Qidfa: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates 9781803273266, 9781803273273, 1803273267

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Qidfa: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates
 9781803273266, 9781803273273, 1803273267

Table of contents :
Cover
Contents
Title Page
Copyright Page
Contents
List of Figures, Tables, and Plates
Figure 1: The undisturbed mound section of Qidfa’ 1.
Figure 2: The two ‘caves’ openings of the tomb.
Figure 3: The locals examining the discovery
Figure 4: Photo of the northern chamber finds.
Figure 5: Pottery, stone and bronze vessels, a dagger and copper arrowheads at the northern chamber.
Figure 6: Shot of finds in the southern chamber.
Figure 7: South chamber with finds and a flat marine stone.
Figure 8: General view of the upper chambers of the tomb.
Figure 10: Funeral objects of glazed earthen ware buried together with stone and copper/bronze vessels.
Figure 9: Photo with a heavy bronze bangle at the curve of the northern chamber.
Figure 11: Entrance of the tomb from inside.
Figure 12: The blocked entrance from outside.
Figure 13: The entrance after removing the blocking slab.
Figure 14: Areal view of the northern chamber after excavation.
Figure 15: The tomb after excavation. Nanu sits on the floor of the upper burial. His feet are on the floor of the lower tier.
Figure 16: Semi-complete jar of grey ware (P 7). H 24.8 cm.
Figure 18: Incomplete jar of grey ware (P 47). H. 25.5 cm.
Figure 19: Pear-shaped jar of grey ware (P 37). H. 22.7 cm.
Figure 20: Semi-complete jar of grey ware (P 45). H. 21.2 cm.
Figure 22: Incomplete decanter vessel of grey ware (P 19). H. 16.3 cm.
Figure 23: lugged-jar of coarse dark grey ware (P 5). H. 20.4 cm.
Figure 24: Lugged-jar (P 77a). H. 15.5 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum (FM).
Figure 26: Small canister vessel in a bottle shape, handmade (P 75). H. 11.8.
Figure 27: Necked-canister vessel, poorly baked (P 31). H. 11.5.
Figure 28: A complete profile of fine fabric reminiscent of Umm an-Nar/Wadi Suq ware (P 33). H. 23.2.
Figure 30: Complete handmade vessel with narrow mouth (P38). H. 15.5.
Figure 31: Thick wall handmade vessel (P 4). H. 15.7.
Figure 32: Handmade vessel (P 3). H. 15 cm.
Figure 34: High-necked handmade vessel (P 74). H. 16.8 cm.
Figure 35: Painted pottery vessel (P 44). H. 14.9 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.
Figure 36: Thick wall painted vessel (P 10). H. 14.5 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum
Figure 37: Remnants of a wide-mouthed bowl (P 52). H. 7.2 cm.
Figure 38: Incomplete wide-mouthed bowl (P 68). H. 4.8-5.1 cm.
Figure 40: Incomplete wide-mouthed bowl (P 56). H. 5.3-5.7 cm.
Figure 41: Semi-complete wide-mouthed bowl (P 65). H. 4.8, r. diam. 8.9 cm.
Figure 42: Complete spouted bowl (P 42). H. 8, max. r. diam. 12.3 cm.
Figure 44: Painted open-mouthed bowl (P 49). H. 6, max. r. diam. 11.6 cm.
Figure 45: Wide mouth painted bowl (P 87). H. 8, R. diam. 16 cm. (from outside the tomb).
Figure 46: Spouted bowl (P 15). H. 7.9, R. diam. 11-11.5 cm.
Figure 48: Large section of a handmade bowl (P 54). H. 7, est. r. diam. 12 cm.
Figure 50: Profile of a bowl (P 69a). H. 6.9 cm.
Figure 51: Semi-complete bowl, handmade (P 70). H. 9, r. diam. 13.8 cm.
Figure 52: Complete bowl, handmade (P 73). H. 6.5, r. diam. 10.8-11.8 cm
Figure 54: High wall bowl (P 17). H. 13.2, est. r. diam. 17 cm.
Figure 56: Semi-complete bowl (P 12). H. 9.7, r. diam. 14 cm.
Figure 57: Large dish (P 26). H. 6, r. diam. 18 cm.
Figure 58: Small complete dish (P 28). H. 4.7-5, r. diam. 14.8- 15.5 cm.
Figure 60: Large dish (P 46). H. 9.2-10, r. diam. 28.5 cm.
Figure 61: Incomplete dish (P 51). H. 6, Est. r. diam. 17 cm.
Figure 62: Large dish (P 76). R. diam. 23.5 cm.
Figure 64: Black on red painted cup (P 58). H. 6, r. diam. 7-7.5 cm.
Figure 65: Profile of incised grey pottery vessel (P 66). H. 9.5, est. r. diam. 9 cm.
Figure 66: Complete beaker of incised grey pottery with its lid (P1 and P 2). H. 13 cm.
Figure 68: Glazed bowl (P 61). av. H. with knobs 7, r. diam. 14.2, B. diam. 7.5 cm.
Figure 69: Same glazed beaker (P 61).
Figure 70: Painted vessel (P 81). H. 11.8, r. diam. 12.5-12.8 cm.
Figure 72: Painted vessel (P 79). H. 9-9.2, r diam. 11 cm.
Figure 73: Painted cup (p 84). R. diam. 6.7 cm
Figure 74: Painted bowl (P 78). H. 6.2-6.7 cm.
Figure 76: Lower portion of a dish (P 82). Base diam. 9.3 cm.
Figure 77: Small canister vessel (P 83). H. 12.5, r. diam. 5.3 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.
Figure 78: Conical stone vessel (S 7). H. 11, b. diam. 13 cm.
Figure 80: Conical vessel (S 34) H. 14.5-15, b. diam. 18.8 cm.
Figure 81: Squat conical vessel (S 80). H. 6.5, b. diam. 12.1 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.
Figure 82: Squat conical vessel (48). H. 8.5, b. diam. 15.5 cm.
Figure 84: High conical stone vessel (S 47). H. 15-15.5, b. diam. 15.8-16.8 cm.
Figure 85: Small conical vessel made of whitish stone (S 14). H. 5.5, b. diam. 8.9 cm.
Figure 86: High rectangular box (S 2). H. 9.5, base length 6 cm.
Figure 88: Rectangular box (S 5). H. 7.5, b. length 11.1 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.
Figure 89: High rectangular box (S 16). H. 9.5-9.8, b. length 9 cm.
Figure 90: Rectangular box (S 39). H. 11.1, b. 13.8x8.8 cm.
Figure 91: Small barrel-shaped suspension vessel (S 45). See text for measurements.
Figure 92: Large barrel-shaped suspension vessel (S 11). See text for measurements.
Figure 93: Beaker with its original lid (S 63). H. 13 cm.
Figure 94: Worn out bowl with short open spout ornamented with single-dotted circles (S 23). H. 4.5, r. diam. 8.6 cm.
Figure 96: Stone bowl with chevron motif on the long open spout. Hanging triangles cover the body (S 54). H. 4.7-5, r. diam. 10.2 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.
Figure 98: Stone vessel with long spout. Zigzag lines between straight lines (S 83). H. 5.1, r. diam. 8.5-8.9 cm.
Figure 99: Spouted bowl ornamented with straight lines and hanging triangles executed in saw-teeth incisions (S 26). H. 5-5.4, r. diam. 8.5 cm.
Figure 100: Spouted vessel ornamented with straight lines and tree-like motifs in between (S 84). H. 6.8-7.2, r. diam. 7.7 cm.
Figure 102: Squat carinated vessel. Two saw-teeth zigzag lines decorate the body and three of them below the spout (S 82). H. 4.3, r. diam. 8.8, b. diam. 5.8 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.
Figure 103: Small open mouth vessel decorated with single dotted circles bordered by two lines below the rim (S 85). H. 3.6-3.8, r. diam. 8.5, b. diam. 3.4 cm.
Figure 104: Small fully decorated container (S 86). H. 3.1, r. diam. 6.7, b. diam. 6.7 cm.
Figure 105: Stone lid with radial incisions executed in saw-teeth style on the surface (S 49). Diam. 8 cm.
Figure 106: Stone lid, simple incised lines on surface and pommel (S 60). Diam. 6.8 cm.
Figure 108: High-stem lid of Wadi Suq Period (S 87). H. 6.5, diam. 9 cm.
Figure 110: Lid with 4 fish motifs. Handle is missing (S 56). Diam. 9.7 cm.
Figure 111: Nicely shaped lid with star fish like-motif. May have had a separate handle (S 61). Diam. 11.1 cm.
Figure 112: The lower side of the former lid.
Figure 113: Unique rectangular lid with rounded corner and a separate handle (S 52). 9.6x6 cm.
Figure 115: Small 4 lugged-vessel from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S88). Av. H. 5.8, r. diam. 3.3 cm.
Figure 116: Small vessel from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 91). H. 4.8, r. diam. 3.7 cm.
Figure 118: Lid with single-dotted circles from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 94). diam. 5.5 cm.
Figure 120: Spouted bowl from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 93). H. 5.1-5.4, r. diam. 11.8 cm.
Figure 121: Incomplete fragmented bowl mostly discovered in the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 90). H. 8.5, r. diam. 17.5 cm.
Figure 122: Spouted copper/bronze vessel (B 10). H. 10, b. diam. 7, r. diam. 15 cm.
Figure 124: Deep spouted bowl (B 31). Av. H. 9.5, b. diam. 8, r. diam. 15 cm.
Figure 126: Spouted copper/bronze bowl (B 40). Av. H. 9.6, b. diam. 6.6, r. diam. 15.8 cm.
Figure 127: Spouted bowl (B 45). Av. H. 10.2-11, b. diam. 7, av. r. diam. 16 cm.
Figure 128: Deep spouted copper/bronze bowl (B 17). H. 10.7, b. 8.5, r. diam. 15.8 cm.
Figure 130: Spouted bowl (B 32). H. 8, b. diam. 7.5, av. R. diam. 15 cm.
Figure 132: Deep spouted bowl (B 39). H. 9.8, r. diam. 15, base is missing.
Figure 133: Medium size copper/bronze bowl (B. 12). H. 4.7, b. diam. 6.1, r. diam. 9-9.8 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.
Figure 134: (B 16). H. 8-9.5, b. diam. 7.5, r. diam. 14.5 cm.
Figure 136: Copper/bronze bowl, thicker wall, thick-flanged rim (B 38). Av. H. 9.2, b. diam. 15.7, r. diam. 10 cm.
Figure 138: Tassa (B 50). Av. H. 7.5, b. diam. 6, av. R. diam. 6 cm.
Figure 139: Tassa (B 51). H. 7, av. B. diam. 5.5, r. diam. 12 cm.
Figure 140: Tassa (B 52). Av. H. 7, b. diam. 5.8, av. R. diam. 12 cm.
Figure 142: Tassa (B 25). Av. H. 6.5, b. 5.5, r. diam. 12-12.5 cm.
Figure 144: Copper/bronze vessel (B 2). H. 10.5-11.6, aprox. r. diam. 15.5 cm.
Figure 145: Small hemispherical bowl (B 1). H. 5-5.5, b. diam. 3.8, r. diam. 9 cm.
Figure 146: Medium-size bowl with off-set walls (B 8). H. 5.6, b. diam. 5.3, r. diam. 12 cm.
Figure 148: Copper/bronze vessel with long spout (B 36). H. 8, b. diam. 10, r. diam. 15.7 cm.
Figure 150: Cylix-like copper/bronze vessel (B 27). H. 8.8, r. diam. 10.7 cm.
Figure 151: Small copper/bronze vessels (B 54, B 33, B 43) from left to right.
Figure 152: Small copper/bronze vessel (B 5) with undulated body. Av. H. 3.8, b. diam. 4.2, av. r. diam. 4.2 cm.
Figure 154: Two daggers with crescent-shaped shoulder. From left: M 12 (length 41 cm) and M 5 (length 41.5).
Figure 155: Daggers belong to Type A.
Figure 156: Distinct dagger (M 18), 39 cm long.
Figure 158: Daggers belong to Type B. From left M 150, M 24, M 8, M 3.
Figure 159: From left M 19, M 10, length 31.7 and 37 cm.
Figure 160: Hilts of previous figure.
Figure 161: Dagger with un- riveted inlayed hilt (M 151), length 37.5 cm.
Figure 162: Close-up of the previous hilt.
Figure 163: Restored dagger (M 2).
Figure 165: Shihuh type axe (M 32). Length 10.8 cm.
Figure 167: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe. From left M 39, M 40.
Figure 168: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 29).
Figure 170: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 38).
Figure 172: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 30).
Figure 173: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (from left M 158 and 157).
Figure 174: Adzes. From left M 37, M 33, M 27.
Figure 175: Halberd (Battle axe) (M 28), length 18.5cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.
Figure 177: A collection of copper/bronze arrowheads from the upper burial (M 170).
Figure 178: Engraved arrowheads may be reveled if these badly corroded artefacts are restored.
Figure 179: An arrowhead of a characteristic shape and exceptional length (ca. 10 cm).
Figure 180: Badly corroded copper/bronze arrowheads with engraved signs still visible.
Figure 182: Anklet (M 192), outside diam. 8.2-9.5 cm.
Figure 183: (M 196), outside diam. 9-10 cm.
Figure 184: (M 198), outside diam. 8.7-9.7 cm.
Figure 186: (M 194), outside diam. 8-9.4 cm.
Figure 188: (M 72 and M 76), 9.7-10.7 and 10-10.5 cm.
Figure 189: Pair of anklets (M 190), 7.8-8.8 cm.
Figure 190: (M 195), outside diam. 8.8- 9.4 cm.
Figure 192: (M 197), outside diam. 8.8-9.7 cm.
Figure 193: (M 73), outside diam. 9-10.7 cm.
Figure 194: Anklets (M 65 and M 68), outside diam. 8-9.5 and 8.2-9.5 cm.
Figure 195: This bangle was part of the uniform.
Figure 196: Bangle (M 200), outside diam. 9.8-11 cm.
Figure 198: Bangle (M 66), before and after restoration, outside diam. 9-10.7 cm.
Figure 199: Two copper razors (M 204 and M 205), length 5.6 and 8.3 cm.
Figure 200: Copper bracelet (M 82), max. diam. 7.6 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.
Figure 202: Copper/bronze mirror (M 107).
Figure 203: Decorative shell disc (M 239), diam. 3.9 cm.
Figure 204: Shell disc ornamented with rosette motif (M 119), diam. 5.2 cm.
Figure 205: Worked discs, from left (M 237), (234), (238).
Figure 206: Earing made of mixture of gold and silver. Credit: Fujairah Museum.
Figure 207: Two amulets.
Figure 209: Dilmun stamp seal, obverse side (M 230).
Figure 210: The same seal, reverse side.
Figure 211: Cylinder seal/pendant with an engraved human-like figure (M 104). Credit: Fujairah Museum.
Figure 213: Etched carnelian bead (M 260), length 1.5 cm .
Figure 214: Tubular bead of red carnelian and gold (M 121), length 4.6 cm.
Figure 215: collection of beads discovered.
Table 1: Key to symbols used in subsequent appendices.
Table 2: List of contexts with human remains
Table 3: Description of mandible and maxilla fragments
Table 4: Loose Teeth
Table 5: Non-dental Remains
Plate 1: General map of the second and first millennium BC sites in the United Arab Emirates.
Plate 2: Satellite image showing the location of Sites 1-4 at Qidfa’.
Plate 3: Detailed map showing the archaeological sites identified at Qidfa by the author.
Plate 4: The U-shaped plan of Qidfa 1 tomb after excavations. Drawing: C.U. John.
Plate 5: Section throughout the tomb shows the lower and the upper burials. Note the remains of the retaining wall on both sides of the structure. Drawing: C.U. John.
Plate 6: Plan of Qidfa’1 tomb shows the uppermost bone layer. Drawing: C.U. John.
Plate 7: The same previous plan shows the hatched slabs (capstones) of the lower burial. Drawing: C.U. John. Drawing: C.U. John.
Plate 8: Sketch of the tomb entrance as it looks from outside. Drawing: C.U. John.
Plate 9: Handmade jars of course ware.
Plates 11: Handmade grey pottery jars.
Plates 12: Handmade grey pottery jars.
Plates 13: Handmade grey pottery jars.
Plates 14: Handmade grey pottery jars.
Plates 15: Handmade grey pottery jars.
Plate 16: Fine ware jar.
Plate 17: Fine ware jar/decanter (P 19).
Plate 18: Large jar of fine ware and two small canister/bottled-jars.
Plate 19: Two painted vessels.
Plate 20: Incomplete grey jar and two small handmade bowls.
Plate 21: Incised beaker with its lid and a profile of an incised bi-conical vessel.
Plate 22: Handmade jar with a narrow mouth.
Plate 23: Three open-mouthed bowls of different shapes.
Plate 24: Profile of a small pear-shaped jar and a larger one of semi-coarse ware with four knobs.
Plate 25: Narrow mouth vessels with globular body.
Plate 26: Large portion of an undulated bowl and remains of a second one which may have had a spout.
Plate 27: Three undulated spouted bowls and two spoutless plain bowls.
Plate 28: Two handmade bowls.
Plate 29: Spouted bowl.
Plate 30: Spouted bowl.
Plate 31: Bowls of different shapes.
Plate 32: Painted spouted bowl.
Plate 33: The painted bowl (P 87) was discovered outside the tomb.
Plate 34: Semi-fine ware bowl on top and two handmade coarse ware below.
Plate 35: Various types of vessels. P17 may have served as a beaker.
Plate 36: Vessels like these served as beakers.
Plate 37: Some of these bowls may have been used as scopes.
Plate 38: Wheel-made dishes.
Plate 39: Large dishes.
Plate 40: Glazed ceramics.
Plate 41: One large painted bowl and two small painted cups from the upper burial.
Plate 42: Painted bowls/beakers of Wadi Suq Period from the lower burial.
Plate 43: Incomplete painted bowl and a cup with plain lower portion of a dish from the lower burial.
Plate 44: Wadi Suq pottery from the lower burial.
Plate 45: Two large conical stone vessels.
Plate 46: Small size conical stone vessels.
Plates 47: Small size conical vessels. The hatched triangle is the main motif.
Plate 48: Rectangular vessel (top) and a conical one (bottom).
Plate 49: Large conical vessels adorned with single-dotted circle, hatched triangles and floral.
Plate 50: Conical stone vessels with multi-register of incised decorations.
Plate 51: Incomplete compartmented stone box and a small conical vessel.
Plate 52: Two stone ornamented boxes with their rectangular lids.
Plate 53: Rectangular stone box and a cylindrical-shaped beaker with a round lid.
Plate 54: Rectangular stone box.
Plate 55: Large barrel-shaped suspension vessel engraved with a stylized human figure with its round lid.
Plate 57: Cylindrical beaker decorated with incised floral motif.
Plate 58: Various shapes of stone beakers and a spouted bowl.
Plates 59: Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.
Plates 60: Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.
Plates 61: Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.
Plates 62: Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.
Plates 63: Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.
Plate 64: Different shapes of spoutless vessels.
Plate 65: Round lid, bowl and a small trinket. P 87 and P 86 were found in the upper burial and they might be heirlooms. P 85 came from between Slabs 10 and 11.
Plates 66: Round lids from the upper burial.
Plates 67: Round lids from the upper burial.
Plates 68: Round lids from the upper burial.
Plates 69: Round lids from the upper burial.
Plate 71: A unique undecorated oval lid with a separate handle from the upper burial.
Plates 70: Round lids from the upper burial.
Plate 72: Three small Wadi Suq vessels from the lower burial.
Plate 73: Two Wadi Suq spouted bowls from the lower burial.
Plate 74: Spouted copper/bronze bowls.
Plate 75: Spouted copper/bronze bowls.
Plate 76: Spouted copper/bronze bowls.
Plate 77: Profile of a large spouted copper/bronze bowl with globular body and two small spouted vessels.
Plate 78: A distinctive copper/bronze spouted vessel with engraved motif.
Plate 79: Two copper/bronze vessels. A bowl with long spout and a cylix-like vessel. Missing base.
Plate 80: Large, medium and small open spout copper/bronze vessels of different shapes.
Plate 81: Large, medium and small open spout copper/bronze vessels of different shapes.
Plate 82: Large, medium and small open spout copper/bronze vessels of different shapes.
Plates 83: Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts.
Plates 84: Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts.
Plates 85: Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts.
Plate 87: Two crescent hilt daggers without rivets and one straight side riveted hilt.
Plates 86: Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts.
Plates 88: Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.
Plates 89: Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.
Plates 90: Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.
Plates 91: Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.
Plate 92: Straight-sided daggers with flanged hilts void of rivets.
Plate 93: Three short daggers and a knife or spearhead blade. M 148 is 30.7cm long.
Plates 94: Bronze shaft-hole axes. Note the slanted straight and round cutting edges.
Plates 95: Bronze shaft-hole axes. Note the slanted straight and round cutting edges.
Plate 97: Bronze adzes.
Plates 96: Bronze shaft-hole axes. Note the slanted straight and round cutting edges.
Plates 98: Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.
Plates 99: Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.
Plates 100: Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.
Plates 101: Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.
Plate 103: Engraved copper/bronze arrowheads.
Plates 102: Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.
Plates 104: Bronze anklets.
Plates 105: Bronze anklets.
Plate 107: Heavy bronze bangles.
Plates 106: Bronze anklets.
Plate 108: Copper/bronze objects (razors, bracelets, awls, ladle and tweezers). Two razors, M 204 and M 205 were discovered in the lower burial. The rest came from the Upper burial.
Plate 109: A copper/bronze mirror.
Plate 110: Plain and decorates disc shells.
Plate 111: Plain and decorates disc shells.
Plate 113: Engraved pendants and seals.
Plate 114: Various types of beads made of red carnelian, metal, gold, coral, frit, stone and other materials.
Plate 115: Plan of Fashgha 1 tomb. After C. Phillips. 1987.
Plate 116: Plan of Qidfa’ 4. Drawing: C.U. John.
Plate 117: Plan of Mreished tomb. Drawing: C.U. John.
Plate 112: Nose/earrings and finger rings. M 101, M 224 and 225 are made of gold. The rest metal items might be made of silver. M 218 might be a belt strap made of copper.
الملخص:
Preface and Acknowledgments
Abbreviations
Introduction
The Area Setting
History of Investigations in Fujairah Before Qidfaʿ 1
Excavation at Qidfaʿ 1: The First Season
The Northern Burial Chamber Upper Tier
The Tomb Architecture
The Southern Burial Chamber Upper Tier
The Second Season
The Tomb Entrance
The Lower Burial Tier of Both Chambers
The Finds
Pottery Vessels from the Upper Burial Tier
Pottery from the Lower Burial Tier
Stone Vessels from the Upper Burial Tier
Truncated Conical Vessels in stone
Rectangular Vessels in Stone
Beakers in Stone
Open-Mouthed Bowls in Stone
Stone Lids
Copper-based Vessels
Stone Vessels and Lids from the Lower Burial Tier
Ostrich Egg Shell
Metallic Miscellanea
Seal excavated from tomb Qidfaʿ 1, Fujairah, UAE
The Impact of Qidfaʿ 1 Excavations on the Archaeology of Fujairah
Conclusion and discussion
The Dental Remains
1. Description of the remains
2. Number of Individuals
3. Age at Death
4. Sex
5. Pathology
6. Archaeological Background
Plates
Appendix 1
Pottery vessels
Appendix 2
Stone vessels
Appendix 3
Copper-bronze vessels
Appendix 4
Miscellaneous
Bibliography

Citation preview

Qidfa‘ 1 Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Walid Yasin Al Tikriti

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Walid Yasin Al Tikriti With a contribution by Kathleen McSweeney

Archaeopress Archaeology

Archaeopress Publishing Ltd Summertown Pavilion 18-24 Middle Way Summertown Oxford OX2 7LG www.archaeopress.com

ISBN 978-1-80327-326-6 ISBN 978-1-80327-327-3 (e-Pdf) © Walid Yasin Al Tikriti and Archaeopress 2022 Cover: Copper/bronze mirror (M 107)

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owners. This book is available direct from Archaeopress or from our website www.archaeopress.com

Contents

Contents��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� i ‫��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������الملخص‬x

Preface and Acknowledgments������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� xii Abbreviations��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� xiii Introduction���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������1 The Area Setting���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������2

History of Investigations in Fujairah Emirate Before Qidfaʿ 1���������������������������������������������������3 Excavation at Qidfaʿ 1: The First Season�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������4 The Tomb Architecture����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������6 The Northern Burial Chamber Upper Tier��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������6 The Southern Burial Chamber Upper Tier��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������8 The Second Season��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 The Tomb Entrance���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������12 The Lower Burial Tier of Both Chambers��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������13 The Finds������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 16 Pottery Vessels from the Upper Burial Tier����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������16 Pottery from the Lower Burial Tier������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������29 Stone Vessels from the Upper Burial Tier�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33 Truncated Conical Vessels in stone������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33 Rectangular Vessels in Stone�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������34 Beakers in Stone��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������38 Open-Mouthed Bowls in Stone��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������40 Stone Lids �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������41 Stone Vessels and Lids from the Lower Burial Tier���������������������������������������������������������������������������44 Copper-based Vessels�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������44 Ostrich Egg Shell��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������46 Metallic Miscellanea�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������52

Seal excavated from tomb Qidfaʿ 1, Fujairah, UAE��������������������������������������������������������������������69

The Impact of Qidfaʿ 1 Excavations on the Archaeology of Fujairah���������������������������������������73 Conclusion and discussion��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 75 The Dental Remains������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 78 1. Description of the remains����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������78 2. Number of Individuals������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������78 3. Age at Death�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������78 4. Sex����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������79 5. Pathology����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������79 6. Archaeological Background���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������79

i

Plates������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 88

Appendix 1: Pottery vessels����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 151 Appendix 2: Stone vessels�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 155

Appendix 3: Copper-bronze vessels���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 159 Appendix 4: Miscellaneous������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 162 Bibliography����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 173

ii

List of Figures, Tables, and Plates Photographs by the author unless otherwise stated Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figure 20: Figure 21: Figure 22: Figure 23: Figure 24: Figure 25: Figure 26: Figure 27: Figure 28: Figure 29: Figure 30: Figure 31: Figure 32: Figure 33: Figure 34: Figure 35: Figure 36: Figure 37: Figure 38: Figure 39: Figure 40: Figure 41: Figure 42: Figure 43: Figure 44: Figure 45: Figure 46: Figure 47: Figure 48: Figure 49: Figure 50:

The undisturbed mound section of Qidfa’ 1.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 The two ‘caves’ openings of the tomb.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 The locals examining the discovery������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Photo of the northern chamber finds.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Pottery, stone and bronze vessels, a dagger and copper arrowheads at the northern chamber. 7 Shot of finds in the southern chamber.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 South chamber with finds and a flat marine stone.����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 General view of the upper chambers of the tomb.������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Photo with heavy bronze bangles at the curve of the northern chamber.������������������������������������ 11 Funeral objects of glazed earthen ware buried together with stone and copper/ bronze vessels.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 11 Entrance of the tomb from inside. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 The blocked entrance from outside.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 The entrance after removing the blocking slab.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Areal view of the northern chamber after excavation.��������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 The tomb after excavation. Nanu sits on the floor of the upper burial. His feet are on the floor of the lower tier.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14 Semi-complete jar of grey ware (P 7). H 24.8 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Grey-ware (P 37). H. 23.7 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Incomplete jar of grey ware (P 47). H. 25.5 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Pear-shaped jar of grey ware (P 37). H. 22.7 cm. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Semi-complete jar of grey ware (P 45). H. 21.2 cm.���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Complete jar of grey ware (P 8). H. 21.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Incomplete decanter vessel of grey ware (P 19). H. 16.3 cm.������������������������������������������������������������ 18 lugged-jar of coarse dark grey ware (P 5). H. 20.4 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Lugged-jar (P 77a). H. 15.5 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum (FM).������������������������������������������������������ 19 Three-lugged handmade vessel (P 13). H. 11.8 cm. �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Small canister vessel in a bottle shape, handmade (P 75). H. 11.8.�������������������������������������������������� 19 Necked-canister vessel, poorly baked (P 31). H. 11.5.������������������������������������������������������������������������ 19 A complete profile of fine fabric reminiscent of Umm an-Nar/Wadi Suq ware (P 33). H. 23.2.�� 20 Pear-shaped jar of grey ware (P 39), remaining height: 18.9 cm. ��������������������������������������������������� 20 Complete handmade vessel with narrow mouth (P38). H. 15.5.������������������������������������������������������� 20 Thick wall handmade vessel (P 4). H. 15.7.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 20 Handmade vessel (P 3). H. 15 cm.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21 Large portion of a handmade vessel (P 36). Outside rim diameter: 8.2 cm.���������������������������������� 21 High-necked handmade vessel (P 74). H. 16.8 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21 Painted pottery vessel (P 44). H. 14.9 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.��������������������������������������������� 21 Thick wall painted vessel (P 10). H. 14.5 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum���������������������������������������� 22 Remnants of a wide-mouthed bowl (P 52). H. 7.2 cm. ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 22 Incomplete wide-mouthed bowl (P 68). H. 4.8-5.1 cm.��������������������������������������������������������������������� 23 Semi-complete wide-mouthed bowl (P 53). H. 4.7-5, av. R. diam. 10 cm���������������������������������������� 23 Incomplete wide-mouthed bowl (P 56). H. 5.3-5.7 cm.��������������������������������������������������������������������� 23 Semi-complete wide-mouthed bowl (P 65). H. 4.8, r. diam. 8.9 cm. ���������������������������������������������� 23 Complete spouted bowl (P 42). H. 8, max. r. diam. 12.3 cm. ������������������������������������������������������������ 24 Painted open-mouthed bowl (P 43). H. 9.3-10.4, r. diam. 17.2 cm.��������������������������������������������������� 24 Painted open-mouthed bowl (P 49). H. 6, max. r. diam. 11.6 cm.����������������������������������������������������� 24 Wide mouth painted bowl (P 87). H. 8, R. diam. 16 cm. (from outside the tomb).������������������������ 24 Spouted bowl (P 15). H. 7.9, R. diam. 11-11.5 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25 Profile of a handmade bowl (P 6). H. 6.2, est. r. diam. 12 cm.����������������������������������������������������������� 25 Large section of a handmade bowl (P 54). H. 7, est. r. diam. 12 cm.������������������������������������������������� 25 Profile of a handmade bowl (P 32). H. 7 cm.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25 Profile of a bowl (P 69a). H. 6.9 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25 iii

Figure 51: Figure 52: Figure 53: Figure 54: Figure 55: Figure 56: Figure 57: Figure 58: Figure 59: Figure 60: Figure 61: Figure 62: Figure 63: Figure 64: Figure 65: Figure 66: Figure 67: Figure 68: Figure 69: Figure 70: Figure 71: Figure 72: Figure 73: Figure 74: Figure 75: Figure 76: Figure 77: Figure 78: Figure 79: Figure 80: Figure 81: Figure 82: Figure 83: Figure 84: Figure 85: Figure 86: Figure 87: Figure 88: Figure 89: Figure 90: Figure 91: Figure 92: Figure 93: Figure 94:

Semi-complete bowl, handmade (P 70). H. 9, r. diam. 13.8 cm.������������������������������������������������������� 25 Complete bowl, handmade (P 73). H. 6.5, r. diam. 10.8-11.8 cm������������������������������������������������������ 26 High wall bowl (P 23). H. 10.9, r. diam. 15 cm. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26 High wall bowl (P 17). H. 13.2, est. r. diam. 17 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26 Incomplete low-fired bowl (P 20). H. 8-8.4, r. diam. 14.5 cm.������������������������������������������������������������ 26 Semi-complete bowl (P 12). H. 9.7, r. diam. 14 cm. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26 Large dish (P 26). H. 6, r. diam. 18 cm.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26 Small complete dish (P 28). H. 4.7-5, r. diam. 14.8- 15.5 cm.������������������������������������������������������������ 27 Small dish (P 40). H. 4.5-5, r. diam. 13.4 cm.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27 Large dish (P 46). H. 9.2-10, r. diam. 28.5 cm. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27 Incomplete dish (P 51). H. 6, Est. r. diam. 17 cm. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 27 Large dish (P 76). R. diam. 23.5 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 28 Black on red painted cup (P 57). H. 5.5-5.8, r. diam. 7.5 cm.�������������������������������������������������������������� 28 Black on red painted cup (P 58). H. 6, r. diam. 7-7.5 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������� 28 Profile of incised grey pottery vessel (P 66). H. 9.5, est. r. diam. 9 cm.������������������������������������������� 28 Complete beaker of incised grey pottery with its lid (P1 and P 2). H. 13 cm.�������������������������������� 29 Glazed beaker (P 60). H. 8.3, r. diam. 8.6, B. diam. 7.7 cm.���������������������������������������������������������������� 29 Glazed bowl (P 61). av. H. with knobs 7, r. diam. 14.2, B. diam. 7.5 cm.������������������������������������������ 29 Same glazed bowl (P 61).������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29 Painted vessel (P 81). H. 11.8, r. diam. 12.5-12.8 cm.�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30 Painted vessel (P 85). H. 11.8 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30 Painted vessel (P 79). H. 9-9.2, r diam. 11 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 30 Painted cup (p 84). R. diam. 6.7 cm������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30 Painted bowl (P 78). H. 6.2-6.7 cm.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31 Profile of painted cup (P 67). H. 6.4 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31 Lower portion of a dish (P 82). Base diam. 9.3 cm. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31 Small canister vessel (P 83). H. 12.5, r. diam. 5.3 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.�������������������������� 31 Conical stone vessel (S 7). H. 11, b. diam. 13 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32 Conical stone vessel (S 10). H. 11.6, b. diam. 13.2 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������� 32 Conical vessel (S 34) H. 14.5-15, b. diam. 18.8 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32 Squat conical vessel (S 80). H. 6.5, b. diam. 12.1 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.��������������������������� 32 Squat conical vessel (48). H. 8.5, b. diam. 15.5 cm.���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 33 Squat conical vessel (S 55). H. 7.5, b. diam. 11.5. cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.�������������������������� 33 High conical stone vessel (S 47). H. 15-15.5, b. diam. 15.8-16.8 cm.������������������������������������������������ 33 Small conical vessel made of whitish stone (S 14). H. 5.5, b. diam. 8.9 cm. ���������������������������������� 33 High rectangular box (S 2). H. 9.5, base length 6 cm. ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 35 High rectangular box (S 78), H. 11, b. 9.7x6.3 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 35 Rectangular box (S 5). H. 7.5, b. length 11.1 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.���������������������������������� 35 High rectangular box (S 16). H. 9.5-9.8, b. length 9 cm.�������������������������������������������������������������������� 35 Rectangular box (S 39). H. 11.1, b. 13.8x8.8 cm. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 36 Small barrel-shaped suspension vessel (S 45). See text for measurements.��������������������������������� 36 Large barrel-shaped suspension vessel (S 11). See text for measurements.��������������������������������� 37 Beaker with its original lid (S 63). H. 13 cm.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37 Worn out bowl with short open spout ornamented with single-dotted circles (S 23). H. 4.5, r. diam. 8.6 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 Figure 95: Spouted bowl. 3 lines below the rim and 1 above the base, in between gadroon motif (S 72) H. 4.5, r. diam., b. diam. 3.5 cm. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 Figure 96: Stone bowl with chevron motif on the long open spout. Hanging triangles cover the body (S 54). H. 4.7-5, r. diam. 10.2 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 Figure 97: Small spouted bowl, chevron motifs between straight lines (S 69). H. 4.1-4.9, r. diam. 4.2-4.5 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 Figure 98: Stone vessel with long spout. Zigzag lines between straight lines (S 83). H. 5.1, r. diam. 8.5-8.9 cm. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 39 Figure 99: Spouted bowl ornamented with straight lines and hanging triangles executed in saw-teeth incisions (S 26). H. 5-5.4, r. diam. 8.5 cm.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 Figure 100: Spouted vessel ornamented with straight lines and tree-like motifs in between (S 84). H. 6.8-7.2, r. diam. 7.7 cm.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 40 iv

Figure 101: Spouted vessel with 4-5 lines and eroded decorations (S 38). H. 7.2, r. diam. 8.8-9.5 cm. ���������� 40 Figure 102: Squat carinated vessel. Two saw-teeth zigzag lines decorate the body and three of them below the spout (S 82). H. 4.3, r. diam. 8.8, b. diam. 5.8 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.�������������� 40 Figure 103: Small open mouth vessel decorated with single dotted circles bordered by two lines below the rim (S 85). H. 3.6-3.8, r. diam. 8.5, b. diam. 3.4 cm. ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 40 Figure 104: Small fully decorated container (S 86). H. 3.1, r. diam. 6.7, b. diam. 6.7 cm. ��������������������������������� 41 Figure 105: Stone lid with radial incisions executed in saw-teeth style on the surface (S 49). Diam. 8 cm.�� 41 Figure 106: Stone lid, simple incised lines on surface and pommel (S 60). Diam. 6.8 cm.�������������������������������� 42 Figure 107: This nicely made stone lid (S 65) belongs to a suspension vessel (S 11). Diam. 8.5 cm. �������������� 42 Figure 108: High-stem lid of Wadi Suq Period (S 87). H. 6.5, diam. 9 cm.������������������������������������������������������������ 42 Figure 109: A star motif on the surface inside a circle and crossed lines on the pommel (S 50). Diam. 8.8 cm. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 42 Figure 110: Lid with 4 fish motifs. Handle is missing (S 56). Diam. 9.7 cm.��������������������������������������������������������� 42 Figure 111: Nicely shaped lid with star fish like-motif. May have had a separate handle (S 61). Diam. 11.1 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 42 Figure 112: The lower side of the former lid. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43 Figure 113: Unique rectangular lid with rounded corner and a separate handle (S 52). 9.6x6 cm. ��������������� 43 Figure 114: The lower side of the former lid. Note the groove which was made to fit a compartmented vessel.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43 Figure 115: Small 4 lugged-vessel from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S88). Av. H. 5.8, r. diam. 3.3 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43 Figure 116: Small vessel from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 91). H. 4.8, r. diam. 3.7 cm. �������������������� 45 Figure 117: Miniature bowl from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 89). H. 2.3-2.6, r. diam. 3.6, b. 4.1-4.3 cm. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Figure 118: Lid with single-dotted circles from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 94). diam. 5.5 cm.������ 45 Figure 119: Lid with single-dotted circles from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 92). diam. 4.9 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Figure 120: Spouted bowl from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 93). H. 5.1-5.4, r. diam. 11.8 cm.��������� 45 Figure 121: Incomplete fragmented bowl mostly discovered in the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 90). H. 8.5, r. diam. 17.5 cm.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Figure 122: Spouted copper/bronze vessel (B 10). H. 10, b. diam. 7, r. diam. 15 cm. ��������������������������������������� 47 Figure 123: Complete copper/bronze vessel, hemispherical shape, wide and short open spout (B 4). Flat base, h. 10.5, r. diam. 18 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47 Figure 124: Deep spouted bowl (B 31). Av. H. 9.5, b. diam. 8, r. diam. 15 cm.����������������������������������������������������� 47 Figure 125: Complete coper/bronze vessel, rounded body and base, wide and short spout (B 7). H. 9.5, r. 14.1 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47 Figure 126: Spouted copper/bronze bowl (B 40). Av. H. 9.6, b. diam. 6.6, r. diam. 15.8 cm.����������������������������� 47 Figure 127: Spouted bowl (B 45). Av. H. 10.2-11, b. diam. 7, av. r. diam. 16 cm.�������������������������������������������������� 47 Figure 128: Deep spouted copper/bronze bowl (B 17). H. 10.7, b. 8.5, r. diam. 15.8 cm.����������������������������������� 48 Figure 129: Spouted bowl (B 35). Av. H. 8.5, aprox. b. diam. 7.5, av. R. diam. 15-15.5 cm.�������������������������������� 48 Figure 130: Spouted bowl (B 32). H. 8, b. diam. 7.5, av. R. diam. 15 cm.�������������������������������������������������������������� 48 Figure 131: Wide-mouth spouted bowl (B 37). H. 9-9.7, b. 8.5-9, r. diam. 16.5-17.��������������������������������������������� 48 Figure 132: Deep spouted bowl (B 39). H. 9.8, r. diam. 15, base is missing. �������������������������������������������������������� 48 Figure 133: Medium size copper/bronze bowl (B. 12). H. 4.7, b. diam. 6.1, r. diam. 9-9.8 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 48 Figure 134: (B 16). H. 8-9.5, b. diam. 7.5, r. diam. 14.5 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 49 Figure 135: Incomplete copper/bronze bowl, wide and short open spout (B 3). H. 10, flat base-diam. 8, r. diam. 15.2 cm. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 49 Figure 136: Copper/bronze bowl, thicker wall, thick-flanged rim (B 38). Av. H. 9.2, b. diam. 15.7, r. diam. 10 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 49 Figure 137: Copper/Bronze tassa (B 9). H. 9, b. diam. 8, r. diam. 15 cm. ������������������������������������������������������������ 49 Figure 138: Tassa (B 50). Av. H. 7.5, b. diam. 6, av. R. diam. 6 cm. ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 49 Figure 139: Tassa (B 51). H. 7, av. B. diam. 5.5, r. diam. 12 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 49 Figure 140: Tassa (B 52). Av. H. 7, b. diam. 5.8, av. R. diam. 12 cm. ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 50 Figure 141: Copper/bronze bowl in a relatively good condition. ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 50 Figure 142: Tassa (B 25). Av. H. 6.5, b. 5.5, r. diam. 12-12.5 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 50 Figure 143: Tassa (34). H. 8, b. diam. 8.5, r. diam. 15 cm.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 50 v

Figure 144: Copper/bronze vessel (B 2). H. 10.5-11.6, aprox. r. diam. 15.5 cm. ������������������������������������������������� 50 Figure 145: Small hemispherical bowl (B 1). H. 5-5.5, b. diam. 3.8, r. diam. 9 cm. �������������������������������������������� 50 Figure 146: Medium-size bowl with off-set walls (B 8). H. 5.6, b. diam. 5.3, r. diam. 12 cm. ��������������������������� 51 Figure 147: Heavily damaged bowl (B 53).���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51 Figure 148: Copper/bronze vessel with long spout (B 36). H. 8, b. diam. 10, r. diam. 15.7 cm. ���������������������� 51 Figure 149: Squat vessel with decorative incisions (B 26). H. 9, b. 11, r. 14 cm. ������������������������������������������������ 51 Figure 150: Cylix-like copper/bronze vessel (B 27). H. 8.8, r. diam. 10.7 cm. ���������������������������������������������������� 51 Figure 151: Small copper/bronze vessels (B 54, B 33, B 43) from left to right.�������������������������������������������������� 51 Figure 152: Small copper/bronze vessel (B 5) with undulated body. Av. H. 3.8, b. diam. 4.2, av. r. diam. 4.2 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 53 Figure 153: Ostrich egg (M 146). �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 53 Figure 154: Two daggers with crescent-shaped shoulder. From left: M 12 (length 41 cm) and M 5 (length 41.5).��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 53 Figure 155: Daggers belong to Type A.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 53 Figure 156: Distinct dagger (M 18), 39 cm long. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 54 Figure 157: Close-up of the previous hilt (M 18).���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 54 Figure 158: Daggers belong to Type B. From left M 150, M 24, M 8, M 3.����������������������������������������������������������� 54 Figure 159: From left M 19, M 10, length 31.7 and 37 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 54 Figure 160: Hilts of previous figure.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55 Figure 161: Dagger with un- riveted inlayed hilt (M 151), length 37.5 cm. �������������������������������������������������������� 55 Figure 162: Close-up of the previous hilt. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55 Figure 163: Restored dagger (M 2).���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55 Figure 164: Copper/bronze spearhead (M 156), length 24 cm.����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56 Figure 165: Shihuh type axe (M 32). Length 10.8 cm.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56 Figure 166: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe. From left M 34, M 31. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 56 Figure 167: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe. From left M 39, M 40.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56 Figure 168: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 29).����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56 Figure 169: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 35). ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 57 Figure 170: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 38).����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 57 Figure 171: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 36).����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 57 Figure 172: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 30).����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 57 Figure 173: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (from left M 158 and 157).������������������������������������������������������������������������ 57 Figure 174: Adzes. From left M 37, M 33, M 27.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 58 Figure 175: Halberd (Battle axe) (M 28), length 18.5cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.���������������������������������������� 58 Figure 176: Cash of arrowheads originally kept in a quiver. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 59 Figure 177: A collection of copper/bronze arrowheads from the upper burial (M 170).��������������������������������� 59 Figure 178: Engraved arrowheads may be reveled if these badly corroded artefacts are restored. �������������� 59 Figure 179: An arrowhead of a characteristic shape and exceptional length (ca. 10 cm). ������������������������������ 60 Figure 180: Badly corroded copper/bronze arrowheads with engraved signs still visible. ���������������������������� 60 Figure 181: A knife/lancet blade (M 61), length with tang 16 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum. ���������������������� 61 Figure 182: Anklet (M 192), outside diam. 8.2-9.5 cm. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 61 Figure 183: (M 196), outside diam. 9-10 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 61 Figure 184: (M 198), outside diam. 8.7-9.7 cm.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 62 Figure 185: (M 193), outside diam. 9.4-10 cm.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 62 Figure 186: (M 194), outside diam. 8-9.4 cm. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 62 Figure 187: (M 194), outside diam. 8.3-9.8 cm.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 62 Figure 188: (M 72 and M 76), 9.7-10.7 and 10-10.5 cm. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 62 Figure 189: Pair of anklets (M 190), 7.8-8.8 cm.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 62 Figure 190: (M 195), outside diam. 8.8- 9.4 cm.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 63 Figure 191: (M 191), outside diam. 8.8-9.5 cm. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 63 Figure 192: (M 197), outside diam. 8.8-9.7 cm. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 63 Figure 193: (M 73), outside diam. 9-10.7 cm. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 63 Figure 194: Anklets (M 65 and M 68), outside diam. 8-9.5 and 8.2-9.5 cm.���������������������������������������������������������� 64 Figure 195: This bangle was part of the uniform.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 64 Figure 196: Bangle (M 200), outside diam. 9.8-11 cm.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 65 Figure 197: Pair of bangles (M 78 and M 77), outside diam. 9.2 and 9 cm.��������������������������������������������������������� 65 Figure 198: Bangle (M 66), before and after restoration, outside diam. 9-10.7 cm. ����������������������������������������� 65 vi

Figure 199: Two copper razors (M 204 and M 205), length 5.6 and 8.3 cm.��������������������������������������������������������� 65 Figure 200: Copper bracelet (M 82), max. diam. 7.6 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.����������������������������������������� 66 Figure 201: Copper bracelet (M 83), av. diam. 4 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum. ������������������������������������������������ 66 Figure 202: Copper/bronze mirror (M 107). ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 66 Figure 203: Decorative shell disc (M 239), diam. 3.9 cm.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 66 Figure 204: Shell disc ornamented with rosette motif (M 119), diam. 5.2 cm.��������������������������������������������������� 67 Figure 205: Worked discs, from left (M 237), (234), (238).�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 67 Figure 206: Earing made of mixture of gold and silver. Credit: Fujairah Museum.������������������������������������������� 68 Figure 207: Two amulets.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 70 Figure 208: Cylinder seal and its impression (231).������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 70 Figure 209: Dilmun stamp seal, obverse side (M 230).�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 70 Figure 210: The same seal, reverse side.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 70 Figure 211: Cylinder seal/pendant with an engraved human-like figure (M 104). Credit: Fujairah Museum.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 71 Figure 212: Pendant with lengthwise perforation (M 105). Credit: Fujairah Museum. ���������������������������������� 71 Figure 213: Etched carnelian bead (M 260), length 1.5 cm . ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 71 Figure 214: Tubular bead of red carnelian and gold (M 121), length 4.6 cm.����������������������������������������������������� 71 Figure 215: collection of beads discovered.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 72 Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5:

Key to symbols used in subsequent appendices.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 80 List of contexts with human remains��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 81 Description of mandible and maxilla fragments�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 82 Loose Teeth����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 86 Non-dental Remains�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 87

Plate 1: Plate 2: Plate 3: Plate 4: Plate 5:

General map of the second and first millennium BC sites in the United Arab Emirates.������������ 88 Satellite image showing the location of Sites 1-4 at Qidfa’. ������������������������������������������������������������� 89 Detailed map showing the archaeological sites identified at Qidfa by the author. ��������������������� 90 The U-shaped plan of Qidfa 1 tomb after excavations. Drawing: C.U. John.���������������������������������� 91 Section throughout the tomb shows the lower and the upper burials. Note the remains of the retaining wall on both sides of the structure. Drawing: C.U. John.������������������������������������������ 91 Plan of Qidfa’1 tomb shows the uppermost bone layer. Drawing: C.U. John.��������������������������������� 92 The same previous plan shows the hatched slabs (capstones) of the lower burial. Drawing: C.U. John.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 92 Sketch of the tomb entrance as it looks from outside. Drawing: C.U. John.����������������������������������� 93 Handmade jars of course ware.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 93 Two handmade lugged jars of course ware. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 94 Handmade grey pottery jars.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 94 Handmade grey pottery jars.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 95 Handmade grey pottery jars.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 95 Handmade grey pottery jars.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 96 Handmade grey pottery jars.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 96 Fine ware jar.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 97 Fine ware jar/decanter (P 19).��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 97 Large jar of fine ware and two small canister/ bottled-jars.������������������������������������������������������������ 98 Two painted vessels.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 98 Incomplete grey jar and two small handmade bowls. ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 99 Incised beaker with its lid and a profile of an incised bi-conical vessel.���������������������������������������� 99 Handmade jar with a narrow mouth.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 100 Three open-mouthed bowls of different shapes.������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 100 Profile of a small pear-shaped jar and a larger one of semi-coarse ware with four knobs.������ 101 Narrow mouth vessels with globular body.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 101 Large portion of an undulated bowl and remains of a second one which may have had a spout.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 102 Three undulated spouted bowls and two spoutless plain bowls.��������������������������������������������������� 102 Two handmade bowls.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 103 Spouted bowl.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 103

Plate 6: Plate 7: Plate 8: Plate 9: Plate 10: Plate 11: Plate 12: Plate 13: Plate 14: Plate 15: Plate 16: Plate 17: Plate 18: Plate 19: Plate 20: Plate 21: Plate 22: Plate 23: Plate 24: Plate 25: Plate 26: Plate 27: Plate 28: Plate 29:

vii

Plate 30: Plate 31: Plate 32: Plate 33: Plate 34: Plate 35: Plate 36: Plate 37: Plate 38: Plate 39: Plate 40: Plate 41: Plate 42: Plate 43: Plate 44: Plate 45: Plate 46: Plate 47: Plate 48: Plate 49: Plate 50: Plate 51: Plate 52: Plate 53: Plate 54: Plate 55: Plate 56: Plate 57: Plate 58: Plate 59: Plate 60: Plate 61: Plate 62: Plate 63: Plate 64: Plate 65: Plate 66: Plate 67: Plate 68: Plate 69: Plate 70: Plate 71: Plate 72: Plate 73: Plate 74: Plate 75: Plate 76: Plate 77: Plate 78: Plate 79: Plate 80: Plate 81: Plate 82:

Spouted bowl.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 104 Bowls of different shapes.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 104 Painted spouted bowl.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 105 The painted bowl (P 87) was discovered outside the tomb. ���������������������������������������������������������� 105 Semi-fine ware bowl on top and two handmade coarse ware below. ������������������������������������������ 106 Various types of vessels. P17 may have served as a beaker.������������������������������������������������������������ 106 Vessels like these served as beakers.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 107 Some of these bowls may have been used as scopes. ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 107 Wheel-made dishes.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 108 Large dishes.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 108 Glazed ceramics.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 109 One large painted bowl and two small painted cups from the upper burial.������������������������������ 109 Painted bowls/beakers of Wadi Suq Period from the lower burial. ���������������������������������������������� 110 Incomplete painted bowl and a cup with plain lower portion of a dish from the lower burial. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 110 Wadi Suq pottery from the lower burial.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 111 Two large conical stone vessels.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 111 Small size conical stone vessels. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 112 Small size conical vessels. The hatched triangle is the main motif.���������������������������������������������� 112 Rectangular vessel (top) and a conical one (bottom).��������������������������������������������������������������������� 113 Large conical vessels adorned with single-dotted circle, hatched triangles and floral.������������ 113 Conical stone vessels with multi-register of incised decorations.������������������������������������������������� 114 Incomplete compartmented stone box and a small conical vessel.���������������������������������������������� 114 Two stone ornamented boxes with their rectangular lids.������������������������������������������������������������� 115 Rectangular stone box and a cylindrical-shaped beaker with a round lid.���������������������������������� 115 Rectangular stone box.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 116 Large barrel-shaped suspension vessel engraved with a stylized human figure with its round lid.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 116 Small barrel-shaped suspension vessel and a small conical vessel.���������������������������������������������� 117 Cylindrical beaker decorated with incised floral motif.������������������������������������������������������������������ 117 Various shapes of stone beakers and a spouted bowl.��������������������������������������������������������������������� 118 Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 118 Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 119 Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 119 Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 120 Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 120 Different shapes of spoutless vessels.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 121 Round lid, bowl and a small trinket. P 87 and P 86 were found in the upper burial and they might be heirlooms. P 85 came from between Slabs 10 and 11.����������������������������������������������������� 121 Round lids from the upper burial.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 122 Round lids from the upper burial.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 122 Round lids from the upper burial.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 123 Round lids from the upper burial.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 123 Round lids from the upper burial.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 124 A unique undecorated oval lid with a separate handle from the upper burial. ������������������������� 124 Three small Wadi Suq vessels from the lower burial.���������������������������������������������������������������������� 125 Two Wadi Suq spouted bowls from the lower burial.���������������������������������������������������������������������� 125 Spouted copper/bronze bowls.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 126 Spouted copper/bronze bowls.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 126 Spouted copper/bronze bowls.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 127 Profile of a large spouted copper/bronze bowl with globular body and two small spouted vessels. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 127 A distinctive copper/bronze spouted vessel with engraved motif.����������������������������������������������� 128 Two copper/bronze vessels. A bowl with long spout and a cylix-like vessel. Missing base. ��� 128 Large, medium and small open spout copper/bronze vessels of different shapes.�������������������� 129 Large, medium and small open spout copper/bronze vessels of different shapes.�������������������� 129 Large, medium and small open spout copper/bronze vessels of different shapes.�������������������� 130 viii

Plate 83: Plate 84: Plate 85: Plate 86: Plate 87: Plate 88: Plate 89: Plate 90: Plate 91: Plate 92: Plate 93: Plate 94: Plate 95: Plate 96: Plate 97: Plate 98: Plate 99: Plate 100: Plate 101: Plate 102: Plate 103: Plate 104: Plate 105: Plate 106: Plate 107: Plate 108: Plate 109: Plate 110: Plate 111: Plate 112: Plate 113: Plate 114: Plate 115: Plate 116: Plate 117:

Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 130 Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 131 Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 131 Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 132 Two crescent hilt daggers without rivets and one straight side riveted hilt. ���������������������������� 132 Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.����������������������������������������������������� 133 Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.����������������������������������������������������� 133 Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.����������������������������������������������������� 134 Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.����������������������������������������������������� 134 Straight-sided daggers with flanged hilts void of rivets.���������������������������������������������������������������� 135 Three short daggers and a knife or spearhead blade. M 148 is 30.7cm long.������������������������������� 135 Bronze shaft-hole axes. Note the slanted straight and round cutting edges.������������������������������ 136 Bronze shaft-hole axes. Note the slanted straight and round cutting edges.������������������������������ 136 Bronze shaft-hole axes. Note the slanted straight and round cutting edges.������������������������������ 137 Bronze adzes. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 137 Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.�� 138 Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.�� 138 Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.�� 139 Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.�� 139 Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.�� 140 Engraved copper/bronze arrowheads. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 140 Bronze anklets.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 141 Bronze anklets.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 141 Bronze anklets.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 142 Heavy bronze bangles.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 142 Copper/bronze objects (razors, bracelets, awls, ladle and tweezers). Two razors, M 204 and M 205 were discovered in the lower burial. The rest came from the Upper burial. ������������������ 143 A copper/bronze mirror.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 143 Plain and decorates disc shells. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 144 Plain and decorates disc shells. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 144 Nose/earrings and finger rings. M 101, M 224 and 225 are made of gold. The rest metal items might be made of silver. M 218 might be a belt strap made of copper.������������������������������ 145 Engraved pendants and seals. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 146 Various types of beads made of red carnelian, metal, gold, coral, frit, stone and other materials. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 147 Plan of Fashgha 1 tomb. After C. Phillips. 1987.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 148 Plan of Qidfa’ 4. Drawing: C.U. John. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 149 Plan of Mreished tomb. Drawing: C.U. John.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 150

ix

‫الملخص‪:‬‬ ‫يقدم هذا المطبوع نتائج حفائر في موقع أثري تم اكتشافه في إمارة الفجيرة بطريق الصدفة قبل ثالثة عقود ونصف‪ ،‬وذلك بعد أن‬ ‫شرع مزارع بتجريف أحد التالل الصغيرة المحاذية لمزرعته في منطقة قدفع الكائنة شمال مدينة الفجيرة‪ .‬وبعد تجريف الجزء‬ ‫العلوي مما يقرب من نصف التل‪ ،‬الذي يتراوح قطره عشرون متراً‪ ،‬ظهر تجويفان متجاوران أثارا انتباه سائق الجرافة الذي توقف‬ ‫تجرء البعض من هؤالء‬ ‫عن مواصلة العمل‪ ،‬وكذلك ابناء المنطقة السيما األطفال منهم الذين كانوا يراقبون عملية التجريف‪ .‬لقد ّ‬ ‫األطفال الدخول في أحد هذين التجويفين والخروج من التجويف اآلخر‪ ،‬وفور وصول خبر االكتشاف إلى الجهات المعنية باإلمارة‪،‬‬ ‫قام ديوان الحاكم في الفجيرة بالتحقق من الموضوع تم على إثره التحفظ على الموقع‪ .‬ولعدم وجود إدارة لآلثار ترعى مثل هذه‬ ‫الحالة في حينه‪ ،‬فقد طلبت إدارة ديوان الحاكم من إدارة اآلثار والسياحة ‪ ،‬عبر ديوان ممثل الحاكم في المنطقة الشرقية بالعين‪،‬‬ ‫ارسال أحد خبرائها لتقييم الحالة التي انتهت بإجراء عمليات تنقيب تمت بموسمين متتالين في ربيع عام ‪ 1986‬والعام الذي تاله‪.‬‬ ‫لقد كنتُ محظوظا ً للقيام بهذه المهمة التي بدت بأنها ستكون عملية تنقيب سهلة وسريعة في مدفن مسروق حاله حال معظم مدافن‬ ‫العصرين البرونزي والحديدي التي تنتشر في إمارة أبوظبي التي سبق وأن قمتُ بالتنقيب في البعض منها‪ .‬ولكن الحقيقة كانت‬ ‫عكس ذلك‪ ،‬فقد تبين أن مدفن قدفع الذي أسميناه بالموقع رقم ‪ 1‬هو مدفن من نوع جديد لم يماثله من اكتشاف آنذاك سوى مدفن‬ ‫“فشغه ‪ ”1‬الكائن في وادي القور شرق منطقة الحويالت في القاطع الجنوبي من إمارة رأس الخيمة‪ ،‬والذي تم اكتشافه في نفس‬ ‫العام من قبل فريق بريطاني صغير‪ .‬ورغم تشابه عمارة المدفنين لحد كبير‪ ،‬من حيث أن هذا النوع الجديد من المدافن قد صمم‬ ‫ليأخذ شكالً يشبه شكل حدوة الحصان أو حرف الـ ”‪ “U‬اإلنكليزية‪ ،‬فإن مدفن قدفع قد تميز عن مدفن فشغة ذو الدور الواحد‪ ،‬من‬ ‫حيث أنه يتكون من دورين‪ ،‬أحدهما تحت سطح األرض واآلخر فوقها‪ ،‬ليس هذا فقط بل بثرائه بالقطع األثرية التي تم اكتشافها‬ ‫في الدور العلوي والذي قدّرنا تاريخها بنهايات العصر البرونزي المتأخر (‪ 1300- 1600‬قبل الميالد) وبدايات العصر الحديدي‬ ‫(‪ 1100- 1300‬ق‪.‬م)‪ .‬وعلى نقيض الدور العلوي من المدفن فإن الدور السفلي الذي يرجع إلى الفترة الزمنية المسماة «وادي سوق”‬ ‫(‪ 1600- 2000‬ق‪.‬م)‪ ،‬وجد منهوبا ً ولم يعثر فيه إال على القليل من مكتشفاته األصلية والتي كانت كافية إلرجاعها إلى فترة وادي‬ ‫سوق المذكورة‪ .‬وال غرابة من عملية نهب المدفن السفلي دون العلوي ألن الحقيقة هي أن كال الدورين قد أخليا من محتوياتهما‬ ‫بشكل شبه كامل وذلك بعد مرور عدة قرون على انشاء المدفن‪ ،‬ومن ثم أعيد استعمال الدور العلوي منه فقط‪ .‬ومما هو معروف‬ ‫فإن استعمال المقابر القديمة في منطقة جنوب شرق الجزيرة العربية أكثر من مرة كانت عادة مألوفة السيما في العصر الحديدي‪،‬‬ ‫مما حدا بالقوم في حالة قدفع ‪ ،1‬تغطية المدفن بعد اعادة االستعمال بطبقة من األتربة والحصى بحيث بدا وكأنه أكمة طبيعية أخفته‬ ‫عن يد العابثين ألكثر من ثالثة آالف عام ‪.‬‬ ‫كشف التنقيب الذي أجريناه في الدور العلوي من هذا المدفن والذي يزيد ارتفاعه عن المتر بقليل عن طبقتين متداخلتين من العظام‬ ‫المتراصة‪ ،‬تنم على أن الذكور واإلناث والقليل من األطفال قد دفنوا سوية مع حاجياتهم الشخصية‪ ،‬التي تضمنت الكثير من أواني‬ ‫الفخار وحجر الكلورايت والنحاس‪ ،‬باإلضافة إلى الخناجر ورؤوس السهام والفؤوس والحجول والمعاضد المصنوعة من النحاس‬ ‫أوالبرونز‪ ،‬والحلي من أصداف منقوشة وخواتم وأقراط وأختام وخرز‪ .‬بالرغم من أن المدفن العلوي (األحدث) لم تمسه يد العابثين‪،‬‬ ‫إال أن تجريف األكمة التي كانت تعلوه‪ ،‬أصاب الكثير من مكتشفاته بالضرر الكبير‪ ،‬وكان ذلك بسبب الوزن الثقيل للجرافة (بلدوزر)‬ ‫والتي لحسن الحظ لم تصل إلى طبقة العظام‪ .‬وبعد اكتمال التنقيب في المدفن العلوي الذي كان يتم الدخول إليه عبر فتحة في الجدار‬ ‫المقوس تتجه نحو الجنوب الشرقي (جهة البحر)‪ ،‬تبين بأن أرضيته ما هي إال سقفا ً للمدفن السفلي (األقدم) والذي يبلغ عرضه‬ ‫‪ 90‬سنتمترا فقط‪ .‬وتحت تلك األرضية التي أنشئت من صخور مسطحة‪ ،‬عثر على القليل من أواني الحجر والفخار وبقايا العظام‬ ‫البشرية وجدت في حيز ال يتجاوز ارتفاعه ‪ 40‬سنتمتراً‪ ،‬وهذا أقل بكثير من الحيز الذي وجدت فيه مكتشفات المدفن العلوي والذي‬ ‫بلغ ‪ 110‬سنتيمترا ً ‪.‬‬ ‫باختصار شديد نقول إن عمارة مدفن قدفع ‪ ،1‬تعتبر من حيث المضمون امتدادا ً للعمارة الجنائزية في منطقة جنوب شرق الجزيرة‬ ‫العربية وإن كانت قد اختلفت عن سابقاتها من حيث الشكل‪ ،‬فبعد أن ظهرت مدافن العصر البرونزي المبكر في نهايات األلف‬ ‫الرابع ق‪.‬م في جبل حفيت وهي أحادية الغرف‪ ،‬تطورت في منتصف األلف الثالث لتصبح ذات أشكال دائرية متعددة الغرف وقد‬ ‫روعي‪ ،‬كما هو واضح في مدافن جزيرة أم النار‪ ،‬وغيرها من مناطق أخرى في جنوب شرق الجزيرة العربية‪ ،‬بأن يُبنى محيطها‬ ‫الخارجي من صخور منحوتة كانت ترص الواحدة جنب األخرى وفق مخطط دائري دقيق كان كما يبدو يرسم على األرض سلفاً‪.‬‬ ‫أما في بداية األلف الثاني قبل الميالد ومنتصفه فقد ظهرت أشكاالً جديدة أقل تطورا ً من سابقتها لكنها متعددة األشكال منها المدافن‬ ‫المستطيلة والدائرية أو البيضوية‪ ،‬وقد تكون أحيانا ً أحادية التقسيم أو متعددة الغرف‪ ،‬كما هو الحال في مدافن منطقة البدية بإمارة‬ ‫الفجيرة‪ ،‬وشمل برأس الخيمة‪ ،‬والقصيص بدبي وغيرها‪ .‬ومن أشكال مدافن تلك الحقبة كذلك‪ ،‬هو ما وجدناه وألول مرة في كل من‬ ‫مدفني فشغة ‪ 1‬شرق منطقة الحويالت وقدفع ‪ 1‬موضوع هذا البحث ‪.‬‬ ‫تجولنا بين بيوت القرية ومزارعها ورصدنا ثالثة‬ ‫أثناء عمليات التنقيب في المدفن موضوع البحث والذي يحمل الرقم ‪ 1‬وبعدها‪ّ ،‬‬ ‫مواقع اثرية اسميناها قدفع ‪ 2‬و ‪ 3‬و ‪ .4‬فالموقع رقم ‪ 2‬المجاور للمدفن ‪ 1‬وهو عبارة عن أكمة صغيرة ال ترتفع عن سطح األرض‬ ‫إال القليل ربما تضم مدفناَ‪ ،‬أما الموقع رقم ‪ 3‬فهو كما تبين الحقا ً من خالل عمليات سبر أجراها متحف الفجيرة‪ ،‬وتنقيب أشمل قام‬ ‫به مؤخرا ً فريق ألماني الجنسية‪ ،‬فإنه بقايا مستوطنة تعود للعصرين البرونزي والحديدي‪ ،‬هذا في حين أن الموقع ‪ 4‬والذي تم تنقيبه‬ ‫‪x‬‬

‫من قبل متحف الفجيرة ظهر بأنه مدفنا ً شبيه بالمدفن ‪ 1‬من حيث العمارة والمكتشفات األثرية‪ ،‬أما الموقع ‪ 5‬وهو الموقع الوحيد الذي‬ ‫يقع غرب الطريق المؤدي إلى مدينة خورفكان فيبدو من خالل أنقاضه الظاهرة على سطح األرض بأنه مدفنا ً كذلك‪ .‬باإلضافة إلى‬ ‫هذه المواقع فقد عثرنا على عدد من المنشآت الحجرية بأشكال دائرية قد تكون مدافن من عصور أقدم تقع على سفوح الجبال التي‬ ‫تحيط بالمزارع المحيطة بالمدفن من جهتها الشمالية‪ ،‬ووجدنا كذلك القليل من أكوم الحجارة على مرتفع صخري ليس ببعيد عن‬ ‫ساحل البحر‪ ،‬كما والحظنا وجود بعض النقوش الصخرية في أكثر من مكان ‪.‬‬ ‫لكي نبين أهمية قدفع ‪ 1‬سواء من حيث مكتشفاته الغزيرة وأثرها على عمليات التنقيب في المنطقة نستعرض وعلى عجالة تاريخ‬ ‫االكتشافات األثرية في إمارة الفجيرة قبل قدفع‪ ،‬وذلك حين زار السيد جيفري بيبي‪ ،‬الذي كان ينقب في جزيرة أم النار مع بعثة اآلثار‬ ‫الدنماركية في بداية الستينيات من القرن العشرين‪ ،‬مدينة دباء للتحقق من طبيعة خندق حفرته قوة ساحل عمان وكشفت فيه عن عدد‬ ‫من القطع األثرية التي نسبت الى العصر الحديدي‪ .‬أما السيدة بياترس دي كاردي اآلثارية البريطانية الجنسية فقد أجرت مسحا ً في‬ ‫العام ‪ 1968‬شمل مناطق من ساحل اإلمارة حددت بموجبه بعض المواقع األثرية دون أن تجري أي تنقيب‪ .‬وفي العام ‪ 1975‬قامت‬ ‫بعثة اآلثار العراقية بالتنقيب في بقايا استيطان سطحي من العصر االسالمي كان يقع على مقربة من مواقع قدفع السالفة الذكر‪ .‬لقد‬ ‫كان لنتائج التنقيب في مدفن قدفع ‪ ،1‬وأيضا ً تلك التي قام بها المؤلف فيما بعد‪ ،‬في منطقة البدية في ثمانينات القرن العشرين‪ ،‬والتي‬ ‫أسفرت أيضاًعن اكتشاف خمسة مواقع أخرى ترجع إلى العصور البرونزية والحديدية واالسالمية ‪ ،‬أثرا ً كبيرا ً في تطور عمليات‬ ‫المسح والتنقيب في منطقة الساحل الشرقي لدولة اإلمارات العربية المتحدة‪ ،‬حيث اجتذبت تلك االكتشافات عددا َ من فرق المسح‬ ‫والتنقيب من دول مختلفة‪ ،‬منها سويسرا‪/‬إمارة لختنشتاين واستراليا وفرنسا وألمانيا‪ ،‬وبريطانيا‪ ،‬وتوصلت إلى اكتشاف العديد من‬ ‫مواقع اآلثار التي ترجع إلى عصور زمنية مختلفة‪ .‬وبفعل اكتشاف موقع قدفع ‪ 1‬ومعثوراته التي ترقى إلى اعتبارها كنزا ً أثرياً‪،‬‬ ‫قامت حكومة الفجيرة بتخصيص مبنى ليكون متحفا َ لآلثار كان لنا شرف تحمل مسؤولية اعداده وذلك من خالل عملنا في إدارة‬ ‫اآلثار والسياحة بمدينة العين في حينه‪ ،‬لقد تم افتتاح متحف الفجيرة في ‪ ،30/11/1991‬كما وتم تأسيس إدارة لآلثار تطورت فيما‬ ‫بعد لتصبح هيئة للسياحة واآلثار‪.‬‬ ‫ختاما ً البد من القول بأنه لوال اهتمام ودعم صاحب السمو الشيخ حمد بن محمد الشرقي عضو المجلس األعلى لدولة اإلمارات‬ ‫العربية المتحدة حاكم الفجيرة الذي شرفنا بزيارته لمواقع قدفع والبدية أثناء التنقيب‪ ،‬وكذلك زياراته وتوجيهاته عند اعدادنا لمتحف‬ ‫الفجيرة‪ ،‬لما كان من الممكن تحقيق هذين المنجزين وما تالهما من اكتشافات أثرية ودراسات قام بها فيما بعد زمالء لنا في إمارة‬ ‫الفجيرة‪ ،‬فإلى سموه ج ّل احترامنا وتقديرنا‪ ،‬وسوف لن ننسى من توجيه الشكر واالمتنان لكل من سمو الشيخ طحنون بن محمد آل‬ ‫نهيان ممثل الحاكم في المنطقة الشرقية من إمارة أبوظبي وسعادة سيف بن علي الدرمكي وكيل إدارة اآلثار والسياحة السابق بمدينة‬ ‫العين على ايفادي للقيام بهذه المهمة‪ .‬والشكر موصول كذلك إلى زمالء آخرين أدرجت اسماؤهم في النص االنكليزي ‪.‬‬ ‫والله ولي التوفيق‬ ‫المؤلف‬ ‫ابريل ‪ /‬نيسان ‪2022‬‬

‫‪...‬‬

‫‪xi‬‬

Preface and Acknowledgments The following reports about archaeological fieldwork of a tomb, Qidfaʿ 1, which remained in use from the Bronze Age into the Iron Age, which accidentally came to light in 1986. There are many reasons for the pause of many years since excavation took place, several of which are beyond the author’s responsibility, not the least of which are the author’s retirement, but also higher priority daily professional duties and at the time a lack of budgeted funds to render the report in a style commensurate with the importance of the find. But now the report and some photos might appear rough and ready. Please be aware that this report results from an ad hoc salvage operation with little staff. From the beginning it was a matter of personal initiative. Certain words are used in a special sense. Given the lack of metal analyses for most of the metal finds, we refer to “copper-based” if not just to “metal” and do not differentiate between copper and bronze by virtue of surface colour. The author is well aware of the risks involved in such field identifications. Few gold, silver and no iron artefacts occurred. Similarly, for lack of laboratory analyses so-called chlorite and steatite vessels are referred to non-commitally as “soft stone.” Arabic place-names and personal names are anglicised in simple fashion as they appear in the archaeological literature. His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Mohamed Al-Sharqi Member of the Supreme Council Ruler of Fujairah visited the site while the excavation was in progress; not only explaining his interest in the discovery but also discussing the immediate landscape and mentioning ancient water dam in the surrounding area. H.H. visits to Qidfaʿ 1 and Bidya were a real inspiration for us. I would like to thank my friend, Paul A. Yule, for his editorial support to ready the manuscript and updating citations. I also thank my colleagues for discussing my work with me and stimulating thought. These include Carl S. Phillips (then London UCL), Christian Velde (Raʾs al-Khaima), Burkhard Vogt (then Raʾs al-Khaima) and Karen Frifelt († then Moesgaard Museum). I should also thank John Merkel for initiating a restoration programme of a few metal samples from Qattarah and Qidfaʿ. The project was implemented by Kathryn Tubb, the restorer, and the students at UCL in late 1989. I worked with Merkel when both of us were assigned to work on a film on the copper industry in al-ʿAin. Peter Im Obersteg (Neuchatel Canton, Switzerland) intervened for the conservation and restoration of a dagger/sword and a bangle both in copper alloy. Of course, I am beholden of Kathleen McSweeney (Edinburgh University) for the physical anthropological study of the human skeletal especially dental remains. Special thanks should go to Salah Ali Hassan for backing and encouraging publishing this report and providing the author with some newly taken photos. He also provided the Qidfaʿ 3 reference and showed the author the site’s pottery in 2016. Munir Taha provided the author with a copy of his book on the Iron Age in the UAE. I should not forget to mention the names of Aysha al-Ghaithi, Amna al-Muhairi, Ali al-Meqbali, and Abdullah al-Kaabi of the Historical Environment Department, al-ʿAin (HED), for providing the author with copies of the registration cards, originally prepared by us. I am indebted to C.U. John (then HED) for drawing the site plans and inking the pencil drawings of the artefacts drawn by the author. Finally, I should not forget to mention Eethar Ismail, my daughter, for the proof reading of the first draft of this report. The people of Qidfaʿ supported our excavation and are duly thanked. Last but not least, I thank the Diwan of Fujairah for financing the excavation project and providing food and accommodation. Notwithstanding this help, any errors are mine alone.

xii

Abbreviations AD

Anno Domini

BC

Before Common era

av b. diam.

cm diam.

est.

average

base diameter centimetre diameter

estimated

h. height HED

Historic Environment Department, al-ʿAin

FM

Fujairah Museum

QDF

km

Qidfaʿ inventory number kilometre

m metre r. diam.

rim diameter

UAE

United Arab Emirates

SLFARA

UCL UTM

Swiss-Liechtenstein Foundation for Archaeological Research Abroad University College London

Universal Transverse Mercator system

xiii

Introduction On 15 April 1986 a chance discovery was made at the village of Qidfaʿ (‫)قدفع‬, when a farm was being enlarged by the levelling of a small mound located on the eastern edge of the property (Plate 1; UTM 40R 435205e, 2798616n, alt. 8 m). While bulldozing the mound, large stone ceilings and two hollows described by the locals as ‘caves’ came to light. With the appearance of the unexpected hollows, the bulldozing stopped and soon curious village children had their turn to enter one hollow and exit from the other, retrieving a small number of stone vessels. The Emiri Court (diwan) in the Emirate was informed of the discovery and invited the author, then the archaeological adviser of the Department of Antiquities in al-ʿAin, to explore the discovery. The author immediately visited the site accompanied by Nasser Hussain al-Abboudi, then head of the archaeological section of the Department of Information and Culture in Sharjah, and Mustafa Toufiq, of the same department. In Fujairah town, Dr Omar Al Sheikh Khalil joined us, then in-charge of the Cultural Section at the Emiri court. Due to the importance of the discovery, the author proposed to the Diwan an immediate rescue excavation, which continued for two seasons. The author, assisted by Mustafa Toufiq excavated the first season. Morkooth Nanu, then a member of the Department of Antiquities in al-ʿAin, succeeded the latter during the second season. The first season commenced on 22 April 1986, a week after the discovery, using four local labourers, and concluded on 22 May 1986. The excavations continued during the entire day so as to watch over the site as long as possible to ensure its protection. The author drew, registered and restored the fragmented pottery vessels, which continued until 8 June 1986, a day before Eid al-Fitr. He pursued these activities continued day and night at the diwan building in Fujairah town. Starting on 1 March 1987, the second season ended on the 22nd of the same month. During the busy first and second seasons spent at the village of Qidfaʿ, the author managed to spare some time and carried out a survey in search of other evidence of archaeology visible on the ground surface in the farms and between the old and newly built concrete houses. The discovery of four more archaeological sites resulted, designated Qidfaʿ 2–5 (Plate 2). Three of these were suspected to be burial sites and one a settlement. Qidfaʿ 2 is a low small mound, immediately south-east of Qidfaʿ 1, possibly also a tomb. Qidfaʿ 3, the largest and highest mound, is suspected to be a settlement with a surface covered with small to medium size pebbles. The latter has an irregular shape thought to have resulted by farming operations and the building of a house which surrounding the site on three sides. Qidfaʿ 4 is another tomb slightly smaller than Qidfaʿ 1, located in a large open space, which has been used by the inhabitants as a soccer field, situated between houses. It is about 700m south-east of Qidfaʿ1. Unlike the last four sites, which are located to the eastern side of the asphalt road leading north to Khor Fakkan, Qidfaʿ 5 is located on the western one and seems to be a subterranean burial (not marked in Plate 2). A number of old Islamic cemeteries lay in the area extending east of the sites, whilst rock carvings and stone cairns were seen in the foothills of the mountain overlooking the village from the north. A small group of stone cairns have also been located on an outcrop, some 900m east of site 1 (Plate 3). Excavation at Qidfaʿ 1 revealed a prehistoric collective tomb, in use through the Wadi Suq into the Iron Age. To the best of the excavator’s knowledge its remains count to the richest ever discovered in the UAE. The announcement of the finds at Qidfaʿ 1 rapidly changed the negative attitude of certain archaeologists towards the archaeology of Fujairah and attracted several, as shown below.1

Several local newspapers, in Arabic and English, first noted this find. The initial results of the excavations were presented, but not published, by the author in 1986 at the Seminar of Arabian Studies in London. Shirley Kay also publicized the archaeology of the UAE in her first book in 1986 (Emirates archaeological heritage) for general readers, which is based on a television series, and in a second book (Land of the emirates) of 1988, although the Iron Age date of Qidfaʿ 1 was not yet certain. Daniel T. Potts mentioned the site as one among others on the Batina coastal zone (1990b: I 374).

1 

1

The Area Setting Qidfaʿ is one of several villages located along the eastern coast of the UAE some 18km north of Fujairah town. The eastern coast of the UAE is an extension of Batina plain, which extends from Muscat to the south-east to Dibba (‫بِد‬ َ ّ‫ )ا‬toward the north. Historically, the city of Suhar in Oman is the capital of the Batina coast, while Dibba in the UAE and northern Oman are the capitals of its northern part. Both cities have histories going back to the early Islamic period or earlier. The Batina coast is a narrow plain restricted between the foothills of the al-Hajar mountains and the sea. Though mostly narrow, it reaches a width of 30km in its central part. The mountains plunge into the sea at multiple points within the boundaries of the UAE, leaving no beach access, such as the area between Qidfaʿ and Khor Fakkan, the next-door city The same mountains meet the sea at several other points to the north of Khor Fakkan and al-Bidya village before plunging into the sea again at Musandam, starting from just north of Dibba. Since the 1990s, new asphalt roads have been constructed along the beach connecting the plains that had been separated by mountain ridges. Facing the open sea from the east and bordered by mountains from the west, the Batina plain has developed certain types of irrigation and agriculture in the land of Oman and the UAE. Though mostly deflated gravels, quite rich patches of soil are available in some areas, therefore, agriculture must have been practiced for several thousand years along this coast. Today, underground fresh water is still available and different traditional irrigation systems are in use. The groundwater was much closer to the surface before the introduction of water pumps to the region some sixty to seventy years ago. Wells were numerous and some standard aflāj (underground irrigation channels) tapping water from underground water sources, were available as well. Another type of irrigation system (ghayl), which taps surface water from wadis running down the eastern flanks of the mountains, is common in the region. A series of traditional settlements, involved in fishing and mainly palm tree cultivation, were established along the coast. Generally speaking, the discontinuous eastern coast of the UAE, which extends from Khatmat Malaha in the south to Dibba in the north, proves to have been inhabited at least as early as the Bronze Age.1 Two settlement sites from the Umm an-Nar Period (2600–2000 BC) and Wadi Suq (2000–1600 BC) have been discovered so far. These are Site 2 at al-Bidya village (Al Tikriti 1989) and Kalba 4 (Eddisford and Phillips 2009). The remains of Bidya 2 indicate a tower-like circular building with a diameter of 26m. Traces of a moat were discovered at two points just outside the stone ring wall. Kalba 4 is mainly occupied by a large tower building, 50m in diameter and about 2.5m high. Unlike the Bidya 2 tower, which is a single period site, Kalba 4 is a multi-period site (3rd to 1st millennium BC). The site, surrounded by a ditch, has been described as defensive.

1 

The UAE-Oman border is located at Khatmat Malaha, a few km south-east of Kalba town.

2

History of Investigations in Fujairah Emirate Before Qidfaʿ 1 In the early 1960s Geoffrey Bibby, then working with Peter Globe on the island of Umm an-Nar in Abu Dhabi Emirate, visited Dibba to examine a chance discovery made at the village. This constitutes the first archaeological investigation in Fujairah. While trenching there, presumably for military training purposes, a contingent of the Oman Trucial Scouts uncovered pottery, stone vessel fragments, shell buttons and bronze arrowheads. Bibby writes that he sighted no burials (1980: 353). Due to its narrow and rectangular shape the trench was first taken to be a part of a settlement, while the local community considered it a dry falaj. However, subsequent finds and the human skeletal remains confirmed that the site represents an ‘Early Iron’ Age collective tomb (UTM 40R 427276E, 2831468N). Bibby peered inside presumably using a torch light, and dated it based on the decoration on the stone vessel fragments, similar to those from Assyria (Bibby 1966; 1980: 354). Subsequent excavations at the same site in the middle of Dibba al-Fujairah in a partly residential partly commercial area carried out by Fujairah Museum, demonstrated that this tomb was constructed in the early 2nd millennium BC, re-used in the Iron Age, then once again perhaps in the 1st century AD. Recently, selected finds from this tomb appeared in print (Pellegrino et al. 2019). The well-known archaeologist, Beatrice de Cardi†, visited the eastern coast in 1968 and recorded archaeological sites in the area between Kalba in the south and Bidya in the north without carrying out any excavations (de Cardi 1971). The Iraqi archaeological expedition, which was involved in a number of surveys and excavations in the UAE during the first half of the 1970s, carried out archaeological exploration in the Fujairah Emirate. A few empty stone cairns close to the city of Fujairah close to the runway of the Fujairah airport, overlooking the main road leading to Masafi, were examined, ransacked at an unknown period. The Iraqi expedition later concentrated on the twin villages of Mirbah and Qidfaʿ. The team partially excavated a medieval settlement on the coast thought to be part of the old village of Qidfaʿ.1 The excavators did not encounter architectural remains at this particular site, but a nearby standing, isolated room was cleared and found to be of a late Islamic date.2 In 1984, while excavating an Umm an-Nar seasonal settlement just offshore on the island of Ghanadha, Wolfgang Gockel and the author briefly visited the eastern coast (Al Tikriti 1985). Driving back from Dibba along the then heavy terrain by the mountains, a large group of graves similar to those of Hafit were located in the area between the villages of Wumm and Dhanha. The author refers to these as the Wumm-Dhanha graves. Some appear as towers from a distance, while others were much shorter. Bulldozing was underway, therefore the author, accompanied by Nasser Al Abboudi, showed the excavation sites to Abdullah al-Salami, the then chief of Dibba municipality, who ordered a halt to a nearby quarrying operation by the Fujairah Cement Factory. Most of these graves, as well as the surface of several outcrops and ridges located between Wumm and Dhanha, were mostly razed and obliterated. Several years after the discovery of the graves the Fujairah Museum rescued and fenced off their most northerly group. Subsequent visits to the graves in the 1990s allowed closer observations which led the author to propose a Wadi Suq dating to some in addition to a Hafit one in some cases. The Wadi Suq date is based on the narrow rectangular cists, sometimes visible in the middle of the stone mounds. Apart from the above-mentioned modest investigations, no proper excavation in the area had ever been conducted. Qidfaʿ 1 is, therefore, the first in-depth excavation, triggered a series of archaeological activities, not only in Fujairah, but in the whole eastern coast, as explained at the end of this report. Report submitted by Jabir Khalil, director of the Iraqi expedition to the Department of Antiquities in al-ʿAin in 1975. The site was bulldozed while building an asphalt road along the beach. Late Islamic finds are on display in both the Fujairah and alʿAin Museums.

1  2 

3

Excavation at Qidfaʿ 1: The First Season The excavation commenced at the southern side of the mound, where large boulders resembled of a ring wall (Figure 1). Their presence suggested initially that the site was an above-ground in plan circular tomb like the Iron Age graves at Qarn Bint Saʿud, north of the city of al- ʿAin. After tracing the smooth external sides of the boulders, it became clear that they formed only one loose course set on the edge of the mound, which consisted of gravels mixed with sand. It also became evident that there was no evidence of it being connected with any interior walls. In the northern and eastern sections of the mound stood large, scattered boulders which originally may have been part of the same wall. Having determined that the wall was only superficial and not part of the actual structure (at least in this section of the mound), the excavation moved to the bulldozed area. Shortly thereafter the Diwan had the entrance barricaded. On arrival at the site, the author could not enter the ‘caves’ because they were blocked with wooden planks and large boulders to prevent further disturbance. When opened, the two ‘caves’ became recognisable as a U-shaped tomb plan rather than a circular or twin rectangular one (Figure 2). Subsequent cleaning and scraping off of the debris, revealed the two chambers of the U-shaped tomb resembles extending outside the cut section. Soon after defining them, it became clear that this tomb is similar to another excavated at Fashgha in southern Raʾs al-Khaima. The latter belongs to a series of archaeological sites in Wadi al-Qawr and Wadi al-Munayi excavated only a few weeks before the Qidfaʿ site came to light (Phillips 1987 and 1997). The two ‘cave’ openings, which looked like entrances, were merely artificial sections in the two chambers, created by the bulldozing. During the first day in the evening, children re-opened the ‘caves’, and presumably using a torchlight discovered a unique stone vessel, which was retrieved the following day with the help of the Qidfaʿ community. It was imperative to block the two ‘caves’ again with larger slabs to prevent trespassing, potential damage or injury. A fence was also erected around the site to ward off human and animal disturbance. Though initially hectic, it became easier to control curious onlookers, especially children, by allowing them to enter the compound and observe

Figure 1: The undisturbed mound section of Qidfa’ 1. 4

Excavation at Qidfaʿ 1: The First Season

Figure 2: The two ‘caves’ openings of the tomb looking east.

Figure 3: The locals examining the discovery

the excavations whenever possible (Figures 3).1 Excavation started once the barbed and meshed wire fence protected the site. During the first few days of excavation of the flat bulldozed area, the upper extant walls of the two chambers were traced and found to jut about 4m outside the bulldozer cutting, and were accordingly referred to as the northern and southern chambers. These are connected by the curved section at the entrance area, as they are part of one structure. Before reviewing the excavation results, a description of the tomb architecture illuminates the excavation process.

1  Several years following these excavations, some of these now fully-grown inhabitants encountered the excavator in the same village and elsewhere, reminding him of their first ‘course in archaeology’.

5

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates The Tomb Architecture At the time of its discovery, the architecture of the Qidfaʿ 1 tomb seemed to the first of its kind. However, unbeknownst to the author, a few days previously a similar tomb, Fashgha 1, east of Huwailat in southern Raʾs al-Khaima, also proved to be a U-shaped burial chamber, “cut into the terrace to a depth of approximately 1.25 metres below the ground surface and then lined with medium sized wadi boulders forming a chamber which averaged approximately 1 metre in width” (Phillips 1987: 9). In plan dual chambers of the Fashgha 1 tomb are horseshoe-shaped (Plate 115). By virtue of its according to its finds, the author describes the Qidfaʿ 1 tomb structure to originate in the Wadi Suq Period (2000-1600 BC), in this same shape. The shape of Qidfaʿ 1 differs slightly from Fashgha 1. In regard to dating the latter, though it appears to have been built in the Wadi Suq period, it yielded mostly Early Iron Age materials. A similar tomb plan is in evidence came to light in 1997 at Mreished in the city of Fujairah, (Plate 117). The Qidfaʿ 1 tomb is a two-tiered structure; its original lower one is dug into the surface. The upper tier, which rests on the original burial and follows its plan, is partly built below the ground. Most of its walls stand above the ground surface but an artificial mound secures it (Plates 4 and 5). In other words, the structure can be described as a burrow or tumulus. The original U-shaped pit, dug into a layer of stones and gravel, was lined with two to three courses of wadi boulders, presumably collected from the same area. The dead seem to have been buried in the chambers and when full, the tomb was completely covered with large slab stones leaving no access to the chambers. The space between the actual floor of the lower burial tier and the ceiling was no more than 40cm high. Atop the original walls the builders placed further courses of boulders, 115–130cm high. At this height, another roof was built on the whole tomb using large but rough calcareous slabs, which are available at the nearby mountain ridges. These defer from those used to roof of the lower burial tier, which are of so-called marine limestone. The slabs of the lower tier ceiling are slightly embedded in the upper walls, indicating that the tomb was built either contemporaneously with or shortly after sealing the lower tier. The flat and smooth surface of these slabs indicates that they were carefully selected to form a floor for the upper tier. An entrance, measuring about 50cm wide and 46cm high, was erected in the curved wall facing the seaside. This entrance was built to access the upper tier. On the other hand, originally, the lower one had no access. The orientation of the tomb chambers is basically south-east/north-west. For simplicity, these burials and their two chambers are referred to as ‘northern’ and ‘southern’. When completed, the entire tomb was protected by a single-tier stone wall and then buried The Northern Burial Chamber Upper Tier After delineating the walls of this chamber, the excavators removed the rubble which the bulldozing had pushed into the tomb. This finished, the find layer was 30cm in thickness, with some 80cm to the tomb ceiling. First a metal vessel came to light in the central part of the upper tier, close to the northern wall. Three more copper-based vessels, a dagger as well as a stone bowl then came to light. Initially, these finds and several others posed a puzzle as they were not clearly associated with skeletal remains. We carefully removed these poorly preserved artefacts, especially the metal vessels, and the removal of a few centimetres below the surface, confirmed their being funeral, objects since brittle bones began to surface. It was also clear that these artefacts, especially the large vessels, rested on top of the bones. Smaller artefacts occurred on or between the badly preserved skeletal remains. Despite the bulldozing, the find layer was still intact. In other words, the bulldozing removed the ceiling slabs, artificial mound on top including the upper 50cm of the chamber, which was devoid of finds. Before excavating the remainder of the upper tier, the author hoped to document two intact wall courses. The subsequent result was more than rewarding, as four to five courses containing a 40cm thick bone layer which covered an intact floor came to light. The archaeological finds of the 6

Excavation at Qidfaʿ 1: The First Season northern as well as those of the southern chambers are attributable to more than one random bone layers. Whilst still in situ, the artefacts of layer 1 of the upper tier were plotted on the plan and photographed (Figures 4 and 5, Plate 6). Their removal revealed smashed bones and more funeral objects below (layer 2). In some cases, stone vessels were inserted inside copper-based vessels. Thus these vessels were void of food or liquid at the time of burial. The whole bone layer was impacted due to a) the burying method used, and b) the mechanical stress of the heavy bulldozer which see-sawed back and forth on top of the tomb. The division between the layers was mainly based on the archaeological finds, which continued all the way down to the floor level. The bone remains of the northern chamber, as they appeared during the excavations of the second season, covered the entire floor except the area near the tomb entrance, where only a few bones, mixed with gravel, covered the floor. Both chambers yielded remains of skulls and few long, mostly fragile, bones. It was impossible to attribute these to individuals as the dead lay close to, and on top of, each other. The orientation of the dead was unclear, but remains of two or three skeletons found at the WNW end of the northern chamber indicate bodies extended along the chamber, not across it. Skull fragments with post cranial bones also occurred in the middle of the chamber and against the walls, but again it is impossible to determine their orientation. A few pieces of weathered marine limestone turned up in this chamber representing partitions between the

Figure 4: Photo of the northern chamber finds.

Figure 5: Pottery, stone and bronze vessels, a dagger and copper arrowheads at the northern chamber. Scale: 25cm. 7

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates inhumations, though some were already covered with bones. These stones lay in different places in the chamber. Those in the western part comprise a separate inhumation area 80cm in length. This, which seems to be the earliest in the chamber (assuming that burial starts at the ESE part of the tomb and retreats over time towards the entrance), four skulls belonging to two bone layers occurred at the U-shaped section of the chamber. Remains of seven skulls were counted within an area covering half of the northern chamber. Despite the bones’ poor preservation, clearly the dead were buried in a contracted position. This phenomenon was encountered in the western part of the chamber but was unnoticed in the central part, where the bone layer was thinner. The chamber was too narrow to accommodate the dead buried crosswise, therefore most of the identified remains, judging by the provenance of the skulls, were buried crouched along the walls or placed in an oblique position. Numerous daggers and arrowheads were among the many artefacts found with the dead. Apart from one exception, the position of the daggers in relation to the individuals was difficult to determine. One dagger lay below a pelvic bone, where it was originally deposited. The Southern Burial Chamber Upper Tier The second half of the first season witnessed the removal of debris from the upper tier of the southern chamber. Here the find layer measured some 15cm in thickness. Above which there was 1m of space below the ceiling

Figure 6: Shot of finds in the southern chamber.

Figure 7: South chamber with finds and a flat marine stone. 8

Excavation at Qidfaʿ 1: The First Season

Figure 8: General view of the upper chambers of the tomb.

(Figure 6 and 7). As in the corresponding upper tier of the northern chamber, archaeological finds appeared above, and bones, below. We photographed the finds prior to lifting them (Plate 6). Again, the bone layer and elsewhere in the southern chamber consists of two layers. Bones at the western end of the chamber were excavated and removed, while a test trench was dug down to the floor level of the tier to check whether the architecture of this chamber was similar to the northern one, as well as to search for another subterranean burial. A slab with a round edge fitting the shape of the chamber occurred, indicating a lower storey, as in the adjacent chamber. While digging this part, long bones together with numerous objects, came to light. Like the northern chamber, three small marine stones were found in the western half of the chamber.2 One of these was covered with archaeological finds indicating it was in situ (Figure 8). All in all, numerous finds came to light all over the excavated layer 1 of the upper burial tier, largely concentrated at the end of the ‘cave’ opening. Like the northern chamber, a few skulls, covering an area of around 1m2, lie in the western part of the chamber. At the end of the first season, most of the bone layer of the upper tier of both chambers still remained in situ after reburying the tomb with sand, plastic sheets, wooden planks and boulders to protect it from further disturbance.

2 

Limestone, badly weathered by salt water, Bahraini Arabic farush.

9

The Second Season The aim of the second season was to complete the excavation of the lower tier of both chambers. During two days of continuous work, the two chambers of the refilled tomb and the curved area were re-opened after removing the blockage materials left at the end of the first season. We intended to excavate the remaining curved section of the tomb without removing the ceiling. Work on the ceiling however included removing the rubble from the covering stones, in addition to making small gaps by removing the smaller pieces of rocks wedged in-between to obtain better ventilation and light. Having finished this task, the find layer of the northern chamber was excavated and several objects, including stone and pottery vessels, daggers, arrowheads and bangles came to light. Large stones paved the floor of the chamber similar to what was encountered in the test trench of the southern chamber. The small gaps between the neatly built flooring stones of the northern chamber were found filled with earth. A large gap between slabs 2 and 3 indicated a missing slab (Plate 7). For curiosity, we cleaned the gap, unexpectedly revealing large whitish bones of another burial. The bleached white colour of several bones indicates that these bones had already been removed from their original place in antiquity, as an intact ancient burial lay above the paved floor. An incomplete stone vessel, three copper-based arrowheads and a small number of beads were discovered with the whitish bones. The excavations carried out later below the grave floor confirmed that the tomb is a multi-period, two-storey structure. Before clearing the lower tier of the northern chamber (to be discussed below), the upper curved part of the U-shaped tomb was fully excavated. Excavations here were brief because the find layer, especially near the entrance, was thinner than elsewhere in the chambers. At the beginning of the curve of the north chamber, a pair of heavy bronze/copper bangles (each 2.2kg) and a third one associated with a mirror, and another pair of large silver ear rings, accompanied with beads, came to light (Figure 9). Although it was not possible to identify the few remaining associated bones due to their poor state of preservation, the belongings found indicate that the deceased must have been an adult, high-ranking female. Next to this burial was another well-furnished inhumation found attached to the wall with a few bones. Most interesting about this inhumation is the exceptional recovery of two glazed vessels alongside late-prehistoric stone vessels. The existence of the former two vessels, a complete beaker and an incomplete bowl, in situ with other late prehistoric materials, such as stone vessels, are, to the best of the excavator’s knowledge, the oldest glazed vessels to be observed in the region (Figure 10). These will be discussed in the pottery section. In the southern part of the chamber curve, large finds, including bone, were rare and the excavations here lasted only a couple of days. Digging and sifting however yielded various types of beads and a few finger/toe rings, mostly coming from the northern curve. All floor slabs discovered within the curved section were preserved in situ and in excellent condition. The main architectural feature of this area is the tomb entrance, which lies in the middle of the curved wall facing the seaside. The entrance was exposed even before excavating this section but was well blocked and hidden from the outside, as shown below. Excavation of the remaining southern chamber confirmed that both chambers were similar in terms of their finds. Bones here are, again, in poor condition, mostly discoloured brown due to soil contact and decomposition. Further finds occurred below the lower bone layer a few centimetres above the floor slabs. These consisted of flat, easily covered, objects, such as daggers and arrowheads. These objects thought to belong to the same second layer, rather than a third.

10

The Second Season

Figure 9: Photo with heavy bronze bangles at the curve of the northern chamber.

Figure 10: Funeral objects of glazed earthen ware buried together with stone and copper/bronze vessels.

At the western half of the southern chamber, four daggers and a stone bowl, along with its lid, were encountered. In its middle vessels of stone, pottery, metal came to light, in addition to another stone lid and a bangle, all concentrated in one spot. In the eastern part, metal vessels, badly preserved pottery and a metal bangle turned up. The dense finds of layer 2, as is the case in the northern chamber, sometimes overlay each other, and more stone vessels and lids were found 11

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 11: Entrance of the tomb from inside.

Figure 12: The blocked entrance from outside.

inside large metal vessels. Small metal vessels were also found inside others. Metal daggers often lay directly on top of daggers. In general, the bones of this southern chamber, which we removed and stored in bags, were poorly preserved not only due to the mechanical damage of the bulldozer and rodent activity, but also due to plant roots and vegetation which penetrated area. Roots which found their way between bones had to be carefully removed. In at least a couple of cases, the inside of skulls had to be cleaned from lumps of fine roots taking the shape of the skull interiors. The same type of roots had to be removed from underneath the floor slabs when excavating the lower burial. In total, fifteen skulls came to light in the upper tier of the southern chamber. Like the northern one, we cleared the floor and revealed pavement slabs, with a few gaps in between. These gaps provided the excavators with ready access to the subterranean tier of the tomb. All in all, neither chamber exhibited evidence of removal of original bones to make room for new dead. The Tomb Entrance While excavating the southern chamber, two labourers cleared the buried tomb entrance. They removed debris and fill from the intact section of the mound, and opened a narrow trench 12

The Second Season perpendicular to the exterior wall of the grave where the entrance is located. The entrance was only visible from inside the grave (Fig 11). While digging outside the grave, medium size boulders and gravels were falling from both sides of the trench, which were part of the filling. During excavation, we uncovered large boulders, which served to support the large vertically aligned stone blocking of the entrance. The blocking stone, 50cm high and 46-48cm wide, was visible from inside the grave (Figures 12 and 13, Plate 8), while the entrance bench was set at about 55-60cm above the floor level of the upper burial. Traces of clay mortar were visible on top of the lintel and the wall above. Clay also found use around the bench, filling the gaps between the ceiling slabs and fixing the smaller wedged stones. By this stage of the excavation, it became clear how the tomb entrance was blocked and kept intact for nearly 4000 years after its construction. This tumulus would have never been discovered without coincidence, as there was no clue on the surface apart from the incomplete ring wall, which was only on the surface and not part of the actual structure.

Figure 13: The entrance after removing the blocking slab.

The Lower Burial Tier of Both Chambers When the upper chamber tiers were fully excavated and the floor exposed, the narrow gap between slabs 2 and 3 was utilized to reach and excavate the lower burial (Figures 14 and 15). As previously mentioned, we opened a small sounding here during the first season and a few objects, mixed with skeletal remains were salvaged. Excavation of the lower tier gradually extended to the area below slabs 1 – 4. Only a small collection of bones was discovered underneath slab 1, while fragmented pottery vessels, different from those of the upper burial were discovered scattered below slabs 2 and 3. In this place, between the above-mentioned slabs, remains of two skulls were discovered. Underneath one skull, a large fragment of a Wadi Suq Period pottery vessel occurred. The remainder of the vessel were retrieved from various places below the slabs.1 Below slab 4, a stone bowl with four vertically perforated knobs on the lower third of the body (Figure 115, S 88), and another small bowl (Figure 117, S 89), both not associated with any bones, were

Figure 14: Areal view of the northern chamber after excavation. 1 

For photos and drawings of the finds recovered in the lower burial tier, see below.

13

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 15: The tomb after excavation. Nanu sits on the floor of the upper burial. His feet are on the floor of the lower tier.

uncovered. While a layer of gravel was discovered in the gap between slabs 2 and 3 (presumably belonging to the upper tier), a different layer of clay, mixed with fine gravel was visible below slab 4 (presumably originated from the actual fill of the lower chamber). The same former layer was noticed while digging the lower burial at the eastern part of the same chamber near the entrance area. From the same gap, a fragment of a stone bowl (Figure 121, S 90) occurred, which fitted with a spout recovered during the first season in the upper burial tier, near the ‘cave entrance’ of the northern chamber. Unexpectedly, two other fragments of the same vessel also turned up below slab 13 (lower tier) and between slabs 10 and 11. The base of the same vessel lay beneath slab 9. This indicates that those who used (or re-used) the upper burial tier badly disturbed the lower one. The find layer of the lower burial tier amounted to some 25cm in thickness, overlaid with a 5–15cm thick layer of fine soil, which may have precipitated from that above. Virgin soil appeared at a depth of 40cm below the upper floor (ceiling of the lower burial tier). The wall of the lower structure consists of two courses of wadi boulders. Excavation of the southern chamber of the lower burial tier was easier than of the northern one due to a larger number of missing stones, which enabled better access to the earlier burials (Plate 5, section). Whenever access was possible, the author excavated areas near these gaps, whilst Morkoth Nanu cleared areas away from the gaps. Here excavation was conducted by crawling below the slabs, in a 40cm high space, and not damage the ceiling slabs of the lower burial tier. The western part of the chamber was badly disturbed, though in a better condition than the other parts of the chamber, which were almost devoid of bones and large artefacts. Below slab 13, a complete pottery vessel (Figure 77, P 83), a stone lid (S 92) and an open spouted stone vessel (S 93), all of Wadi Suq Period, are what remained of the furniture of the same burial. Below slab 15, a few scattered bones and a small stone vessel were extant (S 91). From the lower burial tier two arrowheads occurred below slab 15 and a third derived from the gap between slabs 13 and 14. Below slab 4 of the northern chamber another arrowhead appeared. Additionally, two razors were retrieved from below slabs 5 and 15. The gap between slabs 14 and 15 contained a brownish layer of decomposed organic material mainly intrusive from the upper burial tier. There was initially a gap of around 10cm between the 14

The Second Season lower burial and the roofs slabs above. As previously mentioned, here, as well as in the lower layer of the upper burial tier, plant roots had penetrated the bones, some inside the skulls. In the same gap between the two above-mentioned slabs, below the root level, a long bone belonging to an early burial occurred. These roots also penetrated below slabs 12 and 13.2 In general, the skeletal remains found in the lower looted burial of the southern chamber were scanty. These include a skull found below slab 14 and some long bones extending to the west, presumably belonging to the same skeleton. Another skull occurred below the same slab at a distance of 30cm from that just mentioned. All in all, in the lower burial tier only six skulls occurred: four in the northern chamber, and two in the southern. However, the original number of interred must have exceeded this. The number of mandibles found in the lower tier exceeds the number of skulls. We tallied a total of 12 mandibles in the lower tier. A total of 15 human mandibles occurred in the upper burial tier, whilst the small number of individuals extant in the lower one seems to be a result of the plundering that the tomb had in antiquity, i.e., before its upper tier was re-used several centuries after its construction. However, it should be mentioned that the original number before looting was not high, especially when considering the size of the tomb and the height of the lower burial tier, which must have contained a single burial layer. The number of the individuals buried in the lower burial is estimated at between 12 and 16. The total number of skulls determined in the southern chamber of the upper burial tier is 15. Although the number of skulls from the northern chamber could not be determined, a similar number may have been originally buried there. Therefore, the total number of interred in the upper tier was around 30, i.e. double the number buried in the preceding tier. These approximate figures, which are mainly based on size of the tomb, should be acceptable as the upper burial tier had two inhumation layers, while the lower one had just one.3

2  3 

The site is prone to flooding caused by storm water descending from the eastern side of the al-Hajar mountains. The non-dental skeletal remains from Qidfaʿ 1 are not fully analyzed.

15

The Finds We sifted to recover small finds, such as beads and loose teeth. The inventory falls into four sections. The label ‘P’ is used for pottery, ‘B’ for metal-ware, ‘S’ for stone vessels and ‘M’ for miscellaneous objects, such as daggers, axes, spearheads, arrowheads, bangles, anklets, bracelets, razors, ornamental shells, rings, seals and beads. Unlike other pottery assemblages discovered in the tombs excavated in the UAE so far, which are usually incomplete, that from Qidfaʿ 1 is largely represented by complete or semi-complete vessels. Though mostly fragmented when discovered due to the bulldozing, the author restored and mended the pottery vessels. The cache totalled 87 pottery items. For the first season of 1986, 68 of these are registered (QDF1.86.P.1 - QDF1.86.P.68), and for the second season, an additional 21 vessels (QDF1.87.P.69 and QDF1.87.P.69a - QDF1.87.P.77, and QDF1.87.P.77a - QDF1.87.P.87). In other words, a total of 89 pottery objects were recovered during the excavations at Qidfaʿ 1. The majority (78 pieces) derived from the two layers of the upper burial tier, while nine were retrieved from the lower one. The remaining two occurred outside the burial. Pottery Vessels from the Upper Burial Tier The finds recovered from the upper burial tier include 29 jars (c. 45% of them are of grey ware), 33 bowls, six dishes, one high incised grey beaker with a circular incised lid, two plain beakers, a large portion of an incised bi-conical vessel, two small painted cups, a small lid, a lower portion of closed-spouted vessel, a glazed bowl and a glazed goblet. The following describes them: Jars Twelve grey jars of semi-fine to fine ware were recovered. Most common are wheel-made jars consisting of pear-shaped bodies with narrow flat bases, medium to high necks and flaring rims (Figures 16-20, Plates 11-15). The collection includes two other distinct grey jars made of fine ware, shown in Figures 21 and 22, Plates 16 and 17, P 19. The latter with a wider mouth resembles a jug more than a jar. Jars with knobs on the body were rare. Two are of coarse ware. One is an incomplete large dark grey jar (ht. 20.4cm) with four horizontally pierced knobs on the body and a short neck (Figure 23, Plate 10, P 5). The other is a medium-sized grey to red vessel (ht. 15.5cm) with a high neck and a bevelled rim. Originally, this low-temperature fired semi-coarse jar had four vertically pierced knobs (Figure 24, Plate 24, P 77a). The third is a crude hand-made small jar of buff to red colour with two knobs on the shoulder and traces of a third missing knob (Figure 25, Plate 10, P 13). One medium-sized sooted vessel (ht. 11.8cm) with a globular bottle-shape, a short neck and round rim stands out (Figure 26, Plate 25, P 75). Two canister jars shaped slightly differently from the last bottle were discovered. One such vessel is a semi-coarse, low-fired ware with a bulgy body, and a high neck (Plate 18, P 48). The poorly preserved body shows traces of buff to red surface. The other (Figure 27, Plate 18, P 31) is an incomplete canister vessel of coarse ware with clay mixed with grits. The walls, turned grey on the interior due to low firing, are red on the exterior, similar to the above-mentioned bottle (P 48), but has a slightly wider mouth and less flaring neck than the latter. Close to Figure 24 in shape, but different in fabric and over-fired, is a jar of fine ware with a well-defined folded rim (Figures 28). The latter is a large profile with traces of red to grey slip on the surface, reminiscent of the Umm an-Nar red fine ware (Plate 18, P 33). The production of the same style continues during the Wadi Suq Period. This vessel might be an import. Another grey vessel with a missing rim resembles in shape the aforementioned pear-shaped jars (Figure 29, Plate 20, P 39). Two clumsy handmade jars (Plate 22, P 38 and Plate 24, P 77) are of coarse ware. P 38 is a closed jar with a wide, flat base, convex body and narrow mouth (Figure 30). The other object (P 77) is a 16

The Finds

Figure 16: Semi-complete jar of grey ware (P 7). H 24.8 cm.

Figure 17: Grey-ware (P 37). H. 23.7 cm.

Figure 18: Incomplete jar of grey ware (P 47). H. 25.5 cm.

Figure 19: Pear-shaped jar of grey ware (P 37). H. 22.7 cm. 17

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 20: Semi-complete jar of grey ware (P 45). H. 21.2 cm.

Figure 21: Complete jar of grey ware (P 8). H. 21.

Figure 22: Incomplete decanter vessel of grey ware (P 19). H. 16.3 cm.

Figure 23: lugged-jar of coarse dark grey ware (P 5). H. 20.4 cm.

18

The Finds

Figure 24: Lugged-jar (P 77a). H. 15.5 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum (FM).

Figure 25: Three-lugged handmade vessel (P 13). H. 11.8 cm.

Figure 26: Small canister vessel in a bottle shape, handmade (P 75). H. 11.8.

19

Figure 27: Necked-canister vessel, poorly baked (P 31). H. 11.5.

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 28: A complete profile of fine fabric reminiscent of Umm an-Nar/Wadi Suq ware (P 33). H. 23.2.

Figure 30: Complete handmade vessel with narrow mouth (P38). H. 15.5.

Figure 29: Pear-shaped jar of grey ware (P 39), remaining height: 18.9 cm.

Figure 31: Thick wall handmade vessel (P 4). H. 15.7.

20

The Finds

Figure 32: Handmade vessel (P 3). H. 15 cm.

Figure 33: Large portion of a handmade vessel (P 36). Outside rim diameter: 8.2 cm.

Figure 35: Painted pottery vessel (P 44). H. 14.9 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

Figure 34: High-necked handmade vessel (P 74). H. 16.8 cm.

21

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 36: Thick wall painted vessel (P 10). H. 14.5 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum

Figure 37: Remnants of a wide-mouthed bowl (P 52). H. 7.2 cm.

complete profile of a small, slim pear-shaped vessel. Another type of jar is a vessel of rounded rim, short neck, bulgy body and wide flat base. Unlike the grey pear-shaped jars, the base of this type is wider than the mouth and is pale to light brown in colour (Figures 31 and 32, Plate 9, P 3 and P 4). The above-mentioned lugged-jar (Plate 10, P 13) falls in this category. In addition, the repertoire contains two other handmade jars of different shape and fabric (Figures 33 and 34, Plate 17 and Plate 25, P 74). Two more vessels (Figures 35 and 36) will be discussed below with the painted pottery. Bowls Thirty-three bowls obtained from the upper burial tier. These are either complete, semi-complete or fragments with complete profile. Apart from two painted bowls, the rest are plain. It is difficult to determine if some bowls were originally painted, as motifs may have vanished due to a poor state of preservation. The vessels fall into three types: 1. Bowls of Semi-Fine/Fine Ware: the most common type among this group are openedmouthed bowls with a flat base measuring around half of the rim diameter. What characterizes this type of bowl is the small but visible carination/undulation located on the shoulder, just below the rim (Figures 37-42 and Plate 27, P 52, P 53, P 68 and Plate 29; see also Plate 33, P 56 and P 65). The height of these bowls ranges from 4 to 8cm. Although most have a pouring lip, un-spouted complete bowls of the same type also occur. In cases in which rims are missing, determining presence or absence of a lip or spout is futile. The fabric ranges between fine to semi-fine, and the vessels are well-fired in comparison to the other types of bowls discussed below. The fabric ranges between red, buff and cream, and in some cases, a thin layer of slip is observed on the exterior face. Two painted semi-complete bowls with pouring lips occur among this collection. The first bears a dense wavy line above a thick black horizontal line at the rim. This bowl is larger than the above-mentioned bowls with a height of 9.3-10.4cm and a mouth 17.2cm wide (Figure 43, Plate 41, P 43). The second lipped bowl, which is smaller, is ornamented with oblique lines 22

The Finds

Figure 38: Incomplete wide-mouthed bowl (P 68). H. 4.8-5.1 cm.

Figure 39: Semi-complete wide-mouthed bowl (P 53). H. 4.7-5, av. R. diam. 10 cm

Figure 40: Incomplete wide-mouthed bowl (P 56). H. 5.3-5.7 cm.

Figure 41: Semi-complete wide-mouthed bowl (P 65). H. 4.8, r. diam. 8.9 cm.

bifurcating from the rim and bordered below by a horizontal line (Figure 44, Plate 32, P 49). Another previously mentioned painted bowl, more or less similar to P 43, occurred while excavating the entrance at the outside (Figure 45, Plate 33, P 87). A high-walled bowl with a short spout, different from those just mentioned, also came to light. It consists of clay mixed with light brown grits and has walls covered with brown slip still visible on the lower portion of the body. The rims are constricted inwards. The shape and the open spout are shared with metal vessels (Figure 46, Plate 30, P 15). The profile of the bowl is similar to an incomplete Iron Age I bowl recovered in Sharm 1, a reused Wadi Suq burial located at a distance of 18km north of Qidfaʿ (Barker 2002, figure 18, 7).1 2. Bowls of Coarse Ware: mostly handmade and incomplete, are common in the upper burial tier. Their walls curve inwardly (Plate 20, P 32, P 54), or are straight with wide flat 1 

In the mid-1990s an Australian team excavated Sharm 1.

23

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 42: Complete spouted bowl (P 42). H. 8, max. r. diam. 12.3 cm.

Figure 43: Painted open-mouthed bowl (P 43). H. 9.310.4, r. diam. 17.2 cm.

Figure 44: Painted open-mouthed bowl (P 49). H. 6, max. r. diam. 11.6 cm.

Figure 45: Wide mouth painted bowl (P 87). H. 8, R. diam. 16 cm. (from outside the tomb).

bases (Figure 47, Plate 28, P 6). The fabric is tempered with minerals and the vessels are heavier than the other types of bowls. One semi-complete handmade bowl, such as the one illustrated in Plate 34, P 71, is made of heavy clay with walls slightly curved inwards, ending in a round rim. The other complete vessel (Figure 52, Plate 31, P 73) is also handmade and has an irregular profile. It is made of coarse heavy ware mixed with grits, and remains of chaff are visible. In general, the aforementioned handmade bowls including Figures 48, 49, 50 and 51 should be attributed to the Iron Age I and the closest parallel might be found in the small collection of sherds which came from Sharm 1 (Barker 2002 figure 18: 6 and 8). In addition to the above-mentioned vessels, the collection also includes two other bowls of semi-coarse ware (Figures 53 and 54, Plate 37, P 20 and P 23). The shapes of these bowls differ from those with undulating walls as they are deeper with high straight walls and are low-temperature fired. Though incomplete, they are believed to have had plain, spoutless rims. Some may have been used as measuring tools for agricultural products, such as wheat and barley. 3. Beakers: Three open-mouthed bell-shaped vessels beakers represent this group. They have medium to thin walls with traces of buff and light brown paint on the exterior, and grey to black on the interior. The ware is semi-coarse tempered with minerals and vegetal inclusion 24

The Finds

Figure 46: Spouted bowl (P 15). H. 7.9, R. diam. 11-11.5 cm.

Figure 47: Profile of a handmade bowl (P 6). H. 6.2, est. r. diam. 12 cm.

Figure 48: Large section of a handmade bowl (P 54). H. 7, est. r. diam. 12 cm.

Figure 49: Profile of a handmade bowl (P 32). H. 7 cm.

Figure 50: Profile of a bowl (P 69a). H. 6.9 cm.

Figure 51: Semi-complete bowl, handmade (P 70). H. 9, r. diam. 13.8 cm.

25

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 52: Complete bowl, handmade (P 73). H. 6.5, r. diam. 10.8-11.8 cm

Figure 53: High wall bowl (P 23). H. 10.9, r. diam. 15 cm.

Figure 54: High wall bowl (P 17). H. 13.2, est. r. diam. 17 cm.

Figure 55: Incomplete low-fired bowl (P 20). H. 8-8.4, r. diam. 14.5 cm.

Figure 56: Semi-complete bowl (P 12). H. 9.7, r. diam. 14 cm.

Figure 57: Large dish (P 26). H. 6, r. diam. 18 cm.

26

The Finds

Figure 58: Small complete dish (P 28). H. 4.7-5, r. diam. 14.8- 15.5 cm.

Figure 59: Small dish (P 40). H. 4.5-5, r. diam. 13.4 cm.

Figure 60: Large dish (P 46). H. 9.2-10, r. diam. 28.5 cm.

Figure 61: Incomplete dish (P 51). H. 6, Est. r. diam. 17 cm.

(Figures 55 and 56, Plate 36, P 12, P 17 and P 9). It has to be noted that these vessels are plain and completely differ in terms of shape and fabric from the painted beakers of the Wadi Suq Period to be discussed below. 4. Dishes: three wheel-made dishes of semi-coarse to fine ware were retrieved from the northern chamber. They have well-defined rims, range in colour between buff to red, and one case had fabric mixed with grey grits (Figures 57-59, Plate 38, P 40, P 26 and P 28). Two more wheel-made dishes came from the southern chamber (Figures 60 and 61). A third handmade dish in buff ware occurred in the same chamber (Figure 62, plate 39, P 76). Painted Vessels Vessels in the upper burial tier are mostly undecorated, in contrast to the Wadi Suq Period pottery vessels of the lower burial tier which are mostly painted. None of the grey ware vessels show any traces of decorative motifs, nor do those of the fine/semi-fine ware. Treating the poorly preserved objects is unlikely to uncover painted vessels. The two medium size jars mentioned earlier bear faded motifs (Plate 19, P 10 and P 44) of dark brown dots on traces of creamy wash on the neck (Figure 36) and a band of short vertical lines below the rim, in addition to a possible faded band on the shoulder of P 44 (Figure 35). Both vessels are low-temperature fired with thick walls in case of P 10, thinner in P 44. The collection includes two bowls with pouring lips decorated with painted wavy/zigzag or oblique lines (Figures 43 and 44) and two more small beakers/cups ornamented with three horizontal lines 27

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 62: Large dish (P 76). R. diam. 23.5 cm.

Figure 63: Black on red painted cup (P 57). H. 5.5-5.8, r. diam. 7.5 cm.

Figure 64: Black on red painted cup (P 58). H. 6, r. diam. 7-7.5 cm.

Figure 65: Profile of incised grey pottery vessel (P 66). H. 9.5, est. r. diam. 9 cm.

(Figures 63 and 64, Plate 41, P 57 and P 58). Despite the motifs and shape of the latter two cups being of the Wadi Suq type, and the base is string cut in case of figure 58, the red sandy fabric is more of Iron Age. Pottery which Imitates Soft-Stone Vessel shapes Two incised grey ware pottery vessels occurred in the upper tomb tiers. One is a large portion of a squat incised bi-conical jar with a short neck, decorated with a band of cross-hatched lines, and a shoulder covered with straight lines forming a gadroon design (Figure 65, Plate 21, P 66). The shape and design, though rare, are known in the regional Iron Age chlorite vessels. The other vessel is a high sub-conical bowl decorated with incised hatched triangles. This decorative element is defined by two horizontal lines below the rim and similar lines above the base (Figure 66, Plate 21, P 1). The lid (P 2), which is decorated with a seven-point incised star filled with short horizontal lines, was discovered close to the vessel, and fits well with the sub-conical bowl. The above-mentioned carinated jar and bowl are clear imitations of the incised stone vessels. It is worth mentioning that the technology of imitating stone incised vessels is well-attested among Umm an-Nar and Wadi Suq Period vessels. Nevertheless, the shapes, fabric and firing are different. In addition to the shapes and motifs, the difference between the Early Iron Age collection from Qidfaʿ 1 and those of the Umm an-Nar and Wadi Suq Period lies, at least from a visual observation, in the type of clay used. The clay of the former collection is less levigated and low-temperature fired. Generally speaking, Umm an-Nar greyware pottery, whether painted or incised, is of superior technical quality. Chemical analysis of the clay material is required to further investigate the matter.

28

The Finds

Figure 66: Complete beaker of incised grey pottery with its lid (P1 and P 2). H. 13 cm.

Figure 67: Glazed beaker (P 60). H. 8.3, r. diam. 8.6, B. diam. 7.7 cm.

Figure 68: Glazed bowl (P 61). av. H. with knobs 7, r. diam. 14.2, B. diam. 7.5 cm.

Figure 69: Same glazed bowl (P 61).

Glazed Pottery Vessels Glazed pottery is either rare or unknown among the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age assemblages in south-eastern Arabia, but common in the post Iron Age sites, namely from the Hellenistic graves and settlements. At Qidfaʿ 1, two glazed vessels (a beaker and a wide-mouthed bowl) occur attributable to an inhumation in the upper burial tier (Figures 67- 69, Plate 40). The inhumation was well-furnished with two soft stone vessels and one metal bowl. These objects, including the glazed vessels, occurred in situ belonging to the same inhumation. Therefore, they should be attributed to the Pre-Hellenistic, an era, when glazed vessels became rife in south-eastern Arabia. Moreover, there is no evidence for Qidfaʿ 1 re-used after the Iron Age. Although glazing on the terracotta is surmised in the 16th century BC in Mesopotamia (Moorey 1985: 134), attributing these glazed vessels to a Pre-Hellenistic date remains debatable. Pottery from the Lower Burial Tier Nine vessels, which contrast in fabric, shape and design, from the pottery collection of the upper burial tier, occurred in the lower ransacked one. Belonging to the Wadi Suq Period, these include 29

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 70: Painted vessel (P 81). H. 11.8, r. diam. 12.5-12.8 cm.

Figure 71: Painted vessel (P 85). H. 11.8 cm.

Figure 72: Painted vessel (P 79). H. 9-9.2, r diam. 11 cm.

Figure 73: Painted cup (p 84). R. diam. 6.7 cm

three painted beakers/bowls, a fragment of a fourth, two painted cups, a small painted jar and two plain dishes (Plates 42-44). Two of the beakers/bowls (Figures 70 and 71) are semi-complete with profiles ranging in height from 9 to 11.8cm. The third is the remains of a fragmented bowl (Plate 43, P 86). In general, these vessels are painted with one or three horizontal lines below the rim and on the body. The in-between register is filled with groups of vertical lines. The spaces between these alternated lines are adorned with either a double sharply curved line forming half circles in opposite direction - in the case of P 85 - or with what might be floral motifs (?) in the case of P 81. The fragments of vessel P 81 occurred scattered in the gaps between slabs 13 and 15; and below slab 14 as well. The former bowl (P 85) has parallels at tomb SH 404 at Shimal (Kästner 1991, Pl.3 A). Other parallels are known at tomb SH 102 (Vogt and Franke-Vogt 1985, fig. 12, 16-18). In addition to these vessels, all belonging to the Wadi Suq Period, another turned up in the gap between slabs 2 and 3 of the northern chamber at a slightly lower level below the paving slabs (Figure 72, Plate 42, P 79). As previously mentioned, the latter was shattered during the looting process of the lower burial tier, rather than belonging to layer 2 of the upper burial tier. The vessel in question has a 30

The Finds

Figure 74: Painted bowl (P 78). H. 6.2-6.7 cm.

Figure 75: Profile of painted cup (P 67). H. 6.4 cm.

Figure 76: Lower portion of a dish (P 82). Base diam. 9.3 cm.

Figure 77: Small canister vessel (P 83). H. 12.5, r. diam. 5.3 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

geometric motif covering two thirds of the body, comprised of triangles hanging from the rim and other similar triangles situated on a horizontal line around the body. These triangles are filled with crisscrossing lines. A zigzag hatched band runs between these rows of triangles. The other type of vessel in the lower burial tier is represented by two small beakers/cups (Figures 73 and 74), Plate 43, P 84 and Plate 44, P 78). The first is incomplete and painted. Its base is damaged and in height is estimated to be between 7-7.5cm. The upper half is covered with four thick horizontal bands of dark brown to black paint (cf. Kästner and Vogt 1987, fig. 12.10). A similar painted beaker occurred in the debris outside the tomb (Figure 75), which may have originated from the lower ransacked burial tier. The aforementioned beaker (P 78) is 6.2-6.7cm high with an irregular stringcut base. The motif, which consists of zigzag lines defined by two or three horizontal lines, covers two thirds of the upper vessel. The motif is known on Wadi Suq beakers and jars (Velde 2003: fig. 2, 31

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates 9 and 11). The beaker is distinguished by its widest diameter located below the middle of the vessel and a base wider than the former cups. The third type of vessel is represented by one incomplete deep dish from below slab 3 (Plate 44, P 80). Thick-walled it is made of red semi-fine fabric. Another heavy base of a dish or a bowl turned up below slab 9 of the curved tomb wall (Figure 76, Plate 43, P 82). The last vessel discovered in the lower tier is a medium size jar (ht. 12.5cm) retrieved from beneath slab 13 (Figure 77 Plate 44, P 83). It has a narrow mouth, flaring rim, short neck and globular body. The decoration, which originally covered the upper half of the body, is not fully preserved. A visible line encircles the neck. The wiped-out motif may have been of similar horizontal lines.

Figure 78: Conical stone vessel (S 7). H. 11, b. diam. 13 cm.

Figure 79: Conical stone vessel (S 10). H. 11.6, b. diam. 13.2 cm.

Figure 80: Conical vessel (S 34) H. 14.5-15, b. diam. 18.8 cm.

Figure 81: Squat conical vessel (S 80). H. 6.5, b. diam. 12.1 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum. 32

The Finds Stone Vessels from the Upper Burial Tier A total of 58 soft stone vessels and 31 such lids were recovered in the upper tier, whilst only five vessels and two lids were found in the lower ransacked one. The upper tier collection can be divided into subgroups based on shape and decorative motif. The most common vessels are as follows: Truncated Conical Vessels in stone Eighteen vessels of this type vary in shape, which are described as ‘closed bowls’ i.e. 31% of the collection (not counting lids) came to light. They have wide convex bases, a sharp carination near the base, slightly or sharply curved walls, and a mouth narrower than the base (Plates 45-50). The decoration covers the whole exterior and consists of geometrical motifs framed below one or more horizontal lines below the rim and just above the base. These motifs consist of plain or hatched triangles covering the lower half of the body when the vessel is large (max. ht. 15.5cm; Figures 78-

Figure 82: Squat conical vessel (48). H. 8.5, b. diam. 15.5 cm.

Figure 83: Squat conical vessel (S 55). H. 7.5, b. diam. 11.5. cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

Figure 84: High conical stone vessel (S 47). H. 15-15.5, b. diam. 15.8-16.8 cm.

Figure 85: Small conical vessel made of whitish stone (S 14). H. 5.5, b. diam. 8.9 cm. 33

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates 80), or the whole body when the vessel is small (max. ht. 9cm; Figures 81-83). In the case of large vessels, the rest of the body is usually decorated with further bands separated by horizontal incised line. Motifs of single dotted circles, wavy or zigzag lines and diamond are the main decorative styles used. Hatching is implemented mostly by oblique plain incisions (Plates 46 and 47) or short horizontal saw-teeth lines (Plate 50, S 42). The hatched triangles are sometimes bordered by sawteeth incisions (Plate 46, S 57, Plate 47, S 55 and Plate 49 S 6). The tallest truncated conical vessel discovered measures 15.5cm high. It is ornamented with a band of dotted single circles below the rim and a similar one just above the base. The large space in between is divided into segments each filled with multiple triangles (Figure 84, Plate 45, S 47). An exotic and unique small vessel (5.5cm high) different from the assemblage from Qidfaʿ 1 (Figure 85, Plate 51, S 14) has a conical shape and is made of whitish soft stone, which possibly natural white gypsum. The motif is unique and has a distinctive rounded rim which is not seen in the chlorite vessels. The whole body is adorned with four groups of horizontal dotted lines; between which are three bands filled with zigzag achieved by double dotted lines. To trace the origin of the truncated conical-vessel shape, the earliest known similar type of vessel occurs in the Umm an-Nar Period (Frifelt 1975: fig. 17, 17e). Two conical stone vessels from the lower layer of the long tomb at Qattarah are displayed in the Al-ʿAin Museum. They are completely covered with incised complex decorations, comprising bands of cross-hatched lines and a series of oblique incised lines on top of horizontal ones. One of which has a central band of dotted single circles.2 From the same layer came four pottery vessels. To the best of the author’s knowledge, the painted spouted globular jars of Wadi Suq Period are absent. Taking into consideration the unpublished vessels from the Qattarah corridor tomb and the high number of the soft stone closed vessels from the upper burial of Qidfaʿ 1, the latter collection is to be dated to the Early Iron Age (1300–1000 BC). Equivocally, some might be heirlooms and/or belong to a transformation phase from the preceding Late Bronze Age (1600-1300 BC). Due to a lack of data on stone vessels from this ambiguous transformation era (Late Bronze Age), the stone vessels are frequently misdated especially those sourced from the Iron Age reused tombs. The production of the closed vessels and other certain types continued to the Iron Age II.3 Rectangular Vessels in Stone Two types of rectangular vessels (boxes) were discovered at Qidfaʿ 1: compartmented vessels and deep non-compartmented vessels. Only one incomplete vessel was found of the former style whilst five vessels represent the latter. The compartmented vessel is well known from the Umm an-Nar Period since several of which were discovered inside the Hili circular tombs and other contemporary sites (Al Tikriti 1981: 192-96; Cleuziou, Méry and Vogt 2011: 192-93). What distinguishes the Hili compartmented vessels from the Qidfaʿ 1 collection and other known vessels from the Late Bronze and Iron Ages in the region are their motifs, and to a certain extent, the colour and source of the raw material. Brown examples occur in the Hili collection, while blue-grey colour is rife on the post Umm an-Nar examples. Whilst the double concentric dotted circle motifs were widely adopted to adorn the Umm an-Nar Period vessels, zigzag and horizontal lines sometime combined with single dotted circle motifs are common on the 2nd and 1st millennia vessels in south-eastern Arabia. As far as tomb Qidfaʿ 1 is concerned, the aforementioned rectangular vessels divide into two groups a) high deep rectangular boxes and b) rectangular boxes with base longer than height. The high deep rectangular boxes are more elaborated than the compartmented vessel. The rectangle base Christian Velde (2003: 101-113) attributes the Qattarah tomb, which yielded dozens of plate-grip sword blades and socketed spearheads, to the Late Bronze Age. Since the division of the Iron Age into three sub-periods by Peter Magee (1996), his terms of Iron I, II and III are widely used. Based on the recent Italian excavations at Salut (Oman), Carl Phillips comments on this division by stating that Magee’s sub-periods Iron I and II are one period, suggesting the use of the terms ‘Early Iron Age’ for Iron I and II and ‘Late Iron Age’ for Iron III (Phillips 2010). On the same matter which tallies with Phillips’ view, see Jurgen Schreiber 2010.

2  3 

34

The Finds

Figure 86: High rectangular box (S 2). H. 9.5, base length 6 cm.

Figure 87: High rectangular box (S 78), H. 11, b. 9.7x6.3 cm.

Figure 88: Rectangular box (S 5). H. 7.5, b. length 11.1 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

Figure 89: High rectangular box (S 16). H. 9.5-9.8, b. length 9 cm.

35

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 90: Rectangular box (S 39). H. 11.1, b. 13.8x8.8 cm.

Figure 91: Small barrel-shaped suspension vessel (S 45). See text for measurements.

has a slightly convex shape whilst the walls are curved inward forming a rectangular mouth equal in size to roughly two thirds of the base. Apart from one incomplete compartmented box with remaining motif of zigzag line and possible floral design (Plate 51, S 8), the rest are rectangular but non-compartmented. Group ‘a’ has high straight or curved walls. Two of which are ornamented with four pointed stars with a dotted circle in the centre from which four plant leaves bifurcate (Figures 86, Plate 52). The narrow sides of the boxes are decorated with the same style: single or double dotted circles and floral motifs. From Fashgha 1, an identical vessel in shape and motifs to our vessel (Plate 52, S 16) (Phillips 1987) came to light. The star and floral motifs, which are executed in saw-teeth incisions, including the Fashgha example, are always defined by four deep incised lines below the rim and similar four lines above the base. The entire body of of another item, which has a square-like mouth, is decorated with multiple zigzag lines executed in the shape of saw-teeth incisions and defined by two incised lines below the rim and above the base (Figure 87, Plate 53, S 78). Figure 88 and its fitting lid is another box with sharply curved walls and convex base. The box and the lid are entirely covered with saw-teeth motif. The two other boxes are shorter than the former, with bases longer than the height, and walls again are either straight or curved inwards (Figures 89 and 90, Plate 54). The former (S 39) is depicted with two adjacent stars and floral design on the wider side of the box and one star on the narrow side. The entire body of the other (S 5) is covered with repeated diagonal short lines of saw-teeth incisions. Some of these vessels were discovered with their fitting lids bearing the same motifs. S 5 is an example. Barrel-Shaped Suspension Vessels in Stone were discovered in a grave during the first excavations at al-Qusais, Dubai, in 1974. The excavations were carried out by an Iraqi archaeological expedition led by Munir Taha. Because the expedition was sponsored and performed under the auspices of the al-ʿAin Department of Antiquities, the discovered materials were divided between that institution and the Dubai Museum. The larger of these complete vessels (ht. 21.6cm), currently housed in the al-ʿAin Museum, bear a geometrical motif which covers the whole body (Taha 2009: Plate 30, Ai 36

The Finds and Bi; see also Yasin 2001: 61). The smaller vessel (ht. 12.7cm), on display in the Dubai Museum, is entirely covered with vertical zigzag lines. A similar complete vessel of the same style was later discovered during the excavations at the Rumeilah settlement by the French Archaeological Expedition (Boucharlat and Lombard 1985: 59-60, Pl. 61). The Rumeilah example is decorated with a zoomorphic (tortoise) and a floral motif. A Jordanian team at the Saruq al-Hadeed site brought to light a semi-complete vessel with four vertically perforated lugs. The circular base has four holes in parallel to the lugs. The vessel is adorned with three incised lines below the rim, and the rest of the body is kept void of decoration (al-Khuraisha and al-Nashef 2007). From Bida bint Saʿud, a body fragment of a similar vessel was discovered as well. A grave (G 31) at Jebel Buhais produced an incomplete barrel-shaped vessel together with other Iron Age materials (Jasim 2006: 50 and 54). The remaining lower half of the vessel has four perforated lugs and is entirely covered with incised decoration. The register just below the lugs is adorned with hanging triangles filled with horizontal lines executed in saw-teeth style. The lower register is filled with incised dotted circles framed in circles of saw-teeth incisions. From Qidfaʿ 1, two more stone suspension barrel-shaped vessels of different size were discovered. The large one, S 11 (ht. 19.5cm) and its lid (S 65, diam. 8.5), came to light in the northern chamber (Figure 92, Plate 55). The small vessel, S 45 (ht. 10.4cm) occurred in the southern chamber (Figure 91, Plate 56). Each vessel has four vertical lugs on the body. These holes are in harmony with the other four holes performed on a protruding ring base. In terms of decorations, the large vessel bears a symbolic motif of a human figure depicted on the lower part of the body, and a zigzag line on the upper part, topped by three horizontal lines below the rim. These decorations are implemented in saw-teeth incision technique, which was adopted on the majority of artefacts discovered.

Figure 92: Large barrel-shaped suspension vessel (S 11). See text for measurements.

Figure 93: Beaker with its original lid (S 63). H. 13 cm. 37

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates The decorations of the smaller vessel are comprised of three horizontal lines below the rim and the same on the lower part of the body above the base. Due to weathering, the decoration, which may have existed on the rest of the body, cannot be identified. This type of stone vessel must have had a function, more than that solely of a funeral object. But, like stone vessels displayed or stored in local museums, a definitive function cannot yet be determined. In general, there is an agreement among archaeologists that south-eastern Arabia was a production centre(s) for more than two thousand years since the Umm an-Nar Period. Nevertheless, a few artefacts among the Bronze Age vessels discovered in the UAE have been identified as import from Persia and Bactria. In the author’s view, there is no reason to consider the suspension vessels to be a foreign import, as no comparative study has yet been carried out. Moreover, these vessels, visually speaking, are made of local greyish oft stone, like the comparable objects excavated in south-eastern Arabia. Though the raw material suggests a local production chemical analysis is a method which might cast light on the origin of the item. In regard to the date of the barrel-suspension vessels, two examples from al-Qusais seem to derive from graves the architecture of which is more of early 2nd millennium rather than Iron Age date. One such grave is a multi-chamber communal grave and the other is rectangular in plan. The suspension vessel from Rumeilah belongs, according to the excavators, to period 2, which is attributed to the later Early Iron Age (Boucharlat and Lombard 1985: pl. 61.10). The previous excavations carried out at the site by Karen Frifelt and the author, as well as the French investigations, did not reach bedrock, and concluded that the settlement was established on a pure sand dune. Remains of a mud brick room resting on the bedrock in 2005 indicates that an Early Iron Age or Late Bronze Age layer might be still hidden deeper below the thick layer of sand (Al Tikriti 2010). Beakers in Stone Another type of stone vessel is represented by five decorated deep beakers either cylindrical in shape (Figure 93, Plate 53, S 63) or with slightly concave walls with mouth as wide as the base or slightly wider (Plate 57, S 73 and Plate 58, S 43 and S 41). Geometrical motifs of combined zigzag lines or triangles filled with oblique lines of saw-teeth incisions adorn these beakers. No. S 73 shows three trees depicted on what might represent a mountainous terrain, perhaps inspired by the surrounding environment. Beaker S 15, Plate 58, S15, is the only one in the collection with four vertically perforated knobs. The decoration, executed with saw-teeth lines, is comprised of two separate registers: an upper register of chevrons and a lower one of floral motif. Two of the aforementioned beakers have lids with segmented handles (S 64 and 74). Their rarity suggests that this type of lid correlates to beakers only. Spouted Bowls in Stone The other group of stone vessels consists of open-mouthed, spouted bowls. Twelve of these bowls came from the upper burial tier (Plates 59-61 and Plate 62, S 69 and S 83). The width of the mouth ranges between 5 and 10cm. The height is 3.8‒6cm. The base is normally flat and the walls are somewhat convex, outwardly tipped and end up in a plain rim (Figures 94‒99). Among these, one bowl is decorated with single-dotted circles and two oblique bands of saw-teeth incisions emphasizing the area below the spout (Plate 59, S 23). A sub-type of these spouted vessels shows convex higher walls rather than outwardly tipped ones as represented by bowl S 84, Plate 63 (Figure 100). This specimen is adorned with floral motifs and horizontal lines below the rim and above the base. The other poorly preserved bowl (Figure 101) shows two horizontal lines below the rim and remains of three others above the base. In between the decoration is obliterated.

38

The Finds

Figure 94: Worn out bowl with short open spout ornamented with single-dotted circles (S 23). H. 4.5, r. diam. 8.6 cm.

Figure 95: Spouted bowl. 3 lines below the rim and 1 above the base, in between gadroon motif (S 72) H. 4.5, r. diam., b. diam. 3.5 cm.

Figure 96: Stone bowl with chevron motif on the long open spout. Hanging triangles cover the body (S 54). H. 4.7-5, r. diam. 10.2 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

Figure 97: Small spouted bowl, chevron motifs between straight lines (S 69). H. 4.1-4.9, r. diam. 4.2-4.5 cm.

Figure 98: Stone vessel with long spout. Zigzag lines between straight lines (S 83). H. 5.1, r. diam. 8.5-8.9 cm.

Figure 99: Spouted bowl ornamented with straight lines and hanging triangles executed in saw-teeth incisions (S 26). H. 5-5.4, r. diam. 8.5 cm.

39

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 100: Spouted vessel ornamented with straight lines and tree-like motifs in between (S 84). H. 6.8-7.2, r. diam. 7.7 cm.

Figure 101: Spouted vessel with 4-5 lines and eroded decorations (S 38). H. 7.2, r. diam. 8.8-9.5 cm.

Figure 102: Squat carinated vessel. Two saw-teeth zigzag lines decorate the body and three of them below the spout (S 82). H. 4.3, r. diam. 8.8, b. diam. 5.8 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

Figure 103: Small open mouth vessel decorated with single dotted circles bordered by two lines below the rim (S 85). H. 3.6-3.8, r. diam. 8.5, b. diam. 3.4 cm.

A distinctive shape of another spouted bowl is object S 82 on Plate 63 and Figure 102. The neck and flanged rim are set off from the carinated convex shoulder. The base which has a semi-disc shape is not perfectly flat. The body is adorned with two horizontal zigzag lines executed in saw-teeth style. The carinated shoulder bears a row of vertical notches. Open-Mouthed Bowls in Stone Open-mouthed plain bowls in stone are well-known since the second half of the 3rd millennium BC, especially from the Umm an-Nar Period. Such are hemispherical and decorated with an incised band of double concentric circles with a dot in the middle. The band is carved under a single horizontal line and rarely defined by another line below the dotted circles. This style and the stone industry in general have been developed over centuries and are widely known in southeastern Arabia during the Wadi Suq Period and Iron Age. Several factors complicate dating the stone vessels: 1) the custom of reusing the old graves, especially those of the Wadi Suq Period, by the Iron Age communities, 2) the slow development of shapes and motifs, 3) grave looting, 4) heirlooms, which can be easily transferred from generation to the next due to their durability. Unlike Umm an-Nar, the Iron Age examples have mostly short open spouts and bear incised decorations. In other words, it is easier to differentiate between the two groups, than differentiating the former from the Wadi Suq and/or Late Bronze Age vessels. Visual observation shows that 40

The Finds multiple sources of raw materials were utilized in the 2nd and 1st millennium BC. Again, this is unlike the Umm an-Nar vessels, where fewer sources were utilized. However, the number of the 2nd and 1st millennium BC funeral sites, where most of the stone repertoire were retrieved, is much higher than those of the 3rd millennium BC. Back to Qidfaʿ 1, a smaller collection of six small wide-mouthed spoutless bowls also came to light. They vary slightly in profile and motifs which contain zigzag lines of saw-teeth incisions (Plate 64 S 25 and S 38) and gadroon motifs (S 76 and 18). The gadroon motif is more related to the Iron Age and is known at Bida bint Saʿud cemetery. Nevertheless, the possibility that the motif has a Late Bronze Age origin should not be dismissed. Another bowl, the smallest found among the collection, bears two horizontal lines below the rim and similar ones above the base. The rest of the body may originally have had further decoration (S 36) (Figure 103). Bowl S 30 is plain. Another small bowl worth mentioning (Plate 65, S 85) came to light in the gap between slabs 10 and 11 and is registered as belonging to layer 2 of the upper burial tier. Nevertheless, it may have been displaced from its original place in the lower tier during ancient plundering. This possibility is based on another similar, but slightly larger, spouted pot bearing the same motif (Plate 73, S 93). The latter bowl was discovered in the lower tier, below slab 13. The shape and motif of the former (S 85), with a band of single-dotted circles bordered by two horizontal lines occupying the upper half of the body, and oblique hatched lines on the lower part, indicate that the object either to have developed from the Wadi Suq or is just a reused item. A similar motif however is common in the Iron Age south-east Arabian assemblage. A small, distinctive squat, steep-walled vessel with sharply concave walls (Figure 104, Plate 65, S 86) also occurred in layer 2 of the southern chamber. This again might be of a Wadi Suq or Late Bronze Age date. Two other bowls, of what seem to be of pre-Iron Age as well, deserve mention. S 32 has a short open spout and is undecorated, whilst S 4 shows a simple row of hanging triangles (Plate 62). Both came to light in layer 1 of the upper burial tier. Stone Lids We recovered thirty-one soft stone lids in the upper tiers (26 round, four rectangular and one squarish in shape). Circular-base lids have a decorated obverse face which is thicker at the centre where it ends in an ornamented button-shaped grip and thinner at the periphery. The base (lower face) is carved in a disc shape to fit firmly on the vessel’s rim. Most lids are decorated. Among the

Figure 104: Small fully decorated container (S 86). H. 3.1, r. diam. 6.7, b. diam. 6.7 cm.

Figure 105: Stone lid with radial incisions executed in saw-teeth style on the surface (S 49). Diam. 8 cm. 41

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 106: Stone lid, simple incised lines on surface and pommel (S 60). Diam. 6.8 cm.

Figure 107: This nicely made stone lid (S 65) belongs to a suspension vessel (S 11). Diam. 8.5 cm.

Figure 108: High-stem lid of Wadi Suq Period (S 87). H. 6.5, diam. 9 cm.

Figure 109: A star motif on the surface inside a circle and crossed lines on the pommel (S 50). Diam. 8.8 cm.

Figure 110: Lid with 4 fish motifs. Handle is missing Figure 111: Nicely shaped lid with star fish like-motif. (S 56). Diam. 9.7 cm. May have had a separate handle (S 61). Diam. 11.1 cm. 42

The Finds motifs carved on the surface of the circular lids, are lines (simple incisions or of saw-teeth style) radiating from the bottom of the lug to the edge of the lid (Figures 105 and 106, Plate 66 and 67 S 49). Lids surface is decorated with one or two large circles (depending on the size of the lid) and executed with a saw-teeth line, and a knob adorned with bifurcating lines from a dotted circle, occur (Plate 68). Two lids having segmented knobs bear rosettes (Figure 107, Plate 70, S 20 and Plate 53, S 64). Generally, segmented lids, regardless of their decoration, seem to have been made to fit beakers and barrel-shaped vessels. Two more lids (Plate. 65, S 87 and Plate 56, S 12) bearing single-dotted circles came from the upper tier and are believed, especially the former (Figure 108) which has a sharp concave lower surface, to be heirlooms. Lids like these belong to the Wadi Suq Period. A geometric motif form of a five-point star on a circular lid combined with multiple curved lines filling the spaces between the star points is an example (Plate 69, S 53). Another example is a round lid with a surface adorned with an eleven-point star and crossing lines on the knob (Figure 109, Plate 69, S 50). Another circular-base lid bears a leaf-design on the surface and crossing lines on the knob (Plate 70, S 21). An elegant round lid with a missing handle is decorated with four fish engraved in an artistic manner (Figure 110, Plate 70, S 56).

Figure 112: The lower side of the former lid.

Figure 115: Small 4 lugged-vessel from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S88). Av. H. 5.8, r. diam. 3.3 cm.

Figure 113: Unique rectangular lid with rounded corner and a separate handle (S 52). 9.6x6 cm.

Figure 114: The lower side of the former lid. Note the groove which was made to fit a compartmented vessel. 43

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Two more lids drew our attention: one is circular and the other is rectangular at the base. The first is decorated with a seven-point star and a spider web of saw-teeth style. What make it unique not only the motifs but also the way it was manufactured. The hollow in the middle looks as if the handle was a separate piece rather than a single piece attached to the lid (Figure 111 and 112, Plate 71, S 61). Though it is possible that the handle was part of the object, and was subsequently reshaped after it broke, the view of it being a separate piece inserted into the carefully shaped socket to function as a grip is more convincing. This hypothetical view is based on the following rectangular lid which was made in two separate pieces (Plate 71, S 52). This lid with rounded corners and an opening slightly off-centre came to light in the southern chamber. The separate grip, which was retrieved while sifting the excavated debris, has a round-shaped knob and a short stem. The base of the lid has a deep central groove intended to fit onto the rim of a rectangular compartmented vessel (Figures 113 and 114). The lid’s colour (beige-to-brown), material and shape contrast with the other stone vessels found in the same tomb and has no parallel elsewhere. For these reasons, in addition to being undecorated, it is difficult to date and define its source. Chemical analysis on this lid to trace the stone source might shed light on this matter (for details about this lid, see Ziolkowski et al. 2015). Stone Vessels and Lids from the Lower Burial Tier Although previously mentioned, while presenting the excavation of the upper burial tier, further notes are helpful: Seven soft-stone vessels, including one small conical, one barrel vessel, two lids, a small bowl and two open-mouth bowls, occurred scattered in both chambers of the ransacked lower burial tier. These artefacts pre-date those in the upper tiers and have parallels with other Wadi Suq Period finds in the region. The lugged conical vessel’s rough horizontal incisions and single dotted shoulder circles form a motif known similarly from the Qattarah and Shimal tombs (Figure 115, Plate 72, S 88). The second ‘bird nest’ bowl (Figure 116, Plate 72, S 91) is ornamented with a typical Wadi Suq motif: bands of single-dotted circles and horizontal lines. It has a roundish body and a base as wide as the mouth. Another Wadi Suq object is a small bowl decorated with the remains of three courses of single dotted circles (Figure 117, Plate 72, S 89). The object looks as if it had been slightly reshaped. The two lids (Figures 118 and 119) are heavily decorated with single-dotted circle motifs on the surface and knob (Plate 72, S 92 and 94). The concave underside of S 94 is a typical feature of the Wadi Suq Period. Spouted stone bowls, having more or less the same motif of circles below the rim and diagonal incisions on the lower part of the body, occurred in both burial tiers. Figures 120 and 121, Plate 73, S 93 and S 90 are from the lower one. This Wadi Suq motif must have continued in use during the Late Bronze and Iron Ages, as attested in other sites in the region. The spout of the latter incomplete fragmented bowl (S 90) came to light in the upper tier before, while its largest body fragment occurred in the lower one. A third smaller fragment came from the upper tier of the southern chamber. This scattering this large bowl indicates that the lower chamber was more prone to disturbance. Though small, the assemblage of stone and pottery vessels from the lower tier confirms its early 2nd millennium date. This U-shaped tomb continued in use during the Iron Age, as at the onestorey burial of Fashgha 1. At Qidfaʿ, the two-storey structure was entirely emptied and reused during the Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age. Copper-based Vessels Sixty metal vessels derived from the excavation of the upper burial tier. A third of these are complete, semi-complete or mere profiles. Due to the poor state of preservation, extra care was 44

The Finds

Figure 116: Small vessel from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 91). H. 4.8, r. diam. 3.7 cm.

Figure 117: Miniature bowl from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 89). H. 2.3-2.6, r. diam. 3.6, b. 4.1-4.3 cm.

Figure 118: Lid with single-dotted circles from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 94). diam. 5.5 cm.

Figure 119: Lid with single-dotted circles from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 92). diam. 4.9 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

Figure 120: Spouted bowl from the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 93). H. 5.1-5.4, r. diam. 11.8 cm.

Figure 121: Incomplete fragmented bowl mostly discovered in the lower burial, Wadi Suq Period (S 90). H. 8.5, r. diam. 17.5 cm.

45

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates needed while drawing. The rest were not drawn because they were either too fragile to handle or too fragmented to discern the profile. None occurred in the lower ransacked tier. The majority of the relatively large assemblage are medium to large in size spouted bowls (max. 18cm rim diameter and 11cm high) (Figures 122-135, Plates 74-76). Their bases are flat or convex, are wide open-mouthed and have a short open spout. The other group is similar in terms of the body shape and the plain rims, which are void of spouts (Figures 136-147). In other words, the difference between the two groups lies, more or less, in the absence of spouts only. Nevertheless, within these two groups, there are three different shapes. Bowl B 7 (Figure 125), which has a rounded base and a short neck, is hemispherical and similar in shape to another bowl illustrated in Plate 77, B 13, despite the latter bowl’s missing base. One large spoutless bowl (average ht. 9.2cm, 15.7cm r. diam.) with a curved wall and flanged thickened rim was recognized. The bowl has an omphallos projecting from the middle of a flat base (Figure 136, Plate 80, B 38). Two more bowls partly share the shape but are different in size (av. ht. 11 and 5.6cm), have nearly curved walls, and slight flaring rims (Figures 144 and 146, Plate 80, B 2 and B 8). The medium size plain vessels of group 2 (r. diam. c. 12cm) with rounded rims (Figures 138-140, Plate 81, B 50-52) are considered to be tassa (drinking bowls), although such utensils could be used for other purposes as well. Three other bowls would be museum pieces if conserved. The first is a bowl with a long tapering channel-spout, unlike the other bowls with short spouts and rounded or straight cut ends. The ledged flat rim of this bowl is wide, connected to a relatively high constricted neck and convex shoulder (Figure 148, Plate 79, B 36). The slightly curved lower body is attached to a flat base with an omphallos. This type of bowl, which is in general considered of Iranian inspiration, is known from the al-Qusais and Saruq al-Hadeed cemeteries (respectively Taha 2009: 299; al-Khuraisha and al-Nashef 2007: 68 Figure 25; cf. al-Jahwari et al. 2021: MeGB1 class). The second is a globular channel-spouted bowl with a short neck and a flat thickened rim. The spout has a straight cut end. The base is wide and has a disc shape. The decoration consists of a horizontal thick incised zigzag on the shoulder and two thin incised zigzag lines below the upper line (Figure 149, Plate 78, B 26). This is the only decorated metal bowl, but proper conservation of the entire collection of badly corroded vessels, if carried out, might reveal additional decorated examples. The third is a bowl with a wide mouth, constricted neck, a raised rib on the neck and a globular body. Unfortunately, the base is missing. Generally, this shape has a flat base (Figure 150, Plate 79, B 27). The spouted bowl group also includes two small cups with a mouth diameter of c. 8cm, a narrow base, and a height not exceeding 4cm (Plate 77, B 44 and B 21). Small bowls with height not exceeding 5cm and rim diameter between 7.5 and 10cm share more or less the same shape. Apart from one, which has a straight wall, the rest have nearly curved walls ending in flanged thickened rims. Two of these have an omphallos projecting from the middle of a flat base (Figure 151, Plate 82, B 43, B 42 and B 33; cf. al-Jahwari et al. 2021: MeOB6 and MeOB7 classes). Another vessel is shown in Figure 152, Plate 81, B 1). It is distinguished from the other small vessels as it has a hemispherical shape and swung rim. Its narrow flat/disk base and sharply curved walls ending in a pointed rim. Ostrich Egg Shell In addition to vessels of different materials and shapes, one perforated ostrich egg shell, which may have been used as a drinking vessel, is shown in Figure 153 M 146. On display in the Egyptian Gallery at the British Museum is another perforated ostrich egg shell discovered in grave 31 of Faras cemetery. A date of c. 3000 BC has been given to the shell. To the best of the author’s knowledge another ostrich egg shell came to light in one of the Dilmun graves at Medinat Hamad in Bahrain. 46

The Finds

Figure 122: Spouted copper/bronze vessel (B 10). H. 10, b. diam. 7, r. diam. 15 cm.

Figure 123: Complete copper/bronze vessel, hemispherical shape, wide and short open spout (B 4). Flat base, h. 10.5, r. diam. 18 cm.

Figure 124: Deep spouted bowl (B 31). Av. H. 9.5, b. diam. 8, r. diam. 15 cm.

Figure 125: Complete coper/bronze vessel, rounded body and base, wide and short spout (B 7). H. 9.5, r. 14.1 cm.

Figure 126: Spouted copper/bronze bowl (B 40). Av. H. 9.6, b. diam. 6.6, r. diam. 15.8 cm.

Figure 127: Spouted bowl (B 45). Av. H. 10.2-11, b. diam. 7, av. r. diam. 16 cm.

47

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 128: Deep spouted copper/bronze bowl (B 17). H. 10.7, b. 8.5, r. diam. 15.8 cm.

Figure 129: Spouted bowl (B 35). Av. H. 8.5, aprox. b. diam. 7.5, av. R. diam. 15-15.5 cm.

Figure 130: Spouted bowl (B 32). H. 8, b. diam. 7.5, av. R. diam. 15 cm.

Figure 131: Wide-mouth spouted bowl (B 37). H. 9-9.7, b. 8.5-9, r. diam. 16.5-17.

Figure 132: Deep spouted bowl (B 39). H. 9.8, r. diam. 15, base is missing.

Figure 133: Medium size copper/bronze bowl (B. 12). H. 4.7, b. diam. 6.1, r. diam. 9-9.8 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

48

The Finds

Figure 134: (B 16). H. 8-9.5, b. diam. 7.5, r. diam. 14.5 cm.

Figure 135: Incomplete copper/bronze bowl, wide and short open spout (B 3). H. 10, flat base-diam. 8, r. diam. 15.2 cm.

Figure 136: Copper/bronze bowl, thicker wall, thickflanged rim (B 38). Av. H. 9.2, b. diam. 15.7, r. diam. 10 cm.

Figure 137: Copper/Bronze tassa (B 9). H. 9, b. diam. 8, r. diam. 15 cm.

Figure 138: Tassa (B 50). Av. H. 7.5, b. diam. 6, av. R. diam. 6 cm.

Figure 139: Tassa (B 51). H. 7, av. B. diam. 5.5, r. diam. 12 cm.

49

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 140: Tassa (B 52). Av. H. 7, b. diam. 5.8, av. R. diam. 12 cm.

Figure 141: Copper/bronze bowl in a relatively good condition.

Figure 142: Tassa (B 25). Av. H. 6.5, b. 5.5, r. diam. 12-12.5 cm.

Figure 143: Tassa (34). H. 8, b. diam. 8.5, r. diam. 15 cm.

Figure 144: Copper/bronze vessel (B 2). H. 10.5-11.6, aprox. r. diam. 15.5 cm.

Figure 145: Small hemispherical bowl (B 1). H. 5-5.5, b. diam. 3.8, r. diam. 9 cm. 50

The Finds

Figure 146: Medium-size bowl with off-set walls (B 8). H. 5.6, b. diam. 5.3, r. diam. 12 cm.

Figure 147: Heavily damaged bowl (B 53).

Figure 148: Copper/bronze vessel with long spout (B 36). H. 8, b. diam. 10, r. diam. 15.7 cm.

Figure 149: Squat vessel with decorative incisions (B 26). H. 9, b. 11, r. 14 cm.

Figure 150: Cylix-like copper/bronze vessel (B 27). H. 8.8, r. diam. 10.7 cm.

Figure 151: Small copper/bronze vessels (B 54, B 33, B 43) from left to right.

51

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Another occurred in Wadi Suq grave S2174 in Samad al-Shan (Yule 2001 I: 319). The bird went extinct in Arabia in the 20th century in Arabia. The desert of the Western Province of Abu Dhabi shows fossilized fragmented egg shells from the Late Miocene sometimes associated with Neolithic sites. Recently, the ostrich has been reintroduced to the region and can be seen in private farms or conservatries on the islands such as Jezirat al Saniyah (Umm Al Quwain Emirate). Metallic Miscellanea Aside from pottery and stone vessels, 300 items of different materials include copper-based artefacts, shell, gold and precious stones have been catalogued for Qidfaʿ 1. These are briefly described below: Metal Daggers The tomb yielded 34 daggers, ranging in length between 21.7 and 43cm (QDF 1. 86. M 1-26; QDF 1. 87. M. 148-155). These are cast in one piece and belong to mainly three different types (Types A, B and C. Cf. al-Jahwari et al. 2021, 21–93, plates 1–18 for an overall classification of prehistoric metallic artefacts from south-eastern Arabia). Type A, represented by 14 examples, is characterized by a crescent-shaped shoulder and sometimes a raised spine along the blade (Figures 154-157, Plates 83-86). Apart from one riveted case (Plate 87, M 149) hilts of this type are plain for inlay with organic material, without rivets. A crescentshaped dagger was first identified in a reused Hafit grave (Grave 20) and described as being of a 2nd millennium date (Frifelt 1970: 377, fig. 9). Geoffrey Bibby, in his famous ‘Looking for Dilmun’, called it a ‘Luristan’ sword, and suggested a date of 1300 BC (Bibby 1980: 315). A similar dagger was discovered at Rumeilah as well and was attributed to Period II (Boucharlat and Lombard 1985: Plate 63, 4; cf. al-Jahwari et al. 2021: D8.2 class). Type B consists of 12 rim-flanged daggers with straight folded shoulders and hilts mostly crowded with tightly driven domed rivets (Figure 158, 2nd, 3rd, 4th from left, Plates 88-91). Unlike Type A, the spine is not well-defined instead the blade is thick in the middle and peters out towards the edges. Two daggers which can be also considered of Type B have fewer rivets and tend to be shorter (Figures 159 and 160). For such riveted rim-flanged daggers/swords, cf. al-Jahwari et al. 2021: S2var swords. Types C shares with type B in having straight folded shoulders and blades but without raised ribs. They differ in that the hilts are void of rivets and the blades are in general shorter (Plates 92 and 93). Traces of perishable organic materials, which could be of wood, bone or ivory, were noticed on some hilts of all three types. Hilts inlayed with faience may have been used, especially in hilts void of rivets (Figures 161 and162). Apart from Hafit and Rumeilah, other local similarities with Qidfaʿ 1 daggers could be found among al-Qusais and Saruq al-Hadeed collections. Moreover, daggers with crescent-shaped shoulders are known among the Ibri/Selme (Sultanate of Oman) Hoard collection (Yule and Weisgerber 2001, Plate 2; al-Jahwari et al. 2021: 52 fig. 4.18; 83 fig. 4.27). It should be noted that Kathryn Tubb of the University College London Institute of Archaeology restored four of the daggers, numbered M 13, M 14, M 149 and M 25. According to chemical analysis applied to three daggers, the tin content lies between 7-10%, whilst arsenic and nickel contents remain low (Ryan 1991: 36). In addition, another dagger (QDF 1.86.M.2), in a good state of preservation in comparison to the badly preserved metal collection also from the Qidfaʿ 1 tomb, was restored by Peter Im Obersteg of the Liechtenstein Swiss Foundation for Archaeological Research Abroad (SLFARA) (Figure 163). 52

The Finds

Figure 152: Small copper/bronze vessel (B 5) with undulated body. Av. H. 3.8, b. diam. 4.2, av. r. diam. 4.2 cm.

Figure 153: Ostrich egg (M 146).

Figure 155: Daggers belong to Type A.

Figure 154: Two daggers with crescent-shaped shoulder. From left: M 12 (length 41 cm) and M 5 (length 41.5).

53

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 156: Distinct dagger (M 18), 39 cm long.

Figure 157: Close-up of the previous hilt (M 18).

Figure 158: Daggers belong to Type B. From left M 150, M 24, M 8, M 3.

Figure 159: From left M 19, M 10, length 31.7 and 37 cm.

54

The Finds

Figure 160: Hilts of previous figure.

Figure 163: Restored dagger (M 2).

Figure 161: Dagger with un- riveted inlayed hilt (M 151), length 37.5 cm.

Figure 162: Close-up of the previous hilt.

55

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 164: Copper/bronze spearhead (M 156), length 24 cm.

Figure 165: Shihuh type axe (M 32). Length 10.8 cm.

Figure 166: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe. From left M 34, M 31.

Figure 168: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 29).

Figure 167: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe. From left M 39, M 40.

56

The Finds

Figure 169: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 35).

Figure 170: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 38).

Figure 171: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 36).

Figure 173: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (from left M 158 and 157).

Figure 172: Type A, a Shihuh-like axe (M 30).

57

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 174: Adzes. From left M 37, M 33, M 27.

Figure 175: Halberd (Battle axe) (M 28), length 18.5cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

In addition to the above-mentioned daggers, a tanged blade, which might have functioned as a dagger or spearhead, occurred in layer 2 of the upper tier of the southern chamber (Figure 164, M 156). Another shorter similar blade was found in layer 1 of the upper tier off the northern chamber (Figure 181, Plate 99, M 61). The shape of the tangs indicates that these artefacts must have had wooden grips. Metal Shaft-Hole Axes and Adzes Sixteen socketed axe-heads of two types occurred in both chambers in the upper tier. The majority (12 axes) belong to Type A, which is similar in shape to the Shihuh tribe axes, jirz, of northern Oman, i.e. a small blade set parallel to the handle (Figures 165-173, Plates 94,95 and 97). The shape of the cutting edge of this type range between straight, slightly curved and rounded. Axes M 36 and M 157 are both distinguished in their group. The shaft of the former axe has raised ribs and the blade tends to take a flanged shape, while the cutting edge of the latter is well rounded. Despite being corroded, a lengthwise rib could be seen on top of the socket in some of the axes. This is a common Early Iron Age class in south-eastern Arabia (cf. al-Jahwari et al. 2021: A6 axe class). Type B, represented by three adzes, is more slender than Type A, and has a blade with a cutting edge set in the handle in a perpendicular angle (Figure 174, Plate 96). Adzes like these are usually have raised ribs on the shaft. Although both types are considered weapons and tools for woodcutting, Type B conceivably could also be used to dig small bushes from the ground.4 In history, adzes have been used for shaping wood. The length ranges between 9 and 12cm, but Type B tends to be slightly longer (cf. al-Jahwari et al. 2021: A3 adze class). In addition to the previous two types, a unique halberd came to light (max. width 18.5cm; Figure 175, Plate 97, M 28). Its convex blade and socket are cast in a single piece. The latter socket head is parallel to a curved edge. The closest local example to this axe known to the author is the one from Nizwa grave N1985 in Oman (al-Shanfari and Weisgerber 1989: 19. Figure 1; cf. al-Jahwari et al. 2021: A4 axe class). The Nizwa axe has a straight backside, unlike the inwardly curved backside of the Qidfaʿ 1 axe. The other difference lies in the socket; it is long, slightly conical and has ridges at intervals, whereas the Qidfaʿ example is short, void of decorations and similar to the sockets of the axe heads from the same site. The author’s impression is that the Qidfaʿ crescent shaped axe and the other simple axes presented above are local products. Despite the crescent form being well known among the Luristan Bronzes, al-Shanfari and Weisgerber stated that, “the simplicity of the 4 

Personal communication with a Shihuh tribesman.

58

The Finds

Figure 176: Cash of arrowheads originally kept in a quiver.

Figure 178: Engraved arrowheads may be reveled if these badly corroded artefacts are restored.

Figure 177: A collection of copper/bronze arrowheads from the upper burial (M 170).

Nizwa axe lends impression that it may be a local product” (1989: 18). Other halberds have turned up at Saruq al-Hadeed and especially at Dibba in a corridor tomb (cf. al-Jahwari et al. 2021: A9 axe class). Furthermore, the blade shape of Qidfaʿ 1 battle axe (not the socket) is similar to the Luristan axes (Vanden Berghe 1982: 172, object 207; Moorey 1974: Plate I b). Only further investigations and chemical examinations might reveal whether the object is of Iranian origin or a locally produced copy. It should be noted that an axe (M 30) and an adze (M 33) have been restored by the IA-UCL and their tin contents are 7% and 7-7.8% respectively (Ryan 1991: 38). Axe no. M 35 was conserved by Ibrahim Lebabidi at the al-ʿAin Museum laboratory. 59

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 179: An arrowhead of a characteristic shape and exceptional length (ca. 10 cm).

Figure 180: Badly corroded copper/bronze arrowheads with engraved signs still visible.

Copper-based Arrowheads More than 560 arrowheads were extant in the upper burial tier, whilst only four survived from the lower ransacked one. Around 300 of these occurred in the southern chamber, whilst the rest along with a 16cm long knife/dagger blade (M 156) were retrieved from the northern one. By closer inspection, small shape differences exist among the arrowheads from the two layers of the upper tier. At least two corroded clumps of arrowheads stuck together – a quiver find (Figure 176). This large, interesting collection of arrowheads has not been thoroughly studied but, generally, can be classified according to shape, weight and length (Figures 177 and 178, Plates 98-102). A diagnostic shape among the arrowhead collection is a single long slender leaf-shaped blade (Figure 179). The most diagnostic arrowheads among this collection is a group of scored arrowheads (Figure 180 and Plate 103). Despite being highly corroded, it was found that some of these artefacts bear engraved signs of crossed lines, combined with triangles. Such geometric designs are usually depicted on the bottom of the midrib near the tang. After a cluster of arrowheads corroded together was treated by the conservationist of the UCL Institute of Archaeology, we brought a few more decorated arrowheads to light. Further restoration on the much larger remaining collection should reveal more decorated artefacts of this type. It should be noted that one of the four arrowheads discovered in the lower burial is engraved (Plate 103, M 187). Decorated arrowheads like these are known from several sites in the UAE, such as Qusais (Taha 2009. Plate 46), Sharm 1 (Weeks 2000) and Shimal. Engraved arrowheads of such type are nowadays usually dated to the Late Bronze Age as they are well known from Shimal in Ras al-Khaima (Vogt and Kästner 1985: 34-36). Vogt and Kästner have dated this type of arrowhead, which mainly came from tomb SH 102 at Shimal, to post Wadi Suq Period. Similar arrowheads, but smaller in quantity than those from Shimal, were also retrieved from the multi-period tomb (As 100) at Asimah (Vogt 1994: 94-96). Based on the evidence from Shimal and Asimah, Vogt considered that the decorated arrowheads are later than the Wadi Suq Period, ‘but still antedate the Omani Iron Age-horizon’ (Vogt and Kästner 1985: 35). On the other hand, P. Magee has listed several Iron Age sites in south-east Arabia that yielded the 60

The Finds same class of artefact. Based on Vogt’s investigations at Shimal and Ghalilah, Magee states that the production of decorated arrowheads began in the Late Wadi Suq Period (Magee 1998). It seems that despite advocating a Late Wadi Suq origin for this type of arrowhead, Vogt did not deny their existence among the Omani Iron Age (Vogt 1994: 94). At Bida bint Saud, the author excavated two Iron Age circular graves (Tombs 2 and 4). This is one of several other sites mentioned by Magee as having incised arrowheads. During the author’s excavations, a total of 40 metallic arrowheads came from both tombs, but none was incised. Nevertheless, the rectangular structure (Tomb 3), which was excavated and designated as 1070 by the Danish excavators yielded mixed materials of Wadi Suq Period and Iron Age, including a quite large number of incised arrowheads. On the other hand, among the 18 arrowheads found at Tomb 1 (another Iron Age burial circular in plan was excavated by Taisir Aouda at the same site), the author identified one decorated arrowhead while examining the site registration catalogue. It is also worth noting that among the 11 surface find arrowheads published by Guy Stevens from Bida bint Saʿud, only one is incised and has a different shape from the collection (Stevens 1994: fig. 23, 151, drawing fig. 24, 159). The wide distribution of engraved arrowheads, especially at Wadi Suq and/or Late Bronze Age sites, supports Magee’s initial south-eastern Arabian origin dating of this type of artefact (Magee 1998: 9). Despite the fact that the chronology, typology and evolution of the material culture in the second half of the 2nd millennium is still relatively vague due to the common habit of the Iron Age communities

Figure 181: A knife/lancet blade (M 61), length with tang 16 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

Figure 182: Anklet (M 192), outside diam. 8.2-9.5 cm.

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Figure 183: (M 196), outside diam. 9-10 cm.

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 184: (M 198), outside diam. 8.7-9.7 cm.

Figure 185: (M 193), outside diam. 9.4-10 cm.

Figure 186: (M 194), outside diam. 8-9.4 cm.

Figure 187: (M 194), outside diam. 8.3-9.8 cm.

Figure 188: (M 72 and M 76), 9.7-10.7 and 10-10.5 cm.

Figure 189: Pair of anklets (M 190), 7.8-8.8 cm.

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The Finds of reusing the old structures and their contents, as well as the presence of heirloom objects, it is hopped, as Magee concluded that, “Further fieldwork and, in particular, greater quantification of the context in which these objects are found, will allow for further clarification of the chronology of late prehistoric incised arrowheads” (scored arrowhead discussion updated in Yule and Vogt 2020: 209–213). In addition, a clarification of the chronology of the large collections of the soft stone vessels, especially those produced in the region during the last six centuries of the 2nd millennium BC, is necessary. Heavy Copper-based Bangles Twenty-six heavy bangles and six light bangles came to light in the upper burial tier, but none in the lower one. The heavy bangles, taken to be anklets, belong to one category of a circular or semicircular shape with round or oval section and two ends decorated with deep grooves (Figures 182194, Plates 104-106). In general, the ends tend to be thinner in section than the rest of the artefact. Though most of these rings are referred to as ‘anklets’, the gap between the two stiff ends is too narrow to be placed on the ankle. In one case at least, two anklets of the same shape were found placed on top of each other, indicating they were buried loose and belonged to the same individual. In another, there was evidence that the deceased were buried wearing it (Figure 195).

Figure 190: (M 195), outside diam. 8.8- 9.4 cm.

Figure 191: (M 191), outside diam. 8.8-9.5 cm.

Figure 192: (M 197), outside diam. 8.8-9.7 cm.

Figure 193: (M 73), outside diam. 9-10.7 cm. 63

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 194: Anklets (M 65 and M 68), outside diam. 8-9.5 and 8.2-9.5 cm.

Figure 195: This bangle was part of the uniform.

Six heavy rings are heavier than the anklets (the heaviest weights 2200kg) and most are planoconvex in section. The ends of the opening are deeply grooved (Figures 196 and 197, Plate 107). Rings like these are known from House F at Rumeilah (Boucharlat and Lombard 1985: 53. Plate 63), Omani sites such as ʽIbri/Selma (Yule and Weisgerber 2001: Plates 4 and 5, 39-46). Although objects like these have been dated to the Iron Age, their occurrence with other artefacts, such as handmade pottery, decorated arrowheads and the chlorite vessels give the impression that they might pre-date the Iron Age II. Certainly they post-date the Wadi Suq Period. They are not present in the Qattarah long tomb nor in the Bida bint Saʿud Iron Age graves; their presence at Qidfaʿ 1 might date to Iron Age I (1300-1100 BC) or Late Bronze Age (1600-1300 BC). Material analysis carried out on two anklets (M 75 and M 194) and a bangle (M 200) at UCL indicate that the ‘composition shows good control of tin (8-13%), with low arsenic and nickel values’ (Ryan 1991). Peter Im Obersteg conserved the anklet in Figure 198.

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The Finds

Figure 196: Bangle (M 200), outside diam. 9.8-11 cm.

Figure 197: Pair of bangles (M 78 and M 77), outside diam. 9.2 and 9 cm.

Figure 198: Bangle (M 66), before and after restoration, outside diam. 9-10.7 cm.

Figure 199: Two copper razors (M 204 and M 205), length 5.6 and 8.3 cm.

Other Metal Artefacts Apart from the copper-based artefacts presented above, other such objects also came to light. These include five razors or scrapers of different shape and size: two of which came from the lower burial tier (razors, cf. al-Jahwari et al. 2021: 75-79). They are in fairly good condition despite being covered with a layer of corrosion and not yet conserved (Figure 199 and Plate 108 (M 202-M 205). Two annular silver/lead artefacts, which might be bracelets or ear rings with round sections taper toward the opening (Plate 108, M 106). They occurred together with other ornaments all in a good state of preservation. Two copper-based bracelets made of a wide flat band: the first is decorated with two large crossed incisions and raised ribs, whereas the second has a raised rib between the flat edges (Figures 200 and 201). A needle (Plate 108, M 206) and what seems to be a borer of copperbased occurred in the collection (M 207). A pair of tweezers also came to light (Plate 108, M 103). Similar tweezers are known from Bida bint Saʿud and Rumeilah (tweezers: cf. al-Jahwari et al. 2021: 87-88. A copper-based ladle (Plate 108 M 85) was found as well. Among the metallic artefacts a large mirror that is unique in the region: It is in a relatively good condition despite being covered

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Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 200: Copper bracelet (M 82), max. diam. 7.6 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

Figure 201: Copper bracelet (M 83), av. diam. 4 cm. Credit: Fujairah Museum.

Figure 202: Copper/bronze mirror (M 107).

Figure 203: Decorative shell disc (M 239), diam. 3.9 cm.

with corrosion (Figure 202, Plate 109). The handle, which probably was sheathed with wood, is not extant. Decorated Shell Discs The presence of decorated and non-decorated shell discs in south-eastern Arabia was first announced by Karen Frifelt in her article ‘Jamdat Nasr from Oman’(1970: 364, 365). She reports three shell discs excavated in re-used graves at Jebel Hafit, Bida bint Saʿud and Dibba. At Qidfaʿ 1, seventeen similar discs manufactured from a single piece of marine gastropod, with diameters ranging between 3 66

The Finds and 6cm, derived from both upper tiers. The exterior convex side (obverse) of these discs is either plain or decorated with engraved rosette or concentric dotted-circles design (Figures 203 and 204, Plates 110 and 111). The concave side (reverse) has three holes connected to a natural pit in the centre of the interior face (Figure 205). Frifelt described these shells as buckle buttons and based on the rosette decoration, a design well known in Iron Age Assyria and attributed them to that time. Today, such artefacts are widely known in south-east Arabia and assumed to have been a local product. A pre-Iron Age date should not be excluded as the concentric dotted circle motif is well known in the stone vessels industry in the region since the Umm an-Nar period (2nd half of the 3rd millennium BC). With little change, the Figure 204: Shell disc ornamented with rosette motif (M 119), diam. 5.2 cm. motif also appears on the soft stone vessels of the first half of the 2nd millennium BC replacing the dotted double circles with a single one. The dotted circle motif however is different from the rosette motif which may have been a Mesopotamian influence as proposed by Frifelt. Apart from an explanation as belt buckles, Lloyd Weeks discussed the shell buttons from Saruq alHadeed and their function. He concluded that these shell ‘buckles’, especially the undecorated ones, at several coastal and inland sites, largely funerary, in south-east Arabia gives the impression that they were a local production (Weeks et al. 2019). Decorated shells are known from outside Arabia, and their multiple functions have been proposed by various researchers who were discussed in detail by Weeks. Among the functions suggested are, “shield bosses, buttons, pendants, plaques, vessel lids, belt buckles, or other decorations attached to clothing or furniture….containers or spoon, decorative components of horse tack, clappers or castanets” (Weeks et al. 2019: 18). To the author, they bear a greater resemblance to hair brooches. In addition to the above-mentioned decorated shells from Qidfaʿ 1, two more artefacts require comment: a smaller plain disc with a wide central hole (Plate 111, M 111) and another shell with a series of holes around the edge of the concave side of the species (Plate 110, M 233).

Figure 205: Worked discs, from left (M 237), (234), (238). 67

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Earrings/Nose Rings and Finger Rings We excavated twelve earring/nose rings at Qidfaʿ 1. Half of them appear to be made of gold or electrum, whilst the other half are made of silver. The majority came from the upper tier the southern chamber, while only three came from the northern chamber. The shape of these artefacts is known from Bida bint Saʿud and Saruq al-Hadeed and dated to the Iron Age (Figure 206, Plate 112, first and second rows from top). Twenty-three complete and incomplete fingerrings were recovered (plate 112). Nineteen of these came from the northern chamber, while three came from the southern chamber and one Figure 206: Earing made of mixture of gold and came from the lower burial tier. Most of these silver. Credit: Fujairah Museum. rings (14) are made of copper-based, while four are suspected to be silver. A few consist of lead, shell and bone. Some of the rings from Qidfaʿ 1 may have been served as toe-rings but unlike tomb DLA at Hili none of them occurred in situ. Pendants and Seals Two pendants and two seals came to light in the northern chamber of the upper burial tier. Pendants and/or amulets, usually made of re-shaped fragments of soft stone vessels, are known from other sites in south-eastern Arabia. The first pendant (3.2 x 2.8cm) is semi-circular in shape with a geometrical motif of horizontal and vertical lines, combined with three small dotted circles (Plate 113, M 109). The other one is triangular in shape with a perforation in the rounded side decorated with a vertical line in the middle and diagonal lines covering the whole surface of the artefact (Figure 207, Plate 113, M 108). Both artefacts are thin (c. 0.4cm), a thickness which eliminates the possibility of them being seals. Most interesting is a Mitanni cylinder seal and a stamp seal of Dilmun style. The cylinder seal, 4.2cm long and 1cm in diameter, is light in weight and suspected to have been made of faience. The seal impression is discernible (Figure 208, Plate 113 M 231). Despite some similarities with other cylinder seals of Mittani and Persian origin, Dominique Collon, who examined this particular seal by means of a photo of its impression, concluded that the seal “is a local product using motifs from other glyptic tradition, particularly the Iranian of the 13th century B.C.”. In the author’s opinion, based on the fact that the seal is likely made of faience, an industry that was unknown in the region, and the elaborated motif, it might be considered an import. The stamp seal, which is of Dilmun style, was retrieved from the northern chamber. This is either an heirloom, as indicated by its badly eroded surface, or plundered from an early 2nd millennium BC grave (Wadi Suq), such as the lower burial of the same tomb. The obverse of the seal seems to have been originally divided by two sections and decorated with three small dotted circles (Figure 209, Plate 113, M 230). The fourth circle is missing due to the erosion or damage inflicted on the artefact while carrying out the perforation process, which may have occurred under the possession of the previous owner. The other side is divided into four quadrants showing unexplainable eroded marks, which might represent the remaining parts of an originally larger motif. Indeed, the two wide crossed lines on the flat face might be later additions (Figure 210).

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Seal excavated from tomb Qidfaʿ 1, Fujairah, UAE Dominique Collon Two-register faience cylinder seal. The registers are divided by a single line and double line borders enclose each end of the seal. The scenes are arranged téte-béche with the register divider as the base line of each (Figure 208). The lower register depicts an eagle posed horizontally, with its head in profile and its wings parallel to its body. A wavy line beneath it may be a snake. To the left of its head is a motif which could be variously interpreted as a flying eagle or a plant; to the right of its head, just below the beak, is a single drill-hole. The eagle is flanked by two trees which resemble cypresses and which are set on the base line; between them is a cross. The upper register is less clear but may depict two bird-headed creatures alternating with two trees which resemble cypresses. The first bird-headed figure is perhaps kneeling and sitting back on its heels while extending a hand towards a tree. The figure on the other side of the tree may also be bird-headed but it is not clear from the impression whether it has a bird’s body or whether the seal is damaged at this point; it also extends an arm and a leg towards the tree but a zig-zag line behind is not easy to interpret. The seal does not belong to a well-defined group. The motif of two figures on either side of a tree is, of course, well-known from Mitannian times. The type of tree and the figures bear no resemblance, however, to those on Mitanni seals. The trees themselves are similar to those on seals from Iran. A 13th century BC seal from Choga Zanbil shows them in conjunction with a bird with spread wings set sideways on (Porada 1970: no. 49). Crosses and figures kneeling back on their heels also occur at this period (Porada 1971: nos. 1; 31 with similar tree). The two-register division is found at this site but the téte-béche arrangement is extremely rare and is, at this period, mostly restricted to Cyprus. The eagle is also unusual. Birds set sideways on to a scene are common at Choga Zanbil (Porada 1970: nos. 49, 51, 103) but they have outspread wings. Birds as on our seal are rare though one occurs on an unprovenanced seal which probably originated in Iran at this period (Mazzoni 1972: no. 120). In the first half of the 1st millennium BC such birds occur more frequently, not only in the Greek world (e.g. Schefold 1964: pl. 75) but again in Iran (Brooklyn Museum 1966: no. 53 gold epaulette which is one of a group of objects associated with the Ziwiye treasure). It would therefore seem that the seal under discussion is a local product using motifs from other glyptic traditions, particularly the Iranian of the 13th century BC. Its execution seems to be reasonably competent and assured and this would argue in favour of its being, at the moment, a lone representative of a well-established workshop or tradition. As such it is of great interest and importance.

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Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 207: Two amulets.

Figure 208: Cylinder seal and its impression (231).

Figure 209: Dilmun stamp seal, obverse side (M 230).

Figure 210: The same seal, reverse side.

A second cylinder seal/pendant (length 3.9, diam. 1.5cm) is made of well-polished soft stone and decorated with an incised anthropomorphic motif. The human figure has raised hands and wears a dagger or axe (Figure 211). The image of a human wearing a dagger or sword is known in the rock art of south-east Arabia, a style generally attributed to the Iron Age Period. The closest parallel motif is a small flat rectangular pendant from Tell Abraq (Potts 1991: Figure 137). Potts states that the Tell Abraq image is reminiscent of depictions of the Babylonian illness-demoness Lamashtu (Potts 1991: 96). According to him, these depictions were particularly common during the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods and were intended to guard the wearer against the demoness. The image on the Qidfaʿ 1 artefact is not deeply cut to produce an impression therefore the author thinks it is an amulet, rather than an actual seal. Another cylindrical artefact thinner and longer than the latter ‘seal’ (4.8 x 1.3cm) is made of greenish stone. It is void of incisions, therefore it should be considered as a tabular bead or a pendant, although it may have been intended to be a seal (Figure 212, Plate 113, M 105).

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The Finds

Figure 211: Cylinder seal/pendant with an engraved human-like figure (M 104). Credit: Fujairah Museum.

Figure 212: Pendant with lengthwise perforation (M 105). Credit: Fujairah Museum.

Figure 213: Etched carnelian bead (M 260), length 1.5 cm .

Figure 214: Tubular bead of red carnelian and gold (M 121), length 4.6 cm.

Beads No less than 2716 beads were retrieved while excavating Qidfaʿ 1. The majority derived from the upper tier with some concentration at the northern part of the curved wall. The lower plundered tier yielded no more than 5% of the whole amount. The majority of the beads consist of red carnelian, agate and other materials, such as white or black stone. Shell beads, usually in a disc shape, are among the collection, whilst frit beads are usually globular. Only 19 metal beads occurred (nine gold, ten silver and a mixture of silver and lead). The tomb yielded a few golden flakes, which originally belonged to earrings or bead types stuffed with chalky substance as well. Complete stuffed beads like these derived from the long tomb at Qattarah. One barrel-shaped red carnelian bead etched with white pigment also came to light (Figure 213, Plate 114, M 260). Similar beads of Indian origin are known at the Umm an-Nar Hili tombs, therefore, the Qidfaʿ etched bead should be considered an heirloom of Indian origin. Six segmented beads made of faience, ranging in length 71

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Figure 215: collection of beads discovered.

between 1.3 and 1.6cm, were found in the southern chamber of the upper burial (Plate 114, M 280). A few small cylindrical beads made of gold with granulated ends, in addition to a small granulated ring, were discovered as well (Plate 114, M 130, M 229 and M 242). One tubular bead is a 4.6cm long red carnelian fitted with two golden cylinders at the ends and one in the middle. Each golden cylinder of these is decorated with two granulated ends (Figure 214, M 121). The collection of beads illustrated in the latter plate (114) is only a sampling selected from the much larger assemblage (Figure 215). All in all, the beads from Qidfaʿ 1 are worth an analytical study much deeper than is possible in this chapter. Such a study might shed light on the geological source of the materials used and trade relations, both local and external.

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The Impact of Qidfaʿ 1 Excavations on the Archaeology of Fujairah Due to the encouraging results at Qidfaʿ 1, the author surveyed the village of Bidya/ al-Bidiyah (15km to the north of Qidfaʿ) shortly after the excavations, and discovered five sites dating from the Bronze Age to medieval Islamic period. Excavations there included a long collective grave from the early 2nd millennium BC (Bidya 1), remains of a tower-like building from the Umm an-Nar period (Bidya 2, the first to have been discovered after Hili 1 and 8 in al-ʿAin), and a cemetery comprised of 20 round and oval graves (Bidya 5). Three graves of the cemetery were excavated and proved to belong to the early 2nd millennium (Al Tikriti 1989). The other two sites, which were left unexcavated, represent remains of a round structure with a 20-22m diameter, indicating a 3rd and/ or 2nd millennium BC date (Bidya 4), and remains of a large square fort with stone walls reaching 60m in length and 1.4m in width, dated medieval Islamic but initially referred to as a possible Portuguese fort (Bidya 3). Site 3 at Bidya was later partly excavated by Michele Ziolkowski. The news of the Qidfaʿ 1 discovery, published in the local media, the exhibition of certain objects from the site at the Diwan before the foundation of the Fujairah Museum, as well as Shirley Kay’s book on Emirates archaeological heritage (Kay 1986), based on a TV series, incited further archaeological involvement in Fujairah, and later in the eastern coast of the UAE. The Swiss were the first European team involved in the archaeology of Fujairah. Although they vaguely mentioned Qidfaʿ, their involvement seems to have been encouraged by the archaeological artefacts gathered from the site, viewed at the Diwan premises (Corboud 1990: 11 and 13). Indeed, the SwissLiechtenstein Foundation for Archaeological Research Abroad, which worked in the Emirate soon after the excavations at Qidfaʿ 1 and Bidya, contributed further information to the archaeology of Fujairah. Their survey carried out in the first season (1987) was fruitful and followed by proper excavations in 1988 and 89. The Swiss-Liechtenstein Foundation excavations concentrated at Bithna, a village located 13km north-west of Fujairah City. Fourteen sites (sites 43-54 and 58–9), ranging in date between the Iron Age and Late Islamic, were identified in and around the village. These sites were identified as settlements, tombs, fortifications and one or two workshops for copper casting (Corboud et al. 1990). Site 4 at Bithna was selected for excavation by SLFAR and turned out to be a T-shaped tomb. It yielded artefacts from the 1st millennium BC mixed with early 2nd millennium stone vessels. The most recent layer of the tomb has been attributed to the 1st century BC (Corboud et al. 1996: 16–102). The large number of objects which Qidfaʿ 1 yielded includes several unique items. Since there was no office responsible for the archaeology in the Emirate, the artefacts from Qidfaʿ 1 and Bidya at first were housed at the Diwan. They were loosely displayed on tables in one of the rooms and frequently shown to visiting VIPs and officials. To preserve the artefacts and exhibit the archaeological heritage publicly, His Highness Sheikh Hamad Bin Mohamed Al Sharqi, Member of the Supreme Council Ruler of Fujairah, gave instructions to convert an old government guesthouse to a permanent museum. The author, leading a team from the al-ʿAin Museum, organized the Fujairah Museum from scratch. The museum consisted of a large hall dedicated to the archaeology of Fujairah and a small section on ethnography of the UAE. It was inaugurated by His Highness the Ruler, in December 1990. Originally, the museum occupied only half of the guesthouse allocated, as the other half of the building was occupied by a Quranic school. The museum was enlarged in 1996 by incorporating the second half after the school had moved out. Enlarging the museum required re-doing the display as the main entrance to the museum was modified as well. The author was also in charge of the extension of the museum and personally responsible for selecting and displaying the newly discovered materials from various sites in Fujairah. 73

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates A short time after opening the museum to the public, a resident archaeologist was recruited and took responsibility of running the archaeological field work which mainly consisted of rescue activities ever since. At this stage, Salah Hassan, the resident archaeologist, excavated Qidfaʿ 4, which also turned out to be a U-shaped tomb. Further, rescue excavations were carried out by Hassan in 1995 at one of the long tombs in Dibba, which was originally visited by G. Bibby after its accidental discovery. This funerary structure turned out to date to the Wadi Suq Period and continued in use during the Iron Age around 1000 BC and the Hellenistic Era, around the 1st century AD (Pellegrino et al. 2019: 1-43). Hassan conducted further rescue excavations at the village of Dhadna, south of Dibba, and at Mreished in Fujairah City. In case of Dhadna, despite the site being partly bulldozed, recognisable were two parallel chambers orientated east-west, and it is suspected to have been a U-shaped grave. The grave yielded Wadi Suq pottery, in addition to other mixed materials, such as stone vessels and metal jewellery from Wadi Suq (2000-1600) to the end of the Iron Age, around 600 BC (Benoist and Hassan 2010). At Mreished, the tomb is U-shaped with two straight parallel chambers connected with a slightly curved wall at the eastern side (Plate 117). Like Dhadna, this tomb yielded mixed materials ranging from the 2nd millennium and the early centuries of the 1st millennium BC. Further but limited excavation conducted from the 6th to 12th January 1996 by Australian colleagues at Husn Awhala revealed remains of a massive Iron Age structure extending below and next to a historical fort (the Husn), which is still free-standing, in reasonably good condition. The site, which has been described as a late prehistoric settlement (Potts et al. 1996), is located at a distance of 9km from the sea and about half of this distance to the north-east of Fashgha 1. According to the excavators, occupation at Husn Awhala settlement site, began by the mid-second millennium (c. 1500-1300 BC) whilst, “the ceramics from Awhala fit comfortably into the Iron Age material culture assemblage of southeast Arabia” (Potts et al. 1996: 221-220). The majority of the fragmented Iron Age pottery discovered at the site belongs to storage jars, a type well-known among several other dwelling sites in the region; the closest are Wadi al-Qawr, Bithna and Masafi. In addition to the aforementioned excavated sites, French excavations led by Anne Benoist at Bithna in 2003 revealed an Iron Age occupation with cultic structures, represented by shrines and open-air alters, dedicated to snake worship (Benoist 2007). These excavations, together with other investigations carried out by the same excavator at Masafi, a few kilometres north-west of Bithna, revealed a similar occupation represented in a columned building, a fortress and a temple (Benoist 2012). Both sites have consolidated the evidence of the 1st millennium occupation along the eastern coast, from Dibba in the north to Awhala in the south, and further west into the interior of Fujairah.

74

Conclusion and discussion The identification of prehistoric material at Qidfaʿ 1 and Bidya 1 & 5 in the second half of the 1980s, along with the other archaeological investigations that followed by various teams, have demonstrated that the eastern coast of the UAE is no less significant than its western one from the archaeological point of view. Both coasts, though differing in geological and geomorphological features, must have culturally interacted in terms of lifestyle, beliefs, social life and funeral customs. The best example is the similarities of the aforementioned circular domestic/defensive buildings adopted in the region since the 3rd millennium BC, such as those at Tell Abraq on the western coast, Bidya 2 north of Qidfaʿ and Kalba 4 on the eastern coast south of Fujairah. Buildings like these seem to have their roots in the interior of south-eastern Arabia along the western foothills of the al-Hajar Mountains. The best examples are Hili 1 (Frifelt 1970), Hili 8 (Cleuziou 1989), Hili 10 in Abu Dhabi Emirate, and Bat in Oman (Frifelt 1975). In regard to the funeral architecture and burial customs, above-ground collective burials were adopted in south-eastern Arabia at the beginning of the Bronze Age. The monuments of single chamber graves of Jebel Hafit (3100-2600 BC), where no proper contemporary settlement has been discovered so far, and the successive multi-chamber tombs of the Umm an-Nar Period, an era associated with the previously mentioned tower buildings (2600-2000 BC), are both entirely aboveground. The identification of a post-Umm an-Nar culture in the chronology of the burial customs in south-east Arabia in 1973 at Wadi Suq and Wadi Jizzi in Oman led Karen Frifelt to ascribe a dating between 2000 and 1600 BC of the Wadi Suq Period. This period was consolidated by the chance discovery of the unpublished long tomb at Qattarah in al-ʿAin in the same year, although it was misdated upon discovery (Ministry of Information 1975). This tomb, together with the other burials earlier noted by Beatrice de Cardi at Shimal in Ras al-Khaima, which were excavated by P. Donaldson, B. Vogt, J.-M. Kästner, C. Velde and other members of the German Archaeological Mission to Ras al-Khaima, form tangible evidence in the funeral archaeology of the early 2nd millennium BC in south-eastern Arabia. Among other Wadi Suq narrow long structures, characterizing the post Umm an-Nar period on the eastern coast are Bidya 1 and Sharm 1 in Fujairah, in addition to Bibby’s long tomb in Dibba. Another type identified as being of Wadi Suq Period consists of the semisubterranean structures at Bidya 5. The latter has a short oval or rectangular chamber, less than 3m in length and around 1m in width, sealed with capstones. These graves, which are slightly raised above the ground, form small to medium stone cairns, and sometime are surrounded by a circular wall. Despite being a single chamber burial Tomb C at Bidya 5 is similar in both architecture and chronology to Qidfaʿ 1. Moreover, the discovery of U-shaped/horse-shoe burials at Qidfaʿ (tombs 1 and 4) has demonstrated that this type of burial, with material culture from the 2nd millennium BC, is contemporary to the long burial type from the material culture discovered and should not be considered a separate phase of development. The U-shaped grave at Fashgha, which mainly yielded Iron Age materials, may have been deprived of the original materials and reused by the Iron Age communities, or had its architectural plan copied from the early structures of the Wadi Suq Period. Some of al-Qusais and Jebel Buhais graves however have largely yielded mixed materials, and sometimes their Wadi Suq finds, especially the stone vessels, were mistakenly attributed to the Iron Age. What sometimes complicates dating the second millennium BC funeral materials are the stone vessels, which are solid artefacts and more resilient to wear and tear. In other words, unlike pottery and metal vessels, stone vessels last for centuries and could be easily inherited from one generation to another. The majority of, if not all, the graves excavated in the UAE suffered from ancient and modern plundering. To the best of our knowledge, the upper burial of Qidfaʿ 1 is the only burial discovered intact. Upper and lower burial tiers seem to have been plundered after several centuries of their original construction, and only the chambers of the upper burial were reused by the plunderers who managed to keep the grave intact for over 3000 years. Both burials are built of the same kind of wadi boulders, but the capstones of the lower burial are inferior to 75

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates the solid calcareous ceiling slabs of the upper burial, which were visible aboveground before being covered with a protective layer of debris, reiterating the lack of access to the lower burial as the entrance leads to the upper chambers. In the following years west of the al-Hajar Mountains, communal U-shaped tombs came to light at Jebel Buhais in the Sharjah Emirate (Jasim 2006: Figures 40 and 45). Despite the contradiction between the description of the layers and the section drawing of Tomb 12, a U-shaped monument at al-Buhais with an entrance at the curved wall of the burial, the author agrees with the excavator, based on the architecture and the materials discovered in the lowest burial layer, that tomb 12 is a Wadi Suq structure which continued in use in the Iron Age. Another partially bulldozed burial suspected of being a U-shaped tomb is Qarn al-Harf 67, a site located south-east of Ras al-Khaima City. Ahmed Hilal, the excavator, mentions that the site was originally built and used during the Wadi Suq Period (Hilal 2003). Our excavations at Qidfaʿ 1 demonstrate that the U-shaped type grave was one of several Wadi Suq type graves, as shown from the second millennium BC materials discovered. In addition to the habit of reusing older graves, we assume that new graves imitating early structures were also constructed during the centuries to follow. The Qidfaʿ 1 tomb, one of the earliest in the eastern coast, as well as the other above-mentioned funeral site discoveries, contradict the idea that the post Umm an-Nar era was a dark age, despite the absence of pure 2nd millennium BC settlements. Tell Abraq and Kalba 4 settlements witnessed successive habitation from Umm an-Nar, Wadi Suq and Iron Age. A tumulus and/or settlement might be still hidden under the stone mounds, which occur within some of the eastern coast farms. A geophysical survey is recommended to investigate the matter at two large mounds we have noted in the farms of Fujairah and Dibba. Two remarks are to be mentioned concerning the materials discovered at Qidfaʿ 1. First is the absence of bridge-spouted, pottery-type vessel, jugs, which were widely known at the Wadi Suq and Iron Age sites in the region.1 Second is the absence of iron artefacts and iron waste. Another point to mention is the absence of snake representation on the pottery and the cast bronze snake figurines. The applied snake motif however is well-known among the Iron Age habitation sites in the United Arab Emirates since Munir Taha reported it at the so-called Mound of Serpents in the late 1970s (Taha 2009: 259 and 309). The closest site to Qidfaʿ where a snake cult is evident is Bithna, Fujairah (Benoist 2007: 34-54). The large number of 2nd/1st millennium burials in the region, and the richness of the finds discovered in the intact graves, like Qidfaʿ 1, indicates a rich society that was heavily engaged with an advanced copper industry. This is demonstrated by the metal vessels, daggers, axes, anklets, arrowheads and other miscellaneous items. One could also infer that the materials, despite the absence of radiocarbon dates to consolidate such a view, belong to the Early Iron Age. Some of the materials however, mainly among the stone vessels, might indicate Late Bronze Age affinities. The co-existence of crude handmade ware and the painted and plain bowls with constricted rims at Qidfaʿ 1, which are usually dated to Iron II, support Phillips’s view that the Iron I period proposed by Magee (1996) is merely a phase of Iron II. Phillips’s view, like Magee’s, is supported by a series of calibrated C14 dates, and is based on the Italian excavations at Salut (Oman) where the handmade ware was found with the classic painted pottery which appeared before 1100 (Phillips 2010: 71-79). Citing Magee, Yule re-iterates that Iron Age I pottery does not fit with the pottery situation in the central part of the Sultanate (2014: 45). To conclude, further studies reconsidering the chronology of the last six centuries of the 2nd millennium BC, especially the transformation era from the ambiguous Late Bronze Age to the 1 

Bridge-spouted jugs occurred in Qidfaʿ 4 (pers. comm. Salah Hassan).

76

Conclusion and discussion disputed Early Iron Age, are needed, especially when the latter era, according to Phillips, covers seven centuries (1300-600 BC). The more recent excavations carried out by a German team at Qidfaʿ 3 (Pfeiffer et al. 2017), a nearby settlement site, which revealed phases covering three main cultures extending from the Umm an-Nar Period to the Iron Age, is hoped to shed light on the transformation from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, at least within the Qidfaʿ area, which was a favourite place for prehistoric communities for over a millennium.2 However, only more large habitation sites with undisturbed stratified layers, associated with further intact tombs, might lead to a better understanding of the chronology of the second millennium BC in the United Arab Emirates and Oman.

2  Qidfaʿ 3 was partly excavated by a local team from Fujairah Museum in 1995. The al-ʿAin Department of Antiquities provided a surveyor (C.U. John) who laid out the grid and prepared the site plan. Mr. John also prepared the plans of four other graves (Qidfaʿ 4, Dhadna, Mreished and a long tomb at Dibba). The author made intermittent short consultation visits during the excavations at Qidfaʿ 3 and the Dibba long tomb.

77

The Dental Remains Kathleen McSweeney 1. Description of the remains The human remains examined by the author from the site of Qidfaʿ 1, Fujairah, United Arab Emirates consisted largely of dental remains with a few postcranial bone fragments. The dental remains included thirty-two mandibles and fragments of mandibles, one piece of maxilla and several loose teeth. The mandibles were in varying states of completion. Only one was intact, three were substantially complete, and the remainder were fragments - right and left halves of mandible bodies, anterior central parts, or small posterior sections. There were very few teeth still in situ in the mandibles. Many teeth had already been lost during life, but of those still present at death, the vast majority had fallen out of their sockets at some time during the postmortem period. Some loose teeth were also present, although these were far fewer than the number of empty sockets. Most of the loose teeth had in fact not originated from the empty sockets present in the jaw fragments but were unerupted teeth from sub-adults. The imbalance between the numbers of mandible and maxilla fragments is not surprising. The upper jaw is much more fragile than the mandible and less likely to survive. A few non-diagnostic non-dental fragments were also examined. These two fragments of temporal bone, several scapula fragments, one fragment of clavicle, two vertebrae from a sub-adult, and some lower limb bones. Methods of recording and assessing age, sex and pathology are based on the standards recommended in Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994), Bass (2005) and White and Folkens (2005). Ageing of sub-adults is founded on Schaefer et al (2009) and (for dentition) on van Beek (1983). Degrees of dental attrition were assessed using standards produced by Smith (1984). A summary of the anthropological analysis is reported below. Specific details of the examination findings and the location of individual remains within the tomb can be seen in Appendices 1-5 at the end of this report. 2. Number of Individuals As there was no way of associating the nondental remains or the loose teeth with the jaw fragments examined, the calculation of the number of individuals present is based only on the 32 mandibles and the single maxilla. Based on a count of specific tooth places, particularly the right anterior teeth, at least 25 individuals were present. 3. Age at Death Erupting teeth indicated that two of the individuals were sub adult; one was an adolescent, aged between 12 and 17 years, and the other a child of less than 13 years. Because most of the teeth had either been lost during life, or had become damaged or lost postmortem, tooth wear, and consequently adult age at death, was difficult to assess accurately. Evidence of eruption of the third molar, which usually occurs between the ages of 18 to 21 years, was taken to indicate that adulthood had been reached. Unless advanced age was indicated by 78

The Dental Remains obvious alveolar bone recession or general absorption of the jaw, a specific stage of adulthood could not be determined. The following chart summarises the mortality profile of the group represented by the examined jaw fragments: Chart 1. Qidfaʿ 1 mortality profile. As can be seen from the above, of the 25 individuals, one was a child, one was adolescent and 20 had reached adulthood. At least six of the adults were older adults, determined on the basis of widespread tooth loss and severe resorption of the alveolar bone. The age of a further three individuals age could not be determined; while they clearly did not belong to young sub-adults, they could conceivably have been either from adolescents or adults. 4. Sex Normally sex is most accurately assessed from the pelvic bones, or from a consensus of several morphologically diagnostic features of the skull, one of which is the mandible (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994). As the sex of the Qidfaʿ 1 group could only be determined on the robustness and morphology of the mandible, the results will be less accurate than assessments based on several factors. For this reason, sex in the summary table in Appendix 3 is tentatively indicated as ‘M??’ or ‘F??’. Judging by morphology and the degree of robustness, of the 14 individuals in the ‘adult’ category, at least four were males, at least a further four were females, and six were sexually indeterminate. There is therefore no evidence of bias towards either sex. The sexing of immature remains is unreliable, even when full skeletons are available, and has not been attempted here. In the case of the six Old Adults, mandibular resorption has erased any sexually dimorphic differences that may have been present in earlier life and no assessment of sex is made for these individuals. 5. Pathology The degree of tooth loss during life within this group is striking. Of the 33 mandible, and maxilla fragments present, 29 (88%) displayed evidence of at least one tooth having been lost during life. Antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) was most prevalent in the molars with 84% of all molars lost, followed by premolars (45%), canines (24%) and incisors (18%), respectively. Tooth loss can result from several causes, most commonly dental decay (caries), advanced attrition, and periodontitis, a disease affecting the bone that holds the teeth in place. Unfortunately, once a tooth is lost it is difficult to establish the reason for that loss, and although the aetiology of AMTL can be inferred from the state of the remaining teeth, in the case of the Qidfaʿ 1 group evidence is very sparse and so not useful. Dental abscesses could be seen on two mandibles. Unfortunately, abscesses can develop from either gross caries, advanced tooth wear or periodontal disease (Hillson 1996). There was one instance of advanced tooth wear in the piece of maxilla and one carious lesion in the first molar of the child. There was no clear evidence of periodontal disease from the Qidfaʿ remains. The aetiology of tooth loss among the Qidfaʿ individuals cannot be ascertained with any degree of certainty. However, both caries and severe attrition were factors. 6. Archaeological Background The remains examined by the author consisting largely of dentition clearly did not represent the full assemblage of the original buried remains. One recent publication refers to another 79

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates anthropological analysis of skeletal remains from Qidfaʿ 1 (Pfeiffer et al. 2017). This publication was largely concerned the excavation of the settlement site of Qidfaʿ 3 but also provided information on another anthropological analysis of Qidfaʿ 1 skeletal remains. Although only brief details were provided, the analysis referred to different remains to those examined by the current author, as Pfeiffer et al commented that the Qidfaʿ 1 remains consisted largely of small bones, especially those of the hands and feet. Pfeiffer et al assessed the minimum number of individuals as 23, which is not too dissimilar to the 25 based on dental remains; however, their age distribution was very different with a much higher proportion of subadults, i.e., 11 of the 23, whereas in the dental remains there were only two subadults. Considering the results from both anthropological analyses, it clear that the minimum number of individuals retrieved from Qidfaʿ 1 was much higher than either of the estimates.

Table 1: Key to symbols used in subsequent appendices. Symbol 87654321|12345678 R -------------------|------------------ L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PM1 PM2 M1 M2 M3 7 7 A H C U B ? M? F?

87654321|12345678

Explanation Dental formula showing upper and lower dentition as well as right (R) and left (L) quadrants. Central incisor Lateral incisor Canine First premolar Second premolar First molar Second molar Third molar First premolar Second premolar First molar Second molar Third molar double strikethrough – tooth lost antemortem single strikethrough – tooth lost postmortem abscess in socket socket in the process of healing caries Tooth unerupted Crown broken Status of tooth unclear Probable male Probable female

80

The Dental Remains Table 2: List of contexts with human remains Context Upper tomb tier South Chamber

Bone No. M.197, Upper tomb tier South Southern Curve Upper Tomb tier Southern chamber East Section of South Chamber Upper tomb tier North Chamber Northern Chamber Fill between slabs 10 and 11 Upper Chamber Lower Tomb Below Slab 2 Lower Tomb Below Slabs 5 and 6 Lower Tomb tier Below Slab 7 Lower Tomb tier Below Slab 9 Lower Tomb tier Below Slabs 10 and 11 South Chamber from a Bangle No Label

Jaw fragments Postcranial Bones 7 mandibles (Nos. 4, 5, 14, 15, mastoid process of temporal 23, 26, 31) bone, fragment scapula, bodies of thoracic vertebra and lumbar vertebra Talus, calcaneus, tibia 1 mandible (No. 18) 2 mandibles (Nos. 1, 17) 1 mandible (No. 24) 2 mandibles (Nos. 10, 16) 2 mandibles (Nos. 2, 3) 1 maxilla (No. 33)

Fragment of clavicle -

1 mandible (No. 25) 5 mandibles (Nos. 20, 27, 28, 29, 30) 2 mandibles (Nos. 8, 13) 7 mandibles (Nos. 9, 11, 12, 19, 21, 22, 32) 1 mandible (No. 6)

Petrous part of temporal bone -

1 Mandible (No. 7)

Talus, cuboid, 1st cuneiform Fragment of scapula

Table 3: Description of mandible and maxilla fragments No.

1.

Age at Death

Teeth Present R -------------------|----------------- L 87654321|

Adult

Adult

Sex

Right half mandible present. ?

All three right molars missing antemortem.

M??

Other teeth from central incisor to second premolar missing postmortem. Right half mandible present. Four posterior teeth from 2nd PM to M3 lost antemortem.

R ------------------|----------------- L 2.

The socket for M3 is still healing indicating tooth was lost shortly before death.

87654321| H

Incisors and 1st PM lost postmortem.

R -------------------|------------------ L 3.

Comments

12-17

?

Robustness and chin shape indicate probable male sex. Left half mandible and left chin area present. Right incisors and all left teeth present in mandible.

21|12345678

Left M3 is unerupted, while all other teeth were in occlusion, indicating that this was an adolescent.

u

81

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates No.

4.

Age at Death

Teeth Present

R -------------------|----------------- L

Adult

Sex

Comments Left half mandible and small portion right present.

F??

Left M1 missing antemortem. Left PM1, M2 and M3 present.

1|12345678

Incisors and left canine missing postmortem. Shape of chin and degree of robustness indicates probable female sex. Part of left side of mandible. All teeth from left canine to M1 were present.

R -------------------|------------------ L 5.

|

Adult

M??

M3 was missing antemortem.

345678 A

M2 was missing postmortem. A dental abscess was present at the base of PM2.

H

Crown of canine has 5 bands of hypoplasia. The socket for M3 is still healing so tooth lost shortly before death.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

R -------------------|------------------ L 87654321|12345678

Very robust so probably male sex. Complete mandible. Old adult

?

54321|123

54321|123456

R -------------------|------------------ L 8765 R -------------------|------------------ L 54321|1234

R -------------------|------------------ L 7654321|12345678

R -------------------|------------------ L 4321|1234

Totally edentulous, all teeth missing antemortem. Anterior part right and left sides mandible.

R -------------------|------------------ L

R -------------------|------------------ L

?

?

All four incisors, both canines and right premolars missing postmortem. No indication of age or sex. Anterior part right and left sides mandible.

Adult?

F??

Adult

?

Adult

?

Adult

F??

All four incisors, both canines, both right premolars and left PM1 missing postmortem. Left PM2 and M1 missing antemortem. Robustness and chin shape indicate probable female sex. Posterior part right mandible. All three right molars and right PM2 missing antemortem. Anterior part right and left sides mandible. All incisors, both canines, both right premolars and left PM1 missing antemortem. Complete mandible apart from part of right posterior part. The left molars are missing antemortem. Status of right M3 unknown. All other teeth lost postmortem. Morphology suggests probable female sex. Anterior part of mandible only.

?

?

82

All incisors, both canines and both PM1s missing postmortem

The Dental Remains No.

13.

Teeth Present

R -------------------|------------------ L 7654321|12345678

Age at Death

Adult

Sex

Comments Almost complete mandible; some damage to right side.

M??

Right and left incisors, canines and right PM missing postmortem. All 3 left molars, both left premolars, right PM2, M1 and M2 missing antemortem. Status of right M3 unknown.

14.

15.

16.

R -------------------|------------------ L 876

|

R -------------------|------------------ L 321|1234567 R -------------------|------------------ L 876543

|

Adult

?

Left and part right mandible. Adult?

?

All incisors, both premolars and left premolars missing postmortem. Left M1 and M2 missing antemortem. Status of left M3 unknown. Part right mandible, anterior-most part missing.

Adult

?

All 3 molars missing antemortem. Right premolars and canine missing postmortem. Mandible consisting of left side and anterior part of right.

R -------------------|------------------ L 17.

54321|12345678

Very robust bone with angular chin. Probably male. Small fragment of right posterior part mandible at area of three molars, all missing postmortem.

Adult

?

?

Incisors, canines and first premolars missing postmortem. Right and left PM2 and left M1 and M2 missing antemortem. The status of the right M3 is unclear. Left and anterior part right mandible. Left M2 and M3 are missing ante mortem.

R -------------------|------------------ L 18.

21|12 345678

Adult

?

bb

19.

20.

21.

All 4 incisors and left canine are missing ante mortem. Left side mandible, anterior part missing.

R -------------------|------------------ L |

345678

R -------------------|------------------ L 5432 | R -------------------|------------------ L 876

|

Adult

M??

?

?

Adult

?

|

5678

Canine and PM2 missing postmortem. PM1 and all three molars missing antemortem Morphology and robustness are suggestive of male sex. Small fragment of right side of mandible. Both premolars are missing antemortem. Lateral incisor and canine are missing postmortem. Small fragment of posterior part of right side of mandible. All 3 molars lost antemortem. Small part of posterior left side mandible.

R -------------------|------------------ L 22.

Both left premolars are present in the jaw but the crowns are damaged.

Adult

?

H

PM2, M1 and M2 missing antemortem, M1 was only recently lost because the socket is still healing. M3 is missing postmortem.

83

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates No. 23.

Teeth Present R -------------------|------------------ L 8765

|

Age at Death Adult

Sex

Comments Posterior part right mandible.

?

All three molars and PM2 missing antemortem. Right half mandible.

24.

25.

R -------------------|------------------ L 87654321|

R -------------------|------------------ L 654321| R -------------------|------------------ L

26.

876543

|

uuc

Adult

F??

PMs and all three molars lost antemortem. Morphology and robustness indicate probable female sex. Part right mandible.

Adult?

?

M1 and PM2 missing antemortem. Incisors, canine and PM1 missing postmortem. Part of right mandible.

Under 13

?

The 2nd and 3rd molars were unerupted indicating an age at death of under 13 years. The canine and premolars were missing postmortem. M1 was present and had a small carious lesion. The right side and anterior part of the left was present. The right incisors and the left PM1 are present.

R -------------------|------------------ L 27.

Incisors and canine in situ.

87654321|12345

Adult

M??

??? ??

The right 3rd molar and the left incisors and canine are missing postmortem. The status of the right canine, PM1, PM2, M1 and M2, and the left PM1 is unclear. Morphology and robustness indicate probable male sex. Left and anterior part of right mandible.

28.

R -------------------|------------------ L 4321|12345678

Old adult

?

The right PM1 and left PM2, M1, M2, M3 all missing antemortem. All incisors, both canines and the left PM1 are missing postmortem. The angle of ramus is very obtuse indicating advanced age. Right and small anterior part left mandible.

R -------------------|------------------ L 29.

87654321|12

Adult

?

Old adult?

?

A

30.

R -------------------|------------------ L 321|123

84

All four incisors, right premolars and right molars are lost antemortem. The only tooth present at the time of death was the right canine. This was missing postmortem although there was an abscess at the root. Anterior part mandible. Incisors and canines missing antemortem. Alveolar bone very receded, suggesting advanced age.

The Dental Remains No.

31.

32.

Teeth Present

R -------------------|------------------ L 321|12345678

R -------------------|------------------ L |

5678

Age at Death

Sex

Comments Left and anterior part right mandible. Right canine and left incisors, PM2 and M1 missing antemortem.

Old adult

?

Right incisors, left canine, PM1, M2 and M3 missing postmortem. Left M2 in situ. Alveolar bone is very resorbed and the angle of ramus obtuse, indicating advanced age. Fragment posterior part left mandible.

Adult

?

At least PM2 and all 3 molars missing antemortem. Fragment left maxilla.

33.

R -------------------|------------------ L |1234567

The incisors, canine and M2 are missing postmortem. Old adult

?

M1 is missing antemortem. Both premolars are in situ but severely worn, indicating advanced age. The status of the 3rd molar is unknown.

Table 4: Loose Teeth Location in tomb

Description 1 fragment right lower premolar; advanced wear; small carious lesion on distal contact point. 4 fragments deciduous molar, crown compete, root just starting to form. Root canine

Upper tomb South

Lower central incisor, apex root almost closed, 2 lines hypoplasia close to cement-enamel junction (CEJ) Crown upper M3 – 3 cusps form – crown only root just started to form Upper left central incisor, little wear, apex root closed, crown damaged Upper PM1, root damaged little wear Upper lateral left deciduous incisor, carious lesion on crown 9 small fragments tooth roots and crowns Deciduous canine, apex almost closed

Upper tomb South Chamber

2 roots permanent canine Fragment crown molar with large internal carious lesion. Canine – extreme wear 3 fragments root

85

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Location in tomb

Description Lower PM2, apex root not quite closed Lower PM1 apex root almost closed – slightly more advanced than above Fragment upper left lateral incisor, line hypoplasia close to CEJ

Upper tomb North Chamber

Fragment root tooth Fragment crown molar Upper right central incisor, massive caries Crown lower M1, crown developed root not yet started to develop Lower PM2, crown complete root not started to develop Crown 3 cusp tooth with cusp of Carabelli, root damaged, little wear, probably upper M3, Deciduous canine apex root almost closed, Upper M3, crown flattened but no dentine exposure, Upper PM1 crown flattened but no dentine exposure, Lower left PM1, crown flattened but no dentine exposure, line hypoplasia near cemento-enamel junction,

Below slab 9 (could be from upper or lower tomb)

Canine, advanced wear – 2 lines hypoplasia near CEJ Upper PM1 cusps rounded Lower PM1 2 lines hypo near CEJ Upper M3, roots fused to bone, broad band hypoplasia 3 mm from CEJ, enamel pearl at top of 2 buccal roots Upper PM2, cusps polished, apex complete, 1 line hypoplasia mid crown Canine advanced wear – stage 6 Lower PM2, root 1/3 formed Canine – very advanced wear stage 8, root canal exposed

Lower tomb (could have fallen from above)

5 fragments enamel Lower M2 complete little wear, cusps polished rounded Lower M1, roots damaged, cusps polished Small fragment root anterior tooth Upper right lateral incisor, apex root damaged but very little wear on occlusal surface – 2 lines hypoplasia close to CEJ Upper right lateral incisor, apex root ¾ formed – 2 lines hypo close to CEJ – area of discolouring on labial surface crown – incipient carious lesion?

Bag no location Canine – very advanced wear Smith 7, medium carious lesion on one contact point. other than QDF1 1987 PM2 lower – apex root closed – no dentine exposure, 2 lines hypo near CEJ

lower left central incisor, apex root almost closed, 2 faint lines hypoplasia close to CEJ fragment root 2 fragments crown

86

The Dental Remains Table 5: Non-dental Remains Location in tomb Upper tomb tier South chamber from an anklet

Description Left talus – lateral side damaged; Length: 44.7 mm. Left cuboid, complete. Left first cuneiform.

Upper tomb tier Eastern section of South Chamber Bone No M. 197 upper Tomb South

The bones were brown in colour but not varnished and very gracile. Fragment lateral half right clavicle. Left talus complete: 50.4 mm. Left calcaneus: Lateral part missing; length 71.7 mm. Left tibia, both ends damaged – appears very slender; mid-shaft circumference 58 mm.

Upper tomb tier South Chamber

Lower tomb tier below slab 9 No label

The bones were brown in colour and had been varnished. Right mastoid process of temporal bone. Fragment of right scapula consisting of the spinous process and acromion. Parts of two vertebrae, consisting of the centra of one thoracic and one lumbar. Epiphyseal fusion indicated that they were from an individual, aged less than 25 years. Petrous part left temporal bone. Fragment of the spinous process of the left scapula.

87

Plates

Plate 1: General map of the second and first millennium BC sites in the United Arab Emirates. 88

Plate 2: Satellite image showing the location of Sites 1-4 at Qidfa’.

Plates

89

Plate 3: Detailed map showing the archaeological sites identified at Qidfa by the author. Drawing: C.U. John

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

90

Plates

Plate 4: The U-shaped plan of Qidfa 1 tomb after excavations. Drawing: C.U. John.

Plate 5: Section throughout the tomb shows the lower and the upper burials. Note the remains of the retaining wall on both sides of the structure. Drawing: C.U. John.

91

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 6: Plan of Qidfa’1 tomb shows the uppermost bone layer. Drawing: C.U. John.

Plate 7: The same previous plan shows the hatched slabs (capstones) of the lower burial. Drawing: C.U. John. 92

Plates

Plate 8: Sketch of the tomb entrance as it looks from outside. Drawing: C.U. John.

Plate 9: Handmade jars of course ware.

93

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 10: Two handmade lugged jars of course ware.

Plate 11: Handmade grey pottery jars.

94

Plates

Plate 12: Handmade grey pottery jars.

Plate 13: Handmade grey pottery jars.

95

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 14: Handmade grey pottery jars.

Plate 15: Handmade grey pottery jars.

96

Plates

Plate 16: Fine ware jar.

Plate 17: Fine ware jar/ decanter (P 19).

97

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 18: Large jar of fine ware and two small canister/ bottled-jars.

Plate 19: Two painted vessels.

98

Plates

Plate 20: Incomplete grey jar and two small handmade bowls.

Plate 21: Incised beaker with its lid and a profile of an incised bi-conical vessel.

99

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 22: Handmade jar with a narrow mouth.

Plate 23: Three open-mouthed bowls of different shapes.

100

Plates

Plate 24: Profile of a small pearshaped jar and a larger one of semi-coarse ware with four knobs.

Plate 25: Narrow mouth vessels with globular body.

101

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 26: Large portion of an undulated bowl and remains of a second one which may have had a spout.

Plate 27: Three undulated spouted bowls and two spoutless plain bowls.

102

Plates

Plate 28: Two handmade bowls.

Plate 29: Spouted bowl.

103

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 30: Spouted bowl.

Plate 31: Bowls of different shapes.

104

Plates

Plate 32: Painted spouted bowl.

Plate 33: The painted bowl (P 87) was discovered outside the tomb.

105

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 34: Semi-fine ware bowl on top and two handmade coarse ware below.

Plate 35: Various types of vessels. P17 may have served as a beaker.

106

Plates

Plate 36: Vessels like these served as beakers.

Plate 37: Some of these bowls may have been used as scopes.

107

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 38: Wheel-made dishes.

Plate 39: Large dishes.

108

Plates

Plate 40: Glazed ceramics.

Plate 41: One large painted bowl and two small painted cups from the upper burial.

109

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 42: Painted bowls/beakers of Wadi Suq Period from the lower burial.

Plate 43: Incomplete painted bowl and a cup with plain lower portion of a dish from the lower burial.

110

Plates

Plate 44: Wadi Suq pottery from the lower burial.

Plate 45: Two large conical stone vessels.

111

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 46: Small size conical stone vessels.

Plate 47: Small size conical vessels. The hatched triangle is the main motif.

112

Plates

Plate 48: Rectangular vessel (top) and a conical one (bottom).

Plate 49: Large conical vessels adorned with single-dotted circle, hatched triangles and floral.

113

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 50: Conical stone vessels with multi-register of incised decorations.

Plate 51: Incomplete compartmented stone box and a small conical vessel.

114

Plates

Plate 52: Two stone ornamented boxes with their rectangular lids.

Plate 53: Rectangular stone box and a cylindrical-shaped beaker with a round lid.

115

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 54: Rectangular stone box.

Plate 55: Large barrel-shaped suspension vessel engraved with a stylized human figure with its round lid.

116

Plates

Plate 56: Small barrel-shaped suspension vessel and a small conical vessel.

Plate 57: Cylindrical beaker decorated with incised floral motif.

117

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 58: Various shapes of stone beakers and a spouted bowl.

Plate 59: Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.

118

Plates

Plate 60: Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.

Plate 61: Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.

119

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 62: Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.

Plate 63: Spouted bowls with different incised motifs.

120

Plates

Plate 64: Different shapes of spoutless vessels.

Plate 65: Round lid, bowl and a small trinket. P 87 and P 86 were found in the upper burial and they might be heirlooms. P 85 came from between Slabs 10 and 11.

121

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 66: Round lids from the upper burial.

Plate 67: Round lids from the upper burial.

122

Plates

Plate 68: Round lids from the upper burial.

Plate 69: Round lids from the upper burial.

123

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 70: Round lids from the upper burial.

Plate 71: A unique undecorated oval lid with a separate handle from the upper burial.

124

Plates

Plate 72: Three small Wadi Suq vessels from the lower burial.

Plate 73: Two Wadi Suq spouted bowls from the lower burial.

125

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 74: Spouted copper/ bronze bowls.

Plate 75: Spouted copper/ bronze bowls.

126

Plates

Plate 76: Spouted copper/ bronze bowls.

Plate 77: Profile of a large spouted copper/bronze bowl with globular body and two small spouted vessels.

127

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 78: A distinctive copper/ bronze spouted vessel with engraved motif.

Plate 79: Two copper/bronze vessels. A bowl with long spout and a cylix-like vessel. Missing base.

128

Plates

Plate 80: Large, medium and small open spout copper/ bronze vessels of different shapes.

Plate 81: Large, medium and small open spout copper/ bronze vessels of different shapes.

129

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 82: Large, medium and small open spout copper/ bronze vessels of different shapes.

Plate 83: Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts.

130

Plates

Plate 84: Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts.

Plate 85: Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts.

131

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 86: Daggers with plain crescent-shaped hilts.

Plate 87: Two crescent hilt daggers without rivets and one straight side riveted hilt.

132

Plates

Plate 88: Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.

Plate 89: Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.

133

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 90: Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.

Plate 91: Straight-sided daggers with hilts crowded with domed rivets.

134

Plates

Plate 92: Straight-sided daggers with flanged hilts void of rivets.

Plate 93: Three short daggers and a knife or spearhead blade. M 148 is 30.7cm long.

135

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 94: Bronze shaft-hole axes. Note the slanted straight and round cutting edges.

Plate 95: Bronze shaft-hole axes. Note the slanted straight and round cutting edges. 136

Plates

Plate 96: Bronze shaft-hole axes. Note the slanted straight and round cutting edges.

Plate 97: Bronze adzes.

137

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 98: Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.

Plate 99: Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.

138

Plates

Plate 100: Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.

Plate 101: Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.

139

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 102: Selected groups of copper/bronze arrowheads. Shapes of plate 101, M 46 and 162 are rare.

Plate 103: Engraved copper/ bronze arrowheads.

140

Plates

Plate 104: Bronze anklets.

Plate 105: Bronze anklets.

141

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 106: Bronze anklets.

Plate 107: Heavy bronze bangles.

142

Plates

Plate 108: Copper/bronze objects (razors, bracelets, awls, ladle and tweezers). Two razors, M 204 and M 205 were discovered in the lower burial. The rest came from the Upper burial.

Plate 109: A copper/bronze mirror.

143

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 110: Plain and decorates disc shells.

Plate 111: Plain and decorates disc shells.

144

Plates

Plate 112: Nose/earrings and finger rings. M 101, M 224 and 225 are made of gold. The rest metal items might be made of silver. M 218 might be a belt strap made of copper.

145

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 113: Engraved pendants and seals.

146

Plates

Plate 114: Various types of beads made of red carnelian, metal, gold, coral, frit, stone and other materials.

147

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 115: Plan of Fashgha 1 tomb. After C. Phillips. 1987.

148

Plates

Plate 116: Plan of Qidfa’ 4. Drawing: C.U. John.

149

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

Plate 117: Plan of Mreished tomb. Drawing: C.U. John.

150

Appendix 1

Pottery vessels Object no.

1 QDF1.86.P.1 2 QDF1.86.P.2 3 QDF1.86.P.3 4 QDF1.86.P.4 5 QDF1.86.P.5 6 QDF1.86.P.6 7 QDF1.86.P.7 8 QDF1.86.P.8 9 QDF1.86.P.9

10 QDF1.86.P.10 11 QDF1.86.P.11 12 QDF1.86.P.12 13 QDF1.86.P.13 14 QDF1.86.P.14 15 QDF1.86.P.15 16 QDF1. 86.P.16 17 QDF1.86.P.17 18 QDF1.86.P.18 19 QDF1.86.P.19 20 QDF1.86.P.20 21 QDF1.86.P.21 22 QDF1.86.P.22 23 QDF1.86.P.23 24 QDF1.86.P.24 25 QDF1.86.P.25

Item

truncated cone, incised, grey lid, circular, grey incised jar, plain handmade

Provenance

northern chamber, tier 1 (below) northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 jar, plain, hand-made northern chamber, tier 1 jar, plain, handmade, northern chamber, grey tier 1 bowl, incomplete northern chamber, tier 1 jar, grey, incomplete northern chamber, tier 1 jar, high neck, grey, northern chamber, incomplete tier 1 bowl/tassa, seminorthern chamber, complete tier 1 jar with flaring rim, northern chamber, painted tier 1 vessel, spouted, northern chamber, incomplete tier 1 bowl, incomplete northern chamber, tier 1 jar, small, lugged northern chamber, tier 1 vessel, lower portion northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, open, spouted northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, incomplete northern chamber, tier 1 bowl/tassa, seminorthern chamber, complete tier 1 bowl, open-mouth, northern chamber, incomplete tier 1 jar, necked, grey northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, incomplete northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, incomplete northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, open, spouted northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, incomplete/ northern chamber, tassa tier 1 bowl, lower portion northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, open northern chamber, tier 1

151

Measurments in cm

Comments

hat. 13, b. diam. 12.5, r. diam. 8.4 diam. 8.6-9

with a lid, traces of fire on body belongs to object P.1

ht. 15, b. 9.2-10

rough fabric, short neck

ht. 15.7, b. 10.5, r.diam. 7.8-8.1 ht. 20.4, b. diam. 9.5, r. diam. 8.5-8.8 ht. 6.9

flat rim

ht. 25.5, b. diam. 7.3, aprox. r. diam. 8 ht. 21, b. diam. 7.5 r. diam. 7.7 ht. 9.2-9.5, b. diam. 7

pear-shaped body, ledged rim with flaring rim

ht. 14.9, b. diam. 6.8, r. diam. 6.1 b. diam. 7

faded brown dots on the neck with long closed spout

ht. 13.2, estimated r. diam. 17 Ht. 11.8, b. diam. 8.2-9

buff colour exterior, black interior originally with 3 lugs (1 missing) original shape unknown

base diam. 10.2-10.7 ht. 7.9, b. 7.7-8.3, approx. r. diam. 11-11.5 ht. 6.8, b. diam. 6, approx. r. diam. 11 ht. 9.7, b. diam. 9.2-9.6, r. diam. 14 ht. 7-7.3, b. diam. 11.3, r. diam. 14.8 ht. 16.3, b. diam. 6.8, r. diam. 6.8 ht. 19.9, b. diam. 7.5-7.8, r. diam. 15 ht. 7.2, b. diam. 6.6, est. r. diam. 12 ht. 4.7-5.2, b. diam. 7.2, r. diam. 12.5 ht. 8-8.4, approx. b. diam. 7.5-8, r. diam. 14.5 b. diam. 5.1 ht. 7.7-8, b. diam. 8, r. diam. 14

four perforated lugs on the body coarse ware

handmade, poorly fired

remains of an open spouted vessel handmade (?) traces of an open spout

narrow base and wide mouth constricted rim

handmade, poorly fired traces of faded red line

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Object no.

26 QDF1.86.P.26

27 QDF1.86.P.27 28 QDF1.86.P.28 29 QDF1.86.P.29 30 QDF1.86.P.30 31 QDF1.86.P.31 32 QDF1.86.P.32 33 QDF1.86.P.33 34 QDF1.86.P.34 35 QDF1.86.P.35 36 QDF1.86.P.36 37 QDF1.86.P.37 38 QDF1.86.P.38 39 QDF1.86.P.39 40 QDF1.86.P.40 41 QDF1.86.P.41 42 QDF1.86.P.42 43 QDF1.86.P.43 44 QDF1.86.P.44

Item

dish, deep

northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, incomplete northern chamber, tier 1 dish, broad flat rim northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, incomplete northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, open-mouth, northern chamber, incomplete tier 1 bottle, incomplete northern chamber, tier 2 (above) bowl/cup, large northern chamber, portion tier 2 jar, fine ware, southern chamber, incomplete tier 1 jar, fine ware, lower southern chamber, portion tier 1 jar, coarse ware, southern chamber, lower portion tier 1 bottle, globular body southern chamber, tier 1 jar, pear-shaped, southern chamber, grey tier 1 jar, globular, narrow southern chamber, mouth tier 1 jar, pear-shaped, southern chamber, grey, incomplete tier 1 dish, rimmed, deep southern chamber, tier 1 bowl, incomplete southern chamber, tier 1 bowl, pouring lip southern chamber, tier 1 bowl, rim southern chamber, constricted, painted tier 1 bottle, painted southern chamber, tier 1

45 QDF1.86.P.45

jar, pear-shaped

46 QDF1.86.P.46

dish, large

47 QDF1.86.P.47

jar, grey

48 QDF1.86.P.48

bottle, small

49 QDF1.86.P.49

bowl, open, lipped

50 QDF1.86.P.50

jar, grey

51 QDF1.86.P.51

dish, deep, incomplete bowl, constricted rim,incomplete

52 QDF1.86.P.52

Provenance

Measurments in cm

ht. 6.6, b. diam. 7.7, r. diam. 18 ht. 6.2, b. diam. 6.5, est. r. diam. 12.2 ht. 4.7-5, b. diam. 7.5, r. diam. 14.8-15.5 ht. 5.1, b. diam. 8.3

Comments

traces of an open spout

ht. 5-5.3, r. diam. 10.2 ht. 10.2, b. diam. 6.4-6.6 ht. 6.2, approx. r. diam. 12

globular body and flaring rim crude fabric

ht. 23.2, b. diam. 9.3, r. diam red slip/wash can be 9.5 seen no measurements b. diam. 11.8-13 r. diam. 8.2

necked, missing base

ht. 22.7, b. diam. 7.4, r. diam. shouldered, high neck 7.7-7.9 ht. 15.5, b. diam. 8.8-9, r. coarse ware, handmade diam. 5.7 b. diam. 8.5, extant h. 18.9 ht. 4.5, r. diam. 13.4, aprox. b. diam. 6 ht. 8.5, est. R. diam. 13

wheelmade handmade

ht. 8, b. diam. 6, max. r. width 12.3 ht. 9.3-10.4, b. diam. 8-8.4, r. wavy dark brown line diam. 17.2 below rim ht. 14.5, r. diam. 5.3 short vertical lines below the rim and a faded one on the shoulder southern chamber, ht. 24.8, b. diam. 8.2 fine grey ware tier 1 southern chamber, ht. 9.2-10, b. diam. 17-17.5, r. coarse grey ware, tier 1 diam. 28.5 handmade southern chamber, ht. 23-7, b. diam. 7.7, r. fine grey ware tier 1 diam. 9 southern chamber, ht. 11.5, b. diam. 6, max. high neck, flat fase tier 1 body width 11 southern chamber, ht. 6, b. diam. 5.5 paint diagonals below tier 1 the rim southern chamber, ht. 21.2, b. diam. 7, r. diam. Semi-fine ware tier 1 8.6 southern chamber, ht. 6, b. diam. 7.3, approx. r. plain tier 1 diam. 17 southern chamber, ht. 7.2, b. diam. 5.8 tier 1

152

Pottery vessels Object no.

53 QDF1.86.P.53

Item

54 QDF1.86.P.54

bowl, constricted rim,incomplete bowl, incomplete

55 QDF1.86.P.55

bowl, incomplete

56 QDF1.86.P.56 57 QDF1.86.P.57

bowl, rim constricted, painted cup, painted

58 QDF1.86.P.58

cup, painted cup

59 QDF1.86.P.59

Provenance

southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 1 tier 2

cup or dish, fragment 60 QDF1.86.P.60 beaker, concave, northern chamber, glased ceramic tier 1 61 QDF1.86.P.61 bowl, glased ceramic northern chamber, tier 1 62 QDF1.86.P.62 jar, grey, large northern chamber, fragments tier 1 63 QDF1.86.P.63 lid, circular, northern chamber, incomplete tier 1 64 QDF1.86.P.64 vessel, small, lower northern chamber portion 65 QDF1.86.P.65 bowl, constricted tier 2 rim,incomplete 66 QDF1.86.P.66 vase, neck with rim, tier 2 grey, incised 67 QDF1.86.P.67 beaker, red ware, outside of tomb incomplete 68 QDF1.86.P.68 bowl, open mouth northern chamber, tier 1 69 QDF1.87.P.69 bowl, incomplete northern chamber, tier 2 70 QDF1.87.P.69a bowl, complete northern chamber, profile tier 2 71 QDF1.87.P.70 bowl/tassa southern chamber, tier 2 72 QDF1.87.P.71 bowl/tassa southern chamber, tier 2 73 QDF1.87.P.72 bowl, constricted rim s. ch., from the ‘U’ curve 74 QDF1.87.P.73 bowl/tassa, southern chamber, handmade tier 2 75 QDF1.87.P.74 bottle, globular, high southern chamber, neck tier 2 76 QDF1.87.P.75 bottle southern chamber, tier 2 77 QDF1.87.P.76 dish, deep, large southern chamber, tier 2 78 QDF1.87.P.77 jar, handmade southern chamber, tier 2 79 QDF1.87.P.77a jar, concave neck southern chamber, tier 2 80 QDF1.87.P.78 beaker/cup , painted n. ch. tier 1 81 QDF1.87.P.79 bowl, painted n. ch. tier 1

153

Measurments in cm

ht. 4.7-5, b. diam. 5.2-5.5, r. diam. 10 ht. 7, b. diam. 7.5-8, est. r. diam. 12 ht. 7.8- r. diam. 18

Comments

coarse ware coarse ware

ht. 5.3-5.7, b. diam. 5.3 ht. 5.5-5.8, b. diam. 3, r. diam. 7.5 ht. 6. b. diam. 4.1-4.3, r. diam. 7-7.5 ht. 6.5

three black lines on red ware three black lines on red ware coarse ware

ht. 8.3, b. diam. 7.7, r. diam. 8.6 ht. with knobs 7, b. diam. 7.5, r. diam. 14.2 no measurements

three knobs on the base three knobs on the base

approx. diam. 8.5 b. diam. 6.5 ht. 4.8, b. diam. 4.8-5, r. diam. 8.9 ht. 9.5, approx. r. diam. 9

found by the childeren

ht. 6.4

black painted lines

ht. 4.8-5.1, b. diam. 5, r. diam. 9.4 ht. 10.2, b. diam. 9-9.6

coarse ware

ht. 7 ht. 7, b. diam. 8.5, r. diam. 12.7 ht. 9, r. diam. 13.8 ht. 5.5, b. diam. 6, r. diam. 10.7 ht. ca. 6.5, r. diam. 10.8-11.8

imitation stone vessel

buff clay colour with black core coarse ware coarse ware

coarse ware

ht. 16.8, b. diam. 6.3, r. diam. coarse ware with traces 5.3 of red wash ht. 11.8, r. diam. 3.8 globular r. diam. 23.5

coarse buff ware

ht. 12.5

crude fabric

ht. 15.5, b. diam.7.5, r. diam. 7.9 ht. 6.2-6.7, ht. 9-9.2, b. diam. 6, r. diam. 11

low-fired, 4 pierced lugs (2 missing) bands of zigzag lines hatched triangles

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Object no.

82 QDF1.87.P.80

83 QDF1.87.P.81 84 QDF1.87.P.82 85 QDF1.87.P.83 86 QDF1.87.P.84 87 QDF1.87.P.85 88 QDF1.87.P.86 89 QDF1.87.P.87

Item

dish, plain, incomplete bowl, painted vessel, lower portion bottle, painted

Provenance

n. ch. tier 1

Measurments in cm

approx. diam. 17

n. ch. tier 1 ht. 11.8, r. diam. 12.5-12.8 tier 1, below slab 9 diam. 9.3 s. ch. tier 1, slab 13 ht. 12.5, r. diam. 5.3

Comments

architectonic design might be a dish short neck and flaring rim beaker, painted tier 1, below slab 9 r. diam. 6.7-6.8 4 wide black painted lines bowl, painted tier 1, below slabs ht. 11.8 faded architectonic 8&9 design bowl, fragmentary tier 1, below slab 8 no measurements same type of Items 81 and 85 bowl, constrcted rim outside the tomb ht. 8, b. diam. 8. 6, average r. painted wavy line in (surface) diam. 16 the rim

154

Appendix 2

Stone vessels Object no. 1 QDF1.86.S.1 2 QDF1.86.S.2 3 QDF1.86.S.3 4 QDF1.86.S.4 5 QDF1.86.S.5 6 QDF1.86.S.6 7 QDF1.86.S.7 8 QDF1.86.S.8 9 QDF1.86.S.9 10 QDF1.86.S.10 11 QDF1.86.S.11

Item bowl, truncated conical

Provenance northern chamber, tier 1 (below) box, high rectangular northern chamber, tier 1 cup, open, spouted northern chamber, tier 1 beaker, squat northern chamber, tier 1 box, rectangular northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, truncated, northern conical chamber, tier 1 bowl, truncated northern conical chamber, tier 1 box, rectangular, half northern extant chamber, tier 1 cup, open, spouted northern chamber, tier 1 bowl, truncated northern conical chamber, tier 1

12 QDF1.86.S.12

tumbler, barrelshaped lid, circular

13 QDF1.86.S.13

bowl, spouted

14 QDF1. 86.S.14 bowl, truncated conical 15 QDF1.86.S.15 beaker, cylindrical 16 QDF1. 86.S.16 box, rectangular, high-walls 17 QDF1. 86.S.17 bowl, truncated conical 18 QDF1. 86.S.18 bowl, small 19 QDF1. 86.S.19 lid, circular 20 QDF1.86.S.20

lid, circular

21 QDF1.86.S.21

lid, circular

22 QDF1.86.S.22

bowl, truncated conical bowl, spouted

23 QDF1.86.S.23

northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 2 (above) northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2

155

Measurments in cm ht. 9, r. diam. 5.6-5.9, b. diam. 12.4-12.8

Comment with a lid (no. 77), sawteeth style design

ht. 9.5, b. length 8.5. R. 8.5x4.3 r. diam. 8.4, b.diam. 6x6.5

with a lid (no. 70), floral & 4 points star design hatched triangles & horozontal lines ht. 4.5, b. diam. 5.8, r. diam. zigzag line between 2 6 horizontal lines ht. 7.5, length 11.1, r. with a lid (no. 68), convex 5.3x3.1 walls ht. 8.5-9, b. diam. 15.5, r. with a lid (no. 60), tconvex diam. 6.5 base ht. 11, b. diam. 13 with a lid (no. 19) ht. 7.9 ht. 3.8, b. diam. 4.5

originally compartmented box fragmentary

ht. 11.6, b. diam 13.2, r. diam. 6.2

hatched triangles & hanging saw teeth style motif ht. 19.5, b. diam. 7.7, r. with a lid (no. 65), 4 lugs, diam. 8.5 saw-teeth motifs ht. 5.5, b. diam. 8.2, r. diam with a lid (no. 17), hatched 4 triangles ht. 4.6-5, b.diam. 4.8, r. criss-cross lines and sawdiam. 9.4 teeth motif ht. 5.5, b. diam. 8.9, r. diam. zigzag and bands of 4.3 incisions ht. 9.5, b. diam. 8, r. diam. with 4 perforated lugs on 7.3 the body ht. 9.5-9.8, base length 9, r. with a rectangular lid (no. length 7 71), floral & star design diam. 4 belongs to object no. 12, dotted circles ht. 4.2, r. diam. 7.5 arch and hatched design diam. 6.5 diam. 6.8 diam. 6.5 ht. 8-8.4, b. diam. 11.3 ht. average 4.5, r. diam. 8.6

belongs to object no. 7, two circles of saw-teeth style rosette design, segmented handle floral design lozenges of saw-teeth style and dotted circles dotted circles

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Object no. 24 QDF1.86.S.24 25 QDF1.86.S.25 26 QDF1.86.S.26

Item bowl, spouted

Provenance northern chamber, tier 2 bowl, hemispherical, northern incomplete chamber, tier 2 bowl, spouted northern chamber, tier 2

27 QDF1.86.S.27

lid, circular

28 QDF1.86.S.28

lid, circular

29 QDF1.86.S.29

bowl, spouted

30 QDF1.86.S.30

bowl, plain, spouted

31 QDF1.86.S.31 32 QDF1.86.S.32

bowl, truncated conical bowl, spouted, plain

33 QDF1.86.S.33

cup, spouted

34 QDF1.86.S.34

36 QDF1.86.S.36

bowl, truncated conical bowl, truncated conical bowl, open

37 QDF1.86.S.37

lid, circular

38 QDF1.86.S.38

cup, tall, spouted

39 QDF1.86.S.39

box, rectangular

40 QDF1.86.S.40

lid, circular

41 QDF1.86.S.41

beaker

42 QDF1.86.S.42 43 QDF1.86.S.43

bowl, truncated conical beaker

44 QDF1.86.S.44

beaker

45 QDF1.86.S.45

tumbler, ring base

46 QDF1.86.S.46

lid, circular

47 QDF1.86.S.47

49 QDF1.86.S.49

bowl, truncated conical bowl, truncated conical lid, circular

50 QDF1.86.S.50

lid, circular

35 QDF1.86.S.35

48 QDF1.86.S.48

northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1

156

Measurments in cm ht. 4.2-4.8, r. diam. 8.8

Comment saw-teeth & chevron design below the spout ht. 5-5.4, b. diam. 5.8, r. 3 zigzag lines of saw-teeth diam. 10.6 style ht. 4.5, b. diam. 5.7, r. diam. horizontal lines and 8.5 concentric hanging triangles diam. 6.8 2 circles of saw-teeth style on surface diam. 7.2-7.5 plain surface, radiated design on the knob ht. 6, r. diam. 11.4 circles and incomplete chevron designs ht. 3.5-4, r. diam. 8.7 undecorated ht. 7.2, b. diam. 10.8, r. diam. 7.2 ht. 6-7, r. diam. 7.5

hatched triangles

ht. 7.1-7.7, r. diam. 9.8

undecorated, dark grey stone spider-like motifs

ht. 14-15, approx. b. diam. 19, r. diam. 8.5 ht. 6, b. diam. 10, r. diam. 6

concentric lozenges and hatched triangles 3 lines of arrow design

ht. 4.3-4.5, b. diam. 3.5, r. diam. 7.2 diam. 5.2

narrow base, faded decoration radiated motifs on the surface and knob arrow motifs in zigzag saw-teeth style two panels of 4 point stars & 4 leaves radiating from a central circle radiated motif on the surface saw-teeth and plain triangles saw-teeth and plain triangles saw-teeth motif

ht. 7.2, b. diam. 5.2-5.8, r. diam. 8.8-9.5 ht. 11.1, base length 13.8 diam. 6.5 ht. 9.5, b. diam. 8.5 ht. 9, r., b. diam. 11.5-12.6 ht. 10.5, ht. 10-10.4, b. diam. 6.2-6.6, r. diam. 7.9-8.3 ht. 10.4, b. diam. 4.5, r. diam. 4.5 diam. 9

saw-teeth motif

ht. 15-15.5, b. diam.15.816.8, r. diam. 8.5-8.7 ht. 8.5, b. diam. 15.5, r. diam. 8.2 diam. 8

triangles & 2 lines of dotted circles hatched triangles

diam. 8.8

with 4 perforated lugs on the body undecorated

radiated motif on the surface 11 point star on the surface

Stone vessels Object no. 51 QDF1.86.S.51

Item lid, circular

52 QDF1.86.S.52

lid, oval

53 QDF1.86.S.53

lid, circular

54 QDF1.86.S.54

bowl, spouted

55 QDF1.86.S.55

59 QDF1.86.S.59

bowl, truncated, conical lid, circular, fish motif bowl, truncated, conical bowl, truncated, conical bowl, spouted

60 QDF1.86.S.60

lid, circular

56 QDF1.86.S.56 57 QDF1.86.S.57 58 QDF1.86.S.58

61 QDF1.86.S.61 lid, circular 62 QDF1.86.S.62

Provenance southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1

Measurments in cm diam. 4.9

southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1/2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1

ht. 4.7-5, b. diam. 6-6.7, r. diam. 10.2 ht. 7.5, b. diam. 11.5, r. diam. 5.9 diam. 9.7

63 QDF1.86.S.63

bowl, squat, truncated, conical beaker

64 QDF1.86.S.64

lid, circular

65 QDF1.86.S.65

lid, circular

66 QDF1.86.S.66

lid, circular, small

67 QDF1.86.S.67

lid, circular

68 QDF1.86.S.68

lid, rectangular

69 QDF1.86.S.69

bowl, spouted

70 QDF1.86.S.70

lid, rectangular

71 QDF1.86.S.71

lid, rectangular

72 QDF1.86.S.72

bowl, spouted

73 QDF1.86.S.73

beaker

74 QDF1.86.S.74

lid, circular

75 QDF1.86.S.75

lid, rectangular

northern chamber, tier 1 N. Ch. From the ‘U’ curve N. Ch. From the ‘U’ curve Bottom of the ‘U’

76 QDF1.86.S.76

cup, fragmentary

Bottom of the ‘U’

northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1

157

length 9.6, width 6 diam. 6.1-6.4

Comment 2 circles of saw-teeth style on surface lid with detachable grip elaborate motif of 5 points star & concentration of curved saw-teeth lines with relatively long decorated spout hatched triangles 4 fish on the surface, knob missing hatched triangles

ht. 7.3, b. diam. 13-13.4, r. diam. 6.8 ht. 8.2, b. diam. 10.9-11.5, r. hatched triangles diam. 6.3-6.7 ht. 4.5, b. diam. 4-4.2 criss-cross lines, chevron design below the spout diam. 6.8 radiated motif on the surface diam. 11.1 7 arm starfish-like motif, removable grip is missing ht. 7.9, approx. b. diam. 15, sharp convex base, incised r. diam. 7.3 triangles ht. 13, b. diam. 9.5, r. diam. found with a lid (no. 64), 9 triangles with saw-teeth motifs diam. 9 belongs to object no. 63, rosette motif diam. 8.5 segmented handle, fits object no. 11, radiated saw-teeth lines diam. 4.3-4.5 with iconographic sign on the grip diam. 8.3-8.5 2 circles of saw-teeth style on surface length 6.8, width 4.5 fits vessel 5, radiated sawteeth lines ht. 4.1-4.9, b. diam. 4.2-4.5, chevron design below the r. diam. 6.8 spout length 6.3, width 4.6 belongs to object no. 2, geometrical motif length 7.6, width 5.5 belongs to object no. 16, geometrical and floral motifs ht. 4.5, b. diam. 3.5-3.6, r. arch and chevron motifs diam. 8 ht. 11.8, b. diam. 8-8.3, r. retrieved from the diam. 8.6-8.8 children, floral motif diam. 8-8.2 segmented knob, fits object no. 73, plain length 4.2, width 3.4 found by children, line of saw-teeth style along the edges b. diam. 6.2 found by children, profile of a cup

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Object no. 77 QDF1.86.S.77

Item lid, circular

78 QDF1.87.S.78

box, high, rectangular lid, square, eroded

79 QDF1.87.S.79 80 QDF1.87.S.80 81 QDF1.87.S.81

bowl, truncated, conical lid, circular

Provenance northern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2

Measurments in cm diam. 5.8 ht. 11, b. length 9.7, width 6.3 dimensions unavailable ht. 6.5, b. diam. 12.1, r. diam. 5.9 diam. 6.3

82 QDF1.87.S.82

bowl, shouldered, spouted

southern chamber, tier 2

ht. 4.3, . b. diam.5.8, r. diam. 8.8

83 QDF1.87.S.83

bowl, spouted

84 QDF1.87.S.84

Spouted cup/beaker

southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2

ht. 5.1, b. diam. 5.1-5.4, r. diam. 8.5-8.9 ht. 6.8-7.2, b. diam. 5.8-6.1, r. diam. 7.7 ht. 3.6-3.8, b. diam. 3.4, r. diam. 8.5 ht. 3.1, b. diam. 6.7, r. diam. 6.7

85 QDF1.87.S.85 86 QDF1.87.S.86

87 QDF1.87.S.87 88 QDF1.87.S.88

89 QDF1.87.S.89

90 QDF1.87.S.90

91 QDF1.87.S.91 92 QDF1.87.S.92 93 QDF1.87.S.93 94 QDF1.87.S.94

Comment belongs to object no. 1, saw-teeth motif with a lid (no. 79), zigzag lines of saw-teeth style belongs to object 78, partly eroded motif hatched triangles Belongs to object 80, radiated lines inside a circle of saw-teeth style long spout, accentuated rim and shoulder, carinated body, motifs in saw-teeth style zigzag incisions

triangles and vertical lines in saw-teeth style bowl, small dotted circles and oblique hatched lines container, circular low concave walls, combination of dotted circles and hatched triangles in saw teeth style lid, circular, long southern ht. 6.5, diam. 9 dotted circles on the grip chamber, tier 2 surface and the knob bowl, small, lugged subterranian ht. 5.8, b. diam. 6.2, r. diam. 4 perforated lugs. burial- north 3.3 Decorated with dotted circles, oblique and horizontal lines bowl, small subterranian ht. 2.3-2.6, b. 4.1-4.3 may have been reshaped burial- north from a higher vessel, below slab 4 decorated with small dotted circles bowl, spouted, large, From the ht. 8.5, approx. r. diam. 17.5 spout was found in the fragment subterranian and northern chamber of the the upper burials. upper burial. The rest occurred in the lower burial. Dotted circles on top of straight and oblique lines. bowl, high, small subterranian ht. 4.8, b. diam. 3.5, r. diam. two bands of dotted burial- south 3.7 circles and horizontal lines lid, circular subterranian ht. 3.5, diam. 4.9 dotted circles and short burial- south oblique lines bowl, spouted, large subterranian ht. 5.1-5.4, r. diam. 11.8 dotted circles, horizontal burial- south, and oblique lines below slab 13 lid, circular subterranian diam. 5.5 dotted circles and short burial-south near oblique lines. the enterancebelow slab 8

158

Appendix 3

Copper-bronze vessels Provenance northern chamber, tier 1 (below) 2 QDF1.86.B.2 northern chamber, tier 1 3 QDF1.86.B.3 bowl, open, pouring northern chamber, lip tier 1 4 QDF1.86.B.4 bowl, open, pouring northern chamber, lip tier 1 5 QDF1.86.B.5 bowl, open, pouring northern chamber, lip tier 1 6 QDF1.86.B.6 upper portion of a northern chamber, spouted bowl tier 1 7 QDF1.86.B.7 bowl, open, pouring northern chamber, lip tier 1 8 QDF1.86.B.8 bowl, small base northern chamber, tier 1 9 QDF1.86.B.9 bowl/tassa, plain northern chamber, tier 1 10 QDF1.86.B.10 bowl, open, lipped northern chamber, tier 1 11 QDF1.86.B.11 bowl, open, short northern chamber, spout tier 1 12 QDF1.86.B.12 bowl, lipped northern chamber, tier 1 13 QDF1.86.B.13 bowl, closed, pouring northern chamber, lip tier 1 14 QDF1.86.B.14 bowl, spouted, northern chamber, fragmented tier 1 15 QDF1.86.B.15 bowl, fragmented northern chamber, tier 1 16 QDF1.86.B.16 bowl, open, lipped northern chamber, tier 1 17 QDF1.86.B.17 bowl, spouted northern chamber, tier 1 18 QDF1.86.B.18 bowl, spouted, northern chamber, fragmented tier 1 19 QDF1.86.B.19 bowl, spouted, northern chamber, fragmented tier 2 (above) 20 QDF1.86.B.20 bowl, spouted, northern chamber, fragmented tier 2 21 QDF1.86.B.21 bowl, open, pouring northern chamber, lip tier 2 22 QDF1.86.B.22 bowl southern chamber, tier 1 23 QDF1.86.B.23 bowl, spouted southern chamber, tier 1 24 QDF1.86.B.24 bowl, spouted southern chamber, tier 1 25 QDF1.86.B.25 bowl/tassa, plain southern chamber, tier 1 1

Object no. QDF1.86.B.1

Item bowl, open, pouring lip bowl, rimmed

159

Measurments in cm h. 5-5.1, b. diam. 3.8, r. diam. 9 ht.10.5-11.6, b. diam. ca. 6.5, r. diam 15.5 ht. 10, b. diam. 8, r. diam. 15.2 ht. 10.5, r. diam. 18

Comments narrow flat base

ht. 3.8, b. diam. 4.2, r. ca. r. diam. 7.5 diam. 12.5

constricted rim

ht. 9.5, r. diam. 14.1

with narrow convex base with narrow flat base

ht. 5.6, b. diam. 5.3, r. diam. 12 ht. 9, b. diam. 8, r. diam. 15 ht. 10, b. diam. 7, r. diam. 15

parts from the base & body missing parts from the body missing

narrow flat base

ht. 9 ht. 4.7, b. diam. 6.1, r. 9-9.8 diam. 14.6

with flat base and flaring rim

diam. 14.4 ht. 8.2, ca. r. diam. 11.5 ht. 8-9.5, b. diam. 7.5, r. diam. 14.5 ht. 10.7, average b. diam. 8.5, r. diam. 15.8 no dimensions ht. 10, r. diam. 14.1

short neck & broad flaring rim

survived in a few fragments

extant ht. 9 ht. 3.2, b. diam. 3.3, average r. diam. 8 ht. 8.8, b. diam. 8.5, r. ca. diam. 16 ht. 10, b. diam. 7.5-8, r. diam. 14 ht. 8.6-9, b. diam. 6.5, r. diam 14.5 ht. 6.5, b. diam. 5.5, r. diam. 12-12.5

of baby milk feeding type damaged, possibly spouted

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Object no. Item 26 QDF1.86.B.26 bowl, globular, short spout 27 QDF1.86.B.27 vase, necked

Provenance southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 28 QDF1.86.B.28 bowl, fragmented southern chamber, tier 1 29 QDF1.86.B.29 bowl/tassa, southern chamber, fragmented tier 1 30 QDF1.86.B.30 bowl, deep, southern chamber, fragmented tier 1 31 QDF1.86.B.31 bowl, open, lipped southern chamber, tier 1 32 QDF1.86.B.32 bowl, spouted southern chamber, tier 1 33 QDF1.86.B.33 bowl, plain, small southern chamber, tier 1 34 QDF1.86.B.34 bowl/tassa, plain southern chamber, tier 1 35 QDF1.86.B.35 bowl, spouted, southern chamber, incomplete tier 2 36 QDF1.86.B.36 bowl, shouldered, southern chamber, spouted tier 1 37 QDF1.86.B.37 bowl, spouted southern chamber, tier 1 38 QDF1.86.B.38 bowl/tassa, flattened southern chamber, rim, omphallos tier 1 39 QDF1.86.B.39 bowl, spouted southern chamber, tier 1 40 QDF1.86.b.40 bowl, open, lipped southern chamber, tier 2 41 QDF1.86.B.41 cup, small, southern chamber, fragmented tier 2 42 QDF1.86.B.42 bowl, broad rim, northern chamber, omphallos tier 1 43 QDF1.86.B.43 bowl, open, pouring northern chamber, lip, omphallos tier 1 44 QDF1.86.B.44 bowl, open, pouring southern chamber, lip tier 1 45 QDF1.86.B.45 bowl, lipped, large southern chamber, tier 1 46 QDF1.86.B.46 bowl, fragmented southern chamber, tier 1 47 QDF1.86.B.47 bowl, upper portion southern chamber, tier 1 48 QDF1.86.B.48 bowl, fragmented southern chamber, tier 1 49 QDF1.86.B.49 bowl, small, northern chamber, fragmented tier 1 50 QDF1.87.B.50 bowl/tassa, plain southern chamber, tier 2 51 QDF1.87.B.51 bowl/tassa, plain southern chamber, tier 2 52 QDF1.87.B.52 bowl/tassa, plain southern chamber, tier 2 53 QDF1.87.B.53 bowl/tassa, southern chamber, fragmented tier 2

160

Measurments in cm ht. 9, b. diam. 11, r. diam. 14 est. ht. 8.8, r. diam. 10.7 est. r. diam. 22

Comments constricted rim, incised zigzag high neck,flaring rim, bulgy body

ht. 9.5, est. r. diam. 14.5 r. diam. 17-18 ht. 9.5, b. diam. 8, r. diam. 15 ht. 8, b. diam. 8.5, r. diam. 15 ht. 4-4.5, r. diam. 7.6-8

broad rim

ht. 8,b. diam. 8.5, r. diam. 15 ht. 8.5, est. b. diam. 7.5, ca. r. diam. 15-15.5 ht. 7.9, b. diam. 7.3, r. diam. short neck, broad rim, 13.5 pointed spout ht. 9-9.7, b. diam. 8.5-9, r. diam. 16.5-17 ht. 9.2, b. diam. 10, r. diam. 15.7 ht. 9.8, r. diam. 15 missing base ht. 9.6, b. diam. 6.6, r. diam. 15.8 ht. 4.2, est. r. diam. 9 ht. 4.5, b. diam. 5.5, r. diam. 9.5 ht. 4-5, b. diam. 5.1, r. diam. 10 ht. 4.5, b diam. 3.8, r. diam. 8.5 ht. 10.2-11, b. diam. 7, r. diam. 16 est. r. diam. 15 est. r. diam. 16 est. r. diam. 15 ht. 4.4, est. r. diam. 9 ht. 7.5, b. diam. 6, average r. diam. 12 ht. 7, b. diam. 5.5, r. diam. 12 ht. 7, b. diam. 5.8, r. diam. 12 no dimensions

of baby milk feeding type

Copper-bronze vessels Object no. Item 54 QDF1.87.B.54 bowl, rim splayed

Measurments in cm ht. 4.2, r. diam. 8.4

55 QDF1.87.B.55

ht. 7.5, b. diam. 8-8.5

56 QDF1.87.B.56 57 QDF1.87.B.57 58 QDF1.87.B.58 59 QDF1.87.B.59 60 QDF1.87.B.60

Provenance southern chamber, tier 2 bowl/tassa s. ch. from the fragmented curve vessel, fragmented northen chamber, tier 2 vessel, fragmented n. ch. from the curv tier 1/2 vessel, fragmented southern chamber, tier 2 vessel, large, southern chamber, fragmented tier 2 vessel, lower portion southern chamber, tier 2

161

no dimensions no dimensions b. diam.4.4 no dimensions b. diam. 3.6

Comments

Appendix 4

Miscellaneous 1

Object no. QDF1.86.M.1

dagger

Item

2

QDF1.86.M.2

dagger

3

QDF1.86.M.3

dagger

4

QDF1.86.M.4

dagger

5

QDF1.86.M.5

dagger

6

QDF1.86.M.6

dagger

7

QDF1.86.M.7

dagger

8

QDF1.86.M.8

dagger

9

QDF1.86.M.9

dagger

10

QDF1.86.M.10

dagger

11

QDF1.86.M.11

dagger, tip missing

12

QDF1.86.M.12

dagger

13

QDF1.86.M.13

dagger

14

QDF1.86.M.14

dagger

15

QDF1.86.M.15

dagger

16

QDF1.86.M.16

dagger

17

QDF1.86.M.17

dagger

18

QDF1.86.M.18

dagger

19

QDF1.86.M.19

dagger

20

QDF1.86.M.20

dagger

21

QDF1.86.M.21

dagger

22

QDF1.86.M.22

dagger, incomplete

23

QDF1.86.M.23

dagger

24

QDF1.86.M.24

dagger, incomplete

25

QDF1.86.M.25

dagger

Provenance northern chamber, tier 1 (below) northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 2 (above) northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2

162

Measurments in cm l. 41.2 l. 39 l. 34.4 l. 37.3 l. 41.5 l. 41.8 l.37.6 l. 39 l. 38.2 l. 37 extant l. 39

Comments grip with 16 rivets, curved butt grip with 16 rivets, curved butt grip with 18 rivets, curved butt plain grip with traces of wood, no rivits non-riveted grip, lunar hilt plain grip, no rivets, lunar hilt 13 rivets and a missing one on the grip 15 rivets on the grip plain grip , no rivets, lunar hilt with 10 rivets

l. 38.3

plain grip without rivets, lunar hilt plain grip without rivets, lunar hilt plain grip with 13 rivets

l. 37.2

plain grip, no rivets

extant l. 15.7

plain grip, no rivets, incomplete 16 rivets on the grip

l. 41

l. 39.5 l. 39.5 l. 39

no rivets on the grip, lunar hilt no rivets, lunar hilt

l. 21.7

7 rivets on the grip

l. 37.6

plain grip, no rivets, lunar hilt plain grip, no rivets, lunar hilt 16 rivets

l. 41.2 extant l. ca. 30 l. 38.8 extant l. 33.5

no rivets, central spine, lunar hilt 15 rivets, missing tip

l. 39.5

16 rivets

Miscellaneous

26

Object no. QDF1.86.M.26

dagger

Item

27

QDF1.86.M.27

copper-based adze

28

QDF1.86.M.28

battle axe (halberd)

29

QDF1.86.M.29

copper-based axe

30

QDF1.86.M.30

copper-based axe

31

QDF1.86.M.31

copper-based axe

32

QDF1.86.M.32

copper-based axe

33

QDF1.86.M.33

copper-based adze

34

QDF1.86.M.34

copper-based axe

35

QDF1.86.M.35

copper-based axe

36

QDF1.86.M.36

copper-based axe

37

QDF1.86.M.37

copper-based adze

38

QDF1.86.M.38

copper-based axe

39

QDF1.86.M.39

copper-based axe

40

QDF1.86.M.40

copper-based axe

41

QDF1.86.M.41

42

QDF1.86.M.42

43

QDF1.86.M.43

44

QDF1.86.M.44

45

QDF1.86.M.45

46

QDF1.86.M.46

47

QDF1.86.M.47

48

QDF1.86.M.48

49

QDF1.86.M.49

50

QDF1.86.M.50

51

QDF1.86.M.51

52

QDF1.86.M.52

53

QDF1.86.M.53

15 copper-based arrowheads 3 copper-based arrowheads 18 copper-based arrowheads 29 copper-based arrowheads 6 copper-based arrowheads 10 copper-based arrowheads lump of arrowheads, total 18-25 8 copper-based arrowheads 18 copper-based arrowheads 13 copper-based arrowheads 16 copper-based arrowheads 38 copper-based arrowheads 6 identical arrowheads

Provenance salvaged while bulldozing northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 western side of northern ch. various places of north ch. various places of north ch. southern chamber below p.37 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2

163

Measurments in cm l. 40.5 l. 14

Comments no rivets, broken into 4 pieces, lunar hilt slender with broad end

l. from tip to tip 18.5

crescent-shaped axe

l. 10.7 l. 10.7

slanted cutting edge, damaged socket with curved cutting edge

l. 10.8

with broad cutting edge

l. 12.9

with broad cutting edge

l. 11

slender

l. 11.9

broad slanted cutting edge

l. 9.7

circular cutting edge

l. 11.4

socket with 3 raised ribs. curved end slender, curved end

l. 12.7 l. 9.7

l. 11

curved and slanted cutting edge slightly curved and slanted cutting edge damaged cutting edge

l. 7- 9

some scored signs

the longest is 8.2

one is incomplete

l. 6.7-10

same context with stone lid S 27 found as a group

l. 10.8

dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable l. 7-8 dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable

one bears engraved decoration one is broad and short, rest are slender discovered as one clustered piece some scored signs

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates

54

Object no. QDF1.86.M.54

55

QDF1.86.M.55

56

QDF1.86.M.56

57

QDF1.86.M.57

58

QDF1.86.M.58

59

QDF1.86.M.59

60

QDF1.86.M.60

61

QDF1.86.M.61

62

QDF1.86.M.62

63

QDF1.86.M.63

64

QDF1.86.M.64

65

QDF1.86.M.65

66

QDF1.86.M.66

67

QDF1.86.M.67

68

QDF1.86.M.68

69

QDF1.86.M.69

70

QDF1.86.M.70

71

QDF1.86.M.71

72

QDF1.86.M.72

73

QDF1.86.M.73

74

QDF1.86.M.74

75

QDF1.86.M.75

76

QDF1.86.M.76

77

QDF1.86.M.77

78

QDF1.86.M.78

79

QDF1.86.M.79

80

QDF1.86.M.80

81

QDF1.86.M.81

Item 20 copper-based arrowheads 5 copper-based arrowheads 4 copper-based arrowheads 3 copper-based arrowheads 17 copper-based arrowheads 8 copper-based arrowheads arrowhead bundle, total 34-37 copper-based knife blade copper-based bangle/ anklet copper-based bangle/ anklet copper-based anklet

Provenance southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber southern chamber

various places of southern ch. northern chamber, tier 1 southern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1/2 northern chamber, tier 1 copper-based bangle/ northern chamber, anklet tier 1 copper-based anklet northern chamber, tier 1 copper-based anklet northern chamber, tier 2 copper-based bangle northern chamber, tier 2 copper-based anklet northern chamber, tier 2 copper-based anklet southern chamber, tier 1 copper-based anklet southern chamber, tier 1 copper-based bangle southern chamber, tier 1 copper-based bangle southern chamber, tier 1/2 copper-based anklet southern chamber, tier 1/2 copper-based anklet southern chamber, tier 1 copper-based bangle southern chamber, tier 1 copper-based bangle southern chamber, tier 1 copper-based bangle southern chamber, tier 1 copper-based bangle curved wall of n. ch copper-based bangle northern chamberlayer-1 copper-based bangle northern chamber, tier 1

164

Measurments in cm dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable l. 16

Comments

scored signs

treated by IA, UCL, UK with short tang

outside diam. 8.5x9.5

circular section

diam. 8.2x9.2

circular section

diam. 8x9.3

circular section

diam. 8x9.5

circular section

diam. 9x10.7 diam. 8.5x9.5

circular sec. restored by the Swiss team circular section

diam. 8.2x9.5

circular section

diam. 8.8x9.4

circular section

diam. 9.4x11.5

companion of M 71

diam. 9.5x11.5 diam. 9.7x10.7

companion of M 70 found together companion of M 76

diam. 9x10.7

companion of M 197

diam. 9.4x10.5

circular section

diam. 8.4x9.2

circular section

diam. 10x10.5

companion of M 72

inside diam. 9

companion of M 78

inside diam. 9.2

companion of M 77

diam. 10.9

companion of M 200

diam. 12.3

companion of M 81

diam. 11.5

companion of M 80

Miscellaneous

82

Object no. QDF1.86.M.82

83

QDF1.86.M.83

84

QDF1.86.M.84

85

QDF1.86.M.85

86

QDF1.86.M.86

87

QDF1.86.M.87

88

QDF1.86.M.88

89

QDF1.86.M.89

90

QDF1.86.M.90

91

QDF1.86.M.91

92 93

QDF1.86.M.92 QDF1.86.M.93

94 95

QDF1.86.M.94 QDF1.86.M.95

96 97

QDF1.86.M.96 QDF1.86.M.97

98

QDF1.86.M.98

99

QDF1.86.M.99

100 QDF1.86.M.100 101 QDF1.86.M.101 102 QDF1.86.M.102 103 QDF1.86.M.103 104 QDF1.86.M.104 105 QDF1.86.M.105 106 QDF1.86.M.106 107 QDF1.86.M.107 108 QDF1.86.M.108 109 QDF1.86.M.109 110 QDF1.86.M.110 111 QDF1.86.M.111 112 QDF1.86.M.112

Item wristband (flat and wide) small wristband (flat and wide) copper-based razor

Provenance northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber, tier 1/2 southern chamber, tier 2 copper-based ladle northern chamber, tier 1 small piece of bended southern chamber, metal cable tier 2 bended metal cable southern chamber, tier 1 metal cable/ part of a southern chamber fishing hook copper-based finger ring copper-based finger northern chamber, ring tier 1 copper-based finger northern chamber, ring tier 2 copper-based ring northern chamber metal ring of circular northern chamber section metal ring southern chamber metal (?) ring or a northern chamber cable shell (?) finger ring northern chamber shell/bone finger ring northern chamber, tier 2 earring or nose ring northern chamber, tier 2 two earrings/nose southern chamber rings two earrings/nose southern chamber rings earring or nose ring northern chamber lower portion (flake) northern chamber of an earring pincers made of northern chamber, copper-based tier 2 pendant/cylinderseal- northern ch., close steatite to b.19 pendant northern ch., close to b.19 pair of earrings/ northern chamber, bracelet tier 1 copper-based mirror northern chamber stone pendant northern chamber, tier 2 stone pendant northern chamber, tier 2 shell buckle northern chamber, tier 2 decorative shell northern chamber, tier 2 shell buckle northern chamber, tier 2

165

Measurments in cm maximum diam. 7.6 diam. 3.9-4.1 l. 7.9 diam. 3.8-4, handle l. 12.2 dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable diam. 2

Comments long ‘x’ design at both ends triangular

found close to dagger M 22

diam. 2.7 incomplete diam. 2-2.1

found below object P 14 possibly silver

diam. 2.3-2.5 dimensions unavailable diam. 2.5 diam. 2.3

possibly silver spiral in shape,

ca. width 1.2

possibly silver

ca. width1.1

possibly silver

ca. width 1.3

gold/electrum

ca. width 1 ca. width 1.4

gold/electrum gold

l. 5.2 l. 3.9, diam. 1.5 l. 4.8, diam. 1.3 diam. 5.7-6.1 and 5.7 diam. 14.5 l. 3 diam. 2.8-3.2 diam. 5 diam. 3.6-3.7 diam. 4

perforated, shows stylized human figure perforated, glass or green faience silver, circular section circular shape with tang triangular shape, incised soft stone circular, incised soft stone shell with 3 holes pierced horizontally central perforated hole interior has 3 horizontal holes .

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Object no. Item 113 QDF1.86.M.113 shell buckle 114 QDF1.86.M.114 shell buckle 115 QDF1.86.M.115 shell buckle 116 QDF1.86.M.116 shell buckle 117 QDF1.86.M.117 shell buckle 118 QDF1.86.M.118 decorated shell buckle 119 QDF1.86.M.119 docorated shell buckle 120 QDF1.86.M.120 shell buckle 121 QDF1.86.M.121 long red carnelian bead 122 QDF1.86.M.122 four globular beads

Provenance northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 1 northern chamber northern chamber southern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber

Measurments in cm diam. 4.3 diam. 4.8-5 diam. 5.8-6 diam. 5.1-5.2 diam. 3.5-3.6 diam. 5.3 diam. 5.2 diam. 4-4.1 diam. 4.6

northern chamber dimensions unavailable 123 QDF1.86.M.123 five beads northern chamber dimensions unavailable 124 QDF1.86.M.124 33 beads strung as a northern chamber dimensions necklace unavailable 125 QDF1.86.M.125 26 beads of red northern chamber dimensions carnelian unavailable 126 QDF1.86.M.126 17 small beads northern chamber dimensions unavailable 127 QDF1.86.M.127 30 carnelan beads northern chamber dimensions unavailable 128 QDF1.86.M.128 29 small carnelian northern chamber dimensions beads unavailable 129 QDF1.86.M.129 26 beads of red northernchamber dimensions carnelian unavailable 130 QDF1.86.M.130 metal beads northern chamber dimensions unavailable 131 QDF1.86.M.131 449 disc-shaped northern chamber dimensions beads,shell,paste unavailable 132 QDF1.86.M.132 38 small beads northern chamber dimensions unavailable 133 QDF1.86.M.133 55 small carnelian northern chamber dimensions beads unavailable 134 QDF1.86.M.134 23 beads, yellowish in northern chamber dimensions colour unavailable 135 QDF1.86.M.135 70 small white disc northern chamber dimensions beads unavailable 136 QDF1.86.M.136 61 small black disc northern chamber dimensions beads unavailable 137 QDF1.86.M.137 50 beads northern chamber dimensions unavailable 138 QDF1.86.M.138 3 tiny golden beads northern chamber dimensions and 2 flakes unavailable 139 QDF1.86.M.139 72 disc beads southern chamber dimensions unavailable 140 QDF1.86.M.140 40 white & black southern chamber dimensions stone beads unavailable 141 QDF1.86.M.141 33 carnelian beads southern chamber dimensions unavailable

166

Comments interior as in qdf1.86.m.110 interior as in qdf1.86.m.110 interior as in qdf1.86.m.110 interior as in qdf1.86.m.110 interior as in qdf1.86.m.110 rosette motif on exterior rosette motif on exterior interior as in qdf1.86.m.110 decorated with three golden rings chalcedony, 1 is made of streaky stone chalcedony, wide and flattish agate and coral (?), 1 is made of paste 25 barrel-shaped, 1 of dark green stone red carnelian mostly elongated mostly barrel-shaped, red and yellow mostly globular 4 complete, 3 destroyed, 1 granulated divided in 5 groups (114,79,78,85,94) mostly globular made of paste globular in shape oval and barrel, agate/ amber stone and/or shell black soft stone carnelian and paste, found inside pot P 15 poor state of preservation paste and white stone 31 white, 9 black. disc in shape various shapes

Miscellaneous Object no. Item 142 QDF1.86.M.142 7 beads

Provenance Measurments in cm southern chamber dimensions unavailable southern chamber dimensions unavailable southern chamber dimensions unavailable southern chamber dimensions unavailable northern chamber 14 x 11.7

Comments 3 globular, 4 tabular, stone and 1 faince 19 made of paste, 1 disc grey stone various shapes

l. 6 - 8

one is broken in 2 pieces

l. 30.7 l. 37.5

plain grip found between slabs 1 and 2, 6 6 rivets, lunar hilt

l. 26.7

plain grip, tip missing

l. 37.5

grip inlaid with faience (?)

l. 35.5

plain grip, prominent spine, crescent hilt 16 rivets on the grip

161 QDF1.87.M.161 30 arrowheads

northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber

162 QDF1.87.M.162 1 arrowhead

northern chamber

163 QDF1.87.M.163 8 arrowheads

northern chamber

164 QDF1.87.M.164 16 arrowheads

southern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2

143 QDF1.86.M.143 20 beads 144 QDF1.86.M.144 13 tiny carnelian beads 145 QDF1.86.M.145 5 flakes of beads 146 QDF1.86.M.146 complete ostrich egg shell 147 QDF1.86.M.147 6 copper-based arrowheads 148 QDF1.86.M.148 dagger 149 QDF1.87.M.149 dagger 150 QDF1.87.M.150 dagger 151 QDF1.87.M.151 dagger 152 QDF1.87.M.152 dagger 153 QDF1.87.M.153 dagger 154 QDF1.87.M.154 dagger 155 QDF1.87.M.155 dagger 156 QDF1.87.M.156 copper-based lancet/ knife blade 157 QDF1.87.M.157 copper-based axe 158 QDF1.87.M.158 copper-based axe 159 QDF1.87.M.159 37 arrowheads 160 QDF1.87.M.160 35 arrowheads

165 QDF1.87.M.165 5 arowheads 166 QDF1.87.M.166 0ne arrowhead 167 QDF1.87.M.167 15 arrowheads 168 QDF1.87.M.168 8 arrowheads 169 QDF1.87.M.169 8 arrowheads

167

l. 43 l. 35 l. 33 l. 24 l. 10 l. 9-9.5 dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable

4 tiny metal flakes, 1 large flake (pearl ?) hole at one side

6 rivets, traces of bone/ wood on the grip no rivets, found near the entrance may have had a wooden handle with sharply curved cutting edge broken socket stacked, 1 or more with engraved signs found at the western side of the ch. 1 (or more) scored signs

found on the right of the entrance

short and wide

from different locations of the chamber

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Object no. Item 170 QDF1.87.M.170 17 arrowheads 171 QDF1.87.M.171 172 QDF1.87.M.172 173 QDF1.87.M.173 174 QDF1.87.M.174 175 QDF1.87.M.175 176 QDF1.87.M.176 177 QDF1.87.M.177 178 QDF1.87.M.178 179 QDF1.87.M.179 180 QDF1.87.M.180 181 QDF1.87.M.181 182 QDF1.87.M.182 183 QDF1.87.M.183 184 QDF1.87.M.184 185 QDF1.87.M.185 186 QDF1.87.M.186 187 QDF1.87.M.187 188 QDF1.87.M.188 189 QDF1.87.M.189 190 QDF1.87.M.190 191 QDF1.87.M.191 192 QDF1.87.M.192 193 QDF1.87.M.193 194 QDF1.87.M.194 195 QDF1.87.M.195 196 QDF1.87.M.196 197 QDF1.87.M.197

Provenance southern chamber, tier 2 7 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 13 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 10 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 8 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 2 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 16 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 6 arrowheads southern chamberlayer-2 2 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 6 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 10 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 21 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 2 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 2 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 7 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 12 arrowheads southern chamber, tier 2 1 arrowhead southern chamber, tier 2 1 arrowhead originally from lower burial 1 arrowhead subterrenean burial- n. ch. 2 arrowheads subterrenean burial- s. ch. copper-based bracelet northern chamber, or anklet pair tier 2 copper-based bracelet northern chamber, or anklet tier 2 copper-based anklet northern chamber, tier 2 copper-based anklet northern chamber, tier 2 copper-based anklet southern chamber, tier 2 copper-based anklet southern chamber, tier 1 copper-based anklet southern chamber, tier 2 copper-based anklet southern chamber, tier 2

168

Measurments in cm dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable dimensions unavailable diam. 7.8x8.8

Comments found with axe M 158

10 arrows plus 2 damaged

found between slabs 13 & 14, scored found below slab 4 found below slab 15 found on top of the other

9.5x8.2

companion of M 65

diam. 10x9

found between slabs 1 & 2

diam. 9.4x8 diam. 9.7x8.8 diam. 9.4x8.8

found close to object M 196 found close to object M 75

diam. 9.7x8.7

companion of M 194

diam. 9.5x8.8

Miscellaneous Object no. Item 198 QDF1.87.M.198 copper-based anklet

Provenance southern chamber, tier 1/2 199 QDF1.87.M.199 copper-based bangle/ northern chamber, anklet tier 1/2 200 QDF1.87.M.200 copper-based bangle curved wall of n. ch.l.1/2 201 QDF1.87.M.201 copper-based bracelet southern chamber, tier 2 202 QDF1.87.M.202 razor blade northern chamber, tier 2 203 QDF1.87.M.203 razor blade southern chamber, tier 2 204 QDF1.87.M.204 razor blade s. ch. lower burial 205 QDF1.87.M.205 razor blade n. ch. lower burial 206 QDF1.87.M.206 needle upper burial by the entrance 207 QDF1.87.M.207 awl southern chamber, tier 2 208 QDF1.87.M.208 finger ring, coppernorthern chamber, based tier 2 209 QDF1.87.M.209 finger ring, coppernear the entrancebased , incomplete layer 1/2 210 QDF1.87.M.210 finger ring, copperupper burial by the based , incomplete entrance 211 QDF1.87.M.211 copper-based finger northern chamber, ring tier 2 212 QDF1.87.M.212 finger ring, coppersouthern chamber, based , incomplete tier 2 213 QDF1.87.M.213 finger ring, coppercurved wall of n. based , incomplete chamber 214 QDF1.87.M.214 copper-based finger curved wall of n. ring chamber 215 QDF1.87.M.215 copper-based finger northern chamber, ring tier 2 216 QDF1.87.M.216 copper-based finger northern chamber, ring tier 2 217 QDF1.87.M.217 copper-based finger northern chamber, ring tier 2 218 QDF1.87.M.218 copper-based buckle northern chamber, chape tier 2 219 QDF1.87.M.219 copper-based buckle northern chamber, chape tier 2 220 QDF1.87.M.220 finger ring curved wall of n. chamber 221 QDF1.87.M.221 shell finger ring southern chamber, tier 2 222 QDF1.87.M.222 small ring made of curved wall of s. bone chamber 223 QDF1.87.M.223 shell finger ring lower burial, south chamber 224 QDF1.87.M.224 golden ear or nose curved wall of ring n.ch., l 1/2 225 QDF1.87.M.225 golden ear or nose southern chamber, ring tier 2 226 QDF1.87.M.226 golden ear or nose southern chamber, ring tier 2

169

Measurments in cm diam. 10x9.4

Comments companion of M 74

diam. 9.8x8.3 diam. 11x9.8

companion of M 79

diam. 4, th. 2 dimensions unavailable l. 4 l. 8.3 l. 5.6 l. 18.2 l. 10 diam. 2.-2.2

diam. 1.9-2.1 2 pieces

av. diam. 2.2 diam. 2.3 broken in 2 pieces diam. 2.1-2.2 l. 2

rectangular

l. 2

rectangular silver or lead

diam. 2.5 diam. 1.5 diam. 2.2 l. 2 l. 1.8 l. 1.5

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Object no. Item 227 QDF1.87.M.227 ear or nose ring

Provenance southern chamber, tier 2 228 QDF1.87.M.228 ear or nose ring southern chamber, tier 2 229 QDF1.87.M.229 small granulated southern chamber, golden ring tier 2 230 QDF1.87.M.230 stamp seal northern chamber, tier 2 231 QDF1.87.M.231 cylinder seal southern chamber, tier 2 232 QDF1.87.M.232 buckle southern chamber, tier 2 233 QDF1.87.M.233 decorative shell southern chamber, tier 2 234 QDF1.87.M.234 buckle southern chamber, tier 2 235 QDF1.87.M.235 buckle southern chamber, tier 2 236 QDF1.87.M.236 buckle southern chamber -layer 2 237 QDF1.87.M.237 buckle northern chamber, tier 2 238 QDF1.87.M.238 buckle southern chamber, tier 2 239 QDF1.87.M.239 decorated shell buckle lower burial, south chamber 240 QDF1.87.M.240 circular decorative lower burial, south shell chamber 241 QDF1.87.M.241 one shell bead lower burial, south chamber 242 QDF1.87.M.242 3 metal beads (gold?) curved wall, n ch. layer 1 243 QDF1.87.M.243 20 carnelian and coral curved wall,n ch. (?) beads layer 1 244 QDF1.87.M.244 85 carnelian beads curved wall, n ch. layer 1/2 245 QDF1.87.M.245 40 carnelian beads northern chamber, tier 2 246 QDF1.87.M.246 35 carnelian beads northern chamber, tier 2 247 QDF1.87.M.247 119 black and white northern chamber, stone beads tier 2 248 QDF1.87.M.248 115 black and white northern chamber, stone beads tier 2 249 QDF1.87.M.249 52 carnelian and frit northern chamber, beads tier 2 250 QDF1.87.M.250 1 large globular black northern chamber, bead tier 2 251 QDF1.87.M.251 36 beads strung in a curved wall, n. ch.necklace layer 2 252 QDF1.87.M.252 18 carnelian beads curved wall, n. ch.layer 2 253 QDF1.87.M.253 65 beads strung in a curved wall, n. ch.necklace layer 2 254 QDF1.87.M.254 154 beads strung in a curved wall, n. ch.necklace layer 2

170

Measurments in cm l. 1.6

Comments silver (?)

l. 1.3

silver (?)

soft stone l. 4.2, diam. 1

soft stone

diam. 4.9-5.1

shell with holes on the concave side shell with holes acircular the edge shell with holes on the concave side shell with re-shaped edges and holes shell with holes on the concave side shell, concave and flat sides with holes shell, one side is convex, the other is flat 7 concentric circles on the convex side wide central hole and straight-cut edge cylindrical

diam. 3-3.2 diam. 4.7-4.9 diam. 4.6 diam 3.5-3.7 diam. 4.5-4.6 diam. 5.5 diam. 3.9 diam. 2.4 l. 0.7 l. of a complete one is 0.5

with granulation mostly barrel-shaped include 1 pearl and a golden flake include 1 bead made of frit (paste) six of them have cream colour disc in shape, 60 white and 59 black disc in shape, 53 white and 62 black frit beads are dominant

carnelian: barrel, globular, cylindrical 16 cylindrical, 1 barrel, 1 made of frit small red carnelian beads disc-shaped beads, white stone or frit

Miscellaneous Object no. Item 255 QDF1.87.M.255 148 beads strung in a necklace 256 QDF1.87.M.256 33 beads 257 QDF1.87.M.257 26 beads of chalky material 258 QDF1.87.M.258 14 beads of black & white stones 259 QDF1.87.M.259 28 carnelian beads 260 QDF1.87.M.260 1 etched carnelian bead 261 QDF1.87.M.261 17 beads 262 QDF1.87.M.262 14 stone beads 263 QDF1.87.M.263 49 carnelian beads 264 QDF1.87.M.264 39 carnelian beads 265 QDF1.87.M.265 14 carnelian beads 266 QDF1.87.M.266 24 carnelian beads 267 QDF1.87.M.267 36 small carnelian beads 268 QDF1.87.M.268 27 carnelian beads 269 QDF1.87.M.269 22 beads 270 QDF1.87.M.270 6 carnelian beads 271 QDF1.87.M.271 18 carnelian beads 272 QDF1.87.M.272 9 carnelian and shell beads 273 QDF1.87.M.273 1 bead 274 QDF1.87.M.274 7 beads 275 QDF1.87.M.275 10 beads 276 QDF1.88.M.276 45 beads 277 QDF1.87.M.277 50 beads 278 QDF1.87.M.278 8 beads 279 QDF1.87.M.279 55 beads 280 QDF1.87.M.280 6 segmented beads 281 QDF1.87.M.281 4 beads 282 QDF1.87.M.282 1 bead

Provenance Measurments in cm curved wall, n. ch.layer 2 northern chamber, tier 1/2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 curved wall, n. ch.- l. 1.5 layer 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 curved wall of s.ch.-layer 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 curved wall of s.ch., layer 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, l. 1.3-1.6 tier 2 southern chamber, tier 2 southern chamber, l. 3.3 tier 2

171

Comments disc-shaped beads, white stone or frit chalky material, globular and cylindrical mostly globular with 2 large barrel shapes 8 black, 6 white.small discshaped beads various shapes. barrel shape with white engraving 16 globular, 1 black discshaped bead 13 globular of various colours, 1 black various shapes and sizes cylindrical shapes globular and disc shapes red colour, barrel shapes red colour, globular shapes red colour, barrel shapes shell, carnelian, bone, frit, green stone 4 barrel, 1 cylindrical&1 kidney bean shape. globular and barrel shapes 1 large barrel and 8 small streaky stone with triangular section carenelian and stones of various shapes mostly made of carnelian made of chalky material/ frit made of chalky material, mostly globular globular, chalky and nonchalky material disc shape, white stone chalky segmented beads, circular section 3 shells (dentalium), 1 copper-based almond shape, creamy colour stone

Qidfa‘ 1: Excavation of a Late Prehistoric Tomb, Fujairah Emirate, United Arab Emirates Object no. Item 283 QDF1.87.M.283 2 carnelian beads 284 QDF1.87.M.284 5 beads 285 QDF1.87.M.285 20 beads & a golden flake 286 QDF1.87.M.286 23 beads 287 QDF1.87.M.287 1 bead 288 QDF1.87.M.288 10 metal beads 289 QDF1.87.M.289 35 beads 290 QDF1.87.M.290 24 beads 291 QDF1.87.M.291 26 carnelian beads 292 QDF1.87.M.292 40 carnelian beads 293 QDF1.87.M.293 39 beads 294 QDF1.87.M.294 5 beads 295 QDF1.87.M.295 finger ring 296 QDF1.87.M.296 finger ring or earring 297 QDF1.87.M.297 metal finger ring & a shell bead 298 QDF1.87.M.298 3 arrowheads 299 QDF1.87.M.299 1 arrowhead 300 QDF1.87.M.300 7 beads & part of a copper-based ring

Provenance Measurments in cm southern chamber, tier 2 lower burial, n. curved wall lower burial, n. chamber lower burial, n. chamber lower burial, n. curved wall lower burial, n. curved wall southern chamber, tier 2 lower burial, south chamber lower burial, south chamber lower burial, south chamber lower burial, south chamber lower burial, south chamber lower burial, diam. 2.5 curved wall lower burial, below diam. 2.4-2.5 slab 9 lower burial, below slab 9 southern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2 northern chamber, tier 2

172

Comments streaked, red and brown white stone, 4 globular, 1 barrel mostly white stone of disc shape red carnelian beads of various shapes chalky pear-shaped bead mixture of lead & silver (?) various shapes & materials various shapes & materials carnelian, paste, shell red carnelian of various shapes faience, globular & discshaped carnelian, shell & black stone shell copper-based mixture of lead & silver (?) 1 is very small

6 beads of white stone & 1 carnelian

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