Reinventing the Wheel: Paintings of Rebirth in Medieval Buddhist Temples [Hardcover ed.] 0295986492, 9780295986494

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Reinventing the Wheel: Paintings of Rebirth in Medieval Buddhist Temples [Hardcover ed.]
 0295986492, 9780295986494

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3-106

‘R E I N V E N T I N G

9160

THE WHEEL Paintings of Rebirth in Medieval Buddhist Temples S T E P H E N F. T E I S E R

JLhe wheel o f rebirth is one o f the most basic and popular images in Buddhist visual culture. For nearly two thousand years, artists have painted it onto the porches o f Buddhist temples; preachers have used it to explain karmic retribution; and phi­ losophers have invoked it to illuminate the contrast between ignorance and nirvana. In Reinventing the Wheel, noted scholar Stephen F. Teiser explores the history and varied interpretations o f the Wheel o f Rebirth, a circle divided into sections depicting the Buddhist cycle o f transmigration. Com bining visual evidence with textual sources, Reinventing the Wheel explores how the metaphor o f the wheel has been interpreted in divergent local traditions, from India to Tibet, Central Asia, and China. Teiser deftly shows how written and painted renditions o f the wheel have animated local architectural sites and religious rituals, inform ing concepts o f time and reincarna­ tion and acting as an organizing principle in the cosm ology and daily life o f practicing Buddhists. Engaging and accessible, this uniquely pan-Buddhist tour will appeal to anyone interested in Buddhist culture, as well as to scholars o f religious studies, art history, architecture, philosophy, and textual studies.

W

‘Reinventing the cWheef (Paintings ofRebirth in tMedievaf‘Buddhist‘Tangles

STEPHEN F. TEISER

U N I V E R S I T Y O F W A S H I N G T O N P R E S S Seattle & London

Published with the assistance o f The Getty Foundation.

Copyright © 2006 by the University of Washington Press Printed in China Designed by Veronica Seyd 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 5 4 3 2 1

All rights reserved. No part o f this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any informa­ tion storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. University of Washington Press PO Box 50096, Seattle, W A 98145 www.washington.edu/uwpress

Library o f Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Teiser, Stephen F. Reinventing the wheel: paintings o f rebirth in medieval Buddhist temples / Stephen F. Teiser. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. I S B N 0-295-98649-2 (hardback : alk. paper) i s b n 13: 978-0-295-98649-4 1. Reincarnation in art. 2. Art, Buddhist— Asia. 3. Reincarnation— Buddhism. 4. Transmigration— Buddhism. 5. Pratityasamutpada. I. Title. N8193.3.R45T45

2006

704.9'48943— dc22

2006013867

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements o f American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, a n s i Z39.48-1984.

Cover: Based on Wheel o f Rebirth. Relief carving. Dafowan Niche 3, Baodingshan, Sichuan, thirteenth century. After Bai Ziran, Zhongguo Dazu shiku, pi. 62. Frontispiece: P la te 1. Wheel o f rebirth. Cotton painting. Tibet, nineteenth century. Rubin Museum o f Art, item no. 65356. Photography: Bruce White.

14

Jor < k i

T

Contents Preface and Acknowledgments ix 1. Picturing Life and Death as a Wheel 3 2. The Canonical Version of the Wheel of Rebirth 50 3. Temples and Legends: Western India, 350-550

c .e .

76

4. King Rudrayana’s Painting of the Twelve Conditions 104 5. La roue imaginaire en Chine 120 6. Wheels for Meditation: Kumtura, Central Asia, Ninth Century 146 7. Wheels in Cave Temples: Yulin, Gansu, Tenth Century 163 8. Wheels in Esoteric Temples: Tabo, Western Tibet, Eleventh Century 193 9. Wheels for Pilgrims: Baodingshan, Sichuan, Thirteenth Century 221 10. Conclusions 239 Character Glossary 273 Bibliography 278 Index 309

Vil

Preface

andftcdnowfedgments

jfn art as in life, modest insight into one’s motivations is acheived only gradually. In my case, I had begun working on the research for this book for several years before I figured out the experience that probably, in the troubled mist of adolescence, ignited my interest in the subject. My first encounter with a painting of the wheel of rebirth occurred not in a modern Tibetan temple or in the remains of a medieval cave shrine in India or China, but rather when reading Kipling’s novel Kim, published in 1901. The memories of the book I carried into adulthood had to do with the title character, the India-born British boy who can pass himself off now as a native, now as a sahib, and whose adventures in espionage along the Grand Trunk Road and the Himalayas are only briefly, it seems, interrupted by the boredom and discipline of formal schooling. What I had forgotten was that the image of the wheel of rebirth plays a key struc­ turing role in the novel. Kim’s spiritual teacher, the Teshoo Lama, uses the wheel of life constantly as a metaphor for the meaning of life. The lama invokes the wheel as a way of making sense out of the tide of events. In the Buddhist theory of reincarna­ tion, each fife is followed by another lifetime, and the turning of the wheel— one painful rebirth after another— is fueled by the egocentric propensities of anger, lust, and igno­ rance. The lama seeks release from the wheel, liberation from the cycle of rebirth. He is also searching for a mythical river, associated with the historical Buddha, that has curative powers. Near the beginning of the book the lama explains his quest to one of the many wise white men who appear in Kipling’s unrepentantly rosy picture of British colonialism, the Keeper of Images at the “Wonder House,” the Lahore Museum (a position that Kipling’s father in fact held for many years). The two men chat ami­ ably about the spread of the Buddhist religion across Asia, and the curator trots out the latest gems of Buddhological scholarship, books tracing the route of ancient trav­ elers between India and China. Although the lama appreciates these scientific advances, he distinguishes between the curator’s book knowledge and the kind of religious jour­ ney in which he, the lama, is engaged. He explains, “Your scholars, by these books, have followed the Blessed Feet in all their wanderings; but there are things which they have not sought out. I know nothing— nothing do I know— but I go to free myself from the wheel of things by a broad and open road.”1i. i. Kipling, Kim, p. 57.

IX

I have to confess, at the very beginning of this book, that my current sympathies lie more with the scholars than the lama. Like the nineteenth-century founders of fields like Buddhist studies, I try to reassemble sources written in a variety of languages that most Buddhists would not command and to draw links between paintings spread far­ ther across Asia than most traditional pilgrims could visit in a lifetime. Since the eigh­ teenth century, the discipline of comparative philology has attempted to account for the dissemination of linguistic forms and religious ideas across cultures. Such breadth of coverage is surely fitting in the case of the wheel of rebirth, pictures and stories of which are found throughout the Buddhist world, from western India to the oases of central Asia, the Himalayas, China, Tibet, and more recently to Japan, Southeast Asia, and the West. As a researcher in the modern field of religious studies, I would also celebrate the recent divorce between studying and practicing religion. As the lama suggests, the interest of the practitioner is liberation from the cycle of painful rebirth, while mine as investigator is the creation of an edifying and accurate picture of Bud­ dhism as a pan-Asian, international force. At the same time, I have to acknowledge that this very bifurcation, between the methods of the believer and those of the scholar, is itself a recent invention with its own set of problems and pretensions. While con­ forming to the canons of academic study and utilizing maps, history, context, trans­ lations, analysis, and so on, I also hope to say something important or essential about Buddhism. Questions of meaning and significance are as central to the humanities as they are to traditional religious undertakings. The two quests are closer than I would like to admit. I have been influenced by Kim in another way as well, I think. The lama not only conceives of himself through the image of the wheel, he also produces paintings of the wheel, which he uses to instruct others. The lama employs a picture of the wheel he has drawn as a standardized teaching device. Kipling portrays the lama's tutelage of Kim this way: He drew from under the table a sheet of strangely scented yellow Chinese paper, the brushes, and slab of Indian ink. In cleanest, severest outline he had traced the Great Wheel with its six spokes, whose center is the conjoined Hog, Snake, and Dove (Ignorance, Anger, and Lust), and whose compartments are all the Heavens and Hells, and all the chances of human life. . . . Few can translate the pictureparable; there are not twenty in all the world who can draw it surely without a copy: of those who can both draw and expound are but three.2 Kipling’s character of the lama alerts us, then, to the importance of the pictorial in the dissemination of religion. Rather than focusing merely on texts, I try in this book to devote more room than usual to visual evidence and the activity of preaching. The field of Buddhist studies has been moving in this direction for some time now. The alleged logocentrism of earlier models has been supplemented more recently by an interest in ritual, symbols, and artifacts. Where studies of texts, schools, and pure con2. Ibid., p. 240.

x Preface

cepts once predominated, we now see more books treating texts as material objects, icons as subjects of Buddhist devotion, and monasteries as educational institutions. Although I lack the talents of a novelist, I follow Kipling’s lead in attending wherever possible to the practice of painting, and I ask questions about who draws, who preaches, who observes, and who listens. The lama’s wheel of life is not only a metaphor and a pictorial practice, it also con­ stitutes, in a literal way, the decisive rupture in the novel. Toward the end of the book Kim has rejoined the lama and they travel together up to Ladakh and the Himalayas. Dedicated again to the service of his guru, Kim is also surreptitiously shadowing a pair of Russian spies whose maps and letters he will soon succeed in stealing. When the two parties first meet, the Russians ask the lama to explain the wheel of rebirth. The lama obliges, removing the treasured drawing from his robes and beginning his sermon. The Russians are so taken with the lama’s rendering that they ask to buy the painting from him. He objects, since the painting is a vessel of the Dharma— in Kipling’s depiction the lama calls it “the Written Word”— and it is used only for instructing disciples. The Russian spy, as a representative of evil imperial designs (as opposed to the benign, civilizing aims of the British), waves some cash at the religious object, but the lama still resists. Finally the Russian simply grabs at the painting, tearing it almost in two. After defiling the holy teaching, he strikes the lama, and a nighttime tussle and long flight ensue. In ignorance, the Russians are sidetracked through a hundred mountain villages by one of Kim’s fellow spies. The denouement of the Russians’ polit­ ical failure is paralleled by the unfolding stoiy of the lama’s spiritual victory. The rip in the painting of the wheel is a signal to the lama. He interprets it as a sign that his life hangs simply by a thread and that he needs to reorient his search and look on the plains rather than in the mountains for the Buddha’s river. Ultimately, he is successful: “And for my merit that I had acquired I gain yet another sign.” He put his hand in his bosom, and drew forth the Wheel of Life. “Look! I considered this after I had meditated. There remains untorn by the idolator no more than the breadth of my fingernail.” «T » I see.

“So much, then, is the span of my life in this body. I have served the Wheel all my days. Now the Wheel serves me. But for the merit I have acquired in guiding thee upon the Way, there would have been added to me yet another life ere I had found my River. Is it plain, chela?” Kim stared at the brutally disfigured chart. From left to right diagonally the rent ran— from the Eleventh House where Desire gives birth to the Child (as it is drawn by Tibetans)— across the human and animal worlds, to the Fifth House— the empty House of the Senses. The logic was unanswerable.3 3. Ibid., pp. 310-11.

Preface xi

Kipling’s portrayal of the rupture in the lama’s painting captures a crucial insight into how paintings of the wheel of rebirth work in the history of Buddhism. In Kim as in Buddhist mythology, on the one hand people are bound to what the wheel represents, while on the other hand the wheel as representation is supposed to free people from that which it represents. M y book takes up this question of the relationship between the viewer, the image, and what the image is supposed to represent. The tale in Kim also hints that we as interpreters can best make sense of pictures— and rips in pictures— by telling stories. This is what the lama (and through him, Kipling) does: he makes the tear redemptive by weaving it back into the quest that guides the nar­ rative. My point is more than the simple claim that Buddhologists need to consider both pictorial and textual evidence. Rather, I am suggesting that we ought to attend to the hermeneutical issues raised by pictures and stories about pictures in Buddhism. In this process— again as Kim shows— a lot of evidence is, literally, torn in two or fragmentary, and much of the story involves a political subplot. Although in the foregoing ways I adopt the orientalist pose, in other respects I am committed to the values of the more recent turn in Buddhist studies. I am interested more in exemplary than in comprehensive histoiy. That is, I structure this book around examples of the wheel of rebirth that I believe are particularly instructive about Bud­ dhism. I leave out a lot of evidence, particularly in Tibet and Japan after the medieval period and in modern Southeast Asia. In this sense, I try to make the book a histo­ rian’s version of the kind of multi-sited fieldwork now practiced in American anthro­ pology. Rather than defining my topic as Buddhism as a whole or a specific Buddhist culture, I intentionally choose the specific site as my unit of analysis. Buddhist stud­ ies has already made progress in moving from generalizations about Buddhism to con­ sidering Buddhist texts and practices in particular places like ancient India, medieval Japan, and modem Thailand. In this book I try to go one half step farther, treating “India” (and “China” and “Tibet” and the like) as needing explanation instead of as an unchanging political essence that explains why Buddhism here is unlike Buddhism there. I hope to contribute to a new picture of Buddhism as well as to a new picture of the meaning of pictures in Buddhism. Most of my goals are spelled out more programmatically where the reader would expect, in the first and last chapters of this book. I have used a variety of methods and -ologies to explain the significance of representations that were spread across different cultural areas, in many of which I do not specialize. I am overreaching, and I hope that those whose toes I step upon will view these forays indulgently. This book was originally conceived as one chapter in a longer book based on a sem­ inar I taught at the Ēcole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Quatrieme Section, Sciences Historiques et Philologiques, in 1996. Thanks to a generous invitation from Jean-Pierre Drēge, that course, entitled “La mort dans le bouddhisme chinois,” helped me to nar­ row my topic to the wheel of rebirth and to expand my coverage beyond the borders of China. Snejana Vassiliev helped prepare a French translation of my lectures, in which I learned, at the first meeting, to distinguish clearly between la morī and Vamour. My colleagues in Paris— Li-ying Kuo, Christine Mollier, Richard Schneider, and Eric xii Preface

i rombert— provided Help and collaboration. Patricia li. Ebrey invited me to present the growing manuscript at a meeting of her seminar on visual culture when she was Visiting Faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1998, and Ī received encour­ aging responses from Victor H. Mah, Nancy Schatzman Steinhardt, and Angela F. Howard. During 1998 Walter Spink graciously allowed me to join his site seminar at Ajanta (Maharashtra, India), where he introduced me to the joys of archaeology and architecture. In 1999 I joined a three-year Luce Foundation-funded research project organized by Sarah E. Fraser that brought together six American and six Chinese schol­ ars. For one month we conducted research together in Sichuan and Gansu and then two years later reported back to one another at a conference in Beijing. The assistance I received from my Chinese colleagues (Ding Mingyi, Fan Jinshi, Hao Chunwen, Ma Shichang, Peng Jinzhang, Rong Xinjiang, Sun Xiushen), drawn from the fields of art, archaeology, and histoiy, was invaluable. The American-based scholars on the team (Wendi L. Adamek, John Kieschnick, Wei Yang, and Brook Ziporyn) offered advice and support all along the way. During further field research in 2001 at the Yulin caves (Gansu, China), Ma Xiwu of the Dunhuang Research Institute was extremely help­ ful. At Kizil and Kundura (Xinjiang, China), Li Li and Su Huiming worked with me and opened important doors for several days. In 2001 Wu Hung and Anthony C. Yu arranged a series of lectures at the University of Chicago. Their hospitality and feed­ back, plus that of Matthew Kapstein, Steven Collins, and Wendy Doniger, are much appreciated. In 2002 the Venerable Sheng-yen and Ch’en Hsiu-lan of the Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies in Taiwan were wonderful hosts for a stint of research there. In 2003 Shimazono Susumu invited me to a stimulating conference, “The CoExistence of the Dead and the Living,” at Tokyo University, where I learned much from discussions with him, James H. Foard, Ikezawa Masāra, Osano Shigetoshi, Fabio Rambelli, Gaynor Sekimori, and Sueki Fumihiko. The Pro-Vice-Chancellor of the Uni­ versity of Hong Kong, C. F. Lee, graciously invited me to deliver a series of lectures in January 2004 at the Centre of Buddhist Studies, where I received much help from the Venerable Jingyin, Liu Ming Wood, Wang Bangwei, and Yao Zhihua. Various draft chapters of this book were presented at several institutions, where I received helpful advice from many colleagues: Donald S. Lopez Jr., Robert H. Sharf, and Luis Gomez at the University of Michigan; Jo-shui Chen, Fu-shih Lin, and Muchou Poo at the Institute of Histoiy and Philology at the Academia Sinica in Taiwan; James Benn, Jinhua Chen, Phyllis Granoff, and Eugene Yuejin Wang at a conference held at the University of British Columbia; Ryuichi Abe, Wendi L. Adamek, Robert Hymes, Robert A. F. Thurman, Serinity Young, and Chün-fang Yti at Columbia Uni­ versity; Enomoto Fumio, Funayama Toru, Kominami Ichiro, Mimaki Katsumi, and Takata Tokio at Kyoto University; Robert Duquenne, Hubert Durt, François Lachaud, and Sylvio Vita at the Italian School of East Asian Studies and the Ēcole française d’Extreme-Orient in Kyoto; Ho Puay-Peng, Lai Chi Tim, Jenny Fong-suk So, Tam Wai Lun, and Franciscus Verellen at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. John Blazejewski contributed many of the photos in this book, often at short notice. The staff at the Princeton University East Asian Library, Marquand Library, and Interlibrary Loan Preface xiii

were particularly cooperative. Others who have provided important advice along the way are Huaiyu Chen, Paul Copp, Lorraine Fuhrmann, Dorothy Ko, Cathy Cheng Mei Ku, Lothar Ledderose, Rob Linrothe, Yang Lu, Susan Naquin (who loaned me her childhood copy of Kim), Daniel L. Overmyer, Ruth Rogaski, Louisa Schein, Jacque­ line I. Stone, and Jeffrey L. Stout. Many people came to my assistance in the final stages of preparing this book for publication. John S. Strong wrote what every author looks for in a reader’s report: sympathetic, thoughtful comments and dozens of suggestions for improvement. Gre­ gory Schopen offered ten handwritten pages of meticulous, insightful comments on the book manuscript and shared several of his unpublished translations from the San­ skrit and Tibetan. Walter Spink and Monika Zin provided invaluable comments on the Ajantā material, and Bryan Cuevas, Deborah Klimburg-Salter, and Christian Luczanits helped tremendously with the chapter on western Tibet. All of their help saved me from many gaffes, although I am sure that many remain. Sorat Tungkasiri created several of the drawings and provided technical assistance with many of the illustrations. Tsering Wangyal Shawa offered expert help with historical geography and drew all of the maps. Several people and institutions were particularly generous in sharing illustrations; I am especially grateful to Lionel Fournier, Sadakane Keiji, Lucy L. Lo, and the Rubin Museum of Art. I extend my thanks to everyone else who helped me secure illustrations: Lisa Arcomano, Dina Bangdel, Holly Frisbee, Cory Grace, John C. Huntington, Ruth Janson, Laurel Kendall, Anne Rose Kitagawa, Eliz­ abeth Knight, Michael W. Meister, U. S. Moorti, David Nelson, Angela Powell, Van­ dana Sinha, Janet Temos, Verena Widorn, and Leela Aditi Wood. At the University of Washington Press, Michael Duckworth’s enthusiasm for this project has helped to keep it going, John Stevenson’s oversight of production has made it look a lot better than I could have imagined, and Julie Van Pelt improved the final version with thought­ ful and meticulous copyediting. Any project that takes as long to complete as this one depends on input and sup­ port from nearly all of one’s scholarly interlocutors and many of one’s students. I hope members of this large group will not be offended if I do not name all of them individually. For time and money I am grateful to two successive deans of the faculty at Prince­ ton University. Amy Gutman gave me permission to teach in Paris at the beginning of the project, and Joseph Taylor helped fund a semester of writing near the end. The Chiang Ching-kuo Senior Scholars Fellowship provided a generous grant for a semes­ ter’s leave, and Princeton’s University Committee on Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences awarded crucial funding for travel, research assistance, photographic materials, and publication costs. I also wish to express my appreciation to the Uni­ versity Seminars at Columbia University for their help in publication. Material in this work was presented to the University Seminar on Buddhist Studies. Most of all I have my family and friends to thank for their support and patience over the years. My three children have put up, seemingly without complaint, with my early morning hours, my need for quiet, and my summer research trips. My son, xiv Preface

Walker, in particular, shared adventures in Xinjiang while battling a dogged case of pneumonia that was eventually cured in Chengdu, thanks to the hospitality of our friend Jiang Zhaohui and his staff. I completed two large chunks of this book in the semitropical comforts of the Newman household on Yangmingshan, in Taipei, Tai­ wan. Charlie and Snow Newman provided great company, writing space, a cone of silence, mangoes, and good coffee for what remains, at base, a lonely endeavor. My greatest fortune in this project is to have had the support and inspiration of my wife, Wei Yang. She has supported me through hardship, shared her knowledge and ways of thinking throughout the book, placed her own research behind mine, and has been instrumental in building a life together that makes it possible to write books like this one.

Preface xv

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abhidharma (tre a tise s o n th e D h a r m a ) , 51 Abhidharmakośa, 156014; c o sm o lo g y a c c o rd in g to , 271 ta b le 7

Account of Temples and Pagodas (Sita ji; n in th c e n tu ry ), 145

Adhikaranavastu, 10611 Ā g a m as (C o lle c tio n s), 31, 33, 34 A ja n ta (M a h a ra s h tra , In d ia ), 43, 44, 7 9 -8 7 , 92, 1 0 0,184, 237 C av e 16: 82 -8 3 % • 3-t> 9 2n C ave 17, 64; c o m p a re d w ith vinaya a cc o u n ts, 101; d o n o r s of, 87,1 0 0 ,1 0 2 ; im a g e s o f th e B u d d h a in, 84, 86, 9 4 ,101,103 fig. 3.8; in s c rip tio n s in , 87; w heel o f re b irth in , 27 pi. 8, 43, 6 0 -6 1 , c h ap . 3, 221, 2 4 2 43, 256-58, 263, 265, 270; p la n of, 85 fig. 3 -3

A jā ta ś a tru , 128 Ā k ā śa g a rb h a , 210 A k so b h y a, 199, 200 A la b aste r, H e n ry , 42 A -lc i, 204; w h e el o f r e b ir th at, 218 A ll ex ists ( sarvam asti, C h.: yiqieyou), 74 A m a ra v a t! (A n d h r a P ra d e s h ), 35; w h e el o f d h a r m a s c u lp tu r e at, 37 fig. 1.15 A m e ric a n M u s e u m o f N a tu r a l H isto ry : no . 70/11044 (w h e el o f r e b ir th ) , 20 pi. 5, 21 fig. 1.10; n o . 70.0/6931 (w h eel o f r e b ir th ) , 22 pi. 6, 23 fig. 1.11, 24 fig. 1.12 A m itā b h a , 1 2 5 ,1 2 7 -2 8 ,1 4 2 ,1 7 3 -7 4 ,1 8 6 , 200, 2 0 9 -1 0 , 225, 229, 237-38, 244, 246 A m itā y u s, 199; d e p ic te d in th e w h e e l o f r e b ir th , 16, 21 A m o g h a s id d h i, 200 A m o g h a v a jra (7 0 5 -7 7 4 ), 149

Analysis of the Vinaya of the Mūlasarvāstivāda (Mūlasarvāstivāda vinaya vibhañga, Genbenshuoyiqieyoubu pinaiye), 53, 581120, 59, 65, 6 6 -6 7 , 671147, i0 4 - 5 n i, 10503,11211,120, 262; s tr u c tu r e of, 73. See also u n d e r vinaya A n ā th a p iṇ ḍ ik a , 31, 57, 7 4 ,1 7 4 -7 5

"I

anātman. See lac k o f so u l a n im a ls. See p a th s o f re b irth anitya. See im p e rm a n e n c e A n L u sh a n re b e llio n (755-763), 44,167 A p a ra g o d ā n īy a (w e stern c o n tin e n t) , 95. See also F o u r C o n tin e n ts a rc h ite c tu re : re la tio n to a u d ie n c e , 2 5 4 -6 0 . See also te m p le d esig n arhat (w o rth y o n e o r s a in t), 54ni2, 57, 59, 79, n o , 112-16,119; d e p ic te d in th e w h e el o f r e b ir th , 79. See also F o u r F ru its arhat caves, 153 a r m y o f im p e r m a n e n c e ( wuchang jun), 65 a rm y o f life a n d d e a th ( shengsi jun, macuno sena), 65 Ā ry a Ś ū ra ( th ir d c e n tu ry ? ), 85 A sañ g a (sixth c e n tu ry ), 26 A śo k a, K in g (r. 273-232 B .C .E .), 35, 81, 93, 117 Aśokarājasütra7. See Eyuwangjing Aśokāvadāna. See Legend of King Aśoka asuras (d e m ig o d s ), 131,155, 244; in th e w heel o f re b irth , 6 ,1 4 , 60, 214, 218, 232, 243, 254. See also under p a th s o f r e b ir th A tiśa ( J o -b o -rje , 982-1054), 2 6,199 a u d ie n c e , 2 5 4 -6 0 avadāna, 77,104,105,117,152 Avadānakalpalatā, 105112 A v alo k iteśv ara B o d h isa ttv a (G u a n sh iy in p u s a ), 123,124m l, 125,128,169,170-71 tab le 4, 174, 209, 2 io n i8 ; d e p ic te d in th e w h eel o f r e b ir th , 12,16; w ith o n e t h o u s a n d a rm s , 229; S ix -A rm e d , 2181131 Avataṃsaka sūtra. See Flower Garland Scrip­

ture A vīci H e ll, 113,182 B a iz h an g P lu a ih a i (7 2 0 -8 1 4 ), 262 B ak k er, H a n s , 81 B a o d in g s h a n , 64, 2 5 9 -6 0 ; D a fo w a n (L arg e r B u d d h a B ay), 2 2 8 m 0, 232; D a fo w a n N ic h e 3, 230 fig. 9.4, 233 fig. 9.5, 235 fig. 9.6, 236

309

B a o d in g s h a n (continued) fig. 9.7; D a fo w a n N ic h e n , 222 fig. 9.1, 223 fig. 9.2; D a fo w a n N ic h e 19, 231; D a fo w a n N ic h e 22, 225, 225114, 226 fig. 9.3; D a fo w a n N ic h e 27, 225; d o n o r s of, 237; L iu B e n z u n d e p ic te d at, 225-26; s tr u c tu r e a n d c o n te n t of, 229; w h eel o f r e b ir th at, 32 pi. 14, 48, 61, c h ap . 9, 243, 246, 256, 260, 2 6 4 -6 5 , 270; X ia o fo w a n (S m a lle r B u d d h a B ay), 2281110 Bao’en jing. See Scripture on Repaying Kindness B a r a b u d u r ( n in th c e n tu ry , Jav a), 220, 22011; K ā ty āy a n a d e p ic te d at, 1 0 8 -9 fig- 4-2>109; R u d rā y a n a s to iy d e p ic te d at, 105,10502, 113,114-15 fig. 4.4 B e n z u n (O rig in a l H o n o r e d O n e ), 225, 2 2 5 ^ B h a isajy a g u ru B o d h isa ttv a (Y aoshiw ang p u sa ), 142,173; p a ra d ise of, 143,173,186, 244 bhakti (d e v o tio n ), 102 B h a k tin , M ik h a il, 257 bhavacakra. See w h e el o f r e b ir th bianwen. See tr a n s f o r m a tio n tex ts bianxiang. See tr a n s f o r m a tio n scenes Bieza ahan jing (Sarnynirāgama), 33117 B im b isā ra , 105,1 0 6 ,1 0 8 ,1 0 9 ,1 1 2 ,1 1 6 -1 8 B irth o f G o o d (S h a n s h e n g ) , 69, 69048. See also B o m in P o v e rty ; S a h a so d g a ta B ish a m e n . See V a iśrav a n a b K ra -s h is -m g o n (r. ca. 9 5 0 -9 7 5 ), 196,199 b K ra -s h is -’o d . See B y a n g -c h u li-’o d b K ra -s h is -rts e g s , 199 B o d h id h a rm a , 232 bodhisattva, 40, 86,12 4 ,1 3 7 -3 8 ,1 5 8 , 206, 268; h i th e w heel o f re b irth , 7 B on, 6 B o rn in P o v e rty (P in s h e n g ) , 6 7-72,118-19. See also B irth o f G o o d ; S a h a so d g a ta B oys o f G o o d a n d Evil, 244 B ra h m ā , 55,151,158 B ritish M u s e u m : Illu s tra tio n o f th e R ealm s o f th e T en D ire c tio n s o f M in d C o n te m p la ­ tio n , 248 fig. 10.4 B ro o k ly n M u s e u m o f A rt: L25.5 (w h eel o f r e b ir th ) , 18 pi. 4 ,1 9 fig. 1.9 B ro w n , P ercy , 8 3 -8 4 B u d d h a . See A k so b h y a; A m itā b h a ; A m itā y u s; A m o g h a s id d h i; M a itre y a ; R a tn a sa m b h a v a ; S a k y a m u n i; V a iro c a n a ; V a jra d h a ra B u d d h a -fie ld s (B uddha-fcsefras), 205 B u d d h a g h o s a , 34-35 buddhakṣetra. See B u d d h a re a lm Buddhānusmṛti samādhisāgara sūtra. See

Guanfo sanmei hai jing B u d d h a re alm (buddhakṣetra), 127 B u d d h a s o f th e T en D ire c tio n s , 206, 209, 2161128 B u d d h a s m r ti (Z h u F o n ia n , ca. 365), 6 5 ^ 0 , 9 5 n 3 2 ,1241111 Baddhavatsa Commentary, 2291114

310 Index

B urgess, Jam es, 99 B y a n g -c h u b -’o d , 199, 210, 212 c a ity a s (h alls fo r w o rs h ip ): a t A ja n tā , 8 2 -8 3 ,

102

cakra. See w h eels cakravartin rāja. See w h e e l- tu r n in g k in g C a m p a n y , R o b e rt, 124 C a n d r a p r a b h ā (C h.: Y u e g u a n g ), i o 4 - 5 n i, n o , 111 fig. 4-3 C a o fam ily, 165,168,172,187, 258; c h ro n o lo g y of, 170-71 ta b le 4 C a o Y anlu, 169,170-71 ta b le 4 C a o Y ijin, 170-71 tab ic 4,172,187 C a o Y u a n zh o n g , 4 8 ,1 6 5 ,1 6 8 ,1 6 9 , 170-71 tab le 4,172; d e p ic te d in Y ulin C ave 19,172 fig. 7.2,

175 Catalogue of the Buddhist Teachings during the Kaiyuan Era (Kaiyuan shijiao lu), 51113, 53117,169, 2611119 c e n tra l A sia, x, 4 4 ,1 6 8 ,1 8 4 , c h ap . 6,195; lite r ­ acy in , 40; m a p o f ca. 850,148; vinaya in , 52 c e n tra l s tū p a - p illa r style (zhongxin tazhu shi),

53

H i - , 165,184, 250 c h a in o f c a u s a tio n . See d e p e n d e n t o r ig in a tio n C h a n (Z e n ), 268 C h a n g a h a n j i n g ( D īr g h ā g a m a ) , 951032

C h a n g ’a n , 4 4 ,1 27,142,149,167, 264 C h in a , x, 13,16-17, 4 2 -4 3 , 6 4 ,1 6 5 ,1 9 5 -9 6 ; cave te m p le s in , 44, 4 8 ,1 4 3 -4 5 ,1 8 4 -8 8 ; flu id b o u n d a rie s of, xii, 4 3 - 4 9 ; in flu e n c e in th e H e x i C o r r id o r , 165-68; in flu e n c e o n K u m tu ra , 146,152; m a p o f la te te n t h c e n tu ry , 166; v in a y a in , 5 0 -5 2 , 78, 261-63; w h e e l o f r e b ir th in , c h ap . 5, c h ap . 7, c h ap . 9, 256, 265 C h o n g x iu B a o d in g s h a n S h e n g s h o u y u a n ji. See R e c o rd o f th e R e p a ir o f th e C lo is te r o f th e Sagely a n d L o n g -L iv e d a t B a o d in g s h a n C h o s - g r u b (F a c h en g , 832-865), 167 C h u G u a n g x i, 1901131 Chuyao jing, 6501140-41 circle o f th e w heel o f r e b ir th (samsāracakrasya mandeha). See w heel o f r e b ir th circles, 8 ,1 3 ,1 6 2 ,1 7 9 , 242-54 C lo is te r o f th e T w elve C a u se s a n d C o n d itio n s fo r th e E d u c a te d (xueren siti’er yinyuan yuan), 137

Collection of Auspicious Signs from the Dark World (Mingxiangji), 121,123117 c o n d itio n e d c o a risin g (pratītyasamutpāda). See d e p e n d e n t o rig in a tio n Consecration Sūtra (Guandingjing), 147 c o sm o lo g ic a l B u d d h a , 130-31,132 fig. 5.2,133

53,134fig- 5-4,135fig- 5-5, 249f ig - 10.5,

fig. 250 -5 2

D a fo w a n (L arg e r B u d d h a B ay). B a o d in g s h a n

See under

D alai L am a, F o u r te e n th (T en z in G y atso ) 3 8 -3 9 , 64 D a lo u ta n jin g , 951132. See also S ū tr a o n th e A r is in g o f th e W o r ld

D a o c h e n g (ca. 1017-1021), 120-21,121111, 262 D a o m in g , 244 D a o sh i (d . 683), 641136,123117,1421124 D a o s h o u , 169 D a o x iu , 158-59,1591118 D a o x u a n (5 9 6 -6 6 7 ), 641136,1271114,136-42, 258, 262; te m p le h o m o lo g ie s of, 142 ta b le 2 D a p ilu z h e n a c h e n g f o j i n g s h u , 156014 D a p ilu z h e n a c h e n g fo s h e n b ia n j i a c h i jin g . See M a h ā v a ir o c a n a S ū tr a D a ś a k u m ā r a c a r ita , 8 m 9 D a s h e n g b e n s h e n g x i n d i g u a n jin g . See M a h d y d n a S c r ip tu r e o n P re v io u s L ives

D a sh iz h i p u sa . S ee M a h ā s th ā m a p r ā p ta B o d h isa ttv a D a ta n g x i y u j i , 147112 D a ta n g x i y u q iu fa g a o se n g z h u a n , 51113 D a y u n T em p le, 149-50 D a z u , 221, 227 d e m ig o d s. See a su r a s D e m o n o f I m p e rm a n e n c e . S e e G re a t D e m o n o f Im p e r m a n e n c e D e n g Z h ijin , 232 D e n w o o d , P h ilip , 217 d e p e n d e n t o rig in a tio n (o r c o n d itio n e d c o arisin g , p r a tā p a s a m u tp ā d a ) , 10-11 ta b le 1, 6 1-62; d e p ic te d in Y ulin C ave 19,163,178 w ith T w elv e C o n d itio n s ( n id ā n a ) , 551114, 137-38, 252-54; in K u n d u r a C ave 75,146, 161; a t P e d o n g p o , 218; in th e R u d ra y a n a sto ry , 104 ,1 0 6 ,1 0 7 ,1 0 9 ,1 1 6 ,1 1 8 -1 9 , 220, 256; in th e w heel o f re b irth , 9 -1 0 ,1 3 ,1 5 , 16,19, 55, 6 1-64, 76, 78,116, 118,161, 21213» 242

w ith E ig h te e n C o n d itio n s ( n id ā n a ) , 6 2 -6 3 , 9 8 -9 9 , 232 d e v o tio n . See b h a k ti d h ā r a n īs . S e e spells d h a r m a c a k r a . S e e w h eel o f D h a r m a D h a r m a g u p ta v in ay a. See u n d e r v in a y a D h a r m a p ā d a (V e r se s o n th e L a w , aka U d ā n a v a r g a ), 65, 65040 D h a r m a r a t a (Z h u F a h u , fl. 265-313), 1241111, 167 D h e - b a r a - t s a (D e v a rā ja ), 196, 216 D ia m o n d R ealm m a n d a la , 193, 200, 202 fig. 8.3, 206, 2 0 8 -1 0 , 2 io m 8 , 212, 217, 219-20, 2 26n, 259 D ia m o n d S ū tr a , 169,170-71 ta b le 4 D īp a ṃ k a ra . S e e T h re e B u d d h a s D īp a ṃ k a ra Ś rījñ ā n a . S ee A tiśa D īr g h ā g a m a . See C h a n g a h a n j i n g d isc u rsiv e p ra c tic e , 4 1 -4 2 , 49, 239, 254 -5 6 , 262 D iv y ā v a d ā n a ( A v a d ā n a s o f G o d s ), 58021, 601123,

651140, 661144, 6 9 ^ 8 , 74, 77111, 93,102; a c c o u n t o f th e w heel o f r e b ir th in , 7 7 78, 8 7 -8 8 m 8 , 9 9 -1 0 0 , 255; c o m p a re d w ith th e M ū la sa rv ā stiv ā d a v in ay a, 77-78, 77112; R u d m y a n a s to ry in , c h ap . 4 D iz an g p u sa . S e e K ṣ itig a rb h a B o d h isa ttv a D iz a n g p u s a b e n y u a n jin g , 24411 D iz a n g p u s a jin g , 24411

d o n o r ( s ) , 150,151,168-69, 254-55; o f A ja n tā C ave 17, 87,1 0 0 ,1 0 2 ; o f B a o d in g s h a n , 237; o f K u n d u r a C ave 7 5 ,1 4 6 ,1 5 6 ,1 5 8 -6 0 ; o f M o g a o C ave 9 4 ,1 8 7 -8 8 ; R u d ra y a n a as, 109; o f T ab o , 204, 210-12, 216-18, 237; o f Y ulin C ave 1 9 ,1 6 3 -6 5 ,1 6 9 ,1 7 0 -7 1 ta b le 4,172,175 D p a l-ld a n b k ra -s h is b d e -g n a s , 211 d re a m s: in m ed ie v al C h in e se lite ra tu re , i25n; o f W a n g Q iu , 124-25 D u F u, 1901131 d u h k lm . S e e su ffe rin g D u n h u a n g , 4, 5311,126,128,129 fig. 5.1 (A m i­ t ā b h a ^ p u r e la n d ) , 130-31,142,1421125,143, 1 4 7 ,1 6 5 -6 8 ,1 7 0 -7 1 ta b le 4 ,1 7 4 ,1 8 4 ,1 8 6 , 242, 258, 2 6 4 -6 5 . S e e also M o g a o ; Y ulin D u r k h e im , E m ile, 266 e a s te rn c o n tin e n t. S e e P ū rv a v id e h a E ig h t D ifficu ltie s ( o r E ig h t U n f o r tu n a te [P laces], a sta a k s a n ā h , C h.: b a n a n ) , 9 2 -9 3 , 94

E ig h tfo ld P a th , 12, 40 e ig h t fo rm s o f life, 94 E k o tta r ā g a m a . See Z e n g y i a h a n j i n g E n n in , 142 E y u w a n g j i n g (A ś o k a rā ja s ū tra V ), 6 6n42 F a h a i, 149 Pa j iy a o s o n g jin g , 65111140-41 F a n Jin sh i, 180-83 F a x ian (aka T ia n x iz a i, fl. 9 8 0 -1 0 0 0 ), 621128,

65040 F a y u a n z h u l i n , 641136,123117,1421124

F a zo n g , 170-71 ta b le 4 Five B lessings, 189,191 Five D y n a sties p e rio d , 1 4 2,165-67,169,187, 237 Five P a th s o f r e b ir th ( w u q u , p a n c a g a ta y a h ) . S e e p a th s o f r e b ir th Five P re c e p ts, 67, 70,106 ,1 0 7 ,1 1 6 F lo w e r G a r la n d S c r ip tu r e ( A v a ta ṃ s a k a S ū tr a ) ,

52,130, 205 F o d in g z u n s h e n g x in p o d i y u z h u a n y e z h a n g c h u s a n jie m u n i s a n s h e n fo g u o s a n z h o n g x id i z h e n y a n y ig u i, 2 26-2705 F o d in g z u n s h e n g x in p o d iy u z h u a n y e z h a n g c h u s a n jie m i m i tu o lu o n i, 226-27115 F o m in g jin g . See S c r ip tu r e o f th e B u d d h a s ’ N am es

F o n te in , Ja n , 205 F o tu d e n g (232-348?), 147

Index 311

F o u r C o n tin e n ts , 94, 941131. See also A p a ra ­ g o d ā n i)^ ; J a m b u d v īp a ; P ū rv a v id e h a ; U tta r a k u r u F o u r E le m e n ts, 158 F o u r F ru its ( catvarī śramana-phalāni), 5 9 -6 0 , 59n22, 6 9 - 7 0 , 79, n o , 267. See also arhat, n o n - r e t u r n e r ; o n c e - r e tu r n e r ; stre a m e n te r e r F o u r H e a v e n ly K ings ( catvāsrah mahārājikah, C h .: sitianwang), 175 F o u r N o b le T r u th s , 35, 38, 6 9 ,1 3 8 ,1 7 4 ,1 9 6 F o u r O rd e rs ( sizhong, catasrah parsadah), 54,

54 8

n , 59 F re e m a n tle , F ra n c esc a , 39 F re e r G allery o f A rt: F1900.25 (c o sm o lo g ic a l B u d d h a ), 134 fig. 5.4; F1900.26 (sto ry te lle r a t th e S u m iy o sh i S h rin e ), 247 fig. 10.3; Fi 9 8 0 .8 6 .1 -8 ( r u b b in g o f th e c o sm o lo g ic al B u d d h a ), 135 fig. 5.5

Fundamental Observations on the Sākya Clan (Shishi yaolan), 1 2 0 -2 1 ,121m F u X i (4 9 7 -5 6 9 ). 232 F u x in y u a n s u o liu h a o tu . See I llu s tra tio n o f th e B in d in g o f th e M o n k e y o f th e M in d a n d L o ck in g u p th e Six S o u rc e s o f W aste

GandavyUha Sūtra, 205 G a n su , 1 65-6 8 ,1 9 5 , 265 G a r b h a d h ā tu m a r d a la . See W o m b R ealm m a r d a la G a r-lo g , 199, 218 G a u ta m a S a m g h a d e v a ( Q u ta n S en g q ietip o , fl. 383 - 398 ), 62n28, 93027 G e n b e n s h u o y iq ie y o u b u . See M ū la sa rv ā stiv ā d a sect Genbenshuoyiqieyoubu jie jing (Mūla­ sarvāstivāda prātimokṣa sūtra), 67046. See also u n d e r vinaya Genbenshuoyiqieyoubu pinaiye. See Analysis of the Vinaya of the Mūlasarvāstivāda Genbenshuoyiqieyoubu pinaiye chujia shi (.Mūlasarvāstivāda pravrajyāvastu), 571118. See also u n d e r vinaya Genbenshuoyiqieyoubu pinaiyeposeng shi (Mūlasarvāstivāda samghabhedakavastu), 571119. See also u n d e r vinaya Genbenshuoyiqieyoubu pinaiyeyaoshi (Mūla­ sarvāstivāda bhaisajyavastu), 58n2i. See also u n d e r vinaya Genbenshuoyiqieyoubu pinaiye zashi. See Mis­ cellaneous Matters G e n g h is K h a n (1155-1227), 48 G h o s t F estiv al, 182 g iv in g u p th e fa m ily ( shejia o r

chujia, pravra­

jita), 65 G la n g D a r - m a (d. 842), 196 g o d s. See p a th s o f r e b irth G o v e r n m e n t M u s e u m , M a d ras: n o . 21.1505

312

Index

(w o rs h ip o f th e w h e el o f D h a r m a ) , 37 fig. 1.15 G re a t D e m o n o f I m p e r m a n e n c e (W u c h a n g d a g u i), 10,13, 56, 64, 233; s y m b o liz in g ig n o ­ ra n c e , 99. See also Y am a, K in g G resley , C a p ta in , 8 8 -8 9 G riffith s, J o h n , 88 G riin w e d e l, A lb e rt (1856-1935), 150 Guandingjing. See Consecration Sūtra

Guanfo sanmei hai jing (*Buddhānusmṛti samādhisāgara sūtra), 33n9 G u a n s h iy in p u sa . See A v a lo k ite śv ara B o d h isa ttv a

Guanzhong chuangli jietan tujing, 137021,

138-39

5-6

figG u a z h o u (G u a P re fe c tu re ), 1 6 5 -6 8 ,1 7 0 -7 1 ta b le 4 G u g e, 1 9 6 -9 8 , 210 G u iy iju n . See R e tu rn in g to R ig h te o u sn e ss A rm y guizhong (th o se w h o ta k e re fu g e in th e b e ll),

142024 G u lu si, 159 G o p a b h a d r a ( Q iu n a b a tu o lu o , 3 9 4 - 4 6 8 ) , 33117, 62n28 G u ṇ a p r a b h a (s ix th -c e n tu ry ? ), 66, 661143 G u p ta d y n a sty , 43, 79, 81,102 H a ll o f B e n z u n (B e n z u n d ia n ), 228, 2281110 H a rise n a , 87 H a y ag rlv a , 2161127 Heart Sūtra, 169 h eav en s. See p a th s o f r e b irth H e d in , S ven (1865-1952), 150 hells, 92; d e p ic te d a t B a o d in g s h a n , 2 2 7ns, 229, 237; in B u d d h is t co sm o lo g y , 38; illu s tra te d in C h in a , 126-27; illu s tra te d in th e Scrip­ ture on the Ten Kings, 179 fig. 7.5,181 fig. 7.6, 242; M a u d g a ly ā y a n a in , 53-54, 56-57,126, 163,1 8 0 -8 2 ,1 8 3 fig. 7.7,184 fig. 7.8, 2 4 0 - 4 2 , 259, 2 6 3 -6 4 , 268. See also p a th s o f r e b ir th H e rtz , R o b e rt, 266 ITexi C o r r id o r , 142,165-6 8 ,1 8 2 ,1 8 5 ,1 8 7 , 258 H in d u is m , 6, 34, 57, 81, 8 4 ,102, 214 H o p k in s , Jeffrey, 38 h o s ts o f d e a th (sizhong), 65 H o w a rd , A ngela, 130, 250 h u m a n s . See p a th s o f r e b ir th h u n g r y g h o sts. See p a th s o f re b irth H y e -c ’o (7 0 4 - c a . 780), 149 -5 0

Illustrated Scripture on Jetavana Monastery in Śrāvastī in Central India (Zhong Tianzhu Sheweiguo Qihuansi tujing), 1 3 6 -4 2 Illu s tr a tio n o f th e B in d in g o f th e M o n k e y o f th e M in d a n d L o ck in g u p th e Six S o u rc e s o f W a s te (F u x in y u a n s u o liu h a o t u ) , 231 I llu s tra tio n o f th e T en R ealm s o f M in d C o n -

te m p la tio n (K a n sh in ju k a i z u ), 246, 247 fig. 10.3, 248 fig. 10.4 im p e r m a n e n c e ( anitya ), 3, 33, 61, 64, 79, 233. See also T h re e M a rk s In d ia , x , 34, 4 2 -4 3 , 44, 6 3 ,1 0 5 ,1 7 0 -7 1 ta b le 4; B u d d h is m in , 4 -5 , 27, 31, 5 0 -5 2 , 62, 64, 1 0 5 -6 ,1 9 6 ,1 9 9 ; flu id b o u n d a r ie s of, xii, 4 3 - 49; lite ra c y in , 40; m a p o f ca. 500, 80; “M id d le P e r io d ” re lig io n of, 101-2; vinaya in , 26, 50, 52; w h eel o f r e b irth in , chap. 3 I n d ia n iz a tio n , 42 In d r a , 81, 93, 94,151; h e a v e n of, 93 Instructions on Temples (Si gao), 138-39 in te r m e d ia te e x isten ce, sta te o f ( antarbhava, C h .: zhongyou), 74-75

K u c h a, 44, 52, 79,105,146-51,157,159,161, 249, 250119 K u m ā ra jīv a ( J iu m o lu o s h i, 3 5 0 -4 0 9 ), 1241111,

J a m b u d v īp a ( s o u th e r n c o n tin e n t) , 55, 59, 95, 206. See also F o u r C o n tin e n ts J a p a n , x , xii, 26, 53n, 2 4 0 -4 1 , 2 4 6 -4 8 Jātakamāla, 8 5 -8 6 Jātak a tales, 130,151-52, 263 Java (In d o n e s ia ), 105,199 Je ta v a n a m o n a s te ry : a c c o rd in g to D a o x u a n , 1 3 6 -4 2

lack o f so u l (anātman), 64. See also T h re e M a rk s la n d o f bliss. See p u r e la n d L au fer, B e rth o ld (1874-1934), 16 L each, E d m u n d , 266 Le C o q , A lb e rt v o n (1860-1930), 150 Legend of King Aśoka (Aśokāvadāna), 6 5 66, 93 L h a -ld e (r. 1000-1025?), 1 9 8 -9 9 L ian g W u d i (r. 50 2 -5 5 0 ), 232

Jin g ’ai (5 34-578), 127,1271114

Jiucheng yu jing, 621128 J u n g , C arl G u sta v , 204, 206

Kaiyuan shijiao hi. See Catalogue of the Bud­ dhist Teachings during the Kaiyuan Era kalydnamitras. See m e n to r s K a m alaśīla , 195 K a n h e rī (M a h a ra s h tra ), 81, 99, 991138 K a n th a k a , 131 karma ( a c tio n ), 4, 6, 27, 39, 7 4 -7 5 ,1 0 1 ,1 0 8 , 117-18,124,125,127,196, 220, 270 karmadāna (a ssig n e r o f d u tie s ), 149 k a r m a m ir r o r . See M ir r o r o f D e ed s karmavācanā, 73 K āśy ap a, 4, 22m I< ātyāyana (C h .: J ia d u o y a n n a ), 109-10,113, 114,116 ’K h o r - r e (ca. 959-1036?, r. 975-985?). See Y e -sh e s-’o d K h o sla , R o m i, 256 K h ri S tr o n g - ld e ’u - b ts a n (756-797?), 195 Kim, ix -x ii, 24 Icing o f ascetics (mūlarāja), 84 K ip lin g , R u d y a rd , ix -x ii, 24, 26114 K izil, 52,105,150,151,157,184, 250; C ave 83,110, 110116,111 fig. 4.3; C ave 175, 249 fig. 10.5 (c o sm o lo g ic a l B u d d h a ), 2 4 9 -5 2 K lim b u rg -S a lte r, D e b o ra h , 200, 2 0 6 - 8 , 214 K ṣ itig a rb h a B o d h is a ttv a (D iz a n g p u s a ), 156, 1561112,180-82, 210, 2 4 3 -4 6 K s m e n d ra (e le v e n th c e n tu ry ), 105112 Ksudrakavastu. See Miscellaneous Mailers

M 7.1911132 K n m tu r a (X in jia n g , C h in a ), c h ap . 6, 220, 237, 249 C ave 20: p la n of, 152 fig. 6.1 C ave 45,153 C ave 75,153,154 fig. 6.3; d o n o r s of, 146,156, 158-60; h u n g r y g h o sts in , 155 fig. 6.4; s t r u c tu r e of, 153-54,160; w all p a in tin g o f m e d ita tin g m o n k , 28 pi. 9 ,1 4 6 ,1 5 5 — 62, 243, 258; w heels o f re b irth in , 29 pi. 10, 44, 6 1 ,1 4 6 ,1 6 0 -6 2 , 2 4 2 -4 3 , 256, 258, 263, 270 C ave 78: D a o x iu ’s n a m e in , i5 9 m 8

Liaoben shengsi jing (Scripture on Understand­ ing the Fundamentals of Birth and Death). See Rice-Seedling Scripture L iao d y n a sty , 48,168

Lidai minghuaji, i27ni5 lines, 239 -5 4 L in g y o u (518-605), 138 L iu B e n z u n (8 4 4 -9 0 7 ), 48, 222-29, 232> 237; a u ste ritie s of, 225-28 L iu -S o n g d y n a sty ( 4 2 0 -4 7 9 ), 43,123 L iu T ia n r e n , 227 L o rd o f D e a th (g S h in -rje ), 11. L o san g S a m te n (b. 1953), 23 Lotus Sūtra, 1241111,169 L u o y an g , 44,127,147 M ādhyam il< a, 196 M a h ā k ā ty ā y a n a . See K āty āy an a Mahānidāna sīmanta, 621128 M a h ā s ā ṃ g h ik a v in ay a . See u n d e r vinaya M a h ā s th ā m a p r ā p ta B o d h isa ttv a (D a sh iz h i p u s a ), 123,1241111,125,128,174, 209 M a h ā v a iro c a n a . See V a iro c a n a

Mahāvairocana Sūtra (Dapiluzhena chengfo shenbian jiachi jing): v isu a liz a tio n s in, 156-58,157 ta b le 3,1 6 0

Mahāyāna Scripture on Previous Lives and the Contemplation of the Stages of M ind­ fulness (Dasheng bensheng xindi guan jing),

33

» 33n8 M a h īśā sa k a vin ay a. See u n d e r

vinaya Index 313

Maitrāyanīya Upanipad, 4.n M a itre y a , 126,15 2 ,1 6 9 ,1 7 0 -7 1 tab le 4, 225, 232, 238, 244, 252; d e p ic te d in th e w h e el o f r e b ir th , 15; p a ra d ise of, 142,143,186. See also T h re e B u d d h a s mardala, 2 3 -2 4 , 25 pi. 7, 34,157,158,199, 204, 214, 237, 2 6 8 -6 9 . See also D ia m o n d R ealm m a r d a la M a ñ ju ś r ī B o d h isa ttv a (W e n s h u p u s a ), 170-71 ta b le 4,175, i nn> 205. See also T h re e Sages o f H uayan mantras. See spells M ā ra , 102; d e fe a t of, 130,151, 250; a n d th e w h e el o f r e b ir th , 79, 99 M a rīc i, 58,169 M a S h ic h a n g , 187 M a u d g a ly ā y a n a , 66, 77, 79,175,192, 2181131, 260, 270; a sso c ia te d w ith filial p iety , 58; d e p ic te d in th e w h eel o f r e b ir th , 12; p re a c h in g o n th e p a th s o f r e b irth , 26-27, 5 3 -5 6 , 60, 72, 78,119,163, 239, 255, 266, 270; s p iritu a l p o w e rs of, 57-59; t o u r o f hell, 53-54. 5 6 -5 7 .1 2 6 ,1 6 3 ,1 8 0 -8 2 ,1 8 3 fig. 7.7, 184 fig. 7.8, 2 4 0 - 4 2 , 259, 2 6 3 -6 4 , 268 m e d ita tio n , xi, 57, 81,180, 220; d e p ic te d at B a o d in g s h a n , 229, 231-32; d e p ic te d in K u m tu r a C ave 75, 28 pi. 9 ,1 4 6 ,1 5 5 -6 2 , 243, 258 M ei L in , 180-83 m e m o r ia l caves (yingku), 153 m e n to r s ( k a ly d n a m itr a s ), 205 m e r it, xi, 70, 7 5 -7 6 , 84, 8 6 -8 7 ,1 9 1 .1 9 6 , 204, 208, 210, 212, 257-58, 270

75

Miaofa lia n h u a jing (Saddharmapuṇḍarīka). See Lotus Sūtra M ilia n g V illage, 227, 227117 M im o u ( o r M im e n g ) , 22211, 223 m in d o n ly ( weixin), 231 Mingxiangji. See Collection of Auspicious

Maudgalydyana Saving His Mother m o ra lity , 2 6 6 -7 0 M o u n t S u m e ru , 93, 94,131,155,175, 243 m T h o - ld in g (T h o lin g in th e G u g e re g io n ), 1 9 8 -9 9 , 210, 214, 218 mudrā, 200. See also samādhi mudrā; varāda

mudrā Mūlasarvāstivāda bhaisajyavastu. See Genbenshuoyiqieyoubu pinaiye yaoshi Mūlasarvāstivāda prātimokṣa sūtra. See Genbensh uoyiqieyoubu jie jing Mūlasarvāstivāda pravrajydvastu. See Genbenshuoyiqieyoubu pinaiye chujia shi Mūlasarvāstivāda samghabhedakavastu. See Genbenshuoyiqieyoubu pinaiye poseng shi M ū la sa rv ā stiv ā d a sect (G e n b e n s h u o y iq ie ­ y o u b u ) , 27, 50; in re la tio n to th e S a rv ā ­ stiv ād a , 5on, 74-75 M ū la sa rv ā stiv ā d a vinaya. See u n d e r vinaya Mūlasarvāstivāda vinaya ksudrakavastu. See

Miscellaneous Matters Mūlasarvāstivāda vinaya vibhanga. See Analy­ sis of the Vinaya o f the Mūlasarvāstivāda Signs

from the Dark World M in g z o n g (r. 9 2 6 -9 3 4 ), 223, 228 m ira c le tales (o r re c o rd in g a n o m a lie s , C h.: zhiguai), 121,123 M ir r o r o f D e e d s (o r k a r m a m ir r o r , yejing), 180 Miscellaneous Matters (Ksudrakavastu, C h.: Zashi), 641137, 74, 7 4 n n 5 3 -5 4 , 93027,101. See also u n d e r vinaya M o g a o ( D u n h u a n g , G a n s u ), 4 ,1 6 5 -6 8 ,1 7 5 , 186-87,191; C ave 5,170-71 tab le 4; C ave 25, 170-71 ta b le 4; C ave 3 8 ,170-71 tab le 4; C ave 5 3 .1 7 0 - 71 ta b le 4; C ave 55,170-71 tab le 4; C av e 61,170-71 tab le 4; C ave 9 4 ,1 6 8 ,1 8 7 91; C av e 9 6 ,1 6 8 ,1 7 0 -7 1 ta b le 4; C ave 98, 170-71 ta b le 4,187,188 fig. 7.11 (s tru c tu ra l d ia g ra m ); C ave 100,170-71 tab le 4; C ave 1 2 3 .1 7 0 - 71 ta b le 4; C ave 124,170-71 tab le 4; C av e 125,170-71 tab le 4; C av e 146,144 fig. 5.9 (B h a is a jy a g u ru p a ra d is e ); C ave 158, 4

314 Index

fig. 1.1 ( parim lāna ), 5 fig. 1.2 ( parimlāna)', C ave 1 9 6 ,1 7 6 -7 7 fig. 7.3 ( Ś ā rip u tra a n d R a u d rā k ṣ a ); C ave 2 2 0 ,170-71 tab le 4; C ave 231,126; C ave 256,170-71 ta b le 4; C ave 285, 185 fig. 7.9 ( s tr u c tu r a l d ia g ra m ); C ave 326, 186 fig. 7.10 (s tru c tu ra l d ia g ra m ); C ave 387, 170-71 ta b le 4; C ave 412,170-71 ta b le 4; C ave 423,143 fig. 5.8 (sk etch o f B u d d h a hall in M a itre y a p a ra d ise ); C ave 427,170-71 tab le 4; C ave 428,130-31,132 fig. 5.2 (c o s ­ m o lo g ic a l B u d d h a ), 133 fig. 5.3 (c o s m o lo g i­ cal B u d d h a ); C ave 4 6 9 ,1 7 0 -7 1 ta b le 4 M o h e y a n , 195 Mokuren kyfibo kyo. See Scripture on

M ü lle r, F. W . IC„ 151 M u s e e G u im e t: E O 3580 (K ṣ itig a rb h a a n d th e p u r e la n d ), 245 fig. 10.2; n o . 16541 ( B u d d h a p o s in g fo r a p o r tr a it) , 107 fig. 4.1; n o . 17673 ( A m itā b h a ^ p u r e la n d ), 129 fig. 5.1 M u s, P a u l, 254 N a -g a ra -ts a (N ā g a rā ja ), 196 N ā g ā rju n a (se c o n d c e n tu ry ), 2 6 ,196 nāgas (s e rp e n tlik e c re a tu re s ), 7 -8 ,1 2 0 ,1 3 1 ,1 7 5 , 216 N ā la n d ā , 102 N e u m a n n , H e lm u t, 218 Nidāna vagga, 621128 N ik ā y as (C o lle c tio n s), 34, 621128, 65, 65040, 951132 N in g Q ia n g , 173 nirvāda ( e x tin c tio n ), 4,12, 5 9 - 6 0 , 64, 65, 102, 212, 232, 238, 267; as d is tin c t fro m th e p a th s o f r e b ir th , 3,13,131, 252, 254; in th e R u d rā y a n a sto ry , 104,109,112,117; s y m b o l-

ized i n th e w h e el o f r e b ir th , 56, 66, 71, 99, 234, 269 n o n - r e t u r n e r ( anāgāmi), 59, 79. See also F o u r F ru its n o r t h e r n c o n tin e n t. See U tta r a k u r u N o r th e r n W ei d y n a sty (3 86-534), 44,130 ’O d - ld e (r. ca. 1 025-1060), 199 o n c e - r e tu r n e r ( sakrdāgāmi), 5 9 ,7 9 . See also F o u r F ru its O n e T h o u s a n d B u d d h a s, 210, 218 o th e r sh o re ( bi’an, pārimamtīram), 65 O w e n , L isa, 84 P a d - m a ’i-s d o n g -p o . See P e d o n g p o P a d m a s a m b h a v a ( P a d m a - ’b y u n g -g n a s ), 195 P a d -s d o n g -p o . See P e d o n g p o P a n Y u sh an , 187 parinirvāna, 206; d e p ic te d a t B a o d in g s h a n , 221, 222 fig. 9.1, 223 fig. 9.2, 229; d e p ic te d a t K izil, 250, 2501110; d e p ic te d a t K u m tu r a , 152; d e p ic te d in M o g a o C ave 158, 4 fig. 1.1, 5 fig. 1.2; d e p ic te d in M o g a o C ave 428,130 p a th s o f re b irth , 127,131, 242, 252-54, 269 n u m b e r in g five, 6, 31, 54, 5 9 -6 0 , 69, 71, 74, 125, 139> 242; d e p ic te d in e ig h t se g m e n ts in th e w h e el o f re b ir th , 94, 9 7 -9 8 , 2 4 2 43; in K u m tu ra C ave 75,146,161, 2 4 2 43; in th e R u d rā y a n a sto iy , 107 n u m b e r in g six, 6, 8 ,1 0 -1 3 ,1 5 -1 6 , 27, 33, 38, 40, 267; a t B a o d in g s h a n , 232, 246; d e p ic te d o n th e c o sm o lo g ic al B u d d h a , 130; e m a n a tin g fro m K ṣ itig a rb h a B o d ­ h is a ttv a , 156, 2 4 4 -4 5 ; in illu s tra tio n s o f th e T en R ealm s, 246; in K u m tu r a C ave 75,146,155,158,161; a t P e d o n g p o , 218; a t T ab o , 214; in Y ulin C ave 19,163, 178 p a tr o n ( s ) . See d o n o r ( s ) P au ly , B e rn a rd , 79 pāpāntikā (or payattika, C h.: poyidijia), 67, 671145 P e d o n g p o , 64; w heel o f r e b ir t h at, 31 pi. 13, 61, 218, 219 fig. 8.9 P e llio t, P a u l, 79 P e llio t m a n u s c rip ts : n o . 2762,189024; n o . 3451, 26511 p e rfe c tio n o f w isd o m (prajñāpāramitā ), 199 p ic tu r e e x p la in e rs (Ja.: etoki), 2 6 ,1 0 0 p ic tu re s : in Kim, x - x i p ilg rim a g e , 205, 221, 227-29, 232, 237-38, 2 5 9 -6 0 P in sk y , R o b e rt, 255 prajñāpāramitā. See p e rfe c tio n o f w isd o m P ra se n a jit, K in g , 174 pratimokṣa (e m a n c ip a tio n ) , 51, 6 6 -6 7 , 73 pratltyasamutpada. See d e p e n d e n t o rig in a tio n pratyekabuddha, 9 4 ,137-38, 246; in th e M ū la ­

sa rv āstiv ā d a pratimoksa, 70; in th e R u d rā y a n a sto iy , 114-15; s la n d e re d , 72, 77 P rin c e o f S hu (S h u w a n g ). See W a n g Jian (847-918) P rz y lu sk i, Jean , 9 3 -9 4 P u ra n g , 1 9 6 -9 9 p u r e la n d , 1 2 5 -2 6 ,1 2 7 -3 0 ,1 4 2 ,1 5 2 -5 3 ,1 7 3 -7 4 , 206, 2 0 9 -1 0 , 244, 257, 268; d e p ic te d in th e w heel o f re b irth , 21 P ū rv a v id e h a (e a ste rn c o n tin e n t) , 95. See also F o u r C o n tin e n ts Pusa yingluo jing, 124m l P u sy a (C il.: B u sa), n o , 113 P u x ia n p u sa . See S a m a n ta b h a d ra B o d h isa ttv a

Qishijing, 951132, 9711. See also Sūtra on the Arising of the World Qishi yinben jing, 951132. See also Sūtra on the Arising o f the World Q o c o (G a o c h a n g , X in jia n g ), 44,147,150 R ā h u la , 86 R ā ja g rh a, 53, 57, 68, 69, 71,105,108, n o , 112 raha ( d e m o n ) , 55, 79, 9 8 -9 9 R a lp h , V īr., 8 8 -8 9 R a tn a s a m b h a v a , 200 R a u d rā k ṣ a , 174 -7 5 ,1 7 6 -7 7 fig. 7.3 r D o - r jc - c h e n - m o (Skt.: M a h ā v a jra D ev i), 2 0 6 -9 , 214, 217 re b irth . See samsāra re c o rd in g a n o m a lie s. See m ira c le tales

Record of Famous Painters of the Tang Dynasty (Tangchao minghua hr, e ig h th c e n tu ry ), 145 R e c o rd o f th e R e p a ir o f th e C lo is te r o f th e Sagely a n d L o n g -L iv ed a t B a o d in g s h a n (C h o n g x iu B a o d in g s h a n S h e n g s h o u y u a n ji), 227-28 r e in c a r n a tio n . See samsāra r e n u n c ia tio n (chidi, naiskramya), 12,39, 56, 56ni5, 65,116 R e tu r n in g to R ig h te o u sn e ss A rm y (G u iy iju n ), 167,170-71 ta b le 4

Rice-Seedling Scripture (Liaoben shengsi jing [Scripture on Understanding the Fundamen­ tals of Birth and Deathj, Śālistambhaka sūtra), 62, 62n26 R in - c h e n - b z a n g - p o (958-1055?), 197-99, 202, 2 0 4 ,2 0 8 R o ru k a , 104,105,108,113-17 R u b in M u s e u m o f A rt: ite m n o . 591, acc. n o . F1997.40.10 (w h e el o f r e b ir th ) , 17 pi. 3; ite m n o . 65356 (w h eel o f r e b ir th ) , ii pi. 1, 7 fig. 1.3, 8 fig. 1.4, 9 fig. - » 12-13 fig R u b in , Shelley a n d D o n a ld : ite m n o . 78, acc. n o . P1994.3.6 (w h eel o f r e b ir th ) , 2 pi. 2 ,1 4

15

1-6

fig. 1.7,15 fig - 1-8 R u d ra y a n a , K in g (vār.: U d rā y a n a , C h.: X ia n d a o o r Y o u tu o x ia n ), 26116, c h ap . 4, 220, 256

Index 315

S a d a k a n e K eiji, 9 4 - 9 9 S a d d h a r m a p u n d a r ik a . See L o tu s S ū tr a

S a h a so d g a ta (S u d d e n ly A rise n ), 691148, 77. S e e a lso B irth o f G o o d ; B o rn in P o v e rty Ś ā k y a m u n i (h isto ric a l B u d d h a ), 3, 4, 26, 60, 6 2 ,1 2 8 ,1 8 9 , 244, 253-54; d e fe a t o f M ā ra , 130; d e p ic te d in th e w h e el o f re b irth , 6, 7, 8 ,1 2 ,1 3 -1 4 ,1 5 ,1 6 , 61, 79,116, 252, 2 6 7 -68; im a g e s o f a t A ja n ta , 84, 86, 94,1 0 1 ,1 0 3 fig. 3.8; im a g e s o f a t B a o d in g s h a n , 221, 222 fig. 9.1, 229, 237-38; im a g e s o f i n Kiz.il C ave 175, 2 50-52; im a g e s o f at K u n d u r a , 151; im ag es o f a t T ab o , 2 0 5 -6 , 209, 213 fig. 8.7, 2161128; in s tr u c tio n s fo r p a in tin g th e w h e el o f r e b ir th , 12, 26-27, 6 0 - 6 6 , 72,121, 212, 214, 239> 255, 2.60, 261-62, 269; in K i m , ix; in M o g a o C ave 428,130-31; in th e R u d ra y a n a sto ry , 1 0 4 ,1 0 5 -9 ,1 1 4 —15> 116-19, 220, sm ile of, 66; s y m b o liz e d b y th e w heel o f D h a rm a , 35; in Y ulin C av e 19,173. S e e a lso c o s m o lo g ­ ical B u d d h a ; T h re e B u d d h a s Ś ā lis ta m b h a k a s ū tr a . See R ic e -S e e d lin g S c r ip tu r e s a m ā d h i m u d r ā , 209

S a m a n ta b h a d r a B o d h isa ttv a (P u x ia n p u s a ), 1 75,1751m, 205. S ee a lso T h re e Sages o f H uayan sān u sā ra (to u n d e r g o tr a n s m ig r a tio n ) , 3, 4 ,11, 31, 204, 211, 217, 230, 232, 236, 238; as illu s­ t r a te d b y th e w h eel o f r e b ir th , 6, 61, 222, 254, 2 6 9 -7 0 ; m e ta p h o rs for, 33; release fro m , 12, 40 , 65,118-19, 231, 244; r e p re ­ s e n te d b y a w h eel, 31, 33-34, 252 s a m s ā r a c a k r a . S e e w h eel o f r e b ir th S a m y u k td g a m a . See B ie z a a h a n jin g ; Z a a h a n jin g S a m y u t l a - N i k a y a , 621128

S a n sk rit seed syllables; d e p ic te d in th e w h eel o f r e b ir th , 21 Ś ā n ta ra k s ita ( Z h i- b a - ’ts h o ) , 195 S a n z h o n g x i d i p o d iy u z h u a n y e z h a n g c h u s a n jie m i n d l u o l u o n i f a , 226-27115

Ś ā rip u tra , 57, 78,165, U4~75> 176-77 fig- 7-3 S ā r n ā th ( U tta r P ra d e s h ), 35,102 S ā rn ā th M u s e u m : lio n sc u lp tu re , 36 fig. 1.14 S a rv ā stiv ā d a sect, 27, 95,147,161, 243; in re la tio n to th e M ū la sa rv ā stiv ā d a , 5011,

74-75 S a rv ā stiv ā d a v inaya. See u n d e r v in a y a S a r v a t a th ā g a t a - t a t t v a s a ṃ g r a h a , 202, 204 S ch lin g lo ff, D ie te r, 158 S c h o p e n , G re g o ry , 84,101 S c r ip tu r e o f th e B u d d h a s ’ N a m e s { h o m in g j i n g ) ,

170-71 ta b le 4 S c r ip tu r e o f th e G o d A s k in g Q u e s tio n s ( T ia n q i n g w e n j i n g ) , 173 -74 S c r ip tu r e o n M a u d g a ly d y a n a S a v in g H is M o th e r ( M o k u r e n k y iib o k y o ), 2 4 0 -4 1

316 Index

S c r ip tu r e o n P r o lo n g in g L ife ( Y a n s h o u m in g j i n g ) , 170-71 ta b le 4 S c r ip tu r e o n R e p a y in g K in d n e s s ( B a o ’e n j i n g ) ,

173 S c r ip tu r e o n th e T e n K in g s { S h iw a n g jin g ) , 179;

c o u r ts o f hell illu s tra te d in , 179 fig. 7.5,181 fig. 7.6, 242 Seven B u d d h a s o f th e P a st, 2 4 9 -5 0 Seven R are Jew els ( q iz h e n ), 189,191 S ha C re e k (S h ax i), 227, 227117 S h a z h o u (S h a P re fe c tu re ), 1 6 5 -6 8 ,1 7 0 -7 1 ta b le 4, 2 6 4 -6 5 sh e n g si (b irth a n d d e a th ). S e e sa m sā ra s h e n g si lu n . S ee w h e el o f r e b ir th S h iji jin g , 95032. See also S ū tr a o n th e A r is in g o f th e W o r ld S h is h iy a o la n . See F u n d a m e n ta l O b s e r v a tio n s o n th e Ś ā k y a C la n S h is o n g lū . See u n d e r v in a y a S h i w a n g jin g . See S c r ip tu r e o n th e T e n K in g s S h o z o e n ’y ii s a n d a i z u s e ts u , 246117

S ic h u a n , 48, 61,121,126, ch ap . 9, m a p o f ca. 1250, 224, 2 6 4 -6 5 S ife n lū . See u n d e r v in a y a S i g a o . See In s tr u c tio n s o n T e m p le s S ik h a n d i, K in g (C h .: D in g ji), 104,112-13, 115-16 Ś ik sā n a n d a (652-710), 52, 2440 S ilk R o a d , 147,196, 249 S i m h a lā v a d ā n a , 101 S in ific a tio n , 43 S ita j i . See A c c o u n t o f'T e m p le s a n d P a g o d a s S itā ta p a tra : d e p ic te d in th e w heel o f re b irth , 16 Six B a n d its ( liu z e i). S e e six senses Six P a th s o f r e b irth . S ee p a th s o f r e b ir th Six P e rfe c tio n s ( s a lp ā r a m itā ) , 123113,174 six senses, 231 Six S o u rc e s o f W aste . S e e six sen ses s k a n d h a k a , 73 S n ellg ro v e, D a v id , 63 S o m e n d ra (e le v e n th c e n tu ry ), i0 5 n 2 S o m e rs, R o b e rt, 237 S o n g d y n a sty , 121 ,1 4 2 ,1 6 5 -6 8 ,1 7 0 -7 1 tab le 4, 227-29, 237, 262 S o n g g a o se n g z h u a n , 5103 s o te rio lo g y , 15-16,39, 59, 60, 72, 79, 254; in th e R u d ra y a n a leg e n d , 110,116-17 S o u th e a s t A sia, x, xii, 51, 2291114 s o u th e r n c o n tin e n t. S ee Ja m b u d v īp a spells ( d h ā r a n īs a n d m a n tr a s ) , 223,226,226-27115,

237 S p in k , W a lte r, 8 9 -9 1 s p ir itu a l feet ( r ā d h i p ā d ā t i , s h e n z u ) , 57 Ś r a d d h ā k a ra v a rm a n , 1 9 8 -9 9 Ś rāv astī, 31, 7 4,101,136,174 Ś rīm itra (B o S h ilim id u o lu o , ca. 307-342),

7

M S te in k e lln e r, E rn st, 205

Stein m anuscripts: no. 3329,1891124; no. 6161, 1891124; no. 6973,189024 stream -enterer ( śrotāpati ), 58, 59, 6 9 -7 0 , 79, 109, n o , 119. See also F o u r F ru its S trong-btsan-sgam -po (d. 649), 195 Strong-nge (r. 985-1000?), 196 Subhakarasim ha (Shanwuwei, ca. 716-735), 1561114, 226, 22705 Sudatta. See A n ā th a p iṇ ḍ ika Sudhana (T ib .: N o r-b z a n g ), 205-6, 209, 2i6n28, 220 su ffe rin g ( duhkhci ), 38, 64. See also paths o f re b irth ; sātisāra; Three M arks Sui dynasty (581-618), 131,143,167,185 sukhāvatī. See pure land Sum atra, 52 S um iyoshi Shrine, 246 Sūtra on the A rising o f the W orld ( *Loka upapatti sūtra), 94-95 Suzuki, D. T. (1870-1966), 37-38 Tabo: design o f m ain tem ple, 200-201, 209-10, 212, 216-17; donors of, 204, 210-12, 216-18, 237; M ahāvairocana statue at, 203 fig. 8.4; w a ll p a in tin g o f Buddha and verses, 213 fig. 8.7; w a ll p a in tin g o f deities o f V a jra d hā trī m a rd a la , 202 fig. 8.3; wall p a in tin g o f rD o rje -c h e n -m o , 207 fig. 8.5; w a ll p a in tin g o f red deity, 30 pi. 12; w a ll p a in tin g o f spon­ sors, 211 fig. 8.6; w a ll p a in tin g o f Ye-shes’od and Devarāja, 198 fig. 8.1; wheel o f re b irth at, 44, chap. 8, 221, 243, 259, 263, 270 Taklam akan Desert, 147,165 ta m in g o f the ox, 229 Tangchao m inghua hi. See Record o f Famous

Painters o f the Tang D ynasty Tang dynasty (618-907), 4, 4 fig. 1.1, 5 fig. 1.2, 44, 52, 641136,120,126-28,136,138,142, 1421124,145,147,150,165-67,173,185-86, 190, 221, 225, 236-37, 256, 258, 264; m ap of, 122 T a n tric B u d d h ism , 48,130,152-53,162, chap. 8, 229 T a rim Basin, 4 3 -4 4 ,1 4 6 -4 9 tem ple design, 40; according to D a o xu a n ’s pla n fo r the Jetavana m onastery, 136-42; e v o lu tio n o f in C hina, 143-45,184-88; at K u m tu ra , 151-54,160; at Tabo, 200-201, 209-10, 212, 216-17; T ibetan, 48; at Y ulin, i 63> i73-75>

191-92

Ten Acts o f R e fin ing ( shilian ). See under L iu B enzun Ten Evil Deeds ( shi’e, daśākuśala), 54n9 Ten Kings o f H ell, 244 Ten Precepts, 191 Ten Reahns, 246, 247 fig. 10.3, 248 fig. 10.4, 254 Ten V irtu e s, 189,191 T enzin Gyatso. See Dalai Lam a

Teshoo Lama, ix - x i Theragātha , 65, 6 5 ^ 0 Three Bodies o f the B uddha, 189,190029, 2081116 Three Buddhas o f the past (D īp a m ka ra ), present (Sakyamuni), and fu tu re (M aitreya), 222, 234, 264 Three Certainties ( sanjian ), 189,191 Three Jewels, 35, 54, 58, 59, 70, 87,107,116-17, 121,139,195 Three M arks ( trilaksana ), 64. See also im p e r­ manence; lack o f soul; suffering Three Poisons ( sandī!, tridoṣāpaha), 11,13,16, 551113, 61,146,160, 218, 232, 252, 253 Three Refuges, 106,116,138 Three Sages o f H uayan (H uayan Sansheng), 237 Three Sym bols ( sanzhongxing ). See Three Poisons Three Vehicles {sansheng), 137,1371122 T hus Com e O ne (Tathāgata). See B uddha Tian qingwen jing. See Scripture o f the God

A sking Questions T ia n xiza i (fl. 980-1000). See Faxian T ib e t, xii, 38, 259; b u ria l custom of, 15,19; flu id boundaries of, x ii, 4 3 -4 9 ; in flue n ce in the Flexi C o rrid o r, 165-67; influence on K u m ­ tura, 146,150,152; Icings of, 197 table 5; m ap o f in eleventh century, 194; vinaya in , 51, 52-53, 76, 78, 262; wheel o f re b irth in , ii pi. 1, x, 2 pi. 2, chap. 1, 61, 64, chap. 8, 269 Tisya (Ch.: Diśā), n o , 113 tra n s fo rm a tio n scenes ( bianxiang ), 126,189 tra n s fo rm a tio n texts ( bianw en ), 17411,182, 240, 264 T ru n g p a, Chogyam , 39 Tso Szebong, 52, 262 Tucci, Giuseppe, 200, 202, 204 T urfa n , 52,147,159 Tusita Heaven, 142, 205 Twelve C o n d itio n s o r U n d e rly in g Factors ( nidānas ). See dependent o rig in a tio n T w o T ru th s, 38

Udānavarga. See Dharmapāda Udrāyana. See Rudrāyana U ig h u rs, 44,158-59,162,168,170-71 table 4, 258, 264; influence in the ITexi C o rrid o r, 165,167; influence on K u m tu ra , 146,150,

153-55 U pagupta, 102 Upanisads, 4n, 63 U pendragupta, 87 ūrnākeśa, 230 Usnlsavijaya: depicted in the wheel o f re b irth , 16 U tta ra k u ru (n o rth e rn co n tin e n t, P to le m y’s O tto ro k o rra ), 95-97. See also F ou r C o n tin en ts

Index 317

Vaidehi, Queen, 128 Vairocana, 130,152,193,199-200, 203 fig. 8.4, 204, 208-10, 2 io n i8 , 212, 217, 219-20; depicted at Baodingshan, 225, 229, 230, 238. S ee a lso Three Sages o f H uayan Vaiśravana (Bisham en), 170-71 table 4 V a jra b od h i (662-732), 149 V ajradhara: depicted in the wheel o f re b irth , 16 V a jra d hā trī m andala. S ee D ia m o n d Realm m andala V ajrapāni, 2161127 Vajrasattva Bodhisattva, 21 o m 8 Vākātaka em pire, 43, 79-81, 87,102, 257 Van G ennep, A rn o ld , 266 v a r a d a m u d r ā , 212 Vasudhāra: depicted in the wheel o f re b irth , 16 V a s u m itra (fo u r th ce n tury), 260 V erses o n th e L a w . See D h a r m a p ā d a Vidyārājas (M in g w a n g ), 229 v ig o r ( j i n g j i n , Skt.: v lr y a ), 123113,124 v ih ā r a s (residence halls fo r monies), 99,163, 184-85; at A jantā, 82-87, 88, 94,100-101, 102, 256, 270 V im a la k īr ti S ū tr a ( W e im o jie s u o s h u o j i n g ) ,

191032 v in a y a , 26, 31, 50-52,101,116

o f the D harm a g u p ta sect ( S h is o iig lū ) , 51, 52,120, 261 o f the M ahāsāṃ ghika sect, 52, 261 o f the M ahīśāsaka sect, 52, 261 o f the M ūlasarvāstivāda sect, 27, 50-51, 64, 73-74, 76,101; com pared w ith the D iv y d v a d ā n a , 77-78, 77n2; E ig h t D iffic u ltie s in , 93, 93027; in Chinese translation, 5 0 - 51, 52, 78; in T ib e ta n tran sla tio n , 51, 52-53; p r a tim o k ṣ a of, 66-67; Rudrāyana sto ry in , chap. 4; wheel o f re b irth o rig in m y th in , 26-27, chap. 2, 86, 99-100,121, 127,161, i6 in 2 0 , 163,179-82, 212, 214, 221, 238,255-56, 260, 261-64, 266, 269. See also A d h ik a r a n a v a s tu o f the Sarvāstivāda sect (Ch.: S ife n Hi), 51- 52, 261 V in a y a s U tr a , 66n43 V in a y a v i h im ā g a . See A n a ly s is o f th e V in a y a o f th e M ū la s a r v ā s tiv ā d a V iś v ā n ta r a jā t a k a , 101

voice-hearer ( ś r ā v a k a ), 94 W a d d e ll, L. Augustine, 94, 269 W ang, Eugene, 257 W ang Jian (847-918), 225, 237 W a n g Q iu , 121,123,125-26 W a n g W e i, i9 o n 3 i W a n g W u t ia n z h u g u o z lu ta n , 14911 W a n g Yan (ca. 454-501), 121,125, 256

318 Index

W eigan River, 150,151,153 W e im o jie s u o s h u o jin g . See V im a la k īr ti S ū tr a W enshu pusa. S e e M a ñ ju ś rī Bodhisattva western co n tin e n t. S ee Aparagodānīya wheel having five sections ( p a h e a g a n d a k a c a k r a ). S e e wheel o f reb irth wheels (c a k ra ): and c ircu la r tim e, 266-70; fo r ­ m al structu re of, 242-43, 252-54; in d ic a tin g re p e titio n , 242; as m n e m o n ic teaching devices, 35; as objects o f m e d ita tio n , 15758; representing the sun, 34; sym bo lizin g B u d d h ist doctrines, 34, 35; various kin d s of, 34 wheel o f b irth and death (sh e n g s i U m , sa m s ā r a c a k r a ). S e e wheel o f re b irth , wheel o f b irth and death in the five paths ( w u q u sh e n g si U m , p a ñ c a g a v ī s a m s ā r a c a k r a ). See wheel o f re b irth

wheel o f D h a rm a ( d h a r m a c a k r a ) , 35; depicted in the wheel o f re b irth , 12, 27; sculpture at Am aravat!, 37 fig. 1.15; sym bo lizin g the Buddha, 35; sym bo lizin g the B u d d h a ’s firs t serm on, 35 wheel o f the Five Paths. S e e wheel o f re b irth wheel o f re b irth , x, 4n, 24, 31, 34—35, 44, 64, 65, m i, 104, 239 -4 0 , 242-43, 250, 252-54; at A ja n tā Cave 17, 27 pi. 8, 43, 60-61, chap. 3, 221, 256-58, 263, 265, 270; at Baodingshan, 32 pi. 14, 48, 61, chap. 9, 243, 246, 256, 260, 264-65, 270; in central Asia, chap. 6; c o m ­ pared w ith o th er fo rm s o f B u d d h ist art, 267-69; in C hina, chap. 5, chap. 7, chap. 9, 256, 265; com pared w ith the Rudrāyana p a in tin g , 116-19; dive rsity in its depictions, 100; in In d ia , chap. 3; in scrip tio n s in , 65; as in tro d u c tio n to B u d d h ist teachings, 229, 237, 265; in K im , ix - x ii; at K u m tu ra Cave 75, 29 pi. 10, 44, 61,146,160-62, 242-43, 256, 258, 263, 270; o rig in sto ry in the D iv y ā v a d ā n a , 12,77-78; o rig in story in the D u ld u raqur fragm ents, 79; o rig in s to iy in the v in a y a , 12, 26-27, chap. 2, 86, 99-100,121, 255-56, 260, 261-64, 266, 270; as p a n -B u d d h ist sym bol, 42, 260; at Pedongpo, 31 pi. 13, 61, 218, 219 fig. 8.9; as preface to T a n tric ritu a l, 193, 200, 219-20, 257-60, 270; ritu a l co n text of, 41,193, 200, 219-20, 257; as sand m a n d a la , 23-24, 25 pi. 7, 25 fig. 1.13; in the sto ry o f B o rn in Poverty, 67, 71; at Tabo, 44, chap. 8, 221, 243, 259, 263, 270; at tem ple entrances, 60, 74, 78, 88,100-101,118,145, 162,163,182-83,187,191-92,193, 212, 218, 238, 256-60, 265, 270; in T ib e ta n p a in tin g , ii pi. 1, 2 pi. 2, 6-12, 7 fig. 1.3, 8 fig. 1.4, 9 fig. 1.5,12-13 f ig - 1-6,13-23, 15 fig - 1-8,17 pi- 3.18 pi. 4,19 fig. 1.9, 20 pi. 5, 21 fig. 1.10, 22 pi. 6, 23 fig. 1.11, 24 fig. 1.12, 61, chap. 8; at Y u lin

Cave 19, 29 pi. 11, 48, 61, 64,126, chap. 7, 193, 214, 221, 233, 238, 240, 243, 256, 258-59, 263-65, 270 wheel o f s a m s ā r a . S e e wheel o f re b irth w h e e l-tu rn in g lo n g ( c a k r a v a r tin rāja)., 35, 94, 107 W h ite Tārā: depicted in the wheel o f re b irth , 16 W i-n y u -m y in . S e e rD o -rje -c h e n -m o W o m b Realm m a rd a la , 2101118 W u ch a n g dagui. S e e G reat D e m on o f Im p e r­ manence W u D aozi (fl. 713-755), 126 W u , Empress, 52 X ia o fo w a n (Sm aller Buddha Bay). S e e u n d e r Baodingshan X iao M o , 187 Xie L in g y u n (385— 433)» 190 X in jia n g , 44, 61, 79,146,151,159 X iu x in g , 149 X iz o n g (r. 873-888), 237 Xuanzang (60 2 -6 6 4), 52, 621128, 86,147,147112, 161, 261 X uanzong (r. 712-756), 228, 237, 264 X u g a o s e n g z h u a n , 1271114 Yama, K in g (Yanluo w a n g ), 64,127,180,182, 246; depicted in the wheel o f re b irth , 7, 10-11,19, 21 Yanluo wang. S ee Yama, K in g Y a n s h o u m in g jin g . See S c r ip tu r e o n P ro lo n g in g L ife

Yaoshiwang pusa. S e e Bhaisajyaguru Bodhisattva y e jin g . S e e M ir r o r o f Deeds Ye-shes-’od (Skt.: Jñānaprabha), 196-99, 204, 210-11, 216-17, 259 Y ijin g ( 635- 713)» 50-52, 53» 53n 7>57111118-19, 5 8 n n 2 0 -2 i, 64037, 67046, 691148, 74, 78, 931127, K>4-5m , 120, 261-62

y i n g k u . S ee m e m o ria l caves

Y bdng (673-727), 1561114,157 Yogācāra school, 231 Yogalehrbuch, 158 Yong Creek (Y ongxi). S ee Sha Creek Y o u fa n g jic h a o , 14911 Yuan dynasty, 48,167, 228 Y u a n q i sh e n g d a o jin g , 621128 Y u lin , 165-69,175,186,191, 237 Cave 12,169 Cave 19: design of, 163,164 fig. 7.1,173-75, 219; donors of, 163-65,169,170-71 table 4,172,175; M audgalyāyana show n in , 180-82,183 fig. 7-7» 184 fig. 7.8, 2181131, 240, 259, 263-64, 270; wheel o f re b irth in , 29 pi. 11, 48, 61, 64,126, chap. 7,193, 214, 221, 233, 238, 240, 243, 256, 258-59, 263-65, 270 Cave 25,1751111 Z a a h a n j i n g ( S a m y u k t d g a m a ), 3307, 621128 Z a b a o z a n g jin g , 104-5111 Z e n g y i a h a n j i n g ( P u n a r ā g a m a ), 621128, 931127

Z hai Fengda, 170-71 table 4 Zhang H uaishen, 168,187, 264-65 Zhang M in , 222n Zhang Y ichao, 167,187 Zhang Yu, 136 Zhao Z hife n g (1159-1249), chap. 9, 259 Zhaozong (r. 88 9 -9 0 4 ), 225 Z h e n g f a h u a jin g . See L o tu s S ū tr a z h ig u a i. S e e m iracle tales Z h i Q ian (ca. 220-252), 62026, 62028 Z hisheng (66 9 -7 4 0), 5013,169, 260119 Z hiyan, 170-71 table 4 Z h o n g T ia n z h u S h e w e ig u o Q ih u a n s i tu jin g . See I llu s tr a te d S c r ip tu r e o n J e ta v a n a M o n a s te r y in Ś r ā v a s tī in C e n tr a l I n d ia

Zhongzong, E m p e ro r (r. 705-710), 52 Z h u Fonian (ca. 365). S ee B u d d h a sm rti Z in , M o n ik a , 93, 99

Index 319

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