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a a a a
a a a a
a «*a a a a a a
0-381 -99624-7 RB
PETROLEUM gas, oil and asphalt Adler
by Peggy Adler
The petroleum that
take out of the
the sea took nature
millions of years to
and from under
hundred years. And
hundred more years
take only one it
use petroleum for energy
large amounts for only about a
gas or gasoline.
from paint to explosives, from synthetic fibers to antifreeze. This
how we we split And we
and and get it out. It tells how petroleum, change it and use it. learn about the two most impor-
tant problems arising from our increasing
use of petroleum: pollution and a rapidly diminishing supply of In
and understandable language, Adler shows us the present neces-
of conserving the petroleum
able and the potential sources of
much-needed product for the future.
CENTENNIAL SCHOOL LIBRARY SCIO.
THE REASON WHY SERIES
PETROLEUM gas, oil and asphalt
by Pegsy Adler
The John Day Company
THE REASON WHY SERIES AIR-Reviscd
LEARNING ABOUT STEEL: THROUGH THE STORY OF A NAIL MACHINES
ATOMIC ENERGY ATOMS AND MOLECULES THE CALENDAR COAL-Revised
MAGNETS NUMBERS OLD AND NEW
NUMERALS: NEW DRESSES FOR OLD NUMBERS OCEANS
COMMUNICATION DIRECTIONS AND ANGLES THE EARTH'S CRUST ENERGY EVOLUTION
RIVERS SETS SHADOWS-Revised Edition, 1968
FIBERS-Updated Edition, 1972
Revised Edition of
TOUCH AND SMELL
THINGS THAT SPIN: FROM TOPS TO ATOMS TREE PRODUCTS WHY? A BOOK OF REASONS
HOUSES INSECTS AND PLANTS INTEGERS: POSITIVE
WHY AND HOW?
A SECOND BOOK OF REASONS YOUR EARS YOUR EYES
DESERT INTO GARDEN
LANGUAGE AND MAN
1975 by Irving Adler
All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of
any form or by any
mechanical, or other means,
or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying,
in any information storage and retrieval system is forbidden without the written permission of the publisher. Published simultaneously in Canada by Fitzhenry 6Whiteside Limited, Toronto.
United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Adler, Irving. Petroleum. (His The Reason why books) Includes index.
Discusses the different kinds of
recovered, their uses, and the problems of pollution, shortage.
TN870.A247 1975 ISBN 0-381-99624-7RB 10
they are found and conservation,
4 Petroleum Oil in the Ground, and How It Got There Early Discovery and Uses 8 The Kerosine Lamp and the Automobile Other Uses of Petroleum Underground Pools of Oil Oil in the United States
Oil of the
Locating Oil Drilling for Oil
20 on Land
Bringing Oil to the Surface
What Is in Petroleum
Transporting Gas, Oil and Oil Products
How Long Will Oil Last? The World's Energy Oil Conservation
Oil for the Future
Drilling for Oil at Sea
43 44 45
Petroleum Petroleum comes from the ground.
parts of the world.
We drill wells for it on land and under the sea.
ent things as paint, phonograph records, explosives, fibers, antifreeze
and food con-
took millions of years to
has been used in large amounts
for only about
one hundred years.
take only a hundred years all
came find it
and describes some problems
the story of petroleum
use. It tells
and how we
in the ground,
how we split And it tells of
out. It tells
two important problems
that arise from
the use of petroleum: Using petroleum dirties the air
cleanup problem; and petroleum will soon
be used up, so
finding something to take
the problem of its
Oil in the Ground,
How It Got There
The word petroleum means rock
two Latin words, petra (rock) and oleum refers to oil
oily substances that are
or a liquid, called crude
a gas, called natural gas, or a solid substance, called
found on the surface of the earth in some
places, in asphalt lakes like Pitch
Hancock Park near
Indies, or the asphalt pit in
Los Angeles, California. Crude also
and natural gas
been found occasionally
where they seep or flow out most crude
of the ground.
and natural gas are deep under the
ground, and wells have to be drilled to bring them to the surface.
Petroleum was formed millions of years ago from the bodies of small animals and plants that lived and died
The bodies fell to the sea floor, where they were covered by mud and sand carried to the sea by ancient rivers. The mud and sand, pressed by their in ancient seas.
own weight and by chemicals
the weight of the sea, and cemented
in the seawater,
rocks (rocks with shale, sandstone
in the rock,
hardened to form porous
small spaces in them), like
and limestone. The bodies, trapped
decayed only partly and became petro-
of these porous rocks
one on top of the other. Sandwiched
earth's surface folded these layers
nonporous rocks, formed by the cooling of
lava that flowed out of volcanoes.
of the sea.
Movements of the of rock and lifted
Early Discovery and Uses
People have known about petroleum and some of
uses since ancient times. As far back as six thousand
years ago, asphalt and
located in the region great wall of Babylon join the bricks to
each other. Asphalt was also used to
seal the joints of ships.
Bible story of the great
Noah sealed the joints of the ark with pitch, another name for asphalt. In Egypt, one use for asphalt was for embalming mummies. The fact that oil can burn was discovered early. The ancient Hebrews used oil to start the fire on the altar in their temple. The Romans used oil lamps to provide light. The Greeks even used oil in warfare, to set enemy ships on fire. The ancient Chinese went far beyond merely using flood says that
petroleum that they found on the surface of the ground.
Over 2,200 years ago they as 3,000 feet to find
hard metal of which
were mounted on rods
going as deep
The Kerosine Lamp and the Automobile Large-scale production and use of crude
the middle of the nineteenth century, following the
invention of the kerosine lamp. In the United States
before that time, light was produced by burning ani-
such as tallow from which candles were made,
The kerosine lamp, invented in 1854, created a demand for crude oil, from which kerosine is made. The first oil well drilled to meet this demand was a 69-foot well, drilled in 1859, or whale oil
in Titusville, Pennsylvania.
production was given an even greater
boost by the invention of the automobile, powered by
an engine that burns gasoline, another crude uct.
"horseless carriage" with a gasoline en-
gine was built in 1892 by Frank and Charles Duryea.
In 1908 Henry Ford began to produce the Model T, the
automobile that was cheap enough for
people to buy
petroleum products described on the next page has
and world production
of crude oil
has also grown very rapidly to meet this need. In 1911,
world production of crude (A barrel
42 United States
production of crude rels,
or sixty times as
was 300 million
gallons.) In 1972,
was 18 thousand
the gas for cooking; (2) the fuel oil that heats the home and (3) powers the electric generator; (4) the gasoline and oil for the car, truck and tractor; (5) the asphalt of the pavement; and (6) the rubber of the tires, all come from crude oil. (1)
Other Uses of Petroleum
gasoline engine, originally developed for the auto-
such as trucks, airplanes, buses and farm machinery.
diesel engine, using diesel
powers trucks and
locomotives. This has further increased the for crude
from which gasoline and diesel
After 1918, trucks used
sary to build
as a material
pavement could be made. At taken from asphalt is
made from crude
to ride on. Asphalt
from which a smooth the asphalt was
of the asphalt used
In automobiles, and in other machines that have
against each other.
purpose are also
oil. It is
the generators in
produced from crude
used to heat homes,
oil is also
lubricating oils used for this
made from crude
the parts that rub
steam turbines that turn
raw material from which many chem-
as petrochemicals, are
made. (See pages
Natural gas, found in some heating and cooking, and
oil wells, is
used in home
used in industry.
In 1972 the energy consumed in the United States
was about 70,000 million million Units.
heat needed to raise the temperature of one pound of
water one degree on the Fahrenheit
natural gas supplied over three-fourths of this energy.
^^^ife Three Underground Conditions Which Form
a Trap for Oil
Underground Pooh of Oil Oil
lighter than water.
ground water are together in porous
on top of the water. water
rock above the
oil rises oil,
rocks, the oil floats
the level of the ground it.
can keep rising until
reaches the surface of the ground. This has happened in
In most places where there rising oil reaches a layer of
reaches the surface.
not porous, so
Under some all
nonporous rock before
cannot seep through the
conditions, the oil
in the ground, the
cannot flow sideways.
Then, unable to is
or flow sideways, the oil
trapped in an underground pool.
Three underground conditions which can form a
drawings on page
called an anticline, the layers of rock are folded
form a bump. The nonporous layer above the
In the second, called a fault,
a crack in the ground, and the rock on one side
of the crack has slid
of nonporous rock nearest to the oil
one above the
gether to trap
Natural gas ural gas in the
and one below
ground together with the oil,
water pushes up against the
and builds up a back
trapped under non-
trapped above the
sure from the rising water
just as the oil tends to rise
above the water. Where the porous rock, the gas
tends to rise above the
from flowing sideways. In the third condition,
called a stratigraphic trap, rock,
from below. The presoil
compresses the gas
pressure. For this reason there
a high pressure in the gas that
trapped above the
Oil in the United States
well was drilled in Pennsylvania, in
1859, the hunt for States. Oil
spread throughout the United
Colorado in 1862, in Texas in
West Virginia and California in 1875 and in Ohio and Illinois in 1880. During the first part of the twentieth century, oil was discovered in Oklahoma (1905), Louisiana (1906) and Kansas (1916). California was the leading oil producer from 1903 to 1906. From 1907 to 1928 it was sometimes displaced as leader by Oklahoma. In 1928 Texas moved 1866, in
ahead, and has remained the leading oil-producing state ever since.
discovery was made, in 1938,
under the continental
coast of the United States. drilled
coast of Louisiana. coast
shelf just off the
offshore oil well
Gulf of Mexico, one mile
and natural gas used
from the Gulf
and the California coast supplied over
of the crude oil
Since 1968, Alaska has joined the ing states.
million barrels of crude
the largest in the
contains about 10 thousand oil
and about 26 million
lion cubic feet of natural gas. it is
discovered then near Prudhoe
Bay, 390 miles north of Fairbanks,
equal to only about what the United States con-
years. In 1972, the
sumed 5 thousand
United States con-
million barrels of oil
million million cubic feet of natural gas.
and about 23
Oil fields have been found in
oil is in
of the world.
three oil-rich regions.
the Caribbean Sea and countries bor-
such as the United States, Mexico and
the Middle East, including the
Arabian countries and southern Russia. The third
North Africa. In 1972, the total
ground was about 560 thousand million
Middle East had about 330 thousand million
had 36 thou-
sand million barrels, or about one-sixteenth of the
Although the United States doesn't have the largest oil
supply in the ground,
produces and uses more
than any other country. In 1972
produced 3 A thouY
sand million barrels. The next largest producers were the U.S.S.R., producing almost 3 thousand million barrels,
and Saudi Arabia, producing
amount produced is
the Arabian countries together
in a year
shown by the black
2!4 thousand million
by each country
semicircles in the
map on page
Supply and Demand
EAST SOUTH AFRICA
not always used where
in a year in each country or region
shown by the white
semicircles in the
dle East uses only a small part of the
map. The Midoil it
Japan and Western Europe produce
of the oil they use.
the Middle East.
They buy most
3 /4 thousand million barrels. 2
States used about 5 thou-
sand million barrels in 1972, although
buy the other
thousand million barrels from other countries.
As the up, is
oil fields is
out and used
be found. The search
guided by past experience. Past experience shows that
formed of mud, sand or
ancient seas. This type of rock rock. So the
found only in layers
shells piled is
step in a search for oil to locate a region
where the under-
ground rocks are sedimentary. Past experience shows that
in sandstone or limestone. So, after a region of
sedimentary rock for oil
chosen, the second step in a search
to study the
there, to look for clues
Using an Explosion to Locate Oil
sandstone or limestone under-
ground. Past experience shows that traps of the kind described third step
may be an
usually found in
on pages 14 and
to look for signs
on the surface that there
The fourth step is to try to "see" what is underground before trying to
a well. This
done with the help
With the magnetometer, the
of certain instruments.
how the earth's magnetism
on the ground. The magnetism
in sedimentary rocks than in other rocks.
other instrument, the gravimeter, measures pull of gravity changes
from place to place on the
ground. The pull from sedimentary rocks
than from other rocks. The geologist can also "see"
how the rocks underground are arranged in layers, and can "see"
crossings in the layers
setting off small explosions in the ground,
cording the vibrations of the ground with a seismograph.
These four steps
the geologist where
to drill a well. Oil
oil is really
actually found in only one
well out of ten. Commercially usable amounts of are found in only one well out of
Drilling for Oil
drilling for oil
done by rotary
the bit that cuts into the rock
rotated or turned.
a short section of pipe with two or three
cones mounted at the end.
The cones have
them. As the bit turns, the cones
on the ground,
and the teeth bite into the rock and grind it into powder.
The bit is screwed into the end of a long drill pipe made up of sections of pipe that are joined by being screwed into a coupling. As the hole made by the drill grows deeper, new sections are joined to the
of the drill pipe
shaped pipe called a
screwed into a square-
kelly passes through a
square hole in a turntable. As the turntable
by an engine, pipe, since
attached to the kelly, also turns, and
the bit bites into the ground. As the into the hole, the kelly slides
in the square hole
of the turntable.
drilling goes on, a special
The mud goes down the the bottom of the well. Then
into the drill pipe.
inside of the pipe to
between the outside
pipe and the rock wall of the well.
raises to the top the
keeps ground water from
seeping into the well; and
spots in the wall of the
well, the wall
port than the
levels of the
alone can give
a wide pipe, called a casing,
lowered into the well and cemented into place.
ered into the casing to continue the drilling.
put in at the
this casing is a series of
valves that can be closed. called blowout preventers,
necessary to stop an uncon-
trolled flow of oil
After the drilling ings are
for the well.
done, more cas-
in place as a lining
Rotary Type Drilling Rig
Centennial school library SCIO. OREGON
Drilling for Oil at Sea
done from a platform, held in place
above the spot on the sea
The platform may be
ing on the sea
floor, or it
where the well
the top of a tower stand-
the surface of a ship
held in place by anchors and cables, and steadied by propellers.
are built with a platform at one
The tower, lying on its side, is towed to the drilling site. Then the barge end is made to sink to the sea floor. The platform end is supported at the surface by the rest of the tower strucand a barge
at the other end.
raised position, legs are
made with legs that can be The platform, with legs in the
to the drilling site.
lowered until they
on the sea
possible only in water
than 300 feet deep. Now, with improved
possible to drill in water that
than a thousand feet deep.
Drilling Rig in
the North Sea
Bringing Oil to the Surface
The bottom oil
of an oil well
the casing and even
by the some
separated from the pool of casing, the
of doing this
a special instrument that casing,
necessary to open
can flow into the
lower into the well
fires steel bullets
cement and surrounding
up passages through which the
start flowing into the well, are
the top in tubing that
through the oil
lowered into the casing.
In a well that has natural gas as well as
some gas dissolved outside the
the valves in the tubing are
open, the gas pressure forces the
gas pressure forces soda out of a soda bottle.
and there may be some
In either case, the gas
but trapped and compressed in the
usually also water under the
under high pressure, and
able to push the
After a well has been flowing for a long time, the pressure of the gas or water
Then pumps have
and the flow slows to
What Is in Petroleum Petroleum
a mixture of
compounds. Some of the compounds, called hydrocarbons, contain only hydrogen
and carbon. Others
contain, in addition, other elements such as oxygen,
nitrogen or sulfur.
made up of units called moleEach molecule is made up of atoms. In a hydro-
Each compound cules.
carbon molecule there are only hydrogen atoms and carbon atoms joined together by bonds.
atom has one or more hands with which
can form four bonds.
It is as if it
form a bond.
can grasp a
hydrogen atom can form only
one bond. In the diagrams of molecules shown on pages 29 and 31, for a
stands for a carbon atom,
hydrogen atom and a
straight line stands for a
bond. In some hydrocarbon molecules found in petroleum, the carbon atoms are joined to each other in a straight chain, like people in a line holding hands.
atom, except those at the end of the chain,
two other carbon atoms, one on each carbon atom at the end of the chain
side of is
joined to it.
joined to only
one other carbon atom. In addition, each carbon atom is
joined to enough hydrogen atoms to use 28
up the four
H H H 1
H-C C -H
C-C C-H 1
H H H HHH H HCC-C-C-H H HH H 29
can make. Where there
in the molecule,
only one carbon
joined to four hydrogen
atoms. These straight-chain molecules are called par-
The four paraffins with the fewest carbon atoms per molecule—methane, ethane, propane and butaneare shown in the diagram on page 29. They are found in natural gas. The paraffin that has eight carbon atoms affins.
Some hydrocarbon molecules have two straight chains joined to each other to
shown on page
form a branched
of a branched-chain molecule
31. Notice that, like butane,
carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms, but in molecule they are arranged differently. For it is
In some hydrocarbon molecules, called naphthenes, the carbon atoms are joined together to form a closed ring.
The example shown on page 31
The hydrocarbon molecules described above
only the simplest of them. Petroleum also contains
more complicated molecules,
are rings joined to rings.
of the weight of a molecule
carbon atoms. The more carbon atoms a molecule
has, the heavier
At ordinary temperatures, the 30
heaviest hydrocarbon est are gases
rest are liquids. If the solids are
made hot enough, they melt into liquids. If the liquids are made hot enough, they evaporate into gases.
H H H-CH H H H i
Isobutane, a Branched-chain Molecule
^C\ Oh /H H h-c v
H ^C /N H H
Cyclohexane, a Ring-shaped Molecule
Gasoline five to
a mixture of hydrocarbons that have from
eleven carbon atoms in each molecule.
duced from crude
oil at refineries in
ways. In one process the gasoline that
separated from the other parts of the crude tional distillation. Gasoline
by fracproduced by crackoil
which makes gasoline molecules from
heavier hydrocarbon molecules by breaking them into
third process, called polymerization,
gasoline molecules from smaller, lighter ones,
heated so that
produce a hot vapor. Then the vapor
to rise in a closed tower,
In fractional distillation, crude it
As the vapor
and the vapor
begins to condense into
a liquid, but the heavier molecules condense
the bottom of the tower, where the temperature higher.
top of the tower, where the temperature
drops of liquid that form are caught in trays, which are stacked inside the tower,
and flow from the
through pipes. The heaviest liquid, which flows out at the bottom of the tower,
asphalt or heavy fuel
lighter liquids, flowing out at successively higher
gas that cools the rising
levels, are lubricating oil,
kerosine and gasoline.
that doesn't con-
flows out of the top as a gas.
Tank Truck and Railroad Tank Car
Transporting Gas, Oil and Oil Products
Natural gas has to be sent from the
taken out of the ground to the factories and
In 1971, there were 915,000 miles of natural gas
sent through pipe-
pipelines in the United States. This
almost four times
the distance from here to the moon.
has to be taken from the
oil fields to
the products of the refineries have to be
taken to the places where they are used. Oil and
products are carried overland by pipelines, railroad tank cars and tank trucks. They are carried across the sea in ocean tankers,
and on 34
rivers in barges.
In the United States there are 218,000 miles of pipeline for carrying
of these pipelines carries gasoline
from Texas to
York. Another one will be built to bring to the other states.
pushed through a pipeline
by pumps spaced out along the miles apart.
about 50 to 150
moves through the
line at a
two or three miles per hour.
ocean tankers are more than 1,100 feet
and can carry up
to 2 SA million barrels of oil at a
not only a source of fuels like gasoline,
kerosine and fuel
of useful products, including such
It is also
different things as rubber, paints, rayon, explosives,
food containers, antifreeze and phonograph records.
c 1 1
a food container
made from ethylene
making these products
duce certain petrochemicals, each of which has many uses.
ene, a gas cule.
most important petrochemical
which has two carbon atoms
in each mole-
produced when petroleum
made from ethane and proused to make polyethylene, from of
which food containers are made, and vinyl
from which phonograph records and garden hoses are
It is also
used to make rubber and antifreeze.
Ethyl alcohol, which used to be or molasses,
now made from 37
only from grain
Another important two-carbon petrochemical acetylene. It used to be
Now it is
only from coal.
made from methane. Products made from
include acetic acid (the acid in vinegar) acetate ,
and adhesives are made. Propylene it is
a three-carbon petrochemical.
a product of the cracking process,
made from propane. Propylene
products include de-
used for washing, and isopropyl alcohol, used
an antifreeze and for making acetone. Acetone,
explosives, airplane "dopes,"
a six-carbon petrochemical in whose
made from and
carbon atoms form a closed
be made only from
making other products.
a seven-carbon ring petrochemical.
an eight-carbon ring petrochemical used
making paints and
used as a solvent, as a
the chemical from which the explosive
a four-carbon petrochemical from which
be made only from wood,
United States and Terylene in
of oil produces
results. It gives
energy for heating our homes and running our ma-
products. But not
pollution, a spoiling of the
especially of the
carried across the sea in tankers,
offshore wells are drilled at sea, there
times an accident, and floating
the results of using
on the water
oil is spilled.
beaches and makes them unfit
The danger of oil spills creates the problem of finding ways of preventing them from happening and of cleaning up the oil quickly and thoroughly when they do happen. for use.
and when gasoline
in a furnace
an automobile engine, some gases are
produced that dirty the
bon monoxide, which
are hydrocarbons that can
amounts of hydrocarbon a
off as oils
make people and
When these 40
and may cut
as one-fourth of the sunlight.
of the gases
in the air of big cities
that irritates the eyes
of these gases
are burned, the air
Santa Barbara Beach, February 1969
which hurts people and
and metal. Some gasoline
the past contained lead, which was put into
vent knocking in the engine. But, lead
burned, the lead
breathe, fuel oil
put into the
that dirties the air as
a dangerous poison. So, burning
In the United States, there are the burning of
and gasoline creates the problem
that has a lot of sulfur
line that contains lead.
of trying to
Other laws require that auto-
mobile makers reduce the amount of harmful gases a
puts into the
How Long Will Oil Last? The
we take out
millions of years ago. It
and we use the future
ground was made by nature not replaced as
at a faster rate every year.
be gone, burned up
we use it up, Some time
in our furnaces
When will that be?
To answer this question it is necessary to know how much oil there is in the ground, and how fast it is being used.
In the United States in 1972, the amount of
in oil fields already dis-
covered was about 36 thousand million barrels. The oil
was being taken out
ground and used
rate of 3 !/2 thousand million barrels a year. rate, the
be used up
supply in the United States would
in eleven years.
are being discovered every year. last, at
most, another 120 years.
In 1972, the world supply of
oil in oil fields
discovered was 560 thousand million barrels, and
was being used barrels a year. oil will last
at the rate of 18V£
this rate the
only thirty years.
fields is likely to
known world supply of The discovery of more
extend the time another thirty or forty
years at most.
The World's Energy Energy
used when people work to produce food,
clothing, houses tries,
and other useful
things. Rich coun-
which produce and use much, use up a
energy. Poor countries, which produce and use
use a smaller amount of energy.
richest countries of the
large part of the
energy used comes from burning fuels
world are the United
Japan and the countries of West-
States, the U.S.S.R.,
ern Europe. In 1972, together they had only onefourth of the world's population, but they used twothirds of the world's
only one-eighteenth of the world's population, but
used one-fourth of the world's
But the poorer countries are now building more tories
and are beginning
automobiles and trucks. This means that they will be using more and more
each year. As the poorer
countries begin to use a larger share of the world's
the richer countries will have to use a smaller share.
world industry and population grow,
the world's limited
supply will be used up faster
be a shortage of
next thirty years throughout the world, and especially in the
In 1972, the United States bought one-fourth of the oil it
used from other countries. In future years
to rely less
home. To make the home supply of
or save oil as
necessary to conserve
An oil well flows as long as the pressure in it is enough
One way well.
of doing this
do not reduce the pres-
companies are also trying to find
can save gasoline and the
by driving no
water into the
We can also save oil by using less of we
of this leftover oil up.
so that they
to space wells at the
oil left in
by bringing some
imported from abroad and more
long as possible,
oil last as
On the road,
55 miles per hour.
save more by using small cars instead of large cars.
And we can
more by using buses and
more and using private save
we can At home
cars less. In factories
by switching back save
to coal as a fuel.
by not overheating our homes and by
not wasting electricity.
Oil for the Future
As we use up the supply
in the oil fields
part of this supply will
be discovered during the next
ten or twenty years. But the
be used up
necessary to find a
already discovered, for the future.
of oil that
fields, too, will
in a short time. Fortunately, there are other
of getting oil besides
pumping it out
of an under-
^ ^ fi?
Oil frorn Coal
In a few places there are deposits of sand and clay that are
These deposits are called
can be removed from tar sands by
out with hot water. There
sand in Canada to supply 400 thousand million barrels of
countries there are large amounts of a rock
called oil shale. Oil shale contains kerogen, which, like
petroleum, consists of the remains of small plants and animals that lived in ancient seas or lakes.
If oil shale
mined, crushed and heated, the process produces
shale oil from the kerogen. Shale oil can
be refined to
produce gasoline, kerosine, diesel fuel and
ton of the best
hundred gallons shale of the
shale can yield as
oil. It is
There are are
estimated that the
Rocky Mountains can supply about 2
lion million barrels of shale
in the oil fields that
over 50 times
have been found
now being made
methods of doing
to find the best
There are about
lion tons of coal in the
IV2 million mil-
amount can be mined and will probably be the raw material out of which most of the About one-third
of the future will
be made 46
Index Acetylene, 39 Asphalt,
consumed in Benzene, 39 Branched-chain molecules, 30 Butane, 29-30
early use, 8
in U.S., 16
future supply, 42, 44
32 searching for, 20 shortage, 43
traps, 15, 21
Continental shelf, 16
world production, 10 world supply, 18 world use, 19
Drilling, 8, 10
on land, 22 at sea,
Petrochemicals, 13, 36-39
Petroleum chemical nature, 28
consumed, 13 Ethane, 29-30
Fractional distillation, 32
Propane, 29-30 Gasoline, 11
Ring molecules, 30 Hydrocarbons, 28
Sedimentary rock, 20 Kerosine, 10
Seismograph, 21 oil,
Straight-chain molecules, 30
Magnetometer, 21 Methane, 29-30
Tar sands, 46
Naphthenes, 30 Natural gas, 6,
Toluene, 39 13,
15 Wells, 26
Octane, 30 Xylene, 39
PICTURE CREDITS P.
the illustrator, Courtesy the
the United States P. P. P. P.
20 25 25 34
Courtesy Texaco, Inc.
Courtesy Bethlehem Steel Corp. Courtesy Exxon Courtesy Phillips Petroleum Co.
and API Photo
Courtesy American Petroleum Institute
EPA-Documerica— Dick Smith
CENTENNIAL SCHO SCIO,
About the Author Irving
many who made
years was the kind everything so clear
that students found themselves looking for-
ward to classes. He is able to create the same degree of enthusiasm in the readers of his over fifty books for young people. Mr. Adler explains
"How do you choose the topics for your books?" ask
of the questions people
me most often. The answer
think of those things I've
out everything jects
try to find
can about those sub-
believe children are interested
and can understand very profound scientific truths when those truths are in
direct result of this philosophy
the initiation of The Reason Irving
and Ruth Adler, who worked
gether to write the series.
Why Series by
Vermont, where, when he takes care of /
garden— of which he
The John Day Company
New York 10019
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