Psychology of interpersonal communication: educational manual 9786010415737

In the manual theoretical and applied development of world psychology on a pro- blem of interpersonal communication is c

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Psychology of interpersonal communication: educational manual

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Almaty «Qazaq university» 2015

UDC 159.9 (075.8) LBC 88.3 я 73 P 59

Recommended by Academic Council of the Faculty of Philosophy and Political Science and Editorial and Publishing Council of al-Farabi KazNU (protocol №11 06.11.2015)

Reviewer Doctor of Psychology science, Professor D.D. Duysenbekov

P 59

Psychology of interpersonal communication: educational manual / A. Kustubayeva, A. Tolegenova, A. Kam­zanova, M. Jakupov. – Almaty: Qazaq university, 2015. – 82 p. ISBN 978-601-04-1573-7 In the manual theoretical and applied development of world psychology on a problem of interpersonal communication is considered. The sufficient attention is paid to consideration of social and psychological aspects of com­munication, and also psychological features of improvement within interper­sonal communication. The abundance of examples and practical tasks will help students to develop their skills in interpersonal communication and de­ve­lopment of diagnostics methods of communicative behavior. It is intended to students of not psychological faculties who are studying the discipline «psy­chology of interpersonal communication». В учебном пособии рассматриваются теоретические и прикладные разработки мировой психологии по проблеме межличностного обще­ния. Достаточное внимание уделено рассмотрению социально-психоло­ги­ческих аспектов общения, а также психологическим особенностям улучшения психологических особенностей межличностного общения. Обилие примеров и практических заданий поможет студентам в разви­тии навыков межличностного общения и освоении приемов диагнос­тики коммуникативного поведения. Предназначено студентам непсихо­ ло­гических факультетов, обучающихся по дисциплине «психология меж­личностного общения».

UDC 159.9 (075.8) LBC 88.3 я 73 ISBN 978-601-04-1573-7

© Kustubayeva A., Tolegenova A., Kamzanova A., Jakupov M., 2015 © Al-Farabi KazNU, 2015


1. Introduction to psychological science........................................................... 5 Subject of psychology...................................................................................... 5 Theoretical background of modern psychology of communication................. 7 General problems of modern psychology of interpersonal communication.... 8 2. Main stages of psychology: history and its basic paradigms.................... 10 Main developmental stages of psychology: history and its basic paradigms.................................................................................. 10 Psychology of interpersonal communication in the structure of the social sciences and natural-science...................................................... 12 3. Subject and problems of psychology of interpersonal communication.............................................................................................. 15 3.1. Psychic reflection and its types................................................................ 17 3.2. Forms of interpersonal relations ............................................................. 19 4. Human in Communicational Process......................................................... 21 4.1. Analysis of human needs, emotions and motives in communicational process.................................................................... 21 4.2. Pyramid of needs of A. Maslow and psychology of interpersonal communication.............................................................. 22 4.3. Human activity in communicational process........................................... 23 5. Types of Communication............................................................................. 25 5.1. Different approaches to classification of communication types.............. 25 5.2. Verbal interpersonal communication....................................................... 28 5.3. Nonverbal interpersonal communication................................................. 29 6. Theories of Psychology of Interpersonal Communication........................ 31 6.1. Psychoanalytical approach and psychology of communicational process.................................................................... 31



Psychology of interpersonal communication

6.2. V. Sheldon’s constitutional theory and communicational process......... 33 6.3. E. Bern’s theory and Interpersonal Communication.............................. 34 7. Communicative Basis of Interpersonal Relations.................................... 38 Temperament................................................................................................ 38 Temperament theories.................................................................................. 39 Effectiveness criteria for systems of Interpersonal Relations...................... 40 8. Basic psychic processes as communication tools..................................... 44 Perception..................................................................................................... 44 Attention, memory....................................................................................... 46 Thinking and speech..................................................................................... 46 9. Conflict relations......................................................................................... 48 The origin of conflict.................................................................................... 48 Strategies and ways of interaction during the conflict................................. 50 10. Perceptual Aspect of Communication....................................................... 52 Theory of social perception.......................................................................... 52 Attributional errors....................................................................................... 54 The structure of social-perceptual act: needs, interests, expectations.......... 54 Features of social attribution........................................................................ 57 11. Stereotypes and Prejudice in Social Perception....................................... 60 Stereotypes and interpersonal communication............................................. 60 Prejudice and interpersonal communication................................................ 62 12. Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations................................. 65 12.1. Emotion and Communication.............................................................. 65 13. Technologies of Effective Communication............................................... 69 Definition of effective communication and communication skills.............. 69 Communicative competence and its’ structure............................................. 70 14. Technology and communication................................................................ 73 15. Intercultural communication..................................................................... 77



Subject of psychology Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and associated biological, cognitive and social processes in humans and other animals. It is a rapidly developing field touching on all aspects of human life. Advances in neuroimaging and molecular biology are rapidly enhancing our understanding of how the brain works, while increasingly complex theories are being developed to understand both normal and abnormal development and the behavior of individuals and groups. Major advances are being made in understanding and treating psycho-pathologies such as anxiety, depression, eating disorders and addictions. Psychology students are basically trained to: ‒ think independently and critically about psychological issues ‒ become knowledgeable about the key methods, important findings and major theories of psychology ‒ learn how to distinguish genuine findings from implausible and suspect claims ‒ understand modern scientific research in psychology. 5


Psychology of interpersonal communication

Psychologists often simply indicate the mental processes (perception, memory, thinking, etc.) on the subject of their study. In other cases the person is viewed as the subject of psychology. But the first and second approaches to the subject matter of psychology are clearly unsatisfactory, since all of the above study, not only in psychology but also in many other sciences. We need a clear criterion to distinguish the good that is subject to jurisdiction of psychology and what lies outside its scope. This is particularly important for understanding the practical problems that can and should be resolved by a psychologist, engaged in applied fields of science.In this regard, it is extremely important to determine the proper subject matter of psychology. Starting from Aristotle, it is important to emphasize the following: 1. The psyche has a systemic education. This means that it is a qualitatively new complex functions of the human organism, formed by matching functions of the individual constituent elements. 2. Psychics is a dynamic system that is constantly interacting with the human environment through a variety of bodily functions, providing its vital functions. 3. The psyche is a function of the material body, at the same time manages. The brain, being the material substratum of the psyche, ensures the functioning of the central and autonomic nervous systems. Automated control of all subsystems of the body, each of which is a separate system (cardiovascular system, digestive system, immune system, etc.), carried out the autonomic nervous system. This system is responsible for the «interior comfort» of a person and in case of discomfort triggers unpleasant and painful sensations. The central nervous system primarily provides a comfortable state of man in the environment, which, in turn, is in constant change. To address this challenge the system in the process of evolutionary development has developed a set of mechanisms of human adaptation to the environment and to the human environment through its activity. It is important to understand that in the first and second cases,

1. Introduction to psychological science

the effective regulation of the processes of adaptation is possible only on the basis of a sufficiently complete knowledge about the internal state of man, which, in turn, depends on the state of its environment. Successful human orientation in the environment is based on information provision through five specialized analyzers (sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste).Materialist philosophy of the twentieth century, considered the highest form of knowledge as the reflection of objective reality. On this basis as a matter of psychology acknowledged psyche, understood as a subjective reflection of the objective reality given to man in his sensations and perceptions. Theoretical background of modern psychology of communication

The functions of speech. In human life it performs the following functions: 1) communicative function of speech manifests itself as a means of communication, providing mutual understanding of the two subjects in the dialogue process; 2) conceptual function of speech is manifested in the fact that it serves as a means of abstract thinking. With the voices are not only an analysis and synthesis of the information received, and formulated judgments and conclusions; 3) regulatory function of speech is reflected in the implementation of the management of the various organs and systems of the body with the help of words. Word as the physiologically active factor influences its immediate content. Action of words is determined by their meaning.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

General problems of modern psychology of interpersonal communication Social competence Mastering the social, emotional, and cognitive skills and behaviors needed to succeed as a member of society. Social competence refers to the social, emotional, and cognitive skills and behaviors that children need for successful social adaptation. Despite this simple definition, social competence is an elusive concept, because the skills and behaviors required for healthy social development vary with the age of the child and with the demands of particular situations. Importance of social competence Whereas parents are the primary source of social and emotional support for children during the first years of life, in later years peers begin to play a significant complementary and unique role in promoting child social-emotional development. Increasingly with age, peers rather than parents become preferred companions, providing important sources of entertainment and support. In the context of peer interactions, young children engage in fantasy play that allows them to assume different roles, learn to take another person’s perspective, and develop an understanding of the social rules and conventions of their culture. In addition, relationships with peers typically involve more giveand-take than relationships with adults, and thus provide an opportunity for the development of social competencies such as cooperation and negotiation. Major problems in communication

1 Apparent ‘cause’ Physiological Psychological Cultural

2 Practical Example Message in an internal report not received due to blindness. Message from external stakeholder ignored due to ‘groupthink’ Message from organisation misinterpreted by members of a particular group

1. Introduction to psychological science

1 Political Economic Technological Physical

2 Message from internal stakeholder not sent because individual is marginalised Message not available to a public sector organisation due to lack of resources Message not delivered due to technical failure Message cannot be heard and visual aids cannot be seen by some members of the audience

Control questions: 1. What is communication in terms of psychology? 2. How do we form the speech and language? 3. What is the relationship of thinking and of the human speech? References: 1. Hockenbury & Hockenbury. Psychology. ‒ Worth Publishers, 2010. 2. Gilovich T., Keltner D., & Nisbett R.E. Social Psychology. ‒ New York: Norton & Company, 2006. 3. Mandler G. A history of modern experimental psychology: From James and Wundt to cognitive science. ‒ Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.




Main developmental stages of psychology: history and its basic paradigms In ancient times (IX cent. BC ‒ V century AD.) psychology, as well as many other sciences, was formed and developed in the framework of philosophy. The first prototype of a university education, as far as possible to establish now, the dialogues were the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates. Other Greek philosophers, such as Aristotle put forward the idea of ​​the existence of the soul in the unity of the body and controls the thoughts and feelings, which are based on the experience accumulated over a lifetime. Soul as the subject of psychology recognized by all researchers before the end of the XVII century, before formed a basic idea and then the first system of the psychology of the modern type. The soul was considered the cause of all the processes in the body, including the proper «spiritual movement». Representations of the soul were idealistic and materialistic. 10

2. Main stages of psychology: history and its basic paradigms

In the XVIII century, took the place of soul phenomena of consciousness. Such phenomena are in fact people watching, he finds in himself, in his internal mental activity. It thoughts, desires, feelings, memories, known to everyone from personal experience. The founder of such an understanding can be regarded as John Locke, who believed that, in contrast to the soul, the phenomenon of consciousness is not something expected, and actually given. And in this sense it is the same indisputable facts of inner experience, what are the facts and external experience, studied other sciences. Consciousness becomes the subject of study of associationism, which began to study certain aspects of consciousness. All spiritual life, first in the cognitive field, and then in the sphere of feelings and the will was presented as a process of formation and change (according to the laws of association) more complex images, and their combination of actions. By the middle of the XVIII century, a scientific psychology. In those days it was presented mainly British empirical psychology association represented D. Hartley. But it reaches a particular heyday in the middle of the XIX century. By this time emerge the works of Mill, Alexander Bain, Herbert Spencer. Direct experience as a matter of psychology. The program of construction of psychology as an independent experimental science was first developed by W. Wundt. The subject of psychology becomes a direct experience of the subject, teaching through self-observation, introspection. He believed that the experience of the physiological, ie, objective enables to divide the direct experience, ie, subjective, and thus to reconstruct the architecture of scientific concepts in the consciousness of the individual. This idea was the basis of his plan to establish an experimental (physiological) psychology. Wundt’s ideas laid the foundation of the structure of the school in psychology. Intentional acts of consciousness as a matter of psychology. F. Brentano lays the foundation of his teaching qualities of consciousness, as an activity and objectivity. Psychology must study not alone sensations and ideas, and those acts of «action» that makes the subject (acts of representation, judgment and emotional evaluation) when he makes something an object of awareness. Beyond the act of object does



Psychology of interpersonal communication

not exist. The act, in turn, requires focus on the so-called intention. Brentano was at the forefront directions, later called functionalism. The origin of mental activity as a matter of psychology. I.M. Sechenov accepted postulate of mental and physiological relatedness «according to the method of origin», ie the mechanism of the commission.

Mainly he considered understanding of mental act as a process, a movement having a definite beginning, during and end. The subject of psychological research as such should be a process, not in the consciousness of the unfolding (or the unconscious), and objective system of relations. Unconscious as a matter of psychology. In the early twentieth century. there is a new trend ‒ Freudianism. Austrian psychiatrist, psychologist Sigmund Freud declared as a matter of psychology hidden part of consciousness ‒ the unconscious. He saw the unconscious as a result of the displacement of the sphere of consciousness unsatisfied instincts, which are based on the needs arising from major human instincts. The highest value he attached to the instinct of procreation. These underlying motives and should be, in his view, the subject of psychological science. Psychology of interpersonal communication in the structure of the social sciences and natural-science Communication is a dynamic, reciprocal process of sending and receiving messages. Communication is more than the act of talking

2. Main stages of psychology: history and its basic paradigms

and listening. From the first cry of a newborn to the whisper of a person who is dying, the primary purpose of a communication is to share information and obtain a response. People use communication to meet their physical, psychosocial, emotional and spiritual needs Communication is ‘any act by which one person gives to or receives from person information about that person’s needs desires, perception, knowledge or affective states’. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms and may occur through spoken or other modes. Levels of communication: ‒ intrapersonal communication ‒ interpersonal communication ‒ group communication – public speaking Intrapersonal communication It is conscious internal dialogue, sometimes known as self-talk. It is language use or thought internal to the communicator. The individual becomes his or her own sender and receiver, providing feedback to him or herself in an ongoing internal process. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which contains a sender, receiver and feedback loop. Interpersonal communication It is communication between two or more people. Face to Face conversation between two people is the most frequent form of interpersonal communication. Nurses use interpersonal communication to gather information during assessment, to teach about health issues to explain care and to provide comfort and support. Group communication It is interaction that occurs among several people. Small group communication occurs when you engage in an exchange of ideas with two or more individuals at the same time.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

Public speaking It is a unique form of group communication. Generally the speaker addresses a dozen to hundreds of people, and varying degrees of interaction occur. Speaker may deliver a speech talk directly with a group of audience members or have open discussion with the group. It is at the heart of our economy, society and politics. Nurses often engage in public speaking to educate groups of people about health issues Communication process Communication requires a sender, a message, a receiver and a response or feedback. Communication is a two-way process involving the sending and the receiving of a message. Because the intent of communication is to elicit a response the process of ongoing; the receiver of the message then becomes the sender of a response, and the original sender then becomes the receiver. Communication Process consists of following basic elements: ‒ Message ‒ Source (sender) ‒ Channel ‒ Receiver ‒ Feedback (response) Control questions: 1. Clarify understanding of the «soul» in antiquity? 2. What was the subject of psychology in the Middle Ages? 3. What was the significance for the development of psychology of the discovery of Freud? 4. What is the behaviorism? References: 1. Baker D.B. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Psychology: Global Perspectives. – New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. 2. Hockenbury & Hockenbury. Psychology. – Worth Publishers, 2010. 3. Mandler G. A history of modern experimental psychology: From James and Wundt to cognitive science. – Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007. 4. Van der Eijk P. Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease. – New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 5. Van Wyhe J. Phrenology and the origins of scientific naturalism. – Aldershot, Hants, UK, 2004. 6. Vidal F. The Sciences of the Soul: the Early Modern Origins of Psychology. – Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.


SUBJECT AND PROBLEMS OF PSYCHOLOGY OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 3.1. Psychic reflection and its types 3.2. Forms of interpersonal relations

Each science has the subject, the direction of knowledge and concrete object of research. The subject of psychology is the psychic as the highest form of interrelation of living beings with the subject world expressed in their ability to realize the motives and to act information on the basis of it. As it was mentioned before, Psychology deals with how people think, feel and act in relationships and different contexts and phases of life. Knowledge of psychology enriches the understanding of how and why people behave as they do. This makes this knowledge useful in contexts in which people must interact in range of different areas. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are ffected by an organism’s physical, state, mental state, and external environment. 15


Psychology of interpersonal communication

Behavior and mental processes include overt, observable instances but also include subtle kinds of instances, like brain activity. Humans and may other creatures included in the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Physical state relates primarily to the organism’s biology ‒ most especially the state of the brain and central nervous system Mental state does not have to be conscious ‒ can study mental states in many creatures without their conscious awareness ‒ and can be studied in terms of brain activity. Physical state relates primarily to the organism’s biology ‒ most especially the state of the brain and central nervous system Mental state does not have to be conscious ‒ can study mental states in many creatures without their conscious awareness ‒ and can be studied in terms of brain activity. All organisms function in an environment that is constantly presenting them with problems and challenges that must be solved. Most people think of psychology as the study of differences between people, but it also includes the study of similarities between people. Concepts & Operational Definitions of Psychology

Psychology has following directions: ‒ Cognitive ‒ Social

3. Subject and problems of psychology of interpersonal communication

‒ Developmental ‒ Health ‒ Clinical ‒ Human Factors ‒ Cognitive Neuroscience ‒ Evolutionary ‒ Educational and etc. 3.1. Psychic reflection and its types The concept of reflection is a fundamental philosophical concept. It also has a fundamental sense for psychological science. Introducing the concept of reflection into psychology as a basic concept laid the foundation for its development. Psychology has developed for 50 years since that time, and its concrete- scientific presentations have developed and changed; the main thing ‒ the approach toward the psyche as a subjective image of objective reality ‒ has remained and is unchangeable. A larger contribution to the problem of reflection was made by the reflex theory, the teaching of I. P. Pavlov, about higher nervous activity. The main emphasis in the research was substantially confused: Reflexive, psychic functions of the brain were presented as a product and condition of real ties between the organism and the environment impinging upon it. This prompted a basically new orientation of research expressed in the approach to brain phenomena from the standpoint of the interaction generating them, manifested in the behavior of the organisms in preparation, formulation, and consolidation. It even seemed that the study of the work of the brain at this level, according to I. P. Pavlov, the «second part of physiology,» ’ completely departs in perspective from scientific, descriptive psychology. The position that the psychic reflection of reality is its subjective image means that the image belongs to the real subject of life. The psychic image is the product of living, practical ties and relations of the subject with the object world; these are incomparably



Psychology of interpersonal communication

wider and richer than any model relationship. For this reason the description of the image reproduced in the language of sensory modalities (in a sensory «code»), the parameters of the object acting on the sense organs of the subject, represents in essence the result of analysis on the physical level. It is exactly on this level that the sensory image discloses itself as poorer in comparison with the possible mathematical or physical model of the object; The situation is different when we consider the image on the psychological level ‒ as a psychic reflection. In this capacity it appears, on the contrary, in all its riches, as taking into itself that system of objective relations in which only the content reflected by them actually exists. All the more does what has been said refer to the conscious sensory image, to the image at the level of a conscious reflection of the world. There are three types of reflection: 1) Object and object reflection

2) Subject and Object reflection

3) Subject and Subject reflection

3. Subject and problems of psychology of interpersonal communication

3.2. Forms of interpersonal relations When two individuals feel comfortable in each other’s company and decide to be with each other, they enter into a relationship. A close association between individuals who share common interests and goals is called interpersonal relationship. Individuals who are compatible with each other enter into an interpersonal relationship. People must gel well for a strong and healthy relationship. Let us go through the various types of interpersonal relationship: 1. Friendship Friendship is an unconditional interpersonal relationship where individuals enter into by their own sweet will and choice. Friendship is a relationship where there are no formalities and individuals enjoy each other’s presence. 2. Love An interpersonal relationship characterized by passion, intimacy, trust and respect is called love. Individuals in a romantic relationship are deeply attached to each other and share a special bond. 3. Platonic Relationship A relationship between two individuals without any feelings or sexual desire for each other is called a platonic relationship. In such a relationship, a man and a woman are just friends and do not mix love with friendship. Platonic relationships might end in romantic relationship with both the partners developing mutual love and falling for each other. 4. Family Relationship Individuals related by blood or marriage are said to form a family. 5. Professional Relationship (Work Relationship) Individuals working together for the same organization are said to share a professional relationship. Individuals sharing a professional relationship are called colleagues. Colleagues may or may not like each other.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

Control questions: 1. What is the main sense of psychic reflection? 2. What are the types of psychic reflection? 3. Describe the forms of interpersonal relations? 4. Is there any differences between types of the relationships? References: 1. Jakupov S. General psychology: introduction. – Almaty: Kazakh university, 2014. 2. «Definition of «Psychology (APA’s Index Page)»». Retrieved 20 December, 2011. 3. Fernald L.D. Psychology: six perspectives (pp. 12–15). – Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2008. 4. Hockenbury & Hockenbury. Psychology. – Worth Publishers, 2010.


HUMAN IN COMMUNICATIONAL PROCESS 4.1. Analysis of human needs, emotions and motives in communicational process 4.2. Pyramid of needs of A. Maslow and psychology of interpersonal communication 4.3. Human activity in communicational process

4.1. Analysis of human needs, emotions and motives in communicational process There is some thinking that the ability for doing these things is not really the purpose nor the main function of human communication. Communication is seen as satisfying all these needs (from Adler and Rodman, 2006): Physical needs ‘Communication is so important that it is necessary for physical health. Intensive Interaction helps the person to develop all these communication abilities. First, the basic human need of communicating and being social for the sake of it, in order to fulfil deep human needs. Then for some, they will develop and progress to more concrete communications, including the development of speech and language. The amount of progress that each person can make, will vary greatly from person to person. 21


Psychology of interpersonal communication

Emotions are physiological, behavioral, and/or communicative reactions to stimuli that are cognitively processed and experienced as emotional. This definition includes several important dimensions of emotions. First, emotions are often internally experienced through physiological changes such as increased heart rate, a tense stomach, or a cold chill. These physiological reactions may not be noticeable by others and are therefore intrapersonal unless we exhibit some change in behavior that clues others into our internal state or we verbally or nonverbally communicate our internal state. Sometimes our behavior is voluntary – we ignore someone, which may indicate we are angry with them – or involuntary – we fidget or avoid eye contact while talking because we are nervous. When we communicate our emotions, we call attention to ourselves and provide information to others that may inform how they should react. For example, when someone we care about displays behaviors associated with sadness, we are likely to know that we need to provide support. We learn, through socialization, how to read and display emotions, although some people are undoubtedly better at reading emotions than others. However, as with most aspects of communication, we can all learn to become more competent with increased knowledge and effort. Motivation is the process of stimulating an individual to take action that will accomplish a desired goal. Highly motivated individuals can bring about substantial increases in productivity and job satisfaction and substantial decreases in tardiness, grievances, absenteeism, and so forth. Your motivation strategy will determine how easily you can get down and do a task. 4.2. Pyramid of needs of A. Maslow and psychology of interpersonal communication Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychologyproposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper «A Theory of Human Motivation»

4. Human in communicational process

in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans’ innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms «physiological», «safety», «belongingness» and «love», «esteem», «self-actualization», and «self-transcendence» to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through.

4.3. Human activity in communicational process Human activity in communicational process leads to Effective Communication: – Organizational Perspective of effective communication Downward communication: for communication to be successful, → managers must insure that all necessary information is included in the transmission in a form that is acceptable to the subordinate.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

Upward communication: the key to successful upward communication is the trust of the subordinate who is doing the communicating. If there is no trust, the subordinate will be tempted to play it safe and only transmit desired information. Managers have to work at earning and keeping and employee’s trust. Lateral (horizontal) communication, between different individuals or departments on the same organizational level, and diagonal communication, between two different organizational level, are vital to the workings of a complex contemporary business. They allow individuals with diverse knowledge to contribute to → problem solution in different parts of an organization and serving to link groups and spread information. These informal communication networks are used by almost all successful managers to monitor employee communication and to reach employees quickly without the often cumbersome official organizational communication channels. Control questions 1. What are the differences of emotions and motives in communicational process. 2. Describe the human needs according to Maslow. 3. Clarify basic human activity in communicational process. References 1. Adler R.B. and Rodman G. Understanding Human Communication. 9th edn. – New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 2. Argyle M. Social Interaction. – London: Methuen, 1969. 3. «Theories of Emotion». 13 September 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 4. Jump up to:a b c d Gaulin, Steven J.C. and Donald H. McBurney. Evolutionary Psychology. – New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003. – P. 121-142. 5. Schacter, Daniel L. (2011). Psychology Second Edition. ‒ New York: Worth Publishers. ‒ P. 310. 6. Barrett L.F. and Russell J.A. The psychological construction of emotion. ‒ New York: Guilford Press, 2015. 7. Thoits P.A. The sociology of emotions. Annual Review of Sociology 15. – 1989. – P. 317-342. 8. Cacioppo J.T & Gardner W.L. Emotion. Annual Review of Psychology. – 1999. – P. 191. 9. Maslow A. Motivation and personality. – New York: Harper, 1954. – P. 236.


TYPES OF COMMUNICATION 5.1. Different approaches to classification of communication types 5.2. Verbal interpersonal communication 5.3. Nonverbal interpersonal communication

The study of communication has led to the formulation of many theories: structural and functional theories believe that social structures are real and function in ways that can be observed objectively; cognitive and behavioral theories tend to focus on psychology of individuals; interactionist theories view social life as a process of interaction; interpretive theories uncover the ways people actually understand their own experience; and critical theories are concerned with the conflict of interests in society and the way communication perpetuates domination of one group over another. 5.1. Different approaches to classification of communication types The earliest theories were those propounded by Western theorists Siebert, Paterson and Schramm in their book 25


Psychology of interpersonal communication

Four Theories Of the Press(1956). These were termed «normative theories» by McQuail in the sense that they «mainly express ideas of how the media ought to or can be expected to operate under a prevailing set of conditions and values.» Each of the four original or classical theories is based on a particular political theory or economic scenario. 1) Authoritarian Theory According to this theory, mass media, though not under the direct control of the State, had to follow its bidding. Under an Authoritarian approach in Western Europe, freedom of thought was jealously guarded by a few people (ruling classes), who were concerned with the emergence of a new middle class and were worried about the effects of printed matter on their thought process. Steps were taken to control the freedom of expression.The result was advocacy of complete dictatorship. The theory promoted zealous obedience to a hierarchical superior and reliance on threat and punishment to those who did not follow the censorship rules or did not respect authority. Censorship of the press was justified on the ground that the State always took precedence over the individual’s right to freedom of expression. This theory stemmed from the authoritarian philosophy of Plato (407 ‒ 327 B.C), who thought that the State was safe only in the hands of a few wise men. Thomas Hobbes (1588 ‒ 1679), a British academician, argued that the power to maintain order was sovereign and individual objections were to be ignored. Engel, a German thinker further reinforced the theory by stating that freedom came into its supreme right only under Authoritarianism. The world has been witness to authoritarian means of control over media by both dictatorial and democratic governments. 2) Libertarianism or Free Press Theory This movement is based on the right of an individual, and advocates absence of restraint. The basis of this theory dates back to 17th century England when the printing press made it possible to print several copies of a book or pamphlet at cheap rates. The State was thought of as a major source of interference on the rights of an individual and his property. Libertarians regarded taxation as institutional theft. Popular will (vox populi)was granted precedence over the power of State.

5. Types of communication

Advocates of this theory were Lao Tzu, an early 16th century philosopher, John Locke of Great Britain in the17th century, John Milton, the epic poet («Aeropagitica») and John Stuart Mill, an essayist («On Liberty»). Milton in Aeropagitica in 1644, referred to a self righting process if free expression is permitted «let truth and falsehood grapple.» In 1789, the French, in their Declaration Of The Rights Of Man, wrote «Every citizen may speak, write and publish freely.» Out of such doctrines came the idea of a «free marketplace of ideas.» George Orwell defined libertarianism as «allowing people to say things you do not want to hear». Libertarians argued that the press should be seen as the Fourth Estate reflecting public opinion. What the theory offers, in sum, is power without social responsibility. 3) Social Responsibility Theory Virulent critics of the Free Press Theory were Wilbur Schramm, Siebert and Theodore Paterson. In their book Four Theories Of Press, they stated «pure libertarianism is antiquated, outdated and obsolete.» They advocated the need for its replacement by the Social Responsibility theory. This theory can be said to have been initiated in the United States by the Commission of The Freedom Of Press, 1949. The commission found that the free market approach to press freedom had only increased the power of a single class and has not served the interests of the less well-off classes.The emergence of radio, TV and film suggested the need for some means of accountability. Thus the theory advocated some obligation on the part of the media to society. A judicial mix of self regulation and state regulation and high professional standards were imperative. Social Responsibility theory thus became the modern variation in which the duty to one»s conscience was the primary basis of the right of free expression. 4) Development Communication Theory The underlying fact behind the genesis of this theory was that there can be no development without communication. Under the four classical theories, capitalism was legitimized, but under the Development communication theory, or Development Support Communication as it is otherwise called, the media undertook the



Psychology of interpersonal communication

role of carrying out positive developmental programmes, accepting restrictions and instructions from the State.The media subordinated themselves to political, economic, social and cultural needs. Hence the stress on «development communication» and «development journalism». There was tacit support from the UNESCO for this theory. The weakness of this theory is that «development» is often equated with government propaganda. 5.2. Verbal interpersonal communication Human communication is essentially the process of exchanging your views or feelings with another person. In its basic form, the process of communication is to «express thoughts, feelings or information» (The American Heritage Dictionary). The process of human communication falls into three categories-verbal, nonverbal and written. Although they are each separate categories, they may be used independently or together during human communication. The interpretation of any human communication is dependent upon delivery and the environment in which it was given Verbal Communication – Verbal communication is any type of words, sound, speech and language. The process of human communications starts at birth. Babies find a way to communicate using sounds to get their message across to adults. A baby will cry when uncomfortable or hungry. The child will laugh or coo when entertained and happy. More than 3,000 different languages are spoken today. If someone from a different country comes to the United States, makes a request, and does not use the proper words, the listener can become offended. Verbal communication may mean different things to different listeners. Tone of voice, tempo and volume may change the message depending upon the listener. The Shannon Weaver Model of communication has been studied since its inception. This model demonstrates the process of

5. Types of communication

communication beginning with an information source, such as an original idea, followed by a transmitter, such as person A verbalizing the idea. This message must travel a channel like the air or telephone to a receiver who decodes the message, such as person B. The information then goes to a destination, such as person B responding to person A. 5.3. Nonverbal interpersonal communication Nonverbal Communication – This type of communication in the process consists, in part, of gestures, facial expressions and body language. If you are telling someone a joke but have an angry expression on your face, you are conveying a mixed message. Similarly, if you are expressing love for another person with your arms crossed and maintaining a significant distance, this gives the impression you are not being truthful. Body language often leaves a stronger impression than words. By smiling at another person, you are sending a positive message without speaking at all. Written/Visual Communication – Written or visual communication includes the written word, drawings, songs, graphic design and video. This process of communication conveys an idea by being read or seen--relying on visuals. The possibility of misinterpretation with written communication is abundant. A message is interpreted depending upon the mood of the reader and the type of grammar, punctuation and style in which it is written. Control questions: 1. Describe the classification of communication types. 2. Show the specifics of Written/Visual Communication. 3. Explain the differences of verbal and nonverbal communication.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

References: 1. Harper Douglas. «Communication». Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 2. Mehrabian A. Nonverbal communication. – Transaction Publishers, 1972. 3. Berlo D.K. The process of communication. – New York: Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1960. 4. Daniel Chandler. The Transmission Model of Communication, 5. Robbins S., Judge T., Millett B., & Boyle M. Organisational Beha-viour. 6th ed. Pearson, French’s Forest, NSW. – 2011. – P. 315-317.


THEORIES OF PSYCHOLOGY OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 6.1. Psychoanalytical approach and psychology of communicational process 6.2. V. Sheldon’s constitutional theory and communicational process 6.3. E. Berne’s theory and Interpersonal Communication

6.1. Psychoanalytical approach and psychology of communicational process The psychoanalytic approach focuses on the importance of the unconscious mind (not the conscious mind). In other words, psychoanalytic perspective dictates that behavior is determined by your past experiences that are left in the Unconscious Mind (people are unaware of them). This perspective is still based on Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective about early experiences being so influential on current behavior, but the focus on sex is not as great. The psychoanalytic approach understands us from the point of view of our unconscious and early childhood experiences. The contents of our unconscious can give us a neurosis, which is an anxiety state that affects the quality of your life. Freud’s psychodynamic structure of personality 31


Psychology of interpersonal communication

suggests that our behaviour is influenced by id, ego and superego. We are born id, and acquire ego and superego by puberty. Freud also has a psychosexual theory of adult personality development, where he says our personality develops in stages during childhood. If we fail to resolve conflicts associated with a particular (oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital) stage of personality development Freud said we could develop fixations. These can show themselves in our personalityrelated behaviours e.g. an adult thumb sucker would be said to have an oral fixation. We unconsciously use ego-defence mechanisms to protect ourselves from the anxieties of life. An application of the approach is found in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Features of psychoanalytic psychotherapy include free association, dream analysis, analysis of parapraxes, resistance, regression using hypnosis and transference. The main limitation of the psychoanalytic approach is evidence generated in its support.

The case study is non-scientific. Further, it is hugely difficult to scientifically or otherwise, find support for its hypothetical constructs like id, ego superego etc. Also, Freud used a small sample of neurotic middle class Viennese women, and generalised his findings out to

6. Theories of psychology of interpersonal communication

all of us. His emphasis on the psychosexual saw splits with Adler and Jung. Erikson also later questioned his sexual emphasis on the emerging personality. Adler, Jung and Erikson went on to develop the broader psychodynamic approach, which includes psychoanalysis. The psychodynamic approach believes it is the social, rather than the sexual world, that has a greater influence on our personality development. 6.2. V. Sheldon’s constitutional theory and communicational process William Sheldon concluded that a relationship existed between one’s body type (somatotyping) and personality Suggested 3 body types: Ectomorphs; endomorphs; mesomorphs Somatotyping




Endomorphs – soft, round, fun loving, relaxed and sociable Mesomorphs – muscular, athletic, active, bold, adventurous & aggressive Ectomorphs – tall, thin, well developed brain, introverted, overly sensitive, restrained, and nervous



Psychology of interpersonal communication

6.3. E. Berne’s theory and Interpersonal Communication Berne created the theory of transactional analysis as a way to explain human behavior . Berne’s theory was based on the ideas of Freud but were distinctly different. Freudian psychotherapists focused on patient’s personalities. Berne believed that insight could be better discovered by analyzing patients’ social transactions. Berne mapped interpersonal relationships to three ego-states of the individuals involved: the Parent, Adult, and Child state. He then investigated communications between individuals based on the current state of each. He called these interpersonal interactions transactions and used the label games to refer to certain patterns of transactions which popped up repeatedly in everyday life. The origins of transactional analysis can be traced to the first five of Berne’s six articles on intuition, which he began writing in 1949. Even at this early juncture and while still working to become a psychoanalyst, his writings challenged Freudian concepts of the unconscious The essence of games described by Berne are that they are not zero-sum games, (i.e. one must win at the other’s expense), where the person who benefits from a transaction wins the game. On the contrary, the «games people play» usually pay all of the players off, even the ostensibly losers, since they are about psychic equilibrium or promoting adopted self-damaging social roles instead of rational benefits. These payoffs are not consciously sought by the players but they are leading to the ultimate unconscious life script of each as set by their parental family interactions and favored emotions. Transactional Analysis is the method for studying interactions between individuals. By identifying and standardizing upon a single unit, development and promotion of this theory was easily facilitated. It should be noted that this approach was profoundly different than that of Freud. While Freud and most other psychotherapists took the rather simplistic approach of asking the patient about themselves, Berne took an alternate approach to therapy. Berne felt that a therapist could learn what the problem was by simply observing what was

6. Theories of psychology of interpersonal communication

communicated (words, body language, facial expressions) in a transaction. So instead of directly asking the patient questions, Berne would frequently observe the patient in a group setting, noting all of the transactions that occurred between the patient and other individuals. Berne’s Three Ego States In addition to the analysis of the interactions between individuals, Transactional Analysis also involves the identification of the ego states behind each and every transaction. Berne defined an ego state as «a consistent pattern of feeling and experience directly related to a corresponding consistent pattern of behavior. Berne ultimately defined the three ego states as: Parent, Adult, and Child. It should be carefully noted that the descriptions of these ego states do NOT necessarily correspond to their common definitions as used the English language. The following are detailed descriptions of the three ego states: Parent – The parent represents a massive collection of recordings in the brain of external events experienced or perceived in approximately the first five years of life. Since the majority of the external events experienced by a child are actions of the parent, the ego state was appropriately called Parent. Note that events perceived by the child from individuals that are NOT parents (but who are often in parent-like roles) are also recorded in the Parent. When Transactional Analysts refer to the Parent ego state (as opposed to a biological or stepparent), it is capitalized. The same goes for the other two states (Adult and Child). Examples of recordings in the Parent include: – «Never talk to strangers» – «Always chew with your mouth closed» – «Look both ways before you cross the street» It is worth noting that, while recording these events, the young child has no way to filter the data; the events are recorded without question and without analysis. One can consider that these events are imposed on the child. There are other data experienced by the child that are not recorded in the Parent. This is recorded in the Adult, which will be described shortly.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

Child – In contrast to the Parent, the Child represents the recordings in the brain of internal events associated with external events the child perceives. Stated another way, stored in the Child are the emotions or feelings which accompanied external events. Like the Parent, recordings in the Child occur from childbirth all the way up to the age of approximately 5 years old. Examples of recordings in the Child include: – «When I saw the monster’s face, I felt really scared» – «The clown at the birthday party was really funny! Adult – The Adult is the last ego state. Close to one year of age, a child begins to exhibit gross motor activity. The child learns that he or she can control a cup from which to drink, that he or she can grab a toy. In social settings, the child can play peek-a-boo.

This is the beginning of the Adult in the small child. Adult data grows out of the child’s ability to see what is different than what he or she observed (Parent) or felt (Child). In other words, the Adult allows the young person to evaluate and validate Child and Parental data. Berne describes the Adult as being «principally concerned with transforming stimuli into pieces of information, and processing and filing that information on the basis of previous experience»6 Stated another way, Harris describes the Adult as «a data-processing computer, which grinds out decisions after computing the information from three sources: the Parent, the Child, and the data which the adult has gathered and is gathering».

6. Theories of psychology of interpersonal communication

Control questions: 1. What was the main idea of S. Freud in his theory? 2. What is the body types according to V. Sheldon? 3. How the interpersonal communication goes in comparison with Berne’s three ego states of the personality? References: 1. Elliott Anthony. Psychoanalytic Theory: An Introduction, Second Edition. – Duke University Press, 2002. 2. Encyclopedia Britannica. Somatotype. Retrieved 11/5, 2012, fromhttp://www. – 2012. 3. Glueck E.T. BODY BUILD IN THE PREDICTION OF DELIN-QUENCY. (cover story). Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology & Police Science, 48(6), 577-579. – 1958. 4. The Structures and Dynamics of Organizations and Groups; 1961. 5. Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy; 1961.




Temperament Temperament (lat. Temperamentum ‒ a proper balance of features tempero ‒ mixed in a proper ratio) ‒ characteristic of the individual on the part of the dynamic features of his mental activity, ie. E. The tempo, speed, rhythm, intensity of mental processes and states that make up the activity. According to most researchers, the analysis of the psychological structure of temperament presents certain difficulties caused by extremely dynamic displays of temperament. Normally limited to the release of the three main components of temperament: the overall activity of the individual characteristics of the motor and emotional. Each of these components has a fairly complex multidimensional structure of a multimodal and various forms of psychological manifestations. Critical in the structure of temperament is a component referred to as a common psychic activity of the individual. Its essence is manifested in the tendency of the individual to self-expression, active development and transformation 38

7. Communicative Basis of Interpersonal Relations

of external reality. The form, quality and vector realization of these trends are determined by the parameters of the subject of psychological operations, his personal, intellectual and characterological features. That is why in an integrated manner temperament manifests in the work: the individual can fulfill it fast or slow, or surface thoroughly. This allows us to consider the temperament as a dynamic characteristic activity. Temperament theories Most clearly this group represented the classification of theories of temperament temperament Hippocrates. On the basis of these ideas gradually formed the doctrine of the four types of temperament in the number of basic liquids, the hypothetical dominance of which in the body and gave the name of the main types of temperaments: sanguine (from the Latin sanguis ‒ blood), choleric (from the Greek chole ‒ bile), melancholic (from the Greek melaina ‒ black bile) and phlegmatic (from the Greek phlegma ‒ mucus).

Subsequently, the psychological characteristics of temperament types was generalized and systematized for the first time the German philosopher Kant, for example, however, in their interpretations of the mixing features of temperament and character. Organic basis temperament were considered by Kant as the qualitative features of



Psychology of interpersonal communication

the blood, thereby upholding the position of the supporters of the humoral theory. The morphological theory of temperament, developed by E. Kretschmer, had an enormous influence on the formation of modern concepts of personality and its individual characteristics. Analyzing a set of morphological traits on the basis of criteria developed by them, it creates a classification of the main constitutional body types and attempts to determine the type of temperament by the morphologycal constitutions. By morphological theories and the concept of temperament of the American psychologist William Sheldon there are identified three main types of somatic constitution (somatotype) endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic. The basis for the development of the scientific theory of temperament created the doctrine IP Pavlov’s typological properties of the nervous system in animals and humans. The biggest merit was his theoretical and experimental study of the position of the leading role and dynamic features of the central nervous system ‒ the only one of all the systems of the body, having the ability to universal regulating and controlling influence on behavior. Pavlov identified three main properties of nerve processes: strength, balance and mobility of the excitatory and inhibitory processes. Under the properties of nerve processes understand such characteristics of excitation and inhibition, which give an idea of ​​the extent to which each of these processes is shown how they affect each other. The properties of nerve processes (strength, balance and mobility) Pavlov put in a basis of classification of types of higher nervous activity. On the criterion of strength of the nervous processes emit strong and weak types. A weak type of excitation and inhibition are weak. Mobility and steadiness of nerve processes can not be described accurately. Effectiveness criteria for systems of Interpersonal Relations The Principles of Effective Interpersonal Communication have emerged from the practice of mediation, and in particular, Community

7. Communicative Basis of Interpersonal Relations

Mediation, which focuses on the nature and quality of relationships and how to resolve day to day issues of importance to those living or working in community with each other. These principles have relevance to the practice of effective communication in areas such as healthcare and nursing, businesses and their workplaces, team-management, within marriages, family relationships, neighbour and community relationships and many others.

Effective Interpersonal Communication can be achieved through conscious awareness of the following Principles: 1. That we treat each other with respect It means we can put the energy we spend ‘demonising’ others and complaining about them to better use, like enjoying ourselves and being present for loved ones instead of continuously distracted by our difficulties with others. 2. That we do not interrupt one another It means we find out that, by not interrupting others and focusing our attention on what they say, we become listened to ourselves a lot



Psychology of interpersonal communication

more! Our conversations become more interesting, useful, worthwhile and sometimes even joyful, instead of difficult, tiring, boring or anxious. 3. That we have the right to pass It means that we can choose not to do something instead of feel we have to or that we ‘should’ when we don’t want to. It means acknowledging that trying to change others is not only not very loving, but is also impossible. It means acknowledging that when others try to change us, it can feel very uncomfortable. It means taking responsibility for our choices and actions ‒ because no-one else can. 4. That we do not volunteer others It means recognising the importance of valuing others’ right to choose and not to use our language in a way that assumes we can choose for them. 5. That we speak only for ourselves (We speak in the ‘I’ ‒ often called using ‘I’ statements). It means making more accurate statements with our communication ‒ instead of assuming we can speak for others, we only speak for ourselves. This saves a lot of unnecessary resentment and resistance towards us. 6. That we speak but not too often or for too long It means acknowledging that filling up ‘air time’ in a conversation prevents us from connecting with others through our communication. It means we gain the opportunity to learn and be creative through hearing others’ views about what we say. 7. That we challenge the behaviour and not the person It means that difficult situations can be ‘de-personalised’ and therefore become an opportunity for learning and creativity rather than a personal ‘battle’. It means using a more effective approach to communicating, removing the unnecessary personal labels and

7. Communicative Basis of Interpersonal Relations

destructive comments. It means keeping a focus on the issue, allowing for a more creative response to any difficult situation. 8. That we respect confidentiality It means generating a feeling of trust, safety and in some situations, intimacy through valuing that which is important to another, and acknowledging and respecting their vulnerability in relation to an issue. 9. That it is ok to make mistakes It means acknowledging the fact that we are not robots and that mistakes are opportunities for learning, connection and insight rather than opportunities to condemn another ‒ as if we are ourselves ‘perfect’. It means adopting a no-blame approach to difficult situations. Control questions: 1. What is the typology of the temperament? 2. What is the typology of the constitutions by E. Kretschmer? 3. Which of the theory of temperament relate to morphological? 4. What you know the types of higher nervous activity? 5. What determines individual characteristics of human being? References: 1. Gilovich T., Keltner D., & Nisbett R. E. Social Psychology. – New York: Norton & Company, 2006. 2. Kruger J.M.; Dunning D. «Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments». Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77: 1121-1134. – 1999. 3. Ross M., Sicoly F. «Egocentric biases in availability and attribution». Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37: 322-336. –1979. 4. Laird J.D. Feelings: The Perceptions of Self. – New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. 5. Clampitt, Phillip G. Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness. Sage Publications, Inc., 2004. 6. Roper G. «Managing Employee Relations: Develop interpersonal communications and conflict-management skills to better manage employee relations.» HRMagazine. May 2005. 7. Smart Karl L. and Carol Barnum. «Communication in Cross-Functional Teams» Technical Communication. February 2000. 8. Hull R. . Your competitive edge: The art of communication in pro-fessional practice. The Hearing Journal, 60(3), 38-41. – 2007.




It is obvious that communication process includes basic mental processes in order to detect communication message. Each cognitive processes such as perception, attention, memory, thinking, speech support human communication and determine human behaviour. Perception During communication process human perception need to interpret different peoples’ behaviour. Perception is taking communication messages by the sensory organs, for instance, by eyes, ears, through touching, etc. Main roles of perception in communication process processing




of information about different people in order to communicate effectively


8. Basic mental processes as communication tools

Perceptions of the person is initial thoughts, which run through human mind during communication. Different people interpreted differently the same communication message because of perception. That is why perception could have been wrong as person can separate out certain information about people. Human thoughts, beliefs and judgments could influence subjectively on perception. Factors That Affect Perception past experiences


present feelings

Communication between people depend on learned perceptions. Thoughts, ideas and beliefs as learned perceptions develop during life experience by examples. Each persons’ reaction during communication based on learned perception, past experience, cultural differences and fillings. For example the person reflecting own parents’ personality traits, values, beliefs. Learned perceptions also include basic emotional reactions that assimilate from childhood. Cultural perception is based on differs of sub-society. In this case, cultural perceptions will vary from social environment. Projections

Judgments of others Distortions of Perception which develop number of communication problems


Halo effects

Perception during communication help to communicate and receive information from other people. During this process, each persons’ perception relates with: – self-perception – as become aware of yourself in connection with personal self-esteem, self-concept and self-efficacy; – stereotypes, which means specific ways of doing things; – psychological projections as mechanism of attributing personal negative qualities to others; – judgments of others ‒ being critical of others;



Psychology of interpersonal communication

– Halo effects when person likes/dislikes something this will have positive or negative predisposition toward everything about it. Attention and memory It is also necessary focusing attention during perception in communication process. Active role of participant of the communication start from paying attention. Such role can help the person to understand communication message and give adequate feedback. A direct demonstration of comprehensive attention for the sender prevent any communication from conflict and help recognises the feelings. Attention in communication as differential processing of multiple sources of information orientation toward several messages

focus on parts of a message rather than other parts

Attention also is controlled by memory. Memory as an important part of communication is interfering with the development of speech. Basic Memory Processes in communication Encoding communication information (Code and put into memory)

Storage Communication information (Maintain in memory)

Retrieval communication information (Recover from memory)

Thinking and speech The person also interact with social environment by thinking which help to define, rationalize, make causal connections between each communication messages. Thinking consist with rules of logic by which the person can prove or disprove communication statements.

8. Basic mental processes as communication tools

Thinking based on experiences



Thinking relate with speech for construct thoughts into words using appropriate vocabulary, grammar and meaning from memory banks. Thus, all mental processes support human communication and provide its’ efficiency. Control questions: 1. Why cognitive processes determine human communication? 2. What is a main role of attention in human communication? 3. How memory relate with communication? 4. Is it possible to communicate without speech? 5. Explain main differences between speech and language. References: 1. Trenhold S. & Jensen A. Interpersonal communication (4th ed.). – Belmont CA: Wadsworth, 2000. 2. McKay M., Davis M. & Fanning P. Communication skills (2nd ed.). – New Delhi: Kuldeep Jain, 2003. 3. Ojomo O.W. Communication: theory and practice. In E. Adegbija (Ed.), Language, Communication and Study Skills, (pp. 77-95). – Ota: Covenant University, 2004.




The origin of conflict Conflict from the Latin root «to strike together» is miscommunication between persons because of opposing their ideas, goals, values, feelings. Conflict is a process of social interaction and a social situation, where interests and activities of participants (individuals or groups) actually, or apparently, confront, block and disable the realization of one party’s objectives [1, p. 106]. In addition, conflict is a process where person A deliberately makes an effort to prevent efforts of person B with an opposing action, which will result in frustrating Person B to achieve his goals or satisfy his interests [1, p. 106]. When people indicate situation as a conflict, they involve in cognitive performance in order to understand reasons of conflict in communication. They First, they make great efforts to explain the conflict, because it causes stress. They start to search answers to questions about conflict, who is responsible for its reasons, what are the others’ intentions, ets. 48

9. Conflict relations physical aggression problem solving

Psychological nature of Conflict

negative affect on communication

verbal aggression

There is one of classification of types of conflicts: Intrapersonal conflicts happen when a one finds oneself in a situation that requires certain decisions or behaviours that do not correspond to one’s values. Interpersonal conflicts are the ones that take place between two or more persons and can involve persons belonging to the same group, or different groups. The intra-group conflict appears inside the same group and can be generated by multiple causes, for instance, the status inside the group, the relationships between the old members and the new ones etc. [2, 85p.].

By K. Lewin there are four ways of categorization of conflict situation in which the person make difficult choice:



Psychology of interpersonal communication

– The Approach-Approach Conflict when the person have to choose between two positive options (outcomes) or the person have to choose one of the positive goals. – The Avoidance-Avoidance conflict when the person have to choose one of unwanted alternatives or inconvenient goals. By other words, no win situation. – The Approach-Avoidance Conflict when the person see the same situation of communication goals in negative and positive aspects or outcomes. – The Double Approach-Avoidance Conflict when the person have two options each of them have both negative and positive aspects (outcomes). Strategies and ways of interaction during the conflict Each conflict in communication between people need to manage. However, it is depend on strategies of resolving or preventing conflict. There are 4 conflict styles grid: These modes can lead to good or bad conflict management. The person choose conflict styles based on their ascriptions about of partner’s intent to cooperate. It means that people tend to see others as more responsible for quality of communication in conflict

locus of responsibility for the conflict. A locus may be internal (persons’ own responsibility) or external (others’ responsibility).

stability of the conflict relate with time duration of conflict

Mostly the choice of strategies of resolving or preventing conflict depend on degree of relationship satisfaction between people. Conflict might escalate and lead to negative results

resolved and lead to quality results

9. Conflict relations

Thus, each conflict in communication depend on persons’ reaction to it, strategies of involvement in solving of conflict processes. Main basis of any conflict management is to extend persons’ comprehension about others’ behaviour in conflict. Control questions: 1. Define main psychological characteristics of conflict. 2. Is it possible to predict conflict in communication? 3. What kind of strategies in conflict more effectively? 4. Why it is important to manage any conflict in human communication? 5. Why conflict strategies depend on psychological features of person? References: 1. Spaho K. Organizational communication and conflict management // Management, Vol. 18, 2013, 1. – P. 103-118. 2. Năstase M. Types of Organisational Conflicts // Review of International Comparative Management Volume 8, Number 4, December 2007. – P. 87. 3. Adair J. The Handbook of Management and Leadership. – London: Thorogood, 2004. – P. 350. 4. Larry A., Rowland J. Turning Conflict into Profit. – Edmonton: The University of Alberta Press, 2005. – P. 240.




Theory of social perception Social perception is the study of how people form impressions of and make inferences about other people. We learn about others’ feelings and emotions by picking up on information we gather from their physical appearance, and verbal and nonverbal communication. Facial expressions, tone of voice, hand gestures, and body position are just a few examples of ways people communicate without words. A real world example of social perception would be understanding that someone disagrees with what you said when you see them roll their eyes. Closely related to and affected by this is the idea of self-concept, a collection of one’s perceptions and beliefs about oneself. Social Perception-process through which we seek to understand other persons. Nonverbal Communication- an unspoken language of expressions and body language. Basic channels include: – facial expressions- reveals current moods/feelings; – eye contact- reveals friendliness, shyness, aggression; 52

10. Perceptual Aspect of Communication

– body language (position, posture, movement) – reveals emotional states, status, cultural emblems; – touching-reveals affection, interest, dominance, caring, threat, aggression.

Cognitive tuning model (Schwarz, 1990): when others smile, we sense that the current situation is safe so we process information superficially (heuristic processing); when others frown, we sense that careful thought about their words is required (systematic processing). Attribution- seek to determine causes behind others’ behavior. Correspondent inference- infer others’ traits from observing their behavior, especially. when behavior: – is freely chosen; – person rallying for women’s rights is feminist; – is socially undesirable (or unusual); – teacher who wears tie-dye shirts is free spirit; – yields noncommon effects (one cause only); – woman who marries rich, stupid, ugly man is probably marrying for money.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

Causal attribution theory – we attribute the cause of others’ behavior to internal or external factors: – internal-caused by person’s traits (disposition); – external-caused by situation. To explain other’s behavior we use: – consensus-extent others behave in same way; – consistency-extent person always behaves this way; – distinctiveness-extent person acts differently in other situations. Attributional Errors Fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias) is a tendency to overestimate internal causes of other’s behavior while ignoring external causes. Actor-observer effect-tendency to attribute own behavior to external causes, but others to internal. Self-serving bias-tendency to take credit for success and blame failures on the situation. Western (individualistic) cultures are more susceptible to these biases than Eastern (collectivistic) cultures. Actor-observer effect occurs because: – differences in perceptual salience; – to actor- the situation is most salient; – to observer- the actor grabs attention; – difference in information; – observers have no access to actor’s behavioral history; – western culture-predisposes us to assume that people, not situations cause events; Self-serving bias occurs because: – need to protect and enhance our self-esteem. The structure of social-perceptual act: needs, interests, expectations Generally, the aforementioned social-perceptual intercourse is based on following phenomena studied by this branch of psychological science:

10. Perceptual Aspect of Communication

1. accuracy – the correctness of A’s beliefs about B 2. self-other agreement – whether A’s beliefs about B matches B’s beliefs about themself 3. similarity – whether A’s and B’s beliefs match 4. projection/assumed similarity – whether A’s beliefs about B match A’s beliefs about themself 5. reciprocity – the similarity of A’s and B’s beliefs about each other 6. meta-accuracy – whether A knows how others see them 7. assumed projection – whether A thinks others see them as they see them These variables cannot be assessed in studies that ask people to form beliefs about fictitious targets. Hence, one can assume that virtual types of research are basically useless in studying social perception. In general terms, interpersonal communication can be classified as either one-way or two-way. One-way communication occurs when the sender transmits information in the form of direction, without any expectation of discussion or feedback. For example, a manager may stop by an employee’s desk to inform him that a certain project will be due the following day. One-way communication is faster and easier for the sender – because he or she does not have to deal with potential questions or disagreement from the receiver – but tends to be overused in business situations. In contrast, two-way communication involves the sharing of information between two or more parties in a constructive exchange. For example, a manager may hold a staff meeting in order to establish the due dates for a number of projects. Engaging in two-way communication indicates that the sender is receptive to feedback and willing to provide a response. Although it is more difficult and timeconsuming for the sender than one-way communication, it tends to enable a clearer communications exchange by involving both parties. In addition to being classified as one-way or two-way, interpersonal communication can also be broken down into a variety of styles, or specialized sets of behaviors. Bateman and Zeithaml identified six



Psychology of interpersonal communication

main styles of interpersonal communication that are used in business settings: controlling, egalitarian, structuring, dynamic, relinquishing, and withdrawal. «Different individuals use different communication styles,» the authors noted. «A communicator should realize that some styles are more effective than others in certain situations.» Controlling The controlling style is a form of one-way communication that is used to direct others and gain their compliance. Managers using this style usually do not want feedback, and they tend to employ power and even manipulation to reinforce their message. Although the controlling style can be effective when it is used on occasion by respected individuals, particularly in times of crisis, it can also alienate workers. Egalitarian In contrast, the egalitarian style is a form two-way communication that involves sharing information rather than directing behavior. It is used to stimulate others to express their ideas and opinions in order to reach a mutual understanding. In most situations—particularly when cooperation is needed—it is more effective than the controlling style. Structuring The structuring style of interpersonal communication is used to establish schedules or impose organization. Managers using this style would be likely to cite company standards or rules. Though the structuring style may be necessary to inform others of goals or procedures when complex tasks must be performed by a group, it should usually be counterbalanced with the egalitarian style. Dynamic The dynamic style is a high-energy approach that uses inspirational pleas to motivate another person to take action. This style can be effective in crisis situations, but it is generally ineffective when the receivers do not have enough knowledge or experience to take the required action.

10. Perceptual Aspect of Communication

Relinquishing The relinquishing style of interpersonal communication is deferential rather than directive. It is highly receptive to the ideas of others, to the point of shifting responsibility for communication to the receiver. For example, a manger employing this style might allow her staff to discuss and develop the final solution to a problem while making little comment. This style is particularly effective when the receivers have the knowledge, experience, and willingness to assume responsibility. Withdrawal The withdrawal style is more like a lack of communication. Managers using this style try to avoid using their influence and may indicate a disinterest or unwillingness to participate in the discussion. Finally, an often overlooked element of interpersonal communication is being a good receiver, which involves developing listening skills. Good listening skills can be vital in finding a solution to grievances or making successful sales calls. Listening involves showing an interest in the speaker, concentrating on the message, and asking questions to ensure understanding. One useful listening technique is reflection, or attempting to repeat and clarify the other person’s message rather than immediately responding to it with a message of your own. Used correctly, reflection can allow managers to view issues from their employees’ point of view. Some other keys to effective listening include: keeping an open mind rather than allowing emotions to intervene; finding a part of the subject that may have application to your own experience; and resisting distractions such as the speaker’s mannerisms or clothing. It also helps to be prepared for the discussion, to take notes as needed, and to summarize the speaker’s statements. Features of social attribution Attribution and Depression. – Depressed persons often show a self-defeating pattern of attributions opposite of the self-serving bias;



Psychology of interpersonal communication

– attribute positive events to temporary, external causes; – attribute negative events to internal causes; – cognitive therapy that reverses pattern is effective. Attribution and Rape: – people with a strong belief in a just world («bad things happen to bad people») are more likely to blame the rape victim; – Impression Formation – how we form impressions of others; – central traits (e.g., warm-cold) strongly shape the overall impression of a stranger; – primacy effect – information presented first often has stronger impact on impressions; – impressions of others consist of both exemplars (examples of specific behavior) and abstractions (mental summaries of general behavior). Impression Management – efforts to produce a favorable first impression. Such techniques include: 1. self-enhancement – boost one’s appeal 2. boost physical appearance, use immodesty 3. other-enhancement – induce positive moods in others 4. flattery, express liking, agree with target’s views 5. if overdone, however, «slime effect» can occur 6. techniques not always under conscious control Social perceptions of others are often accurate because of: physical and psychological traits stem from same genetic factors; psychological traits cause physical traits to develop; actions may be reflected in our faces; physical traits cause psychological traits to develop; attractive people are treated differently; people gradually develop the traits others expect them to have (self-fulfilling). Control questions: 1. How do we form impressions of others? 2. How do we combine the diverse info we receive about someone into a coherent overall impression?

10. Perceptual Aspect of Communication

References: 1. Gilovich T., Keltner D. & Nisbett R. E. Social Psychology. – New York: Norton & Company, 2006. 2. Sritharan R., Gawronski B. «Changing implicit and explicit prejudice: Insights from the associative-propositional evaluation model». Social Psychology 41 (3): 113-123. – 2010. 3. Kruger J.M., Dunning D. «Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assess-ments». Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77: 1121-1134. – 1999. 4. Ross M., Sicoly F. «Egocentric biases in availability and attribution». Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37: 322-336. – 1979. 5. Laird J.D. Feelings: The Perceptions of Self. – New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.




Stereotypes and interpersonal communication Personal values evolve from circumstances with the external world and can change over time. Integrity in the application of values refers to its continuity; persons have integrity if they apply their values appropriately regardless of arguments or negative reinforcement from others. Personal values are implicitly related to choice; they guide decisions by allowing for an individual‘s choices to be compared to each choice’s associated values. Personal values developed early in life may be resistant to change. They may be derived from those of particular groups or systems, such as culture, religion and political party. However, personal values are not universal; one’s family, nation, generation and historical environment help determine one’s personal values. This is not to say that the value concepts themselves are not universal, merely that each individual possesses a unique conception of them. In brief, personal values indicate what a person thinks is right and thus chooses to do or to see things in those right ways. 60

11. Stereotypes and Prejudice in Social Perception

Groups, societies, or cultures have values that are largely shared by their members. The values identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is, valuable. E.g. values might include material comfort, wealth, competition, individualism or religiosity. The values of a society can often be identified by noting which people receive honor or respect. E.g. professional athletes are honored (in the form of monetary payment) more than college professors, in part because the society respects personal values such as physical activity, fitness, and competitiveness more than mental activity and education. Values identify what should be judged as good or bad. Members take part in a culture even if each member’s personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative or mainstream values sanctioned in the culture. This reflects an individual’s ability to synthesize and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they belong to. Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition or premise to be true. Mainstream psychology and related disciplines have traditionally treated belief as if it were the simplest form of mental representation and therefore one of the building blocks of conscious thought. A stereotype is a simplified and/or standardized conception or image with specific meaning, often held in common by people about another group. A stereotype can be a conventional and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image, based on the assumption that there are attributes that members of the other group hold in common. They are typically generalizations based on minimal or limited knowledge about a group to which the person doing the stereotyping does not belong. Persons may be grouped based on racial group, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, age or any number of other categories. Stereotyping is a way of representing other people. Stereotypes can revolve around a certain characteristic of the group of persons to which they are assigned.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

The persons of that group may even be reduced to being known and understood through a lens based on the stereotype that results from this, rather than being viewed as individuals. Prejudices and interpersonal communication The word prejudice refers to prejudgment: making a decision before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case or event. The term has commonly been used in certain restricted contexts, in the expression ‘racial prejudice’. Initially this is referred to making a judgment about a person based on their race, religion, etc., before receiving information relevant to the particular issue on which a judgment was being made. However, to be widely used to refer to any hostile attitude towards people based on their race or even by just judging someone without even knowing them. The meaning now is frequently «any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence». Race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, and religion have a history of inciting prejudicial behavior. Bias is a term used to describe a tendency towards a particular perspective, ideology or result. All information and points of view can generate some form of bias. In careful usage bias refers to a belief that leads to a false judgment. A bias could lead one to accept or deny the truth of a claim. In general, discrimination, in a non-legal sense, is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences between things. We all have the power of discrimination, which is essential for us to be able to make decisions and judgments about things. And this ability is more commonly referred as ‘differentiating’. However, in a legal sense, discrimination is the prejudicial treatment of a person or a group of people based on certain characteristics. Discrimination on grounds such as race or religion, is generally illegal in most Western societies. When unlawful discrimination takes place, it is often described as discrimination against a person or group of people.

11. Stereotypes and Prejudice in Social Perception

Unlawful discrimination can be characterized as direct or subtle. Direct discrimination involves treating someone less favorably because of their possession of an attribute: E.g. sex, age, race, religion, family status, national origin, military status, disability; E.g. not offering a job to a woman because she is likely to take maternity leave whereas a man is not.

Indirect or subtle discrimination involves setting a condition or requirement which a smaller proportion of those with the attribute are able to comply with, without reasonable justification. E.g. Using an aptitude test in job applications to disqualify a certain group of people to enter the company Control questions: 1. What are barriers in interpersonal communication? 2. What can be done to avoid barriers in interpersonal communication? 3. What are potential downsides in viewing phenomena of prejudices and stereotypes as progressive ones? 4. Make a short conclusion concerning role of effective communication skills in overcoming stereotypes in communication. References: 1. Brinkert R. A literature review of conflict communication causes, costs, benefits and interventions in nursing. Journal of Nursing Management, 18, 145-156. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2010.01061.x. – 2010.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

2. Bylund C., Peterson E. & Cameron K. A practitioner’s guide to interpersonal communication theory: An overview and exploration of selected theories. Patient Education and Counseling, 87(3), 261-267. Doi: 10.1016/j. pec.2011.10.006. – 2012. 3. Sritharan R., Gawronski B. «Changing implicit and explicit prejudice: Insights from the associative-propositional evaluation model». Social Psychology 41 (3): 113-123. – 2010. 4. Ghaemi N. A first-rate madness: Uncovering the links between leadership and mental illness. – New York: Penguin Books, 2011. 5. Horsfall J. Structural impediments to effective communication. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 7(2), 74-80. – 1998. 6. Institute of Medicine. To err is human: Building a safer healthcare system. – Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.


EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS 12.1. Emotion and Communication 12.2. Theory of Emotional intelligence

12.1. Emotion and Communication Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to recognize one’s own and other people’s emotions, to discriminate between different feelings and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. There are three models of EI. The ability model, developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer, focuses on the individual’s ability to process emotional information and use it to navigate the social environment. The trait model as developed by Konstantin Vasily Petrides, «encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured through self report». The final model, the mixed model is a combination of both ability and trait EI. It defines EI as an array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance, as proposed by Daniel Goleman. 65


Psychology of interpersonal communication

Studies have shown that people with high EI have greater mental health, exemplary job performance, and more potent leadership skills. For example, Goleman’s research in his book, Working with Emotional Intelligence, indicated that EQ accounted for 67% of the abilities deemed necessary for superior performance in leaders, and mattered twice as much as technical expertise or IQ. Markers of EI and methods of developing it have become more widely coveted in the past few decades. In addition, studies have begun to provide evidence to help characterize the neural mechanisms of emotional intelligence. Criticisms have centered on whether EI is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality traits. In 1983, Howard Gardner’s Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea that traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability. He introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included both interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears and motivations). The first use of the term «emotional intelligence» is usually attributed to Wayne Payne’s doctoral thesis, A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence from 1985. The first published use of ‘EQ’ (Emotional Quotient) seems to be by Keith Beasley in 1987 in an article in the British Mensa magazine. However, prior to this, the term «emotional intelligence» had appeared in Beldoch (1964), Leuner (1966). Stanley Greenspan (1989) also put forward an EI model, followed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer (1989). The distinction between trait emotional intelligence and ability emotional intelligence was introduced in 2000. However, the term became widely known with the publication of Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence ‒ Why it can matter more than IQ (1995). It is to this book’s best-selling status that the term can attribute its popularity. Goleman has followed up with several further popular publications of a similar theme that reinforce use of the term. To date,

12. Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations

tests measuring EI have not replaced IQ tests as a standard metric of intelligence. Emotional Intelligence has also received criticism on its role in leadership and business success. The model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. Goleman’s model outlines five main EI constructs (for more details see «What Makes A Leader» by Daniel Goleman, best of Harvard Business Review 1998):

Self-awareness – the ability to know one’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values and goals and recognize their impact on others while using gut feelings to guide decisions. Self-regulation – involves controlling or redirecting one’s disruptive emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. Social skill – managing relationships to move people in the desired direction Empathy ‒ considering other people’s feelings especially when making decision Motivation ‒ being driven to achieve for the sake of achievement. Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance. Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their



Psychology of interpersonal communication

potential for learning emotional competencies. Goleman’s model of EI has been criticized in the research literature as mere «pop psychology» (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008). Control questions: 1. What is emotion? 2. How the Emotional Intelligence help people to interact? 3. Explain the main models of Emotional Intelligence? References: 1. Coleman A. A Dictionary of Psychology (3 ed.). – New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. 2. Salovey P., Mayer J., Caruso D. «Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Findings, and Implications», Psychological Inquiry: 197-215. – 2004. 3. Petrides Konstantin, Furnham Adrian, «Trait Emotional Intelligence: Psychometric Investigation with Reference to Established Trait Taxonomies», European Journal of Personality: 425-448. – 2001. 4. Goleman Daniel. What Makes a Leader?. – Harvard Business Review,1998. 5. Goleman D. Working With Emotional Intelligence. – New York: Bantum Books, 1998. 6. Barbey, Aron K. Colom Roberto, Grafman Jordan. «Distributed neural system for emotional intelligence revealed by lesion mapping». Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 (3): 265–272. doi:10.1093/scan/nss124. PMID 23171618. – 2012. 7. Yates Diana. «Researchers Map Emotional Intelligence in the Brain». University of Illinois News Bureau. University of Illinois.



Definition of effective communication and communication skills Interpersonal skill and communication depend from effective communication and each person need to learn ways of improving communication because it has many benefits. Emotions, intentions, engaged listening are main psychological factors, which surround effective communication. Each person should understand someone communication message in order to gain effective communication. managing stress nonverbal communication

Set of skills of effective communication recognize and understand emotions


communicate assertively


Psychology of interpersonal communication

All these skills are developed by the person throughout life, and it is seems to be challenging. Nevertheless, there are psychological recommendations that can help to improve effective communication: 1. Staying focused during communication; 2. Listening carefully others’ messages; 3. Understanding others’ opinion and explain owns’ one in a clear way; 4. Skills help to resolve conflict. Effective communication influence on every interaction in a positive way by learned skills. Barriers to effective communication Stress and out-of-control Inconsistent body Sending negative emotion language (for example, signals by negative body say «yes» while shaking language (crossing arms, head no) avoiding eye contact, tapping feet ets.)

Communicative competence and its’ structure Communicative competence based on language, which appropriately use. As Hymes D.H. observes communicative competence: «…a normal child acquires knowledge of sentences not only as gram-

13. Technologies of Effective Communication

matical, but also as appropriate. He or she acquires competence as to when to speak, when not, and as to what to talk about with whom, when, where, in what manner. In short, a child becomes able to accomplish a repertoire of speech acts, to take part in speech events, and to evaluate their accomplishment by others.» (Hymes 1972, p. 277). Classification of communicative competence include four components: linguistic, sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic competence. 1. Linguistic competence relate with language grammar, vocabulary (phonetics, morphology, syntax, semantics). 2. Sociolinguistic competence consist with rules, taboos of language use in different culture. 3. Discourse competence deal with systemizing words, sentences in order to develop conversation. 4. Strategic competence is the knowledge about recognising and repairing communication breakdowns. Each component of communicative competence develop in order to prevent communication from misunderstands. There are several factor which influence on effective communication cultures



cognitive style

personalities communication preferences

communication skills specific social standing

According to the scheme, effective communication depend on: 1. Understanding and good interpretation of messages relate with culture. In this case people from different cultural background should avoid stereotypes, prejudice during communication. 2. Effective communication increase if people try to learn technical words or jargons that are used. 3. Personality traits such as openness, conscientiousness and extraversion can improve effective communication among people. 4. Communication skills such as communicate accurately and clearly need to develop in order to increase effective communication because they help all aspects of life.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

5. Practice any kind of communication skills for improve its features. 6. Cognitive style such as way of think, perceive and remember information also influence on effective communication. 7. Ways of how individuals want to interact with others explain some features of communication preferences influencing on effective communication. For instance, which massages they prefer to receive. 8. Specific social standing as a given position in social environment also predict effective communication. For example, social status, occupation, family role ets. Thus, ability to communicate effectively should not be overlooked by individuals because communication skills can improve in order to raise quality of life. Control questions: 1. What kind of skills support effective communication? 2. Why effective communication have some barriers? 3. How communicative competence relate with effective communication? 4. What kind of Technologies of Effective Communication do you kmow? 5. How culture influence on communication? References: 1. Hymes D.H. On communicative competence. In Pride, J.B., Holmes J. Sociolinguistics: selected readings. – Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972. – P. 269-293. 2. Porges S.W. The Polyvagal Theory: Neurophysiological Foundations of Emotions, Attachment, Communication, and Self-regulation. – New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2011. – P. 420. 3. Sollier P. Listening for Wellness: An Introduction to the Tomatis Method. – The Mozart Center Press, 2005. – P. 320.



Advent technological devices develop various ways of communication. Such invention gives huge opportunities for the person to contact with others around the world: 1. Fiber optics and new satellites; 2. Digital cellular telephone; 3. Wireless devices; 4. Laptop or computers with modems; 5. Digital technology (images, audio, video); 6. E-mail. New technologies helps to communicate with others: – Changing the way of interaction and communication, which become easier and cheaper; – Keeping in touch with others free. Communication could fail due to

using of jargon in inappropriate way

badly written messages

receive messages to wrong address


overload of information

break down of the communication channel


Psychology of interpersonal communication

Blocks to communication due to technologies: 1. The mind can held limited information at one time. So individuals can miss other things that are said. 2. In huge world of information developing by technologies, people do not catch everything that is said. 3. Difficulties of transferring information because of developing new terms, unusual words with different meaning in current language. Psychological problems of communication due to technologies: – Isolation. Much electronic-relating relationship with others via the Internet develop a social isolation of individuals. – There are many communication conflicts because electronic technology poorly transmit emotions. – «Emotional invisibility» on the Internet as a social media abuse. People tend to delay communication with others (for example, not answering on emails). – Non-verbal communication destroy by technologies. – Unbalance time on the Internet with time spent with people. Media content such as music, sound and images reflect verbal and nonverbal communications. Luskin’s developed Three S Model (B. J. Luskin, 2002) to explain how synesthetics, semiotics and semantics provide relationship between media, human communication, language and vocabulary [1].

Semiotics ‒ communication through identification, manipulation and the use of symbols [1]

Synesthetics ‒ stimulating and combining one sense with another [1]

Semantics ‒ the understanding of the use, effects and implications of words [1]

Luskin’s developed Three S Model

14. Technology and communication

Today technologies not only destroy some aspects of communication but also create current trends, which improve public understanding of major social and medical consequences (body weight, diet and lack of exercise, high cholesterol, and hypertension, ets.). Telemedicine, teletherapy and telehealth give a lot of opportunities for the person to communicate with public services. Nowadays role and value of digital communication is still increasing because of business setting and other form of conversation moved to digital nature. Each communication technology give many opportunities to get feedback from employees, customers in simple rapid way. Any communication in digital world also need to improve and there are several tips in order to do this: 1. Use social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook as an excellent way to start any type of communication. 2. Use benefits of texting like SMS text messaging to improve not only writing communication skills but to give shot correct responses during communication. 3. Keep balance between not only phone call and communication on a screen but also with real world interaction in order to support the ability to relate to people. 4. Web conference is another way to enable better communication regardless of physical location. 5. Video chats like Skype give many opportunities to save personal interrelationship in case when physically communication in some situations is impossible. Thus, current communication technology give another way of communication among people in digital world but still as any kind of communication, it requires its development in order to engaging with the people. Control questions: 1. Why advent technology became an important tool of human communication? 2. What kind of psychological problems develop due to media? 3. How internet influence on verbal and non-verbal communication? 4. What kind of technology opportunities do you know? 5. Analyse a future of human communication in technology world.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

References: 1. Luskin B.J. Casting the Net Over Global Learning. – Los Angeles: Griffin, 2002. 1 ed. Vol. 1. 2. Behnke S. Ethics in the age of the internet. Monitor on Psychology, 2008. 39(7), p.74. 3. Kaslow F.W., Patterson T., Gottlieb M. Ethical dilemmas in Psychologists accessing internet data: Is it justified? Professional Psychology, 2011. 42(2). – P. 105-112. 4. Martin S. The Internet’s Ethical Challenges. Monitor on Psychology, 2010. 41(7), 32. 5. DeLamater J.D., Myers D.l J. Symbolic communication and language. In Social Psychology (7th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2011. Pp. 166 – 196. 6. Horowitz L.M., Strack S.(Ed.s). The role of nonverbal communication in interpersonal relations. Handbook of Interpersonal Psychology: Theory, Research, Assessment, and Therapeutic Interventions. – New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. – P. 171-190. 7. Buunk A.P. & Van Vugt M. Applying Social Psychology: From problems to solutions. – Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, 2013.



Intercultural communication characterized by communication between people from different linguistic and cultural environment. Communication is the active relationship through language

different cultures

national contexts inter-ethnic, inter-religious, inter-regional communication

political, linguistic, economic, institutional, and professional contexts

Effective intercultural communication define by three primary attributes of the person: – communication skills; – knowledge about culture; – attitudes about relationship. According theories of group identity there are two types of group identity: «1. Ascribed identity is the set of demographic and role descriptions that others in an interaction assume to hold 77


Psychology of interpersonal communication

true for you. Ascribed identity is often a function of one’s physical appearance, ethnic connotations of one’s name, or other stereotypical associations. 2. Avowed identity is comprised of the group affiliations that one feels most intensely. For example, if an individual is assimilated into a new culture, then the values and practices of that destination culture will figure importantly in her avowed culture. A related concept is reference group. A reference group is a social entity from which one draws one’s avowed identity. It is a group in which one feels competent and at ease» [1, p. 38]. As stated by Communication theory of Identity (CtI) any cultural identities develop through interaction between groups of people from different cultures. Person identity is shaped by language, nonverbal signs, ets. Cultural identity performances can vary along three dimensions: 1. Scope of Identity Performance relates with features of persons’ behaviour, which express cultural aspects; 2. Intensity of Identity Performance is about power of persons’ identity. 3. Salience of Identity Performance defines cultural aspects of identity, which demonstrate the person in his daily life (ethnic dress, language). Communicating across culture values cultures are Monochromic – time as segmentable, tangible commodity; – main value are schedules and efficient bureaucracies

Polychronic – events as simultaneous matrix of occurrences – no promptness or deadlines.

Individuals feel culture shock as a common stress reaction while immerse in an unfamiliar culture.

15. Intercultural communication

The pattern of adjusting to a new culture starts from elation to depression to adjustment

Culture shock can be as acculturation or adaptation for long-term sojourners such as immigrants, refugees. For them, there is to be no reentry to their home cultures. Adjustment for this group of people could be only through communication in their new home culture. Communication components of long-term sojourners need to be in balance between: 1. availability of same-culture community in foreign country; 2. the susceptibility of the local culture to long-term sojourners; 3. possibilities for long-term sojourners to communicate with host nationals. The main goal of intercultural communication to solve adaptation problems in unfamiliar culture environment and establish bi-cultural (or multi-cultural) identity. Intercultural communication usually relate with a message transmission problems because each individual interpret any massage based on own cultural beliefs, expectations, stereotypes and values. In this situation, any message may be different between receiver and speaker. In order to develop effective cultural communication individuals need to improve not only their ability to understand information correctly but also have to communicate in the meaning of trust. It is obvious that nonverbal communication as interaction without words differ among cross-cultural perspectives. In each culture, there are many variations of body language such as speech rhythms, posture, gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact. People should get a knowledge about them in order to avoid cause mistrust and misperception in cross-cultural communication.



Psychology of interpersonal communication

Intercultural communication competence support by nonverbal behaviour and individuals should improve this competence to communicate with host nationals. This competence link with personal identity. There are some components of intercultural communication competence, which help people to be aware how to fix intercultural communication problems: 1. Contex of intercultural competence may differ from culture to culture. In this case, individuals should mention this deference and try to learn cultural features in order to adapt to their environment. 2. Appropriateness of sojourners’ behaviour to any given culture. 3. Effectiveness of intercultural communication relate with desired outcome therefore individuals need to compare their goals of communication with its wishful results in order to control their behaviour in foreign country. 4. Knowledge about persons’ culture that individuals ere interacting with for effective interpret of message meanings and understand culture specific contex. 5. Motivations of intercultural communication lead to emotional reactions during cross-cultural interaction. So people should be aware about own intentions and motivation about each communication with host nationals. In this case display of interest, being sensitive, empathy, interaction management, tolerance, open-mindedness, reflectiveness are main tools to improve intercultural communication. Control questions: 1. Why intercultural communication became popular in nowadays? 2. What kind of problems develop due to intercultural communication? 3. How many stages define in stress reaction to unfamiliar culture? 4. Give several examples of adaptation processes to new culture. 5. Why group identity is important for each individuals? References: 1. Collier M.J. Cultural identity and intercultural communication. In L.A. Samovar and R.E. Porter (Eds.), Intercultural communication: A reader, 8th ed. – Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Press, 1997. – P. 36-44.

15. Intercultural communication

Collier M.J., Thomas M. Cultural identity: An interpretive perspective. In Y. Y. Kim and W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.), Theories in intercultural communication. International and Intercultural Communication Annual. – Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1988. – P. 99-120. 2. Ting-Toomey S. Communicating across cultures. – New York: The Guilford Press, 1999. – P. 256. 3. Gudykunst W.B. Intercultural communication: Introduction. In W.B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Cross-cultural and intercultural Communication. – Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2003. – P. 163-166. 4. Martin J.N., Nakayama T.K. Intercultural communication in contexts, 4th ed. – Boston: McGraw Hill, 2007. – P. 125. 5. Samovar L.A., Porter R.E. Communication between cultures, 4th ed. – Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Press, 2004. – P. 452.


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Kustubayeva Almira Tolegenova Aliya Kamzanova Altyngul Jakupov Maxat

PSYCHOLOGY OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Educational manual Typesetting and cover design G. Kaliyeva Cover design used photos from sites

IР №8759

Signed for publishing 04.12.2015. Format 60x84 1/16. Offset paper. Digital printing. Volume 5,12 printer’s sheet. 130 copies. Order №3466. Publishing house «Qazaq university» Al-Farabi Kazakh National University KazNU, 71 Al-Farabi, 050040, Almaty Printed in the printing office of the «Qazaq university» publishing house

«ҚАЗАҚ УНИВЕРСИТЕТІ» баспа үйінің жаңа кітаптары Бердібаева С.Қ. Тұлға психологиясы: оқу құралы. – 2015. – 152 б. ISBN 978-601-04-1361-0 Оқу құралында психология ғылымындағы тұлға феноменінің психологиялық табиғаты жан-жақты зерттелініп, нақты ғылыми дəрежеде толық мазмұнда берілген. Шетелдік жəне бұрынғы кеңестік психологиялық концепциялары да талданып, қазіргі əлемдік психологиядағы парадигма негізінде жазылған. Оқу құралы психология бөлімінде оқитын студенттерге, магистранттарға жəне психолог мамандарға арналады. Болтаева Ə.М. Психологиялық ғылыми зерттеулерді ұйымдастыру:оқу құралы. – 2015. – 164 б. ISBN 978-601-04-1143-2 Оқу құралы жоғары оқу орындарының магистранттары, докторанттары мен студенттеріне жəне оқытушыларға, зерттеуші-психолог, педагог-психолог мамандарға арналып жазылған. Оқу құралы 6М050300 – Психология мамандығы бойынша элективті пəндер каталогына сəйкес əзірленген. Бұл оқу құралын психология ғылымының теориялық жəне қолданбалық зерттеу салаларына қызығушылық танытатын көпшілік оқырмандар да пайдалана алады. сост.: К.А. Айсултанова, Г.К. Атабаева, З.М. Жанадилова. Методическое разработка по английскому языку по формированию навыков профессионального общения. – 2015. – 78 с. ISBN 978-601-04-1327-6 Методическая разработка предназначена для студентов специальности «Психология». Содержит тексты, отражающие ряд тем по специальности, а также необходимый комплекс упражнений к каждому тексту, направленный на расширение профессиональной лексики. Тексты носят изучающий характер. Разработка включает также глоссарий, содержащий наиболее употребительную лексику по специальности. Ахтаева Н.С. Әлеуметтік психология: оқу құралы. – 2015. – 475 б. ISBN 978-601-04-1487-7 Оқу құралы «Әлеуметтiк психология» курсынан оқылған дәрiстер мен ұстаздықтәжiрибелiк жұмыстардың жемiсi болып табылады. Оқу құралында әлеуметтiк психология пәнiнің теориялық негіздері, құрылымы, әдіснамалық негізі, зерттеу салалары, әлеуметтік психологияның Кеңестер одағы мен шетелдегі даму тарихы, тұлға және қоғам, әлеуметтік бағдарлау мен әлеуметтік ілкі нанымдар, ілкі нанымдардың теориялық бағыттары, стигматизация, тұлға теориялары (З. Фрейд, К. Юнг, Альфред Адлер, К. Роджерс, А. Маслоу, Э. Эриксон, Э. Фромм), әлеуметтік топтар, әлеуметтiк топтардың әлеуметтiк-психологиялық ұйымдастырылуы, қоғамдағы топтар мен олардың психологиялық әсерiне сипаттама, тұлғааралық қатынас, дін психологиясы, әлеуметтік психологиядағы саясат негізі және топiшiлiк қарым-қатынас психологиясының ерекшелiктері, тұлға және әлеуметтiк мiнез-құлық пен әлеуметтікпсихологиялық қауіпсіздік мәселелерi қарастырылды. А.М. Ким, Н.Н. Хон, Д.Б. Ахметова, К.И. Джаркешев. Эмоциональный интеллект в работе тренера и преподавателя физвоспитания: учебное пособие. – 2015. – 145 с. ISBN 978-601-04-1136-4 В работе раскрыта роль эмоционального интеллекта в работе современного преподавателя физвоспитания и тренера в различных видах спорта. Необходи мость

развития эмоционального интеллекта связана с инновацион ными преобразо ваниями в высшей школе Казахстана. Представлены прак ти ческие реко мен дации и упражнения по развитию эмоционального интеллекта. Пособие предназначено будущим тренерам, преподавателям физвоспитания и спортивным менеджерам, оно поможет им сформировать первоначальное представление о роли эмоционального интеллекта в спорте, выбрать тему курсовой и выпускной работы, познакомит с существующей литературой. Пособие также может представлять интерес для спортивных психологов и широкого круга читателей. Пособие выходит в год 80-летнего юбилея КазНУ им.аль-Фараби и посвящается этой славной дате. Мукашева А.Б., Вишневская А.В. Психолого-педагогическая диагностика уровня го товности социального педагога к работе с одаренными детьми: учебнометодическое пособие. – 2015. – 83 с. ISBN 978-601-04-1123-4 В данном пособии раскрываются практические основы диагностики уровня готовности социальных педагогов к работе с одаренными детьми. Пособие содержит тестовые методики диагностики готовности к работе с одаренными детьми. Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов и магистрантов педагогических специальностей, а также для слушателей курсов повышения квалификации. Пособие может быть интересно всем, кто занимается проблемами одаренных детей. Қасен Г., Беккерман И. Специфика одаренности детей Индиго: история, концепции и диагностика: монография. – 2015. – 109 с. ISBN 978-601-04-1063-3 В монографии раскрываются авторские предположения об определенной категории одаренных детей – детей Индиго. Приводятся исторические сведения о появлении феномена и термина «Дети Индиго» в зарубежной практике обучения. Опираясь на исследования зарубежных и отечественных исследователей феномена Индиго, авторы разграничивают показатели одаренности и «аномальности» детей Индиго. Для выявления особенностей детей Индиго и уточнения специфики их одаренности проводится комплексная методика диагностической работы, результаты которой подтверждают не только наличие данной категории детей в средней общеобразовательной школе, но и доказывают отсутствие «аномалий в поведении и развитии» детей Индиго. Предназначена для обучающихся по специальностям «Педагогика и психология», «Психология», а также для специалистов сферы образования, в том числе работающих с одаренными детьми (специализированных школы-интернатов, профильных школ, гимназий, лицеев и т.п.) Қасен Г. и др. Профилактика суицидального поведения молодежи: методическая разработка. – 2015. – 104 с. ISBN 978-601-04-1083-1 В методической разработке подобран материал, позволяющий педагогу- психологу, социальному педагогу, классному руководителю, а также специалистам сферы средне-специального и высшего образования понять психологические механизмы суицидального поведения молодежи и предпринять необходимые действия для его предупреждения. В приложениях представлен практический материал по профилактике суицидального поведения в образовательных учреждениях.

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