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 9780520323896

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READINGS IN CHINESE COMMUNIST IDEOLOGY

READINGS IN

Chinese Communist Ideology A Manual for Students of the Chinese

Language

WEN-SHUN CHI

1968

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS BERKELEY AND LOS ANGELES

University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California Cambridge University Press London, England Copyright © 1968, by The Regents of the University of California Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 67-11201 Printed in the United States of America

PREFACE T h i s is a sequel to m y Readings in Chinese Communist Documents.

Both

books seek to help American students of Chinese • • and especially of Chinese Communism in developing a command of the Chinese language adequate for firsthand understanding of Chinese Communist materials as a basis for research in their own fields of special interest. The present book, however, differs from the first in two principal ways: (a) In the first book, the material was presented chronologically and related to the major events of the first ten years of Communist rule (1949-1959). Here the material, by arrangement and selection, is intended to exemplify the major expressions of Chinese Communist ideology in various important aspects: politics, economics, philosophy, law and so forth. (b) The first book was limited to the first decade of Communist rule. This new book deals with the development of Chinese Communist ideology, beginning with 1930 during the period of the Kiangsi Soviet and going up to the philosophical polemic still continuing on the mainland. Lesson I is an attempt, by carefully selected excerpts and texts, to give a comprehensive summary of the basic "thought of Mao Tse-tung." This lesson, consisting of 12 selections, is much longer than the other lessons; Mao's ideology is accorded more attention and space in view of his dominant role in China today. The material in the other lessons relates to: the nature of the Chinese Communist Party, its relationship to international communism, the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Chinese Communist civil and criminal law, the reinterpretation of China's history, economic planning, the Sino-Soviet dispute, and the philosophical debate on "one dividing into two." Each lesson has an explanatory introduction in English and is followed by an extensive vocabulary list of the important terms and expressions particularly those involving Communist jargon which are met with for the first time in the reading. These lists give the Chinese characters, their romanization according to the Wade-Giles system, and an English translation. The vocabulary list entries are repeated in two comprehensive glossaries in the back of the book: one in romanized alphabetical order, the other by Chinese radical. Also included is a romanization conversion table for the Wade-Giles, Yale, National Romanization, and the P'in-yin system now used v

vi

PREFACE

in Communist China. Finally, there is a comprehensive tabulation of the officially adopted simplified characters arranged by: (a) P'in-yin system; (b) number of strokes in the simplified characters; and (c) number of strokes in the conventional characters. A few more words about the vocabulary lists may be helpful: ( a)

The vocabulary lists contain mostly compounds rather than single characters. The reason for this is that single characters can be easily found in a dictionary, and from many years of experience of teaching Chinese to American students, I have found that one of their greatest difficulties is in identifying the compounds. They spend endless time searching for nonexistent compounds, either because they incorrectly combine the characters to form a compound or because they divide the characters of an established compound. The difficulty is further intensified by the fact that newly coined Communist jargonisms and old expressions given new meanings by Communist usage cannot be found in an ordinary dictionary, and some of them not even in a Communist dictionary. The few exceptions of including single characters are limited to those which I have found give my students most difficulty.

( b)

Where characters appear in the simplified form (chien-t'i) in the text, these are retained in the vocabulary but replaced by their complicated form ( f a n - t ' i ) in the glossaries. Where characters appear in the text in their vulgar form (su-t'i), these are likewise retained in the vocabulary but replaced by their conventional form (cheng-t'i) in the glossaries.

( c)

One pronunciation is given for each character; alternate nunciations for the same character are not given.

Cd)

Tone-sandhi changes are not indicated. —'CO, A (/>*»), and are invariably marked as tone one. Compulsory neutral tones are denoted by the absence of a tone mark for the particular syllable concerned.

( e)

Only one English translation for each term is normally given. As an aid to the student, this is intended to fit the particular context in which the term first occurs. It has been my experience that the student, having once mastered this, quickly develops the ability to sense modifications of the translation which may be required by altered contexts and the stylistic demands of polished translation. However, occasionally more than one translation is given when deemed necessary. In such instances, if they are synonyms for the particular context, they are set off by commas;

pro-

PREFACE

vii

if the second translation differs in meaning from the first in application elsewhere, it is set off by semicolons. ( f )

In Chinese, a word or compound can be used as different parts of speech without change of form. For instance, the term (ko-ming)

is basically a noun meaning

component of the phrase

^¿¡jf!^

"revolution;"

but as a

(ko-ming chan-cheng}

comes an adjective meaning "revolutionary."

it be-

In the vocabulary,

ko-ming appears merely as "revolution." T h e student will find it necessary, therefore, to choose the grammatically correct parts of English speech to fit the context. ( g )

T h e word

( ^ s ^ m ^ f i r*mm J

^mm^mmmc^msMmm^ >

> mm-ms»»gps7;£ig#

a wmmn-xmmmm °

47

LESSON 1

= rm m ^ m & ^ m & m ' tft-est® r

c

°

)

j c * w i m i t t m - f t a M T w (is» wrf^ps^i&ft)

«

?stfft o

»

(mtmmm^m) m ^ ^ m m

° c tb& )

io

&&'

' ffffiEsiftaT °

mmmm»Jt^SMifff^iw^

tos^m®'

u&Jnt&^mmft 15

°

'zmfo&mmMM^ft&mm °

fis»^itm^ft»HLf&mmmwts

m ^ m ' & M ^ ^ m m » s t ^ t e ; » 2 0

xtftW&ESiJ o

» °

m »

&&&»

tWmm&im^l °

ffM«»®^

»

s a « ? » ^ « » s t u n s - * « » ® » . ] »

°

» « « a n

*

*

»

fc&mmmk°^fwa«^»»«»^»ws

* » w i ^ m ^ i n s i s a f t ^ ^ ^ i s f i » ^ * ma;'

« - s f i t f S f t M

^ i - e w w a w ^ i t i p f f a K ) ^ « ° c TB& )

' i m w ' - w

°

25

I P & M ' m i p s s s °

o a i ^ i f i i i .

^ ^ ^ '

tt o M a i ^ t t . »m^im&mM ?

mmm

° '

» s e »

o

mtam^

» ^ m ^ i m ^

-

35

LESSON 1

llife »s f e ^ i f ^ ^ T ^ ^ S o

(Tfc)

'

^mmtmrn^M»xss^m^*^

«rj&fcj ° i s i & i + i g ? ® '



ffi'

?

iimm&^mm °

°

ft®*

»

i

s

° c ts& )

» S W ^ »

?

o

MBrmm ; S W U iiiifiw °

»

' MSt 1 S T ; S W T » ' gtawfiH*; s w a b « '

' ©

s

i

i

f

mmw^ma^m^m; i

s

B

±

:

»

*

»

ftaaw

»

s i °

ftsfcSW*«®®

a w *

° &jrff H

awjfiSMiSj^JiSMi»-tn *

«•W ' w f ^ f ^ - t t ° HHH

20

' -tfetegfliijil o S W J i f i J » i R g f i l f f l l t ; S W B J i » ft

MPt® » SfcSirftiMB» ; S W & i S B « '



I

; 0

25

» a s ' gfr

o

' gfjasffiwe o

r s f s c ^ s i ^ j i ^ - K i j

' «fejitftttitaw® ° ^ i i m i m ? h u s m

o m.&u-^m-mMm °

' « ^ ¿ l a w ^ - « - '

30

mmim

' mn-fei&m^m&fammtizmRfojj&mtr 35

49

LESSON 1

mnm °

( tb& )

¿ T ' ^m^Mmtmm-mM»xnmsffiw-ib; mtit—»m* 5 tmn^m»»-tn^tiiift ° ^-^m^tmmr^mmm —

«

=

»

*

o

» f ' / s & w *

^nmmttittm' M f c — » ¡ g l i i i S f f l f e M W ' i b ' w * mmm °

»m >MtiL7-«

10

(TB&) -b

**

tasya*»arc » m » ® * » » ^

m^m&mi»iptt^«-»

o

m m m & ^ m m » ° »axs?©»«F^ttip+sfitt o

l u ^ e m » *

20

w f t - E f f l ^ g ^ B t « » » » t R f u s s s » * Nr£ ' S a a i J t f t & a ^ t t H ^ s S K J l g S i J ;

ftm^

o

[i£

» 1

a

®

° M

»

o

* J - © * 0 ? J o

> ° j xbjw* r ft' ^mmmmmfrnm ° j c n ^ i s ^ r m w m m B . J o cs ] rRtt#» j

c - d jiai* r is^^ifife^s j o

r

J-wm J: r

r mwm ° mms

j °

25

LESSON 1

VOCABULARY: 1-F On Contradiction

1. 2. 2a.

ffillJ

mîL nmm

fâ-tsé tùi-lt

t'ûng-i

P.

L.

law

46

4

unity of opposite3

46

4

tùi-lt

to oppose

46

4

pten-chèng fâ

4.

tzù-shên

dialectics itself

5.

hô-hsïn

6.

shè-ckt

3.

7.

m&

8. 8a. 9. 10.

i ®

mfc

11. 12. 13.

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

JL»

vmjtm mit •m/p mm m-vs JfM

»

^M-n

24. 25. 26. 27.

i

m

mu

4

46

5

kernel

46

6

to touch upon

46

7

kûang-fàn

broad

46

7

yû-chdu

world outlook

46

9

yû-chdu

world; universe

46

9

t'ûng-i hsïng

identity

46

10

tùi-k'àng

antagonism

46

10

ts'ûng-lâi

always (up to now)

46

13

chten-chïeh

view

46

13

hstng-érh-shàng

metaphysics

46

14

evolution

46

15

ch'âng-chten

often seen

46

16

chïen-shâo

decrease

46

16

kûan

hùseh chtn-hùa

ch'ûng-fù

repetition

46

16

t'ûng-i tvù

the one, entity

46

17

p'ài-ch'ïh

exclusive

46

17

t-ch'èng

otherwise called

46

19

hsuan-hsùeh

metaphysics

46

19

Ou-chôu

46

19

shëng-ch'ân it

Europe productive forces

46

22

shûi-p'tng

level

46

23

kitng-yèh

industry great

46

23

46

23

motive force openly

46

24

46

25

extremely showing the bones —

46

25

46

25

46

25

46

25

wèi-tà tùng-ïi kûng-k'ài

28. 29.

46

s s

chi-tûan lù-ku

30.

undisguised 31. 32.

am

ch'û-hsien yûng-sû

to emerge vulgar

LESSON 1 P. 33. 34.

J蔃

35.

L.

tzù-shïh chïh-chûng

from beginning to end

47

1

ting-i

definition

47

4

lïang-ché

both

47

4

to contain

47

5

36.

^

hàn-yu

37.

i®|pQ

ch'u-hsiang

tendency

47

5

shêng-mïng

life

47

7

t'ûi-tàng

to drive forward

47

7

chïen-tân

simple

47

9

chï-hsïeh hstng

mechanical

47

9

chï-ch'û

basis

47

9

fù-tsâ

complex

47

9

kùan-ch'ùan

to run through

47

12

shth-chûng

from beginning to end —

47

13

38. 40.

mm mw-

41.

tttttÊ

39.

42. 43.

mm «it

44. 45.

fête

whole 46.

ffiftte

47. 48. 49. 50.

«

hsïang-tùi hstng

relativity

47

14

kùng-t'ûng

common

47

19

yû-ch't

especially

chîh

quality

ch'ten-ch'â

I t fit) qualitative

laàn-pieh one thousand and ten

47

19

47

21

47

23

thousand differences — one thousand and

one

different ways nèi-tsài

internal

47

23

yuan-yïn

cause

47

23

fà-shëng

to make sound — sound

47

24

fâ-kûang

to emit light — light

47

24

fâ-jè

to radiate heat — heat

47

25

iten-liu

electric currents —

47

25

57.

hùa-fên

decomposition

47

25

58.

hùa-hà

combination

47

25

59.

ï-ts'ûn

dependent

47

26

60.

kùng-hsîng

common character

47

30

61.

kd-hsïng

individual character

47

30

fôu-jèn

to deny

47

32

kùng-t'ûng

universally applicable

47

33

tào-ll

truth

47

33

ancient, modern, China,

47

33

51. 52.

u s

53. 54. 55. 56.

Sift

mm mm

electricity

62. 63. 64. 65.

m

a s U l PiL*

mm

kù-chin

chung-wài

foreign lands •— all times and all places

LESSON 1

66.

mmm

Aai mo

wai

all (cases) cannot be

P.

L.

47

33

47

34

excepted — without exception

67.

ch'u-ch'u

68.

Mist

ching-sui

marrow — essence

48

1

ftsm

p'ao-ch'i

to abandon

48

2

69.

to remove

70.

t'i-ch'u

to bring up

48

4

71.

fen-hsi

analysis

48

4

72.

p'ing-chun

equal

48

9

k'dn-tai

to treat

48

9

tz'u-ydo

secondary

48

9

chd-chung

to emphasize

48

10

cho-chii

to grasp

48

10

77.

shdng-shu

mentioned above

48

10

78.

szu-hii

to appear to be

48

12

79.

shiih-chun

forces are equal and match-

48

13

73. 74.

mm

-JFM

75. 76.

iStt

li-ti

ing each other — balance of forces

±m

chu-tao

leading

48

15

81.

3 : IB

chih-p'ei

dominant

48

15

82.

ftif

tsd-tui

opposite

48

18

fiH

shih-hsiang

just imagine

48

19

84.

hsin-chung

in the mind

48

20

85.

pu-chten

does not appear — without

48

20

80.

83.

86.

iffl*

tien-nitng

tenant-peasant

48

23

87.

Jfil^a

Iten-chteh

to link

48

27

88.

1 1

kuan-t'iing

to penetrate

48

27

shen-t'du

to permeate

48

27

chu-pei

to possess

48

28

ch'eng-wei

to be called

48

29

each forms the condition

48

30

89.

•mm.

90. 91.

mn

92.

hii-toH

t'iao-chien

of the other's kung-ch'u

to coexist

48

33

94.

t'ung-i

entity

48

33

95.

ant

chuan-hua

transformation

48

34

96.

«FB

chung-chten

between

49

3 3

93.

t'i

97.

erh-che

the two, both

49

98.

kiing-chu

to coexist

49

6

49

8

99.

wit-so

pu-tsai

in no place ( i t ) is not present—present everywhere

LESSON 1

101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107.

Wis mm

»

108. 108a. 109.

combination

49

10

szu-viei

thought

49

14

ts'e-mien

aspect

49

18

chteh-hb

100.

pu-kuan

irrespective

49

20

hsien-chu

conspicuous

49

22

fou-tse

otherwise

49

25

chi-p'd

to smash

49

26

to oppose

49

26

dogmatism

49

27

chiao-t'iao

dogma

49

27

pi-mien

to avoid

49

28

wei-fan chiao-t'iao

ass

chu-t

54

LESSON 1

— Si (G)

^MfflRft' a s t s x i b « » ^ * « »

o

m»asms

°

o

s a * ©

m

iaftffl&Kjs^X'ik^MiiWii/h'

^mm^m^thmm r a

m

m

m

j

zim»ax

re h j

Mtimmmm °

» * » « *

'

nft^mm i o > mmmm^jamw'

a r m s »

»iwfe^sisrxibsiin:»wt-M-m»

»M P i a ^ i i l i i ^

m

»

°

FEE

15

j

iHB«»smiKrKj¥fiir«§*»

'

» M e a n '

a s m » ©

mw^jm # ' m-Mim&xmm&Mj&m&m^tmm^-mmi&^ft» ^mm^A

affigfE^xfFiPOMitii

' a ^ t a s t ^ i s ^ E i

°

K - IfcWAK - i T H i t A * M K t t A f t W i J & l i » » « S b A S ^ ^ l H ^ t t l fnitAfFnf » MTMfflseti' 1

« - « H I S

>ipjSttflf^ft&Hligffi '

AmfAS o sstft' i & a f c s g t e f f l i & f i : » ' ±

#mm?$mMMMmm ?

ftzmMftftknTe

fmifira

' Xf^fifiHIl ' XfF ° Sii^^M«*

^M^mmnmiLM»^aw^s

' iifflfiilXtfX^^tf JlSfflW^a^jEffll^^ai^iHfllKlJB

sir© °

25

ateiEWfitji:* °

30 ?

^

55

LESSON 1

o

' ifcm^mmiik&mMmMmm^&m

& ° m m ' « » s r a

»^ s s k ^

?i i s ^ s ^ ®

mmmnm^»p^ssffitii+KA

?

A ' -iafitt-Raif

°

'

° t n a A » — a « »

»sn&HitAai&AAK*

«Ritsfc»» otiKanaAiBSWHaiiK°st&ttA m'

»

0

5

»saftetHms^^isi»sfcuwrai

{M o

mtm-mm*»iwrawasKisgbi^ii^»w

im»ir&a^po&f^'

w^a^^Kiiti? °

65 ; i a ^ m f o m ' i i f f l i f a ® » » « ! o if o

a s r ^ R A S

flwnrain;«»

fiSinSilu«^»«

»nm&mmtik

'

10

»amfflass

StS.fi o S J S - i i A S * ^ ' S i A f i ( i l # i » n f

' MAR&W-m > A S 6 9

mm»nmn^mmmm ° A s - m * « * ? « »

°

A«® « « « J U S ' MSsfcS

» / M m » » « ! ® «

'

flfeira^n^twAia

o ^ffijsisiimw^ifci&wfM»«sbflMBfflii&ir

' p g a ^ ^ i g ^ f F H f



1

15

° Awn«

n^^Eesss^iE^siiia»affiiwxM^ffiiSiflMBttiiffi&s» g ° R s ^ s g i f igi^w A ' ffg'

o

nmm^mmRmm^mwt^mmmm^m

nmmmmm >

mm^^mmm»^ambis^»

« a w h ^ I C , - ^ » ' i&iM*n •

'

ima»

20

I f t t i f H S f i ' s f c A X t f f t S i t e f f t i f ttlSIJB ° » f r ^ i l E »

i £ s i £ °

» m m ^ m - m m * » 2 5

tEnmmmmm^ttm ° ffirtttnM'iife

0

»

^«^¿aiEtsattisii^s^»^xa^ms: '

' ffeffl*

°

» M i » » « * » XJSKKJX A »

' ffeffiisTi' g f c g * « m - 1 » *K

=

t

*

>

* mm' »

^

a

^

°

>s i t i t A f » ;

'

Xfp o C TB&)

°

f

t

»

^

m ' wra

ianwmm

m n » « m i ^ f f e f f l i f f f «

30

56

LESSON 1

' &ff « - « i s ^

r st j

to»

o

s

f

c

i

s

M

»

»

• t e R W P & i i R K » » ' win^a' 21 Rmm^Btii - ifammm - ^miK^m ° n g f f i a s H s j i s T o mmummmmnrnmrnm» o

' SIStifcJ» {aSHjESflUii

10

mmxmtm^rn^^-miEm^^ ° &

0 r ^ s j§ - •+•= B )

f^jgf! i TfcaiWSMfe »

,

m n

' JfiEaSSWT

»&

K m m t T o m m m & m & m x m M f f i m m i m & m t ® ° c tb& )

mm > i + K ^ m ^ a f t t ^ i M

?

1

0

^mfeitpSW® »

n '

sfcHaMfflfpisMt^' m m ^ m m - m H i t ^ m m m m m

t

o

c

8MHHJB :

s

i

n



°

20

m & n » i w ^ j s i t ^ « - -

°

25

?

^•m&umiki»^mmnmfoT ° ° i s ^ ^ ^ f t a f f l H s ^ s mmmmmmfr ° H j i t > M » » ^ * » i m m m f t s , * » i E f l & m «»iss^ffi^»mnmn^mm^tim&mm m e *A O T *

°

» m s s i ^ *

35

57

LESSON 1

im&mxmxff»

shrix^ » t n ^

a o

>

mmxrf

»

. wti^siiLmja^MfexfFKj;

m^m'm

mmmm

ws^&i/yRBiffl

?

a s * « ® ? ( TB& )

MM ' I + K S A K A I ^ ? S U A W A S » w a s

' H A

*« K ^

^ m m m °

m i m m x m » 1 0

s i i A w ' ° ^ - ^ s f t s w » A f t s ^ w ^ s ? : o^H-^SK^ja^TKixAftSipAi^?: *

mmm^mfr^fo»«sms^s^^» oa H S A

'

' i S i l A K A f i A f

°

15

(T«&)

¡BfH8AHR»«JligfI#?fe7 ' »««iHfiigfcJ&iPHiBKK °

'

ffil^iSffl

' Mmn^Mmmmmmj^MT^R»fM

20

' MWLmr ° A&iSIHKl** ' I A

»

flfeffll^iftttffRfti^&ffiSWiEfilttJgig

EiSM^ o^ « J X « '

[pixitt^R'

mm

8® ?

' -g^M^Sffi^Kj

m^mm^R»tofts mm»feafesigift&iis«ffli+jgmffiieifMw®: '

- g M ^ S t o J O T i

SfffiKSStt^lSBi ? 1i ?

fli/h«^»»»^»?»®

?

25

^ -

' R W f f l X J U ^ i a W f f i S * g f r ' E K f f i S w m f f i ° HilfcffilicW

jfc o

° Jtin—IS* '

ftttSffiHi

?

»

i t i i ^ S

i ^ M i l ? U

?

° ifa^fiffix*^»mmmm

' m. -

S5±-fe£SttJ3fc7 o Mfi '

-

r« s j

i

»

3

M i S i f r f r f t i f l i i ' - f f i f S M m p & M M i i ^ l n l i i g i i oMitS-tiisfciiiiiT

5

LESSON 1

»^tmrnmRwrnmiEmm^ °

k i t »

( ~ m )

aijSjfeift»K^^m^mmmwM» ^ » M ^ i i ^ ^ i i i K j ^ A s ^ i s « ] ^ ® « » « « ^ ^ '

m i m x M & ^ & m A R x m f o , ftM^Hfi'

immMR

,

10

mrnxm^ft^tftmim^mm^mm» ism^PJ »mmxm^m^-mmxmi. fcmm&nm—xm^-m-m

m&m. o «

j

®

»

»

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°

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' —

»

M&HfiSMfefE»^»;»

— ; « « — M m m z m

&:

' f

» n

s

m »

s. ^ wt »i Kni m° mm m

a

r

»

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m

20

i

s

2

5

° s t ^ t w i j ° ^suss®—is •

' m i &m H ^ » ^» ^ i f c ®

M ^ s e h m m

' A

° j affl^w^fex

A&irs °

i & ^ m & t e i f c f c J j K J i J S + jBzfc » i J O ^ i f i » » i f & ^ S J * ^ ^

mmm^.»»

ft&E

^

30

* s *

» gftaaija»Rifc-m»»j^^-iseti

35

59

LESSON 1

5

m&xpsmmsiH > Kh ; •

(ffcjtfcilRlflrfl"? * /hSMBiRWXtf^SJ— ) H ^ e ^ o ## f !K± » W — » SjitB^KJlg o ^Jt^c» ;

»

» WflkS? o

x w — I O

» Hlisfcffi^

BuewMJiiJtinia: H «jF^s^-tfe^i^WH^'

mm ° $E-mm-mmm

ffi » R W S ^ W M H ^ ' i £ f RWFIfMlnftSllHIS » -®

»

r

£ j

*

is

# > i t K ^ a S ^ W A S o Bjifc ' *lbflkff!^BRtt»i' »ASBRiFWtta±3fe ' IS

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° ( TB§ )

20

J-i«

mnm^mAmmmmEm-^-nm^timi^mmsx^ ° a sw ±m > mn^m^m^-m h m> rm MI-MA j fm > m^n^MM^mAmm > mm^mA^&mmmmm > m mmm > m^mma ° &mtm > ^mm^^Mmmmm^mmmm ^ ^ ^ J X i ^ ^ 1 - A S ^ ^ S i ® > ^ffii&Hj&fiEK C mim^^sM^m.) fnawswHi c x A ^ m t i r w n * ) ¿ffi^tiwamw o j c x d a m * r «^a^fnEifW:^ j -2fc o #ts;: r itm^mmnMnmm »HffHffiWt^K^^.^^S^ r

Joj

60

LESSON 1 VOCABULARY:

1-G

Talks at the Yenan Forum on Art and Literature P.

L.

literature and art

54

2

"sit and talk" meeting — forum

54

2

yìn-yén

introduction

54

4

4.

yäo-chi

to invite (people) to get together

54

5

5.

chiao-hùan

to exchange

54

5

eh'tu-té

to find out

54

6

1. 2. 3.

xm

wért-t tsò-t'àn

31s

6.

M

7.

hui

M

hsteh-chù

help

54

7

8.

ita

chteh-ì

by means of (which)

54

7

9.

ft®

tà-tào

to bring about the downfall of; down with

54

7

cktu-chüng

among which

54

9

10. 11.

wen-viü

civilian and soldier

54

9

12.

ì-k'ào

to rely on

54

10

mm

t'üan-chieh

to unite

54

12

« a JSH

pàng-chà

to help

54

13

13. 14.

shìh-yìng

to adapt to

54

13

16.

mm

tì-p'àn

territory — domain

54

14

17.

IS/Jn

sò-hstao

to reduce to weaken

54

14

54

14

15.

18. 19. 20.

mm

hsueh-jò

t i

chth-lìang

quality

54

15

pàti-fà

means

54

15

p'in-mìng

to stake one's life — for all one is worth

54

16

wén-hsiieh

literature

54

17

mm

21. 22.

xm

23.

JS«

ch'éng-cht

accomplishment

54

17

«PH

pù- mén

sector

54

17

25.

täng-shth

at that time

54

18

26.

tsüng-chüng

from each other

54

20

kò-tùan

to cut off

54

20

24.

27.

ffigff

28.

JiiS

t'üi-chtn

to push forward

54

23

29.

tsù-ch'éng

component

54

24

30.

tà-chì

to attack

54

25

31.

yü-li

powerful

54

25

32.

t'üng-hsin

with one heart and one mind

54

25

ir*

t'ung-té

61

LESSON 1

P.

L.

33.

mm

fai-tu

attitude

54

27

34.

mm

hsueh-hsi

study

54

35.

tang-hsing

"partyness" (the qualities

54

28 30

36.

mm

mtng-ch'ueh

clear

54

31

37.

ikim

for instance

55

2

38.

ft®

pi-ju kd-sung

to praise

55

2

39.

as a party member)

mm

pao-lii

to expose

55

2

40.

SBA

tzu-chi jett

our own people

55

4

41.

ftmm

hsien-feng

vanguard

55

5

mm

ts'an-pdo

cruelty

55

6

43.

ch'i-p'ien

deception

55

6

44.

chih-ch'u

to point out

55

7

ch'u-shih

tendency

55

7

42.

45.

mm

tui

46.

ku-li

to encourage

55

7

47.

chien-chueh

resolutely

55

7

48.

p'i-p'tng

criticism

55

9

49.

tsan-ch'eng

to support

55

9

50.

tsdn-yang

to commend

55

10

fan-hung

to oppose communism

55

11

as to

55

12

toil

55

12

mm

51. 52.

^

chth-yu

53.

mm

lao-tung

um

pao-liu

to retain

55

13

55.

le-hou

backward

55

14

56.

fit-tan ndi-hsin

burden patiently

55 55

15 15

55 55

15 15

55

16

54.

ma

57. 58.

mm

pai-t'd

59.

w± QMk

pei-shang

to remove on the back

pao-fu

a parcel wrapped in cloth

ta

big strides

55

16

miao-hsieh

to depict

55

17

chi-hstao

to ridicule

55

18

60.

— ideological burden 61. 62.

mm

63.

t'd-pu

64.

SM

55

S&H

sken-chth ti-shih

even to the extent of

65.

hostile

55

19 19

66.

if?

ch'u-tiao

to discard

55

20

67.

tsd-p'in

works

55

22

68.

fifeti"*

Shan-Kan-Ning

Shensi-Kansu-Ningsia

55

22

69.

iSE

pien-ch'u

border area

55

22

Hua-pei

North China

55

22

70.

LESSON 1

71.

P.

L.

Hua-chung

Central China

55

23

±7§

Shanghai

Shanghai

55

23

73.

n *

chth-yuan

office worker

55

24

74.

iSm

72.

75. 76.

mm

77.

^

tien-yuan

shop employee

55

25

k'uo-td.

to enlarge

55

25

kb-chueh

to keep away from

55

26

chiu-shih

old type

55

28

wei-lai

future

55

29

chan-shth

soldier

55

29

kung-ch'ang

factory

55

29

nung-ts'un

rural village

55

30

82.

shth-tzu

to know characters — literate 55

30

83.

ch'dng-hd

to sing songs

55

31

a

yin-yueh

music

55

31

ifcS

shii-mu

number

55

32

tii-che

reader

55

32

—IK

i-pan

one edition

55

33

p'ing-ch'ang

ordinarily

55

33

tuan-lien

steeled

55

34

78. 79. 80. 81.

84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89.

m± urn jfttt

mm

mm

90.

t-szu

opinion

56

1

91.

tzti-ming

self-styled

56

2

tsd-chia

writer

56

2

ch'ueh-shao

to lack

56

3

kan-ch'ing

feeling

56

5

tien-tao

to reverse

56

6

chui-ch'iu

to seek

56

7

&

ch'do

to transcend

56

7

98.

ch'du-hstang

abstract

56

7

99.

Aft

jen-hsing

human nature

56

8

piao-mtng

to indicate

56

8

ch'ing-suan

to liquidate

56

9

92.

tm

93. 94. 95.

JBtff

mm

96. 97.

102.

mm mm tm

103.

m

100. 101.

ch'uang-tsd

creation

56

10

It-wdi

exception

56

11

104.

kd-tzu

respective

56

13

105.

chUang-k'uang

condition

56

13

106.

mten-tnao

visage

56

13

107.

hsin-li

psychology

56

13

108.

yin-tzu

introductory statement

56

15

109.

hst-wang

to hope

56

15

110.

yu-kuan

related

56

16

ffita

WIS

LESSON 1

111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118.

its? a m ¿Pag. T5RB

mm IStM

fa-piao j&-lieh cheng-liin chan-k'ai

P.

L.

to express

56

16

heated

56

19

debate

56

19

to unfold

56

19

t-ch'u

profit

56

20

.-A«. •IE! S

shih-tang

proper

56

23

i&liii

hsieh-t'iao

to adjust to

56

23

p'eng-tao

to come up against

56

24

a series of

56

24

mm

119.

i

120.

pu-jan

not so

56

31

ch'ing-hsu

sentiment

56

32

pit-mien

unavoidably

56

33

56

35

121.

mm

122. 123. 124. 125. 126.

j\mw mmw

—e

XttA

lien-ch'uan

WSiS&tl profitable

Pa-lu

Chun

the Eighth Route Army

Hsin

Szu-chuti

the New Fourth Army

56

35

together

56

35

man of culture (referring

56

35

opportunistic

57

1

fen-tzu

element; particle

57

1

chueh-td

the greatest

57

2

theatre (including play and

57

3

t-ch't wen-hua

jen

loosely to higher intellectuals and intellectuals in general) 127.

&m

128. 129.

m*

130.

ifcgsj

131.

t'bu-chi

hst-chu

opera)

mm

mei-shu

fine arts

57

3

132.

td-shih

a long time

57

5

133.

IMJK

ching-li

to undergo

57

5

hsin-k'ii

5

hardship

57

nan-tao

Is it possible that...?

57

7

136.

chu-chang

to advocate

57

7

137.

ping-shih

soldier

57

10

138.

Chung-hua

Chinese

57

15

139.

t'i-kdo

elevation

57

19

p'u-cht

134. 135.

140.

mm

iSffi

R

141. 142.

* *

popularization

57

19

ch'iang-tiao

to raise the pitch — to stress

57

21

shth-shth

fact

57

23 25

143.

cht-jan

since

57

144.

pien-yiu

readily

57

27

145.

^fT

146.

S t

pu-hstng

will not do

57

29

k'ung-chung

in space

57

31

LESSON 1

147. 1 1 » 148. msmm 148a. 149. WB. 150. mm

yuan-liao

151. 152. 153. 154.

fdn-chitan

155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160.

-3J. 3A. till nM

kuan-iiien

hsing-t'ai

kuan-nien ch'u-chi kao-cht t'ao-lun ping-hsing ch'ih-lun

mmii

lo-szu

«iff

pai-hao

mm

fu-ts'ung

—-juem

erh-yuan

--

>A-

ting

raw material ideological form idea; concept elementaryadvanced conversely to discuss to run parallel gear (Evidently the author meant to say cog, which should be ImiS) screw to set out to subordinate to dualism pluralism Trotsky (1877-1940)

P. 58 58 58 58 58 58 58 58 58

L. 2 3 3 3

58 58 58

18

164.

huan-chi

165.

kuang-i

58 58 58 to exceed what is proper — 58 too much 58 to be subordinate to light or heavy — degree of 58 importance 58 urgent or not urgent — degree of priority 58 in the broad sense

166. 167. 168. 169. 170.

p'ii-t'ung

general

mc

shao-shu

4HA frfi

kd-jen

minority individual activity specialist

^TCnira

kuo-fen

mm

ts'ung-shu

ijw iji;

ch'ing-chung

hsing-wei chuan-men

170a. 171. MM 172. mm 173. fflpmm

174.

lun

T'o-ld-tz'u-chi

161. 162. 163.

td-yuan

lun

mmm

to specialize leader to refine tsao-chu to make a cart behind closed doors, i. e., without consideration of outside conditions (implied meaning: not practical) ts'ung-ming to set oneself up as wise (implied meaning: others do not agree)

chiian-men ling-hstu t'i-lien pi-men

tzu-tso

chia

5 5 10 16 17

19 19 20 20 20 22 23 25 25 26

58 26 58 29 58 30 58 30 58 33 58 33 58 33 58 34 58 35

58

35

LESSON 1

175. 176.

Riit-m sum a is

P.

L.

chih tz'u

i-chia

there is only this one shop

58

35

pieh wu

fen-tien

there is no branch shop

58

35

elsewhere (The

previous

quotation

and this one form

one

common saying to mean 177. 178.

uniqueness)

nm Mfi

kuei-tsu

aristocracy

58

36

fu-hsiu

decadent

58

36

179.

chen-shih hstng

truthfulness

59

1

180.

t'ttng-ch'ing

sympathetic

59

6

ch'i-tz'u

next

59

7

tsd-feng

work style

59

10

saw

181. 182. 183. 184. 185.

ft®

Mit xffi

186. 187.

r ^ j

hsten-shth chit-i

realism

59

10

pi-tz'u

mutually

59

12

yu-ch'ing

lean to the right side —

59

15

rightist

m

t'du-hsiang chu-t

capitulationism

59

15

tsd-ch'ing

leftist (quotation marks

59

15

chieh-chtn

close to

59

19

suggest ultra leftism) 188.

66

LESSON 1

m

&

(H)

ifiS^Llttiiffli

(-H&O-tf—fl ) 5

(T«&)

C

) o mm '

^m^mmwcn^mmmmmmm^'T^ ° ' idLjkm.mmmm °

w p ^ - S M ^ E »

'

'

»

flUJiif —

m^iL^mmm»tei*»

xmftm

# '

'

15

flffSMK

' t&KgBftgjRBHRHStfiittie

t ' r

*

° (

J

)

e^Mffitt ° a a m f f i t t » s ^ i t u

° A^HM » ^ ^ ^ ^ x s E t i ® A

flwrcxiatettAixttift

o

;

mmn^mnmmm^-^m 25

^a^iaifsitSKiafflWFSWiiin^affiT

°

a i ^ a » » & m m m m ± m m M m m t ! » i s

h »liti^i* aki&m a

' n a s A s ^ ^ s «

1

»

om ^ m m m : «

»

» 30

67

LESSON 1

mm'

mimtoh

'

^mmmmm. - a

s

^^^mm^Mmm

*

inm o

mmms.^m^m' e « » i ® 7

-^iasi*®^;«! *

;

mmmmm

*

' -t&wKfise^ * M i m m t m m i -

s a i ^ s a n a m w ^ ^ °

» - « M s a ^ M s a ^ m ^ ^ ^ »

H a w a i i ® ^tt&S&J&S;«»

10

a

;

»

»

1

5

CTH&)

¡SH

0

a °

gc«

° ifisfcSfrKzt

>m i ^ s n ^ *

»

»

m

^

t

m

^ f t l f l F ° • i t s f c ^ x r m m j

°

7v

Assir >

-

^HA^m -

25

*a s h '

¡

m

mm.m&mmmmw.mii ° r

m

^

m

m

»

»

i

n

KiIEBSfiWit °

'

r ^ a ^ a s ^ t t

j

35

68

LESSON 1

° Attars A « ?

m ' & r i

a

^mm i

J

nttft

°

mmzft&

»

°

iesiw • si » & & r

»

j

°

»m s r ì^-wseb j

«t»HKi«» »

vpìkhmnmìki

mm^m

mm

-imfe

r« M S * j

m r ^mvm

»

1 am » rsMKHE&ti-j »

» »A

b

a



° 0

u s

es » fltaa a s B 6 « a « i °

10

ft)

15 — E

I

M

^

f

W

o

^

t

^

t

o

» ^ W f y s s ^ W t t ° BPO

*mmm

» s^affiKiX'ifcw^fiiisifeX'fb °

iirttxifc » mis » m m m n

>

»

'

tmmnmmM-HWS

o feTfli r è ® mt

m ' sfi««^ » MA^Mmm-E ° AiRMmìZMÉiMm >

nmmm^m^mm

° m®—«fl-HKisftis » i a m m m m i k - k ^ - m » ¡ a s

»»mapa- »^ » a s f i f e

mum.

5

» twmm

»

»

» & ' Ti

te^mzm

» RÉStfóJSSjESilMil+H^

fi^H^^ffi^A-SirfifefflsmBsijo

a: » a a s s K j ^ a : ° S K « ? ^

J cn o D

25

^^'ibiiwga«)^

— m m & n ^

35

69

LESSON 1

^mmmmmmmmEMtm^mm-nm^m^mmmmm^mm

ffcifcH0

Hitt'

*

mm&mmmB

' liiST'BfflKjirftX'ik o f s a i f t x - f b

»^mmmmg. °

fi^aa»*»

SIsifMlSm»»MJI-gSliJifMliOM* o

»IBSlliffiWRStelfiBiJXSffiiRigjezfe o i M W f f A l t S ' ' iMufc-ffc' * » j

»

M

c--o

^

w

. iflftA&Alfc »

' l i ^ K i s i f i ^

h

x

^

-

20

; iESpffr .

at

'

tt o

'

° Hitfc»—^m^ttx-iki

¿¡J&MkAm^gcifiK^ '

n g ^ ^ ^ i

'

H3i]lfc@«J '

' f l f M g i f i S f '

25

o s »

KlfeSfcS^jfcifcttiffiBiS^Wflgm °

f T + a ^ f f i ^ f f l A s ^ f f i M ' nmrnmrnm-B°

35

LESSON 1

mi

i s c

]

c- - 3

mm r §i

j >

^-m^mmmmmm^is

o Mn&fefrttstift

nwmm^mm^. > m k t u r ^mm^mit j ° r «ff-af ? J °

LESSON 1 VOCABULARY:

1-H

On New Democracy

1.

HJ^

ho-ch'it

2.

ftm mm

chueh-wu

3. 4.

where

P.

L.

66

4

to awake

66

13

chui-sui

to follow

66

14

hsin-hai

one of the sexagenary

66

14

cycle symbols —here refers to 1911 chang-ch'eng

growth

66

18

6.

hsun-su

rapidly

66

19

5.

sis

7.

k'du-hao

8.

—#rfnn

i-shen erh

9.

Mffitt

liang-mien

10.

©CM

Ou-Mei

11.

EH

ffi!

slogan

66

20

¿rh-jen

one person having two

66

23

hsing

two-sidedness — dual

66

23

66

23

yen

jobs character Europe and America

t'iing-chu

to share

66

24

12.

ta-ti

in the face of a formidable

66

24

13.

t'u-ch'u

prominent

66

26

hsin-yang

confidence

66

28

tang-ch'ien

enemy 14.

WW

15.

szu-ti

mortal enemy

66

28

16.

chiu-hsing

saviour

66

30

« g

ft«

mtng-yun

fate

67

2

kung-hb k&o

republic

67

3

19.

chuan-cheng

dictatorship

67

5

20.

san tit cheng-ts'e

the three cardinal policies:

67

6

17. 18.

a . to ally with Russia; b. to include the Communists

within

the

Nationalist party; c . to aid the worker and peasant. 21.

San-nun

Three People's Principles

67

6

22.

kiio-shth

out of date

67

10

23.

hsing-sheng

to flourish

67

11

24.

wu-i

undoubtedly

67

12

shth-yung

suitable

67

13

25.

MM

Chu-t



LESSON 1

26.

kùo-tù

27.

t-t kuo-t'i

28.

HiS

P.

L.

transitional

67

16

to change

67

16

form of the state — state

67

18

67

18

democratic centralism

67

18

name agrees with its

67

20

Republic of China

67

20

to seek reality conforming

67

21

system 29.

&fft

chèng-t'i

form of the government — political structure

mtn-chû chî-chûitg

30.

chìh mîng fu ch'i shth

31.

actuality Chitng-hua

32. 33.

Mîn-kûo

mznn

hs'ùn-ming tsé-shih

i t s

to the name chìen-kuo

national construction

67

24

35.

wéi-t

the only one

67

24

36.

ytn-hàng

bank

67

28

37.

shàng-yèk

commercial enterprise

67

28

kûei.. .sô-yû

to come under the

67

28

34.

sift

38.

ownership of 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

mtë mm mjz &A

44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

±M mm mm mm

enterprise

67

29

tû-chàn

monopoly

67

29

kûei-mô

size

67

29

kùo-tà

too big

67

29

szii-jén

private individual

67

29

tìeh-tào

railway

67

30

67

30

67

30

hâng-k'ung

airline

chih-shû

and others

chïng-yîng

to operate

67

30

kûan-li

to manage

67

30

ts'âo-tsùng

to control

67

30

67

31

67

31

rei t i S s

main principle

67

31

National Congress

67

32

shèng-cht

livelihood tzû-pèn

restriction of

(private)

capital yào-chïh Ch'ùan-kûo

53.

belonging

to this category — etc.

chteh-chth

51. 52.

ch'i -y eh

Tài-piao

Tà-hùi

53a.

tài-piao

representative

67

32

54.

hsûan-yétt

manifesto

67

32

I S

LESSON

55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

1

ftfcH

mm mm m±

P.

L.

chiiang-yén

solemn

67

32

shéng-ming

statement

67

32

kùo-ytng

state-operated, state-owned

67

33

tnò-shòu

to confiscate

67

34

chìn-chìh

to prohibit

67

35

fèn-p'èi

to distribute

68

1

Mift

wù-tì

no land

68

1

62.

ó!?iÈ

shào-tì

little land

68

2

63.

«fili

Chiing-shàn

referring to Sun Yat-sen

68

2

64.

i f t S f f l

Kèng-chè

Land to the Tillers

68

2

61.

Yu

Ch'i

T'ien 65.

MM

szu-ch'àn

private property

68

3

66.

ÌÌ3

fù-nùng

rich peasant

68

3

68

4

p'ing-chùn

67.

tì-ch'ùan equalization of land ownership

67a. « 1 «

tì-ch'uan

land ownership

68

4

68.

ftm

nùng-yèh

agriculture

68

5

69.

feWfniA

só té érh szu

can be monopolized by

68

8

a few 70. 71.

mm

kàn-yù

to dare

68

10

tsun-yén

dignity

68

18

hsi-shòu

to absorb

68

19

73.

tà-lìang

large quantity

68

22

74.

shth-liang

food

68

22

75.

kù-tài

ancient

68

24

72.

76. 77.

iirtt

mm.

ch'i-nténg

enlightenment

68

24

shih-wù

food

68

25

78.

p g

k'du-ch'ìang

mouth

68

26

79.

"fi®

chu-chùeh

to chew

68

26

80.

wèi-ch'àng

stomach and intestines

68

26

81.

t'ò-yèh

saliva

68

26

wèi-yèh

gastric juice

68

26

intestinal secretion

68

26

82.

lis

83.

ck'àng-yèh

84.

fèn-chìeh

to decompose

68

26

85.

ching-hùa

the cream — nutriment

68

26

tsào-p'ò

dregs — waste matter

68

27

87.

86.

p'ài-hsìeh

to excrete

68

27

88.

yù-ì

beneficial

68

27

filò

LESSON 1

sheng-t'un

89.

huo-pd

to swallow

and to

flay

P.

L.

68

28

alive — acceptance of a theory in whole without discrimination

and / or

analysis 90.

mi

p'i-p'etn

91.

isSffilb

ch'uan-p'an

92.

teg

ch'ia-tdng yung-ch'u

93.

ft«

critically

68

28

68

28

properly

68

31

usefulness

68

32

hst-hua complete Westernization

kung-shith

formula

68

33

95.

mt-hstn

superstition

69

1

96.

skih-shih

to seek truth from facts

69

2

97.

fan-ti

anti-imperialism

69

4

98.

tsung-chlao

religious believer

69

5

98a.

tsung-chtao

69

mm

religion

5

tsan-t'iing

to approve

69

6

Wfk

chiao-t

religious doctrine

69

7

94.

99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104.

mm. mm mm Bm sft'O

tzu-hsin

ch'iu-shth t'u

ch'uang-tsao

to create

69

7

ts'dn-ldn

splendid

69

7

ch'ing-li

to clarify

69

7

t'i-ch'ii

to sort out and to throw

69

8

self-confidence

69

9

to accept and to store

69

9

away 105. 106.

mtkitw

hsiit

chien-shou

ptng-hsu

(all sorts of things) 107. 108.

mm

yu-hstu

fine

69

10

ho-tuan

to mutilate

69

13

to praise the ancient and

69

14

sung-ku

109.

fei-chtn

to deny the modern 110.

^^

tu-su

poisonous element

69

15

ch'ing-nien

youth

69

15

SI*

yln-tao

to lead

69

16

El±

t-shdng

loosely: over

69

18

69

18

111. 112. 113.

legally: and above lao-k'u

114.

( as

+ASS2l± ) toiling

115.

kd-cht

various levels

69

23

116.

hb-teng

what a degree — how

69

24

commander-in-chief without

69

27

117.

Mil

vm-ping

szu-ling

an army

LESSON 1 P.

L.

118.

wen-tzu

written language

69

28

119.

kai-ko

to reform

69

28

yen-yu

120. 121.

-s-iE tm on

*

122. 123. 124.

fifiHtn

mm

spoken language

69

28

wu-hsien

limitless

69

29

yuan-ch'uan

source

69

29

hang-ch'tian

sailing ship

69

36

toei-t'ing

masthead

69

36

horizon

69

36

to welcome

69

36

125.

ti-p'ing

126.

huait-ytng

hsien

LESSON 1

%

g

iStAWMifi '

-

t

i

m^m^^m

°

I f

m

f

t

( I )

f

t

j

r

' sfcBS » A s s « «

°

» ¡ t t A t t J E S » f f i f i f i T ^ « ^ o ^ f f l ^ i t ^ m ' a f f l u x * AKtr®J it A » n m m m & m ^ m m » m m ^ m m m - ^ . » » °

ra»mstix^msir^^e^

° « w ^ + m m *

A^K^ffifftHf

1

°

»

>

' ' HSSftHrKS

S

»

10

ft«®

o

? 0

A

in

nm >

»m

15

( TB& )

nmnm-Mi-m^JEmmmm > "Z-^mm^Mmim^» °

°

.

o

^jSKjiftHKias o

.

fffmmB.. -

Til. ^%

20

fliaHssfcs-ffl^fiSKBas'

' { - Y M m ^ ' n n M m m ^ ^ m m m . m ^ ° ctbs )

M s » ^ f e f f i S A S f f i ^

°

»

25

3

0

77

LESSON 1

g f r s f ^ f f i * ®

m

'

m

m

» '

' ffiffeffl^itf?*

»

r mmm j

^ s » r » * j

»

r

10

«

t

j

b

'

mr

°

1

»sw^ j »iEff^i^^i'ia-tes-fflia^®!!: 0 fi&ffi mm j »HfSflWHM^iJ»* ° j§§j£& sfcj&is' r ft j

m

»

M

K

»aft&ffiftiettMft r & wscfc J *

a '

»

t

t

» & m m a :

o

w

°

i

1 J

^

w

s

^

s

^

»

»



°

20

mm^MmtEmm

* a « « « » ® » *

K

y

R

^

i

o

*JfctfflllK ' °

t

T

'

E

»

ftj^astA • O jfgjg j l

»

»

^ i ^ i u m

°

'

a

i

»igansffiwssre ?

r wftitscfe

F

5

» 3ft n T B l t e i r « * * ]

»

r

»

°

«¡^tiiniiftwettiis^Ki^if

f

^

MijfttfBP^asfcafcflfeffl ;

»

w

»

m

••

mvk'

*

m

fiftjpf

°

a

mm%

* flllp * Jff a«Afingj£

25

30

78

LESSON

H f f i g & S j S i & t t t t t l l i g

'

m>

o

mm

»

1

j q j | | R J f t P S ± 3 i ] »

»

°

M h - M M m r s m . » °

Wnmm o mmm ••

?

a

'

m s

' t

a ^ T f f K i ^ a s x ^ » m ^ m m ^ «

flbff9tts^ass&«psijisaiflbff!i@

* t

r

a

'

^

l

a

s

i

^

^ m

m

i

'

^

t

i

^ t

r

s

f

a i

T

s

i °

*

*

®

°

f

s

a

i

i

r



'

>

r

ftffsravmsfc^^^r

i

i

q

i

m

t

filM

'

2 i « f f l l £ - l S t '

c

a

n

°

i

H

»

mmte»mmw »

i t g f f f i s r a ^ *

2 5

o

° m m & m » H i n ^ A w t a m »

m^nmiiE&m^

^

° c T»& )

°

:

f

sratra»^mnmmummm

m' %mm2L£M$mffith%m»sf^fF'sjs&iifiisiij «

R

i s

s t m

m^^mM^mitmm.»2«»®»&

mn^m^mm.»rfnKit^MiggWMft

°

ffi^g

3 5

LESSON

79

1

»

n '

'

» « f t

« s f f l w r n s i a i i » ® « * » f t » H f u m n « > a s - f f l t s

•&) i sC2 m Di mnfc» r

If

J

80

LESSON 1

VOCABULARY:

1-1

Rectify the Party's Style in Work

1. 2. 3. 4.

MM

mm.

5. 6.

IS

7.

m ^ m

P.

L.

cheng-tun

to rectify

76

2

Tang-hslao

Party School

76

4

ch'ing-chu

to celebrate

76

4

chien-chih

simply

76

9

cheng-ch't

in good order

76

10

pii-tiao

steps

76

10

chien-k'u

outstandingly (courageous)

76

14

cho-chueh

amid unsurpassed difficulties 8.

mm

9.

hUai-i

to doubt

76

14

cMng-p'ai

correct

76

18

10.

mm.

hsueh-feng

learning style

76

18

11.

MS

ptng-ts'un

compatible

76

19

tui-tai

to treat

76

21

hu-t'u

muddled

76

24

12. 13.

tfi#

mm Mff

liu-hstng

to prevail

76

24

15.

hsten-ch'eng

ready-made

76

26

16.

p'ien-yu

with more emphasis on one

76

27

14.

side jen-chen

conscientiously

77

1

t'iao-li

system

77

1

19.

shang-sheng

to raise

77

2

20.

wii-jen

to mistake

77

2

17. 18.

21.

liSiSr

mm M®

liang-chi

two extremes

77

4

It-ch'tu

to make efforts to

77

7

22.

tl*

23.

3c IE

kai-cheng

to correct — overcome

77

7

SStfJ

chuang-ch'u

to pretend

77

9

25.

tnten-k'ung

face

77

9

26.

hsia-hu

to bluff

77

9

fu-lu

to capture

77

9

ch'ung-tsd

to serve as

77

10

servant

77

10

to see through

77

10

innocent

77

10

24.

27.

f?*

28. 29.

fflA

yung-jen

30.

itl®

shth-p'd t'ien-chen

31. 32. 33.

lan-man

7t S

ch'ung-tang

to serve as

77

11

PS i t

ko-li

severance

77

18

LESSON 1

to shoot the arrow at the

34.

yù-tì

35. 36. 37.

fàng-chìen

to shoot an arrow

tùi-chùn

to aim at

fàng-shìh

P. 77

L.

77 77 77

20 20 22

77 77 77

22 22 23

77 77 77 77 77 77

23 23 24

20

target

ISTFJ

mm

wù-tì

fàng-shìh

to shoot an arrow at no target

38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49.

m% mm.^ A® UH "SU

lùart-fàng

i-t'ung

nùng-hùai

to harm

ts'ó-lài

to rub between the hands

ts'ò-ch'ù

continuously Iten-sheng

repeatedly

tsàn-yueh

to chant praise

kù-tùng

curio

chìen-shàng

«SU

m.Bmm

to shoot arrows blindly

chia

connoisseur

chi-hu

almost

shén-mì

mystery

kò-pteh

certain words and phrases

tzà-chù ling-tàn

shèng-yào

efficacious pill and divine

77 77 77

24 24 28 29 29 30

medicine — panacea

50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64.

65. 66.

mtj

nmsm

ch'i-lì

efforts

pào-t

pò-pìng

yù-chìh

mmmm ILFTI •FII'DI

m-P

P I US

to cure all diseases infantile ignorance

méng-mèi ch'i-méng

yùn-tùng

wù-chih

enlightenment movement ignorant

lào-shih

honestly — bluntly

p'ìen-p'ìen

pertinaciously

chìn

ì-pù

k'òu-t'óu

to go a step further on the mouth — verbally

77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 78 78 78

wù-t

no advantage

kung-p'ò

destroy by assault

ch'uan-tàng

78 78 anti-inside nature — mutual 78

m mm

p'ài-nèi

tiM

fàng-ài

ts'àn-yu

whole party

remnant

hsìng

30 30 31 31 31 32 32 34 36 2 3 4 5 8 9

exclusiveness among the party members p'ài-wài

to hinder hsìng

anti-outside nature — exclusiveness towards non-party people

78 78

9 10

LESSON 1

82

67. 68. 69. 70.

71. 72. 73. 74.

75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83.

84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90.

MW

ch'an-ch'u hiio-ken

ftfTfcSlfi

ch'dng-hstng

n

n&o

w-U-tsu

It-t



hsia-chi

±®

shang-chi

KSISj

Chang

IS 31

p'dn-tang

HB5

yu-fang

Kuo-t'ao

t'e-wu

kit-ch'uan

ta-chit

t-hsiang

-3-3A. 1=1 nHH tBStUfi fT B l

yen-lun ch'u-fa hsu-k'd Lien-kung

pao-kao

am

t'ung-ch'ang shuai-lao szu-w&ng chung-tuan

ifetfc

je-ch'ert kuan-hsin

tien

to eradicate root of evil to go on smoothly without obstruction implies to make a disturbance or to behave improperly MSn/.tt means to assert improper or excessive independence, i. e., to commit mistakes of insubordination interest lower level higher level b. 1898, one of the founders of the Communist party, became an apostate in 1936 after he broke with Mao on party policies and joined the Nationalist side to betray the party secret agent to take precaution to take into consideration the whole situation one item opinion starting point to tolerate contraction of Communist party of the Soviet Union report normally senile to die to interrupt warmheartedness to concern about

P. L. 78 10 78 11 78 12 78

14

78 78 78 78

14 17 17 18

78 19 78 19 78 20 78 21 78 78 78 78 78

21 21 22 22 24

78 78 78 78 78 78 78

25 25 26 26 28 29 29

LESSON 1

91.

P.

L.

pu-liang

bad

78

30

ch'ang-ch'u

strong point

78

32

hsin-hsieti

new

78

33

94.

HA mm mwL

jui-min

sharp

78

33

95.

ivfif

je-ch'ing

warm feeling

78

33

78

34

92. 93.

ch'u-ch'ang

96.

pu-tiian to acqurie the strong points (of others) to strengthen the deficiencies (of their own)

97.

fang-chth

to guard against

78

35

98.

wai-lai

outside

79

2

99.

pen-ti

local

79

2

it-pu

condition

79

10

100.

MP

84

LESSON 1

* -

B(J)

K f H AST mjwiwuMmj&Tiffl^ftmm ° mmmmm%i ••

m^mm^mmmm f ^-w 1 c-3 » mmmmm^M^m^» r^ a®®»AAisir J

»

—fflA3S«EAK '

° > 3HSBI»*g5R ° Sn£&*&!&iHH

10

^ oj o jiAjK-teftji.—a^Aia° fflfSttM^^ffiflKAKiE

'

15

?

'

o

l b * — f f l l O f ^ i E ! I S I f t a f f l W A — H S f O ^ f t S i n ® ? iESfcfi—ffi ! C A ^ ) m '

(BftE o ^ B ^ j K * - «Anauiti^Eraas&w—fflR» ° '

-m§rAmRMXrnX » i S i i S S ^ C

' asfPAistiw o

20 >S t i * « « »

ftasi®»»

iSStJ ' S ^ f c j °

m » fEiLife-f-

»

ft-

m±' mm

o

m f e m & j k ^ n m m m x n M m » ^ i i r e f t f t ^ w r ^ » W ^ a r s W ' tfciifcsift o S S a f c d l ^ A l K *

° S ^ a a ^ A K

- ^^«Wllffi

i ^ A S * ' «SASiejfeRtijBAiia * ¿ g « « ' a e

>

>

°

m m ^ m z r i w

25

85

LESSON 1 12 *

o iSSffABS: *

h '

»

ft^ffl^xsiSiT&isxfiFassis^K«^

Rffflw^wsiRw»Mii&tj -

°

' re e

^R m m m ^ m ^ A ^ . -

A%smT'£ftKMJrm»¡s^Tffak

a ® ' ffl^^s&gawsis'

M^iiiKimffiT;

wmffiT;

j

»

* s f « « ° *e

^ M i i w m f f i » 5

°

asfc^ta»

-^m&MmwL^-m»°

fltiff5&tt*AiR

m^rn

»jfTptt^igifftifi »

^ A K

^ » SiMiitt o {aSfMft^mii* » tfiftgjfe » Sti&ft 10

« '

'

' itsfcSfti mAW3gi

o

-sew'

AIJ

' °

»SET^S

» » A K i i a m ® » - i - f f i s s r a a t s w a ® ® » ^ ^

® ' —

^

m

m a o iiff!H*i#st—swfiwff«w ° i n n r e h j rsraj »

15

»

°

m

&

s

m

»

2

0

m m & m ^ A m ^ KrjB^&si^AK»^«

a i a x f p » E H i w i i w -

25

mmtl » nmftmm *

' WM >

^m-mm^^mm^imm»30

ibsfcii^SiJilDHiS^® ^ t t i w ° ± « ± *

-

»anamffi» «utsjs^

»

35

LESSON 1

mmmmtm»{mn^M^mmmm-im^mmm^m^mm SftKAK o

5

mafBmmm o

nm»sfc^ta'

M-

»

»

o iftawmife-ffl^ffi' — ® •i s : ffilft«

r

fomffivt!

' iPifM^ns

j

'

» i f i i w f f e

o ( T8& )

10

[§£ mi c- d r 5$ >

j

°

ffitt—r

J (

w w b m i > mmw.mm.mB )

teltKtt

° / L ^ - ^ T S R r -

m^nMm^m^mi&mm > wmm^ c - : RmmmA^r^i&i'f&M-nmmm ° >

® j

: r

tojo

ra

o -amm^mmm—

mm^mm>—aatftaatas-» A * * « » e«st ' H « ® « > Silt' ' ' rtf ' o , > ° a « » n a g > t i s f e t f « > t n « t m ° J i¥Ass!Jt?i' m m m & M - m m m m ' ^ m m m

itmm

o

mm\mb: r Aj&mim^m > mamx.?a> a >tresis.>

m&A'

jiu^striii^WiJ)

> m&m

M*nR# r « * j r

>m s - s a s s : o j c r 2

LESSON 1

VOCABULARY:

1-J

Oppose the Party Eight-Legged Essay

1.

Afl£

pa-ku

eight-legged essay (a style

P.

L.

84

2

84

4

84 84

4

of essay of the old examination system, up of

eight parts, with

overwhelming on form content) 2.

m s

K'ái Féng

made

emphasis

rather

than

presumably the chairman of the meeting

3.

tsüng-chih

purpose

4.

küng-chü

instrument

I *

MM

5

ts'üng-shén

to hide oneself

84

6

6.

chiang-i-chün

a term in the Chinese chess

84

8

7.

yüan-húng

84

8

5.

game meaning to "check"

8. 9. 10.

3s IH.

mx

11. 12. 13.

pi-lü

the true form is completely

lao-shü

exposed rat

84

8

i-péi

onefold

84

11

hái-jén

to harm people

84

11

pü-ch'ien

not superficial — seriously

84

11

•ft®

yü-yin

to mimeograph

84

11

«¡E

páo-chih

newspaper

84

12

fm

chieh-ch'üan

to expose

84

13

15.

Lü Hsütt

1881-1936, writer, pen name 84

15

16.

yáng-ch'i

Western flavor

84

t'ü-ch'i

native flavor

84

16

ch'áng-chiu

long

84

i-pan

a group of

84

18 21

jén-wü

personage

84

21

14.

of Chou Shu-jen 17. 18.

±.M

16

19. 20.

-SE

21.

XsX

wén-yén

wén

writings in classical style

84

21

22.

ÓB5C

pái-hüa

wén

writings in vernacular style

84

21

23.

shéng-tüng

lively

84

22

24.

S »

húo-p'ó

active

84

22

\m

Confucius

84

23

hsin-féng

84

24

25. 26.

K'üng

Fü-tzü

to believe reverently

LESSON 1

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

X* mm

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

5E®

«fit «Jf

su-ch'tng

52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59.

mm Mm

ts'ui-hui

SsStl 3&S

weti-chang pang-hsten

che

ch'du-t'ai hao-chao kung-chi

mm

t'bu-nao ken-shett

tt-kii

dead and stiff retrogressive obstacle existing condition current — direction to inherit a certain number of deviation

szu-ytng hdu-t'ui

pi«

tsu-ai

miK

hslen-chuang

^^

ch'ao-liu

a s

chl-ch'eng jd-kan p'ien-hstang

to hold firmly negative accidental

na-te-wen

ftffi

hsiao-cht ou-jan

m» MS® I I

shu-fu

JgF»

ch'i-fd

bondage beginning construction project to arouse bad habit to get rid of to spread

k'ai-tuan kiing-ch'eng d-hsi ch'iian-po k'uo-ch'ing fan-ying ch'u-shen k'itang-je

ttm

hsing

ma

shuo-li hsiao-li huan-ping

62. 63. 64.

MM -m

i-ching

65.

s i

chth-liao

tz'u-chi huan-che

to destroy to sweep away reflection social origin fanaticism to sweep properly

ta-sao te-tang

60. 61.

literary composition toady ugliness to call on achievement mind root deep and branches strong — deeply ingrained

che

to pursuade by reasoning effect a patient shock a patient to be frightened treatment

P. 84 84 84 84 84 85

L. 24 25 26 27 28 1 85 1 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86

5 5 6 10 13 14 15 17 17 20 20 24 26 27 30 31 31 32 34 34 37 1 3 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9

86

10

LESSON 1

«

-

BOO

5 ft # *

mmrm ?

X

±

°

1 » » ^ i s s .

u ^ H f f i t t S W f f i — j ®

mm-mtt

°

*M"T£lffl*IRBillliift—usaw^ ?

10

! ! !

fcrtm®. ~



KisAiEi i

WM

»

15

°

-

' M ^ i E - E f t ^ oRWSA ' ^iife-tA >

»^fFti*» wR A ^ S ^ m i

W

ft Sift '

fib—SS^iSifrSW^iaSE

»

"ft

ft

20

°

a i a s ^ g s c m » » — ^ s u » S M ^ S » « ^ ^ ^ » m o

» « r s & w t t

' - S S ^ S S f ^

' —

°

25

» SSIB54IS1S ' R S K ^

'X' i t ^ i s a j x f p . i f i i ^^jmp '

ur « 3 .

frfttt&j-jjfr&mmyimm.

JiafcHiifiiEe^JiSWT

»

°

»

"^-ij/jN>i^T"

'

° ffetS °

a s m ^ r a e « m n «J

"mm

> a ^ ^ m p w j f i i s s w »

' f&S. 30

90

LESSON 1

hj® °

w °

» —«fctsttir

^ J L ^ ^ f c ^ JE.X

>

J

>

E

?

0



'

io

9

^ t ^ j E . *

' i f g ^ W l f t : ' S ^ ^ f t ^ « «

B

»

? aftSiHWDfl^Kl

' M^ffbTtf

» aflHf««fl&afta—®° ¡em»®

30

91

LESSON 1

?

o

° Hilt»

ragfttessMUgT—JStfuraiR»

» a f f l i s s ^ s ^ m '

^ i a s ^ M g f t ^ '

' ^ f i ^ ^ m ^ A i k ^m m

'P » ^KSSHS/hffiA * ^¡SA

»fla«»

- vm±

* -kl&h&M&'P °

^ffl^ix^iifi^-

Kfflwsw^iEaMo IjUtfci^fifr«

25

i l f X A

«FK

30

35

92

LESSON 1

(ftftmm) w a ^ i » ^ f S f f l t i i f t t g a « ^ ° mm w j j n u i r a °

nm^^m^MM^^mmmmm^°

° a f f l S T ' i ^ W f t S S

^

sflij^iisjs

°

10

* m ^^rtmmg-ife

« » f ^ x A M W A ^ i s : ' fTSHfrHiX»

- t e S T » « ^ '

5

t si m & 1 % * in if

^g&^s^wMTtras>fiw&mm»

iraiBK«®:«'



mkmmn-^m^mmfo»»

ib^

» ^ « t ^ i s m

m»MiiftK^rftw«^»ten&fr's&iimviftKfim®»

20

r » » g t ^ ^ s n s f l b w i g t « — ^ « w - ^ s f c t e t t

0

£

°

Hitt» &ff3fl533ltfBiT#«:#t|if3i. 0 # t a f r £ 5 S I i

^ ^ W f t ^ W ^ W S i H ^ a W ^ B W I i l ^ f l

S T S S K i a « m&m'

mmm

»

' " ^ p M s f c ^ a t r

w ^ ^ n m » ° S a S S ^ ^ S ®

!

w e i s s s »

25

M M

'

s

I&A^H »

nmmxpim»^na»^: 35

93

LESSON 1

-fc

(1)

SfflStt^fPfilTxtftlliE

»M&sbmmmti

itwiss'

° iWRKiffi

jEftwasiiw ° (2) I S S # ® J i ? { + & A ? g J i f f i ^ B J T t t ^ W F t t i E & t J A o JB^f&gft . s '

» H^flb

B^flfefflwa^wss - wtafij^mif ° m R i m » I A M

• i & s » '

a

a

^

-

i

i

b

s

»

»

°

10

» ' is«

^feft^ffi O

15

(3)

jfJESAiW ?

» S J t t R l E i l W ® « o g ^ A ^ t e W A ^ f t ^ * ! : > fBiMi:/jXfifcttA#3E °

VLlLh&h'P

S H A ' ^ a ^ H ^ B M (4)

' SftlHlEAttWfii&Jt °

'

fllS^f

3d °

S ^ H S f l g ' WSASHMPlSJfcia '

x«i'

t&mmm

° »fsi " i i f f i a g " ' '

(5)

W

»

» WS

» s w * »

» aswffls

» ' W '

»

&

2

5

ȣ81S

S^t^-tBM

St ' y ^ m ^ m » ( 6 ) mwA W&ikmiiSX^^iA ftJfi^r

20

(mia-^fttt -)

i f * JSU^MH '

° '

'

^ « H f )

' Sfct-^HH (

o

a S S T » *

«

' iiBliiSiJ^m °

35

94

LESSON 1

(7) IB& » i E i a S ^ ^ S I B T ^ ° » T A S ^ i r W [;i

°

ffl

C D S « IralS • A f t ^ H » c 2 * m / M f t

o

° ffWMtiif? '

mm® °

:

' W H '

' '

* «suas^am *

ft—A

°

u-n^mm^mra^^s»

coili^igyXffi ^ i S i i l f i f f r a O j i & E »

MMitmm °

° "

« / K T i f l l » BrfS^ftrtTfc^JRSffi-f141

*

iiiiaH^Kj^Jg ° ' SiMdimiSi '

ftriffifi

' mm ° -

95

LESSON 1 VOCABULARY:

1-K

Oppose Bookishism P.

L.

1.

pen-pen

2. 3.

Hfi

tiao-ch'a

bookishism survey, investigation

89 89

2 4

fa-yen ch'uan

right of speech

89

4

4. 5.

Jam

iMi

89 89

7 7

i-tun

real situation blind talk — nonsense tun is a classifier for talk

89

7

kung-tdo

fair whole day

89 89

8

ch'eng-t'ien ch'ih-ju

disgrace to stress

89 89

hsia-shuo

6. 7.

AM.

8. 9. 10.

chu-1*

9

md-wei

end

89

9 13 18

12.

hsien-t'ovL

beginning

89

18

13.

foolish person

89

18

i-tui

a bunch of

89

19

11.

a s tRJS

chu-chung

14.

i A -it

ch'un-jen

15.

Jti-^sis

mtng-szu

16.

i.®

chu-i

17.

MUM Sff-

hsun-shth

18.

chieh-jen

19.

-SI

20. 21.

¡Efea

22.

to meditate and cogitate

89

19

decision

89

20

inspector

89 89

22

to take over an office

i-tao

as soon as one arrives

89

hsuan-pu

to announce

89

22 23

cheng-chien

policy

89

23

chih-c hieh

23

k'ii-sd yuan

22

k'o-wh

89 branch and section — a small part to make gestures by hand 89 and foot — to act dramatically showing a sense of superiority 89 detestable

yu-tao

to encounter

89

26

t'^n-ch'l nao-Mo

to sigh with regret to be irritated, exasperate

89 89

26 26

28.

ch'ing-ch'iu

to request

89

27

29. 30.

ts'ai-li ]/Lkn-pu-hsia

ability cannot do — incompetent

89 89

27 27

nd-fu

coward

89

27

23.

iB^-Hffi]

24.

«ras

25. 26. 27.

31.

ta^c t t i

ckih-shou hha-chiao

* Romanizations in roman type in the second column indicate that the corresponding characters are simplified.

23

24

96

LESSON 1

32. 33.

mmm

P.

L.

mAi-k'ai

to take a step — t o start walking

89

27

met

(The Master, when he 89 entered the grand temple,) asked about everything. Analects, Book I I I , Chap-

28

shth-wen

ter X V 34. 35.

mm

jen-p'ing

no matter how

89

29

kuei-ldi

to return

89

30

36.

chao-cht

37.

shth-yueh

38.

-Mfrm

(Legge)

i-chao

huai-i fen-wan

to summon

89

31

ten months in the womb

90

3

one day the child is

90

3 7

delivered 39.

pu-wei

unexpectedly

90

40.

iH/jN

chih-shih

90

8

41.

•m

directive

ch'tng-shih

situation

90

9

shen-cA'a

investigation

90

10

- i *

i-wei

unvaryingly

90

10

ts'e-lueh

strategy

90

11

WA

shen-jii

to go deeply into

90

12

42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

fPS

tsd-kuai

to make mischief

90

12

47.

MX

i-1

different opinion —

90

12

48.

g l

tai-kung

sabotage

90

14

t'ao

to seek a life

90

16

objection 49. 50.

sheng-huo

i-p'i

one batch

90

17

51.

cheng-chii

evidence

90

17

52.

hsien-chS

—fit

ancient sage

90

18

53.

ikek

nien-t'ou

idea

90

21

54.

mt

p'an-t'u

traitor

90

21

55.

m s

chang-wd

to grasp

90

22

56.

ft*

ku-liang

evaluation

90

26

blind-actionism

90

28

k'ung-titng

empty

90

30

59.

nung-ch'u

to commit

90

32

60.

liu-hsin

to pay attention to

90

32

61.

yu-chicn

to meet with

90

33

62.

Li

a

90

33

57. 58.

mang-thng STIRI

K'uei

chu-\

figure in the Shui-hu Chuan, nicknamed Black Whirlwind (English by Pearl Buck in All Men are Brothers)

LESSON 1 P.

L.

Tf-K

A&a/i-chang

officer

90

34

64.

3B*

fan-shih

to transgress

90

34

65.

tftflftt

meng-meng

foolishly and confusedly

90

34

63.

tung-tung 66.

chiu-fen

trouble

90

35

67.

wei-hsin

prestige

90

35

J&iff

68.

skTiff-shih

to lose

90

35

69.

hsi-shua

to wash away

91

2

JEW

ting-ch'u

to map out

91

5

71.

>t®f

p'ien-tuan

fragmentary

91

7

72.

SIR

to enter on an account

91

9

dog meat account (materials

91

9

70.

kua

chang

kou-jdu

73.

chang

collected are only

trash,

as worthless as dog meat) 74.

hsiang-Ai«« jen

country man — bumpkin

91

9

75.

friSf

hsin-ch't

new and strange

91

9

76.

45:*

ku-shih

tale

91

10

77.

ch'eng-kiio

city and suburbs

91

10

78.

sh&ng-shiiai

rise

honor and

91

12

for example

91

13

peasant cultivating his own

91

13

91

13

79.

mm

chfi-/z

80.

tzu-keng

81.

pan

and

fall,

disgrace

jfing -ju nung

land tzu-keng

nfing

peasant not cultivating

his

land wholly with his own labor

urn

tsu-tien

tenancy

91

14

83.

chung-nung

middle peasant

91

14

84.

p'tn-nCmg

poor peasant

91

15

85.

shang-jen

merchant

91

16

82.

ISA

86.

\i&T\g-shih

food grain

91

16

87.

SJift

i-fu

clothes

91

16

88.

Mtt

yko-ts'ai

medicine

91

16

hang- y6h

a trade

91

16

89. 90.

ft±

MS9

91.

chieh-p'ou

to dissect

91

20

chung-chi

ultimate

91

20

handicraft

yfeh

^Xik

shou-kung

91

26

95.

JSfc

/iw-nung

hired peasant

91

27

94.

tttfiSK

ch'eng-shih

urban pauper

91

29

92.

p'in-mtn

98

LESSON 1 P.

L.

tramp

91

30

the rest

92

4

97.

chïng-ch'âng

frequently

92

5

98.

p'èng-chien

to meet with

92

5

99.

ï-chih

with the result that...

92

7

100.

mô-hu

hazy

92

7

101.

shân-t'6u

mountain top

92

8

102.

p'ing-tî

plain

92

8

103.

shên-tzu

body

92

8

104.

ï-jâti

still

92

9

democracy

92

12

if

92

16

hesitating

92

17

reformism

92

19

yii-min

96.

ch'i-yii

95.

ffig,

Hit ihîk

105.

wi/n-ch'uan

106.

t'âng-jd

107. 108. 109. 110.

ifcHk mm mm mm

chù-i

y û-yû kài-lîang

chû-\

pào-tmg

insurrection

92

20

liu-mâng

rascal

92

20

chèn-yâ

to suppress

92

21

112.

chien-jùi

sharp

92

21

113.

tûan-ping

to fight at close quarters

92

21

at all times

92

25

once formed and never

92

26

111.

hsiang-chïeh 114.

shih-shih

115.

i-ch'éng

116.

lè-kûan

optimistic

92

26

pu-pîen

changed — inflexible mm

117.

pâo-chàng

to guarantee

92

28

118.

tsûn-shôu

to comply with

92

28

119.

chi-ùng

fixed

92

28

to go nowhere without

92

28

a s

wu uoâng érh

120.



victory

shèng-Zî

mm 121.

chû-mten

situation

92

29

122.

tïu-ùao

to reject

92

30

123.

hsïen-jârt

obviously

92

31

àn-yû

to feel at ease with the

92

31

92

31

92

32

124.

STïEtt

A»cn-chùang pû-ch'tu

125.

shèn-chïeh

status quo not to seek for a thorough understanding

126.

l&A^H

pâo-shîh

chùng-jïh

to stuff oneself with food the whole day

127. 128.

irsffi



- n

i-hsîang

k'ô-shùi

to doze

92

33

always

92

33

LESSON 1

129. 130.

Biffi

131.

mv?

134.

stale talk of an aged scholar

P. 92

L. 34

tired of listening

92

34

ià-shéng ch't-hu

to cry loudly ( t o arouse attention ) — to make an outcry to awake

92

34

92

34

to change to change to something else

92

35

92

36

hùan-hsing

132. 133.

lào-shèng ch'àng-t'àn yèn-t'ing

mm

135.

kài-pìen hùatt-ch'u chìn-yu

close to

93

5

136.

was

ch'òu-ch'u

to induce

93

5

137.

^IM

pìen-lùn

debate

93

7

138.

mw

profoundly and precisely

93

10

139.

shèn-ch'ìeh n'ten-ling

age

93

10

140.

s s

yitt-ktto

cause and effect

93

11

141.

m \

jùi-lì

sharp

93

chih-yèh

occupation

93

12 12

to have nothing to do with to be present

93

14

ÌEffi

93

14

145.

wù-kùan tsài-tsò t'ùng-chì

statistics

93

18

146.

ffifiU

chéng-hsùn

to inquire

93

18

147.

tsung-shù

sum

93

18

148. 149. 150.

ch'ìen-ch'ùeh

to lack

93

20

hùi-ch'àng àn-chìng

the site of a meeting quiet

93 93

21 21

93

22

93

23

142. 143. 144.

^

151.

0TBH

yù-yù chìstt-wén

152.

Si @

kàng-mù

constrained by what is seen and heard — limited in information outline and detail

f à-wètt

to ask questions

93

24

audience of a meeting

93

24

to raise

93

25

tà-kàng

outline

93

25

hsì-mù pù-p'i

detail cloth yardage

93

25

93

26

miscellaneous goods

160.

ts à-hùo yàng-pù

foreign cloth

93 93

26 27

161.

t'ù-pù

native cloth

93

27

ch'òu-tùan

silk and satin

93

27

ch'in-shén ch'u-mà

to do a thing oneself (rather than delegate it to somebody else)

93

28

153. 154. 155.

is®

156. 157.

ana

158. 159.

162. 163.

mm

hùi-chùng t't-ch'ì

100

LESSON 1

164.

ma

165.

P&M

166. 167. 167a. 168.

tan-/« hsiang chèng-fù chù-hsi tà tùi-chàng tui-chàng tsung szu-lìng

169.

chih-pù shu-c/ii tsung shù-chì shu-mieti ch'u-tz'ù

170. 171. 172. 173. 174.

ÌÉJB

175. 176. 177.

F5S& fiifA

hùo-pi wàng-hòu mén-lù chi-lù chìa-shòu yu-jén

to assume hsiang government chairman large team leader team leader commander-in-chief party branch secretary general secretary written first time money later door and road — direction record to put into the hands of others

P. 93 93

L. 29 29

93 93

29 29 29

93 93

30

93 93 93 93

30

93 93 93 94 94

34 35 36 1 3

30 31 33

101

LESSON 1

JB - B(L) a+Bftjfc^n ! ¡¿-Agm"*

^m^mmtaTn^m.>&& 5

WJLfcA• »

°

10

ft o ^ ^ x ^ f f i ^ / j N s n ^ s s s j x ^ i k s r p i i a » » s ^ T ^ - f b

°

i ^ w b m r * mm

-

st#*fflttAff3*is»^^s^tt^iaiKw

» n ^ s m

a-^tR-KwraAWsi o

«HiKittw-°^ Ate i f '

°

,

° m ^ m p m w ° g i r e f t ^ m a e

>

» f t f c a a i i a f l -

20

25

102

LESSON 1

°

rtTmmftmwLmm&mmfoftWifrT»i °

^^m^&^mm»ftfeirag&iB»:^

s»mmmm&rit » KSIB^B ° ft *

— » f l & f f i a ^ a f t

s ^ s i r w a r w s i i '

oa

X * £Hl±Xftm«i**:£XtoA ° »

*

5

* Xfg^ *

^ StfrlfiMtPir » S J S — S i K S f e a t o A ° S # A i £ E H

TitL-timA»«t>ia'

^ —^ = o

AmR&sfrz.-

±Xil!]Kto ° ^ » ^ f i ^ X X i i i l K t o A t o * ^ »

»

m-KMftfttmft*»

'

i n M ^ i t » inM^FJE »

Aing °

mtsm.

W ^ W & r * » > » f i s f t b i r a ^ s - ^ ' »

»

o

'

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o

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A s & i f p i f l ^ f f i t o & i s ' a a g f r i K ^ ^ w ^ a ^^ r t o s a ^m ^ m

35

103

LESSON 1

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& w (

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20

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30

104

LESSON 1

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mu o

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30

105

LESSON 1 W-hm

: ^ « a

o» a i t s » ® ssflsafnxfi^a °

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°

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35

106

LESSON 1

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m

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35

107

LESSON 1

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25 :

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35

108

LESSON 1 flfcfril-®

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ftitfcfl-i-

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35

109

LESSON 1

ffi^H

» Rj^fifriRSi/hSrBfriR'WmjSl»

'

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» j ^ i » ^ ® '

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10

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S K S '

5

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urn»

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nm^x^mmumm»aafT

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110

LESSON 1

[;£

m1

HHSEdbSS^W ° a j ^ ^ m w w ^ ^ «

( Ttr ) W f i k f t f c j f i f l ^

xmmu^

B f t t A H S A + ^ A »

H^stiasiiKi—^SEja»s^aiiiitjBT-iLEO^^aaiTft-^SEa

fFJE °

LESSON 1 VOCABULARY:

1-L

Talk at the National Propaganda Work Conference of the Chinese Communist Party L.

conference

P. 101

to be situated in

101

7

5.

chten-shè pien-Awa küng-shäng yèh

to build up change industry and commerce

101 101 101

9 10 11

6.

kò-t'i cA««£-chì

individual economy

101

12

101

12

1.

#f£

2. 3.

SUS

4.

hùi-ì ch'ù-iiàf

3

6a.

kô-t'ï

individual

7.

cAz-t'ï eAi«£-chi

collective economy

101

12

collective

101

12

private ownership system

101

12

public ownership system outlet — solution

101 101

13

chten-k'äng

healthy

101

18

mm

käng-käng

just

101

19

51® — H.

küng-fcw ì-tàn

to consolidate

101

19

once gradually

101 101

20

I M

chû-pù küng-yèh

industrialization

101

21

{h equivalent to - ized. modern

101

26

ching-ch'ueh

accurate

101

tà-yueh

approximately

101

29 30

tso-yù

in the neighborhood of

101

30

ài-kuo

patriotic

101

31 32

7a. 8.

szü-yü

9. 10.

küng-yü ch'û-lù

11. 12. 13. 14.

mm

15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

«fi»

20. 21.

ë B rsixN

chth chth

hùa

hsìen-tài

16

19

Ääo-hsing

happy

101

23.

/««-lien

to have a lingering affec-

102

3

24.

hsïng-/êw£ tsò-làng

tion for to raise wind and waves — 102

3

fèng-làng

to create trouble figuratively: unrest,

3

wàrt-kù

difficulty, etc. stubbornly

102

5

26.

küan-liao

bureaucrat

102

7

27.

ió-fù

to answer

102

12

22.

24a. E S 25.



102

LESSON 1

28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

mm ìm Kl®

mm tkm iäJ^ffi

P. shü-hsi

familiar with

102

16

chàn-vrèn

to stand firmly

102

16

chìao-kèn

the heel

102

16

yào-päi

to waver

102

19

hostile

102

21

world outlook

102

24

one who believes the

102

25

ch'öu-shih küan

shìh-chìeh yii-shén

34.

L.

lùn che

existence of a deity 35.

wu- shétt lùn che

atheist

102

25

36.

,&rfnH±.

tsüng érh yèn chìh

to sum up

102

26

37.

MS

ch\en-tìng

resolute

102

29

38.

Ü IBJ

kùo-käo

too high

102

30

39.

m&

chtang-ti

to lower

102

31

to persuade

102

33

40.

iftH

shüo-fü

41.

E^ffJiJ

Wü-nten CAì-hùa

Five Year Plan

102

33

42.

££

fä-tä

to develop

102

37

43.

J®}]

näo-/z

brain

103

4

44.

tsö-i

left wing

103

7

45.

chtao-shòu

professor

103

11

46.

« a

47.

chtao-yüan

teacher

103

11

yùng-kimg

to study hard

103

14

chln-^M

48.

tà-yu

49.

hsdeh-toè»

50.

shèng-ken

to develop roots

103

17

51.

Biffi

chiao-ào

arrogant

103

17

52.

«

lìao-pti-ch'ì

terrific

103

18

ài-mèi

obscure

103

19

53.

greatly improved

103

14

knowledge

103

16

mtng-làng

clear

103

20

pu-ch'éng

won't do

103

30

56.

ch'ìang-chìh

coercive

103

33

57.

mìen-ch'ìang

to force

103

34

ì-pèi-tzu

throughout one's whole

103

37

to glance at flowers while 104

3

54.

18 SB

55. &3S

58.

life tsöu-mä

59.

k'än-hüa

passing by on horseback — cursory look än-chia

60.

tà-ch'éng

lè-hù t-p'ìen

to establish a residence

104

6

to form an integral whole 104

8

62.

fèng- ch'i

mores

104

9

63.

fèn-p'i

in separate groups

104

11

61.

tTJÄ-fi-

LESSON 1

113

P.

L.

opinion

104

13

hsiao-kuo

result

104

14

ch'ien- jert

older generation

104

16

harvest — fruit

104

19

hundred schools contend

104

21

SSolfH

i-lun

MA

67.

shou-huo

68.

WiilHI

pb-chia

64. 65. 66.

cheng-mtng

69.

hsiieh-shu

learning

104

21

70.

chia-t'ing

25

71.

ko-ko

104 family having mental obstruction 104 rendering one totally

72.

iE-=na [=i

73.

pii-ju

unreceptive language

yu-yen

29

104

35

cheng-feng

rectification of the party work style

105

1

105

3

74.

^Sz:

ch'eng-lt

founding

75.

A ±

jen-shih

people

105

4

k'ai-cAa/i

to open up

105

8

76. 77.

aaflfci?

tzii-wo

self-criticism

105

8

77a.

Sffc

tzii-wo

self

105

8

chieh-ia

to expose

105

8

79.

icf/i

fit-yen

perfunctory

105

10

80.

fnJEfflS

ho-feng

78.

81.

82.

fem&A

83. 84.

p'i-p'tng

hsi-yu

mild breeze and fine rain

105

11

ch'6ng-ch'ien /»-hdu

to have had a disaster before and to be more cautious later — once burnt, twice shy

105

11

chth-ptng

to cure disease and save people glorious

105

11

105

12

chiu-jen

kuang-\xxng its

85.

k'en-itng

to affirm

105

12

fou-iing

to deny

105

14

toan-chiu

to save from

105

21

**

pen-shih

ability

105

27

88.

M

ch'eng-hstn

sincerely

105

28

89.

AZlS

86. 87.

li-chih

to make a determination

105

28

90.

fan-tsui

guilty of crime

105

29

91.

sha-t'6u

to decapitate

105

30

pan-fang

jail

105

30

wu-so luei-chu

to have nothing to fear

105

31

books and newspapers

105

31

cannot be bent ( ch'u and nao are synonyms)— unyielding

105

32

92. 93.

m9i

94.

shu-p&o

95.

pu-ch'u

pu-nao

LESSON 1

96.

tfB?

97.

P.

L.

k'ai-p'l

to open up, to pave

105

33

k'ung-ch'ten

unprecedented

105

34

prosperous

105

34

men of virtue and

105

36

98.

mm

/¿«-jung

99.

fctfcA

chih-shih jen-jen

determination 100.

to struggle

106

1

fu-yu

affluent

106

2

102.

chlen-cA«

arduous

106

3

103.

cheng-tiao

to reject

106

4

104.

ts'd- che

setback

106

7

chten-l

suggestion

106

8

106.

she-te

to sacrifice

106

8

107.

huang-ti

emperor

106

8

108.

ta v/ii-wei

heroically courageous

106

9

109.

k'dn-fa

way of looking ( at a

106

13

101.

105.

fen-tdu



mm Mif

problem) — attitude 110.

- a «

111.

i-t'uan-tsao

a big mess

106

19

hs¿n-huai ti-i

to conceal animosity in

106

20

one's heart 112. 113.

WW m>b

114.

yu-hai

harmful

106

21

hsin-hsin

confidence

106

21

ch'u

to handle

115.

106

27

hard to avoid—unavoidable 106

28

116.

ts'ai-jywrc?

to adopt

106

30

117.

t'ing-chih

to come to a standstill

106

31

pei-tao erh ch'th

to run contrary to the

106

32

fiff

118.

proper direction 119.

mr

120.

t'iii-kuang

to expand

106

33

j/ien-ch'l shih-tsii

the style is pompous

106

34

huo-se

goods — content

106

34

kdo-tntng

of superior intelligence

106

36

123.

chia-tzu

airs, front

106

37

124.

chuang-ch'iang

to speak in falsetto and to

107

2

121. 122.

mm

make

f«)-shlh

impersonating

gestures — to pretend ch'i.ng-p'ten

ta-lun

long and ponderous article

107

3

tsa-Mien

essay

107

3

127.

pu-t^-liao

terrible

107

5

128.

chiing-k'en

apposite

107

10

feng-tz'u

irony

107

12

125. 126.

129.

JS Aim

££

SJiJ

LESSON 1

130.

tùi-fu

131.

fèn-ch'ing

to deal with ti-viô

to distinguish

clearly

P.

L.

107

14

107

15

107

16

between the enemy and ourselves 132.

i S M t i

mân-ch'ïang ]è-ch'tng

full of warm emotion in one's breast

133.

pâo-hù

to protect

107

16

134.

ch'âo-hstao

ridicule

107

17

135.

«ss

mw

té-tsùi

to offend

107

18

136.

kù-lu

anxiety

107

19

137.

hsîao-ch'û

to relieve

107

19

138.

hsïeh-iiô

to write

107

20

pô-hûa c h ' i - f à n g

hundred flowers bloom

107

20

shàn-mtng

to elucidate

107

22

139. 140. 141.

mm

chïeh-lù

to expose

107

24

142.

fàng-shôu

to let go

107

31

143.

Œffi?

yà-fû

to suppress

107

34

144.

&.MMA

î-lï

to subdue people by reason

107

34

necessary to take one ( of 107

37

ÎHIS

fû-jén

pt-ch'û

145.

ch't-i

the two )

146.

mm

ts'û-pào

violent

108

147.

ffi®j

yâ-chih

suppression

108

5

fflSc

hst-chth

painstaking

108

8

i-li

to subdue people by force 108

10

148.

5

150.

eiXMA mm r±

t'iti érJt kuang chi

to expand

108

14

151.

Jtfitffi

tùi-/ì mien

opposite side

108

20

152.

hb-y'ù

in accordance with

108

20

153.

li-lâi

as always in the past

108

21

chên-shàn-mëi

truth, goodness, and beauty 108

21

149.

154. 155. 156. 157.

mmm BLM mm mi

158.

fû-jén

fân-mten

opposite side

108

21

mïu-wù

falsehood

108

22

chien -pîeh

discern

108

26

ntu-kui

ox-demon and super-

108

33

shé-shért

natural serpent — weird and wicked people 159.

châo-chi

to get excited

108

34

160.

ÎT®C

hstng-chèng

administrative

108

37

161.

^

mtng-ïing

order

108

37

162.

jEfir

chèng-ch'âng

normal

108

37

ch"t-kùai

strange

109

3

163.

LESSON 1

164. 164a. 165.

äiffm mm

168.

tzü-liao means of production

tzü-liao

§TW©J

sö-yü

s s uns

fàn-làn

chih

t-shth

166. 167.

j/iën^-ch'ân

hsîng-t'ài

hü-lüeh

P.

L.

109

6

means; material; data

109

6

ownership system

109

6

ideology

109

8

to flood

109

12

to neglect

109

15

revisionism

109

15

169.

hsïu-chèng

170.

chtang-szü

deathly

109

19

171.

tnö-shä

to wipe out

109

21

172. 172a. 173. 174.

SfèE

tzù-chìh

gf&

tzù-chìh

itm mm a m

chü-i

ch'u

autonomous region

109

26

autonomy

109

26

täng-wëi

party committee member

109

26

ì-shìh

agenda

109

29

strong wind and heavy

109

30

first secretary (head of the 109

32

jìh-ch'éng

chi-fèng

175.

pào-y'ù

rains — storm

ta

176.

mm

tì-t shù-cAì

party committee) chùng-shìh

to pay serious attention to 109

33

178.

chào-k'äi

to convene

109

33

179.

tàng-iì

local

109

34

177.

LESSON 2

On the (Chinese Communist) Party This selection consists of two portions — on democratic centralism and on the mass line of the party — from Liu Shao-ch'i's

"Report on the

Revision of the Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party" of May 14, 1945. T h e revision here refers to the revision in 1945 of the Constitution of the Chinese Communist party which had been adopted Congress in 1928.

by

the Sixth

These two portions of Liu's report have been included

in the Compilations of Documents for

Socialist Education Courses (She-hui

Chu-i Chiao-yu te Yueh-tu Wen-chien Hui-pien) under a different title — "On the C Chinese Communist 3 Party."

Our selection here is taken from that

book. Though the Communist

movement

is

party in each country has its peculiarities.

international,

the Communist

T h e mass line and the system

of democratic centralism may be considered as two chief characteristics of the Chinese Communist party.

T h e mass line is a characteristic of the

Chinese Communist party that sets it apart, whereas democratic centralism is a universal principle of Communist parties which has received unusual emphasis in China. T h e mass line is emphasized in the revised Communist party Constitution of 1945.

It is described as the basic political, as well as the basic organiza-

tional, line of the party. T h e system of democratic centralism is equally emphasized in the revised Constitution.

It is described as the basic organizational principle of the

party, reflecting and specifying the relationships between the leaders and the ranks of the party, between the upper organizations and the lower organizations, and between the party center and party organizations at all levels on one hand and the party member masses on the other

hand.

Democratic centralism is defined as the reflection of the mass line of the party. T h e Constitution of the Chinese Communist more in 1956.

party was revised once

Teng Hsiao-p'ing, secretary general of the Central Committee,

made a report on the revision of the Constitution on September 16, 1956,

118

LESSON 2

re-emphasizing these two characteristics as the basic principles underlining the general program of the Constitution and elaborating on their mutual relationships.

119

LESSON 2

%

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120

LESSON 2

a

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20

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0

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35

121

LESSON 2 «ft '

tesfeSJifcAKlRfctt

tt ; Hjtfc »

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fflifc-gmmM&n&mm-»

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20

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25

122

LESSON 2

Mb ' ^ J t ^ R r f f i E t t >

'

f&m&ttiKJEtil&m

°«^m^-sfetaa: ^

g

a

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a

o mm

i w i ^ i i *

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^

» SEW

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& » » ^ « t t - ^ m s ;

» g a ® * ^

5

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HBteifcJ '

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30

123

LESSON 2

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o

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a

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»

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M

f

t

^

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a

«

(TB&)

25

124

LESSON 2

±

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Hiit'

:

5

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20

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it'

we* '

ASK °

i s s K j ^ s n M i j » r

° ( TB& )

" W ° mmmk^-^m^m

is

7 5 3 ^ 1 1 «

t t e i i i i t i i s s i R

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20

126

LESSON 2 VOCABULARY:

1.

tàng-châng

2.

tsùng-kâng t'iao-wén

3.

&X

4.

hsïu-kài

2 P.

L.

119

4

general principle

119

4

article

119

6

party constitution

amendment

119

7

5.

m*

1 u-tz'ù

repeatedly

119

10

6.

BW

k'ën-chleh

earnest

119

11

7.

IRI^I

tz'û-chù

wording

119

11

8.

W4P,

pïao-chih

banner

119

13

ch'uan-hsin

wholeheartedly

119

13

9.

ch'ûan-t 10.

œii-chin

inexhaustible

119

18

11.

hsitt-jèti

to trust

119

18

12.

mìng-lìng

commandism

119

19

to exceed

119

19

13.

MR

ma

chû-i

ch'ào-kùo

14.

chi-hsing

"sickness of impatience"

119

20

15.

tnàn-hstng ping

"sickness of sluggishness"

119

22

hsi-hsïn

ping

carefully

119

23

17.

ling- hùi

to comprehend

119

23

18.

chien-ch'tang

strong

120

1 8

16.

B'ù-

19.

pu-tu

not only

120

20.

ch'tng-ch'û

to get rid of

120

13 23

t'iao-hb

harmonious

120

22.

Aîï-kàn

backbone

120

26

23.

lâo-kù

firmly

120

31

fû-li

welfare

120

34

21.

ISÎB

24.

mm

25.

i m

mm

chîh-té

worthy of

120

35

26.

sûn-hài

to injure

120

36

27.

voi-» J

chûng-yu

loyal to

120

37

chih-wù

duty

120

37

28. 29.

tt&ii

ch'in-wù

30.

¿ic4.fi

chàn-tòu yuan

yuan

121

1

traditionally 121

2

orderly fighter (.yuan

means an official, and is used

to

designate

any

person in official capacity in the Communist usage. Thus,

chan-tou

yuan

means one who

fights,

i. e., a private.)

LESSON 2

P.

L.

31.

ch'ûi-shth

121

2

32.

islt^M

îzw-yàng yuan

one taking care of animals 121

3

33.

Htìt:

yuan /

cook

kâng-wèi

post

121

3

fù-tsé

to be responsible

121

6

35.

mien-té

to avoid

121

9

36.

ch'êng-k'ë-n

sincerely

121

11

37.

ch'ing-shùai

frivolous

121

13

38.

chìn-/ì

to do one's best

121

20

hô-ïteh

to separate as if by cutting 121

26

mâ-hu

careless

121

28

34.

39. 40. 41.

ft*

mm. miÈ.

chieh-fe'ôw

pretext

121

31

chûng- ch'éng

faithful

121

34

SRRft

kûo-chi kò

3

Willi

The Internationale gods

122

shén-hsïen

122

4

ying-hstung

hero

122

4

hero

122

4

to bestow a favor (from a 122

6

ftp

42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

* *

hâo-chi eh

47.

JHB&

ên-tz'ù

superior to a subordinate) 48. 49.

M

yû-chien

foresight

122

11

St*

chi-sùan

calculation

122

11

Aîien-chiieh chë

those who first apprehend 122

12

50.

principles (a term

first

appearing in Mencius) 51.

J81&

hòu-chiieh

those who are slower to 122 apprehend principles

( a

term first appearing

in

12

Mencius)

52.

chûng-sh i h

loyal

122

12

53.

tsû-kôu

sufficient

122

13

54.

chl-ching

alert

122

14

55.

chtao-tào

to instruct

122

19

56.

hst-t'ûng

systematic

122

21

57.

shëng-ying

rigidly

122

23

pân-yùn

to transport

122

23

Îfelg

58.

MM

59.

SSffl

60.

vm-yùng

useless

122

24

kûan-mén chû-l

closed-doorism

122

28

61.

iMt-chun

level

122

31

62.

tsùng-hó

sum

123

2

63.

yû chï-t'i

organic body

123

3

shôu-nâo

head

123

4

64.

mia

128

LESSON 2

65.

iia-K la*

P.

L.

isw-chang

head of a party cell

123

8

tsii-yuan

member of a party cell

123

8

67.

cheng-t'i

whole

123

13

68.

hsuan-chu

to elect

123

16

66.

69. 70.

Uti

71.

nm.

chueh-t

resolution

123

17

ch'iian-/i

authority, power

123

19

shdu-yu

to bestow

123

19

hstng-shih

to exercise

123

20

73.

shih-yr\X

affairs

123

20

74.

chih-hsu

order

123

21

72.

75. 76. 77. 78.

mm UiT im n

chuan-cA/A

despotic

123

23

fa-kuei

statute and regulation

123

26

chth-itng

enactment

123

27

tzu-hsi

careful

123

27

shen-iAew

carefully and seriously

123

27

80.

Adu-hsuan

candidate

123

27

81.

m'tng- tan

Mff

slate

123

28

lu-hsing

to carry out

123

28

chuang-t'ii

condition

123

30

mm ttm

ch'6ng-fit

punishment

124

1

fang-hai

to injure

124

2

ching-t'i

to be vigilant

124

3

79.

82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87.

rm

yen-fang

strictly to guard against

124

3

88.

R.WL

chin-llang

as fully as possible

124

7

89.

BT

90. 91.

mm

92. 93. 94. 95. 95a.

mm ££ fiunxm ftm.

96. 97.

chen-yu

to attain

124

10

cheng-tkng

proper

124

18

tou-chieh

to mistake

124

18

sung-AiieA

to slacken

124

21

an-hai

to injure underhandedly

124

21

fart-tang

anti-party

124

21

fen-lleh

chu-\ che

fen-lteh yeh-hsin

mi

98.

chien-t'ao

chia

splitist

124

22

to split

124

22

one with mad ambition

124

22

examination

124

23

pan-shh

half

124

25

t't-t

motion (in a meeting)

124

25

100.

mm mi

chlen-ch.iL

to build

124

30

101.

ffito

it-ch'u

to contravene

125

1

fa-pit

to pronounce

125

3

99.

102.

129

LESSON 2

103.

yueh-tsû

tài-p'âo

P.

L.

Originally a quotation from 125

8

"Though the

Chuangtzu:

cook were not attending to his kitchen,

the

re-

presentatives of the dead and the officer of prayer would not leave their cups and stands to take

his

place." (Legge) Now the condensed quotation " to leave the stands to take the place of the implies

to

go

cook" beyond

one's duty and meddle in the affairs of another. wèi-yùan

105.

SM MM

106.

S * #

wëi-yûan

104.

committee member

125

10

approval

125

10

committee

125

11

107.

t'ûng-tien

to send a circular telegram 125

12

108.

wû-hsten t i e n

wireless radio

125

14

109.

ch'àng-t'ûng

to transmit to all areas

125

15

110.

tzù-chû

autonomous

125

18

111.

kàn-shè

to interfere

125

18

Km

tài-t'i

to substitute for

125

18

113.

ifcE

ii-ch'û

area

125

21

114.

mr

tì-hsìa

underground

125

21

112.

JM

t'ûng-i hùi

115.

mi-mi

secret

125

23

116.

pi en-t'ûng

expediently

125

23

117.

pàn-/i

to handle

125

24

LESSON 3

On Internationalism

and

Nationalism

T h e Communist party of Yugoslavia was expelled from the Cominform on June 28, 1948.

T h e resolution of the Cominform condemned the anti-

Soviet standpoint of the "Tito clique" as a product of bourgeois nationalism which would cause Yugoslavia to degenerate into a colony of American imperialism.

R. N. Carew Hunt, in The Theory and Practice of Communism,

comments as follows regarding this condemnation of Tito and his party: "The causes of the dispute are too numerous and complex to be examined here.

But in proportion as relations with the West deteriorated, the Soviet

Union began to demand from its satellites unswerving obedience, and to insist that their Communist Parties should adopt its revolutionary experience as their model, and accept Russian military and civil advisers to guide them in their task of 'building socialism.'

Moscow's real grievance against Tito

was that he resented t h i s . . . Stalin believed that the Yugoslav Party would be quickly brought to heel; but it stood firm, and thus the danger arose that Tito's example would be followed by the leaders of other satellite Communist Parties" (p. 228). T h e Chinese Communist party echoed these charges against Tito, and they were amplified in a long article by Liu Shao-ch'i.

Liu's intention is

to give answers to several problems: ( a ) what is bourgeois nationalism? ( b ) what is the relationship between Marxism-Leninism and nationalism? and (c) why Tito's anti-Soviet attitude will change Yugoslavia into an imperialist colony. which

In a nutshell, Liu tries to clarify the distinction, as Hunt puts it, Communist propaganda is forever drawing between the bourgeois

nationalism of the non-Communist world, which is condemned, and proletarian nationalism (or internationalism), which demands complete loyalty to the Soviet Union as the socialist fatherland (p. 221). It is interesting to compare this viewpoint expressed by the Chinese Communists in 1948 with their more recent attitude in the Sino-Soviet dispute as shown in Lesson IX of this book.

132

LESSON 3

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m

m

m

m

-

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i

s

m

m

m

WSJ^

m

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3

0

133

LESSON 3

° »^»¡RgfeiriBftifegSmJSHftHi« '

mmik^m'

ffiKflfeSK^^iae^p&iRBRis:

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ffiHil'EttilJH

5

^ ^Miotoft^s^»f^

mmmmm»X&RMRS*»^

^ I S ^ S f f ^ i f ^Ja&ta^*«

(TBS)

Hill '

' I p ^ A l g A ^ W f i ^ J S i B S I ° SKW^nSIE^BJRjafiilSJ mfo-mmm » ' rfnfiiiSI«—IHA**OlMAttiit » • B M ' M M R m - m & m ^ & ^ - ' m s . m ° m m m m ^ m 20 # # A 3 g 8 t # * < £ H A E i & A K J ® J K » 5SIJ »'ESfcPt&teS 2>mm%. o B i b ' ilMP&iRS^S.SfffMWSaelSiSo'EiiEStiffiMMSKKS&SB K S K »mm' x M ^ R f i e a ^ s ^ j E i g f f M S f t b s ^ » m ^ ® - ®

)

»mpmmij m i t ^ *

t^o ° ( tb& ) Sifc ' 1* '

» iEMMifig^* ' ' f i & K P S u f n H ^ ' WRffi r J m^SfftWS ' ttSbT» '

30

134

LESSON 3

s '

» a s

^asKft'isi^Kjsjsis.fiiRiMpeawHKiii»iciseitm®

ummmA&^mmmm»^Efffi-t^fifti»»5

»

o w n :

^

^ n ^

- JfS3fcgS * o

^ ® ^ * ^ ^ F-PE > M s : r M&

x f i f e s ^ K j s ^ » e & W it» *

° J

H ^ i p m s w i i a s ^ ^ t t a i i i »

^ j i S M i S K w » » « » '

mm'

a^mm °

20

(TB&)

mkmmMWfom»^sjris—

mn

•• mm

r

^«AiiJiiHisiifct»smi&jsJSKifc»^»;»«»

' giii r

r munnmmmm j

^i a s H ^ j s t t » » « J j

* r u M t e ^ p

^ t f t ^ » a s

^ I R M S U

>

3

*

0

LESSON 3

nmmmttiMtt-mm.»s^-^fn^*^»^siit^

'm

M

i a z f e * ® ^ ^ «

m

i

°

c tbs- )

in±£r$fi » SiliriitStkLWKSeiaJB » i ^ t o s k t U f f i f m&m -

»sfc^ntft^s

10

Kg«» o Af^jfc^ «J

.

- JBttim

»

1

T '

5

«HSJSii^—«nasswftgc'

a

° MflbiraaafiB&ttij»jEta^m * . JtiEgiH

WD«±TiSiT«lo

(TB&) » a j R i f t i f t i ^ w t f - i i ' -egfc^ti^^

20

®S.iru*eKfTSaattffl&Mj* ' - E s f e ^ R f i E ^ ' Effrg-fr ' Rfi'i»H*«jiR'i'HAS»iic31M

JE * MMR >

^

» g.St#M > M S ^ W

n&t&m&Biimffism»Rthsi^H«^*

H±SPMf '

o Bit»-BsfcSffi

-

25

; -Btzmmffi m£m*.mm

Riii;«»fi£Jti!]» o'BaiSiSlbm^HttR»® '

* 0 * *

M-Knmmmmm&Mti»Hftsn^H&ftsstt&ft&ttxsfflftgs « W

AK»J®jyftKftttRifi;«» »

(TBS)

A S S i ^ l

°

35

136

LESSON 3

» w & s s '

'

^m^^^mm^mnm»ign^fflisss.

&

(TB&)

m >

» » ¡ a ^ s t e « ^ * »

«P^M

s u n n » - ^ * » m & m m m m ^ m M & m - * . » i o

S B & i i ^ w M t e * ^ ^ ® ^ ^ ^ '

»

»»«-lawiR^BasiAS ° ( T

flo^iUa»'

SfieBafiTiJiitt^Me

° ^ J i M i E H

a

w

r a

i

#3 » t f f c d l & M m A »

'

J



a

*

2

0

- ASM®

' fe * R

»

R^mmmiEmmt^m^mmmmm»^»¡ft-ias

wo

& °

i

9

m

wmmm o

m

^

* stifflssEmm m

^

w

^

M

» MM '

^

m

»

^

* i i i s i i

fl&ff53fcJimAJK&

' M i i ^

30

mfrmvfcMftnmmmft&Miimm&ftismiLmmvfe» aigtSK »

ffiSMJIffif

35

137

LESSON 3 m»sfeHin »Ks&s«ews»!»ikas&i»KiE3i57' ASP^n^w^Msi'

7

1

M&ma^mmmm^mT •• mm S

B

°

' »{»«»ea^iin^w^iRiws»»mmm.-m» m s m m i n f » ° Rwst

sua '

» o

»



J ft^BS ' «RffiffiiS^A^giSS&lJSAHIt+^M^SWiigM^

ti&o

is« »»«»»eTisfTWKBi«»»^n&iiiiK^

»

°

25

sMk^sssififliaffi ' s a a M s s & ^ M S ^ K i P S t » ^jiniE+H ^ w s * at¥ - ep® - nwm. > mm - mn » m' «ffi^'

»rfnsa^tf^xi&jif M E

30

mmmm&mnmmtmmm»Hiit»«»^ws^is

' tE&Mmwm&MmmmnmHMmmtiiftmm»stwit) ® Hitfc'

mmm'tmtmmmmmm

35

138

LESSON 3 J (mm)

PliSSE r

'

J

:

IMftfirftij—Wfl-»

7 °

m m m ^ - ^ ^ m m r f

»

5

»

' IpMKSfW*

(Tra§) »

fiitftMrn^MSiftiMK*

'

*m n

c

^ n

) '

»

*

temmm&m

^smaa^-fiF»up-test

°

20

tLMSx > «ffSSfrBTJBlfcHS :

, S ^ i E t t W o

T '

' t t l f S I W I S K

; mm

SBR+lilSiifllS+iIiattftlBiWSKii^ ' «

»

»



f

e

J

i

»wiijs^attti'fb -

^

A

R

M

f

immmm

°

S

S



mm' « » l i n f f i ' f h ' «

' a

^

g

° *

«

^

«

^

i

i

a

« SSiRtmft

' —

mmftM

»

30

ABI^I««!»R^mmmmmmmm «r&sig&gEttB&gK

mas&fflA»M^iE^mm»35 c

m^mRmmumm^mmm)

; s.

139

LESSON 3

± ' i(m&MR%.MxmmmuMm) m

»

'

»

e«*-

tR^nsi^jftwaiiijvbs& ®

ffStJM ' ^ » f f i t - t b ^ a i m f l l t H W I « » ^ ^

5

IiJ °

m' m'

mm »

o m^mmm^m»

rtf»!* afflttn« »S ^ ^ w i e h

» s »

« m y im lm »& mJ u m f c g - m r f F ^ m E i ^ m i ^ ^ p s w s ^ ^ ® ® J^ * a i i * @ a A S * iasmx^jaReasifeWfii^fftt^ffe«»mm

^mum'

j

i

,

*

»

15

m^m^mmm^^m»as

°

20 25

° JSrWifi® ' fio

30

» » « J K » ^ * ' '

m^n^mmmmmm^mm °

jftft»ffiffi^iji*

» i n s ^ m j a s a t » ^ s M t s ^ A s

35

LESSON 3

mmmm > »MHHW^ ° ^x^mm»

(

i

9

5

i

it^mjmm)

141

LESSON 3 VOCABULARY:

1.

tmm

Ch'îng-pào

Chu

3

(Communist) Information

P.

L.

132

4

Bureau, commonly known as Cominform Nàn-kùng

2.

Yugoslavian Communist

132

5

party 3. 4. 5.

j?«

mft RM

6.

$$|cÜ

7.

ÜffrfcSc

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

mt mx

eh'th-tsé

to condemn

132

5

T'ìeh-t'ò

Tito

132

5

fän

Anti-Soviet (Union)

132

6

chüan-hsiang

to turn to

132

7



Nän-szü-lä-fü

Yugoslavia

132

8

shùi-hùa

to degenerate to

132

8

nt-k'èng

morass

132

12

mïen-shôu

to escape from

132

13

mm*

yû-nùng

deception

132

13

« s

chth-tsé

duty

132

13

13.

pën-wén

the present article

132

16

14.

ÎT*

tà-sùan

to plan

132

17

15.

S E

ch'i-chten

preceded by M , for the

132

17

purpose of min-tsu kûart

concept of the nation

132

19

17.

sè-ts'âi

color

132

23

18.

ï-chïi

premise

132

24

19.

lt-jùn

profit

132

31

16.

S S I

fljü

20.

pû-kù

without regard to

133

2

21.

pû-hsï

without regard to

133

3

22.

chtng-chèng

competition

133

3

23.

t'ûn-ping

to swallow

133

3

24.

p'ài-chi

to push aside

133

4

tà^ÉT

chàn-yû

to possess

133

5

ftr«

shth-ck'âng

market

133

5

t'än-yü

avarice

133

6

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

nm m& zm mm.

31.

s »

mân-tsu

satisfaction

133

6

chteh-hsten

limit

133

6

ch'ü-ch'än

production

133

6

t'bu-tzü

investment

133

7

32.

«gì

ch'äng-sö

field

133

7

33.

HRifc

fû-i

to serve

133

7

34.

Sïfë

chì-tìao

to eliminate

133

8

142

LESSON 3

35.

«It

P.

L.

kù-yûng

to hire (referring to wage 133

8

t'ten-hsing

nature

earners) 36.

133

10

37.

ch'ân-vià

product

133

19

38.

ch'îang-jo

strong or weak

133

24

%\L

fên-li

separation

133

24

ftWL

tâ-p'd

to break

133

25

41.

tà-t'ûng

great harmony—one world 133

27

42.

chûang-shïh

ornamental

133

32

39. 40.

mm

43.

pèi-p'àn

to betray

133

33

44.

to-lè

to fall

133

33

45.

pèi-pï

mean

133

34

46.

T i

hsia-chïen

cheap

133

34

±m

li-chï

selfish

134

1

shàng-ts'éng

upper level

134

1

mm

chû-chûeh

to reject

134

4

ctièn-yîng

camp

134

6

hsïao-tsû

a private — a pawn

134

7

52.

Chïu-Ô Tî-kûo

Tsarist Russian Empire

134

12

52a. ^BSI

ti-kûo

empire

134

12

53.

Yin-tù

India

134

14

54.

Mâ-lài-yâ

Malaya

134

14

55.

Fèi-lû-pïn

Philippines

134

14

56.

EPE

Yin-nt

Indonesia

134

14

57.

MS

Yueh-nân

French Indo-China, now

134

14

134

15

47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

ÊÎ8

**

EPS

known as Viet Nam Chûng Nân Mëi-ehôu contraction of 4* JtÀW and

58.

fêSiiW Central and South America 59.

Fèi-chôu

Africa

134

15

60.

»if

shèn-shên

deeply

134

16

61.

a

ming-yén

famous saying

134

16

62.

tsûng-chû kùo

suzerain (referring to the 134

18

63.

k'ô-k'ào

reliable

64.

néng-kàn

65.

shûo-fâ

66.

ch'ih-sè

67. 68.

colonial state)

list

134

24

competent

134

24

way of saying — theory

134

28

red

134

29

Ch'âo-hsïen

Korea

134

29

k'ùo-chàng

expansion

134

30

143

LESSON 3

69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

ÄK

>

mm

\

O-l

wü-mteh chèng-ch'iu

«}&

m mm-m

hûai-pào yü-häo hûn-wéi

ï-t'àn

135

31 32 35 36 4

equally as mentioned above to plunder period to formulate Trumanism — Truman

135 135 135 135 135 135

4 9 10 13 13 14

Doctrine Marshall Plan

135

14

calumniation to fight for to hold friendly to confuse (unidentical things) as if were identical

76.

t'ûng-tëng

77. 78. 79. 80. 81.

ju-shàng

82.

P. L . 134 30 134 31

arbitrary evil intention

viû-tùan

sô-shù

lûeh-tûo

mm

ch'i-chïen

MÎT

chth-itng Tù-lû-mén

Chü-i

134 134 134 134

they

JSS»CWW-II

Mà-hsteh-érh

BK

chth-yû

to place

135

15

k'ùng-ehth

FL&K Ï M

pù-chih

control to dispose (militarily)

135 135

15 16

network of bases base

135 135

16 16

Cht-hùa

83. 84. 85. 86.

chi-ti

wàng

86a. 87. 88. 89.

chï-ti

90.

Mô-sô-lt-nt

91.

Fâng-Sû

92. 93. 94. 95.

ch'ä-tsü nèi-chèng Hsi-t'è-lè

m

Fàng-Kùng itû-t Mïen-tien

S T

loêi-shôu

96.

yû-shèng

97.

tit

ch'tng

98.

fCD?

hüan-hü

99.

16 16 17

guard against the Soviet 135 Union and the Communists to enslave 135

18

Greece Burma as the head

Hsï-là

¡¡SII)

to insert a foot — to interfere 135 135 internal affair 135 Hitler 135 Mussolini

135 135 135

vital (This term was first 135 used in this special pü

wàng-hsìang

tzù-chin

sense by Mao) feelings cannot be controlled 135 by oneself — irrepressibly to cheer 135 135 to hope vainly

18

20 22 23 24 27

27 27 28

144

LESSON 3

100.

ffiBR

105. 106. 107. 108. 109.

L. 28

to look for

135

30

tdi-li

agent

135

30

traitor

.135

31

fu-huo

to resuscitate

135

32

I-ta-li

Italy

135

33

chteh-ch'u

to eliminate

136

12

a s

ken-yuan

root

136

13



hsiang-chin

in details

136

21

fd-hui

to elaborate

136

21

ftlA

jen

mai-kuo

103. 104.

P. 135

hsun-chao

101. 102.

to conquer

cheng-fu

a s

mm

tsei

110.

chen-hsin

truly

136

27

111.

Itng-mai

different

136

29

way of doing

136

29

to go astray

136

30

hegemony

136

36

Eft

112.

tsd-fa

113.

wu-ju

114. 115.

«SI*

wm

116.

Wii

117.

tein

ch'i-t'u

pa-ch'uan meng-hstang

to dream

136

36

ch'ien-t'u

future

137

4 4

ch'i a-jii

just as

137

118.

Md-le-t'6-fu

Molotov

137

4

119.

t'ung-tao

to lead to

137

5

fei-ch'u

abolish

137

7

tzu-yen

term

137

13

120.

asu

mm

121. nut

hui-t

recollection

137

13

i*m

k u-kuai

grotesque

137

13

ch'u-ch'i

beginning

22

i&R

137

Ai-chi

Egypt

137

28

126.

sheng-chang

to grow

137

28

127.

fr&l

mm mm

fen-pieh

to differentiate

138

6

fan-ch'bu

category

138

8

Hsien-lo

Siam, now known as

138

12

mm Uth

p'dn-mdi

138

15

chteh-ch'u

distinguished

138

29

iris

shou-ling

leader

138

34

contrarily

138

36

Chiang Kai-shek

139

1

122. 123. 124. 125.

128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134.

ZL2. Mfrft

Thailand to sell out

fan-chih Chiang

Chteh-shth

LESSON 3

135.

äWfiS

Wang Ching-wei

136.

mit

köu nü-ts'äi

137.

rnm^ìk

wàn-ò

hàn-chîen

138. 139. 140.

pû-shè

JSÊ*

mm

wèi-hsîeh lì-yù ch'âng-hb Ch'ên Tü-hstu

141. 142.

143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151.

•ftlîÀ

152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160.

mm mm.

ipmwm

^f-'ÌÈs^ iftüe

um mm

s *

M&M B l ± i

MjjÉim

AI IL Ii, IE l g

tài-yén jén pàn-t'û érh f è i pü-hsiao shüo hsîng-jûng shìh-chì fèn-kó shèn-hòu ch'ing-kän shìh-tài hsiang-ch'üan ch'üan-t'üng jè-ài tzù-tà chia-chäng chìh pi-küan chü-t ti-fäng chü-i p'ien-chien ch'ün-cheng It-hsiang

(1885-1944) Kuomintang leader, who organized the puppet Nanking government under the Japanese occupation in 1940 dog-slave (a term of strong abuse) with ten thousand evils and cannot be pardoned — reprehensible and unpardonable traitor to China, particularly, collaborator with Japan threat by force temptation by material gains, especially by money circumstances (1880-1942) founder of the Chinese Communist party in 1921 spokesman to break off halfway needless to say to describe century separate profound feeling to hand on from generation to generation tradition fervid love conceited paternalism close-pass-ism — isolationism provincialism prejudice pure ideal

P. 139

L. 1

139

2

139

2

139

2

139 139

3 4

139 139

4 5

139 139 139 139 139 139 139 139 139

8 9 18 20 20 20 21 21 21

139 139 139 139 139 139 139 139 139

22 22 23 24 24 25 25 25 26

146

LESSON 3 P.

L.

ch'ïn-ài

affection

139

27

162.

shàn-hùo

to agitate

139

27

163.

flitë

ch'ôu-hèn

hatred

139

28

164.

m-jk

chïu-ch'ân

to enmesh

139

28

to sit in a well and look at 139

29

161.

165.

tso-chïng

kûan-t'ien

the sky — narrow-mindedness 166.

châng-chtn

improvement

139

29

167.

tà-lueh

general

139

31

LESSON 4

Constitution the People's

of

Republic of China

The Constitution of the People's Republic of China was drafted by the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist party, and passed through the formality of adoption by the People's Congress. It is customary in Communist China for laws submitted for promulgation to be accompanied by a report of the drafting authority which expands upon or explains the law. In this particular instance the "Report on the Draft Constitution" was made by Liu Shao-ch'i. It gives the following brief account of the Constitution's preparation: The Committee for Drafting the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, headed by Comrade Mao Tse-tung, was formed by the Central People's Government Council on January 13, 1953. In March 1954, this Committee accepted the first draft of the Constitution submitted by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China...The Draft Constitution which emerged from revision of the aforementioned draft was made public by the Central People's Government Council on June 14, 1954 for people all over the country to discuss...In the light of these suggestions, the Committee for Drafting the Constitution of the People's Republic of China made further revisions of the original draft which were later discussed and adopted at the 34th meeting of the Central People's Government Council on September 9, 1954: hence this Draft Constitution now submitted to the Congress. Liu's report was delivered at the First Session of the First National People's Congress on September 15, 1954; the Constitution was adopted by the Congress five days later. In his report, Liu discusses the historical significance of the Constitution and reviews its basic contents. He also deals with the proposals which were submitted during the nationwide discussion of the Constitution while it was in draft form. It should be borne in mind that his report has binding force so far as the law is concerned and that, should controversies arise

148

LESSON 4

in regard to the meaning of any parts of the Constitution, it serves as an authoritative source for interpretation. For our purpose, the background of the Constitution and the meaning of its articles can be best understood by reading Liu's report.

149

LESSON 4

K 5

0

6 1

( 195449/1208

)

g

&

%

t

5

» HMiS^T-RBifflaffiia * Mt&ttffiife * gtiz:7AKK±^®c

SOS '

'

10

o

m -

n-H0

«

' s

r

i

l

i

i

a H A S ^ x t i ^ f t E

1

°

a ^ s a - f t

»nm^mmmmmmm^ ° Bm&mm 30

150

LESSON 4

a

»

°

mm mm^m

-

% -

£

sr

-

£

m

=

m

m

-

m

o

°

20

25

M

£

£

®J' ®

; ys

' IP^mAmmifWM ;

30

^

-

^ m m n m m - m » 3 5

151

LESSON 4 H

-t

£

5

SI

A

£

H ^ i g f ' i n ^ f t ^ ^ s J t i n ^ » t t & i m m m m B m f t W M ® . io

mw.tt&mft&wm.tomm&mjKtom.tii« se

A

*

WfX°

s

+

15

&

-

mSUWfilTHHS^KiiRSftfll

ommm&mm

20

» RIH^fflttWfSil-KifettitSfls

B ' ^ i ^ K f t ^ r f f i i f e A - fit* *

0

ig+ra^ m & m i t i m A m m k G M F W & m m

°

35

LESSON 4

152 icjffiAKKj&wifegajxibifcffi»51

°

5

m+A$k °

10

as--Hfe

25 ^ B A & f t s A ^ & i f

^

^

mmfi * w^mmm^^M

^BASf^lfeA^JSiEfflra^ °

'

^BASftgA^^asi-KffffliiJTiS^BAS^SA^

°

3 0

LESSON 4

S

R

C

-

)

C— )

5

;

ftJS&i*

(h)



;

10

o&mmm'&m;

C m)

>sttjg ;

( E ) f i l g t ^ A K f t f t l H »

C A )

i f e J g B & K & S W A i f e ' IS

'

15

(-fc) a ^ f t E A & t e & K - K ; ( a

)

;

;

(%) ( + ) f

;

20

c +-) mm * gfeKmmmtimifr; (

)

c

)

; ^ t t ^ w ^ w p a s ;

25 ( -

) t ^ A S f t f t l i f f i *

( -

)

( h

)

;

* gij&a*

>

;

;

(ra) ««AS-sr^K-K; ( E )

*

30 °

5SH+A&

35

154

LESSON 4

giJSM-KSi A '

( - )

;

C il) S * £ B AKftSA££fS ;

c H)mnmw; ( h )

10

;

( s . ) a s s B ^ K * ft« A & f t & f l f c S A K t t i & K r a i f l F ;

(A)

AKftiftA£f

-E *

* mm-zm^m^; C + ) e s & J f t i « AKttr&KIOttiSf-K ( + - )

R m i S f t i f i f f i ; 20

( c

) )

(

)

(

)

m^M.Afoft^Amfom&mMi^mrn; m&m^m^mm^m^mm^; ; i E £ B A S f t S A ^ K ^ f f l P ^ » ini&aSIBifcilgiSS&Sa 25

(+-t)

;

C+A ) C

)

SB^illlEWffir ; ttitflMRfX

°

«1 m. ffi A

M. 0 &=+m £

35 •ft?

LESSON 4

3S=+3L£

»wx^ini'eiiwies.s&g^° SE+Ai

10

^BASftSA^ftawa^aa^K^a^gt^gp *

43jo SB=+A£

SK-Hfe

25

m^m^o

30

—3k »««wsBim^ms»i&mm 35

156

LESSON 4

fto

BEg+zs^

m^

SSH+A&

m& &

25

B ^ K S T J U A * » « = fiag i J & s ^ A ' '

30

I « »

gm+fiJk ( - )

wM%$k - s f l t s j i s ^ » m f e f t » » ^ a * « ^ » n

35

LESSON 4

m; c = ) gg-ig^&gpfti&s c

;

as)

(-b) ca

)

;

ttirBS«ifffl-iiJ»H^3S*

;

w m n t n - n m ;

(A) mmxft * C+ )

;

c+ - )

(

;

;

)

>¡ffi^^ft^ ' f

( + H ) ( + 0 )

i

;

;

;

( + E ) atJtaf&ffl

;

C "h/N ) i K M S ^ W S S f f S i T ® C A * ; fi&SRiX0 Jg-E-Hfe SO&atfcib&aifiF o

o

( - )

^ l & E ^ itttrti ;

• ( H ) i ^ fiflTt:

^ °

s

m

» =

158

LESSON 4

® * it» rtf ^ # ^ 7p TtT^E * p - &MP -

JgE+^sfe

; ^i&Eftyff * TffftE * £

*Step

° ¡senf ^

» f t * '

'

- i S W A S f ^ S A ^ f t ^ S

^ nr ^ T ^ I S E

» « P i ^ e w j »

« P S ^ S S K W

¿p^fftfij °

» M

10

20

M

S

A

*

a

j

£

A

0

25

ftfiiniiir^

°

m - H I S "iff * # #

30

*

; ^ S E K I T P " * TtTftE * £

- &MP

MfrmttMWiBzmtii&jKM o

-

35

LESSON 4

A K ^ M ^ B i J & i i - K ^ HT-K * — A ' SiJif-K * gijTfi-fc * ©J-S-fc - IflE-fc *

* E-fc *

*

5

* SiJ^-K^iAW®

10 fro

sn^+sai

«^ig^rXft o ' as

25

lAlB^K"

* gfsw x

g ^ ^ g ^ m ^ » « '

35

160

LESSON 4

xmrntiLzmitiL« H-fc-Hfe

S f & E > Steffi * S t e ^ K j g t e t l L ^ M H ^ K j m V S O K i a S ^ ^

mgtm°

15

* Jfcfr&iRAEifcKSi^MARScKir

20

ffiifrfMX °

H - t + E ^

25

m-t+-t&

so ' sz^^ftmmm °

k&Mmm&mz&M&mffijMM.»ASftK^afflSMiafflKi S-fc+ASl

35

LESSON 4 SS-b+rtJI

« ASffiKJfiST»AKSKft^JXfto SA-Hfe

AKtttSfKiB^MAKtttSfIS '

° ' »irXfe o

HA+H&

SEA+=£ tfiifciR

AStttSFKastfrfiyWiR» ^ g J f i j & H S i l L ^ W T » •

^^As^fos^ii+A^^^s»tt&m - *tt&jmm * ^mm - wnmst - mrtk^ * g ^ M i s » u ^ m m m ^ . ft

°

*A+-fc* t ^ A S ^ S J B & S W W i f t * WJK * s s a + a &

* ¡est *

ffiir^sSftg

162

LESSON 4

^^AS^wa^SKiGL^^g«®>mm

°

5

10

s a m x i u °

^ ^ A S f t W B ^ ^ ^

*

mm&m&i&ti&mii&mm.»wis

15

-

20

RfilSflfeXibiltWtl^ '

WllJitttXfP '

teEltfcKSlfffliJ

°

25

SSTL+ax^

fgA+-fc£i

SQ&KWJMSSISi^A »

30

°

^^AS^wB^iffMEij^ffl^iEx^m -

mm^&ih

warn

163

LESSON 4

n-stk »

« 5

— ^ S W X ^

°

10

mm

^ A K & f r i H B K S E S f t : » °

-

ffltt

-

15

164

LESSON 4

VOCABULARY:

1. 2.

m

4

national constitution

hslen-/« chiieh

P. L. 2 149

a term of an elected or 149 appointed body ( as the People's Congress is elect-

3

ed every four years, its chieh is four years ) 3.

Ch'uan-kiio Jen-mitt

National People's Congress 149

3

4.

Tai-piao hsu-ySn

preamble

149

5

5.

ying-yung

heroic

149

6.

chung-yu

finally

149

6 6

p'tn-k'un

poverty

149

10

chten-ch'eng

to build up

149

10

h'ang-Mei

resist the U. S., aid Korea 149

15

7.

SH

8. 9.

ra-hui

yuan-Ch'ao 10. 11. 12.

t m dtm ¡gicfetfcjS

4sm

shou-tii Pei-ching Cheng-chih Hsieh-i/ia«^ Hui-z Kung-t'ung

13.

capital

149

19

Peking

149

19

Political Consultative

149

20

Common Program

149

20 21

Conference

Kdng-llng ch'eng-kuo yuan-wang

gains

149

desire

149

23

16.

tang-p'ai

political parties and factions 149

25

17.

t'tian-t'i

organization

149

25

18.

yu-k i hu-chu

friendship and affection mutual aid

149

29

149

29

public enemy

149

29

21.

kung-ti ta min-tsU chu-1

great nation chauvinism

149

29

22.

Su-iaei-ai

U. S. S. R.

150

2

14. 15.

m a

19. 20.

chu-1 Kung-hb 22a.

Ktio Lien-meng su-viSi-ai

23.

lao pu k'd-p'd

24. 25.

yu-'t ki-hao

26.

Rjl

jth-chien

soviet

150

2

indestructible friendship

150 150

3 3

to love

150

3

day by day

150

3

LESSON 4

27.

Jta

P.

L.

iîên^-chln

to improve

150

3

mutual benefit

150

4

28.

SfiJ

hù-lî

29.

ZÊfX

cAw-ch'uan

sovereignty

150

4



lïng-t'û

territory

150

5

30. 31.

wân-chëng

integrity

150

5

32.

wài-chiao

diplomatic

150

5

ch'éng-chtu

achievement

150

5

pû-t

consistent

150

6

33. 34.

^sfc -m.

35.

ch'ùng-kào

noble

150

7

36.

ï-lïi

uniformly

150

15

- m

37.



38.

isu

ch'î-shth

39.

JEfë

fëng-sû shâo-shù

40. 41.

mîn-tsû

mm

mîn-tsû

chü-chü

multinational

150

18

discrimination

150

19

custom

150

22

minority nationality

150

23

to live in compact com-

150

23

alienable

150

24

the f o r m of ownership by

150

30

150

30

munity 42.

fën-h

43.

ch'üan-mtn

44.

hà-tsà shè

sô-yû

chth 45.

otft

the whole people cooperative

yû-hsïen

priority

150

34

k'ùang-ts'âng

mineral resources

150

35

46.



47.

? m

shûi-lîu

waters

150

35

48.



fâ-lû

law

150

35

49.

s w

kúo -yü

state ownership

150

35

50.

sën-lin

forest

150

35

51.

hüang-ñ

undeveloped land

150

35

sô-yû ch'uan

right of ownership

151

9

kûng-hsïao

supply and marketing

151

11 11

52.

mm

53.

hà-tsà

cooperative 54.

m

55.

hsïn-yùng

hô-tsd

credit cooperative

151

kài-shàrt

to improve

151

16

151

21

151

22

chïen-iM

supervision

57.

H f f S ^

kúo-cAi mín-shenf.

national economy and

58.

Ja»

wéi-hài

to i n j u r e

151

25

hüng-kUng

public

151

25

jào-lùan

25

56.

people's livelihood 59.

to disrupt

151

61.

fëi-fâ

unlawful

151

26

62.

kûng-mîn

citizen

151

28

60.

ítSL

166

LESSON 4

63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70.

mm tap mm mm M B *

mm

shóu-jù

income

P.

L.

151

28

savings

151

28

means of life

151

28

ch'éng-h sïang

city and countryside

151

32

cheng-tó«

purchase

151

33

chëng-^w«^

requisition

151

33

sÄÖM-küei k û o - j «

nationalization

151

33

ch'ü-hsü sheng-hüo

tzü-liao

cA'in^-t'ïng

to listen attentively

152

6

71.

hstao-chüng

loyal

152

9

72.

p'àn-'kûo

treasonable

152

12

to punish

152

13

73.

&&

ch'éng-pàn

74.

fij^

pò-tó

to deprive

152

14

75.

tzù-shîh ch'i lì

to earn one's livelihood

152

15

76.

än-ch'uan

security

152

18

77.

chi-kòu

structure

152

19

78.

ch'uan-Z« chl-küan

organ of state

152

22

79.

ït-fà ch'iian

legislative authority

152

24

80.

chih-hsta shth

municipality directly under 152

26

by one's own labor

authority EfSTfr

mn mm

the central government hüa-ch'iao

Chinese resident abroad

152

26

hsüan-cA'w

to elect

152

26

83.

ming-b

number

152

27

84.

ch'än-shèng p à n - f ä

manner of election

152

27

81. 82.

hsüan-chü fä

electoral law

152

28

jèn-ch'i

term

152

30

chteh-män

the term expires

152

31

Ch'âng-vfù

Standing Committee

152

31

lin-shih

at any time (deemed

153

4

chü-hst t'üan

presidium

153

6

91.

chü-ch'th

to conduct

153

6

92.

chih-ch'iian

function and power

153

8

recommendation

153

13

State Council

153

13

85. 86. 87.

&M MM

88.

Wêi-yûan Hùi 89.

«SB*

necessary) 90. wm

93.

t'i-ming

94.

Kûo-wù

Yüan

95.

tsüng-li

premier

153

13

96.

jért-hsûan

choice of a person for an

153

13

office

167

LESSON 4

97.

HKSMê

P.

L.

National Defense Council

153

15

national defense

153

15

Jên-mtn

Supreme People's Court

153

17

fâ-yûan

people's court

153

17

court president

153 153

17 17

Supreme People's

153

18

Kóo-fàng Wëi-yûan

97a. H K 98. â f t À f i

Hùi

Kûo-fàng Tsùi-kâo Fâ-yuan

98a.

jén-mîn

98b. 99.

fâ-yuan

100.

yuan-châng ftîSÀSIÉ

Tsùi-kào

Jén-mîn

Chien-ch'â

101. 102. 103.

fit

m

104. 105.

»j %

106. 107. 108.

W-fc

109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114.

»»•K

mm mm

Yuan

Procuratorate

chien-ch'â chàng

chief procurator

153

18

p'i-chûn

to approve

153

20

yû-sàan

budget

153

20

chueh-sùan

financial report

153

20

hùa-fên

status and boundary

153

21

tà-shè p à-mien

general amnesty to remove from office

153 153

22 26

pù-châng

minister

153

28

chû-jèn

head

153

28

mt-shû chàng

secretary-general

153

28

t-àn

bill

153

34

ch'âng-shè chï-kûan

permanently acting body

153

36

fâ-ïing

decree; law and decree

154

10

ch'è-hsiao

to annul

154

12

not in session

154

15

appointment or removal

154

16

judge

154

115.

/>i-hùi

116. 117.

jèn-mien shën-p'àn

yuan

shèn-p'àn

to try

154

17 17

118.

Shën-/>'àn

Judicial Committee

154

17

119.

chien ch'â yuan

procurator

154

18

120.

Chïen-ch'â

Procuratorial Committee

154

18

117a.

^ J *

mi

Wëi-yûan

Wëi-yûan

Hùi

Hùi

121.

chù-wài

(representatives) to foreign 154

19

122.

cA'£a»-ch'iian

states plenipotentiary representa- 154

19

tài-ptao

123.

ti-chteh

tive to conclude (treaty)

154

20

124.

t'iao -yûeh

treaty

hsîen-chî

title and rank

154 154

20

125.

21

LESSON 4 P.

L.

order or medal

154

22

®l*

hsun-chang

127.

ch'eng-hio

title

154

22

128.

Wft

t't-sht

pardon

154

23

attack

154

24

general mobilization

154

26

126.

129. 130.

mm mr

ch'in-fan tsung

tung-yuan

chieh-y6n

martial law

154

27

132.

shd-lt

to establish

154

37

133.

fa-an

bills

154

37

134.

t'e-ting

specific

155

6

131.

l-wd

obligation

155

9

t'i-kung

to supply

155

9

chth-wen

to question

155

12

tai-pu

to arrest

155

15

139.

tan-wei

unit

155

18

140.

ch'eng-hsu

procedure

155

19

ch'e-huan

to replace

155

19

ntett-man

to have reached the age of 155

23

143.

kung-pu

to promulgate

155

27

144.

iAiA-chieh

diplomatic envoy

155

32

135. 136. 137. 138.

141.

mm mm M&

142.

145.

mm

p'ai-ch'ien

to dispatch

155

33

146.

S i

chao-hui

to recall

155

33

t'ung-shiiai

to command

155

36

148.

fiff

tan-jen

to assume the post of

155

36

149.

JftSiP^

Tsiii-kao

Supreme State Conference

156

2

t'i-chiao

to submit

156

6

wei-t'd

to entrust

156

10

tai-hsing

to act for

156

10

ch'ueh-wei

to fall vacant

156

20

chi-jen

to succeed

156

20

chih-wei

office

156

20

chih-hsing

executive organ

156

23

administrative organ

156

24

147.

150. 151. 152. 153. 154.

mm

mtc ttff m&

155. 156.

ttfrilL^

Kfio-wu

Hui-i

chi-kuan 157. 158.

ft ¡ g c # l £

mm

hstng-cMng chi-kuan ts'd-shth

measure

156

35

159.

mdo-t

trade

157

8

160.

iti^fe

wei-sheng

public health

157

9

161.

»if

ioct-hu

to maintain

157

12

autonomous chou

157

15

162.

tzii-chih

chou

169

LESSON 4 P.

L.

autonomous county

157

jurisdiction

157

15 24

nationality hsiang municipal district

157

34

158

2

voters

158

11

to draw up plans

158

18

itón^-chàng

provincial governor

159

5

shìh-ch&ag

mayor

159

5

hsìen-chàng

county head

5

ch'u-chàng

district head hsiang head

159 159 159

5

tzù-chìh hslen

«PI

ch'iian-tóen

165.

RWiP

min-tsù hsiang

166.

HittE

shth-hsta ch'u

168. 169.

MM

hsuan-w«» kuei- hùa

Ìf-K

170.

TP-K

163. 164.

167.

171. 172. 173. 174.

E-fc ££ H-K

hsiang-chàng chèn-chàng sò-shù t-yuati tsà-chu ts'ài-chèng

179.

kung-àn />tt-tùi

180.

t'iao-/«

175.

Btm

176.

Mm

177. 178.

stst

5

town head

159

5

subordinate

159

wish to live together

159 159

17 31 33

finances

160

6

public security forces

160

8

statute, regulation

160

10 10

181.

Q'a&m

tàn-hstng t'iao-lì

separate regulation

160

182.

ÌBbif

to submit to

160

10

183.

pào-ch'ìng t'ung-yùng

commonly used

160

14

184.

shén-/>'àn ch'iian

judicial authority

160

21

185.

àn-cKten

case

160

26

p'éi-shèn-yùan

system of assessors

160

26

186.

pg^Mf&l«

chìh-tù 187.

pèi-kào jén

the accused

160

28

188.

pten-hh sù-sùng

defense

160

29

court proceedings

160

31

189. 190.

mm

t'ung-hsìao

to be familiar with

160

32

party

160

32

mm

tàng-shìh jén fàn-ì

^

shén-hsìtn p'àn-chùeh shu pù-kào

191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196.

fami

197. 198.

chìen-ch'à ch'iian pu-fén chùng-tsù hsìng-pteh

160

32

judgment

160 160

34 34

public notice

160

34

procuratorial authority regardless race

161 161 161

11 27 27

to interpret hearing

sex

161

27

200.

chu-chù

residence

161

28

201.

ch'ì-hsìen

length

161

28

199.

ttSO

170

LESSON 4

202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216. 217. 218. 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 227. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232. 233. 234. 235. 236. 237. 238. 239. 240. 241.

ÌfiWf!

chtng-shén

cAz-hùi chteh-shè W f J

yù-hstng shth-wèi kung-cht

mm

pìen-Vi ksìang-shòu jén-shèn chù-chài

iifé

ch'ìen-hsi chìu-yèh



kung-tzù tài-yu

ft«

hsiu-hsi hsiu-chìa k'ùo-ch'ung hsiu-yàng

chtì-pàn

mm mm

pào-hsìen chìu-cYà shè-shih

kùan-huai t'i-lì

1ÌH

chìh-lt

mm

kun-yìn

hstang-yù

érh-t'ùng

mi

utèi-fa shih-eh

ih

k'ùng-kào

mm

p'éi-ch'àng

sÈfF

p'ò-hài chù-ltu kùtig- té

j^IS

shén-shèng

ài-hù Wis

nà-shài ping-ì

HK

kùo-ch'i

ping

P.

L.

161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162

29 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 2 5

insanity assembly association procession demonstration to provide facilities to enjoy person home to change one's residence employment wage remuneration to rest holiday to expand to build up one's health

162 162

6 9 9 9 11 12 12 12

to provide insurance relief facilities to be concerned with physical condition intelligence to enjoy marriage children transgression of law dereliction of duty complaint compensation persecution to stay — asylum public ethics sacred to take loving care to pay taxes military service national flag

162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 163 163 163 163 163 163 163 163

16 16 16 17 21 21 21 28 29 29 31 31 32 33 1 1 4 6 6 9 12 13

LESSON 4

242. 243. 244. 245.

B® MM

kuo-/iMi chdo-ydo T'ien-an Men ku-iwi

national emblem light Heavenly Peace Gate in Peiping ears of grain

P. 163 163 163

L. 13 17 17

163

17

LESSON 5

Introduction to Basic Problems in the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China Although the Communist government moved quickly after its establishment to abrogate the law codes of the Nationalist government (known as the Six Codes, Liu-fa Ch'uan-shu), since that time it has not promulgated any complete codes, either of civil or criminal law. Basic Problems

in the Civil Law of the People's Republic

of China

is the

only civil law textbook of Communist China which is so far available in this country.

It was prepared by the Civil Law Teaching and Research

Section of the Central Political-Legal Cadre School (Chung-yang Cheng-fa Kan-pu Hsiieh-hsiao Min-fa Chiao-yen Shih).

Originally, it was a collec-

tion of lecture notes compiled in 1957 for use by students at the cadre school.

Subsequently, these were edited into book form, with some revisions

and added material, to serve as a reference guide to cadres who were actually engaged in political and legal duties.

There was further enlarge-

ment and revision after the Readjustment and Anti-Rightist Movement. One apparent purpose of the revisions was to answer some of the bitter criticisms of the Communist legal system by the so-called Rightists during the Hundred Flowers period. T h e book has three main parts. T h e first part deals with the general principles of civil law, including definition, application, interpretation, civil law relationships, juristic personality, juristic acts, agency, and time limitation (prescription).

T h e second part discusses the four forms of ownership

provided for in the individual.

1954

Constitution:

state,

collective,

capitalist, and

T h e third part analyzes the principles and content of obligation

and contract, including the civil liability of wrongful acts (torts) and the law of inheritance.

Because the book was published in 1958, it does not

deal with the civil law problems arising from the establishment in August, 1958, of the people's communes. T h e general framework of Basic Problems based on the 1922 Civil Code of the R S F S R .

in the Civil

Law

is clearly

T h e terminology, however,

is largely an adaptation of that used in the 1929 Civil Code (Min-shih Fatien) of the Nationalist government of China. For our reading in this lesson, the Introduction

has been selected because it provides a

comprehensive

summary of the basic ideology of civil law which pervades the whole book.

174

LESSON 5

m

s.

s A ^ g a s f c e s ^ i i j a f f K i w

m

° © s s i B i - ^ B f t f ^ f i i f w

m C1924-1927 ) > ^ B ^ r ^ M ^ t H A K ^ & f f r W H * *

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JI^IJT&Eito&x.m-w&fo''

( 1927-1937 ) » ^ « f S ^ ^ K H S ^ T

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ft H i & ^ W S B C 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 4 5 ) » ^ f f ^ M ^ f t & K H

i P U f f i i t i l

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Jl " ^ - ^ a r t ^ p t i S ^ a i M ^ ^ S i i a " K ' fi356H o

io

' A S f f l f f i H : 1953

in

175

LESSON 5 R-H-iiiEsfe^ " « » A i i s m i f c f l r

m"

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m °t E m ^ m f t ^ m ^ w m

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c 1945-1949) >

m» P ^ E 0 s r A -

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176

LESSON

1 9 5 7 ^

.

flfeff!i^j£l^ff3£:aiTS5S6m#

»^ B S f f e i r M ^ i - ®

» mmmmmmm "mm^m iBfc^sir

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s ^ S ^ i t ;

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10

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15

fctEmmrmmmfM

25

fi^Biiswffl'

177

LESSON 5

tit&Az.fs&tiiRiE&mmm»MR^T

° ^siffis^

frf^wx*»m-fr^mm&r^ibA&mm°

5R ' W e ^ + f t ' stfimmua o H

mm'

^

i i * ^riiji

f

c

»

io

°

'£ A 2 0

»mmm

'

°sgpft * -r A

Rw^M^mmt^mt^x^miprAA^m^m^jMmr>

j R ^ J t t j U J - g q © MiSMfefrttilf#JSAKttB3i0rW" ® "J* 3 0 ftffif » AKBrfcjflJittftfc >— W & f o " ®° & B K & 2 E

® 9 i s •mmmFMm.izWtWft&mm'' ° ® ®

" ^ « f T "

F

o

f

(

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178

LESSON 5 >

* FRSafiigStiiWigtm °

m m '

»flbffl^g&As^HasASft ° ia^

flbfflS^:

w

a

ffi^ir

w

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»

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s

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oK & ^ & S A K f t i f t ; ? ®

m ;

m

»

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ftmsAWf^fififf-jx*

m f r f f i m m & m f t & m » ° »

rax*

°

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' ;

»

» »

°

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°

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5

m m ^ m *

is

179

LESSON 5

tfi&fontft&ftikiB.*

° "T-i.:

w® ?

' ^ftfaSttKiwn'

*

flfe^tsw

»

o'

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S

^

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B

^

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747 #

°

( "Hfit1949—1954^ 9 %

10^-1957^8 ^ ^ B A S f t ^ A ^ ^

) ° im^nmimM&amm»iiaa^jbjit» i K i a s ®

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*

2

0

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»ffiS^Kft^SfeW^WSffi

J

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25

180

LESSON 5

ts:

'Azi&s-fimftis^m^-^umwrn.

&mmw

>MixixsiESittife^'

fife^a«-®*»

' mtesmft*

mna m&m'kf'&mtMfrm"

°

m

»

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30

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o

9 IS "SjESBttSrfcjS" ( 394 —395H °

> A l ^ W f f i t t 1956 ^ f f i > ^ 1 8 3 H ° ) >f r t > > »

181

LESSON 5 + pro ^ H j i t s u i ^ a ^ a w s f f i n EH *

fil^K*^®

« m a n t e s

o m.M " f f i W "

»

m-

-s

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s s ^ n ^ s '

'

° i E S ^ J M T H ^ f i i r >

p ® » ^

ft^jfeiit"

" m r n & z m » » 5

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w

»

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^mm^^T-^mm^m&mm.

»

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» "s^ffliiff®'

1840 ^ s D t i & ^ / a # '

"mw ^m^m^F - m -

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m

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^

a

«

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S l i i » ®

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w

; rfogflH

°ffe

"ift^s® ' S i n « « »

H0#*lS«fr

XR&mMLMMm®. "S&S"

15

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ft;

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fijswsx^-sft ° a s ^ s f t

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"left" ' Xi1915--1926*8®« " ^ m " scte« " « a " ios®

25

fig

>

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30

182

LESSON 5

"an©* ' »iRfljiaaiTin® °

' "^usar

° «SfS^F °

"KSc&UJfefrir

xMmmmx mmmmmmMfe»

^S^iziT

- mm -

10

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s s s s t a

;

WK&Bi&iii&.m^

* "mm"

'

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> s ^ H

20

LESSON 5

0

MH-&

' E f f l ^ f t J S B K i f c t t f c f c f f i f t * TEtftlR

* "ifcgiEx"

tbtm

'

LESSON 5 VOCABULARY:

1. 2. 3.

Ws

5.

mm mm

6.

SÌE

4.

7.

5 P.

L.

civil law introduction

174 174

2 2

/¿-hsueh ch'tang-lieh

jurisprudence intense

174 174

7 7

kuei-lkn yuan-iièi

rule as early as

174

9 10

nung-w/n

peasants' association

174

13

food grains

174

14

export

174

14

min-fa tào-yé»

174

hsieh-hùi 8.

kù-/»t ck'u-chìng

9. 10.

tnjfo

11. 12.

HiRJgitf

kào-t'ài

to force up (price)

174

14

kù-chìa

the price of food grains t'un-chi means to hoard

174

14

174

14

t*6n-chi chù-ch'i

chu-chi means to store goods in expectation of an exorbitant profit 13.

ins

ehia-tsu

14.

in i f

chìa-yà

increase of rent increase of deposit money

174 174

14 14

15.

M

chìen-tsu

reduction of rent

174

15

16.

chien-yà

reduction of deposit money 174

15

17. 18.

SHi iiJi.

t'ùi-tìen

cancelling leases

174

15

chten-hsi

reduction of interest

174

15

SIJt"

yà-p'ten

opium

174

15

land rent

174

17

19.

s&m

tì-tsii

21.

ch'u-tì

abolition

174

17

22. 23.

ffiiU« a 1 te

kào lì-tài yà-t'ieh

usury

17

brokerage commission

174 174

yà-shàng

broker

174

17

20.

24. 25.

Sfc*

26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

17

shè-ts'àng

public granary

174

17

chì-ku szu-fà min-hstng

storage of food grains

174

17 18

fà-lu

judicial

174 174

3csr

kài-tìng

civil and criminal laws revision

174

19 19

filfeifcR

hùng-sè

red regime

174

21

WfT ft«

chàn-hsing

provisional

174

loan

174

23 23

civil law regulation

174

23

chèng-ch'iian 31. 32. 33.

chìeh-tài mtn-shth

fà-kuei

LESSON 5

35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

L.

min-shth

civil

174

23

m1?

t'iao-chieh

adjustment

174

25

A «

jen-ch'iian

human rights

175

1

is'ci-ch'iian izen-t^ng

property rights

175

1

mortgage

175

2

hsiang-chi

in succession

175

4

Tung -pei Chung-yuan kai-k'uang

Northeast

175

4

Central China

175

4

general description

175

10

t-chth

will

175

mdng-ya

bud

175

11 12

ch'u-hsing

prototype

175

12

33a. 34.

P.

MU mm m JV--H-

mm ^

wan-p£i

perfect

175

16

46.

fa-t'ung

legal tradition

175

17

47. 48. 49.

ch'ia-ch'ia hsiang-jiing

45.

t'i-hsi Liu-fa

50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

JUL

BUM

Mlft

Ch'uan-shu

mleh-shth iuo-chia

kuan

precisely

175

compatible system

175 175

19 20 21

Six Codes

175

27

to regard contemptuously concept of the state

175

28 29 32

ch'un-chieh

to purify

175 175

hiia-ch'ing

to draw a sharp line —• to

175

32

175

33

distinguish clearly cheng-fa

55. 56. 57. 58.

tss

t'iao-cheng

political-legal adjustment

175

33

a s

chin-chan i hsiao-ts'd

advancement a small pinch

175

35

175

36

hsiao-tzu

filial sons and worthy

175

36

175

36

to keep in mind constantly 175 to practice again the old 175

37

59.

hsien-sun

grandsons (used sarcastic60. 61. 62.

B-'k

kan-hsin men-men

ally) to be willing pu-wang

ch'ung-ts'ao chhi-yeh

37

profession

63.

Yu-p'ai

Rightist

176

1

64.

3i£E

ch'ang-k'uang

wild

176

2

65.

Hit

fei-pang

to slander

176

3

There is no law to be

176

3

66.

wit-fa

k'o-i

followed (by the people)

186

LESSON 5

yù-fâ

67.

pû-t

There are laws, but they

176

3

176

3

are not followed (by the government) 68.

WifcfciK

yû-fâ

nân-ï

There are laws, but they are difficult to follow (by the people)

kûng-jân

publicly

176

4

shôu-hûi

to repeal

176

4

chào-hûn

to call back the soul — to 176 revive

5

«E?

iù-pi

to restore (a monarchy)

176

5

73.

mtu-làn

fallacy

176

7

74.

-¿È®]

fâ-chth

legal system

176

10

75.

mm

ts'âi-fù

wealth

176

15

76.

-sa

fâ-jén

juristic person

176

15

77.

ita

chieh-z hsïen-mîng

(on which) to depend

176

17

distinct and clear

176

19

jpjffi

criminal law commodity

176

20

80.

hs'tng-fâ shâng-p'ïn

176

29

81.

Mil

ch'ien-t'î

premise

176

33

82.

jéng.jâtt

still

176

35

83. 84.

jyw-ch'ân chë ¿/¡«i-ch'uan jén

proprietor creditor

177

6

cAàt-wù. jén B-hài

debtor

177 177

6 7

177

7

177

7

ar- 177

9

69. 70.

«t®

71. 72.

78. 79.

« « A

85. 86. 87.

^

88.

ch'ûng-t'û / kôu-hsin tòu-cbïteh

interest conflict originally referring to

chitecture with interlocking interiors and juxtaposed corners, now it is extended to mean intense struggle among people, especially psychologically chien-ping

annexation

177

90.

sô-yû jén

177

91.

fèi sô-yû jén

owner non-owner

10 12

177

12

89.

standard

177

15

criterion

177

23

tù-chùeh

to block

177

32

kûng szû hb-ying

state-private joint operation 178

2

93.

«MiJ

chùn- shéng chùn-isé

94.

tt®

92.

95.

itH

187

LESSON 5 P. 96.

i-fa

97.

shu-mai

»^sijffi

98.

tzu-yu

99.

pu-fa

tao-ti t'ien-ti

L.

according to law

178

2

to redeem completely

178

10

free world

178

10

unlawful

178

11

r*&

y6n-kd

strictly

178

12

101.

i s

fan-huan

restitution

178

16

102.

nm

ts'ai-wu

property

178

16

p *

kuo-k'u

state treasury

178

16

100.

103. 104.

pu-k'd

inviolable

178

17

105.

ch'uan-i

rights

178

17

©J Si

chih-ts'ai

punishment

178

20

ffiib

fu-chu

auxiliary

178

21

basic right and wrong

178

27

106. 107.

ch'in-fdn

108.

ta-shih

109.

yiin -yung

apply

178

31

110.

ming-tz'ii

name

179

1

111.

shii-ja

term

179

1

112.

t'iao-win hua

codification

179

1

113.

mmt

kuei-f&n

regularization

179

1

114.

fa&

t'i-hsten

expression

179

3

115.

UM

piao-chth

mark

179

6

116.

mW

fu-yu

rich in

179

11

117.

am

ch'teh-nd

cowardly

179

14

t'e-cheng

characteristic

179

16

fid-w6i

to do something

179

16

tsao-tao

to suffer from

179

17

to pillage

179

17

things external to one's

179

17

118. 119. 120.

m

mm

121.

chieh-16

122.

sken-wai

zifctM

ta-fei

hua

chth wu

body — property 123.

ling-hun

soul

179

18

ch&n-li

to tremble

179

18

125.

wai-tsai

outside

179

19

126.

jen-tao

humane

179

19

hsieh-cAao

description

179

21

124.

JKS AM

127. 128.

— f a

¿-t'i

universal

179

25

129.

Six

tsun-hsing

observance

179

25

preliminary

179

28

Government Administrative 179

30

130.

ch'u-pu

131.

Cheng-wu

Yuan

Council (renamed

Kuo-

wu Yuan in 1 9 5 4 ) 132.

An

E E

ta hstng-cheng

ch'u

large administrative region 179

30

133. 134. 135.

SE SE

mmm&

yûan-yûan

far

tîen-tâo

to call black white

hêi-pài

chïh-tsào

to create

mm

fâ-mîng

to invent

137.

SSÈ

pïao-shà

state

138.

Kfêl

136.

î-hsïang

imagination

139.

tsé- pèi

to blame

140.

jèn-hstng

arbitrariness

141.

shïh-fàn

model

142. 143. 144.

mm

châng-ch'éng

-â-fMb

hô-tsà

um

145. 146.

ÎH nS

rules "cooperativization"

hùa

chth-ch'û

to draw up

ts'âo-àn

draft

t'i-ch'ïng

to submit misunderstanding

147.

mm

kô-hô

148.

a u

t'ûng-tsé

common principle

149.

ch'éng-t'ào

a whole set

150.

mîn-fâ

151.

wàn-néng

omnipotent

152.

chth-ch'éng

to enact into

153.

kùo-iîâo

prematurely

154.

hsï-ml

detailed

155.

ifeii

fâ-tîen

law code

156.

3S3S

ch'ih-ch'ih

dilatory

chû-hsïn

hidden intention

shè-tîng

to set up

157. 158.

tien

civil code

159.

&&

fâ-t'iao

160.

rett

\\-tài

past generations

wàng-ch'âo

royal dynasty

161.

legal provisions

hsîng-fâ

penal

hsîng-lu

penal code

fù-tài

to append

Ch'ïng-lù

Ch'ing Code

yéit-hsù

to last

nû-Il

slave

ckûn-chû

ruler

169.

hûang-shîh

royal family

170.

yuan-shih

primitive

171.

hâo-mîn

rich people

162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168.

172.

ffjsg

mw mtt mw urn mî.

Hfôi+ffi

chien-shùi

shih-wû

to pay half of crop as

LESSON 5

189

173.

p'tn-min

174.

ch'uan-cKth

175.

t'ien-lten

BiiFFK

176.

tl wu

ch'ien-md

li-chui

P.

L.

poor people

181

5

dogs and swine

181

6

expanse of fields

181

6

owning land too small to 181

6

stick an awl in it —• landless and abjectly poor 177.

chan-chuan

to toss and turn about in

181

6

kou-/ro

ditch and water channel

181

7

179.

w6i c\d-ch'ten

to be burdened by accumu- 181

7

180.

ch'ien-chun

178.

fit*

mu

so-ya

lated debts 1,000 chun ( 1 chun: 3 0 cat- 181

7

ties) — an extremely heavy burden 181.

»frffif

Ya-plen

Opium W a r

181

8

181

12

Qcikn-cheng 182.

chin-chin \&-tao

to speak of something happily with mouth watering

183.

ku-yu

fa

traditional law

181

12

184.

chi-shou fa

inherited law

181

12

185.

mo-fang

to imitate

181

14

as vast as the misty sea — 181

15

186.

laws

mjmfflrn

hao ju

yen-hai

voluminous 187.

hsuan-ts6

to select

181

15

188.

t'ai-hsi

Western

181

15

189.

yuan-yu

traditional

181

16

to conform

181

16

heavenly clothes without

181

16

190.

wen-hb

191.

t'ien-i

tau-feng

seams —• perfect conformity 192.

feltth

193.

wtt-ch'ih

shameless

181

17

ch'ung-feng

to worship

181

17

194.

mu-fa

mother law

181

17

195.

kou-tang

doings (derogatory)

181

18

shuo-ch'uan

to speak directly and

181

18

196.

mm

truthfully 197.

ch'ao-hsi

plagiarism

181

19

198.

chi-Zet

to accumulate

181

19

ch'eng-shdu

to inherit

181

20

i-pd

mantle and alms-bowl

181

20

199. 200.

-im.

190

LESSON 5 P.

L.

yäng-nü

slave to Westerners

181

20

202.

tzü-t'äi

gesture

181

21

203.

hundred percent

181

21

204.

shih-tsü chin-jung

monetary

181

22

205.

küa-t' 6u

oligarchic

181

22

to sell out

181

23

slavish

181

24

201.

mx

206. 207.

tSLt m m

nü-ts'äi Wü-ch'uan

Pten

Book on Property

181

24

four big families

181

25

lüng-tüan

monopoly

181

25

211.

shöu-i

to receive benefits

181

26

212.

ch'ü-/