Power Quality in Modern Power Systems 012823346X, 9780128233467

Power Quality in Modern Power Systems presents an overview of power quality problems in electrical power systems, for id

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Power Quality in Modern Power Systems
 012823346X, 9780128233467

Table of contents :
Power Quality in Modern Power Systems
Copyright
Contributors
Preface
Acknowledgment
1. Power quality and its characteristics
1.1 How do changes in voltage, current, or frequency impact the quality of power?
1.2 Types of power quality problems
1.3 Transients
1.3.1 Cause
1.3.2 Impact
1.3.3 Types
1.3.3.1 Impulsive transients
1.3.3.2 Oscillatory transients
1.3.4 Example
1.4 Short duration RMS variation
1.4.1 Voltage sag
1.4.1.1 Causes
1.4.1.2 Impact
1.4.1.3 Example
1.4.2 Voltage swell
1.4.2.1 Cause
1.4.2.2 Impact
1.4.2.3 Example
1.4.3 Interruption
1.4.3.1 Cause
1.4.3.2 Impact
1.4.3.3 Example
1.5 Long duration voltage variation
1.5.1 Undervoltage
1.5.1.1 Cause
1.5.1.2 Impact
1.5.1.3 Example
1.5.2 Overvoltage
1.5.2.1 Cause
1.5.2.2 Impact
1.5.3 Sustained interruption
1.5.3.1 Cause
1.5.3.2 Impact
1.5.3.3 Example
1.6 Unbalance or imbalance
1.6.1 Cause
1.6.2 Impact
1.6.3 Example
1.7 Voltage fluctuations
1.7.1 Cause
1.7.2 Impact
1.7.3 Example
1.8 Waveform distortion
1.8.1 Harmonics
1.8.2 Interharmonics
1.8.2.1 Cause
1.8.2.2 Impacts
1.8.3 DC offset
1.8.3.1 Cause
1.8.3.2 Impacts
1.8.4 Notching
1.8.4.1 Cause
1.8.4.2 Impacts
1.8.5 Noise
1.8.5.1 Cause
1.8.5.2 Impacts
1.9 Annexure 1.1
1.10 Annexure 1.2
1.11 Annexure 1.3: harmonics
1.11.1 Odd harmonics
1.11.2 Even harmonics
1.11.3 Tripplen harmonics
References
Further reading
2. Power system harmonics
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Types of harmonic distortion
2.2.1 Voltage harmonics
2.2.2 Current harmonics
2.3 Harmonic-producing loads
2.3.1 Single-phase rectifiers
2.3.2 Three-phase rectifiers
2.4 Point of common coupling
2.4.1 Source-side harmonics
2.4.2 Load-side harmonics
2.5 Impact of harmonics on connected loads sharing the same feeder
2.6 Impact of harmonics in multitenanted premises
2.7 Evaluation of harmonics in the system
2.7.1 Total harmonic distortion
2.7.2 Total demand distortion
2.7.3 Total rated current distortion
2.8 Resonance
2.8.1 Series resonance
2.8.2 Parallel resonance
2.8.3 How to prevent the system resonance condition
2.9 Annexure 2.1
References
Further reading
3. Power quality problems with renewable energy integration
3.1 Motivation
3.2 Renewable energy sources and their integration
3.3 Power quality analysis with RES
3.3.1 Voltage fluctuations
3.3.2 Voltage transients
3.3.3 Voltage unbalance/sag/swell
3.3.4 Origins of harmonics
3.3.5 Consequences/impacts of harmonics
3.4 Mathematical modeling of power systems with RES
3.5 Artificial intelligence-based controllers
3.5.1 Artificial neural network-based controller
3.5.2 ANN controller for separation of events related to PQ of RES
3.5.3 ANN controller for harmonic separation
3.5.4 Fuzzy logic controller
3.5.5 Fuzzy logic controller for DC link capacitor voltage matching
3.5.6 Fuzzy logic controller for current adaptation and modulation
3.6 Simulation results and analysis
3.7 Conclusion
References
4. Fault ride-through (FRT) capability and current FRT methods in photovoltaic-based distributed generators
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Fault ride-through strategies for PV power plants
4.3 Fault ride-through methods in PV power plants
4.3.1 External FRT methods
4.3.1.1 Energy storage-based methods
4.3.1.2 Power electronics-based method
4.3.1.3 FACTS-based methods
4.3.2 External FRT methods
4.3.2.1 Inverter-resident FRT methods
4.4 Assessment of current FRT methods for PV power plants
4.5 Conclusion
References
5. Power quality problems associated with electric vehicle charging infrastructure
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Types of charging station
5.3 Power quality problems associated with EVSE and its impacts
5.3.1 Power quality problems from EV charging station into the grid
5.3.2 Power quality problems from grid into EV charging station
5.3.3 Case study: harmonics analysis for a DC fast charger of 150kW rating
5.4 Mitigation of impact of higher penetration of EVs into distribution system
5.4.1 Energy storage system
5.4.2 Distributed FACTS devices
5.4.3 Demand response
5.5 Conclusion
References
Further reading
6. Impact of power quality issues in residential systems
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Power quality disturbances in residential systems
6.2.1 Unpredictable disturbances
6.2.2 Residential customers
6.2.2.1 Overvoltage and undervoltage
6.2.2.2 Harmonics
6.2.2.3 Voltage flickers
6.2.2.4 Voltage sags
6.2.2.5 Voltage swells
6.2.2.6 Transients
6.2.2.7 Voltage unbalance (voltage imbalance)
6.2.2.8 Interruptions
6.2.2.9 Frequency deviation
6.2.3 Effects of power quality in residential systems
6.3 Power quality measurement
6.4 Study of power quality disturbances caused by a home appliance using MATLAB/Simulink
6.4.1 Modeling methodology
6.4.2 Power quality impacts due to single-phase nonlinear loads
6.4.3 Power quality impacts due to single-phase AC motors starting
6.5 Mitigation techniques
6.5.1 Power factor correction (compensation)
6.5.2 Harmonic filter
6.5.3 Power quality-based equipment
6.5.3.1 Chokes
6.5.3.2 Neutral blocking filter
6.5.3.3 Zigzag reactors
6.5.4 Surge protection devices
6.5.5 Programmable protection devices for household appliances
6.6 Conclusion
References
7. Voltage control in active distribution networks
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Voltage quality requirements
7.3 Traditional voltage control strategies
7.4 Voltage control strategies in active distribution networks
7.4.1 Transmission and distribution systems: two different scenarios
7.4.2 Novel voltage control strategies
7.4.3 Case study
7.4.3.1 Base case: passive network
7.4.3.2 High distributed generation and low demand
7.4.3.3 High demand due to electric vehicles and low generation
7.5 Conclusions
References
8. Voltage dips caused by faults in a transmission system: a monitoring case study of a sensitive industrial consumer
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Methodology
8.2.1 Proposed approach for voltage dip quantification
8.2.2 Proposed approach for grouping the faults and voltage dips
8.3 Case study and results
8.3.1 Quantification of voltage dips and comparison of IEEE 1564 and brazilian grid code
8.3.2 Grouping the main influence variables
8.3.3 Assessment of the voltage dip vulnerability area
8.4 Conclusions
References
Further reading
9. Power quality improvement by a double-source multilevel inverter with reduced device and standing voltage on switches
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Proposed structure
9.2.1 Converter configuration
9.2.2 Operational scheme
9.2.3 Standing voltage on switches
9.2.4 Cascaded version of the proposed topology
9.3 Modulation technique
9.4 Power loss analysis
9.4.1 Switching losses
9.4.2 Conduction losses
9.4.3 Capacitor ripple losses
9.5 Capacitor design
9.6 Comparative analysis
9.7 Simulation results
9.8 Power quality analysis
9.8.1 Form factor
9.8.2 Ripple factor
9.8.3 Harmonic factor
9.8.4 Total harmonic distortion
9.9 Conclusions
References
10. E-STATCOM (energy storage+STATCOM): a solution to integrate large-scale wind farms into the grid at medium and high power l ...
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Challenges of renewable power-dominated grids
10.3 Existing methods to provide grid codes
10.4 Concept of an E-STATCOM
10.4.1 Energy storage system in an E-STATCOM
10.4.2 Two-/three-level converter-based E-STATCOM
10.4.3 Modular multilevel converter-based E-STATCOM
10.5 System for performance study
10.6 Control methodology of an E-STATCOM
10.6.1 Operation of an MMC-based E-STATCOM
10.6.2 Operation of hybrid storage system
10.7 Discussion of results
10.8 Conclusion
References
11. PQ disturbance detection and classification combining advanced signal processing and machine learning tools
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Methods
11.2.1 Advanced signal processing techniques
11.2.1.1 Wavelet transformation
11.2.1.2 Stockwell transformation
11.2.2 Artificial neural network
11.3 Proposed PQD detection and classification scheme
11.3.1 Mathematical models of PQD
11.3.2 Feature extraction explanation
11.4 Results and discussion
11.4.1 PQD detection results
11.4.2 PQD classification results
11.4.3 Validation of the proposed scheme
11.5 Conclusions
11.6 List of abbreviations
Acknowledgments
References
12. Recent trends and advances in power quality
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Business motivation
12.3 Measurement methodologies and techniques
12.3.1 Flicker measurement
12.3.2 Classification techniques using multiresolution methods
12.3.3 Alternative architecture design for building power quality monitoring systems
12.4 PQ data analytics: examples
12.4.1 Case 1: detection of a transient condition
12.4.2 Case 2: detection of a voltage sag
12.4.3 Case 3: detection of voltage dip in two phases
12.4.4 Case 4: detection of a voltage sag—downstream event restored after 1.2 s
12.4.5 Case 5: momentary interruption—short circuit cleared in the reclosure
12.4.6 Case 6: several reclosure event
12.4.7 Case 7: voltage dips in the network leading to overvoltage in the system in an EV environment
12.4.8 Case 8: impact on EV charging infrastructure during various PQ events
12.5 Recent trends on power quality
12.5.1 Impact of modern grid integration framework
12.5.2 Impact of supraharmonics
12.5.3 Impact of fast voltage variations
12.5.4 Developments in monitoring and integration opportunities
12.5.5 Data collection format
12.5.6 IoT-based framework for power quality solutions
12.6 Conclusion
References
Index
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