Perry's chemical engineers' handbook [Ninth edition, 85th anniversary edition] 9780071834094, 0071834095

TRUE PDF Bros!

12,126 2,810 69MB

English Pages [2274] Year 2019

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Perry's chemical engineers' handbook [Ninth edition, 85th anniversary edition]
 9780071834094, 0071834095

Table of contents :
Cover
Half Title
Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook
Copyright Page
Contents
1. Unit Conversion Factors and Symbols
2. Physical and Chemical Data
3. Mathematics
4. Thermodynamics
5. Heat and Mass Transfer
6. Fluid and Particle Dynamics
7. Reaction Kinetics
8. Process Control
9. Process Economics
10. Transport and Storage of Fluids
11. Heat-Transfer Equipment
12. Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying
13. Distillation
14. Equipment for Distillation, Gas Absorption, Phase Dispersion, and Phase Separation
15. Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Other Liquid-Liquid Operations and Equipment
16. Adsorption and Ion Exchange
17. Gas–Solid Operations and Equipment
18. Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment
19. Reactors
20. Bioreactions and Bioprocessing
21. Solids Processing and Particle Technology
22. Waste Management
23. Process Safety
24. Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization
25. Materials of Construction
Index follows Section

Citation preview

Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook

ABOUT THE EDITORS Dr. Don W. Green is Emeritus Distinguished Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Kansas (KU). He holds a B.S. in petroleum engineering from the University of Tulsa, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Oklahoma. He is the coeditor of the sixth edition of Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, and editor of the seventh and eighth editions. He has authored/coauthored 70 refereed publications, over 100 technical meeting presentations, and is coauthor of the first and second editions of the SPE textbook Enhanced Oil Recovery. Dr. Green has won numerous teaching awards at KU, including the Honors for Outstanding Progressive Educator (HOPE) Award and the Chancellor’s Club Career Teaching Award, the highest teaching recognitions awarded at the University. He has also been featured as an outstanding educator in ASEE’s Chemical Engineering Education Journal. He received the KU School of Engineering Distinguished Engineering Service Award (DESA), and has been designated an Honorary Member of both SPE and AIME and a Fellow of the AIChE. Dr. Marylee Z. Southard is Associate Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Kansas. She holds B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Kansas. Dr. Southard’s research deals with small molecule drug formulations; but her industrial background is in production and process development of inorganic chemical intermediates. Dr. Southard’s work in inorganic chemicals production has included process engineering, design, and product development. She has consulted for industrial and pharmaceutical chemical production and research companies. She teaches process design and project economics, and has won several university-wide teaching awards, including the Honors for Outstanding Progressive Educator (HOPE) Award and the Kemper Teaching Fellowship. She has authored 1 patent, 15 refereed publications, and numerous technical presentations. Her research interests are in biological and pharmaceutical mass transport. She is a senior member of AIChE and ASEE.

PERRY’S CHEMICAL ENGINEERS’ HANDBOOK NINTH EDITION New York Chicago San Francisco Athens London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi Singapore Sydney Toronto

Editor-in-Chief Don W. Green Emeritus Distinguished Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas

Associate Editor Marylee Z. Southard Associate Professor of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas

Copyright © 2019 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISBN: 978-0-07-183409-4 MHID: 0-07-183409-5 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-183408-7, MHID: 0-07-183408-7. eBook conversion by codeMantra Version 1.0 All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill Education eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions or for use in corporate training programs. To contact a representative, please visit the Contact Us page at www.mhprofessional.com. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors make any representation(s), warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, as to the fitness or relevance of the ideas, suggestions, or recommendations presented herein, for any purpose or use, or the suitability, accuracy, reliability or completeness of the information or procedures contained herein. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, damages or liabilities arising from use of this information. Use of such equations, instructions, and descriptions shall, therefore, be at the user’s sole decision and risk. Company or organization affiliation for authors is shown for information only and does not imply ideas approval by the Company or Organization. The information contained in this Handbook is provided with the understanding that neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors are providing engineering or other professional services or advice. This work is published with the understanding that McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and McGraw-Hill Education and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill Education’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL EDUCATION AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill Education and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill Education nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill Education has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill Education and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.

Contents

For the detailed contents of any section, consult the title page of that section. See also the alphabetical index in the back of the handbook.

Section Unit Conversion Factors and Symbols

Marylee Z. Southard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Marylee Z. Southard, Richard L. Rowley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Physical and Chemical Data

Bruce A. Finlayson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Mathematics

J. Richard Elliott, Carl T. Lira, Timothy C. Frank, Paul M. Mathias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Thermodynamics

Geoffrey D. Silcox, James J. Noble, Phillip C. Wankat, Kent S. Knaebel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Heat and Mass Transfer

James N. Tilton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Fluid and Particle Dynamics

Tiberiu M. Leib, Carmo J. Pereira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Reaction Kinetics

Thomas F. Edgar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Process Control Process Economics

James R. Couper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Transport and Storage of Fluids Heat-Transfer Equipment

Meherwan P. Boyce, Victor H. Edwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Richard L. Shilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying

John P. Hecht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Michael F. Doherty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Distillation

Equipment for Distillation, Gas Absorption, Phase Dispersion, and Phase Separation Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Other Liquid-Liquid Operations and Equipment

Timothy C. Frank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

M. Douglas LeVan, Giorgio Carta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Adsorption and Ion Exchange

Gas–Solid Operations and Equipment Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment Reactors

Henry Z. Kister . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Ted M. Knowlton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Wayne J. Genck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Carmo J. Pereira, Tiberiu M. Leib . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Bioreactions and Bioprocessing

Gregory Frank, Jeffrey Chalmers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Solids Processing and Particle Technology Waste Management Process Safety

Karl V. Jacob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Louis Theodore, Paul S. Farber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Daniel A. Crowl, Robert W. Johnson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization Materials of Construction

Shabbir Ahmed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Lindell R. Hurst, Jr., Edward R. Naylor, Emory A. Ford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Index follows Section 25 v

This page intentionally left blank

Contributors

D. Shabbir Ahmed, Ph.D. Chemical Engineer, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory (Section Editor, Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Brooke Albin, M.S.E. Chemical Engineer, MATRIC (Mid-Atlantic Technology, Research and Innovation Center), Charleston, WV; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Filtration Society (Crystallization from the Melt) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) John Alderman, M.S., P.E., C.S.P. Managing Partner, Hazard and Risk Analysis, LLC (Electrical Area Classification, Fire Protection Systems) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Paul Amyotte, Ph.D., P.Eng. Professor of Chemical Engineering and C.D. Howe Chair in Process Safety, Dalhousie University; Fellow, Chemical Institute of Canada; Fellow, Canadian Academy of Engineering (Dust Explosions) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Frank A. Baczek, B.S. Sr. Research Advisor, FLSmidth USA, Inc. (Gravity Sedimentation Operations) (Sec. 18, LiquidSolid Operations and Equipment) Wayne E. Beimesch, Ph.D. Technical Associate Director (Retired), Corporate Engineering, The Procter & Gamble Company (Drying Equipment, Operation and Troubleshooting) (Sec. 12, Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying) Ray Bennett, Ph.D., P.E., CEFEI Senior Principal Engineer, Baker Engineering and Risk Consultants, Inc.; Member, American Petroleum Institute 752, 753, and 756 (Estimation of Damage Effects) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) B. Wayne Bequette, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Unit Operations Control, Advanced Control Systems) (Sec. 8, Process Control) Patrick M. Bernhagen, P.E., B.S. Director of Sales—Fired Heater, Amec Foster Wheeler North America Corp.; API Subcommittee on Heat Transfer Equipment API 530, 536, 560, and 561 (Compact and Nontubular Heat Exchangers) (Sec. 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) Michael J. Betenbaugh, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Emerging Biopharmaceutical and Bioprocessing Technologies and Trends) (Sec. 20, Bioreactions and Bioprocessing) Lorenz T. Biegler, Ph.D. Bayer Professor of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University; Member, National Academy of Engineering (Sec. 3, Mathematics) Meherwan P. Boyce, Ph.D., P.E. (Deceased) Chairman and Principal Consultant, The Boyce Consultancy Group, LLC; Fellow, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (U.S.); Fellow, National Academy Forensic Engineers (U.S.); Fellow, Institution of Mechanical Engineers (U.K.); Fellow, Institution of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers (U.K.); Registered Professional Engineer (Texas), Chartered Engineer (U.K.); Sigma Xi, Tau Beta Pi, Phi Kappa Phi. (Section Coeditor, Sec. 10, Transport and Storage of Fluids) Jeffrey Breit, Ph.D. Principal Scientist, Capsugel; Member, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (Product Attribute Control) (Sec. 20, Bioreactions and Bioprocessing)

vii

viii

COnTRIBUTORS

Laurence G. Britton, Ph.D. Process Safety Consultant; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Fellow, Energy Institute; Member, Institute of Physics (U.K.) (Flame Arresters) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) nathan Calzadilla, M.S.E. Research Program Assistant, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Emerging Biopharmaceutical and Bioprocessing Technologies and Trends) (Sec. 20, Bioreactions and Bioprocessing) John W. Carson, Ph.D. President, Jenike & Johanson, Inc., Founding member and past chair of ASTM Subcommittee D18.24, “Characterization and Handling of Powders and Bulk Solids” (Bulk Solids Flow and Hopper Design) (Sec. 21, Solids Processing and Particle Technology) Giorgio Carta, Ph.D. Lawrence R. Quarles Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society (Section Coeditor, Sec. 16, Adsorption and Ion Exchange) Jeffrey Chalmers, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; American Chemical Society; Fellow, American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (Section Coeditor, Sec. 20, Bioreactions and Bioprocessing) J. Wayne Chastain, B.S., P.E., CCPSC Engineering Associate, Eastman Chemical Company; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Layer of Protection Analysis) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Wu Chen, Ph.D. Principal Research Scientist, The Dow Chemical Company; Fellow, American Filtration and Separations Society (Expression) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Martin P. Clouthier, M.Sc., P.Eng. Director, Jensen Hughes Consulting Canada Ltd. (Dust Explosions) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) James R. Couper, D.Sc. Professor Emeritus, The Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas—Fayetteville (Section Editor, Sec. 9, Process Economics) Daniel A. Crowl, Ph.D., CCPSC AIChE/CCPS Staff Consultant; Adjunct Professor, University of Utah; Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Fellow, AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safety (Section Coeditor, Sec. 23, Process Safety) Rita D’Aquino, M.E. Consultant, Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Pollution Prevention) (Sec. 22, Waste Management) Michael Davies, Ph.D. President and CEO, Braunschweiger Flammenfilter GmbH (PROTEGO), Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, National Fire Protection Association (Flame Arresters) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Sheldon W. Dean, Jr., ScD, P.E. President, Dean Corrosion Technology, Inc.; Fellow, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Retired; Fellow, ASTM; Fellow, NACE; Fellow, AIChE; Fellow, Materials Technology Institute (Corrosion Fundamentals, Corrosion Prevention) (Sec. 25, Materials of Construction) Dennis W. Dees, Ph.D. Senior Electrochemical Engineer, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory (Electrochemical Energy Storage) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Vinay P. Deodeshmukh, Ph.D. Sr. Applications Development Manager—High Temperature and Corrosion Resistant Alloys, Haynes International Inc. (Corrosion Fundamentals, High-Temperature Corrosion, Nickel Alloys) (Sec. 25, Materials of Construction) Shrikant Dhodapkar, Ph.D. Fellow, The Dow Chemical Company; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Gas–Solids Separations) (Sec. 17, Gas–Solid Operations and Equipment); (Feeding, Metering, and Dosing) (Sec. 21, Solids Processing and Particle Technology) David S. Dickey, Ph.D. Consultant, MixTech, Inc.; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, North American Mixing Forum (NAMF); Member, American Chemical Society; Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Member, Institute of Food Technology (Mixing and Processing of Liquids and Solids & Mixing of Viscous Fluids, Pastes, and Doughs) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Michael F. Doherty, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of California—Santa Barbara (Section Editor, Sec. 13, Distillation) Arthur M. Dowell, III, P.E., B.S. President, A M Dowell III PLLC; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Senior Member, Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society (Risk Analysis) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Brandon Downey, B.A.Sc. Principal Engineer, R&D, Lonza; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Product Attribute Control) (Sec. 20, Bioreactions and Bioprocessing) Karin nordström Dyvelkov, Ph.D. GEA Process Engineering A/S Denmark (Drying Equipment, Fluidized Bed Dryers, Spray Dryers) (Sec. 12, Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying)

COnTRIBUTORS

ix

Thomas F. Edgar, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas—Austin (Section Editor, Sec. 8, Process Control) Victor H. Edwards, Ph.D., P.E. Principal, VHE Technical Analysis; Fellow and Life Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Chemical Society, National Society of Professional Engineers; Life Member, New York Academy of Sciences; Registered Professional Engineer (Texas), Phi Lambda Upsilon, Sigma Tau (Section Coeditor, Sec. 10, Transport and Storage of Fluids) J. Richard Elliott, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Akron; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Chemical Society; Member, American Society of Engineering Educators (Section Coeditor, Sec. 4, Thermodynamics) Dirk T. Van Essendelft, Ph.D. Chemical Engineer, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (Coal) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) James R. Fair, Ph.D., P.E. (Deceased) Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Chemical Society, American Society for Engineering Education, National Society of Professional Engineers (Section Editor of the 7th edition and major contributor to the 5th, 6th, and 7th editions) (Sec. 14, Equipment for Distillation, Gas Absorption, Phase Dispersion, and Phase Separation) Yi Fan, Ph.D. Associate Research Scientist, The Dow Chemical Company (Solids Mixing) (Sec. 21, Solids Processing and Particle Technology) Paul S. Farber, P.E., M.S. Principal, P. Farber & Associates, LLC, Willowbrook, Illinois; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Air & Waste Management Association (Section Coeditor, Sec. 22, Waste Management) Hans K. Fauske, D.Sc. Emeritus President and Regent Advisor, Fauske and Associates, LLC; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Fellow, American Nuclear Society; Member, National Academy of Engineering (Pressure Relief Systems) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Zbigniew T. Fidkowski, Ph.D. (Sec. 13, Distillation)

Process Engineer, Evonik Industries (Distillation Systems, Batch Distillation)

Bruce A. Finlayson, Ph.D. Rehnberg Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington; Member, National Academy of Engineering (Section Editor, Sec. 3, Mathematics) Emory A. Ford, Ph.D. Associate Director, Materials Technology Institute, Chief Scientist and Director of Research, Lyondell/Bassel Retired, Fellow Materials Technology Institute (Section Coeditor, Sec. 25, Materials of Construction) Gregory Frank, Ph.D. Principal Engineer, Amgen Inc.; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, Society of Biological Engineering; North American Mixing Forum; Pharmaceutical Discovery, Development, and Manufacturing Forum (Section Coeditor, Sec. 20, Bioreactions and Bioprocessing) Timothy C. Frank, Ph.D. Fellow, The Dow Chemical Company; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section Coeditor, Sec. 4, Thermodynamics; Sec. 15, Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Other Liquid-Liquid Operations and Equipment) Walter L. Frank, B.S., P.E., CCPSC President, Frank Risk Solutions, Inc.; AIChE/CCPS Staff Consultant; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Fellow, AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safety (Hazards of Vacuum, Hazards of Inerts) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Ben J. Freireich, Ph.D. Technical Director, Particulate Solid Research, Inc. (Solids Mixing, Size Enlargement) (Sec. 21, Solids Processing and Particle Technology) James D. Fritz, Ph.D. Consultant, NACE International certified Material Selection Design Specialist; Member of the Metallic Materials and Materials Joining Subcommittees of the ASME Bioprocessing Equipment Standard, the Ferrous Specifications Subcommittee of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, and ASM International (Stainless Steels) (Sec. 25, Materials of Construction) Kevin L. Ganschow, B.S., P.E. Senior Staff Materials Engineer, Chevron Corporation; Registered Professional Mechanical Engineer (California) (Ferritic Steels) (Sec. 25, Materials of Construction) Wayne J. Genck, Ph.D. President, Genck International; consultant on crystallization and precipitation; Member, American Chemical Society, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Association for Crystallization Technology, International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers (ISPE) (Section Editor, Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Craig G. Gilbert, B.Sc. Global Product Manager-Paste, FLSmidth USA, Inc.; Member, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration; Mining and Metallurgical Society of America; Registered Professional Engineer (Gravity Sedimentation Operations) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment)

x

COnTRIBUTORS

Roy A. Grichuk, P.E. Piping Director, Fluor, BSME, P.E.; Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, B31 Main Committee, B31MTC Committee, and B31.3 Committee; Registered Professional Engineer (Texas) (Piping) (Sec. 10, Transport and Storage of Fluids) Juergen Hahn, Ph.D. Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Advanced Control Systems, Bioprocess Control) (Sec. 8, Process Control) Roger G. Harrison, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical, Biological, and Materials Engineering and Professor of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oklahoma; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, American Society for Engineering Education, Oklahoma Higher Education Hall of Fame; Fellow, American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (Downstream Processing: Primary Recovery and Purification) (Sec. 20, Bioreactions and Bioprocessing) John P. Hecht, Ph.D. Technical Section Head, Drying and Particle Processing, The Procter & Gamble Company; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section Editor, Sec. 12, Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying) Matthew K. Heermann, P.E., B.S. Consultant—Fossil Power Environmental Technologies, Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, Illinois (Introduction to Waste Management and Regulatory Overview) (Sec. 22, Waste Management) Dennis C. Hendershot, M.S. Process Safety Consultant; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Inherently Safer Design and Related Concepts, Hazard Analysis, Key Procedures) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Taryn Herrera, B.S. Process Engineer, Manager Separations Laboratory, FLSmidth USA, Inc. (Gravity Sedimentation Operations) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Darryl W. Hertz, B.S. Senior Manager, Value Improvement Group, KBR, Houston, Texas (Front-End Loading, Value-Improving Practices) (Sec. 9, Process Economics) Bruce S. Holden, M.S. Principal Research Scientist, The Dow Chemical Company; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Sec. 15, Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Other Liquid-Liquid Operations and Equipment) Predrag S. Hrnjak, Ph.D. Will Stoecker Res. Professor of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Principal Investigator—U of I Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center; Assistant Professor, University of Belgrade; International Institute of Chemical Engineers; American Society of Heat, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (Refrigeration) (Sec. 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) Lindell R. Hurst, Jr., M.S., P.E. Senior Materials and Corrosion Engineer, Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. Retired, Registered Professional Metallurgical Engineer (Alabama, Ohio, North Dakota) (Section Coeditor, Sec. 25, Materials of Construction) Karl V. Jacob, B.S. Fellow, The Dow Chemical Company; Lecturer, University of Michigan; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section Editor, Sec. 21, Solids Processing and Particle Technology) Pradeep Jain, M.S. Senior Fellow, The Dow Chemical Company (Feeding, Metering, and Dosing) (Sec. 21, Solids Processing and Particle Technology) David Johnson, P.E., M.Ch.E. (Sec. 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment)

Retired (Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers, Condensers, Reboilers)

Robert W. Johnson, M.S.Ch.E. President, Unwin Company; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section Coeditor, Sec. 23, Process Safety) Hugh D. Kaiser, P.E., B.S., M.B.A. Principal Engineer, WSP USA; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Registered Professional Engineer (Indiana, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Texas) (Storage and Process Vessels) (Sec. 10, Transport and Storage of Fluids) Ian C. Kemp, M.A. (Cantab) Scientific Leader, GlaxoSmithKline; Fellow, Institution of Chemical Engineers; Associate Member, Institution of Mechanical Engineers (Psychrometry, Solids-Drying Fundamentals, Freeze Dryers) (Sec. 12, Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying); (Pinch Analysis) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Pradip R. Khaladkar, M.S., P.E. Principal Consultant, Materials Engineering Group, Dupont Company (Retired), Registered Professional Engineer (Delaware), Fellow, Materials Technology Institute, St. Louis (Nonmetallic Materials) (Sec. 25, Materials of Construction) Henry Z. Kister, M.E., C.Eng., C.Sc. Senior Fellow and Director of Fractionation Technology, Fluor Corporation; Member, National Academy of Engineering (NAE); Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Fellow, Institution of Chemical Engineers (U.K.); Member, Institute of Energy (Section Editor, Sec. 14, Equipment for Distillation, Gas Absorption, Phase Dispersion, and Phase Separation) Kent S. Knaebel, Ph.D. President, Adsorption Research, Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, International Adsorption Society; Professional Engineer (Ohio) (Mass Transfer Coeditor, Sec. 5, Heat and Mass Transfer)

COnTRIBUTORS

xi

Ted M. Knowlton, Ph.D. Technical Consultant and Fellow, Particulate Solid Research, Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section Editor, Sec. 17, Gas–Solid Operations and Equipment) James F. Koch, M.S. Senior Process Engineering Specialist, The Dow Chemical Company (Size Reduction, Screening) (Sec. 21, Solids Processing and Particle Technology) Tim Langrish, D. Phil. School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Sydney, Australia (Solids-Drying Fundamentals, Cascading Rotary Dryers) (Sec. 12, Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying) Tim J. Laros, M.S. Owner, Filtration Technologies, LLC, Park City, UT; Member, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (Filtration) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Tiberiu M. Leib, Ph.D. Principal Consultant, The Chemours Company (retired); Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section Coeditor, Sec. 7, Reaction Kinetics; Sec. 19, Reactors) M. Douglas LeVan, Ph.D. J. Lawrence Wilson Professor of Engineering Emeritus, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, International Adsorption Society (Section Coeditor, Sec. 16, Adsorption and Ion Exchange) Wenping Li, Ph.D. R&D Director, Agrilectric Research Company; Member, American Filtration and Separations Society, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Expression) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Eugene L. Liening, M.S., P.E. Manufacturing & Engineering Technology Fellow, The Dow Chemical Company Retired; Fellow, Materials Technology Institute; Registered Professional Metallurgical Engineer (Michigan) (Corrosion Testing) (Sec. 25, Materials of Construction) Dirk Link, Ph.D. Chemist, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (Nonpetroleum Liquid Fuels) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Carl T. Lira, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Michigan State University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Chemical Society; Member, American Society of Engineering Educators (Section Coeditor, Sec. 4, Thermodynamics) Peter J. Loftus, D. Phil. Chief Scientist, Primaira LLC, Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Heat Generation) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Michael F. Malone, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical Engineering and Vice-Chancellor for Research and Engagement, University of Massachusetts—Amherst (Batch Distillation, Enhanced Distillation) (Sec. 13, Distillation) Paul E. Manning, Ph.D. Director CRA Marketing and Business Development, Haynes International (Nickel Alloys) (Sec. 25, Materials of Construction) Chad V. Mashuga, Ph.D., P.E. Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University (Flammability, Combustion and Flammability Hazards, Explosions, Vapor Cloud Explosions, Boiling-Liquid Expanding-Vapor Explosions) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Paul M. Mathias, Ph.D. Senior Fellow and Technical Director, Fluor Corporation; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section Coeditor, Sec. 4, Thermodynamics); (Design of Gas Absorption Systems) (Sec. 14, Equipment for Distillation, Gas Absorption, Phase Dispersion, and Phase Separation) Paul McCurdie, B.S. Product Manager-Vacuum Filtration, FLSmidth USA, Inc. (Filtration) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) James K. McGillicuddy, B.S. Product Specialist, Centrifuges, Andritz Separation Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Centrifuges) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) John D. McKenna, Ph.D. Principal, ETS, Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Air and Waste Management Association (Air Pollution Management of Stationary Sources) (Sec. 22, Waste Management) Terence P. Mcnulty, Ph.D. President, T. P. McNulty and Associates, Inc.; consultants in mineral processing and extractive metallurgy; Member, National Academy of Engineering; Member, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers; Member, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration; Member, The Metallurgical Society; Member Mining and Metallurgical Society of America (Leaching) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Greg Mehos, Ph.D., P.E. Senior Project Engineer, Jenike & Johanson, Inc. (Bulk Solids Flow and Hopper Design) (Sec. 21, Solids Processing and Particle Technology) Georges A. Melhem, Ph.D. President and CEO, IoMosaic; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Emergency Relief Device Effluent Collection and Handling) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Valerie S. Monical, B.S. Fellow, Ascend Performance Materials, Inc. (Phase Separation) (Sec. 14, Equipment for Distillation, Gas Absorption, Phase Dispersion, and Phase Separation)

xii

COnTRIBUTORS

Ronnie Montgomery Technical Manager, Process Control Systems, IHI Engineering and Construction International Corporation; Member, Process Industries Practices, Process Controls Function Team; Member, International Society of Automation (Flow Measurement) (Sec. 10, Transport and Storage of Fluids) David A. Moore, B.Sc., M.B.A., P.E., C.S.P. President, AcuTech Consulting Group; Member, ASSE, ASIS, NFPA (Security) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Charles G. Moyers, Ph.D. Senior Chemical Engineering Consultant, MATRIC (Mid-Atlantic Technology, Research and Innovation Center), Charleston, WV; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Crystallization from the Melt) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) William E. Murphy, Ph.D., P.E. Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kentucky; American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers; American Society of Mechanical Engineers; International Institute of Refrigeration (Air Conditioning) (Sec. 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) Edward R. naylor, B.S., M.S. Senior Materials Engineering Associate, AkzoNobel; Certified API 510, 570, 653 and Fixed Equipment Source Inspector (Section Coeditor, Sec. 25, Materials of Construction) James J. noble, Ph.D., P.E., Ch.E. [U.K.] Research Affiliate, Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, New York Academy of Sciences (Heat Transfer Coeditor, Sec. 5, Heat and Mass Transfer) W. Roy Penney, Ph.D., P.E. Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Gas-in-Liquid Dispersions) (Sec. 14, Equipment for Distillation, Gas Absorption, Phase Dispersion, and Phase Separation) Clint Pepper, Ph.D. Director, Lonza; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Product Attribute Control) (Sec. 20, Bioreactions and Bioprocessing) Carmo J. Pereira, Ph.D., M.B.A. DuPont Fellow, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section Coeditor, Sec. 7, Reaction Kinetics; Sec. 19, Reactors) Demetri P. Petrides, Ph.D. President, Intelligen, Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society (Downstream Processing: Primary Recovery and Purification) (Sec. 20, Bioreactions and Bioprocessing) Thomas H. Pratt, Ph.D., P.E., C.S.P. Retired; Emeritus Member, NFPA 77 (Static Electricity) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Richard W. Prugh, M.S., P.E., C.S.P. Principal Process Safety Consultant, Chilworth Technology, Inc., a Dekra Company; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, National Fire Protection Association (Toxicity) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Massood Ramezan, Ph.D., P.E. Sr. Technical Advisor, KeyLogic Systems, Inc. (Coal Conversion) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) George A. Richards, Ph.D. Mechanical Engineer, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Other Gaseous Fuels) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) John R. Richards, Ph.D. Research Fellow, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (retired); Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Polymerization Reactions) (Sec. 7, Reaction Kinetics) James A. Ritter, Ph.D. L. M. Weisiger Professor of Engineering and Carolina Distinguished Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, International Adsorption Society (Sorption Equilibrium, Process Cycles, Equipment) (Sec. 16, Adsorption and Ion Exchange) Richard L. Rowley, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University (Section Coeditor, Sec. 2, Physical and Chemical Data) Scott R. Rudge, Ph.D. Chief Operating Officer and Chairman, RMC Pharmaceutical Solutions, Inc.; Adjunct Professor, Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado; Vice President, Margaux Biologics, Scientific Advisory Board, Sundhin Biopharma (Downstream Processing: Primary Recovery and Purification); Member, American Chemical Society, International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Parenteral Drug Association (Downstream Processing: Primary Recovery and Purification) (Sec. 20, Bioreactions and Bioprocessing) Adel F. Sarofim, Sc.D. Deceased; Presidential Professor of Chemical Engineering, Combustion, and Reactors, University of Utah; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, Combustion Institute (Radiation) (Sec. 5, Heat and Mass Transfer) David K. Schmalzer, Ph.D., P.E. Argonne National Laboratory (Retired), Member, American Chemical Society, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Resources and Reserves, Liquid Petroleum Fuels) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization)

COnTRIBUTORS

xiii

Fred Schoenbrunn, B.S. Director-Sedimentation Products, Member, Society of Metallurgical and Exploration Engineers of the American Institute of Minting, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers; Registered Professional Engineer (Gravity Sedimentation Operations) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) A. Frank Seibert, Ph.D., P.E. Technical Manager, Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Sec. 15, Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Other Liquid-Liquid Operations and Equipment) Yongkoo Seol, Ph.D. Geologist, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (Natural Gas) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Lawrence J. Shadle, Ph.D. Mechanical Engineer, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (Coke) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Robert R. Sharp, P.E., Ph.D. Environmental Consultant; Professor of Environmental Engineering, Manhattan College; Member, American Water Works Association; Water Environment Federation Section Director (Wastewater Management) (Sec. 22, Waste Management) Dushyant Shekhawat, Ph.D., P.E. Chemical Engineer, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (Natural Gas, Fuel and Energy Costs) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Richard L. Shilling, P.E., B.E.M.E. Senior Engineering Consultant, Heat Transfer Research, Inc.; American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Section Editor, Sec. 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) nicholas S. Siefert, Ph.D., P.E. Mechanical Engineer, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (Other Solid Fuels) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Geoffrey D. Silcox, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society (Heat Transfer Section Coeditor, Sec. 5, Heat and Mass Transfer) Cecil L. Smith, Ph.D. Principal, Cecil L. Smith Inc. (Batch Process Control, Telemetering and Transmission, Digital Technology for Process Control, Process Control and Plant Safety) (Sec. 8, Process Control) (Francis) Lee Smith, Ph.D. Principal, Wilcrest Consulting Associates, LLC, Katy, Texas; Partner and General Manager, Albutran USA, LLC, Katy, Texas (Front-End Loading, Value-Improving Practices) (Sec. 9, Process Economics); (Evaporative Cooling) (Sec. 12, Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying); (Energy Recovery) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Joseph D. Smith, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology (Thermal Energy Conversion and Utilization) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Daniel J. Soeder, M.S. Director, Energy Resources Initiative, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology (Gaseous Fuels) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Marylee Z. Southard, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas; Senior Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Society for Engineering Education (Section Editor, Sec. 1, Unit Conversion Factors and Symbols); (Section Editor, Sec. 2, Physical and Chemical Data) Thomas O. Spicer III, Ph.D., P.E. Professor; Maurice E. Barker Chair in Chemical Engineering, Chemical Hazards Research Center Director, Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Atmospheric Dispersion) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Jason A. Stamper, M. Eng. Technology Leader, Drying and Particle Processing, The Procter & Gamble Company; Member, Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Drying Equipment, Fluidized Bed Dryers, Spray Dryers) (Sec. 12, Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying) Daniel E. Steinmeyer, P.E., M.S. Distinguished Science Fellow, Monsanto Company (retired); Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Chemical Society (Phase Dispersion, Liquid in Gas Systems) (Sec. 14, Equipment for Distillation, Gas Absorption, Phase Dispersion, and Phase Separation) Gary J. Stiegel, P.E., M.S. Technology Manager (Retired), National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (Coal Conversion) (Sec. 24, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Angela Summers, Ph.D., P.E. President, SIS-TECH; Adjunct Professor, Department of Environmental Management, University of Houston–Clear Lake; Fellow, International Society of Automation; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Fellow, AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safety (Safety Instrumented Systems) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Richard C. Sutherlin, B.S., P.E. Richard Sutherlin, PE, Consulting, LLC; Registered Professional Metallurgical Engineer (Oregon) (Reactive Metals) (Sec. 25, Materials of Construction) Ross Taylor, Ph.D. Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering, Clarkson University (Simulation of Distillation Processes) (Sec. 13, Distillation)

xiv

COnTRIBUTORS

Louis Theodore, Eng.Sc.D. Consultant, Theodore Tutorials, Professor of Chemical Engineering, Manhattan College; Member, Air and Waste Management Association (Section Coeditor, Sec. 22, Waste Management) Susan A. Thorneloe, M.S. U.S. EPA/Office of Research & Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory; Member, Air and Waste Management Association, International Waste Working Group (Sec. 22, Waste Management) James n. Tilton, Ph.D., P.E. DuPont Fellow, Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Registered Professional Engineer (Delaware) (Section Editor, Sec. 6, Fluid and Particle Dynamics) Paul W. Todd, Ph.D. Chief Scientist Emeritus, Techshot, Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Downstream Processing: Primary Recovery and Purification) (Sec. 20, Bioreactions and Bioprocessing) Krista S. Walton, Ph.D. Professor and Robert “Bud” Moeller Faculty Fellow, School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, International Adsorption Society (Adsorbents) (Sec. 16, Adsorption and Ion Exchange) Phillip C. Wankat, Ph.D. Clifton L. Lovell Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering Emeritus, Purdue University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Mass Transfer Coeditor, Sec. 5, Heat and Mass Transfer) Kenneth n. Weiss, P.E., BCEE, B.Ch.E, M.B.A. Managing Partner, ERM; Member, Air and Waste Management Association (Introduction to Waste Management and Regulatory Overview) (Sec. 22, Waste Management) W. Vincent Wilding, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section Coeditor, Sec. 2, Physical and Chemical Data) Ronald J. Willey, Ph.D., P.E. Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Case Histories) (Sec. 23, Process Safety) Todd W. Wisdom, M.S. Director-Separations Technology, FLSmidth USA, Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Filtration) (Sec. 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) John L. Woodward, Ph.D. Senior Principal Consultant, Baker Engineering and Risk Consultants, Inc.; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Discharge Rates from Punctured Lines and Vessels) (Sec. 23, Process Safety)

Preface to the ninth Edition

“This handbook is intended to supply both the practicing engineer and the student with an authoritative reference work that covers comprehensively the field of chemical engineering as well as important related fields.” —John H. Perry, 1934

Chemical engineering is generally accepted to have had its origin in the United Kingdom (U.K.) during the latter part of the nineteenth century, largely in response to the industrial revolution and growth in the demand for industrial chemicals. To answer this demand, chemical companies began to mass-produce their products, which meant moving from batch processing to continuous operation. New processes and equipment, in turn, called for new methods. Initially, continuous reactions and processing were implemented largely by plant operators, mechanical engineers, and industrial chemists. Chemical engineering evolved from this advancement of the chemical industry, creating engineers who were trained in chemistry as well as the fundamentals of engineering, physics, and thermodynamics. As an academic discipline, the earliest reported chemical engineering lectures were given in the United Kingdom. George Davis is generally recognized as the first chemical engineer, lecturing at the Manchester Technical School (later the University of Manchester) in 1887. The first American chemical engineering courses were taught at MIT in 1888. Davis also proposed an appropriate professional society that evolved with the industrial and academic profession, ultimately called the Society of Chemical Industry (1881). His initial proposal was for a society of chemical engineers but the name was changed because so few chemical engineers existed at that time. From there, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, AIChE (1908), and the U.K.-origin Institution of Chemical Engineers, IChemE (1922), were created. As the discipline advanced, important approaches to describing and designing chemical and physical processes developed. George Davis is credited with an early description of what came to be termed “unit operations,” although he did not use that specific term. Arthur D. Little coined the phrase in 1908 in a report to the president of MIT and developed the concept and applications with William H. Walker. Walker later defined “unit operations” in his 1923 seminal textbook published by McGraw-Hill, Principles of Chemical Engineering, coauthored with Warren K. Lewis and William H. McAdams. Other concepts developed over time, including chemical reactor engineering, transport phenomena, and use of computers to enhance mathematical simulation, have increased our ability to understand and design chemical/physical industrial processes. Chemical engineering concepts and methods have been applied in increasingly diverse fields, including environmental engineering, pharmaceutical processing, microelectronics, and biological/biosimilar engineering. The first known handbook of chemical engineering was in two volumes, written by George Davis, and published in the United Kingdom in 1901. A second edition followed in 1904. The emphasis was on materials and their properties; laboratory equipment and techniques; steam production and distribution; power and its applications; moving solids, liquids, and gases; and solids handling. In the preface, Davis acknowledged the advances in industrial chemistry made in Germany, especially in commercial organic chemistry. He also noted the “severe competition” coming from America “in the ammoniasoda industry.” The first US handbook was edited by Donald M. Liddell and published by McGraw-Hill in 1922. It was a two-volume book with thirty-one contributing writers. It dealt with many of the same topics as in the Davis handbook, but also had significantly more emphasis on operations such as leaching, crystallization, evaporation, and drying. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook originated from a decision by McGraw-Hill in 1930 (during the Great Depression) to develop a new handbook of chemical engineering. Receiving support for the project from DuPont Company, they selected John H. Perry to be the editor. Perry had earned a Ph.D. from MIT in 1922 in Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. He subsequently worked for the US Bureau of Mines, next as a chemist for a DuPont subsidiary in Cleveland, OH, then moved to Wilmington, DE, to work for DuPont as a chemist in the company’s experimental station, and back to xv

xvi

PREFACE TO THE nInTH EDITIOn

Cleveland, still with DuPont. Family lore says that Perry was a very hard worker, dedicated to chemical engineering, and willing to basically live two lives: one as a full-time engineer for DuPont and the other as editor of the handbook. On weekends he would hitchhike to New York, go to the Chemist’s Club with a packet of galley proofs and a carton of cigarettes, and work all weekend, sometimes for 24 hours at a time. His work on the book extended through 1933, leading to publication of the first edition in January 1934. There were 63 contributors, 14 from the DuPont Company and 21 from different universities, all experts in their respective technical areas. The first sentence in the preface was applicable then as well as for this ninth edition: “This handbook is intended to supply both the practicing engineer and the student with an authoritative reference work that covers comprehensively the field of chemical engineering as well as important related fields.” Several chemical engineers, serving as editor or coeditor, have guided the preparation of the different editions over the years. John H. Perry was editor of the first (1934), second (1941), and third (1950) editions before his untimely death in 1953. The position of editor passed to his only child, Robert H. Perry (Bob), a notable chemical engineer in his own right. Bob had a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Delaware and was working in industry at the time of his father’s death. In 1958, he took a position as professor and later chair of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Oklahoma. He was the editor of the fourth (1963) edition, coedited with Cecil H. Chilton and assisted by Sidney D. Kirkpatrick, and the fifth (1973) edition, coedited with Chilton. For the sixth edition, Bob asked Don W. Green, his first Ph.D. student and now a professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Kansas, to assist him. Tragically, Bob Perry’s work on the handbook ceased when he was killed in an accident south of London in November 1978. Green assumed responsibility as editor and completed the sixth edition (1984), assisted by a colleague at KU, James O. Maloney. The first five editions were titled The Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. Beginning with the sixth edition, the book was renamed Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook in honor of the father and son. Green was also editor of the seventh (1997) and eighth (2008) editions, with Maloney assisting on the seventh edition. Robert H. Perry was listed as the “late editor” for the seventh and eighth editions; honoring his ideas that carried over to these recent editions. To create the ninth edition, Green brought on Marylee Z. Southard, a colleague with industrial, consulting, and academic experience in chemical engineering. The organization of this ninth edition replicates the logic of the eighth edition, although content changes are extensive. The first group of sections includes comprehensive tables with unit conversions and fundamental constants, physical and chemical data, methods to predict properties, and basics of mathematics most useful to engineers. The second group, comprising the fourth through the ninth sections, covers fundamentals of chemical engineering. The third and largest group of sections deals with processes, including heat transfer operations, distillation, gas–liquid processes, chemical reactors, and liquid–liquid processes. The last group of sections covers auxiliary information, including waste management, safety and handling of hazardous materials, energy sources, and materials of construction. In 2012, McGraw-Hill launched Access Engineering (ACE), an electronic engineering reference tool for professionals, academics, and students. This edition of Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook is a part of ACE, as was the eighth edition. Beyond the complete text of the handbook, ACE provides: • Interactive graphs • Video tutorials for example problems given in the handbook • Excel spreadsheets to solve guided and user-defined problems in different areas, such as heat transfer or fluid flow • Curriculum maps for use in complementing engineering course content All 25 sections have been updated to cover the latest advances in technology related to chemical engineering. Notable updates and completely new materials include: • Sec. 2 includes new and updated chemical property data produced by the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of AIChE • Sec. 4 on thermodynamics fundamentals has been redesigned to be more practical, and less theoretical than in earlier editions, to suit the practicing engineer and student pursuing applications • A new Sec. 20, “Bioreactions and Bioprocessing,” has been added in response to the significant, large-scale growth of commercial processes for nonfood products since the end of the twentieth century • Sec. 21 on solids handling operations and equipment has been rewritten by industrial experts in their field A group of 147 professionals, serving as section editors and contributors, has worked on this ninth edition. Their names, affiliations, and writing responsibilities are listed herein as part of the front material and on the title page of their respective sections. These authors are known experts in their field, with many having received professional awards and named as Fellows of their professional societies. Since the publication of the eighth edition, we have lost two major contributors to Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. Dr. Adel F. Sarofim died in December 2011. He was a section coeditor/contributor in the radiation subsection from the fifth edition (1973) through this current ninth edition. Dr. Sarofim, a Professor Emeritus at MIT, was a recognized pioneer in the development of combustion science and radiation heat transfer. He received numerous U.S. and international prizes for his work. Dr. Meherwan P. Boyce died in December 2017. He was the editor for the “Transport and Storage of Fluids” section in the seventh edition and co-section editor for the eighth and current editions. Dr. Boyce was founder of Boyce Engineering International. He was also known for his role as the first director of the Turbomachinery Laboratory and founding member of the Turbomachinery Symposium. On this 85th anniversary of Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, we celebrate the memory of its creators, Dr. John H. Perry and Dr. Robert H. Perry. Often referred to as “the Bible of Chemical Engineering,” this handbook is the gold standard as a source of valuable information to innumerable chemical engineers. We dedicate this ninth edition to chemical engineers who carry on the profession, creating solutions, products, and processes needed in the challenging world ahead. We hope this edition will provide information and focus for you—to work for the quality and improvement of human life and the earth we inhabit. DON W. GREEN Editor-in-Chief MARYLEE Z. SOUTHARD Associate Editor

Section 1

Unit Conversion Factors and Symbols

Marylee Z. Southard, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas; Senior Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Society for Engineering Education

Table 1-1 Table 1-2a Table 1-2b Table 1-3 Table 1-4 Table 1-5

UnITS AnD SYMBOLS Standard SI Quantities and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Derived Units of SI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Derived Units of SI That Have Special Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SI Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . United States Traditional System of Weights and Measures . . . . . .

1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-3

Table 1-6 Table 1-7

COnVERSIOn FACTORS Common Units and Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alphabetical Listing of Common Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-4 1-5

Table 1-8 Table 1-9 Table 1-10 Table 1-11 Table 1-12 Table 1-13 Table 1-14

Conversion Factors: Commonly Used and Traditional Units to SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Conversion Factors to SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Conversion Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density Conversion Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kinematic Viscosity Conversion Formulas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Values of the Ideal Gas Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fundamental Physical Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-7 1-15 1-17 1-17 1-17 1-17 1-18

1-1

1-2

UnIT COnVERSIOn FACTORS AnD SYMBOLS

UnITS AnD SYMBOLS TABLE 1-2b Derived Units of SI That Have Special names

TABLE 1-1 Standard SI Quantities and Units Quantity or “dimension”

SI unit

SI unit symbol (“abbreviation”)

Base quantity or “dimension” m length meter kg kilogram mass s second time A ampere electric current K kelvin thermodynamic temperature mol mole* amount of substance cd candela luminous intensity Supplementary quantity or “dimension” rad radian plane angle sr steradian solid angle *When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified; they may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles.

TABLE 1-2a

Common Derived Units of SI

Quantity

Unit

Symbol

acceleration angular acceleration angular velocity area concentration (mass) concentration (molar) current density density, mass electric charge density electric field strength electric flux density energy density entropy heat capacity heat flux density, irradiance luminance magnetic field strength molar energy molar entropy molar heat capacity moment of force permeability permittivity radiance radiant intensity specific energy specific entropy specific heat capacity specific volume surface tension thermal conductivity velocity viscosity, dynamic viscosity, kinematic volume wave number

meter per second squared radian per second squared radian per second square meter kilogram per cubic meter mole per cubic meter ampere per square meter kilogram per cubic meter coulomb per cubic meter volt per meter coulomb per square meter joule per cubic meter joule per kelvin joule per kelvin watt per square meter candela per square meter ampere per meter joule per mole joule per mole-kelvin joule per mole-kelvin newton-meter henry per meter farad per meter watt per square meter-steradian watt per steradian joule per kilogram joule per kilogram-kelvin joule per kilogram-kelvin cubic meter per kilogram newton per meter watt per meter-kelvin meter per second pascal-second square meter per second cubic meter reciprocal meter

m/s2 rad/s2 rad/s m2 kg/m3 mol/m3 A/m2 kg/m3 C/m3 V/m C/m2 J/m3 J/K J/K W/m2 cd/m2 A/m J/mol J/(mol ⋅ K) J/(mol ⋅ K) N⋅m H/m F/m W/(m2 ⋅ sr) W/sr J/kg J/(kg ⋅ K) J/(kg ⋅ K) m3/kg N/m W/(m ⋅ K) m/s Pa ⋅ s m2/s m3 1/m

Quantity absorbed dose activity (of radionuclides) capacitance conductance electric potential, potential difference, electromotive force electric resistance energy, work, quantity of heat force frequency (of a periodic phenomenon) illuminance inductance luminous flux magnetic flux magnetic flux density power, radiant flux pressure, stress quantity of electricity, electric charge

Unit

Symbol

gray becquerel farad siemens volt

Gy Bq F S V

J/kg l/s C/V A/V W/A

Formula

ohm joule newton hertz lux henry lumen weber tesla watt pascal coulomb

Ω J N Hz lx H lm Wb T W Pa C

V/A N⋅m (kg ⋅ m)/s2 1/s lm/m2 Wb/A Cd ⋅ sr V⋅s Wb/m2 J/s N/m2 A⋅s

TABLE 1-3 SI Prefixes Multiplication factor 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 1

000 000 000 000 1

000 000 000 000 000 1

18

000 = 10 000 = 1015 000 = 1012 000 = 109 000 = 106 000 = 103 100 = 102 10 = 101 0.1 = 10-1 0.01 = 10-2 0.001 = 10-3 0.000 001 = 10-6 0.000 000 001 = 10-9 0.000 000 000 001 = 10-12 0.000 000 000 000 001 = 10-15 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10-18

Prefix

Symbol

exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto* deka* deci* centi milli micro nano pico femto atto

E P T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a

*Generally to be avoided.

TABLE 1-4 Greek Alphabet alpha = A, α beta = B, b gamma = Γ, γ delta = Δ, δ epsilon = Ε, ε zeta = Ζ, ζ eta = Η, η theta = Θ, θ iota = Ι, ι kappa = Κ, κ lambda = Λ, λ mu = Μ, µ

nu xi omicron pi rho sigma tau upsilon phi chi psi omega

= Ν, ν = Ξ, ξ = Ο, ο = Π, π = Ρ, ρ = Σ, σ = Τ, τ = Υ, υ = Φ, φ = Χ, χ = Ψ, ψ = Ω, ω

UnITS AnD SYMBOLS TABLE 1-5

United States Traditional System of Weights and Measures Linear Measure 12 inches (in) or (″) = 1 foot ( ft) or (′) 3 feet = 1 yard (yd) 16.5 feet   = 1 rod (rd) 5.5 yards  5280 feet  = 1 mile (mi) 320 rods   1 mil = 0.001 in

Nautical:

6080.2 feet = 1 nautical mile 6 feet = 1 fathom 120 fathoms = 1 cable length 1 knot (kn) = 1 nautical mile per hour 60 nautical miles = 1° of latitude

Square Measure 144 square inches (sq in) or (in2) = 1 sq ft ( ft2) 9 sq ft ( ft2) = 1 sq yd (yd2) 30.25 sq yd = 1 sq rod, pole, or perch  10 sq chains  160 sq rods =   = 1 acre 43.560 sq ft    640 acres = 1 sq mi = 1 section 1 circular in (area of circle of 1-in diameter) = 0.7854 sq in 1 sq in = 1.2732 circular in 1 circular mil = area of circle of 0.001-in diameter 1,000,000 circular mils = 1 circular in Circular Measure 60 seconds (″) = 1 minute or (′) 60 minutes (′) = 1 degree (1°) 90 degrees (90°) = 1 quadrant 360 degrees (360°) = 1 circumference

 1 radian (rad) 57.29578 degrees =   57 17 ′ 44.81′′ Volume Measure Solid:

1728 cubic in (cu in) (in3) = 1 cubic foot (cu ft) ( ft3) 27 cu ft = 1 cubic yard (cu yd) (yd3) Dry Measure: 2 pints = 1 quart 8 quarts = 1 peck 4 pecks = 1 bushel 1 U.S. Winchester bushel = 2150.42 cubic inches (in3) Liquid: 4 gills = 1 pint (pt) 2 pints = 1 quart (qt) 4 quarts = 1 gallon (gal) 7.4805 gallons = 1 cubic foot ( ft3) Apothecaries’ Liquid: 60 minims (min. or ) = 1 fluid dram or drachm 8 drams ( ) = 1 fluid ounce 16 ounces (oz. ) = 1 pint Avoirdupois Weight 16 drams = 437.5 grains (gr) = 1 ounce (oz) 16 ounces = 7000 grains = 1 pound (lb) 100 pounds = 1 hundredweight (cwt) 2000 pounds = 1 short ton; 2240 pounds = 1 long ton Troy Weight 24 grains (gr) = 1 pennyweight (dwt) 20 pennyweights = 1 ounce (oz) 12 ounces = 1 pound (lb) Apothecaries’ Weight 20 grains (gr) = 1 scruple ( ) 3 scruples = 1 dram ( ) 8 drams = 1 ounce ( ) 12 ounces = 1 pound (lb)

1-3

1-4

UnIT COnVERSIOn FACTORS AnD SYMBOLS

COnVERSIOn FACTORS TABLE 1-6 Common Units and Conversion Factors* Mass (M)

Length (L)

Area (L2)

Volume (L3)

Time (θ)

1 pound mass = 453.5924 grams = 0.45359 kilogram = 7000 grains 1 slug = 32.174 pounds mass 1 ton (short) = 2000 pounds mass 1 ton (long) = 2240 pounds mass 1 ton (metric) = 1000 kilograms = 2204.62 pounds mass 1 pound-mole = 453.59 gram-moles 1 foot

= 30.480 centimeters = 0.3048 meter 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters = 0.0254 meter 1 mile (U.S.) = 1.60935 kilometers 1 yard = 0.9144 meter 1 square foot = 929.0304 square centimeters = 0.09290304 square meter 1 square inch = 6.4516 square centimeters 1 square yard = 0.836127 square meter 1 cubic foot = 28,316.85 cubic centimeters = 0.02831685 cubic meter = 28.31685 liters = 7.481 gallons (U.S.) 1 gallon = 3.7853 liters = 231 cubic inches 1 hour (h) = 60 minutes (min) = 3600 seconds (s)

Temperature (T) 1 centigrade or Celsius degree = 1.8 Fahrenheit degrees Temperature, Kelvin = T °C + 273.15 Temperature, Rankine = T °F + 459.7 Temperature, Fahrenheit = 9/5 T °C + 32 Temperature, Celsius or centigrade = 5/9 (T °F - 32) Temperature, Rankine = 1.8T K Force (F) 1 pound force = 444,822.2 dynes = 4.448222 newtons (N) = 32.174 poundals 2 Pressure (F/L ) Normal atmospheric pressure note: U.S. Customary units, or British units, on left and SI units on right. *Adapted from Faust et al., Principles of Unit Operations, John Wiley & Sons, 1980.

1 atm = 760 millimeters of mercury at 0°C (density 13.5951 g/cm3) = 29.921 inches of mercury at 32°F = 14.696 pounds force/square inch = 33.899 feet of water at 39.1°F = 1.01325 × 106 dynes/square centimeter = 1.01325 × 105 newtons/square meter

Density (M/L3) 1 pound mass/cubic foot = 0.01601846 gram/cubic centimeter = 16.01846 kilograms/cubic meter Energy (H or FL) 1 British thermal unit = 251.98 calories = 1054.4 joules = 777.97 foot-pounds force = 10.409 liter-atmospheres = 0.2930 watthour Diffusivity (L2/θ) 1 square foot/hour = 0.258 cm2/s = 2.58 × 10-5 m2/s Viscosity (M/Lθ) 1 pound mass/foot-hour = 0.00413 g/cm s = 0.000413 kg/m s 1 centipoise (cP) = 0.01 poise (P) = 0.01 g/cm s = 0.001 kg/m s = 0.000672 lbm/ft s = 0.0000209 lbf -s/ft2 Thermal conductivity [H/θ L2(T/L)] 1 Btu/h ft2 (°F/ft) = 0.00413 cal/s cm2 (°C/cm) = 1.728 J/s m2 (°C/m) Heat transfer coefficient 1 Btu/h ft2 °F = 5.678 J/s m2 °C Heat capacity (H/MT ) 1 Btu/lbm °F = 1 cal/g °C = 4184 J/kg °C Gas constant 1.987 Btu/lbm mol °R = 1.987 cal/mol K = 82.057 atm cm3/mol K = 0.7302 atm ft3/lbmol °F = 10.73 (lbf /in2) ( ft3)/lb mol °R = 1545 (lbf /ft2) ( ft3)/lb mol °R = 8.314 (N/m2) (m3)/mol K Gravitational acceleration g = 9.8066 m/s2 = 32.174 ft/s2

COnVERSIOn FACTORS

1-5

TABLE 1-7 Alphabetical Listing of Common Unit Conversions To Convert from acres acres acres acre-feet ampere-hours (absolute) angstrom units angstrom units angstrom units atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres bags (cement) barrels (cement) barrels (oil) barrels (oil) barrels (U.S. liquid) barrels (U.S. liquid) barrels per day bars bars bars board feet boiler horsepower boiler horsepower Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu per cubic foot Btu per hour Btu per minute Btu per pound Btu per pound per degree Fahrenheit Btu per pound per degree Fahrenheit Btu per second Btu per square foot per hour Btu per square foot per minute Btu per square foot per second for a temperature gradient of 1°F per inch Btu (60°F) per degree  Fahrenheit Bushels (U.S. dry) Bushels (U.S. dry) calories, gram calories, gram calories, gram calories, gram calories, gram calories, gram, per gram per degree C

To

Multiply by

square feet square meters square miles cubic meters Coulombs (absolute) inches meters microns or micrometers millimeters of mercury at 32°F dynes per square centimeter newtons per square meter feet of water at 39.1°F grams per square centimeter inches of mercury at 32°F pounds per square foot pounds per square inch pounds (cement) pounds (cement) cubic meters gallons cubic meters gallons gallons per minute atmospheres newtons per square meter pounds per square inch cubic feet Btu per hour kilowatts calories (gram) celsius heat units (chu or pcu) foot-pounds horsepower-hours joules liter-atmospheres pounds carbon to CO2 pounds water evaporated from and at 212°F cubic foot–atmospheres kilowatt-hours joules per cubic meter watts horsepower joules per kilogram calories per gram per degree celsius joules per kilogram per degree kelvin watts joules per square meter per second kilowatts per square foot calories, gram (15°C), per square centimeter per second for a temperature gradient of 1°C per centimeter  calories per degree Celsius

43,560 4074 0.001563 1233 3600 3.937 × 10-9 1 × 10-10 1 × 10-4 760 1.0133 × 106 101,325 33.90 1033.3 29.921 2116.3 14.696 94 376 0.15899 42 0.11924 31.5 0.02917 0.9869 1 × 105 14.504 1 ⁄12 33,480 9.803 252 0.55556 777.9 3.929 × 10-4 1055.1 10.41 6.88 × 10-5 0.001036

cubic feet cubic meters Btu foot-pounds joules liter-atmospheres horsepower-hours joules per kilogram per kelvin

1.2444 0.03524 3.968 × 10-3 3.087 4.1868 4.130 × 10-2 1.5591 × 10-6 4186.8

0.3676 2.930 × 10-4 37,260 0.29307 0.02357 2326 1 4186.8 1054.4 3.1546 0.1758 1.2405

453.6

To Convert from

To

calories, kilogram calories, kilogram per second candle power (spherical) carats (metric) centigrade heat units centimeters centimeters centimeters centimeters centimeters centimeters of mercury at 0°C centimeters of mercury at 0°C centimeters of mercury at 0°C centimeters of mercury at 0°C centimeters of mercury at 0°C centimeters per second centimeters of water at 4°C centistokes circular mils circular mils circular mils cords cubic centimeters cubic centimeters cubic centimeters cubic centimeters cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic foot–atmospheres cubic foot–atmospheres cubic feet of water (60°F) cubic feet per minute cubic feet per minute cubic feet per second cubic feet per second cubic inches cubic yards curies curies degrees drams (apothecaries’ or troy) drams (avoirdupois) dynes ergs Faradays fathoms feet feet per minute feet per minute feet per (second)2 feet of water at 39.2°F foot-poundals foot-poundals foot-poundals foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds force foot-pounds per second foot-pounds per second furlongs gallons (U.S. liquid)

kilowatt-hours kilowatts lumens grams Btu Angstrom units feet inches meters microns or micrometers atmospheres feet of water at 39.1°F newtons per square meter pounds per square foot pounds per square inch feet per minute newtons per square meter square meters per second square centimeters square inches square mils cubic feet cubic feet gallons ounces (U.S. fluid) quarts (U.S. fluid) Bushels (U.S.) cubic centimeters cubic meters cubic yards gallons liters foot-pounds liter-atmospheres pounds cubic centimeters per second gallons per second gallons per minute million gallons per day cubic meters cubic meters disintegrations per minute coulombs per minute radians grams grams newtons joules Coulombs (abs.) feet meters centimeters per second miles per hour meters per (second)2 newtons per square meter Btu joules liter-atmospheres Btu calories, gram foot-poundals horsepower-hours kilowatt-hours liter-atmospheres joules horsepower kilowatts miles barrels (U.S. liquid)

Multiply by 0.0011626 4.185 12.556 0.2 1.8 1 × 108 0.03281 0.3937 0.01 10,000 0.013158 0.4460 1333.2 27.845 0.19337 1.9685 98.064 1 × 10-6 5.067 × 10-6 7.854 × 10-7 0.7854 128 3.532 × 10-5 2.6417 × 10-4 0.03381 0.0010567 0.8036 28,317 0.028317 0.03704 7.481 28.316 2116.3 28.316 62.37 472.0 0.1247 448.8 0.64632 1.6387 × 10-5 0.76456 2.2 × 1012 1.1 × 1012 0.017453 3.888 1.7719 1 × 10-5 1 × 10-7 96,500 6 0.3048 0.5080 0.011364 0.3048 2989 3.995 × 10-5 0.04214 4.159 × 10-4 0.0012856 0.3239 32.174 5.051 × 10-7 3.766 × 10-7 0.013381 1.3558 0.0018182 0.0013558 0.125 0.03175 (Continued )

1-6

UnIT COnVERSIOn FACTORS AnD SYMBOLS

TABLE 1-7 Alphabetical Listing of Common Unit Conversions (Continued ) To Convert from gallons gallons gallons gallons gallons gallons per minute gallons per minute grains grains grains per cubic foot grains per gallon grams grams grams grams grams grams grams per cubic centimeter grams per cubic centimeter grams per liter grams per liter grams per square centimeter grams per square centimeter hectares hectares horsepower (British) horsepower (British) horsepower (British) horsepower (British) horsepower (British) horsepower (British) horsepower (British) horsepower (British) horsepower (metric) horsepower (metric) hours (mean solar) inches inches of mercury at 60°F inches of water at 60°F joules (absolute) joules (absolute) joules (absolute) joules (absolute) joules (absolute) joules (absolute) kilocalories kilograms kilograms force kilograms per square centimeter kilometers kilowatt-hours kilowatt-hours kilowatts knots (international) knots (nautical miles per hour) lamberts liter-atmospheres liter-atmospheres liters liters liters lumens micromicrons microns

To

Multiply by

cubic meters cubic feet gallons (imperial) liters ounces (U.S. fluid) cubic feet per hour cubic feet per second grams pounds grams per cubic meter parts per million drams (avoirdupois) drams (troy) grains kilograms pounds (avoirdupois) pounds (troy) pounds per cubic foot pounds per gallon grains per gallon pounds per cubic foot pounds per square foot pounds per square inch acres square meters btu per minute btu per hour foot-pounds per minute foot-pounds per second watts horsepower (metric) pounds carbon to CO2 per hour pounds water evaporated per hour at 212°F foot-pounds per second kilogram-meters per second seconds meters newtons per square meter newtons per square meter Btu (mean) calories, gram (mean) cubic foot–atmospheres foot-pounds kilowatt-hours liter-atmospheres joules pounds (avoirdupois) newtons pounds per square inch

0.003785 0.13368 0.8327 3.785 128 8.021 0.002228 0.06480 1 ⁄7000 2.2884 17.118 0.5644 0.2572 15.432 0.001 0.0022046 0.002679 62.43 8.345 58.42 0.0624 2.0482 0.014223 2.471 10,000 42.42 2545 33,000 550 745.7 1.0139 0.175

miles Btu foot-pounds horsepower meters per second miles per hour

0.6214 3414 2.6552 × 106 1.3410 0.5144 1.1516

candles per square inch cubic foot–atmospheres foot-pounds cubic feet cubic meters gallons watts microns or micrometers angstrom units

2.054 0.03532 74.74 0.03532 0.001 0.26418 0.001496 1 × 10-6 1 × 104

2.64 542.47 75.0 3600 0.0254 3376.9 248.84 9.480 × 10-4 0.2389 0.3485 0.7376 2.7778 × 10-7 0.009869 4186.8 2.2046 9.807 14.223

To Convert from microns miles (nautical) miles (nautical) miles miles miles per hour miles per hour milliliters millimeters millimeters of mercury at 0°C millimicrons mils mils minims (U.S.) minutes (angle) minutes (mean solar) newtons ounces (avoirdupois) ounces (avoirdupois) ounces (U.S. fluid) ounces (troy) pints (U.S. liquid) poundals pounds (avoirdupois) pounds (avoirdupois) pounds (avoirdupois) pounds per cubic foot pounds per cubic foot pounds per square foot pounds per square foot pounds per square inch pounds per square inch pounds per square inch pounds force pounds force per square foot pounds water evaporated from and at 212°F pound-celsius units (pcu) quarts (U.S. liquid) radians revolutions per minute seconds (angle) slugs slugs slugs square centimeters square feet square feet per hour square inches square inches square yards stokes tons (long) tons (long) tons (metric) tons (metric) tons (metric) tons (short) tons (short) tons (refrigeration) tons (British shipping) tons (U.S. shipping) torr (mm mercury, 0°C) watts watts watts watthours yards

To

Multiply by

meters feet miles (U.S. statute) feet meters feet per second meters per second cubic centimeters meters newtons per square meter microns inches meters cubic centimeters radians seconds kilograms kilograms ounces (troy) cubic meters ounces (apothecaries’) cubic meters newtons grains kilograms pounds (troy) grams per cubic centimeter kilograms per cubic meter atmospheres kilograms per square meter atmospheres kilograms per square centimeter newtons per square meter newtons newtons per square meter horsepower-hours

1 × 10-6 6080 1.1516 5280 1609.3 1.4667 0.4470 1 0.001 133.32 0.001 0.001 2.54 × 10-5 0.06161 2.909 × 10-4 60 0.10197 0.02835 0.9115 2.957 × 10-5 1.000 4.732 × 10-4 0.13826 7000 0.45359 1.2153 0.016018 16.018 4.725 × 10-4 4.882 0.06805 0.07031

Btu cubic meters degrees radians per second radians g pounds kilograms pounds square feet square meters square meters per second square centimeters square meters square meters square meters per second kilograms pounds kilograms pounds tons (short) kilograms pounds Btu per hour cubic feet cubic feet newtons per square meter Btu per hour joules per second kilogram-meters per second joules meters

1.8 9.464 × 10-4 57.30 0.10472 4.848 × 10-6 1 14.594 32.17 0.0010764 0.0929 2.581 × 10-5 6.452 6.452 × 10-4 0.8361 1 × 10-4 1016 2240 1000 2204.6 1.1023 907.18 2000 12,000 42.00 40.00 133.32 3.413 1 0.10197 3600 0.9144

6894.8 4.4482 47.88 0.379

COnVERSIOn FACTORS TABLE 1-8 Conversion Factors: Commonly Used and Traditional Units to SI Units The following unit symbols are used in the table: Unit symbol

Name

A a Bq C cd Ci d °C ° dyn F fc G g gr

Unit symbol

ampere annum (year) becquerel coulomb candela curie day degree Celsius degree dyne farad footcandle gauss gram grain

Name

Gy H h ha Hz J K L, ℓ, l lm lx m min ′ N naut mi

Unit symbol

gray henry hour hectare hertz joule kelvin liter lumen lux meter minute minute newton U.S. nautical mile

Name

Oe Ω Pa rad r S s ″ sr St T t V W Wb

oersted ohm pascal radian revolution siemens second second steradian stokes tesla tonne volt watt weber

note: Copyright SPE-AIME, The SI Metric System of Units and SPE’s Tentative Metric Standard, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dallas, 1977.

Quantity

Customary or commonly used unit

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Space, time Length

naut mi mi chain link fathom yd ft in in mil

km km m m m m m cm mm cm µm

Length/length

ft/mi

m/km 3

1.852* 1.609 344* 2.011 68* 2.011 68* 1.828 8* 9.144* 3.048* 3.048* 2.54* 2.54 2.54*

E + 00 E + 00 E + 01 E - 01 E + 00 E - 01 E - 01 E + 01 E + 01 E + 00 E + 01

1.893 939

E - 01

Length/volume

ft/U.S. gal ft/ft3 ft/bbl

m/m m/m3 m/m3

8.051 964 1.076 391 1.917 134

E + 01 E + 01 E + 00

Area

mi2 section acre ha yd2 ft2 in2

km2 ha ha m2 m2 m2 mm2 cm2

2.589 988 2.589 988 4.046 856 1.000 000* 8.361 274 9.290 304* 6.451 6* 6.451 6*

E + 00 E + 02 E - 01 E + 04 E - 01 E - 02 E + 02 E + 00

Area/volume

ft2/in3 ft2/ft3

m2/cm3 m2/m3

5.699 291 3.280 840

E - 03 E + 00

Volume

m3 acre ⋅ ft

km3 m3 ha ⋅ m m3 m3 m3 dm3 m3 dm3 m3 dm3 dm3 dm3 dm3 cm3 cm3 cm3

4.168 182 1.233 482 1.233 482 7.645 549 1.589 873 2.831 685 2.831 685 4.546 092 4.546 092 3.785 412 3.785 412 1.136 523 9.463 529 4.731 765 2.841 307 2.957 353 1.638 706

E + 00 E + 03 E - 01 E + 01 E - 01 E - 02 E + 01 E - 03 E + 00 E - 03 E + 00 E + 00 E - 01 E - 01 E + 01 E + 01 E + 01

yd3 bbl (42 U.S. gal) ft3 U.K. gal U.S. gal U.K. qt U.S. qt U.S. pt U.K. fl oz U.S. fl oz in3

L L L L L L

Volume/length (linear displacement)

bbl/in bbl/ft ft3/ft U.S. gal/ft

m3m m3/m m3/m m3/m L/m

6.259 342 5.216 119 9.290 304* 1.241 933 1.241 933

E + 00 E - 01 E - 02 E - 02 E + 01

Plane angle

rad deg (°) min (′) sec (″)

rad rad rad rad

1 1.745 329 2.908 882 4.848 137

E - 02 E - 04 E - 06

Solid angle

sr

sr

1

*An asterisk indicates that the conversion factor is exact.

(Continued )

1-7

1-8

UnIT COnVERSIOn FACTORS AnD SYMBOLS TABLE 1-8 Conversion Factors: Commonly Used and Traditional Units to SI Units (Continued )

Quantity Time

Customary or commonly used unit

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

a d s min s h

year week h min

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit 1 7.0* 3.6* 6.0* 6.0* 1.666 667

E + 00 E + 03 E + 01 E + 01 E - 02

1.016 047 9.071 847 5.080 234 4.535 924 4.535 924 3.110 348 2.834 952 6.479 891

E + 00 E - 01 E + 01 E + 01 E - 01 E + 01 E + 01 E + 01

4.535 924 4.461 58 1.195 30

E - 01 E - 02 E - 03

2.326 000 2.326 000 6.461 112 4.184* 9.224 141

E - 03 E + 00 E - 04 E + 00 E + 00

4.184* 2.326 000

E + 03 E + 00

2.787 163 2.787 163 7.742 119 2.320 800 2.320 800 6.446 667 3.725 895 3.725 895 1.034 971 4.184* 3.581 692

E - 01 E + 02 E - 02 E - 01 E + 02 E - 02 E - 02 E + 01 E - 02 E + 00 E - 01 E + 03 E + 00 E + 01 E - 02

Mass, amount of substance Mass

U.K. ton U.S. ton U.K. cwt U.S. cwt lbm oz (troy) oz (av) gr

Mg Mg kg kg kg g g mg

Amount of substance

lbmmol std m3 (0°C, 1 atm) std ft3 (60°F, 1 atm)

kmol kmol kmol

t t

Enthalpy, calorific value, heat, entropy, heat capacity

cal/g cal/lbm

MJ/kg kJ/kg kWh/kg kJ/kg J/kg

Caloric value, enthalpy (mole basis)

kcal/(g ⋅ mol) Btu/(lb ⋅ mol)

kJ/kmol kJ/kmol

Caloric value (volume basis—solids and liquids)

Btu/U.S. gal

MJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3 MJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3 MJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3 MJ/m3 kJ/m3

kJ/dm3

Caloric value, enthalpy (mass basis)

Btu/lbm

Btu/U.K. gal Btu/ft3

cal/mL ( ft ⋅ lbf)/U.S. gal

J/g J/g

kJ/dm3 kJ/dm3

Caloric value (volume basis—gases)

cal/mL kcal/m3 Btu/ft3

kJ/m3 kJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3

J/dm3 J/dm3 J/dm3

Specific entropy

Btu/(lbm ⋅ °R) cal/(g ⋅ K) kcal/(kg ⋅ °C)

kJ/(kg ⋅ K) kJ/(kg ⋅ K) kJ/(kg ⋅ K)

J/(g ⋅ K) J/(g ⋅ K) J/(g ⋅ K)

4.184* 4.184* 3.725 895 1.034 971 4.186 8* 4.184* 4.184*

Specific heat capacity (mass basis)

kWh/(kg ⋅ °C) Btu/(lbm ⋅ °F) kcal/(kg ⋅ °C)

kJ/(kg ⋅ K) kJ/(kg ⋅ K) kJ/(kg ⋅ K)

J/(g ⋅ K) J/(g ⋅ K) J/(g ⋅ K)

3.6* 4.186 8* 4.184*

E + 03 E + 00 E + 00

Specific heat capacity (mole basis)

Btu/(lb ⋅ mol ⋅ °F) cal/(g ⋅ mol ⋅ °C)

kJ/(kmol ⋅ K) kJ/(kmol ⋅ K)

4.186 8* 4.184*

E + 00 E + 00

E + 00 E + 00 E + 00

Temperature, pressure, vacuum Temperature (absolute)

°R K

K K

5/9 1

Temperature (traditional)

°F

°C

5/9(°F + 32)

Temperature (difference)

°F

K, °C

5/9

Pressure

atm (760 mmHg at 0°C or 14,696 psi)

MPa kPa bar MPa kPa MPa kPa bar kPa kPa kPa kPa kPa Pa Pa Pa

1.013 250* 1.013 250* 1.013 250* 1.0* 1.0* 6.894 757 6.894 757 6.894 757 3.376 85 2.488 4 1.333 224 9.806 38 4.788 026 1.333 224 1.0* 1.0*

bar mmHg (0°C) = torr µmHg (0°C) µ bar mmHg = torr (0°C) cmH2O (4°C) lbf /ft2 (psf) mHg (0°C) bar dyn/cm2 *An asterisk indicates that the conversion factor is exact.

E - 01 E + 02 E + 00 E + 01 E + 02 E - 03 E + 00 E - 02 E + 00 E - 01 E - 01 E - 02 E - 02 E - 01 E + 05 E - 01

COnVERSIOn FACTORS TABLE 1-8 Conversion Factors: Commonly Used and Traditional Units to SI Units (Continued )

Customary or commonly used unit

SI unit

Vacuum, draft

inHg (60°F) inH2O (39.2°F) inH2O (60°F) mmHg (0°C) = torr cmH2O (4°C)

kPa kPa kPa kPa kPa

3.376 85 2.490 82 2.488 4 1.333 224 9.806 38

E + 00 E - 01 E - 01 E - 01 E -02

Liquid head

ft in

m mm cm

3.048* 2.54* 2.54*

E - 01 E + 01 E + 00

psi/ft

kPa/m

2.262 059

E + 01

kg/m3 g/m3 kg/m3 g/cm3 kg/m3 kg/m3 g/cm3 kg/m3 kg/m3

1.601 846 1.601 846 1.198 264 1.198 264 9.977 633 1.601 846 1.601 846 1.0* 1.601 846

E + 01 E + 04 E + 02 E - 01 E + 01 E + 01 E - 02 E + 03 E + 01

ft /lbm U.K. gal/lbm U.S. gal/lbm

m3/kg m3/g dm3/kg dm3/kg dm3/kg

6.242 796 6.242 796 6.242 796 1.002 242 8.345 404

E - 02 E - 05 E + 01 E + 01 E + 00

Specific volume (mole basis)

L/(gmol) ft3/(lbmol)

m3/kmol m3/kmol

1 6.242 796

E - 02

Specific volume

bbl/U.S. ton bbl/U.K. ton

m3/t m3/t

1.752 535 1.564 763

E - 01 E - 01

Yield

bbl/U.S. ton bbl/U.K. ton U.S. gal/U.S. ton U.S. gal/U.K. ton

dm3/t dm3/t dm3/t dm3/t

1.752 535 1.564 763 4.172 702 3.725 627

E + 02 E + 02 E + 00 E + 00

Concentration (mass/mass)

wt % wt ppm

kg/kg g/kg mg/kg

1.0* 1.0* 1

E - 02 E + 01

lbm/bbl g/U.S. gal g/U.K. gal lbm/1000 U.S. gal lbm/1000 U.K. gal gr/U.S. gal gr/ft3 lbm/1000 bbl mg/U.S. gal gr/100 ft3

kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 g/m3 g/m3 g/m3 mg/m3 g/m3 g/m3 mg/m3

2.853 010 2.641 720 2.199 692 1.198 264 9.977 633 1.711 806 2.288 351 2.853 010 2.641 720 2.288 351

E + 00 E - 01 E - 01 E + 02 E + 01 E + 01 E + 03 E + 00 E - 01 E + 01

ft3/ft3 bbl/(acreft) vol % U.K. gal/ft3 U.S. gal/ft3 mL/U.S. gal mL/U.K. gal vol ppm U.K. gal/1000 bbl U.S. gal/1000 bbl U.K. pt/1000 bbl

m3/m3 m3/m3 m3/m3 dm3/m3 dm3/m3 dm3/m3 dm3/m3 cm3/m3 dm3/m3 cm3/m3 cm3/m3 cm3/m3

Concentration (mole/volume)

(lbmol)/U.S. gal (lbmol)/U.K. gal (lbmol)/ft3 std ft3 (60°F, 1 atm)/bbl

kmol/m3 kmol/m3 kmol/m3 kmol/m3

Concentration (volume/mole)

U.S. gal/1000 std ft3 (60°F/60°F) bbl/million std ft3 (60°F/60°F)

dm3/kmol

Quantity

Pressure drop/length

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Density, specific volume, concentration, dosage Density

lbm/ft3 lbm/U.S. gal lbm/U.K. gal lbm/ft3 g/cm3 lbm/ft3

Specific volume

ft3/lbm 3

Concentration (mass/volume)

Concentration (volume/volume)

*An asterisk indicates that the conversion factor is exact.

3

dm /kmol

cm3/g cm3/g

L/t L/t L/t L/t

g/dm3 g/L mg/dm3 mg/dm3 mg/dm3 mg/dm3 mg/dm3

3

L/m L/m3 L/m3 L/m3 L/m3

1 1.288 931 1.0* 1.605 437 1.336 806 2.641 720 2.199 692 1 1.0* 2.859 403 2.380 952 3.574 253

E - 04 E - 02 E + 02 E + 02 E - 01 E - 01 E - 03 E + 01 E + 01 E + 00

1.198 264 9.977 644 1.601 846 7.518 21

E + 02 E + 01 E + 01 E - 03

L/kmol

3.166 91

E + 00

L/kmol

1.330 10

E - 01 (Continued )

1-9

1-10

UnIT COnVERSIOn FACTORS AnD SYMBOLS TABLE 1-8 Conversion Factors: Commonly Used and Traditional Units to SI Units (Continued )

Quantity

Customary or commonly used unit

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Facility throughput, capacity Throughput (mass basis)

U.K. ton/yr U.S. ton/yr U.K. ton/day U.S. ton/day U.K. ton/h U.S. ton/h lbm/h

Throughput (volume basis)

bbl/day ft3/day bbl/h ft3/h U.K. gal/h U.S. gal/h U.K. gal/min U.S. gal/min

t/a t/a t/d t/h t/d t/h t/h t/h kg/h

1.016 047 9.071 847 1.016 047 4.233 529 9.071 847 3.779 936 1.016 047 9.071 847 4.535 924

E + 00 E - 01 E + 00 E - 02 E - 01 E - 02 E + 00 E - 01 E - 01

t/a m3/d m3/h m3/h m3/h m3/h L/s m3/h L/s m3/h L/s m3/h L/s

5.803 036 1.589 873 1.179 869 1.589 873 2.831 685 4.546 092 1.262 803 3.785 412 1.051 503 2.727 655 7.576 819 2.271 247 6.309 020

E + 01 E - 01 E - 03 E - 01 E - 02 E - 03 E - 03 E - 03 E - 03 E - 01 E - 02 E - 01 E - 02

kmol/h kmol/s

4.535 924 1.259 979

E - 01 E - 04

Throughput (mole basis)

(lbmmol)/h

Flow rate (mass basis)

U.K. ton/min U.S. ton/min U.K. ton/h U.S. ton/h U.K. ton/day U.S. ton/day million lbm/yr U.K. ton/yr U.S. ton/yr lbm/s lbm/min lbm/h

kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s

1.693 412 1.511 974 2.822 353 2.519 958 1.175 980 1.049 982 5.249 912 3.221 864 2.876 664 4.535 924 7.559 873 1.259 979

E + 01 E + 01 E - 01 E - 01 E - 02 E - 02 E + 00 E - 05 E - 05 E - 01 E - 03 E - 04

Flow rate (volume basis)

bbl/day

U.K. gal/h U.S. gal/h U.K. gal/min U.S. gal/min ft3/min ft3/s

m3/d L/s m3/d L/s m3/s L/s m3/s L/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s

1.589 873 1.840 131 2.831 685 3.277 413 4.416 314 4.416 314 7.865 791 7.865 791 1.262 803 1.051 503 7.576 820 6.309 020 4.719 474 2.831 685

E - 01 E - 03 E - 02 E - 04 E - 05 E - 02 E - 06 E - 03 E - 03 E - 03 E - 02 E - 02 E - 01 E + 01

Flow rate (mole basis)

(lbmol)/s (lbmol)/h million scf/D

kmol/s kmol/s kmol/s

4.535 924 1.259 979 1.383 45

E - 01 E - 04 E - 02

Flow rate/length (mass basis)

lbm/(sft) lbm/(hft)

kg/(sm) kg/(sm)

1.488 164 4.133 789

E + 00 E - 04

Flow rate/length (volume basis)

U.K. gal/(min ⋅ ft) U.S. gal/(min ⋅ ft) U.K. gal/(h ⋅ in) U.S. gal/(h ⋅ in) U.K. gal/(h ⋅ ft) U.S. gal/(h ⋅ ft)

m2/s m2/s m2/s m2/s m2/s m2/s

2.485 833 2.069 888 4.971 667 4.139 776 4.143 055 3.449 814

E - 04 E - 04 E - 05 E - 05 E - 06 E - 06

Flow rate/area (mass basis)

lbm/(s ⋅ ft2) lbm/(h ⋅ ft2)

kg/(s ⋅ m2) kg/(s ⋅ m2)

4.882 428 1.356 230

E + 00 E - 03

Flow rate/area (volume basis)

ft3/(s ⋅ ft2) ft3/(min ⋅ ft2) U.K. gal/(h ⋅ in2) U.S. gal/(h ⋅ in2) U.K. gal/(min ⋅ ft2) U.S. gal/(min ⋅ ft2) U.K. gal/(h ⋅ ft2) U.S. gal/(h ⋅ ft2)

m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s

3.048* 5.08* 1.957 349 1.629 833 8.155 621 6.790 972 1.359 270 1.131 829

E - 01 E - 03 E - 03 E - 03 E - 04 E - 04 E - 05 E - 05

Flow rate

3

ft /day bbl/h ft3/h

*An asterisk indicates that the conversion factor is exact.

L/s L/s L/s L/s L/s L/s

m3/(s ⋅ m) m3/(s ⋅ m) m3/(s ⋅ m) m3/(s ⋅ m) m3/(s ⋅ m) m3/(s ⋅ m)

m3/(s ⋅ m2) m3/(s ⋅ m2) m3/(s ⋅ m2) m3/(s ⋅ m2) m3/(s ⋅ m2) m3/(s ⋅ m2) m3/(s ⋅ m2) m3/(s ⋅ m2)

COnVERSIOn FACTORS TABLE 1-8 Conversion Factors: Commonly Used and Traditional Units to SI Units (Continued )

Quantity

Customary or commonly used unit

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Energy, work, power

kcal cal ft ⋅ lbf lbf ⋅ ft J (lbf ⋅ ft2)/s2 erg

MJ kJ kWh MJ MJ kJ kWh MJ kJ kWh MJ kJ kJ kWh kJ kWh kJ kJ kJ kJ kJ kJ J

1.055 056 1.055 056 2.930 711 1.431 744 2.684 520 2.684 520 7.456 999 2.647 780 2.647 780 7.354 999 3.6* 3.6* 1.899 101 5.275 280 1.055 056 2.930 711 4.184* 4.184* 1.355 818 1.355 818 1.0* 4.214 011 1.0*

E + 02 E + 05 E + 01 E + 01 E + 00 E + 03 E - 01 E + 00 E + 03 E - 01 E + 00 E + 03 E + 00 E - 04 E + 00 E - 04 E + 00 E - 03 E - 03 E - 03 E - 03 E - 05 E - 07

Impact energy

kgf ⋅ m lbf ⋅ ft

J J

9.806 650* 1.355 818

E + 00 E + 00

Surface energy

erg/cm2

mJ/m2

1.0*

E + 00

J/cm2 J/cm2

9.806 650* 2.101 522

E - 02 E - 03

Energy, work

therm U.S. tonf ⋅ mi hp ⋅ h ch ⋅ h or CV ⋅ h kWh Chu Btu

Specific-impact energy

(kgf ⋅ m)/cm (lbf ⋅ ft)/in2

Power

million Btu/h tons of refrigeration Btu/s kW hydraulic horsepower (hhp) hp (electric) hp [(550 ft ⋅ lbf)/s] ch or CV Btu/min ( ft ⋅ lbf)/s kcal/h Btu/h ( ft ⋅ lbf)/min

MW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW W W W

2.930 711 3.516 853 1.055 056 1 7.460 43 7.46* 7.456 999 7.354 999 1.758 427 1.355 818 1.162 222 2.930 711 2.259 697

E - 01 E + 00 E + 00

Power/area

Btu/(s ⋅ ft2) cal/(h ⋅ cm2) Btu/(h ⋅ ft2)

kW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2

1.135 653 1.162 222 3.154 591

E + 01 E - 02 E - 03

Heat-release rate, mixing power

hp/ft3 cal/(h ⋅ cm3) Btu/(s ⋅ ft3) Btu/(h ⋅ ft3)

kW/m3 kW/m3 kW/m3 kW/m3

2.633 414 1.162 222 3.725 895 1.034 971

E + 01 E + 00 E + 01 E - 02

Cooling duty (machinery)

Btu/(bhp ⋅ h)

W/kW

3.930 148

E - 01

Specific fuel consumption (mass basis)

lbm/(hp ⋅ h)

mg/J kg/kWh

kg/MJ

1.689 659 6.082 774

E - 01 E - 01

Specific fuel consumption (volume basis)

m3/kWh U.S. gal/(hp ⋅ h) U.K. pt/(hp ⋅ h)

dm3/MJ dm3/MJ dm3/MJ

mm3/J mm3/J mm3/J

2.777 778 1.410 089 2.116 806

E + 02 E + 00 E - 01

Fuel consumption

U.K. gal/mi U.S. gal/mi mi/U.S. gal mi/U.K. gal

dm3/100 km dm3/100 km km/dm3 km/dm3

L/100 km L/100 km km/L km/L

2.824 807 2.352 146 4.251 437 3.540 064

E + 02 E + 02 E - 01 E - 01

Velocity (linear), speed

knot mi/h ft/s

km/h km/h m/s cm/s m/s mm/s mm/s m/d mm/s mm/s

1.852* 1.609 344* 3.048* 3.048* 5.08* 8.466 667 3.527 778 3.048* 2.54* 4.233 333

E + 00 E + 00 E - 01 E + 01 E - 03 E - 02 E - 03 E - 01 E + 01 E - 01

ft/min ft/h ft/day in/s in/min *An asterisk indicates that the conversion factor is exact.

2

E - 01 E - 01 E - 01 E - 01 E - 02 E - 03 E + 00 E - 01 E - 02

(Continued )

1-11

1-12

UnIT COnVERSIOn FACTORS AnD SYMBOLS TABLE 1-8 Conversion Factors: Commonly Used and Traditional Units to SI Units (Continued )

Customary or commonly used unit

SI unit

Corrosion rate

in/yr (ipy) mil/yr

mm/a mm/a

2.54* 2.54*

E + 01 E - 02

Rotational frequency

r/min

r/s rad/s

1.666 667 1.047 198

E + 02 E - 01

Acceleration (linear)

ft/s2

m/s2 cm/s2

3.048* 3.048*

E - 01 E + 01

Acceleration (rotational)

rpm/s

rad/s2

1.047 198

E - 01

Momentum

(lbm ⋅ ft)/s

(kg ⋅ m)/s

1.382 550

E - 01

Force

U.K. tonf U.S. tonf kgf lbf dyn

kN kN N N mN

9.964 016 8.896 443 9.806 650* 4.448 222 1.0

E + 00 E + 00 E + 00 E + 00 E - 02

Bending moment, torque

U.S. tonf ⋅ ft kgf ⋅ m lbf ⋅ ft lbf ⋅ in

kN ⋅ m N⋅m N⋅m N⋅m

2.711 636 9.806 650* 1.355 818 1.129 848

E + 00 E + 00 E + 00 E - 01

Bending moment/length

(lbf ⋅ ft)/in (lbf ⋅ in)/in

(N ⋅ m)/m (N ⋅ m)/m

5.337 866 4.448 222

E + 01 E + 00

Moment of inertia

lbm ⋅ ft2

kg ⋅ m2

4.214 011

E - 02

Stress

U.S. tonf/in2 kgf/mm2 U.S. tonf/ft2 lbf/in2 (psi) lbf/ft2 (psf) dyn/cm2

MPa MPa MPa MPa kPa Pa

1.378 951 9.806 650* 9.576 052 6.894 757 4.788 026 1.0*

E + 01 E + 00 E - 02 E - 03 E - 02 E - 01

Quantity

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

Mass/length

lbm/ft

kg/m

1.488 164

E + 00

Mass/area structural loading, bearing capacity (mass basis)

U.S. ton/ft2 lbm/ft2

Mg/m2 kg/m2

9.764 855 4.882 428

E + 00 E + 00

Diffusivity

ft2/s m2/s ft2/h

m2/s mm2/s m2/s

9.290 304* 1.0* 2.580 64*

E - 02 E + 06 E - 05

Thermal resistance

(°C ⋅ m2 ⋅ h)/kcal (°F ⋅ ft2 ⋅ h)/Btu

(K ⋅ m2)/kW (K ⋅ m2)/kW

8.604 208 1.761 102

E + 02 E + 02

Heat flux

Btu/(h ⋅ ft2)

kW/m2

3.154 591

E - 03

W/(m ⋅ K) W/(m ⋅ K) (kJ ⋅ m)/(h ⋅ m2 ⋅ K) W/(m ⋅ K) W/(m ⋅ K) W/(m ⋅ K)

4.184* 1.730 735 6.230 646 1.162 222 1.442 279 1.162 222

E + 02 E + 00 E + 00 E + 00 E - 01 E - 01

Btu/(h ⋅ ft2 ⋅ °R) kcal/(h ⋅ m2 ⋅ °C)

kW/(m2 ⋅ K) kW/(m2 ⋅ K) kW/(m2 ⋅ K) kW/(m2 ⋅ K) kJ/(h ⋅ m2 ⋅ K) kW/(m2 ⋅ K) kW/(m2 ⋅ K)

4.184* 2.044 175 1.162 222 5.678 263 2.044 175 5.678 263 1.162 222

E + 01 E + 01 E - 02 E - 03 E + 01 E - 03 E - 03

Volumetric heat-transfer coefficient

Btu/(s ⋅ ft3 ⋅ °F) Btu/(h ⋅ ft3 ⋅ °F)

kW/(m3 ⋅ K) kW/(m3 ⋅ K)

6.706 611 1.862 947

E + 01 E - 02

Surface tension

dyn/cm

mN/m

Miscellaneous transport properties

Thermal conductivity

2

(cal ⋅ cm)/(s ⋅ cm ⋅ °C) (Btu ⋅ ft)/(h ⋅ ft2 ⋅ °F) (kcal ⋅ m)/(h ⋅ m2 ⋅ °C) (Btu ⋅ in)/(h ⋅ ft2 ⋅ °F) (cal ⋅ cm)/(h ⋅ cm2 ⋅ °C)

Heat-transfer coefficient

Viscosity (dynamic)

cal/(s ⋅ cm2 ⋅ °C) Btu/(s ⋅ ft2 ⋅ °F) cal/(h ⋅ cm2 ⋅ °C) Btu/(h ⋅ ft2 ⋅ °F)

2

(lbf ⋅ s)/in (lbf ⋅ s)/ft2 (kgf ⋅ s)/m2 lbm/( ft ⋅ s) (dyn ⋅ s)/cm2 cP lbm/( ft ⋅ h)

*An asterisk indicates that the conversion factor is exact.

Pa ⋅ s Pa ⋅ s Pa ⋅ s Pa ⋅ s Pa ⋅ s Pa ⋅ s Pa ⋅ s

1 2

(N ⋅ s)/m (N ⋅ s)/m2 (N ⋅ s)/m2 (N ⋅ s)/m2 (N ⋅ s)/m2 (N ⋅ s)/m2 (N ⋅ s)/m2

6.894 757 4.788 026 9.806 650* 1.488 164 1.0* 1.0* 4.133 789

E + 03 E + 01 E + 00 E + 00 E - 01 E - 03 E - 04

COnVERSIOn FACTORS TABLE 1-8 Conversion Factors: Commonly Used and Traditional Units to SI Units (Continued )

Customary or commonly used unit

SI unit

Viscosity (kinematic)

ft2/s in2/s m2/h ft2/h cSt

m2/s mm2/s mm2/s m2/s mm2/s

9.290 304* 6.451 6* 2.777 778 2.580 64* 1

E - 02 E + 02 E + 02 E - 05

Permeability

darcy millidarcy

µm2 µm2

9.869 233 9.869 233

E - 01 E - 04

Thermal flux

Btu/(h ⋅ ft2) Btu/(s ⋅ ft2) cal/(s ⋅ cm2)

W/m2 W/m2 W/m2

3.152 1.135 4.184

E + 00 E + 04 E + 04

Mass-transfer coefficient

(lbmol)/[h ⋅ ft2(lbmol/ft3)] (gmol)/[s ⋅ m2(gmol/L)]

m/s m/s

8.467 1.0

E - 05 E + 01

Quantity

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Electricity, magnetism Admittance

S

S

1

Capacitance

µF

µF

1

Charge density

C/mm3

C/mm3

1

Conductance

S

S S

1 1

(mho)

Ω

Conductivity

S/m /m m /m

S/m S/m mS/m

1 1 1

Current density

A/mm2

A/mm2

1 1

Ω

Ω

2

Displacement

C/cm

C/cm2

Electric charge

C

C

1

Electric current

A

A

1

Electric-dipole moment

C⋅m

C⋅m

1

Electric-field strength

V/m

V/m

1

Electric flux

C

C

1

Electric polarization

C/cm2

C/cm2

1

Electric potential

V mV

V mV

1 1

Electromagnetic moment

A ⋅ m2

A ⋅ m2

1

Electromotive force

V

V

1

Flux of displacement

C

C

1

Frequency

cycles/s

Hz

1

Impedance

Ω

Ω

1

Linear-current density

A/mm

A/mm

1

Magnetic-dipole moment

Wb ⋅ m

Wb ⋅ m

1

Magnetic-field strength

A/mm Oe gamma

A/mm A/m A/m

1 7.957 747 7.957 747

Magnetic flux

mWb

mWb

1

Magnetic-flux density

mT G gamma

mT T nT

1 1.0* 1

Magnetic induction

mT

mT

1

Magnetic moment

A ⋅ m2

A ⋅ m2

1

Magnetic polarization

mT

mT

1

Magnetic potential difference

A

A

1

Magnetic-vector potential

Wb/mm

Wb/mm

1

Magnetization

A/mm

A/mm

1

Modulus of admittance

S

S

1

*An asterisk indicates that the conversion factor is exact.

E + 01 E + 04

E - 04

(Continued )

1-13

1-14

UnIT COnVERSIOn FACTORS AnD SYMBOLS

TABLE 1-8 Conversion Factors: Commonly Used and Traditional Units to SI Units (Continued )

Customary or commonly used unit

SI unit

Modulus of impedance

Ω

Ω

1

Mutual inductance

H

H

1

Permeability

µH/m

µH/m

1

Permeance

H

H

1

Permittivity

µF/m

µF/m

1

Potential difference

V

V

1

Quantity

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Quantity of electricity

C

C

1

Reactance

Ω

Ω

1

Reluctance

H-1

H-1

1

Resistance

Ω

Ω

1

Resistivity

Ω ⋅ cm Ω⋅m

Ω ⋅ cm Ω⋅m

1 1

Self-inductance

mH

mH

1

Surface density of change

mC/m2

mC/m2

1

Susceptance

S

S

1

Volume density of charge

C/mm3

C/mm3

1

Absorbed dose

rad

Gy

1.0*

Acoustical energy

J

J

1

Acoustical intensity

W/cm2

W/m2

1.0*

Acoustical power

W

W

1

Sound pressure

N/m2

N/m2

1.0*

Illuminance

fc

lx

1.076 391

E + 01

Illumination

fc

lx

1.076 391

E + 01

Acoustics, light, radiation

2

2

Irradiance

W/m

W/m

1

Light exposure

fc ⋅ s

lx ⋅ s

1.076 391

Luminance

cd/m2

cd/m2

1

Luminous efficacy

lm/W

lm/W

1

2

2

E - 02

E + 04

E + 01

Luminous exitance

lm/m

lm/m

1

Luminous flux

lm

lm

1

Luminous intensity

cd

cd

1

Radiance

W/m2 ⋅ sr

W/m2 ⋅ sr

1

Radiant energy

J

J

1

Radiant flux

W

W

1

Radiant intensity

W/sr

W/sr

1

Radiant power

W

W

1

Wavelength

Å

nm

1.0*

E - 01

Capture unit

10 cm

m

E + 01

m

m

1.0* 1 1

Ci

Bq

3.7*

E + 10

-3

-1

Radioactivity

*An asterisk indicates that the conversion factor is exact.

-1

-1

-1

10-3 cm-1

COnVERSIOn FACTORS TABLE 1-9 Other Conversion Factors to SI Units The first two digits of each numerical entry represent a power of 10. For example, the entry “-02 2.54” expresses the fact that 1 in = 2.54 × 10-2 m. To Convert from abampere abcoulomb abfarad abhenry abmho abohm abvolt acre ampere (international of 1948) angstrom are astronomical unit atmosphere bar barn barrel (petroleum 42 gal) barye British thermal unit (ISO/TC 12) British thermal unit (International Steam Table) British thermal unit (mean) British thermal unit (thermochemical) British thermal unit (39°F) British thermal unit (60°F) bushel (U.S.) cable caliber calorie (International Steam Table) calorie (mean) calorie (thermochemical) calorie (15°C) calorie (20°C) calorie (kilogram, International Steam Table) calorie (kilogram, mean) calorie (kilogram, thermochemical) carat (metric) Celsius (temperature) centimeter of mercury (0°C) centimeter of water (4°C) chain (engineer’s) chain (surveyor’s or Gunter’s) circular mil cord coulomb (international of 1948) cubit cup curie day (mean solar) day (sidereal) degree (angle) denier (international) dram (avoirdupois) dram (troy or apothecary) dram (U.S. fluid) dyne electron volt erg Fahrenheit (temperature) Fahrenheit (temperature) farad (international of 1948) faraday (based on carbon  12) faraday (chemical) faraday (physical) fathom fermi ( femtometer) fluid ounce (U.S.) foot

To

Multiply by

ampere coulomb farad henry mho ohm volt meter2 ampere

+01 1.00 +01 1.00 +09 1.00 -09 1.00 +09 1.00 -09 1.00 -08 1.00 +03 4.046 856 -01 9.998 35

meter meter2 meter newton/meter2 newton/meter2 meter2 meter3 newton/meter2 joule

-10 1.00 +02 1.00 +11 1.495 978 +05 1.013 25 +05 1.00 -28 1.00 -01 1.589 873 -01 1.00 +03 1.055 06

joule

+03 1.055 04

joule joule

+03 1.055 87 +03 1.054 350

joule joule meter3 meter meter joule joule joule joule joule joule

+03 1.059 67 +03 1.054 68 -02 3.523 907 +02 2.194 56 -04 2.54 +00 4.1868 +00 4.190 02 +00 4.184 +00 4.185 80 +00 4.181 90 +03 4.186 8

joule joule

+03 4.190 02 +03 4.184

kilogram kelvin newton/meter2 newton/meter2 meter meter

-04 2.00 tK = tC + 273.15 +03 1.333 22 +01 9.806 38 +01 3.048 +01 2.011 68

meter2 meter3 coulomb

-10 5.067 074 +00 3.624 556 -01 9.998 35

meter meter3 disintegration/second second (mean solar) second (mean solar) radian kilogram/meter kilogram kilogram meter3 newton joule joule kelvin Celsius farad coulomb coulomb coulomb meter meter meter3 meter

-01 4.572 -04 2.365 882 +10 3.70 +04 8.64 +04 8.616 409 -02 1.745 329 -07 1.111 111 -03 1.771 845 -03 3.887 934 -06 3.696 691 -05 1.00 -19 1.602 10 -07 1.00 tK = (5/9)(tF + 459.67) tC = (5/9)(tF - 32) -01 9.995 05 +04 9.648 70 +04 9.649 57 +04 9.652 19 +00 1.828 8 -15 1.00 -05 2.957 352 -01 3.048

To Convert from foot (U.S. survey) foot of water (39.2°F) footcandle footlambert furlong galileo gallon (U.K. liquid) gallon (U.S. dry) gallon (U.S. liquid) gamma gauss gilbert gill (U.K.) gill (U.S.) grad grad grain gram hand hectare henry (international of 1948) hogshead (U.S.) horsepower (550 ft lbf/s) horsepower (boiler) horsepower (electric) horsepower (metric) horsepower (U.K.) horsepower (water) hour (mean solar) hour (sidereal) hundredweight (long) hundredweight (short) inch inch of mercury (32°F) inch of mercury (60°F) inch of water (39.2°F) inch of water (60°F) joule (international of 1948) kayser kilocalorie (International Steam Table) kilocalorie (mean) kilocalorie (thermochemical) kilogram mass kilogram-force (kgf) kilopound-force kip knot (international) lambert lambert langley lbf (pound-force, avoirdupois) lbm (pound-mass, avoirdupois) league (British nautical) league (international nautical) league (statute) light-year link (engineer’s) link (surveyor’s or Gunter’s) liter lux maxwell meter micrometer mil mile (U.S. statute) mile (U.K. nautical) mile (international nautical) mile (U.S. nautical) millibar millimeter of mercury (0°C)

To

Multiply by

meter newton/meter2 lumen/meter2 candela/meter2 meter meter/second2 meter3 meter3 meter3 tesla tesla ampere turn meter3 meter3 degree (angular) radian kilogram kilogram meter meter2 henry meter3 watt watt watt watt watt watt second (mean solar) second (mean solar) kilogram kilogram meter newton/meter2 newton/meter2 newton/meter2 newton/meter2 joule 1/meter joule

-01 3.048 006 +03 2.988 98 +01 1.076 391 +00 3.426 259 +02 2.011 68 -02 1.00 -03 4.546 087 -03 4.404 883 -03 3.785 411 -09 1.00 -04 1.00 -01 7.957 747 -04 1.420 652 -04 1.182 941 -01 9.00 -02 1.570 796 -05 6.479 891 -03 1.00 -01 1.016 +04 1.00 +00 1.000 495 -01 2.384 809 +02 7.456 998 +03 9.809 50 +02 7.46 +02 7.354 99 +02 7.457 +02 7.460 43 +03 3.60 +03 3.590 170 +01 5.080 234 +01 4.535 923 -02 2.54 +03 3.386 389 +03 3.376 85 +02 2.490 82 +02 2.4884 +00 1.000 165 +02 1.00 +03 4.186 74

joule joule kilogram newton newton newton meter/second candela/meter2 candela/meter2 joule/meter2 newton

+03 4.190 02 +03 4.184 +00 1.00 +00 9.806 65 +00 9.806 65 +03 4.448 221 -01 5.144 444 +04 1/π +03 3.183 098 +04 4.184 +00 4.448 221

kilogram

-01 4.535 923

meter meter

+03 5.559 552 +03 5.556

meter meter meter meter meter3 lumen/meter2 weber wavelengths Kr 86 meter meter meter meter meter meter newton/meter2 newton/meter2

+03 4.828 032 +15 9.460 55 -01 3.048 -01 2.011 68 -03 1.00 +00 1.00 -08 1.00 +06 1.650 763 -06 1.00 -05 2.54 +03 1.609 344 +03 1.853 184 +03 1.852 +03 1.852 +02 1.00 +02 1.333 224 (Continued )

1-15

1-16

UnIT COnVERSIOn FACTORS AnD SYMBOLS

TABLE 1-9 Other Conversion Factors to SI Units (Continued ) The first two digits of each numerical entry represent a power of 10. For example, the entry “-02 2.54” expresses the fact that 1 in = 2.54 × 10-2 m. To Convert from minute (angle) minute (mean solar) minute (sidereal) month (mean calendar) nautical mile (international) nautical mile (U.S.) nautical mile (U.K.) oersted ohm (international of 1948) ounce-force (avoirdupois) ounce-mass (avoirdupois) ounce-mass (troy or apothecary) ounce (U.S. fluid) pace parsec pascal peck (U.S.) pennyweight perch phot pica (printer’s) pint (U.S. dry) pint (U.S. liquid) point (printer’s) poise pole pound-force (lbf  avoirdupois) pound-mass (lbm avoirdupois) pound-mass (troy or  apothecary) poundal quart (U.S. dry) quart (U.S. liquid) rad (radiation dose  absorbed) Rankine (temperature) rayleigh (rate of photon  emission) rhe rod roentgen rutherford second (angle)

To

Multiply by

radian second (mean solar) second (mean solar) second (mean solar) meter meter meter ampere/meter ohm newton kilogram kilogram meter3 meter meter newton/meter2 meter3 kilogram meter lumen/meter2 meter meter3 meter3 meter (newton-second)/meter2 meter newton

-04 2.908 882 +01 6.00 +01 5.983 617 +06 2.628 +03 1.852 +03 1.852 +03 1.853 184 +01 7.957 747 +00 1.000 495 -01 2.780 138 -02 2.834 952 -02 3.110 347 -05 2.957 352 -01 7.62 +16 3.083 74 +00 1.00 -03 8.809 767 -03 1.555 173 +00 5.0292 +04 1.00 -03 4.217 517 -04 5.506 104 -04 4.731 764 -04 3.514 598 -01 1.00 +00 5.0292 +00 4.448 221

kilogram

-01 4.535 923

kilogram

-01 3.732 417

newton meter3 meter3 joule/kilogram

-01 1.382 549 -03 1.101 220 -04 9.463 529 -02 1.00

kelvin 1/second-meter2

tK = (5/9)tR +10 1.00

meter2/(newtonsecond) meter coulomb/kilogram disintegration/second radian

+01 1.00 +00 5.0292 -04 2.579 76 +06 1.00 -06 4.848 136

To Convert from

To

Multiply by

second (ephemeris) second (mean solar)

second second (ephemeris)

second (sidereal) section scruple (apothecary) shake skein slug span statampere statcoulomb statfarad stathenry statmho statohm statute mile (U.S.) statvolt stere stilb stoke tablespoon teaspoon ton (assay) ton (long) ton (metric) ton (nuclear equivalent of TNT) ton (register) ton (short, 2000 lb) tonne torr (0°C) township unit pole volt (international of 1948) watt (international of 1948) yard year (calendar) year (sidereal) year (tropical) year 1900, tropical, Jan., day 0, hour 12 year 1900, tropical, Jan., day 0, hour 12

second (mean solar) meter2 kilogram second meter kilogram meter ampere coulomb farad henry mho ohm meter volt meter3 candela/meter2 meter2/second meter3 meter3 kilogram kilogram kilogram joule meter3 kilogram kilogram newton/meter2 meter2 weber volt watt meter second (mean solar) second (mean solar) second (mean solar) second (ephemeris)

+00 1.000 000 Consult American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac -01 9.972 695 +06 2.589 988 -03 1.295 978 -08 1.00 +02 1.097 28 +01 1.459 390 -01 2.286 -10 3.335 640 -10 3.335 640 -12 1.112 650 +11 8.987 554 -12 1.112 650 +11 8.987 554 +03 1.609 344 +02 2.997 925 +00 1.00 +04 1.00 -04 1.00 -05 1.478 676 -06 4.928 921 -02 2.916 666 +03 1.016 046 +03 1.00 +09 4.20 +00 2.831 684 +02 9.071 847 +03 1.00 +02 1.333 22 +07 9.323 957 -07 1.256 637 +00 1.000 330 +00 1.000 165 -01 9.144 +07 3.1536 +07 3.155 815 +07 3.155 692 +07 3.155 692

second

+07 3.155 692

COnVERSIOn FACTORS TABLE 1-10 Temperature Conversion Formulas °F = (°C × 5/9) + 32 °C = (°F - 32) × 5/9 °R = °F + 459.67 K = °C + 273.15 K = °R × 5/9

TABLE 1-13 Values of the Ideal Gas Constant Temp. scale

Temperature difference ΔT: °F = °C × 9/5

atm atm mmHg bar kg/cm2 atm mmHg

TABLE 1-11 Density Conversion Formulas

lb gal

T,P

lb ft 3

T,P

= sp gr = sp gr

T,P

T,P

Pressure units

Volume units

Kelvin

Bé = 145 − 145 (heavier than H O) 2 sp gr   Tw = sp gr 60 /60 F − 1 0.005 API = 141.5 − 131.5 sp gr

 Bé = 140 − 130 (lighter than H O) 2 sp gr

cm3 liters liters liters liters ft3 ft3

Rankine

atm in Hg mmHg lb/in2 abs lb/ft2 abs

× 8.345406

× 62.42797

ft3 ft3 ft3 ft3 ft3

Viscosity scale Saybolt Universal Saybolt Furol Redwood No. 1

Range of t, s

Kinematic viscosity, stokes*

32 < t < 100 t > 100 25 < t < 40 t > 40 34 < t < 100 t > 100

0.00226t - 1.95/t 0.00220t - 1.35/t 0.0224t - 1.84/t 0.0216t - 0.60/t 0.00260t - 1.79/t 0.00247t - 0.50/t 0.027t - 20/t 0.00147t - 3.74/t

Redwood Admiralty Engler *1 stoke (St) = 1 cm2/s = 10-4 m2/s

R Energy / (Weight ⋅ Temp)

Weight units

Energy units*

g mol g mol g mol g mol g mol g mol g mol g mol lb mol lb mol lb mol

calories joules (abs) joules (int) atm ⋅ cm3 atm ⋅ liters mmHg ⋅ liters bar ⋅ liters kg/(cm2)(liters) atm ⋅ ft3 mmHg ⋅ ft3 chu or pcu

1.9872 8.3144 8.3130 82.057 0.08205 62.361 0.08314 0.08478 1.314 998.9 1.9872

lb mol lb mol lb mol lb mol lb mol lb mol lb mol lb mol

Btu hph kWh atm ⋅ ft3 in Hg ⋅ ft3 mmHg ⋅ ft3 (lb)( ft3)/in2 ft ⋅ lbf

1.9872 0.0007805 0.0005819 0.7302 21.85 555.0 10.73 1545.0

*Energy units are the product of pressure units and volume units.

TABLE 1-12   Kinematic Viscosity Conversion Formulas

1-17

1-18

UnIT COnVERSIOn FACTORS AnD SYMBOLS TABLE 1-14 Fundamental Physical Constants 1 sec = 1.00273791 sidereal seconds g0 = 9.80665 m/s2 1 liter = 0.001 cu m 1 atm = 101,325 newtons/sq m 1 mmHg (pressure) = (1⁄760) atm = 133.3224 newtons/sq m 1 int ohm = 1.000495 ± 0.000015 abs ohm 1 int amp = 0.999835 ± 0.000025 abs amp 1 int coul = 0.999835 ± 0.000025 abs coul 1 int volt = 1.000330 ± 0.000029 abs volt 1 int watt = 1.000165 ± 0.000052 abs watt 1 int joule = 1.000165 ± 0.000052 abs joule T0°C = 273.150 ± 0.010 K (PV)0°CP=0 = (RT)0°C = 2271.16 ± 0.04 abs joule/mole = 22,414.6 ± 0.4 cu cm atm/mole = 22.4146 ± 0.0004 liter atm/mole R = 8.31439 ± 0.00034 abs joule/deg mole = 1.98719 ± 0.00013 cal/deg mole = 82.0567 ± 0.0034 cu cm atm/deg mole = 0.0820567 ± 0.0000034 liter atm/deg mole ln 10 = 2.302585 R ln 10 = 19.14460 ± 0.00078 abs joule/deg mole = 4.57567 ± 0.00030 cal/deg mole N = (6.02283 ± 0.0022) × 1023/mole h = (6.6242 ± 0.0044) × 10-34 joule s c = (2.99776 ± 0.00008) × 108 m/s (h2/8 π2k) = (4.0258 ± 0.0037) × 10-39 g sq cm deg (h/8 π2c) = (2.7986 ± 0.0018) × 10-39 g cm Z = Nhc = 11.9600 ± 0.0036 abs joule cm/mole = 2.85851 ± 0.0009 cal cm/mole Z/R = hc/k = c2 = 1.43847 ± 0.00045 cm deg f = 96,501.2 ± 10.0 int coul/g-equiv or int joule/int volt g-equiv = 96,485.3 ± 10.0 abs coul/g-equiv or abs joule/abs volt g-equiv = 23,068.1 ± 2.4 cal/int volt g-equiv = 23,060.5 ± 2.4 cal/abs volt g-equiv e = (1.60199 ± 0.00060) × 10-19 abs coul = (1.60199 ± 0.00060) × 10-20 abs emu = (4.80239 ± 0.00180) × 10-10 abs esu 1 int electron-volt/molecule = 96,501.2 ± 10 int joule/mole = 23,068.1 ± 2.4 cal/mole 1 abs electron-volt/molecule = 96,485.3 ± 10. abs joule/mole = 23,060.5 ± 2.4 cal/mole 1 int electron-volt = (1.60252 ± 0.00060) × 10-12 erg 1 abs electron-volt = (1.60199 ± 0.00060) × 10-12 erg hc = (1.23916 ± 0.00032) × 10-4 int electron-volt cm = (1.23957 ± 0.00032) × 10-4 abs electron-volt cm k = (8.61442 ± 0.00100) × 10-5 int electron-volt/deg = (8.61727 ± 0.00100) × 10-5 abs electron-volt/deg = R/N = (1.38048 ± 0.00050) × 10-23 joule/deg 1 IT cal = (1⁄860) = 0.00116279 int watt-h = 4.18605 int joule = 4.18674 abs joule = 1.000654 cal 1 cal = 4.1840 abs joule = 4.1833 int joule = 41.2929 ± 0.0020 cu cm atm = 0.0412929 ± 0.0000020 liter atm 1 IT cal/g = 1.8 Btu/lb 1 Btu = 251.996 IT cal = 0.293018 int watt-h = 1054.866 int joule = 1055.040 abs joule = 252.161 cal 1 horsepower = 550 ft-lbf (wt)/s = 745.578 int watt = 745.70 abs watt 1 in = (1/0.3937) = 2.54 cm 1 ft = 0.304800610 m 1 lb = 453.5924277 g 1 gal = 231 cu in = 0.133680555 cu ft = 3.785412 × 10-3 cu m = 3.785412 liter

sec = mean solar second Definition: g0 = standard gravity Definition: atm = standard atmosphere mmHg (pressure) = standard millimeter mercury int = international; abs = absolute amp = ampere coul = coulomb

Absolute temperature of the ice point, 0°C PV = product for ideal gas at 0°C R = gas constant per mole

ln = natural logarithm (base e) N = Avogadro number h = Planck constant c = velocity of light Constant in rotational partition function of gases Constant relating wave number and moment of inertia Z = constant relating wave number and energy per mole c2 = second radiation constant ℱ = Faraday constant e = electronic charge emu = electromagnetic unit of charge esu = electrostatic unit of charge

Constant relating wave number and energy per molecule k = Boltzmann constant Definition of IT cal: IT = International steam tables cal = thermochemical calorie Definition: cal = thermochemical calorie

Definition of Btu: Btu = IT British thermal unit

cal = thermochemical calorie Definition of horsepower (mechanical): lb (wt) = weight of 1 lb at standard gravity Definition of inch: in = U.S. inch ft = U.S. foot (1 ft = 12 in) Definition: lb = avoirdupois pound Definition: gal = U.S. gallon

Section 2

Physical and Chemical Data

Marylee Z. Southard, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas; Senior Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Society for Engineering Education (Section Coeditor, Physical and Chemical Data) Richard L. Rowley, Ph.D. Department of Chemical Engineering, Emeritus, Brigham Young University (Section Coeditor, Prediction and Correlation of Physical Properties) W. Vincent Wilding, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section Coeditor, Prediction and Correlation of Physical Properties)

GEnERAL REFEREnCES PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTAnCES Tables 2-1 2-2

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds . . . . . Physical Properties of Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-5 2-26

VAPOR PRESSURES Tables 2-3 Vapor Pressure of Water Ice from 0 to −40°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Liquid Water from 0 to −40°C . . . . . . . Vapor Pressures of Pure Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-5 Vapor Pressure (MPa) of Liquid Water from 0 to 100°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-22, 2-32, 2-69, 2-72, 2-74, 2-75, 2-95, 2-106, 2-139, 2-140, 2-146, and 2-148 Sorted by Chemical Family . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 Formula Index of Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-22, 2-32, 2-69, 2-72, 2-74, 2-75, 2-95, 2-106, 2-139, 2-140, 2-146, and 2-148 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids, ln P = C1 + C2/T + C3 ln T + C4 T C5, P in Pa, T in K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIOnS Tables 2-11 Partial Pressures of Water over Aqueous Solutions of HCl . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressures of H3PO4 Aqueous: Partial Pressure of H2O Vapor (Fig. 2-1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12 Water Partial Pressure, Bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions . . . 2-13 Partial Vapor Pressure of Sulfur Dioxide over Water, mmHg . . . . . . . . . 2-14 Partial Pressures of HNO3 and H2O over Aqueous Solutions of HNO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15 Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of CH3COOH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16 Partial Pressure of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of NH3 (psia) . . . . . . . . 2-17 Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-46 2-46 2-46 2-46 2-46 2-46 2-47 2-50 2-53 2-59 2-63

2-78 2-78 2-79 2-80 2-80 2-81 2-82 2-83

2-18 Partial Pressures of H2O and CH3OH over Aqueous Solutions of Methyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19 Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Vapor Content in Gases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Content in Air at Pressures over Atmospheric (Fig. 2-2) . . . . . . . SOLUBILITIES Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-20 Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21 Solubility as a Function of Temperature and Henry’s Constant at 25°C for Gases in Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22 Henry’s Constant H for Various Compounds in Water at 25°C . . . . . . . 2-23 Henry’s Constant H for Various Compounds in Water at 25°C from Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24 Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25 Ammonia-Water at 10 and 20°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27 Chlorine (Cl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28 Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEnSITIES Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References and Comments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Densities of Pure Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-31 Density (kg/m3) of Saturated Liquid Water from the Triple Point to the Critical Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32 Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (mol/dm3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-83 2-83 2-84 2-84

2-84 2-84 2-85 2-89 2-89 2-90 2-90 2-90 2-90 2-91 2-91 2-91 2-91

2-92 2-92 2-92 2-92 2-93

DEnSITIES OF AQUEOUS InORGAnIC SOLUTIOnS AT 1 ATM Tables 2-33 Ammonia (NH3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-100 2-34 Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-100

2-1

2-2

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

2-35 Calcium Chloride (CaCl2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-36 Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37 Ferric Sulfate [Fe2(SO4)3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-38 Ferric Nitrate [Fe(NO3)3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39 Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-40 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-42 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43 Nitric Acid (HNO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-44 Perchloric Acid (HClO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45 Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-46 Potassium Bicarbonate (KHCO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-47 Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-48 Potassium Chloride (KCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-49 Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-50 Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51 Sodium Acetate (NaC2H3O2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-52 Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-53 Sodium Chloride (NaCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-54 Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-55 Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Densities of Aqueous Organic Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-56 Acetic Acid (CH3COOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57 Methyl Alcohol (CH3OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-58 Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-59 n-Propyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-60 Isopropyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-61 Glycerol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-62 Hydrazine (N2H4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63 Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEnSITIES OF MISCELLAnEOUS MATERIALS Tables 2-64 Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65 Density (kg/m3) of Selected Elements as a Function of Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LATEnT HEATS .......................................................

Unit Conversions Tables 2-66 Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-67 Heats of Fusion of Miscellaneous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-68 Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-69 Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (J/kmol) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPECIFIC HEATS Specific Heats of Pure Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-70 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds . . . . . . . . . 2-71 Specific Heat [kJ/(kg ⋅ K)] of Selected Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-72 Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [J/(kmol ⋅ K)] . . . . . 2-73 Specific Heats of Organic Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-74 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to a Polynomial Cp [J/(kmol ⋅ K)]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-75 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to Hyperbolic Functions Cp [J/(kmol ⋅ K)]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-76 Cp/Cv : Ratios of Specific Heats of Gases at 1 atm Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . Specific Heats of Aqueous Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-77 Acetic Acid (at 38°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-78 Ammonia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-79 Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-80 Glycerol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-81 Hydrochloric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-82 Methyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-83 Nitric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-84 Phosphoric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-85 Potassium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-86 Potassium Hydroxide (at 19°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-87 Normal Propyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-88 Sodium Carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-89 Sodium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-90 Sodium Hydroxide (at 20°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-91 Sulfuric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific Heats of Miscellaneous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-92 Specific Heats of Miscellaneous Liquids and Solids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-93 Oils (Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Oils) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-101 2-102 2-102 2-102 2-102 2-103 2-103 2-103 2-103 2-103 2-103 2-103 2-104 2-106 2-106 2-107 2-108 2-109 2-109 2-110 2-110 2-111

2-113 2-114

2-114 2-115 2-117 2-118 2-120

2-128 2-128 2-128 2-128 2-136 2-137 2-144 2-147 2-149 2-156 2-156 2-156 2-156 2-156 2-156 2-156 2-157 2-157 2-157 2-157 2-157 2-157 2-157 2-157 2-157 2-157 2-157 2-158 2-158 2-158

PROPERTIES OF FORMATIOn AnD COMBUSTIOn REACTIOnS Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-158 Tables 2-94 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds . . . . . 2-159 2-95 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and Net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds at 298.15 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-167 2-96 Ideal Gas Sensible Enthalpies, hT – h298 (kJ/kmol), of Combustion Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-174 2-97 Ideal Gas Entropies s°, kJ/(kmol ⋅ K), of Combustion Products . . . . . . . 2-175 HEATS OF SOLUTIOn Tables 2-98 Heats of Solution of Inorganic Compounds in Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-99 Heats of Solution of Organic Compounds in Water (at Infinite Dilution and Approximately Room Temperature) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THERMAL EXPAnSIOn AnD COMPRESSIBILITY Unit Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Expansion of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-100 Linear Expansion of the Solid Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-101 Linear Expansion of Miscellaneous Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-102 Volume Expansion of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-103 Volume Expansion of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Expansion: Joule-Thomson Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-104 Additional References Available for the Joule-Thomson Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus in Reduced Coordinates (Tr = T/Tc ; Pr = P/Pc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Constants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-106 Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-107 Compressibilities of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-108 Compressibilities of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THERMODYnAMIC PROPERTIES Explanation of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-109 Thermodynamic Properties of Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-110 Thermodynamic Properties of Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Dry Air (Fig. 2-3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-111 Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air, Moist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-112 Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-113 Thermodynamic Properties of Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-114 Thermodynamic Properties of Carbon Monoxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature-Entropy Diagram for Carbon Monoxide (Fig. 2-4) . . . . 2-115 Thermodynamic Properties of Ethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol (Fig. 2-5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-116 Thermodynamic Properties of Normal Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-117 Saturated Hydrogen Peroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-118 Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen Sulfide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Hydrogen Chloride at 1 atm (Fig. 2-6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-119 Thermodynamic Properties of Methane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-120 Thermodynamic Properties of Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-121 Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Nitrogen (Fig. 2-7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-122 Thermodynamic Properties of Oxygen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Oxygen (Fig. 2-8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Oxygen-Nitrogen Mixture at 1 atm (Fig. 2-9). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K Values (K = y/x) in Light-Hydrocarbon Systems (Fig. 2-10) . . . . . . . 2-123 Composition of Selected Refrigerant Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-124 Thermodynamic Properties of R-22, Chlorodifluoromethane . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 22. (Fig. 2-11) . . . . . . . . . . 2-125 Thermodynamic Properties of R-32, Difluoromethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 32. (Fig. 2-12) . . . . . . . . . . 2-126 Thermodynamic Properties of R-125, Pentafluoroethane. . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 125 (Fig. 2-13) . . . . . . . . . 2-127 Thermodynamic Properties of R-134a, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 134a. (Fig. 2-14). . . . . . . .

2-176 2-178

2-179 2-179 2-179 2-179 2-180 2-181 2-181 2-182 2-182 2-182 2-182 2-182 2-182 2-182 2-183 2-190 2-190 2-190 2-190 2-190

2-191 2-191 2-191 2-191 2-192 2-194 2-198 2-199 2-199 2-200 2-202 2-204 2-206 2-207 2-209 2-210 2-212 2-213 2-215 2-216 2-218 2-220 2-222 2-223 2-225 2-226 2-226 2-227 2-228 2-230 2-231 2-233 2-234 2-236 2-237 2-239

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA 2-128 Thermodynamic Properties of R-143a, 1,1,1-Trifluoroethane . . . . . . . 2-129 Thermodynamic Properties of R-404A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-130 Thermodynamic Properties of R-407C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 407C (Fig. 2-15) . . . . . . . . 2-131 Thermodynamic Properties of R-410A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-132 Opteon YF (R-1234yf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 1234yf (Fig. 2-16) . . . . . . 2-133 Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Seawater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide at 1 atm (Fig. 2-17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Sulfuric Acid at 1 atm (Fig. 2-18) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-134 Saturated Solid/Vapor Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-135 Thermodynamic Properties of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-136 Thermodynamic Properties of Water Substance along the Melting Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TRAnSPORT PROPERTIES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass Transport Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-137 Surface Tension σ (dyn/cm) of Various Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-138 Vapor Viscosity of Inorganic and Organic Substances (Pa∙s) . . . . . . . . 2-139 Viscosity of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Pa∙s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-140 Viscosities of Liquids: Coordinates for Use with Fig . 2-19 . . . . . . . . . . . Nomograph for Viscosities of Liquids at 1 atm (Fig . 2-19) . . . . . . . . . 2-141 Diffusivities of Pairs of Gases and Vapors (1 atm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-142 Diffusivities in Liquids (25°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Transport Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-143 Transport Properties of Selected Gases at Atmospheric Pressure . . . 2-144 Prandtl Number of Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-145 Vapor Thermal Conductivity of Inorganic and Organic Substances [W/(m ⋅ K)] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-146 Thermophysical Properties of Miscellaneous Saturated Liquids . . . . 2-147 Thermal Conductivity of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [W/(m ⋅ K)] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-148 Nomograph for Thermal Conductivity of Organic Liquids (Fig . 2-20) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-149 Thermal-Conductivity-Temperature Table for Metals and Nonmetals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-150 Thermal Conductivity of Chromium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-151 Thermal Conductivity of Some Alloys at High Temperature . . . . . . . . 2-152 Thermophysical Properties of Selected Nonmetallic Solid Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-153 Lower and Upper Flammability Limits, Flash Points, and Autoignition Temperatures for Selected Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . PREDICTIOn AnD CORRELATIOn OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Estimation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theory and Empirical Extension of Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corresponding States (CS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group Contributions (GCs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computational Chemistry (CC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Empirical QSPR Correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Molecular Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-154 Ambrose Group Contributions for Critical Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-155 Group Contributions for the Nannoolal et al . Method for Critical Constants and Normal Boiling Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-156 Intermolecular Interaction Corrections for the Nannoolal et al . Method for Critical Constants and Normal Boiling Point . . . . . . . . . . 2-157 Wilson-Jasperson First- and Second-Order Contributions for Critical Temperature and Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Melting Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Boiling Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-158 First-Order Groups and Their Contributions for Melting Point . . . . . 2-159 Second-Order Groups and Their Contributions for Melting Point . . . Characterizing and Correlating Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acentric Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radius of Gyration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dipole Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-240 2-242 2-244 2-246 2-247 2-249 2-258 2-259 2-260 2-260 2-261 2-262 2-265

2-266 2-266 2-266 2-266 2-266 2-267 2-274 2-281 2-282 2-283 2-285 2-288 2-288 2-288 2-289 2-296 2-298 2-305 2-306 2-307 2-307 2-307 2-308

2-311 2-311 2-311 2-314 2-314 2-314 2-314 2-315 2-315 2-315 2-315 2-315 2-315 2-315 2-315 2-317 2-318 2-320 2-321 2-321 2-321 2-322 2-322 2-323 2-323 2-324 2-324

Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dielectric Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-160 Wildman-Crippen Contributions for Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-161 Domalski-Hearing Group Contribution Values for Standard State Thermal Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gibbs Energy of Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Latent Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Vaporization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-162 Cs (C—H) Group Values for Chickos Estimation of ∆Hfus . . . . . . . . . . . 2-163 Ct (Functional) Group Values for Chickos Estimation of ∆H fus . . . . . . Enthalpy of Sublimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-164 Group Contributions and Corrections for ∆Hsub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-165 Benson and CHETAH Group Contributions for Ideal Gas Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-166 Liquid Heat Capacity Group Parameters for Ruzicka-Domalski Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-167 Group Values and Nonlinear Correction Terms for Estimation of Solid Heat Capacity with the Goodman et al . Method . . . . . . . . . . . 2-168 Element Contributions to Solid Heat Capacity for the Modified Kopp’s Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-169 Simple Fluid Compressibility Factors Z (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-170 Acentric Deviations Z (1) from the Simple Fluid Compressibility Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-171 Constants for the Two Reference Fluids Used in Lee-Kesler Method . . . Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-172 Relationships for Eq . (2-70) for Common Cubic EoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-173 Reichenberg Group Contribution Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-174 Group Contributions for the Hsu et al . Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-175 UNIFAC-VISCO Group Interaction Parameters αmn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-176 Correlation Parameters for Baroncini et al . Method for Estimation of Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pure Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-177 Knotts Group Contributions for the Parachor in Estimating Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flammability Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flash Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flammability Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-178 Group Contributions for Quantities Used to Estimate Flammability Limits By Rowley et al . Method for Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-179 Ideal Gas Enthalpies of Formation and Average Heat Capacities of Combustion Gases for Use in Eq . (2-125) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Autoignition Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-180 Group Contributions for Pintar Autoignition Temperature Method for Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-3 2-324 2-325 2-325 2-326 2-326 2-327 2-327 2-327 2-328 2-334 2-334 2-334 2-334 2-335 2-336 2-336 2-336 2-337 2-337 2-337 2-338 2-339 2-343 2-344 2-345 2-345 2-345 2-345 2-345 2-347 2-348 2-349 2-349 2-349 2-350 2-350 2-351 2-351 2-351 2-352 2-353 2-354 2-354 2-355 2-356 2-356 2-357 2-357 2-358 2-358 2-358 2-359 2-360 2-360 2-360

2-361 2-361 2-361 2-362

GEnERAL REFEREnCES Considerations of reader interest, space availability, the system or systems of units employed, copyright issues, etc., have all influenced the revision of material in previous editions for the present edition. Reference is made at numerous places to various specialized works and, when appropriate, to more general works. A listing of general works may be useful to readers in need of further information.

ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals, SI edition, ASHRAE, Atlanta, 2005; Benedek, P., and F. Olti, Computer-Aided Chemical Thermodynamics of Gases and Liquids, Wiley, New York, 1985; Brule, M. R., L. L. Lee, and K. E. Starling, Chem. Eng., 86, 25, Nov. 19, 1979, pp. 155–164; Cox, J. D., and G. Pilcher, Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970; Cox, J. D., D. D. Wagman, and V. A. Medvedev, CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York, 1989; Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibel, and C. C. Stebbins, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals: Data Compilation, Taylor & Francis, Washington, 1997; Domalski, E. S., and E. D. Hearing, Heat capacities and entropies of organic compounds in the condensed phase, vol. 3, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 25(1):1–525, Jan-Feb 1996; Dykyj, J., and M. Repas, Saturated vapor pressures of organic compounds, Veda, Bratislava, 1979 (Slovak); Dykyj, J., M. Repas, and J. Svoboda, Saturated vapor pressures of organic compounds, Veda, Bratislava, 1984 (Slovak); Glushko, V. P., ed., Thermal Constants of Compounds, Issues I–X, Moscow, 1965–1982 (Russian only); Gmehling, J., Azeotropic Data, 2 vols., VCH Weinheim, Germany, 1994; Gmehling, J., and U. Onken, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data Collection, Dechema Chemistry Data Series, Frankfurt, 1977–1978; International Data Series, Selected Data on Mixtures, Series A: Thermodynamics Research Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo.; Kaye, S. M., Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items, U.S. Army R&D command, Dover, N.J., 1980; King, M. B., Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures, Pergamon, Oxford, 1969; Landolt-Boernstein, Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology (New Series), http://www.springeronline .com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-10113-2-95859-0,00.html; Lide, D. R., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 86th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2005; Lyman, W. J., W. F. Reehl, and D. H. Rosenblatt, Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990; Majer, V., and V. Svoboda, Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Science, 1985; Majer V., V. Svoboda, and J. Pick, Heats of Vaporization of Fluids, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989 (general discussion); Marsh, K. N., Recommended Reference Materials for the Realization of Physicochemical Properties, Blackwell Science, 1987; NIST-IUPAC Solubility Data Series, Pergamon Press, http://www.iupac.org/publications/ ci/1999/march/solubility.html; Ohse, R. W., and H. von Tippelskirch, High Temp.—High Press., 9:367–385, 1977; Ohse, R. W., Handbook of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Alkali Metals, Blackwell Science Pubs., Oxford, England, 1985; Pedley, J. B., R. D. Naylor, and S. P. Kirby, Thermochemical Data of Organic Compounds, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1986; Physical Property Data for the Design Engineer, Hemisphere, New York, 1989; Poling, B. E., J. M. Prausnitz, and J. P. O’Connell, The Properties of Gases and

2-4

Liquids, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001; Rothman, D., et al., Max Planck Inst. f. Stromungsforschung, Ber 6, 1978; Smith, B. D., and R. Srivastava, Thermodynamic Data for Pure Compounds, Part A: Hydrocarbons and Ketones, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986, Physical sciences data 25, http://www .elsevier.com/wps/find/bookseriesdescription.librarians/BS_PSD/description; Sterbacek, Z., B. Biskup, and P. Tausk, Calculation of Properties Using Corresponding States Methods, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979; Stull, D. R., E. F. Westrum, and G. C. Sink, The Chemical Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, Wiley, New York, 1969; TRC Thermodynamic Tables—Hydrocarbons, Thermodynamics Research Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo.; TRC Thermodynamic Tables—Non-Hydrocarbons, Thermodynamics Research Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo.; Young, D. A., “Phase Diagrams of the Elements,” UCRL Rep. 51902, 1975 republished in expanded form by the University of California Press, 1991; Zabransky, M., V. Ruzicka, Jr., V. Majer, and E. S. Domalski, Heat Capacity of Liquids: Critical Review and Recommended Values, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph No. 6, 1996. Critical Data Sources

Ambrose, D., “Vapor-Liquid Critical Properties,” N. P. L. Teddington, Middlesex, Rep. 107, 1980; Kudchaker, A. P., G. H. Alani, and B. J. Zwolinski, Chem. Revs. 68: 659–735, 1968; Matthews, J. F., Chem. Revs. 72: 71–100, 1972; Simmrock, K., R. Janowsky, and A. Ohnsorge, Critical Data of Pure Substances, Parts 1 and 2, Dechema Chemistry Data Series, 1986. Other recent references for critical data can be found in Lide, D. R., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 86th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2005. Publications on Thermochemistry

Pedley, J. B., Thermochemical Data and Structures of Organic Compounds, 1, Thermodynamic Research Center, Texas A&M Univ., 1994 (976 pp., 3000 cpds.); Frenkel, M., et al., Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds in the Gas State, 2 vols., Thermodynamic Research Center, Texas A&M Univ., 1994 (1825 pp., 2000 cpds.); Barin, I., Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances, 2nd ed., 2 vols., VCH Weinheim, Germany, 1993 (1834 pp., 2400 substances); Gurvich, L. V., et al., Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances, 4th ed., 3 vols., Hemisphere, New York, 1989, 1990, and 1993 (2520 pp.); Lide, D. R., and G. W. A. Milne, Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 3rd ed., 7 vols., Chemical Rubber, Miami, 1993 (7000 pp.); Daubert, T. E., et al., Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals: Data Compilation, extant 1995, Taylor & Francis, Bristol, Pa., 1995; Database 11, NIST, Gaithersburg, Md. U.S. Bureau of Mines publications include Bulletins 584, 1960 (232 pp.); 592, 1961 (149 pp.); 595, 1961 (68 pp.); 654, 1970 (26 pp.); Chase, M. W., et al., JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3d ed., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14 suppl. 1, 1986 (1896 pp.); Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data is available online at http://listserv.nd .edu/cgi-bin/wa?×A2=ind0501&L=pamnet&F=&S=&P=8490 and at http:// www.nist.gov/srd/reprints.htm

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTAnCES TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds* Abbreviations Used in the Table

a., acid A., specific gravity with reference to air = 1 abs., absolute ac., acetic acid act., acetone al., 95 percent ethyl alcohol alk, alkali (i.e., aq. NaOH or KOH) am., amyl (C5H11) amor., amorphous anh., anhydrous aq., aqueous or water aq. reg., aqua regia

atm., atmosphere or 760 mm. of mercury pressure bk., black brn., brown bz., benzene c., cold cb., cubic cc, cubic centimeter chl., chloroform col., colorless or white conc., concentrated cr., crystals or crystalline d., decomposes D., specific gravity with reference to hydrogen = 1

hyg., hygroscopic i., insoluble ign., ignites lq., liquid lt., light m. al., methyl alcohol mn., monoclinic nd., needles NH3, liquid ammonia NH4OH, ammonium hydroxide solution oct., octahedral or., orange pd., powder

d. 50, decomposes at 50°C; 50 d., melts at 50°C with decomposition delq., deliquescent dil., dilute dk., dark eff., effloresces or efflorescent et., ethyl ether expl., explodes gel., gelatinous gly., glycerol (glycerin) gn., green h., hot hex., hexagonal

Formula weights are based upon the International Atomic Weights in “Atomic Weights of the Elements 2001,” Pure Appl. Chem., 75, 1107, 2003, and are computed to the nearest hundredth . Refractive index, where given for a uniaxial crystal, is for the ordinary (ω) ray; where given for a biaxial crystal, the index given is for the median (β) value . Unless otherwise specified, the index is given for the sodium D-line (λ = 589 .3 µm) . Specific gravity values are given at room temperatures (15 to 20°C) unless otherwise indicated by the small figures which follow the value: thus, 5.6 184° indicates a specific gravity of 5 .6 for the substance at 18°C referred to water at 4°C . In this table the values for the specific gravity of gases are given with reference to air (A) = 1, or hydrogen (D) = 1 . Melting point is recorded in a certain case as 82 d . and in some other case as d . 82, the distinction being made in this manner to indicate that the former is a melting point with decomposition at 82°C, while in the latter decomposition only occurs at 82°C . Where a value such as −2H2O, 82 is given, it indicates loss of 2 moles of water per formula weight of the compound at a temperature of 82°C . Boiling point is given at atmospheric pressure (760 mm of mercury) unless otherwise indicated; thus, 8215 mm indicates the boiling point is 82°C when the pressure is 15 mm .

Name Aluminum acetate, normal acetate, basic bromide bromide carbide chloride

Formula Al Al(C2H3O2)3 Al(OH)(C2H3O2)2 AlBr3 AlBr3⋅6H2O Al4C3 AlCl3

Formula weight 26 .98 204 .11 162 .08 266 .69 374 .78 143 .96 133 .34

Color, crystalline form, and refractive index silv ., cb . wh . pd . wh ., amor . trig . col ., delq . cr . yel ., hex ., 2 .70 wh ., delq ., hex .

Specific gravity 2 .7020° 3 .01 254° 2 .95 2 .44

25 ° 4

pl., plates pr., prisms or prismatic pyr., pyridine rhb., rhombic (orthorhombic) s., soluble satd., saturated sl., slightly soln., solution subl., sublimes sulf., sulfides tart. a., tartaric acid tet., tetragonal tr., transition tri., triclinic

trig., trigonal v., very vac., in vacuo vl., violet volt., volatile or volatilizes wh., white yel., yellow ∞, soluble in all proportions , greater than 42±, about or near 42 −3H2O, 100, loses 3 moles of water per formula weight at 100°C

Solubility is given in parts by weight (of the formula shown at the extreme left) per 100 parts by weight of the solvent; the small superscript indicates the temperature . In the case of gases the solubility is often expressed in some manner as 510° cc which indicates that at 10°C, 5 cc of the gas are soluble in 100 g of the solvent . The symbols of the common mineral acids: H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, etc ., represent dilute aqueous solutions of these acids . See also special tables on Solubility . references: The information given in this table has been collected mainly from the following sources: Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, Longmans, New York, 1922 . Abegg, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, S . Hirzel, Leipzig, 1905 . Gmelin-Kraut, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, 7th ed ., Carl Winter, Heidelberg; 8th ed ., Verlag Chemie, Berlin, 1924 . Friend, Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry, Griffin, London, 1914 . Winchell, Microscopic Character of Artificial Inorganic Solid Substances or Artificial Minerals, Wiley, New York, 1931 . International Critical Tables, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1926 . Tables annuelles internationales de constants et donnes numeriques, McGraw-Hill, New York . Annual Tables of Physical Constants and Numerical Data, National Research Council, Princeton, N .J ., 1943 . Comey and Hahn, A Dictionary of Chemical Solubilities, Macmillan, New York, 1921 . Seidell, Solubilities of Inorganic and Metal Organic Compounds, Van Nostrand, New York, 1940 .

Melting point, °C 660 d . 200 d . 97 .5 d . 100 d . >2200 1945 .2atm .

Boiling point, °C 2056 268 752mm

182 .7 ; subl . 178

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water i . s . i . s . s . d . to CH4 69 .8715°

chloride AlCl3⋅6H2O col ., delq ., trig ., 1 .560 400 241 .43 fluoride (fluellite) AlF3⋅H2O col ., rhb ., 1 .490 2 .17 d . sl . s . 101 .99 fluoride Al2F6⋅7H2O wh ., cr . pd . −4H2O, 120 −6H2O, 250 i . 294 .06 hydroxide Al(OH)3 wh ., mn . 2 .42 −2H2O, 300 0 .00010418° 78 .00 nitrate Al(NO3)3⋅9H2O rhb ., delq . 73 d . 134 v . s . 375 .13 4atm . 25 ° nitride Al2N2 yel ., hex . 3 .05 4 2150 d . >1400 d . slowly 81 .98 oxide Al2O3 col ., hex ., 1 .67–8 3 .99 1999 to 2032 i . 101 .96 oxide (corundum) Al2O3 wh ., trig ., 1 .768 4 .00 1999 to 2032 2210 i . 101 .96 phosphate AlPO4 col ., hex . 2 .59 i . 121 .95 ∗By N . A . Lange, Ph .D ., Handbook Publishers, Inc ., Sandusky, Ohio . Abridged from table of Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds in Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry.

Hot water i . d .

Other reagents s . HCl, H2SO4, alk .

s . d .

s .a .; i . NH4 salts s .al ., act ., CS2 s . al ., CS2 s . a .; i . act . s . et ., chl ., CCl4; i . bz .

v . s .

50 al .; s . et .

s .

sl . s . i . v . s . d . i . i . i .

s . a ., alk .; i . a . s . al ., CS2 s . alk . d . v . sl . s . a ., alk . v . sl . s . a ., alk . s . a ., alk .; i . ac . (Continued )

2-5

2-6 TABLE 2-1 Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Name Aluminum (Cont.) potassium silicate (muscovite) potassium silicate (orthoclase) Aluminum potassium tartrate sodium fluoride (cryolite) sodium silicate sulfate Alum, ammonium (tschermigite) ammonium chrome

Formula

Formula weight

3Al2O3⋅K2O⋅6SiO2⋅2H2O Al2O3⋅K2O⋅6SiO2 AlK(C4H4O6)2 AlF3⋅3NaF Al2O3⋅Na2O⋅6SiO2 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3⋅(NH4)2SO4⋅ 24H2O Cr2(SO4)3⋅(NH4)2SO4⋅ 24H2O Fe2(SO4)3⋅(NH4)2SO4⋅ 24H2O Al2(SO4)3⋅K2SO4⋅24H2O Cr2(SO4)3⋅K2SO4⋅24H2O Al2(SO4)3⋅Na2SO4⋅24H2O NH3

796 .61 556 .66 362 .22 209 .94 524 .44 342 .15 906 .66 956 .69

Color, crystalline form, and refractive index mn., 1.590 col., mn., 1.524 col. wh., mn., 1.3389 col., tri., 1.529 wh. cr. col., oct., 1.4594 gn . or vl ., oct ., 1 .4842

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

2.9 2.56

d. 1450 (1150)

2.90 2.61 2.71 1.64 204°

1000 1100 d. 770 93.5

1 .72

Boiling point, °C

−20H2O, 120; −24H2O, 200

100 d .

vl ., oct ., 1 .485

1 .71

40

948 .78 998 .81 916 .56 17 .03

col ., mn ., 1 .4564 red or gn ., cb ., 1 .4814 col ., oct ., 1 .4388 col . gas, 1 .325 (lq .)

92 89 61 −77 .7

−18H2O, 64 .5

77 .08 337 .09 79 .06 97 .94 114 .10 157 .13

wh ., hyg . cr . pl . mn . or rhb ., 1 .5358 col ., cb ., 1 .7108 col . pl . wh . cr .

114 d . 200 d . 35–60 subl . 542 d . 58 subl .

d .

272 .21

wh .

chloride (salammoniac) chloroplatinate chloroplatinite chlorostannate chromate cyanide dichromate ferrocyanide fluoride fluoride, acid formate

NH4C2H3O2 NH4CN⋅Au(CN)3⋅H2O NH4HCO3 NH4Br (NH4)2CO3⋅H2O NH4HCO3⋅ NH2CO2NH4‡ (NH4)2CO3⋅ 2NH4HCO3⋅H2O NH4Cl (NH4)2PtCl6 (NH4)2PtCl4 (NH4)2SnCl6 (NH4)2CrO4 NH4CN (NH4)2Cr2O7 (NH4)4Fe(CN)6⋅6H2O NH4F NH4F⋅HF HCO2NH4

1 .76 264° 1 .83 1 .675 204° 0 .817−79° 0 .5971 (A) 1 .073

53 .49 443 .87 372 .97 367 .50 152 .07 44 .06 252 .06 392 .19 37 .04 57 .04 63 .06

wh ., cb ., 1 .639, 1 .6426 yel ., cb . tet . pink ., cb . yel ., mn . col ., cb . or ., mn . mn . wh ., hex . wh ., rhb ., 1 .390 col ., mn ., delq .

hydrosulfide hydroxide molybdate molybdate, heptanitrate (α), stable −16° to 32° nitrate (β), stable 32° to 84°

NH4HS NH4OH (NH4)2MoO4 (NH4)6Mo7O24⋅4H2O‡ NH4NO3 NH4NO3

51 .11 35 .05 196 .01 1235 .86 80 .04 80 .04

col ., rhb . in soln . only mn . col ., mn . col ., tet ., 1 .611 col ., rhb . or mn .

nitrite osmochloride oxalate oxalate, acid perchlorate persulfate phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, meta-

NH4NO2 (NH4)2OsCl6 (NH4)2C2O4⋅H2O NH4HC2O4⋅H2O NH4ClO4 (NH4)2S2O8 NH4H2PO4 (NH4)2HPO4 (NH4)4P4O12

64 .04 439 .02 142 .11 125 .08 117 .49 228 .20 115 .03 132 .06 388 .04

wh . nd . cb . col ., rhb . col ., trimetric col ., rhb ., 1 .4833 wh ., mn ., 1 .5016 col ., tet ., 1 .5246 col ., mn ., 1 .53 col ., mn .

potassium (kalinite) potassium chrome sodium Ammonia† Ammonium acetate auricyanide bicarbonate bromide carbonate carbonate, carbamate carbonate, sesqui-

1 .573 2 .327 154°

124

−33 .4

d . 1 .5317° 3 .065 2 .4 1 .91712° 0 .79100° (A) 2 .15 2 .21 1212° 1 .266

d . 350 d . d .

d . 2 .27

subl . 520

d . 180 36 d . 185 d . 114–116

d . 180; subl . in vac . subl . 120

d . 25 ° 4 25 ° 4

1 .66 1 .725

169 .6

1 .69 2 .93 204° 1 .501 1 .556 1 .95 1 .98 1 .803 194° 1 .619 2 .21

expl .

i. i. s. sl. s. i. 31.30° 3.90° 21 .2

964 .38

ammonium iron

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

d . 210 d . 210

s. i. 89100° ∞ 100°

25°

Other reagents

i. HCl d. a. i . al . s . al .

25°

i . al .

5 .70° 20 106 .40° 89 .90°

∞93° 50 121 .745° 7 .496°

1484° s . 11 .90° 6810° 10015° 2515°

v . s . 2730° 145 .6100°

2015°

5049°

29 .40° 0 .715° s . 33 .315° 40 .530° s . 47 .230° s . v . s . v . s . 1020°

77 .3100° 1 .25100° v . s .

s . NH3; sl . s . al ., m . al . 0 .005 al .

d . v . s . v . s . d .

sl . s . act ., NH3; i . al . s . al . s . al .; i . act . i . al . s . al .; i . NH3

53180°

s . al .

v . s . s . d . 4425° 118 .30° 365 .835° s .

6765°

2 .5 s . 10 .90° 58 .20° 22 .70° 13115° s .

i . al . i . al . 14 .820° al .; s . et . s . al .; sl . s . act . i . al . i . al . s . al ., et ., act . i . al ., CS2, NH3

s . al . d .

i . al ., NH3 i . al . 30°

241 .8 58080° d .



d . d . d . 120

Hot water

11 .850° 100°

46 .9 d . 173 .2100°

3 .820° al ., 17 .120° m . al .; v . s . NH3 s . al . sl . s . al .; i . NH3 220° al .; s . act .; i . et . i . ac . i . act .

Ammonium phosphomolybdate silicofluoride sulfamate sulfate (mascagnite) sulfate, acid sulfide sulfide, pentasulfite sulfite, acid tartrate thiocyanate vanadate, metaAntimony chloride, tri- (butter of antimony)∗ oxide, tri- (valentinite) oxide, tri- (senarmontite) sulfide, tri- (stibnite)

(NH4)3PO4⋅12MoO3⋅ 3H2O (?) (NH4)2SiF6 NH4⋅SO3NH2 (NH4)2SO4 NH4HSO4 (NH4)2S (NH4)2S5 (NH4)2SO3⋅H2O NH4HSO3 (NH4)2C4H4O6 NH4CNS NH4VO3 Sb

1930 .39 178 .15 114 .12 132 .14 115 .11 68 .14 196 .40 134 .16 99 .11 184 .15 76 .12 116 .98 121 .76

yel. cb., 1.3696 col. pl. col., rhb., 1.5230 col., rhb., 1.480 yel.-wh. or.-red pr. col., mn. rhb. col., mn. col., mn., 1.685± col. cr. tin wh., trig.

d.

0.0315°

i.

s. alk.; i. al., HNO3

55.5 35750° 103.3100°

s. al.; i. act.

8760° 17020° 3.0570° i.

1.769 204° 1.78

132 235 d. 146.9 d.

1.41 2.03 124° 1.60 1.305 2.326 6.68425°

d. d. d. 149.6 d. 630.5

1380

18.517.5° 1340° 70.60° 100 v. s. s. 10012° s. 450° 1200° 0.4418° i.

73.4

220.2

601.60°

∞72°

656 652 550

1570

2.01

SbCl3

228 .12

col., rhb., delq.

3.14

Sb2O3 Sb2O3 Sb2S3

291 .52 291 .52 339 .72

rhb ., 2 .35 cb ., 2 .087 bk ., rhb ., 4 .046

5 .67 5 .2 4 .64

20 ° 4



subl. d. 160 490

d. 170

i. al., act., CS2 v. sl. s. al.; i. act. 12025° NH3 i. al., act. sl. s. al. s. al., act., NH3, SO2 i. al., NH4Cl s. aq. reg., h. conc. H2SO4 s . al ., HCl, HBr, H2C4H4O6 s . HCl, KOH, H2C4H4O6

v . sl . s .

sl . s .

0 .0001718°

d .

−2S, 135 629

i .

i .

5 .268 .7° d . i . 5 .60° cc

35 .7100° d . d . 2 .2350° cc

s . gly .; i . al .

s . HCl; alk ., NH4HS, K2S; i . ac . s . HCl, alk ., NH4HS

sulfide, pentatelluride, triAntimonyl potassium tartrate (tartar emetic) sulfate, normal sulfate, basic Argon

Sb2S5 Sb2Te3

403 .85 626 .32

golden gray

4 .120

(SbO)KC4H4O6⋅½H2O (SbO)2SO4 (SbO)2SO4⋅Sb2(OH)4 Ar

333 .94 371 .58 683 .20 39 .95

wh ., rhb . wh . pd . wh . pd . col . gas

2 .60 4 .89

−½H2O, 100 −189 .2

−185 .7

Arsenic (crystalline) (α) Arsenic (black) (β)

As4 As4

299 .69 299 .69

met ., hex . bk ., amor .

1 .65−288°; 1 .402−185 .7°; 1 .38 (A) 5 .72714° 4 .720°

81436atm .

subl . 615

i . i .

i . i .

s . HNO3 s . HNO3, aq . reg ., aq . Cl2, h . alk .

Arsenic (yellow) (γ) acid, orthoacid, metaacid, pyropentoxide sulfide, di- (realgar)

As4 H3AsO4⋅½H2O HAsO3 H4As2O7 As2O5 As2S2

299 .69 150 .95 123 .93 265 .87 229 .84 213 .97

yel ., cb . col ., hyg . wh ., hyg . col . wh ., amor . red, mn ., 2 .68

−H2O, 160

50 H3AsO4 H3AsO4 76 .7100° d .

s . alk .

d . 565

16 .7 d . to form d . to form 59 .50° i .

s . alk ., al . s . K2S, NaHCO3

sulfide, pentaArsenious chloride (butter of arsenic) hydride (arsine) oxide (arsenolite) oxide (claudetite) oxide

As2S5 AsCl3

310 .17 181 .28

d . 500 130

0 .0001360° d .

i . d .

s . HNO3, alk . s . HCl, HBr, PCl3

AsH3 As2O3 As2O3 As2O3

−55; d . 230

20 cc sl . s . sl . s . 1 .210°

sl . s . sl . s . sl . s . 2 .9340°

Auric chloride cyanide Aurous chloride cyanide Cf. also under Gold Barium acetate acetate bromide ∗Usually the solution . † See special tables . ‡ Usual commercial form .

sl . s . alk . i . al ., et . i . al ., et . s . HCl, alk ., Na2CO3; i . al ., et . s . HCl, al ., et .; sl . s . NH3 s . al . s . HCl, HBr; d . al . s . KCN; i . al ., et .

Ba Ba(C2H3O2)2 Ba(C2H3O2)2⋅H2O BaBr2

2 .020° 2 .0–2 .5

d . 358 35 .5 d . d . 206

4 .086 (α)3 .50619°; (β)3 .25419°

(α)tr . 267; (β)307

yel . oily lq .

lq . 2 .163

−18

77 .95 197 .84 197 .84 197 .84

col . gas col ., cb ., fibrous, 1 .755 col ., mn ., 1 .92 amor . or vitreous

2 .695 (A) 3 .865 254° 3 .85 3 .738

−113 .5 subl . subl . 315

AuCl3⋅2H2O

339 .36

or . cr .

d .

v . s .

v . s .

Au(CN)3⋅6H2O AuCl AuCN

383 .11 232 .42 222 .98

yel . cr . yel . cr .

7 .4

d . 50 AuCl3, 170 d .

d . 290

v . s . d . i .

v . s . d . i .

137 .33 255 .42 273 .43 297 .14

silv . met . col . wh ., tri . pr ., 1 .517 col .

3 .5 2 .468 2 .19 4 .781 244°

850

1140

−H2O, 41 847

d .

d . 58 .80° 7530°(anh .) 980°

d . 75 .0100° 7940°(anh .) 149100°

5 .1515° gly . 2425° cc al .

s . a .; d . al . i . al . v . s . m . al .; v . sl . s . act . (Continued )

2-7

2-8 TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Name Barium (Cont.) bromide carbonate (witherite) carbonate (α) carbonate (β) Barium chlorate chlorate chloride chloride chloride hydroxide hydroxide nitrate (nitrobarite) oxalate oxide peroxide peroxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, pyrosilicofluoride sulfate (barite, barytes) sulfide, monosulfide, trisulfide, tetraBeryllium (glucinum) Bismuth carbonate, subchloride, dichloride, trinitrate nitrate, suboxide, trioxide, trioxide, trioxychloride

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form, and refractive index

333.17 197.34 197.34 197.34 304.23 322.24 208.23 208.23 244.26 171.34 315.46 261.34 225.35 153.33

col., mn., 1.7266 wh., rhb., 1.676 wh., hex. wh. col. col., mn., 1.577 col., mn., 1.7361 col., cb. col., mn., 1.646 col., mn. col., mn., 1.5017 col., cb., 1.572 wh. cr. col., cb., 1.98

BaO2∗ BaO2⋅8H2O BaH4(PO4)2 BaHPO4 Ba3(PO4)2 Ba2P2O7 BaSiF6 BaSO4

169.33 313.45 331.30 233.31 601.92 448.60 279.40 233.39

gray or wh. pd. pearly sc. tri. wh., rhb. nd., 1.635 wh., cb. wh., rhb. pr. col., rhb., 1.636

BaS BaS3 BaS4⋅2H2O Be(Gl) Bi

169.39 233.52 301.62 9.01 208.98

Bi2O3⋅CO2⋅H2O BiCl2 BiCl3∗ Bi(NO3)3⋅5H2O BiONO3⋅H2O Bi2O3 Bi2O3 Bi2O3 BiOCl

527.98 279.89 315.34 485.07 305.00 465.96 465.96 465.96 260.43

col., cb., 2.155 yel.-gn. red, rhb. gray, met., hex. silv. wh. or reddish, hex. wh. pd. bk. nd. wh. cr. col., tri. hex. pl. yel., rhb. yel., tet. yel., cb. wh., amor.

6.86 4.86 4.75 2.82 4.92815° 8.9 8.55 8.20 7.7215°

d. 163 230 d. 30 d. 260 820 860 tr. 704

wh., tri.

1.43515°

185 d.

2.32 2.54 1.85 1.49

2300 2450 577 d. d. 100 −7.2

61.83

H3BO3

Boron carbide oxide oxide (sassolite) Bromic acid Bromine

B B4C B2O3 B2O3⋅3H2O HBrO3 Br2

10.81 55.25 69.62 123.67 128.91 159.81

gray or bk., amor. or mn. bk. cr. col. glass, 1.459 tri., 1.456 col.; in soln. only rhb., or red lq.

Br2⋅10H2O Cd Cd(C2H3O2)2 Cd(C2H3O2)2⋅2H2O∗ CdCO3

339.96 112.41 230.50 266.53 172.42

red, oct. silv. met., hex. col. col., mn. wh., trig.

chloride

Melting point, °C

BaBr2⋅2H2O BaCO3 BaCO3 BaCO3 Ba(ClO3)2 Ba(ClO3)2⋅H2O∗ BaCl2 BaCl2 BaCl2⋅2H2O† Ba(OH)2 Ba(OH)2⋅8H2O Ba(NO3)2 BaC2O4 BaO

Boric acid

hydrate Cadmium acetate acetate carbonate

Specific gravity

CdCl2

183.32

wh., cb.

3.69 4.29

3.179 3.856 244° 3.097 244° 4.495 2.18816° 3.24428° 2.658 5.72 4.958 4°

2.9 4.16515° 4.116° 3.920° 4.27915° 4.49915° 4.2515° 2.98820° 1.816 9.8020°

3.11920°; 5.87 (A) 8.6520° 2.341 2.01 4.2584° 4.047

25 ° 4

Boiling point, °C

−2H2O, 100 tr. 811 to α tr. 982 to β 174090 atm. 414 d. 120 tr. 925 962 −2H2O, 100

d. d. 1450

77.9 592

−8H2O, 550 d.

1923

d. 400 d. 200 1284 271

d. 6.8 320.9 256 −H2O, 130 d. 3500 >1500 58.78 767 d.

960

s. i. v. s. v. s. i. 90



34.2100° 0.002424° 90.880°

0.09100° 0.00028530°

i. i. 147100°

sl. s. al., act. sl. s. HCl, HNO3; i. al. sl. s. HCl, HNO3; i. al. v. sl. s. al.; i. et. sl. s. a.; i. al. s. a., NH4Cl; i. al. s. HCl, HNO3, abs. al.; i. NH3, act. s. dil. a.; i. act. s. dil. a.; i. al., et., act. s. a. s. a., NH4 salts s. a. s. a., NH4 salts sl. s. HCl, NH4Cl; i. al. s. conc. H2SO4; 0.006, 3% HCl d. HCl; i. al. i. al., CS2 s. dil. a., alk. s. aq. reg., conc. H2SO4, HNO3 s. a. s. al. 4219° act.; s. a.; i. al. s. a. s. a. s. a. s. a. s. a.; i. act., NH3, H2C4H4O6 22.220° gly., 0.2425° et.; s. al. s. HNO3; i. al. i. a. s. a., al., gly. s. al., et., alk., CS2 s. a., NH4NO3 s. m. al. s. al. s. a., KCN, NH4 salts; i. NH3 1.5215° al.; i. et., act.

CdCl2 ⋅2½H2O Cd(CN)2 Cd(OH)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2⋅4H2O∗ CdO CdO Cd2O CdSO4 CdSO4⋅H2O 3CdSO4⋅8H2O∗ CdSO4⋅4H2O CdSO4⋅7H2O CdS Ca Ca(C2H2O2)2⋅H2O Ca(AlO2)2 CaO⋅Al2O3⋅2SiO2 Ca3(AsO4)2 CaBr2 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCl2∗ CaCl2⋅H2O CaCl2⋅6H2O Ca3(C6H5O7)2⋅4H2O CaCN2 Ca2Fe(CN)6⋅12H2O CaF2 Ca(HCO2)2 CaH2 Ca(OH)2 Ca(ClO)2⋅4H2O Ca2P2O6⋅2H2O Ca(C3H5O3)2⋅5H2O

228 .36 164 .45 146 .43 236 .42 308 .48 128 .41 128 .41 240 .82 208 .47 226 .49 769 .54 280 .53 334 .58 144 .48 40 .08 176 .18 158 .04 278 .21 398 .07 199 .89 100 .09 100 .09 110 .98 129 .00 219 .08 570 .49 80 .10 508 .29 78 .07 130 .11 42 .09 74 .09 215 .04 274 .13 308 .29

col., mn., 1.6513

3.327

wh., trig. col. col. nd. brn., cb. brn., amor, 2.49 gn., amor. rhb. mn. col., mn., 1.565 col. mn. yel.-or., hex., 2.506 silv. met., cb. wh. nd. col., rhb. or mn. tri., 1.5832 wh. pd. delq. nd. col., rhb., 1.6809 col., hex., 1.550 wh., delq., cb, 1.52 col., delq. col., trig., 1.417 col. nd. col., rhombohedral yel., tri., 1.5818 wh., cb., 1.4339 col., rhb. wh. cr. or pd. col., hex., 1.574 wh., feathery cr. granular col., eff.

4.79 154°

CaO⋅MgO⋅2CO2 CaO⋅MgO⋅2SiO2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2⋅4H2O∗ Ca3N2 Ca(NO2)2⋅H2O CaC2O4 CaC2O4⋅H2O CaO

184 .40 216 .55 164 .09 236 .15 148 .25 150 .10 128 .10 146 .11 56 .08

trig ., 1 .68174 wh ., mn . col ., cb . col ., mn ., 1 .498 brn . cr . delq ., hex . col ., cb . col . col ., cb ., 1 .837

peroxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, metaphosphate, pyrophosphate, pyro- (brushite) phosphide silicate (α) (pseudowollastonite)

CaO2⋅8H2O CaH4(PO4)2⋅H2O CaHPO4⋅2H2O Ca3(PO4)2 Ca(PO3)2 Ca2P2O7 Ca2P2O7⋅5H2O Ca3P2 CaSiO3

216 .20 252 .07 172 .09 310 .18 198 .02 254 .10 344 .18 182 .18 116 .16

silicate (β) (wollastonite) sulfate (anhydrite)

CaSiO3 CaSO4

116 .16 136 .14

pearly, tet . wh ., tri . wh ., mn . pl . wh ., amor . wh ., tet ., 1 .588 col ., biaxial, 1 .60 wh ., mn . red cr . col ., pseudo hex ., 1 .6150 or mn . col ., mn ., 1 .610 col ., rhb ., 1 .576, or mn ., 1 .50

chloride cyanide hydroxide nitrate nitrate oxide oxide oxide, subCadmium sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfide (greenockite) Calcium acetate aluminate aluminum silicate (anorthite) arsenate bromide carbonate (aragonite) carbonate (calcite) chloride (hydrophilite) chloride chloride citrate cyanamide ferrocyanide fluoride ( fluorite) formate hydride hydroxide hypochlorite hypophosphate lactate magnesium carbonate (dolomite) magnesium silicate (diopside) nitrate (nitrocalcite) nitrate nitride nitrite oxalate oxalate oxide

∗Usual commercial form . † The solubility of CaCO3 in H2O is greatly increased by increasing the amount of CO2 in the H2O .

2.455 174° 8.15 6.95 8.192 184° 4.691 244° 3.78620° 3.09 3.05 2.48 204° 4.58 1.5520°

tr. 34 d. >200 d. 300 350 59.4

132

d. 900–1000 d. 1000 tr. 108 tr. 41.5

3.6720° 2.765

tr. 4 1750100atm. 810 d. 1600 1551

3.353 254° 2.93 2.711 254° 2.152 154°

760 d. 825 1339103atm. 772

>1600

29.92 −2H2O, 130

−6H2O, 200 −4H2O, 185

17°

1.68

1.7 3.18020° 2.015 1.7 2.2

2 .872 3 .3 2 .36 1 .82 2 .6317° 2 .2334° 2 .24° 2 .2 3 .32 2 .220 164° 2 .306 164° 3 .14 2 .82 3 .09 2 .25 2 .5115° 2 .905 2 .915 2 .96

subl. in N2, 980 1200 ± 30

1810

1330 d. d. 675 −H2O, 580 d. −2H2O, 200 −3H2O, 100 d . 730–760 1391 561 42 .7 900 d . −H2O, 200 2570 −8H2O, 100 −H2O, 100 d . 1670 975 1230

2850 expl . 275 d . 200

32659.5° i. i. 60.8100° s. 127.660° s.

0.01325° 1250° 0.001220°† 0.001425° 59.50° s. v. s. 0.08518° s. d. s. 0.001618° 16.10° d. 0.1850° delq.; d. i. 10.5

i. 312105° 0.002100° 0.002100° 347260° s. v. s. 0.09626° d. 15090° 0.001726° 18.4100

0 .03218° i . 1020° 2660° d . 770° 0 .0006713° i . Forms Ca(OH)2 sl . s . 0 .02 0 .0025 i . i . sl . s . d . 0 .009517°

tr . 1193 to rhb .

180100°

76.50° s. 114.20° s. 350−5° 0.000001 d. 520° d.

24 .5°

>1600 1540 tr . 1190 to α 1450(mn .)

16820° 0.024718° 0.0002625° 109.70° 2150° i. i.

0 .29820°

Colloidal d. 45.580°

0.077100° d. ∞ i . 376151° v . s . d . 41790° 0 .001495° i . d . d . 0 .075100° d . i .

0 .1619100°

2.0515° m. al. s. a.; NH4OH, KCN s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. v. s. a. s. al., NH3; i. HNO3 s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. d. a., alk. i.act., NH3 i. al. i. al. i. al. s. a.; v. s. NH4OH s, a.; sl. s. al. sl. s. al. s. HCl s. dil. a. s. al., act.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., NH4Cl s. a., NH4Cl s. al. s. al. s. al. 0.006518° al. i. al. sl. s. a. i. al., et. d. a.; i. bz. s. NH4Cl d. a. s. HCl, H4P2O6 ∞h . al .; i . et .

1415° al .; s . amyl al ., NH3 s . dil . a .; i . abs . al . s . 90% al . s . a .; i . ac . s . a .; i . ac s . a .; i . al . s . a . d .; i . al ., et . s . a .; i . al ., ac . i . a . s . a . s . a .; i . NH4Cl s . dil . a .; i . al ., et . s . HCl s . a ., Na2S2O3, NH4 salts (Continued )

2-9

2-10

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Name Calcium (Cont.) sulfate (gypsum)

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form, and refractive index

CaSO4⋅2H2O

172.17

col., mn., 1.5226

Ca(SH)2⋅6H2O CaS CaSO3⋅2H2O CaC4H4O6⋅4H2O Ca(CNS)2⋅3H2O CaS2O3⋅6H2O CaWO4

214.32 72.14 156.17 260.21 210.29 260.30 287.92

col. pr. col., cb. wh., cr., 1.595 col., rhb. wh., delq. cr. col., tri., 1.56 wh., tet., 1.9200

C C C CO2

12.01 12.01 12.01 44.01

bk., amor. col., cb., 2.4195 bk., hex. col. gas

disulfide

CS2

76.14

col. lq.

monoxide

CO

28.01

col., poisonous, odorless gas poisonous gas gas

sulfhydrate sulfide (oldhamite) sulfite tartrate thiocyanate thiosulfate tungstate (scheelite) Carbon, cf. table of organic compounds Carbon, amorphous Carbon, diamond Carbon, graphite dioxide

oxychloride (phosgene) oxysulfide suboxide thionyl chloride Ceric hydroxide hydroxynitrate oxide sulfate Cerium

COCl2 COS C3O2 CSCl2 2CeO2⋅3H2O Ce(OH)(NO3)3⋅3H2O CeO2 Ce(SO4)2⋅4H2O Ce

98.92 60.08 68.03 114.98 398.28 397.18 172.11 404.30 140.12

Cerous sulfate sulfate Cesium Chloric acid Chlorine

Ce2(SO4)3 Ce2(SO4)3⋅8H2O Cs HClO3⋅7H2O Cl2

568.42 712.54 132.91 210.57 70.91

hydrate Chloroplatinic acid Chlorostannic acid Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acetate chloride chloride fluoride hydroxide

Cl2⋅8H2O H2PtCl6⋅6H2O H2SnCl6⋅6H2O HO⋅SO2⋅Cl Cr2(C2H3O2)6⋅2H2O CrCl3 CrCl3⋅6H2O∗ CrF3 Cr(OH)3

215.03 517.90 441.54 116.52 494.29 158.36 266.45 108.99 103.02

Cr(OH)3⋅2H2O Cr(NO3)3⋅9H2O∗ Cr(NO3)3⋅7½H2O Cr2O3 Cr2(SO4)3 Cr2(SO4)3⋅5H2O Cr2(SO4)3⋅15H2O Cr2(SO4)3⋅18H2O Cr2S3

139.05 400.15 373.13 151.99 392.18 482.26 662.41 716.46 200.19

hydroxide nitrate nitrate oxide sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfide

gas yel.-red lq. yel., gelatinous red, mn. wh. or pa. yel., cb. yel., rhb. steel gray, cb. or hex. wh., mn. or rhb. tri. silv. met., hex. lq. rhb., or gn.-yel. gas rhb. red-brn., delq. delq. col. lq. gn. pink, trig. vl. or gn., hex. pl. gn., rhb. gn. or blue, gelatinous gn. purple pr. purple, mn. dark gn., hex. rose pd. gn. vl. vl., cb., 1.564 brn.-bk. pd.

Specific gravity 2.32 2.815°

Melting point, °C −1½H2O, 128

Boiling point, °C −2H2O, 163

d. 15 −2H2O, 100 d.

d. 650

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

Hot water

0.2230°

0.25750°

v. s. d. 0.004318° 0.0370° s. 71.29° 0.2

v. s. d. 0.002790° 0.2285° v. s. d.

Other reagents s. a., gly., Na2S2O3, NH4 salts s. al. s. a. s. H2SO3 sl. s. al. v. s. al. i. al. s. NH4Cl; i. a.

1.87316° 6.06

d.

1.8–2.1 3.5120° 2.2620° lq. 1.101−87°; 1.53 (A); solid 1.56−79° lq. 1.261 2220° ; 2.63 (A) ° lq. 0.814 −195 4 ; 0.968 (A) 1.392 194° lq. 1.24−87°; 2.10 (A) lq. 1.1140° 1.50915°

>3500 >3500 >3500 −56.65.2atm.

4200 4200 4200 subl. −78.5

i. i. i. 179.70° cc

i. i. i. 90.120° cc

i. a., alk. i. a., alk. i. a., alk. s. a., alk.

−108.6

46.3

0.20°

0.01450°

s. al.; et.

−207

−192

0.00440°; 3.50° cc v. s. sl. d. 1330° cc

0.001850° 2.3220° cc d. 40.330° cc

s. al., Cu2Cl2

7.3 3.91 6.920° cb.; 6.7 hex. 3.91 2.88617° 1.9020° 1.28214.2° lq. 1.56−33.6°; 2.490° (A) 1.23 2.431 1.97128° 1.78725° 2.75715° 1.835 254° 3.8

5.21 3.012 1.86717° 1.722° 3.7719°

756mm

−104 −138.2

8.2 −50.2760mm

−107

7761mm 73.5

1950 645

1400

d.

s. et. s. a.; sl. s. alk. carb.; i. alk

d. i. s. d. i.

i.



−8H2O, 630 28.5 1000 −2H2O, 100 36.5 100 1900 100 −S, 1350

670 d. 40 −34.6

151.5765mm 1200–1500 d. d.

d. 100 d.

−10H2O, 100 −12H2O, 100

s. ac., CCl4, bs.; d.a. v. s. alk., al.

18.98 250° d. v. s. 1.460°; 31010° cc s. v. s. s. d. s. i.§ v. s. d. i. i. i. s. s. i. i.† s. s. 12020° i.

Slowly oxidized 0.4100° 7.640° 30°

0.57 ; 17730° cc v. s.

sl. s.

i. s. s. i. d. 67° d. d.

s. H2SO4, HCl s. dil. H2SO4 s. dil. a.; i. al.

s. a., al., NH3 s. alk. s. alk. s. al., et. d. al.; i. CS2 4.7615° m. al. i. a., act., CS2 s. al.; i. et. sl. s. a.; i. al., NH3 s. a., alk.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., alk. s. a., alk., al., act. sl. s. a. i. a. s. al., H2SO4 sl. s. al. s. al. s. h. HNO3

Chromium trioxide (chromic acid) Chromous chloride hydroxide oxide sulfate sulfide (daubrelite) Chromyl chloride Cobalt carbonyl sulfide, diCobaltic chloride chloride, dichro chloride, luteo chloride, praseo Cobaltic chloride, purpureo chloride, roseo hydroxide oxide sulfate sulfide Cobalto-cobaltic oxide Cobaltous acetate chloride chloride nitrate oxide sulfate sulfate sulfate (biebeorite) sulfide (syeporite) Copper Cupric acetate aceto-arsenite (Paris green) ammonium chloride

Cr

52 .00

CrO3 CrCl2 Cr(OH)2 CrO CrSO4⋅7H2O CrS CrO2Cl2 Co Co(CO)4 CoS2 CoCl3 Co(NH3)3Cl3⋅H2O Co(NH3)6Cl3 Co(NH3)4Cl3⋅H2O Co(NH3)5Cl3 Co(NH3)5Cl3⋅H2O Co(OH)3 Co2O3 Co2(SO4)3 Co2S3 Co3O4 Co(C2H3O2)2⋅4H2O CoCl2 CoCl2⋅6H2O∗ Co(NO3)2⋅6H2O

99 .99 122 .90 86 .01 68 .00 274 .17 84 .06 154 .90 58 .93 170 .97 123 .06 165 .29 234 .40 267 .48 251 .43 250 .44 268 .46 109 .96 165 .86 406 .05 214 .06 240 .80 249 .08 129 .84 237 .93 291 .03

CoO CoSO4 CoSO4⋅H2O

74 .93 155 .00 173 .01

CoSO4⋅7H2O∗ CoS Cu Cu(C2H3O2)2 Cu(C2H3O2)2⋅H2O (CuOAs2O3)3⋅ Cu(C2H3O2)2∗ CuCl2⋅2NH4Cl⋅2H2O

281 .10 91 .00 63 .55 181 .63 199 .65 1013 .79

gray, met., cb. red, rhb. wh., delq. yel.-brn. bk. pd. blue bk. pd. dark red lq. silv. met., cb. or. cr. bk., cb. red cr.

7.1

1615

2.70 2.75

197 d.

3.97 1.92 8.920° 1.7318° 4.269 2.94

1550 −96.5 1480 51 subl.

brn., cb. red pd. red pd., mn.(?), 1.639 red, mn., 1.483 brn. nd. yel.-red met., cb.

5.18

d. 100 −1½H2O, 100 d. 900

4.8 6.07 1.705318.7° 3.356 1.924 2525° 1.883 2525°

−4H2O, 140 subl. 86 1100 1083

−7H2O, 420

115

240 d.

1.98

d. 110

ammonium sulfate carbonate, basic (azurite)

CuSO4⋅4NH3⋅H2O 2CuCO3⋅Cu(OH)2

245 .75 344 .67

blue, tet., 1.670, 1.744 blue, rhb. blue, mn., 1.758

carbonate, basic (malachite) chloride (eriochalcite)

CuCO3⋅Cu(OH)2 CuCl2

221 .12 134 .45

dark gn., mn., 1.875 brn.-yel. pd.

3.9 3.054

d. 498

chloride chromate, basic cyanide dichromate ferricyanide ferrocyanide formate hydroxide lactate nitrate nitrate ∗Usual commercial form . † Also a soluble modification .

CuCl2⋅2H2O CuCrO4⋅2CuO⋅2H2O Cu(CN)2 CuCr2O7⋅2H2O Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 Cu2Fe(CN)6⋅7H2O Cu(HCO2)2 Cu(OH)2 Cu(C3H5O3)2⋅2H2O Cu(NO3)2⋅3H2O∗ Cu(NO3)2⋅6H2O

170 .48 374 .66 115 .58 315 .56 614 .54 465 .15 153 .58 97 .56 277 .72 241 .60 295 .65

gn., rhb., 1.684 yel.-brn. yel.-gn. bk., tri. yel.-gn. red-brn. blue, mn. blue, gelatinous dark blue, mn. blue, delq. blue, rhb.

2.3922.4°

−2H2O, 110 −2H2O, 260 d. −2H2O, 100

277 .47

117.6 2900 d. 52

20°

1.7016 1.847 1.819 2525°

1.81 3.88

d. 150 d. 220

2.28618° 1.831 3.368 2.047 2.074

1049 −6H2O, 110 d.

114.5 −3H2O, 26.4

i.

164.9 v. s. d. i. 12.350° i. d. i. i. i. s. s. 4.260° v. s. 0.2320° 16.120° i. i. d. i. i. s. 457° 116.50° 84.030°(anh.) i. 25.60° s.

2300

3380° 0.0003818° i. s. 7.2 i. 33.80° 18.05 i.

Forms Cu2Cl2 993 d.

−H2O 3.9°

i. 0°

d.

or., mn. gn., rhb. rhb. brick red bk. bk. blue cr. bk. cr. bk., cb. red-vl., mn., 1.542 blue cr. red, mn. red, mn., 1.4

dark gn., mn. gn.

2200

−HNO3, 170

21.5°

206.7 v. s.

100°

i.

i. d. s. 12.7446.5° 1.03146.5° 24.8716° i. i. i. s. 10596° 17780° 334.990° (anh.) i. 83100° s. s. i.

s. HCl, dil. H2SO4; i. HNO3 s. H2SO4, al., et. sl. s. al.; i. et. s. conc. a. i. dil. HNO3 sl. s. al. v. s. a. s. et. s. a. s. al., et., CS2 s. HNO3, aq. reg. s. a.; al. i. al., NH4OH s. a.; i. al. i. al. sl. s. HCl s. a.; i. al. s. a. s. H2SO4 d. a. s. H2SO4; i. HCl, HNO3 s. a., al. 31 al.; 8.6 act. v. s. et., act. 10012.5° al.; s. act.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., NH4OH; i. al. 1.0418° m. al.; i. NH8 2.58° al. s. a., aq. reg. s. HNO3, h. H2SO4

20

7 al.; s. et.; gly. s. a., NH4OH

99.380°

s. a.

d. d.

i. al. s. NH4OH, h. aq. NaHCO3 s. KCN; 0.03 aq. CO 5315° al.; 6815° m. al.

i. 70.70°

d. 107.9100°

110.40° i. i. sl. s. i. i. 12.5 i. 16.7 38140° 243.70°

192.4100° d. i. d. d. 45100° 66680° ∞

s. al.; et., NH4Cl s. HNO3, NH4OH s. KCN, C5H5N s. a.; NH4OH s. NH4OH; i. HCl s. NH4OH; i. a., NH8 0.25 al. s. a., NH4OH, KCN, al. sl. s. al. 10012.5° al. s . al . (Continued )

2-11

2-12 TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Name

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form, and refractive index

Cupric (Cont.) oxide (paramelaconite) oxide (tenorite) oxychloride phosphide sulfate (hydrocyanite) sulfate (blue vitriol or chalcanthite) sulfide (covellite) tartate Cuprous ammonium iodide carbonate chloride (nantokite) cyanide

CuO CuO CuCl2⋅2CuO⋅4H2O Cu3P2 CuSO4

79 .55 79 .55 365 .60 252 .59 159 .61

CuSO4⋅5H2O∗ CuS CuC4H4O6⋅3H2O CuI⋅NH4I⋅H2O Cu2CO3 Cu2Cl2 Cu2(CN)2

249 .69 95 .61 265 .66 353 .41 187 .10 198 .00 179 .13

bk., cb. bk., tri., 2.63 blue-gn. bk. gn.-wh., rhb., 1.733 blue, tri., 1.5368 blue, hex. or mn., 1.45 1 gn. pd. rhb. pl. yel. wh., cb., 1.973 wh., mn.

ferricyanide ferrocyanide fluoride hydroxide oxide (cuprite) Cuprous phosphide sulfide (chalcocite) sulfide Cyanogen

Cu3Fe(CN)6 Cu4Fe(CN)6 Cu2F2 CuOH Cu2O Cu6P2 Cu2S Cu2S C2N2

402 .59 466 .13 165 .09 80 .55 143 .09 443 .22 159 .16 159 .16 52 .03

brn.-red brn.-red red cr. yel. red, cb., 2.705 gray-bk. bk., rhb. bk., cb. poisonous gas

Fe(OH)(C2H3O2)2

190 .94

brn., amor.

Cyanogen compounds, cf. table of organic compounds Ferric acetate, basic ammonium sulfate, cf. Alum chloride (molysite) chloride ferrocyanide (Prussian blue) hydroxide lactate nitrate oxide (hematite) sulfate sulfate (coquimbite) Ferroso-ferric chloride ferricyanide (Prussian green) oxide (magnetite; magnetic iron oxide) oxide, hydrated Ferrous ammonium sulfate

FeCl3 FeCl3⋅6H2O∗ Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3

162 .20 270 .30 859 .23

bk.-brn., hex. delq. red-yel., delq. dark blue

Fe(OH)3 Fe(C3H5O3)3 Fe(NO3)3⋅6H2O Fe2O3

106 .87 323 .06 349 .95 159 .69

red-brn . brn ., amor ., delq . rhb ., delq . red or bk ., trig ., 3 .042 rhb ., 1 .814 yel ., trig . yel ., delq . gn . bk ., cb ., 2 .42

Fe2(SO4)3 Fe2(SO4)3⋅9H2O FeCl2⋅2FeCl3⋅18H2O Fe4Fe3[Fe(CN)6]6 Fe3O4

399 .88 562 .02 775 .43 1662 .61 231 .53 303 .59 392 .14

chloride (lawrencite)

Fe3O4⋅4H2O FeSO4⋅(NH4)2SO4⋅ 6H2O FeCl2

chloroplatinate ferricyanide (Turnbull’s blue) ferrocyanide formate hydroxide nitrate oxide

FePtCl6⋅6H2O Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2 Fe2Fe(CN)6 Fe(HCO2)2⋅2H2O Fe(OH)2 Fe(NO3)2⋅6H2O FeO

571 .73 591 .43 323 .64 181 .91 89 .86 287 .95 71 .84

126 .75

bk . blue-gn ., mn ., 1 .4915 gn .-yel ., hex ., 1 .567 yel ., hex . dark blue blue-wh ., amor .

Specific gravity 6.40 6.45 6.35 3.60615°

Melting point, °C d. 1026 d. 1026 −3H2O, 140 d. d. >600

° 2.286 15.6 4 4.6

−4H2O, 110 tr. 103 d.

4.4 3.53 2.9

d. 422 474.5

3.4 6.0 6.4 to 6.8 5.6 5.80 lq. 0.866−17.2°; 1.806 (A)

908 −½H2O, 360 1235 1100 1130 −34.4

Forms CuO, 650 −5H2O, 250 d. 220

1366 d.

subl. 1100 −O, 1800

−20.5

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water i. i. i. i. 14.30° 24.30° 0.00003318° 0.0215° d. i. 1.5225° i. i. i. i. i. i. i. 0.000518° 0.000518° 45020° cc

Hot water i. i. 75.4100° 205100° 0.1485° i. i.

i. i.

i. 11°

2.804

282 37 d .

3 .4 to 3 .9

−1½H2O, 500

1 .68420° 5 .12

35 1560 d .

3 .09718° 2 .1

d . 480

315 280

d .

Other reagents s. a.; KCN, NH4Cl s. a., KCN, NH4Cl s. a. s. HNO3; i. HCl i. al. 1.18° al. s. HNO3, KCN s. a., KOH s. NH4I s. a., NH4OH s. HCl, NH4OH, al. s. KCN, HCl, NH4OH; sl. s. NH3 s. NH4OH; i. HCl s. NH4OH; i. NH4Cl s. HF, HCl, HNO3; i. al. s. a., NH4OH s. HCl, NH4Cl, NH4OH s. HNO3; i. HCl s. HNO3, NH4OH; i. act. s. HNO3, NH4OH; i. act. 230020° cc al.; 50018° cc et.

s. a.; al. 0°

100°

74.4 2460° i .

535.8 ∞ d .

v. s. al.; et. +HCl s . al ., act ., gly . s . HCl, conc . H2SO4; i . al ., et . s . a .; i . al ., et . i . et . s . al ., act . s . HCl

i . v . s . 1500° i .

i . v . s . ∞ d . d . s . i .

s . d . h . HCl i . al .

5 .2

d . 50 d . 180 1538 d .

sl . s . 440 s . i . i .

1 .864

d . d .

i . 180°

i . 10075°

s . a . i . al .

64 .410°

105 .7100°

100 al .; s . act .; i . et .

v . s . i . i . sl . s . 0 .00067 2000° i .

v . s .

2 .7

delq .

2 .714 d . d .

lt . gn . cr . bk .

Boiling point, °C

3 .4 5 .7

60 .5 1420

i . H2SO4, NH3 s . abs . al .

i . dil . a ., al .

30025° i .

s . a ., NH4Cl s . a .; i . alk .

phosphate (vivianite)

Fe3(PO4)2⋅8H2O

501 .60

silicate sulfate (siderotilate) sulfate (copperas) sulfide cf. also under iron Fluoboric acid Fluorine

FeSiO3 FeSO4⋅5H2O FeSO4⋅7H2O∗ FeS

131 .93 241 .98 278 .01 87 .91

HBF4 F2

87 .81 38 .00

Fluosilicic acid Gadolinium Gallium bromide Glucinum cf. Beryllium Gold Gold, colloidal Gold salts cf. under Auric and Aurous Hafnium Helium Hydrazine formate hydrate hydrochloride hydrochloride, dinitrate nitrate, disulfate sulfate Hydrazoic acid (azoimide) Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid

H2SiF6 Gd GaBr3

144 .09 157 .25 309 .44

delq . cr .

Au Au

196 .97 196 .97

yel . met ., cb . blue to vl .

19 .320°

1063

2600

Hf He N2H4 N2H4⋅2HCO2H N2H4⋅H2O N2H4⋅HCl N2H4⋅2HCl N2H4⋅HNO3 N2H4⋅2HNO3 N2H4⋅½H2SO4 N2H4⋅H2SO4 HN3 HI HI⋅H2O HI⋅2H2O HI⋅3H2O HI⋅4H2O HBr HBr⋅H2O

178 .49 4 .00 32 .05 124 .10 50 .06 68 .51 104 .97 95 .06 158 .07 81 .08 130 .12 43 .03 127 .91 145 .93 163 .94 181 .96 199 .97 80 .91 98 .93

hex . col . gas col . lq . cb . col . yel . lq . wh ., cb . cr . nd . delq . pl . rhb . col . lq . col . gas col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . gas; 1 .325 (lq .) col . lq .

12 .1 0 .1368 (A) 1 .011 154°

>1700 3200(?) −268 .9 113 .5

Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrocyanic acid (prussic acid)

HBr (47 .8% in H2O) HBr⋅2H2O HCl† HCl (45 .2% in H2O) HCl⋅2H2O HCl⋅3H2O HCN

80 .91 118 .96 36 .46 36 .46 72 .49 90 .51 27 .03

Hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen

HF HF (35 .35% in H2O) H2

20 .01 20 .01 2 .02

col . lq . wh . cr . col . gas; 1 .256 (lq .) col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . poisonous gas or col . lq ., 1 .254 gas or col . lq . col . lq . col . gas or cb .

peroxide selenide sulfide Hydroxylamine hydrochloride nitrate sulfate



H2O2 H2Se H2S NH2OH NH2OH⋅HCl NH2OH⋅HNO3 NH2OH⋅½H2SO4

∗Usual commercial form . † Usual commercial form about 31 percent . ‡ Usual commercial forms 3 or 30 percent .

34 .01 80 .98 34 .08 33 .03 69 .49 96 .04 82 .07

blue, mn., 1.592, 1.603 mn. gn., tri., 1.536 blue-gn., mn. bk., hex. col. lq. gn .-yel . gas

col . lq ., 1 .333 col . gas col . gas rhb ., delq . col ., mn . col . cr . col ., mn .

2.58 3.5 2.2 1.89914.8° 4.84 lq . 1 .51−187°; 1 .3115° (A)

1 .0321° 1 .42

1 .378 4 .40° (A) 1 .715°

2 .710° (A) 1 .78 1 .486 2 .11−15° 1 .2680° (A) 1 .48 ° 1 .46 −18.3 4 0 .69718° 0 .98813 .6° 1 .15 lq . 0 .0709−252 .7° 0 .06948 (A) 1 .438 204° 2 .12−42° 1 .1895 (A) 1 .3518° 1 .6717°

1550

i.

i.

s. a.; i. ac.

64 1193

−5H2O, 300 −7H2O, 300 d.

s. 32.80° 0.00061618°

s. 14950°

i. al. i. al. s. a.; i. NH3

130 d. −187

∞ d .



s . al .

−223

s .

s .

s .

s .

i . s .

i .

s . aq . reg ., KCN; i . a . s . aq . reg ., KCN; i . a .

0 .970° cc ∞ s . ∞ v . s . s . 174 .910° v . s . v . s . 3 .05522° ∞ 42,50010° cc ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 2210°

1 .0850° cc ∞

Absorbed by Pt s . al .

∞ v . s . v . s . v . s .

∞ al .; i . et . sl . s . al . s . al .

198 70 .7 104 85 254 −80 −50 .8 −43 −48 −36 .5 −86

118 .5739 .5mm subl . 140 d . 37 −35 .5 127774mm

−67

126 −11 −111 −15 .35 0 −24 .4 −14 −83 −35 −259 .1 −0 .89 −64 −82 .9 34 151 48 170 d .

27 .6560° ∞ v . s .

130100°

i . al . v . sl . s . abs . al . ∞ al . s . al . ∞ al . s . al . s . al . s . al . s . al . Stable at −15 .5° and 1 atm ., and at −11 .3° and 2 .5 atm . s . al .

d . d . 26

∞ s . 82 .30° ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

19 .4 120 −252 .7

∞ 0° to 19 .4° v . s . 2 .10° cc

0 .8580° cc

sl . s . Fe, Pd, Pt

∞ 3774° cc 4370° cc s . 83 .317° v . s . 32 .90°

27022 .5° cc 18640° cc d . v . s . d . 68 .590°

s . a ., et .; i . petr . et s . CS2, COCl2 9 .5415° cc al .; s . CS2 s . a ., al . s . al .; i . et . v . s . abs . al . v . sl . s . al .; i . et ., abs . al .

−85

760mm

151 .4 −42 −59 .6 56 .522mm d . d . 560

>4800

tr. 450 1171 d. >700

d. d.

−151.8 1800 1620

3000

102.5760mm

i. i. i. i. i. i. i. i.

11.050° cc d. i.

3.5760° cc

280 −3H2O, 75 22

19.70° 45.6415° s. v. s. v. s.

22150° 200100° s.

5.55

18.2

d. 140 d. >200

d. i. d. i. i. 0.45540°

d. 0.05100° 4.75100°

0.0001120° i.

d. i.

d. 190 −H2O, 130 d. 470

0.6730° 0.00000720° i. 1.616° 0.014 38.80°

3.34100° i. i. 18100° d.

d. red heat 888

i. 0.006818°

i.

col. gas lead gray silv. met., cb.

2.818 (A) 6.1520° 11.337 2020°

−169 826 327.5

Pb(C2H3O2)2 Pb(C2H3O2)2⋅3H2O† Pb(C2H3O2)2⋅10H2O Pb2(C2H3O2)3OH Pb(C2H3O2)2⋅ Pb(OH)2⋅H2O Pb(C2H3O2)2⋅ 2Pb(OH)2 PbH4(AsO4)2 PbHAsO4 Pb(AsO3)2 Pb2As2O7 PbN6 PbBr2

325.29 379.33 505.44 608.54 584.52

wh. cr. wh., mn. wh., rhb. wh. wh. nd.

3.251 204° 2.55 1.689

807.72

wh. nd.

489.07 347.13 453.04 676.24 291.24 367.01

tri., 1.82 wh., mn., 1.9097 hex. rhb., 2.03 col. nd. col., rhb.

4.4615° 5.94 6.4215° 6.85 1515° 6.66

802 expl. 350 373

carbonate (cerussite) carbonate, basic (hydrocerussite; white lead) chloride (cotunnite) chromate (crocoite) chromate, basic formate hydroxide nitrate

PbCO3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2†

267.21 775.63

wh., rhb., 2.0763 wh., hex.

6.6 6.14

d. 315 d. 400

PbCl2 PbCrO4 PbCrO4⋅PbO Pb(HCO2)2 3PbO⋅H2O Pb(NO3)2

278.11 323.19 546.39 297.23 687.61 331.21

5.80 6.12

501 844

4.56 7.592 4.53

oxide, suboxide, mono- (litharge)

Pb2O PbO

430.40 223.20

wh., rhb., 2.2172 yel., mn., 2.42 or.-yel. nd. wh., rhb. cb. col., cb. or mn., 1.7815 bk., amor. yel., tet.

8.34 9.53

oxide, mono (massicotite)

PbO

223.20

yel., rhb., 2.61

8.0

arsenate, monobasic arsenate, dibasic (schultenite) arsenate, metaarsenate, pyroazide bromide

Hot water

s. i. 2860°

155 110 d.

83.80 138.91 207.20

acetate, basic

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

4050mm 1450

7.320° 4.6290°

Kr La Pb

acetate acetate (sugar of lead) acetate acetate, basic acetate, basic

Boiling point, °C

−H2O, 280

918

954760mm d.

i.

sl. s.

138.8100°

Other reagents s. a. v. s. 87% al.; i. abs. al. et., chl. s. al., KI, et. i. abs. al., et., chl. sl. s. aq. reg., aq. Cl2 s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a. s. al., H2SO4, alk. s. HCl, H2SO4 i. aq. reg. i. dil. a. i. dil. a.

sl. s. al., bz. s. a. s. HNO3; i. c. HCl, H2SO4 s. gly.; v. sl. s. al. s. gly.; sl. s. al. sl. s. al. s. al. s. al. s. HNO3 s. HNO3, NaOH s. HNO3 s. HCl, HNO3; i. sc. v. s. ac.; i. NH4OH s. a., KBr.; sl. s. NH3; i. al. s. a., alk.; i. NH3, al. s. ac.; sl. s. aq. CO2 sl. s. dil. HCl, NH3, i. al. s. a., alk.; i. NH3, ac. s. a., alk. i. al. s. a., alk. 8.822° al. s. a., alk. s. alk., PbAc, NH4Cl, CaCl2

oxide, mono-

PbO

223 .20

amor.

9.2 to 9.5

oxide, red (minium) oxide, sesquioxide, di- (plattnerite) silicate sulfate (anglesite)

Pb3O4 Pb2O3 PbO2 PbSiO3 PbSO4

685 .60 462 .40 239 .20 283 .28 303 .26

9.1

Pb(HSO4)2 ⋅H2O PbSO4⋅PbO PbS Pb(CNS)2 Li LiC7H5O2 LiBr

419 .36 526 .46 239 .27 323 .36 6 .94 128 .05 86 .85

LiBr⋅2H2O Li2CO3 LiCl

122 .88 73 .89 42 .39

citrate fluoride formate hydride hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrate oxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, tribasic salicylate sulfate sulfate sulfate, acid Lutecium Magnesium acetate acetate aluminate (spinel)

Li3C6H5O7⋅4H2O LiF LiHCO2⋅H2O LiH LiOH LiOH⋅H2O LiNO3 LiNO3⋅3H2O Li2O LiH2PO4 Li3PO4 Li3PO4⋅12H2O LiC7H5O3 Li2SO4 Li2SO4⋅H2O† LiHSO4 Lu Mg Mg(C2H3O2)2 Mg(C2H3O2)2⋅4H2O† MgO⋅Al2O3

281 .98 25 .94 69 .97 7 .95 23 .95 41 .96 68 .95 122 .99 29 .88 103 .93 115 .79 331 .98 144 .05 109 .94 127 .96 104 .01 174 .97 24 .31 142 .39 214 .45 142 .26

red, amor. red-yel., amor. brn., tet., 2.229 col., mn., 1.961 wh., mn. or rhb., 1.8823 cr. col., mn. lead gray, cb., 3.912 col., mn. silv. met. cb. wh. leaflets wh., delq., cb., 1.784 wh. pr. col., mn., 1.567 wh., delq., cb., 1.662 wh. cr. wh., cb., 1.3915 col., rhb. wh., cb. wh. cr. col., mn. col., trig., 1.735 col. col ., 1 .644 col . wh ., rhb . wh ., trig . col . col ., mn ., 1 .465 col ., mn ., 1 .477 pr .

ammonium chloride ammonium phosphate (struvite) ammonium sulfate (boussingaultite) benzoate carbonate (magnesite) carbonate (nesquehonite) carbonate, basic (hydromagnesite) Magnesium chloride (chloromagnesite) chloride (bischofite) hydroxide (brucite) nitride oxide (magnesia; periclase) perchlorate

MgCl2⋅NH4Cl⋅6H2O MgNH4PO4⋅6H2O

256 .79 245 .41

sulfate, acid sulfate, basic (lanarkite) sulfide (galena) thiocyanate Lithium benzoate bromide bromide carbonate chloride

∗See also a table of alloys . † Usual commercial form .

MgSO4⋅(NH4)2SO4⋅ 6H2O Mg(C7H5O2)2⋅3H2O MgCO3 MgCO3⋅3H2O 3MgCO3⋅Mg(OH)2⋅3H2O MgCl2 MgCl2⋅6H2O Mg(OH)2 Mg3N2 MgO Mg(ClO4)2†



360 .60

i.

i.

9.375 6.49 6.2

d. 500 d. 360 d. 290 766 1170

i. i. i. i. 0.00280°

i. i. i.

6.92 7.5 3.82 0.5320°

d. 977 1120 d. 190 186

1336 ± 5

25 ° 4

547

1265

0.000118° 0.004418° 0.0000918° 0.0520° d. 3325° 1430° (2H2O)

2.110° 2.068 254°

44 618 614

d. 1360

24620° 1.540° 670°

3.464

2.29521.5° 1.46 0.820 2.54 1.83 2.38 2 .013 254° 2 .461 2 .53717 .5° 1 .645

d. 870 −H2O, 94 680 445 261 29.88

2 .22 2 .06 2 .12313°

silv . met ., hex . wh . wh ., mn . pr ., 1 .491 col . cb ., 1 .718–23

1 .7420° 1 .42 1 .454 3 .6

651 323 80 2135

wh ., rhb ., delq . col ., rhb ., 1 .496

1 .456 1 .715

−4H2O, 195 d . 100

1 .72

wh . pd . wh ., trig . 1 .700 col ., rhb ., 1 .501 wh ., rhb ., 1 .530

3 .037 1 .852 2 .16

−3H2O, 110 d . 350 −H2O, 100 d .

95 .21

col ., hex ., 1 .675

2 .32525°

712

wh ., delq ., mn ., 1 .507 wh ., trig ., 1 .5617 gn .-yel ., amor . col ., cb ., 1 .7364 wh ., delq .

1 .56 2 .4 3 .65 2 .6025°

1110

>120

320 .58 84 .31 138 .36 365 .31

203 .30 58 .32 100 .93 40 .30 223 .21

925± d. subl . 100 837 100 d . 860 −H2O, 130 170 .5

col ., mn .

1670

118 d . d . d . 2800 d .

3600

0.72100° 127.5100° 66.7100° 0.13535° 346.6104°

0 .03418° v . sl . s . 12826° 35 .340° 43 .60° d .

v . sl . s . v . sl . s .

i . v . s . v . s . i .

sl . s . d . v . s . v . s .

16 .7 0 .02310°

s . 0 .019580°



25°

d .

i. s. d. 40100° 266100° (1H2O)

61.215° 0.2718° 49.20° d. 12.70° 22.310° 53.40° v. s. forms LiOH

16 .86

1412

0.005640°

17.5100° 26.880° 19470° ∞

29 .9100° 35100°

s. alk., PbAc, NH4Cl, CaCl2 s. ac., h. HCl s. a., alk. s. ac., h. alk.; i. al. s. a. s. conc. a., NH4 salts; i. al. sl. s. H2SO4 sl. s. H2SO4 s. a.; i. alk. s. KCNS, HNO3 s. a., NH3 7.725°, 1078° al. s. al., act. s. al. s. dil. a.; i. al., act., NH3 2.4815° al.; s. et. sl. s. al., et. s. HF; i. act. sl. s. al., et. i. et. sl. s. al. sl. s. al. s. al., NH3

s . a ., NH4Cl; i . act . v . s . al . i . act ., 80% al . i . 80% al . s . a ., NH4 salts 5 .2515° m . al . v . s . al . v . sl . s . dil . HCl; i . dil . HNO3 s . a .; i . al .

100°

130

4 .5 (anh .) 0 .0106 0 .151819° 0 .04

d . 0 .011

s . act . s . a ., aq . CO2; i . act ., NH3 s . a ., aq . CO2 s . a ., NH4 salts; i . al .

52 .80°

73100°

50 al .



281 0 .000918° i . 0 .00062 99 .625°

s .

100°

918 d . v . s .

50 al . s . NH4 salts, dil . a . s . a .; i . al . s . a ., NH4 salts; i . al . 2425 al ., 51 .825° m . al .; 0 .29 et . (Continued )

2-15

2-16 TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Name Magnesium (Cont.) peroxide phosphate, pyrophosphate, pyropotassium chloride (carnallite) potassium sulfate (picromerite) silicofluoride sodium chloride sulfate sulfate (epsom salt; epsomite) Manganese acetate acetate carbonate (rhodocrosite)

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form, and refractive index

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

2.59822° 2.56 ° 1.60 19.4 4 2.15 ° 1.788 17.5 4

expl. 275 1383 −3H2O, 100 265 d. 72 d.

MgO2 Mg2P2O7 Mg2P2O7⋅3H2O MgCl2⋅KCl⋅6H2O MgSO4⋅K2SO4⋅6H2O MgSiF6⋅6H2O MgCl2⋅NaCl⋅H2O MgSO4 MgSO4⋅7H2O∗ Mn Mn(C2H3O2)2 Mn(C2H3O2)2⋅4H2O∗ MnCO3

56 .30 222 .55 276 .60 277 .85 402 .72 274 .47 171 .67 120 .37 246 .47 54 .94 173 .03 245 .09 114 .95

wh. pd. col., mn., 1.604 wh., amor. delq., rhb., 1.475 mn., 1.4629 col., trig., 1.3439 col. col. col., rhb., 1.4554 gray-pink met.

chloride (scacchite) chloride

MnCl2 MnCl2⋅4H2O∗

125 .84 197 .91

chloride, perhydroxide (ous) (pyrochroite) hydroxide (ic) (manganite) nitrate oxide (ous) (manganosite) oxide (ic) oxide, di- (pyrolusite; polianite) sulfate (ous) sulfate (ous) (szmikite)

MnCl4 Mn(OH)2 Mn2O3⋅H2O Mn(NO3)2⋅6H2O MnO Mn2O3 MnO2∗

196 .75 88 .95 175 .89 287 .04 70 .94 157 .87 86 .94

rose, delq., cb. rose red, delq., mn. 1 .575 gn . wh ., trig . brn ., rhb ., 2 .24 rose red, mn . gray-gn ., cb ., 2 .16 brn .-bk ., cb . bk ., rhb .

MnSO4 MnSO4⋅H2O

151 .00 169 .02

red-wh . pa . pink, mn ., 1 .595

sulfate (ous)

MnSO4⋅2H2O

187 .03

2 .52615° 15°

sulfate (ous)

MnSO4⋅3H2O

205 .05

sulfate (ous)

MnSO4⋅4H2O∗

223 .06

sulfate (ous)

MnSO4⋅5H2O

241 .08

sulfate (ous)

MnSO4⋅6H2O

259 .09

sulfate (ous) sulfate (ic) Mercuric acetate bromide carbonate, basic chloride (corrosive sublimate) fulminate hydroxide oxide (montroydite) oxychloride (kleinite) silicofluoride, basic sulfate sulfate, basic (turpeth) Mercurous acetate bromide carbonate

pa. pink, mn. rose, trig., 1.817

2.66 1.68 7.220° 1.74 204° 1.589 3.125

1185 70 d. 1260

2.977 254° 2.01

650 58.0

3 .25818° 3 .258 1 .8221° 5 .18 4 .81 5 .026

d . d . 25 .8 1650 −0, 1080 −0, >230

3 .235 2 .87

700 Stable 57 to 117 Stable 40 to 57

2 .356 pink, rhb . or mn ., 1 .518 pink, tri ., 1 .508

2 .107 15°

2 .103

MnSO4⋅7H2O

277 .11

pink, mn . or rhb .

2 .092

Mn2(SO4)3 Hg(C2H3O2)2 HgBr2 HgCO3⋅2HgO HgCl2 Hg(CNO)2 Hg(OH)2 HgO HgCl2⋅3HgO HgSiF6⋅HgO⋅3H2O HgSO4 HgSO4⋅2HgO HgC2H3O2 HgBr Hg2CO3

398 .06 318 .68 360 .40 693 .78 271 .50 284 .62 234 .60 216 .59 921 .26 613 .30 296 .65 729 .83 259 .63 280 .49 461 .19

gn ., delq . cr . wh . pl . wh ., rhb . brn .-red wh ., rhb ., 1 .859 cb .

3 .24 3 .270 6 .053

yel . or red, rhb ., 2 .5 yel ., hex . yel . nd . wh ., rhb . yel ., tet . wh . sc . wh ., tet . yel . pd .

11 .14 7 .93

5 .44 4 .42

6 .47 6 .44 7 .307

Boiling point, °C

Hot water i. i. sl. s. d. 81.775° s. s. 68.3100° 17840°

63.40° 1518°

123.8100° ∞

s. al., m. al. s. aq. CO2, dil. a.; l. NH3, al. s. al.; i. et., NH3 s . al .; i . et .

129 .5

s . 0 .00220° i . 4260° i . i . i .

s . i . i . ∞ i . i . i .

s . al ., et . s . a ., NH4 salts; i . alk . s . h . H2SO4 v . s . al . s . a ., NH4Cl s . a .; i . act . s . HCl; i . HNO3, act .

d . 850

530° 98 .4748°

7350° 79 .77100°

s . al .; i . et .

85 .2735°

106 .855°

1900

1190 −H2O, 106; −4H2O, 200



Stable 30 to 40 −4H2O, 450

s. 64.550°

74 .22

99 .3157°

13616°

16950°



142

200

Stable −5 to +8 Stable −10 to −5; 19 d . d . 160 d . 237

2040°

2479°

d . d . subl . 345 d . 130

−7H2O, 280

322 304



25114°

v . s . 2510° 0 .520° i . 3 .60° sl . s . i . 0 .005225° i . d . d . 0 .005 0 .7513° 7 × 10−9 i .

d . 100100° 25100°

176

s. a. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. al. d. al. d. HF s. al. s. al. s. dil. a.

i . al .

35°

Stable 8 to 18

277 expl . −H2O, 175 d . 100 d . 260

Other reagents

i. i. i. 64.519° d. 19.260° 64.817.5° s. 26.90° 72.40° d. s. s. 0.006525°

d.

Stable 18 to 30

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

61 .3100° i . 0 .041100° d . 0 .167100° d . i . d .

s . HCl, dil . H2SO4; l . s . al . sl . d . 25 .20° al .; v . sl . s . et . s . aq . CO2, NH4Cl 3325° 99% al .; 33 et . s . NH4OH, al . s . a . s . a .; i . al . s . HCl s . a . s . a .; i . al ., act ., NH8 s . a .; i . al . s . H2SO4, HNO3; i . al . s . a .; i . al ., act . s . NH4Cl

HgCl

236 .04

wh., tet., 1.9733

7.150

302

383.7

0.00140°

0.000743°

iodide nitrate Mercurous oxide

HgI HgNO3⋅H2O Hg2O

327 .49 280 .61 417 .18

yel., tet. wh. mn. bk.

7.70 4.7853.9° 9.8

290 d. 70 d. 100

subl. 140; 310d. expl.

2 × 10−8 v. s. i.

v. sl. s. d. 0.0007

sulfate Mercury† Molybdenum

Hg2SO4 Hg Mo

497 .24 200 .59 95 .94

wh., mn. silv. lq. or hex.(?) gray, cb.

7.56 13.54620° 10.2

d. −38.87 2620 ± 10

0.05516.5° i. i.

0.092100° i. i.

MoCl2

166 .85

yel., amor.

3.714 254°

d.

i.

i.

25 ° 4

d.

i.

d.

chloride (calomel)

MoCl3

202 .30

dark red pd.

chloride, tetra-

MoCl4

237 .75

brn., delq.

volt.

d.

s.

d.

chloride, penta-

MoCl5

273 .21

bk. cr.

2.928 254°

194

268

s.

d.

MoO3 MoS2 MoS3 MoS4 H2MoO4 H2MoO4⋅H2O Nd Ne

143 .94 160 .07 192 .14 224 .20 161 .95 161 .95 144 .24 20 .18

col., rhb. bk., hex., 4.7 red-brn. brn. pd. yel-wh., hex. yel., mn. yellowish col. gas

4.5019.5° 4.80114°

795 1185 d. d. d. 115 −H2O, 70 840 −248.67

subl.

0.10718° i. sl. s. i. v. sl. s. 0.13318° d. 2.60° cc

2.10679° i. s. i. sl. s. 2.1370°

s. aq. reg., Hg(NO3)2; sl. s. HNO3, HCl; i. al., etc. s. KI; i. al. s. HNO3; i. al., et. s. h. ac.; i. alk., dil. HCl, NH3 s. H2SO4, HNO3 s. HNO3; i. HCl s. h. conc. H2SO4; i. HCl, HF, NH3, dil. H2SO4, Hg s. HCl, H2SO4, NH4OH, al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; v. sl. s. al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; sl. s. al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; i. abs. al., et. s. a., NH4OH s. H2SO4, aq. reg. s. alk. sulfides s. alk. sulfides; i. NH3 s. NH4OH, H2SO4; i. NH s. a., NH4OH, NH4, salts

1.145° cc

s. lq. O2, al., act., bz.

i.

s. dil. HNO3; sl. s. H2SO4, HCl; i. NH3 i. al.

chloride, dichloride, tri-

oxide, tri- (molybdite) sulfide, di- (molybdenite) sulfide, trisulfide, tetraMolybdic acid Molybdic acid Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel acetate ammonium chloride ammonium sulfate

Np Ni

239

239 .05 58 .69

1.798 1.645 1.923

d.

2.575 4.64 284°

carbonyl chloride chloride

170 .73 129 .60 237 .69

chloride, ammonia cyanide dimethylglyoxime

NiCl2⋅6NH3 Ni(CN)2⋅4H2O NiC8H14O4N4

lq. yel., delq. gn., delq., mn., 1.57±

231 .78 182 .79 288 .91

gn. pl. scarlet red cr.

formate hydroxide (ic) hydroxide (ous) nitrate nitrate, ammonia oxide, mono- (bunsenite)

Ni(HCO2)2⋅2H2O Ni(OH)3 Ni(OH)2⋅¼H2O Ni(NO3)2⋅6H2O Ni(NO3)2⋅4NH3⋅2H2O NiO

184 .76 109 .72 97 .21 290 .79 286 .86 74 .69

2-17

potassium cyanide sulfate ∗Usual commercial form . † See also Tables 2-28 and 2-280 .

Ni(CN)2⋅2KCN⋅H2O NiSO4

258 .97 154 .76

1.3117° 3.544

gn. cr. bk. lt. gn. gn., mn.

4.36 2.05

gn .-bk ., cb ., 2 .37

7 .45

red yel ., mn . yel ., cb .

2.154

11°

1 .875 3 .68

−245.9

Produced by Neutron bombardment of U 1452 2900 i.

gn. pr. gn., delq., mn. blue-gn., mn., 1.5007 gn., cb. yel., delq. gn., delq. vl. pd. trig. lt. gn., rhb. lt. gn.

1.837 3.715

−2H2O, 200

238

8.9020

176 .78 291 .18 394 .99 422 .59 218 .50 272 .55 320 .68 841 .29 118 .70 587 .59

3.12415° 6.920° lq. 1.204−245.9° 0.674 (A)

silv. met., cb.

Ni(C2H3O2)2 NiCl2⋅NH4Cl⋅6H2O NiSO4⋅(NH4)2SO4⋅ 6H2O Ni(BrO3)2⋅6H2O NiBr2 NiBr2⋅3H2O NiBr2⋅6NH3 NiPtBr6⋅6H2O NiCO3 2NiCO3⋅3Ni(OH)2⋅ 4H2O Ni(CO)4 NiCl2 NiCl2⋅6H2O∗

bromate bromide bromide bromide, ammonia bromoplatinate carbonate carbonate, basic

3.578

356.9 3700

16.6 15025° 2.53.5°

v. s. 39.288°

d. d. −3H2O, 200

28 112.80° 1999° v. s.

156100° 316100° d.

s. NH4OH s. al., et., NH4OH s. al., et., NH4OH i. c. NH4OH

d. d.

0.009325° i.

i. d.

s. a. s. a., NH4 salts

0.0189.8° 53.80° 180

i. 87.6100° v. s.

s. aq. reg., HNO3, al., et. s. NH4OH, al.; i. NH3 v. s. al.

s. i. i.

d. i. i.

s. NH4OH; i. al. s. KCN; i. dil. KCl s. abs. al., a.; i. ac., NH4OH

i. v. sl. s. ∞56 .7°

−25 subl.

43751mm 973

−4H2O, 200 subl. 250

d.

d. d. d. 56.7 Forms Ni2O3 at 400 −H2O, 100 −SO3, 840

136.7

v. sl. s. (NH4)2SO4

s. i. v. sl. s. 243.00° v . s . i .

i .

s. a., NH4OH, NH4Cl s. a., NH4OH; i. alk. s . NH4OH; i . abs . al . i . al . s . a ., NH4OH

s . 27 .20°

76 .7100°

d . a . i . al ., et ., act . (Continued )

2-18

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Name

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form, and refractive index

Nickel (Cont.) sulfate

NiSO4⋅6H2O∗

262 .85

sulfate (morenosite) Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitro acid sulfite Nitrogen

NiSO4⋅7H2O HNO3 HNO3⋅H2O HNO3⋅3H2O NO2HSO3 N2

280 .86 63 .01 81 .03 117 .06 127 .08 28 .01

Nitrogen oxide, mono- (ous)

N2O

44 .01

col . gas

oxide, di- (ic)

NO or (NO)2

col . gas

oxide, tri-

N2O3

30 .01 60 .01 76 .01

gn. mn. or blue, tet., 1.5109 gn., rhb., 1.4893 col. lq. col . lq . col . lq . col ., rhb . col . gas or cb . cr .

red-brn . gas or blue lq . or solid yel . lq ., col . solid, red-brn . gas wh ., rhb .

oxide, tetra- (per- or di-)

NO2 or (NO2)2

oxide, penta-

N2O5

46 .01 92 .01 108 .01

oxybromide oxychloride

NOBr NOCl

109 .91 65 .46

brn . lq . red-yel . lq . or gas

Nitroxyl chloride Osmium chloride, dichloride, trichloride, tetraOxygen

NO2Cl Os OsCl2 OsCl3 OsCl4 O2

81 .46 190 .23 261 .14 296 .59 332 .04 32 .00

yel .-brn . gas blue, hex . gn ., delq . brn ., cb . red-yel . nd . col . gas or hex . solid

Ozone

O3

48 .00

Palladium

Pd

106 .42

silv . met ., cb .

PdBr2 PdCl2 PdCl2⋅2H2O Pd(CN)2

266 .23 177 .33 213 .36 158 .45

brn . brn ., cb . brn . pr . yel .

Pd2H Pd(NH3)2Cl2 HClO4 HClO4⋅H2O HClO4⋅2H2O∗ 73 .6% anh . HIO4 HIO4⋅2H2O HMnO4 HMoO4⋅2H2O H2S2O8 PONH2⋅(OH)2 H7P(Mo2O7)6⋅28H2O PH3

213 .85 211 .39 100 .46 118 .47 136 .49

met . red or yel ., tet . unstable, col . lq fairly stable nd . stable lq ., col .

bromide (ous) chloride chloride cyanide hydride Palladous dichlorodiammine Perchloric acid Perchloric acid Perchloric acid Periodic acid Periodic acid Permanganic acid Permolybdic acid Persulfuric acid Phosphamic acid Phosphatomolybdic acid Phosphine Phosphonium chloride

PH4Cl

191 .91 227 .94 119 .94 196 .98 194 .14 97 .01 2365 .71 34 .00 70 .46

col . gas

wh . cr . delq ., mn . exists only in solution wh . cr . hyg . cr . cb . yel . cb . col . gas wh ., cb .

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

Hot water

Other reagents

2.07

tr. 53.3

−6H2O, 280

13150°

280100°

v. s. NH4OH, al.

1.948 1.502

98–100 −42 −38 −18 .5 73 d . −209 .86

−6H2O, 103 86

117.830° ∞ ∞ ∞

−195 .8

63.50° ∞ ∞ 263−20° d . 2 .350° cc

s. al. expl . with al . d . al . d . al . s . H2SO4 sl . s . al .

−102 .3

−90 .7

130 .520° cc

−161

−151

7 .340° cc

60 .8224° cc 0 .0100°

−102

3 .5

s .

1 .026−252 .5° 0 .808−195 .8° 12 .50° (D) lq . 1 .226−89° 1 .530 (A) lq . 1 .269−150 .2° 1 .0367 (A) 1 .4472° 20°

1 .448

−9 .3

21 .3

d .

1 .6318°

30

47

s .

>1 .0 1 .417−12° 2 .31 (A) lq . 1 .3214° 22 .4820°

−55 .5 −64 .5

−2 −5 .5

d . d .

5300

26 .6 cc al .; 3 .5 cc H2SO4; s . aq . FeSO4 s . a ., et . s . HNO3, H2SO4, chl ., CS2

Forms HNO3 s . fuming H2SO4

−218 .4

−183

−251

−112

0 .4940° cc

060° cc

s . oil turp ., oil cinn .

1555

2200

i .

i .

i . s . s . i .

i . s . s . i .

s . aq . reg ., h . H2SO4; i . NH3 s . HBr s . HCl, act ., al . s . HCl, act ., al . s . HCN, KCN, NH4OH; i . dil . a .

500 d . d . 11 .06 2 .5 1 .768 224° 1 .88 1 .71 254°

s . H2SO4, al .

d i . s . d . sl . s . s . d . 4 .890° cc

d . 560–600 1 .14−188° 1 .426−252 .5° 1 .1053 (A) 1 .71−183° 3 .03−80° 1 .658 (A) 12 .020° 111550°

1 .5520° cc

i .

2 .630° cc 1 .7100° cc

sl . s . aq . reg ., HNO3; i . NH3 s . NaCl, al ., et . s . a ., alk ., al .; sl . s . et . s . HCl, al . sl . s . al ., s . fused Ag

d .

−90°

lq . 0 .746 1 .146 (A)

−112 50 −17 .8

1618mm d . 200

d . 138 d . 110

subl . 110

1950 2450 >1300 1200 58 26 50 220

Other reagents

s. KOH sl. s. al.; i. et. 0.130° al.; i. et. v. s. NH3; sl. s. al.

s. al., et. 0.10520° m. al.; i. et. s. H2SO4; d. al. i. al. i. al. sl. s. al. i. al. s. a. i. al. s. al., et. i. al. i. al. i. al., act., CS2 s. al., gly.; i. et. sl. s. al.; i. NH3 i. abs. al. sl. s. al. s. a., alk.; i. al., ac. 20.822° act.; s. al. i. al. d. a. s. al. i. HF, HCl; s. H2SO4; HNO3 sl. s. aq. reg., a. v. sl. s. alk.; i. aq. reg., a. s. HCl, al.; i. et. s. a., al.

i. i.

700

i. i. v. s. d. i. i.

i. i.

sl. s. aq. reg., a.

>2700 2400 260 205 688 688

130030° v . s . i . i .

∞60°

s . H2SO4; d . al .; i . NH3

i . i .

s . CS2, H2SO4, CH2I2 s . CS2, H2SO4

Selenium Selenous acid Silicic acid, metaSilicic acid, orthoSilicon, crystalline

Se8 H2SeO3 H2SiO3 H4SiO4 Si

Silicon, graphitic

Si

Silicon, amorphous carbide chloride, trichloride, tetra-

Si SiC Si2Cl6 SiCl4

28.09 40.10 268.89 169.90

SiF4 SiH4 SiO2⋅xH2O SiO2

104.08 32.12

SiO2 SiO2 SiO2 Ag AgBr

60.08 60.08 60.08 107.87 187.77

carbonate chloride (cerargyrite)

Ag2CO3 AgCl

cyanide nitrate (lunar caustic) Sodium

steel gray hex. amor., 1.41 amor. gray, cb., 3.736

4.825° 3.004 154° 2.1–2.3 1.57617° 2.420°

cr.

2.0–2.5

brn., amor. blue-bk., trig., 2.654 lf. or lq. col., fuming lq., 1.412 gas col. gas iridescent, amor. col., cb. or tet., 1.487

2 3.17 1.580° 1.50

2600

i. 900° i. sl. s. i.

i. 40090° i. sl. s. i.

2600

i.

i.

>2700 −1 −70

2600 subl. 2200 144760mm 57.6

i. i. d. d.

i. i.

3.57 (A) lq. 0.68−185° 2.2 2.32

−95.7 −185 1600–1750 1710

−651810mm −112760mm subl. 1750 2230

v. s. d. i. i. i.

hex., 1.5442 trig., rhb., 1.469 silv. met., cb. pa. yel., cb., 2.252

2.20 2.65020° 2.26 10.520° 6.473 254°

tr. 315 d. 741

d., −H2O

75

−10H2O, 200

17.5°

bromate bromide bromide

NaBrO3 NaBr NaBr⋅2H2O

150.89 102.89 138.92

col., cb. col., cb., 1.6412 col., mn.

3.339 3.20517.5° 2.176

381 755 50.7

carbonate (soda ash) carbonate

Na2CO3 Na2CO3⋅H2O

105.99 124.00

2.533 1.55

851 −H2O, 100

carbonate carbonate (sal soda)

Na2CO3⋅7H2O Na2CO3⋅10H2O

232.10 286.14

wh. pd., 1.535 wh., rhb., 1.506– 1.509 rhb. or trig. wh., mn., 1.425

1.51 1.46

d. 35.1

∗Usual commercial form.

−3H2O, 120

−7H2O, 100 −12H2O, 100

0.00002220° 1220° d., forms NaOH 46.520° v. s. s. d. 16.7 0.03112.8° 26.717° s. 6115° 5.590.1° v. s. 62.525° 6.90° 3.720° 500° sl. s. 1.30° 2262° (anh.)

d.

i. 0.00037100°

952100° 170100° v. s. v. s. 100

s. HNO3, al., et. i. al., et.; d. KOH s. HF, h. alk., fused CaCl2 s. HF; i. alk. s. HF; i. alk. s. HF; i. alk. s. HF; i. alk. s. HNO3, h. H2SO4; i. alk. 0.5118° NH4OH; s. KCN, Na2S2O3 s. NH4OH, Na2S2O3; i. al. s. NH4OH, KCN; sl. s. HCl s. NH4OH, KCN, HNO3 s. gly.; v. sl. s. al. i. bz.; d. al. 2.118° al. 7.825° abs. al. i. al. d. al. i. al. sl. s. al., NH4 salts; i. ac. 1.67 al., 5015° gly.

v. s. 140.730°

sl. s. al. sl. s. al. 2.325°, 8.378° al. i. al.

7.10° s.

76.9100° 16.460° s. 100100° s. 8.7940° 52.3100° (anh.) 20.380° (anh.) 90.9100° 121100° 118.380° (anh.) 48.5104° s.

i. al., et. s. gly.; i. al., et.

s. 21.50°

s. 23830°

i. al.

1.30.5 (anh.) 0°

1390

i. i.

i. CS2; s. H2SO4 v. s. al.; i. NH3 s. alk.; i. NH4Cl s. alk.; i. NH4Cl s. HNO3 + HF, Ag; sl. s. Pb, Zn; i. HF s. HNO3 + HF, fused alk.; i. HF. s. HF, KOH s. fused alk.; i. a. d. alk. d. conc. H2SO4, al.

27.5 9020° 79.50° (anh.)

d. al.; i. NH3 i. al., act. i. al. s. gly.; i. abs. al. i. al. sl. s. al. sl. s. al.

(Continued )

2-21

2-22 TABLE 2-1 Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Name Sodium (Cont.) carbonate, sesqui- (trona) chlorate

Formula Na3H(CO3)2⋅2H2O NaClO3

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form, and refractive index

chloride chromate chromate citrate cyanide dichromate

NaCl Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4⋅10H2O 2Na3C6H5O7⋅11H2O NaCN Na2Cr2O7⋅2H2O

58 .44 161 .97 342 .13 714 .31 49 .01 298 .00

wh., mn., 1.5073 wh., cb., or trig., 1.5151 col., cb., 1.5443 yel., rhb. yel., delq., mn. wh ., rhb . wh ., cb ., 1 .452 red, mn ., 1 .6994

ferricyanide ferrocyanide

Na3Fe(CN)6⋅H2O Na4Fe(CN)6⋅10H2O

298 .93 484 .06

red, delq . yel ., mn .

fluoride (villiaumite) formate hydride

NaF NaHCO2 NaH

hydrosulfide hydrosulfide hydrosulfite hydroxide hydroxide hypochlorite iodide iodide lactate nitrate (soda niter) nitrite

NaSH⋅2H2O NaSH⋅3H2O Na2S2O4⋅2H2O NaOH NaOH⋅3½H2O NaOCl NaI∗ NaI⋅2H2O NaC3H5O3 NaNO3 NaNO2

oxide

Na2O

perborate perchlorate perchlorate peroxide peroxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, metaphosphate, pyrophosphate, pyrophosphate (pyrodisodium) phosphate (pyrodisodium) potassium tartrate silicate, metaSodium silicate, metasilicate, orthosilicofluoride stannate sulfate (thenardite) sulfate

NaBO3⋅H2O NaClO4 NaClO4⋅H2O Na2O2∗ Na2O2⋅8H2O NaH2PO4⋅H2O∗ NaH2PO4⋅2H2O Na2HPO4⋅7H2O Na2HPO4⋅12H2O Na3PO4 Na3PO4⋅12H2O∗ Na4P4O12 Na4P2O7∗ Na4P2O7⋅10H2O Na2H2P2O7 Na2H2P2O7⋅6H2O NaKC4H4O6⋅4H2O Na2SiO3 Na2SiO3⋅9H2O Na4SiO4 Na2SiF6 Na2SnO3⋅3H2O Na2SO4 Na2SO4

226 .03 106 .44

41 .99 68 .01 24 .00 92 .09 110 .11 210 .14 40 .00 103 .05 74 .44 149 .89 185 .92 112 .06 84 .99 69 .00 61 .98 99 .81 122 .44 140 .46 77 .98 222 .10 137 .99 156 .01 268 .07 358 .14 163 .94 380 .12 407 .85 265 .90 446 .06 221 .94 330 .03 282 .22 122 .06 284 .20 184 .04 188 .06 266 .73 142 .04 142 .04

tet ., 1 .3258 wh ., mn . silv . nd ., 1 .470 col ., delq ., nd . rhb . col . cr . wh ., delq . mn . pa . yel ., in soln . only col ., cb ., 1 .7745 col ., mn . col ., amor . col ., trig ., 1 .5874 pa . yel ., rhb . wh ., delq . wh . pd . rhb ., 1 .4617 hex . yel .-wh . pd . wh ., hex . col ., rhb ., 1 .4852 col ., rhb ., 1 .4629 col ., mn ., 1 .4424 col ., mn ., 1 .4361 wh . wh ., trig ., 1 .4458 col . wh . mn ., 1 .4525 col ., mn ., 1 .510 col ., mn ., 1 .4645 rhb ., 1 .493 col ., rhb ., 1 .520 rhb . col ., hex ., 1 .530 wh ., hex ., 1 .312 hex . tablets col ., rhb ., 1 .477 col ., mn .

Specific gravity 2.112 2.49015° 2.163 2.723 1.483 ° 1 .857 23.5 4 2 .5218°

Melting point, °C d. 248 800.4 392 19.9 −11H2O, 150 563 .7 −2H2O, 84 .6; 356 (anh .)

Boiling point, °C

d. 1413 d . 1496 d . 400

1 .458 2 .79 1 .919 0 .92

992 253 d . 800

2 .130

d . 22 d . 318 .4 15 .5 d . 651

3 .6670° 2 .448 2 .257 2 .1680°

d . 308 271

2 .27

subl .

2 .02 2 .805 2 .040 1 .91 1 .679 1 .52 2 .53717 .5° 1 .62 2 .476 2 .45 1 .82 1 .862 1 .848 1 .790

2 .679 2 .698

d . 40 482 d . d . 130 d . d . 30 −H2O, 100 60 d . 34 .6 1340 73 .4 616 d . 988 d . d . 220 70 to 80 1088 47 1018 d . d . 140 tr . 100 to mn . tr . 500 to hex .

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water 130° 790°

42100° 230100° 0°

1390 1300 d . 380 d . 320

d . 200 −12H2O, 180 −11H2O, 100

−4H2O, 215 −6H2O, 100

100°

35.7 320° v. s. 9125° 4810° 2380°

39.8 126100° ∞ 250100° 8235° 50880°

18 .90° 17 .920° (anh .)

67100° 6398 .5° (anh .) 5100° 160100°

40° 440° d . d .

Hot water

s . s . 2220° 420° s . 260° 158 .70° v . s . v . s . 730° 72 .10°

s . s . d . 347100° v . s . 15856° 302100° v . s . v . s . 180100° 163 .2100°

Forms NaOH sl . s . 1700° 20915° s . d . s . d . 710° 91 .10° 18540° 4 .30° 4 .50° 28 .315° s . 2 .260° 5 .40° 4 .50° 6 .90° 260° s . v . s . s . 0 .440° 500° 50° 48 .840°

d . 320100° 28450° d . d . 39083° 30840° 2000100° 76 .730° 77100° ∞ s . 4596° 93100° 2140° 3640° 6626° s . d . v . s . s . 2 .45100° 6750° 42100° 42 .5100°

Other reagents

s. al. sl. s. al.; i. conc. HCl sl . s . al . i . al . s . NH3; sl . s . al . i . al . i . al . v . sl . s . al . sl . s . al .; i . et . i . bz ., CS2, CCl4, NH3; s . molten metal s . al .; d . a . s . al .; d . a . i . al . v . s . al ., et ., gly .; i . act . v . s . al ., act . v . s . NH3 s . al .; i . et . s . NH3; sl . s . gly ., al . 0 .320° et .; 0 .3 abs . al .; 4 .420° m . al .; v . s . NH3 d . al . s . gly ., alk . s . al .; 51 m . al .; 52 act .; i . et . s . al . s . dil . a . i . al . i . al . i . CS2 s . a ., alk . d . a . i . al ., NH3 sl . s . al . i . Na or K salts, al . 2918°, aN NaOH i . al . i . al ., act . i . al . d . HI; s . H2SO4

sulfate sulfate sulfate (Glauber’s salt) sulfide, monosulfide, tetrasulfide, pentasulfite sulfite tartrate thiocyanate thiosulfate thiosulfate (hypo) tungstate tungstate tungstate, parauranate vanadate vanadate, pyroStannic chloride

Na2SO4 Na2SO4⋅7H2O Na2SO4⋅10H2O Na2S Na2S4 Na2S5 Na2SO3 Na2SO3⋅7H2O Na2C4H4O6⋅2H2O NaCNS Na2S2O3 Na2S2O3⋅5H2O∗ Na2WO4 Na2WO4⋅2H2O∗ Na6W7O24⋅16H2O Na2UO4 Na3VO4⋅16H2O Na4V2O7 SnCl4

142 .04 268 .15 322 .19 78 .04 174 .24 206 .30 126 .04 252 .15 230 .08 81 .07 158 .11 248 .18 293 .82 329 .85 2097 .05 348 .01 472 .15 305 .84 260 .52

col., hex. tet. col., mn., 1.396 pink or wh., amor. yel., cb. yel. hex. pr., 1.565 mn. rhb. delq., rhb., 1.625± mn. mn. pr., 1.5079 wh., rhb. wh., rhb. wh., tri. yel. col. nd. hex. col., fuming lq.

oxide (cassiterite)

SnO2

150 .71

wh ., tet ., 1 .9968

sulfate

Sn(SO4)2⋅2H2O

346 .87

col ., delq ., hex .

Stannous bromide chloride chloride (tin salt) sulfate Strontium

884 1.464 1.856 2.633 154° 1.561 1.818

2.226

866 (anh.) 654 −30.2

7 .0

1127

17°

yel ., rhb . wh ., rhb . wh ., tri . wh . cr . silv . met .

2 .6

acetate carbonate (strontianite) chloride chloride hydroxide hydroxide

Sr(C2H3O2)2 SrCO3 SrCl2 SrCl2⋅6H2O∗ Sr(OH)2 Sr(OH)2⋅8H2O∗

205 .71 147 .63 158 .53 266 .62 121 .63 265 .76

wh . cr . wh ., rhb ., 1 .664 wh ., cb ., 1 .6499 wh ., rhb ., 1 .5364 wh ., delq . col ., tet ., 1 .499

2 .099 3 .70 3 .052 1 .93317° 3 .625 1 .90

nitrate nitrate oxide (strontia)

Sr(NO3)2∗ Sr(NO3)2⋅4H2O SrO

211 .63 283 .69 103 .62

col ., cb ., 1 .5878 wh ., mn . col ., cb ., 1 .870

2 .986 2 .2 4 .7

SrO2 SrO2⋅8H2O SrSO4 Sr(HSO4)2 NH2SO3H S S8 S8 S2Br2 S2Cl2 SCl2 SCl4 SO2

119 .62 263 .74 183 .68 281 .76 97 .09 32 .07 256 .52 256 .52 223 .94 135 .04 102 .97 173 .88 64 .06

wh . pd . wh . cr . col ., rhb ., 1 .6237 col ., granular wh ., rhb . pa . yel . pd ., 2 .0–2 .9 pa . yel ., mn . pa . yel ., rhb . red, fuming lq . red-yel . lq . dark red fuming lq . yel .-brn . lq . col . gas

oxide, tri-(β) Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid ∗Usual commercial form .

SO3 (SO3)2 H2SO4∗ H2SO4⋅H2O

80 .06 160 .13 98 .08 116 .09

col . pr . col ., silky, nd . col ., viscous lq . pr . or lq .

d.

287 d. 48.0 692 −2H2O, 100 −16H2O, 300

278 .52 189 .62 225 .65 214 .77 87 .62

oxide, tri-(α)

−10H2O, 100

275 251.8 d. −7H2O, 150

1.667 1.685 4.179 3.245 3.98714°

SnBr2 SnCl2 SnCl2⋅2H2O∗ SnSO4 Sr

peroxide peroxide sulfate (celestite) sulfate, acid Sulfamic acid Sulfur, amorphous Sulfur, monoclinic Sulfur, rhombic Sulfur bromide, monochloride, monochloride, dichloride, tetraoxide, di-

32.4

5 .12

2 .7115 .5°

3 .96 2 .03 124° 2 .046 1 .96 2 .07 2 .635 1 .687 1 .621 1515° lq ., 1 .4340°; 2 .264 (A) lq ., 1 .923; 2 .75 (A) 1 .9720° 1 .834 184° 1 .842 154°

215 .5 246 .8 37 .7 −SO2, 360 800 149760atm . 873 −4H2O, 61 375 −7H2O in dry air 570

114.1

620 623 d . 1150 d . −CO2, 1350 −6H2O, 100

19.420° 44.90° 3615° 15.410° s. s. 13.90° 34.72° 296° 11010° 500° 74.70° 57.580° 880° 8 i. v. s. s. s.

45.360° 202.626° 41234° 57.390° s. s. 28.384° 67.818° 6643° 225100° 23180° 301.860° 97100° 123.5100° d. i. d.

i .

i .

v . s .

d .

s . 83 .90° 118 .70° 1919° d .

d . 269 .815° ∞ 18100° Forms Sr(OH)2 36 .497° 0 .065100° 100 .8100° 19840° 21 .83100° 47 .7100°

36 .90° 0 .001118° 43 .50° 1040° 0 .410° 0 .900°

444 .6 444 .6 444 .6 540 .18mm 138 59 d . > −20 −10 .0

400° 62 .20° Forms Sr(OH)2 0 .00820° 0 .01820° 0 .01130° d . 200° i . i . i . d . d . d . d . 22 .80°

16 .83

44 .6

d .

50 10 .49 8 .62

d . 340 290

Forms H2SO4 ∞ ∞

2430 d . −8H2O, 100 1580 d . d . 205 d . 120 119 .0 112 .8 −46 −80 −78 −30 −75 .5

d .

d.

i. al. sl. s. al.; i. et. s. al. s. al. i. al., NH i. al. i. al. v. s. al. s. NH3; v. sl. s. al. sl. s. NH3; i. a., al. s. alk. carb., dil. a. i. al. i. al. s. abs. al., act., NH3; s. ∞ CS2 s . conc . H2SO4; i . alk .; NH4OH, NH3 s . dil . H2SO4, HCl; d . abs . al . s . C6H5N s . alk ., abs . al ., et . s . tart . a ., alk ., al . s . H2SO4 s . al ., a . 0 .2615° m . al . s . a ., NH4 salts, aq . CO2 v . sl . s . act ., abs . al .; i . NH3 s . NH4Cl s . NH4Cl; i . act .

10089° 12420°

s . NH3; 0 .012 abs . al . i . HNO3 sl . s . al .; i . et .

d . d . 0 .011432°

s . al ., NH4Cl; i . act . s . al .; i . NH4OH sl . s . a .; i . dil . H2SO4, al . 1470° H2SO4 sl . s . al ., act .; i . et . sl . s . CS2 s . CS2, al . 240°, 18155° CS2

4070° i . i . i .

s . CS2, et ., bz . d . al . 4 .550°

s . H2SO4; al ., ac . s . H2SO4

∞ ∞

s . H2SO4 d . al . d . al . (Continued )

2-23

2-24

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Name

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form, and refractive index

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

Hot water

Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid, pyroSulfuric oxychloride Sulfurous oxybromide oxychloride Tantalum

H2SO4⋅2H2O H2S2O7 SO2Cl2 SOBr2 SOCl2 Ta

134 .11 178 .14 134 .97 207 .87 118 .97 180 .95

col. lq. cr . col . lq . or .-yel . lq . yel . fuming lq . bk .-gray, cb .

1.650 04° 1 .920° 1 .667 204° 2 .6818° 1 .631 16 .6

−38.9 35 −54 .1 −50 −104 .5 2850

167 d . 69 .1760mm 6840mm 75 .6 >4100

∞ d . d . d . d . i .



Tellurium

Te

127 .60

met ., hex .

(α) 6 .24; (β) 6 .00

452

1390

i .

i .

Terbium Thallium acetate chloride, monochloride, sesquichloride, trichloride, trisulfate (ic) sulfate (ous) sulfate, acid Thio, cf. sulfo or sulfur Thorium

Tb Tl TlC2H3O2 TlCl Tl2Cl3 TlCl3 TlCl3⋅4H2O Tl2(SO4)3⋅7H2O Tl2SO4 TlHSO4

158 .93 204 .38 263 .43 239 .84 515 .13 310 .74 382 .80 823 .06 504 .83 301 .45

blue-wh ., tet . silky nd . wh ., cb . yel ., hex . hex . pl . nd . lf . col ., rhb ., 1 .8671 trimorphous

11 .85 3 .68 7 .00 5 .9

303 .5 110 430 400–500 25 37 −6H2O, 200 632 115 d .

1650 806 d . d . −4H2O, 100 d . d .

i . v . s . 0 .210° 0 .2615° v . s . 86 .217° d . 2 .700°

d . d . 18 .45100°

Th

232 .04

cb .

11 .2

1845

>3000

i .

i .

oxide, di- (thorianite) sulfate sulfate Thulium Tin

ThO2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2⋅9H2O Tm Sn

264 .04 424 .16 586 .30 168 .93 118 .71

wh ., cb .

>2800

4400

mn . pr .

9 .69 4 .22517° 2 .77

silv . met ., tet .

7 .31

231 .85

2260

i . 0 .740° sl . s . i . i .

5 .2250° sl . s . i . i .

Tin

Sn

118 .71

gray, cb .

5 .750

Stable −163 to +18

2260

i .

i .

Tin salts, cf. stannic and stannous Titanic acid

H2TiO3

97 .88

wh . pd .

i .

i .

i . d .

d .

s . s . i .

s . d . i .

i .

i .

6 .77

17 .5°

i .

i . 1 .8100° 1 .9100°

Other reagents d . al . d . al . s . ac .; d . al . s . bz ., CS2, CCl4; d . act . s . bz ., chl . s . fused alk ., HF; i . HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 s . H2SO4, HNO3, KCN, KOH, aq . reg .; i . CS2 s . HNO3, H2SO4; i . NH3 v . s . al . sl . s . HCl; i . al ., NH4OH s . al ., et . s . al ., et . s . dil . H2SO4 v . sl . s . dil . H2SO4

−9H2O, 400

>3000

s . HCl, H2SO; sl . s . HNO3; i . HF, alk . s . h . H2SO4; i . alk .

s . HCl, H2SO4, dil . HNO3 h . aq KOH s . a ., h . alk . solns . s . alk .; v . sl . s . dil . a .; i . al . s . a . i . CS2, et ., chl .

Ti TiCl2

47 .87 118 .77

dark gray, cb . bk ., delq .

chloride, trichloride, tetraoxide, di- (anatase)

TiCl3 TiCl4∗ TiO2

154 .23 189 .68 79 .87

oxide, di- (brookite)

TiO2

4 .26

1640 d .

2130 −½H2O, 100; 1473 −H2O, 250 to 300 1133 2400 2176

oxide, di- (rutile) Tungsten carbide carbide

TiO2

79 .87 79 .87

lq ., 1 .726 3 .84

136 .4

4 .17

3500

i .

s . dil . HCl sl . s . alk .

oxide (pitchblende) sulfate (ous) Uranyl acetate carbonate (rutherfordine) nitrate sulfate Vanadic acid, metaVanadic acid, pyroVanadium chloride, dichloride, trichloride, tetraoxide, dioxide, trioxide, tetraoxide, pentaoxychloride, monoVanadyl chloride chloride, dichloride, triWater†

U3O8 U(SO4)2⋅4H2O UO2(C2H3O2)2⋅2H2O UO2CO3 UO2(NO3)2⋅6H2O UO2SO4⋅3H2O HVO3 H4V2O7 V VCl2 VCl3 VCl4 V2O2 V2O3 V2O4 V2O5 VOCl (VO)2Cl VOCl2 VOCl3 H2O

842 .08 502 .22 424 .15 330 .04 502 .13 420 .14 99 .95 217 .91 50 .94 121 .85 157 .30 192 .75 133 .88 149 .88 165 .88 181 .88 86 .39 169 .33 137 .85 173 .30 18 .02

Water, heavy Xenon

D 2O Xe

20 .029 131 .29

olive gn. gn., rhb. yel., rhb. tet. yel., rhb., 1.4967 yel . cr . yel . scales pa . yel ., amor . lt . gray, cb . gn ., hex ., delq . pink, tabular, delq . red lq . lt . gray cr . bk . cr . blue cr . red-yel ., rhb . brn . pd . yel . cr . gn ., delq . yel . lq . col . lq ., 1 .3330020°; hex . solid, 1 .309 col . lq ., 1 .3284420° col . gas

Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc acetate acetate bromide carbonate

Yb Y Zn Zn(C2H3O2)2 Zn(C2H3O2)2⋅2H2O∗ ZnBr2 ZnCO3

173 .04 88 .91 65 .41 183 .50 219 .53 225 .22 125 .42

dark gray, hex . silv . met ., hex . mn . wh ., mn ., 1 .494 rhb . wh ., trig ., 1 .818

chloride

ZnCl2

136 .32

cyanide hydroxide iodide

Zn(CN)2 Zn(OH)2 ZnI2

117 .44 99 .42 319 .22

wh ., delq ., 1 .687, uniaxial col ., rhb . col ., rhb . cb .

nitrate oxide (zincite) oxide peroxide phosphide silicate

Zn(NO3)2⋅6H2O ZnO ZnO ZnO2 Zn3P2 ZnSiO3

297 .51 81 .41 81 .41 97 .41 258 .17 141 .49

sulfate (zincosite) sulfate sulfate sulfate (goslarite) sulfide (α) (wurzite) sulfide (β) (sphalerite)

ZnSO4 ZnSO4⋅H2O ZnSO4⋅6H2O ZnSO4⋅7H2O∗ ZnS ZnS

161 .47 179 .49 269 .56 287 .58 97 .47 97 .47

2-25

sulfide (blende) ZnS 97 .47 sulfite ZnSO3⋅2½H2O 190 .51 Zirconium Zr 91 .22 oxide, di- (baddeleyite) ZrO2 123 .22 123 .22 oxide, di- ( free from Hf) ZrO2 ∗Usual commercial form . † Cf. special tables on water and steam, Tables 2-3, 2-4, and 2-5 . note: °F = 9⁄ 5°C + 32 .

col ., tet . wh ., hex ., 2 .004 wh ., amor . yel . steel gray, cb . hex . or rhb .; glass, 1 .650 wh ., rhb ., 1 .669 col . mn . rhb ., 1 .4801 wh ., hex ., 2 .356 wh ., cb .; glass (?) 2 .18–2 .25 wh ., granular mn . cb ., pd . ign . easily yel . or brn ., mn ., 2 .19 wh ., mn .

7.31 2.8915° 5.6 2.807 3 .2816 .5° 5 .96 3 .2318° 3 .0018° 1 .81630° 3 .64 4 .87 184° 4 .399 3 .357 184° 2 .824 3 .64 2 .8813° 1 .829 1 .004° (lq .); 0 .9150° (ice) 1 .10720° lq ., 3 .06−109 .1 2 .7−140° 4 .53 (A)

d. −4H2O, 300 −2H2O, 110 60.2 d . 100

118

1710

3000

d . −109 ign . 1970 1967 800

148 .5755mm

d . 1750

d . in air

i. 2311° 9.217°

i. 963° d.

s. HNO3, H2SO4 s. dil. a. s. al., act.

170.30° 18 .913 .2° i . i . i . s . s . s . d . i . sl . s . i . 0 .820° i . i . d . s . d .

∞60° 23025°

v . s . ac ., al ., et .; i . dil ., alk . 4 al .; s . a . s . a ., alk .; i . NH3 s . a ., alk ., NH4OH s . HNO3, H2SO4; i . aq ., alk . s . al ., et . s . abs . al ., et . s . abs . al ., et ., chl ., ac . s . a . s . HNO3, HF, alk . s . a ., alk . s . a ., alk .; i . abs . al . v . s . HNO3 s . HNO3 s . abs . al ., dil . HNO3 s . al ., et ., ∞Br2 ∞ al .; sl . s . et .

i . d . d . i . s . i .

1800 >1800 expl . 212 >420 1437

v . s . dil . a ., h . KOH s . a ., ac ., alk . 2 .825°, 16679° al . v . s . al . v . s . NH4OH, al ., et . s . a ., alk ., NH4 salts; i . act ., NH3 10012 .5° al .; v . s . et .; i . NH3 s . KCN, NH3, alk .; i . al . s . a ., alk ., NH4OH s . a ., al ., NH3, aq . (NH4)2CO3 v . s . al . s . a ., alk ., NH4Cl; i . NH3

3 .74 154° 3 .28 154° 2 .072 154° 1 .96616 .5° 4 .087 4 .102 254°

d . 740 d . 238 −5H2O, 70 tr . 39 1850150atm . tr . 1020

−6H2O, 105

1100

−7H2O, 280 subl . 1185

4 .04 6 .4 5 .49 5 .73

−2½H2O, 100 1700 2700

d . 200 >2900 4300

510100°

324 .5 0 .0004218° 0 .0004218° 0 .0022 i . i .

∞36 .4°

420° s . s . 115 .20° 0 .0006918° i .

61100° 89 .5100° s . 653 .6100° i . i .

sl . s . al .; i . act .; NH3 sl . s . al .; i . act .; NH3 v . s . a .; i . ac . s . a .

i . 0 .16 i . i . i .

i . d . i . i . i .

v . s . a .; i . ac . s . H2SO3, NH4OH; i . al . s . HF, aq . reg .; sl . s . a . s . H2SO4, HF s . H2SO4, HF

i . NH4OH; d . a . s . dil . a . sl . s . al .; s . gly .

2-26

TABLE 2-2 Physical Properties of Organic Compounds* Abbreviations Used in the Table (A), density referred to air cr., crystalline i-, iso-, containing the group al., ethyl alcohol d., decomposes (CH3)2CHamor., amorphous d-, dextrorotatory i., insoluble aq., aqua, water dl-, dextro-laevorotatory ign., ignites brn., brown et., ethyl ether l-, laevorotatory bz., benzene expl., explodes lf., leaflets c., cubic gn., green lq., liquid cc., cubic centimeter h., hot m-, meta chl., chloroform hex., hexagonal mn., monoclinic col., colorless n-, normal This table of the physical properties includes the organic compounds of most general interest . For the properties of other organic compounds, reference must be made to larger tables in Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry (Handbook Publishers), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Chemical Rubber Publishing Co .), Van Nostrand’s Chemical Annual, International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill), and similar works . The molecular weights are based on the atomic weight values in “Atomic weights of the Elements 2001,” PURE Appl. Chem., 75, 1107, 2003 . The densities are given for the temperature indicated and are usually

nd., needles s-, sec-, secondary v. s., very soluble v. sl. s., very slightly soluble o-, ortho silv., silvery wh., white or., orange sl., slightly yel., yellow p-, para subl., sublimes (+), right rotation pd., powder sym., symmetrical >, greater than pet., petroleum ether t-, tertiary C6H4 CH2:CH⋅CHO CH2:CH⋅CO2H CH2:CH⋅CN (CH2CH2CO2H)2 (CH2CH2CONH2)2 (CH2CH2CN)2 C6H3(OH)2(CHOHCH2NHCH3) CH3CH(NH2)CO2H CH3CH(OH)CH2COH C6H4(CO)2C6H2(OH)2 CH2:CH⋅CH2OH CH2:CH⋅CH2Br CH2:CH⋅CH2Cl CH2:CH⋅CH2NCS CH2:CH⋅CH2NHCSNH2 Al(OCH2CH3)3 C6H4(CO)2C6H3NH2 C6H4(CO)2C6H3NH2 C6H5⋅N:N⋅C6H4NH2 H2N⋅C6H4CO2H H2N⋅C6H4CO2H

302 .45 154 .21 118 .17 44 .05 132 .16 61 .08 59 .07 135 .16 179 .22 179 .22 149 .19 149 .19 60 .05 102 .09 41 .05 58 .08 128 .13 120 .15 78 .50 150 .18 26 .04 96 .94 96 .94 174 .11 179 .22 56 .06 72 .06 53 .06 146 .14 144 .17 108 .14 183 .20 89 .09 88 .11 240 .21 58 .08 120 .98 76 .52 99 .15 116 .18 162 .16 223 .23 223 .23 197 .24 137 .14 137 .14

lf . rhb ./al . lq . col . lq . col . cr . col . cr . col . cr . rhb ./al . lf ./al . lf ./al . rhb . rhb . or mn . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . tri ./al . lf . col . lq . nd ./aq . col . gas col . lq . col . lq . cr ./aq . rhb ./aq . al . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . mn . pr . cr . pd . col . oil col . pd . nd ./aq . col . lq . red rhb . col . lq . lq . col . lq . col . oil col . pr . pd . red nd . red nd . yel . mn . nd ./aq . mn . pr .

ethanamide antifebrin o-ethoxyacetanilide acetyl-m-phenetidine N-tolylacetamide N-tolylacetamide ethanoic acid, vinegar acid acetyl oxide, acetic oxide methyl cyanide propanone, dimethyl ketone dimethyl hydantoin methyl-phenyl ketone ethanoyl chloride amino-acetanilide (p) ethyne; ethine 1,2-dichloroethene dioform equisetic acid; citridic acid acrylic aldehyde, propenal propenoic acid vinyl cyanide hexandioc acid, adipinic acid tetramethylene 1-suprarenine 2-hydroxybutyraldehyde Anthraquinoic acid propen-1-ol-3,propenyl alcohol 3-bromo-propene-1 3-chloro-propene-1 mustard oil thiosinamide

aminodracylic acid

Specific gravity 1 .06995/95 0 .82122/4 0 .78318/4 0 .99420/4 1 .159 1 .214 1 .16815 1 .21215 1 .04920/4 1 .08220/4 0 .78320/4 0 .79220/4 1 .03315/15 1 .10520/4 (A) 0 .906 1 .29115/4 1 .26515/4 0 .84120/4 1 .06216/4 0 .81120 1 .36025/4 0 .95119/19 1 .10320/4 0 .85420/4 1 .39820/4 0 .93820/4 1 .01320/4 1 .21920/20 1 .14220/0

1 .5114°

Melting point, °C 182 95 −123 .5 10 .5–12 97 81(69 .4) 113–4 79 96–7 110 153 16 .7 −73 −41 −94 .6 175 20 .5 −112 .0 162 −81 .5891 −80 .5 −50 192 d . 110–1 −87 .7 12–13 −82 151–3 226–7 1 d . 207–11 295 d . 289–90 −129 −119 .4 −136 .4 −80 77–8 150–60 256 302 126–7 173–4 187–8

Boiling point, °C 278–9 102 .2 20 .2 124 .4752 100–10 d . 222 305 >250 296 306–7 118 .1 139 .6 81 .6–2 .0 56 .5 subl . 202 .3749 51–2 −84760 60 .3 48 .4 346 52 .5 141–2 78–9 26510 295 subl . >200 8320 430 96 .6 70–1753 44 .6 152 200–510 subl . subl . 225120

Solubility in 100 parts Water

Alcohol

Ether

i . i . 625 ∞ 1213 v . s . s . 0 .56 i . sl . s . 0 .8619 0 .0922 ∞ 12 c . ∞ ∞ s . i . d . s . h . 100 cc .18 0 .3520 0 .6320 3315 sl . s . h . 40 ∞ s . 1 .415 0 .412 v . sl . s . 0 .0320 2217 ∞ 0 .03100 ∞ i . 175

pr . mn . pr . rhb ./et . col . lq .

1 .2315 1 .26615/4 1 .19915/4 1 .00125/6

95 121 .7 42 −12 .9

1 .02220/4

1 .385 4 1 .123 20/4 1 .09815/15 1 .096 20/4 1 .089 55/55 0 .990 22/4 1 .25 27/4

1 .18715/4 1 .438 20/4

1 .54315/4

1 .20320/4 1 .248 20/20 1 .035 20/20 1 .046 20/4 1 .341 1 .314 0 .879 20/4

−135 −139 −124 22 .5 143 −6 .2

Boiling point, °C

Solubility in 100 parts Water

Alcohol

Ether

30–1 20 .5 771 31–2758 36 .4 37–8 235 .3 185 184 .4

i. i . i . v . sl . s . i . v . sl . s . i . 3 .618

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s . s . sl . s . ∞

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s . ∞

245

s . s . sl . s . v . s . v . s . ∞ ∞ s . s . s . 1 .520

i . sl . s . i . v . s . v . s . ∞ ∞ s . s . s .

198 d . 190 d . 73–4 184 .2 2 .5 5 .2 100 d . 251 .5 400740 348 d . 249 .2 360 190 .7

460 16 .910 i . v . s . h . 3 .128 137 0 .1 c . i .

0 .59°

i .

s . h . v . s . h . i . c . s . s . 720

v . s . i .

i . i . i . i . s . h . i . 0 .3 1 .35 25 i . 0 .07 22

s . s . 4 .220 11 .415 sl . s . s . ∞ 1725 430 s .

s . s . ∞ sl . s . sl . s . ∞

v . s . h . v . s . 0 .4316 i . 1 h . 0 .09 25 v . sl . s . i . 0 .217 i . 1100

v . s . v . s . v . s . v . s . 1 h . i .

v . s . i . v . s . s . 2 i .

v . s . 4615 s . ∞

v . s . 6615 s . ∞

520 s . 2 .320 s . s .

2-29

Benzoin (dl-) Benzophenone Benzotrichloride Benzoyl-benzoic acid (o-) -chloride -peroxide Benzyl acetate alcohol amine aniline benzoate butyrate chloride ether formate propionate Berberonic acid (2-,4-,5-) Biuret Borneol (dl-) (d- or l-) (iso-) Bornyl acetate (d-) Bromo-aniline (p-) -benzene -camphor (3-)(d-) -diphenyl (p-) -naphthalene (α-) (β-) -phenol (o-) (m-) (p-) -styrene (ω)(1) (2) -toluene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromoform Butadiene (1-,2-) (1-,3-) Butadienyl acetylene Butane (i-) Butyl acetate (n-) (s-) (i-) (tert-) alcohol (n-) (s-) (i-) (tert-) amine (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) p-aminophenol (N)(n) (N)(i-) aniline (n-) (i-) arsonic acid (n-) benzoate (n-) (i-) bromide (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) butyrate (n-)(n-) (n-)(i-) (i-)(i-) caproate carbamate (i-) cellosolve (n-)

diphenyl ketone phenyl chloroform

phenyl carbinol ω-amino toluene phenyl-benzylamine ω-chlorotoluene dibenzyl ether

allophanamide

phenyl bromide α-bromocamphor α-naphthyl bromide β-naphthyl bromide

o-tolyl bromide tribromo-methane methyl-allene erythrene diethyl trimethyl-methane

butanol-1 butanol-2 2-methyl-propanol-1 2-methyl-propanol-2

1-bromo-butane 2-bromo-butane 1-Br-2-Me-propane 2-Br-2-Me-propane

2-BuO-ethanol-1

C6H5CO⋅CHOHC6H5 C6H5COC6H5 C6H5CCl3 C6H5COC6H4CO2H⋅H2O C6H5COCl (C6H5CO)2O2 CH3CO2CH2C6H5 C6H5CH2OH C6H5CH2NH2 C6H5CH2NHC6H5 C6H5CO2CH2C6H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH2C6H5 C6H5CH2Cl (C6H5CH2)2O HCO2CH2C6H5 C2H5CO2CH2C6H5 C5H2N(CO2H)3⋅2H2O NH(CONH2)2 C10H17OH C10H17OH C10H17OH CH3CO2C10H17 BrC6H4NH2 C6H5Br BrC10H15O BrC6H4⋅C6H5 C10H7Br C10H7Br BrC6H4OH BrC6H4OH BrC6H4OH C6H5CH:CHBr C6H5CH:CHBr CH3⋅C6H4Br CH3⋅C6H4Br CH3⋅C6H4Br CHBr3 CH3CH:C:CH2 CH2:CHCH:CH2 CH2:(CH)2:CH⋅C⋮CH CH3CH2CH2CH3 (CH3)2CHCH3 CH3CO2(CH2)2C2H5 CH3CO2CH(CH3)C2H5 CH3CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 CH3CO2C(CH3)3 C2H5CH2CH2OH C2H5CH(OH)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2OH (CH3)3COH C2H5CH2CH2NH2 C2H5CH(NH2)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2NH2 (CH3)3CNH2 C4H9NH⋅C6H4⋅OH C4H9NH⋅C6H4⋅OH C4H9NHC6H5 C4H9NHC6H5 C4H9AsO(OH)2 C6H5CO2C4H9 C6H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2Br C2H5CH(Br)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2Br (CH3)3CBr C2H5CH2CO2CH2CH2C2H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CHCO2CH2CH(CH3)2 CH3(CH2)4CO2C4H9 NH2CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 C4H9OCH2CH2OH

212 .24 182 .22 195 .47 244 .24 140 .57 242 .23 150 .17 108 .14 107 .15 183 .25 212 .24 178 .23 126 .58 198 .26 136 .15 164 .20 247 .16 103 .08 154 .25 154 .25 154 .25 196 .29 172 .02 157 .01 231 .13 233 .10 207 .07 207 .07 173 .01 173 .01 173 .01 183 .05 183 .05 171 .03 171 .03 171 .03 252 .73 54 .09 54 .09 78 .11 58 .12 58 .12 116 .16 116 .16 116 .16 116 .16 74 .12 74 .12 74 .12 74 .12 73 .14 73 .14 73 .14 73 .14 165 .23 165 .23 149 .23 149 .23 182 .05 178 .23 178 .23 137 .02 137 .02 137 .02 137 .02 144 .21 144 .21 144 .21 172 .26 117 .15 118 .17

mn. col. rhb. col. lq. tri./aq. col. lq. rhb ./et . col . lq . col . lq . lq . mn . pr . nd . col . lq . col . lq . lq . col . lq . lq . tri . nd ./al . col . cr . col . cr . col . cr . rhb ./pet . rhb . col . lq . cr . cr ./al . col . oil lf ./al . col . lq . cr . tet . cr . lq . lq . col . lq . col . lq . cr ./al . col . lq . lq . col . gas col . lq . col . gas col . gas col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . lq . oil col . lf . col . oil col . oil lq . lq . lq . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lf . col . lq .

1.08354 1.38014 1.21220/4 1 .05717 1 .04320/4 0 .98220/4 1 .065 25/25 1 .1220/4 1 .01616/18 1 .100 20/20 1 .03616 1 .08123 1 .03616/17 20/4

1 .011 1 .01120/4 0 .99115 1 .820 1 .495 20/4 1 .449 20/4 1 .48220/4 1 .605 0 1 .55380 1 .588 80 1 .42220/4 1 .427 20/4 1 .42220/4 1 .410 20/4 1 .390 20/4 2 .890 20/4 0 .62120/4 0 .773 20/4 0 .600 0 .600 0 .882 20 0 .865 25/4 0 .87120/4 0 .866 20/4 0 .810 20/4 0 .808 20/4 0 .80517 .5 0 .779 26 0 .739 25/4 0 .724 20/4 0 .73220/20 0 .69818/4

133–7 48.5 −4.75 93(128) −0.5 108 d . −51 .5 −15 .3 37–8 21 238–40 −39 3 .6 243 192–3 d . 210 .5 208–9 212 29 63–4 −30 .6 77–8 90–1 5–6 59 5 .6 32–3 63 .5 7 −7 .5 −28 −39 .8 28 .5 8–9 −108 .9 −135 −145 −76 .3 −98 .9 −79 .9 −114 .7 −108 25 .5 −50 −104 −85 −67 .5 71 79

0 .940 20/4 1 .005 25/25 0 .997 25/25 1 .277 20/4 1 .25125/4 1 .258 25/4 1 .21120/4 0 .87220/20 0 .86318/4 0 .875 0/4 0 .8820/0 0 .95676/4 0 .90320/4

158–9 −22 −112 .4 −112 −118 .5 −16 .2 −80 .7 65

344768 305.4 220.7 197.2 expl . 213 .5 204 .7 184 .5 306750 323–4 i . 179 .4 295–8 202–3747 220–2 subl . 212–3 226–7 156 .2 274 310 281 .1 281–2 194–5 236–7 238 221 10826 181 .8 183 .7 184–5 150 .5 18–9 −4 .41 83–6 −0 .6 −10 125 740 112744 118 95–6760 117 99 .5 107–8 82 .9 77 .8 66772 68–9 45 .2 235720 231–2 249–50 241 .5 101 .6 91 .3 91 .5 73 .3 165 .7736 156 .9 148–9 204 .3 206–7 171 .2

v. sl. s. i. i. sl. s. d. i . i . 417 ∞ i . i . v . s . i . i . i . i . v . sl . s . 1 .30 v . sl . s . v . sl . s . i . i . i . c . i . i . i . i . i . s . 1 .415 i . i . i . i . i . 0 .1 c . i . i . i . i . i . 0 .7 i . 0 .625 i . 915 12 .520 1015 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ i . i . i . 0 .0115 s . i . i . 0 .0616 i . 0 .0618 i . i . i . i . i . i . ∞

s. h. 6.515 s.

sl. s. 1513 s.

d. h. s . h . ∞ ∞ ∞

∞ s . ∞ ∞ ∞ s . ∞

∞ v . s . ∞ s . h . s . sl . s . h . s .

∞ s . ∞ i .

v . s .

v . s .

s . v . s . s . 2026 s . s . 620 s . s . v . s . ∞ ∞ s . s . s . ∞ ∞ ∞

s . v . s . ∞ v . s . 34 25 ∞ v . s . ∞ s . v . s . ∞ ∞ ∞25 s . ∞25 ∞ ∞ ∞

s . s . ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

s . s . ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

v . s . v . s . s . s . ∞ ∞

v . s . v . s . i . s . ∞ ∞

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

s . ∞

s . ∞ (Continued )

2-30

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued )

Name chloride (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) dimethylbenzene (t-)(1-,3-,5-) formate (n-) (s-) (i-) furoate (n-) iodide (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) lactate (n-) mercaptan (n-) (i-) (t-) methacrylate (n-) (i-) phenol (p-)(t-) propionate (n-) (s-) (i-) stearate (n-) (i-) iso-thiocyanate (n-) (i-) (s-)(d-) (t-) valerate (n-)(n-) (i-)(n-) (i-)(s-) (i-)(i-) Butylene (α-) (β-) Butyraldehyde (n-) (i-) Butyric acid (n-) (i-) amide (n-) (i-) anhydride (n-) (i-) anilide (n-) Caffeic acid (3-,4-) Caffeine Camphene (dl-) (d- or l-) Camphor (d-) Camphoric acid (d-) Cantharidine Capric acid Caproic acid (n-) (i-) Caprylic acid (n-) Carbazole Carbitol Carbon disulfide monoxide suboxide tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Carbonyl sulfide Carminic acid Carvacrol (1-,2-,4-)

Synonym 1-chloro-butane 2-chloro-butane 1-Cl2-2-Me-propane 2-Cl2-2-Me-propane

1-iodo-butane 2-iodo-butane 1-iodo-2-Me-propane 2-iodo-2-Me-propane butanthiol-1 2-Me-propanthiol-1

butyl mustard oil iso-Bu mustard oil

butene-1 butene-2 2-Me-propanol butanoic acid 2-Me-propanoic acid n-butyramide iso-butyramide n-butyranilide

decanoic acid hexanoic acid 2-Me-pentanoic-5 acid octanoic acid diphenylenelimine, dibenzopyrrole diethylene glycol mono-Et ether

tetrabromomethane tetrachloromethane tetrafluoromethane

Formula C2H5CH2CH2Cl C2H5⋅CHCl⋅CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2Cl (CH3)3CCl (CH3)3C⋅C6H3:(CH3)2 HCO2CH2CH2C2H5 HCO2CH(CH3)C2H5 HCO2CH2CH(CH3)2 OC4H3CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2I C2H5CHICH3 (CH3)2CHCH2I (CH3)3CI CH3CH(OH)CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2SH (CH3)2CHCH2SH (CH3)3CSH CH2:C(CH3)CO2C4H9 CH2:C(CH3)CO2C4H9 (CH3)3C⋅C6H4⋅OH C2H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CO2C4H9 CH3(CH2)16CO2C4H9 CH3(CH2)16CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2⋅N:CS (CH3)2CHCH2⋅N:CS C4H9⋅N:CS (CH3)3C⋅N:CS CH3(CH2)3CO2(CH2)3CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2(CH2)3CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C4H9 C4H9CO2C4H9 C2H5CH:CH2 CH3CH:CHCH3 CH3CH2CH2CHO (CH3)2CHCHO C2H5CH2CO2H (CH3)2CHCO2H C2H5CH2CONH2 (CH3)2CHCONH2 (C2H5CH2CO)2O [(CH3)2CHCO]2O C3H7CONHC6H5 (HO)2C6H3C2H2CO2H C8H10O2N4⋅H2O C10H16 C10H16 C10H16O C8H14(CO2H)2 C10H12O4 CH3(CH2)8CO2H CH3(CH2)4CO2H (CH3)2CH(CH2)2⋅CO2H CH3(CH2)6CO2H (C6H4)2NH C2H5O(CH2)2O(CH2)2OH CS2 CO OC:C:CO CBr4 CCl4 CF4 COS C22H20O13 CH3C6H3(OH)CH(CH3)2

Formula weight 92 .57 92 .57 92 .57 92 .57 162 .27 102 .13 102 .13 102 .13 168 .19 184 .02 184 .02 184 .02 184 .02 146 .18 90 .19 90 .19 90 .19 142 .20 142 .20 150 .22 130 .18 130 .18 130 .18 340 .58 340 .58 115 .20 115 .20 115 .20 115 .20 158 .24 158 .24 158 .24 158 .24 56 .11 56 .11 72 .11 72 .11 88 .11 88 .11 87 .12 87 .12 158 .19 158 .19 163 .22 180 .16 212 .21 136 .23 136 .23 152 .23 200 .23 196 .20 172 .26 116 .16 116 .16 144 .21 167 .21 134 .17 76 .14 28 .01 68 .03 331 .63 153 .82 88 .00 60 .08 492 .39 150 .22

Form and color

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

col. lq. col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . lq . lq . lq . col . lq . lq . lq . lq . lq . col . lq . col . lq . lq . lq . lq . lq . nd ./aq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . wax lq . lq . lq . lq . lq . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . gas col . gas col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . rhb . mn . pl . col . lq . col . lq . mn . pr . yel ./aq . nd ./al . cr . cr . trig . mn . cr . col . nd . oily lq . col . oil col . lf . lf . col . lq . col . lq . col . gas gas col . mn . col . lq . gas col . gas red pd . col . lq .

0.887 20 0 .87120/4 0 .88415 0 .84715

−123.1 −131 −131 .2 −26 .5

77.9763 67 .8767 68 .9 51–2 200–2147 106 .9 97 98 .2 118–2025 129 .9 118–9 120 99 75–66 97–8 88 65–7 155 155 236–8 146 132 .5 136 .8 220–525

0 .9110 0 .88220/4 0 .885 20/4 1 .056 20/4 1 .617 20/4 1 .595 20 1 .606 20/4 1 .370 19/15 0 .968 0 .837 25/4 0 .836 20/4 0 .889 15 .6 0 .889 15 .6 0 .908 112/4 0 .88315 0 .866 20/4 0 .888 0/4 0 .855 25/25 0 .95611 0 .96414/4 0 .943 20/4 0 .91910 0 .87015/4 0 .862 25/4 0 .848 20/4 0 .8740/4 0 .69 20/4

0 .817 0 .79420/4 0 .96420/4 0 .949 20/4 1 .032 1 .013 0 .968 20/20 0 .950 25/4 1 .134 1 .2319 0 .82278 0 .845 50/4 0 .999 9/9 1 .186 0 .889 87 0 .922 20/4 0 .925 20/4 0 .910 20/4 0 .990 20/20 1 .263 20/4 0 .81−195/4 1 .1140 3 .42 1 .595 20/4 1 .24−87 0 .977

20/4

−95 .3 −103 .5 −104 −90 .7 −34 −116

CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CH2 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHOH CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CO (⋅CH2⋅CH2CH:)2 CH3CO2C6H11 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHNH2 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHBr CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHCl CH2 < (CH:CH)2 > CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > < (CH2CH2)2 > CO < CH2CH2CH2 > CH3⋅C6H4CH(CH3)2 CH3⋅C6H4CH(CH3)2 CH3⋅C6H4CH(CH3)2 [⋅SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H]2 C6H6(OH)6 C10H18 C10H18 CH3(CH2)8CH3 CH3(CH2)8CH2OH (C6H10O5)x (CH3)2C(OH)⋅CH2COCH3 H2NC6H4COC6H4NH2 H2NC6H4NHC6H4NH2 H2NC6H4CH2C6H4NH2 (H2NC6H4NH)2CO [(CH3)2CHCH2CH2]2NH (C2H5CH2CH2CH2)2O [(CH3)2CH(CH2)2]2O [(CH3)2CHCH2CH2]2CO C6H4(CO2C5H11)2 C6H4(CO2C5H11)2 (HOCH⋅CO2C5H11)2 [NH2(OCH3)C6H3⋅]2 C6H5N:N⋅NHC6H5 C7H7N:N⋅NHC7H7 CH2:N2

Formula weight 164 .16 164 .16 146 .14 118 .13 149 .15 113 .12 138 .16 137 .18 108 .14 108 .14 108 .14 212 .24 212 .24 212 .24 86 .09 86 .09 70 .09 120 .19 164 .20 135 .21 42 .04 43 .02 85 .06 52 .03 105 .92 61 .47 165 .10 56 .11 98 .19 84 .16 100 .16 98 .14 82 .14 142 .20 99 .17 163 .06 118 .60 66 .10 70 .13 84 .12 42 .08 134 .22 134 .22 134 .22 240 .30 180 .16 138 .25 138 .25 142 .28 158 .28 162 .14 116 .16 212 .25 199 .25 198 .26 242 .28 157 .30 158 .28 158 .28 170 .29 306 .40 306 .40 290 .35 244 .29 197 .24 225 .29 42 .04

Form and color nd./aq. cr./aq. rhb./et. oil mn./aq. mn. pr. nd ./pet . cr . lq . pr . lq . cr . cr . col . mn . nd . col . lq . col . lq . tri . lq . col . nd . gas col . lq . col . gas nd . gas mn ./aq . col . gas oil col . lq . col . nd . col . oil lq . oil col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . oil col . oil col . gas col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . pl . mn ./aq . lq . lq . col . lq . col . oil amor . lq . yel . nd . lf ./aq . nd ./aq . cr . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . yel . oil col . lq . col . lq . lq . col . lf . yel . lf . or . cr . gas

Specific gravity

0.93520/4 1.07815/15 1.09220/20 20/4

1 .048 1 .03420/4 1 .03520/4

79 .7

0 .964 1 .03115/4 0 .85320/20 0 .86220/4 1 .1624 0 .953 1 .07348/4 1 .1400 0 .86617 2 .01520/4 1 .2220 1 .7680/4 0 .7030/4 0 .81020/4 0 .77920/4 0 .96220/4 0 .94719/4 0 .81020/4 0 .9850/4 0 .86520/0 1 .32420/20 0 .97718/4 0 .80519/4 0 .74520/4 0 .94820 0 .720−79 0 .87520/4 0 .86220 0 .85720/4 1 .752 0 .89518/4 0 .87220/4 0 .7302 0 .83020/4 1 .038 0 .93125

0 .76721/4 0 .77420/4 0 .77720/4 0 .82125/4

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

207–8 206–7 d. 70

Hg(CN)2 Hg(ONC)2⋅½H2O (CH3)2C:CHCOCH3 C6H3(CH3)3 H2NC6H4SO3H CH4

Formula weight 144 .21 102 .17 102 .17 102 .17 130 .18 194 .27 179 .17 155 .15 180 .16 90 .08 27 .03 110 .11 122 .12 213 .23 145 .16 145 .16 262 .26 264 .28 117 .15 133 .15 204 .01 220 .01 393 .73 192 .30 192 .30 206 .32 147 .13 68 .12 42 .04 427 .34 90 .08 162 .14 144 .13 360 .31 200 .32 338 .61 186 .33 323 .44 267 .34 143 .19 131 .17 116 .12 136 .23 154 .25 196 .29 280 .45 116 .07 98 .06 134 .09 134 .09 104 .06 360 .31 152 .15 182 .17 180 .16 270 .45 342 .17 156 .27 167 .25 119 .21 252 .62 293 .63 98 .14 120 .19 173 .19 16 .04

Form and color

Specific gravity

col. lq. col. lq. lq . lq . lq . col . nd . rhb . lf ./aq . cr ./aq . syrup lq . cr . nd ./aq . pr ./al . pr ./al . pr . cr . gray lf ./aq . yel . pr . col . lq . nd ./aq . yel . hex . col . oil col . oil col . oil yel . red col . lq . col . gas cr . hyg . yel . oil tri ./al . col . rhb . col . nd . pl . lf . col . lq . col . lq . lq . cr . lf . lq . col . oil col . lq . yel . oil mn . cr . col . cr . col . cr . col . tri . col . nd . rhb ./aq . col . rhb . rhb . col . pl . nd ./al . col . cr . nd . cr . cr . cr ./aq . lq . col . lq . col . nd . gas

0.890 0/0 0.820 20/20 0 .821 20/0 0 .809 20/4 0 .898 0 1 .371 20/4

0 .697 18 1 .332 15 1 .129 130

1 .35

1 .824 25/4 1 .857 112 4 .008 17 0 .930 20 0 .944 20 0 .939 20

Melting point, °C −51.6 −14 −107 68–70 187–8 d . 287 175–80 −12 170 .3 116–7 135 199–200 75–6 390–2 52 85 −28 .5 93–4 119

0 .681 20/4

200–1 −120 −151

1 .249 15/4

16 .8

10/4

0 .862 1 .525 20 0 .869 50/4 0 .809 69/4 0 .831 24/4 1 .659 18/4 1 .995 20/4 1 .086 20 1 .29318 1 .140 20/20 0 .842 20/4 0 .868 20 0 .895 20 0 .903 18/4 1 .609 1 .5 1 .601 20/4 1 .595 20/4 1 .631 15 1 .540 17 1 .300 20/4 1 .489 20/4 1 .539 20/4 0 .853 60 15/15

0 .890 1 .4220/4 1 .50 4 .003 22 4 .4 0 .858 20/4 0 .865 20/4

0 .415 −164

124 .5 202 48(44) 69–70 24 −136 −27 .5 9–10 295 33 .5 −96 .9 −9 .5 130 .5 57–60 128–9 99–100 130–5 d . d . 118 .1 166 132 60–1 286–8 42–3 179 106 d . 320 expl . −59 −45(−52) d . −182 .6

Boiling point, °C 169.2 157.2 120–1 123762 153 .6 1797 d . d . 25–6 285730 subl . d . subl . 266 .6752 subl . 253–4 110 188 .6 d . subl . 136 .117 14018 14416 subl . 34 −56 12214 d . 250 255757 d . 225100 255–9 152291 110760 261–3 subl . 245–6 177 198–200 220762 d . 229–3016 135 d . 202 150 d . 140 d . d . 290–53 227100 d . 212 d .

130750 164 .8 −161 .4

Solubility in 100 parts Water i. 0.620 v . sl . s . v . sl . s . 0 .05 0 .420 s . s . h . ∞ 615 1 .3831 v . sl . s . h . s . h . v . sl . s . c . i . i . s . h . s . 0 .03420 sl . s . 0 .0125 sl . s . sl . s . v . sl . s . s . h . i . d . 7 .220 ∞ v . sl . s . v . sl . s . 1710 i . i . i . i . i . sl . s . 2 .218 v . s . i . v . sl . s . v . sl . s . i . 7925 16 .380 14426 v . s . 13816 10825 1620 1314 24817 i . v . s . 0 .04 c . i . 1 .660 12 .515 0 .0712 320 i . 215 0 .420 cc .

Alcohol

Ether

v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v . s . s . h . v . sl . s . v . s .

v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s . 0 .2518 i . sl . s .

∞ v . s .

∞ v . s .

s . v . s . s . i . s . s . h . s . s . v . s . 1 .517 ∞ ∞ v . s . v . s . h . ∞ d .

s . v . s . sl . s . i . s . s . s . ∞ v . s . 13 .625 ∞ ∞ v . s . sl . s . ∞ s .

∞ s . v . sl . s . c . i . s . i . c . s . sl . s . ∞ ∞

∞ s .

v . s . ∞ s . ∞ ∞ 7030

v . s . ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 825

v . s . v . s . 4225 v . sl . s . c . s . 0 .0114 v . sl . s . 3228 v . s . v . s . s .

v . s . 8 .415 815 i . s . i . i . v . s .

s . ∞ s . v . sl . s . 4720 cc .

i . s . s . ∞ ∞ ∞

v . s . sl . s .

∞ ∞ v . sl . s . 10410 cc .

2-39

Methoxy-methoxyethanol Methyl acetate acrylic acid (α-) alcohol -amine -amine hydrochloride aniline anthracene (α-) (β-) anthranilate (o-) anthraquinone (2-) benzoate benzylaniline bromide butyrate (n-) (i-) caprate caproate (n-) caprylate cellosolve chloride chloroacetate chloroformate cinnamate cyclohexane ethyl carbonate ethyl ketone ethyl oxalate formate furoate glucamine glycolate heptoate hypochlorite iodide lactate laurate mercaptan methacrylate myristate naphthalene (α-) (β-) nitrate nitrite nonyl ketone (n-) oleate orange palmitate phosphine propionate propyl ketone (n-) salicylate (o-) stearate toluate (o-) (m-) (p-) Methyl toluidine (o-) (m-) (p-) valerate (n-) (i-) vinyl ketone Methylal Methylene-bis-(phenyl-4-isocyanate) bromide chloride dianiline iodide Michler’s hydrol (p-,p′-) ketone Morphine Mucic acid

CH3(OCH2)2CH2OH CH3CO2CH3 CH2:C(CH3)CO2H CH3OH CH3NH2 CH3NH2⋅HCl C6H5NHCH3 C6H4:(CH)2:C6H3CH3 C6H4:(CH)2:C6H3CH3 NH2C6H4CO2CH3 C6H4:(CO)2:C6H3CH3 C6H5CO2CH3 C6H5N(CH3)CH2C6H5 CH3Br CH3(CH2)2CO2CH3 (CH3)2CHCO2CH3 CH3(CH2)8CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)4CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)6CO2CH3 CH3OCH2CH2OH CH3Cl ClCH2CO2CH3 ClCO2CH3 C6H5CH:CHCO2CH3 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHCH3 CH3O⋅CO⋅OC2H5 CH3 .CO⋅C2H5 CH3OCO⋅CO2C2H5 HCO2CH3 C4H3O⋅CO2CH3 CH2OH(CHOH)4CH2NHCH3 HOCH2CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)5CO2CH3 ClOCH3 CH3I CH3CH(OH)CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)10CO2CH3 CH3SH CH2:C(CH3)CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)12CO2CH3 C10H7CH3 C10H7CH3 CH3ONO2 CH3ONO CH3(CH2)8COCH3 C17H33CO2CH3 (CH3)2NC6H4N2C6H4SO3Na CH3(CH2)14CO2CH3 CH3PH2 CH3CH2CO2CH3 CH3COCH2CH2CH3 HO⋅C6H4CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)16CO2CH3 CH3⋅C6H4CO2CH3 CH3⋅C6H4CO2CH3 CH3⋅C6H4CO2CH3 CH3⋅C6H4NHCH3 CH3⋅C6H4NHCH3 CH3⋅C6H4NHCH3 CH3(CH2)3CO2CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2CH3 CH3COCH:CH2 HCH(OCH3)2 (OCN⋅C6H4)2CH2 CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 (C6H5NH)2CH2 CH2I2 [(CH3)2NC6H4]2CHOH [(CH3)2NC6H4]2CO C17H19O3N⋅H2O (⋅CHOHCHOHCO2H)2

106 .12 74 .08 86 .09 32 .04 31 .06 67 .52 107 .15 192 .26 192 .26 151 .16 222 .24 136 .15 197 .28 94 .94 102 .13 102 .13 186 .29 130 .18 158 .24 76 .09 50 .49 108 .52 94 .50 162 .19 98 .19 104 .10 72 .11 132 .11 60 .05 126 .11 195 .21 90 .08 144 .21 66 .49 141 .94 104 .10 214 .34 48 .11 100 .12 242 .40 142 .20 142 .20 77 .04 61 .04 170 .29 296 .49 327 .33 270 .45 48 .02 88 .11 86 .13 152 .15 298 .50 150 .17 150 .17 150 .17 121 .18 121 .18 121 .18 116 .16 116 .16 70 .09 76 .09 250 .25 173 .83 84 .93 198 .26 267 .84 270 .37 268 .35 303 .35 210 .14

lq. col . lq . pr . col . lq . col . gas pl ./al . lq . lf ./al . col . lf . col . lq . col . nd . col . lq . lq . gas col . lq . col . lq . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . gas col . lq . col . lq . cr . col . lq . lq . col . lq . lq . lq . col . lq . lq . lq . gas col . lq . lq . lq . gas lq . cr ./al . oil mn . lq . gas col . oil oil red pd . col . cr . gas col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . cr . col . lq . col . lq . cr . lq . lq . lq . lq . col . lq . lq . col . lq . lq . col . lq . col . lq . cr . col . lq . gn . lf ./al . pr ./al . pd .

1.038 25 0 .924 20/4 1 .015 20/4 0 .792 20/4 0 .699 −11 1 .23 0 .989 20/4 1 .047 99 .4 1 .181 0/4 1 .168 19/4 1 .087 25/25 1 .732 0/0 0 .898 20/4 0 .891 20/4 0 .904 0/0 0 .887 18 0 .965 20/4 0 .952 0 1 .236 20/4 1 .236 15 1 .042 36/0 0 .769 20/4 1 .002 27 0 .805 20/4 1 .156 0/0 0 .974 20/4 1 .179 21/4

250 125 46–9 69–70 50 111–2

250.5100 16715 217.9

300 >300 278–80 285–6

300.8 306.1 subl.

d.

1.18 1.009 20/4

1 .207 156 1 .211 156 15

1 .442 1 .43 1 .437 14 1 .254 20/4 1 .233 20

1 .205

18/4

1 .575 4/4 1 .494 4/4 1 .550 22/4

89/4

1 .240 1 .067 20/4 1 .179 20/4 1 .313 17 1 .44

NH C5H4N⋅CH3 C5H4N⋅CH3 C5H4N⋅CH3 HO⋅C6H2(NH2)(NO2)2 HO⋅C6H2(NO2)3 ClC6H2(NO2)3 [(CH3)2C⋅OH]2 CH3COC(CH3)3 C10H16 C10H17Cl C10H16O CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > NH HO2C⋅CH < (CH2CH2)2 > NH (CH2)5CS2H⋅HN(CH2)5 CH3CH2CH3 CH3CH2CO2H CH3CH2CHO (CH3CH2CO)2O CH3CO2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2OH (CH3)2CHOH CH3CH2CH2NH2 (CH3)2CHNH2 C6H5NHCH2CH2CH3 C6H5CO2CH2CH2CH3 C6H5CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2Br (CH3)2CHBr C2H5CH2CO2CH2C2H5 (CH3)2CHCO2CH2C2H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CHCO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2Cl (CH3)2CHCl HCO2CH2CH2CH3 HCO2CH(CH3)2 C4H3O⋅CO2C3H7 CH3CH(OH)CO2CH2C2H5 CH3CH(OH)CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2SH (CH3)2CHSH C2H5CO2CH2C2H5 C2H5CO2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CH⋅CNS CH3(CH2)3CO2CH2C2H5 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C3H7 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C3H7 CH3CH:CH2 CH3CHBrCH2Br CH3CHClCH2OH CH3CHClCH2Cl CH3CH(OH)CH2OH CH3(CHCH2)O (HO)2C6H3CO2H⋅H2O

Formula weight

Form and color

108 .14 108 .14 108 .14 162 .14 138 .21 98 .92 166 .13 166 .13 148 .12 128 .13 134 .13 147 .13 93 .13 93 .13 93 .13 199 .12 229 .10 247 .55 118 .17 100 .16 136 .23 172 .69 152 .23 85 .15 129 .16 232 .43 44 .10 74 .08 58 .08 130 .14 102 .13 102 .13 60 .10 60 .10 59 .11 59 .11 135 .21 164 .20 164 .20 122 .99 122 .99 130 .18 130 .18 130 .18 130 .18 78 .54 78 .54 88 .11 88 .11 154 .16 132 .16 132 .16 76 .16 76 .16 116 .16 116 .16 101 .17 144 .21 144 .21 144 .21 42 .08 201 .89 94 .54 112 .99 76 .09 58 .08 172 .14

lf./aq. rhb. mn. rhb. yel. pr. gas mn./aq. nd./aq. rhb. cr. nd./aq. cr./et. col. lq. col . lq . lq . red nd . yel . rhb . yel . mn . col . nd . col . lq . col . lq . lf . lq . lq . cr . cr . gas col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . lq . lq . col . lq . col . lq . lq . lq . col . lq . col . lq . gas col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . oil col . lq . nd ./aq .

Specific gravity 1.139 15/15 0.885 20/4 1.392 19/4 1.593 20/4 1.527

4

1.164

99/4

0.950 15/4 0 .961 15/4 0 .957 15/4 1 .763 20/4 1 .797 20 0 .967 15 0 .800 16 0 .878 20/4 0 .953 20/20 0 .860 20/4 1 .13 0 .585 −45/4 0 .992 20/4 0 .807 20/4 1 .012 20/4 0 .886 20/4 0 .874 20/20 0 .804 20/4 0 .78920/4 0 .718 20/20 0 .694 15/4 0 .949 18 1 .021 25/25 1 .010 25/25 1 .353 20/4 1 .310 20/4 0 .879 15 0 .884 0/4 0 .865 18 0 .869 0/4 0 .890 20/4 0 .859 20 0 .901 20/4 0 .873 20/4 1 .075 26/4 0 .836 25/4 0 .809 25/4 0 .883 20/4 0 .893 0 0 .963 20 0 .874 15 0 .863 20/4 0 .854 17 0 .609 −47/4 1 .933 20/4 1 .103 20 1 .159 20/20 1 .040 19 .4 0 .831 20/20 1 .542 4/4

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

103–4 62.8 140 117 28 −104 208 330 130.8 141 73(65) 238 −70

256–8 284–7 267 subl. 197.2743 8.2756 d. subl. 284.5

169 121 .8 83 43(38) −52 .5 −55 131–2 −9 264 175 −187 .1 −22 −81 −45 −92 .5 −73 .4 −127 −85 .8 −83 −101 −51 .6 −109 .9 −89 −95 .2

−122 .8 −117 −92 .9

−112 −130 .7 −76 −70 .7 −185 −55 .5

CH < (CHCH)2 > N C6H4(OH)2 C6H3(OH)3 CO < (CHCH)2 > O < (CH:CH)2 > NH < (CH2⋅CH2)2 > NH < (CH⋅CH2)2 > NH CH3COCO2H C21H20O11⋅2H2O CH3⋅C9H6N C9H7N C9H7N —C6H4CH:C(OH)N:C(OH)— CO < (CHCH)2 > CO HOC10H5(SO3)2Ca HOC10H5(SO3K)2 HOC10H5(SO3Na)2 C18H32O16⋅5H2O C6H4(OH)2 C18H18 CH3(CHOH)4CHO⋅H2O C17H32(OH)CO2H C20H21ON3 C20H16O3 C6H4(CO)(SO2) > NH CH2:CHCH2⋅C6H3:O2CH2 CH3⋅CH:CH⋅C6H3:O2CH2 HO⋅C6H4⋅CO2H HO⋅C6H4⋅CHO HO⋅C6H4⋅CH2OH (HOC10H6SO3)2Ca⋅5H2O HOC10H6SO3K HOC10H6SO3Na NH2⋅CO⋅NH⋅NH2 NH2⋅CO⋅NH⋅NH3Cl CH3⋅C8H6N CH3ONa [CH2OH(CHOH)2]2 C6H12O6 (C6H10O5)x CH3(CH2)16CO2H CH3(CH2)16CONH2 C6H5CH:CH2 HO2C(CH2)6CO2H HO2C(CH2)2CO2H C12H22O11 H2N⋅C6H4⋅SO3H C10H16 (CHOHCO2H)2 (CHOHCO2H)2⋅H2O (CHOHCO2H)2 CH(OH)(CO2H)2⋅½H2O C6H4(CO2H)2 C10H20O2⋅H2O C10H18O C10H18O CH3CO2⋅C10H17 Br2CH⋅CHBr2 Br3C⋅CH2Br Cl2CH⋅CHCl2 Cl3C⋅CH2Cl Cl2C:CCl2 CH3(CH2)22CH3 CH3(CH2)12CH3 [(C2H5)2NCS]2S2

154 .25 152 .23 68 .08 70 .09 84 .08 202 .25 80 .09 79 .10 110 .11 126 .11 96 .08 67 .09 71 .12 69 .11 88 .06 484 .41 143 .19 129 .16 129 .16 161 .16 108 .09 342 .36 380 .48 348 .26 594 .51 110 .11 234 .34 182 .17 298 .46 319 .40 304 .34 183 .18 162 .19 162 .19 138 .12 122 .12 124 .14 576 .60 262 .32 246 .21 75 .07 111 .53 131 .17 54 .02 182 .17 180 .16 162 .14 284 .48 283 .49 104 .15 174 .19 118 .09 342 .30 173 .19 136 .23 150 .09 168 .10 150 .09 129 .07 166 .13 190 .28 154 .25 154 .25 196 .29 345 .65 345 .65 167 .85 167 .85 165 .83 338 .65 198 .39 296 .54

col. lq. col. lq. nd ./et . lq . nd . yel . pr . lq . col . lq . nd ./aq . nd . cr . lq . lq . lq . col . lq . yel . nd . lq . lq . pl . cr . yel . mn . cr . cr . cr . cr ./aq . col . rhb . lf ./al . col . mn . lq . col . nd . red lf . mn . col . mn . col . lq . mn . col . oil rhb ./aq . cr . cr . cr . pr ./al . pr . lf . pd . cr . rhb . amor . mn . col . cr . col . lq . nd ./aq . col . mn . col . mn . col . cr . lq . cr . tri . mn . pr ./aq . cr . rhb . col . cr . col . cr . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . lq . col . lq . cr . col . lq . cr .

0.911 20/4 0.932 20/20 70 1 .277 0/4 1 .107 20/4 0 .982 20/4 1 .344 4 1 .453 4 1 .190 40 .3 0 .948 20/4 0 .852 22 .5 0 .910 20/4 1 .267 20/4 1 .059 20/4 1 .095 20 1 .099 21/4 1 .318 20/4

1 .465 0 1 .272 15 1 .1316 1 .47120/4 0 .954 16

1 .100 20/4 1 .122 20/4 1 .443 20/4 1 .153 25/4 1 .161 25

1 .654 15 1 .5021 0 .847 69 .3 0 .903 20/4 1 .266 25/4 1 .572 25/4 1 .588 15 0 .863 20/4 1 .737 1 .697 20/4 1 .760 20/4 1 .510 0 .935 15 0 .935 20/20 0 .966 20/4 2 .964 20/4 2 .875 20/4 1 .600 20/4 1 .588 20/4 1 .624 15/4 0 .779 51/4 0 .765 20/4 1 .17

165 149–50 −8 −42 104–5 133–4 32 .5

13 .6 182–5 −1 −15 24 .6 237 115 .7

119 110 .7 98–9 126 4–5 186 d . 308–10 d . 225–8 11 .2 6–7 159 −7 86–7

96 173 d . 95 d . 300 110–2 165 d . 70–1 108–9 −31 140–4 189–90 170–86 d . d . > 280

86–9 10 224754 186–8 144 subl . d . >360 208 115–6 240–5 309 215–7 131 87–8 90–1 165 244–5750 237 .1747 240 .5763 subl .

d . 130 276 .5 390–4 226–810 subl . 233–4 252–3 21120 196 .5 subl .

265–6755

291110 25112 145–6 279100 235 d . 176–7

159–60 205–6 168–70 d . 155–8 subl . 117 38–40 35 < −50 −1 .0 0 −36 −19 51 .1 5 .5 70

d . subl . d . 219–21 218–9752 220 d . 15154 10413 146 .3 129–30 120 .8 324 252 .5

v. sl. s. i. s . ∞ s . i . ∞ ∞ 45 .120 40 13 v . sl . s . i . ∞ v . s . ∞ 0 .04 20 v . sl . s . 6 sl . s . v . sl . s . sl . s . h . 30 .6 25 29 .5 25 25 .2 25 14 .3 20 14712 i . 60 .8 21 i . v . sl . s . 0 .1225 0 .4 25 i . i . 0 .223 1 .7 86 6 .615 4 .7620 3 .4625 6 .2925 v . s . v . s . 0 .05 c . d . v . s . 5517 i . 0 .0325 i . v . sl . s . 0 .1416 6 .820 1790 0 .810 12015 20 .620 13920 v . s . 0 .001 c . 0 .415 i . i . i . i . 20

0 .29 i . 0 .0220 i . i .

∞ s . ∞ v . s . 3 h . s . ∞ v . s . s . s . s . ∞ ∞ ∞ s . ∞ s .

0 .120 v . s . 69 h .

∞ s . sl . s . v . sl . s . v . s . s . s . v . s . s . v . s . s . ∞ ∞ ∞ sl . s . s . ∞ s . s .

∞ sl . s . v . s . h . 3 .1 c . s . ∞ 4915 ∞ v . s .

v . s . v . s . h . i . ∞ i . sl . s . 1 .05 c . ∞ ∞ 5115 ∞ v . s .

v . s . sl . s . s .

i . i . s .

v . s . h . sl . s . i . 220 s . h . ∞ s . 9 .915 0 .9 v . sl . s .

i . 6g s . h: ∞ 0 .815 1 .215 i . v . sl . s .

20 2515 v . s . sl . s . h . 1015 v . s . v . s . 20 ∞ s . ∞ ∞ ∞ v . s .

0 .09 0 .415 i . i . 115 v . s . v . s . ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s . v . s . (Continued )

2-44

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued ) Name

Tetrafluoro-ethylene Tetrahydro-furan -furfuryl alcohol -pyran Tetralin Tetramethyl-thiuram disulfide Tetryl (2-,4-,6-) Theobromine Thio-acetic acid -aniline (4-,4′-) -carbanilide -naphthol (β-) -phenol -salicylic acid (o-) -urea Thiophene Thymol (5-,2-,1-) Tolidine (0-)(3-,3′-,4-,4′-) Toluene sulfonic acid (o-) (p-) sulfonic amide (p-) sulfonic chloride (p-) Toluic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Toluidine (o-) (m-) (p-) hydrochloride (o-) sulfonic acid (1-,2-,3-) Toluylenediamine (1-,2-,4-) Tolylene diisocyanate (1-,2-,4-) Trehalose Triamylamine (n-) (i-) Tributyl-amine (n-) phosphite Trichloro-acetic acid -benzene (s-)(1-,3-,5-) -ethane (1-,1-,1-) -ethylene -phenol Tricosane (n-) Tricresyl phosphate (o-) Tridecane (n-) Triethanol amine Triethyl-amine -benzene (1-,3-,5-) (1-,2-,4-) borate citrate Triethylene glycol Trifluoro-chloromethane -chloroethylene -trichloroethane Trimethoxybutane (1-,3-,3-) Trimethylamine Trimethylene bromide chloride glycol

Formula

Formula weight

F2C:CF2 —CH2(CH2)2CH2⋅O— C4H7O⋅CH2OH —CH2(CH2)3CH2⋅O— —C6H4CH2(CH2)2CH2— [(CH3)2NCS]2S2 (NO2)3C6H2⋅N(CH3)NO2 C7H8O2N4 CH3⋅CO⋅SH (NH2⋅C6H4)2S (C6H5⋅NH)2CS C10H7⋅SH C6H5⋅SH HS⋅C6H4⋅CO2H NH2⋅CS⋅NH2 < (CH:CH)2 > S (CH3)(C3H7)C6H3OH [CH3(NH2)C6H3]2 C6H5⋅CH3 CH3⋅C6H4SO3H⋅2H2O CH3⋅C6H4SO3H⋅H2O CH3⋅C6H4SO2NH2 CH3⋅C6H4⋅SO2Cl CH3⋅C6H4⋅CO2H CH3⋅C6H4⋅CO2H CH3⋅C6H4⋅CO2H CH3⋅C6H4⋅NH2 CH3⋅C6H4⋅NH2 CH3⋅C6H4⋅NH2 CH3⋅C6H4⋅NH3Cl CH3(NH2)C6H3SO3H CH3⋅C6H3(NH2)2 CH3⋅C6H3(NCO)2 C12H22O11⋅2H2O [CH3(CH2)3CH2]3N [(CH3)2CH(CH2)2]3N [CH3(CH2)2CH2]3N [CH3(CH2)3O]3P Cl3C⋅CO2H C6H3Cl3 Cl3C⋅CH3 Cl2C:CHCl Cl3C6H2OH CH3(CH2)21CH3 OP(OC6H4CH3)3 CH3(CH2)11CH3 (HOCH2CH2)3N (CH3CH2)3N (C2H5)3C6H3 (C2H5)3C6H3 B(OCH2CH3)3 HOC3H4(CO2C2H5)3 (⋅CH2OCH2CH2OH)2 CF3Cl F2C:CFCl Cl2CF⋅CClF2 CH2(OCH3)CH2C(OCH3)2CH3 (CH3)3N BrCH2CH2CH2Br ClCH2CH2CH2Cl HOCH2CH2CH2OH

100 .02 72 .11 102 .13 86 .13 132 .20 240 .43 287 .14 180 .16 76 .12 216 .30 228 .31 160 .24 110 .18 154 .19 76 .12 84 .14 150 .22 212 .29 92 .14 208 .23 190 .22 171 .22 190 .65 136 .15 136 .15 136 .15 107 .15 107 .15 107 .15 143 .61 187 .22 122 .17 174 .16 378 .33 227 .43 227 .43 185 .35 250 .31 163 .39 181 .45 133 .40 131 .39 197 .45 324 .63 368 .36 184 .36 149 .19 101 .19 162 .27 162 .27 145 .99 276 .28 150 .17 104 .46 116 .47 187 .38 148 .20 59 .11 201 .89 112 .99 76 .09

Form and color

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

gas col. lq. col. lq. lq . col . lq . cr . yel . mn . rhb . yel . lq . nd ./aq . rhb ./al . cr ./al . col . lq . yel . nd . rhb ./al . col . lq . cr . lf . col . lq . cr . mn . mn . tri . cr ./aq . pr ./aq . cr ./aq . col . lq . col . lq . cr . mn . pr . cr . rhb . lq . rhb ./al . lq . col . lq . col . lq . lq . cr . nd . lq . col . lq . nd . lf . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . oil lq . lq . lq . oil col . lq . gas gas lq . lq . gas lq . lq . oil

1.58−78 0.88821/4 1.05020/4 0 .88120/4 0 .97318/4 1 .29 1 .5719

−142.5 −65

−76.3 65–6 177–8743 88 206764

1 .07410 24

1 .3

−31 155–6 130 .5 330 < −17 108 154 81

23/4

1 .074

1 .40520/4 1 .07015/4 0 .97225/25 20/4

0 .866

1 .062115/4 1 .054112/4 20/4

0 .999 0 .98920/4 1 .04620/4

164 180–2 −30 51 .5 128–9 −95 d . 104–5 137 69 104–5 110–1 179–80 −16 .3 −31 .5 44–5 218–20 99

1 .2328

expl . 93 d . 286–8 168–9 subl . d . 84 232752 110 .8 128 .80 146–70 134 .510 259751 263 274–5 199 .7 203 .3 200 .3 242 283–5 134 .520

97 20/4

0 .786 0 .77820/20 0 .92520/4 1 .61746/15 1 .32526/4 1 .46620/20 1 .49075/4 0 .77948/4 0 .75720/4 1 .12620/20 0 .72920/20 0 .86120/4 0 .88217/4 0 .86420/20 1 .13720/4 1 .12520/20 1 .726−130 1 .57620/4 0 .932 0 .662 −5 1 .987 15/4 1 .201 15 1 .060 20/4

58 63 .5 −73 68–9 47 .7 −6 .2 20–1 −114 .8

−5 −182 −157 .5 −35 −124 −34 .4

240–5 235 216 .5761 122–312 195 .5754 208 .5764 74 .1 87 .2 246 23415 234 277–9150 89 .4 215 217–8755 120 294 290 −80 −27 .9 47 .6 63–525 3 .5 167 .5 123–5 214

Solubility in 100 parts Water 0.0130 s. ∞ s . i . i . i . 0 .0615 s . sl . s . h . i . v . sl . s . v . sl . s . sl . s . h . 9 .213 i . 0 .0919 v . sl . s . 0 .0516 v . s . v . s . 0 .29 i . 2 .17100 1 .6100 1 .3100 1 .525 sl . s . 0 .7421 s . 0 .9711 s . h . d . s . h . i . i . i . i . 12025 i . i . 0 .125 0 .0925 i . i . i . ∞ ∞ > 190 i . i . d . i . ∞ d . i . d . 4119 0 .1730 0 .2725 ∞

Alcohol

Ether

s. ∞

s. ∞

s .

s .

s . h . 0 .06 c . ∞ s . v . s . v . s . v . s . s . s . s . v . s . s . s . s . s . 7 .45 s . v . s . v . s . v . s . ∞ ∞ v . s . sl . s .

s . 0 .03 h . ∞ s . v . s . v . s . ∞

s . d . sl . s . h .

sl . s . v . s . s . ∞

s . v . s . v . s . ∞ ∞ v . s . s . i .

s .



s . sl . s . ∞ ∞ v . s .

s .

v . s . ∞ ∞ s . s .

v . s . sl . s . ∞ s . s .

∞ ∞

∞ v . sl . s .





s . s . s . ∞

s . s . s .

∞ ∞ v . s .

Trinitro-benzene (1-,3-,5-) -benzoic acid (2-,4-,6-) -tert-butylxylene -naphthalene (α-)(1-,3-,5-) (β-)(1-,3-,8-) (γ-)(1-,4-,5-) -phenol (2-,3-,6-) -toluene (β-)(2-,3-,4-) (γ-)(2-,4-,5-) (α-)(2-,4-,6-) Trional Triphenyl-arsine carbinol guanidine (α-) methane methyl phosphate Tripropylamine (n-) Undecane (n-) Urea nitrate Uric acid Valeric acid (n-) (i-) aldehyde (n-) (i-) amide (n-) (i-) Vanillic acid (3-,4-,1-) alcohol (3-,4-,1-) hyl-thiuram disulfide Vanillin (3-,4-,1-) Veratrole (o-) Vinyl acetate (poly-) acetic acid acetylene alcohol (poly-) chloride propionate Xylene (o-) (m-) (p-) sulfonic acid (1-,4-,2-) Xylidine (1:2)(3-) (1:2)(4-) (1:3)(2-) (1:3)(4-) (1:3)(5-) (1:4)(2-) Xylose (l-)(+) Xylylene dichloride (p-) Zinc diethyl dimethyl dimethyl-dithiocarbamate note: °F = 9⁄5°C + 32 .

C6H3(NO2)3 (NO2)3C6H2CO2H (NO2)3C6(CH3)2C4H9 C10H5(NO2)3 C10H5(NO2)3 C10H5(NO2)3 (NO2)3C6H2OH CH3C6H2(NO2)3 CH3C6H2(NO2)3 CH3C6H3(NO2)3 (C2H5SO2C2H4)2 (C6H5)3As (C6H5)3COH C6H5N:C(NHC6H5)2 (C6H5)3CH (C6H5)3C . . . OP(OC6H5)3 (CH3CH2CH2)3N CH3(CH2)9CH3 H2N⋅CO⋅NH2 CO(NH2)2⋅HNO3 C5H4O3N4 C2H5CH2CH2CO2H (CH3)2CHCH2CO2H C2H5CH2CH2CHO (CH3)2CHCH2CHO C2H5CH2CH2CONH2 (CH3)2CHCH2CONH2 CH3O(OH)C6H3CO2H CH3O(OH)C6H3CH2OH [(C2H5)2NCS]2S2 CH3O(OH)C6H3CHO C6H4(OCH3)2 CH3CO2CH:CH2 (CH3CO2CH:CH2)x CH2:CH⋅CH2CO2H CH2:CH⋅C:CH CH2:CHOH (CH2:CHOH)x CH2:CHCl C2H5CO2CH:CH2 C6H4(CH3)2 C6H4(CH3)2 C6H4(CH3)2 (CH3)2C6H3SO3H⋅2H2O (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 CH2OH(CHOH)3CHO C6H4(CH2Cl)2 Zn(CH2CH3)2 Zn(CH3)2 Zn[S2CN(CH3)2]2

213 .10 257 .11 297 .26 263 .16 263 .16 263 .16 229 .10 227 .13 227 .13 227 .13 242 .36 306 .23 260 .33 287 .36 244 .33 243 .32 326 .28 143 .27 156 .31 60 .06 123 .07 168 .11 102 .13 102 .13 86 .13 86 .13 101 .15 101 .15 168 .15 154 .16 296 .54 152 .15 138 .16 86 .09 (86 .09) 86 .09 52 .07 44 .05 (44 .05) 62 .50 100 .12 106 .17 106 .17 106 .17 222 .26 121 .18 121 .18 121 .18 121 .18 121 .18 121 .18 150 .13 175 .06 123 .53 95 .48 305 .84

col. rhb. rhb./aq. nd./al. rhb. cr./al. yel. cr. nd. cr. yel. pl. cr./al. pl./al. pl. cr. rhb./al. cr. col. cr. pr./al. col. lq. col . lq . col . pr . col . mn . cr . col . lq . col . lq . lq . col . lq . mn . pl . mn . nd ./aq . mn ./aq . cr . mn . cr . col . lq . col . lq . gas gas lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lq . col . lf . lq . pr . lq . lq . oil oil nd . mn . col . lq . col . lq .

1.688 20/4

1.620 20/4 1.620 20/4 1.654 1.199 85/4 1.306 1.188 20/4 1.13 1.014 99/4 1.206 58/4 0.757 20/4 0 .741 20/4 1 .335 20/4 1 .893 20 0 .939 20/4 0 .931 20/20 0 .819 11 0 .803 17 1 .023 0 .965 20/4 1 .17 1 .056 1 .091 15/15 0 .932 20/4 1 .1920 1 .013 15/15 0 .705 1 .5 1 .320 0 .908 25/25 20/4

0 .881 0 .867 17/4 0 .861 20/4 0 .991 15 1 .076 17 .5 0 .980 15 0 .978 20/4 0 .972 20/4 0 .979 21/4 1 .535 0 1 .417 0 1 .182 18 1 .386 11 2 .0040/4

121 210–20 d. 110 122–3 218–9 148–9 117–8 112 104 80.8 76 59–60 162.5 144–5 93.4 145–7 49–50 −93.5 −25 .6 132 .7 152 d . d . −34 .5 −37 .6 −92 −51 106 135–7 207 115 70 81–2 22 .5 < −60 100–25 −39 d . >200 −160 −25 −47 .4 13 .2 86 < −15 49–50

15 .5 153–4 100 .5 −28 −40 248–50

d.

expl. expl. expl. d. >360 >360 d. 359754 d. 24511 156.5 194 .5 d . 187 176 103 .4 92 .5 232 subl . d . 285 207 .1 72–3 163 5 .5 −12 93–5 144 139 .3 138 .5 1490 .1 223 224–6 216–7 213–4 221–2 215789 240–5 d . 118 46

0.0315 2.0524 i. i. 0.02100 i. s. h. i. i. 0.0120 0.315 i. i. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. i . 10017 v . s . h . 0 .06 h . 3 .316 4 .220 v . sl . s . sl . s . v . s . s . 0 .1214 v . s . h . i . 114 v . sl . s . 220 i . s . 0 .670 .6 s . sl . s . v . sl . s . i . i . i . s . v . sl . s . v . sl . s . v . sl . s . v . sl . s . v . sl . s . v . sl . s . 11720 i . d . d . i .

1.918

1.518

sl. s. s. 0.0523 0.1119 v. s. sl. s. c. s. h. 1.522 50 s. v. s. 40 v. s. h. sl. s. h. 15525 ∞ ∞ 2020 s . i . ∞ ∞ s . s . v . s . s . v . s . v . s .

s.

i . ∞ ∞ s . s . v . s . s . v . s . v . s .

v . s . s . ∞

v . s . s . ∞





s .

v . s .

s . s . s .

∞ ∞ v . s .

s .

s .

v . sl . s . s . d . d .

i . v . sl . s .

0.1315 0.419 v. s. s. v. s. 533 6.615 v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ sl . s .

2-45

2-46

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

VAPOR PRESSURES VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTAnCES

TABLE 2-3 Vapor Pressure of Water Ice from 0 to -40çC Vapor pressure t, °C 0 −0 .5 −1 .0 −1 .5 −2 .0 −2 .5 −3 .0 −3 .5 −4 .0 −4 .5 −5 .0 −5 .5 −6 .0 −6 .5 −7 .0 −7 .5 −8 .0 −8 .5 −9 .0 −9 .5 −10 .0 −10 .5 −11 .0 −11 .5 −12 .0 −12 .5 −13 .0

Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure

mmHg

kPa

t, °C

mmHg

kPa

t, °C

mmHg

kPa

4 .584 4 .399 4 .220 4 .049 3 .883 3 .724 3 .571 3 .423 3 .281 3 .145 3 .013 2 .887 2 .766 2 .649 2 .537 2 .429 2 .325 2 .225 2 .130 2 .038 1 .949 1 .865 1 .783 1 .705 1 .630 1 .558 1 .489

0 .6112 0 .5865 0 .5627 0 .5398 0 .5177 0 .4965 0 .4761 0 .4564 0 .4375 0 .4193 0 .4018 0 .3849 0 .3687 0 .3532 0 .3382 0 .3238 0 .3100 0 .2967 0 .2839 0 .2717 0 .2599 0 .2486 0 .2377 0 .2273 0 .2173 0 .2077 0 .1985

−13 .5 −14 .0 −14 .5 −15 .0 −15 .5 −16 .0 −16 .5 −17 .0 −17 .5 −18 .0 −18 .5 −19 .0 −19 .5 −20 .0 −20 .5 −21 .0 −21 .5 −22 .0 −22 .5 −23 .0 −23 .5 −24 .0 −24 .5 −25 .0 −25 .5 −26 .0 −26 .5

1 .423 1 .359 1 .298 1 .240 1 .184 1 .130 1 .079 1 .029 0 .9822 0 .9370 0 .8937 0 .8522 0 .8125 0 .7745 0 .7381 0 .7034 0 .6701 0 .6383 0 .6078 0 .5787 0 .5509 0 .5243 0 .4989 0 .4747 0 .4515 0 .4294 0 .4083

0 .1897 0 .1812 0 .1731 0 .1653 0 .1578 0 .1507 0 .1438 0 .1372 0 .1310 0 .1249 0 .1191 0 .1136 0 .1083 0 .1033 0 .09841 0 .09377 0 .08934 0 .08510 0 .08104 0 .07716 0 .07345 0 .06991 0 .06652 0 .06329 0 .06020 0 .05725 0 .05443

−27 .0 −27 .5 −28 .0 −28 .5 −29 .0 −29 .5 −30 .0 −30 .5 −31 .0 −31 .5 −32 .0 −32 .5 −33 .0 −33 .5 −34 .0 −34 .5 −35 .0 −35 .5 −36 .0 −36 .5 −37 .0 −37 .5 −38 .0 −38 .5 −39 .0 −39 .5 −40 .0

0 .3881 0 .3688 0 .3505 0 .3330 0 .3162 0 .3003 0 .2851 0 .2706 0 .2568 0 .2437 0 .2311 0 .2192 0 .2078 0 .1970 0 .1867 0 .1769 0 .1676 0 .1587 0 .1503 0 .1423 0 .1347 0 .1274 0 .1206 0 .1140 0 .1078 0 .1019 0 .0963

0 .05174 0 .04918 0 .04673 0 .04439 0 .04216 0 .04004 0 .03801 0 .03608 0 .03424 0 .03249 0 .03082 0 .02923 0 .02771 0 .02627 0 .02490 0 .02359 0 .02235 0 .02116 0 .02004 0 .01897 0 .01796 0 .01699 0 .01607 0 .01520 0 .01437 0 .01359 0 .01284

source: Formulation of Wagner, Saul, and Pruss, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 23, 515 (1994), implemented in Harvey, Peskin, and Klein, NIST/ASME Steam Properties, NIST Standard Reference Database 10, Version 2 .2, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md ., 2000 . This source provides data down to 190 K (−83 .15°C) . A formula extending to 110 K may be found in Murphy and Koop, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 1539 (2005) . TABLE 2-4 Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Liquid Water from 0 to -40çC* Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure

t, °C

mmHg

kPa

t, °C

mmHg

kPa

t, °C

mmHg

kPa

0 −0.5 −1.0 −1.5 −2.0 −2.5 −3.0 −3.5 −4.0 −4.5 −5.0 −5.5 −6.0 −6.5 −7.0 −7.5 −8.0 −8.5 −9.0 −9.5 −10.0 −10.5 −11.0 −11.5 −12.0 −12.5 −13.0

4.584 4.421 4.262 4.108 3.959 3.816 3.676 3.542 3.411 3.285 3.163 3.046 2.932 2.822 2.715 2.612 2.513 2.417 2.324 2.235 2.149 2.065 1.985 1.907 1.832 1.760 1.690

0.6112 0.5894 0.5682 0.5477 0.5279 0.5087 0.4901 0.4722 0.4548 0.4380 0.4218 0.4061 0.3909 0.3762 0.3620 0.3483 0.3351 0.3223 0.3099 0.2980 0.2865 0.2753 0.2646 0.2542 0.2442 0.2346 0.2253

−13.5 −14.0 −14.5 −15.0 −15.5 −16.0 −16.5 −17.0 −17.5 −18.0 −18.5 −19.0 −19.5 −20.0 −20.5 −21.0 −21.5 −22.0 −22.5 −23.0 −23.5 −24.0 −24.5 −25.0 −25.5 −26.0 −26.5

1.623 1.558 1.495 1.435 1.377 1.321 1.267 1.215 1.165 1.117 1.070 1.026 0.9827 0.9414 0.9016 0.8633 0.8265 0.7911 0.7571 0.7244 0.6930 0.6628 0.6337 0.6059 0.5791 0.5534 0.5288

0.2163 0.2077 0.1993 0.1913 0.1836 0.1761 0.1689 0.1620 0.1553 0.1489 0.1427 0.1367 0.1310 0.1255 0.1202 0.1151 0.1102 0.1055 0.1009 0.0965 0.0923 0.08836 0.08449 0.08078 0.07721 0.07379 0.07050

−27.0 −27.5 −28.0 −28.5 −29.0 −29.5 −30.0 −30.5 −31.0 −31.5 −32.0 −32.5 −33.0 −33.5 −34.0 −34.5 −35.0 −35.5 −36.0 −36.5 −37.0 −37.5 −38.0 −38.5 −39.0 −39.5 −40.0

0.5051 0.4824 0.4606 0.4397 0.4197 0.4005 0.3820 0.3644 0.3475 0.3313 0.3158 0.3009 0.2867 0.2731 0.2600 0.2476 0.2356 0.2242 0.2133 0.2029 0.1929 0.1834 0.1743 0.1656 0.1573 0.1494 0.1419

0.06734 0.06431 0.06141 0.05862 0.05595 0.05339 0.05094 0.04858 0.04633 0.04417 0.04210 0.04012 0.03822 0.03640 0.03467 0.03300 0.03141 0.02989 0.02844 0.02705 0.02572 0.02445 0.02324 0.02208 0.02098 0.01992 0.01891

∗source: Murphy and Koop, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 1552 (2005) . The formula in the reference extends down to 123 K (−150 .15°C), although in practice pure liquid water cannot be supercooled below about 235 K .

Unit Conversions For this subsection, the following unit conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5°C + 32 . To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 0 .01934 . To convert cubic feet to cubic meters, multiply by 0 .02832 . To convert bars to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 14 .504 . To convert bars to kilopascals, multiply by 1 × 102 . Additional References Additional vapor-pressure data may be found in major thermodynamic property databases, such as those produced by the AIChE’s DIPPR program (aiche .org/dippr), NIST’s Thermodynamics Research Center (trc .nist .gov), the Dortmund Databank (ddbst .de), and the Physical Property Data Service (ppds .co .uk) . Additional sources include the NIST Chemistry Webbook (webbook .nist .gov/chemistry/); Boublik, T ., V . Fried, and E . Hala, The Vapor Pressures of Pure Substances, 2d ed ., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984; Bruce Poling, JohnPrausnitz, and John O’Connell, The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 5th ed ., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001; Vapor Pressure of Chemicals (subvolumes A, B, and C), vol . IV/20 in Landolt-Bornstein: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology—New Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999–2001 . The most recent work on water may be found at The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam website http:// iapws .org . TABLE 2-5 Vapor Pressure (MPa) of Liquid Water from 0 to 100çC t, °C 0 .01 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Pvp, MPa

t, °C

Pvp, MPa

t, °C

Pvp, MPa

0 .00061165 0 .00065709 0 .00070599 0 .00075808 0 .00081355 0 .00087258 0 .00093536 0 .0010021 0 .0010730 0 .0011483 0 .0012282 0 .0013130 0 .0014028 0 .0014981 0 .0015990 0 .0017058 0 .0018188 0 .0019384 0 .0020647 0 .0021983 0 .0023393 0 .0024882 0 .0026453 0 .0028111 0 .0029858 0 .0031699 0 .0033639 0 .0035681 0 .0037831 0 .0040092 0 .0042470 0 .0044969 0 .0047596 0 .0050354

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67

0 .0053251 0 .0056290 0 .0059479 0 .0062823 0 .0066328 0 .0070002 0 .0073849 0 .0077878 0 .0082096 0 .0086508 0 .0091124 0 .0095950 0 .010099 0 .010627 0 .011177 0 .011752 0 .012352 0 .012978 0 .013631 0 .014312 0 .015022 0 .015762 0 .016533 0 .017336 0 .018171 0 .019041 0 .019946 0 .020888 0 .021867 0 .022885 0 .023943 0 .025042 0 .026183 0 .027368

68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

0 .028599 0 .029876 0 .031201 0 .032575 0 .034000 0 .035478 0 .037009 0 .038595 0 .040239 0 .041941 0 .043703 0 .045527 0 .047414 0 .049367 0 .051387 0 .053476 0 .055635 0 .057867 0 .060173 0 .062556 0 .065017 0 .067558 0 .070182 0 .072890 0 .075684 0 .078568 0 .081541 0 .084608 0 .087771 0 .091030 0 .094390 0 .097852 0 .10142

From E . W . Lemmon, M . O . McLinden, and D . G . Friend, “ Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems” in NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, Eds . P . J . Linstrom and W . G . Mallard, June 2005, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md . (http://webbook .nist .gov) and Wagner, W ., and A ., Pruss, “The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 31(2):387–535, 2002 . The website mentioned above allows users to generate their own tables of thermodynamic properties . The user can select the units as well as the temperatures and/or pressures for which properties are to be generated . The results can then be copied into spreadsheets or other files .

VAPOR PRESSURES TABLE 2-6 Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-22, 2-32, 2-69, 2-72, 2-74, 2-75, 2-95, 2-106, 2-139, 2-140, 2-146, and 2-148 Sorted by Chemical Family Name

Cmpd. no.

Formula

Paraffins Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane Undecane Dodecane Tridecane Tetradecane Pentadecane Hexadecane Heptadecane Octadecane Nonadecane Eicosane 2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane Cyclopropane Cyclobutane Cyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane

193 125 295 31 279 171 160 265 256 74 336 123 327 319 277 169 158 263 254 124 236 202 107 234 114 323 332 333 71 64 69 65 217 134 213 108 109 110 133

CH4 C2H6 C 3H 8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C 3H 6 C 4H 8 C5H10 C6H12 C6H12 C7H14 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16

135 305 36 37 38 70 285 68 177 166 271 260 77 238 205 206 218 219 298 294 29 30 201

C 2H 4 C 3H 6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H8 C5H10 C6H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C6H10 C6H10 C9H14 C3H4 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8

7 43 288 289 178 180 181 168

C2H2 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C7H12

Olefins Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Cyclopentene 1-Pentene Cyclohexene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene 1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methyl propene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Propenylcyclohexene Propadiene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene Acetylenes Acetylene 1-Butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne 3-Hexyne 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 1-Heptyne

Name

Cmpd. no.

Formula

Acetylenes 1-Octyne 1-Nonyne 1-Decyne Methyl acetylene Vinyl acetylene Dimethyl acetylene 2-Methyl -1-butene-3-yne 3-Methyl-1-butyne

273 262 79 197 339 105 207 210

C8H14 C9H16 C10H18 C3H4 C4H4 C4H6 C5H6 C5H8

16 325 312 129 343 344 345 243 62 304 330 331 246 321 40 24 290 318

C6H6 C7H8 C8H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H8 C10H12 C10H14 C12H10 C14H10 C18H14

153 1 299 44 278 170 159 264 255 73

CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O

8 5 222 229 283 284 310 67 144 175 176 226 102 164 165 269 270 20

C3H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10O C6H4O2 C6H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C8H16O C8H16O C13H10O

156 324 320 322

C4H4O C4H4S C4H8O C4H8S

14 25 52 80 149

Ar Br2 Cl2 D2 F2

Aromatics Benzene Toluene Styrene Ethylbenzene m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene alpha-Methyl styrene Cumene Propylbenzene 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Naphthalene 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Butylbenzene Biphenyl Phenanthrene o-Terphenyl Aldehydes Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Propionaldehyde Butyraldehyde Pentanal Hexanal Heptanal Octanal Nonanal Decanal Ketones Acrolein Acetone Methylethyl ketone Methylisopropyl ketone 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone Quinone Cyclohexanone Ethylisopropyl ketone 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone Methylisobutyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 2-Octanone 3-Octanone Benzophenone Heterocyclics Furan Thiophene Tetrahydrofuran Tetrahydrothiophene Elements Argon Bromine Chlorine Deuterium Fluorine

(Continued )

2-47

2-48

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-6 Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-22, 2-32, 2-69, 2-72, 2-74, 2-75, 2-95, 2-106, 2-139, 2-140, 2-146, and 2-148 Sorted by Chemical Family (Continued ) Name

Cmpd. no.

Formula

Elements Hydrogen Helium-4 Nitrogen Neon Oxygen

183 157 249 247 275

H2 He N2 Ne O2

194 126 296 297 34 35 281 282 66 173 174 162 163 267 268 258 259 76 337 237 204 21 214 215 216 137 309 32 33

CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C6H12O C6H14O C6H14O C7H16O C7H16O C8H18O C8H18O C9H20O C9H20O C10H22O C11H24O C4H10O C5H12O C7H8O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C2H6O2 C3H8O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O2

291 59 60 61

C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O

112 245 221 120 95 240 228 103 208 225 244 147 143 104 101 235 13 84 142 22 121

C2H6O C3H6O C3H8O C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C7H8O C8H18O C8H18O C9H12O C12H10O

155 274 3 9 191 300

CH2O2 C2H2O4 C2H4O2 C3H4O2 C3H4O4 C3H6O2

Alcohols Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 2-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol Cyclohexanol 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Decanol 1-Undecanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol Benzyl alcohol 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol Phenols Phenol m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Ethers Dimethyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Methylethyl ether 1,4-Dioxane Diethyl ether Methylpropyl ether Methylisopropyl ether 1,1-Dimethoxyethane Methylbutyl ether Methylisobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether Ethylpropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Di-isopropyl ether Methyl pentyl ether Anisole Dibutyl ether Ethylhexyl ether Benzyl ethyl ether Diphenyl ether Acids Formic acid Oxalic acid Acetic acid Acrylic acid Malonic acid Propionic acid

Name

Cmpd. no.

Formula

Methacrylic acid Acetic anhydride Succinic acid Butyric acid Isobutyric acid 2-Methylbutanoic acid Pentanoic acid 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Hexanoic acid Benzoic acid Heptanoic acid Phthalic anhydride Terephthalic acid 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Octanoic acid 2-Methyloctanoic acid Nonanoic acid Decanoic acid

192 4 313 45 189 203 280 131 172 18 161 293 317 141 266 233 257 75

C4H6O2 C4H6O3 C4H6O4 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C7H6O2 C7H14O2 C8H4O3 C8H6O4 C8H16O2 C8H16O2 C9H18O2 C9H18O2 C10H20O2

224 140 196 198 338 127 239 306 232 146 211 302 39 132 200 130 115 119

C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C3H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C5H8O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C10H10O4 C10H10O4

199 138 106 128 136 190 303 329 94 93 100 122 328

CH5N C2H5N C2H7N C2H7N C2H8N2 C3H9N C3H9N C3H9N C4H11N C4H11NO2 C6H15N C6H15N C6H15N

154 2 113 195 15

CH3NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C3H7NO C7H7NO

6 63 10 301 46 19

C2H3N C2N2 C3H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N

251 248

CH3NO2 C2H5NO2

Acids

Esters Methyl formate Ethyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl acrylate Vinyl acetate Ethyl acetate Methyl propionate Propyl formate Methyl methacrylate Ethyl propionate Methyl butyrate Propyl acetate Butyl acetate Ethyl butyrate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Dimethyl phthalate Dimethyl terephthalate Amines Methyl amine Ethyleneimine Dimethyl amine Ethyl amine Ethylenediamine Isopropyl amine Propyl amine Trimethyl amine Diethyl amine Diethanol amine Di-isopropyl amine Dipropyl amine Triethyl amine Amides Formamide Acetamide N,N-Dimethyl formamide N-Methyl acetamide Benzamide Nitriles Acetonitrile Cyanogen Acrylonitrile Propionitrile Butyronitrile Benzonitrile Nitro Compounds Nitromethane Nitroethane

VAPOR PRESSURES

2-49

TABLE 2-6 Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-22, 2-32, 2-69, 2-72, 2-74, 2-75, 2-95, 2-106, 2-139, 2-140, 2-146, and 2-148 Sorted by Chemical Family (Continued ) Name

Cmpd. no.

Formula

1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

334 335

C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6

227 292

C2H3NO C7H5NO

231 145 308 307 41 42 287 286 17 72 179 23 167 272 261 78

CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C5H12S C5H12S C6H6S C6H12S C6H14S C7H8S C7H16S C8H18S C9H20S C10H22S

117 111 223 96 230 241 209

C2H6S C2H6S2 C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C5H12S

50 51 55 83 90 99 28 56 152 340 326 81 82 88

CCl4 CF4 CHCl3 CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 CH2F2 CH3Br CH3Cl CH3F C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Cl2

Isocyanates Methyl isocyanate Phenyl isocyanate Mercaptans Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 2-Propyl mercaptan Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 2-Pentyl mercaptan Benzenethiol Cyclohexyl mercaptan Hexyl mercaptan Benzyl mercaptan Heptyl mercaptan Octyl mercaptan Nonyl mercaptan Decyl mercaptan Sulfides Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl disulfide Methylethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide Methylisopropyl sulfide Methylpropyl sulfide Methylbutyl sulfide

Cmpd. no.

Formula

1,2-Dichloroethane 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Bromoethane Chloroethane Fluoroethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene Bromobenzene Chlorobenzene Fluorobenzene

89 97 98 27 54 151 91 92 57 58 85 86 87 26 53 150

C2H4Cl2 C2H4F2 C2H4F2 C2H5Br C2H5Cl C2H5F C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H5Br C6H5Cl C6H5F

242 212 220 341 148 116 311

CH6Si CH5ClSi CH4Cl2Si C2H3Cl3Si C2H5Cl3Si C2H8Si F4Si

186 49 47 48 250 315 184 185 187 188 12 182 253 252 314 276 316

CHN CO CO2 CS2 F3N F6S HBr HCl HF H2S H3N H4N2 NO N2 O O2 S O3 O3 S

11 139 118 342

Mixture C2H4O C2H6OS H2O

Silanes Methylsilane Methylchlorosilane Methyldichlorosilane Vinyl trichlorosilane Ethyltrichlorosilane Dimethylsilane Silicon tetrafluoride Light Gases

Halogenated Hydrocarbons Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chloroform Dibromomethane Dichloromethane Difluoromethane Bromomethane Chloromethane Fluoromethane Vinyl chloride 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane 1,1-Dichloroethane

Name Halogenated Hydrocarbons

Nitro Compounds

Hydrogen cyanide Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Nitrogen trifluoride Sulfur hexafluoride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Ammonia Hydrazine Nitric oxide Nitrous oxide Sulfur dioxide Ozone Sulfur trioxide Others Air Ethylene oxide Dimethyl sulfoxide Water

2-50

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-7 Formula Index of Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-22, 2-32, 2-69, 2-72, 2-74, 2-75, 2-95, 2-106, 2-139, 2-140, 2-146, and 2-148 Formula

No.

Name

Ar Br2 CCl4 CF4 CHCl3 CHN CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 CH2F2 CH2O CH2O2 CH3Br CH3Cl CH3F CH3NO CH3NO2 CH4 CH4Cl2Si CH4O CH4S CH5ClSi CH5N CH6Si CO CO2 CS2 C2H2 C2H2O4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3 C2H3Cl3Si C2H3N C2H3NO C2H4 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4F2 C2H4F2 C2H4O C2H4O C2H4O2 C2H4O2 C2H5Br C2H5Cl C2H5Cl3Si C2H5F C2H5N C2H5NO C2H5NO2 C2H6 C2H6O C2H6O C2H6O2 C2H6OS C2H6S C2H6S C2H6S2 C2H7N C2H7N C2H8N2 C2H8Si C2N2 C3H3N C3H4 C3H4 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H4O4 C3H5N C3H6 C3H6 C3H6Cl2

11 14 25 50 51 55 186 83 90 99 153 155 28 56 152 154 251 193 220 194 231 212 199 242 49 47 48 7 274 340 326 341 6 227 135 81 82 88 89 97 98 1 139 3 224 27 54 148 151 138 2 248 125 112 126 137 118 117 145 111 106 128 136 116 63 10 197 294 8 9 191 301 71 305 91

Air Argon Bromine Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chloroform Hydrogen cyanide Dibromomethane Dichloromethane Difluoromethane Formaldehyde Formic acid Bromomethane Chloromethane Fluoromethane Formamide Nitromethane Methane Methyldichlorosilane Methanol Methyl mercaptan Methylchlorosilane Methyl amine Methylsilane Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Acetylene Oxalic acid Vinyl chloride 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Vinyl trichlorosilane Acetonitrile Methyl Isocyanate Ethylene 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Acetaldehyde Ethylene oxide Acetic acid Methyl formate Bromoethane Chloroethane Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluoroethane Ethyleneimine Acetamide Nitroethane Ethane Dimethyl ether Ethanol Ethylene glycol Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl sulfide Ethyl mercaptan Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl amine Ethyl amine Ethylenediamine Dimethylsilane Cyanogen Acrylonitrile Methyl acetylene Propadiene Acrolein Acrylic acid Malonic acid Propionitrile Cyclopropane Propylene 1,1-Dichloropropane

Formula

No.

Name

C3H6Cl2 C3H6O C3H6O C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H6O2 C3H6O2 C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H7NO C3H7NO C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C3H8O C3H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8S C3H9N C3H9N C3H9N C4H4 C4H4O C4H4S C4H6 C4H6 C4H6 C4H6 C4H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H6O3 C4H6O4 C4H7N C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8O C4H8O C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8S C4H10 C4H10 C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C4H11N C4H11NO2 C5H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8O2

92 5 245 299 140 196 300 57 58 113 195 295 221 296 297 309 223 308 307 190 303 329 339 156 324 29 30 43 105 192 198 338 4 313 46 36 37 38 64 238 44 222 320 45 120 127 189 239 306 322 31 236 34 35 95 237 240 228 32 33 103 41 42 96 230 241 94 93 207 70 201 210 288 289 232

1,2-Dichloropropane Acetone Methyl vinyl ether Propionaldehyde Ethyl formate Methyl acetate Propionic acid 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane N,N-Dimethyl formamide N-Methyl acetamide Propane Methylethyl ether 1-Propanol 2-Propanol 1,2-Propylene glycol Methylethyl sulfide Propyl mercaptan 2-Propyl mercaptan Isopropyl amine Propyl amine Trimethyl amine Vinyl acetylene Furan Thiophene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 1-Butyne Dimethyl acetylene Methacrylic acid Methyl acrylate Vinyl acetate Acetic anhydride Succinic acid Butyronitrile 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Cyclobutane 2-Methyl propene Butyraldehyde Methylethyl ketone Tetrahydrofuran Butyric acid 1,4-Dioxane Ethyl acetate Isobutyric acid Methyl propionate Propyl formate Tetrahydrothiophene Butane 2-Methylpropane 1-Butanol 2-Butanol Diethyl ether 2-Methyl-2-propanol Methylpropyl ether Methylisopropyl ether 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1,1-Dimethoxyethane Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Diethyl sulfide Methylisopropyl sulfide Methylpropyl sulfide Diethyl amine Diethanol amine 2-Methyl-1-butene-3-yne Cyclopentene 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Methyl methacrylate

VAPOR PRESSURES

2-51

TABLE 2-7 Formula Index of Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-22, 2-32, 2-69, 2-72, 2-74, 2-75, 2-95, 2-106, 2-139, 2-140, 2-146, and 2-148 (Continued ) Formula

No.

Name

C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H12 C5H12 C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O2 C5H12S C5H12S C5H12S C6H3N3O6 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4O2 C6H5Br C6H5Cl C6H5F C6H6 C6H6O C6H6S C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10O C6H12 C6H12 C6H12 C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C6H12S C6H14 C6H14 C6H14 C6H14O C6H14O C6H14O C6H14O C6H14S C6H15N C6H15N C6H15N C7H5N C7H5N3O6 C7H5NO C7H6O2 C7H7NO

69 205 206 285 229 278 283 284 146 203 211 280 302 202 279 143 147 204 208 225 244 281 282 104 209 286 287 334 85 86 87 310 26 53 150 16 291 17 218 68 178 180 181 219 67 65 177 217 66 144 170 175 176 226 39 131 132 172 72 107 171 234 101 173 174 235 179 100 122 328 19 335 292 18 15

Cyclopentane 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1-Pentene Methylisopropyl ketone Pentanal 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone Ethyl propionate 2-Methylbutanoic acid Methyl butyrate Pentanoic acid Propyl acetate 2-Methylbutane Pentane Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylpropyl ether 3-Methyl-1-butanol Methylbutyl ether Methylisobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Methylbutyl sulfide 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene Quinone Bromobenzene Chlorobenzene Fluorobenzene Benzene Phenol Benzenethiol 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene 3-Hexyne 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexanone Cyclohexane 1-Hexene Methylcyclopentane Cyclohexanol Ethylisopropyl ketone Hexanal 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone Methylisobutyl ketone Butyl acetate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Hexanoic acid Cyclohexyl mercaptan 2,3-Dimethylbutane Hexane 2-Methylpentane Di-isopropyl ether 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol Methyl pentyl ether Hexyl mercaptan Di-isopropyl amine Dipropyl amine Triethyl amine Benzonitrile 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Phenyl isocyanate Benzoic acid Benzamide

Formula C7H8 C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8S C7H12 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O2 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16O C7H16O C7H16S C8H4O3 C8H6O4 C8H8 C8H8O2 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16O2 C8H16O2 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18O C8H18O C8H18O C8H18O C8H18S C9H10 C9H10O2 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12O C9H14 C9H16 C9H18 C9H18O C9H18O2 C9H18O2 C9H20 C9H20O C9H20O C9H20S C10H8 C10H10O4 C10H10O4 C10H12 C10H14 C10H18

No.

Name

325 13 21 59 60 61 23 168 134 166 213 102 159 164 165 214 215 216 161 114 160 162 163 167 293 317 312 200 129 343 344 345 273 108 109 110 133 271 264 269 270 141 266 265 323 332 333 84 142 267 268 272 243 130 62 304 330 331 22 298 262 260 255 233 257 256 258 259 261 246 115 119 321 40 79

Toluene Anisole Benzyl alcohol m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Benzyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Ethylcyclopentane 1-Heptene Methylcyclohexane Di-isopropyl ketone Heptanal 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Heptanoic acid 2,3-Dimethylpentane Heptane 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol Heptyl mercaptan Phthalic anhydride Terephthalic acid Styrene Methyl benzoate Ethylbenzene m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene 1-Octyne 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane 1-Octene Octanal 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Octanoic acid Octane 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane Dibutyl ether Ethylhexyl ether 1-Octanol 2-Octanol Octyl mercaptan alpha-Methyl styrene Ethyl benzoate Cumene Propylbenzene 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Benzyl ethyl ether Propenylcyclohexene 1-Nonyne 1-Nonene Nonanal 2-Methyloctanoic acid Nonanoic acid Nonane 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol Nonyl mercaptan Naphthalene Dimethyl phthalate Dimethyl terephthalate 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Butylbenzene 1-Decyne (Continued )

2-52

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-7 Formula Index of Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-22, 2-32, 2-69, 2-72, 2-74, 2-75, 2-95, 2-106, 2-139, 2-140, 2-146, and 2-148 (Continued ) Formula

No.

Name

Formula

No.

Name

C10H20 C10H20O C10H20O2 C10H22 C10H22O C10H22S C11H24 C11H24O C12H10 C12H10O C12H26 C13H10O C13H28 C14H10 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H14 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 Cl2

77 73 75 74 76 78 336 337 24 121 123 20 327 290 319 277 169 158 318 263 254 124 52

1-Decene Decanal Decanoic acid Decane 1-Decanol Decyl mercaptan Undecane 1-Undecanol Biphenyl Diphenyl ether Dodecane Benzophenone Tridecane Phenanthrene Tetradecane Pentadecane Hexadecane Heptadecane o-Terphenyl Octadecane Nonadecane Eicosane Chlorine

D2 F2 F3N F4Si F6S HBr HCl HF H2 H2O H2S H3N H4N2 He NO N2 N2O Ne O2 O2S O3 O3S

80 149 250 311 315 184 185 187 183 342 188 12 182 157 253 249 252 247 275 314 276 316

Deuterium Fluorine Nitrogen trifluoride Silicon tetrafluoride Sulfur hexafluoride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen Water Hydrogen sulfide Ammonia Hydrazine Helium-4 Nitric oxide Nitrogen Nitrous oxide Neon Oxygen Sulfur dioxide Ozone Sulfur trioxide

TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids, ln P = C1 + C2/T + C3 ln T + C4 T C5, P in Pa, T in K Cmpd. no.∗ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia Anisole Argon Benzamide Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Cresol o-Cresol

Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O Ar C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO CCl4 CF4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O C7H8O

CAS

C1

75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 7440-37-1 55-21-0 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0 124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0 56-23-5 75-73-0 7782-50-5 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6 108-39-4 95-48-7

52.9107 125.8 1 53.27 67.1818 69.006 46.735 39.63 138.4 46.745 57.3157 21.662 90.483 128.06 42.127 85.474 83.107 77.765 88.513 55.0403 88.404 100.68 68.541 118.02 77.314 108.26 63.749 57.3242 44.7643 39.714 75.572 66.343 103.28 123.22 106.29483 122.552 51.836 72.541 71.704 122.82 101.22 65.382 60.649 77.004 51.648 78.1171 60.6576 47.0169 67.114 45.698 78.441 61.89 71.334 54.144 44.677 146.43 44.555 58.3592 46.854 95.403 210.88

C2 −4643.14 −12,376 −6304.5 −7463.47 −5599.6 −5126.18 −2552.2 −7122.7 −6587.1 −5662.2 −692.39 −4669.7 −9307.7 −1093.1 −11,932 −6486.2 −8455.1 −11,829 −7363.83 −11,769 −11,059 −7886.2 −10,527 −9910.4 −6592 −7130.2 −4931.2 −3907.8 −3769.9 −4621.9 −4363.2 −11,548 −12,620 −9866.35511 −10,236.2 −4019.2 −4691.2 −4563.1 −9253.2 −9255.4 −6262.4 −5785.9 −5054.5 −5301.36 −8924.37 −6404.32 −2839 −4820.4 −1076.6 −6128.1 −2296.3 −3855 −6244.4 −4026 −7792.3 −3521.3 −5111.33 −4445.5 −10,581 −13,928

C3 −4.50683 −14.589 −4.2985 −6.24388 −7.0985 −3.54064 −2.78 −19.638 −3.2208 −5.06221 −0.39208 −11.607 −16.693 −4.1425 −8.3348 −9.2194 −7.7404 −8.6826 −4.50612 −8.9014 −10.709 −6.5804 −13.91 −7.5079 −14.16 −5.879 −5.2244 −3.4016 −2.6407 −8.5323 −7.046 −10.925 −13.986 −11.6553 −14.125 −4.5229 −7.9776 −7.9053 −14.99 −11.538 −6.2585 −5.6113 −8.5665 −4.2559 −7.59929 −5.49286 −3.86388 −7.5303 −4.8814 −8.5766 −7.086 −8.5171 −4.5343 −3.371 −20.614 −3.4258 −5.35261 −3.6533 −10.004 −29.483

C4 2.70E-17 5.0824E-06 8.89E-18 6.86E-18 6.2237E-06 1.40E-17 2.39E-16 0.026447 5.2253E-07 1.51E-17 0.0047574 0.017194 0.014919 0.000057254 1.29E-18 6.9844E-06 4.31E-18 2.32E-19 1.95E-18 1.93E-18 3.06E-18 2.4285E-06 6.4794E-06 2.24E-18 0.016043 5.21E-18 3.08E-17 2.95E-17 6.94E-18 0.000012269 9.4509E-06 4.26E-18 0.000003926 1.08E-17 2.36E-17 4.88E-17 0.000010368 0.000011319 0.00001047 5.9208E-06 1.49E-17 1.59E-17 0.000010161 1.14E-17 7.39E-18 1.13E-17 2.81E-16 0.0091695 0.000075673 6.8465E-06 0.000034687 0.012378 4.70E-18 2.27E-17 0.024578 5.63E-17 2.47E-17 1.33E-17 4.30E-18 0.025182

C5

Tmin, K

P at Tmin

6 2 6 6 2 6 6 1 2 6 1 1 1 2 6 2 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 6 1 6 6 6 6 2 2 6 2 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 6 6 2 6 6 6 6 1 2 2 2 1 6 6 1 6 6 6 6 1

149.78 353.33 289.81 200.15 178.45 229.32 192.4 185.45 286.15 189.63 59.15 195.41 235.65 83.78 403 278.68 258.27 395.45 260.28 321.35 257.85 275.65 243.95 342.2 265.85 242.43 154.25 179.44 136.95 164.25 134.86 220 196.15 183.85 158.45 87.8 134.26 167.62 199.65 185.3 157.46 133.02 147.43 176.8 267.95 161.3 216.58 161.11 68.15 250.33 89.56 172.12 227.95 136.75 207.15 175.45 150.35 155.97 285.39 304.19

5.15E-01 3.36E+02 1.28E+03 4.10E-02 2.79E+00 1.71E+02 1.27E+05 1.03E+01 2.57E+02 2.47E+00 5.64E+03 6.11E+03 2.45E+00 6.87E+04 3.55E+02 4.76E+03 7.68E+00 7.96E+02 5.40E+00 1.49E+00 1.88E-01 2.31E+01 2.98E-01 9.42E+01 5.85E+03 7.84E+00 3.80E-01 2.07E+02 4.47E-01 6.92E+01 6.74E-01 2.93E-04 3.74E-07 2.91E-04 1.24E-06 6.94E-07 2.72E-01 7.45E+01 8.17E-02 1.54E-04 2.35E-03 3.40E-05 1.18E+00 6.97E-01 1.03E+01 9.41E-04 5.18E+05 1.49E+00 1.54E+04 1.12E+03 1.08E+02 1.37E+03 8.45E+00 2.61E-01 5.25E+01 8.84E+02 8.47E-02 9.08E-01 5.86E+00 6.53E+01

Tmax, K 466 761 591.95 606 508.2 545.5 308.3 506 615 540 132.45 405.65 645.6 150.86 824 562.05 689 751 702.3 830 720.15 662 718 773 584.15 670.15 503.8 464 452 425 425.12 680 676 563.1 535.9 419.5 435.5 428.6 575.4 660.5 570.1 554 440 537.2 615.7 585.4 304.21 552 132.92 556.35 227.51 417.15 632.35 460.35 536.4 416.25 503.15 489 705.85 697.55

P at Tmax 5.570E+06 6.569E+06 5.739E+06 4.000E+06 4.709E+06 4.850E+06 6.106E+06 5.020E+06 5.661E+06 4.660E+06 3.793E+06 1.130E+07 4.273E+06 4.896E+06 5.047E+06 4.875E+06 4.728E+06 4.469E+06 4.215E+06 3.357E+06 4.372E+06 3.113E+06 4.074E+06 3.407E+06 1.028E+07 4.520E+06 5.565E+06 6.929E+06 4.361E+06 4.303E+06 3.770E+06 5.202E+06 4.033E+06 4.414E+06 4.190E+06 4.021E+06 4.238E+06 4.100E+06 3.087E+06 2.882E+06 3.973E+06 4.060E+06 4.599E+06 4.410E+06 4.060E+06 3.880E+06 7.384E+06 8.041E+06 3.494E+06 4.544E+06 3.742E+06 7.793E+06 4.529E+06 5.267E+06 5.554E+06 6.759E+06 4.425E+06 4.510E+06 4.522E+06 5.058E+06

2-53

(Continued )

2-54 TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids, ln P = C1 + C2/T + C3 ln T + C4 T C5, P in Pa, T in K (Continued ) Cmpd. no.∗

Name

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120

p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Di-sopropyl amine Di-sopropyl ether Di-sopropyl ketone 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane

Formula C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O C4H10O2 C5H12O2 C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2

CAS 106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0 110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0 534-15-6 7778-85-0 503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6 75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1

C1

C2

C3

118.53 102.81 39.0596 85.899 51.087 189.19 85.424 88.184 66.341 67.952 40.608 85.146 93.5742 112.73 126.405 156.23933 68.401 91.91 142.94 18.947 62.711 43.751 86.295 72.227 53.187 77.105 88.31 66.611 92.355 101.6 83.495 65.955 106.38 49.314 136.9 46.705 73.491 84.625 69.132 462.84 41.631 50.868 53.637 62.097 66.592 71.738 77.161 81.184 78.952 78.429 81.045 44.704 82.762 78.335 72.517 63.08 84.39 56.273 66.1795 44.494

−11,957 −8674.6 −3473.98 −4884.4 −5226.4 −14,337 −7944.4 −6624.9 −5198.5 −5187.5 −3179.6 −7843.7 −10,403.8 −9749.6 −14,864.6 −15,212.33492 −7776.9 −10,565 −11,119 −154.47 −6503.5 −5587.7 −7010.3 −7537.6 −6827.5 −8111.1 −8463.4 −5493.1 −6920.4 −6541.6 −6661.4 −6015.6 −13,714 −4949 −6954.3 −5177.4 −4385.9 −5217.4 −3847.7 −18,227 −4668.7 −6036.5 −5251.2 −6174.9 −4999.8 −5302 −5691.1 −6927 −7075.4 −6882.1 −6941.3 −3525.6 −7955.5 −6348.7 −10,415 −4062.3 −5740.6 −7620.6 −9870.41 −5406.7

−13.293 −11.922 −2.48683 −10.883 −4.2278 −24.148 −9.2862 −10.059 −6.8103 −7.0785 −2.8937 −9.2982 −9.79483 −13.245 −13.9067 −18.42393 −6.4637 −9.5957 −17.818 −0.57226 −5.7669 −3.0891 −9.5972 −7.0596 −4.3233 −7.8886 −9.6308 −6.7301 −10.651 −12.247 −9.2386 −6.5509 −11.06 −3.9256 −19.254 −3.5985 −8.1851 −9.871 −7.5868 −73.734 −2.8551 −4.066 −4.5649 −5.715 −6.8387 −7.3324 −8.501 −8.8498 −8.4344 −8.4129 −8.777 −3.4444 −8.8038 −8.5105 −6.755 −6.425 −9.6454 −4.6279 −5.85599 −3.1287

C4 8.70E-18 7.0048E-06 2.86E-17 0.014934 9.76E-18 0.00001074 4.9957E-06 8.2566E-06 0.000006193 6.8165E-06 5.61E-17 5.1788E-06 4.57E-18 7.1266E-06 2.51E-18 8.50E-18 6.38E-18 5.70E-18 0.00001102 0.038899 1.0427E-06 8.2664E-07 6.7794E-06 9.14E-18 2.31E-18 2.7267E-06 4.5833E-06 5.3579E-06 9.1426E-06 0.000012311 6.7652E-06 4.3172E-06 3.26E-18 9.20E-18 0.024508 1.7147E-06 0.000012978 0.00001305 0.000015065 0.092794 0.00063693 1.1326E-06 1.68E-17 1.23E-17 6.6793E-06 6.42E-17 8.0325E-06 0.000005458 4.5035E-06 4.9831E-06 5.5501E-06 5.46E-17 4.2431E-06 6.4311E-06 1.3269E-06 1.51E-16 0.000010073 4.3819E-07 1.47E-18 2.89E-18

C5

Tmin, K

P at Tmin

6 2 6 1 6 2 2 2 2 2 6 2 6 2 6 6 6 6 2 1 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 6 6 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 6 2 2 2 6 2 2 6 6

307.93 177.14 245.25 182.48 279.69 296.6 242 169.67 179.28 138.13 145.59 189.64 285 243.51 304.55 280.05 206.89 247.56 229.15 18.73 210.15 282.85 220.6 175.3 248.39 256.15 326.14 176.19 237.49 178.01 192.5 172.71 301.15 223.35 156.85 169.2 154.56 179.6 136.95 176.85 187.65 204.81 159.95 226.1 240.91 180.96 145.19 239.66 223.16 184.99 188.44 131.65 212.72 160 274.18 122.93 174.88 291.67 413.79 284.95

3.45E+01 4.71E-04 7.44E+04 1.80E+02 5.36E+03 7.65E+01 6.80E+00 1.04E-01 9.07E+00 1.28E-02 7.80E+01 8.24E-03 5.51E+00 1.39E+00 1.45E-01 1.50E-01 2.59E-02 2.59E-02 1.60E-01 1.72E+04 2.64E+00 7.53E+02 2.13E+01 7.14E-04 6.41E+00 6.49E+00 1.23E+03 2.21E+00 2.37E+02 5.93E+00 1.72E+00 8.25E-02 1.02E-01 3.74E+02 3.95E-01 9.93E-02 6.45E+01 1.17E+02 5.43E+01 4.47E-03 6.86E+00 8.21E-01 9.45E-02 4.50E+01 6.12E+03 7.56E+01 1.52E-02 6.06E+01 6.41E+00 8.04E-02 2.07E-01 3.05E+00 1.95E-01 1.26E-02 3.72E-02 4.15E-01 7.86E+00 5.02E+01 1.15E+03 2.53E+03

Tmax, K 704.65 631 400.15 459.93 553.8 650.1 653 560.4 511.7 507 398 664 674 617.7 722.1 688 616.6 696 619.85 38.35 628 650.15 611 584.1 683.95 705 684.75 523 561.6 510 560 572 736.6 496.6 466.7 557.15 386.44 445 351.26 523.1 500.05 576 507.8 543 473.2 437.2 500 591.15 606.15 596.15 615 400.1 649.6 537.3 766 402 503.04 729 777.4 587

P at Tmax 5.151E+06 3.226E+06 5.924E+06 4.991E+06 4.093E+06 4.265E+06 3.989E+06 4.392E+06 4.513E+06 4.799E+06 5.494E+06 3.970E+06 2.600E+06 2.091E+06 2.280E+06 2.308E+06 2.223E+06 2.130E+06 2.363E+06 1.663E+06 6.034E+06 5.375E+06 7.170E+06 2.459E+06 4.070E+06 4.074E+06 4.070E+06 5.106E+06 5.318E+06 6.093E+06 4.239E+06 4.232E+06 4.260E+06 3.674E+06 3.641E+06 3.961E+06 4.507E+06 4.372E+06 5.761E+06 3.199E+06 2.869E+06 3.017E+06 3.773E+06 3.447E+06 4.870E+06 5.258E+06 3.130E+06 2.939E+06 2.939E+06 2.938E+06 5.363E+06 5.274E+06 4.365E+06 2.882E+06 2.779E+06 3.561E+06 5.533E+06 5.648E+06 2.759E+06 5.158E+06

121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183

Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine Dodecane Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 Heptadecane Heptanal Heptane Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene 3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen

C12H10O C6H15N C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2 C8H16O2 C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12 C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10 H4N2 H2

101-84-8 142-84-7 112-40-3 112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4 149-57-5 5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 462-06-6 353-36-6 593-53-3 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 629-78-7 111-71-7 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6 928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2 302-01-2 1333-74-0

59.969 54 137.47 203.66 51.857 73.304 66.824 81.56 89.063 52.923 90.464 57.661 80.208 88.671 53.963 73.51 84.09 66.51 91.944 73.833 122.364 77.523 57.723 57.459 65.551 105.64 86.898 61.6271 42.393 51.915 38.593 41.2744 49.3632 100.3 43.8066 74.738 11.533 156.95 55.3058 87.829 112.372 147.41 153.088 78.463 75.494 65.922 79.858 59.083 156.06 58.7734 104.65 98.3767 135.42149 122.695 107.44 73.155 51.9766 47.091 68.467 133.2 123.71 76.858 12.69

−8585.5 −6018.5 −11,976 −19,441 −2598.7 −7122.3 −6227.6 −5596.9 −7733.7 −7531.7 −10,243 −6346.5 −7203.2 −7012.7 −2443 −7572.7 −10,411 −6019.2 −5293.4 −5817 −13,308.8 −7978.8 −5236.9 −6356.8 −5027.4 −8007 −6646.4 −6095.88 −1103.3 −5439 −3123.34 −2676.65 −3847.87 −10,763 −5131.03 −5417 −8.99 −15,557 −6694.68 −6996.4 −12,660.1 −13,466 −12,618.7 −8077.2 −7896.5 −6189 −8501.8 −6031.8 −15,015 −6529.3 −6995.5 −11,394 −12,288.40621 −10,870 −8528.6 −7242.9 −5104.66 −5104 −7390.5 −7492.9 −7639 −7245.2 −94.896

−5.1538 −4.4981 −16.698 −25.525 −5.1283 −7.1424 −6.41 −9.0779 −9.917 −4.2347 −9.2836 −5.032 −8.6023 −10.045 −5.5643 −7.1435 −8.1976 −6.3332 −11.682 −7.809 −13.5709 −7.7757 −5.2136 −4.9545 −6.6853 −12.477 −9.5758 −5.69714 −4.1203 −4.2896 −2.53014 −3.03914 −4.09834 −10.946 −3.18777 −8.0636 0.6724 −18.966 −4.64122 −9.8802 −12.147 −17.353 −18.7479 −7.9062 −7.5047 −6.3629 −8.1043 −5.3072 −18.941 −5.17151 −12.702 −10.2239 −15.73191 −14.192 −12.679 −7.2569 −4.34844 −3.6371 −6.5456 −18.405 −16.451 −8.22 1.1125

2.00E-18 9.97E-18 8.0906E-06 8.8382E-06 0.000014913 2.8853E-06 1.79E-17 0.000008792 0.000005986 1.1835E-06 5.26E-18 8.25E-18 4.5901E-06 7.4578E-06 0.000019079 1.21E-17 1.65E-18 1.04E-17 0.014902 0.00000632 6.42E-18 1.01E-17 2.30E-17 5.20E-18 6.3208E-06 0.000009 5.96E-17 1.06E-17 0.000057815 8.75E-18 5.30E-17 2.45E-16 4.64E-17 3.8503E-06 2.37819E-06 0.00000747 0.2743 6.4559E-06 5.28E-18 7.2099E-06 4.39E-18 1.13E-17 7.45073E-06 8.05E-18 8.91E-18 2.01E-17 8.15E-18 1.44E-17 6.8172E-06 6.95E-18 0.000012381 3.29E-18 1.27E-17 0.000003871 8.4606E-06 1.27E-17 1.17E-17 0.00051621 7.76E-18 0.022062 0.016495 0.0061557 0.00032915

6 6 2 2 2 2 6 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 2 6 6 6 1 2 6 6 6 6 2 2 6 6 2 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 1 2 6 2 6 6 2 6 6 6 6 6 2 6 2 6 6 2 2 6 6 1 6 1 1 1 2

300.03 210.15 263.57 309.58 90.35 159.05 189.6 192.15 178.2 238.45 258.15 175.15 161.84 134.71 104 284.29 260.15 195.2 160.65 193.55 155.15 180 140 204.15 125.26 199.25 145.65 167.55 53.48 230.94 129.95 131.35 155.15 275.6 281.45 187.55 1.76 295.13 229.8 182.57 265.83 239.15 220 234.15 238.15 154.12 229.92 192.22 291.31 214.93 177.83 269.25 228.55 223 217.35 217.5 133.39 170.05 192.62 141.25 183.65 274.69 13.95

7.09E+00 3.69E+00 6.15E-01 9.26E-03 1.13E+00 4.96E-04 1.43E+00 1.52E+02 3.91E-03 1.69E-01 4.63E-01 1.04E-02 3.57E-04 3.71E-06 1.26E+02 6.78E+02 2.19E-01 9.71E+00 7.79E+00 1.81E+01 1.44E-14 7.60E-04 4.31E-03 9.70E-01 1.14E-03 7.80E-01 1.61E-03 1.96E-02 2.53E+02 1.51E+02 9.43E+00 4.34E+02 4.89E+01 1.04E+00 2.41E+03 5.00E+01 1.46E+03 4.65E-02 2.56E+00 1.83E-01 4.66E-02 1.95E-02 6.55E-03 2.30E+00 3.54E+00 1.86E-03 3.05E-01 8.15E-01 9.23E-02 1.86E+00 9.02E-01 3.17E-01 2.25E-02 7.46E-02 1.45E+00 2.22E+00 5.16E-04 2.20E-01 1.31E-02 3.92E-04 5.40E-01 4.08E+02 7.21E+03

766.8 550 658 768 305.32 514 523.3 456.15 617.15 698 655 571 609.15 569.5 282.34 593 720 537 469.15 508.4 674.6 583 489 567 499.15 546 500.23 559.95 144.12 560.09 375.31 317.42 420 771 588 490.15 5.2 736 620 540.2 677.3 632.3 608.3 606.6 611.4 537.4 645 547 723 594 507.6 660.2 611.3 585.3 587.61 582.82 504 544 623 516.2 549 653.15 33.19

3.097E+06 3.111E+06 1.822E+06 1.175E+06 4.852E+06 6.109E+06 3.850E+06 5.594E+06 3.590E+06 3.203E+06 3.403E+06 2.935E+06 3.041E+06 3.412E+06 5.032E+06 6.290E+06 8.257E+06 6.850E+06 7.255E+06 4.708E+06 2.780E+06 2.460E+06 3.414E+06 3.293E+06 5.492E+06 3.336E+06 3.372E+06 3.321E+06 5.167E+06 4.544E+06 4.980E+06 5.875E+06 6.590E+06 7.751E+06 5.810E+06 5.550E+06 2.284E+05 1.344E+06 3.160E+06 2.719E+06 3.042E+06 3.013E+06 3.000E+06 2.919E+06 2.946E+06 2.921E+06 2.772E+06 3.209E+06 1.411E+06 3.460E+06 3.045E+06 3.309E+06 3.446E+06 3.323E+06 3.286E+06 3.322E+06 3.210E+06 3.540E+06 3.079E+06 3.635E+06 3.530E+06 1.473E+07 1.315E+06

2-55

(Continued )

2-56 TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids, ln P = C1 + C2/T + C3 ln T + C4 T C5, P in Pa, T in K (Continued ) Cmpd. no.∗ 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242

Name Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid Methacrylic acid Methane Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl-1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl Isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane

Formula BrH ClH CHN FH H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4 C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N C8H8O2 C5H8 C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S C5H8 C5H10O2 CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si

CAS 10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2 79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5 93-58-3 598-25-4 78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5 598-23-2 623-42-7 993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9 96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5 75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9

C1 29.315 104.27 36.75 59.544 85.584 110.38 136.66 119.172 109.53 39.205 82.718 79.128 61.267 50.242 107.69 75.206 84.828 66.575 71.308 85.383 117.074 93.131 83.927 95.453 60.164 96.344 69.459 71.87 95.984 92.684 134.63 125.1 54.179 55.368 52.732 52.601 79.788 78.586 72.698 79.07 77.184 57.984 80.503 57.612 53.867 45.242 52.82 54.15 107.36 105.7 53.579 61.907 108.43 172.27 78.01 70.717 67.942 83.711 37.205

C2 −2424.5 −3731.2 −3927.1 −4143.8 −3839.9 −10,540 −7201.5 −15,688.8 −10,410 −1324.4 −6904.5 −9523.9 −5618.6 −3811.9 −7027.2 −5082.8 −9334.7 −5213.4 −4976 −9575.4 −10,743.2 −5525.4 −5640.5 −5448.8 −5621.7 −7856.3 −5250 −6885.7 −5401.7 −7080.8 −10,682 −10,288 −7477.2 −5149.8 −5286.9 −5120.3 −5420 −5176.3 −6143.6 −6114.1 −5606.1 −5339.6 −7421.8 −5197.9 −4701 −5324.4 −5437.7 −4337.7 −8085.3 −12,458 −5041.2 −6188.9 −5039.9 −11,589 −4634.1 −6439.7 −5419.1 −6786.9 −2590.3

C3 −1.1354 −15.047 −2.1245 −6.1764 −11.199 −12.262 −18.934 −12.6757 −12.289 −3.4366 −8.8622 −7.7355 −5.6473 −4.2526 −13.916 −8.0919 −8.7063 −6.7693 −7.7169 −8.6164 −13.1654 −11.852 −9.6453 −12.384 −5.53 −11.058 −7.1125 −7.0944 −11.829 −10.695 −16.511 −15.157 −4.22 −5.0136 −4.4509 −4.4554 −9.0702 −8.7501 −7.5779 −8.631 −8.392 −5.2362 −8.379 −5.1269 −4.7052 −3.2551 −4.442 −4.8127 −12.72 −11.234 −4.6404 −5.706 −15.012 −22.113 −8.9575 −6.9845 −6.8067 −9.2526 −2.5993

C4 2.38E-18 0.03134 3.89E-17 0.000014161 0.018848 1.43E-17 0.022255 1.55E-18 0.000003199 0.000031019 7.4664E-06 3.16E-18 2.11E-17 6.53E-17 0.015185 0.000008113 6.17E-18 4.8106E-06 8.7271E-06 5.61E-18 1.17E-17 0.014205 0.000011121 0.015643 1.86E-17 0.000007308 7.93E-17 1.49E-17 0.000018092 8.1366E-06 8.4427E-06 0.000010918 3.52E-18 0.000003222 1.09E-17 1.33E-17 0.000011489 9.1727E-06 5.6476E-06 6.5333E-06 7.8468E-06 2.08E-17 1.81E-17 2.17E-17 2.88E-17 3.04E-18 9.51E-18 4.50E-17 8.3307E-06 4.46E-18 1.94E-17 1.18E-17 0.022725 0.000013703 0.000013413 2.01E-17 4.78E-17 6.6666E-06 6.0508E-06

C5

Tmin, K

P at Tmin

6 1 6 2 1 6 1 6 2 2 2 6 6 6 1 2 6 2 2 6 6 1 2 1 6 2 6 6 2 2 2 2 6 2 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 6 6 6 1 2 2 6 6 2 2

185.15 158.97 259.83 189.79 187.68 227.15 177.95 409.15 288.15 90.69 175.47 301.15 175.15 170.45 196.32 179.69 260.75 159.53 113.25 193 155.95 135.58 139.39 160.15 157.48 175.3 183.45 187.35 139.05 146.58 299.15 280.15 269.15 130.73 146.62 168.54 182.55 160 186.48 167.23 174.15 188 189.15 256.15 127.93 180.15 171.64 150.18 224.95 240 119.55 176 113.54 298.97 132.81 185.65 133.97 160.17 116.34

2.95E+04 1.35E+04 1.87E+04 3.37E+02 2.29E+04 7.82E-02 7.73E+00 9.97E+01 5.86E+01 1.17E+04 1.11E-01 2.86E+01 1.02E+00 4.15E+02 4.07E+00 1.77E+02 1.81E+00 7.28E-01 1.21E-04 6.94E-05 1.14E-08 2.05E-02 1.94E-02 2.92E+00 2.99E-02 4.61E-03 4.36E+01 1.34E-01 4.12E-01 1.52E-04 2.57E+02 4.56E+01 1.62E+01 2.25E-04 3.98E-03 5.37E-01 2.58E+01 7.85E+00 1.39E+00 2.25E-01 6.88E+00 8.70E+00 6.99E-02 7.28E+03 3.32E-03 2.95E-01 1.80E-01 3.15E+00 1.91E+01 4.19E-04 2.07E-05 6.33E-02 1.21E-02 5.88E+03 6.45E-01 6.34E-01 2.90E-03 4.26E-03 1.43E+01

Tmax, K 363.15 324.65 456.65 461.15 373.53 605 471.85 834 662 190.56 512.5 718 506.55 402.4 536 430.05 693 490 460.4 643 577.2 465 470 492 512.74 593 463.2 554.5 442 572.1 686 614 617 532.7 542 526 483 437.8 535.5 533 487.2 497 574.6 488 464.48 553.4 553.1 469.95 566 694 497.7 546.49 407.8 506.2 417.9 530.6 476.25 565 352.5

P at Tmax 8.463E+06 8.356E+06 5.353E+06 6.487E+06 8.999E+06 3.683E+06 4.540E+06 6.097E+06 4.812E+06 4.590E+06 8.145E+06 4.997E+06 4.695E+06 5.619E+06 4.277E+06 7.414E+06 3.589E+06 3.831E+06 3.366E+06 3.886E+06 3.933E+06 3.465E+06 3.394E+06 4.469E+06 3.377E+06 3.464E+06 4.199E+06 3.480E+06 4.170E+06 3.486E+06 3.994E+06 3.807E+06 3.767E+06 3.759E+06 4.130E+06 4.129E+06 3.964E+06 4.433E+06 4.120E+06 4.261E+06 5.983E+06 3.416E+06 3.272E+06 5.480E+06 3.764E+06 3.792E+06 4.022E+06 7.231E+06 3.674E+06 2.545E+06 3.044E+06 3.041E+06 3.630E+06 3.957E+06 4.004E+06 4.028E+06 3.802E+06 3.972E+06 4.702E+06

243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305

alpha-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Nonadecane Nonanal Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane Octanal Octane Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate Propyl amine Propylbenzene Propylene

C9H10 C5H12O C3H6O C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 N2 F3N CH3NO2 N2 O NO C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2 C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C9H14 C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N C9H12 C3H6

98-83-9 1634-04-4 107-25-5 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2 75-52-5 10024-97-2 10102-43-9 629-92-5 124-19-6 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3 124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9 85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6 79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4 107-10-8 103-65-1 115-07-1

56.485 57.1299 51.085 62.964 29.755 75.632 58.282 68.149 57.278 96.512 72.974 182.54 80.3832 109.35 123.374 162.854 213.069 63.313 106.2 114.77 157.68 74.0298 96.084 116.477 144.11083 185.828 63.775 72.382 74.936 78.368 64.612 107.476 51.245 40.067 135.57 28.3041 78.741 93.2079 114.74801 116.828 84.635 44.286 46.994 58.985 67.309 82.805 137.29 72.958 95.444 86.779 126.5 57.069 59.078 84.66416 110.717 64.268 50.8769 54.552 59.9958 115.16 58.398 91.379 43.905

−6954.2 −5200.7 −4271 −8137.5 −271.06 −7202.3 −1084.1 −2257.9 −6089 −4045 −2650 −17,897 −9096.15 −9030.4 −14,215.3 −15,204.55331 −16,246 −7040.4 −10,982 −9430.8 −16,093 −8302.12 −7900.2 −13,300.4 −13,667.15667 −14,520.2 −7711.3 −8054.8 −7155.9 −8855.4 −6802.5 −12,833.4 −1200.2 −2204.8 −13,478 −4657.56 −5420.3 −10,470.5 −10,643.3 −10,453 −7078.4 −5415.1 −4289.5 −6193.1 −6880.8 −5683.8 −7447.1 −10,943 −10,113 −8101.8 −12,551 −3682.7 −3492.6 −8307.24422 −9040 −7298.9 −4931 −7149.4 −6006.16 −8433.9 −5312.7 −8276.8 −3097.8

−4.7889 −5.13976 −4.307 −5.6317 −2.6081 −7.6464 −8.3144 −8.9118 −4.9821 −12.277 −8.261 −22.498 −8.03581 −12.882 −13.5607 −19.42436 −27.6195 −5.8055 −11.696 −13.631 −18.954 −7.19776 −11.003 −12.6746 −16.82611 −23.6236 −5.7359 −7.0002 −7.5843 −7.8202 −6.0261 −11.3837 −6.4361 −2.9351 −16.022 −0.732149 −8.8253 −9.61345 −12.85754 −13.1768 −9.3 −3.0913 −3.7345 −5.2746 −6.4449 −9.4301 −19.01 −6.7902 −10.09 −9.5303 −15.002 −5.5662 −6.0669 −8.57673 −12.676 −5.9109 −4.16673 −4.2769 −5.46004 −13.934 −5.2876 −10.176 −3.4425

2.78E-18 1.65E-17 3.05E-17 2.27E-18 0.000527 1.83E-17 0.044127 0.023233 1.22E-17 0.00002886 9.70E-15 7.4008E-06 4.71E-18 7.8544E-06 3.17E-18 1.07E-17 1.31827E-05 7.58E-18 8.90E-18 8.1918E-06 5.9272E-06 5.31E-18 7.1802E-06 3.98E-18 9.37E-18 1.08854E-05 3.09E-18 5.83E-18 1.71E-17 5.66E-18 1.10E-17 1.34E-18 0.028405 7.75E-16 5.6136E-06 –8.31E-18 9.6171E-06 5.62E-18 1.25E-17 1.07E-17 6.2702E-06 1.86E-18 2.54E-17 7.40E-18 1.01E-17 0.000010767 0.021415 1.09E-18 6.76E-18 6.1367E-06 7.7521E-06 6.5133E-06 0.000010919 7.51E-18 0.000005538 4.85E-18 1.67E-17 1.18E-18 1.70E-17 0.000010346 1.9913E-06 0.000005624 1.00E-16

6 6 6 6 2 6 1 1 6 2 6 2 6 2 6 6 2 6 6 2 2 6 2 6 6 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 1 6 2 6 2 6 6 6 2 6 6 6 6 2 1 6 6 2 2 2 2 6 2 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 6

249.95 164.55 151.15 353.43 24.56 183.63 63.15 66.46 244.6 182.3 109.5 305.04 267.3 219.66 285.55 268.15 238.15 191.91 253.05 223.15 301.31 251.65 216.38 289.65 257.65 241.55 252.85 255.55 171.45 223.95 193.55 462.65 54.36 80.15 283.07 191.59 143.42 239.15 195.56 200 196.29 234.18 108.02 160.75 197.45 167.45 163.83 372.38 314.06 243.15 404.15 136.87 85.47 146.95 185.26 199 165 252.45 180.37 178.15 188.36 173.55 87.89

9.23E+00 4.94E-01 3.37E+00 9.91E+02 4.38E+04 3.18E-02 1.25E+04 1.86E-01 1.47E+02 8.69E+04 2.20E+04 1.59E-02 4.25E+00 4.31E-01 4.58E-02 8.58E-02 3.85E-03 2.04E-02 1.47E-01 4.50E-01 3.39E-02 3.49E+00 2.11E+00 2.76E-01 9.60E-02 3.79E-02 4.68E+00 7.84E+00 2.98E-03 3.05E-02 1.04E-01 1.97E+04 1.48E+02 7.35E-01 1.29E-01 1.16E+00 6.86E-02 3.97E-02 5.47E-04 5.24E-03 7.52E-01 7.34E+01 3.71E-05 1.77E-03 2.01E-01 2.40E+00 2.05E-01 2.93E+01 1.88E+02 4.33E+00 7.90E+02 1.82E+01 1.68E-04 4.27E-07 1.69E-02 2.48E-02 7.54E-01 1.31E+01 1.89E-01 1.71E-02 1.30E+01 1.81E-04 1.17E-03

654 497.1 437 748.4 44.4 593 126.2 234 588.15 309.57 180.15 758 658.5 594.6 710.7 670.9 649.5 593.1 681 598.05 747 638.9 568.7 694.26 652.3 629.8 632.7 627.7 566.9 667.3 574 828 154.58 261 708 566.1 469.7 639.16 588.1 561 561.08 560.95 464.8 584.3 598 481.2 519 869 694.25 653 791 394 369.83 536.8 508.3 636 503.6 600.81 561.3 549.73 496.95 638.35 364.85

3.341E+06 3.286E+06 4.583E+06 4.069E+06 2.665E+06 5.159E+06 3.391E+06 4.500E+06 6.309E+06 7.278E+06 6.516E+06 1.208E+06 2.680E+06 2.305E+06 2.513E+06 2.528E+06 2.540E+06 2.427E+06 2.330E+06 2.619E+06 1.255E+06 2.960E+06 2.467E+06 2.779E+06 2.781E+06 2.749E+06 2.647E+06 2.705E+06 2.663E+06 2.523E+06 2.880E+06 8.203E+06 5.021E+06 5.566E+06 1.474E+06 3.845E+06 3.364E+06 3.630E+06 3.897E+06 3.699E+06 3.706E+06 3.699E+06 3.562E+06 3.537E+06 3.473E+06 4.170E+06 4.020E+06 2.902E+06 6.058E+06 4.063E+06 4.734E+06 5.218E+06 4.213E+06 5.169E+06 4.771E+06 3.130E+06 5.040E+06 4.608E+06 4.260E+06 3.366E+06 4.738E+06 3.202E+06 4.599E+06

2-57

(Continued )

2-58 TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids, ln P = C1 + C2/T + C3 ln T + C4 T C5, P in Pa, T in K (Continued ) Cmpd. no.∗

Name

306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345

Propyl formate 2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

Formula C4H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8 C4H6O4 O 2S F6S O 3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

CAS 110-74-7 75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5 110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

C1

C2

104.08 60.43 62.165 212.8 48.651 272.85 105.93 165.977 47.365 29.16 180.99 124.004 110.52 140.47 54.898 137.23 75.881 57.963 93.193 76.945 54.153 137.45 56.55 134.68 78.341 85.301 84.912 83.105 506.33 302 131 182.57122 57.406 55.682 91.432 54.571 73.649 85.099 90.405 88.72

−7535.9 −5276.9 −5624 −15,420 −7289.5 −9548.9 −8685.9 −19,914.4 −4084.5 −2383.6 −12,060 −17,894.4 −14,045 −13,231 −5305.4 −10,620 −6910.6 −5901.5 −7001.5 −6729.8 −6041.8 −12,549 −5681.9 −6055.8 −8019.8 −8215.9 −6722.2 −6903.7 −37,483 −24,324 −11,143 −17,112.47062 −5702.8 −4439.3 −5141.7 −5561.5 −7258.2 −7615.9 −7955.2 −7741.2

C3 −12.348 −5.6572 −5.8595 −28.109 −3.4453 −40.089 −12.42 −18.9344 −3.6469 −1.1342 −22.839 −13.156 −11.861 −16.859 −4.7627 −17.908 −7.9499 −5.2048 −10.738 −8.179 −4.5383 −16.543 −4.9815 −19.415 −8.1458 −9.2166 −9.5157 −9.1858 −69.22 −40.13 −15.855 −22.1251 −5.0307 −5.0136 −10.981 −4.712 −7.3037 −9.3072 −10.086 −9.8693

C5

Tmin, K

P at Tmin

0.000009602 2.60E-17 2.06E-17 0.000021564 1.01E-18 6.37E-15 7.5583E-06 1.91E-18 1.80E-17

2 6 6 2 6 6 2 6 6

7.24E-17 1.18E-18 2.21E-18 6.5877E-06 1.43E-17 0.014506 4.4315E-06 9.13E-18 8.2308E-06 5.3017E-06 4.98E-18 7.1275E-06 1.24E-17 0.028619 3.8971E-06 4.7979E-06 7.2244E-06 6.4703E-06 0.000027381 0.000017403 8.1871E-06 1.13E-17 1.10E-17 1.97E-17 0.000014318 1.07E-17 4.1653E-06 5.5643E-06 5.9594E-06 0.000006077

6 6 6 2 6 1 2 6 2 2 6 2 6 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 6 2 6 2 2 2 2

180.25 142.61 159.95 213.15 388.85 186.35 242.54 460.85 197.67 223.15 289.95 700.15 329.35 279.01 164.65 237.38 176.99 373.96 234.94 178.18 236.5 267.76 158.45 156.08 247.79 229.33 165.78 172.22 398.4 354 247.57 288.45 180.35 173.15 119.36 178.35 273.16 225.3 247.98 286.41

2.11E-01 9.73E-03 6.51E-02 9.29E-05 1.17E+04 2.21E+05 1.06E+01 7.78E+02 1.67E+03 2.30E+05 2.09E+04 2.42E+05 4.14E-01 2.53E-01 1.96E-01 1.33E-01 1.54E-02 8.69E+04 1.86E+02 4.75E-02 4.47E+01 2.51E-01 1.06E-02 9.92E+00 3.71E+00 6.93E-01 1.71E-02 1.68E-02 8.50E+00 9.36E-01 4.08E-01 1.25E-01 7.06E-01 6.69E+01 1.92E-02 3.54E-01 6.11E+02 3.18E+00 2.18E+01 5.76E+02

C4

Tmax, K 538 517 536.6 626 683 259 636 838 430.75 318.69 490.85 883.6 857 693 540.15 720 631.95 568 579.35 591.75 602 675 535.15 433.25 664.5 649.1 543.8 573.5 846 828 639 703.9 519.13 454 432 543.15 647.1 617 630.3 616.2

P at Tmax 4.031E+06 4.752E+06 4.627E+06 6.041E+06 5.925E+06 3.748E+06 3.823E+06 5.001E+06 7.860E+06 3.771E+06 8.192E+06 3.487E+06 2.974E+06 1.569E+06 5.203E+06 3.624E+06 5.117E+06 2.871E+06 5.702E+06 4.080E+06 4.447E+06 1.679E+06 3.037E+06 4.102E+06 3.447E+06 3.211E+06 2.550E+06 2.812E+06 3.410E+06 3.019E+06 1.949E+06 2.119E+06 3.930E+06 4.887E+06 5.749E+06 3.058E+06 2.193E+07 3.528E+06 3.741E+06 3.501E+06

Vapor pressure Ps is calculated by Ps = exp(C1 + C2/T + C3 ln(T) + C4T C5) where Ps is in Pa and T is in K. ∗All substances and their numbers are listed by chemical family in Table 2-6 and by formula in Table 2-7. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 801 Critically Evaluated Gold Standard Database, copyright 2016 AIChE, and reproduced with permission of AIChE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as “R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, T. A. Knotts, N. F. Giles, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York, NY (2016)”.

VAPOR PRESSURES TABLE 2-9

2-59

Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm* Compound

Pressure, mmHg 1

Name Aluminum borohydride bromide chloride fluoride iodide oxide Ammonia heavy Ammonium bromide carbamate chloride cyanide hydrogen sulfide iodide Antimony tribromide trichloride pentachloride triiodide trioxide Argon Arsenic Arsenic tribromide trichloride trifluoride pentafluoride trioxide Arsine Barium Beryllium borohydride bromide chloride iodide Bismuth tribromide trichloride Diborane hydrobromide Borine carbonyl triamine Boron hydrides dihydrodecaborane dihydrodiborane dihydropentaborane tetrahydropentaborane tetrahydrotetraborane Boron tribromide trichloride trifluoride Bromine pentafluoride Cadmium chloride fluoride iodide oxide Calcium Carbon (graphite) dioxide disulfide monoxide oxyselenide oxysulfide selenosulfide subsulfide tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Cesium bromide chloride fluoride iodide

5

10

20

Formula Al Al(BH4)3 AlBr3 Al2Cl6 AlF3 AlI3 Al2O3 NH3 ND3 NH4Br N2H6CO2 NH4Cl NH4CN NH4HS NH4I Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 SbCl5 SbI3 Sb4O6 A As AsBr3 AsCl3 AsF3 AsF5 As2O3 AsH3 Ba Be(BH4)2 BeBr2 BeCl2 BeI2 Bi BiBr3 BiCl3 B2H5Br BH3CO B3N3H6 B10H14 B2H6 B5H9 B5H11 B4H10 BBr3 BCl3 BF3 Br2 BrF5 Cd CdCl2 CdF2 CdI2 CdO Ca C CO2 CS2 CO COSe COS CSeS C3S2 CBr4 CCl4 CF4 Cs CsBr CsCl CsF CsI

40

60

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

1749 −3.9 176.1 152.0 1422 294.5 2665 −68.4 −67.4 320.0 26.7 271.5 −0.5 0.0 331.8 1223 203.5 143.3 114.1 303.5 957 −200.5 518 145.2 70.9 13.2 −84.3 332.5 −98.0 1301 58.6 405 411 411 1271 360 343 −29.0 −95.3 +4.0

1844 +11.2 199.8 161.8 1457 322.0 2766 −57.0 −57.0 345.3 37.2 293.2 +9.6 +10.5 355.8 1288 225.7 165.9

1947 28.1 227.0 171.6 1496 354.0 2874 −45.4 −45.4 370.8 48.0 316.5 20.5 21.8 381.0 1364 250.2 192.2

2056 45.9 256.3 180.2 1537 385.5 2977 −33.6 −33.4 396.0 58.3 337.8 31.7 33.3 404.9 1440 275.0 219.0

660 −64. 97. 192.4 1040

333.8 1085 −195.6 548 167.7 89.2 26.7 −75.5 370.0 −87.2 1403 69.0 427 435 435 1319 392 372 −15.4 −85.5 18.5

368.5 1242 −190.6 579 193.6 109.7 41.4 −64.0 412.2 −75.2 1518 79.7 451 461 461 1370 425 405 0.0 −74.8 34.3

401.0 1425 −185.6 610 220.0 130.4 56.3 −52.8 457.2 −62.1 1638 90.0 474 487 487 1420 461 441 +16.3 −64.0 50.6

142.3 −120.9 +9.6 20.1 −28.1 33.5 −32.4 −123.0 +9.3 −4.5 611 797 1486 640 1341 1207 4373 −100.2 −5.1 −205.7 −61.7 −85.9 28.3 109.9 119.7 23.0 −150.7 509 1072 1069 1025 1055

163.8 −111.2 24.6 34.8 −14.0 50.3 −18.9 −115.9 24.3 +9.9 658 847 1561 688 1409 1288 4516 −93.0 +10.4 −201.3 −49.8 −75.0 45.7 130.8 139.7 38.3 −143.6 561 1140 1139 1092 1124

−99.6 40.8 51.2 +0.8 70.0 −3.6 −108.3 41.0 25.7 711 908 1651 742 1484 1388 4660 −85.7 28.0 −196.3 −35.6 −62.7 65.2

−86.5 58.1 67.0 16.1 91.7 +12.7 −100.7 58.2 40.4 765 967 1751 796 1559 1487 4827 −78.2 46.5 −191.3 −21.9 −49.9 85.6

163.5 57.8 −135.5 624 1221 1217 1170 1200

189.5 76.7 −127.7 690 1300 1300 1251 1280

Temperature, °C 1284 81.3 100.0 1238 178.0 2148 −109.1

1421 −52.2 103.8 116.4 1298 207.7 2306 −97.5

1487 −42.9 118.0 123.8 1324 225.8 2385 −91.9

1555 −32.5 134.0 131.8 1350 244.2 2465 −85.8

1635 −20.9 150.6 139.9 1378 265.0 2549 −79.2

198.3 −26.1 160.4 −50.6 −51.1 210.9 886 93.9 49.2 22.7 163.6 574 −218.2 372 41.8 −11.4

234.5 −10.4 193.8 −35.7 −36.0 247.0 984 126.0 71.4 48.6 203.8 626 −213.9 416 70.6 +11.7

252.0 −2.9 209.8 −28.6 −28.7 263.5 1033 142.7 85.2 61.8 223.5 666 −210.9 437 85.2 +23.5

270.6 +5.3 226.1 −20.9 −20.8 282.8 1084 158.3 100.6 75.8 244.8 729 −207.9 459 101.3 36.0

−117.9 212.5 −142.6

−108.0 242.6 −130.8 984 19.8 325 328 322 1099 261 242 −75.3 −127.3 −45.0

−103.1 259.7 −124.7 1049 28.1 342 346 341 1136 282 264 −66.3 −121.1 −35.3

−98.0 279.2 −117.7 1120 36.8 361 365 361 1177 305 287 −56.4 −114.1 −25.0

290.0 14.0 245.0 −12.6 −12.3 302.8 1141 177.4 117.8 91.0 267.8 812 −204.9 483 118.7 50.0 −2.5 −92.4 299.2 −110.2 1195 46.2 379 384 382 1217 327 311 −45.4 −106.6 −13.2

1684 −13.4 161.7 145.4 1398 277.8 2599 −74.3 −74.0 303.8 19.6 256.2 −7.4 −7.0 316.0 1176 188.1 128.3 101.0 282.5 873 −202.9 498 130.0 58.7 +4.2 −88.5 310.3 −104.8 1240 51.7 390 395 394 1240 340 324 −38.2 −101.9 −5.8

3586 −134.3 −73.8 −222.0 −117.1 −132.4 −47.3 14.0

80.8 −149.5 −40.4 −29.9 −73.1 −20.4 −75.2 −145.4 −32.8 −51.0 455 618 1231 481 1100 926 3828 −124.4 −54.3 −217.2 −102.3 −119.8 −26.5 41.2

90.2 −144.3 −30.7 −19.9 −64.3 −10.1 −66.9 −141.3 −25.0 −41.9 484 656 1286 512 1149 983 3946 −119.5 −44.7 −215.0 −95.0 −113.3 −16.0 54.9

100.0 −138.5 −20.0 −9.2 −54.8 +1.5 −57.9 −136.4 −16.8 −32.0 516 695 1344 546 1200 1046 4069 −114.4 −34.3 −212.8 −86.3 −106.0 −4.4 69.3

−50.0 −184.6 279 748 744 712 738

−30.0 −174.1 341 838 837 798 828

−19.6 −169.3 375 887 884 844 873

−8.2 −164.3 409 938 934 893 923

117.4 −131.6 −8.0 +2.7 −44.3 14.0 −47.8 −131.0 −8.0 −21.0 553 736 1400 584 1257 1111 4196 −108.6 −22.5 −210.0 −76.4 −98.3 +8.6 85.6 96.3 +4.3 −158.8 449 993 989 947 976

127.8 −127.2 −0.4 10.2 −37.4 22.1 −41.2 −127.6 −0.6 −14.0 578 762 1436 608 1295 1152 4273 −104.8 −15.3 −208.1 −70.2 −93.0 17.0 96.0 106.3 12.3 −155.4 474 1026 1023 980 1009

+1.0 289 291 283 1021 −93.3 −139.2 −63.0 60.0 −159.7 −50.2 −90.9 −41.4 −91.5 −154.6 −48.7 −69.3 394 1112 416 1000

∗Compiled from the extended tables published by D. R. Stull in Ind. Eng. Chem., 39, 517 (1947).

2050 −77.7 −74.0 520 36 630.5 96.6 73.4 2.8 167 656 −189.2 814 −18 −5.9 −79.8 312.8 −116.3 850 123 490 405 488 271 218 230 −104.2 −137.0 −58.2 99.6 −169 −47.0 −119.9 −45 −107 −126.8 −7.3 −61.4 320.9 568 520 385 851 −57.5 −110.8 −205.0 −138.8 −75.2 +0.4 90.1 −22.6 −183.7 28.5 636 646 683 621

(Continued )

2-60

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-9 Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Compound

Pressure, mmHg 1

Name Chlorine fluoride trifluoride monoxide dioxide heptoxide Chlorosulfonic acid Chromium carbonyl oxychloride Cobalt chloride nitrosyl tricarbonyl Columbium fluoride Copper Cuprous bromide chloride iodide Cyanogen bromide chloride fluoride Deuterium cyanide Fluorine oxide Germanium bromide chloride hydride Trichlorogermane Tetramethylgermane Digermane Trigermane Gold Helium para-Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide chloride cyanide fluoride iodide oxide (water) sulfide disulfide selenide telluride Iodine heptafluoride Iron pentacarbonyl Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Krypton Lead bromide chloride fluoride iodide oxide sulfide Lithium bromide chloride fluoride iodide Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Mercury Mercuric bromide chloride iodide Molybdenum hexafluoride oxide

5

10

20

Formula Cl2 ClF ClF3 Cl2O ClO2 Cl2O7 HSO3Cl Cr Cr(CO)6 CrO2Cl2 CoCl2 Co(CO)3NO CbF5 Cu Cu2Br2 Cu2Cl2 Cu2I2 C2N2 CNBr CNCl CNF DCN F2 F2O GeBr4 GeCl4 GeH4 GeHCl3 Ge(CH3)4 Ge2H6 Ge3H8 Au He H2 HBr HCl HCN H2F2 HI H2O H2S HSSH H2Se H2Te I2 IF7 Fe Fe(CO)5 Fe2Cl6 FeCl2 Kr Pb PbBr2 PbCl2 PbF2 PbI2 PbO PbS Li LiBr LiCl LiF LiI Mg MgCl2 Mn MnCl2 Hg HgBr2 HgCl2 HgI2 Mo MoF6 MoO3

40

60

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

−71.7 −120.8 −34.7 −39.4 −29.4 29.1 105.3 2139 108.0 58.0 843 29.0 148.5 2207 951 960 907 −51.8 22.6 −24.9 −97.0 −17.5 −202.7 −165.8 113.2 27.5 −120.3 26.5 −6.3 −20.3 47.9 2521 −270.3 −257.9 −97.7 −114.0 −17.8 −28.2 −72.1 51.6 −91.6 22.0 −74.2 −45.7 116.5 −31.9 2360 50.3 272.5 842 −171.8 1421 745 784 1080 701 1265 1108 1097 1076 1129 1425 993 909 1142 1792 960 261.7 237.8 237.0 261.8 4109 −8.0 955

−60.2 −114.4 −20.7 −26.5 −17.8 44.6 120.0 2243 121.8 75.2 904 44.4 172.2 2325 1052 1077 1018 −42.6 33.8 −14.1 −89.2 −5.4 −198.3 −159.0 135.4 44.4 −111.2 41.6 +8.8 −4.7 67.0 2657 −269.8 −256.3 −88.1 −105.2 −5.3 −13.2 −60.3 66.5 −82.3 35.3 −65.2 −32.4 137.3 −20.7 2475 68.0 285.0 897 −165.9 1519 796 833 1144 750 1330 1160 1178 1147 1203 1503 1049 967 1223 1900 1028 290.7 262.7 256.5 291.0 4322 +4.1 1014

−47.3 −107.0 −4.9 −12.5 −4.0 62.2 136.1 2361 137.2 95.2 974 62.0 198.0 2465 1189 1249 1158 −33.0 46.0 −2.3 −80.5 +10.0 −193.2 −151.9 161.6 63.8 −100.2 58.3 26.0 +13.3 88.6 2807 −269.3 −254.5 −78.0 −95.3 +10.2 +2.5 −48.3 83.0 −71.8 49.6 −53.6 −17.2 159.8 −8.3 2605 86.1 298.0 961 −159.0 1630 856 893 1219 807 1402 1221 1273 1226 1290 1591 1110 1034 1316 2029 1108 323.0 290.0 275.5 324.2 4553 17.2 1082

−33.8 −100.5 +11.5 +2.2 +11.1 78.8 151.0 2482 151.0 117.1 1050 80.0 225.0 2595 1355 1490 1336 −21.0 61.5 +13.1 −72.6 26.2 −187.9 −144.6 189.0 84.0 −88.9 75.0 44.0 31.5 110.8 2966 −268.6 −252.5 −66.5 −84.8 25.9 19.7 −35.1 100.0 −60.4 64.0 −41.1 −2.0 183.0 +4.0 2735 105.0 319.0 1026 −152.0 1744 914 954 1293 872 1472 1281 1372 1310 1382 1681 1171 1107 1418 2151 1190 357.0 319.0 304.0 354.0 4804 36.0 1151

−100.7 −145 −83 −116 −59 −91 −80 1615

Temperature, °C −118.0 −98.5

−106.7 −143.4 −80.4 −81.6

−45.3 32.0 1616 36.0 −18.4

−23.8 53.5 1768 58.0 +3.2

1628 572 546 −95.8 −35.7 −76.7 −134.4 −68.9 −223.0 −196.1 −45.0 −163.0 −41.3 −73.2 −88.7 −36.9 1869 −271.7 −263.3 −138.8 −150.8 −71.0 −123.3 −17.3 −134.3 −43.2 −115.3 −96.4 38.7 −87.0 1787 194.0 −199.3 973 513 547 479 943 852 723 748 783 1047 723 621 778 1292 126.2 136.5 136.2 157.5 3102 −65.5 734

1795 666 645 610 −83.2 −18.3 −61.4 −123.8 −54.0 −216.9 −186.6 43.3 −24.9 −151.0 −22.3 −54.6 −69.8 −12.8 2059 −271.5 −261.9 −127.4 −140.7 −55.3 −74.7 −109.6 +1.2 −122.4 −24.4 −103.4 −82.4 62.2 −70.7 1957 −6.5 221.8 −191.3 1099 578 615 861 540 1039 928 838 840 880 1156 802 702 877 1434 736 164.8 165.3 166.0 189.2 3393 −49.0 785

−101.6 −139.0 −71.8 −73.1 −59.0 −13.2 64.0 1845 68.3 13.8

−93.3 −134.3 −62.3 −64.3 −51.2 −2.1 75.3 1928 79.5 25.7

86.3 1879 718 702 656 −76.8 −10.0 −53.8 −118.5 −46.7 −214.1 −182.3 56.8 −15.0 −145.3 −13.0 −45.2 −60.1 −0.9 2154 −271.3 −261.3 −121.8 −135.6 −47.7 −65.8 −102.3 11.2 −116.3 −15.2 −97.9 −75.4 73.2 −63.0 2039 +4.6 235.5 700 −187.2 1162 610 648 904 571 1085 975 881 888 932 1211 841 743 930 1505 778 184.0 179.8 180.2 204.5 3535 −40.8 814

−1.3 103.0 1970 777 766 716 −70.1 −1.0 −46.1 −112.8 −38.8 −211.0 −177.8 71.8 −4.1 −139.2 −3.0 −35.0 −49.9 +11.8 2256 −271.1 −260.4 −115.4 −130.0 −39.7 −56.0 −94.5 22.1 −109.7 −5.1 −91.8 −67.8 84.7 −54.5 2128 16.7 246.0 737 −182.9 1234 646 684 950 605 1134 1005 940 939 987 1270 883 789 988 1583 825 204.6 194.3 195.8 220.0 3690 −32.0 851

−84.5 −128.8 −51.3 −54.3 −42.8 +10.3 87.6 2013 91.2 38.5 770 +11.0 121.5 2067 844 838 786 −62.7 +8.6 −37.5 −106.4 −30.1 −207.7 −173.0 88.1 +8.0 −131.6 +8.8 −23.4 −38.2 26.3 2363 −270.7 −259.6 −108.3 −123.8 −30.9 −45.0 −85.6 34.0 −102.3 +6.0 −84.7 −59.1 97.5 −45.3 2224 30.3 256.8 779 −178.4 1309 686 725 1003 644 1189 1048 1003 994 1045 1333 927 838 1050 1666 879 228.8 211.5 212.5 238.2 3859 −22.1 892

−79.0 −125.3 −44.1 −48.0 −37.2 +18.2 95.2 2067 98.3 46.7 801 18.5 133.2 2127 887 886 836 −57.9 14.7 −32.1 −102.3 −24.7 −205.6 −170.0 98.8 16.2 −126.7 16.2 −16.2 −30.7 35.5 2431 −270.6 −258.9 −103.8 −119.6 −25.1 −37.9 −79.8 41.5 −97.9 12.8 −80.2 −53.7 105.4 −39.4 2283 39.1 263.7 805 −175.7 1358 711 750 1036 668 1222 1074 1042 1028 1081 1372 955 868 1088 1720 913 242.0 221.0 222.2 249.0 3964 −16.2 917

735 −11 75.5 1083 504 422 605 −34.4 58 −6.5 −12 −223 −223.9 26.1 −49.5 −165 −71.1 −88 −109 −105.6 1063 −259.1 −87.0 −114.3 −13.2 −83.7 −50.9 0.0 −85.5 −89.7 −64 −49.0 112.9 5.5 1535 −21 304 −156.7 327.5 373 501 855 402 890 1114 186 547 614 870 446 651 712 1260 650 −38.9 237 277 259 2622 17 795

VAPOR PRESSURES TABLE 2-9

2-61

Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Compound

Pressure, mmHg 1

Name Neon Nickel carbonyl chloride Nitrogen Nitric oxide Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen pentoxide Nitrous oxide Nitrosyl chloride fluoride Osmium tetroxide (yellow) (white) Oxygen Ozone Phosgene Phosphorus (yellow) (violet) tribromide trichloride pentachloride Phosphine Phosphonium bromide chloride iodide Phosphorus trioxide pentoxide oxychloride thiobromide thiochloride Platinum Potassium bromide chloride fluoride hydroxide iodide Radon Rhenium heptoxide Rubidium bromide chloride fluoride iodide Selenium dioxide hexafluoride oxychloride tetrachloride Silicon dioxide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Trichlorofluorosilane Iodosilane Diiodosilane Disiloxan Trisilane Trisilazane Tetrasilane Octachlorotrisilane Hexachlorodisiloxane Hexachlorodisilane Tribromosilane Trichlorosilane Trifluorosilane Dibromosilane Difluorosilane Monobromosilane Monochlorosilane Monofluorosilane Tribromofluorosilane Dichlorodifluorosilane Trifluorobromosilane

5

10

20

Formula Ne Ni Ni(CO)4 NiCl2 N2 NO NO2 N2O5 N2O NOCl NOF OsO4 OsO4 O2 O3 COCl2 P P PBr3 PCl3 PCl5 PH3 PH4Br PH4Cl PH4I P4O6 P4O10 POCl3 PSBr3 PSCl3 Pt K KBr KCl KF KOH KI Rn Re2O7 Rb RbBr RbCl RbF RbI Se SeO2 SeF6 SeOCl2 SeCl4 Si SiO2 SiCl4 SiF4 SiFCl3 SiH3I SiH2I2 (SiH3)2O Si3H8 (SiH3)3N Si4H10 Si3Cl3 (SiCl3)2O Si2Cl6 SiHBr3 SiHCl3 SiHF3 SiH2Br2 SiH2F2 SiH3Br SiH3Cl SiH3F SiFBr3 SiF2Cl2 SiF3Br

40

60

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

−251.0 2364 −6.0 866 −209.7 −166.0 −14.7 7.4 −110.3 −46.3 −88.8 71.5 71.5 −198.8 −141.0 −35.6 197.3 349 103.6 21.0 117.0 −118.8 7.4 −52.0 29.3 108.3 510 47.4 126.3 63.8 3714 586 1137 1164 1245 1064 1080 −99.0 289.0 514 1114 1133 1168 1072 554 258.0 −73.9 118.0 147.5 2083 1969 +5.4 −113.3 −33.2 −4.4 79.4 −55.9 +1.6 −1.1 47.4 146.0 75.4 85.4 51.6 −16.4 −118.7 14.1 −107.3 −42.3 −68.5 −122.4 28.6 −70.3

−249.7 2473 +8.8 904 −205.6 −162.3 −5.0 15.6 −103.6 −34.0 −79.2 89.5 89.5 −194.0 −132.6 −22.3 222.7 370 125.2 37.6 131.3 −109.4 17.6 −44.0 39.9 129.0 532 65.0 141.8 82.0 3923 643 1212 1239 1323 1142 1152 −87.7 307.0 563 1186 1207 1239 1141 594 277.0 −64.8 134.6 161.0 2151 2053 21.0 −170.2 −19.3 +10.7 101.8 −43.5 17.8 +14.0 63.6 166.2 92.5 102.2 70.2 −1.8 −111.3 31.6 −98.3 −28.6 −57.0 −115.2 45.7 −58.0 −69.8

−248.1 2603 25.8 945 −200.9 −156.8 +8.0 24.4 −96.2 −20.3 −68.2 109.3 109.3 −188.8 −122.5 −7.6 251.0 391 149.7 56.9 147.2 −98.3 28.0 −35.4 51.6 150.3 556 84.3 157.8 102.3 4169 708 1297 1322 1411 1233 1238 −75.0 336.0 620 1267 1294 1322 1223 637 297.7 −55.2 151.7 176.4 2220 2141 38.4 −100.7 −4.0 27.9 125.5 −29.3 35.5 31.0 81.7 189.5 113.6 120.6 90.2 +14.5 −102.8 50.7 −87.6 −13.3 −44.5 −106.8 64.6 −45.0 −55.9

−246.0 2732 42.5 987 −195.8 −151.7 21.0 32.4 −85.5 −6.4 −56.0 130.0 130.0 −183.1 −111.1 +8.3 280.0 417 175.3 74.2 162.0 −87.5 38.3 −27.0 62.3 173.1 591 105.1 175.0 124.0 4407 774 1383 1407 1502 1327 1324 −61.8 362.4 679 1352 1381 1408 1304 680 317.0 −45.8 168.0 191.5 2287 2227 56.8 −94.8 +12.2 45.4 149.5 −15.4 53.1 48.7 100.0 211.4 135.6 139.0 111.8 31.8 −95.0 70.5 −77.8 +2.4 −30.4 −98.0 83.8 −31.8 −41.7

−248.7 1452 −25 1001 −210.0 −161 −9.3 30 −90.9 −64.5 −134 56 42 −218.7 −251 −104 44.1 590 −40 −111.8

Temperature, °C −257.3 1810

−255.5 1979

−254.6 2057

−253.7 2143

671 −226.1 −184.5 −55.6 −36.8 −143.4

731 −221.3 −180.6 −42.7 −23.0 −133.4

759 −219.1 −178.2 −36.7 −16.7 −128.7

789 −216.8 −175.3 −30.4 −10.0 −124.0

−132.0 3.2 −5.6 −219.1 −180.4 −92.9 76.6 237 7.8 −51.6 55.5

−120.3 22.0 +15.6 −213.4 −168.6 −77.0 111.2 271 34.4 −31.5 74.0

−114.3 31.3 26.0 −210.6 −163.2 −69.3 128.0 287 47.8 −21.3 83.2

−107.8 41.0 37.4 −207.5 −157.2 −60.3 146.2 306 62.4 −10.2 92.5

−43.7 −91.0 −25.2 384

−28.5 −79.6 −9.0 39.7 424

50.0 −18.3 2730 341 795 821 885 719 745 −144.2 212.5 297 781 792 921 748 356 157.0 −118.6 34.8 74.0 1724

72.4 +4.6 3007 408 892 919 988 814 840 −132.4 237.5 358 876 887 982 839 413 187.7 −105.2 59.8 96.3 1835

−63.4 −144.0 −92.6

−44.1 −134.8 −76.4 −53.0 3.8 −95.8 −49.7 −49.9 −6.2 74.7 17.8 27.4 −8.0 −62.6 −142.7 −40.0 −136.0 −85.7 −104.3 −145.5 −25.4 −110.5

−21.2 −74.0 −1.1 53.0 442 2.0 83.6 16.1 3146 443 940 968 1039 863 887 −126.3 248.0 389 923 937 1016 884 442 202.5 −98.9 71.9 107.4 1888 1732 −34.4 −130.4 −68.3 −47.7 18.0 −88.2 −40.0 −40.4 +4.3 89.3 29.4 38.8 +3.4 −53.4 −138.2 −29.4 −130.4 −77.3 −97.7 −141.2 −15.1 −102.9

−13.3 −68.0 +7.3 67.8 462 13.6 95.5 29.0 3302 483 994 1020 1096 918 938 −119.2 261.0 422 975 990 1052 935 473 217.5 −92.3 84.2 118.1 1942 1798 −24.0 −125.9 −59.0 −33.4 34.1 −79.8 −29.0 −30.0 15.8 104.2 41.5 51.5 16.0 −43.8 −132.9 −18.0 −124.3 −68.3 −90.1 −136.3 −3.7 −94.5

−112.5 −68.9 −68.7 −27.7 46.3 −5.0 +4.0 −30.5 −80.7 −152.0 −60.9 −146.7 −117.8 −153.0 −46.1 −124.7

−252.6 2234 −23.0 821 −214.0 −171.7 −23.9 −2.9 −118.3 −60.2 −100.3 51.7 50.5 −204.1 −150.7 −50.3 166.7 323 79.0 +2.3 102.5 −129.4 −5.0 −61.5 16.1 84.0 481 27.3 108.0 42.7 3469 524 1050 1078 1156 976 995 −111.3 272.0 459 1031 1047 1096 991 506 234.1 −84.7 98.0 130.1 2000 1867 −12.1 −120.8 −48.8 −21.8 52.6 −70.4 −16.9 −18.5 28.4 121.5 55.2 65.3 30.0 −32.9 −127.3 −5.2 −117.6 −57.8 −81.8 −130.8 +9.2 −85.0

−251.9 2289 −15.9 840 −212.3 −168.9 −19.9 +1.8 −114.9 −54.2 −95.7 59.4 59.4 −201.9 −146.7 −44.0 179.8 334 89.8 10.2 108.3 −125.0 +0.3 −57.3 21.9 94.2 493 35.8 116.0 51.8 3574 550 1087 1115 1193 1013 1030 −106.2 280.0 482 1066 1084 1123 1026 527 244.6 −80.0 106.5 137.8 2036 1911 −4.8 −117.5 −42.2 −14.3 64.0 −64.2 −9.0 −11.0 36.6 132.0 63.8 73.9 39.2 −25.8 −123.7 +3.2 −113.3 −51.1 −76.0 −127.2 17.4 −78.6

−132.5 −28.5 22.5 569 2 38 −36.2 1755 62.3 730 790 880 380 723 −71 296 38.5 682 715 760 642 217 340 −34.7 8.5 1420 1710 −68.8 −90 −120.8 −57.0 −1.0 −144.2 −117.2 −105.7 −93.6 −33.2 −1.2 −73.5 −126.6 −131.4 −70.2 −93.9 −82.5 −139.7 −70.5

(Continued )

2-62

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-9 Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name Trifluorochlorosilane Hexafluorodisilane Dichlorofluorobromosilane Dibromochlorofluorosilane Silane Disilane Silver chloride iodide Sodium bromide chloride cyanide fluoride hydroxide iodide Strontium Strontium oxide Sulfur monochloride hexafluoride Sulfuryl chloride Sulfur dioxide trioxide (α) trioxide (β) trioxide (γ) Tellurium chloride fluoride Thallium Thallous bromide chloride iodide Thionyl bromide Thionyl chloride Tin Stannic bromide Stannous chloride Stannic chloride iodide hydride Tin tetramethyl trimethyl-ethyl trimethyl-propyl Titanium chloride Tungsten Tungsten hexafluoride Uranium hexafluoride Vanadyl trichloride Xenon Zinc chloride fluoride diethyl Zirconium bromide chloride iodide

1

5

10

20

Formula SiF3Cl Si2F6 SiFCl2Br SiFClBr2 SiH4 Si2H6 Ag AgCl AgI Na NaBr NaCl NaCN NaF NaOH NaI Sr SrO S S2Cl2 SF6 SO2Cl2 SO2 SO3 SO3 SO3 Te TeCl4 TeF6 Tl TlBr TlCl TlI SOBr2 SOCl2 Sn SnBr4 SnCl2 SnCl4 SnI4 SnH4 Sn(CH3)4 Sn(CH3)3⋅C2H5 Sn(CH3)3⋅C3H7 TiCl4 W WF6 UF6 VOCl3 Xe Zn ZnCl2 ZnF2 Zn(C2H5)2 ZrBr4 ZrCl4 ZrI4

40

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

−108.2 −46.7 −29.0 −4.7 −146.3 −66.4 1795 1242 1152 662 1099 1169 1156 1403 1057 1039 1057

−101.7 −41.7 −19.5 +6.3 −140.5 −57.5 1865 1297 1210 701 1148 1220 1214 1455 1111 1083 1111

−91.7 −34.2 −3.2 23.0 −131.6 −44.6 1971 1379 1297 758 1220 1296 1302 1531 1192 1150 1192

−81.0 −26.4 +15.4 43.0 −122.0 −29.0 2090 1467 1400 823 1304 1379 1401 1617 1286 1225 1285

−70.0 −18.9 35.4 59.5 −111.5 −14.3 2212 1564 1506 892 1392 1465 1497 1704 1378 1304 1384

305.5 63.2 −96.8 +7.2 −54.6 +4.0 8.0 21.4 789 287 −73.8 1143 621 612 631 68.3 10.4 1903 116.2 467 43.5 234.2 −96.6 11.7 38.4 57.5 58.0 5007 −27.5 10.4 49.8 −137.7 700 584 1207 47.2 289 268 355

327.2 75.3 −90.9 17.8 −46.9 10.5 14.3 28.0 838 304 −67.9 1196 653 645 663 80.6 21.4 1968 131.0 493 54.7 254.2 −89.2 22.8 50.0 69.8 71.0 5168 −20.3 18.2 62.5 −132.8 736 610 1254 59.1 301 279 369

359.7 93.5 −82.3 33.7 −35.4 20.5 23.7 35.8 910 330 −57.3 1274 703 694 712 99.0 37.9 2063 152.8 533 72.0 283.5 −78.0 39.8 67.3 88.0 90.5 5403 −10.0 30.0 82.0 −125.4 788 648 1329 77.0 318 295 389

399.6 115.4 −72.6 51.3 −23.0 32.6 32.6 44.0 997 360 −48.2 1364 759 748 763 119.2 56.5 2169 177.7 577 92.1 315.5 −65.2 58.5 87.6 109.6 112.7 5666 +1.2 42.7 103.5 −117.1 844 689 1417 97.3 337 312 409

444.6 138.0 −63.5 69.2 −10.0 44.8 44.8 51.6 1087 392 −38.6 1457 819 807 823 139.5 75.4 2270 204.7 623 113.0 348.0 −52.3 78.0 108.8 131.7 136.0 5927 17.3 55.7 127.2 −108.0 907 732 1497 118.0 357 331 431

−142 −18.6 −112.3 −99.3 −185 −132.6 960.5 455 552 97.5 755 800 564 992 318 651 800 2430 112.8 −80 −50.2 −54.1 −73.2 16.8 32.3 62.1 452 224 −37.8 3035 460 430 440 −52.2 −104.5 231.9 31.0 246.8 −30.2 144.5 −149.9

60

Temperature, °C −144.0 −81.0 −86.5 −65.2 −179.3 −114.8 1357 912 820 439 806 865 817 1077 739 767 2068 183.8 −7.4 −132.7 −95.5 −39.0 −34.0 −15.3 520 −111.3 825 440 −6.7 −52.9 1492 316 −22.7 −140.0 −51.3 −30.0 −12.0 −13.9 3990 −71.4 −38.8 −23.2 −168.5 487 428 970 −22.4 207 190 264

−133.0 −68.8 −68.4 −45.5 −168.6 −99.3 1500 1019 927 511 903 967 928 1186 843 857 847 2198 223.0 +15.7 −120.6 −35.1 −83.0 −23.7 −19.2 −2.0 605 −98.8 931 490 487 502 +18.4 −32.4 1634 58.3 366 −1.0 156.0 −125.8 −31.0 −7.6 +10.7 +9.4 4337 −56.5 −22.0 +0.2 −158.2 558 481 1055 0.0 237 217 297

−127.0 −63.1 −59.0 −35.6 −163.0 −91.4 1575 1074 983 549 952 1017 983 1240 897 903 898 2262 243.8 27.5 −114.7 −24.8 −76.8 −16.5 −12.3 +4.3 650 233 −92.4 983 522 517 531 31.0 −21.9 1703 72.7 391 +10.0 175.8 −118.5 −20.6 +3.8 21.8 21.3 4507 −49.2 −13.8 12.2 −152.8 593 508 1086 +11.7 250 230 311

−120.5 −57.0 −48.8 −24.5 −156.9 −82.7 1658 1134 1045 589 1005 1072 1046 1300 953 952 953 2333 264.7 40.0 −108.4 −13.4 −69.7 −9.1 −4.9 11.1 697 253 −86.0 1040 559 550 567 44.1 −10.5 1777 88.1 420 22.0 196.2 −111.2 −9.3 16.1 34.0 34.2 4690 −41.5 −5.2 26.6 −147.1 632 536 1129 24.2 266 243 329

−112.8 −50.6 −37.0 −12.0 −150.3 −72.8 1743 1200 1111 633 1063 1131 1115 1363 1017 1005 1018 2410 288.3 54.1 −101.5 −1.0 −60.5 −1.0 +3.2 17.9 753 273 −78.4 1103 598 589 607 58.8 +2.2 1855 105.5 450 35.2 218.8 −102.3 +3.5 30.0 48.5 48.4 4886 −33.0 +4.4 40.0 −141.2 673 566 1175 38.0 281 259 344

−30 3370 −0.5 69.2 −111.6 419.4 365 872 −28 450 437 499

VAPOR PRESSURES

2-63

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm* Pressure, mmHg Compound

1

Name

Formula

Acenaphthalene Acetal Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetanilide Acetic acid anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetyl chloride Acetylene Acridine Acrolein (2-propenal) Acrylic acid Adipic acid Allene (propadiene) Allyl alcohol (propen-1-ol-3) chloride (3-chloropropene) isopropyl ether isothiocyanate n-propyl ether 4-Allylveratrole iso-Amyl acetate n-Amyl alcohol iso-Amyl alcohol sec-Amyl alcohol (2-pentanol) tert-Amyl alcohol sec-Amylbenzene iso-Amyl benzoate bromide (1-bromo-3-methylbutane) n-butyrate formate iodide (1-iodo-3-methylbutane) isobutyrate Amyl isopropionate iso-Amyl isovalerate n-Amyl levulinate iso-Amyl levulinate nitrate 4-tert-Amylphenol Anethole Angelonitrile Aniline 2-Anilinoethanol Anisaldehyde o-Anisidine (2-methoxyaniline) Anthracene Anthraquinone Azelaic acid Azelaldehyde Azobenzene Benzal chloride (α,α-Dichlorotoluene) Benzaldehyde Benzanthrone Benzene Benzenesulfonylchloride Benzil Benzoic acid anhydride Benzoin Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzotrichloride (α,α,α-Trichlorotoluene) Benzotrifluoride (α,α,α-Trifluorotoluene) Benzoyl bromide chloride nitrile Benzyl acetate alcohol

C12H10 C6H14O2 C2H4O C2H5NO C8H9NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C8H8O C2H3OCl C2H2 C13H9N C3H4O C3H4O2 C6H10O4 C3H4 C3H6O C3H5Cl C6H12O C4H5NS C6H12O C11H14O2 C7H14O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C11H16 C12H16O2 C5H11Br C9H18O2 C6H12O2 C5H11I C9H18O2 C8H16O2 C10H20O2 C10H18O3 C10H18O3 C5H11NO3 C11H16O C10H12O C5H7N C6H7N C8H11NO C8H8O2 C7H9NO C14H10 C14H8O2 C9H16O4 C9H18O C12H10N2 C7H6Cl2 C7H6O C17H10O C6H6 C6H5ClO2S C14H10O2 C7H6O2 C14H10O3 C14H12O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H5Cl3 C7H5F3 C7H5BrO C7H5ClO C8H5NO C9H10O2 C7H8O

5

10

20

114.8 −2.3 −65.1 92.0 146.6 +6.3 24.8 −40.5 −26.6 64.0 −35.0 −133.0 165.8 −46.0 27.3 191.0 −108.0 +0.2 −52.0 −23.1 +25.3 −18.2 113.9 +23.7 34.7 30.9 22.1 +7.2 55.8 104.5 +2.1 47.1 +5.4 +21.9 40.1 33.7 54.4 110.0 104.0 28.8 109.8 91.6 +15.0 57.9 134.3 102.6 88.0 173.5 219.4 210.4 58.4 135.7 64.0 50.1 274.5 −19.6 96.5 165.2 119.5 180.0 170.2 55.3 141.7 73.7 −10.3 75.4 59.1 71.7 73.4 80.8

131.2 +8.0 −56.8 105.0 162.0 17.5 36.0 −31.1 −16.3 78.0 −27.6 −128.2 184.0 −36.7 39.0 205.5 −101.0 10.5 −42.9 −12.9 38.3 −7.9 127.0 35.2 44.9 40.8 32.2 17.2 69.2 121.6 13.6 59.9 17.1 34.1 52.8 46.3 68.6 124.0 118.8 40.3 125.5 106.0 28.0 69.4 149.6 117.8 101.7 187.2 234.2 225.5 71.6 151.5 78.7 62.0 297.2 −11.5 112.0 183.0 132.1 198.0 188.1 69.2 157.6 87.6 −0.4 89.8 73.0 85.5 87.6 92.6

148.7 19.6 −47.8 120.0 180.0 29.9 48.3 −20.8 −5.0 92.4 −19.6 −122.8 203.5 −26.3 52.0 222.0 −93.4 21.7 −32.8 −1.8 52.1 +3.7 142.8 47.8 55.8 51.7 42.6 27.9 83.8 139.7 26.1 74.0 30.0 47.6 66.6 60.0 83.8 139.7 134.4 53.5 142.3 121.8 41.0 82.0 165.7 133.5 116.1 201.9 248.3 242.4 85.0 168.3 94.3 75.0 322.5 −2.6 129.0 202.8 146.7 218.0 207.0 83.4 175.8 102.7 12.2 105.4 87.6 100.2 102.3 105.8

40

60

100

200

400

760

197.5 50.1 −22.6 158.0 227.2 63.0 82.2 +7.7 27.0 133.6 +3.2 −107.9 256.0 +2.5 86.1 265.0 −72.5 50.0 −4.5 29.0 89.5 35.8 183.7 83.2 85.8 80.7 70.7 55.3 124.1 186.8 60.4 113.1 65.4 84.4 104.4 97.6 125.1 180.5 177.0 88.6 189.0 164.2 77.5 119.9 209.5 176.7 155.2 250.0 285.0 286.5 123.0 216.0 138.3 112.5 390.0 26.1 174.5 255.8 186.2 270.4 258.0 123.5 224.4 144.3 45.3 147.7 128.0 141.0 144.0 141.7

222.1 66.3 −10.0 178.3 250.5 80.0 100.0 22.7 43.7 154.2 16.1 −100.3 284.0 17.5 103.3 287.8 −61.3 64.5 10.4 44.3 108.0 52.6 204.0 101.3 102.0 95.8 85.7 69.7 145.2 210.2 78.7 133.2 83.2 103.8 124.2 117.3 146.1 203.1 198.1 106.7 213.0 186.1 96.3 140.1 230.6 199.0 175.3 279.0 314.6 309.6 142.1 240.0 160.7 131.7 426.5 42.2 198.0 283.5 205.8 299.1 284.4 144.1 249.8 165.6 62.5 169.2 149.5 161.3 165.5 160.0

250.0 84.0 +4.9 200.0 277.0 99.0 119.8 39.5 62.5 178.0 32.0 −92.0 314.3 34.5 122.0 312.5 −48.5 80.2 27.5 61.7 129.8 71.4 226.2 121.5 119.8 113.7 102.3 85.7 168.0 235.8 99.4 155.3 102.7 125.8 146.0 138.4 169.5 227.4 222.7 126.5 239.5 210.5 117.7 161.9 254.5 223.0 197.3 310.2 346.2 332.8 163.4 266.1 187.0 154.1

277.5 102.2 20.2 222.0 303.8 118.1 139.6 56.5 81.8 202.4 50.8 −84.0 346.0 52.5 141.0 337.5 −35.0 96.6 44.6 79.5 150.7 90.5 248.0 142.0 137.8 130.6 119.7 101.7 193.0 262.0 120.4 178.6 123.3 148.2 168.8 160.2 194.0 253.2 247.9 147.5 266.0 235.3 140.0 184.4 279.6 248.0 218.5 342.0 379.9 356.5 185.0 293.0 214.0 179.0

60.6 224.0 314.3 227.0 328.8 313.5 166.7 276.8 189.2 82.0 193.7 172.8 185.0 189.0 183.0

80.1 251.5 347.0 249.2 360.0 343.0 190.6 305.4 213.5 102.2 218.5 197.2 208.0 213.5 204.7

Temperature, °C −23.0 −81.5 65.0 114.0 −17.2 1.7 −59.4 −47.0 37.1 −50.0 −142.9 129.4 −64.5 +3.5 159.5 −120.6 −20.0 −70.0 −43.7 −2.0 −39.0 85.0 0.0 +13.6 +10.0 +1.5 −12.9 29.0 72.0 −20.4 21.2 −17.5 −2.5 14.8 +8.5 27.0 81.3 75.6 +5.2 62.6 −8.0 34.8 104.0 73.2 61.0 145.0 190.0 178.3 33.3 103.5 35.4 26.2 225.0 −36.7 65.9 128.4 96.0 143.8 135.6 28.2 108.2 45.8 −32.0 47.0 32.1 44.5 45.0 58.0

168.2 31.9 −37.8 135.8 199.6 43.0 62.1 −9.4 +7.7 109.4 −10.4 −116.7 224.2 −15.0 66.2 240.5 −85.2 33.4 −21.2 +10.9 67.4 16.4 158.3 62.1 68.0 63.4 54.1 38.8 100.0 158.3 39.8 90.0 44.0 62.3 81.8 75.5 100.6 155.8 151.7 67.6 160.3 139.3 55.8 96.7 183.7 150.5 132.0 217.5 264.3 260.0 100.2 187.9 112.1 90.1 350.0 +7.6 147.7 224.5 162.6 239.8 227.6 99.6 195.7 119.8 25.7 122.6 103.8 116.6 119.6 119.8

181.2 39.8 −31.4 145.8 211.8 51.7 70.8 −2.0 15.9 119.8 −4.5 −112.8 238.7 −7.5 75.0 251.0 −78.8 40.3 −14.1 18.7 76.2 25.0 169.6 71.0 75.5 71.0 61.5 46.0 110.4 171.4 48.7 99.8 53.3 71.9 91.7 85.2 110.3 165.2 162.6 76.3 172.6 149.8 65.2 106.0 194.0 161.7 142.1 231.8 273.3 271.8 110.0 199.8 123.4 99.6 368.8 15.4 158.2 238.2 172.8 252.7 241.7 109.8 208.2 130.0 34.0 133.4 114.7 127.0 129.8 129.3

Melting point, °C 95 −123.5 81 113.5 16.7 −73 −94.6 −41 20.5 −112.0 −81.5 110.5 −87.7 14 152 −136 −129 −136.4 −80

−117.2 −11.9

93 22.5 −6.2 2.5 5.2 217.5 286 106.5 68 −16.1 −26 174 +5.5 14.5 95 121.7 42 132 −12.9 48.5 −21.2 −29.3 0 −0.5 33.5 −51.5 −15.3

∗Compiled from the extended tables published by D. R. Stull in Ind. Eng. Chem., 39, 517 (1947). For information on fuels see Hibbard, N.A.C.A. Research Mem. E56I21, 1956. For methane see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. (Continued )

2-64

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Benzylamine Benzyl bromide (α-bromotoluene) chloride (α-chlorotoluene) cinnamate Benzyldichlorosilane Benzyl ethyl ether phenyl ether isothiocyanate Biphenyl 1-Biphenyloxy-2,3-epoxypropane d-Bornyl acetate Bornyl n-butyrate formate isobutyrate propionate Brassidic acid Bromoacetic acid 4-Bromoanisole Bromobenzene 4-Bromobiphenyl 1-Bromo-2-butanol 1-Bromo-2-butanone cis-1-Bromo-1-butene trans-1-Bromo-1-butene 2-Bromo-1-butene cis-2-Bromo-2-butene trans-2-Bromo-2-butene 1,4-Bromochlorobenzene 1-Bromo-1-chloroethane 1-Bromo-2-chloroethane 2-Bromo-4,6-dichlorophenol 1-Bromo-4-ethyl benzene (2-Bromoethyl)-benzene 2-Bromoethyl 2-chloroethyl ether (2-Bromoethyl)-cyclohexane 1-Bromoethylene Bromoform (tribromomethane) 1-Bromonaphthalene 2-Bromo-4-phenylphenol 3-Bromopyridine 2-Bromotoluene 3-Bromotoluene 4-Bromotoluene 3-Bromo-2,4,6-trichlorophenol 2-Bromo-1,4-xylene 1,2-Butadiene (methyl allene) 1,3-Butadiene n-Butane iso-Butane (2-methylpropane) 1,3-Butanediol 1,2,3-Butanetriol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 3-Butenenitrile iso-Butyl acetate n-Butyl acrylate alcohol iso-Butyl alcohol sec-Butyl alcohol tert-Butyl alcohol iso-Butyl amine n-Butylbenzene iso-Butylbenzene sec-Butylbenzene tert-Butylbenzene iso-Butyl benzoate n-Butyl bromide (1-bromobutane) iso-Butyl n-butyrate carbamate Butyl carbitol (diethylene glycol butyl ether) n-Butyl chloride (1-chlorobutane) iso-Butyl chloride

1

5

10

20

29.0 32.2 22.0 173.8 45.3 26.0 95.4 79.5 70.6 135.3 46.9 74.0 47.0 70.0 64.6 209.6 54.7 48.8 +2.9 98.0 23.7 +6.2 −44.0 −38.4 −47.3 −39.0 −45.0 32.0 −36.0 −28.8 84.0 30.4 48.0 36.5 38.7 −95.4

70.0

54.8 59.6 47.8 206.3 70.2 52.0 127.7 107.8 101.8 169.9 75.7 103.4 74.8 99.8 93.7 241.7 81.6 77.8 27.8 133.7 45.4 30.0 −23.2 −17.0 −27.0 −17.9 −24.1 59.5 −18.0 −7.0 115.6 42.5 76.2 63.2 66.6 −77.8 22.0 117.5 135.4 42.0 49.7 50.8 47.5 146.2 65.0 −72.7 −87.6 −85.7 −94.1 67.5 132.0 −89.4 −81.1 −84.0 +2.9 +1.4 +23.5 +20.0 +11.6 +7.2 −3.0 −31.0 48.8 40.5 44.2 39.0 93.6 −11.2 30.0 83.7 95.7

67.7 73.4 60.8 221.5 83.2 65.0 144.0 121.8 117.0 187.2 90.2 118.0 89.3 114.0 108.0 256.0 94.1 91.9 40.0 150.6 55.8 41.8 −12.8 −6.4 −16.8 −7.2 −13.8 72.7 −9.4 +4.1 130.8 74.0 90.5 76.3 80.5 −68.8 34.0 133.6 152.3 55.2 62.3 64.0 61.1 163.2 78.8 −64.2 −79.7 −77.8 −86.4 85.3 146.0 −81.6 −73.4 −76.3 14.1 12.8 35.5 30.2 21.7 16.9 +5.5 −21.0 62.0 53.7 57.0 51.7 108.6 −0.3 42.2 96.4 107.8

81.8 88.3 75.0 239.3 96.7 79.6 160.7 137.0 134.2 205.8 106.0 133.8 104.0 130.0 123.7 272.9 108.2 107.8 53.8 169.8 67.2 54.2 −1.4 +5.4 −5.3 +4.6 −2.4 87.8 0.0 16.0 147.7 90.2 105.8 90.8 95.8 −58.8 48.0 150.2 171.8 69.1 76.0 78.1 75.2 181.8 94.0 −54.9 −71.0 −68.9 −77.9 100.0 161.0 −73.0 −64.6 −67.5 26.6 25.5 48.6 41.5 32.4 27.3 14.3 −10.3 76.3 67.8 70.6 65.6 124.2 +11.6 56.1 110.1 120.5

97.3 104.8 90.7 255.8 111.8 95.4 180.1 153.0 152.5 226.3 123.7 150.7 121.2 147.2 140.4 290.0 124.0 125.0 68.6 190.8 79.5 68.2 +11.5 18.4 +7.2 17.7 +10.5 103.8 +10.4 29.7 165.8 108.5 123.2 106.6 113.0 −48.1 63.6 170.2 193.8 84.1 91.0 93.9 91.8 200.5 110.6 −44.3 −61.3 −59.1 −68.4 117.4 178.0 −63.4 −54.7 −57.6 40.0 39.2 63.4 53.4 44.1 38.1 24.5 +1.3 92.4 83.3 86.2 80.8 141.8 24.8 71.7 125.3 135.5

C4H9Cl C4H9Cl

−49.0 −53.8

−28.9 −34.3

−18.6 −24.5

−7.4 −13.8

+5.0 −1.9

60

100

200

400

760

107.3 115.6 100.5 267.0 121.3 105.5 192.6 163.8 165.2 239.7 135.7 161.8 131.7 157.6 151.2 301.5 133.8 136.0 78.1 204.5 87.0 77.3 19.8 27.2 15.4 26.2 18.7 114.8 17.0 38.0 177.6 121.0 133.8 116.4 123.7 −41.2 73.4 183.5 207.0 94.1 100.0 104.1 102.3 213.0 121.6 −37.5 −55.1 −52.8 −62.4 127.5 188.0 −57.2 −48.4 −51.3 48.8 48.0 72.6 60.3 51.7 45.2 31.0 8.8 102.6 93.3 96.0 90.6 152.0 33.4 81.3 134.6 146.0

120.0 129.8 114.2 281.5 133.5 118.9 209.2 177.7 180.7 255.0 149.8 176.4 145.8 172.2 165.7 316.2 146.3 150.1 90.8 221.8 97.6 89.2 30.8 38.1 26.3 37.5 29.9 128.0 28.0 49.5 193.2 135.5 148.2 129.8 138.0 −31.9 85.9 198.8 224.5 107.8 112.0 117.8 116.4 229.3 135.7 −28.3 −46.8 −44.2 −54.1 141.2 202.5 −48.9 −39.8 −42.7 60.2 59.7 85.1 70.1 61.5 54.1 39.8 18.8 116.2 107.0 109.5 103.8 166.4 44.7 94.0 147.2 159.8

140.0 150.8 134.0 303.8 152.0 139.6 233.2 198.0 204.2 280.4 172.0 198.0 166.4 194.2 187.5 336.8 165.8 172.7 110.1 248.2 112.1 107.0 47.8 55.7 42.8 54.5 46.5 149.5 44.7 66.8 216.5 156.5 169.8 150.0 160.0 −17.2 106.1 224.2 251.0 127.7 133.6 138.0 137.4 253.0 156.4 −14.2 −33.9 −31.2 −41.5 161.0 222.0 −36.2 −26.8 −29.7 78.0 77.6 104.0 84.3 75.9 67.9 52.7 32.0 136.9 127.2 128.8 123.7 188.2 62.0 113.9 165.7 181.2

161.3 175.2 155.8 326.7 173.0 161.5 259.8 220.4 229.4 309.8 197.5 222.2 190.2 218.2 211.2 359.6 186.7 197.5 132.3 277.7 128.3 126.3 66.8 75.0 61.9 74.0 66.0 172.6 63.4 86.0 242.0 182.0 194.0 172.3 186.2 −1.1 127.9 252.0 280.2 150.0 157.3 160.0 160.2 278.0 181.0 +1.8 −19.3 −16.3 −27.1 183.8 243.5 −21.7 −12.0 −14.8 98.0 97.5 125.2 100.8 91.4 83.9 68.0 50.7 159.2 149.6 150.3 145.8 212.8 81.7 135.7 186.0 205.0

184.5 198.5 179.4 350.0 194.3 185.0 287.0 243.0 254.9 340.0 223.0 247.0 214.0 243.0 235.0 382.5 208.0 223.0 156.2 310.0 145.0 147.0 86.2 94.7 81.0 93.9 85.5 196.9 82.7 106.7 268.0 206.0 219.0 195.8 213.0 +15.8 150.5 281.1 311.0 173.4 181.8 183.7 184.5 305.8 206.7 18.5 −4.5 −0.5 −11.7 206.5 264.0 −6.3 +3.7 +0.9 119.0 118.0 147.4 117.5 108.0 99.5 82.9 68.6 183.1 172.8 173.5 168.5 237.0 101.6 156.9 206.5 231.2

13.0 +5.9

24.0 16.0

40.0 32.0

58.8 50.0

77.8 68.9

Temperature, °C

Formula C7H9N C7H7Br C7H7Cl C16H14O2 C7H8Cl2Si C9H12O C13H12O C8H7NS C12H10 C15H14O2 C12H20O2 C14H24O2 C11H18O2 C14H24O2 C13H22O2 C22H42O2 C2H3BrO2 C7H7BrO C6H5Br C12H9Br C4H9BrO C4H7BrO C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C6H4BrCl C2H4BrCl C2H4BrCl C6H3BrCl2O C8H9Br C8H9Br C4H8BrClO C8H15Br C2H3Br CHBr3 C10H7Br C12H9BrO C5H4BrN C7H7Br C7H7Br C7H7Br C6H2BrCl3O C8H9Br C 4H 6 C 4H 6 C4H10 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O3 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H5N C6H12O2 C7H12O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H11N C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C11H14O2 C4H9Br C8H16O2 C5H11NO2 C8H18O3

40

84.2 100.0 16.8 24.4 14.8 10.3 112.4 37.5 −89.0 −102.8 −101.5 −109.2 22.2 102.0 −104.8 −96.4 −99.4 −19.6 −21.2 −0.5 −1.2 −9.0 −12.2 −20.4 −50.0 22.7 14.1 18.6 13.0 64.0 −33.0 +4.6

Melting point, °C −4 −39 39

69.5 29

61.5 49.5 12.5 −30.7 90.5

−100.3 −133.4 −111.2 −114.6 16.6 −16.6 68 −45.0

−138 8.5 5.5 95 −28 39.8 28.5 +9.5 −108.9 −135 −145 77 −130 −138.9 −105.4 −98.9 −64.6 −79.9 −108 −114.7 25.3 −85.0 −88.0 −51.5 −75.5 −58 −112.4 65 −123.1 −131.2

VAPOR PRESSURES

2-65

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Formula

sec-Butyl chloride (2-Chlorobutane) tert-Butyl chloride sec-Butyl chloroacetate 2-tert-Butyl-4-cresol 4-tert-Butyl-2-cresol iso-Butyl dichloroacetate 2,3-Butylene glycol (2,3-butanediol) 2-Butyl-2-ethylbutane-1,3-diol 2-tert-Butyl-4-ethylphenol n-Butyl formate iso-Butyl formate sec-Butyl formate sec-Butyl glycolate iso-Butyl iodide (1-iodo-2-methylpropane) isobutyrate isovalerate levulinate naphthylketone (1-isovaleronaphthone) 2-sec-Butylphenol 2-tert-Butylphenol 4-iso-Butylphenol 4-sec-Butylphenol 4-tert-Butylphenol 2-(4-tert-Butylphenoxy)ethyl acetate 4-tert-Butylphenyl dichlorophosphate

C4H9Cl C4H9Cl C6H11ClO2 C11H16O C11H16O C6H10Cl2O2 C4H10O2 C10H22O2 C12H15O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O3 C4H9I C8H16O2 C9H18O2 C9H16O3 C15H16O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C14H20O3 C10H13Cl2 O2P C11H14O C7H14O2 C12H18O C12H18O C12H18O C12H18O C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H7N C11H14O C10H16 C10H16O2 C10H16O C10H19N C10H20O C10H20O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C6H10O2 C6H11N C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O2 C8H15N C12H9N CO2 CS2 CO COSe COS CBr4 CCl4 CF4 C10H14O C10H14O C10H12O2 C2HCl3O C2H3Cl3O2 C6Cl4O2 C2H3ClO2 C4H4Cl2O3 C6H6ClN C6H6ClN C6H6ClN C6H5Cl

tert-Butyl phenyl ketone (pivalophenone) iso-Butyl propionate 4-tert-Butyl-2,5-xylenol 4-tert-Butyl-2,6-xylenol 6-tert-Butyl-2,4-xylenol 6-tert-Butyl-3,4-xylenol Butyric acid iso-Butyric acid Butyronitrile iso-Valerophenone Camphene Campholenic acid d-Camphor Camphylamine Capraldehyde Capric acid n-Caproic acid iso-Caproic acid iso-Caprolactone Capronitrile Capryl alcohol (2-octanol) Caprylaldehyde Caprylic acid (octanoic acid) Caprylonitrile Carbazole Carbon dioxide disulfide monoxide oxyselenide (carbonyl selenide) oxysulfide (carbonyl sulfide) tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Carvacrol Carvone Chavibetol Chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate) Chloranil Chloroacetic acid anhydride 2-Chloroaniline 3-Chloroaniline 4-Chloroaniline Chlorobenzene 2-Chlorobenzotrichloride (2-α,α,α-tetrachlorotoluene)

C7H4Cl4

1

5

10

20

−60.2

−39.8

−29.2

−17.7

17.0 70.0 74.3 28.6 44.0 94.1 76.3 −26.4 −32.7 −34.4 28.3 −17.0 +4.1 16.0 65.0 136.0 57.4 56.6 72.1 71.4 70.0 118.0 96.0

41.8 98.0 103.7 54.3 68.4 122.6 106.2 −4.7 −11.4 −13.3 53.6 +5.8 28.0 41.2 92.1 167.9 86.0 84.2 100.9 100.5 99.2 150.0 129.6

54.6 112.0 118.0 67.5 80.3 136.8 121.0 +6.1 −0.8 −3.1 66.0 17.0 39.9 53.8 105.9 184.0 100.8 98.1 115.5 114.8 114.0 165.8 146.0

57.8 −2.3 88.2 74.0 70.3 83.9 25.5 14.7 −20.0 58.3

85.7 +20.9 119.8 103.9 100.2 113.6 49.8 39.3 +2.1 87.0

97.6 41.5 45.3 51.9 125.0 71.4 66.2 38.3 9.2 32.8 73.4 92.3 43.0

40

60

Melting point, °C

100

200

400

760

31.5 +14.6 124.1 187.8 197.8 139.2 145.6 212.0 200.3 67.9 60.0 56.8 135.5 81.0 106.3 124.8 181.8 269.7 179.7 173.8 192.1 194.3 191.5 250.3 240.0

50.0 32.6 146.0 210.0 221.8 160.0 164.0 233.5 223.8 86.2 79.0 75.2 155.6 100.3 126.3 146.4 205.5 294.0 203.8 196.3 214.7 217.6 214.0 277.6 268.2

68.0 51.0 167.8 232.6 247.0 183.0 182.0 255.0 247.8 106.0 98.2 93.6 177.5 120.4 147.5 168.7 229.9 320.0 228.0 219.5 237.0 242.1 238.0 304.4 299.0

Temperature, °C

68.2 127.2 134.0 81.4 93.4 151.2 137.0 18.0 +11.0 +8.4 79.8 29.8 52.4 67.7 120.2 201.6 116.1 113.0 130.3 130.3 129.5 183.3 164.0

−5.0 −19.0 83.6 143.9 150.8 96.7 107.8 167.8 154.0 31.6 24.1 21.3 94.2 42.8 67.2 82.7 136.2 219.7 133.4 129.2 147.2 147.8 146.0 201.5 184.3

+3.4 −11.4 93.0 153.7 161.7 106.6 116.3 178.0 165.4 39.8 32.4 29.6 104.0 51.8 75.9 92.4 147.0 231.5 143.9 140.0 157.0 157.9 156.0 212.8 197.2

14.2 −1.0 105.5 167.0 176.2 119.8 127.8 191.9 179.0 51.0 43.4 40.2 116.4 63.5 88.0 105.2 160.2 246.7 157.3 153.5 171.2 172.4 170.2 228.0 214.3

125.7 68.6 74.0 78.8 142.0 89.5 83.0 66.4 34.6 57.6 92.0 114.1 67.6

99.0 32.3 135.0 119.0 115.0 127.0 61.5 51.2 13.4 101.4 47.2 139.8 82.3 83.7 92.0 152.2 99.5 94.0 80.3 47.5 70.0 101.2 124.0 80.4

114.3 44.8 151.0 135.0 131.0 143.0 74.0 64.0 25.7 116.8 60.4 153.9 97.5 97.6 106.3 165.0 111.8 107.0 95.7 61.7 83.3 110.2 136.4 94.6

130.4 58.5 169.8 152.2 148.5 159.7 88.0 77.8 38.4 133.8 75.7 170.0 114.0 112.5 122.2 179.9 125.0 120.4 112.3 76.9 98.0 120.0 150.6 110.6

−134.3 −73.8 −222.0 −117.1 −132.4

−124.4 −54.3 −217.2 −102.3 −119.8

−119.5 −44.7 −215.0 −95.0 −113.3

−114.4 −34.3 −212.8 −86.3 −106.0

−50.0 −184.6 70.0 57.4 83.6 −37.8 −9.8

−30.0 −174.1 98.4 86.1 113.3 −16.0 +10.0

−19.6 −169.3 113.2 100.4 127.0 −5.0 19.5

−8.2 −164.3 127.9 116.1 143.2 +7.2 29.2

−108.6 −22.5 −210.0 −76.4 −98.3 96.3 +4.3 −158.8 145.2 133.0 159.8 20.2 39.7

140.8 67.6 180.3 163.6 158.2 170.0 96.5 86.3 47.3 144.6 85.0 180.0 124.0 122.0 132.0 189.8 133.3 129.6 123.2 86.8 107.4 126.0 160.0 121.2 248.2 −104.8 −15.3 −208.1 −70.2 −93.0 106.3 12.3 −155.4 155.3 143.8 170.7 29.1 46.2

154.0 79.5 195.0 176.0 172.0 184.0 108.0 98.0 59.0 158.0 97.9 193.7 138.0 134.6 145.3 200.0 144.0 141.4 137.2 99.8 119.8 133.9 172.2 134.8 265.0 −100.2 −5.1 −205.7 −61.7 −85.9 119.7 23.0 −150.7 169.7 157.3 185.5 40.2 55.0

70.7 43.0 67.2 46.3 63.5 59.3 −13.0

89.3 68.3 94.1 72.3 89.8 87.9 +10.6

97.8 81.0 108.0 84.8 102.0 102.1 22.2

106.4 94.2 122.4 99.2 116.7 117.8 35.3

116.1 109.2 138.2 115.6 133.6 135.0 49.7

122.0 118.3 148.0 125.7 144.1 145.8 58.3

129.5 130.7 159.8 139.5 158.0 159.9 70.7

140.3 149.0 177.8 160.0 179.5 182.3 89.4

151.3 169.0 197.0 183.7 203.5 206.6 110.0

162.6 189.5 217.0 208.8 228.5 230.5 132.2

290 61.2 46 0 −10.4 70.5 −45.2

69.0

101.8

117.9

135.8

155.0

167.8

185.0

208.0

233.0

262.1

28.7

175.0 197.7 220.0 97.0 116.4 136.8 217.5 241.3 265.3 196.0 217.8 239.8 192.3 214.2 236.5 204.5 226.7 249.5 125.5 144.5 163.5 115.8 134.5 154.5 76.7 96.8 117.5 180.1 204.2 228.0 117.5 138.7 160.5 212.7 234.0 256.0 157.9 182.0 209.2 153.0 173.8 195.0 164.8 186.3 208.5 217.1 240.3 268.4 160.8 181.0 202.0 158.3 181.0 207.7 157.8 182.1 207.0 119.7 141.0 163.7 138.0 157.5 178.5 145.4 156.5 168.5 190.3 213.9 237.5 155.2 179.5 204.5 292.5 323.0 354.8 −93.0 −85.7 −78.2 +10.4 28.0 46.5 −201.3 −196.3 −191.3 −49.8 −35.6 −21.9 −75.0 −62.7 −49.9 139.7 163.5 189.5 38.3 57.8 76.7 −143.6 −135.5 −127.7 191.2 213.8 237.0 179.6 203.5 227.5 206.8 229.8 254.0 57.8 77.5 97.7 68.0 82.1 96.2

−131.3 −26.5

22.5

−95.3 −90.7 −80.7

99

−71

−74 −47 50 178.5 31.5 −1.5 −35 −38.6 16 244.8 −57.5 −110.8 −205.0 −138.8 90.1 −22.6 −183.7 +0.5 −57 51.7

(Continued )

2-66

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name 2-Chlorobenzotrifluoride (2-chloro-α,α,α-trifluorotoluene) 2-Chlorobiphenyl 4-Chlorobiphenyl α-Chlorocrotonic acid Chlorodifluoromethane Chlorodimethylphenylsilane 1-Chloro-2-ethoxybenzene 2-(2-Chloroethoxy) ethanol bis-2-Chloroethyl acetacetal 1-Chloro-2-ethylbenzene 1-Chloro-3-ethylbenzene 1-Chloro-4-ethylbenzene 2-Chloroethyl chloroacetate 2-Chloroethyl 2-chloroisopropyl ether 2-Chloroethyl 2-chloropropyl ether 2-Chloroethyl α-methylbenzyl ether Chloroform (trichloromethane) 1-Chloronaphthalene 4-Chlorophenethyl alcohol 2-Chlorophenol 3-Chlorophenol 4-Chlorophenol 2-Chloro-3-phenylphenol 2-Chloro-6-phenylphenol Chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) 1-Chloropropene 2-Chloropyridine 3-Chlorostyrene 4-Chlorostyrene 1-Chlorotetradecane 2-Chlorotoluene 3-Chlorotoluene 4-Chlorotoluene Chlorotriethylsilane 1-Chloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethylene Chlorotrifluoromethane Chlorotrimethylsilane trans-Cinnamic acid Cinnamyl alcohol Cinnamylaldehyde Citraconic anhydride cis-α-Citral d-Citronellal Citronellic acid Citronellol Citronellyl acetate Coumarin o-Cresol (2-cresol; 2-methylphenol) m-Cresol (3-cresol; 3-methylphenol) p-Cresol (4-cresol; 4-methylphenol) cis-Crotonic acid trans-Crotonic acid cis-Crotononitrile trans-Crotononitrile Cumene 4-Cumidene Cuminal Cuminyl alcohol 2-Cyano-2-n-butyl acetate Cyanogen bromide chloride iodide Cyclobutane Cyclobutene Cyclohexane Cyclohexaneethanol Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone 2-Cyclohexyl-4,6-dinitrophenol Cyclopentane Cyclopropane Cymene

1

5

10

20

60

100

200

400

760

88.3 197.0 212.5 155.9 −76.4 124.7 141.8 139.5 150.7 110.0 113.6 116.0 140.0 115.8 125.6 164.8 10.4 180.4 188.1 106.0 143.0 150.0 237.0 237.1 53.8 −15.1 104.6 121.2 122.0 215.5 94.7 96.3 96.6 82.3 −66.7 −111.7 +6.0 232.4 177.8 177.7 145.4 160.0 140.1 195.4 159.8 161.0 216.5 127.4 138.0 140.0 116.3 128.0 50.1 62.8 88.1 158.0 160.0 176.2 133.8 −51.8 22.6 −24.9 97.6 −32.8 −41.2 25.5 142.7 103.7 90.4 229.0 −1.3 −70.0 110.8

108.3 219.6 237.8 173.8 −65.8 145.5 162.0 157.2 169.8 130.2 133.8 137.0 159.8 135.7 146.3 186.3 25.9 204.2 210.0 126.4 164.8 172.0 261.3 261.6 71.8 +1.3 125.0 142.2 143.5 240.3 115.0 116.6 117.1 101.6 −55.0 −102.5 21.9 253.3 199.8 199.3 165.8 181.8 160.0 214.5 179.8 178.8 240.0 146.7 157.3 157.3 133.9 146.0 68.0 81.1 107.3 180.0 182.8 197.9 152.2 −42.6 33.8 −14.1 111.5 −18.9 −27.8 42.0 161.7 121.7 110.3 248.7 +13.8 −59.1 131.4

130.0 243.8 264.5 193.2 −53.6 168.6 185.5 176.5 190.5 152.2 156.7 159.8 182.2 156.5 169.8 210.8 42.7 230.8 234.5 149.8 188.7 196.0 289.4 289.5 91.8 18.0 147.7 165.7 166.0 267.5 137.1 139.7 139.8 123.6 −41.7 −92.7 39.4 276.7 224.6 222.4 189.8 205.0 183.8 236.6 201.0 197.8 264.7 168.4 179.0 179.4 152.2 165.5 88.0 101.5 129.2 203.2 206.7 221.7 173.4 −33.0 46.0 −2.3 126.1 −3.4 −12.2 60.8 183.5 141.4 132.5 269.8 31.0 −46.9 153.5

152.2 267.5 292.9 212.0 −40.8 193.5 208.0 196.0 212.6 177.6 181.1 184.3 205.0 180.0 194.1 235.0 61.3 259.3 259.3 174.5 214.0 220.0 317.5 317.0 111.9 37.0 170.2 190.0 191.0 296.0 159.3 162.3 162.3 146.3 −27.9 −81.2 57.9 300.0 250.0 246.0 213.5 228.0 206.5 257.0 221.5 217.0 291.0 190.8 202.8 201.8 171.9 185.0 108.0 122.8 152.4 227.0 232.0 246.6 195.2 −21.0 61.5 +13.1 141.1 +12.9 +2.4 80.7 205.4 161.0 155.6 291.5 49.3 −33.5 177.2

Temperature, °C

Formula C7H4ClF3 C12H9Cl C12H9Cl C4H5ClO2 CHClF2 C8H11ClSi C8H9ClO C4H9ClO2 C6H12Cl2O2 C8H9Cl C8H9Cl C8H9Cl C4H6Cl2O2 C5H10Cl2O C5H10Cl2O C10H13ClO CHCl3 C10H7Cl C8H9ClO C6H5ClO C6H5ClO C6H5ClO C12H9ClO C12H9ClO CCl3NO2 C3H5Cl C5H4ClN C8H7Cl C8H7Cl C14H29Cl C7H7Cl C7H7Cl C7H7Cl C6H15ClSi C2ClF3 CClF3 C3H9ClSi C9H8O2 C9H10O C9H8O C5H4O3 C10H16O C10H18O C10H18O2 C10H20O C12H22O2 C9H6O2 C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C4H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H5N C4H5N C9H12 C9H13N C10H12O C10H14O C7H11NO2 C2N2 CBrN CClN CIN C4H8 C4H6 C6H12 C8H16O C6H12O C6H10O C12H14N2O5 C5H10 C3H6 C10H14

40

0.0 89.3 96.4 70.0 −122.8 29.8 45.8 53.0 56.2 17.2 18.6 19.2 46.0 24.7 29.8 62.3 −58.0 80.6 84.0 12.1 44.2 49.8 118.0 119.8 −25.5 −81.3 13.3 25.3 28.0 98.5 +5.4 +4.8 +5.5 −4.9 −116.0 −149.5 −62.8 127.5 72.6 76.1 47.1 61.7 44.0 99.5 66.4 74.7 106.0 38.2 52.0 53.0 33.5

24.7 109.8 129.8 95.6 −110.2 56.7 72.8 78.3 83.7 43.0 45.2 46.4 72.1 50.1 56.5 91.4 −39.1 104.8 114.3 38.2 72.0 78.2 152.2 153.7 −3.3 −63.4 38.8 51.3 54.5 131.8 30.6 30.3 31.0 +19.8 −102.5 −139.2 −43.6 157.8 102.5 105.8 74.8 90.0 71.4 127.3 93.6 100.2 137.8 64.0 76.0 76.5 57.4

−29.0 −19.5 +2.9 60.0 58.0 74.2 42.0 −95.8 −35.7 −76.7 25.2 −92.0 −99.1 −45.3 50.4 21.0 +1.4 132.8 −68.0 −116.8 17.3

−7.1 +3.5 26.8 88.2 87.3 103.7 68.7 −83.2 −18.3 −61.4 47.2 −76.0 −83.4 −25.4 77.2 44.0 26.4 161.8 −49.6 −104.2 43.9

37.1 134.7 146.0 108.0 −103.7 70.0 86.5 90.7 97.6 56.1 58.1 60.0 86.0 63.0 70.0 106.0 −29.7 118.6 129.0 51.2 86.1 92.2 169.7 170.7 +7.8 −54.1 51.7 65.2 67.5 148.2 43.2 43.2 43.8 32.0 −95.9 −134.1 −34.0 173.0 117.8 120.0 88.9 103.9 84.8 141.4 107.0 113.0 153.4 76.7 87.8 88.6 69.0 80.0 +4.0 15.0 38.3 102.2 102.0 118.0 82.0 −76.8 −10.0 −53.8 57.7 −67.9 −75.4 −15.9 90.0 56.0 38.7 175.9 −40.4 −97.5 57.0

50.6 151.2 164.0 121.2 −96.5 84.7 101.5 104.1 112.2 70.3 73.0 75.5 100.0 77.2 84.8 121.8 −19.0 134.4 145.0 65.9 101.7 108.1 186.7 189.8 20.0 −44.0 65.8 80.0 82.0 166.2 56.9 57.4 57.8 45.5 −88.2 −128.5 −23.2 189.5 133.7 135.7 103.8 119.4 99.8 155.6 121.5 126.0 170.0 90.5 101.4 102.3 82.0 93.0 16.4 27.8 51.5 117.8 117.9 133.8 96.2 −70.1 −1.0 −46.1 68.6 −58.7 −66.6 −5.0 104.0 68.8 52.5 191.2 −30.1 −90.3 71.1

65.9 169.9 183.8 135.6 −88.6 101.2 117.8 118.4 127.8 86.2 89.2 91.8 116.0 92.4 101.5 139.6 −7.1 153.2 162.0 82.0 118.0 125.0 207.4 208.2 33.8 −32.7 81.7 96.5 98.0 187.0 72.0 73.0 73.5 60.2 −79.7 −121.9 −11.4 207.1 151.0 152.2 120.3 135.9 116.1 171.9 137.2 140.5 189.0 105.8 116.0 117.7 96.0 107.8 30.0 41.8 66.1 134.2 135.2 150.3 111.8 −62.7 +8.6 −37.5 80.3 −48.4 −56.4 +6.7 119.8 83.0 67.8 206.7 −18.6 −82.3 87.0

75.4 182.1 196.0 144.4 −83.4 111.5 127.8 127.5 138.0 96.4 99.6 102.0 126.2 102.2 111.8 150.0 +0.5 165.6 173.5 92.0 129.4 136.1 219.6 220.0 42.3 −25.1 91.6 107.2 108.5 199.8 81.8 83.2 83.3 69.5 −74.1 −117.3 −4.0 217.8 162.0 163.7 131.3 146.3 126.2 182.1 147.2 149.7 200.5 115.5 125.8 127.0 104.5 116.7 38.5 50.9 75.4 145.0 146.0 161.7 121.5 −57.9 14.7 −32.1 88.0 −41.8 −50.0 14.7 129.8 91.8 77.5 216.0 −11.3 −77.0 97.2

Melting point, °C −6.0 34 75.5 −160

−80.2 −53.3 −62.6

−63.5 −20 7 32.5 42 +6 −64 −99.0 −15.0 +0.9 +7.3 −157.5 133 33 −7.5

70 30.8 10.9 35.5 15.5 72 −96.0

−34.4 58 −6.5 −50 +6.6 23.9 −45.0 −93.7 −126.6 −68.2

VAPOR PRESSURES

2-67

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name cis-Decalin trans-Decalin Decane Decan-2-one 1-Decene Decyl alcohol Decyltrimethylsilane Dehydroacetic acid Desoxybenzoin Diacetamide Diacetylene (1,3-butadiyne) Diallyldichlorosilane Diallyl sulfide Diisoamyl ether oxalate sulfide Dibenzylamine Dibenzyl ketone (1,3-diphenyl2-propanone) 1,4-Dibromobenzene 1,2-Dibromobutane dl-2,3-Dibromobutane meso-2,3-Dibromobutane 1,2-Dibromodecane Di(2-bromoethyl) ether α,β-Dibromomaleic anhydride 1,2-Dibromo-2-methylpropane 1,3-Dibromo-2-methylpropane 1,2-Dibromopentane 1,2-Dibromopropane 1,3-Dibromopropane 2,3-Dibromopropene 2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol Diisobutylamine 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-cresol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-2-cresol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-3-cresol 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-ethylphenol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-3-ethylphenol Diisobutyl oxalate 2,4-Ditert-butylphenol Dibutyl phthalate sulfide Diisobutyl d-tartrate Dicarvacryl-mono-(6-chloro-2-xenyl) phosphate Dicarvacryl-2-tolyl phosphate Dichloroacetic acid 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 1,3-Dichlorobenzene 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1,2-Dichlorobutane 2,3-Dichlorobutane 1,2-Dichloro-1,2-difluoroethylene Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorodiphenyl silane Dichlorodiisopropyl ether Di(2-chloroethoxy) methane Dichloroethoxymethylsilane 1,2-Dichloro-3-ethylbenzene 1,2-Dichloro-4-ethylbenzene 1,4-Dichloro-2-ethylbenzene cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene trans-1,2-Dichloro ethylene Di(2-chloroethyl) ether Dichlorofluoromethane 1,5-Dichlorohexamethyltrisiloxane Dichloromethylphenylsilane 1,1-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 1,2-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 1,3-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 2,4-Dichlorophenol 2,6-Dichlorophenol

1

5

10

20

40

C10H18 C10H18 C10H22 C10H20O C10H20 C10H22O C13H30Si C8H8O4 C14H12O C4H7NO2 C4H2 C6H10Cl2Si C6H10S C10H22O C12H22O4 C10H22S C14H15N C15H14O

22.5 −0.8 16.5 44.2 14.7 69.5 67.4 91.7 123.3 70.0 −82.5 +9.5 −9.5 18.6 85.4 43.0 118.3 125.5

50.1 +30.6 42.3 71.9 40.3 97.3 96.4 122.0 156.2 95.0 −68.0 34.8 +14.4 44.3 116.0 73.0 149.8 159.8

64.2 47.2 55.7 85.8 53.7 111.3 111.0 137.3 173.5 108.0 −61.2 47.4 26.6 57.0 131.4 87.6 165.6 177.6

79.8 65.3 69.8 100.7 67.8 125.8 126.5 153.0 192.0 122.6 −53.8 61.3 39.7 70.7 147.7 102.7 182.2 195.7

97.2 85.7 85.5 117.1 83.3 142.1 144.0 171.0 212.0 138.2 −45.9 76.4 54.2 86.3 165.7 120.0 200.2 216.6

C6H4Br2 C4H8Br2 C4H8Br2 C4H8Br2 C10H20Br2 C4H8Br2O C4H2Br2O3 C4H8Br2 C4H8Br2 C5H10Br2 C3H6Br2 C3H6Br2 C3H4Br2 C3H6Br2O C8H19N C15H24O C15H24O C15H24O C16H26O C16H26O C10H18O4 C14H22O C16H22O4 C8H18S C12H22O6 C32H34ClO4P

61.0 7.5 +5.0 +1.5 95.7 47.7 50.0 −28.8 14.0 19.8 −7.0 +9.7 −6.0 57.0 −5.1 85.8 86.2 103.7 89.1 111.5 63.2 84.5 148.2 +21.7 117.8 204.2

79.3 33.2 30.0 26.6 123.6 75.3 78.0 −3.0 40.0 45.4 +17.3 35.4 +17.9 84.5 +18.4 116.2 117.3 135.2 121.4 142.6 91.2 115.4 182.1 51.8 151.8 234.5

87.7 46.1 41.6 39.3 137.3 88.5 92.0 +10.5 53.0 58.0 29.4 48.0 30.0 98.2 30.6 131.0 132.4 150.0 137.0 157.4 105.3 130.0 198.2 66.4 169.0 249.3

103.6 60.0 56.4 53.2 151.0 103.6 106.7 25.7 67.5 72.0 42.3 62.1 43.2 113.5 43.7 147.0 149.0 167.0 154.0 174.0 120.3 146.0 216.2 80.5 188.0 264.5

C27H33O4P C2H2Cl2O2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C4H8Cl2 C4H8Cl2 C2Cl2F2 CCl2F2 C12H10Cl2Si C6H12Cl2O C5H10Cl2O2 C8H8Cl2OSi C8H8Cl2 C8H8Cl2 C8H8Cl2 C2H2Cl2 C2H2Cl2 C4H8Cl2O CHCl2F C6H18Cl2 O2Si3 C7H8Cl2Si C4H8Cl2 C4H8Cl2 C4H8Cl2 C6H4Cl2O C6H4Cl2O

180.2 44.0 20.0 12.1

209.3 69.8 46.0 39.0

−23.6 −25.2 −82.0 −118.5 109.6 29.6 53.0 −33.8 46.0 47.0 38.5 −58.4 −65.4 23.5 −91.3 26.0

−0.3 −3.0 −65.6 −104.6 142.4 55.2 80.4 −12.1 75.0 77.2 68.0 −39.2 −47.2 49.3 −75.5 52.0

221.8 82.6 59.1 52.0 54.8 +11.5 +8.5 −57.3 −97.8 158.0 68.2 94.0 −1.3 90.0 92.3 83.2 −29.9 −38.0 62.0 −67.5 65.1

35.7 −31.0 −25.8 −3.0 53.0 59.5

63.5 −8.4 −4.2 +20.6 80.0 87.6

77.4 +2.6 +6.7 32.0 92.8 101.0

60

Melting point, °C

100

200

400

760

108.0 98.4 95.5 127.8 93.5 152.0 154.3 181.5 224.5 148.0 −41.0 86.3 63.7 96.0 177.0 130.6 212.2 229.4

123.2 114.6 108.6 142.0 106.5 165.8 169.5 197.5 241.3 160.6 −34.0 99.7 75.8 109.6 192.2 145.3 227.3 246.6

145.4 136.2 128.4 163.2 126.7 186.2 191.0 219.5 265.2 180.8 −20.9 119.4 94.8 129.0 215.0 166.4 249.8 272.3

169.9 160.1 150.6 186.7 149.2 208.8 215.5 244.5 293.0 202.0 −6.1 142.0 116.1 150.3 240.0 191.0 274.3 301.7

194.6 186.7 174.1 211.0 172.0 231.0 240.0 269.0 321.0 223.0 +9.7 165.3 138.6 173.4 265.0 216.0 300.0 330.5

120.8 76.0 72.0 68.0 167.4 119.8 123.5 42.3 83.5 87.4 57.2 77.8 57.8 129.8 57.8 164.1 167.4 185.3 172.1 192.3 137.5 164.3 235.8 96.0 208.5 280.5

131.6 86.0 82.0 78.0 177.5 130.0 133.8 53.7 93.7 97.4 66.4 87.8 67.0 140.0 67.0 175.2 179.0 196.1 183.9 204.4 147.8 175.8 247.8 105.8 221.6 290.7

146.5 99.8 95.3 91.7 190.2 144.0 147.7 68.8 107.4 110.1 78.7 101.3 79.5 153.0 79.2 190.0 194.0 211.0 198.0 218.0 161.8 190.0 263.7 118.6 239.5 304.9

168.5 120.2 115.7 111.8 209.6 165.0 168.0 92.1 117.8 130.2 97.8 121.7 98.0 173.8 97.6 212.8 217.5 233.0 220.0 241.7 183.5 212.5 287.0 138.0 264.7 323.8

192.5 143.5 138.0 134.2 229.8 188.0 192.0 119.8 150.6 151.8 118.5 144.1 119.5 196.0 118.0 237.6 243.4 257.1 244.0 264.6 205.8 237.0 313.5 159.0 294.0 342.0

218.6 166.3 160.5 157.3 250.4 212.5 215.0 149.0 174.6 175.0 141.6 167.5 141.2 219.0 139.5 262.5 269.3 282.0 268.6 290.0 229.5 260.8 340.0 182.0 324.0 361.0

237.0 96.3 73.4 66.2 69.2 24.5 21.2 −48.3 −90.1 176.0 82.2 109.5 +11.3 105.9 109.6 99.8 −19.4 −28.0 76.0 −58.6 79.0

251.5 111.8 89.4 82.0 84.8 37.7 35.0 −38.2 −81.6 195.5 97.3 125.5 24.4 123.8 127.5 118.0 −7.9 −17.0 91.5 −48.8 94.8

260.3 121.5 99.5 92.2 95.2 47.8 43.9 −31.8 −76.1 207.5 106.9 135.8 32.6 135.0 139.0 129.0 −0.5 −10.0 101.5 −42.6 105.0

272.5 134.0 112.9 105.0 108.4 60.2 56.0 −23.0 −68.6 223.8 119.7 149.6 44.1 149.8 153.3 144.0 +9.5 −0.2 114.5 −33.9 118.2

290.0 152.3 133.4 125.9 128.3 79.7 74.0 −10.0 −57.0 248.0 139.0 170.0 61.0 172.0 176.0 166.2 24.6 +14.3 134.0 −20.9 138.3

309.8 173.7 155.8 149.0 150.2 100.8 94.2 +5.0 −43.9 275.5 159.8 192.0 80.3 197.0 201.7 191.5 41.0 30.8 155.4 −6.2 160.2

330.0 194.4 179.0 173.0 173.9 123.5 116.0 20.9 −29.8 304.0 182.7 215.0 100.6 222.1 226.6 216.3 59.0 47.8 178.5 +8.9 184.0

92.4 14.6 18.7 44.8 107.7 115.5

109.5 28.2 32.0 58.6 123.4 131.6

120.0 37.0 40.2 67.5 133.5 141.8

134.2 48.2 51.7 78.8 146.0 154.6

155.5 65.8 68.9 96.1 165.2 175.5

180.2 85.4 87.8 115.4 187.5 197.7

205.5 106.0 108.0 135.0 210.0 220.0

Temperature, °C

Formula

−43.3 −30.7 −29.7 +3.5 +7 60 78.5 −34.9 −83

−26 34.5 87.5 −64.5 −34.5

−70.3 −55.5 −34.4 −70

−79.7 73.5

9.7 −17.6 −24.2 53.0 −80.4 −112

−40.8 −76.4 −61.2 −80.5 −50.0 −135 −53.0

45.0

(Continued )

2-68

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name α,α-Dichlorophenylacetonitrile Dichlorophenylarsine 1,2-Dichloropropane 2,3-Dichlorostyrene 2,4-Dichlorostyrene 2,5-Dichlorostyrene 2,6-Dichlorostyrene 3,4-Dichlorostyrene 3,5-Dichlorostyrene 1,2-Dichlorotetraethylbenzene 1,4-Dichlorotetraethylbenzene 1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane Dichloro-4-tolylsilane 3,4-Dichloro-α,α,α-trifluorotoluene Dicyclopentadiene Diethoxydimethylsilane Diethoxydiphenylsilane Diethyl adipate Diethylamine N-Diethylaniline Diethyl arsanilate 1,2-Diethylbenzene 1,3-Diethylbenzene 1,4-Diethylbenzene Diethyl carbonate cis-Diethyl citraconate Diethyl dioxosuccinate Diethylene glycol Diethyleneglycol-bis-chloroacetate Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether Di(2-methoxyethyl) ether glycol ethyl ether Diethyl ether ethylmalonate fumarate glutarate Diethylhexadecylamine Diethyl itaconate ketone (3-pentanone) malate maleate malonate mesaconate oxalate phthalate sebacate 2,5-Diethylstyrene Diethyl succinate isosuccinate sulfate sulfide sulfite d-Diethyl tartrate dl-Diethyl tartrate 3,5-Diethyltoluene Diethylzinc 1-Dihydrocarvone Dihydrocitronellol 1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone Dimethylacetylene (2-butyne) Dimethylamine N,N-Dimethylaniline Dimethyl arsanilate Di(α-methylbenzyl) ether 2,2-Dimethylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane Dimethyl citraconate 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,3-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,3-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,4-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,4-Dimethylcyclohexane

1

5

10

20

40

C8H5Cl2N C6H5AsCl2 C3H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C14H20Cl2 C14H20Cl2 C2Cl2F4 C7H8Cl2Si C7H3Cl2F3 C10H8 C6H16O2Si C16H20O2Si C10H18O4 C4H11N C10H15N C10H16As NO3 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C5H10O3 C9H14O4 C8H10O6 C4H10O3 C8H12Cl2O5

56.0 61.8 −38.5 61.0 53.5 55.5 47.8 57.2 53.5 105.6 91.7 −95.4 46.2 11.0 −19.1 111.5 74.0

84.0 100.0 −17.0 90.1 82.2 83.9 75.7 86.0 82.2 138.7 126.1 −80.0 71.7 38.3 34.1 +2.4 142.8 106.6

49.7

78.0

98.1 116.0 −6.1 104.6 97.4 98.2 90.0 100.4 97.4 155.0 143.8 −72.3 84.2 52.2 47.6 13.3 157.6 123.0 −33.0 91.9

113.8 133.1 +6.0 120.5 111.8 114.0 105.5 116.2 111.8 172.5 162.0 −63.5 97.8 67.3 62.0 25.3 174.3 138.3 −22.6 107.2

130.0 151.0 19.4 137.8 129.2 131.0 122.4 133.7 129.2 192.2 183.2 −53.7 113.2 84.0 77.9 38.0 193.2 154.6 −11.3 123.6

38.0 22.3 20.7 20.7 −10.1 59.8 70.0 91.8 148.3

62.6 48.7 46.8 47.1 +12.3 88.3 98.0 120.0 180.0

74.8 62.0 59.9 60.3 23.8 103.0 112.0 133.8 195.8

88.0 76.4 74.5 74.7 36.0 118.2 126.8 148.0 212.0

C6H14O3 C6H14O3 C4H10O C9H16O4 C8H12O4 C9H16O4 C20H43N C9H14O4 C5H10O C8H14O5 C8H12O4 C7H12O4 C9H14O4 C6H10O4 C12H14O4 C14H26O4 C12H16 C8H14O4 C8H14O4 C4H10O4S C4H10S C4H10O3S C8H14O6 C8H14O6 C11H16 C4H10Zn C10H16O C10H22O C14H8O4 C4H6 C2H7N C8H11N C8H12AsNO3 C16H18O C6H14 C6H14 C7H10O4 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16

13.0 45.3 −74.3 50.8 53.2 65.6 139.8 51.3 −12.7 80.7 57.3 40.0 62.8 47.4 108.8 125.3 49.7 54.6 39.8 47.0 −39.6 10.0 102.0 100.0 34.0 −22.4 46.6 68.0 196.7 −73.0 −87.7 29.5 15.0 96.7 −69.3 −63.6 50.8 −24.4 −15.9 −21.1 −19.4 −22.7 −20.0 −24.3

37.6 72.0 −56.9 77.8 81.2 94.7 175.8 80.2 +7.5 110.4 85.6 67.5 91.0 71.8 140.7 156.2 78.4 83.0 66.7 74.0 −18.6 34.2 133.0 131.7 61.5 0.0 75.5 91.7 239.8 −57.9 −72.2 56.3 39.6 128.3 −50.7 −44.5 78.2 −1.4 +7.3 +1.7 +3.4 0.0 +3.2 −1.7

50.0 85.8 −48.1 91.6 95.3 109.7 194.0 95.2 17.2 125.3 100.0 81.3 105.3 83.8 156.0 172.1 92.6 96.6 80.0 87.7 −8.0 46.4 148.0 147.2 75.3 +11.7 90.0 103.0 259.8 −50.5 −64.6 70.0 51.8 144.0 −41.5 −34.9 91.8 +10.3 18.4 13.0 14.9 +11.2 14.5 +10.1

63.0 100.3 −38.5 106.0 110.2 125.4 213.5 111.0 27.9 141.2 115.3 95.9 120.3 96.8 173.6 189.8 108.5 111.7 94.7 102.1 +3.5 59.7 164.2 163.8 90.2 24.2 106.0 115.0 282.0 −42.5 −56.0 84.8 65.0 160.3 −31.1 −24.1 106.5 23.0 31.1 25.6 27.4 23.6 27.1 22.6

60

100

200

400

760

141.0 163.2 28.0 149.0 140.0 142.0 133.3 144.6 140.0 204.8 195.8 −47.5 122.6 95.0 88.0 46.3 205.0 165.8 −4.0 133.8

154.5 178.9 39.4 163.5 153.8 155.8 147.6 158.2 153.8 220.7 212.0 −39.1 135.5 109.2 101.7 57.6 220.0 179.0 +6.0 147.3

176.2 202.8 57.0 185.7 176.0 178.0 169.0 181.5 176.0 245.6 238.5 −26.3 153.5 129.0 121.8 74.2 243.8 198.2 21.0 168.2

199.5 228.8 76.0 210.0 200.0 202.5 193.5 205.7 200.0 272.8 265.8 −12.0 175.2 150.5 144.2 93.2 259.7 219.1 38.0 192.4

223.5 256.5 96.8 235.0 225.0 227.0 217.0 230.0 225.0 302.0 296.5 +3.5 196.3 172.8 166.6 113.5 296.0 240.0 55.5 215.5

102.6 92.5 90.4 91.1 49.5 135.7 143.8 164.3 229.0

111.8 102.6 100.7 101.3 57.9 146.2 153.7 174.0 239.5

123.8 116.2 114.4 115.3 69.7 160.0 167.7 187.5 252.0

141.9 136.7 134.8 136.1 86.5 182.3 188.0 207.0 271.5

161.0 159.0 156.9 159.0 105.8 206.5 210.8 226.5 291.8

181.0 183.5 181.1 183.8 125.8 230.3 233.5 244.8 313.0

77.5 116.7 27.7 122.4 126.7 142.8 235.0 128.2 39.4 157.8 131.8 113.3 137.3 110.6 192.1 207.5 125.8 127.8 111.0 118.0 16.1 74.2 182.3 181.7 107.0 38.0 123.7 127.6 307.4 −33.9 −46.7 101.6 79.7 179.6 −19.5 −12.4 122.6 37.3 45.3 39.7 41.4 37.5 41.1 36.5

86.8 126.8 −21.8 132.4 137.7 153.2 248.5 139.9 46.7 169.0 142.4 123.0 147.9 119.7 204.1 218.4 136.8 138.2 121.4 128.6 24.2 83.8 194.0 193.2 117.7 47.2 134.7 136.7 323.3 −27.8 −40.7 111.9 88.6 191.5 −12.1 −4.9 132.7 45.7 54.4 48.7 50.4 46.4 50.1 45.4

99.5 140.3 −11.5 146.0 151.1 167.8 265.5 154.3 56.2 183.9 156.0 136.2 161.6 130.8 219.5 234.4 151.0 151.1 134.8 142.5 35.0 96.3 208.5 208.0 131.7 59.1 149.7 145.9 344.5 −18.8 −32.6 125.8 101.0 206.8 −2.0 +5.4 145.8 57.9 66.8 61.0 62.5 58.5 62.3 57.6

118.0 159.0 +2.2 166.0 172.2 189.5 292.8 177.5 70.6 205.3 177.8 155.5 183.2 147.9 243.0 255.8 173.2 171.7 155.1 162.5 51.3 115.8 230.4 230.0 152.4 77.0 171.8 160.2 377.8 −5.0 −20.4 146.5 119.8 229.7 +13.4 21.1 165.8 76.2 85.6 79.6 81.0 76.9 80.8 76.0

138.5 180.3 17.9 188.7 195.8 212.8 324.6 203.1 86.3 229.5 201.7 176.8 205.8 166.2 267.5 280.3 198.0 193.8 177.7 185.5 69.7 137.0 254.8 254.3 176.5 97.3 197.0 176.8 413.0 +10.6 −7.1 169.2 140.3 254.8 31.0 39.0 188.0 97.2 107.0 100.9 102.1 97.8 101.9 97.0

159.8 201.9 34.6 211.5 218.5 237.0 355.0 227.9 102.7 253.4 225.0 198.9 229.0 185.7 294.0 305.5 223.0 216.5 201.3 209.5 88.0 159.0 280.0 280.0 200.7 118.0 223.0 193.5 450.0 27.2 +7.4 193.1 160.5 281.0 49.7 58.0 210.5 119.5 129.7 123.4 124.4 120.1 124.3 119.3

Temperature, °C

Formula

Melting point, °C

−94 −12.1 32.9 −21 −38.9 −34.4 −31.4 −83.9 −43.2 −43

−116.3 +0.6

−42 −49.8 −40.6 1.3 −20.8 −25.0 −99.5 17 −28 194 −32.5 −96 +2.5 −99.8 −128.2 −34 −50.0 −88.0 −92.0 −76.2 −87.4 −36.9

VAPOR PRESSURES

2-69

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name Dimethyl ether 2,2-Dimethylhexane 2,3-Dimethylhexane 2,4-Dimethylhexane 2,5-Dimethylhexane 3,3-Dimethylhexane 3,4-Dimethylhexane Dimethyl itaconate 1-Dimethyl malate Dimethyl maleate malonate trans-Dimethyl mesaconate 2,7-Dimethyloctane Dimethyl oxalate 2,2-Dimethylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,4-Dimethylpentane 3,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3-Dimethylphenol (2,3-xylenol) 2,4-Dimethylphenol (2,4-xylenol) 2,5-Dimethylphenol (2,5-xylenol) 3,4-Dimethylphenol (3,4-xylenol) 3,5-Dimethylphenol (3,5-xylenol) Dimethylphenylsilane Dimethyl phthalate 3,5-Dimethyl-1,2-pyrone 4,6-Dimethylresorcinol Dimethyl sebacate 2,4-Dimethylstyrene 2,5-Dimethylstyrene α,α-Dimethylsuccinic anhydride Dimethyl sulfide d-Dimethyl tartrate dl-Dimethyl tartrate N,N-Dimethyl-2-toluidine N,N-Dimethyl-4-toluidine Di(nitrosomethyl) amine Diosphenol 1,4-Dioxane Dipentene Diphenylamine Diphenyl carbinol (benzhydrol) chlorophosphate disulfide 1,2-Diphenylethane (dibenzyl) Diphenyl ether 1,1-Diphenylethylene trans-Diphenylethylene 1,1-Diphenylhydrazine Diphenylmethane Diphenyl sulfide Diphenyl-2-tolyl thiophosphate 1,2-Dipropoxyethane 1,2-Diisopropylbenzene 1,3-Diisopropylbenzene Dipropylene glycol Dipropyleneglycol monobutyl ether isopropyl ether Di-n-propyl ether Diisopropyl ether Di-n-propyl ketone (4-heptanone) Di-n-propyl oxalate Diisopropyl oxalate Di-n-propyl succinate Di-n-propyl d-tartrate Diisopropyl d-tartrate Divinyl acetylene (1,5-hexadiene-3-yne) 1,3-Divinylbenzene Docosane n-Dodecane 1-Dodecene n-Dodecyl alcohol Dodecylamine Dodecyltrimethylsilane Elaidic acid

1

5

10

20

40

−101.1 −7.9 −1.1 −5.3 −5.5 −4.4 +0.2 94.0 104.0 73.0 59.8 74.0 30.5 44.0 −28.7 −20.8 −27.4 −25.0 83.8 78.0 78.0 93.8 89.2 30.3 131.8 107.6 76.8 139.8 61.9 55.9 88.1 −58.0 133.2 131.8 54.1 74.3 27.8 95.4 −12.8 40.4 141.7 145.0 160.5 164.0 119.8 97.8 119.6 145.8 159.3 107.4 129.0 179.8 −10.3 67.8 62.3 102.1 92.0 72.8 −22.3 −37.4 44.4 80.2 69.0 107.6 147.7 133.7 −24.4 60.0 195.4 75.8 74.0 120.2 111.8 122.1 206.7

−93.3 +3.1 +9.9 +5.2 +5.3 +6.1 11.3 106.6 118.3 86.4 72.0 87.8 42.3 56.0 −18.7 −10.3 −17.1 −14.4 97.6 91.3 91.3 107.7 102.4 42.6 147.6 122.0 90.7 156.2 75.8 69.0 102.0 −49.2 148.2 147.5 66.2 86.7 40.0 109.0 −1.2 53.8 157.0 162.0 182.0 180.0 136.0 114.0 135.0 161.0 176.1 122.8 145.0 201.6 +5.0 81.8 76.0 116.2 106.0 86.2 −11.8 −27.4 55.0 93.9 81.9 122.2 163.5 148.2 −14.0 73.8 213.0 90.0 87.8 134.7 127.8 137.7 223.5

−85.2 15.0 22.1 17.2 17.2 18.2 23.5 119.7 133.8 101.3 85.0 102.1 55.8 69.4 −7.5 +1.1 −5.9 −2.9 112.0 105.0 105.0 122.0 117.0 56.2 164.0 136.4 105.8 175.8 90.8 84.0 116.3 −39.4 164.3 164.0 80.2 100.0 53.7 124.0 +12.0 68.2 175.2 180.9 203.8 197.0 153.7 130.8 151.8 179.8 194.0 139.8 162.0 215.5 22.3 96.8 91.2 131.3 120.4 100.8 0.0 −16.7 66.2 108.6 95.6 138.0 180.4 164.0 −2.8 88.7 233.5 104.6 102.4 150.0 141.6 153.8 242.3

−76.2 28.2 35.6 30.5 30.4 31.7 37.1 133.7 150.1 117.2 100.0 118.0 71.2 83.6 +5.0 13.9 +6.5 +9.9 129.2 121.5 121.5 138.0 133.3 71.4 182.8 152.7 122.5 196.0 107.7 100.2 132.3 −28.4 182.4 182.4 95.0 116.3 68.2 141.2 25.2 84.3 194.3 200.0 227.9 214.8 173.7 150.0 170.8 199.0 213.5 157.8 182.8 230.6 42.3 114.0 107.9 147.4 136.3 117.0 +13.2 −4.5 78.1 124.6 110.5 154.8 199.7 181.8 +10.0 105.5 254.5 121.7 118.6 167.2 157.4 172.1 260.8

Melting point, °C

100

200

400

760

−62.7 48.2 56.0 50.6 50.5 52.5 57.7 153.7 175.1 140.4 121.9 141.5 93.9 104.8 23.9 33.3 25.4 29.3 152.2 143.0 143.0 161.0 156.0 94.2 210.0 177.5 147.3 222.6 132.3 124.7 155.3 −12.0 208.8 209.5 118.1 140.3 90.3 165.6 45.1 108.3 222.8 227.5 265.0 241.3 202.8 178.8 198.6 227.4 242.5 186.3 211.8 252.5 74.2 138.7 132.3 169.9 159.8 140.3 33.0 13.7 96.0 148.1 132.6 180.3 227.0 207.3 29.5 130.0 286.0 146.2 142.3 192.0 182.1 199.5 288.0

−50.9 65.7 73.8 68.1 68.0 70.0 75.6 171.0 196.3 160.0 140.0 161.0 114.0 123.3 40.3 50.1 41.8 46.2 173.0 161.5 161.5 181.5 176.2 114.2 232.7 198.0 167.8 245.0 153.2 145.6 175.8 +2.6 230.5 232.3 138.3 161.6 110.0 186.2 62.3 128.2 247.5 250.0 299.5 262.6 227.8 203.3 222.8 251.7 267.2 210.7 236.8 270.3 103.8 159.8 153.7 189.9 180.0 160.0 50.3 30.0 111.2 168.0 151.2 202.5 250.1 228.2 46.0 151.4 314.2 167.2 162.2 213.0 203.0 222.0 312.4

−37.8 85.6 94.1 88.2 87.9 90.4 96.0 189.8 219.5 182.2 159.8 183.5 136.0 143.3 59.2 69.4 60.6 65.5 196.0 184.2 184.2 203.6 197.8 136.4 257.8 221.0 192.0 269.6 177.5 168.7 197.5 18.7 255.0 257.4 161.5 185.4 131.3 209.5 81.8 150.5 274.1 275.6 337.2 285.8 255.0 230.7 249.8 278.3 294.0 237.5 263.9 290.0 140.0 184.3 177.6 210.5 203.8 183.1 69.5 48.2 127.3 190.3 171.8 226.5 275.6 251.8 64.4 175.2 343.5 191.0 185.5 235.7 225.0 248.0 337.0

−23.7 106.8 115.6 109.4 109.1 112.0 117.7 208.0 242.6 205.0 180.7 206.0 159.7 163.3 79.2 89.8 80.5 86.1 218.0 211.5 211.5 225.2 219.5 159.3 283.7 245.0 215.0 293.5 202.0 193.0 219.5 36.0 280.0 282.0 184.8 209.5 153.0 232.0 101.1 174.6 302.0 301.0 378.0 310.0 284.0 258.5 277.0 306.5 322.2 264.5 292.5 310.0 180.0 209.0 202.0 231.8 227.0 205.6 89.5 67.5 143.7 213.5 193.5 250.8 303.0 275.0 84.0 199.5 376.0 216.2 208.0 259.0 248.0 273.0 362.0

Temperature, °C

Formula C2H6O −115.7 −29.7 C8H18 −23.0 C8H18 C8H18 −26.9 −26.7 C8H18 −25.8 C8H18 C8H18 −22.1 69.3 C7H10O4 75.4 C6H10O5 C6H8O4 45.7 35.0 C5H8O4 46.8 C7H10O4 C10H22 +6.3 20.0 C4H6O4 −49.0 C7H16 C7H16 −42.0 −48.0 C7H16 −45.9 C7H16 C8H10O 56.0 51.8 C8H10O 51.8 C8H10O C8H10O 66.2 62.0 C8H10O +5.3 C8H12Si C10H10O4 100.3 78.6 C7H8O2 49.0 C8H10O2 C12H22O4 104.0 34.2 C10H12 29.0 C10H12 C6H8O3 61.4 −75.6 C2H6S 102.1 C6H10O6 C6H10O6 100.4 28.8 C9H13N 50.1 C9H13N C2H5N3O2 +3.2 66.7 C10H16O2 −35.8 C4H8O2 C10H16 14.0 108.3 C12H11N 110.0 C13H12O C12H10ClPO3 121.5 131.6 C12H10S2 86.8 C14H14 C12H10O 66.1 87.4 C14H12 113.2 C14H12 C12H12N2 126.0 76.0 C13H12 96.1 C12H10S C18H17O3PS 159.7 −38.8 C8H18O2 40.0 C12H18 C12H18 34.7 73.8 C6H14O3 64.7 C10H22O3 C9H20O3 46.0 −43.3 C6H14O −57.0 C6H14O C7H14O 23.0 53.4 C8H14O4 43.2 C8H14O4 C10H18O4 77.5 115.6 C10H18O6 103.7 C10H18O6 C6H6 −45.1 32.7 C10H10 157.8 C22H46 C12H26 47.8 47.2 C12H24 91.0 C12H26O C12H27N 82.8 91.2 C15H34Si 171.3 C18H34O2

60 −70.4 36.7 44.2 39.0 38.9 40.4 45.8 142.6 160.4 127.1 109.7 127.8 80.8 92.8 13.0 22.1 14.5 18.1 139.5 131.0 131.0 148.0 143.5 81.3 194.0 163.8 133.2 208.0 118.0 110.7 142.4 −21.4 193.8 193.8 105.2 126.4 77.7 151.3 33.8 94.6 206.9 212.0 244.2 226.2 186.0 162.0 183.4 211.5 225.9 170.2 194.8 240.4 55.8 124.3 118.2 156.5 146.3 126.8 21.6 +3.4 85.8 134.8 120.0 166.0 211.7 192.6 18.1 116.0 268.3 132.1 128.5 177.8 168.0 184.2 273.0

−138.5

−90.7 38 −62 −52.8 −123.7 −135 −119.5 −135.0 75 25.5 74.5 62.5 68 51.5 38

−83.2 61.5 89 −61

10 52.9 68.5 61 51.5 27 124 44 26.5

−105

−122 −60 −32.6

−66.9 44.5 −9.6 −31.5 24 51.5

(Continued )

2-70

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name Epichlorohydrin 1,2-Epoxy-2-methylpropane Erucic acid Estragole (p-methoxy allyl benzene) Ethane Ethoxydimethylphenylsilane Ethoxytrimethylsilane Ethoxytriphenylsilane Ethyl acetate acetoacetate Ethylacetylene (1-butyne) Ethyl acrylate α-Ethylacrylic acid α-Ethylacrylonitrile Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Ethylamine 4-Ethylaniline N-Ethylaniline 2-Ethylanisole 3-Ethylanisole 4-Ethylanisole Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate benzoylacetate bromide α-bromoisobutyrate n-butyrate isobutyrate Ethylcamphoronic anhydride Ethyl isocaproate carbamate carbanilate Ethylcetylamine Ethyl chloride chloroacetate chloroglyoxylate α-chloropropionate trans-cinnamate 3-Ethylcumene 4-Ethylcumene Ethyl cyanoacetate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethyl dichloroacetate N,N-diethyloxamate N-Ethyldiphenylamine Ethylene Ethylene-bis-(chloroacetate) Ethylene chlorohydrin (2-chloroethanol) diamine (1,2-ethanediamine) dibromide (1,2-dibromethane) dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane) glycol (1,2-ethanediol) glycol diethyl ether (1,2-diethoxyethane) glycol dimethyl ether (1,2-dimethoxyethane) glycol monomethyl ether (2-methoxyethanol) oxide Ethyl α-ethylacetoacetate fluoride formate 2-furoate glycolate 3-Ethylhexane 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate Ethylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethane) fluoride (1,1-difluoroethane) Ethyl iodide Ethyl l-leucinate Ethyl levulinate Ethyl mercaptan (ethanethiol) Ethyl methylcarbamate Ethyl methyl ether

1

5

10

20

−16.5 −69.0 206.7 52.6 −159.5 36.3 −50.9 167.0 −43.4 28.5 −92.5 −29.5 47.0 −29.0 −31.3 −82.3 52.0 38.5 29.7 33.7 33.5 −9.8 44.0 107.6 −74.3 10.6 −18.4 −24.3 118.2 11.0 107.8 133.2 −89.8 +1.0 −5.1 +6.6 87.6 28.3 31.5 67.8 −14.5 −32.2 9.6 76.0 98.3 −168.3 112.0 −4.0 −11.0 −27.0 −44.5 53.0 −33.5

+5.6 −50.0 239.7 80.0 −148.5 63.1 −31.0 198.2 −23.5 54.0 −76.7 −8.7 70.7 −6.4 −12.0 −66.4 80.0 66.4 55.9 60.3 60.2 +13.9 72.0 136.4 −56.4 35.8 +4.0 −2.4 149.8 35.8 65.8 131.8 168.2 −73.9 25.4 +18.0 30.2 108.5 55.5 58.4 93.5 +9.2 −10.8 34.0 106.3 130.2 −158.3 142.4 +19.0 +10.5 +4.7 −24.0 79.7 −10.2

16.6 −40.3 254.5 93.7 −142.9 76.2 −20.7 213.5 −13.5 67.3 −68.7 +2.0 82.0 +5.0 −2.3 −58.3 93.8 80.6 69.0 73.9 73.9 25.9 86.0 150.3 −47.5 48.0 15.3 +8.4 165.0 48.0 77.8 143.7 186.0 −65.8 37.5 29.9 41.9 134.0 68.8 72.0 106.0 20.6 −0.1 46.3 121.7 146.0 −153.2 158.0 30.3 21.5 18.6 −13.6 92.1 +1.6

29.0 −29.5 270.6 108.4 −136.7 91.0 −9.8 230.0 −3.0 81.1 −59.9 13.0 94.4 17.7 +8.0 −48.6 109.0 96.0 83.1 88.5 88.5 38.6 101.4 166.8 −37.8 61.8 27.8 20.6 181.8 61.7 91.0 155.5 205.5 −56.8 50.4 42.0 54.3 150.3 83.6 86.7 119.8 33.4 +11.7 59.5 137.7 162.8 −147.6 173.5 42.5 33.0 32.7 −2.4 105.8 14.7

42.0 −17.3 289.1 124.6 −129.8 107.2 +3.7 247.0 +9.1 96.2 −50.0 26.0 108.1 31.8 19.0 −39.8 125.7 113.2 98.8 104.8 104.7 52.8 118.2 181.8 −26.7 77.0 41.5 33.8 199.8 76.3 105.6 168.8 226.5 −47.0 65.2 56.0 68.2 169.2 99.9 103.3 133.8 47.6 25.0 74.0 154.4 182.0 −141.3 191.0 56.0 45.8 48.0 +10.0 120.0 29.7

50.6 −9.7 300.2 135.2 −125.4 127.5 11.5 258.3 16.6 106.0 −43.4 33.5 116.7 40.6 26.0 −33.4 136.0 123.6 109.0 115.5 115.4 61.8 129.0 191.9 −19.5 86.7 50.1 42.3 211.5 85.8 114.8 177.3 239.8 −40.6 74.0 65.2 77.3 181.2 110.2 113.8 142.1 56.7 33.4 83.6 166.0 193.7 −137.3 201.8 64.1 53.8 57.9 18.1 129.5 39.0

62.0 +1.2 314.4 148.5 −119.3 131.4 22.1 273.5 27.0 118.5 −34.9 44.5 127.5 53.0 34.9 −25.1 149.8 137.3 122.3 129.2 128.4 74.1 143.2 205.0 −10.0 99.8 62.0 53.5 226.6 98.4 126.2 187.9 256.8 −32.0 86.0 76.6 89.3 196.0 124.3 127.2 152.8 69.0 45.0 96.1 180.3 209.8 −131.8 215.0 75.0 62.5 70.4 29.4 141.8 51.8

C4H10O2

−48.0

−26.2

−15.3

−3.0

+10.7

19.7

31.8

50.0

70.8

93.0

C3H8O2

−13.5

+10.2

22.0

34.3

47.8

56.4

68.0

85.3

104.3

124.4

−89.7 40.5 −117.0 −60.5 37.6 14.3 −20.0 50.0 −60.7 −112.5 −54.4 27.8 47.3 −76.7 26.5 −91.0

−73.8 67.3 −103.8 −42.2 63.8 38.8 +2.1 77.7 −41.9 −98.4 −34.3 57.3 74.0 −59.1 51.0 −75.6

−65.7 80.2 −97.7 −33.0 77.1 50.5 12.8 91.8 −32.3 −91.7 −24.3 72.1 87.3 −50.2 63.2 −67.8

−56.6 94.6 −90.0 −22.7 91.5 63.9 25.0 106.3 −21.9 −84.1 −13.1 88.0 101.8 −40.7 76.1 −59.1

−46.9 110.3 −81.8 −11.5 107.5 78.1 38.5 123.7 −10.2 −75.8 −0.9 106.0 117.7 −29.8 91.0 −49.4

−40.7 120.6 −76.4 −4.3 117.5 87.6 47.1 134.0 −2.9 −70.4 +7.2 117.8 127.6 −22.4 100.0 −43.3

−32.1 133.8 −69.3 −5.4 130.4 99.8 58.9 147.9 +7.2 −63.2 18.0 131.8 141.3 −13.0 112.0 −34.8

−19.5 153.2 −58.0 20.0 150.1 117.8 76.7 168.2 22.4 −52.0 34.1 149.8 160.2 +1.5 130.0 −22.0

−4.9 175.6 −45.5 37.1 172.5 138.0 97.0 192.2 39.8 −39.5 52.3 167.3 183.0 17.7 149.8 −7.8

+10.7 198.0 −32.0 54.3 195.0 158.2 118.5 216.0 57.4 −26.5 72.4 184.0 206.2 35.0 170.0 +7.5

C2H4O C8H14O3 C2H5F C3H6O2 C7H8O3 C4H8O3 C8H18 C11H20O2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4F2 C2H5I C8H17NO2 C7H12O3 C2H6S C4H9NO2 C3H8O

60

100

200

400

760

Temperature, °C

Formula C3H5ClO C4H8O C22H42O2 C10H12O C2H6 C10H16OSi C5H14OSi C20H20OSi C4H8O2 C6H10O3 C4H6 C5H8O2 C5H8O2 C5H7N C2H6O C2H7N C8H11N C8H11N C9H12O C9H12O C9H12O C8H10 C9H10O2 C11H12O3 C2H5Br C6H11BrO2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C11H16O5 C8H16O2 C3H7NO2 C9H11NO2 C18H39N C2H5Cl C4H7ClO2 C4H5ClO3 C5H9ClO2 C11H12O2 C11H16 C11H16 C5H7NO2 C8H16 C7H14 C4H6Cl2O2 C8H15NO3 C14H15N C2H4 C6H8Cl2O4 C2H5ClO C2H8N2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Cl2 C2H6O2 C6H14O2

40

79.3 98.0 117.9 17.5 36.0 55.5 336.5 358.8 381.5 168.7 192.0 215.0 −110.2 −99.7 −88.6 151.5 175.0 199.5 38.1 56.3 75.7 295.0 319.5 344.0 42.0 59.3 77.1 138.0 158.2 180.8 −21.6 −6.9 +8.7 61.5 80.0 99.5 144.0 160.7 179.2 71.6 92.2 114.0 48.4 63.5 78.4 −12.3 +2.0 16.6 170.6 194.2 217.4 156.9 180.8 204.0 142.1 164.2 187.1 149.7 172.8 196.5 149.2 172.3 196.5 92.7 113.8 136.2 164.8 188.4 213.4 223.8 244.7 265.0 +4.5 21.0 38.4 119.7 141.2 163.6 79.8 100.0 121.0 71.0 90.0 110.0 248.5 272.8 298.0 117.8 139.2 160.4 144.2 164.0 184.0 203.8 220.0 237.0 283.3 313.0 342.0 −18.6 −3.9 +12.3 103.8 123.8 144.2 94.5 114.7 135.0 107.2 126.2 146.5 219.3 245.0 271.0 145.4 168.2 193.0 148.3 171.8 195.8 169.8 187.8 206.0 87.8 109.1 131.8 62.4 82.3 103.4 115.2 135.9 156.5 202.8 226.5 252.0 233.0 258.8 286.0 −123.4 −113.9 −103.7 237.3 259.5 283.5 91.8 110.0 128.8 81.0 99.0 117.2 89.8 110.1 131.5 45.7 64.0 82.4 158.5 178.5 197.3 71.8 94.1 119.5

Melting point, °C −25.6 33.5 −183.2

−82.4 −45 −130 −71.2 −112 −80.6 −4 −63.5

−94.9 −34.6 −117.8 −93.3 −88.2 49 52.5 −139 −26 12

−111.3 −138.6

−169 −69 8.5 10 −35.3 −15.6

−111.3 −79 34

−96.7 −117 −105 −121

VAPOR PRESSURES

2-71

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name 1-Ethylnaphthalene Ethyl α-naphthyl ketone (1-propionaphthone) Ethyl 3-nitrobenzoate 3-Ethylpentane 4-Ethylphenetole 2-Ethylphenol 3-Ethylphenol 4-Ethylphenol Ethyl phenyl ether (phenetole) Ethyl propionate Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl salicylate 3-Ethylstyrene 4-Ethylstyrene Ethylisothiocyanate 2-Ethyltoluene 3-Ethyltoluene 4-Ethyltoluene Ethyl trichloroacetate Ethyltrimethylsilane Ethyltrimethyltin Ethyl isovalerate 2-Ethyl-1,4-xylene 4-Ethyl-1,3-xylene 5-Ethyl-1,3-xylene Eugenol iso-Eugenol Eugenyl acetate Fencholic acid d-Fenchone dl-Fenchyl alcohol Fluorene Fluorobenzene 2-Fluorotoluene 3-Fluorotoluene 4-Fluorotoluene Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid trans-Fumaryl chloride Furfural (2-furaldehyde) Furfuryl alcohol Geraniol Geranyl acetate Geranyl n-butyrate Geranyl isobutyrate Geranyl formate Glutaric acid Glutaric anhydride Glutaronitrile Glutaryl chloride Glycerol Glycerol dichlorohydrin (1,3-dichloro-2-propanol) Glycol diacetate Glycolide (1,4-dioxane-2,6-dione) Guaicol (2-methoxyphenol) Heneicosane Heptacosane Heptadecane Heptaldehyde (enanthaldehyde) n-Heptane Heptanoic acid (enanthic acid) 1-Heptanol Heptanoyl chloride (enanthyl chloride) 2-Heptene Heptylbenzene Heptyl cyanide (enanthonitrile) Hexachlorobenzene Hexachloroethane Hexacosane Hexadecane 1-Hexadecene n-Hexadecyl alcohol (cetyl alcohol)

1

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

164.1

180.0

204.6

230.8

258.1

−27

206.9 192.6 17.5 119.8 117.9 130.0 131.3 86.6 27.2 −12.0 136.7 99.2 97.3 50.8 76.4 73.3 73.6 85.5 −9.0 30.0 55.2 96.0 97.2 92.6 155.8 167.0 183.0 171.8 99.5 110.8 185.2 +11.5 34.7 37.0 37.8 −70.6 137.5 24.0 79.5 82.1 95.7 141.8 150.0 170.1 164.0 136.2 226.3 185.5 176.4 128.3 198.0 93.0

218.2 205.0 25.7 129.8 127.9 139.8 141.7 95.4 35.1 −4.0 147.6 109.6 107.6 59.8 86.0 82.9 83.2 94.4 −1.2 38.4 64.0 106.2 107.4 103.0 167.3 178.2 194.0 181.5 109.8 120.2 197.8 19.6 43.7 45.8 46.5 −65.0 147.0 32.4 89.0 91.5 104.0 151.5 160.3 180.2 174.0 147.2 235.5 196.2 189.5 139.1 208.0 102.0

233.5 220.3 36.9 143.5 141.8 152.0 154.2 108.4 45.2 +6.8 161.5 123.2 121.5 71.9 99.0 95.9 96.3 107.4 +9.2 50.0 75.9 120.0 121.2 116.5 182.2 194.0 209.7 194.0 123.6 132.3 214.7 30.4 55.3 57.5 58.1 −57.3 157.5 43.8 101.0 103.4 115.9 165.3 175.2 193.8 187.7 160.7 247.0 212.5 205.5 151.8 220.1 114.8

255.5 244.6 53.8 163.2 161.6 171.8 175.0 127.9 61.7 23.3 183.7 144.0 142.0 90.0 119.0 115.5 116.1 125.8 25.0 67.3 93.8 140.2 141.8 137.4 204.7 217.2 232.5 215.0 144.0 150.0 240.3 47.2 73.0 75.4 76.0 −46.0 175.5 61.4 120.0 121.8 133.1 185.6 196.3 214.0 207.6 182.6 265.0 236.5 230.0 172.4 240.0 133.3

280.2 270.6 73.0 185.7 184.5 193.3 197.4 149.8 79.8 41.6 207.0 167.2 165.0 110.1 141.4 137.8 136.4 146.0 42.8 87.6 114.0 163.1 164.4 159.6 228.3 242.3 257.4 237.8 166.8 173.2 268.6 65.7 92.8 95.4 96.1 −33.0 193.5 80.3 140.0 141.8 151.8 207.8 219.8 235.0 228.5 205.8 283.5 261.0 257.3 195.3 263.0 153.5

306.0 298.0 93.5 208.0 207.5 214.0 219.0 172.0 99.1 61.7 231.5 191.5 189.0 131.0 165.1 161.3 162.0 167.0 62.0 108.8 134.3 186.9 188.4 183.7 253.5 267.5 282.0 264.1 191.0 201.0 295.0 84.7 114.0 116.0 117.0 −19.5 210.5 100.6 160.0 161.8 170.0 230.0 243.3 257.4 251.0 230.0 303.0 287.0 286.2 217.0 290.0 174.3

106.1 148.6 121.6 243.4 305.7 195.8 66.3 22.3 139.5 99.8 86.4 21.5 144.0 92.6 206.0 102.3 295.2 181.3 178.8 219.8

115.8 158.2 131.0 255.3 318.3 207.3 74.0 30.6 148.5 108.0 93.5 30.0 154.8 103.0 219.0 112.0 307.8 193.2 190.8 234.3

128.0 173.2 144.0 272.0 333.5 223.0 84.0 41.8 160.0 119.5 102.7 41.3 170.2 116.8 235.5 124.2 323.2 208.5 205.3 251.7

147.8 194.0 162.7 296.5 359.4 247.8 102.0 58.7 179.5 136.6 116.3 58.6 193.3 137.7 258.5 143.1 348.4 231.7 226.8 280.2

168.3 217.0 184.1 323.8 385.0 274.5 125.5 78.0 199.6 155.6 130.7 78.1 217.8 160.0 283.5 163.8 374.6 258.3 250.0 312.7

190.5 240.0 205.0 350.5 410.6 303.0 155.0 98.4 221.5 175.8 145.0 98.5 244.0 184.6 309.4 185.6 399.8 287.5 274.0 344.0

5

10

20

70.0

101.4

116.8

133.8

152.0

C13H12O C9H9NO4 C7H16 C10H14O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C5H10O2 C5H12O C9H10O3 C10H12 C10H12 C3H5NS C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C4H5Cl3O2 C5H14Si C5H14Sn C7H14O2 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H12O2 C10H12O2 C12H14O3 C10H16O2 C10H16O C10H18O C13H10 C6H5F C7H7F C7H7F C7H7F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H2Cl2O2 C5H4O2 C5H6O2 C10H18O C12H20O2 C14H24O2 C14H24O2 C11H18O2 C5H8O4 C5H6O3 C5H6N2 C5H6Cl2O2 C3H8O3 C3H6Cl2O

124.0 108.1 −37.8 48.5 46.2 60.0 59.3 18.1 −28.0 −64.3 61.2 28.3 26.0 −13.2 9.4 7.2 7.6 20.7 −60.6 −30.0 −6.1 25.7 26.3 22.1 78.4 86.3 101.6 101.7 28.0 45.8 −43.4 −24.2 −22.4 −21.8

155.5 140.2 −17.0 75.7 73.4 86.8 86.5 43.7 −7.2 −45.0 90.0 55.0 52.7 +10.6 34.8 32.3 32.7 45.5 −41.4 −7.6 +17.0 52.0 53.0 48.8 108.1 117.0 132.3 128.7 54.7 70.3 129.3 −22.8 −2.2 −0.3 +0.3

70.5 −20.0 +15.0 18.5 31.8 69.2 73.5 96.8 90.9 61.8 155.5 100.8 91.3 56.1 125.5 28.0

96.3 −5.0 38.5 42.6 56.0 96.8 102.7 125.2 119.6 90.3 183.8 133.3 123.7 84.0 153.8 52.2

171.0 155.0 −6.8 89.5 87.0 100.2 100.2 56.4 +3.4 −35.0 104.2 68.3 66.3 22.8 47.6 44.7 44.9 57.7 −31.8 +3.8 28.7 65.6 66.4 62.1 123.0 132.4 148.0 142.3 68.3 82.1 146.0 −12.4 +8.9 +11.0 11.8 −88.0 109.5 +2.1 51.8 54.8 68.0 110.0 117.9 139.0 133.0 104.3 196.0 149.5 140.0 97.8 167.2 64.7

188.1 173.6 +4.7 103.8 101.5 114.5 115.0 70.3 14.3 −24.0 119.3 82.8 80.8 36.1 61.2 58.2 58.5 70.6 −21.0 16.1 41.3 79.8 80.6 76.5 138.7 149.0 164.2 155.8 83.0 95.6 164.2 −1.2 21.4 23.4 24.0 −79.6 122.5 10.3 65.0 67.8 81.0 125.6 133.0 153.8 147.9 119.8 210.5 166.0 156.5 112.3 182.2 78.0

C6H10O4 C4H4O4 C7H8O2 C21H44 C27H56 C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H13ClO C7H14 C13H20 C7H13N C6Cl6 C2Cl6 C26H54 C16H34 C16H32 C16H34O

38.3

64.1 103.0 79.1 188.0 248.6 145.2 32.7 −12.7 101.3 64.3 54.6 −14.1 94.6 47.8 149.3 49.8 240.0 135.2 131.7 158.3

77.1 116.6 92.0 205.4 266.8 160.0 43.0 −2.1 113.2 74.7 64.6 −3.5 110.0 61.6 166.4 73.5 257.4 149.8 146.2 177.8

90.8 132.0 106.0 223.2 284.6 177.7 54.0 +9.5 125.6 85.8 75.0 +8.3 126.0 76.3 185.7 87.6 275.8 164.7 162.0 197.8

60

Temperature, °C

Formula C12H12

40

52.4 152.6 211.7 115.0 12.0 −34.0 78.0 42.4 34.2 −35.8 64.0 21.0 114.4 32.7 204.0 105.3 101.6 122.7

47 −118.6 −45 −4 46.5 −30.2 −72.6 1.3 −5.9 −95.5

−99.3

−10 295 19 5 35 113 −42.1 −80 −110.8 −92 8.2

97.5

17.9 −31 97 28.3 40.4 59.5 22.5 −42 −90.6 −10 34.6

230 186.6 56.6 18.5 4 49.3

(Continued )

2-72

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name n-Hexadecylamine (cetylamine) Hexaethylbenzene n-Hexane 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 3-Hexanol 1-Hexene n-Hexyl levulinate n-Hexyl phenyl ketone (enanthophenone) Hydrocinnamic acid Hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid) Hydroquinone 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde α-Hydroxyisobutyric acid α-Hydroxybutyronitrile 4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone 3-Hydroxypropionitrile Indene Iodobenzene Iodononane 2-Iodotoluene α-Ionone Isoprene Lauraldehyde Lauric acid Levulinaldehyde Levulinic acid d-Limonene Linalyl acetate Maleic anhydride Menthane 1-Menthol Menthyl acetate benzoate formate Mesityl oxide Methacrylic acid Methacrylonitrile Methane Methanethiol Methoxyacetic acid N-Methylacetanilide Methyl acetate acetylene (propyne) acrylate alcohol (methanol) Methylamine N-Methylaniline Methyl anthranilate benzoate 2-Methylbenzothiazole α-Methylbenzyl alcohol Methyl bromide 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene Methyl isobutyl carbinol (2-methyl4-pentanol) n-butyl ketone (2-hexanone) isobutyl ketone (4-methyl-2-pentanone) n-butyrate isobutyrate caprate caproate caprylate chloride chloroacetate cinnamate α-Methylcinnamic acid Methylcyclohexane Methylcyclopentane Methylcyclopropane Methyl n-decyl ketone (n-dodecan-2-one) dichloroacetate N-Methyldiphenylamine

1

5

10

20

123.6

157.8 134.3 −34.5 47.2 34.8 25.7 −38.0 120.0 130.3 133.5 −55.3 153.3 153.2 98.5 65.8 69.3 46.7 87.8 44.3 50.6 96.2 65.9 108.8 −62.3 108.4 150.6 54.9 128.1 40.4 82.5 63.4 35.7 83.2 85.8 154.2 75.8 +14.1 48.5 −23.3 −199.0 −75.3 79.3 103.8 −38.6 −97.5 −23.6 −25.3 −81.3 62.8 109.0 64.4 97.5 75.2 −80.6 −72.8 −57.0 +22.1

176.0 150.3 −25.0 58.2 45.0 36.7 −28.1 134.7 145.5 148.7 −47.7 163.5 169.7 110.5 77.8 81.0 58.8 102.0 58.5 64.0 109.0 79.8 123.0 −53.3 123.7 166.0 68.0 141.8 53.8 96.0 78.7 48.3 96.0 100.0 170.0 90.0 26.0 60.0 −12.5 −195.5 −67.5 92.0 118.6 −29.3 −90.5 −13.5 −16.2 −73.8 76.2 124.2 77.3 111.2 88.0 −72.8 −64.3 −47.9 33.3

195.7 168.0 −14.1 70.3 55.9 49.0 −17.2 150.2 161.0 165.0 −39.7 174.6 186.8 123.8 90.7 94.0 72.0 117.9 73.9 78.3 123.0 95.6 139.0 −43.5 140.2 183.6 82.7 154.1 68.2 111.4 95.0 62.7 110.3 115.4 186.3 105.8 37.9 72.7 −0.6 −191.8 −58.8 106.5 135.1 −19.1 −82.9 −2.7 −6.0 −65.9 90.5 141.5 91.8 125.5 102.1 −64.0 −54.8 −37.9 45.4

C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C11H22O2 C7H14O2 C9H18O2 CH3Cl C3H5ClO2 C10H10O2 C10H10O2 C7H14 C6H12 C4H8 C12H24O C3H4Cl2O2 C13H13N

60

100

215.7 187.7 −2.3 83.7 67.9 62.2 −5.0 167.8 178.9 183.3 −30.9 192.0 206.0 138.0 104.8 108.2 86.7 134.1 90.7 94.4 138.1 112.4 155.6 −32.6 157.8 201.4 98.3 169.5 84.3 127.7 111.8 78.3 126.1 132.1 204.3 123.0 51.7 86.4 +12.8 −187.7 −49.2 122.0 152.2 −7.9 −74.3 +9.2 +5.0 −56.9 106.0 159.7 107.8 141.2 117.8 −54.2 −44.1 −26.7 58.2

228.8 199.7 +5.4 92.0 76.0 70.7 +2.8 179.0 189.8 194.0 −25.1 203.0 217.5 146.4 113.9 117.4 96.0 144.7 100.8 105.0 147.7 123.8 166.3 −25.4 168.7 212.7 108.4 178.0 94.6 138.1 122.0 88.6 136.1 143.2 215.8 133.8 60.4 95.3 21.5 −185.1 −43.1 131.8 164.2 −0.5 −68.8 17.3 12.1 −51.3 115.8 172.0 117.4 150.4 127.4 −48.0 −37.3 −19.4 67.0

245.8 216.0 15.8 102.8 87.3 81.8 13.0 193.6 204.2 209.0 −17.8 216.5 233.5 157.7 125.0 129.0 108.2 157.7 114.7 118.3 159.8 138.1 181.2 −16.0 184.5 227.5 121.8 190.2 108.3 151.8 135.8 102.1 149.4 156.7 230.4 148.0 72.1 106.6 32.8 −181.4 −34.8 144.5 179.8 +9.4 −61.3 28.0 21.2 −43.7 129.8 187.8 130.8 163.9 140.3 −39.4 −28.0 −9.9 78.0

28.8 +19.7 −5.5 −13.0 93.5 30.0 61.7 −99.5 19.0 108.1 155.0 −14.0 −33.8 −80.6 106.0 26.7 134.0

38.8 30.0 +5.0 −2.9 108.0 42.0 74.9 −92.4 30.0 123.0 169.8 −3.2 −23.7 −72.8 120.4 38.1 149.7

50.0 40.8 16.7 +8.4 123.0 55.4 89.0 −84.8 41.5 140.0 185.2 +8.7 −12.8 −64.0 136.0 50.7 165.8

62.0 52.8 29.6 21.0 139.0 70.0 105.3 −76.0 54.5 157.9 201.8 22.0 −0.6 −54.2 152.4 64.7 184.0

69.8 60.4 37.4 28.9 148.6 79.7 115.3 −70.4 63.0 170.0 212.0 30.5 +7.2 −48.0 163.8 73.6 195.4

79.8 70.4 48.0 39.6 161.5 91.4 128.0 −63.0 73.5 185.8 224.8 42.1 17.9 −39.3 177.5 85.4 210.1

200

400

760

Temperature, °C

Formula C16H35N C18H30 C6H14 C6H14O C6H14O C6H14O C6H12 C11H20O3 C13H18O C9H10O2 CHN C6H6O2 C7H6O2 C4H8O3 C5H9NO C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C3H5NO C9H8 C6H5I C9H19I C7H7I C13H20O C5H8 C12H24O C12H24O2 C5H8O2 C5H8O3 C10H16 C12H20O2 C4H2O3 C10H20 C10H20O C12H22O2 C17H24O2 C11H20O2 C6H10O C4H6O2 C4H5N CH4 CH4S C3H6O3 C9H11NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH4O CH5N C7H9N C8H9NO2 C8H8O2 C8H7NS C8H10O CH3Br C5H10 C5H10 C6H14O

40

−53.9 24.4 14.6 +2.5 −57.5 90.0 100.0 102.2 −71.0 132.4 121.2 73.5 41.0 44.6 22.0 58.7 16.4 24.1 70.0 37.2 79.5 −79.8 77.7 121.0 28.1 102.0 14.0 55.4 44.0 +9.7 56.0 57.4 123.2 47.3 −8.7 25.5 −44.5 −205.9 −90.7 52.5 −57.2 −111.0 −43.7 −44.0 −95.8 36.0 77.6 39.0 70.0 49.0 −96.3 −89.1 −75.4 −0.3 +7.7 −1.4 −26.8 −34.1 63.7 +5.0 34.2 −2.9 77.4 125.7 −35.9 −53.7 −96.0 77.1 3.2 103.5

272.2 300.4 330.0 241.7 268.5 298.3 31.6 49.6 68.7 119.6 138.0 157.0 103.7 121.8 139.9 98.3 117.0 135.5 29.0 46.8 66.0 215.7 241.0 266.8 225.0 248.3 271.3 230.8 255.0 279.8 −5.3 +10.2 25.9 238.0 262.5 286.2 256.8 282.6 310.0 175.2 193.8 212.0 142.0 159.8 178.8 146.5 165.5 185.0 126.8 147.5 167.9 178.0 200.0 221.0 135.6 157.8 181.6 139.8 163.9 188.6 179.0 199.3 219.5 160.0 185.7 211.0 202.5 225.2 250.0 −1.2 +15.4 32.6 207.8 231.8 257.0 249.8 273.8 299.2 142.0 164.0 187.0 208.3 227.4 245.8 128.5 151.4 175.0 173.3 196.2 220.0 155.9 179.5 202.0 122.7 146.0 169.5 168.3 190.2 212.0 178.8 202.8 227.0 253.2 277.1 301.0 169.8 194.2 219.0 90.0 109.8 130.0 123.9 142.5 161.0 50.0 70.3 90.3 −175.5 −168.8 −161.5 −22.1 −7.9 +6.8 163.5 184.2 204.0 202.3 227.4 253.0 24.0 40.0 57.8 −49.8 −37.2 −23.3 43.9 61.8 80.2 34.8 49.9 64.7 −32.4 −19.7 −6.3 149.3 172.0 195.5 212.4 238.5 266.5 151.4 174.7 199.5 183.2 204.5 225.5 159.0 180.7 204.0 −26.5 −11.9 +3.6 −13.8 +2.5 20.2 +4.9 21.6 38.5 94.9 113.5 131.7 94.3 85.6 64.3 55.7 181.6 109.8 148.1 −51.2 90.5 209.6 245.0 59.6 34.0 −26.0 199.0 103.2 232.8

111.0 102.0 83.1 73.6 202.9 129.8 170.0 −38.0 109.5 235.0 266.8 79.6 52.3 −11.3 222.5 122.6 257.0

127.5 119.0 102.3 92.6 224.0 150 193.0 −24.0 130.3 263.0 288.0 100.9 71.8 +4.5 246.5 143.0 282.0

Melting point, °C 130 −95.3 −51.6 −98.5 48.5 −13.2 170.3 115.5 79 −47 −2 −28.5

−146.7 44.5 48 33.5 −96.9 58 42.5 54.5 −59 15 −182.5 −121 102 −98.7 −102.7 −97.8 −93.5 −57 24 −12.5 15.4 −93 −135 −133 −56.9 −84.7 −84.7 −18 −40 −97.7 −31.9 33.4 −126.4 −142.4

−7.6

VAPOR PRESSURES

2-73

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name Methyl n-dodecyl ketone (2-tetradecanone) Methylene bromide (dibromomethane) chloride (dichloromethane) Methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) 2-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 3-Methyl-3-ethylpentane Methyl fluoride formate α-Methylglutaric anhydride Methyl glycolate 2-Methylheptadecane 2-Methylheptane 3-Methylheptane 4-Methylheptane 2-Methyl-2-heptene 6-Methyl-3-hepten-2-ol 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-ol 2-Methylhexane 3-Methylhexane Methyl iodide laurate levulinate methacrylate myristate α-naphthyl ketone (1-acetonaphthone) β-naphthyl ketone (2-acetonaphthone) n-nonyl ketone (undecan-2-one) palmitate n-pentadecyl ketone (2-heptdecanone) 2-Methylpentane 3-Methylpentane 2-Methyl-1-pentanol 2-Methyl-2-pentanol Methyl n-pentyl ketone (2-heptanone) phenyl ether (anisole) 2-Methylpropene Methyl propionate 4-Methylpropiophenone 2-Methylpropionyl bromide Methyl propyl ether n-propyl ketone (2-pentanone) isopropyl ketone (3-Methyl-2-butanone) 2-Methylquinoline Methyl salicylate α-Methyl styrene 4-Methyl styrene Methyl n-tetradecyl ketone (2-hexadecanone) thiocyanate isothiocyanate undecyl ketone (2-tridecanone) isovalerate Monovinylacetylene (butenyne) Myrcene Myristaldehyde Myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid) Naphthalene 1-Naphthoic acid 2-Naphthoic acid 1-Naphthol 2-Naphthol 1-Naphthylamine 2-Naphthylamine Nicotine 2-Nitroaniline 3-Nitroaniline 4-Nitroaniline 2-Nitrobenzaldehyde 3-Nitrobenzaldehyde Nitrobenzene Nitroethane Nitroglycerin Nitromethane 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitrophenyl acetate

1

5

10

20

99.3 −35.1 −70.0 −48.3 −24.0 −23.9 −147.3 −74.2 93.8 +9.6 119.8 −21.0 −19.8 −20.4 −16.1 41.6 41.9 −40.4 −39.0

130.0 −13.2 −52.1 −28.0 −1.8 −1.4 −137.0 −57.0 125.4 33.7 152.0 +1.3 +2.6 +1.5 +6.7 65.0 66.0 −19.5 −18.1 −55.0 117.9 66.4 −10.0 145.7 146.3 152.3 95.5 166.8 161.6 −41.7 −39.8 38.0 +16.8 43.6 30.0 −96.5 −21.5 89.3 38.4 −54.3 +8.0 −1.0 104.0 81.6 34.0 42.0

145.5 −2.4 −43.3 −17.7 +9.5 +9.9 −131.6 −48.6 141.8 45.3 168.7 12.3 13.3 12.4 17.8 76.7 77.8 −9.1 −7.8 −45.8 133.2 79.7 +1.0 160.8 161.5 168.5 108.9 184.3 178.0 −32.1 −30.1 49.6 27.6 55.5 42.2 −81.9 −11.8 103.8 50.6 −45.4 17.9 +8.3 119.0 95.3 47.1 55.1

161.3 +9.7 −33.4 −6.5 21.7 22.3 −125.9 −39.2 157.7 58.1 186.0 24.4 25.4 24.5 30.4 89.3 90.4 +2.3 +3.6 −35.6 149.0 93.7 11.0 177.8 178.4 185.7 123.1 202.0 196.4 −21.4 −19.4 61.6 38.8 67.7 55.8 −73.4 −1.0 120.2 64.1 −35.4 28.5 18.3 134.0 110.0 61.8 69.2

179.8 23.3 −22.3 +6.0 35.2 36.2 −119.1 −28.7 177.5 72.3 204.8 37.9 38.9 38.0 44.0 102.7 104.0 14.9 16.4 −24.2 166.0 109.5 25.5 195.8 196.8 203.8 139.0

C16H32O C2H3NS C2H3NS C13H26O C6H12O2 C4H4 C10H16 C14H28O C14H28O2 C10H8 C11H8O2 C11H8O2 C10H8O C10H8O C10H9N C10H9N C10H14N2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C7H5NO3 C7H5NO3 C6H5NO2 C2H5NO2 C3H5N3O9 CH3NO2 C6H5NO3 C8H7NO4

151.5 +9.8 −8.3 117.0 +2.9 −77.7 40.0 132.0 174.1 74.2 184.0 189.7 125.5 128.6 137.7 141.6 91.8 135.7 151.5 177.6 117.7 127.4 71.6 +1.5 167 −7.9 76.8 128.0

167.3 21.6 +5.4 131.8 14.0 −70.0 53.2 148.3 190.8 85.8 196.8 202.8 142.0 145.5 153.8 157.6 107.2 150.4 167.8 194.4 133.4 142.8 84.9 12.5 188 +2.8 90.4 142.0

184.6 34.5 20.4 147.8 26.4 −61.3 67.0 166.2 207.6 101.7 211.2 216.9 158.0 161.8 171.6 175.8 123.7 167.7 185.5 213.2 150.0 159.0 99.3 24.8 210 14.1 105.8 155.8

60

100

200

400

760

191.4 31.6 −15.7 14.0 43.9 45.0 −115.0 −21.9 189.9 81.8 216.3 46.6 47.6 46.6 52.8 111.5 112.8 23.0 24.5 −16.9 176.8 119.3 34.5 207.5 208.6 214.7 148.6

206.0 42.3 −6.3 25.0 55.7 57.1 −109.0 −12.9 205.0 93.7 231.5 58.3 59.4 58.3 64.6 122.6 123.8 34.1 35.6 −7.0 190.8 133.0 47.0 222.6 223.8 229.8 161.0

228.2 58.5 +8.0 41.6 73.6 75.3 −99.9 +0.8 229.1 111.8 254.5 76.0 77.1 76.1 82.3 139.5 140.0 50.8 52.4 +8.0

253.3 79.0 24.1 60.0 94.0 96.2 −89.5 16.0 255.5 131.7 279.8 96.2 97.4 96.3 102.2 156.6 156.6 69.8 71.6 25.3

278.0 98.6 40.7 79.6 115.6 118.3 −78.2 32.0 282.5 151.5 306.5 117.6 118.9 117.7 122.5 175.5 174.3 90.0 91.9 42.4

153.4 63.0 245.3 246.7 251.6 181.2

175.8 82.0 269.8 270.5 275.8 202.3

197.7 101.0 295.8 295.5 301.0 224.0

214.3 −9.7 −7.3 74.7 51.3 81.2 70.7 −63.8 +11.0 138.0 79.4 −24.3 39.8 29.6 150.8 126.2 77.8 85.0

226.7 −1.9 +0.1 83.4 58.8 89.8 80.1 −57.7 18.7 149.3 88.8 −17.4 47.3 36.2 161.7 136.7 88.3 95.0

242.0 +8.1 10.5 94.2 69.2 100.0 93.0 −49.3 29.0 164.2 101.6 −8.1 56.8 45.5 176.2 150.0 102.2 108.6

265.8 24.1 26.5 111.3 85.0 116.1 112.3 −36.7 44.2 187.4 120.5 +6.0 71.0 59.0 197.8 172.6 121.8 128.7

291.7 41.6 44.2 129.8 102.6 133.2 133.8 −22.2 61.8 212.7 141.7 22.5 86.8 73.8 211.7 197.5 143.0 151.2

319.5 60.3 63.3 147.9 121.2 150.2 155.5 −6.9 79.8 238.5 163.0 39.1 103.3 88.9 246.5 223.2 165.4 175.0

203.7 49.0 38.2 165.7 39.8 −51.7 82.6 186.0 223.5 119.3 225.0 231.5 177.8 181.7 191.5 195.7 142.1 186.0 204.2 234.2 168.8 177.7 115.4 38.0 235 27.5 122.1 172.8

215.0 58.1 47.5 176.6 48.2 −45.3 92.6 198.3 237.2 130.2 234.5 241.3 190.0 193.7 203.8 208.1 154.7 197.8 216.5 245.9 180.7 189.5 125.8 46.5 251 35.5 132.6 181.7

230.5 70.4 59.3 191.5 59.8 −37.1 106.0 214.5 250.5 145.5 245.8 252.7 206.0 209.8 220.0 224.3 169.5 213.0 232.1 261.8 196.2 204.3 139.9 57.8

254.4 89.8 77.5 214.0 77.3 −24.1 126.0 240.4 272.3 167.7 263.5 270.3 229.6 234.0 244.9 249.7 193.8 236.3 255.3 284.5 220.0 227.4 161.2 74.8

279.8 110.8 97.8 238.3 96.7 −10.1 148.3 267.9 294.6 193.2 281.4 289.5 255.8 260.6 272.2 277.4 219.8 260.0 280.2 310.2 246.8 252.1 185.8 94.0

307.0 132.9 119.0 262.5 116.7 +5.3 171.5 297.8 318.0 217.9 300.0 308.5 282.5 288.0 300.8 306.1 247.3 284.5 305.7 336.0 273.5 278.3 210.6 114.0

46.6 146.4 194.1

63.5 167.6 213.0

82.0 191.0 233.5

101.2 214.5 253.0

Temperature, °C

Formula C14H28O CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 C4H8O C8H18 C8H18 CH3F C2H4O2 C6H8O3 C3H6O3 C18H38 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H16 C8H16O C8H16O C7H16 C7H16 CH3I C13H26O2 C6H10O3 C5H8O2 C15H30O2 C12H10O C12H10O C11H22O C17H34O2 C17H34O C6H14 C6H14 C6H14O C6H14O C7H14O C7H8O C4H8 C4H8O2 C10H12O C4H7BrO C4H10O C5H10O C5H10O C10H9N C8H8O3 C9H10 C9H10

40

87.8 39.8 −30.5 115.0 115.6 120.2 68.2 134.3 129.6 −60.9 −59.0 15.4 −4.5 19.3 +5.4 −105.1 −42.0 59.6 13.5 −72.2 −12.0 −19.9 75.3 54.0 7.4 16.0 109.8 −14.0 −34.7 86.8 −19.2 −93.2 14.5 99.0 142.0 52.6 156.0 160.8 94.0 104.3 108.0 61.8 104.0 119.3 142.4 85.8 96.2 44.4 −21.0 127 −29.0 49.3 100.0

Melting point, °C −52.8 −96.7 −85.9 −114.5 −90 −99.8

−109.5 −120.8 −121.1

−118.2 −64.4 5 18.5 55.5 15 30 −154 −118 −103 −37.3 −140.3 −87.5

−77.8 −92 −1 −8.3 −23.2

−51 35.5 28.5

23.5 57.5 80.2 160.5 184 96 122.5 50 111.5 71.5 114 146.5 40.9 58 +5.7 −90 11 −29 45

(Continued )

2-74

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name 1-Nitropropane 2-Nitropropane 2-Nitrotoluene 3-Nitrotoluene 4-Nitrotoluene 4-Nitro-1,3-xylene (4-nitro-m-xylene) Nonacosane Nonadecane n-Nonane 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanone Octacosane Octadecane n-Octane n-Octanol (1-octanol) 2-Octanone n-Octyl acrylate iodide (1-Iodooctane) Oleic acid Palmitaldehyde Palmitic acid Palmitonitrile Pelargonic acid Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachloroethylbenzene Pentachlorophenol Pentacosane Pentadecane 1,3-Pentadiene 1,4-Pentadiene Pentaethylbenzene Pentaethylchlorobenzene n-Pentane iso-Pentane (2-methylbutane) neo-Pentane (2,2-dimethylpropane) 2,3,4-Pentanetriol 1-Pentene α-Phellandrene Phenanthrene Phenethyl alcohol (phenyl cellosolve) 2-Phenetidine Phenol 2-Phenoxyethanol 2-Phenoxyethyl acetate Phenyl acetate Phenylacetic acid Phenylacetonitrile Phenylacetyl chloride Phenyl benzoate 4-Phenyl-3-buten-2-one Phenyl isocyanate isocyanide Phenylcyclohexane Phenyl dichlorophosphate m-Phenylene diamine (1,3-phenylenediamine) Phenylglyoxal Phenylhydrazine N-Phenyliminodiethanol 1-Phenyl-1,3-pentanedione 2-Phenylphenol 4-Phenylphenol 3-Phenyl-1-propanol Phenyl isothiocyanate Phorone iso-Phorone Phosgene (carbonyl chloride) Phthalic anhydride Phthalide Phthaloyl chloride 2-Picoline Pimelic acid α-Pinene β-Pinene

1

5

10

20

−9.6 −18.8 50.0 50.2 53.7 65.6 234.2 133.2 +1.4 59.5 32.1 226.5 119.6 −14.0 54.0 23.6 58.5 45.8 176.5 121.6 153.6 134.3 108.2 98.6 +1.0 96.2

+13.5 +4.1 79.1 81.0 85.0 95.0 269.8 166.3 25.8 86.1 59.0 260.3 152.1 +8.3 76.5 48.4 87.7 74.8 208.5 154.6 188.1 168.3 126.0 129.7 27.2 130.0

25.3 15.8 93.8 96.0 100.5 109.8 286.4 183.5 38.0 99.7 72.3 277.4 169.6 19.2 88.3 60.9 102.0 90.0 223.0 171.8 205.8 185.8 137.4 144.3 39.8 148.0

194.2 91.6 −71.8 −83.5 86.0 90.0 −76.6 −82.9 −102.0 155.0 −80.4 20.0 118.2 58.2 67.0 40.1 78.0 82.6 38.2 97.0 60.0 48.0 106.8 81.7 10.6 12.0 67.5 66.7

230.0 121.0 −53.8 −66.2 120.0 123.8 −62.5 −65.8 −85.4 189.3 −63.3 45.7 154.3 85.9 94.7 62.5 106.6 113.5 64.8 127.0 89.0 75.3 141.5 112.2 36.0 37.0 96.5 95.9

248.2 135.4 −45.0 −57.1 135.8 140.7 −50.1 −57.0 −76.7 204.5 −54.5 58.0 173.0 100.0 108.6 73.8 121.2 128.0 78.0 141.3 103.5 89.0 157.8 127.4 48.5 49.7 111.3 110.0

37.9 28.2 109.6 112.8 117.7 125.8 303.6 200.8 51.2 113.8 87.2 295.4 187.5 31.5 101.0 74.3 117.8 105.9 240.0 190.0 223.8 204.2 149.8 160.0 53.9 166.0 192.2 266.1 150.2 −34.8 −47.7 152.4 158.1 −40.2 −47.3 −67.2 220.5 −46.0 72.1 193.7 114.8 123.7 86.0 136.0 144.5 92.3 156.0 119.4 103.6 177.0 143.8 62.5 63.4 126.4 125.9

51.8 41.8 126.3 130.7 136.0 143.3 323.2 220.0 66.0 129.0 103.4 314.2 207.4 45.1 115.2 89.8 135.6 123.8 257.2 210.0 244.4 223.8 163.7 178.5 69.9 186.2 211.2 285.6 167.7 −23.4 −37.0 171.9 178.2 −29.2 −36.5 −56.1 239.6 −34.1 87.8 215.8 130.5 139.9 100.1 152.2 162.3 108.1 173.6 136.3 119.8 197.6 161.3 77.7 78.3 144.0 143.4

C6H8N2 C8H6O2 C6H8N2 C10H15NO2 C11H12O2 C12H10O C12H10O C9H12O C7H5NS C9H14O C9H14O CCl2O C8H4O3 C8H6O2 C8H4Cl2O2 C6H7N C7H12O4 C10H16 C10H16

99.8 71.8 145.0 98.0 100.0

131.2 75.0 101.6 179.2 128.5 131.6

74.7 47.2 42.0 38.0 −92.9 96.5 95.5 86.3 −11.1 163.4 −1.0 +4.2

102.4 75.6 68.3 66.7 −77.0 121.3 127.7 118.3 +12.6 196.2 +24.6 30.0

147.0 87.8 115.8 195.8 144.0 146.2 176.2 116.0 89.8 81.5 81.2 −69.3 134.0 144.0 134.2 24.4 212.0 37.3 42.3

163.8 100.7 131.5 213.4 159.9 163.3 193.8 131.2 115.5 95.6 96.8 −60.3 151.7 161.3 151.0 37.4 229.3 51.4 58.1

182.5 115.5 148.2 233.0 178.0 180.3 213.0 147.4 122.5 111.3 114.5 −50.3 172.0 181.0 170.0 51.2 247.0 66.8 71.5

60

100

200

400

760

60.5 50.3 137.6 142.5 147.9 153.8 334.8 232.8 75.5 139.0 113.8 326.8 219.7 53.8 123.8 99.0 145.6 135.4 269.8 222.6 256.0 236.6 172.3 190.1 80.0 199.0 223.4 298.4 178.4 −16.5 −30.0 184.2 191.0 −22.2 −29.6 −49.0 249.8 −27.1 97.6 229.9 141.2 149.8 108.4 163.2 174.0 118.1 184.5 147.7 129.8 210.8 172.6 87.7 88.0 154.2 153.6

72.3 62.0 151.5 156.9 163.0 168.5 350.0 248.0 88.1 151.3 127.4 341.8 236.0 65.7 135.2 111.7 159.1 150.0 286.0 239.5 271.5 251.5 184.4 205.5 93.5 216.0 239.6 314.0 194.0 −6.7 −20.6 200.0 208.0 −12.6 −20.2 −39.1 263.5 −17.7 110.6 249.0 154.0 163.5 121.4 176.5 189.2 131.6 198.2 161.8 143.5 227.8 187.8 100.6 101.0 169.3 168.0

90.2 80.0 173.7 180.3 186.7 191.7 373.2 271.8 107.5 170.5 148.2 364.8 260.6 83.6 152.0 130.4 180.2 173.3 309.8 264.1 298.7 277.1 203.1 227.0 114.0 241.8 261.8 339.0 216.1 +8.0 −6.7 224.1 230.3 +1.9 −5.9 −23.7 284.5 −3.4 130.6 277.1 175.0 184.0 139.0 197.6 211.3 151.2 219.5 184.2 163.8 254.0 211.0 120.8 120.8 191.3 189.8

110.6 99.8 197.7 206.8 212.5 217.5 397.2 299.8 128.2 192.1 171.2 388.9 288.0 104.0 173.8 151.0 204.0 199.3 334.7 292.3 326.0 304.5 227.5 251.6 137.2 269.3 285.0 365.4 242.8 24.7 +8.3 250.2 257.2 18.5 +10.5 −7.1 307.0 +12.8 152.0 308.0 197.5 207.0 160.0 221.0 235.0 173.5 243.0 208.5 186.0 283.5 235.4 142.7 142.3 214.6 213.0

131.6 120.3 222.3 231.9 238.3 244.0 421.8 330.0 150.8 213.5 195.0 412.5 317.0 125.6 195.2 172.9 227.0 225.5 360.0 321.0 353.8 332.0 253.5 276.0 160.5 299.0 309.3 390.3 270.5 42.1 26.1 277.0 285.0 36.1 27.8 +9.5 327.2 30.1 175.0 340.2 219.5 228.0 181.9 245.3 259.7 195.9 265.5 233.5 210.0 314.0 261.0 165.6 165.0 240.0 239.5

194.0 124.2 158.7 245.3 189.8 192.2 225.3 156.8 133.3 121.4 125.6 −44.0 185.3 193.5 182.2 59.9 258.2 76.8 81.2

209.9 136.2 173.5 260.6 204.5 205.9 240.9 170.3 147.7 134.0 140.6 −35.6 202.3 210.0 197.8 71.4 272.0 90.1 94.0

233.0 153.8 195.4 284.5 226.7 227.9 263.2 191.2 169.6 153.5 163.3 −22.3 228.0 234.5 222.0 89.0 294.5 110.2 114.1

259.0 173.5 218.2 311.3 251.2 251.8 285.5 212.8 194.0 175.3 188.7 −7.6 256.8 261.8 248.3 108.4 318.5 132.3 136.1

285.5 193.5 243.5 337.8 276.5 275.0 308.0 235.0 218.5 197.2 215.2 +8.3 284.5 290.0 275.8 128.8 342.1 155.0 158.3

Temperature, °C

Formula C3H7NO2 C3H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C8H9NO2 C29H60 C19H40 C9H20 C9H20O C9H18O C28H58 C18H38 C8H18 C8H18O C8H16O C11H20O2 C8H17I C18H34O2 C16H32O C16H32O2 C16H31N C9H18O2 C6HCl5 C2HCl5 C8H5Cl5 C6HCl5O C25H52 C15H32 C5H8 C5H8 C16H26 C16H25Cl C5H12 C5H12 C5H12 C5H12O3 C5H10 C10H16 C14H10 C8H10O2 C8H11NO C6H6O C8H10O2 C10H12O3 C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C8H7N C8H7ClO C13H10O2 C10H10O C7H5NO C7H5N C12H16 C6H5Cl2O2P

40

Melting point, °C −108 −93 −4.1 15.5 51.9 +2 63.8 32 −53.7 −5 −19 61.6 28 −56.8 −15.4 −16 −45.9 14 34 64.0 31 12.5 85.5 −22 188.5 53.3 10

−129.7 −159.7 −16.6

99.5 40.6 11.6 −6.7 76.5 −23.8 70.5 41.5 +7.5 62.8 73 19.5 56.5 164.5 −21.0 28 −104 130.8 73 88.5 −70 103 −55

VAPOR PRESSURES TABLE 2-10

2-75

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Piperidine Piperonal Propane Propenylbenzene Propionamide Propionic acid anhydride Propionitrile Propiophenone n-Propyl acetate iso-Propyl acetate n-Propyl alcohol (1-propanol) iso-Propyl alcohol (2-propanol) n-Propylamine Propylbenzene Propyl benzoate n-Propyl bromide (1-bromopropane) iso-Propyl bromide (2-bromopropane) n-Propyl n-butyrate isobutyrate iso-Propyl isobutyrate Propyl carbamate n-Propyl chloride (1-chloropropane) iso-Propyl chloride (2-chloropropane) iso-Propyl chloroacetate Propyl chloroglyoxylate Propylene Propylene glycol (1,2-Propanediol) Propylene oxide n-Propyl formate iso-Propyl formate 4,4′-iso-Propylidenebisphenol n-Propyl iodide (1-iodopropane) iso-Propyl iodide (2-iodopropane) n-Propyl levulinate iso-Propyl levulinate Propyl mercaptan (1-propanethiol) 2-iso-Propylnaphthalene iso-Propyl β-naphthyl ketone (2-isobutyronaphthone) 2-iso-Propylphenol 3-iso-Propylphenol 4-iso-Propylphenol Propyl propionate 4-iso-Propylstyrene Propyl isovalerate Pulegone Pyridine Pyrocatechol Pyrocaltechol diacetate (1,2-phenylene diacetate) Pyrogallol Pyrotartaric anhydride Pyruvic acid Quinoline iso-Quinoline Resorcinol Safrole Salicylaldehyde Salicylic acid Sebacic acid Selenophene Skatole Stearaldehyde Stearic acid Stearyl alcohol (1-octadecanol) Styrene Styrene dibromide [(1,2-dibromoethyl) benzene] Suberic acid Succinic anhydride Succinimide Succinyl chloride α-Terpineol Terpenoline

1

5

10

20

87.0 −128.9 17.5 65.0 4.6 20.6 −35.0 50.0 −26.7 −38.3 −15.0 −26.1 −64.4 6.3 54.6 −53.0 −61.8 −1.6 −6.2 −16.3 52.4 −68.3 −78.8 +3.8 9.7 −131.9 45.5 −75.0 −43.0 −52.0 193.0 −36.0 −43.3 59.7 48.0 −56.0 76.0

−7.0 117.4 −115.4 43.8 91.0 28.0 45.3 −13.6 77.9 −5.4 −17.4 +5.0 −7.0 −46.3 31.3 83.8 −33.4 −42.5 +22.1 +16.8 +5.8 77.6 −50.0 −61.1 28.1 32.3 −120.7 70.8 −57.8 −22.7 −32.7 224.2 −13.5 −22.1 86.3 74.5 −36.3 107.9

+3.9 132.0 −108.5 57.0 105.0 39.7 57.7 −3.0 92.2 +5.0 −7.2 14.7 +2.4 −37.2 43.4 98.0 −23.3 −32.8 34.0 28.3 17.0 90.0 −41.0 −52.0 40.2 43.5 −112.1 83.2 −49.0 −12.6 −22.7 240.8 −2.4 −11.7 99.9 88.0 −26.3 123.4

15.8 148.0 −100.9 71.5 119.0 52.0 70.4 +8.8 107.6 16.0 +4.2 25.3 12.7 −27.1 56.8 114.3 −12.4 −22.0 47.0 40.6 29.0 103.2 −31.0 −42.0 53.9 55.6 −104.7 96.4 −39.3 −1.7 −12.1 255.5 +10.0 0.0 114.0 102.4 −15.4 140.3

29.2 165.7 −92.4 87.7 134.8 65.8 85.6 22.0 124.3 28.8 17.0 36.4 23.8 −16.0 71.6 131.8 −0.3 −10.1 61.5 54.3 42.4 117.7 −19.5 −31.0 68.7 68.8 −96.5 111.2 −28.4 +10.8 −0.2 273.0 23.6 +13.2 130.1 118.1 −3.2 159.0

60

Melting point, °C

100

200

400

760

37.7 177.0 −87.0 97.8 144.3 74.1 94.5 30.1 135.0 37.0 25.1 43.5 30.5 −9.0 81.1 143.3 +7.5 −2.5 70.3 63.0 51.4 126.5 −12.1 −23.5 78.0 77.2 −91.3 119.9 −21.3 18.8 +7.5 282.9 32.1 21.6 140.6 127.8 +4.6 171.4

49.0 191.7 −79.6 111.7 156.0 85.8 107.2 41.4 149.3 47.8 35.7 52.8 39.5 +0.5 94.0 157.4 18.0 +8.0 82.6 73.9 62.3 138.3 −2.5 −13.7 90.3 88.0 −84.1 132.0 −12.0 29.5 17.8 297.0 43.8 32.8 154.0 141.8 15.3 187.6

66.2 214.3 −68.4 132.0 174.2 102.5 127.8 58.2 170.2 64.0 51.7 66.8 53.0 15.0 113.5 180.1 34.0 23.8 101.0 91.8 80.2 155.8 +12.2 +1.3 108.8 104.7 −73.3 149.7 +2.1 45.3 33.6 317.5 61.8 50.0 175.6 161.6 31.5 211.8

85.7 238.5 −55.6 154.7 194.0 122.0 146.0 77.7 194.2 82.0 69.8 82.0 67.8 31.5 135.7 205.2 52.0 41.5 121.7 112.0 100.0 175.8 29.4 18.1 128.0 123.0 −60.9 168.1 17.8 62.6 50.5 339.0 81.8 69.5 198.0 185.2 49.2 238.5

106.0 263.0 −42.1 179.0 213.0 141.1 167.0 97.1 218.0 101.8 89.0 97.8 82.5 48.5 159.2 231.0 71.0 60.0 142.7 133.9 120.5 195.0 46.4 36.5 148.6 150.0 −47.7 188.2 34.5 81.3 68.3 360.5 102.5 89.5 221.2 208.2 67.4 266.0

Temperature, °C

Formula C5H11N C8H6O3 C 3 H8 C9H10 C3H7NO C3H6O2 C6H10O3 C3H5N C9H10O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C3H8O C3H8O C3H9N C9H12 C10H12O2 C3H7Br C3H7Br C7H14O2 C7H14O2 C7H14O2 C4H9NO2 C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C5H9ClO2 C5H7ClO3 C3H6 C3H8O2 C3H6O C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C15H16O2 C3H7I C3H7I C8H14O3 C8H14O3 C3H8S C13H14

40

C14H14O C9H12O C9H12O C9H12O C6H12O2 C11H14 C8H16O2 C10H16O C5H5N C6H6O2

133.2 56.6 62.0 67.0 −14.2 34.7 +8.0 58.3 −18.9

165.4 83.8 90.3 94.7 +8.0 62.3 32.8 82.5 +2.5 104.0

181.0 97.0 104.1 108.0 19.4 76.0 45.1 94.0 13.2 118.3

197.7 111.7 119.8 123.4 31.6 91.2 58.0 106.8 24.8 134.0

215.6 127.5 136.2 139.8 45.0 108.0 72.8 121.7 38.0 150.6

227.0 137.7 146.6 149.7 53.8 118.4 82.3 130.2 46.8 161.7

242.3 150.3 160.2 163.3 65.2 132.8 95.0 143.1 57.8 176.0

264.0 170.1 182.0 184.0 82.7 153.9 113.9 162.5 75.0 197.7

288.2 192.6 205.0 206.1 102.0 178.0 135.0 189.8 95.6 221.5

313.0 214.5 228.0 228.2 122.4 202.5 155.9 221.0 115.4 245.5

C10H10O4 C6H6O3 C5H6O3 C3H4O3 C9H7N C9H7N C6H6O2 C10H10O2 C7H6O2 C7H6O3 C10H18O4 C4H4Se C9H9N C18H36O C18H36O2 C18H36O C8H8

98.0 69.7 21.4 59.7 63.5 108.4 63.8 33.0 113.7 183.0 −39.0 95.0 140.0 173.7 150.3 −7.0

129.8 151.7 99.7 45.8 89.6 92.7 138.0 93.0 60.1 136.0 215.7 −16.0 124.2 174.6 209.0 185.6 +18.0

145.7 167.7 114.2 57.9 103.8 107.8 152.1 107.6 73.8 146.2 232.0 −4.0 139.6 192.1 225.0 202.0 30.8

161.8 185.3 130.0 70.8 119.8 123.7 168.0 123.0 88.7 156.8 250.0 +9.1 154.3 210.6 243.4 220.0 44.6

179.8 204.2 147.8 85.3 136.7 141.6 185.3 140.1 105.2 172.2 268.2 24.1 171.9 230.8 263.3 240.4 59.8

191.6 216.3 158.6 94.1 148.1 152.0 195.8 150.3 115.7 182.0 279.8 33.8 183.6 244.2 275.5 252.7 69.5

206.5 232.0 173.8 106.5 163.2 167.6 209.8 165.1 129.4 193.4 294.5 47.0 197.4 260.0 291.0 269.4 82.0

228.7 255.3 196.1 124.7 186.2 190.0 230.8 186.2 150.0 210.0 313.2 66.7 218.8 285.0 316.5 293.5 101.3

253.3 281.5 221.0 144.7 212.3 214.5 253.4 210.0 173.7 230.5 332.8 89.8 242.5 313.8 343.0 320.3 122.5

278.0 309.0 247.4 165.0 237.7 240.5 276.5 233.0 196.5 256.0 352.3 114.3 266.2 342.5 370.0 349.5 145.2

C8H8Br2 C8H14O4 C4H4O3 C4H5NO2 C4H4Cl2O2 C10H18O C10H16

86.0 172.8 92.0 115.0 39.0 52.8 32.3

115.6 205.5 115.0 143.2 65.0 80.4 58.0

129.8 219.5 128.2 157.0 78.0 94.3 70.6

145.2 238.2 145.3 174.0 91.8 109.8 84.8

161.8 254.6 163.0 192.0 107.5 126.0 100.0

172.2 265.4 174.0 203.0 117.2 136.3 109.8

186.3 279.8 189.0 217.4 130.0 150.1 122.7

207.8 300.5 212.0 240.0 149.3 171.2 142.0

230.0 322.8 237.0 263.5 170.0 194.3 163.5

254.0 345.5 261.0 287.5 192.5 217.5 185.0

−9 37 −187.1 −30.1 79 −22 −45 −91.9 21 −92.5 −127 −85.8 −83 −99.5 −51.6 −109.9 −89.0 −95.2

−122.8 −117 −185 −112.1 −92.9 −98.8 −90 −112

15.5 26 61 −76

−42 105 133 13.6 −15 24.6 110.7 11.2 −7 159 134.5 95 63.5 69.3 58.5 −30.6 142 119.6 125.5 17 35

(Continued )

2-76

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Formula

1,1,1,2-Tetrabromoethane 1,1,2,2-Tetrabromoethane Tetraisobutylene Tetracosane 1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 1,2,3,5-Tetrachloro-4-ethylbenzene Tetrachloroethylene 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol 3,4,5,6-Tetrachloro-1,2-xylene Tetradecane Tetradecylamine Tetradecyltrimethylsilane Tetraethoxysilane 1,2,3,4-Tetraethylbenzene Tetraethylene glycol Tetraethylene glycol chlorohydrin Tetraethyllead Tetraethylsilane Tetralin 1,2,3,4-Tetramethylbenzene 1,2,3,5-Tetramethylbenzene 1,2,4,5-Tetramethylbenzene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Tetramethylene dibromide (1,4-dibromobutane) Tetramethyllead Tetramethyltin Tetrapropylene glycol monoisopropyl ether Thioacetic acid (mercaptoacetic acid) Thiodiglycol (2,2′-thiodiethanol) Thiophene Thiophenol (benzenethiol) α-Thujone Thymol Tiglaldehyde Tiglic acid Tiglonitrile Toluene Toluene-2,4-diamine 2-Toluic nitrile (2-tolunitrile) 4-Toluic nitrile (4-tolunitrile) 2-Toluidine 3-Toluidine 4-Toluidine 2-Tolyl isocyanide 4-Tolylhydrazine Tribromoacetaldehyde 1,1,2-Tribromobutane 1,2,2-Tribromobutane 2,2,3-Tribromobutane 1,1,2-Tribromoethane 1,2,3-Tribromopropane Triisobutylamine Triisobutylene 2,4,6-Tritertbutylphenol Trichloroacetic acid Trichloroacetic anhydride Trichloroacetyl bromide 2,4,6-Trichloroaniline 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,3-Trichlorobutane 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Trichlorofluoromethane 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

C2H2Br4 C2H2Br4 C16H32 C24H50 C6H2Cl4 C6H2Cl4 C6H2Cl4 C2Cl4F2 C2H2Cl4 C2H2Cl4 C8H6Cl4 C2Cl4 C6H2Cl4O C8H6Cl4 C14H30 C14H31N C17H38Si C8H20O4Si C14H22 C8H18O5 C8H17ClO4 C8H20Pb C8H20Si C10H12 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C8H18 C4H8Br2 C4H12Pb C4H12Sn C15H32O5 C2H4O2S C4H10O2S C4H4S C6H6S C10H16O C10H14O C5H8O C5H8O2 C5H7N C7H8 C7H10N2 C8H7N C8H7N C7H9N C7H9N C7H9N C8H7N C7H10N2 C2HBr3O C4H7Br3 C4H7Br3 C4H7Br3 C2H3Br3 C3H5Br3 C12H27N C12H24 C18H30O C2HCl3O2 C4Cl6O3 C2BrCl3O C6H4Cl3N C6H3Cl3 C6H3Cl3 C6H3Cl3 C4H7Cl3 C2H3Cl3 C2H3Cl3 C2HCl3 CCl3F C6H3Cl3O C6H3Cl3O

1

5

10

20

58.0 65.0 63.8 183.8 68.5 58.2

83.3 95.5 93.7 219.6 99.6 89.0

95.7 110.0 108.5 237.6 114.7 104.1

108.5 126.0 124.5 255.3 131.2 121.6

−37.5 −16.3 −3.8 77.0 −20.6 100.0 94.4 76.4 102.6 120.0 16.0 65.7 153.9 110.1 38.4 −1.0 38.0 42.6 40.6 45.0 −17.4

−16.0 +7.4 +20.7 110.0 +2.4 130.3 125.0 106.0 135.8 150.7 40.3 96.2 183.7 141.8 63.6 +23.9 65.3 68.7 65.8 65.0 +3.2

−5.0 19.3 33.0 126.0 13.8 145.3 140.3 120.7 152.0 166.2 52.6 111.6 197.1 156.1 74.8 36.3 79.0 81.8 77.8 74.6 13.5

32.0 −29.0 −51.3 116.6 60.0 42.0 −40.7 18.6 38.3 64.3 −25.0 52.0 −25.5 −26.7 106.5 36.7 42.5 44.0 41.0 42.0 25.2 82.4 18.5 45.0 41.0 38.2 32.6 47.5 32.3 18.0 95.2 51.0 56.2 −7.4 134.0 40.0 38.4

58.8 −6.8 −31.0 147.8 87.7 96.0 −20.8 43.7 65.7 92.8 −1.6 77.8 −2.4 −4.4 137.2 64.0 71.3 69.3 68.0 68.2 51.0 110.0 45.0 73.5 69.0 66.0 58.0 75.8 57.4 44.0 126.1 76.0 85.3 +16.7 157.8 70.0 67.3 63.8 27.2 −32.0 −2.0 −22.8 −67.6 102.1 105.9

72.4 +4.4 −20.6 163.0 101.5 128.0 −10.9 56.0 79.3 107.4 +10.0 90.2 +9.2 +6.4 151.7 77.9 85.8 81.4 82.0 81.8 64.0 123.8 58.0 87.8 83.2 79.8 70.6 90.0 69.8 56.5 142.0 88.2 99.6 29.3 170.0 85.6 81.7 78.0 40.0 −21.9 +8.3 −12.4 −59.0 117.3 120.2

40

60

100

200

400

760

Temperature, °C

+0.5 −52.0 −24.0 −43.8 −84.3 72.0 76.5

Melting point, °C

+6.7 32.1 46.2 143.7 26.3 161.0 156.0 135.6 170.0 183.5 65.8 127.7 212.3 172.6 88.0 50.0 93.8 95.8 91.0 88.0 24.6

123.2 144.0 142.2 276.3 149.2 140.0 146.0 19.8 46.7 60.8 162.1 40.1 179.1 174.2 152.7 189.0 201.5 81.1 145.8 228.0 190.0 102.4 65.3 110.4 111.5 105.8 104.2 36.8

132.0 155.1 152.6 288.4 160.0 152.0 157.7 28.1 56.0 70.0 175.0 49.2 190.0 185.8 164.0 200.2 213.3 90.7 156.7 237.8 200.5 111.7 74.8 121.3 121.8 115.4 114.8 44.5

144.0 170.0 167.5 305.2 175.7 168.0 173.5 38.6 68.0 83.2 191.6 61.3 205.2 200.5 178.5 215.7 227.8 103.6 172.4 250.0 214.7 123.8 88.0 135.3 135.7 128.3 128.1 54.8

161.5 192.5 190.0 330.5 198.0 193.7 196.0 55.0 87.2 102.2 215.3 79.8 227.2 223.0 201.8 239.8 250.0 123.5 196.0 268.4 236.5 142.0 108.0 157.2 155.7 149.9 149.5 70.2

181.0 217.5 214.6 358.0 225.5 220.0 220.5 73.1 108.2 124.0 243.0 100.0 250.4 248.3 226.8 264.6 275.0 146.2 221.4 288.0 258.2 161.8 130.2 181.8 180.0 173.7 172.1 87.4

200.0 243.5 240.0 386.4 254.0 246.0 245.0 92.0 130.5 145.9 270.0 120.8 275.0 273.5 252.5 291.2 300.0 168.5 248.0 307.8 281.5 183.0 153.0 207.2 204.4 197.9 195.9 106.3

87.6 16.6 −9.3 179.8 115.8 165.0 0.0 69.7 93.7 122.6 23.2 103.8 22.1 18.4 167.9 93.0 101.7 95.1 96.7 95.8 78.2 138.6 72.1 103.2 98.6 94.6 84.2 105.8 83.0 70.0 158.0 101.8 114.3 42.1 182.6 101.8 97.2 93.7 55.0 −10.8 21.6 −1.0 −49.7 134.0 135.8

104.0 30.3 +3.5 197.7 131.8 210.0 +12.5 84.2 110.0 139.8 37.0 119.0 36.7 31.8 185.7 110.0 109.5 110.0 113.5 111.5 94.0 154.1 87.8 120.2 116.0 111.8 100.0 122.8 97.8 86.7 177.4 116.3 131.2 57.2 195.8 119.8 114.8 110.8 71.5 +1.6 35.2 +11.9 −39.0 151.5 152.2

115.1 39.2 11.7 209.0 142.0 240.5 20.1 93.9 120.2 149.8 45.8 127.8 46.0 40.3 196.2 120.8 130.0 119.8 123.8 121.5 104.0 165.0 97.5 131.6 127.0 122.2 110.0 134.0 107.3 96.7 188.0 125.9 141.8 66.7 204.5 131.5 125.7 121.8 82.0 9.5 44.0 20.0 −32.3 162.5 163.5

128.7 50.8 22.8 223.3 154.0 285 30.5 106.6 134.0 164.1 57.7 140.5 58.2 51.9 211.5 135.0 145.2 133.0 136.7 133.7 117.7 178.0 110.2 146.0 141.8 136.3 123.5 148.0 119.7 110.0 203.0 137.8 155.2 79.5 214.6 146.0 140.0 136.0 96.2 20.0 55.7 31.4 −23.0 178.0 177.8

149.8 68.8 39.8 245.0

173.8 89.0 58.5 268.3

197.5 110.0 78.0 292.7

−20 −27.5

46.5 125.8 154.2 185.5 75.4 158.0 77.8 69.5 232.8 156.0 167.3 153.0 157.6 154.0 137.8 198.0 130.0 167.8 163.5 157.8 143.5 170.0 138.0 130.2 226.2 155.4 176.2 98.4 229.8 168.2 162.0 157.7 118.0 36.2 73.3 48.0 −9.1 201.5 199.0

64.7 146.7 177.8 209.2 95.5 179.2 99.7 89.5 256.0 180.0 193.0 176.2 180.6 176.9 159.9 219.5 151.6 192.0 188.0 182.2 165.4 195.0 157.8 153.0 250.6 175.2 199.8 120.2 246.4 193.5 187.7 183.0 143.0 54.6 93.0 67.0 +6.8 226.5 222.5

84.4 168.0 201.0 231.8 116.4 198.5 122.0 110.6 280.0 205.2 217.6 199.7 203.3 200.4 183.5 242.0 174.0 216.2 213.8 206.5 188.4 220.0 179.0 179.0 276.3 195.6 223.0 143.0 262.0 218.5 213.0 208.4 169.0 74.1 113.9 86.7 23.7 251.8 246.0

−38.3

51.1 46.5 54.5 139 26.5 −68.7 −36 −19.0 69.5 5.5

11.6 −136 −31.0 −6.2 −24.0 79.5 −102.2

−16.5

51.5 64.5 −95.0 99 −13 29.5 −16.3 −31.5 44.5 65.5

−26 16.5 −22 57 78 52.5 17 63.5 −30.6 −36.7 −73 62 68.5

VAPOR PRESSURES

2-77

TABLE 2-10 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name Tri-2-chlorophenylthiophosphate 1,1,1-Trichloropropane 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane Tricosane Tridecane Tridecanoic acid Triethoxymethylsilane Triethoxyphenylsilane 1,2,4-Triethylbenzene 1,3,4-Triethylbenzene Triethylborine Triethyl camphoronate citrate Triethyleneglycol Triethylheptylsilane Triethyloctylsilane Triethyl orthoformate phosphate Triethylthallium Trifluorophenylsilane Trimethallyl phosphate 2,3,5-Trimethylacetophenone Trimethylamine 2,4,5-Trimethylaniline 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane Trimethyl citrate Trimethyleneglycol (1,3-propanediol) 1,2,4-Trimethyl-5-ethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethyl-2-ethylbenzene 2,2,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-pentanone Trimethyl phosphate 2,4,5-Trimethylstyrene 2,4,6-Trimethylstyrene Trimethylsuccinic anhydride Triphenylmethane Triphenylphosphate Tripropyleneglycol Tripropyleneglycol monobutyl ether Tripropyleneglycol monoisopropyl ether Tritolyl phosphate Undecane Undecanoic acid 10-Undecenoic acid Undecan-2-ol n-Valeric acid iso-Valeric acid γ-Valerolactone Valeronitrile Vanillin Vinyl acetate 2-Vinylanisole 3-Vinylanisole 4-Vinylanisole Vinyl chloride (1-chloroethylene) cyanide (acrylonitrile) fluoride (1-fluoroethylene) Vinylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethene) 4-Vinylphenetole 2-Xenyl dichlorophosphate 2,4-Xyaldehyde 2-Xylene (2-xylene) 3-Xylene (3-xylene) 4-Xylene (4-xylene) 2,4-Xylidine 2,6-Xylidine

1

5

10

20

188.2

217.2

231.2

246.7

261.7

−28.8 +9.0 −68.0 170.0 59.4 137.8 −1.5 71.0 46.0 47.9

−7.0 33.7 −49.4 206.3 98.3 166.3 +22.8 98.8 74.2 76.0

107.0 114.0 70.0 73.7 +5.5 39.6 +9.3 −31.0 93.7 79.0 −97.1 68.4 16.8 13.6 9.6

150.2 138.7 144.0 99.8 104.8 29.2 67.8 37.6 −9.7 131.0 108.0 −81.7 95.9 42.9 38.3 34.7

106.2 59.4 43.7 38.8 −29.0 −36.5 −25.8 −26.3 14.7 26.0 48.1 37.5 53.5 169.7 193.5 96.0 101.5 82.4 154.6 32.7 101.4 114.0 71.1 42.2 34.5 37.5 −6.0 107.0 −48.0 41.9 43.4 45.2 −105.6 −51.0 −149.3 −77.2 64.0 138.2 59.0 −3.8 −6.9 −8.1 52.6 44.0

146.2 87.2 71.2 67.0 −7.1 −15.0 −3.9 −4.1 36.0 53.7 77.0 65.7 82.6 188.4 230.4 125.7 131.6 112.4 184.2 59.7 133.1 142.8 99.0 67.7 59.6 65.8 +18.1 138.4 −28.0 68.0 69.9 72.0 −90.8 −30.7 −138.0 −60.0 91.7 171.1 85.9 +20.2 +16.8 +15.5 79.8 72.6

+4.2 46.0 −40.3 223.0 104.0 181.0 34.6 112.6 88.5 90.2 −148.0 166.0 144.0 158.1 114.6 120.6 40.5 82.1 51.7 +0.8 149.8 122.3 −73.8 109.0 55.9 50.7 47.4 −18.8 160.4 100.6 84.6 80.5 +3.9 −4.3 +6.9 +7.1 46.4 67.8 91.6 79.7 97.4 197.0 249.8 140.5 147.0 127.3 198.0 73.9 149.0 156.3 112.8 79.8 71.3 79.8 30.0 154.0 −18.0 81.0 83.0 85.7 −83.7 −20.3 −132.2 −51.2 105.6 187.0 99.0 32.1 28.3 27.3 93.0 87.0

16.2 59.3 −30.0 242.0 120.2 195.8 47.2 127.2 104.0 105.8 −140.6 183.6 171.1 174.0 130.3 137.7 53.4 97.8 67.7 12.3 169.8 137.5 −65.0 123.7 69.9 64.5 61.0 −7.5 177.2 115.5 99.7 96.0 16.0 +7.5 19.2 19.3 57.6 83.0 107.1 94.8 113.8 206.8 269.7 155.8 161.8 143.7 213.2 85.6 166.0 172.0 127.5 93.1 84.0 95.2 43.3 170.5 −7.0 94.7 97.2 100.0 −75.7 −9.0 −125.4 −41.7 120.3 205.0 114.0 45.1 41.1 40.1 107.6 102.7

29.9 74.0 −18.5 261.3 137.7 212.4 61.7 143.5 121.7 122.6 −131.4 201.8 190.4 191.3 148.0 155.7 67.5 115.7 85.4 25.4 192.0 154.2 −55.2 139.8 85.4 79.8 76.1 +5.2 194.2 131.0 106.0 113.2 29.5 20.7 33.0 32.9 69.8 100.0 124.2 111.8 131.0 215.5 290.3 173.7 179.8 161.4 229.7 104.4 185.6 188.7 143.7 107.8 98.0 101.9 57.8 188.7 +5.3 110.0 112.5 116.0 −66.8 +3.8 −118.0 −31.1 136.3 223.8 129.7 59.5 55.3 54.4 123.8 120.2

60

100

200

400

760

271.5

283.8

302.8

322.0

341.3

38.3 83.6 −11.2 273.8 148.2 222.0 70.4 153.2 132.2 133.4 −125.2 213.5 202.5 201.5 158.2 168.0 76.0 126.3 95.7 33.2 207.0 165.7 −48.8 149.5 95.3 89.5 85.8 13.3 205.5 141.1 126.3 123.8 38.1 29.1 41.8 41.6 77.3 110.0 135.5 122.3 142.2 221.2 305.2 184.6 190.2 173.2 239.8 115.2 197.2 199.5 153.7 116.6 107.3 122.4 66.9 199.8 13.0 119.8 122.3 126.1 −61.1 11.8 −113.0 −24.0 146.4 236.0 139.8 68.8 64.4 63.5 133.7 131.5

50.0 96.1 −1.7 289.8 162.5 236.0 82.7 167.5 146.8 147.7 −116.0 228.6 217.8 214.6 174.0 184.3 88.0 141.6 112.1 44.2 225.7 179.7 −40.3 162.0 108.8 102.8 98.9 24.4 219.6 153.4 140.3 137.9 49.9 40.7 53.8 53.4 87.6 124.0 149.8 136.8 156.5 228.4 322.5 199.0 204.4 187.8 252.2 128.1 212.5 213.5 167.2 128.3 118.9 136.5 78.6 214.5 23.3 132.3 135.3 139.7 −53.2 22.8 −106.2 −15.0 159.8 251.5 152.2 81.3 76.8 75.9 146.8 146.0

67.7 115.6 +13.5 313.5 185.0 255.2 101.0 188.0 168.3 168.3 −101.0 250.8 242.2 235.2 196.0 208.0 106.0 163.7 136.0 60.1 255.0 201.3 −27.0 182.3 129.0 122.7 118.6 41.2 241.3 172.8 160.3 158.4 67.8 58.1 72.0 71.3 102.2 145.0 171.8 157.8 179.8 239.7 349.8 220.2 224.4 209.7 271.8 149.3 237.8 232.8 187.7 146.0 136.2 157.7 97.7 237.3 38.4 151.0 154.0 159.0 −41.3 38.7 −95.4 −1.0 180.0 275.3 172.3 100.2 95.5 94.6 166.4 168.0

87.5 137.0 30.2 339.8 209.4 276.5 121.8 210.5 193.7 193.2 −81.0 276.0 267.5 256.6 221.0 235.0 125.7 187.0 163.5 78.7 288.5 224.3 −12.5 203.7 152.0 145.4 141.0 60.4 264.2 193.8 184.5 183.5 88.2 78.0 92.7 91.8 118.4 167.8 196.1 182.3 205.5 249.8 379.2 244.3 247.0 232.8 292.7 171.9 262.8 254.0 209.8 165.0 155.2 182.3 118.7 260.0 55.5 172.1 175.8 182.0 −28.0 58.3 −84.0 +14.8 202.8 301.5 194.1 121.7 116.7 115.9 188.3 193.7

108.2 158.0 47.6 366.5 234.0 299.0 143.5 233.5 218.0 217.5 −56.2 301.0 294.0 278.3 247.0 262.0 146.0 211.0 192.1 98.3 324.0 247.5 +2.9 234.5 176.1 169.2 164.7 80.9 287.0 214.2 208.1 208.0 109.8 99.2 114.8 113.5 135.0 192.7 221.2 207.0 231.0 259.2 413.5 267.2 269.5 256.6 313.0 195.8 290.0 275.0 232.0 184.4 175.1 207.5 140.8 285.0 72.5 194.0 197.5 204.5 −13.8 78.5 −72.2 31.7 225.0 328.5 215.5 144.4 139.1 138.3 211.5 217.9

Temperature, °C

Formula C18H12Cl3O3 PS C3H5Cl3 C3H5Cl3 C2Cl3F3 C23H48 C13H28 C13H26O2 C7H18O3Si C12H20O3Si C12H18 C12H18 C6H15B C15H26O6 C12H20O7 C6H14O4 C13H30Si C14H32Si C7H16O3 C6H15O4P C6H15Tl C6H5F3Si C12H21PO4 C11H14O C3H9N C9H13N C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C7H16 C9H14O7 C3H8O2 C11H16 C11H16 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H16O C3H9O4P C11H14 C11H14 C7H10O3 C19H16 C18H15O4P C9H20O4 C13H28O4 C12H26O4 C21H21O4P C11H24 C11H22O2 C11H20O2 C11H24O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H8O2 C5H9N C8H8O3 C4H6O2 C9H10O C9H10O C9H10O C2H3Cl C3H3N C2H3F C2H2Cl2 C10H12O C12H9Cl2PO C9H10O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H11N C8H11N

40

Melting point, °C

−77.7 −14.7 −35 47.7 −6.2 41

135

−63.0

−117.1 67 −25.5 −44.1 −44.8 −25.0 78.5

−112.3 −107.3 −101.5 −109.2

93.4 49.4

−25.6 29.5 24.5 −34.5 −37.6 81.5

−153.7 −82 −160.5 −122.5 75 −25.2 −47.9 +13.3

2-78

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIOnS TABLE 2-11 Partial Pressures of Water over Aqueous Solutions of HCl* log10 pmm = A − B/T, (T in K), which, however, agrees only approximately with the table. The table is more nearly correct. Partial pressure of H2O, mmHg, °C % HCl

A

B





10°

15°

20°

25°

30°

35°

40°

45°

50°

60°

6 10 14 18 20

8.99156 8.99864 8.97075 8.98014 8.97877

2282 2295 2300 2323 2334

4.18 3.84 3.39 2.87 2.62

6.04 5.52 4.91 4.21 3.83

8.45 7.70 6.95 5.92 5.40

11.7 10.7 9.65 8.26 7.50

15.9 14.6 13.1 11.3 10.3

21.8 20.0 18.0 15.4 14.1

29.1 26.8 24.1 20.6 19.0

39.4 35.5 31.9 27.5 25.1

50.6 47.0 42.1 36.4 33.3

66.2 61.5 55.3 47.9 43.6

86.0 80.0 72.0 62.5 57.0

139 130 116 102 93.5

22 24 26 28 30

9.02708 8.96022 9.01511 8.97611 9.00117

2363 2356 2390 2395 2422

2.33 2.05 1.76 1.50 1.26

3.40 3.04 2.60 2.24 1.90

4.82 4.31 3.71 3.21 2.73

6.75 6.03 5.21 4.54 3.88

9.30 8.30 7.21 6.32 5.41

12.6 11.4 9.95 8.75 7.52

17.1 15.4 13.5 11.8 10.2

22.8 20.4 18.0 15.8 13.7

30.2 27.1 24.0 21.1 18.4

39.8 35.7 31.7 27.9 24.3

52.0 46.7 41.5 36.5 32.0

32 34 36 38 40 42

9.03317 9.07143 9.11815 9.20783 9.33923 9.44953

2453 2487 2526 2579 2647 2709

1.04 0.85 0.68 0.53 0.41 0.31

1.57 1.29 1.03 0.81 0.63 0.48

2.27 1.87 1.50 1.20 0.94 0.72

3.25 2.70 2.19 1.75 1.37 1.06

4.55 3.81 3.10 2.51 2.00 1.56

6.37 5.35 4.41 3.60 2.88 2.30

11.7 9.95 8.33 6.92 5.68 4.60

15.7 13.5 11.4 9.52 7.85 6.45

21.0 18.1 15.4 13.0 10.7 8.90

27.7 24.0 20.4 17.4 14.5 12.1

8.70 7.32 6.08 5.03 4.09 3.28

70°

80°

90°

100° 110°

220 204 185 162 150

333 310 273 248 230

492 463 425 374 345

715 677 625 550 510

960 892 783 729

85.6 77.0 69.0 60.7 53.5

138 124 112 99.0 87.5

211 194 173 154 136

317 290 261 234 207

467 426 387 349 310

670 611 555 499 444

46.5 40.5 34.8 29.6 25.0 21.2

76.5 66.5 57.0 49.1 42.1 35.8

120 104 90.0 77.5 67.3 57.2

184 161 140 120 105 89.2

275 243 212 182 158 135

396 355 311 266 230 195

∗Uncertainty, ca. 2 percent for solutions of 15 to 30 percent HCl between 0 and 100°; for solutions of > 30 percent HCl the accuracy is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and ca. 15 percent at the higher temperatures. Below 15 percent HCl, the uncertainty is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and higher strengths to ca. 15 to 20 percent at the lower strengths and perhaps 15 to 20 percent at the higher temperatures and lower strengths. International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 301.

FIG. 2-1 Vapor pressures of H3PO4 aqueous: partial pressure of H2O vapor. (Courtesy of Victor Chemical Works, Stauffer Chemical Company; measurements by W. H. Woodstock.)

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIOnS

2-79

TABLE 2-12 Water Partial Pressure, Bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions* Weight percent, H2SO4 °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

10.0

20.0

.582E−02 .117E−01 .223E−01 .404E−01 .703E−01 .117 .189 .296 .449 .664

.534E−02 .107E−01 .205E−01 .373E−01 .649E−01 .109 .175 .275 .417 .617

30.0 .448E−02 .909E−02 .174E−01 .319E−01 .558E−01 .939E−01 .152 .239 .365 .542

40.0 .326E−02 .670E−02 .130E−01 .241E−01 .427E−01 .725E−01 .119 .188 .290 .434

50.0

60.0

70.0

75.0

80.0

85.0

.193E−02 .405E−02 .802E−02 .151E−01 .272E−01 .470E−01 .782E−01 .126 .196 .298

.836E−03 .180E−02 .367E−02 .710E−02 .131E−01 .232E−01 .395E−01 .651E−01 .104 .161

.207E−03 .467E−03 .995E−03 .201E−02 .387E−02 .715E−02 .127E−01 .217E−01 .360E−01 .578E−01

.747E−04 .175E−03 .388E−03 .811E−03 .162E−02 .309E−02 .565E−02 .997E−02 .170E−01 .281E−01

.197E−04 .490E−04 .115E−04 .253E−03 .531E−03 .106E−02 .204E−02 .376E−02 .668E−02 .115E−01

.343E−05 .952E−05 .245E−04 .589E−04 .133E−03 .286E−03 .584E−03 .114E−02 .213E−02 .383E−02

.905E−01 .138 .206 .301 .481 .605 .837 1.138 1.525 2.017

.452E−01 .708E−01 .108 .162 .236 .339 .478 .662 .902 1.212

.192E−01 .312E−01 .493E−01 .760E−01 .115 .170 .246 .350 .489 .673

.666E−02 .112E−01 .183E−01 .291E−01 .451E−01 .682E−01 .101 .147 .208 .291

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.957 1.349 1.863 2.524 3.361 4.404 5.685 7.236 9.093 11.289

.891 1.258 1.740 2.361 3.149 4.132 5.342 6.810 8.571 10.658

.786 1.113 1.544 2.101 2.810 3.697 4.793 6.127 7.731 9.640

.634 .904 1.264 1.732 2.333 3.090 4.031 5.185 6.584 8.259

.441 .638 .903 1.253 1.708 2.289 3.021 3.930 5.045 6.397

.244 .360 .519 .734 1.020 1.392 1.870 2.475 3.233 4.169

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

13.861 16.841 20.264 24.160 28.561 33.494 38.984 45.055 51.726 59.015

13.107 15.951 19.225 22.960 27.188 31.939 37.240 43.116 49.590 56.681

11.887 14.505 17.529 20.992 24.927 29.364 34.334 39.865 45.984 52.715

10.245 12.576 15.287 18.414 21.992 26.056 30.642 35.784 41.514 47.865

8.020 9.948 12.217 14.864 17.929 21.452 25.472 30.030 35.168 40.926

5.312 6.696 8.354 10.322 12.641 15.351 18.496 22.121 26.274 31.003

2.632 3.395 4.331 5.466 6.831 8.458 10.382 12.640 15.269 18.311

1.606 2.101 2.714 3.467 4.381 5.480 6.788 8.333 10.142 12.242

.913 1.220 1.609 2.096 2.699 3.435 4.326 5.395 6.663 8.155

.401 .542 .724 .952 1.237 1.587 2.012 2.525 3.136 3.857

300 310 320 330 340 350

66.934 75.495 84.705 94.567 105.083 116.251

64.407 72.781 81.816 91.518 101.894 112.946

60.081 68.100 76.792 86.172 96.252 107.043

54.868 62.553 70.947 80.077 89.969 100.646

47.346 54.470 62.337 70.988 80.463 90.802

36.360 42.395 49.164 56.721 65.123 74.426

21.808 25.804 30.343 35.473 41.240 47.692

14.665 17.438 20.591 24.153 28.154 32.622

9.897 11.912 14.227 16.867 19.855 23.217

4.701 5.680 6.806 8.093 9.551 11.193

Weight percent, H2SO4 °C

90.0

92.0

94.0

96.0

97.0

99.0

99.5

100.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.518E−06 .159E−05 .448E−05 .117E−04 .285E−04 .652E−04 .141E−03 .290E−03 .569E−03 .107E−02

.242E−06 .762E−06 .220E−05 .587E−05 .146E−04 .341E−04 .754E−04 .158E−03 .316E−03 .606E−03

.107E−06 .344E−06 .101E−05 .275E−05 .696E−05 .166E−04 .372E−04 .795E−04 .162E−03 .315E−03

.401E−07 .130E−06 .390E−06 .108E−05 .278E−05 .672E−05 .154E−04 .334E−04 .691E−04 .137E−03

.218E−07 .713E−07 .215E−06 .598E−06 .155E−05 .379E−05 .875E−05 .192E−04 .400E−04 .801E−04

.980E−08 .323E−07 .978E−07 .275E−06 .720E−06 .177E−05 .413E−05 .912E−05 .192E−04 .388E−04

.569E−08 .188E−07 .572E−07 .161E−06 .424E−06 .105E−05 .245E−05 .544E−05 .115E−04 .234E−04

.268E−08 .888E−08 .271E−07 .766E−07 .202E−06 .503E−06 .118E−05 .263E−05 .559E−05 .114E−04

.775E−09 .258E−08 .789E−08 .224E−07 .595E−07 .149E−06 .350E−06 .784E−06 .168E−05 .343E−05

.196E−09 .655E−09 .201E−08 .575E−08 .153E−07 .384E−07 .910E−07 .205E−06 .439E−06 .903E−06

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.194E−02 .338E−02 .571E−02 .938E−02 .150E−01 .233E−01 .354E−01 .526E−01 .766E−01 .110

.112E−02 .198E−02 .341E−02 .569E−02 .923E−02 .146E−01 .225E−01 .340E−01 .502E−01 .729E−01

.590E−03 .107E−02 .186E−02 .315E−02 .519E−02 .832E−02 .130E−01 .199E−01 .298E−01 .438E−01

.261E−03 .479E−03 .851E−03 .146E−02 .245E−02 .399E−02 .633E−02 .983E−02 .149E−01 .222E−01

.154E−03 .285E−03 .511E−03 .886E−03 .149E−02 .245E−02 .393E−02 .614E−02 .941E−02 .141E−01

.752E−04 .141E−03 .254E−03 .445E−03 .757E−03 .125E−02 .202E−02 .319E−02 .492E−02 .744E−02

.455E−04 .855E−04 .155E−03 .278E−03 .467E−03 .776E−03 .126E−02 .199E−02 .309E−02 .469E−02

.223E−04 .420E−04 .766E−04 .135E−03 .232E−03 .387E−03 .629E−03 .999E−03 .155E−02 .236E−02

.674E−05 .128E−04 .233E−04 .414E−04 .711E−04 .119E−03 .194E−03 .309E−03 .482E−03 .735E−03

.178E−05 .339E−05 .623E−05 .111E−04 .191E−04 .321E−04 .526E−04 .840E−04 .131E−03 .201E−03

.631E−01 .894E−01 .125 .171 .232 .310 .409 .534 .689 .880

.325E−01 .467E−01 .660E−01 .918E−01 .126 .170 .227 .300 .391 .505

.208E−01 .300E−01 .427E−01 .598E−01 .825E−01 .112 .151 .200 .263 .341

.110E−01 .161E−01 .230E−01 .325E−01 .451E−01 .618E−01 .835E−01 .111 .147 .192

.698E−02 .102E−01 .147E−01 .208E−01 .290E−01 .398E−01 .540E−01 .723E−01 .957E−01 .125

.352E−02 .516E−02 .743E−02 .105E−01 .147E−01 .202E−01 .274E−01 .366E−01 .485E−01 .634E−01

.110E−02 .161E−02 .232E−02 .329E−02 .460E−02 .633E−02 .858E−02 .115E−01 .152E−01 .199E−01

.300E−03 .442E−03 .638E−03 .906E−03 .127E−02 .174E−02 .237E−02 .317E−02 .420E−02 .548E−02

.248 .316 .400 .502 .624 .770

.162 .208 .264 .331 .413 .511

.820E−01 .105 .133 .167 .208 .256

.257E−01 .328E−01 .415E−01 .520E−01 .646E−01 .795E−01

.708E−02 .905E−02 .114E−01 .143E−01 .178E−01 .218E−01

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.154 .213 .290 .389 .514 .673 .870 1.112 1.407 1.763

.104 .146 .201 .273 .366 .485 .635 .822 1.052 1.335

300 310 320 330 340 350

2.190 2.696 3.292 3.990 4.801 5.738

1.676 2.088 2.578 3.159 3.843 4.641

1.112 1.394 1.732 2.133 2.608 3.164

.646 .817 1.025 1.274 1.571 1.922

.437 .556 .701 .875 1.083 1.331

98.0

98.5

∗Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley.

2-80

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-13 Partial Vapor Pressure of Sulfur Dioxide over Water, mmHg g SO2 / 100 g H2O

Temperature, °C 0

10

0.01 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

0.02 0.38 1.15 2.10 3.17

0.04 0.66 1.91 3.44 5.13

0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 1.00

4.34 5.57 8.17 10.9 25.8

6.93 8.84 12.8 17.0 39.5

2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 15.00 20.00

20 0.07 1.07 3.03 5.37 7.93 10.6 13.5 19.4 25.6 58.4

30

40

50

60

90

120

0.12 1.68 4.62 8.07 11.8

0.19 2.53 6.80 11.7 17.0

0.29 3.69 9.71 16.5 23.8

0.43 5.24 13.5 22.7 32.6

1.21 12.9 31.7 52.2 73.7

2.82 27.0 63.9 104 145

15.7 19.8 28.3 37.1 83.7

58.6 93.2 129 165 202

88.5 139 192 245 299

129 202 277 353 430

183 285 389 496 602

275 351 542 735

407 517 796

585 741

818

22.5 28.2 40.1 52.3 117

31.4 39.2 55.3 72.0 159

42.8 53.3 74.7 96.8 212

95.8 118 164 211 454

253 393 535 679 824

342 530 720

453 700

955

186 229 316 404 856

Condensed from Rabe, A. E. and Harris, J. F., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 8 (3), 333–336, 1963. Copyright © American Chemical Society and reproduced by permission of the copyright owner.

TABLE 2-14 Partial Pressures of HnO3 and H2O over Aqueous Solutions of HnO3* mmHg Percentages are weight % HNO3 in solution. 20% °C

HNO3

25% H2O

HNO3

30% H2O

HNO3

35% H2O

0 5 10 15 20

4.1 5.7 8.0 10.9 15.2

3.8 5.4 7.6 10.3 14.2

3.6 5.0 7.1 9.7 13.2

25 30 35 40 45

20.6 27.6 36.5 47.5 62

19.2 25.7 33.8 44 57.5

17.8 23.8 31.1 41 53

0.09

0.11 .17

HNO3

40% H2O

HNO3

3.3 4.6 6.5 8.9 12.0 0.09 .13 .20 .28

16.2 21.7 28.3 37.7 48

0.12 .17 .25 .36 .52

45% H2O

50%

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

H2O

3.0 4.2 5.8 8.0 10.8

0.10 .15

2.6 3.6 5.0 6.9 9.4

0.12 .18 .27

2.1 3.0 4.2 5.8 7.9

14.6 19.5 25.5 33.5 43

.23 .33 .48 .68 .96

12.7 16.9 22.3 29.3 38.0

.39 .56 .80 1.13 1.57

10.7 14.4 19.0 25.0 32.5

49.5 62.5 80 100 126

2.18 2.95 4.05 5.46 7.25

42.5 54 70 88 110

50 55 60 65 70

0.09 .13 .19 .27

80 100 128 162 200

.13 .18 .28 .40 .54

75 94 121 151 187

.25 .35 .51 .71 1.00

69 87 113 140 174

.42 .59 .85 1.18 1.63

63 79 102 127 159

.75 1.04 1.48 2.05 2.80

56 71 90 114 143

1.35 1.83 2.54 3.47 4.65

75 80 85 90 95

.38 .53 .74 1.01 1.37

250 307 378 458 555

.77 1.05 1.44 1.95 2.62

234 287 352 426 517

1.38 1.87 2.53 3.38 4.53

217 267 325 393 478

2.26 3.07 4.15 5.50 7.32

198 243 297 359 436

3.80 5.10 6.83 9.0 11.7

178 218 268 325 394

6.20 8.15 10.7 13.7 17.8

158 195 240 292 355

9.6 12.5 16.3 20.9 26.8

138 170 211 258 315

6.05 7.90

580 690

530 631 755

15.5 20.0 25.7 32.5

480 573 688 810

23.0 29.2 37.0 46

430 520 625 740

34.2 43.0 54.5 67 84

383 463 560 665 785

100 1.87 675 3.50 628 105 2.50 800 4.65 745 110 115 120 ∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 304–305.

9.7 12.7 16.5

(Continued )

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIOnS

2-81

TABLE 2-14 Partial Pressures of HnO3 and H2O over Aqueous Solutions of HnO3 (Continued ) mmHg Percentages are weight % HNO3 in solution. 55% °C

60%

65%

70%

80%

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

H2O

0 5 10 15 20

0.14 .21 .31 .45

1.8 2.5 3.5 4.9 6.7

0.19 .28 .41 .59 .84

1.5 2.1 3.0 4.1 5.6

0.41 .60 .86 1.21 1.68

1.3 1.8 2.6 3.5 4.9

0.79 1.12 1.58 2.18 3.00

1.1 1.6 2.2 3.0 4.1

25 30 35 40 45

.66 .93 1.30 1.82 2.50

9.1 12.2 16.1 21.3 28.0

1.21 1.66 2.28 3.10 4.20

7.7 10.3 13.6 18.1 23.7

2.32 3.17 4.26 5.70 7.55

6.6 8.8 11.6 15.5 20.0

4.10 5.50 7.30 9.65 12.6

5.5 7.4 9.8 12.8 16.7

50 55 60 65 70

3.41 4.54 6.15 8.18 10.7

36.3 46 60 76 95

5.68 7.45 9.9 13.0 16.8

31 39 51 64 81

10.0 12.8 16.8 21.7 27.5

26.0 33.0 43.0 54.5 68

16.5 21.0 27.1 34.5 43.3

21.8 27.3 35.3 44.5 56

75 80 85 90 95

13.9 18.0 23.0 29.4 37.3

120 148 182 223 272

21.8 27.5 34.8 43.7 55.0

102 126 156 192 233

35.0 43.5 54.5 67.5 83.5

100 105 110 115 120 125

47 58.5 73 90 110

331 400 485 575 685

69.5 84.5 103 126 156 187

285 345 417 495 590 700

103 124 152 181 218 260

HNO3

90%

100%

H 2O

HNO3

H 2O

2 3 4 6 8

1.2 1.7 2.4

5.5 8 11 15 20

10.5 14 18.5 24.5 32

3.2 4 5.5 7 9.5

27 36 47 62 80

1 1.3 1.8 2.4 3

57 77 102 133 170

11 15 22 30 42

41 52 67 85 106

12 15 20 25 31

103 127 157 192 232

4 5 6.5 8 10

215 262 320 385 460 540 625 720 820

86 106 131 160 195

54.5 67.5 83 103 125

70 86 107 130 158

130 158 192 230 278

38 48 60 73 89

282 338 405 480 570

13 16 20 24 29

238 288 345 410 490 580

152 183 221 262 312 372

192 231 278 330 393 469

330 392 465 545 640

108 129 155 185 219

675 790

35 42

TABLE 2-15 Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of CH3COOH* Percentages of weight % acetic acid in the solution mmHg °C

25%

50%

75%

20 25 30 35 40

16.3 22.1 29.6 39.4 51.7

15.7 21.4 28.8 38.3 50.2

15.3 20.8 27.8 36.6 48.1

45 50 55 60 65

67.0 87.2 110 141 178

65.0 85.0 107 138 172

62.0 80.1 102 130 162

70 75 80 85 90

223 277 342 419 510

216 269 331 407 497

203 251 310 376 458

95 100

618 743

602 725

550 666

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 306.

HNO3

2-82 TABLE 2-16 Partial Pressure of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of nH3 (psia) Liquid mole percent NH3 (liquid weight percent NH3) 0

5

10

15

(0)

(4.74)

(9.5)

(14.29)

32 40 50 60 70

0.089 0.122 0.178 0.256 0.363

0.083 0.115 0.168 0.242 0.343

0.077 0.106 0.156 0.225 0.320

0.071 0.097 0.143 0.207 0.294

80 90 100 110 120

0.507 0.699 0.951 1.277 1.695

0.479 0.661 0.899 1.209 1.607

0.448 0.618 0.843 1.135 1.510

130 140 150 160 170

2.226 2.893 3.723 4.747 6.000

2.112 2.748 3.540 4.519 5.717

180 190 200 210 220

7.520 9.350 11.538 14.136 17.201

230 240 250

20.796 24.986 29.844

t, °F

20

25

30

35

40

45

80

85

90

(23.94)

(28.81)

(33.71)

(38.64)

(43.59)

(48.57)

(53.58)

(58.62)

(63.69)

(68.79)

(73.91)

(79.07)

(84.26)

(89.47)

(94.72)

0.063 0.087 0.129 0.186 0.266

0.055 0.077 0.113 0.164 0.235

0.047 0.065 0.097 0.142 0.204

0.039 0.054 0.081 0.119 0.172

0.031 0.044 0.066 0.098 0.143

0.025 0.035 0.053 0.079 0.116

0.019 0.027 0.041 0.062 0.093

0.014 0.021 0.032 0.049 0.073

0.011 0.016 0.025 0.038 0.058

0.008 0.012 0.019 0.030 0.045

0.006 0.009 0.014 0.023 0.036

0.004 0.007 0.011 0.018 0.028

0.003 0.005 0.008 0.014 0.022

0.002 0.004 0.006 0.010 0.016

0.002 0.002 0.004 0.007 0.011

0.001 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.006

0.413 0.571 0.780 1.052 1.402

0.374 0.518 0.710 0.960 1.283

0.332 0.462 0.634 0.861 1.154

0.289 0.403 0.556 0.758 1.021

0.245 0.345 0.479 0.656 0.889

0.205 0.290 0.405 0.559 0.763

0.168 0.240 0.338 0.470 0.647

0.136 0.196 0.279 0.392 0.544

0.109 0.159 0.228 0.324 0.455

0.087 0.128 0.186 0.268 0.380

0.069 0.103 0.152 0.220 0.316

0.055 0.083 0.123 0.181 0.263

0.043 0.066 0.100 0.148 0.217

0.034 0.052 0.079 0.119 0.176

0.025 0.040 0.061 0.092 0.137

0.018 0.028 0.043 0.065 0.099

0.010 0.015 0.024 0.036 0.056

1.988 2.591 3.343 4.273 5.416

1.850 2.415 3.122 4.000 5.079

1.696 2.221 2.879 3.698 4.709

1.532 2.012 2.618 3.374 4.312

1.361 1.796 2.347 3.039 3.902

1.192 1.582 2.078 2.706 3.493

1.030 1.376 1.821 2.387 3.101

0.881 1.186 1.582 2.090 2.736

0.747 1.016 1.367 1.821 2.405

0.632 0.867 1.177 1.584 2.110

0.532 0.738 1.013 1.376 1.851

0.448 0.628 0.870 1.194 1.622

0.376 0.532 0.746 1.033 1.418

0.313 0.448 0.634 0.887 1.229

0.257 0.371 0.529 0.748 1.047

0.202 0.295 0.425 0.607 0.858

0.147 0.216 0.314 0.453 0.647

0.083 0.124 0.183 0.267 0.386

7.174 8.931 11.035 13.538 16.496

6.807 8.488 10.504 12.910 15.758

6.397 7.994 9.916 12.213 14.941

5.947 7.452 9.270 11.449 14.047

5.465 6.873 8.580 10.635 13.095

4.968 6.275 7.869 9.796 12.115

4.472 5.680 7.160 8.962 11.141

3.995 5.107 6.479 8.160 10.205

3.551 4.573 5.842 7.410 9.331

3.148 4.086 5.262 6.725 8.534

2.787 3.650 4.740 6.110 7.817

2.468 3.262 4.275 5.559 7.175

2.184 2.914 3.856 5.061 6.592

1.928 2.598 3.470 4.598 6.045

1.688 2.297 3.098 4.146 5.504

1.451 1.994 2.718 3.675 4.932

1.201 1.669 2.300 3.147 4.277

0.917 1.290 1.802 2.502 3.455

0.555 0.793 1.129 1.600 2.262

19.971 24.029 28.744

19.111 23.037 27.607

18.162 21.943 26.358

17.124 20.748 24.996

16.020 19.479 23.549

14.886 18.179 22.070

13.760 16.889 20.608

12.679 15.654 19.212

11.672 14.506 17.917

10.754 13.463 16.748

9.930 12.530 15.708

9.192 11.696 14.783

8.522 10.938 13.946

7.889 10.221 13.153

7.255 9.496 12.346

6.573 8.703 11.452

5.777 7.759 10.369

4.751 6.508 8.891

3.196 4.520 6.413

(19.1)

50

55

60

65

70

75

95

The values in Table 2-16 were generated from the NIST REFPROP software (Lemmon, E. W., McLinden, M. O., and Huber, M. L., NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties—REFPROP, Version 7.0, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, Md., 2002). The primary source for the properties of aqueous ammonia mixtures is R. Tillner-Roth and D. G. Friend, “A Helmholtz Free Energy Formulation of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Mixture {Water + Ammonia},” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 27:63–96 (1998).

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIOnS TABLE 2-17 Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Carbonate*

TABLE 2-18 Partial Pressures of H2O and CH3OH over Aqueous Solutions of Methyl Alcohol*

mmHg %Na2CO3 t, °C

0

5

10

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

4.5 9.2 17.5 31.8 55.3 92.5 149.5 239.8 355.5 526.0 760.0

4.5 9.0 17.2 31.2 54.2 90.7 146.5 235 348 516 746

8.8 16.8 30.4 53.0 88.7 143.5 230.5 342 506 731

15

20

16.3 29.6 57.6 86.5 139.9 225 334 494 715

25

28.8 50.2 84.1 136.1 219 325 482 697

27.8 48.4 81.2 131.6 211.5 315 467 676

2-83

30

39.9°C

Mole fraction CH3OH

PH2O, mmHg

PCH3OH , mmHg

0 14.99 17.85 21.07 27.31 31.06 40.1 47.0 55.8 68.9 86.0 100.0

54.7 39.2 38.5 37.2 35.8 34.9 32.8 31.5 27.3 20.7 10.1 0

0 66.1 75.5 85.2 100.6 108.8 127.7 141.6 158.4 186.6 225.2 260.7

26.4 46.1 77.5 125.7 202.5 301 447 648

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 372.

59.4°C

Mole fraction CH3OH

PH2O, mmHg

PCH3OH , mmHg

0 22.17 27.40 33.24 39.80 47.08 55.5 69.2 78.5 85.9 100.0

145.4 106.9 102.2 96.6 91.7 84.8 76.9 57.8 43.8 30.1 0

0 210.1 240.2 272.1 301.9 335.6 373.7 439.4 486.6 526.9 609.3

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 290.

TABLE 2-19 Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Hydroxide* mmHg Conc. g NaOH/ 100 g H2O

Temperature, °C 0

20

40

0 4.6 17.5 55.3 5 4.4 16.9 53.2 10 4.2 16.0 50.6 20 3.6 13.9 44.2 30 2.9 11.3 36.6 40 2.2 8.7 28.7 50 6.3 20.7 60 4.4 15.5 70 3.0 10.9 80 2.0 7.6 90 1.3 5.2 100 0.9 3.6 120 1.7 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 500 700 1000 2000 4000 8000 ∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 370.

60

80

100

120

160

200

250

300

350

149.5 143.5 137.0 120.5 101.0 81.0 62.5 47.0 34.5 24.5 17.5 12.5 6.3 3.0 1.5

355.5 341.5 325.5 288.5 246.0 202.0 160.5 124.0 94.0 70.5 53.0 38.5 20.5 11.0 6.0 3.5 2.0 0.5 0.1

760.0 730.0 697.0 621.0 537.0 450.0 368.0 294.0 231.0 179.0 138.0 105.0 61.0 35.5 20.5 12.0 7.0 2.0 0.5

1,489 1,430 1,365 1,225 1,070 920 770 635 515 415 330 262 164 102 63 40 25 8 2.7 0.9

4,633 4,450 4,260 3,860 3,460 3,090 2,690 2,340 2,030 1,740 1,490 1,300 915 765 470 340 245 110 50 23 11

11,647 11,200 10,750 9,800 8,950 8,150 7,400 6,750 6,100 5,500 5,000 4,500 3,650 2,980 2,430 1,980 1,620 985 610 380 240 100

29,771 28,600 27,500 25,300 23,300 21,500 19,900 18,400 17,100 15,800 14,700 13,650 11,800 10,300 8,960 7,830 6,870 5,000 3,690 2,750 2,080 1,210 440

64,200 61,800 59,300 54,700 50,800 47,200 44,100 41,200 38,700 36,300 34,200 32,200 28,800 25,900 23,300 21,200 19,200 15,400 12,500 10,300 8,600 6,100 3,300 1,470 150

123,600 118,900 114,100 105,400 98,000 91,600 85,800 80,700 76,000 71,900 68,100 64,600 58,600 53,400 49,000 45,100 41,800 35,000 29,800 25,700 22,400 17,500 11,500 6,800 1,760 120 7

2-84

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

WATER VAPOR COnTEnT In GASES The accompanying figure is useful in determining the water vapor content of air at high pressure in contact with liquid water.

FIG. 2-2 Water content in air at pressures over atmospheric. (Landsbaum, E.M., W.S. Dodds, and L.F. Stutzman. Reprinted from vol. 47, January 1955 issue of Ind. Eng. Chem. [p. 192]. Copyright 1955 by the American Chemical Society and reproduced by permission of the copyright owner.) For other water-in-air data, see Table 2-111, Fig. 2-3 and Section 12 figures and tables.

SOLUBILITIES Unit Conversions For this subsection, the following unit conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5°C + 32. To convert cubic centimeters to cubic feet, multiply by 3.532 × 10−5. To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 0.01934. To convert grams per liter to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 6.243 × 10−2. Introduction The database containing solubilities was originally published in the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Solubility Data Series. It is available at no cost online at http://srdata.nist.gov/solubility. The H in the following tables is the proportionality constant in Henry’s law, p = Hx, where x is the mole fraction of the solute in the aqueous liquid phase; p is the partial pressure in atm of the solute in the gas phase; and H is a proportionality constant, generally referred to as Henry’s constant. Values of H often have considerable uncertainty and are strong functions of

temperature. To convert values of H at 25°C from atm to atm/(mol/m3), divide by the molar density of water at 25°C, which is 55,342 mol/m3. Henry’s law is valid only for dilute solutions. Additional values of Henry’s constant can be found in “Environmental Simulation Program,” OLI Systems, Inc., Morris Plains, N.J.; “Estimated Henry’s Law Constant,” EPA Online Tools for Site Assessment Calculation (http://www.epa .gov/athens/learn2model/part-two/onsite/esthenry.htm); Rolf Sander, “Compilation of Henry’s Law Constants for Inorganic and Organic Species of Potential Importance in Environmental Chemistry,” Air Chemistry Department, Max-Planck Institute of Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Rolf Sander, “Modeling Atmospheric Chemistry: Interactions between Gas-Phase Species and Liquid Cloud/Aerosol Particles,” Surv. Geophys. 20: 1–31, 1999 (http:// www.henrys-law.org).

TABLE 2-20 Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures* This table shows the grams of anhydrous substance that are soluble in 100 g of water at the temperature in degrees Celsius as indicated; when the name is followed by †, the value is expressed in grams of substance in 100 cm3 of saturated solution. Solid phase gives the hydrated form in equilibrium with the saturated solution. Substance

Formula

Solid phase

AlCl3 Al2(SO4)3 (NH4)2Al2(SO4)4

6H2O 18H2O 24H2O

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Aluminum chloride sulfate Ammonium aluminum sulfate bicarbonate bromide chloride chloroplatinate chromate chromium sulfate dichromate dihydrogen phosphite hydrogen phosphate iodide magnesium phosphate manganese phosphate nitrate oxalate perchlorate† persulfate sulfate thiocyanate vanadate (meta) Antimonious fluoride sulfide Arsenic oxide Arsenious sulfide

NH4HCO3 NH4Br NH4Cl (NH4)2PtCl6 (NH4)2CrO4 (NH4)2Cr2(SO4)4 (NH4)2Cr2O7 NH4H2PO3 (NH4)2HPO4 NH4I NH4MgPO4 NH4MnPO4 NH4NO3 (NH4)2C2O4 NH4ClO4† (NH4)2S2O8 (NH4)2SO4 NH4CNS NH4VO3 SbF3 Sb2S3 As2O5 As2S3

27 28 29

Barium acetate acetate carbonate

Ba(C2H3O2)2 Ba(C2H3O2)2 BaCO3

3H2O 1H2O

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

chlorate chloride chromate hydroxide iodide iodide nitrate nitrite oxalate

Ba(ClO3)2 BaCl2 BaCrO4 Ba(OH)2 BaI2 BaI2 Ba(NO3)2 Ba(NO2)2 BaC2O4

1H2O 2H2O

1 2 3

39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

perchlorate sulfate Beryllium sulfate sulfate sulfate Boric acid Boron oxide Bromine Cadmium chloride chloride chloride cyanide hydroxide

Ba(ClO4)2 BaSO4 BeSO4 BeSO4 BeSO4 H3BO3 B2O3 Br2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 Cd(CN)2 Cd(OH)2

52 53 54

sulfate Calcium acetate acetate

CdSO4 Ca(C2H3O2)2 Ca(C2H3O2)2

0°C

10°C

31.2 2.1

33.5 4.99

11.9 60.6 29.4

15.8 68 33.3 0.7

171

1H2O

154.2 0.023 118.3 2.2 11.56 58.2 70.6 119.8

163.2

3.1 73.0 144

384.7

8H2O 6H2O 2H2O 1H2O 3H2O 6H2O 4H2O 2H2O

4H2O 2½H2O 1H2O

2H2O 1H2O

30°C

40°C

50°C

60°C

70°C

80°C

90°C

100°C

40.4 10.94

46.1 14.88

52.2 20.10

59.2 26.70

66.1

73.0

80.8

89.0 109.796°

21 75.5 37.2

27 83.2 41.4

91.1 45.8

99.2 50.4

107.8 55.2

116.8 60.2

126 65.6

135.6 71.3

145.6 77.3 1.25

190.5 0.036 0 297.0 8.0 30.58

199.6 0.030

208.9 0.040 0 421.0

218.7 0.016 0.005 499.0

228.8 0.019 0.007 580.0

10.7825°

24II2O

6H2O 7H2O

20°C 69.8615° 36.4 7.74

59.5 5.17 × 10−5 at 18° 59

62.1 63 0.00168°

20.34 31.6 0.0002 1.67 170.2 5.0

26.95 33.3 0.00028 2.48 185.7 7.0 0.00168°

205.8 1.15 × 10−4

2.66 1.1 4.22 97.59 90.01

76.48 37.4

2.0 × 10−4

19014.5° 13115 172.3 0.052 0 192 4.4 20.85 75.4 170 0.48 444.7 0.00017518° 65.8 71 0.002218° 33.80 35.7 0.00037 3.89 203.1 9.2 67.5 0.002218° 289.1 2.4 × 10−4

3.57 1.5 3.4 125.1

5.04 2.2 3.20

135.1

134.5 1.715°

76.00 36.0

76.60 34.7

40.4 47.17 26031° 181.4 241.8 5.9 78.0 207.7 0.84 563.6

81.0

69.5

71.2

1.32

75 0.0024 at 24.2° 41.70 38.2 0.00046 5.59 219.6 11.6 0.0024 at 24.2° 2.85 × 10−4 52 43.78 6.60 3.13

48.19 95.3

103.3

75.1

76.7

77

74

74

49.61 40.7

43.6

66.81 46.4

49.4

8.22

13.12

20.94

358.7

426.3

46.74

135.3

75 84.84 52.4

261.0 27.0 205.8 495.2 62

14.81 6.2

136.5

104.9 58.8

101.4

247.3 20.3

60.67 11.54

57.01

3.05 73.0

17.1

871.0

88.0 1.78

231.9 14.2

740.0

39.05

79

8.72 4.0

132.1

344.0 10.3

250.3

16.73

271.7 34.2 300 562.3

84.76 23.75 9.5

83 98 30.38

140.4

100 110 40.25 15.7

147.0

−4

2.6 × 10 at 25° 33.8

78.54 33.2

83.68 32.7

33.5

63.13

60.77

31.1

29.7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

2-85

(Continued )

2-86

TABLE 2-20 Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures* (Continued ) This table shows the grams of anhydrous substance that are soluble in 100 g of water at the temperature in degrees Celsius as indicated; when the name is followed by †, the value is expressed in grams of substance in 100 cm3 of saturated solution. Solid phase gives the hydrated form in equilibrium with the saturated solution. Substance

Formula

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Calcium bicarbonate chloride chloride fluoride hydroxide nitrate nitrate nitrate nitrite nitrite oxalate

Ca(HCO3)2 CaCl2 CaCl2 CaF2 Ca(OH)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO2)2 Ca(NO2)2 CaC2O4

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

sulfate Carbon dioxide, 760 mm ‡ monoxide, 760 mm ‡ Cesium chloride nitrate sulfate Chlorine, 760 mm ‡ Chromic anhydride Cuprio chloride nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfide

CaSO4 CO2 CO CsCl CsNO3 Cs2SO4 Cl2 CrO3 CuCl2 Cu(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4 CuS

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

Cuprous chloride Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride chloride nitrate sulfate sulfate Hydrobromic acid, 760 mm Hydrochloric acid, 760 mm Iodine Lead acetate bromide carbonate chloride chromate fluoride nitrate sulfate Magnesium bromide chloride hydroxide nitrate sulfate sulfate sulfate Manganous sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate Mercurous chloride Molybdic oxide Nickel chloride nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfate Nitric oxide, 760 mm Nitrous oxide

CuCl FeCl3 FeCl2 FeCl2 Fe(NO3)2 FeSO4 FeSO4 HBr HCl I2 Pb(C2H3O2)2 PbBr2 PbCO3 PbCl2 PbCrO4 PbF2 Pb(NO3)2 PbSO4 MgBr2 MgCl2 Mg(OH)2 Mg(NO3)2 MgSO4 MgSO4 MgSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 HgCl MoO3 NiCl2 Ni(NO3)2 Ni(NO3)2 NiSO4 NiSO4 NO N2O

Solid phase 6H2O 2H2O 4H2O 3H2O

0°C 16.15 59.5

65.0

0.185 102.0

0.176 115.3

4H2O 2H2O

62.07

2H2O

0.1759 0.3346 0.0044 161.4 9.33 167.1 1.46 164.9 70.7 81.8

2H2O 6H2O 3H2O 5H2O

4H2O 6H2O 7H2O 1H2O

3H2O

10°C

6.7 × 10−4 at 13° 0.1928 0.2318 0.0035 174.7 14.9 173.1 0.980 73.76 95.28 17.4

74.4

81.9 64.5

221.2 82.3

20.51 210.3

0.6728

6H2O 6H2O 6H2O 7H2O 6H2O 1H2O 7H2O 5H2O 4H2O 1H2O 2H2O 6H2O 6H2O 3H2O 7H2O 6H2O

66.55 40.8 53.23

0.060 48.3 0.0035 94.5 53.5 30.9 42.2 60.01 59.5

0.00014 53.9 79.58

59.5

27.22

32

0.00984

0.001618° 0.165 129.3

6.8 × 10−4 at 25° 0.1688 0.0028 186.5 23.0 178.7 0.716 77.0 125.1 20.7 3.3 × 10−5 at 18° 1.5225° 91.8 83.8 26.5 198 0.029

0.4554

38.8 0.0028 91.0 52.8

16.60 74.5

30°C 102 0.001726° 0.153 152.6

40°C

50°C

17.05

0.00757 0.1705

0.85 0.00011 0.99 7 × 10−6 0.064 56.5 0.0041 96.5 54.5 0.000918°

9.5 × 10−4 at 50° 0.2090 0.1257 0.0024 197.3 33.9 184.1 0.562

0.141 195.9 237.5

70°C

17.50

0.128

0.116

80.34 25

159.8 28.5

33.3

73.0

77.3

315.1 82.5

32.9

40.2

48.6

90°C

0.106

147.0 0.094

0.2047 0.0576 0.0015 229.7 83.8 199.9 0.324

151.9

0.085

0.077

244.8

0.0010 250.0 134.0 210.3 0.219

91.2

99.2

178.8 40

207.8 55

88.7

525.8 100

165.6 50.9

159

363.6

0.1966 0.0013 239.5 107.0 205.0 0.274

100°C 18.40

152.7

358.7 132.6

0.0761 0.0018 218.5 64.4 194.9 0.386 182.1 87.44

80°C 17.95

141.7

281.5

14 × 10−4 at 95° 0.2097 0.0973 0.0021 208.0 47.2 189.9 0.451 174.0 83.8

43.6

0.0006 260.1 163.0 214.9 0.125 217.5

0.1619 0 0 270.5 197.0 220.3 0 206.8 107.9 75.4

535.7 105.3 37.3

105.8

67.3 0.04 55.0425° 1.15

63.3 0.056

171.5 59.6 0.078

1.53

1.94

2.36

3.34

4.75

1.20

1.45

1.70

1.98

2.62

3.34

0.068 66 0.0049 99.2

35.5 44.5

40.8 45.3

62.9 64.5

67.76 66.44

0.0002 0.138 64.2 96.31

0.264 68.9

75 0.0056 101.6 57.5 84.74 45.6

68.8 0.0007 0.476 73.3 122.2

42.46 0.00618 0.1211

60°C

136.8

76.68

14.3

71.02 15.65

20°C

0.00517

0.00440

56.1

85

95

104.1

107.5 61.0

115

130

38.8

113.7 66.0

120.2 73.0 137.0

50.4

53.5

59.5

64.2 62.9

69.0

74.0 68.3

72.6 58.17

55.0

52.0

48.0

42.5

34.0

0.687 78.3

1.206 82.2

2.055 85.2

163.1 50.15 0.00376

54.80 0.00324

2.106

169.1 59.44 0.00267

87.6 235.1

63.17 0.00199

0.00114

76.7 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

Potassium acetate acetate alum bicarbonate bisulfate bitartrate carbonate chlorate chloride chromate dichromate ferricyanide hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrite perchlorate permanganate persulfate† sulfate thiocyanate Silver cyanide nitrate sulfate Sodium acetate acetate bicarbonate carbonate carbonate chlorate chloride chromate chromate chromate dichromate dichromate dihydrogen phosphate dihydrogen phosphate dihydrogen phosphate hydrogen arsenate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydroxide hydroxide hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrite oxalate phosphate, tripyrophosphate sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfide sulfide sulfide sulfite sulfite tetraborate tetraborate vanadate (meta)

KC2H3O2 KC2H3O2 K2SO4⋅Al2(SO4)3 KHCO3 KHSO4 KHC4H4O6 K2CO3 KClO3 KCl K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 K3Fe(CN)6 KOH KOH KNO3 KNO2 KClO4 KMnO4 K2S2O8† K2SO4 KCNS AgCN AgNO3 Ag2SO4 NaC2H3O2 NaC2H3O2 NaHCO3 Na2CO3 Na2CO3 NaClO8 NaCl Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4 Na2Cr2O7 Na2Cr2O7 NaH2PO4 NaH2PO4 NaH2PO4 Na2HAsO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 NaOH NaOH NaOH NaOH NaNO3 NaNO2 Na2C2O4 Na3PO4 Na4P2O7 Na2SO4 Na2SO4 Na2SO4 Na2S Na2S Na2S Na2SO3 Na2SO3 Na2B4O7 Na2B4O7 NaVO8

1½H2O ½H2O 24H2O

2H2O

2H2O 1H2O



3H2O 10H2O 1H2O 10H2O 4H2O

216.7

233.9

255.6

3.0 22.4 36.3 0.32 105.5 3.3 27.6 58.2 5 31 97

4.0 27.7

5.9 33.2 51.4 0.53 110.5 7.4 34.0 61.7 12 43 112

13.3 278.8 0.75 2.83 1.62 7.35 177.0

20.9

122 0.573 36.3 119 6.9 7

170 0.695 40.8 121 8.15 12.5

31.6 298.4 1.80 6.4 4.49 11.11 217.5 2.2 × 10−5 222 0.796 46.5 123.5 9.6 21.5

79 35.65 31.70

89 35.72 50.17

101 35.89 88.7

2H2O

163.0

2H2O 1H2O

57.9

12H2O 12H2O 7H2O 2H2O 4H2O 3½H2O 1H2O

12H2O 10H2O 10H2O 7H2O 9H2O 5½H2O 6H2O 7H2O 10H2O 5H2O 2H2O

0.40 108 5 31.0 60.0 7 36 103

7.3 1.67

42

1.05 4.4 2.60 9.22

0.90 113.7 10.5 37.0 63.4 20 50 126 45.8 2.6 9.0 7.19 12.97

11.70 45.4 67.3 1.32 116.9 14 40.0 65.2 26 60 63.9 334.9 4.4 12.56 9.89 14.76

4.1 3.95 9.0 30 15.42

18.8

22.5

20

26.9

36

20 9.95 40.8

3.9

202

16.50

18.17

19.75

21.4

22.8

1.22

669 1.30

114.6

96 91.6

169

54.0 73.9 70

18

158.6

80.2

1.36

146

153

172 37.46

45.8 189 37.93

123.0 316.7

124.8 376.2

179.3 65

190.3

207.3 85

225.3

82.9

88.1

92.4

102.9

244.8

88 84.5 3.7 11 6.23 19.4 44

138

147.5

14.8

104

119

48.3 70.4 52

4.6 139.8 38.5 51.1 72.1 61

396.3 109.0

11.8

95.96

51.8

133.1

380.1 71.0

9 22.2

88.7

47

364.8 40.0

6.5 16.89

46.4 155 37.04

37 20.8

15.325°

110.0

140 36.69

26.5 7.7

2.7

140 85.5

48.5 126 36.37

15.5 3.6

1.6

2.46 126.8 24.5 45.5 68.6 43 66

525 1.15 139 139.5 16.4

138.2

1.5 3.16 5.0 19.5

1.83 121.2 19.3 42.6 66.8 34

455 1.08 83 134 14.45

106.5

109

350 24.75 60.0

376 0.979 65.5 129.5 12.7

85.2

51.5

337.3 17.00

300 0.888 54.5 126 11.1 38.8 50.5 113 36.09

69.9

80 78.0

1.3

8.39 39.1

323.3

177.8

73 72.1

13.9

283.8

129

145

174

104 98.4

114 104.1

124

161

38.47

121.6 6.95 155.7 57 56.7 75.6 80 82.6104 178 246 412.8 21.8 24.1 952 1.41 170 45.5 230 38.99 125.9 426.3

102.2

31 13.50

43 17.45

55 21.83

81 30.04

347 180 163.2 6.33 108 40.26

48.8 28.5

46.7

45.3

43.7

42.5

39.82 36.4

42.69 39.1

28

28.2 10.5

28.8 20.3

30.2

68.4

148 132.6

45.73 43.31

51.40 49.14

313

246.6

59.23 57.28

28.3 24.4

31.5

41

52.5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

2-87

∗By N. A. Lange; abridged from “Table of Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures” in Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961 (except for NaCl, which is from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 86th ed., CRC Press, 2005). For tables of the solubility of gases in water at various temperatures, Atack (Handbook of Chemical Data, Reinhold, New York, 1957) gives values at closer temperature intervals, usually 1 or 5°C, than are tabulated here. For materials marked by ‡, additional data are given in tables subsequent to this one. For the solubility of various hydrocarbons in water at high pressures see J. Chem. Eng. Data, 4, 212 (1959).

2-88 TABLE 2-20 Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures (Continued ) This table shows the grams of anhydrous substance that are soluble in 100 g of water at the temperature in degrees Celsius as indicated; when the name is followed by †, the value is expressed in grams of substance in 100 cm3 of saturated solution. Solid phase gives the hydrated form in equilibrium with the saturated solution. Substance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Sodium vanadate (meta) Stannous chloride sulfate Strontium acetate acetate chloride chloride nitrate nitrate nitrate sulfate Sulfur dioxide, 760 mm† Thallium sulfate Thorium sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate Zinc chlorate chlorate nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfate sulfate

Formula NaVO3 SnCl2 SnSO4 Sr(C2H3O2)2 Sr(C2H3O2)2 SrCl2 SrCl2 Sr(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2 SrSO4 SO2 Tl2SO4 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 ZnClO3 ZnClO3 Zn(NO3)2 Zn(NO3)2 ZnSO4 ZnSO4 ZnSO4

Solid phase

0°C

10°C

20°C

30°C

21.10 ° 269.815° 19 25

83.9 4H2O ½H2O 6H2O 2H2O 1H2O 4H2O

9H2O 8H2O 6H2O 4H2O 6H2O 4H2O 6H2O 3H2O 7H2O 6H2O 1H2O

36.9 43.5

43.61 42.95 47.7

41.6 52.9

52.7 40.1

64.0 70.5

0.0113 22.83 2.70 0.74 1.0 1.50

0.0114 11.29 4.87 1.38 1.62 1.90

145.0

16.21 3.70 0.98 1.25 152.5

94.78 41.9

47

200.3 118.3 54.4

40°C

50°C

26.23

60°C

70°C

80°C

36.9

38.8 °

36.24

36.10

85.9

90.5

93.8

96

98

10.92

12.74

14.61

16.53

18.45

6.64 1.63

1.09

86.6

83.7

80.8

32.97

90°C

100°C

75

18 39.5 58.7

88.6 0.0114 7.81 6.16 1.995 2.45 209.2

65.3

37.35 72.4

81.8

83.8

97.2

90.1

2.998

5.41

4.5 9.21 5.22

4.04

2.54

223.2

36.4 130.4

100.8 139

100

273.1

206.9 70.1

76.8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

SOLUBILITIES

2-89

TABLE 2-21 Solubility as a Function of Temperature and Henry’s Constant at 25çC for Gases in Water Name Acetylene Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Nitrogen Oxygen

Formula

A −156.51 −159.854 −171.764 −250.812 −153.027 −105.9768 −125.939 −338.217 −181.587 −171.2542

C2H2 CO2 CO C2H6 C2H4 He H2 CH4 N2 O2

C

D

T range, K

H at 25°C, atm

21.403 21.6694 23.3376 34.7413 20.5248 14.0094 16.8893 51.9144 24.7981 23.24323

0 −1.10261E-03 0 0 0 0 0 −0.0425831 0 0

274–343 273–353 273–353 275–323 287–346 273–348 273–345 273–523 273–350 273–333

1,330 1,635 58,000 29,400 11,726 142,900 70,800 39,200 84,600 43,400

B 8,160.2 8,741.68 8,296.9 12,695.6 7,965.2 4,259.62 5,528.45 13,282.1 8,632.13 8,391.24

The constants can be used to calculate solubility by the equation ln x = A + B/T + C ln T + DT, where T is in K and x is the mole fraction of the solute dissolved in water when the solute partial pressure is 1 atm. With the assumption that Henry’s law is valid up to 1 atm, H = 1/x. Values of the constants are from P. G. T. Fogg and W. Gerrard, Solubility of Gases in Liquids, Wiley, 1991, New York, and Solubility Data Series, vol. 1, Helium and Neon, IUPAC, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1979. For higher-temperature behavior and an up-to-date reference list, see R. Fernandez-Prini, J. L. Alvarez, and A. H. Harvey, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 32(2):903, 2003. To find H at temperatures other than 25°C, first find the solubility and then take the reciprocal.

TABLE 2-22 Henry’s Constant H for Various Compounds in Water at 25çC Group Paraffin hydrocarbons

Olefins Aromatics

Aldehydes Ketones Esters

Chlorine containing Alcohols

Miscellaneous

Compound Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Octane Nonane Ethylene Propylene Benzene Toluene o-Xylene Cumene Phenol Acetaldehyde Propionaldehyde Methylethyl ketone Methyl formate Ethyl formate Methyl acetate Butyl acetate Chloromethane Chloroethane Chlorobenzene Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol Acrylonitrile Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl disulfide Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan Pyridine

Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C8H18 C9H20 C2H4 C3H6 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C9H12 C6H6O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C3H6O2 C6H12O2 CH3Cl C2H5Cl C6H5Cl CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C3H3N C2H6S C2H6S2 CH4S C2H6S C5H5N

CAS 74-82-8 74-84-0 74-98-6 106-97-8 109-66-0 111-65-9 111-84-2 74-85-1 115-07-1 71-43-2 108-88-3 95-47-6 98-82-8 108-95-2 75-07-0 123-38-6 78-93-3 107-31-3 109-94-4 79-20-9 123-86-4 74-87-3 75-00-3 108-90-7 67-56-1 64-17-5 71-23-8 71-36-3 107-13-1 75-18-3 624-92-0 74-93-1 75-08-1 110-86-1

H, atm† 36,600 26,700 37,800 51,100 70,000 2,74,000 3,29,000 11,700 11,700 299 354 272 724 0.0394 5.56 4.36 2.59 13.6 13.6 5.04 13.6 556 681 204 0.272 0.272 0.507 0.482 5.54 121 68.1 177 161 0.817

Rating∗ 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 10 10 10 9 7 3 4 5 3 3 3 3 ? 10 10 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 801 Critically Evaluated Gold Standard Database, copyright 2016 AIChE, and reproduced with permission of AIChE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, T. A. Knotts, N. F. Giles, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York (2016). ∗The ratings reflect DIPPR ESP’s effort to provide a critical evaluation and quality assessment of each data point with 15 being the highest score possible. The rating is not directly correlated with the estimated experimental uncertainty. † Henry’s constant is a strong nonlinear function of temperature. A single value measured at one temperature, if used for calculation at a different temperature, can lead to serious errors. Procedures for extrapolation of singlepoint values over the ambient temperature range (4°C < T < 50°C) are presented in Sec. 22, under “Air Pollution Control” > “Biological APC Technologies” > “Estimating Henry’s law constants”. Estimation procedures for the larger range (4°C < T < 200°C) are presented in F. L. Smith and A. H. Harvey, “Avoid Common Pitfalls When Using Henry’s Law,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 103(9), 2007. See also Y.-L. Huang, J. D. Olson, and G. E. Keller II, “Steam Stripping for Removal of Organic Pollutants from Water. 2. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 31, pp. 1759–1768, 1992. (Also see the Supplementary Material, which contains the databank of 404 compounds of environmental interest and other useful property data.)

2-90

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-23 Henry’s Constant H for Various Compounds in Water at 25çC from Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients Compound

CAS no.

Formula

H = γ ∞Pvp, atm

Pentane Hexane Heptane Benzene Toluene o-Xylene Cumene Styrene Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Propanal Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl n-propyl ketone Formic acid Methyl acetate Ethyl acetate Butyl acetate Chloroethane 1-Chloropropane Chlorobenzene Methanol Ethanol Pyridine Diethyl ether Thiophene

109660 1100543 142825 71432 108883 95476 98,828 100425 50000 75070 123386 67641 78933 107879 64186 79209 141786 123864 75003 74986 108907 67561 64175 110861 60297 110021

C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C9H12 C8H8 CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O CH2O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C6H12O2 C2H5Cl C3H7Cl C6H5Cl CH4O C2H6O C5H5N C4H10O C4H4S

63700 84600 120000 309 344 267 613 145 14.3 4.54 5.45 2.13 3.11 4.60 0.0404 6.38 8.01 12.3 626 792 219 0.263 0.293 0.544 48.7 160

TABLE 2-24

Air*

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10−4 × H †

4.32

4.88

5.49

6.07

6.64

7.20

7.71

8.23

t, °C

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

10−4 × H †

8.70

9.11

9.46

10.1

10.5

10.7

10.8

10.7

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 257. † H is calculated from the absorption coefficients of O2 and N2, taking into consideration the correction for constant argon content.

TABLE 2-25 Ammonia-Water at 10 and 20çC* 10°C Mass fraction NH3 in liquid 0.0 0.00467 0.00495 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Henry’s constant H at 25°C is the vapor pressure at 25°C times the infinite dilution activity coefficient, also at 25°C. Infinite dilution activity coefficients are from Mitchell and Jurs, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 38: 200 (1998). Henry’s constant is a strong nonlinear function of temperature. A single value measured at one temperature, if used for calculation at a different temperature, can lead to serious errors. Procedures for extrapolation of single-point values over the ambient temperature range (4°C < T < 50°C) are presented in Sec. 22, pp. 22–49, under “Estimating Henry’s law constants.” Estimation procedures for the larger range (4°C < T < 200°C) are presented in F. L. Smith and A. H. Harvey, “Avoid Common Pitfalls When Using Henry’s Law,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 103(9), 2007. See also Y.-L. Huang, J. D. Olson, and G. E. Keller II, “Steam Stripping for Removal of Organic Pollutants from Water. 2. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 31, pp. 1759–1768, 1992. (Also see the Supplementary Material, which contains the databank of 404 compounds of environmental interest and other useful property data.)

P, kPa 1.23 1.37 7.07 20.07 47.37 99.84 184.44 292.15 399.03 486.44 554.33 615.05

20°C

Mass fraction NH3 in vapor 0.0 0.1

P, kPa 2.34

0.84164 0.95438 0.98565 0.99544 0.99848 0.99943 0.99975 0.99988 0.99995 1.0

2.60 11.95 32.34 73.85 150.56 269.50 416.63 560.61 678.61 771.87 857.48

Mass fraction NH3 in vapor 0.0 0.1 0.82096 0.94541 0.98199 0.99393 0.99783 0.99913 0.99960 0.99980 0.99991 1.0

∗Selected values from R. Tillner-Roth and D. G. Friend, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 27:63 (1998). This reference lists solubilities for temperatures from −70 to 340°C. Densities, enthalpies, and entropies are listed for both the two-phase and single-phase regions for pressures up to 40 MPa.

TABLE 2-26 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)* Liquid mol fraction CO2 × 103 Total pressure, atm 1 2 10 20 30 36

0°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

35°C

50°C

75°C

100°C

1.445 2.89 12.71 21.23 25.79

0.985 1.946 8.81 15.38 19.80 21.45

0.802 1.587 7.32 13.13 17.49 19.42

0.692 1.374 6.44 11.84 16.22 18.30

0.608 1.207 5.74 10.75 15.05 17.29

0.473 0.943 4.54 8.64 12.80 14.80

0.342 0.683 3.30 6.34 9.10 10.63

0.248 0.495 2.41 4.65 6.78 7.90

0.187 0.373 1.841 3.62 5.35 6.35

∗Values selected from G. Houghton, A. M. McLean, and P. D. Ritchie, Chem. Eng. Sci. 6:132–137, 1957.

SOLUBILITIES TABLE 2-27 Chlorine (Cl2) Partial pressure of Cl2, mmHg

TABLE 2-28 Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)

Solubility, g of Cl2 per liter 10°C

20°C

30°C

40°C

50°C

5 10 30 50 100

0.488 0.679 1.221 1.717 2.79

0.451 0.603 1.024 1.354 2.08

0.438 0.575 0.937 1.210 1.773

0.424 0.553 0.873 1.106 1.573

0.412 0.532 0.821 1.025 1.424

0.398 0.512 0.781 0.962 1.313

150 200 250 300 350

3.81 4.78 5.71

2.73 3.35 3.95 4.54 5.13

2.27 2.74 3.19 3.63 4.06

1.966 2.34 2.69 3.03 3.35

1.754 2.05 2.34 2.61 2.86

1.599 1.856 2.09 2.31 2.53

400 450 500 550 600

5.71 6.26 6.85 7.39 7.97

4.48 4.88 5.29 5.71 6.12

3.69 3.98 4.30 4.60 4.91

3.11 3.36 3.61 3.84 4.08

2.74 2.94 3.14 3.33 3.52

650 700 750 800 900

8.52 9.09 9.65 10.21

6.52 6.90 7.29 7.69 8.46

5.21 5.50 5.80 6.08 6.68

4.32 4.54 4.77 4.99 5.44

3.71 3.89 4.07 4.27 4.62

9.27 10.84 13.23 17.07 21.0

7.27 8.42 10.14 13.02 15.84

5.89 6.81 8.05 10.22 12.32

4.97 5.67 6.70 8.38 10.03

18.73 21.7 24.7 27.7 30.8

14.47 16.62 18.84 20.7 23.3

11.70 13.38 15.04 16.75 18.46

Cl2.8H2O2 separates

3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 Partial pressure of Cl2, mmHg

Weight of ClO2, grams per liter of solution

Vol % of ClO2 in gas phase

0°C

1000 1200 1500 2000 2500

2-91

1 3 5 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

0°C

5°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

30°C

40°C

2.00 6.00 10.0 14.0 20.0

1.50 4.7 7.8 10.9 15.5 17.0 18.6 20.3

1.25 3.85 6.30 8.95 12.8 14.0 15.3 16.6 18.0 19.2 20.3

1.00 3.20 5.25 7.35 10.5 11.7 12.8 13.8 14.9 16.0 17.0

0.90 2.70 4.30 6.15 8.80 9.70 10.55 11.5 12.3 13.2 14.2

0.60 1.95 3.20 4.40 6.30 7.00 7.50 8.20 8.80 9.50 10.1

0.46 1.30 2.25 3.20 4.50 5.00 5.45 5.85 6.35 6.80 7.20

Ishi, Chem. Eng. (Japan), 22:153 (1958).

TABLE 2-29 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Weights of HCl per 100 weights of H2O 78.6 66.7 56.3 47.0 38.9 31.6 25.0 19.05 13.64 8.70 4.17 2.04

Partial pressure of HCl, mmHg 0°C

10°C

20°C

30°C

510 130 29.0 5.7 1.0 0.175 0.0316 0.0056 0.00099 0.000118 0.000018

840 233 56.4 11.8 2.27 0.43 0.084 0.016 0.00305 0.000583 0.000069 0.0000117

399 105.5 23.5 4.90 1.00 0.205 0.0428 0.0088 0.00178 0.00024 0.000044

627 188 44.5 9.90 2.17 0.48 0.106 0.0234 0.00515 0.00077 0.000151

Weights of HCl per 100 weights of H2O

Solubility, g of Cl2 per liter 60°C

70°C

80°C

90°C

100°C

110°C

5 10 30 50 100

0.383 0.492 0.743 0.912 1.228

0.369 0.470 0.704 0.863 1.149

0.351 0.447 0.671 0.815 1.085

0.339 0.431 0.642 0.781 1.034

0.326 0.415 0.627 0.747 0.987

0.316 0.402 0.598 0.722 0.950

150 200 250 300 350

1.482 1.706 1.914 2.10 2.28

1.382 1.580 1.764 1.932 2.10

1.294 1.479 1.642 1.793 1.940

1.227 1.396 1.553 1.700 1.831

1.174 1.333 1.480 1.610 1.736

1.137 1.276 1.413 1.542 1.661

400 450 500 550 600

2.47 2.64 2.80 2.97 3.13

2.25 2.41 2.55 2.69 2.83

2.08 2.22 2.35 2.47 2.59

1.965 2.09 2.21 2.32 2.43

1.854 1.972 2.08 2.19 2.29

1.773 1.880 1.986 2.09 2.19

650 700 750 800 900

3.29 3.44 3.59 3.75 4.04

2.97 3.10 3.23 3.37 3.63

2.72 2.84 2.96 3.08 3.30

2.55 2.66 2.76 2.87 3.08

2.41 2.50 2.60 2.69 2.89

2.28 2.37 2.47 2.56 2.74

1000 1200 1500 2000 2500

4.36 4.92 5.76 7.14 8.48

3.88 4.37 5.09 6.26 7.40

3.53 3.95 4.58 5.63 6.61

3.28 3.67 4.23 5.17 6.05

3.07 3.43 3.95 4.78 5.59

2.91 3.25 3.74 4.49 5.25

3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

9.83 11.22 12.54 13.88 15.26

8.52 9.65 10.76 11.91 13.01

7.54 8.53 9.52 10.46 11.42

6.92 7.79 8.65 9.49 10.35

6.38 7.16 7.94 8.72 9.48

5.97 6.72 7.42 8.13 8.84

78.6 66.7 56.3 47.0 38.9 31.6 25.0 19.05 13.64 8.70 4.17 2.04

50°C

Partial pressure of HCl, mm Hg 80°C

535 141 35.7 8.9 2.21 0.55 0.136 0.0344 0.0064 0.00140

623 188 54.5 15.6 4.66 1.34 0.39 0.095 0.0245

110°C

760 253 83 28 9.3 3.10 0.93 0.280

Enthalpy and phase-equilibrium data for the binary system HCl-H2O are given by Van Nuys, Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs., 39, 663 (1943).

TABLE 2-30 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10−2 × H

2.68

3.15

3.67

4.23

4.83

5.45

6.09

6.76

t, °C

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

10−2 × H

7.45

8.14

8.84

10.3

11.9

13.5

14.4

14.8

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 259.

2-92

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

DEnSITIES Unit Conversions Unless otherwise noted, densities are given in grams per cubic centimeter. To convert to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43. Temperature conversion: °F = 9⁄5°C + 32. Additional References and Comments The aqueous solution data tables are from International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 115–129, unless otherwise stated. All compositions are in weight percent in vacuo. All density

values are d 4t = g/mL in vacuo. For more detailed data on densities, see also the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., 97th ed.; or http://hbcponline.com. DEnSITIES OF PURE SUBSTAnCES

TABLE 2-31 Density (kg/m3) of Saturated Liquid Water from the Triple Point to the Critical Point T, K

ρ, kg/m3

T, K

ρ, kg/m3

T, K

ρ, kg/m3

T, K

ρ, kg/m3

T, K

ρ, kg/m3

273.160∗ 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310 312 314 316 318 320 322 324 326 328 330 332 334 336 338 340 342 344 346 348 350

999.793 999.843 999.914 999.919 999.862 999.746 999.575 999.352 999.079 998.758 998.392 997.983 997.532 997.042 996.513 995.948 995.346 994.711 994.042 993.342 992.610 991.848 991.056 990.235 989.387 988.512 987.610 986.682 985.728 984.750 983.747 982.721 981.671 980.599 979.503 978.386 977.247 976.086 974.904 973.702

352 354 356 358 360 362 364 366 368 370 372 374 376 378 380 382 384 386 388 390 392 394 396 398 400 402 404 406 408 410 412 414 416 418 420 422 424 426 428 430

972.479 971.235 969.972 968.689 967.386 966.064 964.723 963.363 961.984 960.587 959.171 957.737 956.285 954.815 953.327 951.822 950.298 948.758 947.199 945.624 944.030 942.420 940.793 939.148 937.486 935.807 934.111 932.398 930.668 928.921 927.157 925.375 923.577 921.761 919.929 918.079 916.212 914.328 912.426 910.507

432 434 436 438 440 442 444 446 448 450 452 454 456 458 460 462 464 466 468 470 472 474 476 478 480 482 484 486 488 490 492 494 496 498 500 502 504 506 508 510

908.571 906.617 904.645 902.656 900.649 898.624 896.580 894.519 892.439 890.341 888.225 886.089 883.935 881.761 879.569 877.357 875.125 872.873 870.601 868.310 865.997 863.664 861.310 858.934 856.537 854.118 851.678 849.214 846.728 844.219 841.686 839.130 836.549 833.944 831.313 828.658 825.976 823.269 820.534 817.772

512 514 516 518 520 522 524 526 528 530 532 534 536 538 540 542 544 546 548 550 552 554 556 558 560 562 564 566 568 570 572 574 576 578 580 582 584 586 588 590

814.982 812.164 809.318 806.441 803.535 800.597 797.629 794.628 791.594 788.527 785.425 782.288 779.115 775.905 772.657 769.369 766.042 762.674 759.263 755.808 752.308 748.762 745.169 741.525 737.831 734.084 730.283 726.425 722.508 718.530 714.489 710.382 706.206 701.959 697.638 693.238 688.757 684.190 679.533 674.781

592 594 596 598 600 602 604 606 608 610 612 614 616 618 620 622 624 626 628 630 632 634 636 638 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 647.096†

669.930 664.974 659.907 654.722 649.411 643.97 638.38 632.64 626.74 620.65 614.37 607.88 601.15 594.16 586.88 579.26 571.25 562.81 553.84 544.25 533.92 522.71 510.42 496.82 481.53 473.01 463.67 453.14 440.73 425.05 402.96 357.34 322

∗Triple point † Critical point From Wagner, W., and Pruss, A., “The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 31(2):387–535, 2002.

TABLE 2-32 Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (mol/dm3) Eqn

2-93

105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105

Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia Anisole Argon Benzamide Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine

Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O Ar C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO CCl4 CF4 Cl2

CAS 75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 7440-37-1 55-21-0 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0 124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0 56-23-5 75-73-0 7782-50-5

Mol. wt. 44.05256 59.0672 60.052 102.08864 58.07914 41.0519 26.03728 56.06326 72.06266 53.0626 28.96 17.03052 108.13782 39.948 121.13658 78.11184 110.17684 122.12134 103.1213 182.2179 108.13782 136.19098 124.20342 154.2078 159.808 157.0079 108.965 94.93852 54.09044 54.09044 58.1222 90.121 90.121 74.1216 74.1216 56.10632 56.10632 56.10632 116.15828 134.21816 90.1872 90.1872 54.09044 72.10572 88.1051 69.1051 44.0095 76.1407 28.0101 153.8227 88.0043 70.906

C1 1.711365 1.016 1.4486 0.79388 1.2332 1.0693 2.4507 1.3261 1.2414 1.0379 2.8963 3.5383 0.77488 3.8469 0.7371 1.0259 0.83573 0.71587 0.72184 0.43743 0.59867 0.60917 0.70797 0.52257 2.1872 0.8226 1.3285 1.796 1.187 1.2346 1.0677 0.81696 0.81856 0.98279 0.97552 1.0877 1.1591 1.1448 0.67794 0.50812 0.89458 0.89137 1.3409 1.033873 0.88443 0.79716 2.768 1.7968 2.897 0.99835 1.955 2.23

C2 0.26355 0.21845 0.25892 0.24119 0.25886 0.20656 0.27448 0.26124 0.25822 0.22465 0.26733 0.25443 0.26114 0.2881 0.25487 0.26666 0.26326 0.24812 0.24606 0.24833 0.22849 0.26925 0.25982 0.25833 0.29527 0.26632 0.2708 0.27065 0.26114 0.27216 0.27188 0.24755 0.24967 0.2683 0.26339 0.26454 0.27085 0.27154 0.2637 0.25238 0.27463 0.27365 0.27892 0.266739 0.25828 0.23168 0.26212 0.28749 0.27532 0.274 0.27884 0.27645

C3 466 761 591.95 606 508.2 545.5 308.3 506 615 540 132.45 405.65 645.6 150.86 824 562.05 689 751 702.3 830 720.15 662 718 773 584.15 670.15 503.8 464 452 425 425.12 680 676 563.1 535.9 419.5 435.5 428.6 575.4 660.5 570.1 554 440 537.2 615.7 585.4 304.21 552 132.92 556.35 227.51 417.15

C4 0.28571 0.26116 0.2529 0.29817 0.2913 0.24699 0.28752 0.2489 0.30701 0.28921 0.27341 0.2888 0.28234 0.29783 0.28571 0.28394 0.30798 0.2857 0.28789 0.27555 0.23567 0.2632 0.32144 0.27026 0.3295 0.2821 0.3012 0.28947 0.3065 0.28707 0.28688 0.24535 0.22023 0.25488 0.26864 0.2843 0.28116 0.28419 0.29318 0.29373 0.28512 0.2953 0.29661 0.28571 0.248 0.28071 0.2908 0.3226 0.2813 0.287 0.28571 0.2926

C5

C6

C7

Tmin, K 149.78 353.33 289.81 200.15 178.45 229.32 192.40 185.45 286.15 189.63 59.15 195.41 235.65 83.78 403.00 278.68 258.27 395.45 260.28 321.35 257.85 275.65 243.95 342.20 265.85 242.43 154.25 173.00 136.95 164.25 134.86 220.00 196.15 183.85 158.45 87.80 134.26 167.62 199.65 185.30 157.46 133.02 147.43 176.80 267.95 161.30 216.58 161.11 68.15 250.33 89.56 172.12

Density at Tmin 21.423 16.936 17.492 11.626 15.683 20.544 23.692 16.822 14.693 17.254 33.279 43.141 9.6675 35.491 8.9381 11.422 10.074 8.8935 10.008 5.9496 9.9051 7.0651 8.8623 6.4251 20.109 9.9087 15.809 20.787 15.123 14.058 12.62 11.734 11.872 12.035 12.473 14.264 13.894 13.08 8.3365 7.0264 10.585 10.761 14.901 12.602 11.087 13.087 26.828 19.064 30.18 10.843 21.211 24.242

Tmax, K 466.00 761.00 591.95 606.00 508.20 545.50 308.30 506.00 615.00 540.00 132.45 405.65 645.60 150.86 824.00 562.05 689.00 751.00 702.30 830.00 720.15 662.00 718.00 773.00 584.15 670.15 503.80 464.00 452.00 425.00 425.12 680.00 676.00 563.10 535.90 419.50 435.50 428.60 575.40 660.50 570.10 554.00 440.00 537.20 615.70 585.40 304.21 552.00 132.92 556.35 227.51 417.15

Density at Tmax 6.4935 4.6509 5.5948 3.2915 4.7640 5.1767 8.9285 5.0762 4.8075 4.6201 10.8340 13.9070 2.9673 13.3530 2.8921 3.8472 3.1745 2.8852 2.9336 1.7615 2.6201 2.2625 2.7248 2.0229 7.4075 3.0888 4.9058 6.6359 4.5455 4.5363 3.9271 3.3002 3.2786 3.6630 3.7037 4.1117 4.2795 4.2160 2.5709 2.0133 3.2574 3.2573 4.8075 3.8760 3.4243 3.4408 10.5600 6.2500 10.5220 3.6436 7.0112 8.0666 (Continued )

2-94

TABLE 2-32 Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (mol/dm3) (Continued ) Eqn

Cmpd. no.

105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105

53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104

Name Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Di–sopropyl amine Di–sopropyl ether Di–sopropyl ketone 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane

Formula C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O C4H10O2 C5H12O2

CAS 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6 108-39-4 95-48-7 106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0 110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0 534-15-6 7778-85-0

Mol. wt. 112.5569 64.5141 119.37764 50.4875 78.54068 78.54068 108.13782 108.13782 108.13782 120.19158 52.0348 56.10632 84.15948 100.15888 98.143 82.1436 70.1329 68.11702 42.07974 116.22448 156.2652 142.28168 172.265 158.28108 140.2658 174.34668 138.24992 4.0316 187.86116 187.86116 173.83458 130.22792 147.00196 147.00196 147.00196 98.95916 98.95916 84.93258 112.98574 112.98574 105.13564 73.13684 74.1216 90.1872 66.04997 66.04997 52.02339 101.19 102.17476 114.18546 90.121 104.14758

C1 0.8711 1.39625 1.0841 1.8651 1.12465 1.1202 0.9061 0.95937 1.1503 0.58711 1.7805 1.3931 0.88998 0.8243 0.86464 0.92997 1.0897 1.1035 1.7411 0.78578 0.478542 0.41084 0.39348 0.38208 0.43981 0.44289 0.46877 5.2115 0.95523 1.0132 1.1136 0.55941 0.74495 0.74404 0.74858 1.1055 1.2591 1.3897 0.9551 0.89833 0.68184 0.85379 0.9554 0.82227 1.4345 1.173 1.9973 0.6181 0.69213 0.64619 0.89368 0.76327

C2 0.26805 0.26867 0.2581 0.2627 0.2728 0.27669 0.28268 0.2882 0.31861 0.25583 0.26846 0.29255 0.27376 0.26545 0.26888 0.27056 0.28356 0.27035 0.28205 0.27882 0.275162 0.25175 0.2492 0.24645 0.25661 0.27636 0.25875 0.315 0.26364 0.26634 0.24834 0.27243 0.26147 0.26112 0.26276 0.26533 0.27698 0.25678 0.27794 0.26142 0.23796 0.25675 0.26847 0.26314 0.25774 0.22856 0.24653 0.25786 0.26974 0.26881 0.26599 0.26742

C3 632.35 460.35 536.4 416.25 503.15 489 705.85 697.55 704.65 631 400.15 459.93 553.8 650.1 653 560.4 511.7 507 398 664 674 617.7 722.1 688 616.6 696 619.85 38.35 628 650.15 611 584.1 683.95 705 684.75 523 561.6 510 560 572 736.6 496.6 466.7 557.15 386.44 445 351.26 523.1 500.05 576 507.8 543

C4 0.2799 0.28571 0.2741 0.28571 0.28571 0.27646 0.2707 0.2857 0.30104 0.28498 0.26079 0.24913 0.28571 0.28495 0.29943 0.28943 0.25142 0.28699 0.29598 0.31067 0.28571 0.28571 0.28571 0.26125 0.29148 0.27668 0.29479 0.28571 0.29825 0.28571 0.27583 0.29932 0.31526 0.30815 0.30788 0.287 0.30492 0.2902 0.24132 0.2868 0.2062 0.27027 0.2814 0.27369 0.28178 0.28571 0.28153 0.271 0.28571 0.28036 0.28571 0.28571

C5

C6

C7

Tmin, K 227.95 136.75 209.63 175.43 150.35 155.97 285.39 304.19 307.93 177.14 245.25 182.48 279.69 296.60 242.00 169.67 179.28 138.13 145.59 189.64 285.00 243.51 304.55 280.05 206.89 247.56 229.15 18.73 210.15 282.85 220.60 175.30 248.39 256.15 326.14 176.19 237.49 178.01 192.50 172.71 301.15 223.35 156.85 169.20 154.56 179.60 136.95 176.85 187.65 204.81 159.95 226.10

Density at Tmin 10.385 17.055 13.702 22.272 13.333 12.855 9.6115 9.5725 9.4494 7.9387 18.517 14.074 9.3804 9.4693 10.09 11.16 11.906 13.47 18.658 8.9048 5.2396 5.3927 5.1809 5.2609 5.7328 5.0048 5.8954 42.945 11.799 11.704 15.358 6.6071 9.1207 9.1658 8.5175 13.549 13.462 17.974 10.925 11.526 10.39 10.575 11.487 10.47 18.006 18.336 27.399 8.0541 8.0673 7.6796 11.029 8.8431

Tmax, K 632.35 460.35 536.40 416.25 503.15 489.00 705.85 697.55 704.65 631.00 400.15 459.93 553.80 650.10 653.00 560.40 511.70 507.00 398.00 664.00 674.00 617.70 722.10 688.00 616.60 696.00 619.85 38.35 628.00 650.15 611.00 584.10 683.95 705.00 684.75 523.00 561.60 510.00 560.00 572.00 736.60 496.60 466.70 557.15 386.44 445.00 351.26 523.10 500.05 576.00 507.80 543.00

Density at Tmax 3.2498 5.1969 4.2003 7.0997 4.1226 4.0486 3.2054 3.3288 3.6104 2.2949 6.6323 4.7619 3.2509 3.1053 3.2157 3.4372 3.8429 4.0817 6.1730 2.8182 1.7391 1.6319 1.5790 1.5503 1.7139 1.6026 1.8117 16.5440 3.6232 3.8042 4.4842 2.0534 2.8491 2.8494 2.8489 4.1665 4.5458 5.4120 3.4364 3.4363 2.8654 3.3254 3.5587 3.1248 5.5657 5.1321 8.1017 2.3970 2.5659 2.4039 3.3598 2.8542

105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105

105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159

Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine Dodecane Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 Heptadecane Heptanal

C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2 C12H10O C6H15N C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2 C8H16O2 C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He C17H36 C7H14O

503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6 75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1 101-84-8 142-84-7 112-40-3 112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4 149-57-5 5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 462-06-6 353-36-6 593-53-3 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 629-78-7 111-71-7

54.09044 45.08368 86.17536 112.21264 112.21264 112.21264 94.19904 46.06844 73.09378 100.20194 194.184 60.17042 62.134 78.13344 194.184 88.10512 170.2072 101.19 170.33484 282.54748 30.069 46.06844 88.10512 45.08368 106.165 150.1745 116.15828 116.15828 112.21264 98.18606 28.05316 60.09832 62.06784 43.0678 44.05256 74.07854 144.211 130.22792 88.14818 100.15888 62.13404 102.1317 88.14818 163.506 37.9968064 96.1023032 48.0595 34.03292 30.02598 45.04062 46.0257 68.07396 4.0026 240.46774 114.18546

1.1717 1.5436 0.7565 0.55873 0.52953 0.54405 1.1058 1.5693 0.89615 0.72352 0.47977 1.0214 1.4029 1.1096 0.48611 1.1819 0.52133 0.659 0.33267 0.18166 1.9122 1.6288 0.8996 1.0936 0.70041 0.48864 0.66085 0.63566 0.61587 0.71751 2.0961 0.7842 1.315 1.3462 1.836 1.1343 0.47428 0.55729 0.8185 0.68162 1.3047 0.7405 0.7908 0.61243 4.2895 1.0146 1.693858 2.2261 3.897011 1.2486 1.938 1.1339 7.2475 0.21897 0.577362

0.25895 0.27784 0.27305 0.25143 0.24358 0.25026 0.27866 0.2679 0.23478 0.28629 0.25428 0.26351 0.27991 0.25189 0.25715 0.2813 0.26218 0.26428 0.24664 0.23351 0.27937 0.27469 0.25856 0.22636 0.26162 0.23894 0.25707 0.25613 0.26477 0.26903 0.27657 0.20702 0.25125 0.23289 0.26024 0.26168 0.25028 0.2714 0.26929 0.25152 0.2694 0.25563 0.266 0.24681 0.28587 0.27277 0.269323 0.25072 0.331636 0.20352 0.24225 0.24741 0.41865 0.23642 0.250575

473.2 437.2 500 591.15 606.15 596.15 615 400.1 649.6 537.3 766 402 503.04 729 777.4 587 766.8 550 658 768 305.32 514 523.3 456.15 617.15 698 655 571 609.15 569.5 282.34 593 720 537 469.15 508.4 674.6 583 489 567 499.15 546 500.23 559.95 144.12 560.09 375.31 317.42 420 771 588 490.15 5.2 736 620

0.27289 0.2572 0.27408 0.27758 0.26809 0.2658 0.31082 0.2882 0.28091 0.27121 0.30722 0.28421 0.2741 0.3311 0.28571 0.3047 0.31033 0.2766 0.28571 0.28571 0.29187 0.23178 0.278 0.25522 0.28454 0.28421 0.31103 0.27829 0.28054 0.27733 0.29147 0.20254 0.21868 0.23357 0.2696 0.2791 0.25442 0.29538 0.30621 0.3182 0.27866 0.2795 0.292 0.30858 0.28776 0.28291 0.28571 0.27343 0.28571 0.25178 0.24435 0.2612 0.24096 0.28571 0.28571

240.91 180.96 145.19 239.66 223.16 184.99 188.44 131.65 212.72 141.23 274.18 122.93 174.88 291.67 413.79 284.95 300.03 210.15 263.57 309.58 90.35 159.05 189.60 192.15 178.20 238.45 258.15 175.15 161.84 134.71 104.00 284.29 260.15 195.20 160.65 193.55 155.15 180.00 140.00 204.15 125.26 199.25 145.65 167.55 53.48 230.94 129.95 131.35 155.15 275.60 281.45 187.55 2.20 295.13 229.80

13.767 16.964 9.031 7.3417 7.5783 7.6258 12.413 18.95 13.954 7.9932 6.2334 12.898 15.556 14.111 5.6397 11.838 6.2648 7.9929 4.5205 2.7293 21.64 19.41 11.478 17.588 9.0407 7.2908 8.2198 8.4912 7.8679 9.0179 23.326 15.055 18.31 21.45 23.477 14.006 6.926 6.612 9.9236 8.9749 16.242 9.6317 9.8474 8.6934 44.888 11.374 20.099 29.345 30.92 25.488 26.806 15.702 37.115 3.2189 7.7462

473.20 437.20 500.00 591.15 606.15 596.15 615.00 400.10 649.60 537.30 766.00 402.00 503.04 729.00 777.40 587.00 766.80 550.00 658.00 768.00 305.32 514.00 523.30 456.15 617.15 698.00 655.00 571.00 609.15 569.50 282.34 593.00 720.00 537.00 469.15 508.40 674.60 583.00 489.00 567.00 499.15 546.00 500.23 559.95 144.12 560.09 375.31 317.42 420.00 771.00 588.00 490.15 5.20 736.00 620.00

4.5248 5.5557 2.7706 2.2222 2.1739 2.1739 3.9683 5.8578 3.8170 2.5272 1.8868 3.8761 5.0120 4.4051 1.8904 4.2016 1.9884 2.4936 1.3488 0.7780 6.8447 5.9296 3.4793 4.8312 2.6772 2.0450 2.5707 2.4818 2.3261 2.6670 7.5789 3.7880 5.2338 5.7804 7.0550 4.3347 1.8950 2.0534 3.0395 2.7100 4.8430 2.8968 2.9729 2.4814 15.0050 3.7196 6.2893 8.8788 11.7510 6.1350 8.0000 4.5831 17.3120 0.9262 2.3041

2-95

(Continued )

2-96

TABLE 2-32 Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (mol/dm3) (Continued ) Eqn

Cmpd. no.

105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105

160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211

Name Heptane Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene 3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid Methacrylic acid Methane Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl -1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate

Formula C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12 C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10 H4N2 H2 BrH ClH CHN FH H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4 C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N C8H8O2 C5H8 C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S C5H8 C5H10O2

CAS 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6 928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2 302-01-2 1333-74-0 10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2 79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5 93-58-3 598-25-4 78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5 598-23-2 623-42-7

Mol. wt. 100.20194 130.185 116.20134 116.20134 114.18546 114.18546 98.18606 132.26694 96.17018 226.44116 100.15888 86.17536 116.158 102.17476 102.175 100.15888 100.15888 84.15948 82.1436 118.24036 82.1436 82.1436 32.04516 2.01588 80.91194 36.46094 27.02534 20.0063432 34.08088 88.10512 59.11026 104.06146 86.08924 16.0425 32.04186 73.09378 74.07854 40.06386 86.08924 31.0571 136.14792 68.11702 72.14878 102.1317 88.1482 70.1329 70.1329 66.10114 88.14818 104.214 68.11702 102.1317

C1 0.61259 0.53066 0.55687 0.59339 0.59268 0.58247 0.66016 0.58622 0.67304 0.23289 0.668504 0.70824 0.62833 0.70093 0.67393 0.67816 0.67666 0.76925 0.78045 0.66372 0.84427 0.76277 1.0516 5.414 2.832 3.342 1.3413 2.8061 2.7672 0.88575 1.2801 0.87969 0.87025 2.9214 2.3267 0.88268 1.13 1.6085 0.97286 1.39 0.53382 0.84623 0.91991 0.72762 0.8189 0.91619 0.93391 1.1157 0.8363 0.75509 0.94575 0.76983

C2 0.26211 0.24729 0.24725 0.2602 0.25663 0.25279 0.26657 0.2726 0.26045 0.23659 0.252695 0.26411 0.25598 0.26776 0.25948 0.25634 0.25578 0.26809 0.26065 0.27345 0.27185 0.25248 0.16613 0.34893 0.2832 0.2729 0.18589 0.19362 0.27369 0.25736 0.2828 0.24543 0.24383 0.28976 0.27073 0.23568 0.2593 0.26436 0.26267 0.21405 0.23274 0.24625 0.27815 0.25244 0.26974 0.26752 0.27275 0.27671 0.27514 0.27183 0.26008 0.26173

C3 540.2 677.3 632.3 608.3 606.6 611.4 537.4 645 547 723 594 507.6 660.2 611.3 585.3 587.61 582.82 504 544 623 516.2 549 653.15 33.19 363.15 324.65 456.65 461.15 373.53 605 471.85 834 662 190.56 512.5 718 506.55 402.4 536 430.05 693 490 460.4 643 577.2 465 470 492 512.74 593 463.2 554.5

C4 0.28141 0.28289 0.31471 0.26968 0.27766 0.29818 0.28571 0.29644 0.28388 0.28571 0.28571 0.27537 0.25304 0.24919 0.26552 0.28365 0.27746 0.28571 0.28571 0.29185 0.2771 0.31611 0.1898 0.2706 0.28571 0.3217 0.28206 0.29847 0.29015 0.26265 0.2972 0.28571 0.28571 0.28881 0.24713 0.27379 0.2764 0.27987 0.2508 0.2275 0.28147 0.29041 0.28667 0.28571 0.23573 0.28164 0.2578 0.30821 0.27553 0.29127 0.30807 0.26879

C5

C6

C7

Tmin, K 182.57 265.83 239.15 220.00 234.15 238.15 154.12 229.92 192.22 291.31 214.93 177.83 269.25 228.55 223.00 217.35 217.50 133.39 170.05 192.62 141.25 183.65 274.69 13.95 185.15 158.97 259.83 189.79 187.68 227.15 177.95 409.15 288.15 90.69 175.47 301.15 175.15 170.45 196.32 179.69 260.75 159.53 113.25 193.00 155.95 135.58 139.39 160.15 157.48 175.30 183.45 187.35

Density at Tmin 7.6998 7.2212 7.5022 7.5173 7.5751 7.5514 8.2257 6.7277 8.4922 3.415 8.8708 8.747 8.0964 8.456 8.5181 8.7319 8.7631 9.5815 10.021 7.7733 10.23 10.133 31.934 38.487 27.985 34.854 27.202 58.861 29.13 11.42 13.561 11.417 11.834 28.18 27.915 13.012 14.475 19.031 12.203 25.378 8.2202 11.994 10.764 9.9915 10.248 11.332 11.216 12.581 9.7581 9.0056 11.519 9.7638

Tmax, K 540.20 677.30 632.30 608.30 606.60 611.40 537.40 645.00 547.00 723.00 594.00 507.60 660.20 611.30 585.30 587.61 582.82 504.00 544.00 623.00 516.20 549.00 653.15 33.19 363.15 324.65 456.65 461.15 373.53 605.00 471.85 834.00 662.00 190.56 512.50 718.00 506.55 402.40 536.00 430.05 693.00 490.00 460.40 643.00 577.20 465.00 470.00 492.00 512.74 593.00 463.20 554.50

Density at Tmax 2.3371 2.1459 2.2523 2.2805 2.3095 2.3042 2.4765 2.1505 2.5841 0.9844 2.6455 2.6816 2.4546 2.6178 2.5972 2.6455 2.6455 2.8694 2.9942 2.4272 3.1056 3.0211 6.3300 15.5160 10.0000 12.2460 7.2156 14.4930 10.1110 3.4417 4.5265 3.5843 3.5691 10.0820 8.5942 3.7452 4.3579 6.0845 3.7037 6.4938 2.2936 3.4365 3.3072 2.8823 3.0359 3.4248 3.4241 4.0320 3.0395 2.7778 3.6364 2.9413

105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105

212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266

Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl Isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane alpha-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Nonadecane Nonanal Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane Octanal Octane Octanoic acid

CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si C9H10 C5H12O C3H6O C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 N2 F3N CH3NO2 N2O NO C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2

993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9 96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5 75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9 98-83-9 1634-04-4 107-25-5 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2 75-52-5 10024-97-2 10102-43-9 629-92-5 124-19-6 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3 124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2

80.5889 98.18606 114.18546 114.18546 114.18546 84.15948 82.1436 82.1436 115.03396 60.09502 72.10572 76.1606 60.05196 88.14818 100.15888 57.05132 74.1216 86.1323 90.1872 48.10746 100.11582 158.23802 86.17536 102.17476 58.1222 74.1216 56.10632 88.10512 74.1216 90.1872 46.14384 118.1757 88.1482 58.07914 128.17052 20.1797 75.0666 28.0134 71.00191 61.04002 44.0128 30.0061 268.5209 142.23862 128.2551 158.238 144.2545 144.255 126.23922 160.3201 124.22334 254.49432 128.212 114.22852 144.211

1.0674 0.73109 0.7013 0.70973 0.72836 0.84758 0.88824 0.9109 0.97608 1.2635 0.93767 1.067 1.525 0.84005 0.71687 1.0228 0.97887 0.86567 0.78912 1.9323 0.7761 0.4416 0.72701 0.71004 1.0631 0.92128 1.1446 0.9147 0.96145 0.87496 1.3052 0.64856 0.817948 1.2587 0.6348 7.3718 1.0024 3.2091 2.3736 1.3728 2.781 5.246 0.19199 0.473233 0.46321 0.41582 0.43682 0.419258 0.48661 0.47377 0.52152 0.20448 0.525901 0.5266 0.48251

0.26257 0.26971 0.266 0.26544 0.27241 0.27037 0.26914 0.276 0.28209 0.27878 0.25035 0.27102 0.2634 0.27638 0.26453 0.20692 0.27017 0.26836 0.25915 0.28018 0.25068 0.2521 0.26754 0.26981 0.27506 0.25442 0.2724 0.2594 0.26536 0.26862 0.26757 0.25877 0.269105 0.26433 0.25838 0.3067 0.23655 0.2861 0.2817 0.23793 0.27244 0.3044 0.23337 0.256918 0.25444 0.24284 0.25161 0.241912 0.25722 0.27052 0.25918 0.23474 0.25664 0.25693 0.25196

442 572.1 686 614 617 532.7 542 526 483 437.8 535.5 533 487.2 497 574.6 488 464.48 553.4 553.1 469.95 566 694 497.7 546.49 407.8 506.2 417.9 530.6 476.25 565 352.5 654 497.1 437 748.4 44.4 593 126.2 234 588.15 309.57 180.15 758 658.5 594.6 710.7 670.9 649.5 593.1 681 598.05 747 638.9 568.7 694.26

0.26569 0.29185 0.28571 0.26016 0.2478 0.28258 0.27874 0.26756 0.22529 0.2744 0.29964 0.29364 0.2806 0.27645 0.28918 0.28571 0.28998 0.28364 0.26512 0.28523 0.29773 0.28532 0.28268 0.29974 0.2758 0.27586 0.28172 0.2774 0.30088 0.30259 0.28799 0.31444 0.28571 0.25819 0.27727 0.2786 0.278 0.2966 0.29529 0.29601 0.2882 0.242 0.28571 0.28571 0.28571 0.30036 0.2498 0.28571 0.28571 0.30284 0.29177 0.28571 0.28571 0.28571 0.26842

139.05 146.58 285.15 280.15 269.15 130.73 146.62 168.54 182.55 160.00 186.48 167.23 174.15 188.00 189.15 256.15 127.93 180.15 171.64 150.18 224.95 240.00 119.55 176.00 113.54 298.97 132.81 185.65 133.97 160.17 116.34 249.95 164.55 151.15 333.15 24.56 183.63 63.15 66.46 244.60 182.30 109.50 305.04 267.30 219.66 285.55 268.15 238.15 191.91 253.05 223.15 301.31 251.65 216.38 289.65

13.626 9.0173 8.2091 8.2931 8.2628 10.491 10.98 10.538 10.789 13.995 12.663 12.671 18.811 9.3871 8.8617 17.666 11.933 10.46 10.352 21.564 10.176 5.938 9.2041 8.445 12.574 10.556 13.507 11.678 12.043 10.689 15.791 8.0099 9.7955 15.691 7.7545 61.796 15.556 31.063 26.555 19.632 27.928 44.487 2.8889 5.9415 6.0427 5.7592 5.8496 6.0223 6.3717 5.4532 6.5369 3.0418 6.6608 6.7049 6.3107

442.00 572.10 686.00 614.00 617.00 532.70 542.00 526.00 483.00 437.80 535.50 533.00 487.20 497.00 574.60 488.00 464.48 553.40 553.10 469.95 566.00 694.00 497.70 546.49 407.80 506.20 417.90 530.60 476.25 565.00 352.50 654.00 497.10 437.00 748.40 44.40 593.00 126.20 234.00 588.15 309.57 180.15 758.00 658.50 594.60 710.70 670.90 649.50 593.10 681.00 598.05 747.00 638.90 568.70 694.26

4.0652 2.7107 2.6365 2.6738 2.6738 3.1349 3.3003 3.3004 3.4602 4.5322 3.7454 3.9370 5.7897 3.0395 2.7100 4.9430 3.6232 3.2258 3.0450 6.8966 3.0960 1.7517 2.7174 2.6316 3.8650 3.6211 4.2019 3.5262 3.6232 3.2572 4.8780 2.5063 3.0395 4.7619 2.4568 24.0360 4.2376 11.2170 8.4260 5.7698 10.2080 17.2340 0.8227 1.8420 1.8205 1.7123 1.7361 1.7331 1.8918 1.7513 2.0122 0.8711 2.0492 2.0496 1.9150

2-97

(Continued )

2-98 TABLE 2-32 Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (mol/dm3) (Continued ) Eqn

Cmpd. no.

105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105

267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312

Name 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate Propyl amine Propylbenzene Propylene Propyl formate 2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene

Formula C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C9H14 C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N C9H12 C3H6 C4H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8

CAS 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9 85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6 79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4 107-10-8 103-65-1 115-07-1 110-74-7 75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5

Mol. wt. 130.22792 130.228 128.21204 128.21204 112.21264 146.29352 110.19676 90.03488 31.9988 47.9982 212.41458 86.1323 72.14878 102.132 88.1482 88.1482 86.1323 86.1323 70.1329 104.21378 104.21378 68.11702 68.11702 178.2292 94.11124 119.1207 148.11556 40.06386 44.09562 60.09502 60.095 122.20746 58.07914 74.0785 55.0785 102.1317 59.11026 120.19158 42.07974 88.10512 76.16062 76.16062 76.09442 108.09476 104.07911 104.14912

C1 0.48979 0.52497 0.50006 0.5108 0.55449 0.52577 0.58945 1.1911 3.9143 3.3592 0.25142 0.85658 0.84947 0.73455 0.81754 0.81577 0.90411 0.71811 0.89816 0.65858 0.75345 0.8491 0.92099 0.45554 1.3798 0.63163 0.5393 1.6087 1.3757 1.2457 1.1799 0.61255 1.2861 1.0969 0.91281 0.73041 0.9195 0.57233 1.4403 0.915 1.093 1.0714 1.0923 0.83228 1.1945 0.7397

C2 0.24931 0.26186 0.24851 0.25386 0.25952 0.27234 0.26052 0.27038 0.28772 0.29884 0.23837 0.26811 0.26726 0.25636 0.26732 0.26594 0.27207 0.24129 0.26608 0.25367 0.27047 0.2352 0.25419 0.2523 0.31598 0.23373 0.22704 0.26543 0.27453 0.27281 0.2644 0.26769 0.26236 0.25568 0.22125 0.25456 0.23878 0.25171 0.26852 0.26134 0.27762 0.27214 0.26106 0.25385 0.24128 0.2603

C3 652.3 629.8 632.7 627.7 566.9 667.3 574 828 154.58 261 708 566.1 469.7 639.16 588.1 561 561.08 560.95 464.8 584.3 598 481.2 519 869 694.25 653 791 394 369.83 536.8 508.3 636 503.6 600.81 561.3 549.73 496.95 638.35 364.85 538 517 536.6 626 683 259 636

C4 0.27824 0.25257 0.29942 0.26735 0.28571 0.30063 0.28532 0.28571 0.2924 0.28523 0.28571 0.27354 0.27789 0.25522 0.25348 0.25551 0.30669 0.27996 0.28571 0.28571 0.30583 0.353 0.31077 0.24841 0.32768 0.28571 0.248 0.29895 0.29359 0.23994 0.24653 0.28571 0.3004 0.26857 0.26811 0.27666 0.2461 0.29616 0.28775 0.28 0.29781 0.29481 0.20459 0.23658 0.16693 0.3009

C5

C6

C7

Tmin, K 257.65 241.55 252.85 255.55 171.45 223.95 193.55 462.65 54.35 80.15 283.07 191.59 143.42 239.15 195.56 200.00 196.29 234.18 108.02 160.75 197.45 167.45 163.83 372.38 314.06 243.15 404.15 136.87 85.47 146.95 185.26 199.00 165.00 252.45 180.37 178.15 188.36 173.55 87.89 180.25 142.61 159.95 213.15 388.85 186.35 242.54

Density at Tmin 6.5738 6.5625 6.6477 6.6283 7.2155 6.0987 7.4832 12.405 40.77 33.361 3.6423 10.353 10.474 9.5869 10.061 10.017 10.398 10.102 11.521 9.073 8.8575 12.532 12.24 5.9853 11.244 9.6466 8.2218 19.479 16.583 15.206 14.663 7.4763 16.075 13.935 16.067 9.7941 13.764 7.9821 18.07 11.59 12.61 12.716 14.363 10.082 15.635 9.1088

Tmax, K 652.30 629.80 632.70 627.70 566.90 667.30 574.00 828.00 154.58 261.00 708.00 566.10 469.70 639.16 588.10 561.00 561.08 560.95 464.80 584.30 598.00 481.20 519.00 869.00 694.25 653.00 791.00 394.00 369.83 536.80 508.30 636.00 503.60 600.81 561.30 549.73 496.95 638.35 364.85 538.00 517.00 536.60 626.00 683.00 259.00 636.00

Density at Tmax 1.9646 2.0048 2.0122 2.0121 2.1366 1.9306 2.2626 4.4053 13.6050 11.2410 1.0547 3.1949 3.1784 2.8653 3.0583 3.0675 3.3231 2.9761 3.3755 2.5962 2.7857 3.6101 3.6232 1.8055 4.3667 2.7024 2.3754 6.0607 5.0111 4.5662 4.4626 2.2883 4.9020 4.2901 4.1257 2.8693 3.8508 2.2738 5.3638 3.5012 3.9370 3.9369 4.1841 3.2786 4.9507 2.8417

105 105 105 105 105 105 100 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 100 119 105 105 105

313 314 315 316 317 318 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 342 343 344 345

Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl o-Terphenyl Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water Water m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

C4H6O4 O2S F6S O3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

118.08804 64.0638 146.0554192 80.0632 166.13084 230.30376 230.30376 198.388 72.10572 132.20228 88.17132 114.22852 84.13956 92.13842 133.40422 184.36142 101.19 59.11026 120.19158 120.19158 114.22852 114.22852 213.10452 227.1311 156.30826 172.30766 86.08924 52.07456 62.49822 161.48972 18.01528 18.01528 106.165 106.165 106.165

0.65882 2.106 1.3587 1.4969 0.41922 0.3448 5.7136 0.27248 1.2543 0.67717 1.1628 0.58988 1.2874 0.8792 0.9062 0.29934 0.7035 1.0116 0.6531 0.60394 0.59059 0.6028 0.48195 0.37378 0.36703 0.33113 0.9591 1.2703 1.5115 0.59595 –13.851 17.874 0.68902 0.69962 0.67752

0.21741 0.25842 0.2701 0.19013 0.17775 0.25116 –0.003474 0.24007 0.28084 0.27772 0.28954 0.27201 0.28194 0.27136 0.25475 0.2433 0.27386 0.25683 0.27002 0.25956 0.27424 0.27446 0.23093 0.21379 0.24876 0.23676 0.2593 0.26041 0.2707 0.24314 0.64038 35.618 0.26086 0.26143 0.25887

838 430.75 318.69 490.85 883.6 857

0.28571 0.2895 0.2921 0.4359 0.28571 0.29268

693 540.15 720 631.95 568 579.35 591.75 602 675 535.15 433.25 664.5 649.1 543.8 573.5 846 828 639 703.9 519.13 454 432 543.15 –0.0019124 19.655 617 630.3 616.2

0.28571 0.2912 0.2878 0.28674 0.27341 0.30781 0.29241 0.31 0.28571 0.2872 0.2696 0.26268 0.27713 0.2847 0.2741 0.28571 0.29905 0.28571 0.2762 0.27448 0.297 0.2716 0.24856 1.8211E-06 –9.1306 0.27479 0.27365 0.27596

–31.367 –813.56 – 17421000

460.85 197.67 223.15 289.95 700.15 329.35 288.15 279.01 164.65 237.38 176.99 373.96 234.94 178.18 236.50 267.76 158.45 156.08 243.15 229.33 165.78 172.22 398.40 354.00 247.57 288.45 180.35 173.15 119.36 178.35 273.16 273.16 225.30 247.98 286.41

10.21 25.298 12.631 24.241 7.102 4.5526 4.7126 3.889 13.998 7.638 12.408 5.7242 13.43 10.487 11.478 4.1817 8.2843 13.144 7.7278 7.689 6.9146 7.0934 7.0825 6.4521 4.9453 4.8594 12.287 15.664 18.481 8.8236 55.497 55.487 8.648 8.6229 8.1614

838.00 430.75 318.69 490.85 883.60 857.00 313.19 693.00 540.15 720.00 631.95 568.00 579.35 591.75 602.00 675.00 535.15 433.25 664.50 649.10 543.80 573.50 846.00 828.00 639.00 703.90 519.13 454.00 432.00 543.15 353.15 647.096 617.00 630.30 616.20

3.0303 8.1495 5.0304 7.8730 2.3585 1.3728 4.6256 1.1350 4.4662 2.4383 4.0160 2.1686 4.5662 3.2400 3.5572 1.2303 2.5688 3.9388 2.4187 2.3268 2.1536 2.1963 2.0870 1.7484 1.4754 1.3986 3.6988 4.8781 5.5837 2.4511 54.0010 17.8740 2.6413 2.6761 2.6172

Except for o-terphenyl and water, liquid density ρ is calculated by Eqn 105: ρ = C1/(C2[1 + (1 – T/C3)^C4]) where ρ is in mol/dm3 and T is in K. The pressure is equal to the vapor pressure for pressures greater than 1 atm and equal to 1 atm when the vapor pressure is less than 1 atm. Equation (2-100), used for the limited temperature ranges as noted for o-terphenyl and water, is ρ = C1 + C2T + C3T 2 + C4T 3. Equation (2-119), used for water, is ρ = C1 + C2τ1/3 + C3τ2/3 + C4τ5/3 + C5τ16/3 + C6τ43/3 + C7τ110/3 where τ = 1 − T/TC, and TC = critical temperature (647.096 K). Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 801 Critically Evaluated Gold Standard Database, copyright 2016 AIChE, and reproduced with permission of AIChE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, T. A. Knotts, and N. F. Giles, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York, NY (2016).

2-99

2-100

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

DEnSITIES OF AQUEOUS InORGAnIC SOLUTIOnS AT 1 ATM TABLE 2-33

Ammonia (nH3)*

% −15°C −10°C 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30

−5°C

0°C

5°C

10°C

20°C

25°C

TABLE 2-38 Ferric nitrate [Fe(nO3)3]*

d 415

%

0.9943 0.9954 0.9959 0.9958 0.9955 0.9939 0.993 32 0.889 .9906 .9915 .9919 .9917 .9913 .9895 .988 36 .877 .9834 .9840 .9842 .9837 .9832 .9811 .980 40 .865 0.970 .9701 .9701 .9695 .9686 .9677 .9651 .964 45 .849 .958 .9576 .9571 .9561 .9548 .9534 .9501 .948 50 .832 .947 .9461 .9450 .9435 .9420 .9402 .9362 .934 60 .796 .9353 .9335 .9316 .9296 .9275 .9229 70 .755 .9249 .9226 .9202 .9179 .9155 .9101 80 .711 .9150 .9122 .9094 .9067 .9040 .8980 90 .665 .9101 .9070 .9040 .9012 .8983 .8920 100 .618

0°C

10°C

20°C

30°C

50°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24

1.0033 1.0067 1.0135 1.0266 1.0391 1.0510 1.0625 1.0736

1.0029 1.0062 1.0126 1.0251 1.0370 1.0485 1.0596 1.0705

1.0013 1.0045 1.0107 1.0227 1.0344 1.0457 1.0567 1.0674

0.9987 1.0018 1.0077 1.0195 1.0310 1.0422 1.0532 1.0641

0.9910 .9940 .9999 1.0116 1.0231 1.0343 1.0454 1.0564

0.9749 .9780 .9842 .9963 1.0081 1.0198 1.0312 1.0426

0.9617 .9651 .9718 .9849 .9975 1.0096 1.0213 1.0327

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 60. TABLE 2-35 Calcium Chloride (CaCl2)* 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 40

1.0708 1.1083 1.1471 1.1874

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 25

1.0065 1.0144 1.0304 1.0636 1.0989 1.1359 1.1748 1.2281

Ammonium Chloride (nH4Cl)*

%

% −5°C

d4

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 68.

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 59. TABLE 2-34

18

%

0°C

20°C

30°C

40°C

60°C

80°C 100°C 120°C† 140°C

1.0171 1.0346 1.0703 1.1072 1.1454 1.1853 1.2376 1.2922

1.0148 1.0316 1.0659 1.1015 1.1386 1.1775 1.2284 1.2816 1.3373 1.3957

1.0120 1.0286 1.0626 1.0978 1.1345 1.1730 1.2236 1.2764 1.3316 1.3895

1.0084 1.0249 1.0586 1.0937 1.1301 1.1684 1.2186 1.2709 1.3255 1.3826

0.9994 1.0158 1.0492 1.0840 1.1202 1.1581 1.2079 1.2597 1.3137 1.3700

0.9881 1.0046 1.0382 1.0730 1.1092 1.1471 1.1965 1.2478 1.3013 1.3571

0.9748 0.9915 1.0257 1.0610 1.0973 1.1352 1.1846 1.2359 1.2893 1.3450

0.9596 0.9765 1.0111 1.0466 1.0835 1.1219

0.9428 0.9601 0.9954 1.0317 1.0691 1.1080

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 72–73. † Corrected to atmospheric pressure. TABLE 2-36 Ferric Chloride (FeCl3)* %

0°C

10°C

20°C

30°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

1.0086 1.0174 1.0347 1.0703 1.1088 1.1475 1.1870 1.2400 1.2970 1.3605 1.4280

1.0084 1.0168 1.0341 1.0692 1.1071 1.1449 1.1847 1.2380 1.2950 1.3580 1.4235 1.4920 1.5610

1.0068 1.0152 1.0324 1.0669 1.1040 1.1418 1.1820 1.2340 1.2910 1.3530 1.4175 1.4850 1.5510

1.0040 1.0122 1.0292 1.0636 1.1006 1.1386 1.1786 1.2290 1.2850 1.3475 1.4115

TABLE 2-37 Ferric Sulfate [Fe2(SO4)3]* 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 30 40 50 60

%

15°C

18°C

TABLE 2-40 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCn)*

20°C

0.2 1.00068 1.0002 0.4 1.00275 1.0022 0.8 1.00645 1.0062 1.0 1.0090 1.0085 1.0082 4.0 1.0380 1.0375 8.0 1.0790 1.0785 12.0 1.1235 1.1220 16.0 1.1690 1.1675 20.0 1.2150 1.2135 ∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 68.

17.5

d4

1.0072 1.0157 1.0327 1.0670 1.1028 1.1409 1.1811 1.3073 1.4487 1.6127 1.7983

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 68.

15

%

d4

1 2 4 8 12 16 82 90 100

0.998 0.996 0.993 0.984 0.971 0.956 0.752 0.724 0.691

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 61.

TABLE 2-41 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) %

−5°C

0°C

10°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

1.0048 1.0104 1.0213 1.0321 1.0428 1.0536 1.0645 1.0754 1.0864 1.0975 1.1087 1.1200 1.1314 1.1426 1.1537 1.1648

1.0052 1.0106 1.0213 1.0319 1.0423 1.0528 1.0634 1.0741 1.0849 1.0958 1.1067 1.1177 1.1287 1.1396 1.1505 1.1613

1.0048 1.0100 1.0202 1.0303 1.0403 1.0504 1.0607 1.0711 1.0815 1.0920 1.1025 1.1131 1.1238 1.1344 1.1449 1.1553

1.0032 1.0082 1.0181 1.0279 1.0376 1.0474 1.0574 1.0675 1.0776 1.0878 1.0980 1.1083 1.1187 1.1290 1.1392 1.1493 1.1593 1.1691 1.1789 1.1885 1.1980

0.9970 1.0019 1.0116 1.0211 1.0305 1.0400 1.0497 1.0594 1.0692 1.0790 1.0888 1.0986 1.1085 1.1183 1.1280 1.1376

0.9881 0.9930 1.0026 1.0121 1.0215 1.0310 1.0406 1.0502 1.0598 1.0694 1.0790 1.0886 1.0982 1.1076 1.1169 1.1260

0.9768 0.9819 0.9919 1.0016 1.0111 1.0206 1.0302 1.0398 1.0494 1.0590 1.0685 1.0780 1.0874 1.0967 1.1058 1.1149

0.9636 0.9688 0.9791 0.9892 0.9992 1.0090 1.0188 1.0286 1.0383 1.0479 1.0574 1.0668 1.0761 1.0853 1.0942 1.1030

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 54.

TABLE 2-42 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)*

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 68.

%

TABLE 2-39 Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4)*

18

18

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

1.0022 1.0058 1.0131 1.0204 1.0277 1.0351 1.0425 1.0499 1.0574 1.0649 1.0725 1.0802 1.0880

26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100

1.0959 1.1040 1.1122 1.1327 1.1536 1.1749 1.1966 1.2188 1.2416 1.2897 1.3406 1.3931 1.4465

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 54.

DEnSITIES OF AQUEOUS InORGAnIC SOLUTIOnS AT 1 ATM

2-101

TABLE 2-43 nitric Acid (HnO3)* %

0°C

5°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

40°C

50°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 3 4

1.0058 1.0117 1.0176 1.0236

1.00572 1.01149 1.01730 1.02315

1.00534 1.01099 1.01668 1.02240

1.00464 1.01018 1.01576 1.02137

1.00364 1.00909 1.01457 1.02008

1.00241 1.00778 1.01318 1.01861

1.0009 1.0061 1.0114 1.0168

0.9973 1.0025 1.0077 1.0129

0.9931 0.9982 1.0033 1.0084

0.9882 0.9932 0.9982 1.0033

0.9767 0.9816 0.9865 0.9915

0.9632 0.9681 0.9730 0.9779

5 6 7 8 9

1.0296 1.0357 1.0418 1.0480 1.0543

1.02904 1.03497 1.0410 1.0471 1.0532

1.02816 1.03397 1.0399 1.0458 1.0518

1.02702 1.03272 1.0385 1.0443 1.0502

1.02563 1.03122 1.0369 1.0427 1.0485

1.02408 1.02958 1.0352 1.0409 1.0466

1.0222 1.0277 1.0333 1.0389 1.0446

1.0182 1.0235 1.0289 1.0344 1.0399

1.0136 1.0188 1.0241 1.0295 1.0349

1.0084 1.0136 1.0188 1.0241 1.0294

0.9965 1.0015 1.0066 1.0117 1.0169

0.9829 0.9879 0.9929 0.9980 1.0032

10 11 12 13 14

1.0606 1.0669 1.0733 1.0797 1.0862

1.0594 1.0656 1.0718 1.0781 1.0845

1.0578 1.0639 1.0700 1.0762 1.0824

1.0561 1.0621 1.0681 1.0742 1.0803

1.0543 1.0602 1.0661 1.0721 1.0781

1.0523 1.0581 1.0640 1.0699 1.0758

1.0503 1.0560 1.0618 1.0676 1.0735

1.0455 1.0511 1.0567 1.0624 1.0681

1.0403 1.0458 1.0513 1.0568 1.0624

1.0347 1.0401 1.0455 1.0509 1.0564

1.0221 1.0273 1.0326 1.0379 1.0432

1.0083 1.0134 1.0186 1.0238 1.0289

15 16 17 18 19

1.0927 1.0992 1.1057 1.1123 1.1189

1.0909 1.0973 1.1038 1.1103 1.1168

1.0887 1.0950 1.1014 1.1078 1.1142

1.0865 1.0927 1.0989 1.1052 1.1115

1.0842 1.0903 1.0964 1.1026 1.1088

1.0818 1.0879 1.0940 1.1001 1.1062

1.0794 1.0854 1.0914 1.0974 1.1034

1.0739 1.0797 1.0855 1.0913 1.0972

1.0680 1.0737 1.0794 1.0851 1.0908

1.0619 1.0675 1.0731 1.0787 1.0843

1.0485 1.0538 1.0592 1.0646 1.0700

1.0341 1.0393 1.0444 1.0496 1.0547

20 21 22 23 24

1.1255 1.1322 1.1389 1.1457 1.1525

1.1234 1.1300 1.1366 1.1433 1.1501

1.1206 1.1271 1.1336 1.1402 1.1469

1.1178 1.1242 1.1306 1.1371 1.1437

1.1150 1.1213 1.1276 1.1340 1.1404

1.1123 1.1185 1.1247 1.1310 1.1374

1.1094 1.1155 1.1217 1.1280 1.1343

1.1031 1.1090 1.1150 1.1210 1.1271

1.0966 1.1024 1.1083 1.1142 1.1201

1.0899 1.0956 1.1013 1.1070 1.1127

1.0754 1.0808 1.0862 1.0917 1.0972

1.0598 1.0650 1.0701 1.0753 1.0805

25 26 27 28 29

1.1594 1.1663 1.1733 1.1803 1.1874

1.1569 1.1638 1.1707 1.1777 1.1847

1.1536 1.1603 1.1670 1.1738 1.1807

1.1503 1.1569 1.1635 1.1702 1.1770

1.1469 1.1534 1.1600 1.1666 1.1733

1.1438 1.1502 1.1566 1.1631 1.1697

1.1406 1.1469 1.1533 1.1597 1.1662

1.1332 1.1394 1.1456 1.1519 1.1582

1.1260 1.1320 1.1381 1.1442 1.1503

1.1185 1.1244 1.1303 1.1362 1.1422

1.1027 1.1083 1.1139 1.1195 1.1251

1.0857 1.0910 1.0963 1.1016 1.1069

30 31 32 33 34

1.1945 1.2016 1.2088 1.2160 1.2233

1.1917 1.1988 1.2059 1.2131 1.2203

1.1876 1.1945 1.2014 1.2084 1.2155

1.1838 1.1906 1.1974 1.2043 1.2113

1.1800 1.1867 1.1934 1.2002 1.2071

1.1763 1.1829 1.1896 1.1963 1.2030

1.1727 1.1792 1.1857 1.1922 1.1988

1.1645 1.1708 1.1772 1.1836 1.1901

1.1564 1.1625 1.1687 1.1749 1.1812

1.1482 1.1542 1.1602 1.1662 1.1723

1.1307 1.1363 1.1419 1.1476 1.1533

1.1122 1.1175 1.1228 1.1281 1.1335

35 36 37 38 39

1.2306 1.2375 1.2444 1.2513 1.2581

1.2275 1.2344 1.2412 1.2479 1.2546

1.2227 1.2294 1.2361 1.2428 1.2494

1.2183 1.2249 1.2315 1.2381 1.2446

1.2140 1.2205 1.2270 1.2335 1.2399

1.2098 1.2163 1.2227 1.2291 1.2354

1.2055 1.2119 1.2182 1.2245 1.2308

1.1966 1.2028 1.2089 1.2150 1.2210

1.1876 1.1936 1.1995 1.2054 1.2112

1.1784 1.1842 1.1899 1.1956 1.2013

1.1591 1.1645 1.1699 1.1752 1.1805

1.1390 1.1440 1.1490 1.1540 1.1589

40 41 42 43 44

1.2649 1.2717 1.2786 1.2854 1.2922

1.2613 1.2680 1.2747 1.2814 1.2880

1.2560 1.2626 1.2692 1.2758 1.2824

1.2511 1.2576 1.2641 1.2706 1.2771

1.2463 1.2527 1.2591 1.2655 1.2719

1.2417 1.2480 1.2543 1.2606 1.2669

1.2370 1.2432 1.2494 1.2556 1.2618

1.2270 1.2330 1.2390 1.2450 1.2510

1.2170 1.2229 1.2287 1.2345 1.2403

1.2069 1.2126 1.2182 1.2238 1.2294

1.1858 1.1911 1.1963 1.2015 1.2067

1.1638 1.1687 1.1735 1.1783 1.1831

45 46 47 48 49

1.2990 1.3058 1.3126 1.3194 1.3263

1.2947 1.3014 1.3080 1.3147 1.3214

1.2890 1.2955 1.3021 1.3087 1.3153

1.2836 1.2901 1.2966 1.3031 1.3096

1.2783 1.2847 1.2911 1.2975 1.3040

1.2732 1.2795 1.2858 1.2921 1.2984

1.2680 1.2742 1.2804 1.2867 1.2929

1.2570 1.2630 1.2690 1.2750 1.2811

1.2461 1.2519 1.2577 1.2635 1.2693

1.2350 1.2406 1.2462 1.2518 1.2575

1.2119 1.2171 1.2223 1.2275 1.2328

1.1879 1.1927 1.1976 1.2024 1.2073

50 51 52 53 54

1.3327 1.3391 1.3454 1.3517 1.3579

1.3277 1.3339 1.3401 1.3462 1.3523

1.3215 1.3277 1.3338 1.3399 1.3459

1.3157 1.3218 1.3278 1.3338 1.3397

1.3100 1.3160 1.3219 1.3278 1.3336

1.3043 1.3102 1.3160 1.3218 1.3275

1.2987 1.3045 1.3102 1.3159 1.3215

1.2867 1.2923 1.2978 1.3033 1.3087

1.2748 1.2802 1.2856 1.2909 1.2961

1.2628 1.2680 1.2731 1.2782 1.2833

1.2377 1.2425 1.2473 1.2521 1.2568

1.2118 1.2163 1.2208 1.2252 1.2296

55 56 57 58 59

1.3640 1.3700 1.3759 1.3818 1.3875

1.3583 1.3642 1.3700 1.3757 1.3813

1.3518 1.3576 1.3634 1.3691 1.3747

1.3455 1.3512 1.3569 1.3625 1.3680

1.3393 1.3449 1.3505 1.3560 1.3614

1.3331 1.3386 1.3441 1.3495 1.3548

1.3270 1.3324 1.3377 1.3430 1.3482

1.3141 1.3194 1.3246 1.3298 1.3348

1.3013 1.3064 1.3114 1.3164 1.3213

1.2883 1.2932 1.2981 1.3029 1.3077

1.2615 1.2661 1.2706 1.2751 1.2795

1.2339 1.2382 1.2424 1.2466 1.2507

60 61 62 63 64

1.3931 1.3986 1.4039 1.4091

1.3868 1.3922 1.3975 1.4027 1.4078

1.3801 1.3855 1.3907 1.3958 1.4007

1.3734 1.3787 1.3838 1.3888 1.3936

1.3667 1.3719 1.3769 1.3818 1.3866

1.3600 1.3651 1.3700 1.3748 1.3795

1.3533 1.3583 1.3632 1.3679 1.3725

1.3398 1.3447 1.3494 1.3540

1.3261 1.3308 1.3354 1.3398

1.3124 1.3169 1.3213 1.3255

1.2839 1.2881 1.2922 1.2962

1.2547 1.2587 1.2625 1.2661 (Continued )

2-102

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-43 nitric Acid (HnO3) (Continued ) %

5°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

65 66 67 68 69

0°C

1.4128 1.4177 1.4224 1.4271 1.4317

1.4055 1.4103 1.4150 1.4196 1.4241

1.3984 1.4031 1.4077 1.4122 1.4166

1.3913 1.3959 1.4004 1.4048 1.4091

1.3841 1.3887 1.3932 1.3976 1.4019

1.3770 1.3814 1.3857 1.3900 1.3942

70 71 72 73 74

1.4362 1.4406 1.4449 1.4491 1.4532

1.4285 1.4328 1.4371 1.4413 1.4454

1.4210 1.4252 1.4294 1.4335 1.4376

1.4134 1.4176 1.4218 1.4258 1.4298

1.4061 1.4102 1.4142 1.4182 1.4221

1.3983 1.4023 1.4063 1.4103 1.4142

75 76 77 78 79

1.4573 1.4613 1.4652 1.4690 1.4727

1.4494 1.4533 1.4572 1.4610 1.4647

1.4415 1.4454 1.4492 1.4529 1.4565

1.4337 1.4375 1.4413 1.4450 1.4486

1.4259 1.4296 1.4333 1.4369 1.4404

1.4180 1.4217 1.4253 1.4288 1.4323

80 81 82 83 84

1.4764 1.4800 1.4835 1.4869 1.4903

1.4683 1.4718 1.4753 1.4787 1.4820

1.4601 1.4636 1.4670 1.4704 1.4737

1.4521 1.4555 1.4589 1.4622 1.4655

1.4439 1.4473 1.4507 1.4540 1.4572

1.4357 1.4391 1.4424 1.4456 1.4487

85 86 87 88 89

1.4936 1.4968 1.4999 1.5029 1.5058

1.4852 1.4883 1.4913 1.4942 1.4970

1.4769 1.4799 1.4829 1.4858 1.4885

1.4686 1.4716 1.4745 1.4773 1.4800

1.4603 1.4633 1.4662 1.4690 1.4716

1.4518 1.4548 1.4577 1.4605 1.4631

90 91 92 93 94

1.5085 1.5111 1.5136 1.5156 1.5177

1.4997 1.5023 1.5048 1.5068 1.5088

1.4911 1.4936 1.4960 1.4979 1.4999

1.4826 1.4850 1.4873 1.4892 1.4912

1.4741 1.4766 1.4789 1.4807 1.4826

1.4656 1.4681 1.4704 1.4722 1.4741

95 96 97 98 99 100

1.5198 1.5220 1.5244 1.5278 1.5327 1.5402

1.5109 1.5130 1.5152 1.5187 1.5235 1.5310

1.5019 1.5040 1.5062 1.5096 1.5144 1.5217

1.4932 1.4952 1.4974 1.5008 1.5056 1.5129

1.4846 1.4867 1.4889 1.4922 1.4969 1.5040

1.4761 1.4781 1.4802 1.4835 1.4881 1.4952

40°C

50°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 58–59.

TABLE 2-44 Perchloric Acid (HClO4)* 15

%

d4

1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

1.0050 1.0109 1.0228 1.0348 1.0471 1.0597 1.0726 1.0589 1.0995 1.1135 1.1279 1.1428 1.1581 1.1738

20

d4

25

50

TABLE 2-46 Potassium Bicarbonate (KHCO3)* 15

20

50

d4

d4

%

d4

d4

d4

1.0020 1.0070 1.0169 1.0270 1.0372 1.0475

0.9933 0.9986 0.9906 1.0205 1.0320 1.0440 1.0560 1.0680 1.0810 1.0940 1.1070 1.1205 1.1345 1.1490

28 30 32 34 36 38 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

1.1900 1.2067 1.2239 1.2418 1.2603 1.2794 1.2991 1.3521 1.4103 1.4733 1.5389 1.6059 1.6736

1.1851 1.2013 1.2183 1.2359 1.2542 1.2732 1.2927 1.3450 1.4018 1.4636 1.5298 1.5986 1.6680

1.1645 1.1800 1.1960 1.2130 1.2310 1.2490 1.2680 1.3180 1.3730 1.4320 1.4950 1.5620 1.6290

1.1697 ∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 54.

2%

6%

14%

20%

26%

0 1.0113 1.0339 1.0811 1.1192 10 1.0109 1.0330 1.0792 1.1167 1.1567 20 1.0092 1.0309 1.0764 1.1134 1.1529 30 1.0065 1.0279 1.0728 1.1094 1.1484 40 1.0029 1.0241 1.0685 1.1048 ∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 61.

1%

2%

4%

0 1.0066 1.0134 1.0270 10 1.0064 1.0132 1.0268 15 1.0058 1.0125 1.0260 20 1.0049 1.0117 1.0252 30 1.0024 1.0092 1.0228 40 0.9990 1.0058 1.0195 50 0.9949 1.0017 1.0154 60 0.9901 0.9969 1.0106 80 0.9786 0.9855 0.9993 100 0.9653 0.9722 0.9860 ∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 90.

6%

8%

10%

1.0396

1.0534

1.0674

TABLE 2-47 Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)*

TABLE 2-45 Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)* °C

°C

35%

50%

75%

100%

1.221 1.216 1.211

1.341 1.335 1.329

1.579 1.572

1.870 1.862

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50

1.0094 1.0189 1.0381 1.0768 1.1160 1.1562 1.1977 1.2405 1.2846 1.3071 1.3646 1.4244 1.4867 1.5517

1.0089 1.0182 1.0369 1.0746 1.1131 1.1530 1.1941 1.2366 1.2804 1.3028 1.3600 1.4195 1.4815 1.5462

1.0072 1.0163 1.0345 1.0715 1.1096 1.1490 1.1898 1.2320 1.2756 1.2979 1.3548 1.4141 1.4759 1.5404

1.0010 1.0098 1.0276 1.0640 1.1013 1.1399 1.1801 1.2219 1.2652 1.2873 1.3440 1.4029 1.4644 1.5285

0.9919 1.0005 1.0180 1.0538 1.0906 1.1290 1.1690 1.2106 1.2538 1.2759 1.3324 1.3913 1.4528 1.5169

0.9803 0.9889 1.0063 1.0418 1.0786 1.1170 1.1570 1.1986 1.2418 1.2640 1.3206 1.3795 1.4408 1.5048

0.9670 0.9756 0.9951 1.0291 1.0663 1.1049 1.1451 1.1869 1.2301 1.2522 1.3089 1.3678 1.4290 1.4928

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 90.

DEnSITIES OF AQUEOUS InORGAnIC SOLUTIOnS AT 1 ATM TABLE 2-48 Potassium Chloride (KCl)*

2-103

TABLE 2-52 Sodium Carbonate (na2CO3)*

%

0°C

20°C

25°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

30°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 28.0

1.00661 1.01335 1.02690 1.05431 1.08222 1.11068 1.13973

1.00462 1.01103 1.02391 1.05003 1.07679 1.10434 1.13280 1.16226

1.00342 1.00977 1.02255 1.04847 1.07506 1.10245 1.13072 1.15995

0.99847 1.00471 1.01727 1.04278 1.06897 1.09600 1.12399 1.15299 1.18304

0.9894 0.9956 1.0080 1.0333 1.0592 1.0861 1.1138 1.1425 1.1723

0.9780 0.9842 0.9966 1.0219 1.0478 1.0746 1.1024 1.1311 1.1609

0.9646 0.9708 0.9634 1.0888 1.0350 1.0619 1.0897 1.1185 1.1483

1 2 4 8 12 14 16 18 20 24 28 30

1.0109 1.0219 1.0439 1.0878 1.1319 1.1543

1.0103 1.0210 1.0423 1.0850 1.1284 1.1506

1.0086 1.0190 1.0398 1.0816 1.1244 1.1463

1.0058 1.0159 1.0363 1.0775 1.1200 1.1417 1.1636 1.1859 1.2086 1.2552 1.3031 1.3274

1.0022 1.0122 1.0323 1.0732 1.1150 1.1365

0.9929 1.0027 1.0223 1.0625 1.1039 1.1251

0.9814 0.9910 1.0105 1.0503 1.0914 1.1125

0.9683 0.9782 0.9980 1.0380 1.0787 1.0996

%

110°C

120°C

130°C

3.79 7.45 13.62

0.9733 0.9978 1.0388

0.9663 0.9899 1.0313

0.9583 0.9827 1.0238

140°C 0.9502 0.9745 1.0159

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 82–83.

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 87.

TABLE 2-53 Sodium Chloride (naCl)*

TABLE 2-49 Potassium Hydroxide (KOH)* %

d

15 4

1.0 1.0083 2.0 1.0175 4.0 1.0359 6.0 1.0544 8.0 1.0730 10.0 1.0918 15.0 1.1396 20.0 1.1884 25.0 1.2387 30.0 1.2905 35.0 1.3440 40.0 1.3991 45.0 1.4558 50.0 1.5143 51.7 1.5355 (sat’d. soln.) ∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 86.

0°C

10°C

20°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24

1.00654 1.01326 1.02677 1.05419 1.08221

1.00615 1.01262 1.02566 1.05226 1.07963

1.00447 1.01075 1.02344 1.04940 1.07620 1.10392 1.13261 1.16233

10°C

25°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1.00747 1.01509 1.03038 1.06121 1.09244 1.12419 1.15663 1.18999 1.20709

1.00707 1.01442 1.02920 1.05907 1.08946 1.12056 1.15254 1.18557 1.20254

1.00409 1.01112 1.02530 1.05412 1.08365 1.11401 1.14533 1.17776 1.19443

0.99908 1.00593 1.01977 1.04798 1.07699 1.10688 1.13774 1.16971 1.18614

0.9900 0.9967 1.0103 1.0381 1.0667 1.0962 1.1268 1.1584 1.1747

0.9785 0.9852 0.9988 1.0264 1.0549 1.0842 1.1146 1.1463 1.1626

0.9651 0.9719 0.9855 1.0134 1.0420 1.0713 1.1017 1.1331 1.1492

TABLE 2-54 Sodium Hydroxide (naOH)*

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

0.99825 1.00430 1.01652 1.04152 1.06740 1.09432 1.12240 1.15175

0.9890 0.9949 1.0068 1.0313 1.0567 1.0831 1.1106 1.1391

0.9776 0.9834 0.9951 1.0192 1.0442 1.0703 1.0974 1.1256

0.9641 0.9699 0.9816 1.0056 1.0304 1.0562 1.0831 1.1110

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 89.

0°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 79.

TABLE 2-50 Potassium nitrate (KnO3)* %

%

%

0°C

15°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 50

1.0124 1.0244 1.0482 1.0943 1.1399 1.1849 1.2296 1.2741 1.3182 1.3614 1.4030 1.4435 1.4825 1.5210 1.5400

1.01065 1.02198 1.04441 1.08887 1.13327 1.17761 1.22183 1.26582 1.3094 1.3520 1.3933 1.4334 1.4720 1.5102 1.5290

1.0095 1.0207 1.0428 1.0869 1.1309 1.1751 1.2191 1.2629 1.3064 1.3490 1.3900 1.4300 1.4685 1.5065 1.5253

1.0033 1.0139 1.0352 1.0780 1.1210 1.1645 1.2079 1.2512 1.2942 1.3362 1.3768 1.4164 1.4545 1.4922 1.5109

0.9941 1.0045 1.0254 1.0676 1.1101 1.1531 1.1960 1.2388 1.2814 1.3232 1.3634 1.4027 1.4405 1.4781 1.4967

0.9824 0.9929 1.0139 1.0560 1.0983 1.1408 1.1833 1.2259 1.2682 1.3097 1.3498 1.3889 1.4266 1.4641 1.4827

0.9693 0.9797 1.0009 1.0432 1.0855 1.1277 1.1700 1.2124 1.2546 1.2960 1.3360 1.3750 1.4127 1.4503 1.4690

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 79.

TABLE 2-51 Sodium Acetate (naC2H3O2)* 20

%

d4

1 2 4 8 12 18 20 26 28

1.0033 1.0084 1.0186 1.0392 1.0598 1.0807 1.1021 1.1351 1.1462

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 83.

2-104

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-55 Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)* %

0°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

40°C

50°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 3 4

1.0074 1.0147 1.0219 1.0291

1.0068 1.0138 1.0206 1.0275

1.0060 1.0129 1.0197 1.0264

1.0051 1.0118 1.0184 1.0250

1.0038 1.0104 1.0169 1.0234

1.0022 1.0087 1.0152 1.0216

0.9986 1.0050 1.0113 1.0176

0.9944 1.0006 1.0067 1.0129

0.9895 0.9956 1.0017 1.0078

0.9779 0.9839 0.9900 0.9961

0.9645 0.9705 0.9766 0.9827

5 6 7 8 9

1.0364 1.0437 1.0511 1.0585 1.0660

1.0344 1.0414 1.0485 1.0556 1.0628

1.0332 1.0400 1.0469 1.0539 1.0610

1.0317 1.0385 1.0453 1.0522 1.0591

1.0300 1.0367 1.0434 1.0502 1.0571

1.0281 1.0347 1.0414 1.0481 1.0549

1.0240 1.0305 1.0371 1.0437 1.0503

1.0192 1.0256 1.0321 1.0386 1.0451

1.0140 1.0203 1.0266 1.0330 1.0395

1.0022 1.0084 1.0146 1.0209 1.0273

0.9888 0.9950 1.0013 1.0076 1.0140

10 11 12 13 14

1.0735 1.0810 1.0886 1.0962 1.1039

1.0700 1.0773 1.0846 1.0920 1.0994

1.0681 1.0753 1.0825 1.0898 1.0971

1.0661 1.0731 1.0802 1.0874 1.0947

1.0640 1.0710 1.0780 1.0851 1.0922

1.0617 1.0686 1.0756 1.0826 1.0897

1.0570 1.0637 1.0705 1.0774 1.0844

1.0517 1.0584 1.0651 1.0719 1.0788

1.0460 1.0526 1.0593 1.0661 1.0729

1.0338 1.0403 1.0469 1.0536 1.0603

1.0204 1.0269 1.0335 1.0402 1.0469

15 16 17 18 19

1.1116 1.1194 1.1272 1.1351 1.1430

1.1069 1.1145 1.1221 1.1298 1.1375

1.1045 1.1120 1.1195 1.1271 1.1347

1.1020 1.1094 1.1168 1.1243 1.1318

1.0994 1.1067 1.1141 1.1215 1.1290

1.0968 1.1040 1.1113 1.1187 1.1261

1.0914 1.0985 1.1057 1.1129 1.1202

1.0857 1.0927 1.0998 1.1070 1.1142

1.0798 1.0868 1.0938 1.1009 1.1081

1.0671 1.0740 1.0809 1.0879 1.0950

1.0537 1.0605 1.0674 1.0744 1.0814

20 21 22 23 24

1.1510 1.1590 1.1670 1.1751 1.1832

1.1453 1.1531 1.1609 1.1688 1.1768

1.1424 1.1501 1.1579 1.1657 1.1736

1.1394 1.1471 1.1548 1.1626 1.1704

1.1365 1.1441 1.1517 1.1594 1.1672

1.1335 1.1410 1.1486 1.1563 1.1640

1.1275 1.1349 1.1424 1.1500 1.1576

1.1215 1.1288 1.1362 1.1437 1.1512

1.1153 1.1226 1.1299 1.1373 1.1448

1.1021 1.1093 1.1166 1.1239 1.1313

1.0885 1.0957 1.1029 1.1102 1.1176

25 26 27 28 29

1.1914 1.1996 1.2078 1.2160 1.2243

1.1848 1.1929 1.2010 1.2091 1.2173

1.1816 1.1896 1.1976 1.2057 1.2138

1.1783 1.1862 1.1942 1.2023 1.2104

1.1750 1.1829 1.1909 1.1989 1.2069

1.1718 1.1796 1.1875 1.1955 1.2035

1.1653 1.1730 1.1808 1.1887 1.1966

1.1588 1.1665 1.1742 1.1820 1.1898

1.1523 1.1599 1.1676 1.1753 1.1831

1.1388 1.1463 1.1539 1.1616 1.1693

1.1250 1.1325 1.1400 1.1476 1.1553

30 31 32 33 34

1.2326 1.2409 1.2493 1.2577 1.2661

1.2255 1.2338 1.2421 1.2504 1.2588

1.2220 1.2302 1.2385 1.2468 1.2552

1.2185 1.2267 1.2349 1.2432 1.2515

1.2150 1.2232 1.2314 1.2396 1.2479

1.2115 1.2196 1.2278 1.2360 1.2443

1.2046 1.2126 1.2207 1.2289 1.2371

1.1977 1.2057 1.2137 1.2218 1.2300

1.1909 1.1988 1.2068 1.2148 1.2229

1.1771 1.1849 1.1928 1.2008 1.2088

1.1630 1.1708 1.1787 1.1866 1.1946

35 36 37 38 39

1.2746 1.2831 1.2917 1.3004 1.3091

1.2672 1.2757 1.2843 1.2929 1.3016

1.2636 1.2720 1.2805 1.2891 1.2978

1.2599 1.2684 1.2769 1.2855 1.2941

1.2563 1.2647 1.2732 1.2818 1.2904

1.2526 1.2610 1.2695 1.2780 1.2866

1.2454 1.2538 1.2622 1.2707 1.2793

1.2383 1.2466 1.2550 1.2635 1.2720

1.2311 1.2394 1.2477 1.2561 1.2646

1.2169 1.2251 1.2334 1.2418 1.2503

1.2027 1.2109 1.2192 1.2276 1.2361

40 41 42 43 44

1.3179 1.3268 1.3357 1.3447 1.3538

1.3103 1.3191 1.3280 1.3370 1.3461

1.3065 1.3153 1.3242 1.3332 1.3423

1.3028 1.3116 1.3205 1.3294 1.3384

1.2991 1.3079 1.3167 1.3256 1.3346

1.2953 1.3041 1.3129 1.3218 1.3308

1.2880 1.2967 1.3055 1.3144 1.3234

1.2806 1.2893 1.2981 1.3070 1.3160

1.2732 1.2819 1.2907 1.2996 1.3086

1.2589 1.2675 1.2762 1.2850 1.2939

1.2446 1.2532 1.2619 1.2707 1.2796

45 46 47 48 49

1.3630 1.3724 1.3819 1.3915 1.4012

1.3553 1.3646 1.3740 1.3835 1.3931

1.3515 1.3608 1.3702 1.3797 1.3893

1.3476 1.3569 1.3663 1.3758 1.3854

1.3437 1.3530 1.3624 1.3719 1.3814

1.3399 1.3492 1.3586 1.3680 1.3775

1.3325 1.3417 1.3510 1.3604 1.3699

1.3251 1.3343 1.3435 1.3528 1.3623

1.3177 1.3269 1.3362 1.3455 1.3549

1.3029 1.3120 1.3212 1.3305 1.3399

1.2886 1.2976 1.3067 1.3159 1.3253

50 51 52 53 54

1.4110 1.4209 1.4310 1.4412 1.4515

1.4029 1.4128 1.4228 1.4329 1.4431

1.3990 1.4088 1.4188 1.4289 1.4391

1.3951 1.4049 1.4148 1.4248 1.4350

1.3911 1.4009 1.4109 1.4209 1.4310

1.3872 1.3970 1.4069 1.4169 1.4270

1.3795 1.3893 1.3991 1.4091 1.4191

1.3719 1.3816 1.3914 1.4013 1.4113

1.3644 1.3740 1.3837 1.3936 1.4036

1.3494 1.3590 1.3687 1.3785 1.3884

1.3348 1.3444 1.3540 1.3637 1.3735

55 56 57 58 59

1.4619 1.4724 1.4830 1.4937 1.5045

1.4535 1.4640 1.4746 1.4852 1.4959

1.4494 1.4598 1.4703 1.4809 1.4916

1.4453 1.4557 1.4662 1.4768 1.4875

1.4412 1.4516 1.4621 1.4726 1.4832

1.4372 1.4475 1.4580 1.4685 1.4791

1.4293 1.4396 1.4500 1.4604 1.4709

1.4214 1.4317 1.4420 1.4524 1.4629

1.4137 1.4239 1.4342 1.4446 1.4551

1.3984 1.4085 1.4187 1.4290 1.4393

1.3834 1.3934 1.4035 1.4137 1.4240

60 61 62 63 64

1.5154 1.5264 1.5375 1.5487 1.5600

1.5067 1.5177 1.5287 1.5398 1.5510

1.5024 1.5133 1.5243 1.5354 1.5465

1.4983 1.5091 1.5200 1.5310 1.5421

1.4940 1.5048 1.5157 1.5267 1.5378

1.4898 1.5006 1.5115 1.5225 1.5335

1.4816 1.4923 1.5031 1.5140 1.5250

1.4735 1.4842 1.4950 1.5058 1.5167

1.4656 1.4762 1.4869 1.4977 1.5086

1.4497 1.4602 1.4708 1.4815 1.4923

1.4344 1.4449 1.4554 1.4660 1.4766

DEnSITIES OF AQUEOUS InORGAnIC SOLUTIOnS AT 1 ATM

2-105

TABLE 2-55 Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) (Continued ) %

0°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

40°C

50°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

65 66 67 68 69

1.5714 1.5828 1.5943 1.6059 1.6176

1.5623 1.5736 1.5850 1.5965 1.6081

1.5578 1.5691 1.5805 1.5920 1.6035

1.5533 1.5646 1.5760 1.5874 1.5989

1.5490 1.5602 1.5715 1.5829 1.5944

1.5446 1.5558 1.5671 1.5785 1.5899

1.5361 1.5472 1.5584 1.5697 1.5811

1.5277 1.5388 1.5499 1.5611 1.5724

1.5195 1.5305 1.5416 1.5528 1.5640

1.5031 1.5140 1.5249 1.5359 1.5470

1.4873 1.4981 1.5089 1.5198 1.5307

70 71 72 73 74

1.6293 1.6411 1.6529 1.6648 1.6768

1.6198 1.6315 1.6433 1.6551 1.6670

1.6151 1.6268 1.6385 1.6503 1.6622

1.6105 1.6221 1.6338 1.6456 1.6574

1.6059 1.6175 1.6292 1.6409 1.6526

1.6014 1.6130 1.6246 1.6363 1.6480

1.5925 1.6040 1.6155 1.6271 1.6387

1.5838 1.5952 1.6067 1.6182 1.6297

1.5753 1.5867 1.5981 1.6095 1.6209

1.5582 1.5694 1.5806 1.5919 1.6031

1.5417 1.5527 1.5637 1.5747 1.5857

75 76 77 78 79

1.6888 1.7008 1.7128 1.7247 1.7365

1.6789 1.6908 1.7026 1.7144 1.7261

1.6740 1.6858 1.6976 1.7093 1.7209

1.6692 1.6810 1.6927 1.7043 1.7158

1.6644 1.6761 1.6878 1.6994 1.7108

1.6597 1.6713 1.6829 1.6944 1.7058

1.6503 1.6619 1.6734 1.6847 1.6959

1.6412 1.6526 1.6640 1.6751 1.6862

1.6322 1.6435 1.6547 1.6657 1.6766

1.6142 1.6252 1.6361 1.6469 1.6575

1.5966 1.6074 1.6181 1.6286 1.6390

80 81 82 83 84

1.7482 1.7597 1.7709 1.7815 1.7916

1.7376 1.7489 1.7599 1.7704 1.7804

1.7323 1.7435 1.7544 1.7649 1.7748

1.7272 1.7383 1.7491 1.7594 1.7693

1.7221 1.7331 1.7437 1.7540 1.7639

1.7170 1.7279 1.7385 1.7487 1.7585

1.7069 1.7177 1.7281 1.7382 1.7479

1.6971 1.7077 1.7180 1.7279 1.7375

1.6873 1.6978 1.7080 1.7179 1.7274

1.6680 1.6782 1.6882 1.6979 1.7072

1.6493 1.6594 1.6692 1.6787 1.6878

85 86 87 88 89

1.8009 1.8095 1.8173 1.8243 1.8306

1.7897 1.7983 1.8061 1.8132 1.8195

1.7841 1.7927 1.8006 1.8077 1.8141

1.7786 1.7872 1.7951 1.8022 1.8087

1.7732 1.7818 1.7897 1.7968 1.8033

1.7678 1.7763 1.7842 1.7914 1.7979

1.7571 1.7657 1.7736 1.7809 1.7874

1.7466 1.7552 1.7632 1.7705 1.7770

1.7364 1.7449 1.7529 1.7602 1.7669

1.7161 1.7245 1.7324 1.7397 1.7464

1.6966 1.7050 1.7129 1.7202 1.7269

90 91 92 93 94

1.8361 1.8410 1.8453 1.8490 1.8520

1.8252 1.8302 1.8346 1.8384 1.8415

1.8198 1.8248 1.8293 1.8331 1.8363

1.8144 1.8195 1.8240 1.8279 1.8312

1.8091 1.8142 1.8188 1.8227 1.8260

1.8038 1.8090 1.8136 1.8176 1.8210

1.7933 1.7986 1.8033 1.8074 1.8109

1.7829 1.7883 1.7932 1.7974 1.8011

1.7729 1.7783 1.7832 1.7876 1.7914

1.7525 1.7581 1.7633 1.7681

1.7331 1.7388 1.7439 1.7485

95 96 97 98 99 100

1.8544 1.8560 1.8569 1.8567 1.8551 1.8517

1.8439 1.8457 1.8466 1.8463 1.8445 1.8409

1.8388 1.8406 1.8414 1.8411 1.8393 1.8357

1.8337 1.8355 1.8364 1.8361 1.8342 1.8305

1.8286 1.8305 1.8314 1.8310 1.8292 1.8255

1.8236 1.8255 1.8264 1.8261 1.8242 1.8205

1.8137 1.8157 1.8166 1.8163 1.8145 1.8107

1.8040 1.8060 1.8071 1.8068 1.8050 1.8013

1.7944 1.7965 1.7977 1.7976 1.7958 1.7922

%

d 45.96

%

d 413.00

d 418.00

0.005 .01 .02 .03 .04

1.000 0140 1.000 0576 1.000 1434 1.000 2276 1.000 3104

0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

0.999 810 1.000 185 1.000 912 1.001 623 1.002 326

0.999 028 0.999 400 1.000 119 1.000 820 1.001 512

.05 .06 .07 .08 .09

1.000 3920 1.000 4726 1.000 5523 1.000 6313 1.000 7098

0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

1.003 023 1.003 716 1.005 090 1.006 452 1.007 807

1.002 197 1.002 877 1.004 227 1.005 570 1.006 909

.10 .15 .20 .25 .30

1.000 7880 1.001 1732 1.001 5514 1.001 9254 1.002 2961

1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2

1.009 159 1.010 510 1.011 860 1.013 209 1.014 557

1.008 247 1.009 583 1.010 918 1.012 252 1.013 586

.35 .40 .45 .50

1.002 6639 1.003 0292 1.003 3923 1.003 7534

2.4

1.015 904

1.014 919

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 56–57.

2-106

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

DEnSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGAnIC SOLUTIOnS

TABLE 2-56 Acetic Acid (CH3COOH) %

0°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

40°C

%

0°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

40°C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 1.0016 1.0033 1.0051 1.0070

0.9997 1.0013 1.0029 1.0044 1.0060

0.9991 1.0006 1.0021 1.0036 1.0051

0.9982 0.9996 1.0012 1.0025 1.0040

0.9971 0.9987 1.0000 1.0013 1.0027

0.9957 0.9971 0.9984 0.9997 1.0011

0.9922 0.9934 0.9946 0.9958 0.9970

50 51 52 53 54

1.0729 1.0738 1.0748 1.0757 1.0765

1.0654 1.0663 1.0671 1.0679 1.0687

1.0613 1.0622 1.0629 1.0637 1.0644

1.0575 1.0582 1.0590 1.0597 1.0604

1.0534 1.0542 1.0549 1.0555 1.0562

1.0492 1.0499 1.0506 1.0512 1.0518

1.0408 1.0414 1.0421 1.0427 1.0432

5 6 7 8 9

1.0088 1.0106 1.0124 1.0142 1.0159

1.0076 1.0092 1.0108 1.0124 1.0140

1.0066 1.0081 1.0096 1.0111 1.0126

1.0055 1.0069 1.0083 1.0097 1.0111

1.0041 1.0055 1.0068 1.0081 1.0094

1.0024 1.0037 1.0050 1.0063 1.0076

0.9982 0.9994 1.0006 1.0018 1.0030

55 56 57 58 59

1.0774 1.0782 1.0790 1.0798 1.0805

1.0694 1.0701 1.0708 1.0715 1.0722

1.0651 1.0658 1.0665 1.0672 1.0678

1.0611 1.0618 1.0624 1.0631 1.0637

1.0568 1.0574 1.0580 1.0586 1.0592

1.0525 1.0531 1.0536 1.0542 1.0547

1.0438 1.0443 1.0448 1.0453 1.0458

10 11 12 13 14

1.0177 1.0194 1.0211 1.0228 1.0245

1.0156 1.0171 1.0187 1.0202 1.0217

1.0141 1.0155 1.0170 1.0184 1.0199

1.0125 1.0139 1.0154 1.0168 1.0182

1.0107 1.0120 1.0133 1.0146 1.0159

1.0089 1.0102 1.0115 1.0127 1.0139

1.0042 1.0054 1.0065 1.0077 1.0088

60 61 62 63 64

1.0813 1.0820 1.0826 1.0833 1.0838

1.0728 1.0734 1.0740 1.0746 1.0752

1.0684 1.0690 1.0696 1.0701 1.0706

1.0642 1.0648 1.0653 1.0658 1.0662

1.0597 1.0602 1.0607 1.0612 1.0616

1.0552 1.0557 1.0562 1.0566 1.0571

1.0462 1.0466 1.0470 1.0473 1.0477

15 16 17 18 19

1.0262 1.0278 1.0295 1.0311 1.0327

1.0232 1.0247 1.0262 1.0276 1.0291

1.0213 1.0227 1.0241 1.0255 1.0269

1.0195 1.0209 1.0223 1.0236 1.0250

1.0172 1.0185 1.0198 1.0210 1.0223

1.0151 1.0163 1.0175 1.0187 1.0198

1.0099 1.0110 1.0121 1.0132 1.0142

65 66 67 68 69

1.0844 1.0850 1.0856 1.0860 1.0865

1.0757 1.0762 1.0767 1.0771 1.0775

1.0711 1.0716 1.0720 1.0725 1.0729

1.0666 1.0671 1.0675 1.0678 1.0682

1.0621 1.0624 1.0628 1.0631 1.0634

1.0575 1.0578 1.0582 1.0585 1.0588

1.0480 1.0483 1.0486 1.0489 1.0491

20 21 22 23 24

1.0343 1.0358 1.0374 1.0389 1.0404

1.0305 1.0319 1.0333 1.0347 1.0361

1.0283 1.0297 1.0310 1.0323 1.0336

1.0263 1.0276 1.0288 1.0301 1.0313

1.0235 1.0248 1.0260 1.0272 1.0283

1.0210 1.0222 1.0233 1.0244 1.0256

1.0153 1.0164 1.0174 1.0185 1.0195

70 71 72 73 74

1.0869 1.0874 1.0877 1.0881 1.0884

1.0779 1.0783 1.0786 1.0789 1.0792

1.0732 1.0736 1.0738 1.0741 1.0743

1.0685 1.0687 1.0690 1.0693 1.0694

1.0637 1.0640 1.0642 1.0644 1.0645

1.0590 1.0592 1.0594 1.0595 1.0596

1.0493 1.0495 1.0496 1.0497 1.0498

25 26 27 28 29

1.0419 1.0434 1.0449 1.0463 1.0477

1.0375 1.0388 1.0401 1.0414 1.0427

1.0349 1.0362 1.0374 1.0386 1.0399

1.0326 1.0338 1.0349 1.0361 1.0372

1.0295 1.0307 1.0318 1.0329 1.0340

1.0267 1.0278 1.0289 1.0299 1.0310

1.0205 1.0215 1.0225 1.0234 1.0244

75 76 77 78 79

1.0887 1.0889 1.0891 1.0893 1.0894

1.0794 1.0796 1.0797 1.0798 1.0798

1.0745 1.0746 1.0747 1.0747 1.0747

1.0696 1.0698 1.0699 1.0700 1.0700

1.0647 1.0648 1.0648 1.0648 1.0648

1.0597 1.0598 1.0598 1.0598 1.0597

1.0499 1.0499 1.0499 1.0498 1.0497

30 31 32 33 34

1.0491 1.0505 1.0519 1.0532 1.0545

1.0440 1.0453 1.0465 1.0477 1.0489

1.0411 1.0423 1.0435 1.0446 1.0458

1.0384 1.0395 1.0406 1.0417 1.0428

1.0350 1.0361 1.0372 1.0382 1.0392

1.0320 1.0330 1.0341 1.0351 1.0361

1.0253 1.0262 1.0272 1.0281 1.0289

80 81 82 83 84

1.0895 1.0895 1.0895 1.0895 1.0893

1.0798 1.0797 1.0796 1.0795 1.0793

1.0747 1.0745 1.0743 1.0741 1.0738

1.0700 1.0699 1.0698 1.0696 1.0693

1.0647 1.0646 1.0644 1.0642 1.0638

1.0596 1.0594 1.0592 1.0589 1.0585

1.0495 1.0493 1.0490 1.0487 1.0483

35 36 37 38 39

1.0558 1.0571 1.0584 1.0596 1.0608

1.0501 1.0513 1.0524 1.0535 1.0546

1.0469 1.0480 1.0491 1.0501 1.0512

1.0438 1.0449 1.0459 1.0469 1.0479

1.0402 1.0412 1.0422 1.0432 1.0441

1.0371 1.0380 1.0390 1.0399 1.0408

1.0298 1.0306 1.0314 1.0322 1.0330

85 86 87 88 89

1.0891 1.0887 1.0883 1.0877 1.0872

1.0790 1.0787 1.0783 1.0778 1.0773

1.0735 1.0731 1.0726 1.0721 1.0715

1.0689 1.0685 1.0680 1.0675 1.0668

1.0635 1.0630 1.0626 1.0620 1.0613

1.0582 1.0576 1.0571 1.0564 1.0557

1.0479 1.0473 1.0467 1.0460 1.0453

40 41 42 43 44

1.0621 1.0633 1.0644 1.0656 1.0667

1.0557 1.0568 1.0578 1.0588 1.0598

1.0522 1.0532 1.0542 1.0551 1.0561

1.0488 1.0498 1.0507 1.0516 1.0525

1.0450 1.0460 1.0469 1.0477 1.0486

1.0416 1.0425 1.0433 1.0441 1.0449

1.0338 1.0346 1.0353 1.0361 1.0368

90 91 92 93 94

1.0865 1.0857 1.0848 1.0838 1.0826

1.0766 1.0758 1.0749 1.0739 1.0727

1.0708 1.0700 1.0690 1.0680 1.0667

1.0661 1.0652 1.0643 1.0632 1.0619

1.0605 1.0597 1.0587 1.0577 1.0564

1.0549 1.0541 1.0530 1.0518 1.0506

1.0445 1.0436 1.0426 1.0414 1.0401

45 46 47 48 49

1.0679 1.0689 1.0699 1.0709 1.0720

1.0608 1.0618 1.0627 1.0636 1.0645

1.0570 1.0579 1.0588 1.0597 1.0605

1.0534 1.0542 1.0551 1.0559 1.0567

1.0495 1.0503 1.0511 1.0518 1.0526

1.0456 1.0464 1.0471 1.0479 1.0486

1.0375 1.0382 1.0389 1.0395 1.0402

95 96 97 98 99

1.0813 1.0798 1.0780 1.0759 1.0730

1.0714

1.0652 1.0632 1.0611 1.0590 1.0567

1.0605 1.0588 1.0570 1.0549 1.0524

1.0551 1.0535 1.0516 1.0495 1.0468

1.0491 1.0473 1.0454 1.0431 1.0407

1.0386 1.0368 1.0348 1.0325 1.0299

100

1.0697

1.0545

1.0498

1.0440

1.0380

1.0271

DEnSITIES OF AQUEOUS InORGAnIC SOLUTIOnS AT 1 ATM

2-107

TABLE 2-57 Methyl Alcohol (CH3OH)* %

0°C

10°C

20°C

15°C

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

15°C

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

15°C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 0.9981 0.9963 0.9946 0.9930

0.9997 0.9980 0.9962 0.9945 0.9929

15.56°C 0.9990 0.9973 0.9955 0.9938 0.9921

0.9982 0.9965 0.9948 0.9931 0.9914

0.99913 0.99727 0.99543 0.99370 0.99198

35 36 37 38 39

0.9534 0.9520 0.9505 0.9490 0.9475

0.9484 0.9469 0.9453 0.9437 0.9420

15.56°C 0.9456 0.9440 0.9422 0.9405 0.9387

0.9433 0.9416 0.9398 0.9381 0.9363

0.94570 0.94404 0.94237 0.94067 0.93894

70 71 72 73 74

0.8869 0.8847 0.8824 0.8801 0.8778

0.8794 0.8770 0.8747 0.8724 0.8699

15.56°C 0.8748 0.8726 0.8702 0.8678 0.8653

0.8715 0.8690 0.8665 0.8641 0.8616

0.87507 0.87271 0.87033 0.86792 0.86546

5 6 7 8 9

0.9914 0.9899 0.9884 0.9870 0.9856

0.9912 0.9896 0.9881 0.9865 0.9849

0.9904 0.9889 0.9872 0.9857 0.9841

0.9896 0.9880 0.9863 0.9847 0.9831

0.99029 0.98864 0.98701 0.98547 0.98394

40 41 42 43 44

0.9459 0.9443 0.9427 0.9411 0.9395

0.9403 0.9387 0.9370 0.9352 0.9334

0.9369 0.9351 0.9333 0.9315 0.9297

0.9345 0.9327 0.9309 0.9290 0.9272

0.93720 0.93543 0.93365 0.93185 0.93001

75 76 77 78 79

0.8754 0.8729 0.8705 0.8680 0.8657

0.8676 0.8651 0.8626 0.8602 0.8577

0.8629 0.8604 0.8579 0.8554 0.8529

0.8592 0.8567 0.8542 0.8518 0.8494

0.86300 0.86051 0.85801 0.85551 0.85300

10 11 12 13 14

0.9842 0.9829 0.9816 0.9804 0.9792

0.9834 0.9820 0.9805 0.9791 0.9778

0.9826 0.9811 0.9796 0.9781 0.9766

0.9815 0.9799 0.9784 0.9768 0.9754

0.98241 0.98093 0.97945 0.97802 0.97660

45 46 47 48 49

0.9377 0.9360 0.9342 0.9324 0.9306

0.9316 0.9298 0.9279 0.9260 0.9240

0.9279 0.9261 0.9242 0.9223 0.9204

0.9252 0.9234 0.9214 0.9196 0.9176

0.92815 0.92627 0.92436 0.92242 0.92048

80 81 82 83 84

0.8634 0.8610 0.8585 0.8560 0.8535

0.8551 0.8527 0.8501 0.8475 0.8449

0.8503 0.8478 0.8452 0.8426 0.8400

0.8469 0.8446 0.8420 0.8394 0.8366

0.85048 0.84794 0.84536 0.84274 0.84009

15 16 17 18 19

0.9780 0.9769 0.9758 0.9747 0.9736

0.9764 0.9751 0.9739 0.9726 0.9713

0.9752 0.9738 0.9723 0.9709 0.9695

0.9740 0.9725 0.9710 0.9696 0.9681

0.97518 0.97377 0.97237 0.97096 0.96955

50 51 52 53 54

0.9287 0.9269 0.9250 0.9230 0.9211

0.9221 0.9202 0.9182 0.9162 0.9142

0.9185 0.9166 0.9146 0.9126 0.9106

0.9156 0.9135 0.9114 0.9094 0.9073

0.91852 0.91653 0.91451 0.91248 0.91044

85 86 87 88 89

0.8510 0.8483 0.8456 0.8428 0.8400

0.8422 0.8394 0.8367 0.8340 0.8314

0.8374 0.8347 0.8320 0.8294 0.8267

0.8340 0.8314 0.8286 0.8258 0.8230

0.83742 0.83475 0.83207 0.82937 0.82667

20 21 22 23 24

0.9725 0.9714 0.9702 0.9690 0.9678

0.9700 0.9687 0.9673 0.9660 0.9646

0.9680 0.9666 0.9652 0.9638 0.9624

0.9666 0.9651 0.9636 0.9622 0.9607

0.96814 0.96673 0.96533 0.96392 0.96251

55 56 57 58 59

0.9191 0.9172 0.9151 0.9131 0.9111

0.9122 0.9101 0.9080 0.9060 0.9039

0.9086 0.9065 0.9045 0.9024 0.9002

0.9052 0.9032 0.9010 0.8988 0.8968

0.90839 0.90631 0.90421 0.90210 0.89996

90 91 92 93 94

0.8374 0.8347 0.8320 0.8293 0.8266

0.8287 0.8261 0.8234 0.8208 0.8180

0.8239 0.8212 0.8185 0.8157 0.8129

0.8202 0.8174 0.8146 0.8118 0.8090

0.82396 0.82124 0.81849 0.81568 0.81285

25 26 27 28 29

0.9666 0.9654 0.9642 0.9629 0.9616

0.9632 0.9618 0.9604 0.9590 0.9575

0.9609 0.9595 0.9580 0.9565 0.9550

0.9592 0.9576 0.9562 0.9546 0.9531

0.96108 0.95963 0.95817 0.95668 0.95518

60 61 62 63 64

0.9090 0.9068 0.9046 0.9024 0.9002

0.9018 0.8998 0.8977 0.8955 0.8933

0.8980 0.8958 0.8936 0.8913 0.8890

0.8946 0.8924 0.8902 0.8879 0.8856

0.89781 0.89563 0.89341 0.89117 0.88890

95 96 97 98 99

0.8240 0.8212 0.8186 0.8158 0.8130

0.8152 0.8124 0.8096 0.8068 0.8040

0.8101 0.8073 0.8045 0.8016 0.7987

0.8062 0.8034 0.8005 0.7976 0.7948

0.80999 0.80713 0.80428 0.80143 0.79859

30 31 32 33 34

0.9604 0.9590 0.9576 0.9563 0.9549

0.9560 0.9546 0.9531 0.9516 0.9500

0.9535 0.9521 0.9505 0.9489 0.9473

0.9515 0.9499 0.9483 0.9466 0.9450

0.95366 0.95213 0.95056 0.94896 0.94734

65 66 67 68 69

0.8980 0.8958 0.8935 0.8913 0.8891

0.8911 0.8888 0.8865 0.8842 0.8818

0.8867 0.8844 0.8820 0.8797 0.8771

0.8834 0.8811 0.8787 0.8763 0.8738

0.88662 0.88433 0.88203 0.87971 0.87739

100

0.8102

0.8009

0.7959

0.7917

0.79577

∗It should be noted that the values for 100 percent do not agree with some data available elsewhere, e.g., American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957. Also, see Atack, Handbook of Chemical Data, Reinhold, New York, 1957. Also, see Tables 2-120 and 2-135 for pure methanol and water densities.

2-108

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-58 Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH)* %

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

35°C

40°C

%

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

35°C

40°C

0 1 2 3 4

0.99973 785 602 426 258

0.99913 725 542 365 195

0.99823 636 453 275 103

0.99708 520 336 157 0.98984

0.99568 379 194 014 0.98839

0.99406 217 031 0.98849 672

0.99225 034 0.98846 663 485

50 51 52 53 54

0.92126 0.91943 723 502 279

0.91776 555 333 110 0.90885

0.91384 160 0.90936 711 485

0.90985 760 534 307 079

0.90580 353 125 0.89896 667

0.90168 0.89940 710 479 248

0.89750 519 288 056 0.88823

5 6 7 8 9

098 0.98946 801 660 524

032 0.98877 729 584 442

0.98938 780 627 478 331

817 656 500 346 193

670 507 347 189 031

501 335 172 009 0.97846

311 142 0.97975 808 641

55 56 57 58 59

055 0.90831 607 381 154

659 433 207 0.89980 752

258 031 0.89803 574 344

0.89850 621 392 162 0.88931

437 206 0.88975 744 512

016 0.88784 552 319 085

589 356 122 0.87888 653

10 11 12 13 14

393 267 145 026 0.97911

304 171 041 0.97914 790

187 047 0.97910 775 643

043 0.97897 753 611 472

0.97875 723 573 424 278

685 527 371 216 063

475 312 150 0.96989 829

60 61 62 63 64

0.89927 698 468 237 006

523 293 062 0.88830 597

113 0.88882 650 417 183

699 466 233 0.87998 763

278 044 0.87809 574 337

0.87851 615 379 142 0.86905

417 180 0.86943 705 466

15 16 17 18 19

800 692 583 473 363

669 552 433 313 191

514 387 259 129 0.96997

334 199 062 0.96923 782

133 0.96990 844 697 547

0.96911 760 607 452 294

670 512 352 189 023

65 66 67 68 69

0.88774 541 308 074 0.87839

364 130 0.87895 660 424

0.87948 713 477 241 004

527 291 054 0.86817 579

100 0.86863 625 387 148

667 429 190 0.85950 710

227 0.85987 747 507 266

20 21 22 23 24

252 139 024 0.96907 787

068 0.96944 818 689 558

864 729 592 453 312

639 495 348 199 048

395 242 087 0.95929 769

134 0.95973 809 643 476

0.95856 687 516 343 168

70 71 72 73 74

602 365 127 0.86888 648

187 0.86949 710 470 229

0.86766 527 287 047 0.85806

340 100 0.85859 618 376

0.85908 667 426 184 0.84941

470 228 0.84986 743 500

025 0.84783 540 297 053

25 26 27 28 29

665 539 406 268 125

424 287 144 0.95996 844

168 020 0.95867 710 548

0.95895 738 576 410 241

607 442 272 098 0.94922

306 133 0.94955 774 590

0.94991 810 625 438 248

75 76 77 78 79

408 168 0.85927 685 442

0.85988 747 505 262 018

564 322 079 0.84835 590

134 0.84891 647 403 158

698 455 211 0.83966 720

257 013 0.83768 523 277

0.83809 564 319 074 0.82827

30 31 32 33 34

0.95977 823 665 502 334

686 524 357 186 011

382 212 038 0.94860 679

067 0.94890 709 525 337

741 557 370 180 0.93986

403 214 021 0.93825 626

055 0.93860 662 461 257

80 81 82 83 84

197 0.84950 702 453 203

0.84772 525 277 028 0.83777

344 096 0.83848 599 348

0.83911 664 415 164 0.82913

473 224 0.82974 724 473

029 0.82780 530 279 027

578 329 079 0.81828 576

35 36 37 38 39

162 0.94986 805 620 431

0.94832 650 464 273 079

494 306 114 0.93919 720

146 0.93952 756 556 353

790 591 390 186 0.92979

425 221 016 0.92808 597

051 0.92843 634 422 208

85 86 87 88 89

0.83951 697 441 181 0.82919

525 271 014 0.82754 492

095 0.82840 583 323 062

660 405 148 0.81888 626

220 0.81965 708 448 186

0.81774 519 262 003 0.80742

322 067 0.80811 552 291

40 41 42 43 44

238 042 0.93842 639 433

0.93882 682 478 271 062

518 314 107 0.92897 685

148 0.92940 729 516 301

770 558 344 128 0.91910

385 170 0.91952 733 513

0.91992 774 554 332 108

90 91 92 93 94

654 386 114 0.81839 561

227 0.81959 688 413 134

0.81797 529 257 0.80983 705

362 094 0.80823 549 272

0.80922 655 384 111 0.79835

478 211 0.79941 669 393

028 0.79761 491 220 0.78947

45 46 47 48 49

226 017 0.92806 593 379

0.92852 640 426 211 0.91995

472 257 041 0.91823 604

085 0.91868 649 429 208

692 472 250 028 0.90805

291 069 0.90845 621 396

0.90884 660 434 207 0.89979

95 96 97 98 99

278 0.80991 698 399 094

0.80852 566 274 0.79975 670

424 138 0.79846 547 243

0.79991 706 415 117 0.78814

555 271 0.78981 684 382

114 0.78831 542 247 0.77946

670 388 100 0.77806 507

100

0.79784

360

0.78934

506

075

641

203

∗For data from −78° to 78°C, see p. 2-142, Table 2N-5, American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957. See Tables 2-115 and 2-135 for pure ethanol and pure water densities.

DEnSITIES OF AQUEOUS InORGAnIC SOLUTIOnS AT 1 ATM

2-109

TABLE 2-59 n-Propyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) %

0°C

15°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C

30°C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 0.9982 0.9967 0.9952 0.9939

0.9991 0.9974 0.9960 0.9944 0.9929

0.9957 0.9940 0.9924 0.9908 0.9893

20 21 22 23 24

0.9789 0.9776 0.9763 0.9748 0.9733

0.9723 0.9705 0.9688 0.9670 0.9651

0.9643 0.9622 0.9602 0.9583 0.9563

40 41 42 43 44

0.9430 0.9411 0.9391 0.9371 0.9352

0.9331 0.9310 0.9290 0.9269 0.9248

0.9226 0.9205 0.9184 0.9164 0.9143

60 61 62 63 64

0.9033 0.9013 0.8994 0.8974 0.8954

0.8922 0.8902 0.8882 0.8861 0.8841

0.8807 0.8786 0.8766 0.8745 0.8724

80 81 82 83 84

0.8634 0.8614 0.8594 0.8574 0.8554

0.8516 0.8496 0.8475 0.8454 0.8434

0.8394 0.8373 0.8352 0.8332 0.8311

5 6 7 8 9

0.9926 0.9914 0.9904 0.9894 0.9883

0.9915 0.9902 0.9890 0.9877 0.9864

0.9877 0.9862 0.9848 0.9834 0.9819

25 26 27 28 29

0.9717 0.9700 0.9682 0.9664 0.9646

0.9633 0.9614 0.9594 0.9576 0.9556

0.9543 0.9522 0.9501 0.9481 0.9460

45 46 47 48 49

0.9332 0.9311 0.9291 0.9272 0.9252

0.9228 0.9207 0.9186 0.9165 0.9145

0.9122 0.9100 0.9079 0.9057 0.9036

65 66 67 68 69

0.8934 0.8913 0.8894 0.8874 0.8854

0.8820 0.8800 0.8779 0.8759 0.8739

0.8703 0.8682 0.8662 0.8641 0.8620

85 86 87 88 89

0.8534 0.8513 0.8492 0.8471 0.8450

0.8413 0.8393 0.8372 0.8351 0.8330

0.8290 0.8269 0.8248 0.8227 0.8206

10 11 12 13 14

0.9874 0.9865 0.9857 0.9849 0.9841

0.9852 0.9840 0.9828 0.9817 0.9806

0.9804 0.9790 0.9775 0.9760 0.9746

30 31 32 33 34

0.9627 0.9608 0.9589 0.9570 0.9550

0.9535 0.9516 0.9495 0.9474 0.9454

0.9439 0.9418 0.9396 0.9375 0.9354

50 51 52 53 54

0.9232 0.9213 0.9192 0.9173 0.9153

0.9124 0.9104 0.9084 0.9064 0.9044

0.9015 0.8994 0.8973 0.8952 0.8931

70 71 72 73 74

0.8835 0.8815 0.8795 0.8776 0.8756

0.8719 0.8700 0.8680 0.8659 0.8639

0.8600 0.8580 0.8559 0.8539 0.8518

90 91 92 93 94

0.8429 0.8408 0.8387 0.8364 0.8342

0.8308 0.8287 0.8266 0.8244 0.8221

0.8185 0.8164 0.8142 0.8120 0.8098

15 16 17 18 19

0.9833 0.9825 0.9817 0.9808 0.9800

0.9793 0.9780 0.9768 0.9752 0.9739

0.9730 0.9714 0.9698 0.9680 0.9661

35 36 37 38 39

0.9530 0.9511 0.9491 0.9471 0.9450

0.9434 0.9413 0.9392 0.9372 0.9351

0.9333 0.9312 0.9289 0.9269 0.9247

55 56 57 58 59

0.9132 0.9112 0.9093 0.9073 0.9053

0.9023 0.9003 0.8983 0.8963 0.8942

0.8911 0.8890 0.8869 0.8849 0.8828

75 76 77 78 79

0.8736 0.8716 0.8695 0.8675 0.8655

0.8618 0.8598 0.8577 0.8556 0.8536

0.8497 0.8477 0.8456 0.8435 0.8414

95 96 97 98 99

0.8320 0.8296 0.8272 0.8248 0.8222

0.8199 0.8176 0.8153 0.8128 0.8104

0.8077 0.8054 0.8031 0.8008 0.7984

100

0.8194

0.8077

0.7958

TABLE 2-60 Isopropyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) %

0°C

15°C∗

15°C∗

20°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C∗

20°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C∗

15°C∗

20°C

30°C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 0.9980 0.9962 0.9946 0.9930

0.9991 0.9973 0.9956 0.9938 0.9922

0.99913 0.9972 0.9954 0.9936 0.9920

0.9982 0.9962 0.9944 0.9926 0.9909

0.9957 0.9939 0.9921 0.9904 0.9887

35 36 37 38 39

0.9557 0.9536 0.9514 0.9493 0.9472

15°C∗

0.9446 0.9424 0.9401 0.9379 0.9356

0.9419 0.9399 0.9377 0.9355 0.9333

0.9338 0.9315 0.9292 0.9269 0.9246

70 71 72 73 74

0.8761 0.8738 0.8714 0.8691 0.8668

0.8639 0.8615 0.8592 0.8568 0.8545

0.86346 0.8611 0.8588 0.8564 0.8541

0.8584 0.8560 0.8537 0.8513 0.8489

0.8511 0.8487 0.8464 0.8440 0.8416

5 6 7 8 9

0.9916 0.9902 0.9890 0.9878 0.9866

0.9906 0.9892 0.9878 0.9864 0.9851

0.9904 0.9890 0.9875 0.9862 0.9849

0.9893 0.9877 0.9862 0.9847 0.9833

0.9871 0.9855 0.9839 0.9824 0.9809

40 41 42 43 44

0.9450 0.9428 0.9406 0.9384 0.9361

0.93333 0.9311 0.9288 0.9266 0.9243

0.9310 0.9287 0.9264 0.9239 0.9215

0.9224 0.9201 0.9177 0.9154 0.9130

75 76 77 78 79

0.8644 0.8621 0.8598 0.8575 0.8551

0.8521 0.8497 0.8474 0.8450 0.8426

0.8517 0.8493 0.8470 0.8446 0.8422

0.8464 0.8439 0.8415 0.8391 0.8366

0.8392 0.8368 0.8344 0.8321 0.8297

10 11 12 13 14

0.9856 0.9846 0.9838 0.9829 0.9821

0.9838 0.9826 0.9813 0.9802 0.9790

0.98362 0.9824 0.9812 0.9800 0.9788

0.9820 0.9808 0.9797 0.9876 0.9776

0.9794 0.9778 0.9764 0.9750 0.9735

45 46 47 48 49

0.9338 0.9315 0.9292 0.9270 0.9247

0.9220 0.9197 0.9174 0.9150 0.9127

0.9191 0.9165 0.9141 0.9117 0.9093

0.9106 0.9082 0.9059 0.9036 0.9013

80 81 82 83 84

0.8528 0.8503 0.8479 0.8456 0.8432

0.8403 0.8379 0.8355 0.8331 0.8307

0.83979 0.8374 0.8350 0.8326 0.8302

0.8342 0.8317 0.8292 0.8268 0.8243

0.8273 0.8248 0.8224 0.8200 0.8175

15 16 17 18 19

0.9814 0.9806 0.9799 0.9792 0.9784

0.9779 0.9768 0.9756 0.9745 0.9730

0.9777 0.9765 0.9753 0.9741 0.9728

0.9765 0.9754 0.9743 0.9731 0.9717

0.9720 0.9705 0.9690 0.9675 0.9658

50 51 52 53 54

0.9224 0.9201 0.9178 0.9155 0.9132

0.91043 0.9081 0.9058 0.9035 0.9011

0.9069 0.9044 0.9020 0.8996 0.8971

0.8990 0.8966 0.8943 0.8919 0.8895

85 86 87 88 89

0.8408 0.8384 0.8360 0.8336 0.8311

0.8282 0.8259 0.8234 0.8209 0.8184

0.8278 0.8254 0.8229 0.8205 0.8180

0.8219 0.8194 0.8169 0.8145 0.8120

0.8151 0.8127 0.8201 0.8078 0.8053

20 21 22 23 24

0.9777 0.9768 0.9759 0.9749 0.9739

0.9719 0.9704 0.9690 0.9675 0.9660

0.97158 0.9703 0.9689 0.9674 0.9659

0.9703 0.9688 0.9669 0.9651 0.9634

0.9642 0.9624 0.9606 0.9587 0.9569

55 56 57 58 59

0.9109 0.9086 0.9063 0.9040 0.9017

0.8988 0.8964 0.8940 0.8917 0.8893

0.8946 0.8921 0.8896 0.8874 0.8850

0.8871 0.8847 0.8823 0.8800 0.8777

90 91 92 93 94

0.8287 0.8262 0.8237 0.8212 0.8186

0.8161 0.8136 0.8110 0.8085 0.8060

0.81553 0.8130 0.8104 0.8079 0.8052

0.8096 0.8072 0.8047 0.8023 0.7998

0.8029 0.8004 0.7979 0.7954 0.7929

25 26 27 28 29

0.9727 0.9714 0.9699 0.9684 0.9669

0.9643 0.9626 0.9608 0.9590 0.9570

0.9642 0.9624 0.9605 0.9586 0.9568

0.9615 0.9597 0.9577 0.9558 0.9540

0.9549 0.9529 0.9509 0.9488 0.9467

60 61 62 63 64

0.8994 0.8970 0.8947 0.8924 0.8901

0.8829 0.8805 0.8781

0.88690 0.8845 0.8821 0.8798 0.8775

0.8825 0.8800 0.8776 0.8751 0.8727

0.8752 0.8728 0.8704 0.8680 0.8656

95 96 97 98 99

0.8160 0.8133 0.8106 0.8078 0.8048

0.8034 0.8008 0.7981 0.7954 0.7926

0.8026 0.7999 0.7972 0.7945 0.7918

0.7973 0.7949 0.7925 0.7901 0.7877

0.7904 0.7878 0.7852 0.7826 0.7799

30 31 32 33 34

0.9652 0.9634 0.9615 0.9596 0.9577

0.9551

0.95493 0.9530 0.9510 0.9489 0.9468

0.9520 0.9500 0.9481 0.9460 0.9440

0.9446 0.9426 0.9405 0.9383 0.9361

65 66 67 68 69

0.8878 0.8854 0.8831 0.8807 0.8784

0.8757 0.8733 0.8710 0.8686 0.8662

0.8752 0.8728 0.8705 0.8682 0.8658

0.8702 0.8679 0.8656 0.8632 0.8609

0.8631 0.8607 0.8583 0.8559 0.8535

100

0.8016

0.7896

0.78913

0.7854

0.7770

∗Two different observers; see International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 120.

2-110

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-61 Glycerol* Density

Density

Density

Glycerol, %

15°C

15.5°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

Glycerol, %

15°C

15.5°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

Glycerol, %

15°C

15.5°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

100 99 98 97 96

1.26415 1.26160 1.25900 1.25645 1.25385

1.26381 1.26125 1.25865 1.25610 1.25350

1.26108 1.25850 1.25590 1.25335 1.25080

1.15802 1.25545 1.25290 1.25030 1.24770

1.25495 1.25235 1.24975 1.24710 1.24450

65 64 63 62 61

1.17030 1.16755 1.16480 1.16200 1.15925

1.17000 1.16725 1.16445 1.16170 1.15895

1.16750 1.16475 1.16205 1.15930 1.15655

1.16475 1.16200 1.15925 1.15655 1.15380

1.16195 1.15925 1.15650 1.15375 1.15100

30 29 28 27 26

1.07455 1.07195 1.06935 1.06670 1.06410

1.07435 1.07175 1.06915 1.06655 1.06390

1.07270 1.07010 1.06755 1.06495 1.06240

1.07070 1.06815 1.06560 1.06305 1.06055

1.06855 1.06605 1.06355 1.06105 1.05855

95 94 93 92 91

1.25130 1.24865 1.24600 1.24340 1.24075

1.25095 1.24830 1.24565 1.24305 1.24040

1.24825 1.24560 1.24300 1.24035 1.23770

1.24515 1.24250 1.23985 1.23725 1.23460

1.24190 1.23930 1.23670 1.23410 1.23150

60 59 58 57 56

1.15650 1.15370 1.15095 1.14815 1.14535

1.15615 1.15340 1.15065 1.14785 1.14510

1.15380 1.15105 1.14830 1.14555 1.14280

1.15105 1.14835 1.14560 1.14285 1.14015

1.14830 1.14555 1.14285 1.14010 1.13740

25 24 23 22 21

1.06150 1.05885 1.05625 1.05365 1.05100

1.06130 1.05870 1.05610 1.05350 1.05090

1.05980 1.05720 1.05465 1.05205 1.04950

1.05800 1.05545 1.05290 1.05035 1.04780

1.05605 1.05350 1.05100 1.04850 1.04600

90 89 88 87 86

1.23810 1.23545 1.23280 1.23015 1.22750

1.23775 1.23510 1.23245 1.22980 1.22710

1.23510 1.23245 1.22975 1.22710 1.22445

1.23200 1.22935 1.22665 1.22400 1.22135

1.22890 1.22625 1.22360 1.22095 1.21830

55 54 53 52 51

1.14260 1.13980 1.13705 1.13425 1.13150

1.14230 1.13955 1.13680 1.13400 1.13125

1.14005 1.13730 1.13455 1.13180 1.12905

1.13740 1.13465 1.13195 1.12920 1.12650

1.13470 1.13195 1.12925 1.12650 1.12380

20 19 18 17 16

1.04840 1.04590 1.04335 1.04085 1.03835

1.04825 1.04575 1.04325 1.04075 1.03825

1.04690 1.04440 1.04195 1.03945 1.03695

1.04525 1.04280 1.04035 1.03790 1.03545

1.04350 1.04105 1.03860 1.03615 1.03370

85 84 83 82 81

1.22485 1.22220 1.21955 1.21690 1.21425

1.22445 1.22180 1.21915 1.21650 1.21385

1.22180 1.21915 1.21650 1.21380 1.21115

1.21870 1.21605 1.21340 1.21075 1.20810

1.21565 1.21300 1.21035 1.20770 1.20505

50 49 48 47 46

1.12870 1.12600 1.12325 1.12055 1.11780

1.12845 1.12575 1.12305 1.12030 1.11760

1.12630 1.12360 1.12090 1.11820 1.11550

1.12375 1.12110 1.11840 1.11575 1.11310

1.12110 1.11845 1.11580 1.11320 1.11055

15 14 13 12 11

1.03580 1.03330 1.03080 1.02830 1.02575

1.03570 1.03320 1.03070 1.02820 1.02565

1.03450 1.03200 1.02955 1.02705 1.02455

1.03300 1.03055 1.02805 1.02560 1.02315

1.03130 1.02885 1.02640 1.02395 1.02150

80 79 78 77 76

1.21160 1.20885 1.20610 1.20335 1.20060

1.21120 1.20845 1.20570 1.20300 1.20025

1.20850 1.20575 1.20305 1.20030 1.19760

1.20545 1.20275 1.20005 1.19735 1.19465

1.20240 1.19970 1.19705 1.19435 1.19170

45 44 43 42 41

1.11510 1.11235 1.10960 1.10690 1.10415

1.11490 1.11215 1.10945 1.10670 1.10400

1.11280 1.11010 1.10740 1.10470 1.10200

1.11040 1.10775 1.10510 1.10240 1.09975

1.10795 1.10530 1.10265 1.10005 1.09740

10 9 8 7 6

1.02325 1.02085 1.01840 1.01600 1.01360

1.02315 1.02075 1.01835 1.01590 1.01350

1.02210 1.01970 1.01730 1.01495 1.01255

1.02070 1.01835 1.01600 1.01360 1.01125

1.01905 1.01670 1.01440 1.01205 1.00970

75 74 73 72 71

1.19785 1.19510 1.19235 1.18965 1.18690

1.19750 1.19480 1.19205 1.18930 1.18655

1.19485 1.19215 1.18940 1.18670 1.18395

1.19195 1.18925 1.18650 1.18380 1.18110

1.18900 1.18635 1.18365 1.18100 1.17830

40 39 38 37 36

1.10145 1.09875 1.09605 1.09340 1.09070

1.10130 1.09860 1.09590 1.09320 1.09050

1.09930 1.09665 1.09400 1.09135 1.08865

1.09710 1.09445 1.09180 1.08915 1.08655

1.09475 1.09215 1.08955 1.08690 1.08430

5 4 3 2 1

1.01120 1.00875 1.00635 1.00395 1.00155

1.01110 1.00870 1.00630 1.00385 1.00145

1.01015 1.00780 1.00540 1.00300 1.00060

1.00890 1.00655 1.00415 1.00180 0.99945

1.00735 1.00505 1.00270 1.00035 0.99800

70 69 68 67 66

1.18415 1.18135 1.17860 1.17585 1.17305

1.18385 1.18105 1.17830 1.17555 1.17275

1.18125 1.17850 1.17575 1.17300 1.17025

1.17840 1.17565 1.17295 1.17020 1.16745

1.17565 1.17290 1.17020 1.16745 1.16470

35 34 33 32 31

1.08800 1.08530 1.08265 1.07995 1.07725

1.08780 1.08515 1.08245 1.07975 1.07705

1.08600 1.08335 1.08070 1.07800 1.07535

1.08390 1.08125 1.07860 1.07600 1.07335

1.08165 1.07905 1.07645 1.07380 1.07120

0

0.99913 0.99905 0.99823 0.99708 0.99568

∗Bosart and Snoddy, Ind. Eng. Chem., 20, (1928): 1378.

TABLE 2-62 Hydrazine (n2H4)* %

d 415

%

d 415

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28

1.0002 1.0013 1.0034 1.0077 1.0121 1.0164 1.0207 1.0248 1.0286

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

1.0305 1.038 1.044 1.047 1.046 1.040 1.030 1.011

∗International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 55.

DEnSITIES OF AQUEOUS InORGAnIC SOLUTIOnS AT 1 ATM

2-111

TABLE 2-63 Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds* d, dw, and ds are the density of the solution, pure water, and pure liquid solute, respectively, all in g/mL. ps is the wt % solute. 0.03255 means 2.55 × 10−4. Section A Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide

Formula C2H4O C2H5NO

Acetone

C3H6O

Acetonitrile Allyl alcohol Benzenepentacarboxylic acid Butyl alcohol (n-)

C2H3N C3H6O C11H6O10 C4H10O

Butyric acid (n-)

C4H8O2

Chloral hydrate

C2H3Cl3O2

Chloroacetic acid

C2H3ClO2

Citric acid (hydrate)

C6H3O7 + H2O

Dichloroacetic acid

C2H2Cl2O2

Diethylamine hydrochloride Ethylamine hydrochloride

C4H12ClN C2H8ClN

Ethylene glycol

C2H6O2

Ethyl ether

C4H10O

tartrate Formaldehyde Formamide

C8H14O6 CH2O CH3NO

Furfural

C5H4O2

Isoamyl alcohol

C5H12O

Isobutyl alcohol

C4H10O

Isobutyric acid

C4H8O2

Isovaleric acid Lactic acid Maleic acid

C5H10O2 C3H6O C4H4O4

Malic acid

C4H6O5

Malonic acid Methyl acetate

C3H4O4 C3H6O2

glucoside (α-) Nicotine Nitrophenol (p-) Oxalic acid

C7H14O6 C10H14N2 C6H5NO3 C2H2O4

Phenol

C6H6O

Phenylglycolic acid Picoline (α-) (β-)

C8H8O3 C6H7N C6H7N

Propionic acid

C3H6O2

Pyridine Resorcinol Succinic acid

C5H5N C6H6O2 C4H6O4

Tartaric acid (d, l, or dl)

C4H6O6

∗From International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 111–114.

d = d w + Aps + Bp s2 + Cps3

t, °C

Range, ps

A

B

18 15 0 4 15 20 25 15 0 25 20  18    25  0  15  30  20   25 18  20   25 21 21  0  15  20   25 15 15 25  20   25 20  15   20  15  18  25 25 25 25  20   25 20 20  0   30 20 15 0 15 17.5 20 25  15   80 25 25 25  18   25 25 18 25 15 17.5 20 30 40 50 60

0–30 0–6 0–100 0–100 0–100 0–100 0–100 0–16 0–89 0–0.6 0–7.9 0–10 0–62 0–70 0–78 0–90 0–32 0–86 0–50 0–30 0–97 0–36 0–65 0–100 0–6 0–5 0–4.5 0–95 0–40 22–96 0–8 0–8 0–2.5 0–8 0–8 0–9 0–9 0–12 0–5 0–9 0–40 0–40 0–40 0–40 0–20 26–51 26–51 0–60 0–1.5 0–4 0–4 0–9 0–4 0–4 0–5 0–65 0–11 0–70 0–60 0–10 0–40 0–60 0–52 0–5.5 0–15 0–50 0–50 0–50 0–50 0–50 0–50

+0.03255 +0.03639 −0.03856 −0.027648 −0.021009 −0.021233 −0.021171 −0.021175 −0.033729 +0.025615 −0.021651 +0.03414 +0.035135 +0.024489 +0.024455 +0.024401 +0.023648 +0.023602 +0.023824 +0.024427 +0.024427 +0.0334 +0.021193 +0.021483 +0.02133 −0.02221 −0.02221 +0.022367 +0.022518 +0.021217 +0.021827 +0.021664 +0.02155 −0.02146 −0.02169 +0.0352 +0.0345 +0.0337 +0.03253 +0.02231 +0.0234 +0.023933 +0.023736 +0.02389 +0.0340 +0.023336 +0.023151 +0.03642 +0.023216 +0.025898 +0.02494 +0.02494 +0.025264 +0.025108 +0.02111 +0.03462 +0.02207 −0.04386 −0.04683 +0.0395 +0.039245 +0.03229 +0.02201 +0.02304 +0.024482 +0.024455 +0.024432 +0.024335 +0.024265 +0.024205 +0.024155

−0.0516 +0.04171 −0.05449 −0.041193 −0.059682 −0.053529 −0.05904 −0.042024 −0.041232 −0.02117 +0.04285 +0.04131 −0.04166 +0.042802 +0.042198 +0.041887 +0.05302 +0.05552 +0.041141 +0.05537 +0.05537 +0.0676 −0.05307 +0.052992 −0.05108 +0.0448 +0.0435 +0.05358 −0.05658 +0.053199 +0.05366 +0.0421 +0.043 +0.056 +0.0438

  

  

  

−0.04282 +0.05186 +0.0575 +0.05957 +0.04175 +0.041066 −0.0574 +0.05996 +0.05975 +0.05454 −0.0455 −0.033185 −0.058 −0.058 −0.031996 −0.031607 −0.04283 −0.0686 +0.0423 −0.051405 −0.0513 −0.04172 −0.0599 −0.05204 +0.05519

C

−0.07588 +0.08272 −0.08624 −0.075327 −0.0856 +0.072984

+0.0611 −0.071291 +0.074366 +0.076549 +0.0722 +0.0717 +0.077534 +0.077534 −0.0747 −0.075248

−0.076005 +0.06542 −0.072529

+0.01544 +0.08978 −0.07687 +0.0441 +0.04254 +0.04208

−0.074167 +0.07361 −0.0828 −0.0819

+0.04185 +0.04185 +0.041837 +0.04185 +0.04185 +0.04185 +0.04185 (Continued )

2-112

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-63 Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds (Continued ) d = d w + Aps + Bp s2 + Cps3 (Cont.)

Section A Name

t, °C

Formula

Tetraethyl ammonium chloride Thiourea

C8H20ClN CH4N2S

Trichloroacetic acid

C2HCl3O2

Triethylamine hydrochloride

C6H16ClN

Trimethyl carbinol

C4H10O

Urea

CH4N2O

Urethane Valeric acid (n-)

C3H7NO2 C5H10O2

Section B Name

Formula

Butyl alcohol (n-) Butyric acid (n-) Ethyl ether

C4H10O C4H8O2 C4H10O

Isobutyl alcohol

C4H10O

Isobutyric acid Nicotine Picoline (α-) (β-) Pyridine Trimethyl carbinol

C4H8O2 C10H14N2 C6H7N C6H7N C5H5N C4H10O

ds 0.8097 0.9534 0.7077  0.8170   0.8055 0.9425 1.0093 0.9404 0.9515 0.9776 0.7856 Section C

Name

Formula

Allyl alcohol Butyl alcohol (n-)

C3H6O C4H10O

Chloral hydrate

C2H3Cl3O2

Ethyl tartrate

C7H14O6

Furfural

C5H4O2

Pyridine

C5H5N

Range, ps

21 15  12.5  20  25 21  20   25 14.8  18  20  25 20 25

ps 76.60 80.95  2.00  10.00  5.00 10.00 25.00  4.62  5.69  6.56 9.34 21.20 29.50 40.40

0–63 0–7 0–61 10–30 0–94 0–54 0–100 0–100 0–12 0–51 0–35 0–10 0–56 0–3

A

B

C

+0.031884 +0.022995 +0.02499 +0.025053 +0.025051 +0.046 −0.02117 −0.021286 +0.023213 +0.022718 +0.022702 +0.022728 +0.021278 +0.0334

+0.056 +0.05374 +0.04153 +0.041387 +0.056119 +0.05558 −0.041908 −0.04176 −0.044802 +0.051552 +0.053712 −0.041817 −0.05245 −0.0427

+0.07122

+0.061038 −0.0869 +0.07957 +0.07887 +0.051216 +0.072573 −0.072285 +0.051379 −0.073437

d = ds + Apw + Bp w2 + Cp w3 t, °C

Range, pw

A

B

20 25 25 0 15 26 20 25 25 25 20

0–20 0–38 0–1.1 0–14 0–16 0–80 0–40 0–30 0–40 0–40 0–20

+0.022103 +0.021854 +0.0234 +0.022437 +0.02224 +0.021808 +0.02199 +0.022715 +0.021925 +0.021157 +0.022287

−0.04113 −0.042314 +0.0336 −0.04285 −0.04129 −0.042358 −0.04331 −0.04393 −0.04352 −0.05536 +0.05275

C

+0.061253 +0.07315 +0.0625 −0.062

dt = do + At + Bt2 do

Range, °C

A

B

0.9122 0.8614 1.0094 1.0476 1.0150 1.0270 1.0665 1.0125 1.0140 1.0155 1.0055 1.0115 1.0145 1.0182

0–45 0–43 7–80 7–80 15–80 15–80 15–80 22–74 22–74 22–74 11–73 14–73 12–72 9–74

−0.038 −0.037292 −0.042597 −0.047955 −0.032103 −0.032116 −0.03401 −0.03232 −0.03221 −0.03211 −0.03171 −0.03378 −0.03463 −0.03605

−0.0527 −0.0675 −0.054313 −0.054253 −0.052544 −0.062929 −0.0523 −0.05254 −0.05268 −0.05290 −0.053615 −0.05248 −0.05235 −0.05167

DEnSITIES OF MISCELLAnEOUS MATERIALS

2-113

DEnSITIES OF MISCELLAnEOUS MATERIALS TABLE 2-64 Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids* Water at 4°C and normal atmospheric pressure taken as unity. For more detailed data on any material, see the section dealing with the properties of that material.

Substance Metals, Alloys, Ores Aluminum, cast-hammered bronze Brass, cast-rolled Bronze, 7.9 to 14% Sn phosphor

Sp. gr.

Aver. density lb/ft 3

Substance

Sp. gr.

Aver. density lb/ft 3

Timber, Air-dry Apple Ash, black white Birch, sweet, yellow Cedar, white, red

0.66–0.74 0.55 0.64–0.71 0.71–0.72 0.35

44 34 42 44 22

2.55–2.80 7.7 8.4–8.7 7.4–8.9 8.88

165 481 534 509 554

Copper, cast-rolled ore, pyrites German silver Gold, cast-hammered coin (U.S.)

8.8–8.95 4.1–4.3 8.58 19.25–19.35 17.18–17.2

556 262 536 1205 1073

Cherry, wild red Chestnut Cypress Elm, white Fir, Douglas

0.43 0.48 0.45–0.48 0.56 0.48–0.55

27 30 29 35 32

Iridium Iron, gray cast cast, pig wrought spiegeleisen

21.78–22.42 7.03–7.13 7.2 7.6–7.9 7.5

1383 442 450 485 468

balsam Hemlock Hickory Locust Mahogany

0.40 0.45–0.50 0.74–0.80 0.67–0.77 0.56–0.85

25 29 48 45 44

ferro-silicon ore, hematite ore, limonite ore, magnetite slag

6.7–7.3 5.2 3.6–4.0 4.9–5.2 2.5–3.0

437 325 237 315 172

Maple, sugar white Oak, chestnut live red, black

0.68 0.53 0.74 0.87 0.64–0.71

43 33 46 54 42

Lead ore, galena Manganese ore, pyrolusite Mercury

11.34 7.3–7.6 7.42 3.7–4.6 13.6

710 465 475 259 849

8.97 8.9 21.5 10.4–10.6 7.83 7.80 7.70–7.73 7.2–7.5 6.4–7.0 19.22

555 537 1330 656 489 487 481 459 418 1200

white Pine, Norway Oregon red Southern white

0.77 0.55 0.51 0.48 0.61–0.67 0.43

48 34 32 30 38–42 27

Poplar Redwood, California Spruce, white, red Teak, African Indian Walnut, black Willow

0.43 0.42 0.45 0.99 0.66–0.88 0.59 0.42–0.50

27 26 28 62 48 37 28

6.9–7.2 3.9–4.2

440 253

Various Solids Cereals, oats, bulk barley, bulk corn, rye, bulk wheat, bulk Cork

0.51 0.62 0.73 0.77 0.22–0.26

26 39 45 48 15

Various Liquids Alcohol, ethyl (100%) methyl (100%) Acid, muriatic, 40% nitric, 91% sulfuric, 87%

0.789 0.796 1.20 1.50 1.80

49 50 75 94 112

Cotton, flax, hemp Fats Flour, loose pressed Glass, common

1.47–1.50 0.90–0.97 0.40–0.50 0.70–0.80 2.40–2.80

93 58 28 47 162

Chloroform Ether Lye, soda, 66% Oils, vegetable mineral, lubricants

1.500 0.736 1.70 0.91–0.94 0.88–0.94

95 46 106 58 57

plate or crown crystal dint Hay and straw, bales Leather

2.45–2.72 2.90–3.00 3.2–4.7 0.32 0.86–1.02

161 184 247 20 59

0.861–0.867 1.0 0.9584 0.88–0.92 0.125

54 62.428 59.830 56 8

1.02–1.03

64

Paper Potatoes, piled Rubber, caoutchouc goods Salt, granulated, piled

0.70–1.15 0.67 0.92–0.96 1.0–2.0 0.77

58 44 59 94 48

Ashlar Masonry Bluestone Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone Marble Sandstone

2.3–2.6 2.4–2.7 2.1–2.8 2.4–2.8 2.0–2.6

153 159 153 162 143

Saltpeter Starch Sulfur Wool

1.07 1.53 1.93–2.07 1.32

67 96 125 82

Rubble Masonry Bluestone Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone Marble Sandstone

2.2–2.5 2.3–2.6 2.0–2.7 2.3–2.7 1.9–2.5

147 153 147 156 137

Monel metal, rolled Nickel Platinum, cast-hammered Silver, cast-hammered Steel, cold-drawn machine tool Tin, cast-hammered cassiterite Tungsten Zinc, cast-rolled blende

Turpentine Water, 4°C max. density 100°C ice snow, fresh fallen sea water

∗From Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 10th ed., McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Sp. gr.

Aver. density lb/ft 3

Dry Rubble Masonry Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone, marble Sandstone, bluestone

1.9–2.3 1.9–2.1 1.8–1.9

130 125 110

Brick Masonry Hard brick Medium brick Soft brick Sand-lime brick

1.8–2.3 1.6–2.0 1.4–1.9 1.4–2.2

128 112 103 112

Concrete Masonry Cement, stone, sand slag, etc. cinder, etc.

2.2–2.4 1.9–2.3 1.5–1.7

144 130 100

0.64–0.72 1.5 0.85–1.00 1.4–1.9 2.08–2.25

40–45 94 53–64 103 94–135

Portland cement Slags, bank slag bank screenings machine slag slag sand

3.1–3.2 1.1–1.2 1.5–1.9 1.5 0.8–0.9

196 67–72 98–117 96 49–55

Earth, etc., Excavated Clay, dry damp plastic and gravel, dry Earth, dry, loose dry, packed moist, loose moist, packed mud, flowing mud, packed Riprap, limestone

1.0 1.76 1.6 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.3–1.4

63 110 100 76 95 78 96 108 115 80–85

1.4 1.7 1.4–1.7 1.6–1.9 1.89–2.16

90 105 90–105 100–120 126

1.28 1.44 0.96 1.00 1.12 1.00

80 90 60 65 70 65

Minerals Asbestos Barytes Basait Bauxite Bluestone

2.1–2.8 4.50 2.7–3.2 2.55 2.5–2.6

153 281 184 159 159

Borax Chalk Clay, marl Dolomite Feldspar, orthoclase

1.7–1.8 1.8–2.8 1.8–2.6 2.9 2.5–2.7

109 143 137 181 162

Gneiss Granite Greenstone, trap Gypsum, alabaster Hornblende Limestone Marble Magnesite Phosphate rock, apatite Porphyry

2.7–2.9 2.6–2.7 2.8–3.2 2.3–2.8 3.0 2.1–2.86 2.6–2.86 3.0 3.2 2.6–2.9

175 165 187 159 187 155 170 187 200 172

Substance

Various Building Materials Ashes, cinders Cement, Portland, loose Lime, gypsum, loose Mortar, lime, set Portland cement

Riprap, sandstone Riprap, shale Sand, gravel, dry, loose gravel, dry, packed gravel, wet Excavations in Water Clay River mud Sand or gravel and clay Soil Stone riprap

(Continued )

2-114

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-64 Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids (Continued ) Water at 4°C and normal atmospheric pressure taken as unity. For more detailed data on any material, see the section dealing with the properties of that material.

Substance

Aver. density lb/ft3

Substance

0.37–0.90 2.5–2.8 2.0–2.6 2.7–2.8 2.6–2.9

40 165 143 171 172

Bituminous Substances Asphaltum Coal, anthracite bituminous lignite peat, turf, dry

1.1–1.5 1.4–1.8 1.2–1.5 1.1–1.4 0.65–0.85

81 97 84 78 47

2.6–2.8 2.6–2.7

169 165

1.5 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.5

96 107 95 82 92

charcoal, pine charcoal, oak coke Graphite Paraffin

0.28–0.44 0.47–0.57 1.0–1.4 1.64–2.7 0.87–0.91

23 33 75 135 56

Sp. gr.

Minerals (Cont.) Pumice, natural Quartz, flint Sandstone Serpentine Shale, slate Soapstone, talc Syenite Stone, Quarried, Piled Basalt, granite, gneiss Greenstone, hornblende Limestone, marble, quartz Sandstone Shale

Aver. density lb/ft 3

Sp. gr.

Substance

Sp. gr.

Aver. density lb/ft3

Bituminous Substances (Cont.) Petroleum refined (kerosene) benzine gasoline Pitch Tar, bituminous

0.87 0.78–0.82 0.73–0.75 0.70–0.75 1.07–1.15 1.20

54 50 46 45 69 75

Coal and Coke, Piled Coal, anthracite bituminous, lignite peat, turf charcoal coke

0.75–0.93 0.64–0.87 0.32–0.42 0.16–0.23 0.37–0.51

47–58 40–54 20–26 10–14 23–32

note: To convert pounds per cubic foot to kilograms per cubic meter, multiply by 16.02. °F = 9⁄5°C + 32.

TABLE 2-65 Density (kg/m3) of Selected Elements as a Function of Temperature Element symbol

Temperature, K∗

Al

Be†

Cr

Cu

Au

Ir

Fe

Pb

Mo

Ni

Pt

Ag

Zn†

50 100 150 200 250

2736 2732 2726 2719 2710

3650 3640 3630 3620 3610

7160 7155 7150 7145 7140

9019 9009 8992 8973 8951

19,490 19,460 19,420 19,380 19,340

22,600 22,580 22,560 22,540 22,520

7910 7900 7890 7880 7870

11,570 11,520 11,470 11,430 11,380

10,260 10,260 10,250 10,250 10,250

8960 8950 8940 8930 8910

21,570 21,550 21,530 21,500 21,470

10,620 10,600 10,575 10,550 10,520

7280 7260 7230 7200 7170

300 400 500 600 800

2701 2681 2661 2639 2591

3600 3580 3555 3530

7135 7120 7110 7080 7040

8930 8885 8837 8787 8686

19,300 19,210 19,130 19,040 18,860

22,500 22,450 22,410 22,360 22,250

7860 7830 7800 7760 7690

11,330 11,230 11,130 11,010 10,430

10,240 10,220 10,210 10,190 10,160

8900 8860 8820 8780 8690

21,450 21,380 21,330 21,270 21,140

10,490 10,430 10,360 10,300 10,160

7135 7070 7000 6935 6430

1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

2365 2305 2255

7000 6945 6890 6760 6700

8568 8458 7920 7750 7600

18,660 18,440 17,230 16,950

22,140 22,030 21,920 21,790 21,660

7650 7620 7520 7420 7320

10,190 9,940

10,120 10,080 10,040 10,000 9,950

8610 8510 8410 8320 7690

21,010 20,870 20,720 20,570 20,400

10,010 9,850 9,170 8,980

6260

21,510

7030

9,900

7450

20,220

2000

7460

note: Above the horizontal line the condensed phase is solid; below the line, it is liquid. ∗°R = 9⁄ 5 K. † Polycrystalline form tabulated. Similar tables for an additional 45 elements appear in the Handbook of Heat Transfer, 2d ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.

LATEnT HEATS Unit Conversions For this subsection, the following unit conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄ 5°C + 32. To convert calories per gram to British thermal units per pound, multiply by 1.799.

To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 1.934 × 10−2.

LATEnT HEATS

2-115

TABLE 2-66 Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds* Unless stated otherwise, the values have been taken from the compilations by K. K. Kelley on “Heats of Fusion of Inorganic Compounds,” U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 393 (1936), and “The Free Energies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Substances,” U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 383 (1935).

Substance

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

bp at 1 atm, °C

Aluminum Al 660.0 2,550 Al2Br6 97.5 5,420 Al2Cl6 192.5 16,960 1000 16,380 AlF3⋅3NaF Al2I6 191.0 7,960 Al2O3 2045 (26,000) Antimony Sb 630.5 4,770 97 3,510 SbBr3 SbCl3 73.4 3,030 SbCl5 4 2,400 655 (27,000) Sb4O6 Sb4S6 546 11,200 Argon A −189.3 290 Arsenic As 814 (6,620) AsBr3 31 2,810 AsCl3 −16 2,420 AsF5 −80.7 2,800 As4O6 313 8,000 Barium Ba 704 (1,400)e 847 6,000 BaBr2 BaCl2 960 5,370 BaF2 1287 3,000 Ba(NO3)2 595 (5,980) Ba3(PO4)2 1730 18,600 BaSO4 1350 9,700 Beryllium Be 1280 2,500e Bismuth Bi 271.3 2,505 BiBr3 BiCl3 224 2,600 Bi2O3 817 6,800 Bi2S5 747 8,900 Boron BBr3 BCl3 BF3 −128 480 B2H6 −165.5 B3H10 −119.8 B5H9 −46.9 B5H11 B10H14 99.7 7,800 B2H5Br −104 B3N3H6 −58 Bromine Br2 −7.2 2,580 BrF5 −61.3 1,355 Cadmium Cd 320.9 1,460 CdBr2 568 (5,000) CdCl2 568 5,300 CdF2 1110 (5,400) CdI2 387 3,660 CdO CdSO4 1000 4,790 Calcium Ca 851 2,230 CaBr2 730 4,180 CaCO3 1282 (12,700) CaCl2 782 6,100 CaF2 1392 4,100 Ca(NO3)2 561 5,120 CaO 2707 (12,240) CaO⋅Al2O3⋅2SiO2 1550 29,400 CaO⋅MgO⋅2SiO2 1392 (18,200) CaO⋅SiO2 1512 13,400 CaSO4 1297 6,700 Carbon C (graphite) 3600 11,000e CBr4 90 1,050 CCl4 −24.0 644 CF4 CH4 −182.5 224 C2N2 −27.8 1,938u CNBr 52 CNCl −5 2,240 ∗See also subsection “Thermodynamic Properties.”

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol

2057 256.4 180.2c

61,020 10,920 26,750c

385.5 3000

15,360

1440

46,670

219 172d 1425

10,360 11,570 17,820

−185.8

1,590

610c

31,000c

122 −52.8 457.2

7,570 4,980 14,300

1638

35,670

1420 461 441

18,020 17,350

91.3 12.5 −100.9 −92.4 16 58 67 f 16 50.4

7,300 5,680 4,620 3,685 6,470 7,700 8,500 11,600 6,230 7,670

58.0 40.4

7,420 7,470

765

23,870

967

29,860

796 1559c

25,400 53,820c

1487

36,580

77 −127.9 −161.4 −21.1 13

7,280 3,110 2,040 5,576u 11,010c 6,300

Substance Carbon (Cont.) CNF CNI CO CO2 COS COCl2 CS2 Cerium Ce Cesium Cs CsBr CsCl CsF CsI CsNO3 Chlorine Cl2 ClF ClF3 Cl2O ClO2 Cl2O7 Chromium Cr Cr O2Cl2 Cobalt Co CoCl2 Copper Cu Cu2Br2 Cu2Cl2 CuI Cu2(CN)2 Cu2O CuO Cu2S Fluorine F2 F2O Gallium Ga Germanium Ge GeH4 Ge2H6 Ge3H8 GeHCl3 GeBr4 GeCl4 Ge(CH3)4 Gold Au Helium He Hydrogen H2 HBr HCl HCN HF (HF)6 HI H2O H22O (= D2O) H2O2 HNO3 H3PO2 H3PO3 H3PO4 H4P2O6 H2S H2S2 H2SO4 H2Se H2SeO4 H2Te Indium In

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

−205.0 −57.5 −138.8

200 1,900 1,129 k

−112.0

1,049 l

775

2,120

28.4

500

642 715

3,600 (2,450)

407

3,250

−101.0

1,531m

1550

3,930

1490 727

3,660 7,390

1083.0

3,110

430

4,890

473 1230 1447 1127

(5,400) (13,400) 2,820 5,500

−223 29.8

bp at 1 atm, °C −72.8 141 −191.5 −78.4c −50.2 8.0

5,780c 13,980c 1,444 6,030 c, r 4,423 k 5,990

690 1300 1300 1251 1280

16,320 35,990 35,690 34,330 35,930

−34.1 −101 11.3 2.0 10.9 79

959 −165 −109 −105.6 −71 26.1 −49.5 −88

(8,300)

1063.0

3,030

−271.4 −259.2 −86.9 −114.2 −13.2 −83.0

28 575 476 2,009i 1,094

−50.8 0.0 3.8 −2 −47 17.4 74 42.4 55 −85.5 −87.6 10.5

686 1,436 1,501s 2,520c 600 2,310 3,070 2,520 8,300 568t 1,805 2,360

58 −48.9

3,450 1,670

156.4

781

4,878 m 5,890 6,280 7,100 8,480

2475 117

8,250

1050

27,170

2595 1355 1490 1336

72,810 16,310 11,920 15,940

−188.2 −144.8 1,336

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol

1,640 2,650

2071 −89.1 31.4 110.6 75g 189 84 44 2966

3,580 5,900 7,550 8,000 8,560 7,030 6,460 81,800

−268.4

22

−252.7 −66.7 −85.0 25.7 33.3 51.2

216 4,210 3,860 6,027i 7,460 5,020

100.0 101.4 158

9,729 h,q 9,945 r,q 10,270

−60.3

4,463 t

−41.3

4,880

−2.2

5,650

(Continued )

2-116

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-66 Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Substance Iodine I2 ICl(α) ICl(β) IF7 Iron Fe FeCl2 Fe2Cl6 Fe(CO)5 FeO FeS Krypton Kr Lead Pb PbBr2 PbCl2 PbF2 PbI2 PbMoO4 PbO PbS PbSO4 PbWO4 Lithium Li LiBO2 LiBr LiCl LiF LiI LiOH Li2MoO4 LiNO3 Li2SiO3 Li4SiO4 Li2SO4 Li2WO4 Magnesium Mg MgBr2 MgCl2 MgF2 MgO Mg3(PO4)2 MgSiO3 MgSO4 MgZn2 Manganese Mn MnCl2 MnSiO3 MnTiO3 Mercury Hg HgBr2 HgCl2 HgI2 HgSO4 Molybdenum Mo MoF6 MoO3 Neon Ne Nickel Ni NiCl2 Ni(CO)4 Ni2S Ni3S2 Nitrogen N2 NF3 NH3 NH4CNS NH4NO3 N2O NO N2O4 N2O5 NOCl Osmium OsF8 OsO4 (yellow) OsO4 (white) Oxygen O2 O3

mp, °C 113.0 17.2 13.9 1530 677 304 −21 1380 1195 −157

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

bp at 1 atm, °C

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol

3,650 2,660 2,270

183 4c

7,460c

3,560 7,800 20,590 3,250 (7,700) 5,000

2735 1026 319 105

84,600 30,210 12,040 9,000

360

e

152.9

10,390

2,310

e

327.4 488 498 824 412 1065 890 1114 1087 1123

1,224 4,290 5,650 1,860 5,970 (25,800) 2,820 4,150 9,600 (15,200)

179 845 552 614 847 440 462 705

1,100 (5,570) 2,900 3,200 (2,360) (1,420) 2,480 4,200

1177 1249 857 742

7,210 7,430 3,040 (6,700)

650 711 712 1221 2642 1184 1524 1127 589

2,160 8,300 8,100 5,900 18,500 (11,300) 14,700 3,500 (8,270)

1107

32,520

1418

32,690

1220 650 1274 1404

3,450 7,340 (8,200) (7,960)

2152 1190

55,150 29,630

557 3,960 4,150 4,500 (1,440)

361 319 304 354

13,980 14,080 14,080 14,260

(6,660) 2,500 (2,500)

(4800) 36 1151

(128,000) 6,000

−38.9 241 277 250 850 2622 17 745 −248.5

1744 914 954 1293 872

42,060 27,700 29,600 38,300 24,850

1472 1281

51,310 (50,000)

1372

32,250

1310 1382 1681 1171

35,420 35,960 50,970 40,770

77

−246.0

440e

1455

4,200

645 790

(2,980) 5,800

2730 987c 42.5

87,300 48,360c 7,000

−195.8 −129.0 −33.4

1,336 3,000 5,581n

−88.5 −151.7 30 32.4 −6.4

3,950 3,307 7,040 13,800c 6,140

47.4 130

6,840 9,450

−183.0 −111

1,629 2,880

−210.0 −77.7 146 169.6 −90.8 −163.6 −13

56 42 −218.9

172 1,352 (4,700) 1,460 1,563 550 5,540 n

4,060 2,340 106

Substance Palladium Pd Phosphorus P4 (yellow) P4 (violet) P4 (black) PCl3 PH3 P4O6 P4O10(α) P4O10(β) POCl3 P 2S 3 Platinum Pt Potassium K KBO2 KBr KCl KCN KCNS K2CO3 K2Cr O4 K2Cr2O7 KF KI K2MoO4 KNO3 KOH KPO3 K3PO4 K4P2O7 K2SO4 K2TiO3 K2WO4 Praseodymium Pr Radon Rn Rhenium Re Re2O7 Re2O8 Rubidium Rb RbBr RbCl RbF RbI RbNO3 Selenium Se2 Se6 SeF6 SeO2 SeOCl2 Silicon Si SiCl4 Si2Cl6 Si3Cl8 (SiCl3)2O SiF4 Si2F6 SiF3Cl SiF2Cl2 SiH4 Si2H6 Si3H8 Si4H10 SiH3Br SiH2Br2 SiHCl3 (SiH3)3N (SiH3)2O SiO2 (quartz) SiO2 (cristobalite) Silver Ag AgBr AgCl AgCN AgI AgNO3 Ag2S Ag2SO4 Sodium Na NaBO2

mp, °C 1554

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

bp at 1 atm, °C

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol

4,120

44.2

615

−133.8 23.8 569

270o 3,360 17,080

1.1

3,110

1773.5

4,700

(4400)

(107,000)

63.5 947 742 770 623 179 897 984 398 857 682 922 338 360 817 1340 1092 1074 810 927

574 (5,700) 5,000 6,410 (3,500) 2,250 7,800 6,920 8,770 6,500 4,100 (4,000) 2,840 (2,000) 2,110 8,900 14,000 8,100 (10,600) (4,400)

776

18,920

1383 1407

37,060 38,840

1324

34,690

1327

30,850

932

2,700

−71 (3000) 296 147

15,340 3,800

39.1 677 717 833 638 305

525 3,700 4,400 4,130 2,990 1,340

217

1,220

10

1,010

1427 −67.6 −1

9,470 1,845

−33 −18.5 −138 −144 −185 −132.5 −117 −93.5 −93.8 −70.0 −126.5 −105.6 −144 1470 1700

3,400 2,100

960.5 430 455 350 557 209 842 657

2,700 2,180 3,155 2,750 2,250 2,755 3,360 (4,300)

97.7 966

630 8,660

3,900

280 417c 453c 74.2 −87.7 174 591 358c 105.1 508

12,520 25,600c 33,100 7,280 3,489 o 10,380 20,670 8,380

−61.8

4,010

362.4

18,060

679 1352 1381 1408 1304 753 736 −45.8c 317c 168 2290 56.8 139 211.4 135.6 −94.8c −18.9c −70.1 −31.5 −111.6 −14.3 53.1 100 2.4 70.5 31.8 48.7 −15.4 2230 2212

18,110 37,120 36,920 39,510 35,960 25,490 20,600 6,350c 20,900

6,860 12,340 8,820 6,130c 10,400c 4,460 5,080 2,960 5,110 6,780 8,890 5,650 6,840 6,360 6,850 5,350

60,720

1564

42,520

1506

34,450

914

23,120 (Continued )

LATEnT HEATS

2-117

TABLE 2-66 Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Substance Sodium (Cont.) NaBr NaCl NaClO3 NaCN NaCNS Na2CO3 NaF NaI Na2MoO4 NaNO3 NaOH ½Na2O⋅½Al2O3⋅3SiO2 NaPO3 Na4P2O7 Na2S Na2SiO3 Na2Si2O5 Na2SO4 Na2WO4 Strontium Sr SrBr2 SrCl2 SrF2 Sr3(PO4)2 Sulfur S (rhombic) S (monoclinic) S2Cl2 SF6 SO2 SO3(α) SO3(β) SO3(γ) SOBr2 SOCl2 SO2Cl2 Tellurium Te TeCl4 TeF6

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

747 800 255 562 323 854 992 662 687 310 322 1107 988 970 920 1087 884 884 702

6,140 7,220 5,290 (4,400) 4,450 7,000 7,000 5,240 3,600 3,760 2,000 13,150 (5,000) (13,700) (1,200) 10,300 8,460 5,830 5,800

757 643 872 1400 1770

2,190 4,780 4,100 4,260 18,500

112.8 119.2 −75.5 17 32.4 62.2

453

1,769p 2,060 2,890 6,310

3,230

bp at 1 atm, °C

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol

1392 1465

37,950 40,810

1500

37,280

1704

53,260

1378

1384

33,610

444.6

2,200

138 −63.5c −5.0 44.8

8,720 5,600c 5,960p 10,190

139.5 75.4 69.2

9,920 7,600 7,760

1090 392 −38.6c

16,830 6,700c

Values in parentheses are uncertain. For the freezing point or the normal boiling point unless otherwise stated. c Sublimation. d Decomposes at about 75°C; value obtained by extrapolation. e Bichowsky and Rossini, Thermochemistry of the Chemical Substances, Reinhold, New York (1936). f Decomposes before the normal boiling point is reached. g Decomposes at about 40°C; value obtained by extrapolation. h See also pp. 2-304 through 2-307 on steam table. i Giauque and Ruehrwein, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 61 (1939): 2626. j Giauque and Egan, J. Chem. Phys., 5 (1937): 45.

Substance Thallium Tl TlBr TlCl Tl2CO3 TlI TlNO3 Tl2S Tl2SO4 Tin Sn4 SnBr2 SnBr4 SnCl2 SnCl4 Sn(CH3)4 SnH4 SnI4 Titanium TiBr4 TiCl4 TiO2 Tungsten W WF6 Uranium UF6 Xenon Xe Zinc Zn ZnCl2 Zn(C2H5)2 ZnO ZnS Zirconium ZrBr4 Zr Cl4 ZrI4 Zr O2

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

302.5 460 427 273 440 207 449 632

1,030 5,990 4,260 4,400 3,125 2,290 3,000 5,500

1457 819 807

38,810 23,800 24,420

823

25,030

231.8 232 30 247 −33.2

1,720 (1,700) 3,000 3,050 2,190

2270

68,000

−149.8 143.5

(4,300)

38.2 −23 1825

(2,060) 2,240 (11,400)

136

3390 −0.4

(8,400) 1,800

(5900) 17.3

(176,000) 6,350

55.1c

9,990c

−108.0

3,110

907 732 118

27,430 28,710 8,960

357c 311c 431c

25,800c 25,290c 29,030c

−111.5 419.5 283 1975 1645

2715

k

b

l

m

TABLE 2-67 Heats of Fusion of Miscellaneous Materials Material

1,595 (5,500) 4,470 (9,000)

20,800

623 113 78.3 −52.3

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol

20,740 8,330 7,320 4,420

8,350

Kemp and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 59 (1937): 79. Brown and Manov, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 59 (1937): 500. Giauque and Powell, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 61 (1939): 1970. n Overstreet and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 59 (1937): 254. o Stephenson and Giauque, J. Chem. Phys., 5 (1937): 149. p Giauque and Stephenson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 60 (1938): 1389. q Osborne, Stimson, and Ginnings, Bur. Standards J. Research, 23, 197 (1939): 261. r Miles and Menzies, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 1067. s Long and Kemp, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 1829. t Giauque and Blue, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 831. u Ruehrwein and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 61 (1939): 2940.

a

Alloys 30.5 Pb + 69.5 Sn 36.9 Pb + 63.1 Sn 63.7 Pb + 36.3 Sn 77.8 Pb + 22.2 Sn 1 Pb + 9 Sn 24 Pb + 27.3 Sn + 48.7 Bi 25.8 Pb + 14.7 Sn + 52.4 Bi + 7 Cd Silicates Anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) Orthoclase (KAlSi2O8) Microcline (KAlSi3O8) Wollastonite (CaSiO8) Malacolite (Ca8MgSi4O12) Diopside (CaMgSi2O4) Olivine (Mg2SiO4) Fayalite (Fe2SiO4) Spermaceti Wax (bees’)

740

bp at 1 atm, °C

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

183 179 177.5 176.5 236 98.8 75.5

17 15.5 11.6 9.54 28 6.85 8.4

43.9 61.8

100 100 83 100 94 100 130 85 37.0 42.3

2-118

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-68 Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds The values for the hydrocarbons are from the tables of the American Petroleum Institute Research Project 44 at the National Bureau of Standards, with some from Parks and Huffman, Ind. Eng. Chem., 23, 1138 (1931). The values for the nonhydrocarbon compounds were recalculated from data in International Critical Tables, vol. 5. Hydrocarbon compounds

Formula

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

Paraffins Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane 2-Methylpropane n-Pentane 2-Methylbutane 2,2-Dimethylpropane n-Hexane 2-Methylpentane 2,2-Dimethylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane n-Heptane 2-Methylhexane 3-Ethylpentane 2,2-Dimethylpentane 2,4-Dimethylpentane 3,3-Dimethylpentane 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane n-Octane 2-Methylheptane 3-Methylpentane 4-Methylheptane 2,2-Dimethylhexane 2,5-Dimethylhexane 3,3-Dimethylhexane 2-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 3-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 2,2,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane Eicosane Pentacosane Tritriacontane Aromatics Benzene Methylbenzene (Toluene) Ethylbenzene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene n-Propylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1-Methyl-2-ethylbenzene

CH4 C 2H 6 C 3H 8 C4H10 C4H10 C5H12 C5H12 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C20H42 C25H52 C33H68

−182.48 −183.23 −187.65 −138.33 −159.60 −129.723 −159.890 −16.6 −95.320 −153.680 −99.73 −128.41 −90.595 −118.270 −118.593 −123.790 −119.230 −134.46 −24.96 −56.798 −109.04 −120.50 −120.955 −121.18 −91.200 −126.10 −114.960 −90.870 −112.27 −107.365 −100.70 −109.210 +100.69 −53.9 −30.0 −25.9 −9.6 +36.4 +53.3 +71.1

14.03 22.712 19.100 19.167 18.668 27.874 17.076 10.786 36.138 17.407 1.607 2.251 33.513 21.158 22.555 13.982 15.968 16.856 5.250 43.169 21.458 23.795 22.692 24.226 26.903 14.9 23.690 22.657 18.061 19.278 3.204 19.392 14.900 41.2 48.3 34.1 51.3 52.0 53.6 54.0

C 6H 6 C 7H 8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12

+5.533 −94.991 −94.950 −25.187 −47.872 +13.263 −99.500 −96.028 −80.833

30.100 17.171 20.629 30.614 26.045 38.526 16.97 19.22 21.13

Nonhydrocarbon compounds

Formula

mp, °C

Acetic acid Acetone Acrylic acid Allo-cinnamic acid Aminobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Amyl alcohol Anethole Aniline Anthraquinone Apiol Azobenzene Azoxybenzene

C2H4O2 C3H6O C3H4O2 C9H8O2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C5H12O C10H12O C6H5NH2 C14H8O2 C12H14O4 C12H10N2 C12H10N2O

16.7 −95.5 12.3 68 145 179.5 188.5 −78.9 22.5 −6.3 284.8 29.5 67.1 36

46.68 23.42 37.03 27.35 35.48 38.03 36.46 26.65 25.80 27.09 37.48 25.80 28.91 21.62

Benzil Benzoic acid Benzophenone Benzylaniline Bromocamphor Bromochlorbenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromoiodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromol hydrate Bromophenol (p-) Bromotoluene (p-)

C14H10O2 C7H8O2 C13H10O C13H13N C10H15BrO C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C2H3Br3O2 C6H5BrO C7H7Br

95.2 122.45 47.85 32.37 78 −12.6 −21.2 64.6 21 9.3 90.1 46 63.5 28

22.15 33.90 23.53 21.86 41.57 15.41 15.29 23.41 12.18 10.27 16.60 16.90 20.50 20.86

Heat of fusion, cal/g

Hydrocarbon compounds Aromatics—(Cont.) 1-Methyl-3-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-4-ethylbenzene 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene Naphthalene Camphene Durene Isodurene Prehnitene p-Cymene n-Butyl benzene tert-Butyl benzene β-Methyl naphthalene Diphenyl Hexamethyl benzene Diphenyl methane Anthracene Phenanthrene Tolane Stilbene Dibenzil Triphenyl methane Alkyl cyclohexanes Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane Alkyl cyclopentanes Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane 1,1-Dimethylcyclopentane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclopentane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclopentane trans-1,3-Dimethylcyclopentane Monoolefins Ethene (Ethylene) Propene (Propylene) 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 2-Methylpropene (isobutene) 1-Pentene cis-2-pentene trans-2-pentene 2-Methyl-1-butene 3-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene Acetylenes Acetylene 2-Butyne (dimethylacetylene)

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H8 C10H12 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C11H10 C12H10 C12H18 C13H12 C14H10 C14H10 C14H10 C14H12 C14H14 C19H16

−95.55 −62.350 −25.375 −43.80 −44.720 +80.0 +51 +79.3 −24.0 −7.7 −68.9 −88.5 −58.1 +34.1 +68.6 +165.5 +25.2 +216.5 +96.3 +60 +124 +51.4 +92.1

15.14 25.29 16.64 24.54 18.97 36.0 57 37.4 23.0 20.0 17.1 19.5 14.9 20.1 28.8 30.4 26.4 38.7 25.0 28.7 40.0 30.7 21.1

C6H12 C7H14

+6.67 −126.58

7.569 16.429

C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14

−93.80 −142.445 −138.435 −69.73 −53.85 −117.57 −133.680

2.068 19.68 11.10 3.36 3.87 15.68 17.93

C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10

−169.15 −185.25 −185.35 −138.91 −105.55 −140.35 −165.27 −151.363 −140.235 −137.560 −168.500 −133.780

28.547 17.054 16.393 31.135 41.564 25.265 16.82 24.239 26.536 26.879 18.009 25.738

C2H2 C4H6

−81.5 −132.23

23.04 40.808

Formula

Formula

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

Butyl alcohol (n-) (t-) Butyric acid (n-)

C4H10O C4H10O C4H8O2

−89.2 25.4 −5.7

29.93 21.88 30.04

Capric acid (n-) Caprylic acid (n-) Carbazole Carbon tetrachloride Carvoxime (d-) (l-) (dl-) Cetyl alcohol Chloracetic acid (α-) (β-) Chloral alcoholate hydrate Chloroaniline (p-) Chlorobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) ( p-) Chloronitrobenzene (m-) (p-) Cinnamic acid anhydride Cresol (p-) Crotonic acid (α-) (cis-) Cyanamide Cyclohexanol

C10H20O2 C8H16O2 C12H9N CCl4 C10H15NO C10H15NO C10H15NO C16H34O C2H3ClO2 C2H3ClO2 C4H7Cl3O2 C2H3Cl3O2 C6H6ClN C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C6H4ClNO2 C6H4ClNO2 C9H8O2 C18H14O3 C7H8O C4H6O2 C4H6O2 CH2N2 C6H12O

31.99 16.3 243 −22.8 71.5 71 91 49.27 61.2 56 9 47.4 71 140.2 154.25 239.7 44.4 83.5 133 48 34.6 72 71.2 44 25.46

38.87 35.40 42.05 41.57 23.29 23.41 24.61 33.80 31.06 35.12 24.03 33.18 37.15 39.30 36.41 49.21 29.38 31.51 36.50 28.14 26.28 25.32 34.90 49.81 4.19

Nonhydrocarbon compounds

(Continued )

LATEnT HEATS

2-119

TABLE 2-68 Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds (Continued ) Heat of fusion, cal/g

Nonhydrocarbon compounds

Formula

mp, °C

Dibromobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dibromophenol (2, 4-) Dichloroacetic acid Dichlorobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dihydroxybenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Di-iodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dimethyl tartrate (dl-) (d-) pyrone Dinitrobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dinitrotoluene (2, 4-) Dioxane Diphenyl amine

C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2O C2H2Cl2O2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H6O2 C6H6O2 C6H6O2 C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C6H10O6 C6H10O6 C7H8O2 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C7H6N2O4 C4H8O2 C12H11N

1.8 −6.9 86 12 −4(?) −16.7 −24.8 53.13 104.3 109.65 172.3 23.4 34.2 129 87 49 132 116.93 89.7 173.5 70.14 11.0 52.98

12.78 13.38 20.55 13.97 14.21 21.02 20.55 29.67 49.40 46.20 58.77 10.15 11.54 16.20 35.12 21.50 56.14 32.25 24.70 39.99 26.40 34.85 25.23

Elaidic acid Ethyl acetate alcohol Ethylene dibromide Ethyl ether

C18H34O2 C4H8O2 C2H6O C2H4Br2 C4H10O

44.4 83.8 −114.4 10.012 −116.3

52.08 28.43 25.76 13.52 23.54

Formic acid

CH2O2

8.40

58.89

Glutaric acid Glycerol Glycol, ethylene

C6H8O4 C3H8O3 C2H6O2

97.5 18.07 −11.5

37.39 47.49 43.26

Hydrazo benzene Hydrocinnamic acid Hydroxyacetanilide

C12H12N2 C9H10O2 C8H9NO2

134 48 91.3

22.89 28.14 33.59

Iodotoluene (p-) Isopropyl alcohol ether

C7H7I C3H8O C6H14O

34 −88.5 −86.8

18.75 21.08 25.79

Lauric acid (n-) Levulinic acid

C12H24O2 C5H8O3

43.22 33

43.72 18.97

Menthol (l-) (α) Methyl alcohol Myristic acid Methyl cinnamate fumarate oxalate phenylpropiolate succinate

C10H20O CH4O C14H28O2 C10H10O2 C6H8O4 C4H6O4 C10H8O2 C6H10O4

43.5 −97.8 53.86 36 102 54.35 18 19.5

18.63 23.7 47.49 26.53 57.93 42.64 22.86 35.72

Formula

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

Naphthol (α-) (β-) Naphthylamine (α-) Nitroaniline (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitrobenzene Nitrobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitronaphthalene Nitrophenol (o-)

C10H8O C10H8O C10H9N C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H5NO2 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C10H7NO2 C6H5NO3

95.0 120.6 50 71.2 114.0 147.3 5.85 145.8 141.1 239.2 56.7 45.13

38.94 31.30 22.34 27.88 40.97 36.46 22.52 40.06 27.59 52.80 25.44 26.76

Palmitic acid Paraldehyde Pelargic acid (n-) (β-) Pelargonic acid (n-) (α-) Phenol Phenylacetic acid Phenylhydrazine Propyl ether (n)

C16H32O2 C6H12O3 C9H18O2 C9H18O2 C6H6O C8H8O2 C6H8N2 C6H14O

61.82 10.5 12.35 40.92 76.7 19.6 −126.1

39.18 25.02 39.04 30.63 29.03 25.44 36.31 20.66

Nonhydrocarbon compounds

Quinone

C6H4O2

115.7

40.85

Stearic acid Succinic anhydride Succinonitrile

C18H30O2 C4H4O3 C4H4N2

68.82 119 54.5

47.54 48.74 11.71

Tetrachloroxylene (o-) (p-) Thiophene Thiosinamine Thymol Toluic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Toluidine (p-) Tribromophenol (2, 4, 6-) Trichloroacetic acid Trinitroglycerol Trinitrotoluene (2, 4, 6-) Tristearin

C8H6Cl4 C8H6Cl4 C4H4S C4H8N2S C10H14O C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C7H9N C6H3Br3O C2HCl3O2 C3H5N3O9 C7H5N3O6 C57H110O6

86 95 −39.4 77 51.5 103.7 108.75 179.6 43.3 93 57.5 12.3 80.83 70.8, 54.5

21.02 22.10 14.11 33.45 27.47 35.40 27.59 39.90 39.90 13.38 8.60 23.02 22.34 45.63

Undecylic acid (α-) (n-) (β-) (n-) Urethane

C11H22O2 C11H22O2 C3H7NO2

28.25 48.7

32.20 42.91 40.85

Veratrol

C8H10O2

22.5

27.45

Xylene dibromide (o-) (m-) dichloride (o-) (m-) (p-)

C8H8Br2 C8H8Br2 C8H8Cl2 C8H8Cl2 C8H8Cl2

95 77 55 34 100

24.25 21.45 29.03 26.64 32.73

2-120 TABLE 2-69 Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (J/kmol) Cmpd. no.* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia Anisole Argon Benzamide Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile

Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O Ar C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N

CAS 75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 7440-37-1 55-21-0 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-07

C2

C3

C4

Tmin , K

ΔHv at Tmin × 1E-07

44.05256 59.0672 60.052 102.08864 58.07914 41.0519 26.03728 56.06326 72.06266 53.0626 28.96 17.03052 108.13782 39.948 121.13658 78.11184 110.17684 122.12134 103.1213 182.2179 108.13782 136.19098 124.20342 154.2078 159.808 157.0079 108.965 94.93852 54.09044 54.09044 58.1222 90.121 90.121 74.1216 74.1216 56.10632 56.10632 56.10632 116.15828 134.21816 90.1872 90.1872 54.09044 72.10572 88.1051 69.1051

3.4088 9.9475 6.127546 5.8564 4.9258 3.8345 1.7059 6.6599 4.3756 4.3052 0.74587 3.1523 7.6926 0.84215 8.7809 5.0007 6.081621 11.374 6.4966 10.523 8.4762 8.2051 11.544 7.6737 5.5242 5.0392 3.9247 3.1988 3.039582 3.8018 3.6238 9.4943 11.344 7.1274 7.5007 3.3774 4.3478 3.8671 8.8262 8.0911 5.0883 4.7563 4.3143 4.17 6.1947 5.1323

0.043317 0.94835 3.683421 0.33055 1.0809 0.033941 -0.52025 2.2443 2.2571 0.095188 0.47571 0.3914 1.4255 0.28333 0.1933 0.65393 0.2724357 1.4864 0.54598 0.87091 0.35251 1.4438 2.2311 0.28923 1.5015 -0.2027 0.28886 0.2896 0.2698591 0.90446 0.8337 0.64824 1.4414 0.0483 0.09616 0.5107 1.3196 1.0672 1.7772 1.2599 0.47166 0.49657 1.0149 0.23488 1.6524 0.32362

0.21502 -0.51011 -6.193052 -0.057073 -1.3684 0.34283 1.0982 -2.9192 -4.5116 0.47381 -0.71131 -0.2289 -1.6901 0.033281 0.30877 -0.27698 0.4430641 -2.3097 -0.42255 -0.45568 0.43853 -1.8053 -2.5186 0.34048 -1.7185 1.2207 0.38616 0.0344 -0.3789853 -0.74555 -0.82274 -0.24961 -1.9412 0.8966 1.1444 -0.17304 -1.5096 -1.2574 -1.926 -1.2911 -0.0078998 -0.13123 -0.99196 0.020947 -2.8505 0.16979

0.23791 0.015094 2.977694 0.083671 0.69723 -0.13415 -0.29832 1.1113 2.5738 -0.26294 0.60517 0.2309 0.72371 0.030551 -0.14162 0.029569 -0.3449689 1.4025 0.2597

149.780 353.150 289.810 200.150 178.450 229.315 192.400 185.450 286.150 189.630 59.150 195.410 235.650 83.780 403.000 278.680 258.270 395.450 260.280 321.350 257.850 275.650 243.950 342.200 265.850 242.430 154.250 179.440 136.950 164.250 134.860 220.000 196.150 183.850 158.450 87.800 134.260 167.620 199.650 185.300 157.460 133.020 147.430 176.800 250.000 161.300

3.23240 6.36890 2.44660 5.14960 3.66050 3.52490 1.62620 3.63950 2.79650 3.89890 0.63247 2.52980 5.10000 0.65440 7.12860 3.49320 5.06340 6.94850 5.33600 7.48950 6.88000 5.24700 6.26740 6.11280 3.28440 4.71870 3.42380 2.75620 2.82540 2.76410 2.86840 7.58750 8.14880 6.36430 6.59780 3.01970 3.10310 2.77200 5.32550 5.94710 4.37960 4.18430 3.20490 3.77230 4.16190 4.57590

-0.3026 0.79682 0.83063 -0.26011 0.6614 -0.70705 -0.35786 0.0114 0.5165115 0.24234 0.39613 0.058188 1.035 -0.5116 -0.78448 0.05181 0.63987 0.62539 0.63659 0.47381 -0.071247 0.027307 0.40891 0.086255 1.6285 -0.18921

Tmax , K 466.000 761.000 591.950 606.000 508.200 545.500 308.300 506.000 615.000 540.000 132.450 405.650 645.600 150.860 824.000 562.050 689.000 751.000 702.300 830.000 720.150 662.000 718.000 773.000 584.150 670.150 503.800 464.000 452.000 425.000 425.120 680.000 676.000 563.100 535.900 419.500 435.500 428.600 575.400 660.500 570.100 554.000 440.000 537.200 615.700 585.400

ΔHv at Tmax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide

CO2 CS2 CO CCl4 CF4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S

124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0 56-23-5 75-73-0 7782-50-5 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6 108-39-4 95-48-7 106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0 110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2

44.0095 76.1407 28.0101 153.8227 88.0043 70.906 112.5569 64.5141 119.37764 50.4875 78.54068 78.54068 108.13782 108.13782 108.13782 120.19158 52.0348 56.10632 84.15948 100.15888 98.143 82.1436 70.1329 68.11702 42.07974 116.22448 156.2652 142.28168 172.265 158.28108 140.2658 174.34668 138.24992 4.0316 187.86116 187.86116 173.83458 130.22792 147.00196 147.00196 147.00196 98.95916 98.95916 84.93258 112.98574 112.98574 105.13564 73.13684 74.1216 90.1872

2.173 4.0359 0.8585 4.6113 1.9311 3.068 4.6746 3.253 5.3032 2.442 3.93706 3.9033 6.87 13.355 8.0979 7.5255 2.3558 3.6762 5.193 5.5761 6.6898 4.698 3.4216 3.6524 2.7681 6.7798 9.0851 8.7515 12.531 7.9041 6.6985 8.4103 10.603 0.11867 4.7061 6.057225 6.1207 6.4978 5.3065 6.4394 7.0416 4.7631 5.6489 4.8739 5.6495 4.2593 12.931 2.595917 5.947 4.7806

0.382 1.0897 0.4921 0.55241 0.94983 0.8458 0.013055 0.321 1.0366 -0.298 0.14297 0.3867 -0.39158 2.3486 -0.33815 1.3714 -0.29499 0.76666 1.0019 -1.7498 1.0012 0.44894 -0.21723 0.17652 0.44645 1.1402 1.3026 1.3204 0.76281 -1.36 0.76944 0.40556 1.7758 -0.31087 0.098096 1.372193 1.2282 0.77464 0.20288 0.67955 0.96641 1.0048 1.0038 0.9583 1.0359 -0.0038971 1.2215 -1.334101 1.6416 0.39507

-0.4339 -1.6483 -0.326 -0.18725 -1.0615 -0.9001 0.51777 -0.252 -0.79572 0.87 0.55088 0.008595 1.7208 -2.5463 2.3495 -1.5024 0.34496 -0.74793 -1.0159 4.5168 -0.96028 0.070295 1.0245 0.2777 -0.28756 -1.1701 -1.6803 -1.2441 -0.32459 4.0854 -0.79975 0.34553 -1.6849 0.28353 0.20134 -2.053024 -1.1989 -0.67379 0.039962 -0.58058 -0.86362 -1.2457 -0.7936 -0.79374 -0.98747 0.58142 -1.3197 2.366723 -1.7394 -0.028657

0.42213 0.9779 0.2231 0.022973 0.51894 0.453 -0.18852 0.295 0.16746 -0.271 -0.3511 -0.016793 -0.97478 0.74218 -1.7015 0.59731 0.24271 0.35979 0.46332 -2.4034 0.37622 -0.14736 -0.49752 -0.10817 0.21791 0.45855 0.86441 0.38061 0.054808 -2.3871 0.42379 -0.4009 0.38281 0.34543 0.22064 1.161394 0.40137 0.31825 0.12466 0.36746 0.32976 0.67919 0.17013 0.28069 0.39006 -0.23734 0.50585 -0.7871881 0.5831 0.014929

216.580 161.110 68.130 250.330 89.560 172.120 227.950 136.750 209.630 175.430 150.350 155.970 285.390 304.190 307.930 177.140 245.250 182.480 279.690 296.600 242.000 169.670 179.280 138.130 145.590 189.640 285.000 243.510 304.550 280.050 206.890 247.560 229.150 18.730 210.150 282.850 220.600 175.300 248.390 256.150 326.140 176.190 237.490 178.010 192.500 172.710 301.150 223.350 156.850 169.200

1.52020 3.17860 0.65166 3.47600 1.42150 2.28780 4.32240 2.95540 3.65460 2.41470 3.56930 3.36320 6.37340 6.06020 6.57120 5.41880 2.33890 2.81720 3.38860 6.25790 4.84470 3.98460 3.30460 3.37950 2.33840 5.10540 6.02700 5.60450 8.84640 8.29590 5.35240 6.81720 6.07920 0.12605 4.35520 4.06410 4.18700 5.24340 4.77510 5.09850 4.68520 3.62860 3.84750 3.58500 4.13210 4.03570 8.64260 3.35400 3.75450 4.15460

304.210 552.000 132.920 556.350 227.510 417.150 632.350 460.350 536.400 416.250 503.150 489.000 705.850 697.550 704.650 631.000 400.150 459.930 553.800 650.100 653.000 560.400 511.700 507.000 398.000 664.000 674.000 617.700 722.100 688.000 616.600 696.000 619.850 38.350 628.000 650.150 611.000 584.100 683.950 705.000 684.750 523.000 561.600 510.000 560.000 572.000 736.600 496.600 466.700 557.150

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (Continued )

2-121

2-122 TABLE 2-69 Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (J/kmol) (Continued ) Cmpd. no.* 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141

Name 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Diisopropyl amine Diisopropyl ether Diisopropyl ketone 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine Dodecane Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid

Formula C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O C4H10O2 C5H12O2 C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2 C12H10O C6H15N C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2 C8H16O2

CAS

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-07

75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0 534-15-6 7778-85-0 503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6 75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1 101-84-8 142-84-7 112-40-3 112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4 149-57-5

66.04997 66.04997 52.02339 101.19 102.17476 114.18546 90.121 104.14758 54.09044 45.08368 86.17536 112.21264 112.21264 112.21264 94.19904 46.06844 73.09378 100.20194 194.184 60.17042 62.134 78.13344 194.184 88.10512 170.2072 101.19 170.33484 282.54748 30.069 46.06844 88.10512 45.08368 106.165 150.1745 116.15828 116.15828 112.21264 98.18606 28.05316 60.09832 62.06784 43.0678 44.05256 74.07854 144.211

3.663 4.2313 3.3907 2.8258 4.630224 5.2429 4.3872 4.7999 3.6881 3.4422 4.8054 5.5503 5.4479 5.8702 5.8328 2.6377 5.9186 5.3387 10.263 2.919 4.5493 7.0161 7.66109 5.0368 6.9745 7.993218 10.962 12.86 2.1091 6.5831 4.8272 4.275 7.4288 6.8245 8.7212 5.7624 6.0933 5.7997 2.0639 5.6091 8.9207 4.7462 4.4514 4.4151 11.08845

C2 0.93553 0.90591 1.1148 -1.5731 1.265631 0.80535 0.56226 0.30724 0.37958 -0.49774 1.0013 0.7692 0.56826 1.0022 0.99061 -0.072806 0.37731 0.9509 1.504 0.47315 0.81834 0.9938 0.36322 0.37438 0.43414 1.697066 1.5544 0.50351 0.60646 1.1905 0.2372 0.5857 1.6218 1.071 0.79255 0.46881 0.96339 1.0161 0.80153 0.077011 0.83021 0.37327 1.1569 0.51536 0.7029

C3

C4

Tmin , K

ΔHv at Tmin × 1E-07

-0.9806 -0.59583 -1.2957 2.9709 -2.325122 -1.4147 -0.60662 -0.024545 -0.22063 1.8024 -1.0356 -0.56915 -0.29095 -1.0188 -0.9035 0.54324 0.0051489 -0.97007 -2.441 -0.19035 -0.47199 -1.4767 -0.28551 -0.0004344 -0.26069 -1.895364 -1.5358 0.32986 -0.55492 -1.7666 0.32434 -0.332 -2.0278 -1.943 -0.64882 -0.14511 -0.94933 -0.92313 -0.8128 0.66595 -0.88126 0.047488 -1.2336 -0.39281 -0.10529

0.46753 0.074323 0.58214 -1.1073 1.525306 1.0288 0.4202 0.091361 0.21968 -0.97741 0.4668 0.2328 0.15397 0.46949 0.34792 -0.13977 -0.0027682 0.44354 1.388 0.078322 0.047802 0.97462 0.23966 0.0050378 0.15024 0.6664379 0.46286 -0.42184 0.32799 1.0012 -0.19429 0.169 0.906 1.2788 0.28369 0.061942 0.44931 0.33212 0.4179 -0.43437 0.53255 0.045906 0.50875 0.28461 -0.17295

154.560 215.000 136.950 176.850 187.650 204.810 159.950 226.100 240.910 180.960 145.190 239.660 223.160 184.990 188.440 131.650 212.720 160.000 274.180 122.930 174.880 291.670 413.786 284.950 300.030 210.150 263.570 309.580 90.350 159.050 189.600 192.150 178.200 238.450 258.150 175.150 161.840 134.710 104.000 284.290 260.150 195.200 160.650 193.550 155.150

2.67130 2.78200 2.40150 3.76470 3.47860 4.33570 3.75280 4.05570 2.92830 3.29670 3.72820 4.11250 4.36640 4.47370 4.43890 2.54380 5.09300 4.16640 7.17430 2.50210 3.43160 5.27280 6.19680 3.92500 5.84730 4.77500 6.52590 9.59330 1.78790 5.00600 4.16260 3.29550 5.08620 5.40830 6.51870 4.92230 4.84420 4.65290 1.59660 4.62220 6.87400 3.96760 3.19090 3.63270 9.30840

Tmax , K 386.440 445.000 351.255 523.100 500.050 576.000 507.800 543.000 473.200 437.200 500.000 591.150 606.150 596.150 615.000 400.100 649.600 537.300 766.000 402.000 503.040 729.000 777.400 587.000 766.800 550.000 658.000 768.000 305.320 514.000 523.300 456.150 617.150 698.000 655.000 571.000 609.150 569.500 282.340 593.000 720.000 537.000 469.150 508.400 674.600

ΔHv at Tmax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191

Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 Heptadecane Heptanal Heptane Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene 3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid

C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12 C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10 H4N2 H2 BrH ClH CHN FH H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4

5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 462-06-6 353-36-6 593-53-3 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 629-78-7 111-71-7 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6 928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2 302-01-2 1333-74-0 10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2

130.22792 88.14818 100.15888 62.13404 102.1317 88.14818 163.506 37.9968064 96.1023032 48.0595 34.03292 30.02598 45.04062 46.0257 68.07396 4.0026 240.46774 114.18546 100.20194 130.185 116.20134 116.20134 114.18546 114.18546 98.18606 132.26694 96.17018 226.44116 100.15888 86.17536 116.158 102.17476 102.175 100.15888 100.15888 84.15948 82.1436 118.24036 82.1436 82.1436 32.04516 2.01588 80.91194 36.46094 27.02534 20.0063432 34.08088 88.10512 59.11026 104.06146

6.6828 4.2527 5.6735 4.292 5.033 5.438 5.0124 0.89107 3.7517 2.4749 1.9302 2.9575 5.8307 2.3195 4.4388 0.012504 15.97 4.7135 5.2516 12.916 7.0236 11.119 6.067 6.2857 4.9437 6.7011 4.8235 14.979 5.3802 4.3848 9.0746 7.035 9.591 5.5382 5.8213 4.249938 4.282053 5.9346 6.8856 6.0629 5.9794 0.10127 1.5513 3.4872 3.3907 13.451 2.6092 4.0385 5.6917 7.7143

0.6664 0.42014 0.85864 0.93726 -0.023028 0.60624 0.48381 0.48888 -0.33542 0.18492 -0.2029 0.098296 -0.62844 1.9091 0.82914 1.3038 1.977 -0.27964 0.51283 1.4923 -1.3652 1.3264 0.18619 0.3899 0.35428 0.38694 0.35765 1.89 0.52771 0.34057 0.8926 -0.9575 1.236 0.19854 0.44196 0.52336 0.5862582 0.41114 1.9737 1.1597 0.9424 0.698 -0.80615 2.1553 0.43574 13.36 0.47883 0.82698 1.2441 -1.0139

-0.4545 -0.17341 -1.1249 -1.0593 0.84791

0.20227 0.14204 0.69714 0.54636 -0.44199

-0.1946 -0.44035 1.0497 -0.21197 0.65339 0.28373 1.6751 -5.0003 -0.72757 -2.6954 -2.2318 0.89761 -0.10982 -1.3795 3.987 -1.1057 0.47762 0.17742 0.22149 0.24973 -0.060379 -2.0762 -0.4757 0.063282 -0.75172 3.1431 -1.359 0.47139 0.090968 -0.57323 -0.9710554 0.043753 -2.4886 -0.99686 -1.398 -1.817 1.1788 -2.9128 -0.56984 –23.383 -0.2233 -2.033 -1.0742 2.2898

0.12282 0.31792 -0.40021 0.36038 -0.16704 -0.77554 3.2641 0.33552 1.7098 0.78544 -0.33523 -0.01018 0.39603 -2.2545 0.36023 -0.26967 -0.19455 -0.2353 -0.26228 0.045749 0.71724 0.3242 -0.017037 0.34378 -1.8066 0.717 -0.31556 -0.15346 0.45101 0.8523437 -0.081964 0.99472 0.32547 0.8862 1.447 -0.070978 1.2442 0.36017 10.785 0.12903 1.4769 0.32331 -0.91517

180.000 140.000 204.150 125.260 199.250 145.650 167.550 53.480 230.940 129.950 131.350 155.150 275.700 250.000 196.290 2.200 295.130 229.800 182.570 265.830 239.150 220.000 234.150 238.150 154.120 229.920 192.220 291.310 214.930 177.830 269.250 228.550 223.000 217.350 217.500 133.390 170.050 192.620 141.250 183.650 274.690 13.950 185.150 158.970 259.830 277.560 187.680 227.150 177.950 409.150

5.46390 3.73840 4.45040 3.50010 4.53900 4.41400 4.29170 0.75083 3.69360 2.31740 1.89050 2.69310 6.17220 1.88650 3.27960 0.00966 8.59730 4.69820 4.31810 7.80040 7.64980 7.18220 5.16400 5.08510 4.32080 5.51330 4.15950 8.19340 4.49940 3.75320 6.47830 7.15090 6.46500 4.75590 4.70770 3.75440 3.73310 5.08670 4.44750 4.26690 4.52380 0.09131 1.81940 1.74720 2.79840 0.71043 1.97460 3.55340 3.74360 8.31300

583.000 489.000 567.000 499.150 546.000 500.230 559.950 144.120 560.090 375.310 317.420 420.000 771.000 588.000 490.150 5.200 736.000 620.000 540.200 677.300 632.300 608.300 606.600 611.400 537.400 645.000 547.000 723.000 594.000 507.600 660.200 611.300 585.300 587.610 582.820 504.000 544.000 623.000 516.200 549.000 653.150 33.190 363.150 324.650 456.650 461.150 373.530 605.000 471.850 834.000

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (Continued )

2-123

2-124 TABLE 2-69 Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (J/kmol) (Continued ) Cmpd. no.* 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236

Name Methacrylic acid Methane Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl -1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl Isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane

Formula C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N C8H8O2 C5H8 C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S C5H8 C5H10O2 CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10

CAS

Mol. wt.

79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5 93-58-3 598-25-4 78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5 598-23-2 623-42-7 993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9 96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5

86.08924 16.0425 32.04186 73.09378 74.07854 40.06386 86.08924 31.0571 136.14792 68.11702 72.14878 102.1317 88.1482 70.1329 70.1329 66.10114 88.14818 104.214 68.11702 102.1317 80.5889 98.18606 114.18546 114.18546 114.18546 84.15948 82.1436 82.1436 115.03396 60.09502 72.10572 76.1606 60.05196 88.14818 100.15888 57.05132 74.1216 86.1323 90.1872 48.10746 100.11582 158.23802 86.17536 102.17476 58.1222

C1 × 1E-07 176.7855 1.0194 3.2615 6.8795 4.329 3.0066 6.2689 4.2834 5.8474 4.2709 4.233 8.223 10.165 4.5217 4.897 4.5822 4.4918 6.8872 3.1821 5.1299 4.4696 5.3789 7.7573 9.4404 9.4625 5.1137 4.2603 4.2081 4.8242 3.7592 5.2256 4.9455 4.7691 4.266 8.1495 3.2575 3.8148 2.7567 4.0063 3.0851 5.6613 10.53 5.0351 5.0003 3.9654

C2 16.29674 0.26087 -1.0407 0.012343 0.18771 0.25873 1.6462 0.90615 -0.6042 0.70788 0.95448 0.80923 1.4422 1.0678 1.1838 1.3506 0.32576 1.2703 -0.89979 0.10033 1.1838 0.71218 0.56959 0.8722 0.88768 0.98237 0.34248 0.43515 1.3456 0.64544 0.9427 0.78235 0.98928 0.37791 1.8479 -0.58542 0.38959 -1.6298 -0.17489 -0.29985 0.3132 0.7454 1.1424 0.42203 1.274

C3

C4

Tmin , K

ΔHv at Tmin × 1E-07

–28.8053 -0.14694 1.8695 0.77544 0.33528 0.033435 -2.2795 -0.93138 2.1528 -0.67299 -0.98289 -0.70838 -1.6123 -1.1735 -1.2079 -1.6049 0.1124 -1.2699 2.8579 0.64085 -0.87047 -0.28902 0.7221 -0.33173 -0.39167 -0.90553 -0.088074 -0.24963 -1.5783 -0.46384 -1.0868 -0.56637 -0.98574 0.0037827 -2.1328 1.4307 -0.15805 3.0001 0.94886 1.4733 0.57076 -0.39297 -1.3269 -0.14687 -1.4255

14.522 0.22154 -0.60801 -0.4379 -0.17125 0.087053 1.0975 0.4776 -1.2871 0.43009 0.45719 0.32497 0.75941 0.55525 0.43353 0.71575 -0.067377 0.44562 -1.7826 -0.38359 0.056694 -0.014989 -0.86278 -0.10938 -0.057899 0.34878 0.13072 0.20811 0.61746 0.21809 0.55491 0.22052 0.42695 -0.001928 0.76628 -0.54833 0.15228 -1.1865 -0.44746 -0.89559 -0.46309 0.047214 0.62481 0.11507 0.60708

288.150 90.690 175.470 301.150 175.150 170.450 196.320 179.690 260.750 159.530 113.250 193.000 155.950 135.580 139.390 160.150 157.480 175.300 183.450 187.350 139.050 146.580 299.150 280.150 269.150 130.730 146.620 168.540 182.550 160.000 186.480 167.230 174.150 188.000 189.150 256.150 127.930 180.150 171.640 150.180 224.950 240.000 119.550 176.000 113.540

4.28480 0.87235 3.97480 5.97080 3.83890 2.56480 4.04870 3.09550 5.78260 3.46030 3.43450 6.57690 7.27510 3.46420 3.61390 3.20970 3.94480 4.96500 3.25930 4.58370 3.16280 4.45440 5.13430 6.16980 6.31440 4.10400 3.84130 3.63850 3.24190 2.98760 3.98780 3.90650 3.51240 3.56270 4.98940 3.22260 3.39970 3.74640 3.89410 2.99210 4.46890 8.11060 3.97590 4.30250 2.93300

Tmax , K 662.000 190.564 512.500 718.000 506.550 402.400 536.000 430.050 693.000 490.000 460.400 643.000 577.200 465.000 470.000 492.000 512.740 593.000 463.200 554.500 442.000 572.100 686.000 614.000 617.000 532.700 542.000 526.000 483.000 437.800 535.500 533.000 487.200 497.000 574.600 488.000 464.480 553.400 553.100 469.950 566.000 694.000 497.700 546.490 407.800

ΔHv at Tmax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286

2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane alpha-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Nonadecane Nonanal Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane Octanal Octane Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan

C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si C9H10 C5H12O C3H6O C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 N2 F 3N CH3NO2 N 2O NO C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2 C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S

75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9 98-83-9 1634-04-4 107-25-5 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2 75-52-5 10024-97-2 10102-43-9 629-92-5 124-19-6 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3 124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7

74.1216 56.10632 88.10512 74.1216 90.1872 46.14384 118.1757 88.1482 58.07914 128.17052 20.1797 75.0666 28.0134 71.00191 61.04002 44.0128 30.0061 268.5209 142.23862 128.2551 158.238 144.2545 144.255 126.23922 160.3201 124.22334 254.49432 128.212 114.22852 144.211 130.22792 130.228 128.21204 128.21204 112.21264 146.29352 110.19676 90.03488 31.9988 47.9982 212.41458 86.1323 72.14878 102.132 88.1482 88.1482 86.1323 86.1323 70.1329 104.21378

2.2708 4.3172 4.9563 4.2364 5.7015 2.0613 5.3293 4.0052 3.2566 5.093 0.19063 3.8821 0.74905 1.8859 4.7494 2.2724 0.94287 17.161 4.5173 7.888 12.126 7.5429 14.251 5.9054 6.6716 8.7405 17.264 5.7746 6.7138 12.626 7.2468 12.581 11.048 6.6142 5.4859 7.3618 5.367 7.7236 0.9008 1.7289 10.052 5.2373 4.5087 7.3197 7.39 8.8703 5.3818 4.451 3.5027 5.0573

-3.8183 1.5334 0.22568 0.25325 1.0015 0.33885 0.15144 0.19309 0.10042 -0.44584 -0.048268 -1.2495 0.40406 1.0917 0.1535 0.22278 -2.0627 1.7444 -1.1627 1.3126 0.82704 -1.5966 1.418 0.61039 -0.70869 1.5599 2.167 0.16524 1.0769 1.1753 -1.2464 1.3269 2.5722 0.58562 0.26207 0.63204 0.31607 -0.55914 0.4542 0.12106 0.37778 1.0132 0.95886 1.2093 -0.1464 0.90566 0.35111 -0.5483 0.3481 0.45827

6.7137 -1.9 0.45949 0.58114 -0.95589 -0.63279 0.15411 0.20658 0.26926 1.0348 0.11183 3.2285 -0.317 -1.4143 0.49623 0.29352 3.2659 -1.6657 2.3227 -1.3571 -0.42449 4.6489 -0.53849 -0.54533 2.636 -1.7205 -2.6262 0.095968 -1.0124 -0.835 3.6797 -0.69134 -3.7155 -0.40512 0.50642 -0.29459 0.073613 1.8363 -0.4096 0.088716 0.50709 -1.6348 -0.92384 -1.9114 1.4751 -0.67627 0.40264 2.1051 -0.19672 -0.22568

-2.7247 0.83816 -0.31541 -0.4757 0.38421 0.6454 0.066538 -0.010244 -0.0003252 -0.19528 0.25512 -1.8283 0.27343 0.76165 -0.38464 -0.13493 -1.0186 0.43242 -0.89716 0.5034 0.08636 -2.7229 -0.33162 0.30683 -1.6685 0.64325 1.0161 0.10146 0.37075 0.1489 -2.0665 -0.08027 1.7307 0.22144 -0.43873 0.063444 -0.040895 -0.85806 0.3183 0.10749 -0.46599 1.0473 0.39393 1.1591 -0.9208 0.3485 -0.42577 -1.3486 0.22394 0.16393

298.970 132.810 185.650 133.970 160.170 116.340 249.950 164.550 151.150 353.430 24.560 183.630 63.150 66.460 244.600 182.300 109.500 305.040 267.300 219.660 285.550 268.150 238.150 191.910 253.050 223.150 301.310 251.650 216.380 289.650 257.650 241.550 252.850 255.550 171.450 223.950 193.550 462.650 54.360 80.150 283.070 191.590 143.420 239.150 195.560 200.000 196.290 234.180 108.016 160.750

4.65420 2.92920 4.26690 3.73780 4.42340 1.90240 4.79340 3.60720 2.99980 5.09530 0.17706 4.54440 0.60243 1.46720 4.05640 1.66660 1.44210 9.52160 5.47060 5.25710 8.59240 8.24110 8.32860 4.92180 6.54750 5.46000 8.94580 5.17550 4.69860 7.96680 7.67930 7.57060 5.50930 5.20760 4.79270 5.90250 4.67380 6.56310 0.77419 1.63130 7.76350 4.12150 3.47660 5.38130 6.70050 6.48970 4.45330 4.22720 3.22320 4.43430

506.200 417.900 530.600 476.250 565.000 352.500 654.000 497.100 437.000 748.400 44.400 593.000 126.200 234.000 588.150 309.570 180.150 758.000 658.500 594.600 710.700 670.900 649.500 593.100 681.000 598.050 747.000 638.900 568.700 694.260 652.300 629.800 632.700 627.700 566.900 667.300 574.000 828.000 154.580 261.000 708.000 566.100 469.700 639.160 588.100 561.000 561.080 560.950 464.800 584.300

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (Continued )

2-125

2-126 TABLE 2-69 Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (J/kmol) (Continued ) Cmpd. no.* 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321

Name Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate Propyl amine Propylbenzene Propylene Propyl formate 2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene

Formula C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C9H14 C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N C9H12 C3H6 C4H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8 C4H6O4 O 2S F 6S O 3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12

CAS 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9 85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6 79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4 107-10-8 103-65-1 115-07-1 110-74-7 75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5 110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-07

C2

C3

C4

Tmin , K

ΔHv at Tmin × 1E-07

104.21378 68.11702 68.11702 178.2292 94.11124 119.1207 148.11556 40.06386 44.09562 60.09502 60.095 122.20746 58.07914 74.0785 55.0785 102.1317 59.11026 120.19158 42.07974 88.10512 76.16062 76.16062 76.09442 108.09476 104.07911 104.14912 118.08804 64.0638 146.0554192 80.0632 166.13084 230.30376 198.388 72.10572 132.20228

5.4925 5.1346 5.4839 10.336 6.283 7.3079 18.461 2.8092 2.9209 6.8988 8.502 5.9068 3.3611 4 4.6242 6.4745 3.4054 7.2986 2.5216 5.7631 4.2077 4.4542 7.097812 6.2374 2.3637 8.6409 11.447 2.846 1.3661 0.8509 11.928 13.0705 12.007 4.0907 10.07

0.38608 1.3829 0.98943 1.0678 -0.64878 1.3522 3.6123 0.30398 0.78237 0.6458 1.474 0.44605 -0.27575 1.3936 0.12029 0.93113 -0.29885 1.2428 0.33721 0.70122 0.33823 0.31385 -0.5348227 0.73316 0.32997 1.8893 -0.04418 -0.24905 -1.1465 -7.1061 -0.063031 1.329955 1.445 0.12318 1.994

0.12415 -1.6264 -0.46159 -1.0693 2.4219 -1.6409 -5.1111 0.017572 -0.77319 -0.5384 -1.878 -0.18075 0.66467 -2.9465 0.62187 -0.65971 0.72173 -1.361 -0.18399 -0.15754 0.2503 0.30517 1.770112 -1.3874 0.055931 -2.1943 1.1282 0.62158 1.5442 11.558 0.89651 -1.300762 -1.3846 0.46123 -2.5052

-0.13245 0.67069 -0.064298 0.39121 -1.4972 0.66839 1.9668 0.10232 0.39246 0.3317 0.933 0.13426

197.450 167.450 163.830 372.380 314.060 243.150 404.150 136.870 85.470 146.950 185.258 199.000 165.000 252.450 180.370 178.150 188.360 173.550 87.890 180.250 142.610 159.950 213.150 388.850 186.350 242.540 460.850 197.670 223.150 289.950 700.150 329.350 279.010 164.650 237.380

4.65540 3.49690 3.99170 7.05940 5.77350 4.95580 6.24970 2.44810 2.47870 5.83560 5.61950 5.07850 3.43940 3.09220 4.16430 4.85340 3.46570 5.46050 2.31770 4.44670 3.70860 3.88960 7.23780 4.92650 1.48720 4.92460 8.50610 2.79080 1.62200 4.41460 7.16890 8.42870 7.33360 3.74660 6.02700

1.794 -0.48327 0.17587 -0.080173 0.56435 0.22377 -0.11477 -0.21085 -0.24568 -0.9904166 1.0391 -0.011041 0.81388 -0.67562 -0.020421 -0.15766 -4.483 -0.5152 0.5044183 0.42836 -0.23807 1.0593

Tmax , K 598.000 481.200 519.000 869.000 694.250 653.000 791.000 394.000 369.830 536.800 508.300 636.000 503.600 600.810 561.300 549.730 496.950 638.350 364.850 538.000 517.000 536.600 626.000 683.000 259.000 636.000 838.000 430.750 318.690 490.850 883.600 857.000 693.000 540.150 720.000

ΔHv at Tmax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345

Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

88.17132 114.22852 84.13956 92.13842 133.40422 184.36142 101.19 59.11026 120.19158 120.19158 114.22852 114.22852 213.10452 227.1311 156.30826 172.30766 86.08924 52.07456 62.49822 161.48972 18.01528 106.165 106.165 106.165

5.2918 3.8116 5.2472 5.4643 4.1283 11.72 4.6139 5.1056 7.0138 7.8955 5.935 6.0778 10.688 1.9497 10.136 8.7274 4.6643 3.649 4.2629 4.3817 5.66 6.493 6.5393 6.6475

0.57615 -0.60048 0.78829 0.76764 -0.34796 1.6004 0.41881 1.6568 1.0377 1.513 1.1967 1.207 0.38045 -8.4859 1.5084 -1.5834 0.50913 0.4 1.0111 0.26434 0.612041 1.0653 0.98813 1.1739

-0.32236 1.6501 -0.47503 -0.62056 1.0118 -1.6689 -0.23744 -1.6244 -1.1841 -1.9061 -1.2686 -1.3449 -0.00074017 17.865 -1.473 5.0913 -0.55117 0.043 -0.48757 0.034522 -0.625697 -1.1205 -0.91617 -1.2812

0.15218 -0.73052 0.098333 0.25935 -0.32712 0.56396 0.20257 0.41985 0.56211 0.85016 0.51652 0.58 0.0003222 –10.196 0.44521 -3.2171 0.45397 -0.045787 0.071549 0.398804 0.48226 0.35023 0.54229

176.990 373.960 234.940 178.180 236.500 267.760 158.450 156.080 247.790 229.330 165.780 172.220 398.400 354.000 247.570 288.450 180.350 173.150 119.360 178.350 273.160 225.300 247.980 286.410

4.49330 3.17800 3.81710 4.40060 4.13030 6.97470 4.05710 3.08740 5.12030 5.22830 4.34440 4.47800 8.39050 8.84860 6.19520 8.90070 3.97880 2.98760 3.21450 3.91430 4.49810 4.68030 4.65030 4.30350

631.950 568.000 579.350 591.750 602.000 675.000 535.150 433.250 664.500 649.100 543.800 573.500 846.000 828.000 639.000 703.900 519.130 454.000 432.000 543.150 647.096 617.000 630.300 616.200

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

The heat of vaporization ΔHv is calculated by 2

ΔHv = C1(1 - Tr)(C2+C3Tr+C4Tr ) where Tr = T/TC, TC is the critical temperature from Table 2-106, ΔHv is in J/kmol, and T is in K. All substances are listed by chemical family in Table 2-6 and by formula. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 801 Critically Evaluated Gold Standard Database, copyright 2016 AIChE, and reproduced with permission of AIChE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, T. A. Knotts, and N. F. Giles, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York NY (2016).

2-127

2-128

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

SPECIFIC HEATS SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUnDS Unit Conversions For this subsection, the following unit conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5°C + 32 and °R = 1.8 K. To convert calories per gram-kelvin to British thermal units (Btu) per pound-degree Rankine, multiply by 1.0.

To convert kilojoules per kilogram-kelvin to British thermal units per pounddegree Rankine, multiply by 0.2388. Additional References Additional data are contained in the subsection “Thermodynamic Properties.” Data on water are also contained in that subsection.

TABLE 2-70 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds*

Substance Aluminum1 Al AlBr3 AlCl3 AlCl3⋅6H2O AlF3 AlF3⋅3½H2O AlF3⋅3NaF AlI3 Al2O3 Al2O3⋅SiO2 3Al2O3⋅2SiO2 4Al2O3⋅3SiO2 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3⋅18H2O Antimony Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 Sb2O3 Sb2O4 Sb2S3 Argon2 A Arsenic As AsCl3 As2O3 As2S3 Barium BaCl2 BaCl2⋅H2O BaCl2⋅2H2O Ba(ClO3)2⋅H2O BaCO3

State



Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/(mol⋅K)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

273–931 931–1273 273–370 370–407 273–465 465–504 288–327 288–326 288–326 273–1273 1273–1373 273–464 464–480 273–1973 273–1573 273–1673 273–1573 273–576 273–575 273–373 288–325

1 5 3 5 3 3 ? ? ? 2 ? 3 5 3 3 2 3 5 3 ? ?

c l c l c l c c c c l c l c c, sillimanite c, disthene c, andalusite c, mullite c c c

4.80 + 0.00322T 7.00 18.74 + 0.01866T 29.5 13.25 + 0.02800T 31.2 76 19.3 50.5 38.63 + 0.04760T - 449200/T 2 142 16.88 + 0.02266T 28.8 22.08 + 0.008971T - 522500/T 2 40.79 + 0.004763T - 992800/T 2 41.81 + 0.005283T - 1211000/T 2 43.96 + 0.001923T - 1086000/T 2 59.65 + 0.0670T 113.2 + 0.0652T 63.5 235

c l c c c c c

5.51 + 0.00178T 7.15 17.2 + 0.0293T 10.3 + 0.0511T 19.1 + 0.0171T 22.6 + 0.0162T 24.2 + 0.0132T

273–903 903–1273 273–370 273–346 273–929 273–1198 273–821

2 5 ? ? ? ? ?

g

4.97

All

0

c l c c

5.17 + 0.00234T 31.9 8.37 + 0.0486T 25.8

273–1168 286–371 273–548 293–373

5 ? ? ?

c c c c c, α c, β c c c

17.0 + 0.00334T 28.2 37.3 51 17.26 + 0.0131T 30.0 34 39.8 21.35 + 0.0141T

273–1198 273–307 273–307 289–320 273–1083 1083–1255 273–297 285–371 273–1323

? ? ? ? 5 15 ? ? 5

BaMoO4 Ba(NO3)2 BaSO4 Beryllium3,4 Be c 4.698 + 0.001555T - 121000/T 2 273–1173 1 BeO c 8.69 + 0.00365T - 313000/T 2 273–1175 5 BeO ⋅ Al2O3 c 25.4 273–373 ? BeSO4 c 20.8 273–373 ? *From Kelley, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 371, 1934. For a revision see Kelley, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 477, 1948. Data for many elements and compounds are given by Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960, for cryogenic temperatures. Tabulated data for gases can be obtained from many of the references cited in the “Thermodynamic Properties” subsection and other tables in this section. Thinh, Duran, et al., Hydrocarbon Process., 50, 98 (January 1971), review previous equation fits and give newer fits for 408 hydrocarbons and related compounds. Later publications include Duran, Thinh, et al., Hydrocarbon Process., 55, 153 (August 1976); Thompson, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 22(4), 431 (1977); and Passut and Danner, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 11, 543 (1972); 13, 193 (1974). † The symbols in this column have the following meaning; c, crystal; l, liquid; g, gas; gls, glass.

SPECIFIC HEATS TABLE 2-70 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

State†

Substance Bismuth4 Bi Bi2O3 Bi2S3 Boron B B2O3 BN Bromine Br2 Cadmium Cd CdO CdS CdSO4⋅8/3H2O Calcium Ca CaCl2 CaCO3 CaF2 CaMg(CO3)2 CaMoO4 CaO Ca(OH)2 CaO⋅Al2O3⋅2SiO2 CaO⋅MgO⋅2SiO2 CaO⋅SiO2 CaP2O6 CaSO4 CaSO4⋅2H2O CaWO4 Carbon5 C CH4 CO6 CO2 CS2 Cerium Ce CeO2 Ce2(MoO4)3 Ce2(SO4)3 Ce2(SO4)3⋅5H2O Cesium Cs CsBr CsCl CsF CsI Chlorine Cl2 Chromium4 Cr CrCl3 Cr2O3 CrSb CrSb2 Cr2(SO4)3 Cobalt4 Co CoAs2⋅CoS2 CoSb Co2Sn CoS CoSO4⋅7H2O

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/(mol⋅K)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

c l c c

5.38 + 0.00260T 7.60 23.27 + 0.01105T 30.4

273–544 544–1273 273–777 284–372

3 3 2 ?

c gls gls c

1.54 + 0.00440T 5.14 + 0.0320T 30.4 1.61 + 0.00400T

273–1174 273–513 513–623 273–1173

5 3 3 5

g

9.00

300–2000

5

c l c c c

5.46 + 0.002466T 7.13 9.65 + 0.00208T 12.9 + 0.00090T 51.3

273–594 594–973 273–2086 273–1273 293

1 5 ? ? ?

c c c c c c c c c c, anorthite gls c, diopside gls c, wollastonite c, pseudowollastonite gls c c c c

5.31 + 0.00333T 6.29 + 0.00140T 16.9 + 0.00386T 19.68 + 0.01189T - 307600/T 2 14.7 + 0.00380T 40.1 33 10.00 + 0.00484T - 108000/T 2 21.4 63.13 + 0.01500T - 1537000/T 2 67.41 + 0.01048T - 1874000/T 2 54.46 + 0.005746T - 1500000/T 2 51.68 + 0.009724T - 1308000/T 2 27.95 + 0.002056T - 745600/T 2 25.48 + 0.004132T - 488100/T 2 23.16 + 0.009672T - 487100/T 2 39.5 18.52 + 0.02197T - 156800/T 2 46.8 27.9

273–673 673–873 273–1055 273–1033 273–1651 299–372 273–297 273–1173 276–373 273–1673 273–973 273–1573 273–973 273–1573 273–1673 273–973 287–371 273–1373 282–373 292–322

2 2 ? 3 ? ? ? 2 ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ? 5 ? ?

c, graphite c, diamond g g g l

2.673 + 0.002617T - 116900/T 2 2.162 + 0.003059T - 130300/T 2 5.34 + 0.0115T 6.60 + 0.00120T 10.34 + 0.00274T - 195500/T 2 18.4

273–1373 273–1313 273–1200 273–2500 273–1200 293

2 3 2 1½ 1½ ?

c c c c c

5.88 + 0.00123T 15.1 96 66.4 131.6

273–908 273–373 273–297 273–373 273–319

? ? ? ? ?

c l g c c c c

1.96 + 0.0182T 8.00 4.97 12.6 + 0.00259T 11.7 + 0.00309T 11.3 + 0.00285T 11.6 + 0.00268T

273–301 302 All 273–909 273–752 273–957 273–894

3 3 0 ? ? ? ? 1½

g

8.28 + 0.00056T

273–2000

c l c c c c c

4.84 + 0.00295T 9.70 23 26.0 + 0.00400T 12.3 + 0.00120T 19.2 + 0.00184T 67.4

273–1823 1823–1923 286–319 273–2263 273–1383 273–949 273–373

5 10 ? ? ? ? ?

c l c c c c c

5.12 + 0.00333T 8.40 32.9 11.7 + 0.00156T 15.83 + 0.00950T 10.6 + 0.00251T 96

273–1763 1763–1873 283–373 273–1464 273–903 273–1373 286–303

5 5 ? ? 2 ? ? (Continued )

2-129

2-130

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-70 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

State†

Substance Copper7 Cu CuAl CuAl2 Cu3Al CuI CuI2 CuO CuO⋅SiO2⋅H2O CuS Cu2S CuS⋅FeS Cu2Sb Cu2Sb Cu2Se Cu3Si CuSO4 CuSO4⋅H2O CuSO4⋅3H2O CuSO4⋅5H2O Fluorine8 F2 Gallium Ga2O3 Ga2(SO4)3 Germanium4 Ge Gold Au AuSb2 Helium9 He Hydrogen10 H H2 HBr HCl HI H2O H2S H2S2O7 Indium In Iodine I2 Iridium Ir Iron4 Fe

FeAs2 Fe3C FeCO3 FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Fe2O3⋅3H2O FeS FeS2 FeSi Fe2SiO4 FeSO4 Fe2(SO4)3 FeSO4⋅4H2O FeSO4⋅7H2O Krypton Kr

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/(mol⋅K)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

273–1357 1357–1573 273–733 273–773 273–775 273–675 274–328 273–810 293–323 273–1273 273–376 376–1173 292–321 273–573 273–693 273–383 383–488 273–1135 282 282 282 282

1 3 2 2 2 ? ? 2 ? ? 3 2 ? 2 2 5 5 ? ? ? ? ?

c l c c c c c c c c c, α c, β c c c c, α c, β c c c c c

5.44 + 0.001462T 7.50 9.88 + 0.00500T 16.78 + 0.00366T 19.61 + 0.01054T 12.1 + 0.00286T 20.1 10.87 + 0.003576T - 150600/T 2 29 10.6 + 0.00264T 9.38 + 0.0312T 20.9 24 13.73 + 0.01350T 21.79 + 0.00900T 20.85 20.35 20.3 + 0.00587T 24.1 31.3 49.0 67.2

g

6.50 + 0.00100T

300–3000

5

c c

18.2 + 0.0252T 62.4

273–923 273–373

? ?

273–1336 1336–1573 273–628 628–713

2 5 1 ?

c c l c, α c, βγ

5.61 + 0.00144T 7.00 17.12 + 0.00465T 11.47 + 0.01756T

g

4.97

All

0

g g g g g l g g c l

4.97 6.62 + 0.00081T 6.80 + 0.00084T 6.70 + 0.00084T 6.93 + 0.00083T See Tables 2-72 and 2-136 8.22 + 0.00015T + 0.00000134T 2 7.20 + 0.00360T 27 58

All 273–2500 273–2000 273–2000 273–2000

0 2 2 1½ 2

300–2500 300–600 281 308

? 8 ? ?

g

9.00

300–2000

5

c

5.50 + 0.00148T

273–1873

1

c, α c, β c, γ c, δ l c c c c c c c c, α c, β c c c c c c c

4.13 + 0.00638T 6.12 + 0.00336T 8.40 10.0 8.15 17.8 25.17 + 0.00223T 22.7 12.62 + 0.001492T - 76200/T 2 24.72 + 0.01604T - 423400/T 2 41.17 + 0.01882T - 979500/T 2 47.8 2.03 + 0.0390T 12.05 + 0.00273T 10.7 + 0.01336T 10.54 + 0.00458T 33.57 + 0.01907T - 879700/T 2 22 66.2 63.6 96

273–1041 1041–1179 1179–1674 1674–1803 1803–1873 283–373 273–1173 293–368 273–1173 273–1097 273–1065 286–373 273–411 411–1468 273–773 273–903 273–1161 293–373 273–373 282 291–319

3 3 5 5 5 ? 10 ? 2 2 2 ? 5 3 ? 2 2 ? ? ? ?

g

4.97

c

All

0

SPECIFIC HEATS TABLE 2-70 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

State†

Substance Lanthanum La La2O3 La2(MoO4)3 La2(SO4)3 La2(SO4)3⋅9H2O Lead4 Pb Pb3(AsO4)2 PbB2O4 PbB4O7 PbBr2 PbCl2 2PbCl2⋅NH4Cl PbCO3 PbCrO4 PbF2 PbI2 PbMoO4 Pb(NO3)2 PbO PbO2 Pb2P2O7 PbS PbSO4 PbS2O3 PbWO4 Lithium Li LiBr LiBr⋅H2O LiCl LiCl⋅H2O LiF LiI LiI⋅H2O LiI⋅2H2O LiI⋅3H2O LiNO3 Magnesium4 Mg MgAg Mg4Al3 MgAu Mg2Au Mg3Au MgCl2 MgCl2⋅6H2O MgCO3 MgCu2 Mg2Cu MgNi2 MgO MgO⋅Al2O3 MgO⋅SiO2 6MgO⋅MgCl2⋅8B2O3 Mg(OH)2 Mg3Sb2 Mg2Si MgSO4 MgSO4⋅H2O MgSO4⋅6H2O MgSO4⋅7H2O

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/(mol⋅K)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

c c c c c

5.91 + 0.00100T 22.6 + 0.00544T 86 66.9 152

273–1009 273–2273 273–307 273–373 273–319

? ? ? ? ?

c l c c c c l c l c c c c c l c c c c c c c c c

5.77 + 0.00202T 6.8 65.5 26.5 41.4 18.13 + 0.00310T 27.4 15.88 + 0.00835T 27.2 53.1 21.1 29.1 16.5 + 0.00412T 18.66 + 0.00293T 32.3 30.4 36.4 10.33 + 0.00318T 12.7 + 0.00780T 48.3 10.63 + 0.00401T 26.4 29 35

273–600 600–1273 286–370 288–371 289–371 273–761 761–860 273–771 771–851 293 286–320 292–323 273–1091 273–648 648–776 292–322 286–320 273–544 273–? 284–371 273–873 293–372 293–373 273–297

2 5 ? ? ? 2 10 2 10 ? ? ? ? 2 20 ? ? 2 ? ? 3 ? ? ?

c g c c c c c c c c c c l

0.68 + 0.0180T 4.97 11.5 + 0.00302T 22.6 11.0 + 0.00339T 23.6 8.20 + 0.00520T 12.5 + 0.00208T 23.6 32.9 43.2 9.17 + 0.0360T 26.8

273–459 All 273–825 278–318 273–887 279–360 273–1117 273–723 277–359 277–345 277–347 273–523 523–575

10 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 5

c l c c c c c c c c c c c c c c, amphibole c, pyroxene gls c, α c, β c c c c c c c

6.20 + 0.00133T - 67800/T 2 7.4 10.58 + 0.00412T 34.4 + 0.0198T 11.3 + 0.00189T 16.2 + 0.00451T 21.2 + 0.00614T 17.3 + 0.00377T 77.1 16.9 14.96 + 0.00776T 15.5 + 0.00652T 15.87 + 0.00692T 10.86 + 0.001197T - 208700/T 2 28 25.60 + 0.004380T - 674200/T 2 23.35 + 0.008062T - 558800/T 2 23.30 + 0.007734T - 542000/T 2 58.7 + 0.408T 107.2 + 0.2876T 18.2 28.2 + 0.00560T 15.4 + 0.00415T 26.7 33 80 89

273–923 923–1048 273–905 273–736 273–1433 273–1073 273–1103 273–991 292–342 290 273–903 273–843 273–903 273–2073 288–319 273–1373 273–773 273–973 273–538 538–623 292–323 273–1234 273–1343 296–372 282 282 291–319

1 10 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3 ? 2 2 ? 1 1 1 5 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? (Continued )

2-131

2-132

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-70 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/(mol⋅K)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

c, α c, β c, γ l c c c c c c c c c c

3.76 + 0.00747T 5.06 + 0.00395T 4.80 + 0.00422T 11.0 16.2 + 0.00520T 7.79 + 0.0421T + 0.0000090T 2 7.43 + 0.01038T - 0.00000362T 2 10.33 + 0.0530T - 0.0000257T 2 19.25 + 0.0538T - 0.0000209T 2 1.92 + 0.0471T - 0.0000297T 2 31 10.21 + 0.00656T - 0.00000242T 2 27.5 78

273–1108 1108–1317 1317–1493 1493–1673 273–923 273–773 273–1923 273–1173 273–1773 273–773 291–322 273–1883 293–373 290–319

5 5 5 10 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

l g g c c c c c, α c, β c c c

6.61 4.97 9.00 11.05 + 0.00370T 15.3 + 0.0103T 25 11.4 + 0.00461T 17.4 + 0.004001T 20.2 11.5 10.9 + 0.00365T 31.0

273–630 All 300–2000 273–798 273–553 285–319 273–563 273–403 403–523 278–371 273–853 273–307

1 0 5 ? ? ? ? 3 3 ? ? ?

c c c

5.69 + 0.00188T - 50300/T 2 15.1 + 0.0121T 19.7 + 0.00315T

273–1773 273–1068 273–729

5 ? ?

g

4.97

All

0

c, α c, β l c c c c c c c c

4.26 + 0.00640T 6.99 + 0.000905T 8.55 11.3 + 0.00215T 9.25 + 0.00640T 15.8 + 0.00329T 10.0 + 0.00312T 20.78 + 0.0102T 33.4 82 11.00 + 0.00433T

g g c c, α c, β c c c g

6.50 + 0.00100T 6.70 + 0.00630T 22.8 9.80 + 0.0368T 5.0 + 0.0340T 17.8 31.8 51.6 8.05 + 0.000233T - 156300/T 2

300–3000 300–800 274–328 273–457 457–523 273–328 273–293 275–328 300–5000

3 1½ ? 5 5 ? ? ? 2

c

5.686 + 0.000875T

273–1877

1

300–5000

1

State†

Substance Manganese Mn

MnCl2 MnCO3 MnO Mn2O3 Mn3O4 MnO2 Mn2O3⋅H2O MnS MnSO4 MnSO4⋅5H2O Mercury11 Hg Hg2 HgCl HgCl2 Hg(CN)2 HgI HgI2 HgO HgS Hg2SO4 Molybdenum Mo MoO3 MoS2 Neon12 Ne Nickel4 Ni NiO NiS Ni2Si NiSi Ni3Sn NiSO4 NiSO4⋅6H2O NiTe Nitrogen13 N2 NH3 NH4Br NH4Cl NH4I NH4NO3 (NH4)2SO4 NO Osmium Os Oxygen14 O2 Palladium Pd Phosphorus P PCl3 P4O10 Platinum4 Pt Potassium K

273–626 626–1725 1725–1903 273–1273 273–597 273–1582 273–1273 273–904 293–373 291–325 273–700

2

2 5 10 ? 3 ? ? 2 ? ? 2

g

8.27 + 0.000258T - 187700/T

c

5.41 + 0.00184T

273–1822

2

c, yellow c, red l l c g

5.50 0.21 + 0.0180T 6.6 28.7 15.72 + 0.1092T 73.6

273–317 273–472 317–373 284–371 273–631 631–1371

5 10 10 ? 2 3

c

5.92 + 0.00116T

273–1873

1

c l

5.24 + 0.00555T 7.7

273–336 336–373

5 5

SPECIFIC HEATS TABLE 2-70 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

State†

Substance Potassium—(Cont.) K K2 KAsO3 KBO2 K2B4O7 KBr KCl KClO3 KClO4 2KCl⋅CuCl2⋅2H2O 2KCl⋅PtCl4 2KCl⋅SnCl4 2KCl⋅ZnCl2 2KCN⋅Zn(CN)2 K2CO3 K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 KF K4Fe(CN)6 K4Fe(CN)6⋅3H2O KH2AsO4 KH2PO4 KHSO4 KMnO4 KNO3 K2O⋅Al2O3⋅3SiO2

K4P2O7 K2SO4 K2S2O3 K2SO4⋅Al2(SO4)3⋅24H2O K2SO4⋅Cr2(SO4)3⋅24H2O K2SO4⋅MgSO4⋅6H2O K2SO4⋅NiSO4⋅6H2O K2SO4⋅ZnSO4⋅6H2O Prometheum Pr Radon Rn Rhenium Re Rhodium Rh Rubidium Rb RbBr RbCl Rb2CO3 RbF RbI Scandium Sc2O3 Sc2(SO4)3 Selenium Se Silicon Si SiC SiCl4 SiO2

Silver4 Ag

g g c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c l c c c c c c c c c l c, orthoclase gls, orthoclase c, microcline gls, microcline c c c c c c c c

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/(mol⋅K) 4.97 9.00 25.3 12.6 + 0.0126T 51.3 11.49 + 0.00360T 10.93 + 0.00376T 25.7 26.3 63 55 54.5 43.4 57.4 29.9 35.9 42.80 + 0.0410T 96.9 10.8 + 0.00284T 80.1 114.5 32 28.3 30 28 6.42 + 0.0530T 28.8 29.5 69.26 + 0.00821T - 2331000/T 2 69.81 + 0.01053 - 2403000/T 2 65.65 + 0.01102T - 1748000/T 2 64.83 + 0.01438T - 1641000/T 2 63.1 33.1 37 352 324 106 107 120

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

All 300–2000 290–372 273–1220 290–372 273–543 273–1043 289–371 287–318 292–323 286–319 292–323 279–319 277–319 296–372 289–371 273–671 671–757 273–1129 273–319 273–310 289–319 290–320 292–324 287–318 273–401 401–611 611–683 273–1373 273–1373 273–1373 273–1373 290–371 287–371 293–373 292–322 292–324 292–323 289–319 293–317

0 5 ? ? ? 2 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10 5 10 1½ 1½ 1½ 1½ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

c g

4.97

All

0

c

6.30 + 0.00053T

273–2273

?

c

5.40 + 0.00219T

273–1877

2

c l c c c c c

3.27 + 0.0131T 7.85 11.6 + 0.00255T 11.5 + 0.00249T 28.4 11.3 + 0.00256T 11.6 + 0.00263T

273–312 312–373 273–954 273–987 291–320 273–1048 273–913

2 5 ? ? ? ? ?

c c

21.1 62.0

273–373 273–373

? ?

c l

4.53 + 0.00550T 8.35

273–490 490–570

2 3

c c l c, quartz, α c, quartz, β c, cristobalite, α c, cristobalite, β gls

5.74 + 0.000617T - 101000/T 2 8.89 + 0.00291T - 284000/T 2 32.4 10.87 + 0.008712T - 241200/T 2 10.95 + 0.00550T 3.65 + 0.0240T 17.09 + 0.000454T - 897200/T 2 12.80 + 0.00447T - 302000/T 2

273–1174 273–1629 293–373 273–848 848–1873 273–523 523–1973 273–1973

2 2 ? 1 3½ 2½ 2 3½

c l

5.60 + 0.00150T 8.2

273–1234 1234–1573

1 3 (Continued )

2-133

2-134

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-70 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

State†

Substance Silver—(Cont.) Ag3Al Ag2Al AgAl12 AgBr AgCl AgCNO AgI AgNO3 Ag3PO4 Ag2S Ag3Sb Ag2Se Sodium15 Na NaBO2 Na2B4O7 Na2B4O7⋅10H2O NaBr NaCl NaClO3 NaCNO Na2CO3 NaF Na2HPO4⋅7H2O Na2HPO4⋅12H2O NaI NaNO3 Na2O⋅Al2O3⋅3SiO2 NaPO3 Na4P2O7 Na2SO4 Na2S2O3 Na2S2O3⋅5H2O Sodium-potassium alloys15 Strontium SrBr2 SrBr2⋅H2O SrBr2⋅6H2O SrCl2 SrCl2⋅H2O SrCl2⋅2H2O SrCO3 SrI2 SrI2⋅H2O SrI2⋅2H2O SrI2⋅6H2O SrMoO4 Sr(NO3)2 SrSO4 Sulfur16 S S2 S2Cl2 SO2 Tantalum Ta Tellurium Te Thallium Tl

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/(mol⋅K)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

273–902 273–903 273–768 273–703 703–836 273–728 728–806 273–353 273–423 273–433 433–482 482–541 293–325 273–448 448–597 273–694 273–406 406–460

2 2 5 6 5 2 5 ? 6 2 5 5 ? 5 5 5 5 5

273–371 371–451 All 273–1239 289–371 292–323 273–543 273–1074 1073–1205 273–528 528–572 273–353 288–371 273–1261 275–307 275–307 273–936 273–583 583–703 273–1373 273–1173 290–319 290–371 289–371 273–307 273–307

1½ 2 0 ? ? ? 2 2 3 3 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 10 1 1 ? ? ? ? ?

c c c c l c l c c, α c, α c, β l c c, α c, β c c, α c, β

22.56 + 0.00570T 16.85 + 0.00450T 58.62 + 0.0575T 8.58 + 0.0141T 14.9 9.60 + 0.00929T 14.05 18.7 8.58 + 0.0141T 18.83 + 0.0160T 25.7 30.2 37.5 18.8 21.8 19.53 + 0.0160T 20.2 20.4

c l g c c c c c l c l c c c c c c c l c, albite gls c c c c c l

5.01 + 0.00536T 7.50 4.97 10.4 + 0.0199T 47.9 147 11.74 + 0.00233T 10.79 + 0.00420T 15.9 9.48 + 0.0468T 31.8 13.1 28.9 10.4 + 0.00289T 86.6 133.4 12.5 + 0.00162T 4.56 + 0.0580T 37.2 63.78 + 0.01171T - 1678000/T 2 61.25 + 0.01768T - 1545000/T 2 22.1 60.7 32.8 34.9 86.2

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

18.1 + 0.00311T 28.9 82.1 18.2 + 0.00244T 28.7 38.3 21.8 18.6 + 0.00304T 28.5 39.1 84.9 37 38.3 26.2

273–923 277–370 276–327 273–1143 276–365 277–366 281–371 273–783 276–363 275–336 275–333 273–297 290–320 293–369

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

c, rhombic c, monoclinic g l g

3.63 + 0.00640T 4.38 + 0.00440T 8.58 + 0.00030T 27.5 7.70 + 0.00530T - 0.00000083T 2

273–368 368–392 300–2500 273–332 300–2500

3 3 5 ? 2½

c

5.91 + 0.00099T

273–1173

2

c

5.19 + 0.00250T

273–600

3

c, α c, β

5.32 + 0.00385T 8.12

273–500 500–576

1 1

SPECIFIC HEATS TABLE 2-70 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

State†

Substance Thallium—(Cont.) Tl TlBr TlCl Thorium Th ThO2 Th(SO4)2 Tin4 Sn SnAu SnCl2 SnCl4 SnO SnO2 SnPt SnS SnS2 Titanium Ti TiCl4 TiO2 Tungsten W WO3 Uranium U U3O8 Vanadium V Xenon Xe Zinc4 Zn ZnCl2 ZnO ZnS ZnSb ZnSO4 ZnSO4⋅H2O ZnSO4⋅6H2O ZnSO4⋅7H2O Zirconium ZrO2 ZrO2⋅SiO2 1

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/(mol⋅K)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

l c l c l

7.12 12.53 + 0.00100T 16.0 12.56 + 0.00088T 14.2

576–773 273–733 733–800 273–700 700–803

3 10 10 5 10

c c c

6.40 14.6 + 0.00507T 41.2

273–373 273–1273 273–373

? ? ?

c l c c l c c c c c

5.05 + 0.00480T 6.6 11.79 + 0.00233T 16.2 + 0.00926T 38.4 9.40 + 0.00362T 13.94 + 0.00565T - 252000/T 2 11.49 + 0.00190T 12.1 + 0.00165T 20.5 + 0.00400T

273–504 504–1273 273–581 273–520 286–371 273–1273 273–1373 273–1318 273–1153 273–873

2 10 1 ? ? ? ? 1 ? ?

c l c

8.91 + 0.00114T - 433000/T 2 35.7 11.81 + 0.00754T - 41900/T 2

273–713 285–372 273–713

3 ? 3

c c

5.65 + 0.00866 16.0 + 0.00774T

273–2073 273–1550

1 ?

c c

6.64 59.8

273–372 276–314

? ?

c

5.57 + 0.00097T

273–1993

?

g

4.97

All

0

c l c c c c c c c c

5.25 + 0.00270T 7.59 + 0.00055T 15.9 + 0.00800T 11.40 + 0.00145T - 182400/T 2 12.81 + 0.00095T - 194600/T 2 11.5 + 0.00313T 28 34.7 80.8 100.2

273–692 692–1122 273–638 273–1573 273–1173 273–810 293–373 282 282 273–307

1 3 ? 1 5 ? ? ? ? ?

c c

11.62 + 0.01046T - 177700/T 2 26.7

273–1673 297–372

5 ?

See also Table 2-71. Data to 298 K are also given by Scott, Cryogenic Engineering, Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1959. For liquid and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. Stalder, NACA Tech. Note 4141, 1957 (Fig. 5), gives data from 400 to 2600°R. 4 See also Table 2-71. 5 For data from 400 to 5500°R see Stalder, NACA Tech. Note 4141, 1975 (Fig. 4). 6 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 7 For data from 400 to 2350°R see Stalder, NACA Tech. Note 4141, 1957. 8 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 9 For liquid and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 10 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 11 See also Table 2-71. Douglas, Ball, et al., Bur. Stand. J. Res., 46 (1951): 334; Busey and Giaque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 75 (1953): 806; Sheldon, ASME Pap. 49-A-30, 1949. 12 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-56-60, 1960. 13 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-56-60, 1960. 14 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-56-60, 1960. Ozone: For liquid see Brabets and Waterman, J. Chem. Phys., 28 (1958): 1212. 15 For data on liquid Na-K alloys to 1500°F and for liquid Na to 1460°F, see Lubarsky and Kaufman, NACA Rep. 1270, 1956. 16 See also Evans and Wagman, Bur. Stand. J. Res. 49 (1952): 141; Gratch, OTS PB 124957, 1950; Guthrie, Scott et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 76 (1954): 1488. 2 3

2-135

2-136

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-71 Specific Heat [kJ/(kg·K)] of Selected Elements Temperature, K Symbol

4

6

8

10

20

40

60

80

100

200

250

300

400

600

800

Al Be Bi Cr Co

0.00026 0.00008 0.00054 0.00016 0.00036

0.00050

0.00088

0.214

0.357

0.00541 0.00050 0.00085

0.0089 0.0014 0.0340 0.0021 0.0048

0.0775

0.00220 0.00029 0.00059

0.00140 0.00028 0.01040 0.00081 0.00121

0.0729 0.0107 0.0404

0.092 0.059 0.110

0.102 0.127 0.184

0.481 0.195 0.109 0.190 0.234

0.797 1.109 0.120 0.382 0.376

0.859 1.537 0.121 0.424 0.406

0.902 1.840 0.122 0.450 0.426

0.949 2.191 0.123 0.501 0.451

1.042 2.605 0.142 0.565 0.509

1.134 2.823 0.136 0.611 0.543

Cu Ge Au Ir Fe

0.00011

0.00024

0.00018

0.00047

0.00048 0.00037 0.00126

0.137 0.108 0.084

0.203 0.153 0.100

0.00061

0.00090

0.0076 0.0129 0.0163 0.0021 0.0039

0.059 0.0619 0.0569

0.00038

0.00086 0.00081 0.00255 0.00032 0.00127

0.0276

0.086

0.154

0.254 0.192 0.109 0.090 0.216

0.357 0.286 0.124 0.122 0.384

0.377 0.305 0.127 0.128 0.422

0.386 0.323 0.129 0.131 0.450

0.396 0.343 0.131 0.133 0.491

0.431 0.364 0.136 0.140 0.555

0.448 0.377 0.141 0.146 0.692

Pb Mg Hg Mo Ni

0.00075 0.00034 0.00417 0.00011 0.00054

0.00242 0.00080 0.01420 0.00019 0.00086

0.00747 0.00155 0.01820 0.00032 0.00121

0.01350 0.00172 0.02250 0.00050 0.00178

0.0531 0.0148 0.0515 0.0029 0.0058

0.0944 0.138 0.0895 0.0236 0.0380

0.108 0.336 0.107 0.061 0.103

0.114 0.513 0.116 0.105 0.173

0.118 0.648 0.121 0.140 0.232

0.125 0.929 0.136 0.223 0.383

0.127 0.985 0.141 0.241 0.416

1.129 1.005 0.139 0.248 0.444

0.132 1.082 0.136 0.261 0.490

0.142 1.177 0.135 0.280 0.590

1.263 0.104 0.292 0.530

Pt Ag Sn Zn

0.00019 0.00016 0.00024 0.00011

0.00028 0.00035 0.00127 0.00029

0.00067 0.00093 0.00423 0.00096

0.00112 0.00186 0.00776 0.00250

0.0077 0.0159 0.0400 0.0269

0.0382 0.0778 0.108 0.123

0.069 0.133 0.149 0.205

0.088 0.166 0.173 0.258

0.101 0.187 0.189 0.295

0.127 0.225 0.214 0.366

0.132 0.232 0.220 0.380

0.134 0.236 0.222 0.389

0.136 0.240 0.245 0.404

0.140 0.251 0.257 0.435

0.146 0.264 0.257 0.479

TABLE 2-72 Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [J/(kmol∙K)]

2-137

Eqn

Cmpd. no.

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 114 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 114 114 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 114

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia Anisole Argon Benzamide Benzene Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide

Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O Ar C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO

CAS 75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 7440-37-1 55-21-0 71-43-2 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0 124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0

Mol. wt. 44.05256 59.0672 60.052 102.08864 58.07914 41.0519 26.03728 56.06326 72.06266 53.0626 28.96 17.03052 108.13782 39.948 121.13658 78.11184 78.11184 110.17684 122.12134 103.1213 182.2179 108.13782 136.19098 124.20342 154.2078 159.808 157.0079 108.965 94.93852 54.09044 54.09044 58.1222 90.121 90.121 74.1216 74.1216 56.10632 56.10632 56.10632 116.15828 134.21816 90.1872 90.1872 54.09044 72.10572 88.1051 69.1051 44.0095 76.1407 28.0101

C1

C2

C3

152.99 10,2300 13,9640 26,0050 13,5600 73,381 –122,020 103,090 55,300 109,750 –214,460 61.289 150,940 134,390 161,440 129,440 162,940 119,780 -5,480 66,950 156,130 –334,997 87,500 100,320 121,770 179,400 121,600 95,588 102,760 135,150 128,860 191,030 55.136 42.152 191,200 533,390 182,050 126,680 112,760 111,850 182,470 232,190 197,890 136,340 194,170 237,700 154,800 -8,304,300 85,600 65.429

598.64 128.7 -320.8 -565.43 -177 60.042 3082.7 -247.8 300 -108.61 9185.1 80925 93.455 -1989.4 260.66 -169.5 -344.94 180.34 647.12 333.33 454.49 3644.21 480 346.89 429.3 -667.11 -9.45 -110.94 -230.08 -311.14 -323.1 -1675 314200 324580 -730.4 -4986.2 -1611 -65.47 -104.7 384.52 -13.912 -804.35 -491.54 -300.4 -532.38 -746.4 -239.75 104370 -122 28723

-0.89481 0.8985 1.1035 0.2837 -15.895 1.0343 0.35246 -106.12 799.4 0.23602 11.043

C4

C5

0.000689 0.027732

0.41616 -2651

0.64781 0.85562

-7.77514

1.0701 0.358 0.41864 0.51796 0.97007 1.015 12.5 280.19 517.35 2.2998 18.908 11.963 -0.64 0.5214 0.72897 2.7063 1.7219 1.0216 1.4286 1.829 0.68616 -433.33 0.5605 -847.39

0.00591102

-0.0001523 0.000032 -0.03874 1413.9 1449.5

0.000046121

-0.02 -0.037454 0.002912

0.000045027

-0.0023017 -0.0012499

0.60052 -0.001452 1959.6

0.000002008

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

149.78 354.15 289.81 200.15 178.45 229.32 192.40 253.00 286.15 189.63 75.00 203.15 298.15 83.78 403.00 278.68 278.68 258.27 395.45 260.28 321.35 257.85 275.65 243.95 342.20 265.90 293.15 154.25 179.44 136.95 165.00 134.86 220.00 196.15 183.85 158.45 87.80 134.26 167.62 298.15 185.30 157.46 133.02 147.43 176.80 267.95 161.30 220.00 161.11 68.15

0.69743 1.47880 1.22130 1.91090 1.16960 0.87150 0.80208 1.06600 1.41150 1.01830 0.53065 0.75753 1.99780 0.45230 2.66490 1.32510 1.33260 1.66360 2.50420 1.53710 3.02180 1.89060 2.19810 1.84940 2.68680 0.77675 1.49600 0.88436 0.78152 1.10340 1.03330 1.12720 1.55900 0.62506 1.34650 1.38480 1.10150 1.13400 1.09860 2.26490 2.04920 1.63650 1.60030 1.14260 1.44700 1.69020 1.33980 0.78265 0.75774 0.59115

294.15 571.00 391.05 412.70 329.44 354.81 250.00 379.50 375.00 400.00 115.00 401.15 484.20 135.00 563.15 353.24 500.00 442.29 450.00 464.15 640.00 478.60 458.15 472.03 533.37 331.90 495.08 311.49 280.15 290.00 350.00 400.00 670.00 670.00 391.00 372.90 380.00 350.00 274.03 399.26 400.00 390.00 370.00 298.15 347.94 436.42 390.74 290.00 552.00 132.00

0.98820 1.75790 1.51590 2.14650 1.32710 0.94685 0.88530 1.58010 1.67800 1.22700 0.71317 4.18470 2.51530 0.67080 3.08230 1.50400 2.04380 1.99540 2.85720 2.21670 4.47000 2.76170 3.07410 2.64060 3.50750 0.75866 2.04670 1.01650 0.78955 1.22790 1.41480 2.22370 5.20450 5.24370 2.57210 2.66210 1.81030 1.50220 1.23220 2.65370 2.93540 1.93590 1.88440 1.37590 1.81880 2.60310 1.65880 1.66030 1.31250 6.47990 (Continued )

2-138

TABLE 2-72 Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [J/(kmol∙K)] (Continued ) Eqn 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 114 100 100

Cmpd. no. 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

Name Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane

Formula CCl4 CF4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2

CAS 56-23-5 75-73-0 7782-50-5 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6 108-39-4 95-48-7 106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0 110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5

Mol. wt. 153.8227 88.0043 70.906 112.5569 64.5141 119.37764 50.4875 78.54068 78.54068 108.13782 108.13782 108.13782 120.19158 52.0348 56.10632 84.15948 100.15888 98.143 82.1436 70.1329 68.11702 42.07974 116.22448 156.2652 142.28168 172.265 158.28108 140.2658 174.34668 138.24992 4.0316 187.86116 187.86116 173.83458 130.22792 147.00196 147.00196 147.00196 98.95916 98.95916 84.93258 112.98574 112.98574 105.13564 73.13684 74.1216 90.1872 66.04997 66.04997 52.02339

C1 -752,700 104,600 63,936 -1,307,500 118,380 124,850 107,900 134,733 69,362 -246,700 -185,150 259,980 61,723 77,461 101,920 -220,600 -40,000 6,110.4 105,850 122,530 125,380 89,952 177,560 218,480 278,620 219,840 4,988,500 417,440 314,570 276,900 149,400 200,560 202,580 270,720 114,880 93,093 133,950 126,340 179,170 98,968 144,560 111,560 184,200 101,330 44,400 238,520 67.155 82,577 263,980

C2

C3

8966.1 -500.6 46.35 15338 -248.915 -166.34 -330.13 -176.332 215.01 3256.8 3148 -1112.3 494.81 111.51 -215.81 3118.3 853 600.94 -60 -403.8 -349.7 -196.63 -179.12 374.14 -197.91 140.41 -52898 -1616.5 -160.93 -371.23

-30.394 2.2851 -0.1623 -53.974 0.68074 0.43209 0.808 0.55966

0.034455

-7.4202 -8.0367 4.9427

0.0060467 0.007254 -0.0054367

0.8103 -9.4216

0.010687

-231.8 -491.44 -726.3 -259.83 187.25 183.97 -24.84 -94.63 -444.74 -62.941 -53.605 149.44 286 243.18 1301 -1038.4 105580 109.85 -1791.1

0.5946 0.9187 1.3377 0.95427

0.68 1.7344 1.143 0.65237 0.76723 0.11851 1.0737 0.9968 216.35 5.3948 0.95561 1.5774

C4

0.063483

-0.0010975

-0.37538 -0.004348

0.2314 0.48191 0.32 0.93009 0.23265 0.30617

-5.5 4.0587 310.21 4.3666

C5

0.008763 -0.0044691 -490.54

0.00023674

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

250.33 89.56 172.12 227.95 136.75 233.15 175.43 150.35 200.00 285.39 304.20 307.93 177.14 245.25 190.00 279.69 296.60 290.00 169.67 179.28 138.13 150.00 189.64 285.00 243.51 304.75 280.00 206.89 247.56 229.15

1.27630 0.78095 0.67106 1.36170 0.97071 1.09560 0.74852 1.20870 1.12360 2.18950 2.32970 2.27400 1.49370 1.04810 0.90168 1.48360 2.13000 1.80380 1.15250 0.99559 0.98884 0.75136 1.71180 3.34740 2.94090 3.55210 3.53690 2.75410 3.33300 2.74660

388.71 145.10 239.12 360.00 298.15 366.48 303.15 319.67 308.85 400.00 400.00 400.00 425.56 253.82 298.15 400.00 434.00 489.75 356.12 322.40 317.38 298.15 431.95 481.65 460.00 543.15 503.15 494.00 512.35 447.15

1.63740 0.80073 0.65739 1.81010 1.04680 1.21920 0.82076 1.35560 1.35770 2.55780 2.52430 2.57940 2.72290 1.05760 1.09610 2.03230 3.30200 3.00420 1.70720 1.35840 1.29530 0.89318 2.43340 4.26180 4.14780 5.90170 5.01740 4.11250 4.82970 4.26290

210.15 282.85 240.00 175.30 248.39 273.15 326.14 176.19 237.49 180.00 192.50 275.00 301.15 223.35 156.92 181.95 154.56 179.60 200.00

1.26950 1.35060 1.05320 2.54500 1.61390 1.60610 1.77110 1.19600 1.26010 0.95176 1.45590 1.52660 2.70330 1.55640 1.46980 1.57030 0.99146 1.02310 0.80424

381.15 410.00 370.10 450.00 400.00 528.75 513.56 330.45 356.59 320.00 361.25 369.52 541.54 328.60 460.00 322.08 359.98 283.65 250.00

1.47430 1.53500 1.17010 3.47040 1.89780 2.55060 2.48290 1.30010 1.38850 1.02650 1.65150 1.66780 3.39080 1.81240 3.32020 1.75790 1.68740 1.13740 0.89118

2-139

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 114 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 149 150 151 152

Diisopropyl amine Diisopropyl ether Diisopropyl ketone 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine Dodecane Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane

C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O C4H10O2 C5H12O2 C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2 C12H10O C6H15N C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2 C8H16O2 C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F

108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0 534-15-6 7778-85-0 503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6 75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1 101-84-8 142-84-7 112-40-3 112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4 149-57-5 5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 7782-41-4 462-06-6 353-36-6 593-53-3

101.19 102.17476 114.18546 90.121 104.14758 54.09044 45.08368 86.17536 112.21264 112.21264 112.21264 94.19904 46.06844 73.09378 100.20194 194.184 60.17042 62.134 78.13344 194.184 88.10512 170.2072 101.19 170.33484 282.54748 30.069 46.06844 88.10512 45.08368 106.165 150.1745 116.15828 116.15828 112.21264 98.18606 28.05316 60.09832 62.06784 43.0678 44.05256 74.07854 144.211 130.22792 88.14818 100.15888 62.13404 102.1317 88.14818 163.506 37.9968064 37.9968064 96.1023032 48.0595 34.03292

98,434 163,000 179,270 187,790 199,930 88,153 -214,870 129,450 134,500 150,130 155,560 171,580 110,100 147,900 146,420 206,560 131,810 146,950 240,300 195,251 956,860 134,160 49,120 508,210 352,720 44.009 102,640 226,230 121,700 154,040 124,500 56,359 82,434 132,360 178,520 247,390 184,440 35,540 46,848 144,710 80,000 207,670 146,040 106,250 229,250 134,670 76,330 103,680 173,110 -94,585 1,724,400 148,640 65,106 141,790

429.04 -4.5 28.37 -313.41 -191.5 124.16 3787.2 18.5 8.765 -62.38 -145.26 -256.67 -157.47 -106 59.2 325.75 -380.06 -595 419.918 -5559.9 447.67 562.24 -1368.7 807.32 89718 -139.63 -624.8 38.993 -142.29 370.6 603.02 422.45 72.74 -518.35 -4428 -150.2 436.78 205.35 -758.87 223.6 -17.907 458.22 292.15 -404.54 -234.39 400.1 726.3 -697.18 7529.9 -59924 -202.58 103.44 -814.32

0.62 0.5375 1.1023 0.87664 -13.781 0.608 0.81151 0.8851 1.0932 0.5727 0.51853 0.384 0.604

0.016924

1.2035 1.013

-0.00084787

9.6124

3.1015 0.2122 918.77 -0.030341 1.472

–1886 0.0020386

0.80539

0.20992 0.64738 2.3255 40.936 0.37044 -0.18486

-0.0016818 -0.1697

2.8261

-0.003064

0.00026816

1.0493

1.1382 0.59656 -2.6047 3.7615 -139.6 537.85 0.66374 0.67161 2.2673

0.0040957 -0.005289 1.1301

-0.0074083 0

1.6179E-06 -0.0033241

0.000019119

275.00 187.65 204.81 159.95 226.10 240.91 180.96 145.19 239.66 223.16 184.99 188.44 131.65 273.82 90.00 274.16 298.15 174.88 291.67 413.79 284.95 300.03 277.90 263.57 309.58 92.00 159.05 189.60 192.15 178.20 238.45 258.15 285.50 161.84 134.71 104.00 284.29 260.15 250.00 160.65 254.20 155.15 298.15 298.15 204.15 125.26 298.15 145.65 167.55 58.00 53.48 230.94 129.95 131.35

2.16420 1.83990 2.07630 1.65860 2.01450 1.18060 1.19470 1.44950 1.83210 1.80290 1.66100 1.43550 0.98356 1.47670 1.56640 2.95870 1.31810 1.12760 1.52930 3.69010 1.53060 2.68470 2.05370 3.62920 6.22990 0.68554 0.87867 1.60680 1.29190 1.54260 2.12870 2.12030 2.20150 1.61090 1.46780 0.70123 1.71680 1.36660 0.98186 0.83031 1.36840 2.30150 2.82660 1.93350 1.94100 1.14670 1.95620 1.66860 1.38290 0.55414 0.57975 1.37260 0.79084 0.73946

357.05 341.45 410.00 337.45 366.15 300.13 298.15 331.13 392.70 402.94 396.58 360.00 250.00 466.44 380.00 360.00 298.15 310.48 422.15 559.20 374.47 570.00 407.90 433.15 616.93 290.00 390.00 350.21 289.73 409.35 486.55 466.95 428.25 404.95 301.82 252.70 390.41 493.15 329.00 283.85 374.20 510.10 417.15 326.15 386.55 315.25 410.00 320.00 371.05 98.00 56.00 504.08 337.78 285.70

2.51620 2.33750 2.81260 2.07550 2.47340 1.25420 1.37790 2.02240 2.63090 2.68700 2.69890 1.53400 1.03140 1.82000 2.56130 3.23830 1.31810 1.19590 1.69650 4.30070 2.22770 3.89330 2.78460 4.97260 9.31540 1.24440 1.64500 1.87960 1.33000 2.30750 3.04820 3.37940 3.01850 2.67980 1.87670 0.97582 1.82260 2.05980 1.14410 0.86932 1.63670 4.71570 3.37190 2.01530 2.42950 1.20070 2.40370 2.03580 1.92770 0.59663 0.55354 2.15180 1.40050 0.94206 (Continued )

2-140

TABLE 2-72 Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [J/(kmol∙K)] (Continued ) Eqn

Cmpd. no.

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 114 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 114 100 100 100 100 114 100 100 100 100 114 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

153 154 155 156 157 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201

Name Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 Helium-4 Heptadecane Heptanal Heptane Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene 3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid Methacrylic acid Methane Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene

Formula CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He He C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12 C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10 H4N2 H2 BrH ClH CHN FH H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4 C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N C8H8O2 C5H8

CAS 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 7440-59-7 629-78-7 111-71-7 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6 928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2 302-01-2 1333-74-0 10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2 79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5 93-58-3 598-25-4

Mol. wt. 30.02598 45.04062 46.0257 68.07396 4.0026 4.0026 240.46774 114.18546 100.20194 130.185 116.20134 116.20134 114.18546 114.18546 98.18606 132.26694 96.17018 226.44116 100.15888 86.17536 116.158 102.17476 102.175 100.15888 100.15888 84.15948 82.1436 118.24036 82.1436 82.1436 32.04516 2.01588 80.91194 36.46094 27.02534 20.0063432 34.08088 88.10512 59.11026 104.06146 86.08924 16.0425 32.04186 73.09378 74.07854 40.06386 86.08924 31.0571 136.14792 68.11702

C1 70,077 63,400 78,060 114,370 387,220 410,430 376,970 176,120 61.26 194,570 2,416,800 1,070,000 270,730 265,040 267,950 236,870 46,798 370,350 157,820 172,120 161,980 1,638,600 1,409,400 208,250 235,960 164,640 82,795 303,320 93,000 94,860 79,815 66.653 57,720 47,300 95,398 62,520 64.666 127,540 -32,469 138,790 146,290 65.708 256,040 62,600 61,260 79,791 275,500 92,520 125,630 135,370

C2 -661.79 150.6 71.54 -215.69 -465570 -464890 347.82 242.92 314410 -23.206 -26105 -9470 -399.89 -375.68 -1315.9 -158.01 761.13 231.47 157.44 -183.78 44.116 -17261 -12553 -107.47 -345.94 -200.37 283.4 -1009 326 254.15 50.929 6765.9 9.9 90 -197.52 -223.02 49354 -65.35 1977.1 121.24 -58.59 38883 -2741.4 243.4 270.9 89.49 -1147 37.45 279.75 -133.34

C3

C4

C5

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

5.9749

-0.01813

0.00001983

155.15 292.00 281.45 187.55 2.20 1.80 295.13 229.80 182.57 265.83 239.15 220.00 234.15 238.15 154.12 229.92 200.00 291.31 214.93 177.83 269.25 228.55 223.00 217.35 217.50 133.39 300.00 192.62 200.00 300.00 274.69 13.95 185.15 165.00 259.83 189.79 187.68 270.00 177.95 409.15 288.15 90.69 175.47 359.00 253.40 200.00 196.32 179.69 260.75 159.53

0.55005 1.07380 0.98195 0.99486 0.10866 0.11352 5.30050 2.31940 1.99890 2.50870 2.35900 2.28350 2.35220 2.32420 1.81500 2.42290 1.73870 4.96020 1.91660 1.67500 2.25260 1.98210 2.04940 2.01850 2.05320 1.53540 1.67820 2.14950 1.58200 1.71110 0.97078 0.12622 0.59553 0.62150 0.70291 0.42875 0.67327 1.70310 1.46210 1.88400 1.59150 0.53605 0.71489 1.49980 1.29910 0.97689 1.49300 0.99249 1.98570 1.30350

253.85 493.00 380.00 304.50 4.60 2.10 575.30 426.15 520.00 496.15 448.60 432.90 480.00 490.00 430.00 460.00 372.93 560.01 401.15 460.00 478.85 460.00 412.40 460.00 460.00 404.00 354.35 430.00 344.48 357.67 653.15 32.00 206.45 185.00 298.85 292.67 370.00 427.65 320.00 580.00 434.15 190.00 503.15 538.50 373.40 249.94 353.35 266.82 472.65 314.56

0.72876 1.37650 1.05250 1.16090 0.29652 0.29952 7.68690 2.79640 4.06570 4.00650 3.87660 4.45840 3.23030 3.21630 2.75540 3.31310 2.43190 7.15210 2.20980 2.75340 3.45680 3.51970 3.98500 2.70870 2.76320 2.27060 1.83220 2.76390 2.05300 1.85760 1.31580 1.31220 0.59764 0.63950 0.71049 0.51186 4.91830 2.51140 1.66710 2.09110 1.88370 14.97800 2.46460 1.93670 1.62410 1.02160 1.90840 1.02510 2.57850 1.56620

0.72691 211800 135100 0.57895 1824.6 0.88395 110.03 33.004 1.0601 1.0024 6.5242 0.78982 -0.62882 0.68632 0.88734 0.709 71.721 40.991 0.2062 0.94278 0.8784 3.3885

0.043379 -123.63

0.3883 0.6297 22.493 0.82867 -7.0145 0.3582 -257.95 14.777

2.568

0.63868

-42494

3212.9

-2547.9 -0.19172 -0.0334

0.00011968 0

-0.011994

9.3808E-06

-0.12026 -0.04 0.00070293

0.000071087

-0.002762

478.27

-1623 0.0086913

614.07 -0.035078

0.000032719

2-141

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl -1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl Isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane alpha-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Nonadecane Nonanal

C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S C5H8 C5H10O2 CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si C9H10 C5H12O C3H6O C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 N2 F3N CH3NO2 N2O NO C19H40 C9H18O

78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5 598-23-2 623-42-7 993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9 96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5 75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9 98-83-9 1634-04-4 107-25-5 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2 75-52-5 10024-97-2 10102-43-9 629-92-5 124-19-6

72.14878 102.1317 88.1482 70.1329 70.1329 66.10114 88.14818 104.214 68.11702 102.1317 80.5889 98.18606 114.18546 114.18546 114.18546 84.15948 82.1436 82.1436 115.03396 60.09502 72.10572 76.1606 60.05196 88.14818 100.15888 57.05132 74.1216 86.1323 90.1872 48.10746 100.11582 158.23802 86.17536 102.17476 58.1222 74.1216 56.10632 88.10512 74.1216 90.1872 46.14384 118.1757 88.1482 58.07914 128.17052 20.1797 75.0666 28.0134 71.00191 61.04002 44.0128 30.0061 268.5209 142.23862

108,300 74,200 206,600 149,510 151,600 81,919 177,850 198,390 105,200 102,930 47,726 131,340 50,578 118,600 118,170 155,920 53,271 46,457 27,030 85,383 132,300 161,240 130,200 92,919 183,650 149,770 143,440 191,170 211,170 115,300 255,100 226,650 142,220 251,890 172,370 -925,460 87,680 71,140 144,110 179,850 113,470 76,822 134,580 73,600 29,800 1,034,100 187,740 281,970 101,400 116,270 67,556 –2,979,600 342,570 195,220

146 417.4 -761.14 -247.63 -266.72 181.01 -171.57 -220.35 191.1 129.1 338.4 -63.1 508.59 447.07 447.99 -490 327.92 346.93 413 199.08 200.87 -288.61 -396 324.43 -79.862 -529.82 -154.07 -331.04 -661.97 -263.23 -938.4 15.421 -47.83 -468.32 -1783.9 7894.9 217.1 335.5 -102.09 -264.1 421.6 90.833 184.7 527.5 -138770 -497.6 -12281 -682.11 -135.3 54.373 76602 762.08 378.71

-0.292

0.00151

2.5899 0.91849 0.90847 0.74379 0.76096 0.62516 0.8125

2.1383

-0.061547 -0.9597 0.78179 1.21 0.60769 1.3499 0.7255 0.98445 2.4216 0.60412 2.413 1.0578 0.739 1.2209 14.759 -17.661 -0.9153

-0.0015585

0.0019533

-0.0021383

-0.047909 0.013617 0.002266

0.00005805

0.58113 0.79202

0.011456

7154 1.0691 248 3.8912 0.345 -652.59 0.20481 0.029716

0.00095984

-162.55 -2.2182

1.8879

1.3841 0.0074902

113.25 321.50 155.95 135.58 139.39 298.15 157.48 175.30 200.00 277.25 250.00 146.58 300.00 300.00 300.00 130.73 200.00 200.00 250.00 160.00 186.48 167.23 174.15 298.15 189.15 256.15 127.93 180.15 171.64 150.18 224.95 240.00 119.55 176.00 113.54 298.96 132.81 300.00 133.97 160.17 298.15 249.95 164.55 151.15 353.43 24.56 183.63 63.15 117.00 244.60 182.30 109.50 305.04 267.30

1.23280 2.08390 1.50890 1.32820 1.32070 1.35890 1.69280 1.83150 1.43420 1.86780 1.32330 1.39550 2.03160 2.52720 2.52570 1.24920 1.18860 1.15840 1.30280 1.15660 1.49050 1.34840 0.97934 1.89650 1.90290 1.02630 1.35600 1.63480 1.58080 0.89393 1.66110 2.91280 1.47060 2.07280 0.99613 2.20160 1.05680 1.71790 1.40860 1.57870 1.13470 1.82200 1.54110 1.01520 2.16230 0.36664 1.32420 0.55925 0.74860 1.03820 0.77468 0.62287 5.94090 2.98570

310.00 481.50 404.15 304.31 311.71 305.40 343.31 510.00 299.49 415.87 325.00 320.00 441.15 438.15 440.15 366.48 348.64 338.05 350.00 280.50 373.15 339.80 304.90 350.00 389.15 366.00 310.00 440.00 357.91 298.15 373.45 518.15 333.41 372.00 380.00 460.00 343.15 390.00 312.20 368.69 298.15 438.65 328.20 278.65 491.14 40.00 387.22 112.00 175.50 473.15 200.00 150.00 603.05 465.52

1.70480 2.75180 3.22010 1.59210 1.56730 1.37200 2.06610 2.83940 1.62430 2.64740 1.57710 1.94350 2.74940 3.14480 3.15350 1.86820 1.67600 1.63740 1.71580 1.36380 1.75110 1.53440 1.21950 2.06470 2.44600 1.36680 1.65400 2.36100 1.86410 0.90520 2.41180 5.18640 2.08420 2.46630 2.07250 2.94550 1.45960 2.01990 1.68880 1.90140 1.13470 2.61760 1.99560 1.25070 2.88880 0.69796 1.55360 0.79596 1.01540 1.29490 0.78431 1.99090 8.76630 3.77960 (Continued )

2-142

TABLE 2-72 Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [J/(kmol∙K)] (Continued ) Eqn

Cmpd. no.

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 114 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306

Name Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane Octanal Octane Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate Propyl amine Propylbenzene Propylene Propyl formate

Formula C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2 C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C9H14 C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N C9H12 C3H6 C4H8O2

CAS 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3 124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9 85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6 79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4 107-10-8 103-65-1 115-07-1 110-74-7

Mol. wt. 128.2551 158.238 144.2545 144.255 126.23922 160.3201 124.22334 254.49432 128.212 114.22852 144.211 130.22792 130.228 128.21204 128.21204 112.21264 146.29352 110.19676 90.03488 31.9988 47.9982 212.41458 86.1323 72.14878 102.132 88.1482 88.1482 86.1323 86.1323 70.1329 104.21378 104.21378 68.11702 68.11702 178.2292 94.11124 119.1207 148.11556 40.06386 44.09562 60.09502 60.095 122.20746 58.07914 74.0785 55.0785 102.1317 59.11026 120.19158 42.07974 88.10512

C1 383,080 224,336 10,483,000 1,510,000 254,490 265,350 253,580 399,430 171,960 224,830 205,260 571,370 1,115,100 300,400 289,980 509,420 240,040 42,642 63,131 175,430 60,046 346,910 102,000 159,080 145,050 201,200 883,630 194,590 193,020 156,100 188,200 213,760 86,200 68,671 103,370 101,720 60,834 145,400 66,230 62.983 158,760 471,710 201,400 55,679 213,660 121,750 83,400 139,530 174,380 114,140 75,700

C2 -1139.8 49.726 -115220 -12600 -298.06 -46.22 -366.3 374.64 383.28 -186.63 44.392 -4849 -9773.8 -426.2 -417.27 -4279.1 -33.198 886.67 199.92 -6152.3 281.16 219.54 389.95 -270.5 28.344 -651.3 -8220.5 -263.86 -176.43 -456.94 -140.84 -324.4 256.6 246.66 527.03 317.61 215.89 252.4 98.275 113630 -635 -4172.1 -450.6 406.13 -702.7 -149.56 384.1 78 -101.8 -343.72 326.1

C3 2.7101 0.9813 476.87 40.7 1.1707 0.79154 1.4881 0.58156 -0.059074 0.95891 0.8956 19.725 34.252 1.1172 1.2218 21.477 0.67889 -0.69315 113.92 0.65632 -0.32545 0.99537 0.6372 2.275 29.125 0.76808 0.5669 2.255 0.63581 0.9472

C4

-0.85381 -0.0386

0.79 1.0905

0.00056246

-0.021532 -0.03454

-0.044462

0.000035028

-0.92382

0.0027963

-0.02989

-0.003163

0.29552

633.21 1.969 14.745 1.7053 -0.50303 1.6605 0.47759

C5

-873.46 -0.014402

0.00000238

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

219.66 285.55 310.00 238.15 191.91 253.05 223.15 301.31 251.65 216.38 289.65 250.00 241.55 252.86 255.55 171.45 240.00 200.00 462.65 54.36 90.00 283.07 191.59 143.42 239.15 200.14 200.00 196.29 234.18 108.02 160.75 197.45 200.00 200.00 372.39 314.06 243.15 404.15 200.00 85.47 146.95 185.26 199.00 165.00 252.45 180.37 274.70 188.36 173.55 87.89 298.15

2.63480 3.18550 3.50590 2.96270 2.40410 3.04340 2.45940 5.65110 2.64670 2.29340 2.93260 2.55500 2.65930 2.64060 2.63140 2.13270 2.71180 1.92250 1.55620 0.53646 0.85350 4.61650 1.64760 1.40760 1.88270 1.61980 1.65410 1.72390 1.82790 1.29390 1.81990 1.86640 1.37520 1.18000 2.99630 2.01470 1.30800 2.47410 0.85885 0.84879 1.07970 1.13280 1.79260 1.09000 1.42090 1.10310 1.88910 1.54220 1.80510 0.92354 1.72930

325.00 528.75 460.00 471.70 475.00 492.95 423.85 589.86 445.15 460.00 512.85 467.10 452.90 500.00 440.65 454.00 472.19 399.35 516.00 142.00 150.00 543.84 375.15 390.00 458.95 389.15 392.20 375.46 375.14 372.00 385.15 399.79 313.33 329.27 500.00 425.00 489.75 557.65 238.65 360.00 400.00 463.00 431.65 322.15 414.32 370.25 404.70 340.00 432.39 298.15 398.15

2.98900 5.24980 4.64940 5.71150 3.77050 4.34910 3.65660 8.22760 3.30870 3.41890 4.63580 4.15660 5.05560 3.66600 3.43350 3.20980 3.75730 2.86190 1.66290 0.90662 1.02220 6.60420 2.02490 2.04980 2.92280 2.92270 3.36360 2.03800 2.06610 1.80920 2.28270 2.35460 1.66600 1.49890 3.66890 2.36700 2.37450 2.86150 0.89683 2.60790 2.19800 2.71460 3.24630 1.34310 2.07560 1.31850 2.38850 1.66050 2.78060 1.08600 2.05540

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345

2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

C3H8S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8 C4H6O4 O2S F6S O3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5 110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

76.16062 76.16062 76.09442 108.09476 104.07911 104.14912 118.08804 64.0638 146.0554192 80.0632 166.13084 230.30376 198.388 72.10572 132.20228 88.17132 114.22852 84.13956 92.13842 133.40422 184.36142 101.19 59.11026 120.19158 120.19158 114.22852 114.22852 213.10452 227.1311 156.30826 172.30766 86.08924 52.07456 62.49822 161.48972 18.01528 106.165 106.165 106.165

138,390 167,330 58,080 45,810 829,380 113,340 186,250 85,743 119,500 258,090 131,270 182,900 353,140 171,730 81,760 123,300 43,326 84,864 140,140 103,350 350,180 111,480 136,050 119,450 178,800 95,275 388,620 40,364 133,530 293,980 -1,360,200 136,300 68,720 -10,320 49,516 276,370 133,860 36,500 -35,500

-117.11 -319.1 445.2 368.33 -7331.5 290.2 247.8 5.7443

345.64 635.09 29.13 -800.47 455.38 -130.1 630.73 91.725 -152.3 159.3 -104.7 368.13 -288 324.54 -128.47 696.7 -1439.5 664.46 514.64 -114.98 10964 -106.17 135 322.8 420.35 -2090.1 7.8754 1017.5 1287.2

0.47059 0.8127

19.203 -0.6051

0.86116 2.8934

0.0013567

-0.0025015

0.6229 0.13243 0.695 1.0022 0.9913 0.83741 -1.3765 3.2187

0.0021734

0.96936 -20.86 0.75175

0.013055

8.125 0.52265 -2.63 -2.599

-0.014116 0.00302 0.002426

9.3701E-06

142.61 159.95 213.15 388.85 186.35 242.54 460.85 197.67 230.15 303.15 700.15 329.35 279.01 164.65 237.38 176.98 375.41 234.94 178.18 236.50 267.76 200.00 156.08 247.79 229.33 165.78 280.00 398.40 354.00 247.57 289.05 259.56 200.00 200.00 178.35 273.16 217.00 247.98 286.41

1.31260 1.37080 1.52970 1.89040 1.30000 1.67490 3.00450 0.86878 1.19500 2.58090 3.73270 3.92070 4.28310 1.07210 1.89860 1.19790 2.80110 1.13720 1.35070 1.41020 3.94000 1.85110 1.15250 1.99870 1.93380 1.82850 2.37910 3.05080 3.15710 3.24930 3.81370 1.59390 0.95720 0.54240 1.24490 0.76150 1.60180 1.73140 1.76970

350.00 340.87 460.75 683.00 253.15 418.31 591.00 350.00 230.15 303.15 795.28 609.15 526.73 339.12 480.77 394.27 426.00 357.31 500.00 300.00 508.62 361.92 276.02 449.27 350.00 520.00 320.00 475.47 475.00 433.42 523.15 389.35 278.25 400.00 363.85 533.15 540.15 417.58 600.00

1.55050 1.52990 2.63210 2.97380 2.04030 2.28160 3.32700 0.87754 1.19500 2.58090 4.06150 5.69770 6.07410 1.35460 3.00690 1.68830 3.12020 1.34550 2.37740 1.51140 5.56190 2.44710 1.32080 2.65260 2.36420 3.90950 2.57570 3.56290 3.77980 4.26240 5.35730 2.08920 1.06280 1.18800 2.02460 0.89394 2.90600 2.22690 3.25200

For the 11 substances: ammonia; 1,2-butanediol; 1,3-butanediol; carbon monoxide; 1,1-difluoroethane; ethane; heptane; hydrogen; hydrogen sulfide; methane; and propane; the liquid heat capacity CpL is calculated with Eq. (2-114): CpL = C12/τ + C2 - 2C1C3τ - C1C4τ2 - C32τ3/3 - C3C4τ4/2 - C42τ5/5, where τ = 1 - Tr , Tr = T/TC, TC is the critical temperature from Table 2-106, CpL is in J/(kmol∙K) and T is in K. For all other compounds, Eqn 100 is used. Eqn 100: CpL = C1 + C2T + C3T 2 + C4T 3 + C5T 4. For benzene, fluorine, and helium, two sets of constants are given for Eqn 100 that cover different temperature ranges, as shown in the table. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 801 Critically Evaluated Gold Standard Database, copyright 2016 AIChE, and reproduced with permission of AIChE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, T. A. Knotts, and N. F. Giles, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York, NY (2016).

2-143

2-144

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-73 Specific Heats of Organic Solids Recalculated from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 101–105 Compound

Formula

Acetic acid Acetone Aminobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Aniline Anthracene

C2H4O2 C3H6O C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C6H7N C14H10

Anthraquinone Apiol Azobenzene

C14H8O2 C12H14O4 C12H10N2

Benzene

C6H6

Benzoic acid Benzophenone

C7H6O2 C13H10O

Betol

C17H12O3

Bromoiodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromonaphthalene (β-) Bromophenol

C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C10H7Br C6H5BrO

Camphene Capric acid Caprylic acid Carbon tetrachloride

C10H16 C10H20O2 C8H16O2 CCl4

Cerotic acid Chloral alcoholate hydrate Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Chlorobromobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Crotonic acid Cyamelide Cyanamide Cyanuric acid

C27H54O2 C4H7Cl3O2 C2H3Cl3O2 C2H3ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C4H6O2 C3H3N3O3 CH2N2 C3H3N3O3

Dextrin Dextrose

(C6H10O5)x C6H12O6

Dibenzyl Dibromobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dichloroacetic acid Dichlorobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dicyandiamide

C14H14 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C2H2Cl2O2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4N4

Temperature, °C -200 to +25 -210 to -80 85 to mp 120 to mp 128 to mp

sp ht, cal/(g⋅°C)

50 100 150 0 to 270 10 28

0.330 + 0.00080t 0.540 + 0.0156t 0.254 + 0.00136t 0.253 + 0.00122t 0.287 + 0.00088t 0.741 0.308 0.350 0.382 0.258 + 0.00069t 0.299 0.330

-250 -225 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 20 to mp -150 -100 -50 0 +20 -150 -100 0 +50 -50 to 0 -75 to -15 -40 to 50 41 32

0.0399 0.0908 0.124 0.170 0.227 0.299 0.375 0.287 + 0.00050t 0.115 0.172 0.220 0.275 0.303 0.129 0.167 0.248 0.308 0.143 + 0.00025t 0.143 0.116 + 0.00032t 0.260 0.263

35 8 -2 -240 -200 -160 -120 -80 -40 15 78 32 60 80 to mp 94 to mp 180 to mp -34 -52 -40 38 to 70 40 20 40

0.380 0.695 0.628 0.013 0.081 0.131 0.162 0.182 0.201 0.387 0.509 0.213 0.363 0.228 + 0.00084t 0.232 + 0.00073t 0.242 + 0.00055t 0.192 0.150 0.150 0.520 + 0.00020t 0.263 0.547 0.318

0 to 90 -250 -200 -100 0 20 28 -36 -25 -50 to +50

0.291 + 0.00096t 0.016 0.077 0.160 0.277 0.300 0.363 0.248 0.134 0.139 + 0.00038t 0.406 0.185 0.186 0.219 + 0.0021t 0.456

-48.5 -52 -50 to +53 0 to 204

SPECIFIC HEATS TABLE 2-73 Specific Heats of Organic Solids (Continued ) Recalculated from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 101–105 Compound

Formula

Dihydroxybenzene (o-) (m-) (p-)

C6H6O2 C6H6O2 C6H6O2

Di-iodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dimethyl oxalate Dimethylpyrene Dinitrobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Diphenyl Diphenylamine Dulcitol

C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C4H6O4 C7H8O2 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C12H10 C12H11N C6H14O6

Erythritol Ethyl alcohol

C4H10O4 C2H6O (crystalline)

(vitreous)

Temperature, °C

sp. ht., cal/(g⋅°C)

-163 to mp -160 to mp -250 -240 -220 -200 -150 to mp -50 to +15 -52 to -42 -50 to +80 10 to 50 50 -160 to mp -160 to mp 119 to mp 40 26 20

0.278 + 0.00098t 0.269 + 0.00118t 0.025 0.038 0.061 0.081 0.268 + 0.00093t 0.109 + 0.00026t 0.100 + 0.00026t 0.101 + 0.00026t 0.212 + 0.0044t 0.368 0.252 + 0.00083t 0.248 + 0.00077t 0.259 + 0.00057t 0.385 0.337 0.282

60 -190 -180 -160 -140 -130 -190 -180 -175 -170 -190 to -40

0.351 0.232 0.248 0.282 0.318 0.376 0.260 0.296 0.380 0.399 0.366 + 0.00110t

Ethylene glycol

C2H6O2

Formic acid

CH2O2

-22 0

0.387 0.430

Glutaric acid Glycerol

C5H8O4 C3H8O3

20 -265 -260 -250 -220 -200 -100 0

0.299 0.009 0.022 0.047 0.085 0.115 0.217 0.330

Hexachloroethane Hexadecane Hydroxyacetanilide

C2Cl6 C16H34 C8H9NO2

Iodobenzene Isopropyl alcohol

C6H5I C3H8O

Lactose Lauric acid Levoglucosane Levulose

C12H22O11 C12H22O11⋅H2O C12H24O2 C6H10O5 C6H12O6

Malonic acid Maltose Mannitol Melamine Myristic acid Naphthalene Naphthol (α-) (β-) Naphthylamine (α-) Nitroaniline (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitrobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitronaphthalene

41 to mp

25

0.174 0.495 0.249 + 0.00154t

40 -200 to -160

0.191 0.051 + 0.00165t

20 20 -30 to +40 40 20

0.287 0.299 0.430 + 0.000027t 0.607 0.275

C3H4O4 C12H22O11 C6H14O6 C3H6N6 C14H28O2

20 20 0 to 100 40 0 to 35

0.275 0.320 0.313 + 0.00025t 0.351 0.381 + 0.00545t

C10H8 C10H8O C10H8O C10H9N C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C10H7NO2

-130 to mp 50 to mp 61 to mp 0 to 50 -160 to mp -160 to mp -160 to mp -163 to mp 66 to mp -160 to mp 0 to 55

0.281 + 0.00111t 0.240 + 0.00147t 0.252 + 0.00128t 0.270 + 0.0031t 0.269 + 0.000920t 0.275 + 0.000946t 0.276 + 0.001000t 0.256 + 0.00085t 0.258 + 0.00091t 0.247 + 0.00077t 0.236 + 0.00215t (Continued)

2-145

2-146

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-73 Specific Heats of Organic Solids (Continued ) Recalculated from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 101–105 Compound

Formula

Temperature, °C

sp ht, cal/(g⋅°C)

Oxalic acid

C2H2O4 C2H2O4⋅2H2O

-200 to +50 -200 -100 0 +50 100

0.259 + 0.00076t 0.117 0.239 0.338 0.385 0.416

Palmitic acid

C16H32O2

Phenol Phthalic acid Picric acid

C6H6O C8H6O4 C6H3N3O7

Propionic acid Propyl alcohol (n-)

C3H6O2 C3H8O

Pyrotartaric acid

C6H8O4

-180 -140 -100 -50 0 +20 14 to 26 20 -100 0 +50 100 120 -33 -200 -175 -150 -130 20

0.167 0.208 0.251 0.306 0.382 0.430 0.561 0.232 0.165 0.240 0.263 0.297 0.332 0.726 0.170 0.363 0.471 0.497 0.301

Quinhydrone

C12H10O4

Quinone

C6H4O2

-250 -225 -200 -100 0 -250 -225 -200 -150 to mp

0.017 0.061 0.098 0.191 0.256 0.031 0.082 0.113 0.282 + 0.00083t

Salol Stearic acid Succinic acid Sucrose Sugar (cane)

C13H10O3 C18H36O2 C4H6O4 C12H22O11 C12H22O11

32 15 0 to 160 20 22 to 51

0.289 0.399 0.248 + 0.00153t 0.299 0.301

Tartaric acid Tartaric acid

C4H6O6 C4H6O6⋅H2O

Tetrachloroethylene Tetryl

C2Cl4 C7H5N5O8

1 Tetryl + 1 picric acid 1 Tetryl + 2 TNT

C13H8N8O15 C21H15N11O20

Thymol Toluic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Toluidine (p-)

C10H14O C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C7H9N

Trichloroacetic acid Trimethyl carbinol Trinitrotoluene

C2HCl3O2 C4H10O C7H5N3O6

Trinitroxylene

C8H7N3O6

Triphenylmethane

C19H16

36 -150 -100 -50 0 +50 -40 to 0 -100 -50 0 +100 -100 to +100 -100 0 +50 0 to 49 54 to mp 54 to mp 130 to mp 0 20 40 solid -4 -100 -50 0 +100 -185 to +23 20 to 50 0 to 91

0.287 0.112 0.170 0.231 0.308 0.366 0.198 + 0.00018t 0.182 0.199 0.212 0.236 0.253 + 0.00072t 0.172 0.280 0.325 0.315 + 0.0031t 0.277 + 0.00120t 0.239 + 0.00195t 0.271 + 0.00106t 0.337 0.387 0.440 0.459 0.559 0.170 0.253 0.311 0.385 0.241 0.423 0.189 + 0.0027t

Urea

CH4N2O

20

0.320

TABLE 2-74 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to a Polynomial Cp [J/(kmol∙K)] Cmpd. no. 1 7 8 14 16 27 29 31 34 37 38 43 59 60 61 64 67 81 88 95 97 98 99 112 120 125 126 134 145 151 156 157 182 183 190 194 197 217 221 231 236 237 238 243 246 247 248 251

Name Acetaldehyde Acetylene Acrolein Argon Benzene Bromoethane 1,2-Butadiene Butane 1-Butanol cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Butyne m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Cyclobutane Cyclohexanone 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,1-Dichloroethane Diethyl ether 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Dimethyl ether 1,4-Dioxane Ethane Ethanol Ethylcyclopentane Ethyl mercaptan Fluoroethane Furan Helium-4 Hydrazine Hydrogen Isopropyl amine Methanol Methyl acetylene Methylcyclopentane Methylethyl ether Methyl mercaptan 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene alpha-Methyl styrene Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitromethane

Formula C2H4O C2H2 C3H4O Ar C6H6 C2H5Br C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H6 C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C4H8 C6H10O C2H4Br2 C2H4Cl2 C4H10O C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H6 C2H6O C7H14 C2H6S C2H5F C4H4O He H4N2 H2 C3H9N CH4O C3H4 C6H12 C3H8O CH4S C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C9H10 C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 CH3NO2

CAS 75-07-0 74-86-2 107-02-8 7440-37-1 71-43-2 74-96-4 590-19-2 106-97-8 71-36-3 590-18-1 624-64-6 107-00-6 108-39-4 95-48-7 106-44-5 287-23-0 108-94-1 557-91-5 75-34-3 60-29-7 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 115-10-6 123-91-1 74-84-0 64-17-5 1640-89-7 75-08-1 353-36-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 302-01-2 1333-74-0 75-31-0 67-56-1 74-99-7 96-37-7 540-67-0 74-93-1 75-28-5 75-65-0 115-11-7 98-83-9 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 75-52-5

Mol. wt. 44.05256 26.03728 56.06326 39.948 78.11184 108.965 54.09044 58.1222 74.1216 56.10632 56.10632 54.09044 108.13782 108.13782 108.13782 56.10632 98.143 187.86116 98.95916 74.1216 66.04997 66.04997 52.02339 46.06844 88.10512 30.069 46.06844 98.18606 62.13404 48.0595 68.07396 4.0026 32.04516 2.01588 59.11026 32.04186 40.06386 84.15948 60.09502 48.10746 58.1222 74.1216 56.10632 118.1757 128.17052 20.1797 75.0666 61.04002

C1 29705 30800 30702 20786 35978 27112 27400 17330 25300 39760 20908 25300 29002 16192 29090 31863 32182 20560 19560 26040 29736 27581 33851 25940 28345 31742 32585 34710 23014 30358 40860 20786 32998 64979 23590 30270 30810 35465 23337 31520 21380 17080 24970 37735 29120 20786 33055 38782

C2

C3

127.43 -53.08 80.95

-0.21793 0.384 0.191

-101.69 117.99 177.6 458.16 371.2 108.8 324.73 183.2 158.79 469.81 166 37.226 116.87 285.2 249.01 388 72.364 169.88 -20.966 178.46 88.3 26.567 87.4 304.96 271.36 62.839 -160.3

0.939

-5.2147 -788.17 310.42 84.64 35.8 147.38 309.03 60.1 271.2 381.7 211.8 112.94 82.88 89.54 -48.39

C4

C5

-0.816 -0.461 -0.411 0.635 -0.479 0.616 0.23616 0.547 -0.332 -0.22187 -0.268 0.228 -0.1581 0.17584 -0.186 0.446 0.12927 0.05 -0.084 -0.4427 0.1067 0.87 0.21379 5.8287 -0.274 -0.188 0.27 0.242 -0.285 -0.092 -0.199 0.846 0.964 0.238 0.413

-0.018459

2.164E-05

Tmin, K 50 50 50 100 50 100 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 100 100 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 100 100 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 100 50 50

Cp at Tmin 3.553E+04 2.911E+04 3.523E+04 2.079E+04 3.324E+04 3.891E+04 3.628E+04 3.820E+04 4.271E+04 4.520E+04 3.612E+04 3.446E+04 3.853E+04 3.849E+04 3.893E+04 3.431E+04 3.939E+04 4.576E+04 4.224E+04 4.477E+04 3.392E+04 3.568E+04 3.324E+04 3.440E+04 3.388E+04 3.339E+04 3.708E+04 4.975E+04 3.548E+04 3.377E+04 3.353E+04 2.079E+04 3.327E+04 3.797E+04 3.843E+04 3.403E+04 3.328E+04 4.344E+04 3.808E+04 3.453E+04 3.471E+04 3.567E+04 3.556E+04 4.550E+04 3.567E+04 2.079E+04 3.813E+04 3.740E+04

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax

200 200 200 1500 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 1500 200 250 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 1500 200 200

4.647E+04 3.554E+04 5.453E+04 2.079E+04 5.320E+04 5.071E+04 6.292E+04 7.632E+04 8.110E+04 6.152E+04 6.941E+04 6.194E+04 8.616E+04 9.099E+04 8.693E+04 4.875E+04 7.744E+04 6.432E+04 6.049E+04 9.292E+04 5.333E+04 5.523E+04 3.669E+04 5.419E+04 6.385E+04 4.223E+04 5.207E+04 9.234E+04 5.958E+04 4.719E+04 4.360E+04 2.079E+04 4.051E+04 2.834E+04 7.471E+04 3.968E+04 4.877E+04 7.462E+04 7.374E+04 4.354E+04 7.194E+04 8.546E+04 6.733E+04 9.416E+04 8.426E+04 2.079E+04 6.048E+04 4.562E+04

2-147

(Continued)

2-148 TABLE 2-74 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to a Polynomial Cp [J/(kmol∙K)] (Continued ) Cmpd. no.

Name

253 289 290 294 295 296 304 310 320 321 322 324 331

Nitric oxide 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol Propylbenzene Quinone Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene Thiophene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene

Formula NO C5H8 C14H10 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C9H12 C6H4O2 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C4H4S C9H12

CAS 10102-43-9 627-21-4 85-01-8 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 103-65-1 106-51-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 110-02-1 95-63-6

Mol. wt. 30.0061 68.11702 178.2292 40.06386 44.09562 60.09502 120.19158 108.09476 72.10572 132.20228 88.17132 84.13956 120.19158

C1 34980 24330 27700 31690 26675 28800 22880 29668 36970 28560 41195 36765 35652

C2 -35.32 335.7 210 17.1 147.04 257 538.46 129.07 -12.28 225.1 -88.3 -112.82 323.89

C3 0.07729 -0.37 1.24 0.282 -0.35 -0.546 0.53105 0.444 0.616 0.942 0.862 0.305

C4

C5

Tmin, K

-5.7357E-05

1.4526E-08

100 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

Cp at Tmin 3.216E+04 4.019E+04 4.130E+04 3.325E+04 3.403E+04 4.078E+04 4.844E+04 3.745E+04 3.747E+04 4.136E+04 3.914E+04 3.328E+04 5.261E+04

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax

1500 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200

3.586E+04 7.667E+04 1.193E+05 4.639E+04 5.608E+04 6.620E+04 1.087E+05 7.672E+04 5.227E+04 9.822E+04 6.122E+04 4.868E+04 1.126E+05

Constants in this table can be used in the following equation to calculate the ideal gas heat capacity C0p. C0p = C1 + C2T + C3T 2 + C4T 3 + C5T 4 where C 0p is in J/(kmol∙K) and T is in K. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 801 Critically Evaluated Gold Standard Database, copyright 2016 AIChE, and reproduced with permission of AIChE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as “R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, T. A. Knotts, and N. F. Giles, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties AIChE New York NY (2016)”.

TABLE 2-75 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to Hyperbolic Functions Cp [J/(kmol∙K)] Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia Anisole Argon Benzamide Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride

Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O Ar C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO CCl4

CAS

Mol. wt.

75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 7440-37-1 55-21-0 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0 124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0 56-23-5

44.05256 59.0672 60.052 102.08864 58.07914 41.0519 26.03728 56.06326 72.06266 53.0626 28.96 17.03052 108.13782 39.948 121.13658 78.11184 110.17684 122.12134 103.1213 182.2179 108.13782 136.19098 124.20342 154.2078 159.808 157.0079 108.965 94.93852 54.09044 54.09044 58.1222 90.121 90.121 74.1216 74.1216 56.10632 56.10632 56.10632 116.15828 134.21816 90.1872 90.1872 54.09044 72.10572 88.1051 69.1051 44.0095 76.1407 28.0101 153.8227

C1 × 1E-05

C2 × 1E-05

0.48251 1.06650 0.34200 1.29400 0.40200 1.36750 0.87998 1.66350 0.57040 1.63200 0.44346 0.84650 0.36921 0.31793 0.57019 0.91830 0.60590 1.37030 0.56303 1.09720 0.28958 0.09390 0.33427 0.48980 0.76370 2.93770 See Table 2-155 1.95810 1.70190 0.55238 1.73380 0.68950 2.32750 0.77594 2.64550 0.76820 2.26350 1.00990 4.48980 0.84115 3.14280 0.95210 2.88680 0.99192 2.96330 1.07590 4.21050 0.30113 0.08009 0.72100 2.06400 0.52310 0.89110 0.36241 0.69248 0.66964 1.09950 0.50950 1.70500 0.80154 1.62420 1.04780 2.54900 1.06600 2.57500 0.74540 2.59070 0.90878 2.55080 0.64257 2.06180 0.65121 1.43250 0.74296 1.34760 1.16840 3.76900 1.13800 4.45400 0.92478 2.77950 0.92367 2.51660 0.66492 1.07260 0.89240 1.56750 1.48800 1.35220 0.82142 1.32340 0.29370 0.34540 0.30100 0.33380 0.29108 0.08773 0.37582 0.70540

C3 × 1E-03

C4 × 1E-05

1.99290 1.07500 1.26200 0.80153 1.60700 1.63980 0.67805 0.76747 1.64750 0.91248 3.01200 2.03600 1.60510

0.78851 0.64000 0.70030 0.76076 0.96800 0.49487 0.33430 0.38554 1.04460 -0.44070 0.07580 0.22560 2.17000

1.32570 0.76425 1.51200 1.79250 0.74786 1.31100 1.95390 0.70207 1.55830 1.90410 0.75140 1.65040 0.81205 1.74540 0.83737 1.53240 0.84149 1.87760 1.96700 1.60730 1.89300 1.67680 0.85796 0.87025 1.95600 1.55070 1.68370 1.61090 0.79390 0.90190 1.14600 0.84021 1.42800 0.89600 3.08510 0.51210

-37.41700 0.72545 1.75160 2.23820 -0.67585 2.83950 2.57430 1.63850 2.21160 4.17850 0.10780 1.68700 0.67540 0.44781 0.68373 1.33700 1.05750 1.87500 1.95100 1.73200 1.85200 1.33240 0.89648 0.89116 2.81800 3.04970 1.59740 1.56410 0.74240 1.09840 -678.00000 0.67932 0.26400 0.28930 0.08455 0.48500

C5

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

912.78 502 569.7 2310.1 731.5 761.47 3036.6 2375.4 751.49 1178.4 1484 882 751.2

298.15 100 50 298.15 200 298.15 298.15 298.15 250 298.15 50 100 300

0.54732 0.34481 0.40200 1.10440 0.60487 0.52233 0.44032 0.71326 0.69837 0.64356 0.28958 0.33427 1.13020

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200

1.29930 1.49970 1.57560 2.69700 1.88200 1.11990 0.75868 1.56240 1.74240 1.37940 0.34956 0.66465 3.02260

41.232 2445.7 697.9 835.9 896 627.4 850.06 2002.6 719.16 828.81 314.6 765.3 2809 793.32 2441.1 685.6 2476.1 833 860.5 712.4 832.13 757.06 2477.2 2463.4 811.2 708.86 758.68 739.2 -2458.4 2566 6.98 2313.7 588 374.7 1538.2 236.1

298.15 298.15 200 200 298 300 298.15 300 300 200 100 200 298.15 298.15 298.15 200 298.15 298.15 298.15 298.15 298.15 250 298.15 298.15 298.15 200 200 200 298.15 298.15 298.15 298.15 50 100 60 100

1.27450 0.82616 0.76894 0.81258 1.09070 1.80010 1.11980 1.55010 1.41560 1.14810 0.30901 0.76789 0.63800 0.42454 0.79668 0.57563 0.98586 1.26670 1.26790 1.07860 1.12570 0.75708 0.80241 0.87766 1.52810 1.26590 0.97140 0.97633 0.81441 1.02830 1.15330 0.97246 0.29370 0.31003 0.29108 0.47299

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500.1 1500.15 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 5000 1500 1500 1500

3.25010 2.41800 2.67390 2.97120 2.68100 4.93110 3.28800 4.34450 3.29570 4.55570 0.37938 2.46280 1.54570 0.90758 1.92080 1.95550 2.66050 3.02890 3.03110 2.85090 2.87300 2.28980 2.27180 2.28360 3.67240 4.84350 3.10080 2.96150 1.92210 2.67780 2.59050 2.28510 0.63346 0.61475 0.35208 1.06620

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

2-149

(Continued)

2-150

TABLE 2-75 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to Hyperbolic Functions Cp [J/(kmol∙K)] (Continued ) Cmpd. no. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102

Name Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Diisopropyl amine Diisopropyl ether Diisopropyl ketone

Formula CF4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O

CAS

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-05

C2 × 1E-05

C3 × 1E-03

75-73-0 7782-50-5 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6 108-39-4 95-48-7 106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0 110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0

88.0043 70.906 112.5569 64.5141 119.37764 50.4875 78.54068 78.54068 108.13782 108.13782 108.13782 120.19158 52.0348 56.10632 84.15948 100.15888 98.143 82.1436 70.1329 68.11702 42.07974 116.22448 156.2652 142.28168 172.265 158.28108 140.2658 174.34668 138.24992 4.0316 187.86116 187.86116 173.83458 130.22792 147.00196 147.00196 147.00196 98.95916 98.95916 84.93258 112.98574 112.98574 105.13564 73.13684 74.1216 90.1872 66.04997 66.04997 52.02339 101.19 102.17476 114.18546

0.92004 0.29142 0.80110 0.52590 0.39420 0.36220 0.64710 0.61809 0.90974 0.79880 0.92021 1.08100 0.45894 0.50835 0.43200 0.90430 0.85860 0.58171 0.41600 0.48074 0.33800 0.54305 1.94250 1.67200 0.24457 1.69840 1.71010 1.93100 1.50450 0.30290 0.66622 0.74906 0.39100 1.61220 0.70000 0.69480 0.69780 0.63412 0.65271 0.36280 0.71450 0.78658 1.20800 0.91020 0.99953 0.91273 0.55477 0.57793 0.37540 1.13840 1.09300 1.08690

0.16446 0.09176 2.31000 1.40200 0.65730 0.69810 1.79800 1.80230 2.13210 2.85300 2.11060 3.79320 0.41286 1.64870 3.73500 2.57710 2.57770 3.17170 3.01400 2.51590 1.68940 3.99620 5.14030 5.35300 6.54600 5.39200 5.20890 5.48150 4.37940 0.09750 0.81703 1.27250 0.64800 4.47770 2.07460 2.08040 2.07800 0.83862 1.12540 0.68040 1.73440 1.74290 3.06600 2.67400 1.70380 2.41000 1.23610 0.89811 0.53510 2.57470 3.68300 4.05400

1.07640 0.94900 2.15700 2.03700 0.92800 1.80500 1.67600 1.54380 0.76324 1.47650 0.76622 1.75050 1.38120 0.82849 1.19200 0.78820 0.84895 1.54350 1.46170 1.58030 1.61350 1.35750 1.89780 1.61410 1.08990 1.56800 1.72650 1.60850 1.32910 2.51500 0.76285 1.98100 1.19400 1.68310 1.36640 1.36320 1.36350 0.76898 1.73760 1.25600 1.52400 1.71570 2.08900 1.71900 0.87072 1.66860 0.83501 0.84727 0.86687 0.73840 1.60570 1.78020

C4 × 1E-05 -5083.80000 0.10030 2.04600 0.99820 0.49300 0.44470 1.23300 1.18930 0.93355 2.04200 0.95073 3.00270 0.33023 0.86658 1.63500 1.30680 0.77780 2.12730 1.80950 1.74540 1.17680 2.56230 4.17520 3.78200 4.86420 3.93800 3.59350 3.74000 2.55570 -0.02750 0.40941 0.94370 0.42000 2.91800 1.59830 1.59400 1.59650 0.44030 0.87800 0.42750 1.22300 1.26270 2.34300 1.79260 1.07460 1.65200 -0.40972 0.43249 0.22998 1.62000 2.34200 2.97860

C5 2.3486 425 897.6 861.18 399.6 844.27 755.78 685.93 2474.5 664.7 2464.6 794.8 559.94 2472.4 530.1 1952.2 2401.5 701.62 668.8 718.37 722.8 618.54 859.95 742 424 720.5 782.92 754.75 632.01 368 2488.3 845.2 501 781.6 620.16 619.2 619.37 2533.2 795.45 548 674.2 765.1 891 794.94 2471.3 771.08 1033.4 2424.2 2437.2 2143 699 791.6

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

298 50 200 298.15 100 298.15 298.15 200 298.15 200 298.15 200 273.15 298.15 100 200 298.15 150 100 150 100 300 298.15 200 298.15 298.15 298.15 200 298 100 298.15 200 100 200 200 200 200 298.15 200 100 150 200 298.15 200 298.15 200 298.15 298.15 298.15 300 298.15 300

0.61055 0.29142 0.82193 0.62879 0.40484 0.41193 0.84674 0.67679 1.24780 0.91584 1.25080 1.14800 0.54968 0.70636 0.43657 0.96478 1.14170 0.59782 0.41650 0.49182 0.33813 1.26440 2.37630 1.79670 2.52320 2.43540 2.23040 2.04340 2.19380 0.30195 0.79599 0.76345 0.39288 1.68410 0.82450 0.81978 0.82283 0.76395 0.67221 0.36369 0.72683 0.82172 1.41970 0.95017 1.16950 0.95673 0.67988 0.67730 0.42969 1.59950 1.56690 1.51020

Tmax, K 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500.1 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05 1.04650 0.37930 2.53270 1.55080 1.00630 0.90655 2.09750 2.10230 3.21580 3.21630 3.21320 4.18080 0.81268 2.32330 3.65160 3.82510 3.47740 3.21320 2.92980 2.56190 1.72130 3.72360 6.04070 6.09320 6.10990 6.21860 5.87450 6.46130 5.27940 0.34251 1.56840 1.70410 0.95987 5.21450 2.51610 2.51610 2.51750 1.56330 1.57430 0.95430 2.16090 2.18940 3.46740 3.05190 2.92630 2.87240 1.54560 1.55140 0.94201 4.19410 4.05350 4.30930

103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157

1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine Dodecane Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4

C4H10O2 C5H12O2 C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2 C12H10O C6H15N C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2 C8H16O2 C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He

534-15-6 7778-85-0 503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6 75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1 101-84-8 142-84-7 112-40-3 112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4 149-57-5 5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 462-06-6 353-36-6 593-53-3 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7

90.121 104.14758 54.09044 45.08368 86.17536 112.21264 112.21264 112.21264 94.19904 46.06844 73.09378 100.20194 194.184 60.17042 62.134 78.13344 194.184 88.10512 170.2072 101.19 170.33484 282.54748 30.069 46.06844 88.10512 45.08368 106.165 150.1745 116.15828 116.15828 112.21264 98.18606 28.05316 60.09832 62.06784 43.0678 44.05256 74.07854 144.211 130.22792 88.14818 100.15888 62.13404 102.1317 88.14818 163.506 37.9968064 96.1023032 48.0595 34.03292 30.02598 45.04062 46.0257 68.07396 4.0026

1.15560 1.01130 0.65340 0.55650 0.77720 1.07760 1.10390 1.09910 0.78430 0.57431 0.72200 0.85438 1.39600 0.61453 0.60370 0.69490 1.14025 0.68444 1.09850 1.21140 2.12950 3.24810 0.44256 0.49200 0.99810 0.59400 0.78440 1.09440 1.04550 1.11500 1.10590 0.93177 0.33380 0.72860 0.63012 0.34300 0.33460 0.53700 1.57770 1.63400 1.09530 1.24000 0.60436 0.93700 1.13200 0.96993 0.29122 0.73393 0.49090 0.35193 0.33503 0.38220 0.33810 0.43673 See Table 2-155

1.83050 3.23930 1.61790 1.63840 4.03200 4.67180 4.64450 4.64010 1.43640 0.94494 1.78300 4.57720 4.78000 1.74380 1.37470 1.52400 5.36801 1.98020 4.34120 2.61270 6.63300 11.09000 0.84737 1.45770 2.09310 1.61800 3.39900 4.17940 2.31480 3.39100 4.63060 2.79330 0.94790 1.84360 1.45840 1.42700 1.21160 1.88600 4.40170 4.51190 3.00320 3.20000 0.87524 2.82900 2.94000 1.08780 0.10132 2.37390 0.88880 0.65344 0.49394 0.93000 0.75930 1.28390

0.95919 1.56110 1.78370 1.73410 1.54400 1.65400 1.69430 1.66790 1.58360 0.89551 1.53200 1.51810 2.19000 1.34180 1.64100 1.65140 2.08860 0.82793 1.62220 0.78956 1.71550 1.63600 0.87224 1.66280 2.02260 1.81200 1.55900 0.88375 0.71000 1.67050 1.66280 0.78650 1.59600 1.68800 1.67300 1.63800 1.60840 1.20700 1.74940 1.75320 1.79880 1.96700 0.78662 1.64800 1.82700 0.70467 1.45300 2.30860 0.83107 1.13330 1.92800 1.84500 1.19250 0.74699

0.99605 2.15010 1.02420 1.08990 2.50800 3.33970 3.39490 3.37360 0.87100 0.65065 1.31000 2.97400 3.97050 1.01020 0.79880 1.06580 4.13440 0.90830 3.64550 1.69030 4.51610 7.45000 0.67130 0.93900 1.80300 1.07800 2.42600 -1.60900 1.47100 2.51800 3.29900 1.64590 0.55100 1.19900 0.97296 1.03700 0.82410 0.86400 3.23780 3.10320 2.13110 2.34600 0.62622 2.15500 2.05500 0.55556 0.09410 2.45890 0.54120 0.15240 0.29728 0.69000 0.31800 0.47541

2826.3 689.3 821.4 793.04 649.95 792.5 798.35 781.97 730.65 2467.4 762 641.01 900.6 592.09 743.5 722.2 809.837 2447.1 743.62 2394.4 777.5 726.27 2430.4 744.7 928.05 820 702 1183.1 2061.6 733.6 781.1 2303.3 740.8 767.3 773.65 744.7 737.3 496 792.34 809.75 817.35 896 –2190 724.7 852 2089.7 662.91 906.45 2446 5316.2 965.04 850 550 2500.6

298.15 298.15 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 298.15 200 200 300 200 200 200 298.15 298.15 300 300 200 200 298.15 273.15 200 200 200 300 300 298 200 298.15 60 300 300 150 50 100 298.15 298.15 298.15 298.15 298.15 300 298.15 298.15 50 200 298.15 100 298.15 150 50 298.15

1.27770 1.46380 0.67211 0.58115 0.93628 1.15350 1.17770 1.18200 0.81551 0.65866 0.75937 1.05500 1.74810 0.70950 0.62976 0.73547 1.67000 0.92284 1.72980 1.59000 2.24420 3.52350 0.52652 0.61172 1.01260 0.61390 0.89121 1.45980 1.51020 1.55830 1.18750 1.33350 0.33380 0.91775 0.77997 0.34798 0.33460 0.54118 2.02790 2.03600 1.36200 1.44790 0.73021 1.33770 1.35380 1.18910 0.29122 0.75730 0.59646 0.35193 0.35440 0.38326 0.33810 0.65450

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200.15 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1200 1200 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 6000 1500 1500 1500 1500

3.06780 3.66690 1.91480 1.85850 4.03530 4.95430 4.92430 4.92750 1.95230 1.65840 2.25960 4.59830 4.47400 2.09440 1.69490 1.92550 4.97220 2.81860 4.51430 4.24840 7.43250 12.21100 1.45610 1.65760 2.65940 1.85280 3.61470 4.25400 3.63300 3.62130 4.91840 4.14000 1.09870 2.20160 1.80950 1.51780 1.32970 2.14850 5.12010 4.87440 3.22890 3.42340 1.66280 3.05690 3.45350 2.21700 0.38122 2.50800 1.49880 1.05710 0.71121 1.12030 0.99328 1.79520

2-151

(Continued)

2-152

TABLE 2-75 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to Hyperbolic Functions Cp [J/(kmol∙K)] (Continued ) Cmpd. no. 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209

Name Heptadecane Heptanal Heptane Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene 3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid Methacrylic acid Methane Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl -1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide

Formula C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12 C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10 H4N2 H2 BrH ClH CHN FH H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4 C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N C8H8O2 C5H8 C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S

CAS

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-05

629-78-7 111-71-7 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6 928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2 302-01-2 1333-74-0 10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2 79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5 93-58-3 598-25-4 78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5

240.46774 114.18546 100.20194 130.185 116.20134 116.20134 114.18546 114.18546 98.18606 132.26694 96.17018 226.44116 100.15888 86.17536 116.158 102.17476 102.175 100.15888 100.15888 84.15948 82.1436 118.24036 82.1436 82.1436 32.04516 2.01588 80.91194 36.46094 27.02534 20.0063432 34.08088 88.10512 59.11026 104.06146 86.08924 16.0425 32.04186 73.09378 74.07854 40.06386 86.08924 31.0571 136.14792 68.11702 72.14878 102.1317 88.1482 70.1329 70.1329 66.10114 88.14818 104.214

2.78780 1.30930 1.20150 1.31350 1.22150 1.41060 1.27680 1.25070 1.18510 1.44200 1.07120 2.62830 1.18400 1.04400 1.16220 1.06250 1.26150 1.09400 1.12370 1.04340 0.93760 1.26620 0.91290 1.03600 0.41729 0.27617 0.29120 0.29157 0.30125 0.29134 0.33288 0.74694 0.79534 0.49522 0.72510 0.33298 0.39252 0.61160 0.55500 0.51734 0.12060 0.41000 0.93960 0.67100 0.74600 1.84580 0.92139 0.87026 0.81924 0.79060 0.82051 1.07850

C2 × 1E-05 9.52470 3.53810 4.00100 2.33170 3.99100 2.88580 3.38100 2.14800 3.63620 4.16030 3.02580 8.97330 3.07260 3.52300 2.07080 3.52100 3.59640 1.80700 2.93600 3.07490 3.01500 3.72940 2.55770 3.00900 0.54686 0.09560 0.09530 0.09048 0.31710 0.09325 0.26086 2.43560 1.44250 1.87180 2.08900 0.79933 0.87900 2.02900 1.78200 0.68157 2.37660 1.05780 2.55900 2.22200 3.26500 1.74300 3.33710 2.55560 2.60380 1.65600 3.08690 2.73880

C3 × 1E-03

C4 × 1E-05

C5

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

1.69350 1.52500 1.67660 0.67567 1.58000 0.80394 1.38310 0.69120 1.73590 1.66030 1.52730 1.69120 1.70770 1.69460 0.68661 1.58350 1.84450 0.68900 1.40100 1.74590 1.90570 1.65740 1.52900 2.11600 0.81130 2.46600 2.14200 2.09380 1.61020 2.90500 0.91340 1.71500 0.81831 1.29580 1.85160 2.08690 1.91650 1.76830 1.26000 0.80525 1.05430 1.70800 0.82500 1.42100 1.54500 1.22000 1.83610 1.77570 1.75930 1.69260 1.38640 1.58850

6.66510 2.23950 2.74000 1.82400 2.83500 1.49680 1.88800 1.61900 2.50480 2.65720 2.09750 6.26400 2.11740 2.36900 1.53550 2.46200 2.59400 1.47400 1.60100 2.07280 1.98600 2.30800 1.73700 2.10600 0.41755 0.03760 0.01570 -0.00107 0.21790 0.00195 -0.17979 1.84840 0.95493 1.48520 1.64830 0.41602 0.53654 1.33020 0.85300 0.51402 1.81860 0.68360 1.36000 1.19400 1.92300 -56.11000 2.46440 1.76360 1.71950 1.21670 1.78860 1.90670

744.57 740.37 756.4 1846 717.7 2456.1 650.3 1759.3 785.73 759.39 689.62 744.41 790.64 761.6 1932.5 715.75 819.17 1772 650.5 793.53 817 757.8 683 902.4 2639.2 567.6 1400 120 626 1326 949.4 757.75 2499.9 569.96 798.43 991.96 896.7 835.5 562 2463.8 418.8 735 3000 614.7 666.7 31.2 757.83 807.82 800.93 788.4 613.87 749.6

200 298.15 200 300 298.15 298.15 200 150 298.15 200 200 200 298.15 200 298.15 298.15 298.15 200 150 298 300 200 200 300 298.15 250 50 50 100 50 100 298.15 298.15 300 298.15 50 273.15 300 298 298.15 298.15 150 300 150 200 300 298.15 200 200 298.15 300 273.15

3.00340 1.70230 1.28280 1.84970 1.75720 1.79590 1.39680 1.26880 1.54340 1.51910 1.17210 2.83120 1.48160 1.11170 1.61070 1.53110 1.58290 1.18150 1.14430 1.33010 1.19090 1.33400 1.00040 1.22150 0.48803 0.28426 0.29120 0.29137 0.30137 0.29134 0.33288 1.04270 0.97640 0.97903 0.94749 0.33298 0.42513 0.76980 0.84891 0.60784 0.99083 0.41364 1.25860 0.69311 0.85462 1.27930 1.31350 0.90596 0.85589 0.96319 1.33000 1.31730

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1200.1 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200.1 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500.15 1200 1200

10.41600 4.27590 4.42830 4.29410 4.53460 4.59900 4.13860 3.84460 4.08360 4.78310 3.59850 9.81820 3.66440 3.86200 3.76360 3.97260 4.06720 3.32070 3.58740 3.48190 3.18890 4.24830 3.03710 3.18940 1.05830 0.32248 0.34786 0.34063 0.55224 0.32243 0.51432 2.53830 2.45580 2.14970 2.20570 0.88904 1.05330 2.22090 2.07540 1.33000 2.16630 1.23880 3.35690 2.50280 3.37920 3.22620 3.48560 2.89230 2.87090 2.15020 3.19940 3.16870

210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263

3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl Isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane alpha-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Nonadecane Nonanal Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane

C5H8 C5H10O2 CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si C9H10 C5H12O C3H6O C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 N2 F 3N CH3NO2 N 2O NO C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38

598-23-2 623-42-7 993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9 96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5 75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9 98-83-9 1634-04-4 107-25-5 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2 75-52-5 10024-97-2 10102-43-9 629-92-5 124-19-6 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3

68.11702 102.1317 80.5889 98.18606 114.18546 114.18546 114.18546 84.15948 82.1436 82.1436 115.03396 60.09502 72.10572 76.1606 60.05196 88.14818 100.15888 57.05132 74.1216 86.1323 90.1872 48.10746 100.11582 158.23802 86.17536 102.17476 58.1222 74.1216 56.10632 88.10512 74.1216 90.1872 46.14384 118.1757 88.1482 58.07914 128.17052 20.1797 75.0666 28.0134 71.00191 61.04002 44.0128 30.0061 268.5209 142.23862 128.2551 158.238 144.2545 144.255 126.23922 160.3201 124.22334 254.49432

0.82740 0.89400 0.59895 0.92270 0.79590 0.92279 0.92279 0.78439 0.69411 0.64220 0.72830 0.79188 0.78400 0.75083 0.50600 0.72840 1.22700 0.47400 0.89232 1.59140 0.99247 0.43697 0.86400 1.74830 0.90300 0.94326 0.76394 0.90658 0.73226 0.77650 0.92151 0.93775 0.46149 1.00010 0.98059 0.60865 0.89232 See Table 2-155 0.64084 0.29105 0.33284 0.47876 0.29338 See Table 2-155 3.10620 1.71190 1.51750 0.12660 1.54000 1.81180 1.53520 1.76460 1.62890 2.95020

2.13770 2.91000 1.16360 4.11500 2.59600 2.67090 2.67090 2.50070 3.02090 3.07110 1.03070 1.31660 2.10320 1.95770 1.21900 3.17130 2.19500 1.22600 2.47650 1.76400 2.72750 0.50387 1.81100 4.92880 3.80100 3.59650 1.68020 1.71370 1.36060 2.44200 2.39430 2.61780 1.27810 2.65370 3.08940 1.59650 2.67720

1.75500 1.57000 1.56500 1.65040 0.62130 0.68784 0.68784 0.81937 1.69030 1.63870 1.54290 0.87136 1.54880 1.64240 1.63700 1.35200 0.84200 2.18800 1.69600 1.20760 2.00300 0.80924 0.75430 1.73840 1.60200 1.35330 0.82654 0.80201 0.84872 1.71400 1.69360 1.72910 1.45650 0.77176 1.64560 1.61900 0.76122

1.51490 2.07300 0.81581 2.90060 2.28800 1.98470 1.98470 1.30010 2.12090 2.12980 0.78110 0.86597 1.18550 1.19490 0.89400 1.89480 1.19100 0.85983 1.55980 -407.40000 1.89740 0.42223 0.80000 3.58970 2.45300 2.05690 1.02850 1.04240 0.88667 1.81800 1.48960 1.62360 0.79115 1.11620 2.09850 0.93783 1.02010

782 678.3 690.39 779.48 1698.6 1732.4 1732.4 2416.4 781.56 750.25 668.94 2468 693 749.19 743 585.14 2460 1008.2 791.4 10.503 849.64 2192.4 2160 788.01 691.6 599.92 2483.1 2489.7 2499.8 716 797.79 783.23 643.23 2405.2 732.6 739.55 2435.5

200 298 200 200 300 300 300 298.15 200 200 200 298.15 200 273.16 250 300 298.15 298.15 200 300 273 298.15 298.15 298.15 200 300 298.15 298.15 298.15 300 298 298.15 200 298.15 298.15 300 298.15

0.86459 1.34610 0.63795 0.99530 1.53020 1.50990 1.50990 1.09680 0.74637 0.70833 0.77172 0.92283 0.83967 0.90040 0.58880 1.32000 1.47550 0.51946 0.92804 1.12910 1.13770 0.50277 1.16210 2.25670 1.01920 1.56000 0.96745 1.13730 0.88184 1.12420 1.12510 1.17280 0.51411 1.40620 1.35330 0.77480 1.32040

1500 1200 1500 1500 1200 1200 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500.15 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1200 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

2.52550 3.07660 1.55930 4.31800 4.13590 4.14670 4.14670 3.54830 3.14960 3.15490 1.58930 2.29440 2.48160 2.31780 1.51090 3.19870 3.65320 1.35950 2.86960 2.99910 2.99520 1.06940 2.86370 5.71770 3.96170 3.74090 2.66680 2.85290 2.28420 2.52760 2.63910 2.99040 1.52530 3.86080 3.47810 1.88710 3.73860

1.16310 0.08615 0.49837 0.78357 0.32360

0.80970 1.70160 0.70930 0.82960 1.12380

0.59591 0.00103 0.23264 0.37215 0.21770

2425.6 909.79 372.91 2433.8 479.4

298.15 50 100 298.15 100

0.79235 0.29105 0.34036 0.57242 0.29475

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

1.92450 0.34838 0.80919 1.32860 0.58278

10.57500 4.50580 4.91500 6.01100 4.93600 3.59270 4.68440 5.04400 3.97080 10.03400

0.76791 1.71000 1.64480 1.08150 1.57800 0.81841 1.72880 1.61820 1.89280 0.77107

-4.56610 3.36580 3.47000 4.59460 3.58800 2.17920 3.23040 3.38570 3.21360 -4.30120

912.03 807.38 749.6 418.2 721.11 2550.1 783.67 755.48 855.52 916.73

200 298.15 200 298.15 298.15 298.15 298.15 200 298.15 200

3.35330 2.15310 1.62570 2.29530 2.20920 2.26250 2.00140 1.86580 1.96930 3.18000

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

11.61300 5.42420 5.54070 5.52670 5.66060 5.85550 5.27760 5.90820 4.79240 11.01600

2-153

(Continued)

2-154 TABLE 2-75 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to Hyperbolic Functions Cp [J/(kmol∙K)] (Continued ) Cmpd. no. 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305

Name Octanal Octane Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate Propyl amine Propylbenzene Propylene

Formula C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2 C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C9H14 C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N C9H12 C3H6

CAS

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-05

C2 × 1E-05

C3 × 1E-03

124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9 85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6 79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4 107-10-8 103-65-1 115-07-1

128.212 114.22852 144.211 130.22792 130.228 128.21204 128.21204 112.21264 146.29352 110.19676 90.03488 31.9988 47.9982 212.41458 86.1323 72.14878 102.132 88.1482 88.1482 86.1323 86.1323 70.1329 104.21378 104.21378 68.11702 68.11702 178.2292 94.11124 119.1207 148.11556 40.06386 44.09562 60.09502 60.095 122.20746 58.07914 74.0785 55.0785 102.1317 59.11026 120.19158 42.07974

1.59550 1.35540 1.40820 1.38050 1.58030 1.39010 1.49520 1.35990 1.59810 1.23070 0.56777 0.29103 0.33483 2.46790 1.06000 0.88050 2.83600 0.90600 1.08530 0.90053 0.96896 0.82523 1.13270 1.09740 0.75300 0.82096 1.27200 0.43400 0.59683 0.73640 0.48308 0.59474 0.61900 0.73145 1.05630 0.71306 0.69590 0.52525 1.79940 0.76078 1.13460 0.43852

3.14670 4.43100 4.34360 4.45900 3.23480 3.80600 4.41030 4.16050 4.60630 3.49420 1.11940 0.10040 0.29577 8.42120 2.85000 3.01100 1.08000 3.06200 3.07470 2.70850 2.49070 2.59430 2.94700 3.29590 2.09050 1.46770 3.56890 2.44500 2.55330 2.54400 0.73665 1.26610 2.02130 2.03130 4.33970 1.16890 1.77780 1.46630 1.75300 2.10490 2.80980 1.50600

0.85788 1.63560 1.46620 1.57510 0.79814 1.37170 0.80211 1.73170 1.62950 1.52800 0.62070 2.52650 1.52170 1.68650 1.93000 1.65020 2.10700 1.60540 1.86720 1.65920 1.41770 1.72910 1.74180 1.67610 1.53070 0.84463 0.75021 1.15200 1.23970 1.08520 0.78152 0.84431 1.62930 1.93750 1.60980 0.92731 1.70980 1.54760 1.19600 1.72560 0.79504 1.39880

C4 × 1E-05 1.47130 3.05400 2.76870 3.20160 1.78820 2.25730 -2.09580 2.86750 3.03010 2.46170 -0.38079 0.09356 0.27151 5.85370 2.01000 1.89200 -3.56000 2.11500 2.22710 1.80120 1.30100 1.76800 2.09870 1.94860 1.37800 0.96258 1.32990 1.51200 1.55190 0.80800 0.48698 0.86165 1.29560 1.48150 3.18100 1.02100 1.26540 0.93033 -4.12000 1.39360 1.23760 0.74754

C5

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

2679.4 746.4 659.38 718.8 2434.3 660.96 981.95 784.47 756.28 694.81 676.72 1153.8 680.35 743.6 879.23 747.6 283 717.97 825.4 743.96 646.7 778.7 795.78 757.67 672.8 2452.3 2409.4 507 576.78 573 2480 2482.7 727.4 843.37 729.66 2512.8 763.78 674.15 108.2 789.03 2449.5 616.46

298.15 200 298.15 298.15 298.15 150 200 298.15 200 200 298.15 50 100 200 298.15 200 298.15 298.15 298.15 200 200 298.15 298 200 200 298.15 298.15 100 298.15 298.15 298.15 298.15 298.15 298.15 300 298.15 298.15 298.15 298.15 200 298.15 130

1.92770 1.45290 2.06520 1.98320 2.02310 1.41620 1.57750 1.77230 1.68810 1.34480 0.79711 0.29103 0.33489 2.65860 1.25200 0.94039 1.38240 1.30440 1.35390 0.95908 1.05360 1.08560 1.42020 1.15470 0.82759 0.98524 1.86940 0.44014 1.10540 1.07450 0.59127 0.73665 0.85428 0.89664 1.63920 0.80337 0.89382 0.73244 1.35940 0.79326 1.52430 0.44363

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1000.15 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

4.91940 4.97640 5.04110 5.09650 5.20600 4.65470 4.90670 4.68070 5.35490 4.16040 1.56180 0.36533 0.59282 9.22090 3.24590 3.29270 3.29520 3.41330 3.47010 3.07970 3.03580 2.88970 3.49940 3.69560 2.47540 2.50600 5.06820 2.60450 2.83900 2.67370 1.33810 2.05600 2.24580 2.27600 4.65270 2.11890 2.12480 1.72030 3.20240 2.43530 4.16280 1.68170

306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345

Propyl formate 2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

C4H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8 C4H6O4 O 2S F 6S O 3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

110-74-7 75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5 110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

88.10512 76.16062 76.16062 76.09442 108.09476 104.07911 104.14912 118.08804 64.0638 146.0554192 80.0632 166.13084 230.30376 198.388 72.10572 132.20228 88.17132 114.22852 84.13956 92.13842 133.40422 184.36142 101.19 59.11026 120.19158 120.19158 114.22852 114.22852 213.10452 227.1311 156.30826 172.30766 86.08924 52.07456 62.49822 161.48972 18.01528 106.165 106.165 106.165

0.87100 0.73815 0.74740 2.01140 0.80992 0.36810 0.89300 0.71806 0.33375 0.35256 0.33408 1.00130 2.07190 2.30820 0.54850 1.05550 0.65341 1.13520 0.48694 0.58140 0.66554 2.14960 1.27660 0.71070 1.05200 1.22100 1.13900 0.98200 2.03670 2.15400 1.95290 1.85900 0.53600 0.55978 0.42364 0.84894 0.33363 0.75680 0.85210 0.75120

2.44700 1.95290 1.95230 0.80820 1.57510 0.71245 2.15030 2.26690 0.25864 1.22700 0.49677 2.61780 6.26680 7.86780 1.84910 3.21010 1.71150 5.63310 1.23760 2.86300 1.12570 7.30450 2.55590 1.50510 3.79000 2.68650 5.28600 5.40200 1.81810 2.44320 6.09980 5.86900 2.11900 1.21410 0.87350 1.14710 0.26790 3.39240 3.29540 3.39700

1.92540 1.59540 1.63100 1.86560 0.74707 0.65201 0.77200 1.27390 0.93280 0.67938 0.87322 0.87239 2.40440 1.68230 0.83310 0.78248 0.77705 1.62110 0.71271 1.44060 1.54540 1.66950 0.80937 0.79662 1.48140 0.82886 1.59400 1.53100 1.20890 1.11260 1.70870 1.57180 1.19800 1.61020 1.64920 1.38000 2.61050 1.49600 1.49440 1.49280

1.88800 1.23560 1.21120 -2.44040 0.60196 0.46721 0.99900 1.73420 0.10880 0.78407 0.28563 1.28310 6.34500 5.44860 0.89089 1.43950 0.91824 3.38290 0.47248 1.89800 0.97196 4.99980 1.48290 0.84537 2.33100 1.42030 3.35100 3.49300 0.79777 0.58651 4.13020 4.32600 1.14700 0.89079 0.65560 0.90000 0.08896 2.24700 2.11500 2.24700

821.3 730.5 750.92 279.98 2344.9 286.03 2442 537.65 423.7 351.27 393.74 3521.5 967.71 743.1 2458.5 2433 2432.6 681.9 2484.2 650.43 717.04 741.02 2231.7 2187.6 667.3 2443 677.94 639.9 1060.8 950.59 775.4 722.7 510 710.4 739.07 644.61 1169 675.9 675.8 675.1

298.15 200 200 298.15 298.15 100 100 300 100 100 100 298.15 298.15 200 298.15 298.15 298.15 200 298.15 200 298.15 200 200 200 200 298.15 200 200 298.15 298.15 200 298.15 100 200 200 298.15 100 200 200 200

1.10220 0.78247 0.78483 1.02180 1.07700 0.41815 0.89310 1.33700 0.33538 0.38719 0.34081 1.26040 2.47630 2.48640 0.76617 1.52510 0.90956 1.30690 0.72827 0.70157 0.84963 2.31560 1.32780 0.74387 1.18320 1.54310 1.31390 1.21940 2.10540 2.27260 2.05940 2.66140 0.54044 0.59670 0.44572 1.07540 0.33363 0.87588 0.96428 0.87096

1500 1500 1500 1000.15 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 2273.15 1500 1500 1500

2.74840 2.32870 2.32160 2.11750 2.49790 1.05370 3.24160 2.58230 0.56950 1.53970 0.79673 3.59670 6.69470 8.62250 2.55380 4.53700 2.56890 5.57840 1.81130 3.00290 1.64330 8.02510 4.20460 2.43220 4.19830 4.18780 5.37690 5.37540 3.75850 4.35600 6.83420 6.78340 2.37500 1.55900 1.14230 1.85950 0.52760 3.59200 3.59650 3.59230

Constants in this table can be used in the following equation to calculate the ideal gas heat capacity C0p. C0p = C1 + C2[C3/T/sinh(C3/T)]2 + C4[C5/T/cosh(C5/T)]2 where C0p is in J/(kmol∙K) and T is in K. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 801 Critically Evaluated Gold Standard Database, copyright 2016 AIChE, and reproduced with permission of AIChE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as “R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, T. A. Knotts, N. F. Giles, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York, NY (2016)”.

2-155

2-156

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-76 Cp/Cv: Ratios of Specific Heats of Gases at 1 atm Pressure*

Compound

Formula

Acetaldehyde Acetic acid Acetylene

C2H4O C2H4O2 C2H2

Air

Ammonia Argon

NH3 Ar

Temperature, °C

Ratio of specific heats, (γ) = Cp /Cv

30 136 15 -71 925 17 -78 -118 15 15 -180 0–100

1.14 1.15 1.26 1.31 1.36 1.403 1.408 1.415 1.320 1.670 1.715 1.67

Benzene Bromine

C6H6 Br2

90 20–350

1.10 1.32

Carbon dioxide

CO2

disulfide monoxide

CS2 CO

1.299 1.37 1.21 1.402 1.433 1.355 1.15 1.256 1.315

Chlorine Chloroform Cyanogen Cyclohexane

Cl2 CHCl3 (CN)2 C6H12

15 -75 100 15 -180 15 100 15 80

Dichlorodifluormethane

CCl2F2

25

1.139

Ethane

C2H6

Ethyl alcohol ether

C2H6O C4H10O

Ethylene

C2H4

100 15 -82 90 35 80 100 15 -91

1.157 1.200 1.28 1.13 1.08 1.086 1.201 1.253 1.345

Helium Hexane (n-) Hydrogen

He C6H14 H2

-180 80 15 -76 -181 20 15 100 65 140 210

1.667 1.066 1.407 1.441 1.607 1.42 1.41 1.40 1.31 1.28 1.24

bromide chloride

HBr HCl

cyanide

HCN

Compound

Formula

Hydrogen (Cont.) iodide sulfide

HI H 2S

Iodine Isobutane

I2 C4H10

Krypton

Kr

Mercury Methane

Hg CH4

Methyl acetate alcohol ether Methylal

C3H6O2 CH4O C2H6O C3H8O2

Neon Nitric oxide

Ne NO

Nitrogen

N2

Nitrous oxide

N2O

Oxygen

O2

Pentane (n-) Phosphorus Potassium

C5H12 P K

Sodium Sulfur dioxide

Na SO2

Xenon

Xe

Temperature, °C

Ratio of specific heats, (γ) = Cp /Cv

20–100 15 -45 -57

1.40 1.332 1.350 1.356

185 15

1.30 1.110

19

1.672

360 600 300 15 -80 -115 15 77 6–30 13 40

1.67 1.113 1.196 1.310 1.339 1.347 1.14 1.237 1.11 1.06 1.09

19 15 -45 -80 15 -181 100 15 -30 -70

1.667 1.400 1.39 1.38 1.402 1.433 1.28 1.303 1.31 1.34

15 -76 -181

1.398 1.405 1.439

86 300 850

1.071 1.17 1.77

750–920 15

1.68 1.290

19

1.678

*For compounds that appear in Tables 2-109 to 2-122, values are from E. W. Lemmon, M. O. McLinden, and D. G. Friend, “Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems” in NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, Eds. P. J. Linstrom and W. G. Mallard, June 2005, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. (http://webbook.nist.gov). Values for other compounds are from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 80–82.

SPECIFIC HEATS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIOnS

TABLE 2-79 Ethyl Alcohol

Additional References Most of the tables below are from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 115–116, 122–125. Specific heats for other compounds in aqueous solution can also be found in the same reference. TABLE 2-77 Acetic Acid (at 38çC) Mole % acetic acid Cal/(g⋅°C)

0 1.0

6.98 0.911

30.9 0.73

54.5 0.631

100 0.535

Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C) Mole % C2H5OH

3°C

23°C

41°C

4.16 11.5 37.0 61.0 100.0

1.05 1.02 0.805 0.67 0.54

1.02 1.03 0.86 0.727 0.577

1.02 1.03 0.875 0.748 0.621

TABLE 2-80

TABLE 2-78 Ammonia

Glycerol Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C)

Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C) Mole % NH3

2.4°C

20.6°C

41°C

61°C

0 10.5 20.9 31.2 41.4

1.01 0.98 0.96 0.956 0.985

1.0 0.995 0.99 1.0

0.995 1.06 1.03

1.0 1.02

Mole % C3H5(OH)3

15°C

32°C

2.12 4.66 11.5 22.7 43.9 100.0

0.961 0.929 0.851 0.765 0.67 0.555

0.960 0.924 0.841 0.758 0.672 0.576

SPECIFIC HEATS TABLE 2-81 Hydrochloric Acid

TABLE 2-86 Potassium Hydroxide (at 19çC)

Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C) Mole % HCl 0.0 9.09 16.7 20.0 25.9

2-157

0°C

10°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

1.00 0.72 0.61 0.58 0.55

0.72 0.605 0.575

0.74 0.631 0.591

0.75 0.645 0.615

0.78 0.67 0.638 0.61

TABLE 2-82 Methyl Alcohol Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C) Mole % CH3OH

5°C

20°C

40°C

5.88 12.3 27.3 45.8 69.6 100

1.02 0.975 0.877 0.776 0.681 0.576

1.0 0.982 0.917 0.811 0.708 0.60

0.995 0.98 0.92 0.83 0.726 0.617

Specific heat at 20°C, cal/(g⋅°C)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

1.000 0.900 0.810 0.730 0.675 0.650 0.640 0.615 0.575 0.515

0 1.0

0.497 0.975

1.64 0.93

4.76 0.814

9.09 0.75

TABLE 2-87 normal Propyl Alcohol Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C) Mole % C3H7OH

5°C

20°C

40°C

1.55 5.03 11.4 23.1 41.2 73.0 100.0

1.03 1.07 1.035 0.877 0.75 0.612 0.534

1.02 1.06 1.032 0.90 0.78 0.645 0.57

1.01 1.03 0.99 0.91 0.815 0.708 0.621

TABLE 2-88 Sodium Carbonate* Temperature, °C

% Na2CO3 by weight 0.000 1.498 2.000 2.901 4.000 5.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 13.790 13.840 20.000 25.000

TABLE 2-83 nitric Acid % HNO3 by Weight

Mole % KOH Cal/(g⋅°C)

17.6

30.0

76.6

98.0

0.9992 0.9807

0.9986

1.0098

1.0084

0.9786 0.9597 0.9594 0.9428

0.9761 0.9392

0.9183 0.9086 0.8924

0.9452 0.8881 0.8631

0.8936 0.8615

0.8911

*J. Chem. Soc. 3062–3079 (1931).

TABLE 2-89 Sodium Chloride Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C) TABLE 2-84 Phosphoric Acid*

Mole % NaCl

%H2PO4

Cp at 21.3°C cal/(g⋅°C)

%H3PO4

Cp at 21.3°C cal/(g⋅°C)

2.50 3.80 5.33 8.81 10.27 14.39 16.23 19.99 22.10 24.56 25.98 28.15 29.96 32.09 33.95 36.26 38.10 40.10 42.08 44.11 46.22 48.16 49.79

0.9903 0.9970 0.9669 0.9389 0.9293 0.8958 0.8796 0.8489 0.8300 0.8125 0.8004 0.7856 0.7735 0.7590 0.7432 0.7270 0.7160 0.7024 0.6877 0.6748 0.6607 0.6475 0.6370

50.00 52.19 53.72 56.04 58.06 60.23 62.10 64.14 66.13 68.14 69.97 69.50 71.88 73.71 75.79 77.69 79.54 80.00 82.00 84.00 85.98 88.01 89.72

0.6350 0.6220 0.6113 0.5972 0.5831 0.5704 0.5603 0.5460 0.5349 0.5242 0.5157 0.5160 0.5046 0.4940 0.4847 0.4786 0.4680 0.4686 0.4593 0.4500 0.4419 0.4359 0.4206

*Z. Physik. Chem., A167, 42 (1933).

TABLE 2-85 Potassium Chloride Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C) Mole % KCl

6°C

20°C

33°C

40°C

0.99 3.85 5.66 7.41

0.945 0.828 0.77

0.947 0.831 0.775 0.727

0.947 0.835 0.778

0.947 0.837 0.775

0.249 0.99 2.44 9.09

6°C

20°C

33°C

57°C

0.96 0.91 0.805

0.99 0.97 0.915 0.81

0.97 0.915 0.81

0.923 0.82

TABLE 2-90 Sodium Hydroxide (at 20çC) Mole % NaOH Cal/(g . °C)

0 1.0

0.5 0.985

1.0 0.97

9.09 0.835

16.7 0.80

28.6 0.784

37.5 0.782

TABLE 2-91 Sulfuric Acid* %H2SO4

Cp at 20°C, cal/(g⋅°C)

%H2SO4

Cp at 20°C, cal/(g⋅°C)

0.34 0.68 1.34 2.65 3.50 5.16 9.82 15.36 21.40 22.27 23.22 24.25 25.39 26.63 28.00 29.52 30.34 31.20 33.11

0.9968 0.9937 0.9877 0.9762 0.9688 0.9549 0.9177 0.8767 0.8339 0.8275 0.8205 0.8127 0.8041 0.7945 0.7837 0.7717 0.7647 0.7579 0.7422

35.25 37.69 40.49 43.75 47.57 52.13 57.65 64.47 73.13 77.91 81.33 82.49 84.48 85.48 89.36 91.81 94.82 97.44 100.00

0.7238 .7023 .6770 .6476 .6153 .5801 .5420 .5012 .4628 .4518 .4481 .4467 .4408 .4346 .4016 .3787 .3554 .3404 .3352

*Vinal and Craig, Bur. Standards J. Research, 24, 475 (1940).

2-158

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

SPECIFIC HEATS OF MISCELLAnEOUS MATERIALS TABLE 2-92 Specific Heats of Miscellaneous Liquids and Solids Material Alumina Alundum Asbestos Asphalt Bakelite Brickwork Carbon (gas retort) (see under Graphite) Cellulose Cement, Portland Clinker Charcoal (wood) Chrome brick Clay Coal tar oils Coal tars Coke Concrete Cryolite Diamond Fireclay brick Fluorspar Gasoline Glass (crown) ( flint) (pyrex) (silicate) wool Granite Graphite Gypsum Kerosene Limestone Litharge Magnesia Magnesite brick Marble Porcelain, fired Berlin Porcelain, green Berlin Porcelain, fired earthenware Porcelain, green earthenware

Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C) 0.2 (100°C); 0.274 (1500°C) 0.186 (100°C) 0.25 0.22 0.3 to 0.4 About 0.2 0.168 (26 to 76°C) 0.314 (40 to 892°C) 0.387 (56 to 1450°C) 0.204 0.32 0.186 0.242 0.17 0.224 0.26 to 0.37 0.34 (15 to 90°C) 0.35 (40°C); 0.45 (200°C) 0.265 (21 to 400°C) 0.359 (21 to 800°C) 0.403 (21 to 1300°C) 0.156 (70 to 312°F); 0.219 (72 to 1472°F) 0.253 (16 to 55°C) 0.147 0.198 (100°C); 0.298 (1500°C) 0.21 (30°C) 0.53 0.16 to 0.20 0.117 0.20 0.188 to 0.204 (0 to 100°C) 0.24 to 0.26 (0 to 700°C) 0.157 0.20 (20 to 100°C) 0.165 (26 to 76°C); 0.390 (56 to 1450°C) 0.259 (16 to 46°C) 0.47 0.217 0.055 0.234 (100°C); 0.188 (1500°C) 0.222 (100°C); 0.195 (1500°C) 0.21 (18°C) 0.189 (60°C) 0.185 (60°C) 0.186 (60°C) 0.181 (60°C)

TABLE 2-92 Specific Heats of Miscellaneous Liquids and Solids (Continued ) Material

Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C)

Pyrex glass Pyrites (copper) Pyrites (iron) Pyroxylin plastics Quartz Rubber (vulcanized) Sand Silica Silica brick Silicon carbide brick Silk Steel Stone Stoneware (common) Turpentine Wood (Oak) Woods, miscellaneous Wool Zirconium oxide

0.20 0.131 (30°C) 0.136 (30°C) 0.34 to 0.38 0.17 (0°C); 0.28 (350°C) 0.415 0.191 0.316 0.202 (100°C); 0.195 (1500°C) 0.202 (100°C) 0.33 0.12 about 0.2 0.188 (60°C) 0.42 (18°C) 0.570 0.45 to 0.65 0.325 0.11 (100°C); 0.179 (1500°C)

TABLE 2-93 Oils (Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Oils)

Cp[cal/(g⋅°C)] = A / d 415 + B(t - 15) where d = density, g/cm3. °F = 9⁄5°C + 32; to convert calories per gram-degree Celsius to British thermal units per pound-degree Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.0; to convert grams per cubic centimeter to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43. Oils

A

Castor Citron Fatty drying nondrying semidrying oils (except castor) Naphthene base Olive Paraffin base Petroleum oils

0.500 0.440 0.450 0.445 0.450 0.405 0.425 0.415

B 0.0007 (0.438 at 54°C) 0.0007 0.0007 0.0007 0.0007 0.0009 (0.47 at 7°C) 0.0009 0.0009

PROPERTIES OF FORMATIOn AnD COMBUSTIOn REACTIOnS Unit Conversions °F = 9⁄5°C + 32; to convert kilocalories per gram-mole to British thermal units per pound-mole, multiply by 1.799 × 10-3.

PROPERTIES OF FORMATIOn AnD COMBUSTIOn REACTIOnS

2-159

TABLE 2-94 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds* The values given in the following table for the heats and free energies of formation of inorganic compounds are derived from (a) Bichowsky and Rossini, “Thermochemistry of the Chemical Substances,” Reinhold, New York, 1936; (b) Latimer, “Oxidation States of the Elements and Their Potentials in Aqueous Solution,” Prentice-Hall, New York, 1938; (c) the tables of the American Petroleum Institute Research Project 44 at the National Bureau of Standards; and (d) the tables of Selected Values of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties of the National Bureau of Standards. The reader is referred to the preceding books and tables for additional details as to methods of calculation, standard states, and so on.

State†

Compound Aluminum Al AlBr3 Al4C3 AlCl3 AlF3 AlI3 AlN Al(NH4)(SO4)2 Al(NH4)(SO4)2⋅12H2O Al(NO3)3⋅6H2O Al(NO3)3⋅9H2O Al2O3 Al(OH)3 Al2O3⋅SiO2 Al2O3⋅SiO2 Al2O3⋅SiO2 3Al2O3⋅2SiO2 Al2S3 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3⋅6H2O Al2(SO4)3⋅18H2O Antimony Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 SbCl5 SbF3 SbI3 Sb2O3 Sb2O4 Sb2O5 Sb2S3 Arsenic As AsBr3 AsCl3 AsF3 AsH3 AsI3 As2O3 As2O5 As2S3 Barium Ba BaBr2 BaCl2 Ba(ClO3)2 Ba(ClO4)2 Ba(CN)2 Ba(CNO)2 BaCN2 BaCO3 BaCrO4 BaF2 BaH2 Ba(HCO3)2 BaI2

c c aq c c aq, 600 c aq c aq c c c c c c, corundum c c, sillimanite c, disthene c, andalusite c, mullite c c aq c c

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol 0.00 -123.4 -209.5 -30.8 -163.8 -243.9 -329 -360.8 -72.8 -163.4 -57.7 -561.19 -1419.36 -680.89 -897.59 -399.09 -304.8 -648.7 -642.4 -642.0 -1874 -121.6 -820.99 -893.9 -1268.15 -2120

c c c l c c c, I, orthorhombic c, II, octahedral c c c, black

0.00 -59.9 -91.3 -104.8 -216.6 -22.8 -165.4 -166.6 -213.0 -230.0 -38.2

c c l l g c c c c amorphous

0.00 -45.9 -80.2 -223.76 43.6 -13.6 -154.1 -217.9 -20 -34.76

c c aq, 400 c aq, 300 c aq, 1600 c aq, 800 c c aq c c, witherite c c aq, 1600 c aq c aq, 400

0.00 -180.38 -185.67 -205.25 -207.92 -176.6 -170.0 -210.2

*For footnotes see end of table.

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol 0.00 -189.2 -29.0 -209.5 -312.6 -152.5 -50.4 -486.17 -1179.26 -526.32 -376.87 -272.9

-739.53 -759.3 -1103.39 0.00 -77.8

-146.0 -186.6 -196.1 -36.9 0.00 -70.5 -212.27 37.7 -134.8 -183.9 -20 0.00 -183.0 -196.5 -134.4 -155.3

-63.6 -284.2 -342.2 -287.9 -284.6 -40.8 -459 -144.6 -155.17

BaMoO4 Ba3N2 Ba(NO2)2 Ba(NO3)2 BaO Ba(OH)2 BaO⋅SiO2 Ba3(PO4)2 BaPtCl6 BaS BaSO3 BaSO4 BaWO4 Beryllium Be BeBr2 BeCl2 BeI2 Be3N2 BeO Be(OH)2 BeS BeSO4 Bismuth Bi BiCl3 BiI3 BiO Bi2O3 Bi(OH)3 Bi2S3 Bi2(SO4)3 Boron B BBr3 BCl3 BF3 B2H6 BN B2O3 B(OH)3 B2S3 Bromine Br2

-180.7

BrCl Cadmium Cd CdBr2

-271.4

CdCl2

-48 -212.1

-265.3 -31.5 -414.4 -158.52

State†

Compound Barium (Cont.) Ba(IO3)2

Cd(CN)2 CdCO3 CdI2 Cd3N2 Cd(NO3)2

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

c aq c c c aq c aq, 600 c c aq, 400 c c c c c c c

-264.5 -237.50 -370 -90.7 -184.5 -179.05 -236.99 -227.74 -133.0 -225.9 -237.76 -363 -992 -284.9 -111.2 -282.5 -340.2 -402

c c aq c aq c aq c c c c c aq

0.00 -79.4 -142 -112.6 -163.9 -39.4 -112 -134.5 -145.3 -215.6 -56.1 -281

c c aq c aq c c c c c

0.00 -90.5 -101.6 -24 -27 -49.5 -137.1 -171.1 -43.9 -607.1

c l g g g g c c gls c c

0.00 -52.7 -44.6 -94.5 -265.2 7.5 -32.1 -302.0 -297.6 -260.0 -56.6

l g g c c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c c c aq, 400 c aq, 400

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

-198.35

-150.75 -189.94

-209.02

-313.4 0.00 -127.9 -141.4 -103.4 -122.4 -138.3

-254.8

0.00 7.47 3.06 0.00 -75.8 -76.6 -92.149 -96.44 36.2 -178.2 -48.40 -47.46 39.8 -115.67

0.00 -76.4

-43.2 -117.9 -39.1 0.00 -50.9 -90.8 -261.0 19.9 -27.2 -282.9 -280.3 -229.4 0.00 0.931 -0.63 0.00 -70.7 -67.6 -81.889 -81.2 -163.2 -43.22 -71.05 (Continued)

2-160

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-94 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

State†

Compound Cadmium (Cont.) CdO Cd(OH)2 CdS CdSO4 Calcium Ca CaBr2 CaC2 CaCl2 CaCN2 Ca(CN)2 CaCO3 CaCO3⋅MgCO3 CaC2O4 Ca(C2H3O2)2 CaF2 CaH2 CaI2 Ca3N2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2⋅2H2O Ca(NO3)2⋅3H2O Ca(NO3)2⋅4H2O CaO Ca(OH)2 CaO⋅SiO2 CaS CaSO4 CaSO4⋅½H2O CaSO4⋅2H2O CaWO4 Carbon C CO CO2 Cerium Ce CeN Cesium Cs CsBr CsCl Cs2CO3 CsF CsH CsHCO3 CsI CsNH2 CsNO3 Cs2O CsOH Cs2S Cs2SO4

c c c c aq, 400 c c aq, 400 c c aq c c aq c, calcite c, aragonite c c c aq c aq c c aq, 400 c c aq, 400 c c c c c aq, 800 c, II, wollastonite c, I, pseudowollastonite c c, insoluble form c, soluble form α c, soluble form β c c c

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol -62.35 -135.0 -34.5 -222.23 -232.635 0.00 -162.20 -187.19 -14.8 -190.6 -209.15 -85 -43.3 -289.5 -289.54 -558.8 -332.2 -356.3 -364.1 -290.2 -286.5 -46 -128.49 -156.63 -103.2 -224.05 -228.29 -367.95 -439.05 -509.43 -151.7 -235.58 -239.2 -377.9 -376.6 -114.3 -338.73 -336.58 -335.52 -376.13 -479.33 -387

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol -55.28 -113.7 -33.6 -194.65 0.00 -181.86 -16.0 -179.8 -195.36 -54.0 -270.8 -270.57

-311.3 -264.1 -35.7 -157.37 -88.2 -177.38 -293.57 -351.58 -409.32 -144.3 -213.9 -207.9 -357.5 -356.6 -113.1 -311.9 -309.8 -308.8 -425.47

c, graphite c, diamond g g

0.00 0.453 -26.416 -94.052

0.00 0.685 -32.808 -94.260

c c

0.00 -78.2

0.00 -70.8

c c aq, 500 c aq, 400 c c aq, 400 c c aq, 2000 c aq, 400 c c aq, 400 c c aq, 200 c c aq

0.00 -97.64 -91.39 -106.31 -102.01 -271.88 -131.67 -140.48 -12 -230.6 -226.6 -83.91 -75.74 -28.2 -121.14 -111.54 -82.1 -100.2 -117.0 -87 -344.86 -340.12

0.00 -94.86

Chlorine Cl2 ClF ClO ClO2 ClO3 Cl2O Cl2O7 Chromium Cr CrBr3 Cr3C2 Cr4C CrCl2 CrF2 CrF3 CrI2 CrO3 Cr2O3 Cr2(SO4)3 Cobalt Co CoBr2 Co3C CoCl2 CoCO3 CoF2 CoI2 Co(NO3)2 CoO Co3O4 Co(OH)2 Co(OH)3 CoS Co2S3 CoSO4 Columbium Cb Cb2O5 Copper Cu CuBr CuBr2 CuCl CuCl2 CuClO4 Cu(ClO3)2 Cu(ClO4)2 CuI CuI2

-101.61

Cu3N Cu(NO3)2

-135.98 -7.30

CuO Cu2O Cu(OH)2 CuS Cu2S CuSO4

-210.56 -82.61 -96.53 -107.87 -316.66

State†

Compound

Cu2SO4 Erbium Er Er(OH)3 Fluorine F2 F2O

g g g g g g g c aq c c c aq c c c aq c c aq

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol 0.00 -25.7 33 24.7 37 18.20 63 0.00 -21.008 -16.378 -103.1

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol 0.00 29.5 22.40 0.00 -122.7 -21.20 -16.74 -93.8 -102.1

-152 -231 -63.7 -64.1 -139.3 -268.8

-249.3 -626.3

c c aq c c aq, 400 c aq c aq c aq c c c c c c c aq, 400

0.00 -55.0 -73.61 9.49 -76.9 -95.58 -172.39 -172.98 -24.2 -43.15 -102.8 -114.9 -57.5 -196.5 -131.5 -177.0 -22.3 -40.0 -216.6

c c

0.00 -462.96

0.00

0.00 -26.7 -34.0 -42.4 -31.4 -48.83 -64.7 -28.3

0.00 -23.8

c c c aq c c aq, 400 aq aq, 400 aq c c aq c c aq, 200 c c c c c c aq, 800 c aq

0.00 -61.96 7.08 -66.6 -75.46 -155.36 -144.2 -37.4 -65.3 -108.9 -142.0 -19.8 -188.9

-17.8 -4.8 -11.9 17.78 -73.1 -83.6 -38.5 -43.00 -108.9 -11.6 -18.97 -184.7 -200.78 -179.6

-33.25 -24.13 1.34 15.4 -5.5 -16.66 -8.76 -36.6 -31.9 -38.13 -85.5 -11.69 -20.56 -158.3 -160.19 -152.0

c c

0.00 -326.8

0.00

g g

0.00 5.5

0.00 9.7

PROPERTIES OF FORMATIOn AnD COMBUSTIOn REACTIOnS

2-161

TABLE 2-94 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

State†

Compound Gallium Ga GaBr3 GaCl3 GaN Ga2O Ga2O3 Germanium Ge Ge3N4 GeO2 Gold Au AuBr AuBr3 AuCl AuCl3 AuI Au2O3 Au(OH)3 Hafnium Hf HfO2 Hydrogen H3AsO3 H3AsO4 HBr HBrO HBrO3 HCl HCN HClO HClO3 HClO4 HC2H3O2 H2C2O4 HCOOH H2CO3 HF HI HIO HIO3 HN3 HNO3 HNO3⋅H2O HNO3⋅3H2O H2O H2O2 H3PO2 H3PO3 H3PO4 H2S H2S2 H2SO3 H2SO4 H2Se

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

c c c c c c

0.00 -92.4 -125.4 -26.2 -84.3 -259.9

0.00

c c c

0.00 -15.7 -128.6

0.00

c c c aq c c aq c c c

0.00 -3.4 -14.5 -11.0 -8.3 -28.3 -32.96 0.2 11.0 -100.6

0.00

c c

0.00 -271.1

0.00 -258.2

aq c aq g aq, 400 aq aq g aq, 400 g aq, 100 aq, 400 aq aq, 660 l aq, 400 c aq, 300 l aq, 200 aq g aq, 200 g aq, 400 aq c aq g g l aq, 400 l l g l l aq, 200 c aq c aq c aq, 400 g aq, 2000 l aq, 200 l aq, 400 g aq

-175.6 -214.9 -214.8 -8.66 -28.80 -25.4 -11.51 -22.063 -39.85 31.1 24.2 -28.18 -23.4 -31.4 -116.2 -116.74 -196.7 -194.6 -97.8 -98.0 -167.19 -64.2 -75.75 6.27 -13.47 -38 -56.77 -54.8 70.3 -31.99 -41.35 -49.210 -112.91 -252.15 -57.7979 -68.3174 -45.16 -45.80 -145.5 -145.6 -232.2 -232.2 -306.2 -309.32 -4.77 -9.38 -3.6 -146.88 -193.69 -212.03 20.5 18.1

-153.04

Hydrogen (Cont.) H2SeO3 H2SeO4

24.47

H2SiO3 H4SiO4 H2Te H2TeO3 H2TeO4 Indium In InBr3 InCl3 InI3

4.21 -0.76 18.71

-183.93 -12.72 -24.58 -19.90 5.00 -22.778 -31.330 27.94 26.55 -19.11 -0.25 -10.70 -93.56 -96.8 -165.64 -82.7 -85.1 -149.0 -64.7 0.365 -12.35 -23.33 -32.25 78.50 -17.57 -19.05 -78.36 -193.70 -54.6351 -56.6899 -28.23 -31.47 -120.0 -204.0 -270.0 -7.85 -128.54 17.0 18.4

State†

Compound

InN In2O3 Iodine I2 IBr ICl ICl3 I 2 O5 Iridium Ir IrCl IrCl2 IrCl3 IrF6 IrO2 Iron Fe FeBr2 FeBr3 Fe3C Fe(CO)5 FeCO3 FeCl2 FeCl3 FeF2 FeI2 FeI3 Fe4N Fe(NO3)2 Fe(NO3)3 FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Fe(OH)2 Fe(OH)3 FeO⋅SiO2 Fe2P FeSi FeS FeS2 FeSO4 Fe2(SO4)3 FeTiO3 Lanthanum La LaCl3 La3H8 LaN La2O3 LaS2 La2S3 La2(SO4)3

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

c aq c aq, 400 c c g c aq aq

-126.5 -122.4 -130.23 -143.4 -267.8 -340.6 36.9 -145.0 -145.0 -165.6

c c aq c aq c aq c c

0.00 -97.2 -112.9 -128.5 -145.6 -56.5 -67.2 -4.8 -222.47

c g g g c c

0.00 14.88 10.05 4.20 -21.8 -42.5

0.00 4.63 1.24 -1.32 -6.05

c c c c l c

0.00 -20.5 -40.6 -60.5 -130 -40.14

0.00 -16.9 -32.0 -46.5

c, α c aq, 540 aq c l c, siderite c aq c aq, 2000 aq, 1200 c aq aq c aq aq, 800 c c c c c c c c c c, pyrites c, marcasite c aq, 400 aq, 400 c, ilmenite

0.00 -57.15 -78.7 -95.5 5.69 -187.6 -172.4 -81.9 -100.0 -96.4 -128.5 -177.2 -24.2 -47.7 -49.7 -2.55 -118.9 -156.5 -64.62 -198.5 -266.9 -135.9 -197.3 -273.5 -13 -19.0 -22.64 -38.62 -33.0 -221.3 -236.2 -653.3 -295.51

0.00

c c aq c c c c c aq

0.00 -253.1 -284.7 -160 -72.0 -539 -148.3 -351.4 -972

-101.36 -247.9 33.1 -115.7

0.00 -97.2 -117.5 -60.5

-69.47 -76.26 4.24 -154.8 -72.6 -83.0 -96.5 -151.7 -45 -39.5 0.862 -72.8 -81.3 -59.38 -179.1 -242.3 -115.7 -166.3

-23.23 -35.93 -195.5 -196.4 -533.4 -277.06 0.00

-64.6

(Continued)

2-162

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-94 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Compound Lead Pb PbBr2 PbCO3 Pb(C2H3O2)2 PbC2O4 PbCl2 PbF2 PbI2 Pb(NO3)2 PbO PbO2 Pb3O4 Pb(OH)2 PbS PbSO4 Lithium Li LiBr LiBrO3 Li2C2 LiCN LiCNO LiC2H3O2 Li2CO3 LiCl LiClO3 LiClO4 LiF LiH LiHCO3 LiI LiIO3 Li3N LiNO3 Li2O Li2O2 LiOH LiOH⋅H2O Li2O⋅SiO2 Li2Se Li2SO4 Li2SO4⋅H2O Magnesium Mg Mg(AsO4)2 MgBr2 Mg(CN)2 MgCN2 Mg(C2H3O2)2 MgCO3 MgCl2

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

c c aq c, cerussite c aq, 400 c c aq c c c aq, 400 c, red c, yellow c c c c c

0.00 -66.24 -56.4 -167.6 -232.6 -234.2 -205.3 -85.68 -82.5 -159.5 -41.77 -106.88 -99.46 -51.72 -50.86 -65.0 -172.4 -123.0 -22.38 -218.5

0.00 -62.06 -54.97 -150.0

c c aq, 400 aq c aq aq aq c aq, 1900 c aq, 278 aq aq c aq, 400 c aq, 2000 c aq, 400 aq c c aq, 400 c c aq c aq, 400 c gls c aq c aq, 400 c

0.00 -83.75 -95.40 -77.9 -13.0 -31.4 -101.2 -183.9 -289.7 -293.1 -97.63 -106.45 -87.5 -106.3 -145.57 -144.85 -22.9 -231.1 -65.07 -80.09 -121.3 -47.45 -115.350 -115.88 -142.3 -151.9 -159 -116.58 -121.47 -188.92 -374 -84.9 -95.5 -340.23 -347.02 -411.57

c c aq c aq, 400 aq c aq c c aq, 400

0.00 -731.3 -749 -123.9 -167.33 -39.7 -61 -344.6 -261.7 -153.220 -189.76

State†

-184.40 -75.04 -68.47 -148.1 -41.47 -58.3 -45.53 -43.88 -52.0 -142.2 -102.2 -21.98 -192.9 0.00 -95.28 -65.70 -31.35 -94.12 -160.00 -269.8 -267.58 -102.03 -70.95 -81.4

Compound Magnesium (Cont.) MgCl2⋅H2O MgCl2⋅2H2O MgCl2⋅4H2O MgCl2⋅6H2O MgF2 MgI2 MgMoO4 Mg3N2 Mg(NO3)2 Mg(NO3)2⋅2H2O Mg(NO3)2⋅6H2O MgO MgO⋅SiO2 Mg(OH)2 MgS MgSO4 MgTe MgWO4 Manganese Mn MnBr2 Mn3C Mn(C2H3O2)2 MnCO3 MnC2O4 MnCl2 MnF2 MnI2

-136.40 -210.98 -83.03 -102.95 -37.33 -96.95 -138.0 -106.44 -108.29

-105.64 -314.66 -375.07 0.00

Mn5N2 Mn(NO3)2 Mn(NO3)2.6H2O MnO MnO2 Mn2O3 Mn3O4 MnO.SiO2 Mn(OH)2 Mn(OH)3 Mn3(PO4)2 MnSe MnS MnSO4 Mn2(SO4)3 Mercury Hg HgBr HgBr2

-630.14

Hg(C2H3O2)2

-156.94 -29.08

HgCl2

-286.38 -241.7 -143.77

HgCl Hg2Cl2 Hg(CN)2 HgC2O4

State†

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

c c c c c c aq, 400 c c c aq, 400 c c c c c, ppt. c, brucite c aq c aq, 400 c c

-230.970 -305.810 -453.820 -597.240 -263.8 -86.8 -136.79 -329.9 -115.2 -188.770 -209.927 -336.625 -624.48 -143.84 -347.5 -221.90 -223.9 -84.2 -108 -304.94 -325.4 -25 -345.2

c, α c aq c c aq c c c aq, 400 aq, 1200 c aq c c aq, 400 c c c c c c c c c c c, green c aq, 400 c aq

0.00 -91 -106 1.1 -270.3 -282.7 -211 -240.9 -112.0 -128.9 -206.1 -49.8 -76.2 -57.77 -134.9 -148.0 -557.07 -92.04 -124.58 -229.5 -331.65 -301.3 -163.4 -221 -736 -26.3 -47.0 -254.18 -265.2 -635 -657

l g c aq c aq c aq g c c aq, 1110 c

0.00 23 -40.68 -38.4 -196.3 -192.5 -53.4 -50.3 19 -63.13 62.8 66.25 -159.3

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol -205.93 -267.20 -387.98 -505.45 -132.45 -100.8 -140.66 -160.28 -496.03 -136.17 -326.7 -200.17 -193.3 -277.7 -283.88

0.00 -97.8 1.26 -227.2 -192.5 -102.2 -180.0 -73.3 -46.49 -101.1 -441.2 -86.77 -111.49 -209.9 -306.22 -282.1 -143.1 -190 -27.5 -48.0 -228.41

0.00 18 -38.8 -9.74 -139.2 -42.2 -23.25 14

PROPERTIES OF FORMATIOn AnD COMBUSTIOn REACTIOnS

2-163

TABLE 2-94 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

g c, red g c aq aq c, red c, yellow ppt. c c, black c c

57.1 -25.3 33 -28.88 -56.8 -58.5 -21.6 -20.8 -21.6 -10.7 -166.6 -177.34

52.25 -24.0 23 -26.53 -13.09 -15.65 -13.94

c c c c c c c

0.00 4.36 -8.3 -130 -180.39 -56.27 -61.48

c c aq c aq aq c aq, 400 c aq c aq c aq, 200 c c c c c aq, 200

0.00 -53.4 -72.6 9.2 -249.6 230.9 -75.0 -94.34 -157.5 -171.6 -22.4 -42.0 -101.5 -113.5 -58.4 -129.8 -163.2 -20.4 -216 -231.3

g g g aq, 200 c aq c aq, 400 c aq c aq aq c aq c aq, 400 c aq c aq c aq c aq c aq, 500

0.00 -27 -10.96 -19.27 -64.57 -60.27 -148.1 -148.58 -0.7 3.6 -17.8 -12.3 -223.4 -266.3 -260.6 -75.23 -71.20 -69.4 -63.2 -276.9 -271.3 -111.6 -110.2 -48.43 -44.97 -87.40 -80.89

State†

Compound Mercury (Cont.) HgH HgI2 HgI Hg2I2 Hg(NO3)2 Hg2(NO3)2 HgO Hg2O HgS HgSO4 Hg2SO4 Molybdenum Mo Mo2C Mo2N MoO2 MoO3 MoS2 MoS3 Nickel Ni NiBr2 Ni3C Ni(C2H3O2)2 Ni(CN)2 NiCl2 NiF2 NiI2 Ni(NO3)2 NiO Ni(OH)2 Ni(OH)3 NiS NiSO4 Nitrogen N2 NF3 NH3 NH4Br NH4C2H3O2 NH4CN NH4CNS (NH4)2CO3 (NH4)2C2O4 NH4Cl NH4ClO4 (NH4)2CrO4 NH4F NH4I NH4NO3

-12.80 -8.80 -149.12 0.00 2.91 -118.0 -162.01 -54.19 -57.38 0.00 -60.7 8.88 -190.1 66.3 -74.19 -142.9 -36.2 -64.0 -51.7 -105.6

-187.6

Nitrogen (Cont.) NH4OH (NH4)2S (NH4)2SO4 N2H4 N2H4⋅H2O N2H4⋅H2SO4 N2O NO NO2 N2O4 N2O5 NOBr NOCl Osmium Os OsO4 Oxygen O2 O3 Palladium Pd PdO Phosphorus P P P2 P4 PBr3 PBr5 PCl3 PCl5 PH3 PI3 P2O5 POCl3 Platinum Pt PtBr4

0.00 -3.903 -43.54 -108.26 20.4 4.4 -164.1 -196.2 -48.59 -21.1

PtCl2 PtCl4 PtI4 Pt(OH)2 PtS PtS2 Potassium K K3AsO3 K3AsO4 KH2AsO4 KBr KBrO3 KC2H3O2 KCl

-209.3 -84.7 -31.3

State†

Compound

KClO3 KClO4 KCN

aq aq, 400 c aq, 400 l l c g g g g c l g

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol -87.59 -55.21 -281.74 -279.33 12.06 -57.96 -232.2 19.55 21.600 7.96 2.23 -10.0 11.6 12.8

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

-14.50 -215.06 -214.02

24.82 20.719 12.26 23.41 19.26 16.1

c c g

0.00 -93.6 -80.1

0.00 -70.9 -68.1

g g

0.00 33.88

0.00 38.86

c c

0.00 -20.40

0.00

0.00 -4.22 150.35 33.82 13.2 -45 -60.6 -70.0 -76.8 -91.0 2.21 -10.9 -360.0 -138.4

0.00 -1.80 141.88 24.60 5.89

c, white (“yellow”) c, red (“violet”) g g g l c g l g g c c g c c aq c c aq c c c c c aq aq c c aq, 400 c aq, 1667 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400

0.00 -40.6 -50.7 -34 -62.6 -82.3 -18 -87.5 -20.18 -26.64 0.00 -323.0 -390.3 -271.2 -94.06 -89.19 -81.58 -71.68 -173.80 -177.38 -104.348 -100.164 -93.5 -81.34 -103.8 -101.14 -28.1 -25.3

-65.2 -63.3 -73.2 -1.45 -127.2 0.00

-67.9 -18.55 -24.28 0.00 -355.7 -236.7 -90.8 -92.0 -60.30 -156.73 -97.76 -98.76 -69.30 -72.86 -28.08 (Continued)

2-164

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-94 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

State†

Compound Potassium (Cont.) KCNO KCNS K2CO3 K2C2O4 K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 KF K3Fe(CN)6 K4Fe(CN)6 KH KHCO3 KI KIO3 KIO4 KMnO4 K2MoO4 KNH2 KNO2 KNO3 K2O K2O⋅Al2O3⋅SiO2 K2O⋅Al2O3⋅SiO2 KOH K3PO3 K3PO4 KH2PO4 K2PtCl4 K2PtCl6 K2Se K2SeO4 K2S K2SO3 K2SO4 K2SO4⋅Al2(SO4)3 K2SO4⋅Al2(SO4)3· 24H2O K2S2O6 Rhenium Re ReF6 Rhodium Rh RhO Rh2O Rh2O3

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

c aq c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 180 c aq c aq c c aq, 2000 c aq, 500 c aq, 400 aq c aq, 400 aq, 880 c aq c aq, 400 c c, leucite gls c, adularia c, microcline gls c aq, 400 aq aq c c aq c aq, 9400 c aq aq c aq, 400 c aq c aq, 400 c

-99.6 -94.5 -47.0 -41.07 -274.01 -280.90 -319.9 -315.5 -333.4 -328.2 -488.5 -472.1 -134.50 -138.36 -48.4 -34.5 -131.8 -119.9 -10 -229.8 -224.85 -78.88 -73.95 -121.69 -115.18 -98.1 -192.9 -182.5 -364.2 -28.25 -86.0 -118.08 -109.79 -86.2 -1379.6 -1368.2 -1784.5 -1784.5 -1747 -102.02 -114.96 -397.5 -478.7 -362.7 -254.7 -242.6 -299.5 -286.1 -74.4 -83.4 -267.1 -121.5 -110.75 -267.7 -269.7 -342.65 -336.48 -1178.38

c c

-2895.44 -418.62

-2455.68

c g

0.00 -274

0.00

c c c c

0.00 -21.7 -22.7 -68.3

0.00

-90.85

Rubidium Rb RbBr

-44.08 -264.04

RbCN Rb2CO3

-293.1

RbCl

-306.3 RbF -440.9 -133.13

RbHCO3 RbI

-5.3 -207.71 -77.37 -79.76 -101.87 -99.68 -169.1 -168.0 -342.9 -75.9 -94.29 -93.68

-105.0 -443.3 -326.1 -226.5 -263.6 -99.10 -240.0 -111.44 -251.3 -314.62 -310.96 -1068.48

State†

Compound

RbNH2 RbNO3 Rb2O Rb2O2 RbOH Ruthenium Ru RuS2 Selenium Se Se2Cl2 SeF6 SeO2 Silicon Si SiBr4 SiC SiCl4 SiF4 SiH4 SiI4 Si3N4 SiO2

Silver Ag AgBr Ag2C2 AgC2H3O2 AgCN Ag2CO3 Ag2C2O4 AgCl AgF AgI AgIO3 AgNO2 AgNO3 Ag2O

c c g aq, 500 aq c aq, 220 c g aq, ∞ c aq, 400 c aq, 2000 c g aq, 400 c c aq, 400 c c c aq, 200 c c c, I, hexagonal c, II, red, monoclinic l g c

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol 0.00 -95.82 -45.0 -90.54 -25.9 -273.22 -282.61 -105.06 -53.6 -101.06 -133.23 -139.31 -230.01 -225.59 -81.04 -31.2 -74.57 -27.74 -119.22 -110.52 -82.9 -107 -101.3 -115.8

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol 0.00 -52.50 -93.38 -263.78 -98.48 -57.9 -100.13 -134.5 -209.07 -40.5 -81.13 -95.05

-106.39

0.00 -46.99

0.00 -44.11

0.00 0.2

0.00

-22.06 -246 -56.33

-13.73 -222

0.00 -93.0 -28 -150.0 -142.5 -370 -14.8 -29.8 -179.25 -202.62

0.00

c l c l g g g c c c, cristobalite, 1600° form c, cristobalite, 1100° form c, quartz c, tridymite

-203.35 -203.23

c c c c aq c c c c c aq, 400 c c c aq c aq, 6500 c

0.00 -23.90 84.5 -95.9 -91.7 33.8 -119.5 -158.7 -30.11 -48.7 -53.1 -15.14 -42.02 -11.6 -2.9 -29.4 -24.02 -6.95

-27.4 -133.9 -133.0 -360 -9.4 -154.74

-202.46 -190.4 0.00 -23.02 -70.86 38.70 -103.0 -25.98 -47.26 -16.17 -24.08 3.76 9.99 -7.66 -7.81 -2.23

PROPERTIES OF FORMATIOn AnD COMBUSTIOn REACTIOnS

2-165

TABLE 2-94 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

State†

Compound Silver (Cont.) Ag2S Ag2SO4 Sodium Na Na3AsO3 Na3AsO4 NaBr NaBrO NaBrO3 NaC2H3O2 NaCN NaCNO NaCNS Na2CO3 NaCO2NH2 Na2C2O4 NaCl NaClO3 NaClO4 Na2CrO4 Na2Cr2O7 NaF NaH NaHCO3 NaI NaIO3 Na2MoO4 NaNO2 NaNO3 Na2O Na2O2 Na2O⋅SiO2 Na2O⋅Al2O3⋅3SiO2 Na2O⋅Al2O3⋅4SiO2 NaOH Na3PO3 Na3PO4 Na2PtCl4 Na2PtCl6 Na2Se Na2SeO4 Na2S Na2SO3 Na2SO4

c c aq c aq, 500 c aq, 500 c aq, 400 aq aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 200 c aq c aq, 400 c aq, 1000 c c aq, 600 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 476 c aq, 800 aq, 1200 c aq, 400 c c aq c aq, ∞ aq, 400 c aq c aq c aq, 400 c c c c, natrolite c c aq, 400 aq, 1000 c aq, 400 aq c aq c aq, 440 c aq, 800 c aq, 400 c aq, 800 c aq, 1100

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

-5.5 -170.1 -165.8

-7.6 -146.8 -139.22

0.00 -314.61 -366 -381.97 -86.72 -86.33 -78.9 -68.89 -170.45 -175.450 -22.47 -22.29 -96.3 -91.7 -39.94 -38.23 -269.46 -275.13 -142.17 -313.8 -309.92 -98.321 -97.324 -83.59 -78.42 -101.12 -97.66 -319.8 -323.0 -465.9 -135.94 -135.711 -14 -226.0 -222.1 -69.28 -71.10 -112.300 -364 -358.7 -86.6 -83.1 -111.71 -106.880 -99.45 -119.2 -383.91 -1180 -1366 -101.96 -112.193 -389.1 -457 -471.9 -237.2 -272.1 -280.9 -59.1 -78.1 -254 -261.5 -89.8 -105.17 -261.2 -264.1 -330.50 -330.82

0.00 -341.17 -87.17 -57.59 -152.31 -23.24 -86.00 -39.24 -249.55 -251.36 -283.42 -91.894 -93.92

Sodium (Cont.) Na2SO4⋅10H2O Na2WO4 Strontium Sr SrBr2 Sr(C2H3O2)2 Sr(CN)2 SrCO3 SrCl2 SrF2 Sr(HCO3)2 SrI2 Sr3N2 Sr(NO3)2 SrO SrO⋅SiO2 SrO2 Sr2O Sr(OH)2 Sr3(PO4)2

-62.84

SrS

-73.29

SrSO4

-296.58 -431.18 -129.0 -128.29 -9.30 -202.66 -202.87

SrWO4 Sulfur S

-74.92 -94.84 -333.18 -71.04 -87.62 -88.84 -90.06 -105.0 -361.49 -90.60 -100.18 -428.74 -216.78

-89.42 -230.30 -101.76 -240.14 -241.58 -302.38 -301.28

State†

Compound

S2 S6 S8 S2Br2 SCl4 S2Cl2 S2Cl4 SF6 SO SO2 SO3

SO2Cl2 Tantalum Ta TaN Ta2O5 Tellurium Te TeBr4 TeCl4 TeF6 TeO2 Thallium Tl TlBr TlCl

c c aq c c aq, 400 c aq aq c c aq, 400 c aq c aq, 400 c c aq, 400 c gls c c c aq, 800 c aq c aq c aq, 400 c

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

-1033.85 -391 -381.5

-870.52

0.00 -171.0 -187.24 -358.0 -364.4 -59.5 -290.9 -197.84 -209.20 -289.0 -459.1 -136.1 -156.70 -91.4 -233.2 -228.73 -140.8 -364 -153.3 -153.6 -228.7 -239.4 -980 -985 -113.1 -120.4 -345.3 -345.0 -393 0.00 -0.071 0.257

-345.18 0.00 -182.36 -311.80 -54.50 -271.9 -195.86 -413.76 -157.87 -76.5 -185.70 -133.7 -139.0 -208.27 -881.54 -109.78 -309.30

c, rhombic c, monoclinic l, λ l, λµ equilibrium g g g g l l l l g g g g l c, α c, β c, γ g l

0.00 0.023 0.072 0.071 43.57 19.36 13.97 12.770

53.25 31.02 27.78 27.090 -4 -13.7 -14.2 -24.1 -262 19.02 -70.94 -94.39 -103.03 -105.09 -105.92 -109.34 -82.04 -89.80

-237 12.75 -71.68 -88.59 -88.28 -88.22 -88.34 -88.98 -74.06 -75.06

c c c

0.00 -51.2 -486.0

0.00 -45.11 -453.7

c c c g c

0.00 -49.3 -77.4 -315 -77.56

0.00 -57.4 -292 -64.66

c c aq c aq

0.00 -41.5 -28.0 -49.37 -38.4

0.00 -39.43 -32.34 -44.46 -39.09

-5.90

(Continued)

2-166

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-94 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Compound Thallium (Cont.) TlCl3 TlF TlI TlNO3 Tl2O Tl2O3 TlOH Tl2S Tl2SO4 Thorium Th ThBr4 ThC2 ThCl4 ThI4 Th3N4 ThO2 Th(OH)4 Th(SO4)2 Tin Sn SnBr2 SnBr4 SnCl2 SnCl4 SnI2 SnO SnO2 Sn(OH)2 Sn(OH)4 SnS Titanium Ti TiC TiCl4 TiN TiO2 †

State†

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

c aq aq c aq c aq c c c aq c c aq, 800

-82.4 -91.0 -77.6 -31.1 -12.7 -58.2 -48.4 -43.18 -120 -57.44 -53.9 -22 -222.8 -214.1

c c aq c c aq aq c c c, “soluble” c aq

0.00 -281.5 -352.0 -45.1 -335 -392 -292.0 -309.0 -291.6 -336.1 -632 -668.1

c, II, tetragonal c, III, “gray,” cubic c aq c aq c aq l aq c aq c c c c c

0.00 0.6 -61.4 -60.0 -94.8 -110.6 -83.6 -81.7 -127.3 -157.6 -38.9 -33.3 -67.7 -138.1 -136.2 -268.9 -18.61

c c l c c, III, rutil amorphous

0.00 -110 -181.4 -80.0 -225.0 -214.1

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

-44.25 -73.46 -31.3 -20.09 -36.32 -34.01 -45.54 -45.35 -197.79 -191.62 0.00 -295.31 -322.32 -246.33 -282.3 -280.1 -549.2 0.00 1.1 -55.43 -97.66 -68.94 -110.4 -124.67 -30.95 -60.75 -123.6 -115.95 -226.00 0.00 -109.2 -165.5 -73.17 -211.9 -201.4

Heat of formation‡§ ΔH ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

Free energy of formation∙¶ ΔF ( formation) at 25°C, kcal/mol

c c c c

0.00 -130.5 -195.7 -84

0.00 -118.3 -177.3

c c c c c c c c c

0.00 -29 -213 -251 -274 -256.6 -756.8 -291.6 -845.1

0.00

c c l l c c c c c

0.00 -147 -187 -165 -41.43 -195 -296 -342 -373

c c c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c c c aq, 400 aq c aq aq, 400 c, hexagonal c c, rhombic c, wurtzite c aq, 400

0.00 -3.6 -77.0 -93.6 -259.4 -269.4 17.06 -192.9 -99.9 -115.44 -192.9 -50.50 -61.6 -134.9 -83.36 -282.6 -153.66 -45.3 -233.4 -252.12

c c c c c, monoclinic c c

0.00 -29.8 -268.9 -82.5 -258.5 -411.0 -337

State†

Compound Tungsten W WO2 WO3 WS2 Uranium U UC2 UCl3 UCl4 U3N4 UO2 UO2(NO3)2⋅6H2O UO3 U3O8 Vanadium V VCl2 VCl3 VCl4 VN V2O2 V2O3 V2O4 V2O5 Zinc Zn ZnSb ZnBr2 Zn(C2H3O2)2 Zn(CN)2 ZnCO3 ZnCl2 ZnF2 ZnI2 Zn(NO3)2 ZnO ZnO⋅SiO2 Zn(OH)2 ZnS ZnSO4 Zirconium Zr ZrC ZrCl4 ZrN ZrO2 Zr(OH)4 ZrO(OH)2

-249.6 -242.2 -617.8

0.00

-35.08 -277 -316 -342 0.00 -3.88 -72.9 -214.4 -173.5 -88.8 -166.6 -49.93 -87.7 -76.19 -44.2 -211.28 0.00 -34.6 -75.9 -244.6 -307.6

The physical state is indicated as follows: c, crystal (solid); l, liquid; g, gas; gls, glass or solid supercooled liquid; aq, in aqueous solution. A number following the symbol aq applies only to the values of the heats of formation (not to those of free energies of formation); and indicates the number of moles of water per mole of solute; when no number is given, the solution is understood to be dilute. For the free energy of formation of a substance in aqueous solution, the concentration is always that of the hypothetical solution of unit molality. ‡ The increment in heat content, ΔH, is the reaction of forming the given substance from its elements in their standard states. When ΔH is negative, heat is evolved in the process, and, when positive, heat is absorbed. § The heat of solution in water of a given solid, liquid, or gaseous compound is given by the difference in the value for the heat of formation of the given compound in the solid, liquid, or gaseous state and its heat of formation in aqueous solution. The following two examples serve as an illustration of the procedure: (1) For NaCl(c) and NaCl(aq, 400H2O), the values of ΔH( formation) are, respectively, -98.321 and -97.324 kcal/mol. Subtraction of the first value from the second gives ΔH = 0.998 kcal/mol for the reaction of dissolving crystalline sodium chloride in 400 mol of water. When this process occurs at a constant pressure of 1 atm, 0.998 kg-cal of energy are absorbed. (2) For HCl(g) and HCl(aq, 400H2O), the values for ΔH( formation) are, respectively, -22.06 and -39.85 kcal/mol. Subtraction of the first from the second gives ΔH = -17.79 kcal/mol for the reaction of dissolving gaseous hydrogen chloride in 400 mol of water. At a constant pressure of 1 atm, 17.79 kcal of energy are evolved in this process. ∙The increment in the free energy, ΔF, is the reaction of forming the given substance in its standard state from its elements in their standard states. The standard states are: for a gas, fugacity (approximately equal to the pressure) of 1 atm; for a pure liquid or solid, the substance at a pressure of 1 atm; for a substance in aqueous solution, the hypothetical solution of unit molality, which has all the properties of the infinitely dilute solution except the property of concentration. ¶ The free energy of solution of a given substance from its normal standard state as a solid, liquid, or gas to the hypothetical one molal state in aqueous solution may be calculated in a manner similar to that described in footnote § for calculating the heat of solution.

TABLE 2-95 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds at 298.15 K Cmpd. no.

2-167

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia Anisole Argon Benzamide Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide

Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O Ar C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO

CAS 75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 7440-37-1 55-21-0 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0 124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0

Mol. wt. 44.05256 59.0672 60.052 102.08864 58.07914 41.0519 26.03728 56.06326 72.06266 53.0626 28.96 17.03052 108.13782 39.948 121.13658 78.11184 110.17684 122.12134 103.1213 182.2179 108.13782 136.19098 124.20342 154.2078 159.808 157.0079 108.965 94.93852 54.09044 54.09044 58.1222 90.121 90.121 74.1216 74.1216 56.10632 56.10632 56.10632 116.15828 134.21816 90.1872 90.1872 54.09044 72.10572 88.1051 69.1051 44.0095 76.1407 28.0101

Ideal gas enthalpy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07 -17.1 -23.83 -43.28 -57.55 -21.57 6.467 22.82 -8.18 -35.591 17.97 0 -4.5898 -6.79 0 -10.09 8.288 11.15 -29.41 21.57 5.68 -9.025 -11.5 9.33 17.849 3.091 10.5018 -6.36 -3.77 16.23 10.924 -12.579 -44.58 -43.32 -27.51 -29.29 -0.05 -0.74 -1.1 -48.56 -1.314 -8.78 -9.66 16.52 -20.62 -47.58 3.342 -39.351 11.69 -11.053

Ideal gas Gibbs energy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07 -13.78 -15.96 -37.45 -47.6 -15.13 8.241 21.068 -5.68 -30.6 18.92 0 -1.64 2.27 0 -0.211 12.96 14.76 -21.42 25.8 17.3 -0.254 3.37 16.3 27.63 0.314 13.8532 -2.574 -2.7037 19.86 14.972 -1.67 -30.44 -29.18 -15.07 -16.7 7.041 6.536 6.32 -31.26 14.54 1.139 0.512 20.225 -11.48 -36 10.57 -39.437 6.68 -13.715

Ideal gas entropy, J/(kmol∙K) × 1E-05

Standard net enthalpy of combustion, J/kmol × 1E-09

2.6384 2.722 2.825 3.899 2.954 2.438 2.0081 2.97 3.15 2.77267 1.94452 1.9266 3.61 1.54845 3.641 2.693 3.369 3.69 3.21 4.4 3.713 4.39 3.607 3.9367 2.4535 3.24386 2.873 2.421 2.93 2.7889 3.0991 4.065 4.065 3.618 3.566 3.074 3.012 2.965 4.425 4.3949 3.752 3.667 2.9039 3.418 3.601 3.337 2.13677 2.379 1.97556

-1.1046 -1.0741 -0.7866 -1.675 -1.659 -1.18118 -1.257 -1.5468 -1.32717 -1.71238 0 -0.31683 -3.6072 0 -3.39877 -3.136 -3.4474 -3.0951 -3.524 -6.2876 -3.56 -4.83 -4.06 -6.248 0 -3.01917 -1.301 -0.7185 -2.4617 -2.409 -2.65732 -2.2678 -2.2824 -2.454 -2.446 -2.5408 -2.5339 -2.53 -3.28 -5.5644 -2.9554 -2.949 -2.4647 -2.301 -2.008 -2.4146 -1.0769 -0.283 (Continued)

2-168

TABLE 2-95 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds at 298.15 K (Continued ) Cmpd. no. 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98

Name Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane

Formula CCl4 CF4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C2H4F2 C2H4F2

CAS 56-23-5 75-73-0 7782-50-5 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6 108-39-4 95-48-7 106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0 110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2 75-37-6 624-72-6

Mol. wt. 153.8227 88.0043 70.906 112.5569 64.5141 119.37764 50.4875 78.54068 78.54068 108.13782 108.13782 108.13782 120.19158 52.0348 56.10632 84.15948 100.15888 98.143 82.1436 70.1329 68.11702 42.07974 116.22448 156.2652 142.28168 172.265 158.28108 140.2658 174.34668 138.24992 4.0316 187.86116 187.86116 173.83458 130.22792 147.00196 147.00196 147.00196 98.95916 98.95916 84.93258 112.98574 112.98574 105.13564 73.13684 74.1216 90.1872 66.04997 66.04997

Ideal gas enthalpy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07

Ideal gas Gibbs energy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07

-9.581 -92.21 0 5.109 -11.23 -10.29 -8.57 -13.32 -14.477 -13.23 -12.857 -12.535 0.4 30.894 2.85 -12.33 -28.62 -22.61 -0.46 -7.703 3.23 5.33 -9.602 -33.17 -24.946 -59.43 -39.85 -12.47 -21.09 4.1 0 -4.08 -3.89

-5.354 -87.76 0 9.829 -6.045 -7.01 -6.209 -5.251 -6.136 -4.019 -3.543 -3.166 13.79 29.76 11.22 3.191 -10.95 -9.028 10.77 3.885 11.05 10.44 4.886 -6.349 3.318 -30.5 -10.02 12.27 6.165 25.16 0 -1.181 -1.054

-33.34 2.57 3.02 2.25 -12.941 -12.979 -9.552 -15.08 -16.28 -40.847 -7.142 -25.21 -8.356 -49.7 -44.77

-8.827 7.79 8.29 7.67 -7.259 -7.3945 -6.896 -6.52 -8.018 -22.574 7.308 -12.21 1.774 -43.9485 -39.19

Ideal gas entropy, J/(kmol∙K) × 1E-05

Standard net enthalpy of combustion, J/kmol × 1E-09

3.0991 2.62 2.23079 3.1403 2.758 2.956 2.341 3.155 3.0594 3.5604 3.5259 3.5075 3.86 2.4117 2.64396 2.97276 3.277 3.3426 3.10518 2.929 2.91267 2.37378 3.646 5.672 5.457 5.99 5.971 5.433 6.116 5.263 1.4486 3.276 3.297 2.92964 5.014 3.4353 3.4185 3.3674 3.0501 3.0828 2.7018 3.448 3.548 4.29 3.522 3.423 3.681 2.824 2.88194

-0.2653 0.5286 0 -2.976 -1.279 -0.38 -0.6705 -1.864 -1.863 -3.52783 -3.528 -3.52256 -4.951 -1.096 -2.5678 -3.656 -3.4639 -3.299 -3.532 -3.0709 -2.9393 -1.9593 -3.968 -5.958 -6.29422 -5.72 -6.116 -6.1809 -6.6161 -6.1037 -0.24625 -1.16 -1.1769 -4.94691 -2.825 -2.826 -2.802 -1.1104 -1.105 -0.51388 -1.72 -1.707 -2.4105 -2.8003 -2.5035 -2.9607 -0.773662 -0.823

99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150

Difluoromethane Diisopropyl amine Diisopropyl ether Diisopropyl ketone 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine Dodecane Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorobenzene

CH2F2 C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O C4H10O2 C5H12O2 C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2 C12H10O C6H15N C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2 C8H16O2 C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 C6H5F

75-10-5 108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0 534-15-6 7778-85-0 503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6 75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1 101-84-8 142-84-7 112-40-3 112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4 149-57-5 5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 462-06-6

52.02339 101.19 102.17476 114.18546 90.121 104.14758 54.09044 45.08368 86.17536 112.21264 112.21264 112.21264 94.19904 46.06844 73.09378 100.20194 194.184 60.17042 62.134 78.13344 194.184 88.10512 170.2072 101.19 170.33484 282.54748 30.069 46.06844 88.10512 45.08368 106.165 150.1745 116.15828 116.15828 112.21264 98.18606 28.05316 60.09832 62.06784 43.0678 44.05256 74.07854 144.211 130.22792 88.14818 100.15888 62.13404 102.1317 88.14818 163.506 37.9968064 96.1023032

-45.23 -14.38 -31.92 -31.14 -38.97 -38.42 14.57 -1.845 -17.68 -18.1 -17.2172 -17.9996 -2.42 -18.41 -19.17 -19.41 -60.5 -9.47 -3.724 -15.046 -62.742 -31.58 5.2 -11.6 -29.072 -45.646 -8.382 -23.495 -44.45 -4.715 2.992 -32.6 -53.78 -48.55 -17.15 -12.69 5.251 -1.73 -39.22 12.3428 -5.263 -38.83 -55.95 -33.37 -28.58 -28.61 -4.63 -46.36 -27.22 -59.15 0 -11.6566

-42.4747 6.42 -12.48 -12.37 -23.8 -20.11 18.49 6.839 -0.3125 3.52293 4.12124 3.44761 1.516 -11.28 -8.84 0.5717 -46.7749 -1.925 0.7302 -8.1441 -41.97 -18.16 17.5 11.96 4.981 11.57 -3.192 -16.785 -32.8 3.616 13.073 -19.05 -35.9 -31.22 3.955 4.48 6.844 10.3 -30.18 17.7987 -1.323 -30.31 -32.49 -9.042 -12.64 -13.3 -0.4814 -31.93 -11.52 -50.66 0 -6.9036

2.4658 4.12 3.989 4.27 3.726 4.038 2.833 2.7296 3.6592 3.65012 3.7451 3.70912 3.35291 2.667 3.26 4.1455 6.6 2.9953 2.8585 3.0627 4.245 3.0012 4.13 3.2 6.2415 9.3787 2.2912 2.8064 3.597 2.848 3.6063 4.55 4.23 4.417 3.826 3.783 2.192 3.21833 3.04891 2.5062 2.4299 3.282 5.097 5.076 3.8 4.069 2.961 4.025 3.881 4.07 2.02789 3.02629

-0.183031 -3.99 -3.70261 -4.095 -2.394 -2.996 -2.4189 -1.6146 -3.84761 -4.8639 -4.87084 -4.86436 -2.0441 -1.3284 -1.78871 -4.46075 -4.4662 -2.569 -1.7443 -1.6054 -4.41057 -2.1863 -5.8939 -4.0189 -7.51368 -12.3908 -1.42864 -1.235 -2.061 -1.5874 -4.3448 -4.41 -3.21203 -3.284 -4.87051 -4.2839 -1.323 -1.691 -1.0527 -1.481 -1.218 -1.50696 -4.448 -4.943 -3.103 -3.4863 -1.7366 -2.674 -3.12 -1.67471 -2.81451

2-169

(Continued)

2-170

TABLE 2-95 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds at 298.15 K (Continued ) Cmpd. no. 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199

Name Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 Heptadecane Heptanal Heptane Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene 3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid Methacrylic acid Methane Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine

Formula C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12 C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10 H4N2 H2 BrH ClH CHN FH H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4 C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N

CAS 353-36-6 593-53-3 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 629-78-7 111-71-7 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6 928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2 302-01-2 1333-74-0 10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2 79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5

Mol. wt.

Ideal gas enthalpy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07

Ideal gas Gibbs energy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07

Ideal gas entropy, J/(kmol∙K) × 1E-05

48.0595 34.03292 30.02598 45.04062 46.0257 68.07396 4.0026 240.46774 114.18546 100.20194 130.185 116.20134 116.20134 114.18546 114.18546 98.18606 132.26694 96.17018 226.44116 100.15888 86.17536 116.158 102.17476 102.175 100.15888 100.15888 84.15948 82.1436 118.24036 82.1436 82.1436 32.04516 2.01588 80.91194 36.46094 27.02534 20.0063432 34.08088 88.10512 59.11026 104.06146 86.08924 16.0425 32.04186 73.09378 74.07854 40.06386 86.08924 31.0571

-26.44 -23.43 -10.86 -19.22 -37.88 -3.48 0 -39.445 -26.48 -18.765 -53.62 -33.68 -35.3 -30.1 -30.0453 -6.289 -14.95 10.3 -37.417 -24.8 -16.694 -51.19 -31.62 -33.46 -27.9826 -27.76 -4.167 10.6 -12.92 12.37 10.5 9.5353 0 -3.629 -9.231 13.5143 -27.33 -2.063 -48.41 -8.38 -77.89 -36.8 -7.452 -20.094 -24 -41.19 18.49 -33.3 -2.297

-21.23 -21.03 -10.26 -14.71 -35.11 0.08225 0 9.083 -8.367 0.8165 -33.4 -12.55 -13.7 -12.25 -11.96 9.482 3.622 22.7 8.216 -9.92 -0.006634 -33.8 -13.39 -15.06 -13.0081 -12.6 8.7 19.9 2.759 21.85 19.9 15.917 0 -5.334 -9.53 12.4725 -27.54 -3.344 -36.21 3.192 -69.29 -28.8 -5.049 -16.232 -13.5 -32.42 19.384 -25.7 3.207

2.644 2.22734 2.19 2.4857 2.487 2.6714 1.26152 8.2023 4.5 4.2798 4.8 4.795 4.66 4.58 4.486 4.252 4.939 4.085 7.8102 4.22 3.8874 4.41 4.402 4.349 4.17856 4.092 3.863 3.76 4.546 3.694 3.72 2.3861 1.30571 1.98591 1.86786 2.01719 1.7367 2.056 3.412 3.124 4.003 3.5 1.8627 2.3988 3.2 3.198 2.4836 3.66 2.433

Standard net enthalpy of combustion, J/kmol × 1E-09 -1.127 -0.5219 -0.5268 -0.5021 -0.2115 -1.9959 0 -10.5618 -4.136 -4.46473 -3.839 -4.285 -4.27 -4.098 -4.09952 -4.3499 -4.7865 -4.2717 -9.95145 -3.524 -3.8551 -3.23 -3.675 -3.67 -3.49 -3.492 -3.7397 -3.64 -4.1762 -3.661 -3.64 -0.5342 -0.24182 -0.06904 -0.0286 -0.62329 0.1524 -0.518 -2.0004 -2.1566 -0.7732 -1.93 -0.80262 -0.6382 -1.71 -1.461 -1.8487 -1.9303 -0.97508

200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250

Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl -1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl Isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane alpha-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride

C8H8O2 C5H8 C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S C5H8 C5H10O2 CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si C9H10 C5H12O C3H6O C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 N2 F3N

93-58-3 598-25-4 78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5 598-23-2 623-42-7 993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9 96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5 75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9 98-83-9 1634-04-4 107-25-5 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2

136.14792 68.11702 72.14878 102.1317 88.1482 70.1329 70.1329 66.10114 88.14818 104.214 68.11702 102.1317 80.5889 98.18606 114.18546 114.18546 114.18546 84.15948 82.1436 82.1436 115.03396 60.09502 72.10572 76.1606 60.05196 88.14818 100.15888 57.05132 74.1216 86.1323 90.1872 48.10746 100.11582 158.23802 86.17536 102.17476 58.1222 74.1216 56.10632 88.10512 74.1216 90.1872 46.14384 118.1757 88.1482 58.07914 128.17052 20.1797 75.0666 28.0134 71.0019096

-28.79 12.908 -15.37 -49.8 -30.3 -3.53 -4.18 26 -25.81 -10.2 13.8 -45.07 -21.5 -15.48 -33.2 -32.7 -35.26 -10.62 -0.38 0.74 -40.2 -21.64 -23.9 -5.96 -35.24 -26.6 -28.64 -6.24 -25.2 -26.26 -8.96 -2.29 -36 -57.95 -17.455 -27.8 -13.499 -31.24 -1.71 -42.75 -23.82 -8.23 -2.91 11.83 -28.3 -10.8 15.058 0 -10.21 0 -13.2089

-18.1 19.75 -1.405 -34.99 -14.54 6.668 6.045 30.25 -10.17 2.691 20.72 -30.53 -16.61 2.733 -12.9 -12.68 -15.24 3.63 10.38 11.38 -34.83 -11.71 -14.7 1.147 -29.5 -10.7 -13.51 0.0244 -12.18 -13.93 1.4509 -0.98 -25.4 -31.8 -0.5338 -9.321 -2.144 -17.76 5.808 -31.1 -11.1 1.793 1.853 21.73 -11.7 -4.73 22.408 0 -0.6125 0 -9.063

4.14 3.2151 3.4374 3.9 3.869 3.395 3.386 2.78 3.901 4.118 3.189 3.988 2.98277 3.433 3.75 3.853 3.853 3.399 3.264 3.305 3.287 3.0881 3.394 3.332 2.852 3.81 4.129 1.955 3.416 3.699 3.59 2.55 4.01 5.533 3.8089 4.32 2.955 3.263 2.9309 3.596 3.52 3.717 2.565 3.725 3.58 3.08 3.3315 1.46327 3.168 1.91609 2.60773

-3.772 -3.032 -3.23954 -2.622 -3.062 -3.1159 -3.1088 -2.93 -3.12818 -3.5723 -3.046 -2.686 -1.693 -4.25714 -4.058 -4.0574 -4.0318 -3.6741 -3.534 -3.5464 -1.357 -1.9314 -2.268 -2.354 -0.8924 -3.122 -3.4762 -1.06 -2.5311 -2.877 -2.957 -1.1517 -2.54 -5.056 -3.84915 -3.739 -2.64812 -2.4239 -2.5242 -2.078 -2.51739 -2.962 -1.999 -4.8214 -3.11 -1.77431 -4.9809 0 -1.25

2-171

(Continued)

2-172

TABLE 2-95 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds at 298.15 K (Continued ) Cmpd. no. 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299

Name Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Nonadecane Nonanal Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane Octanal Octane Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde

Formula CH3NO2 N2O NO C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2 C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C9H14 C3H6O

CAS 75-52-5 10024-97-2 10102-43-9 629-92-5 124-19-6 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3 124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9 85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6

Mol. wt. 61.04002 44.0128 30.0061 268.5209 142.23862 128.2551 158.238 144.2545 144.255 126.23922 160.3201 124.22334 254.49432 128.212 114.22852 144.211 130.22792 130.228 128.21204 128.21204 112.21264 146.29352 110.19676 90.03488 31.9988 47.9982 212.41458 86.1323 72.14878 102.132 88.1482 88.1482 86.1323 86.1323 70.1329 104.21378 104.21378 68.11702 68.11702 178.2292 94.11124 119.1207 148.11556 40.06386 44.09562 60.09502 60.095 122.20746 58.07914

Ideal gas enthalpy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07

Ideal gas Gibbs energy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07

Ideal gas entropy, J/(kmol∙K) × 1E-05

Standard net enthalpy of combustion, J/kmol × 1E-09

-7.47 8.205 9.025 -43.579 -31.09 -22.874 -57.73 -37.79 -39.71 -10.35 -19.08 6.17 -41.512 -29.02 -20.875 -55.6 -35.73 -37.62 -32.16 -33.9 -8.194 -17.01 8.23 -71.95 0 14.2671 -35.311 -22.78 -14.676 -49.13 -29.57 -31.37 -25.92 -25.79 -2.162 -11.3 -10.84 14.44 12.89 20.12 -9.6399 -1.454 -37.14 19.05 -10.468 -25.46 -27.21 4.677 -18.49

-0.6934 10.416 8.657 10.74 -7.136 2.498 -31.7 -10.86 -12.61 11.23 5.28 24.34 9.91 -8 1.6 -32.5 -11.7 -13.43 -11.38 -12.81 10.57 4.457 23.5 -66.24 0 16.3164 7.426 -10.67 -0.8813 -34.7 -14.23 -15.88 -13.83 -13.44 7.837 1.814 1.94408 21.03 19.45 30.219 -3.2637 4.87212 -30.7001 20.08 -2.439 -15.99 -17.52 20.85 -12.37

2.751 2.1985 2.106 8.9866 5.266 5.064 5.59 5.579 5.523 5.041 5.724 4.8699 8.5945 4.896 4.6723 5.2 5.187 5.132 4.962 4.879 4.637 5.331 4.478 3.608 2.05147 2.38823 7.4181 3.777 3.4945 4.02 4.01 3.958 3.786 3.7 3.462 4.05 4.154 3.298 3.3084 3.945 3.1481 3.527 3.995 2.439 2.702 3.226 3.175 4.233 3.065

-0.6432 -0.0820482 -0.0902489 -11.7812 -5.35 -5.68455 -5.061 -5.506 -5.506 -5.5716 -6.006 -5.493 -11.1715 -4.74 -5.07415 -4.448 -4.895 -4.894 -4.6984 -4.711 -4.961 -5.3962 -4.88145 -0.1989 0 -0.142671 -9.34237 -2.91 -3.24494 -2.617 -3.064 -3.058 -2.87956 -2.8804 -3.13037 -3.564 -3.5641 -3.051 -3.0291 -6.8282 -2.921 -3.298 -3.1715 -1.8563 -2.04311 -1.844 -1.834 -5.232 -1.684

300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345

Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate Propyl amine Propylbenzene Propylene Propyl formate 2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N C9H12 C3H6 C4H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8 C4H6O4 O2S F6S O3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4 107-10-8 103-65-1 115-07-1 110-74-7 75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5 110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

74.0785 55.0785 102.1317 59.11026 120.19158 42.07974 88.10512 76.16062 76.16062 76.09442 108.09476 104.0791128 104.14912 118.08804 64.0638 146.0554192 80.0632 166.13084 230.30376 198.388 72.10572 132.20228 88.17132 114.22852 84.13956 92.13842 133.40422 184.36142 101.19 59.11026 120.19158 120.19158 114.22852 114.22852 213.10452 227.1311 156.30826 172.30766 86.08924 52.07456 62.49822 161.48972 18.01528 106.165 106.165 106.165

-45.35 5.155 -46.48 -7.05 0.79 2.023 -40.76 -7.59 -6.75 -42.15 -12.29 -161.494 14.74 -81.6 -29.684 -122.047 -39.572 -66.94 27.66 -33.244 -18.418 2.661 -3.376 -22.56 11.544 5.017 -14.2 -31.177 -9.58 -2.431 -0.95 -1.38 -22.401 -21.845 6.24 4.34 -27.043 -41.9 -31.49 30.46 2.845 -48.116 -24.1818 1.732 1.908 1.803

-35.82 9.688 -32.04 4.17 13.76 6.264 -29.36 -0.218 0.2583 -30.4 -6.92 -157.27 21.39 -70.11 -30.012 -111.653 -37.095 -55.01 42.3 6.599 -7.969 16.71 4.59 2.239 12.67 12.22 -8.097 5.771 11.41 9.899 12.61 11.71 1.394 1.828 26.79 28.44 4.116 -9.177 -22.79 30.6 4.195 -42.5514 -22.8572 11.876 12.2 12.14

2.949 2.877 4.023 3.242 4.0014 2.67 3.678 3.243 3.365 3.52 3.205 2.82651 3.451 4.398 2.481 2.91625 2.5651 4.48 5.263 7.0259 2.9729 3.6964 3.1 3.893 2.784 3.2099 3.371 6.6337 4.054 2.87 3.805 3.961 4.2296 4.2702 4.435 4.607 5.8493 6.363 3.28 2.794 2.7354 3.73966 1.88825 3.5854 3.5383 3.52165

-1.395 -1.80056 -2.672 -2.165 -4.95415 -1.9262 -2.041 -2.3398 -2.3458 -1.6476 -2.658 0.7055 -4.219 -1.3591 0.924 0.1422 -3.19 -9.053 -8.73282 -2.325 -5.3575 -2.76549 -5.0639 -2.4352 -3.734 -0.9685 -8.1229 -4.0405 -2.2449 -4.934 -4.9307 -5.06528 -5.06876 -2.6867 -3.2959 -6.9036 -6.726 -1.95 -2.362 -1.178 -1.544 -4.3318 -4.333 -4.333

The compounds are considered to be formed from the elements in their standard states at 298.15 K and 1 bar. These include C (graphite) and S (rhombic). Enthalpy of combustion is the net value for the compound in its standard state at 298.15 K and 1 bar. Products of combustion are taken to be CO2 (gas), H2O (gas), F2(gas), Cl2 (gas), Br2 (gas), I2 (gas), SO2 (gas), N2 (gas), P4O10 (crystalline), SiO2 (crystobalite), and Al2O3 (crystal, alpha). Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 801 Critically Evaluated Gold Standard Database, copyright 2016 AIChE, and reproduced with permission of AIChE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as “R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, T. A. Knotts, N. F. Giles, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York, NY (2016)”. 2-173

2-174

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-96 Ideal Gas Sensible Enthalpies, hT – h298 (kJ/kmol), of Combustion Products Temperature, K

CO

CO2

H

OH

H2

N

NO

NO2

N2

N2O

O

O2

SO2

H2O

-2858 -1692 -1110 -529 0

-3414 -2079 -1383 -665 0

-2040 -1209 -793 -377 0

-2976 -1756 -1150 -546 0

-2774 -1656 -1091 -522 0

-2040 -1209 -793 -378 0

-2951 -1743 -1142 -543 0

-3495 -2104 -1392 -672 0

-2857 -1692 -1110 -528 0

-3553 -2164 -1438 -692 0

-2186 -1285 -840 -398 0

-2868 -1703 -1118 -533 0

-3736 -2258 -1496 -718 0

-3282 -1948 -1279 -609 0

300 320 340 360 380

54 638 1221 1805 2389

69 823 1594 2382 3184

38 454 870 1285 1701

55 654 1251 1847 2442

53 630 1209 1791 2373

38 454 870 1286 1701

55 652 1248 1845 2442

68 816 1571 2347 3130

54 636 1219 1802 2386

72 854 1654 2470 3302

41 478 913 1346 1777

54 643 1234 1828 2425

74 881 1702 2538 3387

62 735 1410 2088 2769

400 420 440 460 480

2975 3563 4153 4643 5335

4003 4835 5683 6544 7416

2117 2532 2948 3364 3779

3035 3627 4219 4810 5401

2959 3544 4131 4715 5298

2117 2533 2949 3364 3780

3040 3638 4240 4844 5450

3927 4735 5557 6392 7239

2971 3557 4143 4731 5320

4149 5010 5884 6771 7670

2207 2635 3063 3490 3918

3025 3629 4236 4847 5463

4250 5126 6015 6917 7831

3452 4139 4829 5523 6222

500 550 600 650 700

5931 7428 8942 10477 12023

8305 10572 12907 15303 17754

4196 5235 6274 7314 8353

5992 7385 8943 10423 11902

5882 6760 8811 10278 11749

4196 5235 6274 7314 8353

6059 7592 9144 10716 12307

8099 10340 12555 14882 17250

5911 7395 8894 10407 11937

8580 10897 13295 15744 18243

4343 5402 6462 7515 8570

6084 7653 9244 10859 12499

8758 11123 13544 16022 18548

6925 8699 10501 12321 14192

750 800 850 900 950

13592 15177 16781 18401 20031

20260 22806 25398 28030 30689

9392 10431 11471 12510 13550

13391 14880 16384 17888 19412

13223 14702 16186 17676 19175

9329 10431 11471 12510 13550

13919 15548 17195 18858 20537

19671 22136 24641 27179 29749

13481 15046 16624 18223 19834

20791 23383 26014 28681 31381

9620 10671 11718 12767 13812

14158 15835 17531 19241 20965

21117 23721 26369 29023 31714

16082 18002 19954 21938 23954

1000 1100 1200 1300 1400

21690 25035 28430 31868 35343

33397 38884 44473 50148 55896

14589 16667 18746 20824 22903

20935 24024 27160 30342 33569

20680 23719 26797 29918 33082

14589 16667 18746 20824 22903

22229 25653 29120 32626 36164

32344 37605 42946 48351 53808

21463 24760 28109 31503 34936

34110 39647 45274 50976 56740

14860 16950 19039 21126 23212

22703 26212 29761 33344 36957

34428 39914 45464 51069 56718

26000 30191 34506 38942 43493

1500 1600 1700 1800 1900

38850 42385 45945 49526 53126

61705 67569 73480 79431 85419

24982 27060 29139 31217 33296

36839 40151 43502 46889 50310

36290 39541 42835 46169 49541

24982 27060 29139 31218 33296

39729 43319 46929 50557 54201

59309 64846 70414 76007 81624

38405 41904 45429 48978 52548

62557 68420 74320 80254 86216

25296 27381 29464 31547 33630

40599 44266 47958 51673 55413

62404 68123 73870 79642 85436

48151 52908 57758 62693 67706

2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

56744 60376 64021 67683 71324

91439 97488 103562 109660 115779

35375 37453 39532 41610 43689

53762 57243 60752 64285 67841

52951 56397 59876 63387 66928

35375 37454 39534 41614 43695

57859 61530 65212 68904 72606

87259 92911 98577 104257 109947

56137 59742 63361 66995 70640

92203 98212 104240 110284 116344

35713 37796 39878 41962 44045

59175 62961 66769 70600 74453

91250 97081 102929 108792 114669

72790 77941 83153 88421 93741

2500 2600 2700 2800 2900

74985 78673 82369 86074 89786

121917 128073 134246 140433 146636

45768 47846 49925 52004 54082

71419 75017 78633 82267 85918

70498 74096 77720 81369 85043

45777 47860 49945 52033 54124

76316 80034 83759 87491 91229

115648 121357 127075 132799 138530

74296 77963 81639 85323 89015

122417 128501 134596 140701 146814

46130 48216 50303 52391 54481

78328 82224 86141 90079 94036

120559 126462 132376 138302 144238

99108 104520 109973 115464 120990

3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

93504 112185 130989 149895 168890

152852 184109 215622 247354 279283

56161 66554 75947 87340 97733

89584 108119 126939 145991 165246

88740 107555 126874 146660 166876

56218 66769 77532 88614 100111

94973 113768 132671 151662 170730

144267 173020 201859 230756 259692

92715 111306 130027 148850 167763

152935 183636 214453 245348 276299

56574 67079 77675 88386 99222

98013 118165 188705 159572 180749

150184 180057 210145 240427 270893

126549 154768 183552 212764 242313

200 240 260 280 298.15

Converted and usually rounded off from JANAF Thermochemical Tables, NSRDS-NBS-37, 1971 (1141 pp.).

PROPERTIES OF FORMATIOn AnD COMBUSTIOn REACTIOnS

2-175

TABLE 2-97 Ideal Gas Entropies s°, kJ/(kmol· K), of Combustion Products Temperature, K

CO

CO2

H

OH

H2

N

NO

NO2

N2

N2O

O

O2

SO2

H2O

200 240 260 280 298.15

186.0 191.3 193.7 195.3 197.7

200.0 206.0 208.8 211.5 213.8

106.4 110.1 111.8 113.3 114.7

171.6 177.1 179.5 181.8 183.7

119.4 124.5 126.8 129.2 130.7

145.0 148.7 150.4 151.9 153.3

198.7 204.1 206.6 208.8 210.8

225.9 232.2 235.0 237.7 240.0

180.0 185.2 187.6 189.8 191.6

205.6 211.9 214.8 217.5 220.0

152.2 156.2 158.0 159.7 161.1

193.5 198.7 201.1 203.3 205.1

233.0 239.9 242.8 245.8 248.2

175.5 181.4 184.1 186.6 188.8

300 320 340 360 380

197.8 199.7 201.5 203.2 204.7

214.0 216.5 218.8 221.0 223.2

114.8 116.2 117.4 118.6 119.7

183.9 185.9 187.7 189.4 191.0

130.9 132.8 134.5 136.2 137.7

153.4 154.8 156.0 157.2 158.3

210.9 212.9 214.7 216.4 218.0

240.3 242.7 245.0 247.2 249.3

191.8 193.7 195.5 197.2 198.7

220.2 222.7 225.2 227.5 229.7

161.2 162.6 163.9 165.2 166.3

205.3 207.2 209.0 210.7 212.5

248.5 251.1 253.6 256.0 258.2

189.0 191.2 193.3 195.2 197.1

400 420 440 460 480

206.2 207.7 209.0 210.4 211.6

225.3 227.3 229.3 231.2 233.1

120.8 121.8 122.8 123.7 124.6

192.5 194.0 195.3 196.6 197.9

139.2 140.6 141.9 143.2 144.5

159.4 160.4 161.4 162.3 163.1

219.5 221.0 222.3 223.7 225.0

251.3 253.2 255.1 257.0 258.8

200.2 201.5 202.9 204.2 205.5

231.9 234.0 236.0 238.0 239.9

167.4 168.4 169.4 170.4 171.3

213.8 215.3 216.7 218.0 219.4

260.4 262.5 264.6 266.6 268.5

198.8 200.5 202.0 203.6 205.1

500 550 600 650 700

212.8 215.7 218.3 220.8 223.1

234.9 239.2 243.3 247.1 250.8

125.5 127.5 129.3 131.0 132.5

199.1 201.8 204.4 206.8 209.0

145.7 148.6 151.1 153.4 155.6

164.0 166.0 167.8 169.4 171.0

226.3 229.1 231.9 234.4 236.8

260.6 264.7 268.8 272.6 276.0

206.7 209.4 212.2 214.6 216.9

241.8 246.2 250.4 254.3 258.0

172.2 174.2 176.1 177.7 179.3

220.7 223.7 226.5 229.1 231.5

270.5 274.9 279.2 283.1 286.9

206.5 210.5 213.1 215.9 218.7

750 800 850 900 950

225.2 227.3 229.2 231.1 232.8

255.4 257.5 260.6 263.6 266.5

133.9 135.2 136.4 137.7 138.8

211.1 213.0 214.8 216.5 218.1

157.6 159.5 161.4 163.1 164.7

172.5 173.8 175.1 176.3 177.4

239.0 241.1 243.0 245.0 246.8

279.3 282.5 285.5 288.4 291.3

219.0 221.0 223.0 224.8 226.5

261.5 264.8 268.0 271.1 274.0

180.7 182.1 183.4 184.6 185.7

233.7 235.9 237.9 239.9 241.8

290.4 293.8 297.0 300.1 303.0

221.3 223.8 226.2 228.5 230.6

1000 1100 1200 1300 1400

234.5 237.7 240.7 243.4 246.0

269.3 274.5 279.4 283.9 288.2

139.9 141.9 143.7 145.3 146.9

219.7 222.7 225.4 228.0 230.3

166.2 169.1 171.8 174.3 176.6

178.5 180.4 182.2 183.9 185.4

248.4 251.8 254.8 257.6 260.2

293.9 298.9 303.6 307.9 311.9

228.2 231.3 234.2 236.9 239.5

276.8 282.1 287.0 291.5 295.8

186.8 188.8 190.6 192.3 193.8

243.6 246.9 250.0 252.9 255.6

305.8 311.0 315.8 320.3 324.5

232.7 236.7 240.5 244.0 247.4

1500 1600 1700 1800 1900

248.4 250.7 252.9 254.9 256.8

292.2 296.0 299.6 303.0 306.2

148.3 149.6 150.9 152.1 153.2

232.6 234.7 236.8 238.7 240.6

178.8 180.9 182.9 184.8 186.7

186.9 188.2 189.5 190.7 191.8

262.7 265.0 267.2 269.3 271.3

315.7 319.3 322.7 325.9 328.9

241.9 244.1 246.3 248.3 250.2

299.8 303.6 307.2 310.6 313.8

195.3 196.6 197.9 199.1 200.2

258.1 260.4 262.7 264.8 266.8

328.4 332.1 335.6 338.9 342.0

250.6 253.7 256.6 259.5 262.2

2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

258.7 260.5 262.2 263.8 265.4

309.3 312.2 315.1 317.8 320.4

154.3 155.3 156.3 157.2 158.1

242.3 244.0 245.7 247.2 248.7

188.4 190.1 191.7 193.3 194.8

192.9 193.9 194.8 195.8 196.7

273.1 274.9 276.6 278.3 279.8

331.8 334.5 337.2 339.7 342.1

252.1 253.8 255.5 257.1 258.7

316.9 319.8 322.6 325.3 327.9

201.3 202.3 203.2 204.2 205.0

268.7 270.6 272.4 274.1 275.7

345.0 347.9 350.6 353.2 355.7

264.8 267.3 269.7 272.0 274.3

2500 2600 2700 2800 2900

266.9 268.3 269.7 271.0 272.3

322.9 325.3 327.6 329.9 332.1

158.9 159.7 160.5 161.3 162.0

250.2 251.6 253.0 254.3 255.6

196.2 197.7 199.0 200.3 201.6

197.5 198.3 199.1 199.9 200.6

281.4 282.8 284.2 285.6 286.9

344.5 346.7 348.9 350.9 352.9

260.2 261.6 263.0 264.3 265.6

330.4 332.7 335.0 337.3 339.4

205.9 206.7 207.5 208.3 209.0

277.3 278.8 280.3 281.7 283.1

358.1 360.4 362.6 364.8 366.9

276.5 278.6 380.7 282.7 284.6

3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

273.6 279.4 284.4 288.8 292.8

334.2 343.8 352.2 359.7 366.4

162.7 165.9 168.7 171.1 173.3

256.8 262.5 267.6 272.1 276.1

202.9 208.7 213.8 218.5 222.8

201.3 204.6 207.4 210.1 212.5

288.2 294.0 299.0 303.5 307.5

354.9 363.8 371.5 378.3 384.4

266.9 272.6 277.6 282.1 286.0

341.5 350.9 359.2 366.5 373.0

209.7 212.9 215.8 218.3 220.6

284.4 290.7 296.2 301.1 305.5

368.9 378.1 386.1 393.3 399.7

286.5 295.2 302.9 309.8 316.0

Usually rounded off from JANAF Thermochemical Tables, NSRDS-NBS-37, 1971 (1141 pp.). Equilibrium constants can be calculated by combining Δhf° values from Table 2-95, hT - h298 from Table 2-96, and s° values from the above, using the formula ln kp = -ΔG/(RT), where ΔG = Δhf° + (hT - h298) - T s°.

2-176

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

HEATS OF SOLUTIOn TABLE 2-98 Heats of Solution of Inorganic Compounds in Water Heat evolved, in kilocalories per gram formula weight, on solution in water at 18°C. Computed from data in Bichowsky and Rossini, Thermochemistry of Chemical Substances, Reinhold, New York, 1936. Substance

Dilution*

Formula

Heat, kcal/mol

Aluminum bromide chloride

aq 600 600 aq aq aq aq aq aq aq aq ∞ aq 600 aq ∞ aq ∞ 800 aq aq aq aq aq

AlBr3 AlCl3 AlCl3⋅6H2O AlF3 AlF3⋅½H2O AlF3⋅3½H2O AlI3 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3⋅6H2O Al2(SO4)3⋅18H2O NH4Br NH4Cl (NH4)2CrO4 (NH4)2Cr2O7 NH4I NH4NO3 NH4BO3⋅H2O (NH4)2SO4 NH4HSO4 (NH4)2SO3 (NH4)2SO3⋅H2O SbF3 SbI3 H3AsO4

+85.3 +77.9 +13.2 +31 +19.0 -1.7 +89.0 +126 +56.2 +6.7 -4.45 -3.82 -5.82 -12.9 -3.56 -6.47 -9.0 -2.75 +0.56 -1.2 -4.13 -1.7 -0.8 -0.4

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ aq aq aq ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ aq aq aq aq aq aq aq aq aq

Ba(BrO3)2⋅H2O BaBr2 BaBr2⋅H2O BaBr2⋅2H2O Ba(ClO3)2 Ba(ClO3)2⋅H2O BaCl2 BaCl2⋅H2O BaCl2.2H2O Ba(CN)2 Ba(CN)2⋅H2O Ba(CN)2⋅2H2O Ba(IO3)2 Ba(IO3)2⋅H2O BaI2 BaI2⋅H2O BaI2⋅2H2O BaI2⋅2½H2O BaI2⋅7H2O Ba(NO3)2 Ba(ClO4)2 Ba(ClO4)2⋅3H2O BaS BeBr2 BeCl2 BeI2 BeSO4 BeSO4⋅H2O BeSO4⋅2H2O BeSO4⋅4H2O BiI3 H3BO3

-15.9 +5.3 -0.8 -3.87 -6.7 -10.6 +2.4 -2.17 -4.5 +1.5 -2.4 -4.9 -9.1 -11.3 +10.5 +2.7 +0.14 -0.58 -6.61 -10.2 -2.8 -10.5 +7.2 +62.6 +51.1 +72.6 +18.1 +13.5 +7.9 +1.1 +3 -5.4

400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

CdBr2 CdBr2⋅4H2O CdCl2 CdCl2⋅H2O CdCl2⋅2½H2O Cd(NO3)2⋅H2O Cd(NO3)2⋅4H2O CdSO4 CdSO4⋅H2O CdSO4⋅2⅔H2O Ca(C2H3O2)2 Ca(C2H3O2)2⋅H2O CaBr2 CaBr2⋅6H2O CaCl2 CaCl2⋅H2O CaCl2⋅2H2O CaCl2⋅4H2O CaCl2⋅6H2O

+0.4 -7.3 +3.1 +0.6 -3.00 +4.17 -5.08 +10.69 +6.05 +2.51 +7.6 +6.5 +24.86 -0.9 +4.9 +12.3 +12.5 +2.4 -4.11

fluoride iodide sulfate Ammonium bromide chloride chromate dichromate iodide nitrate perborate sulfate sulfate, acid sulfite Antimony fluoride iodide Arsenic acid Barium bromate bromide chlorate chloride cyanide iodate iodide

nitrate perchlorate sulfide Beryllium bromide chloride iodide sulfate

Bismuth iodide Boric acid Cadmium bromide chloride nitrate sulfate Calcium acetate bromide chloride

Substance Calcium—(Cont.) formate iodide

Dilution*

Formula

Heat, kcal/mol

400 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ aq aq ∞ ∞ ∞ aq

+0.7 +28.0 +1.8 +4.1 +0.7 -3.2 -4.2 -7.99 -0.6 -1 +5.1 +3.6 -0.18 +18.6 +5.3 +2.0 +5.7 +18.4 -1.25 +18.5 +9.8 -2.9 +18.8 +15.0 -1.4 -3.6 +2.4 +0.5 +10.3 -2.6 -10.7 +15.9 +9.3 +3.65 -2.85 +11.6

Cuprous sulfate

aq

Ca(CHO2)2 CaI2 CaI2⋅8H2O Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2⋅H2O Ca(NO3)2⋅2H2O Ca(NO3)2⋅3H2O Ca(NO3)2⋅4H2O Ca(H2PO4)2⋅H2O CaHPO4⋅2H2O CaSO4 CaSO4⋅½H2O CaSO4⋅2H2O CrCl2 CrCl2⋅3H2O CrCl2⋅4H2O CrI2 CoBr2 CoBr2⋅6H2O CoCl2 CoCl2⋅2H2O CoCl2⋅6H2O CoI2 CoSO4 CoSO4⋅6H2O CoSO4⋅7H2O Cu(C2H3O2)2 Cu(CHO2)2 Cu(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2⋅3H2O Cu(NO3)2⋅6H2O CuSO4 CuSO4⋅H2O CuSO4⋅3H2O CuSO4⋅5H2O Cu2SO4

Ferric chloride

1000 1000 1000 800 aq 400 400 400 aq 400 400 400 400

FeCl3 FeCl3⋅2½H2O FeCl3⋅6H2O Fe(NO3)3⋅9H2O FeBr2 FeCl2 FeCl2⋅2H2O FeCl2⋅4H2O FeI2 FeSO4 FeSO4⋅H2O FeSO4⋅4H2O FeSO4⋅7H2O

+31.7 +21.0 +5.6 -9.1 +18.0 +17.9 +8.7 +2.7 +23.3 +14.7 +7.35 +1.4 -4.4

400 400 aq aq aq 400 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

Pb(C2H3O2)2 Pb(C2H3O2)2⋅3H2O PbBr2 PbCl2 Pb(CHO2)2 Pb(NO3)2 LiBr LiBr⋅H2O LiBr⋅2H2O LiBr⋅3H2O LiCl LiCl⋅H2O LiCl⋅2H2O LiCl⋅3H2O LiF LiOH LiOH⋅⅛H2O LiOH⋅H2O LiI LiI⋅½H2O LiI⋅H2O LiI⋅2H2O LiI⋅3H2O LiNO3 LiNO3⋅3H2O

+1.4 -5.9 -10.1 -3.4 -6.9 -7.61 +11.54 +5.30 +2.05 -1.59 +8.66 +4.45 +1.07 -1.98 -0.74 +4.74 +4.39 +9.6 +14.92 +10.08 +6.93 +3.43 -0.17 +0.466 -7.87

nitrate

phosphate, monodibasic sulfate Chromous chloride iodide Cobaltous bromide chloride iodide sulfate Cupric acetate formate nitrate sulfate

nitrate Ferrous bromide chloride iodide sulfate

Lead acetate bromide chloride formate nitrate Lithium bromide

chloride

fluoride hydroxide iodide

nitrate

aq aq aq 400 400 400 aq 400 400 400 aq aq 200 200 200 800

*The numbers represent moles of water used to dissolve 1 g formula weight of substance; ∞ means “infinite dilution”; and aq means “aqueous solution of unspecified dilution.”

HEATS OF SOLUTIOn

2-177

TABLE 2-98 Heats of Solution of Inorganic Compounds in Water (Continued ) Dilution*

Substance Lithium—(Cont.) sulfate Magnesium bromide chloride

iodide nitrate phosphate sulfate

sulfide Manganic nitrate sulfate Manganous acetate bromide chloride formate iodide

sulfate Mercuric acetate bromide chloride nitrate Mercurous nitrate Nickel bromide Nickel chloride

iodide nitrate sulfate Phosphoric acid, orthopyroPotassium acetate aluminum sulfate

Formula

Heat, kcal/mol +6.71 +3.77

∞ ∞

Li2SO4 Li2SO4⋅H2O

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ aq ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ aq 400 400 400 aq aq aq aq aq aq 400 400 400 aq aq aq aq aq aq aq 400 400 400 aq aq aq aq aq

MgBr2 MgBr2⋅H2O MgBr2⋅6H2O MgCl2 MgCl2⋅2H2O MgCl2⋅4H2O MgCl2⋅6H2O MgI2 Mg(NO3)2⋅6H2O Mg3(PO4)2 MgSO4 MgSO4⋅H2O MgSO4⋅2H2O MgSO4⋅4H2O MgSO4⋅6H2O MgSO4⋅7H2O MgS Mn(NO3)2 Mn(NO3)2⋅3H2O Mn(NO3)2⋅6H2O Mn2(SO4)3 Mn(C2H3O2)2 Mn(C2H3O2)2⋅4H2O MnBr2 MnBr2⋅H2O MnBr2⋅4H2O MnCl2 MnCl2⋅2H2O MnCl2⋅4H2O Mn(CHO2)2 Mn(CHO2)2⋅2H2O MnI2 MnI2⋅H2O MnI2⋅2H2O MnI2⋅4H2O MnI2⋅6H2O MnSO4 MnSO4⋅H2O MnSO4⋅7H2O Hg(C2H3O2)2 HgBr2 HgCl2 Hg(NO3)2⋅½H2O Hg2(NO3)2⋅2H2O

+43.7 +35.9 +19.8 +36.3 +20.8 +10.5 +3.4 +50.2 -3.7 +10.2 +21.1 +14.0 +11.7 +4.9 +0.55 -3.18 +25.8 +12.9 -3.9 -6.2 +22 +12.2 +1.6 +15 +14.4 +16.1 +16.0 +8.2 +1.5 +4.3 -2.9 +26.2 +24.1 +22.7 +19.9 +21.2 +13.8 +11.9 -1.7 -4.0 -2.4 -3.3 -0.7 -11.5

aq aq 800 800 800 800 aq 200 200 200 200 400 400 aq aq ∞ 600 600

NiBr2 NiBr2⋅3H2O NiCl2 NiCl2⋅2H2O NiCl2⋅4H2O NiCl2⋅6H2O NiI2 Ni(NO3)2 Ni(NO3)2⋅6H2O NiSO4 NiSO4⋅7H2O H3PO4 H3PO4⋅½H2O H4P2O7 H4P2O7⋅1½H2O KC2H3O2 KAl(SO4)2 KAl(SO4)2⋅3H2O KAl(SO4)2⋅12H2O KHCO3 KBrO3 KBr K2CO3 K2CO3⋅½H2O K2CO3⋅1½H2O KClO3 KCl K2CrO4 KCr(SO4)2 KCr(SO4)2⋅H2O KCr(SO4)2⋅2H2O KCr(SO4)2⋅6H2O KCr(SO4)2⋅12H2O

+19.0 +0.2 +19.23 +10.4 +4.2 -1.15 +19.4 +11.8 -7.5 +15.1 -4.2 +2.79 -0.1 +25.9 +4.65 +3.55 +48.5 +26.6 -10.1 -5.1 -10.13 -5.13 +6.58 +4.25 -0.43 -10.31 -4.404 -4.9 +55 +42 +33 +7 -9.5

bicarbonate bromate bromide carbonate

2000 ∞ ∞ ∞

chlorate chloride chromate chrome sulfate

∞ ∞ 2185 600

Substance Potassium—(Cont.) cyanide dichromate fluoride hydrosulfide hydroxide

iodate iodide nitrate oxalate perchlorate permanganate phosphate, dihydrogen pyrosulfite sulfate sulfate, acid sulfide sulfite thiocyanate thionate, dithiosulfate Silver acetate nitrate Sodium acetate arsenate bicarbonate borate, tetrabromide carbonate

chlorate chloride chromate cyanide fluoride hydrosulfide Sodium hydroxide

iodide metaphosphate nitrate nitrite perchlorate phosphate di triphosphate di diphosphite, monodipyrophosphate di-

Dilution*

Formula

Heat, kcal/mol

∞ 400 aq aq aq ∞ 800 ∞ aq aq ∞ aq ∞

KCN K2Cr2O7 KF KF⋅2H2O KF⋅4H2O KHS KHS⋅¼H2O KOH KOH⋅¾H2O KOH⋅H2O KOH⋅7H2O KIO3 KI KNO3 K2C2O4 K2C2O4⋅H2O KClO4 KMnO4 KH2PO4 K2S2O5 K2S2O5⋅½H2O K2SO4 KHSO4 K2S K2SO3 K2SO3⋅H2O KCNS K2S2O6 K2S2O3

-3.0 -17.8 +3.96 -1.85 -6.05 +0.86 +1.21 +12.91 +4.27 +3.48 +0.86 -6.93 -5.23 -8.633 -4.6 -7.5 -12.94 -10.4 +4.7 -11.0 -10.22 -6.32 -3.10 -11.0 +1.8 +1.37 -6.08 -13.0 -4.5

aq 200 ∞ ∞ 500 500 1800 900 900 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 800 800 800 200 200 200 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 600 ∞ aq ∞ 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 600 600 800 800 1600 1600 1200 1200

AgC2H3O2 AgNO3 NaC2H3O2 NaC2H3O2⋅3H2O Na3AsO4 Na3AsO4⋅12H2O NaHCO3 Na2B4O7 Na2B4O7⋅10H2O NaBr NaBr⋅2H2O Na2CO3 Na2CO3⋅H2O Na2CO3⋅7H2O Na2CO3⋅10H2O NaClO3 NaCl Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4⋅4H2O Na2CrO4⋅10H2O NaCN NaCN⋅½H2O NaCN⋅2H2O NaF NaHS NaHS⋅2H2O NaOH NaOH⋅½H2O NaOH⋅⅔H2O NaOH⋅¾H2O NaOH⋅H2O NaI NaI⋅2H2O NaPO3 NaNO3 NaNO2 NaClO4 Na2HPO4 Na3PO4 Na3PO4⋅12H2O Na2HPO4⋅2H2O Na2HPO4⋅7H2O Na2HPO4⋅12H2O NaH2PO3 NaH2PO3⋅2½H2O Na2HPO3 Na2HPO3⋅5H2O Na4P2O7 Na4P2O7⋅10H2O Na2H2P2O7 Na2H2P2O7⋅6H2O

-5.4 -4.4 +4.085 -4.665 +15.6 -12.61 -4.1 +10.0 -16.8 -0.58 -4.57 +5.57 +2.19 -10.81 -16.22 -5.37 -1.164 +2.50 -7.52 -16.0 -0.37 -0.92 -4.41 -0.27 +4.62 -1.49 +10.18 +8.17 +7.08 +6.48 +5.17 +1.57 -3.89 +3.97 -5.05 -3.6 -4.15 +5.21 +13 -15.3 -0.82 -12.04 -23.18 +0.90 -5.29 +9.30 -4.54 +11.9 -11.7 -2.2 -14.0

200 1600 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 400

(Continued)

2-178

PHYSICAL AnD CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-98 Heats of Solution of Inorganic Compounds in Water (Continued )

Substance Sodium—(Cont.) sulfate sulfate, acid sulfide

sulfite thiocyanate thionate, diSodium thiosulfate Stannic bromide Stannous bromide iodide Strontium acetate bromide

Dilution*

Formula

Heat, kcal/mol

∞ ∞ 800 800 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ aq aq aq aq aq aq aq ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

Na2SO4 Na2SO4⋅10H2O NaHSO4 NaHSO4⋅H2O Na2S Na2S⋅4½H2O Na2S⋅5H2O Na2S⋅9H2O Na2SO3 Na2SO3⋅7H2O NaCNS Na2S2O6 Na2S2O6⋅2H2O Na2S2O3 Na2S2O3⋅5H2O SnBr4 SnBr2 SnI2 Sr(C2H3O2)2 Sr(C2H3O2)2⋅½H2O SrBr2 SrBr2⋅H2O SrBr2⋅2H2O SrBr2⋅4H2O SrBr2⋅6H2O

+0.28 -18.74 +1.74 +0.15 +15.2 +0.09 -6.54 -16.65 +2.8 -11.1 -1.83 -5.80 -11.86 +2.0 -11.30 +15.5 -1.6 -5.8 +6.2 +5.9 +16.4 +9.25 +6.5 +0.4 -6.1

Substance

Dilution*

Strontium—(Cont.) chloride

iodide

nitrate sulfate Sulfuric acid, pyroZinc acetate bromide chloride iodide nitrate sulfate

Formula

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

SrCl2 SrCl2⋅H2O SrCl2⋅2H2O SrCl2⋅6H2O SrI2 SrI2⋅H2O SrI2⋅2H2O SrI2⋅6H2O Sr(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2⋅4H2O SrSO4 H2S2O7

+11.54 +6.4 +2.95 -7.1 +20.7 +12.65 +10.4 -4.5 -4.8 -12.4 +0.5 -18.08

400 400 400 400 400 aq 400 400 400 400 400 400

Zn(C2H3O2)2 Zn(C2H3O2)2⋅H2O Zn(C2H3O2)2⋅2H2O ZnBr2 ZnCl2 ZnI2 Zn(NO3)2⋅3H2O Zn(NO3)2⋅6H2O ZnSO4 ZnSO4⋅H2O ZnSO4⋅6H2O ZnSO4⋅7H2O

+9.8 +7.0 +3.9 +15.0 +15.72 +11.6 -5 -6.0 +18.5 +10.0 -0.8 -4.3

note: To convert kilocalories per mole to British thermal units per pound-mole, multiply by 1.799 × 10-3.

TABLE 2-99 Heats of Solution of Organic Compounds in Water (at Infinite Dilution and Approximately Room Temperature) Recalculated and rearranged from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 148–150. cal/mol = Btu/(lb⋅mol) × 1.799.

Solute Acetic acid (solid), C2H4O2 Acetylacetone, C5H8O2 Acetylurea, C3H6N2O2 Aconitic acid, C6H6O6 Ammonium benzoate, C7H9NO2 picrate succinate (n-) Aniline, hydrochloride, C6H8ClN Barium picrate Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 Camphoric acid, C10H16O4 Citric acid, C6H8O7 Dextrin, C12H20O10 Fumaric acid, C4H4O4 Hexamethylenetetramine, C6H12N4 Hydroxybenzamide (m-), C7H7NO2 (m-), (HCl) (o-), C7H7NO2 (p-) Hydroxybenzoic acid (o-), C7H6O3 (p-), C7H6O3 Hydroxybenzyl alcohol (o-), C7H8O2 Inulin, C36H62O31 Isosuccinic acid, C4H6O4 Itaconic acid, C5H6O4 Lactose, C12H22O11⋅H2O Lead picrate (2H2O) Magnesium picrate (8H2O) Maleic acid, C4H4O4 Malic acid, C4H6O5 Malonic acid, C3H4O4 Mandelic acid, C8H2O3 Mannitol, C6H14O6 Menthol, C10H20O Nicotine dihydrochloride, C10H16Cl2N2 Nitrobenzoic acid (m-), C7H5NO4 (o-), C7H5NO4 (p-), C7H5NO4 Nitrophenol (m-), C6H5NO3 (o-), C6H5NO3 (p-), C6H5NO3

Heat of solution, cal/mol solute* -2,251 -641 -6,812 -4,206 -2,700 -8,700 -3,489 -2,732 -4,708 -6,501 -502 -5,401 268 -5,903 4,780 -4,161 -7,003 -4,340 -5,392 -6,350 -5,781 -3,203 -96 -3,420 -5,922 -3,705 -7,098 -13,193 14,699 -15,894 -4,441 -3,150 -4,493 -3,090 -5,260 0 6,561 -5,593 -5,306 -8,891 -5,210 -6,310 -4,493

Solute Oxalic aci