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PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROVIDES OPPORTUNITIES FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

A P ro ject P re se n te d to tiie F a c u l t y o f tlie S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n U n iv e r s ity o f Southern C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t i a l F u lf illm e n t o f th e R equirem ents f o r

t h e Degree

M aster o f S cience in E d u c a tio n

by W illiam F r a u lin o J u l y 1950

UMI Number: EP46313

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p en d e n t upon th e quality of the copy subm itted. In th e unlikely event that th e author did not sen d a com plete m anuscript and there a re missing p ag es, th e se will be noted. Also, if material had to be rem oved, a note will indicate th e deletion.

UMI* Dissertation Publishing

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'i'/

F * ' 1*'

Th is p r oj ec t repor t, w ri tt en under the direction of the candidate’s adv ise r a n d a p p r o v e d by him, has been pres ent ed to an d a c c e p te d by the F acu lty o f the S c h o o l of E du c a ti o n in p a r t i a l fu lfillment of the requirements f o r the de g re e of M a s t e r of Science in Education.

Adviser

Dean

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER

_

PAGE

I.

THE PROBLEM . . .

.....................

. . . . . . . . . . .

S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m ...................................

2

Im portance of the stu d y

. . . . . .

2

Purpose of the p r o j e c t .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

3

of the term s used . . . . . . . . .

4

D efin itio n s

S o cial e ffic ie n c y

.

.

...................................................

4

P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ........................................

4

G uidance.

. . . . . . .

5

...............................

6

. . .

...............................

Method o f p r o c e d u r e . . . . . . .

O rg a n iz atio n of th e rem ain in g c h a p te rs . II.

1

. . . .

6

. . . . . . .

8

of ed u catio n . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

SOCIAL VIEWS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION. P rin c ip les

S o c ia l ed u catio n .

.....................

. . . . . . . . . .

10

M e e t i n g i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s ............................................................... 13 The o b l i g a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o dem ocracy .

........................................

14

D e v e l o p m e n t o f a t t i t u d e s ...............................................................16 S u m m a r y ....................................................................... III.

21

EDUCATION AND SOCIAL E F F I C I E N C Y ............................................... 22 S o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y ................................... S o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y and th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .

23 . . 27

CHAPTER

PAGE Team s p o r t s

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

{!)

D evelopm ent o f s o c i a l s t a n d a r d s

(2)

S a t i s f y i n g t h e n e e d t o b e l o n g .............................. 50

S o c i a l d e v elo p m en t f o r homogeneous g r o u p in g .

29

. 30

P l a y e r c o n t r o l o f c o n t e s t .................................................... 32 S u m m a r y .................................................................. IT.

MEASUREMENT OP SOCIAL EFFICIENCY. M easurem ent o f ed u catio n

. . . . . . . .

so cial efficien cy . . .

...............................

M cCloy’ s b e h a v i o r r a t i n g B lanchard*s s e a le

33

in p h y sic a l . . . . . . .

..............................

38 39

W ash b u rn e 's s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t i n v e n t o r y .

.

M easurem ent o f g e n e r a l s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y .

. . .

M easuring p r e c a u t i o n s o f s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y .

T.

. -. 40

.

43 . 43

................................................................... 4 4

SUMMARY................................... Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C o n clu sio n s

36

s c a l e ............................................. 37

Q * N e e l t s s c a l e ..............................

Summary . . . . . .

34

46 46

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , ; 4 9

BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................* .............................52

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM I n f o r m e r y e a r s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s w e r e m ore i n t e r e s t e d in p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e s than in keen i n t e r e s t

s o c ia l sc ien ces because of th e ir

i n th e p h y s i o l o g i c a l outcom es o f a c t i v i t i e s .

W ith t h e p r e s e n t e m p h a s i s o f e d u c a t i o n upon i n d i v i d u a l and s o e ia l ad ju stm en t th e re i s

an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the s o c ­

i a l asp ects of p h y sic a l ed u catio n . "The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r i s

As P r a n k S. L l o y d s a y s ,

in p a r t a s o c io lo g is t,

e s te d in the d i r e c ti o n o f s o c i a l b e h av io r, so cial situ a tio n s

upon i n d i v i d u a l s ,

bein g i n t e r ­

th e in flu e n c e of

and i n f l u e n c e

of in d iv id ­

u a l on s o c i a l g r o u p s . ” 1 I t h as been assumed t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n a c t i v i t y a s o c ia lly v alu ab le fe a tu r e so c ializ a tio n

of l i f e

is

and e d u c a t i o n and t h a t

i s an im p o rtan t p a r t of the e d u c a tiv e p ro c e s s .

E d u c a to rs t a l k a g r e a t d e a l abo u t s o e i a l developm ent, t o w o rk w i t h o t h e r s ,

and th e s o c i a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s ,

learn in g b u t too

o f t e n i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e much o f s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d s o c i a l a d ju stm en t i s

left

to chance.

^ B r a n k S. L l o y d , "T h e S o c i o l o g y o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f H e a lth and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 8 :2 0 4 -2 0 6 , A p r i l , 1937.

a S ta te m e n t of the p ro b lem .

The p u r p o s e o f t h i s

study is

t o show' how p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l developm ent. Im p o rta n ce of th e s t u d y .

Youth to d a y f a c e s a w o rld

com prised of v a r i e d and i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f i e l d s endeavor.

Into th is

w o rld t h e y o u t h m u st f i t h i m s e l f so

t h a t he can c o n t r i b u t e h i s b e s t e f f o r t s t h e same t i m e ,

a ttain

of

to hum anity and,

at

t h e maximum o f s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t a n d

h ap p in ess. The v i e w t h a t g u i d a n c e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h c r i s e s h a s been s t a t e d by A rth u r J .

J o n e s i n th e f o llo w in g ¥/ords:

...G u id a n c e , as o rg an iz ed , i s , th en , concerned w ith c r i s e s , w i t h t i m e s o f c h o i c e , t i m e s when t h e wa ys d iv e r g e , w ith tim e s of needed a d ju s tm e n t .. . i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e h e l p g i v e n may b e d i r e c t -or i n d i r e c t , t h e o n e g u i d e d may b e c o n s c i o u s o f t h e h e l p g i v e n o r may b e e n t i r e l y unconscious of i t . The g u i d a n c e may b e g i v e n a t th e tim e of a c r i s i s o r lo n g b e f o r e i t o c c u r s . Indeed, th e b e s t guidance i s u s u a lly t h a t g iv en long b e fo re the need fo r ch o ice a r i s e s . I t c o n s is ts in a s s i s t i n g th e in d iv i d u a l in the g ra d u a l accu m u latio n o f f a c t s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w i l l when t h e t i m e c o m e s , e n a b l e him t o d e c i d e w i s e l y . G uidance i s t h u s se en t o be an e s s e n t i a l and a fu n d a m e n ta l a s p e c t o f ed u ca­ tio n . I t i s in h e re n t in a l l ed u catio n b u t c e r ta in a s p e c ts of i t are s in g le d out f o r s p e c ia l c o n s id e ra tio n and d e f i n i t e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2

2A r t h u r J . J o n e s , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u i d a n c e MeGraw H i l l Company, 1 9 3 4 } , p p . 2 8 - 2 9 .

(New Y o r k :

P urpose of

the p ro .je c t.

The p u r p o s e o f t h i s p r o j e c t

was t o p o i n t o u t o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h e r e i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p o r g r a m a n d p e r s o n n e l c o u l d make e s s e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s

to

t h e optimum s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d ­ ual p u p il, porgram . life ;

th ro u g h g u id an c e by c o o p e r a t io n w ith the g u id an c e Guidance i t s e l f

so t h e r e f o r e

to guidance.

en ters

in to every aspect of school

every aspect of school l i f e

is e sse n tia l

P r o b l e m s s e l d o m come u p a s l o n e f a c t o r s ,

u s u a l l y r e s u l t from a com b in atio n o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s .

but Be­

c a u s e no on e d e p a r t m e n t o r i n d i v i d u a l e o u l d p o s s i b l y c o n t a c t a l l of th e f a c t o r s ,

outside

o f m aking a c a s e s tu d y ,

n e c e s s a r y f o r each p a r t o f the s c h o o l to c o n tr i b u te so lu tio n .

it

is

to th e ir

P h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n should tak e a r i g h t f u l p la c e

as a d i r e c t and c o n t r i b u t i n g g u id an c e f a c t o r ,

and s h o u ld

make f u l l u s e o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h e v o l v e a s a r e s u l t of i t s

d i f f e r e n c e s from th e r e s t o f th e s c h o o l program .

Phy­

s i c a l e d u c a t i o n comes i n c o n t a c t w i t h l a r g e n u m b e r s o f s t u d e n t s , allo w in g fo r e x te n siv e o b se rv a tio n . p lace,

through th e v ery n a tu r e of i t s

s tu d e n t to le a r n em o tio n al c o n tr o l, dence,

I t p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t a ctiv itie s,

fo r the

to develop s e l f - c o n f i ­

and t o p e r f e c t d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r ­

istic s. The p r o b l e m o f and m ust be met i f

t h e s o c i a l l y u n a d j u s t e d i s a r e a l one

each p u p il i s

to be s e rv e d e f f e c t i v e l y .

The d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e e t s of group l i f e

of p e rs o n a l i n s e c u r i t y in th e m idst

h a s b e e n e v i d e n t f o r some t i m e , b u t o n l y r e c ­

e n tly studied c a re fu lly . p a rticip a tio n

S t u d i e s h a v e shown t h a t l a c k o f

in the a c t i v i t i e s

o f t h e 'g r o u p and th e sen se

o f n o t h a v in g f r i e n d s w ith in th e group c o n t r i b u t e

to the

i s o l a t i o n and i n s e c u r i t y o f th e

in d iv id u al.

a c o n s c i o u s a t t e m p t on t h e p a r t

o f t h e t e a c h e r c a n do much

to the

increase

so cial p a rtic ip a tio n

stu d en ts,

B eliev in g th a t

and h e n c e th e s e c u r i t y o f

the e d u e a to r d is c o v e rs a unique o p p o r tu n ity

f o r guidance th ro u g h e d u c a tio n , DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS USED S o cial e ff ic ie n c y .

The d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e s i r a b l e

sta n d a rd s of conduct and the a b i l i t y o th ers.

to g e t alo n g w ith

A s o c ia lly e f f ic ie n t in d iv id u al is

tio n s harm oniously w ith in h im s e lf, w ith o th e r s ,

o n e who f u n c ­

in h is r e la tio n s h ip

a n d a s a member o f t h e s o c i e t y o f w h i c h h e

is a p a rt. P h y sical ed u ca tio n . o f e d u c a t i o n w hich i s a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t e d of

T h a t p h a se o f t h e whole p r o c e s s

concerned w ith v ig o ro u s m uscular responses,

and w ith t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s

th e i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t a n t from th e s e r e s p o n s e s . 3

3 H ugene W. N i x o n a n d F r e d e r i c k W. G o z e n s , An I n t r o ­ d u c tio n to P h y sica l E d u c a tio n ,( P h ila d e lp h ia : W . B7 u a u n d e r s C o . , 1 9 4 7 ) , p . 6.

G uidance. by e d u c a to rs ,

T h e r e a r e many c o n c e p t s o f g u i d a n c e o f f e r e d

but i t

ed u catio n in i t s e l f

is is

f o u n d t h a t many o f th em a g r e e guidance,

and t h e r e f o r e ,

th at

the te a c h e r

becomes t h e c o u n s e lo r* To h e l p y o u n g p e o p l e come t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m s e lv e s and t h e w orld i n which t h e y l i v e i n i s a p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f go o d e d u c a t i o n . T his f u n c t i o n , w ith a l l i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r th e i n d i v i d u a l and so­ c ie ty , i s o ften c a lle d g u id an ce.4 D. H. E i k e n b e r r y b e l i e v e s t h a t g u i d a n c e m e a n s h e l p i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o grow,

to d ev elo p ,

to c re a te h im s e lf .5

G uidance,

ren d ered to in d iv id u a ls ; t o make c h o i c e s , them selves f o r

G uidance i s which i s

then,

is

to d isco v er,

and

any p e rs o n a l h e lp

h e l p which w i l l b e t t e r e n a b l e them

to understand

the f u tu r e

to f i n d ,

t h e i r f e l l o w men a n d t o e q u i p

i n which t h e y m ust l i v e .

an " a s p e c t of th e e d u c a t i o n a l program

concerned e s p e c i a l l y w ith h e lp in g the p u p il to be­

come a d j u s t e d t o h i s p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n a n d t o p l a n h i s f u t u r e in lin e w ith h i s i n t e r e s t s ,

a b ilitie s,

and s o c i a l n e e d s . ”5

^ C h a r l e s M. S m i t h a n d M a ry M. R o o s , (New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1941). bus,

A G uide- to G u id a n c e ,

5 D. H, E i k e n b e r r y , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o G u i d a n c e , (C olum ­ Ohio: The E. J . H e e r P r i n t i n g Company, 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 1 8 .

6 S h i r l e y A. H a m r i n a n d C l i f f o r d E r i c k s o n , G u i d a n c e i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l (New Y o r k : D, A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, I n c . ^ 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 1.

M ethod o f p r o c e d u r e .

In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e op­

p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o e i a l g ro w th and d e v e lo p m e n t th r o u g h p h y sic a l ed u catio n , was m a d e .

ex ten siv e re a d in g of re le v a n t m a te ria ls

The p r o b l e m was d i s c u s s e d w i t h a u t h o r i t i e s

in

p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and e l a b o r a t e d upon i n g u id a n c e d i s ­ cu ssio n s. O rg a n iz atio n o f the rem ain in g c h a p te r s . c o n s id e r a tio n the purpose of the of th e problem ,

Talcing i n t o

s t u d y and t h e s t a t e m e n t

the a rran g em en t o f th e c h a p te r s

t h a t se e m e d

lo g ic a l is as fo llo w s: In th e p r e s e n t c h a p te r the im p o rtan c e o f th e p roblem , the d e f in itio n s

of the term s used,

m ethod o f p r o c e d u r e ,

and

o r g a n i z a t i o n of th e r e m a in i n g c h a p t e r s a r e g iv e n . The n e x t c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t i o n and th e p r i n c i p l e s

th e s o c i a l view s of ed uca­

o f e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n .

M e etin g i n d i v i d u a l n eeds and th e o b l i g a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n t o dem ocracy a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d . In c h a p te r I I I tio n

to

is presen ted

so cial effic ie n cy .

acc ep tab ility

is

the r e l a t i o n s

The i m p o r t a n c e o f s k i l l

The r o l e - o f

t e a m s p o r t s a n d cfche d e ­

v elopm ent of s o c i a l s ta n d a r d s a r e m en tio n ed .

S o c ial,d ev e lo p ­

ment t h r o u g h homogenous g r o u p i n g i s b r o u g h t f o r t h

c o n test.

to s o c ia l

c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y and

the p h y s ic a l e d u c a to r.

ch ap ter i s

of educa­

and th e

concluded w ith a d is c u s s io n of p la y e r c o n tr o l of

7 C h a p t e r IV c o v e r s

th e m easurem ent of s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y .

A d i s c u s s i o n o f th e m easurem ent o f s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y i n phy­ s i c a l e d u c a tio n along w ith r a t i n g

scales

is

given.

p re c a u tio n s in m easuring s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y a re w ith

Some

considered;

th e.m easurem ent o f g e n e r a l s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y . A su m m ary o f t h e m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d i n t h e s t u d y ,

to-

t

g e th e r w ith recom m endations f o r f u r t h e r a re p resented in

the f i n a l c h a p te r.

stu d y and c o n c lu s io n s

CHAPTER I I SOCIAL VIEWS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION M ost e d u c a t o r s a r e com ing to i n t e r p r e t p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n p r im a r ily in the l i g h t o f . i t s Dewey,

so c ial sig n ifican ce.

i s p e rh a p s th e o u t s t a n d i n g exam ple,

in the s o c i a l f i e l d

John

and h i s p i o n e e r i n g

o f e d u c a t i o n h a s h a d wide i n f l u e n c e .

Some o f t h e b e l i e f s p r e s e n t e d w i l l s e r v e

to

show t h e t r e n d

o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n and e d u c a t i o n tow ard th e r e a l i z a t i o n of a s o c ia l id e a l, E.

A. K i r k p a t r i c k w r i t e s o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s

th at

t h e y " a r e d o i n g much t o p r o m o t e d e m o c r a c y i n t h e y o u n g a n d t o d e v e l o p i n t h e i r p a r e n t s common i n t e r e s t s . ” th erefo re,

th e m ost p ro m is in g s o c i a l c e n t e r s of t o d a y . ” 1

J e s s e F e i r i n g W illiam s i n d i c a t e s s i c a l e d u catio n r e s u l t s r ig h t to

in

th at:

"U nless phy­

s o c ia lly u se fu l conduct i t

h a s no

the term e d u c a t i o n " 2

P h y s ic a l ed u catio n te a c h e rs teaeh ers

"They a r e ,

cannot d i f f e r from o th e r

i n th e d e s i r e d outcom es o f t h e i r s u b j e c t f o r a l l

a r e e d u c a t i n g t h e whole c h i l d e d u c a tio n cannot be f o r g o tte n .

and t h e o v e r - a l l p u r p o s e o f T here s h o u ld be no c o n s i d e r a ­

tio n of su b je c t m atter except as i t

w ill a f f e c t the in d iv id u a l

■^Edwin A. K i r k p a t r i c k , F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S o c i o l o g y ( B o s t o n , New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 1 6 ) , P»" 83* 2

J e s s e F e i r i n g W illiam s, P r i n c i p l e s o f P h y s i c a l Educa­ t i o n , ( P h i l a d e l p h i a a n d L o n d o n : W. B. S a u n d e r s Company, 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 154.

in a l l phases of h is

life .

In s p e a k i n g o f i n t e g r a t i n g phy­

s i c a l a c t i v i t y w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s La P o r t e 3 p o i n t s out the d e s i r a b i l i t y

of c o n s i d e r i n g the. s o c i a l i z i n g e le m e n t.

He p o i n t s o u t t h a t we s h o u l d k e e p i n m in d t h e m a j o r f u n c t i o n of ed u catio n as b e in g to t r a i n tiv e

t h e i n d i v i d u a l f o r m o re e f f e c ­

and happy l i v i n g i n s o c i a l i z e d s i t u a t i o n s

g e t t i n g a lo n g w ith people than e x p re ss in g h ig h ly That i t

is

is

i m p o r t a n t a n d m ore d i f f i c u l t

tech n ical s k i l l s .

w ith in th e scope of

te a c h e r to g iv e guidance i n be no d o u b t,

and where

the p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n

t h e s e two a r e a s

t h e r e seems to

L o u i s e S t a p l e s Cobb q u o t e s D ean Hawkes o f

Colum bia U n i v e r s i t y : No o n e " h a s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l u e n c e a t t i t u d e s a n d f u n d a m e n t a l s o f l i v i n g t h a t a r e c u r r e n t among s t u d e n t s , a s do a t h l e t i c c o a c h e s , t e a c h e r s o f h y g i e n e and p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n and th e c o l l e g e d o c t o r . . . I would r a t h e r ha v e t h e a t h l e t i c c o a c h o f t h e r i g h t k in d th an alm o st any o th e r o f f i c e r of the c o lle g e . P rin c ip le s of ed u catio n . p les

o f e d u c a tio ii were:

(1)

Two o f M o r t f s b a s i c p r i n c i ­

th a t sch o o ls should h e lp

t a i n and b e t t e r ours s o c i a l and econom ic s y s te m ,

to m ain­

a n d (2 )

th at

W i l l i a m R a l p h La P o r t e , The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r ­ r i c u l u m ( L o s A n g e l e s : ’'The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ' P r e s s , 1 9 4 0 ), p . 56. ^ L o u i s e S t a p l e s Cobb., A S t u d y o f t h e F u n c t i o n o f P h y ­ s i c a l E d u c a tio n in H igher E d u c a tio n (B ureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , New Y o r k 1 9 4 3 ) , p 3 2 .

th e

sch o o ls should c o n tr ib u te

life

in as larg e as p o s s ib le

In o rd e r to r e a l i z e

to

the r e a l i z a t i o n

of abundant

a p e rc e n ta g e o f each g e n e ra tio n .

t h e above p r i n c i p l e s ,

th ree a d d itio n a l p rin c ip le s .

These w ere:

M ort e s t a b l i s h e d (a)

the

schools

s h o u ld im p a rt a deep r e g a r d f o r our sy ste m o f governm ent; (b)

the sc h o o ls sh o u ld c r e a te

th o se

sh ills,

of the

know ledges,

s o c i a l system ;

(c)

the o p e ra tio n in

and k n o w le d g es r e q u i r e d f o r *

P h y sic a l ed u cato rs

to d a y have g r e a t

the developm ent of s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y in th e

c h ild re n under t h e ir o th e r ag en cies

serves

the sc h o o ls should c r e a te

sk ills

S o cial e d u catio n . o p p o rtu n ities fo r

t h e human m a t e r i a l i t

th a t are n ecessary fo r

and

t h e human m a t e r i a l t h o s e c * the g e n eral w elfare.

in

care.

They m u st,

in the sc h o o l,

th e ir p laces in so c iety ,

in c o -o p e r a tio n w ith

p r e p a r e boys and g i r l s

to

take

t o be good c i t i z e n s d u r i n g t h e

p r e s e n t a n d t o do t h e i r p a r t i n m a k i n g t h e w o r l d a b e t t e r /

p lace

i n which t o l i v e ,

liv in g "

The p r e s e n t i m p l i e s

"pragm atism ";

the f u tu r e im p lies

"ed u catio n fo r

th e developm ent

o f q u a l i t i e s n e e d e d i n men t o d a y f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e y e a r s t o come

"id ea lism ."

p o i n t e d tow ard

Too o f t e n ,

the f i r s t

a t t e n t i o n to th e second.

u n fo rtu n ately ,

o f t h e s e aim s,

teaching is

w ith s c a n t,

A program d e sig n ed

if

to r e a l iz e

any, th ese

5 P a u l R. M o r t , P r i n c i p l e s o f S c h o o l . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Com pany, 1 9 4 6 ) , ' p . 2 7 .

11

ends,

th erefo re,

c a lls

f o r a know ledge of what i s need ed to d a y

and f o r c o n v i c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g l i f e designed

to m o d ify b e h a v i o r tow ard

tom orrow , w ith m ethods the r e a l i z a t i o n

o f those

ends. Many o f t h e p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s

in p h y sic a l ed u catio n

are d e f i n i t e l y c o n tra ry to b o th o f th e se m o t i v a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n win a t a n y c o s t , co -o p eratio n ,

in

th is

and th e

stress­

r a t h e r th an s o c i a l b ehavior.

th e c o m p e titiv e elem ent in a t h l e t i c s , a ctu ally re ta rd s

if not

th e developm ent of the

C om petitive c o -o p e r a tio n

s e c tio n of p h y sic a l ed u catio n ,

tio n sh ip s

the p la y in g to

the conduct of fo rm al program s,

pro p erly c o n tro lle d , so cial tr a its .

through aw ards,

such as

the s t r e s s i n g of c o m p e titio n r a t h e r than

in g o f know ledge and s k i l l s In f a c t

co n cep ts,

( t e a m work)

is

taught

b u t many o f t h e r e l a ­

c e n t e r e d a ro u n d " b e a t i n g t h e o t h e r team " a r e n o t

co m patible w ith the b e s t e th i c s tio n a l re la tio n s.

i n econom ics and i n i n t e r n a ­

B ertran d R u s s e ll s t a t e s

more i m p o r t a n t t h a n i n f o r m e r t i m e s co-o p erativ e e n te rp ris e s

th at " . . . i t

to c u ltiv a te

i n w hich th e

the

is

id ea of

’enemy’ i s p h y s i c a l

n atu re ra th e r

t h a n c o m p e t i t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s i n which t h e r e a r e

human v i c t o r s

and v a n q u is h e d " .

p e titio n

York:

However,

it

is

t h r o u g h com­

t h a t man h a s a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f u r t h e r g r o w t h o f

^ B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l , E d u c a t i o n a n d t h e Good L i f e , Boni and L i v e r i g h t , 1 9 2 6 ) , p. 132.

(New

12

d esirab le personal q u a litie s s o c ia l b etterm en t.

The d r i v e

t h a t a re conducive to t h i s fo r reco g n itio n

is

alw ays

p r e s e n t and c o m p e t i t i v e games and s p o r t s a r e e x c e l l e n t fo rm s of re le a s e

for

the u rg e s a t t e n d e n t to th e d r i v e .

v a lid rea so n fo r in c lu d in g co m p etitiv e a c t i v i t i e s p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n program , b u t i t

T his i s

a

in the

is not a v a lid reason

f o r p l a c i n g them i n an e x a l t e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e

school cur­

ricu lu m . What s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s fu tu re?

sh o u ld be g iv e n to th e

Should i t be a c o m p e ti t iv e w o rld ,

o p erativ e liv in g ?

W ill p h y s ic a l h a rd ih o o d

d e n t upon t h e w i l l - t o - d o )

be a d v a n ta g e o u s,

o f p h y s i c a l w e a k lin g s be s u f f i c i e n t ? h o o d o f man?

How c a n c i v i l i z a t i o n

m a te ria l th in g s,

but in

a d e fin ite re s p o n s ib ility in

a v o i d e d a n d man i s

to

Boys and g i r l s m eans; state

liv e

depen­

or w ill a race the b r o th e r ­

r e a l l y p r o g r e s s - - n o t in C ertain ly ,

of th e w orld.

th is resp ect,

t h a t m ust be a c c e p te d i f ^ f u t u r e

(w hich i s

What i s

s p i r i t u a l grow th?

p r a c t i c e has n o t cured th e i l l s

o r one o f co­

present

E d ucation has

a resp o n sib ility

w orld-w ide c o n f l i c t i s

to be

i n p e a c e and. h a p p i n e s s .

n e e d t o know w h a t r e s p e c t f o r

na u t h o r i t y ' * /

t h e y s h o u l d be g i v e n a v i s i o n o f a more d e s i r a b l e to w a rd which to s t r i v e ,

n o t be c o g n iz a n t;

o f w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s may

a n d t h e y m u s t l e a r n t o make w i s e c h o i c e s

and to d e v elo p f o r th e m s e lv e s w orthy s t a n d a r d s of c o n d u c t.

13 The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r d e a l s many t i m e s w i t h e m o t i o n a l i z e d a ttitu d e s

developed under the s t r e s s

of a c tu a l p ressu re;

c h a r a c t e r may t h u s b e e m p h a s i z e d a s u n d e r l y i n g a n d i n t e ­ g ra tin g a l l behavior of the in d iv id u a l. esse n tia l if 6.

b e st r e s u l t s are

Wi s e g u i d a n c e i s

to be a t t a i n e d .

. M e e tin g I n d iv id u a l h e e d s . ""In d iv id u als v ary in s o c ia l •

ch aracteristics

a n d n e e d s a s w i d e l y a s t h e y do i n t h e p h y t

!

sical ch aracteristics the study.

and n e e d s d i s c u s s e d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f

Too f r e q u e n t l y ,

how ever,

school p u p ils are tre a te d

en masse w ith o c c a s i o n a l r e p r i m a n d s and p u n is h m e n ts m eted o u t to

th e few i n c o r r i g i b l e s

how d i f f e r e n t t h e i r how p e c u l i a r

and th e o v e r l y m is c h i e v o u s , no m a t t e r

t e m p e r a m e n t s , how v a r i e d t h e i r

th eir so c ial c h a ra c te ristic s,

th eir

s o e i a l p r o b l e m s may b e .

stand

the in d iv id u a l; If

he i s

the in d iv id u a l i s

p ro b ab ility

in te re sts,

o r how p r e s s i n g

No a t t e m p t i s made t o u n d e r ­

l o s t in th e s h u f f le . to dev elo p s o c i a l l y w ith h ig h

of d eveloping a s o c i a l r a t h e r

or p red ato ry c a re e r,

than a s e lf - c e n te r e d

i n d i v i d u a l n e ed s m ust be d e te rm in e d and

t r e a t m e n t m u st be b a s e d upon m ea su re m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p u p il,

recorded r e g u la r ly d u rin g th e su c ce ssiv e phases of

h is m atu ratio n . d iag n o sis

For th o se w ith s o c i a l problem s,

to d is c o v e r

made a n d a p p r o p r i a t e

(/*

in d iv id u al

the cause' o f th e c o n d it i o n sh o u ld be \ step s fo r i t s co rre ctio n in s titu te d .

R e - e v a l u a t i o n fro m tim e t o tim e s h o u ld be g iv e n i n o r d e r to \

\

{/

d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o g r e s s "being m a d e . / I f n o p r o g r e s s i s r e ­ c o r d e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e r e t e s t s 1^ t h e c a s e s h o u l d a g a i n h e / i r e v i e w e d , go n e i n t o e v e n m ore t h o r o u g h l y , a n d p o s s i b l y r e ­ ferred

to p s y c h o lo g is ts

or p y s c h i a t r i s t s . i The o b l i g a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n

Nixon and Cozens r e f e r t o

to dem ocracy.

the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the sc h o o l

t o m e e t t h e s o c i a l p u r p o s e s o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c way o f l i f e . T h is h a s p l a c e d an a d d i t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n upon p h y s i c a l ed u ca ­ tio n . O rganized e d u c a tio n c a n n o t escap e g r a p p l i n g w ith o u r s o c i a l p r o b le m s , and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a lo n g w ith th e o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s and a g e n c ie s o f th e s c h o o l, i s i n a m ost f a v o r a b l e p o s i t i o n fro m which t o a i d i n t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g . . . We a l s o know t h a t t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of the fundam ental s o c i a l t r a i n i n g of th e av erag e i n d i v i d u a l comes a b o u t t h r o u g h t h e p l a y a c t i v i t i e s o f c h ildhood. These a c t i v i t i e s p l a c e th e c h i l d a lm o st c o n s t a n t l y i n s i t u a t i o n s w hich a r e s i g n i f i c a n t so ­ c i a l l y and t o w h ic h he m ust r e s p o n d , and by so r e s p o n d , and b y so r e s p o n d i n g l e a r n a t t i t u d e s and ways o f b e ­ h a v in g which a r e o f s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e . 7 One w o u l d s u s p e c t f r o m t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s in dem ocratic

s o c i a l l i v i n g can be f o rm u la te d

th a t p ractices in p h y sical

ed u catio n ex p erien c es. P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s g i v e s op­ p o r t u n i t i e s f o r group a c t i o n in a d e m o c ratic s e t t i n g . I t i s th ro u g h th e a c c e p ta n c e o f each o th e r t h a t boys and g i r l s grow i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i n the d e m o c ratic p r o c e s s . . . p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n should tak e ad vantage of th e n a tu re of i t s a c t i v i t i e s

7

E u g e n e W. N i x o n a n d F r e d e r i c k f . C o z e n s , An I n t r o ­ d u c tio n to P h y s ic a l E d u catio n (P h ila d e lp h ia : W. B. S a u n d e r s Company, 1 9 4 7 ) , p p . 4 0 - 4 3 .

15 and th e v e r y r e a l and g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t boys and g i r l s h a v e i n t h e m t o p r o v i d e many e x p e r i e n c e s r i c h i n s o ­ c ia l v a lu e s.8 P h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n p ro v id e s o p p o r tu n ity f o r use of th e s e e x p e r ie n c e s and s k i l l s

in s o c ia l g ro u p in g s.9

Through th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f d e le g a t e d a u t h o r i t y o r r e q u i r e d t a s k , th r o u g h m em b ersh ip and l e a d e r s h i p , b o y s a n d g i r l s may l e a r n w h a t d e m o c r a t i c l i v i n g i s , n o t by t a l k i n g a b o u t i t b u t b y l i v i n g i t , by h a v in g i t be c o m e a p a r t o f t h e m s e l v e s . These a re n o t v a lu e s w hich n e c e s s a r i l y a c c r u e o f th e m s e lv e s b e c a u s e a group of boys and g i r l s p la y t o g e t h e r . They a r e v a l u e s c a r e f u l l y p lan n e d f o r under th e i n t e l l i g e n t guidance o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r . 10 T his c o n s i d e r a t i o n of th e r o l e

of p h y s ic a l ed u catio n

in d e m o n stra tin g dem ocratic l i v i n g e s t a b l i s h e s as a b a s i c p u rp o s e o f such e d u c a t i o n . stro n g suggestion fo r

s o c ia l v alu es

T h ere seems t o be a

th e need of g u id a n c e and c o u n s e lin g

in d ir e c tin g the le a rn e rs

through l i v i n g e x p e rie n c e s t h a t

p ossess dem ocratic v a lu e s.

T his l a t t e r p o i n t i s

stressed

by the r e p o r t o f th e P r o g r e s s iv e E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n 's of t h e Workshop C o m m i t t e e on P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S e c o n d ­ a r y S c h o o l whe n t h e y r e m a r k : In th e p r o c e s s of a d ju s tm e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l to groups and of i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n t e a c h e r p la y s a v e ry s i g n i f i c a n t and im p o rta n t p a r t .

8 C om m ittee on W orkshops, P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a ­ t i o n , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s {New J e r s e y : H a d d on C r a f t s m e n , I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1 9 4 0 } , p . 14* 9I b id . , p.

55,

10I b i d . , p.

57.

16 The k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e s i n w h i c h b o y s a n d g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t e in p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n are l a r g e l y determ in ed by t h e p h i l o s o p h y of th e t e a c h e r g u i d i n g them. A uto­ c r a t i c m ethods w i l l n o t p ro d u c e i n th e boy o r g i r l r e a l i z a t i o n o f the m eaning of d e m o c ra tic l i v i n g . The e x e r c is e of a u t h o r i t y in p la c e of f r i e n d l y guidance and h e l p f u l i n t e r e s t w i l l n o t d i s p o s e t h e b o y s o r g i r l s t o l o o k u p o n t h e t e a c h e r a s o n e t o whom t o t u r n f o r a i d and c o u n s e l, The c h i l d h a s n e e d f o r a d u l t le a d e r s h ip of th e r i g h t k in d , a t the r i g h t tim e. He m ust f e e l t h a t th e a d u l t i s a f r i e n d , a b le and w i l l i n g t o d i r e c t him i n th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f h i s i n t e r e s t s , t o h e l p him c l a r i f y h i s p u r p o s e s and a t t a i n h i s g o a l s . The c o n c e p t o f t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o d e m o cracy seems t o e s t a b l i s h

its

im portance as a phase

of g e n e ra l education. Developm ent o f a t t i t u d e s . as a d e fin ite is

fu n c tio n of the p h y s ic a l ed u catio n i n s t r u c t o r

o f prim e im p o rta n c e .

itie s

w hich a r e

a ctiv itie s

The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t t i t u d e s

so c ially

In stru cto rs sound.

should u n d e rta k e a c t i v ­

By s o c i a l l y s o u n d i s m e a n t

w hich a l l o w f o r th e a p p e a r a n c e o f v a l u e s o f s o c i a l

in teractio n . W illiam s sa y s: Over a l o n g p e r i o d o f tim e t h e r e h av e b e e n e s t a b ­ l i s h e d a number of q u a l i t i e s w hich a r e g e n e r a l l y . a c c e p te d to d a y and i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y w i l l be con­ tin u e d as w orthy b e c a u se o f th e c o n t r i b u t i o n th ey make t o s o e i a l c o n t r o l a n d h a p p i n e s s . These q u a l i t i e s are: t r u t h f u l n e s s , h o n e sty , f a i r - d e a l i n g , th e give and ta k e of s p i r i t , l o y a l t y , m o d esty , c o u r t e s y , su b ­ m is s io n to group o p in io n , s e l f - r e s t r a i n t , s e l f - d i s c i ­ p lin e , g e n tle n e s s , courage, g e n e ro s ity . U nless

11I b i d . , p.

55.

p h y s ic a l ed u catio n r e s u l t s in s o c i a l ly u s e fu l conduct i t h a s no r i g h t t o t h e t e r m e d u c a t i o n . 12 That th e q u a l i t i e s p h y sic a l e d u catio n th e re

liste d

above a re p o s s ib l e

i s no d o u b t.

through

T h e r e a r e many i n

the f i e l d

o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n who a g r e e w i t h t h e a b o v e

a ttitu d e s

and p e rh a p s d e v e lo p o t h e r s .

a c t i v e l y engaged in

Many p e o p l e who a r e

the d i r e c t i o n o f the guidance of phy­

s i c a l e d u c a ti o n program s co n cu r w ith th e above s ta te m e n t. W i l b u r P . Bowen i n t i m a t e s coaches have i t

th at

the p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n

w i t h in t h e i r power to see

th a t the r i g h t

s p i r i t p r e v a i l s when h e s a y s : A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s i n games and s p o r t s c u l t i ­ v a t e s an a b i l i t y to g e t a l o n g w ith a l l k i n d s o f p e o p le ; p r a c t ic e in p la y in g in accordance to the r u le s p ro ­ m o te s a s p i r i t o f good w i l l to w a rd s o n e ’ s com panions . . . P l a y i n g a c c o rd in g t o the id e a t h a t th e r u l e s of t h e game a r e f o r a l l t o o b e y , c u l t i v a t e s h a b i t s o f h o n e s t y , r e l i a b i l i t y and f r i e n d l i n e s s to w a rd s team ­ m a t e s a n d o p p o n e n t s . 13 T h rough games and s p o r t s s t u d e n t s c a n l e a r n t o l i v e w ith o th e r p e o p le ,

which i s ,

J a y 'B .

’’A t t i t u d e s c a n b e d e v e l o p e d i n t h e same

Nash s a y s :

way a s h a b i t s . a tten tio n

to,

after a ll,

of utm ost im portance.

T h e y a r e f o r m e d whe n t h e i n d i v i d u a l g i v e s or engages

self-co n fid en ce

in,

a n a c t i v i t y . ” 14

and su c c e ss f o llo w

12W illiam s,

o£.

c i t . p.

A t t it u d e s of

th e c o m p le tio n o f an

289.

1 3 W i l b u r P . Bowen, The C o n d u c t o f P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y (New Y o r k : A. S. B a r n e s a n d Company, 1 9 2 7 ) , p . 9. 14

J a y B. N a s h , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n (New Y o r k : A, S. B a r n e s a n d Company, 1 9 3 1 7 , p .. 129.

activ ity .

It

t h u s b e c o m e s t h e d u t y o f tf ie p h y s i c a l e d u c a ­

tio n in stru c to rs

to p r o v id e a c t i v i t i e s / i n w hich a l l

stu d en ts

may b e s u c c e s s f u l i n a t l e a s t o n e a c t i v i t y . Baker p o in ts o u t t h a t p la y in g /to g e th e r harm oniously and the a b i l i t y th is

t o w o rk t o g e t h e r

departm ent.

rea lly

I n t e r e s t ru ns hig h in the

sh o w w h a t t h e y a r e .

tow ards l i f e ,

i s / n o t a n empty b o a s t o f field

She g o 4 s on t o s a y ,

m ethods o f m e e tin g s i t u a t i o n s

and p e o p le

’’A t t i t u d e s

in r e a l l i f e ,

c a n h e r e b e m e t on t h e l e v e l o f i h e c h i l d . " 3-5 I

To r e a l l y

g e t t o know p e o p l e i t

them i n a c t i v i t i e s it

is

learn

i s n e c e s s a r y to see

i n which t h e y a r e v i t a l l y

in terested ,

for

only th en t h a t t h e i r tr u e a t t i t u d e s a re e x p re sse d .

We

t o know p e o p l e b y l i v i n g P a rtic ip a tio n

w ith them i n n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s ,

in group a c t i v i t i e s

portance

in g e t t i n g alo n g w ith p e o p le .

learn

liv e

to

is

o f u t m o s t im­

In d iv id u als

should

i n t h e l a r g e r g ro u p s o f s o c i e t y b y coming i n t o

c o n t a c t w i t h m ore a n d m o r e p e o p l e a s t h e y a d v a n c e i n y e a r s . An a t t i t u d e affirm s

of co -o p e ratio n is

very im p o rtan t,

in speaking of i n te g r a t i n g

La P o r t e 3-6

the p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n

program w ith o th e r s u b je c ts in h ig h sc h o o ls as b e in g d i f f i ­ c u l t and a lm o st \ l i p o s s i b l e ,

p o in ts out the n e c e s s i t y of

^ G e r t r u d e H, B a k e r , The M o d e r n T e a c h e r o f P h y s i c a l ^ E d u c a t i o n (New Y o r k : F . S. C r o f t s 1 a n d Company, 1 9 4 0 , p . 1 3 1 , 3-6L a P o r t e ,

0£.

c i t . p.

58.

c o n s id e rin g the s o c i a l i z i n g elem en t. th is

He i n d i c a t e s

s o c i a l i z i n g elem ent should be s t r e s s e d ,

th at

k eeping in

m ind t h a t t h e m a j o r f u n c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a s a whole i s

to

train

in

i n d i v i d u a l s f o r a h a p p i e r and more e f f e c t i v e

so c ializ e d situ a tio n s

life

where g e t t i n g a lo n g w ith p e o p le i s

more i m p o r t a n t and m ore d i f f i c u l t

than e x p re ssin g h ig h ly

tech n ical s k i lls . That t h i s

group t r a i n i n g i s p o s s ib l e

ed u catio n a c t i v i t i e s 17

FrenchA

i s p o i n t e d o u t b y L. P .

when t h e y s p e a k o f p l a y i n g

th at in d iv id u a ls f i r s t learn

d esires

It is

in these s itu a ­

to c a s t a s id e p e rs o n a l

t h a t do n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e g r o u p .

" C o o p e r a t io n ” , she s a y s ,

”i s

th e e s s e n c e of dem ocracy;

i s a l s o t h e e s s e n c e o f team s p o r t s , ex actin g teach ers

it

and c la s s m a te s a re

o f l e s s o n s i n g o o d s p o r t s m a n s h i p . ” -*-8

T h u s we s e e t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e tral

B r o a d y a n d E.

o f t h e game a s a n e x a m p l e

o f group e n t e r p r i s e and c o o p e r a tio n . tio n s

in p h y sic al

to d em o cratic l iv i n g .

of co o p eratio n is

cen­

T his i s p o i n te d o u t f u r t h e r by

th e D epartm ent of S u p e r v is o r s

and D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n

o f t h e N. E . A. when t h e y s a y : The s c h o o l a g e i s o ne o f r a p i d c h a n g e , n o t o n l y i n b o d i l y s t r u c t u r e and i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e lo p m e n t, b u t

■^L. P . B r o a d y a n d E. F r e n c h , H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n i n S m all S ch o o ls ( U n i v e r s i t y of N eb rask a P r e s s , L i n c o l n , 1 9 4 6 ) , p . 3. 18Loc.

C it.

20 a ls o in s o c ia l ad ju stm en t. A p h y sic a l ed u catio n pro­ gram r i g h t f u l l y c o n c e i v e d c o n t r i b u t e s t o a l l t h e s e ph ases in the l i f e o f the p u p il. I t is esp ecially w e l l a d a p te d t o p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e e n v ir o n m e n t and ex ­ p e r i e n c e f o r wholesom e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . C o-opera­ t i v e l i v i n g i s of v i t a l im portance in a d em o n cratic so ciety . S t r i v i n g f o r s t a t u s among o n e ’ s f e l l o w s i s a co n co m itan t of l i v i n g a s o c i a l group. C o n tac ts w ith o t h e r s e n r i c h e s o n e ’ s e x p e r i e n c e , demand e o n t i n o u s a d ju s tm e n t, r e q u i r e th e c o o p e r a t iv e s o l u t i o n of p ro ­ b lem s, and i n c r e a s e i n t e l l i g e n t r e a c t i o n to s i t u a t i o n s and p e r s o n s . . . E d u c a t o r s f o r m u l a t i n g modern program s of p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n must i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e t h e s e de m a n d s o f s o c i e t y . S k i l l and te c h n iq u e s in ga mes a r e n o t e n o u g h ; a r e g i m e n o f v i g o r o u s l i v i n g i s n o t enough; th e a b i l i t y to l i v e e f f e c t i v e l y u n d er th e re q u ire m e n ts and w ith in the l i m i t a t i o n s of so ­ c i e t y i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t . 19 Baker f u r t h e r p o in ts

out that i t

is

a w e l l known f a c t

t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n h e r a l d e d a s an e f f e c t i v e means o f b u i l d i n g c i t i z e n s h i p . seems t o be no d o u b t . in

th is fie ld

for

p o ssib ilitie s, p lish

That the o p p o r tu n ity i s

Sh e p o i n t s o u t f u r t h e r

se lf-d ire ctio n ,

b u t she i n d i c a t e s

o p p o rtu n ities

e t c . , show i t s th at if

th ere

dem ocratic

they a re

t o accom­

th e s e g o als p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n i n s t r u c t o r s need a

f a i t h f u l p u r s u a n c e o f t h o s e o b j e c t i v e s . 29 The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m a s a m e a n s o f d e v e l o p ­ m ent of s o c i a l i z e d a t t i t u d e s p o i n t e d o u t i n an a r t i c l e

and d e m o c r a t i c

id eals

is

fu rth er

in- t h e J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h a n d P h y ­

19N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , D e p a r t m e n t o f S u p e r ­ v i s o r s a n d D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , T w e l f t h Y e a r B o o k , New I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r a c t i c e s of P ro m ise « N a tio n a l E d u ca tio n Assoc­ i a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , . D. C. , 1 9 3 9 . p p . 5 4 - 5 5 . ^B aker,

0£.

c i t . p.

74,

s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 2 -*- when t h e

s t a t e m e n t i s made:

P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e s u l t s i n more t h a n p e r f o r m ­ ance. S k i l l s , s t r e n g t h , e n d u r a n c e , a n d a g i l i t y do n o t com plete the o b j e c t i v e s . A dequate program s develop s o c i a l i z i n g o p p o r t u n it i e s , b u ild s c h a r a c te r , and p ro v id e s a c h a lle n g e f o r l e a d e r s h ip . I t is a l a b o r a t o r y f o r th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f teamwork and f o r grow th in d e m o c ra tic s p i r i t and p r a c t i c e . __ Sum mary. p lete

It

w ith o p p o r tu n itie s fo r v i t a l ,

A lm ost a l l p l a y i s a ll

i s a p p aren t p h y s ic a l ed u catio n is r e ­

games,

tu rn s are

c o -o p e ra tiv e endeavors.

c a r r i e d on w i t h o t h e r .

t h i n g s a r e done w ith o t h e r s ; taken,

In p r a c t i c a l l y

r u l e s are follow ed,

p ro b le m s a r i s e f o r d i s c u s s i o n and s o l u t i o n

and d e c i s i o n s a r e made.

In th e s e n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s ,

phy­

s i c a l e d u c a ti o n p r o v id e s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c t i n g w ith co­ o p e r a t i o n a n d f r i e n d l i n e s s f o r t h e common g o o d .

The d e g r e e

t o w h i c h c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o do s o i s

d ete rm in e d by the s e n s i ­

tiv ity

of h is guidance.

of th e

te a c h e r's

t e a c h e r and t h e s k i l l

task is

to

so o r g a n i z e

the n a tu r a l s i t u a t i o n s good o f a l l .

t h e c l a s s and t o so manage

th a t ch ild ren

The t e a c h e r m u s t s e l e c t

w ork t o g e t h e r f o r

the

those e x p e rie n c e s

w hich em p h asize e s s e n t i a l e le m e n ts in c o - o p e r a t i v e and c a r r y

The

t h e m on g r a d u a l l y t o i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s

liv in g ,

of r e f i n e ­

m ent.

2 l " H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s f o r a l l A m erican C h i l d r e n and Y outh" J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l Educa t i o n 1 7 :4 6 , J a n u a r y , 1946.

CHAPTER I I I EDUCATION AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY The s t a t e m e n t t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s so c ial e n te rp rise,

a so c ia l process,

w ill g ain read y accep tan ce,

h u t so i n ­

v o lv e d a r e th e f u n c t i o n s o f modern s o c i e t y t h a t l o s t s ig h t of as a p r a c t i c a l t r u t h .

a

i s may be

The s o c i a l r e l a t i o n ­

s h i p s o f e d u c a t i o n h a v e s o many f a c e t s a n d a r e

so im p o r t a n t

t h a t t h e y may f o r t h a t r e a s o n , b e u n a p p r e c i a t e d a s one may fail

to see th e f o r e s t f o r th e Even i n i t s

so c ia l task .

trees.

v e r y e a r l i e s t f o r m s e d u c a t i o n was a

The p r i m i t i v e

trib e s

t h e i r m ethods o f r e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . 1 in to

the b a s ic s o c i a l p r i n c i p l e s

th e se b eg in n in g s,

illu stra te

th is

f a c t in

We may g a i n i n s i g h t

of e d u c a tio n by c o n s id e r in g

or a t l e a s t sim p ler s ta g e s of the educa­

tio n process. S t u d e n t s o f hum an n a t u r e i n a l l t i m e s h a v e u r g e d t h a t d e l i b e r a t e t r a i n i n g o f some s o r t i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l to th e f i t t i n g of an i n d i v i d u a l to a d j u s t h i m s e l f to a com plex s o c i a l e n v iro n m e n t; n a t u r e un­ a i d e d c a n n o t a c c o m p l i s h a l l t h a t i s demanded i n t h i s d irec tio n . E v e r y i m p o r t a n t scheme w h i c h ' h a s b e e n p ro p o s e d f o r t h e im provem ent o f s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l l i f e h a s l a i d em p h asis upon th e s c h o o l a s th e i n s t r u ­ m ent t o be c o n s i d e r e d a t th e o u t s e t . P l a to , the m o s t s e r i o u s a n d c o m p e t e n t w r i t e r on s o c i a l w e l f a r e

Y ork:

1I r v i n g K ing, E d u c a tio n For S o c ia l E f f i c i e n c y D. A p p l e t o n a n d Company, 1 9 1 3 ) , p . 1 .

{New

i n a n c i e n t tim e s , gave c h i e f a t t e n t i o n to e d u c a tio n a s t h e means o f r e a l i z i n g h i s i d e a l com m unity. In h i s R e p u b l i c a n d h i s Laws h e g o e s a t l e n g t h i n t o t h e m ethods o f t r a i n i n g c h i l d r e n f o r s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y , i n r e s p e c t a l i k e to i n d i v i d u a l and to c i v i c r e l a t i o n s The ‘same a t t e m p t i s made b y A r i s t o t l e i n h i s P o l i t i c s P l u t a r c h i n h i s T h o u g h t s on E d u c a t i o n , P e s t a l o z z i i n h i s How G e r t r u d e T e a c h e s h e r C h i l d r e n , R o u s s e a u i n h i s E m ile , F r o e b e l i n h i s E d u c a tio n by D evelopm ent, H e rb art in h is O u tlin e of P ed ag o g ical D o c trin e , S p e n c e r i n h i s E d u c a t i o n , — and t h e l i s t m ig h t be extended a t p le a s u r e . These s t u d e n t s have a l l a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t th e need o f e d u c a tio n a l in flu e n c e to p e r f e c t the in d iv id u a l in h i s s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n ts a r i s e s out of the c h i l d 's i n a b i l i t y t o a d a p t h i m s e l f r e a d i l y and e f f e c t i v e l y t o a l l p h a s e s o f t h e s o c i a l e n v ir o n m e n t i n t o which he i s c a s t a t b i r t h . 2 S o cial A c c e p ta b ility . the r e l a ti o n s h i p

The i m p o r t a n c e o f s k i l l

to

o f s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d .

Ho o t h e r s i n g l e f a e t o r m e a n s s o much f o r a b o y ' s so cial sta tu s w ith h i s

cla ss

that s k ill

among h i s p e e r s a s t h e a b i l i t y group.

boy of the erates

I t has a ls o been g e n e r a lly observed

i n gam es i s a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r

the younger g i r l ,

As b o t h g r o w o l d e r ,

and l e s s f o r

the g i r l ,

s k i l l a t any a g e , he l o s e s d riv en to seek s u b s titu te s . come " b o o k i s h 1'* o r v e n t h i s

(B oston:

to s ta tu s fo r

b u t in a l e s s e r degree th an i t

same a g e .

less

to p la y w ell

th is

w hile i f

is for

the

f a c t o r op­

the boy la c k s

s t a t u s w ith h i s g ro u p and i s In t h i s

in stan ce,

h e may b e ­

d is c o n te n t in u n s o c ia l b e h av io r.

Y. O ' S h e a , S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t a n d E d u c a t i o n , H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 0 9 ) , p p . 2 4 8 - 2 4 9 .

24 H is r e a l i z a t i o n

of f a ilu r e

to e s ta b lis h him self s o c ia lly

o f t e n p r e v e n t s good sch o o lw o rk or happy n o rm al f r i e n d s h i p s . 3 V arious s t u d ie s have s u b s ta n t ia t e d

th ese o b s e rv a tio n s .

K u h l e n and L e e 4 s t u d i e d , s o c i a l a e c e p t a b i l i t y >s c o r e s a n d t h e j u d g m e n t s o f 19 p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b y 70 six th -,

n in th -,

and t w e l f t h - g r a d e b o y s and g i r l s .

Among

t h e i r f i n d i n g s were t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1.

" A c t i v e i n g a m e s " was p a r t i c u l a r l y

the s o c ia l a c c e p t a b i l it y ad o lescen t y ear.

of boys,

the tw e lfth .

Such t r a i t s

happy,

e n j o y s jo k e on s e l f . "In itiate s

frien d ly ,

e n th u s ia s tic ,cheerful,

games a n d a c t i v i t i e s " ,

how ever,

g r e a t im portance a t th e tw e lf th - g r a d e

lev e l,

from s i x t h

at

for

ly" a t

tw elfth ,

the 3.

the s i x t h g rad e to a t i e

W ith g i r l s ,

in

at

as the fo llo w in g ranked h ig h e r

l a t t e r period:

2.

among t h e 19

l e v e l b u t only t h i r t e e n t h

d u rin g the and

e s p e c ia lly du rin g e a rly

T his t r a i t ran k ed f i f t h

s tu d ie d a t the s ix th -g ra d e

im p o rtan t fo r

the case of

the s i t u a t i o n

as i t

was o f

sh ifted

f i r s t w ith

"frie n d ­

boys, is

q u ite

d ifferen t.

3 L o i s H. Meek ( c h a i r m a n ) , The P e r s o n a 1 - S o c i a l D e v e l o p ­ m e n t o f Boys and G i r l s w i t h I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S e c o n d a r y E d u ca ­ t i o n . P a r t I I I , S e c t i o n E. (New Y o r k : C o m m i t t e e on W o r k s h o p s , P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 4 0 ), p. 204. 4 Raymond G. K u h l e n a n d B e a t r i c e J . L e e , " P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and S o c i a l A c c e p t a b i l i t y i n A d o le sc e n c e " , J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y 34: 3 2 1 , S e p t e m b e r , 1943;

25

" A c t i v e i n g a m e s " was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y e ith e r

im portant d u rin g

the s i x t h o r t w e lf t h - g r a d e p e r i o d s ,

ranking e le v en th

and te n th r e s p e c t iv e ly . 4. ab le

"In itiate s

im portance fo r g i r l s

fifth ,

but rela tiv e ly

at

ga m e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s " the s ix th - g r a d e

was o f c o n s i d e r ­

lev e l,

ranking

unim portant a t^ .th e^ tw eIfth grade,

ran k in g ele v en th . The r e s u l t s

o f a s i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t b y T ryon^ were

i n e s s e n t i a l a g r e e m e n t w i t h Kuhlenf"and Lee. th at

t h e s e v e n t h - g r a d e b o y who l a c k s

ta ste

s k i l l and h as a d i s ­

f o r o r g a n i z e d games i s r i d i c u l e d

group,

whose a t t i t u d e

* At th e t w e l f t h g r a d e , m ain tain the p r e s tig e assets.

to w a rd him i s

She c o n c l u d e d

and sh u n n ed by th e

one o f s o c i a l o s t r a c i s m .

o u tstan d in g s k i l l

in a t h l e t i c s

of a boy even though he h a s few o th e r

Tryon a l s o fo u n d t h a t p h y s i c a l s k i l l s

im portance to g i r l s ,

can

w e r e o f some

b u t n o t t o t h e sdme e x t e n t a s t o b o y s .

O s b o r n e ’ s s t u d y ^ o f b o y s a t camp sh ow ed t h a t i n many cases

t h e b o y who w i t h d r e w f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n

itie s

was t h e b o y who l a c k e d s k i l l . i n

q u en tly ,

h a d no s e c u r e p l a c e

i n camp a c t i v ­

s p o r t s a n d who,

conse­

w i t h b o y s o f h i s own a g e .

5 C a r o l i n e C. T r y o n , E v a l u a t i o n s o f A d o l e s c e n t P e r s o n ­ a l i t y b y A d o l e s c e n t s (New Y o r k : S o c ie ty fo r R esearch in C h i'la D e v e lo p m e n t} 4 :2 1 7 , 1939. ^ E r n e s t G, O s b o r n e , C a m p in g a n d G u i d a n c e , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ), p . 114.

(New Y o r k :

26 *

The r e s u l t s

o b t a i n e d from a d m i n i s t e r i n g th e

S o c ia l A djustm ent In v e n to ry to t h r e e classes

su ccessiv e

W as h b u r n e

ju n io r

o f men m a j o r i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a t S y r a c u s e

U n iv ersity ,

m o s t o f whom were, f o r m e r h i g h - s c h o o l a t h l e t e s ,

m an y a l s o . b e i n g m em b e r s o f U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c

team s,

reveal

a h i g h d e g r e e o f s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t among s t u d e n t s o f t h i s type.

In each i n s t a n c e ,

t h e m e d i a n s c o r e s f o r t h e s e men w e re

w i t h i n a p o i n t o r tw o o f W a s h b u r n e ' s 7 5 t h p e r c e n t i l e ,

na­

t i o n a l norm s. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f s k i l l fore,

i n s p o r t s and games,

i s e s s e n t i a l a s an e n t r e e i n t o

f o r boys. p restig e,

P h y s ic a l prow ess i s and,

tio n is

so cial p a rticip a tio n

p re-em in en t in e s t a b l is h i n g

a s s u c h , becom es an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r

in d iv id u a l's fe e lin g s

th ere­

of confidence

in h im self.

somewhat d i f f e r e n t f o r g i r l s ,

i n an

The s i t u a ­

sin ce a t h l e t i c

a b ility

i s n o t s o p r i m a r y a s o u r c e o f g a i n i n g s o c i a l s t a t u s f o r them . However,

i t may f r e q u e n t l y b e a n i m p o r t a n t s e c o n d a r y o r c o n ­

trib u tin g facto r

tow ard s u c c e s s f u l p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s .

But s k i l l in p h y sic a l a c t i v i t i e s

oth er

than th e a t h l e t i e

t y p e may b e e s s e n t i a l i n h e l p i n g t h e g i r l t o a c h i e v e h e r fem in in e r o l e

d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n t y e a r s and i n l a t e r

life .

The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f b o y s and g i r l s

is

obvious.

The p h y s i c a l

a c t i v i t y program sh o u ld p ro v id e b r e a d th of p h y s i c a l s k i l l s

f o r a l l boys and g i r l s ,

be t a u g h t t o a l l c h i l d r e n i n

the

e le m e n ta ry grades, and c o n tin u ed p r o g r e s s i v e l y th ro u g h o u t the school y e a rs ,

and s p e c i a l h e l p s h o u l d be g i v e n t o

those

who n e e d i t . S o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y a n d -'p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .

S o cial

e f f i c i e n c y h as h e r e i n b een d e f in e d as th e developm ent o f d esirab le

s t a n d a r d s o f c o n d u c t and o f th e a b i l i t y

^

to g et

a lo n g w ith o th e r s .

Too f r e q u e n t l y i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n

t h i s developm ent i s

c o n sid e re d m erely as a concom itant of

th e a c t i v i t y program ,

f u n c t i o n i n g a u t o m a t i c a l l y and r e q u i r ­

in g n e i t h e r s p e c i a l p la n n in g n o r d e f i n i t e program s d e sig n e d to ach iev e

these r e s u l ts .

C h a ra c te r developm ent does con­

tin u o u s ly take p lace in a l l c o n stitu tes to rs tio n ;

lif e 's

a ctiv itie s.

an o b l i g a t i o n and a c h a l l e n g e

T his f a c t

to p h y s ic a l educa­

to see t h a t s o c i a l developm ent ta k e s th e r i g h t d i r e c ­ c a r e f u l l y p la n n e d p ro g ram s s h o u ld be i n s t i t u t e d

rea liz e

th is

o b jectiv e

of p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .

In p la n n in g program s f o r efficien cy ,

th e developm ent of s o c i a l

t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r n a t u r a l l y would n o t group

p u p i l s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r the " i n c o r r i g i b l e s "

so cial c la ssific a tio n --p la c in g

i n one g r o u p a n d t h e " g ro u p s p o r t s "

an o th er,

f o r exam ple,

groups.

Too o b v i o u s a t t e n t i o n

a critic ism

to

th at

as th is

lo g ic ally

s h i p aw ard s and t r o p h i e s .

in

would be h a r m f u l t o b o t h to c h a ra c te r i s

in clu d es

u n d esirab le,

the g iv in g of sportsm an­

S portsm anship,

lik e

e tiq u ette,

28 is

som ething t h a t s h o u ld he r e c o g n iz e d b u t n o t p u b l i c l y

m entioned,

lest

i t become an a f f e c t e d r a t h e r

th a n a genuine

mode o f c o n d u c t . 7 Wayman e s t a b l i s h e s

s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y a s an aim o f

p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a s a f i n a l a i m , . . . "an i n d i v i d u a l b etter

e q u ip p e d t o m eet t h e demands o f t h e

h e l i v e s a n d t o make c o n t r i b u t i o n s su b sta n tia tin g th is

to th a t

s o c i e t y i n which s o c i e t y . ”®

In

s ta te m e n t an e x c e r p t from th e S an ta

B a r b a r a C o u n ty B o a rd o f E d u c a t i o n ’ s C u r r i c u l u m Guide i s reproduced: . P o s s i b l y n o on e w i l l q u e s t i o n t h e w i s d o m o f a com plete, w e ll fo rm u la te d program of p h y s ic a l educa­ tio n . In i t th e h e a l t h and w e ll b e in g of s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be p ro m o te d b y means o f a c t i v i t i e s which w ill develop d e s ir a b le s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s in accord w ith th o s e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l program a s a w hole, an d c o n t r i b u t e t o wholesome and e n j o y a b l e l e i s u r e tim e p u r s u i t s th ro u g h o u t l i f e . . . T h e t r u e v alu e of a p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n program i s the e n th u sia sm , s a t i s ­ f a c t i o n , and d e v e lo p m e n t th e i n d i v i d u a l g e t s o u t of g o o d , wholesome p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t h ave a so c ia l sig n ifican ce. If ab le,

th e se purposes of p h y s ic a l e d u ca tio n a re a c c e p t­

th e n the p o s s ib le

7Meek,

0£.

c o n tr ib u tio n of p h y s ic a l ed u catio n

c i t . , p.

204.

8 A g n e s R. ?toyman, A M o d e r n P h i l o s o p h y o f P h y s i c a l E d u catio n ( P h ila d e lp h ia : W. B. S a u n d e r s Company, 1 9 3 8 ) , p .

231.

9S a n ta B a r b a r a Board o f E d u c a ti o n , S a n ta B a rb a ra C ounty C u r r ic u lu m Guide f o r T e a c h e rs i n S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l s . V o l. F o u r (Santa B arb ara, C a lif o r n ia : The S c h a u e r P r i n t i n g S t u d i o , I n c . , 1941) p . 341.

29 to

t h e p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s seems

ap p aren t.

P o s s ib ly in

c a l ed u catio n trib u tio n s. differen ces

lie s

th is area of the purposes of p h y si­

u n q u e s t i o n a b l y one of i t s

Such a c o n t r i b u t i o n

g r e a t e s t con­

would d e a l w i t h i n d i v i d u a l

and r e q u i r e s a k n o w le d g e o f th e s p e c i f i c

tech ­

n i q u e s and p r o c e d u r e s o f g u i d a n c e . Team s p o r t s *

In the

s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y program ,

i a l em phasis s h o u ld be g iv e n to group a c t i v i t i e s . s p o r t s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n for th e ir

unique

spec­

Team

th e p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n program

so c ia l v alu e,

if

f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n s ,

n o p u p i l who i s p h y s i c a l l y a b l e

to p a r t i c i p a te

exempt fro m t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s .

A ctu ally ,

p o i n t o f d e v e lo p in g group t r a i t s ,

and

sh o u ld be

from the s ta n d ­

t h e y h a v e two m a i n v a l u e s ,

as fo llo w s : (1)

D evelopm ent o f s o c i a l s t a n d a r d s .

o f f e r an o p p o r tu n ity f o r so cial t r a i ts

th e developm ent of such d e s i r a b l e

as c o -o p e ra tio n ,

f o r th e good o f th e g ro u p , ty ,

quick th in k in g ,

v o lu n tary su b jeg atio n of s e lf

lead ersh ip ,

in itia tiv e,

fo llo w ersh ip ,

co u rtesy ,

a h o st of other eq u ally d e s ira b le rea liz atio n

Team s p o r t s

se lf-c o n tro l,

ch aracteristics.

o f such s o c i a l outcom es i s

lo y al­ and

The

achieved by s e t t i n g

up s t a n d a r d s o f c o n d u c t a n d a p p l y i n g p r o p e r m o t i v a t i o n t o c a r r y them t h r o u g h . the a p p lic a tio n

M ores o f c o n d u c t c an be d e v e l o p e d by

o f go o d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e .

Such p o s i ­

30 tiv e

s l o g a n s as. " P l a y t h e g a m e " ,

hard",

"Follow th ro u g h " ,

"P lay f a i r " ,

" P l a y t o g e t h e r ” , "one f o r a l l and

a l l f o r one" a r e exam ples o f a r e a l i s t i c conduct,

in d ic atin g

" H it the l i n e

the d i r e c t i o n

l a n g u a g e f o r human

and dynamic a p p e a l of such

t r a i n i n g when p r o p e r l y c o n d u c t e d . (2)

S a t is f y i n g " the need to b e lo n g ".

m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l human l o n g i n g t h a n t h e d e s i r e c e p t e d member o f a s o c i a l g r o u p . T h e him self is o la te d ,

for a ll

p a rticip a te

to be an a c ­

i n d i v i d u a l who f e e l s

o r a o u t c a s t , may d e v e l o p man y k i n d s o f

u n d e sirab le b ehavior p a tte r n s . itie s

" T h e re i s no

in d iv id u als

Team s p o r t s p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n ­

t o s h a r e a s members o f a g r o u p ,

in group a c t i v i t i e s ,

to s t r i v e

to

w ith o th e rs to ­

ward t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f d e s i r a b l e g o a l s o f a c h i e v e m e n t . F o r most p u p i l s , in cen tiv e. is

the o p p o r t u n i t y i t s e l f w i l l be a s u f f i c i e n t

For the

esse n tia l if

iso lated

he i s

p u p il,

how ever,

w ise g u idance

to e x p e rie n c e e m o tio n a lly th e m erging

o f h im s e lf w ith th e group. S o c i a l d e v e lo p m e n t th r o u g h homogenous g r o u p i n g . v a lu e of a b i l i t y desirab le

grouping is

s o c ia l ex p erien ces.

The

in p ro v id in g a s e ttin g fo r When c o m p e t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s

•*-°Goodwin W a t s o n , " P e r s o n a l i t y G r o w th t h r o u g h A t h l e ­ t i c s " , J o u r n a l of H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n 9 :4 8 8 , S ep t­ ember 1938.

31 o r team s a r e e v e n l y m a t c h e d , p l a y e r s a r e more a c t i v e , o p e ratio n

is

e sse n tia l,

necessary re q u is ite s fact,

and i n i t i a t i v e

of

h ard -fo u g h t, tests,

and c o u ra g e a r e

t o p l a y i n g t h e game s u c c e s s f u l l y .

a l l o f the p h y s ic a l, m e n ta l,

q u a litie s

em otional,

In

and s o c i a l

t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e a t a p r e m i u m when p l a y i n g c l o s e l y c o n te s te d m atches.

In unequal con­

the w inning p l a y e r s a re n o t r e q u ir e d

selv es,

co­

teamwork i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y

to e x e rt

im p o rtan t,

them­

"g ran d stan d "

p l a y e r s may p e r f o r m w i t h o u t j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e i r team,

in d iv id u a ls are not stim u la te d to i n i t i a t e ,

work,

lo y alty ,

t h e gam e.

and f o r t i t u d e

lo se

a re n o t e s s e n t i a l elem ents of

The l o s i n g t e a m may e i t h e r f i g h t t h r o u g h u n d e r

g r e a t odds to a d e s i r a b l e case,

and h e ad

outcom e,

or,

as i s u s u a lly the

i n t e r e s t a n d c o a s t t h r o u g h i n a n y way t o c o m p l e t e

the c o n te s t.

When e a c h new e f f o r t i s m e t w i t h o v e r w h e l m ­

i n g l y s u p e r i o r power and e n d s i n d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , th e s l i g h t e s t e f f o r t produces

success,

th ere

o r when

is l i t t l e

en­

couragem ent f o r c o n tin u in g . L e ft to th em selv es, life

bo ys, a n d men i n e v e r y w a l k o f

and i n e v e r y s p o r t h a v e 'a l w a y s s t r i v e n f o r e q u a l i t y ,

and s t i l l

do.

W atch s a n d - l o t p l a y e r s

They i n s i s t upon a r e a s o n a b l e secure i t

d e g r e e o f e q u a l i t y — and

b y " c h o o s i n g up s i d e s " ,

sp o rts a c tiv ity ,

when f o r m i n g t e a m s .

such as b rid g e ,

Watch a n y i n f o r m a l chess,

or a th l e t i c s .

The

32 match, i s

e n j o y a b l e o n l y when p a r t n e r s o r t e a m m a t e s a n d o -

p o n e n ts a r e a t l e a s t r e a s o n a b ly w ell m atched. I t may b e a r g u e d

t h a t c e r t a i n a d v a n ta g e s r e s u l t from

h etero g en eo u s s i t u a t i o n s . fit

so c ially

The e x c e l l e n t p e r f o r m e r may b e n e ­

f r o m h e l p i n g t h o s e who a r e

less

sk ille d ,

d e v e lo p in g a t o l e r a n t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g a t t i t u d e b eg in n ers. a b etter tie s

The p o o r p e r f o r n e r ,

thus

tow ard

on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,

is

given

concept of p o s s ib le e x c e lle n c e in p h y s ic a l a c t i v i ­

and i s p e rh a p s e x te n d ed beyond h i s

o r d in a r y perform ance

b y p a r t i c i p a t i n g w i t h more h i g h l y s k i l l e d p h y sic a l ed u cato rs,

how ever,

Many

t h e r e f o r e , may w i s h t o p r o v i d e o c c a s i o n a l

o p p o rtu n ities fo r p a rtic ip a tio n p ractice,

co n testan ts.

of th is n atu re.

As a r e g u l a r

th e a d v a n ta g e s o f homogeneous g ro u p in g

i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n f a r outw eigh th e d is a d v a n ta g e s . P layer c o n tro l of c o n te s ts . and i n i t i a t i v e lead ersh ip .

are e s s e n tia l

P u p il r e s p o n s ib ility

to th e d ev elopm ent o f p u p i l

P h y sic a l ed u catio n is e s p e c ia lly r ic h

p o rtu n ities for

the e x e r c i s e o f th ese

q u a litie s.

i n oEvery

game p r o v i d e s a s e t t i n g f o r d e v e l o p i n g p u p i l l e a d e r s h i p by p e r m ittin g the p la y e r s co n tro l

them selver

t h e i r own c o n t e s t s .

to p la n ,

d irec t,

The e x t e n s i v e n e s s o f t h i s

o p p o r t u n i t y i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p a r e n t when o n e c o n s i d e r s l a r g e number o f c o n t e s t s

and

the

conducted in p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n

c l a s s e s and i n i n t r a m u r a l le a g u e s .

33 The g u i d a n c e o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r , sh o u ld he a very d e f i n i t e c ap ita liz e

p a rt of th is p lan .

on o p p o r t u n i t i e s

s e t ti n g im po rtant lesso n s

S um m ary.

He s h o u l d

t o d r i v e home i n t h i s n a t u r a l

in c itiz e n s h ip .

s t a t e may t h e r e b y b e a p p r o a c h e d , a r l y r i c h in s o c ia l

how ever,

A dem ocratic

a n d one t h a t i s p a r t i c u l ­

experiences.

S o c ia l acceptance

is

an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i s i t e

f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . so c ia l s ta tu s freq u en tly r e s u lts ness;

attain m en t of s ta tu s

Lack o f

i n d i s c o n t e n t and u n h a p p i­

o n c e l a c k i n g may p r o d u c e m a r k e d

c h a n g e s i n a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y a n d f e e l i n g o f we 1 1 bding.

O b ta in in g and m a i n t a i n i n g s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y

p a rticu larly in te rest is

im p o rtan t d u rin g ad o lescen ce.

in s o c ia l,

ch aracteristic

sk ills o ften

is

tirin g

of t h i s

age.

An e m e r g i n g relatio n sh ip s

The l e a r n i n g o f p h y s i c a l -

an im p o r ta n t e le m e n t i n s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n t.

c o n stitu tes

of so c ia l,

e s p e c ia lly h e te ro sex u al,

has s tr a te g ic

It

th e d i f f e r e n c e b etw een th e developm ent

w ell-in teg rated

types.

is

i n d i v i d u a l s and u n s o c i a l ,

The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m ,

re­

th erefo re,

p o s i t i o n f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to th e developm ent

of in d iv id u a l stu d en ts in

th e ir p erso n al-so cial re la tio n s.

CHAPTIB IY "MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL EFFICIENCY* I n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r i t was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the f i e l d

of p h y sic a l ed u catio n i s

p articu larly rich

in

o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l developm ent and e x p e r ie n c e s , p u p ils p a rtic ip a te

a c t i v e l y and w h o l e h e a r t e d ly i n a c t i v i ­

t i e s r e q u i r i n g many a n d v a r i e d s o c i a l r e s p o n s e s . e x p e rie n c e s develop

since

so cial tr a its .

p ro g ra m s e a n be d e v i s e d

These

Furtherm ore,

to develop d e s i r a b l e

d e fin ite X

tra its

and

to su p p ress u n d e s ira b le ones. A m ajor o b s ta c le

to ra p id progress in

ment of s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y , m easuring s o c i a l c h a r a c te r . rea lly

is

the d i f f i c u l t y of

W ighout a d e q u a t e

tests,

s t r o n g program o f s o c i a l developm ent i s

reg ard less

o f t h e number and n a t u r e o f

c e d u r e s em ployed t o r e a l i z e o u t m easurem ent, he i s

how ever,

the develop­

actu ally

im possible,

the g e n e r a l p ro ­

o b jectiv e.

In f a c t ,

w ith­

the p h y s ic a l d i r e c t o r can n o t t e l l w hether

d eveloping d e s ir a b le

or a l l of h is p u p ils. ch aracteristics

th is

a

is

so cial tr a its

An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p u p i l s o c i a l

thus

t h e b a s e upon which t h i s

o f th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ram must be b u i l t . d e te rm in g the e f f e c t s

in any

of such program s upon th e

c a n be done o n l y by r e t e s t s

aspect M oreover, in d iv id u al

o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s fro m tim e

35 to tim e.

Thus,

lik e

th e p h y s i c a l developm ent program ,

the

s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y p ro g ram o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r m ust be e s s e n t i a l l y an i n d i v i d u a l program , a d ap tin g procedures

the p h y s ic a l e d u c a to r

to meet i n d iv i d u a l needs a f t e r such

n e e d s have b een d e te rm in e d th ro u g h m easurem ent. M oreover,

in

the developm ent of s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y ,

p h y s i c a l e d u c a to r s sh o u ld be i n t e r e s t e d asp ects of th is

problem .

F irst,

does p h y s ic a l e d u ca tio n

develop d e s i r a b l e b e h a v io r in r e l a t i o n a c tiv itie s th ese tie s?

i n tw o f u n d a m e n t a l

to

the p h y s i c a l

i n which t h e p u p i l s p a r t i c i p a t e ?

same q u a l i t i e s

carried

Second,

over in to school l i f e

are

a c tiv i­

The r e a l s u c c e s s o f a n y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r ' s a t t e m p t

to improve p u p i l s '

s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y may. v e r y w e l l b e i d e n t i ­

f i e d w ith - t h e d e g r e e o f t r a n s f e r a c h i e v e d .

But p a r t i c u l a r l y

sh o u ld he be f a m i l i a r w ith th e a c t u a l s o c i a l problem s of h i s p u p i l s a s a means o f d i r e c t i n g h i s sp ecific

t e a c h i n g tow ard

i n d i v i d u a l problem s.

T herefore,

c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u ld be g iv e n to s o c i a l

tra its

fu n c tio n in g in p h y sic a l e d u catio n ,

tio n s,

and in o u t- o f - s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s .

tio n te s ts

of s o c ia l e ff ic ie n c y are

in school s i t u a ­ As p h y s i c a l e d u c a ­

confined p rim a rily to

b ehavior resp o n se s in p h y s ic a l ed u ca tio n a c t i v i t i e s reference to a c tiv itie s,

in d iv id u al t r a i t s te sts

in the f i e l d s

w ithout

i n o t h e r s c h o o l and l i f e of e d u c a tio n and psychology

36 m easuring s i m i l a r q u a l i t i e s w i l l be in c lu d e d in t h i s ter;

The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r ,

latter

co n seq u en tly ,

chap-*

who u s e s t h e

ty p e o f t e s t w i l l be i n a p o s i t i o n t o m eet th e b r o a d

s o c i a l n e e d s of h i s p u p i l s and to p l a n d e f i n i t e l y f o r carry-o v er of sp e c ific

tra its

the

in in d iv id u a l c a se s.

M easurem ent o f s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . So f a r ,

in p h y s ic a l ed u catio n ,

the t e s t s p ro p o sed f o r m easur­

in g s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y have been co n fin ed l a r g e l y

to r a t i n g s

b a s e d u p o n t h e j u d g e m e n t o f o b s e r v e r s . ^ The b e s t o f t h e s e tests,

and the o n ly ones s u b je c te d

a r e b a s e d upon a r a t i n g m ethod,

h is

of behavior fre q u e n c ie s.

types of beh av io r in

In t h i s

the in d iv id u a l b ein g

th u s h a v in g the ad v an tag e o f s p e c i f i c

judgm ent.

c la ssifie d

F o r exam ple,

the t e s t

The r a t i n g s

d ata

to guide

co n tain s sta te m e n ts

under subheads of a g e n e ra l t r a i t ,

be as fo llo w s .

w hich m ig h t

would b e b a s e d upon w h e t h e r t h e

b e h a v io r o ccu rs " n e v e r” , "seldom ", ly ",

treatm en t,

t h e r a t e r e s t i m a t e s t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w hich he ob­

serves c e rta in rated ,

to s t a t i s t i c a l

" f a ir ly o fte n ” , "freq u en t­

or "extrem ely o fte n " : Sportsm anship a.

A cts l i k e

a good s p o r t tow ard o p p o n e n ts .

^ C l a r k W. H e t h e r i n g t o n , S c h o o l P r o g r a m i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ( Y o n k e r s - o n - H u d s o n , . New Y o r k : f f o r l d Book Company , 1 9 2 2 ) , pT 9 0 .

37 b. Razzes,

teases,

or b u llie s

opponents.

E th ics a.

Takes d e c i s i o n s ,

w ins and l o s s e s ,

b.

Takes ad v an tag e o f l a x o f f i c i a t i n g .

c.

" C r a b s ’1 a b o u t o f f i c i a t i n g ,

M c C l o y *s b e h a v i o r r a t i n g

scale.

of the f i r s t behavior r a tin g sc a le s In t h i s

scale,

q u a litie s, m anship,

nine t r a i t s

a ttitu d e s,

e th ics,

37 t y p i c a l

tra it

MeCloy p r o p o s e d o ne

in p h y sic a l ed u catio n .

are l is t e d :

se lf-c o n tro l,

e ffic ie n cy ,

i n good s p i r i t .

lead ersh ip ,

co -o p eratio n ,

and s o c i a b i l i t y *

activ e

sp o rts­

A t o t a l of

a c tio n s a re l i s t e d u n d er the n in e t r a i t s ,

e a c h o f w h i c h i s r a t e d b y t h e j u d g e s on a s c a l e o f 5 t o 1 , w ith r e p r e s e n tin g

"good" b e h a v i o r .

The f r e q u e n c i e s a r e

d e s i g n a t e d by such d e s c r i p t i v e

term s a s :

"o ften ",

o ften ",

"freq u en tly ",

The a s s u r a n c e o f tra it

actio n ,

c lin atio n ),

"fairly

the r a t e r

as fo llo w s:

is

also

"extrem ely o fte n " ,

"seldom ",

in d ic a te d o p p o site each

0 (a m ere g u e s s ) ,

2 (fa ir assurance),

3 (p o sitiv e

1 (slig h t

and v a l i d i t y

in ­

a ssu ra n c e ),2

No d a t a a r e g i v e n b y M cC loy t o i n d i c a t e ity

"never".

the r e l i a b i l ­

o f th e t e s t a s a whole o r o f i t s

component

2 C. H, M c C l o y , " C h a r a c t e r B u i l d i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a ­ t i o n " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y 1 : 4 2 , O c t o b e r , 1930.

38 p arts.

B la n c h a r d ,3 how ever,

re la tio n

su b seq u en tly o b tain ed a co r­

of .6 4 betw een th e r a t i n g s

the r a t i n g s

of e ig h t stu d en ts fo r

of f o u r t e a c h e r s and

th is b a tte ry of te s ts ,

and found t h a t the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n w ith the r e s t of the item s in i t s B l a n c h a r d 1s s c a l e .

These t r a i t

ed u catio n te a c h e rs,

a ctio n s

tra its

s u g g e s te d by

w e r e e v a l u a t e d b y 16 p h y s i c a l

a n d t h e 45 r e c e i v i n g t h e h i g h e s t r a t i n g s

were s e l e c t e d a s th e b a s i s f o r h i s criteria

were u s e d i n t h e

a ctio n s,

as fo llo w s:

of the t o t a l

c a t e g o r y was . 8 2 .

B l a n c h a r d 4 u t i l i z e d 85 t r a i t

a c t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d u n d er the n in e M cCloy.

o f one t r a i t a c t i o n

study.

T hree m ajo r

s e le c tio n of the f i n a l

(1) m e d ia n o f t h e a v e r a g e d e v i a t i o n s

s c o r e s of f o u r t e a c h e r and e i g h t s t u d e n t

raters

(in d ic a tin g consistency of r a tin g ) ;

b ility

o f t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s c o r e s p e r t r a i t

(3)

the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n

of i t s

trait

(2)

the r e l i a ­ actio n ;

and

of each t r a i t w ith th e rem a in d e r

category. T w enty-four t r a i t

a c t i o n s were f i n a l l y

the b eh av io r frequency r a t i n g

scale.

selected for

The r e l i a b i l i t y

of

^B, E . B l a n c h a r d , nA B e h a v i o r F r e q u e n c y R a t i n g S c a l e f o r th e M easurem ent o f C h a r a c te r and P e r s o n a l i t y in P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n C lassroom S i t u a t i o n s ” , R esearch Q u a r te r ly 7:65, May, 1 9 3 6 . 4Loe. C i t .

39 th is b a ttery is

.7 1 and th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n

a c tio n w ith the r e s t of th e item s in i t s T his r a t i n g

scale

is

o f one t r a i t

category is

.93.

the b e s t t e s t a t p r e s e n t a v a i l a b l e f o r

m easuring s o c i a l t r a i t s

in p h y sic a l ed u catio n .

O’N e e l ’ s s c a l e .

O’N e e l '

has a l s o proposed a be­

h a v io r frequency r a t i n g sc a le p a tte rn e d a f t e r the p ro p o sa ls made o r i g i n a l l y b y M c C l o y . ever,

The t e s t e l e m e n t s s e l e c t e d ,

h a v e e x t r e m e l y low r e l i a b i l i t y

from .25 to

co efficien ts,

in. r a t i n g p u p i l s ,

u a l s whom t h e y

lik e ,

whom t h e y d i s l i k e , such r e p u t a t i o n s

as r a t e r s

?/hile

g irls

in d iv id ­

the re v e r s e

is

too

tr u e f o r those even

a r e due t o s i n g l e - t r a i t d e f i c i e n c i e s . is

in d icativ e

situ atio n ,

d ifferen c e s in ra tin g s tend to r a t e

tend to r a te

o r who h a v e u n s a v o r y r e p u t a t i o n s ,

The i d e s o f " l o v e i s b l i n d " L a n g lie 6 found t h i s

a g a in s t th e "halo

o r who h a v e f i n e r e p u t a t i o n s ,

h ig h ly in ev ery th in g ,

if

ranging

.7 2 .

C a u tio n m ust be e x e r c i s e d a ls o effect"

how­

e x ist,

situ atio n .

and a ls o d is c o v e r e d t h a t sex a s b o t h men a n d women t e a c h e r s

as s u p e rio r to boys,

r e c o r d s show a n o p p o s i t e

of th is

even though t e s t

tren d .

5 0 . O’ N e e l , "A B e h a v i o r F r e q u e n c y B a l i n g S c a l e f o r t h e M easurem ent of C h a r a c t e r and P e r s o n a l i t y i n High S c h o o l P h y s i ­ c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r B o y s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 7 : 7 6 , May 1 9 3 6 . 6 T. A. L a n g l i e , of T eachers’ R atin g s", Ju n e , 1937.

" P e rs o n a lity R a tin g s. I: R e liab ility J o u r n a l of G e n etic P s y c h o lo g y , 50:359,

1

40 McCloy tia lly

n

suggests

the

" h a l o E f f e c t " may b e p a r ­

a v o id e d by r a t i n g e a c h i t e m f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s

sep arately ,

rath er

than r a t i n g

b e fo re proceeding to is

th at

an i n d i v i d u a l c o m p l e t e ly

the n e x t p e rs o n .

i n c l u d e d as' a s p e c i f i c

T his p r o c e d u r e ,

also ,

i n s t r u c t i o n by the R e p o r ts and

R e c o r d s C o m m i t t e e o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on t h e R e l a t i o n o f S c h o o l and C o lle g e , A gain,

care

P ro g re s s iv e E du cation A sso c ia tio n .®

a n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n . on t r a i t s

w i l l do much t o c o u n t e r a c t t h i s advantageous

to c o n fin e

effect.

these r a tin g s

and t h e i r m eanings I t w i l l a l s o be

to b e h a v io r in p h y s i-

4

cal a ctiv itie s,

w ithout a tte m p tin g

to c o m p lic a te th e

situ a­

t i o n by i n t r o d u c i n g a c a d e m ic o r o u t - o f - s c h o o l b e h a v i o r . B ehavior e v a lu a tio n in th e l a t t e r r e s u l t of se p a ra te designed f o r t h i s

ratin g s,

a c tiv itie s

sho u ld be th e

o r o th e r m easurem ent p r o c e d u r e s ,

s p e c ific purpose.

W ashburne*s s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t i n v e n t o r y . g ro u p t e s t f o r a l l a g e s above th e

e ig h th grade and c o n s is ts

o f 125 i t e m s a r r a n g e d i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m , c a l l f o r more t h a n one r e s p o n s e .

‘T h i s i s a

some o f w h i c h

Most o f th e q u e s t i o n s can

b e a n s w e r e d b y w r i t i n g "Y es" o r "No” on a l i n e p r e c e d i n g

7C. H. M c C loy ,

op. o i t . , p.

84.

P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a ti o n A s s o c i a t i o n , B e h a v io r Des­ c r i p t i o n , R e p o r t s and R e c o rd s C om m ittee, 1935, p . 13.

41 the q u e stio n .

The s c o r i n g k e y i n d i c a t e s

a t t e m p t t o m e a s u r e t h e same t r a i t

the q u estio n s

or com plex,

f o r a grouping of th e q u e stio n s acco rd in g to

th at

thus p ro v id in g "elem ents. "

A p p r o x i m a t e l y f r o m 50 t o 40 m i n u t e s a r e n e e d e d t o t a k e t h e test. The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n ­ to ry is

to d e term in e

the s u b j e c t s

em otional ad ju stm en t.

The s c o r e i s

d e g re e o f s o c i a l and d esig n ed to give a

s e p a r a t e m easure o f developm ent i n e ac h of s e v e r a l t r a i t s , w hich a re v e ry s l i g h t l y

c o rre la te d w ith in te llig e n c e

and

a re h ig h ly c o r r e l a t e d w ith s o c ia l and em otional a d ju s tm e n t. The s c o r e i s a l s o

designed

ment in a l l o f th e

tra its

to p r o v id e a m easure o f a d j u s t ­ com bined.

In t h is

t o ta l score,

s t r e n g t h i n o n e t r a i t may c o m p e n s a t e f o r w e a k n e s s i n a n ­ o th er,

as is

a lso th e case in a c tu a l s o c ia l s i t u a t i o n s .

the s u b j e c t ’ s sc o re p a r t i c u l a r fact

th at is

of serv ice

d iffic u lties

In

are re v e ale d ,

i n d i a g n o s is and r e m e d ia tio n .

Three of th e s u b t e s t s r e v e a l p r i m a r i l y e m o tio n a l a d j u s t ­ m ents to o th e r p e o p le and to th e e n v iro n m en t; p rim arily se lf-o rg a n iz a tio n The t e s t i n i t s jec tiv e -ty p e

and s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n .

m ost r e c e n t form c o n t a i n s s i x - o b ­

s u b t e s t s and one e s s a y - t y p e

and e m o tio n a l a d ju s tm e n t, accuracy.

th ree re v e a l

s u b te s t of s o c ia l

and a s u b t e s t of

tru th fu ln ess

or

a

42 1. T r u t h f u l n e s s . A low t s c o r e i n d i c a t e s t r u t h f u l ­ n e s s , o r r e l a t i v e freedom from d e l i b e r a t e o r u n i n t e n ­ t i o n a l i n a c c u r a c ie s , in an sw erin g th e t e s t q u e s tio n s . The t s c o r e d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e a n y t h i n g more t h a n t h i s . T h e re i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t a h i g h s c o r e sh o w s a g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y t o u n t r u t h f u l n e s s , a l t h o u g h t h i s may b e t h e c a s e . I f an i n d i v i d u a l e a r n s a h ig h s c o r e ( a b o v e 30) on t h i s p a r t o f t h e t e s t , h o w e v e r , the a ssu m p tio n i s t h a t h i s answ ers to a l l th e q u e s tio n s a r e u n r e l i a b l e and th e t e s t sh o u ld be d i s c a r d e d o r con­ sidered se p a ra te ly . 2. H a p p in e ss. A low h s c o r e i n d i c a t e s s a t i s f a c t o r y a d ju s tm e n t as r e v e a l e d in th e h a p p in e s s of th e i n d i v i d ­ u al. T his term in c lu d e s c o n te n tm e n t, a se n se of w e l lb e i n g , and th e f e e l i n g t h a t l i f e i s w o rth w h i l e . 3. A l i e n a t i o n . A low a s c o r e i n d i c a t e s s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l and e m o tio n a l a d ju s tm e n t as r e v e a l e d in a sen se of n o n -alien a tio n . T his term in c lu d e s a se n se of s o c i a l m e m b e r s h i p a n d a c c e p t a n c e , o f b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y , o f com­ mon h u m a n i t y w i t h o t h e r s , a n d o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l - s e c u r i t y and e m o tio n a l s t a b i l i t y i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . 4* S y m p a t h y . A low s s c o r e i n d i c a t e s s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l a n d e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t a s r e f l e c t e d i n sy m p a ­ thy. T his term i s d e fin e d as s e n s i t i v e , e m p h a th e tie , n o n -n e g a tiv e re sp o n siv e n e ss to p eo p le. Purposes. A low p s c o r e i n d i c a t e s s a t i s f a c t o r y a d ju stm en t as re v e a le d in a sen se of purpose. T his te rm i s d e f in e d as d e s i r e d e f i n i t e l y d i r e c t e d tow ard a g o a l i n v o l v i n g p l a n , e v a l u a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n , and e f f o r t . 6 * Im p u lse-ju d g m en t. A low i s c o r e r e v e a l s s a t i s ­ f a c t o r y a d ju s tm e n t as m a n i f e s t in good im p u lse -ju d g m e n t. T h is te rm i s d e fin e d a s th e a b i l i t y to judge w e ll b e ­ tw een c o n f l i c t i n g i m p u l s e s , so t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n s w hich a r e r e c o g n i z e d a s ' g r e a t e r , b u t more r e m o t e o r more d i f ­ f i c u l t , a r e n o t d i s c o u n t e d i n f a v o r o f e a s i e r o r m ore im m ediate b u t o b v io u s ly l e s s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n s . C o n tro l. A lo w c s c o r e i n d i c a t e s s a t i s f a c t o r y a d j u s t m e n t a s shown i n a s e n s e o f s e l f - c o n t r o l , s e l f ­ r e g u l a t i o n , a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o make a n d e x e c u t e p l a n s . 8 . W ishes. A h i g h w s c o r e sh ow s s u p e r i o r s o c i a l a d ­ ju stm en t as r e f l e c t e d in the in d i v i d u a l ’ s w r itte n w ishes,

r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f v a l u e s which th e y in d icate. W is h e s i n d i c a t i n g w e l l - d e v e l o p e d v a l u e s { t h a t i s , v a lu e s w hich a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , o r g a n iz e d , and r e ­ l a t e d to th e b ro a d r e a l i t i e s of th e in d iv id u a l* s l i f e c irc u m s ta n c e s ) r e c e i v e a h ig h s c o r e , and w ishes i n d i c a ­ t i n g p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d v a l u e s ( t h a t i s , v a l u e s w h ich , a r e vague, c o n fu s e d ,' t r i v i a l , ro m an tic, or u n a tta in a b le ) r e c e i v e a low s c o r e . T h is s u b j e c t i s of s p e c i a l im por­ t a n c e f o r p u r p o s e s o f i n t e r v i e w i n g and d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g betw een d e g re e s o f s u p e r i o r a d j u s t m e n t . 9 M easurem ent o f g e n e r a l s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y .

A larg e

n u m b e r o f a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n made t o c o n s t r u c t c h a r a c t e r , p e rso n ality ,

or s o c i a l ad ju stm en t t e s t s

e d u c a tio n and p sychology.

S tran g ^

in

the f i e l d s

h a s shown t h a t i f

of th is

b i b l i o g r a p h y were e x t e n d e d t o i n e l u d e n o t o n l y s t u d i e s i n w hich m e a s u rin g d e v ic e s

t h e m s e l v e s were e v a l u a t e d ,

but a ll

s t u d i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s and m e a s u re m e n t o f so ­ c ia l q u a litie s, fo u r thousand been h a s t i l y stan d ard ized, a sc ie n tific

t h e whole l i s t

title s.

would c o n t a i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y

A l t h o u g h many o f t h e s e

co n stru cted ,

e m p iric ally e s ta b lis h e d ,

a s u f f i c i e n t n u m b e r a r e now a v a i l a b l e approach to

th is

care

should be e x e r c i s e d

and p o o r l y t o make

type o f m easurem ent.

M e asu rin g p r e c a u t i o n s of la r

t e s t s have

so cial e ffic ie n c y .

i n m aking r a t i n g s ,

m e r e l y t h e o p i n i o n s o f o ne p e r s o n i n r e s p e c t

P articu ­

as they are

to th e

q u ality

9J o h n N. W a s h b u r n e , S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y ( Y o n k e r s - o n - H u d s o n , New Y o r k W orld S o o k Com pany, 1939]", p .

£11

lORuth S t r a n g , B e h a v i o r and B ack g ro u n d o f S t u d e n t s i n C o l l e g e s a n d S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s (New Y o r k : H a rp e r and B r o t h e r s 1937, p. 36.

b ein g co n sid ered . raters,

Such f a c t o r s a s

th e e x p e rie n c e o f the

t h e i r u n d erstan d in g of the

tra its

b ein g r a t e d ,

and

t h e i r a c q u a in ta n c e w ith th e s u b j e c t a f f e c t th e r e s u l t s the r a t i n g s . can.

T r a its o f c h a r a c te r cannot be seen, b u t a c tio n

However,

t h e m o t i v e b e h i n d a c t i o n may n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d .

R a te rs sho u ld be c a r e f u l l y t r a i n e d in h a b i t s the q u a l i t i e s

the r e l i a b i l i t y

b in in g the r a t i n g s

of ra tin g s

r e d u c e d t o a minimum.

c a n b e i n c r e a s e d b y com­

o f s e v e r a l j u d g e s o f t h e same p u p i l .

The d e g r e e o f a s s u r a n c e o f t h e r a t e r corded.

of o b s e rv a tio n ,

t o be r a t e d b e i n g c l e a r l y p o i n t e d o u t so t h a t

the p o s s i b i l i t y of m isu n d erstan d in g i s A lso,

sh o u ld be r e ­

O 'N e e l fo u n d t h a t r a t i n g s were u s u a l l y r e l i a b l e

when t h e r a t e r h a d f a i r

or p o s itiv e

assurance,

r e v e r s e was t r u e w he n h e was g u e s s i n g . o th er hand,

concluded th a t r a t e r s

elim in ated ,

as

B lanchard,

assurance

the a ssu ra n c e of r a t e r s

and t h a t th e

is

on t h e

c o l u m n s may b e

only an index of

t h e r a n g e o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t and a c q u a in t a n c e o f th e w ith

of

the s tu d e n t.

judge

The b e s t p r o c e d u r e i s n o t t o j u d g e a t r a i t

a c tio n u n le s s th e r a t e r has a f a i r a c q u a in ta n c e w ith th e su b ject.

If not reasonably

su re, he sh ou ld observe the

sub­

j e c t f o r a tim e ¥ e f o r e m aking th e r a t i n g s . S um m ary.

In th e m ea su rin g of s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y the

p h y sic a l ed u catio n tea ch e r

should u t i l i z e

the b e tt e r t e s t s

and co n d u ct a p p r o p r i a te fo llo w -u p p r o c e d u re s f o r th o se in

t/

45 need.

He s h o u l d d e v e l o p a b i l i t y

to reco g n ize b eh av io r

p r o b l e m s and t o know t h e i r m e a n in g . to d is c o v e r the o r i g in of

He s h o u l d t a k e

the c h i l d ’ s b e h a v io r d i s t u r b a n c e s ,

lo o k in g f o r dom inant b e h a v i o r t e n d e n c i e s . e d u c a to r’ s c h ie f concern, pearance

how ever,

and p s y c h i c a n o m a lie s

se e m i n s i g n i f i c a n t b u t w h i c h l a t e r may l e a d

to n e u r o tic or s e r io u s m aladjustm ent. e d u catio n in s tr u c to r s tra its

T est to aid p h y s ic a l

i n m e a s u r in g p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r

have been d is c u s s e d . In the s e le c tio n

of te s ts

to m easure s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y ,

t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r may l o g i c a l l y u t i l i z e a p p lied

to h is f i e l d

of endeavor.

e d u c a t i o n and p s y c h o lo g y , tests

ed u cato r,

sp o rts

Thus,

i s d i r e c t e d tow ard l i f e

ward t h e l i m i t e d f i e l d and a t h l e t i c s

co n stru cted

d e v elo p ed ' through the

t h e aim o f t h e p h y s i c a l problem s r a t h e r

than to ­

o f conduct and r e l a t i o n s h i p s

only.

in

p ro v id ed th e t r a i t s m easured in

conform w ith t h e t r a i t s

p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y program .

ra tin g scales

H o w e v e r , h e may a l s o u s e

th e v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s

these

The p h y s i c a l

sh o u ld be w ith th e ap ­

of t h e s e u n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s

w hich a t f i r s t

step s

in

CHAPTER V SUMMARY Sum m ary,

S o cial a ttitu d e s

and a b i l i t i e s

t i a l f o r c i t i z e n s of a dem ocracy. only th rough p a r t i c i p a t i o n

are e sse n ­

These a re d ev elo p ed

in a d e m o c ratic group.

e d u c a t i o n h a s many n a t u r a l g r o u p s i t u a t i o n s b u t , grow th i s sary. stand

to take p la c e ,

To b e e f f e c t i v e the p r i n c i p l e s

guidance f u n c tio n s , p rin cip le s

in guidance,

the

of s o c i a l grow th. th erefo re,

and

t e a c h e r must u n d e r­ The t e a c h e r ' s

The s a l i e n t p o i n t s o f

s o c i a l developm ent a r e :

and a b i l i t i e s ;

so cial

a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s e

(1)

e n v ir o n m e n t which p r o v i d e s s t i m u l a t i o n a ttitu d e s

if

guidance by the te a c h e r i s n e c e s ­

and by th e o b j e c t i v e s .

guidance f o r

P h y sical

c r e a t i o n o f an

to p ra c tic e

(2) u t i l i z a t i o n

so cial

o f m ethods

w hich a r e c o n d u c iv e to c o n tin u o u s g ro w th i n t h e s e a t t i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s . In C h a p te r I , p o rtu n ities developm ent?

th e problem i s

sta te d as:

What o p - ^

does p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n p ro v id e f o r s o c i a l The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e

study l i e s

in

the f a c t

t h a t y o u th to d a y f a c e s a w o rld c o m p ris e d o f v a r i e d and in cre asin g ly d if f ic u lt fie ld s w orld

of endeavor.

the y o u th m ust f i t h im s e lf

h is b est e ffo rts

In to

th is

so t h a t he can c o n t r i b u t e

to hum anity and a t

t h e same t i m e a t t a i n

47 t h e maximum s e l f

developm ent and h a p p in e s s .

It

was t h e

t

p u rp o se o f t h i s p r o j e c t to p o in t o u t o p p o r t u n it i e s w herein t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m a n d p e r s o n n e l c o u l d make an e s s e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o optim um s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y and developm ent o f th e i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l i n .g u id a n c e by c o - o p e r a t i o n w ith th e g u id an ce program . The t e r m s s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y , g u i d a n c e were d e f i n e d i n

p h y sic a l ed u catio n ,

the d e f i n i t i o n

of term s used,

a l o n g w i t h t h e m ethod o f p r o c e d u r e and th e o r g a n i z a t i o n of rem ain in g c h a p te rs . The s o c i a l v i e w s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w e r e c o n ­ s id e r e d in C hapter I I .

I t was a p p a r e n t t h a t p h y s i c a l

e d u c a ti o n o f f e r s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r v i t a l and c o - o p e r a t i v e endeavors.

A ll p lay a c t i v i t y

is

I n a l l games r u l e s a r e f o l l o w e d , arise

c a r r i e d on w i t h o t h e r s . tu rn s are

f o r d i s c u s s i o n and s o l u t i o n ,

taken,

problem s

and d e c i s i o n s a r e made.

The n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e o p ­ p o rtu n ities

f o r a c t i n g w ith c o - o p e r a t i o n and f r i e n d l i n e s s

f o r a common c a u s e . to c o -o p e ra te guidance.

The d e g r e e t o w h i c h c h i l d r e n l e a r n

i s d e te rm in e d by the

t e a c h e r and s k i l l

of

E x p e r i e n c e s w hich em p h asize e s s e n t i a l e le m e n ts

in co -o p erativ e

l i v i n g m ust be s e l e c t e d by th e t e a c h e r

and c a r r i e d g r a d u a l l y t o i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s In C h ap ter I I I ,

the r e l a t i o n s

of refin em en t.

of e d u c a tio n to

48 s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y were p r e s e n t e d . an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i s i t e ad ju stm en t.

S o c ia l acceptance

is

fo r sa tis fa c to ry p erso n al-so cial

Lack o f s o c i a l s t a t u s

c o n te n t and u n h ap p in ess.

o ften r e s u lts

A ttainm ent of s t a t u s

in d is ­

once l a c k ­

i n g may p r o d u c e p a r t c h a n g e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y a n d f e e l i n g s of se c u rity .

S e c u r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y

is p a rtic u la rly

im portant d u rin g ad o lescen ce.

in te r e s t in so c ia l re la tio n sh ip age.

is

L earn in g of p h y s ic a l s k i l l s

in s o c ia l ad ju stm en t. th erefo re,

An e m e r g i n g

ch aracteristic is

of th is

an im p o rta n t elem ent

The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m ,

has a s tr a te g ic p o sitio n fo r c o n trib u tin g

the developm ent o f th e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s

to

in th e ir p er­

sonal so cial re la tio n s . C h a p t e r IV, e fficien cy .

d e a ls w ith th e m easurem ent of s o c i a l

In m easuring of s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y

c a l e d u c a tio n te a c h e r should u t i l i z e

the b e t t e r

c o n d u c t a p p r o p r i a t e f o l l o w up p r o c e d u r e s .

the p h y si­ tests

and

The a b i l i t y

^

t o r e c o g n i z e b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s a n d know t h e i r m e a n i n g i s of prim e im p o rta n c e .

S teps

to d isc o v e r the o r ig in of be­

h a v i o r d i s t u r b a n c e s and dom inate b e h a v i o r t e n d e n c i e s m ust be ta k e n .

The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s c h i e f c o n c e r n s h o u l d b e

w ith th e appearance of u n s o c ia l a t t i t u d e s

and p s y c h ic an­

o m a l i e s w h i c h may l e a d t o m a l a d j u s t m e n t .

T ests

M cGloy*s B e h a v i o r R a t i n g S c a l e ,

such as

B lanchard*s S c a le ,

0*N eel*s

S c a le a r e u s e f u l i n m e a su rin g p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r tra its.

W ash b u rn e 's S o c i a l A d ju stm e n t I n v e n t o r y i s

av ailab le. ficien cy ap p lied

In s e l e c ti o n o f t e s t s

to m easure s o c i a l e f ­

t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r may u t i l i z e to h is f ie ld

ra tin g scales

o f e n d e a v o r . ' Use o f c h a r a c t e r a n d

p e rso n ality

t e s t s a re w a rra n te d p ro v id in g the t r a i t s

m easured in

the

through

tests

p h y sic a l e d u catio n i s

d irected

lim ited f i e l d

The su m m a r y , th is

conform w ith th e

tra its

th e p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n program .

th a n tow ard t h e

also

tow ard l i f e

t h e aim o f

problem s r a t h e r

o f s p o r t s and a t h l e t i c s .

conclusions,

study are p resen te d in

Thus,

developed

and rec o m m e n d a tio n s f o r

the l a s t

From t h e d a t a b r o u g h t f o r t h

ch ap ter.

the fo llo w in g c o n c lu sio n s

may b e d r a w n : (1)

There i s

g e n e r a l o p i n i o n among a u t h o r i t i e s

th at

t h e c h i e f f u n c t i o n s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s may be ch anneled i n to

th e a r e a o f s o c i a l developm ent,

(2) I n r e v i e w i n g t h e f i e l d fo rm atio n as

to s p e c i f i c

t h e r e was a l a c k o f i n - >Y

fu n c tio n s o th e r th a n as in d ic a te d

i n s t a t e m e n t s o f aim s and o b j e c t i v e s . (3)

T here a re r e l i a b l e m ethods o f m e a s u rin g th e

so cial q u a litie s

of

C o n clu sio n s. c ra tic

so ciety is

the i n d iv id u a l. The p u r p o s e o f e d u c a t i o n i n

to give o p p o rtu n ity f o r

t h e demo­

th e developm ent

o f com plete p e r s o n a l i t y . the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

I f p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n assum es

o f m aking a f a i r

aim one w i l l b e g i n t o r e a l i z e m odern p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r h a s

co n trib u tio n

what a s t a g g e r i n g

to th is job

the

t o f a c e . . F o r t u n a t e l y n o one

te a c h e r alon e has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y nor the p r i v i l e g e . E very s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n ,

every ex p erien ce,

s o n w i t h ¥ /h ic h a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n trib u tio n u al.

It

is

a s s o c i a t e d makes a

to th e developm ent of a h y p o t h e t i c a l i n d i v i d ­ s o c i e t y ’ s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i n t e r e s t

to in d iv id u a l to ien ces,

and e v e ry p e r ­

the m ost d e s i r a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s ,

to expose exper­

and p e rs o n s p o s s i b l e . P h y sic a l ed u catio n

can and does p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g

e x p e r i e n c e s which n u r t u r e q u a l i t i e s v a lu e d i n o u r s o c i e t y . Through m e e tin g t h e

c h i l d r e n ’ s b i o lo g ic a l and s o c io lo g ic a l

needs p h y sic a l ed u catio n : im proves th e e n t i r e

(1)

grow th p r o c e s s ;

in te r r a la te d fu n ctio n in g of du ran ce and s t r e n g t h ,

a ctiv e,

fo sters,

(3)

s o c i a l g ra c e and p o is e ;

develops en­ (4)

develops

th a t enables in d iv id u a ls

to

and s a t i s f y i n g l i v e s .

Through

t h e u s e o f games and s p o r t s b a s e d upon s t r u g g l e ,

t h e com­

p e titiv e h elp s

co n stru ctiv e,

and

(2) p r o m o t e s th e whole

the organism ;

th e q u a l i t y of dynamic h e a l t h liv e

stim u lates,

d riv e s are s a t is f ie d .

to o f f s e t

the nervous

V igorous and jo y o u s p la y

stra in s

m odern c u l t u r e p l a c e s upon c h i l d r e n .

and t e n s i o n s w hich S trong,

p lea sa n t,

51 a n d i n t e g r a t i n g e m o t i o n s may o c c u r i n p r o p e r l y g u i d e d p l a y a c tiv itie s.

P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n can be a s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c e

i n p e r s o n a l i t y developm ent by p r o v i d in g s k i l l s u se fu l in

leisu re

tim e.

learn in g s itu a tio n s

P h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n can p ro v id e

i n d e m o c ra tic l i v i n g and c h a r a c t e r

b u i l d i n g o n l y when t h e t e a c h e r s o o r g a n i z e s selects

th a t are

the e x p e rie n c e s

the c la s s and

t h a t p r o m o t e t h e common g o o d .

Through p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ,

the te a c h e r has th e o p p o rtu n ity

to fo rm u la te b a sic

eom cepts o f h e a l t h ,

dem ocratic s p i r i t ,

and to e n r i c h t h e l i v e s

t h u s m e e t t h e demands o f s o c i e t y .

h ap p in ess,

ch aracter,

o f c h i l d r e n and

U'

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55 W illiam s, J e s s e F e i r i n g , P r i n c i p l e s of P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n . W, B. S a u n d e r s Com pany, P h i l a d e l p h i a a n d L o n d o n : 1946. PERIODICALS * B l a n c h a r d , B. E . , "A B e h a v i o r F r e q u e n c y R a t i n g S c a l e f o r t h e M easurem ent of C h a r a c te r and P e r s o n a l i t y i n P h y s i c a l E d u catio n C lassroom S i t u a t i o n s " , R esearch Q u a r t e r l y , May, 1 9 3 6 . J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , ( u n s i g n e d com­ m i t t e e r e p o r t ) " H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s f o r a l l A m erican C h i l d r e n and Y o u th ", J o u r n a l of H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 7 :4 6 , J a n u a r y , .1946. K u h l e n , Raymond G. a n d L e e , B e a t r i c e J . , " P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and S o c i a l A c c e p t a b i l i t y in A d o le sce n ce ", J o u r n a l of E d u c a tio n a l P sy c h o lo g y , 3 4 :3 2 1 -3 2 9 , Septem ber, 1945. * L a n g l i e , T. A . , " P e r s o n a l i t y R a t i n g s . I : R e lia b ility of T e a c h e rs ’ R a tin g s " , J o u r n a l of G en etic P sy c h o lo g y , J u n e , 1957. i L lo y d , F r a n k S . , "The S o c i o l o g y o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , 6 :2 0 4 -2 0 6 , A p r i l , 1937. . M c C lo y, C. H . , " C h a r a c t e r B u i l d i n g T h r o u g h P h y s i c a l E d u c a ­ t i o n " , R e s e a rc h Q u a r t e r l y , Am erican P h y s i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 : 4 1 ,6 1 , O ctober 1930. Meek, L o i s H . , The P e r s o n a l - S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f B o y s a n d ' G ir ls w ith I m p lic a tio n s f o r Secondary E d u c a tio n , P a r t I I I , S e c t i o n 1 . C o m m i t t e e on W o r k s h o p s , P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k : 1940. 4 G’ N e e l , F . W. , "A B e h a v i o r F r e q u e n c y R a t i n g S c a l e f o r t h e M easurem ent o f C h a r a c t e r and P e r s o n a l i t y i n High S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r B o y s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , May, 1936. W a s h b u r n e , J o h n N . , "A T e s t o f S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t " , J o u r n a l of A p p lied P sy ch o lo g y , 19:125, A p r il, 1935.

56 W a t s o n , G o d w in , " P e r s o n a l i t y Growth, t h r o u g h A t h l e t i c s " , J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , S e p tem b er, 1938. PUBLICATIONS OP PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , C o m m i t t e e on W o r k s h o p s , The P e r s o n a l - S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f B o y s a n d G i r l s , H a dd o n C r a f t s m e n , I n c , , New J e r s e y : 1940. P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , C o m m i t t e e on W o r k s h o p s , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , Haddon C r a f t s m e n , I n c . , New J e r s e y : 1940. ' P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , R e p o r ts and R ecords C o m m itte e , B e h a v i o r D e s c r i p t i o n , Haddon C r a f t s m e n , I n c . , New J e r s e y : 1935. P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , C o m m i t t e e on W o r k s h o p s , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , Haddon C r a f t s m e n , I n c . , New J e r s e y : 1940. S a n ta B a rb a ra C ounty Board o f E d u c a ti o n , S a n ta B a rb a ra C o u n ty C u r r i c u l u m Guide f o r T e a c h e r s i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , The S c h a u e r P r i n t i n g S t u d i o , I n c . , S a n t a B arbara, C a lifo rn ia : 1941, Tryon, C a r o lin e C . , E v a lu a ti o n s of A d o le s c e n t P e r s o n a l i t y by A d o l e s c e n t s , S o c i e ty f o r R e s e a rc h i n C h ild D evelop­ m e n t , New Y o r k : 1939.

U N IV E R S I T Y O F S O U T H E R N C A L I F O R N I A L I B R A R Y