scouts and light troops.
The second expedition against them was led by the praetor Publius Varinus. First they engaged and routed a force of 2,000 men under his deputy commander, Furius by name, then came the turn of Cossinius, who had been sent out with a large force to advise Varinus and to share with him the responsibility of the command. Spartacus watched his movements closely and very nearly captured him as he was bathing near Salinae. He only just managed to escape, and Spartacus immediately seized all his baggage and then pressed on hard after, him and captured his camp. There was a great First, then, the gladiators repulsed those who slaughter and Cossinius was among those came out against them from Capua. In this who fell. Next Spartacus defeated the praetor engagement they got hold of proper arms himself in a number of engagements and and gladly took them in exchange for their finally captured his lictors and the very horse own gladiatorial equipment which they threw that he rode. away, as being barbarous and dishonorable By this time Spartacus had grown to be a great weapons to use. and formidable power, but he showed no signs Then the praetor Clodius, with 3,000 soldiers, of losing his head. He could not expect to was sent out against them from Rome. He laid prove superior to the whole power of Rome, siege to them in a position which they took and so he began to lead his army towards the up on a hill. There was only one way up this Alps. His view was that they should cross the hill, and that was a narrow and difficult one, mountains and then disperse to their own 97
homes, some to Thrace and some to Gaul. His men, however, would not listen to him. They were strong in numbers and full of confidence, and they went about Italy ravaging everything in their way. There was now more to disturb the Senate than just the shame and the disgrace of the revolt. The situation had become dangerous enough to inspire real fear, and as a result both consuls were sent out to deal with what was considered a major war and a most difficult one to fight. One of the consuls, Gellius, fell suddenly upon and entirely destroyed the German contingent of Spartacus’ troops, who in their insolent selfconfidence had marched off on their own and lost contact with the rest; but when Lentulus, the other consul, had surrounded the enemy with large forces, Spartacus turned to the attack, joined battle, defeated the generals of Lentulus and captured all their equipment.
115. Bust of Marcus Licinius Crassus. Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek, Kopenhagen. By Diagram Lajard, via Wikimedia Commons.
He re-armed his soldiers and made them give guarantees that in future they would preserve the arms in their possession. Then he took 500 of those who had been the first to fly and had shown themselves the greatest cowards, and, dividing them into fifty squads of ten men each, put to death one man, chosen by He then pushed on towards the Alps and lot, from each squad. This was a traditional was confronted by Cassius, the governor method of punishing soldiers, now revived by of Cisalpine Gaul, with an army of 10,000 Crassus after having been out of use for many men. In the battle that followed Cassius was years. Those who are punished in this way not defeated and, after losing many of his men, only lose their lives but are also disgraced, only just managed to escape with his own life. since the whole army are there as spectators, This news roused the Senate to anger. The and the actual circumstances of the execution consuls were told to return to civilian life, are very savage and repulsive. and Crassus was appointed to the supreme After employing this method of conversion on command of the war. Because of his reputation his men, Crassus led them against the enemy. or because of their friendship with him large But Spartacus slipped away from him and numbers of the nobility volunteered to serve marched through Lucania to the sea. At the with him. Straits he fell in with some pirate ships from Spartacus was now bearing down on Picenum, and Crassus himself took up a position on the borders of the district with the intention of meeting the attack there. He ordered one of his subordinate commanders, Mummius, with two legions to march round by another route and instructed him to follow the enemy, but not to join battle with them or even to do any skirmishing. Mummius, however, as soon as he saw what appeared to him a good opportunity, offered battle and was defeated. Many of his men were killed and many saved their lives by throwing away their arms and running for it. Crassus gave Mummius himself a very rough reception after this. 98
Cilicia and formed the plan of landing 2,000 men in Sicily and seizing the island; he would be able, he thought, to start another revolt of the slaves there, since the previous slave war had recently died down and only needed a little fuel to make it blaze out again. However, the Cilicians, after agreeing to his proposals and receiving gifts from him, failed to keep their promises and sailed off. So Spartacus marched back again from the sea and established his army in the peninsula of Rhegium. At this point Crassus came up. His observation of the place made him see what should be done, and he began to build fortifications right across the isthmus. In this way he was able at the same time to keep his
own soldiers busy and to deprive the enemy of supplies. The task which he had set himself was neither easy nor inconsiderable, but he finished it and, contrary to all expectation, had it done in a very short time. A ditch, nearly sixty kilometers long and five meters wide, was carried across the neck of land from sea to sea; and above the ditch he constructed a wall which was astonishingly high and strong. At first Spartacus despised these fortifications and did not take them seriously; but soon he found himself short of plunder and, when he wanted to break out from the peninsula, he realized that he was walled in and could get no more supplies where he was. So he waited for a night when it was snowing and a wintry storm had got up, and then, after filling up a small section of the ditch with earth and timber and branches of trees, managed to get a third of his army across.
116. Spartacus statue by Denis Foyatier. 1830. Louvre, Paris. By Urban, via Wikimedia Commons.
Crassus was now alarmed, thinking that Spartacus might conceive the idea of marching directly on Rome. But he was relieved from his anxiety when he saw that, as the result of some disagreement, many of Spartacus’ men had left him and were encamped as an independent force by themselves near a lake in Lucania [...]. Crassus fell upon this division of the enemy and dislodged them from their positions by the lake, but at this point Spartacus suddenly appeared and stopped their flight, so that he was prevented from following them up and
slaughtering them. Crassus now regretted that he had previously written to the Senate to ask them to send for Lucullus from Thrace and Pompey from Hispania. He made all the haste he could to finish the war before these generals arrived, knowing that the credit for the success would be likely to go not to himself but to the commander who appeared on the scene with reinforcements. In the first place, then, he decided to attack the enemy force under Gaius Canicius and Castus, who had separated themselves from the rest and were operating on their own. With this intention he sent out 6,000 men to occupy some high ground before the enemy could do so and he told them to try to do this without being observed. They, however, though they attempted to elude observation by covering up their helmets, were seen by two women who were sacrificing for the enemy, and they would have been in great danger if Crassus had not quickly brought up the rest of his forces and joined battle. This was the most stubbornly contested battle of all. In it Crassus’ troops killed 12,300 men, but he only found two of them who were wounded in the back. All the rest died standing in the ranks and fighting back against the Romans. After this force had been defeated, Spartacus retired to the mountains of Petelia. One of Crassus’ officers called Quintus, and the quaestor Scrophas followed closely in his tracks. But when Spartacus turned on his pursuers, the Romans were entirely routed and they only just managed to drag the quaestor, who had been wounded, into safety. This success turned out to be the undoing of Spartacus, since it filled his slaves with overconfidence. They refused any longer to avoid battle and would not even obey their officers. Instead they surrounded them with arms in their hands as soon as they began to march and forced them to lead them back through Lucania against the Romans. This was precisely what Crassus most wanted them to do. It had already been reported that Pompey was on his way, and in fact a number of people were already loudly proclaiming that the victory in this war belonged to him; 99
it only remained for him to come and fight a battle, they said, and the war would be over. Crassus, therefore, was very eager to fight the decisive engagement himself and he camped close by the enemy. Here, as his men were digging a trench, the slaves came out, jumped into the trench and began to fight with those who were digging. More men from both sides kept on coming up, and Spartacus, realizing that he had no alternative, drew up his whole army in order of battle. First, when his horse was brought to him, he drew his sword and killed it, saying that the enemy had plenty of good horses which would be his if he won, and, if he lost, he would not need a horse at all. Then he made straight for Crassus himself, charging forward through the press of weapons and wounded men, and, though he did not reach Crassus, he cut down two centurions who fell on him together. Finally, when his own men had taken to flight, he himself, surrounded by enemies, still stood his ground and died fighting to the last. Crassus had had good fortune, had shown excellent generalship, and had risked his own life in the fighting; nevertheless the success of Crassus served to increase the fame of Pompey. The fugitives from the battle fell in with Pompey’s troops and were destroyed, so that Pompey, in his dispatch to the senate, was able to say that, while Crassus certainly had conquered the slaves in open battle, he himself had dug the war up by the roots. Pompey then celebrated a magnificent triumph for his victories against Sertorius and for the war in Hispania, while Crassus, much as he may have wanted to do so, did not venture to ask for a proper triumph; indeed it was thought that he acted rather meanly and discreditably when he accepted, for a war fought against slaves, the minor honor of a procession on foot, called the ‘ovation’. (Warner)
Publius Annius Florus, Epitome, 2, 8, 3 - 14 3 Spartacus, Crixus and Oenomaus, breaking out of the gladiatorial school of Lentulus with thirty or rather more mennote of the same occupation, escaped from Capua. When, by summoning the slaves to their standard, 100
they had quickly collected more than 10,000 adherents, these men, who had been originally content merely to have escaped, soon began to wish to take their revenge also. 4 The first position which attracted them (a suitable one for such ravening monsters) was Mt. Vesuvius. Being besieged here by Clodius Glabrus,note they slid by means of ropes made of vinetwigs through a passage in the hollow of the mountain down into its very depths, and issuing forth by a hidden exit, seized the camp of he general by a sudden attack which he never expected. 5 They then attacked other camps, that of Vareniusnote and afterwards that of Thoranus;note and they ranged over the whole of Campania. Not content with the plundering of country houses and villages, they laid waste Nola, Nuceria, Thurii and Metapontum with terrible destruction. 6 Becoming a regular army by the daily arrival of fresh forces, they made themselves rude shields of wicker-work and the skins of animals, and swords and other weapons by melting down the iron in the slave-prisons. 7 That nothing might be lacking which was proper to a regular army, cavalry was procured by breaking in herds of horses which they encountered, and his men brought to their leader the insignia and fasces captured from the praetors, 8 nor were they refused by the man who, from being a Thracian mercenary, had become a soldier, and from a soldier a deserter, then a highwayman, and finally, thanks to his strength, a gladiator. 9 He also celebrated the obsequies of his officers who had fallen in battle with funerals like those of Roman generals, and ordered his captives to fight at their pyres, just as though he wished to wipe out all his past dishonor by having become, instead of a gladiator, a giver of gladiatorial shows. 10 Next, actually attacking generals of consular rank, he inflicted defeat on the army of Lentulusnote in the Apennines and destroyed the camp of Gaius Cassius at Mutina.note 11 Elated by these victories he entertained the project - in itself a sufficient disgrace to us - of attacking the city of Rome. 12 At last a combined effort was made, supported by all the resources of the empire, against this gladiator, and Licinius Crassusnote vindicated the honor of Rome. Routed and put to fight by him, our enemies - I am ashamed to give
them this title - took refuge in the furthest extremities of Italy. 13 Here, being cut off in the angle of Bruttium and preparing to escape to Sicily, but being unable to obtain ships, they tried to launch rafts of beams and casks bound together with withies on the swift waters of the straits.note Failing in this attempt, they finally made a sally and met a death worthy of men, fighting to the death, 14 as became those who were commanded by a gladiator. Spartacus himself fell, as became a general, fighting most bravely in the front rank. (Foster)
Crossing the Rubicon
Plutarch, Life of Julius Caesar 32, 4 –8 4 He himself spent the day in public, attending and watching the exercises of gladiators; but a little before evening he bathed and dressed and went into the banqueting hall. Here he held brief converse with those who had been invited to supper, and just as it was getting dark and went away, after addressing courteously most of his guests and bidding them await his return. To a few of his friends, however, he had previously given directions to follow him, not all by the same route, but some by one way and some by another. 5 He himself mounted one of his hired carts and drove at first along another road, then turned towards Ariminum. When he came to the river which separates Cisalpine Gaul from the rest of Italy (it is called the Rubicon), and began to reflect, now that he drew nearer to the fearful step and was agitated by the magnitude of his ventures, he checked his speed. 6 Then, halting in his course, he communed with himself a long time in silence as his resolution wavered back and forth, and his purpose then suffered change after change. 7 For a long time, too, he discussed his perplexities with his friends who were present, among whom was Asinius Pollio, estimating the great evils for all mankind which would follow their passage of the river, and the wide fame of it which they would leave to posterity. 8 But finally, with a sort of passion, as if abandoning calculation and casting himself upon the future, and uttering the phrase with which men usually prelude their plunge into desperate and daring fortunes, “Let the die be cast,” he hastened to cross the river; and going at full speed now for the rest of the time, before daybreak he dashed into Ariminum and took possession of it.. (Perrin)
Suetonius, Julius Caesar 31 – 32 31 1 Accordingly, when word came that the veto of the tribunes had been set aside 102
and they themselves had left the city, he at once sent on a few cohorts with all secrecy, and then, to disarm suspicion, concealed his purpose by appearing at a public show inspecting the plans of a gladiatorial school which he intended building, and joining as usual in a banquet with a large company. 2 It was not until after sunset that he set out very privily with a small company, taking the mules from a bakeshop hard by and harnessing them to a carriage; and when his lights went out and he lost his way, he was astray for some time, but at last found a guide at dawn and got back to the road on foot by narrow by-paths. Then, overtaking his cohorts at the river Rubicon, which was the boundary of his province, he paused for a while, and realising what a step he was taking, he turned to those about him and said: “Even yet we may draw back; but once cross yon little bridge, and the whole issue is with the sword.” 32 1 As he stood in doubt, this sign was given him. On a sudden there appeared hard by a being of wondrous stature and beauty, who sat and played upon a reed; and when not only the shepherds flocked to hear him, but many of the soldiers left their posts, and among them some of the trumpeters, the apparition snatched a trumpet from one of them, rushed to the river, and sounding the war-note with mighty blast, strode to the opposite bank. Then Caesar cried: “Take we the course which the signs of the gods and the false dealing of our foes point out. The die is cast,” said he. (Rolfe)
117. Roman bone dice from Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester). Reading Museum. By BabelStone, via Wikimedia Commons.
Appian, Civil Wars 2, 35
Caesar, Civil War 1, 7 - 11
35 1 Accordingly, he sent forward the centurions with a few of their bravest troops in peaceful garb to go inside the walls of Ariminum and take it by surprise. This was the first town in Italy after leaving Cisalpine Gaul. Toward evening Caesar himself rose from a banquet on a plea of indisposition, leaving his friends who were still feasting. He mounted his chariot and drove toward Ariminum, his cavalry following at a short distance. When his course brought him to the river Rubicon, which forms the boundary line of Italy, he stopped and, while gazing at the stream, revolved in his mind the evils that would result, should he cross the river in arms. Recovering himself, he said to those who were present, “My friends, to leave this stream uncrossed will breed manifold distress for me; to cross it, for all mankind.” Thereupon, he crossed with a rush like one inspired, uttering the familiar phrase, “The die is cast: so let it be!” Then he resumed his hasty journey and took possession of Ariminum about daybreak, advanced beyond it, stationed guards p295at the commanding positions, and, either by force or by kindness, mastered all whom he fell in with. As is usual in cases of panic, there was flight and migration from all the countryside in disorder and tears, the people having no exact knowledge, but thinking that Caesar was pushing on with all his might and with an immense army. (White)
7 When this was known Caesar addresses his troops. He relates all the wrongs that his enemies had ever done him, and complains that Pompeius had been led astray and corrupted by them through jealousy and a desire to detract from his credit, though he had himself always supported and aided his honour and dignity. He complains that a new precedent had been introduced into the state whereby the right of tribunicial intervention, which in earlier years had been restored by arms, was now being branded with ignominy and crushed by arms. Sulla, he said, though stripping the tribunicial power of everything, had nevertheless left its right of intervention free, while Pompeius, who had the credit of having restored the privileges that were lost, had taken away even those that they had before. There had been no instance of the decree that the magistrates should take measures to prevent the state from suffering harm (the declaration and decision of the senate by which the Roman people are called to arms) except in the case of pernicious laws, tribunicial violence, a popular secession, or the seizure of temples and elevated positions: and he explains that these precedents of a former age had been p15expiated by the downfall of Saturninus and of the Gracchi. No event of this kind had occurred at the time in question or had even been thought of. He exhorts them to defend from his enemies the reputation and dignity of the commander under whose guidance they have administered the state with unfailing good fortune for nine years, fought many successful battles, and pacified the whole of Gaul and Germany. Thereupon the men of the Thirteenth Legion, which was present (he had called this out at the beginning of the disorder; the rest had not yet come together), exclaim that they are ready to repel the wrongs of their commander and of the tribunes.)
118. Map showing the beginning of the civil war between Caesar and the Optimates, 49 BC. From Ravenna to Corfinium. By Cristiano64, via Wikimedia Commons.
8 Having thus learnt the disposition of the soldiery, he sets out for Ariminum with that legion, and there meets the tribunes who had fled to him. The rest of the legions he summons from their winter quarters and orders them to follow him. Thither comes 103
the young L. Caesar whose father was one of Caesar’s legates. When their first greetings were over he explains — and this was the real reason of his coming — that he has a message from Pompeius to give him regarding a personal matter. He says that Pompeius wishes to be cleared of reproach in the eyes of Caesar, who should not construe as an affront to himself what he had done for the sake of the state. He had always placed the interests of the republic before private claims. Caesar, too, considering his high position, should give up for the benefit of the state his partisan zeal and passion, nor be so bitterly angry with his enemies as to injure the commonwealth in the hope that he is injuring them. He adds a few other remarks of this kind, at the same time making excuses for Pompeius. The praetor Roscius lays substantially the same proposals before p17Caesar, and in the same language, and makes it clear that he received them from Pompeius.
prepared to resort to anything, to submit to anything, for the sake of the commonwealth. Let Pompeius go to his own provinces, let us disband our armies, let everyone in Italy lay down his arms, let p19fear be banished from the state, let free elections and the whole control of the republic be handed over to the senate and the Roman people. That this may be done more easily and on definite terms and be ratified by an oath, let Pompeius himself come nearer or allow me to approach him. In this way a conference will settle all disputes.”
10 Having received his instructions, Roscius arrives at Capua with L. Caesar, and there finds the consuls and Pompeius, and delivers Caesar’s demands. After deliberation they reply and send him back by their hands written instructions, the main purport of which was that Caesar should return to Gaul, quit Ariminum and disband his forces; if he did this, Pompeius would go to the Spanish provinces. Meanwhile until a pledge was given 9 Though these proceedings seemed to have that Caesar would carry out his promise, the no effect in lessening the sense of wrong, consuls and Pompeius would not interrupt nevertheless now that he had found suitable their levies. persons to convey his wishes to Pompeius he makes a request of each of them that, as they 11 It was an unfair bargain to demand that had brought him the instructions of Pompeius, Caesar should quit Ariminum and return to they should not object to convey his demands his province while he himself retained his in reply, in the hope that by a little trouble they provinces and legions that were not his own: to might be able to put an end to serious disputes wish that Caesar’s army should be disbanded and free the whole of Italy from alarm. “As for while he himself continued his levies: to myself,” he said, “I have always reckoned the promise that he would go to his province and dignity of the republic of first importance not to fix a limit of date for his departure, and preferable to life. I was indignant that a so that if he had not gone when Caesar’s benefit conferred on me by the Roman people consulship was over he would nevertheless be was being insolently wrested from me by my held guiltless of breaking his word: finally, his enemies,5 and that, robbed of my six months’ refusal to give an opportunity for a conference command, I was being dragged back to the and to promise that he would approach city, when the people had directed that I Caesar tended to produce a profound despair should be allowed to be a candidate in absence of peace. And so he sends M. Antonius with at the next election. Nevertheless, for the sake five cohorts from Ariminum to Arretium, and of the state I have borne with equanimity this himself stops at Ariminum with two cohorts infringement of my prerogative; when I sent and arranges to hold a levy there; he occupies a dispatch to the senate proposing that all Pisaurum, Fanum, and Ancona, each with one should give up arms I failed to obtain even cohort. (Peskett) this request. Levies are being held throughout Italy, two legions which had been filched from me under the pretence of a Parthian war are being held back, the state is in arms. To what does all this tend but to my own ruin? Still I am 104
Julius Caesar’s urban planning
119. Map of Rome with projects of Caesar. Drawing: Rodica Reif and Richard A. Abrahamson. Projects initiated: 1: Forum Romanum; 2: Forum Iulium; 3: Saepta Julia; 4: Naumachia Caesaris 5: Theater near river; 6: Horti Caesaris. Projects initiated (location unknown): Temple of Clementia Caesaris; Tumulus Juliae in Campus Martius; Temporary Stadium in Campus Martius; Hunting Theater in Campus Martius. Restoration Projects: 7: Basilica Aemilia; 8: Circus Maximus. Projects Planned: Alteration to Tiber; Temple to Mars; Temple Libertas; Temple of Concordia Nova. Taken from Favro, Diane. The Urban Image of Augustan Rome. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
120. Map of Imperial Forums. From Nordisk familjebok, Swedish encyclopedia (1876-1957). By Eirik, via Wikimedia Commons.
Cicero, Letters to Atticus 4, 16, 8
Caesar built a temple to Venus Genetrix, which he vowed just before he fought Pompey at Pharsalus. He surrounded it with a space Cicero sends greetings to Atticus: [54 BC] intended as a forum for the Romans, although Nothing is more impressive than Paullus’s not for commerce, but for the exercise of civic new basilica, nothing more suited to advance business (as in Persia, where people come to a reputation. And so, I must confess, we the forum to seek justice or to study the laws). “friends of Caesar” (I refer to myself and Alongside the statue of Venus he placed a Oppius, even if that causes you to explode) beautiful statue of Cleopatra, which stands have spent without any qualms sixty million there today [c. C2 AD]. sesterces towards that monumental work you used to praise so highly—the expansion of Cassius Dio, Roman History 43, 22, the over-crowded Forum, and its extension all 1 - 2 the way to the Atrium of Liberty. The private owners of the land would not have sold for a On the last day of his triumph [September 26, lesser sum. But the results of our efforts will 46 BC], after the banquet, Caesar entered his be magnificent, since we also have in mind to own Forum, wearing slippers and a garland reconstruct the Voting Pens [Saepta] for the of various flowers.… This forum, which he tribal assemblies in the Campus Martius, this built and which bears his name, is far more one made of marble and roofed over, and we beautiful than the Roman Forum, although it will surround it with a lofty colonnade a mile has increased the reputation of the old forum, long. The Villa Publica will be attached to which is now known as “the Great Forum.” it as part of the same project. I know you’re Having constructed his forum and the Temple probably wondering what possible advantage of Venus (as the founder of his family), Caesar I get out of these show-pieces, but let’s not go dedicated them on this same date. into that now.
Suetonius, Julius Caesar 26, 2 [To gain favor in Rome while he was still waging war in Gaul, c. 54 BC] Caesar let no opportunity pass to lavish funds and favors in all directions both publicly and privately. Using booty from his wars, he began his Forum, the property for which cost more than a hundred million sesterces.
Appian, Civil Wars 2, 68 [In 48 BC, learning that Pompey meant to face him in battle at Pharsalus the next day, Julius Caesar readied his forces.] Then in the middle of the night he performed a sacrifice, calling on the aid of Mars and his own ancestress Aphrodite (for the Julian clan considers its name, with slight changes, to be descended from Ilus, son of Aeneas). He vowed that if successful in battle, he would set up a temple in Rome as a thank-offering to Venus, Bringer of Victory [Venus Victrix].
Appian, Civil Wars 2, 102 106
Suetonius, Julius Caesar 78, 1
It was the following incident that aroused the extreme and deadly hatred towards Caesar. When the entire body of the Senate approached Caesar with numerous resolutions of the highest honor, Caesar stayed seated as he received them in front of the Temple of Venus Genetrix. Some believe that he was on the verge of standing but was restrained by Cornelius Balbus; others, that not only did he not rise, but even glared at Gaius Trebatius when Trebatius suggested that he stand.
Augustus, Res Gestae 20 I completed the Forum of Caesar.
Vitruvius, Architecture 3, 3, 1 - 2 Of the five types of temples, the first is called pycnostyle; that is, with crowded columns.… In pycnostyle temples, the space between each column is only the width of one and a half columns, as in the Temple of the Divine Caesar and the Temple of Venus in the Forum
Cassius Dio, Roman History 51, 22, 3 The late Cleopatra herself, although defeated and captured by Rome, has been glorified: her ornaments are now dedicated in our temples, and a gold statue of the queen herself is on view in the Temple of Venus.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 34, 18 Julius Caesar permitted a statue of himself, in breastplate, to be dedicated in his forum.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 8, 155 It is reported that Caesar’s horse allowed no one else to ride him, and that his fore feet were similar to those of a human, as is represented on the statue of the horse located in front of the Temple of Venus Genetrix.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 35, 26 But it was Julius Caesar who by example especially encouraged the public display of art, dedicating paintings [by the great Timomachus] of Ajax and Medea in front of the Temple of Venus Genetrix.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 37, 11 Among other gifts to Capitoline Jupiter, Pompey the Great dedicated a gem case that had belonged to King Mithridates.… Following his example, Julius Caesar consecrated six gem cases in the Temple of Venus Genetrix.
Graffiti at the Basilica Argentaria ABCDEFGIL … “The town of Mantua gave me birth”… “I sing of arms and the man who first from the shores of Troy”… Mt. Soracte … Hector… Caecilius, a former student… Farewell, Smirina! (Dudley)
121. Plan of Temple of Venus Genetrix, Forum of Caesar. By Cassius Ahenobarbus, via Wikimedia Commons.
122. Detail of capitals and frieze decoration of Temple of Venus Genetrix, Forum of Caesar. By MM, via Wikimedia Commons.
123. Frieze with amorini (renovation by Trajan, 113 AD), Temple of Venus Genetrix, Forum of Caesar. By Sailko, via Wikimedia Commons.
124. Silver denarius of Julius Caesar, February-March 44 BC. Obverse: Julius Caesar with laureate head and crescent behind; reverse: Venus standing, holding Victoria and sceptre. Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., www. cngcoins.com.
Julio-Claudian emperors Augustus 27 BC - 14 AD
Tiberius 14 - 37 AD
Caligula 37 - 41 AD
subjected it to empire under the title of “Prince.” But the successes and reverses of the old Roman people have been recorded by famous historians; and fine intellects were not wanting to describe the times of Augustus, till growing sycophancy scared them away. The histories of Tiberius, Caius, Claudius, and Nero, while they were in power, were falsified through terror, and after their death were written under the irritation of a recent hatred. Hence my purpose is to relate a few facts about Augustus- more particularly his last acts, then the reign of Tiberius, and all which follows, without either bitterness or partiality, from any motives to which I am far removed.
Claudius 41 - 54 AD
Nero 54 - 68 AD
_____________ Augustus 27 BC - 14 AD
Tacitus, Annals 1, 1 – 2 Rome at the beginning was ruled by kings. Freedom and the consulship were established by Lucius Brutus. Dictatorships were held for a temporary crisis. The power of the decemvirs did not last beyond two years, nor was the consular jurisdiction of the military tribunes of long duration. The despotisms of Cinna and Sulla were brief; the rule of Pompeius and of Crassus soon yielded before Caesar; the arms of Lepidus and Antonius before Augustus; who, when the world was wearied by civil strife,
125a. (left) Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century AD, Villa of Livia at Prima Porta. Chiaramonti Museum, Braccio Nuovo, Vatican Museums. By Sourfm, via Wikimedia Commons. 125b. (right) Polychrome version of the Augustus of Prima Porta reconstructed for the Tarraco Viva 2014 Festival. By Marionaaragay (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
When after the destruction of Brutus and Cassius there was no longer any army of the Commonwealth, when Pompeius was crushed in Sicily, and when, with Lepidus pushed aside and Antonius slain, even the 111
Julian faction had only Caesar left to lead it, then, dropping the title of triumvir, and giving out that he was a Consul, and was satisfied with a tribune’s authority for the protection of the people, Augustus won over the soldiers with gifts, the populace with cheap corn, and all men with the sweets of repose, and so grew greater by degrees, while he concentrated in himself the functions of the Senate, the magistrates, and the laws. He was wholly unopposed, for the boldest spirits had fallen in battle, or in the proscription, while the remaining nobles, the readier they were to be slaves, were raised the higher by wealth and promotion, so that, aggrandised by revolution, they preferred the safety of the present to the dangerous past. Nor did the provinces dislike that condition of affairs, for they distrusted the government of the Senate and the people, because of the rivalries between the leading men and the rapacity of the officials, while the protection of the laws was unavailing, as they were continually deranged by violence, intrigue, and finally by corruption. (Church and Brodribb)
126. Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, late Augustan period, from the Via Labicana, Rome. Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. By Marie-Lan Nguyen (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Suetonius, Life of Augustus 28, 3 – 30 28. 3 Since the city was not adorned as the 112
dignity of the empire demanded, and was exposed to flood and fire, he so beautified it that he could justly boast that he had found it built of brick and left it in marble. He made it safe too for the future, so far as human foresight could provide for this. 29. 1 He built many public works, in particular the following: his forum with the temple of Mars the Avenger, the temple of Apollo on the Palatine, and the fane of Jupiter the Thunderer on the Capitol. His reason for building the forum was the increase in the number of the people and of cases at law, which seemed to call for a third forum, since two were no longer adequate. Therefore it was opened to the public with some haste, before the temple of Mars was finished, and it was provided that the public prosecutions be held there apart from the rest, as well as the selection of jurors by lot. 2 He had made a vow to build the temple of Mars in the war of Philippi, which he undertook to avenge his father; accordingly he decreed that in it the senate should consider wars and claims for triumphs, from it those who were on their way to the provinces with military commands should be escorted, and to it victors on their return should bear the tokens of their triumphs. 3 He reared the temple of Apollo in that part of his house on the Palatine for which the soothsayers declared that the god had shown his desire by striking it with lightning. He joined to it colonnades with Latin and Greek libraries, and when he was getting to be an old man he often held meetings of the senate there as well, and revised the lists of jurors. He dedicated the shrine to Jupiter the Thunderer because of a narrow escape; for on his Cantabrian expedition during a march by night, a flash of lightning grazed his litter and struck the slave dead who was carrying a torch before him. 4 He constructed some works too in the name of others, his grandsons and nephew to wit, his wife and his sister, such as the colonnade and basilica of Gaius and Lucius; also the colonnades of Livia and Octavia, and the theatre of Marcellus. More than that, he often urged other prominent men to adorn the city with new monuments
or to restore and embellish old ones, each according to his means. 5 And many such works were built at that time by many men; for example, the temple of Hercules and the Muses by Marcius Philippus, the temple of Diana by Lucius Cornificius, the Hall of Liberty by Asinius Pollio, the temple of Saturn by Munatius Plancus, a theatre by Cornelius Balbus, an amphitheatre by Statilius Taurus, and by Marcus Agrippa in particular many magnificent structures.
and the doors of my temple were publicly clothed with laurel and a civic crown was fixed over my door and a gold shield placed in the Julian senate-house, and the inscription of that shield testified to the virtue, mercy, justice, and piety, for which the senate and Roman people gave it to me. After that time, I exceeded all in influence, but I had no greater power than the others who were colleagues with me in each magistracy.
30. 1 He divided the area of the city into regions and wards, arranging that the former should be under the charge of magistrates selected each year by lot, and the latter under “masters” elected by the inhabitants of the respective neighbourhoods. To guard against fires he devised a system of stations of night watchmen, and to control the floods he widened and cleared out the channel of the Tiber, which had for some time been filled with rubbish and narrowed by jutting buildings. Further, to make the approach to the city easier from every direction, he personally undertook to rebuild the Flaminian Road all the way to Ariminum, and assigned the rest of the high-ways to others who had been honoured with triumphs, asking them to use their prize-money in paving them.
35. When I administered my thirteenth consulate (2 B.C.E.), the senate and Equestrian order and Roman people all called me father of the country, and voted that the same be inscribed in the vestibule of my temple, in the Julian senate-house, and in the forum of Augustus under the chario which had been placed there for me by a decision of the senate. When I wrote this I was seventy-six years old. (Bushnell)
Calendar Inscription (Fasti Praenestini) [On January 13, 27 BC] the Senate decreed that the Crown of Oak-Leaves be fastened above the doorway of the house of Emperor Caesar Augustus, because he restored the Republic to the Roman people.
2 He restored sacred edifices which had gone to ruin through lapse of time or had been destroyed by fire, and adorned both these and the other temples with most lavish gifts, depositing in the shrine of Jupiter Capitolinus as a single offering sixteen thousand pounds of gold, besides pearls and other precious stones to the value of fifty million sesterces. (Rolfe)
House of Augustus Augustus, Res Gestae 34 – 35
127. Fasti Praenestini, calendar of Verrius Flaccus, 6 – 9 AD, from Palestrina. Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. By Jastrow, via Wikimedia Commons.
34. In my sixth and seventh consulates (2827 B.C.E.), after putting out the civil war, having obtained all things by universal consent, I handed over the state from my Ovid, Fasti 4, 949 - 954 power to the dominion of the senate and Roman people. And for this merit of mine, Vesta, accept your day of honor! Vesta has by a senate decree, I was called Augustus been received 113
in the home of her kinsman Augustus: justly has the Senate decreed.
Suetonius, Life of Augustus 29,3
Apollo has his portion, another portion is Vesta’s,
Augustus built the Temple of Apollo on that part of his compound that, after lightning struck it, the soothsayers said was wanted by the god. He included colonnades with Greek and Latin libraries and when he was old often convened the senate here and reviewed the senatorial panels of jurors.
And what remains, a third one claims for himself. Palatine laurels, may you prosper; long prosper the home wreathed with oak leaves: one house for three immortal gods.
Temple of Apollo Velleius, History of Rome 2, 81, 3 [After the war against Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, in 36 BC] Augustus returned to the city and announced that he was dedicating to public use those homes which he had purchased earlier through his agents to expand his own home. He also promised to build a temple to Apollo with a portico around it, a project he carried out with exceptional magnificence.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 53, 1, 13 [In 28 BC] Augustus finished and dedicated the Temple of Apollo on the Palatine, along with the precinct around the temple and the libraries there.
Propertius, Elegies 2, 31; 32, 7 - 8 [The poet contrasts Cynthia’s wild ways with his own upstanding use of time:] You wonder why I’m late, my love? The mighty Augustus Just opened Apollo’s golden portico. Columns of African marble border the temple grounds, And the fifty daughters of Danaus stand between them. A marble Apollo seems to outshine the god himself, Lips parted to sing along with his silent lyre, And spaced around the altar, looking almost alive, Four bulls from the famous hand of Myron stand. Then, in the middle, a temple of radiant marble rises, A home more dear to the god than Delos itself.
128. So-called “Apollo Barberini”. Probable copy of the cult statue in the temple of Apollo Palatinus in Rome, reproduction of a work from 4th century BC, 1st–2nd century AD. By Bibi SaintPol, via Wikimedia Commons.
The chariot of the Sun is upon its pediment. The doors are Libyan ivory, finely wrought, One door lamenting the Gauls tossed from the peak of Parnassus,
The other mourning the death of Niobe’s Suetonius, Life of Augustus 31, 1 children. After Augustus assumed the office of Pontifex Maximus [in 12 BC], he collected all the Greek and Latin prophetic writings The Pythian Apollo sings in a lengthy robe. in circulation that were anonymous or attributed to unqualified authors, and I wish that you, in your free time, would burned more than two thousand of them. stroll such grounds! He preserved only the Sibylline verses Virgil, Aeneid 8, 704 - 706, 720 - 722 (though editing even these) and deposited them in two gilded cases beneath the pedestal of the Palatine Apollo. Looking down from his temple above the battle of Actium, Ovid, Tristia 3, 1 (selections) Next, the god himself, between his mother and sister,
Apollo bent his bow, and all our eastern enemies
[Ovid, exiled by Augustus, sends a book (or scroll) of poems to the reader in Rome; from Arabia, Egypt, and India turned and the book itself is addressing the reader:] fled in terror. “Sent to Rome by my author in exile, I … come with misgivings. The shield portrayed Augustus sitting on the snow-white threshold
Lend a kindly hand, dear reader, to a weary book,
Of radiant Apollo, receiving the gifts of foreign peoples
And have no fear that in welcoming me you may be disgraced:
On the god’s behalf and attaching them to Not a couplet in this poem on the art of the lofty door-posts. making love. Reader, if it isn’t much trouble, could you show me the way? Where can a book from the borders find some lodging in Rome?” [Ovid’s book manages, after difficulties, to find a reader to be his guide, and they walk together to the Palatine and its new library. Ovid continues the conceit of his talking book:] Marveling at each of the sights in turn, I spot a dwelling Fit for a god, its doorposts gleaming with weapons. “Is this the home of Jupiter?” I ask, my mind 129. Plan of the Palatine Hill. From Richter’s Topographie der Stadt Rom by permission of C. H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1911, via Wikimedia Commons.
Divining as much from the crown of oakleaves dear to the god. When I learn the mansion’s master, “Ah, then I did not err; 115
This truly is the home of mighty Jupiter.
Augustus, by which he subjected the whole wide earth to the rule of the Roman people, But why is the doorway adorned with a and of the money which he spent for the screen of sacred laurel, state and Roman people, inscribed on two Why does the dusky laurel frame this bronze pillars, which are set up in Rome. august entry? 1. In my nineteenth year, on my own
initiative and at my own expense, I raised an army with which I set free the state, which was oppressed by the domination of a Or perhaps the house is always loved by the faction. For that reason, the senate enrolled god Apollo? me in its order by laudatory resolutions, when Gaius Pansa and Aulus Hirtius … were consuls (43 B.C.E.), assigning me the An inscription explains the wreath of oak place of a consul in the giving of opinions, that crowns the door, and gave me the imperium. With me as propraetor, it ordered me, together with a witness to citizens protected by the power the consuls, to take care lest any detriment of the man within.” befall the state. But the people made me consul in the same year, when the consuls … each perished in battle, and they made me Then with an even pace I am led up the a triumvir for the settling of the state. lofty steps 2. I drove the men who slaughtered my father To the bright and towering temple of the into exile with a legal order, punishing their young and beardless god, crime, and afterwards, when they waged Where statues alternate with columns of war on the state, I conquered them in two battles. foreign marble, Because that house has earned for itself perpetual triumph?
The Danaid brides with their savage father, 3. I often waged war, civil and foreign, on the earth and sea, in the whole wide world, his sword unsheathed. and as victor I spared all the citizens who Here whatever ancient or modern authors sought pardon. As for foreign nations, have captured those which I was able to safely forgive, I preferred to preserve than to destroy. With a writer’s craft and insight awaits the About five hundred thousand Roman public’s perusal. citizens were sworn to me. I led something I look for my brothers there (except of more than three hundred thousand of them into colonies and I returned them to their course for those books cities, after their stipend had been earned, That even my father Ovid now wishes he and I assigned all of them fields or gave never begot), them money for their military service. I But while I search for them in vain, the captured six hundred ships in addition to those smaller than triremes. head librarian Approaches and says he must ask me to leave this sacred ground.
The Deeds of the Divine Augustus Augustus, Res Gestae A copy below of the deeds of the divine 116
4. Twice I triumphed with an ovation, and three times I enjoyed a curule triumph and twenty one times I was named emperor. When the senate decreed more triumphs for me, I sat out from all of them. I placed the laurel from the fasces in the Capitol, when the vows which I pronounced in each war had been fulfilled. On account of the things successfully done by me and through my
officers, under my auspices, on earth and sea, the senate decreed fifty-five times that there be sacrifices to the immortal gods. Moreover there were 890 days on which the senate decreed there would be sacrifices. In my triumphs kings and nine children of kings were led before my chariot. I had been consul thirteen times, when I wrote this, and I was in the thirty-seventh year of tribunician power (14 A.C.E.).
times on my own accord I both requested and received from the senate a colleague in such power.
5. When the dictatorship was offered to me, both in my presence and my absence, by the people and senate, when Marcus Marcellus and Lucius Arruntius were consuls (22 B.C.E.), I did not accept it. I did not evade the curatorship of grain in the height of the food shortage, which I so arranged that within a few days I freed the entire city from the present fear and danger by my own expense and administration. When the annual and perpetual consulate was then again offered to me, I did not accept it.
8. When I was consul the fifth time (29 B.C.E.), I increased the number of patricians by order of the people and senate. I read the roll of the senate three times, and in my sixth consulate (28 B.C.E.) I made a census of the people with Marcus Agrippa as my colleague. I conducted a lustrum, after a forty-one year gap, in which lustrum were counted 4,063,000 heads of Roman citizens. Then again, with consular imperium I conducted a lustrum alone when Gaius Censorinus and Gaius Asinius were consuls (8 B.C.E.), in which lustrum were counted 4,233,000 heads of Roman citizens. And the third time, with consular imperium, I conducted a lustrum with my son Tiberius Caesar as colleague, when Sextus Pompeius and Sextus Appuleius were consuls (14 A.C.E.), in which lustrum were counted 4,937,000 of the heads of Roman citizens. By new laws passed with my sponsorship, I restored many traditions of the ancestors, which were falling into disuse in our age, and myself I handed on precedents of many things to be imitated in later generations.
130. Weustink, Inge. “Replica of the text of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, created during the fascist period, engraved on the outer wall of the Ara Pacis Museum in Rome, facing the Mausoleum of Augustus.” August 2017.
6. When Marcus Vinicius and Quintus Lucretius were consuls (19 B.C.E.), then again when Publius Lentulus and Gnaeus Lentulus were (18 B.C.E.), and third when Paullus Fabius Maximus and Quintus Tubero were (11 B.C.E.), although the senateand Roman people consented that I alone be made curator of the laws and customs with the highest power, I received no magistracy offered contrary to the customs of the ancestors. What the senate then wanted to accomplish through me, I did through tribunician power, and five
7. I was triumvir for the settling of the state for ten continuous years. I was first of the senate up to that day on which I wrote this, for forty years. I was high priest, augur, one of the Fifteen for the performance of rites, one of the Seven of the sacred feasts, brother of Arvis, fellow of Titus, and Fetial.
9. The senate decreed that vows be undertaken for my health by the consuls and priests every fifth year. In fulfillment of these vows they often celebrated games for my life; several times the four highest colleges of priests, several times the consuls. Also both privately and as a city all the citizens unanimously and continuously prayed at all the shrines for my health. 10. By a senate decree my name was included in the Saliar Hymn, and it was sanctified by a law, both that I would be sacrosanct for ever, and that, as long as I would live, the tribunician power would be mine. I was unwilling to be high priest in 117
the place of my living colleague; when the people offered me that priesthood which my father had, I refused it. And I received that priesthood, after several years, with the death of him who had occupied it since the opportunity of the civil disturbance, with a multitude flocking together out of all Italy to my election, so many as had never before been in Rome, when Publius Sulpicius and Gaius Valgius were consuls (12 B.C.E.). 11. The senate consecrated the altar of Fortune the Bringer-back before the temples of Honor and Virtue at the Campanian gate for my retrn, on which it ordered the priests and Vestal virgins to offer yearly sacrifices on the day when I had returned to the city from Syria (when Quintus Lucretius and Marcus Vinicius were consuls (19 Bc)), and it named that day Augustalia after my cognomen. 12. By the authority of the senate, a part of the praetors and tribunes of the plebs, with consul Quintus Lucretius and the leading men, was sent to meet me in Campania, which honor had been decreed for no one but me until that time. When I returned to Rome from Spain and Gaul, having successfully accomplished matters in those provinces, when Tiberius Nero and Publius Quintilius were consuls (13 B.C.E.), the senate voted to consecrate the altar of August Peace in the field of Mars for my return, on which it ordered the magistrates and priests and Vestal virgins to offer annual sacrifices. 13. Our ancestors wanted Janus Quirinus to be closed when throughout the all the rule of the Roman people, by land and sea, peace had been secured through victory. Although before my birth it had been closed twice in all in recorded memory from the founding of the city, the senate voted three times in my principate that it be closed. 14. When my sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar, whom fortune stole from me as youths, were fourteen, the senate and Roman people made them consuls-designate on behalf of my honor, so that they would enter that magistracy after five years, and the senate decreed that on thatday when 118
they were led into the forum they would be included in public councils. Moreover the Roman knights together named each of them first of the youth and gave them shields and spears. 15. I paid to the Roman plebs, HS 300 per man from my father’s will and in my own name gave HS 400 from the spoils of war when I was consul for the fifth time (29 B.C.E.); furthermore I again paid out a public gift of HS 400 per man, in my tenth consulate (24 B.C.E.), from my own patrimony; and, when consul for the eleventh time (23 B.C.E.), twelve doles of grain personally bought were measured out; and in my twelfth year of tribunician power (12-11 B.C.E.) I gave HS 400 per man for the third time. And these public gifts of mine never reached fewer than 250,000 men. In my eighteenth year of tribunician power, as consul for the twelfth time (5 B.C.E.), I gave to 320,000 plebs of the city HS 240 per man. And, when consul the fifth time (29 B.C.E.), I gave from my warspoils to colonies of my soldiers each HS 1000 per man; about 120,000 men i the colonies received this triumphal public gift. Consul for the thirteenth time (2 B.C.E.), I gave HS 240 to the plebs who then received the public grain; they were a few more than 200,000. 16. I paid the towns money for the fields which I had assigned to soldiers in my fourth consulate (30 B.C.E.) and then when Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Lentulus Augur were consuls (14 B.C.E.); the sum was about HS 600,000,000 which I paid out for Italian estates, and about HS 260,000,000 which I paid for provincial fields. I was first and alone who did this among all who founded military colonies in Italy or the provinces according to the memory of my age. And afterwards, when Tiberius Nero and Gnaeus Piso were consuls (7 B.C.E.), and likewise when Gaius Antistius and Decius Laelius were consuls (6 B.C.E.), and when Gaius Calvisius and Lucius Passienus were consuls (4 B.C.E.), and when Lucius Lentulus and Marcus Messalla were consuls (3 B.C.E.), and when Lucius Caninius and Quintus Fabricius were consuls (2 B.C.E.),
I paid out rewards in cash to the soldiers whom I had led into their towns when their service was completed, and in this venture I spent about HS 400,000,000.
name Octavian, after he who had earlier built in the same place, the state box at the great circus, the temple on the Capitoline of Jupiter Subduer and Jupiter Thunderer, the temple of Quirinus, the temples of Minerva 17. Four times I helped the senatorial and Queen Juno and Jupiter Liberator on treasury with my money, so that I offered the Aventine, the temple of the Lares at the HS 150,000,000 to those who were in top of the holy street, the temple of the gods charge of the treasury. And when Marcus of the Penates on the Velian, the temple of Lepidus and Lucius Arruntius were consuls Youth, and the temple of the Great Mother (6 A.C.E.), I offered HS 170,000,000 from on the Palatine. my patrimony to the military treasury, which was founded by my advice and from 20. I rebuilt the Capitol and the theater which rewards were given to soldiers who of Pompey, each work at enormous cost, had served twenty or more times. without any inscription of my name. I rebuilt aqueducts in many places that had decayed 18. From that year when Gnaeus and Publius with age, and I doubled the capacity of the Lentulus were consuls (18 Bc), when the Marcian aqueduct by sending a new spring taxes fell short, I gave out contributions into its channel. I completed the Forum of of grain and money from my granary and Julius and the basilic which he built between patrimony, sometimes to 100,000 men, the temple of Castor and the temple of sometimes to many more. Saturn, works begun and almost finished by my father. When the same basilica was burned with fire I expanded its grounds and I began it under an inscription of the name of my sons, and, if I should not complete it alive, I ordered it to be completed by my heirs. Consul for the sixth time (28 B.C.E.), I rebuilt eighty-two temples of the gods in the city by the authority of the senate, omitting nothing which ought to have been rebuilt at that time. Consul for the seventh time (27 B.C.E.), I rebuilt the Flaminian road from the city to Ariminum and all the bridges except the Mulvian and Minucian.
131. Plan of the Forum of Augustus. By Cassius Ahenobarbus (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
19. I built the senate-house and the Chalcidicum which adjoins it and the temple of Apollo on the Palatine with porticos, the temple of divine Julius, the Lupercal, the portico at the Flaminian circus, which I allowed to be called by the
21. I built the temple of Mars Ultor on private ground and the forum of Augustus from war-spoils. I build the theater at the temple of Apollo on ground largely bought from private owners, under the name of Marcus Marcellus my son-in-law. I consecrated gifts from war-spoils in the Capitol and in the temple of divine Julius, in the temple of Apollo, in the tempe of Vesta, and in the temple of Mars Ultor, which cost me about HS 100,000,000. I sent back gold crowns weighing 35,000 to the towns and colonies of Italy, which had been contributed for my triumphs, and later, however many times I was named emperor, I refused gold crowns from the towns and colonies which they equally kindly decreed, and before they had 119
decreed them. 22. Three times I gave shows of gladiators under my name and five times under the name of my sons and grandsons; in these shows about 10,000 men fought. Twice I furnished under my name spectacles of athletes gathered from everywhere, and three times under my grandson’s name. I celebrated games under my name four times, and furthermore in the place of other magistrates twenty-three times. As master of the college I celebrated the secular games for the college of the Fifteen, with my colleague Marcus Agrippa, when Gaius Furnius and Gaius Silanus were consuls (17 B.C.E.). Consul for the thirteenth time (2 B.C.E.), I celebrated the first games of Mas, which after that time thereafter in following years, by a senate decree and a law, the consuls were to celebrate. Twentysix times, under my name or that of my sons and grandsons, I gave the people hunts of African beasts in the circus, in the open, or in the amphitheater; in them about 3,500 beasts were killed. 23. I gave the people a spectacle of a naval battle, in the place across the Tiber where the grove of the Caesars is now, with the ground excavated in length 1,800 feet, in width 1,200, in which thirty beaked ships, biremes or triremes, but many smaller, fought among themselves; in these ships about 3,000 men fought in addition to the rowers. 24. In the temples of all the cities of the province of Asia, as victor, I replaced the ornaments which he with whom I fought the war had possessed privately after he despoiled the temples. Silver statues of me-on foot, on horseback, and standing in a chariot-were erected in about eighty cities, which I myself removed, and from the money I placed goldn offerings in the temple of Apollo under my name and of those who paid the honor of the statues to me. 25. I restored peace to the sea from pirates. In that slave war I handed over to their masters for the infliction of punishments about 30,000 captured, who had fled their 120
masters and taken up arms against the state. All Italy swore allegiance to me voluntarily, and demanded me as leader of the war which I won at Actium; the provinces of Gaul, Spain, Africa, Sicily, and Sardinia swore the same allegiance. And those who then fought under my standard were more than 700 senators, among whom 83 were made consuls either before or after, up to the day this was written, and about 170 were made priests.
132. Weustink, Inge. “Agrippa (veiled) on the Ara Pacis.” August 2017.
26. I extended the borders of all the provinces of the Roman people which neighbored nations not subject to our rule. I restored peace to the provinces of Gaul and Spain, likewise Germany, which includes the ocean from Cadiz to the mouth of the river Elbe. I brought peace to the Alps from the region which i near the Adriatic Sea to the Tuscan, with no unjust war waged against any nation. I sailed my ships on the ocean from the mouth of the Rhine to the east region up to the borders of the Cimbri, where no Roman had gone before that time by land or sea, and the Cimbri and the Charydes and the Semnones and the other Germans of the same territory sought by envoys the friendship of me and of the Roman people. By my order and auspices two armies were led at about the same time into Ethiopia and into that part of Arabia which is called Happy, and the troops of each nation of enemies were slaughtered in battle and many towns captured. They penetrated into Ethiopia all the way to the
town Nabata, which is near to Meroe; and overcome under my auspices, and then my into Arabia all the way to the border of the army, led across the Danube, forced the Sabaei, advancing to the town Mariba. tribes of the Dacians to bear the rule of the Roman people. 27. I added Egypt to the rule of the Roman people. When Artaxes, king of Greater 31. Emissaries from the Indian kings were Armenia, was killed, though I could often sent to me, which had not been seen have made it a province, I preferred, before that time by any Roman leader. by the example of our elders, to hand The Bastarnae, the Scythians, and the over that kingdomto Tigranes, son of Sarmatians, who are on this side of the king Artavasdes, and grandson of King river Don and the kings further away, and Tigranes, through Tiberius Nero, who was the kings of the Albanians, of the Iberians, then my step-son. And the same nation, and of the Medes, sought our friendship after revolting and rebelling, and subdued through emissaries. through my son Gaius, I handed over to be ruled by King Ariobarzanes son of 32. To me were sent supplications by Artabazus, King of the Medes, and after his kings: of the Parthians, Tiridates and later death, to his son Artavasdes; and when he Phrates son of king Phrates, of the Medes, was killed, I sent Tigranes, who came from Artavasdes, of the Adiabeni, Artaxares, the royal clan of the Armenians, into that of the Britons, Dumnobellaunus and rule. I recovered all the provinces which lie Tincommius, of the Sugambri, Maelo, of across the Adriatic to the east and Cyrene, the Marcomanian Suebi (...) (-)rus. King with kings now possessing them in large Phrates of the Parthians, son of Orodes, part, and Sicily and Sardina, which had sent all his sons and grandsons into Italy to me, though defeated in no war, but seeking been occupied earlier in the slave war. our friendship through the pledges of his 28. I founded colonies of soldiers in Africa, children. And in my principate many other Sicily, Macedonia, each Spain, Greece, peoples experienced the faith of the Roman Asia, Syria, Narbonian Gaul, and Pisidia, people, of whom nothing had previously and furthermore had twenty-eight colonies existed of embassies or interchange of founded in Italy under my authority, which friendship with the Roman people. were very populous and crowded while I 33. The nations of the Parthians and Medes lived. received from me the first kings of those 29. I recovered from Spain, Gaul, and nations which they sought by emissaries: Dalmatia the many military standards the Parthians, Vonones son of king Phrates, lost through other leaders, after defeating grandson of king Orodes, the Medes, the enemies. I compelled the Parthians to Ariobarzanes, son of king Artavasdes, return to me the spoils and standards of grandson of king Aiobarzanes. three Roman armies, and as suppliants to seek the friendship of the Roman people. 34. In my sixth and seventh consulates (28Furthermore I placed those standards in 27 B.C.E.), after putting out the civil war, the sanctuary of the temple of Mars Ultor. having obtained all things by universal consent, I handed over the state from my 30. As for the tribes of the Pannonians, power to the dominion of the senate and before my principate no army of the Roman people. And for this merit of mine, Roman people had entered their land. by a senate decree, I was called Augustus When they were conquered through and the doors of my temple were publicly Tiberius Nero, who was then my step-son clothed with laurel and a civic crown and emissary, I subjected them to the rule was fixed over my door and a gold shield of the Roman people and extended the placed in the Julian senate-house, and the borders of Illyricum to the shores of the inscription of that shield testified to the river Danube. On the near side of it the virtue, mercy, justice, and piety, for which army of the Dacians was conquered and the senate and Roman people gave it to me. 121
After that time, I exceeded all in influence, but I had no greater power than the others who were colleagues with me in each magistracy. 35. When I administered my thirteenth consulate (2 B.C.E.), the senate and Equestrian order and Roman people all called me father of the country, and voted that the same be inscribed in the vestibule of my temple, in the Julian senate-house, and in the forum of Augustus under the chariot which had been placed there for me by a decision of the senate. When I wrote this I was seventy-six years old.
Appendix Written after Augustus’ death.
133. Livia and her son Tiberius, AD 14-19, from Paestum. National Archaeological Museum Madrid. By Miguel Hermoso Cuesta (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Tiberius 14 - 37 AD
Suetonius, Life of Tiberius 10 - 11, 2
1. All the expenditures which he gave either into the treasury or to the Roman plebs or 10 1 At the flood-tide of success, though to discharged soldiers: HS 2,400,000,000. in the prime of life and health, he suddenly 2. The works he built: the temples of Mars, of decided to go into retirement and to Jupiter Subduer and Thunderer, of Apollo, withdraw as far as possible from the centre of divine Julius, of Minerva, of Queen of the stage; perhaps from disgust at his Juno, of Jupiter Liberator, of the Lares, of wife, whom he dared neither accuse nor put the gods of the Penates, of Youth, and of away, though he could no longer endure the Great Mother, the Lupercal, the state her; or perhaps, avoiding the contempt box at the circus, the senate-house with born of familiarity, to keep up his prestige the Chalcidicum, the forum of Augustus, by absence, or even add to it, in case his the Julian basilica, the theater of Marcellus, country should ever need him. Some think the Octavian portico, and the grove of the that, since the children of Augustus were now of age, he voluntarily gave up the Caesars across the Tiber. position and the virtual assumption of the 3. He rebuilt the Capitol and holy temples second rank which he had long held, thus numbering eighty-two, the theater of following the example of Marcus Agrippa, Pompey, waterways, and the Flaminian who withdrew to Mytilene when Marcellus road. began his public career, so that he might not seem either to oppose or belittle him by 4. The sum expended on theatrical his presence. spectacles and gladiatorial games and athletes and hunts and mock naval battles 2 This was, in fact, the reason which Tiberius and money given to colonies, cities, and himself gave, but afterwards. At the time he towns destroyed by earthquake and fire or asked for leave of absence on the ground of per man to friends and senators, whom he weariness of office and a desire to rest; and raised to the senate rating: innumerable. he would not give way either to his mother’s (Bushnell) urgent entreaties or to the complaint which his step-father openly made in the senate, that he was being forsaken. On the contrary, when they made more strenuous efforts to 122
detain him, he refused to take food for four days. Being at last allowed to depart, he left his wife and son in Rome and went down to Ostia in haste, without saying a single word to any of those who saw him off, and kissing only a very few when he left.
Whereupon Tiberius, shocked at this unexpected sight, and in doubt for some time what to do, at last went about to each one, apologizing for what had happened even to the humblest and most obscure of them. (Rolfe)
11 1 From Ostia he coasted along the shore of Campania, and learning of an indisposition of Augustus, he stopped for a while. But since gossip was rife that he was lingering on the chance of realising his highest hopes, although the wind was all but dead ahead, he sailed directly to Rhodes, for he had been attracted by the charm and healthfulness of that island ever since the time when he put in there on his return from Armenia. Content there with a modest house and a villa in the suburbs not much more spacious, he adopted a most unassuming manner of life, at times walking in the gymnasium without a lictor or a messenger, and exchanging courtesies with the good people of Greece with almost the air of an equal.
Suetonius, Life of Tiberius 20
After two years he returned to the city from Germany and celebrated the triumph which he had postponed, accompanied also by his generals, for whom he had obtained the triumphal regalia. And before turning to enter the Capitol, he dismounted from his chariot and fell at the knees of his father, who was presiding over the ceremonies. He sent Bato, the leader of the Pannonians, to Ravenna, after presenting him with rich gifts; thus showing his gratitude to him for allowing him to escape when he was trapped with his army in a dangerous place. Then he gave a banquet to the people at a thousand tables, and a largess of three hundred sesterces to every man. With 2 It chanced one morning in arranging the proceeds of his spoils he restored and his programme for the day, that he had dedicated the temple of Concord, as well as announced his wish to visit whatever that of Pollux and Castor, in his own name sick folk there were in the city. This was and that of his brother. (Rolfe) misunderstood by his attendants, and Suetonius, Life of Tiberius 37 orders were given that all the sick should be taken to a public colonnade and arranged according to the nature of their complaints. He gave special attention to securing safety from prowling brigands and lawless outbreaks. He stationed garrisons of soldiers nearer together than before throughout Italy, while at Rome he established a camp for the barracks of the praetorian cohorts, which before that time had been quartered in isolated groups in divers lodging houses. (Rolfe)
Caligula 37 - 41 AD
Suetonius, Life of Caligula 21 134. Reconstruction of the Villa Jovis, Capri. From Weichardt, C. Das Schloß des Tiberius und andere Römerbauten auf Capri, 1900. By Carl Weichardt, via Wikimedia Commons.
He completed the public works which had been half finished under Tiberius, namely the temple of Augustus and the theatre of Pompey. He likewise began an aqueduct in 123
the region near Tibur and an amphitheatre beside the Saepta, the former finished by his successor Claudius, while the latter was abandoned. At Syracuse he repaired the city walls, which had fallen into ruin though lapse of time, and the temples of the gods. He had planned, besides, to rebuild the palace of Polycrates at Samos, to finish the temple of Didymaean Apollo at Ephesus, to found a city high up in the Alps, but, above all, to dig a canal through the Isthmus in Greece, and he had already sent a chief centurion to survey the work. (Rolfe) 135. Reconstruction of the original polychromy of a Roman portrait of emperor Caligula. Istanbul Archaeological Museum. By G.dallorto, via Wikimedia Commons.
spring of the new Anio, distributing them into many beautifully ornamented pools. He made the attempt on the Fucine Lake as much in the hope of gain as of glory, inasmuch as there were some who agreed to drain it at their own cost, provided the land that was uncovered be given to them. He finished the outlet, which was three miles in length, partly by leveling and partly by tunneling a mountain, a work of great difficulty and requiring eleven years, although he had thirty thousand men at work all the time without interruption. He constructed the harbor at Ostia by building curving breakwaters on the right and left, while before the entrance he placed a mole in deep water. To give this mole a firmer foundation, he first sank the ship in which the great obelisk had been brought from Egypt, and then securing it by piles, built upon it a very lofty tower after the model of the Pharos at Alexandria, to be lighted at night and guide the course of ships. (Rolfe)
Claudius 41 - 54 AD
Suetonius, Life of Claudius 20 The public works which he completed were great and essential rather than numerous; they were in particular the following: an aqueduct begun by Gaius; also the outlet of Lake Fucinus and the harbor at Ostia, although in the case of the last two he knew that Augustus had refused the former to the Marsyans in spite of their frequent requests, and that the latter had often been thought of by the Deified Julius, but given up because of its difficulty. He brought to the city on stone arches the cool and abundant founts of the Claudian aqueduct, one of which is called Caeruleus and the other Curtius and Albudignus, and at the same time the 124
136. Map of the harbour of Claudius (Portus Augusti). From Ostia. Harbour City of Ancient Rome, www.ostia-antica.org.
Nero 54 - 68 AD
Suetonius, Life of Nero 25 1 Returning from Greece, since it was at Naples that he had made his first appearance, he entered that city with white horses through a part of the wall which had been thrown down, as is customary with victors in the sacred games. In like manner
he entered Antium, then Albanum, and finally Rome; but at Rome he rode in the chariot which Augustus had used in his triumphs in days gone by, and wore a purple robe and a Greek cloak adorned with stars of gold, bearing on his head the Olympic crown and in his right hand the Pythian, while the rest were carried before him with inscriptions telling where he had won them and against what competitors, and giving the titles of the songs or of the subject of the plays. His car was followed by his claque as by the escort of a triumphal procession, who shouted that they were the attendants of Augustus and the soldiers of his triumph. 2 Then through the arch of the Circus Maximus, which was thrown down, he made his way across the Velabrum and the Forum to the Palatine and the temple of Apollo. All along the route victims were slain, the streets were sprinkled from time to time with perfume, while birds, ribbons, and sweetmeats were showered upon him. He placed the sacred crowns in his bed-chambers around the couches, as well as statues representing him in the guise of a lyre-player; and he had a coin too struck with the same device. 3 So far from neglecting or relaxing his practice of the art after this, he never addressed the soldiers except by letter or in a speech delivered by another, to save his voice; and he never did anything for amusement or in earnest without an elocutionist by his side, to warn him to spare his vocal organs and hold a handkerchief to his mouth. To many men he offered his friendship or announced his hostility, according as they had applauded him lavishly or grudgingly. (Rolfe) 137. Fresco from the nympheum of Nero’s House of Passage (Domus Transitoria), 54 – 64 AD. Antiquarium of the Palatine Hill. By Sailko, via Wikimedia Commons.
Suetonius, Life of Nero 31 There was nothing however in which he was more ruinously prodigal than in building. He made a palace extending all the way from the Palatine to the Esquiline, which at first he called the House of Passage, but when it was burned shortly after its completion and rebuilt, the Golden House. Its size and splendour will be sufficiently indicated by the following details. Its vestibule was large enough to contain a colossal statue of the emperor a hundred and twenty feet high; and it was so extensive that it had a triple colonnade a mile long. There was a pond too, like a sea, surrounded with buildings to represent cities, besides tracts of country, varied by tilled fields, vineyards, pastures and woods, with great numbers of wild and domestic animals. 2 In the rest of the house all parts were overlaid with gold and adorned with gems and motherof pearl. There were dining-rooms with fretted ceils of ivory, whose panels could turn and shower down flowers and were fitted with pipes for sprinkling the guests with perfumes. The main banquet hall was circular and constantly revolved day and night, like the heavens. He had baths supplied with sea water and sulphur water. When the edifice was finished in this style and he dedicated it, he deigned to say nothing more in the way of approval than that he was at last beginning to be housed like a human being. 3 He also began a pool, extending from Misenum to the lake of Avernus, roofed over and enclosed in colonnades, into which he planned to turn all the hot springs in every part of Baiae; a canal from Avernus all the way to Ostia, to enable the journey to be made by ship yet not by sea; its length was to be a hundred and sixty miles and its breadth sufficient to allows ships with five banks of oars to pass each other. For the execution of these projects he had given orders that the prisoners all over the empire should be transported to Italy, and that those who were convicted even of capital crimes should be punished in no other way than by sentence to this work. 125
4 He was led to such mad extravagance, in addition to his confidence in the resources of the empire, by the hope of a vast hidden treasure, suddenly inspired by the assurance of a Roman knight, who declared positively that the enormous wealth which queen Dido had taken with her of old in her flight from Tyre was hidden away in huge caves in Africa and could be recovered with but trifling labour. (Rolfe)
Suetonius, Nero 31 In the entry area of Nero’s Golden House stood a statue in the likeness of Nero 120 feet tall. (Rolfe) Pliny the Elder, Natural History 34, 39 and 41, 45 There exists a giant class of bronze statues called Colossi, tall as towers. The Colossus of the Sun-god in Rhodes, built by Chares, was the most famous of them. Larger than all of them, however, was a colossus made in our own time by Zenodorus. Summoned to Rome by Nero, he made a colossus 106½ feet tall, intended originally to represent the emperor, but since dedicated to the Sun-god after the crimes of Nero were condemned.
wind, swept the full length of the Circus: for there were neither mansions screened by boundary walls, nor temples surrounded by stone enclosures, nor obstructions of any description, to bar its progress. The flames, which in full career overran the level districts first, then shot up to the heights, and sank again to harry the lower parts, kept ahead of all remedial measures, the mischief travelling fast, and the town being an easy prey owing to the narrow, twisting lanes and formless streets typical of old Rome. In addition, shrieking and terrified women; fugitives stricken or immature in years; men consulting their own safety or the safety of others, as they dragged the infirm along or paused to wait for them, combined by their dilatoriness or their haste to impede everything. Often, while they glanced back to the rear, they were attacked on the flanks or in front; or, if they had made their escape into a neighbouring quarter, that also was involved in the flames, and even districts which they had believed remote from danger were found to be in the same plight. At last, irresolute what to avoid or what to seek, they crowded into the roads or threw themselves down in the fields: some who had lost the whole of their means — their daily bread included — chose to die, though the way of escape was open, and were followed by others, through love for the relatives whom they had proved unable to rescue. None ventured to combat the fire, as there were reiterated threats from a large number of persons
The Great Fire Tacitus, Annals 15, 38 - 47 38 1 There followed a disaster, whether due to chance or to the malice of the sovereign is uncertain — for each version has its sponsors — but graver and more terrible than any other which has befallen this city by the ravages of fire. It took its rise in the part of the Circus touching the Palatine and Caelian Hills; where, among the shops packed with inflammable goods, the conflagration broke out, gathered strength in the same moment, and, impelled by the 126
138. Nero views the burning of Rome. Painting by Carl Theodor von Piloty, ca. 1861. By Pataki Márta, via Wikimedia Commons.
who forbade extinction, and others were openly throwing firebrands and shouting that “they had their authority” — possibly in order to have a freer hand in looting, possibly from orders received.
139. Nero’s Golden House (Domus Aurea) built after the Great Fire of 64 AD. By Cristiano64 (Own work), via Wikimedia
39 1 Nero, who at the time was staying in Antium, did not return to the capital until the fire was nearing the house by which he had connected the Palatine with the Gardens of Maecenas. It proved impossible, however, to stop it from engulfing both the Palatine and the house and all their surroundings. Still, as a relief to the homeless and fugitive populace, he opened the Campus Martius, the buildings of Agrippa, even his own Gardens, and threw up a number of extemporized shelters to accommodate the helpless multitude. The necessities of life were brought up from Ostia and the neighbouring municipalities, and the price of grain was lowered to three sesterces. Yet his measures, popular as their character might be, failed of their effect; for the report had spread that, at the very moment when Rome was aflame, he had mounted his private stage, and typifying the ills of the present by the calamities of the past, had sung the destruction of Troy.
when the fire resumed its ravages; in the less congested parts of the city, however; so that, while the toll of human life was not so great, the destruction of temples and of porticoes dedicated to pleasure was on a wider scale. The second fire produced the greater scandal of the two, as it had broken out on Aemilian property of Tigellinus and appearances suggested that Nero was seeking the glory of founding a new capital and endowing it with his own name. Rome, in fact, is divided into fourteen regions, of which four remained intact, while three were laid level with the ground: in the other seven nothing survived but a few dilapidated and half-burned relics of houses. 41 1 It would not be easy to attempt an estimate of the private dwellings, tenementblocks, and temples, which were lost; but the flames consumed, in their old-world sanctity, the great altar and chapel of the Arcadian Evander to the Present Hercules, the shrine of Jupiter Stator vowed by Romulus, the Palace of Numa, and the holy place of Vesta with the Penates of the Roman people. To these must be added the precious trophies won upon so many fields, the glories of Greek art, and yet again the primitive and uncorrupted memorials of literary genius;0 so that, despite the striking beauty of the rearisen city, the older generation recollects much that it proved impossible to replace. There were those who noted that the first outbreak of the fire took place on the nineteenth of July, the anniversary of the capture and burning of Rome by the Senones: others have pushed their researches so far as to resolve the interval between the two fires into equal numbers of years, of months, and of days.
42. 1 However, Nero turned to account the ruins of his fatherland by building a palace, the marvels of which were to consist not so much in gems and gold, materials long familiar and vulgarized by luxury, as in 40 1 Only on the sixth day, was the fields and lakes and the air of solitude given conflagration brought to an end at the foot of by wooded ground alternating with clear the Esquiline, by demolishing the buildings tracts and open landscapes. The architects over a vast area and opposing to the unabated and engineers were Severus and Celer, fury of the flames a clear tract of ground and who had the ingenuity and the courage to an open horizon. But fear had not yet been laid try the force of art even against the veto aside, nor had hope yet returned to the people, of nature and to fritter away the resources 127
of a Caesar. They had undertaken to sink a navigable canal running from Lake Avernus to the mouths of the Tiber along a desolate shore or through intervening hills; for the one district along the route moist enough to yield a supply of water is the Pomptine Marsh; the rest being cliff and sand, which could be cut through, if at all, only by intolerable exertions for which no sufficient motive existed. None the less, Nero, with his passion for the incredible, made an effort to tunnel the height nearest the Avernus, and some evidences of that futile ambition survive.
more salubrious, as the narrow streets and highbuilt houses were not so easily penetrated by the rays of the sun; while now the broad expanses, with no protecting shadows, glowed under a more oppressive heat. 44. 1 So far, the precautions taken were suggested by human prudence: now means were sought for appeasing deity, and application was made to the Sibylline books; at the injunction of which public prayers were offered to Vulcan, Ceres, and Proserpine, while Juno was propitiated by the matrons, first in the Capitol, then at the nearest point of the sea-shore, where water was drawn for sprinkling the temple and image of the goddess. Ritual banquets and all-night vigils were celebrated by women in the married state. But neither human help, nor imperial munificence, nor all the modes of placating Heaven, could stifle scandal or dispel the belief that the fire had taken place by order. Therefore, to scotch the rumour, Nero substituted as culprits, and punished with the utmost refinements of cruelty, a class of men, loathed for their vices, whom the crowd styled Christians. Christus, the founder of the name, had undergone the death penalty in the reign of Tiberius, by sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilatus, and the pernicious superstition was checked for a moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find a vogue. First, then, the confessed members of the sect were arrested; next, on their disclosures, vast numbers were convicted, not so much on the count of arson as for hatred of the human race.
43. 1 In the capital, however, the districts spared by the palace were rebuilt, not, as after the Gallic fire, indiscriminately and piecemeal, but in measured lines of streets, with broad thoroughfares, buildings of restricted height, and open spaces, while colonnades were added as a protection to the front of the tenement-blocks. These colonnades Nero offered to erect at his own expense, and also to hand over the building-sites, clear of rubbish, to the owners. He made a further offer of rewards, proportioned to the rank and resources of the various claimants, and fixed a term within which houses or blocks of tenement must be completed, if the bounty was to be secured. As the receptacle of the refuse he settled upon the Ostian Marshes, and gave orders that vessels which had carried grain up the Tiber must run down-stream laden with débris. The buildings themselves, to an extent definitely specified, were to be solid, untimbered structures of Gabine or Alban stone, that particular stone being proof against fire. Again, there was to be a guard to ensure that the water-supply — intercepted by private lawlessness — should be available for public purposes in greater quantities and at more points; appliances for checking fire were to be kept by everyone in the open; there were to be no joint partitions between buildings, but 140. Coin of Nero and a lyre player. By BlogBuilder on Coin at each was to be surrounded by its own walls. Warwick, blogs.warwick.ac.uk/numismatics. These reforms, welcomed for their utility, were also beneficial to the appearance And derision accompanied their end: they were of the new capital. Still, there were those covered with wild beasts’ skins and torn to death who held that the old form had been the by dogs; or they were fastened on crosses, and, 128
when daylight failed were burned to serve as lamps by night. Nero had offered his Gardens for the spectacle, and gave an exhibition in his Circus, mixing with the crowd in the habit of a charioteer, or mounted on his car. Hence, in spite of a guilt which had earned the most exemplary punishment, there arose a sentiment of pity, due to the impression that they were being sacrificed not for the welfare of the state but to the ferocity of a single man.
141. Plan of Regio III with Gardens of Maecenas (Horti Maecenatis). From Lanciani, Rodolfo. Ruins and excavations of ancient Rome, 1897. By Obmen, via Wikimedia Commons.
45. 1 Meanwhile, Italy had been laid waste for contributions of money; the provinces, the federate communities, and the so called free states, were ruined. The gods themselves formed part of the plunder, as the ravaged temples of the capital were drained of the gold dedicated in the triumphs or the vows, the prosperity or the fears, of the Roman nation at every epoch. But in Asia and Achaia, not offerings alone but the images of deity were being swept away, since Acratus and Carrinas Secundus had been despatched into the two provinces. The former was a freedman prepared for any enormity; the latter, as far as words went, was a master of Greek philosophy, but his character remained untinctured by the virtues. Seneca, it was rumoured, to divert the odium of sacrilege from himself, had asked leave to retire to a distant estate in the country, and, when it was not accorded, had feigned illness — a neuralgic affection, he said — and declined to leave his bedroom. Some have put it on
record that, by the orders of Nero, poison had been prepared for him by one of his freedmen, Cleonicus by name; and that, owing either to the man’s revelations or to his own alarms, it was avoided by Seneca, who supported life upon an extremely simple diet of field fruits and, if thirst was insistent, spring water. 46 1 About the same time, an attempted outbreak of the gladiators at the town of Praeneste was quelled by the company of soldiers stationed as a guard upon the spot; not before the populace, allured and terrified as always by revolution, had turned its conversation to Spartacus and the calamities of the past. Not long afterwards, news was received of a naval disaster. War was not the cause (for at no other time had peace been so completely undisturbed), but Nero had ordered the fleet to return to Campania by a given date, no allowance being made for hazards of the sea. The helmsmen, therefore, in spite of a raging storm, stood out from Formiae; and, while attempting to round the promontory of Misenum, were driven by a south-west gale on to the beach at Cumae, losing a considerable number of triremes and smaller vessels in crowds. 47 1 At the close of the year, report was busy with portents heralding disaster to come — lightning-flashes in numbers never exceeded, a comet (a phenomenon to which Nero always made atonement in noble blood); two-headed embryos, human or of the other animals, thrown out in public or discovered in the sacrifices where it is the rule to kill pregnant victims. Again, in the territory of Placentia, a calf was born close to the road with the head grown to a leg; and there followed an interpretation of the soothsayers, stating that another head was being prepared for the world; but it would be neither strong nor secret, as it had been repressed in the womb, and had been brought forth at the wayside. (Jackson)
Suetonius, Life of Nero 38 1 But he showed no greater mercy to the people or the walls of his capital. When 129
someone in a general conversation said: “When I am dead, be earth consumed by fire,” he rejoined “Nay, rather while I live,” and his action was wholly in accord. For under cover of displeasure at the ugliness of the old buildings and the narrow, crooked streets, he set fire to the city so openly that several ex-consuls did not venture to lay hands on his chamberlains although they caught them on their estates with tow and fire-brands, while some granaries near the Golden House, whose room he particularly desired, were demolished by engines of war and then set on fire, because their walls were of stone. 2 For six days and seven nights destruction raged, while the people were driven for shelter to monuments and tombs. At that time, besides an immense number of dwellings, the houses of leaders of old were burned, still adorned with trophies of victory, and the temples of the gods vowed and dedicated by the kings and later in the Punic and Gallic wars, and whatever else interesting and noteworthy had survived from antiquity. Viewing the conflagration from the tower of Maecenas and exulting, as he said, in “the beauty of the flames,” he sang the whole of the “Sack of Ilium,” in his regular stage costume. 3 Furthermore, to gain from this calamity too all the spoil and booty possible, while promising the removal of the debris and dead bodies free of cost he allowed no one to approach the ruins of his own property; and from the contributions which he not only received, but even demanded, he nearly bankrupted the provinces and exhausted the resources of individuals. (Rolfe)
sent out men who pretended to be drunk or engaged in other kinds of mischief, and caused them at first to set fire to one or two or even several buildings in different parts of the city, so that people were at their wits’ end, not being able to find any beginning of the trouble nor to put an end to it, though they constantly were aware of many strange sights and sounds. 3 For there was naught to be seen but many fires, as in a camp, and naught to be heard from the talk of the people except such exclamations as “This or that is afire,” “Where?” “How did it happen?” “Who kindled it?” “Help?”
142. Map with the fourteen regions of Augustan Rome and the seven barracks of the fire brigade (cohortes vigilum). By Cassius Ahenobarbus, via Wikimedia Commons.
Extraordinary excitement laid hold on all the citizens in all parts of the city, and they ran about, some in one direction and some in another, as if distracted. 4 Here men while assisting their neighbours would learn that their own premises were afire; there others, before word reached them that their own houses had caught fire, would be told that they were destroyed. Those who were inside Cassius Dio, Roman History 62, 16 - their houses would run out into the narrow streets thinking that they could save them 18 from the outside, while people in the streets 16 1 After this Nero set his heart on would rush into the dwellings in the hope accomplishing what had doubtless always of accomplishing something inside. 5 There been his desire, namely to make an end of was shouting and wailing without end, of the whole city and realm during his lifetime. children, women, men, and the aged all 2 At all events, he, like others before him, together, so that no one could see thing or used to call Priam wonderfully fortunate in understand what was said by reason of the that he had seen his country and his throne smoke and the shouting; and for this reason destroyed together. Accordingly he secretly some might be seen standing speechless, 130
as if they were dumb. 6 Meanwhile many who were carrying out their goods and many, too, who were stealing the property of others, kept running into one another and falling over their burdens. It was not possible to go forward nor yet to stand still, but people pushed and were pushed in turn, upset others and were themselves upset. 7 Many were suffocated, many were trampled underfoot; in a word, no evil that can possibly happen to people in such a crisis failed to befall to them. They could not even escape anywhere easily; and if anybody did save himself from the immediate danger, he would fall into an-other and perish. 17 1 Now this did not all take place on a single day, but it lasted for several days and nights alike. Many houses were destroyed for want of anyone to help save them, and many others were set on fire by the same men who came to lend assistance; for the soldiers, including the night watch, having an eye to plunder, instead of putting out fires, kindled new ones. 2 While such scenes were occurring at various points, a wind caught up the flames and carried them indiscriminately against all the buildings that were left. Consequently no one concerned himself any longer about goods or houses, but all the survivors, standing where they thought they were safe, gazed upon what appeared to be a number of scattered islands on fire or many cities all burning at the same time. 3 There was no longer any grieving over personal losses, but they lamented the public calamity, recalling how once before most of the city had been thus laid waste by the Gauls.
143. Amphitheatre of Statilius Taurus, engraving by Giovanni Battista Piranesi. From Campus Martius. Opere di Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Francesco Piranesi e d’altri. Firmin Didot Freres, Paris, 1835-1839. Tomo 10. By Bkmd, via Wikimedia Commons.
18 1 While the whole population was in this state of mind and many, crazed by the disaster, were leaping into the very flames, Nero ascended to the roof of the palace, from which there was the best general view of the greater part of the conflagration, and assuming the lyre-player’s garb, he sang the “Capture of Troy,” as he styled the song himself, though to the enemies of the spectators it was the Capture of Rome. 2 The calamity which the city then experienced has no parallel before or since, except in the Gallic invasion. The whole Palatine hill, the theatre of Taurus, and nearly two-thirds of the remainder of the city were burned, and countless persons perished. 3 There was no curse that the populace did not invoke upon Nero, though they did not mention his name, but simply cursed in general terms those who had set the city on fire. And they were disturbed above all by recalling the oracle which once in the time of Tiberius had been on everybody’s lips. It ran thus “Thrice three hundred years having run their course of fulfilment, Rome by the strife of her people shall perish.” 4 And when Nero, by way of encouraging them, reported that these verses could not be found anywhere, they dropped them and proceeded to repeat another oracle, which they averred to be a genuine Sibylline prophecy, namely: “Last of the sons of Aeneas, a mother-slayer shall govern.” And so it proved, whether this verse was actually spoken beforehand by some divine prophecy, or the populace was now for the first time inspired, in view of the present situation, to utter it. 5 For Nero was indeed the last emperor of the Julian line, the line descended from Aeneas. He now began to collect vast sums from private citizens as well as from whole communities, sometimes using compulsion, taking the conflagration as his pretext, and sometimes obtaining it by voluntary contributions, as they were made to appear. As for the Romans themselves, he deprived them of the free dole of grain. (Cary)
144. Map of the eleven aqueducts of Latium. By Cassius Ahenobarbus (Own work) after a map from G. Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886, via Wikimedia Commons.
145. Map of the eleven aqueducts in Rome. By Coldeel (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
146. Diagram of a qanat. By Samuel Bailey (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
147. Reconstruction of shafts (putei) and construction of the specus of an aqueduct from the explanatory panels in the aqueduct of Albarracín-Cella. Photo by Roberto Lérida Lafarga 23/04/2008.
148. Reconstruction drawing of a covered trench of an aqueduct. © 2004 W.D. Schram, www. romanaqueducts.info.
149. Cross section of an aqueduct. © 2004 W.D. Schram, www.romanaqueducts.info. 1 = trench 2 = foundation 3 = footing 4 = floor 5 = vault 6 = extrados 7 = intrados, soffit 8 = imprint of formwork 9 = side wall 10= plaster 11= coating 12= quaterround 13= concretion (sinter) 14= aqueduct water
150. Roman aqueduct structures. Hansen, Roger D. “Illustration of the Str uctures Used by Roman Engineers on Their Aqueduct Systems.” Water and Wastewater Systems in Imperial Rome. http:// www.waterhistory.org/histories/ rome.
151. Hypothetical Roman tenement building (insula), based on Macaulay, David. City: A Story of Roman Planning and Construction. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1978. Roger D. “A Hypothetical Roman Tenement Building.” Water and Wastewater Systems in Imperial Rome. http:// www.waterhistory.org/histories/ rome.
152. Street sewer, based on Macaulay, David. City: A Story of Roman Planning and Construction. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1978. Hansen, Roger D. “Waste was Frequently Emptied Into StreetSide Openings to the Roman Sewers.” Water and Wastewater Systems in Imperial Rome. http://www.waterhistory.org/ histories/rome.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 36, Frontinus, Aqueducts 16 121 – 123
With these grand structures, so numerous But let us now turn our attention to some and indispensable, carrying so many marvels that, if justly appreciated, may waters, who indeed would compare the be pronounced to remain unsurpassed. idle Pyramids or other useless, although Quintus Marcius Rex [praetor in 144 B.C.] renowned, works of the Greeks? upon being commanded by the Senate to repair the Appian Aqueduct and that of the Frontinus, Aqueducts 4 Anio, constructed during his praetorship a new aqueduct that bore his name, and was For 441 years from the founding of the brought hither by a channel pierced through City, the Romans were satisfied with the the very sides of mountains. Agrippa, use of whatever water they drew from the during his aedileship, united the Marcian Tiber, from wells, or from springs. To this and the Virgin Aqueducts and repaired day springs are revered for their sanctity, and strengthened the channels of others. and their water is thought to bring health He also formed 700 wells, in addition to to sick bodies. One thinks of the ancient 500 fountains, and 130 reservoirs, many of springs of the Camenae, of the ..., and of them magnificently adorned. Upon these Juturna. There are now, however, nine works too he erected 300 statues of marble aqueducts from which water converges into or bronze, and 400 marble columns, and all Rome. These are named Appia, Anio Vetus, this in the space of a single year! In the work Marcia, Tepula, Julia, Virgo, Alsietina which he has written in commemoration (which is also called Augusta), Claudia, and of his aedileship, he also informs us that Anio Novus. public games were celebrated for the space Frontinus, Aqueducts 87 – 88 of fifty-seven days and 170 gratuitous bathing places were opened to the public. The number of these at Rome has vastly Up to the time of Emperor Nerva, the supply of water was distributed in this increased since his time. quantity, according to the calculation of what was available. But now, thanks The preceding aqueducts, however, have all to the energetic interest of this most been surpassed by the costly work which conscientious ruler, the water fraudulently has more recently been completed by the diverted by the water-men or illicitly Emperors Gaius [Caligula] and Claudius. drawn off because of inattentiveness has Under these princes the Curtian and the increased the supply available, much as if Caerulean Waters with the “New Anio” entirely new sources had been developed. were brought a distance of forty miles, and The overall abundance has in fact been at so high a level that all the hills---whereon nearly doubled, and its delivery has been Rome is built---were supplied with water. arranged with such careful apportionment The sum expended on these works was that water from several aqueducts is to be 350,000,000 sesterces. If we take into furnished in wards which once were served account the abundant supply of water to the by single waters. An example is seen in the public, for baths, ponds, canals, household case of the Caelian and Aventine, to which purposes, gardens, places in the suburbs Claudia alone was brought on the Neronian and country houses, and then reflect upon Arches; thus whenever some major repair the distances that are traversed from the occurred, it happened regularly that these sources on the hills, the arches that have thickly populated hills were deprived of been constructed, the mountains pierced, water. These areas now receive their supply the valleys leveled, we must perforce admit from several waters, most notably by the that there is nothing more worthy of our restoration of Marcia, brought by means admiration throughout the whole universe. of a large-scale project all the way from 136
Spes Vetus to the Aventine. Indeed in every part of the City new street basins and a good many of the older ones are fitted with two pipes in constant flow, from separate aqueducts; this as a precaution to ensure uninterrupted service from at least one adequate supply should either of the two be cut off accidentally. Thus from day to day Rome, queen and mistress of the world, perceives the watchful care of her Emperor Nerva, and the wholesome environment of this same eternal City will be perceived all the more by an increased number of deliverytanks, public works, munera, and basins. No smaller is the benefit for private parties which results from an increase in the number of grants made by the same emperor’s favor. Those who once ran risks by drawing water illicitly are now untroubled because they enjoy it by right of official grants. Not even overflow waters are without useful purpose. There is now an entirely fresh guise of cleanliness and a cleaner air; gone are causes of unhealthy climate which often gave our City a poor reputation in former times.
has cisterns, and service-pipes, and copious fountains — …
Ovid, Metamorphoses 4, 115 – 127 He [= Pyramus] picks up Thisbe’s veil, and carries it with him to the shadow of the tree they had chosen. Kissing the token, and wetting it with tears, he cries, “Now, be soaked in my blood too.” Having spoken he drove the sword he had been wearing into his side, and, dying, pulled it, warm, from the wound. As he lay back again on the ground, the blood spurted out, like a pipe fracturing at a weak spot in the lead, and sending long bursts of water hissing through the split, cutting through the air, beat by beat. Sprinkled with blood, the tree’s fruit turned a deep blackish-red, and the roots, soaked through, also imbued the same overhanging mulberries with the dark purplish colour.’
Strabo, Geography 5, 3, 8 …; for if the Greeks had the repute of aiming most happily in the founding of cities, in that they aimed at beauty, strength of position, harbours, and productive soil, the Romans had the best foresight in those matters which the Greeks made but little account of, such as the construction of roads and aqueducts, and of sewers that could wash out the filth of the city into the Tiber. Moreover, they have so constructed also the roads which run throughout the country, by adding both cuts through hills and embankments across valleys, that their wagons can carry boat-loads; and the sewers, vaulted with close-fitting stones, have in some places left room enough for wagons loaded with hay to pass through them. And water is brought into the city through the aqueducts in such quantities that veritable rivers flow through the city and the sewers; and almost every house
153. Lead water pipe, 20 – 47 AD. The inscription says: “The most notable lady Valeria Messalina”; Valeria Messalina was the third wife of the Roman Emperor Claudius. Science Museum London. By Fæ, via Wikimedia
Vitruvius, On Architecture 8, 6, 10 – 11 Water conducted through earthen pipes is more wholesome than that through lead; indeed that conveyed in lead must be injurious,because from it white lead is obtained, and this is said to be injurious to the human system. Hence, if what is generated from it is pernicious, there can be no doubt that itself cannot be a wholesome body. 137
This may be verified by observing the workers in lead, who are of a pallid colour; for in casting lead, the fumes from it fixing on the different members, and daily burning them, destroy the vigour of the blood; water should therefore on no account be conducted in leaden pipes if we are desirous that it should be wholesome. That the flavour of that conveyed in earthen pipes is better, is shewn at our daily meals, for all those whose tables are furnished with silver vessels, nevertheless use those made of earth, from the purity of the flavour being preserved in them.
knights whenever it should be necessary. He appointed censors, an office which had long been discontinued. He increased the number of praetors. He also demanded that whenever the consulship was conferred on him, he should have two colleagues instead of one; but this was not granted, since all cried out that it was a sufficient offence to his supreme dignity that he held the office with another and not alone.
Suetonius, Life of Augustus 42
But to show that he was a prince who desired the public welfare rather than popularity, Augustus, Res Gestae 20 when the people complained of the scarcity and high price of wine, he sharply rebuked 20. I restored the Capitol and the theatre them by saying: “My son-in law Agrippa of Pompey, both works at great expense has taken good care, by building several without inscribing my own name on either. aqueducts, that men shall not go thirsty.” I restored the channels of the aqueducts, which in several places were falling into disrepair through age, and I brought water from a new spring into the aqueduct called Marcia, doubling the supply. I completed the Forum Julium and the basilica between the temples of Castor and Saturn, works begun and almost finished by my father, and when that same basilica was destroyed by fire [AD 12], I began to rebuild it on an enlarged site, to be dedicated in the name of my sons, and in case I do not complete it in my lifetime, I have given orders that it should be completed by my heirs. In my sixth consulship [28 BC] I restored eightytwo temples of the gods in the city on the authority of the senate, neglecting none that required restoration at that time. In my seventh consulship [27 BC] I restored the Via Flaminia from the city as far as 154. Bust of M. Vipsanius Agrippa of Rimini, together with all bridges except the the Gabii type. Marble, ca. 25–24 BC. Mulvian and the Minucian. From Gabii. Musée du Louvre, Paris. By
Suetonius, Life of Augustus 37 To enable more men to take part in the administration of the State, he devised new offices: the charge of public buildings, of the roads, of the aqueducts, of the channel of the Tiber, of the distribution of grain to the people, as well as the prefecture of the city, a board of three for choosing senators, and another for reviewing the companies of the 138
Jastrow, via Wikimedia Commons.
Frontinus, Aqueducts 18 Each of the aqueducts reaches the City at a different level. Thus the water of some is available for higher places, while that of others cannot be raised to more elevated sites (for even the hills have gradually grown higher with rubble in consequence
of frequent fires). There are five aqueducts whose level ensures that their water will reach every part of the City, but some of these are delivered under greater head, others under less. Highest of all is Anio Novus, next is Claudia, Julia takes third place, Tepula fourth, and last comes Marcia. At its source Marcia is equal in level even to Claudia, but the men of former days engineered its delivery at a lower altitude, either because the technique of levelling had not yet been precisely developed, or because they sank the aqueducts deliberately beneath the ground to avoid an easy opportunity for hostile interruption (there were still in those times frequent wars waged with the Italians). But now, whenever a conduit is beyond repair because of its age, in certain places, to save length, the circuitous underground route is abandoned and substructures and arches are used to cross valleys. Anio Vetus takes sixth place. Like the five just mentioned, it too would supply higher places in the City if it had been raised on substructures and arches wherever required by the nature of valleys and low lying terrain. Next in level comes Virgo, then Appia. Both of these were brought in from points near the City and could not be raised to such high elevations. Lowest of all is Alsietina, which supplies the ward across the Tiber and extremely low areas.
Frontinus, Aqueducts 116 – 117 Still before us is the topic of maintenance of the conduits. But before I speak of this, a few comments should be set forth on the working-crew established for that purpose. There are in fact two such crews, one belonging to the state, the other to Caesar. The public crew is the older, left (as we said) by Agrippa to Augustus and by him turned over to state ownership; it is comprised of about 240 men. The number of Caesar’s crew is 460; it was created by Claudius when he brought his aqueducts into the City. Each of the crews is divided into several categories of workers: foremen, men in charge of delivery-tanks, inspectors, stone workers, plasterers, and other workmen. Of these some are to be outside the City to deal with projects which do not involve major construction but which nevertheless seem in need of prompt attention. Men stationed within the City at deliverytanks and munera will pursue a variety of routine tasks, especially in case of sudden emergencies, so that a reserve of plentiful water from several wards may be turned into the ward where difficulty threatens. It was customary for members of each of these large crews to be withdrawn for use in private construction, through favoritism or negligence on the part of those in charge. I determined to recall them all to some orderly management, and I organized these public servants that I myself should prescribe a day in advance what each crew was to do and by having a record kept of their daily accomplishments.
Frontinus, Aqueducts 74 – 76
155. Weustink, Inge. “Aqua Claudia between Caelian and Palatine Hill.” August 2017.
I have no doubt that some will be surprised that the supply of water reckoned by measurements was found to be far greater than that stated in the imperial records. The explanation is error on the part of those who initially made the calculations for each aqueduct: their performance fell somewhat short of competence. I am unwilling to believe that they deviated so far from the 139
truth out of fear of summer droughts, for I the old designations remained although the took my own measurements in the month water itself was that of a different supply. of July and I further ascertained that the amounts of each (as set forth above) remained constant through the remainder of the summer. But whatever the real reason may have been, it is at least disclosed that 10,000 quinariae have been intercepted, while emperors limit their total grants of water to the quantity set forth in the records. Closely related is another disagreement: a certain quantity is received at the intakes of the conduits; the quantity at the settlingtanks is considerably reduced, while that remaining for official distribution is smallest of all. The explanation is fraud on the part of the water-men, whom we have detected drawing waters from public conduits for use by private persons. But a number of landholders along the aqueducts’ courses also tap directly into the channels, with the result that public conduits are interrupted for the benefit of private individuals. On misdemeanors of this sort, nothing more need be said nor can I say it better than did Caelius Rufus in a speech entitled “Concerning Waters.” Would that there were some way other than by taking action even at the cost of personal offenses to prove that all such things are now habitually practiced with comparable impunity: we find fields illicitly irrigated, shops, garrets even, finally all establishments of unwholesome pleasure furnished with constantly flowing public water. The delivery of certain waters in place of others, under false names, is a category of wrongdoing that seemed to require correction, even though this belongs among transgressions less serious than the rest. Such has, indeed, been a general practice in the vicinity of the Caelian and Aventine. These hills, before Claudia was brought in, received water from Marcia and Julia. Later on, the emperor Nero built an arcade to carry Claudia from Spes Vetus to a distributory point near the Temple of the Deified Claudius. The existing supplies were not augmented thereby, but were entirely replaced. He added no new delivery-tanks, using instead the ones already there; and 140
156. Substructures of Temple of Divus Claudius and Nero’s nympheum in Via Claudia. By Lalupa (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Dedicatory inscription (CIL VI 1256 = ILS 218)
TI. CLAVDIVS DRVSI F. CAISAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS PONTIF(EX) MAXIM(VS), | TRIBVNICIA POTESTATE XII, CO(N)S(VL) V, IMPERATOR XXVII, PATER PATRIAE, | AQVAS CLAVDIAM EX FONTIBVS, QVI VOCABANTVR CAERVLEVS ET CVRTIVS A MILLIARIO XXXXV, | ITEM ANIENEM NOVAM A MILLIARIO LXII SVA IMPENSA IN VRBEM PERDVCENDAS CVRAVIT. Ti(berius) Claudius Drusi f(ilius) Caisar Augustus Germanicus pontif(ex) maxim(us), | tribunicia potestate XII, co(n)s(ul) V, imperator XXVII, pater patriae, | aquas Claudiam ex fontibus, qui vocabantur Caeruleus et Curtius a milliario XXXXV, | item Anienem novam a milliario LXII sua impensa in urbem perducendas curavit. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, the son of Drusus, pontifex maximus (=chief priest), in his twelfth year of tribunician power, consul for the fifth time, imperator twenty-seven times, father of his country, saw to it that, at his own expense, the aqua Claudia be brought from the 45th milestone, from the springs which are called the Caeruleus and Curtius, and too the Anio Novus be brought from the 62nd milestone into the city of Rome.
157. Three inscriptions on the attic of Porta Maggiore. By Joris, via Wikimedia Commons.
Dedicatory inscription (CIL VI 1257= ILS 218) IMP. CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVST(VS) PONTIF(EX) MAX(IMVS), TRIB(VNICIA) POT(ESTATE) II, IMP(ERATOR) VI, CO(N)S(VL) DESIG(NATVS) IIII, P(ATER) P(ATRIAE), | AQVAS CVRTIAM ET CAERVLEAM PERDVCTAS A DIVO CLAVDIO ET POSTEA INTERMISSAS DILAPSASQVE | PER ANNOS NOVEM SVA IMPENSA VRBI RESTITVIT. Imp(erator) Caesar Vespasianus August(us) pontif(ex) max(imus), trib(unicia) pot(estate) II, imp(erator) VI, co(n)s(ul) desig(natus) IIII, p(ater) p(atriae), | aquas Curtiam et Caeruleam perductas a divo Claudio et postea intermissas dilapsasque | per annos novem sua impensa urbi restituit. The Emperor Caesar Vespasian Augustus, pontifex maximus, in his second year of the tribunician power, imperator six times, consul designate for the fourth time, father of his country, at his own expense restored for the city of Rome the Curtian and Caerulean waters that had been brought forth by the divine Claudius and subsequently had fallen into disrepair and had been interrupted for nine years. 141
Dedicatory inscription (CIL VI 1258 = ILS 218) IMP. T. CAESAR DIVI F. VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS, TRIBVNIC(IA) | POTESTATE X, IMPERATOR XVII, PATER PATRIAE, CENSOR, CO(N)S(VL) VIII | AQVAS CVRTIAM ET CAERVLEAM PERDVCTAS A DIVO CLAVDIO ET POSTEA | A DIVO VESPASIANO PATRE SVO VRBI RESTITVTAS, CVM A CAPITE AQVARVM A SOLO VETVSTATE DILAPSAE ESSENT, NOVA FORMA REDVCENDAS SVA IMPENSA CVRAVIT. Imp(erator) T(itus) Caesar divi f(ilius) Vespasianus Augustus pontifex maximus, tribunic(ia) | potestate X, imperator XVII, pater patriae, censor, co(n)s(ul) VIII | aquas Curtiam et Caeruleam perductas a divo Claudio et postea | a divo Vespasiano patre suo urbi restitutas, cum a capite aquarum a solo vetustate dilapsae essent, nova forma reducendas sua impensa curavit. The Emperor Titus Caesar Vespasian Augustus, son of the divine Vespasian, pontifex maximus, in his tenth year of the tribunician power, imperator for the seventeenth time, father of his country, censor, consul for the eighth time, saw to it that, at his own expense, the Curtian and Caerulean waters that had been brought forth by the divine Claudius and afterwards had been restored for the city of Rome by the divine Vespasian, his father, since they had fallen into disrepair at the source of the waters from the very foundation because of age, be brought back again but in a new channel.
158. Map of the Roman Empire during 69 AD, the Year of the Four Emperors. Coloured areas indicate provinces loyal to one of four warring generals. By Fulvio314, via Wikimedia Commons.
Year of Four Emperors Galba 9 June 68 – 15 January 69
Otho 5 January to 16 April 69
Vitellius 16 April AD 69 – 22 December AD 69
_________________ Plutarch, Galba 26, 2 - 4, 27, 1, 4 [The struggle between the Emperor Galba and his successor Otho in AD 69 ended up as street fighting in downtown Rome. Galba, in the palace on the Palatine, hears a rumor that Otho has been murdered.] Galba climbed into his litter and sallied forth from the Palatine, intending to sacrifice to Jupiter on the Capitoline and show himself to the people. While he was passing through the Forum, however, a very different report arrived like a sudden change of wind: Otho, much alive, controlled the praetorian troops.… Soon Otho’s horsemen appeared. Then foot-soldiers advanced through the Basilica of Paullus, shouting for all civilians to clear the area. The crowd indeed cleared out, not scattering in flight, however, but gathering on the portico balconies and other vantage points of the Forum as if to take in a show. In the first act of the hostilities a soldier overthrew Galba’s statue in the Forum. Then, after failing to hit Galba’s litter with their javelins, the soldiers advanced on him with drawn swords.… In the commotion, Galba tumbled out of his litter onto the ground at a place called the Lacus Curtius. Soldiers ran to strike him where he lay, protected by his armored breastplate, but Galba simply
offered his neck to their swords and said, “If it is better for the Roman people, do it!”
They say that when the soldiers brought Otho the head of Galba on a spear, he shouted, “This is nothing, my fellow soldiers; show me the head of Piso!” And not long afterwards the head of Galba’s adopted successor also arrived, after the young man, wounded and struggling to escape, was killed outside the Temple of Vesta.
Suetonius, Otho 6, 2 Otho, preparing his coup against the Emperor Galba [in AD 69], told his confederates to wait for him in the Forum at the Golden Milestone by the Temple of Saturn, and went up to the Palace in the morning to greet Galba.
Plutarch, Galba 24, 4 Otho descended through the Palace of Tiberius into the Forum and approached the golden pillar erected where all the roads that cut across Italy terminate.
Tacitus, Histories 3, 71 The supporters of Vitellius quickly marched past the Forum and the temples that preside over the Forum, and advanced their front line up the facing hill, right up to the outer gates of the Capitoline citadel. Here, on the right side of the Clivus as one ascends, there were porticoes since ancient times. The defenders climbed out on these and hurled rocks and tiles down on the supporters of Vitellius.… Then the attackers made attempts from two other directions, one near the grove of the Asylum and the other where the Tarpeian Cliffs are surmounted by the Hundred Stairs. Each assault was unforeseen, though the one through the Asylum was closer and more intense.
Flavian Dynasty Vespasian 69 - 79 AD
Titus 79 - 81 AD
Domitian 81 - 96 AD
_________________ Vespasian 69 - 79 AD
Plutarch, Publicola 15, 1 - 4 The first Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which was built by Tarquinius Superbus but consecrated by Horatius, burned down in the civil wars [in 83 BC]. Sulla built the second temple, but Catulus got the credit for its dedication. This temple was likewise totally destroyed, this time in the rebellion of Vitellius [in AD 69], after which Vespasian began and finished the construction of a third temple.… Shortly after Vespasian died the Capitoline burned down again [in AD 80]. The fourth and present temple was both built and dedicated by Domitian [in AD 89].… Even the gilding alone of this temple’s roof, costing more than 12,000 talents, is beyond the means of the richest private citizen in Rome today. Its columns were cut from Pentelic marble and were originally of beautiful proportions, as I saw for myself in Athens. When they were shaped and polished in Rome, however, they didn’t gain as much in smoothness as they lost in symmetry and beauty, and now appear too thin and meager. 144
Tacitus, Histories 3, 72; 4, 53 In all of Roman history since the founding of the city, the burning of the Capitoline in the fighting between Vitellians and Flavians [in AD 69] was the most distressing and disgraceful event that ever befell the republic of the Roman people. Not by any external enemy, but with the gods kindly disposed (if that were possible, given our behavior!), the very seat of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, which was founded with good omen by our ancestors as our guarantee of empire, and which neither Porsenna, when the city had been surrendered, nor the Gauls when it had been captured, were able to desecrate, was now destroyed by the madness of our emperors. The temple was first vowed by King Tarquinius Priscus during the war against the Sabines; he too laid the foundations of it, on a scale that accorded more with the hope of future greatness than with the modest means available to the Roman people at that time. Soon Servius Tullius, with the aid of allies, and then Tarquinius Superbus, with spoils gained from the capture of Suessa Pometia, constructed the building. The honor of the work, however, was reserved for liberty, since only after the kings were expelled did Horatius Pulvillus dedicate the temple in his second consulship; since that time the immense wealth of the Roman people has ornamented the temple’s magnificence more than it has increased it. After it burnt down 415 years later in the consulship of L. Scipio and C. Norbanus, the temple was rebuilt on the same footprint. The victorious Sulla undertook the task of reconstruction, but did not dedicate the new temple (in this alone Fortune failed him), and the name of Lutatius Catulus endured among all the great monuments of Caesars down to the time of Vitellius. Vespasian assigned the work of restoring the Capitolium to Lucius Vestinus, a man of the equestrian class but among the leading men for his authority and prestige. The haruspices
employed by him warned that the remains of the earlier temple should be carried away to the swamps and that the new temple should have the same dimensions as before: the gods did not want the old plan changed.
Suetonius, Vespasian 8, 5 [After the fire had destroyed the temple,] the Emperor Vespasian himself played an active role in the restoration of the Capitoline. He was the first person to begin the task of clearing away the rubble, carrying off a load of it on his own shoulders. In addition, he undertook the reproduction of three thousand bronze tablets that had also been destroyed in the fire, after a thorough search for other copies. These tablets were very old and precious documents of Roman rule, containing decrees of the Senate and votes of the people concerning alliances, treaties, and privileges granted at anytime to anyone, dating back almost to the beginning of the city.
common life on the level of others.
Suetonius, Vespasian 9, 1 Vespasian built the Temple of the Deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill. The temple had actually been begun by Claudius’s widow Agrippina, but Nero demolished it nearly down to its foundations.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 65, 15 In Vespasian’s sixth consulship and Titus’s fourth [AD 75], … the statue called the Colossus was set up on the Sacred Way. They say that it is one hundred feet high and has the face of Nero, according to some, or Titus, according to others.
Suetonius, Vespasian 9, 1 The emperor Vespasian’s activities also included the building of public structures, among them the Temple of Peace right next to the Roman Forum.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 65, 15 The Temple of Peace was dedicated in Vespasian’s sixth consulship and Titus’s fourth [AD 75].
Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War 7, 158
159. Reconstruction of Vespasian’s Temple of Peace (Templum Pacis). Musei in Comune, Mercati di Traiano.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 65, 10,4 and 11,1 The emperor Vespasian resided infrequently on the Palatine, spending most of his time at the estate called the Gardens of Sallust, where he would receive anyone who wished to see him, not just the senators.… He was considered an autocrat only in his care of the public welfare; in all other respects he lived a
After his triumph was finished [in AD 71] and Roman rule was re-established on a firm foundation, Vespasian decided to build a Temple of Peace. This was completed very quickly, and in a style that beggars the imagination. Not only did he have enormous financial resources at his disposal, but embellished it with old masterpieces of painting and sculpture. In fact, into that one sacred precinct were gathered and stationed all the art-works that people had been willing to travel the world over to see, even when they were scattered. Vespasian also proudly kept here the works of gold taken from the Temple of the Jews, but ordered that their Law and the purple veil of the inner temple be kept safely in the palace. 145
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 34, 84 The most famous of the art works in Rome that I have mentioned above were originally brought to Rome by Nero’s looting and placed around the private rooms of the Domus Aurea, but were since dedicated by the emperor Vespasian to the Temple of Peace and his other buildings.
Suetonius, Vespasian 23, 4 “Dear me, I think I am becoming a god.”
Titus 79 - 81 AD
Inscription on Arch of Titus in Roman Forum (ILS 265 = CIL 6.945) SENATUS / POPULUSQUE ROMANUS / DIVO TITO DIVI VESPASIANI F(ilio) / VESPASIANO AUGUSTO The Senate and People of Rome dedicate this arch to the deified Titus Vespasian Augustus [d. AD 81], son of the deified Vespasian.
Inscription Temple of Vespasian (ILS 255 = CIL 6.938) DIVO VESPASIANO AUGUSTO S.P.Q.R. / IMPP. CAESS. SEVERUS ET ANTONINUS PII FELIC. AUGG. RESTITUER(UNT) The Senate and the People of Rome dedicate this temple to the Deified Emperor Vespasian. The Emperors Severus and Caracalla restored it.
161. Weustink, Inge. “Inscription on Arch of Titus, Roman Forum.” August 2017.
Inscription on Arch of Titus at Circus Maximus (ILS 264 = CIL 6.944) [An inscription recorded on another arch to Titus, since destroyed, near the Circus Maximus:] The Senate and People of Rome dedicate this arch to the Emperor Titus… because, with the Senate’s advice and counsel and with the auguries, he conquered the nation of the Jews [in AD 70] and destroyed Jerusalem, which all of the generals, kings, and nations before Titus had either failed to do or even to attempt.
Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War 5, 215 - 18
160. Temple of Vespasian, Roman Forum. By MM (Own work), May 2005, via Wikimedia Commons.
[The temple in Jerusalem was a splendid edifice with numerous parts.] After you passed through the monumental gates you entered the ground floor of the sanctuary. This structure was ninety feet high, ninety feet long, and thirty feet wide. Its length, however, was divided into two parts. The first hall was sixty feet long, and contained three of the
But what made the most splendid appearance in Titus’s opinion was, when his father met him, and received him; but still the multitude of the citizens conceived the greatest joy when they saw them all three together [Vespasian and his two sons, Titus and Domitian], as they did at this time; nor were many days overpast when they determined to have but one triumph, that should be common to both of them, on account of the glorious exploits they had performed, although the senate had decreed each of them a separate triumph by himself. Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War 7, 5, So when notice had been given beforehand 3-7 of the day appointed for this pompous solemnity to be made, on account of their 3. So Titus took the journey he intended victories, not one of the immense multitude into Egypt, and passed over the desert very was left in the city, but every body went out suddenly, and came to Alexandria, and took so far as to gain only a station where they up a resolution to go to Rome by sea. And as might stand, and left only such a passage as he was accompanied by two legions, he sent was necessary for those that were to be seen each of them again to the places whence to go along it. they had before come; the fifth he sent to Mysia, and the fifteenth to Pannonia: as for 4. Now all the soldiery marched out bethe leaders of the captives, Simon and John, forehand by companies, and in their severwith the other seven hundred men, whom al ranks, under their several commanders, he had selected out of the rest as being in the night time, and were about the eminently tall and handsome of body, he gates, not of the upper palaces, but those gave order that they should be soon carried near the temple of Isis; for there it was to Italy, as resolving to produce them in his that the emperors had rested the foregoing triumph. So when he had had a prosperous night. And as soon as ever it was day, Vesvoyage to his mind, the city of Rome pasian and Titus came out crowned with behaved itself in his reception, and their laurel, and clothed in those ancient purple meeting him at a distance, as it did in the habits which were proper to their family, and then went as far as Octavian’s Walks; case of his father. for there it was that the senate, and the principal rulers, and those that had been recorded as of the equestrian order, waited for them. Now a tribunal had been erected before the cloisters, and ivory chairs had 162. The been set upon it, when they came and sat Triumph of down upon them. Whereupon the solTitus, painting diery made an acclamation of joy to them by Lawrence immediately, and all gave them attestations Alma-Tadema, of their valor; while they were themselves oil on canvas, without their arms, and only in their silken 1885. The garments, and crowned with laurel: then Walters Art Museum, Vespasian accepted of these shouts of Baltimore. By theirs; but while they were still disposed to Steerpike, via go on in such acclamations, he gave them Wikimedia a signal of silence. And when every body Commons. entirely held their peace, he stood up, world’s most incredible and famous works of art: the lampstand, the table, and the incense altar. The lampstand, which branched into seven lamps, symbolized the seven planets; the twelve loaves of bread [the “Shew-Bread,” or “Bread of Presence”] on the table represented the circle of the Zodiac and the year; the altar of incense is kept replenished with thirteen aromatic incenses collected from both land and sea, and from places both inhabited and deserted, thus symbolizing that all creation is of God and for God.
and covering the greatest part of his head with his cloak, he put up the accustomed solemn prayers; the like prayers did Titus put up also; after which prayers Vespasian made a short speech to all the people, and then sent away the soldiers to a dinner prepared for them by the emperors. Then did he retire to that gate which was called the Gate of the Pomp, because pompous shows do always go through that gate; there it was that they tasted some food, and when they had put on their triumphal garments, and had offered sacrifices to the gods that were placed at the gate, they sent the triumph forward, and marched through the theatres, that they might be the more easily seen by the multitudes.
many species of animals were brought, every one in their own natural ornaments. The men also who brought every one of these shows were great multitudes, and adorned with purple garments, all over interwoven with gold; those that were chosen for carrying these pompous shows having also about them such magnificent ornaments as were both extraordinary and surprising. Besides these, one might see that even the great number of the captives was not unadorned, while the variety that was in their garments, and their fine texture, concealed from the sight the deformity of their bodies. But what afforded the greatest surprise of all was the structure of the pageants that were borne along; for indeed he that met them could not but be afraid that the bearers would not be able firmly enough to support them, such was their magnitude; for many of them were so made, that they were on three or even four stories, one above another. The magnificence also of their structure afforded one both pleasure and surprise; for upon many of them were laid carpets of gold. There was also wrought gold and ivory fastened about them all; and many resemblances of the war, and those in several ways, and variety of contrivances, affording a most lively portraiture of itself.
5. Now it is impossible to describe the multitude of the shows as they deserve, and the magnificence of them all; such indeed as a man could not easily think of as performed, either by the labor of workmen, or the variety of riches, or the rarities of nature; for almost all such curiosities as the most happy men ever get by piecemeal were here one heaped on another, and those both admirable and costly in their nature; and all brought together on that day demonstrated the vastness of the dominions of the Romans; for there was here to be seen a mighty quantity of silver, and gold, and ivory, contrived into all sorts of things, and did not appear as carried along in pompous show only, but, as a man may say, running along like a river. Some parts were composed of the rarest purple hangings, and so carried along; and others accurately represented to the life what was embroidered by the arts of the Babylonians. There were also precious stones that were transparent, some set in crowns of gold, and some in other ouches, as the workmen pleased; and of these such a vast number were brought, that we could not but thence learn how vainly we imagined any of them to be rarities. The images of 163. Map with route of triumphal procession. © University of Groningen Honours College, 2017. rome-honours-groningen. the gods were also carried, being as well co.nf/2012/RomanArches6.php wonderful for their largeness, as made very artificially, and with great skill of the For there was to be seen a happy country workmen; nor were any of these images of laid waste, and entire squadrons of eneany other than very costly materials; and mies slain; while some of them ran away, 148
and some were carried into captivity; with walls of great altitude and magnitude overthrown and ruined by machines; with the strongest fortifications taken, and the walls of most populous cities upon the tops of hills seized on, and an army pouring itself within the walls; as also every place full of slaughter, and supplications of the enemies, when they were no longer able to lift up their hands in way of opposition. Fire also sent upon temples was here represented, and houses overthrown, and falling upon their owners: rivers also, after they came out of a large and melancholy desert, ran down, not into a land cultivated, nor as drink for men, or for cattle, but through a land still on fire upon every side; for the Jews related that such a thing they had undergone during this war.
from that which we made use of; for its middle shaft was fixed upon a basis, and the small branches were produced out of it to a great length, having the likeness of a trident in their position, and had every one a socket made of brass for a lamp at the tops of them. These lamps were in number seven, and represented the dignity of the number seven among the Jews; and the last of all the spoils, was carried the Law of the Jews. After these spoils passed by a great many men, carrying the images of Victory, whose structure was entirely either of ivory or of gold. After which Vespasian marched in the first place, and Titus followed him; Domitian also rode along with them, and made a glorious appearance, and rode on a horse that was worthy of admiration.
6. Now the last part of this pompous show was at the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, whither when they were come, they stood still; for it was the Romans’ ancient custom to stay till somebody brought the news that the general of the enemy was slain. This general was Simon, the son of Gioras, who had then been led in this triumph among the captives; a rope had also been put upon his head, and he had been drawn into a proper place in the forum, and had withal been tormented by those that drew 164. Relief on Arch of Titus depicting Titus as triumphant general him along; and the law of the Romans reon chariot, Roman Forum. By Jebulon (Own work), via Wikimedia quired that malefactors condemned to die Commons. should be slain there. Accordingly, when it Now the workmanship of these representa- was related that there was an end of him, tions was so magnificent and lively in the and all the people had set up a shout for construction of the things, that it exhibited joy, they then began to offer those sacriwhat had been done to such as did not see fices which they had consecrated, in the it, as if they had been there really present. prayers used in such solemnities; which On the top of every one of these pageants when they had finished, they went away to was placed the commander of the city that the palace. And as for some of the specwas taken, and the manner wherein he tators, the emperors entertained them at was taken. Moreover, there followed those their own feast; and for all the rest there pageants a great number of ships; and for were noble preparations made for feasting the other spoils, they were carried in great at home; for this was a festival day to the plenty. But for those that were taken in the city of Rome, as celebrated for the victory temple of Jerusalem, they made the greatobtained by their army over their enemies, est figure of them all; that is, the golden for the end that was now put to their civil table, of the weight of many talents; the miseries, and for the commencement of candlestick also, that was made of gold, their hopes of future prosperity and hapthough its construction were now changed piness. 149
7. After these triumphs were over, and after the affairs of the Romans were settled on the surest foundations, Vespasian resolved to build a temple to Peace, which was finished in so short a time, and in so glorious a manner, as was beyond all human expectation and opinion: for he having now by Providence a vast quantity of wealth, besides what he had formerly gained in his other exploits, he had this temple adorned with pictures and statues; for in this temple were collected and deposited all such rarities as men aforetime used to wander all over the habitable world to see, when they had a desire to see one of them after another; he also laid up therein those golden vessels and instruments that were taken out of the Jewish temple, as ensigns of his glory. But still he gave order that they should lay up their Law, and the purple veils of the holy place, in the royal palace itself, and keep them there. (Whiston)
Procopius, History of the Wars 4, 9, 1 - 3, 5 - 9 [Belisarius, the emperor Justinian’s famous general, defeated the Vandals in Africa in AD 534, and returned to Constantinople, now the capital of the Roman empire.] When he reached Constantinople with his captive Vandals and their king Gelimer, he was awarded honors given to the greatest Roman generals of old—honors which for nearly six hundred years had not been granted to anyone except emperors, such as Titus and Trajan and other victorious emperors who warred against the barbarian peoples. Belisarius displayed both the booty and the enslaved captives of the war in a procession that the Romans call a triumph.… Many thousands of pounds of silver were paraded, as well as the entire imperial treasury of Rome which the Vandals under Gaiseric had plundered [in AD 455] from the Palatine when they sacked the city, as I mentioned earlier [in Book. 3.5.3]. Among the booty were the treasures of the Jews, which Titus, the son of Vespasian, and others had brought to Rome after the sack of Jerusalem. As the triumphal procession went by, one 150
of the Jews standing alongside an imperial official said to him, “The Romans, I predict, will come to regret taking this plunder of Jerusalem into the palace in Constantinople: these objects belong in one place only, where Solomon placed them long ago when he was king of the Jews. That is why Gaiseric was able to sack the palace of Rome, and why the army of the Romans has now captured the Vandals.” When his words were relayed to the emperor, Justinian quickly had the Jewish treasure delivered to Christian sanctuaries in Jerusalem.
165. Arch of Titus relief depicting spoils from Jerusalem, Roman Forum. By Cassius Ahenobarbus (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Domitian 81 - 96 AD
Suetonius, Domitian 3, 1 At the beginning of his reign [c. AD 81], Domitian customarily spent hours in seclusion each day, doing nothing other than catching flies and stabbing them with a finely-pointed stylus. When someone once asked if anyone was inside with Caesar, Vibius Crispus aptly quipped: “No one … not even a fly.”
Suetonius, Domitian 23 [In AD 96, when hearing that the Emperor Domitian had been murdered], the Senate was so overjoyed that they jostled one another to get into the Senate House, where they gave themselves over to a verbal mutilation of the dead man’s reputation,
venting their hatred in the most insulting and bitter language imaginable. They even had ladders brought in to tear down objects adorned with Domitian’s likeness. They watched as these were shattered on the ground, and then decreed that all of his inscriptions should be erased and all record of the man expunged.
Plutarch, Publicola 15, 5 Anyone who is amazed at the expense of Domitian’s restoration of the Temple of Jupiter should see just one colonnade in the Palace of Domitian, or its basilica, its bath, or the quarters there for the concubines.… Then he would be moved to tell Domitian, “You are not pious, or even ambitious: this obsession to build is a sickness. Like King Midas, you want everything you touch to turn to gold or marble.”
Martial, Epigrams 7, 56, 1 - 2 Rabirius: you piously brought the stars and heaven to earth When your genius built Domitian’s palace on Evander’s turf.
Statius, Occasional Poems 1, 2, 152 157 The ceilings of the palace rest on columns that cannot be counted And the cross-beams glitter brightly, coated in Dalmatian gold. Coolness drops from the shade where ancient trees arrest The heat, and sparkling fountains jump in marble ponds. Here Nature obeys no seasons; the DogStar chills, Winter warms, and the house conforms the year to its wishes.
Statius, Occasional Poems 4, 2, 5 - 8; 18 - 33 [Virgil and Homer have each described great banquets of heroes,] But how shall I, whom Caesar has granted the novel delights Of dining with divinity at the imperial table, [AD 94] Tune my lyre to match my sense of debt and tender Adequate gratitude? The hall is sublime and vast: no hundred columns merely, But enough to hold the gods and heaven above the earth, Should Atlas retire. Jupiter in his temple gapes At your home in awe, Domitian, and the gods rejoice
166. Plan of the Domus Augustana on the Palatine Hill. E: main entrance L: Lararium A: Aula Regia B: Basilica Po: portico P1: peristyle. C: Cenatio P2: 2nd peristyle P3: 3rd peristyle Co: cortile Ex: grand exedra S: Stadium Tr: Tribune of the Stadium. By Cassius Ahenobarbus (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
In your equal footing. No need for you to hasten to heaven; That structure spreads immense, and the 151
reach of its giant hall,
had a premonition of the year and final day of his life …. As the time of suspected danger More open than a field and holding in its approached, he grew more anxious by the day embrace and had the walls of the colonnades where More space than the sky, is only outdone by he like to stroll covered with a veneer of its lord: he fills moonstone, so that he could see in its polish the reflections of whatever was happening The happy home with his mighty spirit. behind his back. Here stone competes On the day of his death, when Domitian asked With stone, Numidian yellow rivaled by the time, one of the conspirators told him it Phrygian purple, was the sixth hour, knowing that Domitian feared the fifth. Thinking the danger past, Granite from Egypt, blushing marbles, and Domitian happily hurried off to exercise and sea-green stone; bathe, but was stopped along the way by his chamberlain Parthenius, who said someone White slabs of Luna are relegated to the had to see him about some weighty matter bases of columns. or other that couldn’t be put off. And so The ceiling is a distant view, and the eyes Domitian, having dismissed his attendants, must strain to reach entered his bedroom, where he was killed. Its summit, to glimpse, it seems, the gilded panels of heaven. Such was the setting where Caesar commanded the senators Of Rome to sup together with knights at a thousand tables.
Suetonius, Domitian 5 The emperor Domitian built the forum that is now called Nerva’s.
Suetonius, Domitian 15, 3 As the day of his assassination grew nearer, Domitian had a dream in which Minerva (a goddess for whom he had an especially strong and personal veneration) came forth from her temple and told him she could no longer guarantee his safety because Jupiter had disarmed her.
167. Weustink, Inge. “Detail of the “Colonnacce” at the Forum of Nerva (Forum Transitorium).” August 2017.
Suetonius, Domitian 23
[In AD 96, when hearing that the Emperor Domitian had been murdered], the Senate was so overjoyed that they jostled one another to get into the Senate House, where they gave themselves over to a verbal mutilation of the dead man’s reputation, venting their hatred in the most insulting and bitter language imaginable. They even had ladders brought in to tear down objects adorned with Domitian’s Suetonius, Domitian 14, 1, 4; 16, 2 likeness. They watched as these were shattered Feared and hated by all, Domitian was finally on the ground, and then decreed that all of his overthrown [in AD 96] by a conspiracy inscriptions should be erased and all record of composed of his friends, intimate freedmen, the man expunged. and even his wife. For a long time he had 152
Colosseum Inscription (see Claridge, p. 278)
the hunting theater [the Colosseum] and the baths that are named after him. One contest pitted whooping cranes against each other; I[MP.] T. CAES. VESPASI[ANVS. AVG] in another four elephants fought. Animals AMPHITHEATRV[M.NOVVM (?)] both tame and wild were slaughtered, to the number of 9,000. Women (though none of [EX.]MANVBIS (vac.) [FIERI.IVSSIT (?)]. any standing) took part in the killing; many The Emperor Vespasian ordered a new men fought in single combat, but many others amphitheater to be built from the booty [of fought in squads, on both foot and in boats, since Titus had this same theater quickly the Jewish War in AD 70]. flooded … Others also fought on boats in the Suetonius, Vespasian 9, 1 basin in the Gardens of Gaius and Lucius [the Naumachia], which Augustus had excavated Vespasian built an amphitheater in the middle for just such battles.… Such spectacles lasted of Rome, a building he knew Augustus had for one hundred days. Titus supplemented also been planning. them with some more useful entertainment: he threw little wooden balls down on the audience of the amphitheater, each inscribed with a little picture of the prize that those who caught the balls could pick up from the appropriate officials: the prizes included food, clothing, vessels of silver and gold, horses, mules, cattle, and slaves. On the last day of his games, Titus was seen to weep. When they were over, he accomplished nothing great, dying the following year. 168. Bronze sestertius of Vespasian, 69 – 79 AD, struck 71 AD. Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., www.cngcoins.com, via Wikimedia Commons.
Suetonius, Titus 7, 3
Imperial Lives, Commodus 15, 3, 6 The Emperor Commodus [AD 180-192], initially an avid spectator of the gladiatorial shows, then participated in them is well. In the arena, he would drape his bare shoulders in a purple cloth.… Although the audience would cheer his frequent appearances in the arena as they would a god’s, he suspected it was all in mockery and had the naval crew (stationed at the Colosseum to work the awnings) execute spectators.
The emperor Titus was second to none of his predecessors in his provision of public entertainment. When the Amphitheater was dedicated [in AD 80] along with the baths hastily constructed next to it, Titus gave phenomenally lavish and expensive games. He also put on a mock naval battle in the old Naumachia [a stadium designed to be Cassius Dio, Roman History 79, 25, 2, flooded], and then held gladiatorial combats 3 in the same place, which on one day alone [Bad omens abounded in the short reign of included 5,000 wild animals of all kinds. Macrinus, Caracalla’s successor. In AD 217] the hunting theater was struck by lightning on Cassius Dio, Roman History 66, 25 the very day of the Vulcanalia which started During his reign [AD 79-81] Titus did little such a serious fire that the entire upper ring that was exceptional, apart from the incredible and the arena at the bottom were consumed by shows he gave for the dedication ceremonies of flame, and the rest of the structure in between
was cracked and weakened by the fire.… For several years, gladiatorial combats had to be put on in [Domitian’s] Stadium.
Imperial Lives, Severus Alexander 24, 3 The Emperor Alexander Severus [c. AD 230] placed a tax on pimps and both male and female prostitutes, with the stipulation that the income thus raised go not into the public treasury but towards the cost of restoring the Theater, the Circus, the Amphitheater, and the Stadium.
Ammianus Marcellinus, Antiquities 16, 10, 14
[Visiting Rome for the first time in AD 357] the emperor Constantius II gazed over the regions of the city and suburban estates that ringed it, thinking, as each object met his view in turn, that it excelled everything else in height: the Temple of Jupiter, rising above its surroundings the way divine things rise over earthly; the imperial baths, piled high to the volume of a province; the sturdy mass of the Amphitheater encased in its frame of travertine, soaring to heights difficult to reach with the human eye.
Inscription ILS 5635 = CIL 6.32094
Nothing, however, compares with the damage done to a good character by spending time in the crowd at the games.… The other day I happened to attend the midday intermission of a gladiatorial show, expecting to catch something amusing and refreshing, something to give the eye a break from all the human gore. I couldn’t have been more mistaken. The midday show made the earlier fighting look like compassion; this was pure homicide, without any of the former frills.… There were no helmets and no shields. Why involve armor, or skill? Such things would just get in the way of death. In the morning, men are thrown to lions and bears; at midday they are thrown to the spectators. Those who are victorious and kill their opponent are forced to face others who will kill them; the victor must always fight again, until he dies; there is no way out but death. To make sure the fights continue, the criminals are prodded with spears and branded by fire. This is what happens when the arena is empty, between shows. “But the man in the arena is a robber, he killed someone!” you might respond. But why should you have to sit through such a spectacle because he killed someone? What did you do wrong, that you deserve to witness this? “Kill! Strike! He hangs back: burn him! … Why doesn’t he die with more enthusiasm? Whip him back into the fight.” And if there is a break in the action: “Boring! Let’s have some throats slit!”
[In AD 508] the consul Venantius Basilius St. Augustine, Confessions 6, 8 repaired at his own expense the arena and the podium around the arena after they were My friend Alypius had come to Rome before destroyed by a terrible earthquake. me [c. AD 380] with the intent of learning law, and was swept away by a violent and Seneca the Younger, Letters 7, extraordinary passion for gladiatorial shows. selections Until then he detested and avoided such entertainment, but one day some of his friends Seneca to Lucilius: [Note: Seneca’s account and schoolmates ran into him on their way was written before the Colosseum was built.] back from lunch, and although he resisted You ask me what, above all else, we should and spoke strongly against joining them, they avoid in life? The crowd, I say. You are not dragged him off with friendly force into the yet ready to expose yourself to it unscathed. amphitheater on a day that featured cruel In fact, I’ll confess my own weakness in this and mortal combat. “Maybe you can drag my regard: I never bring back home the same body into the stadium,” Alypius said, “but can you force my mind and eyes to attend morals I had before I entered a crowd. such entertainment? I will be present, and yet absent, and so defeat both you and the games.” 154
When his friends heard this, they pulled him along with no less enthusiasm, perhaps eager to find out if he was able to make good on his boast. By the time they were able to find seats, the crowd was in a state of brutal rapture. Alypius shut tight the doors of his eyes, forbidding his mind from paying attention to such evils. If only he could have sealed his ears! For when, in response to some knockdown in the arena, the giant roar of the entire 171. Di Girolamo, Tommaso. “Exterior of the crowd pounded on him, Alypius, overcome Colosseum, showing the partially intact outer by curiosity but still confident that he could wall.” May 2017. condemn and be the master of whatever he looked on, opened his eyes. Struck with a wound more deadly for his soul than for the body of the man who was the object of his sight, he fell, and fell more pitifully than that man whose fall occasioned the uproar.… For as soon as he saw the blood, he drank up the savagery, and did not then look away, but stared and swallowed the fury without knowing that he drank, thrilled by the crime of the combat 172. Weustink, Inge. “Colosseum entrance LIIII.” and intoxicated by the bloodlust. No longer August 2017. was he the person who had entered, but one of the crowd he had joined; he was now the true 173. Zliten companion of those who had led him in. mosaic showing
169. Sestertius of Titus celebrating the inauguration of the Colosseum, minted in 80 AD, Altes Museum, Berlin. By Rc 13 (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Roman entertainments from the 1st century AD. Jamahiriya Museum, Tripoli, Libya. From Dar Buc Ammera villa (Zliten). By Shakko, via Wikimedia Commons.
170. Sections of the Colosseum with seating areas. By Ningyou, via Wikimedia Commons.
174. Painting entitled Pollice Verso by JeanLéon Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1872. Phoenix Art Museum. By Jan Arkesteijn, via Wikimedia Commons.
Pompeii Cato, On Farming 135, 1 - 3 Buy tunics, togas, cloaks and blankets, and clogs at Rome. Hoods and ironware (scythes, spades, mattocks, axes, harness, and chains) at Cales and Minturnae, spades at Venafrum. Carts and sledges at Suessa and in Lucania. At Rome and in Alba, vats and basins; rooftiles made in Venafrum. Rome-made plows are good for heavy soil, Campania’s for dark soil. Rome’s yokes are the best. Detachable plowshares will do the best. Oil mills at Pompeii and in Nola at the shop of Rufrius. Rome for nails and locks, hooks, oil vats, water pitchers, and wine jugs, in fact all sorts of bronze, in Capua and Nola. Capua’s Campanian baskets are good; at Capua also ropes for hoists and all kinds of cordage. (www.pompeiana.org)
175. Olive mill in Pompeii. By Heinz-Josef Lücking, via Wikimedia Commons.
Strabo, Geography 5, 4, 8 The next town is Herculaneum, which occupies a cape jutting out into the sea, where it feels the southwest wind to such an amazing extent that the settlement is a healthy one. The Oscans had it first, and likewise Pompeii, the next town, which lies on the Sarno river. After the Oscans came the Etruscans and the Pelasgians, and after them the Samnites. But these, too, were driven from the site. Given its position on the Sarno, on which merchandise travels in both directions, Pompeii serves as the port for Nola, Nuceria, and Acherrae.... Mt. Vesuvius dominates this region. All but its summit is clad in exceptionally fine fields. The summit itself is mostly flat, and entirely barren. The soil looks like ash, and there are 156
cave-like pits of blackened rock, looking gnawed by fire. This area appears to have been on fire in the past and to have had craters of flame which were subsequently extinguished by a lack of fuel. No doubt this is the reason for the fertility of the surronding area, as at Catana, where they say that soil filled with the ash thrown up by Etna’s flames makes the land particularly good for vines. The enriched soil contains both material that burns and material that fosters production. When it is over-charged with the enriching substance it is ready to burn, as is the case with all sulfureous substances, but when this has been exuded and the fire extinguished the soil becomes ash-like and suitable for produce. Beyond Pompeii is Surrentum, a Campanian city with a sanctuary of Athena. Some call it “Sirens’ Point.” The temple of Athena is on the headland; it was build by Odysseus. It is only a short crossing to Capri from here. On the other side of the point there are barren and rocky islands, the “Sirens.” Back on the side of Surrentum you can see a temple with some very ancient offerings made by people honoring the spot. This is the southern limit of the bay called “The Wine-Bowl;” it begins and ends with south-facing promontories, Misenum in the north and the point with Athena’s temple in the south. It is entirely settled, both by the cities I have listed, and by the dwellings and plantations which lie in the interstices, giving the whole area the appearance of a single city. (www.pompeiana.org)
Appian, Civil Wars 1, 39 and 1, 50 1, 39 When the revolt broke out [sc. in
Asculum] all of the peoples in the vicinity revealed their preparations for war, Marsi, Paeligni, Vestini, Marrucini. Next came the people of Picentia, the Frentani, the Hirpini, the people of Pompeii and Venusia, the Apulians, the Lucanians, and the Samnites. All of these peoples had been disaffected before...They sent ambassadors to Rome. Their complaint was that they had cooperated in all ways with the Romans in the development of their empire but were not deemed worthy
of Roman citizenship. The Senate responded quite harshly, saying that they would receive an embassy if the Italians repented of what they had done, but otherwise not. Rejecting all other options the Italians continued their preparations.
fell fighting. (The next chapters describe Sulla’s methods for subduing rebel towns in southern Italy. Nothing more is heard of Pompeii, which seems to have escaped the worst consequences of Sulla’s attention. In order to break the revolt Rome eventually granted Roman citizenship to the citizens of the towns of Italy). (www.pompeiana.org)
Velleius Paterculus, Histories 2, 16, 1 -2
176. Map showing Italy at the time of the Social War, 91 – 89 BC. © 2015 – 2017 Storia Romana e Bizantina. www. storiaromanaebizantina.it.
1, 50 [In 89] Sulla was camped in the hills near Pompeii. In his contempt for the Romans Lucius Cluentius pitched his own camp only 600 yards away. Not about to put up with the insult, Sulla attacked Cluentius without waiting for the troops who were out foraging. At first he had the worst of it, and retreated, but when he was reinforced by his foragers he turned Cluentius back. Cluentius moved his camp away for the moment, but returned when his numbers were increased by the arrival of some Gauls. When the two armies were about to engage a Gaul of enormous size rushed forward and challenged any Roman to single combat. When a short fellow from North Africa killed him, Cluentius’ Gauls were panic-striken and fled. The rest of his line dissolved and headed in disorder for Nola. Sulla followed. About 3000 were killed en route. At Nola only a single gate was opened lest the enemy should rush in with them, so about 20,000 more were killed outside the walls. Among them was Cluentius, who
The most famous Italian leaders were these: Silo Popaedius, Herius Asinius, Insteius Cato, C. Pontidius, Telesinus Pontius, Marius Egnatius, Papius Mutilus. Here I will not let modesty diminish the glory of my family’s name: in saying that much credit must be given to the memory of Minatius Magius of Aeclanum, my own grandfather, I say no more than the truth. He was the grandson of Decius Magius, a leading man in Campania, both famous and honorable. Minatius showed such loyalty to the Romans in this war that he mustered a legion among his people [the Hirpini] and joined Titus Didius in the occupation of Herculaneum, and Lucius Sulla in the siege of Pompeii and the capture of Compsa. Several historians preserve the record of his virtues; the account in the Annals of Q. Hortensius is particularly vivid. The populus Romanus showed their gratitude for his loyalty by a personal grant of citizenship, and by electing his sons to the two of the six annual praetorships. (www.pompeiana.org) Seneca, Letters 49, 1 and 70, 1 49, 1 My dear Lucilius, Just now Campania (and especially Naples and a glimpse of your town of Pompeii) induced in me an astonishingly vivid sense of missing you. 157
70, 1 My dear Lucilius, I’ve just been to your Pompeii; it has been a long time. Seeing it felt like a return to my youth. (www.pompeiana. org)
Tacitus, Annals 14, 17, 1 - 2 About the same time a trifling beginning led to frightful bloodshed between the inhabitants of Nuceria and Pompeii, at a gladiatorial show exhibited by Livineius Regulus, who had been, as I have related, expelled from the Senate. With the unruly spirit of townsfolk, they began with abusive language of each other; then they took up stones and at last weapons, the advantage resting with the populace of Pompeii, where the show was being exhibited. And so there were brought to Rome a number of the people of Nuceria, with their bodies mutilated by wounds, and many lamented the deaths of children or of parents. The emperor entrusted the trial of the case to the Senate, and the Senate to the consuls, and then again the matter being referred back to the Senators, the inhabitants of Pompeii were forbidden to have any such public gathering for ten years, and all associations they had formed in defiance of the laws were dissolved. Livineius and the others who had excited the disturbance, were punished with exile. (Church and Brodribb) 177. Fresco from Pompeii depicting the amphitheatre riots in 59 AD. National Archaeological Museum Naples. By Alonso de Mendoza, via Wikimedia Commons.
Tacitus, Annals 15, 22, 2
N POPIDIVS N F CELSINVS | AEDEM ISIDIS TERRAE MOTV CONLAPSAM | A FVNDAMENTO P(ecunia) S(ua) RESTITVIT. HVNC DECVRIONES OB LIBERALITATEM | CVM ESSET ANNORVM SEX ORDINI SVO GRATIS ADLEGERVNT. Numerius Popidius Celsinus, son of Numerius, restored the Temple of Isis from the ground up, after it had been totally destroyed by an earthquake. The Town Council, coopted him into their assembly when he was only six years old, (and) without charge, in consideration of his generosity. (www.pompeiana.org)
ILS 1627 V POPIDIVS | EP F Q | PORTICVS | FACIENDAS | COERAVIT. Vibius Popidius, Quaestor, son of Eppius, superintended the making of the colonnades. (www.pompeiana.org)
ILS 1628 L CAESIVS C F D V I D| C OCCIVS M F IIV | L NIRAEMIVS A F | D D S EX POQ PVBL FAC CVRAR PROB Q. Lucius Caesius son of Gaius, duovir for justice (and) Caius Occius son of Marcus, duovir; Lucius Niraemius son of Aulus; by vote of the Town Council, out of public funds, superintended the erection (of these Baths) and passed inspection. (www.pompeiana.org)
CIL IV. 3.4. 9979 VEN. ET. GLAD. PAR. XX | M. TVLLI. PVGN. POM. PR. NON. NOVEMBRES. | VII.IDVS NOV.
In 62 AD an earthquake caused the collapse A hunt, and 20 pairs of gladiators belonging of most of Pompeii, a well-known town in to Marcus Tullius will fight a Pompeii on Campania. (www.pompeiana.org) November 4-7. (www.pompeiana.org)
CIL X. 846 158
Documents...of the Flavian Emperors C CVSPIAM PANSAM AED AVRLIFICES VNIVERSI ROG. (A.D. 68 - 96), #475 PRO SALVTE [IMP VESPASIANI] All the goldsmiths recommend Gaius Cuspius CAESARIS AVGV[sti] LI[b]E[ro] Pansa for Aedile. RVMQU[e eius ob] VERVM AED(ilem) O(ro) V(os) F(aciatis, DEDICATIONEM ARAE [fam.gladiat.] VNGVENTARII, FACITE ROGO! CN [All]ei NIGIDI MAI FLAMI[nis] CAESARIS
Please, I beg you, Unguent Makers, make Verus Aedile, I ask you. (www.pompeiana.org)
AVGVSTI PVGN POMPEIS SINE VLLA DILATIONE IIII NON IVL VENATIO Pliny, Natural History 3, 40 and 3, 60 [sparsiones] VELA ERVNT. In honor of the Safety of the Emperor Vespasian Caesar Augustus and his House, on the occasion of the dedication of the altar, the gladiatorial troupe of Gnaeus Allius Nigidius Maius, Flamen of Caesar Augustus, will give games at Pompeii on July 4. Beast hunt. There will be awnings. (www.pompeiana.org)
178. Map of Campania during the Roman period, highlighting Pompeii. Extracted and adapted from The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911. By Marcus Cyron, via Wikimedia Commons.
3, 40 How [sc. to describe] the Campanian coast and its happy, indeed blessed delightfulness, plainly the handiwork of Nature in her favorite spot! 3, 60 (in the survey of the west coast of Italy, moving south) Next comes Campania, a region blessed by fortune. From this bay onwards you find vine-growing hills and a noble tipple of wine famed throughout the world. Over this area the gods of wine and grain fought their hardest, or so tradition tells us. The territories for Setine wine and Caecuban begin here; beyond these lie Falernum and Calenum. The come the Massic mountains, and those of Gauranum and Surrentum. There lie spread the fields of Leborinum with their fine harvest of grain. These shores are watered by warm springs; they are famed beyond any other for their shellfish and their fine fish. Nowhere do olives produce more oil--the production strives to match the demands of human pleasure.
The area has been in the hands of Oscans, Greeks, Umbrians, Etruscans, and Campanians. On the coast are the Savo CIL IV. 275 river, the town of Volturnum with its stream, C CVSPIVM PANSAM AED(ilem) Liternum, Cumae (a colony of Chalcis), SATVRNINVS CVM DISCENTES Misenum, the harbor of Baiae, Bauli, the lakes Lucrinus and Avernus, beside the latter ROGAT. a city, formerly called Cimmerium, now Puteoli, a foundation of Dicaearchus, then the Saturninus and his pupils recommend Gaius Phlegraean fields, and the Acherusian swamp Cuspius Pansa for Aedile. (www.pompeiana. lying beside Cumae. On the shore is Naples, org) another Chalcidian colony, called Parthenope for the Siren’s tomb, then Herculaneum,
CIL IV. 710
Pompeii (with Vesuvius visible close at hand and the Sarno river washing its walls), the hinterland of Nuceria, and Nuceria itself, 9 miles distant from the sea. Then Surrentum and the promontory of Minerva, an ancient abode of the Sirens. (www.pompeiana.org)
Seneca, Topics in Natural History 6, 1 To my good friend Lucilius: Pompeii, so they tell me, has collapsed in an earthquake. It is a well-known city in Campania, with Surrentum and Stabiae on one side and Herculaneum on the other. The coastline here pulls back from the open sea and shelters Pompeii in a pleasant bay. Some areas near Pompeii were shaken as well. The earthquake occurred during the winter, though it had always been said that the winter was not the dangerous time of year. But it was on the fifth of February in 62 that this earthquake devastated Campania. The area never safe from this sort of danger, but it had escaped damage and outlived the scare many times before. Parts of Herculaneum collapsed, and those that remain standing are insecure, while the colony at Nuceria, though not devastated, has plenty to lament. In Naples the disaster struck pretty lightly. Many private buildings were lost, but no public ones. Some villas fell down. Everything shook, but for the most part it did no damage. Other effects: a flock of 600 sheep perished, statues shattered, and some people went mad and wandered about out of control. (www.pompeiana.org)
Martial, Epigrams 4, 44 Observe Vesuvius. Not long ago it was covered with the grapevine’s green shade, and a famous grape wet, nay drowned the vats here. Bacchus loved the shoulders of this mountain more than the hills of Nysa [his birthplace], satyrs used to join their dances here. Here was a haunt of Venus, more pleasant than Lacedaemon to her, here was a place where Hercules left his name. It all lies buried by flames and mournful ash. Even the gods regret that their powers extended to this. (www.pompeiana.org) 160
179. Map showing the cities and towns affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. By MapMaster (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Statius, Occasional Poems 3, 5, 72 104 Vesuvius and that baleful mountain’s storm of fire have not completely drained the frightened cities of their folk. They still stand, and their populations thrive. On the one hand is Dicaearchus’ city, founded with Phoebus’ blessing [Puteoli], a harbor and shore that play host to the world, on the other the town whose walls Capys filled with newcomers from Troy, and now rival great Rome’s in extent [Capua]. Beside these is my hometown, overflowing with its own citizens and far from sparsely colonized, nymphnamed Parthenope, to whom Apollo pointed out this gentle land when she was borne across the waters by Dione’s dove [Naples]. I am eager to move you to this area (for my natal soil is neither barbarian Thrace nor Libya). Winters are mild, summers cool, a placid sea washes its shores with slow-moving wave. Untroubled peace and all the freedoms of a life of leisure; one’s rest is not disturbed the night through. The forum has no furors, no legal battles here; the rule of custom is the only law for men and its fairness needs no enforcers. How shall I now tell the magnificent and elegant appearance of its places--the temples, the many-columned porticos, the twinned mass of open and covered theaters, quadrennial games as great as Rome’s? What shall I say of the [textual corruption obscures
to whom the gods have granted the power either to do something which is worth recording or to write what is worth reading, Round about you will find a variety of and most fortunate of all is the man who pleasures--the allure of Baiae with its hot can do both. Such a man was my uncle, as springs, or you can enjoy a visit to the god- his own books and yours will prove. So you hallowed cave of the prophet Sibyl and the set me a task I would choose for myself, and cape made famous by an Iliadic oar [Misenum, I am more than willing to start on it. site of the oar-topped tomb of the Trojan Misenus]. There is a copious vintage for you My uncle was stationed at Misenum, in from Bacchus’ Mt. Gaurus, or the home of active command of the fleet. On 24 August, the Teleboae where Pharus raises a light dear in the early afternoon, my mother drew to sailors, big as the night-wandering moon his attention to a cloud of unusual size and [Capri]. You will appreciate the heights of appearance. He had been out in the sun, Surrentum loved by the wild Lyaeus (literally, had taken a cold bath, and lunched while the god of loosening), ennobled above all by lying down, and was then working at his my friend Pollius’ residence, and the pools that books. He called for his shoes and climbed profit one’s circulation, and reborn Stabiae. up to a place which would give him the best view of the phenomenon. It was not clear (www.pompeiana.org) at that distance from which mountain the Statius, Occasional Poems 4, 4, 78 - 86 cloud was rising (it was afterwards known to be Vesuvius); its general appearance can I sing these words to you, Marcellus, on the be best expressed as being like an umbrella Cumaean shore where Vesuvius sends up a pine, for it rose to a great height on a sort broken anger, upwhirling fires emulous of of trunk and then split off into branches, I Etna. In a future generation, when crops spring imagine because it was thrust upwards by up again, when this wasteland regains its the first blast and then left unsupported as green, will men believe that cities and peoples the pressure subsided, or else it was borne lie beneath? That in days of old their lands lay down by its own weight so that it spread closer to the sea? Nor has that fatal summit out and gradually dispersed. Sometimes ceased to threaten. May such a fate avoid your it looked white, sometimes blotched and Teate, may madness like this never rouse the dirty, according to the amount of soil and ashes it carried with it. My uncle’s scholarly Marrucinian hills. (www.pompeiana.org) acumen saw at once that it was important enough for a closer inspection, and he Pliny the Younger, Letters 6, 16 ordered a boat to be made ready, telling me I could come with him if I wished. I replied Pliny to Cornelius Tacitus that I preferred to go on with my studies, Thank you for asking me to send you a and as it happened he had himself given me description of my uncle’s death so that some writing to do. you can leave an accurate account of it for posterity; I know that immortal fame awaits him if his death is recorded by you. It is true that he perished in a catastrophe which destroyed the loveliest regions of the earth, a fate shared by whole cities and their people, and one so memorable that is likely to make his name live forever: and he himself wrote a number of books of lasting 180. Weustink, Inge. value: but you write for all time and can “Umbrella pine trees at the Baths of still do much to perpetuate his memory. Caracalla, Rome.” The fortunate man, in my opinion, is he the noun here], a compound of Roman honor and Greek license?
As he was leaving the house, he was handed a message from Rectina, wife of Tascius whose house was at the foot of the mountain, so that escape was impossible except by boat. She was terrified by the danger threatening her and implored him to rescue her from her fate. He changed his plans, and what he had begun in a spirit of inquiry he completed as a hero. He gave orders for the warships to be launched and went on board himself with the intention of bringing help to many more people besides Rectina, for this lovely stretch of coast was thickly populated. He hurried to the place which everyone else was hastily leaving, steering his course straight for the danger zone. He was entirely fearless, describing each new movement and phase of the portent to be noted down exactly as he observed them. Ashes were already falling, hotter and thicker as the ships drew near, followed by bits of pumice and blackened stones, charred and cracked by the flames: then suddenly they were in shallow water, and the shore was blocked by the debris from the mountain. For a moment my uncle wondered whether to turn back, but when the helmsman advised this he refused, telling him that Fortune stood by the courageous and they must make for Pomponianus at Stabiae. He was cut off there by the breadth of the bay (for the shore gradually curves round a basin filled by the sea) so that he was not as yet in danger, though it was clear that this would come nearer as it spread. Pomponianus had therefore already put his belongings on board ship, intending to escape if the contrary wind fell. This wind was of course full in my uncle’s favour, and he was able to bring his ship in. He embraced his terrified friend, cheered and encouraged him, and thinking he could calm his fears by showing his own composure, gave orders that he was to be carried to the bathroom. After his bath he lay down and dined; he was quite cheerful, or at any rate he pretended he was, which was no less courageous.
darkness of night. My uncle tried to allay the fears of his companions by repeatedly declaring that these were nothing but bonfires left by the peasants in their terror, or else empty houses on fire in the districts they had abandoned. Then he went to rest and certainly slept, for as he was a stout man his breathing was rather loud and heavy and could be heard by people coming and going outside his door. By this time the courtyard giving access to his room was full of ashes mixed with pumice-stones, so that its level had risen, and if he had stayed in the room any longer he would never have got out. He was wakened, came out and joined Pomponianus and the rest of the household who had sat up all night. They debated whether to stay indoors or take their chance in the open, for the buildings were now shaking with violent shocks, and seemed to be swaying to and fro, as if they were torn from their foundations. Outside on the other hand, there was the danger of falling pumice-stones, even though these were light and porous; however, after comparing the risks they chose the latter. In my uncle’s case one reason outweighed the other, but for the others it was a choice of fears. As a protection against falling objects they put pillows on their heads tied down with cloths.
Elsewhere there was daylight by this time, but they were still in darkness, blacker and denser than any ordinary night, which they relieved by lighting torches and various kinds of lamp. My uncle decided to go down to the shore and investigate on the spot the possibility of any escape by sea, but he found the waves still wild and dangerous. A sheet was spread on the ground for him to lie down, and he repeatedly asked for cold water to drink. Then the flames and smell of sulphur which gave warning of the approaching fire drove the others to take flight and roused him to stand up. He stood leaning on two slaves and then suddenly collapsed, I imagine because the dense fumes choked his breathing by blocking his Meanwhile on Mount Vesuvius broad sheets windpipe which was constitutionally weak of fire and leaping flames blazed at several and narrow and often inflamed. When points, their bright glare emphasized by the daylight returned on the 26th—two days 162
after the last day he had seen—his body was found intact and uninjured, still fully clothed and looking more like sleep than death. Meanwhile my mother and I were at Misenum, but this is not of any historic interest, and you only wanted to hear about my uncle’s death. I will say no more, except to add that I have described in detail every incident which I either witnessed myself or heard about immediately after the event, when reports were most likely to be accurate. It is for you to select what best suits your purpose, for there is a great difference between a letter to a friend and history written for all to read. (Radice)
181. Sketch of Bay of Naples in 79AD showing the approximate route taken by Pliny the Elder from Misenum to Stabiae in his attempted rescue mission. By Jackie and Bob Dunn, www.pompeiiinpictures.com.
Pliny the Younger, Letters 6, 20 Pliny to Cornelius Tacitus So the letter which you asked me to write on my uncle’s death has made you eager to hear about the terrors and hazards I had to face when left at Misenum, for I broke off at the beginning of this part of my story. “Though my mind shrinks from remembering…I will begin.”
earth tremors which were not particularly alarming because they are frequent in Campania: but that night the shocks were so violent that everything felt as if it were not only shaken but overturned. My mother hurried into my room and found me already getting up to wake her if she were still asleep. We sat down in the forecourt of the house, between the buildings and the sea close by. I don’t know whether I should call this courage or folly on my part (I was only seventeen at the time) but I called for a volume of Livy and went on reading as if I had nothing else to do. I even went on with the extracts I had been making. Up came a friend of my uncle’s who had just come from Spain to join him. When he saw us sitting there and me actually reading, he scolded us both—me for my foolhardiness and my mother for allowing it. Nevertheless, I remained absorbed in my book. By now it was dawn, but the light was still dim and faint. The buildings round us were already tottering, and the open space we were in was too small for us not to be in real and imminent danger if the house collapsed. This finally decided us to leave the town. We were followed by a panicstricken mob of people wanting to act on someone else’s decision in preference to their own (a point in which fear looks like prudence), who hurried us on our way by pressing hard behind in a dense crowd. Once beyond the buildings we stopped, and there we had some extraordinary experiences which thoroughly alarmed us. The carriages we had ordered to be brought out began to run in different directions though the ground was quite level, and would not remain stationary even when wedged with stones. We also saw the sea sucked away and apparently forced back by the earthquake: at any rate it receded from the shore so that quantities of sea creatures were left stranded on dry sand. On the landward side a fearful black cloud was rent by forked and quivering bursts of flame, and parted to reveal great tongues of fire, like flashes of lightning magnified in size.
After my uncle’s departure I spent the rest of the day with my books, as this was my reason for staying behind. Then I took a bath, dined, and then dozed fitfully for a At this point my uncle’s friend from Spain while. For several days past there had been spoke up still more urgently: “If your
brother, if your uncle is still alive, he will want you both to be saved; if he is dead, he would want you to survive him—why put off your escape?” We replied that we would not think of considering our own safety as long as we were uncertain of his. Without waiting any longer, our friend rushed off and hurried out of danger as fast as he could. Soon afterwards the cloud sank down to earth and covered the sea; it had already blotted out Capri and hidden the promontory of Misenum from sight. Then my mother implored, entreated and commanded me to escape the best I could—a young man might escape, whereas she was old and slow and could die in peace as long as she had not been the cause of my death too. I refused to save myself without her, and grasping her hand forced her to quicken her pace. She gave in reluctantly, blaming herself for delaying me. Ashes were already falling, not as yet very thickly. I looked round: a dense black cloud was coming up behind us, spreading over the earth like a flood. “Let us leave the road while we can still see,” I said, “or we shall be knocked down and trampled underfoot in the dark by the crowd behind.” We had scarcely sat down to rest when darkness fell, not the dark of a moonless or cloudy night, but as if the lamp had been put out in a closed room. You could hear the shrieks of women, the wailing of infants, and the shouting of men; some were calling their parents, others their children or their wives, trying to recognize them by their voices. People bewailed their own fate or that of their relatives, and there were some who prayed for death in their terror of dying. Many besought the aid of the gods, but still more imagined there were no gods left, and that the universe was plunged into eternal darkness for evermore. There were people, too, who added to the real perils by inventing fictitious dangers: some reported that part of Misenum had collapsed or another part was on fire, and though their tales were false they found others to believe them. A gleam of light returned, but we took this 164
to be a warning of the approaching flames rather than daylight. However, the flames remained some distance off; then darkness came on once more and ashes began to fall again, this time in heavy showers. We rose from time to time and shook them off, otherwise we should have been buried and crushed beneath their weight. I could boast that not a groan or cry of fear escaped me in these perils, had I not derived some poor consolation in my mortal lot from the belief that the whole world was dying with me and I with it. At last the darkness thinned and dispersed into smoke or cloud; then there was genuine daylight, and the sun actually shone out, but yellowish as it is during an eclipse. We were terrified to see everything changed, buried deep in ashes like snowdrifts. We returned to Misenum where we attended to our physical needs as best we could, and then spent an anxious night alternating between hope and fear. Fear predominated, for the earthquakes went on, and several hysterical individuals made their own and other people’s calamities seem ludicrous in comparison with their frightful predictions. But even then, in spite of the dangers we had been through, and were still expecting, my mother and I had still no intention of leaving until we had news of my uncle. Of course these details are not important enough for history, and you will read them without any idea of recording them; if they seem scarcely worth putting in a letter, you have only yourself to blame for asking them. (Radice)
Cassius Dio, History of Rome 66, 21 23 In Campania some frightening and astonishing events occurred. A great fire suddenly flared up at the very end of the summer. Mt. Vesuvius, which stands near the sea below Naples, has in it inexhaustible fountains of fire. Once it had a symmetrical cone, and the fire leapt up from the center. The burning was confined to that area, and even now the outer parts of the mountain are untouched by fire. As a result, since
the outer portions are not burned, while the center is continually growing brittle and turning to ash, the heights around the center are as high as ever, but the whole fiery portion of the mountain has been consumed over time, and has settled into a hollow. Thus the entire mountain resembles an amphitheater (if we may compare great things to small). Its heights support both trees and vines in abundance, but the crater is given over to the fire and sends up smoke by day and flame by night. In fact, it gives the impression that a great deal of all kinds of incense is being burned inside. This is the normal state of affairs, though with variations of degree. Often the mountain throws up ashes, as well, whenever there is extensive settling in the interior, and even discharges stones with a violent blast of air. It also rumbles and roars, as its vents are not obstructed but are open and free.
in the surrounding countryside, and in the cities, wandering over the earth day and night, and also journeying through the air. Then came a terrible dryness, and sudden violent earthquakes, so that the whole plain seethed and the heights leaped into the air. There were frequent rumblings, some underground, sounding like thunder, others on the surface, making a bellowing sound. The sea joined in the roar, and the sky added its peal. Then suddenly a dreadful crash was heard, as if mountains were collapsing in on themselves. First huge stones flew up as high as the mountain top, then came a great quantity of fire and endless smoke, so that the air was darkened and the sun entirely hidden, as if eclipsed. Thus day turned into night and darkness came out of the light. Some thought that the Giants were rising again in revolt (for many of their forms could still be discerned in the smoke, and a sound as of trumpets was heard), others Such is Vesuvius, and these phenomena believed that the whole universe was being occur there year in year out. But all the resolved into chaos or fire. People fled, some occurrences that had taken place there in the from their houses into the streets, others past, however impressive, because unusual, from outside indoors, some from the sea to they may have seemed to observers, the land, others from the land to the sea. nevertheless would be reckoned trivial in In their panic people regarded any place comparison with what now happened, even where they were not, as safer than where if they had all happened simultaneously. they were. All the while an inconceivable What happened was this. quantity of ash was being blown out; it covered both sea and land and filled all the air. Wherever it went it did a great deal of damage, especially to men and farms and sheep, and it destroyed all fish and bird life. Furthermore, it buried two entire cities, Herculaneum and Pompeii; in the latter the people were seated in the theater. So much ash was there that some of it reached Africa and Syria and Egypt. It also appeared in Rome, filling the air overhead and darkening the sun. In Rome the fear lasted for many days, as people did not know what had happened and could not explain it. In fact, they too thought that the 182. North American B-25 Mitchell bomber, flying near Mount world was being turned upside down, that Vesuvius during its last eruption in March 1944. San Diego Air and the sun was disappearing into the earth and Space Museum Archive. By Ras67, via Wikimedia Commons. the earth being lifted up into the sky. The Numbers of huge men appeared, but bigger ash did the Romans no great harm at the than any human, more like the Giants in time, though later it brought them a terrible paintings. They were seen on the mountain, pestilence. (www.pompeiana.org) 165
183. Map of the archaeological site of Pompeii. University of Miami, School of Architecture. http:// intranet.arc.miami.edu.
184. Floor plan of a Roman domus. By Papa Lima Whiskey 2, via Wikimedia Commons.
185. Map of forum in Pompeii. Copyright © 2017 Pompei Online.net.
186. Floor plan of Stabian Baths in Pompeii. “Baths and Bathing as an Ancient Roman”. © 2003 University of Washington. depts. washington.edu.
96 - 98 AD
Trajan 98 - 117 AD
Hadrian 117 - 138 AD
of her most dutiful Emperor Nerva, and the health of the Eternal City will improve on account of this increase in the number of tanks, supply lines, fountains, and basins. The benefits are spread among private individuals as well, due to an increase in the emperor’s grants of water; those who once stole the water in fear can now enjoy it legally as a result of such grants. Not even waste water goes unused, channeled to flush away the sources of the city’s once oppressive atmosphere. The streets have a cleaner look, the air is purer, and the odor for which Rome was infamous in days gone by has vanished.
Antoninus Pius 138 - 161 AD
Marcus Aurelius 161 - 180 AD
187. Silver denarius of Nerva, 97 AD, with Salus Publica on the reverse. Forum Ancient Coins. www.forumancientcoins.com.
Aurelius Victor, On the Emperors 12, 12
When Nerva died, his body received an official escort of the Senate—as had Augustus’s—to his burial place in the tomb of Augustus.
96 - 98 AD
Frontinus, Aqueducts 87, 88 [As a result of work carried out under the emperor Nerva in AD 97,] throughout the entire city most of the public water basins, new and old alike, have two supply lines coming from two different aqueducts. This way, a disruption to one of the aqueducts does not suspend service to the basin, which can be supplied by the back-up line. The city herself, queen and mistress of the world, “Goddess of lands, who has no equal and no second,” senses daily this devotion 168
Trajan 98 - 117 AD
Cassius Dio, Roman History 69, 4, 1 Apollodorus was Trajan’s builder in Rome, designing among other things the Forum of Trajan….
Ammianus, History 16, 10, 15 - 16 [During his visit to Rome in AD 357,]
when the emperor Constantius came to the Forum of Trajan, which in my opinion is the most outstanding structure anywhere on earth, a marvel even in the judgment of the gods, he stood still in amazement, gazing around him at the gigantic creations, which can neither be conveyed in words nor ever again duplicated by mortals. His hopes of equaling something of this scope dashed by this sight, Constantius said he was willing and able to create an imitation of Trajan’s horse alone, a statue of which, mounted by Trajan, was located in the center of the courtyard. Standing near him and hearing this, the prince Ormisdas responded with customary Persian wit: “Emperor, order first a similar stable to be built, if you can manage it. Then the horse you propose to make can range as widely as the one we see here.” When someone asked Ormisdas his impression of Rome, he said that the only thing giving him any comfort was learning that the men who lived there were mortal like himself.
188. Golden sestertius of Trajan and Tiberinus conquering Dacia, struck circa 104-107 AD. Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. www. cngcoins.com, via Wikimedia Commons.
Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 13, 25, 1 - 2
Imperial Lives, Tacitus 8, 1 Lest some reader think that I am relying too heavily on some Latin or Greek writer as my source here, there is in the Ulpian Library, in Case 6, an ivory book which contains this senatorial decree, to which the emperor Tacitus himself appended his signature in his own hand.
Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 11, 17, 1 When I was looking for something else in the library of the Temple of Trajan, the edicts of old praetors fell into my hands by chance, and I took the opportunity to read and become familiar with them.
ILS 294 = CIL 6.960 SENATUS POPULUSQUE ROMANUS / IMP(eratori) CAESARI DIVI NERVAE F(ilio) NERVAE / TRAIANO AUG(usto) GERM(anico) DACICO PONTIF(ici) / MAXIMO TRIB(unicia) POT(estate) XVII IMP(eratori) / VI CO(n)S(uli) VI P(atri) P(atriae) / AD DECLARANDUM QUANTAE ALTITUDINIS / MONS ET LOCUS TANTI(s ope)RIBUS SIT EGESTUS The Senate and the People of Rome [dedicate this column] to the emperor Caesar Nerva Trajan Augustus Germanicus Dacicus, son of the deified emperor Nerva, Pontifex Maximus, with tribunician power for the 17th time, hailed as Imperator for the 6th time, consul for the 6th time [AD 113] and Father of his Country, to show the height and location of the hill removed for such great structures.
ILS 5173 = CIL 6.9797
My name is Ursus, and I was first among All around the Forum of Trajan on the the Romans roof of the colonnades there are gilded statues To play with grace the glass-ball game with of horses and military standards, and below them is written “From the sale of booty my companions, in war.” Favorinus, walking around in the Cheered on (I tell the truth) by large courtyard of the forum while he was waiting for his friend (a consul hearing cases from the applauding crowds tribunal) asked about the precise meaning of In the Baths of Trajan, Titus, Agrippa, and this phrase. often Nero. 169
Rejoice, my fellow ballplayers, gather round my statue And load it down with leafy boughs, with garlands of violet And rose, dispense with loving care the pungent scents, And with the finest wines from my ancestral cellar Pour libations out for me, though I still live.
189. The Imperial Forums; on the left the Forum and Markets of Trajan. By Samanthamalgieri (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Eulogize old Ursus with one concordant Pliny the Younger, Letters 8, 17, 1 - 4 voice: “He was a witty, cheerful, extremely Gaius Pliny sends greetings to Caecilius Macrinus: learnèd ballplayer Here in Rome we have unceasing rains Surpassing all in strategy, grace, and subtle and frequent flooding. The Tiber has left skill.” its channel and spills out high above the low-lying banks. Even with the far-seeing But let an old man use this verse to tell the Emperor Trajan’s new canal draining it into truth: the sea, the river buries the valleys, flows across fields, and has made a lake of the I’ve been defeated, I confess, not once or river plain. In addition, the streams, which twice normally empty into the Tiber as their common drain, are now backed up as if by a But often, by Verus, three times consul and dam, and flood fields that the river itself does my patron, not touch. For whom I am content to be called a The Anio, that most graceful of little rivers warm-up act. that so often gets invited and detained, as Cassius Dio, Roman History 68, 16 it were, by the villas along its banks, has uprooted and swept off a large part of the [Among Trajan’s many activities in Rome groves that gave it shade. It undermines before setting out of Parthia in AD 113,] whole hillsides, which collapse and block its Trajan also built libraries. In his forum he set channel, and the water, searching for a new up a large column, both as a tomb for himself way back to its bed, knocks down buildings, and as a memorial to his work on the forum. submerges them, and carries them away. For the whole area around it was formerly People trapped on higher ground watch hilly, and he had to excavate down the distance wealthy furnishings and heavy couches go shown by the height of the column to create a floating by, mixed in with farm equipment, yoked oxen, plows and plowmen, and animals flat site for his forum. sent to pasture, all of this interspersed with tree trunks, beams from villas, and whole roofs that are swept far across the countryside. 170
Aurelius Victor, On the Emperors 13, ordered at the bidding of the full Senate and the people of Rome that a statue be set up in 11 the Ulpian forum to Petronius Maximus, city prefect, as a lasting memorial of his merits
The ashes of Trajan’s cremated body were buried beneath his column in the Forum of Procopius, Wars 4, 9, 1 - 3, 5 - 9 Trajan, and a statue of him was placed on the top, arrayed like a triumphing general when he [Belisarius, the emperor Justinian’s famous comes into the city with a senatorial and army general, defeated the Vandals in Africa in AD escort. 534, and returned to Constantinople, now the capital of the Roman empire.] When he reached Constantinople with his captive Vandals and their king Gelimer, he was awarded honors given to the greatest Roman generals of old—honors which for nearly six hundred years had not been granted to anyone except emperors, such as Titus and Trajan and other victorious emperors who warred against the barbarian peoples. Belisarius displayed both the booty and the 190. Silver denarius with (obverse) bust of Trajan and (reverse) enslaved captives of the war in a procession Trajan’s Column, surmounted by a statue of Trajan, holding globe that the Romans call a triumph.… Many in right hand and sceptre in left hand; the base is garlanded with an eagle on right and left. British Museum London. Trustees of the thousands of pounds of silver were paraded, as well as the entire imperial treasury of British Museum. Rome which the Vandals under Gaiseric had Eutropius, Abridgment of Roman plundered [in AD 455] from the Palatine History 8, 5, 2 when they sacked the city, as I mentioned earlier [in Book. 3.5.3]. Among the booty Trajan was enrolled among the deified were the treasures of the Jews, which Titus, emperors, and received the singular honor of the son of Vespasian, and others had brought burial within the city boundaries: his bones to Rome after the sack of Jerusalem, As the were lodged in a golden urn under the column triumphal procession went by, one of the Jews in the forum he built. standing alongside an imperial official said to him, “The Romans, I predict, will come to regret taking this plunder of Jerusalem into ILS 2949 = CIL 6.1710 the palace in Constantinople: these objects belong in one place only, where Solomon [Statue inscription:] In honor of Claudius placed them long ago when he was king Claudianus…, tribune and notary, practitioner of the Jews. That is why Gaiseric was able of various polite arts but with unmatched to sack the palace of Rome, and why the glory in the art of poets. His poems alone army of the Romans has now captured the would bring him immortal fame, but to Vandals.” When his words were relayed to acknowledge the esteem they have for him, the emperor, Justinian quickly had the Jewish Arcadius and Honorius, our most fortunate treasure delivered to Christian sanctuaries in and learned Emperors, ordered with the Jerusalem. Senate’s encouragement that his statue should be set up in the Forum of Trajan [c. AD 395].
ILS 809 = CIL 6.1749 [Statue inscription:] The invincible Emperors Honorius Theodosius and Constantius, judges and rewarders of virtue, 171
bump their heads!” Apollodorus remarked. Hadrian, angered by the bluntness of this 117 - 138 AD critique and plagued by the awareness that he had made a mistake that could not be fixed, Cassius Dio, Roman History 69, 3, 2 allowed his anger and grief to steer him, and - 3; 4, 1 - 6 he put Apollodorus to death. Hadrian’s ambitions were all-encompassing. Along with his literary pursuits he tried his hand at numerous other endeavors, including some of the most insignificant, such as sculpture and painting. And his envy of others who excelled in anything was fearsome, ending the careers of some and the lives of many others. One target of his anger was the architect Apollodorus, who had been Trajan’s builder in Rome, designing the Forum of Trajan [78.], the Concert Hall (Odeon), and Stadium [89.]; Hadrian first banished and then killed him. Some charge was drawn up, but the real reason goes back to an earlier incident. Apollodorus was consulting with Trajan on one of their projects, when Hadrian, also present, chimed in with some remark that prompted the architect to turn to him and say “Go design some of your pumpkin-domes. You wouldn’t understand these matters.” This occurred at a time when Hadrian was priding himself on designing a dome of such a description. Then Hadrian became emperor [in AD 117] and neither forgot Apollodorus’s slight nor tolerated his outspokenness. On one occasion Hadrian sent Apollodorus the plans of the Temple of Venus and Rome, intending to prove to the architect that a great building could arise without him: did he not think this building a masterpiece? Apollodorus responded that, first, the temple should be set higher, while the ground around it should be excavated away; this way, standing aloft, it would not only be more visible from the Sacred Way but would have more room below to store the Amphitheater’s staging equipment, which could then be assembled out of sight and moved to the Amphitheater without drawing notice. Secondly, Apollodorus went on, the two statues of the temple’s gods were too large for the height of their homes: “If they wanted to stand up to take a walk outside, they’d 172
Imperial Lives, Hadrian 19, 12 - 13 Among his many architectural activities in Rome, Hadrian had the Colossus moved from the site of his new Temple of [Venus and] Rome. The architect Decrianus directed the work, suspending and transporting the statue in an upright position, an object so massive that it required twenty-four elephants. Hadrian then had the features of Nero removed (the statue’s original dedicatee) and consecrated it instead to the Sun-god, which he planned to accompany later with a colossus of the Moon designed by Apollodorus.
191. Reconstruction of Temple of Venus and Roma. Heliogravure by Chauvet (1830). By CharlesS, via Wikimedia Commons.
Imperial Lives, Hadrian 19, 9 Although he had countless public buildings constructed in all regions, Hadrian never had his own name inscribed on them, except in the case of the temple of his father Trajan.
ILS 306 = CIL 6.31215 In accordance with a decree by the Senate, the Emperor Hadrian, … son of the deified Trajan, grandson of the deified Nerva, … dedicated this temple to his parents, the deified Trajan and the deified Plotina.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 69, 4, 1
how she could possibly win the wager with one cup, she detached an earring that held The architect Apollodorus, Trajan’s builder in one of the most precious pearls on earth. She Rome who designed his Forum, the Concert- then dropped it in the cup and drank the hall, and the Stadium, was first banished and liquefied gem. The story continues with the pearl in the other earring that she was wearing eventually killed by Hadrian. (the uneaten second helping, as it were): later, when Cleopatra was captured by Augustus, ILS 129.1 = CIL 6.896 this pearl was cut in half to decorate the ears of Venus’s statue in the Pantheon.
ILS 229 = CIL 6.2041 (selection) On January 12th, during the same consulship [in AD 59], Calpurnius Piso, chairman of the Arval Brethren, made sacrifice at the Pantheon to the goddess Dia, in the presence of … the Arval Brethren.
192. Weustink, Inge. “Dedicatory inscription on the Pantheon.” August 2017.
Imperial Lives, Hadrian 19, 10
In Rome, Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon, the M(arcus) AGRIPPA L(ucii) F(ilius) CO(n) Saepta, the Basilica of Neptune, many temples, the Forum of Augustus, and the Baths of S(ul) TERTIUM FECIT Agrippa. He dedicated all of these buildings Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made this in the names of their original builders. building when consul for the third time [in 27 Cassius Dio, Roman History 53, 27, 2 BC]
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 36, Agrippa also completed the building called 38 Diogenes of Athens adorned the Pantheon of Agrippa. The columns of the temple include some in the shape of Caryatids that are ranked with the very finest sculpture, as are the statues placed on the pediment although these are less celebrated because of their distance from the viewer).
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 9, 120 - 121 [Cleopatra made a wager with Antony that she could spend 10,000,000 sesterces on a single banquet.] As arranged by Cleopatra, her servants placed a single cup before her, filled with a vinegar strong enough to dissolve even pearls. As Antony watched wondering
the Pantheon [“All- Divine”]. Perhaps it got this name because it had the statues of many gods among the sculptures that adorned it, including those of Mars and Venus, but I personally think it is because the dome resembles the Heavens. Agrippa had intended to place a statue of Augustus there and to name the building after him, but when the emperor denied the honor, Agrippa placed a statue of Julius Caesar in it instead, while placing statues of himself and Augustus in the porch.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 69, 7, 1 The emperor Hadrian always carried out the more important and urgent business with the help of the Senate, and gave his rulings in the presence of the leading men, whether in the palace, the forum, the Pantheon, or various 173
other places—always from a tribunal seat so that the transactions were officially public.
Imperial Lives, Hadrian 19.11 Hadrian built the bridge named for his family [the Pons Aelius] and the tomb alongside the Tiber.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 69, 23, 1 Hadrian lived for 62 years, 5 months, and 19 days, having ruled for 20 years and 11 months. 194. Temple of Hadrian, Rome. By FollowingHadrian He was buried right by the river, in front of the (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. Aelian bridge. It was here that he had prepared his tomb, since the Mausoleum of Augustus was full and from this time forward received no more remains. ILS 348 = CIL 6.1005 DIVO ANTONINO ET / DIVAE FAUSTINAE EX S(enatus) C(onsulto) To the deified Antoninus and the deified Faustina, by decree of the Senate. 193. Reconstruction of the Mausoleum of Hadrian, Rome. By Carole Raddato, via Wikimedia Commons.
Antoninus Pius 138 - 161 AD
Imperial Lives, Antoninus Pius 3, 7 Much was said about the wildness and loose living of Faustina. Antoninus tried to suppress these reports, which caused him much grief.
Imperial Lives, Antoninus Pius 6, 7
In the third year of his reign [AD 141] Antoninus Pius lost his wife Faustina. She was deified by the Senate, Of the works built by Antoninus Pius, the who also voted her games, a temple, priestesses, and following remain: in Rome, the Temple of statues of gold and silver. Hadrian, in memory of his father ….
Imperial Lives, Antoninus Pius 8, 2
Imperial Lives, Antoninus Pius 13, 3 - 4
Imperial Lives, Antoninus Pius 8, 2
Upon his death [in AD 161] Antoninus was Among the projects of Antoninus Pius that pronounced divine by the Senate. Everyone competed remain today … is the Tomb of Hadrian, to praise his piety, clemency, intelligence, and upright life. He was voted all of the honors which were ever which he completed. bestowed on the best emperors before him, and was awarded a flamen-priest, games, a temple, and a Imperial Lives, Lucius Verus 3, 1 priesthood to serve the temple. Antoninus Pius dedicated the temple to his father on the day that Verus assumed the Practically alone of all the emperors Antoninus toga virilis [in AD 145] and gave a largess to lived his personal life without shedding the blood 174
of either countryman or foreign foe, and he is deservedly compared to Numa, whose prosperity, piety, tranquillity, and religious rites he always maintained.
Imperial Lives, Antoninus Pius 7, 7 - 8 The emperor Antoninus took away the salaries of many people who got money for doing nothing; he said that there was no one lower, no one more cruel, even, than the person who nibbled away at the state without contributing anything to it with their work. On these grounds he also lowered the salary of the lyric poet Mesomedes.
gold, and even numerous jewels that he had found stored away by Hadrian in a special box, lasted for two whole months and raised enough money to carry out the remainder of the war according to plan.
Imperial Lives, Marcus Aurelius 22, 7 Many nobles also died in this Germanic (or rather Marcomannic) war [c. AD 170], and Marcus Aurelius had statues of them placed in the Ulpian forum.
Imperial Lives, Antoninus Pius 10, 4 [There are many examples of Antoninus Pius’s peaceful and generous character.] There was a Greek philosopher from Chalcis named Apollonius who had been summoned to Rome by the emperor. When Antoninus sent word for him to come to the Domus Tiberiana (where the emperor was then living) to tutor Marcus Aurelius, Apollonius said, “The teacher should not come to the pupil, but the pupil to the teacher.” Antoninus only smiled, saying “It was easier for Apollonius to get from Greece to Rome than from his own house to the Palatine.”
Marcus Aurelius 161 - 180 AD
195. Detail of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius. Capitoline Museums, Rome. By Zanner (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 72, 31, 1 The Senate [in AD 176, after the death of Faustina] decreed that silver statues of Marcus Aurelius and his wife Faustina should be set up in the Temple of Venus and Rome, as well as an altar on which all newly-wed couples in the city were to make a sacrifice.
Aurelius Victor, The Caesars 16, 14
Imperial Lives, Marcus Aurelius 17, 4 Although people were skeptical about -5 Romulus’s apotheosis, everyone assumed
without debate that Marcus Aurelius had been When the emperor Marcus Aurelius had received among the gods [when he died in AD exhausted the entire treasury while waging 180], and in his honor, temples, columns, and the war against the Marcomanni, he refused many other monuments were decreed. to consider raising funds through an extra tax upon the provincials, but held instead an Inscription on the base of the Column auction of imperial valuables in the Forum of of Marcus Aurelius the deified Trajan. The sale, which included gold, crystal, and agate goblets, the vases of kings, his wife’s silk robes embroidered with SIXTUS V PONT MAX COLUMNAM HANC COCHLIDEM IMP ANTONINO 175
DICATAM MISERE LACERAM RUINOSAMQ PRIMAE FORMAE RESTITUIT A M D LXXXIX PONT IV Pope Sixtus the fifth has rebuilt this unfortunate mutilated and dilapidated column, dedicated to emperor Antoninus, in its original form, in the year 1589, the fourth year of his pontificate.
196. Inscription on Column of Marcus Aurelius. By FoekeNoppert (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Severan Dynasty Septimius Severus 193 - 211 AD
Caracalla 198- 217 AD
M. AURELIU]S ANTONINUS PIUS FELIX AUG. [TRIB. POTEST. VI] COS PROCOS / INCENDIO CORRUPTAM REST[ITUERUNT] [In AD 203] the emperor Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Augustus Arabicus Adiabenicus Maximus, with tribunician power for the 11th time, hailed as Imperator 11 times, consul for the third time, father of his country, and the emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus [= Caracalla], with tribunician power for the sixth time, consul and proconsul, restored this portico ruined by fire.
209 - 211 AD
Macrinus 217 - 218 AD
Elagabalus 218 - 222 AD
197. Weustink, Inge. “Porticus of Octavia (Porticus Octaviae).” August 2017.
Inscription on the Arch of the Argentarii (ILS 426 = CIL 6.1035)
222 - 235 AD
Septimius Severus 193 - 211 AD
Inscription on the Porticus of Octavia (CIL 6.1034) [IMP. CAES. L. SEPTIMIU]S SEVERUS PIUS PERTINAX AUG. ARABIC. AD[IABENIC. PAR]THIC. MAXIMUS / TRIB. POTEST. XI IMP. XI COS. III P. P. ET / [IMP. CAES.
IMP(eratori) CAES(ari) L. SEPTIMIO SEVERO PIO PERTINACI AUG(usto) ARABIC(o) ADIABENIC(o) PARTH(ico) MAX(imo) FORTISSIMO FELICISSIMO PONTIF(ici) MAX(imo) TRIB(unicia) POTEST(ate) XII IMP. XI CO(n)S(uli) III PATRI PATRIAE ET IMP. CAES. M. AURELIO ANTONINO PIO FELICI AUG. TRIB. POTEST. VII CO(n)S(uli) I[II P(atri) P(atriae) PROCO(n)S(uli) FORTISSIMO FELICISSIMOQUE PRINCIPI] ET IULIAE AUG(ustae) MATRI AUG(usti) [N(ostri)] ET CASTRORUM ET [SENATUS ET PATRIAE ET] IMP. CAES. M. AURELI ANTONINI PII FELICIS AUG(usti) [PARTHICI MAXIMI BRITTANNICI MAXIMI] ARGENTARI ET NEGOTIANTES BOARI HUIUS [LOCI QUI INVEHENT] DEVOTI NUMINI EORUM.
To Septimius Severus [literally: To the Emperor Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Augustus Arabicus Adiabenicus Parthicus, the greatest, bravest, and most fortunate, the Pontifex Maximus, with tribunate powers for the 12th time, a conquering general for the 11th time, consul for the third time, father of his country] and to Caracalla [literally: and to Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus, with tribunate powers for the seventh time, consul for the third time, father of his country, proconsul, the bravest and most fortunate prince] and to Julia Augusta, mother of Caracalla [literally: mother of our Augustus and of the Armies, of the Senate, of the Country, and of the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus, great conqueror of Parthia and Britannica], the bankers and the cattle-traders of this place [dedicate this arch], out of devotion to their divine powers.
Inscription on the Arch of Septimius Severus (ILS 425 = CIL 6.1033) IMP (eratori) CAES(ari) LUCIO SEPTIMIO M(arci) FIL(io) SEVERO PIO PERTINACI AUG(usto) PATRI PATRIAE PARTHICO ARABICO ET / PARTHICO ADIABENICO PONTIFIC(i) MAXIMO TRIBUNIC(ia) POTEST(ate) XI IMP(eratori) XI CO(n)S(uli) III PROCO(n)S(uli) ET / IMP(eratori) CAES(ari) M(arco) AURELIO L(ucii) FIL(io) ANTONINO AUG(usto) PIO FELICI TRIBUNIC(ia) POTEST(ate) VI CO(n)S(uli) PROCO(n)S(uli) [P(atri) P(atriae) / OPTIMIS FORTISSIMISQUE PRINCIPIBUS / OB REM PUBLICAM RESTITUTAM IMPERIUMQUE POPULI ROMANI PROPAGATUM / INSIGNIBUS VIRTUTIBUS EORUM DOMI FORISQUE S(enatus) P(opulus) Q(ue) R(omanus) To the Imperator Caesar Lucius Septimius, son of Marcus, Severus Pius Pertinax Augustus [=Septimius Severus], father of his country, conqueror of the Parthians in Arabia and Assyria, Pontifex Maximus, with Tribunician powers 11 times, triumphing general 11 times, consul 3 times, and proconsul; and to the Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius, son of Lucius, Antoninus Augustus Pius Felix [=Caracalla], with tribunician powers 6 times, 178
consul, proconsul, father of his country—**the best and bravest of princes**—on account of the republic restored and the empire of the Roman people increased by their outstanding virtues at home and abroad, the Senate and the Roman people dedicate this arch. ** This phrase was substituted for one that probably read: P(ublio) SEPTIMIO L(ucii) F(ilio) GETAE NOB(ilissimo) CAES(ari), preceded by ET at the end of the third line: “and to Publius Septimius, son of Lucius, Geta, most noble Caesar [=Geta]...”
198. Inscription on Arch of Septimius Severus. Jona Lendering. © 1995–2017 Livius.org.
Pantheon restoration (ILS 129.2 = CIL 6.896) The emperor Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Augustus, conqueror of the Parthians in Arabia and Assyria, Pontifex Maximus, with tribunician powers 10 times, triumphing general 11 times, consul 3 times, Father of his Country, and proconsul; and the emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus [= his son Caracalla], with tribunician powers 5 times, consul, proconsul, rescued the Pantheon and all its ornament from the damage of old age [in AD 202].
Imperial Lives, Severus 24, 3 When Septimius Severus constructed the Septizonium [in AD 203], he simply intended it as a monument to greet travelers arriving from Africa by the Appian Way. He is said, however, to have wanted an entrance to the Palatine (the imperial residence) from that quarter of the hill, but was thwarted when a Prefect of Rome put up a statue of Severus in the middle of the monument when Severus was out of town. Alexander Severus was
planning to create an approach to the palace from there as well, but was prohibited by the soothsayers.
Cassius Dio, Roman History 75, 16, 1 In this period of Septimius Severus’s rule [AD 200], gymnastic competitions were held. So many athletes were compelled to participate that we were amazed that the Stadium had room to hold them. Women also took part in these contests, and they competed against one another with such ferocity that the jeering remarks of spectators began to be aimed at distinguished women in the audience as well as the female athletes. As a result, women, whatever their background, were subsequently forbidden to participate in one-on-one wrestling.
Caracalla 198- 217 AD
Herodian, History 3, 15, 7 and 4, 1, 3 -4 [When the emperor Septimius Severus died in Britain] his sons Caracalla and Geta each got an equal share in the rule of the empire. They decided to sail from Britain, and arrived in Rome escorting the remains of their father, which had been placed in an alabaster urn after his cremation. This they intended to place in the sacred imperial mausoleum.… When they arrived in Rome … the brothers, dressed in the imperial purple, led a procession, followed by the consuls carrying the urn with the remains of Severus. Those who approached the new emperors in greeting also bowed before the urn.… They escorted the urn to the shrine that displays the sacred tombs of Marcus Aurelius and his imperial predecessors [= Hadrian’s Mausoleum].
Cassius Dio, Roman History 79, 9, 1
The body of Caracalla was cremated and his bones placed in the tomb of the Antonines. They had to be smuggled in secretly, since everyone—senators and commoners, men and women alike—bore him a passionate hatred.
Baths of Caracalla Imperial Lives, Caracalla 9, 4, 9 In Rome, the Emperor Caracalla left behind him the great baths in his name. In these baths is a heated tub-room (cella solearis) whose manner of construction the architects say cannot be imitated. The entire weight of the vaulting of the ceiling depends on a grid work of copper or brass above it, and yet the span of the vault is such that the experts in engineering insist it cannot be constructed in this way. Alongside his baths (the Antonine Baths, that is) Caracalla also built the Via Nova, the beauty of which you would be hard pressed to find equaled by any other streets in the city. Epitaph (ILS 7621 = CIL 6.9232) Cucumio and Victoria made this monument for themselves during their lifetime [in the C3 AD]; he was a cloak-room attendant at the Baths of Caracalla.
Vitruvius, On Architecture 5, 10 - 11 10.1. First, as warm a spot as possible is to be selected, that is to say, one sheltered from the north and north-east. The hot and tepid baths are to receive their light from the winter west; but, if the nature of the place prevent that, at all events from the south, because the hours of bathing are principally from noon to evening. Care must be taken that the warm baths of the women and men adjoin, and have the same aspect; in which case the same furnace and vessels will serve 179
both. The caldrons over the furnaces are to be three in number, one for hot water, another for tepid water, and a third for cold water: and they must be so arranged, that hot water which runs out of the heated vessel, may be replaced by an equal quantity from the tepid vessel, which in like manner is supplied from the cold vessel, and that the arched cavities in which they stand may be heated by one fire. 2. The floors of the hot baths are to be made as follows. First, the bottom is paved with tiles of a foot and a half inclining towards the furnace, so that if a ball be thrown into it, it will not remain therein, but roll back to the mouth of the furnace; thus the flame will better spread out under the floor. Upon this, piers of eight inch bricks are raised, at such a distance from each other, that tiles of two feet may form their covering. The piers are to be two feet in height, and are to be laid in clay mixed with hair, on which the abovementioned two feet tiles are placed, which carry the pavement. 3. The ceilings, if of masonry, will be preferable; if, however, they are of timber, they should be plastered on the under side, which must be done as follows. Iron rods, or arcs, are prepared and suspended by iron hooks to the floor as close as possible. These rods or arcs are at such distances from each other, that tiles, without knees, may rest on and be borne by every two ranges, and thus the whole vaulting depending on the iron may be perfected. The upper parts of the joints are stopped with clay and hair. The under side towards the pavement is first plastered with pounded tiles and lime, and then finished with stucco or fine plastering. If the vaulting of hot baths is made double it will be better, because the moisture of the steam cannot then affect the timber, but will be condensed between the two arches. 4. The size of baths must depend on the number of persons who frequent them. Their proportions are as follow: their width is to be two thirds of their length, exclusive of the space round the bathing vessel (schola labri) and the gutter round it (alveus). The bathing vessel (labrum) should be lighted from above, so that the bye standers may not cast any 180
shadow thereon, and thereby obstruct the light. The schola labri ought to be spacious, so that those who are waiting for their turn may be properly accommodated. The width of the alveus between the wall of the labrum and the parapet must not be less than six feet, so that it may be commodious after the reduction of two feet, which are allotted to the lower step and the cushion.
199. Diagram of a hypocaust. Elizabeth Carney, Clemson University. elizab.people.clemson.edu/rdlimages.htm.
200. Labrum in the caldarium of the Forum Baths in Pompeii. By Carole Raddato, via Wikimedia Commons.
5. The laconicum and sudatories are to adjoin the tepid apartment, and their height to the springing of the curve of the hemisphere is to be equal to their width. An opening is left in the middle of the dome from which a brazen shield is suspended by chains, capable of being so lowered and raised as to regulate the temperature. It should be circular, that the intensity of the flame and heat may be equally diffused from the centre throughout. 11.1. Though not used by the people of Italy, it seems proper that I should explain the form of the palæstra, and describe the mode in which it was constructed by the Greeks. The square or oblong peristylia of palestræ, have a walk round them which the Greeks call δίαυλος, two stadia in circuit: three of the sides are single porticos: the fourth, which is that on the south side, is to be double, so that when showers fall in windy weather, the drops may
not drive into the inner part of it.
is fine, in the winter. Behind the xystus the stadium is set out, of such dimensions that a 2. In the three porticos are large recesses great number of people may commodiously (exedræ) with seats therein, whereon the behold the contending wrestlers. I have now philosophers, rhetoricians, and others who given rules for the proper distribution of such delight in study, may sit and dispute. In the buildings as are within the walls. (Gwilt) double portico the following provision is to be made: the ephebeum is to be in the Seneca the Younger, Letters 56, 1 - 2 middle, which is in truth nothing more than a large exedra with seats, and longer by I cannot for the life of me see why silence should one third than its width, on the right is the seem necessary for someone who withdraws coriceum, immediately adjoining which is the to write. Consider my own circumstances: conisterium, near which, in the angle of the a multitude of noises surrounds me, since I portico, is the cold bath, which the Greeks call live directly above a bath. Try to imagine to λουτρόν. On the left of the ephebeum is the yourself every variety of the human voice that elæothesium, adjoining that is the frigidarium, is offensive to the ear. When the body-builders whence a passage leads to the propigneum exercise and strain (or imitate someone in the angle of the portico. Near, but more straining) to lift weights, I hear their grunts inward, on the side of the frigidarium, is placed as they express pent air, followed by the hisses the vaulted sudatory, whose length is double of their harsh inhalations. When one of the its width; on one side of this is the laconicum, clientele relaxes to a cheap rub-down, I hear constructed as before described: on the other the noise of hands as they strike his shoulders, ranging from flat smacks to a cupped blow, side is the hot bath. depending on the stroke. If a ball-player 3. The peristylia of the palæstra are to comes along and begins to count the score, be carefully set out as above mentioned. I’m finished. Add to this the aggressive loudExteriorly three porticos are constructed, one mouth, the thief who’s been caught, the person through which those who come out of the who likes to hear himself sing in the bath, and palæstra pass; and stadial ones on the right the bathers who love to make big splashes and left, of which, that towards the north is when they jump in the pool. double, and of considerable width. The other is single, and so formed that as well on the side next the wall, as on that where the columns 201. Roman stand, there are margins for paths of not less strigiles, 1st than ten feet, the centre part is sunk one foot century BC. Glyptothek and a half from the path, to which there is an München. By ascent of two steps; the sunken part is not to MatthiasKabel, be less than twelve feet in width. Thus, those via Wikimedia who in their clothing walk round the paths, Commons. will not be incommoded by the anointed wrestlers who are practising. In addition to those whose voices are at 4. This species of portico is called xystus (ξυστὸς) by the Greeks; for the wrestlers exercise in covered stadia in the winter time. Xysti ought, between the two porticos, to have groves or plantations, with walks between the trees and seat of cemented work. On the sides of the xystus and double portico are open walks which the Greeks call περιδρόμιδες, but with us they are termed xysti, on which the athletæ exercise themselves, when the weather
least normal, listen to the hairplucker keening his presence in a thin shrill tone that never ceases, except when he’s found an armpit to pluck, in which case his client yells for him. Top it all off with the drink seller shouting his menu, and the vendors of sausages, pastries, and the cheap-eats from a nearby cook-shop, each of them hawking his wares with his own distinctive call.
202. Plan of the Baths of Caracalla. By Fæ, via Wikimedia Commons.
204. Di Girolamo, Tommaso. “Fragments of mosaics in the palestra of the Baths of Caracalla.” May 2017. 203. Di Girolamo, Tommaso. “Restoration project sponsored by Bulgari of the mosaics in the palestra of the Baths of Caracalla.” May 2017.
205. Di Girolamo, Tommaso. “Palestra of the Baths of Caracalla.” May 2017.
Imperial Lives, Alexander Severus 26,4
218 - 222 AD
The emperor Alexander Severus relocated statues of famous men, gathered from numerous other places, in the Forum of Trajan.
Imperial Lives, Elagabalus 17, 9
Antoninus Caracalla dedicated the baths by bathing there and opening its doors to the public, but the porticoes were not constructed Imperial Lives, Severus Alexander 28, until the time of the fake Severine emperor, 6 Elagabalus, and were completed under In the Forum of Nerva (which is also called Alexander Severus. the Forum Transitorium) the emperor Alexander Severus set up larger than life-size Imperial Lives, Elagabalus 26, 3 statues of the deified emperors, some of them nude and on foot, others on horseback. The The emperor Elagabalus [AD 218-22] rounded statues were accompanied by all the titles of up into a public hall all the prostitutes from each emperor and by bronze columns that the Circus, the Theater, the Stadium, the contained an account of their achievements baths and everywhere else they frequented. (this was done in imitation of Augustus, who Addressing them like a general would his had placed marble statues of leading men in troops, he called them his fellow soldiers and his forum, accompanied by accounts of their reviewed with them the various positions and notable deeds). techniques of their profession.
Alexander Severus 222 - 235 AD
Imperial Lives, Severus Alexander 24, 3 The Emperor Alexander Severus [c. AD 230] placed a tax on pimps and both male and female prostitutes, with the stipulation that the income thus raised go not into the public treasury but towards the cost of restoring the Theater, the Circus, the Amphitheater, and the Stadium.
206. Golden aureus of Severus Alexander and the Flavian Amphitheatre, 223 AD. www.wildwinds.com.
207. Floorplans of the Baths of Titus, Caracalla and Diocletian.
208. Floorplan of the Baths of Diocletian created by Rudolfo Lanciani between 1893-1901. Original picture from the Forma Urbis Romae. 1 = Caldarium 2 = Tepidarium 3 = Frigidarium 4= Natati 5 = Palaestrae 6 = Entrance, 7 = Great exedra. By DieBuche, via Wikimedia Commons.
Dedicatory inscription (CIL VI.1130 = 31242)
Our masters Diocletian and Maximian, unconquered senior Augusti, fathers of the emperors and the Caesars, and our masters D(omini) n(ostri) Diocletianus et Constantius and Maximian, unconquered Maximianus invicti seniores Aug(usti), Augusti, and Severus and Maximinus, most patres imp(eratorum) et Caes(arum), et noble Caesars, dedicared to their Romans d(omini) n(ostri) Constantius et Maximianus the auspicious Baths of Diocletian, which invicti Aug(usti), et Severus et Maximinus Maximian Augustus, returning from Africa, nobilissimi Caesares . . . thermas felices in the presence of his majesty, laid out and Diocletianas, quas Maximianus Aug. rediens ordered to be built and dedicated in the name ex Africa sub praesentia maiestatis disposuit of Diocletian, his brother, after purchasing a ac fieri iussit et Diocletiani Aug. fratris sui sufficient number of buildings for a work of nomine consecravit, coemptis aedeficiis pro such magnitude and attending to every detail tanti operis magnitudine omni cultu perfectas of its ornamentation. (Coarelli) Romanis suis dedicaverunt. 184
209. Map of the Roman empire during the first Tetrarchy. By Coppermine Photo Gallery, via Wikimedia Commons.
210. Reconstruction drawing of the Palace of the Roman Emperor Diocletian in Split, Croatia. By Ernest Hébrard, 1912. By Direktor, via Wikimedia Commons.
Eusebius, History of the Church 8, 2 It was the nineteenth year of Diocletian’s reign [AD 303] and the month Dystrus, called March by the Romans, and the festival of the Saviour’s Passion was approaching, when an imperial decree was published everywhere, ordering the churches to be razed to the ground and the Scriptures destroyed by fire, and giving notice that those in places of honour would lose their places, and domestic staff, if they continued to profess Christianity, would be deprived of their liberty. Such was the first edict against us. Soon afterwards other decrees arrived in rapid succession, ordering that the presidents of the churches in every place should all be first committed to prison and then coerced by every possible means into offering sacrifice. (Williamson)
the same folly, and we saw that they were neither paying to the gods in heaven the worhsip that is their due nor giving any honour to the god of the Christians. So in view of our benevolence and the established custom by which we invariably grant pardon to all men, we have thought proper in this matter also to extend our clemency most gladly, so that Christians may again exist and rebuild the houses in which they used to meet, on condition that they do nothing contrary to public order.... Therefore, in view of this our clemency, they are in duty bound to beseech their own god for our security, and that of the state and of themselves, in order that in every way the state may be preserved in health and they may be able to live free from anxiety in their own homes. (Williamson)
Lactantius, On the Death of the Persecutors 12 A suitable and auspicious day was sought for carrying the business out, and the festival of the Terminalia on 23 February [a.d. septimum kalendas martias] was chosen as best, so that a termination so to speak could be imposed on this religion. Among the other steps that we are taking for the advantage and benefit of the nation, we have desired hitherto that every deficiency should be made good, in accordance with the established law and public order of Rome; and we made provision for this--that the Christians who had abandoned the convictions of their own forefathers should return to sound ideas. For through some perverse reasoning such arrogance and folly had seized and possessed them that they refused to follow the path trodden by earlier generations (and perhaps blazed long ago by their own ancestors), and made their own laws to suit their own ideas and individual tastes and observed these; and held varous meetings in various places. (Creed)
Eusebius, The History of the Church 8, 17, 6 - 10 Consequently, when we issued an order to the effect that they were to go back to the practices established by the ancients, many of them found themselves in great danger, and many were proceeded against and punished with death in many forms. Most of them indeed persisted in
211. Funerary stele of Licinia Amias. Marble, early 3rd century AD. From the area of the Vatican necropolis, Rome. Museo delle Terme di Diocleziano, Rome. By Marie-Lan Nguyen (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Edict of Toleration by Galerius (311 AD) from Lactantius, On the Death of the Persecutors 34 - 35 34 Among other arrangements which we are always accustomed to make for the prosperity and welfare of the republic, we had desired formerly to bring all things into harmony with the ancient laws and public order of the Romans, and to provide that even the Christians who had left the religion of their fathers should come back to reason ; since, indeed, the Christians themselves, for some reason, had followed such a caprice and had fallen into such a folly that they would not obey the institutes of antiquity, which perchance
their own ancestors had first established; but at their own will and pleasure, they would thus make laws unto themselves which they should observe and would collect various peoples in diverse places in congregations. Finally when our law had been promulgated to the effect that they should conform to the institutes of antiquity, many were subdued by the fear of danger, many even suffered death. And yet since most of them persevered in their determination, and we saw that they neither paid the reverence and awe due to the gods nor worshipped the God of the Christians, in view of our most mild clemency and the constant habit by which we are accustomed to grant indulgence to all, we thought that we ought to grant our most prompt indulgence also to these, so that they may again be Christians and may hold their conventicles, provided they do nothing contrary to good order. But we shall tell the magistrates in another letter what they ought to do. Wherefore, for this our indulgence, they ought to pray to their God for our safety, for that of the republic, and for their own, that the republic may continue uninjured on every side, and that they may be able to live securely in their homes. 35 This edict is published at Nicomedia on the day before the Kalends of May, in our eighth consulship and the second of Maximinus. (Fritzsche)
212. Porphyry statue of the tetrarchs, 4th century AD, Asia Minor. On a corner of Saint Mark’s in Venice, next to the “Porta della Carta”. By Nino Barbieri (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
The Edict of Milan by Constantine and Licinius (313 AD) from Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 48 When I, Constantine Augustus, as well as I Licinius Augustus d fortunately met near Mediolanurn (Milan), and were considering everything that pertained to the public welfare and security, we thought -, among other things which we saw would be for the good of many, those regulations pertaining to the reverence of the Divinity ought certainly to be made first, so that we might grant to the Christians and others full authority to observe that religion which each preferred; whence any Divinity whatsoever in the seat of the heavens may be propitious and kindly disposed to us and all who are placed under our rule And thus by this wholesome counsel and most upright provision we thought to arrange that no one whatsoever should be denied the opportunity to give his heart to the observance of the Christian religion, of that religion which he should think best for himself, so that the Supreme Deity, to whose worship we freely yield our hearts) may show in all things His usual favor and benevolence. Therefore, your Worship should know that it has pleased us to remove all conditions whatsoever, which were in the rescripts formerly given to you officially, concerning the Christians and now any one of these who wishes to observe Christian religion may do so freely and openly, without molestation. We thought it fit to commend these things most fully to your care that you may know that we have given to those Christians free and unrestricted opportunity of religious worship. When you see that this has been granted to them by us, your Worship will know that we have also conceded to other religions the right of open and free observance of their worship for the sake of the peace of our times, that each one may have the free opportunity to worship as he pleases ; this regulation is made we that we may not seem to detract from any dignity or any religion. Moreover, in the case of the Christians especially we esteemed it best to order that if it happems anyone heretofore has bought from our treasury from anyone whatsoever, those places where they were previously accustomed to assemble, concerning which a certain decree had been made and a letter sent to you officially, the same shall be restored to the Christians without payment or any claim of recompense and without any kind of fraud or deception, Those, moreover, who have
obtained the same by gift, are likewise to return them at once to the Christians. Besides, both those who have purchased and those who have secured them by gift, are to appeal to the vicar if they seek any recompense from our bounty, that they may be cared for through our clemency,. All this property ought to be delivered at once to the community of the Christians through your intercession, and without delay. And since these Christians are known to have possessed not only those places in which they were accustomed to assemble, but also other property, namely the churches, belonging to them as a corporation and not as individuals, all these things which we have included under the above law, you will order to be restored, without any hesitation or controversy at all, to these Christians, that is to say to the corporations and their conventicles: providing, of course, that the above arrangements be followed so that those who return the same without payment, as we have said, may hope for an indemnity from our bounty. In all these circumstances you ought to tender your most efficacious intervention to the community of the Christians, that our command may be carried into effect as quickly as possible, whereby, moreover, through our clemency, public order may be secured. Let this be done so that, as we have said above, Divine favor towards us, which, under the most important circumstances we have already experienced, may, for all time, preserve and prosper our successes together with the good of the state. Moreover, in order that the statement of this decree of our good will may come to the notice of all, this rescript, published by your decree, shall be announced everywhere and brought to the knowledge of all, so that the decree of this, our benevolence, cannot be concealed. (Fritzsche)
213. Sarcophagus of Constantina, ca. 340 AD, Mausoleum di Santa Costanza, Rome. Vatican Museums (Museo Pio-Clementino). By Jean-Pol Grandmont (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 44
And now a civil war broke out between Constantine and Maxentius. Although Maxentius kept himself within Rome, because the soothsayers had foretold that if he went out of it he should perish, yet he conducted the military operations by able generals. In forces he exceeded his adversary; for he had not only his father’s army, which deserted from Severus, but also his own, which he had lately drawn together out of Mauritania and Italy. They fought, and the troops of Maxentius prevailed. At length Constantine, with steady courage and a mind prepared for every event, led his whole forces to the neighbourhood of Rome, and encamped them opposite to the Milvian bridge. The anniversary of the reign of Maxentius approached, that is, the sixth of the kalends of November, and the fifth year of his reign was drawing to an end. Constantine was directed in a dream to cause the heavenly sign to be delineated on the shields of his soldiers, and so to proceed to battle. He did as he had been commanded, and he marked on their shields the letter Χ, with a perpendicular line drawn through it and turned round thus at the top, being the cipher of CHRIST. Having this sign (ΧР ), his troops stood to arms. The enemies advanced, but without their emperor, and they crossed the bridge.
214. Monogram of Christ (Chi Rho sign) on a plaque of a sarcophagus, 4th century AD. Vatican Museums, Rome. By Jebulon (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
The armies met, and fought with the utmost exertions of valour, and firmly maintained their ground. In the meantime a sedition arose at Rome, and Maxentius was reviled as one who had abandoned all concern for the safety of the commonweal; and suddenly, while he exhibited the Circensian games on the anniversary of his reign, the people cried with one voice, “Constantine cannot be overcome!” Dismayed at this, Maxentius burst from the assembly, and having called some senators together, ordered the Sibylline books to be searched. In them it was found that:— “On the same day the enemy of the Romans should perish.” Led by this response to the hopes of victory, he went to the field. The bridge in his rear was broken down. At sight of that the battle grew hotter. The hand of the Lord prevailed, and the forces of Maxentius were routed. He fled towards the broken bridge; but the multitude pressing on him, he was driven headlong into the Tiber. This destructive war being ended, Constantine was acknowledged as emperor, with great rejoicings, by the senate and people of Rome. And now he came to know the perfidy of Daia; for he found the letters written to Maxentius, and saw the statues and portraits of the two associates which had been set up together. The senate, in reward of the valour of Constantine, decreed to him the title of Maximus (the Greatest), a title which Daia had always arrogated to himself. Daia, when he heard that Constantine was victorious and Rome freed, expressed as much sorrow as if he himself had been vanquished; but afterwards, when he heard of the decree of the senate, he grew outrageous, avowed enmity towards Constantine, and made his title of the Greatest a theme of abuse and raillery. (Schaff)
Aurelius Victor, On the Emperors 40, Augustus. 26 As for Constantius’s obelisk that stands
today in the Circus, I give below a Greek Each of the magnificent works which translation of the hieroglyphs cut long ago Maxentius constructed - the Shrine of the in its stone, found in a book by Hermapion: City and the Basilica - was credited by the … Senators to Constantine. [first line, south side:]
Ammianus Marcellinus, Antiquities 17, 4, 1, 12-18
Roman “Helios, the sun-god, speaks to Ramestes. I
The emperor Constantius set up an obelisk in the Circus Maximus. Some people remain unaware that Augustus refrained from disturbing this obelisk when he had his other obelisks shipped to Rome: it was a gift of special significance dedicated to the sun-god, rising, as if the summit of the world, from the sacred precinct of the sun-god’s temple, not to be profaned by movement. Constantine, however, put no great stock in this association and uprooted the gigantic mass from it seat, rightly judging that it would be no offense against religion if he took this marvel from one temple and consecrated it in Rome, which is to say, in the temple of the entire world. For a long time Constantine allowed it to lie there in Egypt while the means to convey it were readied. After the stone was transported down the channel of the Nile and unloaded in Alexandria, a ship of unheard of size needing three hundred rowers was constructed for the voyage by sea. When things had progressed this far, Constantine died, and the project languished. Finally, however, under Constantius the obelisk was loaded on the ship, and floated across the sea and up the Tiber…it was unloaded three miles south of the city in the Vicus of Alexander. There it was placed on sleds, dragged slowly through the Ostian Gate, between the two Aventines, and on into the Circus Maximus.…
have granted you joyful dominion over the inhabited earth, you whom Helios loves.…”
Inscription on obelisk (ILS 736, lines 1-6 = CIL 6.1163) The emperor Constantius, regaining the world entire,/ Dedicates this work and gift of his father [Constantine the Great], Rome, to you,/ And founds a marvel your earth never carried and your past never saw,/ A gift to match the emperor’s glorious victories./ His father, intending for this monument to grace/ Constantinople, removed it from Thebes, where is was quarried...
Dedicatory inscription on the Arch of Constantine
215. Weustink, Inge. “Dedicatory inscription on the Arch of Constantine” August 2017.
IMP CAES FL CONSTANTINO MAXIMO P F AVGVSTO S P Q R QVOD INSTINCTV DIVINITATIS MENTIS MAGNITVDINE CVM EXERCITV SVO TAM DE TYRANNO QVAM DE OMNI Other obelisks were brought to Rome after EIVS FACTIONE VNO TEMPORE Augustus’s day; of these, one stands on the IVSTIS REMPVBLICAM VLTVS Vatican, another in the Gardens of Sallust, EST ARMIS ARCVM TRIVMPHIS and two in front of the mausoleum of INSIGNEM DICAVIT 190
To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantine, the Greatest, Pius, Felix, Augustus: inspired by (a) divinity, in the greatness of his mind, he used his army to save the state by the just force of arms from a tyrant on the one hand and every kind of factionalism on the other; therefore the Senate and the People of Rome have dedicated this exceptional arch to his triumphs.
216. Di Girolamo, Tommaso. “Arch of Constantine.” May 2017.
217. Diagram showing the different dating for the reliefs on the Arch of Constantine. According to Ward-Perkins 1999. By Augurar, derivative work Marsyas, via Wikimedia Commons.
Decline of the Roman Empire
218. Political division in Europe, North Africa and Near East after the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD. By Guriezous (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons.
Diodorus Siculus, Library 34 - 35, 2, wealth was once counted an honor, and glory, authority, and power attended it, virtue lost 26
her influence, poverty was thought a disgrace, and a life of innocence was regarded as a life of mere ill nature. From the influence of riches, accordingly, luxury, [greed], pride came to prevail among the youth. They grew at once rapacious and [extravagant]. They undervalued what was their own; they set at naught modesty and continence; they lost all distinction between sacred and profane, and threw off all consideration and self-restraint. (David)
Because of the superabundant prosperity of those who exploited the products of this mighty island [Sicily], nearly all who had risen in wealth affected first a luxurious mode of living, then arrogance and insolence. As a result of all this, since both the maltreatment of the slaves and their estrangement from their masters increased at an equal rate, there was at last, when occasion offered, a violent outburst of hatred. So without a word of summons tens of thousands of slaves joined forces to destroy Tacitus, Agricola 32 their masters… (Oldfather)
Sallust, Conspiracy of Catiline 11
Galgacus’ (an ancient barbarian leader) speech to his soldiers
After Sulla had recovered the government by force of arms, everybody became robbers and plunderers. Some set their hearts on houses, some on lands… The whole period was one of debauched tastes and lawlessness. When
“Do you suppose that the Romans will be as brave in war as they are [immoral] in peace? … their own army, an army which, composed as it is of every variety of nations, is held together
by success and will be broken up by disaster. These Gauls and Germans, and, I blush to say, these Britons, who, though they lend their lives to support a stranger’s rule, have been its enemies longer than its subjects, you cannot imagine to be bound by [loyalty] and affection…All the incentives to victory are on our side. The Romans have no wives to kindle their courage; no parents to taunt them with flight, man have either no country or one far away. Be not frightened by the idle display, by the glitter of gold and of silver, which can neither protect nor wound. In the very ranks of the enemy we shall find our own forces. Britons will acknowledge their own cause; Gauls will remember past freedom; the other Germans will abandon them, as but lately did the Usipii. Behind them there is nothing to dread. The forts are ungarrisoned; the colonies in the hands of aged men; what with disloyal subjects and oppressive rulers….” (Church and Brodribb)
Pliny, Letters 10, 96 Pliny to the Emperor Trajan It is my practice, my lord, to refer to you all matters concerning which I am in doubt. For who can better give guidance to my hesitation or inform my ignorance? I have never participated in trials of Christians. I therefore do not know what offenses it is the practice to punish or investigate, and to what extent. And I have been not a little hesitant as to whether there should be any distinction on account of age or no difference between the very young and the more mature; whether pardon is to be granted for repentance, or, if a man has once been a Christian, it does him no good to have ceased to be one; whether the name itself, even without offenses, or only the offenses associated with the name are to be punished. Meanwhile, in the case of those who were denounced to me as Christians, I have observed the following procedure: I interrogated these as to whether they were Christians; those who confessed I interrogated a second and a third time, threatening them with punishment; those who persisted I ordered executed. For I had no doubt that, whatever the nature of their creed, stubbornness and inflexible obstinacy surely
deserve to be punished. There were others possessed of the same folly; but because they were Roman citizens, I signed an order for them to be transferred to Rome. Soon accusations spread, as usually happens, because of the proceedings going on, and several incidents occurred. An anonymous document was published containing the names of many persons. Those who denied that they were or had been Christians, when they invoked the gods in words dictated by me, offered prayer with incense and wine to your [the Emperor’s] image, which I had ordered to be brought for this purpose together with statues of the gods, and moreover cursed Christ--none of which those who are really Christians, it is said, can be forced to do-these I thought should be discharged…They all worshipped your image and the statues of the gods, and cursed Christ. I therefore postponed the investigation and hastened to consult you. For the matter seemed to me to warrant consulting you, especially because of the number involved. For many persons of every age, every rank, and also of both sexes are and will be endangered. For the contagion of this superstition has spread not only to the cities but also to the villages and farms. But it seems possible to check and cure it. It is certainly quite clear that the [Roman] temples, which had been almost deserted, have begun to be frequented, that the established religious rites, long neglected, are being resumed, and that from everywhere sacrificial animals are coming, for which until now very few purchasers could be found. Hence it is easy to imagine what a multitude of people can be reformed if an opportunity for repentance is afforded. (Melmoth)
Pliny, Letters 10, 97 Trajan to Pliny You observed proper procedure, my dear Pliny, in sifting the cases of those who had been denounced to you as Christians. For it is not possible to lay down any general rule to serve as a kind of fixed standard. They are not to be sought out; if they are denounced and proved guilty, they are to be punished, with this reservation, that whoever denies that he is a Christian and really proves it--that is, by worshiping our gods-even though he was under suspicion in the past, shall obtain pardon through repentance. But anonymously posted accusations ought to have no place in any prosecution. For this is both a
dangerous kind of precedent and out of keeping with the spirit of our age. (Melmoth)
release, we have decided that maximum prices of articles for sale must be established. (Lewis and Reinhold)
Herodian of Syria, History of the Emperors 2, 6ff. Anonymous, On Military Matters (368 AD) The following account describes how Didius Julianus bought the office of Emperor after the murder of Emperor Pertinax in 193 A.D.
When [ Julianus] came to the wall of the [military] camp, he called out to the troops and promised to give them just as much as they desired, for he had ready money and a treasure room full of gold and silver. About the same time too came Sulpicianus, who had also been consul and was prefect of Rome and father-in-law of Pertinax, to try to buy the power also. But the soldiers did not receive him, because they feared lest his connection with Pertinax might lead him to avenge him by some treachery. So [the soliders] lowered a ladder and brought Julianus into the fortified camp; for they would not open the gates, until they had made sure of the amount of the bounty they expected…he promised the troops as large a sum of money as they could ever expect to require or receive. The payment should be immediate, and he would at once have the cash brought over from his residence. Captivated by such speeches, and with such vast hopes awakened, the soldiers hailed Julianus as Emperor… (Davis)
Emperor Diocletian’s Price Edict (301 AD) Who does not know that wherever the common safety requires our armies to be sent, the profiteers insolently and covertly attack the public welfare, not only in villages and towns, but on every road? They charge extortionate prices for merchandise, not just fourfold or eightfold, but on such a scale that human speech cannot find words to characterize their profit and their practices. Indeed, sometimes in a single retail sale a soldier is stripped of his donative and pay. Moreover, the contributions of the whole world for the support of the armies fall as profits into the hands of these plunderers, and our soldiers appear to bestow with their own hands the rewards of their military service and their veterans’ bonuses upon the profiteers. The result is that the pillagers of the state itself seize day by day more than they know how to hold. Aroused justly and rightfully by all the facts set forth above, and in response to the needs of mankind itself, which appears to be praying for
The Corruption of the Provincial Governors Now in addition to these injuries, wherewith the arts of [greediness] afflict the provinces, comes the appalling greed of the provincial Governors, which is ruinous to the taxpayers’ interests. For these men, despising the respectable character of their office, think that they have been sent into the provinces as merchants…As for the Governors, the buying of recruits, the purchase of horses and grain, the monies intended for city walls – all these are regular sources of profit for them and are the pillage for which they long. Methods of Economy in Military Expenditure I have now described, as I intended, the distresses of the State, which should rightly be removed by Imperial measures. Let us turn now to the vast expenditure on the army which must be checked similarly, for this is what has thrown the entire system of tax payment into difficulties… Military Machines Above all it must be recognized that wild nations are pressing upon the Roman Empire and howling round about it everywhere, and treacherous barbarians, covered by natural positions, are assailing every frontier. (Thompson)
Ammianus Marcellinus, The History 31, 13, 3 - 7 and 12 (The Battle of Hadrianopolis, 378 A.D.) But when the barbarians, rushing on with their enormous host, beat down our horses and men, and left no spot to which our ranks could fall back to deploy, while they were so closely packed that it was impossible to escape by forcing a way through them…Then you might see the barbarian towering in his fierceness, hissing or shouting, fall with his legs pierced through, or his right hand cut off, sword and all, or his side transfixed, and still, in the last gasp of life, casting round him defiant glances.
Amidst all this great tumult and confusion our infantry were exhausted by toil and danger, until at last they had neither strength left to fight, nor spirits to plan anything… so that they were forced to content themselves with their drawn swords, which they thrust into the dense battalions of the enemy…seeing that every possibility of escape was cut off from them. The ground, covered with streams of blood, made their feet slip…At last one black pool of blood disfigured everything, and wherever the eye turned, it could see nothing but piled up heaps of dead, and lifeless corpses trampled on without mercy. Just when it first became dark, the emperor being among a crowd of common soldiers, as it was believed---for no one said either that he had seen him, or been near him---was mortally wounded with an arrow, and, very shortly after, died, though his body was never found. (Yonge)
of families not obscure, and liberally educated, flee to our enemies that they may no longer suffer the oppression of public persecution…And although they differ from the people to whom they flee in manner and in language; although they are unlike as regards the fetid odor of the barbarians’ bodies and garments, yet they would rather endure a foreign civilization among the barbarians than cruel injustice among the Romans. So they migrate to the Goths, or to the Bagaudes, or to some other tribe of the barbarians who are ruling everywhere, and do not regret their exile. For they would rather live free under an appearance of slavery than live as captives tinder an appearance of liberty. The name of Roman citizen, once so highly esteemed and so dearly bought, is now a thing that men repudiate and flee from… (Robinson)
Ammianus Marcellinus, History 14, Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths 35, 181 - 182 16 Rome is still looked upon as the queen of the earth, and the name of the Roman people is respected and venerated. But the magnificence of Rome is defaced by the inconsiderate [foolishness] of a few, who never recollect where they are born, but fall away into error and [immorality] as if a perfect immunity were granted to vice. Of these men, some, thinking that they can be handed down to immortality by means of statues, are eager after them, as if they would obtain a higher reward from brazen figures unendowed with sense than from a consciousness of upright and honorable actions; and they are even anxious to have them plated over with gold! (Davis)
When Attila’s brother Bleda, who ruled over a great part of the Huns, had been slain by Attila’s treachery, the latter united all the people under his own rule. Gathering also a host of the other tribes which he then held under his sway he sought to subdue the foremost nations of the world---the Romans and Visigoths. His army is said to have numbered 500,000 men. He was a man born into the world to shake the nations, the scourge of all lands, who in some way terrified all mankind by the dreadful rumors noised abroad concerning him. (Davis)
Salvian, Of God’s Government 5, 4 (c. 440 AD) [The Romans oppress each other with fees and exactions]…for the many are oppressed by the few, who regard public exactions as their own peculiar right, who carry on private [money making] under the guise of collecting the taxes. [Nay, the state has fallen upon such evil days that a man cannot be safe unless he is wicked]. Even those in a position to protest against the [unfairness] which they see about them dare not speak lest they make matters worse than before. So the poor are despoiled, the widows sigh, the orphans are oppressed, until many of them, born
Donation of Constantine The Donation of Constantine In the name of the holy and indivisible Trinity, the Father, namely, and the Son and the Holy Spirit. The emperor Caesar Flavius Constantine in Christ Jesus, the Lord I God our Saviour, one of that same holy Trinity,faithful merciful, supreme, beneficent, Alamannic, Gothic, Sarmatic, Germanic, Britannic, Hunic, pious, fortunate, victor and triumpher, always august: to the most holy and blessed father of fathers Sylvester, bishop of the city of and to all his successors the pontiffs , who are about to sit upon Rome and pope, the chair of St. Peter until the end of time - also to all the most reverend and of God beloved catholic bishops, subjected by this our imperial decree throughout the whole world to this same holy, Roman church, who have been established now and in all previous times-grace, peace, charitv, rejoicing, longsuffering, mercv, be with you all from God the Father almighty and from Jesus Christ his Son and from the Holy Ghost. Our most gracious serenity desires, in clear discourse, through the page of this our imperial decree, to bring to the knowledge of all the people in the whole world what things our Saviour and Redeemer the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the most High Father, has most wonderfully seen fit to bring about through his holy apostles Peter and Paul and by the intervention of our father Sylvester, the highest pontiff and the universal pope. First, indeed, putting forth, with the inmost confession of our heart, for the purpose of instructing the mind of all of you, our creed which we have learned from the aforesaid most blessed father and our confessor, Svlvester the universal pontiff; and then at length announcing the mercy of God which has been poured upon us. For we wish you to know, as we have signified through our former imperial decree, that we have gone away, from the worship of idols, from mute and deaf images made by hand, from devilish contrivances and from 196
all the pomps of Satan; and have arrived at the pure faith of the Christians, which is the true light and everlasting life. Believing, according to what he-that same one, our revered supreme father and teacher, the pontiff Sylvester - has taught us, in God the Father, the almighty maker of Heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible; and in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord God, through whom all things are created; and in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and vivifier of the whole creature. We confess these, the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, in such way that, in the perfect Trinity, there shall also be a fullness of divinity and a unity of power. The Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God; and these three are one in Jesus Christ. There are therefore three forms but one power. For God, wise in all previous time, gave forth from himself the word through which all future ages were to be born; and when, by that sole word of His wisdom, He formed the whole creation from nothing, He was with it, arranging all things in His mysterious secret place. Therefore, the virtues of the Heavens and all the material part of the earth having been perfected, by the wise nod of His wisdom first creating man of the clay of the earth in His own image and likeness, He placed him in a paradise of delight. Him the ancient serpent and envious enemy, the devil, through the most bitter taste of the forbidden tree, made an exile from these joys; and, be being expelled, did not cease in many ways to cast his poisonous darts; in order that, turning the human race from the way of truth to the worship of idols, he might persuade it, namely to worship the creature and not the creator; so that, through them (the idols), he might cause those whom he might be able to entrap in his snares to be burned with him in eternal punishment. But our Lord, pitying His creature, sending ahead His holy prophets, announcing through them the light of the future life-the coming,’ that
is, of His Son our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ-sent that same only begotten Son and Word of wisdom: He descending from Heaven on account of our salvation, being born of the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary, -the word was made flesh and d welt among us. He did not cease to be what He had been, but began to be what He had not been, perfect God and perfect man: as God, performing miracles; as man, sustaining human sufferings. We so learned Him to be very man and very God by the preaching of our father Sylvester, the supreme pontiff, that we can in no wise doubt that He was very, God and very man. And, having chosen twelve apostles, He shone with miracles before them and an innumerable multitude of people. We confess that this same Lord Jesus Christ fulfilled the law and the prophets; that He suffered, was crucified, on the third day arose from the dead according to the Scriptures; was received into Heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father. Whence He shall come to judge the quick and the dead, whose kingdom shall have no end. For this is our orthodox creed, placed before us by our most blessed father Sylvester, the supreme pontiff. We exhort, therefore, all people, and all the different nations, to hold, cherish and preach this faith; and, in the name of the Holy Trinity, to obtain the grace of baptism; and, with devout heart, to adore the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour, who with the Father and the Holy Spirit, lives and reigns through infinite ages;
219. Silvester I and Constantine. Fresco in San Silvestro Chapel at Santi Quattro Coronati, Rome (1247). By Ras67, via Wikimedia Commons.
whom Sylvester our father, the universal pontiff, preaches. For He himself, our Lord God, having pit on me a sinner, sent His holy apostles to visit us, and caused the light of his splendour to shine upon us. And do ye rejoice that I, having been withdrawn from the shadow, have come to the true light and to the knowledge of truth. For, at a time when a mighty and filthy leprosy had invaded all the flesh of my, body, and the care was administered of many physicians who came together, nor by that of any one of them did I achieve health: there came hither the priests of the Capitol, saving to me that a font should be made on the Capitol, and that I should fill this with the blood of innocent infants; and that, if I bathed in it while it was warm, I might be cleansed. And very many innocent infants having been brought together according to their words, when the sacrilegious priests of the pagans wished them to be slaughtered and the font to be filled with their blood: Our Serenity perceiving the tears of the mothers, I straightway abhorred the deed. And, pitying them, I ordered their own sons to be restored to them; and, giving them vehicles and gifts, sent them off rejoicing to their own. That day having passed therefore-the silence of night having come upon us-when the time of sleep had arrived, the apostles St. Peter and Paul appear, saying to me: “Since thou hast placed a term to thy vices, and hast abhorred the pouring forth of innocent blood, we are sent by, Christ the Lord our God, to give to thee a plan for recovering thy health. Hear, therefore, our warning, and do what we indicate to thee. Sylvester - the bishop of the city of Rome - on Mount Serapte, fleeing they persecutions, cherishes the darkness with his clergy in the caverns of the rocks. This one, when thou shalt have led him to thyself, will himself show thee a pool of piety; in which, when he shall have dipped thee for the third time, all that strength of the leprosy will desert thee. And, when this shall have been done, make this return to thy Saviour, that by thy order through the whole world the churches may be restored. Purify thyself, moreover, in this way, that, leaving all the superstition of 197
idols, thou do adore and cherish the living rising, clean, know that I was cleansed and true God -- who is alone and true -and that thou attain to the doing of His will. Rising, therefore, from sleep, straightway I did according to that which I had been advised to do by the holy apostles; and, having summoned that excellent and benignant father and our enlightener Sylvester the universal pope -I told him all the words that had been taught me by the holy apostles; and asked him who were those gods Peter and Paul. But he said that they were not really called gods, but apostles of our Saviour the Lord God Jesus Christ. And again we began to ask that same most blessed pope whether he had some express image of those apostles; so that, from their likeness, we might learn that they were those whom revelation bad shown to us. Then that same venerable father ordered the images of those same apostles to be shown by his deacon. And, when I had looked at them, and recognized, represented in those images, the countenances of those whom I had seen in my dream: with a great noise, before all my satraps, I confessed that they were those whom I had seen in my dream. Hereupon that same most blessed Sylvester our father, bishop of the city of Rome, imposed upon us a time of penance-within our Lateran palace, in the chapel, in a hair garment, -so that I might obtain pardon from our Lord God Jesus Christ our Saviour by vigils, fasts, and tears and prayers, for all things that had been impiously done and unjustly ordered by me. Then through the imposition of the hands of the clergy, I came to the bishop himself; and there, renouncing the pomps of Satan and his works, and all idols made by hands, of my own will before all the people I confessed: that I believed in God the Father almighty, maker of Heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible; and in Jesus Christ, His only Son our Lord, who was born of the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary. And, the font having been blessed, the wave of salvation purified me there with a triple immersion. For there 1, being placed at the bottom of the font, saw with my own eyes a band from Heaven touching me; whence 198
220. Baptism of Constantine. Fresco by Raphael, between 1520 and 1524, Sala di Costantino, Palazzi Pontifici, Vaticano. By Sailko, via Wikimedia Commons.
from all the squalor of leprosy. And, I being raised from the venerable font-putting on white raiment, be administered to me the sign of the seven-fold holy Spirit, the unction of the holy oil; and he traced the sign of the holy cross on my brow, saying: God seals thee with the seal of His faith in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, to signalize thy faith. All the clergy replied: “Amen.” The bishop added, “peace be with thee.” And so, on the first day after receiving the mystery of the holy baptism, and after the cure of my body from the squalor of the leprosy, I recognized that there was no other God save the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit; whom the most blessed Sylvester the pope doth preach; a trinity in one, a unity in three. For all the gods of the nations, whom I have worshipped up to this time, are proved to be demons; works made by the hand of men; inasmuch as that same venerable father told to us most clearly how much power in Heaven and on earth He, our Saviour, conferred on his apostle St. Peter, when finding him faithful after questioning him He said: “Thou art Peter, and upon this rock (petrani) shall I build My Church, and the gates of bell shall not prevail against it.” Give heed ye powerful, and incline the ear of your hearts to that which the good Lord and Master added to His disciple, saying: and I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of Heaven; and whatever thou shalt bind on earth shall
be bound also in Heaven, and whatever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed also in Heaven.” This is very wonderful and glorious, to bind and loose on earth and to have it bound and loosed in Heaven.
the apostle, extending his neck for Christ, was crowned with martyrdom. There, until the end, let them seek a teacher, where the holy body of the teacher lies; and there, prone and humiliated, let them perform I the service of the heavenly king, God our And when, the blessed Sylvester preaching Saviour Jesus Christ, where the proud were them, I perceived these things, and learned accustomed to serve under the rule of an that by the kindness of St. Peter himself I had earthly king. been entirely restored to health: I together with all our satraps and the whole senate Meanwhile we wish all the people, of and the nobles and all the Roman people, all the races and nations throughout who are subject to the glory of our rule the whole world, to know: that we have -considered it advisable that, as on earth constructed within our Lateran palace, he (Peter) is seen to have been constituted to the same Saviour our Lord God Jesus vicar of the Son of God, so the pontiffs, who Christ, a church with a baptistry from are the representatives of that same chief of the foundations. And know that we have the apostles, should obtain from us and our carried on our own shoulders from its empire the power of a supremacy greater foundations, twelve baskets weighted with than the earthly clemency of our imperial earth, according to the number of the holy serenity is seen to have had conceded to apostles. Which holy church we command it,-we choosing that same prince of the to be spoken of, cherished, venerated and apostles, or his vicars, to be our constant preached of, as the head and summit of all intercessors with God. And, to the extent of the churches in the whole world-as we have our earthly imperial power, we decree that commanded through our other imperial his holy Roman church shall be honoured decrees. We have also constructed the with veneration; and that, more than our churches of St. Peter and St. Paul, chiefs of empire and earthly throne, the most sacred the apostles, which we have enriched with seat of St. Peter shall be gloriously exalted; gold and silver; where also, placing their we giving to it the imperial power, and most sacred bodies with great honour, we dignity of glory, and vigour and honour. have constructed their caskets of electrum, against which no force of the elements And we ordain and decree that he shall have prevails. And we have placed a cross of the supremacy as well over the four chief purest gold and precious gems on each seats Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople of their caskets, and fastened them with and Jerusalem, as also over all the churches golden keys. And on these churches for of God in the whole world. And he who for the endowing of divine services we have the time being shall be pontiff of that holy conferred estates, and have enriched them Roman church shall be more exalted than, with different objects; and, through our and chief over, all the priests of the whole sacred imperial decrees, we have granted world; and, according to his judgment, them our gift of land in the East as well everything which is to be provided for the as in the West; and even on the northern service of God or the stability of the faith and southern coast;-namely in Judea, of the Christians is to be administered. It is Greece, Asia, Thrace, Africa and Italy and indeed just, that there the holy law should the various islands: under this condition have the seat of its rule where the founder indeed, that all shall be administered by the of holy laws, our Saviour, told St. Peter to hand of our most blessed father the pontiff take the chair of the apostleship; where also, Sylvester and his successors. sustaining the cross, he blissfully took the cup of death and appeared as imitator of his For let all the people and the nations of the Lord and Master; and that there the people races in the whole world rejoice with us; should bend their necks at the confession of we exhorting all of you to give unbounded Christ’s name, where their teacher, St. Paul thanks, together with us, to our Lord and 199
Saviour Jesus Christ. For He is God in Heaven above and on earth below, who, visiting us through His holy apostles, made us worthy to receive the holy sacrament of and health of body. In return for which, to those same holy apostles, my masters, St. Peter and St. Paul; and, through them, also to St. Sylvester, our father,-the chief pontiff and universal pope of the city of Rome,and to all the pontiffs his successors, who until the end of the world shall be about to sit in the seat of St. Peter: we concede and, by this present, do confer, our imperial Lateran palace, which is preferred to, and ranks above, all the palaces in the whole world; then a diadem, that is, the crown of our head, and at the same time the tiara; and, also, the shoulder band,-that is, the collar that usually surrounds our imperial neck; and also the purple mantle, and crimson tunic, and all the imperial raiment; and the same rank as those presiding over the imperial cavalry; conferring also the imperial sceptres, and, at the same time, the spears and standards; also the banners and different imperial ornaments, and all the advantage of our high imperial position, and the glory of our power.
as our senate uses shoes with goats’ hair, so they may be distinguished by gleaming linen; in order that, as the celestial beings, so the terrestrial may be adorned to the glory of God. Above all things, moreover, we give permission to that same most holy one our father Sylvester, bishop of the city of Rome and pope, and to all the most blessed pontiffs who shall come after him and succeed him in all future times-for the honour and glory of Jesus Christ our Lord,-to receive into that great Catholic and apostolic church of God, even into the number of the monastic clergy, any one from our senate, who, in free choice, of his own accord, may wish to become- a cleric; no one at all presuming thereby to act in a haughty manner.
We also decreed this, that this same venerable one our father Sylvester, the supreme pontiff, and all the pontiffs his successors, might use and bear upon their heads-to the Praise of God and for the honour of St. Peter-the diadem; that is, the crown which we have granted him from our own head, of purest gold and precious gems. But he, the most holy pope, did not at all allow that crown of gold to be used And we decree, as to those most reverend over the clerical crown which he wears to men, the clergy who serve, in different the glory of St. Peter; but we placed upon orders, that same holy Roman church, his most holy head, with our own hands, a that they shall have the same advantage, tiara of gleaming splendour representing distinction, power and excellence by the the glorious resurrection of our Lord. glory of which our most illustrious senate And, holding the bridle of his horse, out is adorned; that is, that they shall be made of reverence for St. Peter we performed for patricians and consuls, -we commanding him the duty of groom; decreeing that all that they shall also be decorated with the the pontiffs his successors, and they alone, other imperial dignities. And even as may use that tiara in processions. the imperial soldiery, so, we decree, shall the clergy of the holy Roman church be In imitation of our own power, in order that adorned. And I even as the imperial power for that cause the supreme pontificate may is adorned by different offices-by the not deteriorate, but may rather be adorned distinction, that is, of chamberlains, and with power and glory even more than is the door keepers, and all the guards, -so we dignity of an earthly rule: behold we-giving wish the holy Roman church to be adorned. over to the oft-mentioned most blessed And, in order that the pontifical glory may pontiff, our father Sylvester the universal shine forth more fully, we decree this also: pope, as well our palace, as has been said, as that the clergy of this same holy Roman also the city of Rome and all the provinces, church may use saddle cloths of linen of districts and cities of Italy or of the western the whitest colour; namely that their horses regions; and relinquishing them, by our may be adorned and so be ridden, and that, inviolable gift, to the power and sway of himself or the pontiffs his successors-do 200
decree, by this our godlike charter and imperial constitution, that it shall be (so) arranged; and do concede that they (the palaces, provinces etc.) shall lawfully remain with the holy Roman church.
would preserve inviolably all its provisions, and would leave in our commands to all the emperors our successors to preserve them, we did hand it over, to be enduringly and happily possessed, to our most blessed father Sylvester the supreme pontiff and Wherefore we have perceived it to be universal pope, and, through him, to all the fitting that our empire and the power of pontiffs his successors -God our Lord and our kingdom should be transferred and our Saviour Jesus Christ consenting. changed to the regions of the East; and that, in the province of Byzantium, in a And the imperial subscription: May the most fitting place, a city should be built in Divinity preserve you for many years, oh our name; and that our empire should there most holy and blessed fathers. be established. For, where the supremacy of priests and the bead of the Christian Given at Rome on the third day before the religion has been established by a heavenly Kalends of April, our master the august ruler, it is not just that there an earthly ruler Flavius Constantine, for the fourth time, and Galligano, most illustrious men, being should have jurisdiction. consuls. (Henderson) We decree, moreover, that all these things which, through this our imperial charter and through other godlike commands, we have established and confirmed, shall remain uninjured and unshaken until the end of the world. Wherefore, before the living God, who commanded us to reign, and in the face of his terrible judgment, we conjure, through this our imperial decree, all the emperors our successors, and all our nobles, the satraps also and the most glorious senate, and all the people in the whole world now and in all times previously subject to our rule: that no one of them, in any way allow himself to oppose or disregard, or in any way seize, these things which, by our imperial sanction, have been conceded to the holy Roman church and to all its pontiffs. If anyone, moreover, -which we do not believe - prove a scorner or despiser in this matter, he shall be subject and bound over to eternal damnation; and shall feel that the holy chiefs of the apostles of God, Peter and Paul, will be opposed to him in the present and in the future life. And, being burned in the nethermost hell, he shall perish with the devil and all the impious. The page, moreover, of this our imperial decree, we, confirming it with our own hands, did place above the venerable body of St. Peter chief of the apostles; and there, promising to that same apostle of God that we 201
Illustrations Cover Bronze statue of She-Wolf. 600 BC. Capitoline Museums, Rome. Adapted by Helen Pope.
Introduction 1. Map of Rome from Platner, S.B. The Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome. 1911. By Joris, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Topography_and_ Monuments_of_Ancient_Rome.jpg 2. Quote on history by Theodore Roosevelt. “History Quotes The More YOu Know About The Past The Better Prepared You ARe For The Future.” Picsmine, 2016, picsmine.com/47-best-historyquotes-sayings-pictures/history-quotes-the-more-you-know-about-the-past-the-better-prepared-youare-for-the-future 3. Pope, Helen. “St Stephen’s students excavating in Cetamura, Chianti.” May 2016. 4. Epitaph of Quintius Comicus. Capitoline Museums, Rome. Thayer, Bill. “I Lived With Her Thirty Years.” LacusCurtius, 26 Jan. 2004, penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/ Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/museums/Musei_Capitolini/epitaphs/Quinctius_comicus.html 5. Dog mosaic from House of Orpheus, Pompeii. National Archaeological Museum Naples. Nguyen, Marie.Lan. “Casa Di Orfeo.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Sept. 2011, it.wikipedia. org/wiki/Casa_di_Orfeo#/media/File:Cave_canem_MAN_Napoli_Inv110666.jpg 6. “Acquedotto Claudio.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Mar. 2009, it.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Acquedotto_Claudio#/media/File:Aqua_Claudia_01.jpg 7. Roman pottery - foot-shaped lamp. “Roman Pottery Foot-Shaped Lamp.” Wikimedia Commons, 26 Aug. 2010. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_pottery_foot-shaped_lamp. JPG 8. Denarius of Julius Caesar, 49 BC. “CaesarElephant.” Wikimedia Commons, 8 Nov. 2015. By Alexandar.R.~commonswiki, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:CaesarElephant.jpg
Monarchy 9. Aeneas leaves Troy with his father Anchises and son Ascanius. By Unknown - Ottův slovník naučný, vol. 1, p. 541, Public Domain, 1 Jan. 1888, via Wikimedia Commons.commons.wikimedia. org/w/index.php?curid=49838108 10. Woodcut for German translation of Giovanni Boccaccio’s De mulieribus claris, ca. 1474. “Woodcut Illustration of Ascanius Greeting His Stepbrother Silvius (Left) and Lavinia with Her Newborn Son Silvius (Right) - Penn Provenance Project.” Wikimedia Commons, 18 Nov. 2015, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Woodcut_illustration_of_Ascanius_greeting_his_stepbrother_ Silvius_(left)_and_Lavinia_with_her_newborn_son_Silvius_(right)_-_Penn_Provenance_Project. jpg 11. Antoninus Pius, 140 A.D., Rome. AE As. Mars seducing Vestal Virgin Rhea Silvia. McManus, Barbara. “Copper Coin (as) Issued by Antoninus Pius.” Index of Images, Roman Coins: Empire: Barbara F. McManus, The VRoma Project, 2006, vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images/ apcoinmarsrhea.jpg 12. Floor mosaic from Frikya, Maarat an-Numan Museum (Sean Leatherbury/Manar al-Athar). asorblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/image-4_MAA22964_008_IMG_3572.jpg 13. Romulus and Remus, disputing over the founding of Rome, consult the augurs, engraving by Giambattista Fontana, 1575, Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco. art.famsf.org 14. Hercules killing Cacus, engraving by Sebald Beham. “Hercules Killing the Fire-Breathing Cacus, Engraving by Sebald Beham (1545).” Wikimedia Commons, 1 Jan. 2006. commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/User:Nick_Michael/Contributions#/media/File:Hercules_killing_Cacus_at_his_Cave.jpg 15. Elevation San Clemente, Rome. Thiery, Antonio. Cipax. “S.Clemente e i SS.Quattro Coronati.” S.Clemente e i SS.Quattro Coronati., 23 Oct. 2003. www.antoniothiery.it/s-clemente%20
e%20ss.4%20coronati.htm 16. Aeneas’ family tree from Cunliffe, Barry. Rome and her Empire. Bodley Head, London, 1978. 17. The journey of Aeneas. “Where Did Aeneas Travel after Fleeing Troy?” Where Did Aeneas Travel after Fleeing Troy?, https://Vanrossenclassicalstudies.wikispaces.com/, 2017, vanrossenclassicalstudies.wikispaces.com/Where+did+Aeneas+travel+after+fleeing+Troy%3F 18. Map of the Seven Hills of Rome. “Seven Hills of Rome.” Wikimedia Commons, 19 Apr. 2008. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Seven_Hills_of_Rome.svg 19. Map of the cloacas of Rome. Albright, Ann. “Main Drains from Ancient Rome.” Tiber River - Destroying and Invigorating the City for Millennia, Engineering Rome Wikispaces, 3 Dec. 2015, engineeringrome.wikispaces.com/Tiber+River+-+Destroying+and+Invigorating+the+City+for+Mil lennia 20. Cloaca Maxima, Domitian tract. sotterraneidiroma.it 21. Rape of the Sabine Women. Republican coin, 89 BC, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome. McManus, Barbara. “Sabines Coin.” The VRoma Project, 2004. vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images/ sabinescoin.jpg. 22. The Intervention of the Sabine Women, Jacques-Louis David, 1799. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Web Gallery of Art. Public domain. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Intervention_of_the_Sabine_ Women 23. The Rape of the Sabines: The Invasion, Charles Christian Nahl, 1871. Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento. Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Charles_Christian_ Nahl_1871,_The_Rape_Of_The_Sabines_-_The_Invasion.jpg 24. Mosaic of chariot team in procession. Piazza Armerina. 4th century AD. VRomaProject. roma.org/images/mcmanus_images/charioteerpa.jpg 25. The Lupercalian Festival in Rome: Cupid and personifications of Fertility encounter the Luperci dressed as dogs and goats. Brown pen drawing by circle of Adam Elsheimer (1578 – 1610), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Circle_of_Adam_Elsheimer_The_ Lupercalian_Festival_in_Rome.jpg 26. Map of Rome in 753 BC. By Cristiano64 derivative work: Richardprins, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ARome_in_753_BC.png 27. Romulus’ hut on the Palatine Hill in the imperial period. Gatteschi Collection of Roman Architecture and Reconstructive Drawings of Imperial Rome, 1900 - 1935. The Digital Humanities Center (DHC) of the American Academy in Rome Gatteschi.131. staging.idra.info/photos/ gatteschi-131 28. Villanovan culture (8th century BC) cinerary hut-urn, showing the likely shape of Romulus’ Hut in Rome: a simple mud-and-straw shelter. Walters Art Museum, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AItalic_-_Urn_in_the_Shape_of_a_Hut_and_a_Door_-_ Walters_482312.jpg 29. Denarius of L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus, 89 BC. Obverse: King Tatius right. Reverse: Tarpeia about to be crushed by the shields of two soldiers. By Diomede, via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATarpeia_coins.jpg 30. Plan of the Capitoline Hill. VromaProject. vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images/ capitolinehill3.jpg 31. Ground plan and reconstruction of Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. By Studyblue, ARTH 101. StudyGuide (2014-15 Hopkins). studyblue.com/notes/note/n/arth-101-study-guide-201415-hopkins/deck/12492940. 32. A house altar showing Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three of their daughters. 18th dynasty, reign of Akhenaten, 1340 BC. Tell el-Amarna, Egypt. Egyptian Museum of Berlin. Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Akhenaten,_Nefertiti_and_their_children.jpg 33. Cyrus cylinder, 539 BC. British Museum London. Trustees of the British Museum. britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details. aspx?objectId=327188&partId=1 34. Head of a bearded man. Glass, 4th–3rd centuries BC. Found in the Punic necropolis of Carthage, Tunisia. Musée du Louvre, Paris. By Jastrow, Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/File:Head_man_Carthage_Louvre_AO3783.jpg 35. View of the Acropolis in Athens. By Christophe Meneboeuf [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3AView_of_the_Acropolis_Athens_(pixinn.net).jpg
36. Bronze liver of Piacenza. late 2nd century BC, Municipal Museum of Piacenza. Creative Commons. www.ancient.eu/uploads/images/6300.jpg?v=1485682765 37. Detail of the Alexander mosaic, 100 BC. House of the Faun, Pompeii. National Archaeological Museum Naples. Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:BattleofIssus333BC-mosaic-detail1.jpg 38. Lucretia at the loom by Willem de Poorter, 1633. Musée des Augustins de Toulouse. Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Poorter_Lucr%C3%A8ce_(2004_1_379). jpg 39. The Death of Lucretia by Gavin Hamilton, 1763 - 1767, Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection. Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gavin_Hamilton_-_ The_Death_of_Lucretia_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg 40. Capitoline Brutus, 4th-3rd centuries BC. Capitoline Museums. By Jastrow, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Capitoline_Brutus_Musei_Capitolini_MC1183.jpg
Republic 41. Map of Roman roads in Italy. By NielsF, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/File:Map_of_Roman_roads_in_Italy.png 42. Miliarum Aureum (Golden Milestone), Roman Forum. By Longbow4u, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RomaForoRomanoMiliariumAureum01.JPG 43. Cross section of Roman road. By PocklingtonDan, via Wikimedia Commons. en.wikipedia. org/wiki/File:Roman_road_cross-sectional_diagram_for_typical_via_glareata_or_via_munita.xcf 44. Groma. By MatthiasKabel (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/File:Groma_01.jpg 45. Asclepius (Giustini type) found in Rome, Tiber Island, second century AD, Roman copy of Greek original from first quarter of fourth century BC. National Archaeological Museum Naples. By Jastrow, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Asclepios_MAN_Napoli_ Inv6360.jpg 46. Asclepius’ staff, Tiber Island. By Joris, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/File:Carving_of_the_snake_-_Prow_of_Tiber_Island.JPG 47. Anatomical votive reliefs. The Votives Project. thevotivesproject.files.wordpress.com/2015/04/ asclepius-temple.jpg 48. Relief showing a healing by the hero Amphiaraos (left) and a snake (right), found at Oropos, near Athens, 4th century BC. Holy Land Photos. holylandphotos.org/browse. asp?s=1,4,11,28,74,95&img=GSPLCR06 49. Comparison between a true arch (left) and a corbel arch (right). By Anton~commonswiki, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AArc_truefalserp.jpg 50. Schematic illustration of an arch. 1. Keystone 2. Voussoir 3. Back 4. Impost 5. Intrados 6. Rise 7. Clear span or bay 8. Abutment. By MesserWoland, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/File%3AArch_illustration.svg 51. From an arch to a barrel vault to a dome with a groint vault. By Steven C., Art History Final on www.studyblue.com. www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/art-history-final/deck/16195413 52. Drawing of the site of the Pons Sublicius. Illustration of Rome during the time of the Republic, published by Friedrich Polack in 1896. By Editor at Large, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:City_of_Rome_during_time_of_republic.jpg 53. Horatius Cocles defending the Sublicius bridge. Coin from the reign of Antoninus Pius (138 – 161 AD). Fröhner, W. Les Médaillons de l’Empire romain depuis la Règne d’Auguste jusqu’à Priscus Attalle, 1878. blogs.kent.ac.uk. blogs.kent.ac.uk/lucius-romans/2016/05/15/ides-of-may-ad-73-thevestals-the-tiber-and-the-bridge 54. Horatius Cocles defending the bridge. Painting by Charles Le Brun, c.1642/1643. By DcoetzeeBot, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ALe_Brun%2C_ Charles_-_Horatius_Cocles_defending_the_Bridge_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg 55. 3D model of a Roman bridge under construction using a cofferdam. Exhibition “Artifex. Ingeniería romana en España”, Archaeological Museum, Seville, 2005. By Hispa (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maqueta_construccion_puente.jpg
56. Reconstruction drawing of the Pons Aemilius (Ponto Rotto). From Bender, Herman. Rom und römisches Leben im Alterthum. 1879. By Sindala, via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bender_-_Pons_Aemilius.JPG 57. Weustink, Inge. “Inscription on Pons Fabricius, 62 BC.” August 2017. 58. Dream of Constantine I and battle of the Milvian bridge. Homilies of Grégory de Nazianzus (BnF MS grec 510), folio 355. AD 879-882. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. By Neuceu, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dream_of_Constantine_Milvius_BnF_MS_Gr510_fol440.jpg 59. The Battle of Milvian Bridge by Giulio Romano. 1520 – 1524. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City. By Scewing, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Battle_of_the_Milvian_ Bridge_by_Giulio_Romano,_1520-24.jpg 60. Statue of Hercules and Cacus by Baccio Bandinelli, 1525 – 1534. Piazza della Signoria, Florence. By Jebulon, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHercule_et_ Cacus_Bandinelli_Florence_Signoria.jpg 61. Weustink, Inge. “Cippus of emperor Claudius marking the pomerium, Via del Pellegrino, Rome.” August 2017. 62. Personification of the Tiber. Cast of the Mattei sarcophagus (ca. 220 AD), Museo della Civiltà romana. By Giovanni Dall’Orto (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3A0457_-_Roma%2C_Museo_d._civilt%C3%A0_romana_-_Sarcofago_ Mattei_Foto_Giovanni_Dall’Orto%2C_12-Apr-2008.jpg 63. Opus poligonale in the theatre of Pietrabbondante, Molise, Italy. By Massimo Baldi, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3AItalyPietrabbondanteTeatroOpPoligonale.jpg 64. Opus quadratum. a) stretchers b) headers and stretchers. By M.violante, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AOpus_quadratum.svg 65. Weustink, Inge. “Servian Wall in Via di Sant’Anselmo, Aventine.” August 2017. 66. Opus caementicium. Taken from www.romanoimpero.com. www.romanoimpero. com/2012/03/cementum-romano.html 67. Opus incertum, opus reticulatum, opus testaceum. By Isabel A., Roman Urbanism, www. studyblue.com. https://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/roman-urbanism/deck/3568701 68. Map of Rome with Roma quadrata, Servian Wall and Aurelian Wall. By Joris1919, via Wikimedia. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plan_Rome-_Aureliaanse_Muur.png 69. Weustink, Inge. “Servian Wall in Piazza Albania, Aventine.” August 2017. 70. Map of Rome with Servian Wall and its gates from Smith, William. The student’s manual of ancient geography, based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography. J. Murray, London, 1861. By Internet Archive Book Images, via Wikimedia Commons. commons .wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3AThe_student’s_manual_of_ancient_geography%2C_based_upon_the_Dictionary_of_ Greek_and_Roman_geography_(1861)_(14768984432).jpg 71. Weustink, Inge. “Pyramid of Caius Cestius and Porta San Paolo, one of the gates in the Aurelian Wall.” August 2017. 72. The foundations of the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus in cappellaccio. Capitoline Museums. By Joris, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATemple_ Jupiter_Optimus_Maximus.JPG 73. Basalt pavement on the Via Appia, near Quarto Miglio. Kleuske at Dutch Wikipedia, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AVia_appia.jpg 74. Weustink, Inge. “Temple of Hercules Victor with columns in Pentelic marble, Forum Boarium, Rome” August 2017. 75. Weustink, Inge. “Different kinds of marble, Circus Maximus.” November 2016. 76. Weustink, Inge. “Concrete dome of Pantheon, Rome, 126 AD; in the foreground Bernini’s elephant and obelisk, 1667.” August 2017. 77. Weustink, Inge. “Brick remains of Baths of Caracalla.” May 2016. 78. Stamp on a hypocaust brick, used by the third cohort of Roman citizens from Thrace: [Coh(ors)] III Thr(acum) c(ivium) R(omanorum). Museum Quintana, Kürzing, Germany. By Wolfgang Sauber, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMuseum_ Quintana_-_Ziegelstempel.jpg 79. Orders of columns. Institute of Historic Building Conservation, Conservation Wiki. By Editor, www.designingbuildings.co.uk. www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/File:Columns.jpg
80. Greek temple types. By Napoleon Vier; vectorization by B. Jankuloski, via Wikimedia Commons. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Ancient_Greek_temples#/media/File:Greek_temples.svg 81. Etruscan temple type. By FinnWikiNo, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/File%3AEtruskisk_tempel.svg 82. Elevation and ground plan of Temple of Hercules Victor, Forum Boarium, Rome. Claridge, Amanda. Rome. An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 255. 83. Elevation and ground plan of Temple of Portunus, Forum Boarium, Rome. Fletcher, Banister. A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. Sixth edition, rewritten and enlarged. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1921. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. quod.lib. umich.edu/lib/colllist. quod.lib.umich.edu/h/hiaaic/x-bf143abc/bf143abc 84. Opus signinum floor, Kerkouane, Tunisia. By Rais67, via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AKerkouane_opus_signinum.jpg 85. Opus tesselatum. Pavement mosaic with a duck, 3rd century AD, from the area of the Monte della Giustizia in Piazza della Stazione Termini. National Museum of Rome – Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. By Marie-Lan Nguyen, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3AMosaic_ducks_Massimo.jpg 86. Opus vermiculatum. Central panel of a floor mosaic with a cat and two ducks, first quarter of the 1st century BC, from the triclinium of a suburban villa in the Cecchignola area. National Museum of Rome – Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. By Marie-Lan Nguyen, via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMosaic_cat_ducks_Massimo_Inv124137.jpg 87. Opus sectile floor from Herculaneum. By AlMare, via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHerculaneum_Floor.jpg 88. Cosmatesque floor from Basilica of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. By Manfred Heyde, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASanta_Croce_in_Gerusalemme_ Kosmaten_2009.jpg 89. Map of the Roman Forum in the Republic from The Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome (1904). Original diagram by Samuel Ball Platner, scan by Felix Just, S.J., alterations by Amadscientist/Mark James Miller, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3APlatner-forum-republic-96_recontructed_color.jpg 90. Comitium and Lapis Niger. The VRoma Project. www.vroma.org/~jruebel/lapis-shrine.jpg 91. Lapis Niger inscription. From www.imperioromano.com. By Paulusgreat, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Textlapis.jpg 92. Ficus, olea, vitis: fig-tree, olive-tree and grapevine in the Forum. By Cassius Ahenobarbus (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ficus-olea-vitis.jpg 93. Silver denarius with depiction of Nero and Temple of Vesta. Rome mint, struck circa 65-66 AD. Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=56834 94. Plans of the Temple of Vesta in Tivoli and of the Temple of Vesta in Rome. From Morgan, M.H. Vitruvius. The Ten Books on Architecture. Oxford University Press, 1914. hellenicaworld.com/ Greece/Literature/Vitruvius/en/Architecture.html 95. Statue of Vestal Virgin. Atrium Vestae, Roman Forum. By NoJin (Own work), Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ARoman-sculpture%2C-House-of-the-Vestals%2CForum-Romanum%2C-Rome-(6).jpg 96. Portrait of a woman as a Vestal Virgin by Angelica Kauffman, 1770s. Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid. By Mattis, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3AAngelica_Kauffmann%2C_Portrait_of_a_Woman_as_a_Vestal_Virgin%2C_1780-1785_02. jpg 97. Detail of inscription on architrave of Temple of Saturn, Roman Forum. By Cassius Ahenobarbus, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Temple-saturneinscription.jpg 98. Pair of Roman statuettes depicting the Dioscuri as horsemen, with their characteristic skullcaps, 3rd century AD. Metropolitan Museum of Art. By Ad Meskens (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Metropolitan_Castor_Pollux_Roman_3C_AD.jpg 99. Aureus of Nerva and Concordia. Rome, 97 AD. By Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. www. cngcoins.com. By Steerpike, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nerva_ Aureus_Concordia.png 100. Bust of Gaius Julius Caesar. Farnese Collection. National Archaeological Museum Naples. By
Marcus Cyron, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABust_of_Gaius_ Iulius_Caesar_in_Naples.jpg 101. The Assassination of Julius Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini, 1804 – 1805. Galleria Nazionale D’Arte Moderna, Roma. By Hohum, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3AVincenzo_Camuccini_-_La_morte_di_Cesare.jpg 102. Reconstruction of the Temple of Divus Iulius according to the interpretation of the archaeological area by Christian Hülsen, Bretschneider und Regenberg, 1904. By Public Domain Book: Christian Hülsen, Bretschneider und Regenberg, 1904, via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHuelsenRecTemplumDiviIuli.jpg 103. Lacus Iuturnae (Spring of Juturna). By Michiel1972, via Wikimedia Commons. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lacus_ Juturnae#/media/File:BronJutarna.jpg 104. Marble relief depicting Marcus Curtius. By Lalupa, via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ACampitelli_-_Campidoglio_Tabularium_-_Lacus_Curtius_1020814_-_ cropped.jpg 105. Layout of the different phases of the Curia, Comitium and Rostra with Lapis Niger. By Mark Miller, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ACuria_Hostilia%2C_ Comitium%2C_Rostra_and_Lapis_Niger_layout.jpg 106. La Justice, painting by Bernard d’Agesci (1757 – 1828), Musée Bernard d’Agesci in Niort, France. By Jeffdelonge (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3ABernard_d’Agesci_La_ Justice.jpg 107. Coin from Hadrian struck between 125 and 128 AD with a clear representation of the Rostra ad Divi Iuli and the Temple of Divus Iulius during a speech by Hadrian himself. By MjMenuet111 from Public Domain Book: Christian Hülsen, Bretschneider und Regenberg, 1904, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHadrianCoin125128ADTemplumDiviIuli.jpg 108. Replica of the rostral column of Caius Diulius that once stood in the Roman Forum celebrating the naval Battle of Mylae (260 BC). Museo della civiltà romana, EUR. By Lalupa (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMCR_-_colonna_ rostrata_di_C_Duilio_1150130.JPG 109. Map of the Roman Forum, 200 BC. By Hpflanzer (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AForum_Romanum_um_200.jpg 110. A derivative work by Amadscientist of a computer-generated 3D model of the Basilica Aemilia by Lasha Tskhondia, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABasilica_ Aemilia_3D.jpg 111. Bronze tag for a dog or possibly a slave, inscribed with information about return, 4th century AD, British Museum London. Trustees of the British Museum. www.britishmuseum.org/research/ collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=463968&partId=1 112. Roman matron and two slaves. Baths of Sidi Ghrib, Tunisia. Bardo Museum, Carthage. By Fabien Dany - www.fabiendany.com, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3ACarthage_museum_mosaic_1.jpg 113. Marble relief with Roman collared slaves from Smyrna, Turkey. Collection of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. By Jun, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3ARoman_collared_slaves_-_Ashmolean_Museum.jpg 114. The last events of the Third Servile War in 71 BC, where the army of Spartacus broke the siege by Marcus Licinius Crassus’ legions. By Cethegus, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/File:Last_battle.gif 115. Bust of Marcus Licinius Crassus. Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek, Kopenhagen. By Diagram Lajard, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ACrassus_Kopenhagen.jpg 116. Spartacus statue by Denis Foyatier. 1830. Musée du Louvre, Paris. By Urban, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spartacus_statue_by_Denis_Foyatier.jpg 117. Roman bone dice from Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester). Reading Museum. By BabelStone, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ARoman_bone_dice_from_Silchester. jpg 118. Map showing the beginning of the civil war between Caesar and the Optimates, 49 BC. From Ravenna to Corfinium. By Cristiano64, via Wikimedia Commons. it.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Dal_Rubicone_a_Corfinio_49_aC.png 119. Map of Rome with projects of Caesar. Drawing: Rodica Reif and Richard A. Abrahamson. Projects initiated: 1: Forum Romanum; 2: Forum Iulium; 3: Saepta Julia; 4: Naumachia Caesaris 5:
Theater near river; 6: Horti Caesaris. Projects initiated (location unknown): Temple of Clementia Caesaris; Tumulus Juliae in Campus Martius; Temporary Stadium in Campus Martius; Hunting Theater in Campus Martius. Restoration Projects: 7: Basilica Aemilia; 8: Circus Maximus. Projects Planned: Alteration to Tiber; Temple to Mars; Temple Libertas; Temple of Concordia Nova. Taken from Favro, Diane. The Urban Image of Augustan Rome. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 120. Map of Imperial Forums. From Nordisk familjebok, Swedish encyclopedia (1876-1957). By Eirik, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Foramap.jpg 121. Plan of Temple of Venus Genetrix, Forum of Caesar. By Cassius Ahenobarbus, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATemple_venus_genitrix_plan.png 122. Detail of capitals and frieze decoration of Temple of Venus Genetrix, Forum of Caesar. By MM, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3ATVenereGenitriceForoCesareTrabeazione%26Capitelli.JPG 123. Frieze with amorini (renovation by Trajan, 113 AD), Temple of Venus Genetrix, Forum of Caesar. By Sailko, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AFregio_ traianeo_con_amorini%2C_dall’architrave_del_primo_ordine_interno_della_cella_del_tempio_di_ venere_genitrice%2C_nel_foro_di_cesare%2C_113_dc%2C_01.JPG 124. Silver denarius of Julius Caesar, February-March 44 BC. Obverse: Julius Caesar with laureate head and crescent behind; reverse: Venus standing, holding Victoria and sceptre. Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., www.cngcoins.com. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ARSC_0022_-_transparent_background.png
Empire 125. a. (left) Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century AD, original from the Villa of Livia at Prima Porta. Chiaramonti Museum, Braccio Nuovo, Vatican Museums. By Sourfm, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AStatue-Augustus.jpg 125. b. (right) Polychrome version of the Augustus of Prima Porta reconstructed for the Tarraco Viva 2014 Festival. By Marionaaragay (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAugust_Tarraco_Viva.jpg 126. Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, late Augustan period, from the Via Labicana, Rome. Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. By Marie-Lan Nguyen (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAugust_Labicana_Massimo_Inv56230.jpg 127. Fasti Praenestini, calendar of Verrius Flaccus, 6 – 9 AD, from Palestrina. Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. By Jastrow, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AFasti_ Praenestini_Massimo_n1.jpg 128. So-called “Apollo Barberini”. Probable copy of the cult statue in the temple of Apollo Palatinus in Rome, reproduction of a work from 4th century BC, 1st–2nd century AD. By Bibi Saint-Pol, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AApollo_Barberini_ Glyptothek_Munich_211.jpg 129. Plan of the Palatine Hill. From Richter’s Topographie der Stadt Rom by permission of C. H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1911, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3AEB1911_Rome_-_Plan_of_the_Palatine.jpg 130. Weustink, Inge. “Replica of the text of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, created during the fascist period, engraved on the outer wall of the Ara Pacis Museum in Rome, facing the Mausoleum of Augustus.” August 2017. 131. Plan of the Forum of Augustus. By Cassius Ahenobarbus (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AForum_auguste_plan.png 132. Weustink, Inge. “Agrippa (veiled) on the Ara Pacis.” August 2017 133. Livia and her son Tiberius, AD 14-19, from Paestum. National Archaeological Museum Madrid. By Miguel Hermoso Cuesta (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/File%3ALivia_y_Tiberio_M.A.N._01.JPG 134. Reconstruction of the Villa Jovis, Capri. From Weichardt, C. Das Schloß des Tiberius und andere Römerbauten auf Capri, 1900. By Carl Weichardt, via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AVilla_ Jovis%2C_Reconstructed_by_C._Weichardt.jpg 135. Reconstruction of the original polychromy of a Roman portrait of emperor Caligula. Istanbul Archaeological Museum. By G.dallorto, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
File%3ACropped_color_calligula.jpg 136. Map of the harbour of Claudius (Portus Augusti). From Ostia. Harbour City of Ancient Rome, www.ostia-antica.org. www.ostia-antica.org/portus/claudius.htm 137. Fresco from the nympheum of Nero’s House of Passage (Domus Transitoria), 54 – 64 AD. Antiquarium of the Palatine Hill. By Sailko, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/File:Affreschi_dalla_domus_transitoria_di_nerone,_ninfeo,_54-64_dc_ca,_08.jpg 138. Nero views the burning of Rome. Painting by Carl Theodor von Piloty, ca. 1861. By Pataki Márta, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AKarl_von_Piloty_ Nero_R%C3%B3ma_%C3%A9g%C3%A9s%C3%A9t_szeml%C3%A9li.jpg 139. Nero’s Golden House (Domus Aurea) built after the Great Fire of 64 AD. By Cristiano64 (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADomus_Aurea_ pianta_generale.png 140. Coin of Nero and a lyre player. By BlogBuilder on Coin at Warwick, blogs.warwick.ac.uk/ numismatics. blogs.warwick.ac.uk/numismatics/entry/offending_images_or/ 141. Plan of Regio III with Gardens of Maecenas (Horti Maecenatis). From Lanciani, Rodolfo. Ruins and excavations of ancient Rome, 1897. By Obmen, via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APianta_regio_III_da_Lanciani_2.jpg 142. Map with the fourteen regions of Augustan Rome and the seven barracks of the fire brigade (cohortes vigilum). By Cassius Ahenobarbus, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/File%3ACasernesVigileII_planrome.png 143. Amphitheatre of Statilius Taurus, engraving by Giovanni Battista Piranesi. From Campus Martius. Opere di Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Francesco Piranesi e d’altri. Firmin Didot Freres, Paris, 1835-1839. Tomo 10. By Bkmd, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3APiranesi-10055c.jpg 144. Map of the eleven aqueducts of Latium. By Cassius Ahenobarbus (Own work) after a map from G. Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886, via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAquae_planlatium_2a.png 145. Map of the eleven aqueducts in Rome. By Coldeel (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAquae_planrome.PNG 146. Diagram of a qanat. By Samuel Bailey (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AQanat_cross_section.svg 147. Reconstruction of shafts (putei) and construction of the specus of an aqueduct from the explanatory panels in the aqueduct of Albarracín-Cella. Photo by Roberto Lérida Lafarga 23/04/2008. aragonromano.ftp.catedu.es/albcelen.htm 148. Reconstruction drawing of a covered trench of an aqueduct. © 2004 W.D. Schram, www. romanaqueducts.info. www.romanaqueducts.info/aquasite/foto/duct_graven.jpg 149. Cross section of an aqueduct. © 2004 W.D. Schram, www.romanaqueducts.info. www. romanaqueducts.info/technicalintro/hulp/crosssection.htm 150. Roman aqueduct structures. Hansen, Roger D. “Illustration of the Structures Used by Roman Engineers on Their Aqueduct Systems.” Water and Wastewater Systems in Imperial Rome. http://www.waterhistory.org/histories/rome. www.waterhistory.org/histories/rome/Figure3.png 151. Hypothetical Roman tenement building (insula), based on Macaulay, David. City: A Story of Roman Planning and Construction. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1978. Roger D. “A Hypothetical Roman Tenement Building.” Water and Wastewater Systems in Imperial Rome. http:// www.waterhistory.org/histories/rome. www.waterhistory.org/histories/rome/Figure1.png 152. Street sewer, based on Macaulay, David. City: A Story of Roman Planning and Construction. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1978. Hansen, Roger D. “Waste was Frequently Emptied Into Street-Side Openings to the Roman Sewers.” Water and Wastewater Systems in Imperial Rome. http://www.waterhistory.org/histories/rome. www.waterhistory.org/histories/rome/Figure4.png 153. Lead water pipe, 20 – 47 AD. The inscription says: “The most notable lady Valeria Messalina”; Valeria Messalina was the third wife of the Roman Emperor Claudius. Science Museum London. By Fæ, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ALead_water_pipe%2C_ Roman%2C_20-47_CE_Wellcome_L0058475.jpg 154. Bust of M. Vipsanius Agrippa of the Gabii type. Marble, ca. 25–24 BC. From Gabii. Musée du Louvre, Paris. By Jastrow, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3AAgrippa_Gabii_Louvre_Ma1208.jpg 155. Weustink, Inge. “Aqua Claudia between Caelian and Palatine Hill.” August 2017.
156. Substructures of Temple of Divus Claudius and Nero’s nympheum in Via Claudia. By Lalupa (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ACelio_-_via_ Claudia_t_divo_claudio_sostruzioni_1040173.JPG 157. Three inscriptions on the attic of the Porta Maggiore. By Joris, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APorta_Maggiore_inscription.JPG 158. Map of the Roman Empire during 69 AD, the Year of the Four Emperors. Coloured areas indicate provinces loyal to one of four warring generals. By Fulvio314, via Wikimedia Commons. ¬¬¬ commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ARoman_Empire_69.svg 159. Reconstruction of Vespasian’s Temple of Peace (Templum Pacis). Mu¬¬sei in Comune, Mercati di Traiano. www.mercatiditraiano.it/sede/area_archeologica/tempio_della_pace 160. Temple of Vespasian, Roman Forum. By MM (Own work), May 2005, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ARomaForoRomanoTempioVespasiano.JPG 161. Weustink, Inge. “Inscription on Arch of Titus, Roman Forum.” August 2017. 162. The Triumph of Titus, painting by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, oil on canvas, 1885. The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. By Steerpike, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3AThe_Triumph_of_Titus_Alma_Tadema.jpg 163. Map with route of triumphal procession. © University of Groningen Honours College, 2017. rome-honours-groningen.co.nf/2012/RomanArches6.php 164. Relief on Arch of Titus depicting Titus as triumphant general on chariot, Roman Forum. By Jebulon (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AArch_ Titus%2C_relief_triumph%2C_Forum_Romanum%2C_Rome%2C_Italy.jpg 165. Relief on Arch of Titus depicting spoils from Jerusalem, Roman Forum. By Cassius Ahenobarbus (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AArc_ titus_relief_sud.jpg 166. Plan of the Domus Augustana on the Palatine Hill. E: main entrance L: Lararium A: Aula Regia B: Basilica Po: portico P1: peristyle. C: Cenatio P2: 2nd peristyle P3: 3rd peristyle Co: cortile Ex: grand exedra S: Stadium Tr: Tribune of the Stadium. By Cassius Ahenobarbus (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADomus-augustana-map.png 167. Weustink, Inge. “Detail of the “Colonnacce” at the Forum of Nerva (Forum Transitorium).” August 2017. 168. Bronze sestertius of Vespasian, 69 – 79 AD, struck 71 AD. Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., www.cngcoins.com, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASestertius_-_ Vespasiano_-_Iudaea_Capta-RI 169. Sestertius of Titus celebrating the inauguration of the Colosseum, minted in 80 AD, Altes Museum, Berlin. By Rc 13 (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3AColosseum_Ses_Tit 170. Sections of the Colosseum with seating areas. By Ningyou, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Colosseum-profile-english.png 171. Di Girolamo, Tommaso. “Exterior of the Colosseum, showing the partially intact outer wall.” May 2017. 172. Weustink, Inge. “Colosseum entrance LIIII.” August 2017. 173. Zliten mosaic showing Roman entertainments from the 1st century AD. Jamahiriya Museum, Tripoli, Libya. From Dar Buc Ammera villa (Zliten). By Shakko, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABestiarii.jpg 174. Painting entitled Pollice Verso by Jean-Léon Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1872. Phoenix Art Museum. By Jan Arkesteijn, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AJeanLeon_Gerome_Pollice_Verso.jpg 175. Olive mill in Pompeii. By Heinz-Josef Lücking, via Wikimedia Commons. commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AOlive_Press_in_Pompeji.JPG 176. Map showing Italy at the time of the Social War, 91 – 89 BC. © 2015 – 2017 Storia Romana e Bizantina. www.storiaromanaebizantina.it. i0.wp.com/www.storiaromanaebizantina.it/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/ fecb0597a7d39850b537e7bf96f066df.jpg?ssl=1 177. Fresco from Pompeii depicting the amphitheatre riots in 59 AD. National Archaeological Museum Naples. By Alonso de Mendoza, via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/File%3APompeian_mural_depicting_the_Amphitheatre_riots.jpg
178. Map of Campania during the Roman period, highlighting Pompeii. Extracted and adapted from The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911. By Marcus Cyron, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_Pompeii_in_Roman_Campania.png 179. Map showing the cities and towns affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. By MapMaster (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMt_ Vesuvius_79_AD_eruption.svg 180. Weustink, Inge. “Umbrella pine trees at the Baths of Caracalla, Rome.” May 2017. 181. Sketch of Bay of Naples in 79AD showing the approximate route taken by Pliny the Elder from Misenum to Stabiae in his attempted rescue mission. By Jackie and Bob Dunn, www. pompeiiinpictures.com. www.pompeiiinpictures.com/pompeiiinpictures/Maps/Plan%20Bay%20 of%20Naples%2079AD%20Pliny%20approximate%20route.jpg 182. North American B-25 Mitchell bomber, flying near Mount Vesuvius during its last eruption in March 1944. San Diego Air and Space Museum Archive. By Ras67, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMt_Vesuvius_Erupting.jpg 183. Map of the archaeological site of Pompeii. University of Miami, School of Architecture. http://intranet.arc.miami.edu. http://intranet.arc.miami.edu/rjohn/ARC267-05/pompeiioverheadmap1.gif 184. Floor plan of a Roman domus. By Papa Lima Whiskey 2, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADomus_romana_Vector002.svg 185. Map of forum in Pompeii. Copyright © 2017 Pompei Online.net. www.pompeionline.net/ edifici/regione-vii/pompei-foro-pompei-forum 186. Floor plan of Stabian Baths in Pompeii. “Baths and Bathing as an Ancient Roman”. © 2003 University of Washington. depts.washington.edu. depts.washington.edu/hrome/Authors/kjw2/BathsBathinginAncientRome/245/246/ FloorPlanofStabianBaths.jpg/pub_image_view.html 187. Silver denarius of Nerva, 97 AD, with Salus Publica on the reverse. Forum Ancient Coins. www.forumancientcoins.com. www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-63864 188. Golden sestertius of Trajan and Tiberinus conquering Dacia, struck circa 104-107 AD. www. cngcoins.com, via Wikimedia Commons. 189. The Imperial Forums; on the left the Forum and Markets of Trajan. By Samanthamalgieri (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATrajan_forum.jpg 190. Silver denarius with (obverse) bust of Trajan and (reverse) Trajan’s Column, surmounted by a statue of Trajan, holding globe in right hand and sceptre in left hand; the base is garlanded with an eagle on right and left. British Museum London. Trustees of the British Museum. 191. Reconstruction of Temple of Venus and Roma. Heliogravure by Chauvet (1830). By CharlesS, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATempleVenusRome1.jpg 192. Weustink, Inge. “Dedicatory inscription on the Pantheon.” August 2017. 193. Reconstruction of the Mausoleum of Hadrian, Rome. By Carole Raddato, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMausoleum_of_Hadrian%2C_Rome_(14604139245).jpg 194. Temple of Hadrian, Rome. By FollowingHadrian (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATemple_of_Hadrian.jpg 195. Detail of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius. Capitoline Museums, Rome. By Zanner (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMarco_Aurelio_ bronzo.JPG 196. Inscription on Column of Marcus Aurelius. By FoekeNoppert (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Inscription_Column_Marcus_Aurelius.jpg 197. Weustink, Inge. “Porticus of Octavia (Porticus Octaviae).” August 2017. 198. Inscription on Arch of Septimius Severus. Jona Lendering. © 1995–2017 Livius.org. www. livius.org/pictures/italy/rome/rome-forum-romanum/rome-forum-arch-of-severus/arch-of-severusinscription 199. Diagram of a hypocaust. Elizabeth Carney, Clemson University. elizab.people.clemson.edu/ rdlimages.htm 200. Labrum in the caldarium of the Forum Baths in Pompeii. By Carole Raddato, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AForum_Baths%2C_the_apse_of_the_caldarium_ (hot_bath_room)_containing_a_labrum_or_(marble_basin)%2C_Pompeii_(14832295629).jpg 201. Roman strigiles, 1st century BC. Glyptothek München. By MatthiasKabel, via Wikimedia
Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AStrigiles.jpg 202. Plan of the Baths of Caracalla. By Fæ, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/File%3AThermae_of_Caracalla%2C_Rome_Wellcome_M0004777.jpg 203. Di Girolamo, Tommaso. “Restoration project sponsored by Bulgari of the mosaics in the palestra of the Baths of Caracalla.” May 2017. 204. Di Girolamo, Tommaso. “Fragments of mosaics in the palestra of the Baths of Caracalla.” May 2017. 205. Di Girolamo, Tommaso. “Palestra of the Baths of Caracalla.” May 2017. 206. Golden aureus of Severus Alexander and the Flavian Amphitheatre, 223 AD. www. wildwinds.com. www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/severus_alexander/RIC_0033cf,Aureus.jpg 207. Floorplans of the Baths of Titus, Caracalla and Diocletian. 208. Floorplan of the Baths of Diocletian created by Rudolfo Lanciani between 18r93-1901. Original picture from the Forma Urbis Romae. 1 = Caldarium, 2 = Tepidarium, 3 = Frigidarium, 4= Natatio, 5 = Palaestrae, 6 = Entrance, 7 = Great exedra. By DieBuche, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Baths_Diocletian-Lanciani.png 209. Map of the Roman empire during the first Tetrarchy. By Coppermine Photo Gallery, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATetrarchy_map3.jpg 210. Reconstruction drawing of the Palace of the Roman Emperor Diocletian in Split, Croatia. By Ernest Hébrard, 1912. By Direktor, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3ADiocletian’s_Palace_(original_appearance).jpg 211. Funerary stele of Licinia Amias. Marble, early 3rd century AD. From the area of the Vatican necropolis, Rome. Museo delle Terme di Diocleziano, Rome. By Marie-Lan Nguyen (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AStele_Licinia_Amias_Terme_67646. jpg 212. Porphyry statue of the tetrarchs, 4th century AD, Asia Minor. On a corner of Saint Mark’s in Venice, next to the “Porta della Carta”. By Nino Barbieri (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AVenice_%E2%80%93_The_Tetrarchs_03.jpg 213. Monogram of Christ (Chi Rho sign) on a plaque of a sarcophagus, 4th century AD. Vatican Museums. By Jebulon (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File%3AChrisme_Colosseum_Rome_Italy.jpg 214. Sarcophagus of Constantina, ca. 340 AD, Mausoleum di Santa Costanza, Rome. Vatican Museums (Museo Pio-Clementino). By Jean-Pol Grandmont (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3A0_Sarcofago_di_Costantina_-_Museo_Pio-Clementino_-_ Vatican_(1).JPG 215. Weustink, Inge. “Dedicatory inscription on the Arch of Constantine” August 2017. 216. Di Girolamo, Tommaso. “Arch of Constantine.” May 2017. 217. Diagram showing the different dating for the reliefs on the Arch of Constantine. According to Ward-Perkins 1999. By Augurar, derivative work Marsyas, via Wikimedia Commons. https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spolia#/media/File:Constantine_arch_datation_en.svg 218. Political division in Europe, North Africa and Near East after the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD. By Guriezous (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/File%3AEurope_and_the_Near_East_at_476_AD.png 219. Silvester I and Constantine. Fresco in San Silvestro Chapel at Santi Quattro Coronati, Rome (1247). By Ras67, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASylvester_I_and_Constantine.jpg 220. Baptism of Constantine. Fresco by Raphael, between 1520 and 1524, Sala di Costantino, Palazzi Pontifici, Vaticano. By Sailko, via Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Sala_di_costantino,_battesimo_di_costantino_01.jpg
Translations Unless stated differently at the end of the text, all translations in this source book are from Peter Aicher’s source-guide to Rome: Aicher, Peter J. Rome Alive: a Source-Guide to the Ancient City. Volume I, Bolchazy- Carducci, 2004.
Here follows a list of the other translations used. They are listed in alphabetical order according to Greek or Roman author. Anonymous Anonymous, On Military Matters, translated by E.A. Thompson, A Roman Reformer and Inventor, Oxford University Press, 1952, pp. 106-14, 122-23. Ammianus Marcellinus Ammianus Marcellinus, The History 14, 16, translation taken from Davis, William Stearns. Readings in Ancient History, vol II: Rome and the West, Allyn and Bacon, 1913, pp. 224 – 225, 239 – 244, 247 – 258, 260 – 265, 305 – 309. Ammianus Marcellinus, The History 31, 13, 3 - 7 and 12, translated by C.D. Yonge, The Roman History of Ammianus Marcellinus During the Reigns of The Emperors Constantius, Julian, Jovianus, Valentinian, and Valens, G. Bell & Sons, 1911, pp. 609 – 618. Appian Appian, Civil Wars 1 – 3, 26, translated by Horace White, Loeb Classical Library, 1913. penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Appian/Civil_Wars/1*.html and http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Appian/Civil_Wars/2*.html
Appian, Civil Wars 1, 39 and 1, 50, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Appian%20Civil%20Wars%201.39,%201.50. htm Augustus Augustus, Res Gestae, translated by Thomas Bushnell, 1998. classics.mit.edu/Augustus/deeds. html Caesar Caesar, Civil War, translated by A.G. Peskett, Loeb Classical Library, 1914. penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Caesar/Civil_Wars/1A*.html Cassius Dio Cassius Dio, Roman History, translated by Earnest Cary, Loeb Classical Library, 1914 – 1927. penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/62*.html
Cassius Dio, History of Rome 66, 21 – 23, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Dio%20History%20of%20Rome%2066.21- 23.htm
Cato Cato, On Farming 135, 1 – 3, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org.
Donation of Constantine Donation of Constantine, translated by Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, George Bell, 1910, pp. 319 – 329. sourcebooks.fordham.edu/ source/donatconst.asp Diodorus Siculus Diodorus Siculus, Library 34 - 35, 2, 26, translated by C.H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library, sourcebooks.fordham.edu/ancient/3slaverevolttexts.asp Diocletian’s Price Edict Diocletian’s Price Edict, translation take from Roman Civilization, vol. 2, The Empire, edited by Naphtali Lewis and Meyer Reinhold, Columbia University Press, 1955), pp. 463-73. Eusebius Eusebius, History of the Church 8, 2, translated by G.A. Williamson, Penguin Classics, 1989. penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/hispania/diocletian.html Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Bagster translation, revised by Ernest Cushing Richardson from Volume I, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series, ed. P. Schaff and H. Wace, B. Eerdmans, 1955. sourcebooks.fordham.edu/basis/vita-constantine.asp Flavius Josephus Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War, translated by William Whiston, 1737. www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/war-7.htm Publius Annius Florus Publius Florus, Epitome of Roman history, translated by Edward Foster, Loeb Classical Library, 1929. penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/florus/epitome/home. html Graffiti Graffiti at the Basilica Argentaria. From: Dudley, Donald R. Urbs Roma: A Source Book of Classical Texts on the City and Its Monuments. Phaidon, 1967. Herodian of Syria Herodian of Syria, History of the Emperors II.6ff, translation taken from Davis, William Stearns. Readings in Ancient History, vol II: Rome and the West, Allyn and Bacon, 1913. sourcebooks.fordham.edu/ancient/herodianus-didius.asp Inscriptions CIL = Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum ILS = Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae CIL IV 3.4. 9979, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Epigraphy/Some%20Pompeian%20Inscriptions1.htm 214
CIL IV. 275, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Epigraphy/Some%20Pompeian%20Inscriptions1. htm CIL IV. 710, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Epigraphy/Some%20Pompeian%20Inscriptions1. htm CIL VI.1130 = 31242, Dedicatory inscription of the Baths of Diocletian. Translation from Coarelli, Filippo. Rome and Environs. An Archaeological Guide. University of California Press, 2007, p. 249. CIL X. 846, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Epigraphy/Some%20Pompeian%20Inscriptions1. htm CIL XV 7193, translation by British Museum. www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details. aspx?objectId=463968&partId=1 ILS 1627, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Epigraphy/Some%20Pompeian%20Inscriptions1. htm ILS 1628, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Epigraphy/Some%20Pompeian%20Inscriptions1. htm Jordanes Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths 35, 181 – 182, translation taken from Davis, William Stearns. Readings in Ancient History, vol II: Rome and the West, Allyn and Bacon, 1913, p. 322. Lactantius Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12, translated by J.L. Creed, 1984. penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/hispania/diocletian.html Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 34 – 35 (Edict of Toleration by Galerius), translation taken from Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum Opera, ed. O. F. Fritzsche, 1844. Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 44, translation taken from Schaff, Philip, et. al. Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 7, 1994. www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf07.iii.v.xliv.html Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 48 (Edict of Milan), translation taken from Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum Opera, ed. O. F. Fritzsche, 1844. Lapis Niger inscription Lapis Niger inscription, translated by Jim Ruebel, The VRoma Project. vroma.org/~jruebel/ lapis.html Livy Livy. The History of Rome, translated by Rev Canon Roberts, E.P. Dutton and Co., 1912. www.perseus.tufts.edu. 215
Martial Martial, Epigrams 4, 44, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Martial%20Epigram%204.44.htm Ovid Ovid, Metamorphoses, translated by Anthony S. Kline, 2000. www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/Metamorph15.htm Pliny the Elder Pliny the Elder, Natural History 3, 40 and 3, 60, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Pliny%20Natural%20History%203.40,%203.60.htm Pliny the Younger Pliny the Younger, Letters, translated by Betty Radice, Penguin Classics, 1963. Pliny the Younger, Letters 10, 96 and 97, translated by Wilham Melmoth, Harvard University Press, Vol.11, pp. 401-05, 407. Plutarch Plutarch, Life of Crassus, translated by Rex Warner, Penguin Classics 2006. www.livius.org/so-st/spartacus/spartacus_t01.html Plutarch, Life of Caesar, translated by Bernadotte Perrin, Loeb Classical Library, 1919. penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/plutarch/lives/caesar*.html Sallust Sallust, Conspiracy of Catiline 11, translation taken from Davis, William Stearns. Readings in Ancient History, vol II: Rome and the West, Allyn and Bacon, 1913, pp. 135 – 138. sourcebooks.fordham.edu/ancient/63sallust.asp Salvian Salvian, Of God’s Government 5, 4, translation taken from James Harvey Robinson, ed., Readings in European History: Vol. I, Ginn and co., 1904, pp. 28 – 30. Seneca the Elder Seneca the Elder, Topics in Natural History 6, 1, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Seneca%20Topics%20in%20Natural%20History%26.1.htm Seneca the Younger Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Moral Epistles, translated by Richard M. Gummere, Loeb Classical Library, 1917-25. www.stoics.com/seneca_epistles_book_1.html (Letter 47) Seneca the Younger, Letters 49, 1 and 70, 1, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Seneca%20Letters%2049.1%20and%2070.1.htm Statius Statius, Occasional Poems 3, 5, 72 – 104, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Statius%20Silvae%203.5.72-104.htm Statius, Occasional Poems 4, 4, 78 – 86, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Statius%20Silvae%204.4.78-86.htm 216
Strabo Strabo Geography 5, 4, 8, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Strabo%20Geography%205.4.8.htm Suetonius Suetonius, Life of Augustus, from The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquillus, translated by J.C. Rolfe, Loeb Classical Library, 1913 – 1914. penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/suetonius/12caesars/augustus*.html Suetonius, Life of Caligula, from The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquillus, translated by J.C. Rolfe, Loeb Classical Library, 1913 – 1914. penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/suetonius/12caesars/caligula*.html Suetonius, Life of Claudius, from The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquillus, translated by J.C. Rolfe, Loeb Classical Library, 1913 – 1914. penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/suetonius/12caesars/claudius*.html Suetonius, Life of Nero, from The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquillus, translated by J.C. Rolfe, Loeb Classical Library, 1913 – 1914. penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/suetonius/12caesars/nero*.html Suetonius, Life of Tiberius, from The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquillus, translated by J.C. Rolfe, Loeb Classical Library, 1913 – 1914. penelope. uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/suetonius/12caesars/tiberius*.html Tacitus Tacitus, Agricola 32, translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb, Macmillan, 1877. www.forumromanum.org/literature/tacitus/agricola_e.html Tacitus, Annals 1, 1 – 2, translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb, 1876. classics.mit.edu/Tacitus/annals.1.i.html Tacitus, Annals 14, 17, 1 – 2, translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb, 1876. www.perseus.tufts.edu Tacitus, Annals 15, 22, 2, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Tacitus%20Annals%2015.22.2.htm Tacitus, Annals 15, 38 – 47, translated by John Jackson, Loeb Classical Library, 1937. Taken from penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Tacitus/Annals/15B*. html Varro Varro, On Agriculture, translated by W.D. Hooper, Loeb Classical Library, 1934. penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/varro/de_re_rustica/1*.html Velleius Paterculus Velleius Paterculus, Histories 2, 16, 1 - 2, translation taken from www.pompeiana.org. www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Velleius%20Paterculus%20Histories%20 2.16.1-2.htm Vergil Vergil, Aeneid, translated by Anthony S. Kline, 2002. poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/VirgilAeneidVIII.htm#anchor_Toc3637702 217
Vitruvius Vitruvius, On Architecture 2, 6, 1 – 2 www.pompeiana.org/Resources/Ancient/Vitruvius%20On%20Architecture%20 2.6.1-2.htm Vitruvius, On Architecture 5, 10 – 11, translated by Joseph Gwilt, 1826. penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Vitruvius/5*.html
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