Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomy, Volume III: Spine, Extremities, Joints: Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging [2 edition] 3131431725, 9783131431721

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Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomy, Volume III: Spine, Extremities, Joints: Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging [2 edition]
 3131431725, 9783131431721

Table of contents :
Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomy: Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Title Page
Copyright
Dedication
Contents
Upper Extremity
Arm, Axial
Shoulder, Coronal
Shoulder, Sagittal
Upper Arm, Coronal
Upper Arm, Sagittal
Elbow, Coronal
Elbow, Sagittal
Lower Arm, Sagittal
Lower Arm, Coronal
Hand, Coronal
Hand, Sagittal
Lower Extremity
Leg, Axial
Hip, Coronal
Hip, Sagittal
Thigh, Coronal
Thigh, Sagittal
Knee, Coronal
Knee, Sagittal
Lower Leg, Coronal
Foot, Sagittal
Lower Leg, Sagittal
Foot, Coronal
Spinal Column
Spine, Sagittal
Cervical Spine, Sagittal
Cervical Spine, Coronal
Cervical Spine, Axial
Thoracic Spine, Sagittal
Thoracic Spine, Axial
Lumbar Spine, Sagittal
Lumbar Spine, Coronal
Lumbar Spine, Axial
Sacrum
Further Reading
Index

Citation preview

servatism of, 24-26, 29-47, 77-82,

Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomy Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volume III Spine, Extremities, Joints Torsten B. Moeller, MD

Department of Radiology Marienhaus Klinikum Saarlouis/Dillingen, Germany

Emil Reif, MD

Department of Teleradiology reif & moeller diagnostic-network Dillingen, Germany Second Edition 725 illustrations

Thieme Stuttgart · New York · Delhi · Rio de Janeiro

IV Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available from the publisher. Original translation of 1st edition by Barbara Herzberger, MD, Munich, Germany Illustrator: Barbara Gay, Stuttgart, Germany 1st French edition 2008 1st Greek edition 2014 1st Hungarian edition 2010 1st Italian edition 2007 1st Japanese edition 2008 1st Korean edition 2010 1st Polish edition 2007 1st Portuguese edition 2009 1st Russian edition 2010 1st Spanish edition 2007 1st Turkish edition 2007 © 2007, 2017, Georg Thieme Verlag KG Thieme Publishers Stuttgart Rüdigerstrasse 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany +49 [0]711 8931 421, [email protected] Thieme Publishers New York 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA +1-800-782-3488, [email protected] Thieme Publishers Delhi A-12, Second Floor, Sector-2, Noida-201301 Uttar Pradesh, India +91 120 45 566 00, [email protected]

Important note: Medicine is an ever-changing science undergoing continual development. Research and clinical experience are continually expanding our knowledge, in particular our knowledge of proper treatment and drug therapy. Insofar as this book mentions any dosage or application, readers may rest assured that the authors, editors, and publishers have made every effort to ensure that such references are in accordance with the state of knowledge at the time of production of the book. Nevertheless, this does not involve, imply, or express any guarantee or responsibility on the part of the publishers in respect to any dosage instructions and forms of applications stated in the book. Every user is requested to examine carefully the manufacturers’ leaflets accompanying each drug and to check, if necessary in consultation with a physician or specialist, whether the dosage schedules mentioned therein or the contraindications stated by the manufacturers differ from the statements made in the present book. Such examination is particularly important with drugs that are either rarely used or have been newly released on the market. Every dosage schedule or every form of application used is entirely at the user’s own risk and responsibility. The authors and publishers request every user to report to the publishers any discrepancies or inaccuracies noticed. If errors in this work are found after publication, errata will be posted at www.thieme.com on the product description page. Some of the product names, patents, and registered designs referred to in this book are in fact registered trademarks or proprietary names even though specific reference to this fact is not always made in the text. Therefore, the appearance of a name without designation as proprietary is not to be construed as a representation by the publisher that it is in the public domain.

Thieme Publishers Rio, Thieme Publicações Ltda. Edifício Rodolpho de Paoli, 25º andar Av. Nilo Peçanha, 50 – Sala 2508 Rio de Janeiro 20020-906 Brasil +55 21 3172 2297 / +55 21 3172 1896 Cover design: Thieme Publishing Group Typesetting by primustype Robert Hurler GmbH, Notzingen, Germany Printed in Italy by L.E.G.O., Vincenza ISBN 978-3-13-143172-1 Also available as an e-book: eISBN 978-3-13-201962-1

54321

This book, including all parts thereof, is legally protected by copyright. Any use, exploitation, or commercialization outside the narrow limits set by copyright legislation, without the publisher’s consent, is illegal and liable to prosecution. This applies in particular to photostat reproduction, copying, mimeographing, preparation of microfilms, and electronic data processing and storage.

V

For my American relatives Bernie and Arlene, Bryan and Nancy, Rick, Krista, and Ella Rose, Bill, Kayla, Abby and Liviana, Shirley, Mike, Austin and Amanda, Michael and Kendall, Audrey, Mike and Kristen, Katelyn and Matt, Claudia and Larry, Bryan and Stacy, Jamie and Shawn, Meghan and Jason

VII

Contents Upper Extremity ........................................

1

Arm, Axial ............................................................... Shoulder, Coronal ..................................................... Shoulder, Sagittal ...................................................... Upper Arm, Coronal ................................................... Upper Arm, Sagittal ................................................... Elbow, Coronal ......................................................... Elbow, Sagittal ......................................................... Lower Arm, Sagittal ................................................... Lower Arm, Coronal ................................................... Hand, Coronal .......................................................... Hand, Sagittal ..........................................................

2 70 82 96 108 124 132 142 154 164 172

Lower Extremity ........................................ 185 Leg, Axial ................................................................ Hip, Coronal ............................................................ Hip, Sagittal ............................................................ Thigh, Coronal ......................................................... Thigh, Sagittal ......................................................... Knee, Coronal .......................................................... Knee, Sagittal .......................................................... Lower Leg, Coronal .................................................... Lower Leg, Sagittal .................................................... Foot, Coronal ........................................................... Foot, Sagittal ...........................................................

186 254 266 280 292 302 318 338 348 358 382

Spinal Column ........................................... 395 Spine, Sagittal .......................................................... Cervical Spine, Sagittal ............................................... Cervical Spine, Coronal ............................................... Cervical Spine, Axial ................................................... Thoracic Spine, Sagittal ............................................... Thoracic Spine, Axial .................................................. Lumbar Spine, Sagittal ................................................ Lumbar Spine, Coronal ................................................ Lumbar Spine, Axial .................................................... Sacrum ..................................................................

396 398 404 408 420 426 428 436 442 448

Further Reading ........................................................ 452 Index ..................................................................... 454

IX

Preface We have been greatly gratified and much encouraged by the very positive responses to our volume III of the Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomy, the “Musculoskeletal Atlas,” and by its wide distribution and the many foreign-language editions. This success was a spur to further improvements. Accordingly, to the existing images of the first edition, which focus on the regions in the proximity of the joints, we have added new images and illustrations of the complete upper and lower arm and thigh and lower leg in two planes. With these we bridge and fill the previous gap regarding bone or soft tissue lesions of the diaphysis such as those caused by inflammation or tumors. The regular structure of the book has been preserved: the uniform color schemes for the different muscles, vessels, nerves, and other anatomical structures; and the comparison of high-quality (3-tesla) magnetic resonance images with the drawings. We thus hope to achieve precision and clarity and to facilitate locating and identifying the relevant anatomical structures. As with the other volumes, the work would not have been possible without the invaluable support of so many dedicated assistants. We express our cordial thanks to all of them. Special thanks go to Carina Engler for her consistent commitment to obtaining optimal images and to our entire MRI team, as well as to Nicole Bigga for making the 3-tesla images. We wish the readers of this book once again as much pleasure and joy in using it as we had in making the images and the illustrations. Torsten B. Moeller, MD Emil Reif, MD

Color Code: Upper Extremity Arteries Nerves Veins Bones Fatty tissue Cartilage Tendon Disk, labrum etc. Fluid Muscles of Trunk: Serratus anterior Omohyoid Trapezius Subclavius Intercostal Muscles of Shoulder: Deltoid Infraspinatus Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor Subscapularis Coracobrachialis Latissimus dorsi Dorsal Muscles of Lower Arm: Supinator Extensor pollicis longus and brevis Extensor indicis Muscles of Hand: Dorsal and palmar interosseous Lumbrical Volar Muscles of Upper Arm: Biceps brachii Brachialis Dorsal Muscles of Upper Arm: Triceps brachii Anconeus Dorsal Muscles of Lower Arm (superficial layer): Extensor digitorum Extensor digiti minimi Extensor carpi ulnaris

1

Radial Muscles of Lower Arm: Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis longus and Extensor carpi radialis brevis Volar Muscles of Lower Arm (superficial layer): Pronator teres Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus and palmaris brevis Volar Muscles of Lower Arm (deep layer): Flexor digitorum profundus Flexor pollicis longus Pronator quadratus Muscles of Little (Fifth) Finger: Abductor digiti minimi brevis Flexor digiti minimi brevis Opponens digiti minimi Muscles of Thumb: Abductor pollicis longus and abductor pollicis brevis Opponens pollicis Flexor pollicis brevis Adductor pollicis

2

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Trapezius muscle Deltoid muscle (clavicular part) Clavicle Coracoclavicular ligament Acromioclavicular joint Suprascapular artery and vein Acromion Subclavius muscle Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Omohyoid muscle

11 Supraspinatus muscle (central tendon) 12 Rib 13 Deltoid muscle (spinal part) 14 Serratus anterior muscle 15 Supraspinatus muscle (dorsal ligament) 16 Supraspinatus muscle (ventral ligament) 17 Spine of scapula

3

4

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Coracohumeral ligament Deltoid muscle (clavicular part) Middle glenohumeral ligament Coracoid process Supraspinatus muscle (tendon) Clavicle Humerus (greater tubercle) Subclavius muscle Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Coracoclavicular ligament Head of humerus

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Serratus anterior muscle Superior glenoid labrum Rib Glenoid Internal intercostal muscle Deltoid muscle (spinal part) External intercostal muscle Infraspinatus muscle Supraspinatus muscle Spine of scapula

5

6

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Coracohumeral ligament Deltoid muscle (clavicular part) Middle glenohumeral ligament Coracoid process Humerus (lesser tubercle) Pectoralis major muscle Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon) Clavicle Intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove) Pectoralis minor muscle (tendon) Humerus (greater tubercle) Subclavius muscle Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Brachial plexus

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

7

Head of humerus Glenoid Superior glenoid labrum Rib Infraspinatus muscle (tendon attachment) Coracoclavicular ligament Spine of scapula Lung Deltoid muscle (spinal part) Internal and external intercostal muscles Supraspinatus muscle Suprascapular artery, vein and nerve Infraspinatus muscle Serratus anterior muscle

8

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Deltoid muscle (clavicular part) Pectoralis major muscle Coracobrachialis muscle (+ tendon) Cephalic vein Biceps brachii muscle (short head, tendon) Subclavius muscle Humerus (lesser tubercle) Pectoralis minor muscle Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon) Axillary artery and vein Humerus (greater tubercle) Brachial plexus and subscapular nerve Middle glenohumeral ligament

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

9

Subscapularis muscle Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Internal intercostal muscle Anterior glenoid labrum Serratus anterior muscle Head of humerus Rib Humeroscapular joint Intercostal artery, vein, and nerve Posterior glenoid labrum Glenoid Infraspinatus muscle Suprascapular artery, vein, and nerve Scapula External intercostal muscle Deltoid muscle (spinal part)

10

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Cephalic vein Pectoralis major muscle Coracobrachialis muscle (+ tendon) Pectoralis minor muscle Biceps brachii muscle (short head, tendon) Axillary artery and vein Humerus (lesser tubercle) Brachial plexus Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon) Rib Humerus Serratus anterior muscle

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

11

Inferior glenoid labrum Lung Glenoid Intercostal artery, vein, and nerve Joint capsule External intercostal muscle Suprascapular artery, vein, and nerve Internal intercostal muscle Deltoid muscle Scapula Teres minor muscle Serratus posterior muscle Infraspinatus muscle

12

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 Cephalic vein 2 Pectoralis major muscle 3 Biceps brachii muscle (short head, tendon) 4 Pectoralis minor muscle 5 Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon) 6 Coracobrachialis muscle 7 Humerus 8 Long thoracic nerve 9 Latissimus dorsi muscle and teres major muscle 10 Axillary artery and vein and brachial plexus 11 Deltoid muscle 12 Rib 13 Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head)

13

14 Anterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 15 Axillary nerve 16 Subscapularis muscle 17 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 18 Lung 19 Triceps brachii muscle (long head) 20 Internal intercostal muscle and innermost intercostal muscle 21 Circumflex scapular artery and vein 22 External intercostal muscle 23 Teres minor muscle 24 Serratus anterior muscle 25 Infraspinatus muscle 26 Scapula

14

Upper Extremity

Ventral Lateral

Medial Dorsal

Arm, Axial

15

1 3

2

5

4

7 9

6

11

8

13

10

15

12

17

14 16

19

18

21

20

23

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

22

Pectoralis major muscle Pectoralis minor muscle Cephalic vein Serratus anterior muscle Biceps brachii muscle Lateral thoracic artery and vein Coracobrachialis muscle Axillary artery and vein Deltoid muscle Lung Humerus Rib Deep artery and vein of arm

14 Internal and innermost intercostal muscles 15 Radial nerve 16 External intercostal muscle 17 Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) 18 Subscapularis muscle 19 Teres major muscle 20 Scapula 21 Triceps brachii muscle (long head) 22 Infraspinatus muscle 23 Teres major muscle and latissimus dorsi muscle

16

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Cephalic vein Pectoralis major muscle Biceps brachii muscle Pectoralis minor muscle Coracobrachialis muscle Lung Musculocutaneous nerve Rib Deltoid muscle Intercostal artery, vein, and nerve Humerus (shaft) Brachial artery and vein Radial nerve

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

17

Median nerve Triceps brachii muscle (medial head) Thoracodorsal artery, vein and nerve Ulnar nerve Serratus anterior muscle Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) Internal and innermost intercostal muscles Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) External intercostal muscle Teres major muscle and latissimus dorsi muscle Infraspinatus muscle

18

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Cephalic vein Biceps brachii muscle (short head) Biceps brachii muscle (long head) Musculocutaneous nerve Brachial muscle Median nerve Humerus (shaft) Brachial artery and vein

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

19

Radial nerve Basilic vein Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) Ulnar nerve Deep brachial artery and vein Triceps brachii muscle (medial head) Triceps brachii muscle (long head)

20

Upper Extremity

Ventral Lateral

Medial Dorsal

Arm, Axial

21

1 3

2 4

5

6

7

8 10

9

12

11 13

14

15

16

17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Cephalic vein Biceps brachii muscle (short head) Biceps brachii muscle (long head) Musculocutaneous nerve Brachialis muscle Median nerve Deep artery and vein of the arm Brachial artery and vein Brachioradialis muscle

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Basilic vein Radial nerve Ulnar nerve Posterior cutaneous nerve of arm (branch) Humerus (shaft) Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) Triceps brachii muscle (medial head) Triceps brachii muscle (long head)

22

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Cephalic vein Biceps brachii muscle (short head) Biceps brachii muscle (long head) Musculocutaneous nerve Brachioradialis muscle Brachial artery and vein Radial nerve Median nerve

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

23

Deep brachial artery and vein Brachialis muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Basilic vein Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm Humerus (shaft) Triceps brachii muscle Ulnar nerve, artery, and vein

24

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Cephalic vein Biceps brachii muscle (short head) Brachioradialis muscle Biceps brachii muscle (long head and tendon) Radial nerve Brachial artery and vein Deep brachial artery and vein Median nerve Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

25

Basilic vein Medial collateral artery Brachialis muscle Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm Ulnar nerve Humerus (shaft) Ulnar artery and vein Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) Triceps brachii muscle (medial head) Triceps brachii muscle (tendon)

26

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Cutaneous nerve of forearm Biceps brachii muscle (+ tendon) Median cubital vein Brachial artery and vein Brachioradialis muscle Median nerve Cephalic vein Brachialis muscle Collateral radial artery and vein Pronator teres muscle Radial nerve Basilic vein Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Olecranon fossa Humero-ulnar joint

27

16 Medial epicondyle of humerus 17 Lateral epicondyle of humerus 18 Tendon attachment of ventral superficial muscles of forearm and collateral ligaments 19 Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm (radial nerve) 20 Ulnar nerve 21 Joint capsule 22 Superior collateral ulnar artery and nerve 23 Olecranon 24 Triceps brachii muscle (+ tendon) 25 Anconeus muscle 26 Subcutaneous olecranon bursa

28

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Cutaneous nerve of forearm Bicipital aponeurosis Median cubital vein Brachial artery and vein Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) Median nerve Brachioradialis muscle Pronator teres muscle Cephalic vein Brachialis muscle (+ tendon) Radial nerve Articular capsule of elbow Radial collateral artery and vein Basilic vein Humerus (capitulum) Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon attachment)

29

17 Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle 18 Palmaris longus muscle (tendon attachment) 19 Lateral collateral ligament 20 Medial epicondyle of humerus 21 Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm (radial nerve) 22 Ulnar nerve 23 Humero-ulnar joint 24 Superior collateral ulnar artery and vein 25 Anconeus muscle 26 Triceps brachii muscle (+ tendon) 27 Olecranon 28 Subcutaneous olecranon bursa

30

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Median cubital vein Bicipital aponeurosis Brachioradialis muscle Brachial artery and vein Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) Median nerve Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Pronator teres muscle Cephalic vein Brachial muscle (+ tendon) Radial nerve (superficial branch) Flexor carpi radialis muscle Radial nerve (deep branch) Palmaris longus muscle Supinator muscle (tendon) Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle

31

17 Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle 18 Basilic vein 19 Head of radius 20 Ulnar nerve 21 Anular ligament 22 Superior ulnar collateral artery and vein 23 Extensor digitorum muscle 24 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 25 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle 26 Proximal radioulnar joint 27 Recurrent interosseous artery 28 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle 29 Anconeus muscle 30 Ulna

32

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Deep median cubital vein Radial artery and vein Accessory cephalic vein Pronator teres muscle Brachioradialis muscle Median nerve Cephalic vein Ulnar artery and vein Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Flexor carpi radialis muscle Radial nerve (superficial branch) Palmaris longus muscle Radial nerve (deep branch) Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle

33

17 Supinator muscle 18 Brachialis muscle (+ tendon attachment) 19 Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle 20 Ulnar nerve 21 Extensor digitorum muscle 22 Basilic vein 23 Radius 24 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 25 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle 26 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle 27 Recurrent interosseous artery and vein 28 Ulna 29 Anconeus muscle

34

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Median cubital vein Flexor carpi radialis muscle Brachioradialis muscle Palmaris longus muscle Radial artery and vein Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Radial nerve (superficial branch) Median nerve Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (+ tendon) Ulnar artery and vein Pronator teres muscle Ulnar nerve Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle Flexor pollicis longus muscle

35

16 Posterior interosseous artery, vein, and nerve 17 Radial nerve (deep branch) 18 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle 19 Radius 20 Cephalic vein 21 Supinator muscle 22 Ulna 23 Abductor pollicis longus muscle 24 Extensor pollicis longus muscle 25 Extensor digitorum muscle 26 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle 27 Posterior interosseous artery, vein, and nerve 28 Extensor digiti minimi muscle

36

Upper Extremity

Ventral Radial

Ulnar Dorsal

Arm, Axial

37

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 11

10

13

12

15

14

17 19 21 23

16 18 20 22

25

24

27

26 28

1 Flexor carpi radialis muscle 2 Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm (anterior branch) 3 Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm (musculocutaneous nerve) 4 Palmaris longus muscle 5 Brachioradialis muscle 6 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle 7 Radial artery and vein 8 Median nerve 9 Cephalic vein 10 Ulnar artery, vein, and nerve 11 Radial nerve (superficial branch) 12 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 13 Flexor pollicis longus muscle 14 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

15 Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (and tendon) 16 Interosseous membrane of forearm 17 Pronator teres muscle and anterior interosseous artery, vein, and nerve 18 Ulna 19 Radius 20 Basilic vein 21 Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle 22 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle 23 Abductor pollicis longus muscle 24 Extensor pollicis longus muscle 25 Posterior interosseous artery, vein, and nerve 26 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle 27 Extensor digitorum muscle 28 Extensor digiti minimi muscle

38

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Flexor carpi radialis muscle Palmaris longus muscle Median nerve Subcutaneous vein Radial artery and veins Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Brachioradialis muscle (tendon) Ulnar artery, vein, and nerve Radial nerve (superficial branch) Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm Flexor digitorum profundus muscle Anterior interosseous artery, vein, and nerve 14 Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm 15 Cephalic vein

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

39

Ulna Flexor pollicis longus muscle Basilic vein Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon) Interosseous membrane of forearm Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (+ tendon) Extensor pollicis longus muscle Radius Extensor indicis muscle Extensor pollicis brevis muscle Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle Abductor pollicis longus muscle Extensor digiti minimi muscle Extensor digitorum muscle

40

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Palmaris longus muscle (tendon) Subcutaneous vein Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Ulnar artery and vein Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon) Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle Median nerve Ulnar nerve Radial artery and veins Flexor digitorum profundus muscle Flexor pollicis longus muscle Pronator quadratus muscle Brachioradialis muscle (tendon) Basilic vein Abductor pollicis longus muscle (+ tendon) 16 Ulna

41

17 Radius 18 Anterior interosseous artery, vein, and nerve 19 Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon) 20 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle 21 Cephalic vein 22 Extensor indicis muscle 23 Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (tendon) 24 Extensor digiti minimi muscle 25 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle 26 Extensor retinaculum 27 Extensor pollicis longus muscle 28 Extensor digitorum muscle (+ tendon)

42

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 Extensor pollicis longus muscle 2 Extensor digitorum muscle 3 Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (tendon) 4 Extensor digiti minimi muscle (+ tendon) 5 Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon) 6 Extensor indicis muscle 7 Radius 8 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (+ tendon) 9 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) 10 Ulna 11 Radial nerve (superficial branch) 12 Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm 13 Abductor pollicis longus muscle (tendon)

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

43

Pronator quadratus muscle Cephalic vein Basilic vein Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (+ tendon) Brachioradialis muscle (tendon) Ulnar nerve Flexor pollicis longus muscle Ulnar artery and veins Radial artery and veins Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon) Subcutaneous vein Median nerve Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Palmaris longus muscle (+ tendon)

44

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 Subcutaneous vein 2 Extensor retinaculum 3 Extensor digitorum muscle (+ tendon) 4 Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) 5 Extensor indicis muscle (tendon) 6 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon) 7 Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 8 Joint capsule 9 Accessory cephalic vein 10 Ulna 11 Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (tendon) 12 Basilic vein 13 Radial nerve (superficial branch) 14 Palmar ulnocarpal ligament 15 Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon)

45

16 Ulnar nerve (dorsal branch) 17 Radius 18 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (+ tendon) 19 Cephalic vein 20 Ulnar nerve 21 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) 22 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 23 Abductor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 24 Ulnar artery and veins 25 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 26 Antebrachial fascia 27 Radial artery and veins 28 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (+ tendon) 29 Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon) 30 Median nerve 31 Palmaris longus muscle (tendon)

46

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 Extensor indicis muscle (tendon) 2 Extensor retinaculum 3 Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 4 Subcutaneous vein 5 Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (tendon) 6 Extensor digitorum muscle (tendon) 7 Joint capsule 8 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon) 9 Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon) 10 Ulnar styloid process 11 Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm (radial nerve) 12 Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) 13 Scaphoid 14 Dorsal radiocarpal ligament 15 Cephalic vein 16 Basilic vein 17 Radius 18 Palmar ulnocarpal ligament 19 Radial nerve (superficial branch)

47

20 Ulnar collateral ligament of wrist joint 21 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) 22 Triangular fibrocartilage 23 Palmar radiocarpal ligament 24 Lunate 25 Abductor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 26 Ulnar nerve (dorsal branch) 27 Radial artery and veins 28 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) 29 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 30 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (+ tendon) 31 Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon) 32 Ulnar nerve, artery, and veins 33 Median nerve 34 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendons) 35 Palmaris longus muscle (tendon) 36 Flexor retinaculum

48

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Extensor retinaculum Subcutaneous vein Extensor indicis muscle (tendon) Extensor digitorum muscle (tendons) Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (tendon) Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) Joint capsule Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon) Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Triquetrum Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon) Basilic vein Capitate Lunate Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm (radial nerve) Palmar ulnocarpal ligament Cephalic vein Palmar intercarpal ligament Scaphoid

49

20 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) 21 Radial nerve (superficial branch) 22 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendons) 23 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) 24 Pisiform 25 Abductor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 26 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon attachment) 27 Radial artery and veins 28 Ulnar nerve, artery, and veins 29 Ulnar radiocarpal ligament 30 Flexor retinaculum 31 Superficial palmar branch of radial artery and vein 32 Median nerve 33 Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon) 34 Palmaris longus muscle (tendon) 35 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon)

50

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Extensor digitorum muscle (tendons) Subcutaneous vein Extensor indicis muscle (tendon) Joint capsule Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (tendon) Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) Dorsal intercarpal ligament Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon) Capitate Triquetrum Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Basilic vein Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon) Palmar ulnocarpal ligament Scaphoid Lunate Cephalic vein Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons)

51

19 Radial nerve (superficial branch) 20 Pisiform 21 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) 22 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendons) 23 Radial artery and veins 24 Abductor digiti minimi muscle 25 Abductor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 26 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon) 27 Palmar radiocarpal ligament 28 Ulnar nerve 29 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 30 Ulnar artery and veins 31 Superficial palmar branch of radial artery and vein 32 Median nerve 33 Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon) 34 Flexor retinaculum 35 Palmaris longus muscle (tendon)

52

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Extensor digitorum muscle (tendons) Capitate Extensor indicis muscle (tendon) Hamate Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (tendon) Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) Dorsal intercarpal ligament Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon) Joint capsule Basilic vein Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon) Triquetrum Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Palmar intercarpal ligament Trapezoid Pisometacarpal ligament Cephalic vein Pisohamate ligament Radial nerve (superficial branch)

53

20 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) 21 Radial artery and veins 22 Pisiform 23 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) 24 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendons) 25 Scaphoid 26 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon) 27 Trapezium 28 Abductor digiti minimi muscle 29 Abductor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 30 Ulnar nerve 31 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 32 Ulnar artery and veins 33 Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon) 34 Palmaris brevis muscle (tendon) 35 Opponens pollicis muscle 36 Palmaris longus muscle (tendon) 37 Flexor retinaculum 38 Median nerve 39 Abductor pollicis brevis muscle

54

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Intercarpal (capitohamate) joint Extensor digitorum muscle (tendons) Extensor indicis muscle (tendon) Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (tendon) Hamate Capitate Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon) Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon) Metacarpal V (base) Trapezoid Pisometacarpal ligament Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) Cephalic vein Abductor digiti minimi muscle Radial artery and veins

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

55

Hook of hamate Radial nerve (superficial branch) Ulnar nerve (deep branch) Palmar intercarpal ligament Flexor digiti minimi muscle Trapezium Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendons) Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) Ulnar nerve Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon) Palmaris brevis muscle Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Ulnar artery and veins Abductor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Flexor retinaculum Opponens pollicis muscle Median nerve Abductor pollicis brevis muscle Palmar aponeurosis

56

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Extensor indicis muscle (tendon) Extensor digitorum muscle (tendons) Dorsal metacarpal ligament Metacarpal IV (base) Metacarpal III (base) Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) Metacarpal II (base) Palmar intercarpal ligament Radial artery and veins Metacarpal V (base) Cephalic vein Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Opponens digiti minimi muscle Joint capsule Abductor digiti minimi muscle Adductor pollicis muscle (oblique head)

18 Hamate (hook) 19 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) 20 Ulnar nerve, artery, and vein (deep branch) 21 Metacarpal I (base) 22 Flexor digiti minimi muscle 23 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 24 Palmaris brevis muscle 25 Median nerve 26 Ulnar nerve 27 Opponens pollicis muscle 28 Ulnar artery and vein 29 Abductor pollicis brevis muscle 30 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendons) 31 Palmar aponeurosis 32 Flexor retinaculum

57

58

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Dorsal interosseous muscles Extensor digitorum muscle (tendons) Extensor indicis muscle (tendon) Metacarpal IV (base) Metacarpals II and III (bases) Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) Dorsal interosseous muscle I Metacarpal V Cephalic vein Palmar interosseous muscles Deep palmar arch (from radial artery) Deep palmar arch (from deep ulnar artery) Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Abductor digiti minimi muscle Adductor pollicis muscle (oblique head) Ulnar nerve (deep branch) Palmar intercarpal ligament Flexor digiti minimi muscle

59

19 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) 20 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) 21 Metacarpal I (head) 22 Opponens digiti minimi muscle 23 Dorsal nerve and artery of thumb 24 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendons) 25 Opponens pollicis muscle 26 Palmaris brevis muscle 27 Flexor pollicis brevis muscle (deep head) 28 Ulnar nerve 29 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 30 Ulnar artery and veins 31 Median nerve 32 Flexor retinaculum 33 Abductor pollicis brevis muscle 34 Palmar aponeurosis 35 Flexor pollicis brevis muscle (superficial head)

60

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Extensor indicis muscle (tendon) Extensor digitorum muscle (tendons) Dorsal interosseous muscles Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) Deep palmar arch Metacarpals II–V (shafts) Adductor pollicis muscle (oblique head) Palmar interosseous muscles Princeps pollicis artery and palmar digital nerve (of thumb) Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Opponens digiti minimi muscle Cephalic vein (of thumb) Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle

15 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) 16 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendons) 17 Metacarpal I (shaft) 18 Abductor digiti minimi muscle 19 Dorsal digital artery and nerve of thumb 20 Palmaris brevis muscle 21 Flexor pollicis brevis muscle (deep head) 22 Ulnar nerve, artery, and vein 23 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 24 Palmar aponeurosis 25 Flexor pollicis brevis muscle (superficial head) 26 Median nerve 27 Opponens pollicis muscle 28 Abductor pollicis brevis muscle

61

62

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Extensor digitorum muscle (tendons) Metacarpals II–IV (shafts) Deep palmar arch Dorsal interosseous muscles Lumbrical muscles Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) Adductor pollicis muscle (transverse head) Palmar interosseous muscles Dorsal digital nerve and artery of thumb Metacarpal V (head) Collateral ligament Opponens digiti minimi muscle Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle (+ tendon) Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon)

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

63

Ulnar nerve (superficial branch) Metacarpal I (head) Abductor digiti minimi muscle Sesamoid bones Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) Opponens pollicis muscle (+ tendon attachment) Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendons) Abductor pollicis brevis muscle Common palmar digital nerves of median nerve Flexor pollicis brevis muscle (superficial head) Adductor pollicis muscle (oblique head) Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Flexor pollicis brevis muscle (deep head)

64

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Extensor digitorum muscle (tendons) Metacarpals II–IV (shafts) Dorsal digital artery and nerve Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) Dorsal interosseous muscles Dorsal (extensor) expansion Deep transverse metacarpal ligament Palmar interosseous muscles Extensor pollicis muscle (aponeurosis) Collateral ligament Adductor pollicis muscle (tendon attachment) Metacarpal V (head) First proximal phalanx Lumbrical muscles

65

15 Flexor pollicis brevis muscle and abductor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon attachment) 16 Abductor digiti minimi muscle 17 Dorsal digital nerve and artery of thumb 18 Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle 19 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 20 Palmar ligament 21 Palmar digital artery and nerve of thumb 22 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendons) 23 Palmar digital arteries and nerves 24 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) 25 Palmar aponeurosis with longitudinal fasciculi

66

Upper Extremity

Arm, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Extensor digitorum muscle (tendons) Dorsal digital vein Sagittal ligament Collateral ligament Dorsal digital artery, vein and nerve Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) Extensor indicis muscle (tendon) Dorsal (extensor) expansion (“dorsal aponeurosis”) Metacarpals (shafts) Interosseous muscle (tendon) Interosseous muscle Proximal phalanx V (base)

67

13 Palmar ligament 14 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) 15 Extensor pollicis muscle (aponeurosis) 16 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendon) 17 Proximal phalanx I 18 Palmar digital arteries and nerves 19 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 20 Anular ligament 21 Lumbrical muscle

68

Upper Extremity

Dorsal Radial

Ulnar Palmar

Arm, Axial

69 2

1

4 6 8 10

3 5 7 9

12

11 13

15

12 14

1 Dorsal digital vein 2 Extensor digitorum muscle (aponeurosis) 3 Lateral band 4 Anular ligament 5 Proximal phalanges II–IV (bases) 6 Proximal phalanx V (shaft) 7 Interossei muscles (tendon) 8 Dorsal digital artery and nerve 9 Sagittal ligament

16

14

10 Collateral ligament 11 Distal phalanx of thumb 12 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) 13 Body of fingernail 14 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendons) 15 Palmar digital arteries and nerves of thumb 16 Palmar digital arteries and nerves

70

Upper Extremity

Shoulder, Coronal

1 Trapezius muscle 2 Clavicle 3 Suprascapular artery (+ vein) and nerve 4 Coracoacromial ligament 5 Supraspinatus muscle 6 Coracohumeral ligament 7 Coracoclavicular ligament 8 Coracoid process 9 Scapula (superior border) 10 Humerus (head) 11 Serratus anterior muscle 12 Joint capsule 13 Subscapularis muscle

71

14 Anterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 15 Lung 16 Deltoid muscle 17 Intercostal muscle 18 Coracobrachialis muscle 19 Rib 20 Radial nerve 21 Thoracodorsal nerve 22 Median nerve 23 Suprascapular artery and vein 24 Brachial artery and vein 25 Latissimus dorsi muscle

72

Upper Extremity

Shoulder, Coronal

73 2

1

4

3

6

5

8 10

7

12

9

14

11

16

13

18

15

20

17

22 24

19

26

21

28

23

30

25 27

32

29

34

31

35

33

36

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Trapezius muscle Clavicle Subacromial bursa Acromioclavicular joint and acromioclavicular ligament Supraspinatus muscle Acromion Scapula Coracoacromial ligament Suprascapular artery (+ vein) and nerve Coracohumeral ligament Glenoid Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon) Glenohumeral joint Supraspinatus muscle (tendon attachment) Subscapularis muscle Greater tubercle Glenoid labrum (inferior)

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Glenoid labrum (superior) Axillary nerve Humerus (head) Subscapular artery, vein, and nerve Glenohumeral ligament Intercostal muscle Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein Serratus anterior muscle Teres major muscle Axillary artery and vein Deltoid muscle Latissimus dorsi muscle Coracobrachialis muscle Rib Radial nerve Lung Median nerve Ulnar nerve Biceps muscle (long head)

74

Upper Extremity

Shoulder, Coronal

1 Clavicle 2 Acromioclavicular joint and acromioclavicular ligament 3 Trapezius muscle 4 Acromion 5 Supraspinatus muscle 6 Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon) 7 Scapula 8 Glenoid labrum (superior) 9 Suprascapular artery, vein, and nerve 10 Greater tubercle 11 Glenoid 12 Humerus (head) 13 Subscapularis muscle 14 Glenohumeral joint

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

75

Glenoid labrum (inferior) Axillary recess Intercostal muscle Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein and axillary nerve Serratus anterior muscle Deltoid muscle Subscapular artery and vein Humerus (shaft) Teres major muscle Coracobrachialis muscle Rib Biceps brachii muscle (long head) Latissimus dorsi muscle Ulnar, medial, and radial nerves Brachial artery and vein

76

Upper Extremity

Shoulder, Coronal

1 Trapezius muscle 2 Acromion 3 Suprascapular artery and vein (acromial branch) 4 Subacromial bursa 5 Supraspinatus muscle 6 Lesser tubercle 7 Suprascapular artery, vein, and nerve 8 Glenoid labrum (superior) 9 Scapula 10 Humerus (head) 11 Circumflex scapular artery and vein 12 Glenohumeral joint 13 Infraspinatus muscle 14 Glenoid 15 Neck of scapula 16 Glenoid labrum (inferior)

77

17 Triceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon attachment) 18 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein and axillary nerve (muscular branches) 19 Teres minor muscle 20 Axillary recess 21 Subscapular artery and vein 22 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein and axillary nerve 23 Teres major muscle 24 Humerus (shaft) 25 Triceps brachii muscle (long head) 26 Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) 27 Latissimus dorsi muscle 28 Deltoid muscle

78

Upper Extremity

Shoulder, Coronal

1 Trapezius muscle 2 Acromion 3 Subscapular artery, vein, and nerve (acromial branch) 4 Supraspinatus muscle 5 Spine of scapula 6 Humerus (head) 7 Scapular artery, vein, and nerve 8 Glenohumeral joint 9 Infraspinatus muscle 10 Glenoid 11 Circumflex scapular artery and vein 12 Joint capsule 13 Teres minor muscle

79

14 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein and axillary nerve (muscular branches) 15 Subscapular artery and vein 16 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein and axillary nerve 17 Triceps brachii muscle (long head) 18 Deltoid muscle 19 Teres major muscle 20 Humerus (shaft) 21 Scapula 22 Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) 23 Latissimus dorsi muscle

80

Upper Extremity

Shoulder, Coronal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Trapezius muscle Acromion Spine of scapula Supraspinatus muscle Joint capsule Lesser tubercle Infraspinatus muscle Humerus (head) Triceps brachii muscle (long head) Teres minor muscle

81

11 Subscapular artery (+ vein) and nerve 12 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein and axillary nerve 13 Scapula 14 Deltoid muscle 15 Teres major muscle 16 Humerus (shaft) 17 Latissimus dorsi muscle 18 Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head)

82

Upper Extremity

Shoulder, Sagittal

83

    

  







 





1 2 3 4 5

Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Supraspinatus muscle (tendon) Glenohumeral ligament (superior) Infraspinatus muscle (tendon) Intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove) 6 Greater tubercle 7 Glenohumeral ligament (middle) 8 Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon)

9 Lesser tubercle 10 Crest of greater tubercle 11 Anterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 12 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein and axillary nerve (branch) 13 Cephalic vein 14 Humerus (shaft) 15 Biceps brachii muscle (long head)

84

Upper Extremity

Shoulder, Sagittal

85

















 







 

1 Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon) 2 Deltoid muscle (acromial part) 3 Glenohumeral ligament (superior) 4 Supraspinatus muscle (tendon) 5 Glenohumeral ligament (middle) 6 Infraspinatus muscle (tendon) 7 Joint capsule 8 Humerus (head)

9 Cephalic vein 10 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 11 Anterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 12 Humerus (shaft) 13 Pectoralis major muscle 14 Triceps brachii muscle (medial head) 15 Biceps brachii muscle (long head)

86

Upper Extremity

Shoulder, Sagittal

1 Transverse humeral ligament 2 Acromion 3 Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon) 4 Subdeltoid bursa 5 Glenohumeral ligament (superior) 6 Supraspinatus muscle (tendon) 7 Subscapularis muscle 8 Infraspinatus muscle (tendon) 9 Cephalic vein 10 Humerus (head) 11 Glenohumeral ligament (middle) 12 Teres minor muscle (+ tendon attachment)

87

13 Glenohumeral ligament (inferior) 14 Deltoid muscle (acromial part) 15 Anterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 16 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 17 Pectoralis major muscle 18 Latissimus dorsi muscle 19 Teres major muscle 20 Humerus (shaft) 21 Biceps brachii muscle (long head) 22 Triceps brachii muscle (medial head) 23 Coracobrachialis muscle

88

Upper Extremity

Shoulder, Sagittal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Coracoacromial ligament Acromion Subacromial bursa Supraspinatus muscle (+ tendon) Coracohumeral ligament Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon) Transverse humeral ligament Infraspinatus muscle (+ tendon) Superior glenohumeral ligament Humerus (head) Cephalic vein Teres minor muscle Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Inferior glenohumeral ligament Middle glenohumeral ligament Teres major muscle (tendon)

89

17 Subscapularis muscle 18 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein + muscular branches 19 Deltoid muscle (clavicular part) 20 Axillary nerve 21 Pectoralis major muscle 22 Teres major muscle 23 Anterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 24 Latissimus dorsi muscle 25 Pectoralis minor muscle 26 Triceps brachii muscle (long head) 27 Biceps brachii muscle (short head + tendon) 28 Basilic vein 29 Biceps brachii muscle (long head) 30 Coracobrachialis muscle

90

Upper Extremity

Shoulder, Sagittal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Acromioclavicular joint Clavicle Coracoacromial ligament Acromioclavicular ligament Deltoid muscle (clavicular part) Acromion Coracohumeral ligament Thoracoacromial artery (acromial branch) Coracoid process Supraspinatus muscle (+ tendon) Cephalic vein Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon attachment) Thoracoacromial artery (deltoid branch) Infraspinatus muscle (+ tendon) Subscapularis muscle Glenohumeral joint and joint capsule Coracobrachialis muscle Deltoid muscle (acromial part)

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

91

Pectoralis major muscle Teres major muscle Musculocutaneous nerve Infraglenoid tubercle Brachial artery Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein Biceps brachii muscle (short head) Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein (muscular branches) Axillary nerve Triceps brachii muscle (long head + tendon) Radial nerve Deltoid muscle (spinal part) Ulnar nerve Teres major muscle Pectoralis minor muscle Latissimus dorsi muscle Median nerve Brachial vein

92

Upper Extremity

Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Caudal

Shoulder, Sagittal

93 2

1

4

3

6

5

8 10

7

12

9

14

11 16

13 15

18

17

20 22

19

24

21

26

23 25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Clavicle Trapezius muscle Deltoid muscle (clavicular part) Acromion Coracoclavicular ligament Supraspinatus muscle Coracoid process Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Cephalic vein Scapula Thoracoacromial artery (pectoralis branch) 12 Infraspinatus muscle (and tendon) 13 Subscapularis muscle 14 Circumflex scapular artery and vein

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Axillary artery and vein Teres minor muscle Brachial plexus Axillary nerve Pectoralis major muscle Deltoid muscle (spinal part) Pectoralis minor muscle Triceps brachii muscle (long head and tendon) Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein Teres major muscle Axillary lymph node Latissimus dorsi muscle

94

Upper Extremity

Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Caudal

Shoulder, Sagittal

95 2

1

4

3

6

5

8 10

7

12

9

14

11 16

13 15

18

17 20

19

22

21 23

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Clavicle Trapezius muscle Coracoclavicular ligament Acromion Deltoid muscle (clavicular part) Supraspinatus muscle Scapula (spine) Suprascapular artery and vein Cephalic vein Infraspinatus muscle Thoracoacromial artery (pectoral branch) 12 Circumflex scapular artery and vein

24

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Brachial plexus Deltoid muscle (spinal part) Axillary artery and vein Subscapularis muscle Pectoralis major muscle Scapula (body) Pectoralis minor muscle Teres minor muscle Serratus anterior muscle Teres major muscle Ribs Latissimus dorsi muscle

96

Upper Extremity Cranial Lateral

Medial

LateralRadial

Medial Distal

1 2 3 4 5

Clavicle Subclavian vein Coracoid process Internal jugular vein Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon)

Upper Arm, Coronal

1

97

2 4

3

6

5

8

7

10 9

12 14

11

16

13

18 20

15

17 19

22

21

24

23 25

26

27 29

28

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

30

Subclavius muscle Humerus (head, collum) Pectoralis minor muscle Deltoid muscle Long thoracic nerve Pectoralis major muscle (tendon) Intercostal artery, vein, and nerve Biceps brachii muscle (short head) Coracobrachialis muscle Brachialis muscle Rib Brachioradialis muscle Serratus anterior muscle

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Humerus (capitulum) Intercostal muscles Supinator muscle Brachial artery and vein Radius (head) Median nerve Extensor digitorum muscle Cephalic vein Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle 28 Ulnar artery 29 Radial artery 30 Pronator teres muscle

98

Upper Extremity Cranial Lateral

Medial

LateralRadial

Medial Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Clavicle Scalenus muscle Trapezius muscle Subclavian artery Supraspinatus muscle (tendon) Subclavian vein Coracohumeral ligament Subclavius muscle Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon)

10 11 12 13 14 15

Coracoclavicular ligament Humerus (head) Coracoid process Greater tubercle Median nerve Anterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 16 Glenoid 17 Deltoid muscle 18 Axillary artery and vein

Upper Arm, Coronal

99 2 4

1

6

3 5

8

7

10

9 11

12 14

13

16

15

18

17

20

19

22

21

24 26 28 30

23 25 32

27 29

34

31 33

36

35 37

38

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

39

Humerus (shaft) Intercostal muscles Coracobrachialis muscle Rib Brachioradialis muscle Serratus anterior muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Latissimus dorsi muscle Humerus (capitulum) Intercostal artery, vein, and nerve Humeroradial joint

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Brachialis muscle Radius (head) Humerus (trochlea) Supinator muscle Pronator teres muscle Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle Ulna Extensor digitorum muscle Flexor carpi radialis muscle Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle

100

Upper Extremity Cranial Lateral

Medial

LateralUlnar

Medial Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Scalenus muscle Brachial plexus Trapezius muscle Posterior (dorsal) funiculus Acromion Clavicle Supraspinatus muscle (tendon) Coracoclavicular ligament Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon)

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Coracoid process Humerus (head) Glenoid Deltoid muscle Subscapularis muscle Humerus (shaft) Anterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 17 Coracobrachialis muscle 18 Teres major muscle

Upper Arm, Coronal

101

1

2

3 5

6

4

8

7

10

9

12 14

11 13

16 18

15

20 22 24

17 19

26

21

28

23

22 30

25 27 29

31

32

33 35 37

34

38

36

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Median nerve Rib Basilic vein Latissimus dorsi muscle Deep brachial artery and vein Intercostal artery, vein, and nerve Radial nerve Serratus anterior muscle Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) 28 Intercostal muscles 29 Brachioradialis muscle

30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Brachialis muscle Humerus (trochlea) Pronator teres muscle Humero-ulnar joint Flexor carpi radialis muscle Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle 37 Ulna 38 Anconeus muscle

102

Upper Extremity Cranial Lateral

Medial

LateralUlnar

Medial Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Clavicle Scalenus muscle Trapezius muscle Subclavius muscle Coracoclavicular ligament Serratus anterior muscle Acromion Coracoid process Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon)

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Glenoid Supraspinatus muscle (tendon) Subscapularis muscle Humerus (head) Intercostal muscles Infraspinatus muscle Serratus anterior muscle Teres minor muscle Thoracodorsal artery and vein

Upper Arm, Coronal

103 2 4 6

1 3 5 7

8 10

9

12 14

11

16

13

18

15 17

20

19 21

22 24 26 27

23

22

25 27

28

29 31

30 32

33 35

34 36

37

38 39

19 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 20 Teres major muscle 21 Deltoid muscle 22 Latissimus dorsi muscle 23 Humerus (shaft) 24 Rib 25 Brachialis muscle 26 Intercostal artery, vein, and nerve 27 Deep brachial artery and vein 28 Ulnar nerve 29 Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head)

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

Basilic vein Brachioradialis muscle Brachialis muscle Olecranon fossa Pronator teres muscle Olecranon Medial epicondyle of humerus Anconeus muscle Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle 39 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

104

Upper Extremity Cranial Lateral

Medial

LateralUlnar

Medial Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Trapezius muscle Scalenus muscle Clavicle Subscapular artery and vein Acromioclavicular joint Serratus anterior muscle Acromion Infraspinatus muscle Biceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon) Intercostal muscles Supraspinatus muscle (tendon) Glenoid Coracoid process

Upper Arm, Coronal

105 2

1 3 5 7

4 6 8

9

10

11 13

12 14

15 8 17 19

16 18 20

21

22 24

23 25

26 28

27 29 31

30 33

32

35

34 36

37

14 Subscapularis muscle 15 Humerus (head) 16 Triceps brachii muscle (long head, tendon attachment) 17 Teres minor muscle 18 Teres major muscle 19 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 20 Thoracodorsal artery and vein 21 Deltoid muscle 22 Latissimus dorsi muscle 23 Triceps brachii muscle (medial head) 24 Rib

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Radial nerve Intercostal artery, vein, and nerve Deep brachial artery and vein Triceps brachii muscle (long head) Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) Pronator teres muscle Humerus (shaft) Medial epicondyle of humerus Olecranon Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Anconeus muscle Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

106

Upper Extremity Cranial Lateral

Medial

LateralUlnar

Medial Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Clavicle Scaleni muscles Acromioclavicular joint Trapezius muscle Supraspinatus muscle Serratus anterior muscle Acromion Infraspinatus muscle Teres minor muscle Glenoid

Upper Arm, Coronal

107 2 4

1 3

6

5

8

7

10

8

12

9

14 16

11

18

13

6 20

15 17

22

19 24

21

23

26

25

27 28

11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Deltoid muscle Humerus (head) Radial nerve Subscapularis muscle Deep brachial artery and vein Rib Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) 18 Teres major muscle 19 Biceps brachii muscle (long head) 20 Latissimus dorsi muscle

21 Triceps brachii muscle (medial head) 22 Intercostal artery, vein, and nerve 23 Olecranon 24 Intercostal muscles 25 Anconeus muscle 26 Medial epicondyle of humerus 27 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle 28 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

108

Upper Extremity Proximal/ Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

Upper Arm, Sagittal

109

1 3 5 7

2

9

8

4 6

6 7 10

12

11

14

13

15 17 19

16

21

18

23

20 22

25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

24

Supraspinatus muscle (tendon) Acromion Humerus (head) Infraspinatus muscle Greater tubercle Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein Teres minor muscle Humerus (shaft) Deltoid muscle Deep brachial artery and vein Triceps brachii muscle (long head)

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Biceps brachii muscle (long head) Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) Brachialis muscle Olecranon Brachioradialis muscle Humero-ulnar joint Humerus (capitulum) Radius (head) Humeroradial joint Supinator muscle Extensor carpi radialis muscle Anconeus muscle Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle

110

Upper Extremity Proximal/ Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Clavicle Acromioclavicular ligament Acromion Infraspinatus muscle Supraspinatus muscle (tendon) Humerus (head) Humerus (greater tubercle) Teres minor muscle Humerus (neck)

Upper Arm, Sagittal

111

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 12

11 13

14

16 15

17 19

18

21

20 22

23

24

25 27

26 28

10 Deltoid muscle (acromial part) 11 Deltoid muscle 12 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 13 Humerus (shaft) 14 Triceps brachii muscle (long head) 15 Biceps brachii muscle (long head) 16 Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) 17 Brachialis muscle 18 Olecranon fossa 19 Brachioradialis muscle

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Coronoid process Humerus (capitulum) Olecranon Humeroradial joint Humero-ulnar joint Radius (head) Supinator muscle Extensor carpi radialis muscle Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

112

Upper Extremity Proximal/ Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Clavicle Acromioclavicular ligament Supraspinatus muscle (+ tendon) Acromion Humerus (greater tubercle) Infraspinatus muscle Humerus (head) Teres minor muscle Deltoid muscle Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Humerus (shaft)

Upper Arm, Sagittal

113

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 12

14

11 13

16

18

15

17 20 19 22

21 23

24

25

28

26 29

27

12 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 13 Cephalic vein 14 Triceps brachii muscle (lateral head) 15 Biceps brachii muscle (long head) 16 Triceps brachii muscle (long head) 17 Brachialis muscle 18 Triceps brachii muscle (medial head)

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Radial nerve Olecranon fossa Brachioradialis muscle Olecranon Extensor carpi radialis muscle Humero-ulnar joint Supinator muscle Humerus (capitulum) Radius (shaft) Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

114

Upper Extremity Proximal/ Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

Upper Arm, Sagittal

115

1

2

3

4

5

6 8

7

10 12

9

14 16

11

18

13 15

20

17

19

22

21

24

23

25 26

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Clavicle Trapezius muscle Supraspinatus muscle (+ tendon) Acromion Humerus (head) Joint capsule Deltoid muscle Infraspinatus muscle Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Cephalic vein Teres minor muscle Biceps brachii muscle (long head)

14 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein, muscular branches 15 Median nerve 16 Teres major muscle 17 Brachialis muscle 18 Triceps brachii muscle (long head) 19 Humero-ulnar joint 20 Triceps brachii muscle (medial head) 21 Brachioradialis muscle 22 Humerus (trochlea) 23 Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) 24 Ulna 25 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 26 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

116

Upper Extremity Proximal/ Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Clavicle Trapezius muscle Supraspinatus muscle (+ tendon) Acromion Joint capsule Glenoid Glenoid labrum Infraspinatus muscle Humerus (head) Deltoid muscle (acromial part)

Upper Arm, Sagittal

117

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11 13 15 17

12

19

18

14 16

21 23

20

25 22

27 24 26

29

28 30

31

32

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Deltoid muscle Teres minor muscle Glenohumeral ligament Teres major muscle Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein (muscular branch) Latissimus dorsi muscle (insertion) Triceps brachii muscle (long head) Coracobrachialis muscle Ulnar nerve Biceps brachii muscle (long head)

22 Triceps brachii muscle (medial head) 23 Deep brachial artery and vein 24 Collateral ulnar artery and vein 25 Median nerve 26 Medial epicondyle 27 Brachialis muscle 28 Olecranon 29 Median cubital vein 30 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 31 Brachioradialis muscle 32 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

118

Upper Extremity Proximal/ Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Clavicle Trapezius muscle Coracoclavicular ligament Acromion Supraspinatus muscle Glenoid Joint capsule Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Deltoid muscle Infraspinatus muscle Humerus (head) Teres minor muscle

Upper Arm, Sagittal

119

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11 13 15 17 19

12 14 16 18

21 23 25

20

22 27

24

29

26

31

28 30

33

13 Subscapularis muscle 14 Teres major muscle 15 Posterior circumflex humeral artery and vein 16 Latissimus dorsi muscle 17 Coracobrachialis muscle 18 Triceps brachii muscle (long head) 19 Pectoralis major muscle 20 Ulnar nerve 21 Biceps brachii muscle (long head) 22 Humerus (trochlea) 23 Median nerve 24 Common head of flexor muscles

32

25 Brachial artery and vein 26 Ulnar nerve and collateral ulnar artery and vein 27 Brachialis muscle 28 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle 29 Median cubital vein 30 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 31 Ulnar artery and vein 32 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle 33 Brachioradialis muscle

120

Upper Extremity Proximal/ Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6

Clavicle Trapezius muscle Coracoid process Supraspinatus muscle Deltoid muscle Acromion

Upper Arm, Sagittal

121

1

2

3

4 6

5

8

7

10

9

12

11 13 15 17

14 16 18 20

19 21 23

22 24

26

25 27 28 30

29

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Joint capsule Scapula (collum) Subscapularis muscle Infraspinatus muscle Cephalic vein Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Coracobrachialis muscle Teres minor muscle Pectoralis major muscle Teres major muscle Pectoralis minor muscle Latissimus dorsi muscle Brachial artery and vein

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Radial nerve Biceps brachii muscle (long head) Ulnar nerve Median nerve Triceps brachii muscle (long head) Medial cutaneous nerve of arm Basilic vein Ulnar artery and vein Brachialis muscle Brachioradialis muscle Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

122

Upper Extremity Proximal/ Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

Upper Arm, Sagittal

123

1

2

3

4

5 7 9 11 13 15

6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

17 19 21 23 25

27 24 26

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Clavicle Trapezius muscle Coracoclavicular ligament Acromion Deltoid muscle Suprascapularis artery and vein Supraspinatus muscle Deltoid muscle (acromial part) Coracoid process Infraspinatus muscle Subscapularis muscle Circumflex scapulae artery and vein Cephalic vein Scapula

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Coracobrachialis muscle Teres minor muscle Pectoralis major muscle Radial nerve Brachial artery and vein Teres major muscle Pectoralis minor muscle Latissimus dorsi muscle Median nerve Pronator teres muscle Ulnar nerve Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle Basilic vein

124

Upper Extremity

Proximal Ulnar Medial

Radial Lateral Distal

Elbow, Coronal

1

125

2

3 4 5

6 8

7

10 12

9

14

11

16 13 17

15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Median nerve Brachialis muscle Brachial artery and vein Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm Basilic vein Radial nerve (deep branch) Median cubital vein Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) Pronator teres muscle

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Median cephalic vein Ulnar artery Cephalic vein Median nerve Brachioradialis muscle Flexor carpi radialis muscle Radial artery Median vein of forearm

126

Upper Extremity

Elbow, Coronal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Brachialis muscle Radial nerve Humerus (trochlea) Brachioradialis muscle Pronator teres muscle Humerus (capitulum) Brachialis muscle (tendon) Anular ligament and radial collateral ligament of wrist joint 9 Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) 10 Radius (head)

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

127

Median nerve Radial nerve (deep branch) Flexor carpi radialis muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles Palmaris longus muscle Supinator muscle Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle Interosseous artery and vein Flexor digitorum profundus muscle Radius (shaft)

128

Upper Extremity

Elbow, Coronal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Triceps brachii muscle Brachioradialis muscle Brachialis muscle Humerus (shaft) Coronoid fossa Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Pronator teres muscle Common extensor tendons (attachment) 11 Medial collateral ligament 12 Radial collateral ligament 13 Humerus (trochlea)

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

129

Humerus (capitulum) Humero-ulnar joint Humeroradial joint Ulna (coronoid process) Radius (head) Flexor carpi radialis muscle Supinator muscle Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) Radial tuberosity Palmaris longus muscle Extensor digitorum muscle Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Radius (head) Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

130

Upper Extremity

Elbow, Coronal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Triceps brachii muscle Brachioradialis muscle Humerus (shaft) Brachialis muscle Olecranon fossa (posterior fat body) Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Medial epicondyle Olecranon Common flexor tendons (attachment) Lateral epicondyle Humerus (trochlea) Anular ligament Ulna (coronoid process)

131

14 Radial nerve (deep branch) 15 Brachialis muscle (tendon attachment) 16 Radius (head) 17 Ulnar nerve 18 Common extensor tendons 19 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 20 Supinator muscle 21 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle 22 Common interosseous artery and vein 23 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle 24 Extensor digitorum muscle

132

Upper Extremity

Elbow, Sagittal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Triceps brachii muscle Biceps brachii muscle Ulnar nerve Brachial artery and vein Brachialis muscle Median nerve Collateral ulnar ligament, posterior part (+ posterior capsule of the elbow joint)

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

133

Humerus (trochlea) Humero-ulnar joint Median cubital vein Olecranon Pronator teres muscle Ulnar recurrent artery Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Flexor digitorum profundus muscle Flexor carpi radialis muscle

134

Upper Extremity

Elbow, Sagittal

135

1

2

3

4

5 7

6

9

8

11

10

13

12

15

14

17

16 18

19

20

21

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

22

Triceps brachii muscle Biceps brachii muscle Humerus Brachialis muscle Posterior fat body of elbow Anterior fat body and coronoid fossa Olecranon fossa Humerus (trochlea) Olecranon bursa Biceps muscle (tendon) Olecranon

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Ulnar nerve Trochlear notch Brachioradialis muscle Coronoid process Radial artery and vein Ulnar artery and vein Pronator teres muscle Flexor digitorum profundus muscle Radial nerve Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Median nerve

136

Upper Extremity

Elbow, Sagittal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Triceps brachii muscle Biceps brachii muscle Humerus (shaft) Brachialis muscle Olecranon fossa Cephalic vein Olecranon Humerus (capitulum) Olecranon bursa Radial nerve Trochlear notch Humeroradial joint Coronoid process Profunda brachii artery

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

137

Radius (head) Radius (neck) Proximal radioulnar joint Radial nerve (superficial branch) Biceps muscle (tendon attachment) Supinator muscle Interosseous artery and vein Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Radial tuberosity Brachioradialis muscle Flexor digitorum profundus muscle Radius (shaft) Pronator teres muscle (ulnar head)

138

Upper Extremity

Elbow, Sagittal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Triceps brachii muscle Biceps brachii muscle Humerus (shaft) Brachialis muscle Joint capsule Radial nerve Humeroradial joint Humerus (capitulum) Radius (head) Anular ligament of radius Radial collateral ligament Cephalic vein

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

139

Anconeus muscle Supinator muscle Interosseous artery and vein Brachioradialis muscle Ulna (shaft) Radial nerve (deep branch) Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Pronator teres muscle (ulnar head) Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (radial head) 23 Radius (shaft)

140

Upper Extremity

Proximal Dorsal

Ventral Distal

Elbow, Sagittal

1

141

2 4

3

6

5

8

7

10

9

12

11

14

13

16

15

17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Triceps brachii muscle Brachialis muscle Humerus (capitulum) Brachioradialis muscle Joint capsule Radial collateral ligament Anconeus muscle Anular ligament of radius Extensor digitorum muscle

10 Radius (head) 11 Extensor digiti minimi muscle 12 Anterior interosseous artery and veins 13 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle 14 Supinator muscle 15 Abductor pollicis longus muscle 16 Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle 17 Cephalic vein

142

Upper Extremity Distal Radial

Ulnar

Ventral

Dorsal

Proximal

Lower Arm, Sagittal

143 2

1

3

4

6

5 8 4

10

7 9

12

11

14

13

16

15 17

18 19

1 Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon) 2 Pisiform 3 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and tendon 4 Ulnar artery and vein 5 Cephalic vein 6 Basilic vein 7 Flexor carpi radialis muscle 8 Ulnar nerve 9 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle 10 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Pronator teres muscle Ulna (shaft) Humero-ulnar joint Coronoid process Humerus (Trochlea) Trochlear notch Brachialis muscle Olecranon Triceps brachii muscle (tendon attachment)

144

Upper Extremity Distal Radial

Ulnar

Ventral

Dorsal

Proximal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Capitate Hamate Scaphoid Triquetrum Lunate Triangular fibrocartilage Radius Ulna

Lower Arm, Sagittal 1

145 2 4

3

6

5

8

7

10 9

11

12

13

14

15 17 16

19

18 20

21 23 25

22 24 26

27

28 30 31

29

9 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle 10 Ulna (shaft) 11 Median nerve 12 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle 13 Brachioradialis muscle 14 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 15 Pronator teres muscle (tendon) 16 Ulnar artery and vein 17 Radial artery and vein 18 Radial tuberosity 19 Flexor pollicis muscle

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Supinator muscle Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) Anconeus muscle Brachialis artery Coronoid process Pronator teres muscle Humero-ulnar joint Humerus (Trochlea) Olecranon Brachialis muscle Triceps brachii muscle (tendon) Humerus (shaft)

146

Upper Extremity Distal Radial

Ulnar

Ventral

Dorsal

Proximal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Capitate Hamate Scaphoid Triquetrum Lunate Disk equivalent Abductor pollicis longus + brachioradialis muscle (tendons)

8 Ulnar collateral ligament of wrist joint 9 Radius 10 Triangular fibrocartilage 11 Cephalic vein 12 Ulna 13 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle 14 Pronator quadratus muscle

Lower Arm, Sagittal

147 2

1

4

3

6 8 10 12

5 7 9

14 11

16

13 15

18 20

17 19 21 23

22

25

24

27 26 28 30

29 31

32

33

34 36

35

15 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle 16 Extensor indicis muscle (+ tendon) 17 Radial artery and vein 18 Extensor pollicis longus muscle 19 Pronator teres muscle (tendon) 20 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 21 Flexor pollicis longus muscle 22 Ulnar artery and vein 23 Brachioradialis muscle 24 Supinator muscle 25 Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Radioulnar joint Radial tuberosity Anconeus muscle Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) Humero-ulnar joint Brachialis muscle Humerus (Trochlea) Brachialis artery Olecranon Humerus (shaft) Triceps brachii muscle (+ tendon)

148

Upper Extremity Distal Radial

Ulnar

Ventral

Dorsal

Proximal

1 2 3 4 5 6

Trapezoid Hamate Capitate Triquetrum Scaphoid Ulna

Lower Arm, Sagittal 1

149 2 4

3 5 7 9 11

6 8

10

13 12 15

14 16

17

18

19 21 23

20

22 24 25

26 28

27

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

29

Lunate Extensor indicis muscle Radius Extensor pollicis brevis muscle Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Extensor pollicis longus muscle Cephalic vein Abductor pollicis longus muscle Pronator teres muscle (tendon) Extensor digiti minimi muscle Radius (shaft)

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Supinator muscle Brachioradialis muscle Radius (head) Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Humeroradial joint Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) Humerus (capitulum) Brachialis muscle Humerus (shaft) Triceps brachii muscle

150

Upper Extremity Distal Radial

Ulnar

Ventral

Dorsal

Proximal

1 Joint capsule + dorsal radiocarpal ligament 2 Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) 3 Radius 4 Ulna 5 Extensor pollicis longus muscle (+ tendon) 6 Extensor indicis muscle (+ tendon)

Lower Arm, Sagittal

151

1

2

3

4 6

5 7

8

9

11

10 12 14 16

13

18

15 17

20

19 22

21

24

23

26

25

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Extensor pollicis brevis muscle Extensor digitorum muscle Abductor pollicis longus muscle Radius (shaft) Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon) Posterior interosseous artery and vein Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Extensor digiti minimi muscle Brachioradialis muscle Supinator muscle Humeroradial joint Radius (head) Median cubital vein Humerus (capitulum) Biceps brachii muscle (+ tendon) Humerus (shaft) Brachialis muscle Triceps brachii muscle (+ tendon)

152

Upper Extremity Distal Radial

Ulnar

Ventral

Dorsal

Proximal

Lower Arm, Sagittal

153

2

1

4 3 6

5

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Extensor pollicis brevis muscle Extensor digitorum muscle (tendon) Abductor pollicis longus muscle Extensor digitorum muscle (+ tendon) Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Extensor digiti minimi muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Supinator muscle

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Brachioradialis muscle Radius (head) Median cubital vein Humeroradial joint Brachialis muscle Humerus (capitulum) Biceps brachii muscle (+ tendon) Triceps brachii muscle

154

Upper Extremity Distal Palmar

Dorsal

Ulnar

Radial

Proximal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Abductor digiti minimi muscle Triquetrum Pisiform Ulnar styloid process Palmar ulnocarpal ligament Ulna Ulnar nerve

Lower Arm, Coronal 1

155

2

3

4

5

6

8 7 9

11

10

13

12

15 17

14 16

19

18

21

20 23

22

25

24

27

26

8 Ulna (shaft) 9 Extensor indicis muscle 10 Posterior interosseous artery and vein 11 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle 12 Extensor digiti minimi muscle 13 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle 14 Extensor digitorum muscle 15 Abductor pollicis longus muscle 16 Recurrent interosseous artery and vein 17 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Supinator muscle Basilic vein Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle Brachialis muscle (attachment) Radius (head) Radial tuberosity Anular ligament Olecranon Anconeus muscle Triceps brachii muscle

156

Upper Extremity Distal Palmar

Dorsal

Ulnar

Radial

Proximal

1 Ulnar vein 2 Hamate 3 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendon) 4 Triquetrum 5 Ulnar nerve 6 Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) 7 Pronator quadratus muscle 8 Ulna 9 Anterior interosseous artery and vein 10 Extensor digiti minimi muscle 11 Extensor indicis muscle

Lower Arm, Coronal

157 2

1

4 6

3

8

5 7 9 11 13

10

12

15

14

17

16 19

18

21

20

23

22

25 27 5

24 26 28

29

30

31

32

33

34

12 Abductor pollicis longus muscle 13 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle 14 Extensor digitorum muscle (+ tendon) 15 Ulnar artery and vein 16 Interosseous artery and vein 17 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle 18 Median nerve 19 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 20 Supinator muscle 21 Radial tuberosity 22 Radius (head)

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Biceps brachii muscle (+ tendon) Humeroradial joint Basilic vein Anular ligament Brachialis muscle (attachment) Radial collateral ligament Humero-ulnar joint Common extensor tendon (attachment) Olecranon Humerus (capitulum) Triceps brachii muscle (+ tendon) Brachialis muscle

158

Upper Extremity Distal Palmar

Dorsal

Ulnar

Radial

Proximal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Median nerve Capitate Wrist joint Lunate Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendon) Radius Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendon) Extensor indicis muscle Pronator quadratus muscle Posterior interosseous artery and vein

Lower Arm, Coronal

159 2

1

4

3

6

5 8

7 9 11

10 13 12 15 14 17

16

19

18

21

20

23

22

25 27

24 26 28

29

30

31

32

33

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Ulnar artery and vein Extensor pollicis brevis muscle Ulnar nerve Extensor pollicis longus muscle Flexor digitorum profundus muscle Abductor pollicis longus muscle Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle Extensor digitorum muscle Anterior interosseous artery and vein Radial nerve (deep branch) and radial recurrent artery 21 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Supinator muscle Brachialis muscle Radius (head) Basilic vein Humeroradial joint Olecranon Radial collateral ligament Humero-ulnar joint Humerus (capitulum) Humerus (trochlea) Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle 33 Coronoid process

160

Upper Extremity Distal Palmar

Dorsal

Ulnar

Radial

Proximal

1 Capitate 2 Extensor digitorum muscle (tendon) 3 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendon) 4 Lunate 5 Wrist joint 6 Radius 7 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendon) 8 Anterior interosseous artery and vein 9 Pronator quadratus muscle 10 Extensor pollicis brevis muscle

Lower Arm, Coronal

161

1

2

3

4 6

5 7

8

9 10

11 12 13 14

15

16

17

18

19 21

20

23

22

25 27

24 26 28

29

30

31

32

33

11 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle 12 Abductor pollicis muscle 13 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle 14 Flexor pollicis longus muscle 15 Median nerve 16 Radius (shaft) 17 Palmaris longus muscle 18 Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscle 19 Ulnar artery and vein 20 Posterior interosseous artery and vein

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Brachialis muscle Supinator muscle Olecranon Radial artery and vein Basilic vein Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) Humero-ulnar joint Anular ligament Pronator teres muscle Humerus (capitulum) Humerus (trochlea) Olecranon fossa Coronoid process

162

Upper Extremity Distal Palmar

Dorsal

Ulnar

Radial

Proximal

Lower Arm, Coronal 1

163 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11

13

12 15

14

17 16

19

18

21

19 20

23

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25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

24

Scaphoid Wrist joint Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon) Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (tendon) Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) Extensor digitorum muscle Pronator quadratus muscle Radius (shaft) Median nerve Flexor pollicis longus muscle Flexor digitorum profundus muscle Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Flexor carpi radialis muscle Brachial artery and vein Radial artery and vein Brachioradialis muscle Radial nerve Biceps brachii muscle (tendon) Pronator teres muscle Cephalic vein Basilic vein Brachialis muscle Medial epicondyle

164

Upper Extremity

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Hand, Coronal

1 Proper palmar digital nerves (of median nerve) 2 Proper palmar digital arteries 3 Adductor pollicis muscle (transverse head) 4 Proper palmar digital nerves (of ulnar nerve) 5 Proximal phalanx I (base) 6 Opponens digiti minimi muscle 7 Metacarpal I (head) 8 Flexor digiti minimi muscle 9 Flexor pollicis brevis muscle (deep head) 10 Abductor digiti minimi muscle 11 Abductor pollicis muscle 12 Hamate (hook) 13 Opponens pollicis muscle

165

14 Ulnar nerve (deep branch) 15 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 16 Pisohamate ligament 17 Metacarpal I (base) 18 Pisiform 19 Trapezium 20 Palmar radiocarpal ligament 21 Abductor pollicis longus muscle (tendon attachment) 22 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) 23 Scaphoid 24 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon) 25 Radial artery (superficial palmar branch) 26 Brachioradialis muscle (tendon)

166

Upper Extremity

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1 Distal phalanx I 2 Proper palmar digital arteries and nerves 3 Proximal phalanx I (head) 4 Lumbrical muscles 5 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon)

Hand, Coronal

6 Proximal phalanx V (base) 7 Adductor pollicis muscle (transverse head) 8 Metacarpal V (head) 9 Proximal phalanx I (base) 10 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendons) 11 Sesamoid bone 12 Opponens digiti minimi muscle 13 Metacarpophalangeal joint I 14 Flexor digiti minimi muscle 15 Joint capsule 16 Abductor digiti minimi muscle 17 Adductor pollicis muscle (oblique head) 18 Hamate (hook) 19 Interosseous muscle 20 Pisohamate ligament

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

167

Flexor pollicis brevis muscle Radiate carpal ligament Opponens pollicis muscle Pisiform Metacarpal I Ulnar collateral ligament of wrist joint Carpometacarpal joint I Lunate Trapezium Palmar ulnocarpal ligament Scaphoid Radius Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (tendon) Pronator quadratus muscle Palmar radiocarpal ligament Radial artery

168

Upper Extremity

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Distal phalanx II Distal interphalangeal joint Middle phalanx (base) Proper palmar digital nerves and arteries Proximal phalanx (head) Flexor digitorum muscle (tendon) Distal phalanx I Proximal interphalangeal joint Metacarpal II (head) Collateral ligament

Hand, Coronal

11 Interphalangeal joint I 12 Metacarpophalangeal joint 13 Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 14 Interosseous muscles 15 Proximal phalanx I 16 Adductor pollicis muscle (transverse head) 17 Sesamoid bone 18 Abductor digiti minimi muscle 19 Adductor pollicis muscle (oblique head) 20 Deep palmar arch and palmar carpal arch 21 Metacarpal I (head) 22 Metacarpals (bases) 23 Flexor pollicis brevis muscle 24 Carpometacarpal joint 25 Trapezium

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

169

Hamate Trapezoid Capitate Radial artery Ulnar collateral ligament of wrist joint Scaphoid Triquetrum Lunate Ulnar styloid process Interosseous ligament (scapholunate) Triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFC) Wrist joint Ulna Brachioradialis muscle (tendon) Pronator quadratus muscle Radius

170

Upper Extremity

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Middle phalanx (base) Dorsal digital arteries and nerves Collateral ligament Proximal interphalangeal joint Proximal phalanx (head) Metacarpophalangeal joint Proximal phalanx (shaft) Interosseous muscles Proximal phalanx (base) Dorsal metacarpal vein Metacarpal (head) Joint capsule

Hand, Coronal

13 Metacarpal (shaft) 14 Dorsal metacarpal arteries 15 Dorsal metacarpal artery and nerve of thumb 16 Extensor digitorum muscle (tendon) 17 Metacarpal I (head) 18 Dorsal metacarpal arteries (perforating branches) 19 Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 20 Carpometacarpal joint 21 Interosseous metacarpal ligaments 22 Hamate 23 Radial artery (dorsal carpal branch) 24 Triquetrum 25 Metacarpal II (base) 26 Lunate 27 Trapezoid

171

28 Dorsal radiocarpal ligament 29 Interosseous intercarpal ligament 30 Ulnar collateral ligament of wrist joint 31 Capitate 32 Ulnar articular disk 33 Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon) 34 Ulnar styloid process 35 Radial collateral ligament of wrist joint 36 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon) 37 Scaphoid 38 Ulna 39 Radius 40 Interosseous membrane 41 Brachioradialis muscle (tendon)

172

Upper Extremity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Distal phalanx Distal interphalangeal joint Joint capsule Middle phalanx (head) Middle phalanx (base) Palmar collateral ligament Proximal interphalangeal joint Flexor digitorum muscle (tendon) Proximal phalanx (head)

Hand, Sagittal

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Metacarpophalangeal joint Extensor digitorum muscle (tendon) Lumbrical muscles Proximal phalanx (base) Palmar metacarpal artery Metacarpal (head) Flexor digiti minimi muscle (tendon) Collateral ligament and attachment of interosseous muscles Opponens digiti minimi muscle Dorsal interosseous muscle Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle Palmar interosseous muscle Deep palmar arch Metacarpal V (base) Abductor digiti minimi muscle Dorsal carpometacarpal ligament Ulnar nerve (deep branch)

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

173

Triquetrum Palmaris brevis muscle Lunate Pisiform Dorsal radiocarpal ligament Palmar ulnocarpal ligament Triangular fibrocartilage complex (+ disk equivalent) Ulnar artery and nerve Ulna Palmar radioulnar ligament Dorsal radioulnar ligament Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendon) Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon) Extensor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendon) Pronator quadratus muscle

174

Upper Extremity

Distal Dorsal

Palmar

Proximal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Collateral ligament Middle phalanx (head) Dorsal digital vein Palmar digital vein Middle phalanx (base) Palmar (collateral) ligament Proximal interphalangeal joint Palmar digital artery and nerve Proximal phalanx (head) Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendon)

Hand, Sagittal 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23 25

24 26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39 41

40

43

42 44

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

175

Proximal phalanx (base) Palmar interosseous muscle Metacarpophalangeal joint Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendon) Joint capsule Palmar digital artery Metacarpal (head) Lumbrical muscle Extensor digitorum muscle (tendon) Superficial palmar arch Palmar interosseous muscle Ulnar nerve (deep branch) Deep palmar arch Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle Metacarpal (base) Palmar carpometacarpal ligament Carpometacarpal joint

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

Hamate (hook) Dorsal carpometacarpal ligament Flexor retinaculum Hamate Palmar intercarpal ligament Triquetrum Flexor digitorum muscle (tendon) Dorsal intercarpal ligament Palmar carpal ligament Dorsal radiocarpal ligament Ulnar artery Lunate Palmar ulnocarpal ligament Radiocarpal joint Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle Radius Pronator quadratus muscle

176

Upper Extremity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Distal phalanx Middle phalanx (head) Distal interphalangeal joint Palmar ligament Joint capsule Palmar digital artery Middle phalanx (base) Flexor digitorum muscle (tendon)

Hand, Sagittal

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Proximal interphalangeal joint Proximal phalanx (shaft) Proximal phalanx (head) Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendon) Proximal phalanx (base) Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendon) Metacarpophalangeal joint Adductor pollicis muscle (transverse head) Metacarpal (head) Lumbrical muscles Extensor digitorum muscle (tendon) Superficial palmar arch Palmar digital vein Ulnar nerve (deep branch) Deep palmar arch Adductor pollicis muscle (deep head)

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

177

Metacarpal (base) Palmar aponeurosis Carpometacarpal joint Palmar carpometacarpal ligament Dorsal carpometacarpal ligament Flexor retinaculum Capitate Median nerve Dorsal intercarpal ligament Palmar intercarpal ligament Intercarpal (scaphocapitate) joint Lunate Scaphoid Palmar radiocarpal ligament Dorsal radiocarpal ligament Wrist joint Radius Pronator quadratus muscle

178

Upper Extremity

1 Collateral ligament (distal interphalangeal joint) 2 Proximal interphalangeal joint 3 Middle phalanx (base) 4 Palmar ligament 5 Proximal phalanx (head) 6 Flexor digitorum muscle (tendon) 7 Joint capsule

Hand, Sagittal

8 Metacarpophalangeal joint 9 Extensor digitorum muscle (tendon) 10 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (tendon) 11 Proximal phalanx (base) 12 Common palmar arteries 13 Metacarpal (head) 14 Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (tendon) 15 Interosseous muscle 16 Lumbrical muscles 17 Ulnar nerve (deep branch) 18 Adductor pollicis muscle (transverse head) 19 Deep palmar arch 20 Superficial palmar arch 21 Metacarpal (base) 22 Adductor pollicis muscle (oblique head)

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

179

Carpometacarpal joint Palmar aponeurosis Capitate Abductor pollicis brevis muscle Dorsal carpometacarpal ligament Median nerve Dorsal intercarpal ligament Flexor retinaculum Scaphoid Flexor pollicis muscle (deep head) Dorsal radiocarpal ligament Palmar intercarpal ligament Radiocarpal joint Intercarpal (scaphocapitate) joint Radius Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 39 Pronator quadratus muscle 40 Palmar radiocarpal ligament

180

Upper Extremity

1 2 3 4 5

Dorsal digital vein Common palmar digital artery Proximal phalanx (base) Lumbrical muscles Collateral ligament (metacarpophalangeal joint) 6 Adductor pollicis muscle (transverse head)

Hand, Sagittal

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Metacarpal (head) Palmar aponeurosis Interosseous muscle Flexor digitorum muscle (tendon) Dorsal digital artery Superficial palmar arch Extensor digitorum muscle (tendon) Adductor pollicis muscle (oblique head) Ulnar nerve (deep branch) Common palmar digital nerve (of median nerve) Dorsal digital arteries and nerves Deep palmar arch Metacarpal II (base) Flexor pollicis brevis muscle (superficial head) Metacarpal III (base)

181

22 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 23 Carpometacarpal joint 24 Flexor pollicis brevis muscle (deep head) 25 Trapezoid 26 Opponens pollicis muscle 27 Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle 28 Abductor pollicis brevis muscle 29 Scaphoid 30 Hamate (hook) 31 Palmar radiocarpal ligament 32 Flexor retinaculum 33 Radial collateral ligament of wrist joint 34 Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon) 35 Radius 36 Radial artery 37 Pronator quadratus muscle

182

Upper Extremity Distal Dorsal

Palmar

Proximal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Distal phalanx Palmar (collateral) ligament Distal interphalangeal joint Flexor digitorum muscle (tendon) Middle phalanx (head) Proper palmar digital artery Extensor digitorum muscle (tendon) Proper palmar digital nerve Middle phalanx (base) Flexor digitorum muscle (tendon) Collateral ligament Lumbrical muscle Proximal phalanx (head)

14 Adductor pollicis muscle (transverse head) 15 Proper dorsal digital artery 16 Common palmar digital nerve 17 Proximal phalanx (base) 18 Superficial palmar arch 19 Metacarpal (head) 20 Median nerve 21 Collateral ligament 22 Adductor pollicis muscle (oblique head) 23 Digital artery (perforating branch) 24 Common metacarpal artery 25 Dorsal digital vein

Hand, Sagittal

183

2

1

4

3

2

5

6

7

8

9

2

11

10

13

12

15

14

17

16 18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25 27

26 28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35 37

36

39

38

41

40

43 45 47

42 44 46 48

26 Flexor pollicis brevis muscle (superficial head) 27 Dorsal interosseous muscle 28 Flexor pollicis longus muscle (tendon) 29 Palmar interosseous muscle 30 Flexor pollicis brevis muscle (deep head) 31 Extensor digitorum II muscle (tendon) 32 Opponens pollicis muscle 33 Metacarpal II (shaft) 34 Palmar carpometacarpal ligament 35 Dorsal metacarpal artery 36 Deep palmar arch

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Metacarpal II (base) Abductor pollicis brevis muscle Carpometacarpal joint Trapezium (tubercle) Dorsal carpometacarpal ligament Radial collateral ligament of wrist joint Trapezoid Radial artery (superficial branch) Dorsal intercarpal ligament Scaphoid Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (tendon) Radius with styloid process

Color Code: Lower Extremity Leg Muscles: Arteries Nerves Veins Bones Fatty tissue Cartilage Tendon Meniscus, labrum etc. Fluid Intestine Hip and Thigh Muscles: Sartorius Tensor fasciae latae Iliacus Iliopsoas Psoas Gluteus maximus, medius, and minimus Rectus abdominis External and internal oblique muscle of abdomen Piriformis Gemellus muscles Quadratus femoris Obturator internus Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Biceps femoris Adductors: Obturatorius externus Pectineus Adductor longus, brevis, and magnus Gracilis Quadriceps: Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis, medialis, and intermedius Popliteus

Extensor group: Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus Peroneus group: Peroneus brevis (fibularis brevis) Peroneus longus (fibularis longus) Flexor group: Tibialis posterior Flexor digitorum longus Flexor hallucis longus Triceps surae: Gastrocnemius Soleus Plantaris Muscles of Foot: Extensor digitorum brevis Extensor hallucis brevis Dorsal and plantar interosseous Flexor digitorum brevis Quadratus plantae Lumbrical muscles Muscles of Big Toe: Flexor hallucis brevis Abductor hallucis Adductor hallucis Muscles of Little (Fifth) Toe: Abductor digiti minimi Flexor digiti minimi Opponens digiti minimi

185

186

Lower Extremity

Ventral Lateral

Medial Dorsal

Leg, Axial

187

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11 12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

1 Inguinal ligament 2 Internal oblique abdominal muscle and transversus abdominis muscle 3 Anterior superior iliac spine 4 Rectus abdominis muscle 5 Tensor fasciae latae muscle 6 Inferior epigastric artery and vein 7 Femoral nerve 8 Urinary bladder 9 Iliopsoas muscle 10 External iliac artery and veins 11 Gluteus minimus muscle 12 Small intestine

24

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Ilium Obturator artery, vein, and nerve Gluteus medius muscle Internal iliac artery and vein Sacral plexus Uterus Superior gluteal artery and vein Ureter Piriformis muscle Sigmoid colon Gluteus maximus muscle Sacrum

188

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 Inguinal ligament 2 Internal oblique abdominal muscle + transverse abdominal muscle 3 Sartorius muscle 4 Inferior epigastric artery and vein 5 Tensor fasciae latae muscle 6 Rectus abdominis muscle 7 Femoral nerve 8 Urinary bladder 9 Inferior anterior iliac spine 10 External iliac artery and veins 11 Iliopsoas muscle 12 Ovary and uterine tube 13 Gluteus minimus muscle 14 Obturator artery, vein, and nerve

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Gluteus medius muscle Uterus Ilium Small intestine Obturator internus muscle Ureter Superior gluteal artery and vein Lumbosacral plexus Piriformis muscle Internal iliac artery and vein Gluteus maximus muscle Rectum Sacrotuberous ligament Sacrum

189

190

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 Femoral nerve 2 Internal oblique abdominal muscle + transverse abdominal muscle 3 Sartorius muscle 4 Rectus abdominis muscle 5 Iliopsoas muscle 6 External iliac artery and vein 7 Tensor fasciae latae muscle 8 Urinary bladder 9 Rectus femoris muscle (tendon) 10 Pubis (superior ramus) 11 Anterior glenoid labrum 12 Ligament of head of femur 13 Iliofemoral ligament 14 Ureter 15 Gluteus minimus muscle 16 Uterus

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

191

Iliotibial tract Obturator artery, vein, and nerve Gluteus medius muscle (+ tendon) Uterine venous plexus Head of femur Acetabular fossa Posterior glenoid labrum Rectum and levator ani muscle Piriformis muscle Obturator internus muscle Sciatic nerve Ischium Superior gluteal artery and vein Ischial spine Gluteus maximus muscle Sacrotuberal ligament

192

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Sartorius muscle Femoral artery, vein, and nerve Iliopsoas muscle Rectus abdominis muscle Rectus femoris muscle (+ tendon) Pectineus muscle Tensor fasciae latae muscle Urinary bladder Anterior glenoid labrum Pubis (superior ramus) Iliofemoral ligament Ureter Gluteus minimus muscle (+ tendon) Obturator artery, vein, and nerve Gluteus medius muscle (+ tendon) Vagina Neck of femur

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

193

Rectum Iliotibial tract Acetabular fossa Head of femur Levator ani muscle Ischiofemoral ligament and ligamentous capsule Obturator internus muscle Great trochanter Posterior glenoid labrum Gemellus inferior muscle Ischium Sciatic nerve Sacrotuberal ligament Superior gluteal artery and nerve Gluteus maximus muscle

194

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Sartorius muscle Femoral artery, vein, and nerve Rectus femoris muscle (+ tendon) Pectineus muscle Iliopsoas muscle Rectus abdominis muscle Tensor fasciae latae muscle Pubis (inferior ramus) Vastus lateralis muscle Obturator nerve (anterior branch) Iliofemoral ligament Adductor brevis muscle Gluteus medius muscle (+ tendon) Vagina and urethra Gluteus minimus muscle (tendon) Obturator externus muscle

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

195

Iliotibial tract Rectum Femur Levator ani muscle Ischiofemoral ligament Ischiorectal fossa Quadratus femoris muscle Pubofemoral ligament Sciatic nerve Obturator internus muscle Tendon attachment of dorsal thigh muscles 28 Ischial tuberosity 29 Gluteus maximus muscle 30 Sacrotuberal ligament

196

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Sartorius muscle Femoral artery, vein, and nerve Rectus femoris muscle Great saphenous vein Circumflex femoral artery and vein Deep femoral artery and vein Tensor fasciae latae muscle Adductor longus muscle Vastus medialis muscle Pectineus muscle Vastus intermedius muscle Gracilis muscle Vastus lateralis muscle Adductor brevis muscle

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

197

Iliotibial tract Iliopsoas muscle Femur Adductor magnus muscle Lateral femoral intermuscular septum Obturator internus muscle Quadratus femoris muscle Lesser trochanter Sciatic nerve Semimembranosus muscle (tendon) Gluteus maximus muscle Biceps femoris muscle (tendon) Semitendinosus muscle (tendon)

198

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Rectus femoris muscle Sartorius muscle Vastus intermedius muscle Femoral artery, vein, and nerve Vastus lateralis muscle Great saphenous vein Iliotibial tract Vastus medialis muscle Femur Adductor longus muscle Perforating artery of deep artery of thigh (+ vein)

199

12 Deep artery and vein of thigh 13 Lateral femoral intermuscular septum 14 Gracilis muscle 15 Artery and vein to sciatic nerve 16 Adductor brevis muscle 17 Sciatic nerve 18 Adductor magnus muscle 19 Gluteus maximus muscle 20 Semimembranosus muscle (tendon) 21 Biceps femoris muscle 22 Semitendinosus muscle

200

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Rectus femoris muscle Vastus medialis muscle Vastus intermedius muscle Sartorius muscle Vastus lateralis muscle Saphenous nerve Femur Great saphenous vein Iliotibial tract Femoral artery and vein Deep artery and vein of thigh

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

201

Adductor longus muscle Biceps femoris muscle (short head) Adductor brevis muscle Artery to sciatic nerve Gracilis muscle Sciatic nerve Adductor magnus muscle Biceps femoris muscle (long head) Semimembranosus muscle Semitendinosus muscle

202

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Rectus femoris muscle (+ tendon) Vastus medialis muscle Vastus intermedius muscle Sartorius muscle Vastus lateralis muscle Great saphenous vein Femur Saphenous nerve Iliotibial tract Femoral artery and vein Linea aspera

203

12 Perforating artery and vein of deep artery and vein of thigh 13 Adductor magnus muscle 14 Gracilis muscle 15 Biceps femoris muscle (short head) 16 Semimembranosus muscle 17 Common fibular (peroneal) nerve 18 Semitendinosus muscle 19 Tibial nerve 20 Biceps femoris muscle (long head) 21 Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve

204

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Rectus femoris muscle (tendon) Vastus medialis muscle Vastus intermedius muscle Femur Iliotibial tract Sartorius muscle Vastus lateralis muscle Adductor magnus muscle (tendon) Muscular branch of femoral nerve Saphenous nerve Femoral artery and vein

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

205

Great saphenous vein Biceps femoris muscle (short head) Gracilis muscle Perforating artery and vein of deep artery and vein of thigh Semimembranosus muscle Common fibular (peroneal) nerve Semitendinosus muscle Tibial nerve Biceps femoris muscle (long head)

206

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 Rectus femoris muscle (tendon) 2 Vastus medialis muscle 3 Vastus intermedius muscle (+ tendon) 4 Femur 5 Vastus lateralis muscle 6 Adductor magnus muscle (tendon) 7 Iliotibial tract 8 Sartorius muscle 9 Femoral artery and vein

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

207

Great saphenous vein Biceps femoris muscle (short head) Saphenous nerve Perforating vein of deep vein of thigh Gracilis muscle Common fibular (peroneal) nerve Semimembranosus muscle Biceps femoris muscle (long head) Semitendinosus muscle Tibial nerve

208

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Patellar ligament Patella Retropatellar cartilage Femoropatellar joint Lateral patellar retinaculum Medial patellar retinaculum Vastus lateralis muscle (tendon) Femur Iliotibial tract Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head, tendon) Popliteus muscle (tendon) Adductor magnus muscle (tendon) Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head) Great saphenous vein

209

15 Superior lateral genicular artery and vein 16 Superior medial genicular artery and vein 17 Biceps femoris muscle (+ tendon) 18 Sartorius muscle 19 Popliteal artery and vein 20 Saphenous nerve 21 Common fibular (peroneal) nerve 22 Gracilis muscle (tendon) 23 Perforating artery of deep artery of thigh (+ vein) 24 Semimembranosus muscle (tendon) 25 Tibial nerve 26 Semitendinosus muscle

210

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Patellar ligament Patella Retropatellar cartilage Medial patellar retinaculum Lateral patellar retinaculum Femoropatellar joint Lateral collateral ligament Femur Iliotibial tract Joint capsule and posterior cruciate ligament (attachment) Anterior cruciate ligament (attachment) Medial femoral condyle Middle genicular artery Sartorius muscle

211

15 Popliteus muscle (tendon) 16 Joint capsule and oblique popliteal ligament 17 Biceps femoris muscle (+ tendon) 18 Great saphenous vein 19 Medial femoral condyle 20 Gracilis muscle (tendon) 21 Plantaris muscle 22 Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head) 23 Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head) 24 Semimembranosus muscle (+ tendon) 25 Common fibular (peroneal) nerve 26 Semitendinosus muscle (tendon) 27 Popliteal artery and vein 28 Tibial nerve

212

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Patellar ligament Infrapatellar fat body Lateral patellar retinaculum Medial patellar retinaculum Lateral femoral condyle Posterior cruciate ligament Iliotibial tract Medial collateral ligament Lateral collateral ligament Medial femoral condyle Intercondylar fossa Sartorius muscle Anterior cruciate ligament Gracilis muscle (tendon) Popliteus muscle (tendon)

213

16 Great saphenous vein 17 Biceps femoris muscle (+ tendon) 18 Semimembranosus muscle (+ tendon) 19 Oblique popliteal ligament and joint capsule 20 Semitendinosus muscle (tendon) 21 Plantaris muscle 22 Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head) 23 Common fibular (peroneal) nerve 24 Popliteal vein 25 Popliteal artery and vein 26 Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head) 27 Tibial nerve

214

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Patellar ligament Infrapatellar fat body Transverse patellar retinaculum Medial patellar retinaculum Lateral patellar retinaculum Anterior cruciate ligament Joint capsule Medial meniscus (anterior horn) Lateral meniscus (anterior horn) Medial meniscus (intermediate part) Iliotibial tract Medial femoral condyle with joint cartilage Lateral femoral condyle with joint cartilage Medial collateral ligament Lateral meniscus (intermediate portion) Posterior cruciate ligament Lateral collateral ligament

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

215

Medial meniscus (posterior horn) Biceps femoris muscle (tendon) Great saphenous vein Popliteus muscle (tendon) Gracilis muscle (tendon) Lateral meniscus (posterior horn) Sartorius muscle (+ tendon) Common fibular (peroneal) nerve Semimembranosus muscle (+ tendon) Plantaris muscle Semitendinosus muscle (tendon) Tibial nerve Popliteal artery and vein Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head, tendon) Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head, tendon) Popliteal vein

216

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Patellar ligament Infrapatellar fat body Lateral patellar retinaculum Medial patellar retinaculum Iliotibial tract Joint capsule Lateral collateral ligament Head of tibia Fibular collateral ligament Medial ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Sartorius muscle (tendon) Biceps femoris muscle (tendon) Great saphenous vein Popliteus muscle (+ tendon)

217

16 Gracilis muscle (tendon) 17 Common fibular (peroneal) nerve 18 Semimembranosus muscle (+ tendon) 19 Plantaris muscle 20 Semitendinosus muscle (tendon) 21 Popliteal artery and vein 22 Oblique popliteal ligament and joint capsule 23 Tibial nerve 24 Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head, tendon) 25 Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head, tendon) 26 Popliteal vein

218

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Patellar ligament Tibial tuberosity Tibia Medial patellar retinaculum Anterior tibial muscle Sartorius muscle (tendon) Extensor digitorum longus muscle Gracilis muscle (tendon) Interosseous membrane of leg Great saphenous vein Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle Semitendinosus muscle (tendon)

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

219

Head of fibula Popliteus muscle Common fibular (peroneal) nerve Popliteal artery and vein Plantaris muscle Tibial nerve Soleus muscle Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head) Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head) Popliteal vein Medial sural cutaneous nerve

220

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Tibialis anterior muscle Tibia Interosseous membrane of leg Tibiofibular trunk (of posterior tibial and of fibular artery and vein) Tibialis posterior muscle Great saphenous vein Extensor digitorum longus muscle Plantaris muscle (tendon) Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle Tibial nerve

221

11 Anterior tibial artery and vein and deep fibular (peroneal) nerve 12 Soleus muscle 13 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle 14 Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head) 15 Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve 16 Medial sural cutaneous nerve 17 Fibula 18 Small saphenous vein 19 Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head)

222

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Tibialis anterior muscle (+ tendon) Tibia Extensor hallucis longus muscle Tibialis posterior muscle Extensor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon) Great saphenous vein Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve Flexor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon) Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve Posterior tibial artery and vein Anterior tibial artery and vein

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

223

Tibial nerve Interosseous membrane of leg Fibular (peroneal) artery and vein Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle Plantaris muscle (tendon) Fibula Flexor hallucis longus muscle Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (+ tendon) Soleus muscle Gastrocnemius muscle (tendon) Small saphenous vein Medial sural cutaneous nerve

224

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Tibialis anterior muscle (+ tendon) Tibia Extensor hallucis longus muscle Fibular (peroneal) artery and vein Extensor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon) Great saphenous vein Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve Tibialis posterior muscle (+ tendon) Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve Flexor hallucis longus muscle Anterior tibial artery and vein Flexor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon)

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

225

Interosseous membrane of leg Posterior tibial artery and vein Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle Tibial nerve Fibula Soleus muscle Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (+ tendon) 20 Gastrocnemius muscle (tendon, + tendon of plantaris muscle) 21 Sural nerve 22 Small saphenous vein

226

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 Extensor hallucis longus muscle (+ tendon) 2 Tibialis anterior muscle (+ tendon) 3 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon) 4 Tibia 5 Anterior tibial artery and vein 6 Great saphenous vein 7 Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve 8 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon) 9 Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve 10 Tibialis posterior muscle (+ tendon) 11 Interosseous membrane of leg

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

227

Posterior tibial artery and vein Fibular (peroneal) artery and veins Tibial nerve Fibula Flexor hallucis longus muscle Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon) Soleus muscle Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle Gastrocnemius muscle (tendon, + tendon of plantaris muscle) Sural nerve Small saphenous vein

228

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 Extensor hallucis longus muscle (+ tendon) 2 Tibialis anterior muscle (tendon) 3 Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve 4 Anterior tibial artery and vein 5 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon) 6 Great saphenous vein 7 Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve 8 Tibia 9 Interosseous membrane of leg 10 Tibialis posterior muscle (tendon) 11 Fibular (peroneal) artery and vein

229

12 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon) 13 Fibula 14 Posterior tibial artery and vein 15 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon) 16 Tibial nerve 17 Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle 18 Flexor hallucis longus muscle 19 Sural nerve 20 Soleus muscle 21 Small saphenous vein 22 Tendons of triceps surae and plantaris muscles

230

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 Extensor hallucis longus muscle (+ tendon) 2 Tibialis anterior muscle (tendon) 3 Anterior tibial artery and vein 4 Great saphenous vein 5 Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve 6 Saphenous nerve 7 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon) 8 Tibia 9 Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve 10 Tibialis posterior muscle (tendon) 11 Anterior tibiofibular ligament 12 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon) 13 Inferior tibiofibular joint

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

231

Posterior tibial artery and vein Fibula Tibial nerve Posterior tibiofibular ligament Flexor hallucis longus muscle (+ tendon) Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon) Soleus muscle Fibular (peroneal) artery and vein Tendons of triceps surae and plantaris muscles Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle (+ tendon) Sural nerve Small saphenous vein

232

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 Extensor hallucis longus muscle (+ tendon) 2 Tibialis anterior muscle (tendon) 3 Anterior tibial artery and vein 4 Great saphenous vein 5 Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve 6 Saphenous nerve 7 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon) 8 Deltoid ligament (tibionavicular and anterior tibiotalar parts) 9 Anterior tibiofibular ligament 10 Medial malleolus (tibia) 11 Tibiofibular syndesmosis 12 Ankle joint 13 Lateral malleolus (fibula) 14 Tibialis posterior muscle (tendon)

233

15 Posterior tibiofibular ligament 16 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 17 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon) 18 Posterior tibial artery and vein 19 Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle (+ tendon) 20 Tibial nerve 21 Fibular (peroneal) artery and vein 22 Flexor hallucis longus muscle (+ tendon) 23 Sural nerve 24 Tendons of triceps surae muscle and plantaris muscle 25 Small saphenous vein

234

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 Extensor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 2 Tibialis anterior muscle (tendon) 3 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 4 Dorsalis pedis artery (+ vein) 5 Lateral tarsal artery 6 Deep fibular nerve 7 Dorsal talonavicular ligament and joint capsule 8 Great saphenous vein 9 Extensor retinaculum 10 Deltoid ligament (tibionavicular and anterior tibiotalar parts) 11 Anterior talofibular ligament 12 Talus 13 Ankle joint 14 Medial malleolus (tibia) 15 Lateral malleolus (fibula)

235

16 Tibialis posterior muscle (tendon) 17 Posterior talofibular ligament 18 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 19 Posterior tibiofibular ligament 20 Flexor retinaculum 21 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon) 22 Posterior tibial artery and vein 23 Peroneus (fibular) brevis muscle (+ tendon) 24 Tibial nerve 25 Fibular (peroneal) artery and vein 26 Flexor hallucis longus muscle (+ tendon) 27 Sural nerve 28 Achilles tendon (calcaneal tendon) 29 Small saphenous vein

236

Lower Extremity

1 Extensor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 2 Tibialis anterior muscle (tendon) 3 Dorsalis pedis artery 4 Dorsal talonavicular ligament 5 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (+ tendon)

Leg, Axial

6 Great saphenous vein 7 Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (+ tendon) 8 Deltoid ligament (tibionavicular part) 9 Talus 10 Deltoid ligament (anterior tibiotalar part) 11 Anterior talofibular ligament 12 Flexor retinaculum 13 Ankle joint 14 Deltoid ligament (posterior tibiotalar part) 15 Lateral malleolus (fibula) 16 Tibialis posterior muscle (tendon) 17 Posterior talofibular ligament

237

18 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 19 Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle (+ tendon) 20 Flexor hallucis longus muscle (+ tendon) 21 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon) 22 Tibial nerve 23 Fibular (peroneal) artery and vein 24 Posterior tibial artery and vein 25 Sural nerve 26 Superior peroneal retinaculum 27 Small saphenous vein 28 Achilles tendon (calcaneal tendon)

238

Lower Extremity

1 Dorsalis pedis artery 2 Extensor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 3 Dorsal tarsal ligaments 4 Tibialis anterior muscle (tendon) 5 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (tendon)

Leg, Axial

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Great saphenous vein Extensor digitorum brevis muscle Navicular Dorsal talonavicular ligament Talonavicular joint Head of talus Deltoid ligament (tibionavicular part) Interosseous talocalcaneal ligament Tibialis posterior muscle (tendon) Neck of talus Deltoid ligament (tibiocalcaneal part) Talus (body) Deltoid ligament (posterior tibiotalar part) Calcaneofibular ligament

239

20 Flexor retinaculum 21 Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle (tendon) 22 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 23 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon) 24 Tibial nerve 25 Superior fibular (peroneal) retinaculum 26 Flexor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 27 Sural nerve 28 Posterior tibial artery and vein 29 Small saphenous vein 30 Achilles tendon (calcaneal tendon)

240

Lower Extremity

1 Dorsalis pedis artery 2 Extensor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 3 Intermediate cuneiform 4 Medial cuneiform 5 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (tendons)

Leg, Axial

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Tibialis anterior muscle (tendon) Talonavicular joint Cuneonavicular joint Extensor digitorum brevis muscle Great saphenous vein Bifurcate ligament Navicular Talus (head) Tibialis posterior muscle (tendon) Interosseous talocalcaneal ligament Deltoid ligament (tibiocalcaneal and tibionavicular part) Talus (body) Flexor retinaculum Calcaneofibular ligament Talocalcaneal ligament (medial)

241

21 Subtalar (talocalcaneal) joint 22 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 23 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon) 24 Talus (posterior process) 25 Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle (tendon) 26 Tibial nerve 27 Peroneal retinaculum 28 Posterior tibial artery and vein 29 Dorsal lateral cutaneous nerve 30 Flexor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 31 Achilles tendon (calcaneal tendon) 32 Calcaneus

242

Lower Extremity

1 Extensor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 2 Metatarsal I (base) 3 Dorsalis pedis artery 4 First tarsometatarsal joint 5 Metatarsal II (base)

Leg, Axial

6 Medial cuneiform 7 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (tendons) 8 Tibialis anterior muscle (tendon) 9 Dorsal tarsal ligaments 10 Intermediate cuneiform 11 Lateral cuneiform 12 Navicular 13 Extensor digitorum brevis muscle 14 Talus (head) 15 Bifurcate ligament 16 Deltoid ligament (tibionavicular part) 17 Calcaneus 18 Tibialis posterior muscle (tendon) 19 Interosseous talocalcaneal ligament

243

20 Flexor retinaculum 21 Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle (tendon) 22 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 23 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon) 24 Calcaneus (talar shelf) 25 Peroneal retinaculum 26 Flexor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 27 Calcaneal tuberosity 28 Medial plantar artery and vein 29 Achilles tendon (calcaneal tendon) 30 Lateral plantar artery and vein 31 Tibial nerve

244

Lower Extremity

1 Extensor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 2 Metatarsal I (base) 3 Dorsalis pedis artery 4 Metatarsal II (base) 5 Dorsal interosseous muscles 6 Interosseous cuneometatarsal ligaments

Leg, Axial

7 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (tendons) 8 Tibialis anterior muscle (tendon) 9 Intermediate cuneiform 10 Medial cuneiform 11 Lateral cuneiform 12 Dorsal tarsal ligaments 13 Extensor digitorum brevis muscle 14 Tibialis posterior muscle (tendon) 15 Cuboid 16 Spring ligament (plantar calcaneonavicular ligament) 17 Navicular 18 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 19 Spring ligament (plantar calcaneonavicular ligament)

245

20 Calcaneus (talar shelf) 21 Long plantar ligament 22 Medial plantar artery, vein and nerve 23 Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle (tendon) 24 Flexor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 25 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon) 26 Flexor retinaculum 27 Peroneal retinaculum 28 Lateral plantar artery and vein 29 Calcaneus (calcaneal tuberosity) 30 Quadratus plantae muscle 31 Achilles tendon (calcaneal tendon)

246

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 Dorsalis pedis artery 2 Extensor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 3 Dorsal interosseous muscles 4 Metatarsal I (base) 5 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (tendons) 6 Abductor hallucis muscle 7 Metatarsal II (base) 8 Medial cuneiform 9 Metatarsal III (base) 10 Tibialis posterior muscle (tendon) 11 Lateral cuneiform 12 Flexor hallucis brevis muscle 13 Extensor digitorum brevis muscle 14 Flexor hallucis longus muscle (tendon)

247

15 Cuboid 16 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 17 Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle (tendon) 18 Medial plantar artery, vein, and nerve 19 Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle (tendon) 20 Quadratus plantae muscle 21 Inferior fibular (peroneal) retinaculum 22 Lateral plantar artery, vein, and nerve 23 Calcaneus 24 Flexor retinaculum 25 Achilles tendon (calcaneal tendon) (attachment)

248

Lower Extremity

Anterior Lateral

Medial

Posterior

1 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (tendons) 2 Proximal phalanx I 3 Dorsal and plantar interosseous muscles 4 Metacarpophalangeal joint

Leg, Axial

249

2 4 6

1

8 3

10

5

12

7

14

9

16

11

18

13

20

15

22

17 7

24

19

25

21

26 27

23

5 Adductor hallucis brevis muscle (oblique head) 6 Metatarsal I (head) 7 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon) 8 Joint capsule 9 Metatarsal IV (base) 10 Metatarsal II 11 Plantar arch 12 Plantar metatarsal artery, vein, and nerve 13 Lateral cuneiform 14 Flexor hallucis brevis muscle (medial head) 15 Cuboid 16 Flexor hallucis brevis muscle (lateral head)

17 Fifth plantar digital artery, vein, and nerve 18 Adductor hallucis brevis muscle 19 Abductor digiti minimi muscle 20 Flexor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 21 Long plantar ligament 22 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 23 Calcaneus (calcaneal tuberosity) 24 Medial plantar artery and nerve 25 Quadratus plantae muscle 26 Abductor hallucis muscle 27 Lateral plantar artery, vein, and nerve

250

Lower Extremity

1 Extensor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 2 Distal phalanx I 3 Plantar digital arteries 4 Proximal phalanx I

Leg, Axial

5 Dorsal and plantar interosseous muscles 6 Plantar metatarsal artery and medial plantar hallucis nerve 7 Lateral plantar artery, vein and nerve (superficial branch) 8 Flexor hallucis brevis muscle (medial head) 9 Lateral plantar artery and vein (deep branch) 10 Abductor hallucis muscle (tendon) 11 Fifth plantar digital artery, vein, and nerve 12 Metatarsals 13 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon)

14 Flexor hallucis brevis muscle (lateral head) 15 Cuboid 16 Flexor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 17 Long plantar ligament 18 Medial plantar artery, vein, and nerve 19 Abductor digiti minimi muscle 20 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon) 21 Calcaneus (calcaneal tuberosity) 22 Quadratus plantae muscle 23 Lateral plantar artery, vein, and nerve 24 Abductor hallucis muscle

251

252

Lower Extremity

Leg, Axial

1 Flexor digitorum muscles (tendons) 2 Flexor hallucis longus muscle (tendon) 3 Distal phalanx V 4 Sesamoid bones 5 Fifth distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) 6 Adductor hallucis muscle (transverse head) 7 Medial phalanx V 8 Adductor hallucis muscle (oblique head) 9 Fifth proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) 10 Flexor hallucis brevis muscle 11 Proximal phalanx V

253

12 Flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendons) 13 Metatarsal bones (heads) 14 Lumbrical muscles 15 Dorsal and plantar interosseous muscles 16 Medial plantar artery, vein, and nerve (deep branch) 17 Metatarsal V 18 Flexor digitorum brevis muscle 19 Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle 20 Lateral plantar artery and vein 21 Abductor digiti minimi muscle 22 Plantar aponeurosis 23 Calcaneus (calcaneal tuberosity)

254

Lower Extremity

Cranial (Proximal) Right

Left Caudal (Distal)

Hip, Coronal

255

2

1 3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16 18

17

20

19

22

21 23

1 Small intestine 2 External oblique and internal oblique abdominal muscles 3 Anterior superior iliac spine 4 Transversus abdominis muscle 5 Uterus 6 Iliacus muscle 7 Ilium 8 Gluteus medius muscle 9 Femoral nerve 10 Iliopsoas muscle 11 Femoral artery and vein 12 Urinary bladder

13 Pubis 14 Tensor fasciae latae muscle 15 Lateral circumflex femoral artery (ascending branch) 16 Pectineus muscle 17 Rectus femoris muscle 18 Symphysis 19 Sartorius muscle 20 Adductor longus muscle 21 Vastus medialis muscle 22 Great saphenous vein 23 Vastus lateralis muscle

256

Lower Extremity

Cranial (Proximal) Right

Left Caudal (Distal)

1 2 3 4 5 6

Inferior vena cava Aorta (bifurcation) Small intestine Internal oblique muscle of abdomen (Right) Common iliac artery Transversus abdominis muscle

Hip, Coronal

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Psoas muscle Anterior superior iliac spine Uterus Iliac muscle Iliopsoas muscle Gluteus medius muscle Ilium Gluteus minimus muscle Roof of acetabulum Urinary bladder Hip joint Rectus femoris muscle (tendon) Head of femur Superior glenoid labrum Iliofemoral ligament (transverse part) 22 Iliotibial tract 23 Iliofemoral ligament (descending part)

257

24 Lateral circumflex femoral artery (ascending branch) 25 Pectineus muscle 26 Inferior glenoid labrum 27 Obturator nerve 28 Tensor fasciae latae muscle 29 Gracilis muscle 30 Deep artery of thigh 31 Femoral nerve 32 Pubis 33 Adductor longus muscle 34 Lateral circumflex femoral artery (descending branch) 35 (Superficial) Femoral artery and vein 36 Adductor brevis muscle 37 Vastus lateralis muscle 38 Saphenous nerve 39 Sartorius muscle 40 Vastus intermedius muscle

258

Lower Extremity

Cranial (Proximal) Right

Left Caudal (Distal)

1 External oblique and internal oblique muscles of abdomen 2 Fourth lumbar vertebra 3 Psoas muscle 4 Anterior superior iliac spine 5 Iliacus muscle

Hip, Coronal

6 Sacral plexus and (left) internal iliac artery and vein 7 Gluteus medius muscle 8 Obturator nerve 9 Ovary and uterus 10 Urinary bladder 11 Gluteus minimus muscle 12 Hip joint 13 Roof of acetabulum 14 Inferior glenoid labrum 15 Head of femur 16 Superior glenoid labrum 17 Iliotibial tract 18 Iliofemoral ligament 19 Greater trochanter 20 Obturator internus muscle 21 Femur (neck) 22 Levator ani muscle 23 Vagina 24 Obturator externus muscle

25 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

259

Medial circumflex femoral artery Iliopsoas muscle Pubis Obturator nerve Deep transverse perineal muscle Lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein (descending branch) and femoral nerve (anterior cutaneous branch) Pectineus muscle Femur (shaft) Gracilis muscle Deep artery and vein of thigh Adductor brevis muscle Vastus intermedius muscle Adductor longus muscle Vastus lateralis muscle (Superficial) Femoral artery and vein, and saphenous nerve Vastus medialis muscle

260

Lower Extremity

Cranial (Proximal) Right

Left Caudal (Distal)

1 2 3 4 5 6

Lumbar plexus Psoas muscle Iliac crest Superior gluteal artery and vein Iliacus muscle Sacrum

Hip, Coronal

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Sacral plexus Sacro-iliac joint Ilium Gluteus medius muscle Uterus Inferior gluteal artery and vein Vagina Sigmoid colon Roof of acetabulum Gluteus minimus muscle Zona orbicularis Gluteus maximus muscle Greater trochanter Urinary bladder Levator ani muscle Ischiofemoral ligament Intertrochanteric crest Head of femur

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

261

Obturator externus muscle Obturator internus muscle Lesser trochanter Medial circumflex femoral artery and vein Adductor minimus muscle Transversus perinei profundus muscle Pubis (inferior ramus) Femur (shaft) Adductor brevis muscle Deep femoral artery and vein Adductor magnus muscle Vastus lateralis muscle Gracilis muscle Vastus intermedius muscle Adductor brevis muscle

262

Lower Extremity

Cranial (Proximal) Right

Left Caudal (Distal)

Hip, Coronal

1 Spinal canal 2 External oblique and internal oblique muscles of abdomen 3 Superior clunial nerves 4 Gluteus medius muscle 5 Sacro-iliac ligament 6 Sciatic nerve 7 Ilium 8 Piriformis muscle 9 Sacro-iliac joint 10 Inferior gluteal artery, vein, and nerve 11 Sacrum (lateral mass) 12 Gluteus maximus muscle 13 Sigmoid colon 14 Levator ani muscle

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Pudendal nerve Uterus Ischium Gemellus superior muscle Obturator internus muscle Greater trochanter Gemellus interior muscle Intertrochanteric crest Quadratus femoris muscle Muscular nerve Adductor magnus muscle Iliotibial tract Gracilis muscle Vagina Sciatic nerve Vastus lateralis muscle

263

264

Lower Extremity

Cranial (Proximal) Right

Left Caudal (Distal)

Hip, Coronal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Iliocostalis lumborum muscle Multifidus muscle Spinous process Interspinal ligament Ilium Vertebral arch Sacro-iliac joint Superior gluteal artery, vein, and nerve Rectum Sacrum (lateral mass) Inferior gluteal artery, vein, and nerve Piriformis muscle Ischial spine

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

265

Levator ani muscle Obturator internus muscle Sciatic nerve Ischial tuberosity Gluteus maximus muscle Adductor magnus muscle (attachment) Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles (common tendon attachment) Biceps femoris muscle (long head) Semitendinosus muscle Adductor magnus muscle Vastus lateralis muscle Gracilis muscle

266

Lower Extremity

Proximal Ventral

Dorsal Distal

Hip, Sagittal

267

1

2

3

4

5 7

6

4

8

9

4

11

10

13

12

15

14

17 16 19 18

20

19

1 External oblique and internal oblique abdominal muscles 2 Ilium (wing) 3 Transversus abdominis muscle 4 Gluteus medius muscle 5 Iliopsoas muscle 6 Gluteus minimus muscle 7 Anterior superior iliac spine 8 Gluteus maximus muscle 9 Sartorius muscle 10 Obturator internus muscle and gemellus muscles

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Femur (neck) Greater trochanter Iliopsoas muscle Quadratus femoris muscle Lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein Femur (shaft) Rectus femoris muscle Adductor magnus muscle (tendon attachment) Vastus intermedius muscle Vastus medialis muscle

268

Lower Extremity

Hip, Sagittal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Small intestine Gluteus medius muscle Rectus abdominis muscle Superior gluteal artery and vein Iliopsoas muscle Gluteus minimus muscle Ilium (roof of acetabulum) Superficial circumflex iliac artery Hip joint Gluteus maximus muscle Superior glenoid labrum Obturator internus muscle and gemellus muscles 13 Femur (head) 14 Medial circumflex femoral artery

269

15 Sartorius muscle 16 Quadratus femoris muscle 17 Lateral circumflex femoral artery (ascending branch) 18 Lesser trochanter 19 Rectus femoris muscle 20 Biceps femoris muscle (long head) 21 Lateral circumflex femoral artery (descending branch) 22 Adductor magnus muscle 23 Vastus intermedius muscle 24 Perforating artery and vein 25 Femur (shaft) 26 Vastus lateralis muscle

270

Lower Extremity

Hip, Sagittal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Small intestine Ilium Rectus abdominis muscle Gluteus medius muscle Iliopsoas muscle Gluteus minimus muscle Ilium (roof of acetabulum) Gluteus maximus muscle Hip joint Piriformis muscle Superior glenoid labrum Inferior glenoid labrum Femur (head) Obturator internus muscle and gemellus muscles 15 Joint capsule

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

271

Adductor minimus muscle Obturator externus muscle Inferior gluteal artery and vein Lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein (ascending branch) Quadratus femoris muscle Sartorius muscle Lesser trochanter Lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein (descending branch) Sciatic nerve Pectineus muscle Adductor magnus muscle Rectus femoris muscle Biceps femoris muscle Vastus medialis muscle

272

Lower Extremity

1 2 3 4 5

Small intestine Gluteus medius muscle Rectus abdominis muscle Ilium Iliopsoas muscle

Hip, Sagittal

6 Superior gluteal artery, vein, and nerve 7 Ilium (roof of acetabulum) 8 Gluteus minimus muscle 9 Hip joint 10 Gluteus maximus muscle 11 Superior glenoid labrum 12 Superior gluteal artery and vein, inferior gluteal nerve 13 Femur (head) 14 Sciatic nerve 15 Joint capsule 16 Piriformis 17 Obturator externus 18 Obturator internus and gemellus muscles

273

19 Lateral circumflex femoris artery and vein (ascending branch) 20 Obturator internus muscle (tendon) 21 Pectineus muscle 22 Gemellus inferior muscle 23 Sartorius muscle 24 Inferior glenoid labrum 25 Adductor magnus muscle 26 Ischium 27 Deep artery and vein of thigh 28 Semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles (tendon attachment) 29 Perforating arteries 30 Quadratus femoris muscle 31 Adductor brevis muscle 32 Biceps femoris muscle (+ tendon) 33 Vastus medialis muscle

274

Lower Extremity

Hip, Sagittal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Small intestine Gluteus medius muscle Ilium Gluteus maximus muscle Psoas muscle Superior gluteal artery, vein, and nerve Iliacus muscle Piriformis muscle Rectus abdominis muscle Sciatic nerve Ilium (roof of acetabulum) Gemellus superior muscle Acetabular fossa Inferior glenoid labrum Fovea Gemellus inferior muscle Femur (head)

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

275

Obturator externus muscle Superior glenoid labrum Ischium Lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein Adductor minimus muscle Ischiofemoral ligament Quadratus femoris muscle Lateral circumflex femoral artery Adductor magnus muscle Pectineus muscle Biceps femoris muscle (Superficial) Femoral artery and vein Adductor brevis muscle Sartorius muscle Deep artery and vein of thigh Vastus medialis muscle

276

Lower Extremity

Hip, Sagittal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Small intestine Ilium Iliopsoas muscle Superior gluteal artery, vein, and nerve Rectus abdominis muscle Sciatic nerve Internal iliac artery and vein Piriformis muscle Ilium (joint socket) Gemellus superior muscle Pectineus muscle Gluteus maximus muscle Obturator externus muscle Inferior gluteal artery and nerve

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Femoral artery and vein Obturator internus muscle Adductor minimus muscle Gemellus inferior muscle Adductor magnus muscle Sacrotuberous ligament Adductor brevis muscle Ischial tuberosity Adductor longus muscle Biceps femoris muscle (common tendon) 25 (Superficial) Femoral artery and vein 26 Biceps femoris muscle 27 Sartorius muscle

277

278

Lower Extremity

Proximal Ventral

Dorsal Distal

Hip, Sagittal

279

1 2 3 4

5

6

7

8 9

10

11

12

13

14 16

15 17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Psoas muscle Ilium (wing) Small intestine (ileum) Sacral plexus Iliacus muscle Piriformis muscle Rectus abdominis muscle Gluteus maximus muscle Obturator artery and nerve Gemellus superior muscle Obturator internus muscle Superior gluteal artery and vein and inferior gluteal nerve 13 Femoral artery and vein

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Gemellus inferior muscle Pubis Sacrotuberous ligament Pectineus muscle Adductor minimus muscle Obturator externus muscle Ischial tuberosity Adductor brevis muscle Adductor magnus muscle Adductor longus muscle Semimembranosus muscle (Superficial) Femoral artery Semitendinosus muscle Sartorius muscle

280

Lower Extremity

Cranial

Distal

1 2 3 4 5

Gluteus minimus muscle Gluteus medius muscle Roof of acetabulum Iliofemoral ligament Superior glenoid labrum

Thigh, Coronal

281

1

2

3

4

5 7 9 11 13 15

6 8 10 12 14 16 18

17 19 21

20

23

22

25

24

26

27

28

29

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Urinary bladder Hip joint + head of femur Pubis (body) Greater trochanter Iliopsoas muscle Obturatorius externus muscle Lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein Pectineus muscle Tensor fasciae latae muscle Adductor brevis muscle Pubis (superior ramus) Symphysis

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Femoral artery and vein Adductor longus muscle Rectus femoris muscle Great saphenous vein Vastus intermedius muscle Sartorius muscle Vastus lateralis muscle Vastus medialis muscle Quadriceps tendon Lateral patellar retinaculum Medial patellar retinaculum Patella

282

Lower Extremity

Cranial

Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6

Gluteus medius muscle Gluteus minimus muscle Roof of acetabulum Urinary bladder Hip joint Head of femur

Thigh, Coronal

283

1

2

3

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 15 18 20 22

5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21

24

23

25

26

27

28

29 30

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Greater trochanter Iliotibial tract Ligament of head of femur Obturator internus muscle Femur (neck) Iliopsoas muscle Pubis (inferior ramus) Obturatorius externus muscle Pectineus muscle Tensor fasciae latae muscle Vastus lateralis muscle Symphysis

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Adductor longus muscle Adductor brevis muscle Great saphenous vein Femoral artery and vein Sartorius muscle Vastus intermedius muscle Femur (shaft) Vastus medialis muscle Lateral patellar retinaculum Quadriceps tendon Medial patellar retinaculum Patella

284

Lower Extremity

Cranial

Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6

Gluteus medius muscle Gluteus minimus muscle Roof of acetabulum Hip joint Head of femur Ligament of head of femur

Thigh, Coronal

285

1

2

3

4 6

5 7 9 11 13 15

8 10 12 14 16

17 19

18

21 20

23

25

22 24

27

26

29

28 30

31

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Obturator internus muscle Greater trochanter Iliotibial tract Femur (neck) Obturator externus muscle Vagina Iliopsoas muscle (tendon) Adductor minimus muscle Pubis (inferior ramus) Adductor brevis muscle Pectineus muscle Deep femoral artery and vein Gracilis muscle

20 Femoral artery and vein and saphenous nerve 21 Adductor longus muscle 22 Sartorius muscle 23 Great saphenous vein 24 Vastus intermedius muscle 25 Vastus lateralis muscle 26 Vastus medialis muscle 27 Femur (shaft) 28 Medial femoral condyle 29 Lateral femoral condyle 30 Knee joint 31 Head of tibia

286

Lower Extremity

Cranial

Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Gluteus medius muscle Gluteus minimus muscle Iliacus muscle Roof of acetabulum Piriformis muscle Head of femur Gemellus superior + inferior muscles Greater trochanter Obturator internus muscle Femur (neck) Iliotibial tract Obturator externus muscle

Thigh, Coronal

287

1

2 4

3

6

5 7 9 11 13 15

8 10 12 14

17

16

19

18

21

20 22

23

24 26

25

28 27

30

29

32

31 33

34 36

35

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Lesser trochanter Iliopsoas muscle Pubis (inferior ramus) Adductor minimus muscle Vagina Adductor brevis muscle Lateral femoral circumflex artery and vein Obturator nerve Gracilis muscle Adductor magnus muscle Deep femoral artery and vein Adductor longus muscle

25 Femoral artery and vein and saphenous nerve 26 Femur (shaft) 27 Sartorius muscle 28 Great saphenous vein 29 Vastus medialis muscle 30 Vastus lateralis muscle 31 Iliotibial tract 32 Vastus intermedius muscle 33 Knee joint 34 Medial femoral condyle 35 Head of tibia 36 Lateral femoral condyle

288

Lower Extremity

Cranial

Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6

Gluteus maximus muscle Levator ani muscle Obturator internus muscle Piriformis muscle Ischium Gemellus superior + inferior muscles 7 Anus and external anal sphincter muscle 8 Ischioanal fossa 9 Sciatic nerve

Thigh, Coronal

289 2

1 3

4 6

5 7

8 10

9

12 14 16

11

18 20

13

15 17

22

19

24

21 23

26

25

28 30

27

32

29 31

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Quadratus femoris muscle Adductor magnus muscle Iliotibial tract Vastus lateralis muscle Adductor minimus muscle Great saphenous vein Adductor brevis muscle Femoral artery and vein Semitendinosus muscle Tibial nerve Gracilis muscle Vastus medialis muscle Biceps femoris muscle (long head)

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Popliteal artery and vein Sartorius muscle Medial femoral condyle Semimembranosus muscle Lateral femoral condyle Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head, attachment) Knee joint Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head, attachment) Head of tibia Anterior cruciate ligament

290

Lower Extremity

Cranial

Distal

Thigh, Coronal

291 2

1 3

4

5

6

8

7

10 9 12 11 14 13 16 15

18 20

17

22

19 23

21

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Gluteus maximus muscle Sacrum Sacrotuberal ligament Obturator internus muscle Ischium Semitendinosus muscle + biceps femoris muscle (common attachment) Adductor magnus muscle Semitendinosus muscle Biceps femoris muscle (long head) Vastus lateralis muscle Perforating artery Gracilis muscle

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Great saphenous vein Semimembranosus muscle Sciatic nerve Sartorius muscle Medial femoral condyle Tibial nerve Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head) Common fibular nerve Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head) Popliteal artery and vein Joint capsule and semimembranosus bursa

292

Lower Extremity Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

Thigh, Sagittal

293

2

1 3

4

5 6

7

9 8

11

10

13

12

15

14

17 19

16 18

21

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

20

Greater trochanter Gluteus medius muscle Tensor fasciae latae muscle Quadratus femoris muscle Lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein Gluteus maximus muscle Perforating arteries Biceps femoris muscle (long head) Vastus intermedius muscle Biceps femoris muscle (short head) Vastus lateralis muscle

12 Common fibular (peroneal) nerve 13 Superior lateral genicular artery and vein 14 Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head) 15 Quadriceps tendon 16 Lateral meniscus 17 Lateral femoral condyle 18 Soleus muscle 19 Knee joint 20 Plantaris muscle 21 Lateral condyle of tibia

294

Lower Extremity Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

Thigh, Sagittal

295

1 3

2

5

4

7 9 11 13 6 15 8

17

10 12 14 16 18 19

20

21

22

23 25

24

27

26

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Gluteus medius muscle Gluteus maximus muscle Greater trochanter Quadratus femoris muscle Tensor fasciae latae muscle Adductor magnus muscle Lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein Biceps femoris muscle (long head) Vastus lateralis muscle Sciatic nerve Rectus femoris muscle Semitendinosus muscle Perforating arteries

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Tibial nerve/common peroneal nerve Femur (shaft) Semimembranosus muscle Vastus intermedius muscle Femoral artery and vein Quadriceps tendon Popliteal artery and vein Patella Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head) Lateral femoral condyle Soleus muscle Knee joint Lateral meniscus, posterior horn Lateral condyle of tibia

296

Lower Extremity Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6

Gluteus medius muscle Gluteus maximus muscle Tensor fasciae latae muscle Quadratus femoris muscle Iliofemoral ligament Lesser trochanter

Thigh, Sagittal

297

1 2

3 5

4

7 9

6

11

8 10

13

12 14

15

16 17 18

20

19

22

21

24

23 25

26

27

28

7 Femur (neck) 8 Perforating arteries 9 Lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein 10 Adductor magnus muscle 11 Rectus femoris muscle 12 Biceps femoris muscle (long head) 13 Vastus medialis muscle 14 Deep artery and vein of thigh 15 Vastus intermedius muscle 16 Semitendinosus muscle (tendon) 17 Femur (shaft)

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Femoral artery and vein Rectus femoris muscle (tendon) Semimembranosus muscle Patella Anterior cruciate ligament Knee joint Posterior cruciate ligament Patellar ligament Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head) 27 Tibia (head) 28 Soleus muscle

298

Lower Extremity Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Gluteus medius muscle Gluteus maximus muscle Tensor fasciae latae muscle Piriformis muscle Sartorius muscle Obturator internus muscle + gemellus muscles Femur (head) Ischium Obturator externus muscle Quadratus femoris muscle

Thigh, Sagittal

299

1

2

3

4

5 7 9 11 13 15

6 8 10 12 14

17

16

19

18 20

21

22

24

23

26

25 28

27 29

30

31 33

11 Iliopsoas muscle 12 Semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles (common tendon attachment) 13 Lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein 14 Lesser trochanter 15 Pectineus muscle 16 Biceps femoris muscle (long head) 17 Perforating arteries 18 Sciatic nerve 19 Rectus femoris muscle 20 Deep femoral artery and vein

32

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Vastus intermedius muscle Adductor magnus muscle Vastus medialis muscle Semitendinosus muscle Quadriceps tendon Femoral artery and vein Patella Semimembranosus muscle Patellar ligament Medial femoral condyle Knee joint Medial meniscus (posterior horn) Medial tibial condyle

300

Lower Extremity Cranial Ventral

Dorsal Distal

1 2 3 4 5

Gluteus medius muscle Gluteus minimus muscle Ilium Gluteus maximus muscle Iliopsoas muscle

Thigh, Sagittal

301

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8 10

9

12

11

14

13 15

16

17

18

19 21

20

23

22

19 25 24

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Hip joint Obturator externus muscle Femur (head) Lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein Ischium Pectineus muscle Quadratus femoris muscle Deep artery of thigh Biceps femoris muscle (long head, attachment) Adductor brevis muscle

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Semitendinosus muscle Adductor longus muscle Adductor magnus muscle Sartorius muscle Semimembranosus muscle Femoral artery and vein + saphenous nerve Gracilis muscle Vastus medialis muscle Great saphenous vein Medial femoral condyle

302

Lower Extremity

Proximal Lateral

Medial Distal

Knee, Coronal 1

303

2

3

4

5 6 7 9

8 10

5 12 11

13 14

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Quadriceps tendon Vastus medialis muscle Vastus lateralis muscle Suprapatellar fat pad Genicular anastomosis Suprapatellar bursa Iliotibial tract

8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Medial patellar retinaculum Lateral femoral condyle Medial femoral condyle Lateral patellar retinaculum Infrapatellar fat pad Patellar ligament Tibia (tuberosity)

304

Lower Extremity

Knee, Coronal

1 Superior lateral genicular artery and vein 2 Vastus medialis muscle 3 Vastus lateralis muscle 4 Superior medial genicular artery and vein 5 Genicular anastomosis 6 Femur (shaft) 7 Iliotibial tract 8 Medial collateral ligament 9 Lateral femoral condyle 10 Medial femoral condyle 11 Lateral meniscus (anterior horn)

305

12 Descending genicular artery and vein (articular branches) 13 Lateral tibial condyle 14 Medial meniscus (anterior horn) 15 Inferior lateral genicular artery and vein 16 Medial tibial condyle 17 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle 18 Inferior medial genicular artery and vein 19 Extensor digitorum longus muscle 20 Tibia (shaft) 21 Tibialis anterior muscle

306

Lower Extremity

Knee, Coronal

1 Vastus lateralis muscle 2 Femur (shaft) 3 Superior lateral genicular artery and vein 4 Vastus medialis muscle 5 Iliotibial tract 6 Superior medial genicular artery and vein 7 Lateral femoral condyle 8 Medial collateral ligament 9 Popliteus muscle (tendon) 10 Intercondylar fossa 11 Transverse ligament of knee 12 Anterior cruciate ligament 13 Lateral meniscus (intermediate portion) 14 Medial femoral condyle

307

15 Lateral tibial condyle 16 Medial meniscus (intermediate portion) 17 Anterior ligament of fibular head 18 Medial intercondylar tubercle 19 Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle 20 Medial tibial condyle 21 Inferior lateral genicular artery and vein 22 Inferior medial genicular artery and vein 23 Extensor digitorum longus muscle 24 Pes anserinus (superficial) 25 Anterior tibial recurrent artery and vein 26 Tibia (shaft) 27 Tibialis anterior muscle

308

Lower Extremity

Knee, Coronal

1 Vastus lateralis muscle 2 Femur (shaft) 3 Superior lateral genicular artery and vein 4 Vastus medialis muscle 5 Iliotibial tract 6 Adductor magnus muscle (tendon) 7 Anterior cruciate ligament 8 Superior medial genicular artery and vein 9 Lateral epicondyle 10 Medial epicondyle 11 Lateral femoral condyle 12 Intercondylar fossa 13 Lateral intercondylar tubercle 14 Medial collateral ligament 15 Popliteus muscle (tendon) 16 Posterior cruciate ligament 17 Lateral meniscus (intermediate portion) 18 Medial femoral condyle

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

309

Lateral tibial condyle Medial intercondylar tubercle Tibia (shaft) Medial meniscus (intermediate portion) Fibula (head) Medial tibial condyle Inferior lateral genicular artery and vein Inferior medial genicular artery and vein Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle Pes anserinus (superficial) Anterior tibial recurrent artery and vein Semimembranosus muscle (tibial attachment, deep pes anserinus) Extensor digitorum longus muscle Popliteus muscle (tibial attachment) Tibialis anterior muscle

310

Lower Extremity

Knee, Coronal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Vastus lateralis muscle Popliteal artery Superior lateral genicular artery Sartorius muscle Medial genicular artery Vastus medialis muscle Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head, femoral attachment) Superior medial genicular artery and vein Plantaris muscle (tendon) Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head) Iliotibial tract Adductor magnus muscle (tendon attachment) Lateral femoral condyle Medial collateral ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Medial femoral condyle Popliteus muscle (tendon) Intercondylar fossa Lateral intercondylar tubercle

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

311

Posterior cruciate ligament Lateral meniscus (posterior horn) Medial intercondylar tubercle Fibular collateral ligament Medial meniscus (posterior horn) Lateral tibial condyle Medial tibial condyle Tibiofibular joint Pes anserinus (superficial) Fibula (head) Inferior medial genicular artery and vein Inferior lateral genicular artery and vein Semitendinosus muscle (tendon) Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle Semimembranosus muscle (tibial attachment, deep pes anserinus) Tibialis posterior muscle Popliteus muscle

312

Lower Extremity

Proximal Lateral

Medial Distal

Knee, Coronal

313

1

2

3

4 6

5

8

7

10 12

9

14

11

16

13

18

15 17

20

19 21

22

23

24

26 28

25 27

30

29

32

31 33

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

34

Vastus lateralis muscle Sartorius muscle Biceps femoris muscle Popliteal artery and vein Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head, femoral attachment) Great saphenous vein Plantaris muscle (tendon attachment) Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head, femoral attachment) Anterior cruciate ligament Joint capsule Lateral femoral condyle Intercondylar fossa Popliteus muscle (tendon) Medial femoral condyle Posterior meniscofemoral ligament (Wrisberg ligament) Posterior cruciate ligament

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Lateral meniscus (posterior horn) Medial meniscus (posterior horn) Lateral intercondylar tuberosity Tibia (medial head) Tibia (lateral head) Gracilis muscle (tendon) Collateral fibular ligament Semitendinosus muscle (tendon) Tibiofibular joint (proximal) Pes anserinus (superficial) Fibula (head) Inferior medial genicular artery and vein Popliteus muscle Semimembranosus muscle (tibial attachment, deep pes anserinus) Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle Saphenous nerve Tibialis posterior muscle Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head)

314

Lower Extremity

Knee, Coronal

1 Biceps femoris muscle 2 Gracilis muscle 3 Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head) 4 Popliteal artery and vein 5 Sural arteries and veins 6 Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head, femoral attachment) 7 Plantaris muscle (tendon) 8 Saphenous nerve (branch) 9 Lateral femoral condyle 10 Medial femoral condyle 11 Iliotibial tract 12 Joint capsule 13 Arcuate popliteal ligament 14 Oblique popliteal ligament 15 Lateral tibial condyle 16 Semitendinosus muscle (tendon)

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

315

Popliteus muscle Medial tibial condyle Fibular collateral ligament Saphenous nerve Posterior ligament of fibular head Semimembranosus muscle (tibial attachment, deep pes anserinus) Fibula (head) Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head) Common fibular (peroneal) nerve Tibial nerve Posterior tibial artery (circumflex fibular branch) Plantaris muscle (tendon) Soleus muscle

316

Lower Extremity

Knee, Coronal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Biceps femoris muscle Semimembranosus muscle Common fibular (peroneal) nerve Gracilis muscle Tibial nerve Popliteal artery and vein Iliotibial tract

8 9 10 11 12 13 14

317

Saphenous nerve Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head) Semitendinosus muscle (tendon) Plantaris muscle (+ tendon) Popliteus muscle Soleus muscle Gastrocnemius muscle (medial head)

318

Lower Extremity

Knee, Sagittal

319

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