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Personality Projection in the Drawing of the Human Figure: A Method of Personality Investigation [Hardcover ed.]
 0398011842, 9780398011840

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UNGLEY PORTER LIBRARY

INSTITUTE

CcCI^arrfiiM Jmbircuts or integral

btudied

CnJiMomiB Institute of iniegrai btudieii

PERSONALITY PROJECTION in the

DRAWING OF THE HUMAN FIGURE

Publication

Number

AMERICAN LECTURE

25

SERIES

A Monograph in AMERICAN LECTURES IN PSYCHOLOGY .

Edited by

Molly Harrower, Ph.D. Research and Consulting Psychologist

New

York City

Formerly Clinical Psychologist, Montreal Neurological Institute,

McGill University

Montreal, Canada

Fifth Printing

PERSONALITY PROJECTION in the

DRAWING OF THE HUMAN FIGURE (A Method

of Personality Investigation)

By

Karen ^Machover Kijjgs

County Psychiatric Division

Neu' York City; Lecturer, Division of Graduate Studies, Brooklyn College Instructor in Clinical Psychiatry

Long

CHARLES

C

Island

College of Medicine

THOMAS

Springfield



Illinois

PUBLISHER





U.S.A.

CHARLES C THOMAS



PUBLISHER

Bannerstone House 301-327 East

Lawrence Avenue,

Published smiultaneously

m

The

Springfield, Illinois, U.S.A.

British

Conmionwealth of Nations by

BLACKWELL SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS,

LTD.,

OXFORD, ENGLAND

Published siimdtaneously in Canada by

THE RYERSON This monograph

is

PRESS,

TORONTO

No

protected by copyright.

part of it may be reproduced in any manner without written permission from the publisher.

Copyright, 1949



by

CHARLES C THOMAS



PUBLISHER

First Edition, First Printing, 1949

Second Printing, 1950 Edition, Third Printing, 1953 Edition, Fourth Printing, 1957

First Edition, First First

First Edition, Fifth Printing,

Printed

iri

the U?iited States of

1961

America

BFbn

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author welcomes gratitude

to

her

this

opportunity to express her deep

husband and colleague, Dr. Solomon

Machover, whose stimulating discussions, encouragement, and guidance have been indispensable to the development of the jnethod of drawing analysis that

The author

is

indebted to Dr.

Sam

is

here presented.

Parker, Director of

Psychiatry, Departnient of Hospitals, City of

New

York,

for the unlivjited use of hospital data in the p-eparation of

The author Ruth Tannenbaum for this

^ ^ ^

V

book.

also wishes to

thank Miss Ray nor

her devoted secretarial assistance.

Digitized by the Internet Archive in

2010

http://www.archive.org/details/personalityprojeOOmach

CONTENTS Part

I

PERSONALITY PROJECTION IN THE DRAWING OF THE HUMAN FIGURE (A Method

of Personality Investigation)

Problem

4

Theoretical Considerations Phenomenon The Body as

a V^ehicle for

Constancy of Projection

Mood

4

of Projection (4)

of Figure (6)

Sources of Projection

Self-Expression (5)

(6)

— Psychic

Datum

Illustrations of the Functional Basis of

Figures

Im and

Alan and

If

Woman

— King

(7)

Motivation (10)

and Queen



(12)

Previous Interest in Drawings

Origin of

19

Method

20

Emphasis on Patterns of Traits

21

Pathological and "Popular" Graphic Traits (22)

Normality or x\djustment Indicators

Present Status of Method

(23)

25

Communicability of the Method (27)

Economy

of the

Method

(28)

Administration

28

Associations

29 vii

Part

II

PRINCIPLES OF INTERPRETATION Interpretation

34

The Head

36

— Parts of the Face

Social Features

40

Facial Expression (42)

The The The The The The The The

Mouth

(43)

Lips (45)

Chin (46) Eyes (47)

Eyebrow

(49)

Ear (50)' Hair (51)

Nose

(54)

The Neck

56

Adam's Apple

(58)

Contact Features Arms and Hands

59 (60)

Fingers (63)

Legs and Feet (65)

Toes

(67)

Miscellaneous Body Features The Trunk (68) Breasts

68

(69)

Shoulders (71) Hips and Buttocks (72) The Waistline (72)

Anatomy

Indications (74)

Joints (75)

75

Clothing Conspicuous Buttons (78) Pockets (79) The Tie (80) The Shoe and Hat (81)

Structural and Formal Aspects Theme (84) Action or Movement (85) Succession (86) viii

83

Symmetry

(87)

Midline (88) Size and Placement (89) Stance (92) Perspective (93)

Type

of Line (95)

97

Conflict Indicators Erasures (98)

Shading (98)

Differential Treatment of

Male and Female Figures

100

Developmental Considerations

102

Concluding Remarks

103

Part III

ILLUSTRATIX E CASE STUDIES 108

Illustrations Figures

2m and

2f

— Schizoid,

Obsessive-Compulsive

Character (109) Brief Clinical History

Drawing Features and Figures

3m and

3f

Interpretations

— Paranoid

Schizophrenic (117)

Brief Clinical History

Draw Figures

ing Features and Interpretations

4m

and 4f

— Normal

Child (121)

Brief Clinical History

Drawing Features and Interpretations 5m and 5f Acute Adolescent Crisis



Figures

(128)

Brief Clinical History

Drawing Features and Figures

6m

and

Manic Features

6f

Interpretations

— Schizophrenic

Excitement,

(132)

Brief Clinical History

Drawing Features and Interpretations Normal Female (141) Figures 7m and 7f



Brief Clinical History

Drawing Features and Interpretations 8m and 8f Normal Male (151)

Figures



Brief Clinical History^

Drawing Features and

Interpretations

Bibliography

159

Index

161 ix

PERSONALITY PROJECTION in

the

DRAWING OF THE HUMAN FIGURE

PART

I

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

IN THE

DRAWING OF THE HUMAN FIGURE

PROBLEM make an effort to outline a method of personality analysis based upon the interpretation of drawings of the human figure. That individuals In this book the writer will

reveal important aspects of their personality in

What now

has long been recognized. trust that the

work

analysis will supply, sis

of the graphic

hensive,

that is

a

drawing

has been lacking, and

I

being done in drawing

is

degree of systematization of analy-

product which

communicable, and does

at

is

once compre-

justice to the intricacies

of personality.

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS Phenomenon Personality,

we know,

of Projection

does not develop in a vacuum,

but through the movement, feeling, and thinking of a specific

body.

Projective methods of exploring motivations

have repeatedly uncovered deep and perhaps unconscious determinants of self-expression which could not be made manifest in direct communication. all

It is safe to

assume that

creative activity bears the specific stamp of conflict

and needs pressing upon the individual

The

activity elicited in response to

indeed a creative experience, individual

who

is

as

human

intimate tie-up between the figure ality of the individual

who

is

is

by

is

the

concentrated ex-

figure indicates an

drawn and

the person-

doing the drawing.

[4]

creating.

a person"

will be testified

Wide and

drawing.

perience with drawings of the

who

"draw

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS

5

The Body as a Vehicle for Self-Expression

When

an individual attempts to solve the problem of

the directive to

"draw

he

a person,"

is

compelled to draw

from some sources. External figures are too varied in their

body

posite, objective representation of a person.

of

com-

attributes to lend themselves to a spontaneous,

selection

involving

and introjection enters

identification at

some

point.

Some

process

through projection

The

individual must

draw consciously, and no doubt unconsciously, upon his whole system of psychic values. The body, or the self, is

We

the most intimate point of reference in any activity.

have, in the course of growth, sensations,

organs.

experience,

drawing

perceptions, and emotions with certain

This investment

tion of the

come

to associate various

in

body

body image as it must somehow guide

body

organs, or the percep-

has developed out of personal

in the specific structure

the individual

who

is

and content which con-

stitutes his offering of a "person." Consequently, the draw-

ing of a person, in involving a projection of the

body

image, provides a natural vehicle for the expression of one's

body needs and

conflicts.

tion has proceeded is

Successful drawing interpreta-

on the hypothesis that the figure drawn

related to the individual

who

is

drawing with the same

intimacy characterizing that individual's writing, or

any other of

his expressive

technique of personality analysis that

book attempts self-projection.

to reconstruct the

is

gait,

his

hand-

movements.

The

described in this

major features of

this

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

5

Constancy of Projection

How

representative

of the drawing

is

is

aspect

is

subject

period of time,

it

the

of

conscious

to

In studying drawings

What

aspect

and unalterably related to the

personality structure

basic

drawing?

a single

distinctly

individual,

and

control

(two or more)

and what variability?

obtained over a

has been observed that structural and

formal aspects of a drawing such

as size, line,

and place-

ment, are less subject to variability than content, such as

body

details, clothing,

and

accessories.

vidual makes his figure large or small,

Whether an

indi-

where he places

it

on the page, whether he works with long continuous lines or short, jagged ones, whether the figure has an aggressive whether

stance,

portions of the are observed,

it is

body

rigid or fluid, are,

what the

essential pro-

whether symmetry compulsions

whether there

is

to erasures, or to shading, are

a

tendency to incompletions,

all

to the personality structure.

features that refer stably

Occasionally, drawings of

patients obtained over a period of years are so remarkably alike as to constitute personal signatures.

jection

now

is

being further checked by experiments which are

in progress

from

Stability of pro-

clinical

designed to validate the impressions gained

use of the method.

Sets of drawings are

being obtained from the same subjects

at stated intervals

over a period of time. -->

Mood

of Figure

body image, or

In the act of translating the

model

in

graphic terms,

do.es

postural

the final product accord

automatically with the postural and psychic tensions of the individual?

Specifically, does the figure

drawn appear

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS happy, expansive, withdrawn,

autistic, constricted, fearful,

belligerent, affectionally starved?

or collapsed?

Does

it

the

faithfully

An

drawing.

in the

experience of the writer,

tensions of the

weak

draw one selves

who

which

figure

The problem

how

of

draw

a

happy, sad,

gives their impression of them-

how

and one indicating

they look to their friends.



Datum

Psychic

certain organs

come

to have cer-

meanings so that they could be communicated

drawing of

a

is

Subjects will further be asked to

person.

Sources of Projection

tain

individual

experiment has been formulated in reference

to this point. Subjects will be asked to

angry, or

appear vigorous

it

are feeling tones or central trends

and dispositions which, reflect

Does

appear to be dominated by a specific

These

organ complex?

7

human

figure

is

a puzzling one.

in the

It suffices

com-

say that, from the empirical standpoint, such graphic

munications occur regardless of age, source to consider

is

common

the

or culture.

skill,

to

One

meanings that

social

physical attributes tend to acquire in the course of social

expression and intercourse. to

Thus

certain

body types tend

The

be associated with specific psychic attributes.

asthenic type

is

conventionally regarded as

idealistic,

weak, and refined, while the pyknic type

cally

ciated with earthiness and gregarious impulses. sions of anger, love, joy,

and strength are

physi-

is

asso-

Expres-

common

social

images in terms of physical manifestations and motor tensions.

Accepting the validity of these

way commits one

social

images in no

to accept the full theory of physique

and temperament correlations. Our attitudes toward others and

how we

sense, tjed

expect them to treat us

are,

however, in

up with such physique-temperament

a

correlations.

PERSONALITY PROIECTION

8

We

tend to treat people of certain physical attributes in

A

certain ways.

We

mission.

powerful physie]ue will

The

attitudes

nomenon

we wish to earn certain social we cannot escape the somatic

if

fact that

entrenchment of our social

sub-

ourselves are, in turn, encouraged to develop

certain physical attributes

treatment.

command

has

desires, conflicts,

compensations, and

considerable bearing

upon

the

of self-projection through drawing of the

phe-

human

figure. Studies to further validate the basic functional focus

of interpretation in drawings are being

made along

the line

of checking with individual subjects on the conventional

stereotypes of meanings associated with jects are

body

types.

Sub-

being asked for their associations in regard to

organs of the body, various clothing details and accessories.

What

does a large nose, a jutting chin, broad shoulders,

thin lips or large hands denote?

common

In addition to the socially

above, psychosomatic correlation of rise

out of the individual's

own

language discussed

body

expression

weighted

special experience,

with emotional valences that are specific to him. organs

may

Special

acquire vulnerability to the extent, that they

are the axes of the emotional life individual.

may

Examples of

receptive, concave type of

dependent individual, tion with the rectum,

this

may be

seen in the oral

mouth often drawn by

in the is

and adjustment of an the very

stomach, which, in combina-

an organ complex for the paranoid

or homosexually conflicted individual, and in the attention often given to the

neck by the individual

severely disturbed about the interrelations of pulses and mental control. specific

organ concentration

phasis in the drawings.

who

is

body im-

In the sexually deviant, the

may assume erogenous em-

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS Another source of psychic datum

The

bol values that are projected in drawings.

the pipe,

cigarette,

sym-

consists in the

most often treated with symbolic significance are the

9

the gun,

in

objects

drawings

the cane, buttons,

pockets, the hat, the hair, the nose and the feet. Efforts to trace successfully the

vidual drawing

it,

in

Hne with

to the indi-

have been only fruitful with individuals

whose unconscious and persons

meaning of the symbol

is

fairly accessible, like schizophrenics

in analysis. Interpretations of

common

symbol values

psychoanalytic and folklore meanings.

These sources of the motivational, motor, and patterns

are

which contribute

ideational

body

to the structure of the

image and thus render the human-figure drawing

signifi-

cantly expressive of personality are subtly fused in the

graphic production. analysis

They have been

isolated

here for

and discussion.

In the production of a drawing, there emerges out of the individual's total experiential

movement and

tern of

idea.

Its

background

a

unique pat-

significance for personality

stems from the fact that there are involved processes of selection out of the infinite pool of experience

and imagery

potentially available in combination with a

dynamic

ganization of

The

movement and

or-

percept.

processes of selection and organization

may

take

place with varying degrees of awareness and of directness.

Most drawings contain elements of direct and

self-evaluation in both

compensated forms of projection and of both

conscious and unconscious phases of self-revelation. fication of the unconscious aspects

from

a

may

Veri-

often be derived

study of the cHnical history of the subject, from the

personality pattern reflected on other

quently from the subject's

own

tests,

and not

infre-

associations to the drawings.

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

10

Illustrations of the Functional Basis of Motivation in

Drawing

by no means assumed that when an individual sets make a drawing, he is at once overtaken by all the out to conscious and unconscious aspects of his body image. Some It is

subliminal and determining process

is

involved, however,

so that, for example, a sensitive, puny, undernourished sub-

draw

ject finds himself impelled to

with tremendous shoulders. compulsive subject

who

powerful ego-model

a

In the same way, an obsessive-

expresses conscious wishes that he

could ignore the control of

and be ruled by the

his brain

raw impulses of the body and the brawn of his arms, does indeed draw a virile body with long ape-like arms, and a tiny head precariously balanced on this body. Another example of deep motivation individual

who

seen in the husky, alcoholic

is

gives a shrunken figure of a

man with

feet

combined with graphic indicators of imma-

adrift in space,

and repressed aggression. Alcohol was indeed

turity, guilt,

necessary to span the personality contradictions in this individual.

We

drawings

see then that

open confession of weakness and to

compensate for defects, or

To

illustrate further the

and functional rationale for

focus

of

a

predominantly psychological

—we

who, when asked

for feet, promptly associated

contain an

combination of both.

graphic

drawing analysis

the adolescent

may

defect, a determined effort

it

projection

may

why with

— the

basic

cite the case of

he drew pin-points his

curity and inability to stand on his feet.

own

We

deep

inse-

find another

male subject omitting the arm from the mother-image figure, because, "she used to

sence of the

mouth being

throw

things," and the ab-

explained, "she used to curse."

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS In

H

another instance, the omission of the arm

still

ex-

is

you might do harm with it," and a large drawn with the comment, "you can see what a

plained, "because

head

is

brainy fellar he

One

is."

subject complained that he

is

unable to draw the arms in any but a crooked manner,

though he had good drawing this

ing of

all

It

skill.

subject's main source of anxiety

is

significant that

is

the constant block-

contact and achievement by too

The arm

tionism and narcissism.

ment with force and

much

perfec-

goes out to the environ-

aspiration, but

must indeed return

to

the bod\' axis.

The

projection of basic problems in striking graphic

terms was further illustrated by the drawing of a male

who was undergoing

subject of nineteen

delayed adolescent culties that

added

crisis

a

the travails of a

with conduct and emotional

schizophrenic flavoring.

The

diffi-

patient

was referred for

hospital study because he

ten-year-old

Examination- found him a defeated, guilt-

girl.

ridden and confused individual

up

who

had raped

a

attempted to cover

immaturity, confusion, inner turmoil, and near-to-

his

surface aggressions with a feverish effort to maintain active social

communication. In

his associations to the

ure, the patient indicated that the figure

male

(and the subject

himself) satisfies the needs of interpersonal relationships a smile

and

a superficial social facade.

fig-

The male

by

figure

is

described as running to catch a bus (the direction of the

running body is

is

toward the

"self" side of the

page and

discrepant with the full-view treatment of the head.)

The

patient himself

is

confused, contradictory, and going

in all directions at once.

The most

body which

the drawing

is

a single line

and single dimension

the castrated

outstanding feature of

legs

is

represented by

and arms, while the

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

12

head

is

drawn

large

and

with

facial features are articulated

the perfection, conviction, and over-detailing that suggest

The

active fantasy.

were

Superman, and indeed the head does look

like

The importance

Superman. social

patient does say that he wishes he

communication and control

the present,

it

like

of the head as a center of

suffices to point

is

For

discussed later.

out that the patient

is

ex-

body with just a single line head, which the patient regards

pressing castration of the

represent

it,

while the

an indispensable and almost desperate front against a sense of disintegration, detail.

Fears of

body

is

to as

in his struggle

elaborated with fantasy

disorganization

may

be referred to

the patient's strong guilt regarding masturbation, his feelings of physical inferiority, religious prohibitions concern-

ing the acceptance of

body

impulses, possible homosexual

panic while in the army, and his present offense

—rape of

a

minor.

The above

instances can be multiplied a thousandfold,

and represent only special aspects of drawings, but they will,

I

trust, in

functional

drawing

some measure, serve

orientation

underlying

to

the

communicate the interpretation

features.

Figures Im and If Woman: The following

— Kijig

and Queen

drawings, done

by

projection and the levels

upon which

— Man

mechanism of

these projections

occur. Although this detailed analysis of drawings

what prematurely placed

and

a schizophrenic

patient, are excellent demonstrations of the

invites

of

is

some-

in the text, their richness of detail

more than cursorv

consideration.*

* The reader is asked to bear with the brevity, specificity, and apparent abruptness with which some of the interpretation of drawing detail is offered. The author trusts that the rationale will be clarified to some extent with the reading of Part II.

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS Figure

Im

13

which the patient copied from playing cards while commenting, "Every man (top)

is

the bust of a king,

should be a king."

im

The a

figure

pompous

is

imposing and

bust, but

it is

one of harshness,

pression

is

tration.

The

space-filling.

put into

a frame.

Not only is it The facial ex-

austerity, authority,

clothing, crown, and

sword

are

and pene-

drawn with

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

14

VI If

heavy pressure and much detaihng, representing material symbols of dominance and power. The hand is pointed toward the figure as if to call attention to the ego display.

A

vast

amount of emphasis

is

put upon the hair {sexual

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS

with almost dandyish development of the coiffure.

virility)

The

chin cleft

copying,

is

indicated to suggest a determined chin.

drawing were

this

If

15

it

done spontaneously, without

would be regarded

as

paranoid,

essentially

grandiose, over-circumstantial, and obsessive in

its

char-

acteristics.

The

"King," was spontaneously written by the

title,

patient {circiivistantiality)

,

and indeed represents the wish.

In Figure Im^ {hottovi) the male really

is

is

represented as he

—an homunculus who needs an armature

to sustain

him.

The

figure

is

small, virtually "skin

and bones" {shrunk-

en ego and sense of somatic disorganizatioji).

He

is

weak,

given effeminate curves for a body

is

while wearing pants, and

given a poor excuse for a

is

{sexual inadequacy).

The head

is

relatively large

{much

ideational activity

seen in greater detail in the ''King'^ dranjoing). offset the depleted

tie



It serves to

body.

Further, the separation between the control function of the head and the impulse

by an

life

of the

body

is

effected

excessively long neck and a dark, double line cutting

across the area of separation horizontally.

The arms which are short {lack of ambition), thin and weak {lack of achievement) are significantly placed above the body or "impulse" hne, a point at which they can be ,

better controlled.

The dark Clothing in a

sticks for fingers suggest infantile aggression. is

indicated around the hips and trousers area

manner suggesting homosexual

dence of sexual agitation line

is

suggested

panic.

by

Further evi-

a separate small

being inserted to close the open space at the crotch,

.

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

1(5

and the

light Hnes at the

bottom of the trunk

(a sort of

shading treawient uiarking furtive anxiety).

The

Hne, stance, and the middle placement of the draw-

ing suggest overt aggression.

The

facial expression

shows forced

is silly,

amiability,

and oral emphasis. The features of the face are treated

common

simple manner

to childrens' drawings

in a

{infantile

social behavior).

The

hair {sexual virility) covers a large area of the head

{extent of virility strivings) but

is

treated sparsely {inade-

quate virility).

The

ears are disproportionately large

{ideas of reference,

The

and conspicuous

not hallucinatory experiences)

if

midline {preoccupation voith somatic symptovis)

of the figure constitutes the main axis of the body.

drawn with

It is

the emphasis and pressure to suggest aggressive

conversions of

body

conflicts.

Buttons that adorn the midline {mother dependence) are in line with the patient's contrast fantile

man and



a

a strong, authoritative

woman

we

see

the fantasy

"Queen." Figure

if^

{bottoin),

In Figure

woman

between

{top),

If

hand, represents

"Woman"

as she really

weak,

a

in-

figure.

ideal

of a

on the other

looms up

in the

patient's experience.

As with

the "King," the idealized version

is

bust of a figure placed in a frame for display, detailed

body

{obsessive),

display

We

and overdressed

a

pompous

it is

{conflict

over-

between

and 7nodestyF).

find a flower

{female symbol of reproduction)

indicated as contrasted with the

sword {penis symbol)

in

the "King."

The "Queen"

has

excessive

emphasis

on the eyes

.

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS

17

{paranoid) similar to the "King," but the expression in

"Queen"

the eyes of the

one of nun-Hke gentiHty

is

in

contrast with the sternness of the "King's" eyes {a harsh father

iji

the backgrowid?).

Figure trating

{bottom) features

If^

and rejecting female

{a

a powerful, hostile, cas-

vi other-image

has

that

probably saddled the patient with guilt and haunted him

with disturbing

man and many

the size of the

The

infantile sex fajitasies).

many

It is

times

times as powerful.

hair {sexnal vitality) covers a considerable portion

of her face {social front).

It is

straggly and

makes her

appear drunk {messed-np hair often associated with sexual ivnnorality )

The mouth and

is

a

compromise between

a sneer {lustful),

and

{aggression and sadism)

The

nose

is

it is

a

cupid-bow shape

drawn with much

pressure

.

shaded {a

drawings of infantile males

castratioji

who

symbol occurriiig

project their defects

in

upon

the female).

The body

appears to have been

and then shaded.

Finally clothing

drawn

in the nude,

was added

in a

com-

promise effort to conceal the transparency of the body {voyeuristic trends, and anxiety shadijig).

The

outline

of the

pelvic region seen

through the

checks shows amplitude {child-bearing fecundity). breasts,

however, are barely indicated

The

{niggardliness in

giving jiourishnent, ungenerous to children though she has the capacity to produce them).

The arms

{contact features) are short and folded {re-

jecting) but they are

drawn with heavy

lines

{powerful)

and shaded {pimishing).

The

outer contours of the

body which extend over

the

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

18

breast and pelvic areas are reinforced with heavy lines

(further evidence of conflict in jnother-child relationship)

The

with the long thin neck of the

better assijmlation of impulses)

The

woman

broad, thick neck of the

nificantly

V

neckline of the

.

contrasts sig-

man {woman's

.

woman

is

drawn with

a

dark

{sexual fixation on the breasts with voyeuristic trends?)

line

and accords with the transparency of the

through the

legs

dress in interpretative significance.

The display

shading accorded the dress of

considerable

is

dark and reflects

psychomotor tension

{seen

a

in

drawings of sado-7nasochistic male patients who have been referred for sexual assault upon feinales). Figure Im^ {bottom), the man, while Figure

may

If^

be seen

as the

symbol of masochism

{bottom), the woman,

is

the graphic ex-

pression of sadism in our patient's character.

The checked

dress

{a forin of rationalized shading)

body area except the aggression focused upon that area than covers

A

all

of the

dark, horizontal line at the waistline

breast region {less

the lower parts?). is

given special em-

phasis in the crude criss-cross of the dress to

mark

the

"above" and "below" {additional evidence of strong sex consciousness)

.

Transparencies {break in judgment) occur at such conflict

centers as the position of the arms {inaternal rejection)

and areas of the body beneath the dark

line

marking the

waistHne {voyeurism}).

Coordination of the various features of ings points

four draw-

toward the diagnosis of schizophrenia involving

both hebephrenic and paranoid elements.

do not represent

were done

all

a facetious presentation of

in all earnestness.

It

may

The drawings an idea. They

be mentioned that in

PREVIOUS INTEREST IN DRAWINGS

19

the writer's experience even artfully stylized and facetious

drawings are incapable of escaping the projective implications relative to quite

comprehensive aspects of the per-

sonality.

PREVIOUS INTEREST IN DRAWINGS Clinical interest in drawings has in the past centered

around theoretical problems regarding the relationship of genius to insanity and of the likeness of insane art to that

The

of primitives and children.

literature records efforts

drawing

characteristics in accordance with psy-

chiatric groupings.

These group descriptions were, how-

to classify

ever, so

vague and overlapping that Anastasi and Foley

(1), in their exhaustive

survey of the hterature, were forced

to conclude that differentiations through drawings could

only be made

in the

presence of extreme mental disorders

who Were

and only with individuals

offer personaHzed, startling,

or bizarre productions.

drawings so limited

ability to differentiate,

in their

they would offer no aid to diagnosis.

Enthusiasm for the revelations contained in drawings, revelations

which could not be

elicited

by other methods

of investigation, has been expressed repeatedly clinical

workers.

by many

This enthusiasm did not, however, ex-

tend in the direction of codification or construction of principles

of

interpretation

whole range of personality bilities that

that

would encompass

analysis.

the

Interest in the possi-

graphic expression offers for the understanding

of the personality

is

now

at its peak.

ing drawings everywhere, but the

Clinicians are collect-

work done

in

drawing

analysis seems to be limited to the clarification of particular

problems relating to individual

tion of formal or structural features,

cases, to considera-

and to the enumera-

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

20

tion of isolated features

common

to special groups.

Draw-

ings as an instrument of comprehensive personality analysis

must develop out of the study and understanding of the individual personality as well as analysis of group char-

and be referred to

acteristics,

Drawings

as a

a basic

and stable

rationale.

source for psychoanalytic associations have

been described by Lewis (21), offering

a context

which

should provide an excellent opportunity to validate some of the principles discussed here.

ORIGIN OF METHOD The

tentative principles of analysis presented in this dis-

cussion had empirical clinical material

observation for,

growth mainly

in a

wide variety of

gathered in clinics and hospitals for mental

over

period

a

and primary focus

of,

of

fifteen

Incentive

years.

investigation centered around

perfection of the drawing technique as a clinical tool for personality analysis,

hypotheses.

rather than around

any theoretical

In the course of administering

Drawing-of-a-A4an

test for usual

IQ

Goodenough's

purposes,

it

was

dis-

covered that careful study of the individual drawings often yielded rich clinical material not related to the intellectual level of the subject.

Children securing the same mental

age rating would frequently do strikingly different and individualized

drawings.

It

was,

furthermore,

common

experience to see socially inhibited, non-verbal children

welcome tasies,

the opportunity to

their anxieties,

and

unburden

their guilt

their private fan-

upon the

objectified

and impersonal figures which they drew and not be comfited in the

least

their self-portraiture 4f.)

dis-

by the thin transparency with which was disguised. (See Figures 4m and

EMPHASIS ON PATTERNS OF TRAITS The

21

graphic communications of children proved to

human

be of such clinical value, that drawings of the figure

were soon incorporated

stages,

routine

in

cedures and extended to adults of

all

some timidity was encountered

tions to the figures

from

adults.

In the early

in eliciting associa-

Further experience with

the technique indicated that the timidity jection of the examiner's

pro-

clinical

ages.

was more

own awkwardness. The

a pro-

alacrity

and fluency with which many sophisticated adults offer thematic elaborations contrast markedly with the poverty of their drawings and the strain with

produced.

It

which they were

apparent that verbal patterns are sym-

is

bolic, less direct,

and more subject to conscious manipu-

lation than graphic projection.

Individual draw^ings were

intensively studied in coordination with associations given

by

On

the subject and with relevant clinical data.

the basis

of such study, formulations, and clarification of principles of interpretation of the graphic product have developed.

Refinement, validation, and correction of these principles

have been and are in constant progress. the exposition of the

and

in

method here attempted

some measure serve

as a

hoped

It is

that

will stimulate

guide for further research

elsewhere.

ON

EMPHASIS

PATTERNS OF TRAITS

Except for the designation of specific for the is

isolated characteristics

drawings of particular

clinical groups,

it

not intended, for the present, to construct a check-list

of "signs"

which can be used mechanically

differential diagnosis.

related patterns of

Stress

drawing

is

laid primarily

traits as

dynamics of s)^mptom organization

they

to establish

upon

may

inter-

reflect the

in a particular diag-

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

22

Drawing traits tend symptoms in clinically

nostic category.

manner

that

As with

overlap.

to overlap in the

same

differentiated groups

the clinical use of

all

projective tools,

grasp of mechanical details of drawing analysis cannot

knowledge of personaUty dynamics and syndromes which is so indispensable to the proper

substitute for the clinical

use of the method.

and "Popular" Graphic

Pathological

The

diagnostic import of a particular drawing feature

depends upon if

we

Traits

its

uniqueness or popularity.

For example,

consider the "conflict" treatment of hands and feet

in a particular

drawing (either

in the nature of the pre-

liminary remarks, omission, dimming out, erasures, shading, or reinforcement of those parts), the fact that fact that

it

it is

we must

common drawing

a

be aware of

manifestation.

The

appears often in drawings does not deprive

it

of the interpretative significance generally attributed to that

drawing

feature.

Disturbance in the hand treatment

remains an indication of lack of confidence in achievement

and

in social contacts, while

feet refer

difficulties

in handling the

roughly to insecurity of footing.

ticular society,

tradictions,

the

with

its

In our par-

competitiveness and manifold con-

denoted by

uncertainties

deaHng with the hands and

difficulties

in

feet of a figure are "popular."

Thus, such drawing characteristics would not warrant the consideration of a neurosis in are supported

On

by other graphic

the other hand,

2.

particular case unless they

indicators of maladjustment.

when such drawing

features as internal

organs showing through a figure, or confusion of profile

and

full

view of the head by any but

are offered

by an

a primitive subject

adult as a sober representation of a

EiMPHASIS person, one has

ON PATTERNS OF TRAITS

good reason

Bizarreness,

psychosis.

boHc treatment, and

23

to suspect the presence of

excessive

over-sym-

incongruity,

silliness are also specifically indicative

of mental pathology.

Normality or Adjustment Indicators Since the method developed in cHnical context, natural that special emphasis should be placed tions of structural weaknesses at the root of

adjustment

and conflicts

difliculties.

of the dynamics of personality that

The is

upon

it

was

indica-

in motivation

rich projection

found

drawings

in

does lend the method to analysis of assets and constructive

At

potentialities as well as to analysis of liabilities.

the

present stage of the development of the method, evaluations in regard to adjustment capacities

mality are

sonaUty

made on

traits

the basis of interrelationship of per-

contained in the drawing.

tion of these traits

implications.

and degree of nor-

No

The

considered in terms of

is

configuraits

clinical

method can be expected

projective

fully differentiate abnormality

to

and normality without some

reference to time, place and circumstances which might

bear

upon

the value judgments that are derived

from the

test.

In a significant proportion of cases, drawings do per-

mit accurate judgments covering the subject's emotional

and psychosexual maturity, and

a host of other traits.

his anxiety, guilt, aggression,

Whether

particular manifesta-

tions of, let us say, sexual immaturity have led to, or will

lead to particular difliculties in adjustment can be foretold

with

less

of the

certainty than the presence of that

many modifying

ing the personality.

traits,

trait,

because

and circumstances surround-

Normality depends upon the

level

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

24

of energy, the degree of control, capacity to integrate

and most important, the readiness to face

experiences,

problems and defects.

Drawing

analysis of unselected so-

called normals have revealed neurotic conflicts, anxieties,

psychopathic trends, paranoid features, emotional, social

and psychosexual immaturity,

blown

schizophrenia.

larval,

and perhaps even

full-

These judgments may even be well

confirmed by competent observers

who

are

acquainted

with the specific subject. Some of these subjects

may

have

kept out of clinics or hospitals because of factors extraneous to personahty structure or dynamics. differentiation of

ing analysis

method

the

is

In short, the

normal from abnormal by means of draw-

a less real

problem than the effectiveness of

in determining the personality

of the behavior of an individual



and dynamics

an effectiveness

which

could best be judged by verifying cHnical analysis made

by trained observers who employ utilized by the drawing analyst.

similar concepts to those

In order to arrive finally at an estimate of adjustment, it is

necessary to consider such factors as age, sex, mental

level, cultural matrix,

environment. criteria

and the

facilitation or stress of the

Adjustment ratings

in reference to specific

have been found feasible with drawings, especially

when "adjustment

to

what"

is

clearly defined.

methods for weighing factors conducive

to

Although adjustment

or normahty are being studied continually, they require

more specific research and elaboration if the drawing method be adapted more concretely for guidance and vocational selection.

PRESENT STATUS OF METHOD PRESENT STATUS OF

The

25

METHOD

psychological orientation governing the analysis of

drawings has already been indicated and will be discussed in greater detail presently.

The

principles of interpreta-

tion that will be outlined have received repeated justification

and verification

in clinical usage.

of the graphic characteristics

groupings

is

common

Systematic analysis to specific clinical

being undertaken in connection with the

preparation of an extensive variety of clinical case studies.

The of

writer has built up a fairly substantial

and summary analysis of the drawings.

many

de-

of both the structure and content of the figures.

In

These drawings

this

of drawings

types with attached notes which give personal his-

all

tory, clinical data,

tails

file

are then classified in regard to

way, particular drawing features can then be studied

for specific meanings and for the groups in

occur.

Comprehensive personality

analysis

which they

and diagnosis

of unidentified individuals as well as of individuals clinical history x\

number of

is

known

these

whose

have proved markedly successful.

"blind" personaHty studies were in

remarkable agreement with independent studies made on the same subject

by Rorschach and handwriting

experts.

After years of experience with drawings, the writer

is still

enormously impressed with what people manage to communicate in drawings, regardless of skill or previous training.

Prognostication of the course and treatment of a

problem or mental disorder has frequently been accurately made solely on the drawings. Prognostic personality

indicators

may

ally obtaining

treatment.

be more firmly established by systematic-

drawings

at crucial points in the

course of

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

26

An

anonymous drawings in groups of five with the appropriate case records was made in a brief experiment conducted by the writer and another competent judge. Neither the drawings nor records were match

effort to

by

seen

previously

groups represented

sets

the in

of

Although the

judges.

each

drawings were not too

set of

differentiated, a degree of accurate

that

was much

better than chance.

and

tion of validation

clinical

matching was achieved Research

in the direc-

clarification of principles

through

study of individual drawings, clinical groups, and associa-

drawings

tions to

is

in constant progress.

Twenty

ortho-

pedic cases were studied for the possible projection of dis-

turbances of the body image.

The

preliminary results were

Projection varied according to the basic per-

striking.

sonality of the individual afflicted, the degree of disability,

and duration of

disease,

but important features of the sub-

ject's reaction to the disease

in

most of the

To

cases.

body problems which

a study of the sensory

and

terms.

explicit

understand further the phenomenon of projection

of special

if

were made graphically

how It

are realistically present,

handicapped

is

being planned to see

they regard the offending organs in graphic

has been noted, in the course of clinical experi-

ence, that deaf people, or those

who

have had abnormal

or disturbing auditory experiences, will most often give special attention to the ear.

Narcissistic individuals

who

have never extended their libidinal energies beyond their

own

bodies will frequently give specific representation of

the most minor

body

A

their development.

insult that

by

a

have occurred

in

barely perceptible and functionally

insignificant polio residual

of one patient

may

was picked up

in the

drawing

conspicuous reinforcement of the

line

PRESENT STATUS OF METHOD

27

around the right ankle. Most frequently the area of insult is indicated, but the type of injury cannot be determined without reference to personal history.

For

study involving body image contrasts,

a general

compare the drawings of dancers with, perhaps, those of architects or engineers, the body image of surgeons with that of psychiatrists. One would it

would be valuable

to

look for contrasts in postural models between primitive

and

mode

dancers, since the

ballet

of dancing answers

different needs.

Communicability of the Method Clinical use of the

method

is

best reserved for

advanced

Seminars, lectures to professional groups, and

workers.

considerable personal guidance in the method, given to a

number of

clinical

workers, have spread familiarity with

the technique widely, although there has been publication.

The method

in the testing

throughout

program of many progressive

the

no previous

has earned a place of importance

country.

The

dramatic

clinical units

nature

of

the

method, ease of administration, and the direct method of interpreting ate to

from the

make dogmatic

figure, tend to

encourage the noviti-

use of fragmentary knowledge.

The

writer has guarded carefully against popularization for this

reason.

however,

With

the

proper training and experience,

facility in the use of the

in a relatively brief time.

It

method may be gained

has been the experience of

the writer that graduate psychology students have been able to acquire a grasp of basic principles involved in the

method

after

some orientation

lectures

were given them.

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

28

Economy

The

Method

of the

average time required for the drawing of the two

figures falls

between ten

to

twenty minutes.

to the figure are obtained, another ten to

may

If associations

twenty minutes

Equipment consists of only paper and The method may be adapted to groups, if the

be added.

pencil.

subjects do not

work

too closely together, offering a tech-

nique suitable to screening of problems in an educational,

The approximate

or therapeutic set-up.

industrial,

make

that the writer requires to

sketching salient characteristics,

a brief

interpretation,

ten to fifteen minutes.

is

Com-

This has not been checked with other workers. prehensive

more

and organized personality

descriptions

by working

directly

than scoring or symbol values.

take

and time

time, but considerable saving of energy

effected

time

is

from the product, rather It

may,

in the future,

be

necessary to develop some system of scoring for purposes of teaching, but for the present fruitful to deal directly

it

has been found most

with the figure for interpretation.

ADMINISTRATION The vision,

simply to ask the subject to "draw a person."

is

subject

and

present technique of administration, after some re-

is

The

given a paper, preferably letter-size (8/2' x 11").

a pencil of

tion of the

medium-soft lead with an

drawing

is

made

as

eraser.

inconspicuous

Observa-

as possible.

Identifying data, preliminary questions of the subject, ap-

proximate time, sequence of the parts drawn, and spontaneous comments are noted on another sheet, and note is

made

as to

one drawing

i

which of the is

sexes

was drawn

completed, the subject

is

first.

When

given the blank

ASSOCIATIONS side of the

page on which the examiner's notes on the

drawing were made, and sex with,

29

draw the other

instructed to

is

first

"now draw a man," or "now draw may be. The directions to draw

as the case

a

woman,"

a

"female"

or a "male" have most often been used to prev^ent any specific definition of the figure that

is

asked for, since the

may wish to draw a girl or a boy rather than an adult man or woman. In dealing with very young children it may be preferable to ask them to "draw somebody." The phrase that will permit the greatest freedom of prosubject

jection has not yet been determined. as a

completed

figure,

the subject

is

If a

head

offered

is

generally urged to

complete the drawing. Whenever possible, both drawings should be obtained, but, ing, his

it

is

own

if

there

is

time for only one draw-

preferable that the subject

sex.

draw

Resistance to drawing, which

the figure of is

encountered

becomes more experienced and con-

less as

the examiner

fident,

can easily be overcome by assurance to the sub-

ject that the task

is

primarily of experimental interest, and

has no relationship to

skill in

drawing.

"This has nothing to do with your

am

interested in

how you

try to

The

subject

ability

make

to

a person."

subject omits an essential part of the body, he

pressed into trying to

draw

why

told,

If

may

I

the

be

that part after note of the

omission has been made, to see as to

is

draw.

if

a clue

can be obtained

he resisted drawing that part.

ASSOCIATIONS Although of only supplementary significance

to inter-

pretation, associations are valuable for elucidation of indi-

vidual meanings and specific problems involved in a drawing.

The

use of associations also furnishes an excellent

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

30

method of

fects, is

drawn

figure.

They

little

associations

own

rapidly slip into their

de-

compensations, and wishful thinking. Personalization

introduced often not too consciously and in thinly

guised forms.

A

Table

tions (see

1)

designed to

on the

examiner's

notations.

make up

a story

side of the

The

about

this

in a novel or a play."

by

started off

seem

to be?"

way

he

elicit

the subject's attitude

page which

person

the examiner with:

used for the

instructed,

is

as if

is

he were

like

"Let's

a character

may

he

be

"About how old does he a married man?" In this

being assisted by the interested participation of

is

the questions are:

warms up

"How

occupation?"

old

is

to the figure.

the person

"Is he married?"

he strong?"

"What

is

Some

school-

good looking?"

the best part of his body, and

the worst part of his body, and w^hy?"

is

of

drawn?" "W^hat

"How much

ing has he had?" "Is he bright?" "Is he

"What

These questions

used.

If the subject resists,

the examiner, until he

his

is

subject

"Does he look

be

fairly routine set of ques-

toward himself and toward others are printed

dis-

may

Actual use of the pronoun "I"

interspersed unconsciously.

is

pay

subjects

model while giving

attention to the graphic to a

Most

indirect interview.

"Is

why?" "Is

he

"What gets him angry?" "What are his worst "What are his main wishes?" A brief series of.

nervous?" habits?"

questions relating to the subject's social and sexual attitudes are included.

The

subject

minds him of anyone be

like the

kind of

is

then asked

in particular,

He

is

the figure re-

and would he

person drawn, or would he

a person.

if

like to

like to

marry

further asked to identify

that

which of

Note: All questions to be adjusted for age and sex of subject. Positive answers of clinical interest should be followed out in inquiry. Mark doubtful features of figure or clothes on the drawing. Mark which drawing was done first by encircling the or the ""F" with an appropriate "1" or "2" depending upon the order drawn; i.e., indicates the male was drawn first. Ask the subject whether any of the traits described for either character may be similar to his (or hers).

"M"

"®-F;®-2"

ASSOCIATIONS TABLE

I

— ASSOCIATIONS

MACHOVER FIGURE DRAWING TEST Name

Age

No

Date

Problem

(Make

31

M-F:l-2

Diagnosis a

Drawing

of a Person)

Remarks and Procedure

Aisociations

(Doing)

(Age)

(Children)

(Kind of work)

(Brothers or sisters)

(Schooling)

(Ambition)

(Smart)

(Healthy)

(Strong)

(Good looking)

(Best

(What's on

mind)

his

(Sad or happy)

(Fears)

(What

gets

(Good

points)

him angry)

(Wish (Bad

(Mostly by himself or

with

(Trust

(Self-conscious

people) (or

(Run around) (Sex with

wife)

to

him)

them) (Separated).

(First

run around).

se.xual

exp.)

(Expect to marry)

girl

often

of

(Wife (or husband)

go out with;

(Sex with boys)

(Whom

stare at

parents)

(Steady girl)

(Type of



(Afraid

(Get along with wife)

most)

for

points)

people)

(People say)

(Like

(Worst part)

part)

(Nervous type)

(How

(Married)...

(More attached

with)

(Live

(Ever approached)

masturbate)

(What

think of

it)

does he remind you of) be

like

him)

Patient's Self-appraisal

(Worst part of body) (What's good about you)

(Best part)

(Bad about you)

to).

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

32

the statements he figure.

When

made may

refer to himself as well as the

used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes,

the associations

may

be extended and adapted to problems

specific to the individual.

The

subject

is

also

asked to

explain features of the drawing that are not clearly identifiable. is

The

information contained in these associations

of enormous clinical value.

It will

be systematized and

discussed at greater length in future publications.

%

PART

II

PRINCIPLES OF INTERPRETATION

INTERPRETATION While

the concepts underlying the technique of draw-

more or

ing analysis were developed

independently in

less

the course of studying thousands of drawings in clinical contexts, their formulation jective

owes much

methods of personality

analytical theory.

to established pro-

and to psycho-

analysis

Though some

may

of the assumptions

lack experimental verification, they have proved clinically valid.

The

principles in the

main were guided by study

of the clinical types in which the graphic

The

received emphasis.

file

trait in

question

of drawings previously re-

ferred to, annotated in detail in regard to clinical and personal history,

was used

as a

source for studying the mean-

ings of particular graphic features.

Although

women

children were included, circumstances of the writer's

and

more

recent clinical duties facilitated the collection of sets of

drawings from more males over sixteen

who were

for adjustment and emotional difficulties, than

other group.

A

number

considerable

of

studied

from any

these

sets

of

drawings are combined with individual Rorschach protocols

on the same

subject,

studies in relating the

convey the impression discussion exhaust

any means. are

New

all

providing data for future

two methods.

It is

drawing

not intended to

traits selected

for

possible angles of consideration

by

that the

aspects and features of the drawings

being added constantly in an effort to refine the

method. Such features are pressing continually into view in the course of coordinating individual case records

drawings. [34]

with

INTERPRETATION

35

Again we repeat the basic assumption,

human

edly in clinical experience, that the

by an

who

individual

is

directed to

verified repeat-

"draw

a

drawn

figure

person" relates

intimately to the impulses, anxieties, conflicts, and

pensations characteristic of that individual.

drawn

the figure

This

as a

may

be a crude formulation,

working hypothesis. The process of

drawing the human figure realizes

In some sense,

the person, and the paper corresponds

is

to the environment.

but serves well

whether he

for the subject,

is

or not, a problem not only in graphic

it

com-

one of projecting himself

come

attitudes that have

in all of the

skill,

but

body meanings and

to be represented in

his

body

image. Consequently, the drawing analyst should feel free to extract

put into

from the graphic product what the subject has

it.

He

should feel free to interpret directly aspects

which, with striking

literalness,

often reflect real

lems and behavior of the individual figure is

is,

in a

way, an introduction Thus, when

drawing.

a

who

to the individual

who

subject erases his arms and

ally interpreted that the subject does

he

may

his

arms

literally

in his behavior.

be expressing

not

may be literknow what to

it

If the fist

clenched,

is

his belligerence.

If the

of the figure has a pensive, furtive, or bewildered

Figure 6m) gaze, vidual

who

The

is

it

may

eye (See

often be characteristic of the indi-

projecting.

where

it is

placed on the sheet,

movement, the

pressure, the solidity

size of the figure,

the rapidity of graphic

and

prob-

The

changes the position of them several times,

do with

life

drawing.

is

variability of line used, the succession of parts

drawn,

the stance, the use of background or grounding effects, the extension of the arms toward the it,

body or away from is drawn

the spontaneity or rigidity, whether the figure

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

36

view are

profile or front

ject's self-presentation.

all

pertinent aspects of the sub-

In analysis, consideration

is

also

given to the proportions of each part of the body, the

tendency to incompletions, the amount of detailing and the area of concentration of detail, the

amount and focus

of reinforcements, of erasures and line changes, the degree of symmetry, treatment of midline, and above

all,

the

mood

expressed in the face or in the postural tone of the figure. iMale and female figures of a set of drawings are

pared in

all

com-

of these characteristics.

Content, involving details of body and clothing treat-

ment,

is

interpreted in terms of the functional significance

The

functional and experiential values of

attached to

it.

such

have been checked with subjects capable of

details

introspection and association on a conscious level, and with

psychotic subjects whose unconscious thoughts emerged

on

To

a surface level.

validate further the basic functional

criteria of interpretations

questionnaire

is

of drawings, a comprehensive

being prepared concerning the stereotyped

meanings associated with specific body types, with certain types of features of clothing, and with such

shoulders, thin features of the

lips,

large hands,

human

body

details

neck, jutting chin, broad

as a large nose, large feet, thick

as

well as

many

other

figure.

THE HEAD Functionally,

who

is

drawing

what can the head mean for a

"person"?

The head

center for the location of "self."

is

the subject

the important

Heads generally

receive

emphasis except in drawings of neurotic, depressed or socially

withdrawn

individuals.

The head

is

essentially the

center for intellectual power, social dominance, and con-

THE HEAD trol of is

body

impulses. It

is

37

thus being involved in

consistently exposed to view,

the function of social relationships.

quently verified

when

body which

the only part of the

Subjects have fre-

functional interpretation of the head

this

asked to give the best part of the body in their asso-

ciation to a figure,

consider

and further asked to explain

The

the best part.

it

why

they

obsessive-compulsive will

frequently give an almost ape-like presentation of physical

power

in the figure he draws,

In this instance, the head

organ responsible for

is

while underplaying the head.

definitely considered to be the

his conflict

concerning free expres-

sion of his impulses.

Disproportionately large heads will often be given by individuals suffering

from organic brain

disease, those

have been subjected to brain surgery, and those

who who

have been preoccupied with headaches or other special

head

sensitivity.

may

It

be considered that weakening of

intellectual

power and control

head

primary organ

as the

Although

it

may

damage the fact that the

body,

is

body

values.

be argued that in cases of organic brain

large

head treatment

judgment on the

spatial

fixates consciousness of the

in the hierarchy of

may

be due to poor

basis of intellectual

defect,

the

head, in preference to other parts of the

emphasized must be seen in light of the functional

value attributed to the head.

Since disproportionately large feature in drawings,

it

would be

heads are a

profitable to examine the

different psychological dispositions of individuals

large heads.

common

The youngster whose

drawing

emotional and social

adjustments have been dislocated because of a severe reading or other subject disability will frequently

head in

his figure

(See Figure 4m).

The

draw

a large

associations to

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

38

the figure will most often give verbal corroboration of

upon education

the importance that the youngster places

and intellectual attainment, and the frustration that he has

The mental

suffered in that sphere.

defective will, for

Frustrated intel-

similar reasons, often give a large head. lectual aspirations,

however, do not appear

the associations to the figures

drawn by

as readily in

the defective as

they do in those of the subject disability of normal

The

gence.

paranoid, narcissistic, intellectually righteous,

and vain individual may draw

a large

head

as

an expression

whom

of his inflated ego. Another type of subject in

proportionately large head treatment

who

quate male a

intelli-

is

found

is

dis-

the inade-

gives the female figure, usually related to

mother-image, a

much

larger head than the figure of the

male. In differential treatment between the male and female figure of the

same

set of

portionately larger head intellect

and

Young

drawings, the sex given the prois

the sex that

is

accorded more

social authority.

children constitute the largest group of subjects

drawing large heads. The body

is

often given such meager

emphasis in their drawing projections, that

from the functional standpoint

body or

the largeness of the head

if is

it

is

not clear

the smallness

of the

of primary significance.

Functional analysis of the role of the head in the con-

young child suggests that, because of a dependence, more social emphasis in terms of inter-

sciousness of the child's

personal relationships

is

involved, than the concentration

of ego activity reflected in the meaning of the head in

drawings of

a

more mature child or of an adult. It is not why a young child of three or four will

altogether clear

often

from

draw it,

as a

a large head,

perhaps with appendages issuing

completed representation of

a person.

It

may

THE HEAD

39

be speculated that since locomotion and manual exploration of the

environment (and of the

child's

own body)

are important features of a child's early development, the

appearance of legs and arms in drawings before the body, is

functionally comprehensible.

ment of a child, the sense of power and control, is only in

Since the ego develop-

self in

terms of intellectual

the nascent stage,

we must

examine the functional emphasis on the head from another

A

angle.

child will offer a head as a completed person,

but will never give an isolated trunk, neck, arms, or legs as

Does the head loom

representing a full person.

because

it is

large

the center of awareness in respect to feeding,

sensory stimulations, and speech activity, or does special significance

from the

fact that the

part of the social environment

is

The head

of the adult

gain

most animated

the head of adults?

with the head that surrounding adults smile, frown, or scold.

it

is

It is

approve,

the most im-

portant organ relating to the emotional security of the

Perhaps the large head that dependent male adults

child.

give to the female figure in their drawings represents an

emotional fixation on a supporting mother-image similar to that experienced

by

the child as a normal phase in

its

development.

Goodenough

(17) has observed significant differences

between the drawings those obtained from

draw

a

were obtained from boys and though both were instructed to

that

girls,

man. These differences deserve consideration from

the functional standpoint.

Girls are said to

heads, shorter arms, smaller hands, shorter legs, feet than

boys do (See Figure 4m).

treatment

may

draw

larger

and smaller

This difference

in

be related to the respective experiences of

growing boys and growing

girls in

our culture.

While

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

40

have only to be pretty and decorative to

girls

social attention,

command

boys are expected to make rapid

development of physical and sexual power,

in

strides

in profi-

ciency in athletics, to reach out into the environment more

show more tangible accomplishment. It been observed by many clinicians that emotional diffi-

vigorously and to has

behavior disorders, and scholastic problems occur

culties,

more frequently

boys than

in girls.

More

is

expected

Competition with the formidable accomplish-

of a boy.

ment of

in

father-image tends, in boys, to lead to

a

dis-

couragement, anxiety, and even retreat to mother proprecipitating problems

tection,

which

girls

in large

are,

measure, spared.

SOCIAL FEATURES The is

face

is

— PARTS OF THE FACE

the most expressive part of the body.

the most important center of communication.

or face

the most readily accepted, subjectively easiest

is

to draw,

and

is,

in the crudest

skilled part of the

offer

It

The head

drawing. Subjects of

(or head)

the face

drawings, often the most

as

a

all

ages frequently

completed drawing of

a

person, whereas, the trunk or any other part of the figure is,

by

never considered a representation of a person.

itself,

who draw

Subjects

figure usually ships.

The

the head as the last feature of their

show disturbance

in interpersonal relation-

may be regarded as the social feature of The subject who deliberately omits facial

face

the drawing. features in a

drawing showing careful and often aggressive

delineation of contour and detail of other parts of the figure,

of

his

is

one

who

is

interpersonal

evasive about the frictional character relationships.

This treatment

graphic expression of avoidance of the problem.

is

a

Super-

SOCIAL FEATURES — PARTS OF THE FACE ficiality,

may

caution, and hostilit\-

characterize the social

Omission of

contacts of such an individual.

facial features

Withdrawn

has been encountered in "normal" subjects.

and timid individuals w significantl), while

often dim out the facial features

ill

emphasizing the contour of the head

(importance of the "self" and

a

strong drive to social par-

We

but egocentrically blocked).

ticipation,

find,

other hand, overemphasis and reinforcement of tures

by subjects who have,

in their fantasy,

and weakness of

for their inadequacy

self-image of an aggressive and

This treatment

vidual.

combination with

a

41

dim

on the

facial fea-

compensated

self-assertion b\' a

sociall\'

dominant

indi-

usualK' seen in profile and in

is

line

throughout the balance of the

figure.

One

deeply maladjusted adolescent drew

replete with strong fantas\ sions

of sexual

shaded

vitalit\'

The head was

and looked

head of

after

it

like the

had fallen

ofi^.

Negro

lips,

line

heavily

and much

with the body

a clay figure that

The

ciations that the male figure

shaded

large,

almost separated from the

was out of

It

a

trcmendouslv'

hat, excessivcl\ thick, hcavil\

emphasis on hair).

on

content and symbolic expres-

(a

bod\' of the figure.

a large head,

axis,

was stuck

subject indicated in his asso-

was very

and though

bright,

of poor circumstances, was aiming to

become

a

doctor (large head for intellect and over-elaborated features in head for fantasy). significantly dressed in a

The

rest of

dandy "zoot

the figure

suit"

was

with striped

pants and pointed shoes, strongly suggesting the uninhibited expression of a strong impulse quite

two

The

subject

is

clinically

individuals in regard to the superficial, flashy,

overactive and needs,

life.

uninhibited expression of his immediate

on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the ab-

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

42

sorbed fantasy

life

which he nurtures

made the drawing task

and which

privately,

a really creative

and cathartic ex-

perience for him.

Expression

Facial

Facial expression has proved to be one of the characteristics of

drawings which

considerable confidence.

may

be judged directly with

Individual judges will differ as

to the exact description of a facial expression in a drawing,

but in the experience of the writer, unanimity of judgment has been skill,

we

more

the rule than the exception.

find that the subject will unconsciously set a tone

drawing by an expression of

to his

ment, aggression,

rebelliousness,

even of inappropriate

draw do

a

Regardless of

affect.

Yet

hate, fear, bewilder-

placation, if

meekness, or

one were directed to

bewildered or happy person, he might not be able to

Experiments in projection of particular

so.

facial ex-

upon specific direction and also in the course of moods induced hypnotically are being planned. A

pressions specific

combination of drawing features seen frequently

the facial expression reflecting autistic and nar-

subjects

is

cissistic

preoccupation,

blocked,

movement

with large

figures,

pelling,

own

size

and aborted or

trends to reinforce the fantasy quality

of the subject's ego concentration.

ment

in schizoid

In these aborted move-

the fantasy impulse to

movement

but the figure remains trapped in the

is

com-

axis of his

narcissism and exhibitionism, resulting most often in

a static pose,

which

contrasts significantly with the evi-

dence of internal movement.

The

great variety of graphic treatment accorded the

individual features of the face furnishes one of the main

sources of content analysis.

Introspections gathered from

SOCIAL FEATURES — PARTS OF THE FACE

43

individual subjects concerning their drawing habits, indicate the preponderance of fixed preference for specific

ways of making

the mouth, the eyes, nose, and

features of the face. This

would suggest

the

all

that the particular

style selected to represent the various features refers stably

This hypothesis

to basic personality characteristics.

checked with

When expressive

a

study of constancy in drawing

extra lines are

meaning

is

being

traits.

added to give grooving or

special

to the face, other evidences of highly

developed intra-psychic elaboration are usually present

The

the drawing.

most frequently indicated are

lines

the area of the naso-labial fold and phasis of this type to the face.

is

Special reinforcement or a conspicuous bulge

mind with

occipital bulge that

have

in

Em-

intended to add depth and maturity

of the forehead (seen in profile) the subject's

on the forehead.

in

a similar

is

generally associated in

The marked drawings may

intellectual capacity.

sometimes seen in

is

meaning.

The Mouth

The mouth

appears in children's drawings almost as

early as the head

itself.

This

entirely consistent with

is

The mouth,

the functional aspects of the child's growth. like the other facial features,

ing projection. Emphasis

by

shows

upon

the

omission, reinforcement, special

ing, erasure, or displacement.

the drawings of holic

young

and depressed

a

wide range of draw-

mouth may be expressed size, special

Oral emphasis

shape, shad-

is

marked

in

children, primitive, regressed, alco-

individuals.

Since the

mouth

the source of sensual and erotic satisfaction,

it

is

often

features

conspicuously in the drawings of individuals with sexual difficulties.

Over-emphasis of the mouth

is

frequently

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

44

up with food fadism and gastric symptoms, profane Mouth detailing with language, and temper tantrums. tied

teeth showing, in an adult drawing,

is

considered an index

3m and

of infantile, oral aggression (See Figures is

and

3f)

often seen in drawings of simple schizophrenics or

flat

Children and low grade defectives will

hysterical types.

give this treatment frequently, but, unlike that treatment in schizophrenics, the oral aggression that

implied

is

developmental than regressive in nature.

even the tongue tration

on

is

more

Occasionally,

indicated, intensifying the oral concen-

a primitive level.

The concave

is

This

or orally receptive

encountered in the drawings of

adds an erotic note.

also

mouth

is

frequently

dependent

infantile,

indi-

whose dependence is often also manifest in undue emphasis on buttons. Functionally, this type of mouth is primarily passive and is open to receive nourishment. It is viduals

an expression of oral dependence usually associated with

demanding and cave

mouth

is

parasitic adults. In

usually

drawn

in

young children

the con-

From

a front view.

a

more normal than in adults. At the other extreme, we find the mouth that is represented graphically by a heavy line slash which, graphic and developmental standpoint,

in the

it

is

very act of drawing, communicates aggression. This

treatment has often been correctly associated with the verbally aggressive, personality.

A

over-critical,

and sometimes

variation of this line

is

seen

when

sadistic

the indi-

vidual starts out with considerable pressure, but withdraws

from the page

rapidly, so that a

indication results.

heavy but brief mouth

Interpretation of this treatment

follow that the impulse toward verbal aggression

is

would strong,

but the anticipated rebuff makes the individual withdraw cautiously.

The

single line for a

mouth

has been seen in

SOCIAL FEATURES — PARTS OF THE FACE profile if

drawings with

shutting the

been specifically seen had active but with lost his this

marked expression of

a

mouth

This has

who

drawings of individuals

A

fellatio experience.

less

tension, as

tightly against something. in

have

not unsimiliar treatment,

was found

tense line,

45

who

in a patient

had

speech following an operation on his larynx.

connection,

it

would be

fruitful to

In

study the mouth

treatment of stammerers and those suffering from other

The

types of speech defects.

wide, upturned line for a

mouth, giving the effect of a grinning clown,

seen fre-

is

quently in children's drawings and other infantile representations of the

human

figure.

It

has been interpreted as

forced congeniality, an effort to win approval, or even inappropriate affect, depending

In a drawing obtained recently

drawing.

consistent

a

a

which was

tied

up

in

his

patho-

mouth was his

mind with

oral

sadistic

formulation that coincides with psychoanalytic

theory of depression. Asthmatics

The

The

from

with patient's expressed guilt about

aggression



aspects of the

depressed patient, the omission of the

logicall)'

trends

upon other

detailing of lips

may

often omit the mouth.

Lips

when they appear

in a

often sets the tone of the facial expression. Full

drawing given

lips,

to the male figure, are regarded as an effeminacy indicator

(See Figure 6m).

They most

often appear with other

features reflecting foppish and narcissistic interests.

Some-

times the lips are developed with an especially sensual line

and

may

be so interpreted.

In rare cases, the

lips

have

been specifically constructed to resemble the phallus, and these individuals have had actual sexual experience with

the mouth.

The

lip

treatment, just as other features of

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

46

from

the male figure, will often differ markedly the female of the

set.

that of

This differential treatment will be

The

discussed in a later section.

elaborate,

cupid-bow

lips

in combination with other heavily cosmetized features in

the figure, are seen in drawings of the sexually precocious girl.

Whether

the strong sexual drive

havior must be judged from

An

irrelevant line stuck in

is

expressed in be-

other aspects of the drawing.

between the

lips in

manner

the

of a straw or a toothpick has appeared in drawings of individuals with a history of special oral erotism in their

The more crude and

sexual dispositions.

concentration on the

or

lips

mouth

is

erotic

specific

seen in drawings of

very immature individuals, and the drawings themselves are crude.

emphasis

The more

sophisticated treatment of oral-erotic

usually accomplished

is

by

the inclusion of a

conspicuous cigarette or pipe.

The Chin

The

chin,

which

relatively insignificant in the con-

is

sideration of facial beauty, and in actual life

entiated as a

weak chin

is

just differ-

or a strong chin, receives quite

frequent conflict emphasis in drawings.

The

chin's

impor-

body image stems more from its symbolic as a social stereotype than from any concrete

tance in the significance

In profile, the chin will frequently be

functional role.

erased, reinforced,

show

out prominently.

Such treatment may be regarded

a

change of hne, or made to

compensation for weakness, indecision, and fear of sponsibility.

It is

more

as

a

re-

interpreted as indicating a strong drive

to be socially forceful

expressed

jut

and dominant. Often

this drive

fully in the reinforcement of the

facial profile, in contrast to light lines elsewhere.

is

whole

In such

SOCIAL FEATURES — PARTS OF THE FACE cases, the drive is

nurtured

47

usually not externalized in behavior, but

is

In full view, a break in line or

in fantasy.

heavy reinforcement

may mark

the emphasis of the chin.

Frequently, the chin of the female figure

treated quite

is

For

differently from that of the male figure.

instance,

dependent males often symbolize projection of greater

power onto but

figure,

the female not only in drawing a larger female in

according

a

it

much more prominent

chin.

The Eyes

A

nication that

attributed to the head

is

The eye

the e\ es of an individual.

regarded life

commu-

considerable part of the function of social

as the

"window

of the

concentrated in

of the soul," revealing the inner

of an individual, but

with the .outside world.

is

has not only been

it

is

a basic

"Seeing

numerous saxings which

is

organ for contact

believing"

who becomes

i\n individual

tact

with the environment,

He

paranoid manner. exceptions,

with the world,

is

back.

who

world about

deaf retains active con-

only in an

if

func-

is

irritable

With some

and

notable

blinded loses contact

unable to fight back, because he

is

at the mercy of the environment. He withdraws, or becomes extremely dependent. The

thrown

physically either

fights

the individual

only one

testify to the central

tion of the eye in accepting or rejecting the

one.

is

eyes are the chief point of concentration for the feeling of "self" and the vulnerability of the

expression "to gests that

one

of his eyes.

knock the kills a

The

self.

The common

living daylights out of

you" sug-

person by depriving him of the use

eyes serve further to

warn

the individual

of menacing and threatening elements in his environment.

This

is

the function that the paranoid individual,

who

gives

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

48

much graphic emphasis to the eyes, probably stresses most. The pa'ranoid is over-alert to every detail about him. Ideas of reference may issue out of the fear of how people are

own

reacting to one's

hostihty toward

them and

features centrally in that type of sensitivity. will

sometimes draw

a furtive

ing ideas of reference.

We

the eye

Individuals

and suspicious eye convey-

also see the "piercing"

eye

in

drawings, which appears to have more the function of an

more comprehen-

aggressive social tool than of esthetic or sive visual experience.

signify roles

is

When

evil,

power,

regarded a

or

The

3f.)

eye

may

also

hypnotic control and in these

an intimate representative of the brain.

as

person

(See Figure

"cockeyed" about something, he

is

confused in

his

of security

involve

Our emotional

thinking.

the

eyes,

insofar as

life

we

and sense experience

approval or rejection through the eyes of others. ture has often placed

much

is

Litera-

of the burden of a character

study on description of the eyes of a person.

The

eyes

rank high in the hierarchy of values of physical beauty

and sexual stimulation. The eye

is

a

complex organ from

pleasures and knowledge

which our

greatest

The much as

function.

are derived.

graphic treatment of the eye varies perhaps as its

We see the

large, dark, accentuated,

or menacing eye creating an image of hostility and sus-

by

picion projected girls

make

larger

the paranoid individual.

and more elaborated eyes than boys.

Functionally, the eyes of a female

may

have more value

for social adaptation and sexual stimulation. are usually socially

Generally,

more outgoing than

Also, females

males.

The homo-

sexually inclined male, often very extraverted in his social personality,

may

give large eyes with lashes to the figure

of the male, in combination with a well specified high heel.

SOCIAL FEATURES — PARTS OF THE FACE by

In other cases, the orbit area of the eye, indicated Hne,

may

may

be large, but the actual eye

These individuals may show strong

49

be very tiny.

visual curiosity, but

have some guilt connected with that function, perhaps the nature of voyeuristic conflict.

The

drawing

in

small eye appears

often with other graphic indices of self-absorption. find other subjects

a

We

with the eyes closed

a figure

as if to deliberately

shut out the world in order to better

concentrate on their

own body

and more subtle projection of

narcissism.

A less voluntary

"riot seeing,"

is

the omission

of the pupil and drawing only the outline of the eye. this

treatment, the world

is

not actively shut out, but

In it

is

perceived vaguely, as a sort of undifferentiated mass of stimulations with ures

4m

little

discrimination of detail.

and 4f). The unseeing eye

is

of emotional immaturity and egocentricity.

"empty e)e" treatment

this

is

(See Fig-

often symptomatic

Occasionally,

carried to the extreme of re-

peating small circles for the eyes, nose, mouth, and buttons

on

a figure.

childish

This treatment has been observed

or regressed

sometimes

in

young

adults,

low grade

in

extremely

defectives,

and

children, perhaps as a reflection of

dependence, shallow emotionality, and lack of discrimination.

eye

In one case of a female patient, the omission of one in

the male

figure

was admittedly associated with

sadistic fantasies of annihilating a rival

out one of

his

brother by gouging

eyes with her knitting needle.

The Eyebrow

The

eyebrow has not been fully understood. There have been some individuals who gave significance of the

special emphasis to the

eyebrow, but adequate associations

were not obtained from them. The brow

interest

prob-

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

50

The

ably shares the significance of other hair indications. trim eyebrow, like the trim coiffure,

one of the

is

social

stereotypes reflecting refinement and grooming, while the

bushy brow suggests more primitive, personality characteristics.

The

inflection of a critical attitude

gruff,

trim

and uninhibited

eyebrow

carries the

toward anyone indulging

in free expression, as in the "raised

eyebrow"

associated

with disdain, haughtiness, or query.

The Ear

The

ear

treatment.

frequently singled out for special conflict

is

Viewed

passive organ. It

and

is

the ear

functionally,

not in

full

view

is

relatively

a

in face-to-face contact,

often hidden in the hair arrangements of the female.

is

When distract

the ear

exposed,

is

from the

women wear

earrings

ear than to call attention to

it.

more

to

Earrings

serve to extend and decorate the contour of the face.

Unless an ear special

defect,

notoriously

considered

The

is

markedly outstanding because of

it

is

of

little

esthetic

neglected in regard as

vulgar to pick at the ears

inclusion of the ear in drawings

age than the other facial features. less significant if a

human

interest.

to cleanHness,

is

It

as

size or

Ears are

and

it

is

at the nose.

stabilized at a later

thus considered

is

subject omits the ears in drawing the

figure, than if he omits a

more

active part of the

made outstanding

either

by

body. If

ment,

the ear

is

transparency through

erasures,

it

may

sitized in the

hair,

shape,

reinforce-

placement,

or

be assumed to have been particularly sen-

psyche of the individual

This sensitivity

size,

may

who

is

drawing.

range from mild reactivity to criticism

or social opinion to active auditory hallucinations, the de-

SOCIAL FEATURES — PARTS OF THE FACE

51

gree of distortion of the ear often correlating with the intensity of the auditory experience that

may

drawings

ear attention in

basis of deafness, a consideration

which

involved in an unselected group.

The

with

his

it

reflects.

Special

be accorded on the

also

is

not frequently

paranoid individual,

guardedness, suspicions, and distrust most often

gives ear emphasis, but the treatment

who

than that given by patients

are,

is

more modified

or have in the past,

been disturbed by auditory hallucinations (See Figure 3m).

The

schizoid individual, with vague ideas of reference,

symptom by moderate

often gives graphic notice to that

2m). One schizophrenic adoles-

ear emphasis (See Figure

cent

who

gave

a

very skilled drawing of a man, which

many

did not contain too

pathological features,

nosed on "blind" study of

his

The

ear

unusual ear treatment. radiating from the

center,

the

whole Card

inside, just the

was

III

as

an

ear:

shadows

the light shining

on

diag-

was very

large,

had

lines

and was excessively shaded. In

it

the Rorschach, he had,

was

drawing because of the

later discovered, identified

"The black could be

it."

the

and the red could be

in the ear,

Often the homosexually con-

flicted individual will project ideas of reference

noid reactions in specific ear emphasis.

The

and paraindividual

who is quick to take offense and is resistive to authority may show moderate ear accentuation on that basis. One mental defective, who was called a jackass among other names, and was very reactive to

his

unpopularity, managed

to give his drawings the conspicuous ears of a jackass.

The Hair Hair emphasis, whether

it

occurs on the head, on the

chest, as a beard, or a mustache,

is

generally considered

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

52

an indication of

Emphasis may be ex-

strivings.

virility

pressed in the relatively large space given the hair (See

Figure 8f), in the elaboration of coiffure (See Figure 2f), or in the vigor of shading that

The symbolic

Figure 6f).

cation of sexual viriHty lore

and fashions. The

is

is

accorded the hair (See

significance of hair as an indi-

traditionally confirmed

classic story of

need only to be mentioned

by

folk-

Samson and Delilah

in this connection.

One

has

frequently observed the excitement with which the early adolescent greets the appearance of pubertal hair. In

mon

parlance, something that

your chest."

It

grow

individual to

common

is

a

is

potent "will

a

hair

on

for the immature

practice

mustache or

grow

com-

beard in an effort to

impress others with his maturity, despite the fact that the

growth arouses suspicion of face.

The

a disguised

weakness of the

sideburns that some adolescents regard as stylish

and manly, while they serve only to elaborate the "dandy" characteristics of their male figure, are associated with the

"wolf" tradition

in the

mind of

the person drawing.

Fashion for female hair-styles adds cially as

its

testimony, espe-

associated with specific characters.^

it is

We

have

only to compare the prim, severe, and barren hair-do of the traditional spinster with the emphasis on abundance

and freedom that

is

suggested by the hair arrangements

associated with the sexually attractive and active female.

Associations obtained from male subjects (usually adolescents or

young

adults)

who

give their female figure pro-

fuse and messy hair while giving the male figure a careful

and precise

coiffure, lead readily to the

disorderliness in connection with

hottovi).

To

"Her messy

meaning of sexual

messy hair (See Figure lf\

paraphrase the statements of

hair

means

she's untidy, loose

many

patients,

and diseased."

SOCIAL FEATURES — PARTS OF THE FACE

S3

(Projected immorality and syphilophobia often seen in the

psychosexually infantile male.)

regarded

as sexually passionate.

A

hairy

woman

of hair between the male and female figure

seen in psychosexually immature males narcissistic

and

and are

who

is

generally

are themselves

hostile to the female (See Figures

6m

6f).

Emphasis upon wav^y, glamorous, cascading

combined with other outstanding cosmetic in

often

is

This differential treatment

drawings of sexually delinquent

glamour

tain

monly encountered

girls

details, is

or those

but

in adolescence,

it is

who

seen

enter-

is

most com-

not

uncommon

This treatment

aspirations.

when

hair,

Jewelry and

in socially or sexually precocious children.

other adornment details are often contained in such draw-

The

ings.

eation,

is

hair,

with poor form delin-

often an expression of the virility conflict brim-

ming over cations

vigorous shading of

into

some sexually deviant behavior. Hair

few drawings of have taken on a schizoid

on the jaw have appeared

adolescents

whose

virility conflicts

in a

In one case, an acute onset of schizophrenic excite-

caste.

ment, involving reiterated castration in the

barber shop where

his hair

fears,

was precipitated

was being

binations occur wherein the female figure hair conspicuously as

not in the nude,

who

it

is

cut.

is

Com-

drawn with figure, like

topped with an incongruous

hat.

The

of a regressed or schizoid char-

has remained infantile sexually while nurturing

vivid fantasies of virility. this

is

emphasized while the male is

diagnostic implication acter

indi-

In the sets of drawings showing

type of differential treatment of the hair and the hat usually the female figure that

stronger individual of the pair.

is

represented as the

The symbolic

significance

of these hat-hair combinations in drawings of the regressed

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

54 is

not

Perhaps the hat serves to make the

clear.

sentable

by concealing

his

impotence and

is,

It is

interesting

the hair for the man, and

woman, occurs very

the hat for the

pre-

in this sense repre-

sents an unconscious sexual compensation.

that the reverse treatment, that

man

infrequently.

The Nose

The

nose

is

considered in drawings to have essentially

the sexual symbolism with invested.

The

which

it

nose, like the penis,

has been traditionally

is

in the midline of the

body and protrudes from it and displacement from below to above is not uncommon. Most male subjects give considerable attention to the nose both in graphic treatment

and

in verbal description of the figure

very often regard the nose Frequently, a history

is

as the

drawn.

Adolescents

worst part of their body.

given of an adolescent

who

refuses

room for months, because of sensitivity about One young male schizophrenic, who had com-

to leave his his nose.

mitted a sadistic sexual murder, complained of the em-

barrassment about some imagined defect on

had persisted through adolescence.

was

his

nose wliich

This preoccupation

definitely related to masturbation guilt. In the

of another patient, the substitution

was

mouth

drawing

displaced the nose.

This

especially significant because the patient

involved was arrested for performing cunnilingus on children.

In his sexual behavior his penis had actually been

displaced

drawn

in

by the mouth, and, in the drawing, a mouth was the place where the nose (penis symbol) should

have been.

Many

regarded the nose

other clinical instances of having frankly as a penis

course of drawing analysis.

symbol were obtained

The

in the

social stereotype of a long

SOCIAL FEATURES — PARTS OF THE FACE nose suggesting sexual childish

is

virility

and

a

SS

"button" nose being

reflected in frequent anecdote.

Since a majority of the patients one encounters in a

mental hospital or cHnic population have sexual

difficulties,

either of immaturity, feelings of inferiority, of impotence,

or homosexuality, the prevalence of nose emphasis in drawings

is

quite marked. In profile, the nose

made

enlarged or

made conspicuously

may

long.

In full view, the nose

may be

This conflict treatment

be given to both figures of the set of

At other

drawings.

be reinforced,

smaller, erased, shaded, crossed out, or

shaded, reinforced, or omitted. of the nose

may

times, the subject accords this type

of conflict treatment to the figure of opposite sex.

way

which the subject

in

distributes his

own

the male and female figures ma\' derive

of his sexual identifications. that often the

be paralleled

It is also

between

from the pattern

of interest to note

omission of the nose in one figure will

by over-emphasis of

figure of a set.

traits

The

Impotence

bolically indicated in the

the nose in the other

in the older

male

often s\'m-

is

drawing of an excessively long

nose, while the sexually uncertain or inadequate adolescent is

more

quently in a display symbol

on the It is

like the tie, a

conspicuous

fly

trousers, or a shading or cutting oif of the nose.

more

to castration fears for auto-erotic indulgence

(See Figure 6m), while the reinforced nose

more

are indicated with

regarded

is

suggestive

direct compensation for inadequate sexuality.

This observation will bear further checking. trils

fre-

tentatively considered that the shaded or cut-off nose

relates

of a

more

likely to project his sexual difficulties

as a specific

If the 7ios-

any degree of emphasis, they are

accent on aggression, an interpreta-

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

S6 tion

which

generally sustained

is

by other

features of the

drawing studied.

THE NECK

The neck is individuals who

are disturbed about the incoordination of

and

their impulses is

often singled out for graphic emphasis by

their

some consciousness of in regard

flict

body (impulse trol).

From

a split in their personalities.

to the strength of the super-ego

Structurally,

gested.

the neck

and head

life)

There

mental control functions.

the

is

link

is

the esthetic standpoint, is

sug-

between the

(intellectual, rational

ears, receives little attention unless it

Con-

con-

the neck, like the especially deformed.

Primitive people select that area for elaborate adornment.

The more

royal the caste of the person, the

more con-

spicuous and elaborate the neckgear to emphasize the separation of the head religious

from the body.

It is

of interest that

symbols and charms are worn around the neck,

rather than around the wrists or ankles.

Royalty and cul-

tured, "stiff-necked," rigid, and over-moral persons

who

are distinguished for their vaunted mastery over their impulses, are associated

with

necked, pyknic individual

a tall thin neck, is

headedness and behavior that than by

frills is

of the face.

is

more guided by impulse

x\dornment of the neck with jewelry

intellect.

more designed to neck proper and focus it upon and

while the short-

associated with gruffness, buU-

distract attention

the

bosom

line or

from the contours

Occasionally, a specific and irrelevant hori-

zontal line, cutting off the head at the neck, appears w^iich subjects are unable

accomplishing

this

to

explain.

severance

is

A

more

subtle

way

of

suggested b} the appearance

THE NECK

57

of a tight choker necklace in the female figure which

otherwise unelaborated

as to

is

clothing (See Figure 7f).

Conflict treatment of the neck implying incoordination

between impulse and

rational control appears in

many

drawings, since the balance between self-expression and restrictions a

imposed by society

is

especially precarious in

complex and contradictory cultural

The neck

milieu.

subjects ject

when

explained

locus of the

they associate to the drawings. its

importance in terms of

Adam's

apple.

One

its

is

body by

often given as the most important part of the

One

sub-

being the

paranoid individual stated

"you could not turn your head to you or what was doing about you." The globus-hystericus lump in the throat gives further evidence that without the neck,

who was

see

after

of selection of the neck as a focus of conflict.

The more

serious efforts at suicide aim at the neck. Several psychotic patients with guilt in regard to earlier fellatio experiences,

showed symptoms of extreme neck discomfort. One child who was about to be tested, looked up at examiner mutely and indicated that he had

just

had

a tonsillectomy.

soon discovered that the child had undergone cision in connection

a

It

was

circum-

with excessive masturbation, and that

the symbolic castration was readily referred to the neck. Although the drawing of the neck does not require any special

skill, it is

ings of children.

one of the

The

later parts to enter the

omission of the neck

is

draw-

seen as a

factor of immaturity in drawings of children, adult de-

and regressed individuals. Capacity to deal rationwith, and coordinate impulse with adjustive behavior

fectives ally is

indeed lacking in these individuals.

The

long and often very thin neck, resulting in a

strik-

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

58

ing separation between the

body and the head,

is

most often

seen in the schizoid, or even schizophrenic individual. ically,

many

CHn-

of these individuals suffer from a sense of

body weakness which they express in a compensatory for physical power and aggression. In their verbal

drive asso-

ciations they regard the chest or shoulders as the best part

of their male figures and deplore the functions of the head.

The\' are physicall\' inferior and psycho-sexually infantile

and

a

number

of this group have been referred for study

because of their compensatory acts of aggression.

The

may

often

excessively long neck

on one figure of

a set

be combined with the absence of a neck, or

neck on the other figure of the

a

very stubby

pair.

Adam's Apple

The Adam's apple infrequency.

young males

It

as

culinity drive.

appears in drawings with comparative

has been seen mostly in the drawings of

an expression of a strong

little

differentiation

istics

and

ally

Adam's apple has weak individual who shows

between male and female character-

uncertain about his

been given the female

Patients

or mas-

Special interest in the

been restricted to the sexually

is

virility

who were

own

role.

(virility

has occasion-

assigned

to

her).

asked about their knowledge of the

function of the Adam's apple related food, and were not sure

if

it

to

swallowing

females as well as males had

Nevertheless, they seem to use culinity indicator.

It

it

unconsciously

as a

it.

mas-

— CONTACT FEATURES

59

CONTACT FEATURES

We

build our image of "self" out of our impulses, our

behavior, and the reality about us, and the representation

of the

body image

drawings tends to invite the graphic

in

expression of any conflict which might be experienced in

The

any of these spheres. mental and physical

disease,

tions in adjustment.

The

bodx'

image changes with

with frustrations and altera-

zation

of experience.

more

1 he universall\

detailed treatment of the head, relative

drawings of young children and

in

is

built

interiori-

skilled

to the bodx

,

and

in tlie

drawings of deteriorated

individuals, tends to confirm the slowness with

body image

body

organization of the whole

model develops slowK with the enrichment and

which

up and the \ulnerabilit\ of

in

it

the

the

face of mental disease, conflict, or personalitx disorganiza-

iMovement and contact with the outside world unite

tion.

the b()d\' image.

mental disease are restricted the outside

who, because of physical or

Indi\iduals

world and

in

movement

either

project an

or

on the per-

are left to feed largelx

ceptions and sensations derived from their

activity,

or contact w ith

elaborate

lacking active

expression fantas\'

own

bods

of inner

,

ma\'

fantas\

compensations,

may

portray an empty, vegetative, regressed, and sometimes silly figure,

reducing the image of the personalitx to the

barest and crudest essentials. that

movement

as

In general,

it

ma\- be said

an expression of fantasy in drawings

tends to diminish W'ith age as does the actual behavioral

mobility of an individual.

more than

others,

show^

Children and young adults,

movement

in

their

drawings

both actual functional movement and the aborted move-

ment pertaining

to fantasy elaborations.

They

will also be

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

50

more

naturally attracted to the projection of social-hero

stereotypes.

Various graphic indices of weak contact with the outside

world and increasing withdrawal into the body

Some degree

are seen in the maladjusted.

individuals.

of somatic con-

and weakening of contact

centration, intensified narcissism,

features appears in

axis

most drawings of neurotic or psychotic

Such drawings

will often

combine

infantility

with active fantasy in the form of well developed

detail-

ing in the area of the body, but arms do not leave the body,

mouth frequently

eyes look inward, and the

concave, receptive one.

Much

of the

life

will be

a

and animation of

may be dependent upon perfection of attire with complete absence of flexibility. The frozen and aborted the figure

movement

movement where

the intention toward

but the figure

trapped in self-contemplation,

the

is

"weak contact" group

is

clear,

falls

into

hands

are

of drawings.

Arms and Hands Considered

the

functionally,

and

arms

weighted with psychological meanings referring primarily to

ego development and social adaptation.

arms and hands that

we

feed, dress,

perform

our body and contact persons about

arms that adapt.

we

love and

caress,

It

us.

hurt and

is

with the

skills,

It

kill,

is

explore

with the

disrupt and

Considering these far-reaching implications of the

role of the

arms and hands,

it is

no wonder

that so

many

subjects express difficulty in the projection of them in

drawings.

The most commonly

omitted feature

hands, with the feet following as a close second.

hands are drawn, they be

dimmed out

may

is

the

If the

often fade into vagueness or

(lack of confidence in social contact, in

— CONTACT FEATURES They

productivity, or both).

61

ma)' be shaded vigorously

suggesting guilt in regard to aggressive impulses or nias-

turbatory activity. in

They may

be put behind the back

This

seen frequently in female

an evasive manner.

young

figures of their

nails.

who

with glamour aspirations

girls

The

is

figure

is

often

dressed in

bite

an evening

gown, with hands behind the back. The hand may be put in the pocket, a

treatment seen most often in delinquent

or psychopathic young adult males evasiveness.

In associations, hands-in-pockets

with masturbation, with being ing on to a gun. large b\-

\

a loafer,

oung boys

as

is

connected

perhaps with hold-

Occasionally, the hands are

drawn

quite

an expression of strength. Excessive

weakness or reaction to

indicates compensation for

size

some

an expression of

as

guilt)- use of the

hands.

In determining the contact of the individual with the

environment, the direction of the arm placement sidered important.

body towards

Do

the arms extend

Do

the environment?

the sides of the figure?

Do

con-

is

away from

they hang limply

the at

they press closcl\ and tenseh'

towards the figure (See Figure 6m), or do they venture out bravelx', onl\' to return to the body axis? tions of these various treatments

features in the

must be related

drawing studied such

degree of narcissism,

Interpretato other

as indications of the

of withdrawal,

of self-display

or

vanity, or of tension. In general, the direction and fluency

of the

arm

lines relate to the

degree and spontaneity of

extension into the environment. in a horizontal,

the

body

line cannot,

that are extended

at right angles

however, be considered

tension into the environment. in

Arms

mechanical fashion

This treatment

from

a true exis

usually

connection with simple and regressed drawings and refer

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

62

more

and

to shallow

affectless contact than

and mood of the

weakness either

be drawn

in single dimension, or

as a physical reality or

who

they

psychic reaction.

have functionally reduced the effective-

ness of their arms either

by force of circumstance or by

arm structure

in a deficit treatment.

be considered

flavor

or wasted, indicating deficit and

frail

self-incapacitation, the

though

infrequently,

arm treatment give the

figure.

The arms may may be otherwise In individuals

Not

with the environment.

fluid interplay

the direction and tonus of the

they do to

Omission of arms can never

Arms

as a casual oversight.

drawings very early.

The

usually indicated,

is

enter childrens'

reactions to drawings

by many

subjects attest to the fact that arms are always in active

awareness,

if

cult to draw»

only to arouse complaint that they are

may omit

jects

the arms as indication of positive with-

drawal from people and things. ject

may

On

rare occasions, a sub-

omit the arms on the psychogenic

Occasionally the arms of the female figure

This treatment has been seen only have

felt rejected

alienated in their

cases

and

by

their

environment.

may

be omitted.

who

in turn,

have

felt

contemporary females

of the male figure in such

3m

be reaching out, overextended (See Figures

An

tion of his

The arms

to

basis of guilt.

may

adult males

in

mothers and,

from and unacceptable

3f).

diffi-

Schizophrenic or extremely depressed sub-

asthmatic child

who was

seeking the

aflfec-

mother by making excessive demands upon

drew abnormally long arms, though single dimension, wavy-lined,

the

her,

arms were

and had no strength

in

in

them.

This treatment was graphically unlike any other part of the drawing. terest in

Special reinforcements or indications of in-

muscles of the arm are usually seen in combina-

CONTACT FEATURES

63

tion with other features of ph\sical-po\ver strivings such

and broad-shoulder emphasis. The very long arm

as chest

has been associated with ambition either for accomplishfor acquisition, depending

ment or

the drawing.

region

The

upon other

"freezing" of the hand at the genital

most frequently associated with individuals pre-

is

This placement

occupied with auto-erotic practices.

sometimes rationalized

arms

aspects of

is

an indication of swinging the

as

in walking.

Fingers

Fingers are

extremely

They

pattern of a person. that, for

important

in

the

experiential

are the real contact points so

example, the prints of the fingers, rather than any

other stable part of the body are used for identification.

Fingers are so important

They

as

to

feature in basic counting.

be individually ^lamed.

They

stand out as pro-

jections that are usually exposed to view. ible

They

are flex-

and the tools of manipulation. They carry the poten-

tialities

for aggression (the trigger finger, putting a finger

on somebody, or putting one's finger are used in

much

s\

Fingers

in the pie).

communication by mutes and are involved

mbol language

V

one's fingers crossed,

to

ward

off evil, or bless

for victory, and other examples).

Fingers are also used in various orifices of the

comfort or

titillate,

and

in that

involved in the generation of

The of the

enter children's adult, the is

body

to

may

be

connection they

guilt.

significance of fingers in the functional

body cannot be

in

(keep

overstressed.

economy

Fingers, as a rule,

drawings before the hands do.

In

an

drawing of fingers without benefit of the hands

regarded

as a

mark

of infantile aggression.

Such

fingers

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

54

most frequently drawn

are

pressure,

and

in single dimension,

with heavy

combination with other regressed and

in

The

primitive features in the drawing.

petal or grape-like

formation of fingers, short and rounded, though normal for children,

when

seen in adult drawings, are usually

manual

associated with the clinical traits of poor infantility.

and

Severely shaded or reinforced fingers are gen-

erally regarded as guilt indicators.

been collected, the and

skill

masturbatory

In the cases that have

mainly to stealing

guilt has referred activity.

The

or

speared

talon-like

fingers have been seen with paranoid features in drawings

(See Figure

to support the suggestion of overt aggression.

3m).

The clenched

especially with the

fist,

from the body has occurred lescent delinquents

surface behavior.

whose

When

chiefly in drawings of ado-

rebelliousness

the clenched

towards the body, the significance tion of inner in

symptoms

is

lies

A

rather than behavior.

fairly close to

fist is

in character,

it is

in the direc-

finds expression

mitten type of hand

and finger development has been associated

more

pressed tautly

more

and repressed rebellion that

pressed aggression, but

arm away

also

with re-

evasive and non-committal

tending to be associated more with furtive

outbursts of aggression than with somatic symptomatology.

The hand with the fingers carefully articulated, but hemmed in by a line, cutting off their contact possibilities, is

interpreted as another expression of repressed aggres-

sion (See Figure 2m). to

It is

seen in individuals

withdraw from emotional contacts for

aggressive impulses

becoming

abnormally

fingers

long

as

overt. a

conjunction with shallow,

flat,

incline

Occasionally one sees

conspicuous

regressed drawings (See Figure 3m).

who

fear of their

feature in

These have been

in

and simple types of per-

CONTACT FEATURES development

sonality

for vocational

fingers

meaning

who

in adults

or social

of these fingers

is

^S

have not used their

The

adaptation.

exact

not clear, since they often are

not associated with openly aggressive personalities, but the possibility that is

it

may

have

a sexually

symbolic significance

consistent with other features of the drawing. Ambitious

and aggressive individuals with acquisitive dispositions may

draw more than

common

on

five fingers

a

in childrens' drawings.

with joints and

This

hand.

is

not un-

Fingers that are drawn

nails carefully indicated (See

Figure 3m)

are interpreted as indicating obsessive control of aggression

on the part of the subject. Another expression of aggression a

is

seen in the fingers that are formed like a claw, or

mechanical

tool.

In drawings of individuals preoccupied

may

with masturbation, the index finger or thumb

be

given conspicuous or rigid treatment, or the dismember-

ment

(castration) of a significant finger

may

be shown.

Legs and Feet It

has alread) been mentioned that legs, and especially

feet are sources of conflict

Examining these significance,

we

and

difficulty in

many

drawings.

parts of the bod\'

for their functional

why

insecurit)' of footing,

ma\' understand

literally interpreted,

is

shown

in

most problem drawings.

In addition to the potentiality for contact,

which the

legs

and feet share with the arms and hands, they bear the

added responsibility of supporting and balancing the body proper and of making possible locomotion of the body.

CThe

bed-ridden,

depressed,

discouraged,

withdrawn individual may show and even a

legs,

or

resistance to

psychically

drawing

feet

and may sometimes compromise by giving

seated figure. In

some

cases,

such individuals

may

project

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

56

compensatory trend toward movement and activity in their drawings, which can be judged from other aspects a

of the drawing (especially over-perfection) to be largely

of

a

Frequently,

character.

fantasy

acutely disturbed sexually,

drawing below the

may

a

subject

demarcation only be

a

is

few repre-

A

less drastic

seen in the mechanical, heavy line of

at the waistline in

weak excuse

drawings where

it

could

for a belt as an item of clothing.

the reluctance

Occasionally,

is

waistline, or just indicate a

sentative lines for that section of the body.

shock reaction

who

refuse to complete the

to

deal

with the legs and

crotch area by ps\ cho-sexually immature males

is

handled

by drawing the outer contours of the legs (in front view), making a sort of skirt outline, and then drawing a line in the middle to divide this skirt-like figure into trouser legs. Full bodies with tiny, wasted, thin, shaky, or shaded legs are seen in

drawings of the involutional or

senile indi-

vidual as an expression of feelings of decline or deficit.

In

adult male drawings showing other graphic evidence of sexual disturbance, shading of the legs, or delineation of legs (usually

two-dimensional) through transparent pants

(See Figure 3m) adds evidence of homosexual panic.

The

unHke those of males,

legs of females,

are usually

exposed and have acquired specificalK' sexual significance.

They

feature frequenth" in the associations to the female

figure

drawn

as the best

or worst part of the body, and

often receive conflict treatment in the form of erasures,

reinforcement,

or

change

in

line.

The

narcissistic

and

psycho-sexually immature male will often give a kindly representation of the male and a hostile, hussy figure of the female with characteristically twisted leg perspective, so that one cannot

tell

whether

it is

the front or rear of

CONTACT FEATURES The

the figure.

and muscular.

some

has

67

legs in these cases will be quite masculine It

is

assumed that

type of treatment

this

sexual significance involving the confusion of

sexual characteristics.

The

more conspicuously in the male figfemale. F'eet drawn with all-but-deliberate

foot features

ure than in the

fidelity to phallic likeness

who

may

be offered by individuals

give other draw ing indices of sexual inadequacy and

preoccupation.

This treatment of the

feet, as

well as the

symbolically eloquent drawing of an excessively long nose,

who

occurs more frequently in drawings of males

have

turned their thirt\-five year mark, than of younger males.

The

ma\'

foot

by

be given special attention

lengthening, shortening, change of

erasures,

or shading. Sexual

line,

symbolism of the foot has been verified repeatedly

in the

associations given to such drawings, in literature pertaining to sexual aberrations,

and

in

popular anecdote.

likely that this sexual significance

the fact that girls tend to rule

draw

draw

relatively large feet.

may

apply

It

as

seems

well to

small feet while boys as a

This

treatment of the foot appears to refer

differential graphic as

well to problems

of general security of footing in the environment.

The

foot

appears as well to have aggressive implications arising out of

its

and

function in propelling and leading the

as

body forward

an instrument of attack.

Toes

When

toes are indicated in a figure that

is

not intended

to be a nude, they are regarded as an accent

on aggressive-

almost pathological in nature.

Toes, unlike

ness that

is

fingers, are slippers,

seldom exposed except

in sandals or

and normally they do not appear

in the

bathing

drawing

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

58

In keeping with the interpretative

of a clothed figure.

significance accorded the display of toes in drawings, the

recent female trend of painting toe-nails and exposing

them

open-toed shoes

in

may

be regarded

of increased feminine aggression. as

such by the more

conservative.

It

x\s

is

shown

joining their distal ends

line

a

viewed

certainly

with the encasement

of fingers, the confinement of the toes

behind

an expression

as

is

in a

drawing

considered to

indicate a blunting or repression of aggressive trends.

MISCELLANEOUS BODY FEATURES The Trunk

The trunk box or

is

often limited to a simple oblong, a square

The round

a circular unit.

ated with

less

aggressive,

figure has been associ-

more undeveloped, and more

feminine drawings, while the figure involving angles

is

considered more masculine, corresponding with principles of expressive

movement

The trunk

jections.

ment of appendages

that pertain to

all

occasionally omitted.

is

to the

creative pro-

The

attach-

head with omission of the trunk

has already been noted in connection with the drawings

of very

young

children, the particular significance being

referred to the developmental stage of maturity. In adults, the trunk

is

seldom omitted.

Patients with involutional

and sclerotic involvement on occasion

fail

to give the

male

figure a trunk, while shading the trunk of the female figure

anxiously (rejection of the female).

sponding

trunk

is

in the figure rather

delineation.

and aggression against

In culturally restricted individuals the corre-

clinical traits

sionally, the

own body

were

rigidity

identified

and narcissism. Occa-

on the

basis of

its

position

than on the basis of definite graphic

In such cases the trunk

is

simply designated

MISCELLANEOUS BODY FEATURES upper part of two

as the

parallel lines

running

broken continuity from the head to the is

feet.

69

in

an un-

The

figure

thus left devoid of an\' enclosure to represent the trunk

and

consequently without any substantial body what-

is

These drawings

ever.

primitive,

gressed,

type of treatment

This

is

connecting

in re-

Another

seen in the reluctance to close the in

drawings where some bottom

is

interpreted as indicating sexual preoccupa-

Occasionally the closing

tion.

and seen

or disorganized individuals. is

bottom of the trunk given.

are usually small

indicating

line

is

effected

by

a separate

disturbance surrounding that

area.

The

body as a representation of the selfsex is usually indicative of some discontent with the body tvpe possessed by the individual who is drawing. It may be a direct representation of body frailty or weakness, or it

may

specially thin

suggest a compensation for

unwelcome rotundity.

In one case, a very slender figure represented the subject's fear of

becoming

stout.

She had associated body fullness

with maturity and her central problem revolved about her

growing

resistance to ten,

who was

feeling of

into adulthood.

x\nother child of

markedl\' undersized, vividly fantasied the

growing

as

he

drew two

parallel lines close to-

gether from the bottom to the top of the page to indicate a tall

body.

cially in

A

double or confused body contour, espe-

drawings of females with glamour

fantasies, will

often spot a preoccupation wdth weight, particularly in a

context of oral emphasis in the drawing. Breasts

The most treatment

is

consistent and significant interest in breast

noted in the drawings of emotionally and

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

70

The

psycho-sexually immature males.

mark preoccupation with

lines to

breasts are erased,

some additional

shaded, returned to frequently for

furtive

that part of the figure

Occasionally, the breasts are obviously

(See Figure 8f).

evaded and converted into carefully drawn pockets breast area.

In several drawings, the breasts

in the

were actually

showing through the pockets, when no other transparency occurred

Whether

drawing.

in the

low, pendant

line,

image representation, or whether youthful female figure

line of a

tuated

bosom

is

the breast

suggesting that the figure it is

is

is

is

given a

a

mother-

given the high, firm

significant.

The

accen-

usually in the context of a strong and

dominant mother-image,

drawings of both male and

in

8m and

female subjects (See Figures

The

8f).

female

who

gives large breasts and pelvic development to her figure

may be

regarded

as

strongly identified with a productive

and dominant mother-image, almost

One young maturity,

adolescent

drew

a

low

who

in a matriarchal sense.

envied her mother's breast

breast line with an especially heavy

brooch to contain the supposedly large late-adolescent

who

breasts.

Another

feared maturity, featured a tiny, bud-

ding breast line as of a pre-adolescent figure, in her drawing of an adult female figure.

One

adult neurotic

who was

acutely disturbed about his furtive sexual interest in his

youngish step-mother and sex practices tion of

marked

of the breast finally

drew

it

conflict.

many

who was

a breast in profile

He

erased and redrew the figure

times, altering

it

in size

the product of his assiduous efforts he

impelled to remark gloomily, "H'm, that

and shape,

until

stood out from the body like an erect phallus.

As he surveyed itself

given to immature

with obvious indica-

way."

it

can't stand

was

up by

AIISCELLANEOUS BODY FEATURES

J[

Shoulders

The width and massiveness of sidered the most common graphic

the shoulders are con-

expression of physical

power and perfection of physique.

In

male drawings,

massive shoulders emphasized at the expense of other parts of the figure, are seen in adolescents and frequently in sexually

ambivalent individuals

for feelings of

an overcompensation

as

body inadequacy. The female subject who

draws the female figure with powerful shoulders (See Figures

7m and

protest

culine stress

7f )

may

be suspected of some degree of masinterpretation

that

if

is

corroborated by

on other features of the drawing which are related

to virility.

Men

their tailoring.

have

commonly had padded

Women

shoulders in

have adopted them more recently

along with other traditionally masculine sartorial manifestations.

The problem

of physical inadequacy

is

so very

often the tortured preoccupation of the emotionally dis-

turbed male that conflicted uncertainty as to

how

broad

made occurs marked by erasures,

the shoulders of the male image should be

frequently.

When

the shoulders are

reinforcements, and uncertainties, that the drive for

masculinity

is

it

body development

a basic preoccupation.

male subjects presented either

safe

is

as

In

in front

to conclude

an expression of

some drawings of view or

in profile,

the effort to achieve broad shoulders in the male figure results significantly in the likeness of a

female of the pair

may

bosom, while the

be given broad shoulders clearly.

This confusion of physical power and maternal symbol indicated in the male figure

is

usually

combined with other

features of sexual confusion in the drawing.

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

72

Hips and Buttocks

Both the hips and buttocks may receive undue attention in the drawings of the homosexually incHned or conflicted male.

not

It is

uncommon

to see the male figure

twisted in perspective in order to focus an overdeveloped

may

This

buttock.

ures, in profile

show

be seen in both nude and clothed

and front views.

Often the hip area

confusion, a break or change of

fig-

will

or particular

line,

widening, in conjunction with conspicuous treatment of the buttocks.

This conflict

may

in regard to the hips

be

expressed more subtly in an accentuated horizontal flare of the bottom of a man's jacket, extending

main body

Whether

although the jacket

area,

the homosexual trends are

may sometimes

may

relates

to

clearly buttoned.

made overt

in behavior

be judged by the context of the drawing.

In female figures line

is

beyond the

drawn by

females, an exaggerated hip-

be associated with the awareness of power that the

functional

potentialities

of

ample pelvic

development.

The Waistline

The

waistline

tion of clothing

is

sometimes given

on

a figure.

as the

Specifically,

only representait

serves to zone

from the

the trunk of the body, separating the "above"

"below."

Viewed from

a functional standpoint, this de-

marcation divides significantly differentiated areas of the

body. In the male, the "above"

is

the chest area

which em-

body features of physical strength; expansion and body musculature. The "below"

braces the primary i.e.,

chest

refers primarily to the area of sexual fimctioning, legs sharing the significance of sexual strength

with the

on

a

more

iVlISCELLANEOUS BODY FEATURES symbolic is

73

Functionally, the "above" of the female

level.

related to nutritional factors, being distinguished pri-

marily for

breast

its

development.

commonly emphasized by The "below"

fixated male.

It

is

area most

the

the orally dependent, motherin the female, refers

mainly to

sexual and reproductive functions, with the pelvic extension

more

of the hips bearing

upon

specifically

For better or worse, the

tive aspects.

the reproduc-

legs of the female

bear considerable responsibility for the total social impression of sexual allure. Adolescent girls, being at the threshold

of adult sexuality,

show

may

ways and roughly accords with of the conflict.

amount of

the greatest

Conflict at the waistline

figure of a set of drawings

drawing the

in

to draw^ w^ill

many

the intensity and handling

Thus, sheer delay

combined with impatience

leg conflict.

receive expression in

it

waistline,

on the companion

result in opposite extremes

of low and high waistlines, expressing blocking in regard to

meeting the body area of sexuality.

may

or a broken line fairly

direct

expression

"zoning" the body. this tension

may

A

reinforced waistline,

serve to give notice of an irritable and

of

More

tension

in

this

problem of

control and rationalization of

result in an elaborate belt,

which shows

the tendency of converting tension into esthetic and self-

display forms. a corseted

trol

On

An

excessiveh' tightened waistline, giving

and pent-up appearance, suggests precarious con-

w hich may

find outlet in temperamental outbursts.

body zones, the head, the trunk, and the area from the waist down, are drawn out of line with each other. There is conveyed an indication of a occasion, the three

chronic disturbance in the coordination of major dimensions of the

body image pointing to an inadequacy which is the more serious in

sonality integration

in per-

that

it

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

74

physical

among

disjunction

involves

power and

sexual

drives,

for

strivings

rational control.

Anatomy

Indications

Clear anatomical indications of internal organs of the l)odv are rarely encountered except in the drawings of

schizophrenic or activeK' manic patients. of somatic delusions

treatment

is

which

placement of

a

may

A

more moderate type

of

be expressed by the meaningful

few sketchy

Indications of rib

region.

suspicion

aroused by such graphic

is

usually justified.

somatic consciousness

The

lines in the chest or pelvic

are

lines

also

not essentially

pathological, since they serve to give the appearance of

ph\

sical

power. The inclusion of sexual organs

ing offered in response to the instruction, is

seldom seen

in

"draw

in a

a person,"

any but the drawings of professional

tion of bod\- parts through transparent clothing

is

a differ-

ent matter from the drawing of internal organs.

former case the bod\

is

usually

quently added clothing simply not

a positive

are

art

and schizophrenics. Delinea-

students, persons in analysis,

cies

draw-

drawn fails

first

In the

and the subse-

to conceal

it.

It

is

drawing-in of the organs. Such transparen-

most frequently seen

as

legs

showing through

trousers in the male figure (frequently shaded and indicative of

homosexual panic), or

body showing through

as the

the skirt

contours of the female

(most commonly asso-

ciated with furtive sexual fantasies or acts of a deviated

character in male subjects infantile sexual impulses).

chiefly in drawings

problems.

who are vastly preoccupied The latter treatment was

by male

with seen

subjects with involutional sex

CLOTHING

75

Joints

Unless

a

person draws a "peanut man,"

evasion of meeting the

as a stylistic

body problem, he seldom

indicates

the elbow, shoulder, knee-joints, or knuckles in his draw-

ing (See Figure 3m).

may

be suspected of

integrity.

a faulty

Joints give

indicate the joints

and uncertain sense of body

"strung together" qualit\' to

a

mechanical and

figure, a

who

Indiv^iduals

a

note which brings into

artificial

question the smooth, dynamic functioning and stable or-

body image. The

ganization of the

sclii/.oid,

the frankly

schizophrenic individual, and occasionally the bod\' narcisdecline will lean on joint emphasis in order to sta\e

sist in

off feelings of

may

also

bod\ disorganization.

Indication of joints

be seen in drawings involving

movement. Most drawings in a setting of

fantasy

static,

that involve joint emphasis are

mother dependence,

ps\ cho-sexual

turity,

and are paired with

larger,

and more dominant than the male

a

female that

more

is

imma-

aggressive,

figure.

CLOTHING The bod\ image by

clothing.

clothed.

the

A

large

is

blunt

of our bodies

surface

is

usually

Disregarding the individual theories in regard to

function of clothing,

clothes have alwa\

ing

can be extended, altered, and enhanced

s

it

had some

is

generalls

accepted that

libidinal significance.

Cloth-

to some extent a compromise between modesty and body displa\' in all circumstances except where it is

definitely required for protection.

.Most subjects tend to

evade the problem of whether to clothe or not to clothe a figure

they have drawn.

a crude, vague, or

The

majority compromise with

token indication of clothing.

If a

per-

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

76

son makes a preliminary inquiry

draw

with or without clothes,

a figure

that he

is

whether he should

as to

troubled by

The embarrassment with which

may

it

body

a strong

be assumed

self-consciousness.

the question

is

asked and

the clinical data relating to the individual case tend to

Not infrequently the identity when the projection is un-

justify this interpretation.

of the person projected, even conscious,

may Thus,

clothing.

be inferred from the character of the

on the female which reaches

street attire

may

to the ankles

be judged

represents a mother image subjects

draw

mode

the

clothes

on

as indicating that the figure

(See Figure 5f).

young

a

Some male

figure consistent with

appropriate to the prime of the father, thus

suggesting strong identification with the father.

Study of drawings tories reveals a small,

viduals

who

figures they

energy

with

clinical

his-

but significant proportion of indi-

consistently overclothe or underclothe the

draw with

spilled into

convenience,

in coordination

those

a

great deal of conviction and

For purposes of

the drawing task.

who

overclothe

the

clothe the figure as body-narcissists.

common

these groups share in

may

figure

referred to as clothes-narcissists, and those

who

be

under-

Although both of

infantile

and egocentric

emotionality and more than the average degree of sexual

maladjustment, they do offer interesting contrasts in their drawings, and correspondingly, in their personalities. clothes-narcissists use social

clothing essentially as a means of

and sexual enticement. The body exhibitionism and

self-display are accomplished

proper he

is

The

is

underplayed.

a male, will

The

by decoration while

the

body

body-narcissist, however,

most often draw

a

if

frank display of muscle

development with concession to clothing given only

in

CLOTHING the

form of

a pair

The drawings

77

of brief athletic trunks (See Figure 2m).

of the male clothes-narcissist, on the other

hand, most often resemble a fashion-plate, with draped

suit,

highly padded shoulders, handkerchief carefully arranged

and other

in breast pocket,

may

details of perfect tailoring

and

Interestingly enough, the female of the pair

grooming.

be given

a

The

tive allure.

other hand,

is

bathing suit with more muscle than seduc-

female figure of the body-narcissist on the

often fully clothed, but in such manner as

to emphasize the sexual features of the clothing (See Fig-

ures

2m and

2f).

These contrasting types of clothing treatment

The

significant differences in personality. is

superficially quite sociable

bility

is,

social approval interest.

a

self-sex

The

socia-

strong appetite for

and dominance, than by

Drawings of

clothes-narcissist

and extraverted.

however, more motivated by

parallel

a

genuine object

done by females of the

clothes-narcissist t\ pe are characterized b\' over-attention

to cosmetic features,

adornment, and glamour. In general,

these individuals veer

justment.

The

toward

a ps\

chopathic type of ad-

body-narcissist, with his display of muscle

power, accords more with the schizoid, self-absorbed, and introverted type of personality. his

body

He

is

preoccupied with

processes, often to the point of engaging in long

and strenuous periods of body development for sake.

Sexually,

auto-erotic stimulations. tion

in

social

ruminations.

its

own

he probably restricts himself largely to

He

intercourse,

derives

no genuine

satisfac-

own

fantasy

preferring

his

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

78

Conspicuous Buttons Button emphasis sure, or

odd or

in

terms of shading, exceptional pres-

It is

more

and more

in

male drawings than

row

congruous

figure,

a

In

mechanical and not too

drawn compulsively down

of buttons

middle of the

clothing.

in female drawings,

in children, especially boys, than in adults.

emotionally regressed adults, relevant

figure, occurs

and inadequate persons.

especially in dependent, infantile,

seen

on the

irrelevant placement

the

perhaps in combination with an in-

hat, tends to suffice for the representation of

Sometimes buttons serve

to elaborate a strong

midline emphasis, reflecting egocentric and somatic pre-

occupation.

Occasionally, a large and emphatic button

is

placed at the umbilical point of a figure with no other indications of clothing.

many drawings

Because buttons appear on so adjusted individuals,

it

would be

of mal-

profitable to speculate

on the functional and symbolic meaning of buttons from various angles.

The

the shape of a

round buckle

fact that a button often virtually in is

sometimes placed

at the

umbilical point, and the fact that button emphasis occurs

mainly in drawings of mother-attached individuals, leads to the suggestion that the

buttons

may

psychological significance of

be connected with the umbilical symbol of

mother-dependence.

The

body and important

things generate

is

umbilicus

is

the center of the

from the

center.

It

the most arresting physiognomic aspect of the abdomen,

and may, on the

basis of

its

appearance be associated with

the nipples. For the infant, the nipple has the magic quality

of being all-sustaining, requiring

little

eff^ort

on

his part.

CLOTHING It

is

this

association

79

with nutritive function that lends

plausibihty to the interpretation of dependenc}'.

Buttons are especially

a

abundant on uniforms of bell-hops and cadets,

thus suggesting sion

conspicuous feature of uniforms, and are

some

relationship to the authority-submis-

complex (See Figure 3m).

This reinforces the de-

pendency meaning from another

angle.

Authority and

control, with their corollaries of submission

ence are involved in

Thus, to push

by remote is

a

many common

button

to master

When

control.

under control.

is

and depend-

sayings about buttons.

some person or thing

ever\ thing

is

buttoned up,

opened to expose the body and closed to conceal in

this

cuffs

respect

it

Considered functionally, buttons are

reflect

body

consciousness.

it,

and

Buttons on

add an obsessive note to the dependency feature. Pockets

Like buttons, irrelevant emphasis upon pockets in

is

seen

drawings of infantile and dependent individuals, and

more

in

male than

in

female subjects. Empirically, special

pocket treatment has been associated more specifically with affectional or material deprivation for psychopathic adjustment

as

(See Figures

background

4m

and 4f).

Adolescent boys arrested for purse-snatching, often include special

pockets in their drawings or give an accessory

pocket-book to the female, thus offering graphic evidence of the frequently neurotic and symbolic nature of the offense.

Associations of subjects to the meaning of pockets

describe pockets as a place to keep private possessions, as

gun or

for masturbatory activity.

a figure

with hands in pocket re-

offering concealment for

One

patient

who drew

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

80

marked,

"I

that a fellar

amount

always got that bad habit.

who

and maturity.

hands in

his

To

to anything."

full of all sorts

as

keeps

a

of gadgets

an expression of

growing boy, is

may

Pockets

A4y mother

a

a large

pocket

symbol of ego-expansion

by adolescents which conflict with

thus be used

virility strivings

emotional dependence upon the mother.

They

indicate pockets in their drawings.

more independent, and

said

pockets will never

his

Females seldom are inclined to be

their clothing, except for a shirt-

waist dress or a masculine tailored

suit,

seldom has pockets.

The Tie

The

tie is a

common

sexual symbol, seen mostly in the

drawings of boys and young male adults (See Figure 4m).

On

the other hand, in males over forty, conflict over sex-

ual

inadequacy tends to be expressed, graphically,

in

an

egregious lengthening of the nose or in excessive attention to,

or other type of incongruous treatment of this organ

The appearance when

touch that

young man puts on

or of the foot.

last

his

he goes out on a date

ing of the

a

is

and perhaps the perking up of

tie

pocket handkerchief. Emphasis of both the kerchief theme

quate males.

is

common

in

wave

tie

his breast-

and hand-

drawings of sexually inade-

men

Effeminate and dandyish

for their collection of flashy to

the straighten-

ties.

are

Homosexuals

known are said

In drawings,

their ties to attract attention.

vary from the uncertain, tiny, and debilitated-looking of the individual

who

sexuality, to the long

is

despairingly aware of his

and conspicuous

tie,

ties tie

weak

sometimes deco-

rated with phallic-like details, of the sexually aggressive individual

who

of impotence.

is

driven to excessive compensation by fear

Relatively

few bow-ties

are indicated in

CLOTHING

81

drawings collected by the writer, and possible relationships

Occa-

with clinical data could not therefore be explored. sionally, the tie

drawn

is

as if

it

were

away from

flying

the

body. This has been seen in cases of overt sexual aggression,

and usually indicates intense sexual preoccupation.

In passing, tie is

it

may

be noted that the black or white

bow-

generally w^orn on formal, restrained and conserva-

tive occasions,

while the gay bow-tie

worn on

is

that call for a touch of youthfulness

occasions

and irresponsibility.

The Shoe and the Hat Symbolic phallic investment of the shoe, expressed graphically in unmistakably suggestive designing, and in conflict treatment involving erasures, alterations, shading,

or change of tional

appears most

line,

male subject w^ho

Not

impotence.

is

commonly

suffering

infrequently,

the

in the involu-

from some degree of shoe receives special

attention in the elaboration of e\ elets, laces, or bows, with a precision

of delineation not characteristic of the rest of

the drawing.

It is

most frequentl)' seen

men done by pubescent

girls

and seems

accent on obsessiveness which, in

its

in

drawings of

to represent an

focus on an article

of clothing often symbolically sexual,

may

be associated

wdth sexual impulses, llie obsessive detailing of the shoe appears to be a distinctly feminine characteristic in graphic expression.

When

the hat appears

on

a figure in the absence of

other clothing, other features of regression are found in the drawing. as to

The

hats are often handled in such a

confirm the phallic significance which

to hats in psychoanalytic investigations.

is

manner

attributed

In one case, con-

victed of indecent exposure, the brim of the hat, in profile

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

82

drawn

view, was

so that

its

extensions

beyond the crown

The

bore a striking resemblance to an erect phallus.

hat

may often be especially decorated, conspicuously large, or it may have the hair or forehead showing through it. The latter

type of transparency usually occurs in the context

of a generally primitive and unelaborated treatment of the figure as a

whole and

is

atic of primitive sexual is

symptom-

quite often found to be

behavior in the subject.

The

hat

almost never given both the male and female figures of

a pair.

The

female figure usually gets the abundant

and the male

hair,

figure, the hat.

Other sexual syvibols most commonly encountered drawings are the pipe, cigarette, gun and,

The

the cane. ings of

young male

and gun are

is

made

forty.

The gun most

adults or adolescents.

or adolescent boys, while the cane

below

frequently,

pipe and cigarette are seen mostly in draw-

young

frequently enters the drawings of

jects

less

in

seldom seen

is

The symbolism

-pre-adolescent

too obvious to need discussion. inordinately

large,

in sub-

of the pipe, cigarette,

conspicuous,

When or

they

smoking

actively, they usually denote sexual preoccupation so acute

be actively disturbing the subject.

This interpreta-

tion does not apply to the drawings of

young boys who

as to

elaborate a dramatic shooting theme.

had perpetrated fiancee,

by

drew

a

murderous sexual

One

assault

the hat of the male figure

a cursory indication of profile.

patient,

upon first,

his

who own

followed

Immediately he stuck

mouth before proceeding with the rest of the drawing. The pipe was very large, reinforced, and actively smoking. When the patient was asked if the male figure was married, he replied "He would have to be, to

a pipe into the

be smoking

a

pipe that way."

The

cane enters drawings

STRUCTURAL AND FORMAL ASPECTS of persons in middle or later

accept decline.

It is

European

drawn over power

upon

Occasionally a large brief

the sexual area of the figure in pre-

indicating an effort to substitute intel-

tentious display, lectual

are reluctant to

drawings of younger

professionals, of about involutional age, the cane

featured rather significantly. is

who

in

In a group of drawings obtained from displaced

people.

case

life

found

rarely

83

for inadequate sexual

the fly of the trousers

is

Emphasis

power.*

seen in individuals preoccu-

pied with masturbation, unless, as in the case of football pants, the fly

is,

in actuality,

an essential and conspicuous

part of the kind of trousers represented.

STRUCTURAL Thus

far,

the bod\'

AND FORMAL

ASPECTS

the principles underlying the projection of

model have referred primarilv

the drawing of a

human

figure.

The

to the content of

formal aspects

however, of equal significance for diagnosis and

Some

t\

pes of drawings are so limited in content as to

place the features.

are,

analysis.

whole burden of anahsis upon the These structural features involve

refinement of

detail,

much

experimental verification.

of

which

is

structural

a variety

and

being submitted to

For the purposes of

this intro-

ductory survey, only brief consideration of some of the

major factors will be attempted. * The following dream, reported by a patient in therapy, who was presenting severe sexual difficulties, is illustrative of the symbolic uses of briefcase and shoes: "I am walking in the street and I am going to see I suddenly looked down on my clothes and saw that I was dressed in pajamas. I then stepped into a store to buy a briefcase. The man did not have the kind I wanted. I was looking for a briefcase, barefoot, while my shoes were being fixed by the shoemaker in the same store." The patient is extremely verbal, intellectualizes all of his problems, and has enormous exhibitionistic drives.

someone.

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

84

Theme

When

an individual

is

asked to draw a "person" does

he project an anonymous figure that takes shape with associations to

person,

or an

the figure a stereotype, a specific

Is

it?

avowed

self-image?

If a

drawn

may

a

that

are

label the

an "average" or "normal" person.

character stereotype

cowboy,

sume

as that of

who

Individuals

self-consciously trying to prove their sanity figure

his

is

selected, such as a soldier, a

policeman, or a gangster,

some degree of

it

may be

self-identification

is

safe to as-

involved on a

fantasy level. This assumption of self-identification applies equally to children

who draw Superman

though the stereotype not have

is

a socially

or Dick

Tracy

prevalent one and does

as intense individual significance for the

boy

as

for the adult. It has been noted that the returning veteran, especially

if

he has had some difficulty in adjusting him-

self in the service,

frequently will draw a soldier or sailor

with obvious self-identification.

In these

instances,

female figure of the set does not depict a stereotype. soldier or sailor that

is

drawn

is

individuals

were motivated

It is likely that these

in their incentive to join the

fantasies too

narcissistic

sustain their subsequent adjustment. If a

man, or

line

drawing

is

versive

figures will (left)

and unreal to

snow-man, peanut-

offered as a serious representation

body problems often be smaller and more

of a "person," an evasion of

These

The

usually large and contains

other indices of fantasy development.

armed forces by

the

side of the

is

indicated.

to the intro-

page than the subject's

fuller

representation, perhaps because of the tension involved in

"putting something over." In the case of a patient indicted for murder, the

snow-man proved upon

association to be

STRUCTURAL AND FORMAL ASPECTS a

symbol of the precarious control

his

own body

man,

The

integrity.

artificially

sustained,

Another

which \

which

in

all

of

was subject

is

some

insight.

the projection of a figure

younger, some emotional fixation

at

If

markedly

is

the

self-sex

the

figure

is

older,

parent-image (of self-sex)

that age or a wish

an identification with the

may

Action or

be indicated.

Movement

movement

In terms of action or

rather than the person

portrayed, a variety of themes appears in drawings.

may

figure

is

youth ma\' be assumed (See Figures 7f and

to return to If

snow-

to psychotic

graphic characteristics

ounger or older than the subject.

8m).

like the

periodically he gained

significant treatment its

felt,

and tended to dissolve under

the heat of pressure. This patient

outbursts into

had over

that the subject

patient

85

The

be posing, walking, in combat, giving some-

thing to somebody, orating, or greeting somebody.

The

majority of drawings obtained from an adult hospital, or clinic population,

who

is

are static or at best portray a person

"taking a walk."

Action

is

drawings of pre-adolescent boys. preference for figures on display. action

upon

is

intended, action

more common in the Girls show a marked

When

highly developed

which does not bear relevantly

the subject's age, IQ, vocation, or appropriate in-

terests,

fantasy preoccupation

the fantasy

is

may

be assumed.

be judged from other aspects of the drawing. action and fantasy are

more common

checks with the observation that realistic,

W hether

of a constructive or pathological nature must

practical,

girls are

and oriented to

The

in boys'

fact that

drawings

considered more

social

requirements,

while boys entertain fantasies of power and adventure.

The

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

8(5

drawing that conveys is

a clear

impulse to movement, but

blocked and counteracted by

versive features (See Figure

2m)

oid or schizophrenic individuals

or intro-

autistic,

static, is

seen primarily in schiz-

whose

toward

strivings

accomplishment and power are strong but entirely fantasybound. Succession

The sequence

which cannot be judged

the one aspect

It is

are

of procedure of a drawing

made while

the subject

within normal and

however, v/ork planlessly.

is

drawing.

important.

unless notes

Most people

logical limits in their procedure.

in confusion, scattering

This

is

may

Some,

over the drawing

be due to an impulse disorder, manic

excitement, or schizophrenic thinking.

The

over-cautious,

compulsive individual often develops each tiny area laterally, in a

6f).

bi-

stimulus-bound fashion, fearful of venturing

into the general contours of a goal idea (See Figures

and

fall

6m

Subjects starting with facial features, and then

enclosing them, those starting with the hat instead of the head, those drawing the head as the last feature of the

drawing, and

upwards

are

interpersonal

thc^ise

all

starting with

the feet and

working

giving expression to some measure

maladjustment involving reluctance or

of in-

capacity to undertake emotional commitments (See Figures

5m and

5f).

Occasionally, an individual will inter-

rupt the drawing to give extra emphasis to some particular area of conflict and

times while he

is

may even

drawing.

return to that area several

Hesitation to proceed beyond

the head or beneath the waistline indicates reluctance to

face conflicts relating to those areas.

STRUCTURAL AND FORMAL ASPECTS

87

Symmetry

The s\

construction of the

mmetrical.

Elementary

human

figure

is

essentially

art instruction stresses that ap-

proach, and yet few individuals, trained or untrained, give

undue

stress to bilateral detailing.

duces rigid

Extreme symmetry pro-

Rigidity in the figure often appears

effects.

correlated with corresponding postural states in the subject

which, from the ps\ chosomatic viewpoint,

considered

a h\

on the other hand, formalistic,

emotional states on the one hand, and, as a

protection against a menacing en-

Marked symmetry may produce mechanical, and even bizarre

the paranoid schizophrenic. his

be

pertonic muscular defense against the re-

lease of repressed

vironment.

may

effects as in the

drawings of

Occasionally, a subject starts

drawing with the sketch of an armature or with meas-

urement

details (See

Figure 6m). Such props are used for

by individuals who fear body imbalance, who may suffer some degree of depersonalization, or who may experience a compulsive drive to control the unruly

bilateral control

and spontaneous impulses which threaten the integrity of the

self.

Perfectionism and an impulse toward exhibition-

ism are correlated features contained in such drawings. Individuals giving over-symmetrical drawings are usually

compulsive, emotionalK' cold and distant, and precariously controlled personalities (See Figure 2m).

It is

of interest

to note that the organs, such as the heart, stomach, brain,

neck, and the penis, which feature most in the somatic disturbances of the emotionally conflicted individual, are

not strictly

bilateral.

absence of bilateralitv

In the compulsive character, this

mav

tend to threaten or disturb the

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

88

and balance of the body and thus produces

integrity

symptoms.

symmetry may be seen in drawan expression of body awkwardness,

Marked disturbance ings of neurotics as

in

a sense of incoordination, or general physical inadequacy.

The

may

figure

curiously enough,

own

appearance.

of syfiimetry

often faithfully reflects the subject's

The

largest

group

which

in

irregularity

noted consists of those suffering from con-

is

fusion of lateral dominance, that

(See Figures'

4m

awkward

their

in

manner which,

actually appear lopsided in a

is,

the

motor intergrades

and 4f). These individuals

motor coordinations.

are, in fact,

In their figure

drawings, one shoulder will often be conspicuously nar-

rower than the

other.

The

distance

between chest and

arm-pits may be markedly discrepant. Often the arms and

hypomanic or some

length, width, or both.

The

hysterical individual, those suffering

from

markedly

legs differ

as to

have an

impulse disturbance, in general those that

excess of spontaneity,

on the

largely activity,

and

may show

disturbances in symmetry,

basis of carelessness,

poor control, over-

diffusion.

In considering the significance of departure from

metry,

it

was necessary

and which subject

is

who

to determine

is

the right

the left side of the figure, as intended is

left are

by

the

doing the drawing. This problem has been

investigated in various ways.

and the

which

sym-

For most

subjects, the right

oriented from the focus of the person being

portrayed, rather than from that of the observer.

Midline

The problem

of midline emphasis in drawings, although

occasionally related to considerations of symmetry, usually

STRUCTURAL AND FORMAL ASPECTS somewhat

plays a the

body

The midUne

different role.

and, as in the Rorschach

axis,

treated elaborately with

and even

a fly

Adam's

apple,

midline

involve

may

line

be

buttons, buckle,

on the trousers (See Figure 6m), or

be indicated by a vague, light

down

it

may

the middle of

Somatic preoccupation, feelings of body

the trunk.

in-

emotional immaturity, and mother dependence,

feriority,

feature in the clinical records of

who

tie,

essentially

may

test,

The

problems of an unconscious nature.

is

89

many

of the individuals

1 he drawings of

stress the midline.

somewhat conspicuous

for their very

group are

this

aggressive female

figures, and the emasculated, effeminate and collapsed male

The

figures.

verbal associations usually

conform with the

graphic portrayals of the male and female figures. of

buttons will often

irrelevant

This treatment

emphasis.

is

constitute

the

A

row

midline

frequently seen in schizoid or

schizophrenic individuals whose physical inferiority and

mother dependence cissistic,

are in the forefront.

older subjects

who

Infantile,

nar-

are approaching involutional

decline and are unable to accept

it

may

give crude

em-

phasis to the midline of the figure, reflecting their somatic

preoccupation. Size

and Placement

In general, interpretation of directional placement of the figure

on the page

is

similar to that utilized scientific

graphology

the page

is

environment-oriented.

Toward

well.

If the

right,

it

is

self-oriented, high

up on the page,

low down on the page, rough

by Mira

method and by figure projected on

in his Alyokinetic

it

is

it is

as

toward the

the

left,

it

is

related to optimism,

related to depression.

This

classification of directional trends has aided chnical

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

90 analysis.

probable that the

It is

and placement of

size

figure are less subject to conscious control

and

than other structural aspects of a drawing.

a

variability

The manic

individual cannot help but scatter the figure over the page

with an expansive use of paper and an extravagance of

An

energy.

experiment involving the constancy of

and placement projection of the figure

size

The

is

in progress.

writer had occasion to examine a collection of dia-

grams of

bodies copied by

cell

a

high-school class of

biology students exposed to the same sample.

was made pupils

deduce personality

to

from the

The

pletions.

size,

placement,

traits

effort

line, detailing,

and incom-

checked well with

judgments of the personality

under consideration.

The very of the page

large figure, placed aggressively in the middle

seen most often in the grandiose paranoid

is

individual

who

treatment

is

This

possesses a high fantasy self-esteem.

quite different

associated with

usually

changes, or senility.

from the paranoid conditions

chronic alcohohsm, involutional

In these latter cases, the self-esteem

definitely not high

small.

An

of the individual

traits

resulting observations

the teacher's independent

is

line,

The placement

and the figure of the figure

is

is

correspondingly

relatively high

on

the page, and often gives the impression that the figure is

Lack of

adrift in space.

low are

energy and,

level of

insight, unjustified

basically, a lack of secure footing

some of the psychological

projection. infantile,

One

patient,

unstable,

who

correlates of this type of

could be

hypomanic schemer,

page with an idealized, pompous,

male

figure,

optimism, a

summed up filled

as

an

the whole

narcissistic bust

for a

commenting spontaneously while he was

working, "iMy father was an egocentric egomaniac."

In

STRUCTURAL AND FORMAL ASPECTS reality,

patient duplicated

cissism.

He was

full

his

father's

overweaning nar-

of fads, schemes, and bluff.

ciations to the drawing, he remarked,

91

"Maybe

In assoI

cannot

with anyone but mxself. I'm too self-centered."

associate

Tiny

may

figures

be seen

in the regressed

and vegeta-

tive schizophrenics as an expression of low energy level

and

a

shrunken ego. In contrast with the relatively active

facial features

bv

the

and positive

line of tlie small figures

or senile

involutional,

alcoholic,

drawn the

individual,

drawings of the regressed schizophrenic are marked by simple and even primitive features with no modulation

frequently in the deeply repressed and ncuroticalK pressed

individual.

usually

more

The

figures

erasures,

may

significant

The

considerable shading. or an extra line

in

these

deare

instances

and ma\- encompass fragmented

detailed,

frequent

lines,

in

Alicrographic figures are also encountered

line treatment.

feet

may

reinforcement^,

and

be omitted altogether,

be added for footing. In

brief, areas

of specific and active conflict are indicated in one form or another.

The

large

figure

is

not restricted to the overactive

manic, the grandiose paranoid, and the fantasy inflated individual.

The

aggressive ps\ chopath

fairly large figure,

but

it

may

may

well give a

be shifted to the

left

or

introversive side, corresponding with the felt inadequacy that

is

expressed in other drawing indices of insecurity.

Large, empty, poorly proportioned, and weakly synthesized figures are often seen in the mentally deficient or

organic case, reflecting the shallow emotionality, lack of insight,

and poor reasoning powers characteristic of these

individuals.

The

line

is

usually

heavy and corresponds

with other features of aggression in these drawings.

The

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

92

psychopath will not infrequently offer

hysterical

fairly

large drawings, centrally placed, but the collapsed portrayal of the body, usually in combination with a rela-

and detailed head, will serve to

tively intact

the hysteric

from organic or defective

the quality of the line

is

differentiate

types.

In addition,

more simple and

solid in the

organic and defective.

Stance

The

stance of a figure

may

be regarded in a similar light

Are

stance of a real person.

as the

the feet wide apart,

The

placed with aplomb in the middle of the page? assertiveness suggested

acted

by

shaded or reinforced tant

and

by such

stance

is

frequently counter-

insecurity of footing expressed in tiny, pointed,

faint line

feet,

a

ground Hne, or by

throughout the drawing.

be apart, but the figure

The legs may may be aslant,

by

is

may

legs

not planted firmly on the ground.

and the whole figure

float off into space,

giving a definite impression of drifting, and

precariousness of perch. This type of stance

mon

The

a hesi-

A

in older chronic alcoholics.

of figure representation

may be

is

quite

com-

not too dissimilar type

seen in drawings of the

hysterical ps\xhopath, but with a significant difference in line.

in

The

and out

line

in

given by the hysterical psychopath fades

regard to pressure, while the pressure of the

jagged line of the alcoholic drawing

The

stance that

gether, especially

is

marked by

when

the figure

or otherwise reflects repression,

is

is

usually constant.

legs closely pressed tois

small, perhaps shaded,

seen in the tense, self-

conscious,

awkward, and apprehensive type of

When

this

type of treatment

ure,

may,

it

if

the subject

is

is

neurotic.

extreme in the female

a girl, suggest fear

fig-

(or re-

STRUCTURAL AND FORMAL ASPECTS pressed wish?)

of sexual attack.

93

occurrence

Its

in

the

female figure of a male subject, suggests anticipation of

One

resistance to the fantasied assault.

patient, convicted

of impairing the morals of a minor, gave the male figure a

wide

stance, but

drew

ciations as his wife,

his female, identified in his asso-

with legs held tightly together.

chief complaint against his wife

of him. give

The

was her sexual

paranoid and schizoid individual

some version of the

tight stance, in

arms pressed closely to the body

as

if

His

rejection

may

often

combination with

ward

to

off the

blows of the environment. Reserve and withdrawal ma\' be judged from

this

type of treatment. Perspective

In general, consistent profile treatment of a figure

interpreted as an index of evasiveness. their preference for profiles simply:

have to draw the other half." suggest a fear of commitment, accessibility

who do

Subjects explain

"It's easiest.

Although

it is

view.

I

profile

don't

figures

not to be assumed that

and frankness are characteristic of

a front

is

Profiles are seen

more

all

subjects

frequentlx'

drawings of boys and men than in those of girls and women. The impression that females are more sociable and superficially more accessible in clinical contact is confirmed by many observers. The full view also suggests a in

tendency to exhibitionism and display, which, ture

is

more

characteristic of females.

When

in

our cul-

male subjects

give an overdressed figure in front view, exhibitionism

be suspected.

Profiles are considered intellectually

mature, and are very rare in

young

may more

children's drawings,

not only because of the greater difliculty in handling profiles,

but perhaps also because of the greater frankness of

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

94

young

Right-handed persons do

children.

the left side of the page.

considered

are

Hands behind back

more

a

profiles facing

or in pockets

and naive expression of

direct

evasiveness than profile treatment.

The

profile

head with the full-view body

is

commonly

seen in boys, especially adolescents, and seldom encountered in

and

girls'

drawings.

unrealistic one.

tion of

drawn

a

con-

consistent

Any

Occasionally,

profile.

of perspective in drawings

is

head.

is

legs in

pathological handling

seen in the confusion of pro-

face in the elaboration of features of the

commonly, the forehead and nose

Aiost

profile

and the

head

of poor judgment and

The most

full

the

such rotation and distortion in perspective

perspective in the subject.

and

it

body, which prevents the execu-

interpreted literally as a sign

file

a strained

guilt in relation to social

in profile, the trunk in front view,

profile. is

is

perhaps some degree of dishonesty, and yet with

a drive to exhibit one's

all,

resulting posture

usually regarded as an indication

some

of social uneasiness, tacts,

The

It is

and the eyes and mouth

and mouth are more

in front view.

strictly orifices

will be in

The

eyes

and have no projection

value as the nose has, and perhaps are easier to handle in

Furthermore, the eyes and mouth are onto-

front view. genetically skill.

more

infantile in the

development of drawing

This confused type of treatment

primitive cultures.

fusion occurs in

is

encountered

In the writer's collection,

low grade

defectives,

in

this

in

con-

organic cases

with schizoid underpinnings which have become accentuated, and,

most frequently,

in schizophrenic characters

3m and 3f). The unschooled Southern Negro who has been clinically known to show many distortions of perception (22) may offer such con(See Figure

of dull intelligence

STRUCTURAL AND FORMAL ASPECTS

95

fusion of head treatment without being actually psychotic.

The male and

female figures of a set of drawings are

.Many male subjects

often given in different perspective.

draw

their

own

front view.

in

sex in profile, while

drawing the female

seems probable that

It

this

discrepancy

in

treatment refers to a contrast of protectiveness in regard

own

to exposure of one's

Female figures which clearly represent

the female figure. a

and the readiness to expose

self

mother-image, are usually drawn

and

in the case of adolescents

\

in full face, particularly

oung

adults, since this

most consistent with the habitual manner with one's

own mother

is

experienced.

in

is

which contact

These

are the less

certain areas of interpretation and require further investi-

gation though they are not without support in clinical validation.

Type of

The

pressure, the firmness,

Line

and the

solidity of the line

used in drawing are considered more basically characteristic

be

than some of the other formal features. dim, or heavy.

faint,

mented, or reinforced. sional thickness.

The

essentially the wall

and often sitivity,

It

The

line

may

may be solid, broken, fragmay be thin or have real dimenIt

line of the

contour of the body

is

between the body and the environment,

reflects the

or insulation

degree of barrier, vulnerability, senof

Chronic schizoid

the subject.

alcoholics and those suffering

from depersonalization

or from acute conflict in regard to withdrawal trends, give a thick heavy line as a barrier

and the environment. The body wall stantial structure as

though

to

ward

fears,

may

between themselves is

built into a sub-

off the

impact of the

environment and to guard securely the contents of the

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

96

The

body.

apprehensive neurotic individual occasionally

draws heavy

lines for

much

the same reason that the de-

and the organic draws heavy

fective

the pencil

In such cases,

kept compulsively glued to the page in a

is

unbroken

virtually

lines.

though the subject derived

as

line,

support and reassurance from the contact.

The

actual

contact with the paper in the course of constructing various aspects of the tion, to

be

a

human

figure appears,

upon

close observa-

very intense experience subjectively. Psychic

interruptions, caused

by

conflicts aroused in special areas

of the figure, are frequently expressed in a sudden change in line, or in a

The dim

conspicuous gap.

line

occurs most frequently in the timid,

The dim line is also Body contours may

and uncertain individual.

efTacing,

frequentl\

self-

fragmented or sketched.

be uncertain and individual parts of the body blurred

Often

outline.

dim

this

line

of aggression contained effect,

interpretativeh',

in

of

is

in

contrasted with features

the drawing,

strongly

producing the impulses

aggressive

that are inhibited in social contact.

In drawings in which

the contour of the full-view head

heavy and reinforced,

is

while the facial features are dimly sketched, the interpretation that a strong wish for social participation contrasts

with shyness, timidity, and self-consciousness expression has proved clinically valid.

social less

of neurotic trend and

actual

in

Indicative

more of withdrawal and

autistic

realization of narcissistically oriented drive to social

domi-

nance, are those side-view drawings in which the line of the facial profile

is

heavy and emphatic while the

the balance of the usually large figure are tain.

The

ments,

is

fading in and out of

commonly

line,

lines of

dim and uncer-

with spotty reinforce-

seen in the drawings of individuals

CONFLICT INDICATORS

97

given to hysterical, often specifically amnestic reactions to their

features

In these cases,

difficulties.

may

the head and facial

be well delineated, while the body

and appendages fade away into random "ectoplasmic" line

is

relatively rare, appearing

The

withdrawn schizophrenics.

is

blurred

The

lines.

faint,

mainly

in

acutely excited schizo-

phrenic or the manic, on the other hand, give very heavy

graphic expression of their excess of motor aggres-

lines as

A

sion.

sure

is

fuzzy, broken, or tremulous line with light pres-

often seen in the schizoid alcoholic as distinguished

from the heavy

line

used by the paranoid alcoholic.

CONFLICT INDICATORS Differential treatment given to is

any area of the figure

considered significant of conflict relating to that area.

Attention ma\ be drawn to ing b\' a subtle break, line,

by

hand,

erasures, or

legs,

or feet

from the female

is

hand may be in a

manner

important.

The

The mouth may

the

nose

may

specifically cut off

be crossed

is

is

deprived of

its

why

or the a line

The eye may is

given, though

otherwise carefully executed.

good reason

ofi^,

from the arm with

to suggest fear of castration.

drawing

be omitted

male subject because the wife

be large in outline, and yet no inside detail

usually

of the draw-

by shading. Conspicuous omission of

figure of a

or mother scolds.

a particular feature

dimming out or reinforcement of

There

is

the eye in this type of treatment

function of seeing. Perhaps there

is

thus

indicated an unperceiving, self-absorbed contact with the

world, contrasting somewhat with the more active shutting

out of the world suggested by the closed eye.

The

parts of the

attention,

body which

receive conflict-indicating

most often through omission or

special treatment

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

98 are, in

approximate order of frequency, the hands and

feet,

the shoulders, the arm, the nose, ears, crotch, and hip-line.

Interpretation of the specific graphic treatment in

based,

is

accordance with the general interpretative principles

set forth in this discussion,

upon

the functional significance

of the part stressed.

Erasures

This form of conflict treatment rotics,

obsessive

is

mostly seen in neu-

compulsive characters, and in psycho-

paths with neurotic conflicts.

Young

children, defectives,

regressed schizophrenics, organics, seniles, manics, retarded depressions,

and chronic alcoholics, unless of

neurotic type, seldom erase.

distinctly

Erasures are considered an

expression of anxiety, but differ from line reinforcement

and shading, insofar

as

Motor

a

restlessness

is

they show overt dissatisfaction.

common symptom

of this group.

Erasures are more subject to conscious control than the

They

line-reinforcement or shading expression of conflict. represent an attempt to alter and perfect.

It is to

be noted

that erasures are unrelated to the objective difliculty of

drawing the part which has been result in deterioration of

erased.

They

frequently

form rather than improvement,

thus tending to confirm the interpretation that erasure

means

conflict.

Pubertal

girls erase profusely.

Shading

Any

degree or type of shading

sion of anxiety.

is

considered an expres-

As with other types

of conflict projec-

tion, the particular area of the figure that

sidered in the light of

its

is

shaded

is

functional significance.

vigorous, aggressive scribbling to cover

con-

The

up something must

CONFLICT INDICATORS be seen

as

an expression of both discharge of aggression

and of concealment. paths and

99

young

most frequently found

It is

The fun

children.

ment may be involved

in ps\

move-

of repetitive

in the case of children.

It

cho-

has been

noted that sexually sadistic males often shade the sexual area of the female figure with considerable force.

indicated perverse urgenc\- of sexual drive

is

The

emphasized

not only in the restriction of the shading to the specific locus,

but particularl)

the

in

fact

that,

the

in

case

clothed figures, the unconscious treatment of the skirt

though is

it

as

were transparent indicates that the individual

subject to serious lapses of judgment especialK"

respect to his sexual

directed against the

is

figure, usually of the subject's sex, in a

This

violent rejection of the bod\-.

who

with

Occasionally, this impulsive

behavior.

outburst of motor tensions

subjects

of

is

whole

manner suggesting most often seen

in

are inferior either as to ph\sique or health

status.

The more

frequent

pe of shading consists

t\

in the light,

dim, and uncertain lines which furtively accent particular parts of the figure.

manner

The

areas

tivity to physical inferiorit\-,

figure

done by

and the breasts

in this

subtle lines

in the

female

the male subject, indicating conflict in-

volving mother dependence.

few

most often shaded

are the chest in the male figure, indicating sensi-

on the

Female subjects may put

skirt, in

a

the area of the genitals,

suggesting furtive and inhibited sexual concern. Another

type of shading

may

be described

as

patterned and stylized.

In Rorschach terms, this treatment corresponds roughly to the use of ilar

maps and x-rays

interpretative significance.

alize

instead of clouds, with sim-

The

design serves to ration-

and so reduce shock with regard to the particular area

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

100

The

of conflict.

shading of the boundaries of clothing

may

be associated with conflict in regard to body conceahnent. It nia\'

involve at once the impulse and the fear to expose

The body

the bodv.

thus gets

wrapped up neatly but

emphatically with clothing boundaries.

OF MALE AND

DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT

FEMALE FIGURES The

difference in technique and general treatment ac-

corded the male and female figures drawn by the same subject

is

related to objective difficult)

ings

made

except

as

Since wide variations, un-

often remarkable.

b\'

an

,

one subject, the problem of

IQ

draw-

are often observed in

or talent index,

is

skill in

drawing,

considered incidental.

not infrequent for an infantile, sexually immature

It is

male subject to draw

well modulated,

a

detailed,

and

kindly representation of the male figure, perhaps in profile,

while the female figure of the image,

drawn

is

shows

subject features,

the

view with

in front

dominant graphic

the

constituting

set,

grandiose,

female

may

size,

virility

aad

and

hostility

When

features.

exhibitionist

is

the

self-inflation

be somewhat smaller in

though the menacing female image smaller

an obvious mother-

maintained.

size,

The

despite the greater force and dominance of

the female figure,

may

indicate a belittling attitude

toward

the female in defense against the image of castrating au-

thority assigned to her.

It

may, on the other hand, be an

expression of the negative emphasis given any but his space-filling figure.

The

strong masculine strivings

weaken

may

the

man

female subject

may

who

is

own

guided by

woman and 7m and 7f). This

strengthen the

of the pair (See Figures

be accomplished by reducing the

size,

infantihzing

TREATiMENT OF MALE AND FEMALE FIGURES

IQI

the figure, or neglecting aggressive or contact features of

the male figure.

The problem

projection

of

of

traits,

both from

a

graphic standpoint and from the verbal associations to the drawings, self-traits

is

The

extremely challenging.

projection of

of the subject and of his problems

stricted to the figure of self-sex,

male and female figure of extent, be directed

it

may or

a pair,

it

may

be re-

spread over the

may, to

a large

toward the figure of the opposite

sex.

may be projected onto the oppositemay describe the figure of one sex

Often, only the defects sex figure. in

Subjects

terms more appropriate to the appearance of the figure

of opposite sex, the verbal and graphic renditions of each

being often

at variance.

Some

subjects are so identified

with the opposite sex that they are unable to draw their

own

sex image.

The

particular type of treatment, graphic

and verbal, accorded the pair of figures drawn by

may

be associated with the degree of identification with

the male and female figure that subject.

From

is

characteristic of the

the standpoint of sexual identification,

assumed to be most normal to draw the an empirical point-of-view, of of

a subject

some degree of all

individuals

it

is

From

first.

of interest that evidence

sexual inversion

who drew

self-sex

it is

was contained

the opposite sex

in records

first

in re-

sponse to the instruction, "draw a person" (See Figure 6f).

The drawings in such cases showed considerable sexual confusion. The greater the confusion and scrambling of sexual characteristics in the male and female figures of a pair, the greater the sexual

drawing the

pair.

maladjustment of the subject

Occasionally,

one finds an identical

description of the male and female figure given viduals

whose narcissism

is

by

indi-

so entrenched that they are

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

102

own

unable to project any but their

The

attitudes of the subject

and wishes.

traits

toward the sexes

considered

is

the basic determinant in the differential treatment.

DEVELOPMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS The

chronological age of the subject does not ma-

terially alter the interpretation of specific characteristics

of his graphic expression since the latter

is

based on body

image projection and the basic functional meaning of parts.

However, the

particular significance

its

draw-

of a

ing trait for a specific individual must be referred to the

appearance of that

trait in his

evaluation of the extent to

age group so

which the

expression of a developmental phase.

norms

"normal"

trait is a

As

permit

as to

yet,

no

specific

in terms of personality expression at various ages

Enough

have been established.

is

drawing expressions of the child

known

about

at various ages,

common however,

and about developmental personality phases to give pertinent background. at various ages,

the drawing

we

which

In studying the drawings of children find that stress refer

is

put on the aspects of

most intimately to the emotional

needs, meaningful experiences, and problems

of the matur-

ing child.

Functionally considered, three or four to

spider than a legs

draw

human

by the

it

is

natural for a child of

person that looks more

being, that

and arms attached to

sented

a

it.

The

is,

a sort of

like

a

head with

social stimulations repre-

head, the locomotion interest expressed in

the feet, and the manipulation and extension into the en-

vironment that are represented by the arms, are normal to the child's has,

as yet,

growth experience

at that age.

The

not entered the child's consciousness

trunk signifi-

CONCLUDING REMARKS

103

cantly as a differentiated and meaningful experience.

appears in drawings

consistently later

In an adult, this type of drawing

appendages.

It

than the head and

would

To

represent severe regression or mental retardation.

con-

sider another example of developmental interpretation,

normal

child's

drawing may well be lacking

and have numerous transparencies, since is

specific

A

and concrete.

a

in perspective

a child's thinking

child usually

draws what

it

knows and not what it sees. Thus, a dress superimposed upon a body with transparency is common, or even hair showing through

a hat.

Similarly faulty perspective and

transparencies in the drawing of an adult, however, are

considered serious irregularities reflecting poor judgment,

poor focusing of sentials.

may

a

problem, and weak discrimination of

Perseveration, so

common

reflect in the child the sheer

es-

in children's drawings,

joy of repeating satisfy-

ing motor patterns, while in adult drawings, perseveration

may

low IQ,

indicate a

in safe, routine,

deterioration, or neurotic refuge

and confined areas of

activity.

We

also

find shading appearing frequently in childrens' drawings.

Though is

the interpretative significance of shading as anxiety

retained, the

meaning of

a child's

shading

may

relate to

the general insecurity of a child in an adult world, rather

than to individual pathology.

CONCLUDING REMARKS The

brief survey of principles of

presented as

is

essentially preliminary

drawing analysis here and

tentative.

As

far

they go, however, the interpretative principles and leads

described have been reasonably verified in clinical application to the analysis of thousands of drawings studied in

coordination with individual case records over a period

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

104

Numerous

of fifteen years.

detailed personality

studies

involving the "blind" interpretation of drawings, have re-

peatedly validated the method. Most of the clinical observations and statements of specific meanings at as a result of careful

which

cases in

study of

all

the different types of

drawing

a particular

special reference to the context in

were arrived

trait

occurred, with

which

that trait ap-

Enough is known covering the drawing expression number of clinically homogeneous groups to con-

peared.

of a

tribute substantially less,

to

differential

diagnosis.

for the further codification of the method,

Nevertheit is

neces-

sary to study both the dynamics of the intra-individual

pattern and the drawing characteristics ticular clinical groups. is

safest to focus

drawing

At

on the psychological meanings of

traits, in

in interpretation.

down

rigid formulae for

The drawing

as a vehicle for the individual's

mode

it

specific

guidance

human figure must moods and tensions, and

of the

be understood as an expression of

his

to par-

the context of their inter-relation, rather

than to attempt to set

and

common

this stage of systematization,

projection of his problems

of experience-organization as reflected in his

As with

body scheme.

all

projective techniques

which

seek to grasp as a whole and yet analyze the complex pattern of personality organization, the technical psychological

knowledge and the

clinical sagacity of the analyst

are indispensable to the translation of the language of the

method

into the traits

and the behavioral dynamics and

trends of the individual studied. x\lthough "blind" analysis

necessary for experimental vertification of

technique

is

principles,

and

ical

is

frequently used by the writer, the clin-

use of drawings as a diagnostic or therapeutic aid

is

CONCLUDING REMARKS when

the drawings are interpreted in light

most

fruitful

of

available case-history data.

all

Finally, although the

pected to

and

thing,

tell all

in

merits.

it

person

a

does, invariably

becoming

has the potentialities of

it

,

Such

is

is

a refined

not ex-

tell

Drawing

instances a great deal.

personality investigation that

drawing of

invariabl)

many

105

some-

analysis

instrument of

accorded the research effort

if

the richness of

psychological im-

its

with the method must stimulate

plications, that experience

the formulation of innumerable problems and hypotheses

of primary

significance

to

the

field

of

ganization, expression, and projection. is

offered as a valuable supplementary

The

able,

or-

analysis

clinical

method.

time and material involved are economical and need

no special preparation. and

personality

Drawing

at

any time that

and for

by many

is

method

paper and pencil can be made avail-

reason have been hopefully collected

With

clinicians.

tration, the

There

this

a

Drawings can be done anywhere

is

slight modification of adminis-

quite adaptable to

group application.

no doubt that many of the formulations here

offered will need to be changed in the light of future

experience. tion,

Many

validation,

new

There is broad room, method through discovery

and refinement.

indeed, for the extension of the

of

need of further explora-

details are in

interpretative leads.

basic orientation of the

What

method

as

is

important

is

that the

here presented offers

sound framework for such progress.

a

PART

III

ILLUSTRATIVE CASE STUDIES

ILLUSTRATIONS Although most drawings can be analyzed

so

as

to

afford a fairly comprehensive understanding of the personality structure, notes and interpretations

on the draw-

ings contained in this section are intended primarily to

some of the

illustrate the specific application of

which have been

set

forth.

Interpretations

principles

have been

checked with more comprehensive case

histories than are

They

will be presented

used for the brief case summary. in a

manner more

A

poses. a

form

number

suitable for didactic than literary pur-

of the cases are being presented here in

similar to tabular itemization,

ings being assigned to specific

not to be construed either the

drawing

with individual mean-

drawing

traits in

at

It

is,

must

is

It

the patterning

however, recommended that

even

at

all

whole

initial

personality analysis through drawings

out systematic consideration of in Part II

is

or their interpretations.

traits

context, to be reconstructed in terms of a

personality.

tempts

This

with

be borne in mind that the ultimate goal of

features.

as sanction to deal atomistically

at-

follow

of the items contained

the risk of oversimplification.

With

experience in the method, greater flexibility and more integrated interpretation will be accomplished particularly as the

capacity to coordinate the drawing data with clinical

knowledge develops.

[108]

.

ILLUSTRATIONS

2m and

Figure

2f



109

Schizoid, Obsessive-Compulsive

Character Brief Clmical History: Patient

is

a

twenty-six-year-old

white male prisoner convicted of breaking entry into

movie house and

stealing a film reel, the

a

showing of which

he sat through several times the same day of the offense.

The

by

patient had been so fascinated

in the film that he could not

the

for

film

patient's first

own

his

resist

private

the bathing beauties

the temptation to secure

This was

entertainment.

brush with the law. Because of the odd nature

of the offense and the unusual personality he presented at court, he

The

He

was referred

patient tests

a clerical

if

a

high school graduate. test

consistent with his schizoid make-up.

He

is

two boys, favored by his mother, and had He was in terror of an authoritarian father

the older of

never married.

who

worker and

wards for stud\

high average to superior intelligence with a

pattern that is

is

to the observation

continued to subject him to corporal punishment

he were

to his

still

young

a

child.

The

was

patient

independence

establish stead, he

in

withdrew increasingly

was

quiet,

seclusive,

His

failure to

up vague

sion, enuresis,

Socially, the

and restricted himself to arts,

and

in

a

humanity

adjust himself disturbed him,

ideas of reference, fearfulness, apprehen-

and obsessive thoughts. The patient had had

no heterosexual contact. sexual

In-

into his day-dreams, en-

ruminative interest in music, the fine in general.

away and

any sphere of adjustment.

riching his fantasy with perfectionist goals.

stirring

sensitive

poor home environment and to the low cultural

standards in the home, but was unable to break

patient

as

matters,

Though he was

and generally protective,

evasive about social

contact

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

110

with the examiner was adequate. Diagnosis was obsessivecompulsive neurosis, schizoid, emotional and psychosexual immaturity. Draivifig Features and Interpretations:

Preliminary in-

quiries of the patient furnished clues to his uncertainty of

the sexual role, his reluctance to

meet body problems, and

2m his

tendency to evade. Asked to draw

a person,

"Man or woman? Profile or full face?" The succession of parts drawn was

he asked:

irregular,

major attention focussed on physique and body and only casual

interest

and time given to the

with

display,

social

and

contact features, such as the parts of the face and the hands. Erasures, line reinforcements, shading, and extreme ab-

sorption in the task gave expression to felt anxiety, specific

ILLUSTRATIONS conflicts,

and fantasy compensations.

111

Conflict occurred

at the shoulders and lower boundary of the ribs {euiphasis

on physical power seen right hip-line

was

in the physically inadequate).

erased while the left one

(cojifiision at hip-line seen in

homosexual

The

was reinforced cojjflicts).

The

ear sensitivity accords with patient's ideas of reference and his oversensitivity to social

opinion.

Erasures at the arm

2f

denote conflict

body

whether to

retreat fully into his

own

narcissism or to extend into the social and material

environment. at the

as to

Erasures on the female figure were

same points

as

on the male

figure,

made

confirming the

confusion of male and female body elements existing in the

mind of

the patient, as well as

some degree of iden-

.

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

112

with both figures

tification

in

terms of perfection and

power. Erasure of the head with resulting decrease in the head ness

in

is

in

Hne with

contrast

aggression

reflected

coupled with an is

the

in

autistic,

rich

detailing

of

to the obsessive- compulsive is

a

When

whose head,

most disturbing organ. In

body impulses won

the

face,

njoith

common

its

control

this instance, the

out, cuhninating in his offense).

finished with the male figure, the patient offered

with an embarrassed but

self-satisfied smile,

"movie actor." The female figure was

same certainty

as,

"movie

press the perfectionism patient.

social

"inward" expression. The head

minimized in favor of body power {treatment

junctions,

it

development of

fantasy

the

to

size of

patient's lack of overt aggressive-

It is

actress."

remarking,

identified

with the

These ego-models ex-

and high fantasy aspirations of the

of interest that his offense involved movie

models.

The drawing

of the female figure occupied the better

part of an hour with most of the time spent on the shad-

would produce the explained that he was

ing in an effort to create light effects that

The

desired transparency.

patient

trying to produce the effect of an alluring black satin dress.

The

breasts,

emphasis.

stomach, and genital area received most

The

tactile

patient smudged, caressed, and modelled

with a display of erotic energy that truly made the graphic sexual fantasy very real to him.

The

facial features

and

hair received cursory notice in contrast to the attention

lavished

on the body {spends most of his recreation tijue sole purpose of adiJiiring fe77iale

on the beach for the pulchritude)

The

figure of the

man

is

significantly shorter than that

ILLUSTRATIONS

113

woman. The female figure is given better articufacial features, more animation and forcefulness, pro-

of the lated

ducing the effect of greater social dominance and assertiveness than

is

attributed the male figure {eniotionally infajitile

viales uoill frequently viake the fe/ziale

more dominant)

Although the patient

is,

in reality, six feet tall,

had

siders himself short because he

with

line

ego-model,

his

Image larger and

.

a

he con-

set the perfect height in

movie

Except for the

actor.

height of the figure, self-likeness (to the patient) as regards to facial expression

ingly in the male.

and body

The

tensions,

is

reflected strik-

self-preoccupied expres-

autistic,

sion and the blocked, hesitant, and aborted

movement

seen

in the male figure are characteristic of the patient's bearing.

The body

reinforced b()d\ lines

into a tight,

tient's feeling

more tion,

and of

a knitting

compact structure

together of the

— coincide

with pa-

of separation from the outside world, and

specifically

To



with

his fear

of punishment, of castra-

a threatening sense of

counteract

this fear,

we

body

disorganization.

find a very detailed

and

upon the body, suggesting fantasy garding body power and self-display. The ego drives

are

strong, but they have been largely fulfilled in fantasy.

All

luxuriant emphasis

re-

graphic elements of contact with the outside world are

weak

{lack of facial animation, extension of appendages

is static,

The

bands and feet are encased). finger-and-toe treatment

is

mildly aggressive in

the speared effect, but the rather light line and the encase-

ment

indicate the repressed character of the aggression

and the blunting of reahty contact. Strong,

overdeveloped shoulders are combined with

tapering, effeminate arms and legs with tiny wrists and

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

114

ankles, giving further evidence of the patient's confusion

of sexual role with identification blending into perfect

female attributes in

regard to sex

The

as

patient's thinking

highly unrealistic.

is

special attention given the heel of the foot

on the effeminate male infantile

men.

is

sim-

(usually with shoes indicated)

to the heel emphasis

ilar

The

well as male.

done by psychosexually

figures

It is also in line

with the detailed literalism

seen in the obsessive character, with corresponding lack of

humour and absence

The vague

line

of flexibility.

shading in the chest area signifies the

ribs and strength of muscles. frail, thin,

and

in

The

patient himself feels

imminent danger of some deadly

Drive to physical perfection

is

further

disease.

emphasized by

shoulder reinforcement, selection of a life-guard theme

and

patient's verbal associations to the

male

figure.

Emphasis of the margins of the bathing trunks gives evidence of a strong body consciousness with conflict in regard to the concealment and the exhibition of the body.

The view

that

voyeurism

is

essentially related to the im-

pulse to self-exposure receives set of

drawings.

a pair of trunks,

The male

some confirmation

figure

while the female figure

though with gross transparency. In over-modest in

his

attire,

in this

exposed, except for

is

is

fully clothed,

reality, the patient

is

while he makes a pastime of

viewing partially clothed females on the beach or on the screen.

Emphasis on the buckle, shading

at the

crotch area,

and the rationalized shading of the trunks add to the

evi-

dence for sexual consciousness.

The tion

is

auto-erotic nature of the patient's sexual adaptaspecifically projected in this patient's

drawing of

ILLUSTRATIONS The

the female.

115

drawing, the

tactile exploitation of the

patient's effort to achieve his precious transparencies, his

and

reluctance to terminate the drawing give expression to

The

his sexual fantasies.

figure corresponds

with the

and

sexual problems,

his

vigorous shading of the female patient's intense anxiety

about

women

in

self-conscious, placement

on

relationship

his

to

general.

The

stance of the male

the page

is

fairly aggressive,

is

and the

line

marked by

is

uncertainty, sensitivity, and conflict energy.

One hand behind

the back of the female and the other

hand towards the body of the female correspond with patient's evasiveness

tact

with females.

and introversion

He

In associations, the

by

is

in

regard to his con-

not frank on that topic.

man and woman

are both described

the patient as ideal and perfect, with a degree of per-

fection that relieves him of the obligation to cope with less

perfect

.

Associations were given promptly

realities.

and with enthusiasm, suggesting that the fantasy construction

was

a real

and pleasant experience for the

patient.

The man is described as being twent\'-six {patient's age). "He is a hfe-guard, has perfect physique, is strong-minded, has will power, is a man about town, a man about the beach, has a proud look, and

is

very glad that he has

a

manly physique. In other words, he's glad he's what you call a man" {note the body narcissism^ exbibitio7iisvi, drive for social dominance, perfectionism, sexual uncertainty and

compenstaion for ness).

The man

his is

onxn obsessive indecision ajid weak-

bright and industrious



qualities

re-

flected in the obsessive-compulsive traits characteristic of

the patient's drawings

completion) and

his

{symmetry

,

precision,

and drive

behavior {compidsive nature of

to his

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

116 offense).

and

The man works

this results in a

as a

blacksmith, using an anvil,

powerful physique (note contradictions



and poor judg?nent, when overcome by jantasy drives the man is a movie actor a lifeguard^ is debonair^ and a blacksmith all at the same time). He is admired by all, ^

is

happily married, his wife adores him, and he has two

children



a

twenty-one,

boy and single,

a girl.

The woman

glamorous, dignified.

is

described as

She

is

a

movie

star.

^^, /

/

3ni

ILLUSTRATIONS Figures

3m and

3f

— Paranoid

Brief Clinical History: This patient

old white male prisoner

who

is

3f

117

Schizophrenic is

a thirty-nine-year

of high average intelligence,

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

118

though retarded

He was

in school.

tion because he had

come up

He

of an old robbery conviction. in

referred for observa-

for re-sentencing on the basis

had spent many years

an institution for the criminally insane, where he had

been transferred from acute

psychotic

panic.

He was

of standing

good toms.

a state prison

episode

precipitated

returned to court

trial.

When

when he

as

seen, the

by

suffered an

homosexual

a

improved and capable patient

was

quiet, in

symp-

contact, and did not manifest overt psychotic

The

processes

drawings, however, indicated that psychotic

persisted,

though they were quiescent

drawing

indications,

in

his

Subsequent probing confirmed the

present environment.

and the patient was diagnosed

as a

paranoid schizophrenic.

Drawing Features

ajid

Interpretation:

phrenic flavor of the drawings

is

The

schizo-

seen in the gross dis-

proportion, the emphasis on inessential detail, the static

and diagrammatic quality of the confusion of profile, and effect of the drawings,

full face,

the emptiness,

figures,

and the generdly bizarre

denoting a very private world

all

of ideas. Patient

worked with

fantasy preoccupation.

great interest,

He

and

absorption,

did not follow out a goal, but

detailed each area in spatial succession, without

parent reference to the whole.

any ap-

The break between

fan-

tasy and reality, and the absence of insight reflected in the

drawings, were further

made apparent when

patient associ-

ated to the figures with sober reflection and consideration of his drawings.

He

described the male figure as a desir-

able ego-model of twenty-five,

blendmg

his

background into the verbal image. The female

own

early

figure

was

described as a pretty and very desirable girl of seventeen.

)

ILLUSTRATIONS The image was

related to a niece about

He was

fantasied.

119

totally

ness of the figures, even

whom

he had

unaware of the true grotesque-

when

specifically questioned.

Regression and collapse of judgment are seen in the

crude transparency of the lower part of the body in both the confusion of profile and full face, the

figures,

phasis

irrelevant details such as buttons

on

and

teeth,

emand

the incongruities in the figures.

Paranoid

traits are

reflected in the rigidity, relatively

large size of the drawings, emphasis e\ es,

upon

and the aggressive treatment of the

hallucinations,

the pin-point

Auditory

fingers.

which patient has experienced

are reflected in the reinforced, transparent,

in the past,

and conspicu-

ous ear treatment.

Symbolic thinking quality of the figures.

power

to influence,

symbolic

details.

is

suggested by the diagrammatic

The

patient's ideas of

mesmerism,

and food poisoning were replete with

The

patient attaches religious symbolic

significance to the left and right side of the body.

Despite

the apparent effort to achieve symmetry, a considerable

degree of asymmetry

is

noted in the treatment of the neck,

on the male

the head, and the trunk, especially

The

and right appendages are treated differently. The

left

right foot

was erased many times

was accomplished. Patient desires

with prayerful meditation.

and religion are tangled

The

arm

right

is

until a phallic likeness

states that

right, sex,

he curbs

reinforcement

Problems of

somewhat longer than

than the .

left

{conflict)

{use of

and

gun and

less

his sexual left

in the patient's

the

have the obsessive detailing of finger-nails.

history

figure.

left,

It

restrained

and

mind.

does not

shows more aggression

excessive ijiastnrbation in

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

120

The

expressed

aggression

oral

the

in

diagrammatic

mouth and teeth emphasis receives chnical verification patient's ideas of

food poisoning and

in

and meas-

his stilted

ured speech which, during interview, was reduced to a barely audible pitch.

Emotional dependence, with impUcations of the au-

f

thority-submission complex, phasis

upon

delusions.

buttons.

He

relates

seen in the patient's em-

is

Buttons

feature

centrally

in

his

encountered with the

difficulties

attendant in the state hospital where he was incarcerated.

Whenever

the attendant delivered mail to the patient, he

presumably noticed that the patient was toying with buttons.

The

patient

deduced from

this that the

his

manipula-

tion of his buttons represented a threat to the attendant to

subjugate him sexually, because buttons are prominent on service uniforms and consequently involve subservience.

In reahty, he was emotionally and psycho-sexually immature and very dependent

upon

his

mother.

He

never con-

templated marriage.

Confusion of sexual role

may

be noted in the effeminate

eyes of the male figure, in the larger size of the female figure, in the

male

confusion of bosom and chest ampHtude on the

figure,

and

in the nail detaihng.

Sexual conflict

is

further projected graphically in the shaded trousers which are attached to the body, rather than covering

it

{seen in

hoviosexiial panic), the transparency of the female figure

below the

and reinforced nose

waistline, the large, erased,

of the male,

the phallic-like foot,

and the shaded belt

—patient

speared toward the right {toward self

fears retri-

bution for his homosexual practices). Intellectual

aspirations

suggested

by

the

dispropor-

tionately large head, are clinically seen in the patient's

ILLUSTRATIONS

121

pretentious use of the language though he

The The

cultural background. in the as a

female figure.

large head

is

patient looks

is

of limited

more pronounced upon his mother

supreme authority. Hair emphasis, generally regarded

as a viriHty indicator,

given the female figure.

is

Fears of rejection by the mother or by females in gen-

while having a strong need to be accepted,

eral,

is

male figure with the omission of arms on the female. is

the

on the

interpretation given the contrast of the long arms

He

greatly concerned about his position as the black sheep

in the family.

The

uncertainty and apprehension that are clinically

manifest are graphically reflected in an uncertain

uneven pressure,

line,

and the presence of

placement,

side

shading.

Body

sensitivity

to

degree of somatic delusions

the

(which the patient had had),

on

joints,

such

Figures

a

poor.

4m and

It

is

intelligence.

hampered by

with confusion of eyed).

and

lateral

This boy has

athletic,

a

4f

— Normal is

Child

an eight-year old white

School progress has been quite a

reading disabihty associated

dominance

while he, himself,

frail

is is

who

and

is

husky

girlish.

His

left to shift for himself,

or placed in the care of his brother. casual,

handed, right

{lejt

brother of twelve

parents are both working and he

and cleanliness are

The mid-

note of body preoccupation.

Briej Clinical History: This

boy of average

suggested by the emphasis

elbows, and knees.

as the wrists,

button theme adds

line

is

Standards of feeding

and considerably lower than

those of the neighborhood in

which he

lives.

The

child

is

rough with younger children, but withdraws when ex-

^ PERSONALITY PROJECTION

122

posed to competition with adults,

and

is

is

his brother.

meagre and inhibited

He

in verbal

is

shy with

expressiveness,

infantile in speech.

DrawijiQ; Features

and Interpretation: Since

'

-—

'f^¥\

I.

4in

this child

O

ILLUSTRATIONS is

essentially a

motor type, the drawing offered

opportunity for self-expression.

He

4

(^

4f

123 a precious

worked with an

in-

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

124

absorption, detailing, and a sense of reality that he

terest,

seldom displays

in life situations.

Associations to the drawings were a mixture of selfexpression of guilt feelings, and wishful thinking.

traits,

The male

figure

is

described as ten, strong, and good-

looking, but has crooked arms (subject

shows confusion of dominance) and is reading poems {the child

is

The

.

is

left-handed and

figure

retiring

an actor

is

and backward

not called upon for recitations)

The boy

in school

and

likes

mother best because she does not spank him

his

is

with the mother

{identification

havior)

.

The head

is

may

would

like to get

much

eviphasis

In addition, this subject

head on the

stress the

jnarked in child's be-

described as the best part of the

{scholastic retardates place tions of the head.

is

.

married

upon is

the func-

''pretty''

basis that girls do).

when

he grows up, but he

and small). The worst part of the boy teen

woidd prefer an

{subject

mother"

to supervision

by

his

He

is

is

She

that he doesn't

has a sister of four-

older sister as ''assistant

brother).

Associations to

with

girl

boy

fourteen. She makes "tumblesauces," doesn't

is

eat her lunch,

and will grow up to be an

The

subject).

artist {all true

me"

{this distribution of self -traits

between the male and female figures has been noted

role,

who show

though

of

subject concludes his associations to the

"artist, that's

individuals

is

dirty

the girl figure describe her as the older sister of the figure.

and

The boy

too small and too dirty to ever get married {subject

flush the toilet {true of subject).

body

it is

Active fantasy

fairly is

in

confusion in regard to their sexual

normal for young children).

seen in the large size of the figures,

the wealth of detail, the diligence of application, reluct-

ance to leave the task until he was fully

satisfied,

and the

)

ILLUSTRATIONS degree of symbolic content that

is

125

involved. Space

used

is

courageously with a spreading out of the figures and arms, reaching out towards

tlie

environment (urge

blocked by child's

socially

The

to participate

tiviidity).

used are uneven in pressure and solidity, sug-

lines

gesting tension, uncertainty, and emotional instability. Facial features articulated {subject

{rnipjdse for social contact) is

are well

airways looking for sonjeone to play

with or for adult attention).

The mental

level,

The

view

full face

and

is

consistent with the subject's age,

accessibility

figures tip

concerning

his

problems.

towards the right with the unevenness

of legs, arms, shoulders, and general disturbance in

metry that has been noted nance

confusion of

in

lateral

symdomi-

cases.

Large feet and long than of

girls'

drawings.

legs are

The

more

characteristic of boys'

personal record of this subject

supports the interpretation that insecurity and a drive for

competitive action and ph\

sical

growth may account for

the sex difference.

Special emphasis

on features

relating to virility striving

{though the figure

is

to be seen in the mustache, the pipe

is

only supposed to be ten years old), a small

belt emphasis,

and

a large,

tie,

shaded

anxiously shaded rake whicli

has no functional significance congruent with the figure {phallic

significance?).

Feelings

of

sexual

inadequacy

{perhaps in covjparison with his brother) and preoccupation in that sphere

{masturbation) are suggested by the

tiny fragment of a tie and the buttons trousers

garded

{subject feels inferior in

as a sissy

.

all

on the

respects

fly of the

and

is

re-

.

.

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

126

The

force of the fantasy throws the figure into illogical

The

development.

figure

dressed up with a

is

spicuous handkerchief although he {subject

is

about

sensitive

in childrens'

drawings

is

and con-

presumably planting

raggedness)

bis

tie

Contradictions

.

however, common, since

are,

chil-

dren often tend to project their problems

in diff^erent areas,

regardless of coherence or consistency.

In this particular

and

instance, lack of consistency

illogic are individually

characteristic of the subject.

Button emphasis along the midline of the trunk corresponds with subject's body sensitivity and

dependence upon

The

his

his

extreme

mother.

shading of the legs

regarded

is

as

anxiety about

and physical growth.

size

The

shading of the arms

is

related to the unsatisfactory

and anxious nature of subject's contacts with scholastic materials and to a general feeling of failure in his contacts

with

environment.

his social

The prominence subject's

sensitivity

social approval

{be

of the ear to is

may

criticism

be coordinated with

and to

open observed

his

hunger for

off in a corner^

lis-

tening intently )

Pocket emphasis

in

both male and female figures

is

coordinated with the subject's mother dependence, affectional,

and

in the subject's

tion {subject

The

is

mind, perhaps material depriva-

ill-kempt and neglected)

highly original treatment of the pockets on the

female figure suggests a libidinal concentration on the

mother.

The

face of '']ot' {tbe subject) and

brothers name

is

Fred)

are

drawn

placed in the position of the breasts.

in

"Fox" {tbe

the pockets and

The

full figures of

.

ILLUSTRATIONS two

the

drawn underneath.

are

127

"Joe"

is

made twice

large as "Fox," although in reality, Joe, the subject,

is

as

the

younger of the two boys.

The

figure of the girl

although she

is

smaller than that of the boy,

is

described as four years older than the boy

(the need for the subject to becoiue as big as his brother.

The

difference between the subject and his older brother

The

drawn is presumably wearing a Halloween party dress. Note the position of the decorations on the girl and where the box is held. The girls that

is

also four years).

girl

decorate the dress are described

tion to this subject.

him more acceptable

Food emphasis lunch set on

(the

it

table for him).

the girl

is

extremcl)'

w

is

is

feels that better

is

mother).

to his

mother always leaves lunch on the doesn't eat

mouth on both

(true of subject).

dogs

The

figures gives further graphic

The dog underneath

given a coat to protect him (subject identifies

himself as the underdog in the family. eral

marks will make

seen in the drawing of the table with

testimonx' to subject's oral problems.

the table

a source of frustra-

In the associations, the worst thing about

that she idc

He

subject as going to

b\'

school with their schoolbox (school

There are

also sev-

in the house, despite the neglect of the children).

The male tache (father

figure

is

given no hair except for

bald) while the female

is

and directions of haircomb (mother ber in the household. She

is

is

is

given

a

mus-

all

sorts

the dominant

younger and more

mem-

virility is

assigned to her)

The

female

is

given more aggressive fingers than the

male.

The

eyes of both figures

pupils, or seeing

show

large orbits, but have

mechanism (subject

is

no

undis criminating.

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

128 has

ment

is

and no precision

factual knonjoledge,

little

— the environ-

experiejjced ^'en viasse'').

The

shape of the decoration at the genital area of the

female which was erased and reinforced

{conflict),

suggestive of the star of David {subject's father

His mother

is

Jewish.

a Gentile).

is

The Hne

is

enclosing the chest area of both figures

more disturbed than other

drawing {related

lines in the

is

to

subjects sense of physical frailty F).

5m and

Figures

5f

—Acute Adolescent

Brief Clinical History: This patient

is

Crisis

a sixteen-year old

white prisoner of average intelligence and normal school

was referred

ITe

progress.

persistent running

to the hospital because of his

away and

The patient was workers when he was

car stealing.

adopted by two maiden social

Recently, he has become moody,

twelve.

He was

unmanageable.

ians' efforts to treat

was

extremely resentful of

him

motive for

He

friction-ridden.

his loyalties.

names given picture

runaways.

is

to

He

is

he had

declares that this wish

It is a

patchwork of

further confused

he

by

is

is

of

step-

confused

the different

that of a harassed, apprehensive adolescent

functioning poorly and

is

burdened with

is

whom

he hopes to replace in

a vacillating identification his

mother's

and psychosexual immaturity.

who

guilt feelings.

with an errant father

that of adolescent crisis in a neurotic

tional

whom

him by the various guardians. The present

There was

guard-

The home background

stepmothers, and foster-mothers;

fathers,

about

is

his

his

and

His only wish

ill.

mother from

to be reunited with his

the patient

is

mentally

as

been kept for eight years. his

irascible,

life.

Diagnosis

boy with emo-

ILLUSTRATIONS

129

Draiviijg Features ami Interpretation:

Drawings were

done reticently with preliminary questioning

body or only first

the face?"

Patient

made

a line

— "whole

drawing

at

for the male, giving only the midline axis and legs

{reluctance to meet the problems that are agitating Jm/i).

5m Pants were then added and the bod\' was given dimensions.

The arms followed and

finally the

diffidently {contact n^itb environment),

head was drawn {^ear of meetijig the inter-

personal problem).

The

female figure was also drawn in

irregular succession {disturbed logic), beginning with the

working up timidly and cautiously toward

tiny feet and

the head {the future of patient's relationship toward his real

mother

ivas a

The theme

moot

point)

of the drawing

.

is

a rather

tion of the patient's current behavior.

described

by

dramatic projec-

The male

figure

the patient as running for a bus to go to

is

work

{patient has indeed felt torn betvceen convicting allegiances

130

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

and projected demands and has been nmning away from On card V of the Rorschach, he saw ''two aniinals it all. at the side,

rushing at the rabbit in the

port his mother)

.

The male

figure

He

middle.'''

been further anxious to establish himself

at

work

was described

has

to sup-

as

good-

5f

looking and well dressed {patient's aspiration), but not too strong {true of patient.

He

is

thin

and

frail).

He

is

a

lawyer, twenty-nine years old, and unmarried {aspiration to replace father).

He

satisfies

himself sexually

by mas-

turbating {c 077 flic t of patient. In discussing sex, he referred to

the 7nysterious relatio77ship

women who

adopted him).

between the two maiden

ILLUSTRATIONS and fear are reflected

Insecurity, inadequacy,

bewildered

also seen in the

and

These

broken, and uneven Hne.

light,

131

facial expression, in the small

slight figure {sanie as patient), in the fearful

body image, and the tiny feet on to the

in the

characteristics are

approach

on the male

in the faint feet

figure

the female figure.

Midline emphasis, marked by the original heavy

line

done for the body, corresponds with the body inferiority and self-preoccupation that are

clinically apparent.

Reaching out for the k)ve of

by

mother

his

is

suggested

the long, outstretched arms, while uncertainty of ac-

ceptance by her

is

seen in the short arms of the female

figure.

The

omission of hands would relate to patient's guilt

regarding

his car stealing

achievement guardians).

{guilt

He

and

also regarding his lack of

aggravated by

the

deijiands

of

his

had never made an adequate adjustment

to people or things.

Poor standards of achievement,

judgment

are denoted

restlessness,

and poor

by the transparencies and incom-

pletions in the male figure.

Beginning the drawing with an approximation of an armature suggests

a drive for

perfectionism that

is

asso-

ciated with obsessive-compulsive traits (patiejjfs search for

mother and

his

sive

in

were quite compul-

persistent car-stealing

character).

The

symmetry theme, more pronounced in

midline and

often associated with these

traits,

is

the front view given the female figure.

The

greatest

amount of transparency occurs beneath

the waistline of the male figure

— an

area in

judgment may be extremely poor {the man as

having established a satisfactory sex

life

is

which

his

described

on an auto-

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

132

An

erotic level). ality

is

indicated

interesting accent of interest in sexu-

by the

brief

and irrelevant

lines in the skirt

of the female.

The heavy

encasing the chest and the restless

line

shading assigned to that region are consistent with patient's sense of

Mother

physical inferiority and weakness.

fixation

and confusion of sexual role find ex-

pression in the markedly larger female figure, the greater detailing given her, the longer neck, and the reinforced

shoulders {physical power). figure

is

The dominance

especially significant in

view of

tion of that figure as a girl eleven years

male.

She

is

patient's descrip-

younger than the

described as perfect, brilliant, beautiful, and

is

Libidinization of the mother

an unattainable sex object.

image

of the female

corroborated in clinical study of the patient with

corresponding

and

emotional

psychosexual

The clothing is suitable to a mother type. The patient's guardians had suspected

retardation.

that he

was

a

developing schizophrenic, but the drawing analysis leans

more towards the adolescent

diagnosis that

crisis in a

neurotic

was

finally

made

— acute

boy whose physical and en-

vironmental background has contributed to unwholesome

His strong inner drive for

development.

(reinforced profile) head,

man

is

and

his

aspiration

social assertion

{reinforced fore-

described as a lawyer, and pressure by guard-

ians for achieveinent)

has found only fantasy expression,

resulting in cumulating frustration.

Figures

6m and

6f



Schizophrenic Excitement,

Manic Features Brief Clinical History:

white male

who was

This

is

a thirty-eight

year old

admitted to the hospital in an excite-

ILLUJJIRATIONS

f

'

\

6m

I

133

134

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

I

6i

/

ILLUSTRATIONS

135

ment chanicterized by both p.ianic and schizophrenic features. Acute onset of his iUness was coincidental with a crisis that had developed in his work relations several months prior him

to admission.

poor health

in

change

as a lens

grinder

left

the same time that he suffered a

at

personalitx

in

work

lis

1

in

the direction of

and

inacti\'it\-

even mutism. This was soon followed by overtalkativeness, loss

number

of a life-long stutter, regression to archaic

powers and para-

SNiiibolisms, ideas of grandeur, religious

noid ideas involving intrigue and

When

spies.

was

he

examined, he appeared more serious, self-absorbed, and

more

than

insulated

tendencx'

maintain

to a

the

scatter

in

his

thread.

logical

productions, I

le

wilderment, and apprehension w

was

essentially friendl\

,

I'hroughout

manic.

usual

though

lie

combined his

ith

irritable

agitation,

had received several electric shock treatments sanitarium, but these generallx-

unmanageable.

school graduate.

mother and

be1

le

1

Ic

in a prixate

lie died of exhaustion shortly

was of superior

child,

crossed.

to

were discontinued because he was so

after his transfer to a state hospital.

had one

managed

grandiosity.

w hen

his

I

le

had been married,

intelligence,

and

higli

a

Prior to his marriage, he lived with his

sister.

The

father had deserted the home.

1

Ic

associated his numerical compulsion to count l)v three plus

one with the famil\ unit of three, plus the absent

He

stated that he

mitted against Draiii7?{r

his

is

now

mother

doing penance for the

father.

sin

com-

marrxing.

l)\

Features and biterpvetation:

Drawing was

accepted by him after some hesitation {reluctance to be

confronted ^vitb a ruler

bis

problems).

with which to draw

evjpbasis cbecks

-ccitb

a

Me

then asked to have

midline accuratelx' {/nidline

patient's egocentricity

and somatic

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

136

The need

preoccupations.

to maintain

accuracy

.^

or per-

with the use of a ruler gives testimony

fectionist drive

a deconipen sating obsessional system that can

The paper was

be trusted to exercise control).

to

no longer

then folded

into the three magical parts that characterized the patient's

number It is

obsession {a further prop to control the unknonjon.

also

barely possible that the three horizontal parts

refer symbolically to the various levels of the persojiality).

These

ritualistic preliminaries

whether he should draw

completed, patient inquired

man

a

or a

woman, and without

waiting for an answer, proceeded to draw a

When

he completed the head of the

that she looked

more

man

like a

woman

(reinforcing the impression

of conflict as regards to patient's sexual role). patient's attention

that the psychic

Though

wandered, and he frequently digressed,

he completed the drawing on his

voas fixed

own

volition {suggesting

datum upon vohich he drew for his image established, and did not depend upon

and well

When

imijiediate concentration).

he reached the bottom

of the page in his drawing of the female, he asked

should complete

it.

A

this

if

second page was put within

reach without comment.

on

first.

woman, he remarked

he his

Patient continued his drawing

page {inner coijipidsion to complete a task

he was not interested and was exerted).

in

in

which

which no exavmier -pressure

Succession of both male and female figures was very irregular,

proceeding in

tient's internal logic.

a

On

manner

that satisfied the pa-

the female figure, drawing began

with abundant and chaotic treatment of the hair {sexual vitality

and freedom). In

"Woman

doesn't

could have

a child

his associations, the patient said:

plaything

— she

even today without intercourse.

She

need

man



just

for

a

ILLUSTRATIONS is

The

favored by God,"

and menacing

hostile,

137

was followed by

aggressive,

facial features {the social

doviinance

hair

and poiver given to the jeniale by injantile males). strong, reinforced chin followed {decisiveness

The

mination).

A

and deter-

patient proceeded in a stimulus-bound,

chain-association fashion, developing each spatial area in

small sections, bilaterally.

{He

is

too confused about inter-

personal relationships to permit a spontaneous approach to the goal idea of a ''person.''

treatment

similar to the props

is

for control by

stitute

patient reached the

the

bottom

line,

and

and

rituals

used as a sub-

obsessive characters.)

bottom of the

know how

don't

"I

This piecemeal^ bilateral

long to make

it."

When

the

he commented:

dress,

He

lengthened the figure

then erased

{in line njoith

the exaggerated image of graphic size and povoer invested in the female

When

and substantiated

he approached the

He

how!"

feet,

in patient's associations).

he protested:

"I don't

know

then added the feet with a change of line

{conflict area).

The

feet of the female are

more

like

animal hoofs, in

contrast to the effeminate and refined feet given the male figure

{the foot as a penis

support in is

symbol receives considerable

The female, i7i contrast to the male, animal power and freedom of sexuality, corre-

this set.

given the

sponding with the hair treatment).

The

patient's

fragmented

line

may

be regarded in terms

of discrete counting, as a ritual and obsessive necessity.

The broken

line

further permits a fluidity of environ-

mental exchange with an unintegrated and insecure body image.

body

It

would allow

for the escape and evaporation of

impulses, while not offering protection against the

hazards of the environment.

Although the outlines

in re-

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

138

gard to individual body parts are clearly delineated, there is

no

The

solid wall of

demarcation of the figure

succumb

patient finally did

as a

the struggle against progressive disintegration.

were expressed by him

fears

his penis use.

whole.

fatally to exhaustion

from

Castration

"The man had

directly:

lost

had shrunk to seven inches because of

It

misuse in white slavery,

filth, disease,

and intercourse dur-

ing menstrual periods."

The

size of

both drawings

is

excessively large (corre-

spondijjg with the grandiosity, fantasy

paranoid features in the

The placement on wide and

fairly

cliiiical

and

is

the

in

middle with

{aggression and the ob-

assertive stance

sessive drive to centralization

viafiic tre?ids,

picture).

page

the

,

and symmetry corresponding

with features repeatedly substantiated

in

drawing and

clin-

ical traits).

The

female with her hands on the hips, her vertical,

masculine body, her

size,

menacing

facial

castrating

mother-image.

— forty "she figure

is

chaotic disarray of hair, and

expression represents a

lives

The

forever in

patient

my

formidable and

described

vision," while the

twenty-four (a mother-son relationship

to graphic features

and

her

as

male

in respect

patient's associations).

Asked to draw a man, the patient remarked: "A man must be smaller." The male figure was described by him as the son of the female he drew. The nicest part of his body is

his face {patient

worst

is

part, he asked:

tion with castration).

goodlooking). Questioned about the

"About

He

sex or

what?" {preoccupa-

has nice shoulders {compensation

for feelings of physical inferiority).

Though

the patient

was impressed by the man's big shoulders, he regarded him

as

very intelligent

as

well {perfect in

all

but sexual

.

.

ILLUSTRATIONS

139

Spheres).

He

argued,

should be the length of the leg (the arvi as a

it

regarded the arm

penis syvihol?)

When

too short, since, he

as

was asked

the patient

was married, he sighed and began

man had

a

wife and son {sauie

resorted to this numerical ritual

the male

to chant, "three times

and

four, three times four, three times four,"

cided the

if

finally de-

as patient).

He

when answering

questions

He

measured

relating to marriage, sex, or to his mother.

the fly on the trousers to indicate that in the resurrection,

which the patient has the power

to perform, the man's

penis will be thirteen inches, twxlve plus one. detail that he

drew on

the male

body w as

The

first

the buckle, with

three vertical lines and one horizontal line {the three plus

one theme). trousers,

He

followed with

lines

counting them altogether

on the

fly

of the

as thirteen.

After leaving the sexual area, he drew

a

meagre

tie

with heavy pressure {aggressive reaction to weak sexuality

)

He

changed, confused, and erased

{conflict in regard to the cojjtrol of

The outlines

belt

was then drawn with

of the

jacket

received

lines

raw

around the neck

ivipnlses).

heav\' pressure and the positive

and reinforced

treatment {body consciousness with repressed exhibition-

—nnist keep body

wrapped up). The buttons were then added {marked mother depend-

istic

trends

securely

ence), with counting of "three times four" on the female figure

and "twice three plus one" on the male figure {mim-

ber rituals in context of discussion of sex or niother relatio72ships)

Erasures occurred only to lengthen the height of the female, and to

widen the lapel-opening on the male

display to the small

tie

{the patient

is

to give

too full of a sense

.

.

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

140

of reality in his fantasy projection to erase very imich)

The

on the male figure

fingers

and, on the female, the hand ting off the female

The arms

power

are speared {aggression)

evaded {an element of cut-

is

to punish?)

of the male figure are pressed close to the

body {withdrawal,

tension,

and holding body together),

while those of the female are placed in a rejective and punitive position, but are given the

body

The

initial

direction

away from

{extraverted aspects of the female image?).

lips

of the male figure are

more effeminate than

those of the female.

The

nose of the male

shuts out the smells of the

The

a

shaded {castration fear) and in

its

on the female, the nose

nostrils, while,

and has

is

world

convex curve of the sharp and aquiline

is

concave, or receptive curve to the

nostrils.

expression of the face and the figure of the female

are menacing, while,

though some aggressive indications

are contained in the male figure, the expression

is

primarily

one of weakness and bewilderment {the exact expression of this patient clinically).

The neck

is

given no neck

emphasized

{less inhibited

and conflicted

the expression of her impidses).

during the

six

thousand years of

the use of his penis. his

mother

is

The

given in

but the female

in the male,

The

in

regard to

patient stated that

civilization,

man had

identification of his wife

this statement:

is

"When man

lost

with will

be resurrected, he will be given two women, one older,

one younger. in the

One would cook

for

him and play with him

morning, and one would be for the afternoon."

Emphasis upon symmetry and midline male figure) {obsessional and somatic hair treatment

is

is

marked

in the

The

male's

stress).

more meagre and orderly than

that of

ILLUSTRATIONS

141

more

restrained virility).

the female {more inadequate and

The

patient spontaneously recorded the male figure as

twenty-four years {both paranoid and manic patients do spontaneous writing and identification).

7m and

Figures

7f

Brief Clinical History:

— Normal

The

Female

subject

was thirty-four

years of age and single at the time the drawings were

made. She had, for ten years, maintained ship with a

man who was

than herself.

She

is

the only girl and the xoungest of

7 hough

three children.

a close friend-

older and weaker in personality

of

good

native ability, she

was

indifferent to school, allowing her brothers to excel her in educational

Intellectual aspirations of the

attainment.

family were focussed upon a favored brother. particular family unit being the only girl gave leges,

but only tended to foster

Her mother was an uneducated,

a

sense

In

no

her

privi-

of uselessness.

infantile personality given

and nostalgic daydreaming,

to intense narcissism, grandiose

fantasy aspirations for wealth and distinction, and occasional

outbursts

of

hysterical

aggression.

resembled her mother ph\sically, aspirations,

and her

egocentricit)'.

in

The

subject

her pretenses and

Her

father,

on the

other hand, was mild, introverted, given to bookreading

and few outside

The

harmony or warmth. What warmth she had was focussed upon the father. She was embarrassed by the modest cultural and interests.

family unit lacked

economic standards of the home, and

Upon

outside of

it.

prior, she

moved promptly

the household,

lived her social life

the death of the mother, several years

although

a

into the mother's position in

housekeeper was maintained.

She continued to receive support from her elderly father,

!

142

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

although she was in excellent health and the employment

market was maximal. Her employment prior to

this,

was

never more than a gesture, since she was never able to maintain her extravagant clothes and superficial display of wealth with her meagre earnings.

always groomed her for superficially

sociable,

sexual history are

The mother had

wealthy marriage.

a

but not friendly.

unknown.

HP^^ >

f

fetv Rft

te^

—j 7m

She was

Details

w

of

her

ILLUSTRATIONS Drawing Features and

143

Interpretation:

This subject

accepted drawings with some self-consciousness evasive

and not

easily

preted the direction to

given to confidences).

"draw

7f

a

person"

as

{she

She

"draw

a

is

inter-

man"

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

144

(point of sexual ambivalence and confusion of identifica-

Before starting, she asked:

tion).

"Must

draw hands?"

I

{The subject was vocationally not self -maintaining and was uncertain about social and sexual contacts). After these preHminaries

she

{hesitant in adjusting to a situation),

became engrossed

{much

in the task

living to project, evidenced

fantasy and inner

by her addiction

to

movies and

romantic novels, and borne out in her ready associations to the drawings).

She drew the head outHne, remarking:

draw

a face.

certainly can't

I

draw

"I

feet!"

could only

{Her

social

facade and personal appearance have constituted her ego

Sexual and vocational adaptations, which are func-

front.

tionally

involved in other parts of the body, have been

weak. Insecurity of footing

is

both graphically and

clinic-

ally outstanding).

As

"He

was

she

has a

finishing the facial features, she remarked:

young

face and

both figures are described

as

is

prematurely bald," though

adolescent in her associations

{both her boyfriend and father are partially bald).

head a

is

finally given hair

and the drawing develops into

female {sexual ambivaleiice)

much

The

.

Shoulder pads are given

emphasis by extension and erasures {broad shoulders

of a nmle

— confusion

identification).

From

of sexual attributes and of sexual that point on, the succession of both

drawings shows no gross

irregularities {capable of logical

thinking with conventional overtones in neutral areas).

The

direction of the arms presented a problem

was expressed

in

much

which

erasing and alteration without im-

provement of form. Her

final solution

was

to put

them

behind the back {always uncertain about the degree of participation in the environment

— conflicted

by pidl

to

ILLUSTRATIONS narcissistic fantasy

in

and selj-indidgence-coviprovjise

evasion and concealment

The

hair style

njchich

on the female

is

of this subject which was taken

mately the age assigned to the tight

145

and compact

{effort

fuzzy and very dark in

is

.

reminiscent of a picture

when

she was approxi-

The

figure.

hair style

is

but essentially

restraint),

at

residts

characteristic of her)

line pressure {ivipidse to primitive

and free sexuality turned into anxious aggression) The hair covers most of the forehead {suggests dependence upon .

sexual vitality and allure for social appeal rather than intellectual attainment).

It

is

upon

of interest to recall that a

which covered the forehead was prevalent during the flapper days after World War I. This was coincidental with the definite trends toward the under-

similar hair style

playing of intellect and the stressing of "low-brow" sexual

She had probably been discouraged

abandon.

ing dominance through scholarship

accomplished brothers

in

of achieving mastery early

subject states in her associations that the worst

thing that she did was to hit her is

presence of

development.

The she

the

and had gravitated

the home,

toward non-intellectual ways in her

by

in achiev-

very jealous because he

Although

financially subsidized

was not favored by them.

is

little

brother, of

getting

by her

all

whom

the attention.

family, the subject

Sibling rivalry

may

have con-

tributed to the confusion of the sexual role apparent in the drawings.

In reality, she has taken on

all

the accoutre-

ments of femininity to the point of overpreening. drawings suggest that she tends to use fulfill

this

The

femininity to

the masculine drive for domination and free self-

expression.

In the drawings, the girl

is

austere, prim, un-

adorned, large in size {high self-esteem),

is

placed asser-

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

146 tively

The

on the page and shows

exhibitionism and narcissism that characterize her be-

converted into aggression,

havior are, in the drawings, determination, challenge, and

may

a fairly aggressive stance.

some degree of

One

sadness.

conjecture therefrom that she resents having to achieve

mastery indirectly, through feminine wiles.

The dim

line,

uncertain footing, and dependence sug-

gested

by

(guilt

and lack of confidence), are graphic elements that

the emphatic buckle, and the hiding of the hands

belie the self-assertive stance.

The

long arms

{physical

power

and the wide shoulders

by anxious

drive) are counteracted

The

for the legs.

{anibition)

lines

subject regards the legs as the worst

part of the female {though she has nice legs herself^ she is

inactive athletically^

and probably

feels she

is

not

is

going nowhere)

7/10 bile in

special sources of disturbance

her day''s routine,

The

.

feet

were

no 7nooring).

{insecurity,

After preliminary resistance to them, she omitted them with a

show

of active annoyance. She recovered however, with

an aggressive scribble which she rationahzed {the subject did indeed let

tall

in every sphere of adaptation,

grass

and

is

as "tall grass"

grow around

her feet

aggressively defensive

on that point).

The

bitter expression of the female

may

reflect her

true reaction to an unrequited fantasy of romantic and

glamourous attainments



which she was nurtured since early childhood by her mother. Only a shadow of this fantasy was left in her barren life. The sadness and

sterility

a fantasy in

of the figure are

{flight fantasy), a tree

ofl^set

by the theme of

{reproduction — an

barren 7nale syinhol as the patient drew is

birds

aggressive and

it),

and "the

walking" {movement iinpulse seen in individuals

girl

who

.

ILLUSTRATIONS on fantasy,

rely

in the

147

movement

especially since

counteracted

is

female figure by hands behind the back and rigidity

of the figure).

The

figure

was described

as

awkward

an

girl

of seven-

teen (the emotional a7id psychosexual maturity of this sub-

beyond the adolescent

ject did not develop girl

is

full

is

she wants to be {the subject

ine of a

life

The

.

girl

book bearing

{identification in line

serious hesi-

close to her

is

home

her country

at

important to the subject), and she

relationships)

The

crazy about her father {true of subject).

is

wealthy and

leisure

is

adidthood—

mother, but is

She

of dreams about her boyfriend.

and preoccupied {The subject's fear of tant acceptance of female sexuality). She She

level).

with

is

the

is

is

{^wealth

and

popular

as

as

defensive about interpersonal

further identified with the hero-

morbid

"Dynasty of Death"

title,

fiction characters.

Dysphoric

title

is

with the sadness of the feinale figure and the actual

of the subject)

Much

emphasis

is

given

the

facial

aspect), but they are, in effect, serious,

verted {fantasy nature of

much

tention toward enterprise

The

and aggression of the

movement, suggest

which

and enterprise

{social

and intro-

set,

of her iinpulse for social

commujjic ability and domination). a theme, the size

features

a

offers contrast to the

introduction of

figure,

and the

in-

degree of fantasy

low

level of activity

in the behavior of the subject.

Elements

which further support the impression of conflict between this gravitation toward fantasy and the necessity to meet facts are seen in her niggardly

elaboration of this fantasy. tree,

the necklace,

hair

The

ribbon,

and barren treatment

in

birds, the tall grass, the

the breasts,

curves {though the girVs ambition

is

and figure

described by her as

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

148 ''to

he come a wife and viother''), are

restrained

all

given meagre and

graphic attention in contrast to the profuse

verbal fantasy.

The

necklace

is

line of separation

a tight

choker that serves more

between the body

head {control junctions), than to adorn the

neck

is

as a

and the

{ivipulses)

figure.

The

also relatively long.

In her associations, the subject was uncertain as to

whether the background of the female was autumn or spring {she

is

worried about that

Drawn

in her onjoji life.

to the spring of a schoolgirl of seventeeji, she

is,

in reality,

feeling autiivm approaching).

The head

features are consistently darker than

outlines (stress

upon fantasy and

body

social front while avoid-

ing body conflicts).

Darker phallic-like

the buckle

lines are also

used in other conflict areas.

symbol of the broken, speared, and jagged

The tree,

{vwther-dependence, sexual pre -occupation),

and the grass {rationalization of insecure footing) are done with considerable pressure of

The male

line.

which the subject projects

figure, in

aspects

of herself {spread of traits between male and female figures see?i in the sexually uncertain) a cousin

who had been

is

raised in her

an actual likeness of

home

as a

younger

brother {the subject was not conscious of the resemblance in

the drawing and in the associations).

The

figure

is

described as seventeen, a senior at Brooklyn Technical

High School {note

the ''BTHS''

hibitionistically displayed

{wish of

facts

He is subject). He

the drawing resembles) father



.

is

reinforced and ex-

check with the boy that

an only child, closer to the is

further described as on

the cheering squad and girls are crazy about

him {popu-

ILLUSTRATIONS larky craved by subject).

149

His father

an athlete from

is

Princeton {aspiration for javiily culture), and plans to take the

boy

and subsidized future

into business (assured

giveji

to the male, in contrast to the female, dreaming of such

future).

The

subject stresses physique in her description of the while, in the drawing, though assigned the

male

figure,

same

age, the

female and conflict

male

is

made

powerful.

less

substantially smaller than the

Further confusions indicating

between fantasy and

fact are seen in the large

head given the male {leaves intellectuality to the niale) while, in the verbal description of him, he

is

given more

He

physique and popularity, than sensitivity or brains. is

also

given a relatively short neck {better coordi?iation

of physical and inental

life

than the female).

handsome, more popular, has

facial

is

more

future,

and

by the subject, his pronounced than those of

described as an extravert

{social)

features are less

He

the female.

make him

more assured

is

on daydreams than the female. Although

has to rely less

the male

a

He

intended

is

excited

as

—surprised."

a

"rah!

rah!" boy:

But the drawing

"I'll

reflects

reserve and inner rebellion similar to the female figure.

The male

figure

which appears a

BTHS

is

as a

athletic

given a pronounced Adam's apple

reinforced tie-knot.

He

is

further given

symbol and reinforced shoulders

to sus-

him in her verbal which the graphic image lacks so

tain the virility that the subject assigns to

picture of him, but sadly.

A

psychic interruption in the flow of line around

the hips of both figures suggests confusion of male and

female characteristics.

Change of

line

and erasures of the

crotch area of the male mark the area of sexual conflict.

The male

is

given shorter arms than the female

{less

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

150 enterprise

He

and anibitw7i).

given more security of

is

role in the verbal associations.

Emphasis of margins of clothing

somewhat

to the subject's

and impulse to

display.

own

conflict

between modesty

may

In behavior, this

combined with

in overrestraint,

the male refers

in

be reflected

drives to ostentatious pre-

tenses.

The

drawn dimly and

feet are

small in size with de-

shoe treatment {in contrast to no feet in the jeniale),

tailed

with special attention given to the heel {shoe and foot treatment effeminate in

all

respects)

and double outline

of the length of the shoe {penis synibolization?).

Unusual care to

is

oversensitivity

also given the ear of the

of the subject, especially in regard to

the opposite sex).

The

patient gave verbal emphasis to

the ear with the remark:

out of the

man

y

self -assured,

why

"That's

in the first place.

do with the ear" {she always opinion

male {refers

I

likes to

and lacking

I

didn't

a woman know what do

made

appear insensitive to

in conflict).

In actual fact, the subject's relationship to the cousin

whom

the male figure resembles has been both as mother-

child attachment, and as competition for the afl^ection of

much younger brother was jealous of a nmch younger

the father with a

the girl

male

is

(in associations,

brother).

The

attributed less conflict than the female in her asso-

ciations,

direction.

while the graphic images run in the opposite

Both

figures

and the verbal descriptions given

them, project the wishful thinking, sentiments, and frustrations of the subject as well as her conflict in acceptance

of the feminine role.

ILLUSTRATIONS

8m and

Figures

8f

— Normal Male

The

Brief CltJiical History:

151

subject

twenty-six

a

is

year old male, single, has attended ev^ening college for

two

years, and has held only unskilled and sporadic jobs prior

army service. He was never in combat areas, though he was abroad for several years. Since his return, he has been to

and

idle

no overt anxiety about been explored

He

He

totally lacking in ambition or goal. his listlessness,

but since he has not

clinically, his inner feelings are

responds with superficial congeniaUty

social relationships,

not known.

when exposed

but he does not seek them out.

only spontaneous interest restricted

displays

His

baseball.

is

to visits to the family with

social

His

life

is

He

mother.

his

to

appears physically and emotionally immature, although he is

above average

physique. eating.

He

in intelligence

is

His food

He

which he he

is

tact

is

a

moderately good

inactivity

what was served

attends, accepting

into his

this

them

his

of refuge that

as a sort

Recent con-

subject found him retreating increasingly

body functions with emphasis upon

and upon every minute sensation. vague,

him by

to

indifferent about the evening college courses

satisfying family standards of education.

with

and over-

interests are restricted along the line of

the infantile pattern of

mother.

and has

growing stout from

shifting,

and lacking

youngest of three boys.

The

in

special food,

Verbalized goals are

conviction.

He

brother next in line

is

is

the

con-

sidered independent, witty, bright, and socially compelling.

He was and

always openly favored.

reliable,

though shy and

exemplary adjustment ried.

The

subject

in the

grew

The

passive.

boy is solid He had made an

oldest

army, and had recently mar-

in this

shadow of

better adjusted

)

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

152

He

and more openly accepted brothers.

had given up the

competitive challenge early in his development,

when

injury to his shoulder cut short his ambition to

become

Though

professional baseball player.

he seems to be accepted

mother,

i

^

as

he

is

close

to

an a

his

dependent and

a

«

(

If

-

I

"»",' (

^'i. ^A.^KA..^--'ish coiffure, 14,

last, 40, 41, 86, 129 erasure of, 112 fantasy index, as, 12, 41, 116 functional meaning of, 36, 41

obsessive-compulsive, in, 37, 112 "person," head alone, 40, 86 reading disabilities, 37, 124

156

119,

9, 61, 82,

emphasis,

132

girls

146

141,

masturbation, about,

Gun,

131

60,

done

131, 154

140,

omitted frequently, pocket, in, 61, 80 Hat, 53, 81-83

Head, 36-40 bulge on forehead, 43, 120 children as dependence, in, 38 contour emphasized, 41, 96, 110,

Graphology, 89

Ground line, 92, 154 Group administration,

64

phallic significance of, 53, 54, 81

138

90,

15,

35,

excessive size of, 61, 116 "freezing" at genital area, 63 function of, 60

15,

121,

41,

127,

137,

72, 73

conflict area, 98,

111,

140,

face, covers part of, 17, 145 female has hair, male lias hat, 53

ear emphasis, 51, 116

glamour hair-do,

extraverted personality, 48 eyes, large, 48

part

in,

53

127, 52,

137,

138

on on

lips, full,

145

symbolic value, 9, 52 Hallucinatory experience, ear emphasis, 16, 26, 50, 119 80,

area of conflict,

126

common,

22, 60,

154

behind back, 61, 115, 140, 144, 146 blurred, 130

116,

150

first,

101

45

opposite sex in, 8

panic, 12, 15, 66, 74, twisted perspective

sparse, 16, 122, 127, 153 styles of female, 52,

72, 111, 149, 155

shoes, 48, 114, eyes, 48, 120

organ investment

sideburns, 52

98,

heels

may draw

neat, 52, 140, 145

Handkerchief, Hands, 60-63

emphasis on hips,

lashes

125, 127

130

prim and

155

Homosexual

141, 145, 153, 157

jaw, on, 53 messy, 17, 52, mustache, 51,

102

48, 114, 116, 150

Hips,

50

39, 68,

Heel specified on effeminate male,

119,

120

to

focus

points of exhibitionism, 72

Hypomanic,

large size, 90

Hysterical empty "button" eyes, 49 globus hystericus, 57 psychopath, 92, 97 symmetry may be disturbed, 88 teeth may be drawn bv flat tvpe, 44

1

INDEX

171

Impulses

I

assimilation

Ideas of influence, 119, 135

Ideas of reference,

56,

16, 48, 50,

1

1

male can only draw a female, mother, with, 141, 146

101

disorder of, 86, 88 head as center of control of,

t\pe of '

156

projection of

traits

on wliich

fig-

proach, 101 to draw?, 110, 136, 144

Illustrations, 12-19, 108-158

figures

Im and

If,

figures

2m and

2f, 51,

86, 87,

79, 94,

figures

compensated

52, 64, 77,

3f, 51, 64, 65, 66,

117-121

4m and

4f, 20, 39, 79, 121-

5m and 6m and

5f, 76, 86,

128 figures figures

8m and

buttons

139,

male,

7f,

100,

71,

141-

151-158

8f, 52, 70,

78, 89,

16,

112,

fixation

on mother,

135,

141,

151,

midline emphasis, 131,

85,

perspective,

89,

156,

113,

114,

120,

12,

14,

132,

17,

137,

159

tive, type, 44, 129

male sub-

156,

157

Insecurity footing, of, 22, 65, 90, 92, 125, 144

124, 126, 132,

155

ground

line, 92, 154

shading in children, 103

16, 78, 89,

121,

tension in line, 125, 131, 146 118

Insight, lack of, 90, 91,

growing up,

umbilical emphasis, 139, 146

69, 70,

Intellectual

power

forehead or occipital bulge, 78,

89,

114,

nose accentuated, 55, 61 foot treatment, 67,

covered by vitality,

head 81,

43,

120

Impotence

119, 137

different skill

different

pocket emphasis, 79

147

phallic

may show in

female more powerful,

120,

135, 140, 155

resistance to

100,

self-traits,

mouth may be concave, recep-

fixation of breasts in

126,

of

100

53,

petal or grape-like type, 64

139,

100, 138

17,

female

and

155

14, 70,

126

156

124,

fingers without hands, 63, 64

jects,

in, 44, 78, 89,

6f, 35, 45, 52, 53,

Immaturity button emphasis, 126,

115

castration, projection of onto fe-

151

figures

associations,

Infantile males

distribution

7m and

figures

in

direction of arms, 111, 144 fluctuating line, 125

128-132

101, 132-141

86, 87, 89,

137,

154

12-19, 52

109-116

3m and

figures

inappropriate rffect, silly grin, 45 Incongruity, 23, 119, 125, 126 Indecision beard for concealment of, 52 chin, compensation for, 46,

didactically presented, 108

of,

137

129,

normal ap-

first is

allowing escape

line

137

uninhibited expression of, 41, 50,

101

drawn

12,

37, 74, 112

opposite sex, with. 111, 124, 136,

which sex

157

148

dog, with, 123

self-sex

18,

15,

8,

154,

140,

control of, (see Control) 87, 139,

Identification

ure?,

neck,

of,

130,

57,

as

center of,

Interest in

20

hair, prefers sexual

145

drawings

36, 38, 120

at a peak,

1^'

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

172

organs showing through,

Internal 22,

74

Laterality

Interpersonal

drawn

head

difficulties,

confusion

associations,

Interpretation blind, 25, 51, 104

types in which graphic occurred, guided by, 34,

clinical trait

with

coordination

other meth-

ods, 25, 34, 51

examination of drawing,

left,

94

and

"left"

in

drawings,

88

symbol significance of, 119 vital symptom-organs not

bilat-

88 Legs, 65-67

dynamic and psychoanalytic concepts involved, 34 of drawing considered in context of case history, 36,

attached to head in children,

105

associations, 66, 146, 156 differ in length and width

features

functional

significance

basis

as

personality, diagnosis, and prognosis, of, 25

personality dynamics, of, essential, 22,

knowledge

104

principles of, 34-107, 103, 108

systematic

consideration

of

all

items, 108

best or worst part of

arms cling to body,

60,

61,

121, 125

page placement,

shorter in

86, 89, 91

girls,

of,

half,

given

as

weak

in senile or involutional, 66 Lewis, Nolan, 20 Line, 95-97 blurred and vague contours, 96

weak, 66

midline in, 89 small figure, 90 transparencies of skirt, 74 trunk may be omitted, 68

contour

lines as

body

walls, 95,

155

dim,

96, 131, 146

faint, very, 97

J 70,

facial, 43

148

fluctuating, 92, 96,

elbow, shoulder, knuckle, 75, 121

Joints,

in

girls, 39, 125

divided in male legs, 66

Involutional

51,

significance

skirt

facial expression, 112, 147

53,

in 88,

66, 73 93,

131, 140

50,

dominance,

in

fade out in hysteric, 97 masculine l^gs in female, 66 mobility, for, 146, 156 pressed closely together, 93 shaded, 126 transparent in homosexual panic, sexual

Introversive, 84

Jewelry,

of

body

66, 119

time used for, 28

legs,

38,

39, 68, 102

confusion

of, 36, 97, 98, 102, 103, 105

left

in

124

eral,

42

35,

125

large heads in confusion of, 124 profiles of right-handed, face

"right"

104

direct

of, 88, 121,

"crooked arms" referred to

144

last, 40, 86, 129,

knee

Judgment lacking associations, in, 116

transparencies, 99, 103, 131 twisted perspective, 94, 103

or

fragmented, 137 gaps and changes

121,

at

125,

131

conflict

areas, 96, 97, 115, 131, 137, 139,

148

ground, 92, 154 heavy, 14, 16, 91,

92, 97

INDEX irrelevant,

92, 09,

16,

114,

132

173

empty,

may

be, 91

erasures infrequent, 98

reinforced, 96, 97, 115, 155 tremulous, 97 Lips, 45-46

eyes,

empty "button"

cupid-bow, 46 full on male, 45, 140

head often

heavily shaded, 41 irrelevant line stuck

low grade, head and

large, 38

heavy, simple in,

type, 49

figure, large, 91 line, 91

"per-

leg

son," 103

46

omit neck, often, 57

M

teeth

disturbed sequence, 86 expansive use of paper, 90, 138 features in schizophrenic excite-

ment, case, 132 organs

may

be shown,

74

spontaneous writing,

15, 141

adaptable to group application, 105

communicability of, 27 coordinated with Rorschach,

25,

developed

economy

of

130,

virility,

shoulders,

144,

Adam's

146,

63,

71,

71,

155

apple, 58, 155

Masochism, symbol of, case, 18 Masturbation activity, hands in pocket, 61 finger, index or thumb rigid or conspicuous, 65 fingers, long, very, 65 "freezing" of hand at

of, 28, 105

equipment,

145

strength

in clinical context, 23,

104

Alasculine features on female, 140, 156 protest in female subjects,

113,

be shown, 44

34, 51, 130

symmetry, disturbed, 88

100,

may

Method, 20-21

administration, 28-29

97

line,

internal

be poor, 91

synthesis weak, 91

Manic

heavy

may

proportions

genital

area, 63 guilt, 12, 55, 61, 64, 119, 156

nose equated with penis, 54, 67 pockets in, 61, 79 preference of body narcissist, 76 rake symbolism, 125 "smoking" of cigarette, pipe, or gun, 82, 125 trouser fly emphasis, 55, 83, 125, 139

Matching of drawings with case histories, 26

Mental defective confusion of profile and front view in low grade, 22, 94

28,

105

present status of, 25-27 scoring, no, 28 Midline, 88-89 buttons, with, 78, 121, 126 different than symmetry in meaning, 89 emphasised, 16, 89, 131, 135, 140, 155

on trunk, 89 Mira myokinetic, 89 Mother image light line

breasts, large, low, or pendant, 70 hostile, 17, 89, 100, 138

in profile, female may be in front view, 95, 100, 130 Motivation, 12, 69 experience projections, 45, 49, 51, 57, 97, 112, 124, 129 fantasy drives, 112 (see Fantasy)

male

"King and Queen" drawings, 13 Mouth, 43-45, 94 breast emphasis combined with, 73

concave, receptive 129

cupid-bow, 46 diagrammatic, 120

type,

8,

44,

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

174

Neckline, "V", 18

displaced the nose, 54 early in childrens' drawings,

is

seen, 43

emphasized,

16, 69,

heavy

44

slash,

lustful,

120, 158

Negro, unschooled, low IQ, 22, 94

southern

of

Neurotic

17

omitted in asthmatics, may be, 45 omitted for experiential reasons, 97

compressed, 45 tongue shown, 44 teeth shown, 19 wide, upturned, 45, 127

adolescent crisis in, case, 128-13'2 contact features poor, 60 erasures, reinforcements, shadings,

and

tensions

line

in,

91,

98

profile, tight line,

may

figure

be small, but detailed,

91

1

Movement, aborted

129

in fantasy expression, 42,

59, 75, 86, 113, 147

diminishes with age, 59 body image, 59 Muscles, emphasis, 63, 72, 76, 111 unites the

head emphasis in, 36 head outline reinforced,

22 legs pressed closely together, 95

heavy, clinging apprehensive, 96

line,

N belt, elaborate, 73

vital

insult indicated in, 26

versus clothes narcissist, 76,

114 bust treatment, 13, 90 character may be exactly the same for both figures, 102, 115 dandish coiffure, 15, 50 egocentric "empty" eye, 49

eyes small or closed, 49, 129, 153 fantasy,

blocked

movement

in,

42, 111

head

may

be large, 38 intensified in maladjusted, 60, 145 self image may be pleasant, other sex disagreeable, 66,

100

symptom-organs not

bilat-

Normality, adjustment, 23-24 age phase to be considered, 102 configuration of features

facial

by normals,

judged, 23 be omitted

traits

may 41'

findings in normal subjects, 24 normal female, case, 141-151

male, case,

151-158

and circumstance

SI, 148

why

"normal?", 158

Nose, 94

120, 140

displaced

by mouth,

54

longer in female, 140 nostrils, 55

significance, 56

body

at,

15,

56

role of, in adolescence, 54

locus of globus hystericus, 57

small, 55

long, 15,

stereotyped meanings of the,

18, 56, 57,

as

reference, 23

area of frequent conflict, 54, 98 conflict treatment of the, 7, 55,

emphasized, 8, 139, 154, 157 female given longer, 130, 140 focus of adornment, religious line cutting off

page,

eral in, 88

time, place,

Neck, 56-58 choker at,

to

perseveration as escape into safe and small routine, 103

Narcissism

body body

with

dim facial features in, 96 judgment of neurosis not made on common areas of conflict,

148

omitted, 129, 140 role of, for paranoid, 57 thick, 18, 56

54,

55

symbolic value Nostrils, 55

of, 9, 54, 67,

80

INDEX

175

O Paranoid

Obsessive-compulsive detailing, 12, 14, 15, 37, 119, 124,

130 detailing of shoes,

81,

150,

130,

disturbance of s\'mnictry in

image erasures

body

common,

48

and

nails, 65,

head, small, and large body,

10,

110

line in

counted fragments, 137

midline,

16,

78, 88,^89,

121,

126,

schizoid type, case, 109-116

symmetry

in, 131,

grandiose and large,

119, 140 head, large, 38 neck, meaning of

57

nic, 87, 119

flict

and

"popular"

con-

expressions, 22-23

Patterns of

traits, 21-25,

108

104,

Pelvis

emphasis,

Omissions, 29 arms, of, not an oversight,

skirt 10,

72,

17,

73

furtive

area,

shading,

99,

132

121

Perfectionism, 87, 109, 112, 114, 131,

of, 40, 86

frequent, 60, 144, 146 hands, of, frequent, 60, 131 nose, of, 54 feet, of,

waistline, beneath, 86

Optimism,

in,

organ investment in, 8 rigidity in paranoid schizophre-

Pathological

140

Older male cane symbol in, 82 impotence in, 55, 80

11, 62,

15,

spontaneous writing in, 15, 141 stance may be tight in, 93

140

135,

figure,

fingers, speared or talon-like, 64,

98

121

body,

17 in, 47,

90, 138

of, 88

fingers with joints

131,

51, 119

piercing, 48, 119

154

37,

ear emphasis, eye emphasis, function of

89,

children,

103

Perspective, 93-95 children,

in,

103

confusion of profile and front view of the head, 22, 94, 118 front view, 93, 125, 146

90

Oral aggression infantile, teeth shown, 44, 120 profanity, 44

speech peculiarity, 120

in girls, 85, 93

head

profile,

body front view,

94 profile as evasiveness, 93, 94, 95, 156

Organic detailing empty, 91 erasures infrequent, 98 figure may be large, 91

head, large, 37 heavy, simple line

135

Perseveration, in

"profile or full face?", 110, 156 twisted to focus buttocks, 72

and rotated, in, 91,

96

proportions poor, 91 synthesis weak, 91

94,

103

Placement, 89-92 high on page, optimism,

89,

90

self-oriented, toward, 89, 91, 121, 155

left,

Orthopedic drawings, small group

stylistic

of, 26

evasion, 84

low on page, depressed, 89 Overactivity, in, 88

disturbed

symmetry

middle, aggressive, 138

16, 90, 92, 115,

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

176

environment-oriented, to-

right,

subject less to conscious variability, 90

common

confusion of front and profile view of head, 22, 94 mouth emphasis common, 43 neck, area of decoration in, 56 trunk incomplete, 69 Principles of interpretation, arrived at by coordination with case histories, 34-107

(see Interpretation) in,

44

Prognosis, analysis of, 25 (see

body

Motivation) of, 88, 92

expression

ket, 61

91

hysterical type, 92, 97

insecurity manifest in, 91 neurotic type gives erasures, 98 self-image may be pleasant, opposite sex hostile, 66, 100 shading, heavy, in, 98 Psychosis

with snowman, 85 confusion of profile and front view of head in, 22, 94, 118 contact features weak in, 60 paranoid schizophrenic, case, 117-121

of,

155

is

directly

features, case,

re-

toes

on otherwise unclothed

Purse snatchers, 79

R

drawn is "person," 35 functional basis of, 10

Rape,

environment, 35

personality in copy of cell bodies, of, 90 representativeness of, 6 sources of, 5, 7, 9 subject as he looks, of, 88, 110, 129

of individual and drawings, 4, 5, 104, 124

tie-up

his

Proportions, 6 favors body power, 37, 110, 155 head, large, 11, 15, 37, 110, 116

poor

in defective, 91

in paranoid schizophrenic, case, 121

fig-

ure, 67

figure

is

132-141

specific indicators of, 22, 23

presentative, 42, 113

paper

depres-

schizophrenic excitement, manic

experiences, special, of, 45, 49, 51, 57, 97, 112, 124, 129 facial

in

bust treatment, 90 figure large in aggressive type,

as vehicle of, 5, 104

constancy of, 6 direct or compensated level 9, 10, 66, 69, 129,

of,

case, identified

mouth emphasis

awkwardness,

mouth, omission

in, 55

Primitive

Projection

draw-

persons in analysis may include sexual organs, 74 Psychopath (see Aggression) adult male, young, hands in poc-

Population samples, 35 sexual difficulties

associations to

ings, 20

sed, 45

Pockets, 79-80, 126 hands in, 61, 79 substitute for breasts, 70, 126 symbolic value of, 9

Profanity,

Psychoanalysis analytical

ward, 89

12. 81

Reading disabilities, 37, 121 Rectum, emotional investment

in,

8

Regressed bizarre features, 119

buttons for clothing, plus hat, 78 empty "button" eyes, 49 erasures infrequent, 98 fingers, very long, 64, 116 hat on nude figure, hair on fe-

male of pair, 53, 81 head drawn better, 59 incompletion of trunk, 69 infantile head and legs as "person," 103

INDEX mechanical extension of arms in

movement blocked

mouth emphasis common,

43, 119

with teeth, 119 often omit neck, 57 symbolism, number, 135 Reinforcement of line 139

120,

body contour, breast,

in, 42, 59, 75,

86, 113

the, 62

belt,

177

18,

neck long, frequently, 58 obsessive-compulsive and, 109-116 tight stance of, 93 Schizophrenic arms may be omitted, 62 bizarre features,

113, 155

body,

157

case,

23, 87,

19,

118

tiny, in regressed type, 91

crotch, 110, 154

cases of, 12-19, 117-121, 132-141

car, 119, 154

of profile and front view of head, 22, 94, 118 diagrammatic quality, 118

confusion

hip. 111

nose, 120 tie,

disturbed sequence, 86, 136

139

ear emphasis, 51

Rejection

body, body,

of, of,

mother

heavy shading, 99 trunk omitted, 68

figure, 140,

130,

by,

17,

erasures infrequent in regressed 121,

62,

clenched

fist,

emphasis in, 75, 121 very faint, 97 heavy in excited type, 97

joint

may

line,

be small, 91, 92 fingers compressed, 113

midline

encased, 64, 113 "mitten" type, 64

dim, combined with aggres-

89

toes encased, 113

teeth in simple type, 44 Self-esteem, 90, 146

in, 122

Restlessness, erasures as, 98, 131

Senility

Rorschach coordinated with, 25, 34, 51, 130 midline emphasis as in, 89 rationalized shading as in, 99

erasures infrequent, 98 figure small, 90

weak, 66 trunk omitted sometimes, 68 legs

Sensuality, full

Sex Sadism,

17, 44,

Schizoid,

in, 42, 59, 75,

86 nose symbolism, 54 rigidity in paranoid type, 87, 118 sexual organs indicated in, 74

sive features, 96

verbal expression,

in,

movement blocked

legs pressed closely together, 92 line

1

22, 74

arms

close to body, 64 figure

118

in,

emphasized, 19 internal organs may be shown,

inessential detail

157

Repressed aggression,

type, 98 gross disproportion

99

withdrawn

autistic facial expression, 42,

112

contact features weak in, 60 ear emphasis, 51 eyes closed, "inward" look, 49, 60 hair on jaw, 53 joint emphasis in, 75 midline use in, 89

lips,

45

difi^erences

boys, action more frequent, 59 angles more masculine, 68 buttons more frequent, 78 foot conflict more frequent, 67 hands usually larger, 61

pockets more frequent, 79 problems, more, 40 profiles

head

more in

frequent, 93

profile,

front view, 94

body

in

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

178

shoulders, broad, more, 71 arms shorter, 39

Sexual vitality or virility

cosmetized face, 46

Adams' apple, 58, 89, 155 beard, 51-52

eyes larger, 48

emphasis on

girls,

feet smaller, 39, 67, 125

front view, display, 85, 93 head larger, 39, 124 legs acquire sexual significance, 66 shorter, 39,

hair, 14, 41, 121, 127,

136, 141, 145, 153, 157

125

feet, animal-like, 137 female, given to, (see Differential treatment), 158 hair, meaning of, 52-53 jaw, on, 53

round figure more feminine, 68

hat,

shoe detail more frequent,

81,

legs, significance of, 73

Sexual

mouth, cupid-bow, 46

155

mustache, 71,

101,

120

masculinized in female, 147 Sexual disturbance breast emphasis, 14, 70, 112, 156 body and clothes narcissist, in, lb-

67,

sideburns, 52 tie

in

young

101,

71,

of,

114,

120,

124,

reinforced

waistline, 18, 66

crotch, separate line

at, 15

delay or impatience to meet waistline, 73 fantasies, infantile,

hesitation to line, 66, 86,

17,

123

draw below

waist-

144

immorality, 17, 53 impotence, older male, 55, 67 inadequacy, sexual, 55, 58,

80,

139, 152

legs pressed

125,

erotic emphasis of organs, 8 hat symbol iii, 81 irrelevant, stuck in lips, 46

line,

mouth emphasis,

closely together in

female, 93

random, at area of skirt, 99 nose treatment, 7, 55, 120, 140 open trunk contour, 69 phalhc foot, 67, 81, 119, 137 shading and transparencies of trousers, 13, 74, 120

singleline,

tongue may be shown, 44 neck conflict in fellatio, 57 nose displaced by mouth, 54 shading, vigorous, of hair, 53 or transparency of skirt, 18, 74, 99 Shading, 6, 97, 98-100 area of, interpreted on basis of functional meaning, 98, 99 arms, of, 17, 61, 125 children, in, 103 clothing, of, 17, 112 design, rationalized, 18, 97, 114, 146 hair, of,

line,

43

compressed,

45 28,

132, 136, 147, 157

consciousness

males, 80, 89,

Sexually deviant case, 93, 109-116

tight,

confusion of characteristics, 58,

125, 127

139

157

confusion of bosom and chest,

76,

51, 52,

pipe, 9, 82, 125

111, 114, 120, 124, 132, h36, 144, 155,

of, 41

heavy, 41

lips,

Sexual characteristics (see disturbance) breast emphasis, 69-70 confusion of, 48, 58, 67, 147,

symbol

52,

145

hands, of, 61 heavy, 18, 98, 99, 146 lines,

random,

16, 92, 99,

furtive

margins of clothing, 139,

anxiety,

114, 132

150

nose, of, 17, 55, 140 rejection, as, 99

of, 100, 114,

INDEX presentability, hat, 54, 144

skirt area, of, 99, 132

uneasiness, 94

trousers, of, 120, 122

Soldier, sailor, 84

Shoes, 81-83 detailing of, 81, 130, 150, 154

Somatic

Shoulders, 71 broad, 63, 71, 113, 130, 144, 146, 155,

157

conflict

179

delusions, 74, 121

disorganization,

135, 138

15,

joint emphasis, 75, 121

area,

98,

130,

113,

138,

144, 154

preoccupation, 78,

confusion with bosom, Sibling rivalry,

122,

71, 120

126,

124,

141,

145, 151, 155

16, 60, 69, 71, 74,

113,

89,

79,

121,

126,

props,

and

114,

140, 151, 155

of symmetry, armature, 87, 135

role

Silliness, 23

Spontaneity, excess of, 88

Size

Spread of

female larger, 132, 138, 157 smaller, but menacing, 100

124,

small, 15, 84, 90, 131

subject

less

bility,

to

156

6,

92-93

Stance,

large, 13, 90, 91, 92, 125, 138, 145

self-traits,

148,

as

stance of "person,"

92 self-conscious,

less,

100,

seated figure, 65

Skill

arms are drawings

55,

"adrift," 90, 92, 129

regarded

conscious varia-

90

18,

"difliicult,"

62

communicate

slanted, 92,

regard-

25

expression shown regard42 fingers, petal or grape-like, poor efficiency, 64 head most readily drawn, 40 sexual organs may be drawn by facial

tight,

legs

115

125

pressed

closely

to-

gether, 92

wide,

16, 92,

138, 146, 155

less,

professional

artists,

74

style refers to basic personality,

43

symmetry

stressed in art instruc-

tion, 87

wide variations of set of

skill

in

one

155

12,

(see

102, 147, 149

Contact

fea-

ures)

enticement of clothes

narcissist,

Superman, 12, 60, 84 Stomach, 8, 44, 112 Structural and formal aspects,

6,

83-97

83 line,

features, parts of the face, 40-56, 153

force, chin emphasis, 46, 137, 154 infantile social behavior, 16 participation, emphasis of con-

tour of head, 41, 96, 110, 132

95-97

midline, 88 perspective, 93 size

76, 142

110, 129, 137,

soldier, sailor, 84

copy of cell bodies, 90 equally as important as content,

approval, need for, 126 contact,

Stereotyped models movie model, 112 novel heroine, 147 "peanut" man, 75, 84

analysis of

drawings, 100

Social

communication,

Stealing, 64, 129

and placement, 89-92

stance, 92

succession, 86

symmetry, 87 theme, 84 Stylized drawings,

Succession, 86

19, 75,

84

PERSONALITY PROJECTION

180

bilateral stimulus-bound, 86, 118, 137, 154

casual interest in face, 110

fluctuating line, 92, 96, 121, 125, 131

feet

precarious 125, 129

hat, first, 86

head done hair

irregular, 86,

notation of, 28, 86 Suspicious, 48, 51 (see

Ears and

Eyes)

Symbols

number symbolism,

archaic

135,

snowman,

115,

85, 147

person,

85

younger

60,

12,

figure, 85

Theoretical

(see

Interpretation)

children, genius and

primitives,

very long, 65

insanity, comparisons,

foot, shoe, 67, 81, 120, 137, 150

voyeurism

hair, 51-54

connected

19

with

ex-

hibitionism, 114

hat, 53, 54, 81 right,

significance

of,

Thinking gaps and psychic interrup-

line

119

tions, 96, 97, 115, 131, 137, 139,

nose, 54-56, 67

148

objects, 9, 13, 16, 61, 82, 119, 125

oversymbolic treatment,

23,

119,

disturbed,

succession,

110,

86,

129, 136

125

pockets, 9, 79 thinking in schizophrenic, 119 146

values, 9

Symmetry,

6,

87-88,

115,

131,

138,

armature,

15, 87,

125, 135

awkwardness, 88 is

144

small, 15, 80, 125, 139 tie

140

body

logical,

Tie, 80-81

bow-tie, 80 conspicuous, 80 midline, part of, 89, 139

125

tie, 80,

tree,

92,

84

breast and phallus, 70 buttons, 78, 120

and

121,

Superman, Dick Tracy,

as penis, 139

left

90,

"average" or "normal" 84 gun, shooting, 82 movie model, 112 older figure, 85

bird, of flight, 146

fingers,

91,

soldier, sailor, 84

136, 139

arm

stance,

movement,

action or 136

129,

110,

89,

Theme

129

last, 40,

136

first,

84,

155

86, 129

first,

placement,

left

facial features first, 86

symmetrical, 87

disturbed, 88, 119

produces rigid

effects, 87

stressed in art instruction, 87

Synthesis of parts, 91

flying

Timid dim dim

from body,

81

facial features, 41, 96, line, 96, 131,

153

146

stance self-conscious, 115

Toes, 67-68, 113 Transparencies armature shows through, 131

arms across body line, 18, 129 breasts through pockets, 70 dress, of, 17, 74, 112

Teeth shown,

Temper

44, 119

outbursts, 44, 64, 73

Tension arms close to body, 140

ear, of,

119

hair through hat, 82

"normal"

in children, 103

skirt area, of, 99, 120

INDEX trousers on Trunk, 68-69

legs, 13,

clinical usage, 25, 103

74

Voyeurism

different shape for male

and

fe-

male of a set, 68 incomplete contour, 69

on

location

case,

109-116

eye, small, 49, 153

transparency of female,

oblong, square, or circle, 68 omitted seldom in adults, 68 offered as person, never, 39 positional

181

leg lines,

68

V

17,

157

neckline, 18

w Waistline, 72-74 belt, elaborate, 73

clothing, as only index of, 72

u Unconscious,

delay or impatience in handling,

9, 10, 12,

89

73

disturbed or reinforced

line,

18,

66, 73, 120, 139

Validation blind analysis, 25,

tightened, 73 51,

104

checks with competent opinion, 24 constant progress, in, 21, 83, 105 matched sets of drawings with case histories, 26 principles repeatedly verified in

Withdrawal 112,

140,

(see

Schizoid),

147

Writing, spontaneous, 141 titling,

15

"Zoning" of body, 72-73

42,

LANGLEi

.

.,

JER INSTITUTE

LIBRARY

California Institute of intaaral Studies

^^5^93

Personality projection Lang.

in

BF 698 .M20p 1 961

IVIachover,

Karen Alper,

the drawing of the

hum 52634