Phyto-Oxylipins (Current Developments in Agricultural Biotechnology and Food Security) 9781032327556, 9781032327587, 9781003316558, 1032327553

Oxylipins are an important class of signaling molecules in plants, which play an important role in plant defence and inn

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Phyto-Oxylipins (Current Developments in Agricultural Biotechnology and Food Security)
 9781032327556, 9781032327587, 9781003316558, 1032327553

Table of contents :
Half Title
Series Information
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
Editor Biographies
1 Plant Oxylipins: Types and Classifications
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Plant Oxylipin Types
1.3 Oxylipins Biosynthesis
1.3.1 Non-Enzymatic Routes of Lipid Oxidation
1.3.2 Enzymatic Routes of Lipid Oxidation
1.4 Transcriptional Regulation
1.5 Conclusion
2 Oxylipin Mediated Signaling
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Synthesis
2.2.1 Signaling and Defense Mechanisms in Plants
2.3 Key Enzymes
2.3.1 Acyl-Lipid Hydrolases
2.3.2 Lipoxygenases
2.3.3 CYP74-Enzymes AOS HPL DES
2.3.4 Dioxygenases
2.4 Regulation of the Oxylipin Pathway
2.5 Conclusion
3 Transcriptional Regulation of Phyto-Oxylipins Signaling Pathway
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Non-Enzymatic and Enzymatic Biosynthesis of Oxylipin
3.3 9-LOX Pathway
3.3.1 13-LOX Pathway
3.3.2 Allene Oxide Synthase
3.3.3 Allene Oxide Cyclase
3.3.4 12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Reductase3
3.4 Beta Oxidation of the Carboxyl Side Chain
3.5 Intracellular Localization
3.6 Phyto-Oxylipin as Signaling Molecules
3.6.1 Oxylipins Derived From Ethanolamine
3.7 Transcriptional Regulation of Oxylipin Signaling Pathway
3.8 The Core Jasmonates Signaling Pathway
3.8.1 Transcriptional Activation of the Jasmonates Signaling System
3.9 Conclusion
4 Key Enzymes of Oxylipins Pathway
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Lipases/Acylhydrolases
4.3 Lipo-Oxygenases
4.3.1 Classification
4.3.2 Structure
4.3.3 Process of LOX-Mediated Reaction
4.3.4 LOX Pathway
4.3.5 9-Lipoxygenase Pathway
4.3.6 13-Lipoxygenase Pathway
4.3.7 Physiological Functions of Plant LOXs
4.4 Alene Oxidase Synthase and Hydroperoxide Lyase
4.5 Allene Oxide Cyclase
4.6 12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Reductase
4.7 Conclusion
5 Plants Oxylipins Induction and Regulation: Genetic Insights
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Enzymatically Formed Oxylipins
5.3 Chemically Formed Oxylipins
5.4 Occurrence of Oxylipins
5.5 Synthesis of Oxylipins
5.6 Oxylipins Signaling and Biosynthetic Pathways
5.7 Induction and Regulation of Phyto-Oxylipin Pathways
5.8 The Role of Phyto-Oxylipins
5.9 Indirect Purposes of Esterified Oxylipins
5.10 Direct Functions of Esterified Oxylipins
5.11 Conclusion
6 The Role of Oxylipins in Plant Reproduction, Growth, and Development
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Oxylipins
6.3 Enzymatically Produced Oxylipins
6.4 Oxylipins Produced By Synthetic Oxidation
6.5 Different Oxylipin Present in Plant Cells
6.5.1 Free Or Non-Esterified Oxylipins
6.5.2 Arabidopsides’ Esterified Oxylipins
6.5.3 Oxylipin-Esters and Forms of Other Oxylipins
6.6 Oxylipin Production
6.7 Few Enzymes Associated With Biosynthesis of Oxylipins
6.7.1 Lipases
6.7.2 Alpha-Dioxygenase (A-DOX)
6.7.3 Lipoxygenase Enzymes (LOX)
6.7.4 Cyp74 Enzymes
6.7.5 Allene Oxide Cyclase Enzyme
6.7.6 12-Oxo Phytodienoate Reductases (OPR)
6.7.7 Peroxygenase (PXG)
6.8 Oxylipins’ Role in Reproduction
6.9 Oxylipins’ Role in Plant Growth and Development
6.10 Conclusion
7 The Role of Oxylipins in Biotic Stress Resistance
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Oxylipin Signaling in Plant Stress Responses
7.3 Jasmonate Signal Transduction and Regulation
7.4 Transcription Factors Involved in Defense
7.5 Transcription Factors (TFs): Modulators of Gene Expression
7.6 Regulatory Role of TFs in Plant Defense
7.6.1 WRKY TFs
7.6.2 BHLH TFs
7.6.3 AP2/ERF TFs
7.6.4 MYB TFs
7.7 Conclusion
8 The Role of Oxylipins in Abiotic Stress Resistance
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Tissue Damage/Injury
8.3 Drought and Salinity
8.4 Temperature
8.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives
9 The Roles of Oxylipin Biosynthesis Genes in Programmed Cell Death
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Cell Death Pathway
9.3 Oxylipin (Jasmonate) Biosynthesis
9.3.1 Alpha (.)- Dioxygenases and Their Role in Programmed Cell Death
9.3.2 The Lipoxygenase (LOX) Associated Genes and Their Role in Programmed Cell Death
9.3.3 Monooxygenases That Are Dependent On Cytochrome P450
9.3.4 Allen Oxide Synthase (AOS) Activities in Plant Defense
9.3.5 Allene Oxide Cyclase (AOC) Activities in Plant Defense
9.4 Hydroperoxide Lyase (HPL) Activities in Plant Defense
9.5 Divinyl Ether Synthase (DES) Activities in Plant Defense
9.6 Oxylipins and Programmed Cell Death
9.7 Oxylipin and Cell Death Regulations
9.8 Conclusion
10 The Roles of Oxylipins in Plant Systemic Resistance
10.1 Introduction
10.2 The Role of Oxylipins in Acquired Resistance
10.2.1 Plant Defense to Biotic Stresses
10.2.2 Fatty Acids: Regulators of Immunity
10.2.3 The Role of Oxylipins in Plant Defense
10.3 The Role of Oxylipins in Induced Resistance
10.3.1 Plant Defense Mechanisms
10.3.2 Oxylipins as Plant Defenders
10.3.3 Antipathic Activity of Oxylipins
10.3.4 Oxylipins as Signaling Molecules
10.4 Crosstalk Between Salicylic Acid and Oxylipins
10.4.1 Overview
10.4.2 Crosstalk
10.5 Conclusion
11 The Role of Oxylipins in Plant Reproduction, Fruit Maturity, and Development
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Jasmonates Regulate Reproductive Development
11.3 The Role of 9,10-Ketol-Octadecadienoic Acid (KODA) and Jasmonates in Regulating Maturation of Fruits
11.4 The Role of Oxylipins in Fruit Development
11.5 Conclusion/Future Perspective
12 The Role of Oxylipins (Phyto-Oxylipins) in Moss Development
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Moss
12.3 Life Cycle of Moss
12.3.1 Economic Importance of Moss
12.4 Moss Development
12.5 Moss Development and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
12.6 Oxylipins and Moss Development
12.7 Conclusion
13 The Role of Oxylipins in Leaf Senescence
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Oxylipins and Gene Regulation During Senescence
13.3 Oxylipins and Cell Death Regulation
13.4 The Role of Oxylipins During Leaf Senescence
13.5 Conclusion/Future Perspective
14 Crosstalk Between Oxylipins and Other Metabolites: Abscisic Acid and Salicylic Acid
14.1 Introduction
14.2 The Role of Jamonates in Stress
14.3 The Role of Salicylic Acid in Stress
14.4 The Role of Abscisic Acid in Stress
14.5 Crosstalk Between Jasmonates, Abscisic Acid, and Salicylic Acid
14.6 Conclusion
15 Oxylipins in Plant Protection/Disease Management
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Methodology
15.3 Building the Natural Resistance of Plants
15.3.1 The Role of Phytohormones in Plant Resistance
15.3.2 The Role of Jasmonates in Induced Plant Resistance Against Pathogens
15.3.3 Oxylipin Biosynthesis Activation Specificity
15.4 Plant Volatiles as Multifunctional Weapon Against Herbivores and Pathogens
15.4.1 Internal “Communication” of the Oxylipin Kingdom
15.4.2 Research On the Use of OP
15.5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
16 Techniques in Plant Oxylipins Profiling
16.1 Introduction
16.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
16.3 Chiral Chromatography
16.4 IMS (Ion Mobility Spectrometry)
16.5 Immunoaffinity Chromatography (IAC)
16.6 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
16.7 Gas Chromatography—EI/Mass Spectrophotometry
16.8 MALDI- TOF/MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization—time of Flight/mass Spectrometry)
16.9 ESI-MS/MS (Electrospray Ionization—Tandem Mass Spectrometry)
16.10 Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS)
16.11 Conclusion
17 The Computational Approach to Plant Oxylipins Profiling: Databases and Tools
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Analytical Techniques
17.3 Lipidomic Profiling
17.4 Programs and Tools for Profiling of Oxylipins
17.5 Important Databases
17.6 Conclusion
18 Phyto-Oxylipin Bioprospecting and Biotechnology Interventions
18.1 Introduction
18.2 The Oxylipin Biosynthetic Pathway in Plants
18.3 Screening Test
18.3.1 Examples of Screening Tests
18.4 Oxilipin Exploration
18.5 Extraction of Oxylipins
18.6 Phyto-Oxylipins in the Service of Biotechnology
18.6.1 Signaling Via Oxylipins
18.7 Oxylipins Produced By AOS
18.7.1 Volatile Oxylipins
18.8 How Can Biotechnological Interventions/Techniques Be Useful in Practice?
18.8.1 Biotechnological Techniques Useful for Pharmaceutical Companies
18.9 Conclusions and a Future Perspective
19 Antimicrobial Activities of Oxylipins in Plants
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Antimicrobial Activities of Oxylipins in Plants
19.3 Conclusion

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