Relation of Large and Small Classes in the Early Elementary Grades to Scholastic and Other Outcomes

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Relation of Large and Small Classes in the Early Elementary Grades to Scholastic and Other Outcomes

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University Microfilms 300 N ort h Z e e b R o a d A nn A rbor, M i c h i g a n 4 8 1 0 6 A Xerox E d u c a t i o n C o m p a n y

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G o l d s t e i n , . i cnry h a r t i n . d e l a t i o n of l a r g e a n d s m a l l c l a s s e s in the e a r l y e le m e n t a ry grades to s c h o l a s t i c and o t h e r o u t c o m e s . . . I.evv Yorl:, 1941. i n . 1.,114 ty p ew ritten leaves, ta b le s , d i a g r s . , f o r ms . 29cm. T h e s i s ( . h . n . ) - Kew York u n i v e r s i t y , d c h o o l o f e d u c a t i o n , 1942. T i b l i o g r a p h y : p . 9 C-105. .1.78240 LISl

Xerox University Microfilms,

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T H I S D I S S E R T A T I O N HAS BEEN M I C R O F I L M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E I V E D .

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D a te J 5 jlL j3 4 2

RELATION OF LARGE AND SMALL GLASSES IN THE EARLY ELEMENTARY GRADES TO SCHOLASTIC AND OTHER ^OUTCOMES

HENRY M. GOLDSTEIN

Subm itted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e d e g re e o f D octor o f P hilosophy i n th e School o f E d u c a tio n o f New York U n iv e rs ity

1941

PLEASE NOTE:

Some p a g e s may h a v e i nd i s t i n e t p r i n t . F i l me d a s

U niversity Microfilms,

received.

A Xe r ox E d u c a t i o n Company

R e la tio n o f Large and Sm all C lasses in th e E a rly E lem entary Grades to S c h o la s tic and O th er Outcomes

A stu d y o f th e r e s u l t s o f two e x p erim en ts conducted by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r a t P u b lic School 238, B rooklyn, N. Y ., i n te a c h in g th e b a s ic t o o l and s k i l l sub­ j e c t s ( a r ith m e tic and re a d in g ) i n t h i r d and f o u r th y e a r c la s s e s .

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I

CHAPTER I I

CHAPTER I I I

Review o f th e "C lass S iz e " S it u a ti o n ............................. A# The C la ss S iz e P u z z l e ............. B. Some P re v io u s S tu d ie s i n C la ss S i z e ................... T h e ir L i m i t a t i o n s • . • . . ................................... The Problem - What i s th e R e la tio n o f S iz e of C la ss t o S c h o la s tic and O ther Outcomes ........................ i n th e E a rly E lem entary Grades? ........................... A. S tatem en t o f th e Problem Reasons f o r th e E xperim ent ...................................................................... B. A n a ly sis o f th e Problem - Aims and Purposes o f th e E xperim ent .............................................. . . . . . C. P rocedure i n th e Conduct o f th e Experim ents , . M D. T reatm ent o f D ata and E v a lu a tio n o f R e s u lts . . . .

1 1 5

20 20 24 26 28

The R e s u lts o f th e E xperim ents ......................................... A* D iffe re n c e Between th e F i r s t and Second E x p e r im e n t.......................... B. S c h o la s tic R e s u lts of th e F i r s t Experiment by Grade and S u b je c t ................. C. S c h o la s tic R e s u lts o f th e Second Experim ent ................... ...« • by Grade and S u b je c t D. Comparison o f P e rc e n ta g e s o f P u p ils ?7ho Made B e tte r Achievement G ains th a n t h e i r Matched C lassm ates - F i r s t E xperim ent ................ E« Comparison o f P e rc e n ta g e s o f P u p ils 7/ho Made B e tte r Achievement G ains th a n t h e i r Matched C lassm ates - Second E x p e rim e n t........................... F. Comparison o f R e a c tio n s o f C h ild re n i n th e Large and Sm all Groups i n V arious A spects o f School E x p e rie n c e s, O ther Than S c h o la s tic - F i r s t Experim ent ..................... G. Comparison o f R e a c tio n s o f C h ild re n i n th e Large and Sm all Groups in V arious A spects o f School E x p e rie n c e s , O ther Than S c h o la s tic - Second Experim ent ................... H. Summary of R e s u lts in Both Experim ents in Outcomes o f S chool E x p e rie n c e , O ther Than S c h o la s tic .........................................

79

CHAPTER IV C onclusions ......................................................................................

81

CHAPTER V

In fe re n c e s and I m p lic a tio n s ..........................

89

CHAPTER VI L im ita tio n s o f th e E xperim ents and S u g g estio n s f o r F u tu re I n v e s tig a t io n s i n S im ila r F ie ld s . . . . .

94

B ib lio g r a p h y .......................... A p p e n d ix .........................................................................

29 30 31 40 57 60

62

73

98 107

LIST OF TABLES AMD DIAGRAMS Page Goals Achieved by Matched P u p ils - Large and Small C la sses - 3A A rith m e tic - F i r s t Experim ent

32

Achievement Ages in A rith m etic o f Matched 3A P u p ils a t End o f Term: (Monroe G en eral Survey S cale in A rith m e tic , S c a le 1 - Form 1) F i r s t Experim ent

33

Achievement Ages in Reading o f Matched 3A P u p ils a t End of Experim ent: (Monroe S ta n d a rd iz e d Reading T est ) - F i r s t Experim ent

35

Achievement Ages in Reading o f Matched 3A P u p ils Four Months A fte r End o f Experim ent (M e tro p o lita n Achievement T e sts - P rim ary A) - F i r s t Experim ent

36

Achievement Ages in A rith m etic o f Matched 4A P u p ils a t End o f Experim ent - I l l i n o i s Exam ination - O p eratio n s o f A rith m e tic F i r s t Experim ent

39

Achievement Ages in S ile n t R eading o f Matched 4A P u p ils a t End o f Experim ent (M onroe's S ta n d a rd iz ed Reading T est - T est 1 — Form l ) F i r s t Experim ent

41

Achievement Gains i n A rith m e tic o f Matched 3A P u p ils During Second E xperim ent - Rased on Two Forms o f th e M e tro p o lita n Achievement Test

42

Achievement Grades i n A rith m e tic o f Matched 3A P u p ils a t End o f Term (Second E xperim ent) M etro p o litan Achievement T est - Form A«

43

Achievement Grades i n Reading o f Matched 3A P u p ils a t End of Term (Gray O ra l R eading T e s t ) Second Experim ent

45

Achievement Ages in Reading o f Matched 3A P u p ils a t th e End o f Term (G ates Prim ary R eading T est - Type 3) Second Experim ent

46

LIST OF TABLES AMD DIAGRAMS

Table X

Achievem ent Ages i n R eading o f Matched 3A P u p ils a t th e End o f Second Experim ent (G ates S i l e n t R eading T est - ly p e C)

Table XI

A chievem ent Grade i n A rith m e tic Grade 3B a t th e End o f Second Experim ent (M e tro p o lita n Achievement T e s ts - Form A)

Diagram I I

G oals A chieved by Matched P u p ils - Large and Sm all C la ss e s - 33 A rith m e tic - Second Experiment

Table X II

Achievem ent Ages i n R eading o f Matched 3B P u p ils a t th e End o f Second Experim ent (G ates S i l e n t R eading T est - Type C)

Table X III

Achievement G rades i n A rith m e tic o f 4 A P u p ils a t th e End o f Term (Second Experim ent) M etro p o litan Achievement T e sts - Form A

Diagram I I I

G oals Achieved by Matched P u p ils - Large and Sm all C la ss e s - 4A A rith m e tic - Second Experiment

Table XIV

Achievement Ages i n R eeding o f Matched AA P u p ils a t th e End o f Term (Second Experim ent) G ates S i l e n t R eading T est - Type D - Form 1

Table XV

Comparison o f G re a te r Achievement Gains by Matched P u p ils

Table XVI

P e rc e n ta g e s o f P u p ils Who Made G re ater Achievement G ains th a n t h e i r Matched Schoolm ates F i r s t Experim ent

Table XVII

P e rc e n ta g e s o f P u p ils Who Made G reater Achievement G ains th a n t h e i r Matched Schoolm ates — Second Experim ent

1

CHAPTER I REVIEW OF THE "CLASS SIZE" SITUATION

A.

The C la ss -S iz e P uzzle E d u c a tio n a l in v e s t i g a t i o n s on c l a s s s iz e have been

c a r rie d on e x te n s iv e ly s in c e 1895» when R ice s tu d ie d th e r e s u l t s o f t e s t s in A rith m e tic and i n lan g u ag e g iven t o 14,000 c h ild r e n i n la rg e and sm all c l a s s e s .

Most o f t h e i n v e s t ig a t i o n s have a ttem p ted

to determ ine w hether l a r g e r o r s m a lle r c la s s e s produce b e t t e r e d u c a tio n a l r e s u l t s i n te rm s o f s c h o l a s t i c achievem ent.

S tra n g e ly

enough, la rg e c l a s s e s , in m ost e x p e rim e n ts, have a p p a re n tly been j u s t as e f f e c tiv e as sm all o n e s. The r e s u l t s o f th e s e i n v e s t ig a ti o n s a re v e ry f r e q u e n tly used a s argum ents f o r in c r e a s in g t h e s iz e of c l a s s e s , by many in d iv id u a ls and groups who a r e concerned s o le ly w ith th e f i n a n c i a l a sp e c t o f p u b lic e d u c a tio n and o c c a s io n a lly even by some e d u c a to rs , who accep t a s v a lid th e r e s u l t s o f s o - c a lle d ex perim ents and in v e s tig a tio n s which i n r e a l i t y may not be a s s c i e n t i f i c as th e y appear to b e .

E d u c a tio n a l e x p e rie n c e and even common sense should

lead school o f f i c i a l s to q u e s tio n th e v a l i d i t y o f many o f th e con clu sio n s reached i n th e s e c l a s s —s iz e i n v e s t i g a ti o n s . This q u e s tio n i s one so v i t a l i n sch o o l a d m in is tra tio n th a t th e need f o r a c a r e f u l a n a ly s is of r e p r e s e n ta tiv e c la s s s iz e experim ents i s c l e a r l y in d ic a te d t o d eterm in e i f any f a l l a c i e s have

2

This q u e stio n i s one so v i t a l i n s c h o o l a d m in is tr a tio n t h a t th e need f o r a c a r e f u l a n a ly s is o f r e p r e s e n ta t iv e c la s s s iz e ex p erim en ts i s c l e a r l y in d ic a te d to determ ine i f any f a l l a c i e s have been p e rm itte d t o go unno ticed in th e se s tu d ie s , i f th e e x p erim en ts have a c t u a l l y w a rra n te d th e c o n clu sio n s t h a t have f r e q u e n t ly been drawn from them , i f c o n s id e ra tio n s o th e r th a n s iz e o f c l a s s may n o t have m a te r ia lly in flu e n c e d th e r e s u l t s , and i f th e e d u c a tio n a l achievem ents u sed a s th e b ases f o r in fe re n c e s as t o e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f th e v a rio u s s iz e d c la s s e s a re th e only v a lid m easures t o be u s e d . The c o n s id e ra tio n s s e t f o r t h above have prompted th e p r e s e n t s tu d y .

Have th e in v e s tig a tio n s r e a l l y s o lv e d th e c la s s s iz e p u z zle

o r have th e y r a th e r in d ic a te d th e need f o r a more c a r e f u l , a more s c i e n t i f i c , and a more fundam ental stu d y o f th e e n t i r e problem ? That th e q u e stio n must be answered by th e second a l t e r n a t i v e becomes q u ite e v id e n t, when p re v io u s c la s s s iz e e x p e rim e n ts a re s tu d ie d and a n a ly z e d .

The next s e c tio n o f t h i s stu d y d e s c r ib e s many p re v io u s

c l a s s s iz e in v e s tig a tio n s , and en deavors t o p o in t ou t t h e i r lim i­ t a t i o n s and shortcom ings. I t i s not to be assumed t h a t no p re v io u s commentators on c l a s s s iz e s tu d ie s have f a i l e d to p o in t o u t th e p o s s ib le d e f i c i e n c i e s i n experim ents on t h i s s u b je c t.

On th e c o n t r a r y , q u ite a number o f

e d u c a tio n a l w r ite r s have in d ic a te d c a u tio n i n a c c e p tin g a p p a re n t and s u p e r f i c i a l c o n c lu sio n s.

Dora V. Smith-*- s t a t e s :

nR e s u lts of s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a re o fte n lo o s e ly q u o ted i n in d ic a tin g in g e n e ra l th a t p u p ils p ro g r e s s a s w e ll i n la r g e c la s s e s a s th e y do in sm all o n es.

^ V ita l F a c to rs in P re s e n t S itu a tio n o f C la s s S iz e - E n g lish J o u rn a l V o l. 22, p . 367.

I

3

These in v e s tig a tio n s a re concerned p rim a rily w ith th e m easu rab le r e s u l t s of in s t r u c t i o n s . E v ery th in g i n e d u c a tio n a l th e o ry p o in ts to th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t m a ste ry of f a c t i s of sm all v a lu e u n le s s accompanied by changes i n b e h a v io r , a t t i t u d e s , and th o u g h t p ro c e s s e s , in c lu d in g a c t i v i t y , in te rc h a n g e o f id e a s , c o o p e ra tiv e p la n n in g and ex ec u tio n o f group p r o j e c t s , and o r a l p r e s e n ta tio n of id e a s . D ecline of o r a l E n g lish accom panies in c r e a s e i n c l a s s s iz e . E f f e c ts of la r g e c la s s e s on t h e te a c h e r a r e o fte n ig n o re d . L arge c la s s e s r e q u ir e more p re p a ra tio n — f o r com m ittees o f p u p i l s , more r e f e r e n c e m a te r i a l, more p a p er c o r r e c tio n ." W. W. C h a rte rs^ warns a g a in s t a c c e p tin g r e s u l t s o f c la s s s i z e ex p erim en ts a s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r l a r g e r c la s s e s .

He p o in ts

o u t t h a t outcomes o th e r th a n in fo rm a tio n a l knowledge may be n e g le c te d i n la r g e c l a s s e s , a lth o u g h he g iv e s no p ro o f to back up h i s s ta te m e n t. Edgar Dale2 p o in ts o u t th a t c l a s s s iz e must v ary w ith th e s u b je c t ta u g h t .

He a ls o p o in ts out t h a t te a c h e r and p u p ils must be

c o n s id e re d i n d e term in in g p ro p e r s iz e o f c la s s e s . more a d e p t a t h a n d lin g la r g e c la s s e s . s m a ll c l a s s e s .

Some te a c h e r s a r e

O th ers a re more e f f i c i e n t w ith

Stevenson^ concluded, i n stu d y in g p u p ils i n e le m e n ta ry

sc h o o ls t h a t sm all c la s s e s w ere, in g e n e r a l, of g r e a te s t ad v an tag e t o d u ll p u p ils .

Dale2a ls o p o in ts ou t th e v e ry s ig n if ic a n t f a c t t h a t

t e s t s u se d i n experim ents on c la s s s iz e were t e s t s of in fo rm a tio n . He s u g g e s ts t h a t , i f la r g e c la s s e s a re j u s t i f i a b l e i n some s i t u a t i o n s , th e e x tr a te a c h e r s saved be u sed f o r in d iv id u a l work w ith th o s e s tu d e n ts who may need i t .

1 . L a rg e r C la s s e s , E d u c a tio n a l R esearch B u l le t in , V ol. 28, p . 276, Septem ber 1929. 2 . C la ss S iz e , E d u c a tio n a l R esearch B u lle t in . Vol. 1 0 , p . 245, A p r il 1931. 3 . R e la tio n o f C la ss S ize t o School E f f ic ie n c y , E d u c a tio n a l R esearch B u l l e t i n . No. 1 0 , J u ly 1932.

4

W illiam G. C a rr1- s t a t e s t h a t re s e a rc h h as n o t y e t d is c o v e re d th e b e s t c l a s s s i z e .

He s u g g e s ts , among o th e r s , th a t th e fo llo w in g

q u e s tio n s be s tu d ie d : What i s e f f e c t of la r g e c la s s e s on th e h e a lt h o f p u p ils ? What i s e f f e c t of la r g e c la s s e s on th e h e a lt h o f te a c h e r? What i s e f f e c t of la r g e c la s s e s on th e tim id y o u n g s te r, on th e b u lly , th e rowdy, th e p reco cio u s? Do te a c h e r s i n la r g e c la s s e s know p u p ils a s w e ll? He s u g g e s ts t h a t p erh ap s c e r t a i n ty p es o f work sh o u ld be done i n l a r g e g ro u p s w h ile o th e r s should be done i n sm all g ro u p s.

He

a s s e r t s t h a t as y e t , we know l i t t l e o r n o th in g o f th e r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y o f c l a s s s i z e , la r g e and s m a ll, a s f a r a s h e a l t h , i d e a l s , a t t i t u d e s , e m o tio n s, and h a b its of th o u g h t of in d iv id u a ls a re co n cern ed . Ir w in E. Manley2 p o in ts o u t t h a t , alth o u g h between 1900 and 1933 no l e s s th a n 205 p u b lic a tio n s have appeared on c la s s s iz e and a lth o u g h 108 ex p erim en ts were co n d u cted , th e q u e stio n o f p ro p e r s i z e o f c l a s s i s s t i l l unansw ered. E a r l Hudelson^ s t a t e s t h a t i t i s re a so n a b le to assume t h a t w h ile some te a c h e r s can te a c h more e f f e c t i v e l y i n la r g e c la s s e s , some may be more e f f e c t i v e in sm all o n es.

He p o in ts o u t t h a t some s u b je c ts

r e q u i r e s m a lle r c l a s s e s , t h a t some p u p ils do b e t t e r i n s m a lle r c la s s e s and some i n l a r g e r , and t h a t some e d u c a tio n a l aims can be b e t t e r a c h ie v e d i n l a r g e r c la s s e s th a n i n s m a lle r ones.

In o th e r w ords, th e r e

i s no problem of c l a s s s i z e ; th e r e a r e problem s of c la s s s i z e .

1 . New I n g le of A tta c k Needed i n C lass S iz e R esearch, N a tio n ’ s S c h o o ls . V ol. 1 0 , No. 5 , November 1932. 2 . E d u c a to rs Have Not Solved th e C lass S iz e P u z z le , N a tio n ’ s S c h o o ls. V ol. 10, No. 6 , December 1932. 3 . C la s s S iz e , O p in io n s, Evidence and P o li c ie s i n Secondary S c h o o ls, N orth C e n tra l A s s o c ia tio n Q u a rte rly . V ol. 4 , pp 196-208.

5

A. S. P e a rs e ^ o f f e r s th e t h e s i s t h a t a one p u p il s i t u a t i o n i s th e id e a l o n e , as th e to p ic does n o t have t o be brought down to a lo w er l e v e l because o f o th e r s tu d e n ts of l e s s e r a b i l i t y .

A ccording to

P e a rs e , th e l a r g e r th e number, th e more does th e c la s s become a sw eat­ shop where s tu d e n ts a r e rew arded by th e number of f a c t p ie c e s produced. He s u g g e sts a s lo g a n , "Fewer and B e tte r S tu d e n ts " . The o p in io n s g iv e n above, a s w e ll a s th e judgments and s t a t e ­ m ents o f many o th e r e d u c a to rs , r e v e a l n o t o n ly th e com plexity of th e problem , b u t th e in e f f e c tiv e n e s s o f i t s s o lu tio n t o d a te .

L e t us now

examine c r i t i c a l l y some of th e im p o rta n t c la s s s iz e experim ents t h a t have been co n d u cted .

B.

Some P re v io u s S tu d ie s i n C la ss Size — T h e ir L im ita tio n s J . M. R ice (1896) su rv ey ed th e r e s u l t s i n a r ith m e tic , g rad es

IV to V I I I , and i n E n g lis h , by im p ro v ised t e s t s .

S ix of th e l a r g e s t

c la s s e s made th e b e s t s c o r e s , w h ile in many c a se s th e p o o re s t showing was made i n th e s m a lle s t c l a s s e s . Comment: F a c to r s of i n t e l l i g e n c e were c o m p letely ig n o re d ; te a c h e r v a r i a b i l i t y was n o t ta k e n i n t o a c c o u n t.

I n p r a c t i c e , th e b r i g h t e s t

c h ild r e n a re u s u a ll y p la c e d i n l a r g e r c l a s s e s , w h ile th e slo w est a r e i n s m a lle r c l a s s e s . 0. v a rio u s s i z e s .

H ence, r e s u l t s o b ta in e d proved n othing c o n c lu siv e . P . Gorman (1913) s tu d ie d prom otion r a t e s i n c la s s e s of

Medium s iz e d c la s s e s showed th e b e s t p e rc e n ta g e .

1 . Teaching and Numbers, S chool and S o c ie ty . V ol. 32, p . 590, November 1930.

6

Comment: Since v a r i a b i l i t y i n a b i l i t y and many o th e r v i t a l f a c t o r s were n o t c o n sid e re d , th e r e s u l t s c a n n o t be c o n sid e re d a s p ro v in g an y th in g r e l i a b l e . P . A. Boyer (1913) c o n tin u e d s tu d ie s o f p rom otion r a t e s . Comment: No s c i e n t i f i c a n a ly s is o f f a c t o r s a f f e c t in g p u p il achievem ent, o th e r th an s iz e of c la s s were c o n s id e re d .

Comparisons o f prom otion

r a t e s i n v a rio u s siz e d c la s s e s a re o f l i t t l e v a lu e . C.

L. H arlan (1914) a ls o s tu d ie d prom otion r a t e s .

He con­

cluded t h a t some improvement i n r a t e r e s u l t e d w ith d e c re a se i n r e g i s t e r b u t suggested t h a t im proved m ethods of te a c h in g and more s k i l l f u l management of la r g e c la s s e s m ig h t in flu e n c e prom otion r a t e s . H is in v e s tig a tio n s showed t h a t medium s iz e d c la s s e s (25 to 45) ranked above th e average in g e n e r a l. Comment: M easures of i n t e l l i g e n c e w ere n o t u se d .

P re v io u s achievem ent

was n o t considered} te a c h e r v a r i a b i l i t y was n o t ta k e n i n t o account} many o th e r f a c t o r s were ig n o re d . Breed and McCarthy (1916) m easured th e e f f e c t o f c la s s s iz e on e f f ic ie n c y i n s p e llin g .

The r e s u l t s showed la r g e c la s s e s s u p e r io r

to sm aller in a l l g rad es e x c e p t th e s e v e n th . Comment: This i s a c o n te n t s u b j e c t .

I t i s q u ite p o s s ib le t h a t i n

c o n te n t s u b je c ts s iz e of c l a s s i s n o t a s im p o rtan t a f a c t o r as i n s k i l l or to o l s u b je c ts , e . g . , p rim a ry re a d in g o r fu n d am en tal a r ith m e tic .

7

P . R. S tevenson (1920) conducted an experim ent i n Chicago i n f o u r h ig h sc h o o ls and i n f i f t y elem entary school c l a s s e s .

Each

te a c h e r ta u g h t a la r g e c la s s one te rm , and a sm all c la s s th e su cceed in g o n e.

P u p ils were mated on in te ll ig e n c e and on p re v io u s ach iev em en t.

S iz e of c la s s e s seemed to have l i t t l e e f f e c t on r e s u l t s . Comment; The sm all c la s s of f o r t y , which was u sed , was to o c lo s e i n s iz e to th e la r g e c la s s of f i f t y , to make c o n clu sio n s v e ry s i g n i f i c a n t . However, t h i s experim ent was th e most s c i e n t i f i c one co nducted up to t h a t tim e .

No s p e c ia l method a p p lic a b le to each ty p e o f c l a s s was

em ployed, b u t an a tte m p t was d e f i n i t e l y made to c o n tr o l many v a r ia b le fa c to rs . J . C. Almack (1921-2) s tu d ie d th e e f f e c t o f la r g e and sm all c la s s e s i n a t r a i n i n g sch o o l f o r te a c h e r s . c l a s s i s an u n im p o rtan t f a c t o r .

He found t h a t s iz e o f

Almack d isco v e re d t h a t th e r a p id

g a in s of a few m ight be re s p o n s ib le f o r a group advantage i n a la r g e c l a s s , though i n r e a l i t y le a r n in g was more c o n s is te n t i n a sm all c l a s s . Comment: Almack1s

c o n c lu sio n about group advantage i s s i g n i f i c a n t . I t

i s q u ite

p o s s ib le t h a t to o many c o n clu sio n s

have been b ased on

a v e ra g e s

i n la r g e and sm all c l a s s e s , r a t h e r

th an i n le a r n in g p ro g re s s

by th e in d iv id u a l

members of th e group.

It

i s q u ite p o s s ib le t h a t th e

approach by each in d iv id u a l to h is own e d u c a tio n a l p o t e n t i a l l i t y i s a more e f f e c t i v e and s c i e n t i f i c m easure.

F u rth erm o re, th e p e rc e n ta g e

of p u p ils i n each group who make b e t t e r p ro g ress may be a more v a l i d m easure o f e f f i c i e n c y th a n th e average g a in of each g ro u p .

$

D a v is, (1921-2) made a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly s is o f term marks in one hundred h ig h sch o o ls o f th e North C e n tra l A s s o c ia tio n 1s t e r r i t o r y . He concluded t h a t , so f a r a s achievem ent o f p u p ils a re c o n ce rn e d , e f f e c tiv e n e s s o f a c la s s i s dependent on f a c t o r s o th e r th a n s i z e . Comment: T h is su rv e y , a s most o f th e o th e r s u rv e y s, was concerned w ith h ig h sc h o o l w ork, where c o n te n t s u b je c ts p r e v a i l.

Most c l a s s

s iz e e x p erim en ts have d e a l t w ith c o n te n t s u b je c ts and w ith th e a c q u is itio n o f f a c t u a l knowledge. Tope, Groom and Buson^ d e s c rib e a stu d y in th ir d y e a r E n g lish i n C o lo rad o ,

They conclude t h a t "th e la r g e r th e c l a s s , th e

b e t t e r th e d is c u s s io n and th e l a r g e r th e p u p i l 's s to r e o f know ledge. On th e o th e r hand, in ty p e s o f study where in d iv id u a l work and d r i l l i s n e c e s s a ry , th e sm a ll c la s s ap p ears to be b e t t e r " . Comment: The sta te m e n t quoted above i s s i g n i f i c a n t .

I t a g a in r a i s e s

th e q u e s tio n c o n cern in g c o n te n t and d r i l l o r t o o l s u b je c ts i n r e l a t i o n to c l a s s s i z e .

I t may w e ll be t h a t sm a lle r c la s s e s a re in d ic a te d in

th e low er g ra d e s o f th e elem en tary sch o o ls r a t h e r th a n i n th e u p p er g rad es and i n th e h ig h s c h o o ls .

In th e elem en tary sch o o ls we a re much

more concerned w ith th e developm ent o f b a sic s k i l l s . Edmonson and M ulder2 (1922-3) compared r e s u l t s i n a la r g e and in a s m a ll u n iv e r s ity c l a s s . r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s iz e o f c l a s s .

R e s u lts were found to b ear l i t t l e S tu d e n ts who p re fe rre d th e s m a ll c la s s

gave th e fo llo w in g re a s o n s :

J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch , F ebruary 1924. 2 * S iz e o f C la ss a s a F a c to r i n U n iv e rs ity I n s tr u c tio n , J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch . V o l, 9 , Pp. 1 -1 2 , January 1924.

9

1 . more p e rs o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith i n s t r u c t o r 2 . g r e a t e r o p p o rtu n ity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Comment: I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t b o th te a c h e rs and s tu d e n ts u s u a lly f e e l t h a t s m a lle r c la s s e s a f f o r d more o p p o rtu n ity f o r p e rs o n a l c o n ta c ts , which a p p ea r to be d e s i r a b l e .

Most e x p e rim e n ts, which a re concerned

w ith school r a t i n g s and s c h o la s t ic ach iev em en t, ig n o re th e s e phases of e d u c a tio n a l o b j e c t i v e s . P. R. S te v e n so n (1923-4) re p e a te d h i s c l a s s s iz e in v e s tig a tio n in th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls o f C in c in n a ti, C le v e la n d , Akron and Toledo. R o ta tio n of te a c h e r s was em ployed. c la s s e s made b e t t e r g a in s .

I n g ra d e s V and VII th e la r g e r

I n g rad e I I s m a lle r c la s s e s were su p e rio r

to medium s iz e d c l a s s e s , b u t i n a l l g ra d e s th e l a r g e s t c la s s e s made th e g r e a t e s t amount o f im provem ent. Comment: These e x p e rim e n ts were n o t o n ly conducted w ith heterogeneous groups but th e r e i s no e v id en c e o f any d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of methodology in accordance w ith th e s iz e o f th e g ro u p .

B e sid e s, th e amount of g ain

i s based on a v e ra g e s o f th e groups and n o t on p ro g re s s made by th e g r e a t e s t number o f in d iv id u a ls i n each group.

I t may w e ll be t h a t a

few la r g e g a in s by some in d iv id u a ls overshadow th e sm a lle r g ain s by a g r e a te r number of p u p i l s . A. D. M u e lle r conducted an ex p erim en t i n psychology a t th e S ta te Normal School a t W o rc e ste r, and found a s m a lle r c la s s su p e rio r to a l a r g e r one, on th e b a s is of an o b je c tiv e t e s t given to th e mated g ro u p s.

10

Comment: M u eller, i n h is c o n c lu s io n s , shows th e q u ite f r e q u e n t b ia s of e d u c a to rs i n f a v o r of sm all c l a s s e s .

He s a y s , " I t i s im p o ssib le

t o use sm all-group m ethods, c l a s s d is c u s s io n s , in d iv id u a l r e p o r t s , e t c . , w ith a c la s s of f o r t y - f i v e and k eep th e c l a s s a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d is c u s s io n s " .

He a ls o s t a t e s , "A s tu d e n t’ s c o n ta c ts w ith th e

te a c h e r o fte n means i n f i n i t e l y more to h i s developm ent th a n th e m ost thorough a cq u a in ta n ce w ith s u b je c t m a tte r " .

T h is a s s e r t i o n i s one t h a t

m e rits being a s u b je c t f o r c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . M etzner and B erry (1926) co n d u cted an e x p erim en t in D e tr o it to determ ine th e p ro p e r s iz e of c l a s s e s f o r m e n ta lly r e ta r d e d c h ild r e n . O pinions of p r in c ip a ls and te a c h e r s w ere sought i n a d d itio n t o stu d y in g r e s u l t s of t e s t s .

One o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c lu s io n s was t h a t th e

number of p u p ils a te a c h e r has b e en accustom ed t o h a n d lin g , c o lo rs h e r judgm ent as to b e s t s iz e o f c l a s s . Comment The numbers u sed in th e f o u r c l a s s s iz e d groups were f i f t e e n , tw en ty , tw e n ty -fiv e and t h i r t y .

R e s u lts a g a in were b ased on average

g a in s of th e gro u p s, and n o t on g a in s b y th e g r e a t e s t number i n each c la s s . L.D. H a e rtte r (1925-6) c o n d u c te d an i n t e r e s t i n g ex p erim en t i n h a n d lin g la r g e and sm all c la s s e s i n g eo m etry .

He found t h a t la r g e

c la s s e s d id a s w e ll as sm all o n e s, e x c e p t t h a t d u l l e r p u p ils ach iev ed more i n th e sm a lle r g roups. Comment: T his experim ent, to o , r a i s e s t h e q u e s tio n a s t o w hether o u r p o lic y of sm a lle r c la s s e s i n h ig h sc h o o l th a n i n e le m e n ta ry sch o o ls

11

i s n o t unsound.

I t i s q u ite p o s s ib le t h a t s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t ig a ti o n

w i l l r e v e a l a g r e a te r need of s m a lle r c l a s s e s i n th e e le m e n ta ry sch o o ls th a n i n h ig h s c h o o ls .

I t i s th e g e n e ra l p r a c ti c e to o rg a n iz e s m a lle r

c la s s e s i n secondary sc h o o ls th a n i n th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls .

Is

th e r e i s s c i e n t i f i c b a s is f o r t h i s ? C.

E. True blood-*- conducted a s im ila r e x p erim en t i n a la r g e

geom etry c la s s and found t h a t w ith p u p ils a s h e lp e r s q u i t e a la r g e c l a s s co u ld be handled s u c c e s s f u lly . Comment: The p la n p ro v id e s f o r l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f c o n te n t o r in d iv id u a liz a tio n of i n s t r u c t i o n . a ssig n m e n t.

I t i s mass te a c h in g o f th e same

B esid e s, i t i s a h ig h sch o o l s u b je c t.

The fo llo w in g

comment by th e ex p erim en ter i s s i g n i f i c a n t , " I n A lg eb ra I I where th e p u p ils were younger, th e p la n was l e s s s u c c e s s f u l.

I n any c a s e , th e

younger my p u p ils , th e sm a lle r sh o u ld be my c l a s s " .

I s i t n o t q u ite

p o s s ib le t h a t o ld e r p u p ils can work more e f f e c t i v e l y i n l a r g e r c la s s e s because th e y have developed th e a b i l i t y t o work in d e p e n d e n tly ? S.

N. Ewan^ (1932-3) s tu d ie d th e r e l a t i o n o f c l a s s s iz e and

s e le c te d te a c h in g methods to p u p il achievem ent.

H is e x p erim en t was

conducted i n f o u r h igh sch o o l s u b je c ts i n Lansdowne, P a . c la s s e s of tw enty and f o r t y p u p ils were u se d .

P a ire d

T h is ex p erim en t i n t r o ­

duced a new and im p o rtan t elem en t, nam ely, a s tu d y o f th e e f f e c t iv e n e s s of v a rio u s methods of te a c h in g i n la r g e and i n sm a ll c l a s s e s . s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s i n achievem ent were re v e a le d .

No

The l e c t u r e -

D e m o n stra tio n -R e c ita tio n Method gave b e t t e r r e s u l t s i n G e n era l S cien ce th a n th e U n it Method.

1 . My Geometry C la ss of One Hundred. 1927 2 . R e la tio n of C lass S iz e and S e le c te d Teaching Methods t o P u p il Achievement. 1934.

12

Comment: I n t h i s experim ent an a tte m p t was made to f i n d o u t w hat r e l a t i o n th e r e was between s iz e of c la s s and method.

The e x p e rim e n t,

how ever, was s im ila r t o many o th e rs i n t h a t i t d e a lt w ith c l a s s e s on th e seco n d ary l e v e l , and i t s c o n clu sio n s were based l a r g e l y on a c h ie v e ­ ment o f f a c t u a l know ledge. W. H. Wasson (1927) stu d ie d th e achievem ent o f n in t h y e a r c la s s e s of Chicago i n v a rio u s h ig h sch o o l s u b je c ts .

However, w h ile

th e average I.Q . o f la r g e and sm all c la s s e s were th e same, th e s tu d e n ts were n o t p a ir e d . Comment: In t h i s stu d y we a g ain f in d th e scene in sec o n d a ry g ra d e s , and th e s u b je c ts th o s e which a re l a r g e ly f a c t u a l in n a tu r e . E a r l H udelson (1925) ap p o in ted a committee which co nducted a s e r i e s of c o n tr o lle d experim ents in c la s s s i z e .

I n advance o f th e

e x p erim en t, q u e s tio n n a ir e s were s e n t o u t to over s ix h u n d red te a c h e r s . About two hundred resp o n d ed , most of whom opposed l a r g e c la s s e s b ecau se: 1 . in d iv id u a liz e d i n s t r u c t i o n i s more d i f f i c u l t 2 . d i s c i p l i n e i s more d i f f i c u l t 3 . s t r a i n on te a c h e r i s to o g r e a t. Dr. H udelson conducted e x te n s iv e c la s s s iz e e x p erim en ts on th e c o lle g e l e v e l , and found th a t r e s u l t s on b a s is o f marks were overw helm ingly i n f a v o r of la rg e c la s s e s , although t h e s tu d e n ts a l l f e l t t h a t s m a lle r c la s s e s were more d e s ir a b le . Comment: These s tu d ie s a r e on th e high sch o o l and c o lle g e l e v e l where a b i l i t y to work in d e p e n d e n tly i s presum ably w e ll developed i n s tu d e n ts . May v/e assume com parable r e s u l t s w ith s im ila r siz e d g ro u p s i n th e low er g ra d e s of th e elem en tary schools?

13

P* S. M ille r (1929) i n an in v e s tig a tio n of p ljy sic s i n s t r u c t i o n concluded t h a t s iz e o f c l a s s had no e f f e c t on s c o re s made* Comment: C o n clu sio n s were based on c l a s s m edians, w hich, l i k e a v e r a g e s , f a i l t o c o n s id e r achievem ent of th e in d iv id u a ls who compose each group*

B e s id e s, t h i s in v e s t ig a ti o n was on th e sec o n d a ry , and not

on th e elem en ta ry le v e l* B ates (1928) in a n in v e s t ig a tio n on th e secondary l e v e l con clu d ed t h a t te a c h in g s k i l l was a more im p o rtan t f a c to r th a n c l a s s siz e * Comment: T his i s a c o n s id e ra tio n w hich must no t be o v erlo o k ed i n any stu d y o f c l a s s s iz e * J* R. K irk (1928) conducted a c la s s s iz e experim ent in e d u c a tio n a l p sy ch o lo g y .

R e s u lts were alm ost id e n t i c a l in b o th ty p e s

o f c la s s e s * Comment: Dr* K irk , t o o , em phasises th e c a p a b ility and e f f ic ie n c y o f some te a c h e r s in h a n d lin g la rg e c l a s s e s , w hile some appear more ad ap ted t o th e h a n d lin g o f s m a lle r ones*

This experim ent was conducted a t th e

c o lle g e l e v e l , w here s tu d e n t s , presum ably, a re w e ll tr a in e d i n in d e p e n d e n t study* A c o n s id e ra b le number o f o th e r experim ents i n th e u p p er g ra d e s o f th e e lem en ta ry sc h o o l and in h ig h Bchool ten d to show t h a t r e s u l t s i n l a r g e r c la s s e s a r e u s u a lly no p o o re r th an in sm all c la s s e s *

However,

most o f th e s u b je c ts i n th e s e ex p erim en ts a re c o n te n t s u b je c ts # A lthough a v erag e t e s t r e s u l t s a re used a s b ases f o r con­ c lu s io n s , th e s e f r e q u e n tly f a i l t o ta k e i n t o account av erag e g a in s r a t h e r th a n av erag e ach ie v e m en t.

The elem ent o f p re v io u s achievem ent

i s f r e q u e n tly g iv en to o l i t t l e c o n s id e r a tio n . P . L. Ti/hitney (1929) d ir e c te d a s e r i e s o f in v e s tig a tio n s i n th e r e l a t i o n o f c l a s s s iz e t o e d u c a tio n a l e f f ic ie n c y i n th e f i r s t fo u r g rad es o f th e e lem en ta ry s c h o o l.

T his in v e s t ig a ti o n i s o f i n t e r e s t

because i t was based on groups o f p u p ils i n v a rio u s s e c tio n s o f th e c o u n try .

S t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were d eterm ined on th e b a s is o f

d a ta sec u re d from v a r io u s c i t i e s . A c lo s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een e d u c a tio n a l age and s iz e o f c la s s was re v e a le d i n c l a s s e s o f t h i r t y - s i x to f o r t y - f i v e th a n in c la s s e s o f tw e n ty -s ix t o t h i r t y - f i v e .

On th e w hole, th e r e s u l t s

su g g est t h a t la r g e c la s s e s a r e p erh ap s more s u c c e s s fu l i n th e f i r s t and second y e a r s th a n i n th e t h i r d and f o u r th y e a r s . Comment: The method employed in th e stu d y i s open to q u e s tio n . many v a r i a b l e s were p r e s e n t .

Too

A lso , th e e d u c a tio n a l ag e, which was used

a s a m easure, may have been in flu e n c e d to a g r e a te r e x te n t by p re v io u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n v a rio u s s i z e s o f c la s s e s th a n by th e c la s s th e c h ild may have been i n d u rin g th e e x p erim en t.

B rig h te r p u p ils a re u s u a lly

p la ce d i n l a r g e r c l a s s e s , h en ce, E d u c a tio n a l Age in la r g e r c la s s e s i s fr e q u e n tly h ig h e r because o f a d m in is tr a tiv e procedure and n o t because o f th e i n s t r u c t i o n g iv e n .

15

Summary: I t i s q u ite o b v io u s t h a t th e v a r io u s s tu d ie s o f c l a s s s iz e have shown l i t t l e or no c o n s is te n t r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een s iz e o f c la s s e s and th e m easurable r e s u l t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n .

A number o f i n v e s t ig a ti o n s

appear to show t h a t la r g e c la s s e s le a r n a s v e i l a s sm a ll o n e s . A number of e x p e rim e n te rs have a tte m p te d t o a n a ly z e p u p il r e a c tio n s i n v a rio u s s iz e d c l a s s e s . develop g r e a te r s e l f - r e l i a n c e . c e r t a i n ty p e s of p u p i l s .

Some c la im t h a t la r g e c la s s e s

O th e rs s t a t e t h a t la r g e c l a s s e s em barrass

The p e r s o n a lity o f th e p u p il i s c e r t a i n l y a

f a c to r which must be ta k e n i n t o c o n s id e r a tio n i n d e te rm in in g c la s s s iz e . Group methods become alm o st im p e ra tiv e i n la r g e c l a s s e s , bu t in d iv id u a liz e d i n s t r u c t i o n i s w e ll n ig h o u t o f th e q u e s tio n i n such g ro u p s.

I t i s q u ite p o s s ib le t h a t when in d iv id u a liz e d te c h n iq u e s a re

employed, i t may be found t h a t s m a lle r c l a s s e s a re e s s e n t i a l , i f we a tte m p t to f i t th e c u rric u lu m to th e s p e c i f i c needs o f th e in d iv id u a l p u p ils . S tu d en ts and te a c h e r s u s u a ll y p r e f e r sm a lle r c l a s s e s .

This i s

p robably due to th e f a c t t h a t in tim a te r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p e rs o n a l c o n ta c ts a re more p o s s ib le i n s m a lle r g ro u p s .

I f we te a c h p u p i l s , and

n o t s u b je c ts , t h i s i s undo u b ted ly a v e ry im p o rta n t c o n s id e r a tio n . T eachers, of c o u rse , u s u a lly p r e f e r s m a lle r c la s s e s because o f th e d e c re a se i n c l e r i c a l w ork, and because d i s c i p l i n a r y problem s a re u s u a lly few er i n number i n such c l a s s e s . The p re s e n t p r a c t i c e s in c o n n e c tio n w ith c la s s s iz e a re c le a r ly

16

re v e a le d by a stu d y o f th e E d u c a tio n a l R esearch S e r v ic e C ir c u la r # 5 , A p r il, 1936, N a tio n a l E ducation A s s o c ia tio n , This c i r c u l a r p o in ts out t h a t i n 1930-1931 a b o u t o n e - th ir d o f f o r ty - s e v e n c i t i e s over 100,000 in p o p u la tio n w ere in c r e a s in g th e s i z e of c l a s s e s .

In 1935-1936, however, n e a r ly o n e - f i f t h o f s ix ty -o n e such

c i t i e s w ere re d u c in g c l a s s e s .

C la sses ranged i n s iz e from n in e ty o r

more to from one to s ix p u p il s . The fo llo w in g ta b l e gives th e median s iz e o f c l a s s i n f iv e d iv is io n s o f th e sch o o l system s of c i t i e s o v e r 100,000 i n p o p u la tio n . EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE_______ CIRCULAR NO. 5 . 1936 TABLE B. MEDIAN SIZE OF CLASS IN FIVE DIVISIONS OF THE SCHOOL SYSTEM CITIES OVER 100,000 IN POPULATION, 1930-31 AND 1935-36 ...................... 1935-36 _______

1930-31

S chool D iv is io n K in d e rg a rte n s E lem entary grades A ty p ic a l c la s s e s J u n io r h ig h sch o o ls S e n io r h ig h sch o o ls

No. o f c itie s 35 43 39 33 31

Median no. of p u p ils p er c la s s 3 4 .6 3 6 .9 17.5 3 2 .2 28 .5

No. o f c itie s 46 54 51 44 50

Median n o . o f p u p ils per c la s s 3 1 .0 3 6 .4 1 9 .4 3 5 .1 3 1 .4

In th e elem entary sch o o ls, 9 .3 ^ o f c l a s s e s had betw een f o r t y - f i v e and f o r ty - n in e p u p ils ; 23.3$ had between f o r t y and f o r t y - f o u r p u p ils ;

17

3 0 .6 $ had betw een t h i r t y - f i v e and t h i r t y - n i n e p u p ils ; 22.0$ had betw een t h i r t y and t h i r t y —fo u r p u p ils ; 8 .5 $ had betw een tw enty—f iv e and tw e n ty n in e p u p i l s ; 2 .5 $ had betw een tw en ty and tw e n ty -fo u r p u p i l s . I n a l l g ra d e s o f sc h o o ls c la s s e s d e crea se d i n s iz e a s th e y went up t h e e d u c a tio n a l la d d e r (k in d e rg a rte n s e x c e p te d ). The s tu d ie s o u tlin e d and th e s t a t i s t i c s p re s e n te d r a i s e many unansw ered q u e s tio n s i n c o n n e c tio n w ith c la s s s i z e .

There i s l i t t l e

i n d i c a t i o n t h a t any b a s ic p r i n c i p l e s govern th e s iz e o f c l a s s e s o rg a n iz e d on th e v a r io u s l e v e l s and i n th e v a rio u s s u b je c ts .

The s iz e o f c la s s e s

a p p e a rs i n many c a s e s to be th e outcome o f com pelling o r a c c id e n t a l c irc u m s ta n c e s , such a s a v a il a b le fu n d s , o r c u r r e n t r e g i s t r a t i o n f i g u r e s . These c irc u m s ta n c e s have b u i l t up h a b itu a l p r a c tic e s w hich a r e i n no way co n cern ed w ith , o r based upon sound e d u c a tio n a l p r i n c i p l e s o r p ro c e d u res. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te from th e ta b le g iv e n above t h a t th e a v e ra g e s i z e o f e lem en ta ry sch o o l c la s s e s was s m a lle r i n 1936 th a n i n 1931, w h ile th e a v erag e s i z e o f c la s s e s i n ju n io r and s e n io r h ig h s c h o o ls was l a r g e r th a n i n 1931*

These s i t u a t i o n s were u n d o u b ted ly

c a u s e d , n o t by e d u c a tio n a l c o n s id e r a tio n s , b u t by th e f a c t t h a t sec o n d a ry s c h o o l r e g i s t r a t i o n was in c re a s in g i n 1936, w h ile e lem en ta ry s c h o o l r e g i s t r a t i o n was d e c r e a s in g . I n New York C ity , i n 1939, th e s iz e o f c l a s s e s i n e lem en tary s c h o o ls was s m a lle r th a n i n th e p re c ed in g y e a r s , due t o f a l l i n g r e g i s ­ tra tio n .

However, i n th e h ig h s c h o o ls , o v e rsiz e d c la s s e s in c re a s e d i n

num ber, b e ca u se h ig h sc h o o l r e g i s t r a t i o n was s t i l l b e in g m a in ta in e d and b e c a u se a d r a s t i c c u rta ilm e n t i n fu n d s made i t n e c e s sa ry t o re d u c e th e

i&

number o f c la s s e s and tea ch in g p o sitio n s* Few o f th e ex p erim en ts on c la s s s iz e have touched on b a s ic e d u c a tio n a l p r in c ip le s #

I n s te a d , th e y have r a is e d many d o u b ts a s t o

sound e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y or p r in c i p l e s on t h i s su b je c t* To d eterm in e a l l o f th e s e p r i n c ip le s by experim ent w i l l be a lo n g and d i f f i c u l t ta s k *

U n til t h a t i s accom plished, th e e x p e rie n c e

o f te a c h e r s and a d m in is tr a to r s , th e re s e a rc h e s o f e d u c a tio n a l e x p e r t s , and th e judgm ents and o p in io n s o f c a r e f u l th in k e r s , may w e ll be u t i l i z e d i n an e f f o r t t o a r r i v e a t some g e n e ra lly acc e p ted and b a s ic p r in c ip le s *

As a su g g e ste d means o f a c h ie v in g t h i s r e s u l t , a c a r e f u l ,

d e t a i l e d q u e s tio n n a ir e on th e many f a c t o r s a f f e c tin g s iz e of c l a s s e s has been drawn up and i s p re s e n te d i n th e appendix o f t h i s study#

It

i s hoped t h a t some e d u c a tio n a l fo u n d a tio n o r i n s t i t u t i o n may deem i t im p o rta n t enough t o fin a n c e an e x te n s iv e stu d y based on th e d a ta sec u re d and com piled by a q u e s tio n n a ir e o f t h i s n atu re* However, i n th e m eantim e, some o f th e se p r in c ip le s may p e rh a p s be d eterm in ed by e x p erim en t.

In any experim ent i n c l a s s s i z e ,

c a re must be ta k e n to l i m i t c a r e f u l ly th e soope, p u rp o s e s, and p ro c e d u re , i n o rd e r t o avoid th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x tran eo u s f a c to r s which may i n v a l i d a t e th e r e s u l t s *

I t was w ith t h i s purpose i n mind t h a t th e

e x p erim en t d e s c rib e d i n t h i s r e p o r t was undertaken*

Very l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n

h as been p a id h e r e to f o r e to com parative e d u c a tio n a l v a lu e o f l a r g e and sm a ll c la s s e s i n th e e a r l y elem en tary g ra d e s, where th e developm ent o f t o o l s u b je c ts and s k i l l s , r a th e r th a n th e a c q u is itio n o f f a c t u a l

I

19

know ledge, i s th e c h ie f aim .

The ex p erim en t, to o , a tte m p ts t o stu d y

n o t o n ly th e s c h o la s tic e f f e c t s o f la rg e and sm all c la s s e s a t t h i s l e v e l b u t a ls o th e p e r s o n a l, s o c i a l , and em otional e f f e c t s .

Method

a p p r o p r ia te t o sm all c la s s e s has a ls o been ta k e n in to c o n s id e r a tio n . The p u rp o s e s , p ro c e d u re , and th e r e s u l t s o f t h i s experim ent a r e e x p la in e d i n d e t a i l i n th e n e x t s e c tio n o f t h i s stu d y .

20

CHAPTER I I THE PROBLEM - WHAT IS 'CHE RELATION OF SIZE OF CLASS TO SCHOLASTIC AND OTHER OUTCOMES IN THE EARLY ELEMENTARY GRADES?

A.

Statem ent o f th e Problem - R easons f o r th e Experim ent 1*

Almost a l l c l a s s s i z e ex p erim en ts h e re to fo re conducted have

re v e ale d in c o n c lu s iv e o r no ad v an tag es i n re d u c in g s iz e o f c la s s e s # In f a c t , i n some e x p erim en ts la r g e c la s s e s have produced b e t t e r r e s u lts # 2.

D e sp ite th e s e r e s u l t s , many e d u c a to rs f e e l s tro n g ly t h a t

re d u c tio n o f s iz e of c l a s s m ust be o f some v alu e#

On th e b a s is o f

p r a c t i c a l e x p e rie n c e , s m a lle r c la s s e s a re g e n e ra lly advocated and defended# 3#

There i s w idespread b e l i e f t h a t experim ents h e re to fo re con­

ducted have n o t d e f i n i t e l y o r a d e q u a te ly solved th e problem o f th e r e l a t i o n o f c l a s s s iz e t o te a c h in g and le a r n in g e ffic ie n c y # A#

I n view o f th e r e s u l t s o f p re v io u s ex perim ents a r e sm aller

c la s s e s , w ith t h e i r added expense e d u c a tio n a lly j u s t i f i a b l e ? 5#

Are f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s w hich oppose th e in c re a s e d a p p ro p ria tio n s

which a r e n e c e s sa ry to re d u c e s iz e o f c l a s s , j u s t i f i e d i n t h e i r con­ te n tio n t h a t such r e d u c tio n i s a n e e d le s s e x p e n d itu re o f p u b lic fu n d s, 6.

On th e b a s is o f th e su rv ey o f p re v io u s e x p erim en ts, p re se n te d

i n C hapter I , th e fo llo w in g f a c t s , w hich o f f e r i n t e r e s t i n g c lu e s toward a p o s s ib le s o lu tio n o f th e c l a s s s i z e p u z z le , were c l e a r l y d is c e r n ib l e :

21

a*

I n te llig e n c e f a c t o r s were f r e q u e n tly ignored*

b.

Teacher v a r i a b i l i t y was f r e q u e n tly p e rm itte d .

c.

I n p r a c t i c e , b r i g h t e r c h ild r e n f r e q u e n tly a re p la c e d i n la r g e r c l a s s e s , hence b e t t e r s c h o l a s t i c r e s u l t s o ccu r in such c l a s s e s , u n le s s i n t e l l i g e n c e and p re v io u s achievem ent a re c a r e f u l ly eq u alize d #

d.

In some c a s e s , c l a s s e s w ere m atched as to i n t e l l i g e n c e , but were n o t m atched on th e b a s is o f e d u c a tio n a l achievem ent.

e.

A v a s t m a jo rity o f th e s u b je c ts c o n sid e re d were c o n te n t s u b je c ts #

I t i s q u ite p o s s ib le t h a t c la s s s iz e i s r e l a t i v e l y

u n im p o rtan t where a c q u is i tio n o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s involved#

I t i s re a so n a b le t o assume t h a t s im ila r r e s u l t s

may n o t be se c u re d i f fu n d am en tal s k i l l and t o o l s u b je c ts a re th e b a se s o f th e experim ents# f«

In most e x p e rim e n ts, s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n h as n o t been made betw een la r g e and sm a ll c l a s s e s .

Some e x p erim en ters

used f i f t y a s th e la r g e c l a s s and f o r t y as th e sm all c la ss# Sm all c la s s e s betw een t h i r t y and f o r t y , and la rg e c la s s e s betw een f o r t y and f i f t y w ere th e g e n e r a l r u l e .

I t may

re a so n a b ly be m a in tain ed t h a t any c l a s s o f t h i r t y - f i v e or over i s a la r g e c la s s #

P e rh a p s, we should re g a rd no c la s s o f

t h i r t y o r more a s a sm a ll c la s s #

P erh ap s we should experim ent

w ith sm all c la s s e s o f f i f t e e n t o tw en ty to see i f th e r e s u l t s o f e a r l i e r ex p erim en ts w i l l s t i l l o b ta in #

22

g*

P r a c t i c a l l y a l l experim ents c o n s id e re d o n ly th e a v erag e g a in s o f c la s s e s *

P erhaps a g a in by a g r e a t e r p e rc e n ta g e

o f p u p ils i n each group would be a more v a lid measure# h.

A la rg e p ro p o rtio n o f ex p erim en ts have been on th e c o lle g e , high sc h o o l, and upper e lem en ta ry g rad e le v e ls *

I t is

q u ite p o s s ib le t h a t on th e s e l e v e l s p u p ils have a c q u ire d a s u f f i c i e n t a b i l i t y to stu d y and t o le a r n in d e p en d e n tly #

It

i s co n ceiv ab le t h a t s im ila r r e s u l t s m ight n o t be o b ta in e d i n th e low er elem entary g ra d e s , where in d ep en d en t le a r n in g a b i l i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y u n d ev elo p ed , and where te a c h e r guidance o f th e in d iv id u a l p u p il i s a much more n e c e s sa ry f a c t o r in learn in g * i#

P r a c tic a l ly a l l o f th e e x p erim en ts have concerned th em selv es la r g e ly w ith s c h o la s tic a tta in m e n ts *

We now re c o g n iz e t h a t

t h i s i s a lim ite d c o n cep tio n o f th e p u rp o ses o f t h e sc h o o l. I t i s q u ite p o s s ib le t h a t a s tu d y o f o th e r f a c t o r s , such a s s o c ia l a d ju stm e n ts, r e l a t i o n s h i p s betw een te a c h e r and p u p ils and among p u p ils , o p p o r tu n itie s f o r p u p il p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a t te n tio n and a p p lic a tio n to w ork, em o tio n al r e a c t i o n s , o p p o rtu n itie s f o r s e lf - e x p r e s s io n , e t c . may r e v e a l d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s i n la rg e and s m a ll c la s s e s * j.

Although p re v io u s exp erim en ts r e v e a l t h a t on th e h ig h sch o o l and c o lle g e le v e l s iz e o f c l a s s i s r e l a t i v e l y u n im p o rta n t, th e g e n e ra l p r a c tic e i s to have s m a lle r c la s s e s i n th e h ig h sch o o l

23

th a n i n th e elem entary school* should be re v e rse d *

P erhaps t h i s p r a c t i c e

P erhaps e x p e rim e n ta tio n w ith s iz e o f

c la s s e s i n th e e a r ly elem en tary g rad es may r e v e a l a g r e a te r need f o r sm a lle r c la s s e s a t t h a t le v e l* k*

Very few o f th e p re v io u s experim ents have p a id any a t t e n t i o n t o methods o f teach in g *

I t i s p o s s ib le t h a t w ith a method

o f te a c h in g more adapted to a sm all c l a s s , b e t t e r r e s u l t s may be o b ta in e d .

Many p re v io u s ex p erim en ts do n o t a p p e a r t o have

ta k e n advantage o f th e o p p o rtu n ity o f f e r e d hy th e s m a ll c la s s f o r g r e a te r in d iv id u a liz a tio n o f i n s t r u c t i o n .

In th is

c o n n e c tio n , i t i s w e ll t o p o in t ou t th e p r e s e n t g r e a t em phasis on t h i s method o f in s tr u c tio n *

In a su rv ey o f New York C ity

sc h o o ls conducted by D r. Frank P* G raves, fo rm er Commissioner o f E du catio n of th e S ta te o f New Y ork, one o f th e most im p o rta n t recommendations was th e p r o v is io n f o r more in d iv id ­ u a liz a tio n of in s tru c tio n .

I t c e r t a i n l y rem ain s t o be

dem o n strated w hether in d iv id u a liz e d i n s t r u c t i o n c an be c a r r ie d on a s e f f e c t i v e l y i n la r g e c la s s e s a s i n sm a ll o n e s .

In f a c t,

i t i s s e r io u s ly open t o q u e s tio n w hether l i t t l e o r any in d iv id u a liz a tio n i s p o s s ib le i n la r g e c la s s e s *

An ex p erim en t

i n th e e a r ly grades w ith la r g e and sm a ll c la s s e s p r e s e n ts an o p p o rtu n ity t o determ ine how e f f e c t iv e in d iv id u a liz e d in s t r u c ­ t i o n r e a l l y i s i n each ty p e o f c la s s *

That in d iv id u a liz e d

i n s t r u c t i o n i s g r e a tly needed in th e e a r ly g ra d e s where c h ild r e n a re im m ature, u n s k ille d i n t o o l s u b je c ts and

r e l a t i v e l y la c k in g i n b a s ic t r a i n i n g , w i l l g e n e r a lly be acknow ledged.

T h e re fo re , to stu d y th e e f f e c t s o f

in d iv id u a liz e d methods o f in s tr u c tio n i n sm all and i n la r g e c l a s s e s , e s p e c ia ll y in th e lower g ra d e s , i s a n im p o rta n t e d u c a tio n a l p ro b lem ,

B.

A n a ly s is of th e Problem - Aims and Purposes o f th e E xperim ent 1,

I n g e n e r a l, t o a tte m p t t o f in d a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l s o l u t io n

o f th e " c l a s s - s i z e p u z z le " , i f th e r e i s one, 2,

S p e c i f i c a l l y , t o experim ent w ith la rg e and s m a ll c la s s e s

i n th e e a r ly elem en tary g ra d e s .

P rev io u s experim ents have d ev o ted

l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o th e s e g ra d e s , where more te a c h e r g u id a n ce may p e rh a p s be n e c e s s a ry , and have based c o n c lu sio n s la r g e ly on s tu d ie s a t h ig h sc h o o l l e v e l s , where th e m a tu rity o f p u p ils may have been a d e c id in g f a c t o r , 3,

To stu d y th e e f f e c t s of sm all and la rg e c la s s e s i n t o o l and

s k i l l s u b j e c t s (re a d in g and a r ith m e tic ) in low er g ra d e s .

The v a s t

m a jo r ity o f p re v io u s ex p erim en ts have concerned th e m selv e s l a r g e l y w ith c o n te n t s u b je c ts , a t h ig h e r elem entary and a t secondary l e v e l s , A,

To conduct an experim ent i n which la rg e and s m a ll c la s s e s

a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a s to s i z e .

H e re to fo re , many ex p erim en ts

have re g a rd e d t h i r t y o r more p u p ils as a sm all c l a s s .

I n th e p r e s e n t

e x perim ent s m a ll c la s s e s w ere lim ite d to e ig h te e n and tw en ty p u p i l s .

25

5.

To s tu d y not o n ly th e average achievem ent g a in s o f la r g e

and s m a ll c l a s s e s , b u t a l s o th e p e rc e n ta g e s o f in d iv id u a l p u p ils i n each group who make g r e a t e r g a in s th a n t h e i r matched s c h o o l m ates* P rev io u s s t u d i e s have concern ed them selves la rg e ly w ith gro u p m easures of c e n t r a l te n d e n c ie s and v a r i a b i l i t y , and have not a d e q u a te ly con­ s id e re d th e in d iv id u a ls who compose th e groups* 6*

To s tu d y th e s c h o la s tic r e s u l t s o f sm all and la r g e c l a s s e s

in w hich in d iv id u a liz e d methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n are u s e d , and to d eterm in e w h e th e r such methods a re more e f f e c tiv e in s m a lle r c la s s e s th an i n la r g e o n e s .

Many p re v io u s experim ents do n o t a p p ea r to have

ta k en a d v a n ta g e o f th e o p p o rtu n ity o ffe re d by th e sm a ll c l a s s f o r g r e a te r i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n . 7.

To s tu d y not o n ly th e s c h o la s tic r e s u l t s o f la r g e and s m a ll

c l a s s e s , b u t a l s o th e p e r s o n a l it y outcomes i n both ty p e s o f

c la s s e s .

The n o n - s c h o la s tic outcomes o f sch o o l ex p erien ces a re p e rh a p s even more im p o rta n t th a n academ ic grow th.

The fo llo w in g ite m s a r e con­

s id e r e d : a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

I n t e r e s t shown i n work D is c ip l in e A tte n tio n and a p p lic a tio n to work S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and ad ju stm en t w ith o th e r p u p il s E m o tio n al r e a c tio n s C o o p e ra tio n w ith c la ssm a te s and w ith te a c h e r S e l f - d i r e c t i o n , i n i t i a t i v e and sen se of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y P u p il p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w illin g n e s s to share e x p e rie n c e s T each er r e a c tio n s

26

8,

To summarize, th e ex p erim en t co n sid ered th e fo llo w in g

elem en ts n o t a d e q u a te ly em phasized h e r e to f o r e : a* b. c. d* e. f.

C.

T eaching and le a r n in g a t th e e a r ly elem entary le v e l . T eaching and le a r n in g t o o l and s k i l l s u b je c ts , as c o n tr a s te d w ith c o n te n t s u b je c ts * A dequate d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n betw een la rg e and sm a ll gro u p s, S tu d y o f com parativ e g a in s o f in d iv id u a l p u p ils as con­ t r a s t e d w ith av erag e g a in s o f e n t i r e groups. The p o s s ib le a d v an ta g e s o f in d iv id u a liz e d i n s t r u c t i o n p ro c e d u re s i n s m a ll and i n la rg e groups. The com parison o f outcomes o th e r th a n s c h o la s tic in b o th ty p e s o f groups*

P ro c e d u re i n th e Conduct o f th e Experim ents 1*

G rades s e le c te d f o r th e f i r s t experim ent were 3A and AA«

G rades s e l e c t e d f o r th e second experim ent were 3A, 3B, and 4A« 2*

Ten c la s s e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n th e experiment*

3*

I n th e f i r s t ex p erim en t sm all c la s s e s were lim ite d t o

e ig h te e n , w h ile th e la r g e c la s s e s were between fo rty -o n e and f o r t y six *

I n t h e second ex perim en t th e r e g i s t e r s o f sm all c la s s e s were

betw een n in e te e n , tw e n ty , and tw en ty -tw o , w h ile th e la r g e c la s s e s were betw een f o r t y - f i v e and f o r t y - e i g h t . A*

I n th e f i r s t ex p erim en t each group was made up o f o n e -th ird

b r i g h t , o n e - th ir d norm al, and o n e - th ir d slow p u p ils*

I n th e second

e x p erim en t o n e -h a lf were norm al and o n e -h a lf slow i n each group* 5*

P u p ils were c a r e f u l l y matched a s t o i n t e l l i g e n c e , on b a s is

o f s e v e r a l group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s * 6*

P u p il s were c a r e f u l l y matched n o t only a s to in t e l l i g e n c e

a c h ie v e m e n t, b u t were a ls o c a r e f u l ly p a ire d as to tem peram ent, s o c ia l

27

and economic s ta tu s * p a ir in g on a tta in m e n t.

S ta n d a rd iz e d achievem ent t e s t s were used f o r The combined judgm ent o f p re s e n t and form er

te a c h e r s was th e b a s is f o r m atching on th e n o n -s c h o la s tic ite m s . 7*

A ll c la s s e s w ere e q u a lly d iv id e d on b a s is o f sex*

A ll

matched p u p ils were o f th e same s e x . 8.

The same te a c h e r was programmed to te a c h e it h e r a rith m e tic

o r E n g lish t o b oth ty p e s o f c la s s e s on th e g ra d e . 9*

Hot o nly w ere tim e a llo tm e n ts e q u a liz e d , but on a l t e r n a t e

days th e same p a r t o f th e day was a ssig n e d t o each type o f c l a s s . 10*

Mimeographed s h e e ts were p re p a red on which c a r e f u l re c o rd s

o f th e accom plishm ents o f m atched p u p ils were k e p t.

A sample sh e e t

i s appended. 11.

T eachers were d ir e c te d t o use in d iv id u a liz e d methods o f

i n s t r u c t i o n w herever p o s s i b l e , and were in s tr u c te d in t h e i r u s e 0 These te c h n iq u e s in c lu d e d such p ro c e d u re s a s th e fo llo w in g s a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

E x ten siv e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and in d iv id u a liz a tio n o f a ssig n m e n ts. D ia g n o sis o f in d iv id u a l w ean esses; keeping re c o rd s o f i n d iv id u a l n e e d sj a p p ro p ria te re m e d ial e x e r c is e s j a p p ro p ria te in d iv id u a l i n s t r u c t i o n . I n d iv id u a l re c o r d s o f achievem ent and p ro g re s s . R ecords o f in d iv id u a l e r r o r s k ep t by p u p ils ; s p e c i a l - d r i l l p e rio d s f o r th e s e e r r o r s ; p e rs o n a l co n feren ces w ith te a c h e r on th e c o r r e c tio n o f th e e r r o r s . Slow er c h ild r e n a ss ig n e d to b r i g h t e r p u p ils who a c te d as h e lp e r s . T h is p ro c e d u re was used more e x te n s iv e ly in la r g e g ro u p . I n d iv id u a l a ssig n m en t s h e e ts , which c h ild re n completed a t t h e i r own p a c e . R ecords o f g o a ls accom plished c a r e f u lly k e p t a s b a s is f o r new work a s s ig n e d . G reat v a r i e t y o f in d iv id u a l d r i l l m a te r ia l made a v a il a b le . G reat amount o f b lack b o a rd w ork. I n sm all group e n t i r e c la s s c o u ld be accommodated a t th e same tim e . G reat v a r i e t y o f d r i l l e x e r c is e s i n re a d in g , designed to meet s p e c i f i c in d iv id u a l needs and w eak n esses.

28

D,

Treatm ent o f Data and E v a lu a tio n o f R e s u lts 1*

Average achievem ent g a in s on th e b a s is o f s ta n d a rd iz e d t e s t s

given a t th e beginning and a t th e end o f th e experim ent were compared. The fo llo w in g t e s t s were a d m in is te re d : a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Monroe G eneral Survey S c a le i n A rith m e tic M etro p o lita n Achievement T est Woody-McCall Mixed Fundam entals Monroe S il e n t R eading T e st Gray O ral R eading T est G ates Prim ary R eading T e st G ates S il e n t R eading T est

2.

I n d iv id u a l g a in s o f matched p u p ils were compared and s t a t i s t i c s

were com piled, to stu d y th e number and p e rc e n ta g e s i n each group who made b e t t e r g a in s th a n t h e i r matched sc h o o l m a te s.

T ables based on

th e se d a ta a re p re s e n te d . 3.

The com parative amount o f work done and th e number o f a s s ig n ­

ments o r g o a ls com pleted by p a ire d p u p ils i n each group i n accordance w ith th e in d iv id u a liz e d methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n u se d , w ere s tu d ie d . Diagrams showing th e s e com parisons a re p re s e n te d i n th e r e p o r t . 4-.

In o rd e r to stu d y a s p e c ts o f s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s o th e r th a n

s c h o la s tic , te a c h e rs made and re c o rd e d f r e q u e n t o b s e r v a tio n s , judgm ents and comments on n in e c a r e f u l ly s e le c te d n o n -s c h o la s tic ite m s , such a s i n t e r e s t shown i n work, s o c ia l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , em o tio n al r e a c ti o n s , p u p il-p a rtic ip a tio n , e tc .

These o b s e r v a tio n s and judgm ents were

analyzed and stu d ie d f o r com parison o f r e a c ti o n s in b o th ty p e s o f c la s s e s in outcomes o f sc h o o l e x p e rie n c e s o th e r th a n s c h o l a s t i c .

29

CHAPTER I I I THE RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTS

In o rd e r t h a t th e e f f e c t s o f te a c h in g la r g e and s m a ll c l a s s e s i n th e e a r ly elem entary g rad es might be more c a r e f u l l y s tu d ie d , two e x p erim en ts were conducted .

The f i r s t ex p erim en t in c lu d e d c la s s e s

i n th e 3A and AA g ra d e s, w h ile th e second e x p erim en t, a y e a r l a t e r , in c lu d e d c la s s e s i n th e 3A, 3B, and 4-A g ra d e s .

In a n a ly z in g and

s tu d y in g th e r e s u l t s , th e fo llo w in g to p ic s a r e d is c u s s e d : A.

The d if f e r e n c e s between th e f i r s t and second e x p e rim e n ts .

B.

The s c h o la s tic r e s u l t s o f th e f i r s t e x p erim en t, by g rad e and s u b je c t.

Co

The s c h o la s tic r e s u l t s o f th e second e x p e rim e n t, by grade and s u b je c t.

D.

Comparison o f th e p e rc e n ta g e s of p u p ils i n each group who made b e t t e r achievem ent g a in s th a n t h e i r matched m ates i n th e o th e r group - f i r s t ex p erim en t.

E.

Comparison o f th e p e rc e n ta g e s o f p u p ils i n each group who made b e t t e r achievem ent g a in s th a n t h e i r matched m ates i n th e o th e r group - second ex p erim en t.

F.

Comparison o f th e r e a c tio n s o f the c h ild r e n i n th e la r g e and sm all groups i n each experim ent in v a rio u s a s p e c ts o f sc h o o l e x p e rie n c e s , o th e r th a n s c h o la s tic - f i r s t e x p e rim e n t.

G.

Comparison of th e r e a c tio n s o f th e c h ild r e n i n t h e la r g e and sm all groups i n each experim ent in various a s p e c ts o f sc h o o l e x p e rie n c e s, o th e r th an s c h o la s tic - second e x p e rim e n t.

30

A.

D iff e re n c e s Between th e F i r s t and th e Second E xperim ents 1*

The f i r s t experim ent in c lu d e d g rad es 3A and 4A, w h ile th e

second experim ent in c lu d e d grades 3A, 3B, and 4 A. 2*

I n th e f i r s t experim ent th e e x p e rim e n ta l s e t- u p o f sm all and

la r g e c la s s e s was i n o p e ra tio n d u rin g th e morning s e s s io n o n ly .

In

th e second experim ent c la s s e s were k ep t e i t h e r sm all o r la r g e f o r both s e s s io n s d u rin g th e e n t i r e te rm . 3*

I n th e f i r s t experim ent p u p ils o f a l l a b i l i t y l e v e l s from th e

b r i g h t e s t t o th e slo w est w ere in c lu d e d i n each ty p e o f c l a s s . second e x p erim en t, th e b r ig h t e s t were excluded*

In th e

When b r i g h t c h ild re n

w ere ta k e n out o f th e "one" c l a s s , d u rin g th e f i r s t e x p e rim e n t, f o r t r a n s f e r t o an e x p e rim e n ta l c l a s s , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and u n h a p p in ess f r e q u e n tly r e s u lte d on th e p a r t of some o f th e s e b r ig h t c h ild r e n , and o c c a s io n a lly d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n on th e p a r t o f some o f t h e i r p a r e n ts . W hile th e s e r e a c tio n s a re o f no prim ary co n cern i n our s tu d y , th e y a re i n t e r e s t i n g as an in d ic a tio n o f some o f th e a t t i t u d e s w hich o ur homogenous c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p la n h as developed i n some c h ild r e n and i n some p a r e n ts . 4..

I n th e second experim ent th e two te a c h e r s who ta u g h t each ty p e

o f c l a s s a lte r n a t e d d a ily between morning and a fte rn o o n s e s s i o n s .

This

was done n o t only to e q u a liz e tim e a llo tm e n ts b u t a ls o t o p ro v id e in ­ s t r u c t i o n d u rin g th e same p a r t o f th e day f o r each ty p e o f c l a s s .

31

B#

S c h o la s tic R e s u lts o f th e F i r s t Experim ent 1*

Grade 3A a*

A rith m e tic

On th e b a s is o f in fo rm a l t e s t s g iv en th ro u g h o u t t h e te rm , th e la r g e group d id b e t t e r th a n th e sm all group i n o r a l a r ith m e tic , w h ile th e sm all group achieved b e t t e r r e s u l t s i n w r itt e n a rith m e tic *

According to th e te a c h e r , t h i s was

due to th e f a c t t h a t in d iv id u a l h e lp in w r itt e n a r i th m e ti c co u ld be given more r e a d ily to th e p u p ils in th e sm all group# An in d iv id u a l assignm ent method, w ith g o als t o be a c h ie v e d , was used*

I t i s s ig n i f i c a n t to n o te th a t t h i r t e e n p u p ils

i n th e sm all group achieved more g o a ls th an t h e i r matched sc h o o l m ates w h ile only two in th e la rg e group e x c e lle d t h e i r p a ire d sch o o l m ates.

A com parison o f g o a l ach iev em en ts

by p a ire d p u p ils i n both groups i s shown i n Diagram 1, page 3 2 # On th e b a s is o f an achievem ent t e s t (Monroe G e n era l Survey) g iv e n a t th e end o f th e term , th e sm all group av erag ed two months h ig h e r th a n th e la rg e group*

The av erag e achievem ent

age o f th e s m a ll group was 8 * 9 w h ile th e la r g e group a v erag e was 8*7 - (See Table I , Page 33)*

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te

t h a t e ig h t i n th e sm all group and f iv e in th e la r g e group d id b e t t e r th a n t h e i r matched school mates#

32

GOALS ACHIEVED Matched P u p ils 10

11

12

13

U

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

IS 1L 2S 2L 3S 3L

AS 4L 5S 5L 6S 6L

7S 7L

#*»*#*»»#*#**#*##***#####*«•*&*#■#•**####

8S 8L

P u p ils i n Sm all Group P u p ils i n Large Group

9S 9L 10S 10L

----------------a*##*#***#*

#»*#######*#***####**#*# NOTE:

US 11L

###*#**###***##**#*

12S 12L

#*#####»##*####****

Numbers a t th e to p in d ic a te th e number of u n its o f work com pleted, or g o als achieved#

13S 13L IAS 14L

#*##»#■**#*«#####*##

15S 15L 16S 16L

»»#############»»»####%#**#**

DIAGRAM 1 .

GOALS ACHIEVED BY MATCHED PUPILS I& rge and SmaJ-l C la sses~ 3 A A rith m e tic * -firs t experim ent

33

TABLE I Achievement Ages in A rith m e tic o f m atched 3A p u p ils a t end o f terms (Monroe G eneral Survey S c a le i n A rith m e tic — S c a le 1 , Form 1) F i r s t Experim ent P u p ils i n Large Group

Achievement Age

P u p ils in Small Group

Achievement Age

IS

9 .6 *

1L

8 .6

2S

9 .6

2L

10. *

AS

8 .6

AL

10. *

6S

9.

6L

10. *

9S

8 . 2*

9L

10S

8. *

10L

7 .6

11S

7 .6

11L

8. *

12S

8 .6

12L

8 .6

13S

8 .2

13L

9. *

US

9 .6 *

1AL

9.

15S

8 . 6*

15L

8.

16S

11. *

16L

9 .6

17S

8 . 6*

17L

8.

18S

9 .6 *

18L

8.

Average Achievement Age

8 .9 +

* In d ica tes higher achievem ent age th a n m atched sc h o o l mates in sm all group and f i v e in large g ro u p .

8.

8.7+

-

e ig h t

34

b.

Reading

Although th e te a c h e r f e l t t h a t th o se i n th e s m a lle r group e x c e lle d i n m echanics o f r e a d in g , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t was re v e a le d in a v erag e r a t e o f re a d in g o r i n av erag e compre­ h ension on th e b a s is o f a s ta n d a rd iz e d t e s t g iv e n a t th e end o f th e term (Monroe S ta n d a rd iz e d Reading T est - see Table I I , Page 35)*

The co m p arativ e average achievem ent

ages w ere: S m all Group

Large Group

Comprehension

8 .7

8 .7

Rate

8 .9

8 .8

Average

8 ,8

8 .7 5

However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te t h a t i n r a t e o f re a d in g , nine i n th e s m a ll group and s i x i n th e la r g e group e x c e lle d t h e i r matched m ates, w h ile i n com prehension s i x i n th e sm all group and f o u r i n th e la r g e group e x c e lle d . The te a c h e r f e l t t h a t an i n s u f f i c i e n t tim e had e la p s e d i n which c o n c lu siv e r e s u l t s c o u ld be o b ta in e d .

I n view o f t h i s

comment, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te t h a t i n a s ta n d a rd iz e d re a d in g t e s t giv en f o u r months l a t e r (M e tro p o lita n Achievement Test - see T able I I I , page 36) 60$ o f th e c h ild r e n who had been i n th e sm a ll group a ch ie v e d h ig h e r re a d in g s c o re s th a n t h e i r matched sc h o o lm a te s.

The av erag e achievem ent age o f

th e sm all group was 9 *4 , w h ile th e la r g e group a v erag e was 9 *3 *

TABLE II Achievement Ages in Reading o f matched 3A p u p ils a t end o f experim ent: (Monroe S ta n d a rd iz e d Reading T est) F i r s t E xperim ent P u p ils i n S m all Group

Achievement Age R ate Comprehension

P u p ils i n Large Group

Achievement Age R ate Comprehension

IS

9 .7

9 .6

1L

10. *

9 .6

2S

9 .6 *

9 .6

2L

9 .3

9 .6

AS

8 .8

9.

4L

9. *

9 .6 *

5S

9 .6 *

9. *

5L

9.

8 .6

6S

9 .6 *

9 .6

6L

9 .3

9 .6

8S

9. *

9. *

8L

8 .7

8 .6

9S

8 .3

8.

9L

8. 6*

8.

10S

8 . 6*

8. *

10L

8.

7 .6

11S

7 .9 *

8. *

11L

7 .6

7 .6

12S

8 . 6*

8 . 6*

12L

8 .3

8.

13S

8 . 6*

8.

13L

8 .3

8.

14S

9 .3

9.6*

HL

9 .3

9.

15S

7 .9

7 .6

15L

8 .3 *

8. *

16S

9 .6 *

9 .6

16L

9 .3

9 .6

17S

9.

8 .6

17L

9 .3 *

9. *

IBS

8.

8.

18L

9 .3 *

8 . 6*

8 .9

8 .7

8 .3

8 .7

A verage A chievem ent Age

* I n d i c a t e s b e t t e r achievem ent than matched s c h o o l m a te s . In r a t e o f r e a d in g , n in e i n sm all group and s i x in la r g e g ro u p e x c e lle d t h e i r m atched m a te s, w h ile i n comprehension s ix i n s m a ll group and fo u r i n la r g e group e x c e lle d #

36

TABLE I I I Achievement Ages in Reading o f matched 3A p u p ils - 4 months a f t e r end o f e x p erim en t (M e tro p o lita n Achievement T e sts - Prim . A) F i r s t E xperim ent P u p ils i n S m a ll Group

Achievement . _ Age.____

P u p ils in Large Group

IS

10.4*

1L

10.

2S

10.

2L

1 0 .3 *

A chievem ent A g e _____

4S

9 .4

4L

10. *

5S

9 .3 *

5L

9 .3

6S

1 0 .1

6L

1 0 .4 *

7S

8 .8

7L

9 .2 *

8S

9.7*

8L

9.

9S

8 . 8*

9L

8 .7

10S

8 . 6*

10L

8 .1

11S

8 .4 *

11L

8 .2

12S

9 .4 *

12L

8 .6

us

9 .9 *

UL

9 .7

16S

1 0 . 1*

16L

9 .1 0

17S

9 .3

. 17L

9 .9 *

18S

8 .6

18L

9 .3 *

A verage A chieve­ ment Age

9 .4+

9 .3 +

* I n d ic a te s high er achievem ent than matched schoolm ates - n in e i n sm all group and s i x in la r g e group.

37

Nine i n th e s m a ll group and s i x i n th e la rg e group ach iev ed h ig h e r s c o re s th a n t h e i r m atched sch o o l m ates.

While d e f i n i t e

c o n c lu s io n s c a n n o t be draw n, i t does make u s wonder i f th e b e t t e r grounding i n fu n d a m e n tals, a s s ta te d by th e te a c h e r , may have begun t o show i t s e f f e c t s .

Since th e c h ild r e n w ere,

a t t h a t tim e , s c a tte r e d among th r e e d i f f e r e n t 3B g ra d e s, we c an n o t assume t h a t b e t t e r te a c h in g i n th a t grade may have acco u n ted f o r th e im provem ent.

The matched p u p ils o f b o th

g roups had been p la c e d i n th e same c la s s e s a t th e end o f th e e x p e rim e n t.

Thus, had b e t t e r te a c h in g been p r e s e n t, i t would

have a f f e c t e d e q u a lly a l l th e p u p ils i n th e e x p erim en t, and n o t m erely th o s e who had been i n th e sm all group. 2.

Grade Ak a.

A rith m e tic

In a lm o st e v e ry t e s t a g r e a te r number of p u p ils i n th e sm all group showed more improvement th a n th o se i n th e la r g e g ro u p . However, when th e av erag e g a in o f each group was computed, th e ad v an tag e i n f a v o r o f th e sm a ll group was s l i g h t and th e r e f o r e in c o n c lu s iv e .

T h is i s v e ry s i g n i f i c a n t , s in c e , i n p r a c t i c a l l y

a l l c l a s s s i z e ex p erim en ts h e r e to f o r e conducted, com parisons have been made s o le l y on th e b a s i s o f average c la s s g a in s , w h ile c o m p arativ e in d iv id u a l g a in s have been ig n o re d .

Thus,

v e ry la r g e g a in s by s e v e r a l b r i g h t p u p ils i n a la r g e group f r e q u e n tly more th a n b a lan c e a g r e a t e r number o f s m a lle r g a in s

38

by l e s s c a p a b le p u p ils . A s ta n d a rd iz e d achievem ent te s t y The I l l i n o i s Exam ination, O p e ra tio n s i n A rith m e tic , a d m in iste re d a t th e end of th e experim ent showed an a v erag e achievem ent age o f 1 1 , 4. f o r th e sm all group and 11 ,2 f o r th e la r g e group.

More s i g n i f i c a n t ,

however, was t h e f a c t t h a t n in e p u p ils in th e sm all group and s i x i n th e la r g e group e x c e lle d t h e i r matched schoolm ates i n a ch iev em en t, (s e e Table VT, page 39) b.

R eading

On th e b a s i s o f a s ta n d a rd iz e d t e s t (The Monroe S tan d ard ized Reading T e s t) a d m in is te re d a t th e end of th e experim ent, th e c la s s a v e ra g e r e s u l t s w ere a s fo llo w s : Achievement Ages Sm all Group

Large Group

Com prehension

11,5

11*6

R a te

1 2 .4

12.3

A verage

11.95

11.95

I t i s e v id e n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t no marked s u p e r io r ity i s shown by th e a v e ra g e achievem ent o f e i t h e r group.

However,

a somewhat s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e i n r e s u l t s was ob tain ed when th e c o m p arativ e achievem ent o f in d iv id u a lly matched

39

TABLE IV Achievement Ages in A rithm etic o f matched 4A p u p ils a t end o f experiment I l l i n o i s E x a m in a tio n , O p e ra tio n s o f A rith m e tic . F i r s t E xperim ent Achievement Age

P u p ils i n Large Group

Achievement Age

IS

1 1 .3

1L

11.7*

2S

1 1.9*

2L

1 1 .6

3S

1 1 .3

3L

12.3*

5S

1 2 .4*

5L

11.3

6S

1 2.4*

6L

1 1.7

7S

10. *

7L

9 .9

8S

1 0 .9

8L

1 0.9

9S

1 1 .7

9L

1 2 . 6*

10S

1 0 .3

10L

11.9*

11S

10.5*

11L

9 .3

12$

1 0 .7

12L

11.9*

13S

13. *

13L

1 0.9

14S

1 2 .9 *

14L

1 1 .6

15S

10. 6*

15L

1 0 .2

16S

1 1 .3

16L

11.9*

17S

1 1 .3 *

17L

1 0 .2

P u p ils i n Sm all Group

Average Achievem ent Age 11.4,

11.2+

* In d ic a te s b e tte r achievem ent than matched schoolmates - n in e in sm all group and s i x in la r g e group.

40

p u p ils w ere s tu d ie d .

I t was re v e a le d t h a t i n com prehension

n in e o f th e sm all group and seven o f th e la r g e group e x c e lle d t h e i r p a ire d sch o o lm ates, w h ile i n r a t e s i x o f th e s m a ll group and f i v e o f th e la r g e group showed b e t t e r achievem ent* C.

(s e e Table V, page 41)

S c h o la s tic R e s u lts o f th e Seoond Experim ent 1*

Grade 3A a*

A rith m e tic

The s m a ll group ach iev ed an average a rith m e tic g a in o f 5 months w h ile th e la r g e group ach iev ed an average g a in o f 4 .2 months (s e e T able V I, page 4 2 ) .

The average a c h ie v e ­

ment g rad e o f th e s m a lle r group was 3 . 5 w h ile th e av erag e achievem ent grade o f th e la r g e r group was 3*4 (se e Table V II, page 4 3 ) .

However, a lth o u g h th e average achievem ent showed

o n ly a d if f e r e n c e o f one month, a com parison o f matched p u p ils re v e a le d t h a t n in e i n th e sm all group and o n ly f i v e i n th e la r g e group e x c e lle d th e perform ance o f t h e i r p a ire d sc h o o lm a te s, b.

R eading

R e s u lts on th e b a s is o f th e Gray O ral Reading T est re v e a le d a d e c id e d advantage i n fa v o r o f th e sm all g ro u p .

The a v erag e

achievem ent grade f o r th e sm all group was 3 *6 , w h ile th e

a TABLE V Achievement Ages in S ile n t Reading o f matched 4A p u p ils at end o f e x p erim en t (M onroe's S ta n d a rd iz e d Reading T e s t, Test 1 , Form l ) F i r s t E xperim ent P u p ils i n S m all Group

Achievement Age R ate Comorehension

P u p ils in Large Group

Achievement Age Rate C om prehension

IS

1 4 . 6*

13. *

1L

10.3

1 2 .0

2S

1 0 .8

12.

2L

12. 6*

13. *

3S

1 4 .6

1 4 .6

3L

17.6*

1 4 .6

5S

17.6*

13. *

5L

13.0

1 1 .0

6S

13. *

6L

11.

13.

7S

10.3

8.

7L

17. *

1 5.6*

8S

1 2 . 6*

9 .6 *

8L

10.

9S

17.6*

11.

9L

1 0 .2

11.

10S

10.3

11.

10L

11 . 6*

11.

II S

10. *

10.

111

9 .6

10.

12S

1 1 . 6*

12L

10.3

9.

13S

11.

12.

13L

14.6*

13. *

14S

11.

13.

14L

13.6*

13. 6*

15S

11. *

12. *

15L

9.

9.

16S

11. *

12. *

16L

9 .6

9 .6

17S

13.

10.

17L

17. *

12. *

12.3

11*6

Average A chieve­ ment Age 1 2 .4

9 .6 *

11*5

8 .6

* I n d i c a t e s h ig h e r achievem ent age th a n matched schoolm ates. Nine o f th e s m a ll group and seven o f th e la r g e group made b e t t e r achievem ent i n r a t e o f re a d in g th a n t h e i r matched sch o o lm ates. Six o f th e s m a ll group and f i v e of th e la r g e group made b e t t e r achievement i n compre­ h e n sio n th a n t h e i r m atched sch o o lm ates.

42

TABLE VI Achievement G ains i n A rith m e tic o f Matched 3A p u p ils d u rin g second experim ent - based on two form s o f th e M etro p o litan Achievement Test* P u p ils i n Sm all Group

G ain i n Months

P u p ils in Large Group

Gain in Months

IS

4.5

1L

4-5

2S

4-6#

2L

+4

3S

4-5*

3L

4-2

4S

4-6*

4L

4*4

5S

4-3

5L

4-5*

6S

4.5

6L

4-5

7S

4-5

7L

+6 *

8S

4.7 #

8L

4-4

9S

4-6*

9L

4-5

10S

4-4

10L

4.5 *

11S

4*5*

UL

4-3

12S

4-5*

12L

4-3

13S

+6 *

13L

+4

UL

4-5*

US 15S

+6 *

15L

4-3

16S

4-3

16L

4.4 *

Average G ain i n Months

+5

* I n d ic a te s g r e a t e r g a in th a n m atched schoolm ates. group and f i v e i n la r g e g ro u p .

4.4 .,, 2

Nine i n sm all

43

TABLE VII Achievement Grades in A rithm etic o f Matched 3A p u p ils a t end o f term (seco n d ex p erim en t) M etro p o lita n Achievement T est , Form A. P u p ils i n Sm all Group

Achievement Grade

P u p ils i n Large Group

Achievem ent Grade

IS

3 .1

1L

3 .1

2S

3 .5 *

2L

3 .4

3S

3 .6 *

3L

3 .2

4S

3 .7 *

4L

3 .2

5S

3 .4

5L

3 .6 *

6S

3 .5

6l

3 .5

7S

3 .6

7L

3 .7 *

8S

3 .6 *

8L

3 .2

9S

3 .6 *

9L

3 .4

10S

3 .1

10L

3 .4 *

11S

3 .6 *

11L

3 .4

12S

3 .5 *

12L

3 .3

13S

3 .7 *

13L

3 .4

14S

3 .4

14L

3 .6 *

15S

3 .6 *

15L

3 .2

16S

3 .2

16L

3 .4 *

Average A chieve­ m ent Grade

3*5

* In d ic a te s higher achievem ent than matched schoolmates* sm all group and f iv o in la rg e group.

3 .4 Nine in

44-

la r g e group a v erag e was 3 .3 .

The d iff e r e n c e in a c h ie v e ­

ment was even more marked when matched p u p ils were com pared. T h irte e n in th e sm a ll group and fo u r in th e la rg e group e x c e lle d t h e i r matched schoolm ates.

This i s most s i g n i f i c a n t

f o r th e sm all group e v id e n tly showed th e e f f e c t o f g r e a t e r in d iv id u a l i n s t r u c t i o n by th e te a c h e r .

O bviously, th e

te a c h e r could a f f o r d to g iv e a g r e a te r p ro p o rtio n o f h e r tim e to each p u p il i n th e sm all group th an she co u ld i n th e la r g e c l a s s , (s e e Table V I I I , page 4 5 ). The d if f e r e n c e i n s i l e n t re a d in g r e s u l t s was not so m arked, y e t a r e s u l t f a v o ra b le t o th e sm all group was n o te d .

On th e

b a s i s o f th e G ates Prim ary Reading T e s t, th e average a c h ie v e ­ ment age f o r th e sm a ll group was 9 .0 5 , as a g a in s t 8 .9 9 f o r th e la rg e g ro u p .

The d iff e r e n c e i s so sm all as t o be

re g a rd ed as in c o n c lu s iv e .

However, when matched sch o o lm ate s

w ere compared, th e r e s u l t s were more markedly i n fa v o r o f th e s m a ll group, f o r , w h ile only s ix in th e la rg e group d id b e t t e r th a n t h e i r matched m ates i n th e sm all group, nine i n th e s m a ll group e x c e lle d t h e i r schoolm ates i n th e la rg e group, (s e e T able IX, page 4 6 ) . The c h ild re n on t h i s grade were a ls o te s te d in th e G ates S i l e n t R eading T e s t.

As i n th e p rev io u s t e s t r e s u l t s , th e

45

TABLE V III Achievement Grades i n Reading o f Matched 3A p u p ils a t end o f term Gray O ra l R eading T e st Second Experim ent Achieveme Grade

P u p ils in Sm all Group

A chievem ent Grade

P u p ils in Large Group

IS

4 .6 *

1L

2 .9

2S

2 ,6*

2L

2 .4

3S

4 .6 *

3L

4*4

4S

4 .5 *

4L

3 .5

5S

3 .3 *

5L

2 .9

6S

3 .4

6L

4 .6 *

7S

4 .5 *

7L

3 .3

8S

3 .1 *

8L

2 ,7

9S

3 .4

9L

3 .4

10S

3 .4 *

10L

2 .7

11S

4 .5 *

11L

3 .1

12S

2 .7 *

12L

2.5

13S

3 .3 *

13L

2 .9

US

3 .4

UL

3 .5 *

15S

2 .9 *

15L

2 .7

16S

3 .5

16L

4 .5 *

17S

3 .5 *

17L

3 .1

18S

3 .4

18L

3 .7 *

Average A chieve­ ment Grade

3*6

3 ,3

* In d ic a te s b e t t e r achievem en t th a n matched sch o o lm ates. In o r a l re a d in g t h i r t e e n o f th e sm all g ro u p , and f o u r in th e la rg e group e x c e lle d t h e i r m atched sch o o lm ate s.

46 TABLE IX Achievement Ages in Reading o f Matched 3A p u p ils a t the end o f term G ates P rim ary R eading TAst - Type 3 Second Experim ent P u p ils i n Sm all Group

A chievem ent Age

P u p ils i n Large Group

Achievement Age

IS

9 .0 5 *

1L

8.95

2S

9 .0 5

2L

9.35*

3S

8 .9 5

3L

9.05*

AS

9 .3 5 *

4L

9.05

5S

9 .0 5 *

5L

8.95

6S

9 .3 5 *

6L

9.05

7S

8 .8 2

7L

8.95*

8S

8 .9 5

8L

9.05*

9S

9 .3 5 *

9L

9.05

10S

8 .8 2

10L

8 .8 2

US

9 .0 5 *

11L

8 .8 2

12S

8 .8 2 *

12L

8 .7

13S

9 .3 5 *

13L

8.95

us

8 .8 2

UL

9.05*

15S

8.95

15L

9.35*

16S

9 .0 5 *

16L

8.95

Average A chieve­ ment Age

9 .0 5

8 .9 9

* In d ic a te s b e tte r achievem ent than matched schoolm ates. In Primary reading t e s t nine in th e sm all group, and s ix in the la rg e group e x c e lle d t h e ir matched sch oolm ates.

d if f e r e n c e i n th e av erag e re a d in g ag es f o r each group was r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll (9 .1 8 f o r th e s m a ll group and 9 .0 6 f o r th e la rg e group)*

However, when matched p u p ils were com­

p a re d , th e r e s u l t s i n fa v o r o f th e sm a ll group were q u ite m arked, f o r n in e i n th e s m a ll group and f o u r in th e la rg e group e x c e lle d t h e i r m atched sch o o l m ates (se e Table X, page 4-8 ) . Grade 3B a*

A rith m e tic

On th e b a s is o f th e M e tro p o lita n Achievement T e s t, th e la rg e group a ch ie v e d g rad e 4 . 13 w h ile th e sm a ll group achieved grade 4 »1 > a v e ry s l i g h t and in c o n c lu s iv e d iff e r e n c e i n fa v o r o f th e la r g e g ro u p .

Y et, i n com paring matched p u p ils , i t

was found t h a t e ig h t i n th e sm all group and s ix i n tho la rg e group e x c e lle d t h e i r m atched schoolm ates (s e e Table X I, page 4 9 ) . A v e ry i n t e r e s t i n g com parison betw een th e amount o f work accom plished by th e two groups i s re v e a le d by Diagram 2 , page 50.

T h is diagram shows th e number o f p u p ils in each

group who a c h ie v e d more a r ith m e tic g o a ls d u rin g th e terra. These g o a ls w ere s e t i n an in d iv id u a liz e d method o f i n s t r u c t i o n w hich was used d u rin g th e e x p erim en t.

Each

g o a l re p re s e n te d th e co m p letio n o f a s e r i e s o f a rith m e tic e x e r c is e s c a r e f u l l y graded a s t o d i f f i c u l t y .

Twelve

4.8 TABLE X Achievement Ages in Reading o f Matched 3A p u p ils a t th e end o f second experiment (Gates S il e n t Reading T est — Type C) P u p ils in Sm all Group

Achievement A g e .........

P u p ils i n Large Group

Achievement A g e ........

IS

9 .8 *

11

8 .8

2S

8 .7

2L

9.0 *

3S

10c3*

31

9 .8

4S

10. 1 0 *

41

9. 9 .8

5S

9 .8

5L

6S

9 .4

6L

7S

9 .0 *

7L

8 .8

8S

9 .11*

8L

8 .8

9S

8 .6

9L

8*6

1 0 . 10 *

10S

8 .8*

10L

8 .7

11S

9 .4 *

11L

9 .0

12S

8 .8

12L

8 .8

13S

9 .4 *

131

8 .8

US

8 .8

UL

9.4*

15S

9 .0

151

9.4 *

16S

9 .0 *

161

8 .7

Average Achieve­ ment Age

9 .1 8

9*06

* I n d ic a te s b e tte r achievem en t th a n matched sch o o lm ate s. In s i l e n t re a d in g t e s t nine i n th e s m a ll g ro u p , and f o u r i n th e la rg e group e x c e lle d t h e i r matched sc h o o lm a te s.

49 TABLE XI Achievement Grade in A rithm etic Grade 3B a t the end o f second experiment (M etropolitan Achievement T ests - Form A) P u p ils i n Sm all Group

Achievement Grade

P u p ils in L arge Group

Achievement Grade

IS

4 .5 #

1L

3 .9

2S

3 .9

2L

3 .5

3S

4.

3L

4 .2 *

4S

3 .7

4L

4 .0 *

5S

4 .8 #

5L

4 .5

6S

4*1

6L

4 .3 #

7S

4*4

7L

4 .6 *

3S

4 .4 *

8L

3 .6

9S

3.7 #

9L

3 .4

10S

3 .7

10L

4 .1 *

11S

4 .6 *

ILL

4 .3

12S

4 .4 *

12L

4 .3

13S

3 .7

13L

3 .9 *

14S

4 .1 *

141

3 .9

15S

3 .7

151

3 .7

16S

4 .1 *

161

3 .9

Average Achieve­ ment Age

4 .1

4 .1 3

* In d ic a te s b etter achievement than matched schoolm ates. In arithm etic t e s t e ig h t in sm all group, and s ix in la rg e group e x c e lle d th e ir matched schoolm ates.

50

GOAIS ACHIEVED Matched P u p ils 10 IS

12

1A

16

IB

20

22

2A

26

28

***************************

2S

---------------------------------------------------------------------

2L

***************************

------- :---------------- ----------------------------------

3S



***************************

AS

---------------------------------------------------------

/T ,

****************************************

5S

---------------------------------------------------------

5L

************************

6s

-----------------------------------

6l

************************

7S

— ----------------------------------------------

7L

************************

S

----------------------------------------------------------------

8L 9

91,

32

----- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

IT ,

8

30

*******************

P u p ils i n Sm all Group ....------P u p ils i n Large Group ******

--------------------------------------------------------

S

***********************************

10S 10L

--------------------------------------------------------************************

11S-----------------------------------------------TIT.

************************

12S--------- ------------------------------------------------12T.

******************************

13S 13L

--------------------------------------ft**************************

l^ s I/,!,

--------------------------—-------------------***************************

15S 15L

------------------------------------------------************************

16S 16L

------------------------------------------------************************

DIAGRAM 2 .

NOTE: Numbers a t th e to p in d ic a te th e number o f u n i t s of work com­ p le te d o r goals a c h ie v e d .

GOALS ACHIEVED BY MATCHED PUPILS Large and S m all C lasses-3 B A rith m e tic - Second Experiment

51

c h ild r e n i n th e s m a ll group and o n ly th r e e i n th e la r g e group achieved more g o a ls th a n t h e i r matched sch o o lm ate s. H ere, a g a in , th e r e s u l t s o f t h e g r e a t e r o p p o r tu n itie s f o r in d iv id u a l h elp i n th e s m a lle r group w ere c l e a r l y in d ic a te d *

In o th e r w o rd s, when te a c h in g methods more

a p p lic a b le to a sm all group a r e em ployed, th e a d v an tag es o f a re d u c tio n i n th e number o f c h ild r e n i n a c l a s s can p robably be d e m o n strated , b.

Reading

The Gates S il e n t R eading T est a d m in is te re d a t th e end o f th e term re v e ale d an ach iev em en t age o f 9 .1 0 f o r th e s m a lle r group and 9 .9 5 f o r th e l a r g e r group.

When matched

schoolm ates were com pared, e i g h t i n th e sm all group and seven i n th e la rg e group were fo u n d t o have e x c e lle d th e perform ances of t h e i r matched sc h o o lm a te s , (s e e Table X II, page 5 2 ) . 3.

Grade AA a . A rith m etic On th e b a s is o f th e M e tro p o lita n Achievement T e s t, th e sm all group averaged grade 4 . 8 w h ile th e la r g e group averaged 4 . 7 , a s l i g h t b u t in c o n c lu s iv e a d v a n ta g e i n fa v o r o f th e sm all g ro u p .

However, i t was s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o te t h a t n in e i n th e

s m a ll group and on ly f i v e i n t h e la r g e group e x c e lle d th e

52

TABLE XII Achievement Ages in Reading o f Matched 3B p u p ils a t th e end o f second experiment (G ates S ile n t Reading T est - Type C ). P u p ils i n S m all Group

Achievement Age

P u p ils i n Large Group

Achievement Age . . . .

IS

10.3

1L

10. 10*

2S

9 .8

2L

9 .1 1 *

3S

9 . A*

3L

9 .0

AS

9 .8 *

AL

8 .7

5S

8 .7

5L

8 .7

6L

9 .8 9 .1 1 *

6S

10. 10*

7S

9 .8

7L

8S

9 .1 1

8L

10.3*

9S

9 .1 1 *

9L

9 .A

10S

10.3*

10L

9 .1 1

11S

9 .1 1

11L

10.3*

12S

1 0.3*

12L

9 .8

13S

9 .1 1 *

13L

9 .8

IAS

9.A

1AL

9 .8 *

15S

10.3*

15L

9 .1 1

16S

9 .8

16L

9 .1 1 *

Average A chieve­ ment Age

9 .1 0

9 .95

* I n d ic a te s b e tte r achievement than matched schoolm ates* In s i l e n t reading t e s t e ig h t in sm all group, and seven in la rg e group e x c e lle d th e ir matched schoolmates*

53

perform ances o f t h e i r matched sch o o lm ates (s e e Table X I I I , page 54-) • As i n Grade 3B, an in d iv id u a liz e d method o f i n s t r u c t i o n in v o lv in g th e u se o f a rith m e tic g o a ls was em ployed.

Twelve

p u p ils in th e sm all group and fo u r i n th e la r g e group achieved more a rith m e tic g o a ls th a n t h e i r m atched sch o o l­ m a te s.

The g r e a te r o p p o rtu n itie s f o r i n d iv id u a l h e lp i n

th e sm all group was most l i k e l y r e s p o n s ib le f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n (s e e Diagram I I I , page 5 5 )• b.

R eading

Both te a c h e r s who ta u g h t th e 4A c la s s e s i n a r ith m e tic and i n re a d in g s ta t e d th a t th e matched p u p il s i n th e la r g e r group were more cap b le th a n t h e i r fe llo w sch o o lm ates i n th e sm all g ro u p . On th e b a s is o f th e Gates S ile n t R eading T est g iv en a t th e end o f th e term b o th groups reached th e same a v erag e achievem ent a g e, 1 0 .5 .

However, n in e i n th e s m a ll group

and seven i n th e la rg e group e x c e lle d th e p erfo rm an ces o f t h e i r matched schoolm ates (se e Table XIV, page 5 6 ).

54 TABLE XIII Achievement Grades in A rithm etic o f 4A p u p ils at th e end o f term (second experim ent) M etropolitan Achievement T ests - Form A P u p ils i n S m all Group

Achievement Grade

P u p ils in Laree Group

Achievement Grade

IS

4*6

1L

5.1*

2S

4 .5

2L

4 .7 *

3S

4 .6

3L

4 .6

4S

5 .2 *

4L

4 .5

5S

4 .6

5L

5.1*

6S

4 .3

6L

5.1*

7S

4 .7 *

7L

4 .4

8S

5 .2 *

8L

4 .6

9S

5 .1 *

9L

4 .5

10S

4 .7 *

10L

4*4

11S

5 .1

11L

5 .1

12S

5 .3 *

12L

4 .8

13S

4 .7

13L

4 . 10*

14S

5 .2 *

14L

4 .8

15S

4 .6 *

15L

4 .4

16S

5 .1 *

16L

4 .7

A verage A chieve­ ment Grade

4*8

4*7

* In d ic a te s b e tte r achievement than matched schoolm ates. In a r ith m etic t e s t nine in sm all group, and f iv e in large group e x c e lle d th e ir matched schoolm ates.

55 GOALS ACHIEVED Matched P u p ils 26 IS

28

30

32

3A

36

38

AO 42

LL 46

48

50

52

-------------------------------------------- ----------------------------

2 S ---------------------------------------###**####•#«##*#***###*#**##

2L

3S 3L

--------------------------------------------------*#*#*###*#*•*####*###***###*##»*####

4S

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -

/T ,

# « # * # * # # * * * # # # # # » # # « •# * * * « # * « # # # # # * # # » * #

5 S

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5L

a * # -# * * # # # # # # # # * # # * # # # # # # # # # * # # * # # # #

6s 61 ,

P u p ils in Sm all Group — P u p ils in Large Group •■—'■■,■■■---##*#»####*##*##**»###**«#«###*#»*#*###*

7S 7L

---------------------------------------------------------------------##*#«##**»####«*«•#**#*########*#*«#####

8S

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------*#**•##*«##**###*•#*#####•###########»#

81,

9 S -----------------------------------------------------------------------------9L ##&*#*#***#*## 10S 10L

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------NOTEs Numbers a t th e to p in d ic a te th e US -----------------------------------------------------------------number o f u n its o f TIT, work com pleted or g o a ls a ch ie v e d , 1 2 S -------------------------------------------- --------- -----------------------13S 23L 14S

-------------------------------------------------------#•##»#*###*#*###*##■##**»######*######## --------------------------------------------------------------

1 JfT.

# * # # * * # # # * * # # # # * * * * •& # * » # # •# * # # #

!5S 15X,

-----------------------------------------------a*#####**#*#*######

16 s

16L

------------------------------------------------------------------a -# # * # * # # # # # * # # # # # * # # # * # # # -# * # #

DIAGRAM 3 .

GOALS ACHIEVED BY MATCHED PUPILS Large and Sm all C la s s e s - 4A A rith m e tic - Second Experim ent

«*#*##

56

TABLE XIV Achievement Ages in Reading o f Matched AA p u p ils a t the end o f term (second experim ent) Gates S ile n t Reading T est, l^pe D, Form 1 P u p ils i n Sm all Group

Achievement A g e ___

P u p ils i n Large Group

Achievemi . . Age .

IS

1 0 .0

1L

10. 6*

2S

1 0 .0

2L

10.5*

3S

1 0 . 10*

3L

10.5

AS

9 .1 1

AL

10. 6*

5S

10. 8*

5L

10.5

6S

11. 0*

6L

10.3

7S

1 0 .3*

7L

1 0 .0

8S

10. 6*

8L

10.3

9S

1 0 .1

9L

1 1 . 1*

10S

1 0.3*

10L

1 0 .1

11S

1 0 .1 0

11L

1 1 . 1*

12S

1 1 . 1*

12L

1 0 .6

13S

10.8*

13L

10.5

IAS

1 0 .3

UL

10.8*

15S

1 0 . 10*

15L

1 0 .6

16S

10 .5

16L

11.05*

Average Achieve-* ment Age

1 0 .5

10.5

* I n d ic a te s b e tte r achievem ent than matched schoolm ates. In s ile n t reading t e s t nine in th e sm all group, and seven in la rg e group e x c e lle d t h e ir matched schoolm ates.

57



Comparison of P e rc e n tag e s o f P u p ils i n Each Group Who Made B e tte r Achievement Gains Than T h e ir Matched Mates — F i r s t Experim ent As was p o in te d out i n C h ap ter I , th e f in d in g s i n

p r a c t i c a l l y a l l p re v io u s ex p erim en ts were based on av erag e g a in s o f la rg e and sm all c la s s e s *

To r e l y e x c lu s iv e ly on t h i s m easure f o r

com parative r e s u l t s may r e s u l t i n a n u n w arran ted c o n c lu s io n s in c e a la r g e g a in by a sm all number o f in d i v id u a l s may in flu e n c e th e a v erag e r e s u l t to th e same e x te n t a s a s m a ll g a in by a g r e a te r number of p u p ils .

F re q u e n tly , th e t o t a l g a in by one s u p e r io r p u p il

exceeds th e combined g a in s of a number o f l e s s c a p a b le c la s s m a te s . To guard a g a in s t t h i s p o s s ib le p i t f a l l , i t was d ecid ed to compute th e p ercen tag e o f p u p ils i n each group who made g r e a te r achievem ent g a in s .

To do so, t h e number o f p u p ils i n each ty p e

o f c la s s who made b e t t e r g ain s th a n t h e i r matched c la s s m a te s was com piled (se e n o ta tio n s a t th e bottom of a l l T ables - I t o XIV). Table XV, page 58, shows th e ty p e o f re c o rd t h a t was k ep t f o r a l l t e s t s i n which th e number of p u p ils who e x c e lle d t h e i r matched schoolm ates in achievem ent were co m p iled . Since th e i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a t u s o f e v ery p u p il was known, n o t o n ly were p e rc e n ta g e s fo r t h e e n t i r e group com puted, b u t p e r­ c e n ta g e s were found f o r th e d i v is io n s on th e th r e e i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s , b r ig h t , norm al and slow .

T able XVI, page 59, g iv e s th e

r e s u l t s f o r each in te llig e n c e l e v e l d i v i s i o n and f o r th e e n t i r e g ro u p .

TABLE XV Comparison of greater achievement gains by matched pupils

P u p ils i n Sm all Group

A rith m e tic

IS 2S

R eading

P u p ils i n Large Group

#

1L

*

A rith m e tic *

2L

3S

3L

AS

AL

5S

*

*

5L

6S

#

*

6L

7S

#

7L

8S

*

8L

9S

*

9L

*

10L

«

10S 11S

*

12S

R eading

*

11L

*

12L

13S

*

13L

*

US

*

UL

*

15S

*

16S 17S

*

18S TOTALS

*

15L

*

16L 17L 18L TOTALS

* I n d ic a te s g r e a te r advance from O ctober to January# NOTE:

T ables o f t h i s n a tu re were made f o r ev ery t e s t , and u sed t o compare th e number o f p u p ils in each group who e x c e lle d t h e i r matched sch o o lm ate s.

59

TABLE XVI P e rc e n ta g e s o f p u p ils who made g r e a te r achievem ent g a in s th a n t h e i r m atched c la ssm a te s*

F i r s t Experiment SMALL GROUP

LARGE GROUP

B rig h t P u p ils

A6%

5A%

Normal P u p ils

56%

AA%

Slow P u p ils

72%

28*

58*

A2%

A l l I n t e l l i g e n c e L e v e ls

The above t a b l e r e v e a ls t h a t w h ile t h e p e rc e n ta g e o f b r ig h t p u p ils who made b e t t e r achievem ent g ain s was n o t g r e a t l y a t v a r ia n c e i n th e two g ro u p s, t h e r e was a marked in c re a s e in th e p e rc e n ta g e o f slow p u p ils who made b e t t e r achievem ent g ain s i n th e sm all g ro u p . T his f a c t i s a most s i g n i f i c a n t o n e .

I t te n d s t o show t h a t a g r e a te r

number o f slow c h ild r e n do accom plish more i n sm all g ro u p s, w here a g r e a t e r amount o f in d iv id u a l h e lp i s a v a i l a b l e .

The b r i g h t e r c h ild r e n

a p p a r e n tly g e t a lo n g w ith o u t th e a d d itio n a l te a c h e r gu id an ce w hich i s a v a ila b le . I t i s p o s s ib le t h a t as th e I.Q . in c re a s e s th e need f o r te a c h e r h e lp i s le ss e n e d *

S in ce th e average I .Q . o f h ig h s c h o o l and

c o lle g e s tu d e n ts i s g e n e r a lly h ig h e r th a n t h a t o f e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l p u p i l s , b ecau se o f th e g ra d u a l e lim in a tio n o f slo w er p u p i l s , i t may w e ll be t h a t la r g e r c la s s e s a re more j u s t i f i a b l e i n h ig h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e , th a n in th e e le m e n ta ry sch o o l - and y e t th e r e v e r s e i s th e

60

g e n e r a lly a c c e p ted p r a c t i c e i n m ost, i f not a l l ,s c h o o l sy ste m si



Com parison o f P e rc e n ta g e s o f P u p ils Who Made B e tte r A chievem ent G ains Than T h e ir Matched C lassm ates - Second Experim ent As h a s been p o in te d o u t, th e f i r s t experim ent re v e a le d

some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s when th e p e rc en ta g e s o f p u p ils i n th e la rg e and i n th e sm all groups who made g r e a te r achievem ent g a in s were com pared.

When th e p e rc e n ta g e s o f p u p ils who made b e t t e r

g a in s w ere s tu d ie d , a marked advantage was found i n fa v o r o f th e s m a lle r g ro u p , when n orm al, and e s p e c ia ll y , when slow c h ild r e n were c o n s id e re d . I n th e f i r s t e x p e rim e n t, each group co n tain ed b r i g h t , n o rm al, and slow p u p i l s .

When p e rc e n ta g e s were compared i t was found t h a t

b r ig h t p u p ils were l e a s t a f f e c t e d by s iz e o f c la s s e s .

In f a c t ,

th e p e rc e n ta g e o f b r ig h t p u p ils who made more p ro g ress was g r e a t e r in th e la r g e group th a n i n th e sm all group.

However, v /ith slow

p u p ils , th e r e was a d e c id e d advantage i n t h i s re s p e c t in f a v o r o f th o se i n th e sm a ll group. I n th e second e x p e rim e n t, b rig h t p u p ils were e lim in a te d and th e g ro u p s in c lu d e d norm al and slow p u p ils o n ly .

The p e rc e n ta g e s

of th o s e who made g r e a te r achievem ent g ain s i n th e second e x p erim en t i s p r e s e n te d i n Table X V II, page 6 1 .

61

TABLE XVII P e rc e n ta g e s o f P u p ils who made g r e a te r achievem ent g ain s th a n t h e i r m atched c la s s m a te s - second ex p erim en t.

SMALL GROUP

LARGE GROUP

Normal P u p ils

58%

U7$

Slow P u p ils

6 8 /'.

32$

B oth ly p es

64$

36$

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te t h a t when b rig h t p u p ils were i n th e group ( f i r s t ex p erim en t) th e f ig u r e s f o r th e e n tir e group w ere: Large Group

4-2/'

Sm all Group

58/i!

With th e b r i g h t p u p ils e lim in a te d (second experim ent) th e co m p arativ e f ig u r e s f o r th e e n t i r e groups w ere: Large Group

36/5

Sm all Group

64$

T h is t a b le confirm s th e f a c t re v e a le d in th e f i r s t e x p erim en t, t h a t a g r e a t e r p e rc e n ta g e o f slow c h ild re n ach iev e more in sm all c la s s e s th a n th e y do i n la r g e c l a s s e s , t h a t th e p e rc en ta g e in fa v o r o f th e sm all group i s more marked when b r ig h t p u p ils are e lim in a te d , and t h a t th e a d v an ta g e i n fa v o r o f th e sm all group i s g r e a te s t when slow p u p ils only a re com pared.

62

F.

Comparison of Reactions of Children in the Large and Small Groups in Various Aspects of School Outcomes, Other Than Scholastic - First Experiment. Practically every class size experiment conducted heretofore

limited itself to a consideration of scholastic outcomes and achievements.

However, it is generally accepted that the scholastic

aim is not the sole objective of education and of the school experience.

There appears to be a need to consider the many other

outcomes of school life and experiences, insofar as they are influenced by the size of classes.

Even if we assume or conclude

that class size does not materially affect educational attainment, we may perhaps find that a small class (or a large one) produces marked values along other lines of development, such as social, civic, emotional and personal.

If small classes show an advantage

in these respects, the organization of such classes would be justified.

Conversely, if no such advantages are revealed, we must

conclude that small classes and the financial expenditures entailed are unwarranted both from educational and from economic standpoints. With this in mind, an attempt was made to evaluate some of the non­ scholastic aspects of school experiences as they manifested themselves in the small and in the large classes. In evaluating the non-scholastic outcomes of school experiences, two procedures were possible, namely: a.

The use of standardized behavior, personality or attitude tests.

b.

Reliance on the carefully recorded observations of the teachers and the supervisors concerned with the experiments.

63

B efora d e te rm in in g th e p ro ced u re to be fo llo w e d , th e in v e s t i g a t o r examined over f i f t y t e s t s which a tte m p t, i n some manner, t o m easure th e n o n -s c h o la s tic outcomes of sch o o l ex p erien ces* This su rv e y re v e a le d th e fo llo w in g f a c t s : 1*

None o f th e t e s t s covered a l l th e s p e c if ic outcomes in c lu d e d i n th e p r e s e n t s tu d y ,

2.

Some t e s t s in c lu d e d n o t o n ly b e h a v io r, bu t i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s ic a l and o th e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s w e ll.

3,

W ith few e x c e p tio n s , n o ted l a t e r i n t h i s r e p o r t, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l th e t e s t s were a p p lic a b le t o g rad es above th e t h i r d y e ar.

S in c e t h i r d y e a r c la s s e s were in clu d ed in th e

e x p e rim e n ts, th e s e t e s t s could n o t be u t i l i z e d . The g r e a t m a jo rity o f th e t e s t s were m erely q u e s tio n n a ire s w hich were answered by !!y e s !! o r "no” , o r by some o th e r word such a s "same" o r " d i f f e r e n t " . 5.

P r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f th e s e t e s t s re q u ire d a re a d in g a b i l i t y and a m a tu rity o f judgm ent beyond th e th i r d y e a r .

6.

The v a lu e o f d e te rm in in g a t t i t u d e s , h a b its and outcomes on th e b a s is o f w r i t t e n answ ers by p u p ils i s q u estio n ed by many r e l i a b l e e d u c a tio n a l a u t h o r i t i e s .

To i l l u s t r a t e :

64.

a.

S . M. C orey, U n iv e r s ity o f C h icag o , s t a t e s :

"The o b je c tio n t o t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e m ethod, when th e re c o rd i s made by t h e c h ild and unchecked by o th e r m ethods, i s t h a t th e c h ild may be u n ab le t o g iv e an a c c u ra te p ic tu re o f h im s e lf w ith r e s p e c t t o th e t r a i t s in q u e s tio n , or he may i n t e n t i o n a l l y f a l s i f y h i s re c o rd to make i t f i t th e p ic tu r e he w a n ts h i s te a c h e r s and a d v is e rs to have of him".-*b. C. M. L o u t t i t , In d ia n a U n iv e r s ity , i n commenting on a s im ila r ty p e o f t e s t c h l l s i t a " q u e s tio n a b le p ro c e d u re " .^ c.

Vernon, U n iv e r s ity o f Glasgow, s t a t e s :

" P e rs o n a lity in v e n t o r i e s have n o t y e t been proven t o give tru s tw o rth y in f o r m a tio n , even t o t r a i n e d p s y c h o lo g is ts " .^ 7.

A sm all number o f t e s t s employ th e method o f re q u irin g te a c h e rs t o make ju d g m en ts o r t o g iv e r a t i n g s on s p e c if ic tra its .

Sometimes tw o o r more c h a r a c t e r iz a t i o n s o f th e

t r a i t s a re g iv e n and th e te a c h e r i s ask ed to check th e c h a r a c te r iz a tio n w h ic h , i n h is o r h e r judgm ent, b e s t d e sc rib e s th e p u p il u n d e r c o n s id e r a tio n .

Sometimes

num erical v a lu e s fro m one to f i v e o r from one to t e n are in c lu d e d , and th e t e a c h e r s e l e c t s th e number w hich, in h i s or h e r judgm ent, b e s t e v a lu a te s th e s p e c if ic t r a i t f o r th e p u p il being s t u d i e d .

These p ro c e d u re s a re d e sc rib e d in

paragraph s i x o f t h e c h a p te r on s u g g e s tio n s f o r f u tu r e in v e s tig a tio n s on c l a s s s i z e .

•^M ental Measurement Y earbook, 1940» E d ite d by 0 . K. Buros

65

A fte r c a r e f u l ly c o n s id e rin g th e la r g e a r r a y o f th e s e p e r s o n a lit y and b eh av io r t e s t s , th e i n v e s t i g a t o r concluded t h a t f o r th e purposes o f th e p r e s e n t s tu d y , u t i l i z a t i o n o f th e c a r e f u l o b s e r v a tio n s , and re c o rd e d judgm ents o f th e te a c h e r s and su p er­ v is o r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n th e e x p erim en ts would y ie l d r e s u l t s t h a t would be j u s t as r e l i a b l e a s co u ld be se c u re d by th e use o f t e s t s , th e v a l i d i t y of which were q u e stio n e d by numerous re c o g n ize d a u t h o r i t i e s in th e f i e l d . F urth erm o re, th e p ro c e d u re ad o p ted was p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l w ith th e p ro c e d u re i n th o s e t e s t s w hich ap p eared most a p p lic a b le to th e s tu d y , nam ely, te a c h e r judgm ent.

While th e

method u t i l i z e d produced q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r th a n n u m e ric a l judgm ents by th e te a c h e r s , th e advantage o f a n u m e ric a l c h a r a c t e r iz a ti o n to a n o n - s c h o la s tic t r a i t over a "good, b a d , b e t t e r o r p o o re r" c h a r a c te r i ­ z a ti o n , i s open to q u e s tio h . I t i s conceded t h a t some e d u c a to rs would p r e f e r th e s ta n d a rd iz e d t e s t ju d g m en ts.

However, th e method used and th e

u n an im ity o f th e judgm ents re n d e re d p re s e n te d r e s u l t s t h a t were d e f i n i t e l y c o n c lu s iv e , and may be re g a rd e d a s w orthy of c o n s id e r a tio n . W hile th e reco rd ed o b s e rv a tio n s by te a c h e r s may no t be re g a rd e d by some a s b e in g as o f e q u a l v a lu e a s s ta n d a rd iz e d t e s t s c o r e s , i t must be p o in te d out th e t e s t s w hich do have s ta n d a rd iz e d s c o re s have d e riv e d t h e i r norms by th e i d e n t i c a l method o f u t i l i z i n g te a c h e r judgment and te a c h e r r a t i n g .

66

The competence of teachers to make judgments on the items studied, and the accuracy of their observations will, of course, affect the validity of the results.

However, this limitation of the

evaluation would apply equally, even if standardized tests were employed.

In this connection, the investigator states that the

teachers who taught the experimental classes had been carefully selected, and were, to a great extent, persons who had previously demonstrated their ability to exercise good judgment and to be as accurate, impersonal and impartial as possible in arriving at decisions. With these explanations, the results in the non-scholastic outcomes of school experiences are presented. Each teacher was requested to make frequent observations, judgments and comments on a series of specific topics, which would bring out the information sought.

The observations and judgments

have been summarized separately for each experiment.

After careful

consideration, the following specific topics were selected for teachers1 observations and comments.

These items were chosen because

they represented important school habits, attitudes, and outcomes, and because teachers could competently evaluate the degree of their presence or absence in each type of class.

The ninth item, of

67

c o u rs e , concerned te a c h e rs and not p u p ils* 1* 2. 3. 4.* 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

I n t e r e s t shown i n work D is c ip lin e A tte n tio n and a p p lic a tio n t o work S o c ia l r e la t i o n s h i p s and ad ju stm en ts w ith o th e r p u p i l s E m otional r e a c tio n s C oop eratio n w ith c la ssm a te s and w ith te a c h e r S e l f - d i r e c t i o n , i n i t i a t i v e and sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y P u p il p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w illin g n e s s to s h a re e x p e rie n c e s Teacher r e a c tio n s The fo llo w in g summaries o f the te a c h e r s ' and i n some

in s ta n c e s o f th e p u p ils ' r e a c tio n s on th e s e a s p e c ts o f s c h o o l e x p e r ie n c e s , based o n fre q u e n tly recorded o b s e rv a tio n s , a re p re s e n te d h e re w ith , f o r th e f i r s t experim ent. 1.

I n t e r e s t shown i n work a.

"The c h ild re n i n the sm all group had moreo p p o r t u n i ti e s to r e v e a l and make known t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . "

b.

"The c h ild re n i n the sm all group showed a g r e a t e r eag ern ess and d e s ir e t o im prove."

c.

"A number o f c h ild re n i n th e sm all group who w ere a p a th e tic a t f i r s t because o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n a r ith m e tic , became more e n t h u s i a s t i c a s th e in d iv id u a l a s s is ta n c e by the te a c h e r h e lp e d them to surmount t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n the l a r g e r group such developed i n t e r e s t did not m a n ife st i t s e l f t o th e same e x te n t" .

d.

"The c h ild re n i n th e sm all group w ere much more in te r e s t e d i n t h e i r own p ro g ress th a n th e c h i ld r e n i n th e la r g e r g ro u p . P a r ti c u la r l y i n re m e d ia l w o rk , w hich was la r g e ly in d iv id u a l, did they work h a rd e r t o overcome t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n th e la rg e group, th e r e w ere so many p re s e n t t h a t p u p ils were f r e q u e n tly more i n t e r e s t e d in what th e o th e rs were d o in g ."

68

2*

e.

"The c h ild r e n i n th e sm all group showed a g r e a te r i n t e r e s t becau se th e y r e a liz e d t h a t th ey were g e ttin g more g u idance and a s s is ta n c e th a n i n p re v io u s c la s s e s . They a p p re c ia te d t h i s h e lp and worked h a rd e r th a n i n th e p a s t . "

f.

"The s lo w e s t p u p ils on th e g rad e appeared t o g a in more c o n fid e n c e in th e sm all group th a n t h e i r matched schoolm ates i n th e la r g e g ro u p ."

D is c ip lin e a.

"A g r e a t d e a l o f freedom was p o s s ib le in th e sm all group, and y e t th e atm osphere was one o f calm and p e a c e . T h is may have been caused by th e f a c t th a t each c h ild was b u s ily engaged w ith h is own p a r t i c u l a r w ork, and d id n o t have to w a it lo n g f o r th e t e a c h e r 's in d iv id u a l a s s is ta n c e i n c ase o f d i f f i c u l t y . "

b.

" In th e l a r g e r group, freedom o f movement, e t c . had t o be lim ite d because o f th e la r g e r e g i s t e r , and th e d i s c i p l i n e had t o be one o f a s t r i c t e r and more fo rm al n a tu r e ."

c.

"More freedom was d e f i n i t e l y p o s s ib le in th e sm all g ro u p . There was more room to sp read o u t, and groups d id not d i s t u r b o th e r g ro u p s."

d.

"The c h ild r e n i n th e s m a lle r g ro u p , having more o p p o rtu n ity f o r c lo s e r c o n ta c t w ith th e te a c h e r , depended le s s on n e ig h b o rs , and th u s p e rm itte d p u p ils t o c o n c e n tra te more on t h e i r own work w ith o u t d is tu r b a n c e ."

e.

"There was more r e s t r a i n t and l e s s s e lf - e x p r e s s io n i n th e la r g e jgroup. The atm osphere o f th e classroom of th e s m a ll group appeared t o be h a p p ie r because o f th e freedom and s e l f - c o n t r o l amonfc th e p u p ils ."

A tte n tio n and A p p lic a tio n t o Work a.

" I n d iv id u a liz e d i n s t r u c t i o n , w hich was more r e a d ily p ro v id ed i n th e sm all c l a s s , b ro u g h t about b e t t e r a t t e n t i o n , g r e a te r c o n c e n tra tio n , and more a p p lic a tio n t o w o rk ."

69

b.

MIn th e la r g e group i t was o f ttim e s im p o ssib le f o r th e te a c h e r to re a c h each c h ild who re q u ire d in d iv id u a l a s s i s t a n c e . T h e re fo re , a t t e n t i o n would la g when th e c h ild f a i l e d to u n d e rsta n d th e problem a t hand."

c.

" In th e s m a ll c l a s s th e r e was l e s s w aste o f tim e w ith r o u tin e m a tte r s , so t h a t th e te a c h e r , in e f f e c t , had more tim e and o p p o rtu n ity t o c a t e r t o th e in d iv id u a l needs o f th e p u p i l s ."

F req u en t o b s e r v a tio n by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r , th e P r in c ip a l of th e sc h o o l, confirm ed th e above c o n c lu s io n s .

The sm aller groups

always gave th e im p re s sio n o f g r e a te r in d u s tr y , c o n c e n tra tio n , and a p p lic a tio n t o w ork. £•

S o c ia l R e la tio n s h ip s and A djustm ents w ith o th e r p u p ils In s tu d y in g th e s o c ia l r e l a t i o n s h i p s in b o th ty p e s of

c la s s e s , i t was n e c e s s a ry to c o n sid e r th e e f f e c t s on th e c h ild re n of some of th e t r a n s f e r s n e c e s sa ry t o e q u a liz e th e two g ro u p s.

It

was found t h a t b r ig h t c h ild r e n f r e q u e n tly w ere n o t happy when th e y were p laced i n a group t h a t had slo w er c h ild r e n , a f t e r th ey had p re v io u s ly been i n an a l l - b r i g h t c l a s s .

W hile some o f th e c h ild re n

r e a d ily a d ju s te d th e m se lv e s t o b o th ty p e s o f c l a s s , i t was q u ite n o tic e a b le t h a t shy and d i f f i d e n t b e tte r

c h ild r e n made more ra p id and f a r

a d ju stm en ts i n th e s m a lle r g ro u p s.

I t may w e ll be t h a t th e

temperament o f th e c h ild must be g iv en c o n s id e r a tio n when placem ent in a la r g e r o r a s m a lle r c l a s s i s b e in g w eighed. Among s i g n i f i c a n t comments by th e te a c h e r s , were th e fo llo w in g : a.

"M arcia, a shy and r e t i r i n g c h il d gained more co n fid en ce i n h e r s e l f i n th e sm a ll c l a s s . Rhoda, a v e ry slow c h ild , l o s t p a r t o f h e r i n f e r i o r i t y complex i n th e sm all c la s s

70

because she developed a b e t t e r pow er to re c o g n iz e w ords. R o b e rt, a y o u n g ster who i s n a t u r a l l y la z y and who needs c o n tin u a l s u p e rv is io n t o make him w ork, was l o s t in th e b ig group. D e lo re s, a shy c h i l d , overcame much o f h e r shyness i n th e sm all c l a s s . Naomi and V in cen t i n th e la r g e group rem ained q u ie t and h e s i t a n t a l l te rm . They never asked f o r s p e c ia l h e lp , w h ic h th e y n e e d e d ."

5.

b.

"There was a more f r i e n d l y a tm o sp h e re in th e s m a ll group. The c h ild r e n had a g r e a te r o p p o r tu n i ty to g e t t o know, and to h e lp one a n o th e r ."

c.

"The c h ild r e n o f th e sm a ll g ro u p a d ju s te d th e m selv e s more r a p id ly t o th e in d iv id u a l t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p . "

d.

"The q u ie t and shy c h ild r e n i n t h e sm a ll group became more t a l k a t i v e and more re a d y t o e x p re s s th e m s e lv e s . The sm a lle r number o f c h ild r e n seemed to have s e t them a t t h e i r e a s e ."

E m otional R e a c tio n s Q u e stio n in g o f th e c h ild re n r e v e a le d t h a t about

p r e f e r r e d t o be i n a sm all group.

o f them

The te a c h e r s w ere g e n e r a lly in

agreem ent t h a t th e c h ild r e n in th e sm all g ro u p w ere f r e e r , h a p p ie r , and more norm al i n t h e i r em o tio n al r e a c t i o n s . Some comments by th e te a c h e rs w ere a s fo llo w s ; a.

"The c h ild r e n i n th e la r g e g ro u p became r e s t l e s s a g r e a t d e a l more e a s i l y . The s m a ll group was found to be much more s t a b l e ."

b.

"The c h ild r e n in th e sm all g ro u p a p p ea re d t o be h a p p ie r . They enjoyed more freedom . I n th e la r g e group th e r e was f r e q u e n tly an atm osphere o f r e s t l e s s n e s s . R e s tr a in t was more e v id e n t."

c.

"More fra n k n e s s and l e s s f o r m a li t y w ere a p p a re n t i n th e sm a lle r g ro u p ."

d.

"The c h ild r e n in th e sm all g ro u p w ere more a t e a s e th a n th e c h ild r e n i n th e la r g e g ro u p ."

71

e.

6.

7.

"The c h ild re n i n th e sm all g ro u p lo oked fo rw ard w ith jo y t o th e board work each d a y , s in c e th e e n t i r e c l a s s could be accommodated a t th e same tim e ."

C o o p eratio n w ith C lassm ates and w ith T eacher a*

"The more work were

c h ild re n i n th e sm all gro u p worked to g e th e r much e f f e c t i v e l y . They had more room and w ere a b le t o w ith o u t d is tu r b in g o r an n o y in g o th e r p u p i l s , who to o c lo s e t o them i n th e l a r g e r g ro u p s ."

b.

"The c h ild re n i n th e la r g e r c l a s s e s had to o many d i s t r a c t i o n s , were o fte n to o much i n t e r e s t e d in what was going on elsew here to work c o o p e r a tiv e ly i n t h e i r own g ro u p s."

c*

"There was g r e a te r c o o p e ra tio n among p u p ils and w ith te a c h e r i n th e sm a ll c la s s e s due t o a c l o s e r r e la tio n s h i p and a more m utual u n d e rs ta n d in g th a n i n th e la r g e g ro u p s. The b r ig h te r ones f e l t i t was t h e i r d u ty t o improve th e work o f th e slow er o n es, and t h e l a t t e r w ere u s u a lly w e ll d isp o sed t o t h i s p ro c e d u re ."

S e l f - d i r e c t i o n , I n i t i a t i v e and S ense o f R e s p o n s ib ility T e a c h e rs1 comments were as fo llo w s ; a.

"The in d iv id u a l i n th e la r g e g ro u p had to ta k e more c a re o f h im se lf s in c e th e te a c h e r had much l e s s tim e f o r in d iv id u a l i n s t r u c t i o n . "

b.

"The la rg e group, by i t s v e ry n a t u r e , had a g r e a te r sen se o f s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . However, t h i s was tr u e only of th e b r ig h t c h ild r e n , w h ile t h e slow ones i n th e la r g e group seemed q u ite l o s t and showed l i t t l e in itia tiv e or s e lf - d ir e c tio n ."

c.

"While th e re was more ev id en ce o f s e l f - d i r e c t i o n in th e la rg e group, th e r e was g r e a t ev id en ce o f a b e t t e r sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n th e s m a ll g ro u p ."

72

8.

P u p il P a r t i c i p a t i o n , W illin g n e ss t o Share Experiences The im p o rta n t te a c h e r o b s e rv a tio n s on t h i s to p ic were as

fo llo w s :

9.

a,

"There was a g r e a te r w illin g n e s s t o ask q u e stio n s and t o s h a re in d i v i d u a l id e a s i n th e s m a ll g ro u p s."

b,

"The s m a lle r g ro u p , h av in g more o p p o r tu n itie s , asked more q u e s tio n s and p a r t i c i p a t e d more fr e q u e n tly ,"

c,

"Because c h ild r e n re c e iv e d more guidance in th e s m a lle r g ro u p s, th e y asked q u e s tio n s more f r e e l y ,"

d,

"There was u n d o u b ted ly much more p u p il p a r t ic ip a tio n i n th e s m a ll g ro u p . The c h ild r e n were more a t ease and t h e r e f o r e , more w i l l i n g to ask f o r help and to o f f e r s u g g e s tio n s ."

Teachers* R e a c tio n s t o Large and Sm all Groups The s i g n i f i c a n t comments w ere a s fo llo w s : a,

" I t was l e s s s t r a i n and more e n jo y a b le to te a c h th e sm a ll g ro u p . A lthough th e c h ild r e n i n th e sm all groups had more freed o m , i t was l e s s nerve w e arin g ."

b,

" In th e s m a ll g ro u p , th e te a c h e r had th e tim e and o p p o rtu n ity t o u n d e rs ta n d th e p e r s o n a lity and back­ ground o f each c h i l d . W ith t h i s knowledge, she could p ro ceed more I n t e l l i g e n t l y t o pro v id e f o r h is in d iv id u a l needs and g u id e h is developm ent. In th e la r g e g ro u p , th e te a c h e r could n o t p o s sib ly v ary th e a ssig n m en ts a c c o rd in g t o each c h i l d 's a b i l i t y and n e e d s. I f o ur p u b lic sc h o o ls a re to p rovide b roader and b e t t e r t r a i n i n g , s o c ie ty owes i t to th e c h ild re n t o make s m a lle r c la s s e s p o s s ib le ."

c,

" In a sm a ll c l a s s , th 9 te a c h e r a c t u a l ly can see and f e e l how th e work i s becoming c l e a r e r f o r th e in d iv id u a l c h i l d . "

d,

" In sm a ll c l a s s e s , th e g ro u p in g o f c h ild re n acco rd in g to i n t e l l i g e n c e can r e a d i l y be e lim in a te d , because of th e g r e a te r amount o f in d iv id u a liz e d in s tr u c ti o n p o s s ib le . T his w i l l e lim in a te th e a t t i t u d e s o f s u p e r io r ity and i n f e r i o r i t y among homogenously graded c h ild re n o f d iffe re n t le v e ls ."

73

G.

Com parison o f R e a c tio n s o f C h ild re n i n Large and Sm all C la sses i n A sp ects o f School E x p e rie n c e s, O ther Than S c h o la s tic Second Experim ent As i n th e f i r s t e x p erim en t, a stu d y was made o f p u p ils '

r e a c tio n s and conduct i n th e outcomes o f sch o o l l i f e and a c t i v i t y , which cannot be c la s s e d a s s c h o l a s t i c , and y e t which a re v i t a l in s tre n g th e n in g th o s e d e s ir a b le p e rs o n a l and s o c ia l q u a l i t i e s so g e n e r a lly a c c e p te d as e s s e n t i a l i n th e p ro p e r developm ent o f our p u p ils .

S in ce th e im portan ce o f th e s e non-academ ic outcomes

i s g e n e r a lly re c o g n iz e d , and s in c e p re v io u s c la s s s iz e experim ents have p a id l i t t l e o r no a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s a s p e c t o f school a c t i v i t i e s , a c o n s id e r a tio n o f them was deemed im p o rta n t. As i n th e f i r s t e x p erim en t, th e c o n c lu sio n s were based on th e c a r e f u l l y re c o rd e d o b s e rv a tio n s o f th e te a c h e rs d u rin g th e e n t i r e te rm .

The te a c h e r s i n ch arg e o f th e c la s s e s were very

r e l i a b l e and had been i n s tr u c te d to be as im p erso n al and as a c c u ra te as p o s s ib le i n making jud g m en ts.

Th9 ex p erien c e gained in th e f i r s t

experim ent made i t p o s s ib le more r e a d il y to c o n tro l c o n d itio n s and to make i n s t r u c t i o n s t o to a c h e rs more d e f i n i t e . W hile t e s t s o f p e r s o n a l, s o c ia l and em otional r e a c tio n s a re given a t s p e c i f i c p e rio d s o n ly , th e te a c h e r s ' c o n clu sio n s and comments were based on th e c o n tin u o u s o b s e rv a tio n s o f an e n t i r e term .

A te s t

of e m o tio n a l r e a c tio n s a t a p a r t i c u l a r tim e may n o t re v e a l th e u s u a l

74

norm al, o r h a b itu a l r e a c t i o n s o f th e i n d i v id u a l .

On th e o th e r

hand, th e te a c h e r s ' o b s e r v a tio n s , based on co n tin u o u s ex p erien ce w ith th e p u p ils , a re more l i k e l y to be a v a l i d p ic tu r e of th e h a b itu a l r e a c tio n s o f h e r p u p ils * The summaries o f t e a c h e r s ' and i n some c a s e s , o f p u p ils ' r e a c tio n s i n v a rio u s s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s a re p re se n te d under th e headings in d ic a te d , f o r th e second experim ent* 1*

I n t e r e s t Shown i n Work a*

"More i n t e r e s t was shown by th e p u p ils in th e sm all g ro u p . T h is i n t e r e s t c o n tin u e d i n th e n ex t g ra d e , where th e c h ild r e n who had been i n th e sm aller group w ere more a n x io u s t o do e x tr a work i n o rd e r to t r y t o improve th e m s e lv e s ."

b.

"There seemed t o be a g r e a te r d e s i r e among th e c h ild re n o f th e s m a ll group t o ach iev e p e r f e c t r e s u l t s , perhaps because o f more in d iv id u a l encouragem ent and p r a i s e ."

c.

" In th e s m a ll group each p u p il was im pressed by th e f a c t t h a t he would be a b le to g e t more h e lp from th e te a c h e r . The p u p ils in t h i s group were e s p e c ia lly e ag e r t o work hard and su c c e e d ."

d.

2.

'The p u p ils i n th e sm all group w ere d e f i n i t e l y in te r e s te d in t h e i r own w ork; w h ile in th e la r g e group i n t e r e s t seemed t o be i n a c t i v i t i e s of o th e r p u p ils ."

D is c ip lin e a.

"The s m a ll group was much b e t t e r behaved. S.C-. was t r a n s f e r r e d from th e la rg e group to th e sm all group because o f tro u b leso m e c o n d u ct. A fte r th e change, b o th h i s a t t i t u d e and work im proved."

b.

"The d i s c i p l i n e in th e sm all group was f r e e r and e a s ie r t o m a in ta in . I n th e la rg e g ro u p , more tim e was sp en t in d is c ip lin in g ."

I

75

3.

4.

c.

"The c h ild r e n i n th e sm all group worked w e ll a t assig n m en ts w h ile th e te a c h e r was occupied w ith in d iv id u a l p u p ils o r w ith o th e r gro u p s. The s iz e o f th e la r g e group made f o r co n fu sio n and e x c e ssiv e t a l k i n g a t tim e s ."

d.

" I t was humanly p o s s ib le to keep everyone i n th e sm all group i n t e r e s t e d a t a l l tim e s . A n e ed le ss number o f d i s c i p l i n e c a s e s o ccu rred i n th e la rg e group. I n t h a t group i t was n o t alw ays p o s s ib le to give a d d itio n a l assig n m e n ts p ro m p tly , and th e r e was always c o n s id e ra b le commotion a t th e l i b r a r y s h e lv e s where c h ild re n had been t r a i n e d to go f o r books when th e y had f in is h e d a s s ig n m e n ts ."

A tte n tio n and A p p lic a tio n t o Work a.

" A tte n tio n and a p p lic a tio n to work was p re s e n t t o a g r e a te r d e g re e i n th e sm all c l a s s . "

b.

"Because o f c l o s e r p e rs o n a l s u p e rv is io n , th e sm all group a p p lie d th e m se lv e s more d i l i g e n t l y to work. T h eir i n d iv id u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s were more q u ick ly e x p la in e d and overcom e. T his was more d i f f i c u l t i n th e la rg e g ro u p , and th e r e s u l t was o c c a s io n a l s h ir k e r s ."

Co

"The c h ild r e n i n th e la r g e group fr e q u e n tly were to o busy w atching th e p ro g re s s o f t h e i r companions to pay p ro p e r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r own w ork."

d.

"The s m a lle r c l a s s helped b o th th e te a c h e r and th e p u p ils do b e t t e r w ork. C h ild re n were more a t te n ti v e and more w il l i n g t o w o rk ."

e.

"W.W., who was q u ite i n a t t e n t i v e in th e la rg e g ro u p , became more a t t e n t i v e th e fo llo w in g term and a p p lie d h im s e lf b e t t e r , v#ith th e same te a c h e r , in a c la s s o f tw e n ty -se v e n in s te a d o f f o r t y - t h r e e . "

S o c ia l R e la tio n s and A djustm ents w ith C lassm ates and T eachers a.

"The c h ild r e n i n th e sm all group became more f r i e n d l y and a c te d l i k e one b ig fa m ily by th e end of th e te rm ."

b.

" B rig h te r c h ild r e n were v e ry h e lp f u l to slow er ones in th e sm a ll g ro u p ."

MEW YORK UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION O LIBRARY O

76

5.

6*

c.

"R.H. was a v e ry pugnacious and stu b b o rn c h ild in th e s m a ll g ro u p , a t th e beginning o f th e experim ent, b u t th e freedom and f r i e n d l y s p i r i t o f th e sm all c la s s improved h i s p e r s o n a l i t y t o a g r e a t e x te n t . In th e la rg e gro u p , R .B ., G.M. and C. R* who were re s e rv e d and p e c u lia r ly a lo o f c h i l d r e n , rem ained s o .”

d.

"T here was l e s s problem o f shyness i n th e sm all group. The c h ild r e n were q u ic k , a s s e r t iv e and ready to e x p re ss th e m se lv e s* "

E m otional R e a c tio n s a*

" I n th e s m a ll group i t was much e a s ie r to n o tic e th e p le a s u r e and s a t i s f a c t i o n in in d iv id u a l improvement*"

b*

"T here was a g r e a t d e a l of e a se and s t a b i l i t y in th e s m a ll group a s th e c h ild r e n were p e rm itte d to move a b o u t f r e e l y . T h is was not p o s s ib le to th e same d eg ree i n th e la r g e group because o f th e la r g e r number o f c h ild r e n and th e la c k o f a d eq u a te s p a c e . For t h i s re a so n , a la r g e amount o f r e s t l e s s n e s s and i n s t a b i l i t y was d isp la y ed * "

c,

"The c h i l d r e n in th e sm a ll group appeared to enjoy t h e i r work m o re."

d.

"The c h i l d r e n enjoyed th e g r e a te r freedom t h a t was p o s s ib le becau se o f th e few er number in th e c l a s s , and w ere alw ays a t e a s e ."

C o o p eratio n w ith C lassm ates and w ith Teacher a.

" C h ild re n i n th e s m a lle r group got along w ith each o th e r much b e t t e r . Q u a rre lin g and b a t t l i n g was done away w ith . I n th e la r g e group th e r e was c o n s ta n t b ic k e rin g , e t c . "

b.

'T here was g r e a t e r need f o r c o o p e ra tio n among th e c h ild r e n i n th e la r g e group due to th e number in v o lv ed , but i t was n o t a s e a s y t o e f f e c t i t a s in th e sm aller g ro u p ."

c.

" In th e la r g e g ro u p , when an assignm ent was g iv e n , tim e e la p s e d and i n t e r e s t waned b e fo re c h ild re n decided w ith whom t o w o rk ."

77

7#

8.

S e lf- d ir e c t io n t I n it ia t iv e and Sense of R espon sibility a.

"More e x p l i c i t d i r e c t i o n s were re q u ire d in th e la r g e group* C h ild re n i n th e sm all group seemed t o hav9 more i n i t i a t i v e *"

b.

"By i t s v e ry n a t u r e , th e la r g e group com pelled c h ild r e n t o r e l y more upon them selves* The c h ild re n in th e s m a lle r group so u g h t th e h e lp o f th e te a c h e r much more f r e e ly in case o f d iffic u lty * "

c*

"W hile th o s e i n th e la r g e group were com pelled to work more by th e m s e lv e s , w ith o u t th e te a c h e r 's h e lp , some o f th e s e were n o t cap a b le o f assum ing t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o th e d e g re e i t was r e q u ir e d ."

P u p il P a r t i c i p a t i o n a.

b.

9*

"The p u p ils i n th e sm all group asked more q u e s tio n s . They had more o p p o rtu n ity and w ere q u ite w il l i n g to do s o ." " C h ild re n f e l t f r e e r t o e x p re ss them selves i n th e sm a lle r g ro u p . C h ild re n found i t e a s i e r to t a lk t o a sm all group th a n t o a la r g e o n e ."

T e a c h e rs ' R e a c tio n s t o Large and Sm all C lasses a*

"The la r g e group had a d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t upon th e t e a c h e r . A fte r b e in g w ith th e la r g e group, I would le a v e f e e l i n g a b s o lu te ly e x h a u ste d . I looked forw ard t o th e s m a ll group where c la s s and te a c h e r were re la x e d and a t e a s e ."

b*

" I n th e la r g e group th e r e was a la c k of space f o r group w ork and a c t i v i t y . In group work i t i s a more i d e a l arran g em en t t o have groups d e f i n i t e l y sep a ra te d from one a n o th e r ."

c.

" I t was n o t p o s s ib le t o give th e needed in d iv id u a liz e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n th e la r g e gro u p . I would f i n d m yself h e lp in g slo w er ones c o n s ta n tly and g iv in g l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o more p ro g re s s iv e c h ild r e n ."

d.

" I t was much e a s i e r t o know th e s p e c if ic a s s e t s and n e ed s o f th e c h i l d in th e sm all g ro u p ."

78

10,

e.

"Due t o th 9 s iz e o f th e sm all c l a s s , more work was acco m p lish ed w ith each c h i l d ,"

f.

"T here i s a c o n s id e ra b le w aste of tim e i n w orking w ith a la r g e g ro u p . The s t r a i n o f d i s c i p lin i n g a la r g e group w as q u ite e x h a u s tin g ,"

g,

" I t was much more e n jo y ab le t o work w ith th e sm all gro u p . There was much more o p p o rtu n ity fo r in d iv id u a l and f o r re m e d ia l w o rk ,"

h,

" I n th e la r g e group th e r e was always a f e e l i n g on th e p a r t o f th e te a c h e r t h a t some c h ild re n were b ein g n e g le c te d ,"

An I n t e r e s t i n g F ollow -up One o f th e 4-A t e a c h e r s , whose in t e l l i g e n c e and judgm ent a re

o f a h ig h o r d e r , made th e fo llo w in g i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a tio n s , some tim e a f t e r th e c o n c lu s io n o f th e second exp erim en t: " P e r s o n a lity t r a i t s , p u p il p a r t i c i p a t i o n , b e t t e r o r a l e x p r e s s io n , and c o o p e ra tio n w ith o th e rs showed g r e a te r s t r i d e s in th e s m a lle r g ro u p . T h is was d e f i n i t e l y shown when I had th e e n t i r e e x p e rim e n ta l group a g ain in th e 43 grade* The c h ild r e n who had been i n th e sm all group had many more o f t h e above m entioned t r a i t s th a n th e p u p ils who had been i n t h e la r g e g ro u p " , T,e have h e re an im p o rta n t in d ic a t io n t h a t membership i n a sm all c l a s s h a s produced outcomes t h a t a re extrem ely d e s ir a b l e and perm anent even though th e y a re n o t e s s e n t i a l l y s c h o l a s t i c .

I t may

w e ll be t h a t c o n tin u e d membership i n a sm a ll group would produce many v a lu a b le n o n - s c h o la s tic outcom es i f a l a s t i n g n a tu r e .

79

H.

Summary o f x>,e s u i t s i n Both Experim ents in Outcomes o f S ch o o l E x p e rie n c e . O ther th a n S c h o la s tic 1.

I n t e r e s t i n School Work A much g r e a te r i n t e r e s t and eag ern ess to le a r n and a d e s ir e

t o im prove were m a n ife ste d i n th e sm all gro u p s. 2.

D is c ip lin e A f i n e r ty p e o f s e l f - c o n t r o l was developed in th e s m a lle r

g ro u p s .

A lthough more freedom was th e r u l e , an atm osphere o f calm

and r e s t f u l n e s s p r e v a ile d .

More r e s t r a i n t and le s s s e lf - e x p r e s s io n

was n e c e s s a ry i n th e l a r g e r g ro u p s. 3.

A tte n tio n and A p p lic a tio n to Work B e tte r a t t e n t i o n and more c o n c e n tra tio n and a p p l i c a t i o n t o

work w ere m a n ife ste d i n th e sm all group.

Less w aste of tim e w as

e v id e n t i n ev ery one o f th e s m a lle r c la s s e s . A.

S o c ia l R e la tio n s h ip s and A djustm ents with O ther P u p ils Shy and d i f f i d e n t c h ild r e n made more ra p id and f a r b e t t e r

a d ju s tm e n ts in s m a lle r c l a s s e s .

C h ild re n , g e n e r a lly , became more

f r i e n d l y i n s m a lle r c l a s s e s .

e v e r, some o f th e b r ig h t c h ild r e n

H ot;

r e a c te d more fa v o ra b ly t o th e ty p e of p u p ils in th e c l a s s , r a t h e r th a n t o th e s iz e o f th e c l a s s .

5.

E m otional R e a c tio n s There was a much more r e s t f u l atm osphere i n th e s m a ll c l a s s .

The c h i l d r e n enjoyed th e g r e a te r freedom and la c k o f r e s t r a i n t .

On

th e w h o le , th e c h ild r e n i n th e sm all group were h a p p ie r, f r e e r , and more n o rm al i n t h e i r em o tio n a l r e a c tio n s .

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6.

C o o p eratio n w ith C lassm ates and w ith Teacher Much more c o o p e ra tio n was m an ifested i n th e sm all c l a s s e s .

A b e t t e r m utual u n d e rs ta n d in g and a s p i r i t o f h e lp fu ln e s s were d e v e lo p e d . 7.

The te a c h e r s were unanimous i n th e s e o b s e rv a tio n s .

S e l f - d i r e c t i o n . I n i t i a t i v e and Sense o f R e s p o n s ib ility The m a jo rity o f te a c h e rs agreed th a t th e re was more

n e c e s s i t y f o r s e l f - d i r e c t i o n i n th e la r g e r g ro u p s, due to th e f a c t t h a t o p p o r tu n i tie s were n o t a s r e a d ily a v a il a b le f o r t e a c h e r 's g u id a n c e .

However, on ly th e b r ig h t e r c h ild r e n appeared c a p a b le o f

e x e r c i s i n g t h i s a b i l i t y i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner. 8.

P u p il P a r t i c i p a t i o n . W illin g n e ss to Share E xperiences There was more and b e t t e r p u p il p a r t ic ip a ti o n i n th e

s m a lle r c l a s s e s .

There was a g r e a te r w illin g n e s s to ask q u e s tio n s ,

t o s h a re id e a s , and to o f f e r s u g g e s tio n s . 9.

Teachers* R e a c tio n s t o Large and Sm all C lasses The te a c h e r s ag reed t h a t th e sm all c la s s e s were more

e n jo y a b le , in v o lv e d l e s s s t r a i n , and were more e f f e c tiv e from th e te a c h in g s ta n d p o in t.

Teachers could follow each p u p i l 's p ro g re s s

much more c lo s e ly and a c c u r a te ly .

81

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS

A lthough a number o f c o n clu sio n s were w arran ted on th e b a s is o f th e d a ta com piled i n th e f i r s t e x p erim en t, a second ex p erim en t was conducted t o check th e s e f in d i n g s .

The r e s u l t s

o b ta in e d i n th e second experim ent p a r a lle l e d so c lo s e ly th e d a ta o f th e f i r s t e x p e rim e n t, t h a t th e fo llo w in g c o n clu sio n s have been drawn by th e f a c t s re v e a le d i n b o th ex p erim en ts. 1,

Both e x p erim en ts d em onstrated t h a t more work was accom plished

i n th e s m a ll groups w ith th e in d iv id u a liz e d in s tr u c tio n te c h n iq u e s and p ro c e d u re s which were u t i l i z e d .

This i s shown by a stu d y

o f Diagrams 1 , 2 and 3 on pages 32, 50 and 55,

These diagram s

in d ic a te th e u n i t s o f work accom plished w ith a p la n o f in d iv id u a liz e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n which th e co m p letio n o f a u n i t re p re se n te d a d e f i n i t e achievem ent g o a l,

A new u n i t was n o t u n d ertak en u n t i l th e p re c e d in g

one had been s u c c e s s f u lly com pleted.

T h e re fo re , th e com pletion o f

more u n i t s was e q u iv a le n t to more p r o g r e s s .

Since th e aame te a c h e r

ta u g h t b o th la r g e and sm a ll groups on th e g rd d e, and devoted th e same amount o f tim e t o each g ro u p , th e same i n s t r u c t i o n and th e same b e n e f its were a v a ila b le t o b o th ty p e s of c l a s s e s .

The sm all c la s s e s

showed a marked advantage over th e la r g e c la s s e s i n th e number o f u n i t s o f work c o m p le ted .

A s tu d y o f th e d a ta re v e a le d t h a t t h i s advantage

o c cu rred most c o n s i s t e n t l y i n fa v o r o f th e slo w est c h ild re n on th e

82

group*

E v id e n tly th e a d d i t i o n a l in d iv id u a l in s tr u c t io n a v a ila b le

was needed more by them th a n by t h e i r b r ig h te r c la ssm a te s. 2*

On th e b a s is o f av erag e achievem ent sco res and achievem ent

g a in s , no s i g n i f i c a n t ad v an tag e f o r e i t h e r ty p e o f c la s s was r e v e a le d .

The average achievem ent o f th e sm all group was alw ays

a t l e a s t a s good a s i n th e la r g e group, and fr e q u e n tly s l i g h t l y b e t t e r (s e e T ables I t o XV).

However, th e d iff e r e n c e s in a v erag e

achievem ent w ere i n most c a s e s v ery sm all and th e r e f o r e , must be re g a rd e d a s in c o n c lu siv e *

I t i s q u ite p o s s ib le th a t t h i s was due

to th e f a c t t h a t th e e x p erim en ts la s t e d only one term , and t h a t e x p erim en ts o f lo n g e r d u r a tio n might produce more r e l ia b le d if f e r e n c e s * An in d i c a t i o n o f t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y was re v e a le d i n the case of s e v e r a l o f th e e x p e rim e n ta l c la s s e s , w hich, when r e - te s te d a t a l a t e r d a te showed a g r e a t e r achievem ent g ain i n fav o r o f th o se who had been i n th e sm all groups d u rin g th e ex p erim en ts.

Perhaps th e

a d d i t i o n a l in d iv id u a l i n s t r u c t i o n which th ey had re c eiv e d may n o t have re v e a le d i t s tr u e e f f e c t u n t i l a lo n g er p e rio d of time had e la p s e d .

W hile d e f i n i t e c o n c lu sio n cannot be drawn, t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y

i s d is c u s s e d more f u l l y i n th e n ex t c h a p te r, under In fere n c es and I m p lic a tio n s , 3.

The ex p erim en ts re v e a le d t h a t in th e low er elem entary g ra d e s ,

w ith w hich th e stu d y was co n cern ed , a g r e a te r p ercen tag e of slow c h ild r e n made b e t t e r p ro g re s s i n th e sm all groups than in th e la r g e

83

ones, p ro b a b ly because o f th e g r e a te r amount of in d iv id u a l in s tru c tio n a v a ila b le .

T h is f a c t i s d e f i n i t e l y in d ic a te d by a

study o f th e summaries p re s e n te d in Table XVI, page 59, and i n Table X V II, page 6 1 .

It

i s a ls o in d ic a te d by a study o f th e

fo o tn o te s t o T ables

I t o XV.

In co n n ectio n w ith t h i s f in d i n g , i t

should be p o in te d out t h a t th e matched p u p ils were s e le c te d a s c a r e f u lly a s p o s s ib le .

Not o n ly were p u p ils matched on th e b a s is

of i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievem ent t e s t s , bu t on th e b a sis o f s e x , n a t i o n a l i t y background, s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s , and p e rs o n a l and e m o tio n a l t r a i t s . W hile a com parison o f average g a in s of la rg e and sm all c la s s e s re v e a le d d if f e r e n c e s t h a t were in c o n c lu s iv e , a com parative study o f th e p e rc e n ta g e s o f p u p ils who made b e t t e r gains th a n t h e i r matched sch o o lm ates showed t h a t th e advantage in fa v o r o f th o se who were i n th e s m a ll c la s s e s was q u ite marked i n the case o f th e normal and th e slow c h ild r e n .

The advantage was most marked in th e case

o f th e s lo w e s t c h ild r e n i n th e groups (compare th e p e rc en ta g e s fo r th e d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y groups i n Tables XVI and X V II). These f a c t s by th e e x p e rim e n ts .

were p e rh a p s th e most s ig n if ic a n t

ones re v e a le d

They can n o t be overlooked when s c h o la s tic

r e s u l t s i n c l a s s e s o f v a r io u s s iz e a re compared.

The average c la s s

g ains u sed a lm o st e x c lu s iv e ly h e re to fo re a s a measure of e f f e c tiv e n e s s o f la rg e and s m a ll c la s s e s to o k l i t t l e or no account of th e

I

BA

in d iv id u a ls who made up th e e x p erim en tal g ro u p s.

Not o n ly th e

a v erag e achievem ent o f each group, b u t th e number o f p u p ils in each group who exceed th e achievem ent o f t h e i r matched c la ssm a te s m ust r e c e iv e c o n s id e r a tio n , sin c e th e r e i s alw ays th e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a few la r g e g a in s by a sm all number o f b r ig h t p u p ils may b a lan c e th e many s m a lle r g a in s by a g r e a te r number o f slow c h ild r e n . A«

The e x p e rim e n ts showed t h a t s iz e o f c la s s had l e s s e f f e c t

on th e s c h o l a s t i c achievem ent o f th e b r ig h t e r c h ild re n th a n on th e achievem ent o f t h e slo w er o n es, so f a r as re a d in g and a rith m e tic s k i l l s a re c o n ce rn e d .

I n f a c t , th e b r ig h t c h ild r e n on th e grade

a ch ie v e d j u s t a s w e ll i n th e la rg e group a s i n th e sm all o n e, and o c c a s io n a lly even b e t t e r (s e e b r ig h t group summaries in T ab les XVI and X V II). S in c e h ig h s c h o o ls and c o lle g e s have a la r g e r p e rc en ta g e o f b r i g h t p u p ils th a n e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls , t h i s c o n clu sio n may e x p la in th e in d e c is iv e r e s u l t s i n many o f th e c la s s s iz e experim ents conducted a t th e seco n d ary sch o o l and c o lle g e l e v e l . 5.

S in ce th e e x p erim en ts proved t h a t , s c h o l a s t i c a l l y , b r ig h te r

c h ild r e n g o t a lo n g much b e t t e r i n la r g e r c la s s e s th a n th e slow er o n e s, we may conclude t h a t th e p re s e n t g e n e ra l p r a c tic e o f having la r g e r c la s s e s f o r b r i g h t e r p u p i ls and s m a lle r ones f o r slow er le a r n e r s i s j u s t i f i a b l e from th e academ ic s ta n d p o in t.

However, we sh o u ld not

conclude t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e i s a ls o v a lid f o r e x c e p tio n a lly b r ig h t, g i f t e d , and t a l e n t e d c h i ld r e n , s in c e th e ex p erim en ts co n sid ered s c h o l a s t i c a l l y , o n ly th e r e s u l t s i n fu n d am en tal rea d in g and a r ith m e tic

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s k i l l s , w hich a r e u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p te d e d u c a tio n a l g o als f o r p u p ils on a l l a b i l i t y le v e ls #

E x c e p tio n a lly b r ig h t and g if te d c h ild re n

r e q u ir e a b ro a d e r and e n ric h e d ty p e o f e d u c a tio n which can most l i k e l y be g iv en o nly i n s m a ll g ro u p s, where th e in d iv id u a l i n t e r e s t s , a p titu d e s , a b i l i t i e s , and t a l e n t s o f th e s e g if t e d c h ild re n can be most e f f e c t i v e l y encouraged and developed t o th e lim it o f t h e i r p o te n tia litie s .

I t i s of tim e ly i n t e r e s t t o n o te th a t i n th e

Speyer S ch o o l e x p erim en t i n th e e d u c a tio n o f g if t e d c h ild re n r e c e n tly com pleted by th e Board o f E d u catio n of th e C ity of New York, th e r e g i s t e r s o f th e c l a s s e s approxim ated tw e n ty -fiv e p u p ils . 6.

I n th e ex p erim en ts c o n d u cte d , a l a r g e r p ercen tag e o f th e

slow c h ild r e n made b e t t e r g a in s th a n d id th e norm al or b rig h t c h ild re n i n th e sm a ll c l a s s e s .

I t i s a w ell-know n f a c t t h a t th e

p e rc e n ta g e o f slow c h ild r e n i s g r e a t e r in th e elem entary sch o o ls th a n i n th e secondary s c h o o ls , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n th e academic c o u rs e s . Many slow p u p ils who must be r e ta in e d i n th e elem entary sch o o ls never re a c h th e adadem ic h ig h s c h o o ls .

T h e re fo re , we may conclude

t h a t th e e d u c a tio n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f th e p re s e n t g e n e ra l p r a c tic e o f having s m a lle r c la s s e s i n th e secondary sc h o o ls th an i n th e elem en tary sc h o o ls can d e f i n i t e l y be c h a lle n g e d .

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7.

When s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s and outcomes o th e r th an s c h o la s tic

were a p p ra is e d , th e a d v an ta g e s o f sm all c la s s e s over la rg e ones w ere q u ite m arked.

W hile i t i s a d m itte d t h a t th e co n clu sio n s were based

s o le ly on th e f r e q u e n tly re c o rd e d o b s e rv a tio n s of th e te a c h e rs and th e s u p e rv is o rs c o n ce rn e d w ith th e e x p erim en ts, and th a t th e judgm ents were q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r th a n q u a n tita t iv e i n c h a r a c te r, th e judgm ents, made by c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d , r e l i a b l e te a c h e r s , were so unanimous on th e g re a t m a jo r ity o f th e ite m s c o n sid e re d t h a t th e y must be regarded a s i n d i c a t i n g a s tro n g p r o b a b ili ty o f t h e i r v a l i d i t y . These p h a se s o f sch o o l l i f e have re c e iv e d in s u f f ic ie n t re c o g n itio n h e r e to f o r e i n s tu d ie s o f c la s s s i z e , y e t th e se outcomes of th e e d u c a tio n a l program a re o f paramount im portance and should be prim ary g o a ls o f th e sc h o o l program .

The in c re a s in g re c o g n itio n

of th e v a lu e o f , and th e growing a d o p tio n o f th e a c t i v i t y program have emphasized th e im p o rtan ce o f th e s e s o c ia l and em otional p h ases of school l i f e .

B oth e x p erim en ts d em onstrated c o n clu siv e ly th e

s o c ia l and e m o tio n a l v a lu e s o f sm a ll c l a s s e s .

They a ls o ra is e d th e

q u e stio n , f o r l a t e r e x p e rim e n ta l s tu d y , w hether some of th e se non­ s c h o la s tic outcom es o f s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s can e f f e c tiv e ly be ach iev ed in la rg e c l a s s e s , w here o p p o r tu n i tie s f o r th e development of many d e s ir a b le s o c i a l and e m o tio n a l t r a i t s may be c u r ta ile d by th e n e c e s s ity of a t t e n t i o n to many f a c t o r s and c o n d itio n s a r is in g out of la rg e re g is te rs .

.

87

A ccording t o th e unanimous judgment of th e te a c h e rs and s u p e r v is o r s , sm all c la s s e s and in d iv id u a liz e d i n s t r u c t i o n p ro c e d u re s d e f i n i t e l y re v e a le d , on th e p a r t o f th e c h ild re n : a.

A g r e a te r i n t e r e s t in t h e i r school work and in t h e i r own p ro g re ss*

b.

B e tte r a p p lic a tio n and a t t e n t i o n to work.

c.

A f r e e r , y e t more s e lf - c o n tr o lle d ty p e of d i s c i p l i n e .

d.

More p le a s a n t fr ie n d s h ip s and s o c ia l r e l a t i o n s among p u p ils and w ith te a c h e rs .

e.

A more r e s t f u l atm osphere, and more e a s e , w ith co n seq u en t d im in u tio n o f em otional s t r a i n .

f.

A b e t t e r s p i r i t o f c o o p e ra tio n , h e lp f u ln e s s , and m utual u n d e rs ta n d in g .

g.

More and f r e e r p u p il p a r t i c i p a t i o n evidenced by a g r e a te r w illin g n e s s to ask q u e s tio n s , to sh a re id e a s , and to o f f e r s u g g e s tio n s .

The only outcome which appeared to be b e t t e r d ev elo p ed i n th e la r g e group was th e t r a i t in v o lv in g s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and i n i t i a t i v e . However, th e te a c h e rs ag reed th a t t h i s was a p p aren t o n ly in t h e case o f th e more cap ab le p u p il s . The e f f e c t s l i s t e d above dem onstrated th e v a lu e of sm a ll c l a s s e s , even i f no s c h o la s tic advantages were re v e a le d .

One o f

th e c h i e f aims o f th e s c h o o l i s to develop in d iv id u a ls b e s t eq u ip p ed t o l i v e and to work w ith o th e rs who com prise th e s o c ia l g ro u p .

The

v a lu e t o th e community o f in d iv id u a ls who a re p ro p e rly t r a in e d s o c i a l l y and p e r s o n a lly i s g e n e r a lly recognized t o be of paramount im p o rta n c e . I f s o c i a l liv in g and grow th a re to be co n sid ered im p o rtan t aim s of

88

th e s c h o o l, perhaps even more im p o rtan t th a n academ ic grow th, th e n we must conclude t h a t th e g r e a te r e f f e c tiv e n e s s o f sm all c la s s e s

in

b e t t e r d ev elo p in g d e s ir a b le s o c ia l and e m o tio n a l a t t i t u d e s , amply j u s t i f i e s t h e i r o rg a n iz a tio n and c o s t, even i f no academ ic ad v an tag es a re a p p a r e n t. 8.

A fte r th e c o n clu sio n o f th e e x p erim en ts th e te a c h e r s who

had p a r t i c i p a t e d , unanim ously agreed t h a t s m a lle r c la s s e s in v o lv e d l e s s s t r a i n , and were more en jo y ab le to b o th p u p ils and te a c h e r s . T his c o n c lu s io n , a s i t r e l a t e s to th e c h i ld r e n , was based on th e p e r s o n a l comments o f th e p u p ils th e m selv e s.

I n th e f i r s t e x p erim en t,

each c h ild sp en t one s e s s io n in a sm all gro u p , and one i n a la r g e g ro u p , so t h a t th e comments were based on a c t u a l e x p e rie n c e i n b o th ty p e s o f c l a s s e s . The te a c h e rs agreed t h a t th e te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n in sm all c l a s s e s was much more e f f e c t i v e , and en ab led c h ild r e n t o a ch ie v e more c lo s e ly t o th e l i m i t o f t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s . While i t i s conceded t h a t t h i s c o n c lu s io n i s based m erely on th e e x p re ss e d judgm ents o f th e te n te a c h e rs who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n th e e x p e rim e n ts , i t should be p o in te d out t h a t each o f th e s e te a c h e r s ta u g h t a la r g e group and a sm all group f o r h a l f o f th e sc h o o l s e s s io n e v ery day f o r p r a c t i c a l l y an e n tir e te rm .

T h e re fo re , t h e i r combined

judgm ents may be re g a rd ed a s s ig n if ic a n t and w orthy o f c o n s id e r a tio n .



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CHAPTER V INFERENCES AND IMPLICATIONS

1*

In th e f i r s t co n clu sio n i t was p o in te d ou t t h a t more u n its

of w ork, th e e q u iv a le n t of more ach iev em en t g o a ls , were com pleted, and th e r e f o r e more p ro g re ss was made, v /ith th e in d iv id u a liz e d method o f i n s t r u c t i o n employed in both ty p e s o f c l a s s e s .

O bviously, th e

te a c h e r was able to give more in d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n to each p u p il in th e sm all group.

The r e s u l t s a ls o showed t h a t th e a d d itio n a l

h e lp a v a ila b le was most h e lp fu l t o th e s lo w e s t c h ild re n on th e g rad e, who most c o n s is te n tly achieved more g o a ls th a n t h e i r matched school­ m a te s.

The in d iv id u a liz e d method o f i n s t r u c t i o n was p ro b a b ly an

im p o rta n t f a c to r in producing th e r e s u l t s in d ic a t e d .

However, b efo re

we a re j u s t i f i e d in draw ing a d e f i n i t e c o n c lu s io n , i t would be n e c e s sa ry to conduct f u r th e r e x p e rim e n ts in which an in d iv id u a liz e d method o f in s tr u c tio n would be u sed i n one s e t o f matched c la s s e s , w h ile some o th e r method would be used i n a n o th e r s e t o f s im ila r ly matched groups. 2.

In th e second co n clu sio n o f t h e p r e s e n t s tu d y , i t was s ta te d

t h a t , on th e bases o f average ach iev em en t s c o re s o r achievem ent g a in s, th e r e was no marked advantage in fa v o r o f e i t h e r th e sm a ll o r th e la rg e group, a lth o u g h , as was p o in te d o u t , th e sm a lle r group never achieved le s s than th e la r g e r g ro u p , and g e n e r a lly ach iev ed a s l ig h tly

90

b e t t e r a v e ra g e .

T his c o n clu sio n i s q u i t e i n harmony w ith r e s u l t s

o b ta in e d in o th er experim en ts on c l a s s s iz e *

I t i s q u ite p o s s ib le

t h a t t h i s was due t o the s h o rt d u r a tio n o f th e e x p e rim e n ts, nam ely, one term of approxim ately f iv e m onths.

P erh ap s ex p erim en ts o f

lo n g e r d u ra tio n may produce more r e l i a b l e d if f e r e n c e s in achievem ent* I t would be in t e r e s t i n g to w atch and to stu d y th e p ro g re s s o f matched groups in la r g e and in sm all c la s s e s from th e b eg in n in g o f t h e i r sch o o l c a r e e r u n t i l they have co m p leted , l e t u s s a y , th e s ix th g ra d e . O bviously, i t might be d i f f i c u l t t o co n v in ce some sch o o l o f f i c i a l s . t h a t th e expense in v o lv ed in a lo n g term ex p erim en t o f t h i s n a tu re v/ould be ju s tif ie d * 3*

In th e t h i r d c o n c lu s io n , i t was re v e a le d t h a t a g r e a te r

p e rc en ta g e o f the norm al and slow p u p ils i n th e s m a ll groups made b e t t e r p ro g re ss th a n t h e i r matched sch o o lm ates i n th e la rg e g ro u p s, and t h a t th e advantage in fa v o r o f th e s m a ll group was most marked i n th e case o f the slow est p u p i l s .

These f a c t s would ap p ear t o

j u s t i f y the in fe re n c e th a t th e g r e a t e r th e p e rc e n ta g e o f slow p u p ils i n a c l a s s , th e s m a lle r th e c l a s s sh o u ld b e . 4.

In th e f i f t h c o n c lu sio n , i t was p o in te d ou t t h a t th e b r ig h t e s t

c h ild r e n achieved j u s t as w e ll i n th e la r g e group a s i n th e sm all one. T his f a c t j u s t i f i e s our q u e s tio n in g th e u s u a l p r a c t i c e o f h aving la r g e r c la s s e s in t h e elem entary sc h o o ls th a n i n secondary s c h o o ls , s in c e th e average in te l l i g e n c e o f seco n d ary sc h o o l p u p ils i s g e n e ra lly

91

h ig h e r than t h e elem en tary s c h o o l p u p il s i n th e same school system , and s in c e th e p e rc e n ta g e o f slow c h ild r e n i s g e n e r a lly la r g e r in th e elem entary sc h o o ls o f th e same system th a n i n th e academic secondary s c h o o ls .

P erhaps o u r whole p o lic y w ith r e fe re n c e to s iz e o f c la s s

should be re v e r s e d .

This i m p lic a tio n i s a ls o w arran ted on th e b a s is

o f th e s ix th c o n c lu s io n , w h ich r e v e a le d t h a t a la r g e r p ercen tag e o f slow c h ild re n made b e t t e r p ro g r e s s i n sm a ll c la s s e s th an d id th e matched slow c h ild r e n in t h e la r g e c l a s s e s , 5,

I t h a s been p o in te d o u t t h a t i n th e p re s e n t ex p erim en ts, a

w id er d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made betw een la r g e and sm all c la s s e s , th a n i n th e g r e a t m a jo rity o f e a r l i e r e x p erim en ts on c la s s s iz e . Sm all c la s s e s were lim ite d t o e ig h te e n , tw e n ty , and tw enty-tw o p u p ils , w hile la r g e c la s s e s had r e g i s t e r s between f o r ty and f o r t y seven p u p ils .

In many p re v io u s e x p e rim e n ts, c la s s e s of t h i r t y and

t h i r t y - f i v e w ere re g a rd e d a s s m a ll c l a s s e s .

These f a c t s j u s t i f y

th e in fe re n c e t h a t i n many p re v io u s s tu d ie s o f c la s s s iz e , th e la rg e r e g i s t e r of t h e s o - c a lle d s m a ll c l a s s may have been re s p o n s ib le f o r some o f the a lm o st i n c r e d i b l e r e s u l t s . In e x p erim en tin g w ith la r g e and sm all c la s s e s , we should n o t l im it our c o n c e p tio n o f s m a ll c la s s e s t o th o se v /ith r e g i s t e r s o f t h i r t y and t h i r t y - f i v e , b u t sh o u ld in c lu d e c la s s e s o f tw e n ty -fiv e , tw e n ty , and f i f t e e n .

E x p e rim e n ta tio n w ith sm a ll c la s s e s o f th e

l a t t e r s iz e s may y i e l d more c o n c lu s iv e f in d in g s

th a n p rev io u s ex perim ents*

92

Those concerned on ly w ith th e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c ts of an e d u c a tio n a l system may o b je c t t o such e x p e rim e n ts, b u t e d u c a to rs should be p r o f e s s io n a lly h o n e st enough to recommend such ex p erim en ts, and i f r e s u l t s w a r r a n t, t o a d v o c a te th e e s ta b lis h m e n t of such sm aller c la s s e s i f th e y a re more e f f e c t i v e i n p ro v id in g th e b e s t e d u c a tio n a l program f o r o u r c h i l d r e n . 6.

In t h e s e v e n th c o n c lu s io n , i t was p o in te d ou t th a t c e r t a i n

n o n -s c h o la s tic outcom es w ere d eveloped more e f f e c t i v e l y in sm a lle r c la s s e s th a n i n l a r g e r o n e s .

The im p lic a tio n s a r i s in g out o f t h i s

c o n c lu sio n a re most s i g n i f i c a n t .

P r a c t i c a l l y a l l p re v io u s ex perim ents

on c la s s s iz e have b e en lim ite d to a c o n s id e ra tio n o f s c h o la s tic fa c to rs .

S in c e th e aim s o f a com plete e d u c a tio n a l program in c lu d e

many a s p e c ts and many outcom es t h a t a re n o t academ ic, and sin c e th e s e outcomes may, f o r many p u p i l s , be re g a rd e d a s even more im p o rtan t f o r e f f e c t iv e l i v i n g th a n s c h o l a s t i c ach ie v e m en t, i t may j u s t l y be in f e r r e d t h a t th e s e p h a se s o f sc h o o l a c t i v i t i e s should re c e iv e more extended and more a d e q u a te c o n s id e r a tio n i n f u tu r e experim ents on c la s s s i z e . 7.

The p r e s e n t e x p e rim e n ts w ere concerned s c h o la s tic a lly w ith

b a sic s k i l l s t o be le a r n e d by young c h ild r e n .

The g r e a t m a jo rity

o f p re v io u s e x p e rim e n ts on c l a s s s i z e w ere concerned la r g e ly w ith f a c t u a l knowledge t o b e le a rn e d by o ld e r c h ild r e n .

This has been

e s p e c ia lly t r u e i n e x p e rim e n ts co nducted on th e secondary and c o lle g e le v e l.

O lder c h ild r e n who have a lre a d y a c q u ire d b a s ic s k i l l s , and who

have le a rn e d t o s tu d y in d e p e n d e n tly , may n o t be a ffe c te d by c la s s s iz e

93

to th e same e x te n t a s you n g er c h ild r e n .

Hie im p lic a tio n i s

t h a t more e x p e rim e n ta tio n on c l a s s s iz e m ust be concerned w ith th e development o f b a s ic s k i l l s i n young c h ild r e n r a th e r th a n w ith a c q u is itio n o f f a c t u a l knowledge by more m ature stu d en ts*

94

CHAPTER VI LIMITATIONS OF THE EXPERIMENTS, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS IN SIMILAR FIELDS

1*

Some te a c h e rs m ain tain ed t h a t th e tim e o f th e experim ent

was to o s h o r t.

I t would u n d o u b ted ly be i n t e r e s t i n g and re v e a lin g

to conduct s im ila r ex p erim en ts over a p e rio d o f th r e e o r more y e a r s , b eg in n in g in th e f i r s t g ra d e .

The achievem ent o f a s in g le term i s

f r e q u e n tly in c o n c lu siv e when t e s t i n g e f f ic i e n c y o f i n s t r u c t i o n in th e e a r ly elem entary g ra d e s .

Hence, a t th e s e l e v e l s , experim ents

o f lo n g e r d u ra tio n a re in d ic a te d .

A good fo u n d a tio n i n b a s ic s k i l l s

may n o t m a n ife st i t s b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s f o r some tim e . 2.

The experim ents re v e a le d t h a t n o t a l l te a c h e rs were e q u ally

p r o f i c i e n t in u t i l i z i n g in d iv id u a liz e d m ethods o f i n s t r u c t i o n .

In

fu tu r e e x p erim en ts, i t would be a d v is a b le t o t r a i n te a c h e rs to use such m ethods, o r c a r e f u l ly t o s e l e c t te a c h e r s com petent to follow th e s e p ro c e d u re s .

However, th e r e s u l t s w ere n o t m a te r ia lly in v a lid a te d

by th e s i t u a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o , because th e same te a c h e r ta u g h t both ty p e s o f c la s s e s , so t h a t th e ad v an tag es o r d is a d v a n ta g e s o f good and bad te a c h in g a f f e c te d b o th matched groups e q u a lly . 3.

Although th e c h ild r e n were m atched a s c a r e f u l ly a s p o s s ib le

on th e b a s is o f in te llig e n c e and a ch iev em en t, s e v e r a l te a c h e rs f e l t t h a t th e la r g e r c la s s had s e v e r a l p u p ils who were more capable th an t h e i r matched schoolm ates in th e s m a lle r c l a s s e s .

This was probably

95

due to th e f a c t t h a t in some in s ta n c e s te a c h e r s s e le c te d f o r the sm all c l a s s , p u p ils who i n t h e i r o p in io n m ight p r o f i t more by such placem ent.

However, t h i s c o n d itio n h e lp e d to s tre n g th e n co n clu sio n s

which re v e ale d b e t t e r r e s u l t s i n s m a lle r c l a s s e s .

In f u tu r e , i t

m ight be more a d v is a b le n o t t o l e t te a c h e r s m atch p u p ils , b u t to have a d is in te r e s te d o u t s i d e r p la c e them i n each ty p e o f c l a s s .

In

o th e r w ords, th e c o n tr o l o f p o s s ib le v a r ia b le f a c to r s i n c la s s s iz e experim ents needs f u r t h e r r e f i n i n g . 4.*

Some b r ig h t c h ild r e n r e s e n te d c l a s s placem ent which put

them in to groups c o n ta in in g d u l l p u p il s .

In f u tu r e ex p erim en ts,

homogenous grading should be e n t i r e l y a b o lis h e d i n s e v e ra l o r a l l grades b e fo re th e commencement o f th e e x p e rim e n t, so t h a t tr a n s f e r out o f a b rig h t group w i l l n o t be m is in te r p r e te d a s c a rry in g a stig m a. 5.

The experim ent d e s c rib e d was lim it e d to th e t h i r d and

fo u r th g ra d e s.

I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o o b serv e and study th e

r e s u l t s o f s im ila r e x p e rim e n ts i n th e f i r s t two y e a r s , and perhaps in th e f i f t h and s ix th y e a r g ra d e s , a s w e ll . 6.

In e v a lu a tin g th e non—s c h o la s tic outcomes o f th e ex p erim en ts,

th e in v e s tig a to r r e l i e d on th e f r e q u e n tly re c o rd ed o b se rv a tio n s of th e te a c h e rs to determ in e th e g r e a te r e f f e c t iv e n e s s of la rg e and sm all c la s s e s i n th e developm ent o f th e v a rio u s t r a i t s , h a b it s , and a tt itu d e s co n sid ered in th e s tu d y .

W hile th e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s convinced th a t

th e q u a lita tiv e judgm ents o f te a c h e r s i s j u s t a s r e l i a b l e a s th e q u a n tita tiv e n u m erical s c o r e s giv en by them on th e v a rio u s t r a i t s in c lu d e d in th e s t a n d a r d iz e d t e s t s o f sc h o o l b e h a v io r, some e d u ca to rs

96

may be in c lin e d to q u e s tio n t h i s p ro c e d u re .

As has been p o in te d

o u t, s ta n d a rd iz e d b eh av io r t e s t s u t i l i z e two p ro c e d u re s : a.

th e answ ering o f q u e stio n s by th e p u p ils p a r t i c i p a t i n g in th e e x p erim en ts.

b.

th e a s s ig n in g o f n u m erical r a t i n g s by te a c h e r s , on th e v a rio u s b eh av io r t r a i t s s p e c if ie d .

The f i r s t p ro ced u re

i s d e f i n i t e l y q u e stio n ed by many re c o g n iz e d a u t h o r i t i e s . The second pro ced u re i s i d e n t i c a l l y t h e one used i n th e p re s e n t stu d y . However, th o se who fa v o r u sin g s ta n d a rd iz e d b eh av io r t e s t s should be encouraged to do so in o th e r s i m i l a r s t u d i e s .

A stu d y o f

over f i f t y p e r s o n a lity and behavior t e s t s re v e a le d th r e e which employ th e second p ro c e d u re , which are a p p lic a b le t o th e g rad es s tu d ie d , and which a re recommended f o r u s e . 1.

These t e s t s a r e :

Behavior R atin g S c a le s by H aggerty, O lso n , and Wickham

f o r Kg.-1 2 y r . Schedule A in c lu d e s a Behavior Problem R ecord. Schedule B in c lu d e s a Behavior R a tin g S c a le in f o u r d i v i s i o n s : I n te lle c tu a l c h a ra c te ris tic s P h y s ic a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A ss e rtiv e -su b m issiv e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Em otional C h a r a c te r i s tic s . 2.

T e a c h e r^ R atin g S c a le f o r P u p il A djustm ent by Freeman

and Kawin f o r K g.-grade 14.

The te a c h e r r a t e s th e p u p il on:

I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c te r is tic s Work and stu d y h a b its Em otional A djustm ent

97



W innetka S cale f o r R atin g School B ehavior by D. Van A lstyne*

T h is t e s t in c lu d e s th e fo llo w in g f iv e a t t i t u d e s : C o operation S o c ia l c o n scio u sn ess E m otional adjustm en t L ead ersh ip Re s p o n s i b i l i t y .

98

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B a ltim o re , Bureau o f E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch , In c re a s in g th e s iz e o f G la s s e s . B u l le tin o f E d u c a tio n . V ol. 1, No. 1 , p p . 8 -1 0 . Board o f E d u catio n , B altim o re. B a te s , D a n ie l A ., The R e la tio n o f th e S iz e o f C lass to th e E f f ic ie n c y o f T eaching ( A b s tr a c t) . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n . D e p t, o f Secondary School P r in c ip a ls , B u lle tin No. 2 4 , p p . 2 2 -2 3 , Jan u ary 1929. B a te s , D a n ie l A ., The R e la tio n o f th e S iz e o f C lass to th e E f f ic ie n c y o f T each in g . M a s te r's T h e s is . U n iv e rsity o f C h icag o , 1928. B en g tso n , C ., D e p re ssio n and C la ss S iz e . School and S o c ie ty , V o l. 35, p p . 6 7 5 -7 6 , May 14, 1932. B ja rn a s o n , L o f te r , R e la tio n o f C la ss S iz e to C o n tro l o f A tte n tio n . E lem entary S ch o o l J o u r n a l. V ol. 26, p p . 36-41, Septem ber 1925. B lo o m fie ld , L . S ., C la s s S iz e in S e n io r American H is to ry . N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n . D epartm ent o f Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s , B u lle t in No. 29, p p . 6 -9 , January 1930. B lo o m fie ld , L . S ., Summary o f an I n v e s tig a tio n o f I n s tr u c tio n i n Large and S m all C la ss e s i n th e John Adams High School o f C le v e la n d , O hio. School Review. V o l. 38, pp. 89-90, F eb ru ary 1930* B lo o m fie ld , L . S . , C la s s S iz e i n American H is to ry . V o l. 28, p p . 10 2 -1 0 8 , March 1931.

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S chool E x e c u tiv e ,

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D a ley , H. C ., The S iz e o f C la s s e s , p p , 64.-94# March 1922,

American School Board J o u r n a l,

D a v is, C, 0 , , The S iz e o f C la sse s and th e Teaching Load i n th e High S chools A c cre d ite d by th e Worth C e n tra l A s s o c ia tio n , S chool Review, V o l. 31# p p , 412-429, Ju n e, 1923, D a v is, E v e re tt & G o ld izen , Mae, A Study o f C lass S ize i n J u n io r High School H is to r y , School Review, V o l. 38, 360-367, May 1930, D obbs, E lla V ., Overcrowding th e Prim ary S ch o o l, Childhood E d u c a tio n , V ol. 11, p . 159, Jan u ary 1935* E a s tb u rn , Lacey A ., R e la tiv e E ffic ie n c y o f I n s tr u c tio n in Large and Sm all C la ss e s on Three A b ility L e v e ls, J o u rn a l o f E x p erim en tal E d u c a tio n , V o l. 5, p p . 17-22, September 1936, E a s tb u rn , Lacey A ,, R e la tio n o f C la ss Size to A b ility L e v e ls , C a lif o r n ia J o u rn a l o f Secondary E d u c a tio n , V ol. 12, p p , 4 7 -5 1 , Jan u a ry 1937, Edmonson, J . B, & M ulder, F . J « , S iz e of C la ss a s a F a c to r i n U n iv e rs ity I n s t r u c t i o n , J o u rn a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch , V o l. 9 , p p, 1 -1 2 , January 1924,., E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch , B u lle tin No, 1 0 . R e la tio n o f S ize of C la ss t o School E f f ic ie n c y , U n iv e rs ity o f I l l i n o i s , V ol. 19, No. 4 5 , U rbane, I l l i n o i s , J u ly 3 , 1922, E d u c a tio n a l R ese a rc h , B u lle tin No. 4 , p . 186, A p ril 2.9, 1925, C la ss S iz e Once More. Ohio S ta te U n iv e rs ity , C o lleg e o f E d u c a tio n , Bureau o f E d u catio n al R esearch , Columbus0 E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch , B u lle tin No, 4> PP* 231-233, May 27, 1925, More Evidence C oncerning Large and Sm all C la s s e s , Ohio S ta te U n iv e rs ity , C ollege o f E d ucation, Bureau o f E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch , Columbus. E d u c a tio n a l R esearch S e r v ic e , C irc u la r # 5 , 1936, Median S iz e o f C la ss i n F ive D iv is io n s o f School System C itie s Over 100,000 i n P o p u la tio n , 1930-31 and 1935-36. E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch , B u lle tin No. 4 , PP* 20-26, November-December, 1925* R e la tio n o f C lass S iz e to Teaching E f fic ie n c y , Pasadena C ity S c h o o ls, Bureau of R esearch and S e rv ic e ,

101

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V o l. 22,

E rik so n , Henry A ., E xperim ents on C la ss S iz e i n th e Departm ent of P h y s ic s . U n iv e rs ity o f M innesota. Problem s o f C o lleg e E d u c a tio n , pp, 421-425\ The U n iv e rs ity o f Minnesota P r e s s , M in n ea p o lis, 1928. Ewan, S. N ., C la ss S iz e . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n , D ept, o f Secondary S ch o o l P r in c i p a ls , B u l le ti n (P ro ceed in g s) No. 4 0 , pp. 124-129. Berwyn, I l l i n o i s . Ewan, S. N ., R e la tio n o f C la ss S iz e and S e le c te d Teaching Methods t o P u p il A chievem ent. 1934. F ow ler, E. D ., Summary o f C la ss S ize and E f f ic ie n c y and C lass S iz e i n Oregon High S c h o o ls. The High S ch o o l. V ol. 7, p p , 49-51# J a n u a ry 1930. G ates, A rth u r I . , Problem s o f C lass S iz e i n th e Elem entary G rades. Elem entary S chool J o u r n a l, V o l. 3 7 , p p . 405-407, F e b ru a ry 1937. G ray, W illiam H ., Methods o f I n s tr u c tin g Large C la sse s in Secondary S choo ls o f th e New Democracy. N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , D epartm ent o f Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s , B u l l e t i n No. 4 1 , p p . 3 8 -4 5 , A p ril 1934. Hand, H. C. & Sm ith, J . W., E ffe c tiv e n e s s o f I n s tr u c t io n in a C la ss Group o f 100 P u p ils . T a b le s, School Review, V o l. 4 2 , pp. 75 1-754, December 1934. H arlan , C. L ., R e la tio n o f S ize o f C la sse s t o School-room E f f ic ie n c y . P ro ceed in g s of th e I l l i n o i s S ta te T each ers1 A s s o c ia tio n . 1913, p p . 155-161. H arlan , C. L ., S iz e o f C la ss as a F a c to r i n School-room E ffic ie n c y . E d u c a tio n , a d m in is tr a tio n and S u p e rv is io n , V o l. 1, p p . 195-214, March 1915. H auser, L . J . , More C oncerning "What S iz e C la s s " - Reply to E . E. K eener. Elem entary School J o u r n a l. V o l. 3 2 , p . 255. H ighsm ith, John H ., E f f e c t o f C lass S iz e Upon th e E ffic ie n c y o f I n s t r u c t i o n , High School Q u a r te r ly . V ol. 20, p p . 165-174, J u ly 1932.

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H o lt, Lucy M., S iz e o f th e C lass from th e T e a ch e r's S ta n d p o in t. N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n . P ro ceed in g s, 1932, p p . 145-146, W ashington, D. C. H udelson, E a r l, C la ss S iz e i n High S ch o o ls. B u lle tin o f th e N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n of Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s . March 1927, pp. 3 4 -4 7 . H udelson, E a r l, C la ss S iz e a t th e C ollege L evel. o f M innesota P r e s s , M in n eap o lis, 1928.

The U n iv e r s ity

H udelson, E a r l, C la ss S iz e , O pinions, Evidence and P o l i c i e s . N orth C e n tra l A sso c ia tio n Q u a rte rly . V ol. 4 , p p . 1 9 6 -2 0 8 , Septem ber 1929. H udelson, E a r l, C la ss S iz e S tan d ard s a t th e C ollege L e v e l. N o rth C e n tra l A s s o c ia tio n Q u a rte rly . V ol. 6, p p . 371-381, March 1932. J o u rn a l

o f E d u c a tio n a l R esearch Monographs. No. 4 . S m aller C la s s e s o r L a rg e r: A Study o f th e R e la tio n of C la ss S iz e to t h e E ffic ie n c y of Teaching. P u b lic School P u b lish in g C o ., B loom ington, I l l i n o i s , 1923.

K eener, E. E ., What S ize C lass? Elem entary School J o u r n a l. V o l. 32, p p . 144-146, O ctober 1931. K eener, E . E ., What S iz e C lass? R e jo in d e r. Elem entary S ch o o l J o u r n a l. V o l. 3 2 , p p . 492-494, March 1932. Keyworth, M aurice R ., Large C la sses B e tte r . V ol. 20, p . 151, A p ril 1932.

High School Q u a r t e r ly ,

Keyworth, Maurice R ., L arg er C lasses Have T heir A dvantages. S c h o o ls. V o l. 11, p p . 29-32, January 1933.

N ation* s

Manley, Irw in E ., E du cato rs Have Not Solved th e C lass S iz e P u z z le . N a tio n 's S c h o o ls. V ol. X, No. 6 , December 1932. M ental M easurements Yearbook. 1940. E d ited by 0 . K. Buros M etzner, A lic e B. & B erry , C h arles S ., S ize of C la sses f o r M e n ta lly R etarded C h ild re n . T rain in g School B u lle tin , O c to b e r, 1926, p p . 241-251. T ra in in g S chool, V ineland, N .J.

103

M ille r , P au l S . , Q u a n tita tiv e I n v e s tig a tio n o f th e E ffe c t of I n s t r u c t i o n i n High School P h y s ic s . J o u rn a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h . V ol. 15, p p . 119-127, February 1929* Monroe, W alter S ., The R e la tio n o f S e c tio n in g a G lass to th e E f f e c tiv e n e s s o f I n s t r u c t i o n . E d u c a tio n a l Research B u lle tin No. 11, U n iv e rs ity o f I l l i n o i s , Bureau of E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h , Urbana, November 13, 1922. N a tio n a l E d u catio n J o u r n a l , V o l. 22, p . 19, Jan u ary 1933. G lass S iz e be In c re a s e d ? Pro and Con.

S h a ll

N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , D ept, o f Classroom T eachers. The R e l a tio n o f C la ss S iz e to School E ffic ie n c y in th e P rim ary S c h o o ls . The C hild and His T eacher. Yearbook. 1927, p p . 16 3 -1 7 9 , W ashington, D.C. N a tio n a l E du catio n A s s o c ia tio n , D ept, o f Classroom Teachers, P re lim in a ry R e p o rt on th e T rin id a d , C olorado, Study o f C lass S iz e , A p ril 1930. Yearbook. 1930, p p . 291-294> W ashington, D.C. N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , R esearch B u l l e t i n , V ol. XVII, No. 5 , November 1939. The Teacher Looks a t Teacher Load. N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , D ept, o f Secondary School P r in c i p a ls . S tu d ie s in C la s s S iz e and B ib lio g ra p h y on R e la tiv e E f fic ie n c y o f C la s s e s o f D if f e r e n t S iz e s . B u lle tin No. 29, p . 4 4 , Ja n u a ry 1930. N a t i o n s S c h o o ls , V o l. 9 , p . 51, June 1932. Comparing th e P ro g ress o f P u p ils i n Large and Sm all C la s s e s . P au ly , Frank H ., S tu d y in g C la ss Size and Teaching Load. S c h o o ls , V o l. 16, p . 20, O ctober 1935. P e a rs e , K. S . , T eaching and Numbers. p . 5 9 0 , November 1 , 1930.

N a tio n 's

S chool and S o c ie ty . V ol. 32,

P ic e , J . M., E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch : A T est i n A rith m e tic . The Forum, V o l. 3 4 j PP* 281-297, O ctober 1902. R ic e , J . M,, E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch : The R e s u lts o f a T est in Language. The Forum, V o l. 35, p p . 269-293, October 1903.

104

School and S o c ie ty , V o l. 4 4 , p . 17, J u ly 4 , 1938. Bugaboo.

Large C la ss

School and S o c ie ty . V o l. 44> p p . 188-189, August 8 , 1936. th e Grade S c h o o ls. School Review. V o l. 38, p p . 8 9 -9 0 , F e b ru a ry 1930. I n s tr u c tio n i n Large and Sm all C la s s e s .

Skimping

R e s u lts o f

S e g e l, David & P r o f f i t t , M aris H ., T echniques f o r Teaching Large C la s s e s . C ir c u la r No. 114. O ffic e o f E d u c a tio n , D ept, of th e I n t e r i o r , U .S ., W ashington, D .C ., Septem ber 1933, p . 25, (m im eographed). Sm ith, Dora V ,, Problem s o f G lass S iz e and th e E ffic ie n c y o f I n s tr u c tio n i n E n g lis h . E n g lish J o u r n a l . V ol. 19, p p . 724736, November 1930. Sm ith, Dora V ., C la ss S iz e In High School E n g lis h . D o c to r's T h e s is . U n iv e rs ity o f M in n eso ta, 1931. B ib lio g ra p h y , p p , 283-295. Sm ith, Dora V ., V i t a l F a c to rs i n th e P re s e n t S i t u a t i o n in C la ss S iz e . E n g lish J o u r n a l, V ol. 2 2 , p p . 366 —274, May 1933* Stevenson, P . R ,, Sm all C la s s e s o r L arg er? R esearch M onographs. No. 4 , 1923.

J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l

Stevenson, P . R ., C lass S iz e i n th e E lem en tary S ch o o l. E d u c a tio n a l R esearch Monograph No. 3» Ohio S ta te U n iv e r s ity , 1925. Stevenson, P . R ., More Evidence C oncerning L arg e and Small C la s s e s . E d u c a tio n a l R esearch B u l l e t i n . V o l. 4> No. 11, pp. 231-233, 1925. Stevenson, P . R ., R e la tio n o f C las3 S iz e t o S chool E f f ic ie n c y . E d u c a tio n a l R esearch B u l l e t i n , No. 1 0 , J u ly 1932. S to ck ard , L. V ., R e la tio n o f S iz e o f C la ss t o E f fic ie n c y in I n s t r u c t i o n . High School Q u a r te r ly , V o l. 18, p p . 7 8 -7 9 , January 1930. S tr a y e r, George D ., S ize o f C la ss i n E lem entary S chools and High S ch o o ls. Some Problem s in C ity S ch o o l A d m in is tra tio n , pp. 94-97, 1916.

105

S t u a r t , N. H. & H udelson, E. & Breed, F . S . & O th e rs . C la ss S iz e i n High S ch o o ls: A Symposium. B u l le tin o f th e N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n of Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s , No. 15, 1927. T e a c h e rs' C o lleg e J o u r n a l. V o l. 2, p . 56, November 1930. C la s s e s .

S m a lle r

Tope, R. E ., Groom, Emma & Beeson, Marvin F . , S iz e o f C la s s and School E f f ic ie n c y , Jo u rn a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h , V o l. 9 , p p. 126-132, February 1924. . T ru eb lo o d , C. E ., % Geometry C lass o f One H undred. Reviewed i n th 9 B u lle tin o f th e N atio n al A s s o c ia tio n o f Secondary School P r in c i p a ls , No. 15, 1927. U n iv e rs ity o f M innesota P r e s s , Problems o f C o lle g e E d u c a tio n , p p . 4-03-4-20. C la ss S ize a t th e U n iv e r s ity Level* V o e g elo in , L. B ., B ib lio g ra p h y of I n v e s tig a t io n s i n C la ss S iz e . B u lle tin No. 4 4 . Ohio S ta te C o lleg e A s s o c ia tio n , May 1928. W asson, V /illiam H ., A C o n tro lle d Experim ent i n th e S iz e o f C la s s e s . M a s te r's T h e s is , U n iv e rsity o f C hicago, Ju n e 1929o W e tz e ll, W. A ., Teaching Technique and S iz e o f C la s s . V o l. 15, pp. 181-182, June 1930. W e tz e ll, W. A ., Large Group I n s tr u c t io n . p p . 288-292, A p r il 1931.

S ch o o l L if e .

S chool Review . V o l. 3 9 ,

W hitney, F re d e ric k L ., A C lass S ize Study i n th e P rim ary S c h o o l. N a tio n a l E du catio n A ss o c ia tio n , D epartm ent o f C lassroom T e a c h e rs' Yearbook. 1928, pp, 6 1 -62; 1929, p p . 9 5 -9 8 . W ilson, Thomas J . , R e la tio n o f th e S ize o f C la s s e s to T eaching E f f ic ie n c y . B u l l e t i n , N atio n al League o f T e a c h e rs' A s s o c ia tio n s , p p . 20, A p ril 1927.

APPENDIX

107

SUGGESTED QUESTIONNAIRE ON CLASS SIZE

S iz e o f C la ss and L evel o f I n s tr u c tio n 1.

Check th e l e v e l which has th e s m a lle s t c la s s e s , in y o u r sch o o l system . High School

2.

_ J u n io r High

Elem entary

Check th e g ro u p , i n Elem entary and J u n io r High S ch o o ls, which i n your judgm ent i s e d u c a tio n a lly e n t i t l e d t o th e s m a lle s t c l a s s e s . 7 , 8 & 9 y e a rs

A.

Elem entary_____

Check th e l e v e l w hich, i n y o u r judgm ent, i s e d u c a tio n a lly e n t i t l e d t o th e s m a lle s t c l a s s e s . High School

3.

J u n io r High

A, 5 & 6 y e a rs

1, 2 & 3 y e a r s ___

I n many sch o o l sy stem s, h ig h sch o o l c la s s e s a re g e n e r a lly s m a lle r th a n elem en tary sch o o l c la s s e s . Check th e re a so n f o r t h i s p r a c t i c e , i f i t p r e v a i l s , in your City* a.

Has been proven e d u c a tio n a lly ju s t i f i a b l e ,._____

b.

D eterm ined by number of a p p lic a n ts fo r a course_____

c.

A t r a d i t i o n based on long p ra c tic e _

d.

O ther re a s o n s (s p e c if y )_________ ___________ _

3.

No j u s t i f i a b l e re a so n ______

_

S iz e o f C la ss i n P u b lic and P r iv a te School 1.

P r iv a te sc h o o ls g e n e r a lly have sm a lle r c la s s e s th an p u b lic s c h o o ls . Check th e re a so n f o r t h i s p r a c tic e : a.

P a re n ts demand o r p r e f e r sm a lle r c la s s e s

b. c.

L im ited en ro llm en t E d u c a tio n a lly more j u s t i f i a b l e

d.

O ther re a s o n s (s p e c ify )

_____

_

S iz e o f Clas3 and Subj e o t Taught 1.

2.

C la sses in m anual t r a i n i n g , homemaking, i n d u s t r i a l and v o c a tio n a l s u b je c t s a re f r e q u e n tly h a l f th e s iz e o f c la s s e s in academ ic s u b j e c t s . Check th e re a so n f o r t h i s p r a c tic e . a.

Has been p ro v en e d u c a tio n a lly more j u s t i f i a b l e

b.

P h y s ic a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f classro o m s______



P r o h ib itiv e c o s t o f f u l l c la s s equipm ent______

d.

T ra d itio n e s ta b lis h e d by custom______

e.

O ther re a s o n s (s p e c if y )

_ ________________

Should th e s iz e o f c l a s s v a ry w ith th e s u b je c t ta u g h t? Yes

3.

_

No______

From th e l i s t below , in d i c a t e by num bers, th e s u b je c ts which should be ta u g h t; a.

In s m a lle s t c la s s e s

b.

In l a r g e s t c la s s e s

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

E lem entary R eading In te rm e d ia te R eading Advanced R eading Elem entary A rith m e tic In te rm e d ia te A rith m e tic Advanced A rith m e tic Geogranhy Elem entary H is to ry Elem entary S cien ce Advanced S c ie n c e P hysics C hem istry

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

F o re ig n Languages Advanced H isto ry H igher M athem atics A rt Music H e alth E ducation In d . & Voc. Sub. i n S .S . In d . & Voc. Sub. i n H .S. O ther s u b je c ts ( s p e c if y )

109

D* S ize of Class and S k ill in Teaching 1.

I s te a c h in g s k i l l a more im p o rta n t f a c t o r i n s e c u rin g r e s u l t s th a n s iz e o f c la s s e s ? Yes_______

2*

Not d eterm ined_______ _

I f we had te a c h e rs of s u p e rio r a b i l i t y , co u ld we, w ith in re a so n a b le lim it s e n t ir e ly d is re g a rd s i z e o f c la s s ? Yes________

3.

No_______

No

Not d eterm ined _______

Are some te a c h e rs e f f i c i e n t in te a c h in g sm a ll c la s s e s o n ly , and n o t la rg e ones? Yes________

No

Not determ ined_______

I s th e r e v e rs e tru e ? Yes_______

No______

Not d eterm ined

S iz e o f C lass and P e rs o n a lity Development 1*

Are s o c ia l a t t i t u d e s and p e rs o n a l q u a l i t i e s developed more e f f e c t iv e ly i n sm aller c la s s e s ? _____ _ i n la r g e r c la s s e s ? _______ not y e t d e term in e d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y _______

2,

Do te a c h e rs g e t t o knov? p u p ils a s w e ll i n la r g e c la s s e s a s i n sm all ones? Yes

3.

No

Not determ ined _______ _

Do c e r ta in ty p e s o f p e rs o n a lity r e q u ir e placem ent i n s m a lle r c la s s e s ? Yes_______

No________

Not d eterm ined_______

110

F*

S iz e o f C la ss and In d iv id u a l Needs o f P u p ils 1*

Can in d iv id u a l needs o f p u p ils be ta k en c a re o f a d e q u a te ly i n la r g e c la s s e s , w ith p ro p e r te c h n iq u e s? Yes

2,

No

Have such te c h n iq u e s been developed? Yes _ _ _ _ _

3*

No________

Do slo w er c h ild r e n re q u ire more in d iv id u a liz a tio n o f i n s t r u c t i o n th a n th e b r ig h te r ones? Yes

G•

No________

I s th e av erag e achievem ent gain i n la r g e and i n sm a ll c la s s e s a v a l i d measure o f th e e f f e c t iv e n e s s o f each ty p e o f c la s s ? Yes

4*

Not determ ined

No_______

Not determ ined

S iz e o f C la ss and M a tu rity o f P u p ils 1*

Check group w hich, i n your judgm ent, r e q u ir e s th e s m a lle r c la s s * Immature p u p ils _______

2*

Many e x p erim en ts v d th m ature p u p il3 r e v e a l no a p p re c ia b le d if f e r e n c e i n r e s u l t s in la rg e o r in s m a ll c l a s s e s , I s i t l i k e l y t h a t th e m a tu rity of th e p u p ils and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o stu d y in d ep en d en tly may be r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e r e s u l t s o b ta in e d ? Yes

3*

Mature p u p ils

_____

No________ _

I s i t l i k e l y t h a t w ith immature p u p ils i n e a r ly e lem en tary g ra d e s , d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s would be o b tain ed ? Yes

No

I ll

H.

Size o f C lass and Methods o f Teaching 1.

Should methods o f s m a ll c la s s e s ? Yes_______

2.

Not d e term in e d _______

No

Not d eterm in ed __________

Are methods o f te a c h in g and a b i l i t i e s o f te a c h e rs such v i t a l f a c t o r s t h a t s iz e o f c l a s s i s o f no consequence? Yes_______

I.

No________

Would a method o f te a c h in g e s p e c i a l l y adapted to a sm all c l a s s produce more e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s i n th e sm a lle r group th a n a method e s p e c i a l l y a d a p te d t o a la rg e group would p roduce i n a l a r g e r group? Yes_______

3.

te a c h in g be th e same in la rg e and in

No__________Not d e term in e d

S iz e o f C la ss and C la ss Management 1.

W ith p ro p e r and e f f i c i e n t c l a s s management, i s a la rg e c l a s s j u s t a s e f f e c t i v e a s th e sm a ll one? Yes_______

2.

No_____ _

Not d e term in e d _______

I s a t e a c h e r ’ s d i s c i p l i n e g e n e r a lly improved by re d u c in g t h e number o f p u p ils ? Ye s

No______

J* S iz e o f C la ss and I n t e l l i g e n c e o f P u p ils 1* Do slo w er or b r i g h t e r c h ild r e n r e q u ir e sm aller c la s s e s ? B r ig h te r

Slow er

Not y e t d eterm in ed s c i e n t i f i c a l l y ^

K* S iz e o f C la ss and E f f e c t on T eachers 1 . A side from th e a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l work e n ta i l e d , w e a rin g to te a c h a l a r g e r c la s s ? Yes

No___________

i s i t more

112

L.

S iz e of C lass and S k i l l v s . C ontent S u b je c ts 1.

Do th e s k i l l and t o o l s u b je c ts r e q u i r e s m a lle r c la s s e s th a n c o n te n t s u b je c ts ? Yes_______

2.

M.

Not d eterm in ed ___

What p ro p o rtio n o f c l a s s s iz e ex p erim en ts w ith which you 'a r e f a m ilia r , w ere co n cern ed c h i e f l y o r w holly w ith th e a c q u is itio n o f f a c t u a l knowledge? ______________________

S iz e of C lass and Type o f C u rricu lu m 1.

Can th e t r a d i t i o n a l " s u b j e c ts t o be le a rn e d " cu rricu lu m be ta u g h t j u s t a s s u c c e s s f u lly i n la r g e c la s s e s as in sm all ones? Yes

2.

No_________

Not d e term in e d

Can an " a c t i v i t y " c u rric u lu m be c a r r i e d on a s s u c c e s s fu lly i n a la rg e c l a s s a s i n a sm a ll one? Yes

N.

No________

No_________

Not d eterm in ed _______

S iz e o f C lass and A chievem ent o f I n d iv i d u a l P u p ils v s . Averafee A chievem ent o f C la ss 1.

Are com parisons o f a v e ra g e g a in s v a l i d m easures f o r determ in in g th e e f f i c i e n c y o f la r g e and sm all c la s s e s ? Yes

2,

_ _

No

_____

Do a g r e a te r p e rc e n ta g e o f p u p ils ap p ro ach t h e i r e d u c a tio n a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s i n s m a ll c la s s e s th a n i n la rg e ones? Yes_______

No________

Not d e term in e d _______

113

0.

Size o f Class and Cost of Education 1.

Do f i n a n c i a l , r a th e r th a n e d u c a tio n a l, c o n s id e ra tio n s govern th e s iz e of c la s s e s ? Yes

2.

Are th e s a l a r i e s o f te a c h e r s o f l a r g e r c la s s e s u s u a lly h ig h e r th a n te a c h e rs o f sm all c la s s e s ? Yes

P.

No

No

___

S iz e o f C lass and P u p il E nrollm ent 1*

Do la r g e r sch o o l system s g e n e r a lly have l a r g e r c la s s e s th a n o th e r system s? Yes

2.



No

I s th e number of a v a ila b le s tu d e n ts on a grade o r i n a sch o o l f r e q u e n tly th e s o le c r i t e r i o n ? Yes

No

I n secondary s c h o o ls , i s th e number e le c tin g a p a r t i c u l a r s u b je c t f r e q u e n tly th e only d e te rm in in g f a c to r ? Yes

Q.

No c o r r e l a t i o n

No

S iz e o f C lass and School Accommodations 1.

Does th e p h y s ic a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f a classroom f r e q u e n tly d eterm ine th e number o f p u p ils ? Yes__________

2o

Does th e lim ite d number o f a v a i l a b l e classro o m s i n a b u ild in g so o fte n a f f e c t th e r e g i s t e r s o f c la s s e s ? Yes

3.

No_

No

Does th e la c k o f a s u f f i c i e n t number o f sch o o l b u ild in g s in a l o c a l i t y f r e q u e n tly d eterm in e th e s iz e o f c l a s s e s , w ith no re g a rd f o r th e e d u c a tio n a l f a c t o r s in v o lv ed ? Yes

No

114

R.

S iz e o f C lass i n I d e a l S et-up I n d ic a te your i d e a l , as to o p tim al c l a s s s i z e , i n a graded sc h o o l system . B asic S k i l l & Tool S u b je c ts

C o n ten t S u b je c ts

I n d u s t r i a l & V ocat i o n a l S u b je c ts

1 st y ear: 2-6 y e a r : 7 -9 y e a r : 12-12 y e a r : L o catio n o f your C ity N.E. p a r t o f U .S.

S .3 . p a r t o f U .S ._____

N. C e n tra l p a r t o f U .S.

S . C e n tr a l p a r t o f U .S._____

N.W. p a r t o f U .S.

S.W. p a r t o f U .S._____

Approximate sch o o l p o p u la tio n in your C ity _____ Elem entary S chools

J r . High S ch o o ls

S r . High S chools____

No. o f E lem entary Schools__________ No. o f J u n io r High Schools_________ _ No. o f S e n io r High Schools__________ R e g is te r range o f most ty p i c a l Elem entary S chool betw een

and ___

R e g is te r range o f most ty p i c a l J r . High S chool betw een ___ and ___ R e g is te r range o f most ty p i c a l S r. High School b e tw e e n Your p o s itio n (check) A d m in istra to r__________ S upervi sor___________ __ Teacher__________________

and ___

SAMPLE OF FORM ON

WHICH O R IG IN A L JJATA WERE RECORDED

----------------- ETST3 “UirriATTUnED' "PUP1LTS----------------SUBJECT __________ __ WAIVES AND DATES CP TESTS

LARGE GROUP

SI._ALL GROUP OF. CL. r 1± • O o * S t a n l e y S i l l e r 4A1 -31o • N or n a n C o r s u n O• o • H e r b e r t AjT• O ^•

4jVl

l.L . ...

_ 2 .L .^ A d o D g h o Luca__

4A1

H ilton Lesser

4A1

4 .L . Leah.W oolw ich

4A1

3.L .

Z e f f e r t 4A1

G l o r i a J Vo I f f __ 4A1

cr ri • R e n . L i t v a k O

' -

4. V1

. 5.L ,

i.

6 ,ji_. L o i s H e r s h k o v / i t z 4 h i

. .

... .

B e r n a r d Gelfman

GF. CL .j ...- i ------4 Al|

4A1

R en.R osenblum

S ey .V ein trau b

3 .3 .

Ci : r i s ."La r t a 1 i s 4A2 — ..

9 .3 .

C o m a c k• -i-4A2 —h a r l e s T ~

... 0 . 1 . . _J o r d o n C a r p 9.L .

_

------ .

. _ .

------- ... — -

4A2

Anne M o l l e g a r d h----- ---- 1 0 . L .

4A2 ------ ------ ------

U .S .

F lo r.L e tz te r

4A2

1 1 . Li

R en.G am arni ck

4A2_

1 2 . L , _M a r i o n G o r a n t ____ 4A2

L 3 .S . h a r t i n G l a z i e r

4A3

l o . L • B ern.F e Id s t e in

4A3

L4,3, R o b t . L i s t r o f f

4A3

1 4 . L . R o b t . Te n e n b a u m

4A3

L5.S, W a l t e r P r i n c e

4A3

1 3 . L. R o b e r t G i l l e n

4 A3

L 6 .S . D o l o r e s

4A3

! . —

Irma G o ld s m ith

ii 1 6 . L. Renee Kramer

4-A2

4A3

L 7 .S . Ruth. R u t k o f f

4 A3

1 7 . L . A n n e t t e N a d e l m a n 4A3

.8 .S. Dora C atap a n o

4^. iO

1 8 . L.

.VERAGE !

1j

------

A l f r e d _ D e p a l o ___ 4A2

4A2

CGLADNTS :



. J3.&L • T h e r e . Co n n o r s ....... 4A1

...

-Q±3 •. A r l e n e P i n k e l

VRADE NORM

_.

_.. —----- . — _ 7 - L i . _P a u l _ A u e r b a o h _ ....... 4A2 ------ -------

7 .3 .

Cober

. .

I r e n e Do lm a n

4A3

____________

__ ..

.

___________

SAMPLE OF FORM ON WHICH ORIGINAL DATA WERE RECORDED LISTS OF MATCHED PUPILS

SUBJECT NAMES AND DATES CV TEST;;

>MALL GROUP

E • .J • E l l i o t B a ron .

(i • Morton B e r b e r •O

l

3A1 3A1

4 . S. Minna F l a x

3A1

5 . S. A ud re y R o s n e r

7 . S. W a l t e r U l a n o f f

3 AL r"....i1— i 3A1 •Ii i 3A2

8 . S. Jo h n D i S a r l e

3A2

9 . 3 . '7m. H a n lo n

3A2

.lu • o • G l o r i a B o r i c h

i 1

5A2 n

3A2

1 2 . 3 . S a n d r a Korn

3A2

13.3. J u l .E c k s te in

3A3

1 4 . 3 . I r a Shaw

3A3

1 5 . 3 . A r t h u r Cohen

3A3 ---- r

] 6.3, A lice Scliiff

3A3

1 »v

31.3

O

O •

G lo ria Turner

1 8 . 3 . M a rcia Freedman 3A3 .'VERA3E

I

.!

i

!|

'

fl

i

i ii i

P h ilip Binder

3A1

■ 2 . L . J . K irsc h e n b a u m

3A1

3 . L . B. S i l v e r m a n

3A1

4 . L . D ia n a L e v i n

3A1

5.L. P h y l l i s Gross

3A1

6 . L . G l o r i a Hyman

3A1

i 7 . L . Sherman Gordon

3A2

Vincent G iffu n i

3A2

R ob.M arkowitz

3A2

Naomi K l a u b e r

3A2

S y b il Kohler

3A2

12 .L . Grace D e P a lo

3A2

1 3 . L. L a r . L e i t e l o w i t z

3A3

1 4 , L. B e r t . Schoop

3A3

1 5 . L. Edward K e i g a n

3A3

1 6 . L. S a l l y Moss

3A3

1 7 . L. R o b e r t a J o n a s

3A3

1 8 . L. E t h e l B a u s c h e r

3A3

1'!71 n i1----- 8 . L . j i 9.L . i i 1 0 . L. r»^ " ll.L . 1 1

1 1 . 3 . Rhoda S h a p i r o

X ( 9

OF. CL. l.L .

3A1

• • O* L e o n a r d Levy

6 . 3 . Selma S a l i n g e r

LARGE GROUP

-----1 !

OF. i CL.

I i

....T--L ■ -

GRADE NORM

COMMENTS: npW YORK

U NIV E RSIT Y SC H O O L OF EDUCATION • UBRARY «