Railway Transportation Systems: Design, Construction and Operation [2 ed.] 0367494213, 9780367494216

Railway Transportation Systems covers the entire range of railway passenger systems, from conventional and high-speed in

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Railway Transportation Systems: Design, Construction and Operation [2 ed.]
 0367494213, 9780367494216

Table of contents :
Cover
Half Title
Title Page
Copyright Page
Dedication
Table of Contents
Preface to the Second Edition
Acknowledgements
Author
Symbols and Abbreviations
Chapter 1 The railway as a transport system
1.1 Definition
1.2 Constituents
1.2.1 Railway infrastructure
1.2.2 Rolling stock
1.2.3 Railway operation
1.3 The railway system technique
1.3.1 Description of the system
1.3.2 Fundamental functional principles
1.3.2.1 Running on a straight path
1.3.2.2 Running in curves
1.3.3 Distinctive features of railway systems compared to road means of transport
1.4 Classification of railway systems
1.4.1 Speed in railway engineering: design and operational considerations
1.4.1.1 Definitions
1.4.1.2 Case study
1.4.2 Classification of railway systems based on speed
1.4.3 Classification of railway systems based on functionality/provided services
1.4.4 Classification of railway systems based on track gauge
1.4.5 Classification of railway systems based on traffic composition
1.5 The capabilities of the railway system
1.5.1 Advantages and disadvantages of the railway
1.5.2 Comparison of the characteristics of railway systems
1.5.3 Comparison of the capabilities of different transportation systems
1.5.3.1 Comparison of air and high-speed train transport
1.5.3.2 Comparison of urban systems
1.6 Historical overview of the railway and future perspectives
References
Chapter 2 Loads on track
2.1 Classification of loads
2.2 Vertical loads on track
2.2.1 Static vertical loads
2.2.1.1 Axle load
2.2.1.2 Wheel weight
2.2.1.3 Daily traffic load
2.2.2 Quasi-static vertical loads
2.2.2.1 Vertical wheel load due to crosswinds
2.2.2.2 Vertical wheel load due to residual centrifugal force
2.2.3 Dynamic vertical loads
2.2.3.1 Dynamic vertical wheel load
2.2.3.2 Total vertical wheel load
2.2.3.3 Design vertical wheel load
2.2.3.4 Design loads of bridges
2.3 Transversal loads on track
2.3.1 Gravitational forces
2.3.2 Creep forces
2.3.2.1 Running on straight path
2.3.2.2 Running in curves
2.3.3 Crosswind forces
2.3.4 Residual centrifugal force
2.3.5 Total transversal force transmitted from the vehicle to the rail
2.3.6 Forces due to vehicle oscillations
2.3.7 Guidance forces
2.3.8 Case study
2.4 Longitudinal forces
2.4.1 Temperature forces
2.4.2 Rail creep forces
2.4.3 Braking forces: acceleration forces
2.4.4 Traction forces: adhesion forces
2.4.5 Fishplate forces
References
Chapter 3 Behaviour of rolling stock on track
3.1 Behaviour of a single railway wheelset
3.1.1 Movement on straight paths
3.1.2 Movement in curves
3.2 Behaviour of a whole vehicle
3.2.1 Operational and technical characteristics of bogies
3.2.1.1 Object and purposes of bogies
3.2.1.2 Conventional bogies
3.2.1.3 Bogies with self-steering wheelsets
3.2.1.4 Bogies with independently rotating wheels
3.2.1.5 Bogies with creep-controlled wheelsets
3.2.1.6 Bogies with wheels with mixed behaviour
3.2.2 Wheel rolling conditions and bogies inscription behaviour in curves
3.2.3 Lateral behaviour of a whole vehicle
3.2.3.1 Vehicles with conventional bogies
3.2.3.2 Vehicles with bogies with self-steering wheelsets
3.2.3.3 Vehicles with independently rotating wheels
3.2.3.4 Comparative assessment
3.2.4 Selection of bogie design characteristics based on operational aspects of networks
3.2.4.1 High-speed networks
3.2.4.2 Conventional speed networks
3.2.4.3 Mountainous networks
3.2.4.4 Metro networks
3.2.4.5 Tramway networks
3.3 Derailment of railway vehicles
3.3.1 Definition
3.3.2 Derailment as a result of vehicle overturning
3.3.2.1 Check for derailment due to overturning – movement along curved track segments
3.3.2.2 Check for derailment due to overturning – movement along straight track segments
3.3.3 Derailment due to track displacement
3.3.3.1 Prud’homme limit
3.3.3.2 Empirical formulas considering the stabilisation degree of the track and the type of sleepers
3.3.4 Derailment due to wheel climb
3.3.4.1 Criteria that evaluate the F1 / Q1 ratio
3.3.4.2 Criteria related to the time or distance limits, which are applied to limit the exceeding duration of the F1 / Q1 ratio limit in either time or distance scale
3.3.4.3 Criterion qr
3.3.4.4 Empirical formula that calculates the speed over, which a vehicle is derailed due to wheel climb
3.3.5 Derailment caused by gauge widening or rail rollover
3.4 Derailment in turnouts
3.5 Case study
References
Chapter 4 Tramway
4.1 Definition and description of the system
4.2 Classification of tramway systems
4.2.1 Based on physical characteristics of the corridor
4.2.2 Based on functionality/provided services
4.2.3 Based on floor height of the vehicles
4.2.3.1 Low floor
4.2.3.2 Very low floor
4.2.3.3 Moderately high floor
4.2.3.4 High floor
4.2.4 Based on power supply system
4.2.5 Other classifications
4.3 Constructional and operational characteristics of the system
4.3.1 Data related to track alignment and track superstructure
4.3.2 Rolling stock data
4.3.3 Tramway signalling system and traffic control
4.3.4 Transport capacity of the system
4.3.5 Run time and commercial speeds
4.3.6 Cost of implementing a tramway
4.4 Integration of tramway corridors across the road arteries
4.4.1 Types of integration of tramway corridors
4.4.1.1 A single track per direction at two opposite sides of the road
4.4.1.2 Double track on one side of the road
4.4.1.3 Central alignment
4.4.2 Geometric features of the integration of tramway corridors
4.4.2.1 Technical and Total Tramway infrastructure Right-Of-Way
4.4.2.2 Geometric integration of tramway corridors at curved sections of roads in the horizontal alignment
4.5 Integration of stops
4.5.1 Types of stops integration
4.5.2 Geometric and operational features of tramway stop integration
4.5.2.1 Geometric criteria
4.5.2.2 Operational criteria
4.6 Tramway depot facilities
4.6.1 General description and operational activities
4.6.1.1 Parking area/yard
4.6.1.2 Maintenance hall/workshop
4.6.1.3 Vehicle cleaning/washing area
4.6.2 Classification of tramway depots
4.6.3 Main design principles and selection of a ground plan area
4.7 Requirements for implementing the system
4.8 Historical overview and present situation
4.8.1 Historical overview
4.8.1.1 The first horse-drawn tram
4.8.1.2 The transition period from the horse-drawn tram to electrification
4.8.1.3 The development of electric trams
4.8.1.4 The period of dismantling of tram networks
4.8.1.5 Restoration and reintegration of tramway systems
4.8.2 Present situation
References
Chapter 5 Metro
5.1 Definition and description of the system
5.2 Classification of metro systems
5.2.1 Based on transport capacity
5.2.2 Based on the Grade of Automation of their operation
5.2.3 Based on the guidance system
5.2.4 Other classification categories
5.3 Constructional and operational characteristics of a metro system
5.3.1 Track layout
5.3.2 Track superstructure
5.3.3 Tunnels
5.3.4 Rolling stock
5.3.5 Operation
5.3.5.1 Commercial speeds, service frequency, and service reliability
5.3.5.2 Fare collection and ticket supply
5.3.5.3 Revenues for the system operator
5.3.6 Implementation cost
5.4 Metro stations
5.4.1 Location selection for metro stations
5.4.2 Construction depth of metro stations
5.4.3 Construction methods
5.4.3.1 Construction of the station’s shell
5.4.3.2 Surface construction
5.4.3.3 Number of station levels
5.4.3.4 Station architecture
5.4.4 Platforms
5.4.4.1 Layout of platforms
5.4.4.2 Platform dimensions
5.5 Depot facilities
5.6 Requirements for implementing the system
5.7 Historical overview and present situation
5.7.1 Historical overview
5.7.2 Present situation
References
Chapter 6 Monorail
6.1 Definition and description of the system
6.2 Classification of the monorails and techniques of the system
6.2.1 Based on train placement in relation to the guidebeam
6.2.2 Based on transport capacity
6.2.3 Based on system techniques
6.2.4 Based on functionality/services provided
6.3 Classification of the monorails and techniques of the system
6.3.1 Permanent way
6.3.2 Rolling stock
6.3.3 Operation
6.4 Advantages and disadvantages of monorail systems
6.4.1 Advantages
6.4.2 Disadvantages
6.5 Requirements for implementing the system
6.6 Historical overview and present situation
6.6.1 Historical overview
6.6.2 Present situation
References
Chapter 7 Automatic passenger transport railway systems of low- and medium-transport capacity
7.1 Definition
7.2 Cable-propelled railway systems
7.2.1 General description and classification
7.2.2 Constructional and operational features of the systems
7.2.2.1 System ‘principles’ and superstructure configurations
7.2.2.2 Guideway
7.2.3 Advantages and disadvantages
7.2.3.1 Advantages
7.2.3.2 Disadvantages
7.2.4 Requirements for implementing the system
7.3 Self-propelled electric systems
7.3.1 General description and classification
7.3.2 Battery-powered systems
7.3.2.1 Advantages (Wikipedia, 2015c)
7.3.2.2 Disadvantages (Wikipedia, 2015c)
7.3.3 Outside power feeding systems
References
Chapter 8 Suburban railway
8.1 Definition and classification of suburban railway systems
8.2 Constructional and operational characteristics of the suburban railway
8.3 Advantages and disadvantages of the suburban railway
8.3.1 Advantages
8.3.2 Disadvantages
8.4 Requirements for implementing the system
8.5 Airport railway links
8.5.1 Railway services between urban centres and neighbouring airports
8.5.2 Development in the number of airport–urban centre rail links in relation to that of airports
8.5.3 Average airport–urban centre distance served by the different types of railway systems
8.5.4 Number and type of railway systems serving as airport links in relation to urban centre population size
References
Chapter 9 Rack railway
9.1 Definition and description of the system
9.2 Classification of rack railway systems
9.2.1 Type of cog rail
9.2.2 Type of adhesion along the line
9.3 Evolution of the system and application examples
9.4 Constructional and operational features of rack railway systems
9.4.1 Track alignment
9.4.2 Track superstructure
9.4.3 Rolling stock
9.4.4 Operation
9.5 Advantages and disadvantages of rack railway systems
9.5.1 Advantages
9.5.2 Disadvantages
9.6 Requirements for implementing the system
References
Chapter 10 Cable railway systems for steep gradients
10.1 Definition and description of the system
10.2 The funicular
10.2.1 Evolution of funiculars and application examples
10.2.2 Constructional and operational features of funiculars
10.2.2.1 Infrastructure
10.2.2.2 Rolling stock
10.2.2.3 Operation
10.3 The inclined elevator
10.4 Advantages and disadvantages of cable railway systems for steep gradients
10.4.1 Advantages
10.4.2 Disadvantages
10.5 Requirements for implementing the system
References
Chapter 11 Organisation and management of passenger intercity railway transport
11.1 Services and basic design principles of passenger railway transport
11.2 Service level of intercity passenger railway transport: quality parameters
11.3 Rolling stock for passenger intercity railway transport
11.4 Scheduling of passenger train services
11.5 Case study: selection and purchase of rolling stock
11.5.1 Step 1: assessment of the existing situation
11.5.2 Step 2: determination of the target year
11.5.3 Step 3: assessment of the situation in the target year
11.5.4 Step 4: determination of the transport volume target
11.5.5 Step 5: determination of the service frequency target
11.5.6 Step 6: new train timetable scheme
11.5.7 Step 7: checks on corridor track capacity and transport volume
11.5.8 Step 8: in theory – required rolling stock for the performance of scheduled services
11.5.9 Step 9: practically required rolling stock
11.5.10 Step 10: required rolling stock
References
Chapter 12 High-speed networks and trains
12.1 Distinction between high speeds and conventional speeds
12.2 High-speed train issues
12.3 Specifications and technical solutions for the achievement of high speeds
12.3.1 Track geometry alignment characteristics
12.3.1.1 Selection of horizontal alignment radii – case study
12.3.1.2 Distance between track centres
12.3.1.3 Longitudinal slopes
12.3.2 Track superstructure components
12.3.3 Civil engineering structures
12.3.3.1 Tunnel traffic
12.3.3.2 Passage under bridges
12.3.3.3 Track fencing
12.3.3.4 Noise barriers
12.3.3.5 Handling aerodynamic effects in an ‘open’ track and on platforms
12.3.4 Track systems
12.3.5 Rolling stock
12.3.5.1 Aerodynamic design of vehicles
12.3.5.2 Design of bogies
12.3.5.3 Braking system
12.3.5.4 Vehicle design: construction
12.3.5.5 Implementation cost
12.4 Historical review and current situation of very high-speed networks and trains
12.5 Interoperability issues
References
Chapter 13 Tilting trains
13.1 Definition and operating principle of tilting technology
13.2 Tilting techniques and systems
13.2.1 Passive tilting
13.2.2 Active tilting
13.3 Main constructional and operational characteristics of tilting trains
13.3.1 Performances in terms of speed
13.3.2 Tilting angle
13.3.3 Track gauge
13.3.4 Axle load
13.3.5 Track superstructure
13.3.6 Bogies’ technology
13.3.7 Train formation
13.3.8 Signalling
13.3.9 Traction
13.3.10 Cost of rolling stock supply
13.4 Requirements for implementing the system
13.4.1 Existing conventional-speed infrastructure
13.4.2 New conventional-speed infrastructure
13.4.3 New high-speed infrastructure
13.5 Historic overview and present situation
References
Chapter 14 Metric track gauge intercity railway networks
14.1 Definition and description of the system
14.2 Main constructional characteristics of intercity metric track gauge lines
14.2.1 Track alignment: differences between tracks of metric and normal gauge
14.2.2 Track superstructure
14.3 Advantages and disadvantages of intercity metric gauge lines
14.3.1 Advantages
14.3.2 Disadvantages
14.4 Requirements for implementing the system
References
Chapter 15 Organisation and management of freight railway transport
15.1 Provided services and classification of freight railway transportation systems
15.2 Service level of freight railway transport: quality parameters
15.3 Rolling stock for freight
15.4 Scheduling of freight train services
15.5 The trends in the domain of freight rail transportation
15.5.1 Combined transport
15.5.2 Mass transport
15.5.3 Higher speeds
15.6 The main dilemmas for railway companies in the domain of freight rail transportation
15.6.1 Τhe ‘open’ issues
15.6.2 Mixed traffic operation
15.6.2.1 Description and justification of the problem
15.6.2.2 Contribution towards solving the dilemma – investigation of the impact of traffic composition on the economic profitability of a railway system
15.6.3 Transportation of dangerous goods
15.6.3.1 Description and justification of the problem
15.6.3.2 Contribution towards solving the dilemma
15.6.4 Long or short trains
15.6.4.1 Description and justification of the problem
15.6.4.2 Contribution towards solving the dilemma
References
Chapter 16 Heavy haul rail transport
16.1 Definition and general description of the system
16.2 The international market in heavy haul rail transport
16.3 Differences between conventional and heavy haul freight railway networks
16.4 Impacts of heavy haul rail operations and main design principles
16.4.1 Selection of track infrastructure components
16.4.1.1 Selection of the track’s alignment geometric characteristics
16.4.1.2 Selection of rails
16.4.1.3 Selection of the type of sleepers and the distances between them
16.4.1.4 Selection and dimensioning of track bed layer features
16.4.1.5 Construction principles of the formation layer
16.4.1.6 Dimensioning of bridges
16.4.1.7 Dimensioning of the signalling system
16.4.2 Effects on the rolling stock
16.4.3 Effects on the operation
16.5 Economic efficiency of heavy haul rail transport
References
Chapter 17 Operation of railway systems under specific weather conditions and natural phenomena
17.1 Specific weather conditions/natural phenomena and the railway systems
17.2 Specific weather conditions
17.2.1 Strong crosswinds
17.2.1.1 Interfaces with the railway system: impacts
17.2.1.2 Possible mitigation measures
17.2.2 Frost/heavy snowfall
17.2.2.1 Interfaces with the railway system: impacts
17.2.2.2 Possible mitigation measures
17.2.3 High temperatures
17.2.3.1 Interfaces with the railway system: impacts
17.2.3.2 Possible mitigation measures
17.3 Natural phenomena
17.3.1 Sandstorms
17.3.1.1 Interfaces with the railway system: impacts
17.3.1.2 Possible mitigation measures
17.3.2 Heavy leaf fall
17.3.2.1 Interfaces with the railway system: impacts
17.3.2.2 Possible mitigation measures
17.3.3 Earthquakes
17.3.3.1 Interfaces with the railway system: impacts
17.3.3.2 Possible mitigation measures
References
Chapter 18 Railway safety
18.1 Types of railway incidents and definition of railway safety
18.1.1 Types of railway incidents
18.1.2 Definition of railway safety
18.1.2.1 Based on risk level
18.1.2.2 Based on incident ‘indicators’
18.2 Significance of safety in railway systems and differences in road safety
18.2.1 Significance of safety in railway systems
18.2.2 Distinctions between railway and road safety
18.3 Classification of railway incidents
18.4 Causes of railway incidents
18.5 Safety in civil engineering structures
18.5.1 Railway civil engineering structures and related incidents
18.5.2 Safety at railway bridges
18.5.3 Safety in railway tunnels
18.5.4 Safety at road overpasses
18.5.5 Safety on high embankments
18.5.6 Safety in deep cuttings
18.5.7 Safety in fencing
18.6 Safety at railway stations
18.7 Safety on the ‘open’ track
18.7.1 Potential risks
18.7.2 Safety measures
18.8 Safety at RLCs
18.9 The traffic moment of an RLC
18.10 Correlation between the cost of interventions and the safety level improvement
18.10.1 General approach
18.10.2 The change in the value of accident indicators
18.10.3 The change in the risk level
18.10.3.1 Characterisation of the frequency of a particular incident
18.10.3.2 Characterisation of the severity of a particular incident
18.10.4 Case studies
18.10.4.1 Individual passive RLC – conversion to active RLC
18.10.4.2 Individual passive RLC – conversion to overpass
18.10.4.3 Passive level crossings at railway network level
References
Chapter 19 Railway and the natural environment
19.1 Natural environment of the railway
19.2 Energy consumption
19.2.1 Definition: units expressing energy consumption
19.2.2 Energy-consuming railway activities
19.2.3 Special features of each railway system category
19.2.4 Measures for energy consumption reduction
19.3 Air pollution
19.3.1 Definition: units expressing air pollution
19.3.2 Railway activities causing air pollution
19.3.3 Special features of each railway system category
19.3.4 Measures for air pollution reduction
19.4 Soil and water pollution
19.4.1 Definition: measurement methods of soil and water pollution
19.4.2 Railway activities causing soil pollution
19.4.3 Special features of each railway system category
19.4.4 Countermeasures against the pollution of soil due to the presence of the railway
19.5 Visual annoyance
19.5.1 Definition: measurement methods of visual annoyance
19.5.2 Railway activities causing visual annoyance
19.5.3 Special features of each railway system category
19.5.4 Countermeasures against visual annoyance caused by the presence of the railway
19.6 Integration of the track into the landscape
19.6.1 Definition: measurement indices of integration
19.6.2 Railway activities causing a change of landscape
19.6.3 Special features of each railway system category
19.6.4 Measures for smooth integration of the railway into the landscape
19.7 Ecosystem disturbance
19.7.1 Definition: indices of expression of ecosystem disturbance
19.7.2 Railway activities causing ecosystem disturbance
19.7.3 Special features of each railway system category
19.7.4 Reduction measures of ecosystem disturbance
19.8 Disturbance of local resident activities: access restriction and disruption of urban space
19.8.1 Definition: measurement indices of disturbance on local resident activities
19.8.2 Railway activities causing disturbance to local resident activities
19.8.3 Special features of each railway system category
19.8.4 Measures for the reduction of disturbance caused to local residential activities due to the presence of railway infrastructure
19.9 Acoustic annoyance
19.9.1 Definition: units expressing acoustic annoyance
19.9.2 Railway activities causing acoustic annoyance
19.9.3 Special features of each railway system category
19.9.4 Countermeasures against acoustic annoyance
19.9.4.1 The path of noise transmission
19.9.4.2 The source of noise
19.10 Ground-borne noise and vibrations
19.10.1 Definition: measurement units of ground-borne noise and vibrations
19.10.2 Railway activities causing and affecting ground-borne noise and vibrations
19.10.3 Special features of each railway system category
19.10.4 Countermeasures against vibrations and ground-borne noise
19.11 Impacts on land use
19.12 Comparative assessment of the impacts of various means of transport on the natural environment
19.12.1 Methodology approach
19.12.2 Long distances: comparison between the aeroplane and the high-speed train
19.12.3 Urban transport: comparison of the metro, the tram, the urban bus, and the private car
19.12.4 Very high-speed transport modes: comparisons of the aeroplane, the very high-speed train, and the magnetic levitation train
19.12.5 Freight transport: comparison of freight trains and road trucks
References
Chapter 20 The research in the railway domain: Cutting-edge technologies in railways
20.1 The research in the railway domain in Europe
20.2 Definition and classification of cutting-edge technologies
20.3 Smart windows
20.4 Laser railhead cleaner system
20.5 Catenary-free power supply systems of tramways
20.5.1 Ground-level power supply systems
20.5.1.1 The APS system
20.5.1.2 The TramWave system
20.5.1.3 The PRIMOVE system
20.5.2 Onboard energy storage systems
20.5.2.1 Supercapacitor charging/ESS (supercapacitors or ultracapacitors)
20.6 Automation of trains
20.6.1 Definition and Grades of Automation
20.6.2 Implementing automation
20.6.3 The advantages and disadvantages of automation
References
Chapter 21 Applicability verification: A supporting tool for the conduction of feasibility studies of urban mass railway transportation systems
21.1 Applicability verification – definition and the need for its integration in urban railway project studies
21.2 Applicability verification of a tramway line
21.2.1 Individual required verifications
21.2.2 Verification of track alignment and geometric integration
21.2.2.1 Track alignment check
21.2.2.2 Geometric integration check
21.2.3 Applicability verification of operational efficiency
21.2.3.1 Check of the commercial speed
21.2.3.2 Check of the passenger transport volume
21.2.4 Applicability verification of a tramway depot
21.2.4.1 Check of the required and the available tramway ground plan area
21.2.4.2 Check of the distance of the tramway depot from the tramway main network
21.2.4.3 Check of the landscape
21.2.4.4 Check of the ability to acquire the land and locating of the tramway depot
21.2.5 Applicability verification of the implementation cost
21.2.6 Applicability verification of the environmental impacts
21.2.6.1 Check of noise pollution and vibrations
21.2.6.2 Check of visual annoyance
21.3 Applicability verification of a suburban line
21.3.1 Individual required verifications
21.3.2 Operation of suburban trains on existing infrastructure
21.3.2.1 Applicability verification of constructional features of the railway infrastructure
21.3.2.2 Applicability verification of the passenger transport volume
21.3.2.3 Applicability verification of system operability
21.3.2.4 Applicability verification of the station service level
21.3.2.5 Applicability verification of the availability of the depot facilities
21.3.2.6 Applicability verification of the environmental impacts
21.3.2.7 Applicability verification of the implementation cost
21.3.3 Operation of suburban trains on new infrastructure
21.3.3.1 Applicability verification of the constructional features of the railway infrastructure
21.3.3.2 Applicability verification of the passenger transport volume
21.3.3.3 Applicability verification of the location, construction, and operation of the depot facilities
21.3.3.4 Applicability verification of the environmental impacts
21.3.3.5 Applicability verification of the implementation cost
21.4 Applicability verification of a monorail line
21.5 Applicability verification of a metro line
References
Index

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