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Reader in Marxist Philosophy: From the Writings of Marx, Engels and Lenin
 9789380303376

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·.

,�.READER IN

MARXIST ·PHILOSOPHY From the Writings of . MARX,. ENGELS and LENIN \

Selected and Edited with Introductions and Notes by Howard Selsam;_and Harry Martel f

Rahulfoundatlon Lucknow

ISBN 978-93-80303-37-6 Price: Rs. 150.00 . First Edition: January, 2010 Published by: Rahul Foundation

69, Baba ka Purwa, Paper Mill Road, Nishatgunj, Lucknow-226006 Cover Design

:

Rambabu

Typesetting: Computer Division, Rahul Foundation Printed by: Creative Printers, 628/S-28, Shaktinagar, Lucknow Reader in Marxist Philosophy

by Howard Selsam and Harry Martel

FOREWORD One of the leading American Marxist philosophers of his time and one of the editors of this book Howard Selsam said somewhere that the best way to understand the Marxist philosophy and world outlook is to hear from its great exponents themselves, i.e., Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Mao. The present selection is designed to· acquaint the readers with the Marxist philosophy through the writings of Marx, .

Engels and Lenin. These writings are the ones which laid· down the . basic foundations of Marxist philosophy. As the editors have pointed out in their General Introduction, these writings do not deal explicitly or exclusively with questions of philosophy only; these writings often deal with the most immediate political and economic questions of the working class movement·of the contemporary period. However, they contain the broadest philosophical generalisations, which now serve as the basis of Marxist philosophy. This selection might seem incomplete and outdated to many readers, as it does not include the philosophical writings of Mao Tse­ tung. However, as the editors explain in their introduction, their intention is not to propose in any ·way that the philosophical writings of Mao, or for that matter, Gramsci are not significant enough. On the contrary, the editors believe that the philosophical writings of Mao are particiilarly incisive and penetrating. However, this selection intends

to make common readers familiar with the philosophical writings of Marx, Engels and Lenin which laid down the foundations of the Marxist philosophy. Undoubtedly, many Marxist revolutionaries and philosophers, particularly Mao, developed the Marxist philosophy further and took it to new heights.··Mao developed dialectical materialism into new dimensions, especially with his celebrated essays 'On Practice' and 'On Contradiction'. Marxism is a constantly

developing science. With the development of objective world, dialectical materialism also developed. However; this selection limits itself to the presentation of the basic foundations of dialectical and historical materialism, as provided by the writings of Marx, Engels and Lenin.

·

One particular forte of this seleetion is that it includes some of the rarest of the writings of Marx, Engels and Lenin, which, though much sought after, are not easily available today. For example one can read brilliant long excerpts from The Holy Family, The German Ideology, Philosophical Notebooks of Lenin, Introduction to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Righi, The Young Generation by Lenin, etc. With selections from these rare writings this book certainly is destined to become a readers' delight for students of Marxist philosophy and Communist activists. Besides, this selection also include some of the relatively unknown and unavailable earliest writings of Marx and Engels, which are of immense historical significance in understanding the thought process of Marx and Engels which fin�ly led them to evolve a new revolutionary and scientific world outlook.

These writings incb�de the doctoral thesis of Marx on the Philosophy of Epicurus,

Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy by Engels,

etc. These are .the writings of Marx and E�gels which led many to charge M ar x and Engels of post-Hegelian religious outlook, existentialism, etc. However, as the editors contend in their General

· Introduction;

these charges are baseless resulting

from

decontextualized observations about Marx's world outlook; these observers fail to understand the development of Marxist philosophy as a historical process. This selection has been divided into seven parts- 'W hat Marxism Is', 'Materialism versus Idealism', 'Dialectics and the Dialectical Method', Theory of Knowledge and the Philosophy of Science', 'The Materialist Interpretation of History', 'Religion', 'Ethics'. B esides, there are two appendices: 'The Fonnative Period' and 'Lenin's Philosophical Notebooks.' The editors have written a separate introduction for each section, apart from the General Introduction, which works as a compass for the reader for that ' particular section. Though an old book, it is not about chronology with the matters of philosophy! It is an excellent selection, an absolutely prized possession of anyone interested in Marxist philosophy, and Marxist activists who want to make their praxis more nuanced with a deeper understanding of philosophy. We are extremely pleased to reprint this book which has been unavailable for decades with the hope that it will receive a wann welcome by all students of Marxist philosophy. 15. 1 .2010

- Rahul Foundation

PREFATORY NOTE The materials from Marx, Engels, and Lenin presented in this volume are divided into seven parts, plus two lengthy Appendices. The reason for the latter is explained in the General Introduction. The editors have also supplied a separate introduction for each part and for each of the two Appendices. In the main body of the work, the editors have frequently departed from a chronological presentation in the interests of the logical development of Marxist philosophy. Since, however, the chronology is often significant, the year in which the work was completed though not necessarily published - is given after each entry. The Contents gives the source of all entries, which is repeated, for the convenience of the reader, at the end of each selection in the text, together with page references. Inasmuch as many of these works have appeared in numerous editions, the list of Sources at the end identifies the editions used. Throughout, the editors have sought to use those most readily available in the United States today. In most cases these are also the best and most authentic translations. All cuts within a given selection are marked with three dots. All footnotes not marked

"

- Ed." are from the original texts.

within square brackets [ ] in the text are by the editors. A biographical index identifies persons referred to.

yiserts \

Tub biajor

concepts are, for the most part, contained in the detailed table of contents.

The Editors

CONTENTS GENERAL INTRODUCTION

................................•................................

17

PART ONE

WHATMARXISM IS INTRODUCTION.

...................................................................................

1. MARXISM: THE 'THEoRY OF

PROLETARIAT A. Science :Becomes Revolutionary .

21

THE

.........

MARx POVERTY OF PHILOSOPHY

.....

.

.

.... .. . ..... . ................

22

,

B. Modem Socialism Reflects an Actual Conflict ......................... 21 ENGELS, Ami-DOHRING

2

.

RADICAL RUPTURE WrrH TRAnmoNAL IDEAS

... . ............................ ... ...

MARx AND ENGELS, THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO

3. THE GENESIS OF MARxisM: How SocIAUsM BECAME A SCIENCE

•••••••••• : .

26

. ..

"JJ

ENGELS, ANTI-DOHRING

4.

THE THREE COMPONENT pARTS OP. MARXISM

. ........... .............. . .

LENIN, THE THREE SOURCES AND THREE COMPONENT pARTS OF MARXISM

21

..

. ......

5. COMMUNISM CANNOT BE LEARNED BY ROTE ....................................... 42 LENIN, THE YOUNG GENERATION .;

PART TWO

MATERIALISM VERSUS IDEALISM INTRODUCTION

. ..... ... . ........ . ..... . ............ ... ...... ... ..... . ........... . ...... ..... .....

1. MATERIAUsM AND IDEALISM: THE Two BAs1c ScHooLS OF PHILOSOPHY . .. . . . .. .. ... . ... . .. .. . ...

. ... .. ..... ...... .

. . . .... ..

ENGELS, LUDWIG FEUERBACH

2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN MATERIALISM IN FRANCE AND ENGLAND .. ... . . ... . . . . . MARx AND ENGELS, THE HOLYFAMILY .

.

. ... . .

.

.... ..

.

..... .. ...........

... ... . .... . .............................. ...

45 If!

SJ

3. THE RELATION OF AGNOSTICISM, MATERIALISM, AND REuGION TO MODERN CLASS STRU GGLES ......................................... 61

ENGELS, SocIAUSM,

UTOPIAN AND SCIENTIFIC

. 63 4. MAfoo:S T MATERIALISM AGAINST REVISIONISTS . .. . . . . . . . LENIN, MATERIALISM AND EMPIRIO-CRITICISM 5. "REFUTATION OF MATERIALISM" FROM BERKELEY TO THE MAClllANS . 65 LENIN, Ibid. 6. MATERIAUSM VERSUS IDEALISM: NON-PARTISANSHIP . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. 78 AND 'REcONCILIA110 N IMPoSSIBLE . LENIN, Ibid. . ....... ..... . . .. . ....

... ..

.. ...

.. .... ....

.....

.... . . .. ... ..

... ....

..

7. DoBS THE NEW PHYSICS REFuTE MATERIALISM? . ... . ...... .. ... .. .. ............ LENIN, Ibid. .

.

.

.

...

...

S6

PART THREE'

DIALECTICS ANDTHEDIALECTICALMETIIOD INTRODUCTION ·

••.•

:................................'; ......,...................................... 95

1 . "ALL THAT IS REAL IS RATIONAL" - THE RBvOLUTIONARY SIDE OF

HEGELIAN PHILosoPHY fJ7 . · �/JWIG FEUERBACH ' . . S . . . . . . . . . .... 2. MARxlST DIALECTl � 11 0 PPOSITB ?F. HEGEL . 99 MARX, �}rift. VOL. I, �ACE TO 2ND. ED. .. . . ) .• 3. FROM HEGELIAN TO MATEiuALIST DiALBCTICS A . The Role of,.the :N�tilrat Sciences . . . . .. ................. .... ....... 1 00 ENGELS, LUDWIG FEUERBACH B. TheRoleofMarx's)?olitic::i!Economy . . . . .. . . 1 04 ENGELS, "REvIBWOF GIUTIQUE OF PoLmCAL EcoNOMY" ...................................................................

ENGEY, � �

·

'

'

. . ...

.

1.

. . . .... . ....

'

. . ... . . .

.

. . .. ...... .....

4.

SCIBNTIFic VERSUS

LENIN, 5.

.....

Sc�c OsE OF DIALBCTics . . . .

...

.. .

....

..........

.

WHAT THE "FRIENDS OF THE PEOPLK' ARE

D!ALECTIC�=���=c:

..

. ... ..

.. .

.

..... ....

1 00

.. , ......., ....................'. ................ 11 1 ..

6. DiALBcTics AND FoRMAL Lome

A. B.

The Law of Identity ...............¥.: ............................................. 1 1 5 ENGELS, DIALECTICS O F NATURE Definition: Eclectic and Dialectic . ....... ......................... ....... 1 1 6 LENIN, ONCE AGAIN O N THE TRADE UNIONS

.. , .................................................� 1 1 8 ENGBLS,AN11-DOHRING CONTRADICTIONS: CHANCE AND NECESSITY . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . 120 ENGELS, DIALECTICS OF NATURE

7. CoNTRADICTioNsINREALITY 8.

....

...

...

••

...

..

....

..

. .. ....

....... .

9. THE LAWS OF DIALECTICS . .

. .. .............. ..... ...

. . ...... ............. .............. .•. . .

123

ENGELS, Ibid..

10. THE lNI:BRACTION OF QUANTITY AND QuALITY A. In the Natural Sciences . .. .. .. . .. . ..... ... . . ...

B.

.....

...

..

.

..

... ......

...

. 124

.

... .....

ENGELS, /bid. lh the Social Sciences .. .......................................................... 1Z7 .

ENGELS,ANJi-DOHRJNG C In the Labor Process . .................................. ............................ 130 MAR:x, CAPITAL, VOL l .

11. THE UNITY ANDCONFLICT OF OPPOSITES . .. . . . .. . .

.. .. .. .

.....

.... . .. ... ............

131

LENIN, PHILOSOPHICAL NOTEBOOKS

12 THE NEGATION OF THE NEGATION .. .. . . . .

..

. . .. . . .. .. .

. . . . ...... ..

.. ..

...

.

.

.. ... .... ....

134

ENGELS,ANTJ-DOHlt!NG PART FOUR

THEORYOFKNOWLEDGEAND THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE INTRODUCTION

.................................................................................

139

1. TIIREB PRoPOsmoNs OF THE MARxlsT THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . .. 141 .

.

LENIN, MATERIALISM AND EMPIRI0-0u17CISM

2. How Do WE KNow OBJECTIVE REALITY? . . .. ..... .. . ... .. ... . . . . ...... . 142 . .

.

.

.

.. . .

..

ENGELS, SOCIALISM, UTOPIAN AND SCIENTIFIC

3. THE ''THING-IN-ITSELF"

A. . B.

No ''Thing-in-itself' for S�ience . . . . . . . .. ... . . . .. . . ..

. .

.

.. .

. ...

ENGELS, DJALEC11CS OF NATURE The Knowability of the ''Thing�in-itself," . . ... .. . LENIN MATERIALISM AND EMPlRJO-CRITICISM ..

..

....

. . . . .. .

.....

....

..

..

145

. 145 .

...... .

,

4. WHA:T IS OBJECTIVE TRum? . .. . . . ..

.

.. ....

..

.. . .. . . .. .. . . .. .. ..

....

.. .

. .

.

. . . .. . 146

...... ...

. .

LENIN, Ibid. 5. TRum: RllLA:iivE AND ABSOLUTE .... ...... ..... ................... ..................... 153

ENGELS, ANTI-DOHRING

6. RELATlvITY OF KNOWLEDGE VERSUS .RELATIVISM

A. Conditional versus Unconditional Truth................................ 158 LENIN MATERIALISM AND EMPlRIO-CRJUCISM Relativism and Dialectics . .... . . . . . ... . . .'. ................................ 100 ,

B.

..

. .

.

..

LENIN, Ibid.

7. THECATEGORY OF CAUSAUTY

A.

OurK.nowledge ofCausality .. . . . . ....... .. ... .. . .... ... .. . . .. .. .. 162 ENGELS, DIALEC11CS OF NATURE . . .

..

.

.

.

. . .

.

B. Causality a Reflection of Objective Reality .. ... ..... .... ..... .. .. ... .. 163 . LENIN, MATERIALISM AND EMPJRIO-CRITJCISM

8. MODERN SclENCE: FROM A STATIC TO A DYNAMIC WORLD-VIBW .. ..... ... 166 . ENGW, DIALECTICS OF N ATURE

9. ROLE OF PRODUCTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TilE SCIENCES ............. 170 ENGELS, Ibid.

10. NATURAL SCIENTISTS AND PHILOSOPHY

A. Why Scientists Need a Philosophy ... . .... .. ... .. ......... ...... .. .... ... . 171 ENGELS, Ibid.

B. From Metaphysics to Positive Science . ..... .... ...... .. ..... . .. . ...... . 172

ENGELS, Ibid. C. Necessity of Dialectics for Scientists .... ... .. ....... ..... ............... . 172 ENGELS, Ibid.

11. SCIENCE VERSUS METAPHYSICS . .... .. . .. .. ..... .. ... ..... ... . ... .. .... .. .. . .. ....... .... . 174

LENIN,

WHAT THE "FRIENDS OF THE PEOPLE" ARE

12. lNSEPARABILITY OF INDUCTION AND DEDUCTION A. Fallibility of Induction .. .......... . ... ... ..... . ......... ..... ...... ........ .. ..... 176 ENGELS; DIALECTICS OF N ATURE

B. Induction and Analysis . ..... ... . . ...... .... ... ... ......... .... ......... ........ . 176

ENGELS, Ibid. C. Induction: Classification and Evolution .... ....... .. .. . .. .. .... .... ..... 177 ENGELS, Ibid. · \

13. THE FUNCTION OFCONCEPTS: To REFLECT REALITY . . ........... . ... ....... ... . 178 ENGELS, LETTER TOCONRAD ScHMIDr

14.CONCEPTS AND THE GROW1H OF SCIENCE ............................................ 180 ENGELS, CAPITAL, VOL, I, PREFACE TO l ST ENGLISH ED.

15. DEFINITIONS, ABSTRACTIONS, AND REALITY A. Dialectics and Definitions .. .. .. ..... ...... ............ .... . .. .. ... .. ...... ..... 181 ENGELS, PREFACE TO CAPITAL, VOL III R Limitations of Definition .........................................: ... ............ 181 ENGELS, ANTI-DOHRING

C. All "Laws" are Approximations·. . .. ........ .. .. . ... .... ... .... . .. ... . . .. ... . . 182 MARX, CAPITAL, VOL. III D. The Concrete and Abstract Illustrated ... .. . .. .. .. . ..... ...;............. 182 MARx, CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY PART FIVE

THE MATERIALIST INTERPRETATION OF HISTORY . INTRODUCTION .................................................................................

184

1.

MODE OF PRODUCTION: THE BASIS OF SOCIAL LIFE A. The Law of Social Development . MARX, CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY R Thought Corresponds to Social Relations .......

. .

............... . . .....

·

......

MARX POVERTY OF PHILOSOPHY

.

.

.

.... .....

. . 188 . ·

. . . .. .. . . 189

.... . . ...

. ...

,

2

WHAT MARX DISCOVERED A. The Material Basis of Society . ............................................ 1� ENGELS, "SPEECH AT THE GRAVESIDE OF KARL MARX" B. How a Science ofHistory Became Possible ... . . . . . 191 ...

...

LENIN, THE TEACHINGS OF KARL

3. THE SOCIAL NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS

. .... ...

...... . .

MARX

......

. .. ...

.

.

.

.

. ...... ..... ... ..... .....

MARX AND ENGELS, THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY

4.

SCIENTIFIC VERSUS SPECl.JIAITVE HISTORY .. ENGELS, LUDWIG FEUER.BACH ..

.

.

.. 192 .

. . . ;.............. 193

... . . . ......... . ...

5. THREE CRITERIA FOR A SCIENTIFIC SOCIOLOGY .................................: 198 ••

LENIN, WHAT THE "FRIENDS OF THE PEOPLE!' ARE 6. CLASSES AND IDEOI.OGY ......:............................................................. 201 MARX AND ENGELS, THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY . 7. THE ROLE OF EcoNOMIC CoNDmoNs, OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE, AND OF CHANCE . . .. .. . .. .. . ; ............................... 203 ENGELS, LErrER TO HEINZ STARKENBURG ....... .

..

...

....... ..

....

.... ..

8. THE ECONOMIC ELEMENT NOT THE ONLY DETERMINING ONE

..

......

......

..

.

205

ENGELS, LETTER TO JOSEPH BLOCH 9.

INTERACTION OF EcoNoMic CoNDmoNs, 1NsTITU110Ns, AND IDEOLOGY ENGELS, LEITER TO CONRAD ScHMIDT

.............................................................................

10. How MAN MAKES His OWN

2(E

HISTORY: CONTRADICTION BETWEEN HIS AIMS AND REsULTS . . .. .. . :............ 212 ENGELS, DIALECTICS OF NATURE 11. HISTORY AND IDEOLOGY A. Three Ways of Making Speculative History ... . . . 214 MARX AND ENGELS, THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY B. The Nature of Ideology . .. . .. . .. .. .. . 216 ENGELS, LEITER TO FRANZ MEHRING 12 SOCIETY, CIVILISATION, AND THE STATE . . . . . . . 217 ENGELS, ORIGIN OF THE FAMILY 13. A SUMMARY STATEMENT: HISTORICAL MATBRIALISM THE BASIS OF MODERN SOCIALISM .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . 220 ENGELS, ANTI-DOHRING ... . . ...........

..... . ........ .

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...

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PART SIX

REUGION

lNT'RODUCTIOH.:

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.....

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.

......... ...... ..... .

.

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226

1. REumoN·�'THEOPIUM OF THE PEOPLE." .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . . ........ .. .. 228 MARx , '!INTRODUCTION TO THE CRITIQUE OF .

.

...

. . .

...

. .

.

..

HEGEL'S Pmr.osoPHY OF RIGHI"'

2 THE RELIGIOUS WpRI.D: THE REFLEX OF THE REAL WORLD A. Religious Sentiment a Social Product ......... .. . . ... ..... .. . . .. .. 230 ·MARx, "THESES ONFEUERBACH,"IV, VI, VII B. WhenWill Religion Vanish? . . . . . . .. . .. ..... . .. .. .. .. . ... . 231 MARx, CAPITAL, VOL. I C Religious Reflex from Natural to SocialForce! .._....,.;i\.::, .... . 232 .

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...

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ENGELS, AmI-DOHRlNG

3.

FEUERBACH's IDEALIST APPROACH TO RELIGION ... . . .. . ... ...... . . .. . .

ENGELS,

..

.

. ... 233

» .

LUDWIG FEUERBA.CH

4. HUMANISM VERSUS pANTHEISM: ON THOMAS CARLYLE . ..... .. . . .. .... . ... 235 ENGELS, "REVIEW OF THOMAS CARLYLE'S •pAST AND PREsENT'" .

.

.

.



5. THE DECAY OF RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY ................................................ 241 MARX, NEW YoRK DA.ILY TRiBUNE

6. Goo AND N MDRAL ScIENCE .. ... .

.

. ,.;................................................ 244

.. .

ENGELS, DIALECTICS OF NATURE

7. RELIGION AND THE CLASS STRUGGLE

A. How Marxists Fight Religion . .... .. . . . . ...

.. ... ... . .. ....... . 245 LENIN, ''THEATTITUDE OFTHEWoRKER'sPARTY .

..

.

.

....

.

..

. .

.

..

TOWARDS RELIGION''

B. SOCIALISM, ATHEISM, AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM .......................... 246 LENIN, "SOCIALISM AND RELIGION" PART SEVEN

ETHICS INTR.ODUCTION

.................................................................................

250

1. THE CLASS NATURE OF MORALITY ..................................................... 253 ENGELS, ANTI-DOHRING

2 FEUERBACH: LOVE AND THE PuRsurr OF HAPPINESS . . . . . ... ... . . . . . ..

ENGELS,

3.

.

255

.

258

. ...... ...

LUDWIG FEUERBA.CH

EVOLUTION OF THE IDEA OF EQUALITY".. . .. . . . .. .. .

ENGELS, ANTI-DOHRING

. . . .

.

. . . . .. .. .. . .. ..

.. ... .

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4. EQUALITY VERSUS EQUALl1i\RIANISM .

....

.. .. .. . ....... ... . . .... ... .... ... . ... 263 .

.

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..

.

.

MARx, CRITIQUE OF THE GoTHA. PROGRAM

5. EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF JUSTICE ............................................. 265 ENGELS, THE HOUSIN.G QUESTION

6. MARxlsM AND ABsoLUTE JusTICE

·

A. Unscientific Nature of "Eternal Justice,"

. . . .. .. . .. :....... '2«:i

.... .

MARx, CAPITAL, VOL.ffi

B. Justice Determined by Mode of Production

..

...

.. ..

. . .. ... . . . .. '1D7

.... . ..

...

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MARx,CAPITAL,VOL.ffi

7. THE MEANING OF FREEDOM ENGELS,ANTI-DOHRING

:.........

......................................................

8. Two REALMs OF FREEDOM AND TIJEIR MATERIAL PREcoNDmoNs MARx,CAPJTAL,VOL.ffi

268

.. . 2f9

...

. .

9. CLAssLESs SocIETY: BASIS FOR PERsoNAL FREEDOM . .. . . . .. ..... .... . ... 271 .

. .

. .

.

MARx AND ENGELS, THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY

10. PROGRESS: FROM BLIND NECESSITY TO FREEDOM . .... .. ....... .. .... ... .. .. .. 273 MARx, NEW YoRK DAILY TRIBUNE .

.

.

.

11. THEf\fATUREOFCOMMUNISTETHICS ..... .. . .. . . .. ....... ... . ... .. ..... ... LENIN, THE YOUNG GENERATION .

.

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..

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.. 273

.....

APPENDIX I

THE FORMATIVE PERIOD

INTR.ODUCTION ...................: .........:. .j. .. .

.

. . .... ...... .. ... ... ...... 278

.:····· . . . ..

. .

.

..

1. ON THE PHn..osoPHY OF EPICURUS . . ..'. ............................................... 283 MARx, DocfoRAL THESIS ..

2 RELIGION, PmLosoPHY, PROLETARIAN REvoLUTION ...... . ... ..... .. . . . . 284 .

.

.. . ..

MARx,"CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITIQUE OF HEGEL's PmLosOPHY OF RIGHT"

3. ON SETTLING Accoums WITH HEGELIAN PmLosoPHY A. Theology and the Decay of Philosophy ..

....

.. .

.

. .. ...

..........

...

.. . 288 .

MARx, ECONOMIC AND PHILOSOPHICAL MANuscRIPTS OF 1844

B. Hegel: The Philosopher of "Abstract Thinking," ................... 289

Marx, Ibid.

C. Hegel's Positive and Negative Sides . .. . ... . . .

. .

...

... . . . ... .. .. . ... 292 . . .. .

.

. .

Marx, Ibid.

4. BRUNO BAUER: A 'I'HEoLOGIAN FROM� BEGINNING .. . . . . .. . .. . . 295 MARx AND ENGELS, THE HOLY FAMILY . . . .. .

..

.. .

5. ALIENATION . A. Private Property and Alienated Labor .. .... ....... ... ... . ... . ...... 'lJJ"I MARx, ECONOMIC AND PHILOSOPHICAL MANUSCRJPTS OF 1844 ..

.

.

.

.

B. The Sway of Inhuman Power ..... . . . .... .. .... ....... . .. .. . ...... 305 Marx, Ibid. C CommuniSlllEquals Hunumism .... ... . .... ..... ... ... ..... . . ..... 30i Marx.Ibid. D. The Humanist Task of the Proletariat .. ....... ... .. .. ... . . . . 310 MARx AND ENGELS, THE HOLY FAMILY . . .... .

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6. A TOMIC lNDNIDUALS AND SOCIETY . ... ... . .. ..... .. .

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MARX AND ENGELS, ibid. 7. ON ONE-SIDEDNESS IN PfnLosoPHY, POLITICS, AND POLITICALEcONOMY

••

313

ENGELS, Oun.INES OF A C RITIQUE oF PoLITICAL EcoNoMY" "

8. THE SPIRI TUAL ELEMEN T IN PRoouCl1oN . .... . . . . . . . .... . ... ... .. . 315 ENGELS, Ibid.. .

... .. .

. . . .

. .

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.

. .

9. LUDWIG FEUERBACH

A. His Great..