Psychology - Masters in Psychology Entrance Examination Book [3 ed.]

Psychology - Masters in Psychology Entrance Examination Book (2022) CUET PG Psychology - MA, MSc Masters Psychology Ent

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Psychology - Masters in Psychology Entrance Examination Book [3 ed.]

Table of contents :
Table of Contents

Unit-1 : SYSTEMS AND THEORIES OF PSYCHOLOGY
Unit-2 : RESEARCH AND STATISTICS IN PSYCHOLOGY
Unit-3 : PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING
Unit-4 : BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR
Unit-5 : GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
Unit-6 : THINKING, LANGUAGE, INTELLIGENCE AND CREATIVTY
Unit-7 : PERSONALITY
Unit-8 : MOTIVATION & EMOTION
Unit-9 : SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Unit-10 : LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT
Unit-11 : ABNORMAL & CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Unit-12 : ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR
PRACTICE SETS 1-10
PREVIOUS YEAR PAPERS (Latest 2021, 2022 papers for DU, JMI, CUET)

Citation preview

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Masters in Psychology Entrance Exam Book

z Cognitive Rehearsal -> Corrective Action 2. The levels of processing proposed by Craik and Tulving follow the b. Attention -> Cognitive Rehearsal -> Corrective Action-> Retent ion specific sequence in progressive order of depth ; choose the correc t: c. Attention -> Corrective Action -> Cognitive Rehearsal -> Retent ion (MODERATE) d. Corrective Action -> Attention-> Cognitive Rehearsal -> Retent ion · a. Acoustic -> Semantic -> Physical b. Physic tic -> Semantic s. Read each of the following two statements - Assertion (A) and c. Semanaltic->->Acous Physical -> Acoustic Reason (R); and indicate your answer using code given below: d. Acous tic -> Physical -> Semantic (CHALLENGING) 3. A test where participants arc asked to retrieve in any order stimul i Assertion (A) : According to Dollard and Miller, observationa previously presen ted is (EASY) l learning will occur only if organism's overt behaviour is follow ed by a. cued recall reinforcement. b. implicit memory Reason (R) : Copying behaviour involves guiding of one person 's c. explicit memory behaviour by another person . d. free recall

a. Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of

(A).

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· A woman developed a tumor that diminished her ability to form new long-tenn memones. · Though memory .involves numerous parts of the bntin th • . · • e pa11 most. likely affected by the tumor 1s the (MODERATE) a. thalamus. b. hypothalamus. c. cerebellum. d. hippocampus.

5 · According to levels of processing, which of the following leads to

the deepest level of memory? (EASY) a. Perceptual

b. Semantic c. Associative d. cue dependent 6

d. Elaborated I I. Memory rcsc~~ers defi~e fo_rgetting_as the (MODE inability to retain mformatron m working memo R..\lt) . ry IOng make use of rt. tno0&h b. sudden loss of information after head trauma. lo c. inability to retrieve information from long-term m . h 'nfi . . I ernory d. process by wh1c I ormat1on 1s ost in transit frorn · memory to long-term memory. sholl•t~ a.

12. Participants take part in an experiment where the 1 of words and are told that they will be tested later 0 ~ e~ a nurribtr learned. This is a test of (MODERATE) w at they ha~ a. explicit memory

b. recognition c. implicit memory d. interference

: An instructor gives her students a list of terms to memorize for their biology exam and rmme · d'rate 1y asks one student to recite the terms ~ack to her. Which terms will this student most likely recall from the 13. Psychologists use the term _ _ _ to describe lrst? (CHALLENGING) information that is able to be articulated, while rnernory for a. The student won't recall any of the terms because he has not used memory for information that aids performance of ~(EAdescribcs rehearsal to encode them. · nondecIarat1ve · SY) a. declarative; b. Since there was no delay in asking for the terms, the student will b. nondeclarative; episodic rem~mber those at the end of the list, showing a recency effect. c. episodic; semantic c. Smee there was no delay in asking for the terms, the student will d. nondeclarative; declarative remember those at the beginning of the list, showing a primacy effect. d. The student will recall only those items to which he has attached 14. The method of loci is a mnemonic device that involves (E some meaning, regardless of where they fall on the list. a. thinking of a set of words that rhyme with the words y AhSY) . ou ave I memorize. o 7. Eyewitness testimonies are an example of what kind of memory b. making a word out of the first letters of each term that yo h experiment? (MODERATE) u ave 1o memorize. a. intentional learning c. mentally placing items to be remembered in some ·,rn . . ag1nary b. context-dependent learning environment. c. incidental learning d. associating each of the words you have to memorii.e with a SCI of d. cue-dependent learning pre-memorized words.

8. Having prior memory associations that make it difficult to form new memory associations is termed (MODERATE) a. proactive inhibition b. transfer appropriate processing c. time-dependent decay d. encoding specificity

15. The physical memory trace in the brain is often referred bv 10 neuroscience researchers as the (MODERATE) · a. engram. b. hippocampus. c. hypothalamus. d. Hebbian synapse.

9. Lansdale and Baguley (2008) argue that memory dilution occurs because (MODERATE) a. long-term memory capacity is limited b. the number of null traces decreases c. memories become indistinct from similar memories d. the memory becomes less temporally distinctive

16. The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon describes the experience of believing that you (EASY) a. know something but you are not able to articulate it. b. heard someone say something when you actually did not. c. know how to do something when in fact you do not. d. have experienced something when you actually have not.

I0. Memory can be improved when information to be learnt 1s (MODERATE) a. Organized b. Written c. Spoken

17. Which is a good method of revision? (MODERATE) a. intense sessions b. spaced learning c. I hour on/ 1 hour off d. late night sessions

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r sYO-IOLOGISl AMIT PANWAR 18 . Which key academic is involved in the study of memory as a ~constructive process? (MODERATE) a. A. Baddeley b. H. Eysenck c. G. Hitch d. E.Loftus

!9. What is the retention without conscious recollection of skills and dispositions called? (EASY) a. Jconic memory b. Implicit memory c. Explicit memory d. Semantic memory

20. Arrange the following in sequences as per Atkinson and Shiffrin's model of memory when the information is processed (MODERATE) (a) Short term memory (b) Elaborative rehearsal (c) Long term memory (d) Attention (e) in Sensory memory

a. (d)-> (e)-> (a)-> (b)-> (C) b. (e)->(a )-> (d) - > (b) - > (c) c. (e)-> (d)-> (a)-> (b)-> (c) d. (d)-> (e)-> (a)-> (b) - >(c) 21. Which situation describes the use of episodic memory? (CHALLENGING) a. Puja remembered the excitement of the birthday party her friends had planned for her. b. Sneha verified her identity over the phone by giving her date of birth. c. Himani asked her teacher to name the capital of Mozambique. d. Akansha recalled that a Pan Am commercial jet had crashed over Scotland.

of

22. Ebbinghaus developed standardized verbal units known as _ _. (MODERATE) a. Consonant Vowel Consonant nonsense syllables b. Consonant Vowel Consonant meaningful syllables c. Vowel Consonant Vowel non sense syllables d. Consonant Consonant Consonant non sense syllables

VNlT 5: GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY c. Key word system d. Clustering 25. Which arc the two basic features of Schema? (MODERATE) (a) influencing memory (b) Promoting forgetting (c) Resisting change (d) Promoting change Choose the correct option: a. (a) and (b) b. (a) and (c} c. (a) and (d) d. (b) and (c) SENSATION I . Fechner also proposed the idea that the physical intensity of a physical stimulus is NOT accurately reflected in our perceived

intensity of the stimulus. To measure perceived intensity, he proposed the idea of perceptual discrimination - being able to detect changes in the physical intensity itself. The unit of measure was referred to as the (EASY) a. Just Negligible Discrepancy b. Just Noticeable Discrepancy vY. Just Noticeable Difference d. Just Negligible Difference 2. The perception below the absolute threshold is known as (EASY) \..a (c)-> (b)-> (d)-> (e)--> (g}--> (t) a. Symbolic, Semantic and Acoustics \!:r.'ta)-> (b)-> (c)--> (d)-> (e)--> (f)--> (g) b. Physical, behavioral and Acoustics c. (b)-> (a)-> (d)-->(c) - > (g) - > (e) - > (f) c. Behavioral, Acoustics and Semantic d. (f)-> (g)-> (e) - > (d) - > (c)-> (b)-> (a) d. Physical, Acoustics and Semantic ATTENTION 24. Which device is used for the expression of different letters of a word? I. A driver fails to notice n pedestrian who has just stepped out into a. Acoustics the road. This is an example of(CHALLENGfNG) b. Acronyms a. change blindness

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b. attentional blindness c. space-based attention d. inattentional blindness 2. What do you call the attention that is draw n automatically to a stim~l~s without the intention of the participant ? (MODERATE) a. D1v1ded attention b. Shadowing c. Endogenous attention d. Exogenous attention

··•~~ 7_Given below are the two statements Assertion (A) and R. Indicate your answer usin~ the codes give_n below : (MooClson ~~ Assertion (A): Larger the 1mage of an obJect on the retina,Ell.\l't) it is judged to be. In addition, if an object is large r than oth the . er ob· it is often perceived as c1oser. Reason (R): Retinal disparity provides an impo rtant cu ~ e 1or d.... perception. -~ a. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanati b. Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct expi°n °~(A).

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c. (A) is true, but (R) is false. d. (A) is false, but (R) is true.

PERCEPTION ~ · Whe~ the function of a particular object is fixed or determined by use m a particular way just before the problem is presented it is ca lle d- --- · (MODERATE) a. Functional fixedness b. Incubation c. Mental set d. None of the above tts

2. Perception is _ _ _ _ _ _. (EASY) a. an accurate representation of the world b. an appropriate representation of the world c. an adequate representation of the world d. a native representation of the world 3. In depth perception, what kind of image are

a Uni-dimensional image

used? (EASY)

b. Two-dimensional images c. Three-dimensional images d. Four-dimensional image 4. Which approach focused on the nature of a task and its influence on a person's ability in solving problems? (MODERA TEO a Associationist approach b. Information processing approach c. Gestalt approach d. Behaviorist approach 5. If you move a book from your desk to a shelf . you know the form of book is not changing. It may be because of whic h of the following ? (CHALLENGING) a. Linear perspective b. Relative size c. Shape constancy d. Size constancy 6. Our expectancies, learning, past experienc es and cultural factors play a critical role in shaping our perception. This is well explained by: (MODERATE) a. lnfonnation processing approach b. Bottom-up processing approach c. Top-down processin g approach d. Hierarchical processing approach

78

pSYCHOLOGIST AMlT PANWAR

PREVIOUS YEAR MCOs

-

Any relatively permanent change in behavior by experience is 1 ~led _ _ _ _. (EASY)

a. Motivation b. I,eaming c. Adjustment d. Emotion (DU MA Applied 2020)

2. Classical conditioning of attitudes through exposure to stimuli lying below the individual's threshold of conscious experiences is - - - - - : : - · · (EASY) a. Subliminal conditioning b. Delayed conditioning c. Minimal conditioning d. Backward conditioning (DU MA Applied 2020) 3. _ _ _ _ learning occurs when a person or animal suddenly grasps what something means and incorporates that new knowledge into old knowledge. (EASY) a. Latent b. Insight c. Cognitive d. Observational (DU MA Applied 2020) , 4. Which of the following is not a charactetjstic of Operant Conditioning? (EASY) a. Generalization b. Avoidance learning c. Spontaneous recovery d. Responses are elicited (DUMA2020) S. In operant conditioning, the process by which a behavior stops when it receives no response from the environment is called _ _ _ _. (EASY) a. Extinction b. Punishment c. Reinforcement d. Spontaneous Recovery (DUMA2020)

6. 1n a_ ___ _ schedule, rewards are initiated after a constant number of responses: (EASY) a. Fixed-Interval b. Fixed-Ratio c. Variable-Ratio d. Variable-Interval (DUMA 2020)

UN1T5:GENERALPSYCHOLOGY

7. The return of response strength after extinction, without intervening reinforcement is called _ _ _ _. (EASY) a. Generalization b. Discrimination c. Spontaneous recovery d. Shaping (DU MA2020) 8. Punishment is the most effective in suppressing any behavior, when it is: (MODERATE) a. Immediate, consistent and mild b. Delayed, inconsistent and intense c. Delayed, consistent and mild d. Immediate, consistent and intense (BHU MA 2020) 9. Because you enjoy talking with•your best friend, she can modify your behavior by refusing to speak to you each time you smoke a cigarette in her presence. She is using an operant conditioning technique called . (CHALLENGING) a. negative reinforcement b. punishment c. extinction d. reinforcement (JMI 202~) It~ 10.Iri complex learning _ _ _ _ _ _ _. (MODERATE)

t a. classical conditioning occurs

b. operant conditioning occurs c. habituation always is apparent d. something must be formed in addition to simple associations (JMI 2020) MEMORYANDFORGETIING 1l. _ _ __ memories are created at the time of high emotion situations of personal relevance and that are very vivid in nature. (MODERATE) a. Flashbulb b. Photographic C. Implicit d. Procedural (DU MA Applied 2020}

12. Forgetting due to proactive interference occurs because _ _ _ _ _. (MODERATE} a. Later and earlier learning interferes with the recall ofnew learning b. Later learning interferes with the recall of earlier learning c. Earlier learning interferes with the recall of later learning d. Both later learning interferes with the recall of earlier learning & Ea rlier learning interferes with the recall of later learning (DU MA Applied 2020}

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Power Within Psy ho

www.powcrwithinpsychology.com 13. Having superior memory for the items at the beginning and at the end of the list is known as _ _ _ _. (EASY) a. Von Restorff effect b. Zcigamik effect c. Serial Position effect d. Recency effect (DU MA Applied 2020)

14. _ _ _ _ is concerned with the skills and underlying abilities which we have acquired during life. (EASY) a. Procedural memory b. Declarative memory c. Propositional memory d. Semantic memory (DU MA Applied 2020)

c lo&)

(DU MA2020) . 20 . The duration up to which a short- term store holds info,_ ··~%' about _ _ _. (EASY) is a. 3 seconds b. 30 minutes c. 30 seconds d. 3 milliseconds (BHU MA 2020) SENSATION

21. As objects approach near the eye, the lens thickens to a . f th . . rnore spherical shape th~ugh the contractton o e c11iary body muscles. This phenomenon 1s called _ _ _ _ _. (EASY) a. Transduction 15. _ _ _ _ is the process by which we adapt our memories to fit b. Disparity with our existing expectations. (MODERATE) \,V-1\ccommodation a. Confabulation d. Stimulation b. Schemata (DU MA Applied 2020) c. Flashbulb memory d. Encoding 22. Transformation of stimulus information into nerve signals by the (DU MA Applied 2020) sense organs such as eyes, ears, and nose is known as _ _ _ _ _ _. (EASY) 16. Recall that is better if it occurs in the same psychological state that a. Perception is present when the information was first encoded is explained by b. Sensation _ _ _ _ _. (MODERATE) \...C< Transduction a. State-dependent retrieval d. All of the above b. Trait-dependent retrieval (JMI Applied 2016) c. Hypermnesic retrieval d. Emotional retrieval 23. Prosopagnosia is an inability to recognize faces. It is an example (DU MA Applied 2020) of a breakdown of recognition called a (n) (MODERATE) 17. _ _ _ _ proposed that semantic memory might be organized ~osia as an interconnected network. (MODERATE) b. aphasia a. Collins and Hilgard c. visual ambiguity b. Collins and Quillian d. detail deficit c. Tulving (JMI 2020) d. Baddeley (DU MA 2020) you stare at the steps of an escalator for a short time and then look at the wall beside it, the wall appears to move downward because 18. Sigmund Freud considered that _ __ was really the key to all of what perceptual phenomenon? (MODERATE ) forgetting. (EASY) a. absolute motion a. Repression b. selective adaptation b. Retrograde amnesia c. relative motion c. Defense mechanism @)stroboscopic motion d. Suppression (JMI 2020) (DU MA2020) 25. The process by which rods and cones convert electromagneti c 19. Which of the following is false regarding episodic memory? energy into the activity of neurons is an example of _ _ __ _ (MODERATE) (EASY) a. It uses comprehension as data '-onses in order to find the solution'? d. Trial and error a. Behaviouristic theory (EASY) (DU MA 2020) b. Infonnation processing theory 43. A general method for dealing with the environment is known as c. Gestalt theory d. Psychoanalytical theory (MODERATE) a. Intelligence b. Personality c. Perceptual style d. Cognitive style (EASY) (JMJ Applied 2018) 44. Critical thinking means making judgments based on a. Emotional issues b. Keeping a closed mind c. Reason and logical evaluation d. Authority and expertise (EASY) (JMJ Applied 2017)

50. Making reasonable judgment about the claims is an example of which type of thinking? a. Convergent b. Creative c. Divergent d. Critical (EASY) (BHU MA 2017)

45. As a technique of problem solving 'A set of rules that precisely define a sequence of operations', refers to which of the following? a. Algorithms b. Heuristics c. Implicit trial and error d. Root cause analysis (EASY) (BHU MA 2015)

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rs YCHOLOGIST AMIT PANWAR

ANSWERS - UNIT 6 PRACTICE MCOs

---

I Ans. b

.

.

...nuencc of contents 1s: visual. auditory, symbol,·c , semantic, . 50• 1• ""'e 1" .,.,., and t,chavioural. The.scquenc~ of ~~ucts is units, classes, relations, _, and 1mphcahon so option b is corrc l Th systw• 5, transfonnat1on, . . . C e 1s evaluation, convergent product10n, sequence of operauons . .. divergent production, memory, cognition.

2. Ans. c

Sol . According t.o Arthur Robe~ Jense~, approximately "80%" of the variance in IQ m the population studied was the result of genetic factors.

UNIT 6: Tl !INKING. LANGUAGE, INTELLIGENCE, CREATIVITY 9. Ans. b Sol. Divergent production of semantic relations (DMR) would involve ~e. generation of ideas based upon relationships such as between listing as many ways in which father-daughter is related. Another example test item for this ability would be providing the missing word for the sentence: ..The fog is as __ as sponge" (e.g., heavy, damp, full). 10. Ans. d Sol. Some of the main causes of individual differences in intelligence arc_ as under: Heredity, Environment, Influence of caste, race and nation, Sex differences, Age and intelligence, Temperament and emotional stability, Other Causes, Economic condition and education.

11. Ans. d 3. Ans. c . . Sol. Jensen presented evidence that racial differences in intelligence Sol. Charles Speannan (1863-1945), in 1904 proposed his theory of test scores may have ~ .g~netic origin. J~nsen concluded from his intelligence called two-factor theory. According to him intellectual search that Level I ab1ht1es are equally-distributed among the races abilities are comprised of two factors, namely; the general ability re . stu d whereas white and Asian ents demonstrate advantages in tests of' known as G-factor and many specific Abilities known as S-factors. Level U abilities. 12. Ans. a Sol. An achievement quotient is calculated by taking an 4. Ans. d Sol. Both types of intelligence increase throughout childhood and achievement/educational age and dividing it by the chronological age. adolescence. Many aspects of fluid intelligence peak in adolescence So, for example, the achievement quotient of a ten-year-old child and begin to decline progressively beginning around age 30 or 40 this whose achievement age equals that of the average twelve-year-old is is because younger adults are exposed to multiple novel situations so 1.2 (or 120 when multiplied by 100). they have to make use offluid intelligence. Crystalliz.ed intelligence typically increases gradually, stays relatively 13. Ans. b stable across most of adulthood, and then begins to decline after age Sol. Crystallized intelligence refers to the accumulation of knowledge, facts, and skills that are acquired throughout life. Correctly naming the 65. The exact peak age of cognitive skills remains elusive. members of the Indian Supreme Court would be an example of crystallised intelligence. 5. Ans. a Sol. Guilford proposed a three-dimensional structure of intellect. According to Guilford, intellectual activity or traits has three 14. Ans. d Sol. IQ is part of a large "nexus" of positively correlated societal dimensions-"Operations", "Contents", and "Product''. outcomes. IQ correlates positively with family income, socioeconomic status, school and occupational performance, military 6. Ans.b Sol. The seven primary mental abilities in Thurstone's model in training assignments, law-abidingness, healthful habits, illness, and sequence are Verbal Fluency; Verbal Comprehension; Numerical morality but not happiness. Ability; Memory; Perceptual Speed; Spatial Visualization; Inductive 15. Ans. b Reasoning. Sol. 2-score = X - Ml sigma or standard deviation Z-score = 115 - 105/10 7. Ans. d Z-score = 10/10 = I Sol. Heritability is a measure of how well differences in people's genes T-score = 102 +50 account for differences in their traits. In scientific tenns, heritability is T-score = IOx IO+ 50 = 10 + 50 =60. a statistical concept (represented as h2) that describes how much of the variation in a given trait can be attributed to genetic variation. 16. Ans. b Sol. In addition to slowing down physically, most people lose points 8. Ans. a Sol. Analytical intelligenye, or "book smarts" is one of Robert on intelligence tests as they enter their golden years around 45yrs of Sternberg's proposed components of intelligence. Robert Sternberg age. New research suggests the loss of certain types of cognitive skills developed triarchic theory of intelligence because it sees intelligence with age may stem from problems with basic sensory tasks, such as as comprised of three parts (Sternberg, 1988): practical, creative, and making quick judgments based on visual infonnation. analytical intelligence. 17. Ans. a

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www.powc:rwithinpsychology.com Sol. II is rcla1ed lo deductive reasoning. The fonn oflogical reasoning in which a conclusion is shown to follow necessarily from a sequence of premises, the firs! of which stands for a self-evident tn1lh (sec axiom) or agreed-upon data. 18. Ans. n

Sol. The crea1ivc process involves critical thinking and problemso_lving skills. Individuals generally go through these five steps to bnng their ideas to fruitionprepararion -gathering infonnation and materials, identifying sources of inspiration, and acquiring knowledge about the project or problem at hand. Incubation- keeping the problem aside for a while to help creative thought and problem solving happen as unconscious processes are working on the problem while the individual is not consciously thinking about the problem lllumination-illumination is when the "aha" moment happens. Evaluation-you consider the validity of your idea and weigh it against alternatives. Verification- it is necessary to verify whether that solution is correct or not by implementing. 19. Ans. d

Sol. Planning, attention and declarative memory are included in the executive functions. These are regulated by the prefrontal cortex or the neocortex. 20. Ans. b Sol. A heuristic, or a heuristic technique, is any approach to problemsolving that uses a practical method or various shortcuts in order to produce solutions that may not be optimal but are sufficient given a limited timeframe or deadline. Mental set is a barrier to problem solving while heuristics are include lexicographic strategy, sarisficing strategy and elimination by aspects.

S}ci-.,~ ·stics are rules-of-thumb that can be . g,, Sol. Heu n 1· • applied . . making based on a more 1m1ted subset f to dec1sJOn• o th &Iii . " rmation. Because they rely on less infonnation h c avail ~ m10 d · · , e11..: to facilitate faster ec1s1on-making than ..,,su,.,.aJ..i""'! assumed . strate . ·• a... ·re more information. &its tli requ1 •~

24 Ans. a j Concepts, propositions and mental images are the b . So . as,c cl of thoughts. . . C!tittits CONCEPTS: Concepts ~e building blocks of thinking. l categories for obJects, events, experiences _lbcy ,. men ta . , or •d "'C cas IL•141 are similar to one another . .1n one or more respects. ROPOSITIONS: Propos1t1ons are sentences that relat P . e one I to another and can stand as sep~te assertions. COnCcpi IMAGES·. Images are . mental . pictures . or representations of ob· events and have a picture like quality. ~CC!sor 25. Ans. d is a psychological heuristic . Sol . The simulation heuristic . . 'or sun r mental strategy, according to which people determine the .k P_1fiC3ychology.oom · I 1. Which of th e fiO II 0 ~mg personality factor as described by Costa ? ~ was also discussed in Eysenck's theory of personality a. c-...~

and M Cm

L.J\U11Vers1on b. Openness lo experience c. Conscientiousness d. Agreeableness (EASY)

. 12. According to F reu d• whic h one of the following operates in . accordan iple'? th th Princ sure 'Plea e cc wi a. Ego b. Superego c. Both Id & Ego d. Id (EASY) · 1· IJ. Whi chof thef oll owin g s based on the five-factor model? a. NEO-PI b. MMPI-2 C.

MBTI

d. 16PF

(EASY) s · system? l4. Who believed th at 1ra·1 I existed as part of the nervous a Costa and McCrac b. Allport c. Cattel d. Rogers

(EA SY)

xual stages the male child 15. During which of the following psychose develops Oedipus complex a. Anal stage b. Latency stage c. Genital stage d. Phallic stage (EA SY) use in developing his 16. How many source traits did Cattell personality inventory?

a5 b. 16 C. 10 d.23 (EASY) ry, a person who "tends to 17. According to Eysenck's personality theo , distrustful of impulsive be quiet, introspective, reserved, reflective will be considered to decisions and who prefers a weJl-ordered life" be of which of the foJlowing types? a. Extrovert b. Neurotic c. Introvert d. Psychotic (EA SY)

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t 19. The NEO-FI personality inventory was deve 0pedb Y\Vh°lll 0 following? flh, inley McK J.C and away Hath R S. a. b. K.C. Briggs & I.B. Myers c. Costa & R. R. McCrae d. Raymond B. Cattell (EASY) epts 20. Whom of the following proposed the conc orde~f 511 rface aiJd in sis analy r source traits and made use of facto al personto.develop a comprehensivi: measure for assessment of norm altty? a. Carl Jung b. Gordon W. Allport c. Raymond B. Cattell d. Hans J. Eysenck (EASY) . sment 2 f. The Rorschach inkblot test of personality asses ns how contai s? card many chromatic and achromatic a. 5 chromatic and 5 achromatic b. 3 chromatic and 7 achromatic c. 6 chromatic and 4 achromatic d. 4 chromatic and 6 achromatic (EASY)

strongly affects th 22. When a woman believes that 'Nurture' not agree with the I development of her daughter. She would c significance of which of the following ? a. Genetic Factors b. Exposure to peers c. The types of toys at home d. The wannth displayed by the parents (EASY) erning the Individual 23. Which one of the following is true conc differences in human being? a. Differences in experience b. Differences in heredity c. Interaction between heredity and environment d. Interaction between heredity and experience (EASY)

trait that domin ates an 24. According to Gorden Allport, a single __ _ individual's entire personality is known as _

106

pSYOfOLOGIST AMIT PANWAR

centrt1trait a. ~trait b. ·,

,.source~.

d. surflicC trait (EASY) 25.

Which ofthe following is not the big five personality trait intended cas~ by the NEO- FFI?

to belD

.

f_XU11VefSIOn

a. . b. 111uovers1on c. ]lleuroticisrn d. Agreeableness (EASY)

_In Rorschach scoring, what d~es a oligop~nic detail (DO) mean

26A whole is derived on the basis of perception of only a detail

UNlT 7: PERSONALITY

31 . Which of the following test reveals the infonnation about the 'repressed' aspect of personality? a. Catell's 16 Personality Factor Scale b. Maudsley personality inventory c. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory d. Rorschach Inkblot test (EASY) 32. The NEO personality inventory consists of the following number of facets - - - a. 25 b. 30

c.35 d. 40 (EASY)

~ Using rare, unusual or ~itrary ~ of the figures on card

33. A personality trait that describes the degree to which an individual

ResPonsc given to the white spaces m the figure ~ A part of human or animal is seen where normally the whole could have been seen. (MODERATE)

is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement- oriented and dutiful is known as _ _ _ __ a. Extraversion b. Agreeableness , c. Openness d. Conscientiousness (EASY)

_ What is the major problem with using MMPI for diagnostic 27 purp0SCS? r. · 'cal popuIatton . fl.e test is too long ·,or c1101

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a.111 . b. Outdated nomenclature of assessed psychopatholog1es fl.e language used is difficult to understand C. Ill d. The method of answering the items is very complex (MODERATE)

34. Which of the following is true of Type A personality? a. ~always moving, walking, and eating rapidly b. Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place c. Strive to think or do two or more things at once .; ' d. All of the above (EASY) 2s. Which of the following is not true for conceptualii.ation -of pe~nality? ... , , 35. The 16-personality factor questionnaire was developed by a. Regularities within individual functioning ~ b. Unique attributes that distinguish one from others c. Refers only to stable and unchangeable aspect of individual a. Gordon W Alport b. Carl Gustav Jung functioning c. Hans Eysenck d. Includes cognition affect as well as overt behavior d. Raymond Cattel (MODERATE) r "' (EASY) 29. The type approach to personality was propagated by which psychologist a. Raymond B. Cattell b. Hans J. Eysenck c. Gordon W. AIIPort d. None of the above (MODERATE) 30. Sir Francis Gatton initiated the study of the influence of _ _ _ factors on personality. a. Psychological b. Cultural c. Sociological d. Genetic (EASY)

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PREVIOUS YEAR MCOs I . Cattell's Personality theory is also known 85 a. Psychoanalytic theory --b. Factor analytic theory c. Behaviouristic theory d. Projective theory (MODERA TE)(DU MA Applied 2020)

2· _ _ _ _ _ test consists of ten cards having prints of inkblots.

a. Rorschach Test b. Holtzman inkblot test c. Draw a person test d. Thematic Apperception test (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020)

(EASY) (DU MA 2020) 8. Emotional instability is sometimes labeled as a. Conscientiousness - -· b. Agreeableness c. Neuroticism d. Openness to experience (EASY) (DU MA 2020) 9_Individuals who have higher needs for

· Th'1s ch---may likely to engage in risky behav1ors. aracteristic ma be be lllore during adolescence than childhood and adulthood. y Slrongtr a Helping others b. approval c. sensation seeking d. engagement (EASY) (BHU MA 2020)

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People with _ _ ___,personality have a tendency to be distressed, experience negative emotions and also to feel insecure and anxious. a. Type D b. Type A c. TypeB d. Type C (EASY) (DU MA 2020)

Io. Sociable, talkative, fun-loving at one end to sober . h of the followin' reserved . , cautious at the other~refl ccts a bout w h1c 8 dimensions of personality? g •g five a. Agreeableness"' b. Openness to experience c. Emotional stability d. Extraversion (EASY) (SHU MA 2020)

4. The 16 basic traits which could describe all differences among personalities are tenned as _ _ _ _ _ trait by Cattle. I J. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality inventory b ased . ? a. Basic on whose theory of personaI1ty. b. Primary a. Karen Homey c. Surface b. Eric Ericson d. Source c. Alfred Adler (EASY) (DU MA 2020) J d. Carl Jung (EASY) (BHU MA 2020) 5. According to Carl Rogers, the personality of clients is detennined by measuring the difference between - -"--- - 12. The following is true of Nomothetic approach to personality a. Introversion and extraversion b. Ideal self and real self a. Individuation and uniqueness of people accounts of personali~, differences c. Self-efficacy and self-esteem d. Persona and shadow b. All people are governed by the same basic behavioral principles (EASY) (DU MA 2020) c. Each individual is unique and cannot be compared with another d. All of the above 6. Which of the following personality factor as described by Costa and (EASY) (JMI Applied 2016) McCrae was also discussed in Eysenck's theory of personality? a Extraversion 13. Physical attractiveness of a person or any other trait can influence multiple judgments or lead to a more favorable view of the whole b. Openness to experience personality. This tendency is called c. Conscientiousness ----a. Primacy effect d. Agreeableness b. Pygmalion effect (EASY) (DU MA 2020) c. Halo effect d. non-common effect 7. Who proposed that the birth order affects personality? (EASY) (DU MA APPLIED 2018) a. Carl Roger b. Alfred Adler 14. The component of personality that is a vast reservoir of basic c. Sigmund Freud biological urges is the d. Albert Bandura

- - - -- -

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a. Libido b. Id c. Ego d.Supcrego (EASY) (DU MA APPLIED 2018)

15. One of the most unique aspects of the MMPI is that it was first \ major personality inventory to incorporate _ _ _ __ \ a. a criterion control b. neuroticism scales c. validity scales d. keyed responses (MODERATE) (JMI 2020) 16. The personality test that presents an ambiguous stimulus picture to which the person may respond as he or she wishes is a l

, a. Q sort 11 b. Personality inventory c. Rorschach d. MMPI (EASY) (JMI 2020)

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17. One of the most important contributions of the behaviorist approach to personality has been _ _ _ __ a. An overemphasis of situational variables b. recognition of the importance of environmental variables c. down playing the role of cognitive variables d. detailing the role of unconscious motives (EASY) (JMI 2020) 18. The uniqueness of individual experience and behaviour, is a focus of_ _ _ __ a. Nomothetic approach b. Action research approach c. Idiographic approach d. Indigenous approach (EASY) (DU MA 2019)

d. Instrumental aggression (CHALLENGlNG) (DU MA 2019) 21. Sensation seeking personality as suggested by Zuckerman is likely to correlate negatively with _ _ _ __ a. Psychoticism b. Extraversion c. Conscientiousness d. Openness to experience (MODERATE) (DU MA 2019) 22. A self-report questionnaire for assessing aspects of the selfconcept is - -- - a. Projective technique b. T-sort technique c. L-sort technique d. Q-sort technique (EASY) (DU MA 2019) 23. Proprium, the term for the ego or self, was given by_ _ _ __ a. B. F. Skinner b. Sigmund Freud c. Gordon Allport d. Albert Bandura (EASY) (DU MA 2019) 24. Self-report ratings of one's characteristics, attributes, and interests are _ __ a. L-data b. T-data c.Z-data d.Q-data (EASY) (DU MA 2019)

25. Which of the following is not a type dichotomy in Myers and Briggs Type Indicator test of personality? a. Judging - perceiving b. Neuroticism- emotional stability 19. People who have the personality trait of _ _ _ _ _resist c. Thinking- feeling strain reactions when subjected to,stressful events more effectively d. Extraversion- introversion than do people who are not having it and it also has a component of (EASY) (DU MA 2018) commibnent, control and challenge. 26. The socio-cognitive approach to personality suggests the idea that a. Tolerance -t one's experiences can____ b. Toughness a. Encourage personality to remain stable C. Strength b. Affect both personality stability and change d. Hardiness Eliminate the effects of biology on personality c. (EASY) (DU MA 2019) d. Brings about change in personality 20. Arvind is extremely competitive, always in a hurry and often (EASY) (DU MA 2018) irritable (Type A personality). Which of the following forms of 27. Thematic Apperception Test is based upon the defense mechanism aggression is he most likely to engage in _ _ __ of- - - -a. Passive aggressive behaviour a. Projection b. Hostile aggression b. Sublimation c. None of these

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c. Reaction Fonnation d. Repression (MODERATE) (DU MA 2018)

c. Adoptive studies d. Adoptive genetics (EASY)(JMI Applied 2017)

28 - ____ arc the more basic traits that underlie aspects of 35. The Rorschach test has people _ _ _ __ personality that can be seen by others, which fonn the core of a. Tell stories about a picture with people in it. personality. b. Answer hundreds of questions about their feelings and th a. Source traits c. Perfonn tasks while an observer watches through a on • 0U&hts b. Ergs d. Look at the ambiguous visual stimuli and tell what th e w~ l'llirtor c. Surface traits (EASY) (JMI Applied 2017) ey th1nk it~ d. Subjective traits (MODERATE) (DU MA 2019) 36 How many sources traits Cattell use in Personality inv entory? a. 5 . 29: _ _ _ _ refers to the percentage of instances in which both b. 10 twins show a trait when it is present in one twin. c. 16 a. Niche-picking d.23 ~ b. Concordance effect (EASY) (JMI Applied 2017) c. Genotype d. Canalization 37. Who believed that traits existed as part of the nervous sy (EASY) (DU MA 2019) stern? a. Costa and McCrae · b. Allport 30. Whose theory of personality highlights a phenotypic and genotypic c. Cattel basis of personality development? d. Rogers a. Eysenck (EASY) (JMI Applied 2017) b. Pearls c. Adler 38. According to Cattell, traits that are numerous and can easily be d.Jung seen by other people are called _ _ _ _ __ (EASY) (DU MA 2019) a. Surface 31. lntroversion-extraversion first proposed by _ _ __ a. Eysenck b. Freud c. Adler d.Jung (EASY) (JMI MA 2019) 32. Which of the following is not a type of behavioral assessment? a. Direct Observation b. Thematic Apperception Test c. Rating Scale d. Frequency Count (EASY) (JMI Applied 2017)

33. Which of the following is based on the five-factor model? a. NEO-PI b. MMPI-2 C. MBTI d. 16PF

(EASY) (JMI Applied 2017) 34. The study of inherited portions of personality is called a. Twin studies b. Behavioural genetics

15. Central c. Source d. Complexity (EASY) (JMI Applied 2017) 39. In Big Five theory ofpersonality, "C" stands for a. Conscientiousness b. Contrariness c. Consciousness d. Complexity (EASY) (JMI Applied 2017)

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40. Which of the following methods would never be used by a

behaviorist? a. Interview b. Projective Test c. Direct Observation d. Personality Inventory (EASY) (JMI Applied 2017) 41. Observer bias would be a problem for any of the following methods except -----a. Interview b. Projective test c. Direct Observation d. Personality Inventory (MODERATE) (JM1 Applied 2017)

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UNIT 7: PERSONALITY

49. According to behaviorists, personality is a. Driven by unconscious forces

b. A set of learned responses c. Motivated by a striving for success d. Collection of specific traits (EASY)

50. 1n the Big Five theory of personality 'A' stands for a. Agreeableness

Albert Bandura was a proponent of which perspective of b. Anxiousness . ? C. Anxiety personaI1ty • psychoanalytic d. Affectionate a. . (EASY) b. Behaviounst c. Humanistic . . d 5oeial Cognitive (EASY) (.JMJ Applied 2018) 43.

. How many Inkblots are there in Rorschach Inkblot test? 44 a. 5 b. 6 c. g d. 10 (EASY) (JMI Applied 2018) 45 . If behaviour is assumed to be caused by internal personality characteristics, this is known as a. Situational cause b. Dispositional cause c. Fundamental attribution error d. Actor-observer bias (EASY) 46. Who was deeply interested in Personality and-identified several kinds of trait? a. Freud b.Maslow c. Cattel d. Allport (EASY) 47. According to Jung, the part of the mind containing universal human memories is called the_ unconscious. a. Personal b. Cognitive c. Collective d. Animistic (EASY) 48. Which ofFreud's parts of the personality is most like a director? a. Id b. Ego c. Superego d. Unconscience (EASY)

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ANSWERS UNIT 7 PRACTICE MCQs

PowerW·t1t· I 1np %~~ . duced by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung ~ were intro h · fi . , Who hetypes were arc rue orms of innate hu sup. that these arc rnan 1,.. "6'31tij wn from our ancestors. "'10"'1"" ~~d d0 ~

I. Ans. b d MMPl-2 Sol. From amongst the ones given above, only the EPQ an have a lie scale.

10 Ans. d . · Th 16 source traits were seen by Cattell as the b . . 1 biotL Sol. esepersonality. These are included in the l6PF su•,ding of human ca e. 'l

2. Ans. a . Sol. The nomothetic approach involves trying to make generaliz.atJons 11. Ans. a . . th . . about the world and understand large-scale social patterns. The I Extraversion 1s the domam at 1s common in the th . . idiographic approach involves trying to uncover a great deal of So . k where he tal ks about Extraverston, Psycheoniar . . •on or Eysenc d C , 8. . OIJc1srn detailed infonnation about a narrower subject of study. . •sm and McCrae an osta s 1g Five Mode) ilrld Neurot1c1 • 3. Ans. a 12 Ans. d Sol. Characteristics associated with a Type A personality may · F d gave three basic structures that make up human So1. reu . . Personai· include operating at a more urgent pace, demonstrating higher le~els Id that functions on the pleasure pnnc1~1e, ego that functions lly, of impatience, having a more competitive nature, getting upset easily, O l·ty rinciple and superego that functions on the morality . ~ the rea I P 'all bl Pnnc and associating self-worth with achievement. 1pl Id consists of all the soc1 y unaccepta e urges and disturb~e. • g emotions. 4. Ans. a

Sol. The Conscientiousness trait shows how thoughtful, goal-oriented, 13. Ans. a . . and controlled someone is. Those who are more conscientious tend to that is based 00 th fi So.I The NEO-PI is the personality mventory . e Ve be more self-disciplined and persistent. Those who rank lower in factor model and assesses the traits of neuro~cis~, elC!Javersion. conscientiousness tend to prefer spontaneity and procrastination. So openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. • those with strong id and weak superego would have lesser scores on conscientiousness. )4. Ans. C Sol. Cattell's identified 16 factors that are popular as the Cattell l6PF 5. Ans. c Cattell linked these with nervous syst~m functioning. E.g., People lo~ Sol. The Rorschach test is unreliable because of the influence of on emotional stability may fee~ anxious and may have S)'lllpathetic subjectivity on the interpretation of the responses obtained in them. It nervous system activation even m the absence of immediate stres.5ars. has been found that different therapists or psychologists have interpreted the same stories as different and have scored the response different and hence drawing a conclusion that projective tests such as 15. Ans. d Sol. Identity development start towards the end of the phallic stage Rorschach or TAT should be taken with a pinch of salt. and it is during this stage that a male child develops the Oedipus complex. 6.Ans. C Sol. The Thematic Apperception Test, or TAT, is a type of projective 16. Ans. b Sol. He created a taxonomy of 16 different personality traits called test that involves describing ambiguous scenes. source traits that could be used to describe and explain individual differences between people's personalities. 7. Ans. d Sol. Characteristics associated with a Type A personality may include operating at a more urgent pace, demonstrating higher levels 17.Ans.c of impatience, having a more competitive nature, getting upset easily, Sol. Eysenck personality theory includes three dimensions• and associating self-worth with achievement. Type B people are introversion vs extraversion, neuroticism vs stability and psychoticism vs socializ.ation. The introversion- extraversion is the degree to which patient and relaxed. a person is outgoing and interactive with other people. Introverts are usually reserved, tend to be quiet, not talkative, prefer well-ordered 8. Ans. a life. Sol. The Big Five personality traits are extraversion (also often spelled extroversion), agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and nlidcnl neuroticism. Each trait represents a continuum. Individuals can fall 18. Ans. d anywhere on the continuum for each, ~t. _The Big Five remain Sol. Assertiveness is the quality of being self-assured and cotand without being aggressive. Being assertive means to be a~~e to s up relatively stable throughout most of one s lifetime. for your own or other people's rights in a calm and positive way. 9. Ans. d h . Sol. Archetypes are universal, inborn mod_els of people, be ~v10rs, or personalities that play a role in influencmg human behavior. They

19. Ans. c

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UNIT 7: PERSONALITY

pSYCIIOLOOIST AMIT rANWJ\R tvtcCrac and Costa developed the NEO-FI based on the big five

SO~ of personality. Myers and Briggs developed the MBTI based 1 111 Je

ian theory while Canel developed the 16 PF. Hathaway and

on : .ngl~ developed the Minncosta Multiphasic Personality tvtcK1n -✓ inventory , 20 AJ1S. C • Cattell proposed the concepts of surface and source traits and 1 So d. use of factor analysis in order to develop a comprehensive ma e '"or assessmen f t o norma I persona1·1ty. measure i,

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· The Rorschach Ink Blot Test consists of 5 achromati c cards, 2 1 white and red cards and three multicolo red cards

22 Ans. a soi. Nurture refers to all the envi_ronmental var~ables that impact who are including our early childhood experienc es, how we were we . . d • ed ,our social relat1onsh 1ps, an our surround'mg culture whereas nus ' nature refers to all of the genes and hered.1tary factors that influence who we are--from our physical appearanc e to our personality characteristics.

23. Ans. C Sol. Heredity and environm ent are responsible for producing qualities such as the personality of a human being, thus leading to Individual differences.

24. Ans. b

Sol. Cardinal traits are highly generalized dispositions. For eg. flitlerian, Gandhian

25. Ans. b Sol. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) is a personality inventory that examines a person's Big Five personality traits (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism). Neurotici sm was given by Eysenck and is not the big five personality trait intended to be measured by the NEO- FFI.

Sol. Personality is defined as the characteri stic sets of behaviors , cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biologica l . and environm ental factors. So it is not unchange able. It includes the unique attributes and regularities within individual like cognition , affect and overt behavior. 29. Ans. d Sol. The type approache s attempt to comprehe nd human perso~ali ty by examining certain broad patterns in the observed behav1ou ~I characteristics of individuals. It was developed by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung. Cattell, Eysenck and Allport are trait theorists. The trait approach focuses on the specific psycholog ical attributes along which individuals tend to differ in consisten t and stable ways. 30. Ans. d Sol. In Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Developm ent ( 1883), Galton coined the term eugenics, which would come to be his legacy. Gallon' s definition of eugenics was broad and concerned with studying heredity to improve the genetic stock of the human race. He initiated the study of the influence of genetic factors on personali ty• 31. Ans. d Sol. The Rorschach test is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithm s, or both. It's a projective test, thus can reveal the informatio n about the ' repressed ' aspect of personality. 32. Ans. b Sol. The five dimensions - neuroticism, extravers ion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness - are the five factors of the NEO-PI-R . There are six sub parts within each factor that further distinguish aspects of each domain. There are total of 30 facets represented by eight questions each. 33. Ans. d Sol. The big five personality traits include extravers ion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticis m. Conscientiousness is the tendency to show self-disci pline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement.

26. Ans. b Sol. Rorschach inkblot test is a projective test. In Rorschach scoring, a oligophrenic detail (DO) means using rare, unusual or arbitrary area of the figures on card. 27. Ans. a Sol. The major problem with using MMPI for diagnostic purposes is that the test is too long for clinical population . In the years after the test was first published , clinicians and researche rs began to question the accuracy of the MMPI. Critics pointed out that the original sample group was inadequate. Others argued that the results indicated possible test bias, while others felt the test itself contained sexist and racist questions. 28. Ans. c

34. Ans. d Sol. Characteristics associated with a Type A personalit y may include operating at a more urgent pace, demonstra ting higher levels of impatience, having a more competiti ve nature, getting upset easily, and associating self-worth with achievement. They are mostly moving, walking, and eating rapidly, feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place, and strive to think or do two or more things at once.

35. Ans. d Sol. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionn aire ( l 6PF), originally developed by Cattell and Mead ( 1949), is a 185-item measure of normal personality which is currently in its fifth edition. The S ixteen

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Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) is a self-report personality test.

ANSWERS UNIT 7 PREVIOUS YEAR MCOs I. Ans. b Sot_. Ra~ond Cattell analyzed Allport's list (of personality traits) and whittled it down to 171 characteristics, mostly by eliminating tenns that were redundant or uncommon. He then used a statistical technique known as factor analysis to identify traits that are related to one another. With this method, he was able to whittle his list to 16 key personality factors.

9. Ans. c Sol. Sensation seeking is a personality trait defined b r 1· th • y experiences and 1ee mgs, at are IIvaned, novel the SP,. -...ch t . ak , intense" ' and by the readmess to t e physical s0 .COmpJCl( ••or , c1al I ..,,d financial risks for the sake of such experiences." ' ega(, atld 11

10. Ans. d Sol. Extraversion is defined as the trait of prim . 1 gratification from outside of oneself. They tend to eniocil'!_Y obtaining . . lk . , y interpe interactions, are enthus1ast1c, ta attve, assertive and gr . !'Sonat at the opposite of introversion. eganous. It~

2. Ans. a Sol. Rorschach test, also called Rorschach inkblot test, projective method of psychological testing in which a person is asked to describe what he or she sees in IO inkblots, of which some are black or gray and others have patches of colour.

1I. Ans. d Sol. The MBTI is based on Carl Jung's personality theo 16 personality types based on 4 bipolar dimensions- There are . . . .. h' k' extraverston, sensmg-mtu1tmg, t m mg-feeling andntroversi . _on. perceiving. Judging.

3. Ans. a Sol. Negative affect and social inhibition are the core features of type D personality.

12. Ans. b Sol. The nomothetic approach to personality looks at what p . • eop1ehav m common with each other. It comes from the Greek word e which means 'law,' and the nomothetic approach is inte~:o.s, finding patterns or Jaws of human personality. The no th '.n . l . ak 1· . mo et1c approach mvo vestry mg to m . e genera 1zat1ons about theworId and understand large-scale social patterns. The idiographic a . 1 . . mvo ves trymg to uncover a great deal ofd etatled informationpproach abouta narrower subject of study.

4. Ans. d Sol. These 16 source traits were seen by Cattell as the building blocks of human personality and are responsible for the surface traits seen in individuals. These are included in the 16PF scale. They are the underlying sources that are essentially responsible for inter-correlation of traits. These must be inferred through statistical techniques, such as factor analysis

5. Ans. b Sol. Real self and ideal self are the only ideas amongst the above give by Carl Rogers and he believed that personality of clients is determined by measuring the difference between the two. According to him, the ideal self is what the individual aspires to become, the goals ofthe individual while the real self is what the individual is, right now. The greater the gap between the two, the higher chance of experiencing negative emotions. 6. Ans. a Sol. Extraversion is the domain that is common in the theorization of Eysenck (where he talks about Extraversion, Psychoticism and Neuroticism) and McCrae and Costa's Big Five Model.



13. Ans. C Sol. The Halo effect is experienced when one aspect of the person is used to d_etermin_e the person's standing on other, non-related aspects. Eg. She ts beautiful so she must be polite is an example of the use of the beauty aspect in determining the politeness aspect, both of which are unrelated. Primacy effect is related to recall while Pygmalion effect is when high expectations lead to better results. Non-common effects are related to attribution.

14. Ans. b Sol. According to Freud, the repressed biological urges and desires are pushed in th~ uncons~iou~ id, ~hich is energized by libido. Id is the vast reservoir of baste b1olog1cal urges. Ego is the reality-oriented structure while the superego is the moral based structure.

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15. Ans. C Sol. One of the most unique aspects of the MMPI is that it was first 7. Ans. b major personality inventory to incorporate validity scales. The MMPI Sol. Alfred Adler deviated from Freudian theory by focusing on the tests use validity scales of varying sorts to help assess the accuracy of social context of the individual. He emphasized the importance of birth order reasoning that different birth orders have different social each individual's answers. The MMPI has L, F & K Validity scales. environments within the family. 16. Ans. c Sol. The Rorschach Inkblot test is a projective method of assessing an 8. Ans. C Sol. Neuroticism is a domain of the big five that represents the level individual's personality given by Swiss psychiatrist Hennllllll of negative emotions felt by an individual. It is also termed as Rorschach. There are IO official inkblots, each printed on separate emotional instability.

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pSYCHOLOGIST AMIT PANWAR white cards. Five inkblots are black and gray; two are black, gray, and red; and three are multicolored without any black.

17. Ans. b Sol. The Behaviorist Approach believes that personality is the outc0me of a person's interactions with their surroundings. This behavioral perspective or called behaviorism connects incidents and behavior to predict how the personality was being shaped. For eg. Social Leaming Theory by Bandura. 18. Ans, c Sol. The idiographic approach refers to assessment of the individual as a unique whole. There is no inter-individual comparison, rather intra-individual comparison on different aspects. 19. Ans. d Sol. People with the trait of hardiness are able to endure and tolerate difficult conditions and are better off than others in stressful situations .

UNIT 7: PERSONALITY Social Cognitive Theory of Personality posits that personality is shaped by interacting social factors, cognitive factors, and behavior. Social factors refer to those that are learned through observation. Cognitive factors stem from cognitive interpretations of the observed social environment. Personality, manifesting as behavior, is determined by both of the previous factors. Social factors, cognitive factors, and behavior all influence and are influenced by one another. This interplay is called reciprocal determinism, which means that they all affect one another. 27. Ans. d Sol. Thematic Apperception Test is based upon the defense mechanism of repression. 28. Ans. a Sol. Source traits are at the root of all behaviors, attitudes and opinions of an individual. Cattell made a distinction between source and surface traits. Surface traits are very obvious and can be easily identified by other people, whereas source traits are less visible to other people and appear to underlie several different aspects of behaviour i.e. they underlie surface traits.

20. Ans. b Sol. Hostile aggression is related to type A personality and is a response to perceived threat or insult. It is unplanned, reactionary and impulsive. 29. Ans. b Sol. Concordance in genetics refers to the presence of same trait in 2). Ans. C both the twins. Niche picking is the tendency for individuals to choose Sol. Sensation seeking is associated with psychoticism and is environment in line with their genetic make-up . Canaliz.ation is the negatively related to conscientiousness. tendency for genotype to develop in the same manner irrespective of the environment. 22. Ans. d Sol. The Q sort technique developed by William Stephenson is widely 30. Ans. a used to understand self-concept, as well as the ideal and real self in the Sol. Eysenck proposed the idea that personality is biologically based Rogerian therapy. so he highlighted a phenotypic and genotypic basis of personality development. 23. Ans. C Sol. Gordon Allport, 1937 introduced the term proprium, referring to 31. Ans. d a person's sense of sel( the awareness of which contributes to lifelong Sol. Carl Gustav Jung was the psychologist who first proposed the personality development according to him. concept of introversion-extroversion. Introverts were characterized as spending time and working alone. Whereas extroverts were described 24.Ans.d as outgoing, and sociable. Sol. Cattell used the questionnaire data-Q data to study individual's characteristics, attributes and interests. L data refers to data of life 32. Ans. b events, t data refers to test score data. Sol. The behavioral assessment is an assessment of behaviors, the intensity, the frequency and the context. The Thematic Apperception 25. Ans. b Test is a projective test used to bring needs, presses and drives from Sol. Neuroticism- emotional stability is not a type dichotomy in Myers the unconscious to the consciou s awareness. It's used in and Briggs Type Indicator test of personality. The four dichotomies psychoanalysis. (or continua) in MPTI are: Extraversion-Introversion Sensing-intuition 33. Ans. a Thinking-Feeling Sol. The NEO-PI is based on the five-factor model and assesses an Judging-Perceiving individual on the big five traits ofneuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness . MBTI is based on 26. Ans. a Jungian conception of personality and 16 PF is based on Cattel's 16 Sol. The socio-cognitive approach to personality suggests the idea that factor theory. one's experiences can affect both personality stability and change. The

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43. Ans. d

Sol. Behavioral genetics is the study of inherited behavioral characteristics. It uses techniques like twin studies and family studies.

Sol. Social Cognitive Theory (Sen started as the Social L Theory (SLT) in the 1960s by Albert Bandura. It develo ~liming Ped lilt . . . h I SCT in t 986 and posits t at eammg occurs m a social contelCt \\•o the . . . Ith a dynamic and reciprocal mteract1on of the person, envir onrnent h . . behavior. He emphasized t e importance of social co . . , clnd &nittve · · th d I learning through observation m e eve opment of personality, , or

35. Ans. d

Sol. The Rorschach is a projective personality test. It makes use of I 0 ambiguous cards that are presented in a fixed manner and the subject is lo describe what they see in them. This test has high validity and reliability. 44. Ans. d . Sol. Rorschach test, also called Rorschach inkblot test , toProJectiv . . h' h • I .e d asked is person a 1c w method of psycholog1ca testing m 36. Ans. C Sol. Cattell (1957) identified 16 factors or dimensions of personality: what he or she sees in IO inkblots, of which some are black ;;cnbe gray warmth, reasoning, emotional stability, dominance, liveliness, rule- and others have patches of colour. consciousness, social boldness, sensitivity, vigilance, abstractedness, privateness, apprehension, openness to change, self-reliance, perfectionism, and tension 37. Ans. c Sol. Cattell's identified I 6 factors that are popular as the Cattel I6PF. Cattell linked these with nervous system functioning. Eg. People low on emotional stability may feel anxious and may have sympathetic nervous system activation even in the absence of immediate stressors. 38. Ans. a

Sol. Surface traits are ones that are many and can be seen by others. Above these are the central traits and above these are the cardinal traits. As we go up the hierarchy, the number of traits reduces and their generaliz.ability increases.

39. Ans. a Sol. "C" stands for Conscientiousness. It reflects the tendency to be responsible, organized, hard-working, goal-directed, and to adhere to norms and rules. The other Big Five traits by McCrae and Costa include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, and agreeableness.

45. Ans. b Sol. If behaviour is assumed to be caused by internal factors . . . assumed to be ca ' dIt IS . . I cause an d when 1't 1s . known as d1spos1t1ona useby . • external factors, it is known as s1tuat1ona1cause. 46. Ans. d Sol. Allport initiated the focus on traits approach which was followed up by Cattell. 47. Ans. C Sol. According to Carl Jung, the part of the mind containing universal human memories is called the collective unconscious. 48. Ans. b Sol. The ego acts like a director, directing individual's actions while trying to maintain a state of balance and harmony among the id and the superego. 49. Ans. b Sol. The behaviorist perspective explains human functioning in terms of stimulus-response pairs. So, the understanding is that personal ity is a set of learned responses.

40. Ans. b Sol. Projective tests are used to bring the thoughts, desires and impulses from the unconscious to conscious. Behavioral theories posit that there is nothing as unconscious and that human behavior has its basis in stimulus-response associations. Hence, a behaviorist would never use a projective test.

41. Ans. d Sol. Observer bias comes into picture when there is an external observer who is to observe and report certain behaviors, their context, frequency, etc. 1n case of a personality inventory, there is no question of observation as the examiner records all the responses provided in written by the test-taker. In all others the way can observer sees affects

50. Ans. a Sol. In the Big Five theory of personality 'A' stands for Agreeableness. The agreeableness trait reflects individual differences in general concern for social harmony. Agreeable individual value getting along with others. They are generally considerate. kind, generous, trusting and trustworthy, helpful, and willing to compromise their interests with others. The other big five factors are: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, and Conscientiousness.

the scoring.

42. Ans. b Sol. Karen Horney emphasized the societal and cultural factors that also play a role in personality, including the importance of the parentchild relationship.

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t•S\

•CIIOLOGIST AMll PANWAR UNIT 8: MOTIVATION & EMOTION

MOTIVATION & EMOTION fRACTICE MCQs ~

I. Aceording to ?olem ~. 'Management of Emotions' component of Emotional intelh~ence includes: . (a) Handling feelings , so that they are appropnate. (b) Ability to soothe oneself. . (c) Ability to shake ~ffram_pant anxiety, gloom or irritability. (d) Recognizing feehn~ as 1t happens . Choose the correct option a. (a), (b} and (d) only b. (b), (c) and (d) only c. (a), (b) and (c) only d. (a), (b}, (c) and (d) (MODERATE) 2_Choose the correct sequence of events following prolonged stress (a) Corticotropi_n releas(ng factor (b) Adrino cort1cotroph1c hormone (c} Cortisol . (d) Immune suppression Choose the correct option: a. (a)-> (b)-> (c) - > (d) b. (d)-> (c)--> (a)-> (b) c. (a)-> (c)-> (d)-> (b) d. (b)-> (c)-> (a)-> (d) (MODERATE) 3. Which neurotransmitter is most commonly associated with depression? a. Serotonin b. Dopamine c. Septomin d. Glutamate (EASY)

a. Arousal , Orgasm, Resolution, and Plateau. b. Plateau, Arousal , Orgasm, and Resolution. c. Arousal , Orgasm, Plateau, and Resolution. d. Arousal, Plateau, Orgasm , and Resolution. (EASY) 6. Sneha has always been praised for hard work and good grades. From a pure behavioral perspective, Sneha's pattern of turning in highquality homework reflects: a. her genetic propensity for conscientiousness. b. sublimation of her less socially valued desires. c. the impact of social modeling. d. a response tendency. (CHALLENGING)

7. Arrange the following into correct sequence as per James-Lange theory: I. Emotion producing situation II. Feeling of emotion ill. Elicitation of emotional responses IV. The brain receives sensory feedback from the muscles and other organs. a. I, II, ill, IV b. I, IV, II, Ill c. II, ill, IV, I d. I, Ill, IV, II (MODERATE) 8. Choose the odd one for pattern of sympathetic activation during emotions: a. Increased heart rate b. Pupil constriction c. Lowered skin resistance d. Increased breathing rate (MODERATE)

4. Which of these supports the James-Lange theory of emotion? a. emotion is a visceral response producing a behavioral response b. artificial induction of visceral changes does not necessarily produce emotion c. the viscera are ' insensitive structures' d. visceral changes are the same in many emotions (MODERATE)

9. According to which of the following theory 'motivation is a process in which various biological needs push the individual to actions designed to satisfy these needs'? a. Arousal theory b. Goal setting theory c. Expectancy value theory d. Drive theory (EASY)

5. Accordin g to the studies of Masters and Johnson, the four phases of sexual arousal in humans , in order of occurrence, are

10.The correct sequence of emergence of the followin g theories of emotion _ _ __

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n. James-Longe, Cannon-Bard, Schnchter-Singer b. Connon-Bard, Jomes-Lange, Schachter- Singer c. James-Lange, Schachter-Singer. Cannon-Bard d. Cannon-Bard, Schachter-Singer, James-Lange (EASY)

Motivation and theories 11. Self-actualii.ation is the process whereby individual s a. establish their concept of self b. become selfless c. reach their full potential d. realii.c their ideal sci f (EASY)

Power With· in PsYcl)ol . ob is the most important neurotransmitter . 1n1hc1... 17. _ reward pathway. u~in•1 a. Serotonin b. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine d. Glutamate (MODERATE) Stress and coping

. 18 _Competitive stress refe~s to: ht or feeling that induces stress on the mdividu h a at oug . d' . a1 . an in 1v1dual and the en . b. an ongoing transaction between . .1 d d. V•ronrn 1rectly with deman ds associated pnmart Y an corn ...1ctltaJ ,. ~- 111~ ~~nnan ~ c hts that one ought to be able to control but cannot 12. Which of the following are NOT TRUE of motivation? c. thoug . d' .d an in 1v1 ual and the en . a. it is the drive, incentive or interest to initiate, perfonn or maintain a d. an ongoing transaction. between . d d. . Vtronrn behavior demands associated pnmanly .an trect1y wuh the Organ ,saCtllaJ 1 . within which he or she is operating b. it is independent of emotion or cognition 1100 (MODER ATE) c. it is a preparatory phase prior to action d. it may be influenced by rewards and punishments 19. Coping style refers to: (MODERATE) . a. coping directed towards resolving the problem itself . . , such as 13. Which of the following is NOT an example of an intrinsically altering an aspect ofthe environment or changmg the situati . ' ti . on motivated activity? b. coping directed t?wards k_eeping ones eeh_n~s under control c coping by managing emotions such as cognitively reinterp . a eating a pie because you like pie · • . re11ng the situation or not thinking about the stressor b. playing with a toy for the fun of it d. coping by managing one's thoughts c. revising for an exam to get a good grade d. reading a book because you enjoy the story (MODERATE) (EASY) 20. Lazarus and Folkman (1984) defined coping as: 14. Aidan believes his new froz.en yogurt business will succeed if he a. thinking strategically under pressure works hard. Aidan would be described as having ___ self- b. challenging the status quo efficacy and an _ _ _ locus of control. c. the way in which people cope a. high; external d. constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to mana•e b. high; internal specific external or internal demands that are appraised as takin• ., ., or c. low; external exceeding resources of the person d. low; external (MODERATE) (MODERATE) 21. Coping style refers to: 15. The need for affiliation is the motivation to: a. coping directed towards resolving the problem itself, such as a. establish and maintain relationships with others. altering an aspect of the environment or changing the situation b. perfonn well on challenging tasks. b. coping directed towards keeping one's feelings under control c. be considered powerful by others. c. coping by managing emotions such as cognitively reinterpreting the d. earn the esteem of teachers and colleagues. situation or not thinking about the stressor (EASY) d. coping by managing one's thoughts (MODERATE) I6. Your roommate tends to take credit for getting A's on tests and papers and also accepts responsibility for her low grades. This 22. Lazarus and Folkman ( I984) defined coping as: behavior pattern is an example of: a. thinking strategically under pressure a. reciprocal determinism. b. challenging the status quo b. self-serving bias. c. the way in which people cope c. rationalization. d. constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage d. internal locus of control. specific external or internal demands that are appraised as taking or (EASY) exceeding resources of the person

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UNIT 8: MOTIV1\TION & EMOTION

LOGIST AMIT PANWAR psVCH O (fvlODERA TE) . h f the following things can cause stress in a person's life? O

23, Wh1C

'

urnotic events • b. discrimi~anon c j(lness/i nJury d·. All of the above II, U11

(EASY)

24

fan external reward. 29.When one engages in an activity regardi ess 0 the behavior is guided by _ _ _ _ __ a. need for achievement b. intrinsic motivation c. extrinsic motivation d. none of the above (EASY) Stress and coping

_Woodman and Hardy (2006) identified four major organisational

srress issues:

.

al leadership, coaching and success a pe~n ' . · 'ronmental, personal, leadership and team b env1 . . d · ·ronmental personal, motivation an sponsorsh'1p c. env1 • . . d. winning, losing, commitment and coachmg (MODERATE)

· . Read the following two ~tatements Ass~rtion (A) and Reason (R) 25 and indicate your answer usmg the codes given below: Assertion (A): The level of arousal for optimal performance varies for different tasks. Reason (R): Too little arousal can be non-motivating, and too high arousal can be disruptive. a. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A). b. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A). c. (A) is true, but (R) is false. d. (A) is false, but (R) is true. (MODERATE)

26. When a consumer has to choose between two attractive alternatives. Which type of motivational conflict is this? a. approach- approach b. positive- positive c. win-win d. avoidance- avoidance (EASY) 27. According to Maslow, the self-actualizing tendency is_ __ a. Instinct b. Imprinting c. Growth Motivation d. Incentive (MODERATE) 28. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of motivated behaviour? a. Direction in behaviour b. Random over activity c. Auto-correction d. Increased work efficiency (MODERATE)

30. _ _ _ _ _ _is description of basic biological response to sustained and unrelenting physical stress. a. General Adaptation Syndrome b. Diathesis-stress Paradigm c. Two-factor Theory d. Stress Inoculation Theory (EASY) 31 . Hans Selye termed the process of body's response to stressors as a. General adaptation syndrome b. Turner's syndrome c. Life change units d. Frustration (EASY)

32. Hans Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) consists of three stages. Which one of the following is not correct? a. Exhaustion b. Alarm c. Repression d. Resistance (EASY 33. "The quality of performance on any task is an inverted U-shaped function of arousal." This law is known as _ _ __ a. Law ofEffect b. Broadbent Filter Theory c. Yerkes-Dodson Law d. Law of Constancy (EASY) 34. The Yerkes Dodson law predicts that most people would perfonn an easy task best if they are at a _ __ a. high level of arousal b. low level of arousal c. optimal level of arousal d. state of homeostasis (EASY) 35. The release of _ _ _ reduces the effectiveness of the immune system in response to prolonged stress. a. dopamine b. corticosteroids c. endorphins

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d. catecholamines (EASY) 36. Which of the following are the three stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome? n. denial, resistance and resignation b. appraisal, adjustment and acceptance c. alarm, resistance and exhaustion d. avoidance, approach and acceptance (EASY) 37.

According

to

Lazarus, secondary

appraisal

involves

a. Estimating the severity of the stressor b. Classifying the stressor as a threat or challenge c. Deciding whether the stressor is a problem d. Estimating the resource a person has available for copin g (MODERATE)

I.

Happiness

includes

all

of

the

following

a. Feeling a positive emotion. b. Being satisfied with your_ hfe . c. Not experiencing a negative emotion d. Having a high paying job (EASY, DU MA Applied 2020)

e,

2. The ability to control one's impulsive judgment and . known as __ __ _. reaction. \ is a. Self-efficacy b. Self-Awareness c. Self-regulation d. Empathy (EASY, DU MA Applied 2020)

38. The optimal amount of stress that people need to promo te their 3. Two-Factor theory ofEmotion has been proposed by health and sense of wellbeing is called _ _ _ _ _. a. William James a. Intensity - - - -· b. Carl Lange b. Distress c. Cannon-Bard c. Acute stress d. Schachter and Singer d. Eustress (EASY, DU MA 2020) (EASY) 39. Resistance and emotional exhaustion are the secon d and third stages of GAS (General adaptation stress), what is the first stage? a. alann reaction b. natural killer response c. primary appraisal d. secondary appraisal (EASY)

4. Emotional instability is sometimes labeled a s _ . a. Conscientiousness b. Agreeableness c. Neuroticism d. Openness to experience (EASY, DU MA 2020) 5. The kind of healthy psychological and physical functio ning after a potentially traumatic event is called _ _ _ __ a. After-effect b. Coping c. Resistance d. Resilience (MODERATE, DU MA 2019) 6. The existence of the seventh primary emotion suggested by some theorists is ------a. Outrage b. Gratitude c. Contempt d. Frustration (EASY, DU MA 2018)

1

7. Emoti ons that can be experienced when we are confronted with the harmful actions done by an in-group against an out-group is called a. Collective guilt b. Collectivism c. Common in-group identity

I .

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UNIT 8: MOTIVATION & EM OTION

pSYCHOLOGIST AMIT PANWAR

d Catharsis hypothesis

(MODERATE. DU MA 2019) Health for the bio- psychosocial model is _ _ _ _ _. · state of complete physical, mental, and social well- being 8 a.b ,esence of pathogen in the body 8

.p

a. Hardiness b. Resilience c. Self-confidence d. Assertiveness (MODERATE)

c. absence of disease

15. Which one of the following is not related to the 'mental toughness'

d. none of the above (EASY, JMJ MA 2019)

of sports person? a. Coping with pressure of competition b. Sensation seeking c. Determination d. Resilience (MODERATE, BHU MA 2017)

_ The correct sequence of emergence of1he following theories of 9 emotion _ _ _ _ . James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Schachter-Singer : : Cannon-Bard, James-Lan~e, Schachter-Singer c. James-Lange, Schachter-Singer, Cannon-Bard d. eannon-Bard, Schachter-Singer, James-Lange (EASY, JMJ MA 2019)

Io. The James-Lange theory of emotion states that _ _ __ a. one feels emotions and then a bodily reaction result b. emotions and visceral reactions simultaneously occur c. one reacts with one's body first and then one feels emotions d. the somatic nervous system is the seat of emotion (EASY, JMJ MA 2019) 11. Which of the following is NOT one of the three elements of emotions? a. Subjective experience b. Physical reaction c. Behaviour d. Attention (MODERATE, JMI Applied 2017) 12. The theory of emotion that states the thalamus sends sensory information to the cortex and the sympathetic organs at the same time is the _ _ _ theory. a James-Lange b. Cannon-Bard c. Schachter-Singer d. Facial Feedback (EASY, JMI Applied 2017) 13. _ _ _ _ is defined as action that is intended to hurt another person. It has both biological and social origins. a Frustration b. Aggression c. Disinhibition d. None of the above (EASY, JMJ 2021) 14. Which of the following refers to 'the skill that helps the individual to communicate his/her feelings, needs, and thoughts and clearly and confidently and associated with the ability to clearly say no to a request, to express one's opinions or emotions openly without being self-conscious'?

16. According to cross cultural research in which culture 'display rules' were found to be comparatively more against expressions of strong emotions: a. American b. Japanese c. Arabic d. Canadian (MODERATE, BHU MA 2015) 17. How many emotions were identified as basic emotions that are universal across cultures by Paul Ekman? a. Six b. Five c. Four d. Seven (EASY, BHlJ MA 2015) 18. 'Fleeting facial expressions lasting only few tenths of second after an emotion provoking even' are known as _ _ __ _ a. Macro expressions b. lnterchannel discrepancies c. Micro expressions d. Exaggeration of expression (EASY, BHlJ MA 2015) 19. Which part ofthe nervous system is called the ' centre of emotions? a. Hypothalamus b. Thalamus c. Cerebral cortex d. Hippocampus (EASY, BHU MA 201 5) 20. The Schachter-Singer theory of emotions differs from the earlier theories due to its emphasis on _ _ ___ and_ _ _ __ a. Sensory input from stimulus, physiological arousal b. Perception of stimulus, physiological arousal c. Cognitive labelling, feedback d. Perception of stimulus, feedback (MODERATE, BHU MA 201 5)

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21. Among the following theories. which one states that 0 emotion is a 27. Which of the following approaches to studying rn . ~ . result of the interpretation of the causes of physiological arousa d b 'Behaviour is determine y our th'nk' l? I mg and attribut· Olivar10n s•a. James-Lange Theory 1on'? 1..."""b The mam in managing • O taJc ""' all ofour stressors, as 1t can build up llnd c activ 1V' llt leadership issues revealed were: coaches, and coaching styles . Th: harm to our . Pot 'st... health otherwise. main team issues were: team atmosphere, support network, cntially' roles, an communication. 31. Ans. a Sol. Hans Selye proposed the General Adaptation Syndro 25. Ans. b response to stress. It is composed of three stages. alann Ill~ Sol. The Yerkes-Dodson Law suggests that there is a relatio as 1-.,., , nship . , res,s,••~ 1 between performance and arousal. Increased arousal can help exhau stion. improve ....,ct~ performance, but only up to a certain point. At the point when arousal becomes excessive, performance diminishes. The type of task and 32. Ans. c complexity of the task plays a role in determining the optim al levels Sol. Repression is a defense mechanism in Psychoan of arousal. General Adaptation Syndrome follows the stages- al alysis. 'h . 'lit and exhaustion. These are seen m response to a stress ann' r. es151antc 26. Ans. a or or threat. ' Sol. Approach-Approach conflict occurs between two desirable 33. Ans. C goals. Sol The Yerkes-Dodson Law suggests that there is · between performance and arousa1. Increased arousal canahrelati0 . . nsh1p 27. Ans. c 1 performance, but only up to a certain point. At the point ehp unprove . Sol. Self-actualization, in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, is . .shes. w enarousa1 the highest becomes excessive, perfiormance d"1mm1 level of psychological development, where personal potent ial is fully realized after basic bodily and ego needs have been fulfille d. Since it 34. Ans. a is involved in inner growth, it is actually considered as growth Sol. 'The Yerkes Dodson law predicts that most people would motivation. an easy task best if they are at a high level of arousal and di'ffi perfonn ICUlt task at low level of arousal. 28. Ans. b Sol. Characteristics of motivated behavior include behav ior which is 35. Ans. b directed, increased work efficiency, correcting one's mistak es. Sol. The release of corticosteroids reduces the effectiveness of th immune system in response to prolonged stress. The stress ho e 29. Ans. b . ness corticostero1"d can suppress the effiect1ve rmone of the immune system . Sol. Intrinsically motivated behaviors are performed becau se of the sense of personal satisfaction that they bring. Extrinsically motivated 36. Ans. C behaviors, on the other hand, are performed in order to receive Sol. The General Adaptation Syndrome is given by Hans Selye, something from others or avoid certain negative outcom es. Thus, describes the pattern of responses that the body goes through after when one engages in an activity regardless of an external reward, the being prompted by a stressor. There are three stages : alann, resistance behavior is guided by intrinsic motivation. and exhaustion. These different responses and stages help us cope u; with the stressors. 30. Ans. a Sol. The general adaptation syndrome (GAS), developed by Hans 37. Ans. d Selye, describes the pattern of responses that the body goes through Sol. According to Lazarus, secondary appraisal involves peoples' after being prompted by a stressor. There are three stages : alann, evaluation of their resources and option s for coping. One aspect of resistance, and exhaustion. secondary appraisal is a person's evaluation of who should be held Alann: This occurs when we first perceive something as stress ful, and accountable. then the body initiates the fight-or-flight response (as discussed earlier). 38. Ans. d Resistance: If the perceived stress continues, the body stays activated Sol. Eustress is the good stress that motiv ates people to get better and at a higher metabolic level in an effort to offset the persis tent stress. perform better. When the stress increases to a level that it hampers the The body cannot maintain this level indefinitely, and its resour ces will performance, it is called distress. Acute stress is a short-tenn streSs eventually deplete. caused by an immediate stressor. Exhaustion : Prolonged exposure to the stressor will result in the depletion of the body's resources, and the resulting wear and tear will 39. Ans. a

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126

► oLOGIST AMIT PANWAR

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arc three stages: alarm. resistance , and exhaustion . Alann 1nc:rc . th. so·I . occurs when we first perceive some mg as stressful, and then 15 - 'Ot • •t1·ates the fight-or-flight response.

UNIT 8: MOTIVATION & EMOTION

ANSWERS UNIT 8 PREVIOUS YEAR MC(h

1hC t,ody in I

I. Ans. d Sol. The tenn happiness is used in the context of mental or emotional states, including positive or pleasant emotions ranging fr~m contentment to intense joy. It is also used in the context of hfe satisfaction, subjective well-being, eudaimonia, flourishing and wellbeing.

2. Ans. c Sol. Self-regulation can be defined in various ways. In the most basic sense, it involves controlling one's behavior, emotions, and thoughts in the pursuit of long-tenn goals. More specifically, emotional selfregulation refers to the ability to manage disruptive emotions and impulses.

3. Ans. d Sol. Schachter and Singer gave the two-factor theory which propagated the idea that experiencing an identifying emotional state are functions of both- cognitive interpretation and physiological arousal. 4. Ans. c Sol. Neuroticism is a domain of the big five that represents the level of negative emotions felt by an individual. It is also termed emotional instability . 5. Ans. d Sol. Resilience refers to bouncing back of an individual from a traumatic and stressful event in which generally individuals turn out stronger, with stronger philosophies of life.

6. Ans. c Sol. The existence of seventh primary emotion suggested by some theorists is Contempt. Ekman proposed seven basic emotions: fear, anger, joy, sad, contempt, disgust, and surprise; but he changed to six basic emotions: fear, anger,joy, sadness, disgust, and surprise 7. Ans. a Sol. Collective guilt is experienced when an individual is made aware of the wrongdoings of his/her ingroup. Catharsis is an emotional expression in a safe environment.

8. Ans. a Sol. According to the bio-psychosocial model given by George L. Engel, health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing. Being healthy is not only the absence of disease, but also the complete well-being of an individual physically, mentally, and socially. 9. Ans. a Sol. James-Lange Theory- 1880s- his theory suggests that seeing an external stimulus leads to a physiological reaction. The Cannon- Bard

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Theory was developed in 1927 by Walter Cannon, and his studen t Philip Bard.

o&), 19. Ans. a Sol The limbic system is the area of the brain most h . · . . eav1ly i . in emotion and memory. Its structures include the h 1r'Phca1e 10. Ans. c thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus .ilfe liypothalarn YPothala 1l.!d 111 Sol. According to the James-Lange theory of emotions are the result in the activation of the sympathetic nervous system wh·ush~laysaroi ' • of p~ysi~l changes in the body. Thus, emotions occur as a result , IC IS C of any emotional reaction. aPart or physiological reactions to stimulus in environment and thus one reacts wi th one's body first and then one feels emotio~s. ' 20. Ans. c Sol. The two-factor theory of emotion, the Schachter-Sin 11. Ans. d . h f . an example of a cognit. ive t eory o emot10 n. This theory gerthPn ""'Y is Sol. ~very emotion has a bodily response or a physical reactio n, a the physiological arousal occurs first, and then the ind·suggests .d that behavi_oral_ response and a subjective, psychological experi . . iv1 ua1 ence. identify the reason for this arousal to expenence and lab • llliJst Attention 1s not a part of emotions. emotion. The Schachter-Singer theory of emotions differ1:/ as an earlier theories due to its emphasis on cognitive labell:lll the 12. Ans. b feedba ck. Sol · .Accord'mg g and to Cannon-Bard theory , the thalamus controls emot1o~s. It s~nds impulses to the cortex which is responsible for 21. Ans. a expression of information and to the sympathetic organs that provid e Sol. The James-Lange theory is a hypothesis on the origin and the physiological response. . one f h · theones . of emotion nature of emotions and 1s o t e ear11est . . modem psychology. The James-Lange theory of emotion pr W1th1n 13. Ans. b . ·1. . oposes that emotio ns occur as a result ofh p ys10 og1cal reactio ns to events. Sol. l_n psychology, the term "aggression" refers to a range of behaviors that can result in both physical and psychological harm to 22. Ans. a yourself, others, or objects in the environment. Aggression centers on Sol. Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, fav hurting another person either physically or mentally. and recall information in a way that confirms or supports one's pri0;; beliefs or values. 14. Ans. d 23. Ans. C Sol. Assertiveness is the quality of being self-assured and confid ent Sol. Self-Efficacy refers to the belief of self in the ability and capacity without being aggressive. Being assertive means to be able to stand up of the self to accomplish a task. Self-efficacy is context -dependent. A for your own or other people's rights in a calm and positive way. person may have high self-efficacy in cooking but not in cycling. 15. Ans. b 24. Ans. b Sol. Resilience, Determination and coping with stress and pressu re are Sol. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation is best described as a all the qualities of a successful sportsperson. Thus, sensation seekin g process theory. With research pioneered by Edward C. Tolman and is the odd one out. continued by Victor H. Vroom, Expectancy Theory provides an explanation of why individuals choose one behavioral option over 16.Ans. b others. The idea of this theory is that people are motivated to do Sol. Cultural display rules are cultural nonns learned early in life that something because they think their actions will lead to their desired govern the regulation of expressive behaviors depending on social outcome (Redmond, 2009). "Expectancy theory proposes that work contexts. According to cross cultural research in Japanese culture motivation is dependent upon the perceived association between 'display rules' were found to be comparatively more agains t performance and outcomes and individuals modify their behavior expressions of strong emotions. based on their calculation of anticipated outcomes" (Chen & Fang, 2008). In other words , it can help explain why a person performs at a 17. Ans. a particular level. This has a practical and positive potential of Sol. During the 1970s, psychologist Paul Eckman identified six basic improving motivation because it can, and has, helped leaders create emotions that he suggested were universally experienced in all human motivational programs in the workplace. This theory provides the idea cultures. The emotions he identified were happiness, sadness, disgus t, that an individual's motivation comes from believi ng they will gei fear, surprise, and anger. what they desire in the form of a reward .

18. Ans. c Sol. A micro-expression is a facial expression that only last~ for a short moment. Jt is the innate result of a voluntary and an involu ntary emotional response occurring simultaneously and conflicting with one another.

25. Ans. a h Sol. Approach avoidance conflict is where a situatio ni'objecl has bol ,i positive as well as negative aspects. The positive aspects creai_e a pu towards the situation/object while the negative ones are repelling. 26. Ans. b

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. cc to change occurs when an individual is deep-rooted in 50 1. ReststaJl of behaving and thinking. Exhaustion, feelings of 5 · hment, an d 1ack o f mot1vatton · · are all signs of speG•fie wayaceomphs ' loW fnilure, bU11'1out-

z7. J\J1S· a

gnitive approach to motivation focuses on how a person's

501._Th~ co is influenced by their cognitions and mental processes. ,vauon

h . . .. Dissonance t e_ory ts an important cogn1t1ve theory of . . h c. 1be human1st1c approac 1ocuses on •mner growth otivation. · · . Th b h · · 11'1 • d self-actuahzat1on e e av10nst approach focusses on 1ent1a1an • Po. I s-response pairs. IJlOt • .

t1ve Cogn·1 .

5(IITIU U

. ts . th e act f d . 28· Ans. .c sic motivation o omg somet h'mg because you Sol. _Intn~oy it derive pleasure from it. It is not related to any kind of like it, enJrewards ' or outcomes. E · · · · xtrms1c mot1vat1on is guided by externaI external rewards.

29. Ans. b . Self-efficacy 1s

. to do a particular . the be 1·1ef'm one ' s own capacity ~ok. ccessfully. It is a context-depende nt idea. A person may have taS SU . cook. s If. . .gh elf-efficacy in eye, .mg but not m mg. e -actuahzation is ~e ;ching of one's full potential. Resilience is to bounce back from

UNIT 8: MOTIVATION & EMOTION The needs in Maslow's hierarchy include physiological ne~ds (f~d and clothing), safety needs (job security), social needs (fnendshtp), self-esteem, and self-actualization. 35 . Ans. a Sol. Frederick gave the Two-Factor Theory of Motivation. The first group of factors are called motivational factors or satisfiers. They include achievement, recognition, advancement, work and responsibility. The second group of factors are called maintenance or hygiene factors. They are also known as dissatisfiers. Herzberg called these factors as maintenance factors because they are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of satisfaction in the employees. Examples of maintenance factors are- company policy, salary, job security, status, working conditions, etc. He was of the opinion that these two factors must be present in all organizations. 36. Ans. d Sol. Ergs are defined by Cattell as goals created due to inner needs like hunger, thirst, etc. According to him, ergs are the basic innate units of motivation.

1

a calamity.

37. Ans. d Sol. Self-regulation theory is a system of conscious personal management that borrows from cognitive as well as behavioral schools of psychology. It involves guiding one's own thoughts, behaviors and feelings to reach goals.

30 Ans. b soi. David McClelland proposed three needs or motives- the need for affiliation, the need for achievement and need f?r power. He described the need for achievement as a need to set a high standard and work towards it, strive for success and welcome competition. 31.Ans. d Sol. The drive theory posits that a biological state of tension or drive pushed an individual to reduce it and achieve~ state ofh~rmony. The goal-setting theory talks about how goals motivate behavior. 32. Ans. C Sol. Categorical self uses cues such as age, external appearance, representation of self as good or bad. Enduring self is the idea that self is constant throughout the life, inner self deals with the psychological representation of the self while remembered self is the experiencebased self. 33. Ans. C Sol. The terror management theory is based on the notion that the most fundamental human motivation is to reduce the inevitability of death. Self-esteem is seen to be implicated in effective terror management by having a positive view of the self.

34. Ans. C Sol. Abraham Maslow based his pyramid of needs on the basis of approach goals, rather than avoidance goals.

38. Ans. C Sol. Need for achievement, according to McClelland is an individual's desire for significant accomplishment , control of situation, mastery of skills and maintaining high standards for self. 39. Ans. d Sol. The earliest theories explain that Mechanical movement induces hunger. Explanations of short-term regulation of hunger motivation have revolved around two basic ideas. The earlier of these two, known as the local theory of hunger, suggested that the hunger signals that initiate eating originate in the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the stomach. Hunger pangs were thought to be the result of stomach contractions. 40. Ans. b Sol. Psychologists have divided motives into three types- Biological motives, social motives and personal motives. Motives like need to spend time with others or to influence others are known as social motives. 41. Ans. c Sol. Reactance is an unpleasant motivational arousal or reaction to offers, persons or rules that restrict individual freedom . 42. Ans. a Sol. Rogerian conditions of worth are what get self-acceptance from significant others and the Freudian superego involves the rules,

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www.powerwithinpsychology.com .. from significant obedience to which gets the self-posiuv e outcome others. 43. Ans. c f choice Sol. The expectancy theory explains internal proce sses ~ h · d' 1'dual will be ave among differtnt behaviors. It proposes that an m 1v • . . · t or act m a certain way because they are mohva ed to select a specific . behavior over others due to what they expect th e re suit of that selected behavior will be.

44. Ans. b Sol. McClelland's Human Motivation Theory states that every person has one of three main driving motivators : the needs for achievement, affiliation, or power. 45. Ans. c Sol. Time or work pressure is experienced when high demands are placed on an individual. This is not a conflict as there are no opposing forces from work, but rather slight stress or press ure to pace up. This is not frustration as it is not a barrier in a goal-direc ted activity. 46. Ans. c Sol. Stomach and pancreas secrete digestive juice s that indicate hunger. Corpus callosum is a bundle of neuronal fibres that connect the left and the right hemisphere and help transfer information across the hemispheres. 47. Ans. b Sol. One's self-concept is a collection of belief s about oneself. Generally, self-concept embodies the answer to the question "Who am I?". 48. Ans. a Sol. Unconditional positive regard, a concept developed by the humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers, is the basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the perso n says or does, especially in the context of client-centered therapy.

49. Ans. a Sol. Frustration arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of an individual's will or goal and is likely to incre ase when a will or goal is denied or blocked. Frustration results from the blocking of needs and motives. 50.Ans. a Sol. Maslow first introduced his theory in a 1943 paper titled "A Theory of Human Motivation" published in the journ al psychological review. In it, he outlined the basic five stage mode l he believed people move through which he identified as physi ological, safety , belonginess, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs .

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► psYC

f-{OLOG!ST AMIT PANWAR

UNIT 9: SOCIAL PSYCHOL OGY

SOCIAL PSY CHO LOG Y . Ofthe following is the correct explanation of'an intolerance ). Which a punitive attitude and submissive respect for their inweakJless, . . for · th rities as reflected m their agreement? group au o . . ·a1 dominance onentat1on

a. soc•

.

b. ethnocentnsm

c. eonfonnity d. inequality (EASY) Wh among the following conducted one of the most famous and ~ntro~ersial experiments in the area of obedience? a. Sherif b.Asch c.Milgram d. Cialdini (EASY)

(EASY)

7. The phenomeno n where bystander assume th at n othing is wrong in an emergency as no one looks concerned is called a. Diffusion of responsibility b. Pluralistic ignorance c. Prosocial behaviour d. Bystander effect .do.....\ (EASY) -~ J

8. Which of the folloajng are ilie.,main biases in attribution process? (a) Fundament al attr;,~ution error (b) Actor obseJ.¥er effsS (c) Situationali nfluence (d) Self-se~fui ..!ja$ . Choose tb'e correct option: 8:J_a), C) li.' {a),1(b)·and (d) c. (b)~('c:) and (d) ~ (a), (c) and (d) )>' IAns. b Sol. Fundament al attribution error, Actor observer effect, and Selfserving bias are the main biases in attribution process.

{Q~ J

3. The Door in the Face Technique is based on which tactics of QOmpliance? a. Tactics based on reciprocity b. Tactics based on commitmen t or consistency c. Tactics based on friendship or lilcing d. Tactics based on scarcity (EASY)

~~

4. On a psychological currency that permits deviation from the group

9. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and other is labelled as Reason (R).

is called

a. Confonnity b. Obedience c. Idiosyncracy credit d. Compliance {EASY) S. Which of the following is excluded from Berkowitz' s frustration Bggression hypothesis? a. Frustration always leads to aggression. b. Social rules may inhibit aggression. 0 • Frustration may result in other behaviour than aggression d. Cognitive factors can override aggression. (EASY) 6 · Which of the following norms suggest people how they ought to behave? a, Social responsibility norms

b. Rec1proc1ty · · norms

c. Prescriptive norms d· Proscnpt1ve · · norms

Assertion (A): Culture encompass es life styles, values, practices and goal, which provide distinct identities to the people and community . Reasons (B): Culture always acts as a constraint in the growth of a community In the light of the above two statements choose the correct option: a. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanatio n of (A) b. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanatio n of (A) c. (A) is true, but (R) is false d. (A) is false, but (R) is true (MODERA TE)

Io. When individuals find themselves in new situations where they are uncertain of how to behave, they often copy the behaviours of others, a strategy known as a. Mimicry b. Obedience c. Groupthink d. Parodying (EASY)

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WWW .powcrwithinpsychology .com

Power Within p syci.i~

I 1. Ginger's new roommate tends to wink a lot at the end of sentences to indicate that she is joking. After living together for a few weeks, Ginger unconsciously begins to wink when she makes a joke. This is an example of a. cognitive dissonance . b. the chameleon effect. c. social facilitation. d. groupthink. (EASY)

Choose the correct answer from the options given below • a. A-IV B-Ill C-Il D-1 b. A-I c.

A-IV

d. A-I (EASY)

B-Il

c-m

D-IV

B-II1 B-IV

C-1 C-ll

D-TI D-lll

20. The unco~fortable state ~at arises because of a discrc 15 • A strategy designed to gain favorable response to a small request between an attitude and behav10r or between two attitude . !>ancy at first, with the intent of making the person more likely s IS called to agree later to a larger request is known as a. Cognitive consonance a. Compliance b. Cognitive dissonance b. Door-in the face c. Self-deception c. Foot-in the door technique d. Attitude Change d. Obedience (EASY)

(EASY)

21. The phenomenon of !!_liuning an innocent person or a grou , 16. Solomon Asch is popularly know hll n for his research on one's own trou~ · ·matm · g agam · st them p,oras es and th"en d'1scnm is known

a. Conformity b. Obedience c. Compliance d. Cohesion (EASY)

a. Stereotyping b. Prejudicing' C. Discrimination , goating d. Scape (EASY)

'

r 17. The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people, 22. If you want to stop ragging in your schooVcollege, what would can't be identified (such as when they are in a crowd ) is called most likely be an effective strategy to follow? a. punish the perpetrator publically a. Social loafing b. teach the victim to fight back b. Social facilitation c. reward the perpetrator for not ragging c. Deindividuation d. change the entire schooVcollege system to have zero d. Mob behavior tolerance for ragging (EASY) (MODERATE)

18. We typically attribute our success to our internal characteristics whenever we perform well on a task. This phenomeno n termed as

a. Fundamental attribution error b. Self-serving bias c. Self-schema d. External attribution error (EASY) 19 Correctly match the following- Match List I with List n

LIST I A Social Leaming Theory

LIST II I Bandura

B Repeated Exposure Effect

n

C Social Facilitation

Ill Kelley

Triplett

D Theory of Causal Attribution IV Zajnoc

23. _ _ _ _ are mental frameworks, formed through e>,i>eriencc, that help us to organize and make sense of social infonn ation. a. Schemas b. Metaphors c. Complexes d. Attitudes (EASY) 24. On a road sidewalk a woman was lying although each passer-by has noticed the man but no one has stopped' to help and 1 find out 'fhe is asleep, sick, drunk or dead. Which psychological phenornen°n explains why people don't stop to help? a. Diffusion of responsibility b. Lack of intrinsic motivation c. Learned helplessness d. Self-serving bias (MODERATE)

132

psYCHOLOGIST AMIT PANWAR

UNIT 9: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

25 . Vishesh secs his psychology p~fessor arguing angrily with a c. when people choose or are required to work alone ricer at the local post office. From thts, he assumes that his professor d. when individual contributions to the group effort are anonymous WO d . . a hostile person. What ocs his assumption illustrate? (EASY) 1s th . The just world hypo es1s ~-The fundamental attrib~tion error 32. Modeling is a key concept proposed by _ _ _ __ c. The matching hypothesis a. Bandura d. Toe bystander effect b. Pavlov (MODERATE) c. Frankl d. Skinner 26. At first Rajesh did not like his teacher, but after sitting in this (EASY) teacher's class for a number of weeks Rajesh as started to like his teacher. This new perspective would be an example of: 33. Theory of cognitive dissonance was offered by _ _ _ _ __ a. Diffusion of responsibility a. Skinner b. Bystander effect b. Bandura c. In-group bias c. Festinger d. Mere~xposure effect d. None of these (MODERATE) (EASY)

27. If a partner has a discomfort caused by dating a friend then they a. Cognitive dissonance b. stimulus ambiguity c. subliminal persuasion d. confinnation (MODERATE)

34. Group Cohesiveness refers to factors that cause members of the group. a. to like each other b. to remain it_l close proximity c. to care for each other d. to rema1n in a particular group (EASY)

28. Reductions in motivation and effort when individuals work in a group compared to when they work alone is called _ __ _ __ a Hooliganism b. De-individuation c. social facilitation d. Social-loafing (EASY)

35. Social Psychology is the scientific field that seeks to understand nature and causes of which of the following? a. Individual's perceptions of personal situations b. Individual's behavior and thought in social situations c. Individual's behavior in experimental situations d. Individual's behavior in isolated situations (EASY)

29. Limited period offers/sales by online marketing sites such as the Amazon or Myntra is a classic example of which of the following compliance techniques? a. Low balling technique b. That's not all technique c. Deadline technique d. Door in the face technique (EASY)

36. The positive effect on the perfonnance of an individual due to the presence of someone refers to_ __ a. Social Facilitation b. Social Loafing c. Social Connectedness d. Social Relations Ans. a Sol. Social facilitation is a psychological concept relating to the tendency for the presence of others to improve a person's perfonnance on a task. It was discovered by Norman Triplett, the father of experimental social psychology.

arc experiencing:

30. A technique for gaining compliance in which an offer or deal is changed to make it less attractive to the target person is - - -- a. Lowball procedure b. Self-deprecation c. Less leads to more effect d. That's-not-all technique (EASY) 31 . Social loafing occurs when _ _ __ _ a. when the expectation of a reciprocal gesture is low b. only when the task requires physical effort

37. Under which of the following conditions, efforts at changing attitudes are likely to be highly successful? a. Forewarning about being the target of persuasion b. Selective avoidance of information challenging existing attitude c. Unbiased evaluation of views opposing attitudes d. Attitude polarization in interpreting mixed evidence (MODERATE)

133

r

Power With'

www.powerwithinpsychology.com 38. What does 'An unfounded belief that all members of a specific social group share certain specific characteristics' refer to? a. Beliefs b. Attitudes c. Stereotypes d. Values (EASY) 39. What does 'impression motivation function' of attitudes imply? a. Being motivated to make a good impression b. Expressing the 'right' views to make a good impression c. Holding impressive attitudes d. Trying to appear impressive and motivated (EASY) 40. What is it when 'one puts oneself in the place of another person in order to understand that person's way of looking at things'? a. Understanding b. Rapport c. Empathy d. Sympathy (EASY)

41 . The tendency of an individual to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others is known as a. Self-serving bias b. Selective perception c. Fundamental attribution error d. Distinctive perception (EASY)

42. Judging an individual on the basis of one's perception of the group to which he/she belongs is called _ __ __ a. Stereotyping b. Prejudice c. Projection d. Discrimination (EASY) 43. According to Bandura's SCT, which among the following does not represent a basic human capability? a. Forethought b. Self-reflective c. Symbolizing d. Cognitive orientation (EASY) 44. The characteristic pattern of explanation people use to make sense of life event is called _ __ _ _ _ a. Self-serving bias b. Attributional style c. Cognitive appraisal d. None of the above

lllPsyc~~ (EASY)

45 _Cognitive strategies or rule of thumbs use that shone Complex mental task are known as_____ ut to Ioli, a. Heuristics b. Algorithms c. Cognitive maps d. Scripting (EASY) 46. A group's expectations regarding what is approprj... r.or its members' attitudes and b h ""' 111d acceptabl e " e aviour

is call(d

a. Social Norms b. Situationism c. Compliance d. Conformity (EASY) 47. Weakening of each group members' obligation to act wbcn 1 responsibility is perceived to be shared with all group membm is called _ __ _ _ _ a. Bystander effect b. Diffusion of responsibility c. Social conformity d. Obedience (EASY)

48. In Milgrams's original experiment study, about what proportionof the subject gave the maximum shock? a. about 70% b. about two-thirds c. about 50% d. nearly 100% (EASY)

· ·15 called 49. The task of attempting to infer the causes of behavior a. attribution b. detecting covariation c. schematic processing d. implication detection (EASY) . . ible for his 50. lnfemng that something internal to a person 1s respons or her behavior is called a(n) _ __ __ _ a. innate tendency b. internal inference c. dispositional attribution d. self- fulfilling stereotype (EASY)

134

UNIT 9: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

PSYCHOLOGIST AMIT PANWAR

PREVIOUS YEAR MCOs

-

I. Which among the following is not a cultural dimension given by

Hofstede? a. p0wer distance b. Uncertainty avoidance c. Individualism d. Pcrfonnance orientation (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020)

2. The fairness and justice of a decisions result is termed as a. Informational justice b. Distributive justice

c. Proccduraljustice d. Processual justice (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020)

3. Ajay quits smoking as his favorite celebrity has recently stated a campaign on healthy lifestyle. This behavior might have been caused by _ _ _ __

a. Cognitive dissonance b. Cognitive consonance c. Instrumental learning d. Vicarious Learning (MODERATE) (DU MA Applied 2020) 4. Most people tend to 'see the world through rose-colored gwses'. This is termed as - - - a. Optimistic bias b. Confident bias c. Overconfident bias d. Positive bias (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020) (MODERATE) 5. Put the following in the correct order :..... a. Sto~ing, Nonning, Fonning, Pe~ ~ng, Adjourning b. Formmg, Nonning, Stonning, Adjourning, Performing c. Forming, Stonning, Norming, Performing, Adjourning d. Norming, Storming, Forming, P~ orming, Adjourning (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020) 6- The _ _ _ _ is defined as a desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other people. 8 · Need for Affiliation b. Need for Achievement c. Need for Power d. Need for Strength (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020)

b. Foot-in-door effect c. Low-ball technique d. Door-in-foot technique (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020)

8. Solomon Asch is popularly known for his research on a. Conformity b. Obedience c. Compliance d. Cohesion (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020) 9. The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can't be identified (such as when they are in a crowd) is called _ _ __ a. Social loafing b. Social facilitation c. Deindividuation d. Mob behavior (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020, JMI 2021) 10. We typically attribute our success to our internal characteristics whenever we perfonn well on a task. This phenomenon tenned as

a. Fundamental attribution error b. Self-serving bias c. Self-schema d. External attribution error (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020) 11. _ _ _ are referred to as beliefs about social groups in tenns or characteristics that provide a cognitive framework for processing. a. Stereotypes b. Heuristics c. Prejudices d. Habit (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020) 12. Sternberg's conceptualillltion of love relationship is termed as

a. Physical attractiveness b. Passionate love c. Unrequited love d. Triangular model of love (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020)

13. Rosenbaum ' s proposal that attractiveness is not increased by similar attitudes but is simply decreased by dissimilar attitudes is known as - - - a. Repulsion hypothesis b. Appearance rejection sensitivity 7· A person who agrees to a small request initially, is more likely to c. Similarity-dissimilarity effects d. Reciprocal effects comply with a larger demand later, describes the phenomenon of (EASY) (DU MA 2020) a. Door-in-face effect

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www.powcrwithinpsychology.com 14 Co1TCCtl1y mateh the following- Match List I with List II LIST I LIST II A Social Leaming Theory I Bandura

B Repeated Exposure Effect

n Triplett

C Social Facilitation

III Kelley

D Theory of Causal Attribution

IV Zajnoc

Choose the correct answer from the options given below: a. A-IV B-nt C-11 D-1

b.

A-I

B-11

C-111

C.

A-TV

8-nt

C-1

D-□

d.

A-I

8-IV

C-U

D-IH

D-IV

Powerw·th· I IOp sy ct-.i~ 19. When making the ·'Fundamental attribut' ion erro ,, . overestimate the importance of _ _ _when jud . r, \lie Itri gtng the bcha ~ la of others. V10ri a. Situational factors b. Personal factors c. Gender factors d. Intelligence factors (EASY) (DU MA 2020)

20. According to the diffusion of responsibility th factor in predicting whether or not a bystander will ~ory, the biggest elp SOrncone in need is _ _ _ _ _. a. The duration of the situation b. Whether or not the person in need of help is male or fe lllalc c. The number of other bystanders at the scene d. The level of perceived threat (MODERATE) (DU MA 2020)

(EASY) (DU MA 2040) 15 • The uncomfortable state that arises because of a discrepancy between an attitude and behavior or between two attitudes is called a. Cognitive consonance b. Cognitive dissonance c. Self-deception d. Attitude Change (EASY) (DU MA 2020) 16. _ _ _ _ _ _ is the tendency to perceive others' actions as stemming intent even when it's not clearly the case. a. Hostile aggression b. Instrumental aggression c. Hostile attribution bias d. Provocation (EASY) (DU MA 2020)

17. The tendency for beliefs and schemas to remain unchanged even in the face of counter-factual information is called - - - a. Information overload b. Perseverance effects c. Heuristic evaluation d. Automatic processing (EASY) (DU MA 2020) 18. In Milgram 's experiment, subjects who gave large shocks rationalized that they were not personally responsible for their actions. This raises questions about our willingness to commit inhumane acts as a result of _ _ _ __ _ a. Coercive power b. Expert influence c. Obedience to authority d. Conformity to group pressure (EASY) (DU MA 2020).

21. _ _ _ _ are mental frameworks, formed through ex . that help us to organize and make sense of social infiorm 1. penence, a1on · a. Schemas b. Metaphors c. Complexes d. Attitudes (EASY) (DU MA 2020)

22. The following factors affect team cohesion except? a. Willingness to make personal sacrifices for the good of the team b. A clear role for each member of the team c, Priority of one's own goals d. Quality of communication between team members and shared goals (MODERATE) (BHU MA 2020) 23. What is prevention? a. Supervising safety at work b. Investigating accidents c. An assessment of risks d. Taking precautions to reduce risks (EASY) (BHU MA 2020) 24. Schemas that indicate what is expected to happen in a given sening is known as --a. Scripts b. Prototype c. Role Schema d. Self-Schema (EASY) (BHU MA 2020) 25. A teenage boy decides to become a musician after watching: audience scream in admiration of the lead singer at a concert ,_ 1 . theoreu~iu above example suggests which of the following perspectives in social psychology? a. social learning b. Evolutionary c. Socio-culture

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..........LOGIST AMITPANWAR

UNIT 9: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

rsvcHO

.o-eognitive d. soc• RATE) (BHl.J MA 2020) CMooE .

d. Stereotype Threat (EASY) (BHU MA 2020)

attitudes towards the member of some social group based

26. Ne_gaove bership in this group, is characterized as _____. on theirmem . piscriminanon_ . ·a1 categonz.at1on b. soc• prejudice . c. up conflict d. lntergro HU MA 2020) (EASY) (B

a.

A type of social influence in which individuals change their 27: d or behavior in order to adhere to existing social norms is 5

att1tu e

as----

tenned a. Compliance b. ingratiation c. Conformity d. Obedience (EASY) (BHU MA 2020)

28. on a road sidewalk a person was lying, although each passer-by

has noticed the man but no one has stopped to help and find out if he is asleep, sick, drunk or dead. Which psychological phenomenon explains why people don't stop to help? a. Diffusion of responsibility b. Lack of intrinsic motivation c. Learned helplessness d. Self-serving bias (EASY) (BHU MA 2020)

an

29. The unpleasant state of psychological arousal resulting from inconsistency within one's important attitudes, beliefs; or behaviours is explained by which one of the following theory? a. Anderson's weighted averaging principle b. Weiner's attribution theory c. Bandura's social cognitive theory d. Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory (EASY) (BHU MA 2020)

30. When Rahul fails a Math test but believes that the test was too hard; but when the friend fails the same test it was because he (friend) did not study enough. This is an example of which type of attribution process? a. fundamental attribution error b. Self-serving bias c. Actor- observer discrepancy d. Blaming the victim (MODERATE) (BHU MA 2020) 3

1. When no one comes to help a victim because all the witnesses ;;:..~~that someone else would do it. It is called by Latane and a. y erks Dodson La~ b. Bystander Effect c. Non Confonnity

32. If a consumer has a discomfort caused by post purchase conflict, the consumer is experiencing: a . Cognitive dissonance b. stimulus ambiguity c . subliminal persuasion d. confirmation (EASY) (BHU MA 2020) 33. "An aggressive child can tum a peaceful playground into a war wne". Choose the correct option from the following which signifies this statement? a. People change their situation b. Situations change people c. People choose their situations d. Situations choose people (MODERATE) (BHlJMA 2020) 34. Which on_e of the following is an internal factor related to the decisions and actions that influence the purchasing behaviour of the " . consumer? a. Reference groups b..,Marketing campaigns c. Lifestyl e and Attitudes d. Social status (EASY) (BHU MA 2020) 35. Social facilitation refers to _ __ a. when the presence of other people watching hinders a person's performance b. when people listen more attentively to people in authority c. when the presence 2000of other people watching improves a person's performance d . the tendency for people to do less in a group setting (EASY) (BHU MA 2020) 36. The combined memory of a group that is more efficient than the memory of the individual members is _ _ _ _ _ __ a . Group think b. False memory syndrome c. Transactive memory d. Collective memory (EASY) (DU MA APPLIED 2018) 37. The _ _ _theory proposes that frustration or the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal increases the probability of an aggressive response. a. Instrumental Aggression b. Fundamental attribution error c. Frustration Aggression Theory d. M.isattribution of Arousal (EASY) (DU MA APPLlED 2018)

137

www ·powcrwithinpsychology .com

Powerw•1 c. social facilitation d. Social-loafing Ans. d (EASY) (DU MA APPLIED 2018)

lhin p S,,c~log

38 · Method of gathering and analyzing data on the choice communication and interaction patterns of people in groups is referred to as -:-----a. lnfonnal group method b. Role playing method 45. Solomon Asch's studies were specifically d . c. Sociometry es1gned lo d. Focus group method ----:---:. . . . h Slttdy ,1 a. amount of pnvate op1mon c ange that would be Pl'Od '' (EASY) (DU MA APPLIED 2018) pressure to conform uted by b. factors that would cause subjects to rebel agai 39. When is a person less likely to confonn? ~ I'. • nst &rou c. differences between con,ormtty to a group and P_P%11r, a. When the group cannot see how the person behaves O authority figure bed1enee to b. When the group is unanimous d. amount of public conformity that would be Produce(! 1Ji c. When the person feels incompetent d. When the person admires the group co~rm ~~ ­ (EASY) (JMI 2020) (MODERATE) (DU MA APPLIED 2018) 40. The tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group's expectation and gain acceptance is _____. a. Nonnative confonnity b. Minority Influence c. Out group homogeneity d. Social compliance (EASY) (DU MA APPLIED 2018)

46. Cooperation does NOT depend on which of the fi . . . O11OWtng f,_ a. Rec1proc1ty ""-IO~) b. Communication c. Ego Orientation d. Other Orientation (EASY) (BHU MA 2014)

47. The lack of intervention by bystanders to emergency si . luaticr.; 41 . The tendency to attribute positive outcomes to internal causes but appears to be due to _ _ __ _. negative ones to external causes is known as a. conformity to social nonns ---a. Impression Management b. diffusion of responsibility and defining the situation as aIIOn. b. Actor-Observer Effect emergency · c. Self- serving Bias c. deindividuation d. Kinship Selection Theory d. apathy (EASY) (DU MA APPLIED 2018) (EASY) (JMI 2020) 42. The process whereby people flatter, praise and generally try to 48. When we conform because we believe that other people's make themselves likable is - - - interpretations of an ambiguous situation are more correct thJ!l ~, a Informational social influence own, it is called - - - -b. lnfonned consent a. situational influence c. Ingratiation b. ambiguous societal influence d. Interdependence c. infonnational social influence (EASY) (DU MA APPLIED 2018) d. nonnative social influence (EASY) (JMI 2020) 43. A form of social interaction in which children orient towards a common goals by resolving differences of opinions, sharing 49. At a party you are introduced to Anthony who youknow is asemiresponsibilities and providing one another with sufficient explanations professional boxer. Contrary to your expectations he is anicufatt to correct misunderstanding is _ _ __ _ clever and channing. This new information will probably contlic1 11ilh a. Creativity your preexisting _ _ _ _ about boxers. b. Cooperative play a. categorization processes c. Cooperative learning b. stereotypes d. Social learning theory c. priming (EASY) (DU MA APPLIED 2018) d. organization processes (MODERA TE) (JMI 2020) 44. Reductions in motivation and effort when individuals work in a group compared to when they work alone is called 50. Self- fulfilling prophecies arise because our 51ertvl)f a. Hooliganism b. De-individuation

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UNIT 9: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

ANSWERS UNIT 9 PRACTICE MCOs l. Ans. b Sol. Ethnocentrism is usually defined as a kind of ethnic or cultural group egocentrism, which involves a belief in the superiority of one's own group, including its values and practices, and often contempt, hatred, and hostility towards those outside the group.

2. Ans. c Sol. Stanley Mil gram's shock experiment in 1961 on obedience was one of the most controversial and famous experiments in psychology, particularly social psychology. 3. Ans. a Sol. The door in the face technique of social compliance is based on the tactics based on reciprocity. The foot in the door technique is a compliance tactic that assumes agreeing to a small request increases the likelihood of agreeing to a second, larger request. So, initially you make a small request and once the person agrees to this, they find it more difficult to refuse a bigger one as he may feel committed. 4. Ans. C Sol. Idiosyncrasy credit is a concept in social psychology that describes an individual's capacity to acceptably deviate from group expectations. Idiosyncrasy credits are increased (earned) each time an individual conforms to a group's expectations, and decreased {spent) each time an individual deviates from a group's expectations.

5. Ans. a Sol. Berkowitz( 1969) proposed a revised frustration-aggression hypothesis, where he argued that frustration doesn't always lead to aggression. • 6. Ans. c Sol. Prescriptive norms are unwritten rules that are understood and followed by society and indicate what we should do. 7. Ans. b Sol. Pluralistic ignorance is a situation in which a majority of group members privately reject a norm, but go along with it because they assume, incorrectly, that most others accept it. 8.Ans. b Sol. Fundamental attribution error, Actor observer effect, and Selfserving bias are the main biases in attribution process. 9. Ans. C Sol. Culture encompasses life styles, values, practices and goal, which provide distinct identities to the people and community. But it always does not act as a constraint in the growth of a community rather it mostly facilitates growth.

10. Ans. a

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Power w·1 thinp %~In. It prejudice . toward the person or. group that · · occurs when one person copies another's behaviour. Sol · ~f•micry 1) can be 8 very uscful skill when a child or an individual is unsure of Scapegoating serves as an opportunity to exp) . ?Ile is while maintaining one's positive self-image ain failure or b_iaoi~ how to behave. but others present do know how to behave. ~,~ . 11. Ans. b Sol. The chameleon effect occurs when individuals mimic another's behaviour without meaning to or knowing that they are doing it. Furthermore, the imitated behaviour usually does not have any apparent use; it is as if it ''just happens."

IS. Ans. c Sol. Foot-in-the-door technique or Compliance without pressure is a compliance tactic that aims at getting a person to agree to a large request by having them agree to a modest request first. This technique works by creating a connection between the person asking for a request and the person that is being asked. 16. Ans. a Sol. The conformity experiments were a series of psychological experiments conducted by Solomon Asch during the 1950s. The experiments revealed the degree to which a person's own opinions are influenced by those of groups. Asch found that people were willing to ignore reality and give an incorrect answer in order to conform to the rest of the group. 17. Ans. c Sol. Deindividuation is the phenomenon in which people engage in seemingly impulsive, deviant, and sometimes violent acts in situations in which they believe they cannot be personally identified (e.g., in groups and crowds and on the Internet). The term deindividuation was coined by the American social psychologist Leon Festinger in the 1950s to describe situations in which people cannot be individuated or isolated from others. 18. Ans. b Sol. The self-serving bias refers to the tendency to attribute internal, personal factors to positive outcomes but external, situational factors to negative outcomes. 19. Ans. d Sol. The social learning theory was given by Albert Bandura (bobo doll experiment), Theory of causal attribution by George Kelly, Social Facilitation theory by Norman Triplett (Cyclists study) and the idea of repeated exposure effect was given by Robert Zajonc.

20. Ans. b Sol. Dissonance is the situation of discomfort due to opposing attitudes or opposing behavior with respect to attitudes. People try to reduce this dissonance by either justifying their behavior by modifying their attitudes or by modifying their behavior to put it in line with their attitudes. 21. Ans. d Sol. Scapegoat theory refers to the tendency to blame someone else for one's own problems, a process that often results in feelings of

' 22.Ans.d Sol. In or~erto bring a change or_stop something like . in the entire system through multiple steps and . ragglllo "' ch. actions . . b ¾d ha,, ·~gti tolerance for ragging 1s a etter and more effie 1. ••nD c tve w . . ay than to "~rti specific or single action. lal:e1 23. Ans. a Sol. Schemas are mental information organi21• ng stru . . ctures tJi,, encode and store information effectively Th · ey hel · "'he! making as well. Schemas can be created thr gh P '" deq . P ou out life and sio, modified on the basis of experience. art

24. Ans. a Sol. As the person was on a side-walk, passers. b someone or the other may take a look at the man d hy assu111e ~ an elp h' ij . . . S'. rred to as diffusion of resp ... 11llo111 ir necessary. Th1s 1s re,e ons1b1hty . · As ~e number of passers-by or m general bystanders in crease, there is1 higher chance of diffusion of responsibility. 25. Ans. b . Sol. The fundamental attribution error refers to tendency to attribute another's actions to their characte an individuat1 while attributing their behavior to external situationar JlCrsonaJ~-. acto15 outs·,. of their control. In other words, you tend to cut yourself a break 1~ ~Ide holding others I00 percent accountable for their actions.

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26. Ans. d Sol. The mere exposure effect describes the phenomenon th 1 • a sunph • • encountenng a stimulus repeatedly somehow makes one like ii mori: 27. Ans. a Sol. The above experience is termed as post-decisional conflict 11!.l usually arises from cognitive dissonance.

28. Ans. d Sol. Social loafing is a psychological concept where peopleinapl'::; setting tend to be less productive and apply less effort 1011ard t< group's goals than they typically are when working independ~L~ The social dynamic of a group setting can cause peopletoexperim.1 decreased motivation and accountability, changing the ou1rorno ei the project compared to their typical productivity as an inJi11.t.,l When social loafing occurs, evel)'one in a group contribut~ 1o ~ another's tendencies to pass responsibilities to others in the group.fu can cause challenges such as additional labor costs or tirndine dd3!• . 29. Ans. c 1 Sol. Deadline Technique is a technique for increasing c0mplilil'~. t1me It" "' d · · which target persons are told that they have only hmue advantage of some offer or to obtain some item. 30. Ans. a

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()GIST AMIT PANWAR ,s,,c1~ 0L . . techni que 1s a comp liance strategy which is used to b II sol· 'fl!C IO"·- a n to agree to a request. A person using the techni que ~113de • pe~ attractive offer at firsL The offer will be attractive rill p~ nt an ther party to it. Then, before finalizing the agreement O • .h for the · request -1!:\'' . then change the o fJier. Th e resu Itmg will be less' 11 O"'A · comm1tte die t"'.-. n" ~ the initial ofJier. H avmg · d to the agreem ent, th ~r.ible ;:;,0 will often fee~ oblige~ t~ extend th~ir comp liance to c!Je othC~rrequest.This comphance-gammg method I~ often ~sed as a lll'secp!~ and ~tage, this ~4ring high is Uncertainty 1 lllg for leadership and authonty. .. co and Storming stage is a period marked by conflict · the lllOSt difficullmpetihon . d.1v1"dual persona1·t· and .. .,,, 1 1es emerge. It 1s m cn11ca1 stage to pass through. leader the who around develops In Norming stage consensus 1 or eaders are, and individual member's roles. Performing stage has a clear and stable structure, and membe committed to the team's mission. The team is focused on rsblar? pro cm . team goal s. . and meetmg soIvmg In the adjourning stage, most of the team's goals have bet accomplis_hed. The emphasis is on wrapping up final tasks an~ documentmg the effort and results.

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ANSWERS - UNIT 9 PREVIOUS YEAR MCOs

6. Ans. a Sol. The need for affiliation (N-Affil) is a term that was popularized I. Ans. d Sol. The four original dimensions of cultural difference identified by by David McClelland and describes a person's need to feel a sense of Hofstede were: power distance index, individualism versus involvement and "belonging" within a social group. Peopl~with ahigh collectivism, masculinity versus femininity and the uncertainty need for affiliation require warm interpersonal rela!iOQShips and avoidance index. Performance orientation is not a cultural dimension approval from those with whom they have regular conllct Havina 1 strong bond with others make a person feel as if they are a part of given by Hofstede. Note- Based on research with Bond's Chinese Values Survey (CVS) something important that creates a powerful impact. People whop~ across 23 countries, Hofstede added a fifth dimension, Long- versus high emphasis on affiliation tend to be supportive team membcn bltl may be less effective in leadership positions. Short term orientation. added was In 20 I 0, a sixth dimension, indulgence versus restraint 7. Ans. b based on Michael Minkov's analysis. Sol. The foot in the door technique is a compliance tactic that assumes1 10 to a small request increases the likelihood of agreeing agreeing 2. Ans. c Sol. Procedural justice deals with the perceptions of fairness regarding second, larger request. So, initially you make a small request and_Of1(( 8 outcomes. It reflects the extent in which an individual perceives that the person agrees to this, they find it more difficult to refuse bigger one (Freedman & Fraser, 1966). outcome allocation decisions have been fairly made.

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pSY~OL 1• A!l5· a conformity experiments were a series of psychological 50!. 'fhC nducted by Solomon Asch during the 1950s. The ~rimcnts covealed the degree to which a person's own opinions are · ents re ~ITI b those of groups. Asch found that people were willing to jnOuenced. y and give an incorrect answer in order to conform to the . ore reahtY i,i fthC g10up.

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9. ,A.OS· c rm deindividuation was coined by the American social 501. 'flic t.~ Leon Festinger in the I950s to describe situations in pS)'_chologi le cannot be individuated or isolated from others so there wt,ich ~p of normal restraints. Eg-Pcople engage in seemingly . 1o0sening . . • • • • ,s . deviant, and sometimes v101ent acts m s1tuat1ons m which ,il1Ipuls1ve, II 'd 'ti d ( . . they cannot be persona y I ent, 1e e.g., m groups and believe they d and on the Internet).

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tO ,A.ns. b . d .be h .. j The self-serving bias escn s w en w~ attn'bute pos1t1ve events So · cesscs to our own character or actions, but blame negative and sue results to external factors unrelated to our character. II. Ans. a . A stereotype is a fixed, over genera1·1z.ed bel'1ef about a particular 1 So · or class of people. By stereotyping we infer that a person has a range of characteristics and abilities that we assume all members of that group have.

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12.Ans, d Sol. In Dr. Sternberg's theory, the concept of love is a triangle, hence can also be termed as Triangular model oflove. It is made up of three components: Intimacy, which involves feelings of closeness, connectedness, and bondcdness Passion, which involves feelings and desires that lead to physical attraction, romance, and sexual consummation Decision/commitment. which involves feelings that lead a person to remain with someone and move toward shared goals

13. Rosenbaum's proposal that attractiveness is not increased by similar attitudes but is simply decreased by dissimilar attitudes is known as _ __ _

a. Repulsion hypothesis

UNlT 9: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Facilitation theory by Norman Triplett (Cyclists study) and the idea of repeated exposure effect was given by Robert Zajonc. 15. Ans. b Sol. Dissonance is the situation of discomfort due to opposing attitudes or opposing behavior with respect to attitudes. People_t~ to reduce this dissonance by either justifying their behavior by m~d,fym~ their attitudes or by modifying their behavior to put it in line with their attitudes. 16. Ans. c Sol. Hostile attribution bias deals with attribution of intent underlying the relatively ambiguous actions of a person. The other's intention is seen to be hostile even when there is no reason to believe so. 17. Ans. b Sol. Perseverance effect basically talks about persistence of beliefs/attitudes held by the person, even in the face of contradictory information or lack of supporting evidence. An example of belief perseverance is a person who believes that smoking does not cause cancer despite the abundance of evidence that shows that smoking does cause cancer.

)8. Ans. C Sol. Inhumane acts were committed as a result of Obedience to authority. There was no direct order from the experimenter but they were perceived to hold authority owing to the laboratory set up and the white coats. The participants were aware of the fact that they could leave at any time, but failed to do so, perceiving authority and also attributing the responsibility for subject's pain to experimenters. 19. Ans. b Sol. In Fundamental attribution error, attributions of others' behaviors are generally made to personal factor, ignoring the situational factors, especially in case of negative events. 20. Ans. C Sol. According to the diffusion of responsibility theory, the biggest factor in predicting whether or not a bystander will help someone in need is number of other bystanders at the scene. If a large number of bystanders are present, they tend to assume that someone else might help the victim and that there is no need for them to get involved in the event themselves.

b. Appearance rejection sensitivity c. Similarity-dissimilarity effects d. Reciprocal effects Ans. a Sol. Rosenbaum gave the repulsion hypothesis which stated that people are not attracted to each other by similarity, rather they are repulsed by dissimilarity.

21. Ans. a Sol. Schemas are mental information organizing structures that help encode and store information effectively. They help in decision making as well. Schemas can be created throughout life and are modified on the basis of experience.

14, Ans. d Sol. The social learning theory was given by Albert Bandura (bobo doll experiment), Theory of causal attribution by George Kelly, Social

22. Ans. c Sol. Cohesiveness is the quality of a team or n group to be united, one unit. Clear role expectations, interpersonal communication as well as sacrifices shape the cohesiveness of the team. Priority of one's own goals decreases group cohesiveness.

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res to avoid a problem . 2J . Ans. d · rtam measu f stopping somethin . g ftak . cc mg Sol. Prevention is the act o or calamity in future. It is basically the action o from happening. d' t what to expect in 24. Ans. a ~c . 0 f experience. pre help and schemas event arc Sol. Scripts th different settings. They can be modified on e asis 'ders bow both 25. Ans. a Sol. The social learning theory by Albert Bandura c~n.sfl1 nee human 1· nteract to m. ue modelling, ·· " t environmental and cogn1t1ve iac ors · learning and behavior. The theory focusses on observing, . al ctions of others. imitating behaviors, attitudes and emotion res 26. Ans. c . d' I aspect of social . Sol. Prejudice is the emotional and datt1tu ma . es and emotional reactions . att1tu h' component and includes negative 1p. members group I · · h d . . . towards some md1v1dual base on t e1r soc1a Discrimination is the behavioral aspect.

th · 27. Ans. C Sol. Confonnity is a type ofsocial influence where people c~ange eir behavior or attitude to fit in a group or follow certain. n?nn~. Compliance is modification of behavior upon request. Ingr~t1at1?n ts compliance through liking and obedience is following what 1s satd by a person of authority.

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experience is tenned as post-decisional 1 / sol. The ~ ve ti rt due to dissonance after a major dee· .ConOict. It such is1on, involves d1scom o ~ a big purchase. bo

33. Ans. a . 'd I xerts influence on the individual and ITlod'1 · dIv1 ua e fiesth ' l'gn it with one's internal genetic makeu p. ,..._ Sol. An m •ne c . mentto at abo~e sic example of the same. environ . statement is a c1as

oups, marketing campaigns and social sta 34. Ans. c Sol. Referenc~ !ividua l while lifestyle and attitudes are pe tus areau rsona1 cl!td external to an m internal factors. • 35. Ans. C . 1 &.aci"litation 1s• the phenomenon whereby an ind'1v1.dUal' Sol. Socia 1, of others. This h s improves m ~ presence appens ..,.{... tak perfonnance es place due to evalUat1.on • 11 on difficult tasks. 101s • espec1a Y apprehension.

f . 36. Ans. c 1985 gave the. idea o transactive memory as a Wegner, aniel So.I D of group memory m .response to the earlier id,..,. -., of pos1•t·1ve aspect grouptlunk and group mind. Transactive m~mory refers to the ability of a goup to have a memory system exceeding that of the individuals in the group.

37. Ans. C

Sol. Based on the frustration aggression hypothesis, the frustration 28.Ans. a aggression theory by Dollard Miller and others states that a barrier in that assume by passers, side-walk a on was person the As Sol. goal achievement or barrier on goal path leads to frustration in an someone or the other may take a look at the man and help him)out if individual. Instrumental aggression is a type of aggression and necessary. This is referred to as djffusion of responsibility. As the fundamental attribution error is a social attributional error. number of passers-by or in general bystanders increase, there is a higher chance of diffusion of responsibility. 38. Ans. C Sol. Sociometry, a method developed by Jacob Moreno and Helen 29. Ans. d assesses positive and negative links between persons in a group. Sol. The cognitive dissonance theory given by Leon Festinger states Hall methods are group based qualitative methods while that an underlying tension is created whep an individual's behavior is The other individual and their interactions with every inconsistent with his/her thoughts and beliefs. This tension motivates sociometry looks at each group. the an indjvidual to either make an attitude change or behavioral change. other individual in 39. Ans. a sion and Sol. When external attribution is made for negative events of self Sol. When a person is alone, there is no evaluation apprehen (difficult exam) and internal attribution is made for negative events of no one to form opinions about the person. In such cases generally, others (not studying enough), it is termed as actor observer effect. E.g. there is lesser influence of conformity as there is no group hence no need to go along with it. You fell, I was pushed.

30. Ans. C

31. Ans. b Sol.·Bystander effect refers to the phenomenon in which the greater the number of bystanders, the less likely it is that the victim would receive help. This occurs due to diffusion of responsibility.

32.Ans .a

40. The tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill me group's expectation and gain acceptance is _ _ _ _ _. a. Nonnative conformity b. Minority Influence c. Out group homogeneity d. Social compliance Ans. a

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-n,e tendencY to go alon . g with the grou . p in order to fulfi1ll the 50\. ectation and gain acceptance ts nonnative conformity lt •s elCP • . grouP · · individual have pos1•t1ve status in the eyes of ingro up helps an 1 .,,e111~ \nt1uence is the i~fluence of minority on majority, outgroup MinonlY ·cy is the perception that outgroup mem genet . . bers are quite sim"1lar hOrno ther as compared to ingro up, and socia l compliance is change eacho 10 • r on request. . '-"h&VIO

UNIT 9: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Sol. Informational social influence (or socia l proot) is an influence to accept information from another as evidence about reality· Informational influence comes into play whe n people are uncertain, either because stimuli are intrinsically amb iguous or because there is social disagreement. 49. Ans. b

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Sol. Stereotype is an expectation that peop le might have about every person of a particular group. The type of expe ctation can vary; it can 1 ;.ns. 4 . Self-cserving · · bias retie_rs to an attri"button error where positive be, for example, an expectation about the group's personality, 501. are attributed to internal factors and negative outcome preferences, appearance or ability. Ster s are eotypes are sometimes out~m: to external factors. overgeneralized, inaccurate and resistant to new information, but can attnbut sometimes be accurate. S~ the new info rmation will conflict with preexisting stereotypes about boxers. 42· j\nS- c · fl uenc gratiation is a form of soc1·aI m e appealing to likeability 1 s01. 50. Ans.b . n raise and flattery. lfi . agre n ormed consent 1s ement to parti.cipate using p periment after having knowledge abou Sol. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a belie t the same. in an ex f or expectation that an individual holds about a future event that manifests because the individual holds it, which in tum affects our beha vior. 43. Ans- C • . cooperative \earning generaIIy takes pIace in 1 small teams where !~iidren move towards a_sol~tion with the help of ~ach other. Note- cooperative play ~s different from c~p erah~e learning. When hild plays together with others and has inter ac . I d . I . th est m both the activity and other children invo ve in P aymg ey are participating in eooperative play .

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44. Ans. d Sol. Social \oafmg refers to reduction in mot ivation and effort when working in groups. This usually happens with easy tasks. Hooliganism refers to violent behavior in crow d, de-individuation is related to the loss of self identity, and soci al facilitation refers to improvement in performance due to real or imp lied presence of others. 45. Ans. a Sol. Solomon Asch ( 1952) conducted an expe riment to investigate the extent to which social pressure from a majo rity group could affect a person to conform. Asch found that with enough pressure, people would choose the wrong answer, but small changes to the dynamics could have a radical impact. 46. Ans. d Sol. Reciprocity, communication and ego orientation are important factors in cooperation. Other orientation is not directly related to cooperation, rather to empathy.

47. Ans. b Sol. Diffusion of responsibility occurs when people feel less responsibility for taking action in a given situa tion, because there are other people who could also be responsible for taking action. One of the reasons as to why bystander effect occurs is diffu sion of r~sponsibility. lt could also occur when byst anders don't perceive the situation to be of emergency. 48. Ans, C

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AfvtlT PANWAR UNIT 10: LIFE SPAN DEVELOPM ENT

LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT pJlACTICE MCOs

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relationship o a. piaget b.fodor c. Vygotsky d. I{ohtberg

(EASY)

S. Arrange the stages of personality development in the theory given by Rollo May A. Innocence B. Rebellion C. Ordinary consciousness of self D. Creative consciousness of self Choose the correct answer from the options given below: a. A, C,B,D b. A, B,C,D C. B, C,A, D d.B,C,D,A (MODERATE) 6. ln Ecological Theory _____ includes the face-to-face interactions that a person has in her immediate settings, such as home, school, or friendship groups. a. Mesosystem b. Microsystem c. Exosystem d. Macrosystem (EASY)

7. Arrange the Ego Strengths in correct sequence according to Erickson, stages of development:

_Questions given below are two statements labelled as Assertion (A) 3 a. Hope-> purpose-> competence-> fidelity -> love -> careand Reason (R). · I h"ld . . . Assertion (A): p~peratto na c 1 1s mcapable of perfionnmg >wisdom--> will operations. b. Will - > hope --> purpose --> competence -> fidelity - > care - > . Pre.operational child cannot mentally re-arrange a (R) Reason wisdom-> love · sequenee of events into reverse order. c. Hope - > will - > purpose - > competence -> fidelity -> love - > Which of the following is correct? care-->wisdom Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanation of A. d. Purpose -> hope - > will - > fidelity-> competence -> care - > ~-Both A and Rare true and R is not the correct explanation of A. wisdom-> love c. Ais true, but R is false. (MODERATE) d. A is false, but R is true. (MODERATE) 8. Which of the following are the advantages ofFMRI over PET scan? (a) Nothing has to be injected into the body (b) Provides both structural and functional infonnation of the same 4. lf a child believes that stealing in order to save a life is OK because image life is even more important than following the law, this child would (c) Produces three dimensional images of activity over the entire brain be in which stage of moral development? Choose the correct option: a. Level one: pre-conventional a. Only (a) and (b) b. Level two: conventional b. Only (a) and (c) c. Level three: post-conventional c. Only (b) and (c) d. Level four: operational d. (a), (b) and (c) (MODERATE) (MODERATE)

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c. A is true, but R is false. th 0 d for studying the A is false, but R is true. me d. best the 9. Which of the following would be (MODERATE) relative contribution of heredity and environment? th er toge a. Comparing identical and fraternal twins reared reared apart 14. Questions given below are two statements labelled as Assen·10 b. Comparing identical and fraternal twins n (A) and Reason (R). c. Comparing siblings reared together an_d ~~: Oa~arth0 m have been descriptive uses ist psycholog Assertion (A): Developmental w researc~ d. Comparing identical and fraternal twins. a y. extensivel reared apart Reason {R): A survey is an example of descriptive research. (MODERATE) Which of the following is correct? of sequence in ent developm moral of Both A and R are true and R (s the correct explanation of A. a. stages I0. Arrange the following b. Both A and R are true and R rs not the correct explanation of A their emergence as an individual gro"'.s up: · c. A is true, but R is false. ( I) Morality of interpersonal coo~rat1_on d. A is false, but R is true. (2) Universal ethical principle ~nen~tion (MODERATE) (3) Social order maintaining_onen_tat1on (4) Instrumental Purpose Onentatron two statements labelled as Assertion 15 _Questions given below are a. (4), ( I), (2), (3) . . . (A) and Reason ~)b. (4), (I), (3), (2) to exist even continue obJect an that realize Children (A): Assertion . . C. (I), (2), (4), (3) th View. e1r when removed from d. (2), (3), (4), (I) (R): In sensorimotor stage, children exhibit ob·~ec1 Reason TE) (MODERA pennanence. I I. Dr. X as a therapist felt a sense of complete unders~anding to~ards Which of the following is correct? a father client whose children behaved arrogantly as 1f he was m the a. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. clients shoes.. This is b. Both A and Rare true and R is not the correct explanation of A. a. Empathy c. A is true, but R is false. b. Jumping to conclusion d. A is false, but R is true. c. Wannth and genuineness (MODERATE) d. Sympathy (MODERATE) 16. In Piaget's theory, the tendency to understand new infonnation in · terms of existing mental framework is termed as ---12. Given below are two statements - one as labelled as AssertiQn (A), a. Adaptation and the other is labelled as Reason (R). b. Object permanence c. Accommodation Assertion (A): MRI provides images of brain activity rather than brain d. Assimilation images (EASY) Reasons(R): Results in MRI are obtained from the measurement of waves that hydrogen atoms emit when they are activated by radio17. Life span development begins with _ _ _ and ends with frequency waves in a magnetic field a. Infancy; old age b. Conception; old age In the light of the above two statements choose the correct option c. Birth; death a. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A) Conception; death d. of b. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation (A)

c. (A) is true, but (R) is false d. (A) is false, but (R) is true (MODERATE)

18. Which of the following statements best defines maturation? a. It is directly based on social-cognitive learning. b. It is an automatic biological development of the body that naturall) , unfolds over time. c. It does not take place in human beings. d. It is the basis of all physical and psychological developments.

13. Questions given below are two statements labelled as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). I Assertion (A): Pre-operational child is incapable of perfonning 19. A parent deliberately ignores a child's temper tantrums in an • operations. The parent's strategy is in accordance witb Reason (R): Pre-operational child cannot mentally re-arrange a attempt to discourage them. a. negative reinforcement sequence of events into reverse order. b. extinction Which of the following is correct? operant escape c. A. of n a. Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanatio d.operantavoidance b. Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.

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c. thinking that has little regard for others d. thinking that is a mix of the three (EASY) 27. What is prosody? a. tone, pitch and rhythm of speech b. pitch, intonation and depth of speech c. tone, depth and stress of speech d. rhythm, stress and intonation of speech (EASY) 28. It was found that the foetuses' heart rates when they heard a familiar _ _ , indicating that they recognized the _ of speech sounds. a. decreased, rhyme, sequence b. increased, voice, pitch c. increased, song, tone d. decreased, sentence, speed (MODERATE)

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33. Vygotsky considered language to be a. a cultural tool b. meaningless

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. · 39· The child who says "Milk gone" is engag1n of utterance demonstrat es that children ar g ~ ?-----... 34 • The "starter kit" theory of infant development was suggeSted by with rules of _ _ _. e actively exp~lh~~ a. John Locke a. Babbling; syntax lllcn~ b. Mary Wollstonecraft 1 b. Telegraphic speech; syntax c. William James c. Babbling; semantics d. Erik Erikson d. Telegraphic speech; semantics (EASY) (MODERATE) 40. Each human being receives chro 35. Immunity system's functioning is most likely to increase when parent of which the sex of the c h i ~ s on ::so111es &oil! a. People just share about their problems. received from the ___ . one chro1110 b. They are taught repressor coping styles. a. 46, Father Ilic c. They practice effective stress management techniques. b. 23, Father d. The general adaptation syndrome begins. c. 46, Mother (EASY) d. 23, Mother 36. Match List-I with List-II and indicate your answer using the codes (EASY) (BHU MA 2014) 41 . The authoritative parenting style is characteriz.ed given below: by a. parents permit child to make decision in accord with d readiness, listens to child's point of view Column-A eveloprnen1a1 Column-B b. parent is warm, attentive, and sensitive Assumption to child's needs . that one's way of thinking A Centration I c. parent is warm but may spoil the child andinterest; is the only possibility d. both A and B Ability to mentally undo an action or an B Conservation II (EASY) (JMI Applied 2016) operation. Attending to only one aspect of a C Egocentricism Ill 42. Developing a person's sense of being male or ~emal · situation ., e is called The principle that quantities remain D Reversibility a. Gender Identity IV constant under various changes in their b. Gender role appearance c. Gender typing Choose the right option: d. Gender stereotyping (EASY) (JMI Applied 2017) a. A-0, B-IV, C-1, D-IIl b. A-ID, B-I, C-IV, D-II 43. The critical period for pregnancy is _ __ _ c. A-1, B-ID, C-II, D-TV a. Germinal period d. A-ID, B-IV, C-1, D-ll b. Embryonic period (MODERATE) c. Fetal period d. Last trimester period 37. According to Kohlberg, _ _ _ _ and _ _ _ _ are the (EASY) (JMI Applied 2017) major reasons of moral behaviour during the stage of conventional morality 44. In Piaget's theory, the tendency of a young child to focusonly on a. Gaining acceptance and Getting rewards one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant fearures is called b. Avoiding censure by others and Achieving justice c. Gaining acceptance and Avoiding censure by others a. conservation d. Avoiding censure by others and Achieving justice b. scafolding (MODERATE) c. ZPD d. Centration 38. According to Kohlberg gender development moves through the (EASY) (JMI Applied 2018) following stages: . I d eloproenL a. Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital 45. In Erikson's _ _ _ _ _ stage of psychosocta ev b. Pre conventional, Conventional, Post conventional the child learns self control and begins to feel more comfortable. c. Sensory motor, Preoperational, Concrete operational, Formal a. Trust vs Mistrust operational b. Autonomy vs Shame and guilt

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50. Which of the following refers to 'species-specific' changes? a. Development b. Growth c. Maturation d. Evolution (EASY) (BHU 2019)

PREVIOUS YEAR MCQs I. If a child believes that stealing in order to save a life is OK because life is even more important than following the law, this child would be in which stage of moral development? a. Level one: pre-conventional b. Level two: conventional c. Level three: post-conventional d. Level four: operational (MOD ERATE) (DU MA Applied 2020) 2. In Ecological Theory_____ includes the face-to-face interactions that a person has in her immediate settings, such as home, school, or friendship groups. a. Mesosystem b. Microsystem c. Exo-system d. Macrosystem (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020) 3. The _____ child-rearing style is low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive behavioral control, and low in autonomy granting. a. Authoritative b. Authoritarian c. Pennissive d. Uninvolved (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020)

4. The ability to imitate a person or pretend a behaviour in the absence ~f t~at person or the displayed behaviour is called ____ which md1cates that children fonn· - - - a. Imitation, mental representation b. Deferred imitation, mental representation. c. Secondary imitation, representation d. Tertiary imitation, symbolic thought (MODERATE) (DU MA Applied 2020) 5. The third stage ofErikson's Eight Stages of Development is termed

as _ _ _ __ a. Industry versus inferiority b. Initiative versus guilt c. Trust versus mistrust d. None of these (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020) 6· . is a type of play in which children use . m~tenals to make t~mgs not for utilitarian purpose but rather for the enJoyment they derive from making them. a. Dramatic Play b. Constructive Play c. Active Play d. Role Play (EASY) (DU MA Applied 2020)

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9. The child's ability to order items along a quantitativ e dimension , such as length or weight, is cal led --- --· a. Classification b. Transitive inference c. Conservation d. Seriation (EASY) (DU MA 2020) I0. Each human being receives _ _ _ chrom osomes from each parent of which the sex of the child depends on the one chromosome received from the . a. 46, Father --b. 23, Father c. 46, Mother d. 23, Mother (EASY) (BHU MA 2014) 11. According to Ainsworth, as evident in the strang e situation task, children do not seek proximity to the mother after she has left and typically they do not seem to be distressed at all in _ _ _ _ __ attachment pattern. a. Disorganized-Disoriented b. Ambivalent c. Secure d. Avoidant (EASY) (DU MA 2020)

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14. Harry Harlow's experiment with monkeys and . emphasized the impo surroo, rtance of _ _ _ _. ....te lllolh a. Satisfying hunger er b. Body temperature c. Fulfilling needs d. Contact (EASY) (DU MA 2020) 15. According to Piaget the child demonstrates 'sy bo. which stage of cognitive development? m he Play• in a. Pre operational b. Concrete operational c. Formal operational d. Sensorimotor (EASY) (BHU MA 2020) 16. Developmental research shows that infant devel opment . bs, begmm · ·ng at the ti a. slowly up the I1m mgers and toes proceeds.· b. from the head and body towards the extremities c. from the arms to the legs d. unpredictably, depending on the environmental stimulation (Modearte) (BHU MA 2020) 17. In Piaget's theory, the tendency to understand new infonnatio . terms of existing mental framework is termed as _ _ _. n' 0 a. Adaptation b. Object permanence c. Accommodation d. Assimilation (EASY)(BHU MA 2020) 18. Down syndrome is caused by _ __ a. The mother's poor nutrition b. An extra chromosome c. An extra X chromosome on 23rd pair d. Alcohol consumption by the mother during pregn ancy (EASY) (BHU MA 2020) 19. The sensory systems of the newborn _ _ _ _ a. develop at approximately the same rate b. are all at adult sensitivity levels within hours of birth c. are all functional at birth and then improve to adult levels within the first six months d. are all functional at birth, but vary in their degre e of development (EASY) (BHU MA 2020)

12. I n - - - - ~ one creates new schemes or adjusts old ones after noticing that the current way of thinking does not capture the environment completely . a. Adaptation b. Assimilation c. Accommodation d. Equilibrium (EASY) (DU MA 2020)

20. Life span development begins with _ _ _ and

13. The rooting reflex is an infant' s tendency to _ _ _ __ a. Throw legs up in the air b. Wave arms when startled c. Open mouth and tum head when touched on the cheek

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bing through a picture book, identifying a wide variety of 31. Most prenatal influences on humans are genetic or hormonal in 24, Th~ als would be good exercise for a child to practice origin except for _ _ _ _. 7fi) an1m a. parents' level of education about fetal development b. stress on the mother operational thinking c. family history of mental illness b.object permanence d. teratogens c. conservation . d. assimilation and accommodat1on (EASY) (MODERATE) (JMI 2020) Ans.a Sol. A parent's level of education about fetal development is not . Children's view of morality in tenns of realism and fixed dictates genetic or hormonal in origin. It is related to social and environmental of authority figure is referred to as _ _ _ _ _. aspects. (DUMA2018) a. Ideal reciprocity b. Distributive justice 32. According to Kohlberg gender development moves through the c. Autonomous morality following stages d. Heteronomous morality (EASY) (DU MA 2019) a. Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital b. Pre conventional, Conventional, Post conventional 26. In the latency stage of Erik Erikson's developmental tendencies, c. Sensory motor, Preoperational, Concrete operational, Formal ways of coping involves _ _ __ _ operational d. Labeling, Stability, Consistency a. None of these b.Identity cohesion and role confusion (EASY) c. Initiative and guilt Ans.d d. Industriousness and inferiority Sol. Kohlberg's cognitive developmental theory of gender is divided (EASY) (DU MA 2019) into three stages, the first being gender identity or labeling, the second being gender stability, and the third gender constancy. Each stage 27. Sigmund Freud's system of human development makes which represents a different level of understanding that a child goes through assumptions about development? during development. l Enactive, iconic and symbolic (DU MA 2018) b. Seosorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational c. Compensation, reversibility , identity

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dimensions of temperament suggest that shy children. a. React Positively to and Approach novel stimulus b. React Negatively to and Withdraw from novel stimulus c. React Negatively to and Approach novel stimulus d. React Positively to and Withdraw from novel stimulus (MODERATE) (DU MA 2018) 34. Raj iv is always unsure of his decisions major or minor and looks forward to constant validation from his wife. The style of attachment exhibited by Raj iv is called ---a. Insecure attachment style b. Preoccupied attachment style c. Secure attachment style d. Dismissing attachment style (MODERATE) (DU MA 2018)

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37. The term _ _ _ _ refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period. a. Amnion 43. Carol Gilligan departs from Kohlberg's theory on moral b. Isotretinoin development by highlighting which of these differences? c. Teratogen a. Males have ethics of care d. Accutane b. Males have ethics ofjustice (EASY) c. females have ethics of care Ans. C d. females have ethics of justice Sol. Teratogen is the tenn used for any environmental agent that (EASY) (DU MA 2019) causes malfunction in the development of an embryo. (DU MA 2019) 44. _ _ _type of child-rearing involves low acceptance and involvement with little behavioral control and general indifference 10 38. Which of the following is NOT a pattern of attachment assessed issues of autonomy. by Strange Situation and Attachment Q-Sort? a. Authoritarian parenting a. Disorganized b. Authoritative parenting b. Avoidant c. Pennissive parenting c. Resistant d. Uninvolved parenting d. Interactive (EASY) (DU MA 2019) (EASY) Ans. d 45 . _ _ _ _ refers to the idea that certain physical characteri5tics Sol. The strange situation test and the attachment q sort involve of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance disorganized, avoidant, resistant, secure and ambivalent attachment changes. styles. Interactive is NOT a pattern of attachment assessed by Strange a. Conservation Situation and Attachment Q-Sort. b. Centration

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I. Ans. d Sol. The term object permanence is used to describe a child's ability · • remarkably advanced 46. 1be . th1ea·r everyday expenences, often m to know that objects continue to exist even though they can no longer 1a111 et eXI' . ropaunded by _ __ be seen or heard. It occurs in sensory motor stage. waY5 •~ctivist approach Centration is the tendency to focus on one salient aspect of a situation a. con_o-euttural approach '.1"d neglect other, possibly relevant aspects. It is often demonstrated m the preoperational stage. b,:~ry-theor)' perspe~ve c. tionist perspective In the Concrete Operational stage, one of the important processes that d.1nteracERATE) (DU MA 2019) develop is that of Reversibility, which refers to the ability to recognize (tvfOD that numbers or objects can be changed and returned to their original ceording to Piaget, children are able to grasp the concept of condition. 47,._,... A permanence .m _ _ _ _ _ . Reflective abstraction develops in the formal operational stage. It obJ~• describes how adolescents acquire knowledge for the first time by Sensorimotor stage thinking about their thoughts and abstracting from these personal a. eoncrete operational stage reflections. b. Pre· operational stage ~-formal operations stage 2.Ans. C (EASY) (JMI MA 20 l 9) Sol. Sociocultural theory gre~ from the work of seminal psychologist Lev Vygotsky, who believed that parents, caregivers, peers, and the Analytical and creative intelligences are two of the intelligences in 48 culture at large' were responsible for developing higher-order s~mberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, what is the third? functions. According to Vygotsky, learning has its basis in interacting a. naturalistic with other people. b. practical c. musical , ) 3. Ans. a d. existential Sol. According to Piaget's theory, a pre-operational child is incapable (EASY) (JMI Applied 2018) of, performing operations. This is because a pre-operational child 49. Longitudinal approach is most appropriate for investig!).ting'r cannot mentally re-arrange a sequence of events into a reverse order. human development as it is possible to trace the developmental changes. 4. Ans. c a. Continuously within same individual Sol. When the person's judgment goes beyond what happens to the b. at different points of time with different individuals self i.e. it is based on a concern for others, for society as a whole, or c. at one point of time within same individuals for an ethical standard rather than a legal standard. This level is called d. by using less time and effort poSt·conventional moral development because it goes beyond (EASY) (BHU MA 2014) ~\ convention or what other people think to a higher, universal ethical principle of conduct that may or may not be reflected in the law. 50. The stage in which a child begins to think logically about objects Post conventional moral development covers stages five and six. In stage five, the person realised that just because there is a law does not and events are known as ._ mean that the law is necessarily good for everyone. So if a child a. Sensory-Motor stage believes that someone's life is more important than following law, it b. Fonnal operational stage shows stage 5 of moral development. c. Pre-operational stage d. Concrete operational stage 5. Ans. b (EASY) (JMI Applied 2017) Sol. May defined certain "stages" of development. These stages are not as strict as Freud's psychosexual stages, rather they signify a sequence of major issues in each individual's life. The stages are: innocence, rebellion, ordinary consciousness of self and then the creative consciousness of self.

6. Ans. b Sol. According to Bronfenbrenner's Ecological theory the microsystem is the system closest to the person and the one in which they have direct contact. Some examples would be home, school, daycare, or work. A microsystem typically includes family, peers, or caregivers. Relationships in a micrQsystem are bi-directional. ln other

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words, your reactions to the people in your microsystem will affect how they treat you in return. This is the most influential level of the ecological systems theory . 7. Ans. c Sol. The Ego Strengths in correct sequence according to Erikso n, stages of development are Hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity , love, care, wisdom .

8. Ans. d

Sol. Advantages of FMRJ over PET scan include that nothing has to be injected into the body such as die in PET scan, it can both structu ral ~d functional infonnation of the same image, and it can produc e three dimensional images of activity over the entire brain. 9. Ans. d

Sol. The best method for studying the relative contribution of heredity and environment is by comparing identical and fraternal twins: half of whom have been reared apart. Identical twins living apart would tell about environmental influences as they share same DNA. Fratern al twins in same environment would tell the impact of genetic factors . And there comparison together would tell the relative contrib ution of heredity and environment. IO.Ans. b Sol. The stages of moral development in sequence of their emerg ence as an individual grows up is Instrumental Purpose Orient ation, Morality of interpersonal cooperation, Social order mainta ining orientation, Universal ethical principle orientation.

I I. Ans. a Sol. Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feeling s of another such as a sense of complete understanding towards the father client whose children behaved arrogantly as if he was in the clients shoes and they were his children. Sympathy is similar and easy to confuse, but not half as useful- sympathy is the feeling of pity or sorrow for someone else. 12. Ans. d Sol. Results in MRI are obtained from the measurement of waves that hydrogen atoms emit when they are activated by radio-f requency waves in a magnetic field. But MRI does provide images of brain and not just brain activity. 13. Ans. a Sol. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development , a preoperational child is incapable of performing operations. This is because a pre-operational child cannot mentally re-arrange a sequence of events into a reverse order. 14.An s. b Sol. A developmental psychologist studying from the lifespan approach is very likely to use descriptive research extensively. Also, a survey is an example of descriptive research. However, these two are not causally related.

Ill Ps>'cholo ~ JS . Ans. a ol Childr en realise that an object contin ues to e . S . . . Th. . b cv emoved from their view. 1s 1s ecause towardsXtst th en \1/h rsensorimotor · d stage, chit ren exh'b' 1 11 ob.~ect pennanenc e end of then e accord· c ~p~~ ~ to

16. Ans. d Sol. Assimilation is when new information is added or . . f . d. existing schemas on the bas1s o experience. Accommodifie mo . into addition of new mental structures due to experience. elation is 17.Ans.d Sol. The lifespan approach studies development from co . · · nception 11·1 death. Development 1s v1ewed as a II'tieIong process that can be stu . 1 scientifically across three developmental domains: physical ~~ed . I ' cogn,ti development, and psychosoc1a . ve 18. Ans. b Sol. Maturation is the process of learning to cope and rea . . . c1 in an emotionally appropnate way. It does not necessanly happen . 1 1 . with aging or phys1c a growth, but 1s a part of growtha ong and development. 19. Ans. b Sol. In psychology, extinction refe~ to the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results m the behavior decreasing or disappearing. In other words , the conditioned behavior eventua lly stops. 20. Ans. C Sol. Kohlberg, inspired by Jean Piaget, proposed a stage model. While Piaget gave a stepwise model for cognitive development, Kohlbe m gave a stepwise model of moral development. ~ 21. Ans. a

Sol. Deferred imitation is the imitation in the aqsence of the stimulu s that is being imitated. Development of mental representations enable children to engage in deferred imitation, according to Jean Piaget's theory of Cognitive Development. 22. Ans. d Sol. Harlow's experiment demonstrated the importance of physica l contact in monkeys, with the hope of extrapolation of the findings to humans. 23. Ans. a Sol. Symbolic play is the ability of children to use objects, actions or ideas to represent other objects, actions, ideas or play. Accord ing to Jean Piaget, it occurs during the preoperational stage (age 2yrs 7 to yrs .). 24. Ans. b Sol. According to Baumrind, Authoritarian parenting is a parentin g style characterized by high demands and low responsiveness. Pll!l!D~ with an authoritarian style have very high expectations of (helf

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t rovide very little in the way of feedback and nurturing. Sol. The preoperational stage is the second stage in Piaget's theory of childrt:ll, be punished harshly. ~en feedback docs occur, it is cognitive development. This stage begins around age 2, as children t,,1istakCS . Yelling and corporal punishment are also common in start to talk, and lasts until approximately age 7. During this stage, ncgauve. often ·(arian style. children begin to engage in symbolic play and learn to manipulate thC authon symbols.

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Sol. Vygotsky believed that language develops from social interactions, for communication purposes and thus is a cultural tool. The internalization of language is important as it drives cognitive development. 'Inner speech is not the interiour aspect of external speech - it is a function in itself.

34. Ans. c Sol. The starter kit theory of infant development was given by William 26· ~~:entric thinking is the nonnal tendency for a young child to James. William James was an American philosopher, historian, and Sol. grything that happens as it relates to him- or hcmlf. This is not psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the secfie:ess. for example, if a child wants very much for something to United States. sel is and it docs the child believes he or she caused it to happen. happen, ' 35. Ans. c Sol. The functioning of immunity system is most likely to increase 27. Ansd refers to rhyth d intonation . . of speech Prosody the m, stress, an that when individuals practise effective stress management techniques and 1 So· 'des important infonnation beyond a sentence's literal word are able to better deal with stress that they come across in life. prov1 ing. Prosody . .mtionnation. . For is also used to prov1'de semantic ~x:ple, speakers spon~eously raise the pitch of their voice when 36.Ans. d describing an upward motion. Sol. In Piagetian theory, Centration is defined as the tendency of children in the preoperational stage to attend to one aspect of a problem, object, or situation at a time, to the exclusion of others. 28.Ans.a . Sol. It was found that foetuses' heart rates decreased when they heard Conservation is a logical thinking ability of knowing that a quantity a familiar rhyme, indicating that they recognised the sequence of doesn't change if it's been altered (by being stretched, cut, elongated, speech sounds. The heart rate decreases because they feel relaxed spread out, shrunk, poured, etc). Egocentrism refers to the child's listening to familiar rhyme. inability to see a situation from another person's point of view. The egocentric child assumes that other people see, hear, and feel exactly the same as the child does. Reversibility is a mental operation that 29. Ans. C Sol. At 2 years of age, an infant's language mainly consists of 2 word reverses a sequence of events or restores a changed state of affairs to sentences. Between the ages of 2 and 3, kids have a huge jump in the original condition. language skills: At age 2, most kids can follow directions and say 50 or more words. Many combine words in short phrases and sentences. 37. Ans. c By age 3, a toddler's vocabulary usually is 200 or more words, and Sol. Conventional morality is the second stage of moral development many kids can string together three- or four-word sentences. and is characterized by an acceptance of social rules concerning right and wrong. At the conventional level (most adolescents and adults), 30. Ans. b we begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role Sol. Hearing infants of deaf parents' babies do continue to babble. models. According to Kohlberg, gaining acceptance and avoiding However, since their parents are deaf, they babble though hand signals censure by others are the major reasons of moral behaviour during the and not words. This is because since the parents are congenitally deaf, stage of conventional morality. the babies do not hear words from the parents as the parents are unable to speak due to their disability. 38. Ans. d Sol. Kohlberg's cognitive developmental theory of gender is divided 31.Ans.a into three stages, the first being gender identity, the second being Sol. Skinner argued that children learn language based on behaviorist gender stability, and the third gender constancy. Each stage represents reinforcement principles by associating words with meanings. Correct a different level of understanding that a child goes through during utterances are positively reinforced when the child realizes the development. communicative value of words and phrases. 32. Ans. c

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~ol. Telegraphic speech is simply two-word sentences. such as "kitty tired'' or "I hungry·•. Toddlers develop this level of speech betwe_en 18-24 months. Telegraphic speech is important because it means c~ild _ is learning to communicate their thoughts and feelings and learning how to form a sentence. 40 .. Ans. b Sol. Each child received 23 chromosomes from each parent, making it 23 pairs in the child. The 23rd pair is the sex chromosome pair. Females have xx on this pair while males have xy on this pair. The child receives one x from the mother and either an x or Y from the father. So, the 2rd chromosome received from the father determines the sex of the child. (BHU MA 2014) 41. Ans. d Sol. Authoritative parenting is characterized by reasonable demands and high responsiveness. While authoritative parents might have high expectations for their children, they also give their kids the resources and support they need to succeed. Thus, the authoritative parenting style is characterized by parents permit child to make decision in accord with developmental readiness, listens to child's point of view (JMl Applied 2016) 42. Ans. a Sol. Gender identity is defined as a personal conception of oneself as male or female. Gender concept is intimately related to gender role. 43. Ans. b Sol. The embryonic stage is critical in prenatal development as it plays an important role in brain development. Approximately four weeks after conception, the neural tube is formed. 44. Ans. d Sol. Centration is the tendency to focus on one salient aspect of a situation and neglect other, possibly relevant aspects. Piaget claimed that egocentrism, a common element responsible for preoperational children's unsystematic thinking, was causal to centration. 45. Ans. b Sol. In Autonomy vs shame and doubt, the children learn to do certain things independently, if they are rightly supported and motivated. If not, they experience shame and guilt. (JMJ Applied 2017)

46. Ans. b Sol. According to Kohlberg's conceptualii.ation, conventional morality is characterized by acceptance of society's conventions regarding what is right and what is wrong. Generally, adolescents follow the norms and ideals given by significant others in their lives and hence can be said to lie at this stage of morality. 47. Ans. b Sol. In the last stage of Eriksonian development, integrity vs despair, individuals reflect back upon their life and review it. If they feel that they have had a good, satisfying life, they develop integrity, despair otherwise. Virtue of wisdom is achieved if integrity is experienced.

48. Ans. d 08>' Sol. If profound and severe developmental d 1 present, the individual would not have been eb? Would ha with that of a second-grade child. If there was a . e to devc1011v~ , m11d de! ~ 1n 1· have been deve Iopment greater than that of ay, thcrt Ille Hence, in the above case, there is moderate deva second.Yade ~Id eIop111en1a1 dCay I chi~. 49. Ans. b · Sol. Authoritarian parenting style is characterized b . and low responsiveness. Parents with this sty! Yhigh ~e I' (EASY) effectiveness of: • 1t. ·.,_ a. Primal therapy . , ;),,,,;t · ' . 11. What is the reason of negative voltage of a neuron du . . ' . I? nngR~ ,, b. Freudian therapy '\. ,,,\ "'l~ Potent1a c. Cognitive therapy " l; i ' -1 • a. Na+ and ~I- io_ns _outside the membrane have more negative~ d. Rankian therapy p than K+ A- 10ns ms1de • (EASY) '~ b. Na+ and Cl- ions outside the membrane have less negative~ ") i' than K+ and A- ions inside c• 5. Which of the following observational methodl records behaviour at c. Na+ and A- ions outside the membrane have more negativec~ frequent intervals? , .;,:-,:. "' than K+ and CI- ions inside · a. event sampling \J d. Na+ and A- ions outside the membrane have less negative cbam b. time sampling than K+ a CI- ions inside ' c. clinical method '¥ (EASY) d. continuous sampling (EASY) 12. Functionalists were interested in the role of in deafil4 with the problems of everyday living. -6. The use of ___ helps to control for the effect of observer bias. a. family and friends a. blind observers b. consciousness b. a single trained observers c. stress reduction techniques c. randomly selected observers d. drugs d. none of the above (EASY) (EASY) A

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26. Which of the following norms suggest people that they ought to behave? a. Social responsibility norms b. Prescriptive norms c. Reciprocity norms d. Proscriptive nonns 27. Which of the following is not the motivator for helping others? a. Attitudes b. Personal distress c. Empathy d. Norms and values (EASY) Ans.a Sol. Empathy, Personal distress, norms and values can be motivators for helping others. 28. Structuralism used the technique of _ __ consciousness. a. Psychoanalysis

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29. Which one is associated with major challenge of adolescence, 37 The blind spot refers to the region of the according to Erikson? eyeat wh'Ith th exit· the eye. a. Ego Integrity a. blood vessels e"'-. b. Generativity b. cones '\ c. Intimacy c. optic nerve d. Identity d. retina (EASY) (EASY) 30. A key research interest in developmental psychology is to a. Trace the evolution of the human race. b. Identify the biochemical processes involved in thought. c. Detennine how organisms change over time. d. Predict adult behavior. (EASY)

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1. Ans. a Sol. Negativ e reinforc ement is a method that can be used to help te~ch specific behavio rs. With negative reinforcement, someth mg uncomf ortable or otherwi se unpleasant is taken away in response to a stimulus. Over time, the target behavior should increase with the expecta tion that the unpleas ant thing will be taken away. 2 . Ans. d Sol. Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that childre n move through four different stages of mental development. He propose d, intellige nce is somethi ng that grows and devel?p s through a series of stages. One goes through all four stages, from birth to adultho od.

3. Ans. b Sol. People with type D (distres sed) personality traits experience hig~ degrees of emotion al distress. At the same time, they suppress their feelings . This can result in psychological (anxiety and depression) and physica l (pain and fatigue) discomfort. People with a Type D persona lity are more likely to be lonely and anxious. Even though many ofus can feel a variety of these things at times, people with type D persona lity experie nce these traits more frequently than the average person and more consiste ntly over time.

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~. : : ~ ofobjnmary motor area is located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal eortcx, and this area is responsible for controlling the voluntary motor movement that involve the skeletal muscles.

60. Ans. d Sol. The variance is a measure of variability. It is calculated by taking the average of squared deviations from the mean. Variance tells you the degree of spread in your data set. The more spread the data, the larger the variance is in relation to the mean.

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70. Ans. b Sol. Projection refers to unconsciou sly taking 62. Ans. C traits you don't like about yourself and attrib ut~Wanted cm u ing them to " bl &me-shifting" . f Sol. Mode = 3(Median) - 2(Mean) else. By proJec mg, or one's un Mode=(3x 65)-(2x62 ) pers another mental/emo tional notions onto · • onthe b h" =195-124 · llldi ' ac and of aware e to avmg defended against =71 countable to their~.-,.-.. thought process. •Kindly Note: In such questions it is challe . 63.Ans.d between projection and displaceme nt as in songing to differ-:_ Sol. The stimulus overload model was given by Milgram. sound the same. J_tem~mber a basic thing: Withme c~se~ they~ According to the stimulus overload model, crowding perceptions are lies with you, but 1~ shifted by you to avoid blam/;~ec t1?n, lhe tth displ greatest when the level of social stimulation exceeds that desired and the fault lies outside of you, but is still shifted b the individual is unable to reduce that stimulation through adaptive blame. Y You to strategies.

64. Ans. a Sol. Leon Fcstinger's (1957) gave the Theory of Cognitive Dissonanc e. Cognitive dissonance is a mental conflict that occurs when your beliefs don't line up with your actions. It's an uncomfort able state of mind when someone has contradictory values, attitudes, or perspective s about the same thing.

71. Ans. b Sol. Because identical twins share the exact sam ON studies showed that if one identical twin has schizoeh ~is a 30-50% chance that the other twin will have it ~ :::~ thct

65.Ans.a Sol. Homey (1950) believed that each person begins life with the potential for healthy developme nt, but like other living organisms, people need favorable conditions for growth. Because of their neurotic needs, parents often dominate, neglect, overprotec t, reject, or overindulg e. If parents do not satisfy the child's needs for safety and satisfaction , the child develops feelings of basic hostility toward the parents. However, children seldom overtly express this hostility as rage; instead, they repress their hostility toward their parents and have no awareness of it. Repressed hostility then leads to profound feelings of insecurity and a vague sense of apprehens ion. This condition is called basic anxiety, which Homey (1950) defined as "a feeling of being isolated and helpless hi a world conceived as potentially hostile".

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72. Ans. a Sol. The aptitude test assesses whether one possesses th traits and skills needed to be a successful and caring n e n • urse. Sot be useful for selecting trainee nurses.

66. Ans. a Sol. Acrophobi a is the extreme..,or,irrational fear of heights. 67. Ans. d Sol. A version therapy, sometimes called aversive therapy or aversive conditioni ng, is used to help a person give up a behavior or habit by having them associate it with something unpleasant. Aversion therapy is most known for treating people with addictive behaviors, like those found in alcohol use disorder. So a person undergoing this therapy might receive an electrical shock every time they view an image of a cigarette. 68.Ans. a Sol. Syntax is a set of rules for constructin g full sentences out of words and phrases. Every language has a different set of syntactic rules, but all languages have some form of syntax.

69. Ans.b Sol. According to Freud, there are two classes of instincts: I) Eros or the sexual instincts, which he later saw as compatible with the self-

73.Ans. d Sol. In research, an experimen ter bias, also known as res~ . occurs when a researcher unconsciou sly affects results dafa, participant in an experimen t due to subjective influence. is for humans to be entirely objective which is not being influe personal emotions, desires, or biases. Steps can be taken to reduce the likelihood of its oc such as conducting blind studies and finding non-biasCII collectors.

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8. With regard to psychological disorders, spontaneous remission refers to -a. recovery that occurs without formal treatment b. recovery that occurs as a result of formal treatment. c. sudden reoccurrence of disorder in a client who had apparently been cured d. failure to recover despite extensive treatment (EASY) 9. Which one of the following is not true about norms? a. norms are standardized scores b. norms represent absolute performance c. norms permit comparison d. norms constitute a part of standardi7.ation (EASY)

10. The dominant theory explains 'bystander effect' by attributing it to - - a. alienation in modern life b. less feeling of responsibility when there are many witnesses c. hostility towards strangers d. lack of commitment (EASY) 11. Which one of the following is most consistent with the views of B.F Skinner? a. "Behaviour is controlled by internal forces". b. "We behave in ways designed to gain rewards". c. "We behave in ways designed to avoid punishments". d. "Behaviour is controlled by external forces". (EASY) 12. Which one of the following is not a characteristic of a group in an organi7.ation? a. common goal b. interaction with one another c. accept expectations and obligations d. mutually interdependent (EASY) 13. Deficit in topographical memory may occur due to damage to _ _ _ _ lobe . a. frontal b. temporal c. occipital d. parietal (EASY) 14. According to open systems approach, system which can reach the same final state from differing initial conditions and by a variety of paths is called _ __ . a. equipotentiality b. equifinality

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l 6. Which outcome variable in the work setting might include car sales personnel n_eeding to sell cars, secretaries scheduling their boss, agenda and Journalists having to hand in articles for dead lines? a. counter productive work behaviour b. contextual performance c. task performance d. Withdrawal (MODERATE) 17. Which one does not come under anxiety disorder? a. agoraphobia b. panic disorder c. posttraumatic stress disorder d. hypochondriasis (EASY) 18. The most basic and widely used defense mechanism is: a. reaction formation b . projection c. rationalization d. repression (EASY) 19. Which of the following is a non-parametric statistical technique? a . f-test b. ANOVA c. Speannan's Rho d. Pearson' s r (EASY) 20. Which pair is correct? I Model of Intellect: Guilford 2 PASS Theory: JP Das 3 Level I and Level TI: Arthur Jensen 4 Competence: Jerome Bruner a. I and 4 are correct b. I and 2 are correct c . 2 and 3 are correct d. all are correct (EASY)

22 . Tiie physiology of emotions is primarily rooted . 111 a. cerebral cortex b. only the sympathetic nervous system c. the limbic system d.RAS (EASY) 23. Experimental method is most dependable b ecause it a. approximates real life circumstances b. allows valid conclusions c. allows qualification of observations d. furnishes possibility of maximum control over v . an ables (EASY)

24. Stress is best understood as _ _ _ __ a. an unpleasant characteristic of environme~t we 1• • ive in d . h . . b. situations t at require us to respon emotionally c. physical challenges and hardships that interfere w· h d. perceived transaction between person and situati/ no1111a1 life n (EASY) 25. It is the _ _ _ in emotional process that distinguishes human emotions from those of other sp . rnost ct...:.;_ ec1es? ·- , . heh . · av1our a. expressive b. feeling c. autonomic process d. emotional action (EASY) 26. The adherents of continuity view of development a. the developmental outcomes remain invariant across stages b. the same basic processes evolve throughout development c. a steady pattern of moving through developmental stages d. a repeated process of conflict and its negotiation (EASY) 27. t-test is _ _ _ __ a. a test of statistical significance of data between groups b. based on continuous scale of measurement c. based on the assumption of normal distribution of scores d. all the above (EASY) . 28. Co-relation indicates______ a. degree of cause and effect relationship between variables b. degree of association between variables c. helps in detecting the degree of change behaviour d. indicates meta-analysis of variables (EASY) 29. Lead poisoning at an early stage of life can

21 . A psychotherapist must develop in all of the following personal competencies but _ _ _ __ __ a . self righteousness b. insight into oneself c. listening and empathy d. playfulness and flexibility (MODERATE)

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OGIST AMIT PANWAR

psYOiOL of the following would not be true if they obtained . Whi~h one roximates nonnal probability curve? 30 d'stribuuon :?Pm and mode would be similar 1 rnean, rn.e It! n of scores will present s bell shaped curve a. d'stribut10 b the I Id be greater than mode and me d'1an . anwou c. rne of the above d none (f:f,SY) . . dership gnd, a manager who has a medium concern for I . 1s . a ____ . 3I. on the ea as production, pie as we11 ~eain

a. countrY club b. 'ddle of the road c. Mi h •ty obedience d. AUi on (EASY) !exes are content of _ _ _ _ __ 32. comp . collective uncons~1ous a. nalunconsc1ous b. perso c. archetypes d. dreams (EASY) ,, After several months during which he was always gloomy and J-1; ted Rahul has suddenly perked up. He feels elated and energetic de~ec , rks around the clock on a writing project. He also starts to bet an ~loy 00 sporting events over the Internet, which he never did heav1 . . . .h previously. Ra~ul's behaviour 1s consistent wit _ _ _ _ __ a. schizophrenia . . b. obsessive-compulsive disorder c. dissociative disorder d. bipolar disorder (MODERATE) 34. According to McGregor, a manager who has confidence in people,

understands and trusts people is supportive in their efforts, is labelled as Manager _ _ _ __ a. X b. y

c. Z d.B (E4.SY)

35. Which of the following therapy uses the concept called auxiliary ego in its therapeutic exercises? a. Hypnotherapy b. Client-centered Therapy c. Psycho-Drama d. Transactional Analysis (EASY) ~6•A patient has just entered treatment for bipolar disorder and he is ~formed that most patients respond to drugs within a month. This information represents a. a prognosis - -- -b. an etiology c. a hisotology ~ ~ diagnostic concordance

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SCORE BOOSTERS: PRACTICE SETS

37. A cluster of beliefs, usually lacking a rational basis, regarding members of other groups is called _ _ _ . a. Prejudice b. Irrational cluster c. Social distance d. Stereotype (EASY) Ans. d 38. Which of the following disorders is likely to occur earliest during childhood? a. Simple phobia b. Obsessive-compulsive disorder c. Social phobia d. Separation anxiety (EASY) 39. The concern for fundamental processes of fonnuliz.ation and

legitimization by which role systems are elaborated and sanctioned, is called _ _ _ __ a. Classical Bureaucratic Model b. Scientific Management Principles c. Machine Model of Work d. Socio-technical System (EASY) 40. _ _ _ _ power has a basis in special knowledge. a. Legitimate b. Expert c. Referent d. Position (EASY) 41. _____ means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in tenns of gender and ethnicity. a. Globalization b. Work force diversity c. Affinnative action d. Organizational culture (EASY) 42. Phenylketonuria is a disorder of _ _ __ a. Amino acid metabolism b. Fat metabolism c. Vitamin deficiency d. Motor co-ordination (EASY)

43. Imitation, identification and role learning constitute significant parts of _ _ _ theory. a. Psychoanalytic b. Cognitive c. Social Learning d. Interpersonal (EASY) 44. Individual level independent variables in organizational studies include _ _ __ _ _ a. Technology b. Organizational culture

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45. According to Alderfer's theory of motivation, as you start satisfying higher needs, they become _ __ . a. less intense b. more intense c. quite stable d. difficult to realiz.e (EASY) 46. Which of the following tests is not a projective test? a. Sentence Completion

b. Raven's Progressive Matrices c. Draw-a-Man d.CAT (EASY)

47. A negative reinforce..,..,.----a. decreases the probability of a behaviour on its termination or withdrawal b. increases the probability of a behaviour on its presentation or application c. decreases the probability of a behaviour on its application d. increases the probability of a behaviour on its termination or withdrawal (EASY) 48. Herzberg' s theory of work motivation was developed on the basis of research using _ _ _ _ __ a. Critical Incident Technique b. Survey Method c. Observation Technique d. Quasi Experimental Study (EASY) 49. In the multi-axial system of DSM diagnostics, Axis

m was for

a. Clinical syndromes b. Personality disorders c. General medical conditions d. Psychosocial and environmental problems (EASY)

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50. Which one of the following cases is not fit for counseling alone? a. marital conflict b. broken heart syndrome c. paranoid delusional state d. loneliness (EASY)

51. The ability to determine when an object is located in three dimensional space is called _ __ _ _ a. Space perception b. Dimensionality c. Depth perception d. The time-continuum (EASY)

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54. The acquisition of attitude through a reasoning pr an object or idea to a person's existing belief structure OCess t11t exern foundation of attitudes.• --~:-:--a. Cognitive b. affective c. behavioural d. social ~ (EASY) 55 . The concept ofNuturant Task Leader was given by a. J.8.P Sinha

b. D..Sinha c. S. K . Chakraborty d. Udai Pareek (EASY) 56. A stimulus that elicits an undesirable response is paired noxious stimulus in _ _ _ __ a. Systematic desensitization b. Cognitive Therapy c. Aversion Therapy d. Psychoanalysis (EASY) 57. Research suggests that ageing employee's experience: a. less job satisfaction b. higher accidental rates c. less organizational commitment d. less absenteeism (EASY) 58. According to - - -- -, hypothesis images involve di codes and storage systems and the relevant information may bo and stored in either or both. a. Conceptual-propositional b. Dual-coding c. Functional-equivalency d. Levels of processing (EASY) 59. A classification system of mental disorders helps in: a. Understanding the cause b. Syndrome analysis c. Determining the treatment d. Scientific communication

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71. What is •inoculation' in the contc.u of persuasion and attitude

change? a. planting an idea which will be built upon later, to create attitude change b. having people rehearse resistance to an idea c. a high fear technique d violating group norms (EASY)

n. Damage to _ _ _ _ may cause total change in personality and social behaviour. a. orbital cortex b. somato-sensory cortex (EASY) c. cerebellum 65. Which one of the following is the most salient characteristic of d. parietallobe (EASY) ? malrix ~ a. It utiliz.es functional and divisional chain of command 73. To become what one is capable of becoming is characteristic of a simultiocously a. self-actualized person b. It creates necessary conditions of excellence in performance b. positive person cJt ~ igns role prescriptions according to emergent changes c. excellent person cl It NS an organization of competent perfonners in functional teams {FASY) d. person with high self esteem (EASY)

66: Client-centered therapy emphasiz.es -----a lllterJ>retation b. ~ing the unconscious c. clarification cl all the above

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74. Which one of the following is based on the notion that our personalities are composed of"ego states"? a. Psychoanalysis b. Hypnoanalysis c. Transactional Analysis d. Narcoanalysis (EASY)

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www.powerwithinpsychology .com 75. The transfo rmation al leadership consists of four components for superio r results. These are- ----- ,a Idealiz ed influen ce, inspirational motivation, intellectua I stimula tion and individ ualized consideration b. Idealiz ed influen ce, followe rs faith, authori ty's blessings and spiritua l orienta tion c. Inspira tional motivat ion, emotional intelligence, relation al capacit ies and dynami sm d. Inspira tional influen ce, dynami sm, intellectual stimulation and spiritua l orienta tion (EASY )

ANS WE R KEY S - PRA CTI CE SET 6 I. Ans. c Sol. Project ive tests intend to bring out the unique subjective inner conflic ts in individ uals to measur e the type of personality. They are highly subject ive and ambigu ous. Each person interprets it differen tly and even scoring has subject ivity. 2. Ans. a Sol. Parano id schizop hrenia is one of the type of schizop hrenia with domina nt positiv e sympto ms of hallucin ation and delusion. Paranoi d schizop hrenia can be distingu ished from other types by it' s excessi ve delusio n of act (by others) accomp anied with related hallucinations of people conspir ing against you or that no one can be trusted. 3. Ans. b Sol. In Down Syndro me, 21st chromo some has an extra chromo some making the total numbe r of chromo somes 47 instead to 46. This extra chromo some is respons ible for develop ing major intellec tual disabil ities accomp anied by physica l features of that of mongoloids. 4 . Ans. C Sol. In 1950s Gregor y Bateson and colleag ues described the double bind theory for the first time which explain s that the individual faces a dilemm a in commu nicatio n in which they receive two or more conflic ting messag es with one negatin g the other. This creates an emotio nal distress as no respons e of the individual is correct.

5. Ans. a Sol. lnform ation is passed to the long term memor y with the help of rehears al. Retriev al failure is where the information is in long term memor y, but cannot be accesse d. Such information is said to be availab le (i.e. it is still stored) but not accessi ble (i.e. it cannot be retrieve d). It cannot be accesse d because the retrieval cues are not presenL 6. Ans. b Sol. The +ve or -ve sign indicates the directio n of the variable s' relation ship while magnit ude tells the strength. So -.73 has the greatest magnit ude and hence is the stronge st of all given options.

7. Ans. a Sol. Concur rent validity measur es how a new test compares against a validat ed test, called the criterio n or "gold standard." The tests should measur e the same or similar constru cts, and allow you to validate new method s against existing and accepte d ones.

Powerw•thin · p ~ Note- The main differen ce betwee n concu shll() and Prect· . in concurr ent va l1.d.1ty, t h e scores of a test rrent d . . . an . 1c1i are obtaine d at the same time, while in pred·i t· t he Criter·, Ve is c 1vev • variable s are measur ed after the scores ofth t a11dity on,., th atj e est • ecrjt 8. Ans. a Sol. Spontan eous Remiss ion is a term pop . science to mean red uct1on or d"1sappearance ofu 1arly usect in · ·mtervent1on, · therape utic w h"1ch maybe tempo syrnpt0 rns WithIll tern is used with the similar referen ce in psychralry ~r Pennan o og1ca1 ct· en 'Sorde 9. Ans. b Sol. Norm is a standar d or range of values that represe ts perform ance of a group or of an individual (of n the exampl e) against which compar isons can be mad a, c~rtain age, of a raw score into a scaled score that is more easil;·. t is a COnv as a percentile or an IQ score. Thus it is a range ?erpretab1 , 0 may lie and not an absolut e. score Whe

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10. Ans. b Sol. The bystand er effect is the inhibiti ng influence ofth others on a person , s w1·11·mgness to show prosocial behe pres . . researchh · foun d m t at m emerge ncy too, people tendav,o t responsibly when there is a bystand er than when they are al: n 11. Ans. d Sol. B.F. Skinne r designe d an experim ent with rats, where the pressing a key would receive food but all other keys would r electric shock. It was found that after a number of trials successfully avoided the punishm ent (the electric shock) and ~ the reward( the food). Thus it can be said that behaviour is by reinforcements which accordi ng to Skinner was external in )2. Ans. C Sol. After going through many researches albert V. Carron and Eys came up with 5 main characteristics of a group namely commo n fate mutual benefits social structur e interaction and commu nication self-categorization . . . . Accept ing expecta tion and obhgatl on 1s more of a personal behavio ur which is not expecte d from a group, e organizational groups.

13. Ans. b . is Sol. It has been seen that the medial tempora1 lobe th s d importa nt for spatial process ing and _spatial me(~h: m:moO' the said part may hamper topograp~ic ~emory fal enviro arrange ment and relation ships of obJects ma spa 1 14. Ans. b . . stems that denoll Sol. Equifinality is the principle m open ~~ntial means. given end state can be reached by many po 15. Ans. b n Sol. The cerebra l cortex is divided le gthways into hemisp heres connec ted by corpus callosum. 16. Ans. c

two

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. tress disorder (PTSD) is a disorder that develops ., c • ed h k' Aw· h shave expenenc a s oc mg, scary, or dangerous post·irau01at1C 1 ;. ~ • me people_~ i;is included in a ne"'. ~ateg?ry ~alled 'Trauma and ,' ,os01 Jn pSM. rders' all of the cond1t1ons m this category require e~· related d1so or stressful event. so.,.,.. of irauma ~ 5ure e,\yI1·

AOS, d . . the most common defense mechanism after Denial. 18 RepreS5!0 " is unconscious defense mechanism which is widely j SO~sion. is:Unsavory thoughts, painful memories, or irrational ~- In this et an individual is repressed or put deep down in the ,\ beliefs can up~· h can sometime be surfaced in dreams nscioUS W IC 'l

Sol. It is found that animals have emotional reactions and their emoti~n is managed by their nervous system which can be less complicated from human. Animals do not have mixed emotions and they generally have one predominant feeling and act upon them, whereas humans have multitude of mixed emotions and the expression of the emotions vary widely from one individual to another, thus the expression of the emotions are the main distinguishing factor between human and animal emotion 26. Ans. c Sol. The process of development is dynamic and continuous. At no point doesn't development cease to exist, its process may be slow or fast depending on the phase of life but from conception till death development continues.

27. Ans. d Sol. A I-test is a type of inferential statistic used to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of two groups, which uoCO may be related in certain features. It is mostly used when the data sets, the measure like the data set recorded as the outcome from flipping a coin I00 19. AJIS· c an's Rho is a non-parametric test used to 1 = r times, would follow a normal distribution and may have unknown sol. S~association between t\~o variables, where the value O a variances. A t-test is used as a hypothesis testing tool, which allows saength rfect positive correlation and the value r = -I means . cans ape correlation. testing of an assumption applicable to a population. gative 01 perfect ne 28. Ans. b 20. AJIS·/ first version of Guilfoi:ci's Slr1;1cture of Intellect (SOI) Sol. A correlation is a statistical measurement of the relationship Sol. Th presented in 1955 to an mtemat1onal conference on factor between two variables. A zero correlation indicates that there is no rno"' '

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39. Accordin g to Piaget, the modificat ion of infonnati on is inconsist ent with existing schemataschernata so IL. or understood, is referred _ _ _ _ _ _. cari be inte~ a. Assimilat ion b. Schemati zation c. Accomm odation d. Aggregation (EASY) 40. If trait theories of leadershi p are valid, then leaders are a. educated ----... b. trained c.bom d. authoritarian (EASY)

41. _ __..;..._ _ model of memory was proposed by Atkin Shiffiin • a. Interference memory b. Multi-store c. Levels of processing d. Hierarchical (EASY) 42. The view that emotions have generally similar patterns o arousal has been offered by _ _ _ _ _ _ _. a. James and Lange b. Cannon and Bard c. Smith and Nelson d. Schachter and Singer (EASY)

43. Which one of the following has described personality on the bl.1is of traits? a. Allport b. Cattell c. Eysenck d. All ofthe above (EASY) 44. Psychoanalytic, theory proposes that obsessive thoughts occur

to

a. F --ixa-ti_o_n_ _

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trait b state I c. situatio~aI d· eJpredicted it before process theory of colour perception. its occurrence, is called c,'\,,, a. Colour blindness a. Rationaliz.ation .~\"1,; b. Colour afterimage b. Foresight bias ~~ c. Dark adaptation c. lntrojection ~" d. Light adaptation d. Hindsight bias '-' (MODERATE) (MODERATE) 11. According to Kohlberg's Morality theory, in ___stage, 5. The arousal produced by one stimulus can increase a person's morality of an action is based on the consequences. Actions that get emotional reaction to another stimulus. This is called rewarded are right and those that earn punishment are wrong. a. Excitation transfer a. Pre-conventional b. Incompatible responses b. Conventional c. Emotional aggression c. Post-conventional d. Indirect aggression d. Formal-conventional (EASY) (EASY) 6. ___occurs when last items in a list of information are recalled more efficiently than items in the middle of the list. a. Primacy effect b. Recency effect c. Flynn effect d. Halo effect

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.n · bactto would you class.ify being close to the conce t f Po 13_\Vhl;ystalldershiP given b~ ~rvm Staub? 1-.r,ti"e . g a selfie with the victim . ctickJ!l . a racial attack and feehng sorry for the victi m a. - essmg ·t · · b,W~essing a racial attack andth bo en t1hn e~e~1dng m that situation ,w.... the internet a ut e mc1 ent for the sake c. posting on of I d. ·nrnent e11tet1SIERATE) ~~OD fl .ct of having to choose between risky back surgeries or 11.e 1 con • 14: ''with the pain is an ex~ ple of lj\llng roach-approach confhc! a. APP roach· avoidance confl1_ct b. APP_ avoidance conflict ance. : c. /\•vo1d • approach-avoida nce confl'1ct \ d.MulhP1e \ (MODERATE)

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SCORE BOOSTERS: PREVIOUS YEAR PAPE RS

a. Secure b. Avoidantc. Anxious d. Fearful (MODERATE)

20 .-; ;-. two forms ofhe--l . behnta~ls reciprocal helping and kin selection as pmg e av1or. a. Arousal- Cost-Reward Model b. Empa~y-Altruism Hypothesis c. Negative State Relief Model d. Evolutionary Perspective (EASY) ;: · When you _try to recall the event, a cue is most effective if it sembles the lmks you formed~ e time of stora ge. This is called a. Depth processing ~ ~ .;J b. Elaboration , ~"1('J c. Encoding specificity~ d. Context encoding~ (EASY) I

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22. In a~negotiation between two countries, both countries refuse to com ply and a~ ee because they want to only get their (EASY) demands met at any cost. this time, the mediator says that the coun tries should focus g_n the second most preferable solution to the situa !6. Acognitive bias in which we tend to assume tion, what is this that an individual ,known as? with one positive characteristic also possesses other (even unrelated)' Broad arbitration of negotiation positive characteristics, is called \ b. Best alternative to a negotiable solution a. Halo effect ~ Y c. Brie f arbitrative offering to a negotiable solution b. Primacy effect d. Big solut ions to conflict outcomes II c.Reciprocal liking (MO DER ATE ) d. Contrast effect

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23. Which of the following characteristics is more associated with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCP 17. The match between individual and organizat D) rather than ional expectations is obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD called )? • a. Intrusive thoughts about contamination a. Performance management ~ . b. Rigid ideas and high need of control b.Psychological contract c. Ritualistic behavior c. Person organization fit ' d. Anxiety d. Person job fit (MO DERATE) (CHALLENGING)

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24. It was found that in a particular test that was 18. said to be diagnostic • th . -~ --- - - ts th e tende of ncy one's intellectual abilities, the black and white parti to overestunate at our own 1 cipants differed clsc ents, feelings and behavioral choices are share d by everyone significantly. The black participants perfonned poorly in comp arison a. ~pie agree to our attitudes, beliefs etc. to the white participants. However, when the same test was prese nt~d b Uation apprehension as non-diagnostic of intellectual abilities both the ·Fllndamenta) · black and white c.False attribution error participants did equally well. d. Socialconse~us effect This phenomenon resulted due to which of the follo wing? / \EAsY) dominance orientation a. Out-group homogeneity bias b. Stereotype threat 19 The c. Self-categorization ~ clase~hment style of individual desiring proximity but afraid d. Social dominance orientation of LS called (EASY)

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25. According to Structuralism, _ _ are the elements of !deas th at are retrospective in nature such as a memory of a past expenence. a. Sensations b. lmages c. Affective states d. Thoughts (MO DER ATE ) 26. Perceiving a form in its absence woul d be an example of_ __ Firmly believing that one is transforming into that form would be an example of_ _ _ __ a. Hallucination; Delusion b. Delusion; Hallucination c. Illusion; Delusion d. Subliminal perception; Illusion (EA SY)

27. Which of the following best explains the phenomena that world is a fair and predictable plac e where good things happen to good people and bad thing s to bad peop le or people get what they deserve? a Ethnocentrism b. Cog nitiv e algebra c. Illusion of control d. Just worl d hypothesis (EA SY) 28. Data retri eved fiom available publ ic records and used as evidence is calle d a Ethn ogra phic data b. Arch ival data c. Diar y data d. Obs erva tion data (MO DER ATE ) 29. _ _ _ is a non- para metr ic mea sure of correlation, whic h work s with ordi nal leve l data a. Pear son' s prod uct mom ent b. Poin t-bis erial c. Tetr acho ric d. Spea rrna n's rank orde r

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3 I. Hal f the dist ance betw een first and third quar tile in a distr ibut ion

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32. Three mountains task was used by Piaget to children. study a. Centration -------ii b. Conservation c. Egocentrism d. Reversibility (MO DER ATE ) 33. A set of medical records classifies patients as " h . or " not yet c Iass,"fi1ed" . What Ieve I of meas ronic" •"ileutc• urement ·c be' a. Nominal IS 1ng Used? b. Ordinal c. Interval d. Ratio (MO DER ATE )

34. The investment of energy in an actio n or image that will . instinct is called an instipctual _ _ _ _gratify an a. Libido b. Object-choice c. Objec!~t hex is d. Both b and c (CHALLENGING) 35. _ _ _ _ is the area in the samp ling distribution, where if the result falls with in it, null hypothesis is considered false? a. Reg ion of acce ptan ce b. Regi on of rejec tion c. Critical regio n d. Reg ion of amb iguit y (EA SY)

36. Whe n a clien t relat es to the thera pist in ways that resemble how he/s he wou ld relat e to othe r love d figur es in their personal life, is calle d a. Cou nter tran sfere nce b. Cath arsis c. Free asso ciati on d. Tran sfere nce (EA SY) · a non37. Th e _ _ _ _ ts para metn·c vers1·0n of one-way ~OVA. a. Man n-W hitn ey U test

b. Wilc oxon Sign Ran k test c. Sign Ran k test d. Kru skal -Wa lli's test (EASY)

38. Dein divi duat ion refe rs to whic h of the follo . g? a. Anti soci al acts b. Diso bedi ence c. Ano nym ity

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45 having a · · .. · · · · .. · · · · · ·· is the reliability which can be estimated by . I d sample of test inde pen ent y graded by two or more examiners. a. Scorer reliability b. Alternate-form reliability c. Test-retest reliability d. Split-half reliability (EASY) 46 · · · · · · · · · •· •• is a Gestalt principle that assumes a direct being correspondence between brain processes and what is . experienced a. Isomorphism b. Equipotentiality c. Interposition d. lnteractionism (MODERATE)

c.A ofthe above d.None

and leg 47....... ...... measures the co-ordination of hand, arm , task. (EASY) movement in performing a of ways the of Motor Dexterity test a. one ges, Wh presenting two-sided messa 1 ned weake a them Porteous maz.e test b. give 41 your side, is to , · .en to persuade people of ercount c. Mirror drawing test audience devise atte~pl1llithe opposing argument and let the11i· s-. . . ed version o 1s 1s re1erred to as d. Differential aptitude test version. 81glllllents to the weaken (EASY)

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tion, and 48. In classical conditioning if behaviour undergoes extinc the UCS. / b.Fo~w~~g then delay ensues with no exposure to either the CS or c. Trivializalion What will probably happen? ~ Inoculation a. Stimulus generalization (EASY) b. Consolidation stimuli c. Spontaneous recovery 42. The increment or decrement in the differences of the two d. Stimulus discrimination values which can be detected 50 percent of time by (EASY) an observer is known as l Direct replication ersion 49. Extraversion is typically characterized by _ _and introv b. Difference threshold by_ _. c.Differential transfer a. Outward orientation, inward orientation d. Ag~uivalent norm b. Low sociability, high sociability (EASY) c. Private self, public self d. Learning by introspection, learning by experimentation 43. Empty chair is a technique used in (EASY) l Gestalt therapy · b. Transactional analys1s and 50. Non-normal distribution that is closely bunched in the centre c.Play therapy du,. __ .. peaked is ~;llllllall!Stic therapy a. Platykurtic distribution \lfl0DERATE) b. Leptokurtic distribution noise c. Bi-modal distribution ~ed. ing the presence of a signal on a trial where only d. Mesokurtic distribution is known as ---· (MODERATE) a.False al

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sytlio10&>58. According to the Allport's trait theory of dominant characteristics that make up the l)ersonality core of a' ~ Set or personality is called l'y) cltidllducing hunger signa ls to othe r areas of the hypo thaJ, ,: Cells initiate a&outi, - .. us. 8. Ans. d ¾d send Sol. Projection is a defen se mech anism in h' · unac cepta bl tr · recognizes th e1r e a1ts or impuls w . •ch an ind· . . . . avoid recog mzm g t hose traits or impues l •n so. rneone '"'du cl al . h subconsciously. Sothe c h eatm g ere is proje ses in ~lo cted the111~ on other """ 1"cs ""'Pie. 9. Ans. a Sol. A nega tive attitu de is a dispo sition , feelin g, or . . . . constructive, rnannerth coop erat·1ve, or opttm 1st1c. It can aff, at is n about anywhere. The Impl icit Asso ciatio n Test (IA~ anyone, strength of assoc iatio ns betw een conc epts (e.g., blacteasures the people) and evaluations_ (e.g.: good , bad) or stereotypes ( l>Cople, gay clum sy) throu gh react ion -time . The main idea is th e.g., ~ lctic, response is easie r when close ly related items share the sat lhaking a key. i ame response

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10. Ans. b Sol. The phen omen on of colo ur afterimag e is explained by opponent-process theor y of colo ur perce ption. An afte . the general is an optical illusi on that refers to an image con: ~e 111 . . . appear after expo sure to the ongm 1 a unage has ceased Pro!umg1o. • • • · v1ewmg of the colou red patch mduc es an afterimage ofonged the complementary colou r (for exam ple, yello w colour induces a blu~h afterimage). 11. Ans. a Sol. Lawr ence Kohl berg' s stage s of mora l development constitute an adaptation of a psyc holo gical theor y originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piag et. At the preconven tional level, morality~ externally controlled. Rule s impo sed by authority figures are conformed to in orde r to avoi d puni shme nt or receive rewards. This perspective invol ves the idea that what is right is what one can get away with nega tive cons eque nces or can get what is personally satisfying.

12. Ans. d . Sol. Acco rding to Mas low the need highe r than self-actualizatio~ ~ ' Tran scend ence . It refer s the very highe st and • I · orhohs~ most me usive .... . . levels of hum an cons cious d I ness behavmg an re at'1ng, as ends rau~•in •' • than mean s, to ones elf, to s1gm ficant others, t0 human beings general, to othe r spec ies, to natur e, and to the cosmos. 13 .Ans. c th presence of Sol. Byst ande r effec t is the inhib iting influe nce ~f ed An actiie other s on a perso n's willi ngne ss to help some e in nee .. ..~e5 on . . but Ill' • a s1tuat10 0• bysta nder is some one who not only witne sses scalating ol 10 · steps to spea k up or step in to keep a situa · n from e uo . entioned aIJOIC· disru pt a prob lematic situa tion such as in the option m 14. Ans. C

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94.Ans.c Sol. Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. It is one of several views of epist.emology, along with rationalism and skepticism. F.mpiricism emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the fonnation of ideas, rather than innat.e ideas or traditions.

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95. Ans. C Sol. Continuance commibnent relat.es to bow much employees feel the need to stay at their organisation. A good example of continuance commitment is when employees feel the need to stay with their organisation because their salary and fringe benefits won't improve if they move to another organisation. 96. Ans. a Sol. The corpus callosum is the primary commissural region of the brain consisting of whit.e matt.er tracts that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres.

97.Ans. a Sol. Self-handicappi ng is a cognitive strat.egy by which people avoid effort in the hopes of keeping pot.ential failure from hurting selfesteem. It can be seen as a method of preserving self-esteem but it can also be used for self-enhanceme nt and to manage the impressions of others.

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. Im prevails due to the fact that all power rests . which ca . faJ!lilY in . sidered as a fam1 1Y. t.A ".rent 1s con itb 0ner , schisrnaric )'leuroU·c bd ' skcwe

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d. All of the above (EASY) 7. Response cost is a behavioural technique, which involves a. Contingent withdrawal of earned reinforcer following undesirable behaviour b. Time out from reinforcement following undesirable behaviour c. Providing reinforcer following desirable behaviour d. Changing the criterion of reinforcement (EASY) ,

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8. Children with ---,-'-- h!ental retardation has very limited vocabularies, speak in two-to-thiee-word sentences, and have IQ scores between 20 and 35. a. Mild Retardation b. Severe Retardation ~ODERATE) ; c. Profound Retardation rd" g to classical psychoanalytic theory, a mechanism of d. Moderate Retardation 3 ·: i~n which various forbidden thoughts and imp~lses are (EA~Y) ~buted 10 another person rather than the self, thus reducing some inxiclY, is called _ _ __ 9. Which one of the following is not a symptom of arousal in post'\\.. stress d"1sorder? tr3umat1c 1 Projection a. Irritddability b.tntrojecrion , Reaction Formation b. Reckless behaviour QRegression c. Irrational fear (EASY) d. Hyperventilation (MODERATE) 4. Aperson with _ _ _ may have a grandiose sense of selfimportance, a sense of entitlement, take advantage of others or lack 10. Which among the following was stated as "centre of empathy. consciousness" by Jung? L Narcissistic Personality Disorder a.Ego b. Histrionic personality disorder b.Anima c.Avoidant personality disorder c. Superego QAnti-social personality disorder d. Schema (EASY) (EASY)

inward . • ctual enjoyment of inflicting pain on others le's 1nshn • b.peop es of sexual selection c. nic P~ behaviours ofone •s opposite-sex parent dJmitaUng e

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www.powerwithinpsychology.com d. Stereotyping (EASY) . work , are creative, seek 13. The assumption that emp 1oyees 1·k I e responsibility, and can exercise self-direction is called a Theory X b. TheoryY c. Theory Z d. Human Relations theory (EASY)

14. Fiedler created the_ _ _questionnaire to identify whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented. a Assumed similarity between opposites b. Most preferred co-worker c. Least preferred co-worker d. Task-oriented leader (EASY) 15. Private employment agency specializing in middle-and topmanagement placements are known as a Assessment centers b. Consulting organizations c. Talent hunt firms d. Executive search firms (EASY)

16 .......... .. .creates expectations that may be hard to reconcile or satisfy. a Role overload b. Role ambiguity c. Role erosion d. Role conflict (EASY) 17. A selection device that allows job candidate' i . learn negative as well as positive information about the job and organization is called a Realistic job preview , · b. Placement l c. Background investigation d. Conditional job offers (EASY) I 8. Which of the following is a hands-on simulation of part or all of the work that applicants for routine jobs must perform? a. Job knowledge test b. Performance test c. Work sample test d. Structured interviews

(MODERATE) J9 .. .. .. ....... .. .. is a performance appraisal technique in which the appraiser describes what the employee did that was especially effective or ineffective in a situation, citing only specific behaviors. a. Graphic rating scales

O&), b. Written essays c. Behaviorally anchored rating scales d. Critical incidents technique (EASY) 20. According to Lewin's three-step model ofo . rgan1zar in order to facilitate change_ _ _ are needed which .10na1 chan away from the status quo, can be increased. The direct beha ~e. movement away from equilibrium, can be deer~~·.d... .. , Which hi:dlor • . ,, e . er a. Driving forces, restrammg ,orces b. Restraining forces, driving forces c. Positive forces, negative forces d. Negative forces , positive forces (EASY)

21. Which of the following therapies involves structural . consists of diagnosing and si8{ating the feeling- ~~tl~sis that 1 behavioural pattern of ego states? king and a. Psychoanalysis b. Psychoanalytically-orientel~icrive vahd'.tY·. n variables are obtained at the same time. In 0 r~ cntenthe . ..ct and the ·d' criterion variables are measured after the scores 98. Ans. d Sol. Depression is most likely caused by interaction of all these factors .., . ·veval• it)', ~,cuest · outcome (pred'1ct1ve · ) as well including genetic factors, neurotransmitter deficits of serotonin and ftli( t · . n mentions pred'1ctmg 0 . ( concurrent) so criterion . . 1s . the dopamine and faulty thinking pattern like negative attitudes about the )'lott- the quest10 f rne current cond'1t1on self and the world. . tence o so ,se~S c0rttetanswer. 99. Ans. a,d Sol. Dissociative fugue usually involves travel to a new area. The 9J. fJIS· b . a standardized procedure for sampling behavior, and dissociative fugue state is characterized by reversible amnesia for sol. A_test •~th categories or scores. An inventory is a self-report personal identity and memories usually lasting hours to days. So a escribing waich is a type of psychological . test .m which . a person fills d fugue state typically involves unplanned travel or wandering and is h ·Illventol)' wey • • 'th or questionnaire with or w1 out the help of an sometimes associated with establishment of a new identity. out . test responses .m a . a. surv ator. A scale is a system for ordering IJ]VesUg • b'I' . de, or the ,.1ke. ive series, so as to measure a trait, a 11ty, attltu 100. Ans. b a written self-report technique where participants Sol. Amenorrhea is a distinguishing feature of Anorexia nervosa in alt given a pre-set number of questions to respond to. females. Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation, often defined as missing one or more menstrual periods.

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:t:~sment can be defined as appraising or estimating the magnitude of one or more attributes in a person. Psychological assessment is a complex, integrative, and conceptual activity that involves deriving inferences from multiple sources of information to achievea comprehensive understanding of a client or client system. A 1es1 is a standardized procedure for sampling behavior, and describing with categories or scores. Observation involves watching a participant and recording relevant behavior for later analysis. Interview isa directed conversation in which a researcher, therapist, clinician, employer, or the like (the interviewer) intends to elicit specific information from an individual (the interviewee) for purposes of research, diagnosis, treatment, or employment. 95.Ans. C Sol. An aptitude test is an exam used to determine an individual's skill

:rpensity to succeed in a given activity. Aptitude tests assume that . avaduals have inherent strengths and weaknesses and have a natural mclination toward success or failure in specific areas based on their lllnate charactenst1cs. · · So Aptitude tests measure one or more clearly defimed relati veIYhomogeneous segment of capab1hty. •• %.Ans. b

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b. Interpersonal Therapists c. Rogerian therapists ,.._, I. Which among following is an irrational fear, is really a symptom of d. Transactional therapists an underlying, repressed conflict is called is,____. (EASY) a. Phobia b. Crisis: between the . 7. _ _ _ is. a' formal agreement 'b'I' . d rapist Bnd c. Stress which both parties respons1 11tles an goals are clear( client iq d. OCD a. Contingency contract YSlated. (MODERATE) b. Token Economy c. Goal agreement . 2. Which among the following include the use of drugs'. surgi~l d. Motivational interviewing ' methods, electric shock treatments, and non-invasive stimulation (EASY) techniques? a. Eclectic therapy b. Biomedical therapy c. Insight Therapy d. Aversion Therapy (MODERATE)

8. Masked depression' refers to a. Intentional niding,of , ,. symptoms . . .of depression from oth ers b. Expression ofd epress1on m actmg-out c. Failure,td e\ J)!lrience depression · d. depression masked by euphoria 3. The content of the dream was the actual dream and its (MODERATE) events, but the content is the hidden, symbolic meaning of aroused-only by wearing cloth' those events that would, if correctly interpreted, reveal the 9. Wlien person is sexually . . .1s d'1agnosed as_ _ mg of the opposite sex, t econ 1t1on d h unconscious conflicts. a. Voyeurism a. Manifest, Latent b. Fetishism b. Latent, Manifest c. Sexual masochism c. Symbolic, Manifest d. Sexual sadism d. Psychological, manifest (MODERATE} (EASY) 4. Trypanophobiais also known as a fear of

a. Receiving an injection b. Missing out in peer group c. Anxiety attack d. Bursting tyres (MODERATE)

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I0. Bipolar disorder in children most resembles which of the followin bipolar disorders in adults? g a. Bipolar I b. Rapid cycling c. Bipolar II d. None of the above (MODERATE} 0

5. ___ refers to a technique therapists use to allow clients to continue to talk and have insights without the interference of the therapist's interpretations and possible biases. a. Reflection b. Transference C. Paraphrasing d. Free association (EASY)

11. _ _ _ _ is a technique, in which the individual is exposed in real life to situation that provokes anxiety, in order to diminish it a. Systematic desensitization b. Guided affective imagery c. Flooding d. Covert aversion (EASY)

6. ____ do not talk about the unconscious mind, they believe everything is conscious but that it is possible for some people to simply refuse to "own up" to having certain feelings or to deal with past issues. a. Gestalt therapists

12. Individuals who recognize that OCD thoughts and behaviors are ego dystonic believe that th mby a. Their thoughts and behaviour do not match as others alter e proxy b. There is a discrepancy between thoughts and behaviour

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projecuon d. if,ASY) , h of the following mental disorders is characterized by t4, ~IC ymptoms or physical signs that are subjective, and/or s~u1aung :anufactured mental symptoms? pauent has ·tious disorder 8c!J a.bFconver.;ion d' rd iso ed~ rd c: 5ornatic sym~tom. 1so_ er d. DiSSoCiativehdentlty disorder (EASY) In DSM-5 Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity is placed under 15 a. Neuro-Developmental Disorder b. Externalizing Disorder . c. Disruptive Impulse Control Disorder d. AnXie!Y Disorders o[ .Childhood and Adolescence

19. Which among the following suggests that acquisition of particular behaviors via learning occurs 'in fairly efficient ways to facilitate our adaptations with the environment? a. Genetic preparedness b. Bio-sociology of behaviour c. Social neuroscience d. Biological transmission (MODERATE) 20. _ _ involves events in the individual's life course, and sociohistorical circumstances of that time. a. Chronosystem b. Microsystem c. Exosystem d. Macrosystem (EASY) 21. This belief system that convinces the person that she/he will continue to remain poor, and the belief is carried over from one generation of the poor to the next is called_ _. a. Culture of poverty b. Poverty cycle • c. Relative deprivation d. Disadvantage (MODERATE)

22. Sometimes people may continue to hold stereotypes because they think that, after all, there must be some truth in what everyone says about the other group is, known as_ _. a. Kernel of truth (EASY) b. Self-fulfilling prophecy 16. When Mitu asked Ria to take care of her plants for a day followed c. Scapegoating by the request to also keep an eye on her pet dog, is known as .___. d. Polarization of group (EASY) a. Foot in the door technique b. Door in the face technique 23. ____is a form of most direct social influence in which one c. Pro-social technique person orders one or more others to do something, and they do so. d. Obedience a. Obedience (MODERATE) b. Compliance 17. _ _ _refers to the effect that a person's knowledge of C. Loafing d. Conformity another's stereotyped opinions can have on that person's behavior. (EASY) a. Stereotype vulnerability b. Stereotype threats 24. A barrier that provides women as a group in positions that are more c. Marginalisation prone to encounter failure /risk, in the workplace is known d. Self-fulfilling prophecy as._ _ _. (MODERATE) a. Glass cliff effect b. Stereotyping 18-Prejudice is about while discrimination is about c. Glass ceiling a. Beliefs; perceptions---d. Gender role norms b. Behaviour; attitudes (EASY) c. Perceptions; beliefs d(EA. . Attitudes; behaviour 25. According to_ prejudice is derived from 'our tendency to divide SY) the world into us and them and to view our own group more favorably than various out groups.

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