Place-names in Chaucer

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Lloyd D ick a so n H u ff B*A*f U n i v e r s i t y o f Ban A ntonio K .A ., B a y !o r U n i v e r s i t y

A D isse rta tio n P r e s e n te d t o t h e F a c u l t y o f t h e G ra d u a te School i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r t h e d e g r e e o f D o c to r o f P h ilo s o p h y i n t h e D epartm ent o f E n g lis h I n d ia n a U n i v e r s i t y A u g u st, 1949

ProQuest Number: 10295246

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality o f this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t u p on th e quality o f th e c o p y subm itted. In th e unlikely e v e n t th at th e author did n ot se n d a c o m p le t e m anuscript a n d th ere are missing p a g e s , t h e s e will b e n o te d . Also, if m aterial h a d to b e r e m o v e d , a n o te will in d ica te th e d eletio n .

uest ProQ uest 10295246 Published by ProQ uest LLC (2016). Copyright o f th e Dissertation is held by th e Author. All rights reserved. This work is p r o te c te d a g a in st unauthorized c o p y in g under Title 17, United States C o d e Microform Edition © ProQ uest LLC. ProQ uest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

AOK$r# Henry H o lla n d C a r te r * i t was w i t h a r e e l s e n s e o f a n t i c i p a t i o n t h a t 1 welcomed h i s p r o c e s s ! o f t h e prob lem o f t h e p l a c e names i n C hau cer *s works a s a t o p ie o f s t u d y .

X want t o

t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y o f e x p r e s s in g t o B r . C a r t e r my g r a t i ­ t u d e f o r h i s c a r e f u l g u id a n c e and h e l p f u l s u g g e s tio n s * f o r M s p erso n al, i n t e r e s t and co u n sel* and f o r t h e f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e s e a r o h w hich h e p r o v id e d . P lac e -n a m e s r e p r e s e n t e d a c o m p a r a tiv e ly new f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h f o r me* and so i t was t h a t P la g e Hameg i n t h e

&jgSLil&

§ sa $ M & & I pj m l M

BaHgfls m & Essis Jassisgs

V a r i a n t f came t o b e o f such v a l u e i n t h e p r e s e n t stu d y ? and t h e a u th o r* D r. W in th rop M o on Richmond, h a s g iv e n f r e e l y o f hi® tim e and h a s p o i n t e d o u t i n v a l u a b l e a i d s i n t h e s tu d y o f p lace-n am es#

I h av e r e l i e d h e a v i l y on h i s

knowledge* and I g i v e him her® Ey b e s t th a n k s f o r h i s u n a b a te d i n t e r e s t and r e a d y w i l l i n g n e s s to h e l p i n t h e advancement o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n * I w ish a l s o t o e x p r e s s ray th a n k s and a p p r e c i a t i o n s To D r. R u d o lf B* G o t t f r i e d , t o whom X ©m in d e b te d f o r h i s s y m p a th e tic c r i t i c i s m and h e l p f u l comments i n c o n n e c tio n w i t h t h i s stu d y ? and To Hr* H i l l e r o f t h e l i b r a r y o f I n d ia n a U n i v e r s i t y f o r s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s g r a n t e d i n t h e us© o f t h e l i b r a r y ?

and t o Mrs* Shannon* Mr. Boerdman* Mr* Ming* and Mr* Thompson and o t h e r members o f th© l i b r a r y s t a f f f o r s p e c i a l h e lp g en e r on s l y g i v e n ; and. To t h e l i b r a r y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago f o r book© I h a v e u s e d th r o u g h t h e c o u r t e s y o f i n t e r - l i b r a r y l o a n ; and To Mr* J o u r n e l l o f t h e I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y B o o k s to re and t o A.J* By stro m and Co* o f Chicago f o r p e r m is s io n to p u b l i s h th© maps I h av e u s e d ; and f i n a l l y * To my f r i e n d s who h a v e b e e n k i n d enough to m a n i f e s t an i n t e r e s t i n th© d evelopm ent o f t h i s s tu d y and who h av e b e e n u n s p a r in g i n t h e i r encouragem ent *

I n d ia n a U n i v e r s i t y 1949

L lo yd B ic k a s o n H u ff

iii

DEDICATED

TO

MS’ WISE

TABL12 OF COHTSHTS

Page In tro d u c tio n • • • » • • •

.............................

«

1

Foreword • • * * . • ♦-*’* ............................ Work® Key ...................... C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C h a u c e ria n Place-N am es • • * • • Type© o f Place-N am es » « « • * • » • • • * • » * » Plaoe-Ham ee o f U n c e r ta in I d e n t i f i c a t i o n ........................ Works W ith o u t Place-Name® * * * • * * • * . # • * * B r i t i s h and N o n - B r i t i s h Place-Name® • » • » • * * « Humber and D i s p e r s i o n ©f R e f e r e n c e s ................................. Mood-Names * • • « • . • * • • • • • • • « • • • • A ppearance o f t h e Fl&ea-Kame© i n t h e Works * * * • The H a l a t i o n Between t h e Place**Homes and t h e T e l l e r o f t h e T a la i n t h e C a n te rb u ry Tale© * • . Th© H a l a t i o n Between C h au cer’ s Haoe-Efemee and Those i n t h e S o u rc e s and Analogue© o f h i s Works * P la n o f I n d i c a t i o n o f PI ace** Hemes i n t h e D i c t i o n a r y D i c t i o n a r y o f Place-Ham es i n C haucer • • « • • • » « • Appendix? C h au cer’ s World* With Maps Shoving t h e L o c a tio n o f t h e Place-Nam es by D i c t i o n a r y Number S e l e c t 'B ib lio g r a p h y

• • * * * • * * * • * • • • * » ' ......................

G e n e ra l B ib lio g r a p h y

v

*

1

5 8

17 19 20 22 25 27 29 55 61 91 94

• 274 233

• • • • 285

I1ITH0DUCTI0H Foreword The -purpose o f t h i s s tu d y o f t h e oXace-nam es i n t h e w orks o f C haucer i s t h r e e - f o l d 2

{1 ) to p r e p a r e a hand­

book f o r c l a r i f y i n g and e x p l a i n i n g t h e nl&ce-names i n t h e t

w orks and t o i d e n t i f y and make more r e e l to t h e s t u d e n t t h e more re m o te l o c a l e s j (2) t o h e l p i n e v a l u a t i n g C h au cer’ s u s e o f p la c e -n a m e s and d e te r m in in g t h e w o rth h e a s s i g n s to their , 5 and (5 ) t o i l l u s t r a t e how w id e - s p r e a d 'and g e n e r a l w ere h i s g e o g r a p h i c a l , l i t e r a r y , and h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t s * T h ere a r e , i n g e n e r a l , two kind© o f n la c e -n a m e r e s e a r c h : t h e one i s i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n a d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p l a c e name e t ymology as i t h a s d ev elop ed from th® e a r l i e s t record© o b t a i n a b l e ; t h e o t h e r i s co n cerned m a in ly w ith o la ce-n am e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and l o c a t i o n .

T h is s tu d y w i l l b e o f t h e

l a t t e r k in d . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p la c e -n a m e s i n Chaucer i s o f i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t and v a l u e f o r a number o f r e a s o n s *

In

t h e f i r s t p l a c e , such a s tu d y g i v e s on® some i d e a , n o t o n ly o f C h a u ce r’ s g e o g r a p h i c a l end c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s sb h e b r i n g s ur> t h e ml ac es and s u g g e s t s t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s , b u t a l s o o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l and c u l ­ t u r a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E nglish m an i n n o t o n ly th© England o f h i s and e a r l i e r t i m e s , b u t a l s o 1

2

i n o t h e r land® end o t h e r a g e s .

S e c o n d ly , one o b s e rv e s

C h a u ce r* s i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th© s o c i a l c o n d i­ t i o n s and th© c o m e r e e and t r a v e l o f h i s day? i t i s th u s p o s s i b l e t o th ro w a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t on C h a u c e r 1 s own l i f e a s one s e e s e v id e n c e i n h i s w orks o f h i s own t r a v e l s *

A th ird

v a l u e o f a p la c e -n a m e s tu d y o f t h i s k in d l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t b r i n g s t o l i g h t c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f th© c o u n try o r towns and v ill a g e © t h a t m ig h t o t h e r w i s e h av e b ee n b u r i e d i n o b s c u r i t y and f o r g o t t e n * One welcome a s p e c t i n t h e s tu d y o f u l ace-nam es i© t h e f a c t t h a t th e y a r e p r a c t i c a l l y i n d e s t r u c t i b l e *

Wars may

w ipe o u t a l l b u t t h e l a s t re m a in d e r o f a p e o p l e , b u t t h i s r e m a in d e r , w ith t h e ©am© c a r e w ith w hich c h i l d r e n i n s i s t on th© e x a c t tun© t o a so n g , o r s t e p s i n s dene®, o r word© i n a game, w i l l remember and u s e th© o l d p la c e -n a m e s w ith w hich th e y a r e f a m i l i a r *

A lth o u g h place-nam e© may b e as o b s c u re

in m eaning a© t h o s e o f s e v e r a l to w n s h ip s named by a C anadian g o v e rn o r a f t e r h i s w i f e ’ s d o g s , s t i l l p la c e -n a m e s a r e n e v e r m erely m e a n in g le s s sound© a r b i t r a r i l y a s s ig n e d to a lo c a l e * I n s p i t e o f t h e human elem e n t i n p la c e -n a m e s — t h a t c a p r i c e o r whimsy t h a t w i l l g i v e a c e r t a i n name to a p l a c e on t h e ©pur o f t h e moment o r t h a t w i l l g i v e a new? t w i s t o r m eaning t o a p e r f e c t l y h o n e s t name a l r e a d y a s s ig n e d — , p la c e -n a m e s a r e d e p e n d a b le , h i s t o r i c a l record© o f t h e p a s t . T h ere i® t h e d a n g e r , i n such a s tu d y o f p la c e -n a m e s a s t h e p r e s e n t on®, t h a t t h e P h ilo o n o m is t ( a word X hav e c o in e d

3

t o d e s i g n a t e one who i s "a l o v e r o f place-names**) w i l l a tte m p t t o e x p l a i n o r t o show t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f p la ce-n am es by h i s own la w s and t o i n t e r p r e t a p la c e -n a m e i n t h e l i g h t i n w hich h e would, l i k e t o s e e i t i n t e r p r e t e d .

We l i k e to he

a b l e t o t r a c e t h e s e p la c e -n a m e s a c c o r d in g to a s ta n d a r d p a t ­ t e r n and t o h a v e them add up t o a n e a t , l o g i c a l a n sw e r$ and c e r t a i n l y i t i s a g r e a t t e m p t a t i o n t o ro a d i n t o a name some d e r i v a t i o n o r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y some p e t th e o ry ? y e t t h e i n c a u t i o u s a m a te u r, i n an e f f o r t t o r e d u c e an o b s c u r e o r m y s t i f y i n g p la c e -n a m e t o a sim p le tw o -u lu s -tw o f o rm u la , w i l l r u s h i n w here t h e e x p e rie n c e d p h ilo o n o m is t f e a r s t o t r e a d . T h is l a t t e r , i n s t e a d o f a tte m p tin g t o a r r i v e a t a

fin a l­

i t y i n a l l o f hi© i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , w i l l r a t h e r f e a r to a p p e a r dogm atic* and w i l l i n soma o a s e s sim ply o f f e r t h e a v a i l a b l e e v id e n c e t o t h e r e a d e r and g i v e h i s own o p in io n s i n t h e c a e e , w ith o u t a t t e m p t i n g , s i n c e h e know s-he c a n n o t, to draw f i n a l c o n c lu sio n s . The o t h e r p i t f a l l , n e a r l y a n t i t h e t i c a l to t h i s o n e , l i e s i n th© d a n g e r t h a t t h e s t u d e n t o f p la c e -n a m e s w i l l f o r g e t t h e "human elem e n t" b e f o r e m en tion ed an d , i n t r y i n g to p ro c e e d on a s t r i c t l y s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s , w i l l a r r i v e a t u t t e r l y f a l s e co n c lu sio n s.

A lthough i l l u s t r a t i v e o f l e a r n e d p o p u la r e t y ­

mology r a t h e r t h a n s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n , e c a s e i n p o in t i s t h a t of, W illia m S t u k e l e y » e i g h t e e n t h c e n tu r y a n t i q u a r i a n , who g ave bb th© o r i g i n o f Heckpen t h e H e b ra ic "Ochim" meaning " d o l e f u l c r e a t u r e s " o r ’•s e ro e n te " } and t h e e n c i e n t B r i t i s h

"P en ” m eaning "head "— th u s # " S e r p e n t ’ s head.**

And t h e r e

w ere t h e wen who d e r iv e d t h e " C ric k " i n ” C r ic k la d e " from " C re e k " ; end th e n * n o th in g d au n ted * in v e n te d a u n i v e r s i t y a t t h e pi a c e t o make t h e d e r i v a t i o n more p l a u s i b l e #

In

p a ro d y o f t h e s e o l d - t i m e p h i l o l o g i s t s and t h e i r methods* one w r i t e r s u g g e s t id t h a t Lambeth s h o u ld h a v e i n I t s b ack ­ grou nd t h e M ongolian "lam©" m eaning " p r i e s t ," and th© H e b ra ic " b e t h , M o r h o u se — " th e p r i e s t 1s h o u s e , ” o r " a r c h b is h o p * © p alace* "

F o r t u n a t e l y * t h i s d a n g e r i s d i s a p p e a r i n g a s more

and more p h i l o e n o m i s t s l e a r n t h a t i t i s b e t t e r to come to th© s tu d y o f p la c e -n a m e s armed w ith a h e a l t h y im a g in a tio n r a t h e r t h a n a p se u d o - o r m is a p p li e d s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e * As "Edvard. Thomas says* " S c ie n c e g o e s deep* b u t t h e p u re s e n s e g o es d eep er#

^ I s e s c T a y lo r* Vordj* and FI a c e s * (Londons end Sons * L td • * n »d #TT*p * x i •

J#H# Dent

T h e re a r e t h r e e m ain d i v i s i o n s i n t h i s s tu d y o f p l a c e namess

( l ) t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n * co m prised o f tw e lv e t o p i c a l

d i v i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o and d e r iv e d from t h e second p a r t ; (E) t h e d i c t i o n a r y p r o p e r , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e h u n d red and t h i r t y - o n e p la ce-n am es* w ith t h e i r l o c a t i o n and t h e q u o ta ­ t i o n s o r r e f e r e n c e s from C h a u c e r’ s works i n which th e y a p p e a r; and (3 ) an a p p e n d ix c o n t a i n i n g a s e c t i o n on C h a u c e r’ s w o rld , and mans w i t h t h e p la c e -n a m e s l o c a t e d t h e r e o n by t h e i r d i c ­ t i o n a r y number#

5

Wor k s Key Th© f o llo w in g a b b r e v i a t i o n s w i l l b e u s e d th ro u g h ­ o u t t h i s n a n e r i n r e f e r r i n g to C h au cer* s w o rk s.

.Each

q u o t a t i o n I s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e c a s e o f each work ( w i th f o u r e x c e p ti o n s ) by t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n o f t h e name o f t h e work f o llo w e d by t h e number o f t h e i n i t i a l l i n e i n th e q u o ta tio n .

The f o u r e x c e p tio n s # w ith t h e m ethods o f t h e i r

i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n * a r e as f o i l o w e :

A Tr e a t i s e

on t h e A s tr o l ab e - - n u o t a t i o n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e i t h e r by I n t r o d u c t i o n ( i n t . ) and l i n e number* o r by P a r t ( I o r I I ) * by s u b d i v i s i o n , and by i n i t i a l l i n e number;

Boece—

ru o t& tio n I d e n t i f l c a t i o n by Book ( I - V ) * by Ketrum (K .) o r Pros© ( P .) * and by i n i t i a l l i n e number;

The Legend o f

Good W om en --qu o tatio n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by T ex t (F o r G ) » and by i n i t i a l l i n e number; and T r o i l u s and G r i s e y d e - q u c t a t i o n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by Book ( I - V ) , and. by i n i t i a l l i n e number* Th© a b b r e v i a t i o n cystem a p p e a rs b elo w : ABC. Adam. An el •

A n e lId a and A r c i t e .

A s tr

A T r e a t i s e on t h e A s tr o l a b e . (S e a a b o v e .)

BC

A B e la d e o f C o m p lain t.

ED*

Th© Book o f t h e Duches s

Bo

B o eo e. (S ee a b o v e .)

Comr 1 a y n t 6 f Ar_-our &*

The Como!ri n t o f Ch r a c e r to M s P a r s e . The Cook1s P r o lo gue end Te l e . A Com ololnt t o h i s Lndy♦ The C l e r k P r o lo g u e end T e l e . The Comel e i n t o f Ka r s * The Comulg.int u n to P i t y * Th e Cornel a i n t o f Venus* The Crnon *s Yeoman *$_ Pro3 ogu e and Tel e * F o rtu n e * The Former Ag e * The F r i a r 1 r .Prol o&ue end T a l e * The F r a n k l i n *g P ro lo g u e end T r i e * G e n ti l e s s e • The General Prologu e » The ho u se o f Fame * The K n i g h t *s T a l e * The Legend o f Good Yemen« (S ee s h o v e . ) Lek o f S t e d f s s tn e s s e * The K a n c l n l e 1e P ro lo g u e and T a l e * K e r c i l es B e e u t e * The ZTologue and T e le o f P e l l b e g * The !■•I I I e r 1f P ro lo g u e and Tale* .

The Konh*s P ro lo g u e end Tel e * The Kan o f Lgw*g I n t r o d u c t i o n , P r o lo g u e , and T a le ™ ~~

7

Ijrch-

The I e r c h a n t 1a P ro log uo and T e l e *

HP.

Th© Hun 1g P r i e s t *e P ro lo g u e and T a l e .

Fard#

The P a rd o n e r*e P ro lo g u e and T e l e .

P are*

The P a r s o n *s P ro lo g u e and T e l e *

?1 *

The P a r lia m e n t o f Fow lg*

Bhys*

The F h y e io ia n* e T e l e *

Ft *

The P r i o r e s s *a I n t r o d u c t i o n * P r o lo g u e * and T ale*

Pypy *

ProTOThs .

E*

To Bosemounde* The Roman n t o f t h e R o s e .

gs* t

Sz*

The Re e y e 1 b P ro lo g ue and Tnl e .

Sco£.

Lenvoy de Chauce r a S co gan .

S h ir.

The Shiom an*e T e l e •

S ir.

The P ro lo g u e and T? I e o f S i r Thou a s *

§M*

The Second Hun* o P ro lo g u e and T a l e .

So *

nun.irt.w n 141

Sum

The S o u i r e f e P ro lo g u e and T e l e .

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A lg e slr A lle© undre A rto y s B a ld e sv e lle B a th e B ell® Bel me r y e B frv y ck B o lo lg n e B rita ig n e B urdeux C a rta g e G au nter b u ry Ghene Coloign® B ertem o u th e Sngelond Hinglissh FI a u n d re s F laundatyssh F re n s s h jy n y stare G a li c e Gaunt G ernede G ooti end Gret© See Hull© J e ru s a le m L aty n L e tte r Londonn Lyeys M id d elb urg h L o rth fo lk Or ewel 1 © Ox©nford P & latye P sry y s Pa ry e P ruce Ijjreardie Rome R o u n c iv s le

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54

n a t u r e o f t h e i r d u t i e s would te n d t o c o n f i n e t h e s e d ia ra c ~ t o r s t o a c o m p a r a tiv e ly sm a ll a r e a o f o "'© ration; p e r h a p s i t i s t h i s f a c t 9 v i t h t h e i r g r e a t e r a b i l i t y and i n c l i n a t i o n t o ro ad # t h a t oosnses then, t o h e i n t e r e s t e d i n fa r -a w a y names— a t any r a t e # one f i n d s a g e n e ro u s u s a g e of- e x o t i c p la ce* nem.es; f o r ex am p le# a l l h u t two o f t h e Second him* a o la o e name© a r e i n o r ab o u t Roue; t h e 1 ea rn e d O h a u n te o le e r d i s ­ c o u r s e s f a m i l i a r l y o f C a r t a g e * -d&iote# and o t h e r d i s t a n t p l a c e s | and t h e P r i o r e s s * s s t o r y i s s e t i n Asy e #

The

f t o r i e s th e m se lv e s# s i n c e th e y a r e o f a r e l i g i o u s o r m oral n a tu r e # employ a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f B i b l i c a l and. h i s ­ t o r i c a l names | t h e Ho ah # Who h a s i n c o r p o r a t e d one o f th e lo n g e r l i s t s o f

n am es

i n t o h i s t a l e# ha© co un ted

h e a v i l y on t h e B i b l i c a l # le g e n d a ry # and h i s t o r i c a l exempla h e had re a d ? o v e r h a l f o f t h e place-nam e© i n t h e Parson*© sermon exo B i b l i c a l *

F i n a l e v id e n c e showing C h a u c e r’ s

c a r e f u l i n t e g r a t i n g te c h n i q u e a t work i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e f a c t t h a t each o f thee© t a l e s h a s a t l e a s t one "home r e f e r e n c e # 1* a s i n t h e c a s e o f S e i n t F o u le s b e l l e i n t h e Mn*& Vrle st* © s t o r y and L in c o ln i n t h e Priore© ® ’ s* (*>)•

O th er . P r o f w i o n a l &BS. 5 f f i l - j 3 s £ s § g l a s r i

C h a ra c te rs*

I n t h i s s u b -g ro u p a r e i n c lu d e d t h e I .an o f Law#

t h e M anciple# t h e Smtasoner# and t h e P h y s i c i a n .

As h as

b ee n p o in te d o u t e ls e w h e re i n t h i s caper# t h e P h y s ic i a n mention© no piece-nam e© ; h e begin© h i s s to r y # t e l l s i t , and s t o p s — a l l o f which bre%ri t y and d i s p a t c h a c c o r d s v e i l

55

w ith h i s u r o f e e s i o n .

A e i m i l e r economy i s o b se rv e d i n

t h e Man of Law, v ro t e l l s a s t o r y weak i n n a r r a t i v e h u t s tr o n g i n a c c o u n t o f ^ la o e -n a n te s; and on© see© h e r e a C h a u c e ria n to u c h o f c h a r a c t e r i n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e l e g a l mind t h a t would o n ly n a t u r a l l y he l e s s co n cern ed v i t h n a r r a t i o n t h a n w i t h a s ta te m e n t o f f a c t s #

The Man­

c i p l e * i f one may ju d g e from t h e f a c t t h a t m ost o f t h e p l a c e s he m e n tio n s a r e i n and s h o u t London, was n o t © w id e ly t r a v e l l e d man, n o r would h i s work r e q u i r e a g r o a t d e a l o f tra v e l#

On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e Summoner*s work r e q u i r e d

him t o move a b o u t more end m eet many kind© and c l a s s e s o f p e o o le *

The s e t t i n g o f t h e bummoner’ s s t o r y i s iiol d e m e s n e ,

y e t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e P r i a r i n t h e s t o r y sp e a k s much th ro u g h ­ o ut g i v e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o b r i n g i n exem l a c o n t a i n i n g B i b l i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l p lace-n am es#

Thus t h e r e ©re s t o r i e s

\ - i t h i n t h e main s to r y ? and t h e o lsc e -n e m e s m en tion ed by t h e “p l a y e r F r i a r " a r e more s u i t a b l e to him and more n e a r l y w hat one would e x n e c t from him th a n from t h e Summoner, who i s a c t u a l l y c r e a t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r and t e l l i n g t h e t a l e . (c#}

The P r o v i n c i a l j e t s :

In t h i s s e c t i o n a r e in c lu d e d

t h o s e o f more l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s th a n t h e c h a r a c t e r s m e n tio n e d above*

A t r i l o g y o f f a b l i a u x i s formed by t h e

s t o r i e s o f t h e R eeve, t h e k i l l e r , and t h e Cook.

These

l o c s l i s t © r u n t r u e t o form i n t h e f r e t t h a t o n ly on© r e f e r ­ ence ( FIemvng i n t h e Cook’ s fra g m e n t) o u t o f t h e t o t a l number o f re fe re n c e © i n t h e t h r e e s t o r i e s i s to a p l a c e

o u t s i d e o f England*

The o la e s - m m e s in t h e T i l l e r ' s t a l e ,

f o r i n s t a n c e , a r e c o n ta in e d i n London o r w i t h i n a f i f t y m il e r a d i u s o f t h e c i t y ? h e would p ro b a b ly Lave been a t a l o s s t o o f f e r many f o r e i g n o r " e x t r a - E n g l i s h * p l a c e names*

A lth o u g h t h e h e e v e 's p la c e -n a m e s a r e more e x te n ­

s i v e th a n t h e M i l l e r ’s , y e t th e y a r e a l l E n g lis h *

The

Canon’ s Yeoman i s s e p a r a t e from t h e t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s men­ t i o n e d sino© a b o u t h a l f o f h i e r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o f o r e i g n p la c e -n a m e s*

P erh ap s h© had s tu d i e d t o b e a c l e r k u n t i l

h e v e n t to work f o r t h e Canon; i n any c a s e , h e seems to b© f a m i l i a r v i t h t h e f o r e i g n p la c e - n a m e s , a lth o u g h p ro b a b ly n o t a t f i r s t hand*

The o t h e r h a l f o f t h e ol&ce-names a r e

.E n g lish , and t h e s e t t i n g I s London* The C o n t i n e n t a l s The t h r e e men ( t h e M e rc h a n t, t h e F r i a r , and t h e F r a n k l i n ) i n t h i s g ro u u a r e p la c e d t o g e t h e r s i n c e th e y a r e one s t e p removed from t h e l o c a l s above*

P ro b a b ly th©

F r i a r i s n o t a, n a t i v e Englishm en t o b e g in v i t h , a s would seem t o b e t h e c a s e from th© ooening l i n e o f h i s t a l e *

Th©

s e t t i n g o f h i s s t o r y may b© Sngland? he r e f e r s f o u r tim e s to olsce-nexnes* b u t th e y a r e n o t c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s t o r y end a r e d is p e n s a b l e *

P o s s i b l y th® F r a n k l i n had l i v e d

e a r l i e r i n L i t t l e B r i t t a n y a c r o s s t h e E n g lis h C h a n n e l, w here h i s s t o r y t a k e s pi©ce*

Over a t h i r d o f t h e p l a c e -

names a r e F re n c h ; many o f t h e r e e t a r e c l a s s i c s ! •

The

57

F r e n h l i n c o u ld re a d * and lie seems t o b s f a m i l i a r v i t h t h e n l n c e s on t h e b a s i s o f 0 lo n g p e r i o d o f l e i s u r e l y r 00 d i n g . The K erch an t* men o f t h e world end s h a r p t r a d e r , seems to h e e l a b o r a t i n g on some l i t t l e s t o r y g o t from one o f h i s b u sin e ss a s so c ia te s *

He i n t e r l a r d s h i s a c c o u n t v i t h B ib­

l i c a l and c l a s s i c a l p la c e - n a m e s » a lth o u g h th e y would seem t o n r o c e e d from an a r g u m e n ta tiv e n a t u r e grow ing o u t o f a l i t t l e l e a r n i n g r a t h e r th a n from, g r e e t f a m i l i a r i t y v i t h g reat lite r a tu r e . The C o sm o p o litan s About o n e - t h i r d o f C h a u c e r’ a c h a r a c t e r s vho g e t to t e l l th e ir s to r ie s are f a r - tr e v s lle r s * two s u b -g ro u o s s

They d i v i d e i n t o

t h e I t a l i a n T r a v e l l e r s and t h e V o rid

T ra v e l!e ra . (a).

The I t a l i a n T r a v e l l e r s t

T h is s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s

Chaucer h im s e lf * a s t h e one who t e l I a t h e s t o r i e s o f H e l l * b e e and S i r T h o n a s, t h e C l e r h * end th© P a r d o n e r .

For

th e s e th ree * I t a l y r e p r e s e n ts th e f u r th e s t* i f n et th e o n ly , e x te n t of t h e i r t r a v e l .

C h a u c e r’ s p aro d y o f th© r o ­

mance* S i r Tfaopas* i s c o m p le te even to t h e n lrc o -n a m e s s e l e c t e d ; i n s t e a d o f s e t t i n g h i s s t o r y i n c o u r t l y F ra n c e o r England* h e c l e v e r l y e e l e c t s t h e com mercial F la n d e r s " a l b ly o n d e t h e s e e ”--?' p h r a s e im p ly in g ro m a n tic d i s t a n c e b u t i n r e a l i t y a m a t t e r o f o n ly a few h o u r s ’ j o u r n e y . f u n i s i n c r e a s e d when C haucer b r i n g s i n F e i r y l a n d , v i t h

The

a l l i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s o f u n r e a l i t y , b e c a u s e n o th in g co u ld b e more p r o s a i c a l l y r e a l th a n t h e sw e a tin g b r o o m ta il S i r Thco&s ride© o r t h e Mgr@y g o sh a u k w (a hawk flow n only by yeomen) on h i s wrirfc*

As f o r F e l i b e e , C hau cer, re p ro v e d

by t h e h o s t f o r S i r T honas, conform© w ith a v en geance to ■m aiH nw n

• •» n w m n —

t h e k in d o f s t o r y r e q u ir e d *

He w is e ly i n c l u d e s a minimum

o f n la c e - n a m e s , s i n c e h e knows t h a t th e y s&d l i f e , p u r p o s e , and d i r e c t i o n t o a. s t o r y ? and he w ants n o th in g to d e t r a c t from t h e m o r a l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h i s s t o r y o f Hdoctryn@ *11 The C l e r k , a t r u e s c h o l a r , had l e a r n e d h i s s t o r y i n I t a l y ; and i t I s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f in d t h i r t y - t h r e e o f t h e t h i r t y s i x r e f e r e n c e s i n t h a t co u n try *

The P a r d o n e r ’ s s t o r y i s

s e t i n F l a n d e r s , as i s t h a t of S i r Thopa®*

The P ard o n er

had b ee n a t l e a s t once t o Rome and p e rh a p s had made s e v e r a l o t h e r tr ip © t h e r e to r e p l e n i s h h i s su p p ly o f pardons and r e l i c s ; th u s i t i© t h a t one f i n d s i n h i a s t o r y a f a i r l y g e n e ro u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f [email protected], a b o u t h a l f o f w hich a r e w i t h i n a tw o-hundred and f i f t y m ile r a d i u s o f London and p ro b a b ly r e p r e s e n t t h o s e o l a e e s t h a t h e v i s i t e d i n t h e course o f e x e rc is in g h i s o ffic e * {b}*

The World T r a v e l l e r s !

The f o u r c h a r a c t e r s i n

tlii© f i n a l 8 © c tio n - - th e K night# th© S q u i r e , t h e Wife o f B a th , and t h e Shioman— r e p r e s e n t t h e cream o f t h e v a r i e d c ro n o f t r a v e l l e r s on t h e p ilg rim a g e *

The K n ig h t, a man

who had l i v e d a f u l l , u s e f u l l i f e , had t r a v e l l e d t o an e x t e n t t h a t n o t many p e o p le t r a v e l today*

The p la ce-n am es

h© m e n tio n s a r e l a r g e l y le g e n d a r y and c l a s s i c a l i n kind# su c h a s Kegne o f P lu to * G i t h e r o n , Femewye, T heb ee, and A tth e n c e * knowledge*

He draws h i s nemee from h i e own t r a v e l s and H is s o n , t h e S q u i r e , had done some t r a v e l l i n g ,

p r o b a b ly w ith h i s f a t h e r s and t h i s f a c t , added to ©. n a t u r a l l y f a n c i f u l and ro m a n tic t u r n o f m ind, c a u s e s him to t e l l a s t o r y o f fa r -a w a y T a r t c r y ; h e a l s o m e n tio n s A r a b ia , I n d i a , th© G re e k s , v u s s i a , and p l a c e s i n I t a l y *

He know© ab o u t

some o f t h e s e p l a c e s p r o b a b ly o n ly a t second h a n d , b u t h e knows them w e ll*

The W ife o f B ath s u r p a s s e s even t h e

K n ig h t r s a t r a v e l l e r *

A ltho ug h h e r a c t u a l s t o r y t a k e s

p l a c e i n iSngland, ©he g i v e s e v id e n c e i n h e r lo n g i n t r o d u c ­ t i o n o f a s h a rp mind and f a m i l i a r i t y v i t h fo x p la c e s *

Her

p lace-n am es* i f p l o t t e d on t h e map, would show a te n d en cy t o p re d o m in a te i n th© two ex trem es o f England and t h e n e a r B ast*

I f th© F r i a r had i n t e r r u p t e d h e r so o n e r and sh e had

n o t b een allo w ed t o b r i n g i n h e r so n o ro u s r o l l o f p l a c e names f o r s t a g e s e t t i n g and s u s p e n s e , i t i® p o s s i b l e t h a t she m igh t h? v e t o l d a d i f f e r e n t t a l e — one t h a t would e n a b le h e r to t a k e a d v a n ta g e o f h e r t r a v e l s *

From t h e Shiomam one

would be l e d to e x p e c t one o f th® l a r g e s t array s of p la c e names; b u t , a s i t t u r n s o u t , he m e n tio n s only h a l f a do zen , non© o f w hich i s © s e a p o r t , a l th o u g h B ruges was an impor­ t a n t commercial c e n t e r o f t h e tim e*

V ith th© e x c e p tio n o f

o n e , how ever, each i s m entioned from t h r e e to f i v e tim e s ; i n o t h e r w o rd s , h© seems to b© f a i r l y f a m i l i a r w ith t h e o la e e s *

T here ©.re b u s i n e s s r nd money t r a n s a c t i o n s enough

t o r e f l e c t t h e Shipman*s own acumen i n t r a d e ; b u t o f t h e f a i r p ro m ise o f p la c e -n a m e s fro m B e r t emeu t h e * Bur d e u x , K u l l e , C a r t a g e * G o o tlo n d * I V n y s t e r e » B r i t s i g n a . and opayne a s mentioned, i n t h e G e n e ra l P ro lo g u e t h e r e l a n o t a sign*

V hat c o n c l u s i o n s may one draw from t h i s s tu d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e p la c e -n a m e s i n t h e T a le s t o t h e t a l l e r i n each a r s e ?

T h ere would seem t o b e t h r e e s

( l) th e re

i s a d e f i n i t e , s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n b etw e en n e a r l y every one o f t h e p ilg rim ® and h i s s t o r y ; t h u s one may l e a r n more o f t h e c h a r a c te r © o f t h e s e p e o p le by o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e t y p e s and q u a n t i t i e s o f t h e p l a c e names th e y employ; ( 2 ) C haucer knew v h a t h e was ab o u t when h e c r e a t e d t h e p i l g r i m s ; th© r e g u l a r i t y o f th© p a t t e r n o f t h e p la ce-n am es i n each s t o r y shows t h a t he was n o t unaw are o f t h i s f e a t u r e a® one o f th© f i n a l to u c h e s I n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f each p e r ­ son? and f i n a l l y , (3 ) one may o b s e r v e t h e a r t i s t r y w ith w h ich C h a u c e r, a s s i g n i n g d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s to t h o v a r i o u s p la c e -n a m e s i n t h e T a l e s » l i n k s each t r a v e l l e r w ith h i s s t o r y ♦ t h u s l e n d in g a sem blance o f t r u t h t o t h e acco u n t*

61

The R e l a t i o n Between C h a u c e r*© P la c e * Hemes and Those i n t h e S o u rc es and A nalogues o f h i s V orka" By c o n s u l t i n g C h a u c e r’ s s o u r c e s and r e c o r d in g th© r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw e en h i s own p la c e -n a m e s end th o s e i n t h e w orks from, w hich h e drew them* one i s a b l e t o g a i n & g lim p s e o f h i s m ech an ics o f a u t h o r s h i p and t o o b se rv e th e v a l u e h e a s s i g n s i n one s o u r c e and h i s d i s r e g a r d o f th o s e in a n o th e r* Th© sy stem i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l b e t o l i s t t h e main s o u r c e s and analogue© o f th® work i n each case*

T h is l i s t

w i l l be fo llo w e d by a l i s t o f Chaucer* s p la c e -n a m e s on th® l e f t ; e x te n d in g to t h e r i g h t w i l l b e a s e r i e s o f numbered columns* t h e numbers c o r r e s p o n d in g t o t h e number© o f th® l i s t o f source© and an a lo g u es*

I n t h e s e v e r t i c a l columns

w i l l apnear l i s t © o f place-name© from C h aucer’ s s o u r c e s or t h e a n a lo g u e s , o r from t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s * t h u s , i t w i l l b e p o s s i b l e t o make a h o r i z o n t a l com parison o f an i n d i v i d u a l C h a u ce ria n p lace-n am e v i t h t h e names a© th e y a p p e a r i n , o r a r e a b s e n t fro m , h i s so u rc e s*

I t ha© n o t b een p o s s i b l e i n

e v e ry c a s e to know w h eth e r a l l o r p a r t , and i f s o , v h a t p a r t , c f a p a r t i c u l a r work in f l u e n c e d Chaucer*© w r i t i n g ; X h av e r e l i e d l a r g e l y on t h e key s e le c tio n © i n Bryan and B e m o ste r, su p p le m e n tin g them i n some c a s e s and o m i t t i n g them i n o th e r s *

O c c a s io n a lly a n o th e r s o u r c e b e s i d e s t h e

m ain one© u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l b e w r i t t e n a f t e r one o f

Chaucer* b p la c e -n a m e s when i t i s ^resumed t h a t h e to o k t h e © in g le p la ce-n am e from an e x tra n e o u s ; o u r o e .

A fte r th e

. l i s t i n g s o f t h e C h a u c e ria n and source-nam es* t h e r s w i l l f e 1low , i n t h o s e c a s e s i n w hich i t h a s b een p r a c t i c a b l e to r e c o r d them , numbered l i s t s to c o rre s p o n d v i t h t h e Numbered s o u r c e s and analogue© a t t h e to p o f t h e u n i t , o f n la c e name© w hich Chaucer m ig ht have made u s e o f I n h i s a c c o u n t, b u t w hich f o r ©om© r e a s o n h© ©aw f i t t o d is c a r d # sion© h ave b ee n mad a t

Two omis­

t h e Can e r a ! P ro lo g u e , b e c a u s e i t i s

l a r g e l y o r i g i n a l w ith Chaucer and t h e mark© l e f t by s o u rc e s a r c to o i n d i s t i n c t t o b e r e a d w ith a c c u r a c y ; end t h e Cook’ s Tel® , s i n c e i t i s i n su ch a fra g m e n ta ry c o n d i t i o n and s i n c e i t a p p e a r s p o s s i b l e t h a t Chaucer was c l e a n i n g to draw h i s s t o r y from l i f e i n London a b o u t him* In c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s stu d y o f th© pla ce-n am es as th e y a.'.near i n t h e s o u r c e s f o r C h aucer’ s work©, one se y make th© f o llo w in g c o n c l u s i o n s i (1 )*

In th® c a s e s o f h a l f o f t h e t h i r t y - s i x o f C h au cer’ s v o rk s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n , Chaucer d e r iv e d few o r none o f h i s p la c e -n a m e s from h i s so u rc e s? i n f a c t , i t a p e e a r s t h a t i n t e n o f h i s works n o t any o f h i s pla ce-n am es were ta k e n from h i a so u rce s# T h is f a c t i n i t s e l f sh o u ld go f a r tow ard con­ f u t i n g any c h a rg e s t h a t Chaucer was an u n o r i g i ­ n a l i m i t a t o r ? even i n d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n s he

63

o m itte d and sup p lem en ted t h e m a t e r i a l a s h e ©aw f i t *

In none o f hi© v o rk e does Chaucer

com.© o t even i n t h e b a l a n c e betw een h i s own place-name© and t h o s e i n h i a source© i n t h e c a s e o f each s e p a r a t e work; i n o t h e r word©, h e w ro te s e l e c t i v e l y *

ho d e f i n i t e r e a s o n o r p a t ­

t e r n can b e o f f e r e d f o r d e te r m in in g C haucer1© a c c e p ta n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f p lace-n am es i n h i s s o u r c e s o t h e r th a n t h e p o i n t t h a t i t i s an ex* ample o f hi© own c r e a t i v e and a r t i s t i c s e n s e o f value© a t work*

Chaucer d id n o t mind b o r ­

ro w in g , b u t he tr a n s c e n d e d hi© source© i n t h e process* (2 ).

In t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e o t h e r e i g h te e n o f C haucer*© w orks— t h a t i s , t h o s e i n w hich he sta y e d c l o s e r t o M e source© i n s o f a r a© place-name© a r e con­ c e rn e d — , C h a u c e r’ s place-name© e r e l a r g e l y echoed and d u p l i c a t e d i n t h e source© h e used? t h i s means: t h a t i n p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s , such a,© h o u se o f Fame, Legend o f Good homen, and t h e

•»**' ■*»» l* * ftm w «

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Place-name© so u n if o r m ly con firm ed and so much an a c t u a l p a r t o f hi© s o u r c e s t h a t he saw.? no r e a s o n to change o r v a ry d r a s t i c a l l y t h e nesaeB a© he found them i n t h e so u rc e s*

64

(3 )*

A f i n a l i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i s o b se rv e d i n t h e

f a c t t h a t Chaucer w i s e l y t a k e s hi© m a t e r i a l from b o th con tem p o rary end C l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s . K ia f a v o r i t e s sees* to b e B o c a e e io ' s T e s e i d e # Be Cl e r i t- IP I i e r i b u s , and Be g e s i b u s V irorm a; Ovid* s K etrrr.ornhose s ; S t r t iu e ’ s B h e b ia d ? V i r g i l ’ s >€ne id and de L o r r io and de Kean* s Kom&n de l a r.pgg.

I t h a s been found t h a t h e

g o e s t o each o f t h e s e v e r b s a t l e a s t t v i e e f o r h i o oi &ce-neir.es •

Chaucer* s w o rk s » 1 i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e tv o men­ t i o n e d above* a n p e e r below i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r f o r con­ s i d e r a t i o n and com parison v i t h t h e s o u r c e s and a n a lo g u e s i n each case*

65

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91

PI an o f X ndice.il on o f P la c e -H s n e s in th e D ic tio n a ry The ol& ce-nam es a r e arranged, i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r . I n each p la c e -n a m e u n i t ( a u n i t b e in g t h e n la c e -n a m e , it© i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ©nd l o c a t i o n > and t h e q u o t a t i o n s from Ohauoer i n • h i c h i t I s f o u n d ) » t h e f o llo w in g o r d e r w i l l b e o b s e rv e d i n t h i s v a n o r $ and any d e v i a t i o n s from t h i s form w i l l b e i n d i c a t e d : Tin f i r s t form o f t h e p lace-n am e i n each u n i t i s t h e f i r s t » ©1 phabe t i c a l l y , o f t h o s e u s e d by Chaucer*

If

Chaucer v a r i e s t h e s p e l l i n g o f t h e h i ace-n am e, t h e s e v a r i a ­ t i o n s f o l l o w a l p h a b e t i c a l l y in p a r e n t h e s e s .

Thi© Chau­

c e r i a n g ro u p i s t h e n fo llo w e d by t h e m odem © n a ilin g o r name and t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and l o c a t i o n o f t h e h i a c e . I n each u n i t i t w i l l b e u n d e r s to o d t h a t AOG*» CAW. , PHR. , h£» * and PSA, ( s e e g e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a c h y ) h ave form ed t h e b a s i s f o r l o c a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p la c e -n a m e ; any o t h e r s o u r c e s w i l l be i n d i c a t e d .

In ca se a r e l a t i o n ­

s h i p i e found t o e x i s t In a l i t e r a r y » g e o g r a p h i c a l > economic* s o c i a l t o r h i s t o r i c a l way b etw een two o r more p la c e - n a m e s , each w i l l c a r r y a f t e r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n o t e o f r e f e r ­ ence to t h e o t h e r . F o llo w in g t h i s h a l f o f t h e u n i t , t h e q u o t a t i o n s from Chaucer a p n e a r w hich ©mnloy re fe re n c e © to t h e pi tee-neon© in a u e e tio n ; th e s e q u o ta tio n s w ill be arranged in alp h a­ b e t i c a l o r d e r a c c o r d in g t o t h e key a b b r e v i a t i o n o f C h au cer’ s

92

work ( se© Work© K ey ) ; th i© k e y r e f e r e n c e a p p e a r s immedl a t e l y under th e q u o ta tio n *

A fter th e se l e t t e r s of id e n ti­

f i c a t i o n * t h e l i n e r e f e r e n c e ( b a s e d on t h e PKH* e d i t i o n o f Chaucer*© w o rks) f o i l o v a * v i t h t h e f o u r e x c e p ti o n s n o te d i n t h e Works K ey,

T h is l i n e r e f e r e n c e w i l l c l way©

b e i n t h e fo rm o f one number o n ly ; t h e w ords "and f o llo w in g " w i l l b e u n d e r s to o d a f t e r t h e number i n each case* I n c o m p ilin g t h e d i c t i o n a r y * t h e p o l i c y h a s b ee n to i n c l u d e n o t o n ly t h e a c t u a l p la c e -n a m e s th e m s e l v e s b u t a l s o i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s * o r what may b e te rm e d • 'd e r i v a t i v e p la c e -n a m e s * " su c h a s r e f e r e n c e © t o p e o p l e d w e ll in g i n a d a c e (#* £•# "IK.esrrn g n— a. n a t i v e o r i n h a b i t a n t o f F l a n d e r s ; o r "B rito n s"— persons l iv i n g in th e B r iti s h I s l e s ) ; o r r e f e r e n c e s o f an a d j e c t i v a l n a t u r e (©*£•* "R oaeynw— en a d j e c t i v e d e r iv e d from t h e p la c e - n a m e ) ; o r r e f e r e n c e s t o la n g u a g e s * f o r t h e name o f a la n g u a g e c o n t a i n s ■I t h i n i t s e l f an i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c o u n tr y w here i t o r i g i ­ n ate© (©•£•» ® A rabiks o r “P renshe*1— each i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e c o u n t r y o f w hich i t i© t h e a c t i v e to n g u e )# I t h a s a l s o b e e n t h e p o l i c y to g i v e a t 1 e- c t one I l l u s t r a t i v e q u o t a t i o n f o r each fo rm o r vr. r i a n t © c e llin g o f t h e p la c e -n a m e i n each u n i t * v i t h a t l e a s t one q u o t a t i o n from e a ch o f Ch&ue e r *© worke i n v h i c h i h e pi ece-nam e a p p e a r s * In c a s e C haucer u s e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l p la c e -n a m e

10

fre q u e n tly

beyond t h i s p o i n t a s t o make i n d i v i d u a l q u o t a t i o n in c o n ­ v e n i e n t and cumbersome* t h e r e w i l l f e l l o w u n d e r t h e l a s t

93

q u o t a t i o n i n such a u n i t t h e n o t a t i o n " C f• , " f o llo w e d by a d d i t i o n a l k e y r e f e r e n c e s to C haucer*s varies* v i t h t h e l i n e numbers i n each ca se#

T hese k ey r e f e r e n c e s to Chau­

cer* s work© w i l l b e i n a l p h a b e t i c ^ ! o rd e r*

a n o l e n t g e o g r a p h e r s a G re c ia n r i v e r ( to d a y c a l l e d A © protano} t h a t o r i g i n a t e d i n X toirue» flow ed betw een rn d f o r n e d t h e boun dary o f £ t o . l i e and Ac © m a n ia , and flo w ed i n t o t h e I o n ia n S e e . and t h i r t y rail as long*

I t i s a b o u t on© hun dred

The name A chelous a l s o re fe r©

t o t h e god who l i v e d i n t h e r i v e r » tlia son o f T eth y s and Oceana©•

Some le g e n d a r y account© g i v e him t h e

form and shaoo of a s e r v a n t {su p p o se d ly r e f e r r i n g to t h e t o r t u o u s c o a r s e o f t h e r i v e r b e f o r e H ercul e© r e ­ s t r i c t e d i t v ith . cs.nal s and d i k e s ) ; o t h e r s say t h a t h e to o k t h e form o f a b u l l and l o r t one o f h i s h o r n s i n a f i g h t w ith H e r c u l e s .

T h is h o rn l a t e r became t h e c o rn u -

c o v i a , o r h o rn o f o le n ty *

( ACT)* ) *

• * • and h e , H e r c u l e s , s lo v h I d r a t h e s e r v a n t , ooc. b r end t h e venym? and Achelecu© t h e f l o d , d©fowled i n h i s f o r heai, d r e y n t e h i a e c h e m e fa st v i s a g e in h i s © tre n d e s, £ 0 * IV, K*?, 4 5 . . . . t h a t i s t o sewn, t h a t A chaleous coude t r a n e f i g u r e n in to d iv e rs lik n e sse * Be. IV, K .7 , 4 9 . Of A cheloys two h o m e s h e br&k o o n , i k • BIO6 . Ac h a l gous* ■-

cfcei

A c h e lo u st A ch elcue s P e rsia :

f a t h e r o f C y ru s.

See A ch e le c u s * See AchaXe c u s » So c a l l e d a f t e r A chjem ensc, g ra n d ­

Armenia i s a l s o i n c l u d e d , w h e re in a r e

t o b e found

th© s o u r c e s o f t h e

A i o h r a i -'S H i v e r a n d t h e

T i g r i s B iv e r* w hich a r e

sep arate

P e r s i a n name f o r

is

P ersia

n o r t h by R u s s i a and t h e th e

P e rsia n G u lf,

and i d e n t i c a l .

Iran*

It

C a s p i a n Ben ?

th e S tra it

The

if . b o u n d e d o n t h e on t h e

o f Ormuz*

s o u t h by

and t h e A ra b ia n

Sea.| o n t h e v e s t b y T u r k e y and t h e P e r s i a n G u l f ; on t h e

e a s t by B a l u c h is ta n

and A fg h a n is ta n *

m ent was a n a b s o l u t e m onarchy u n t i l cer* s l i f e - t i m e * {T am erlane)*

larg e

part

The g o v e rn ­ D uring

Chau­

P e r s i a w a s c o n q u e r e d b y T i m u r t h e Lem©

a T artar

o f G h e n g is lih in *

1906*

and

s u p p o se d ly d e sc e n d ed from

He a l s o

o f India*

conquered

cen tral

b

A sia

so ld ier and a

See P e rc ie ru

T i g r y s a n d .13u f r a t e s r e e o l v e n a n d o p r l o g on o f o v e i l © i n t h e o r e g g a s o f t h e r o c h e o f t h e c e n t r e o f Achemepye. Bo* V* M . l * 1 * A ffrlcan P u b liu s

{A f f r i k a n * / o f f r y c a n ) * C o rn eliu s S clp io

C o rn eliu s

b u t i t was t h e

th e

of th e

i n a dream *

was allo w ed

C icero

adopted

o sp ecially

i n Homo’ s C a r t h a g i n i a n w ar© ;

A l d e r who* f o r t h e

in A frica*

surnam e.

idea

A f ric a m is t h e H ld e r and .Publius

so n o f t h e f o r m e r , w ere fam ous

f o r th e p a r t th ey clay ed

a© h i e

B oth

S c i p i o A f r i c a n u u t h e Y o u n g e r * who v r s

by t h e o l d e s t

in b a ttle

," f r i e a m is :

proves© h e d e m o n s tr a te d to

o rig in ates*

A lder a p p e a rin g

( 353 »? .♦

H e t h a t v r o t ©1 t h ’ e y y s y o u n T h a t h e m otte* kyng G c lo io u n ,

to

edont and

•’A f r i c a n u e 1’

Chaucer uses*

th e Younger

^cin io

The n o b le man, t h e A f f r ik a .n ,— Quelle m e rv e y le s f o r t u n e d th en * HD. 235. T h is f o r s 03rd© / f f r i c r r tie h e n t e anon, And f o r t h w i t h hyra u n to a h ro u g h te • ? F . 1 2 C. F o rd e I? t h a t n y s t e w h e th e r me w e b e t To e n t r e o r 1 e v e » t i l Af f r y c a n , By g i d e , h e h e n t e , and s h o f i n a t t h e g a t or, v i d e . FF. 1 5 2 . O f. Pg* 4I f 4 3 9 50s 9 5 , 1 0 6 . "rikan*

A fr ic a n u B 8

See A f f r ie a n *

A ffrik ® ( A f f r y k e , A u f f r i k e , A u f f r i k e e ) ♦

A fric a !

A n c i e n t l y , t h a t p a r t o f n o r t h e r n / . f r i e s c o r r e s p o n d in g a p p r o x im a te ly t o modern T u n i s .

I t was c o n t a in e d i n t h e

m ain b o u n d e r le e o f C a r th a g e , l a t e r becoming a p r o v in c e o f home*

D uring C h au cer1e t i m e , t h e B e n i-H a fs d y n a s ty

(1228*1534) r u l e d i n T u n is .

See B a r b a r t e g C a r t a g e g

R egulue h ad d e ta k e n i n h a t a i l e n sn y e men o f A ffry k e and c a s t hem i n t o f © te re s * Bo. IX, P. 6 , 7 7 . The hook a e y th H e r c u r i e , ©amis f a y l e , Br ■d h/m goo i n t o I t ayl e , And lev© A u f f r i k e s r e g i o u n .

12 429 *

*

T or c e r t e y n , whoso k oude iknowo Kyglita t h e r e l l e t h e srm es Been o f famous f o l k t h a t h en y h een I n A u f f r i k e , E u ro p e , and A sye. 10?. 1336 • I .a o r o b e u s , t h a t w r i t t h e a v i s io n I n A f f r i k e o f t h e w o rth y C ip io u n . J■ »p. « 02 &O#■

97

F y r s t t e l l e t h i t * v h en S c ip lo n v e s com© I n A ffrik© * how h e met e t h K a s s y n is s e # Pg. 3 6 , A ^fry can * Af f r y k e #

A f r ic a *

w*k

5#

A lb y o n #

A frl-r.rra ss

See A f f r i c a n #

See A ff r ik ® . trm m !!■ nr m inim w n 'r * i««

A lb io n :

The name means " w h ite l a n d * 11 r e f e r r i n g

t o t h e c h a lk y c l i f f s o f E n g la n d 's s o u th e r n c o a s t .

An­

c i e n t l y i t i e t h e name o f B r i t a i n * a p p l i e d p o e t i c a l l y A lban and A l l i n o r i g i n a l l y had r e f e r -

l a t e r t o England#

WHM fcrtihrtimini itm * w

w

©nee to t h e S c o t t i s h h ig h la n d s * 0 c o n q u e ro r o f B r u te s Alloy on ¥ h i e b t h a t by l y n e and f r e e e l e c t i o n Been v e r r a y k y n g „ t h i s song t o yov 1 a end e • COP* 22* 8*

Ale a t h o g *

K egaras

c i t y o f Kegara*

K obinson i d e n t i f i e s t h i s a s th©

I t * w ith i t s t e r r i t o r y * Keg a r i a * i©

l o c a t e d i n G reece b etw een t h e C o r i n t h i a n Bey* th© S a r o n ic G ulf* and t h e H alcyon See*

H egara t h e c i ty *

a b o u t tw en ty m il e s from Athens* v?. s l o c a t e d on t h e p a s s from i n t e r i o r G reece to t h e P elop on nesu s#

h eg ara f e l l

c u c e c s o iv e l y t o th© Kacedoni&ne and t h e Homans#

It

d e r i v e s i t s name f r o m Alo&thd&e* i t s f o u n d e r . A lc& thoe h e b a s e g e t h hard© and long©# LGV* ( F ) 1902*

Athene© wan t h y s kyng Kynoe a ls o * Ac / I . ca.tb.oe* end o t h e r to u n e s mo. LOW* ( F ) 1 9 2 2 .

7*

Al e x a n d r y n *

A le x a n d ria n s

An a d j e c t i v e p e r t a i n i n g

e i t h e r to A lex a n d er th© G re a t o r to t h e c i t y ha fo u n d e d , A le x a n d r ia — n ro b a b ly t h e l a t t e r *

See AIisg-ndr .©»

98

W ith l y r t h e » l o r d o f t h i s gardyn* T h a t f r o th© l e n d Al ex and ryn Mad© th© tre e © h i d r e h e f e t * £5 * 601* 8♦

A lg e g lr*

A lg e c ire s o r A lg ez ira es

A famous and im por­

t a n t o ld s e a p o r t i n t h e p r o v in c e o f C a d iz i n S p a in , l o ­ c a t e d some s i r m i l e s v e s t o f G i b r a l t a r .

A n c ie n tly i t

v s s c a l l e d P o r t u s A lb u s; i t marked t h e s i t e o f t h e f i r s t M o orish v i c t o r y i n S p a in and was ta k e n from t h e hoor© i n 1544 by A lfo n so XI o f C a s t i l e *

See Q ern a d e *

I n Gernad© a t t h e a ©eg© ©eh hadde h e be of A lg e z ir. (VPm 56* 9.

Al i aandr© ( AXi a a u n d r e , A l y s a u n d r e } * liwilifiSSfk1'■ 1!

A l e x a n d r 1a :

a n c i e n t s e a p o r t founded I n Cgypt by A lexander*

An

I t 1©

l o c a t e d a t t h e ex tre m e n o r t h w e s t e r n p o i n t o f t h e t i l e d e lta *

I t h a s lo n g b e e n a c e n t e r o f l e a r n i n g end c u l­

t u r e and i t r a n k e d n e x t t o Rome i n t h e Roman iJapire* X© Bende men i n t o ValaJcye, To .Fruyee, and i n t o T a r t ©rye* To A ly s a u n d re , ne i n t o T u rk y e . B£* 1624. T har i s a cbanoun o f r e lig io u s ? Amonges u s , void© in f e c t © a l a to u n , Though, i t a s g r e e t v© re g.s vr s Sfynyree* Lome, A l i s e u n d r e , T ro y e , and o t h e r e th r e e * CT. 9 7 2 . At A l i s a u n d r e h e was v han i t was i^onne. GP* 51*

G w o rth y P e t r o , kyng o f C i p r e , a l s o , T h a t A U s a n d r e van by h e ig h m ax© trie* n c* 2 5 9 1 .

A Jisa u n d re .

Al e x a n d r i a :

See A1i &a n d r e *

99

A ly g g u n d re # 1 0•

Amazones,

A le x a n d ria :

M azon e*

See A l i s a n d r e ,

In Greek le g e n d # t h e w a r - l i k e r a c e

o f women d w e ll in g i n t h e C aucasus and a lo n g th© s h o r e o f th© B la c k S e a ,

They o f t e n f o u g h t w i t h t h e Greek©

in h e ro ic tim e s.

The Greek w r i t e r * D iod oru s# r e c o r d s

t h a t th© A s i a t i c Amazon® l i v e d a lo n g t h e b a n k s o f Thermodon B i v e r i n po n t u e .

T here was a n o t h e r g r o u p ,

t h e A f r i c a n Amazons, w hich l i v e d on an i s l a n d i n Lake T r i t o n ! © i n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f A fr ic a *

T h is group

was d e s tr o y e d by H e r c u le s and t h e i r i s l a n d e n g u lfe d by th© n e a rb y K e d ite rra n © a n Ger.

( API), )»

See T i t h e s

Femenye, And o f th© g r e t e b a t a l l l e f o r t h e no nes B itw ix e n Atth@n@s and Amazonas, Kn, 8 7 9 , 11,

Amya s ,

Keauxs

Th© Drench l i n e t h a t Ghaucer was

t r a n s l a t i n g i s , " E e t r e a S stam pes ou a H i e u z , 1'

H ith e r

a c c i d e n t a l l y o r d e l i b e r a t e l y he r a n t h e p r e p o s i t i o n t o g e t h e r w ith t h e p r o p e r name and d e r iv e d **Amyes,H Beeux i s a. sm a ll town i n .France i n t h e d e p a rtm e n t o f S e in e - e t- H a r n e s i t i s l o c a t e d on t h e B arns D i v e r , tw e n t y - s e v e n m i1 es n o r t h e s s t of P a r i e *

H ir in g C h a u ce r* ©

l i f e i t was t h e sc e n e o f th© w ar o f t h e J a c q u e r i e , T h ere i s a b e a u t i f u l c a t h e d r a l * begun i n t h e t w e l f t h c e n tu ry *

See Keynes *

Which haddo l e v e r i n t h i s c a r c Have ben a t Revnes o r Amyas, KR. 3825 *

A pennyn* A p e n n in e s:

The m ain m o u n ta in rang© o f I t a l y *

I t r e a c h e s from

t h e L i g u r i a n A les n e a r Savona s o u th

e a s t t o th©

of t h e p e n i n s u l a , fo rm in g t h e hr ckbcne

end

of th e e t r i o of la n d .

and

I t l a a b o u t e i g h t hu n d red m i l e s

l o n g 9 and t h e a v e ra g e h e i g h t i s f o u r th o u sa n d f e e t * The h i g h e s t n e rk i s T’o n te C orno, v h ic h i s n e a r l y t e n th o u sa n d f e e t h igh * And s n e k e th o f A nernyn, t h e h i l l e s bye* a rt . 45 * 3*3*

A rfh a (A rsb y e )*

A ra b ia :

A p e n i n s u l a , r o u g h ly t r i a n g u l a r

i n s h a p e , l y i n g among S y r i a , L’t h i o n i a , P e r s i a , and E gynt*

On t h e m eet l i e s t h e Bed Sea and t h e G u lf o f

Sue 2;? t o t h e s o u th i r t h e A ra b ia n Sea end lid an G u lf 5 e & e tv a rd ly i s t h e P e r s i a n G u lf and t h e G u lf o f Oman5 and a p a r t o f S y r i a hound© A ra b ia

on t h e n o rth *

Trev/Iy sh e w as, t o myn ylf, The so l ayn f e n i x o f Arabye* BP* 981* lie s e y d e , "The kyng o f Arab© end o f I n d e , by l i g e lord® on t h i s solempne day Saileweth yow, as h e b e s t lean and may*" S o » 110 • 14 *

A ra b ia n s*

A ra b ia n s*

I n h a b i t a n t s o r n a t i v e s o f A rabia*

A lso a o l u r a l a d j e c t i v e h a v in g r e f e r e n c e t o n a t i v e s o r i n h a b i t a n t s o f A rab ia*

See Ay Abe *

* * *and t o A ra b ia n s i n A rabik* A e t r * I n t . , 56 . The names o f t h e s e m onthes v e r e c l e e i d t h u s , somme f o r h e r p r o p i r t e e s and somne by s t a t u t e s o f lo rd s© A r a b ie n s , somrae by o t h r e l o r d e s o f Home. A s tr * I , 10, 6 *

101

15#

AKSra ia# iK SSSbSSE SHt

A ra b ic s

The XAryuege sooken by A ra b ia n s *

See A ra b e * . * •an.d t o A ra b ie n s i n Ar&bik* A s t r * I n t * $ 36# A ra b y e * 16 *

A ra b ia ?

A ra b y en *

See A ra b e «

A ra b ia n s

An i n h a b i t a n t o r n a t i v e o f A rab ia*

See Arabe* He S u r r i e n , no noon Arabyen* Kk* £339* 17*

Arpi^on*

Aragons

was S a ra g o s s a *

A n c i e n t l y , a k i n g dor:' whose © c o ita l F ra n c e b ounds i t on t h e n o r t h end V alen­

c i a on t h e so u th ? t o th© e a s t l i e s C a ta lo n ia * and on t h e w est* Old end Hew C a s t i l e end H evarre*

In t h e

M id d le Agee* i t was one o f t h e tv© main C h r i s t i a n cen­ t e r s i n t h e I b e r i a n n e n i n s u la ? and d u r in g t h e t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s i t r o s e t o g r e a t c o v e r by ac­ q u i r i n g c o n t r o l o y e r V a le n c ia # S a r d i n i a , t h e S i c i l i e s , and t h e B a l e a r i c I s l a n d s *

Bee Cat e l e igne*

And a ll© t h a t u se d c l a r i o n In C a ta l o ig n e and A re # on * IIP* 1247* ■ »*w W

18.

Arc a dye *

A rc a d ia ?

A n c i e n t l y , a r e g i o n i n t h e m id e t o f

t h e P e lo p o n n e s u s , w ith A ohaia to t h e n o r t h , K e s s e n ia and L ac o n ia to t h e s o u t h , .HUis to t h e v e s t , and A r g o l i s t o t h e e a s t*

I t i s a lm o s t c o m o le te ly c u t i n and s u r ­

rounded by m o u n ta in s , one o f t h e f a c t s t h a t made A rc a d ia n r u r a l s im p lic ity n ro v e rb ia l*

Mercury was supposed to

h av e b e e n b o r n on Mount Ch/13 ©ne i n A rc ad ia *

102

h u t a l bo I t so t h a t t h e go dh ed e of L e r e u r i e , t h a t i® c le p e d t h e b r i d d o f Arc&dye, h a t h had m e rc i of t h e duo U l i x e s . B o . IV, K .3 , 1 7 . 19*

A rd ea*

A rdeas

A n c i e n t l y » t h e c a p i t a l , i n L o tiu m , o f

th© I u t u l i # a s e c t i o n i n t h e s o u th c e n t r e ! p o r t i o n o f Ita ly *

I t was l o c a t e d t w e n t y - f i v e m i l e s t o t h e s o u th

from Home and t h r e e m i l e s from t h e had i t e r r an eon Sea* A sm all v i l l a g e o f t h e a n c ie n t s ite *

s©me namei s l o c a t e d

on t h e

See L a w n s* mm. 1 ’ riri.i

Whan Ard©a b c s e g e d w s about© W ith Bcmeyns* t h a t f u l s t e r n a w era and s to u t© , F u l long© l a y t h e s a g s , and ly t© l wr o u g h t on. LG¥* (F) 1 6 9 4 . 20*

A r^e (A r g o n ) .

A rg o s:

I d e n t i f i e d by R obinson a s A rg o s,

a town i n A r g o l i s , G r e e c e , r e o u t a d l y t h e m ost a n c i e n t o f t h a t c o u n t r y # end s u p p o s e d ly fo u n d ed by In a e h u e in 1856 B .C .

I t i s l o c a t e d on t h e I n a c h u © R i v e r , a b o u t

tw e n ty m i l e s s o u th w e s t o f C o rin th # and was t h e s i t e o f an a n c i e n t te m p le t o H e r a , o r Juno*

l u r i n g th© tim e

o f C h r i s t , i t was secon d o n ly t o S p a r t a and was a c u l ­ t u r a l c e n t e r w i t h many f i n e b u i l d i n g s and w orks o f a r t * On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s t h e r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d o u b le m e an in g , and m ig h t one r e a d HC a ta l o ig n e and A ragon '1 i n p l a c e o f " C a ly d o ig n e and A rg eH7

I f Chaucer

a n te d to

r e f e r t o th© S p a n is h p r o v i n c e s ( u n i t e d i n 1137) i n an i n d e f i n i t e way and y e t bo t h a t h i s h e a r e r s would u n d e r­ s t a n d , h a m ig h t u s e t h i s method o f d i s g u i s i n g t h e nam es. He m e n tio n s th© t'wo names t o g e t h e r i n KF* 1 24 7.

See

She r i o t h i r e u n , and d r e d f u l l y sh e q u e k e th , A® d o th t h e brsuneh© t h a t L enherus shek eth * And h a s t v e r e e l l e in Argon t h a t c i t e * Xgw. ( F ) 2680* And h e i r h e v a s o f Calydoign© and A rg e. TO* V, 8 0 5 . “.For i f my f a d e r T id e u s t* h e seycle# “I l y v e d hedde# i c h h&dd® hen* e r t h i s , Of C&lydoyne and Arge a k y n g t C r i s e y d e l 11 TO* ?» 932* A rg e y e s *

A rg iv es:

T hose G reeks who l i v e d i n A rg o lis *

Homer e x te n d s t h e i r name t o i n c l u d e a l l t h e Greek© i n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r im p o r ta n c e i n t h e T r o ja n w ar u n d e r t h e i r k in g * Agamemnon*

S in c e T id e u s was f a t h e r o f

Diomede©» t h e l a t t e r would b e h e i r o f A rgeyes and Arge*

See C alydoigne*

How T id e u s was c l e y n v l o r d o f A rgeyec • TO. V, 1501* Argon*

Argos *

So© A rg e *

A r m o r 13c ( A r x n o r l k e )

*

A rm o ric a:

m ean ing “la n d by t h e sea.**

An o ld G a u li s h name

A n c ie n tly * i t was t h e n o r t h

w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f .France and com p rised i n g e n e r a l t h a t l a n d l y i n g i n b etw een th® mouths o f t h e r iv e r © S e in e and L o ire *

D u rin g th® M iddle Agee i t was r e s t r i c t e d i n

scope to B ritta n y *

See B ri t e i g n e ,

I n A rm o rik * t h a t c e l l e d M F r ita y n ® , T h er was a k n y g h t t h a t lo v e d and did© h i s uayne To s e r v e a la d y i n h i e b e s t© w ise* Frhk* 7 2 9 .

104

T h a t f y v e fadme a t th© l e e s t e i t o v e r s o r y n g e The h y e s t e ro k k e i n Armor i k B r ite y n e * P r n k * 1060* Moght Ch.arl es O lyver , t h a t to o k ay heed© Of t r o u t h e and honour* h u t o f Armor i k e Qen y lo n -*01 y v er* c o r r u p t f o r mee&e. Kk* 236 7. Armor i k e * 23*

A rras *

A rm o ric a :

Arr&es

See A rm o rik .

The c a p i t a l o f P a s - d e - C a l a i s i n F rance?

i t i s l o c a t e d on th© S carp a*

I t was t h e Nemetocenna

o r Hemetaeum o f t h e A tr© b a te s o f t h e Homans? l a t e r A tr a b a t e *

I t was f i r s t t h e c a p i t a l c i t y o f t h e A tr© b a te s

and l a t e r on o f A r t o is *

D u ring t h e l a t e K id d le Agee

A r r a s b elo n g e d t o Burgundy and went w i t h t h e N e th e r la n d s t o S pain*

See A r t o i s .

Bo f a i r was noon i n a l l A rras* SB* 1 2 3 4 . 24*

A rto v a»

A rto is:

A v e r y o ld p r o v i n c e i n t h e n o r t h o f

Franc©*

I t s c a p i t a l was A rra s? and l a t e r i t became

n e a r l y w hat i s now t h e d e p a rtm e n t o f P a s - d a - G d a l e . Under F le m is h r u l e d u r in g t h e K id d le Ages i t was a c o u n ty and was made a p a r t o f F ra n c e i n 1180 d u r in g t h e r u l e o f P h il in A ugustus*

S t . L ouis tu r n e d I t i n t o

a co u n t s h i p i n 1237 f o r R o b e rt 9 h i s b r o t h e r * I t w ent t o P h i l i p th© B old o f Burgundy*

In 1334

Bee A r r a s *

And h© h ad d e b e e n somtyme i n c h y v a c h ie In F L a u n d re s * i n A r t o y s , a n ! P y c a rd ie * GP. 8 5 . 25*

Ae y e *

A s ia :

A c o n t i n e n t i n t h e e a s t e r n homi s p h e r e

t h a t i s t h e l a r g e s t o f t h e l a r g e r d i v i s i o n s o f th e

105

world*

To t h e north i s t h e A r c tic Ocean? to t h e so u th ,

th e In dian Ocean? to t h e n o r t h e a s t , B ering S t r a it * s e p a r a tin g i t from t h e c o n tin e n t o f North America? and th© P a c i f i c Ocean l i e s on th e e a s t .

Legend h as i t t h a t

t h e r e g io n o f t h e Hindukueh was 11t h e c r a d le o f mankind** A sia ga*ve b i r t h t o many o f t h e moot g l o r i o u s o f th e c i v i l i r a t i o n © o f a n t i q u i t y am a l s o t h e g r e a t r e lig io n © o f mankind* Bor certayU s whoso koude iknowe l y g h t e t h e r a l l e th e armes seen Of famous f o l k t h a t han yheen In A u ffrik e# Suro^e# and Asy©* H P# 3 3 3 6 *

Thor was i n Asya* in & g r e e t c l t e a , Among as C risto n e f o l k , a Leva rye* Pr* 488* S6*

Athene© {Atheni© » A th en y s, Atihene®)*

A,thanes

The

c a p i t a l and main c i t y o f Greece and l a r g e s t c i t y o f A ttic a *

I t i s l o c a t e d five* m ile s from Piraeus# s e a -

n orf o f t h e S ero n ic Gulf* o f c u lt u r e and le a r n in g *

I t has lo n g been e c e n te r I t was t h e c a p it a l o f a

L a tin duchy from ea rly in th e t h i r t e e n t h cen tu ry u n t i l 1458# when t h e Turks invaded th© t e r r i t o r y * Let I t h i s n o b le n r1nee Theseus Toward Athene© i n hi© vey rydinge* A r i e l » 45* The porche ( th a t i s to p eyn , a g a t e o f th e toun o f Atheni© t h e r e as u h ilo e c n h r is hedden h i r congregaoloun t o rl caput e n ) - - t h i l k e porche hr oughts somtyme o l d s men* -■o * "V, *4 , 1* - --iiTrti

i i f*w■«—mi ii*n— * n rn T im n

lin rr

rw T iii)iiin—11

* .w i n i n * t

HMrmiim i*i■Ha# i jh i» iiw w * * a * » * w w w * w * * > * >

206

Vh&n t h r l t t y t i r c u n t £, f u l o f c u r o e d n e s s e , Hadde a l ayn P hidon i n A tth e n e s s t t e f e s t e . F rn k . 1 3 68 . L eo, Bemohhon, duk o f A t h e n s * Kov h e f o r s w o r hum f u l f a l s l y , And t r s y s e d P h i l l i s w lfc k id ly » T h a t k y n g as do-xhtre was o f T race* HP* 383 * And h a n hern o a r le d s o f t e u n to t h e t e n t e Of T h eseus? end he f u l so one hem sent© To A t t h e n e s , t o dW ellon i n u r is o u n * Xn* 2 0 2 1 . To s c a l e h a t h s e n t h y s son® A n d rc g e u s, To Athene© $ of t h e Which h y t happened th u s* T h at lie was s i a y n , i e m y n g e "olillosonhi e . '* ( F ) 1896*

O f. Bo* 1 , P . 5 , 28? HP. 1 2 2 7 , 2845? An* 3 6 1 , 8 7 3 , 3 8 0 , 9 6 8 , 9 7 3 , 2 2 9 3 , 1 3 9 2 , 1 39 5 , 2 4 0 6 , 1 4 1 3 , 2093, 2483, 2 7 0 1 , 2964, 29711 X&W* (P) 2 9 2 2 , 1 9 2 4 , 1 9 4 0 , 1 9 43 , 1 9 6 3 , 2 1 21 , 2 12 7 , 2305, 2360, 24 0 5, 24 4 2 , 2508, 2551. A th en ss

See Athene©*

A thens i

See Athene©«

A tth e n e e *

A th e n s ;

See Athene©»

A u f f ^ssassae r lk a * sssaxssm

A fr ic a *

See A f f r i k e—.

ASB ufflsg f fsaaaaassg r ik e g© i^ aa!*

A fric a ?

See A f f r ik e *

107

£ 27#

B a b ila n #

B a b y lo n ia n :

An a d j e c t i v e h a v i n g r e f e r e n c e

t o B ab y lo n ia., o r t o n a t i v e s o r I n h a b i t a n t s o f Baby­ lo n ia # ^ T h e r may h e s e e n t h e l a r g e w o u n d e s wyde Of m c r e e s e * and o f B a b i l a n T e s b e a # V£LTjLj# A O • Q«)*

See Gen* 27j

I Samuel 25; E s t h e r 7 f f , J u d i t h , by M r© good c o n s e i l , d e l i v e r e d t h e o i t s e o f B eth i;!!© , i n which she dwell ed , o u t o f t h e hand s o f O lo fe rn u s* H e l * 1098• Ageyns h i s h e e s t e no w ig h t d o r t r ^ r o a e e Save i n B e t h u l i a , a s tr o n g c i t e e , Vher© BXi&clilir?. © u r e e e t *-Tns o f t h a t p ie c e * T k , 25 64. B e th u li e * 37.

B lee*

B e th u lia «

B lm m

See B e t h u l i a *

A f o r e s t a lm o s t due n o r t h o f liarbledow n

and n o r th w e s t o f C a n te r b u r y .

See JBobbe- up~.and* dou n*

Ther© i s a p a r i r h now two and o n e - h a l f m i l e s to th© n o r th w e s t from C a n te rb u ry c a l l e d S t . Cosmus and St* Band an i n t h e B! ean*

It© p o s t o f f i c e i s m e r e ly B le a n .

Woot y e n e t w here t h e r © taut s. l i t e l tc u n V h ich t h a t y c le o e d i s Bobb© -up-and-doun, Under t h e B l e e , i n C au nterbu xy v«ye7 Bon. 1 • 38.

Bobb ©-u p - and - dpti n *

H arb led ov n (.?):

A sm ell town a b o u t

113

a m il e from C a n te r b u r y .

T h e re i s an a n c i e n t h o s n i t s l

founded by L e n f rs n c f o r l e x e r s b u t u se d nov f o r an alm shouse? i n c o n j u n c t i o n w ith t h e alm sh o u se i s th e v e r y o ld c h u rc h o f S t . 'N ic h o la s .

J.L * Covper s u g g e s ts

t h a t C haucer may b e r e f e r r i n g t o TJS-and-Bown F i e l d i n T h sn n in g to n *

T h e re may o o e s i b l y b e a c o n n e c tio n w ith

b o b b in g p ari© h w hich b o r d e r s on K i l t o n o a r i a h on t h e s o u th w e s t j u s t n o r t h from t h e London h ig h r o a d n e a r t h e t h i r t y - n i n t h m il ©atone b y Key S t r e e t *

S obbing

PI a c e i s an a n c i e n t e s t a t e i n t h e n e r i s h .

Sobbing

C h u rch 9 &. g i f t o f Henry 11 t o a m o n a s te ry i n th e I s l e o f Sbopoey* St* Mary and S t . S exburgh,, l i a s i n t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l b o u n d a r ie s o f C a n te r b u r y d i o c e s e and S l t t i n g b o u r n e d ean ery *

Bobbing v i l l a g e to d a y i s l o ­

c a te d a b o u t a m i l e and a- h a l f t o t h e n o r th w e s t from S ittin g b e u rn e .

See B l e e *

( BSG♦» HCK. )•

Voot y e n o t w here t h e r s t e n t a l i t e l to u n Which t h a t y c l reed i s B o b b e - u ^ end-dorm , Under t h e B lee* i n C a u n te rlm ry veye? . 1* 5 9.

Boghtoun£U u n d e r B l e e .

■£*£

»r!*T

f lif f r 1rlfi* llfrni'niujrij*

**^{|5*i3/«uvSa5

Boughton s t r e e t s

A town i n

K ent on t h e rood b etw e en London and C a n t e r b u r y » a b o u t t h r e e m i l e s w e st o f SI eon F o r e c t*

P ilg r im s r e g u l a r l y

s tc o n e d h e r e on t h e way t o C a n te r b u r y , ve h r d d e r i d e n f u l l y f y v e m i l e , At Boghtoun u n d e r F l e a u s gen a t a k e A men t h a t c lo th e d was i n c lo th e s , b le k e * GY. 5 5 5 .

bee B l e e *

114

40#

B o l o lg n e .

B olognas

AneientXy an i£tru so en town? nov

th© c a p i t a l o f B ologna p r o v in c e i n I t a l y * c a t e d n e a r t h e f o o t o f th© Apennines*

I t i s lo ­

C h a ri e@ t h e

G r e a t mad© i t r. f r e e t o w * and d u r in g C h a u c e r1© tim e i t waa famous f o r i t s u n i v e r s i t y *

Or B o lo ig n e may

n o s s i h l y h e ( s e e GP* 465 below ) B o u lo g n e* su r-K a r i n Pr&ne© on t h e .Bngllsh Channel* v h e r e e» o ld sunnosed r e l i c o f th© V i r g i n i s s t i l l v e n e r a te d *

See P*

But a t B o lo ig n e t o h i s o u s t e r d ae re * T h at t h l l & e tyme o f P au lk m-B co u n t esse* C lk . 539* Pro R o lo ig n a i s t h i s S r i o f Panyk-oom e*

* 939 * At Bom© sh e h ad d e been* and a t B oloigne* OP* 4 6 5 . O f. 41.

63-6* 7 6 2 $ 1069 *

B re t ( B r ito u n ) « B rito n s

A n a tiv e o r In h a b ita n t of

t h e B r i t i s h Isle© * o r an a d j e c t i v e p e r t a i n i n g t h e r e to ,

And o t h e r h a r p e r s many ©on* And th© B r e t G la s c u rio n * HP. 1 2 0 7 . *In name o f C r i s t , * o r i d e t h i s blin d © B r i t o u n , HDame Hermengyid* y i f me my sig h t© eg a y n l" ML. 561 * A B r i t o u n b o o h , w r i t t e n w it h B Y s u n g ile s baa f o t * and on t h i s booh h e swoor anoon* KX. 6 6 6 . 42*

R r lta i& n p ( B r it a y n e ) *

B ritta n y *

fo r m e r ly t h e Roman

A rm o rica and l a t e r a governm ent o f P re n o e , w ith ca i t a l o f Rennes*

On th© n o r th i s t h e B n g lis h Channel? on th©

115

mouth* P o ito u ; on th® s o u th w e s t end w est i s t h e A t l a n t i a Ocean; end on t h e e e s t a r e Anjou* P a i n e , and Normandy# I t was c a l l e d L i t t l e o r L e s s e r B r i t t a n y o r B r i t a i n (so m etim es B r i t a n n i a 2-finor o r C lam a rin e) i n c o n t r a s t t o G r e a t e r B r i t a i n o r B r i t t a n y a c r o s s t h e E n g l i s h Jfeannel I n A r t h u r i a n romance t h e name wB r i t a i n 0 i s alw ays u se d in re fe re n c © to B rittany*

England i s d1 s t i n gu i s h e d *ar

th e n a m e " L o g r i s " o r *Logria*"

S e e Armorik.

I n Armoyik* t h a t c a l l e d i s B r ita y n e * M e * 729 • Be knew a ll© t h e hovene®, a s th e y w e re , Pro G ootlond to t h e cape o f B yriyster e, And ©very c r y k e i n B r i t sign© and i n Scayne* GP. 4 0 7 . c* -

Zrnh* 9 9 2 , 1 0 6 0 , 115 9, 1221, 1240, 12 68 .

B rit- v n e . 45*

B ritta n y s

Sac B r i t a i g n e .

B rita i^ n e (B rlte y n e )♦

B rita in ?

G re a te r B r ita in .

See Ei Shoop hym t o goon and d w e l l © a y e e r o r tveyn© i n B n g elo n d , t h a t c l coed was eek B r ite y n e * Frrik* 8 0 9 . L a r g e c c e , t h a t w o rth y was and wye, Hi I d By t h e ho nd a k n y g h t o f nryt?* Vac s i h t o A rto u r o f B r i t e i g n e * HE. 1197. B r i t eyne.

B rita in .

mmi. u j»»

44#

B rito n . or

B re to n s

See B r i t a i g n e . *1a m «.>w«»>* #«■.»**»*■—. i M lw w i i m

An a d j e c t i v e p e r t a i n i n g to B r i t t a n y

t o an i n h a b i t a n t o r n a t i v e o f B r i t t a n y ,

B rite ig n e #

s e e Armor I k s

116

Bymeyed I n M r f i r s t e B r i t o n tonge? Which© lay©® w ith h i r i n s t r u m e n t sr. th e y so ago* F r n k * 711* T h is B r i t o n c l e r k hym. asked o f [email protected] The which© t h a t h@ had. know® i n o1.de dawes* Frnke 1 1 7 9 . 45*

B rito n s*

B rito n s:

B r itis h Isle s*

I n h a b ita n ts o r n a tiv e s o f th e

Bee Bngelcnd * *w*wmijiiiw im i

To w&ly® f l e d d e t h e Oristyanyt©@ Of old® B riton® d w e lly n g e i n t h i s 11®. ii-Xi* 544 * B i t y e t n©re G ristan ® B r i t o n s so e x i l e d T h a t t h e r n@re n&tme t h a t i n h i r p riv e te @ Honoured G r i s t and h e th e n f o l k t i g i l e d * MB. 5 4 7 . I n th*old@ day ©a o f t h e Kyng A rth ou r# Of w hich t h a t B r i t o n s spdken g r e e t honour* Al vies t h i s la n d f u l f i l d o f fa y e ry ® .

M I* 857 * B rito u n * 46*

B rito n s

See B ret*

B rito u n ® .

B re to n s ?

I n h a b i t a n t s o r n a tiv e © o f

B ritta n y .

Bee Armor i k $ B r l t a l g n e .

T h ie e old® g e n t i l B r i t o u n s I n h i r Of d i v e r s e © v entures maden l& y e s. Mrhk* 7 0 9 . 47*

Bromeholm*

Brombolias

dayea

What was su p p o se d ly a r e l i c o f

t h e C r o s s » known a s t h e .Hood o f Bromeholm* w*r © b r o u g h t i n 12£3 t o N o rfo lk from t h e B ast*

Thar® i s

ar e f e r ­

ence t o i t i n S k e a t *s e d i t i o n o f P i e r s Plowman B* V# 2 5 1 1 "And b i d d e h a Hod a o f bromeholm * b ry n g e me out© of d e tte ."

It

v t

.s

a n r i o r y l o c r t e d on t h e c o a s t r l -

m ost due e a s t o f Worth

a l sham*

Bee H o rth fo lk * ( BATH.) .

117

" E e ln t h o o ly c r o y s o f Br o r ©holm,'* she ©eyco. Bv* 4286. 48.

Bru/ggea.

B ruges?

T h is G s p l t s l o f t h e p ro v in c e o f

West F l a n d e r s I n Belgium was a t one ti m e , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e t h i r t e e n t h , f o u r t e e n t h , and f i f t e e n t h cen­ t u r i e s , t h e c e n t e r o f a l l com m ercial a c t i v i t y i n m id d le n o r t h e r n F u ro n e .

Ther® re m a in many r e l i c s , ruin® ,'

and b u ild in g ® from, t h e K id d le Ages*

I t i s lo c a te d

f i f t y - f i v e m i l e s t o th® n o r th w e s t from B r u s s e l s and f o u r t e e n m i l e s ©pst o f Oatend* B ut s-o b i f e l , t h i s mar c h a n t on a day Shoop hym t o make r e d y h i s a r r a y Toward t h e to im o f B rug ges f o r t o f a r e * S h ip * 55. Of Bragg ©s w ere hi© ho se n broun* S ir * 7 3 5 . Of* S h i n * 5 9 , 25 8, 301* 49*

B u rd e u x .

Bordeaux#

C a p i t a l o f Oirond© i n th© s o u th -

w e s t e r n p a r t o f F r a n c e , on t h e G aronne R iv er*

I t is

l o c a t e d t h r e e hun dred and f i f t y - e i g h t mile© to th e s o u th - s o u th w e s t from P a r is *

I t i s t h e t h i r d most im­

p o r t a n t o o r t o f F ra n c e and h a s lo n g b e e n famous a© a s o u r c e o f win© and b r a n d y . b u ild in g © *

T h ere a r e numerous m e d iev a l

See G erounde*

Ful many a draught© o f wyn had lie ydraw e F ro B u rd e u x -w srd , w h il t h a t t h e chapmen sle e p * GP* 396. He i s i n Sp&Igne, r i g h t a t t h e to u n e o f L o n e ,— o t a t t h e B o c h e le , n© a t Bur deux toun* B a rd . 5 7 0 .

118

50*

Bur&oyne*

Burgundy:

T h is i e a s e c t i o n i n W estern

iflurope, t h e b o u n d a r i e s and p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f w hich h av e changed f r e q u e n t l y d u r in g i t s h i s t o r y *

P ro b a b ly

i n th© tim e o f Chaucer i t v a e l o c a t e d b etw een th© iiiaone R iv e r and. t h e J u r a m o u n ta in c h a in ? i t was © f i e f o f th© F re n c h emoir© end was giver?, i n t o t h e c h a rg e o f t h e F re n c h Duke© o f Burgundy i n 1384* F ro J e r u s a le m u n to Burgoyne T her XT's a f a i r e r n ek k e , iw ys * RR. 554*

119 2 51*

Q&lxdfeIgflo ( C slydoyne) .

Ctelydon*

A n c ie n tly * a c i t y

o f /£ t o l l s i n G re e c e , l o c a t e d n e a r t h e Lvenus H iv e r n o t f a r from X is s o lo n g h i#

Sea A rg e s A rg e y e s*

And h e i r h@ v a e o f C a ly d o ig n e and A rge. T£. V, 8 0 5 . **Por i f my f a d e r T l d e u e , tt lie se y d e , ttIlyve"**and t h a t h i s coward h e rt© Mad© hyrn ajgys t h e god des t e x t to g l o s e , Vhaa h e f o r f e r e d o u t o f l e l p h o s s t e r i e * i s . IV, 1409# D elnhos # - B e lp h is Benmarh.#

3m B e l n h i c u s .

.Denmark s

A n o r t h E uropean kingdom composed

©f p a r t o f J u t l a n d and some i s l a n d s i n t h e B a l t i c S ea, t h e m ain o n es o f w hich a r e I l m e n ? Bornholm , Z e a la n d , Baal a n d , L&ngland, M55en» and P a l s t e r .

On t h e n o r t h i s

t h e S k ag o rra k f on t h e s o u t h , th© B a l t i c Sea? on t h e w e s t , th© S 'orih 8©e| and on t h e e a s t , t h e O a t t a g a t , t h e B a l t i c S e a , and t h e Sound#

In 1561? Denmark b egan war

w i t h t h e H sm se atie Leaguef h u t i n 1597? Denmark? Sweden, and Horway w ere j o i n e d By t h e Union o f Mel mar u n d e r M a rg a re t o f Denmark•

May i t h e assumed t h a t t h e q u o ta ­

t i o n “from Denmark u n to Ynde” can g i r o some i d e a o f

13 4

C h a u c e r1® c o n c e n t o f h i & w orld? G&d kelp© m© s o , I was to hym a s Iqrad© A© any wyf from Denmark u n to Ynbe* MB. 8 2 3 . S4*

p e v e f p r d » D ep tfo rd *

O r i g i n a l l y b town l o c a t e d i n

S u rr e y and K e n t, E n g la n d , on t h e ro a d to C a n te r b u r y . I t i s now a borough o f London? l o c a t e d o n t h e r i g h t hank o f t h e Thame© a b o u t t h r e e mil®© b elo w London B rid g e* ho B ep eford J and i t i s h e l f - v e y p ry me* ho Q renevyoh, t h e r many a sh ro v e i s inn©** By. 3906. 85 #

Perk© r e g io tm (Begxse o f H u t o ) .

P l u t o ’ s kingdom*

HLuto was a b r o t h e r o f l i m i t o r who was g i v e n , a s h i s d i v i s i o n o f th® em pire t o r u l e ? th© lo w e r w o rld o r th© r e g io n of sh ad es.

A n c ie n t w r i t e r s b e l i e v e d h i s k in g ­

dom? Pretau®, t o l i e f a x u n d e r th® e a r t h o r f a r i n th© Most? s t r a n g e o r d e s e r t l a n d s w ere suoooeed to b© o a th s l e a d i n g t o t h e lo w er r e g io n s *

T h ere P lu to and

h i o q u e e n , P ro s © m in e ( d a u g h te r o f C eres a n d Ju n i t e r ) v r u l e d o v e r © u i r i t s d e p a r te d from t h i s e a rth *

The good

V6T © rew ard ed i n Elysium* t h e w icked ver© p u n ish e d in T a r ta r u a *

( AQP» » li-CL. ) *

See E lis o © * Pai.ry.es P e r t h

c o n tra © * 8tr< H i r ©yen c a s t e sh e f u l low© adoim, T her P lu to h a t h M s dcrlce rag io u n * Kn. 2081 * Queen© o f t h e r e g n e o f P lu to d ark and l o v e . g&* 2299.

135

86*

D ertarao u th g * D artm o u th :

A D e v o n s h ire s e a p o r t l o c a t e d

a t t h e mouth o f t h e D a r t R iv e r w here i t e n t e r s t h e E n g lis h Channel* I h c e te r , s o u th w a rd •

I t i s ab o u t t w e n t y - f i v e m il e s from D uring Ghauoer* s tim e i t v a s a

renowned se a -o o rt, f i s h i n g c e n t e r , and re n d e z v o u s f o r -ci r a t e s # F©r a u g h t 1 w o o t» h e was o f D a rt emou th e * GP* 389* 8*?*

DSSia sS ss t m m l e (Tempi© o f Pyane) • M SSKnSSeSSS

Diana* s t ©moles

P e rh a p s t h e m ost famous te m p le to D ia n a was t h e one l o c a t e d i n S o h e s u s , o r i g i n a l l y one o f t h e dozen Greek c i t i e s i n A s ia M inor i n a n c i e n t tim es*

T h is te m p le

t o D ian a ( o r A rte m is ) was m a g n i f i c e n t l y and l a v i s h l y c o n s t r u c t e d o f m a rb le i n t h e I o n i c s t y l e and m easured one hundred and s i x t y - f o u r by t h r e e h u n d red and f o r t y two and o n e - h a l f f e e t i r dim ension*

I t was begun i n

541 B.C*j and two hundred and tw e n ty y e a r s w ere r e ­ q u ir e d t o co m p le te i t *

( ACT»» HCL») *

See At hen eg;

B c h esio s* ■b i s ouve u a s n n e e , Hen o le o e hem s e r e y n s I n Praia nee* HE. 68 3. I t i s t o sey© I n B n g lis a h "h-evenes l i l i e , w P or m ire c h a a s t n e s s e o f v i r g i n i t e e . Sg> 8 7 . Myn E n g l i s s h eek i n i n s u f f i c i e n t . So. 3 7. And f o r t h e r i s so g r e t d i v e r sit© In Bnglis& h and i n w rity n g o f o u re to n g e . TO* V. 1793. C f. A s t r . I n t . , 29, 33. 58? i m . ( ? ) 6 6 , 1381} «H 264? HI». 778? SN. l f 1 0 6 . ISn&I S SKlS& ClStiii^l a s h *

’S ngl i s h (1 s n g u a g e ) ; Smgli ®h (I engum e ) :

See H n g l i s h . See Hnyl 1 s h .

E r ^ l i a h ( la n g u a g e ) : ^ n g ly ssh . la n d *

E n g lis h ?

See H n g lia h *

An a d j e c t i v e p e r t a i n i n g to l&i

See gngelond.»

And Guy do eke d© Colusxortie, And H nglyssh G p u fr id e e k e , y w ie . HP. 1469. 103.

i&moTOre.

flt n o o i a :

A lso

l o c a t e d i n t h e G u lf o f

/Cgin©.

AEgina some f i f t e e n m i l e s to

t h e so u th w e st from Athena* l e n g th #

An i s i end o f G reece

I t i s abo ut n in e m i l e s i n

I t was s e t t l e d by D o ria n s b e f o r e t h e s i x t h

144

c e n tu r y 3*0* and was conquered by A thens i n 456 B.C. I t was an im p o r ta n t a n c i e n t s t a t e and was c e l e b r a t e d f o r i t s s p le n d id b u ild i n g ® , e s p e c i a l l y t h e te m p le to J u p i t e r on Mount St* E lio s *

The c a p i t a l i s

£.gine#

And ©k t h e g e y l e r # and w ith hem a ll© t h r e , I s s t o l e awey o u t o f t h e Xond by n y g h te . And t o t h e c e n t r e o f Ennonye hym d y g b te . LOW* ( ? ) 2153* 1 0 4 . ■E p b a g io s *

E p h e s ia n s t

The p e o p le t o whom P aul w o t©

h i e l e t t e r i n t h e Hew T estam ent* E phesus was a famous c i t y i n I o n i a and was founded c l o s e to t h e mouth o f t h e C a y s ta r E l v e r , a b o u t t h i r t y - f i v e m i l e s s o u th from Smyrna. by

A ccording to m y th o lo g y , E phesus was founded

Btohesus# son o f t h e C a s t e r R i v e r , and one Ore s u b .

© farm er.

A n oth er a c c o u n t s t a t e s t h a t i t was founded

by E p h e su s, an Amazon.

I n 1308 S u l t a n Say can m a ssa c re d

m ost o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s ,

A ltho ug h Snheeus was com­

p a r a t i v e l y u n im p o r ta n t s& & commercial c i t y d u r in g th© M id d le A ges, i t was famous f o r i t s te m p le s , t h e a t e r , and o t h e r b u i l d i n g s #

( AQD*, HSR«, RCL,)*

See Pi an as

t em ple* And t h e r f o r e s e i t h S e i n t Paul ad R p h e e io a , q u i n t o , t h a t an a v a r i c i o u s man i s t h e th r a ld o m o f y d o l a t r i e # P ars# 7 4 8 . 105*

A rm enia: Armenia*"

R ob in so n sa y s Enaony i s " a p p a r e n tly

The nsm© f i r s t a p p e a rs i n a P e r s i a n c u n e ifo rm

w r i t i n g from t h e s i x t h c e n tu r y B.C.

I t i s a c o u n try i n

w e s t e r n A sia occupying much o f t h e t a b l e la n d betw een

248

t h e C a sp ia n Sea and. t h e h i g h l a n d s o f A s ia ."Minors t o t h e n o r t h e a s t i s t h e C aucasus and on t h e s o u th w e s t > Aeso* notam ia*

l a s t o f t h e E u p h r a te s R iv e r l i e s G r e a t e r

Armenia* and t o t h e w e s t i s L i t t l e Armenia*

The k ©t

v e s t i g e o f Armenian in d e p e n d e n c e was d e s t r o y e d by th© Kamel uk os i n 1375*

S in c e th en* R u s s ia * Turkey* and

P e r s i a h a v e d i v i d e d t h e co u n try * Among a l t h e s e Anal Ida* t h e au en e Of Irmopy* was In t h a t to u n dw ellynge* A n a l* 71* 108*

Ersnrm

Arm enians

A n a t i v e o r i n h a b i t a n t o f Armenia*

N© noon Irmyn* ne noon E g ip c i e n . m * 2338. 107*

E ssex*

I s sex t

An e a s t- E n g l and c o u n ty w ith lli& d le se x

and H ereford, t o t h e w est? t h e ITorth Sea on t h e e&stf S u f f o l k and Cambridge on th© n o r t h ; and t h e Thar.es R i v e r on t h e s o u t h .

The la n d I s l e v e l and f e r t i l e end

much b a r l e y and w heat i s grown* c o u n ty town*

C helm sford i s th e

The co u n ty o f London c o n t a i n s s. p a r t o f

a n c i e n t iSssox County*

See IXinmowe*

Th© baco n was n a t f e t f o r hern* I trowe* T h a t som man b a n i n E sse x a t Dunmove* VB* 217. ICQ*

E th io c e a n *

E th io p ia n ;

An i n h a b i t a n t o f t h e la n d o f

E th io p i a * o r t h e l a n d o f Cush i n t h e B ib le *

The c o u n try

l i e s s o u th o f E gypt and c o r r e s p o n d s to t h e a n c i e n t Hero*©* kingdom*

In an expanded s e n s e i t in c lu d e d K o rd o fa n ,

145

S e r m r a r , n o r t h e r n A b y s s in i a , and R u b ia , i n f e e t , ©11 o f A f r i c a from t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean to t h e Red Sea.

It

ha© lo n g b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w ith o n cl r e l a t e d t o E g y p t .

In t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a i t wes r u l e d by t h e C andaces, a fe m a le d y n a s t y .

L a t e r t h e name was a p p l i e d to th©

kingdom o f A b y ssin ia ? and i t i s t h e name u s e d i n c o u r t p a rla n c e .

The 'E th io p ia n la n g u a g e , S e m itic I n n a t u r e ,

h a s lo n g b een d e a d , a lth o u g h i t i s © t i l l u s e d i n t h e A b y s s in ia n C hurch.

See A f f r i k e .

• • • f o r w hich h i s f 1 e s sh was b i s k a© an E thi© peen f o r h e e t e , and n y d e s tr o y e d f o r c o o l d . P a r s . 345• 109.

E th n a *

E tn a o r A stna:

The main m o u n ta in i n S i c i l y

and SkiroTje’ s h i g h e s t v o lc a n o , b e in g o v e r t e n th o u sa n d f e e t in h e ig h t.

I t Is lo c a te d in th e e a ste rn p a rt o f

t h e i s l a n d , n o r t h o f Cata.nla .

The © r a te r v a r i e s i n

w id th from f i f t e e n hundred, to tv© th o u sa n d f e e t and a b o u t e i g h t h undred f e e t I n d e p t h .

The e a r l i e s t r e ­

c o rd ed e r u p t i o n was i n 478 B .C ., and one i n 1169 A .P. v i r t u a l l y d e s tr o y e d C a t a n i a .

T here have been s e v e r a l

e r u p t i o n s b e f o r e and s i n c e .

Th® v o lc an o i s a s s o c i a t e d

i n Greek m ythology w ith t h e s t o r i e s o f H ep h a estu s and lu c e la d u s . But th© ang uy sseho us lo v e o f havynge b r e n n e t h i n f o l k more c r u e l y t h a n t h e f y e r o f t h e m o un taign e o f Hthna t h a t ay b r e n n e t h . Bo. I I , r . 5 , 32.

14 7

• * • t h e ! doon as g r e e t damages and d e e t r u c c l o u n s a s d o o th t h e flau m b e o f t h e m o u n te ig n e E th n a whan t h e flaumfoe w elw eth u p . Bo. I I , P . 6 , 6 * F o lv y n g e h i e w y f , t h e nueene P r o s e r p y n a , Which t h a t h e ra v y s s h e d o u t o f Ethna* H r c h . 2230. 110*

J&ufr a t e g .

'E uphrates*

A g r e a t r i v e r o f M esopotam ia,

w i t h i t s two s o u r c e s I n th© m o u n ta in s o f Armenia, a b o u t s e v e n t y - f i v e m i l e s a p a r t from ea ch o t h e r .

They u n i t e

a t Keban-Meden and a r e t h e n c e f o r t h te rm e d t h e E u p h r a te s R iv er.

I t i s ©bout e i g h t e e n h u n d red m i l e s i n l e n g t h .

The T i g r i s jo in © t h e E u p h r a te s a t Korn©.

From t h i s

p o i n t , th® j o i n e d r i v e r s a r e c a l l e d S hat-el-A r& b *

The

two s i s t e r r iv e r © b o t h empty i n t o t h e P e r s i a n G u lf . B a b y lo n ia ha© been c a l l e d Mth e g i f t o f J&jphrates and T i g r i s , 11 s i n c e B a b y lo n ia n ©oil i s form ed from th© de­ p o s i t s o f t h e s e r i v e r s , sometime© a t t h e c o s t o f d e v a s­ t a t i n g flood© ca u sed by t h e m e l t i n g o f snow i n th© m o u n ta in s i n th® s o r in g *

Th© e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f th©

l a n d b etw een th© two r i v e r s i s t h e a n c i e n t M esopotam ia. A ccording to G e n e sis 2 s1 4 , th® E u p h ra te s i s i d e n t i f i e d b e

one o f th© f o u r r i v e r s f lo w in g th r o u g h p a r a d i s e *

See B a b i l o i g n e ; T i g r i s . 'i*- ln.- .r i . i M * 1 f

i hnfftn mm ■IM.III

T lg r y s and H u f r a t e e r e s o l van and. s o r in g a n o f o well© in th e eregges o f th e roche o f th e c e n tr e o f Achemenye• Bo. V, 14.1, 1 . And son© a f t i r t h e same ry very ® , T i g r i s and E u f r e t e s , u n j o i g n e n ©nd d e n a r t e n h i r v e t r e s . i^O . V, F .1., 6 .

148 111.

B urlop a* (J&triooo) • S u r i o u s : The n a r r o w e s t o a r t o f s& ^sssssxxass thr* ch an nel ©e p a r r t i n g Bub XX ( J e m a r y , i.9 2 5 ), 6* lo n g v a l u e f o r t h e vowel and seen:a to r e f e r r a t h e r to J u t l a n d , t h e c o n t i n e n t a l p a r t o f Denmark * Fro G ootla n d t o th® cap© o f F y n y s te re * GP* 408# 137*

G rec (GredOf G re ek , G rek)* neo ••!e o f G reece*

Greeks

The la n g u a g e o f t h e

See G ra c e *

But n a t h c l e e c u f f is© t o t h e thee© tr e w e c o n c lu s io n s i n S to g ly seh m wel a© c u f f l e i t h to t h e s e n o l l e c l e r k e s G rebes t h e s e same c o n c lu s io n s i n Grek* A s t r * I n t . * 33* L e r n e d e s t n e t thow i n Greek whan thow were y on g , t h a t i ’ t h e e n t r e o r i n t h e eeXer o f J h p c i t e r t i e r h en eowohed two t o n n e s | th® to o n i e f u l o f good, and t h e t o t h e r i s f u l o f harm* Bo* I I , P*2, 81* w

*



» * « b u t r y g h t a s Permanydes s e l d a i n Greoc o f th il f c e devyne su bctaun ee* * 111, P. 1 2, 211* B ut ©o a© ©eyde e h h l lo c o r h r e , th® more e x c e l l e n t by m e,-'-h e sgyd© i n Grec t h a t wv ertu e © haxi e d i f i e d t h e body o f t h e ho 11 man#1*

Bo. XV, P. 6 , 281. O f.

m tor# X, 21* 5 9 1 B&* V, P* 2, 52*

»£££&*

G r e e c e 8 A n c i e n t l y , t h e la n d o f t h e Hellene©*

I n it© r e s t r i c t e d m eaning, t h e name had r e f e r e n c e to t h e i s l a n d s and p e n i n s u l a t o t h e s t u t h nf th© Jamban i an .!-o u n ta in s s t h i s was t h e s e n s e gen © roily in te n d e d *

E a r ly

i n t h e t w e l f t h c e n tu r y G reece vs© d iv id e d among th e Roman c o n q u e ro rs o f C o n s ta n tin o p le * vho founded t h e duchy o f A thene and n r i n c i c e l i t y o f A e h a is .

To t h e

n o r t h i s llecedoni© ( Ruro^ean T urkey) 5 on t h e v e t t , f e i r u s f s e p a r a te d from i t by t h e I o n ia n -o r? on t h e sou th * t h e R a d i t e r r a n c a n Lee 5 nno on t h e © s e t, t h e /fcgean Goa* Hath s e t t h e -venles h e r t e s both© on f i r e Of Thebe© and Greco* e v e r i c h o t h e r to k i l l e * A n e l* 5 2 . &he v e e a a good* so h av e I r e & te , As e v e r was P en elo n e o f Grec©* BP* 1 0 SC* But y e v i t h d r a v e n me t h i s men* th r-t h a t h ben n o r y s s e d i n t h e s t u d i e s o r o c o le s o f R l o a t i c i s and o f Achedemyeie i n G re ce . Bo. I* P . 1* 72* 'Whet s e i t h Q®@r o f good© P an slo n e e? A1 G reoe k n o v e th o f h i r e c h a n t i t e e * Frnk * 1443* T hat el t h e penl© o f G race s h o ld e spoke* Kn* 962* T h is T e r sue l e t make h i s s h in e s y are* i n t o G roce h ym eelf i s f o r t h y f a r e * LOW* ft1! 227C •

And

F h ilir r q e s ©one o f kacidoyn© he was* T hat f i r s t was kyng i n G rece t h e e o n t r e e . Ilk* 2 6 5 6 . T h at t o ben s i ryn i t ver© a g r e t t e r j o i e To :r.e th a n k v i r o f G rece ben end Troye* TO* I 9 6 0 8 *

162 2$ a S -

139*

Greek (isrig u e g e )*

G reek ( G r e k ) .

G reek;

c o u n tr y o f G reece*

See Grocu

An a d j e c t i v e B e r t l i n i n g to t h e

See G re c e .

B i t God w olde I bed oones o r tv y o s Ik o u d and knove t h e jeu p srd ye© T h at kow&e t h e Grek P i t h a g o r e s l H P.''665* F i r s t savgh I th© d e s t r u c t i o n Of T ro y e , t h u r g h t h e Grek Bynon* T JT9« i"»dC5"J * hi? n w iw n

F e l s e d ie ^ y m u lo u r » o Greek Synon? T hat B r i g h t e s t Troya ©1 o n t r e l y t o sorw et HP. 3228. Ther i s r i g h t now come i n t o town & g e s t , A Greek e e r i e , and t e l l o t h nm m t h i n g e s . TO* I I , 1111* G re k .

Greek ( a d j e c t i v e } ;

G re k *

Gr©$k ( la n g u a g e ) *

Gyek*

G re ek ;

•: .7 , 8 * G rekys •

G re e k s:

G re k y s s h * 143*

See Gr ckos *

G re c ia n s

See G r e k i s s ch*

G r e n e w c h » G reenw ich:

T h ere nay b e a h id d e n meaning

I n th® q u o t a t i o n , s i n c e i t i s l i k e l y t h a t Chaucer was l i v i n g i n Greenwich when h e w ro te t h e p assag e* b

It is

borough o f London now and i s l o c a t e d on t h e r i g h t

bank o f t h e Thames E lv e r about f i v e m il e s from London B rid ge*

I t i s famous f o r t h e Roy e l O b s e r v a to r y , con­

s t r u c t e d i n 1675 by C h a rle s I I and mad® so t h a t th© z e ro l o n g i t u d e p a s s e s th r o u g h i t , th u s fo rm ing t h e b a s i s f o r e s ta n d a r d o f g lo b a l m easurem ents among Lng11 e h - s p e a k in g n e o o le s*

Lo D e p e fo rd l and i t i s h e l f - v e y nary me* Lo Grenouych* t h e r many s, shrew® i s inn©! By* 3906 * 144*

C r e t e S© ( C r e te See)*

M e d ite r r a n e a n Seas

Bn e x t e n s io n

o f th© A t l a n t i c Ocean t h a t s e p a r a t e s E urope and A fric a * I t j o i n s t h e A t l a n t i c by G i b r a l t a r S t r a i t , and t h e B lack Sea by t h e B o sp o ru s, Sea o f Marmora, and th e D a r d a n e lle s *

I t divide© i n t o two b a s i n s :

t h e w e s te rn

crrbend© from G i b r a l t a r t o T u n is and S i c i l y , and th e e a o t e r n r o a c h e s from t h o s e two ol a c e s to S y r i a . s h o r e s o f t h e M e d ite r r a n e a n h av e lo n g p la y e d an

The

165

i m p o r ta n t p a r t i n tlx© h i s t o r y o f m ankind.

The

Hi o t n i c i a n e w ere t h e f i r s t t o h av e com mercial d e a l i n g s a lo n g i t s c o a s t s .

D uring t h e l a t t e r K id d le Ages,

V e n ic e , G enoa, and P is a w ere g r e a t pow ers i n t h e Ke&ite rr& n ea n * Say t h u s on ray h a l f , t h a t h e Go f e e t© i n t o th© g r e t e ©a* ED • X3?? * At Lyeys was h a and a t S e t e l y e , Vhan th e y w ere worm©? and i n t h e G r e te S ee. GP. 5 9 . G r e te S e e . G ry k k y s sc h e . 145.

Gysen .

K e d i t e r r a n e a n S ee: G re c ia n s

G y nd es:

See G r e te o e #

See G r e k ie s c h .

A r i v e r i n A s s y r ia c a l l e d Gyndes by

O r o s lu s , H e ro d o tu s , and Seneca#

I t s modern name i s

Z ein d e h ; t h e p l a c e w here i t flo w s i n t o t h e T i g r i s R iv e r i s c a l l e d P o itm ^ s l-S rle h , Br i w a r o f p e a c e . M See Ti g r i s .

(ACS., BUG., ACL*).

Lo i r o u s C i r u s , t h i l k e P e r o ie n , now h e d e s tr o y e d t h e r y v e r o f Gysen* F o r t h a t an h o r s o f h i s was d r e y n t t h e r i n n e . Sum* 2079 •

166

H 3*46.

l ig y l e o .

H e y le s :

The Abbey o f K a y le s , founded i n

1246 and nov i n r u i n s » was l o c a t e d i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t of G lo u c e s te rs h ire about te n t h e p r e s e n t town o f Cheltenhem*

m i l ee

n o rth e a st of

T h ere was supposed

t o b e some o f C h r i s t ' s b loo d p r e s e r v e d in t h e ab bey . On Bov®mb©r 24» 1558? th© B ishop o f R o c h e s te r demon*s t r a t e d i n h i e sermon a t St* P a u l1s C ross t h a t t h e b lo o d o f HayXes was c l a r i f i e d honey red d en e d w ith saffro n *

(BSG. , G ig*)*

And "By t h e b lood o f C r i s t t h a t i s i n E aylos* • • • ” P a r # * 652* Kebra.yh * H e b r a le ; 147.

llermuz »

See .Cbrayi:.

Herrous o r H e r in u s i

i n w e s te r n A sia H in o r .

A la rg e r iv e r in ly d ia

I t flo w s v e s t f o r one hu nd red

and e i g h t y i d l e s i n t o Smyrna. Gu l f some t e n m ile s to t h e n o r th w e s t o f Smyrna. o r Gh ed i z- T elid.1 .

I t s modern name i s S a r a b a t

See Lyd e *

All® th® thing®© t h a t t h e r y v e r Tagus y y v e th yow w ith h i s golden© g r a v e l in® o r e l l es a l l e t h e t h i n g e s t h a t t h e r y v e r Herraus y e v e tb w ith hi© r e d o b rin k © , o r t h a t In du s y v v e th , t h a t 1 © newt t h e h o t e p a r t i s o f t h e w o r l d . Bo* I I I , y . i o , 1 2 . 148.

E o ld e rn e sse . i|*|.^ i« i» n * n ii

H o ld e r n e s s i

The p e n i n s u la l o c a t e d i n

.'Seet H id in g i n t h e s o u t h e a s t o f Y o r k s h i r e , S n g la n d • I t l i e s betw een t h e e s t u a r y of t h e Humber and t h e H orth Sea*

I t i e l a r g e l y an a g r i c u l t u r e ! c e n t e r .

A m ereshy c o n t r e e c a l l e d H o ld o rrie so e. Sum* 171C.

167

149*

H o rrib le c m . nil I >nini ' iii iiinnii*.niii

“ —r —

Lion*?, dens

T e den o f 1 i o n s in

1J--,TTTit*

B©b y Io n i n t o w hich X e n ia l was throw n by o r d e r o f D a r iu s v h e n t h e f o r m e r ? who h ad b e e n c r e a t e d one o f t h e t h r e e r u l e r s o f t h e B a b y lo n ia n i&mire# r e f u s e d t o p e t i t i o n D a r iu s r a t h e r th a n Cod f o r h i s n e e d s . B a b i l o i g n ©* Who sev©d D a n y el i n t h e h o r r i b l e c a re * IX* 473* ISO*

H u ll© *

H u ll o r K in g s t a n - u n o n - K u ll*

R ir e r c o r i lo ­

c a te d w h ere t h e H ull H ir e r flo w s i n t o t h e Humber H i r e r i n H ast R id in g i n Y o rk s h ire *

In A t h e is t a n * a

tim e i t had t h e name o f IJyton-W yke; i n th© tim e o f Sdwerd I , who g o r e i t th© name o f K in g s to n , i t f i r s t came i n t o im p o rta n c e as a n o r t *

T her n ae noon ewich f r o Hull© t o C artage* CP* 4 04 .

I I i o n {Xlyon, I l y o u n , Y lio n , Y l l o u n ) .

I l i o s o r Iliu ras

S t r i c t l y spanking* a n o th e r neutc f o r t h e c i t y o f T ro y , o r a c t u a l l y t h e t r u e o n e , s i n c e t h e nsme T r o j s , g iv e n by t h e Roman w r i t e r s , vpb r e a l l y t h e nsme o f t h e v h o l e d is tric t*

K e d le v s l w r i t e r s a s s o c i a t e d t h e name w ith

t h e k i n g 1© p a la c e *

I l i u m , fo u nd ed by H

ub,

e dee eft*

d o n t o f D ard an u s, wsb l o c a t e d i n what v os o r i g i n a l l y K ysla i n -Asia Hi n o r .

D u rin g p r e h i s t o r i c tim e s i t was

o f t e n d e s t r o y e d ; Greek colo n !of© b u i l t i t r g e i n d u rin g t h e s i x t h c e n tu r y B .C ., and i t l a s t e d a s >7ev I liu m , a lth o u g h on e d i f f e r e n t s i t e , u n t i l l a t e i n Roman tim es* I t was l o c a t e d “t HI s o c r l i k , about one hundred r . i l e s n o r th w e s t o f t h e p r e s e n t Smyrna.

A x e sv e tio n s a t th®

s i t e h av e shown t h e r e to b e n in e l e v e l s o f c i t i e s , one b u i l t on t o •' of t h e o t h e r . six th .

See T r o y e *

P r i s m 's Troy was th e

(AOD* , ACG♦» TCRG. , GRiD., HI)* »

MCL., OCCL.). w

i i i

. w

»m**«n n n T iiirin rin

T hat travely C a s s a n d r a » th r-t soo Bevayl ed the d e s tr u c c io n Of Troye and o f I l y o u n .

22 1246 *

Bow Xlyon pb s a y le d was And v o n n e * and kyng Priam y s le y n * Eg* 15 8. And f y r , so vod i t myghte n e t b ee n s t e e r e d , I n e l t h e n o b le t o u r o f Y lio u n . LGW. (P) 955 *

169

Or I I i o n hrend© , a t Thebes t h e c i t e ® . HL. 28 9. C e r t e e » sw ich c r y n@ 1 a m e n ta c io n , Was never© o f l a d y e s mead whan Y lio n Was wonne. . 3355. m» oun. 152.

I l i o s o r Iliu m ?

See l l i o n .

I l i o s o r Iliu m ?

Xnde (Y n d e ).

In d ia ?

See l l i o n .

A l a r g e r e g i o n i n s o u th e r n A s ia .

The name h a s n o t alw ay s b e e n u s e d to r e f e r to t h e same p l a c e » n o r i s i t now.

The a n c i e n t g e o g r a p h e r s used

i t t o r e f e r t o t h e l a n d o f t h e In d u s r i v e r ? l a t e r t h e name r e f e r r e d t o t h e p e n in s u la *

Sometimes th e

name was made t o r e f e r t o F u r t h e r I n d i a and t h e Malay A rc h ip e la g o ( n o r t h e r n i s l a n d s } .

I n Y s th e r i . I , v i i i .

9 , I n d i a i s spoken o f a s t h e boundary o f t h e la n d o f Ah& suerus to t h e e a s t* i n which c a s e i t would p ro b a b ly

c e r t a i n t o t h e P a n ja b , t h e la n d a b o u t th© I n d u s . co n q u ered a l a r g e p a r t o f I n d i a i n 1398*

See I n d u s .

To g a t e h e r l o v e no n e r naa h e T h at woned a t hom, t h a n h e i n Ynde.

12

*

8 8 8 •

F o r a l b e i t so t h a t t h i X ordechine c t r e c c h e so f o r t h a t t h e c o n t r e o f Ynde cm sketh a t t h y comaundementa. Bo. I l l , F . 5 , 4 . . . . t h a t o t h e r g o th d e b o n a y re ly i n th© hows as © t i g r e of Inde. Bo. IV, r • 3» 1 6 . And s k i e n d re w y v e e , f i a b l e a© i n b a t & i l l e , B e th egr© as i s a t v g r e yond i n Ynde. C lk . 1198.

Timur

170

The loro oh® o f Thebes was of such ® k y n d e, So f u l o f r u b l e s and o f s t o n e s o f Ynde* CH. 245. The g r e i e & netreua» t h e kyng o f Inde* Kn, 2156* Assay© who so v o l e , and h e s h a l f y nde T h a t 1 s e y 9 s o o t h , “by S e ln t Thomas o f Ynde* Nr eh* 1229. T h is o ld e man g a r lo o k e i n h i s v is a g e * And eeyd© t h u s , "For I ne k&n n e t fy n d e A man, though t h a t 1 w alked i n t o Ynde, N e i t h e r i n c ite © n® i n no v i l l a g e , T h at void© cheunge h i s youth"* f o r ry n age*** ' Yard * 720. To p i ©yen yrnie h e may n o t f y n d e , A lthough h e so u g h t oon i n - t y l Y nde. HE. 623* He s e y d e , “The kyng o f Arab© and o f I n d e , Ky 1 1 g© l o r d , on t h i s solemone day S rJe w eth yow, a s he b e s t lean and may*** §£. n o . I f i t h e g o od , i n Thomas l y f o f I n d e . Sum, 1980. As konnyng, and a a ^ r f i t , and as ky n d e, As ben b l t w i x e n Orkades and I n d e , 22* V, 9 7 0 , As any wyf from Denmark u n to Ynde* V®. 824 * 153.

nSSSdSKT uSUC sT. JI^^S

Indues

One o f t h e m ain r i v e r s o f I n d i a .

It

r i s e s i n T i b e t among t h e H im alay as, ab o u t s i x t y - f i v e m ile e

from t h e f a r h e a d w a te rs o f t h e Ganges R i v e r , and

flo w s

n o r th w e s t to n o r t h e r n K ashm ir; from th e n c e i t

flow©

s o u th t o t h e A ra b ian Sea#

a r e t h e Pan ja b m i l e s i n le n g th *

and t h e K a b u l, Be® I n d e .

I t s main t r i b u t a r i e s I t i s e i g h te e n hundred

171

AXle t h e t h i n g e s t h a t t h e r y v e r Tagus y y v e th yow w ith h i s golden© g r a v e l i s , o r eX Ies s l l e t h e th in g s© t h a t t h e r y v e r Kermus y e v e th w ith h i s r e d e b rin k © , o r t h a t In d u s y y v e t h , t h a t i s n e x t t h e h o t e p & r tie o f t h e w orld* Bo* I I I , TRIO, 12* 154*

Iris h *

An a d j e c t i v e r -f e r r i n g to I r e l a n d , t h e

Iris h s

l a r g e I s l a n d l y i n g t o t h e w est o f G re a t B r i t a i n and v i t h i t making t h e U n ite d Kingdom o f G re a t B r i t a i n and I r e la n d *

St* G eorg e’ s C han nel, t h e I r i s h Sea,

and t h e H orth Channel ©enaret© i t from G re a t B r i t a i n * I t ©at hym v e i l o f h i s Xynag©, F o r hym an I r i s h w om en b a r . RH* 3810* 155•

Israel *

Isra e ls

The kingdom o f t h e n o r t h e r n t r i b e s

o f I s r a e l i t e s a f t e r th e y had s e p a r a t e d from t h e t r i b e s o f t h e s o u th I n a b o u t 953 B*C*

The A s s y r ia n s u n d e r

Sergon b ro k e uo t h e o e o o le i n 722 B.C.? th o s e I s r a e l i t e s who s t a y e d , merged w ith t h e c o n q u e ro rs to form th e Samaritan©*

Th© kingdom of J e ru sa le m was e s t a b l i s h e d

i n 1099 by t h e C ru sa d ers? b u t Bel ©din, r u l e r o f E y rie and Hgyot, o v e rth re w i t i n 1187*

The C h r i s t i a n s l o s t

t h e i r l a s t u o s t i n t h e Holy Land, A cre, i n 1281* For v e l T hat i n T hat so As i n a

I wot t h a t C r i s t h im s e lv e t e l 1 e th I s r a e l , as wyd a s i s t h e l e n d , g r e t f e y t h i n s i t h a t he n s fond woman* LGW* (F) 1879.

He ha&de o f I s r a e l t h e governaunce* h i . 2060* The f a i r e s t © c h i l d r e n o f t h e blood r o i a l Of I s r a e l h e l e e t do gold© anoon. a . 2 i5 i *

172

166*

I t e y l e ( i t e y l l e # Y t a l l l e » Y tay le} *

Ita ly ?

A s o u th e r n

ISuronean kingdom? t o t h e n o r t h l i e s S w itz e rla n d ? to t h e w eat l i e s P ra n c e end t h e Y ed 11 e r r a nean S e a ? and on t h e s o u th and e a s t l i e s t h e ! e d i t e r r a n e e n Sob.. I t a l y h a s e l ways "been a com mercial co u n try *

D uring

C hau cer1© tim e t h e I t a l i a n R e n a is s a n c e was s p r e a d in g i t s in flu e n c e . T hat may h e found© as f a r es l a s t Y t a i l l e *

03 k* 286* W ith hy© sh y o n eo gen t o s a y l l e Toward es t h e c o n t r e e o f I t e y l l e * HP* 1 9 5 . Tho sough I g r a v e a l t h e a r y v s y l e T hat ISnm b had i n I t a y l e * And s a y l e t h f o r t h w ith a! h i s coma any© Toward Y t a y l e , a© void © h i s d e s t i n e s * K@deth t h e g r a t e n o e t e o f Y t a i l l e

T hat h ig h t© Bant* lie . 2460 They h en h i r s e t s end h id d a M r© 1 era© s a i l l e Out o f S u rr y e egeynw ard to Y t a i l l e * I,* 440 And f u l o f I n s tr u m e n ts and o f v i t a l s l o , The m o o ste d e y n te v o u e o f a l Y t a i l l e .

A rc h . 1713. C lk . 33* 5 7 , 1132, 1178? HP* 146 , 18

5 fV . (3?) 1 2 9 7 , 1328; K ro h . 1511. X ta v ll® .

Ita ly *

See I t a v l e *

173

J

«■*

157.

Je co n lto s*

Ja c o n ite ss

I t was t h e c a p i t a l o f t h e

i s l a n d o f OoXchis and t h e p la c e o f r e s i d e n c e o f K ing

The c i t y i s d e s c r i b e d in t h e Roman de T r o ie

d o te s *

( 1 1 . 1148-1165? 1185-1158) o f B a n o ft da S a in te -K a u r e ? and. Guido d e i l e Colonne, i n h i e H i s t o r i a (Book X I) » m c»ii*i - . -an*

*

"

mention© t h a t i t was p op u lo u s and l o c a t e d i n a f e r ­ t i l e , v e i l - w a t e r e d p l a i n c o n t a in i n g much game* Col c o s *

See

( ACS. , ACG*♦ DGHG* . GRBK*, E D ., KCL*, QCCL*).

J a so n i s romed f o r t h t o t h e o y t e , T hat w h ilom c l sued was J e c c n i t o s ,

T hat was t h e m e y s te r - to u n o f a l Col c o s . IGW* (F) 1589. 158.

Je ru sa le m *

Je ru sa le m s

The v e ry o ld c a p i t a l o f P a l e s ­

t i n e ; t h e Jews ac co u n t i t t h e i r s a o re d c i t y ; and C h r is tia n © and Koh®amu>d»ne a l i k e r e g a r d i t as a h o ly c ity *

O r i g i n a l l y i t was J e h u s , t h e c i t y o f th e

J e h u s i t e s , u n t i l c a p tu r e d by B e rid end made h i s s tr o n g ­ h o ld .

I t l i e s n i n e t e e n mile© from, t h e Jo rd an ©rid some

t h i r t y from t h e M e d ite r r a n e a n Sea*

D uring C h aucer’ ©

tim e i t b elo n g ed to t h e 2Phensued a n e . And t k r i .e s h adde sh e been a t Jerusalem * GP* 463* Whiche t h a t my f a d e r In h i e t s r a s o e r i t e e Cut o f t h e te m p le o f J e ru s a le m b i r e f t e * Kk* £195. He wol y e n e t ever® i n a ll® manor ©; n e i t h e r by lieven®, f o r i t i s Goddee iron© ; ne by e r t h e , f o r i t i s t h e bench o f h i e f e e t ? n© by J e ru s a le m , f o r i t i s t h e c i t e e o f a g r e e t kyng* P a r s . 589*

174

Fro J e ru s a le m u n to Burgoyn© T her nys a f a i r e r n e k k e , Iv y s * HR* 554* He deyde whan I cam f r o Jerueale®n, And 1 1 th ygr&ve u n d e r t h e rood© beam* WB* 495* Cf* 159 •

Jew *

Efe* 2147, 2594; P a r s * 5 0 , 80* Jew*

In e l o o s e s e n s e , a Hebrew o r I s r a e l i t e ;

in a s t r i c t e r se n se , a descendant of th e t r i b e s of B enjam in and Judah*

When t h e te m p le i n J e ru s a le m was

d e s tr o y e d I n 70 A*B., t h e Jews were s c a t t e r e d o v e r t h e f a c e o f t h e e a r t h ; th e y a r c sometime© c a l l e d t h e lo s t trib e s *

See S b ra y k t Je w e s*

I iv'oot w el t h a t t h i s Jew, t h i s Salomon, Foond o f us wommen foole© many oon* H rc h * 2277. As th ilk © h o o ly Jew c u r e e l d r e s ta u g h te * B ard ♦ 364* T h is c u rs e d Jew hym h e n t e , and h e e ld hym f a s t e * T3r» 570* She f r a y n e t h and she p r e y e t h p i t o u s l y To e v e ry Jew t h a t d w e lte i n t h l l k e n lao e*

S> 160*

Jew erye ( J u e r i e ) .

Jew ry ;

600*

R e fe re n c e i s to (1 ) The

a c t u a l kingdom o f t h e Jew s, o r Je ru sa le m ; and (2) A Jew ish q u a r t e r i n any c i t y ? r e s i d e n t i a l o r commer­ c i a l c e n t e r o f Jews* And h e b a r on h y s shul d r a s hye The fame uo o f t h e Jewerye* Eg* 1435* Azaongee C r ia te n e f o l k , a Je w e ry e • P r. 489.

175

As I h a v e eeyd» t h u r g h o u t th® J u e ri® , T h is l i t e l c h i l d , ©.s h e cam t o m e f r o , irul m u r ily t h a n void® h e synge and c r i® . !£ • 552. T hat h e l a s t seyn was i n t h e J u e r i e . ? r . 5 92 . 1 6 1 . Jewee (Judeorum# J u e s ) .

D isp e rsio n . . . .

Jevst

The People o f t h e

See fflfrrayk% I s r a e l ? Jew.

end t o Jewes i n Shrew. A s t r . I n t . , 37*

The S brayk J o s e p h u s , t h e old©, T hat o f J e v e s g e s t a e t o l d e . HP. 1433.

And f o r t h a t Mi c h a n c re and Thymoth.ee Of Jew©© w eren v en ou yssh ed m y g h tily # Mk. 2 5 9 1 . Thenne hay© I i n la t o u n a s h o ld e r -h o o n V hieh t h a t was o f an h o o ly Jewee s h e e p . Perd. 5 5 0 •

And f o r a s muohe as Jh e su O r l e t y e v e th u s th is © y i f t e s o f h i s l a r g e s s e and o f h i s so v e re y n h o tm te e , t h e r f o r e i s he c l ©pad dhe&us F a z a re n u s r e x Judeorum. P a r s • 284 • She c r i t f e , and ntt© l a s t© t h u s sh e w ro g h te , Among t h e cu rse d J u e s sh e hyra s o g h te . P r * 598 *

And o v e r t h a t ©■ fy n haw berk , V rs a l yw roght o f Jew©© werk* S ir. 865. G f. I k . 2 5 9 3 ! P o r t . 4 7 4 ! P a r s * 5 9 0 , 6 6 3 , 889? P r* 5 5 9 , 565, 573, 621, 629, 886. 182,

Job a l t a r e .

G ib ra lta r:

A f o r t i f i e d town and oromoniory

on t h e s o u th e r n t i n o f Sngtin; crown co lony o f G re a t B rita in .

I n c l a s s i c a l s t o r y , i t i s Gal'*'©, one o f Her­

c u l e s ’ s o i l l a r s , t h e o t h e r © i l l a r b e in g f o u n t iVbyla

276 (now Ape©*' H i l l ) o n t h e A f r i c a n c o a s t o p p o s i t e * v ery

e a rly

In

tim e s t h e 0 0 p i l l a r s w e r e t h o u g h t , by p e o p l e

d w e llin g t o t h e e a s t ? t o m a r k t h e e x t r e n e w e s t e r n b o u n d a ry o f t h e w o rld * .

It

is

1,439 f e e t i n h e i g h t a t

t h e h i g h e s t p o in t? i t s a r e a i s tw o s q u a r e m i l e s *

The

S t r a i t c o n n e c t s t h e A t l a n t i c O c e a n a n d t h e K ed i t e r r a n ©an S e a a n d s e p a r a t e s S p a i n a n d M orocco* e i g h t m i l e s w ide a t i t s ta r

and S e a t a i t

is

The s t r a i t

n a r r o w e s t p o in t? betw een G i b r a l ­

t h i r t e e n m i l e s w id e *

t i m e G i b r a l t a r was u n d e r .M o o r i s h c o n t r o l *

lu rin g

F o r th , g o o tli h i r s h i p t h u r g h o u t t h e n&rwe m o u th Of J iih a X ta r e an d Sept®*

ML# 946*

Ju erftfta. £ u p f,*

Jew s:

Jewry* Jew©?

See J o v e s *

Bee

Jm m vrm *

S ee Jew as*

C haucer* s

S e e S e p ta ?

W orldas ende*

Judeorugu

is

177

K K aU kasous * 163.

C aucasus s

K a v r r u d * K erru*

S e e Ccuc rv-.i n .

R o bin so n i d e n t i f i e s t h i s a s t h e name

o f K e rru i n B r i t t a n y h u t p o i n t s o u t t h a t a l th o u g h t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l B r e to n nlaee**names s i m i l a r to i t , none f i l l s t h e n e c e s s a r y r e q u ir e m e n ts o f t h e P ra n k lin * s s to r y *

The name means "red b u i l d i n g " o r " re d v i l l a g e , *

and may d e r i v e from t h e r e d b r i c k u se d by t h e Homans* T h ere a r e many Homan r u i n s i n F i n i s t e r e c l o s e to P@nmarcfh*

See F y n y sto r e s [email protected]* Wininwrtnn**!* *

J«i n .*«■«..m aw

T i l t h a t t h e knyght o f w hich 1 suck® o f t h u s , T hat o f X ayrrud v * s c le n e d A rveragus* F r n k * 807. 164.

K e n t* K en ti la n d .

The moot s o u t h e a s t e r l y county i n .Eng*

To t h e n o r t h flo w s t h e Thames, s e p a r a t i n g K ent

and Essex? t o t h e n o r t h and e r s t l i e s th e f o r t h Sea; t o t h e s o u th e r e Hover S t r a i t , t h e E n g lis h C h an n el» and Sussex? and t o t h e w est i s Surrey*

Here C a esa r

in vad ed in 55*54 B . C ., and t h e J u t i s h kingdoms were c e n te r e d her©*

The Thomas o f Kent m entioned h e r e i n

i s a l s o c a l l e d Thomas Beckot o r a E e c k e t, o r Thomas o f London, vko l i v e d two h undred y e a r s b e f o r e Chaucer; he was c a n o n is e d ; and during Chaucer* e l i f e t i m e h is r e m a in s , b u r ie d i n T r i n i t y Chanel i n C a n te r b u r y , were p o p u la r o b j e c t s o f p i lg r im a g e .

See G a u n te rb u ry *

Thought© I , "By ee y n t Thomas o f K ^ n tt" HP. 1131*

17 8

And swoor M r o o t h » by s e i n t Thome & o f Kent* I ' l l * 3291.

179

L 165#

L a b o r y n tu s *

L a b y r in th s

The famous l a b y r i n t h l o c a t e d

on t h e i s l a n d o f C r e te and c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e renowned a r t i s a n and c r a f t s m a n » 3>%dalue» f o r King Kino s .

It

was b u i l t a f t e r t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e g r e a t e s t i n th e w orld* which l a y i n t h e Faymm, .Egypt* n e a r Lake K < * r is * a maze w hich was b u i l t some two th o u send y e a r s b e f o r e C h r is t* o ro b a b ly by Amen ©mba t I I I #

F o r t e l l i n g A riad ne

t h e ©©orat o f t h e L a b y r in th , B ^ td a lu e and hi© so n , I c a r u s * w ere im p riso n e d t h e r e i n *

Sea C r e t e #

Tho Baugh y s to n d e i n a v aley e* Under t h e c e s t e l » f a s t© b y . An h o y a , t h a t Lomu© Ledaly* T hat L ab o ry n tu s c la o a d ye# HP* 1918* 166*

L sc o d o w e (Laoidoiaye} *

Laced as mon i as

An a n c i e n t name

f o r t h e Greek s t a t e o f L acon*a, and sometimes a p p l i e d t o S p a rta * it© c a p i t a l *

The s t a t e o f L ac o n ia l a y i n

t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e P elo p o n n e su s and to t h e s o u th o f A rc a d ia and A r g o lis and e a s t o f K eeeenia# I t s main r i v e r ve.e t h e E u ro ta s# They o f K scene l e e t e en p u ere and ©eke Of Lacedcinye f i f t y may dens eh©* E r r i k * 1879* S tllb o u n * t h a t ws© a l y s ©ribaasadour* Kps s e n t to Corynthe* i n f u l g r e e t honour* Pro Lacidozzjye* t o make h i r e a l i i ounce* P s r d , 60 3 * L&cidomye*

Lacedaemonia*

See Lace&omye#

130

s»S S l*

L a tin :

An a d j e c t i v e r e f e r r i n g to s p e a k e r s

o f t h e L a t i n 1 onguage o r d w e l l e r s i n ^ome o r a n c ie n t Latium*

See L a ty n $ t h e language*

* * * and t o t h e L aty n f o l k i n L aty n ; v h ic h e L rty n f o l k had hem f i r s t o u t o f other® d y v e r s e 1 engages* A e t r * I n t . , 37. Tho sough X s to n d e on a m i l e r , T hat was o f tynned y r e n c l e r * The L atyn no eta# V i r g i l e * HF* 148 1. 168•

L atyn *

L a tin s

The la n g u a g e spoken i n Bom© and a n c i e n t

L atium and* u n t i l c o m p a r a tiv e ly r e c e n t t i m e s , t h e main la n g u a g e employed i n echo c l * s t a t e * and c h u rc h o f wes­ t e r n E u ro p e .

I t i s a b ra n c h o f t h e In d o-E uro pean

f a m il y o f la n g u a g e s .

(TO*)»

F o r h i t f u l den® i s sofiken i n my mynde* W ith mi t o n s h e r t I n E n g ly ssh to en&yte T h is old® s t o r i e * i n L atyn which I fynde* A n e l* 8* • * . f o r L atyn ne can a t thou y i t h u t a n a l , my X i t e l ©one. A g t r * X n t. , 51 * A yong c l e r k romynge hy k ym self th e y m e t t e , Which t h a t i n L aty n t h r i f t i l y hem g r e t t e * P rn k . 1173. Thanne w olde h e sneke no word h u t L a ty n . 6P . 6 38 . A n?.©n©r Latyn c o r r u p t was h i r sp e c h e , But rlfrr t e e th e r b y was sh e u n d ersta n d © . MX. 519. Madame* t h e s e n te n c e o f t h i s L atyn is * ’Vomman i s marines jo y e and a l h i s b i t s . * BP* 3185*

181

And i n L aty n I ©neke a w ordes few©, To s a f f r o n w ith my p r e d i e a e i o u n . Herd * 344* A vo w trle i n L a ty n i© f o r t o ©eyn, approchynge o f o o th e r m&nneo bed* P a r e * 374* Noght w ist® h a what t h i s L atyn was to ©eye, I b r h® so yong end t e n d r e was o f age* Pr* 523* T hat o f no s e n t ament I t h i s ©ndxte, But o u t o f L aty n i n my to n g e i t w r ite * TG* IX* 14* G f. 169*

A g t r » I n t . , 3 7 , 60? 1, 59? ML. 1190? P a r s * 869*

L aw ne*

Lavinium s

A n c ie n tly , a main c i t y l o c a t e d

a b o u t f i f t e e n m i l e s s o u th o f Borne i n Let!urn, t h a t p a r t o f I t a l y which l a y to t h e n o r th w e s t o f Campania and s o u t h e a s t o f .E tr u ria and a lo n g t h e M e d ite rra n e a n s o u t h e a s t o f t h e mouth o f t h e r i v e r T i b e r .

See Ardea*

“I wol now s in g e n , y i f 1 k e n , The a rm e s, and a l s o t h e man T hat f i r s t cam, th u r g h M s d e s tin e ® , i’u g i t y f o f Troy c o n tra © * I n I t e y l e , w ith f u l moehe pyn& Unto t h e s t r o n d e s o f Levy n e ." HP* 143* 170*

Legtnon*

Lemnos or Limno:

A la r g e is la n d in th e

/Egean

S e a , l y i n g ab o ut h alfw ay b etw een t h e Asia. Minor c o a s t and Mount Athos*

U n til c o m p a ra tiv e ly r e c e n t l y , Learnian

e a r t h was renowned as a c u r e f o r wounds and e n a k e - b ite a * A n c ie n tly t h e i s l a n d was h o ly t o H ed h ^ s tu s * t r e a t s t h e myth f o r which i t i s famous* So long® h e se y le d i n t h e © r it e s e , T il i n t h e yl® o f Lsannon ary v ed e he* m\I ace-name m " T u rk ish B a la t" o r P a l a t h i a on th© l o c a t i o n o f t h e a n c ie n t M ile tu s*

See M e le s ie *

T here

i s a l i t t l e town* P a l a t i a , on th© /Eg ©an Sea i n A s i a t i c Turkey some s i x t y m ile s due so u th o f Smyrna, and t h i s would s a t i s f y R obinson1& 1d e n t i f i c a t i o n • I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e f e r e n c e m ight be to Pel.l&ntia* t h e a n c i e n t name o f Prl e n c i a » t h e c a p i t a l o f t h e pro­ v in c e o f t h e same name i n So s in , v l t h S an ta n d e r to t h e n o rth * V a l l a d o l i d to t h e south* Burgos to th e ©ast , and Leon t o th® w e s t .

The c s u i t s ! * lo c a t e d one hun­

dred and f o u r t e e n m il e s n o rth w e s t o f Madrid*

ss th e

s e a t o f t h e f i r s t u n i v e r s i t y i n S p a in , founded i n 1209? and t h e r e i s n c a th e d r a l s San M ig u e l» which i s m o stly o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n tu r y -

I t was r prom inent

204

and im p o rta n t town d u rin g t h e M id d le Ages.

In a d d i­

t i o n , t h e l o r d o f P s l a t h i a o r B e l a t would o r o b a b ly h ave been a h e a th e n s end he would h a r d ly b e f i g h t i n g w ith a. C h r is t ia n ( t h e K n ig h t) “agayn a n o t h e r h e th e n i n T u rk ye."

The " a n o th e r 11 i n th© q u o t a t i o n would

seen: t o r e f ©r back t o t h e K n i g h t 's o t h e r b a t t l e s “f o r our© f a i t h " w it h o t h e r h eath en s# and n o t t o th e “l o r d o f P& l& tye." T h is ilk® w orthy k nyght hadde been a ls o Somtyme w ith t h e lo r d o f P o la ty e Agayn a n o th e r h e th e n i n Turley e* CP. 64. 212.

P a ly m e r le .

A v e ry o ld c i t y a t an o a s i s i n

P a lr y r e s

t h e S y ria n D e se rt*

I t i s one hundred and tw en ty m ile s

t o t h e n o r t h e a s t from Damascus.

I t i s su-" cosed to h a v e

b een b u i l t by Solomon? a t any r a t e # i t h a s lo n g been c o m m e r c ia lly

i m p o r t r ;n t *

It

vrs

in d e p en d en t u nd er

Queen h en o b ia » who made i t a sol end id. and c o v e rfu l n ie c e u n t i l h e r d e f e a t by A u r e lia n i n 272 A .p .

I t has

been d e s tro y e d and r e b u i l t s e v e r a l time© and i s now i n r u in s # t h e m a g n ific e n c e o f which r e f l e c t s something of i t s o r ig in a l g lo r y . C enobia* o f P aly m e rle queens# As v r l t c n P e r e ie n s o f h i r n o b le s s e , So w orth y was i n armes and so k e e n e . ITk. £ 2 4 7 .

213.

Panilc (P a n y k ).

P ag a n ic s o r P eg an ico :

I o ffer th is

pb a u o o s i b l e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f " P a n ik ."

Boccaccio

c a l l s th© d e c © " Panago **? by simol e m e t a t h e s i s one

£05 g e t s "Psfgano"» t h e d im in u tiv e form o f which would be Peganica# o r P ag an!co , which s h o r t one to P a n ic a o r F snioo ( P e t r a r c h s “ Panic©") and T a n ik . P o ssib ilitie s 2

T here a r e two

P a g a n !a a , a l i t t l e town f i v e r i l e s

t o t h e e a s t o f A q u ila i n th© p r o v in c e o f A q u ila , I t a l y ; i t i s t w e n t y - f i v e m ile s e a s t n o r th ©ast o f home and f i f t e e n m il e s from th© A d r i a t i c ? o r , th© r e f e r e n c e may be to P&ganico#

b

town on t h e Ombroneo R iv e r in

t h e p ro v in c e o f G r o s s e t c , f o r t y m il os n o r th o f home a lo n g t h e c o a s t? i t i s t e n m il e s from t h e M e d ite rra n e a n Sea* B i t a t B o lo ig n e to h i s s u s t e r d e e r e , T hat t h i l k e tyme o f P&nik v a s countess© . C lk . 589* To t h e J3rl o f P&fSfk, which t h a t hadde tho Wedded h i s s u e t e r , orey de he s p e c i a l l y To b ryngen hoom egayn h i s c h i l d r e n t o . C lk * 764. Pro B o lo ig n e i s t h i s B rl o f Panyk come, Of w hich t h e fame u p sp ran g t o moo r e and l e s s e . 01 k * 9 39 * Pgggk. 214.

P agenioa o r Pagan! co s

Parnaso (P ern © so ).

P a rn a ssu s ?

Se© Pani k . A m ountain r i d g e i n

P h o o ls , about e ig h ty m ile s to t h e n o rth w e s t o f A th en s. I t s h i g h e s t p o i n t , L ia k u r e , r i s e s e i g h t th o u sa n d f e e t . On t h e s o u th s i d e o f P a rn a ssu s a r e t h e r u i n s o f D e lp h i, w hich a r e c l o s e to th e C a s t e l l a n F o u n ta in , t h e s o r in g of p o e tic in s p ir a tio n .

From t h e to p o f P a rn a s s u s i s

t o be had a m a g n if ic e n t view o f n o r th e r n K o rea, t h e

206 G ulf o f C o rin th# and meet o f H e l l a s .

P a rn a s s u s was

th© h au n t o f t h e Mu s e e , nymphs, and A p o llo .

See

1511 co n . Be f a v o r a b l e ek e, th o u Polymya, On F a m e so t h a t w ith th y s u s t r e s g l a d e , By 'Ely con, n o t f e r from C i r r e a . A n a l. 15 * X s l e e n never© on th© Mount o f .Perneso, Me l e r n e d Marcus T u l l i u s S c i t h e r o . F rn k . 721* And y e , me t o end i t e and ryme H e lp e th , t h a t on P arnaso d u e l l e , B© 311i c o n , t h e c l e r e w elle* HP. 520. Ye s u s t r a n nyn© ek , t h a t by ELI icon© I n MX P ernaso l i r t e n f o r t 9a b id e . TO. I l l , 1809. 215.

B a rth es.

P a r th ia n © t The i n h a b i t a n t s o r n a t i v e s o f

P a r t h i s , an a n c ie n t w e s te r n A s i a t i c c o u n try l o c a t e d to t h e s o u th o f H y rc a n ia , to t h e e a s t o f M edia, and s o u th ­ e a s t o f t h e Gaenian Sea#

The P a r t h i a n Etaplre, which

l a s t e d from £50 B .C . to 226 A.D* was an a n c ie n t mon­ arch y c o n t a in i n g much o f th e t e r r i t o r y o f th e f i r s t P e r s i a n Bfeoire.

I t was e s t a b l i s h e d by A rsaee s and

r o s e t o b e a m ighty power u n d e r M i t h r i d a t e s I and I I* . . . and y i t was t h i l k e tyme Rome v e l waxen and g r e s t l y r e d o u te d o f t h e B a r t h e s , and #ek o f t h e other© f o lk e n h a b ity n g e a b o u ta * Bo. I I , P .7 , 71 . Look© eek t h a t t o th© kyng D em etrius Th© kyng o f P artb .ee , as th© book s e i t h u s , S e n te him a pair© o f d ee s o f g o ld i n s c o rn . Pard. 621.

207 216*

P ferw p*

The P&rvysi

U n til r e c e n t l y f explained. a s th e

to r c h e s * o r t h e rooms o v e r t h e church to r c h e s * o f St* P a u l 1& and of H o tre Pam®, r eeo a c t i v e l y , i n th e q u o t a t i o n s b elo w .

Karily t h i n k s t h a t t h e n e rv y s may

have k ee n a n l a c e used f o r t h e c o u r t o f t h e .Exchequer o r a s o r t o f a f te r n o o n sem inar by t h e s t u d e n t s a t In n s o f C o u r t.

The e a r l i e r exn la.netio n i s coming a g a in

i n t o a c ce p tan c e*

T here may be a

c o n n e c tio n w ith th e

"C h irc h e dore* i n G P ., l i n e 4 60 , where t h e h i f e o f B a th to o k h e r ttf y v e hoy sbond as *w A S e rg e a n t o f t h e Lew®, war and v y s , That o f t e n hadde been a t t h e Parvys* GP* 309. Ther nos no w igh t i n a l l P a r y s , B if o r n a Oure Lady9 a t n a r y y s , That ha n e myghte bye t h e book. EH* 7107« 217*

P arys*

P a rie s

F r a n c e ’ s c a p i t a l , l o c a t e d on b o th

banks o f t h e S e in e H ire r* /A

The c e n t e r o f th e c i t y 1c

^

t h e II® da l a C i t e , a sm all i s l a n d i n t h e r i v e r .

The

c o p u la t io n d u rin g C h au cer1® tim e was from 150,000 to

2 00 ,0 00 ; and t h e c i t y was famous even th e n as an a r t i s ­ t i c , I n t e l l e c t u a l , and c u l t u r a l c e n t e r . F o r F re n s s h o f P ary s was t o h i r e unknowe♦ GP# 126. And i n t h i s w ise wolde i t urech® m a isire s o f d iv in it® Somtyme i n Parys t h e c ite ® .

The

HR* 6 5 5 2 .

2C8

F or which t l i i e m erchant i s t o P arys gon To borwe o f c e r t e i n e f r e e n d e s t h a t h© had de. 8hi2 * 332. I n -which “book eek t h e r was T e r tu la n * C r i s l u p u s , T ro tu la * and Helowye, T hat was a b b e s s e mat f a r f r o 'Perys. M S* 676. C f.

218.

HR* 1653, 6764, 7107? S h ip * 57, 3 6 5 .

Pethm gfflflssm arasos. mftg

Patm os:

An i s l a n d o f t h e Soorades group

l o c a t e d i n t h e dsgean Sea some tw en ty m ile s to th e so u th w e s t o f Samos.

I t i s tw e n t y - e ig h t m ile s in c i r ­

cum ference and i s sttonoeed to b e t h e p la c e to which John was e x i le d and where he saw t h e A n o c a ly p tic v i s i o n s ( s e e R ev. 14 5 3 -4 ).

T here i s a m edieval m o nastery w ith

some v a lu a b le m a n u sc r ip ts# and a cave t h a t i s p o in te d o u t as t h e p l a c e w here John l i v e d . Of which th® g r e t e e v a u n g e lls t* S e in t John, In Pathmos v r o o t* which s e i t h t h a t th e y t h a t goon B i f o r n t h i s Lamb, and synge a song a! n e v e , That never© , f le a a h ly # wommen th e y no knewe. P r * 582. 219 •

P a v ia ( Pavye) *

Pavia*

The c a p i t a l o f t h e p ro v in c e o f

th© same name i n Lombardy# I t a l y .

The c i t y i s l o c a t e d

on t h e l e f t bank o f th® T ic in o n e a r i t s j u n c t i o n w ith t h e Po R iv er*

The U n iv e r s ity o f P a v ia , founded in

1561, r o s e t o g r e a t im p o rta n c e d u rin g t h e M iddle iig e s. The c i t y was a p p a r e n tly a r i c h and f e r t i l e p la c e in Chaucer* s tim e .

I t was a G h i b e l l i n e c i t y , l a t e r m assing

to th e V isc o n ti, dred Towers*tt

i t h a s been c a l l e d HC ity o f th e Hun­

I t was h e r e t h a t B o e th iu s was im priso ned

209

(522 (? ) A*D*} and nut to d e a th i n 524*

See Gothos*

Whilom t h e r was d v e lly n g e i n Lumbar dye A w orthy k ry g h t# t h a t born was o f PDvys. Krch,* 1245* Tho had X s io h l u s t and envies T hat f o r P arys no f o r P av ie Hold© X have l e f t t o goon and se e T here g r e t t i s t hen o f r o s e s be# BB* 1653* Paw ® ,

P a v le i

P e to e rk *

582555555S25%55S5*SSi^5i5S£ii*

See Pavia*

P e m e rc * h i

A B re to n v i l l a g**e l o c a t e d on th e

Point© de Penmsr c ’h# a h ea d lan d ex te n d in g o u t i n t o th e A t l a n t i c Ocean# in t h e French dep artm en t o f P i n i s t e r e # soma s i x t e e n m ile s to t h e so u th w est o f Ouinner* i s in th e w ild e st p a r t of th e B ritta n y c o a s t«

It I t was

an im p o r ta n t s© snort d u rin g th© K id d le Ages# a lth o u g h now i t i s decayed and ru n down*

See B y n y s ta r e ? Goot-

1M : S ssks M Hat f e r f r o Pedmark# t h e r h i s dwell yng was* P rn k * SOI« 221 •

Pemend *

Piedmonts

A coBinertimento i n n o r th e r n I t a l y #

com prised o f t h e n ro v in o e s o f Ouneo? T urin? Hov&ra# and A le s s a n d ria *

To th e n o r th l i e s S w itz e r3 and, to

th e sou t h f L ig u r ia ? t o t h e west# Prance# and to th e e a s t? Lombardy.

The house of Savoy began r u l i n g h e r e

i n th© e l e v e n t h ce n tu ry ? t h e c o u n try war a mein p a r t o f t h e kingdom o f S a rd in ia * A nrohemyQ# i n t h e which d ie c r y v e th Penonti» and of S a lu c e s t h e co n tree* Clk • 43*

he

210

222*

Peng,

Ph ct n i c i e s

A n c i e n t l y , a s t r t o o f le n d l y in g

betw een Kount Lebanon and t h e M e d ite rra n e a n Sea,

Be­

f o r e 1000 B,C, t h e 'R h < tn lcianaj who were much i n t e r ­ e s te d i n c o l o n i s a t i o n , bad s a i l e d beyond th e S t r a i t s o f G ib ra lta r*

T h is a n c ie n t ^eo-^le, t h e P at n i o r

Puni o f th© c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s » were a S e m itic n e o n le

who w ere i d e n t i f i e d w ith th© C a r t h a g in i a n s ( se© Car­ ta g e ).

The ohra.se Chaucer t r a n s l a t e s i s " D « n i , • ,

le o n e s ,* A1 be i t so t h a t t h e lyoun© o f t h e c o n t r e o f Pen© b a r e n t h e f e y r e c h a y n e s , and ta k e n m etes o f th e hsnde® o f f o l k t h a t yeven i t hem. B o . I l l , F ,2* 8 . *225,

P erc ©,

P e r sis. o r I r a n :

w ith c a p i t a l Teheran?

A c o u n try i n w e s te rn A sia A s i a t i c Turkey l i e s to th e

w est# T r a n s c a u c a s ia and t h e C a so la n Sea on t h e n o rth * B a lu c h i s ta n and A fg h a n is ta n on th© e a st* and th© A rab ian See* t h e P e r s i a n Gulf* and t h e S t r a i t of

Ormuz on th® s o u t h .

I t was an a b s o l u t e monarchy*

govern ed by a shah* u n t i l 1906,

back t o t h e s i x t h c e n tu r y B,C,

The h i s t o r y goes D u rin g t h e l a t t e r

y e a r s o f Chaucer*s l i f e t i m e * Timur v i t h h i s Mongols conqu ered P e r s i a ,

P e r s i a and Rome were f r e q u e n t ly a t

war v i t h each o t h e r . Of kynges blood o f P erce i s she descen ded . I k , 225?. 224,

P e rc ie s!.

P e r s ia n s

An i n h a b i t a n t o r n a t i v e o f P e r s i a ,

-*-Penneus (C f, Kn. 206?) not in c lu d e d , s in c e Chaucer does n o t r e f e r to h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as c r i v e r .

211

? e r c e r Achamenye. Lo ir o u s C iru e , t h i l k e P s r c i e n , How he d e s tr o y eel t h e r y v e r of Gy s e n . Hum. 2079. 225 .

P er evens (P e rse s* P e r s i o n e ).

P e rsia n s:

ta n ts or n a tiv e s of P e rs ia .

Gee °erce*

The in h a b i­

And. i s i t o u t o f th y xaynde h o w t h a t P a u l u s , c o n s u l o f .Rome, w h a n he hrd t o k e n t h e ky n g of P e r c y e n s * w eep o i t o u s l y f o r t h e c e .p t i v y t e o f t h e e e l v e k v r t g .

Bo". IXf P . 2 ff 7 0 . ^Dyvyded i s th y regne# and i t s h a l "be To Redes and t o P a rs e s y e v e n ," quod h e . . 2234« C enobia, o f .Palyiaerie q u e e n s * As w r i t a n P e r s i a n s o f M r n o b le s s e . Ac. 2247* And Harmanno and Tbymalao H lr names w e r e » as P e r s ia n s hem c a l l e . g k . 2345. P arnassusi P e rsia n s: dens. 226.

P e rsia n s:

B illio e n s e ® .

See Parnaso ♦ See Per c y a n s * See P er c y a n s .

P h ilip p ia n ® :

The r e f e r e n c e i s to th e

A p i s t l e o f Paul t o th e F h i l i o p i a n Church which he founded*

A n c ie n tly , t h e c i t y of P h i l i p p i was i n Race-

d o m e , some s e v e n ty m ile s n o r t h e a s t o f S a lo n ik i and t e n m ile s from t h e f L g m n Sea.

In t h e p l a i n to th e

w e s t , B ru tu s and C a ssiu s and th® r e p u b l i c a n s were de­ f e a t e d i n 42 B.C. by Mark Antony and O c ta v iu s .

See

212

Talce 3c©p eek how o r e c i o u s i® t h e nar?i© o f C r is t * ae s e i t h S e in t Paul* ad P h i l i n e n a e s * secmndo* In nomine Jhesu* P a r s , 598. 227*

r h i l 1 stle n s .

P M lie tin e e s

See G asan.

By v e r r e y f o r c e a t Gasan* on a n y g h t, H augree P h i l i s t i e n © o f t h a t c i t e e » The gate® o f t h e to n n he h a t h uo n l v g h t . m * 2047. 228•

P i %© ( P y s e ) ,

P isa i

An o ld w a lle d c i t y l o c a t e d i n

Tuecany* I t a l y f i t i s t h e c a p i t a l o f t h e p r o v in c e o f t h e same name and i s lo c a te d on t h e Arno R iver* s i x m il e s from i t s mouth#

A lthough I n Chaucer*® l i f e t i m e

t h e c i t y had l o s t many o f i t s r e g r e s s i o n s ( C o r s ic a , t h e B a l e a r i c I s la n d s * and S a r d in ia ) and much o f i t s im portobc® » y e t t h e famous Leaning Tower was com pleted I n 1350* and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P i s a i n 1 3 4 3 .

It is

an a r c h b is h o p 1© s e e and i s famous as t h e b i r t h p l a c e of G a lile o .O ff t h e B rl Bu^elyn o f ty z e t h e la n g o u r Ther may no to n g e t e l l e f o r o ite e * H e. 2 4 0 7 .

Por Roger* which t h a t b ia s h o p was o f P lz e , H&dde on hym maad. a f e l s s u g g e s tio u n . ivlc» 241 6 . C f. 2.29*

P h . 2409* 2456*

P o ll l e y s .

A p ulian s

An a d j e c t i v e r e f e r r i n g to t h e

a n c i e n t r e g io n i n I t a l y o f A oulie ( I t , P u g lia ) lo c a t e d betw een th© A d r i a t i c Sea and. t h e An erm in es; Sasmium l i e s to t h e w est and t h e P re n tn n i dwell to th e n o r th v e st.

Rome conquered i t i n t h e f o u r t h c e n tu r y B.C.

213

Some tim e l a t e r A p u lia in c lu d e d t h e p e n i n s u la o f C a la b r ia (K e ss& p ia )« The l o m p n s c r e a te d i t a. duchy i n t h e e le v ­ e n th c e n tu ry *

A m ilie and Lombardy were famous a s p la e e s

f o r r a i s i n g t h e v e ry f i n e s t h o r s e s . T h e rw ith so h o r s l y , and so quyk of y e , As i t a g e n t 11 P o l l l e y s c o u r s e r w ere. Sq * 194» 230.

Pgg.

?o:

The l a r g e s t r i v e r i n I t a l y , w a te r i n g , w ith

i t s t r i b u t a r i e s , a l l o f th© p l a i n o f Lombardy and P ied ­ m o nt.

I t i s about f o u r hundred m ile s i n l e n g t h and

flo w s# th ro u g h s e v e r a l mouths and o v e r an e x te n s iv e d e l t a # i n t o t h e A d r i a t i c Sea*

I t r i s e s on t h e F rench

b o r d e r i n Monte Vi so i n th© Alt>®, some f o r t y m ile s to t h e so u th w e st o f T u rin and from a h e i g h t o f o v e r tw elv e th o u sa n d f e e t .

See Qyoes V e s u lu s .

And o f Mount V esu lu s i n s p e c ia l# Where a s t h e Poo o u t o f a well© mm1 T a k e th hi© f i r s t © ©pryngyng and h i s s o u r s . C lk. 4 7 . 221 •

Popery me*

F o p erin g h e o r P o n e rin g e n :

A B e lg ia n town

i n V est F la n d e r s c l o s e t o t h e French b o r d e r and s i x m ile s w est so u th w e st o f Y o re s . church i s l o c a t e d h e r e .

An o u ts t a n d in g m edieval

Manly t h i n k s Chaucer s e l e c t e d

P o n erin g h e as t h e b ir th o le .e e o f S ir T hopas, p a r t l y be­ c a u se t h e I n h a b i t a n t s w ere sun no cod to be etu i d , and a l s o b e c a u se t h e Abbot o f S t . B e r t i n , t h e a c t u a l l o r d wo f t h a t c o n tr a ® #H would hav e nasoed on a most ques­ t i o n a b l e fame to h i s son as t h e i d e a l k n i g h t .

214

Yborn he was i n f e r e o n t r e e , In F la u n d r e e , e l b iy o n d e t h e s e e , At P oo ery n g , i n t h e n ie c e * S ir* 718* 232*

Porch©«

P « .c ile :

Th© t emeus o o r t i c o w ith in t h e c i t y

lim it© o f A th en s, so c a l l e d b e c a u se o f i t s numerous p a in tin g s*

I t was a l s o c a l l e d Stoa? her© Zeno o f Cyprus

founded h i e sch oo l and ta u g h t h i s s t u d e n t s , who th u s d e r iv e d th® name o f S to ic s *

(ACt>.» ACL*) •

The porch© ( t h a t i s to a gyp, a g a t e o f t h e to u n o f A th e n is t h e r e as p h llc fs o p h rig hadd m h i r c e m r w e a e i o u n to 6 e sp u te n T-*‘t h i I k e -porch© brought© somtyme o ld e men. Bo. V, }■. 4 , 1 . 233.

P o rtv n g ta le .

P o rtu g a l:

A ISuropean r e p u b l i c form ing

t h e w e s te r n p a r t o f t h e S pan ish p e n i n s u la ; th© c a p i t a l i s L isb o n .

S pain l i e s to t h e n o r th and e a s t and t h e

A t l a n t i c t o t h e v e s t end s o u t h .

L a rg e ly b e c a u se o f

i t s g e o g r a p h ic a l l o c a t i o n , t h e c o u n try h a s lo n g been concerned v i t h e x p o r t i n g .

The “g rey n " t h a t Chaucer

m en tio n s i s t h e coccus o r

c o c h i n e a l i n s e c t , which give©

s b r i g h t red d y e.

The " b r& s ile " i s t h e red dye manu­

f a c t u r e d from b ra z il-w o o d ?

B r a z il i n South fas e r i c a

t a k e s i t s nama from th®. f a c t t h a t t h e wood i s found th e re . Him n e d e th n e t h i s c o lo u r f o r to dyen V ith b r a s i l e , ne v i t h g re y n o f 'P o rty n g a le. EE* 3458. 234.

Foul& a.

S t . P a u l1e C a th e d r a ls

A famous c a th e d r a l i n

London which was? burned i n t h e London f i r e o f 1666.

215

The p r e s e n t c a th e d r a l utb d e s ig n e d by S i r C h r is to p h e r Wren end begun i n 1675 end f i n i s h e d i n 1710*

The o ld

St* P a u l 1s we $ an im p r e s s iv e ch u rch n e a r l y s i x h u nd red f e e t i n le n g th end w ith a wooden main s p i r e o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n tu r y f o u r h undred end s i x t y f e e t i n h e ig h t.

A b e d on*s sh o e s had a d e s i g n » p ro b ab ly an

o r n a t e and d i s t i n c t i v e one* c u t i n th e n on t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e main window o f old St* Paul. *©•

See S e in t P o n ie s *

W ith Foul ©a wyndov! corven on h i s shoos* In hose© red® h e v e n t s f e t i s l y . F i l . 3318. 235.

Bruce ( P rays© ).

P r u s s ia s

The r e f e r e n c e i s to th e

home o f t h e P ru s s ia n s * which was about equal, to th e province© o f West and .sSaet P r u s s ia b e f o r e t h e f i r s t World War.

The T e u to n ic Knight© conquered t h e h e a th e n

P r u s s i a n s (B o ru seia n s* n eo p le r e l a t e d to t h e L i t h u a n i a n s ) » who l i v e d along t h e B a lti c * i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h century* G erm anizing and C h r i s t i a n i z i n g t h e p e o p le w ith f ir© end ©word p r a c t i c a l l y to t h e ^© int of t h e i r e x t i n c t i o n . Me ©ende men i n t o Walakye# To Pruyse* and i n t o T a ria ry e * 22 1024. *

Pul oft© tyme he hadde the b o rd b igo nn e Abovan a ll© n a c io n e i n Pruec* GP. 5 2. And som wol have a Pruoe she ©Id or a t a r g e . P ru y se*

P ru ssia i

See P ru c e . i"« m i . ■*!!. mimvk>i^ w.

£16 236.

Py c a r d i e .

P ic a r d y :

na.rt o f F ra n c e .

An o ld p r o v in c e i n th e n o r th e r n

The c a p i t a l was Amiens; on th e n o r th

l a y F la n d e r s and A r t o i s ; on t h e south* 11 e-d e-F ra n c e s on t h e e a s t* Chcaanagnej end on t h e n o r th and n orths ea t* Hormrndy and t h e 'English C hannel.

In Chaucer*© tim e

i t v s s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f F la n d e rs ? h u t L ou is XI annexed i t to Prance* In FleuncfreSf i n A rto y e » and p ycerd ie* 86 * '

Pyz b

*

P is& t

£

£

dee ? i z e »

*

217 B £37*

R sv en n e .

Ravennas

The c a p i t a l o f t h e p ro v in c e o f

Ravenna* compar tim e n to o f f e l l la* I t a l y .

I t i s lo c a te d

s i x m il a® from t h e A d r i a t i c between t h e .Fiumi and Lamone r i v e r s .

I t i s noted f o r i t s ch u rch es and i t i s ,

a f t e r Rome, th© most n o t a b l e I t a l i a n c i t y o f C h r i s t i a n a r t o f t h e f i f t h to t h e e ig h th c e n t u r i e s .

The tomb

and r u in e d c a s t l e o f T heodoric t h e G r e a t, k in g o f I t a l y 4 9 3 -5 26 , a r e a ls o l o c a t e d h e r e , as i s t h e tomb o f D a n te .

Ravenna i s a v ery o ld c i ty ? i t was an im­

p o r t a n t n av al b a s e i n Roman t im e s .

D aring t h e K id d le

Ages i t vbs en in d e p en d en t s t a t e f o r aw h ile and th a n we,s p o sse sse d by t h e V e n e tia n s and t h e P o le n ta s .

See

jh i e l e . . . . he contend id e t h a t , b u t th e y voydi&e t h e c i t e o f B^venne by c e r te y n day a s s ig n e d , t h a t men s c h o ltie msrken hem on th e fo rh ev ed w ith an h o o t irerw Bo# I v P .4 , 135. 238.

Red© 8Bee* 5S55SSS3

Red Reas

One o f t h e main e x te n s io n s o f th e

In d ia n Ocean? A rab ia l i e s to t h e c a s t and A f r ic a to th© v e s t .

In t h e n o r t h p a r t i t so l i t s i n t o /Beaba G ulf

and t h e G ulf o f S i n a i .

On t h e n o r th i t co n n e cts v i t h

t h e K e d ite r r a n e a n Sea by t h e Suez Canal and on the s o u th v i t h t h e I n d ia n Ocean by th e G ulf o f Aden ?/nd jBpb-el-H andeb S t r a i t .

I t i s 1 ,4 5 0 m ile s i n l e n g t h and

206 m ile s a t i t s g r e a t e s t v id th *

I t i s a ls o c a l l e d

218

A ra b ian G ulf*

See Sac* 14:21-31 -

See P l i n y , hat*

h i s t * , aciit 18 f o r th© r e f e r e n c e to Mu recy o u s s to n e s * M # • • and though h e hadde h i s nakke ch arg ed w ith nreoyous s to n e s o f t h e Bede See* Bo* XIX, H*3# 4* w u ll i

Wei may men know© i t was no w ig ht h u t he That k e o t e o e n le iSbrayk from h i r d ren ehy ng e. With d ry e f e e t th u r x h o u t t h e se e oassynge* HL. 488. Regne o f P lu ^ o * 239•

R ey nas*

Renness

i n Franc®.

P l u t o f s kingdoms

See Berke r e g i o u n *

A n c ie n tly , t h e c a p i t a l o f B r i t t a n y

I t i s lo c a t e d on th© V i l s i n e where i t

J o i n s t h e 111®.

I t was s e v e r a l tim e s u n d er s i e g e .

T here rem ain e good many a n c ie n t b u i l d i n g s in Lower Rennes ( t h e o ld s e c t i o n ) on t h e l e f t bank of t h e V i l s i n e , in c lu d in g t h e C a th e d ra l o f S t . P e t e r , Church o f Wotre Bam©, and a c o l l e g e , i n s u i t e o f a d e v a s t a t i n g f ir ® i n 1720*

Be® Atgyas*

And many a p ilo w e , and ©very h e r Of c l o t h o f Reyneo, to s ie o e soft®* ED. 254 # Which hadde l e v e r in t h i s c s a s Have ben a t Revnee o r Asyas# HR* 3825* 240*

R o c h e le * La R o c h e lle s

A f o r t i f i e d s e a n o r t and c a p i t a l

o f t h e F rench dep artm en t o f C h a r e n t e - I n f e r i e u r e ; i t i s lo c a t e d on an e x te n s io n of t h e Bpy o f B is c a y , about h alfw ay betw een Bordeaux and Pontes*

T here a r e medieval

f o r t i f i c a t i o n s ; th e Tour S t . M c o l as was b u i l t in 1384.

219

A f t e r s e v e r s ! ch a n g es, t h e c i t y war- r e s t o r e d to P ra n ce i n 13 72 .

La R o c h e lle i s at i l l one o f t h e b e s t h a r b o r s

i n V e s te r n Prance* T hat whan b man h a t h d rch k en d r a u g h te s th r e * And w eneth t h a t h e b e a t ho am i n Ghee®,

He I s i n Sv)signe> r i g h t a t t h e to u n e o f le p e * — Bat s t t h e Rochele* ne a t Burdsux toun* P sxd * 56 8. 241*

Rodonava (R odopeye)♦

Rhodopes

A m ountain ra n g e i n

'European Turkey# -Eastern Bumelia* and B u lg a ria ? i t i s t h e h i g h e s t and most s o u th e rn p a r t o f th e Balkans* I t lie ® p a r t l y i n K eoedonia and i n T h race; t h e moun­ t a i n s which make i t up rang® in s i ze from 9,00C to 9*600 f e e t *

I t i s ©Iso c e l l e d Besnoto-Dagh*

Chaucer

h a s c r e a t e d a name h e r e ; h i s “c o u n try w of Rodopeys r e f e r s to t h a t s e c t i o n o f t h e c o u n try p e r t a i n i n g to t h e m ou ntain c h a in o f Rhodope*

See Bacedovna? T ra c e *

Unneth© myghi© h© so eke o r draw® hi© b re th # And l y t h i n Hodooeya hym f o r to r e s t s . RGW. (P) 2437. Thy P h i l l i s , which t h a t i s so wo begon* Of Rodooeye, uoon yow mot coMolsyne. lgw * ( ? ) 2 4 9 7 * Rodoneve* Rhodopes 242.

Ronusyn (Roraeyn)*

See Rod on eye,*

Romans

An a d j e c t i v e p e r t a i n i n g to

Rome o r t h e Roman .Empire* These Romeyn wyves loved@ so h e r e name At t h i I k e tyme* and d red d e so t h e shame. m y . ( 3?) I 8 1 2 *

£20

The jSmperour o f Rome# C la u d iu s He hym b i f o r e # t h e Romayn G alien# Ha c o r s t e never® been so c o r a g e u s . Hfe. 237.5. And seek© we o f t h e Roraeyn ©moerour* T hat o u t o f S u rry e h a t h by l e t t r e e knowe The s l s u g h t r e o f c r i s t e n f o l k » and d ie h o n o u r. KL* 9 5 4 . In th e old® Rom&yn g e e s t e a may men fyn&t K a u ric o s l y f s I h e r e i t noght in u yn d e. KL* 1126. The Eomayn g e e s t e e eek make remembrance Of many a v arra y # trew® wyf &1so. H roh. 2284• P o r which ho o f t e n tymes wold® orecho# And me o f o ld e Romayn g e e s t e e tech©# VB. 6 4 1 . r'43*

Eomayn (Romeyn).

Romans

An i n h a b i t a n t o r n a t i v e o f

Borne# which e e e . T h at was t h e b e s t e - * h e t c l l a t h thus# The Rom&yn# T y tu s Xyvyue. KD. 1083. Kay th a n n o t h e g l c r i e o f a s y n g u le r Roneyn s tr o c c h a n t h i d e r as t h e fame o f t h e name o f Rome may n e t clymban ne naesen? Ro. IX# P. ?# 7 8 . She took h i r c h i l d r e n a ll® , and. s k i n t e adoun I n to t h e f y r # and cb e es r a t h e r to dye Than any Rom&yn did© h i r e v ile y n y e # F r n k «. T402. T h is g r e t e Romayn# t h i s AureXi&n# Hath w ith hym la d # f o r t h a t men ah o ld e i t s e e . Kk. 2761. A nother Rom&yn told® h e me by name# That# f o r hi® wyf was a t a someree g*rn e . \/B • 647.

221

244»

RoaaaygB (Bomeyns )«

Homans:

Ref e r r i n g to i n h a b i t a n t s

o r n a t i v e s o f Rom© o r t h e Homan Ffenire*

3ee Rome*

F or whan eh© saugh t h a t Romeyne van t h e toun* Rhe to ok h i r c h i 3dr©n a l l© , rnd skin t© ©doun* P rn k . 1401• V i t h ©tout© Bomeynst crew el as lyoun* To s h in th e y vent©* and th u s 1 l e t hem eeyle* m \ U (F) 627* The A n o s tle Paul u n to t h e Bomsyms v r i t e t h . h e 1 * 98 9. IT* a t Rom.©| f o r th e harm, thur&h Hanybel T hat Romayns h a t h venquyeshed t y p e s t l i r e . IX . 291* Vhsn t h a t M r houebonde hedde l o o t h i s l y f * And t h a t t h e Roweyas haddo h ren d C a r ta g e . S£* 3364* T h is meyden b r i g h t C e c il i© 9 as h i r l i f s e ith * Was comen o f Romayns* and o f n o b le k y n d e. b h » 120 • C f. £45*

LGV. (F) 6 29 » 3694? (G) 274; K o l. 1440; i % . 394.

Home.

Romes

Sometimes c a l l e d t h e most famous c i t y

i n t h e w orld? a n c ie n tly * t h e c e n t e r and c a p i t a l o f t h e most e x t e n s i v e and im p o rta n t s t a t e i n h i s t o r y . U n til t h e s i x t e e n t h cen tu ry * Rom® was t h e c e n t e r o f t h e chu rch o f w e s te r n C h risten do m .

In 1309, Avignon

i n Franc© became t h e s e a t o f th e p ap al see and rem ained so u n t i l 1377* when Rom© r e c e iv e d i t b a c k .

In th e

l a t t e r R id d le Ages* Rome ap peared to h e a c i t y i n ru in s?

b u t when t h e lo n g p e r io d o f p ap al s t r i f e *

R ie n z i r e v o l u t i o n s (1347 and 1354)* and d e s t r u c t i o n o f r e p u b l i c a n P riv ile g e © by papa! a u t h o r i t y wee over*

a new c i t y began t o t a k e form o ut o f t h e ashes* • * • r i g h t fs d i v e r s e p a th o s 1 ©den d i v e r s e f o l k t h e rig h t© w y t o Rome* A fftr. I n t . , 45* In Garbage# o r i n Hacedoync# Or i n Borne# o r i n %nyve* Bh• 1062. And f o r es moche r s t h e peyne of th e ac c u e a c io im a ju g id b y fo rn ne sc h u ld e noght sod ay n i l h o n te n ne puny a ache w r o n g f u lly Albyn# a c o n s e i l l o r o f Borne* Bo. 1, P. 4 , 107* lie t o t h e c o u r t o f Home# i n s u b t i l wyse in fo rm ed o f h i e wyl $ e a n te hi.© message* 01k * 737* Thogh i t as g r e e t were as vaa Hynyvee# Home# A lisa u n d re # Troye# and other© t h r e e . Cjr. ©74* H ath n e t Lu c r e a s e ysl& yn h i r e e l f , a l l a s t At Home* whan t h a t she o p p resse d was* ffrnk* 1405* Hi© v a l e t l a y b i f o r n hym i n h i s lanp©# B r e t f u l o f oerclotin# comen from Rome e l h o o t. GP. 686. Hen myghte b y t ban h e r d e s e ly To R o m e y trow e s i k a r l y . HF. 1929. Thy f a ir © b o d y s 1 s t y t n e t rrmerc# Lavyne? and th o u , h u cra sc o o f Rome to u n . LOH. (F) 256 And f e t t r e t i h i r e # and ©elc h ir© c h i l d r e n tweye# And wan t h e 1 a n d » and ho on to Rome he went©* m * 2357. How f i l i t t h a t t h e m e l s t r e s o f t h a t s o r t Han shanen hem to Roms f o r to v en d s. KL. 141. As# whan t h a t Hero brand® t h e cite© Of Rom.©# cryden e e n s to u r e s v y v en • HP. 3 3 7 0 .

23

T hat steers was g r e t l y f o r to l o v e , And t y l a r i c h e mannes byhove Worth a l l t h e go ld i n Romo and P r i s e . EH. 1091. The se rg e an ts; of t h e to u n o f Rome hern s o g h te , And hem b i f o r n Almache, t h e n r e f e c i , b r o g h te . 361 • And seyde t h a t in Home wrs ewich oon* So. 231. nfcmnfwU

F o r ev ery v i g h t which t h a t to Horae v e n t H a lt n o t o "oaths o r e la e y o m anore. TC. II# 36. And eek t h e r was somtyme a e l erk a t Remo, A c a r d i n a l , t h a t h i g h t e S e in t Jerom e. ¥B. 673. Of. A e t r . Is 10, 6 1 Bo. I s P.'4, 102, 187, 264; I I , P . 2 , 70? I I , P . 6 f~ !6f I I , X .6 , 4; I I , P . 7 , 6 5 ,7 1 , 78? X II, P. 4 , 12, 89? 0 2 . 465, 671; LOW, (p) 583, 585, 5 9 0 , 594., 1680, 1690, 1710, 1718, 1775, 3361, 1869? (G) 210; Kk. 2314, 2335, 2351, 2479, 2676, 2677, 2688, 2695; EL. 145, 156, 290, 309, 9S6, 968, 974, 9 9 1 ,9 9 5 , 1148, TT49? HR. 7187• 246 * Romes»

Rome* ©;

The g e n i t i v e form i n d i c a t i n g o o s s e s s io n

by Rom®, w hich s e e . And by him s to d e n all® t h e s e elerke© T hat w riters o f R'-mes myghty workee* HP. 1503. Horrgyn.

Roman ( a d j e c t i v e ) :

H om eyn.

Roman ( n a r s o n ) *

Homeyng, .!!4355!33S35». SI*1 m

247.

i ii

See

Romans ( n o r s e n c ) ;

R o u c h e e tr e .

H o ch e ate rs

See Ba Ron-ayn. See Romayns.

A s e a n o r t o f K e n t, England

.jo in in g t h e town© o f Strood and Chatham.

I t i s on

t h e Medway, about t h i r t y m ile s s e r t - s o u t h e a s t from London.

T here i s a Herman c a s t l e in r u i n s rnd s

224

c a t h e d r a l w ith v ery old f o u n d a t i o n s .

I t v&e consecu­

t i v e l y © B r i t i s h * Homan, and Dsn i eh town? and v i l l i e z a Rufus had i t u nd er sie g e # i n 604*

A b i s h o p r i c was e s t a b l i s h e d

I t i s n ot c e r t a i n i f th 1 & were t h e r e s t i n g

n ie c e o f t h e n i l g r i m s on t h e f i r s t o r t h e second n ig h t* Loo, R o u c h ee tre s t o n t b e e r fa st© by I -yd© f o r t h * myn oven© lo rd * b re k n a t c u r e game* Kk* 1926* 248.

R o u n c iv s le # H o s p ita l o f t h e 'Blessed Ke.iy o f R o u n d ra ile s

A b ra n c h o r o f f s h o o t , e s t a b l i s h e d by 'William

M a r s h a ll, iilerl o f Pembroke* a t Charing Cross i n London in 1229® o f t h e abbey o f l-Juestra Sehora d© K e n c e s v a lle e i n R o n c e s v a lla s * h r v a r r e * S n a in , t h e l i t t l e v i l l a g e o f t h e fy ren eee famous f o r i t s a s s o c i a t i o n v i t h C h a rle s t h e G re a t and t h e d e a th o f R oland.

Very o f t e n ©ar*

doner© from t h e h o s p i t a l i n C haring C ross were r ic i i cu led b e c a u s e from tim e to t i n e th e y would s e l l oardons u n d er t h e name o f t h e h o s n i t a l r r.d th e n s o c k e t t h e money or goods r e c e iv e d #

See London*

V ith hym t h e r rood a g e n t i l P ardoner Of K ouncivale* h ip fre e n d and h i s comneer* •CP* 6 6 9 *

249•

Ruce (Ruseye) •

R u s s ia :

During t h e R id d le Ages, th e

SI ©vie s t a t e s i n t h e s o u th o f R ussia* o f which Kiev was t h e main one* v e n t u n d e r t h e name Rug, v b ic h wes l a t e r on m o d ifie d to R o s siy s and m n lie d . to W.oecov and su rro u n d in g t e r r i t o r y *

1-oscov became a. c h i e f

- ' r l n c i n s l i t y i n 1328; a l l o f Bused a f e x c e p t H cvgorcd, rem ained u n d e r Mongol c o n t r o l from 1240*1430, a lth o u g h e a r l y i n C h aucer1s c e n tu r y l a r g e s e c t i o n s o f t e r r i t o r y f e l l -prey to t h e L ith u a n ia n s * In L e t t OX'/ hadde be re y s e d and i n Ruoa* GP* 54* At S a r r a y , i n t h e land, o f T a rta ry e * Ther d w elt @ a kyng t h a t w arreyed Russye* Thurgh which t h e r dyde many a doughty man# So. 9 , Rub eve*

Rub s i a ;

See Luce.

250*

S a lu c e ( S a l u c e s )*

SeXuzso:

A c ity in n o rth e rn

I t a l y i n th© n ro v in e e o f Cuneof i t i s l o c a t e d on an arm o f th© Po R i v e r , t h i r t y tail ob s o u th - s o u th w e s t o f T u rin ©t t h e f o o t o f t h e e a s t e r n G o tti an Alps* T here i s a m edieval c a s t l e i n , h i ch. l i v e d t h e mar* q u i s e s who

tv

.2

ed Saluzxo from th© t w e l f t h c e n tu m

u n t i l th© m id d le of t h e s i x t e e n t h ,

he© Qyse; Poo8

V e e u lu s. And many a n o th e r d e l i t a b l e sig h t© , And l u c e s t h i s n o b le c o n tre o M g h t e . 01 k . 62. But ©eye» th© msy&en ©hold® ywedded b e Unto t h e marky© o f S alu c e anon. a rk . 7 7 i. O f.

01k. 4 5 , 414, 419, 774, 782.

S a lu c e o •

^■TSgWSSggSSSS^’ffR^SggSB

251*

S e m e y ita p .

S e lu z z o s

S ee S a lu c e .

S am a ritan s

■ frw w iiw w w w w *

An i n h a b i t a n t o r n a t i v e o f

t h e v e ry o ld c i t y o f S am a ria , o r th© oro v in oe i n which i t i s s i t u a t e d , in P a l e s t i n e , l o c a t e d t h i r t y - e i g h t m ile s t o t h e n o r t h o f J e ru s a le m .

In o r d e r to honor

A u g u stu s, Herod a l t e r e d i t s name to Sebe.ste*

It

was th© s e a t o f an o p isc o o a! se e in th© t w e l f t h cen­ tu ry .

I t i s now a sm all v i l l a g e and c o n t a i n s t h e

rem a in s o f a church b u i l t by t h e c r u s a d e r s e v e r th© supposed g ra v e o f John t h e B a p t i s t .

At t h e b e g in n in g

o f t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a , th© name Samaria vac a n o l ie d

227

to th© m id d le n a r t o f w e s te r n P a l e s t i n e s l y i n g be* tw een Judea on t h e s o u th and G a l i l e e .

See John 4 :6 f f .

B isid© a. w e l l e f Jhesus» God end rn r., Soak i n r© oreeve o f th© S a m a rita n . ¥R. 1 5 . But t h a t I axe*. why t h a t th© f i f t h © man Was noon houabende to t h e Sam rritanT ¥R. 22. 252*

S arrg y .

T&arevs

R obinson follow© Yule*© Karoo P o lo

i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s p la c e as Tz&rev.

I t i s not fa r

from Be.r e n t a i n t h e government o f £> eratoff» R ussia# and i s l o c a t e d on th© Akhtube# a t r i b u t a r y o f t h e V o lg a f ab o u t two hun dred m ile s to t h e n o rth w e s t from A s tr a k h a n .

R obinson g o e s on to r o i n t o u t t h a t i t u s

©stab 11 shed i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n tu r y by Batu Khan and was an im p o r ta n t c a p i t a l i n T & rtary {modern Tur­ k e sta n ) • At S s r r e y # i n th© le n d o f Tart© rye# Ther dwelt© a kyng t h a t v e r r e y e d Pussy©. S q. 9 . be l e e t th© f e e s t e o f h i s n a t i v i t e e Boon c ry e n th u r g h o u t S a rra y h i s c i t s e * oq . 45. 253.

Sars.ynesh.

S a ra c e n :

An a d j e c t i v e ? th© name a t f i r s t

had r e f e r e n c e to t h e S arace n i# an Arab t r i b e :civen t o r a i d i n g ? then # more b r o a d ly to th© Bedouins? th e n t o th© Koheimncden Arabs? and f i n a l l y to e l l he s i ems i n g e n e r a l# a g a i n s t whom t h e C h r i s t i a n s t a t e s were c o n t i n u a l l y w a rrin g d u r in g th© >i n c l a Ages? t h e name

223

was a l s o a p p l ie d t o a l l enemies met on t h e Crusades* Here t h e r e f e r e n c e i s to a k in d o f p u r p le dye i n ­ v e n te d by th o s e ceoole* L a r g e s s e hadde on a ro b e f r e s h Of r i c h e o u rp u r Sersyneeh* EH. 1187. 254*

SataJLye. A tta lly o h .

S sta lie h s

Also c a l l e d M ali® # A t a l i a , o r

A se a nor t i n s o u t h e a s t e r n A sia F i n e r on

A d a lia G u lf i n E o n lah v i l a y e t *

I t i s s i t u a t e d on a

h i l l and th® h o u se s a r e b u i l t around t h e h a r b o r so t h a t t h e s t r e e t s app ear to r i s e i n t h e manner o f an a m p h ith e a tre * At Xyeys was h e and a t Set © lye. GP. 58. 255.

Sayne (Seyne)*

S eines

One o f t h e main r i v e r s i n

P rance? th© Homan Sequen® E l v e r .

I t s e r in g a i n th e

L ang res P la te a u o f th© d ep a rtm en t o f CJoto-d’Or and flo w s g e n e r a l l y n o rth w e s t u n t i l i t e n t e r s th e Eng­ l i s h Channel betw een H o n fleu r and Havre th ro u g h th© e s tu a r y s i x m il e s i n w id th .

I t i s n e a r l y f i v e hundred

m ile s i n l e n g t h end i s n a v i g a b le f o r moat of t h e d ista n c e .

Be© Ggrounde.

At a f t e r - s o p e r f i l l © th e y i n t r e t e e ¥ h a t somme ©hold© t h i s r a e i s t r e s gerd on be# To remoeven all© t h e rokkos o f B rita y n e # And eek from Gerounde t o th© mouth o f Bayne# Prnk * 1219. C le e r was t h e w a t e r » and a© co ld As any well© is # - o th to seyne? And somdel l a s s e i t vpe th an S ev n e* EH. 316* w

£.29

He im d ir f o n g e th a g r e t r e y n e , T hat u n d i r t e k l t b t o dry nice tro Seyne* EB* 5709. So i til l a .

TSU JIMIJV

256*

W WM M W .

S c o tlo n d *

S cytlii a ;

See Ci t h e *

*'

M e iu liW W n M iw

S co tlan d *

A European c o u n try occupying

t h e n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f G reat B r i t a i n ? i t form® a p a r t o f t h e U nited Kingdom of G re e t B r i t a i n and I r e la n d *

On t h e north, and v e s t l i e s t h e A t l a n t i c

Ocean; on t h e o r a t ? t h e B e rth Sea? and on th e south# G re e t B r i t a i n *

I t had a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g and

storm y h i s t o r y s h o r t l y B e fo re t h e p e r io d of Chaucer*© life *

Edward I i n t e r f e r e d i n S c o t t i s h a f f a i r s p re­

sumably bb a r b i t r a t o r between Bruce and B&liol# p retend er© to t h e crown in 1292, cu t was a c t u a l l y an a s p i r a n t h im s e lf*

In 1296 Edward invaded Scotland?

W allace va© d e f e a te d i n 1298# b u t R obert B ruce became n a t i o n a l l e a d e r In 1505 and k in g i n 1506*

S cot­

land*© in dep end en ce was a r e s u l t o f t h e v i c t o r y a t Bannockburn. i n 1514 and was re c o g n iz e d by England in 1528*

R o b e rt II# B ru ce* © grandson# to o k t h e th r o n e

in 1371 and we© t h e f i r s t o f t h e S t u a r t dynasty# He to o k b y 8 wvf to ken©# whan be i s gon To S c o tlo n d -v © rd # hi© foomen f o r to sake# ^1* 717. 257 .

S c o tte s> S co tla n d *

S ootas

The i n h a b i t a n t s o r n a t i v e s o f

See S c o tla n d »

£30

But kept© i t s t r o n g l y many a w yn tree space 'Under A3 l a , kyng o f e l Northhur.brelond* That was f u l wysf and worthy o f h i s bond Agsyn t h e S c o t t e s , as men may v e l h eere# ?X. 577. £58.

SS -PSSee. SKSKS

The North Seas

An e x te n s io n o f th® A t l a n t i c

Ocean v i t h G re at B r i t a i n on t h e v e s t , Denmark- and Norway on t h e er..et, and Germany, Belgium , P ra n c e , and t h e N e th e rla n d s on t h e south*

The E n g lish Channel

and Dover S t r a i t co n n ect i t w ith t h e A t l a n t i c Oceanj i t l a ab o u t seven hundred m ile s I o n s , By f o u r hundred v id e *

I t i s c e le b r a t e d f o r i t s e x t e n s iv e f i s h e r i e s .

He v o ld e th© s e e w ere k©nt f o r any thyng B itw ix e Kiddelburgb. and Crewel 1 c * GP. 276 * Ybora h e was i n f a r c e n tre © , In P la u n d r e s , e l b iv on de t h e see* S i r , 718. 269.

*See "im J'ikV lU Si £o32f5S Greece#

/Eg©an Seas

That p o r t i o n o f t h e

T 'e d its r r a n e a n Sea w ith G reece on t h e v e s t , .Asia Hi n o r on t h e e a s t , and "European Turkey on th e n o r th ; i t i s connected v i t h t h e Sea o f Marmora, and t h e Black Sna*

I t i s about f o u r hundred m il e s lo n g by

h a l f t h a t d i s t a n c e w ide; i t i s very deep in and t h e r e a r e numerous is la n d ® .

-lace®

See S t r a y t e o f

1 s r r o k t Jub a l t ar©# Yer®e and dayee f l e e t t h i s c r e a t u r e Thurghout t h e See o f Grece u n to th e S t r a y t e Of K arro k , as i t wa® h i r e © venture, FX. 463.

231

260*

S e i n t D enys«

St* D enies

A f o r t i f i e d suburb o f P a r i s

and c a p i t a l o f an a rro n d ie a e m e n t; i t i s l o c a t e d fly© m i l e s from t h e c e n t e r o f P a r i s and on t h e r i g h t bank o f t h e S ein e E l v e r .

The abbey* which was founded by

B a g o b e r t* i© famous as t h e b u r i a l n i e c e o f n e a r l y e l l o f t h e k in g s o f P ran ce*

An annual market* one o f th©

o l d e s t i n Prance# i s h e ld h e r e .

See P a ry a .

A m arohent whilom dw elled a t S e i n t Denys* T hat r i c h e was* f o r which men held© hym wye* S h ip * 1 . Of* 261•

S h in .

S e in t Jame*

57# 6 7 , 151, 325. S a n tia g o de O om noetellas

p r o v in c e o f Corunna, G a lic ia * S o a in .

A town i n t h e I t i© lo c a t e d

on t h e S&t E lv e r about t h i r t y m il e s so u th w est o f t h e town o f Corunna# on th© old© o f F ount Pedroso* I t i s famous f o r i t s c a th e d r a l* d a t in g from t h e n i n t h c e n tu r y ( r e b u i l t i n th e e le v e n th )# w ith it© supposed r e lic ® o f St* James ( o r S a n tia g o ) t h e G r e a t.

lu rin g

t h e K id d le Ages i t war one of t h e most f r e q u e n te d n i e c e s of p ilg r im a g e i n t h e w o rld .

See S a l.ic e .

At Home ©he h&dde been* and a t B o lo ig n e , In Gal i c e a t S e in t Jmne# and a t C o lo ig n e. OP* 465. 262*

S e in t P ou lee (S aint© P o n ies)*

S t . P a u l’ s t

He B e tte n a t hi® b e n e f i c e to h y re And l e e t hi© sheen encombred i n th e myre And r a n t o Lendcun u n to S e in te P onies To s©ken hym e c h e u n teri© f o r so u les* GP, 507.

oee P o u le e .

£32

UY e," quod c u re H o o ste , "by s e i n t P ou les bel 1 e! Ye seya r i g h t sooth? t h i s XIonk h e c l e p p e t h lo w d e .,i HP. 2781* Seint© Poulas* 263.

a a n te .

0©ut©s

S t . PF»ulf »*

See S e in t F o u le e *

A f o r t i f i e d c i t y i n Morocco on t h e

A f r ic a n c o a s t o rm o a ito G i b r a l t a r ( s e e J u b a l t e r e ) » from which c i t y i t i s s e v e n te e n m il e s to th e s o u th v e s t*

The c r s t l a i s l o c a t e d on t h e to y o f Fount

Acho (one o f t h e P i l l a re o f H e r c u le s , G i b r a l t a r b ein g th e o th e r ) *

P r o p e r ly manned, i t would be w e ll - n ig h

as- im p reg n a b le as i t s s i s t e r f o r t , G i b r a l t a r .

Al­

though i t i s now p r a c t i c a l l y i n a c t i v e from a commer­ c i a l s t a n d p o i n t , d u rin g t h e F id d le Agee i t was a s e a o o r t and t r a d i n g c e n t e r o f c o n s id e r a b le im p o rta n c e . S t r a y t e o f K arr ole i World as end e. F o r th g o o th h i r s h ip ih u r g h o u t t h e n erv e mouth Of J u b a ! t a r e and S e n te , dryvynge ay* KL* 946. 264*

Seoul o re o f D a ry u s.

Nakkshi-r.ueteans

The r e f e r e n c e

l a t o th© tomb o f D a riu s 1, '°eraie n r u l e r from 521488 B.C.

H is tomb i s c u t i n t h e ro ck e t h a k k s h i-

Rustem, l o c a t e d n e a r t o Pars © p o lls, and i t i s d ec o r­ ate d w ith i n s c r i p t i o n ® and f i g u r e s which re c o u n t h i s e x p lo its.

I t 1 l, m a g n ific e n t r a t h e r th a n ric h *

A1 i s h i s tomb© noght ©a curyus As was t h e sent?7 e r e of hym P a ry u s , v/hich t h a t A ^ n a lla s v r o g h te s u b t i l l y . WB. 497.

233

£65•

Seryen®,

S e re e : The i n h a b i t a n t e o r n a t i v e s

of

a n c i e n t S e r i e s , an e a s t e r n A s i a t i c c o u n try , p ro b a b ly t h e seme a s t h e n o r t h e r n m art o f ^ h in a , w ere famous i n t h e p r o d u c tio n o f s i l k *

The S eres

See S y r ia n ,

* * * th e y eoude n o t siedle t h e bryght© flees©® o f t h e contr© of Seryen© v i t h t h e venyra o f T y r i e , Bo, I I , K* 5 , 10, Seyn®♦ 266,

S h e e n s,

S e in e s

See Sayne,

Richmond:

A c i t y i n S urrey l o c a t e d on t h e

r i g h t bank o f t h e Thames, about t e n m il e s to th® so u th w e st from S t , P a u l ’ s ,

I t was o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d

Sheen ( " b e a u t i f u l " ) and was used as a r o y a l r e s id e n c e by Sdward 1, Bidward I I I , R ich ard I I (who o rd e re d it© d e s t r u c t i o n a f t e r Anne’ s d e a t h , b u t whose o r d e r was n o t c o m p le te ly e x e c u te d ) , and Henry v i i , who gave i t it® p r e s e n t name In 1506,

Sa© .11 them .

And whan t h i s book y© mead, y i v e i t t h e queue, On r*y b y h e lf , a t Hi th a n o r a t Sheene, haw, (P) 496* 267,

Sheff©Id s

S h e ffie ld s

A c i t y i n h o s t R id in g , 'York*

s h i r e , on t h e Bon and Sheaf R i v e r s ,

I t i s famous

now, m i n t h e R id d le Ages, as th e main c e n t e r f o r t h e m a n u fa c tu re o f E n g lis h c u t l e r y $ i t now manufac­ t u r e s f i n e s t e e l war© o f s l l k i n d s , A S h e f f e ld t h v l t e l b e a r he i n h i s h o s e , Bv. 3933,

254

268.

S iflyngborne»

S itti n g b o u r n e s

A c i t y lo c a te d i n

Kent County, K ngland, ab ou t t e n miless c a s t from R o c h e ste r and. t h i r t y - s i x miles? e a s t - s o u t h e a s t from London*

Robinson n o in ts o u t , how ever, t h a t s in c e

S i t t i n g b o u r n e i s n e a r e r to C an terb u ry th a n R o c h e s te r , t h e o r d e r o f t h e b e s t ESS. would seem to b e i n a c c u r a t e , s i n c e .Fragment I I I i n t h e ESS*, c o n ta in in g t h i s r e f e r ­ ence t o S i t t i n g b o u r n e i n t h e W ife o f B a th ’ s P ro lo g u e , i s p la e e d b e f o r e Fragment VII in t h e ESS, which con­ t a i n s t h e Konk’ s Prologue and t h e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t th® n il g r i m s a r e n e a r R o c h ester*

I t ha© 'been su g g e ste d

t h a t t h e s e two t a l e s were in te n d e d f o r t h e r e t u r n jo u rn ey * i n which e a s e t h e o r d e r would be c o r r e c t* See H o u c h e s tr e * But i f I t a l l ® t a l e s two o r t h r e Of f r e r e e , e r I come to S idyngborne, That I s h s l make th y n h e r t s f o r to morns* ¥B. 846* 269•

S o le r B a ll© *

S o la r H a lls

Also c a l l e d K in g ’ s Mall*

w hich we© founded In 1337 by Edward I I I and l a t e r com­ b in e d w ith T r i n i t y C o lla g e , Cambridge*

I t s name comes

from, i t s sun rooms? which were & c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a r t o f t h e H a ll * And n am elich e t h e r wes e g r e e t c e l l egg® Ren c l ©pen t h e S o le r Hall® a t Cant eb r egg e. Rv* 3989 * 270•

S o u th ro n *

S u th o r n s

R obinson i n d i c a t e s t h a t most

a l l i t e r a t i n g v e r s e o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n tu ry was

£35 w r i t t e n i n two d i a l e c t s s F orthern,

t h e V est F id l and end tike

The Parson* c o r i n g from t h e s o u th o f Sng-

3 end, perh&pe t h e EButhwest F id l rnd or S outhern area* would not be f a m i l i a r v i t h t h e methods of rhyming nor t h e d i a l e c t s .

The P arson h e r e I n d i c a t e s , by

nonsense words* h i a d i s i n t e r e s t i n rhyme end rhythm. But t r u s t e t h v e i * 1 am s Southren man* X lean n e t geest® ’rum* r m » r u f , ' by 3 e t t r e * Me, God w o o t $ rym hold© X b u t X i t e l b e t t r e . Par s « 42. 271*

S o u th v e r k *

Southwark:

A munie I n a l and parliam entary

burrough i n London in t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n p a r t and on t h e r i g h t bank o f t h e Thames* Surrey side* L i f i l t h a t i n t h a t seaon on a day* I n Southwerk a t t h e Tabard b b I l a y . OP. 19. In Southwerk a t t h i s g e n t 11 h o s t e l r y © That h i g h t e t h e T abard, f a s t© by t h e B e l l a , OP* 718, And t h e r f o r e i f t h a t I mysBoeke o r a eye, Byte i t th® a l e o f Southwerk, 1 vou nr eye. I' 11 . 3139« 272*

Snni&ne ( S p s y n e ) .

So&in?

A co untry i n t h e so u th -

t.-Qstern u a r t o f l*bro^e, occupying t h e l a r g e r n a r t c f t h e I b e r i a n "•-eninsula.

To t h e n o r t h l i e France

and t h e Bay o f Biscay? to t h e v e s t , t h e A t l a n t i c and P o r t u g a l ? to t h e so u th and e a s t t h e ? e d i t e r r s n e e n ; to t h e s o u th w e s t, th© A t l a n t i c and t h e S t r a i t of G ibraltar.

I n C ha uce r1© l i f e t i m e t h e Moore had been

d r i v e n back to t h e i r l a s t s t r o n g h o l d , Granada.

Mount

236 I'iulshaeen ( 1 1 , 4 2 0 f t . )

i e th© h i g h e s t

-&iror>e, o u t s i d e o f t h e A I n s .

lo in t

in w estern

S o a i n h&s s l v a y s b e e n

fam ous f o r h e r v in e s *

He k n e w e l 1 a t h e h a v e n s© , a s t h e y v e r s , F r o G o o t l o n d t o t h e cat>e o f P y n y s t e r e , Ami ever}/ c r y k e I n B r i t a i g n e ? rA i n Speyne*

GP. 407. Hov X g a n t o t h y s n i p c e s o r o c h e T h a t s t o o d uoon s o h y g h a r o e h e , b i e r s t e n t t h e r no n i n B n e y n s *

KF. 1 1 1 5 . 0 n o ble,

0 w orth y P e t r o , g l o r i © o f S neyne*

Ak* 2375 • T h is wyn o f S neigne c r e p e th a u b t i l l y In other® wyn@s, growynge fa st© b y , ? a r d » 565* T hat whan a man h a th drohken draught®© t h r e . And w eneth t h a t h e b e a t hoom i n Chen®, Ho i s i n So&ign®, r i g h t a t th© to n n e o f Leo®. P a r f l * 568* Thou s k a I t make c e e t e l s th e n n e i e 6 ay ne, And dretr.e o f j o y e , a l l b u t i n vsyne* AH. 2 5 7 3 .

S oains 273*

y liiit

S ty x :

Be© S n a lg n e *

The r i v e r i n G re c ia n m ythology, v i t h a

volume o n e - t e n t h th© s i z e o f th e o ce an , which flow ed i n t h e lo w er w o r ld •

I t was c o n tro lle d , by t h e goddess

Styx? by h e r and t h e r i v e r t h e most sa c re d and i n v i o l ­ a b l e o a th s were t a k e n .

The id e a t h a t i t was a p i t

i n h e l l was » m edieval o n e. A© wood a s A thament® do me dwell® At o r n&11 eh i n St 1 >i, t h e o n t o f b e l l e *

TO* IV, 1539.

237

274*

S t r e t f o r d s i t e Bow©* S t r e t f o r d - 3 e-Bov*

S t r e t f o r d . Bovs

Also c a l l e d

I t i s b d i s t r i c t on t h e v e s t s i d e

o f Lea R i v e r a d j o i n i n g S t r a t f o r d » an e a s t s i d e suburb of London l o c a t e d i n E ssex on Leo. R i v e r about f i v e m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f St* ’P aul*©.

At Bromley* Li dale© ex,

a b o u t t e n m i l e s from t h e c e n t e r of London s o u th to t h e Ravensbourne R i v e r , t h e r e wa B 0. Be n e d i c t i n e nunnery c a l l e d St* L eo na rd1a , * h i c h was founded about t h e m iddle o f th© e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y .

I t adjoin© S t r a t f o r d Bows

Robinson i d e n t i f i e s t h i s as t h e P r i o r e s s ’ s h e a d q u a r t e r s . And F r e n s s h she snak fv .l f a i r e and f e t i s l y # A f t e r th© ©cole o f S t r a t f o r d a t t e Bove, F or F r e n s s h of P arys was t o h i r e uriknove* E * 124. 275*

S t r &vte o f Harrok*

S t r a i t of G i b r a l t a r !

The S t r a i t

o f Korocco ( F r . F a r o e ) i s a n o t h e r name f o r t h e S t r a i t of G ib ra lta r*

See J u b e l t a r e s S e n t e *

Y eres and cl ayes f l e e t t h i s c r e a t u r e Thurghout t h e See o f Grece u n to t h e S treyt© Of i ' a r r o k , as i t was h i r e © venture. BL. 463* 276*

S tro th e r*

S trother!

R obinson I d e n t i f i e s t h i s as a

nleoOf no l o n g e r e x t a n t , named a f t e r th® Northumbrian f a m i l y o f S t r o t h e r , t h e f a m i l ^ s e a t of w hich, C a s t l e S t r o t h e r , was ^ o a s i b l y l o c a t e d c l o s e t o K irknswton and a few m i l e s to t h e w est from v/ooler, n a o r Flodden F i e l d i n t h e extreme n o r t h e r n u a r t o f England*

However,

o n ly s e v e n t y - f i v e mil©© t o th© n o r th w e s t i n P e r t h s h i r e ,

238

S c o t l a n d , t h e r e i s a v a l l e y c a l l e d S t r a t h e a r n Iocs te d f i v e m i l e s v e s t o f th© c i t y o f P erth *

Such a l o c a t i o n

might e x p l a i n t h e d i a l e c t o f t h e t r e la d s*

The v a l l e y

i s t h i r t y - f i v e m i l e s i n l e n g t h and e x te n d s from lo c h Earn t o th© mouth of t h e Earn R iver i n t h e F i r t h o f Tev*

T here may have b een

b

town i n Chaucer’ s t i m e ,

now n o t e x ta n t# named S t r a t h e a r n , o r Chaucer may merely h av e changed t h e name a l i t t l e and made a c i t y o f t h e v alley*

Or, as e t h i r d i d e a , can t h e r e h e a c o n n e c ti o n

between M. » * h i g h t e S t r o t h e r ' 1 and K otherhithe*

The

name comes from R e t h r h h y t h e , meaning "haven f o r horned c a t t l e / 1 end i s a n i e c e now l o c r t e d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r ie s o f D e o tf o r d on t h e Thame© River*

Southwark Perk and

t h e Commercial Docks a r e l o c a t e d here*

Gould t h e

j o l l y Reeve have in te n d --d a jo k e by changing t h e name around and f o l l o w i n g i t w ith t h e mock i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f wf e r i n t h e n o r t h s

(BBC*)*

See F o r t h c o n t r e e .

Of o to u n were th e y horns t h a t b i g h t e S t r o t h e r , P e r in th© n o r t h , I kan n o t t e l l e w here. Rv* 4014* 277»

S u r r i e n ( S u r r y a n 5.

S y rian ?

Used

as an a d j e c t i v e

having r e f e r e n c e to S y r i a , o r d i r e c t l y m t h e se nse of a n ativ e or in h a b ita n t of Syria.

See Star r y e *

He S u r r i e n , n© noon Arebyen* Hk. 2339• And bo b i f e l t h a t t h * e x c e l l e n t renoun Of t h e emperouree d o g h t e r , dame Cu s t a n c e ,

C. c? v

v s s , v i t h every c i r c u m s t a n c e , Unto t h i e e S u rry en merchants! i n swich wyee, Fro day t o day# as 1 s h a l yov d e v y s s . FL. 150. R enorted

Be t h e r was S u rry er>. noon t h a t was c o n v e r t e d . That o f t h e c o n e e il of t h e sovdrn v o c t . FL. 435.

276.

S y r ia s

u rrry © .

A country of th e southw estern p a rt

o f A s ia i n Turkey*

Eastward from t h e M e d ite r r a n e a n

i t e x t e n d s t o t h e S y ria n D e s e r t ( t h e n o r t h e r n o a r t o f t h e A ra bian D e s e r t ) and t h e ftuobratea R i v e r ; and i t e x t e n d s southward from Alma-Dagh (Azaanus), a rang© o f t h e Taurus F o u n t a i n s , t o t h e R'gyntian f r o n ­ tie r.

The mein c i t y i s Damascus? t h e mein r iv e r ©

are L itan y , Jordan,

and Qronto®• Because t h e c o u n try

f e l l i n t o t h e hands

of th e Seljuke !o th e eleventh

c e n t u r y , th© C rusades were i n a u g u r a t e d .

Th© Cru-

se t i e r s c a p t u r e d t h e c i t i e s ©long t h e c o a s t ; b u t i n 1187 S ala& in, s u l t a n o f % y u t , conquered S y r i a and d e s t r o y e d t h e kingdom of J e r u s a l e m r u l e d by Guy d e L uoignan.

See Dr.:

I n S u rry e whilom dwelt© a compaignye Of charmien r i c h e , .^nd t h e r to sad tie end tr e w e . v l . 134. Now f 11 i t t h a t th is © nm rohantz ©tod® i n g r a c e of hym th a t wps t h e Sowdpn o f Surrve* r x . 176. Of. KL. 1 7 ? , 278, 386, 44C, 95 4, 1107. S yr1©n :

See S u r r i e n •

240

279*

S u rr y e n g *

S yr i f no?

c o u n try o f S y r i a .

In h a b ita n ts or n a tiv e s o f th e See Burry®*

G re e t wee t h e o r e e s , and r i c h e wee th * a r r a y Of S u rry e n s and Homeyns met y f e e r e * ML. 393* F o r w hich t h i s emoerour h a t h s e n t anon ilia sen&tour* w ith r o i a l o rd in a n c e s

And other© lord©®* God v c o t , many ©on, On Burry en© to ta k e n h e ig h v eng ean ce. ML» 9 SO *

280*

Svr&ois.

Sim oiss

A n c i e n t l y » a ©mall strea m i n th e

T re a d , © r e g io n i n t h e extrem e n o r th w e s te r n c a r t o f A sia Minor*

The Troad c o n ta in e d Homeric T ro y 5 and

t h e Sim ois i s f r e q u e n t l y named i n t h e I l i a d . *

V*

| » i | - n — — ...........

And thow* Bymoie, t h a t as an arwe c l e re Thorugh T r o ie r e n n e s t ay downward to t h e e e , h e r w i t n e s s e o f t h i s word t h a t seyd i© h e r e . TO* IV, 1548. MMM.

£81*

SBy SSSSSnSSSaSSySS. S in a i 5 See Or e h . Lo» HoysOB f o u r t y d ayes and f o u r t y nyght F a e t e d , e r t h a t t h e h e ig h e God o f myght Soak w ith hym in t h e mount syne o f Byn ay. Sum. 1885. B y rle ru

S e r ia n s

An a d j e c t i v e hav in g r e f e r e n c e to

t h e c o u n try o f S e r i c a .

See Servers©.

• * * t h e ! coude n e t deyen w h ite f l e a s e s of S y rie n c e n t r e v i t h th e hi ood o f & maner sc h e l l e fy s s c h I n T y r i e , w ith w hich b lood men deyen o u r n r e . Bo* IX, 7T*5, 1 3 . &83*

S y sile .

S ic ily ?

th e to e of I t a l y .

A M e d ite rra n e a n i s l a n d l o c a t e d a t I t i s s e p a r a te d from th© m ainland

' V th e S t r a i t of K e sa in r•

The main c i t i e s a r e M essina,

241

CJetania, and P el© m o .

The t e r r a i n i s m ou n taino us;

t h e h i g h e s t i s t h a t o f Mount 10,750 f e e t *

f t t n a , t h e V olcano, a t

In t h i s r e f e r e n c e , D io n y siu s o f Syra­

cu se was t h e t y r a n t and Damocles h i s f a m i l i a r * D uring C h au cer’ s l i f e t i m e , S i c i l y was an in d e p en d en t s t a t e , h av in g shaken o f f th© r u l e of Aragon, S p a in , i n 1298, b r e l a t i o n s h i p which was n o t renewed u n t i l 1412. A t y r a u n t , t h a t wee kyng o f SyeiXe, t h a t had a s sa y e d t h e p e r i l o f hi© e a t a t , schaved® by © Im ylitude t h e d r e d e s of rernes by g a s tn e e e e o f a swerd t h a t heng over t h e haved o f h i s f a m i t y a r . Bo. I l l , P. 5 , 25. 234*

S y th o .

Sytha©:

fic a tio n *

I o f f e r " S y th a s 11 as a p o s s i b l e i d e n t i ­

The r i v e r S y th as formed t h e a n c ie n t boun­

d ary betw een A ohair and S ic y o n ia .

The c i t y o f Sicyon

was n e a r b y ; and d u rin g a f e a s t to A o o llo , a group o f c h i l d r e n would walk from t h e c i t y t o t h e r i v e r and back*

A thens lie © about f i f t y m ile s due e a st#

AjpG» » BSG*, QRBK», I CL* ) . But f o r a l t h a t , y i f I ©ha! s o o th ly seyn, Y it h a th th© strem o f Sytho n e t y b ro u g h t From Athene© t h e sh ip ? y i t cometh i t n o g h t. BG¥. (?) 25C7 •

( AGP* *

242

T 285•

T a b a rd »

T abards

A h o s t r y o r in n which was l o c a t e d

on High S t r e e t in Southwark n e a r t h e Kent road*

The

Abbey o f Hyde» n e a r W e s tm in is te r Abbey# owned i t in 1306*

Stow re fe r© to i t i n 1598 a s one o f t h e most

a n c i e n t o f t h e in n s f o r t r a v e l l e r s *

I t s s ig n was a

ta b a rd # a s l e e v e l e s s s h o r t coat# u n t i l t h e f i r e o f 1676# when t h e f r o n t of t h e e s ta b li s h m e n t was burned* Th® l a n d l o r d r e a l s e e d t h e l o s s w ith a s ig n o f a t a l b e t , o r dog? and t h i s s ig n was ta k e n down i n 1766 as an o b s t r u c t i o n to t r a f f i c .

In 1866 t h e b u i l d i n g was

condemned and l a t e r d estro y e d # and t h e M idland R a i l ­ way b u i l t a d en o t a t t h e l o c a t i o n .

L ately # e sm all

n u b i l e h o u se u n d e r th© name o f t h e Tabard o c c u p ie s t h e n la c e * In Southwark a t t h e Tabard a© I l a y Kedy t o wend en on Ky pilgrym ege* GP ♦ SO • In Southwark a t t h i s g e n t 11 h o s te lr y © T hat b i g h t e t h e Tabard# f a s t a by t h e B e lle * GP. 719. 4WMINH*

286.

T ag us*

Taguss

oeninmxlcw

The l o n g e s t r i v e r i n t h e I b e r i a n

I t r i s e s i n t h e n o r t h e a s t i n T e ru e l Pro­

v in c e i n t h e m ountain of Hu e l s. da Lan Juan end flow s s o u t h e a s t a c r o s s t h e c o u n try u n t i l i t e n t e r s th e Bay o f L isbon th ro u g h two e s t u a r i e s *

I t i e about

f i v e hundred and f i f t y m ile s i n 1 ength and flo w s

243

th ro u g h t e r r i t o r y t h a t i s l a r g e l y a rid * A l l e t h e t h i n g e s t h a t t h e r y v e r Tagus y y v o th yow v i t h h i s golden© g r a v e l i s # or a l ia s a l i a th e t h in g a s t h a t th e r y v e r Hermua y ev e tli v i t h h i s red© brink©# o r t h a t In d us yyveth# t h a t i s no:rt t h e h o t e T m r t i e o f t h e v o r l d *

Bo* I I I , 11, 10# IE* 287*

T ars*

T arsus*

T ertax y *

R obinson offe r© T a rs ia # T h a rsia # o r

T ar ©la i s a l i t t l e town i n I t a l y i n t h e

p r o v i n c e o f Oosen&& and about tw e lv e rail e s s o u t h e a s t o f C & str o v illa r i*

T here 1© a l i t t l e town c a l l e d

T a r s i e In s o u th e r n Spain# one hundred m ile s v e s t n o r th w e s t o f S e v ill e *

Th&rsie i s not to b e lo c a te d *

P erh ap s T a r bus w i l l f i t t h e n e c e s s a r y re q u ire m e n ts* A n c ie n tly * i t was th© c a p i t a l o f C i l i c i a i n s o u th ­ w e s t e r n Asia. K in o r # and i t i s l o c a t e d on t h e Cydnus

R iver# t w e l v e m ile s from i t s mouth#

I t was a n o ta b le

c i t y d u rin g t h e P e r s i a n p e r io d and f l o u r i s h e d in l e a r n i n g i n t h e Roman p e r i o d .

I t was t h e b i r t h p l a c e

o f t h e s r o o s t le Paul and w e s t i l l an im p o r ta n t c i t y d u r in g th e K id d le Ages#

Sm T a r t a r y e *

H is c o te - s r m u r e was o f c l o o t h o f T a rs Couched w ith p a r i e s w h ite and round© and g r e te * Kn. £160# £88.

Ta r t e r y *

T a r te r y *

A term.# now o b s o le te # used a t

f i r s t and i n a g e n e r a l s e n se to r e f e r to t h e m iddle n a r t o f t h e S h r a s i& ti e c o n tin e n t? i t was so c a l l e d b e c a u se o f t h e ©rmies o f Turk* Mongol* and T a r t e r w a r r i o r s u n d e r Genghis Khan which conquered A sia

244

and endangered Europe i n t h e K id d le Ages.

I t com­

p r i s e d t h e t e r r i t o r y from t h e P a c i f i c Ocean in la n d to t h e D n ie p e r R i v e r , th u s I n c lu d in g much o f R u s s i a , a p o r t i o n o f S i b e r i a , T u rk e a te n , D z u n g a ria , K o n g o lia , end K anchuria*

L a t e r , u n d e r r e s t r i c t i o n s , t h e term s

G re a t o r A s i a t i c T s r t a r y and L i t t l e o r Burocean Tar* t s r y eameu-lnto u s a g e .

.F in a lly , t h e name T a r t e r y was

need, to d e s i g n a t e t h e khanate© o f T u rk e s ta n and t h e name of In d ep en d en t T a r tn r y became i d e n t i f i e d w ith Tu rk e a t a n •

See S a r r a y « —rr>i irtr -inH- ni~ ^Wim

Be send© men i n t o W alekye, To P ru y e e , and i n t o T & rta ry e . BD. 1024. At Bar r a y , i n th e lan d o f T s r t a i y e , Ther dwelt© a kyng t h a t v e rre y o d Ruesye. gO o 9 . 289*

T a rt r e . T a rta ry .

T a rta r t

An a d j e c t i v e h av in g r e f e r e n c e to

See T a rt a r y e .

T h er nas c j u y k - s i lv e r , l y t a r g e , ne brym etoon. B o r a s , c e r u o e , ne o i l l e o f t a r t r e noon. GP* 629. T his n o b le ky n g , t h i s T a r t r e Cambyusken, Hadde two rone© on E ln h e ta h i p ^ y f . « £20 « H O

Vhan t h a t t h i s T a r t r e kyn g , t h i s Gamhyuskan, Reob f r o h i s lo r d ? t h e r t h a t he s a t fu l b y e. S£ . 266. 29C*

Tem ple, Godd.es ho u s . it I'ta.tf. «u

.IWM.J

rtiiiwi^noni ■H W

Sol omon *e Tem/g e t

The f i r s t o f

t h r e e b u i l d i n g s on t h e same s ^ o t i n L erusal cr:. was sim p le in d e s ig n b u t o f v e rv r i c h r e t e r i . c1 s .

It

245

Hebuclmdnejaspr d e s tro y e d i t i n 536 B.C.

The r© b u ild ­

in g s hj ZerubbVbeX and Herod fo llo w e d i n o rd er# See I H inge 2 2slP»

See Fern s a? &m*

Vhpt n a k e y e so mu che o f Br 1 omonB T hat though h e raH e © te m p le , Goddess housB Hr e h . £292. T©mp3. e o f B y rn e . 291.

T©mple o f H e r s .

Tempi e o f Hi one j Temple o f B a r s :

See P i ones t t m o l e . See A th en e c; T r a c e .

Thou f e r e e god o f n u r e o , Haro t h e r s d e . That i n t h e f r o s t y c e n t r e c a l l e d Trace? Vi t h i n th y g r i s l y tome! ■» f u l o f d r ad e honoured a r t , ©s o p tro u n o f t h a t n i e c e . An e l . • 1

V>y ahold e 1 noght se v«1 a eh t e l l e yow ©1 The p o r t r a i t u r e t h r t was u ro n t h e wal V ith in n e t h e te m p le o f xnyghty Mars t h e rede? nn* 1967 *

Of. 2 9 2.

En« 19 7 1 9 1992* 2363.

Temple o f t h e goddess© tSBssBasaKMesssas Clemence.

ss.jjaaaBe8Wi» s=»s ssasss

o r C lem en tias

Temple of Clerr.ence

The go dd ess C lem ent!a r e p r e s e n t V

Clemency and was v o rsh ip p e d i n Home? v h e re sh e had te m p le s and a l t e r s *

She was h e ld h ig h as a d e i t y ,

© s p e c ia lly d u rin g t h e tim e o f t h e em perors. And c © r t e s 9 l o r d , t o abyden y o u r s p r e s e n c e , H eere i n t h i s te m p le o f th e g o d d e s ss Clemenoe V© han ben v reltyn ae ©1 t h i s f o u r t e n y g h t • Kn. 927* 29 3«

f emnl a o f Venus (Venus t eninl e ) -

T emp! e o f V:mu s •

See A th en es • F i r s t i n t h e tem^l e o f Venus n p y eto v a© Hroght on t h e v e l , f u l n i t o n s to M h o l d s , The bro k en s i a n a s , and t h e s i k e s cold©. Hn* 1

9

1

3



The t h r i d d e hour© i n equal Big&n t o Venus tern o le f o r Uo ro o a t h e sonnet and up Kn#

t h a t ^alaxnon to gon, ro o s iH elye* 2272.

T e s s a l i e ( T e e e a ly « Taee&lyet T h e s a a lie * T h e s s s l y e ) . T h essaly * Greece*

The moot n o r t h e a s t e r l y d i v i s i o n o f a n c ie n t Macedonia bounded i t on t h e n o rth *

/E to lia

and D o ris on t h e south* ISpirue on t h e west* and M agnesia and t h e T h ra c ia n Sea on t h e ea st*

Many

o f i t s v a l le y s * r i v e r s * and c i t i e s a r e found in c l a s s i c legend*

The name i s s t i l l used i n r e f e r e n c e

to t h e t e r r i t o r y * In T e ss a ! ie * as Guido t e l l . 1t h us* T here v a s a kyng t h a t h fg h te P e ll cue* I£V * (F) 1396. - 'h i l o t e t e s ©non th© s a y l up drogh* Mian t h a t th© wynd. was good* and gan him hy@ Out o f h i s c e n t r e c o l l e d T hessaly© . LOW. (P) 1459* T h e rto so g r e t a g e n t 12man was he* And o f T hsflsalye l i k l y kyng to h e . LOW* (F) 2532. “To f o r t h e r e n yow* so t h a t ye ehel n o t die* But t u r n e n sound bom to y c u r e T e a s a ly e ." i m i . (F) 2628. But u n w iet o f h i r e f a d e r i s ©he gon To Tess&ly* w ith Buk Jason h i r e 2©f* IGV. (F) 2655. G myghty C e s a r, t h a t i n The©sail© Aga.yn Pomneus, f a d e r th y n i n lav e* Mk. 2679.

247 295.

Tewnes*

T u n is ?

Th® c a p i t a l o f a French p r o t e c t o r s t e

and re g e n c y i n n o r t h e r n A fric a *

On t h e n o r t h o f th©

s e c t i o n l i e s t h e M editerranean See* on t h e south* t h e d e s e r t ; on th© s o u t h e a s t * T r i p o l i ? and on t h e w e s t, A lg e ria .

A n c ie n tly , th© r e g io n was a p a r t o f th©

C a r t h a g in i a n and Roman domains and vac; an o u ts t a n d in g L a t i n C h r istia n c e n te r ? t h e r u i n s o f C a rth ag e ©re found i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e c i t y .

S e v e ra l

Mohammedan d y n a s t i e s fo llo w ed each o t h e r i n s u c c e s s io n d u r in g th© K id d le Agee.

I t was a B arb ery s t a t e .

£>©© A ffrik e? B a r b e r ie s Csrtaae* ■iW W iitW Hii* 'MW wpi^w ^.

*nw m .n ..r»i«h*«rm r n .y ua** * * . *!. *

•m.»*i.».jninnm n n ih u * iw

T hat c a r t e s , f o r t h e to o n o f T evnes, I nold© b u t I bad h e rd hem eyrtge* ED. 510. 296.

p i ©ban (T h e b a n e ).

Thebans

Used a s an a d j e c t i v e in

r e f e r e n c e to t h e c i t y o f T h ebes, o r d i r e c t l y to i n d i ­ c a t e an i n h a b i t a n t o r n a t i v e o f t h e c i t y .

See T hebee.

Be c a s t e h e r f o r t o make © comoleynynge, And w ith h e r ©vn© bond ©he gen h i t w r i t e , And s e n t e h i t t o h e r Theban knygtvt, A r e i t e . An e l . 208. As g r e e t a p i t e e was i t , o r v e l moo r e , The Theban may den t h a t f o r Hichanore B lr s e lv e n slo w , r i g h t f o r swich n a n ere wo. F rn k . 1431. T il t h a t th© Thebane k n y g h tes, both© y l i e h e Honoured, were i n t o t h e p a lq y s f e t . j.\n. 25 (CO* « ' ■ ,# »

Unto th© blood o f T r o i e , I prey© t h e , As Juno v a s unto t h e blood I'hebrne. TO. V, 600. Cf*

An e l . 85? Prnk. 3 454? Kn. 2514, £327, 2332.

248

Thebane*

sssaesxssxssszsx

297*

Thebrn ( ad.1 a c t i v e ) :

Thebaneg (Thebans)*

T hebans:

See Theban. In h a b ita n ts or n a tiv e s

o f t h e c i t y o f T hebes, which see* And when t h e wrenched T hebans, h r e t h e r e n t v o , h e r e s l a y n , and kyng A d rs s tu s how ago, bo d e e d a t sto d Thebes and so bare* An el * 6 0 * Pul oft© b day hen th is © Thebanes tv o Togydre y m et, end wroght h i s f e l a v s wo* Kn. 262% Of. An. 1875, 2569, 297% T h eb an s* T h e b e s*

T hebans: T h e b e sz

So© Th©banes* Th® s a i n c i t y o f t h e

B flto tie i n t h e c e n t r a l c a r t o f a n c ie n t

d It!c io n of G re e c e , sup­

posed t o have been b u i l t by Cadmus o f a lp h a b e t fane* I t i s lo c a te d t w e n t y - f i v e m ile s e a s t o f L iv a d ia end o n ly b sm ell d i s t a n c e to th© n o r th from Kount G ith?eron* I t was an im p o r ta n t o la c e d u rin g t h e h i d d l e Ages fend was renowned' f o r i t s m a n u fa c tu re o f s il k *

B acchus,

H e r c u le s , Amnhion> and T i r e e i a s were supposed to hey® been b o rn her©*

Be© O ith e r o n ; see S t a t i u s 1s Theba id .

Hath s e t t h e reel© s h e r t e s both© on f i r e Of Thebes and G ra c e , e v e r!e h o th e r to k i l l e . An el * 52* The b ro c h e o f Thebes wps o f such a kynde. So f u l o f r u b i e s end of s to n e s o f T hat ev ery w ig h t, t h a t s e t t e on h i t an ye® He wend® anon t o w o rth e ou t o f h i s nynde* OH* 246. The T holosan t h a t h i g h t e S ta c e , Tliat b a r o f Thebes uu t h e fame* IIP. 1460.

249

I» v rsc e h e * which t h a t wen© and w ayle th u s , Ves whilom wyf t o kyng Ce.po©neus» That s t a r f a t T h e b e s --c u rs e d he t h r t deyt Kn. 9 3 2 . And a l t h e lo v e o f Palamon end A r e i t e Of Thebe©, tho^h t h e s t o r y y s kncven I v t e . M i* M

420.

C e rte s t h e kyng o f Thebes* Amphioun* T hat w ith h i a syngyng w a lle d t h r t cite©* Koude never® syngen h a l f so wel a© he®. K an. 116. Th© s t r i f o f Thebes? and o f S r c u l e s . KL. SCO * B if o r n hem ©toode in s t r u m e n ts o f s v ic h soun T hat O rpheus, ne o f Thebes Annhioun, Ke maden never© svich. © melody®. K roh. 1715. H erden a may den re d a n hem t h e g e s t e Of t h e sies?e o f Thebes* w h ile hem. 1 e s t e . TO. II* 8 3 . He told© m© eek f o r what o cc ae io u n A mrhiorax a t Thebes lo s t© h i s I v f • ¥B.

740.

C f. A n e l. 62? Kn. 939* 967* 983* 986, IOC2* 1019* 1203, 1 2 8 3 , 1 3 3 1 , 1355, 1383, 1472* 1483, 1544, 1543, 1793, 1880, 2294* 2658? IflV. (G) 408? BL. 289? Kirch. 1 7 2 1 | TC. I X , WB, 7 4 6 .

299 *

ICC, 1 0 7 ,

V, 6 0 1 ,

936,

T h e s s a ly :

See T e a s e l ! e .

T h e s s a ly *

Se© T e s s e l i e *

T o u lo u sm *

1435,

1439;

An i n h a b i t a n t o r n a t i v e o f th e

c i t y o f Toulouse? a n c i e n t T c lo a a .

I t was t h e c a p i t a l

once o f t h e p r o v in c e o f Languedoc and i s now o f th e d ep a rtm en t o f Haut©"Garonne in F r a n c s .

I t i s lo c a te d

on t h e Garonne R i v e r , on® hundred and t h i r t y m ile s

250

s o u t h 0 0 s t o f Bordeaux*

I t s u n i v e r s i t y and c a t h e d r a l

d a t e from t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n tu r y .

I t -was e rro n e o u s ly

surmosed t o h av e been t h e b i r t h p l a c e o f S t a t i u s ; Bent© and B o ccaccio b o th nek a th e e rro r* The T h o lo san t h a t h i g h t e S ta c e , T hat b a r o f Thebes up th© fame* HP. 1460. 300*

T ig ris (T ig ry e ).

T ig riss

A r i v e r o f A s i a t i c Turkey

which r i s e s from, a t l e a s t tvo head stream s n ear K harp ut and Bi t l i e i n th© b o r d e r in g m o un tain s o f Armenia and K u r d i s ta n and flo w s southw ard and so u th ­ e a s tw a r d , making j u n c t i o n w ith t h e E u p h ra te s R iv e r some f o r t y mil©© to th e n o rth w e s t from. Basra*

The

r e g i o n b etw een t h e two r i v e r s was a n c i e n t H esocotam ia; Nineveh was lo c a t e d on i t s banks* m il e s i n le n g th *

I t i s ab ou t 1150

See B u f r a t e s ; Kygyve.

T ig ry e and B n f r a te s re so ? v e n and s p r in g e n o f o well© i n t h e creg g e s o f t h e ro c h e o f th e c o n t r a of Acheraenye. Bo* V, M*1, 1* And son© a f t i r t h e same rv v e ry s? T i g r i s and 2 u f r a t e s , m ija lp u e n and d e p a r te n h i r v e t r e e . Bo* V, K * 1 t 6*

T ig ry e. 301*

T ig riss

Bee T i g r i s *

T i r i e ( T y r i e , T y ro ) .

Tyres

Tyre ( a l s o c a l l e d Bur)

was t h e most im p o rta n t and o l d e s t c i t y o f Fh«-i . n'i»*wi*

#—

■* — mr#. nw w «

*•'

___* The T h e o lo g ic a l Tra-