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Precision Manufacturing  Series Editor: Liangchi Zhang

Zhuangde Jiang Shuming Yang  Editors

Precision Machines

Precision Manufacturing Series Editor Liangchi Zhang Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech) Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering Shenzhen, China

This series of handbooks covers a comprehensive range of scientific and technological matters in precision manufacturing. The proposed handbook series aims to bridge the gaps by a systematically designed strategy to cover the required range of knowledge and essential understanding, and hence provide researchers and engineers a vehicle for achieving the optimization of the intelligent manufacturing chain. The readers will understand their role and position in precision manufacturing chain and hence understand how they could progress more efficiently and effectively. Junior researchers and engineers could seek their starting points of career development more easily and grab essential knowledge more systematically with a clear direction. More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/15575

Zhuangde Jiang • Shuming Yang Editors

Precision Machines With 437 Figures and 42 Tables

Editors Zhuangde Jiang State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an, Shaanxi, China

Shuming Yang State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an, Shaanxi, China

ISSN 2522-5464 ISSN 2522-5472 (electronic) ISBN 978-981-13-0380-7 ISBN 978-981-13-0381-4 (eBook) ISBN 978-981-13-0382-1 (print and electronic bundle) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0381-4 © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore

Series Preface

Manufacturing has always been a major wealth-creating sector in developed economies and will remain the cornerstone of long-term economic growth. It is manufacturing that underpins the modern scientific and technological development, such as the advances in energy, bio, micro and nano technologies. Most of today’s complex and important technological problems are inseparably connected to manufacturing issues. Successful innovative solutions in almost all disciplines rely on manufacturing, because deep insights can only be obtained with the aid of properly manufactured instruments. Since the new century, the advances in electronics, optics, telecommunication, biology, medical surgery, energy generation, resource exploration and environment protection have brought about further challenges and have produced veritable onslaught of fundamentals and technologies that require the capacity of precision manufacturing. The production of precision components and systems is sensitive to many complex sets of conditions in which they are manufactured. Over the past decades, the design and manufacture of high-integrity systems have improved but are limited by the lack of understanding of the production processes as an integrated whole. The advancement of precision manufacturing requires that researchers and engineers master the fundamentals of the materials in use, the processing technologies for transforming such materials to functional products with minimized defects, the strategies and technologies to create machines that are accurate enough to realize precision production, and the solutions to environmental impact issues. Each aspect of the above plays a critical role in the precision manufacturing chain. The chain can be damaged if any of the aspects suffers from imperfections. If researchers and engineers do not have a comprehensive vision and understanding of the chain, optimization of precision manufacturing is difficult, which forms a major hurdle to realizing intelligent/smart manufacturing for a new industrial revolution. This has imposed severe restrictions on our ability to analyze the complex processes of precision manufacturing. It is because so much is now demanded of high-integrity systems that the slightest imperfection in their manufacture has become a serious matter. The objective of this book series is to redress the shortcomings in the isolated single aspect studies in the chain of precision manufacturing. The book will cover a comprehensive range of scientific and technological matters to bridge the gaps by a v

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Series Preface

systematically designed strategy to reinforce the required knowledge and essential understanding and hence provide the reader with a vehicle for achieving optimization of the intelligent manufacturing chain. Specific emphasis of the book series will be on the fundamentals of materials and mechanics for precision manufacturing, minimal damage and damage-free design in precision manufacturing, precision machines and their control, numerical simulation for precision manufacturing, precision forming, precision optics, precision additive manufacturing, precision biomedical manufacturing, precision sensing and measurement, non-traditional precision manufacturing, eco-technologies and re-manufacture of precision elements. The books are suitable for senior undergraduate students, postgraduate students, junior researchers, and engineers who are interested in or working in the field of precision manufacturing.

Volume Preface

Over the last decades, precision/ultra-precision machining techniques have been evolving a lot to fulfill the great demands for components with high surface quality, subsurface integrity and accuracy. With the development of multi-axis ultra-precision machines, ultra-precision machining can achieve unprecedented precision and surface integrity as well as the generation of freeform and complex micro-structured surfaces. The application of precision/ultra-precision machining covers the fields of automobiles, medicine, illumination, astronomy, optics, metrology, etc. Precision/ ultra-precision machine tools are the base and a major prerequisite for precision/ ultra-precision machining with a remarkable precision controlled down to a nanometer. In this book, the design, manufacture and control technology of precision machine tools are introduced. The state-of-the-art of precision machining equipment including precision turning, milling, grinding, and lapping/polishing are discussed. The key components of precision machines are introduced, such as precision spindles, control systems, tools, grinding wheels, etc. In the machine design part, methods for design and simulation of the structure of precision machines as well as the key components are described in details. In the manufacture part, the fabrication and assembly technologies for different types of precision machines are introduced. In the control part, the control system, measurement and compensation technology for precision machines are discussed. The information provided in the book will be of interest to industrial practitioners and researchers in the field of precision machines. The authors of the book chapters are the experts from different countries in the areas of precision machining or precision metrology. We would like to thank all the authors and contributors who made much efforts to ensure the content is integral and comprehensive. We would also like to thank the authors of references who kindly permitted the corresponding figures and tables to be included in the book. July 2020

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Contents

1

Introduction to Precision Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shuming Yang, Guofeng Zhang, Changsheng Li, and Zhuangde Jiang

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Forward Design Methods for Precision Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bin Li

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Structure Design of Precision Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Huiying Zhao and Shuming Yang

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Design of Tools, Grinding Wheels, and Precision Spindles Huiying Zhao and Shuming Yang

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Design of Precision Linear Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wanqun Chen and Yazhou Sun

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Design of Precision Rotary Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Haitao Liu, Wenkun Xie, and Yazhou Sun

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Design, Development, and Analysis of a Hybrid Serial-Parallel Machine for Precision Polishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peng Xu, Chi Fai Cheung, Bing Li, Chunjin Wang, and Lai Ting Ho

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Error Allocation in the Design of Precision Machines . . . . . . . . . . Shanshan Chen and Guofeng Zhang

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Grinding and Dressing Tools for Precision Machines Yunfeng Peng, Zhenzhong Wang, and Ping Yang

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Control Systems for Precision Machines Bing Li

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Robot-Based Precision Machines J. P. Xi

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Processing Techniques of Critical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shanshan Chen

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Contents

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Assembly Techniques of Precision Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bin Li

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Electric-Magnetic-Mechanical Coupling in Precision Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dongxu Ren

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Processing and Manufacturing Technology of Special Sensors . . . Qiulin Tan

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Environmental Control and Compensation of Precision Machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bing Li

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Thermal Error and Compensation Method for Precision Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. P. Xi

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Performance Characterization of Precision Machines . . . . . . . . . . Shuming Yang, Guofeng Zhang, and Zhuangde Jiang

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Measurement Technology for Precision Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shuming Yang, Changsheng Li, and Guofeng Zhang

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On-Machine Measurement System and Its Application in Ultra-Precision Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Xiangqian Jiang, Zhen Tong, and Duo Li

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About the Series Editor

Liangchi Zhang is Chair Professor in the Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech), Shenzhen, China. He is also the Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Science and Engineering (ATSE). Zhang obtained his B.Sc. and M.Eng. from Zhejiang University, Ph.D. from Peking University, China, and D.Eng. from the University of Sydney, Australia. Prior to joining SUSTech, he has worked at the University of New South Wales and University of Sydney, Australia; University of Cambridge, UK; National Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, MITI, Japan; and Zhejiang University, China. Zhang carries out research on both the fundamentals and industrial applications in the cross-disciplinary field of advanced manufacturing, advanced materials, tribology, nanotechnology, solid mechanics, and biomechanics. He has published extensively in his research areas, with some in multiple languages. His research outcomes have led to significant economic benefits for manufacturing industry. Zhang has been granted many awards and honors. He can be contacted at [email protected].

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About the Editors

Zhuangde Jiang Professor at Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU), is an academician at the Chinese Academy of Engineering and a former Vice President of XJTU (2004–2014). He serves as the Vice President of the Chinese Society of Mechanical Engineering, Vice President of the Chinese Society of Micro-Nano Technology, and Editor of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering section of the journal Engineering. Professor Jiang has done focused and long-term research in micro/nano manufacturing and advanced sensors, precision (ultraprecision) machining, and measurement technology and equipment. He has made outstanding contributions in high-end MEMS sensor chips, nanoscale national standard substances, large-diameter turning and grinding compound machine tools, and precision (ultraprecision) measurement technology and instruments for complex surfaces. Additionally, he did innovative research in fundamental mechanism of micro/nano technology and biomedical detecting technology and devices. Accordingly, he won two National Awards of Technological Innovation and one National Award of Science and Technology Progress. Professor Jiang also received the Award of 1st National Innovation Competitiveness, the Prize for Scientific and Technological Progress of Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation, and the Award for Outstanding Contribution to Degree and Graduate Education of XJTU.

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About the Editors

Shuming Yang is currently a Full Professor at the School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU), China. He completed his B.Sc. and M.Sc. in mechanical engineering at XJTU and Ph.D. in nanotechnology and instrumentation at the University of Huddersfield (UoH) in the UK. He then began work at UoH, after which he joined XJTU and is working there till now. His research areas include micro-/nano-fabrication and measurement, optical technology and instrumentation, precision/ultra-precision manufacturing, etc. Professor Yang has led more than 20 research projects including National Key R&D Program of China and National Science and Technology Major Projects. He has published more than 130 academic papers and owns 50 patents of PCT, the UK, the European Union, and China. Professor Yang received the first class of Science and Technology Progress Award from the Ministry of Education, the first class of Machinery Industry Science and Technology Award of China, the first class of Shaanxi Science and Technology Award, and the second class of Science and Technology Progress Award from the Chinese Society for measurement (CSM). He was elected as a Fellow of the International Society for Nanomanufacturing (ISNM). Professor Yang is also an Associate Editor of the Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Editor of Nanomanufacturing and Nanometrology, Guest Editor of Measurement Science and Technology, and Guest Editor of the International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology.

Contributors

Shanshan Chen School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Wanqun Chen Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Chi Fai Cheung State Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Lai Ting Ho State Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Xiangqian Jiang EPSRC Future Metrology Hub, Centre for Precision Technologies, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK Zhuangde Jiang State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Bin Li College of Mechatronic Engineering, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zheng zhou, China Bing Li School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, China State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Changsheng Li State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Duo Li EPSRC Future Metrology Hub, Centre for Precision Technologies, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK

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Contributors

Haitao Liu Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, People’s Republic of China School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Yunfeng Peng Xiamen University of China, Xiamen, China Dongxu Ren Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China Yazhou Sun Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Qiulin Tan Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement, Ministry of Education, North University of China, Taiyuan, China Science and Technology on Electronic Test and Measurement Laboratory, North University of China, Taiyuan, China Zhen Tong EPSRC Future Metrology Hub, Centre for Precision Technologies, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK Chunjin Wang State Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Zhenzhong Wang Xiamen University of China, Xiamen, China J. P. Xi Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China Wenkun Xie Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Peng Xu State Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Ping Yang Xiamen University of China, Xiamen, China Shuming Yang State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Guofeng Zhang State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Huiying Zhao School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China

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Introduction to Precision Machines Shuming Yang, Guofeng Zhang, Changsheng Li, and Zhuangde Jiang

Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ultra-precision Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diamond Turning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diamond Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Diamond Machining Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ultra-precision Grinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grinding Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Static/Dynamic Loop Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Motion Accuracy/Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tool Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polishing and Figuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lap-Based Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Flow-Assisted Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Field-Assisted Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ion Beam Machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plasma Discharge Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Abstract

Ultra-precision machining is an advanced technology used to generate parts with high accuracy, low surface roughness and surface/subsurface damage to meet the S. Yang (*) · C. Li · Z. Jiang State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China e-mail: [email protected] G. Zhang State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China e-mail: [email protected] © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 Z. Jiang, S. Yang (eds.), Precision Machines, Precision Manufacturing, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0381-4_1

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S. Yang et al.

requirements of astronomy, semiconductor technology, consumer electronics, etc. The application in some representative fields was described to clarify the concrete requirements for ultra-precision machining. The state of the art of three widely used ultra-precision machining processes including ultra-precision cutting, ultraprecision grinding and finishing/figuring is discussed. Keywords

Precision machines · Manufacturing · Measurement

Introduction Ultra-precision machining is an advanced technology used to generate parts with high accuracy, low surface roughness and surface/subsurface damages to meet the requirements of astronomy, semiconductor technology, consumer electronics, etc. According to Taniguchi, “precision of machining” can only be assessed from an evolutionary perspective as “processes/machines by which the highest possible dimensional accuracy is or has been achieved at a given point in time.” The machining accuracy is now approaching atomic scale, as shown in Fig. 1. Ultra-precision machining today is associated with a machining accuracy under 1 μm, depending on the size and shape

Fig. 1 Machining accuracy over time (Byrne et al. 2003)

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Introduction to Precision Machines

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of workpiece, and an achieved surface roughness Sa under 10 nm, depending on material properties and machining conditions. According to the physical nature of the material removal process, ultra-precision machining processes can be classified into physical, chemical, and mechanical as shown in Fig. 2. While physical and chemical machining are limited to specific applications, mechanical machining is almost universal and has a long tradition. This is because a huge class of engineering materials can be processed and a large variety of geometries with flat, spherical, aspherical, and freeform surfaces can be generated. Mechanical ultra-precision machining is further subdivided into cutting and abrasive machining, with the latter comprising precision grinding and polishing and the former being dominated by diamond turning and milling. In this chapter, most of ultra-precision machining methods will be introduced from three machining processes, ultra-precision cutting, ultra-precision grinding, and polishing/figuring.

Ultra-precision Cutting The term “ultra-precision cutting” refers to cutting processes which yield ultrasmooth surfaces, that is, surfaces with relative figure error