Perry's chemical engineers' handbook [7th ed]
 9780070498419, 0-07-049841-5, 0-07-115448-5

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Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

OTHER McGRAW-HILL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING BOOKS OF INTEREST CASCIO, WOODSIDE, MITCHELL ISO 14000: A Guide to the New International Environmental Management Standards CHOPEY Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations, Second Edition CHOPEY Instrumentation and Process Control CONNELL Process Instrumentation Applications Manual CONSIDINE Process/Industrial Instruments and Controls Handbook, Fourth Edition DATTA-BARUA Natural Gas Measurement and Control DEAN Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry, Fourteenth Edition DESHOTELS, ZIMMERMAN Cost-Effective Risk Assessment for Process Design DILLON Materials Selection for the Chemical Process Industries FITZGERALD Control Valves for the Chemical Process Industries HARPER Handbook of Plastics, Elastomers, and Composites, Third Edition KISTER Distillation Design LIEBERMAN, LIEBERMAN A Working Guide to Process Equipment MANSFIELD Engineering Design for Process Facilities MEYERS Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes, Second Edition MILLER Flow Measurement Engineering Handbook, Third Edition MYERS Aboveground Storage Tanks POWER Steam Jet Ejectors for the Process Industries REID, PRAUSNITZ, POLING Properties of Gases and Liquids, Fourth Edition REIST Aerosol Science and Technology, Second Edition RHINE, TUCKER Modeling of Gas-Fired Furnaces and Boilers and Other Industrial Heating Processes ROSSITER Waste Minimization Through Process Design SAMDANI Safety and Risk Management Tools and Techniques in the CPI SAMDANI Heat Transfer Technologies and Practices for Effective Energy Management SAWERS, EASTMAN Process Industry Procedures and Training Manual SCHWEITZER Handbook of Separation Techniques for Chemical Engineers, Third Edition SHINSKEY Process Control Systems, Fourth Edition SHUGAR, BALLINGER Chemical Technicians’ Ready Reference Handbook, Fourth Edition SHUGAR, DEAN The Chemist’s Ready Reference Handbook, Third Edition SIKICH Emergency Management Planning Handbook SMALLWOOD Solvent Recovery Handbook SMITH Chemical Process Design TATTERSON Fluid Mixing and Gas Dispersion in Agitated Tanks TATTERSON Scaleup and Design of Industrial Mixing Processes

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PERRY’S CHEMICAL ENGINEERS’ HANDBOOK SEVENTH EDITION McGraw-Hill New York San Francisco Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogotá Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto

Prepared by a staff of specialists under the editorial direction of Late Editor Robert H. Perry

Editor Don W. Green Deane E. Ackers Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas

Associate Editor James O. Maloney Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering, Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of University of Kansas this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Perry’s chemical engineers’ handbook. — 7th ed. / prepared by a staff of specialists under the editorial direction of late editor Robert H. Perry : editor, Don W. Green : associate editor, James O’Hara Maloney. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-07-049841-5 (alk. paper) 1. Chemical engineering—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Perry, Robert H., date. II. Green, Don W. III. Maloney, James O. TP151.P45 1997 660—dc21 96-51648 CIP

Copyright © 1997, 1984, 1973, 1963, 1950, 1941, 1934 by The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Copyright renewed 1962, 1969 by Robert H. Perry. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

DOW/DOW 9 0 2 1 0 9 8 7

ISBN 0-07-049841-5

INTERNATIONAL EDITION Copyright © 1997. Exclusive rights by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., for manufacture and export. This book cannot be re-exported from the country to which it is consigned by McGraw-Hill. The International Edition is not available in North America. When ordering this title, use ISBN 0-07-115448-5.

The sponsoring editors for this book were Zoe Foundotos and Robert Esposito, the editing supervisor was Marc Campbell, and the production supervisor was Pamela A. Pelton. It was set in Caledonia by North Market Street Graphics. Printed and bound by R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company. This book was printed on acid-free paper.

Information contained in this work has been obtained by The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering © 1999 The McGraw-Hill or other professional services. Copyright If such services arebyrequired, the assis- Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of thisshould product subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view. tance of an appropriate professional beissought.

Dedicated to Robert H. Perry

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

ABOUT THE EDITORS

The late Robert H. Perry served as chairman of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Oklahoma and program director for graduate research facilities at the National Science Research Foundation. He was a consultant to various United Nations and other international organizations. From 1973 until his death in 1978 Dr. Perry devoted his time to a study of the cross impact of technologies within the next half century. The subjects under his investigation on a global basis were energy, minerals and metals, transportation and communications, medicine, food production, and the environment. Don W. Green is Chair and the Deane E. Ackers distinguished professor of chemical and petroleum engineering and codirector of the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas, where he has taught since 1964. He received his doctorate in chemical engineering in 1963 from the University of Oklahoma, where he was Dr. Perry’s first doctoral student. Dr. Green has won several teaching awards at the University of Kansas, and he is a fellow of the AIChE and a distinguished member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. He is the author of numerous articles in technical journals. James O. Maloney is Professor Emeritus of the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas. He holds a Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering from Pennsylvania State University. In 1941 he began his professional career at the DuPont de Nemours Company, before joining the University of Kansas in 1945, where he taught for 40 years. He served as department chairman for nineteen years. He is a fellow of the AIChE.

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Contents

For the detailed contents of any section, consult the title page of that section. See also the alphabetical index in the back of the handbook.

Conversion Factors and Mathematical Symbols James O. Maloney Physical and Chemical Data Peter E. Liley, George H. Thomson, D. G. Friend, Thomas E. Daubert, Evan Buck Mathematics Bruce A. Finlayson, James F. Davis, Arthur W. Westerberg, Yoshiyuki Yamashita Thermodynamics Hendrick C. Van Ness, Michael M. Abbott Heat and Mass Transfer James G. Knudsen, Hoyt C. Hottel, Adel F. Sarofim, Phillip C. Wankat, Kent S. Knaebel Fluid and Particle Dynamics James N. Tilton Reaction Kinetics Stanley M. Walas Process Control Thomas F. Edgar, Cecil L. Smith, F. Greg Shinskey, George W. Gassman, Paul J. Schafbuch, Thomas J. McAvoy, Dale E. Seborg Process Economics F. A. Holland, J. K. Wilkinson Transport and Storage of Fluids Meherwan P. Boyce Heat-Transfer Equipment Richard L. Shilling, Kenneth J. Bell, Patrick M. Bernhagen, Thomas M. Flynn, Victor M. Goldschmidt, Predrag S. Hrnjak, F. C. Standiford, Klaus D. Timmerhaus Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying Charles G. Moyers, Glenn W. Baldwin Distillation J. D. Seader, Jeffrey J. Siirola, Scott D. Barnicki

Section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 vii

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CONTENTS

Gas Absorption and Gas-Liquid System Design James R. Fair, D. E. Steinmeyer, W. R. Penny, B. B. Crocker Liquid-Liquid Extraction Operations and Equipment Lanny A. Robbins, Roger W. Cusack Adsorption and Ion Exchange M. Douglas LeVan, Giorgio Carta, Carmen M. Yon Gas-Solid Operations and Equipment Mel Pell, James B. Dunson Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment Donald A. Dahlstrom, Richard C. Bennett, Robert G. Emmet, Peter Harriott, Tim Laros, Wallace Leung, Shelby A. Miller, Brooker Morey, James Y. Oldshue, George Priday, Charles E. Silverblatt, J. Stephen Slottee, Julian C. Smith Solid-Solid Operations and Equipment Kalanadh V. S. Sastry, Harrison Cooper, Richard Hogg, T. L. P. Jespen, Frank Knoll, Bhupendra Parekh, Raj K. Rajamani, Thomas Sorenson, Ionel Wechsler, Chad McCleary, David B. Todd Size Reduction and Size Enlargement Richard L. Snow, Terry Allen, Bryan J. Ennis, James D. Litster Handling of Bulk Solids and Packaging of Solids and Liquids Grantges J. Raymus Alternative Separation Processes Joseph D. Henry, Jr., Michael E. Prudich, William Eykamp, T. Alan Hatton, Keith P. Johnston, Richard M. Lemert, Robert Lemlich, Charles G. Moyers, John Newman, Herbert A. Pohl, Kent Pollock, Michael P. Thien Chemical Reactors Stanley M. Walas Biochemical Engineering Henry R. Bungay, Arthur E. Humphrey, George T. Tsao Waste Management Louis Theodore, Anthony J. Buonicore, John D. McKenna, Irwin J. Kugelman, John S. Jeris, Joseph J. Santoleri, Thomas F. McGowan Process Safety Stanley M. Englund, Frank T. Bodurtha, Laurence G. Britton, Daniel A. Crowl, Stanley Grossel, W. G. High, Trevor A. Kletz, Robert W. Ormsby, John E. Owens, Carl A. Schiappa, Richard Siwek, Robert E. White, David Winegardner, John L. Woodward Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization Walter F. Podolski, Shelby A. Miller, David K. Schmalzer, Anthony G. Fonseca, Vincent Conrad, Douglas E. Lowenhaupt, John Bacha, Lawrence K. Rath, Hsue-peng Loh, Edgar B. Klunder, Howard G. McIlvried, III, Gary J. Stiegel, Rameshwar D. Srivastava, Peter J. Loftus, Charles E. Benson, John M. Wheeldon, Michael Krumpelt Materials of Construction Oliver W. Siebert, John G. Stoecker Process Machinery Drives Heinz P. Bloch, R. H. Daugherty, Fred K. Geitner, Meherwan P. Boyce, Judson S. Swearingen, Eric Jennet, Michael M. Calistrat Analysis of Plant Performance Colin S. Howat Index follows Section 30.

14 15 16 17

18

19 20 21

22 23 24 25

26

27 28 29 30

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List of Contributors

Michael M. Abbott, Ph.D., Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 4, Thermodynamics) Terry Allen, Ph.D., Senior Research Associate (retired), DuPont Central Research and Development (Section 20, Size Reduction and Size Enlargement) John D. Bacha, Ph.D., Consulting Scientist, Chevron Products Company; Member, ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants; American Chemical Society; International Association for Stability and Handling of Liquid Fuels, Steering Committee (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Glenn W. Baldwin, M.S., P.E., Staff Engineer, Union Carbide Corporation; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 12, Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying) Scott D. Barnicki, Ph.D., Senior Research Chemical Engineer, Eastman Chemical Company (Section 13, Distillation) Kenneth J. Bell, Ph.D., P.E., Regents Professor Emeritus, School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) Richard C. Bennett, B.S., Ch.E., Registered Professional Engineer, Illinois; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE); President of Crystallization Technology, Inc.; Former President of Swenson Process Equipment, Inc. (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Charles E. Benson, M.Eng., M.E., Director, Combustion Technology, Arthur D. Little, Inc.; Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Combustion Institute (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Patrick M. Bernhagen, P.E., B.S.M.E., Senior Mechanical Engineer, Foster Wheeler USA Corporation, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Section 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view. ix

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Heinz P. Bloch, P.E., B.S.M.E., M.S.M.E., Consulting Engineer, Process Machinery Consulting; American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vibration Institute; Registered Professional Engineer (New Jersey, Texas) (Section 29, Process Machinery Drives) Frank T. Bodurtha, Sc.D., E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Inc. (retired), Wilmington, Delaware (retired); Consultant, Frank T. Bodurtha, Inc. (Section 26, Process Safety) Meherwan P. Boyce, P.E., Ph.D., President, Boyce Engineering International; ASME Fellow; Registered Professional Engineer (Texas, Oklahoma) (Section 10, Transport and Storage of Fluids; Section 29, Process Machinery Drives) Laurence G. Britton, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Union Carbide Corporation (Section 26, Process Safety) Evan Buck, M.S.Ch.E., Manager, Thermophysical Property Skill Center, Central Technology, Union Carbide Corporation (Section 2, Physical and Chemical Data) Henry R. Bungay, P.E., Ph.D., Professor of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, American Society for Microbiology, American Society for Engineering Education, Society for General Microbiology (Section 24, Biochemical Engineering) Anthony J. Buonicore, M.Ch.E., P.E., Diplomate AAEE, CEO, Environmental Data Resources, Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Air and Waste Management Association (Section 25, Waste Management) Michael M. Calistrat, B.S.M.E., M.S.M.E., Owner, Michael Calistrat and Associates; Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Section 29, Process Machinery Drives) Giorgio Carta, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, International Adsorption Society (Section 16, Adsorption and Ion Exchange) Vincent Conrad, Ph.D., Group Leader, Technical Services Development Laboratory, CONSOL, Inc.; Member, Spectroscopy Society of Pittsburgh, Society for Analytical Chemistry of Pittsburgh, Society for Applied Spectroscopy (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Harrison Cooper, Ph.D., Harrison R. Cooper Systems, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah (Section 19, Solid-Solid Operations and Equipment) B. B. Crocker, S.M., P.E., Consulting Chemical Engineer; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, Air Pollution Control Association (Section 14, Gas Absorption and GasLiquid System Design) Daniel A. Crowl, Ph.D., Professor of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Michigan Technological University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society (Section 26, Process Safety) Roger W. Cusack, Vice President, Glitsch Process Systems, Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 15, Liquid-Liquid Extraction Operations and Equipment) Donald A. Dahlstrom, Ph.D., Research Professor, Chemical and Fuels Engineering Department and Metallurgical Engineering Department, University of Utah; Member, National Academy of Engineering, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), American Chemical Society (ACS), Society of Mining, Metallurgic Exploration (SME) of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers (AIME), American Society of Engineering Education (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Thomas E. Daubert, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University (Section 2, Physical and Chemical Data) R. H. Daugherty, Ph.D., Consulting Engineer, Research Center, Reliance Electric Company; Member, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (Section 29, Process Machinery Drives) Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

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James F. Davis, Ph.D., Professor of Chemical Engineering, Ohio State University (Section 3, Mathematics) James B. Dunson, B.S., Principal Consultant, E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.; Member American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Registered Professional Engineer (Delaware) (Section 17, Gas-Solid Operation and Equipment) Thomas F. Edgar, Ph.D., Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, Texas (Section 8, Process Control) Robert C. Emmet, Jr., B.S., Ch.E., Senior Process Consultant, EIMCO Process Equipment Co.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers (AIME), Society of Mining, Metallurgical and Exploration Engineers (SME) (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Stanley M. Englund, M.S., Ch.E., Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Process Consultant, The Dow Chemical Company (retired) (Section 26, Process Safety) Bryan J. Ennis, Ph.D., President, E&G Associates, and Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering, Vanderbilt University; Member and Chair of Powder Technology Programming Group of the Particle Technology Forum, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 20, Size Reduction and Size Enlargement) William Eykamp, Ph.D., Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering, Tufts University; Formerly President, Koch Membrane Systems; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, North American Membrane Society, European Society of Membrane Science and Technology (Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) James R. Fair, Ph.D., P.E., Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas; National Academy of Engineering; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Chemical Society, American Society for Engineering Education, National Society of Professional Engineers (Section 14, Gas Absorption and Gas-Liquid System Design) Bruce A. Finlayson, Ph.D., Rehnberg Professor and Chair, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington; Member, National Academy of Engineering (Section 3, Mathematics) Thomas M. Flynn, Ph.D., P.E., Cryogenic Engineer, President CRYOCO, Louisville, Colorado; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) Anthony G. Fonseca, Ph.D., Director, Coal Utilization, CONSOL, Inc.; Member, American Chemical Society, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Extraction (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) D. G. Friend, National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (Section 2, Physical and Chemical Data) George W. Gassman, B.S.M.E., Senior Research Specialist, Final Control Systems, Fisher Controls International, Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa (Section 8, Process Control) Fred K. Geitner, P.Eng., B.S.M.E., M.S.M.E., Consulting Engineer, Registered Professional Engineer (Ontario, Canada) (Section 29, Process Machinery Drives) Victor M. Goldschmidt, Ph.D., P.E., Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana (Section 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) Stanley Grossel, President, Process Safety & Design, Inc.; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Chemical Society; Member, The Combustion Institute; Member, Explosion Protection Systems Committee of NFPA (Section 26, Process Safety) Peter Harriott, Ph.D., Professor, School of Chemical Engineering, Cornell University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineering, American Chemical Society (ACS) (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

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T. Alan Hatton, Ph.D., Ralph Landau Professor and Director of the David H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Founding Fellow, American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, International Association of Colloid and Interface Scientists, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Neutron Scattering Society of America (Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) Joseph D. Henry, Jr., Ph.D., P.E., Senior Fellow, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Society for Engineering Education (Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) W. G. High, C.Eng., B.Sc., F.I.Mech.E., Burgoyne Consultants Ltd., W. Yorks, England (Section 26, Process Safety) Richard Hogg, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Mineral Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (Section 19, Solid-Solid Operations and Equipment) F. A. Holland, D.Sc., Ph.D., Consultant in Heat Energy Recycling; Research Professor, University of Salford, England; Fellow, Institution of Chemical Engineers, London (Section 9, Process Economics) Hoyt C. Hottel, S.M., Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Member, National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, Combustion Institute (Section 5, Heat and Mass Transfer) Colin S. Howat, Ph.D., P.E., John E. & Winfred E. Sharp Professor, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Society of Engineering Education (Section 30, Analysis of Plant Performance) Predrag S. Hrnjak, Ph.D., V.Res., Assistant Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign and Principal Investigator—U. of I. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center, Assistant Professor, University of Belgrade; Member, International Institute of Refrigeration, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning (Section 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) Arthur E. Humphrey, Ph.D., Retired, Professor of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University; Member, U.S. National Academy of Engineering, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, American Society for Microbiology (Section 24, Biochemical Engineering) Eric Jenett, M.S.Ch.E., Manager, Process Engineering, Brown & Root, Inc.; Associate Member, AIChE, Project Management Institute; Registered Professional Engineer (Texas) (Section 29, Process Machinery Drives) John S. Jeris, Sc.D., P.E., Professor of Environmental Engineering, Manhattan College; Environmental Consultant; Member, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation Section Director (Section 25, Waste Management) T. L. P. Jespen, M.S., Min. Proc., Metallurgical Engineer, Basic, Inc., Gabbs, Nevada (Section 19, Solid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Keith P. Johnston, Ph.D., P.E., Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas (Austin); Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, University of Texas Separations Research Program (Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) Trevor A. Kletz, D.Sc., Senior Visiting Research Fellow, Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, U.K.; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Royal Academy of Engineers (U.K.), Institution of Chemical Engineers (U.K.), and Royal Society of Chemistry (U.K.) (Section 26, Process Safety) Edgar B. Klunder, Ph.D., Project Manager, Energy Technology Center (Pittsburgh), U.S. Department of Energy (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

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Kent S. Knaebel, Ph.D., President, Adsorption Research, Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, International Adsorption Society. Professional Engineer (Ohio) (Section 5, Heat and Mass Transfer) Frank Knoll, M.S., Min. Proc., President, Carpco, Inc., Jacksonville, Florida (Section 19, SolidSolid Operations and Equipment) James G. Knudsen, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering, Oregon State University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society; Registered Professional Engineer (Oregon) (Section 5, Heat and Mass Transfer) Michael Krumpelt, Ph.D., Manager, Fuel Cell Technology, Argonne National Laboratory; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, Electrochemical Society (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Irwin J. Kugelman, Sc.D., Professor of Civil Engineering, Lehigh University; Member, American Society of Civil Engineering, Water Environmental Federation (Section 25, Waste Management) Tim Laros, M.S. Mineral Processing, Senior Process Consultant, EIMCO Process Equipment Co.; Member, Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME of AIME) (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Richard M. Lemert, Ph.D., P.E., Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Toledo; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, Society of Mining Engineers, American Society for Engineering Education (Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) Robert Lemlich, Ph.D., P.E., Professor of Chemical Engineering Emeritus, University of Cincinnati; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Chemical Society, American Society for Engineering Education, American Chemical Society (Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) Wallace Leung, Sc.D., Director, Process Technology, Bird Machine Company; Member, American Filtration and Separation Society (Director) (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) M. Douglas LeVan, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, International Adsorption Society (Section 16, Adsorption and Ion Exchange) Peter E. Liley, Ph.D., D.I.C., School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University (Section 2, Physical and Chemical Data) James D. Litster, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland; Member, Institute of Chemical Engineers—Australia (Section 20, Size Reduction and Size Enlargement) Peter J. Loftus, D. Phil., Arthur D. Little, Inc.; Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Hsue-peng Loh, Ph.D., P.E., Federal Energy Technology Center (Morgantown), U.S. Department of Energy; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Society of Information Sciences (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Douglas E. Lowenhaupt, M.S., Group Leader, Coke Laboratory, CONSOL, Inc.; Member, American Society for Testing and Materials, Iron and Steel Making Society, International Committee for Coal Petrology (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) James O. Maloney, Ph.D., P.E., Emeritus Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Kansas; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineering; Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science; Member, American Chemical Society, American Society for Engineering Education (Section 1, Conversion Factors and Mathematical Symbols) Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

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Thomas J. McAvoy, Ph.D., Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (Section 8, Process Control) Chad McCleary, EIMCO Process Equipment Company, Process Consultant (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Thomas F. McGowan, P.E., Senior Consultant, RMT/Four Nines; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Air and Waste Management Association (Section 25, Waste Management) Howard G. McIlvried, III, Ph.D., Senior Engineer, Burns and Roe Services Corporation, Federal Energy Technology Center (Pittsburgh), Member, American Chemical Society, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) John D. McKenna, Ph.D., President and Chairman, ETS International, Inc., Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Air and Waste Management Association (Section 25, Waste Management) Shelby A. Miller, Ph.D., P.E., Resident Retired Senior Engineer, Argonne National Laboratory; American Association for the Advancement of Science (Fellow), American Chemical Society, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Fellow), American Institutes of Chemists (Fellow), Filtration Society, New York Academy of Sciences, Society of Chemical Industry (Section 18, LiquidSolid Operations and Equipment; Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Booker Morey, Ph.D., Senior Consultant, SRI International; Member, Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME of AIME), The Filtration Society, Air and Waste Management Association; Registered Professional Engineer (California and Massachusetts) (Section 18, LiquidSolid Operations and Equipment) Charles G. Moyers, Ph.D., P.E., Principal Engineer, Union Carbide Corporation; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 12, Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying; Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) John Newman, Ph.D., Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley; Principle Investigator, Inorganic Materials Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) James Y. Oldshue, Ph.D., President, Oldshue Technologies International, Inc.; Member, National Academy of Engineering; Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering at Beijing Institute of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China; Member, American Chemical Society (ACE), American Institute of Chemical Engineering (AIChE), Traveler Century Club, Executive Committee on the Transfer of Appropriate Technology for the World Federation of Engineering Organizations (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Robert W. Ormsby, M.S., Ch.E. P.E., Manager of Safety, Chemical Group, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; Air Products Corp.; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 26, Process Safety) John E. Owens, B.E.E., Electrostatic Consultant, Condux, Inc.; Member, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Electrostatics Society of America (Section 26, Process Safety) Bhupendra Parekh, Ph.D., Associate Director, Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (Section 19, Solid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Mel Pell, Ph.D., Senior Consultant, E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Registered Professional Engineer (Delaware) (Section 17, Gas-Solid Operations and Equipment) W. R. Penney, Ph.D., P.E., Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 14, Gas Absorption and Gas-Liquid System Design) Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

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Walter F. Podolski, Ph.D., Chemical Engineer, Electrochemical Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Herbert A. Pohl, Ph.D. (deceased), Professor of Physics, Oklahoma State University (Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) Kent Pollock, Ph.D., Member of Technical Staff, Group 91, Space Surveillance Techniques, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) George Priday, B.S., Ch.E., EIMCO Process Equipment Company; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineering (AIChE), Instrument Society of America (ISA) (Section 18, LiquidSolid Operations and Equipment) Michael E. Prudich, Ph.D., Professor and Chair of Chemical Engineering, Ohio University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, Society of Mining Engineers, American Society for Engineering Education (Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) Raj K. Rajamani, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Metallurgy and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (Section 19, Solid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Lawrence K. Rath, B.S., P.E., Federal Energy Technology Center (Morgantown), U.S. Department of Energy; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Grantges J. Raymus, M.E., M.S., President, Raymus Associates, Incorporated, Packaging Consultants; Adjunct Professor and Program Coordinator, Center for Packaging Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; formerly Manager of Packaging Engineering, Union Carbide Corporation; Registered Professional Engineer, California; Member, Institute of Packaging Professionals, ASME (Section 21, Handling of Bulk Solids and Packaging of Solids and Liquids) Lanny A. Robbins, Ph.D., Research Fellow, Dow Chemical Company; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 15, Liquid-Liquid Extraction Operations and Equipment) Joseph J. Santoleri, P.E., Senior Consultant, RMT/Four Nines; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Air and Waste Management Association (Section 25, Waste Management) Adel F. Sarofim, Sc.D., Lammot DuPont Professor of Chemical Engineering and Assistant Director, Fuels Research Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, Combustion Institute (Section 5, Heat and Mass Transfer) Kalanadh V. S. Sastry, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (Section 19, Solid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Paul J. Schafbuch, Ph.D., Senior Research Specialist, Final Control Systems, Fisher Controls International, Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa (Section 8, Process Control) Carl A. Schiappa, B.S., Ch.E., Process Engineering Associate, Michigan Division Engineering, The Dow Chemical Company; Member, AIChE and CCPS (Section 26, Process Safety) David K. Schmalzer, Ph.D., P.E., Fossil Energy Program Manager, Argonne National Laboratory; Member, American Chemical Society, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) J. D. Seader, Ph.D., Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Chemical Society; Member, American Society for Engineering Education (Section 13, Distillation) Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Dale E. Seborg, Ph.D., Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California (Section 8, Process Control) Richard L. Shilling, P.E., B.S.M., B.E.M.E., Manager of Engineering Development, Brown Fintube Company—a Koch Engineering Company; Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Section 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) F. Greg Shinskey, B.S.Ch.E., Consultant (retired from Foxboro Co.), North Sandwich, New Hampshire (Section 8, Process Control) Oliver W. Siebert, P.E., B.S.M.E., Washington University, Graduate Metallurgical Engineering, Sever Institute of Technology; Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri; President, Siebert Materials Engineering, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri; Senior Engineering Fellow (retired), Monsanto Co.; Mechanical Designer, Sverdrup Corp.; Metallurgist, Carondelet Foundry; United Nations Consultant to the People’s Republic of China; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Life Fellow, American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Past Elected Director and Fellow, National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Int’l; American Society for Metals, Int’l; American Welding Society; Pi Tau Sigma, Sigma Xi, and Tau Beta Pi (Section 28, Materials of Construction) Jeffrey J. Siirola, Ph.D., Research Fellow, Eastman Chemical Company; Member, National Academy of Engineering; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, American Association for Artificial Intelligence, American Society for Engineering Education (Section 13, Distillation) Charles E. Silverblatt, M.S., Ch.E., Peregrine International Associates, Inc.; Consultant to WesTech Engineering, Inc., American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engines (AIME) (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Richard Siwek, M.S., Explosion Protection Manager, Corporate Unit Safety and Environment, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland (Section 26, Process Safety) J. Stephen Slottee, M.S., Ch.E., Manager, Technology and Development, EIMCO Process Equipment Co.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Cecil L. Smith, Ph.D., Principal, Cecil L. Smith Inc., Baton Rouge, Louisiana (Section 8, Process Control) Julian C. Smith, B. Chem., Ch.E., Professor Emeritus Chemical Engineering, Cornell University; Member, American Chemical Society (ACS), American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Richard H. Snow, Ph.D., Engineering Advisor, IIT Research Institute; Member, American Chemical Society, Sigma Xi; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 20, Size Reduction and Size Enlargement) Thomas Sorenson, M.B.A., Min. Eng., President, Galigher Ash (Canada) Ltd. (Section 19, Solid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Rameshwar D. Srivastava, Ph.D., Fuels Group Manager, Burns and Roe Services Corporation, Federal Energy Technology Center (Pittsburgh) (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) F. C. Standiford, M.S., P.E., Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society (Section 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) D. E. Steinmeyer, M.A., M.S., P.E., Distinguished Fellow, Monsanto Company; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Chemical Society (Section 14, Gas Absorption and Gas-Liquid System Design) Gary J. Stiegel, M.S., P.E., Program Coordinator, Federal Energy Technology Center (Pittsburgh), U.S. Department of Energy (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

John G. Stoecker II, B.S.M.E., University of Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy; Principal Consultant, Stoecker & Associates, St. Louis, Missouri; Principal Materials Engineering Specialist (retired), Monsanto Co.; High-Temperature Design/Application Engineer, Abex Corporation; Member, NACE International, ASM International (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Judson S. Swearingen, Ph.D., Retired President, Rotoflow Corporation (Section 29, Process Machinery Drives) Louis Theodore, Sc.D., Professor of Chemical Engineering, Manhattan College; Member, Air and Waste Management Association (Section 25, Waste Management) Michael P. Thien, Sc.D., Senior Research Fellow, Merck & Co., Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineers (Section 22, Alternative Separation Processes) George H. Thomson, AIChE Design Institute for Physical Property Data (Section 2, Physical and Chemical Data) James N. Tilton, Ph.D., P.E., Senior Consultant, Process Engineering, E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Registered Professional Engineer (Delaware) (Section 6, Fluid and Particle Dynamics) Klaus D. Timmerhaus, Ph.D., P.E., Professor and President’s Teaching Scholar, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Society for Engineering Education, American Association for the Advancement of Science; Member, American Astronautical Society, National Academy of Engineering, Austrian Academy of Science, International Institute of Refrigeration, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, American Society of Environmental Engineers, Engineering Society for Advancing Mobility on Land, Sea, Air, and Space, Sigma Xi, The Research Society (Section 11, Heat-Transfer Equipment) David B. Todd, Ph.D., President, Todd Engineering; Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), American Chemical Society (ACS), American Institute of Chemical Engineering (AIChE), American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS), Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE), and Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI); Registered Professional Engineer, Michigan (Section 18, Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment) George T. Tsao, Ph.D., Director, Laboratory for Renewable Resource Engineering, Purdue University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, American Society for Microbiology (Section 24, Biochemical Engineering) Hendrick C. Van Ness, D.Eng., Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Chemical Society (Section 4, Thermodynamics) Stanley M. Walas, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 7, Reaction Kinetics; Section 23, Chemical Reactors) Phillip C. Wankat, Ph.D., Professor of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, International Adsorption Society (Section 5, Heat and Mass Transfer) Ionel Wechsler, M.S., Min. and Met., Vice President, Sala Magnetics, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts (Section 19, Solid-Solid Operations and Equipment) Arthur W. Westerberg, Ph.D., Swearingen University Professor of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University; Member, National Academy of Engineering (Section 3, Mathematics) John M. Wheeldon, Ph.D., Electric Power Research Institute (Section 27, Energy Resources, Conversion, and Utilization) Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

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xviii

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Robert E. White, Ph.D., Principal Engineer, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute (Section 26, Process Safety) J. K. Wilkinson, M.Sc., Consultant Chemical Engineer; Fellow, Institution of Chemical Engineers, London (Section 9, Process Economics) David Winegarder, Ph.D., Engineering Associate, Michigan Division Engineering, The Dow Chemical Company; Member AIChE and CCPS (Section 26, Process Safety) John L. Woodward, Ph.D., Principal, DNV Technica, Inc. (Section 26, Process Safety) Yoshiyuki Yamashita, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan (Section 3, Mathematics) Carmen M. Yon, M.S., Development Associate, UOP, Des Plaines, Illinois; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 16, Adsorption and Ion Exchange)

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

Preface to the Seventh Edition

Perry’s has been an important source for chemical engineering information since 1934. The significant contributions of the editors who have guided preparation of the previous editions is acknowledged. These include John H. Perry (first to third editions), Robert H. Perry (fourth to sixth editions), Cecil H. Chilton (fourth and fifth editions), and Sidney D. Kirkpatrick (fourth edition). Ray Genereaux (DuPont) contributed to each of the first six editions, and Shelby Miller (Argonne National Lab) worked on the second through the seventh. The current editors directed both the sixth and seventh editions. Advances in the technology of chemical engineering have continued as we have moved toward the twenty-first century, and this edition will carry us into that century. The Handbook has been reorganized. The first group of sections focuses on chemical and physical property data and the fundamentals of chemical engineering. The second and largest group of sections deals with processes, generally divided as heat transfer operations, distillation, kinetics, liquid-liquid, liquid-solid, and so on. The last group treats auxiliary information such as materials of construction, process machinery drives, waste management, and process safety. All sections have been revised and updated, and several sections are entirely new or have been extensively revised. Examples of these sections are mathematics, mass transfer, reaction kinetics, process control, transport and storage of fluids, alternative separation processes, heat-transfer equipment, chemical reactions, liquid-solid operations and equipment, process safety, and analysis of plant performance. Significant new information has also been included in the physical and chemical data sections. Several section editors and contributors worked on this seventh edition, and these persons and their affiliations are listed as a part of the front material. Approximately one-half of the section editors are fellows of the AIChE. In addition, the following chemical engineering students at the University of Kansas assisted in the preparation of the index: Jason Canter, Pau Ying Chong, Mei Ling Chuah, Li Phoon Hor, Siew Pouy Ng, Francis J. Orzulak, Scott C. Renze, Page B. Surbaugh, and Stephen F. Weller. Shari L. Gladman and Sarah Smith provided extensive secretarial assistance. Much of Bob Perry’s work carries over into this edition and his influence is both recognized and remembered.

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DON W. GREEN JAMES O. MALONEY University of Kansas April, 1997 xix

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Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook

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Section 1

Conversion Factors and Mathematical Symbols*

James O. Maloney, Ph.D., P.E., Emeritus Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Kansas; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineering; Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science; Member, American Chemical Society, American Society for Engineering Education

Fig. 1-1 Table 1-1 Table 1-2a Table 1-2b Table 1-3 Table 1-4 Table 1-5 Table 1-6 Table 1-7 Table 1-8 Table 1-9

CONVERSION FACTORS Graphic Relationships of SI Units with Names . . . . . . . . . SI Base and Supplementary Quantities and Units. . . . . . . Derived Units of SI that Have Special Names. . . . . . . . . . Additional Common Derived Units of SI . . . . . . . . . . . . . SI Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metric Conversion Factors as Exact Numerical Multiples of SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alphabetical Listing of Common Conversions . . . . . . . . . Common Units and Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kinematic-Viscosity Conversion Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . Values of the Gas-Law Constant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-2 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-4 1-13 1-15 1-18 1-18 1-18

Table 1-10 United States Customary System of Weights and Measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 1-11 Temperature Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 1-12 Specific Gravity, Degrees Baumé, Degrees API, Degrees Twaddell, Pounds per Gallon, Pounds per Cubic Foot . . . Table 1-13 Wire and Sheet-Metal Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 1-14 Fundamental Physical Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-19 1-19 1-20 1-21 1-22

CONVERSION OF VALUES FROM U.S. CUSTOMARY UNITS TO SI UNITS Table 1-15 Table 1-16

MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS Mathematical Signs, Symbols, and Abbreviations . . . . . . . Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-24 1-24

* Much of the material was taken from Sec. 1. of the fifth edition. The contribution of Cecil H. Chilton in developing that material is acknowledged. 1-1

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FIG. 1-1

Graphic relationships of SI units with names (U.S. National Bureau of Standards, LC 1078, December 1976.)

1-2

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TABLE 1-1

SI Base and Supplementary Quantities and Units

Quantity or “dimension” Base quantity or “dimension” length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity Supplementary quantity or “dimension” plane angle solid angle

SI unit

SI unit symbol (“abbreviation”); Use roman (upright) type

meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole* candela

m kg s A K mol cd

radian steradian

rad sr

* When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified; they may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles.

TABLE 1-2a Derived Units of SI that Have Special Names Quantity

Unit

Symbol

Formula

frequency (of a periodic phenomenon) force pressure, stress energy, work, quantity of heat power, radiant flux quantity of electricity, electric charge electric potential, potential difference, electromotive force capacitance electric resistance conductance magnetic flux magnetic-flux density inductance luminous flux illuminance activity (of radionuclides) absorbed dose

hertz newton pascal joule watt coulomb volt

Hz N Pa J W C V

l/s (kg⋅m)/s2 N/m2 N⋅m J/s A⋅s W/A

farad ohm siemens weber tesla henry lumen lux becquerel gray

F Ω S Wb T H lm lx Bq Gy

C/V V/A A/V V⋅s Wb/m2 Wb/A cd⋅sr lm/m2 l/s J/kg

TABLE 1-2b Additional Common Derived Units of SI Quantity

Unit

acceleration angular acceleration angular velocity area concentration (of amount of substance) current density density, mass electric-charge density electric-field strength electric-flux density energy density entropy heat capacity heat-flux density, irradiance luminance magnetic-field strength molar energy molar entropy molar-heat capacity moment of force permeability permittivity radiance

meter per second squared radian per second squared radian per second square meter mole per cubic meter

m/s2 rad/s2 rad/s m2 mol/m3

ampere per square meter kilogram per cubic meter coulomb per cubic meter volt per meter coulomb per square meter joule per cubic meter joule per kelvin joule per kelvin watt per square meter

A/m2 kg/m3 C/m3 V/m C/m2 J/m3 J/K J/K W/m2

candela per square meter ampere per meter joule per mole joule per mole-kelvin joule per mole-kelvin newton-meter henry per meter farad per meter watt per square-metersteradian watt per steradian joule per kilogram-kelvin joule per kilogram joule per kilogram-kelvin cubic meter per kilogram newton per meter watt per meter-kelvin meter per second pascal-second square meter per second cubic meter 1 per meter

cd/m2 A/m J/mol J/(mol⋅K) J/(mol⋅K) N⋅m H/m F/m W/(m2⋅sr)

radiant intensity specific-heat capacity specific energy specific entropy specific volume surface tension thermal conductivity velocity viscosity, dynamic viscosity, kinematic volume wave number

TABLE 1-3

Symbol

W/sr J/(kg⋅K) J/kg J/(kg⋅K) m3/kg N/m W/(m⋅K) m/s Pa⋅s m2/s m3 1/m

SI Prefixes

Multiplication factor

Prefix

Symbol

000 = 1018 000 = 1015 000 = 1012 000 = 109 000 = 106 000 = 103 100 = 102 10 = 101 0.1 = 10−1 0.01 = 10−2 0.001 = 10−3 0.000 001 = 10−6 0.000 000 001 = 10−9 0.000 000 000 001 = 10−12 0.000 000 000 000 001 = 10−15 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10−18

exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto* deka* deci* centi milli micro nano pico femto atto

E P T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a

1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 1

000 000 000 000 1

000 000 000 000 000 1

*Generally to be avoided.

1-3

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TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Space,† time Length

naut mi mi chain link fathom yd ft

1.852* E + 00 1.609 344* E + 00 2.011 68* E + 01 2.011 68* E − 01 1.828 8* E + 00 9.144* E − 01 3.048* E − 01 3.048* E + 01 2.54* E + 01 2.54 E + 00 2.54* E + 01

in in mil

km km m m m m m cm mm cm µm

Length/length

ft/mi

m/km

1.893 939 E − 01

Length/volume

ft/U.S. gal ft/ft3 ft/bbl

m/m3 m/m3 m/m3

8.051 964 E + 01 1.076 391 E + 01 1.917 134 E + 00

Area

mi2 section acre ha yd2 ft2 in2

km2 ha ha m2 m2 m2 mm2 cm2

2.589 988 E + 00 2.589 988 E + 02 4.046 856 E − 01 1.000 000* E + 04 8.361 274 E − 01 9.290 304* E − 02 6.451 6* E + 02 6.451 6* E + 00

Area/volume

ft2/in3 ft2/ft3

m2/cm3 m2/m3

5.699 291 E − 03 3.280 840 E + 00

Volume

cubem acre⋅ft

km3 m3 ha⋅m m3 m3 m3 dm3 m3 dm3 m3 dm3 dm3 dm3 dm3 cm3 cm3 cm3

4.168 182 1.233 482 1.233 482 7.645 549 1.589 873 2.831 685 2.831 685 4.546 092 4.546 092 3.785 412 3.785 412 1.136 523 9.463 529 4.731 765 2.841 307 2.957 353 1.638 706

yd3 bbl (42 U.S. gal) ft3 U.K. gal U.S. gal U.K. qt U.S. qt U.S. pt U.K. fl oz U.S. fl oz in3

L L L L L L

E + 00 E + 03 E − 01 E − 01 E − 01 E − 02 E + 01 E − 03 E + 00 E − 03 E + 00 E + 00 E − 01 E − 01 E + 01 E + 01 E + 01

Volume/length (linear displacement)

bbl/in bbl/ft ft3/ft U.S. gal/ft

m3m m3/m m3/m m3/m L/m

6.259 342 E + 00 5.216 119 E − 01 9.290 304* E − 02 1.241 933 E − 02 1.241 933 E + 01

Plane angle

rad deg (°) min (′) sec (″)

rad rad rad rad

1 1.745 329 E − 02 2.908 882 E − 04 4.848 137 E − 06

Solid angle

sr

sr

1

Time

year week h

a d s min s h ns

1 7.0* 3.6* 6.0* 6.0* 1.666 667 1

E + 00 E + 03 E + 01 E + 01 E − 02

1.016 047 9.071 847 5.080 234 4.535 924 4.535 924 3.110 348 2.834 952 6.479 891

E + 00 E − 01 E + 01 E + 01 E − 01 E + 01 E + 01 E + 01

min mµs Mass, amount of substance Mass

U.K. ton U.S. ton U.K. cwt U.S. cwt lbm oz (troy) oz (av) gr

Mg Mg kg kg kg g g mg

t t

1-4

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TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued ) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity Amount of substance

lbm⋅mol std m3(0°C, 1 atm) std ft3 (60°F, 1 atm)

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit 4.535 924 E − 01 4.461 58 E − 02 1.195 30 E − 03

kmol kmol kmol

Enthalpy, calorific value, heat, entropy, heat capacity Calorific value, enthalpy (mass basis)

Btu/lbm cal/g cal/lbm

MJ/kg kJ/kg kWh/kg kJ/kg J/kg

Caloric value, enthalpy (mole basis)

kcal/(g⋅mol) Btu/(lb⋅mol)

kJ/kmol kJ/kmol

Calorific value (volume basis—solids and liquids)

Btu/U.S. gal

MJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3 MJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3 MJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3 MJ/m3 kJ/m3

kJ/dm3

Btu/U.K. gal Btu/ft3

cal/mL (ft⋅lbf)/U.S. gal

J/g J/g

2.326 000 2.326 000 6.461 112 4.184* 9.224 141

E − 03 E + 00 E − 04 E + 00 E + 00

4.184* E + 03 2.326 000 E + 00

kJ/dm3 kJ/dm3

2.787 163 2.787 163 7.742 119 2.320 800 2.320 800 6.446 667 3.725 895 3.725 895 1.034 971 4.184* 3.581 692

E − 01 E + 02 E − 02 E − 01 E + 02 E − 02 E − 02 E + 01 E − 02 E + 00 E − 01

Calorific value (volume basis—gases)

cal/mL kcal/m3 Btu/ft3

kJ/m3 kJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3

J/dm3 J/dm3 J/dm3

4.184* 4.184* 3.725 895 1.034 971

E + 03 E + 00 E + 01 E − 02

Specific entropy

Btu/(lbm⋅°R) cal/(g⋅K) kcal/(kg⋅°C)

kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/(kg⋅K)

J/(g⋅K) J/(g⋅K) J/(g⋅K)

4.186 8* 4.184* 4.184*

E + 00 E + 00 E + 00

Specific-heat capacity (mass basis)

kWh/(kg⋅°C) Btu/(lbm⋅°F) kcal/(kg⋅°C)

kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/(kg⋅K)

J/(g⋅K) J/(g⋅K) J/(g⋅K)

3.6* 4.186 8* 4.184*

E + 03 E + 00 E + 00

Specific-heat capacity (mole basis)

Btu/(lb⋅mol⋅°F) cal/(g⋅mol⋅°C)

kJ/(kmol⋅K) kJ/(kmol⋅K)

4.186 8* 4.184*

E + 00 E + 00

Temperature (absolute)

°R K

K K

5/9 1

Temperature (traditional)

°F

°C

5/9(°F − 32)

Temperature (difference)

°F

K, °C

5/9

Pressure

atm (760 mmHg at 0°C or 14,696 psi)

µmHg (0°C) µ bar mmHg = torr (0°C) cmH2O (4°C) lbf/ft2 (psf) mHg (0°C) bar dyn/cm2

MPa kPa bar MPa kPa MPa kPa bar kPa kPa kPa kPa kPa Pa Pa Pa

1.013 250* E − 01 1.013 250* E + 02 1.013 250* E + 00 1.0* E − 01 1.0* E + 02 6.894 757 E − 03 6.894 757 E + 00 6.894 757 E − 02 3.376 85 E + 00 2.488 4 E − 01 1.333 224 E − 01 9.806 38 E − 02 4.788 026 E − 02 1.333 224 E − 01 1.0* E + 05 1.0* E − 01

Vacuum, draft

inHg (60°F) inH2O (39.2°F) inH2O (60°F) mmHg (0°C) = torr cmH2O (4°C)

kPa kPa kPa kPa kPa

3.376 85 2.490 82 2.488 4 1.333 224 9.806 38

E + 00 E − 01 E − 01 E − 01 E − 02

Liquid head

ft in

m mm cm

3.048* 2.54* 2.54*

E − 01 E + 01 E + 00

Pressure drop/length

psi/ft

kPa/m

2.262 059 E + 01

Temperature, pressure, vacuum

bar mmHg (0°C) = torr

1-5

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TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued ) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Density, specific volume, concentration, dosage kg/m3 g/m3 kg/m3 g/cm3 kg/m3 kg/m3 g/cm3 kg/m3 kg/m3

1.601 846 1.601 846 1.198 264 1.198 264 9.977 633 1.601 846 1.601 846 1.0* 1.601 846

E + 01 E + 04 E + 02 E − 01 E + 01 E + 01 E − 02 E + 03 E + 01

ft /lbm U.K. gal/lbm U.S. gal/lbm

m3/kg m3/g dm3/kg dm3/kg dm3/kg

6.242 796 6.242 796 6.242 796 1.002 242 8.345 404

E − 02 E − 05 E + 01 E + 01 E + 00

Specific volume (mole basis)

L/(g⋅mol) ft3/(lb⋅mol)

m3/kmol m3/kmol

1 6.242 796 E − 02

Specific volume

bbl/U.S. ton bbl/U.K. ton

m3/t m3/t

1.752 535 E − 01 1.564 763 E − 01

Yield

bbl/U.S. ton bbl/U.K. ton U.S. gal/U.S. ton U.S. gal/U.K. ton

dm3/t dm3/t dm3/t dm3/t

Concentration (mass/mass)

wt % wt ppm

kg/kg g/kg mg/kg

lbm/bbl g/U.S. gal g/U.K. gal lbm/1000 U.S. gal lbm/1000 U.K. gal gr/U.S. gal gr/ft3 lbm/1000 bbl mg/U.S. gal gr/100 ft3

kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 g/m3 g/m3 g/m3 mg/m3 g/m3 g/m3 mg/m3

ft3/ft3 bbl/(acre⋅ft) vol% U.K. gal/ft3 U.S. gal/ft3 mL/U.S. gal mL/U.K. gal vol ppm U.K. gal/1000 bbl U.S. gal/1000 bbl U.K. pt/1000 bbl

m3/m3 m3/m3 m3/m3 dm3/m3 dm3/m3 dm3/m3 dm3/m3 cm3/m3 dm3/m3 cm3/m3 cm3/m3 cm3/m3

Concentration (mole/volume)

(lb⋅mol)/U.S. gal (lb⋅mol)/U.K. gal (lb⋅mol)/ft3 std ft3 (60°F, 1 atm)/bbl

kmol/m3 kmol/m3 kmol/m3 kmol/m3

Concentration (volume/mole)

U.S. gal/1000 std ft3 (60°F/60°F) bbl/million std ft3 (60°F/60°F)

dm3/kmol dm3/kmol

Throughput (mass basis)

U.K. ton/year U.S. ton/year U.K. ton/day

Density

lbm/ft3 lbm/U.S. gal lbm/U.K. gal lbm/ft3 g/cm3 lbm/ft3

Specific volume

ft3/lbm 3

Concentration (mass/volume)

Concentration (volume/volume)

cm3/g cm3/g

L/t L/t L/t L/t

g/dm3 g/L mg/dm3 mg/dm3 mg/dm3 mg/dm3 mg/dm3

L/m3 L/m3 L/m3 L/m3 L/m3

L/kmol L/kmol

1.752 535 1.564 763 4.172 702 3.725 627

E + 02 E + 02 E + 00 E + 00

1.0* 1.0* 1

E − 02 E + 01

2.853 010 2.641 720 2.199 692 1.198 264 9.977 633 1.711 806 2.288 351 2.853 010 2.641 720 2.288 351

E + 00 E − 01 E − 01 E + 02 E + 01 E + 01 E + 03 E + 00 E − 01 E + 01

1 1.288 931 1.0* 1.605 437 1.336 806 2.641 720 2.199 692 1 1.0* 2.859 403 2.380 952 3.574 253

E − 04 E − 02 E + 02 E + 02 E − 01 E − 01 E − 03 E + 01 E + 01 E + 00

1.198 264 9.977 644 1.601 846 7.518 21

E + 02 E + 01 E + 01 E − 03

3.166 91 1.330 10

E + 00 E − 01

1.016 047 9.071 847 1.016 047 4.233 529 9.071 847 3.779 936 1.016 047 9.071 847 4.535 924

E + 00 E − 01 E + 00 E − 02 E − 01 E − 02 E + 00 E − 01 E − 01

Facility throughput, capacity

U.S. ton/day U.K. ton/h U.S. ton/h lbm/h

t/a t/a t/d t/h t/d t/h t/h t/h kg/h

1-6

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TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued ) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity Throughput (volume basis)

bbl/day 3

ft /day bbl/h ft3/h U.K. gal/h U.S. gal/h U.K. gal/min U.S. gal/min

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit E + 01 E − 01 E − 03 E − 01 E − 02 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 01 E − 02 E − 01 E − 02

t/a m3/d m3/h m3/h m3/h m3/h L/s m3/h L/s m3/h L/s m3/h L/s

5.803 036 1.589 873 1.179 869 1.589 873 2.831 685 4.546 092 1.262 803 3.785 412 1.051 503 2.727 655 7.576 819 2.271 247 6.309 020

kmol/h kmol/s

4.535 924 E − 01 1.259 979 E − 04

Throughput (mole basis)

(lbm⋅mol)/h

Flow rate (mass basis)

U.K. ton/min U.S. ton/min U.K. ton/h U.S. ton/h U.K. ton/day U.S. ton/day million lbm/year U.K. ton/year U.S. ton/year lbm/s lbm/min lbm/h

kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s

1.693 412 1.511 974 2.822 353 2.519 958 1.175 980 1.049 982 5.249 912 3.221 864 2.876 664 4.535 924 7.559 873 1.259 979

E + 01 E + 01 E − 01 E − 01 E − 02 E − 02 E + 00 E − 05 E − 05 E − 01 E − 03 E − 04

Flow rate (volume basis)

bbl/day

U.K. gal/h U.S. gal/h U.K. gal/min U.S. gal/min ft3/min ft3/s

m3/d L/s m3/d L/s m3/s L/s m3/s L/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s

1.589 873 1.840 131 2.831 685 3.277 413 4.416 314 4.416 314 7.865 791 7.865 791 1.262 803 1.051 503 7.576 820 6.309 020 4.719 474 2.831 685

E − 01 E − 03 E − 02 E − 04 E − 05 E − 02 E − 06 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 02 E − 02 E − 01 E + 01

Flow rate (mole basis)

(lb⋅mol)/s (lb⋅mol)/h million scf/D

kmol/s kmol/s kmol/s

4.535 924 E − 01 1.259 979 E − 04 1.383 45 E − 02

Flow rate/length (mass basis)

lbm/(s⋅ft) lbm/(h⋅ft)

kg/(s⋅m) kg/(s⋅m)

1.488 164 E + 00 4.133 789 E − 04

Flow rate/length (volume basis)

U.K. gal/(min⋅ft) U.S. gal/(min⋅ft) U.K. gal/(h⋅in) U.S. gal/(h⋅in) U.K. gal/(h⋅ft) U.S. gal/(h⋅ft)

m2/s m2/s m2/s m2/s m2/s m2/s

Flow rate/area (mass basis)

lbm/(s⋅ft2) lbm/(h⋅ft2)

kg/(s⋅m2) kg/(s⋅m2)

Flow rate/area (volume basis)

ft3/(s⋅ft2) ft3/(min⋅ft2) U.K. gal/(h⋅in2) U.S. gal/(h⋅in2) U.K. gal/(min⋅ft2) U.S. gal/(min⋅ft2) U.K. gal/(h⋅ft2) U.S. gal/(h⋅ft2)

m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s

Flow rate

3

ft /day bbl/h ft3/h

L/s L/s L/s L/s L/s L/s

m3/(s⋅m) m3/(s⋅m) m3/(s⋅m) m3/(s⋅m) m3/(s⋅m) m3/(s⋅m)

2.485 833 2.069 888 4.971 667 4.139 776 4.143 055 3.449 814

E − 04 E − 04 E − 05 E − 05 E − 06 E − 06

4.882 428 E + 00 1.356 230 E − 03 m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2)

3.048* 5.08* 1.957 349 1.629 833 8.155 621 6.790 972 1.359 270 1.131 829

E − 01 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 04 E − 04 E − 05 E − 05

1-7

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TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued ) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Energy, work, power Energy, work

therm

E + 02 E + 05 E + 01 E + 01 E + 00 E + 03 E − 01 E + 00 E + 03 E − 01 E + 00 E + 03 E + 00 E − 04 E + 00 E − 04 E + 00 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 05 E − 07

kcal cal ft⋅lbf lbf⋅ft J (lbf⋅ft2)/s2 erg

MJ kJ kWh MJ MJ kJ kWh MJ kJ kWh MJ kJ kJ kWh kJ kWh kJ kJ kJ kJ kJ kJ J

1.055 056 1.055 056 2.930 711 1.431 744 2.684 520 2.684 520 7.456 999 2.647 780 2.647 780 7.354 999 3.6* 3.6* 1.899 101 5.275 280 1.055 056 2.930 711 4.184* 4.184* 1.355 818 1.355 818 1.0* 4.214 011 1.0*

Impact energy

kgf⋅m lbf⋅ft

J J

9.806 650* E + 00 1.355 818 E + 00

Surface energy

erg/cm2

mJ/m2

1.0*

Specific-impact energy

(kgf⋅m)/cm2 (lbf⋅ft)/in2

J/cm2 J/cm2

9.806 650* E − 02 2.101 522 E − 03

Power

million Btu/h ton of refrigeration Btu/s kW hydraulic horsepower—hhp hp (electric) hp [(550 ft⋅lbf)/s] ch or CV Btu/min (ft⋅lbf)/s kcal/h Btu/h (ft⋅lbf)/min

MW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW W W W

2.930 711 3.516 853 1.055 056 1 7.460 43 7.46* 7.456 999 7.354 999 1.758 427 1.355 818 1.162 222 2.930 711 2.259 697

Power/area

Btu/(s⋅ft2) cal/(h⋅cm2) Btu/(h⋅ft2)

kW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2

1.135 653 E + 01 1.162 222 E − 02 3.154 591 E − 03

Heat-release rate, mixing power

hp/ft3 cal/(h⋅cm3) Btu/(s⋅ft3) Btu/(h⋅ft3)

kW/m3 kW/m3 kW/m3 kW/m3

2.633 414 1.162 222 3.725 895 1.034 971

U.S. tonf⋅mi hp⋅h ch⋅h or CV⋅h kWh Chu Btu

E + 00

E − 01 E + 00 E + 00 E − 01 E − 01 E − 01 E − 01 E − 02 E − 03 E + 00 E − 01 E − 02

E + 01 E + 00 E + 01 E − 02

3.930 148 E − 01

Cooling duty (machinery)

Btu/(bhp⋅h)

W/kW

Specific fuel consumption (mass basis)

lbm/(hp⋅h)

mg/J kg/kWh

kg/MJ

1.689 659 E − 01 6.082 774 E − 01

Specific fuel consumption (volume basis)

m3/kWh U.S. gal/(hp⋅h) U.K. pt/(hp⋅h)

dm3/MJ dm3/MJ dm3/MJ

mm3/J mm3/J mm3/J

2.777 778 E + 02 1.410 089 E + 00 2.116 806 E − 01

Fuel consumption

U.K. gal/mi U.S. gal/mi mi/U.S. gal mi/U.K. gal

dm3/100 km dm3/100 km km/dm3 km/dm3

L/100 km L/100 km km/L km/L

2.824 807 2.352 146 4.251 437 3.540 064

1-8

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E + 02 E + 02 E − 01 E − 01

TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued ) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

in/s in/min

km/h km/h m/s cm/s m/s mm/s mm/s m/d mm/s mm/s

1.852* E + 00 1.609 344* E + 00 3.048* E − 01 3.048* E + 01 5.08* E − 03 8.466 667 E − 02 3.527 778 E − 03 3.048* E − 01 2.54* E + 01 4.233 333 E − 01

Corrosion rate

in/year (ipy) mil/year

mm/a mm/a

2.54* 2.54*

Rotational frequency

r/min

r/s rad/s

1.666 667 E − 02 1.047 198 E − 01

Acceleration (linear)

ft/s2

m/s2 cm/s2

3.048* 3.048*

Acceleration (rotational)

rpm/s

rad/s2

1.047 198 E − 01

Momentum

(lbm⋅ft)/s

(kg⋅m)/s

1.382 550 E − 01

Force

U.K. tonf U.S. tonf kgf (kp) lbf dyn

kN kN N N mN

9.964 016 E + 00 8.896 443 E + 00 9.806 650* E + 00 4.448 222 E + 00 1.0 E − 02

Bending moment, torque

U.S. tonf⋅ft kgf⋅m lbf⋅ft lbf⋅in

kN⋅m N⋅m N⋅m N⋅m

2.711 636 E + 00 9.806 650* E + 00 1.355 818 E + 00 1.129 848 E − 01

Bending moment/length

(lbf⋅ft)/in (lbf⋅in)/in

(N⋅m)/m (N⋅m)/m

5.337 866 E + 01 4.448 222 E + 00

Moment of inertia

lbm⋅ft2

Velocity (linear), speed

knot mi/h ft/s ft/min ft/h ft/day

MPa MPa MPa MPa kPa Pa

E − 01 E + 01

4.214 011 E − 02

kg⋅m2 2

E + 01 E − 02

N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

1.378 951 E + 01 9.806 650* E + 00 9.576 052 E − 02 6.894 757 E − 03 4.788 026 E − 02 1.0* E − 01

Stress

U.S. tonf/in kgf/mm2 U.S. tonf/ft2 lbf/in2 (psi) lbf/ft2 (psf) dyn/cm2

Mass/length

lbm/ft

kg/m

1.488 164 E + 00

Mass/area structural loading, bearing capacity (mass basis)

U.S. ton/ft2 lbm/ft2

Mg/m2 kg/m2

9.764 855 E + 00 4.882 428 E + 00

Diffusivity

ft2/s m2/s ft2/h

m2/s mm2/s m2/s

9.290 304* E − 02 1.0* E + 06 2.580 64* E − 05

Thermal resistance

(°C⋅m2⋅h)/kcal (°F⋅ft2⋅h)/Btu

(K⋅m2)/kW (K⋅m2)/kW

8.604 208 E + 02 1.761 102 E + 02

Heat flux

Btu/(h⋅ft2)

kW/m2

3.154 591 E − 03

Thermal conductivity

(cal⋅cm)/(s⋅cm ⋅°C) (Btu⋅ft)/(h⋅ft2⋅°F)

W/(m⋅K) W/(m⋅K) (kJ⋅m)/(h⋅m2⋅K) W/(m⋅K) W/(m⋅K) W/(m⋅K)

4.184* 1.730 735 6.230 646 1.162 222 1.442 279 1.162 222

E + 02 E + 00 E + 00 E + 00 E − 01 E − 01

kW/(m2⋅K) kW/(m2⋅K) kW/(m2⋅K) kW/(m2⋅K) kJ/(h⋅m2⋅K) kW/(m2⋅K) kW/(m2⋅K)

4.184* 2.044 175 1.162 222 5.678 263 2.044 175 5.678 263 1.162 222

E + 01 E + 01 E − 02 E − 03 E + 01 E − 03 E − 03

Miscellaneous transport properties

2

(kcal⋅m)/(h⋅m2⋅°C) (Btu⋅in)/(h⋅ft2⋅°F) (cal⋅cm)/(h⋅cm2⋅°C) Heat-transfer coefficient

cal/(s⋅cm2⋅°C) Btu/(s⋅ft2⋅°F) cal/(h⋅cm2⋅°C) Btu/(h⋅ft2⋅°F) Btu/(h⋅ft2⋅°R) kcal/(h⋅m2⋅°C)

1-9

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TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued ) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

kW/(m3⋅K) kW/(m3⋅K)

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Volumetric heat-transfer coefficient

Btu/(s⋅ft3⋅°F) Btu/(h⋅ft3⋅°F)

6.706 611 E + 01 1.862 947 E − 02

Surface tension

dyn/cm

mN/m

Viscosity (dynamic)

(lbf⋅s)/in2 (lbf⋅s)/ft2 (kgf⋅s)/m2 lbm/(ft⋅s) (dyn⋅s)/cm2 cP lbm/(ft⋅h)

Pa⋅s Pa⋅s Pa⋅s Pa⋅s Pa⋅s Pa⋅s Pa⋅s

Viscosity (kinematic)

ft2/s in2/s m2/h ft2/h cSt

m2/s mm2/s mm2/s m2/s mm2/s

9.290 304* E − 02 6.451 6* E + 02 2.777 778 E + 02 2.580 64* E − 05 1

Permeability

darcy millidarcy

µm2 µm2

9.869 233 E − 01 9.869 233 E − 04

Thermal flux

Btu/(h⋅ft2) Btu/(s⋅ft2) cal/(s⋅cm2)

W/m2 W/m2 W/m2

3.152 1.135 4.184

E + 00 E + 04 E + 04

Mass-transfer coefficient

(lb⋅mol)/[h⋅ft2(lb⋅mol/ft3)] (g⋅mol)/[s⋅m2(g⋅mol/L)]

m/s m/s

8.467 1.0

E − 05 E + 01

Admittance

S

S

1

Capacitance

µF

µF

1

Charge density

C/mm3

C/mm3

1

Conductance

SV

S S

1 1

1 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2

6.894 757 E + 03 4.788 026 E + 01 9.806 650* E + 00 1.488 164 E + 00 1.0* E − 01 1.0* E − 03 4.133 789 E − 04

Electricity, magnetism

(mho)

Conductivity

S/m V /m V m /m

S/m S/m mS/m

1 1 1

Current density

A/mm2

A/mm2

1

2

Displacement

C/cm

C/cm2

1

Electric charge

C

C

1

Electric current

A

A

1

Electric-dipole moment

C⋅m

C⋅m

1

Electric-field strength

V/m

V/m

1

Electric flux

C

C

1

Electric polarization

C/cm2

C/cm2

1

Electric potential

V mV

V mV

1 1

Electromagnetic moment

A⋅m2

A⋅m2

1

Electromotive force

V

V

1

Flux of displacement

C

C

1

Frequency

cycles/s

Hz

1

Impedance





1

Linear-current density

A/mm

A/mm

1

Magnetic-dipole moment

Wb⋅m

Wb⋅m

1

Magnetic-field strength

A/mm Oe gamma

A/mm A/m A/m

1 7.957 747 E + 01 7.957 747 E − 04

Magnetic flux

mWb

mWb

1

1-10

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TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued ) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity Magnetic-flux density

mT G gamma

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

mT T nT

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit 1 1.0* 1

Magnetic induction

mT

mT

1

Magnetic moment

A⋅m2

A⋅m2

1

Magnetic polarization

mT

mT

1

Magnetic potential difference

A

A

1

Magnetic-vector potential

Wb/mm

Wb/mm

1

Magnetization

A/mm

A/mm

1

Modulus of admittance

S

S

1

Modulus of impedance





1

Mutual inductance

H

H

1

Permeability

µH/m

µH/m

1

E − 04

Permeance

H

H

1

Permittivity

µF/m

µF/m

1

Potential difference

V

V

1

Quantity of electricity

C

C

1

Reactance





1

Reluctance

H−1

H−1

1

Resistance





1

Resistivity

Ω⋅cm Ω⋅m

Ω⋅cm Ω⋅m

1 1

Self-inductance

mH

mH

1

Surface density of change

mC/m2

mC/m2

1

Susceptance

S

S

1

Volume density of charge

C/mm3

C/mm3

1

Absorbed dose

rad

Gy

1.0*

Acoustical energy

J

J

1

Acoustical intensity

W/cm2

W/m2

1.0*

Acoustical power

W

W

1

Sound pressure

N/m2

N/m2

1.0*

Illuminance

fc

lx

1.076 391 E + 01

Illumination

fc

lx

1.076 391 E + 01

Irradiance

W/m2

W/m2

1

Light exposure

fc⋅s

lx⋅s

1.076 391 E + 01

Luminance

cd/m2

cd/m2

1

Luminous efficacy

lm/W

lm/W

1

Luminous exitance

lm/m2

lm/m2

1

Luminous flux

lm

lm

1

Luminous intensity

cd

cd

1

Radiance

W/m2⋅sr

W/m2⋅sr

1

Acoustics, light, radiation

Radiant energy

J

J

1

Radiant flux

W

W

1

Radiant intensity

W/sr

W/sr

1

Radiant power

W

W

1

E − 02 E + 04

1-11

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TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Concluded ) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Wavelength

Å

nm

1.0*

E − 01

Capture unit

10−3 cm−1

m−1

E + 01

m−1

m−1

1.0* 1 1

Ci

Bq

3.7*

E + 10

Radioactivity

10−3 cm−1

* An asterisk indicates that the conversion factor is exact. † Conversion factors for length, area, and volume are based on the international foot. The international foot is longer by 2 parts in 1 million than the U.S. Survey foot (land-measurement use). NOTE: The following unit symbols are used in the table: Unit symbol

Name

Unit symbol

Name

A a Bq C cd Ci d °C ° dyn F fc G g gr Gy H h ha Hz J K L, ,, l

ampere annum (year) becquerel coulomb candela curie day degree Celsius degree dyne farad footcandle gauss gram grain gray henry hour hectare hertz joule kelvin liter

lm lx m min ′ N naut mi Oe Ω Pa rad r S s ″ sr St T t V W Wb

lumen lux meter minute minute newton U.S. nautical mile oersted ohm pascal radian revolution siemens second second steradian stokes tesla tonne volt watt weber

NOTE:

Copyright SPE-AIME, The SI Metric System of Units and SPE’s Tentative Metric Standard, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dallas, 1977.

1-12

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TABLE 1-5 Metric Conversion Factors as Exact Numerical Multiples of SI Units The first two digits of each numerical entry represent a power of 10. For example, the entry “−02 2.54” expresses the fact that 1 in = 2.54 × 10−2 m. To convert from abampere abcoulomb abfarad abhenry abmho abohm abvolt acre ampere (international of 1948) angstrom are astronomical unit atmosphere bar barn barrel (petroleum 42 gal) barye British thermal unit (ISO/ TC 12) British thermal unit (International Steam Table) British thermal unit (mean) British thermal unit (thermochemical) British thermal unit (39°F) British thermal unit (60°F) bushel (U.S.) cable caliber calorie (International Steam Table) calorie (mean) calorie (thermochemical) calorie (15°C) calorie (20°C) calorie (kilogram, International Steam Table) calorie (kilogram, mean) calorie (kilogram, thermochemical) carat (metric) Celsius (temperature) centimeter of mercury (0°C) centimeter of water (4°C) chain (engineer’s) chain (surveyor’s or Gunter’s) circular mil cord coulomb (international of 1948) cubit cup curie day (mean solar) day (sidereal) degree (angle) denier (international) dram (avoirdupois) dram (troy or apothecary) dram (U.S. fluid) dyne electron volt erg Fahrenheit (temperature)

Multiply by

To convert from

To

Multiply by

ampere coulomb farad henry mho ohm volt meter2 ampere

To

+01 1.00 +01 1.00 +09 1.00 −09 1.00 +09 1.00 −09 1.00 −08 1.00 +03 4.046 856 −01 9.998 35

meter meter2 meter newton/meter2 newton/meter2 meter2 meter3 newton/meter2 joule

−10 1.00 +02 1.00 +11 1.495 978 +05 1.013 25 +05 1.00 −28 1.00 −01 1.589 873 −01 1.00 +03 1.055 06

joule

+03 1.055 04

joule joule

+03 1.055 87 +03 1.054 350

joule joule meter3 meter meter joule

+03 1.059 67 +03 1.054 68 −02 3.523 907 +02 2.194 56 −04 2.54 +00 4.1868

joule joule joule joule joule

+00 4.190 02 +00 4.184 +00 4.185 80 +00 4.181 90 +03 4.186 8

joule joule

+03 4.190 02 +03 4.184

kilogram kelvin newton/meter2 newton/meter2 meter meter

−04 2.00 tK = tc + 273.15 +03 1.333 22 +01 9.806 38 +01 3.048 +01 2.011 68

meter3 meter meter newton/meter2 lumen/meter2 candela/meter2 meter meter/second2 meter3 meter3 meter3 tesla tesla ampere turn meter3 meter3 degree (angular) radian kilogram kilogram meter meter2 henry meter3 watt watt watt watt watt watt second (mean solar) second (mean solar) kilogram kilogram meter newton/meter2 newton/meter2 newton/meter2 newton/meter2 joule 1/meter joule

−05 2.957 352 −01 3.048 −01 3.048 006 +03 2.988 98 +01 1.076 391 +00 3.426 259 +02 2.011 68 −02 1.00 −03 4.546 087 −03 4.404 883 −03 3.785 411 −09 1.00 −04 1.00 −01 7.957 747 −04 1.420 652 −04 1.182 941 −01 9.00 −02 1.570 796 −05 6.479 891 −03 1.00 −01 1.016 +04 1.00 +00 1.000 495 −01 2.384 809 +02 7.456 998 +03 9.809 50 +02 7.46 +02 7.354 99 +02 7.457 +02 7.460 43 +03 3.60 +03 3.590 170 +01 5.080 234 +01 4.535 923 −02 2.54 +03 3.386 389 +03 3.376 85 +02 2.490 82 +02 2.4884 +00 1.000 165 +02 1.00 +03 4.186 74

meter2 meter3 coulomb

−10 5.067 074 +00 3.624 556 −01 9.998 35

meter meter3 disintegration/second second (mean solar) second (mean solar) radian kilogram/meter kilogram kilogram meter3 newton joule joule kelvin

fluid ounce (U.S.) foot foot (U.S. survey) foot of water (39.2°F) footcandle footlambert furlong gal (galileo) gallon (U.K. liquid) gallon (U.S. dry) gallon (U.S. liquid) gamma gauss gilbert gill (U.K.) gill (U.S.) grad grad grain gram hand hectare henry (international of 1948) hogshead (U.S.) horsepower (550 ft lbf/s) horsepower (boiler) horsepower (electric) horsepower (metric) horsepower (U.K.) horsepower (water) hour (mean solar) hour (sidereal) hundredweight (long) hundredweight (short) inch inch of mercury (32°F) inch of mercury (60°F) inch of water (39.2°F) inch of water (60°F) joule (international of 1948) kayser kilocalorie (International Steam Table) kilocalorie (mean) kilocalorie (thermochemical) kilogram mass kilogram-force (kgf) kilopond-force kip knot (international) lambert lambert langley lbf (pound-force, avoirdupois) lbm (pound-mass, avoirdupois) league (British nautical) league (international nautical) league (statute) light-year link (engineer’s) link (surveyor’s or Gunter’s) liter lux maxwell meter micrometer mil mile (U.S. statute) mile (U.K. nautical) mile (international nautical) mile (U.S. nautical) millibar millimeter of mercury (0°C)

joule joule kilogram newton newton newton meter/second candela/meter2 candela/meter2 joule/meter2 newton

+03 4.190 02 +03 4.184 +00 1.00 +00 9.806 65 +00 9.806 65 +03 4.448 221 −01 5.144 444 +04 1/π +03 3.183 098 +04 4.184 +00 4.448 221

kilogram

−01 4.535 923

meter meter

+03 5.559 552 +03 5.556

meter meter meter meter meter3 lumen/meter2 weber wavelengths Kr 86 meter meter meter meter meter meter newton/meter2 newton/meter2

+03 4.828 032 +15 9.460 55 −01 3.048 −01 2.011 68 −03 1.00 +00 1.00 −08 1.00 +06 1.650 763 −06 1.00 −05 2.54 +03 1.609 344 +03 1.853 184 +03 1.852 +03 1.852 +02 1.00 +02 1.333 224

Fahrenheit (temperature)

Celsius

farad (international of 1948) faraday (based on carbon 12) faraday (chemical) faraday (physical) fathom fermi (femtometer)

farad coulomb

−01 4.572 −04 2.365 882 +10 3.70 +04 8.64 +04 8.616 409 −02 1.745 329 −07 1.111 111 −03 1.771 845 −03 3.887 934 −06 3.696 691 −05 1.00 −19 1.602 10 −07 1.00 tK = (5/9)(tF + 459.67) tc = (5/9)(tF − 32) −01 9.995 05 +04 9.648 70

coulomb coulomb meter meter

+04 9.649 57 +04 9.652 19 +00 1.828 8 −15 1.00

1-13

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TABLE 1-5 Metric Conversion Factors as Exact Numerical Multiples of SI Units (Concluded ) The first two digits of each numerical entry represent a power of 10. For example, the entry “−02 2.54” expresses the fact that 1 in = 2.54 × 10−2 To convert from minute (angle) minute (mean solar) minute (sidereal) month (mean calendar) nautical mile (international) nautical mile (U.S.) nautical mile (U.K.) oersted ohm (international of 1948) ounce-force (avoirdupois) ounce-mass (avoirdupois) ounce-mass (troy or apothecary) ounce (U.S. fluid) pace parsec pascal peck (U.S.) pennyweight perch phot pica (printer’s) pint (U.S. dry) pint (U.S. liquid) point (printer’s) poise pole pound-force (lbf avoirdupois) pound-mass (lbm avoirdupois) pound-mass (troy or apothecary) poundal quart (U.S. dry) quart (U.S. liquid) rad (radiation dose absorbed) Rankine (temperature) rayleigh (rate of photon emission) rhe rod roentgen rutherford second (angle)

To

Multiply by

radian second (mean solar) second (mean solar) second (mean solar) meter meter meter ampere/meter ohm newton kilogram kilogram meter3 meter meter newton/meter2 meter3 kilogram meter lumen/meter2 meter meter3 meter3 meter (newton-second)/meter2 meter newton

−04 2.908 882 +01 6.00 +01 5.983 617 +06 2.628 +03 1.852 +03 1.852 +03 1.853 184 +01 7.957 747 +00 1.000 495 −01 2.780 138 −02 2.834 952 −02 3.110 347 −05 2.957 352 −01 7.62 +16 3.083 74 +00 1.00 −03 8.809 767 −03 1.555 173 +00 5.0292 +04 1.00 −03 4.217 517 −04 5.506 104 −04 4.731 764 −04 3.514 598 −01 1.00 +00 5.0292 +00 4.448 221

kilogram

−01 4.535 923

kilogram

−01 3.732 417

newton meter3 meter3 joule/kilogram

−01 1.382 549 −03 1.101 220 −04 9.463 529 −02 1.00

kelvin 1/second-meter2

tK = (5/9)tR +10 1.00

meter2/(newtonsecond) meter coulomb/kilogram disintegration/second radian

+01 1.00 +00 5.0292 −04 2.579 76 +06 1.00 −06 4.848 136

To

Multiply by

second (ephemeris) second (mean solar)

To convert from

second second (ephemeris)

second (sidereal) section scruple (apothecary) shake skein slug span statampere statcoulomb statfarad stathenry statmho statohm statute mile (U.S.) statvolt stere stilb stoke tablespoon teaspoon ton (assay) ton (long) ton (metric) ton (nuclear equivalent of TNT) ton (register) ton (short, 2000 lb) tonne torr (0°C) township unit pole volt (international of 1948) watt (international of 1948) yard year (calendar) year (sidereal) year (tropical) year 1900, tropical, Jan., day 0, hour 12 year 1900, tropical, Jan., day 0, hour 12

second (mean solar) meter2 kilogram second meter kilogram meter ampere coulomb farad henry mho ohm meter volt meter3 candela/meter2 meter2/second meter3 meter3 kilogram kilogram kilogram joule meter3 kilogram kilogram newton/meter2 meter2 weber volt watt meter second (mean solar) second (mean solar) second (mean solar) second (ephemeris)

+00 1.000 000 Consult American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac −01 9.972 695 +06 2.589 988 −03 1.295 978 −08 1.00 +02 1.097 28 +01 1.459 390 −01 2.286 −10 3.335 640 −10 3.335 640 −12 1.112 650 +11 8.987 554 −12 1.112 650 +11 8.987 554 +03 1.609 344 +02 2.997 925 +00 1.00 +04 1.00 −04 1.00 −05 1.478 676 −06 4.928 921 −02 2.916 666 +03 1.016 046 +03 1.00 +09 4.20 +00 2.831 684 +02 9.071 847 +03 1.00 +02 1.333 22 +07 9.323 957 −07 1.256 637 +00 1.000 330 +00 1.000 165 −01 9.144 +07 3.1536 +07 3.155 815 +07 3.155 692 +07 3.155 692

second

+07 3.155 692

1-14

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TABLE 1-6

Alphabetical Listing of Common Conversions

To convert from Acres Acres Acres Acre-feet Ampere-hours (absolute) Angstrom units Angstrom units Angstrom units Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Bags (cement) Barrels (cement) Barrels (oil) Barrels (oil) Barrels (U.S. liquid) Barrels (U.S. liquid) Barrels per day Bars Bars Bars Board feet Boiler horsepower Boiler horsepower B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. per cubic foot B.t.u. per hour B.t.u. per minute B.t.u. per pound B.t.u. per pound per degree Fahrenheit B.t.u. per pound per degree Fahrenheit B.t.u. per second B.t.u. per square foot per hour B.t.u. per square foot per minute B.t.u. per square foot per second for a temperature gradient of 1°F. per inch

To

Multiply by

To convert from

To

Multiply by

Square feet Square meters Square miles Cubic meters Coulombs (absolute) Inches Meters Microns Millimeters of mercury at 32°F Dynes per square centimeter Newtons per square meter Feet of water at 39.1°F Grams per square centimeter Inches of mercury at 32°F Pounds per square foot Pounds per square inch Pounds (cement) Pounds (cement) Cubic meters Gallons Cubic meters Gallons Gallons per minute Atmospheres Newtons per square meter Pounds per square inch Cubic feet B.t.u. per hour Kilowatts Calories (gram) Centigrade heat units (c.h.u. or p.c.u.) Foot-pounds Horsepower-hours Joules Liter-atmospheres Pounds carbon to CO2 Pounds water evaporated from and at 212°F Cubic foot-atmospheres Kilowatt-hours Joules per cubic meter Watts Horsepower Joules per kilogram Calories per gram per degree centigrade Joules per kilogram per degree Kelvin Watts Joules per square meter per second Kilowatts per square foot Calories, gram (15°C.), per square centimeter per second for a temperature gradient of 1°C. per centimeter

43,560 4074 0.001563 1233 3600 3.937 × 10−9 1 × 10−10 1 × 10−4 760 1.0133 × 106 101,325 33.90 1033.3 29.921 2116.3 14.696 94 376 0.15899 42 0.11924 31.5 0.02917 0.9869 1 × 105 14.504 1⁄12 33,480 9.803 252 0.55556 777.9 3.929 × 10−4 1055.1 10.41 6.88 × 10−5

B.t.u. (60°F.) per degree Fahrenheit Bushels (U.S. dry) Bushels (U.S. dry) Calories, gram Calories, gram Calories, gram Calories, gram Calories, gram Calories, gram, per gram per degree C. Calories, kilogram Calories, kilogram per second Candle power (spherical) Carats (metric) Centigrade heat units Centimeters Centimeters Centimeters Centimeters Centimeters Centimeters of mercury at 0°C. Centimeters of mercury at 0°C. Centimeters of mercury at 0°C Centimeters of mercury at 0°C. Centimeters of mercury at 0°C. Centimeters per second Centimeters of water at 4°C. Centistokes Circular mils Circular mils Circular mils Cords Cubic centimeters Cubic centimeters Cubic centimeters Cubic centimeters Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic foot-atmospheres Cubic foot-atmospheres Cubic feet of water (60°F.) Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per second Cubic feet per second Cubic inches Cubic yards Curies Curies Degrees Drams (apothecaries’ or troy)

Calories per degree centigrade Cubic feet Cubic meters B.t.u. Foot-pounds Joules Liter-atmospheres Horsepower-hours Joules per kilogram per degree Kelvin Kilowatt-hours Kilowatts Lumens Grams B.t.u. Angstrom units Feet Inches Meters Microns Atmospheres Feet of water at 39.1°F. Newtons per square meter Pounds per square foot Pounds per square inch Feet per minute Newtons per square meter Square meters per second Square centimeters Square inches Square mils Cubic feet Cubic feet Gallons Ounces (U.S. fluid) Quarts (U.S. fluid) Bushels (U.S.) Cubic centimeters Cubic meters Cubic yards Gallons Liters Foot-pounds Liter-atmospheres Pounds Cubic centimeters per second Gallons per second Gallons per minute Million gallons per day Cubic meters Cubic meters Disintegrations per minute Coulombs per minute Radians Grams

453.6 1.2444 0.03524 3.968 × 10−3 3.087 4.1868 4.130 × 10−2 1.5591 × 10−6 4186.8 0.0011626 4.185 12.556 0.2 1.8 1 × 108 0.03281 0.3937 0.01 10,000 0.013158 0.4460 1333.2 27.845 0.19337 1.9685 98.064 1 × 10−6 5.067 × 10−6 7.854 × 10−7 0.7854 128 3.532 × 10−5 2.6417 × 10−4 0.03381 0.0010567 0.8036 28,317 0.028317 0.03704 7.481 28.316 2116.3 28.316 62.37 472.0 0.1247 448.8 0.64632 1.6387 × 10−5 0.76456 2.2 × 1012 1.1 × 1012 0.017453 3.888

0.001036 0.3676 2.930 × 10−4 37,260 0.29307 0.02357 2326 1 4186.8 1054.4 3.1546 0.1758 1.2405

1-15

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TABLE 1-6

Alphabetical Listing of Common Conversions (Concluded )

To convert from Drams (avoirdupois) Dynes Ergs Faradays Fathoms Feet Feet per minute Feet per minute Feet per (second)2 Feet of water at 39.2°F. Foot-poundals Foot-poundals Foot-poundals Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds force Foot-pounds per second Foot-pounds per second Furlongs Gallons (U.S. liquid) Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons per minute Gallons per minute Grains Grains Grains per cubic foot Grains per gallon Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams per cubic centimeter

To Grams Newtons Joules Coulombs (abs.) Feet Meters Centimeters per second Miles per hour Meters per (second)2 Newtons per square meter B.t.u. Joules Liter-atmospheres B.t.u. Calories, gram Foot-poundals Horsepower-hours Kilowatt-hours Liter-atmospheres Joules Horsepower Kilowatts Miles Barrels (U.S. liquid) Cubic meters Cubic feet Gallons (Imperial) Liters Ounces (U.S. fluid) Cubic feet per hour Cubic feet per second Grams Pounds Grams per cubic meter Parts per million Drams (avoirdupois) Drams (troy) Grains Kilograms Pounds (avoirdupois) Pounds (troy) Pounds per cubic foot

Multiply by 1.7719 1 × 10−5 1 × 10−7 96,500 6 0.3048 0.5080 0.011364 0.3048 2989 3.995 × 10−5 0.04214 4.159 × 10−4 0.0012856 0.3239 32.174 5.051 × 10−7 3.766 × 10−7 0.013381 1.3558 0.0018182 0.0013558 0.125 0.03175 0.003785 0.13368 0.8327 3.785 128 8.021 0.002228 0.06480 1⁄ 7000 2.2884 17.118 0.5644 0.2572 15.432 0.001 0.0022046 0.002679 62.43

To convert from Horsepower (British) Horsepower (metric) Horsepower (metric) Hours (mean solar) Inches Inches of mercury at 60°F Inches of water at 60°F Joules (absolute) Joules (absolute) Joules (absolute) Joules (absolute) Joules (absolute) Joules (absolute) Kilocalories Kilograms Kilograms force Kilograms per square centimeter Kilometers Kilowatt-hours Kilowatt-hours Kilowatts Knots (international) Knots (nautical miles per hour) Lamberts Liter-atmospheres Liter-atmospheres Liters Liters Liters Lumens Micromicrons Microns Microns Miles (nautical) Miles (nautical) Miles Miles Miles per hour Miles per hour Milliliters Millimeters

To Pounds water evaporated per hour at 212°F Foot-pounds per second Kilogram-meters per second Seconds Meters Newtons per square meter Newtons per square meter B.t.u. (mean) Calories, gram (mean) Cubic foot-atmospheres Foot-pounds Kilowatt-hours Liter-atmospheres Joules Pounds (avoirdupois) Newtons Pounds per square inch Miles B.t.u. Foot-pounds Horsepower Meters per second Miles per hour Candles per square inch Cubic foot-atmospheres Foot-pounds Cubic feet Cubic meters Gallons Watts Microns Angstrom units Meters Feet Miles (U.S. statute) Feet Meters Feet per second Meters per second Cubic centimeters Meters

1-16

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Multiply by 2.64 542.47 75.0 3600 0.0254 3376.9 248.84 9.480 × 10−4 0.2389 0.3485 0.7376 2.7778 × 10−7 0.009869 4186.8 2.2046 9.807 14.223 0.6214 3414 2.6552 × 106 1.3410 0.5144 1.1516 2.054 0.03532 74.74 0.03532 0.001 0.26418 0.001496 1 × 10−6 1 × 104 1 × 10−6 6080 1.1516 5280 1609.3 1.4667 0.4470 1 0.001

Grams per cubic centimeter Grams per liter Grams per liter Grams per square centimeter Grams per square centimeter Hectares Hectares Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British) Pounds (avoirdupois) Pounds (avoirdupois) Pounds (avoirdupois) Pounds per cubic foot Pounds per cubic foot Pounds per square foot Pounds per square foot Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds force Pounds force per square foot Pounds water evaporated from and at 212°F. Pound-centigrade units (p.c.u.) Quarts (U.S. liquid) Radians Revolutions per minute Seconds (angle) Slugs Slugs Slugs Square centimeters

Pounds per gallon Grains per gallon Pounds per cubic foot Pounds per square foot Pounds per square inch Acres Square meters B.t.u. per minute B.t.u. per hour Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Watts Horsepower (metric) Pounds carbon to CO2 per hour Grains Kilograms Pounds (troy) Grams per cubic centimeter Kilograms per cubic meter Atmospheres Kilograms per square meter Atmospheres Kilograms per square centimeter Newtons per square meter Newtons Newtons per square meter Horsepower-hours B.t.u. Cubic meters Degrees Radians per second Radians Gee pounds Kilograms Pounds Square feet

8.345 58.42 0.0624 2.0482 0.014223 2.471 10,000 42.42 2545 33,000 550 745.7 1.0139 0.175 7000 0.45359 1.2153 0.016018 16.018 4.725 × 10−4 4.882 0.06805 0.07031 6894.8 4.4482 47.88 0.379 1.8 9.464 × 10−4 57.30 0.10472 4.848 × 10−6 1 14.594 32.17 0.0010764

Millimeters of mercury at 0°C. Millimicrons Mils Mils Minims (U.S.) Minutes (angle) Minutes (mean solar) Newtons Ounces (avoirdupois) Ounces (avoirdupois) Ounces (U.S. fluid) Ounces (troy) Pints (U.S. liquid) Poundals

Newtons per square meter Microns Inches Meters Cubic centimeters Radians Seconds Kilograms Kilograms Ounces (troy) Cubic meters Ounces (apothecaries’) Cubic meters Newtons

Square feet Square feet per hour Square inches Square inches Square yards Stokes Tons (long) Tons (long) Tons (metric) Tons (metric) Tons (metric) Tons (short) Tons (short) Tons (refrigeration) Tons (British shipping) Tons (U.S. shipping) Torr (mm. mercury, 0°C.) Watts Watts Watts Watt-hours Yards

Square meters Square meters per second Square centimeters Square meters Square meters Square meters per second Kilograms Pounds Kilograms Pounds Tons (short) Kilograms Pounds B.t.u. per hour Cubic feet Cubic feet Newtons per square meter B.t.u. per hour Joules per second Kilogram-meters per second Joules Meters

133.32 0.001 0.001 2.54 × 10−5 0.06161 2.909 × 10−4 60 0.10197 0.02835 0.9115 2.957 × 10−5 1.000 4.732 × 10−4 0.13826 0.0929 2.581 × 10−5 6.452 6.452 × 10−4 0.8361 1 × 10−4 1016 2240 1000 2204.6 1.1023 907.18 2000 12,000 42.00 40.00 133.32 3.413 1 0.10197 3600 0.9144

1-17

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TABLE 1-7 Mass (M)

Length (L)

Common Units and Conversion Factors* 1 pound mass = 453.5924 grams = 0.45359 kilograms = 7000 grains 1 slug = 32.174 pounds mass 1 ton (short) = 2000 pounds mass 1 ton (long) = 2240 pounds mass 1 ton (metric) = 1000 kilograms = 2204.62 pounds mass 1 pound mole = 453.59 gram moles = 30.480 centimeters = 0.3048 meters 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters = 0.0254 meters 1 mile (U.S.) = 1.60935 kilometers 1 yard = 0.9144 meters 1 foot

Area (L2)

Volume (L3)

1 square foot = 929.0304 square centimeters = 0.09290304 square meters 1 square inch = 6.4516 square centimeters 1 square yard = 0.836127 square meters 1 cubic foot

1 gallon Time (θ) 1 hour

= 28,316.85 cubic centimeters = 0.02831685 cubic meters = 28.31685 liters = 7.481 gallons (U.S.) = 3.7853 liters = 231 cubic inches = 60 minutes = 3600 seconds

Temperature (T) 1 centigrade or Celsius degree = 1.8 Fahrenheit degree Temperature, Kelvin = T°C + 273.15 Temperature, Rankine = T°F + 459.7 Temperature, Fahrenheit = 9/5 T°C + 32 Temperature, centigrade or Celsius = 5/9 (T°F − 32) Temperature, Rankine = 1.8 T K Force (F) 1 pound force = 444,822.2 dynes = 4.448222 Newtons = 32.174 poundals Pressure (F/L2) Normal atmospheric pressure

1 atm = 760 millimeters of mercury at 0°C (density 13.5951 g/cm3) = 29.921 inches of mercury at 32°F = 14.696 pounds force/square inch = 33.899 feet of water at 39.1°F = 1.01325 × 106 dynes/square centimeter = 1.01325 × 105 Newtons/square meter Density (M/L3) 1 pound mass/cubic foot = 0.01601846 grams/cubic centimeter = 16.01846 kilogram/cubic meter Energy (H or FL) 1 British thermal unit = 251.98 calories = 1054.4 joules = 777.97 foot-pounds force = 10.409 liter-atmospheres = 0.2930 watt-hour 2 Diffusivity (L /θ) 1 square foot/hour = 0.258 cm2/s = 2.58 × 10−5 m2/s Viscosity (M/Lθ) 1 pound mass/foot hour = 0.00413 g/cm s 0.000413 kg/m s 1 centipoise = 0.01 poise = 0.01 g/cm s = 0.001 kg/m s = 0.000672 lbm/ft s = 0.0000209 lbfs/ft2 Thermal conductivity [H/θL2(T/L)] 2 1 Btu/hr ft (°F/ft) = 0.00413 cal/s cm2 (°C/cm) = 1.728 J/s m2 (°C/m) Heat transfer coefficient 1 Btu/hr ft2 °F = 5.678 J/s m2 °C Heat capacity (H/MT) 1 Btu/lbm °F = 1 cal/g °C = 4184 J/kg °C Gas constant 1.987 Btu/lbm mole °R = 1.987 cal/mol K = 82.057 atm cm3/mol K = 0.7302 atm ft3/lb mole °F = 10.73 (lbf /in.2) (ft3)/lb mole °R = 1545 (lbf /ft2) (ft3)/lb mole °R = 8.314 (N/m2) (m3)/mol K Gravitational acceleration g = 9.8066 m/s2 = 32.174 ft/s2

NOTE: U.S. customary units; or British units, on left and SI units on right. *Adapted from Faust et al., Principles of Unit Operations, John Wiley and Sons, 1980.

TABLE 1-8

Kinematic-Viscosity Conversion Formulas

Viscosity scale Saybolt Universal Saybolt Furol Redwood No. 1 Redwood Admiralty Engler

Range of t, sec 32 < t < 100 t > 100 25 < t < 40 t > 40 34 < t < 100 t > 100

Kinematic viscosity, stokes 0.00226t − 1.95/t 0.00220t − 1.35/t 0.0224t − 1.84/t 0.0216t − 0.60/t 0.00260t − 1.79/t 0.00247t − 0.50/t 0.027t − 20/t 0.00147t − 3.74/t

TABLE 1-9 Temp. scale

Values of the Gas-Law Constant Press. units

Vol. units

Kelvin atm. atm. mm. Hg bar kg/cm2 atm mm Hg

cm3 liters liters liters liters ft3 ft3

atm in Hg mm Hg lb/in2abs lb/ft2abs

ft3 ft3 ft3 ft3 ft3

Rankine

Wt. units

Energy units

R

g-moles g-moles g-moles g-moles g-moles g-moles g-moles g-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles

calories joules (abs) joules (int) atm cm3 atm liters mm Hg-liters bar-liters kg/(cm2)(liters) atm-ft3 mm Hg-ft3 chu or pcu Btu hp-hr kw-hr atm-ft3 in Hg-ft3 mm Hg-ft3 (lb)(ft3)/in2 ft-lb

1.9872 8.3144 8.3130 82.057 0.08205 62.361 0.08314 0.08478 1.314 998.9 1.9872 1.9872 0.0007805 0.0005819 0.7302 21.85 555.0 10.73 1545.0

1-18

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TABLE 1-10 United States Customary System of Weights and Measures Linear Measure 12 inches (in) or (″) = 1 foot (ft) or (′) 3 feet = 1 yard (yd) 16.5 feet = 1 rod (rd) 5.5 yards

6 6

5280 feet = 1 mile (mi) 320 rods 1 mil = 0.001 inch Nautical:

TABLE 1-11

Temperature Conversion Formulas

°F = (°C × 5/9) + 32 °C = (°F − 32) × 5/9 °R = °F + 459.69 °K = °C + 273.15 °K = °R × 5/9 Temperature difference, DT °F = °C × 9/5 NOTE: An extensive table of temperature conversions may be found in the sixth edition of the Handbook (Table 1-12).

6080.2 feet = 1 nautical mile 6 feet = 1 fathom 120 fathoms = 1 cable length 1 knot = 1 nautical mile per hour 60 nautical miles = 1° of latitude

Square Measure 144 sq. inches (sq. in) or (in2) or (u″) = 1 sq. foot (ft2) or (u′) 9 sq. feet (ft2) (u′) = 1 sq. yard (yd2) 30.25 sq. yards = 1 sq. rod, pole, or perch 10 sq. chains 160 sq. rods = = 1 acre 43,560 sq. ft 640 acres = 1 sq. mile = 1 section 1 circular inch (area of circle of 1 inch diameter) = 0.7854 sq. inch 1 sq. inch = 1.2732 circular inch 1 circular mil = area of circle of 0.001 inch diameter 1,000,000 circular mils = 1 circular inch

5

6

Circular Measure 60 seconds (″) (sec) = 1 minute (min) or (′) 60 minutes (′) = 1 degree (°) 90 degrees (°) = 1 quadrant 360 degrees (°) = 1 circumference = 1 radian (rad.) 57.29578 degrees = 57° 17′ 44.81″

5

Volume Measure Solid:

1728 cubic in (cu. in) (in3) = 1 cubic foot (cu. ft)(ft3) 27 cu. ft = 1 cubic yard (cu. yd) Dry Measure: 2 pints = 1 quart 8 quarts = 1 peck 4 pecks = 1 bushel 1 United States Winchester bushel = 2150.42 cubic inches Liquid: 4 gills = 1 pint (pt) 2 pints = 1 quart (qt) 4 quarts = 1 gallon (gal) 7.4805 gallons = 1 cubic foot Apothecaries’ Liquid: 60 minims (min. or ) = 1 fluid dram or drachm 8 drams ( ) = 1 fluid ounce 16 ounces (oz. ) = 1 pint Avoirdupois Weight 16 drams = 437.5 grains = 1 ounce (oz) 16 ounces = 7000 grains = 1 pound (lb) 100 pounds = 1 hundredweight (cwt) 2000 pounds = 1 short ton: 2240 pounds = 1 long ton Troy Weight 24 grains = 1 pennyweight (dwt) 20 pennyweights = 1 ounce (oz) 12 ounces = 1 pound (lb) Apothecaries’ Weight 20 grains (gr) = 1 scruple ( ) 3 scruples = 1 dram ( ) 8 drams = 1 ounce ( ) 12 ounces = 1 pound (lb)

1-19

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TABLE 1-12

Specific Gravity, Degrees Baumé, Degrees API, Degrees Twaddell, Pounds per Gallon, Pounds per Cubic Foot* 145 140 sp gr 60°/60°F − 1 141.5 °Bé = 145 − } (heavier than H2O); °Bé = } − 130 (lighter than H2O); °Tw = }} °API = } − 131.5 sp gr sp gr 0.005 sp gr Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

104.33 102.38 100.47 98.58 96.73

4.9929 5.0346 5.0763 5.1180 5.1597

37.350 37.662 37.973 38.285 38.597

0.700 .705 .710 .715 .720

70.00 68.58 67.18 65.80 64.44

94.00 92.22 90.47 88.75 87.05

94.90 93.10 91.33 89.59 87.88

5.2014 5.2431 5.2848 5.3265 5.3682

39.910 39.222 39.534 39.845 40.157

.725 .730 .735 .740 .745

.650 .655 .660 .665 .670

85.38 83.74 82.12 80.53 78.96

86.19 84.53 82.89 81.28 79.69

5.4098 5.4515 5.4932 5.5349 5.5766

40.468 40.780 41.092 41.404 41.716

.675 .680 .685 .690 .695

77.41 75.88 74.38 72.90 71.44

78.13 76.59 75.07 73.57 72.10

5.6183 5.6600 5.7017 5.7434 5.7851

42.028 42.340 42.652 42.963 43.275

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

°API

0.600 .605 .610 .615 .620

103.33 101.40 99.51 97.64 95.81

.625 .630 .635 .640 .645

°API

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

°API

70.64 69.21 67.80 66.40 65.03

5.8268 5.8685 5.9101 5.9518 5.9935

43.587 43.899 44.211 44.523 44.834

0.800 .805 .810 .815 .820

45.00 43.91 42.84 41.78 40.73

45.38 44.28 43.19 42.12 41.06

63.10 61.78 60.48 59.19 57.92

63.67 62.34 61.02 59.72 58.43

6.0352 6.0769 6.1186 6.1603 6.2020

45.146 45.458 45.770 46.082 46.394

.825 .830 .835 .840 .845

39.70 38.67 37.66 36.67 35.68

.750 .755 .760 .765 .770

56.67 55.43 54.21 53.01 51.82

57.17 55.92 54.68 53.47 52.27

6.2437 6.2854 6.3271 6.3688 6.4104

46.706 47.018 47.330 47.642 47.953

.850 .855 .860 .865 .870

.775 .780 .785 .790 .795

50.65 49.49 48.34 47.22 46.10

51.08 49.91 48.75 47.61 46.49

6.4521 6.4938 6.5355 6.5772 6.6189

47.265 48.577 48.889 49.201 49.513

.875 .880 .885 .890 .895

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

°API

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

6.6606 6.7023 6.7440 6.7857 6.8274

49.825 50.137 50.448 50.760 51.072

0.900 .905 .910 .915 .920

25.56 24.70 23.85 23.01 22.17

25.72 24.85 23.99 23.14 22.30

7.4944 7.5361 7.5777 7.6194 7.6612

56.062 56.374 56.685 56.997 57.310

40.02 38.98 37.96 36.95 35.96

6.8691 6.9108 6.9525 6.9941 7.0358

51.384 51.696 52.008 52.320 52.632

.925 .930 .935 .940 .945

21.35 20.54 19.73 18.94 18.15

21.47 20.65 19.84 19.03 18.24

7.7029 7.7446 7.7863 7.8280 7.8697

57.622 57.934 58.246 58.557 58.869

34.71 33.74 32.79 31.85 30.92

34.97 34.00 33.03 32.08 31.14

7.0775 7.1192 7.1609 7.2026 7.2443

52.943 53.255 53.567 53.879 54.191

.950 .955 .960 .965 .970

17.37 16.60 15.83 15.08 14.33

17.45 16.67 15.90 15.13 14.38

7.9114 7.9531 7.9947 8.0364 8.0780

59.181 59.493 59.805 60.117 60.428

30.00 29.09 28.19 27.30 26.42

30.21 29.30 28.39 27.49 26.60

7.2860 7.3277 7.3694 7.4111 7.4528

54.503 54.815 55.127 55.438 55.750

.975 .980 .985 .990 .995 1.000

13.59 12.86 12.13 11.41 10.70 10.00

13.63 12.89 12.15 11.43 10.71 10.00

8.1197 8.1615 8.2032 8.2449 8.2866 8.3283

60.740 61.052 61.364 61.676 61.988 62.300 Lb per ft3 at 60°F. wt. in air

°Tw

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

°Tw

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

°Bé

°Tw

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

°Bé

°Tw

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

1.005 1.010 1.015 1.020 1.025

0.72 1.44 2.14 2.84 3.54

1 2 3 4 5

8.3700 8.4117 8.4534 8.4950 8.5367

62.612 62.924 63.236 63.547 63.859

1.255 1.260 1.265 1.270 1.275

29.46 29.92 30.38 30.83 31.27

51 52 53 54 55

10.4546 10.4963 10.5380 10.5797 10.6214

78.206 78.518 78.830 79.141 79.453

1.505 1.510 1.515 1.520 1.525

48.65 48.97 49.29 49.61 49.92

101 102 103 104 105

12.5392 12.5809 12.6226 12.6643 12.7060

93.800 94.112 94.424 94.735 95.047

1.755 1.760 1.765 1.770 1.775

62.38 62.61 62.85 63.08 63.31

151 152 153 154 155

14.6238 14.6655 14.7072 14.7489 14.7906

109.394 109.705 110.017 110.329 110.641

1.030 1.035 1.040 1.045 1.050

4.22 4.90 5.58 6.24 6.91

6 7 8 9 10

8.5784 8.6201 8.6618 8.7035 8.7452

64.171 64.483 64.795 65.107 65.419

1.280 1.285 1.290 1.295 1.300

31.72 32.16 32.60 33.03 33.46

56 57 58 59 60

10.6630 10.7047 10.7464 10.7881 10.8298

79.765 80.077 80.389 80.701 81.013

1.530 1.535 1.540 1.545 1.550

50.23 50.54 50.84 51.15 51.45

106 107 108 109 110

12.7477 12.7894 12.8310 12.8727 12.9144

95.359 95.671 95.983 96.295 96.606

1.780 1.785 1.790 1.795 1.800

63.54 63.77 63.99 64.22 64.44

156 157 158 159 160

14.8323 14.8740 14.9157 14.9574 14.9990

110.953 111.265 111.577 111.889 112.200

1.055 1.060 1.065 1.070 1.075

7.56 8.21 8.85 9.49 10.12

11 12 13 14 15

8.7869 8.8286 8.8703 8.9120 8.9537

65.731 66.042 66.354 66.666 66.978

1.305 1.310 1.315 1.320 1.325

33.89 34.31 34.73 35.15 35.57

61 62 63 64 65

10.8715 10.9132 10.9549 10.9966 11.0383

81.325 81.636 81.948 82.260 82.572

1.555 1.560 1.565 1.570 1.575

51.75 52.05 52.35 52.64 52.94

111 112 113 114 115

12.9561 12.9978 13.0395 13.0812 13.1229

96.918 97.230 97.542 97.854 98.166

1.805 1.810 1.815 1.820 1.825

64.67 64.89 65.11 65.33 65.55

161 162 163 164 165

15.0407 15.0824 15.1241 15.1658 15.2075

112.512 112.824 113.136 113.448 113.760

1.080 1.085 1.090 1.095 1.100

10.74 11.36 11.97 12.58 13.18

16 17 18 19 20

8.9954 9.0371 9.0787 9.1204 9.1621

67.290 67.602 67.914 68.226 68.537

1.330 1.335 1.340 1.345 1.350

35.98 36.39 36.79 37.19 37.59

66 67 68 69 70

11.0800 11.1217 11.1634 11.2051 11.2467

82.884 83.196 83.508 83.820 84.131

1.580 1.585 1.590 1.595 1.600

53.23 53.52 53.81 54.09 54.38

116 117 118 119 120

13.1646 13.2063 13.2480 13.2897 13.3313

98.478 98.790 99.102 99.414 99.725

1.830 1.835 1.840 1.845 1.850

65.77 65.98 66.20 66.41 66.62

166 167 168 169 170

15.2492 15.2909 15.3326 15.3743 15.4160

114.072 114.384 114.696 115.007 115.318

1.105 1.110 1.115 1.120 1.125

13.78 14.37 14.96 15.54 16.11

21 22 23 24 25

9.2038 9.2455 9.2872 9.3289 9.3706

68.849 69.161 69.473 69.785 70.097

1.355 1.360 1.365 1.370 1.375

37.99 38.38 38.77 39.16 39.55

71 72 73 74 75

11.2884 11.3301 11.3718 11.4135 11.4552

84.443 84.755 85.067 85.379 85.691

1.605 1.610 1.615 1.620 1.625

54.66 54.94 55.22 55.49 55.77

121 122 123 124 125

13.3730 13.4147 13.4564 13.4981 13.5398

100.037 100.349 100.661 100.973 101.285

1.855 1.860 1.865 1.870 1.875

66.83 67.04 67.25 67.46 67.67

171 172 173 174 175

15.4577 15.4993 15.5410 15.5827 15.6244

115.630 115.943 116.255 116.567 116.879

1.130 1.135 1.140 1.145 1.150

16.68 17.25 17.81 18.36 18.91

26 27 28 29 30

9.4123 9.4540 9.4957 9.5374 9.5790

70.409 70.721 71.032 71.344 71.656

1.380 1.385 1.390 1.395 1.400

39.93 40.31 40.68 41.06 41.43

76 77 78 79 80

11.4969 11.5386 11.5803 11.6220 11.6637

86.003 86.315 86.626 86.938 87.250

1.630 1.635 1.640 1.645 1.650

56.04 56.32 56.59 56.85 57.12

126 127 128 129 130

13.5815 13.6232 13.6649 13.7066 13.7483

101.597 101.909 102.220 102.532 102.844

1.880 1.885 1.890 1.895 1.900

67.87 68.08 68.28 68.48 68.68

176 177 178 179 180

15.6661 15.7078 15.7495 15.7912 15.8329

117.191 117.503 117.814 118.126 118.438

1.155 1.160 1.165 1.170 1.175

19.46 20.00 20.54 21.07 21.60

31 32 33 34 35

9.6207 9.6624 9.7041 9.7458 9.7875

71.968 72.280 72.592 72.904 73.216

1.405 1.410 1.415 1.420 1.425

41.80 42.16 42.53 42.89 43.25

81 82 83 84 85

11.7054 11.7471 11.7888 11.8304 11.8721

87.562 87.874 88.186 88.498 88.810

1.655 1.660 1.665 1.670 1.675

57.39 57.65 57.91 58.17 58.43

131 132 133 134 135

13.7900 13.8317 13.8734 13.9150 13.9567

103.156 103.468 103.780 104.092 104.404

1.905 1.910 1.915 1.920 1.925

68.88 69.08 69.28 69.48 69.68

181 182 183 184 185

15.8746 15.9163 15.9580 15.9996 16.0413

118.740 119.062 119.374 119.686 119.998

1.180 1.185 1.190 1.195 1.200

22.12 22.64 23.15 23.66 24.17

36 37 38 39 40

9.8292 9.8709 9.9126 9.9543 9.9960

73.528 73.840 74.151 74.463 74.775

1.430 1.435 1.440 1.445 1.450

43.60 43.95 44.31 44.65 45.00

86 87 88 89 90

11.9138 11.9555 11.9972 12.0389 12.0806

89.121 89.433 89.745 90.057 90.369

1.680 1.685 1.690 1.695 1.700

58.69 58.95 59.20 59.45 59.71

136 137 138 139 140

13.9984 14.0401 14.0818 14.1235 14.1652

104.715 105.027 105.339 105.651 105.963

1.930 1.935 1.940 1.945 1.950

69.87 70.06 70.26 70.45 70.64

186 187 188 189 190

16.0830 16.1247 16.1664 16.2081 16.2498

120.309 120.621 120.933 121.245 121.557

1.205 1.210 1.215 1.220 1.225

24.67 25.17 25.66 26.15 26.63

41 42 43 44 45

10.0377 10.0793 10.1210 10.1627 10.2044

75.087 75.399 75.711 76.022 76.334

1.455 1.460 1.465 1.470 1.475

45.34 45.68 46.02 46.36 46.69

91 92 93 94 95

12.1223 12.1640 12.2057 12.2473 12.2890

90.681 90.993 91.305 91.616 91.928

1.705 1.710 1.715 1.720 1.725

59.96 60.20 60.45 60.70 60.94

141 142 143 144 145

14.2069 14.2486 14.2903 14.3320 14.3737

106.275 106.587 106.899 107.210 107.522

1.955 1.960 1.965 1.970 1.975

70.83 71.02 71.21 71.40 71.58

191 192 193 194 195

16.2915 16.3332 16.3749 16.4166 16.4583

121.869 122.181 122.493 122.804 123.116

1.230 1.235 1.240 1.245 1.250

27.11 27.59 28.06 28.53 29.00

46 47 48 49 50

10.2461 10.2878 10.3295 10.3712 10.4129

76.646 76.958 77.270 77.582 77.894

1.480 1.485 1.490 1.495 1.500

47.03 47.36 47.68 48.01 48.33

96 97 98 99 100

12.3307 12.3724 12.4141 12.4558 12.4975

92.240 92.552 92.864 93.176 93.488

1.730 1.735 1.740 1.745 1.750

61.18 61.34 61.67 61.91 62.14

146 147 148 149 150

14.4153 14.4570 14.4987 14.5404 14.5821

107.834 108.146 108.458 108.770 109.082

1.980 1.985 1.990 1.995 2.000

71.77 71.95 72.14 72.32 72.50

196 197 198 199 200

16.5000 16.5417 16.5833 16.6250 16.6667

123.428 123.740 124.052 124.364 124.676

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

Lb per ft3 at 60°F. wt. in air

*Prepared by Lewis V. Judson, Ph.D., Chief of Length Section of National Bureau of Standards with the advice and assistance of E. L. Peffer, B.S., A.M., late Chief of Capacity and Density Section, National Bureau of Standards.

1-20

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TABLE 1-13

Wire and Sheet-Metal Gauges* Values in approximate decimals of an inch As a number of gauges are in use for various shapes and metals, it is advisable to state the thickness in thousandths when specifying gauge number.

Gauge number

American (AWG) or Brown & Sharpe (B & S) (for nonferrous wire and sheet)†

U.S. Steel Wire (Stl WG) or Washburn & Moen or Roebling or Am. Steel & Wire Co. [A. (steel) WG] (for steel wire)

Birmingham (BWG) (for steel wire) or Stubs Iron Wire (for iron or brass wire)‡

U.S. Standard (for sheet and plate metal, wrought iron)

0000000 000000 00000 0000 000 00 0

— — — 0.460 .410 .365 .325

0.4900 .4615 .4305 .3938 .3625 .3310 .3065

— — — 0.454 .425 .380 .340

1 2 3 4 5

.289 .258 .229 .204 .182

.2830 .2625 .2437 .2253 .2070

6 7 8 9 10

.162 .144 .128 .114 .102

11 12 13 14 15

U.S. Steel Wire (Stl WG) or Washburn & Moen or Roebling or Am. Steel & Wire Co. [A. (steel) WG] (for steel wire)

Birmingham (BWG) (for steel wire) or Stubs Iron Wire (for iron or brass wire)‡

U.S. Standard (for sheet and plate metal, wrought iron)

Standard Birmingham (BG) (for sheet and hoop metal)

Imperial Standard and Wire Gauge (SWG) (British legal standard)

Gauge number

Gauge number

American (AWG) or Brown & Sharpe (B & S) (for nonferrous wire and sheet)†

Standard Birmingham (BG) (for sheet and hoop metal)

Imperial Standard and Wire Gauge (SWG) (British legal standard)

Gauge number

— — — — — — —

0.6666 .6250 .5883 .5416 .5000 .4452 .3964

0.500 .464 .432 .400 .372 .348 .324

0000000 000000 00000 0000 000 00 0

26 27 28 29 30

0.0159 .0142 .0126 .0113 .0100

0.0181 .0173 .0162 .0150 .0140

0.018 .016 .014 .013 .012

0.0188 .0172 .0156 .0141 .0125

0.0196 .0175 .0156 .0139 .0123

0.018 .0164 .0148 .0136 .0124

26 27 28 29 30

.300 .284 .259 .238 .220

— — 0.239 .224 .209

.3532 .3147 .2804 .2500 .2225

.300 .276 .252 .232 .212

1 2 3 4 5

31 32 33 34 35

.0089 .0080 .0071 .0063 .0056

.0132 .0128 .0118 .0104 .0095

.010 .009 .008 .007 .005

.0109 .0102 .0094 .0086 .0078

.0110 .0098 .0087 .0077 .0069

.0116 .0108 .0100 .0092 .0084

31 32 33 34 35

.1920 .1770 .1620 .1483 .1350

.203 .180 .165 .148 .134

.194 .179 .164 .150 .135

.1981 .1764 .1570 .1398 .1250

.192 .176 .160 .144 .128

6 7 8 9 10

36 37 38 39 40

.0050 .0045 .0040 .0035 .0031

.0090 .0085 .0080 .0075 .0070

.004 — — — —

.0070 .0066 .0062 — —

.0061 .0054 .0048 .0043 .0039

.0076 .0068 .0060 .0052 .0048

36 37 38 39 40

.091 .081 .072 .064 .057

.1205 .1055 .0915 .0800 .0720

.120 .109 .095 .083 .072

.120 .105 .090 .075 .067

.1113 .0991 .0882 .0785 .0699

.116 .104 .092 .080 .072

11 12 13 14 15

41 42 43 44 45

— — — — —

.0066 .0062 .0060 .0058 .0055

— — — — —

— — — — —

.0034 .0031 .0027 .0024 .0022

.0044 .0040 .0036 .0032 .0028

41 42 43 44 45

16 17 18 19 20

.051 .045 .040 .036 .032

.0625 .0540 .0475 .0410 .0348

.065 .058 .049 .042 .035

.060 .054 .0478 .0418 .0359

.0625 .0556 .0495 .0440 .0392

.064 .056 .048 .040 .036

16 17 18 19 20

46 47 48 49 50

— — — — —

.0052 .0050 .0048 .0046 .0044

— — — — —

— — — — —

.0019 .0017 .0015 .0014 .0012

.0024 .0020 .0016 .0012 .0010

46 47 48 49 50

21 22 23 24 25

.0285 .0253 .0226 .0201 .0179

.0317 .0286 .0258 .0230 .0204

.032 .028 .025 .022 .020

.0329 .0299 .0269 .0239 .0209

.0349 .0313 .0278 .0248 .0220

.032 .028 .024 .022 .020

21 22 23 24 25

Metric wire gauge is 10 times the diameter in millimeters. *Courtesy of Dr. Lewis V. Judson with I. H. Fullmer, National Bureau of Standards. †Sometimes used for iron wire. ‡Sometimes used for copper plate and for steel plate 12 gauge and heavier and for steel tubes.

1-21

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TABLE 1-14

Fundamental Physical Constants

1 sec = 1.00273791 sidereal seconds g0 = 9.80665 m/sec2 1 liter = 0.001 cu. m 1 atm = 101,325 newtons/sq m 1 mm Hg (pressure) = (1⁄ 760) atm = 133.3224 newtons/sq m 1 int ohm = 1.000495 6 0.000015 abs ohm 1 int amp = 0.999835 6 0.000025 abs amp 1 int coul = 0.999835 6 0.000025 abs coul 1 int volt = 1.000330 6 0.000029 abs volt 1 int watt = 1.000165 6 0.000052 abs watt 1 int joule = 1.000165 6 0.000052 abs joule T0°C = 273.150 6 0.010°K (PV)0°CP=0 = (RT)0°C = 2271.16 6 0.04 abs joule/mole = 22,414.6 6 0.4 cu. cm atm/mole = 22.4146 6 0.0004 liter atm/mole R = 8.31439 6 0.00034 abs joule/deg mole = 1.98719 6 0.00013 cal/deg mole = 82.0567 6 0.0034 cu. cm atm/deg mole = 0.0820567 6 0.0000034 liter atm/deg mole ln 10 = 2.302585 R ln 10 = 19.14460 6 0.00078 abs joule/deg mole = 4.57567 6 0.00030 cal/deg mole N = (6.02283 6 0.0022) × 1023/mole h = (6.6242 6 0.0044) × 10−34 joule sec c = (2.99776 6 0.00008) × 108 m/sec (h2/8π2k) = (4.0258 6 0.0037) × 10−39 g sq cm deg (h/8π2c) = (2.7986 6 0.0018) × 10−39 g cm Z = Nhc = 11.9600 6 0.0036 abs joule cm/mole = 2.85851 6 0.0009 cal cm/mole (Z/R) = (hc/k) = c2 = 1.43847 6 0.00045 cm deg ^ = 96,501.2 6 10.0 int coul/g-equiv or int joule/int volt g-equiv = 96,485.3 6 10.0 abs coul/g-equiv or abs joule/abs volt g-equiv = 23,068.1 6 2.4 cal/int volt g-equiv = 23,060.5 6 2.4 cal/abs volt g-equiv e = (1.60199 6 0.00060) × 10−19 abs coul = (1.60199 6 0.00060) × 10−20 abs emu = (4.80239 6 0.00180) × 10−10 abs esu 1 int electron-volt/molecule = 96,501.2 6 10 int joule/mole = 23,068.1 6 2.4 cal/mole 1 abs electron-volt/molecule = 96,485.3 6 10. abs joule/mole = 23,060.5 6 2.4 cal/mole 1 int electron-volt = (1.60252 6 0.00060) × 10−12 erg 1 abs electron-volt = (1.60199 6 0.00060) × 10−12 erg hc = (1.23916 6 0.00032) × 10−4 int electron-volt cm = (1.23957 6 0.00032) × 10−4 abs electron-volt cm k = (8.61442 6 0.00100) × 10−5 int electron-volt/deg = (8.61727 6 0.00100) × 10−5 abs electron-volt/deg = (R/N) = (1.38048 6 0.00050) × 10−23 joule/deg 1 IT cal = (1⁄ 860) = 0.00116279 int watt-hr = 4.18605 int joule = 4.18674 abs joule = 1.000654 cal 1 cal = 4.1840 abs joule = 4.1833 int joule = 41.2929 6 0.0020 cu. cm atm = 0.0412929 6 0.0000020 liter atm 1 IT cal/g = 1.8 Btu/lb 1 Btu = 251.996 IT cal = 0.293018 int watt-hr = 1054.866 int joule = 1055.040 abs joule = 252.161 cal 1 horsepower = 550 ft-lb (wt)/sec = 745.578 int watt = 745.70 abs watt 1 in = (1/0.3937) = 2.54 cm 1 ft = 0.304800610 m 1 lb = 453.5924277 g 1 gal = 231 cu. in = 0.133680555 cu. ft = 3.785412 × 10−3 cu. m = 3.785412 liter

sec = mean solar second Definition: g0 = standard gravity Definition: atm = standard atmosphere mm Hg (pressure) = standard millimeter mercury int = international; abs = absolute amp = ampere coul = coulomb

Absolute temperature of the ice point, 0°C PV product for ideal gas at 0°C R = gas constant per mole

ln = natural logarithm (base e) N = Avogadro number h = Planck constant c = velocity of light Constant in rotational partition function of gases Constant relating wave number and moment of inertia Z = constant relating wave number and energy per mole c2 = second radiation constant ^ = Faraday constant

e = electronic charge

Constant relating wave number and energy per molecule k = Boltzmann constant Definition of IT cal: IT = International steam tables cal = thermochemical calorie Definition: cal = thermochemical calorie

Definition of Btu: Btu = IT British Thermal Unit

cal = thermochemical calorie Definition of horsepower (mechanical): lb (wt) = weight of 1 lb at standard gravity Definition of in: in = U.S. inch ft = U.S. foot (1 ft = 12 in) Definition; lb = avoirdupois pound Definition; gal = U.S. gallon

1-22

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CONVERSION OF VALUES FROM U.S. CUSTOMARY UNITS TO SI UNITS American engineers are probably more familiar with the magnitude of physical entities in U.S. customary units than in SI units. Consequently, errors made in the conversion from one set of units to the other may go undetected. The following six examples will show how to convert the elements in six dimensionless groups. Proper conversions will result in the same numerical value for the dimensionless number. The dimensionless numbers used as examples are the Reynolds, Prandtl, Nusselt, Grashof, Schmidt, and Archimedes numbers. Table 1-7 provides a number of useful conversion factors. To make a conversion of an element in U.S. customary units to SI units, one multiplies the value of the U.S. customary unit, found on the left side in the table, by the equivalent value on the right side. For example, to convert 10 British thermal units to joules, one multiplies 10 by 1054.4 to obtain 10544 joules. In each example, the initial values of the factors are expressed in U.S. customary units, and the dimensionless value is calculated. Then the factors are converted to SI units, and the dimensionless value is recalculated. The two dimensionless values will be approximately the same. (Small variations occur due to the number of significant figures carried in the solution.)

Example 1. Calculation of a Reynolds Number DVρ NRe = } µ U.S. customary units D = 3 in. = 3⁄12 ft V = 6 ft/s ρ = 0.08 lbm/ft3 µ = 0.015 cp = (0.015)(0.000672) lbm/ft⋅s (3/12)(6)(0.08) NRe = }} = 11,904 (0.015)(0.000672) SI units D = (3)(0.0254) m V = (6)(0.3048) m/s ρ = (0.08)(16.018) kg/m3 µ = (0.015)(0.001) kg/m⋅s

(Difference due to rounding)

Example 4. Calculation of a Grashof Number NGr = L3ρ2gβ(∆T)/µ2 U.S. Customary units L = 3 ft ρ = 0.0725 lbm/ft3 g = 32.174 ft/s2 β = 0.00168/°R ∆T = 99 °R µ = 0.019 centipoise = 0.019 × 0.000672 lbm/ft⋅s = 1.277 × 10−5 lbm/ft⋅s (33) (0.0725)2(32.174) (0.00168) (99) = 4.66 × 109 NGr = }}}} (1.277 × 10−5)2 SI units L = (3)(0.3048) = 0.9144 m ρ = (0.0725)(16.018) = 1.1613 kg/m3 g = 9.807 m/s2 β = (0.00168)/(1.8) = 0.000933/°K ∆T = (99)(1.8) = 178.2 °K µ = (0.019)(0.001) = 1.9 × 10−5 kg/m⋅s (0.9144)3(1.1613)2(9.807)(0.000933)(178.2) = 4.66 × 109 NGr = }}}}} (1.9 × 10−5)2

Example 5. Calculation of a Schmidt Number µ NSc = } ρD

(3 × 0.0254) (6 × 0.3048) (0.08 × 16.018) NRe = }}}}} = 11,904 (0.015) (0.001)

Example 2. Calculation of a Prandtl Number Cp µ NPr = } k U.S. customary units γp = 0.47 Btu/lbm °F µ = 15 centipoise = (15) (0.000672) (3600) lbm/ft⋅hr k = 0.065 Btu/hr⋅ft2 (°F/ft) (0.47) (15 × 0.000672 × 3600) NPr = }}}} = 262.4 0.065 SI units γ = (0.47)(4184) J/kg °C µ = (15)(0.001) kg/m⋅s k = (0.065)(1.728) J/s⋅m2 (°C/m) (0.47) (4184) (15) (0.001) NPr = }}} = 262.6 (0.065) (1.728) (Difference due to rounding)

Example 3. Calculation of a Nusselt Number hD NNu = } k U.S. customary units h = 200 Btu/hr⋅ft2⋅°F D = 1.5 in. = 1.5/12 ft k = 0.07 Btu/hr⋅ft2 (°F/ft) (200)(1.5/12) NNu = }} = 357.1 0.07 SI units h = (200)(5.678) J/(s⋅m2⋅°C) D = (1.5)(0.0254) m k = (0.07)(1.728) J/s⋅m2 (°C/m)

(200) (5.678) (1.5) (0.0254) NNu = }}} = 357.7 (0.07) (1.728)

U.S. customary units µ = 0.02 centipoise = (0.02)(2.42) lbm/ft⋅hr ρ = 0.08 lbm/ft3 D = 1.0 ft2/hr (diffusivity) (0.02) (2.42) NSc = }} = 0.605 (0.08)(1.0) SI units µ = (0.02)(0.001) kg/m⋅s ρ = (0.08)(16.02) kg/m2 D = (1.0)(2.58 × 10−5) m2/s (0.02) (0.001) = 0.605 NSc = }}}} (0.08)(16.02)(1.0) (2.58 × 10−5)

Example 6. Calculation of an Archimedes Number d 3ρf(ρp − ρf)g NAr = }} µ2 U.S. customary units d = 2 mm = 2/[(1000)(0.3048)] = 0.00656 ft ρf = 0.0175 lbm/ft3 ρp = 168.5 lbm/ft3 g = 32.174 ft/s2 µ = 0.04 centipoise = 0.04 × 0.000672 = 2.688−5 lbm/ft⋅s (0.00656)3 (0.0175) (168.5 − 0.017) (32.174) = 37,064 NAr = }}}}} (2.688 × 10−5)2 SI units d = 2/1000 m ρp = 168.5 × 16.02 = 2699.37 kg/m3 ρf = 0.0175 × 16.02 = 0.2804 g/m3 g = 9.807 m/s2 µ = 0.04 × 0.001 = 4 × 10−5 kg/m⋅s (2/1000)3 (0.2804) (2699.37 − 0.28) (9.807) = 37,118 NAr = }}}}} (4 × 10−5)2 (Difference due to rounding)

1-23

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MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS TABLE 1-15

Mathematical Signs, Symbols, and Abbreviations

6 (7) : < < , > . > ∼ ¤ ≠ 8 ∝ ∞ ∴ Ïww 3 ww Ï n Ïww / ⊥ i |x| log or log10 loge or ln e a° a′ a a″ a sin cos tan ctn or cot sec csc vers covers exsec sin−1 sinh cosh tanh sinh−1 f(x) or φ(x) ∆x ^ dx dy/dx or y′ d2y/dx2 or y″ dny/dxn ∂y/∂x ∂ny/∂xn ∂ny } ∂x∂y

#

E

plus or minus (minus or plus) divided by, ratio sign proportional sign less than not less than greater than not greater than approximately equals, congruent similar to equivalent to not equal to approaches, is approximately equal to varies as infinity therefore square root cube root nth root angle perpendicular to parallel to numerical value of x common logarithm or Briggsian logarithm natural logarithm or hyperbolic logarithm or Naperian logarithm base (2.178) of natural system of logarithms an angle a degrees prime, an angle a minutes double prime, an angle a seconds, a second sine cosine tangent cotangent secant cosecant versed sine coversed sine exsecant anti sine or angle whose sine is hyperbolic sine hyperbolic cosine hyperbolic tangent anti hyperbolic sine or angle whose hyperbolic sine is function of x increment of x summation of differential of x derivative of y with respect to x second derivative of y with respect to x nth derivative of y with respect to x partial derivative of y with respect to x nth partial derivative of y with respect to x

TABLE 1-16 Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta Eta Theta Iota Kappa Lambda Mu

Greek Alphabet

= Α, α = A, a = Β, β = B, b = Γ, γ = G, g = ∆, δ = D, d = Ε, ε = E, e = Ζ, ζ = Z, z = Η, η = E, e = Θ, θ = Th, th = Ι, i = I, i = Κ, κ = K, k = Λ, λ = L, l = Μ, µ = M, m

nth partial derivative with respect to x and y integral of

b

integral between the limits a and b

a

y˙ y¨ ∆ or ∇2

δ

R

first derivative of y with respect to time second derivative of y with respect to time the “Laplacian” ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 }2 + }2 + }2 ∂x ∂y ∂z sign of a variation sign for integration around a closed path

1

2

1-24

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Nu Xi Omicron Pi Rho Sigma Tau Upsilon Phi Chi Psi Omega

= Ν, ν = N, n = Ξ, ξ = X, x = Ο, ο = O, o = Π, π = P, p = Ρ, ρ = R, r = Σ, σ = S, s = Τ, τ = T, t = Y, υ = U, u = Φ, φ = Ph, ph = Χ, χ = Ch, ch = Ψ, ψ = Ps, ps = Ω, ω = O, o

Section 2

Physical and Chemical Data*

Peter E. Liley, Ph.D., D.I.C., School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University. (physical and chemical data) George H. Thomson, AIChE Design Institute for Physical Property Data. (Tables 2-6, 2-30, 2-164, 2-193, 2-196, 2-198, 2-221) D.G. Friend, National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO. (Tables 2-333, 2-334, Figs. 2-25, 2-26) Thomas E. Daubert, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University. (Prediction and Correlation of Physical Properties) Evan Buck, M.S.Ch.E., Manager, Thermophysical Property Skill Center, Central Technology, Union Carbide Corporation. (Prediction and Correlation of Physical Properties)

GENERAL REFERENCES PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Tables 2-1 2-2

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Properties of Organic Compounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-3 Vapor Pressure of Water Ice from −15 to 0°C . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water from −16 to 0°C . . . . . . . . . 2-5 Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water from 0 to 100°C . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids. . . . . . . . . 2-6a Alphabetical Index to Substances in Tables 2-6, 2-30, 2-164, 2-193, 2-196, 2-198, and 2-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm . . . . 2-8 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm. . . . . . VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables and Figures 2-9 Partial Pressures of Water over Aqueous Solutions of HCl . . 2-10 Partial Pressures of HCl over Aqueous Solutions of HCl . . .

2-11 2-7 2-28

2-12 2-13

2-48 2-48 2-48 2-48 2-49 2-50 2-55 2-57 2-61

2-76 2-76 2-76

2-14 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-21 2-22 2-23

Vapor Pressures of H3PO4 Aqueous: Partial Pressure of H2O Vapor (Fig. 2-1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressures of H3PO4 Aqueous: Weight of H2O in Saturated Air (Fig. 2-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O and SO2 over Aqueous Solutions of Sulfur Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sulfur Trioxide Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sulfuric Acid Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Pressure, bar, of Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions . . . . Partial Pressures of HNO3 and H2O over Aqueous Solutions of HNO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O and HBr over Aqueous Solutions of HBr at 20 to 55°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of HI over Aqueous Solutions of HI at 25°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressures of the System: Water-Sulfuric Acid-Nitric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of CH3COOH . . Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of HN3 . . Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions (Fig. 2-3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mole Percentages of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of NH3 . . Partial Pressures of NH3 over Aqueous Solutions of NH3 . . .

2-77 2-77 2-77 2-78 2-80 2-82 2-83 2-84 2-85 2-85 2-85 2-85 2-85 2-85 2-86 2-87

* The contributions of J.K. Fink, Argonne National Laboratory; U. Grigull, Tech. Universität, Munich, Germany; and H. Sato, Keio University, Japan, are acknowledged. 2-1

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2-2 2-24 2-25 2-26 2-27

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of NH3 . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Carbonate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O and CH3OH over Aqueous Solutions of Methyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Hydroxide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WATER-VAPOR CONTENT OF GASES Chart for Gases at High Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Content of Air (Fig. 2-4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DENSITIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-28 Density (kg/m3) of Water from 0 to 100°C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29 Density (kg/m3) of Mercury from 0 to 350°C. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30 Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS Units and Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-31 Aluminum Sulfate [A12(SO4)3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32 Ammonia (NH3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33 Ammonium Acetate (CH3COONH4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34 Ammonium Bichromate [(NH4)2Cr2O7]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35 Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-36 Ammonium Chromate [(NH4)2CrO4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37 Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-38 Ammonium Sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39 Arsenic Acid (H3A3O4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-40 Barium Chloride (BaCl2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41 Cadmium Nitrate [Cd(NO3)2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-42 Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43 Calcium Hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-44 Calcium Hypochlorite (CaOCl2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45 Calcium Nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-46 Chromic Acid (CrO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-47 Chromium Chloride (CrCl3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-48 Copper Nitrate [Cu(NO3)2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-49 Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-50 Cuprous Chloride (Cu2Cl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51 Ferric Chloride (FeCl3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-52 Ferric Sulfate [Fe2(SO4)3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-53 Ferric Nitrate [Fe(NO3)3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-54 Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-55 Hydrogen Bromide (HBr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-56 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-58 Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-59 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-60 Hydrofluosilic Acid (H2SiF6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-61 Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-62 Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63 Nickel Chloride (NiCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-64 Nickel Nitrate [Ni(NO3)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65 Nickel Sulfate (NiSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-66 Nitric Acid (HNO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-67 Perchloric Acid (HClO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-68 Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-69 Potassium Bicarbonate (KHCO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-70 Potassium Bromide (KBr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-71 Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-72 Potassium Chromate (K2CrO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-73 Potassium Chlorate (KClO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-74 Potassium Chloride (KCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-75 Potassium Chrome Alum [K2Cr2(SO4)4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-76 Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-77 Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-78 Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-79 Potassium Sulfate (K2SO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-80 Potassium Sulfite (K2SO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-81 Sodium Acetate (NaC2H3O2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-82 Sodium Arsenate (Na3AsO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-83 Sodium Bichromate (Na2Cr2O7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-84 Sodium Bromide (NaBr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-85 Sodium Formate (HCOONa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-86 Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-87 Sodium Chlorate (NaClO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-88 2-89 2-89 2-89

2-90 2-90

2-91 2-91 2-93 2-94

2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-102 2-103 2-103 2-103 2-103 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-105 2-105

2-88 2-89 2-90 2-91 2-92 2-93 2-94 2-95 2-96 2-97 2-98 2-99 2-100 2-101 2-102 2-103 2-104 2-105

Sodium Chloride (NaCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Chromate (Na2CrO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Nitrite (NaNO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Silicates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Sulfide (Na2S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate (Na2S2O3⋅5H2O). . . . . . . . Stannic Chloride (SnCl4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stannous Chloride (SnCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Bromide (ZnBr2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Nitrate [Zn(NO3)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS Units and Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-106 Formic Acid (HCOOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-107 Acetic Acid (CH3COOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-108 Oxalic Acid (H2C2O4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-109 Methyl Alcohol (CH3OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-110 Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-111 Densities of Mixtures of C2H5OH and H2O at 20°C . . . . . . . 2-112 Specific Gravity (60°/60°F [(15.56°/15.56°C)]) of Mixtures by Volume of C2H5OH and H2O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-113 n-Propyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-114 Isopropyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-115 Glycerol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-116 Hydrazine (N2H4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-117 Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DENSITIES OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS Tables 2-118 Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-119 Density (kg/m3) of Selected Elements as a Function of Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SOLUBILITIES Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-120 Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-121 Acetylene (C2H2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-122 Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-123 Ammonia (NH3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-124 Ammonia (NH3)—Low Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-125 Carbon Dioxide (CO2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-126 Carbon Monoxide (CO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-127 Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-128 Chlorine (Cl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-129 Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-130 Ethane (C2H6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-131 Ethylene (C2H4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-132 Helium (He) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-133 Hydrogen (H2)—Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-134 Hydrogen (H2)—Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-135 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-136 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-137 Methane (CH4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-138 Nitrogen (N2)—Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-139 Nitrogen (N2)—Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-140 Oxygen (O2)—Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-141 Oxygen (O2)—Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-142 Ozone (O3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-143 Propylene (C3H6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-144 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THERMAL EXPANSION Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Expansion of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-145 Linear Expansion of the Solid Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2-105 2-105 2-105 2-105 2-105 2-105 2-106 2-106 2-106 2-106 2-106 2-106 2-106 2-107 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109

2-109 2-109 2-110 2-111 2-111 2-112 2-113 2-114 2-115 2-115 2-116 2-116 2-117

2-119 2-120 2-120 2-121 2-125 2-125 2-125 2-125 2-125 2-125 2-125 2-126 2-126 2-126 2-126 2-126 2-126 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-128 2-128 2-128

2-128 2-128 2-128 2-129

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA 2-146 2-147 2-148

Linear Expansion of Miscellaneous Substances. . . . . . . . . . . Cubical Expansion of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cubical Expansion of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-149 Additional References Available for the Joule-Thomson Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-150 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus in Reduced Coordinates (Tr = T/Tc; Pr = P/Pc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-151 Joule-Thomson Data for Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-152 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-153 Joule-Thomson Data for Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-154 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Argon. . . . . . . . . . . 2-155 Joule-Thomson Data for Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-156 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Carbon Dioxide . . 2-157 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Deuterium . . . . . . 2-158 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Ethane. . . . . . . . . . 2-159 Joule-Thomson Data for Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-160 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Normal Hydrogen. . 2-161 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Methane . . . . . . . . 2-162 Joule-Thomson Data for Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-163 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Propane. . . . . . . . . CRITICAL CONSTANTS Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-164 Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPRESSIBILITIES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-165 Compressibility Factors for Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-166 Compressibility Factors for Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-167 Compressibility Factors for Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-168 Compressibility Factors for Carbon Monoxide . . . . . . . . . . . 2-169 Compressibility Factors for Ethanol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-170 Compressibility Factors for Ethylene. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-171 Compressibility Factors for Normal Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . 2-172 Compressibility Factors for KLEA 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-173 Compressibility Factors for KLEA 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-174 Compressibility Factors for KLEA 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-175 Compressibility Factors for Krypton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-176 Compressibility Factors for Methane (R50) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-177 Compressibility Factors for Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-178 Compressibility Factors for Neon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-179 Compressibility Factors for Nitrogen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-180 Compressibility Factors for Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-181 Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-182 Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-183 Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-184 Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 134a . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-185 Compressibility Factors for Water Substance (fps units) . . . 2-186 Compressibility Factors of Water Substance (SI units) . . . . . 2-187 Compressibility Factors for Xenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-188 Compressibilities of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-189 Compressibilities of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LATENT HEATS Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-190 Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-191 Heats of Fusion of Miscellaneous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-192 Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-193 Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Compounds SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-194 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds 2-195 Specific Heat [kJ/(kg·K)] of Selected Elements. . . . . . . . . . . 2-196 Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids . . . . . . . . 2-197 Specific Heats of Organic Solids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-198 Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-130 2-131 2-131 2-132 2-132 2-133 2-133 2-133 2-133 2-134 2-134 2-134 2-134 2-134 2-135 2-135 2-135 2-135 2-135 2-136 2-136 2-140 2-140 2-140 2-140 2-141 2-141 2-141 2-142 2-142 2-142 2-143 2-143 2-143 2-144 2-144 2-144 2-145 2-145 2-145 2-146 2-146 2-146 2-147 2-148 2-149 2-149 2-150 2-150 2-151 2-153 2-154 2-156 2-161 2-161 2-161 2-169 2-170 2-175 2-178

2-199 Cp /Cv: Ratios of Specific Heats of Gases at 1-atm Pressure . . 2-200 Specific Heat Ratio, Cp /Cv, for Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-3 2-183 2-183

SPECIFIC HEATS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-201 Acetic Acid (at 38°C). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-202 Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-203 Aniline (at 20°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-204 Copper Sulfate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-205 Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-206 Glycerol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-207 Hydrochloric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-208 Methyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-209 Nitric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-210 Phosphoric Acid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-211 Potassium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-212 Potassium Hydroxide (at 19°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-213 Normal Propyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-214 Sodium Carbonate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-215 Sodium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-216 Sodium Hydroxide (at 20°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-217 Sulfuric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-218 Zinc Sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-185 2-185 2-185 2-185 2-185 2-185 2-185 2-185

SPECIFIC HEATS OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS Tables 2-219 Specific Heats of Miscellaneous Liquids and Solids . . . . . . . 2-219a Oils (Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Oils). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-186 2-186

HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-220 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HEATS OF COMBUSTION Table 2-221 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and Net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds at 298.15 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-222 Ideal Gas Sensible Enthalpies, hT − h298 (kJ/kgmol), of Combustion Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-223 Ideal Gas Entropies, s°, kJ/kgmol⋅K, of Combustion Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-184 2-184

2-186 2-187

2-195 2-199 2-200

HEATS OF SOLUTION Tables 2-224 Heats of Solution of Inorganic Compounds in Water . . . . . . 2-201 2-225 Heats of Solution of Organic Compounds in Water (at Infinite Dilution and Approximately Room Temperature). . . . . . . . 2-204 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES Explanation of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-226 Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Acetone . . . . . . . . . 2-227 Saturated Acetylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-228 Saturated Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-229 Thermophysical Properties of Compressed Air . . . . . . . . . . . 2-230 Enthalpy and Psi Functions for Ideal-Gas Air . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature-Entropy Diagram for Air (Fig. 2-5) . . . . . . . . . 2-231 Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-232 Saturated Ammonia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Ammonia (Fig. 2-6) . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Ammonia (Fig. 2-7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-233 Saturated Argon (R740) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-234 Thermodynamic Properties of Compressed Argon . . . . . . . . 2-235 Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium Data for the Argon-NitrogenOxygen System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-236 Thermodynamic Properties of the International Standard Atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-237 Saturated Benzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-238 Saturated Bromine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-239 Saturated Normal Butane (R600). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-240 Superheated Normal Butane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2-205 2-205 2-205 2-206 2-206 2-207 2-208 2-212 2-213 2-214 2-214 2-215 2-216 2-217 2-217 2-218 2-221 2-221 2-222 2-222 2-223

2-4 2-241 2-242 2-243 2-244 2-245 2-246 2-247 2-248 2-249 2-250 2-251 2-252 2-253 2-254 2-255 2-256 2-257 2-258 2-259 2-260 2-261 2-262 2-263 2-264 2-265 2-266 2-267 2-268 2-269 2-270 2-271 2-272 2-273 2-274 2-275 2-276 2-277 2-278 2-279 2-280 2-281 2-282 2-283 2-284 2-285 2-286 2-287 2-288 2-289 2-290 2-291 2-292 2-293 2-294

2-295 2-296 2-297 2-298 2-299 2-300 2-301 2-302

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA Saturated Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superheated Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Carbon Monoxide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature-Entropy Diagram for Carbon Monoxide (Fig. 2-8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Carbon Tetrachloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Carbon Tetrafluoride (R14) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Cesium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Chlorine . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Chlorine (Fig. 2-9) . . . Saturated Chloroform (R20) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Decane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Normal Deuterium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Deuterium Oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deuterium Oxide Gas at 1-kg/cm3 Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Diphenyl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Ethane (R170) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superheated Ethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Ethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol (Fig. 2-10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Ethylene (Ethene—R1150) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressed Ethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Fluorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluorine Gas at Atmospheric Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flutec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Halon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Helium3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Helium4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superheated Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Helium4 Gas at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated n-Heptane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hexane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Hydrazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated n-Hydrogen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressed n-Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated para-Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Hydrogen Peroxide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrogen Sulfide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Hydrogen Chloride at 1 atm (Fig. 2-11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Isobutane (R600a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Krypton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressed Krypton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Lithium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lithium Bromide—Water Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Mercury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Methane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Mercury (Fig. 2-12) . . Superheated Methane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Methanol . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Compressed Methanol . . . . . Saturated Methyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Neon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressed Neon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Nitrogen (R728) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature-Entropy Diagram for Nitrogen (Fig. 2-13) . . . Thermophysical Properties of Nitrogen (R728) at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Nitrogen Tetroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Nitrous Oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mollier Diagram for Nitrous Oxide (Fig. 2-14) . . . . . . . . . . . Nonane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Octane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Oxygen (R732) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature-Entropy Chart for Oxygen (Fig. 2-15) . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Oxygen-Nitrogen Mixture at 1 atm (Fig. 2-16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pentane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Potassium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mollier Diagram for Potassium (Fig. 2-17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Propane (R290). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Propylene (Propene, R1270) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressed Propylene (Propene, R1270). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 11 (Fig. 2-18) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 12 (Fig. 2-19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-224 2-225 2-225

2-303 2-304 2-305

2-226 2-227 2-227 2-228 2-229 2-230 2-231 2-231 2-232 2-232 2-232 2-233 2-233 2-234 2-235 2-235 2-236 2-237 2-239 2-239 2-239 2-239 2-239 2-240 2-241 2-241 2-242 2-242 2-243 2-243 2-244 2-246 2-246 2-246 2-247 2-248 2-248 2-249 2-249 2-249 2-250 2-251 2-252 2-253 2-254 2-255 2-256 2-256 2-257 2-257 2-258 2-259 2-259 2-259 2-260 2-261 2-261 2-262 2-263 2-264 2-264 2-264 2-265 2-266 2-267 2-268 2-269 2-269 2-270 2-270

2-306 2-307 2-308 2-309 2-310 2-311 2-312 2-313 2-314 2-315 2-316 2-317 2-318 2-319 2-320 2-321 2-322 2-323 2-324 2-325 2-326 2-327 2-328 2-329 2-330 2-331 2-332 2-333 2-334 2-335 2-336 2-337 2-338 2-339 2-340 2-341 2-342 2-343 2-344 2-345

2-346 2-347

2-348 2-349 2-350 2-351 2-352 2-353 2-354 2-355 2-356

2-271

Saturated Refrigerant 13B1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 22 (Fig. 2-20) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Compressed R22 . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Difluoromethane (R32) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific Heat at Constant Pressure, Thermal Conductivity, Viscosity, and Prandtl of R32 Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated SUVA MP 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUVA MP 39 at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 32 (Fig. 2-21) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated KLEA 60 . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated KLEA 61 . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for KLEA 60 (Fig. 2-22). . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for KLEA 61 (Fig. 2-23). . Saturated SUVA HP 62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUVA HP 62 at Atmospheric Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated KLEA 66 . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for KLEA 66 (Fig. 2-24) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated SUVA MP 66. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUVA MP 66 at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated SUVA HP 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUVA HP 80 at Atmospheric Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated SUVA HP 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUVA HP 81 at Atmospheric Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 113. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 114. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 115. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerant 123 . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 124. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 123 (Fig. 2-25) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Refrigerant 125 . . . Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerant 134a . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 125 (Fig. 2-26) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Compressed Gaseous Refrigerant 134a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigerant 141b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 134a (Fig. 2-27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigerant 142b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant R143a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant R152a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 216. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 245. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigerant C 318 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 500. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 502. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 503. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 504. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerant 507 . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Rubidium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Seawater . . . . . . . . Saturated Sodium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mollier Diagram for Sodium (Fig. 2-28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide at 1 atm (Fig. 2-29) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Sulfur Dioxide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Sulfuric Acid at 1 atm (Fig. 2-30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Sulfur Hexafluoride (Fig. 2-31) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated SUVA AC 9000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Toluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Solid/Vapor Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Water Substance–Temperature (fps units) . . . . . . Saturated Water Substance–Temperature (SI units) . . . . . . . Saturated Liquid Water–Miscellaneous Properties . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Compressed Steam . . . . . . . . Density, Specific Heats at Constant Pressure and at Constant Volume and Velocity of Sound for Compressed Water, 1–1000 bar, 0–150°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific Heat and Other Thermophysical Properties of Water Substance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA 2-357 Thermodynamic Properties of Water Substance along the Melting Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-358 Saturated Xenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-359 Compressed Xenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-360 Surface Tension (N/m) of Saturated Liquid Refrigerants . . . 2-361 Velocity of Sound (m/s) in Gaseous Refrigerants at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-362 Velocity of Sound (m/s) in Saturated Liquid Refrigerants. . . TRANSPORT PROPERTIES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-363 Transport Properties of Selected Gases at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-364 Viscosities of Gases: Coordinates for Use with Fig. 2-32. . . . Nomograph for Determining (a) Absolute Viscosity of a Gas as a Function of Temperature Near Ambient Pressure and (b) Relative Viscosity of a Gas Compared with Air (Fig. 2-32) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-365 Viscosities of Liquids: Coordinates for Use with Fig. 2-33 . . Nomograph for Viscosities of Liquids at 1 atm (Fig. 2-33) . . 2-366 Viscosity of Sucrose Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nomograph for Thermal Conductivity of Organic Liquids (Fig. 2-34) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-367 Thermal Conductivity Nomograph Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . 2-368 Prandtl Number of Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-369 Prandtl Number of Liquid Refrigerants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-370 Thermophysical Properties of Miscellaneous Saturated Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-371 Diffusivities of Pairs of Gases and Vapors (1 atm) . . . . . . . . . 2-372 Diffusivities in Liquids (25°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-373 Thermal Conductivities of Some Building and Insulating Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-374 Thermal-Conductivity-Temperature Table for Metals . . . . . 2-375 Thermal Conductivity of Chromium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-376 Thermal Conductivity of Some Alloys at High Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-377 Thermal Conductivities of Some Materials for Refrigeration and Building Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-378 Thermal Conductivities of Insulating Materials at High Temperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-379 Thermal Conductivities of Insulating Materials at Moderate Temperatures (Nusselt). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-380 Thermal Conductivities of Insulating Materials at Low Temperatures (Gröber) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-381 Thermal Diffusivity (m2/s) of Selected Elements . . . . . . . . . 2-382 Thermophysical Properties of Selected Nonmetallic Solid Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PREDICTION AND CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pure Component Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 1 Estimate the Critical Temperature and Critical Pressure of 2-Butanol Using the Ambrose Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 2 Estimate the Critical Temperature and Critical Pressure of 2-Butanol, Which Has an Experimental Normal Boiling Point of 372.7 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 3 Estimate the Critical Volume of 2-Butanol . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Compressibility Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Freezing Temperature (Melting Point) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Boiling Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 4 Estimate the Normal Boiling Point of 2-Butanol. . . . . . . Acentric Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Characterizing Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 5 Estimate the Vapor Pressure of 1-Butene at 98°C. . . . . . Example 6 Estimate the Vapor Pressure of Tetralin at 150°C . . . . . . Example 7 Estimate the Vapor Pressure of Thiophene at 500 K. . . . Example 8 Estimate the Vapor Pressure of Acetaldehyde at 0°C . . . Ideal Gas Thermal Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-315 2-315 2-316 2-317 2-317 2-318

2-318 2-318 2-318 2-319 2-320

2-321 2-322 2-323 2-324 2-324 2-324 2-325 2-325 2-326 2-328 2-330 2-333 2-334 2-335 2-335 2-335 2-335 2-336 2-336 2-336 2-337

2-337 2-337 2-338 2-339 2-340 2-340 2-340 2-342 2-342 2-344 2-344 2-344 2-344 2-344 2-345 2-345 2-345 2-345 2-345 2-346 2-346 2-346 2-347 2-347 2-347

Heat Capacity, C po . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 9 Using Eq. 2-48 to Estimate the Ideal Gas Heat Capacity of Acetone (C3H6O) at 600 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 10 DH°f 298 of 2-Butanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gibbs Energy of Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 11 DG°f 298 of Phenol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entropy of Formation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Vaporization and Fusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Vaporization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 12 Estimate DHv of Propionaldehyde at 350 K . . . . . . . . . . Example 13 Estimate DHv of Ethyl Acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 14 Estimate DHv of Ethyl Acetate at 450 K. . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid and Liquid Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 15 Estimate Solid Heat Capacity of Dinenzothiophene. . . Liquid Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 16 Estimate Liquid Heat Capacity of 2-Butanol. . . . . . . . . Example 17 Estimate Liquid Heat Capacity of 1,4 Pentadiene . . . . Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Density Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 18 Estimate the Molar Volume of Isobutane at 155°C and 1.0 MPa Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 19 Estimate the Molar Volume of Isobutane at 155°C and 8.6 MPa Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Density Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 20 Estimate the Density of Saturated Liquid Propane at 0°C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 21 Estimate the Liquid Density of n-Nonane at 104.5°C and 6.893 MPa Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Density Prediction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 22 Estimate the Vapor Viscosity of Propane at 101.3 kPa and 80°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 23 Estimate the Vapor Viscosity of a Mixture of Propane and Methane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 24 Estimate the Vapor Viscosity of Isopropyl Alcohol at 251°C and Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 25 Estimate the Vapor Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide at 350 K and a Total Pressure of 20 MPa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Viscosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 26 Estimate the Liquid Viscosity of cis-1,4dimethylcyclohexane at 0°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor and Liquid Thermal Conductivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 27 Estimate Thermal Conductivity for n-Hexane. . . . . . . . Example 28 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Dioxide at 370 K and Low Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 29 Estimate the Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Dioxide at 370 K and 10 MPa Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 30 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of a Mixture. . . . . . . . . Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 31 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of n-Octane at 373.15 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 32 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of n-Octane at 473.15 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 33 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of n-Butanol . . . . . . . . Example 34 Estimate the Thermal Conductivity of n-Propionaldehyde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 35 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of n-Butanol . . . . . . . . Example 36 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of a Mixture. . . . . . . . . Diffusivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Diffusivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 37 Estimate the Diffusivity of Benzene Vapor Diffusing into Air at 30°C and 96.5 kPa Total Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 38 Estimate the Diffusivity of Hydrogen (1) in Nitrogen (2) at 60°C and 17.23 MPa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 39 Estimate the Infinite Dilution Diffusivity of Propane (1) in Chlorobenzene (2) at 25°C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Diffusivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Tension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 40 Estimate Surface Tension for Mercaptan. . . . . . . . . . . . Example 41 Estimate Surface Tension for Isobutytic Acid . . . . . . . . Example 42 Estimate Surface Tension of a Mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 43 Estimate Surface Tension of a Water-Methanol Mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flammability Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2-5 2-347 2-348 2-348 2-348 2-348 2-348 2-348 2-349 2-349 2-350 2-350 2-350 2-350 2-351 2-351 2-351 2-351 2-351 2-354 2-355 2-355 2-355 2-355 2-357 2-358 2-359 2-360 2-361 2-361 2-362 2-362 2-363 2-363 2-363 2-364 2-365 2-366 2-367 2-367 2-367 2-367 2-368 2-368 2-368 2-368 2-369 2-369 2-369 2-369 2-370 2-370 2-370 2-370 2-371 2-371 2-371 2-372 2-372 2-372 2-372 2-373 2-374

GENERAL REFERENCES Considerations of reader interest, space availability, the system or systems of units employed, copyright considerations, etc., have all influenced the revision of material in previous editions for the present edition. Reference is made at numerous places to various specialized works and also, when appropriate, to more general works. A listing of general works may be useful to readers in need of further information. ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals, IP and SI editions, ASHRAE, Atlanta, various dates; Beaton, C.F. and G.F. Hewitt, Physical Property Data for the Design Engineer, Hemisphere, New York, 1989 (394 pp.); Benedek, P. and F. Olti, Computer-Aided Chemical Thermodynamics of Gases and Liquids, Wiley, New York, 1985 (731 pp.); Daubert, T.E. and R.P. Danner, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals, 4 vols., Hemisphere, New York, 1989 (2030 pp.); suppl. 1, 1991 (456 pp.); suppl. 2, 1992 (736 pp.); Gmehling, J., Azeotropic Data, 2 vols., VCH Weinheim, Germany, 1994 (1900 pp.); Kaye, S.M., Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items, U.S. Army R&D command, Dover, NJ, 1980; King, M.B., Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures, Pergamon, Oxford, 1969; Lyman, W.J., W.F. Reehl et al., Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1982 (929 pp.); Ohse, R.W., Handbook of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Alkali Metals, Blackwell Sci. Pubs., Oxford, England, 1985 (1020 pp.); Reid, R.C., J.M. Prausnitz et al., The Properties of Gases and Liquids, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987 (742 pp.); Sterbacek, Z., B. Biskup et al., Calculation of Properties Using Corresponding States Methods, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979. Compilations of critical data include Ambrose, D., “Vapor-Liquid Critical Properties,” N.P.L. Teddington, Middx. rept. Chem 107, 1980 (62 pp.); Brule, M.R., L.L Lee et. al., Chem. Eng., 86, 25 (Nov. 19, 1979) 155–164; Kudchaker,

A.P., G.H. Alani et al., Chem. Revs., 68 (1968) 659–735; Matthews, J.F., Chem. Revs., 72 (1972) 71–100; Reid, R.C., J.M. Prausnitz et al., The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987 (741 pp.); Ohse, R.W. and H. von Tippelskirch, High Temp.—High Press., 9 (1977) 367–385; Young, D.A., “Phase Diagrams of the Elements,” UCRL Rept. 51902, 1975 (64 pp.); republished in expanded form by the University of California Press, 1991. Rothman, D. et al., Max Planck Inst. f. Stromungsforschung, Ber 6, 1978 (77 pp.). PUBLICATIONS ON THERMOCHEMISTRY Pedley, J.B., Thermochemical Data and Structures of Organic Compounds, 1, Thermodyn. Res. Ctr., Texas A&M Univ., 1994 (976 pp., 3000 cpds.); Frenkel, M., G.J. Kabo et al., Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds in the Gas State, 2 vols., Thermodyn. Res. Ctr., Texas A&M Univ., 1994 (1825 pp., 2000 cpds.); Barin, I., Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances, 2 vols., 2d ed., VCH Weinheim, Germany 1993 (1834 pp., 2400 substances); and Gurvich, L.V., I.V. Veyts et al., Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances, 3 vols., 4th ed., Hemisphere, New York, 1989, 1990, and 1993 (2520 pp.). See also Lide, D.R. and G.W.A. Milne, Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 7 vols., 3d ed., Chemical Rubber, Miami, 1993 (7000 pp.); Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner et al., Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals: Data Compilation, extant 1995, Taylor & Francis, Bristol, PA, 1995; Database 11, N.I.S.T. Gaithersburg, MD. U.S. Bureau of Mines publications include Bulletins 584, 1960 (232 pp.); 592, 1961 (149 pp.); 595, 1961 (68 pp.); 654, 1970 (26 pp.) Chase, M.W., C.A. Davies et al., JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3d ed., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14 suppl 1., 1986 (1896 pp.).

2-6

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds* Abbreviations Used in the Table

a., acid A., specific gravity with reference to air = 1 abs., absolute ac., acetic acid act., acetone al., 95 percent ethyl alcohol alk, alkali (i.e., aq. NaOH or KOH) am., amyl (C5H11) amor., amorphous anh., anhydrous aq., aqueous or water aq. reg., aqua regia

atm., atmosphere or 760 mm. of mercury pressure bk., black brn., brown bz., benzene c., cold cb., cubic cc, cubic centimeter chl., chloroform col., colorless or white conc., concentrated cr., crystals or crystalline d., decomposes D., specific gravity with reference to hydrogen = 1

d. 50, decomposes at 50°C; 50 d., melts at 50°C with decomposition delq., deliquescent dil., dilute dk., dark eff., effloresces or efflorescent et., ethyl ether expl., explodes gel., gelatinous gly., glycerol (glycerin) gn., green h., hot hex., hexagonal

hyg., hygroscopic i., insoluble ign., ignites lq., liquid lt., light m. al., methyl alcohol mn., monoclinic nd., needles NH3, liquid ammonia NH4OH, ammonium hydroxide solution oct., octahedral or., orange pd., powder

Formula weights are based upon the International Atomic Weights of 1941 and are computed to the nearest hundredth. Refractive index, where given for a uniaxial crystal, is for the ordinary (ω) ray; where given for a biaxial crystal, the index given is for the median (β) value. Unless otherwise specified, the index is given for the sodium D-line (λ = 589.3 mµ). Specific gravity values are given at room temperatures (15° to 20°C) unless otherwise indicated by the small figures which follow the value: thus, “5.6 18° 4 ” indicates a specific gravity of 5.6 for the substance at 18°C referred to water at 4°C. In this table the values for the specific gravity of gases are given with reference to air (A) = 1, or hydrogen (D) = 1. Melting point is recorded in a certain case as “82 d.” and in some other case as “d. 82,” the distinction being made in this manner to indicate that the former is a melting point with decomposition at 82°C, while in the latter decomposition only occurs at 82°C. Where a value such as “−2H2O, 82” is given it indicates loss of 2 moles of water per formula weight of the compound at a temperature of 82°C. Boiling point is given at atmospheric pressure (760 mm. of mercury) unless otherwise indicated; thus, “8215 mm.” indicates the boiling point is 82°C when the pressure is 15 mm.

Name Aluminum acetate, normal acetate, basic bromide bromide carbide chloride chloride fluoride (fluellite) fluoride hydroxide nitrate nitride oxide oxide (corundum) phosphate

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

Al Al(C2H3O2)3 Al(OH)(C2H3O2)2 AlBr3 AlBr3·6H2O Al4C3 AlCl3

26.97 204.10 162.07 266.72 374.82 143.91 133.34

silv., cb. wh. pd. wh., amor. trig. col., delq. cr. yel., hex., 2.70 wh., delq., hex.

AlCl3·6H2O AlF3·H2O Al2F6·7H2O Al(OH)3 Al(NO3)3·9H2O Al2N2 Al2O3 Al2O3 AlPO4

241.44 101.99 294.05 77.99 375.14 81.96 101.94 101.94 121.95

col., delq., trig., 1.560 col., rhb., 1.490 wh., cr. pd. wh., mn. rhb., delq. yel., hex. col., hex., 1.67–8 wh., trig., 1.768 col., hex.

pl., plates pr., prisms or prismatic pyr., pyridine rhb., rhombic (orthorhombic) s., soluble satd., saturated sl., slightly soln., solution subl., sublimes sulf., sulfides tart. a., tartaric acid tet., tetragonal tr., transition tri., triclinic

trig., trigonal v., very vac., in vacuo vl., violet volt., volatile or volatilizes wh., white yel., yellow ∞, soluble in all proportions , greater than 426, about or near 42 −3H2O, 100, loses 3 moles of water per formula weight at 100°C

Solubility is given in parts by weight (of the formula shown at the extreme left) per 100 parts by weight of the solvent; the small superscript indicates the temperature. In the case of gases the solubility is often expressed in some manner as “510° cc” which indicates that at 10°C, 5 cc. of the gas are soluble in 100 g. of the solvent. The symbols of the common mineral acids: H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, etc., represent dilute aqueous solutions of these acids. See also special tables on Solubility. REFERENCES: The information given in this table has been collected mainly from the following sources: Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, Longmans, New York, 1922. Abegg, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, S. Hirzel, Leipzig, 1905. Gmelin-Kraut, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, 7th ed., Carl Winter, Heidelberg; 8th ed., Verlag Chemie, Berlin, 1924. Friend, Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry, Griffin, London, 1914. Winchell, Microscopic Character of Artificial Inorganic Solid Substances or Artificial Minerals, Wiley, New York, 1931. International Critical Tables, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1926. Tables annuelles internationales de constants et donnes numeriques, McGraw-Hill, New York. Annual Tables of Physical Constants and Numerical Data, National Research Council, Princeton, N.J., 1943. Comey and Hahn, A Dictionary of Chemical Solubilities, Macmillan, New York, 1921. Seidell, Solubilities of Inorganic and Metal Organic Compounds, Van Nostrand, New York, 1940.

Specific gravity 2.7020° 3.01 25° 4 2.95 2.44 25° 4 2.17 2.42 3.05 3.99 4.00 2.59

25° 4

Melting point, °C 660 d. 200 d. 97.5 d. 100 d. >2200 1945.2atm. d. −4H2O, 120 −2H2O, 300 73 21504atm. 1999 to 2032 1999 to 2032

Boiling point, °C 2056 268 752mm

182.7 ; subl. 178 −6H2O, 250 d. 134 d. >1400 2210

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water i. s. i. s. s. d. to CH4 69.8715° 400 sl. s. i. 0.00010418° v. s. d. slowly i. i. i.

Hot water i. d.

Other reagents s. HCl, H2SO4, alk.

s. d.

s.a.; i. NH4 salts s.al., act., CS2 s. al., CS2 s. a.; i. act. s. et., chl., CCl4; i. bz.

v. s.

50 al.; s. et.

s.

sl. s. i. v. s. d. i. i. i.

s. a., alk.; i. a. s. al., CS2 s. alk. d. v. sl. s. a., alk. v. sl. s. a., alk. s. a., alk.; i. ac.

*By N. A. Lange, Ph.D., Handbook Publishers, Inc., Sandusky, Ohio. Abridged from table of Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds in Lange, “Handbook of Chemistry.” 2-7

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TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Name Aluminum (Cont.) potassium silicate (muscovite) potassium silicate (orthoclase) Aluminum potassium tartrate sodium fluoride (cryolite) sodium silicate sulfate Alum, ammonium (tschermigite) ammonium chrome ammonium iron potassium (kalinite) potassium chrome sodium Ammonia†

Formula weight

Formula 3Al2O3·K2O·6SiO2· 2H2O Al2O3·K2O·6SiO2 AlK(C4H4O6)2 AlF3·3NaF Al2O3·Na2O·6SiO2 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3·(NH4)2SO4· 24H2O Cr2(SO4)3·(NH4)2SO4· 24H2O Fe2(SO4)3·(NH4)2SO4· 24H2O Al2(SO4)3·K2SO4· 24H2O Cr2(SO4)3·K2SO4· 24H2O Al2(SO4)3·Na2SO4· 24H2O NH3

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

Boiling point, °C

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

mn., 1.590

2.9

d.

i.

556.49 362.21 209.96 524.29 342.12 906.64

col., mn., 1.524 col. wh., mn., 1.3389 col., tri., 1.529 wh. cr. col., oct., 1.4594

2.56

1450 (1150)

2.90 2.61 2.71 1.64 20° 4

1000 1100 d. 770 93.5

i. s. sl. s. i. 31.30° 3.90°

956.72

gn. or vl., oct., 1.4842

1.72

964.40

vl., oct., 1.485

1.71

40

col., mn., 1.4564

1.76 26° 4

92

998.84

red or gn., cb., 1.4814

1.83

89

916.56

col., oct., 1.4388

77.08 337.33 79.06 97.96 114.11 157.11

wh., hyg. cr. pl. mn. or rhb., 1.5358 col., cb., 1.7108 col. pl. wh. cr.

272.22

wh.

chloride (salammoniac) chloroplatinate chloroplatinite chlorostannate chromate cyanide dichromate ferrocyanide fluoride fluoride, acid formate

NH4C2H3O2 NH4CN·Au(CN)3·H2O NH4HCO3 NH4Br (NH4)2CO3·H2O NH4HCO3· NH2CO2NH4‡ (NH4)2CO3· 2NH4HCO3·H2O NH4Cl (NH4)2PtCl6 (NH4)2PtCl4 (NH4)2SnCl6 (NH4)2CrO4 NH4CN (NH4)2Cr2O7 (NH4)4Fe(CN)6·6H2O NH4F NH4F·HF HCO2NH4

hydrosulfide hydroxide molybdate molybdate, heptanitrate (α), stable −16° to 32° nitrate (β), stable 32° to 84°

NH4HS NH4OH (NH4)2MoO4 (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O‡ NH4NO3 NH4NO3

51.11 35.05 196.03 1235.95 80.05 80.05

col., rhb. in soln. only mn. col., mn. col., tet., 1.611 col., rhb. or mn.

nitrite osmochloride oxalate oxalate, acid perchlorate persulfate phosphate, monobasic

NH4NO2 (NH4)2OsCl6 (NH4)2C2O4·H2O NH4HC2O4·H2O NH4ClO4 (NH4)2S2O8 NH4H2PO4

64.05 439.02 142.12 125.08 117.50 228.20 115.04

wh. nd. cb. col., rhb. col., trimetric col., rhb., 1.4833 wh., mn., 1.5016 col., tet., 1.5246

53.50 444.05 373.14 367.52 152.09 44.06 252.10 392.21 37.04 57.05 63.06

wh., cb., 1.639, 1.6426 yel., cb. tet. pink., cb. yel., mn. col., cb. or., mn. mn. wh., hex. wh., rhb., 1.390 col., mn., delq.

−20H2O, 120; −24H2O, 200

100 d.

948.76

col. gas, 1.325 (lq.)

carbonate, sesqui-

Melting point, °C

796.40

17.03

Ammonium acetate auricyanide bicarbonate bromide carbonate carbonate, carbamate

Specific gravity

20° 4

1.675

−79°

0.817 0.5971 (A) 1.073 1.573 2.327 15° 4

1.53 3.065

2.4 1.91712° 0.79100° (A) 2.15

25°

124 −18H2O, 64.5

i. al.

50

106.4



i. al. 45°

121.7

−77.7

−33.4

89.9

114 d. 200 d. 35–60 subl. 542 d. 58 subl.

d.

1484° s. 11.90° 6810° 10015° 2515°

v. s. 2730° 145.6100°

2015°

5049°

d. 350 d. d.

subl. 520

d. 180 36 d. 185 d.

12° 2.21 12 1.266

114–116

2.27

d.

1.66 25° 4 1.725 25° 4

169.6

1.69 2.93 20° 4 1.501 1.556 1.95 1.98 1.803 19° 4

expl.

d.

d. 180; subl. in vac. subl. 120

d. 210 d. 210





29.4 0.715° s. 33.315° 40.530° s. 47.230° s. v. s. v. s. 1020°

2-8

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i. al.

7.4

96°

14.820° al.; s. et. s. al.; sl. s. act. i. al. i. al. s. al., et., act. i. al., CS2, NH3

6765°

77.3100° 1.25100° v. s.

s. NH3; sl. s. al., m. al. 0.005 al.

d. v. s. v. s. d.

sl. s. act., NH3; i. al. s. al. s. al.; i. act. i. al. s. al.; i. NH3

53180°

s. al.

d.

i. al., NH3 i. al.

v. s. s. d. 4425° 118.30° 365.835°

241.830° 58080°

s.

d.

3.820° al., 17.120° m. al.; v. s. NH3 s. al.

11.850°

sl. s. al.; i. NH3

46.9100° d. 173.2100°

220° al.; s. act.; i. et.



d. d. d. 120

i. al.

∞93°

20

61

i. HCl d. a.

s. al.

25°

5.70°

Other reagents

s. i. 89100° ∞ 100°

21.2

d. 17°

Hot water

2.5 s. 10.90° 58.20° 22.70°

s. al.

i. ac.

phosphate, dibasic phosphate, metaAmmonium phosphomolybdate silicofluoride sulfamate sulfate (mascagnite) sulfate, acid sulfide sulfide, pentasulfite sulfite, acid tartrate thiocyanate vanadate, metaAntimony chloride, tri- (butter of antimony)* oxide, tri- (valentinite) oxide, tri- (senarmontite) sulfide, tri- (stibnite)

(NH4)2HPO4 (NH4)4P4O12 (NH4)3PO4·12MoO3· 3H2O (?) (NH4)2SiF6 NH4·SO3NH2 (NH4)2SO4 NH4HSO4 (NH4)2S (NH4)2S5 (NH4)2SO3·H2O NH4HSO3 (NH4)2C4H4O6 NH4CNS NH4VO3 Sb

132.07 388.08 1930.55 178.14 114.12 132.14 115.11 68.14 196.38 134.16 99.11 184.15 76.12 116.99 121.76

col., mn., 1.53 col., mn. yel.

13115° s. 0.0315°

1.619 2.21 d.

cb., 1.3696 col. pl. col., rhb., 1.5230 col., rhb., 1.480 yel.-wh. or.-red pr. col., mn. rhb. col., mn. col., mn., 1.6856 col. cr. tin wh., trig.

2.01

i.

17.5°

s. alk.; i. al., HNO3

1380

18.5 1340° 70.60° 100 v. s. s. 10012° s. 450° 1200° 0.4418° i.

87 17020° 3.0570° i.

73.4

220.2

601.60°

∞72°

1570

v. sl. s.

1.769 20° 4 1.78

132 235 d. 146.9 d.

1.41 2.03 12° 4 1.60 1.305 2.326 6.68425°

d. d. d. 149.6 d. 630.5

SbCl3

228.13

col., rhb., delq.

3.14 20° 4

Sb2O3 Sb2O3 Sb2S3

291.52 291.52 339.70

rhb., 2.35 cb., 2.087 bk., rhb., 4.046

5.67 5.2 4.64

656 652 550

subl. d. 160

i. act.

490

d. 170

0.00017

55.5 35750° 103.3100°

s. al.; i. act. i. al., act., CS2 v. sl. s. al.; i. act. 12025° NH3 i. al., act.

60°

sl. s. 18°

d.

sl. s. al. s. al., act., NH3, SO2 i. al., NH4Cl s. aq. reg., h. conc. H2SO4 s. al., HCl, HBr, H2C4H4O6 s. HCl, KOH, H2C4H4O6 s. HCl; alk., NH4HS, K2S; i. ac. s. HCl, alk., NH4HS

sulfide, pentatelluride, triAntimonyl potassium tartrate (tartar emetic) sulfate, normal sulfate, basic Argon

Sb2S5 Sb2Te3

403.82 626.35

golden gray

4.1200°

−2S, 135 629

i.

i.

(SbO)KC4H4O6·aH2O (SbO)2SO4 (SbO)2SO4·Sb2(OH)4 A

333.94 371.58 683.13 39.94

wh., rhb. wh. pd. wh. pd. col. gas

2.60 4.89

−aH2O, 100 −189.2

−185.7

35.7100° d. d. 2.2350° cc

Arsenic (crystalline) (α) Arsenic (black) (β)

As4 As4

299.64 299.64

met., hex. bk., amor.

1.65−288°; 1.402−185.7°; 1.38 (A) 5.72714° 4.720°

5.268.7° d. i. 5.60° cc

81436atm.

subl. 615

i. i.

i. i.

Arsenic (yellow)(γ) acid, orthoacid, metaacid, pyropentoxide sulfide, di- (realgar)

As4 H3AsO4·aH2O HAsO3 H4As2O7 As2O5 As2S2

299.64 150.94 123.92 265.85 229.82 213.94

yel., cb. col., hyg. wh., hyg. col. wh., amor. red, mn., 2.68

2.020° 2.0–2.5

s. HNO3 s. HNO3, aq. reg., aq. Cl2, h. alk.

d. 358 35.5 d. d. 206

−H2O, 160

50 H3AsO4 H3AsO4 76.7100° d.

s. alk.

d. 565

16.7 d. to form d. to form 59.50° i.

sulfide, pentaArsenious chloride (butter of arsenic) hydride (arsine) oxide (arsenolite) oxide (claudetite) oxide

As2S5

310.12

yel.

d. 500

0.0001360°

i.

s. HNO3, alk.

AsCl3 AsH3 As2O3 As2O3 As2O3

181.28 77.93 197.82 197.82 197.82

oily lq. col. gas col., cb., fibrous, 1.755 col., mn., 1.92 amor. or vitreous

130 −55; d. 230

d. 20 cc sl. s. sl. s. 1.210°

d. sl. s. sl. s. sl. s. 2.9340°

Auric chloride

AuCl3·2H2O

339.60

or. cr.

v. s.

v. s.

cyanide Aurous chloride cyanide Cf. also under Gold Barium acetate acetate bromide

Au(CN)3·6H2O AuCl AuCN

383.35 232.66 223.22

yel. cr. yel. cr.

7.4

v. s. d. i.

v. s. d. i.

s. HCl, HBr, PCl3 sl. s. alk. i. al., et. i. al., et. s. HCl, alk., Na2CO3; i. al., et. s. HCl, al., et.; sl. s. NH3 s. al. s. HCl, HBr; d. al. s. KCN; i. al., et.

Ba Ba(C2H3O2)2 Ba(C2H3O2)2·H2O BaBr2

137.36 255.45 273.46 297.19

silv. met. col. wh., tri. pr., 1.517 col.

3.5 2.468 2.19 4.781 24° 4

d. 58.80° 7530°(anh.) 980°

d. 75.0100° 7940°(anh.) 149100°

4.086 (α)3.50619°; (β)3.25419° lq. 2.163 2.695 (A) 3.865 25° 4 3.85 3.738

(α)tr. 267; (β)307 −18 −113.5 subl. subl. 315 d. d. 50 AuCl3, 170 d.

d. 290

850

1140

−H2O, 41 847

d.

s. gly.; i. al. 5.1515° gly. 2425° cc al.

s. alk., al. s. K2S, NaHCO3

s. a.; d. al. i. al. v. s. m. al.; v. sl. s. act.

*Usually the solution. †See special tables. ‡Usual commercial form. 2-9

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TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Name Barium (Cont.) bromide carbonate (witherite) carbonate (α) carbonate (β) Barium chlorate chlorate chloride chloride chloride hydroxide hydroxide nitrate (nitrobarite) oxalate oxide peroxide peroxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, pyrosilicofluoride sulfate (barite, barytes) sulfide, monosulfide, trisulfide, tetraBeryllium (glucinum) Bismuth carbonate, subchloride, dichloride, trinitrate nitrate, suboxide, trioxide, trioxide, trioxychloride

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C −2H2O, 100 tr. 811 to α tr. 982 to β 174090atm 414 d. 120 tr. 925 962 −2H2O, 100

BaBr2·2H2O BaCO3 BaCO3 BaCO3 Ba(ClO3)2 Ba(ClO3)2·H2O* BaCl2 BaCl2 BaCl2·2H2O† Ba(OH)2 Ba(OH)2·8H2O Ba(NO3)2 BaC2O4 BaO

333.22 197.37 197.37 197.37 304.27 322.29 208.27 208.27 244.31 171.38 315.50 261.38 225.38 153.36

col., mn., 1.7266 wh., rhb., 1.676 wh., hex. wh. col. col., mn., 1.577 col., mn., 1.7361 col., cb. col., mn., 1.646 col., mn. col., mn., 1.5017 col., cb., 1.572 wh. cr. col., cb., 1.98

BaO2* BaO2·8H2O BaH4(PO4)2 BaHPO4 Ba3(PO4)2 Ba2P2O7 BaSiF6 BaSO4

169.36 313.49 331.35 233.35 602.04 448.68 279.42 233.42

gray or wh. pd. pearly sc. tri. wh., rhb. nd., 1.635 wh., cb. wh., rhb. pr. col., rhb., 1.636

BaS BaS3 BaS4·2H2O Be(Gl) Bi

169.42 233.54 301.63 9.02 209.00

Bi2O3·CO2·H2O BiCl2(?) BiCl3* Bi(NO3)3·5H2O BiONO3·H2O Bi2O3 Bi2O3 Bi2O3 BiOCl

528.03 279.91 315.37 485.10 305.02 466.00 466.00 466.00 260.46

col., cb., 2.155 yel.-gn. red, rhb. gray, met., hex. silv. wh. or reddish, hex. wh. pd. bk. nd. wh. cr. col., tri. hex. pl. yel., rhb. yel., tet. yel., cb. wh., amor.

6.86 4.86 4.75 2.82 4.92815° 8.9 8.55 8.20 7.7215°

d. 163 230 d. 30 d. 260 820 860 tr. 704 185 d.

3.69 4.29

3.179 3.856 24° 4 3.097 24° 4 4.495 16° 2.188 3.24428° 2.658 5.72 4.958 4°

2.9 4.16515° 4.116° 3.920° 4.27915° 4.49915°

Boiling point, °C d. d. 1450

1560 1560

2.988 1.816 9.8020°

Hot water v. s. 0.0065100°

s. al. s. a.; i. al.

0.002218° 20.350° s. 310°

0.0065100° 84.880° s. 59100°

s. a.; i. al.

76.8100° 101.480°

sl. s. HCl, HNO3; i. al.

77.9 592

−8H2O, 550 d.

1923

20006

d. d. d.

tr. to mn. 1149

v. sl. s. 0.168 d. 0.015 i. 0.01 0.02617° 0.0001150°

2767 1450

d. s. 4115° i. i.

d. s. v. s. sl. s. d. i.

i. d. d. d. i. i. i. i. sl. s.

i.

i. i. i. i. sl. s.

2.660°

40.2100°

−O, 800 −8H2O, 100

1580 d. d. 400 d. 200 1284 271

d. 300 447 −5H2O, 80 19006

Other reagents

v. s. 0.002218°

39.30° 1.670° 5.615° 5.00° 0.00168° 1.50°

4.2515° 20°

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

34.2100° 0.002424° 90.880°

0.09100° 0.00028530°

sl. s. al., act. sl. s. HCl, HNO3; i. al.

v. sl. s. al.; i. et. sl. s. a.; i. al. s. a., NH4Cl; i. al. s. HCl, HNO3, abs. al.; i. NH3, act. s. dil. a.; i. act. s. dil. a.; i. al., et., act. s. a. s. a., NH4 salts s. a. s. a., NH4 salts sl. s. HCl, NH4Cl; i. al. s. conc. H2SO4; 0.006, 3% HCl d. HCl; i. al. i. al., CS2 s. dil. a., alk. s. aq. reg., conc. H2SO4, HNO3 s. a. s. al. 4219° act.; s. a.; i. al. s. a. s. a. s. a. s. a. s. a.; i. act., NH3, H2C4H4O6 22.220° gly., 0.2425° et.; s. al. s. HNO3; i. al.

Boric acid

H3BO3

61.84

wh., tri.

1.43515°

Boron

B

10.82

2300

2550

i.

i.

B4C B2O3 B2O3·3H2O HBrO3 Br2

55.29 69.64 123.69 128.92 159.83

gray or bk., amor. or mn. bk. cr. col. glass, 1.459 tri., 1.456 col.; in soln. only rhb., or red lq.

2.32

carbide oxide oxide (sassolite) Bromic acid Bromine

2.54 1.85 1.49

2450 577 d. d. 100 −7.2

>3500 >1500

i. 1.10° sl. s. v. s. 4.220°

i. 15.7100° s. d. 3.1330°

i. a. s. a., al., gly.

hydrate Cadmium acetate acetate carbonate

Br2·10H2O Cd Cd(C2H3O2)2 Cd(C2H3O2)2·2H2O* CdCO3

339.99 112.41 230.50 266.53 172.42

red, oct. silv. met., hex. col. col., mn. wh., trig.

8.6520° 2.341 2.01 4.2584°

i.

wh., cb.

4.047 25° 4

s. a., NH4NO3 s. m. al. s. al. s. a., KCN, NH4 salts; i. NH3 1.5215° al.; i. et., act.

chloride

2-10

CdCl2

183.32

3.11920°; 5.87 (A)

d. 6.8 320.9 256 −H2O, 130 d. 200 d. 300 350 59.4

132

d. 900–1000 d. 1000 tr. 108 tr. 41.5

3.6720° 2.765

tr. 4 1750100atm 810 d. 1600 1551

3.353 25° 4 2.93 25° 2.711 4 2.152 15° 4

760 d. 825 1339103atm. 772

>1600

1.6817°

29.92 −2H2O, 130

−6H2O, 200 −4H2O, 185

1.7 3.18020° 2.015 1.7 2.2

2.872 3.3 2.36 1.82 2.6317° 2.2334° 2.24° 2.2 3.32 2.220 16° 4 2.306 16° 4 3.14 2.82 3.09 2.25 2.5115° 2.905 2.915 2.96

subl. in N2, 980 1200 6 30

1810

1330 d. d. 675 −H2O, 580 d. −2H2O, 200 −3H2O, 100

−8H2O, 100 −H2O, 100 d. 1670 975 1230

2850 expl. 275 d. 200

>1600 1540 tr. 1190 to α 1450(mn.)

180100°

76.50° s. 114.20° s. 350−5° 0.000001 d. 520° d.

60.8100° s. 127.660° s.

0.01325° 1250° 0.001220°† 0.001425° 59.50° s. v. s. 0.08518° s. d. s. 0.001618° 16.10° d. 0.1850° delq.; d. i. 10.5

32659.5° i. i.

Colloidal d. 45.580° i. 312105° 0.002100° 0.002100° 347260° s. v. s. 0.09626° d. 15090° 0.001726° 18.4100 0.077100° d. ∞

2.0515° m. al. s. a.; NH4OH, KCN s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. v. s. a. s. al., NH3; i. HNO3 s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. d. a., alk. i.act., NH3 i. al. i. al. i. al. s. a.; v. s. NH4OH s, a.; sl. s. al. sl. s. al. s. HCl s. dil. a. s. al., act.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., NH4Cl s. a., NH4Cl s. al. s. al. s. al. 0.006518° al. i. al. sl. s. a. i. al., et. d. a.; i. bz. s. NH4Cl d. a. s. HCl, H4P2O6 ∞h. al.; i. et.

18°

d. 730–760 1391 561 42.7 900 d. −H2O, 200 2570

16820° 0.024718° 0.0002625° 109.70° 2150° i. i.

tr. 1193 to rhb.

0.032 i. 1020° 2660° d. 770° 0.0006713° i. Forms Ca(OH)2 sl. s. 0.0224.5° 0.0025 i. i. sl. s. d. 0.009517° 0.29820°

i. 376151° v. s. d. 41790° 0.001495° i. d. d. 0.075100° d. i.

0.1619100°

1415° al.; s. amyl al., NH3 s. dil. a.; i. abs. al. s. 90% al. s. a.; i. ac. s. a.; i. ac s. a.; i. al. s. a. d.; i. al., et. s. a.; i. al., ac. i. a. s. a. s. a.; i. NH4Cl s. dil. a.; i. al., et. s. HCl s. a., Na2S2O3, NH4 salts

*Usual commercial form. †The solubility of CaCO3 in H2O is greatly increased by increasing the amount of CO2 in the H2O. 2-11

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Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

TABLE 2-1

Name Calcium (Cont.) sulfate (gypsum)

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

CaSO4·2H2O

172.17

col., mn., 1.5226

Ca(SH)2·6H2O CaS CaSO3·2H2O CaC4H4O6·4H2O Ca(CNS)2·3H2O CaS2O3·6H2O CaWO4

214.31 72.14 156.17 260.22 210.28 260.30 288.00

col. pr. col., cb. wh., cr., 1.595 col., rhb. wh., delq. cr. col., tri., 1.56 wh., tet., 1.9200

C C C CO2

12.01 12.01 12.01 44.01

bk., amor. col., cb., 2.4195 bk., hex. col. gas

disulfide

CS2

76.13

col. lq.

monoxide

CO

28.01

col., poisonous, odorless gas

oxychloride (phosgene) oxysulfide

COCl2 COS

98.92 60.07

poisonous gas gas

sulfhydrate sulfide (oldhamite) sulfite tartrate thiocyanate thiosulfate tungstate (scheelite) Carbon, cf. table of organic compounds Carbon, amorphous Carbon, diamond Carbon, graphite dioxide

suboxide thionyl chloride Ceric hydroxide hydroxynitrate oxide sulfate Cerium

C3O2 CSCl2 2CeO2·3H2O Ce(OH)(NO3)3·3H2O CeO2 Ce(SO4)2·4H2O Ce

68.03 114.98 398.31 397.21 172.13 404.31 140.13

Cerous sulfate sulfate Cesium Chloric acid Chlorine

Ce2(SO4)3 Ce2(SO4)3·8H2O Ce HClO3·7H2O Cl2

568.44 712.57 132.91 210.58 70.91

hydrate Chloroplatinic acid Chlorostannic acid Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acetate chloride chloride fluoride hydroxide

Cl2·8H2O H2PtCl6·6H2O H2SnCl6·6H2O HO·SO2·Cl Cr2(C2H3O2)6·2H2O CrCl3 CrCl3·6H2O* CrF3 Cr(OH)3

215.04 518.08 441.55 116.52 494.32 158.38 266.48 109.01 103.03

Cr(OH)3·2H2O Cr(NO3)3·9H2O* Cr(NO3)3·7aH2O Cr2O3 Cr2(SO4)3 Cr2(SO4)3·5H2O Cr2(SO4)3·15H2O Cr2(SO4)3·18H2O

139.07 400.18 373.15 152.02 392.20 482.28 662.44 716.49

hydroxide nitrate nitrate oxide sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate 2-12

gas yel.-red lq. yel., gelatinous red, mn. wh. or pa. yel., cb. yel., rhb. steel gray, cb. or hex. wh., mn. or rhb. tri. silv. met., hex. lq. rhb., or gn.-yel. gas rhb. red-brn., delq. delq. col. lq. gn. pink, trig. vl. or gn., hex. pl. gn., rhb. gn. or blue, gelatinous gn. purple pr. purple, mn. dark gn., hex. rose pd. gn. vl. vl., cb., 1.564

Specific gravity 2.32 2.815°

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

−1aH2O, 128

−2H2O, 163

d. 15 −2H2O, 100 d.

d. 650

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

Hot water

0.2230°

0.25750°

v. s. d. 0.004318° 0.0370° s. 71.29° 0.2

v. s. d. 0.002790° 0.2285° v. s. d.

Other reagents s. a., gly., Na2S2O3, NH4 salts s. al. s. a. s. H2SO3 sl. s. al. v. s. al. i. al. s. NH4Cl; i. a.

1.87316° 6.06

d.

1.8–2.1 3.5120° 2.2620° lq. 1.101−87°; 1.53 (A); solid 1.56−79° 22° lq. 1.261 20 ; 2.63 (A) lq. 0.814−195° 4 ; 0.968 (A) 1.392 19° 4 lq. 1.24−87°; 2.10 (A) lq. 1.1140° 1.50915°

>3500 >3500 >3500 −56.65.2atm.

4200 4200 4200 subl. −78.5

i. i. i. 179.70° cc

i. i. i. 90.120° cc

i. a., alk. i. a., alk. i. a., alk. s. a., alk.

−108.6

46.3

0.20°

0.01450°

s. al.; et.

−207

−192

0.00440°; 3.50° cc

0.001850° 2.3220° cc

s. al., Cu2Cl2

−104 −138.2

8.2756mm −50.2760mm

v. s. sl. d. 1330° cc

d. 40.330° cc

s. ac., CCl4, bs.; d.a. v. s. alk., al.

−107

7761mm 73.5

d.

s. et. s. a.; sl. s. alk. carb.; i. alk

7.3 3.91 6.920° cb.; 6.7 hex. 3.91 2.88617° 1.9020° 1.28214.2° lq. 1.56−33.6°; 2.490° (A) 1.23 2.431 1.97128° 1.78725° 2.75715° 1.835 25° 4 3.8

5.21 3.012 1.86717° 1.722°

1950 645

1400

d. i. s. d. i.

i.



−8H2O, 630 28.5 1000

d.

−2H2O, 100 36.5 100 1900

d. 100 d.

100

−10H2O, 100 −12H2O, 100

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18.98 250° d. v. s. 1.460°; 31010° cc s. v. s. s. d. s. i.§ v. s. d. i. i. i. s. s. i. i.† s. s. 12020°

Slowly oxidized 0.4100° 7.640°

s. H2SO4, HCl s. dil. H2SO4 s. dil. a.; i. al.

s. a., al., NH3 0.57 ; 17730° cc 30°

v. s.

sl. s.

i. s. s. i. d. 67° d.

s. alk. s. alk. s. al., et. d. al.; i. CS2 4.7615° m. al. i. a., act., CS2 s. al.; i. et. sl. s. a.; i. al., NH3 s. a., alk.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., alk. s. a., alk., al., act. sl. s. a. i. a. s. al., H2SO4 sl. s. al. s. al.

sulfide Chromium

Cr2S3 Cr

200.02 52.01

brn.-bk. pd. gray, met., cb.

3.7719° 7.1

−S, 1350 1615

trioxide (chromic acid) Chromous chloride hydroxide oxide sulfate sulfide (daubrelite) Chromyl chloride Cobalt carbonyl sulfide, diCobaltic chloride chloride, dichro chloride, luteo chloride, praseo Cobaltic chloride, purpureo chloride, roseo hydroxide oxide sulfate sulfide Cobalto-cobaltic oxide Cobaltous acetate chloride chloride nitrate

CrO3 CrCl2 Cr(OH)2 CrO CrSO4·7H2O CrS CrO2Cl2 Co Co(CO)4 CoS2 CoCl3 Co(NH3)3Cl3·H2O Co(NH3)6Cl3 Co(NH3)4Cl3·H2O Co(NH3)5Cl3 Co(NH3)5Cl3·H2O Co(OH)3 Co2O3 Co2(SO4)3 Co2S3 Co3O4 Co(C2H3O2)2·4H2O CoCl2 CoCl2·6H2O* Co(NO3)2·6H2O

100.01 122.92 86.03 68.01 274.18 84.07 154.92 58.94 170.98 123.06 165.31 234.42 267.50 251.46 250.47 268.49 109.96 165.88 406.06 214.06 240.82 249.09 129.85 237.95 291.05

red, rhb. wh., delq. yel.-brn. bk. pd. blue bk. pd. dark red lq. silv. met., cb. or. cr. bk., cb. red cr.

2.70 2.75

197 d.

or., mn. gn., rhb. rhb. brick red bk. bk. blue cr. bk. cr. bk., cb. red-vl., mn., 1.542 blue cr. red, mn. red, mn., 1.4

1.7016 1.847 25° 1.819 25

CoO CoSO4 CoSO4·H2O

74.94 155.00 173.02

brn., cb. red pd. red pd., mn.(?), 1.639 red, mn., 1.483 brn. nd. yel.-red met., cb.

oxide sulfate sulfate sulfate (biebeorite) sulfide (syeporite) Copper Cupric acetate acetate aceto-arsenite (Paris green)

d. 3.97 1.92 8.920° 1.7318° 4.269 2.94

1550 −96.5 1480 51 subl.

5.18

d. 100 −1aH2O, 100 d. 900

4.8 6.07 1.705318.7° 3.356 25° 1.924 25 25° 1.883 25

−4H2O, 140 subl. 86 1100 1083

−7H2O, 420

115

240 d.

1.98

d. i.

164.90° v. s. d. i. 12.350 i. d. i. i. i. s. s. 4.260° v. s. 0.2320° 16.120° i. i. d. i. i. s. 457° 116.50° 84.030°(anh.)

206.7100° v. s.

i. 25.60° s.

i.

i. d.

s. h. HNO3 s. HCl, dil. H2SO4; i. HNO3 s. H2SO4, al., et. sl. s. al.; i. et. s. conc. a. i. dil. HNO3 sl. s. al. v. s. a. s. et. s. a. s. al., et., CS2 s. HNO3, aq. reg.

s. 12.7446.5° 1.03146.5° 24.8716° i. i. i. s. 10596° 17780° 334.990° (anh.) i. 83100° s.

s. a.; al. i. al., NH4OH s. a.; i. al. i. al. sl. s. HCl s. a.; i. al. s. a. s. H2SO4 d. a. s. H2SO4; i. HCl, HNO3 s. a., al. 31 al.; 8.6 act. v. s. et., act. 10012.5° al.; s. act.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., NH4OH; i. al. 1.0418° m. al.; i. NH8

s.

20

7 al.; s. et.; gly. s. a., NH4OH

d. 110

33.80°

99.380°

s. a.

1.81 3.88

d. 150 d. 220

18.0521.5° i.

d. d.

i. 70.70°

d. 107.9100°

i. al. s. NH4OH, h. aq. NaHCO3 s. KCN; 0.03 aq. CO 5315° al.; 6815° m. al.

110.40° i. i. sl. s. i. i. 12.5 i. 16.7 38140° 243.70°

192.4100°

ammonium sulfate carbonate, basic (azurite)

CuSO4·4NH3·H2O 2CuCO3·Cu(OH)2

245.77 344.75

blue, tet., 1.670, 1.744 blue, rhb. blue, mn., 1.758

carbonate, basic (malachite) chloride (eriochalcite)

CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 CuCl2

221.17 134.48

dark gn., mn., 1.875 brn.-yel. pd.

3.9 3.054

d. 498

chloride chromate, basic cyanide dichromate ferricyanide ferrocyanide formate hydroxide lactate nitrate nitrate

CuCl2·2H2O CuCrO4·2CuO·2H2O Cu(CN)2 CuCr2O7·2H2O Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 Cu2Fe(CN)6·7H2O Cu(HCO2)2 Cu(OH)2 Cu(C3H5O3)2·2H2O Cu(NO3)2·3H2O* Cu(NO3)2·6H2O

170.52 374.75 115.61 315.62 614.63 465.21 153.61 97.59 277.74 241.63 295.68

gn., rhb., 1.684 yel.-brn. yel.-gn. bk., tri. yel.-gn. red-brn. blue, mn. blue, gelatinous dark blue, mn. blue, delq. blue, rhb.

2.3922.4°

−2H2O, 110 −2H2O, 260 d. −2H2O, 100

277.51

1049 −6H2O, 110 d.

i. i.

3380° 0.0003818° i. s. 7.2 i.

ammonium chloride

dark gn., mn. gn.

117.6 2900 d. 52

20°

CoSO4·7H2O* CoS Cu Cu(C2H3O2)2 Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O (CuOAs2O3)3· Cu(C2H3O2)2* CuCl2·2NH4Cl·2H2O

281.11 91.00 63.57 181.66 199.67 1013.83

2200

2.28618° 1.831 3.368

−H2O

2.0473.9° 2.074

114.5 −3H2O, 26.4

2300

Forms Cu2Cl2 993 d.

−HNO3, 170

i.

d. i. d. d. 45100° 66680° ∞

2.58° al. s. a., aq. reg. s. HNO3, h. H2SO4

s. al.; et., NH4Cl s. HNO3, NH4OH s. KCN, C5H5N s. a.; NH4OH s. NH4OH; i. HCl s. NH4OH; i. a., NH8 0.25 al. s. a., NH4OH, KCN, al. sl. s. al. 10012.5° al. s. al.

*Usual commercial form. †Also a soluble modification.

2-13

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TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

Name Cupric acetate (Cont.) oxide (paramelaconite) oxide (tenorite) oxychloride phosphide sulfate (hydrocyanite) sulfate (blue vitriol or chalcanthite) sulfide (covellite)

Formula

Specific gravity

249.71 95.63

tartate Cuprous ammonium iodide carbonate chloride (nantokite) cyanide

CuC4H4O6·3H2O CuI·NH4I·H2O Cu2CO3 Cu2Cl2 Cu2(CN)2

265.69 353.47 187.15 198.05 179.16

ferricyanide ferrocyanide fluoride hydroxide oxide (cuprite) Cuprous phosphide sulfide (chalcocite) sulfide Cyanogen

Cu3Fe(CN)6 Cu4Fe(CN)6 Cu2F2 CuOH Cu2O Cu6P2 Cu2S Cu2S C2N2

402.67 466.24 165.14 80.58 143.14 443.38 159.20 159.20 52.02

brn.-red brn.-red red cr. yel. red, cb., 2.705 gray-bk. bk., rhb. bk., cb. poisonous gas

Cyanogen compounds, cf. table of organic compounds Ferric acetate, basic ammonium sulfate, cf. Alum chloride (molysite) chloride ferrocyanide (Prussian blue)

Fe(OH)(C2H3O2)2

190.95

brn., amor.

FeCl3 FeCl3·6H2O* Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3

162.22 270.32 859.27

bk.-brn., hex. delq. red-yel., delq. dark blue

2.80411°

282 37 d.

Fe(OH)3 Fe(C3H5O3)3 Fe(NO3)3·6H2O Fe2O3

106.87 323.06 349.97 159.70

red-brn. brn., amor., delq. rhb., delq. red or bk., trig., 3.042 rhb., 1.814 yel., trig. yel., delq. gn. bk., cb., 2.42

3.4 to 3.9

−1aH2O, 500

Fe2(SO4)3 Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O FeCl2·2FeCl3·18H2O Fe′′′ 4 Fe′′ 3 [Fe(CN)6]6 Fe3O4

399.88 562.02 775.49 1662.70 231.55 303.61 392.15

chloride (lawrencite)

Fe3O4·4H2O FeSO4·(NH4)2SO4· 6H2O FeCl2

chloroplatinate ferricyanide (Turnbull’s blue) ferrocyanide formate hydroxide nitrate oxide

FePtCl6·6H2O Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2 Fe2Fe(CN)6 Fe(HCO2)2·2H2O Fe(OH)2 Fe(NO3)2·6H2O FeO

571.92 591.47 323.66 181.92 89.87 287.96 71.85

126.76

bk. blue-gn., mn., 1.4915 gn.-yel., hex., 1.567 yel., hex. dark blue blue-wh., amor.

6.40 6.45

Melting point, °C

CuSO4·5H2O* CuS

sulfate sulfate (coquimbite) Ferroso-ferric chloride ferricyanide (Prussian green) oxide (magnetite; magnetic iron oxide) oxide, hydrated Ferrous ammonium sulfate

79.57 79.57 365.69 252.67 159.63

Color, crystalline form and refractive index bk., cb. bk., tri., 2.63 blue-gn. bk. gn.-wh., rhb., 1.733 blue, tri., 1.5368 blue, hex. or mn., 1.45 1 gn. pd. rhb. pl. yel. wh., cb., 1.973 wh., mn.

hydroxide lactate nitrate oxide (hematite)

CuO CuO CuCl2·2CuO·4H2O Cu3P2 CuSO4

Formula weight

6.35 3.60615° 2.286 15.6° 4 4.6

d. 1026 d. 1026 −3H2O, 140 d. d. >600 −4H2O, 110 tr. 103

Boiling point, °C

d. 422 474.5

3.4 6.0 6.4 to 6.8 5.6 5.80 lq. 0.866−17.2°; 1.806 (A)

i. i. 75.4100°

Other reagents s. a.; KCN, NH4Cl s. a., KCN, NH4Cl s. a. s. HNO3; i. HCl i. al.

24.3 0.00003318°

205100°

1.18° al. s. HNO3, KCN

0.1485°

1366 d.

0.0215° d. i. 1.5225° i.

s. a., KOH s. NH4I s. a., NH4OH s. HCl, NH4OH, al. s. KCN, HCl, NH4OH; sl. s. NH3 s. NH4OH; i. HCl s. NH4OH; i. NH4Cl s. HF, HCl, HNO3; i. al. s. a., NH4OH s. HCl, NH4Cl, NH4OH s. HNO3; i. HCl s. HNO3, NH4OH; i. act. s. HNO3, NH4OH; i. act. 230020° cc al.; 50018° cc et.

908 −aH2O, 360 1235

subl. 1100 −O, 1800

1100 1130 −34.4

−20.5



i. i. i. i. i. i. 0.000518° 0.000518° 45020° cc

i. i.

i. i.

i.

s. a.; al. v. s. al.; et. +HCl s. al., act., gly. s. HCl, conc. H2SO4; i. al., et. s. a.; i. al., et. i. et. s. al., act. s. HCl

74.40° 2460° i.

535.8100° ∞ d.

i. v. s. 1500° i.

i. v. s. ∞ d. d. s.

5.2

d. 50 d. 180 1538 d.

sl. s. 440 s. i. i.

i.

s. d. h. HCl i. al.

1.864

d. d.

i. 180°

i. 10075°

s. a. i. al.

64.410°

105.7100°

100 al.; s. act.; i. et.

v. s. i. i. sl. s. 0.00067 2000° i.

v. s.

20°

1.684 5.12

35 1560 d.

3.09718° 2.1

d. 480

2.7

315 280

d.

delq.

2.714 d. d.

lt. gn. cr. bk.

i. i. i. i. 14.30°

Hot water

Forms CuO, 650 −5H2O, 250 d. 220

d. 4.4 3.53 2.9

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

3.4 5.7

60.5 1420

2-14

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i. H2SO4, NH3 s. abs. al.

i. dil. a., al.

30025° i.

s. a., NH4Cl s. a.; i. alk.

phosphate (vivianite)

Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O

501.64

silicate sulfate (siderotilate) sulfate (copperas) sulfide cf. also under iron Fluoboric acid Fluorine

FeSiO3 FeSO4·5H2O FeSO4·7H2O* FeS

131.91 241.99 278.02 87.91

HBF4 F2

87.83 38.00

Fluosilicic acid Gadolinium Gallium bromide Glucinum cf. Beryllium Gold Gold, colloidal Gold salts cf. under Auric and Aurous Hafnium Helium Hydrazine formate hydrate hydrochloride hydrochloride, dinitrate nitrate, disulfate sulfate Hydrazoic acid (azoimide) Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid

H2SiF6 Gd GaBr3

144.08 156.9 309.47

Au Au

197.20 197.20

yel. met., cb. blue to vl.

19.3

1063

2600

Hf He N2H4 N2H4·2HCO2H N2H4·H2O N2H4·HCl N2H4·2HCl N2H4·HNO3 N2H4·2HNO3 N2H4·aH2SO4 N2H4·H2SO4 HN3 HI HI·H2O HI·2H2O HI·3H2O HI·4H2O HBr HBr·H2O

178.6 4.00 32.05 124.10 50.06 68.51 104.98 95.06 158.08 81.09 130.12 43.03 127.93 145.94 163.96 181.98 199.99 80.92 98.94

hex. col. gas col. lq. cb. col. yel. lq. wh., cb. cr. nd. delq. pl. rhb. col. lq. col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. gas; 1.325 (lq.) col. lq.

12.1 0.1368 (A) 1.011 15° 4

>1700 3200(?) −268.9 113.5

Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrocyanic acid (prussic acid)

HBr (47.8% in H2O) HBr·2H2O HCl† HCl (45.2% in H2O) HCl·2H2O HCl·3H2O HCN

80.92 116.96 36.47 36.47 72.50 90.51 27.03

1.486 2.11−15° 1.2680° (A) 1.48 1.46 −18.3° 4

Hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen

HF HF (35.35% in H2O) H2

col. lq. wh. cr. col. gas; 1.256 (lq.) col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. poisonous gas or col. lq., 1.254 gas or col. lq. col. lq. col. gas or cb.

peroxide selenide sulfide Hydroxylamine hydrochloride nitrate sulfate

H2O2‡ H2Se H2S NH2OH NH2OH·HCl NH2OH·HNO3 NH2OH·aH2SO4

20.01 20.01 2.016 34.02 81.22 34.08 33.03 69.50 96.05 82.07

blue, mn., 1.592, 1.603 mn. gn., tri., 1.536 blue-gn., mn. bk., hex. col. lq. gn.-yel. gas

2.58 3.5 2.2 1.89914.8° 4.84 lq. 1.51−187°; 1.3115° (A)

1550

col. lq., 1.333 col. gas col. gas rhb., delq. col., mn. col. cr. col., mn.

1.0321° 1.42

1.378 4.40° (A) 1.715°

2.710° (A) 1.78

18°

0.697

0.98813.6° 1.15 lq. 0.0709−252.7° 0.06948 (A) 1.438 20° 4 2.12−42° 1.1895 (A) 1.3518° 1.6717°

i.

s. a.; i. ac.

64 1193

−5H2O, 300 −7H2O, 300 d.

s. 32.80° 0.00061618°

s. 14950°

i. al. i. al. s. a.; i. NH3

−223

130 d. −187

∞ d.



s. al.

s.

s.

s.

s.

i. s.

i.

s. aq. reg., KCN; i. a. s. aq. reg., KCN; i. a.

0.970° cc ∞ s. ∞ v. s. s. 174.910° v. s. v. s. 3.05522° ∞ 4250010° cc ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 2210°

1.0850° cc ∞

Absorbed by Pt s. al.

∞ v. s. v. s. v. s.

∞ al.; i. et. sl. s. al. s. al.

delq. cr. 20°

i.

198 70.7 104 85 254 −80 −50.8 −43 −48 −36.5 −86

118.5739.5mm subl. 140 d. 37 −35.5 127774mm

−67

−11 −111 −15.35 0 −24.4 −14

d. d. 26

∞ s. 82.30° ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

−83 −35 −259.1

19.4 120 −252.7

∞ 0° to 19.4° v. s. 2.10° cc

−0.89 −64 −82.9 34 151 48 170 d.

126 −85

760mm

151.4 −42 −59.6 56.522mm d. d. 560

>4800

0.01620° 187.412° s. d. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. d.

83.91 119.97 119.97 647.43

yel.-gray, oct. yel., rhb. yel., cb. hex.

6.1 20° 4 4.87 5.0 4.6 20° 4

d. d.

i. 0.00049 0.0005 i.

i.

tr. 450 1171 d. >700

Kr La Pb

83.70 138.92 207.21

col. gas lead gray silv. met., cb.

2.818 (A) 6.1520° 20° 11.337 20

−169 826 327.5

−151.8 1800 1620

11.050° cc d. i.

3.5760° cc

Pb(C2H3O2)2 Pb(C2H3O2)2·3H2O† Pb(C2H3O2)2IOH2O Pb2(C2H3O2)3OH Pb(C2H3O2)2· Pb(OH)2·H2O Pb(C2H3O2)2· 2Pb(OH)2 PbH4(AsO4)2 PbHAsO4 Pb(AsO3)2 Pb2As2O7 PbN6 PbBr2

325.30 379.35 505.46 608.56 584.54

wh. cr. wh., mn. wh., rhb. wh. wh. nd.

3.251 20° 4 2.55 1.689

280 −3H2O, 75 22

807.75

wh. nd.

489.06 347.13 453.03 676.24 291.26 367.05

tri., 1.82 wh., mn., 1.9097 hex. rhb., 2.03 col. nd. col., rhb.

4.46 5.94 6.4215° 15° 6.85 15 6.66

802 expl. 350 373

253.84 333.84 1120.91 193.10 55.85 55.85 55.85 55.85 55.85 179.56 195.90 125.71

15°

d. 140 d. >200

3000

102.5760mm

−H2O, 280

918

i. i. i. i. i. i. i.

i.

19.70° 45.6415° s. v. s. v. s.

22150° 200100° s.

5.55

18.2

d. i. d. i. i. 0.45540°

d. 0.05100° 4.75100°

sl. s.

PbCO3

267.22

wh., rhb., 2.0763

6.6

d. 315

0.0001120°

d.

2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2† PbCl2 PbCrO4 PbCrO4·PbO Pb(HCO2)2 3PbO·H2O Pb(NO3)2

775.67 278.12 323.22 546.43 297.25 687.65 331.23

6.14 5.80 6.12

d. 400 501 844

4.56 7.592 4.53

d. 190 −H2O, 130 d. 470

i. 0.6730° 0.00000720° i. 1.616° 0.014 38.80°

i. 3.34100° i. i. 18100° d.

oxide, suboxide, mono- (litharge)

Pb2O PbO

430.42 223.21

wh., hex. wh., rhb., 2.2172 yel., mn., 2.42 or.-yel. nd. wh., rhb. cb. col., cb. or mn., 1.7815 bk., amor. yel., tet.

8.34 9.53

d. red heat 888

i. 0.006818°

i.

oxide, mono (massicotite)

PbO

223.21

yel., rhb., 2.61

8.0

2-16

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s. a. v. s. 87% al.; i. abs. al. et., chl. s. al., KI, et. i. abs. al., et., chl. sl. s. aq. reg., aq. Cl2 s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a. s. al., H2SO4, alk. s. HCl, H2SO4 i. aq. reg. i. dil. a. i. dil. a.

sl. s. al., bz. s. a. s. HNO3; i. c. HCl, H2SO4 s. gly.; v. sl. s. al. s. gly.; sl. s. al. sl. s. al. s. al.

carbonate (cerussite) carbonate, basic (hydrocerussite; white lead) chloride (cotunnite) chromate (crocoite) chromate, basic formate hydroxide nitrate

954760mm d.

Other reagents

138.8100°

s. al. s. HNO3 s. HNO3, NaOH s. HNO3 s. HCl, HNO3; i. sc. v. s. ac.; i. NH4OH s. a., KBr.; sl. s. NH3; i. al. s. a., alk.; i. NH3, al. s. ac.; sl. s. aq. CO2 sl. s. dil. HCl, NH3, i. al. s. a., alk.; i. NH3, ac. s. a., alk. i. al. s. a., alk. 8.822° al. s. a., alk. s. alk., PbAc, NH4Cl, CaCl2

oxide, mono-

PbO

223.21

amor.

9.2 to 9.5

oxide, red (minium) oxide, sesquioxide, di- (plattnerite) silicate sulfate (anglesite)

Pb3O4 Pb2O3 PbO2 PbSiO3 PbSO4

685.63 462.42 239.21 283.27 303.27

9.1

Pb(HSO4)2·H2O PbSO4·PbO PbS Pb(CNS)2 Li LiC7H5O2 LiBr

419.36 526.48 239.27 323.37 6.94 128.05 86.86

LiBr·2H2O Li2CO3 LiCl

122.89 73.89 42.40

citrate fluoride formate hydride hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrate oxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, tribasic salicylate sulfate sulfate sulfate, acid Lutecium Magnesium acetate acetate aluminate (spinel)

Li3C6H5O7·4H2O LiF LiHCO2·H2O LiH LiOH LiOH·H2O LiNO3 LiNO3·3H2O Li2O LiH2PO4 Li3PO4 Li3PO4·12H2O LiC7H5O3 Li2SO4 Li2SO4·H2O† LiHSO4 Lu Mg Mg(C2H3O2)2 Mg(C2H3O2)2·4H2O† MgO·Al2O3

281.98 25.94 69.97 7.95 23.95 41.96 68.95 123.00 29.88 103.94 115.80 331.99 144.05 109.94 127.96 104.01 174.99 24.32 142.41 214.47 142.26

red, amor. red-yel., amor. brn., tet., 2.229 col., mn., 1.961 wh., mn. or rhb., 1.8823 cr. col., mn. lead gray, cb., 3.912 col., mn. silv. met. cb. wh. leaflets wh., delq., cb., 1.784 wh. pr. col., mn., 1.567 wh., delq., cb., 1.662 wh. cr. wh., cb., 1.3915 col., rhb. wh., cb. wh. cr. col., mn. col., trig., 1.735 col. col., 1.644 col. wh., rhb. wh., trig. col. col., mn., 1.465 col., mn., 1.477 pr.

ammonium chloride ammonium phosphate (struvite) ammonium sulfate (boussingaultite) benzoate carbonate (magnesite) carbonate (nesquehonite) carbonate, basic (hydromagnesite) Magnesium chloride (chloromagnesite) chloride (bischofite) hydroxide (brucite) nitride oxide (magnesia; periclase) perchlorate

MgCl2·NH4Cl·6H2O MgNH4PO4·6H2O

256.83 245.44

sulfate, acid sulfate, basic (lanarkite) sulfide (galena) thiocyanate Lithium benzoate bromide bromide carbonate chloride

MgSO4·(NH4)2SO4· 6H2O Mg(C7H5O2)2·3H2O MgCO3 MgCO3·3H2O 3MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·3H2O MgCl2 MgCl2·6H2O† Mg(OH)2 Mg3N2 MgO Mg(ClO4)2†

i.

i.

d. 500 d. 360 d. 290 766

i. i. i. i.

i. i. i.

1336 6 5

3.464 25° 4

547

1265

0.00280° 0.000118° 0.004418° 0.0000918° 0.0520° d. 3325° 1430° (2H2O)

0.005640°

6.92 7.5 3.82 0.5320°

1170 d. 977 1120 d. 190 186

2.110° 2.068 25° 4

44 618 614

d. 1360

24620° 1.540° 670°

9.375 6.49 6.2

2.29521.5° 1.46 0.820 2.54 1.83 2.38 2.013 25° 4

d. 870 −H2O, 94 680 445 261 29.88

2.22 2.06 2.12313°

>100 837 100 d. 860 −H2O, 130 170.5

silv. met., hex. wh. wh., mn. pr., 1.491 col. cb., 1.718–23

1.7420° 1.42 1.454 3.6

651 323 80 2135

wh., rhb., delq. col., rhb., 1.496

1.456 1.715

−4H2O, 195 d. 100

2.461 2.53717.5° 1.645

1670 9256 d. subl. 120

16.86

320.59 83.43 138.38 365.37

wh. pd. wh., trig. 1.700 col., rhb., 1.501 wh., rhb., 1.530

3.037 1.852 2.16

−3H2O, 110 d. 350 −H2O, 100 d.

4.525° (anh.) 0.0106 0.151819° 0.04

d. 0.011

s. act. s. a., aq. CO2; i. act., NH3 s. a., aq. CO2 s. a., NH4 salts; i. al.

95.23

col., hex., 1.675

2.32525°

712

52.80°

73100°

50 al.

203.33 58.34 100.98 40.32 223.23

wh., delq., mn., 1.507 wh., trig., 1.5617 gn.-yel., amor. col., cb., 1.7364 wh., delq.

1.56 2.4 3.65 2.6025°

118 d. d. d. 2800 d.

1412 d. 3600





281 0.000918° i. 0.00062 99.625°

100°

130 s.

100°

918 d. v. s.

50 al. s. NH4 salts, dil. a. s. a.; i. al. s. a., NH4 salts; i. al. 2425 al., 51.825° m. al.; 0.29 et.

*See also a table of alloys. †Usual commercial form.

2-17

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Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

TABLE 2-1

Name

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

Magnesium chloride (Cont.) peroxide phosphate, pyrophosphate, pyropotassium chloride (carnallite) potassium sulfate (picromerite) silicofluoride sodium chloride sulfate sulfate (epsom salt; epsomite) Manganese acetate acetate carbonate (rhodocrosite)

MgO2 Mg2P2O7 Mg2P2O7·3H2O MgCl2·KCl·6H2O MgSO4·K2SO4·6H2O MgSiF6·6H2O MgCl2·NaCl·H2O MgSO4 MgSO4·7H2O* Mn Mn(C2H3O2)2 Mn(C2H3O2)2·4H2O* MnCO3

56.32 222.60 276.65 277.88 402.73 274.48 171.70 120.38 246.49 54.93 173.02 245.08 114.94

wh. pd. col., mn., 1.604 wh., amor. delq., rhb., 1.475 mn., 1.4629 col., trig., 1.3439 col. col. col., rhb., 1.4554 gray-pink met.

chloride (scacchite) chloride

MnCl2 MnCl2·4H2O*

125.84 197.91

chloride, perhydroxide (ous) (pyrochroite) hydroxide (ic) (manganite) nitrate oxide (ous) (manganosite) oxide (ic) oxide, di- (pyrolusite; polianite) sulfate (ous) sulfate (ous) (szmikite)

MnCl4 Mn(OH)2 Mn2O3·H2O Mn(NO3)2·6H2O MnO Mn2O3 MnO2*

196.76 88.95 175.88 287.04 70.93 157.86 86.93

rose, delq., cb. rose red, delq., mn. 1.575 gn. wh., trig. brn., rhb., 2.24 rose red, mn. gray-gn., cb., 2.16 brn.-bk., cb. bk., rhb.

MnSO4 MnSO4·H2O

150.99 169.01

red-wh. pa. pink, mn., 1.595

sulfate (ous)

MnSO4·2H2O

187.02

2.52615° 15°

pa. pink, mn. rose, trig., 1.817

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

2.59822° 2.56 1.60 19.4° 4 2.15 1.788 17.5° 4

expl. 275 1383 −3H2O, 100 265 d. 72 d.

2.66 1.68 7.220° 1.74 20° 4 1.589 3.125

1185 70 d. 1260

2.977 25° 4 2.01

650 58.0

3.25818° 3.258 1.8221° 5.18 4.81 5.026

d. d. 25.8 1650 −0, 1080 −0, >230

3.235 2.87

sulfate (ous)

MnSO4·7H2O

277.10

pink, mn. or rhb.

2.092

sulfate (ic)

Mn2(SO4)3

398.04

gn., delq. cr.

3.24

Ma Hg(C2H3O2)2 HgBr2 HgCO3·2HgO HgCl2 Hg(CNO)2 Hg(OH)2 HgO HgCl2·3HgO HgSiF6·HgO·3H2O HgSO4 HgSO4·2HgO HgC2H3O2 HgBr Hg2CO3

98–99.5 318.70 360.44 693.84 271.52 284.65 234.63 216.61 921.35 613.33 296.67 729.89 259.65 280.53 461.23

11.5 3.270 6.053

2300 (?) d. 237

5.44 4.42

277 expl. −H2O, 175 d. 100 d. 260

MnSO4·3H2O

205.04

sulfate (ous)

MnSO4·4H2O*

223.05

sulfate (ous)

MnSO4·5H2O

241.07

sulfate (ous)

MnSO4·6H2O

259.09

Masurium Mercuric acetate bromide carbonate, basic chloride (corrosive sublimate) fulminate hydroxide oxide (montroydite) oxychloride (kleinite) silicofluoride, basic sulfate sulfate, basic (turpeth) Mercurous acetate bromide carbonate

2.356 pink, rhb. or mn., 1.518 pink, tri., 1.508

wh. pl. wh., rhb. brn.-red wh., rhb., 1.859 cb. yel. or red, rhb., 2.5 yel., hex. yel. nd. wh., rhb. yel., tet. wh. sc. wh., tet. yel. pd.

2.107 15°

2.103

11.14 7.93 6.47 6.44 7.307

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

Hot water

Other reagents

i. i. i. 64.519° d. 19.260° 64.817.5° s. 26.90° 72.40° d. s. s. 0.006525°

i. i. sl. s. d. 81.775° s. s. 68.3100° 17840°

63.40° 1518°

123.8100° ∞

s. al., m. al. s. aq. CO2, dil. a.; l. NH3, al. s. al.; i. et., NH3 s. al.; i. et.

129.5

s. 0.00220° i. 4260° i. i. i.

s. i. i. ∞ i. i. i.

s. al., et. s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. s. h. H2SO4 v. s. al. s. a., NH4Cl s. a.; i. act. s. HCl; i. HNO3, act.

d. 850

530° 98.4748°

7350° 79.77100°

s. al.; i. et.

85.2735°

106.855°

1900

d.

700 Stable 57 to 117 Stable 40 to 57 Stable 30 to 40 Stable 18 to 30 Stable 8 to 18 Stable −5 to +8 Stable −10 to −5; 19 d. d. 160

sulfate (ous)

Boiling point, °C

1190 −H2O, 106; −4H2O, 200



−4H2O, 450

74.22

99.3157°

13616°

16950°



−7H2O, 280

322 304

d. d. subl. 345 d. 130

2-18

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s. 64.550°

200

2040°

2479°

176

d. HF s. al. s. al. s. dil. a.

i. al.

35°

142



s. a. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. al. d. al.

25114°

v. s.

d.

s. HCl, dil. H2SO4; l. conc. H2SO4, HNO3

2510° 0.520° i. 3.60° sl. s. i. 0.005225° i. d. d. 0.005 0.7513° 7 × 10−9 i.

100100° 25100°

s. al. sl. d. 25.20° al.; v. sl. s. et. s. aq. CO2, NH4Cl 3325° 99% al.; 33 et. s. NH4OH, al. s. a. s. a.; i. al. s. HCl s. a. s. a.; i. al., act., NH8 s. a.; i. al. s. H2SO4, HNO3; i. al. s. a.; i. al., act. s. NH4Cl

61.3100° i. 0.041100° d. 0.167100° d. i. d.

HgCl

236.07

wh., tet., 1.9733

7.150

302

383.7

0.00140°

0.000743°

iodide nitrate Mercurous oxide

HgI HgNO3·H2O Hg2O

327.53 280.63 417.22

yel., tet. wh. mn. bk.

7.70 4.7853.9° 9.8

290 d. 70 d. 100

subl. 140; 310d. expl.

2 × 10−8 v. s. i.

v. sl. s. d. 0.0007

sulfate Mercury† Molybdenum

Hg2SO4 Hg Mo

497.28 200.61 95.95

wh., mn. silv. lq. or hex.(?) gray, cb.

7.56 13.54620° 10.2

d. −38.87 2620 6 10

0.05516.5° i. i.

0.092100° i. i.

MoCl2

166.85

yel., amor.

3.714 25° 4

d.

i.

i.

3.578 25° 4

d.

chloride (calomel)

chloride, dichloride, tri-

MoCl3

202.32

dark red pd.

chloride, tetra-

MoCl4

237.78

brn., delq.

chloride, pentaoxide, tri- (molybdite) sulfide, di- (molybdenite) sulfide, trisulfide, tetraMolybdic acid Molybdic acid Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel

MoCl5 MoO3 MoS2 MoS3 MoS4 H2MoO4 H2MoO4·H2O Nd Ne 239

273.24 143.95 160.07 192.13 224.19 161.97 179.98 144.27 20.18

Np Ni

239 58.69 176.78 291.20 394.99 422.62 218.52 272.57 320.71 841.51 118.70 587.58

carbonyl chloride chloride

Ni(C2H3O2)2 NiCl2·NH4Cl·6H2O NiSO4·(NH4)2SO4· 6H2O Ni(BrO3)2·6H2O NiBr2 NiBr2·3H2O NiBr2·6NH3 NiPtBr6·6H2O NiCO3 2NiCO3·3Ni(OH)2· 4H2O Ni(CO)4 NiCl2 NiCl2·6H2O*

chloride, ammonia cyanide dimethylglyoxime

NiCl2·6NH3 Ni(CN)2·4H2O NiC8H14O4N4

231.80 182.79 288.91

formate hydroxide (ic) hydroxide (ous) nitrate nitrate, ammonia oxide, mono- (bunsenite) potassium cyanide sulfate

Ni(HCO2)2·2H2O Ni(OH)3 Ni(OH)2·dH2O Ni(NO3)2·6H2O Ni(NO3)2·4NH3·2H2O NiO Ni(CN)2·2KCN·H2O NiSO4

184.76 109.71 97.21 290.80 286.87 74.69 258.97 154.75

acetate ammonium chloride ammonium sulfate bromate bromide bromide bromide, ammonia bromoplatinate carbonate carbonate, basic

170.73 129.60 237.70

bk. cr. col., rhb. bk., hex., 4.7 red-brn. brn. pd. yel-wh., hex. yel., mn. yellowish col. gas

2.928 25° 4 19.5°

4.50 4.80114°

3.12415° 6.920° lq. 1.204−245.9° 0.674 (A)

s. lq. O2, al., act., bz.

i.

s. dil. HNO3; sl. s. H2SO4, HCl; i. NH3 i. al.

s.

d.

194

268

s.

795 1185 d. d. d. 115 −H2O, 70 840 −248.67

subl.

−2H2O, 200 −245.9

d. 18°

0.107 i. sl. s. i. v. sl. s. 0.13318° d. 2.60° cc 238

Produced by Neutron bombardment of U 1452 2900 i.

gn. pr. gn., delq., mn. blue-gn., mn., 1.5007 gn., cb. yel., delq. gn., delq. vl. pd. trig. lt. gn., rhb. lt. gn.

1.798 1.645 1.923

d.

2.575 4.64 28° 4

16.6 15025° 2.53.5°

v. s. 39.288°

v. sl. s. (NH4)2SO4

d. d. −3H2O, 200

28 112.80° 1999° v. s.

156100° 316100° d.

s. NH4OH s. al., et., NH4OH s. al., et., NH4OH i. c. NH4OH

d. d.

0.009325° i.

i. d.

s. a. s. a., NH4 salts

0.0189.8° 53.80° 180

i. 87.6100° v. s.

s. aq. reg., HNO3, al., et. s. NH4OH, al.; i. NH3 v. s. al.

s. i. i.

d. i. i.

s. NH4OH; i. al. s. KCN; i. dil. KCl s. abs. al., a.; i. ac., NH4OH

i. v. sl. s. ∞56.7°

s. a., NH4OH, NH4Cl s. a., NH4OH; i. alk. s. NH4OH; i. abs. al. i. al. s. a., NH4OH d. a. i. al., et., act.

1.837 3.715

gn. pl. scarlet red cr.

1.145° cc

d.

d.

8.9020

1.3117° 3.544

2.10679° i. s. i. sl. s. 2.1370°

i.

volt.

silv. met., cb.

lq. yel., delq. gn., delq., mn., 1.576

356.9 3700

s. aq. reg., Hg(NO3)2; sl. s. HNO3, HCl; i. al., etc. s. KI; i. al. s. HNO3; i. al., et. s. h. ac.; i. alk., dil. HCl, NH3 s. H2SO4, HNO3 s. HNO3; i. HCl s. h. conc. H2SO4; i. HCl, HF, NH3, dil. H2SO4, Hg s. HCl, H2SO4, NH4OH, al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; v. sl. s. al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; sl. s. al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; i. abs. al., et. s. a., NH4OH s. H2SO4, aq. reg. s. alk. sulfides s. alk. sulfides; i. NH3 s. NH4OH, H2SO4; i. NH s. a., NH4OH, NH4, salts

−25 subl.

43751mm 973

−4H2O, 200 subl. 250

d.

gn. cr. bk. lt. gn. gn., mn.

2.154 4.36 2.05

d. d. d. 56.7

gn.-bk., cb., 2.37 red yel., mn. yel., cb.

7.45 1.87511° 3.68

Forms Ni2O3 at 400 −H2O, 100 −SO3, 840

136.7

s. i. v. sl. s. 243.00° v. s. i. s. 27.20°

i. 76.7100°

*Usual commercial form. †See also Tables 2-28 and 2-280. 2-19

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Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

TABLE 2-1

Name Nickel (Cont.) sulfate

Formula NiSO4·6H2O*

sulfate (morenosite) Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitro acid sulfite Nitrogen

NiSO4·7H2O HNO3 HNO3·H2O HNO3·3H2O NO2HSO3 N2

Nitrogen oxide, mono- (ous)

N2O

oxide, di- (ic)

NO or (NO)2

oxide, tri-

N2O3

oxide, tetra- (per- or di-)

NO2 or (NO2)2

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

262.85

gn. mn. or blue, tet., 1.5109 gn., rhb., 1.4893 col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col., rhb. col. gas or cb. cr.

280.86 63.02 81.03 117.06 127.08 28.02 44.02

col. gas

30.01 (60.02) 76.02

col. gas red-brn. gas or blue lq. or solid yel. lq., col. solid, red-brn. gas wh., rhb.

oxide, penta-

N2O5

46.01 (92.02) 108.02

oxybromide oxychloride

NOBr NOCl

109.92 65.47

brn. lq. red-yel. lq. or gas

Nitroxyl chloride Osmium chloride, dichloride, trichloride, tetraOxygen

NO2Cl Os OsCl2 OsCl3 OsCl4 O2

81.47 190.2 261.11 296.57 332.03 32.00

yel.-brn. gas blue, hex. gn., delq. brn., cb. red-yel. nd. col. gas or hex. solid

Ozone

O3

Palladium

Pd

106.70

silv. met., cb.

PdBr2 PdCl2 PdCl2·2H2O Pd(CN)2

266.53 177.61 213.65 158.74

brn. brn., cb. brn. pr. yel.

Pd2H Pd(NH3)2Cl2 HClO4 HClO4·H2O HClO4·2H2O* 73.6% anh. HIO4 HIO4·2H2O HMnO4 HMoO4·2H2O H2S2O8 PONH2·(OH)2 H7P(Mo2O7)6·28H2O PH3

214.41 211.68 100.46 118.48 136.50

met. red or yel., tet. unstable, col. lq fairly stable nd. stable lq., col.

bromide (ous) chloride chloride cyanide hydride Palladous dichlorodiammine Perchloric acid Perchloric acid Perchloric acid Periodic acid Periodic acid Permanganic acid Permolybdic acid Persulfuric acid Phosphamic acid Phosphatomolybdic acid Phosphine Phosphonium chloride

PH4Cl

48.00

191.93 227.96 119.94 196.99 194.14 97.02 2365.88 34.00 70.47

col. gas

wh. cr. delq., mn. exists only in solution wh. cr. hyg. cr. cb. yel. cb. col. gas wh., cb.

Specific gravity 2.07 1.948 1.502

Melting point, °C

−6H2O, 280

13150°

98–100 −42 −38 −18.5 73 d. −209.86

−6H2O, 103 86



−9.3

1.448

18°

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

tr. 53.3

1.026−252.5° 0.808−195.8° 12.50° (D) lq. 1.226−89° −102.3 1.530 (A) lq. 1.269−150.2° −161 1.0367 (A) 1.4472° −102 20°

Boiling point, °C

Hot water 280100° 30°

117.8 ∞ ∞ ∞

−195.8

63.5 ∞ ∞ 263−20° d. 2.350° cc

−90.7

130.520° cc

−151

7.340° cc

60.8224° cc 0.0100°

3.5

s.

21.3

d.

1.5520° cc

Other reagents v. s. NH4OH, al. s. al. expl. with al. d. al. d. al. s. H2SO4 sl. s. al. s. H2SO4, al. 26.6 cc al.; 3.5 cc H2SO4; s. aq. FeSO4 s. a., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4, chl., CS2

1.63

30

47

s.

>1.0 1.417−12° 2.31 (A) lq. 1.3214° 22.4820°

−55.5 −64.5

−2 −5.5

d. d.

5300

1.14−188° 1.426−252.5° 1.1053 (A) 1.71−183° 3.03−80° 1.658 (A) 12.020° 111550°

−218.4

−183

d i. s. d. sl. s. s. d. 4.890° cc

−251

−112

0.4940° cc

060° cc

s. oil turp., oil cinn.

1555

2200

i.

i.

i. s. s. i.

i. s. s. i.

s. aq. reg., h. H2SO4; i. NH3 s. HBr s. HCl, act., al. s. HCl, act., al. s. HCN, KCN, NH4OH; i. dil. a.

d. 560–600

500 d. d. 11.06 2.5 1.768 22° 4 1.88 1.71 25° 4

Forms HNO3 s. fuming H2SO4 i.

2.630° cc 1.7100° cc

sl. s. aq. reg., HNO3; i. NH3 s. NaCl, al., et. s. a., alk., al.; sl. s. et. s. HCl, al. sl. s. al., s. fused Ag

d.

−90°

lq. 0.746 1.146 (A)

−112 50 −17.8

1618mm d. 200

d. 138 d. 110

subl. 110

1950 2450 >1300 1200 58 26 50 220

s. KOH sl. s. al.; i. et. 0.130° al.; i. et. v. s. NH3; sl. s. al.

s. al., et. 0.10520° m. al.; i. et. s. H2SO4; d. al. i. al. i. al. sl. s. al. i. al. s. a. i. al. s. al., et. i. al. i. al. i. al., act., CS2 s. al., gly.; i. et. sl. s. al.; i. NH3 i. abs. al. sl. s. al. s. a., alk.; i. al., ac. 20.822° act.; s. al. i. al.

d. d. +H2 7020° 510° cc

s. 8.560° cc

3440 12.5

Other reagents

d. a. s. al. i. HF, HCl; s. H2SO4; HNO3 sl. s. aq. reg., a. v. sl. s. alk.; i. aq. reg., a. s. HCl, al.; i. et. s. a., al.

i. i.

700

i. i. v. s. d.

>2700

i. i.

i. i.

sl. s. aq. reg., a.

2400 260 205 688 688

130030° v. s. i. i.

∞60°

s. H2SO4; d. al.; i. NH3

i. i.

s. CS2, H2SO4, CH2I2 s. CS2, H2SO4

2-22

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Selenium Selenous acid Silicic acid, metaSilicic acid, orthoSilicon, crystalline

Se8 H2SeO3 H2SiO3 H4SiO4 Si

631.68 128.98 78.08 96.09 28.06

Silicon, graphitic

Si

Silicon, amorphous carbide chloride, trichloride, tetra-

Si SiC Si2Cl6 SiCl4

28.06 40.07 268.86 169.89

SiF4 SiH4 SiO2·xH2O SiO2

104.06 32.09

SiO2 SiO2 SiO2 Ag AgBr

60.06 60.06 60.06 107.88 187.80

carbonate chloride (cerargyrite)

Ag2CO3 AgCl

cyanide nitrate (lunar caustic) Sodium acetate acetate aluminate amide Sodium ammonium phosphate antimonate, metaarsenate arsenate, acid (monobasic) arsenate, acid (dibasic) arsenate, acid (dibasic) arsenite, acid benzoate bicarbonate bifluoride bisulfate bisulfite borate, tetraborate, tetra

fluoride hydride (silane) oxide, di- (opal) oxide, di- (cristobalite) oxide, di- (lechatelierite) oxide, di- (quartz) oxide, di- (tridymite) Silver bromide (bromyrite)

borate, tetra- (borax)

28.06

steel gray hex. amor., 1.41 amor. gray, cb., 3.736

4.825° 3.004 15° 4 2.1–2.3 1.57617° 2.420°

217 d.

688

1420

2600

i. 900° i. sl. s. i.

i. 40090° i. sl. s. i.

cr.

2.0–2.5

2600

i.

i.

brn., amor. blue-bk., trig., 2.654 lf. or lq. col., fuming lq., 1.412 gas col. gas iridescent, amor. col., cb. or tet., 1.487

2 3.17 1.580° 1.50

>2700 −1 −70

2600 subl. 2200 144760mm 57.6

i. i. d. d.

i. i.

3.57 (A) lq. 0.68−185° 2.2 2.32

−95.7 −185 1600–1750 1710

−651810mm −112760mm subl. 1750 2230

v. s. d. i. i. i.

hex., 1.5442 trig., rhb., 1.469 silv. met., cb. pa. yel., cb., 2.252

2.20 2.65020° 2.26 10.520° 6.473 25° 4

tr. 315 d. 741

d., −H2O

75

−10H2O, 200

17.5°

bromate bromide bromide

NaBrO3 NaBr NaBr·2H2O

150.91 102.91 138.95

col., cb. col., cb., 1.6412 col., mn.

3.339 3.20517.5° 2.176

381 755 50.7

carbonate (soda ash) carbonate

Na2CO3 Na2CO3·H2O

106.00 124.02

2.533 1.55

851 −H2O, 100

carbonate carbonate (sal soda)

Na2CO3·7H2O Na2CO3·10H2O

232.12 286.16

wh. pd., 1.535 wh., rhb., 1.506– 1.509 rhb. or trig. wh., mn., 1.425

1.51 1.46

d. 35.1

−7H2O, 100 −12H2O, 100

0.00002220° 1220° d., forms NaOH 46.520° v. s. s. d. 16.7 0.03112.8° 26.717° s. 6115° 5.590.1° v. s. 62.525° 6.90° 3.720° 500° sl. s. 1.30° 2262° (anh.)

i. i.

i. 0.00037100°

952100° 170100° v. s. v. s. 100

s. HF; i. alk. s. HF; i. alk. s. HF; i. alk. s. HNO3, h. H2SO4; i. alk. 0.5118° NH4OH; s. KCN, Na2S2O3 s. NH4OH, Na2S2O3; i. al. s. NH4OH, KCN; sl. s. HCl s. NH4OH, KCN, HNO3 s. gly.; v. sl. s. al. i. bz.; d. al. 2.118° al. 7.825° abs. al. i. al. d. al. i. al. sl. s. al., NH4 salts; i. ac. 1.67 al., 5015° gly. sl. s. al. sl. s. al. 2.325°, 8.378° al. i. al.

1390

27.5 9020° 79.50° (anh.)

d.

7.10° s. s. 21.50°

s. 23830°



s. HNO3, al., et. i. al., et.; d. KOH s. HF, h. alk., fused CaCl2 s. HF; i. alk.

v. s. 140.730° 76.9100° 16.460° s. 100100° s. 8.7940° 52.3100° (anh.) 20.380° (anh.) 90.9100° 121100° 118.380° (anh.) 48.5104° s.

1.30.5 (anh).

i. CS2; s. H2SO4 v. s. al.; i. NH3 s. alk.; i. NH4Cl s. alk.; i. NH4Cl s. HNO3 + HF, Ag; sl. s. Pb, Zn; i. HF s. HNO3 + HF, fused alk.; i. HF. s. HF, KOH s. fused alk.; i. a. d. alk. d. conc. H2SO4, al.

d. al.; i. NH3 i. al., act. i. al. s. gly.; i. abs. al. i. al. sl. s. al. sl. s. al. i. al., et. s. gly.; i. al., et. i. al.

*Usual commercial form. 2-23

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Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )

TABLE 2-1

Name Sodium ammonium phosphate (Cont.) carbonate, sesqui- (trona) chlorate

Formula

Na3H(CO3)2·2H2O NaClO3

Formula weight

Specific gravity

NaCl Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4·10H2O 2Na3C6H5O7·11H2O NaCN Na2Cr2O7·2H2O

58.45 162.00 342.16 714.36 49.02 298.05

ferricyanide ferrocyanide

Na3Fe(CN)6·H2O Na4Fe(CN)6·10H2O

298.97 484.11

red, delq. yel., mn.

1.458

fluoride (villiaumite) formate hydride

NaF NaHCO2 NaH

tet., 1.3258 wh., mn. silv. nd., 1.470

2.79 1.919 0.92

992 253 d. 800

hydrosulfide hydrosulfide hydrosulfite hydroxide hydroxide hypochlorite iodide iodide lactate nitrate (soda niter) nitrite

NaSH·2H2O NaSH·3H2O Na2S2O4·2H2O NaOH NaOH·3aH2O NaOCl NaI* NaI·2H2O NaC3H5O3 NaNO3 NaNO2

2.130

d. 22 d. 318.4 15.5 d. 651

1300

2.257 2.1680°

d. 308 271

d. 380 d. 320

oxide

Na2O

2.27

subl.

NaBO3·H2O NaClO4 NaClO4·H2O Na2O2* Na2O2·8H2O NaH2PO4·H2O* NaH2PO4·2H2O Na2HPO4·7H2O Na2HPO4·12H2O Na3PO4 Na3PO4·12H2O* Na4P4O12 Na4P2O7* Na4P2O7·10H2O Na2H2P2O7 Na2H2P2O7·6H2O NaKC4H4O6·4H2O Na2SiO3 Na2SiO3·9H2O Na4SiO4 Na2SiF6 Na2SnO3·3H2O Na2SO4 Na2SO4

92.10 110.11 210.15 40.00 103.06 74.45 149.92 185.95 112.07 85.01 69.01 61.99 99.83 122.45 140.47 77.99 222.12 138.01 156.03 268.09 358.17 163.97 380.16 407.91 265.95 446.11 221.97 330.07 282.23 122.05 284.20 184.05 188.05 266.74 142.05 142.05

col., delq., nd. rhb. col. cr. wh., delq. mn. pa. yel., in soln. only col., cb., 1.7745 col., mn. col., amor. col., trig., 1.5874 pa. yel., rhb. wh., delq. wh. pd. rhb., 1.4617 hex. yel.-wh. pd. wh., hex. col., rhb., 1.4852 col., rhb., 1.4629 col., mn., 1.4424 col., mn., 1.4361 wh. wh., trig., 1.4458 col. wh. mn., 1.4525 col., mn., 1.510 col., mn., 1.4645 rhb., 1.493 col., rhb., 1.520 rhb. col., hex., 1.530 wh., hex., 1.312 hex. tablets col., rhb., 1.477 col., mn.

2.163 2.723 1.483 1.857 23.5° 4 18°

2.52

3.6670° 2.448

2.02 2.805 2.040 1.91 1.679 1.52 2.53717.5° 1.62 2.476 2.45 1.82 1.862 1.848 1.790

2.679 2.698

d. 248

Boiling point, °C

chloride chromate chromate citrate cyanide dichromate

42.00 68.01 24.005

2.112 2.49015°

Melting point, °C

wh., mn., 1.5073 wh., cb., or trig., 1.5151 col., cb., 1.5443 yel., rhb. yel., delq., mn. wh., rhb. wh., cb., 1.452 red, mn., 1.6994

perborate perchlorate perchlorate peroxide peroxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, metaphosphate, pyrophosphate, pyrophosphate (pyrodisodium) phosphate (pyrodisodium) potassium tartrate silicate, metaSodium silicate, metasilicate, orthosilicofluoride stannate sulfate (thenardite) sulfate

226.05 106.45

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

800.4 392 19.9 −11H2O, 150 563.7 −2H2O, 84.6; 356 (anh.)

d. 40 482 d. d. 130 d. d. 30 −H2O, 100 60 d. 34.6 1340 73.4 616 d. 988 d. d. 220 70 to 80 1088 47 1018 d. d. 140 tr. 100 to mn. tr. 500 to hex.

d. 1413 d. 1496 d. 400

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

130° 790°

42100° 230100° 0°

1390

d. 200 −12H2O, 180 −11H2O, 100

−4H2O, 215 −6H2O, 100

2-24

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100°

35.7 320° v. s. 9125° 4810° 2380°

39.8 126100° ∞ 250100° 8235° 50880°

18.90° 17.920° (anh.)

67100° 6398.5° (anh.) 5100° 160100°

40° 440° d. d.

Hot water

s. s. 2220° 420° s. 260° 158.70° v. s. v. s. 730° 72.10°

s. s. d. 347100° v. s. 15856° 302100° v. s. v. s. 180100° 163.2100°

Forms NaOH sl. s. 1700° 20915° s. d. s. d. 710° 91.10° 18540° 4.30° 4.50° 28.315° s. 2.260° 5.40° 4.50° 6.90° 260° s. v. s. s. 0.440° 500° 50° 48.840°

d. 320100° 28450° d. d. 39083° 30840° 2000100° 76.730° 77100° ∞ s. 4596° 93100° 2140° 3640° 6626° s. d. v. s. s. 2.45100° 6750° 42100° 42.5100°

Other reagents

s. al. sl. s. al.; i. conc. HCl sl. s. al. i. al. s. NH3; sl. s. al. i. al. i. al. v. sl. s. al. sl. s. al.; i. et. i. bz., CS2, CCl4, NH3; s. molten metal s. al.; d. a. s. al.; d. a. i. al. v. s. al., et., gly.; i. act. v. s. al., act. v. s. NH3 s. al.; i. et. s. NH3; sl. s. gly., al. 0.320° et.; 0.3 abs. al.; 4.420° m. al.; v. s. NH3 d. al. s. gly., alk. s. al.; 51 m. al.; 52 act.; i. et. s. al. s. dil. a. i. al. i. al. i. CS2 s. a., alk. d. a. i. al., NH3 sl. s. al. i. Na or K salts, al. 2918°, aN NaOH i. al. i. al., act. i. al. d. HI; s. H2SO4

sulfate sulfate sulfate (Glauber’s salt) sulfide, monosulfide, tetrasulfide, pentasulfite sulfite tartrate thiocyanate thiosulfate thiosulfate (hypo) tungstate tungstate tungstate, parauranate vanadate vanadate, pyroStannic chloride

Na2SO4 Na2SO4.7H2O Na2SO4.10H2O Na2S Na2S4 Na2S5 Na2SO3 Na2SO3.7H2O Na2C4H4O6.2H2O NaCNS Na2S2O3 Na2S2O3.5H2O* Na2WO4 Na2WO4.2H2O* Na6W7O24.16H2O Na2UO4 Na3VO4.16H2O Na4V2O7 SnCl4

142.05 268.17 322.21 78.05 174.23 206.29 126.05 252.17 230.10 81.08 158.11 248.19 293.91 329.95 2097.68 348.06 472.20 305.89 260.53

col., hex. tet. col., mn., 1.396 pink or wh., amor. yel., cb. yel. hex. pr., 1.565 mn. rhb. delq., rhb., 1.6256 mn. mn. pr., 1.5079 wh., rhb. wh., rhb. wh., tri. yel. col. nd. hex. col., fuming lq.

884 1.464 1.856 2.633 15° 4 1.561 1.818

2.226

866 (anh.) 654 −30.2

7.0

1127

SnO2

150.70

wh., tet., 1.9968

346.85

col., delq., hex.

SnBr2 SnCl2 SnCl2.2H2O* SnSO4 Sr

278.53 189.61 225.65 214.76 87.63

yel., rhb. wh., rhb. wh., tri. wh. cr. silv. met.

2.71

acetate carbonate (strontianite) chloride chloride hydroxide hydroxide

Sr(C2H3O2)2 SrCO3 SrCl2 SrCl2.6H2O* Sr(OH)2 Sr(OH)2.8H2O*

205.72 147.64 158.54 266.64 121.65 265.77

wh. cr. wh., rhb., 1.664 wh., cb., 1.6499 wh., rhb., 1.5364 wh., delq. col., tet., 1.499

2.099 3.70 3.052 1.93317° 3.625 1.90

nitrate nitrate oxide (strontia)

Sr(NO3)2* Sr(NO3)2.4H2O SrO

211.65 283.71 103.63

col., cb., 1.5878 wh., mn. col., cb., 1.870

2.986 2.2 4.7

SrO2 SrO2.8H2O SrSO4 Sr(HSO4)2 NH2SO3H S S8 S8 S2Br2 S2Cl2 SCl2 SCl4 SO2

119.63 263.76 183.69 281.77 97.09 32.06 256.48 256.48 223.95 135.03 102.97 173.89 64.06

wh. pd. wh. cr. col., rhb., 1.6237 col., granular wh., rhb. pa. yel. pd., 2.0–2.9 pa. yel., mn. pa. yel., rhb. red, fuming lq. red-yel. lq. dark red fuming lq. yel.-brn. lq. col. gas

oxide, tri-(β) Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid

SO3 (SO3)2 H2SO4* H2SO4.H2O

80.06 160.12 98.08 116.09

col. pr. col., silky, nd. col., viscous lq. pr. or lq.

d.

d. 48.0 692 −2H2O, 100 −16H2O, 300

Sn(SO4)2.2H2O

oxide, tri-(α)

275 251.8 d. −7H2O, 150 287

sulfate

peroxide peroxide sulfate (celestite) sulfate, acid Sulfamic acid Sulfur, amorphous Sulfur, monoclinic Sulfur, rhombic Sulfur bromide, monochloride, monochloride, dichloride, tetraoxide, di-

−10H2O, 100

1.667 1.685 4.179 3.245 3.98714°

oxide (cassiterite)

Stannous bromide chloride chloride (tin salt) sulfate Strontium

32.4

5.1217° 15.5°

2.6

3.96 2.03 12° 4 2.046 1.96 2.07 2.635 1.687 1.621 15° 15 lq., 1.4340°; 2.264 (A) lq., 1.923; 2.75 (A) 1.9720° 1.834 18° 4 1.842 15° 4

215.5 246.8 37.7 −SO2, 360 800 149760atm 873 −4H2O, 61 375 −7H2O in dry air 570

114.1

620 623 d. 1150 d. −CO2, 1350 −6H2O, 100

19.420° 44.90° 3615° 15.410° s. s. 13.90° 34.72° 296° 11010° 500° 74.70° 57.580° 880° 8 i. v. s. s. s. i.

i. d.

s. 83.90° 118.70° 1919° d.

d. 269.815° ∞ 18100° Forms Sr(OH)2 36.497° 0.065100° 100.8100° 19840° 21.83100° 47.7100°

36.90° 0.001118° 43.50° 1040° 0.410° 0.900°

444.6 444.6 444.6 540.18mm 138 59 d. > −20 −10.0

16.83

44.6

d.

50 10.49 8.62

d. 340 290

Forms H2SO4 ∞ ∞

d. −8H2O, 100 1580 d. d. 205 d. 120 119.0 112.8 −46 −80 −78 −30 −75.5

d.

d.

v. s.

400° 62.20° Forms Sr(OH)2 0.00820° 0.01820° 0.01130° d. 200° i. i. i. d. d. d. d. 22.80°

2430

45.360° 202.626° 41234° 57.390° s. s. 28.384° 67.818° 6643° 225100° 23180° 301.860° 97100° 123.5100° d. i. d.

i. al. sl. s. al.; i. et. s. al. s. al. i. al., NH i. al. i. al. v. s. al. s. NH3; v. sl. s. al. sl. s. NH3; i. a., al. s. alk. carb., dil. a. i. al. i. al. s. abs. al., act., NH3; s. ∞ CS2 s. conc. H2SO4; i. alk.; NH4OH, NH3 s. dil. H2SO4, HCl; d. abs. al. s. C6H5N s. alk., abs. al., et. s. tart. a., alk., al. s. H2SO4 s. al., a. 0.2615° m. al. s. a., NH4 salts, aq. CO2 v. sl. s. act., abs. al.; i. NH3 s. NH4Cl s. NH4Cl; i. act.

10089° 12420°

s. NH3; 0.012 abs. al. i. HNO3 sl. s. al.; i. et.

d. d. 0.011432°

s. al., NH4Cl; i. act. s. al.; i. NH4OH sl. s. a.; i. dil. H2SO4, al. 1470° H2SO4 sl. s. al., act.; i. et. sl. s. CS2 s. CS2, al. 240°, 18155° CS2

4070° i. i. i.

s. CS2, et., bz. d. al. 4.550°

s. H2SO4; al., ac. s. H2SO4

∞ ∞

s. H2SO4 d. al. d. al.

*Usual commercial form. 2-25

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Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Concluded )

TABLE 2-1

Name

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

Hot water

Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid, pyroSulfuric oxychloride Sulfurous oxybromide oxychloride Tantalum

H2SO4·2H2O H2S2O7 SO2Cl2 SOBr2 SOCl2 Ta

134.11 178.14 134.97 207.89 118.97 180.88

col. lq. cr. col. lq. or.-yel. lq. col. lq. bk.-gray, cb.

1.650 40° 1.920° 1.667 20° 4 2.6818° 1.638 16.6

−38.9 35 −54.1 −50 −104.5 2850

167 d. 69.1760mm 6840mm 78.8 >4100

∞ d. d. d. d. i.



Tellurium

Te

127.61

met., hex.

(α) 6.24; (β) 6.00

452

1390

i.

i.

Terbium Thallium acetate chloride, monochloride, sesquichloride, trichloride, trisulfate (ic) sulfate (ous) sulfate, acid Thio, cf. sulfo or sulfur Thorium

Tb Tl TlC2H3O2 TlCl Tl2Cl3 TlCl3 TlCl3·4H2O Tl2(SO4)3·7H2O Tl2SO4 TlHSO4

159.20 204.39 263.43 239.85 515.15 310.76 382.83 823.07 504.84 301.46

blue-wh., tet. silky nd. wh., cb. yel., hex. hex. pl. nd. lf. col., rhb., 1.8671 trimorphous

11.85 3.68 7.00 5.9

303.5 110 430 400–500 25 37 −6H2O, 200 632 115 d.

1650 806 d. d. −4H2O, 100 d. d.

i. v. s. 0.210° 0.2615° v. s. 86.217° d. 2.700°

Th

232.12

cb.

11.2

1845

>3000

i.

i.

oxide, di- (thorianite) sulfate sulfate Thulium Tin

ThO2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2·9H2O Tm Sn

264.12 424.24 586.38 169.40 118.70

wh., cb.

>2800

4400

mn. pr.

9.69 4.22517° 2.77

−9H2O, 400

silv. met., tet.

7.31

231.85

2260

i. 0.740° sl. s. i. i.

5.2250° sl. s. i. i.

Tin

Sn

118.70

gray, cb.

5.750

Stable −163 to +18

2260

i.

i.

Tin salts, cf. stannic and stannous Titanic acid

H2TiO3

97.92

wh. pd.

i.

i.

i. d.

d.

s. s. i.

s. d. i.

i.

i.

Titanium chloride, di-

Ti TiCl2

47.90 118.81

dark gray, cb. bk., delq.

chloride, trichloride, tetraoxide, di- (anatase)

TiCl3 TiCl4* TiO2

154.27 189.73 79.90

oxide, di- (brookite)

TiO2

vl., delq. col. lq. brn. or bk., tet., 2.534–2.564 brn. or bk., rhb., 2.586 col. if pure, tet., 2.615 gray-bk., cb.

oxide, di- (rutile) Tungsten carbide carbide

TiO2 W

79.90 79.90 183.92

6.77

17.5°

4.50

lq., 1.726 3.84

1800 Unstable in air d. 440 −30

s. al., et. s. al., et. s. dil. H2SO4

>3000

136.4

s. HCl, H2SO; sl. s. HNO3; i. HF, alk. s. h. H2SO4; i. alk.

s. HCl, H2SO4, dil. HNO3 h. aq KOH s. a., h. alk. solns. s. alk.; v. sl. s. dil. a.; i. al. s. a. i. CS2, et., chl. s. dil. HCl sl. s. alk.

1640 d.

2130 −aH2O, 100; 1473 −H2O, 250 to 300 1133 2400 2176

238.07 512.14 270.07

d. d. 18.45100°

s. HNO3, H2SO4; i. NH3 v. s. al. sl. s. HCl; i. al., NH4OH

4.26

195.93 379.85

U U2C3 UO2

i. 1.8100° 1.9100°

v. sl. s. dil. H2SO4

4.17

WC W2C

Uranium carbide oxide, di- (uraninite)

i.

Other reagents d. al. d. al. s. ac.; d. al. s. bz., CS2, CCl4; d. act. s. bz., chl. s. fused alk., HF; i. HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 s. H2SO4, HNO3, KCN, KOH, aq. reg.; i. CS2

11.28 10.9

3500

2-26

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i.

oxide (pitchblende) sulfate (ous) Uranyl acetate carbonate (rutherfordine) nitrate sulfate Vanadic acid, metaVanadic acid, pyroVanadium chloride, dichloride, trichloride, tetraoxide, dioxide, trioxide, tetraoxide, pentaoxychloride, monoVanadyl chloride chloride, dichloride, triWater†

U3O8 U(SO4)2·4H2O UO2(C2H3O2)2·2H2O UO2CO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O UO2SO4·3H2O HVO3 H4V2O7 V VCl2 VCl3 VCl4 V2O2 V2O3 V2O4 V2O5 VOCl (VO)2Cl VOCl2 VOCl3 H2O

842.21 502.25 424.19 330.08 502.18 420.18 99.96 217.93 50.95 121.86 157.23 192.78 133.90 149.90 165.90 181.90 102.41 169.36 137.86 173.32 18.016

Water, heavy Xenon

D2O Xe

20.029 131.30

olive gn. gn., rhb. yel., rhb. tet. yel., rhb., 1.4967 yel. cr. yel. scales pa. yel., amor. lt. gray, cb. gn., hex., delq. pink, tabular, delq. red lq. lt. gray cr. bk. cr. blue cr. red-yel., rhb. brn. pd. yel. cr. gn., delq. yel. lq. col. lq., 1.3330020°; hex. solid, 1.309 col. lq., 1.3284420° col. gas

Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc acetate acetate bromide carbonate

Yb Y Zn Zn(C2H3O2)2 Zn(C2H3O2)2·2H2O* ZnBr2 ZnCO3

173.04 88.92 65.38 183.47 219.50 225.21 125.39

dark gray, hex. silv. met., hex. mn. wh., mn., 1.494 rhb. wh., trig., 1.818

ZnCl2

136.29

wh., delq., 1.687, uniaxial col., rhb. col., rhb. cb.

chloride cyanide hydroxide iodide

Zn(CN)2 Zn(OH)2 ZnI2

117.42 99.40 319.22

nitrate oxide (zincite) oxide peroxide phosphide silicate

Zn(NO3)2·6H2O ZnO ZnO ZnO2 Zn3P2 ZnSiO3

297.49 81.38 81.38 97.38 258.10 141.44

sulfate (zincosite)

ZnSO4

sulfate sulfate sulfate (goslarite) sulfide (α) (wurzite) sulfide (β) (sphalerite)

ZnSO4·H2O ZnSO4·6H2O ZnSO4·7H2O* ZnS ZnS

161.44 179.46 269.54 287.55 97.44 97.44

sulfide (blende) sulfite Zirconium oxide, di- (baddeleyite) oxide, di- (free from Hf)

ZnS ZnSO3·2aH2O Zr ZrO2 ZrO2

97.44 190.48 91.22 123.22 123.22

col., tet. wh., hex., 2.004 wh., amor. yel. steel gray, cb. hex. or rhb.; glass, 1.650 wh., rhb., 1.669 col. mn. rhb., 1.4801 wh., hex., 2.356 wh., cb.; glass (?) 2.18–2.25 wh., granular mn. cb., pd. ign. easily yel. or brn., mn., 2.19 wh., mn.

7.31 15°

2.89 5.6 2.807 3.2816.5° 5.96 3.2318° 3.0018° 1.81630° 3.64 4.87 18° 4 4.399 3.357 18° 4 2.824 3.64 2.8813° 1.829 1.004° (lq.); 0.9150° (ice) 1.10720° lq., 3.06−109.1 2.7−140° 4.53 (A)

d. −4H2O, 300 −2H2O, 110 60.2 d. 100

118

1710

3000

d. −109 ign. 1970 1967 800

148.5755mm

d. 1750

d. in air

i. 2311° 9.217°

i. 963° d.

s. HNO3, H2SO4 s. dil. a. s. al., act.

170.30° 18.913.2° i. i. i. s. s. s. d. i. sl. s. i. 0.820° i. i. d. s. d.

∞60° 23025°

v. s. ac., al., et.; i. dil., alk. 4 al.; s. a. s. a., alk.; i. NH3 s. a., alk., NH4OH s. HNO3, H2SO4; i. aq., alk. s. al., et. s. abs. al., et. s. abs. al., et., chl., ac. s. a. s. HNO3, HF, alk. s. a., alk. s. a., alk.; i. abs. al. v. s. HNO3 s. HNO3 s. abs. al., dil. HNO3 s. al., et., ∞Br2 ∞ al.; sl. s. et.

i. d. d. i. s. i.

1800 >1800 expl. 212 >420 1437

3.74 15° 4 3.28 15° 4 2.072 15° 4 1.96616.5° 4.087 4.102 25° 4

d. 740 d. 238 −5H2O, 70 tr. 39 1850150atm tr. 1020

4.04 6.4 5.49 5.73

−2aH2O, 100 1700 2700

18°

624 −6H2O, 105

1100

−7H2O, 280 subl. 1185

d. 200 >2900 4300

0.0005 0.0005218° 4300°

sl. s.

324.5 0.0004218° 0.0004218° 0.0022 i. i.

∞36.4°

420° s. s. 115.20° 0.0006918° i.

61100° 89.5100° s. 653.6100° i. i.

sl. s. al.; s. gly.

i. 0.16 i. i. i.

i. d. i. i. i.

v. s. a.; i. ac. s. H2SO3, NH4OH; i. al. s. HF, aq. reg.; sl. s. a. s. H2SO4, HF s. H2SO4, HF

510100°

i. NH4OH; d. a. s. dil. a.

sl. s. al.; i. act.; NH3 sl. s. al.; i. act.; NH3 v. s. a.; i. ac. s. a.

*Usual commercial form. †Cf. special tables on water and steam, Tables 2-3, 2-4, 2-5, 2-185, 2-186 and 2-351 through 2-357. NOTE: °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32.

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2-27

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds* Abbreviations Used in the Table

(A), density referred to air al., ethyl alcohol amor., amorphous aq., aqua, water brn., brown bz., benzene c., cubic cc., cubic centimeter chl., chloroform col., colorless

cr., crystalline d., decomposes d-, dextrorotatory dl-, dextro-laevorotatory et., ethyl ether expl., explodes gn., green h., hot hex., hexagonal

i-, iso-, containing the group (CH3)2CHi., insoluble ign., ignites l-, laevorotatory lf., leaflets lq., liquid m-, meta mn., monoclinic n-, normal

nd., needles o-, ortho or., orange p-, para pd., powder pet., petroleum ether pl., plates pr., prisms rhb., rhombic s., soluble

This table of the physical properties includes the organic compounds of most general interest. For the properties of other organic compounds, reference must be made to larger tables in Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry (Handbook Publishers), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.), Van Nostrand’s Chemical Annual, International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill), and similar works. The molecular weights are based on the 1941 atomic weight values. The densities are given for the temperature indicated and are usually referred to water at 4°C, e.g., 1.02895/4 a density of 1.028 at 95°C Name Abietic acid Acenaphthene Acetal Acet-aldehyde -aldehyde, par-aldehyde ammonia -amide -anilide -phenetidide (o-) (m-) -toluidide (o-) (p-) Acetic acid anhydride nitrile Acetone Acetonyl urea Acetophenone benzoyl hydride Acetyl-chloride -phenylenediamine (-p) Acetylene dichloride (cis) (trans) Aconitic acid Acridine Acrolein ethylene aldehyde Acrylic acid nitrile Adipic acid amide nitrile Adrenaline (1-) (3,4,1) Alanine (α) (dl-) Aldol acetaldol Alizarin Allyl alcohol bromide chloride thiocyanate (i) thiourea Aluminum ethoxide Amino-anthraquinone (α) (β) -azobenzene -benzoic acid (m-) (p-)

Synonym sylvic acid, abietinic acid naphthylene ethylene acetaldehyde diethylacetal ethanal paraldehyde ethanamide antifebrin o-ethoxyacetanilide acetyl-m-phenetidine N-tolylacetamide N-tolylacetamide ethanoic acid, vinegar acid acetyl oxide, acetic oxide methyl cyanide propanone, dimethyl ketone dimethyl hydantoin methyl-phenyl ketone ethanoyl chloride amino-acetanilide (p) ethyne; ethine 1,2-dichloroethene dioform equisetic acid; citridic acid acrylic aldehyde, propenal propenoic acid vinyl cyanide hexandioc acid, adipinic acid tetramethylene 1-suprarenine 2-hydroxybutyraldehyde Anthraquinoic acid propen-1-ol-3,propenyl alcohol 3-bromo-propene-1 3-chloro-propene-1 mustard oil thiosinamide

aminodracylic acid

s-, sec-, secondary silv., silvery sl., slightly subl., sublimes sym., symmetrical t-, tertiary tet., tetragonal tri., triclinic uns., unsymmetrical v., very

v. s., very soluble v. sl. s., very slightly soluble wh., white yel., yellow (+), right rotation >, greater than C6H4 CH2:CH?CHO CH2:CH?CO2H CH2:CH?CN (CH2CH2CO2H)2 (CH2CH2CONH2)2 (CH2CH2CN)2 C6H3(OH)2(CHOHCH2NHCH3) CH3CH(NH2)CO2H CH3CH(OH)CH2CO2H C6H4(CO)2C6H2(OH)2 CH2:CH?CH2OH CH2:CH?CH2Br CH2:CH?CH2Cl CH2:CH?CH2NCS CH2:CH?CH2NHCSNH2 Al(OCH2CH3)3 C6H4(CO)2C6H3NH2 C6H4(CO)2C6H3NH2 C6H5?N:N?C6H4NH2 H2N?C6H4CO2H H2N?C6H4CO2H

302.44 154.20 118.17 44.05 132.16 61.08 59.07 135.16 179.21 179.21 149.19 149.19 60.05 102.09 41.05 58.08 128.13 120.14 78.50 150.18 26.04 96.95 96.95 174.11 179.21 56.06 72.06 53.06 146.14 144.17 108.14 183.20 89.09 88.10 240.20 58.08 120.99 76.53 99.15 116.18 164.15 223.22 223.22 197.23 137.13 137.13

lf. rhb./al. lq. col. lq. col. cr. col. cr. col. cr. rhb./al. lf./al. lf./al. rhb. rhb. or mn. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. tri./al. lf. col. lq. nd./aq. col. gas col. lq. col. lq. cr./aq. rhb./aq. al. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. mn. pr. cr. pd. col. oil col. pd. nd./aq. col. lq. red rhb. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. oil col. pr. pd. red nd. red nd. yel. mn. nd./aq. mn. pr.

Specific gravity 1.06995/95 0.82122/4 0.78318/4 0.99420/4 1.159 1.214 1.16815 1.21215 1.04920/4 1.08220/4 0.78320/4 0.79220/4 1.03315/15 1.10520/4 (A) 0.906 1.29115/4 1.26515/4 0.84120/4 1.06216/4 0.81120 1.36025/4 19/19

0.951

1.10320/4 0.85420/4 1.39820/4 0.93820/4 1.01320/4 1.21920/20 1.14220/0

1.5114°

Melting point, °C 182 95 −123.5 10.5–12 97 81(69.4) 113–4 79 96–7 110 153 16.7 −73 −41 −94.6 175 20.5 −112.0 162 −81.5891 −80.5 −50 192 d. 110–1 −87.7 12–13 −82 151–3 226–7 1 d. 207–11 295 d. 289–90 −129 −119.4 −136.4 −80 77–8 150–60 256 302 126–7 173–4 187–8

2-28

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Boiling point, °C 278–9 102.2 20.2 124.4752 100–10 d. 222 305 >250 296 306–7 118.1 139.6 81.6–2.0 56.5 subl. 202.3749 51–2 −84760 60.3 48.4 346 52.5 141–2 78–9 26510 295 subl. >200 8320 430 96.6 70–1753 44.6 152 200–510 subl. subl. 225120

Solubility in 100 parts Water

Alcohol

Ether

i. i. 625 ∞ 1213 v. s. s. 0.56 i. sl. s. 0.8619 0.0922 ∞ 12 c. ∞ ∞ s. i. d. s. h. 100 cc.18 0.3520 0.6320 3315 sl. s. h. 40 ∞ s. 1.415 0.412 v. sl. s. 0.0320 2217 ∞ 0.03100 ∞ i. 175

pr. mn. pr. rhb./et. col. lq.

1.2315 1.26615/4 1.19915/4 1.00125/6

95 121.7 42 −12.9

Formula

1.02220/4

1.385 4 1.123 20/4 1.09815/15 1.096 20/4 1.089 55/55 0.990 22/4 1.25 27/4

1.18715/4 1.438 20/4

1.543

15/4

1.20320/4 1.248 20/20 1.035 20/20 1.046 20/4 1.341 1.314 0.879 20/4

Melting point, °C −135 −139 −124 22.5 143 −6.2

Boiling point, °C

Solubility in 100 parts Water

Alcohol

Ether

30–1 20.5 771 31–2758 36.4 37–8 235.3 185 184.4

i. i. i. v. sl. s. i. v. sl. s. i. 3.618

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. sl. s. ∞

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞

245

s. s. sl. s. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ s. s. s. 1.520

i. sl. s. i. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ s. s. s.

198 d. 190 d. 73–4 184.2 2.5 5.2 100 d. 251.5 400740 348 d. 249.2 360 190.7

520 s. 2.320 s. s.

Benzoin (dl-) Benzophenone Benzotrichloride Benzoyl-benzoic acid (o-) -chloride -peroxide Benzyl acetate alcohol amine aniline benzoate butyrate chloride ether formate propionate Berberonic acid (2-,4-,5-) Biuret Borneol (dl-) (d- or l-) (iso-) Bornyl acetate (d-) Bromo-aniline (p-) -benzene -camphor (3-)(d-) -diphenyl (p-) -naphthalene (α-) (β-) -phenol (o-) (m-) (p-) -styrene (ω)(1) (2) -toluene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromoform Butadiene (1-,2-) (1-,3-) Butadienyl acetylene Butane (i-) Butyl acetate (n-) (s-) (i-) (tert-) alcohol (n-) (s-) (i-) (tert-) amine (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) p-aminophenol (N)(n) (N)(i-) aniline (n-) (i-) arsonic acid (n-) benzoate (n-) (i-) bromide (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) butyrate (n-)(n-) (n-)(i-) (i-)(i-) caproate carbamate (i-) cellosolve (n-)

diphenyl ketone phenyl chloroform

phenyl carbinol ω-amino toluene phenyl-benzylamine ω-chlorotoluene dibenzyl ether

allophanamide

phenyl bromide α-bromocamphor α-naphthyl bromide β-naphthyl bromide

o-tolyl bromide tribromo-methane methyl-allene erythrene diethyl trimethyl-methane

butanol-1 butanol-2 2-methyl-propanol-1 2-methyl-propanol-2

1-bromo-butane 2-bromo-butane 1-Br-2-Me-propane 2-Br-2-Me-propane

2-BuO-ethanol-1

C6H5CO?CHOHC6H5 C6H5COC6H5 C6H5CCl3 C6H5COC6H4CO2H?H2O C6H5COCl (C6H5CO)2O2 CH3CO2CH2C6H5 C6H5CH2OH C6H5CH2NH2 C6H5CH2NHC6H5 C6H5CO2CH2C6H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH2C6H5 C6H5CH2Cl (C6H5CH2)2O HCO2CH2C6H5 C2H5CO2CH2C6H5 C5H2N(CO2H)3?2H2O NH(CONH2)2 C10H17OH C10H17OH C10H17OH CH3CO2C10H17 BrC6H4NH2 C6H5Br BrC10H15O BrC6H4?C6H5 C10H7Br C10H7Br BrC6H4OH BrC6H4OH BrC6H4OH C6H5CH:CHBr C6H5CH:CHBr CH3?C6H4Br CH3?C6H4Br CH3?C6H4Br CHBr3 CH3CH:C:CH2 CH2:CHCH:CH2 CH2:(CH)2:CH?C:CH CH3CH2CH2CH3 (CH3)2CHCH3 CH3CO2(CH2)2C2H5 CH3CO2CH(CH3)C2H5 CH3CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 CH3CO2C(CH3)3 C2H5CH2CH2OH C2H5CH(OH)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2OH (CH3)3COH C2H5CH2CH2NH2 C2H5CH(NH2)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2NH2 (CH3)3CNH2 C4H9NH?C6H4?OH C4H9NH?C6H4?OH C4H9NHC6H5 C4H9NHC6H5 C4H9AsO(OH)2 C6H5CO2C4H9 C6H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2Br C2H5CH(Br)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2Br (CH3)3CBr C2H5CH2CO2CH2CH2C2H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CHCO2CH2CH(CH3)2 CH3(CH2)4CO2C4H9 NH2CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 C4H9OCH2CH2OH

212.24 182.21 195.48 244.24 140.57 242.22 150.17 108.13 107.15 183.24 212.24 178.22 126.58 198.25 136.14 164.20 247.16 103.08 154.24 154.24 154.24 196.28 172.03 157.02 231.14 233.11 207.07 207.07 173.02 173.02 173.02 183.05 183.05 171.04 171.04 171.04 252.77 54.09 54.09 78.11 58.12 58.12 116.16 116.16 116.16 116.16 74.12 74.12 74.12 74.12 73.14 73.14 73.14 73.14 165.23 165.23 149.23 149.23 182.04 178.22 178.22 137.03 137.03 137.03 137.03 144.21 144.21 144.21 172.26 117.15 118.17

mn. col. rhb. col. lq. tri./aq. col. lq. rhb./et. col. lq. col. lq. lq. mn. pr. nd. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. tri. nd./al. col. cr. col. cr. col. cr. rhb./pet. rhb. col. lq. cr. cr./al. col. oil lf./al. col. lq. cr. tet. cr. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. cr./al. col. lq. lq. col. gas col. lq. col. gas col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. oil col. lf. col. oil col. oil lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lf. col. lq.

1.08354 1.38014 1.21220/4 1.05717 1.04320/4 0.98220/4 1.065 25/25 1.1220/4 1.01616/18 1.100 20/20 1.03616 1.08123 1.03616/17 20/4

1.011 1.01120/4 0.99115 1.820 1.495 20/4 1.449 20/4 1.48220/4 1.605 0 1.55380 1.588 80 1.42220/4 1.427 20/4 1.42220/4 1.410 20/4 1.390 20/4 2.890 20/4 0.62120/4 0.773 20/4 0.600 0.600 0.882 20 0.865 25/4 0.87120/4 0.866 20/4 0.810 20/4 0.808 20/4 0.80517.5 0.779 26 0.739 25/4 0.724 20/4 0.73220/20 0.69818/4

133–7 48.5 −4.75 93(128) −0.5 108 d. −51.5 −15.3 37–8 21 238–40 −39 3.6 243 192–3 d. 210.5 208–9 212 29 63–4 −30.6 77–8 90–1 5–6 59 5.6 32–3 63.5 7 −7.5 −28 −39.8 28.5 8–9 −108.9 −135 −145 −76.3 −98.9 −79.9 −114.7 −108 25.5 −50 −104 −85 −67.5 71 79

0.940 20/4 1.005 25/25 0.997 25/25 1.277 20/4 1.25125/4 1.258 25/4 1.21120/4 0.87220/20 0.86318/4 0.875 0/4 0.8820/0 0.95676/4 0.90320/4

158–9 −22 −112.4 −112 −118.5 −16.2 −80.7 65

344768 305.4 220.7 197.2 expl. 213.5 204.7 184.5 306750 323–4 i. 179.4 295–8 202–3747 220–2 subl. 212–3 226–7 156.2 274 310 281.1 281–2 194–5 236–7 238 221 10826 181.8 183.7 184–5 150.5 18–9 −4.41 83–6 −0.6 −10 125 740 112744 118 95–6760 117 99.5 107–8 82.9 77.8 66772 68–9 45.2 235720 231–2 249–50 241.5 101.6 91.3 91.5 73.3 165.7736 156.9 148–9 204.3 206–7 171.2

v. sl. s. i. i. sl. s. d. i. i. 417 ∞ i. i. v. s. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. 1.30 v. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. i. i. c. i. i. i. i. i. s. 1.415 i. i. i. i. i. 0.1 c. i. i. i. i. i. 0.7 i. 0.625 i. 915 12.520 1015 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ i. i. i. 0.0115 s. i. i. 0.0616 i. 0.0618 i. i. i. i. i. i. ∞

s. h. 6.515 s.

sl. s. 1513 s.

d. h. s. h. ∞ ∞ ∞

∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞

∞ v. s. ∞ s. h. s.

∞ s. ∞

sl. s. h. s.

i.

v. s.

v. s.

s. v. s. s. 2026 s. s. 620 s. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞

s. v. s. ∞ v. s. 34 25 ∞ v. s. ∞ s. v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞25 s. ∞25 ∞ ∞ ∞

s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

v. s. v. s. s. s. ∞ ∞

v. s. v. s. i. s. ∞ ∞

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

s. ∞

s. ∞

2-31

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TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued )

Name chloride (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) dimethylbenzene (t-)(1-,3-,5-) formate (n-) (s-) (i-) furoate (n-) iodide (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) lactate (n-) mercaptan (n-) (i-) (t-) methacrylate (n-) (i-) phenol (p-)(t-) propionate (n-) (s-) (i-) stearate (n-) (i-) iso-thiocyanate (n-) (i-) (s-)(d-) (t-) valerate (n-)(n-) (i-)(n-) (i-)(s-) (i-)(i-) Butylene (α-) (β-) Butyraldehyde (n-) (i-) Butyric acid (n-) (i-) amide (n-) (i-) anhydride (n-) (i-) anilide (n-) Caffeic acid (3-,4-) Caffeine Camphene (dl-) (d- or l-) Camphor (d-) Camphoric acid (d-) Cantharidine Capric acid Caproic acid (n-) (i-) Caprylic acid (n-) Carbazole Carbitol Carbon disulfide monoxide suboxide tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Carbonyl sulfide Carminic acid Carvacrol (1-,2-,4-)

Synonym

Formula

1-chloro-butane 2-chloro-butane 1-Cl2-2-Me-propane 2-Cl2-2-Me-propane

1-iodo-butane 2-iodo-butane 1-iodo-2-Me-propane 2-iodo-2-Me-propane butanthiol-1 2-Me-propanthiol-1

butyl mustard oil iso-Bu mustard oil

butene-1 butene-2 2-Me-propanol butanoic acid 2-Me-propanoic acid n-butyramide iso-butyramide n-butyranilide

decanoic acid hexanoic acid 2-Me-pentanoic-5 acid octanoic acid diphenylenelimine, dibenzopyrrole diethylene glycol mono-Et ether

tetrabromomethane tetrachloromethane tetrafluoromethane

C2H5CH2CH2Cl C2H5?CHCl?CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2Cl (CH3)3CCl (CH3)3C?C6H3:(CH3)2 HCO2CH2CH2C2H5 HCO2CH(CH3)C2H5 HCO2CH2CH(CH3)2 OC4H3CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2I C2H5CHICH3 (CH3)2CHCH2I (CH3)3CI CH3CH(OH)CO2C4H3 C2H5CH2CH2SH (CH3)2CHCH2SH (CH3)3CSH CH2:C(CH3)CO2C4H9 CH2:C(CH3)CO2C4H9 (CH3)3C?C6H4?OH C2H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CO2C4H9 CH3(CH2)16CO2C4H9 CH3(CH2)16CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2?N:CS (CH3)2CHCH2?N:CS C4H9?N:CS (CH3)3C?N:CS CH3(CH2)3CO2(CH2)3CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2(CH2)3CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C4H9 C4H9CO2C4H9 C2H5CH:CH2 CH3CH:CHCH3 CH3CH2CH2CHO (CH3)2CHCHO C2H5CH2CO2H (CH3)2CHCO2H C2H5CH2CONH2 (CH3)2CHCONH2 (C2H5CH2CO)2O [(CH3)2CHCO]2O C3H7CONHC6H5 (HO)2C6H3C2H2CO2H C8H10O2N4?H2O C10H16 C10H16 C10H16O C8H14(CO2H)2 C10H12O4 CH3(CH2)8CO2H CH3(CH2)4CO2H (CH3)2CH(CH2)2?CO2H CH3(CH2)6CO2H (C6H4)2NH C2H5O(CH2)2O(CH2)2OH CS2 CO OC:C:CO CBr4 CCl4 CF4 COS C22H20O13 CH3C6H3(OH)CH(CH3)2

Formula weight

Form and color

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

92.57 92.57 92.57 92.57 162.26 102.13 102.13 102.13 168.19 184.03 184.03 184.03 184.03 146.18 90.18 90.18 90.18 142.19 142.19 150.21 130.18 130.18 130.18 340.57 340.57 115.19 115.19 115.19 115.19 158.23 158.23 158.23 158.23 56.10 56.10 72.10 72.10 88.10 88.10 87.12 87.12 158.19 158.19 163.21 180.15 212.21 136.23 136.23 152.23 200.23 196.20 172.26 116.16 116.16 144.21 167.20 134.17 76.13 28.01 68.03 331.67 153.84 88.01 60.07 492.40 150.21

col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. nd./aq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. wax lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. gas col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. rhb. mn. pl. col. lq. col. lq. mn. pr. yel./aq. nd./al. cr. cr. trig. mn. cr. col. nd. oily lq. col. oil col. lf. lf. col. lq. col. lq. col. gas gas col. mn. col. lq. gas col. gas red pd. col. lq.

0.887 20 0.87120/4 0.88415 0.84715

−123.1 −131 −131.2 −26.5

77.9763 67.8767 68.9 51–2 200–2147 106.9 97 98.2 118–2025 129.9 118–9 120 99 75–66 97–8 88 65–7 155 155 236–8 146 132.5 136.8 220–525

0.9110 0.88220/4 0.885 20/4 1.056 20/4 1.617 20/4 1.595 20 1.606 20/4 1.370 19/15 0.968 0.837 25/4 0.836 20/4 0.889 15.6 0.889 15.6 0.908 112/4 0.88315 0.866 20/4 0.888 0/4 0.855 25/25 0.95611 0.96414/4 0.943 20/4 0.91910 0.87015/4 0.862 25/4 0.848 20/4 0.8740/4 0.69 0.817 20/4 0.79420/4 0.96420/4 0.949 20/4 1.032 1.013 0.968 20/20 0.950 25/4 1.134 1.2319 0.82278 0.845 50/4 0.999 9/9 1.186 0.889 87 0.922 20/4 0.925 20/4 0.910 20/4 0.990 20/20 1.263 20/4 0.81−195/4 1.1140 3.42 1.595 20/4 1.24−87 0.977 20/4

−95.3 −103.5 −104 −90.7 −34 −116

CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CH2 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHOH CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CO (?CH2?CH2CH:)2 CH3CO2C6H11 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHNH2 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHBr CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHCl CH2 < (CH:CH)2 > CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > < (CH2CH2)2 > CO < CH2CH2CH2 > CH3?C6H3CH(CH3)2 CH3?C6H4CH(CH3)2 CH3?C6H4CH(CH3)2 [?SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H]2 C6H6(OH)6 C10H18 C10H18 CH3(CH2)8CH3 CH3(CH2)8CH2OH (C6H10O5)x (CH3)2C(OH)?CH2COCH3 H2NC6H4COC6H4NH2 H2NC6H4NHC6H4NH2 H2NC6H4CH2C6H4NH2 (H2NC6H4NH)2CO [(CH3)2CHCH2CH2]2NH (C2H5CH2CH2CH2)2O [(CH3)2CH(CH2)2]2O [(CH3)2CHCH2CH2]2CO C6H4(CO2C5H11)2 C6H4(CO2C5H11)2 (HOCH?CO2C5H11)2 [NH2(OCH3)C6H3?]2 C6H5N:N?NHC6H5 C7H7N:N?NHC7H7 CH2:N2

Formula weight

Form and color

164.15 164.15 146.14 118.13 149.15 113.12 138.16 137.18 108.13 108.13 108.13 212.24 212.24 212.24 86.09 86.09 70.09 120.19 164.20 135.20 42.04 43.03 85.06 52.04 105.93 61.48 165.11 56.10 98.18 84.16 100.16 98.14 82.14 142.19 99.17 163.06 118.61 66.10 70.13 84.11 42.08 134.21 134.21 134.21 240.29 180.16 138.24 138.24 142.28 158.28 162.14 116.16 212.24 199.25 198.26 242.28 157.29 158.28 158.28 170.29 306.39 306.39 290.35 244.28 197.23 225.28 42.04

nd./aq. cr./aq. rhb./et. oil mn./aq. mn. pr. nd./pet. cr. lq. pr. lq. cr. cr. col. mn. nd. col. lq. col. lq. tri. lq. col. nd. gas col. lq. col. gas nd. gas mn./aq. col. gas oil col. lq. col. nd. col. oil lq. oil col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. oil col. oil col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. pl. mn./aq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. oil amor. lq. yel. nd. lf./aq. nd./aq. cr. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. yel. oil col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lf. yel. lf. or. cr. gas

Specific gravity

0.93520/4 1.07815/15 1.09220/20 1.04820/4 1.03420/4 1.03520/4

0.96479.7 1.03115/4 0.85320/20 0.86220/4 1.1624 0.953 1.07348/4 1.1400 0.86617 2.01520/4 1.2220 1.7680/4 0.7030/4 0.81020/4 0.77920/4 0.96220/4 0.94719/4 0.81020/4 0.9850/4 0.86520/0 1.32420/20 0.97718/4 0.80519/4 0.74520/4 0.94820 0.720−79 0.87520/4 0.86220 0.85720/4 1.752 0.89518/4 0.87220/4 0.7302 0.83020/4 1.038 0.93125

0.76721/4 0.77420/4 0.77720/4 0.82125/4

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

207–8 206–7 d. 70

Hg(CN)2 Hg(ONC)2?aH2O (CH3)2C:CHCOCH3 C6H3(CH3)3 H2NC6H4SO3H CH4

Formula weight

Form and color

Specific gravity

144.21 102.17 102.17 102.17 130.18 194.26 179.17 155.16 180.15 90.08 27.03 110.11 122.12 213.23 145.15 145.15 262.26 264.27 117.14 133.14 204.02 220.02 393.78 192.29 192.29 206.32 147.13 68.11 42.04 427.34 90.08 162.14 144.12 360.31 200.31 338.60 186.33 323.45 267.35 778.08 143.18 131.17 116.11 136.23 154.24 196.28 280.44 116.07 98.06 134.09 134.09 104.06 360.31 152.14 182.17 180.16 270.44 342.17 156.26 167.24 119.20 252.65 293.65 98.14 120.19 173.18 16.04

col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. nd. rhb. lf./aq. cr./aq. syrup lq. cr. nd./aq. pr./al. pr./al. pr. cr. gray lf./aq. yel. pr. col. lq. nd./aq. yel. hex. col. oil col. oil col. oil yel. red col. lq. col. gas cr. hyg. yel. oil tri./al. col. rhb. col. nd. pl. lf. col. lq. col. lq. wax lq. cr. lf. lq. col. oil col. lq. yel. oil mn. cr. col. cr. col. cr. col. tri. col. nd. rhb./aq. col. rhb. rhb. col. pl. nd./al. col. cr. nd. cr. cr. cr./aq. lq. col. lq. col. nd. gas

0.890 0/0 0.820 20/20 0.821 20/0 0.809 20/4 0.898 0 1.371 20/4

0.697 18 1.332 15 1.129 130

1.35

1.824 25/4 1.857 112 4.008 17 0.930 20 0.944 20 0.939 20

Melting point, °C −51.6 −14 −107 68–70 187–8 d. 287 175–80 −12 170.3 116–7 135 199–200 75–6 390–2 52 85 −28.5 93–4 119

0.681 20/4

200–1 −120 −151

1.249 15/4

16.8

10/4

0.862 1.525 20 0.869 50/4 0.809 69/4 0.831 24/4 1.659 18/4 1.995 20/4 1.086 20 1.29318 1.140 20/20 0.842 20/4 0.868 20 0.895 20 0.903 18/4 1.609 1.5 1.601 20/4 1.595 20/4 1.631 15 1.540 17 1.300 20/4 1.489 20/4 1.539 20/4 0.853 60 15/15

0.890 1.4220/4 1.50 4.003 22 4.4 0.858 20/4 0.865 20/4

0.415 −164

124.5 202 48(44) 69–70 24 −136 −27.5 150–200 d. 9–10 295 33.5 −96.9 −9.5 130.5 57–60 128–9 99–100 130–5 d. d. 118.1 166 132 60–1 286–8 42–3 179 106 d. 320 expl. −59 −45(−52) d. −182.6

2-40

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Boiling point, °C 169.2 157.2 120–1 123762 153.6 1797 d. d. 25–6 285730 subl. d. subl. 266.6752 subl. 253–4 110 188.6 d. subl. 136.117 14018 14416 subl. 34 −56 12214 d. 250 255757 d. 225100 255–9 152291 110760 261–3 subl. 245–6 177 198–200 220762 d. 229–3016 135 d. 202 150 d. 140 d. d. 290–53 227100 d. 212 d.

130750 164.8 −161.4

Solubility in 100 parts Water i. 0.620 v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 0.05 0.420 s. s. h. ∞ 615 1.3831 v. sl. s. h. s. h. v. sl. s. c. i. i. s. h. s. 0.03420 sl. s. 0.0125 sl. s. sl. s. v. sl. s. s. h. i. d. 7.220 ∞ v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 1710 i. i. i. i. i. i. sl. s. 2.218 v. s. i. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. 7925 16.380 14426 v. s. 13816 10825 1620 1314 24817 i. v. s. 0.04 c. i. 1.660 12.515 0.0712 320 i. 215 0.420 cc.

Alcohol

Ether

v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. s. h. v. sl. s. v. s.

v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. 0.2518 i. sl. s.

∞ v. s.

∞ v. s.

s. v. s. s. i. s. s. h. s. s. v. s. 1.517 ∞ ∞ v. s. v. s. h. ∞ d.

s. v. s. sl. s. i. s. s. s. ∞ v. s. 13.625 ∞ ∞ v. s. sl. s. ∞ s.

∞ s. v. sl. s. c. i. s. i. c. s. sl. s. ∞ s. h. ∞

∞ s.

s. ∞ ∞ s. h. ∞

v. s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ 7030

v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 825

v. s. v. s. 4225 v. sl. s. c. s. 0.0114 v. sl. s. 3228 v. s. v. s. s.

v. s. 8.415 815 i. s. i. i. v. s.

s. ∞ s. v. sl. s. 4720 cc.

i. s.

v. s. sl. s.

∞ ∞ v. sl. s. 10410 cc.

Methoxy-methoxyethanol Methyl acetate acrylic acid (α-) alcohol -amine -amine hydrochloride aniline anthracene (α-) (β-) anthranilate (o-) anthraquinone (2-) benzoate benzylaniline bromide butyrate (n-) (i-) caprate caproate (n-) caprylate cellosolve chloride chloroacetate chloroformate cinnamate cyclohexane ethyl carbonate ethyl ketone ethyl oxalate formate furoate glucamine glycolate heptoate hypochlorite iodide lactate laurate mercaptan methacrylate myristate naphthalene (α-) (β-) nitrate nitrite nonyl ketone (n-) oleate orange palmitate phosphine propionate propyl ketone (n-) salicylate (o-) stearate toluate (o-) (m-) (p-) Methyl toluidine (o-) (m-) (p-) valerate (n-) (i-) vinyl ketone Methylal Methylene-bis-(phenyl-4-isocyanate) bromide chloride dianiline iodide Michler’s hydrol (p-,p′-) ketone Morphine Mucic acid

CH3(OCH2)2CH2OH CH3CO2CH3 CH2:C(CH3)CO2H CH3OH CH3NH2 CH3NH2?HCl C6H5NHCH3 C6H4:(CH)2:C6H3CH3 C6H4:(CH)2:C6H3CH3 NH2C6H4CO2CH3 C6H4:(CO)2:C6H3CH3 C6H5CO2CH3 C6H5N(CH3)CH2C6H5 CH3Br CH3(CH2)2CO2CH3 (CH3)2CHCO2CH3 CH3(CH2)8CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)4CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)6CO2CH3 CH3OCH2CH2OH CH3Cl ClCH2CO2CH3 ClCO2CH3 C6H5CH:CHCO2CH3 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHCH3 CH3O?CO?OC2H5 CH3.CO?C2H5 CH3OCO?CO2C2H5 HCO2CH3 C4H3O?CO2CH3 CH2OH(CHOH)4CH2NHCH3 HOCH2CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)5CO2CH3 ClOCH3 CH3I CH3CH(OH)CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)10CO2CH3 CH3SH CH2:C(CH3)CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)12CO2CH3 C10H7CH3 C10H7CH3 CH3ONO2 CH3ONO CH3(CH2)8COCH3 C17H33CO2CH3 (CH3)2NC6H4N2C6H4SO3Na CH3(CH2)14CO2CH3 CH3PH2 CH3CH2CO2CH3 CH3COCH2CH2CH3 HO?C6H4CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)16CO2CH3 CH3?C6H4CO2CH3 CH3?C6H4CO2CH3 CH3?C6H4CO2CH3 CH3?C6H4NHCH3 CH3?C6H4NHCH3 CH3?C6H4NHCH3 CH3(CH2)3CO2CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2CH3 CH3COCH:CH2 HCH(OCH3)2 (OCN?C6H4)2CH2 CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 (C6H5NH)2CH2 CH2I2 [(CH3)2NC6H4]2CHOH [(CH3)2NC6H4]2CO C17H19O3N?H2O (?CHOHCHOHCO2H)2

106.12 74.08 86.09 32.04 31.06 67.52 107.15 192.25 192.25 151.16 222.23 136.14 197.27 94.95 102.13 102.13 186.29 130.18 158.23 76.09 50.49 108.53 94.50 162.18 98.18 104.10 72.10 132.11 60.05 126.11 195.21 90.08 144.21 66.49 141.95 104.10 214.34 48.10 100.11 242.39 142.19 142.19 77.04 61.04 170.29 296.48 327.33 270.44 48.03 88.10 86.13 152.14 298.49 150.17 150.17 150.17 121.18 121.18 121.18 116.16 116.16 70.09 76.09 250.25 173.86 84.94 198.26 267.87 270.36 268.35 303.35 210.14

lq. col. lq. pr. col. lq. col. gas pl./al. lq. lf./al. col. lf. col. lq. col. nd. col. lq. lq. gas col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. gas col. lq. col. lq. cr. col. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. gas col. lq. lq. lq. gas lq. cr./al. oil mn. lq. gas col. oil oil red pd. col. cr. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. cr. col. lq. col. lq. cr. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. cr. col. lq. gn. lf./al. pr./al. pd.

1.038 25 0.924 20/4 1.015 20/4 0.792 20/4 0.699 −11 1.23 0.989 20/4 1.047 99.4 1.181 0/4 1.168 19/4 1.087 25/25 1.732 0/0 0.898 20/4 0.891 20/4 0.904 0/0 0.887 18 0.965 20/4 0.952 0 1.236 20/4 1.236 15 1.042 36/0 0.769 20/4 1.002 27 0.805 20/4 1.156 0/0 0.974 20/4 1.179 21/4

250 125 46–9 69–70 50 111–2

250.5100 16715 217.9

300 >300 278–80 285–6

300.8 306.1 subl.

d.

1.18 1.009 20/4

1.207 156 1.211 156 1.442 15 1.43 1.437 14 1.254 20/4 1.233 20

1.205

18/4

1.575 4/4 1.494 4/4 1.550 22/4

89/4

1.240 1.067 20/4 1.179 20/4 1.313 17 1.44

NH C5H4N?CH3 C5H4N?CH3 C5H4N?CH3 HO?C6H2(NH2)(NO2)2 HO?C6H2(NO2)3 ClC6H2(NO2)3 [(CH3)2C?OH]2 CH3COC(CH3)3 C10H16 C10H17Cl C10H16O CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > NH HO2C?CH < (CH2CH2)2 > NH (CH2)5CS2H?HN(CH2)5 CH3CH2CH3 CH3CH2CO2H CH3CH2CHO (CH3CH2CO)2O CH2CO2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2OH (CH3)2CHOH CH3CH2CH2NH2 (CH3)2CHNH2 C6H5NHCH2CH2CH3 C6H5CO2CH2CH2CH3 C6H5CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2Br (CH3)2CHBr C2H5CH2CO2CH2C2H5 (CH3)2CHCO2CH2C2H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CHCO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2Cl (CH3)2CHCl HCO2CH2CH2CH3 HCO2CH(CH3)2 C4H3O?CO2C3H7 CH3CH(OH)CO2CH2C2H5 CH3CH(OH)CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2SH (CH3)2CHSH C2H5CO2CH2C2H5 C2H5CO2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CH?CNS CH3(CH2)3CO2CH2C2H5 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C3H7 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C3H7 CH3CH:CH2 CH3CHBrCH2Br CH3CHClCH2OH CH3CHClCH2Cl CH3CH(OH)CH2OH CH3(CHCH2)O (HO)2C6H3CO2H?H2O

Formula weight

Form and color

108.14 108.14 108.14 162.14 138.20 98.92 166.13 166.13 148.11 128.13 134.13 147.13 93.12 93.12 93.12 199.12 229.11 247.56 118.17 100.16 136.23 172.69 152.23 85.15 129.16 232.41 44.09 74.08 58.08 130.14 102.13 102.13 60.09 60.09 59.11 59.11 135.20 164.20 164.20 123.00 123.00 130.18 130.18 130.18 130.18 78.54 78.54 88.10 88.10 154.16 132.16 132.16 76.15 76.15 116.16 116.16 101.16 144.21 144.21 144.21 42.08 201.91 94.54 112.99 6.09 58.08 172.13

lf./aq. rhb. mn. rhb. yel. pr. gas mn./aq. nd./aq. rhb. cr. nd./aq. cr./et. col. lq. col. lq. lq. red nd. yel. rhb. yel. mn. col. nd. col. lq. col. lq. lf. lq. lq. cr. cr. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. oil col. lq. nd./aq.

Specific gravity 1.139 15/15 0.885 20/4 1.392 19/4 1.593 20/4 1.527

4

1.164 99/4 0.950 15/4 0.961 15/4 0.957 15/4 1.763 20/4 1.797 20 0.967 15 0.800 16 0.878 20/4 0.953 20/20 0.860 20/4 1.13 0.585 −45/4 0.992 20/4 0.807 20/4 1.012 20/4 0.886 20/4 0.874 20/20 0.804 20/4 0.78920/4 0.718 20/20 0.694 15/4 0.949 18 1.021 25/25 1.010 25/25 1.353 20/4 1.310 20/4 0.879 15 0.884 0/4 0.865 18 0.869 0/4 0.890 20/4 0.859 20 0.901 20/4 0.873 20/4 1.075 26/4 0.836 25/4 0.809 25/4 0.883 20/4 0.893 0 0.963 20 0.874 15 0.863 20/4 0.854 17 0.609 −47/4 1.933 20/4 1.103 20 1.159 20/20 1.040 19.4 0.831 20/20 1.542 4/4

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

103–4 62.8 140 117 28 −104 208 330 130.8 141 73(65) 238 −70

256–8 284–7 267 subl. 197.2743 8.2756 d. subl. 284.5

169 121.8 83 43(38) −52.5 −55 131–2 −9 264 175 −187.1 −22 −81 −45 −92.5 −73.4 −127 −85.8 −83 −101 −51.6 −109.9 −89 −95.2

−122.8 −117 −92.9

−112 −130.7 −76 −70.7 −185 −55.5

CH < (CHCH)2 > N C6H4(OH)2 C6H3(OH)3 CO < (CHCH)2 > O < (CH:CH)2 > NH < (CH2?CH2)2 > NH < (CH?CH2)2 > NH CH3COCO2H C21H20O11?2H2O CH3?C9H6N C9H7N C9H7N }C6H4CH:C(OH)N:C(OH)} CO < (CHCH)2 > CO HOC10H5(SO3)2Ca HOC10H5(SO3K)2 HOC10H5(SO3Na)2 C18H32O16?5H2O C6H4(OH)2 C18H18 CH3(CHOH)4CHO?H2O C17H32(OH)CO2H C20H21ON3 C20H16O3 C6H4(CO)(SO2) > NH CH2:CHCH2?C6H3:O2CH2 CH3?CH:CH?C6H3:O2CH2 HO?C6H4?CO2H HO?C6H4?CHO HO?C6H4?CH2OH (HOC10H6SO3)2Ca?5H2O HOC10H6SO3K HOC10H6SO3Na NH2?CO?NH?NH2 NH2?CO?NH?NH3Cl CH3?C8H6N CH3ONa [CH2OH(CHOH)2]2 C6H12O6 (C6H10O5)x CH3(CH2)16CO2H CH3(CH2)16CONH2 C6H5CH:CH2 HO2C(CH2)6CO2H HO2C(CH2)2CO2H C12H22O11 H2N?C6H4?SO3H C10H16 (CHOHCO2H)2 (CHOHCO2H)2?H2O (CHOHCO2H)2 CH(OH)(CO2H)2?aH2O C6H4(CO2H)2 C10H20O2?H2O C10H18O C10H18O CH3CO2?C10H17 Br2CH?CHBr2 Br3C?CH2Br Cl2CH?CHCl2 Cl3C?CH2Cl Cl2C:CCl2 CH3(CH2)22CH3 CH3(CH2)12CH3 [(C2H5)2NCS]2S2

154.24 152.23 68.08 70.09 84.08 202.24 80.09 79.10 110.11 126.11 96.08 67.09 71.12 69.10 88.06 484.40 143.18 129.15 129.15 161.15 108.09 342.35 380.46 348.26 594.52 110.11 234.32 182.17 298.45 319.39 304.33 183.18 162.18 162.18 138.12 122.12 124.13 576.59 262.31 246.21 75.07 111.54 131.17 54.03 182.17 180.16 162.14 284.47 283.48 104.14 174.19 118.09 342.30 173.18 136.23 150.09 168.10 150.09 129.07 166.13 190.28 154.24 154.24 196.28 345.70 345.70 167.86 167.86 165.85 338.64 198.38 296.52

col. lq. col. lq. nd./et. lq. nd. yel. pr. lq. col. lq. nd./aq. nd. cr. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. yel. nd. lq. lq. pl. cr. yel. mn. cr. cr. cr. cr./aq. col. rhb. lf./al. col. mn. lq. col. nd. red lf. mn. col. mn. col. lq. mn. col. oil rhb./aq. cr. cr. cr. pr./al. pr. lf. pd. cr. rhb. amor. mn. col. cr. col. lq. nd./aq. col. mn. col. mn. col. cr. lq. cr. tri. mn. pr./aq. cr. rhb. col. cr. col. cr. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. cr. col. lq. cr.

0.911 20/4 0.932 20/20 70 1.277 0/4 1.107 20/4 0.982 20/4 1.344 4 1.453 4 1.190 40.3 0.948 20/4 0.852 22.5 0.910 20/4 1.267 20/4 1.059 20/4 1.095 20 1.099 21/4 1.318 20/4

1.465 0 1.272 15 1.1316 1.47120/4 0.954 16

1.100 20/4 1.122 20/4 1.443 20/4 1.153 25/4 1.161 25

1.654 15 1.5021 0.847 69.3 0.903 20/4 1.266 25/4 1.572 25/4 1.588 15 0.863 20/4 1.737 1.697 20/4 1.760 20/4 1.510 0.935 15 0.935 20/20 0.966 20/4 2.964 20/4 2.875 20/4 1.600 20/4 1.588 20/4 1.624 15/4 0.779 51/4 0.765 20/4 1.17

165 149-50 −8 −42 104-5 133-4 32.5

13.6 182-5 −1 −15 24.6 237 115.7

119 110.7 98-9 126 4-5 186 d. 308-10 d. 225-8 11.2 6-7 159 -7 86-7

96 173 d. 95 d. 300 110-2 165 d. 70-1 108-9 −31 140-4 189-90 170-86 d. d. > 280

86-9 10 224754 186-8 144 subl. d. >360 208 115-6 240-5 309 215-7 131 87-8 90-1 165 244-5750 237.1747 240.5763 subl.

d. 130 276.5 390-4 226-810 subl. 233-4 252-3 21120 196.5 subl.

755

265-6

291110 25112 145-6 279100 235 d. 176-7

159-60 205-6 168-70 d. 155-8 subl. 117 38-40 35 < −50 −1.0 0 −36 −19 51.1 5.5 70

d. subl. d. 219-21 218-9752 220 d. 15154 10413 146.3 129-30 120.8 324 252.5

v. sl. s. i. s. ∞ s. i. ∞ ∞ 45.120 40 13 v. sl. s. i. ∞ v. s. ∞ 0.04 20 v. sl. s. 6 sl. s. v. sl. s. sl. s. h. 30.6 25 29.5 25 25.2 25 14.3 20 14712 i. 60.8 21 i. v. sl. s. 0.1225 0.4 25 i. i. 0.223 1.7 86 6.615 4.7620 3.4625 6.2925 v. s. v. s. 0.05 c. d. v. s. 5517 i. 0.0325 i. v. sl. s. 0.1416 6.820 1790 0.810 12015 20.620 13920 v. s. 0.001 c. 0.415 i. i. i. i. 20

0.29 i. 0.0220 i. i.

∞ s. ∞ v. s. 3 h. s. ∞ v. s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ s.

0.120 v. s. 69 h.

∞ s. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. s. s. s. v. s. s. v. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ sl. s. s. ∞ s. s.

∞ sl. s. v. s. h. 3.1 c. s. ∞ 4915 ∞ v. s.

v. s. v. s. h. i. ∞ i. sl. s. 1.05 c. ∞ ∞ 5115 ∞ v. s.

v. s. sl. s. s.

i. i. s.

v. s. h. sl. s. i. 220 s. h. ∞ s. 9.915 0.9 v. sl. s.

i. 6g s. h: ∞ 0.815 1.215 i. v. sl. s.

20 2515 v. s. sl. s. h. 1015 v. s. v. s. 20 ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s.

0.09 0.415 i. i. 115 v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. v. s.

2-45

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TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Concluded ) Name

Tetrafluoro-ethylene Tetrahydro-furan -furfuryl alcohol -pyran Tetralin Tetramethyl-thiuram disulfide Tetryl (2-,4-,6-) Theobromine Thio-acetic acid -aniline (4-, 4′-) -carbanilide -naphthol (β-) -phenol -salicylic acid (o-) -urea Thiophene Thymol (5-,2-,1-) Tolidine (0-)(3-,3′-,4-,4′-) Toluene sulfonic acid (o-) (p-) sulfonic amide (p-) sulfonic chloride (p-) Toluic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Toluidine (o-) (m-) (p-) hydrochloride (o-) sulfonic acid (1-,2-,3-) Toluylenediamine (1-,2-,4-) Tolylene diisocyanate (1-,2-,4-) Trehalose Triamylamine (n-) (i-) Tributyl-amine (n-) phosphite Trichloro-acetic acid -benzene (s-)(1-,3-,5-) -ethane (1-,1-,1-) -ethylene -phenol Tricosane (n-) Tricresyl phosphate (o-) Tridecane (n-) Triethanol amine Triethyl-amine -benzene (1-,3-,5-) (1-,2-,4-) borate citrate Triethylene glycol Trifluoro-chloromethane chloroethylene -trichloroethane Trimethoxybutane (1-,3-,3-) Trimethylamine Trimethylene bromide chloride glycol Trinitro-benzene (1-,3-,5-) -benzoic acid (2-,4-,6-) -tert-butylxylene -naphthalene (α-)(1-,3-,5-) (β-)(1-,3-,8-) (γ-)(1-,4-,5-)

Formula F2C:CF2 }CH2(CH2)2CH2?O} C4H7O?CH2OH }CH2(CH2)3CH2?O} }C6H4CH2(CH2)2CH2} [(CH3)2NCS]2S2 (NO2)3C6H2?N(CH3)NO2 C7H8O2N4 CH3?CO?SH (NH2?C6H4)2S (C6H5?NH)2CS C10H7?SH C6H5?SH HS?C6H4?CO2H NH2?CS?NH2 < (CH:CH)2 > S (CH3)(C3H7)C6H3OH [CH3(NH2)C6H3]2 C6H5?CH3 CH3?C6H4SO3H?2H2O CH3?C6H4SO3H?H2O CH3?C6H4SO2NH2 CH3?C6H4?SO2Cl CH3?C6H4?CO2H CH3?C6H4?CO2H CH3?C6H4?CO2H CH3?C6H4?NH2 CH3?C6H4?NH2 CH3?C6H4?NH2 CH3?C6H4?NH3Cl CH3(NH2)C6H3SO3H CH3?C6H3(NH2)2 CH3?C6H3(NCO)2 C12H22O11?2H2O [CH3(CH2)3CH2]3N [(CH3)2CH(CH2)2]3N [CH3(CH2)2CH2]3N [CH3(CH2)3O]3P Cl3C?CO2H C6H3Cl3 Cl3C?CH3 Cl2C:CHCl Cl3C6H2OH CH3(CH2)21CH3 OP(OC6H4CH3)3 CH3(CH2)11CH3 (HOCH2CH2)3N (CH3CH2)3N (C2H5)3C6H3 (C2H5)3C6H3 B(OCH2CH3)3 HOC3H4(CO2C2H5)3 (?CH2OCH2CH2OH)2 CF3Cl F2C:CFCl Cl2CF?CClF2 CH2(OCH3)CH2C(OCH3)2CH3 (CH3)3N BrCH2CH2CH2Br ClCH2CH2CH2Cl HOCH2CH2CH2OH C6H3(NO2)3 (NO2)3C6H2CO2H (NO2)3C6(CH3)2C4H9 C10H5(NO2)3 C10H5(NO2)3 C10H5(NO2)3

Formula weight

Form and color

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

100.02 72.10 102.13 86.13 132.20 240.41 287.15 180.17 76.11 216.29 228.30 160.22 110.17 154.18 76.12 84.13 150.21 212.28 92.13 208.23 190.21 171.21 190.64 136.14 136.14 136.14 107.15 107.15 107.15 143.62 187.21 122.17 174.15 378.33 227.42 227.42 185.34 250.32 163.40 181.46 133.42 131.40 197.46 324.61 368.36 184.35 149.19 101.19 162.26 162.26 146.00 276.28 150.17 104.47 116.48 187.39 148.20 59.11 201.91 112.99 76.09 213.11 257.12 297.26 263.16 263.16 263.16

gas col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. cr. yel. mn. rhb. yel. lq. nd./aq. rhb./al. cr./al. col. lq. yel. nd. rhb./al. col. lq. cr. lf. col. lq. cr. mn. mn. tri. cr./aq. pr./aq. cr./aq. col. lq. col. lq. cr. mn. pr. cr. rhb. lq. rhb./al. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. cr. nd. lq. col. lq. nd. lf. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. oil lq. lq. lq. oil col. lq. gas gas lq. lq. gas lq. lq. oil col. rhb. rhb./aq. nd./al. rhb. cr./al. yel. cr.

1.58−78 0.88821/4 1.05020/4 0.88120/4 0.97318/4 1.29 1.5719

−142.5 −65

−76.3 65-6 177-8743 88 206764

1.07410 1.324 1.07423/4 1.40520/4 1.07015/4 0.97225/25 20/4

0.866

1.062115/4 1.054112/4 0.99920/4 0.98920/4 1.04620/4

1.2328

−31 155-6 130.5 330 < −17 108 154 81 164 180-2 −30 51.5 128-9 −95 d. 104-5 137 69 104-5 110-1 179-80 −16.3 −31.5 44-5 218-20 99

expl. 93 d. 286-8 168-9 subl. d. 84 232752 110.8 128.80 146-70 134.510 259751 263 274-5 199.7 203.3 200.3 242 283-5 134.520

97 0.78620/4 0.77820/20 0.92520/4 1.61746/15 1.32526/4 1.46620/20 1.49075/4 0.77948/4 0.75720/4 1.12620/20 0.72920/20 0.86120/4 0.88217/4 0.86420/20 1.13720/4 1.12520/20 1.726−130 1.57620/4 0.932 0.662 −5 1.987 15/4 1.201 15 1.060 20/4 1.688 20/4

58 63.5 −73 68-9 47.7 −6.2 20-1 −114.8

−5 −182 −157.5 −35 −124 −34.4 121 210-20 d. 110 122-3 218-9 148-9

2-46

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240-5 235 216.5761 122-312 195.5754 208.5764 74.1 87.2 246 23415 234 277-9150 89.4 215 217-8755 120 294 290 −80 −27.9 47.6 63-525 3.5 167.5 123-5 214 d.

Solubility in 100 parts Water 0.0130 s. ∞ s. i. i. i. 0.0615 s. sl. s. h. i. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. sl. s. h. 9.213 i. 0.0919 v. sl. s. 0.0516 v. s. v. s. 0.29 i. 2.17100 1.6100 1.3100 1.525 sl. s. 0.7421 s. 0.9711 s. h. d. s. h. i. i. i. i. 12025 i. i. 0.125 0.0925 i. i. i. ∞ ∞ > 190 i. i. d. i. ∞ d. i. d. 4119 0.1730 0.2725 ∞ 0.0315 2.0524 i. i. 0.02100 i.

Alcohol

Ether

s. ∞

s. ∞

s.

s.

s. h. 0.06 c. ∞ s. v. s. v. s. v. s. s. s. s. v. s. s. s. s. s. 7.45 s. v. s. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. sl. s.

s. 0.03 h. ∞ s. v. s. v. s. ∞ sl. s. v. s. s. ∞

s. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ v. s.

s. d. sl. s. h.

i.

s.

s.



s. sl. s. ∞ ∞ v. s.

s.

v. s. ∞ ∞ s. s.

v. s. sl. s. ∞ s. s.

∞ ∞

∞ v. sl. s.





s. s. s. ∞ 1.918

s. s. s. 1.518

sl. s. s. 0.0523 0.1119

0.1315 0.419

∞ ∞ v. s.

s.

-phenol (2-,3-,6-) -toluene (β-)(2-,3-,4-) (γ-)(2-,4-,5-) (α-)(2-,4-,6-) Trional Triphenyl-arsine carbinol guanidine (α-) methane methyl phosphate Tripropylamine (n-) Undecane (n-) Urea nitrate Uric acid Valeric acid (n-) (i-) aldehyde (n-) (i-) amide (n-) (i-) Vanillic acid (3-,4-,1-) alcohol (3-,4-,1-) hyl-thiuram disulfide Vanillin (3-,4-,1-) Veratrole (o-) Vinyl acetate (poly-) acetic acid acetylene alcohol (poly-) chloride propionate Xylene (o-) (m-) (p-) sulfonic acid (1-,4-,2-) Xylidine (1:2)(3-) (1:2)(4-) (1:3)(2-) (1:3)(4-) (1:3)(5-) (1:4)(2-) Xylose (l-)(+) Xylylene dichloride (p-) Zinc diethyl dimethyl dimethyl-dithiocarbamate NOTE:

(NO2)3C6H2OH CH3C6H2(NO2)3 CH3C6H2(NO2)3 CH3C6H3(NO2)3 C2H5(CH3)C(SO2C2H5)3 (C6H5)3As (C6H5)3COH C6H5N:C(NHC6H5)2 (C6H5)3CH (C6H5)3C . . . OP(OC6H5)3 (CH3CH2CH2)3N CH3(CH2)3CH3 H2N?CO?NH2 CO(NH2)2?HNO3 C5H4O3N4 C2H5CH2CH2CO2H (CH3)2CHCH2CO2H C2H5CH2CH2CHO (CH3)2CHCH2CHO C2H5CH2CH2CONH2 (CH3)2CHCH2CONH2 CH3O(OH)C6H3CO2H CH3O(OH)C6H3CH2OH [(C2H5)2NCS]2S2 CH3O(OH)C6H3CHO C6H4(OCH3)2 CH3CO2CH:CH2 (CH3CO2CH:CH2)x CH2:CH?CH2CO2H CH2:CH?C:CH CH2:CHOH (CH2:CHOH)x CH2:CHCl C2H5CO2CH:CH2 C6H4(CH3)2 C6H4(CH3)2 C6H4(CH3)2 (CH3)2C6H3SO3H?2H2O (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 CH2OH(CHOH)3CHO C6H4(CH2Cl)2 Zn(CH2CH3)2 Zn(CH3)2 Zn[S2CN(CH3)2]2

229.11 227.13 227.13 227.13 242.34 306.21 260.32 287.35 244.32 243.31 326.28 143.27 156.30 60.06 123.07 168.11 102.13 102.13 86.13 86.13 101.15 101.15 168.14 154.16 296.52 152.14 138.16 86.09 (86.09) 86.09 52.07 44.06 (44.06) 62.50 100.11 106.16 106.16 106.16 222.25 121.18 121.18 121.18 121.18 121.18 121.18 150.13 175.06 123.50 95.45 305.79

nd. cr. yel. pl. cr./al. pl./al. pl. cr. rhb./al. cr. col. cr. pr./al. col. lq. col. lq. col. pr. col. mn. cr. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. mn. pl. mn. nd./aq. mn./aq. cr. mn. cr. col. lq. col. lq. gas gas lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lf. lq. pr. lq. lq. oil oil nd. mn. col. lq. col. lq.

1.620 20/4 1.620 20/4 1.654 1.199 85/4 1.306 1.188 20/4 1.13 1.014 99/4 1.206 58/4 0.757 20/4 0.741 20/4 1.335 20/4 1.893 20 0.939 20/4 0.931 20/20 0.819 11 0.803 17 1.023 0.965 20/4 1.17 1.056 1.091 15/15 0.932 20/4 1.1920 1.013 15/15 0.705 1.5

117-8 112 104 80.8 76 59-60 162.5 144-5 93.4 145-7 49-50 −93.5 −25.6 132.7 152 d. d. −34.5 −37.6 −92 −51 106 135-7 207 115 70 81-2 22.5 < −60 100-25 −39

1.320 0.908 25/25

d. >200 −160

0.881 20/4 0.867 17/4 0.861 20/4

−25 −47.4 13.2 86 < −15 49-50

0.991 15 1.076 17.5 0.980 15 0.978 20/4 0.972 20/4 0.979 21/4 1.535 0 1.417 0 1.182 18 1.386 11 2.0040/4

15.5 153-4 100.5 −28 −40 248-50

expl. expl. expl. d. >360 >360 d. 359754 d. 24511 156.5 194.5 d. 187 176 103.4 92.5 232 subl. d. 285 207.1 72-3 163 5.5 −12 93-5 144 139.3 138.5 1490.1 223 224-6 216-7 213-4 221-2 215789 240-5 d. 118 46

s. h. i. i. 0.0120 0.315 i. i. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. i. 10017 v. s. h. 0.06 h. 3.316 4.220 v. sl. s. sl. s. v. s. s. 0.1214 v. s. h. i. 114 v. sl. s. 220 i. s. 0.670.6 s. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. i. i. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 11720 i. d. d. i.

v. s. sl. s. c. s. h. 1.522 50 s. v. s. 40 v. s. h. sl. s. h. 15525 ∞ ∞ 2020 s. i. ∞ ∞ s. s. v. s. s. v. s. v. s.

v. s. s. v. s. 533 6.615 v. s. v. s.

v. s. s. ∞

v. s. s. ∞





v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ sl. s. i. ∞ ∞ s. s. v. s. s. v. s. v. s.

s.

v. s.

s. s. s.

∞ ∞ v. s.

s.

s.

v. sl. s. s. d. d.

i. v. sl. s.

°F = 9⁄5 °C + 32.

2-47

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2-48

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES UNITS CONVERSIONS

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable:

Additional compilations of vapor-pressure data include Boublik, Fried, and Hala, The Vapor Pressures of Pure Substances, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984. See also Hirata, Ohe, and Nagahama, Computer Aided Data Book of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Kodansha/Elsevier, Tokyo, 1975; Weishaupt, Landolt-Börnstein New Series Group IV, vol. 3; Thermodynamic Equilibria of Boiling Mixtures, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975; Wichterle, Linek, and Hala, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data Bibliography, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973; suppl. 1, 1976; suppl. 2, 1982.

°F = 9⁄5 °C + 32. To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 0.01934.

TABLE 2-3

Vapor Pressure of Water Ice from -15 to 0°C* mmHg

TABLE 2-4

Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water from -16 to 0°C* mmHg

t, °C

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

t, °C

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

−14 −13 −12 −11 −10

1.361 1.490 1.632 1.785 1.950

1.348 1.477 1.617 1.769 1.934

1.336 1.464 1.602 1.753 1.916

1.324 1.450 1.588 1.737 1.899

1.312 1.437 1.574 1.722 1.883

1.300 1.424 1.559 1.707 1.866

1.288 1.411 1.546 1.691 1.849

1.276 1.399 1.532 1.676 1.833

1.264 1.386 1.518 1.661 1.817

1.253 1.373 1.504 1.646 1.800

−15 −14 −13 −12 −11

1.436 1.560 1.691 1.834 1.987

1.425 1.547 1.678 1.819 1.971

1.414 1.534 1.665 1.804 1.955

1.402 1.522 1.651 1.790 1.939

1.390 1.511 1.637 1.776 1.924

1.379 1.497 1.624 1.761 1.909

1.368 1.485 1.611 1.748 1.893

1.356 1.472 1.599 1.734 1.878

1.345 1.460 1.585 1.720 1.863

1.334 1.449 1.572 1.705 1.848

−9 −8 −7 −6 −5

2.131 2.326 2.537 2.765 3.013

2.112 2.306 2.515 2.742 2.987

2.093 2.285 2.493 2.718 2.962

2.075 2.266 2.472 2.695 2.937

2.057 2.246 2.450 2.672 2.912

2.039 2.226 2.429 2.649 2.887

2.021 2.207 2.408 2.626 2.862

2.003 2.187 2.387 2.603 2.838

1.985 2.168 2.367 2.581 2.813

1.968 2.149 2.346 2.559 2.790

−10 −9 −8 −7 −6

2.149 2.326 2.514 2.715 2.931

2.134 2.307 2.495 2.695 2.909

2.116 2.289 2.475 2.674 2.887

2.099 2.271 2.456 2.654 2.866

2.084 2.254 2.437 2.633 2.843

2.067 2.236 2.418 2.613 2.822

2.050 2.219 2.399 2.593 2.800

2.034 2.201 2.380 2.572 2.778

2.018 2.184 2.362 2.553 2.757

2.001 2.167 2.343 2.533 2.736

−4 −3 −2 −1 −0

3.280 3.568 3.880 4.217 4.579

3.252 3.539 3.848 4.182 4.542

3.225 3.509 3.816 4.147 4.504

3.198 3.480 3.785 4.113 4.467

3.171 3.451 3.753 4.079 4.431

3.144 3.422 3.722 4.045 4.395

3.117 3.393 3.691 4.012 4.359

3.091 3.364 3.660 3.979 4.323

3.065 3.336 3.630 3.946 4.287

3.039 3.308 3.599 3.913 4.252

−5 −4 −3 −2 −1

3.163 3.410 3.673 3.956 4.258

3.139 3.384 3.647 3.927 4.227

3.115 3.359 3.620 3.898 4.196

3.092 3.334 3.593 3.871 4.165

3.069 3.309 3.567 3.841 4.135

3.046 3.284 3.540 3.813 4.105

3.022 3.259 3.514 3.785 4.075

3.000 3.235 3.487 3.757 4.045

2.976 3.211 3.461 3.730 4.016

2.955 3.187 3.436 3.702 3.986

*For data at 0(0.2)−30(2)−98°C see p. 2324, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.

−0

4.579 4.546 4.513 4.480 4.448 4.416 4.385 4.353 4.320 4.289

*Computed from the above table with the aid of the thermodynamic equation pw −1.1489t log10 } = } − 1.330 × 10−5t2 + 9.084 × 10−8t3 273.1 + t pi

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TABLE 2-5

Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water from 0 to 100°C* mmHg

t, °C

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0 1 2 3 4

4.579 4.926 5.294 5.685 6.101

4.613 4.962 5.332 5.725 6.144

4.647 4.998 5.370 5.766 6.187

4.681 5.034 5.408 5.807 6.230

4.715 5.070 5.447 5.848 6.274

4.750 5.107 5.486 5.889 6.318

4.785 5.144 5.525 5.931 6.363

4.820 5.181 5.565 5.973 6.408

4.855 5.219 5.605 6.015 6.453

4.890 5.256 5.645 6.058 6.498

5 6 7 8 9

6.543 7.013 7.513 8.045 8.609

6.589 7.062 7.565 8.100 8.668

6.635 7.111 7.617 8.155 8.727

6.681 7.160 7.669 8.211 8.786

6.728 7.209 7.722 8.267 8.845

6.775 7.259 7.775 8.323 8.905

6.822 7.309 7.828 8.380 8.965

6.869 7.360 7.882 8.437 9.025

6.917 7.411 7.936 8.494 9.086

6.965 7.462 7.990 8.551 9.147

10 11 12 13 14

9.209 9.844 10.518 11.231 11.987

9.271 9.910 10.588 11.305 12.065

9.333 9.976 10.658 11.379 12.144

9.395 10.042 10.728 11.453 12.223

9.458 10.109 10.799 11.528 12.302

9.521 10.176 10.870 11.604 12.382

9.585 10.244 10.941 11.680 12.462

9.649 10.312 11.013 11.756 12.543

9.714 10.380 11.085 11.833 12.624

9.779 10.449 11.158 11.910 12.706

15 16 17 18 19

12.788 13.634 14.530 15.477 16.477

12.870 13.721 14.622 15.575 16.581

12.953 13.809 14.715 15.673 16.685

13.037 13.898 14.809 15.772 16.789

13.121 13.987 14.903 15.871 16.894

13.205 14.076 14.997 15.971 16.999

13.290 14.166 15.092 16.071 17.105

13.375 14.256 15.188 16.171 17.212

13.461 14.347 15.284 16.272 17.319

13.547 14.438 15.380 16.374 17.427

20 21 22 23 24

17.535 18.650 19.827 21.068 22.377

17.644 18.765 19.948 21.196 22.512

17.753 18.880 20.070 21.324 22.648

17.863 18.996 20.193 21.453 22.785

17.974 19.113 20.316 21.583 22.922

18.085 19.231 20.440 21.714 23.060

18.197 19.349 20.565 21.845 23.198

18.309 19.468 20.690 21.977 23.337

18.422 19.587 20.815 22.110 23.476

18.536 19.707 20.941 22.243 23.616

25 26 27 28 29

23.756 25.209 26.739 28.349 30.043

23.897 25.359 26.897 28.514 30.217

24.039 25.509 27.055 28.680 30.392

24.182 25.660 27.214 28.847 30.568

24.326 25.812 27.374 29.015 30.745

24.471 25.964 27.535 29.184 30.923

24.617 26.117 27.696 29.354 31.102

24.764 26.271 27.858 29.525 31.281

24.912 26.426 28.021 29.697 31.461

25.060 26.582 28.185 29.870 31.642

30 31 32 33 34

31.824 33.695 35.663 37.729 39.898

32.007 33.888 35.865 37.942 40.121

32.191 34.082 36.068 38.155 40.344

32.376 34.276 36.272 38.369 40.569

32.561 34.471 36.477 33.584 40.796

32.747 34.667 36.683 38.801 41.023

32.934 34.864 36.891 39.018 41.251

33.122 35.062 37.099 39.237 41.480

33.312 35.261 37.308 39.457 41.710

33.503 35.462 37.518 39.677 41.942

35 36 37 38 39

42.175 44.563 47.067 49.692 52.442

42.409 44.808 47.324 49.961 52.725

42.644 45.054 47.582 50.231 53.009

42.880 45.301 47.841 50.502 53.294

43.117 45.549 48.102 50.774 53.580

43.355 45.799 48.364 51.048 53.867

43.595 46.050 48.627 51.323 54.156

43.836 46.302 48.891 51.600 54.446

44.078 46.556 49.157 51.879 54.737

44.320 46.811 49.424 52.160 55.030

40 41 42 43 44

55.324 58.34 61.50 64.80 68.26

55.61 58.65 61.82 65.14 68.61

55.91 58.96 62.14 65.48 68.97

56.21 59.27 62.47 65.82 69.33

56.51 59.58 62.80 66.16 69.69

56.81 59.90 63.13 66.51 70.05

57.11 60.22 63.46 66.86 70.41

57.41 60.54 63.79 67.21 70.77

57.72 60.86 64.12 67.56 71.14

58.03 61.18 64.46 67.91 71.51

45 46 47 48 49

71.88 75.65 79.60 83.71 88.02

72.25 76.04 80.00 84.13 88.46

72.62 76.43 80.41 84.56 88.90

72.99 76.82 80.82 84.99 89.34

73.36 77.21 81.23 85.42 89.79

73.74 77.60 81.64 85.85 90.24

74.12 78.00 82.05 86.28 90.69

74.50 78.40 82.46 86.71 91.14

74.88 78.80 82.87 87.14 91.59

75.26 79.20 83.29 87.58 92.05

t, °C

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

50 60 70 80

92.51 149.38 233.7 355.1

97.20 156.43 243.9 369.7

102.09 163.77 254.6 384.9

107.20 171.38 265.7 400.6

112.51 179.31 277.2 416.8

118.04 187.54 289.1 433.6

123.80 196.09 301.4 450.9

129.82 204.96 314.1 468.7

136.08 214.17 327.3 487.1

142.60 223.73 341.0 506.1

90 91 92 93 94

525.76 546.05 566.99 588.60 610.90

527.76 548.11 569.12 590.80 613.17

529.77 550.18 571.26 593.00 615.44

531.78 552.26 573.40 595.21 617.72

533.80 554.35 575.55 597.43 620.01

535.82 556.44 577.71 599.66 622.31

537.86 558.53 579.87 601.89 624.61

539.90 560.64 582.04 604.13 626.92

541.95 562.75 584.22 606.38 629.24

544.00 564.87 586.41 608.64 631.57

95 96 97 98 99 100 101

633.90 657.62 682.07 707.27 733.24 760.00 787.57

636.24 660.03 684.55 709.83 735.88 762.72 790.37

638.59 662.45 687.04 712.40 738.53 765.45 793.18

640.94 664.88 689.54 714.98 741.18 768.19 796.00

643.30 667.31 692.05 717.56 743.85 770.93 796.82

645.67 669.75 694.57 720.15 746.52 773.68 801.66

648.05 672.20 697.10 722.75 749.20 776.44 804.50

650.43 674.66 699.63 725.36 751.89 779.22 807.35

652.82 677.12 702.17 727.98 754.58 782.00 810.21

655.22 679.69 704.71 730.61 757.29 784.78 813.06

*From the Physikalisch-technische Reichsanstalt, Holborn, Scheel, and Henning, Wärmetabellen, Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, Brunswick, 1909. By permission. For data at 50(0.2)101.8°C, see Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., p. 2326, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co. For a tabulation of temperature for pressures 700(1)779 mm Hg, see Atack, Handbook of Chemical Data, p. 117, Reinhold, New York, 1957. For a tabulation of pressure for 105(5)200(10)370°C, see Atack, p. 134, and for 100(1)374°C, see Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., pp. 2328–2330, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.

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2-49

TABLE 2-6

Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids CAS no.

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

Tmin, K

Ps at Tmin

Tmax, K

Ps at Tmax

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22

74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 110543 142825 111659 111842 124185

39.205 51.857 59.078 66.343 78.741 104.65 87.829 96.084 109.35 112.73

−1324.4 −2598.7 −3492.6 −4363.2 −5420.3 −6995.5 −6996.4 −7900.2 −9030.4 −9749.6

−3.4366 −5.1283 −6.0669 −7.046 −8.8253 −12.702 −9.8802 −11.003 −12.882 −13.245

3.1019E−05 1.4913E−05 1.0919E−05 9.4509E−06 9.6171E−06 1.2381E−05 7.2099E−06 7.1802E−06 7.8544E−06 7.1266E−06

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

90.69 90.35 85.47 134.86 143.42 177.83 182.57 216.38 219.66 243.51

1.1687E+04 1.1273E+00 1.6788E−04 6.7441E−01 6.8642E−02 9.0169E−01 1.8269E−01 2.1083E+00 4.3058E−01 1.3930E+00

190.56 305.32 369.83 425.12 469.7 507.6 540.2 568.7 594.6 617.7

4.5897E+06 4.8522E+06 4.2135E+06 3.7699E+06 3.3642E+06 3.0449E+06 2.7192E+06 2.4673E+06 2.3054E+06 2.0908E+06

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane

C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42

1120214 112403 629505 629594 629629 544763 629787 593453 629925 112958

131 137.47 137.45 140.47 135.57 156.06 156.95 157.68 182.54 203.66

−15.855 −16.698 −16.543 −16.859 −16.022 −18.941 −18.966 −18.954 −22.498 −25.525

8.1871E−06 8.0906E−06 7.1275E−06 6.5877E−06 5.6136E−06 6.8172E−06 6.4559E−06 5.9272E−06 7.4008E−06 8.8382E−06

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

247.57 263.57 267.76 279.01 283.07 291.31 295.13 301.31 305.04 309.58

4.0836E−01 6.1534E−01 2.5096E−01 2.5268E−01 1.2884E−01 9.2265E−02 4.6534E−02 3.3909E−02 1.5909E−02 9.2574E−03

639 658 675 693 708 723 736 747 758 768

1.9493E+06 1.8223E+06 1.6786E+06 1.5693E+06 1.4743E+06 1.4106E+06 1.3438E+06 1.2555E+06 1.2078E+06 1.1746E+06

21 22 23 24 25 26 27

2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18

75285 78784 79298 107835 565593 560214 540841

100.18 72.35 77.235 77.36 78.282 83.105 87.868

−4841.9 −5010.9 −5695.9 −5791.7 −6347 −6903.7 −6831.7

−13.541 −7.883 −8.5109 −8.4912 −8.502 −9.1858 −9.9783

2.0063E−02 8.9795E−06 8.0163E−06 7.7939E−06 6.4169E−06 6.4703E−06 7.7729E−06

1 2 2 2 2 2 2

113.54 113.25 145.19 119.55 160 172.22 165.78

1.4051E−02 1.1569E−04 1.5081E−02 9.2204E−06 1.2631E−02 1.6820E−02 1.6187E−02

408.14 460.43 499.98 497.5 537.35 573.5 543.96

3.6199E+06 3.3709E+06 3.1255E+06 3.0192E+06 2.8823E+06 2.8116E+06 2.5630E+06

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Pentene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene

C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14

74851 115071 106989 590181 624646 109671 592416 592767

74.242 57.263 68.49 102.62 70.589 120.15 85.3 92.68

−2707.2 −3382.4 −4350.2 −5260.3 −4530.4 −6192.4 −6171.7 −7055.2

−9.8462 −5.7707 −7.4124 −13.764 −7.7229 −16.597 −9.702 −10.679

2.2457E−02 1.0431E−05 1.0503E−05 1.9183E−02 1.0928E−05 2.1922E−02 8.9604E−06 8.4459E−06

1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2

104 87.89 87.8 134.26 167.62 107.93 133.39 154.27

1.2361E+02 9.3867E−04 7.1809E−07 2.4051E−01 7.4729E+01 3.5210E−06 2.5272E−04 1.2810E−03

282.34 365.57 419.95 435.58 428.63 464.78 504.03 537.29

5.0296E+06 4.6346E+06 4.0391E+06 4.2388E+06 4.0811E+06 3.5557E+06 3.1397E+06 2.8225E+06

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methylpropene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene

C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8

111660 124118 872059 115117 563462 513359 590192 106990 78795

97.57 144.45 78.808 102.5 97.33 82.605 39.714 73.522 79.656

−7836 −9676.2 −8367.9 −5021.8 −5631.8 −5606.6 −3769.9 −4564.3 −5239.6

−11.272 −19.446 −7.9553 −13.88 −12.589 −9.4236 −2.6407 −8.1958 −9.4314

7.7267E−06 1.8031E−02 8.7442E−18 2.0296E−02 1.5395E−02 1.0512E−05 6.9379E−18 1.1580E−05 9.5850E−03

2 1 6 1 1 2 6 2 1

171.45 191.78 206.89 132.81 135.58 139.39 136.95 164.25 127.27

2.7570E−03 8.5514E−03 1.7308E−02 6.2213E−01 1.9687E−02 1.9447E−02 4.4720E−01 6.9110E+01 2.4768E−03

566.65 593.25 616.4 417.9 465 471 452 425.17 484

2.5735E+06 2.3308E+06 2.2092E+06 3.9760E+06 3.4544E+06 3.3769E+06 4.3613E+06 4.3041E+06 3.8509E+06

45 46 47 48 49 50

Acetylene Methylacetylene Dimethylacetylene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne

C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8

74862 74997 503173 598232 627190 627214

172.06 119.42 66.592 69.459 82.805 137.29

−5318.5 −5364.5 −4999.8 −5250 −5683.8 −7447.1

−27.223 −16.81 −6.8387 −7.1125 −9.4301 −19.01

5.4619E−02 2.5523E−02 6.6793E−06 7.9289E−17 1.0767E−05 2.1415E−02

1 1 2 6 2 1

192.4 170.45 240.91 183.45 167.45 163.83

1.2603E+05 3.7264E+02 6.1212E+03 4.3551E+01 2.3990E+00 2.0462E−01

308.32 402.39 473.2 463.2 481.2 519

6.1467E+06 5.6206E+06 4.8699E+06 4.1986E+06 4.1701E+06 4.0198E+06

51 52 53 54 55 56

1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3−Hexyne 1-Heptyne 1-Octyne Vinylacetylene1

C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C4H4

693027 764352 928494 628717 629050 689974

133.2 123.71 47.091 66.447 82.353 55.682

−7492.9 −7639 −5104 −6395.6 −7240.6 −4439.3

−18.405 −16.451 −3.6371 −6.3848 −9.1843 −5.0136

2.2062Ε−02 1.6495Ε−02 5.1621Ε−04 1.1250E−17 5.8038E−03 1.9650E−17

1 1 1 6 1 6

141.25 183.65 170.05 192.22 193.55 173.15

3.9157Ε−04 5.4026Ε−01 2.1950Ε−01 6.7026E−01 1.0092E−01 6.6899E+01

516.2 549 544 559 585 454

3.6352Ε+06 3.5301Ε+06 3.5397Ε+06 3.1343E+06 2.8202E+06 4.8874E+06

Cmpd. no.

Name

Formula

−11143 −11976 −12549 −13231 −13478 −15015 −15557 −16093 −17897 −19441

2-50

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Cyclopentene 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene

C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10

287923 96377 1640897 110827 108872 590669 1678917 142290 693890 110838

51.434 79.673 88.622 116.51 92.611 81.184 80.208 49.88 52.732 88.184

−4770.6 −6086.6 −7011 −7103.3 −7077.8 −6927 −7203.2 −4649.7 −5286.9 −6624.9

−4.3515 −8.7933 −10.038 −15.49 −10.684 −8.8498 −8.6023 −4.1191 −4.4509 −10.059

1.9605E−17 7.4046E−06 7.4481E−06 1.6959E−02 8.1239E−06 5.4580E−06 4.5901E−06 1.9564E−17 1.0883E−17 8.2566E−06

6 2 2 1 2 2 2 6 6 2

179.28 130.73 134.71 279.69 146.58 239.66 161.84 138.13 146.62 169.67

9.4420E+00 6.7059E−05 3.7061E−06 5.3802E+03 1.5256E−04 6.0584E+01 3.5747E−04 1.6884E−02 3.9787E−03 1.0377E−01

511.76 532.79 569.52 553.58 572.19 591.15 609.15 507 542 560.4

4.5028E+06 3.7808E+06 3.3970E+06 4.0958E+06 3.4828E+06 2.9387E+06 3.0411E+06 4.8062E+06 4.1303E+06 4.3922E+06

67 68 69 70 71 72 73

Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene

C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12

71432 108883 95476 108383 106423 100414 103651

83.918 80.877 90.356 84.782 85.475 88.09 136.83

−6517.7 −6902.4 −7948.7 −7598.3 −7595.8 −7688.3 −9544.8

−9.3453 −8.7761 −10.081 −9.2612 −9.378 −9.7708 −18.190

7.1182E−06 5.8034E−06 5.9756E−06 5.5445E−06 5.6875E−06 5.8844E−06 1.6590E−02

2 2 2 2 2 2 1

278.68 178.18 247.98 225.3 286.41 178.15 324.18

4.7620E+03 4.2348E−02 2.1968E+01 3.2099E+00 5.8144E+02 4.0140E−03 2.0014E+03

562.16 591.8 630.33 617.05 616.23 617.2 638.32

4.8819E+06 4.1012E+06 3.7424E+06 3.5286E+06 3.4984E+06 3.5968E+06 3.2001E+06

74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene p-Isopropyltoluene Naphthalene Biphenyl Styrene m-Terphenyl

C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H14 C10H8 C12H10 C8H8 C18H14

95636 98828 108678 99876 91203 92524 100425 92068

60.658 143.62 48.603 107.71 62.447 76.811 105.93 88.044

−7260.4 −9687.7 −6545.2 −9402.7 −8109 −9878.5 −8685.9 −13367

−5.3772 −19.305 −3.6412 −12.545 −5.5571 −7.4384 −12.42 −8.6482

4.5816E−18 1.7703E−02 1.9307E−18 6.6661E−06 2.0800E−18 2.0436E−18 7.5583E−06 8.7874E−19

6 1 6 2 6 6 2 6

229.33 177.14 228.42 205.25 353.43 342.2 242.54 360

7.9735E−01 3.8034E−04 1.1889E+00 9.9261E−03 9.9229E+02 9.3752E+01 1.0613E+01 1.0112E+00

649.13 631.1 637.36 653.15 748.35 789.26 636 924.85

3.2533E+06 3.1837E+06 3.1119E+06 2.7957E+06 3.9941E+06 3.8615E+06 3.8234E+06 3.5297E+06

82 83 84 85 86 87 88

Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 2-Propanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol

CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C3H8O C4H10O

67561 64175 71238 71363 78922 67630 75650

81.768 74.475 88.134 93.173 152.54 76.964 172.31

−6876 −7164.3 −8498.6 −9185.9 −11111 −7623.8 −11590

−8.7078 −7.327 −9.0766 −9.7464 −19.025 −7.4924 −22.118

7.1926E−06 3.1340E−06 8.3303E−18 4.7796E−18 1.0426E−05 5.9436E−18 1.3709E−05

2 2 6 6 2 6 2

175.47 159.05 146.95 184.51 158.45 185.28 298.97

1.1147E−01 4.8459E−04 3.0828E−07 5.7220E−04 1.1323E−06 3.6606E−02 5.9356E+03

512.64 513.92 536.78 563.05 536.05 508.3 506.21

8.1402E+06 6.1171E+06 5.1214E+06 4.3392E+06 4.2014E+06 4.7908E+06 3.9910E+06

89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Hexanol 1-Heptanol Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol

C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C6H14O C7H16O C6H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2

71410 137326 123513 111273 111706 108930 107211 57556

168.96 410.44 107.02 117.31 160.08 135.01 79.276 212.8

−12659 −20262 −10237 −11239 −14095 −12238 −10105 −15420

−21.366 −62.366 −11.695 −13.149 −19.211 −15.702 −7.521 −28.109

1.1591E−05 6.3353E−02 6.8003E−18 9.3676E−18 1.7043E−17 1.0349E−17 7.3408E−19 2.1564E−05

2 1 6 6 6 6 6 2

195.56 203 155.95 228.55 239.15 296.6 260.15 213.15

3.1816E−04 3.7992E−04 2.1036E−08 3.7401E−02 1.6990E−02 7.9382E+01 2.4834E−01 9.2894E−05

586.15 565 577.2 611.35 631.9 650 719.7 626

3.8657E+06 3.8749E+06 3.9013E+06 3.4557E+06 3.1810E+06 4.2456E+06 7.7100E+06 6.0413E+06

97 98 99 100

Phenol o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol

C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O

108952 95487 108394 106445

95.444 210.88 95.403 118.53

−10113 −13928 −10581 −11957

−10.09 −29.483 −10.004 −13.293

6.7603E−18 2.5182E−02 4.3032E−18 8.6988E−18

6 1 6 6

314.06 304.19 285.39 307.93

1.8798E+02 6.5326E+01 5.8624E+00 3.4466E+01

694.25 697.55 705.85 704.65

6.0585E+06 5.0583E+06 4.5221E+06 5.1507E+06

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Dimethyl ether Methyl ethyl ether Methyl n-propyl ether Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl-n-butyl ether Methyl isobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether Diethyl ether Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ether Methyl phenyl ether Diphenyl ether

C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C7H8O C12H10O

115106 540670 557175 598538 628284 625445 1634044 60297 628320 625547 100663 101848

44.704 205.79 50.83 55.096 102.04 58.165 55.875 136.9 143.11 57.723 128.06 59.969

−3.4444 −28.739 −4.1773 −4.8689 −12.278 −5.2568 −4.9604 −19.254 −18.751 −5.2136 −16.693 −5.1538

5.4574E−17 3.5317E−05 9.4076E−18 2.9518E−17 1.2131E−05 2.0194E−17 1.9123E−17 2.4508E−02 2.0620E−05 2.2998E−17 1.4919E−02 1.9983E−18

6 2 6 6 2 6 6 1 2 6 1 6

131.65 160 133.97 127.93 157.48 150 164.55 156.85 145.65 140 235.65 300.03

3.0496E+00 5.3423E−01 4.8875E−03 2.4971E−03 1.9430E−02 1.9801E−02 5.3566E−01 3.9545E−01 7.3931E−04 4.3092E−03 2.4466E+00 7.0874E+00

400.1 437.8 476.3 464.5 510 497 497.1 466.7 500.23 489 645.6 766.8

5.2735E+06 4.4658E+06 3.7721E+06 3.8892E+06 3.3089E+06 3.4130E+06 3.4106E+06 3.6412E+06 3.3729E+06 3.4145E+06 4.2731E+06 3.0971E+06

−3525.6 −9834.5 −4781.7 −4793.2 −6954.9 −5362.1 −5131.6 −6954.3 −8353.7 −5236.9 −9307.7 −8585.5

2-51

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

TABLE 2-6

Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Continued ) CAS no.

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

Tmin, K

Ps at Tmin

Tmax, K

Ps at Tmax

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde 1-Propanal 1-Butanal 1-Pentanal 1-Hexanal 1-Heptanal 1-Octanal 1-Nonanal 1-Decanal

CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O

50000 75070 123386 123728 110623 66251 111717 124130 124196 112312

101.51 193.69 80.581 99.33 149.58 81.507 107.17 250.25 337.71 201.64

−4917.2 −8036.7 −5896.1 −7083.6 −8890 −7776.8 −9070.3 −16162 −18506 −15133

−13.765 −29.502 −8.9301 −11.733 −20.697 −8.4516 −12.503 −33.927 −50.224 −26.264

2.2031E−02 4.3678E−02 8.2236E−06 1.0027E−05 2.2101E−02 1.5143E−17 7.4446E−06 2.2349E−05 4.7345E−02 1.4625E−05

1 1 2 2 1 6 2 2 1 2

181.15 150.15 170 176.75 182 217.15 229.8 246 255.15 267.15

8.8700E+02 3.2320E−01 1.3133E+00 3.1699E−01 5.2282E−02 1.2473E+00 1.1177E+00 4.1640E−01 3.4172E−01 4.8648E−01

408 466 504.4 537.2 566.1 591 617 638.1 658 674.2

6.5935E+06 5.5652E+06 4.9189E+06 4.3232E+06 3.9685E+06 3.4607E+06 3.1829E+06 2.9704E+06 2.7430E+06 2.5989E+06

123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134

Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Pentanone Methyl isopropyl ketone 2-Hexanone Methyl isobutyl ketone 3-Methyl-2-pentanone 3-Pentanone Ethyl isopropyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone Cyclohexanone Methyl phenyl ketone

C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C6H10O C8H8O

67641 78933 107879 563804 591786 108101 565617 96220 565695 565800 108941 98862

69.006 72.698 84.635 308.74 65.841 153.23 64.641 44.286 206.77 96.919 95.118 62.688

−5599.6 −6143.6 −7078.4 −13693 −7042 −10055 −6457.4 −5415.1 −12537 −8014.2 −8300.4 −8088.8

−7.0985 −7.5779 −9.3 −47.557 −6.1376 −19.848 −6.218 −3.0913 −27.894 −11.093 −10.796 −5.5434

6.2237E−06 5.6476E−06 6.2702E−06 5.7002E−02 7.2196E−18 1.6426E−05 3.4543E−06 1.8580E−18 2.2462E−05 7.3452E−06 6.5037E−06 2.0774E−18

2 2 2 1 6 2 2 6 2 2 2 6

178.45 186.48 196.29 181.15 217.35 189.15 167.15 234.18 200 204.81 242 292.81

2.7851E+00 1.3904E+00 7.5235E−01 2.2648E−02 1.5111E+00 3.3536E−02 3.2662E−03 7.3422E+01 6.0339E−02 3.9036E−01 6.9667E+00 3.5899E+01

508.2 535.5 561.08 553 587.05 571.4 573 560.95 567 576 653 709.5

4.7091E+06 4.1201E+06 3.7062E+06 3.8413E+06 3.3120E+06 3.2659E+06 3.3213E+06 3.6993E+06 3.3424E+06 3.0606E+06 4.0126E+06 3.8451E+06

135 136 137 138 139 140 141

Formic acid Acetic acid Propionic acid n-Butyric acid Isobutyric acid Benzoic acid Acetic anhydride

CH2O2 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C7H6O2 C4H6O3

64186 64197 79094 107926 79312 65850 108247

50.323 53.27 54.552 93.815 110.38 88.513 100.95

−5378.2 −6304.5 −7149.4 −9942.2 −10540 −11829 −8873.2

−4.203 −4.2985 −4.2769 −9.8019 −12.262 −8.6826 −11.451

3.4697E−06 8.8865E−18 1.1843E−18 9.3124E−18 1.4310E−17 2.3248E−19 6.1316E−06

2 6 6 6 6 6 2

281.45 289.81 252.45 267.95 227.15 395.45 200.15

2.4024E+03 1.2769E+03 1.3142E+01 6.7754E+00 7.8244E−02 7.9550E+02 2.1999E−02

588 591.95 600.81 615.7 605 751 606

5.8074E+06 5.7390E+06 4.6080E+06 4.0705E+06 3.6834E+06 4.4691E+06 3.9702E+06

142 143 144 145 146 147 148

Methyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl propionate Methyl n-butyrate Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Ethyl propionate

C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2

107313 79209 554121 623427 109944 141786 105373

77.184 61.267 70.717 71.87 73.833 66.824 105.64

−5606.1 −5618.6 −6439.7 −6885.7 −5817 −6227.6 −8007

−8.392 −5.6473 −6.9845 −7.0944 −7.809 −6.41 −12.477

7.8468E−06 2.1080E−17 2.0129E−17 1.4903E−17 6.3200E−06 1.7914E−17 9.0000E−06

2 6 6 6 2 6 2

174.15 175.15 185.65 187.35 193.55 189.6 199.25

6.8808E+00 1.0170E+00 6.3409E−01 1.3435E−01 1.8119E+01 1.4318E+00 7.7988E−01

487.2 506.55 530.6 554.5 508.4 523.3 546

5.9829E+06 4.6948E+06 4.0278E+06 3.4797E+06 4.7080E+06 3.8502E+06 3.3365E+06

149 150 151 152 153 154 155

Ethyl n-butyrate n-Propyl formate n-Propyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Vinyl acetate

C6H12O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C4H6O2

105544 110747 109604 123864 93583 93890 108054

57.661 104.08 115.16 71.34 82.976 53.024 57.406

−6346.5 −7535.9 −8433.9 −7285.8 −9226.1 −7676.8 −5702.8

−5.032 −12.348 −13.934 −6.9459 −8.4427 −4.1593 −5.0307

8.2534E−18 9.6020E−06 1.0346E−05 9.9895E−18 5.9115E−18 1.6850E−18 1.1042E−17

6 2 2 6 6 6 6

175.15 180.25 178.15 199.65 260.75 238.45 180.35

1.0390E−02 2.1101E−01 1.7113E−02 1.4347E−01 1.8653E+00 1.4385E−01 7.0586E−01

571 538 549.73 579.15 693 698 519.13

2.9352E+06 4.0310E+06 3.3657E+06 3.1097E+06 3.5896E+06 3.2190E+06 3.9298E+06

156 157 158 159 160 161

Methylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine Ethylamine Diethylamine Triethylamine

CH5N C2H7N C3H9N C2H7N C4H11N C6H15N

74895 124403 75503 75047 109897 121448

75.206 71.738 134.68 81.56 49.314 56.55

−5082.8 −5302 −6055.8 −5596.9 −4949 −5681.9

−8.0919 −7.3324 −19.415 −9.0779 −3.9256 −4.9815

8.1130E−06 6.4200E−17 2.8619E−02 8.7920E−06 9.1978E−18 1.2363E−17

2 6 1 2 6 6

179.69 180.96 156.08 192.15 223.35 158.45

1.7671E+02 7.5575E+01 9.9206E+00 1.5183E+02 3.7411E+02 1.0646E−02

430.05 437.2 433.25 456.15 496.6 535.15

7.4139E+06 5.2583E+06 4.1020E+06 5.5937E+06 3.6744E+06 3.0373E+06

162 163 164 165 166

n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine Isopropylamine Diisopropylamine Aniline

C3H9N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C6H7N

107108 142847 75310 108189 62533

58.398 54 136.66 462.84 66.287

−5312.7 −6018.5 −7201.5 −18227 −8207.1

−5.2876 −4.4981 −18.934 −73.734 −6.0132

1.9913E−06 9.9684E−18 2.2255E−02 9.2794E−02 2.8414E−18

2 6 1 1 6

188.36 210.15 177.95 176.85 267.13

1.3004E+01 3.6942E+00 7.7251E+00 4.4724E−03 7.1322E+00

496.95 550 471.85 523.1 699

4.7381E+06 3.1113E+06 4.5404E+06 3.1987E+06 5.3514E+06

Cmpd. no.

Name

Formula

2-52

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

167 168

N-Methylaniline N,N-Dimethylaniline

C7H9N C8H11N

100618 121697

70.843 51.352

−8517.5 −7160

−6.7007 −4.0127

5.6411E−18 8.1481E−07

6 2

216.15 275.6

1.0207E−02 1.7940E+01

701.55 687.15

5.1935E+06 3.6262E+06

169 170 171 172

Ethylene oxide Furan Thiophene Pyridine

C2H4O C4H4O C4H4S C5H5N

75218 110009 110021 110861

91.944 74.738 89.171 82.154

−5293.4 −5417 −6860.3 −7211.3

−11.682 −8.0636 −10.104 −8.8646

1.4902E−02 7.4700E−06 7.4769E−06 5.2528E−06

1 2 2 2

160.65 187.55 234.94 231.51

7.7879E+00 5.0026E+01 1.8538E+02 2.0535E+01

469.15 490.15 579.35 619.95

7.2553E+06 5.5497E+06 5.7145E+06 5.6356E+06

173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180

Formamide N,N-Dimethylformamide Acetamide N-Methylacetamide Acetonitrile Propionitrile n-Butyronitrile Benzonitrile

CH3NO C3H7NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C2H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N

75127 68122 60355 79163 75058 107120 109740 100470

100.3 82.762 125.81 79.128 58.302 82.699 66.32 55.463

−10763 −7955.5 −12376 −9523.9 −5385.6 −6703.5 −6714.9 −7430.8

−10.946 −8.8038 −14.589 −7.7355 −5.4954 −9.1506 −6.3087 −4.548

3.8503E−06 4.2431E−06 5.0824E−06 3.1616E−18 5.3634E−06 7.5424E−06 1.3516E−17 1.7501E−18

2 2 2 6 2 2 6 6

275.6 212.72 353.33 301.15 229.32 180.26 161.25 260.4

1.0350E+00 1.9532E−01 3.3637E+02 2.8618E+01 1.8694E+02 1.6936E−01 6.1777E−04 5.1063E+00

771 649.6 761 718 545.5 564.4 582.25 699.35

7.7514E+06 4.3653E+06 6.5688E+06 4.9973E+06 4.8517E+06 4.1906E+06 3.7870E+06 4.2075E+06

181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189

Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan n-Propyl mercaptan n-Butyl mercaptan Isobutyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Dimethyl sulfide Methyl ethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide

CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S

74931 75081 107039 109795 513440 513531 75183 624895 352932

54.15 65.551 62.165 65.382 61.736 60.649 83.485 79.07 60.867

−4337.7 −5027.4 −5624 −6262.4 −5909.2 −5785.9 −5711.7 −6114.1 −5969.6

−4.8127 −6.6853 −5.8595 −6.2585 −5.7554 −5.6113 −9.4999 −8.631 −5.5979

4.5000E−17 6.3208E−06 2.0597E−17 1.4943E−17 1.5119E−17 1.5877E−17 9.8449E−06 6.5333E−06 1.4530E−17

6 2 6 6 6 6 2 2 6

150.18 125.26 159.95 157.46 128.31 133.02 174.88 167.23 169.2

3.1479E+00 1.1384E−03 6.5102E−02 2.3532E−03 4.7502E−06 3.3990E−05 7.9009E+00 2.2456E−01 4.3401E−02

469.95 499.15 536.6 570.1 559 554 503.04 533 557.15

7.2309E+06 5.4918E+06 4.6272E+06 3.9730E+06 4.0603E+06 4.0598E+06 5.5324E+06 4.2610E+06 3.9629E+06

190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197

Fluoromethane Chloromethane Trichloromethane Tetrachloromethane Bromomethane Fluoroethane Chloroethane Bromoethane

CH3F CH3Cl CHCl3 CCl4 CH3Br C2H5F C2H5Cl C2H5Br

593533 74873 67663 56235 74839 353366 75003 74964

59.123 64.697 146.43 78.441 72.586 56.639 70.159 62.217

−3043.7 −4048.1 −7792.3 −6128.1 −4698.6 −3576.5 −4786.7 −5113.3

−6.1845 −6.8066 −20.614 −8.5766 −7.9966 −5.5801 −7.5387 −5.9761

1.6637E−05 1.0371E−05 2.4578E−02 6.8465E−06 1.1553E−05 9.8969E−06 9.3370E−06 4.7174E−17

2 2 1 2 2 2 2 6

131.35 175.43 207.15 250.33 179.47 129.95 134.8 154.55

4.3287E+02 8.7091E+02 5.2512E+01 1.1225E+03 1.9544E+02 8.3714E+00 1.1658E−01 3.7155E−01

317.42 416.25 536.4 556.35 467 375.31 460.35 503.8

5.8754E+06 6.6905E+06 5.5543E+06 4.5436E+06 7.9972E+06 5.0060E+06 5.4578E+06 6.2903E+06

198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205

1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Vinyl chloride Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene

C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C2H3Cl C6H5F C6H5Cl C6H5Br

540545 75296 78999 78875 75014 462066 108907 108861

79.24 46.854 83.495 65.955 91.432 51.915 54.144 63.749

−5718.8 −4445.5 −6661.4 −6015.6 −5141.7 −5439 −6244.4 −7130.2

−8.789 −3.6533 −9.2386 −6.5509 −10.981 −4.2896 −4.5343 −5.879

8.4486E−06 1.3260E−17 6.7652E−06 4.3172E−06 1.4318E−05 8.7527E−18 4.7030E−18 5.2136E−18

2 6 2 2 2 6 6 6

150.35 155.97 200 172.71 119.36 230.94 227.95 242.43

6.9630E−02 9.0844E−01 4.5248E+00 8.2532E−02 1.9178E−02 1.5142E+02 8.4456E+00 7.8364E+00

503.15 489 560 572 432 560.09 632.35 670.15

4.5812E+06 4.5097E+06 4.2394E+06 4.2319E+06 5.7495E+06 4.5437E+06 4.5293E+06 4.5196E+06

206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218

Air3 Hydrogen Helium-44 Neon Argon Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Oxygen Nitrogen Ammonia Hydrazine Nitrous oxide

H2 He Ne Ar F2 Cl2 Br2 O2 N2 NH3 N2H4 N2O

132259100 1333740 7440597 7440019 7440371 7782414 7782505 7726956 7782447 7727379 7664417 302012 10024972

21.662 12.69 11.533 29.755 42.127 42.393 71.334 108.26 51.245 58.282 90.483 76.858 96.512

−692.39 −94.896 −8.99 −271.06 −1093.1 −1103.3 −3855 −6592 −1200.2 −1084.1 −4669.7 −7245.2 −4045

−0.39208 1.1125 0.6724 −2.6081 −4.1425 −4.1203 −8.5171 −14.16 −6.4361 −8.3144 −11.607 −8.22 −12.277

4.7574E−03 3.2915E−04 2.7430E−01 5.2700E−04 5.7254E−05 5.7815E−05 1.2378E−02 1.6043E−02 2.8405E−02 4.4127E−02 1.7194E−02 6.1557E−03 2.8860E−05

1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

59.15 13.95 1.76 24.56 83.78 53.48 172.12 265.85 54.36 63.15 195.41 274.69 182.3

5.6421E+03 7.2116E+03 1.4625E+03 4.3800E+04 6.8721E+04 2.5272E+02 1.3660E+03 5.8534E+03 1.4754E+02 1.2508E+04 6.1111E+03 4.0847E+02 8.6908E+04

132.45 33.19 5.2 44.4 150.86 144.12 417.15 584.15 154.58 126.2 405.65 653.15 309.57

3.7934E+06 1.3154E+06 2.2845E+05 2.6652E+06 4.8963E+06 5.1674E+06 7.7930E+06 1.0276E+07 5.0206E+06 3.3906E+06 1.1301E+07 1.4731E+07 7.2782E+06

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TABLE 2-6 Cmpd. no. 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231

Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Concluded ) Name Nitric oxide Cyanogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide2 Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Water

Formula NO C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 HF HCl HBr HCN H2S SO2 SO3 H2O

CAS no.

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

Tmin, K

Ps at Tmin

Tmax, K

Ps at Tmax

10102439 460195 630080 124389 75150 7664393 7647010 10035106 74908 7783064 7446095 7446119 7732185

72.974 88.589 45.698 140.54 67.114 59.544 104.27 29.315 36.75 85.584 47.365 180.99 73.649

−2650 −5059.9 −1076.6 −4735 −4820.4 −4143.8 −3731.2 −2424.5 −3927.1 −3839.9 −4084.5 −12060 −7258.2

−8.261 −10.483 −4.8814 −21.268 −7.5303 −6.1764 −15.047 −1.1354 −2.1245 −11.199 −3.6469 −22.839 −7.3037

9.7000E−15 1.5403E−05 7.5673E−05 4.0909E−02 9.1695E−03 1.4161E−05 3.1340E−02 2.3806E−18 3.8948E−17 1.8848E−02 1.7990E−17 7.2350E−17 4.1653E−06

6 2 2 1 1 2 1 6 6 1 6 6 2

109.5 245.25 68.15 216.58 161.11 189.79 158.97 185.15 259.83 187.68 197.67 289.95 273.16

2.1956E+04 7.3385E+04 1.5430E+04 5.1867E+05 1.4944E+00 3.3683E+02 1.3522E+04 2.9501E+04 1.8687E+04 2.2873E+04 1.6743E+03 2.0934E+04 6.1056E+02

180.15 400.15 132.92 304.21 552 461.15 324.65 363.15 456.65 373.53 430.75 490.85 647.13

6.5156E+06 5.9438E+06 3.4940E+06 7.3896E+06 8.0408E+06 6.4872E+06 8.3564E+06 8.4627E+06 5.3527E+06 8.9988E+06 7.8596E+06 8.1919E+06 2.1940E+07

All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release, July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Thermodynamics Research Center, “Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds,” Thermodynamics Research Center Hydrocarbon Project, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (extant 1994). Temperatures are in K; vapor pressures are in Pa. Pa × 9.869233E−06 = atm; Pa × 1.450377E−04 = psia; vapor pressure = exp [C1 + (C2/T) + C3 × ln (T) + C4 × T C5 ]. 1 Decomposes violently on heating. Forms explosive peroxides with air or oxygen. Polymerizes under pressure and heat. 2 Coefficients are hypothetical above the decomposition temperature. 3 At the bubble point. 4 Exhibits superfluid properties below 2.2 K.

2-54

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VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES

2-55

TABLE 2-6a Alphabetical Index to Substances in Tables 2-6, 2-30, 2-164, 2-193, 2-196, 2-198, and 2-221 Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetylene Air Ammonia Aniline Anisole Argon Benzene Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene n-Butane 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene n-Butyl acetate n-Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Butyraldehyde n-Butyric acid n-Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene p-Cymene 1-Decanal n-Decane 1-Decene 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethylamine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide Diisopropylamine Diisopropyl ketone Dimethylacetylene Dimethylamine N,N-Dimethylaniline 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl ether

Synonym Ethanal Ethanoic acid 2-Propanone Methyl cyanide Methyl phenyl ketone

Methyl phenyl ether

Phenyl cyanide 1,1′-Biphenyl Ethyl bromide Methyl bromide

sec-Butyl alcohol Z-2-Butene E-2-Butene 1-Butanethiol 2-Butanethiol Butanal Propyl cyanide

Tetrachloromethane Ethyl chloride Trichloromethane Methyl chloride Propyl chloride Isopropyl chloride 2-Methylphenol 3-Methylphenol 4-Methylphenol Isopropylbenzene Cyclohexyl alcohol Cyclohexyl ketone

p-Isopropyltoluene

Ethyl ether Ethyl sulfide 2,4-Dimethyl-3-pentanone 2-Butyne N,N-Dimethylbenzamine Diisopropyl Methyl ether

Cmpd. no.

Formula

114 175 136 141 123 177 134 45 206 216 166 111 210

C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C8H8O C2H2 NH3 C6H7N C7H8O Ar

67 140 180 79 213 205 197 194 42 43 4 85 86 30 31 32 152 184 186 116 138 179

C6H6 C7H6O2 C7H5N C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C4H10S C4H10S C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N

222 223 221 193 212 204 196 192 191 198 199 98 99 100 75 220 60 94 133 66 57 64 77

CO2 CS2 CO CCl4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C10H14

122 10 38 200 201 160 108 189 165 132 47 157 168 23 62 101

C10H20O C10H22 C10H20 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C6H15N C7H14O C4H6 C2H7N C8H11N C6H14 C8H16 C2H6O

Name

Synonym

1-Hexene 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide

Cmpd. no.

Formula

34 51 52 53 217 207 226 225 227 224 228

C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 N2H4 H2 HBr HCl HCN HF H2S

Isobutyl mercaptan Isobutyric acid Isooctane Isoprene Isopropylamine

2-Methyl-1-propanethiol 2-Methylpropanoic acid 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene

185 139 27 44 164

C4H10S C4H8O2 C8H18 C5H8 C3H9N

Mesitylene Methane Methanol N-Methylacetamide Methyl acetate Methylacetylene Methylamine N-Methylaniline Methyl benzoate 2-Methylbutane 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene Methyl butyl ether 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylcyclohexane Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene Methyl ethyl ether Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl ethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methyl isobutyl ether Methyl isobutyl ketone Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl isopropyl ketone Methyl mercaptan 2-Methylpentane 3-Methyl-2-pentanone 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methylpropene Methyl propionate Methyl propyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether

1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene

76 1 82 176 143 46 156 167 153 22 90 91 40 41 105 48 145 61 58 65 102 124 188 142 106 128 104 126 181 24 129 21 88 39 144 103 107

C9H12 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 CH5N C7H9N C8H8O2 C5H12 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H12O C5H8 C5H10O2 C7H14 C6H12 C6H10 C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C4H10O C5H10O CH4S C6H14 C6H12O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C5H12O

78 209 219 215 218 19 121 9 37

C10H8 Ne NO N2 N2O C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18

18 120 8 36 55 214

C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16 C8H14 O2

15 117 5 89

C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H12O

Naphthalene Neon Nitric oxide Nitrogen Nitrous oxide n-Nonadecane 1-Nonanal n-Nonane 1-Nonene n-Octadecane 1-Octanal n-Octane 1-Octene 1-Octyne Oxygen n-Pentadecane 1-Pentanal n-Pentane 1-Pentanol

Methyl alcohol

Isopentane Isoamyl alcohol Amylene

2-Butanone 2-Thiabutane

Methanethiol Isohexane Methyl sec-butyl ketone Isobutane tert-Butyl alcohol Isobutene

n-Nonaldehyde

n-Octaldehyde

Valeraldehyde n-Amyl alcohol

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2-56

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-6a Alphabetical Index to Substances in Tables 2-6, 2-30, 2-164, 2-193, 2-196, 2-198, and 2-221 (Concluded ) Name N,N-Dimethylformamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl sulfide Diphenyl ether n-Dodecane n-Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethylamine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylene glycol Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate Ethyl isopropyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethyl propyl ether Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 n-Heptadecane 1-Heptanal n-Heptane 1-Heptanol 1-Heptene 1-Heptyne n-Hexadecane 1-Hexanal n-Hexane 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanone

Synonym

Methyl sulfide

Ethyl alcohol Phenylethane

1,2-Ethanediol 1,2-Epoxyethane

Ethanethiol

Ethyl fluoride Methyl fluoride Methanal Methanoic acid

n-Heptaldehyde n-Heptyl alcohol

Caproaldehyde n-Hexyl alcohol Methyl n-butyl ketone

Cmpd. no.

Formula

174 25 187 112 12

C3H7NO C7H16 C2H6S C12H10O C12H26

20 2 83 147 159 72 154 149 63 59 28 95 169 146 110 131 182 148 109

C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H6O2 C2H4O C3H6O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O

211 203 195 190 113 173 135 170

F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O

208 17 119 7 93 35 54 16 118 6 92 127

He C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H16O C7H14 C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H14O C6H12O

Name

Synonym

Cmpd. no.

Formula

Methyl n-propyl ketone Diethyl ketone

125 130 33 49 50 97 115 3 84 87 137 178 151 162 163 73 29 96 150 183 172

C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H8 C5H8 C6H6O C3H6O C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N C6H15N C9H12 C3H6 C3H8O2 C4H8O2 C3H8S C5H5N

Styrene Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide

80 229 230

C8H8 SO2 SO3

m-Terphenyl n-Tetradecane Thiophene Toluene n-Tridecane Triethylamine Trimethylamine 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane

81 14 171 68 13 161 158 74 26

C18H14 C14H30 C4H4S C7H8 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C8H18

11

C11H24

Vinyl acetate Vinylacetylene Vinyl chloride

155 56 202

C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl

Water

231

H2O

69 70 71

C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenol 1-Propanal n-Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol n-Propionic acid n-Propionitrile n-Propyl acetate n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine n-Propylbenzene Propylene 1,2-Propylene glycol n-Propyl formate n-Propyl mercaptan Pyridine

Propionaldehyde n-Propyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol Ethyl cyanide

1,2-Propanediol Propanethiol

n-Undecane

o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene

1,2-Dimethylbenzene 1,3-Dimethylbenzene 1,4-Dimethylbenzene

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VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-7

2-57

Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm* Compound

Pressure, mm Hg 1

Name Aluminum borohydride bromide chloride fluoride iodide oxide Ammonia heavy Ammonium bromide carbamate chloride cyanide hydrogen sulfide iodide Antimony tribromide trichloride pentachloride triiodide trioxide Argon Arsenic Arsenic tribromide trichloride trifluoride pentafluoride trioxide Arsine Barium Beryllium borohydride bromide chloride iodide Bismuth tribromide trichloride Diborane hydrobromide Borine carbonyl triamine Boron hydrides dihydrodecaborane dihydrodiborane dihydropentaborane tetrahydropentaborane tetrahydrotetraborane Boron tribromide trichloride trifluoride Bromine pentafluoride Cadmium chloride fluoride iodide oxide Calcium Carbon (graphite) dioxide disulfide monoxide oxyselenide oxysulfide selenosulfide subsulfide tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Cesium bromide chloride fluoride iodide

5

10

20

Al Al(BH4)3 AlBr3 Al2Cl6 AlF3 AlI3 Al2O3 NH3 ND3 NH4Br N2H6CO2 NH4Cl NH4CN NH4HS NH4I Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 SbCl5 SbI3 Sb4O6 A As AsBr3 AsCl3 AsF3 AsF5 As2O3 AsH3 Ba Be(BH4)2 BeBr2 BeCl2 BeI2 Bi BiBr3 BiCl3 B2H5Br BH3CO B3N3H6 B10H14 B2H6 B5H9 B5H11 B4H10 BBr3 BCl3 BF3 Br2 BrF5 Cd CdCl2 CdF2 CdI2 CdO Ca C CO2 CS2 CO COSe COS CSeS C3S2 CBr4 CCl4 CF4 Cs CsBr CsCl CsF CsI

40

60

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

1749 −3.9 176.1 152.0 1422 294.5 2665 −68.4 −67.4 320.0 26.7 271.5 −0.5 0.0 331.8 1223 203.5 143.3 114.1 303.5 957 −200.5 518 145.2 70.9 13.2 −84.3 332.5 −98.0 1301 58.6 405 411 411 1271 360 343 −29.0 −95.3 +4.0

1844 +11.2 199.8 161.8 1457 322.0 2766 −57.0 −57.0 345.3 37.2 293.2 +9.6 +10.5 355.8 1288 225.7 165.9

1947 28.1 227.0 171.6 1496 354.0 2874 −45.4 −45.4 370.8 48.0 316.5 20.5 21.8 381.0 1364 250.2 192.2

2056 45.9 256.3 180.2 1537 385.5 2977 −33.6 −33.4 396.0 58.3 337.8 31.7 33.3 404.9 1440 275.0 219.0

660 −64. 97. 192.4 1040

333.8 1085 −195.6 548 167.7 89.2 26.7 −75.5 370.0 −87.2 1403 69.0 427 435 435 1319 392 372 −15.4 −85.5 18.5

368.5 1242 −190.6 579 193.6 109.7 41.4 −64.0 412.2 −75.2 1518 79.7 451 461 461 1370 425 405 0.0 −74.8 34.3

401.0 1425 −185.6 610 220.0 130.4 56.3 −52.8 457.2 −62.1 1638 90.0 474 487 487 1420 461 441 +16.3 −64.0 50.6

142.3 −120.9 +9.6 20.1 −28.1 33.5 −32.4 −123.0 +9.3 −4.5 611 797 1486 640 1341 1207 4373 −100.2 −5.1 −205.7 −61.7 −85.9 28.3 109.9 119.7 23.0 −150.7 509 1072 1069 1025 1055

163.8 −111.2 24.6 34.8 −14.0 50.3 −18.9 −115.9 24.3 +9.9 658 847 1561 688 1409 1288 4516 −93.0 +10.4 −201.3 −49.8 −75.0 45.7 130.8 139.7 38.3 −143.6 561 1140 1139 1092 1124

−99.6 40.8 51.2 +0.8 70.0 −3.6 −108.3 41.0 25.7 711 908 1651 742 1484 1388 4660 −85.7 28.0 −196.3 −35.6 −62.7 65.2

−86.5 58.1 67.0 16.1 91.7 +12.7 −100.7 58.2 40.4 765 967 1751 796 1559 1487 4827 −78.2 46.5 −191.3 −21.9 −49.9 85.6

163.5 57.8 −135.5 624 1221 1217 1170 1200

189.5 76.7 −127.7 690 1300 1300 1251 1280

Temperature, °C

Formula 1284 81.3 100.0 1238 178.0 2148 −109.1

1421 −52.2 103.8 116.4 1298 207.7 2306 −97.5

1487 −42.9 118.0 123.8 1324 225.8 2385 −91.9

1555 −32.5 134.0 131.8 1350 244.2 2465 −85.8

1635 −20.9 150.6 139.9 1378 265.0 2549 −79.2

198.3 −26.1 160.4 −50.6 −51.1 210.9 886 93.9 49.2 22.7 163.6 574 −218.2 372 41.8 −11.4

234.5 −10.4 193.8 −35.7 −36.0 247.0 984 126.0 71.4 48.6 203.8 626 −213.9 416 70.6 +11.7

252.0 −2.9 209.8 −28.6 −28.7 263.5 1033 142.7 85.2 61.8 223.5 666 −210.9 437 85.2 +23.5

270.6 +5.3 226.1 −20.9 −20.8 282.8 1084 158.3 100.6 75.8 244.8 729 −207.9 459 101.3 36.0

−117.9 212.5 −142.6

−108.0 242.6 −130.8 984 19.8 325 328 322 1099 261 242 −75.3 −127.3 −45.0

−103.1 259.7 −124.7 1049 28.1 342 346 341 1136 282 264 −66.3 −121.1 −35.3

−98.0 279.2 −117.7 1120 36.8 361 365 361 1177 305 287 −56.4 −114.1 −25.0

290.0 14.0 245.0 −12.6 −12.3 302.8 1141 177.4 117.8 91.0 267.8 812 −204.9 483 118.7 50.0 −2.5 −92.4 299.2 −110.2 1195 46.2 379 384 382 1217 327 311 −45.4 −106.6 −13.2

1684 −13.4 161.7 145.4 1398 277.8 2599 −74.3 −74.0 303.8 19.6 256.2 −7.4 −7.0 316.0 1176 188.1 128.3 101.0 282.5 873 −202.9 498 130.0 58.7 +4.2 −88.5 310.3 −104.8 1240 51.7 390 395 394 1240 340 324 −38.2 −101.9 −5.8

3586 −134.3 −73.8 −222.0 −117.1 −132.4 −47.3 14.0

80.8 −149.5 −40.4 −29.9 −73.1 −20.4 −75.2 −145.4 −32.8 −51.0 455 618 1231 481 1100 926 3828 −124.4 −54.3 −217.2 −102.3 −119.8 −26.5 41.2

90.2 −144.3 −30.7 −19.9 −64.3 −10.1 −66.9 −141.3 −25.0 −41.9 484 656 1286 512 1149 983 3946 −119.5 −44.7 −215.0 −95.0 −113.3 −16.0 54.9

100.0 −138.5 −20.0 −9.2 −54.8 +1.5 −57.9 −136.4 −16.8 −32.0 516 695 1344 546 1200 1046 4069 −114.4 −34.3 −212.8 −86.3 −106.0 −4.4 69.3

−50.0 −184.6 279 748 744 712 738

−30.0 −174.1 341 838 837 798 828

−19.6 −169.3 375 887 884 844 873

−8.2 −164.3 409 938 934 893 923

117.4 −131.6 −8.0 +2.7 −44.3 14.0 −47.8 −131.0 −8.0 −21.0 553 736 1400 584 1257 1111 4196 −108.6 −22.5 −210.0 −76.4 −98.3 +8.6 85.6 96.3 +4.3 −158.8 449 993 989 947 976

127.8 −127.2 −0.4 10.2 −37.4 22.1 −41.2 −127.6 −0.6 −14.0 578 762 1436 608 1295 1152 4273 −104.8 −15.3 −208.1 −70.2 −93.0 17.0 96.0 106.3 12.3 −155.4 474 1026 1023 980 1009

+1.0 289 291 283 1021 −93.3 −139.2 −63.0 60.0 −159.7 −50.2 −90.9 −41.4 −91.5 −154.6 −48.7 −69.3 394 1112 416 1000

*Compiled from the extended tables published by D. R. Stull in Ind. Eng. Chem., 39, 517 (1947).

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2050 −77.7 −74.0 520 36 630.5 96.6 73.4 2.8 167 656 −189.2 814 −18 −5.9 −79.8 312.8 −116.3 850 123 490 405 488 271 218 230 −104.2 −137.0 −58.2 99.6 −169 −47.0 −119.9 −45 −107 −126.8 −7.3 −61.4 320.9 568 520 385 851 −57.5 −110.8 −205.0 −138.8 −75.2 +0.4 90.1 −22.6 −183.7 28.5 636 646 683 621

2-58

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-7

Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Compound

Name Chlorine fluoride trifluoride monoxide dioxide heptoxide Chlorosulfonic acid Chromium carbonyl oxychloride Cobalt chloride nitrosyl tricarbonyl Columbium fluoride Copper Cuprous bromide chloride iodide Cyanogen bromide chloride fluoride Deuterium cyanide Fluorine oxide Germanium bromide chloride hydride Trichlorogermane Tetramethylgermane Digermane Trigermane Gold Helium para-Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide chloride cyanide fluoride iodide oxide (water) sulfide disulfide selenide telluride Iodine heptafluoride Iron pentacarbonyl Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Krypton Lead bromide chloride fluoride iodide oxide sulfide Lithium bromide chloride fluoride iodide Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Mercury Mercuric bromide chloride iodide Molybdenum hexafluoride oxide

Pressure, mm Hg 1

5

10

20

−118.0 −98.5

−106.7 −143.4 −80.4 −81.6

−45.3 32.0 1616 36.0 −18.4

−23.8 53.5 1768 58.0 +3.2

−101.6 −139.0 −71.8 −73.1 −59.0 −13.2 64.0 1845 68.3 13.8

−93.3 −134.3 −62.3 −64.3 −51.2 −2.1 75.3 1928 79.5 25.7

86.3 1879 718 702 656 −76.8 −10.0 −53.8 −118.5 −46.7 −214.1 −182.3 56.8 −15.0 −145.3 −13.0 −45.2 −60.1 −0.9 2154 −271.3 −261.3 −121.8 −135.6 −47.7 −65.8 −102.3 11.2 −116.3 −15.2 −97.9 −75.4 73.2 −63.0 2039 +4.6 235.5 700 −187.2 1162 610 648 904 571 1085 975 881 888 932 1211 841 743 930 1505 778 184.0 179.8 180.2 204.5 3535 −40.8 814

−1.3 103.0 1970 777 766 716 −70.1 −1.0 −46.1 −112.8 −38.8 −211.0 −177.8 71.8 −4.1 −139.2 −3.0 −35.0 −49.9 +11.8 2256 −271.1 −260.4 −115.4 −130.0 −39.7 −56.0 −94.5 22.1 −109.7 −5.1 −91.8 −67.8 84.7 −54.5 2128 16.7 246.0 737 −182.9 1234 646 684 950 605 1134 1005 940 939 987 1270 883 789 988 1583 825 204.6 194.3 195.8 220.0 3690 −32.0 851

60

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

−71.7 −120.8 −34.7 −39.4 −29.4 29.1 105.3 2139 108.0 58.0 843 29.0 148.5 2207 951 960 907 −51.8 22.6 −24.9 −97.0 −17.5 −202.7 −165.8 113.2 27.5 −120.3 26.5 −6.3 −20.3 47.9 2521 −270.3 −257.9 −97.7 −114.0 −17.8 −28.2 −72.1 51.6 −91.6 22.0 −74.2 −45.7 116.5 −31.9 2360 50.3 272.5 842 −171.8 1421 745 784 1080 701 1265 1108 1097 1076 1129 1425 993 909 1142 1792 960 261.7 237.8 237.0 261.8 4109 −8.0 955

−60.2 −114.4 −20.7 −26.5 −17.8 44.6 120.0 2243 121.8 75.2 904 44.4 172.2 2325 1052 1077 1018 −42.6 33.8 −14.1 −89.2 −5.4 −198.3 −159.0 135.4 44.4 −111.2 41.6 +8.8 −4.7 67.0 2657 −269.8 −256.3 −88.1 −105.2 −5.3 −13.2 −60.3 66.5 −82.3 35.3 −65.2 −32.4 137.3 −20.7 2475 68.0 285.0 897 −165.9 1519 796 833 1144 750 1330 1160 1178 1147 1203 1503 1049 967 1223 1900 1028 290.7 262.7 256.5 291.0 4322 +4.1 1014

−47.3 −107.0 −4.9 −12.5 −4.0 62.2 136.1 2361 137.2 95.2 974 62.0 198.0 2465 1189 1249 1158 −33.0 46.0 −2.3 −80.5 +10.0 −193.2 −151.9 161.6 63.8 −100.2 58.3 26.0 +13.3 88.6 2807 −269.3 −254.5 −78.0 −95.3 +10.2 +2.5 −48.3 83.0 −71.8 49.6 −53.6 −17.2 159.8 −8.3 2605 86.1 298.0 961 −159.0 1630 856 893 1219 807 1402 1221 1273 1226 1290 1591 1110 1034 1316 2029 1108 323.0 290.0 275.5 324.2 4553 17.2 1082

−33.8 −100.5 +11.5 +2.2 +11.1 78.8 151.0 2482 151.0 117.1 1050 80.0 225.0 2595 1355 1490 1336 −21.0 61.5 +13.1 −72.6 26.2 −187.9 −144.6 189.0 84.0 −88.9 75.0 44.0 31.5 110.8 2966 −268.6 −252.5 −66.5 −84.8 25.9 19.7 −35.1 100.0 −60.4 64.0 −41.1 −2.0 183.0 +4.0 2735 105.0 319.0 1026 −152.0 1744 914 954 1293 872 1472 1281 1372 1310 1382 1681 1171 1107 1418 2151 1190 357.0 319.0 304.0 354.0 4804 36.0 1151

−100.7 −145 −83 −116 −59 −91 −80 1615

Temperature, °C

Formula Cl2 ClF ClF3 Cl2O ClO2 Cl2O7 HSO3Cl Cr Cr(CO)6 CrO2Cl2 CoCl2 Co(CO)3NO CbF5 Cu Cu2Br2 Cu2Cl2 Cu2I2 C2N2 CNBr CNCl CNF DCN F2 F2O GeBr4 GeCl4 GeH4 GeHCl3 Ge(CH3)4 Ge2H6 Ge3H8 Au He H2 HBr HCl HCN H2F2 HI H2O H2S HSSH H2Se H2Te I2 IF7 Fe Fe(CO)5 Fe2Cl6 FeCl2 Kr Pb PbBr2 PbCl2 PbF2 PbI2 PbO PbS Li LiBr LiCl LiF LiI Mg MgCl2 Mn MnCl2 Hg HgBr2 HgCl2 HgI2 Mo MoF6 MoO3

40

1628 572 546 −95.8 −35.7 −76.7 −134.4 −68.9 −223.0 −196.1 −45.0 −163.0 −41.3 −73.2 −88.7 −36.9 1869 −271.7 −263.3 −138.8 −150.8 −71.0 −123.3 −17.3 −134.3 −43.2 −115.3 −96.4 38.7 −87.0 1787 194.0 −199.3 973 513 547 479 943 852 723 748 783 1047 723 621 778 1292 126.2 136.5 136.2 157.5 3102 −65.5 734

1795 666 645 610 −83.2 −18.3 −61.4 −123.8 −54.0 −216.9 −186.6 43.3 −24.9 −151.0 −22.3 −54.6 −69.8 −12.8 2059 −271.5 −261.9 −127.4 −140.7 −55.3 −74.7 −109.6 +1.2 −122.4 −24.4 −103.4 −82.4 62.2 −70.7 1957 −6.5 221.8 −191.3 1099 578 615 861 540 1039 928 838 840 880 1156 802 702 877 1434 736 164.8 165.3 166.0 189.2 3393 −49.0 785

−84.5 −128.8 −51.3 −54.3 −42.8 +10.3 87.6 2013 91.2 38.5 770 +11.0 121.5 2067 844 838 786 −62.7 +8.6 −37.5 −106.4 −30.1 −207.7 −173.0 88.1 +8.0 −131.6 +8.8 −23.4 −38.2 26.3 2363 −270.7 −259.6 −108.3 −123.8 −30.9 −45.0 −85.6 34.0 −102.3 +6.0 −84.7 −59.1 97.5 −45.3 2224 30.3 256.8 779 −178.4 1309 686 725 1003 644 1189 1048 1003 994 1045 1333 927 838 1050 1666 879 228.8 211.5 212.5 238.2 3859 −22.1 892

−79.0 −125.3 −44.1 −48.0 −37.2 +18.2 95.2 2067 98.3 46.7 801 18.5 133.2 2127 887 886 836 −57.9 14.7 −32.1 −102.3 −24.7 −205.6 −170.0 98.8 16.2 −126.7 16.2 −16.2 −30.7 35.5 2431 −270.6 −258.9 −103.8 −119.6 −25.1 −37.9 −79.8 41.5 −97.9 12.8 −80.2 −53.7 105.4 −39.4 2283 39.1 263.7 805 −175.7 1358 711 750 1036 668 1222 1074 1042 1028 1081 1372 955 868 1088 1720 913 242.0 221.0 222.2 249.0 3964 −16.2 917

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735 −11 75.5 1083 504 422 605 −34.4 58 −6.5 −12 −223 −223.9 26.1 −49.5 −165 −71.1 −88 −109 −105.6 1063 −259.1 −87.0 −114.3 −13.2 −83.7 −50.9 0.0 −85.5 −89.7 −64 −49.0 112.9 5.5 1535 −21 304 −156.7 327.5 373 501 855 402 890 1114 186 547 614 870 446 651 712 1260 650 −38.9 237 277 259 2622 17 795

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-7

2-59

Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Compound

Name Neon Nickel carbonyl chloride Nitrogen Nitric oxide Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen pentoxide Nitrous oxide Nitrosyl chloride fluoride Osmium tetroxide (yellow) (white) Oxygen Ozone Phosgene Phosphorus (yellow) (violet) tribromide trichloride pentachloride Phosphine Phosphonium bromide chloride iodide Phosphorus trioxide pentoxide oxychloride thiobromide thiochloride Platinum Potassium bromide chloride fluoride hydroxide iodide Radon Rhenium heptoxide Rubidium bromide chloride fluoride iodide Selenium dioxide hexafluoride oxychloride tetrachloride Silicon dioxide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Trichlorofluorosilane Iodosilane Diiodosilane Disiloxan Trisilane Trisilazane Tetrasilane Octachlorotrisilane Hexachlorodisiloxane Hexachlorodisilane Tribromosilane Trichlorosilane Trifluorosilane Dibromosilane Difluorosilane Monobromosilane Monochlorosilane Monofluorosilane Tribromofluorosilane Dichlorodifluorosilane Trifluorobromosilane

Pressure, mm Hg 1

5

10

20

40

−257.3 1810

−255.5 1979

−254.6 2057

−253.7 2143

671 −226.1 −184.5 −55.6 −36.8 −143.4

731 −221.3 −180.6 −42.7 −23.0 −133.4

759 −219.1 −178.2 −36.7 −16.7 −128.7

789 −216.8 −175.3 −30.4 −10.0 −124.0

−132.0 3.2 −5.6 −219.1 −180.4 −92.9 76.6 237 7.8 −51.6 55.5

−120.3 22.0 +15.6 −213.4 −168.6 −77.0 111.2 271 34.4 −31.5 74.0

−114.3 31.3 26.0 −210.6 −163.2 −69.3 128.0 287 47.8 −21.3 83.2

−107.8 41.0 37.4 −207.5 −157.2 −60.3 146.2 306 62.4 −10.2 92.5

−43.7 −91.0 −25.2 384

−28.5 −79.6 −9.0 39.7 424

50.0 −18.3 2730 341 795 821 885 719 745 −144.2 212.5 297 781 792 921 748 356 157.0 −118.6 34.8 74.0 1724

72.4 +4.6 3007 408 892 919 988 814 840 −132.4 237.5 358 876 887 982 839 413 187.7 −105.2 59.8 96.3 1835

−63.4 −144.0 −92.6

−44.1 −134.8 −76.4 −53.0 3.8 −95.8 −49.7 −49.9 −6.2 74.7 17.8 27.4 −8.0 −62.6 −142.7 −40.0 −136.0 −85.7 −104.3 −145.5 −25.4 −110.5

−21.2 −74.0 −1.1 53.0 442 2.0 83.6 16.1 3146 443 940 968 1039 863 887 −126.3 248.0 389 923 937 1016 884 442 202.5 −98.9 71.9 107.4 1888 1732 −34.4 −130.4 −68.3 −47.7 18.0 −88.2 −40.0 −40.4 +4.3 89.3 29.4 38.8 +3.4 −53.4 −138.2 −29.4 −130.4 −77.3 −97.7 −141.2 −15.1 −102.9

−13.3 −68.0 +7.3 67.8 462 13.6 95.5 29.0 3302 483 994 1020 1096 918 938 −119.2 261.0 422 975 990 1052 935 473 217.5 −92.3 84.2 118.1 1942 1798 −24.0 −125.9 −59.0 −33.4 34.1 −79.8 −29.0 −30.0 15.8 104.2 41.5 51.5 16.0 −43.8 −132.9 −18.0 −124.3 −68.3 −90.1 −136.3 −3.7 −94.5

−252.6 2234 −23.0 821 −214.0 −171.7 −23.9 −2.9 −118.3 −60.2 −100.3 51.7 50.5 −204.1 −150.7 −50.3 166.7 323 79.0 +2.3 102.5 −129.4 −5.0 −61.5 16.1 84.0 481 27.3 108.0 42.7 3469 524 1050 1078 1156 976 995 −111.3 272.0 459 1031 1047 1096 991 506 234.1 −84.7 98.0 130.1 2000 1867 −12.1 −120.8 −48.8 −21.8 52.6 −70.4 −16.9 −18.5 28.4 121.5 55.2 65.3 30.0 −32.9 −127.3 −5.2 −117.6 −57.8 −81.8 −130.8 +9.2 −85.0

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

−251.0 2364 −6.0 866 −209.7 −166.0 −14.7 7.4 −110.3 −46.3 −88.8 71.5 71.5 −198.8 −141.0 −35.6 197.3 349 103.6 21.0 117.0 −118.8 7.4 −52.0 29.3 108.3 510 47.4 126.3 63.8 3714 586 1137 1164 1245 1064 1080 −99.0 289.0 514 1114 1133 1168 1072 554 258.0 −73.9 118.0 147.5 2083 1969 +5.4 −113.3 −33.2 −4.4 79.4 −55.9 +1.6 −1.1 47.4 146.0 75.4 85.4 51.6 −16.4 −118.7 14.1 −107.3 −42.3 −68.5 −122.4 28.6 −70.3

−249.7 2473 +8.8 904 −205.6 −162.3 −5.0 15.6 −103.6 −34.0 −79.2 89.5 89.5 −194.0 −132.6 −22.3 222.7 370 125.2 37.6 131.3 −109.4 17.6 −44.0 39.9 129.0 532 65.0 141.8 82.0 3923 643 1212 1239 1323 1142 1152 −87.7 307.0 563 1186 1207 1239 1141 594 277.0 −64.8 134.6 161.0 2151 2053 21.0 −170.2 −19.3 +10.7 101.8 −43.5 17.8 +14.0 63.6 166.2 92.5 102.2 70.2 −1.8 −111.3 31.6 −98.3 −28.6 −57.0 −115.2 45.7 −58.0 −69.8

−248.1 2603 25.8 945 −200.9 −156.8 +8.0 24.4 −96.2 −20.3 −68.2 109.3 109.3 −188.8 −122.5 −7.6 251.0 391 149.7 56.9 147.2 −98.3 28.0 −35.4 51.6 150.3 556 84.3 157.8 102.3 4169 708 1297 1322 1411 1233 1238 −75.0 336.0 620 1267 1294 1322 1223 637 297.7 −55.2 151.7 176.4 2220 2141 38.4 −100.7 −4.0 27.9 125.5 −29.3 35.5 31.0 81.7 189.5 113.6 120.6 90.2 +14.5 −102.8 50.7 −87.6 −13.3 −44.5 −106.8 64.6 −45.0 −55.9

−246.0 2732 42.5 987 −195.8 −151.7 21.0 32.4 −85.5 −6.4 −56.0 130.0 130.0 −183.1 −111.1 +8.3 280.0 417 175.3 74.2 162.0 −87.5 38.3 −27.0 62.3 173.1 591 105.1 175.0 124.0 4407 774 1383 1407 1502 1327 1324 −61.8 362.4 679 1352 1381 1408 1304 680 317.0 −45.8 168.0 191.5 2287 2227 56.8 −94.8 +12.2 45.4 149.5 −15.4 53.1 48.7 100.0 211.4 135.6 139.0 111.8 31.8 −95.0 70.5 −77.8 +2.4 −30.4 −98.0 83.8 −31.8 −41.7

−248.7 1452 −25 1001 −210.0 −161 −9.3 30 −90.9 −64.5 −134 56 42 −218.7 −251 −104 44.1 590 −40 −111.8

Temperature, °C

Formula Ne Ni Ni(CO)4 NiCl2 N2 NO NO2 N2O5 N2O NOCl NOF OsO4 OsO4 O2 O3 COCl2 P P PBr3 PCl3 PCl5 PH3 PH4Br PH4Cl PH4I P4O6 P4O10 POCl3 PSBr3 PSCl3 Pt K KBr KCl KF KOH KI Rn Re2O7 Rb RbBr RbCl RbF RbI Se SeO2 SeF6 SeOCl2 SeCl4 Si SiO2 SiCl4 SiF4 SiFCl3 SiH3I SiH2I2 (SiH3)2O Si3H8 (SiH3)3N Si4H10 Si3Cl3 (SiCl3)2O Si2Cl6 SiHBr3 SiHCl3 SiHF3 SiH2Br2 SiH2F2 SiH3Br SiH3Cl SiH3F SiFBr3 SiF2Cl2 SiF3Br

60

−112.5 −68.9 −68.7 −27.7 46.3 −5.0 +4.0 −30.5 −80.7 −152.0 −60.9 −146.7 −117.8 −153.0 −46.1 −124.7

−251.9 2289 −15.9 840 −212.3 −168.9 −19.9 +1.8 −114.9 −54.2 −95.7 59.4 59.4 −201.9 −146.7 −44.0 179.8 334 89.8 10.2 108.3 −125.0 +0.3 −57.3 21.9 94.2 493 35.8 116.0 51.8 3574 550 1087 1115 1193 1013 1030 −106.2 280.0 482 1066 1084 1123 1026 527 244.6 −80.0 106.5 137.8 2036 1911 −4.8 −117.5 −42.2 −14.3 64.0 −64.2 −9.0 −11.0 36.6 132.0 63.8 73.9 39.2 −25.8 −123.7 +3.2 −113.3 −51.1 −76.0 −127.2 17.4 −78.6

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−132.5 −28.5 22.5 569 2 38 −36.2 1755 62.3 730 790 880 380 723 −71 296 38.5 682 715 760 642 217 340 −34.7 8.5 1420 1710 −68.8 −90 −120.8 −57.0 −1.0 −144.2 −117.2 −105.7 −93.6 −33.2 −1.2 −73.5 −126.6 −131.4 −70.2 −93.9 −82.5 −139.7 −70.5

2-60

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-7

Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Concluded ) Compound

Pressure, mm Hg

Name

Formula

Trifluorochlorosilane Hexafluorodisilane Dichlorofluorobromosilane Dibromochlorofluorosilane Silane Disilane Silver chloride iodide Sodium bromide chloride cyanide fluoride hydroxide iodide Strontium Strontium oxide Sulfur monochloride hexafluoride Sulfuryl chloride Sulfur dioxide trioxide (α) trioxide (β) trioxide (γ) Tellurium chloride fluoride Thallium Thallous bromide chloride iodide Thionyl bromide Thionyl chloride Tin Stannic bromide Stannous chloride Stannic chloride iodide hydride Tin tetramethyl trimethyl-ethyl trimethyl-propyl Titanium chloride Tungsten Tungsten hexafluoride Uranium hexafluoride Vanadyl trichloride Xenon Zinc chloride fluoride diethyl Zirconium bromide chloride iodide

SiF3Cl Si2F6 SiFCl2Br SiFClBr2 SiH4 Si2H6 Ag AgCl AgI Na NaBr NaCl NaCN NaF NaOH NaI Sr SrO S S2Cl2 SF6 SO2Cl2 SO2 SO3 SO3 SO3 Te TeCl4 TeF6 Tl TlBr TlCl TlI SOBr2 SOCl2 Sn SnBr4 SnCl2 SnCl4 SnI4 SnH4 Sn(CH3)4 Sn(CH3)3·C2H5 Sn(CH3)3·C3H7 TiCl4 W WF6 UF6 VOCl3 Xe Zn ZnCl2 ZnF2 Zn(C2H5)2 ZrBr4 ZrCl4 ZrI4

1

5

10

20

40

−144.0 −81.0 −86.5 −65.2 −179.3 −114.8 1357 912 820 439 806 865 817 1077 739 767

−133.0 −68.8 −68.4 −45.5 −168.6 −99.3 1500 1019 927 511 903 967 928 1186 843 857 847 2198 223.0 +15.7 −120.6 −35.1 −83.0 −23.7 −19.2 −2.0 605

−127.0 −63.1 −59.0 −35.6 −163.0 −91.4 1575 1074 983 549 952 1017 983 1240 897 903 898 2262 243.8 27.5 −114.7 −24.8 −76.8 −16.5 −12.3 +4.3 650 233 −92.4 983 522 517 531 31.0 −21.9 1703 72.7 391 +10.0 175.8 −118.5 −20.6 +3.8 21.8 21.3 4507 −49.2 −13.8 12.2 −152.8 593 508 1086 +11.7 250 230 311

−120.5 −57.0 −48.8 −24.5 −156.9 −82.7 1658 1134 1045 589 1005 1072 1046 1300 953 952 953 2333 264.7 40.0 −108.4 −13.4 −69.7 −9.1 −4.9 11.1 697 253 −86.0 1040 559 550 567 44.1 −10.5 1777 88.1 420 22.0 196.2 −111.2 −9.3 16.1 34.0 34.2 4690 −41.5 −5.2 26.6 −147.1 632 536 1129 24.2 266 243 329

−112.8 −50.6 −37.0 −12.0 −150.3 −72.8 1743 1200 1111 633 1063 1131 1115 1363 1017 1005 1018 2410 288.3 54.1 −101.5 −1.0 −60.5 −1.0 +3.2 17.9 753 273 −78.4 1103 598 589 607 58.8 +2.2 1855 105.5 450 35.2 218.8 −102.3 +3.5 30.0 48.5 48.4 4886 −33.0 +4.4 40.0 −141.2 673 566 1175 38.0 281 259 344

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

−108.2 −46.7 −29.0 −4.7 −146.3 −66.4 1795 1242 1152 662 1099 1169 1156 1403 1057 1039 1057

−101.7 −41.7 −19.5 +6.3 −140.5 −57.5 1865 1297 1210 701 1148 1220 1214 1455 1111 1083 1111

−91.7 −34.2 −3.2 23.0 −131.6 −44.6 1971 1379 1297 758 1220 1296 1302 1531 1192 1150 1192

−81.0 −26.4 +15.4 43.0 −122.0 −29.0 2090 1467 1400 823 1304 1379 1401 1617 1286 1225 1285

−70.0 −18.9 35.4 59.5 −111.5 −14.3 2212 1564 1506 892 1392 1465 1497 1704 1378 1304 1384

305.5 63.2 −96.8 +7.2 −54.6 +4.0 8.0 21.4 789 287 −73.8 1143 621 612 631 68.3 10.4 1903 116.2 467 43.5 234.2 −96.6 11.7 38.4 57.5 58.0 5007 −27.5 10.4 49.8 −137.7 700 584 1207 47.2 289 268 355

327.2 75.3 −90.9 17.8 −46.9 10.5 14.3 28.0 838 304 −67.9 1196 653 645 663 80.6 21.4 1968 131.0 493 54.7 254.2 −89.2 22.8 50.0 69.8 71.0 5168 −20.3 18.2 62.5 −132.8 736 610 1254 59.1 301 279 369

359.7 93.5 −82.3 33.7 −35.4 20.5 23.7 35.8 910 330 −57.3 1274 703 694 712 99.0 37.9 2063 152.8 533 72.0 283.5 −78.0 39.8 67.3 88.0 90.5 5403 −10.0 30.0 82.0 −125.4 788 648 1329 77.0 318 295 389

399.6 115.4 −72.6 51.3 −23.0 32.6 32.6 44.0 997 360 −48.2 1364 759 748 763 119.2 56.5 2169 177.7 577 92.1 315.5 −65.2 58.5 87.6 109.6 112.7 5666 +1.2 42.7 103.5 −117.1 844 689 1417 97.3 337 312 409

444.6 138.0 −63.5 69.2 −10.0 44.8 44.8 51.6 1087 392 −38.6 1457 819 807 823 139.5 75.4 2270 204.7 623 113.0 348.0 −52.3 78.0 108.8 131.7 136.0 5927 17.3 55.7 127.2 −108.0 907 732 1497 118.0 357 331 431

−142 −18.6 −112.3 −99.3 −185 −132.6 960.5 455 552 97.5 755 800 564 992 318 651 800 2430 112.8 −80 −50.2 −54.1 −73.2 16.8 32.3 62.1 452 224 −37.8 3035 460 430 440 −52.2 −104.5 231.9 31.0 246.8 −30.2 144.5 −149.9

60

Temperature, °C

2068 183.8 −7.4 −132.7 −95.5 −39.0 −34.0 −15.3 520 −111.3 825 440 −6.7 −52.9 1492 316 −22.7 −140.0 −51.3 −30.0 −12.0 −13.9 3990 −71.4 −38.8 −23.2 −168.5 487 428 970 −22.4 207 190 264

−98.8 931 490 487 502 +18.4 −32.4 1634 58.3 366 −1.0 156.0 −125.8 −31.0 −7.6 +10.7 +9.4 4337 −56.5 −22.0 +0.2 −158.2 558 481 1055 0.0 237 217 297

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−30 3370 −0.5 69.2 −111.6 419.4 365 872 −28 450 437 499

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-8

2-61

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm* Pressure, mm Hg Compound

1

Name

Formula

Acenaphthalene Acetal Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetanilide Acetic acid anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetyl chloride Acetylene Acridine Acrolein (2-propenal) Acrylic acid Adipic acid Allene (propadiene) Allyl alcohol (propen-1-ol-3) chloride (3-chloropropene) isopropyl ether isothiocyanate n-propyl ether 4-Allylveratrole iso-Amyl acetate n-Amyl alcohol iso-Amyl alcohol sec-Amyl alcohol (2-pentanol) tert-Amyl alcohol sec-Amylbenzene iso-Amyl benzoate bromide (1-bromo-3-methylbutane) n-butyrate formate iodide (1-iodo-3-methylbutane) isobutyrate Amyl isopropionate iso-Amyl isovalerate n-Amyl levulinate iso-Amyl levulinate nitrate 4-tert-Amylphenol Anethole Angelonitrile Aniline 2-Anilinoethanol Anisaldehyde o-Anisidine (2-methoxyaniline) Anthracene Anthraquinone Azelaic acid Azelaldehyde Azobenzene Benzal chloride (α,α-Dichlorotoluene) Benzaldehyde Benzanthrone Benzene Benzenesulfonylchloride Benzil Benzoic acid anhydride Benzoin Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzotrichloride (α,α,α-Trichlorotoluene) Benzotrifluoride (α,α,α-Trifluorotoluene) Benzoyl bromide chloride nitrile Benzyl acetate alcohol

C12H10 C6H14O2 C2H4O C2H5NO C8H9NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C8H8O C2H3OCl C2H2 C13H9N C3H4O C3H4O2 C6H10O4 C3H4 C3H6O C3H5Cl C6H12O C4H5NS C6H12O C11H14O2 C7H14O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C11H16 C12H16O2 C5H11Br C9H18O2 C6H12O2 C5H11I C9H18O2 C8H16O2 C10H20O2 C10H18O3 C10H18O3 C5H11NO3 C11H16O C10H12O C5H7N C6H7N C8H11NO C8H8O2 C7H9NO C14H10 C14H8O2 C9H16O4 C9H18O C12H10N2 C7H6Cl2 C7H6O C17H10O C6H6 C6H5ClO2S C14H10O2 C7H6O2 C14H10O3 C14H12O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H5Cl3 C7H5F3 C7H5BrO C7H5ClO C8H5NO C9H10O2 C7H8O

5

10

20

114.8 −2.3 −65.1 92.0 146.6 +6.3 24.8 −40.5 −26.6 64.0 −35.0 −133.0 165.8 −46.0 27.3 191.0 −108.0 +0.2 −52.0 −23.1 +25.3 −18.2 113.9 +23.7 34.7 30.9 22.1 +7.2 55.8 104.5 +2.1 47.1 +5.4 +21.9 40.1 33.7 54.4 110.0 104.0 28.8 109.8 91.6 +15.0 57.9 134.3 102.6 88.0 173.5 219.4 210.4 58.4 135.7 64.0 50.1 274.5 −19.6 96.5 165.2 119.5 180.0 170.2 55.3 141.7 73.7 −10.3 75.4 59.1 71.7 73.4 80.8

131.2 +8.0 −56.8 105.0 162.0 17.5 36.0 −31.1 −16.3 78.0 −27.6 −128.2 184.0 −36.7 39.0 205.5 −101.0 10.5 −42.9 −12.9 38.3 −7.9 127.0 35.2 44.9 40.8 32.2 17.2 69.2 121.6 13.6 59.9 17.1 34.1 52.8 46.3 68.6 124.0 118.8 40.3 125.5 106.0 28.0 69.4 149.6 117.8 101.7 187.2 234.2 225.5 71.6 151.5 78.7 62.0 297.2 −11.5 112.0 183.0 132.1 198.0 188.1 69.2 157.6 87.6 −0.4 89.8 73.0 85.5 87.6 92.6

148.7 19.6 −47.8 120.0 180.0 29.9 48.3 −20.8 −5.0 92.4 −19.6 −122.8 203.5 −26.3 52.0 222.0 −93.4 21.7 −32.8 −1.8 52.1 +3.7 142.8 47.8 55.8 51.7 42.6 27.9 83.8 139.7 26.1 74.0 30.0 47.6 66.6 60.0 83.8 139.7 134.4 53.5 142.3 121.8 41.0 82.0 165.7 133.5 116.1 201.9 248.3 242.4 85.0 168.3 94.3 75.0 322.5 −2.6 129.0 202.8 146.7 218.0 207.0 83.4 175.8 102.7 12.2 105.4 87.6 100.2 102.3 105.8

40

60

100

200

400

760

197.5 50.1 −22.6 158.0 227.2 63.0 82.2 +7.7 27.0 133.6 +3.2 −107.9 256.0 +2.5 86.1 265.0 −72.5 50.0 −4.5 29.0 89.5 35.8 183.7 83.2 85.8 80.7 70.7 55.3 124.1 186.8 60.4 113.1 65.4 84.4 104.4 97.6 125.1 180.5 177.0 88.6 189.0 164.2 77.5 119.9 209.5 176.7 155.2 250.0 285.0 286.5 123.0 216.0 138.3 112.5 390.0 26.1 174.5 255.8 186.2 270.4 258.0 123.5 224.4 144.3 45.3 147.7 128.0 141.0 144.0 141.7

222.1 66.3 −10.0 178.3 250.5 80.0 100.0 22.7 43.7 154.2 16.1 −100.3 284.0 17.5 103.3 287.8 −61.3 64.5 10.4 44.3 108.0 52.6 204.0 101.3 102.0 95.8 85.7 69.7 145.2 210.2 78.7 133.2 83.2 103.8 124.2 117.3 146.1 203.1 198.1 106.7 213.0 186.1 96.3 140.1 230.6 199.0 175.3 279.0 314.6 309.6 142.1 240.0 160.7 131.7 426.5 42.2 198.0 283.5 205.8 299.1 284.4 144.1 249.8 165.6 62.5 169.2 149.5 161.3 165.5 160.0

250.0 84.0 +4.9 200.0 277.0 99.0 119.8 39.5 62.5 178.0 32.0 −92.0 314.3 34.5 122.0 312.5 −48.5 80.2 27.5 61.7 129.8 71.4 226.2 121.5 119.8 113.7 102.3 85.7 168.0 235.8 99.4 155.3 102.7 125.8 146.0 138.4 169.5 227.4 222.7 126.5 239.5 210.5 117.7 161.9 254.5 223.0 197.3 310.2 346.2 332.8 163.4 266.1 187.0 154.1

277.5 102.2 20.2 222.0 303.8 118.1 139.6 56.5 81.8 202.4 50.8 −84.0 346.0 52.5 141.0 337.5 −35.0 96.6 44.6 79.5 150.7 90.5 248.0 142.0 137.8 130.6 119.7 101.7 193.0 262.0 120.4 178.6 123.3 148.2 168.8 160.2 194.0 253.2 247.9 147.5 266.0 235.3 140.0 184.4 279.6 248.0 218.5 342.0 379.9 356.5 185.0 293.0 214.0 179.0

60.6 224.0 314.3 227.0 328.8 313.5 166.7 276.8 189.2 82.0 193.7 172.8 185.0 189.0 183.0

80.1 251.5 347.0 249.2 360.0 343.0 190.6 305.4 213.5 102.2 218.5 197.2 208.0 213.5 204.7

Temperature, °C −23.0 −81.5 65.0 114.0 −17.2 1.7 −59.4 −47.0 37.1 −50.0 −142.9 129.4 −64.5 +3.5 159.5 −120.6 −20.0 −70.0 −43.7 −2.0 −39.0 85.0 0.0 +13.6 +10.0 +1.5 −12.9 29.0 72.0 −20.4 21.2 −17.5 −2.5 14.8 +8.5 27.0 81.3 75.6 +5.2 62.6 −8.0 34.8 104.0 73.2 61.0 145.0 190.0 178.3 33.3 103.5 35.4 26.2 225.0 −36.7 65.9 128.4 96.0 143.8 135.6 28.2 108.2 45.8 −32.0 47.0 32.1 44.5 45.0 58.0

168.2 31.9 −37.8 135.8 199.6 43.0 62.1 −9.4 +7.7 109.4 −10.4 −116.7 224.2 −15.0 66.2 240.5 −85.2 33.4 −21.2 +10.9 67.4 16.4 158.3 62.1 68.0 63.4 54.1 38.8 100.0 158.3 39.8 90.0 44.0 62.3 81.8 75.5 100.6 155.8 151.7 67.6 160.3 139.3 55.8 96.7 183.7 150.5 132.0 217.5 264.3 260.0 100.2 187.9 112.1 90.1 350.0 +7.6 147.7 224.5 162.6 239.8 227.6 99.6 195.7 119.8 25.7 122.6 103.8 116.6 119.6 119.8

181.2 39.8 −31.4 145.8 211.8 51.7 70.8 −2.0 15.9 119.8 −4.5 −112.8 238.7 −7.5 75.0 251.0 −78.8 40.3 −14.1 18.7 76.2 25.0 169.6 71.0 75.5 71.0 61.5 46.0 110.4 171.4 48.7 99.8 53.3 71.9 91.7 85.2 110.3 165.2 162.6 76.3 172.6 149.8 65.2 106.0 194.0 161.7 142.1 231.8 273.3 271.8 110.0 199.8 123.4 99.6 368.8 15.4 158.2 238.2 172.8 252.7 241.7 109.8 208.2 130.0 34.0 133.4 114.7 127.0 129.8 129.3

Melting point, °C 95 −123.5 81 113.5 16.7 −73 −94.6 −41 20.5 −112.0 −81.5 110.5 −87.7 14 152 −136 −129 −136.4 −80

−117.2 −11.9

93 22.5 −6.2 2.5 5.2 217.5 286 106.5 68 −16.1 −26 174 +5.5 14.5 95 121.7 42 132 −12.9 48.5 −21.2 −29.3 0 −0.5 33.5 −51.5 −15.3

*Compiled from the extended tables published by D. R. Stull in Ind. Eng. Chem., 39, 517 (1947). For information on fuels see Hibbard, N.A.C.A. Research Mem. E56I21, 1956. For methane see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960.

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2-62

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-8

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name

Benzylamine Benzyl bromide (α-bromotoluene) chloride (α-chlorotoluene) cinnamate Benzyldichlorosilane Benzyl ethyl ether phenyl ether isothiocyanate Biphenyl 1-Biphenyloxy-2,3-epoxypropane d-Bornyl acetate Bornyl n-butyrate formate isobutyrate propionate Brassidic acid Bromoacetic acid 4-Bromoanisole Bromobenzene 4-Bromobiphenyl 1-Bromo-2-butanol 1-Bromo-2-butanone cis-1-Bromo-1-butene trans-1-Bromo-1-butene 2-Bromo-1-butene cis-2-Bromo-2-butene trans-2-Bromo-2-butene 1,4-Bromochlorobenzene 1-Bromo-1-chloroethane 1-Bromo-2-chloroethane 2-Bromo-4,6-dichlorophenol 1-Bromo-4-ethyl benzene (2-Bromoethyl)-benzene 2-Bromoethyl 2-chloroethyl ether (2-Bromoethyl)-cyclohexane 1-Bromoethylene Bromoform (tribromomethane) 1-Bromonaphthalene 2-Bromo-4-phenylphenol 3-Bromopyridine 2-Bromotoluene 3-Bromotoluene 4-Bromotoluene 3-Bromo-2,4,6-trichlorophenol 2-Bromo-1,4-xylene 1,2-Butadiene (methyl allene) 1,3-Butadiene n-Butane iso-Butane (2-methylpropane) 1,3-Butanediol 1,2,3-Butanetriol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 3-Butenenitrile iso-Butyl acetate n-Butyl acrylate alcohol iso-Butyl alcohol sec-Butyl alcohol tert-Butyl alcohol iso-Butyl amine n-Butylbenzene iso-Butylbenzene sec-Butylbenzene tert-Butylbenzene iso-Butyl benzoate n-Butyl bromide (1-bromobutane) iso-Butyl n-butyrate carbamate Butyl carbitol (diethylene glycol butyl ether) n-Butyl chloride (1-chlorobutane) iso-Butyl chloride

1

5

10

20

29.0 32.2 22.0 173.8 45.3 26.0 95.4 79.5 70.6 135.3 46.9 74.0 47.0 70.0 64.6 209.6 54.7 48.8 +2.9 98.0 23.7 +6.2 −44.0 −38.4 −47.3 −39.0 −45.0 32.0 −36.0 −28.8 84.0 30.4 48.0 36.5 38.7 −95.4

70.0

54.8 59.6 47.8 206.3 70.2 52.0 127.7 107.8 101.8 169.9 75.7 103.4 74.8 99.8 93.7 241.7 81.6 77.8 27.8 133.7 45.4 30.0 −23.2 −17.0 −27.0 −17.9 −24.1 59.5 −18.0 −7.0 115.6 42.5 76.2 63.2 66.6 −77.8 22.0 117.5 135.4 42.0 49.7 50.8 47.5 146.2 65.0 −72.7 −87.6 −85.7 −94.1 67.5 132.0 −89.4 −81.1 −84.0 +2.9 +1.4 +23.5 +20.0 +11.6 +7.2 −3.0 −31.0 48.8 40.5 44.2 39.0 93.6 −11.2 30.0 83.7 95.7

67.7 73.4 60.8 221.5 83.2 65.0 144.0 121.8 117.0 187.2 90.2 118.0 89.3 114.0 108.0 256.0 94.1 91.9 40.0 150.6 55.8 41.8 −12.8 −6.4 −16.8 −7.2 −13.8 72.7 −9.4 +4.1 130.8 74.0 90.5 76.3 80.5 −68.8 34.0 133.6 152.3 55.2 62.3 64.0 61.1 163.2 78.8 −64.2 −79.7 −77.8 −86.4 85.3 146.0 −81.6 −73.4 −76.3 14.1 12.8 35.5 30.2 21.7 16.9 +5.5 −21.0 62.0 53.7 57.0 51.7 108.6 −0.3 42.2 96.4 107.8

81.8 88.3 75.0 239.3 96.7 79.6 160.7 137.0 134.2 205.8 106.0 133.8 104.0 130.0 123.7 272.9 108.2 107.8 53.8 169.8 67.2 54.2 −1.4 +5.4 −5.3 +4.6 −2.4 87.8 0.0 16.0 147.7 90.2 105.8 90.8 95.8 −58.8 48.0 150.2 171.8 69.1 76.0 78.1 75.2 181.8 94.0 −54.9 −71.0 −68.9 −77.9 100.0 161.0 −73.0 −64.6 −67.5 26.6 25.5 48.6 41.5 32.4 27.3 14.3 −10.3 76.3 67.8 70.6 65.6 124.2 +11.6 56.1 110.1 120.5

97.3 104.8 90.7 255.8 111.8 95.4 180.1 153.0 152.5 226.3 123.7 150.7 121.2 147.2 140.4 290.0 124.0 125.0 68.6 190.8 79.5 68.2 +11.5 18.4 +7.2 17.7 +10.5 103.8 +10.4 29.7 165.8 108.5 123.2 106.6 113.0 −48.1 63.6 170.2 193.8 84.1 91.0 93.9 91.8 200.5 110.6 −44.3 −61.3 −59.1 −68.4 117.4 178.0 −63.4 −54.7 −57.6 40.0 39.2 63.4 53.4 44.1 38.1 24.5 +1.3 92.4 83.3 86.2 80.8 141.8 24.8 71.7 125.3 135.5

C4H9Cl C4H9Cl

−49.0 −53.8

−28.9 −34.3

−18.6 −24.5

−7.4 −13.8

+5.0 −1.9

60

100

200

400

760

107.3 115.6 100.5 267.0 121.3 105.5 192.6 163.8 165.2 239.7 135.7 161.8 131.7 157.6 151.2 301.5 133.8 136.0 78.1 204.5 87.0 77.3 19.8 27.2 15.4 26.2 18.7 114.8 17.0 38.0 177.6 121.0 133.8 116.4 123.7 −41.2 73.4 183.5 207.0 94.1 100.0 104.1 102.3 213.0 121.6 −37.5 −55.1 −52.8 −62.4 127.5 188.0 −57.2 −48.4 −51.3 48.8 48.0 72.6 60.3 51.7 45.2 31.0 8.8 102.6 93.3 96.0 90.6 152.0 33.4 81.3 134.6 146.0

120.0 129.8 114.2 281.5 133.5 118.9 209.2 177.7 180.7 255.0 149.8 176.4 145.8 172.2 165.7 316.2 146.3 150.1 90.8 221.8 97.6 89.2 30.8 38.1 26.3 37.5 29.9 128.0 28.0 49.5 193.2 135.5 148.2 129.8 138.0 −31.9 85.9 198.8 224.5 107.8 112.0 117.8 116.4 229.3 135.7 −28.3 −46.8 −44.2 −54.1 141.2 202.5 −48.9 −39.8 −42.7 60.2 59.7 85.1 70.1 61.5 54.1 39.8 18.8 116.2 107.0 109.5 103.8 166.4 44.7 94.0 147.2 159.8

140.0 150.8 134.0 303.8 152.0 139.6 233.2 198.0 204.2 280.4 172.0 198.0 166.4 194.2 187.5 336.8 165.8 172.7 110.1 248.2 112.1 107.0 47.8 55.7 42.8 54.5 46.5 149.5 44.7 66.8 216.5 156.5 169.8 150.0 160.0 −17.2 106.1 224.2 251.0 127.7 133.6 138.0 137.4 253.0 156.4 −14.2 −33.9 −31.2 −41.5 161.0 222.0 −36.2 −26.8 −29.7 78.0 77.6 104.0 84.3 75.9 67.9 52.7 32.0 136.9 127.2 128.8 123.7 188.2 62.0 113.9 165.7 181.2

161.3 175.2 155.8 326.7 173.0 161.5 259.8 220.4 229.4 309.8 197.5 222.2 190.2 218.2 211.2 359.6 186.7 197.5 132.3 277.7 128.3 126.3 66.8 75.0 61.9 74.0 66.0 172.6 63.4 86.0 242.0 182.0 194.0 172.3 186.2 −1.1 127.9 252.0 280.2 150.0 157.3 160.0 160.2 278.0 181.0 +1.8 −19.3 −16.3 −27.1 183.8 243.5 −21.7 −12.0 −14.8 98.0 97.5 125.2 100.8 91.4 83.9 68.0 50.7 159.2 149.6 150.3 145.8 212.8 81.7 135.7 186.0 205.0

184.5 198.5 179.4 350.0 194.3 185.0 287.0 243.0 254.9 340.0 223.0 247.0 214.0 243.0 235.0 382.5 208.0 223.0 156.2 310.0 145.0 147.0 86.2 94.7 81.0 93.9 85.5 196.9 82.7 106.7 268.0 206.0 219.0 195.8 213.0 +15.8 150.5 281.1 311.0 173.4 181.8 183.7 184.5 305.8 206.7 18.5 −4.5 −0.5 −11.7 206.5 264.0 −6.3 +3.7 +0.9 119.0 118.0 147.4 117.5 108.0 99.5 82.9 68.6 183.1 172.8 173.5 168.5 237.0 101.6 156.9 206.5 231.2

13.0 +5.9

24.0 16.0

40.0 32.0

58.8 50.0

77.8 68.9

Temperature, °C

Formula C7H9N C7H7Br C7H7Cl C16H14O2 C7H8Cl2Si C9H12O C13H12O C8H7NS C12H10 C15H14O2 C12H20O2 C14H24O2 C11H18O2 C14H24O2 C13H22O2 C22H42O2 C2H3BrO2 C7H7BrO C6H5Br C12H9Br C4H9BrO C4H7BrO C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C6H4BrCl C2H4BrCl C2H4BrCl C6H3BrCl2O C8H9Br C8H9Br C4H8BrClO C8H15Br C2H3Br CHBr3 C10H7Br C12H9BrO C5H4BrN C7H7Br C7H7Br C7H7Br C6H2BrCl3O C8H9Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O3 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H5N C6H12O2 C7H12O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H11N C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C11H14O2 C4H9Br C8H16O2 C5H11NO2 C8H18O3

40

84.2 100.0 16.8 24.4 14.8 10.3 112.4 37.5 −89.0 −102.8 −101.5 −109.2 22.2 102.0 −104.8 −96.4 −99.4 −19.6 −21.2 −0.5 −1.2 −9.0 −12.2 −20.4 −50.0 22.7 14.1 18.6 13.0 64.0 −33.0 +4.6

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Melting point, °C −4 −39 39

69.5 29

61.5 49.5 12.5 −30.7 90.5

−100.3 −133.4 −111.2 −114.6 16.6 −16.6 68 −45.0

−138 8.5 5.5 95 −28 39.8 28.5 +9.5 −108.9 −135 −145 77 −130 −138.9 −105.4 −98.9 −64.6 −79.9 −108 −114.7 25.3 −85.0 −88.0 −51.5 −75.5 −58 −112.4 65 −123.1 −131.2

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-8

2-63

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name

Formula

sec-Butyl chloride (2-Chlorobutane) tert-Butyl chloride sec-Butyl chloroacetate 2-tert-Butyl-4-cresol 4-tert-Butyl-2-cresol iso-Butyl dichloroacetate 2,3-Butylene glycol (2,3-butanediol) 2-Butyl-2-ethylbutane-1,3-diol 2-tert-Butyl-4-ethylphenol n-Butyl formate iso-Butyl formate sec-Butyl formate sec-Butyl glycolate iso-Butyl iodide (1-iodo-2-methylpropane) isobutyrate isovalerate levulinate naphthylketone (1-isovaleronaphthone) 2-sec-Butylphenol 2-tert-Butylphenol 4-iso-Butylphenol 4-sec-Butylphenol 4-tert-Butylphenol 2-(4-tert-Butylphenoxy)ethyl acetate 4-tert-Butylphenyl dichlorophosphate

C4H9Cl C4H9Cl C6H11ClO2 C11H16O C11H16O C6H10Cl2O2 C4H10O2 C10H22O2 C12H15O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O3 C4H9I C8H16O2 C9H18O2 C9H16O3 C15H16O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C14H20O3 C10H13Cl2 O2P C11H14O C7H14O2 C12H18O C12H18O C12H18O C12H18O C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H7N C11H14O C10H16 C10H16O2 C10H16O C10H19N C10H20O C10H20O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C6H10O2 C6H11N C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O2 C8H15N C12H9N CO2 CS2 CO COSe COS CBr4 CCl4 CF4 C10H14O C10H14O C10H12O2 C2HCl3O C2H3Cl3O2

tert-Butyl phenyl ketone (pivalophenone) iso-Butyl propionate 4-tert-Butyl-2,5-xylenol 4-tert-Butyl-2,6-xylenol 6-tert-Butyl-2,4-xylenol 6-tert-Butyl-3,4-xylenol Butyric acid iso-Butyric acid Butyronitrile iso-Valerophenone Camphene Campholenic acid d-Camphor Camphylamine Capraldehyde Capric acid n-Caproic acid iso-Caproic acid iso-Caprolactone Capronitrile Capryl alcohol (2-octanol) Caprylaldehyde Caprylic acid (octanoic acid) Caprylonitrile Carbazole Carbon dioxide disulfide monoxide oxyselenide (carbonyl selenide) oxysulfide (carbonyl sulfide) tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Carvacrol Carvone Chavibetol Chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate) Chloranil Chloroacetic acid anhydride 2-Chloroaniline 3-Chloroaniline 4-Chloroaniline Chlorobenzene 2-Chlorobenzotrichloride (2-α,α,α-tetrachlorotoluene)

C6Cl4O2 C2H3ClO2 C4H4Cl2O3 C6H6ClN C6H6ClN C6H6ClN C6H5Cl C7H4Cl4

1

5

10

20

40

−60.2

−39.8

−29.2

−17.7

17.0 70.0 74.3 28.6 44.0 94.1 76.3 −26.4 −32.7 −34.4 28.3 −17.0 +4.1 16.0 65.0 136.0 57.4 56.6 72.1 71.4 70.0 118.0 96.0

41.8 98.0 103.7 54.3 68.4 122.6 106.2 −4.7 −11.4 −13.3 53.6 +5.8 28.0 41.2 92.1 167.9 86.0 84.2 100.9 100.5 99.2 150.0 129.6

54.6 112.0 118.0 67.5 80.3 136.8 121.0 +6.1 −0.8 −3.1 66.0 17.0 39.9 53.8 105.9 184.0 100.8 98.1 115.5 114.8 114.0 165.8 146.0

68.2 127.2 134.0 81.4 93.4 151.2 137.0 18.0 +11.0 +8.4 79.8 29.8 52.4 67.7 120.2 201.6 116.1 113.0 130.3 130.3 129.5 183.3 164.0

−5.0 −19.0 83.6 143.9 150.8 96.7 107.8 167.8 154.0 31.6 24.1 21.3 94.2 42.8 67.2 82.7 136.2 219.7 133.4 129.2 147.2 147.8 146.0 201.5 184.3

57.8 −2.3 88.2 74.0 70.3 83.9 25.5 14.7 −20.0 58.3

85.7 +20.9 119.8 103.9 100.2 113.6 49.8 39.3 +2.1 87.0

97.6 41.5 45.3 51.9 125.0 71.4 66.2 38.3 9.2 32.8 73.4 92.3 43.0

125.7 68.6 74.0 78.8 142.0 89.5 83.0 66.4 34.6 57.6 92.0 114.1 67.6

99.0 32.3 135.0 119.0 115.0 127.0 61.5 51.2 13.4 101.4 47.2 139.8 82.3 83.7 92.0 152.2 99.5 94.0 80.3 47.5 70.0 101.2 124.0 80.4

114.3 44.8 151.0 135.0 131.0 143.0 74.0 64.0 25.7 116.8 60.4 153.9 97.5 97.6 106.3 165.0 111.8 107.0 95.7 61.7 83.3 110.2 136.4 94.6

130.4 58.5 169.8 152.2 148.5 159.7 88.0 77.8 38.4 133.8 75.7 170.0 114.0 112.5 122.2 179.9 125.0 120.4 112.3 76.9 98.0 120.0 150.6 110.6

60

100

200

400

760

+3.4 −11.4 93.0 153.7 161.7 106.6 116.3 178.0 165.4 39.8 32.4 29.6 104.0 51.8 75.9 92.4 147.0 231.5 143.9 140.0 157.0 157.9 156.0 212.8 197.2

14.2 −1.0 105.5 167.0 176.2 119.8 127.8 191.9 179.0 51.0 43.4 40.2 116.4 63.5 88.0 105.2 160.2 246.7 157.3 153.5 171.2 172.4 170.2 228.0 214.3

31.5 +14.6 124.1 187.8 197.8 139.2 145.6 212.0 200.3 67.9 60.0 56.8 135.5 81.0 106.3 124.8 181.8 269.7 179.7 173.8 192.1 194.3 191.5 250.3 240.0

50.0 32.6 146.0 210.0 221.8 160.0 164.0 233.5 223.8 86.2 79.0 75.2 155.6 100.3 126.3 146.4 205.5 294.0 203.8 196.3 214.7 217.6 214.0 277.6 268.2

68.0 51.0 167.8 232.6 247.0 183.0 182.0 255.0 247.8 106.0 98.2 93.6 177.5 120.4 147.5 168.7 229.9 320.0 228.0 219.5 237.0 242.1 238.0 304.4 299.0

140.8 67.6 180.3 163.6 158.2 170.0 96.5 86.3 47.3 144.6 85.0 180.0 124.0 122.0 132.0 189.8 133.3 129.6 123.2 86.8 107.4 126.0 160.0 121.2 248.2 −104.8 −15.3 −208.1 −70.2 −93.0 106.3 12.3 −155.4 155.3 143.8 170.7 29.1 46.2

154.0 79.5 195.0 176.0 172.0 184.0 108.0 98.0 59.0 158.0 97.9 193.7 138.0 134.6 145.3 200.0 144.0 141.4 137.2 99.8 119.8 133.9 172.2 134.8 265.0 −100.2 −5.1 −205.7 −61.7 −85.9 119.7 23.0 −150.7 169.7 157.3 185.5 40.2 55.0

Temperature, °C

175.0 197.7 220.0 97.0 116.4 136.8 217.5 241.3 265.3 196.0 217.8 239.8 192.3 214.2 236.5 204.5 226.7 249.5 125.5 144.5 163.5 115.8 134.5 154.5 76.7 96.8 117.5 180.1 204.2 228.0 117.5 138.7 160.5 212.7 234.0 256.0 157.9 182.0 209.2 153.0 173.8 195.0 164.8 186.3 208.5 217.1 240.3 268.4 160.8 181.0 202.0 158.3 181.0 207.7 157.8 182.1 207.0 119.7 141.0 163.7 138.0 157.5 178.5 145.4 156.5 168.5 190.3 213.9 237.5 155.2 179.5 204.5 292.5 323.0 354.8 −93.0 −85.7 −78.2 +10.4 28.0 46.5 −201.3 −196.3 −191.3 −49.8 −35.6 −21.9 −75.0 −62.7 −49.9 139.7 163.5 189.5 38.3 57.8 76.7 −143.6 −135.5 −127.7 191.2 213.8 237.0 179.6 203.5 227.5 206.8 229.8 254.0 57.8 77.5 97.7 68.0 82.1 96.2

Melting point, °C −131.3 −26.5

22.5

−95.3 −90.7 −80.7

99

−71

−74 −47 50 178.5 31.5 −1.5 −35 −38.6 16 244.8 −57.5 −110.8 −205.0

−134.3 −73.8 −222.0 −117.1 −132.4

−124.4 −54.3 −217.2 −102.3 −119.8

−119.5 −44.7 −215.0 −95.0 −113.3

−114.4 −34.3 −212.8 −86.3 −106.0

−50.0 −184.6 70.0 57.4 83.6 −37.8 −9.8

−30.0 −174.1 98.4 86.1 113.3 −16.0 +10.0

−19.6 −169.3 113.2 100.4 127.0 −5.0 19.5

−8.2 −164.3 127.9 116.1 143.2 +7.2 29.2

−108.6 −22.5 −210.0 −76.4 −98.3 96.3 +4.3 −158.8 145.2 133.0 159.8 20.2 39.7

70.7 43.0 67.2 46.3 63.5 59.3 −13.0

89.3 68.3 94.1 72.3 89.8 87.9 +10.6

97.8 81.0 108.0 84.8 102.0 102.1 22.2

106.4 94.2 122.4 99.2 116.7 117.8 35.3

116.1 109.2 138.2 115.6 133.6 135.0 49.7

122.0 118.3 148.0 125.7 144.1 145.8 58.3

129.5 130.7 159.8 139.5 158.0 159.9 70.7

140.3 149.0 177.8 160.0 179.5 182.3 89.4

151.3 169.0 197.0 183.7 203.5 206.6 110.0

162.6 189.5 217.0 208.8 228.5 230.5 132.2

290 61.2 46 0 −10.4 70.5 −45.2

69.0

101.8

117.9

135.8

155.0

167.8

185.0

208.0

233.0

262.1

28.7

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−138.8 90.1 −22.6 −183.7 +0.5 −57 51.7

2-64

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-8

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound

1

Name

5

10

20

C7H4ClF3 C12H9Cl C12H9Cl C4H5ClO2 CHClF2 C8H11ClSi C8H9ClO C4H9ClO2 C6H12Cl2O2 C8H9Cl C8H9Cl C8H9Cl C4H6Cl2O2 C5H10Cl2O C5H10Cl2O C10H13ClO CHCl3 C10H7Cl C8H9ClO C6H5ClO C6H5ClO C6H5ClO C12H9ClO C12H9ClO CCl3NO2 C3H5Cl C5H4ClN C8H7Cl C8H7Cl C14H29Cl C7H7Cl C7H7Cl C7H7Cl C6H15ClSi C2ClF3 CClF3 C3H9ClSi C9H8O2 C9H10O C9H8O C5H4O3 C10H16O C10H18O C10H18O2 C10H20O C12H22O2 C9H6O2 C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C4H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H5N C4H5N C9H12 C9H13N C10H12O C10H14O C7H11NO2 C2N2 CBrN CClN CIN C4H8 C4H6 C6H12 C8H16O C6H12O C6H10O C12H14N2O5 C5H10 C3H6 C10H14

60

100

200

400

760

88.3 197.0 212.5 155.9 −76.4 124.7 141.8 139.5 150.7 110.0 113.6 116.0 140.0 115.8 125.6 164.8 10.4 180.4 188.1 106.0 143.0 150.0 237.0 237.1 53.8 −15.1 104.6 121.2 122.0 215.5 94.7 96.3 96.6 82.3 −66.7 −111.7 +6.0 232.4 177.8 177.7 145.4 160.0 140.1 195.4 159.8 161.0 216.5 127.4 138.0 140.0 116.3 128.0 50.1 62.8 88.1 158.0 160.0 176.2 133.8 −51.8 22.6 −24.9 97.6 −32.8 −41.2 25.5 142.7 103.7 90.4 229.0 −1.3 −70.0 110.8

108.3 219.6 237.8 173.8 −65.8 145.5 162.0 157.2 169.8 130.2 133.8 137.0 159.8 135.7 146.3 186.3 25.9 204.2 210.0 126.4 164.8 172.0 261.3 261.6 71.8 +1.3 125.0 142.2 143.5 240.3 115.0 116.6 117.1 101.6 −55.0 −102.5 21.9 253.3 199.8 199.3 165.8 181.8 160.0 214.5 179.8 178.8 240.0 146.7 157.3 157.3 133.9 146.0 68.0 81.1 107.3 180.0 182.8 197.9 152.2 −42.6 33.8 −14.1 111.5 −18.9 −27.8 42.0 161.7 121.7 110.3 248.7 +13.8 −59.1 131.4

130.0 243.8 264.5 193.2 −53.6 168.6 185.5 176.5 190.5 152.2 156.7 159.8 182.2 156.5 169.8 210.8 42.7 230.8 234.5 149.8 188.7 196.0 289.4 289.5 91.8 18.0 147.7 165.7 166.0 267.5 137.1 139.7 139.8 123.6 −41.7 −92.7 39.4 276.7 224.6 222.4 189.8 205.0 183.8 236.6 201.0 197.8 264.7 168.4 179.0 179.4 152.2 165.5 88.0 101.5 129.2 203.2 206.7 221.7 173.4 −33.0 46.0 −2.3 126.1 −3.4 −12.2 60.8 183.5 141.4 132.5 269.8 31.0 −46.9 153.5

152.2 267.5 292.9 212.0 −40.8 193.5 208.0 196.0 212.6 177.6 181.1 184.3 205.0 180.0 194.1 235.0 61.3 259.3 259.3 174.5 214.0 220.0 317.5 317.0 111.9 37.0 170.2 190.0 191.0 296.0 159.3 162.3 162.3 146.3 −27.9 −81.2 57.9 300.0 250.0 246.0 213.5 228.0 206.5 257.0 221.5 217.0 291.0 190.8 202.8 201.8 171.9 185.0 108.0 122.8 152.4 227.0 232.0 246.6 195.2 −21.0 61.5 +13.1 141.1 +12.9 +2.4 80.7 205.4 161.0 155.6 291.5 49.3 −33.5 177.2

Temperature, °C

Formula

2-Chlorobenzotrifluoride (2-chloro-α,α,α-trifluorotoluene) 2-Chlorobiphenyl 4-Chlorobiphenyl α-Chlorocrotonic acid Chlorodifluoromethane Chlorodimethylphenylsilane 1-Chloro-2-ethoxybenzene 2-(2-Chloroethoxy) ethanol bis-2-Chloroethyl acetacetal 1-Chloro-2-ethylbenzene 1-Chloro-3-ethylbenzene 1-Chloro-4-ethylbenzene 2-Chloroethyl chloroacetate 2-Chloroethyl 2-chloroisopropyl ether 2-Chloroethyl 2-chloropropyl ether 2-Chloroethyl α-methylbenzyl ether Chloroform (trichloromethane) 1-Chloronaphthalene 4-Chlorophenethyl alcohol 2-Chlorophenol 3-Chlorophenol 4-Chlorophenol 2-Chloro-3-phenylphenol 2-Chloro-6-phenylphenol Chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) 1-Chloropropene 2-Chloropyridine 3-Chlorostyrene 4-Chlorostyrene 1-Chlorotetradecane 2-Chlorotoluene 3-Chlorotoluene 4-Chlorotoluene Chlorotriethylsilane 1-Chloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethylene Chlorotrifluoromethane Chlorotrimethylsilane trans-Cinnamic acid Cinnamyl alcohol Cinnamylaldehyde Citraconic anhydride cis-α-Citral d-Citronellal Citronellic acid Citronellol Citronellyl acetate Coumarin o-Cresol (2-cresol; 2-methylphenol) m-Cresol (3-cresol; 3-methylphenol) p-Cresol (4-cresol; 4-methylphenol) cis-Crotonic acid trans-Crotonic acid cis-Crotononitrile trans-Crotononitrile Cumene 4-Cumidene Cuminal Cuminyl alcohol 2-Cyano-2-n-butyl acetate Cyanogen bromide chloride iodide Cyclobutane Cyclobutene Cyclohexane Cyclohexaneethanol Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone 2-Cyclohexyl-4,6-dinitrophenol Cyclopentane Cyclopropane Cymene

40

0.0 89.3 96.4 70.0 −122.8 29.8 45.8 53.0 56.2 17.2 18.6 19.2 46.0 24.7 29.8 62.3 −58.0 80.6 84.0 12.1 44.2 49.8 118.0 119.8 −25.5 −81.3 13.3 25.3 28.0 98.5 +5.4 +4.8 +5.5 −4.9 −116.0 −149.5 −62.8 127.5 72.6 76.1 47.1 61.7 44.0 99.5 66.4 74.7 106.0 38.2 52.0 53.0 33.5

24.7 109.8 129.8 95.6 −110.2 56.7 72.8 78.3 83.7 43.0 45.2 46.4 72.1 50.1 56.5 91.4 −39.1 104.8 114.3 38.2 72.0 78.2 152.2 153.7 −3.3 −63.4 38.8 51.3 54.5 131.8 30.6 30.3 31.0 +19.8 −102.5 −139.2 −43.6 157.8 102.5 105.8 74.8 90.0 71.4 127.3 93.6 100.2 137.8 64.0 76.0 76.5 57.4

−29.0 −19.5 +2.9 60.0 58.0 74.2 42.0 −95.8 −35.7 −76.7 25.2 −92.0 −99.1 −45.3 50.4 21.0 +1.4 132.8 −68.0 −116.8 17.3

−7.1 +3.5 26.8 88.2 87.3 103.7 68.7 −83.2 −18.3 −61.4 47.2 −76.0 −83.4 −25.4 77.2 44.0 26.4 161.8 −49.6 −104.2 43.9

37.1 134.7 146.0 108.0 −103.7 70.0 86.5 90.7 97.6 56.1 58.1 60.0 86.0 63.0 70.0 106.0 −29.7 118.6 129.0 51.2 86.1 92.2 169.7 170.7 +7.8 −54.1 51.7 65.2 67.5 148.2 43.2 43.2 43.8 32.0 −95.9 −134.1 −34.0 173.0 117.8 120.0 88.9 103.9 84.8 141.4 107.0 113.0 153.4 76.7 87.8 88.6 69.0 80.0 +4.0 15.0 38.3 102.2 102.0 118.0 82.0 −76.8 −10.0 −53.8 57.7 −67.9 −75.4 −15.9 90.0 56.0 38.7 175.9 −40.4 −97.5 57.0

50.6 151.2 164.0 121.2 −96.5 84.7 101.5 104.1 112.2 70.3 73.0 75.5 100.0 77.2 84.8 121.8 −19.0 134.4 145.0 65.9 101.7 108.1 186.7 189.8 20.0 −44.0 65.8 80.0 82.0 166.2 56.9 57.4 57.8 45.5 −88.2 −128.5 −23.2 189.5 133.7 135.7 103.8 119.4 99.8 155.6 121.5 126.0 170.0 90.5 101.4 102.3 82.0 93.0 16.4 27.8 51.5 117.8 117.9 133.8 96.2 −70.1 −1.0 −46.1 68.6 −58.7 −66.6 −5.0 104.0 68.8 52.5 191.2 −30.1 −90.3 71.1

65.9 169.9 183.8 135.6 −88.6 101.2 117.8 118.4 127.8 86.2 89.2 91.8 116.0 92.4 101.5 139.6 −7.1 153.2 162.0 82.0 118.0 125.0 207.4 208.2 33.8 −32.7 81.7 96.5 98.0 187.0 72.0 73.0 73.5 60.2 −79.7 −121.9 −11.4 207.1 151.0 152.2 120.3 135.9 116.1 171.9 137.2 140.5 189.0 105.8 116.0 117.7 96.0 107.8 30.0 41.8 66.1 134.2 135.2 150.3 111.8 −62.7 +8.6 −37.5 80.3 −48.4 −56.4 +6.7 119.8 83.0 67.8 206.7 −18.6 −82.3 87.0

75.4 182.1 196.0 144.4 −83.4 111.5 127.8 127.5 138.0 96.4 99.6 102.0 126.2 102.2 111.8 150.0 +0.5 165.6 173.5 92.0 129.4 136.1 219.6 220.0 42.3 −25.1 91.6 107.2 108.5 199.8 81.8 83.2 83.3 69.5 −74.1 −117.3 −4.0 217.8 162.0 163.7 131.3 146.3 126.2 182.1 147.2 149.7 200.5 115.5 125.8 127.0 104.5 116.7 38.5 50.9 75.4 145.0 146.0 161.7 121.5 −57.9 14.7 −32.1 88.0 −41.8 −50.0 14.7 129.8 91.8 77.5 216.0 −11.3 −77.0 97.2

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

Melting point, °C −6.0 34 75.5 −160

−80.2 −53.3 −62.6

−63.5 −20 7 32.5 42 +6 −64 −99.0 −15.0 +0.9 +7.3 −157.5 133 33 −7.5

70 30.8 10.9 35.5 15.5 72 −96.0

−34.4 58 −6.5 −50 +6.6 23.9 −45.0 −93.7 −126.6 −68.2

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-8

2-65

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name

5

10

20

100

200

400

760

22.5 −0.8 16.5 44.2 14.7 69.5 67.4 91.7 123.3 70.0 −82.5 +9.5 −9.5 18.6 85.4 43.0 118.3 125.5

50.1 +30.6 42.3 71.9 40.3 97.3 96.4 122.0 156.2 95.0 −68.0 34.8 +14.4 44.3 116.0 73.0 149.8 159.8

64.2 47.2 55.7 85.8 53.7 111.3 111.0 137.3 173.5 108.0 −61.2 47.4 26.6 57.0 131.4 87.6 165.6 177.6

79.8 65.3 69.8 100.7 67.8 125.8 126.5 153.0 192.0 122.6 −53.8 61.3 39.7 70.7 147.7 102.7 182.2 195.7

97.2 85.7 85.5 117.1 83.3 142.1 144.0 171.0 212.0 138.2 −45.9 76.4 54.2 86.3 165.7 120.0 200.2 216.6

C6H4Br2 61.0 C4H8Br2 7.5 C4H8Br2 +5.0 C4H8Br2 +1.5 C10H20Br2 95.7 C4H8Br2O 47.7 C4H2Br2O3 50.0 C4H8Br2 −28.8 C4H8Br2 14.0 C5H10Br2 19.8 C3H6Br2 −7.0 C3H6Br2 +9.7 C3H4Br2 −6.0 C3H6Br2O 57.0 C8H19N −5.1 C15H24O 85.8 C15H24O 86.2 C15H24O 103.7 C16H26O 89.1 C16H26O 111.5 C10H18O4 63.2 C14H22O 84.5 C16H22O4 148.2 C8H18S +21.7 C12H22O6 117.8 C32H34ClO4P 204.2

79.3 33.2 30.0 26.6 123.6 75.3 78.0 −3.0 40.0 45.4 +17.3 35.4 +17.9 84.5 +18.4 116.2 117.3 135.2 121.4 142.6 91.2 115.4 182.1 51.8 151.8 234.5

87.7 46.1 41.6 39.3 137.3 88.5 92.0 +10.5 53.0 58.0 29.4 48.0 30.0 98.2 30.6 131.0 132.4 150.0 137.0 157.4 105.3 130.0 198.2 66.4 169.0 249.3

103.6 60.0 56.4 53.2 151.0 103.6 106.7 25.7 67.5 72.0 42.3 62.1 43.2 113.5 43.7 147.0 149.0 167.0 154.0 174.0 120.3 146.0 216.2 80.5 188.0 264.5

C27H33O4P 180.2 C2H2Cl2O2 44.0 C6H4Cl2 20.0 C6H4Cl2 12.1 C6H4Cl2 C4H8Cl2 −23.6 C4H8Cl2 −25.2 C2Cl2F2 −82.0 CCl2F2 −118.5 C12H10Cl2Si 109.6 C6H12Cl2O 29.6 C5H10Cl2O2 53.0 C8H8Cl2OSi −33.8 C8H8Cl2 46.0 C8H8Cl2 47.0 C8H8Cl2 38.5 C2H2Cl2 −58.4 C2H2Cl2 −65.4 C4H8Cl2O 23.5 CHCl2F −91.3 C6H18Cl2 26.0 O2Si3 C7H8Cl2Si 35.7 C4H8Cl2 −31.0 C4H8Cl2 −25.8 C4H8Cl2 −3.0 C6H4Cl2O 53.0 C6H4Cl2O 59.5

209.3 69.8 46.0 39.0 −0.3 −3.0 −65.6 −104.6 142.4 55.2 80.4 −12.1 75.0 77.2 68.0 −39.2 −47.2 49.3 −75.5 52.0

221.8 82.6 59.1 52.0 54.8 +11.5 +8.5 −57.3 −97.8 158.0 68.2 94.0 −1.3 90.0 92.3 83.2 −29.9 −38.0 62.0 −67.5 65.1

63.5 −8.4 −4.2 +20.6 80.0 87.6

77.4 +2.6 +6.7 32.0 92.8 101.0

C10H18 C10H18 C10H22 C10H20O C10H20 C10H22O C13H30Si C8H8O4 C14H12O C4H7NO2 C4H2 C6H10Cl2Si C6H10S C10H22O C12H22O4 C10H22S C14H15N C15H14O

40

60 108.0 98.4 95.5 127.8 93.5 152.0 154.3 181.5 224.5 148.0 −41.0 86.3 63.7 96.0 177.0 130.6 212.2 229.4

123.2 114.6 108.6 142.0 106.5 165.8 169.5 197.5 241.3 160.6 −34.0 99.7 75.8 109.6 192.2 145.3 227.3 246.6

145.4 136.2 128.4 163.2 126.7 186.2 191.0 219.5 265.2 180.8 −20.9 119.4 94.8 129.0 215.0 166.4 249.8 272.3

169.9 160.1 150.6 186.7 149.2 208.8 215.5 244.5 293.0 202.0 −6.1 142.0 116.1 150.3 240.0 191.0 274.3 301.7

194.6 186.7 174.1 211.0 172.0 231.0 240.0 269.0 321.0 223.0 +9.7 165.3 138.6 173.4 265.0 216.0 300.0 330.5

120.8 76.0 72.0 68.0 167.4 119.8 123.5 42.3 83.5 87.4 57.2 77.8 57.8 129.8 57.8 164.1 167.4 185.3 172.1 192.3 137.5 164.3 235.8 96.0 208.5 280.5

131.6 86.0 82.0 78.0 177.5 130.0 133.8 53.7 93.7 97.4 66.4 87.8 67.0 140.0 67.0 175.2 179.0 196.1 183.9 204.4 147.8 175.8 247.8 105.8 221.6 290.7

146.5 99.8 95.3 91.7 190.2 144.0 147.7 68.8 107.4 110.1 78.7 101.3 79.5 153.0 79.2 190.0 194.0 211.0 198.0 218.0 161.8 190.0 263.7 118.6 239.5 304.9

168.5 120.2 115.7 111.8 209.6 165.0 168.0 92.1 117.8 130.2 97.8 121.7 98.0 173.8 97.6 212.8 217.5 233.0 220.0 241.7 183.5 212.5 287.0 138.0 264.7 323.8

192.5 143.5 138.0 134.2 229.8 188.0 192.0 119.8 150.6 151.8 118.5 144.1 119.5 196.0 118.0 237.6 243.4 257.1 244.0 264.6 205.8 237.0 313.5 159.0 294.0 342.0

218.6 166.3 160.5 157.3 250.4 212.5 215.0 149.0 174.6 175.0 141.6 167.5 141.2 219.0 139.5 262.5 269.3 282.0 268.6 290.0 229.5 260.8 340.0 182.0 324.0 361.0

237.0 96.3 73.4 66.2 69.2 24.5 21.2 −48.3 −90.1 176.0 82.2 109.5 +11.3 105.9 109.6 99.8 −19.4 −28.0 76.0 −58.6 79.0

251.5 111.8 89.4 82.0 84.8 37.7 35.0 −38.2 −81.6 195.5 97.3 125.5 24.4 123.8 127.5 118.0 −7.9 −17.0 91.5 −48.8 94.8

260.3 121.5 99.5 92.2 95.2 47.8 43.9 −31.8 −76.1 207.5 106.9 135.8 32.6 135.0 139.0 129.0 −0.5 −10.0 101.5 −42.6 105.0

272.5 134.0 112.9 105.0 108.4 60.2 56.0 −23.0 −68.6 223.8 119.7 149.6 44.1 149.8 153.3 144.0 +9.5 −0.2 114.5 −33.9 118.2

290.0 152.3 133.4 125.9 128.3 79.7 74.0 −10.0 −57.0 248.0 139.0 170.0 61.0 172.0 176.0 166.2 24.6 +14.3 134.0 −20.9 138.3

309.8 173.7 155.8 149.0 150.2 100.8 94.2 +5.0 −43.9 275.5 159.8 192.0 80.3 197.0 201.7 191.5 41.0 30.8 155.4 −6.2 160.2

330.0 194.4 179.0 173.0 173.9 123.5 116.0 20.9 −29.8 304.0 182.7 215.0 100.6 222.1 226.6 216.3 59.0 47.8 178.5 +8.9 184.0

92.4 14.6 18.7 44.8 107.7 115.5

109.5 28.2 32.0 58.6 123.4 131.6

120.0 37.0 40.2 67.5 133.5 141.8

134.2 48.2 51.7 78.8 146.0 154.6

155.5 65.8 68.9 96.1 165.2 175.5

180.2 85.4 87.8 115.4 187.5 197.7

205.5 106.0 108.0 135.0 210.0 220.0

Temperature, °C

Formula

cis-Decalin trans-Decalin Decane Decan-2-one 1-Decene Decyl alcohol Decyltrimethylsilane Dehydroacetic acid Desoxybenzoin Diacetamide Diacetylene (1,3-butadiyne) Diallyldichlorosilane Diallyl sulfide Diisoamyl ether oxalate sulfide Dibenzylamine Dibenzyl ketone (1,3-diphenyl2-propanone) 1,4-Dibromobenzene 1,2-Dibromobutane dl-2,3-Dibromobutane meso-2,3-Dibromobutane 1,2-Dibromodecane Di(2-bromoethyl) ether α,β-Dibromomaleic anhydride 1,2-Dibromo-2-methylpropane 1,3-Dibromo-2-methylpropane 1,2-Dibromopentane 1,2-Dibromopropane 1,3-Dibromopropane 2,3-Dibromopropene 2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol Diisobutylamine 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-cresol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-2-cresol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-3-cresol 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-ethylphenol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-3-ethylphenol Diisobutyl oxalate 2,4-Ditert-butylphenol Dibutyl phthalate sulfide Diisobutyl d-tartrate Dicarvacryl-mono-(6-chloro-2-xenyl) phosphate Dicarvacryl-2-tolyl phosphate Dichloroacetic acid 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 1,3-Dichlorobenzene 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1,2-Dichlorobutane 2,3-Dichlorobutane 1,2-Dichloro-1,2-difluoroethylene Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorodiphenyl silane Dichlorodiisopropyl ether Di(2-chloroethoxy) methane Dichloroethoxymethylsilane 1,2-Dichloro-3-ethylbenzene 1,2-Dichloro-4-ethylbenzene 1,4-Dichloro-2-ethylbenzene cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene trans-1,2-Dichloro ethylene Di(2-chloroethyl) ether Dichlorofluoromethane 1,5-Dichlorohexamethyltrisiloxane Dichloromethylphenylsilane 1,1-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 1,2-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 1,3-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 2,4-Dichlorophenol 2,6-Dichlorophenol

1

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

Melting point, °C −43.3 −30.7 −29.7 +3.5 +7 60 78.5 −34.9 −83

−26 34.5 87.5 −64.5 −34.5

−70.3 −55.5 −34.4 −70

−79.7 73.5

9.7 −17.6 −24.2 53.0 −80.4 −112

−40.8 −76.4 −61.2 −80.5 −50.0 −135 −53.0

45.0

2-66

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-8

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name

5

10

20

56.0 61.8 −38.5 61.0 53.5 55.5 47.8 57.2 53.5 105.6 91.7 −95.4 46.2 11.0 −19.1 111.5 74.0

84.0 100.0 −17.0 90.1 82.2 83.9 75.7 86.0 82.2 138.7 126.1 −80.0 71.7 38.3 34.1 +2.4 142.8 106.6

49.7

78.0

98.1 116.0 −6.1 104.6 97.4 98.2 90.0 100.4 97.4 155.0 143.8 −72.3 84.2 52.2 47.6 13.3 157.6 123.0 −33.0 91.9

113.8 133.1 +6.0 120.5 111.8 114.0 105.5 116.2 111.8 172.5 162.0 −63.5 97.8 67.3 62.0 25.3 174.3 138.3 −22.6 107.2

C8H5Cl2N C6H5AsCl2 C3H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C14H20Cl2 C14H20Cl2 C2Cl2F4 C7H8Cl2Si C7H3Cl2F3 C10H8 C6H16O2Si C16H20O2Si C10H18O4 C4H11N C10H15N C10H16As NO3 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C5H10O3 C9H14O4 C8H10O6 C4H10O3 C8H12Cl2O5 C6H14O3 C6H14O3 C4H10O C9H16O4 C8H12O4 C9H16O4 C20H43N C9H14O4 C5H10O C8H14O5 C8H12O4 C7H12O4 C9H14O4 C6H10O4 C12H14O4 C14H26O4 C12H16 C8H14O4 C8H14O4 C4H10O4S C4H10S C4H10O3S C8H14O6 C8H14O6 C11H16 C4H10Zn C10H16O C10H22O C14H8O4 C4H6 C2H7N C8H11N C8H12AsNO3 C16H18O C6H14 C6H14 C7H10O4 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16

40 130.0 151.0 19.4 137.8 129.2 131.0 122.4 133.7 129.2 192.2 183.2 −53.7 113.2 84.0 77.9 38.0 193.2 154.6 −11.3 123.6

38.0 22.3 20.7 20.7 −10.1 59.8 70.0 91.8 148.3

62.6 48.7 46.8 47.1 +12.3 88.3 98.0 120.0 180.0

74.8 62.0 59.9 60.3 23.8 103.0 112.0 133.8 195.8

88.0 76.4 74.5 74.7 36.0 118.2 126.8 148.0 212.0

13.0 45.3 −74.3 50.8 53.2 65.6 139.8 51.3 −12.7 80.7 57.3 40.0 62.8 47.4 108.8 125.3 49.7 54.6 39.8 47.0 −39.6 10.0 102.0 100.0 34.0 −22.4 46.6 68.0 196.7 −73.0 −87.7 29.5 15.0 96.7 −69.3 −63.6 50.8 −24.4 −15.9 −21.1 −19.4 −22.7 −20.0 −24.3

37.6 72.0 −56.9 77.8 81.2 94.7 175.8 80.2 +7.5 110.4 85.6 67.5 91.0 71.8 140.7 156.2 78.4 83.0 66.7 74.0 −18.6 34.2 133.0 131.7 61.5 0.0 75.5 91.7 239.8 −57.9 −72.2 56.3 39.6 128.3 −50.7 −44.5 78.2 −1.4 +7.3 +1.7 +3.4 0.0 +3.2 −1.7

50.0 85.8 −48.1 91.6 95.3 109.7 194.0 95.2 17.2 125.3 100.0 81.3 105.3 83.8 156.0 172.1 92.6 96.6 80.0 87.7 −8.0 46.4 148.0 147.2 75.3 +11.7 90.0 103.0 259.8 −50.5 −64.6 70.0 51.8 144.0 −41.5 −34.9 91.8 +10.3 18.4 13.0 14.9 +11.2 14.5 +10.1

63.0 100.3 −38.5 106.0 110.2 125.4 213.5 111.0 27.9 141.2 115.3 95.9 120.3 96.8 173.6 189.8 108.5 111.7 94.7 102.1 +3.5 59.7 164.2 163.8 90.2 24.2 106.0 115.0 282.0 −42.5 −56.0 84.8 65.0 160.3 −31.1 −24.1 106.5 23.0 31.1 25.6 27.4 23.6 27.1 22.6

60

100

200

400

760

141.0 163.2 28.0 149.0 140.0 142.0 133.3 144.6 140.0 204.8 195.8 −47.5 122.6 95.0 88.0 46.3 205.0 165.8 −4.0 133.8

154.5 178.9 39.4 163.5 153.8 155.8 147.6 158.2 153.8 220.7 212.0 −39.1 135.5 109.2 101.7 57.6 220.0 179.0 +6.0 147.3

176.2 202.8 57.0 185.7 176.0 178.0 169.0 181.5 176.0 245.6 238.5 −26.3 153.5 129.0 121.8 74.2 243.8 198.2 21.0 168.2

199.5 228.8 76.0 210.0 200.0 202.5 193.5 205.7 200.0 272.8 265.8 −12.0 175.2 150.5 144.2 93.2 259.7 219.1 38.0 192.4

223.5 256.5 96.8 235.0 225.0 227.0 217.0 230.0 225.0 302.0 296.5 +3.5 196.3 172.8 166.6 113.5 296.0 240.0 55.5 215.5

102.6 92.5 90.4 91.1 49.5 135.7 143.8 164.3 229.0

111.8 102.6 100.7 101.3 57.9 146.2 153.7 174.0 239.5

123.8 116.2 114.4 115.3 69.7 160.0 167.7 187.5 252.0

141.9 136.7 134.8 136.1 86.5 182.3 188.0 207.0 271.5

161.0 159.0 156.9 159.0 105.8 206.5 210.8 226.5 291.8

181.0 183.5 181.1 183.8 125.8 230.3 233.5 244.8 313.0

77.5 116.7 27.7 122.4 126.7 142.8 235.0 128.2 39.4 157.8 131.8 113.3 137.3 110.6 192.1 207.5 125.8 127.8 111.0 118.0 16.1 74.2 182.3 181.7 107.0 38.0 123.7 127.6 307.4 −33.9 −46.7 101.6 79.7 179.6 −19.5 −12.4 122.6 37.3 45.3 39.7 41.4 37.5 41.1 36.5

86.8 126.8 −21.8 132.4 137.7 153.2 248.5 139.9 46.7 169.0 142.4 123.0 147.9 119.7 204.1 218.4 136.8 138.2 121.4 128.6 24.2 83.8 194.0 193.2 117.7 47.2 134.7 136.7 323.3 −27.8 −40.7 111.9 88.6 191.5 −12.1 −4.9 132.7 45.7 54.4 48.7 50.4 46.4 50.1 45.4

99.5 140.3 −11.5 146.0 151.1 167.8 265.5 154.3 56.2 183.9 156.0 136.2 161.6 130.8 219.5 234.4 151.0 151.1 134.8 142.5 35.0 96.3 208.5 208.0 131.7 59.1 149.7 145.9 344.5 −18.8 −32.6 125.8 101.0 206.8 −2.0 +5.4 145.8 57.9 66.8 61.0 62.5 58.5 62.3 57.6

118.0 159.0 +2.2 166.0 172.2 189.5 292.8 177.5 70.6 205.3 177.8 155.5 183.2 147.9 243.0 255.8 173.2 171.7 155.1 162.5 51.3 115.8 230.4 230.0 152.4 77.0 171.8 160.2 377.8 −5.0 −20.4 146.5 119.8 229.7 +13.4 21.1 165.8 76.2 85.6 79.6 81.0 76.9 80.8 76.0

138.5 180.3 17.9 188.7 195.8 212.8 324.6 203.1 86.3 229.5 201.7 176.8 205.8 166.2 267.5 280.3 198.0 193.8 177.7 185.5 69.7 137.0 254.8 254.3 176.5 97.3 197.0 176.8 413.0 +10.6 −7.1 169.2 140.3 254.8 31.0 39.0 188.0 97.2 107.0 100.9 102.1 97.8 101.9 97.0

159.8 201.9 34.6 211.5 218.5 237.0 355.0 227.9 102.7 253.4 225.0 198.9 229.0 185.7 294.0 305.5 223.0 216.5 201.3 209.5 88.0 159.0 280.0 280.0 200.7 118.0 223.0 193.5 450.0 27.2 +7.4 193.1 160.5 281.0 49.7 58.0 210.5 119.5 129.7 123.4 124.4 120.1 124.3 119.3

Temperature, °C

Formula

α,α-Dichlorophenylacetonitrile Dichlorophenylarsine 1,2-Dichloropropane 2,3-Dichlorostyrene 2,4-Dichlorostyrene 2,5-Dichlorostyrene 2,6-Dichlorostyrene 3,4-Dichlorostyrene 3,5-Dichlorostyrene 1,2-Dichlorotetraethylbenzene 1,4-Dichlorotetraethylbenzene 1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane Dichloro-4-tolylsilane 3,4-Dichloro-α,α,α-trifluorotoluene Dicyclopentadiene Diethoxydimethylsilane Diethoxydiphenylsilane Diethyl adipate Diethylamine N-Diethylaniline Diethyl arsanilate 1,2-Diethylbenzene 1,3-Diethylbenzene 1,4-Diethylbenzene Diethyl carbonate cis-Diethyl citraconate Diethyl dioxosuccinate Diethylene glycol Diethyleneglycol-bis-chloroacetate Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether Di(2-methoxyethyl) ether glycol ethyl ether Diethyl ether ethylmalonate fumarate glutarate Diethylhexadecylamine Diethyl itaconate ketone (3-pentanone) malate maleate malonate mesaconate oxalate phthalate sebacate 2,5-Diethylstyrene Diethyl succinate isosuccinate sulfate sulfide sulfite d-Diethyl tartrate dl-Diethyl tartrate 3,5-Diethyltoluene Diethylzinc 1-Dihydrocarvone Dihydrocitronellol 1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone Dimethylacetylene (2-butyne) Dimethylamine N,N-Dimethylaniline Dimethyl arsanilate Di(α-methylbenzyl) ether 2,2-Dimethylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane Dimethyl citraconate 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,3-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,3-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,4-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,4-Dimethylcyclohexane

1

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

Melting point, °C

−94 −12.1 32.9 −21 −38.9 −34.4 −31.4 −83.9 −43.2 −43

−116.3 +0.6

−42 −49.8 −40.6 1.3 −20.8 −25.0 −99.5 17 −28 194 −32.5 −96 +2.5 −99.8 −128.2 −34 −50.0 −88.0 −92.0 −76.2 −87.4 −36.9

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-8

2-67

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name

1

5

10

20

−115.7 −29.7 −23.0 −26.9 −26.7 −25.8 −22.1 69.3 75.4 45.7 35.0 46.8 +6.3 20.0 −49.0 −42.0 −48.0 −45.9 56.0 51.8 51.8 66.2 62.0 +5.3 100.3 78.6 49.0 104.0 34.2 29.0 61.4 −75.6 102.1 100.4 28.8 50.1 +3.2 66.7 −35.8 14.0 108.3 110.0 121.5 131.6 86.8 66.1 87.4 113.2 126.0 76.0 96.1 159.7 −38.8 40.0 34.7 73.8 64.7 46.0 −43.3 −57.0 23.0 53.4 43.2 77.5 115.6 103.7 −45.1 32.7 157.8 47.8 47.2 91.0 82.8 91.2 171.3

−101.1 −7.9 −1.1 −5.3 −5.5 −4.4 +0.2 94.0 104.0 73.0 59.8 74.0 30.5 44.0 −28.7 −20.8 −27.4 −25.0 83.8 78.0 78.0 93.8 89.2 30.3 131.8 107.6 76.8 139.8 61.9 55.9 88.1 −58.0 133.2 131.8 54.1 74.3 27.8 95.4 −12.8 40.4 141.7 145.0 160.5 164.0 119.8 97.8 119.6 145.8 159.3 107.4 129.0 179.8 −10.3 67.8 62.3 102.1 92.0 72.8 −22.3 −37.4 44.4 80.2 69.0 107.6 147.7 133.7 −24.4 60.0 195.4 75.8 74.0 120.2 111.8 122.1 206.7

−93.3 +3.1 +9.9 +5.2 +5.3 +6.1 11.3 106.6 118.3 86.4 72.0 87.8 42.3 56.0 −18.7 −10.3 −17.1 −14.4 97.6 91.3 91.3 107.7 102.4 42.6 147.6 122.0 90.7 156.2 75.8 69.0 102.0 −49.2 148.2 147.5 66.2 86.7 40.0 109.0 −1.2 53.8 157.0 162.0 182.0 180.0 136.0 114.0 135.0 161.0 176.1 122.8 145.0 201.6 +5.0 81.8 76.0 116.2 106.0 86.2 −11.8 −27.4 55.0 93.9 81.9 122.2 163.5 148.2 −14.0 73.8 213.0 90.0 87.8 134.7 127.8 137.7 223.5

−85.2 15.0 22.1 17.2 17.2 18.2 23.5 119.7 133.8 101.3 85.0 102.1 55.8 69.4 −7.5 +1.1 −5.9 −2.9 112.0 105.0 105.0 122.0 117.0 56.2 164.0 136.4 105.8 175.8 90.8 84.0 116.3 −39.4 164.3 164.0 80.2 100.0 53.7 124.0 +12.0 68.2 175.2 180.9 203.8 197.0 153.7 130.8 151.8 179.8 194.0 139.8 162.0 215.5 22.3 96.8 91.2 131.3 120.4 100.8 0.0 −16.7 66.2 108.6 95.6 138.0 180.4 164.0 −2.8 88.7 233.5 104.6 102.4 150.0 141.6 153.8 242.3

C2H6O C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C7H10O4 C6H10O5 C6H8O4 C5H8O4 C7H10O4 C10H22 C4H6O4 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H12Si C10H10O4 C7H8O2 C8H10O2 C12H22O4 C10H12 C10H12 C6H8O3 C2H6S C6H10O6 C6H10O6 C9H13N C9H13N C2H5N3O2 C10H16O2 C4H8O2 C10H16 C12H11N C13H12O C12H10ClPO3 C12H10S2 C14H14 C12H10O C14H12 C14H12 C12H12N2 C13H12 C12H10S C18H17O3PS C8H18O2 C12H18 C12H18 C6H14O3 C10H22O3 C9H20O3 C6H14O C6H14O C7H14O C8H14O4 C8H14O4 C10H18O4 C10H18O6 C10H18O6 C6H6 C10H10 C22H46 C12H26 C12H24 C12H26O C12H27N C15H34Si C18H34O2

60

100

200

400

760

−62.7 48.2 56.0 50.6 50.5 52.5 57.7 153.7 175.1 140.4 121.9 141.5 93.9 104.8 23.9 33.3 25.4 29.3 152.2 143.0 143.0 161.0 156.0 94.2 210.0 177.5 147.3 222.6 132.3 124.7 155.3 −12.0 208.8 209.5 118.1 140.3 90.3 165.6 45.1 108.3 222.8 227.5 265.0 241.3 202.8 178.8 198.6 227.4 242.5 186.3 211.8 252.5 74.2 138.7 132.3 169.9 159.8 140.3 33.0 13.7 96.0 148.1 132.6 180.3 227.0 207.3 29.5 130.0 286.0 146.2 142.3 192.0 182.1 199.5 288.0

−50.9 65.7 73.8 68.1 68.0 70.0 75.6 171.0 196.3 160.0 140.0 161.0 114.0 123.3 40.3 50.1 41.8 46.2 173.0 161.5 161.5 181.5 176.2 114.2 232.7 198.0 167.8 245.0 153.2 145.6 175.8 +2.6 230.5 232.3 138.3 161.6 110.0 186.2 62.3 128.2 247.5 250.0 299.5 262.6 227.8 203.3 222.8 251.7 267.2 210.7 236.8 270.3 103.8 159.8 153.7 189.9 180.0 160.0 50.3 30.0 111.2 168.0 151.2 202.5 250.1 228.2 46.0 151.4 314.2 167.2 162.2 213.0 203.0 222.0 312.4

−37.8 85.6 94.1 88.2 87.9 90.4 96.0 189.8 219.5 182.2 159.8 183.5 136.0 143.3 59.2 69.4 60.6 65.5 196.0 184.2 184.2 203.6 197.8 136.4 257.8 221.0 192.0 269.6 177.5 168.7 197.5 18.7 255.0 257.4 161.5 185.4 131.3 209.5 81.8 150.5 274.1 275.6 337.2 285.8 255.0 230.7 249.8 278.3 294.0 237.5 263.9 290.0 140.0 184.3 177.6 210.5 203.8 183.1 69.5 48.2 127.3 190.3 171.8 226.5 275.6 251.8 64.4 175.2 343.5 191.0 185.5 235.7 225.0 248.0 337.0

−23.7 106.8 115.6 109.4 109.1 112.0 117.7 208.0 242.6 205.0 180.7 206.0 159.7 163.3 79.2 89.8 80.5 86.1 218.0 211.5 211.5 225.2 219.5 159.3 283.7 245.0 215.0 293.5 202.0 193.0 219.5 36.0 280.0 282.0 184.8 209.5 153.0 232.0 101.1 174.6 302.0 301.0 378.0 310.0 284.0 258.5 277.0 306.5 322.2 264.5 292.5 310.0 180.0 209.0 202.0 231.8 227.0 205.6 89.5 67.5 143.7 213.5 193.5 250.8 303.0 275.0 84.0 199.5 376.0 216.2 208.0 259.0 248.0 273.0 362.0

Temperature, °C

Formula

Dimethyl ether 2,2-Dimethylhexane 2,3-Dimethylhexane 2,4-Dimethylhexane 2,5-Dimethylhexane 3,3-Dimethylhexane 3,4-Dimethylhexane Dimethyl itaconate 1-Dimethyl malate Dimethyl maleate malonate trans-Dimethyl mesaconate 2,7-Dimethyloctane Dimethyl oxalate 2,2-Dimethylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,4-Dimethylpentane 3,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3-Dimethylphenol (2,3-xylenol) 2,4-Dimethylphenol (2,4-xylenol) 2,5-Dimethylphenol (2,5-xylenol) 3,4-Dimethylphenol (3,4-xylenol) 3,5-Dimethylphenol (3,5-xylenol) Dimethylphenylsilane Dimethyl phthalate 3,5-Dimethyl-1,2-pyrone 4,6-Dimethylresorcinol Dimethyl sebacate 2,4-Dimethylstyrene 2,5-Dimethylstyrene α,α-Dimethylsuccinic anhydride Dimethyl sulfide d-Dimethyl tartrate dl-Dimethyl tartrate N,N-Dimethyl-2-toluidine N,N-Dimethyl-4-toluidine Di(nitrosomethyl) amine Diosphenol 1,4-Dioxane Dipentene Diphenylamine Diphenyl carbinol (benzhydrol) chlorophosphate disulfide 1,2-Diphenylethane (dibenzyl) Diphenyl ether 1,1-Diphenylethylene trans-Diphenylethylene 1,1-Diphenylhydrazine Diphenylmethane Diphenyl sulfide Diphenyl-2-tolyl thiophosphate 1,2-Dipropoxyethane 1,2-Diisopropylbenzene 1,3-Diisopropylbenzene Dipropylene glycol Dipropyleneglycol monobutyl ether isopropyl ether Di-n-propyl ether Diisopropyl ether Di-n-propyl ketone (4-heptanone) Di-n-propyl oxalate Diisopropyl oxalate Di-n-propyl succinate Di-n-propyl d-tartrate Diisopropyl d-tartrate Divinyl acetylene (1,5-hexadiene-3-yne) 1,3-Divinylbenzene Docosane n-Dodecane 1-Dodecene n-Dodecyl alcohol Dodecylamine Dodecyltrimethylsilane Elaidic acid

40 −76.2 28.2 35.6 30.5 30.4 31.7 37.1 133.7 150.1 117.2 100.0 118.0 71.2 83.6 +5.0 13.9 +6.5 +9.9 129.2 121.5 121.5 138.0 133.3 71.4 182.8 152.7 122.5 196.0 107.7 100.2 132.3 −28.4 182.4 182.4 95.0 116.3 68.2 141.2 25.2 84.3 194.3 200.0 227.9 214.8 173.7 150.0 170.8 199.0 213.5 157.8 182.8 230.6 42.3 114.0 107.9 147.4 136.3 117.0 +13.2 −4.5 78.1 124.6 110.5 154.8 199.7 181.8 +10.0 105.5 254.5 121.7 118.6 167.2 157.4 172.1 260.8

−70.4 36.7 44.2 39.0 38.9 40.4 45.8 142.6 160.4 127.1 109.7 127.8 80.8 92.8 13.0 22.1 14.5 18.1 139.5 131.0 131.0 148.0 143.5 81.3 194.0 163.8 133.2 208.0 118.0 110.7 142.4 −21.4 193.8 193.8 105.2 126.4 77.7 151.3 33.8 94.6 206.9 212.0 244.2 226.2 186.0 162.0 183.4 211.5 225.9 170.2 194.8 240.4 55.8 124.3 118.2 156.5 146.3 126.8 21.6 +3.4 85.8 134.8 120.0 166.0 211.7 192.6 18.1 116.0 268.3 132.1 128.5 177.8 168.0 184.2 273.0

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

Melting point, °C −138.5

−90.7 38 −62 −52.8 −123.7 −135 −119.5 −135.0 75 25.5 74.5 62.5 68 51.5 38

−83.2 61.5 89 −61

10 52.9 68.5 61 51.5 27 124 44 26.5

−105

−122 −60 −32.6

−66.9 44.5 −9.6 −31.5 24 51.5

2-68

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-8

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound

1

5

10

20

−16.5 −69.0 206.7 52.6 −159.5 36.3 −50.9 167.0 −43.4 28.5 −92.5 −29.5 47.0 −29.0 −31.3 −82.3 52.0 38.5 29.7 33.7 33.5 −9.8 44.0 107.6 −74.3 10.6 −18.4 −24.3 118.2 11.0 107.8 133.2 −89.8 +1.0 −5.1 +6.6 87.6 28.3 31.5 67.8 −14.5 −32.2 9.6 76.0 98.3 −168.3 112.0 −4.0 −11.0 −27.0 −44.5 53.0 −33.5

+5.6 −50.0 239.7 80.0 −148.5 63.1 −31.0 198.2 −23.5 54.0 −76.7 −8.7 70.7 −6.4 −12.0 −66.4 80.0 66.4 55.9 60.3 60.2 +13.9 72.0 136.4 −56.4 35.8 +4.0 −2.4 149.8 35.8 65.8 131.8 168.2 −73.9 25.4 +18.0 30.2 108.5 55.5 58.4 93.5 +9.2 −10.8 34.0 106.3 130.2 −158.3 142.4 +19.0 +10.5 +4.7 −24.0 79.7 −10.2

16.6 −40.3 254.5 93.7 −142.9 76.2 −20.7 213.5 −13.5 67.3 −68.7 +2.0 82.0 +5.0 −2.3 −58.3 93.8 80.6 69.0 73.9 73.9 25.9 86.0 150.3 −47.5 48.0 15.3 +8.4 165.0 48.0 77.8 143.7 186.0 −65.8 37.5 29.9 41.9 134.0 68.8 72.0 106.0 20.6 −0.1 46.3 121.7 146.0 −153.2 158.0 30.3 21.5 18.6 −13.6 92.1 +1.6

29.0 −29.5 270.6 108.4 −136.7 91.0 −9.8 230.0 −3.0 81.1 −59.9 13.0 94.4 17.7 +8.0 −48.6 109.0 96.0 83.1 88.5 88.5 38.6 101.4 166.8 −37.8 61.8 27.8 20.6 181.8 61.7 91.0 155.5 205.5 −56.8 50.4 42.0 54.3 150.3 83.6 86.7 119.8 33.4 +11.7 59.5 137.7 162.8 −147.6 173.5 42.5 33.0 32.7 −2.4 105.8 14.7

42.0 −17.3 289.1 124.6 −129.8 107.2 +3.7 247.0 +9.1 96.2 −50.0 26.0 108.1 31.8 19.0 −39.8 125.7 113.2 98.8 104.8 104.7 52.8 118.2 181.8 −26.7 77.0 41.5 33.8 199.8 76.3 105.6 168.8 226.5 −47.0 65.2 56.0 68.2 169.2 99.9 103.3 133.8 47.6 25.0 74.0 154.4 182.0 −141.3 191.0 56.0 45.8 48.0 +10.0 120.0 29.7

50.6 −9.7 300.2 135.2 −125.4 127.5 11.5 258.3 16.6 106.0 −43.4 33.5 116.7 40.6 26.0 −33.4 136.0 123.6 109.0 115.5 115.4 61.8 129.0 191.9 −19.5 86.7 50.1 42.3 211.5 85.8 114.8 177.3 239.8 −40.6 74.0 65.2 77.3 181.2 110.2 113.8 142.1 56.7 33.4 83.6 166.0 193.7 −137.3 201.8 64.1 53.8 57.9 18.1 129.5 39.0

62.0 +1.2 314.4 148.5 −119.3 131.4 22.1 273.5 27.0 118.5 −34.9 44.5 127.5 53.0 34.9 −25.1 149.8 137.3 122.3 129.2 128.4 74.1 143.2 205.0 −10.0 99.8 62.0 53.5 226.6 98.4 126.2 187.9 256.8 −32.0 86.0 76.6 89.3 196.0 124.3 127.2 152.8 69.0 45.0 96.1 180.3 209.8 −131.8 215.0 75.0 62.5 70.4 29.4 141.8 51.8

C4H10O2

−48.0

−26.2

−15.3

−3.0

+10.7

19.7

31.8

50.0

70.8

93.0

C3H8O2

−13.5

+10.2

22.0

34.3

47.8

56.4

68.0

85.3

104.3

124.4

−89.7 40.5 −117.0 −60.5 37.6 14.3 −20.0 50.0 −60.7 −112.5 −54.4 27.8 47.3 −76.7 26.5 −91.0

−73.8 67.3 −103.8 −42.2 63.8 38.8 +2.1 77.7 −41.9 −98.4 −34.3 57.3 74.0 −59.1 51.0 −75.6

−65.7 80.2 −97.7 −33.0 77.1 50.5 12.8 91.8 −32.3 −91.7 −24.3 72.1 87.3 −50.2 63.2 −67.8

−56.6 94.6 −90.0 −22.7 91.5 63.9 25.0 106.3 −21.9 −84.1 −13.1 88.0 101.8 −40.7 76.1 −59.1

−46.9 110.3 −81.8 −11.5 107.5 78.1 38.5 123.7 −10.2 −75.8 −0.9 106.0 117.7 −29.8 91.0 −49.4

−40.7 120.6 −76.4 −4.3 117.5 87.6 47.1 134.0 −2.9 −70.4 +7.2 117.8 127.6 −22.4 100.0 −43.3

−32.1 133.8 −69.3 −5.4 130.4 99.8 58.9 147.9 +7.2 −63.2 18.0 131.8 141.3 −13.0 112.0 −34.8

−19.5 153.2 −58.0 20.0 150.1 117.8 76.7 168.2 22.4 −52.0 34.1 149.8 160.2 +1.5 130.0 −22.0

−4.9 175.6 −45.5 37.1 172.5 138.0 97.0 192.2 39.8 −39.5 52.3 167.3 183.0 17.7 149.8 −7.8

+10.7 198.0 −32.0 54.3 195.0 158.2 118.5 216.0 57.4 −26.5 72.4 184.0 206.2 35.0 170.0 +7.5

Name

Formula

Epichlorohydrin 1,2-Epoxy-2-methylpropane Erucic acid Estragole (p-methoxy allyl benzene) Ethane Ethoxydimethylphenylsilane Ethoxytrimethylsilane Ethoxytriphenylsilane Ethyl acetate acetoacetate Ethylacetylene (1-butyne) Ethyl acrylate α-Ethylacrylic acid α-Ethylacrylonitrile Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Ethylamine 4-Ethylaniline N-Ethylaniline 2-Ethylanisole 3-Ethylanisole 4-Ethylanisole Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate benzoylacetate bromide α-bromoisobutyrate n-butyrate isobutyrate Ethylcamphoronic anhydride Ethyl isocaproate carbamate carbanilate Ethylcetylamine Ethyl chloride chloroacetate chloroglyoxylate α-chloropropionate trans-cinnamate 3-Ethylcumene 4-Ethylcumene Ethyl cyanoacetate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethyl dichloroacetate N,N-diethyloxamate N-Ethyldiphenylamine Ethylene Ethylene-bis-(chloroacetate) Ethylene chlorohydrin (2-chloroethanol) diamine (1,2-ethanediamine) dibromide (1,2-dibromethane) dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane) glycol (1,2-ethanediol) glycol diethyl ether (1,2-diethoxyethane) glycol dimethyl ether (1,2-dimethoxyethane) glycol monomethyl ether (2-methoxyethanol) oxide Ethyl α-ethylacetoacetate fluoride formate 2-furoate glycolate 3-Ethylhexane 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate Ethylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethane) fluoride (1,1-difluoroethane) Ethyl iodide Ethyl l-leucinate Ethyl levulinate Ethyl mercaptan (ethanethiol) Ethyl methylcarbamate Ethyl methyl ether

C3H5ClO C4H8O C22H42O2 C10H12O C2H6 C10H16OSi C5H14OSi C20H20OSi C4H8O2 C6H10O3 C4H6 C5H8O2 C5H8O2 C5H7N C2H6O C2H7N C8H11N C8H11N C9H12O C9H12O C9H12O C8H10 C9H10O2 C11H12O3 C2H5Br C6H11BrO2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C11H16O5 C8H16O2 C3H7NO2 C9H11NO2 C18H39N C2H5Cl C4H7ClO2 C4H5ClO3 C5H9ClO2 C11H12O2 C11H16 C11H16 C5H7NO2 C8H16 C7H14 C4H6Cl2O2 C8H15NO3 C14H15N C2H4 C6H8Cl2O4 C2H5ClO C2H8N2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Cl2 C2H6O2 C6H14O2

C2H4O C8H14O3 C2H5F C3H6O2 C7H8O3 C4H8O3 C8H18 C11H20O2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4F2 C2H5I C8H17NO2 C7H12O3 C2H6S C4H9NO2 C3H8O

40

60

100

200

400

760

Temperature, °C 79.3 98.0 117.9 17.5 36.0 55.5 336.5 358.8 381.5 168.7 192.0 215.0 −110.2 −99.7 −88.6 151.5 175.0 199.5 38.1 56.3 75.7 295.0 319.5 344.0 42.0 59.3 77.1 138.0 158.2 180.8 −21.6 −6.9 +8.7 61.5 80.0 99.5 144.0 160.7 179.2 71.6 92.2 114.0 48.4 63.5 78.4 −12.3 +2.0 16.6 170.6 194.2 217.4 156.9 180.8 204.0 142.1 164.2 187.1 149.7 172.8 196.5 149.2 172.3 196.5 92.7 113.8 136.2 164.8 188.4 213.4 223.8 244.7 265.0 +4.5 21.0 38.4 119.7 141.2 163.6 79.8 100.0 121.0 71.0 90.0 110.0 248.5 272.8 298.0 117.8 139.2 160.4 144.2 164.0 184.0 203.8 220.0 237.0 283.3 313.0 342.0 −18.6 −3.9 +12.3 103.8 123.8 144.2 94.5 114.7 135.0 107.2 126.2 146.5 219.3 245.0 271.0 145.4 168.2 193.0 148.3 171.8 195.8 169.8 187.8 206.0 87.8 109.1 131.8 62.4 82.3 103.4 115.2 135.9 156.5 202.8 226.5 252.0 233.0 258.8 286.0 −123.4 −113.9 −103.7 237.3 259.5 283.5 91.8 110.0 128.8 81.0 99.0 117.2 89.8 110.1 131.5 45.7 64.0 82.4 158.5 178.5 197.3 71.8 94.1 119.5

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

Melting point, °C −25.6 33.5 −183.2

−82.4 −45 −130 −71.2 −112 −80.6 −4 −63.5

−94.9 −34.6 −117.8 −93.3 −88.2 49 52.5 −139 −26 12

−111.3 −138.6

−169 −69 8.5 10 −35.3 −15.6

−111.3 −79 34

−96.7 −117 −105 −121

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-8

2-69

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound

1

Name

5

10

20

70.0

101.4

116.8

133.8

152.0

C13H12O C9H9NO4 C7H16 C10H14O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C5H10O2 C5H12O C9H10O3 C10H12 C10H12 C3H5NS C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C4H5Cl3O2 C5H14Si C5H14Sn C7H14O2 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H12O2 C10H12O2 C12H14O3 C10H16O2 C10H16O C10H18O C13H10 C6H5F C7H7F C7H7F C7H7F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H2Cl2O2 C5H4O2 C5H6O2 C10H18O C12H20O2 C14H24O2 C14H24O2 C11H18O2 C5H8O4 C5H6O3 C5H6N2 C5H6Cl2O2 C3H8O3 C3H6Cl2O

124.0 108.1 −37.8 48.5 46.2 60.0 59.3 18.1 −28.0 −64.3 61.2 28.3 26.0 13.2 9.4 7.2 7.6 20.7 −60.6 −30.0 −6.1 25.7 26.3 22.1 78.4 86.3 101.6 101.7 28.0 45.8 −43.4 −24.2 −22.4 −21.8

155.5 140.2 −17.0 75.7 73.4 86.8 86.5 43.7 −7.2 −45.0 90.0 55.0 52.7 +10.6 34.8 32.3 32.7 45.5 −41.4 −7.6 +17.0 52.0 53.0 48.8 108.1 117.0 132.3 128.7 54.7 70.3 129.3 −22.8 −2.2 −0.3 +0.3

70.5 −20.0 +15.0 18.5 31.8 69.2 73.5 96.8 90.9 61.8 155.5 100.8 91.3 56.1 125.5 28.0

96.3 −5.0 38.5 42.6 56.0 96.8 102.7 125.2 119.6 90.3 183.8 133.3 123.7 84.0 153.8 52.2

171.0 155.0 −6.8 89.5 87.0 100.2 100.2 56.4 +3.4 −35.0 104.2 68.3 66.3 22.8 47.6 44.7 44.9 57.7 −31.8 +3.8 28.7 65.6 66.4 62.1 123.0 132.4 148.0 142.3 68.3 82.1 146.0 −12.4 +8.9 +11.0 11.8 −88.0 109.5 +2.1 51.8 54.8 68.0 110.0 117.9 139.0 133.0 104.3 196.0 149.5 140.0 97.8 167.2 64.7

188.1 173.6 +4.7 103.8 101.5 114.5 115.0 70.3 14.3 −24.0 119.3 82.8 80.8 36.1 61.2 58.2 58.5 70.6 −21.0 16.1 41.3 79.8 80.6 76.5 138.7 149.0 164.2 155.8 83.0 95.6 164.2 −1.2 21.4 23.4 24.0 −79.6 122.5 10.3 65.0 67.8 81.0 125.6 133.0 153.8 147.9 119.8 210.5 166.0 156.5 112.3 182.2 78.0

206.9 192.6 17.5 119.8 117.9 130.0 131.3 86.6 27.2 −12.0 136.7 99.2 97.3 50.8 76.4 73.3 73.6 85.5 −9.0 30.0 55.2 96.0 97.2 92.6 155.8 167.0 183.0 171.8 99.5 110.8 185.2 +11.5 34.7 37.0 37.8 −70.6 137.5 24.0 79.5 82.1 95.7 141.8 150.0 170.1 164.0 136.2 226.3 185.5 176.4 128.3 198.0 93.0

C6H10O4 C4H4O4 C7H8O2 C21H44 C27H56 C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H13ClO C7H14 C13H20 C7H13N C6Cl6 C2Cl6 C26H54 C16H34 C16H32 C16H34O

38.3

64.1 103.0 79.1 188.0 248.6 145.2 32.7 −12.7 101.3 64.3 54.6 −14.1 94.6 47.8 149.3 49.8 240.0 135.2 131.7 158.3

77.1 116.6 92.0 205.4 266.8 160.0 43.0 −2.1 113.2 74.7 64.6 −3.5 110.0 61.6 166.4 73.5 257.4 149.8 146.2 177.8

90.8 132.0 106.0 223.2 284.6 177.7 54.0 +9.5 125.6 85.8 75.0 +8.3 126.0 76.3 185.7 87.6 275.8 164.7 162.0 197.8

106.1 148.6 121.6 243.4 305.7 195.8 66.3 22.3 139.5 99.8 86.4 21.5 144.0 92.6 206.0 102.3 295.2 181.3 178.8 219.8

C12H12

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

164.1

180.0

204.6

230.8

258.1

−27

218.2 205.0 25.7 129.8 127.9 139.8 141.7 95.4 35.1 −4.0 147.6 109.6 107.6 59.8 86.0 82.9 83.2 94.4 −1.2 38.4 64.0 106.2 107.4 103.0 167.3 178.2 194.0 181.5 109.8 120.2 197.8 19.6 43.7 45.8 46.5 −65.0 147.0 32.4 89.0 91.5 104.0 151.5 160.3 180.2 174.0 147.2 235.5 196.2 189.5 139.1 208.0 102.0

233.5 220.3 36.9 143.5 141.8 152.0 154.2 108.4 45.2 +6.8 161.5 123.2 121.5 71.9 99.0 95.9 96.3 107.4 +9.2 50.0 75.9 120.0 121.2 116.5 182.2 194.0 209.7 194.0 123.6 132.3 214.7 30.4 55.3 57.5 58.1 −57.3 157.5 43.8 101.0 103.4 115.9 165.3 175.2 193.8 187.7 160.7 247.0 212.5 205.5 151.8 220.1 114.8

255.5 244.6 53.8 163.2 161.6 171.8 175.0 127.9 61.7 23.3 183.7 144.0 142.0 90.0 119.0 115.5 116.1 125.8 25.0 67.3 93.8 140.2 141.8 137.4 204.7 217.2 232.5 215.0 144.0 150.0 240.3 47.2 73.0 75.4 76.0 −46.0 175.5 61.4 120.0 121.8 133.1 185.6 196.3 214.0 207.6 182.6 265.0 236.5 230.0 172.4 240.0 133.3

280.2 270.6 73.0 185.7 184.5 193.3 197.4 149.8 79.8 41.6 207.0 167.2 165.0 110.1 141.4 137.8 136.4 146.0 42.8 87.6 114.0 163.1 164.4 159.6 228.3 242.3 257.4 237.8 166.8 173.2 268.6 65.7 92.8 95.4 96.1 −33.0 193.5 80.3 140.0 141.8 151.8 207.8 219.8 235.0 228.5 205.8 283.5 261.0 257.3 195.3 263.0 153.5

306.0 298.0 93.5 208.0 207.5 214.0 219.0 172.0 99.1 61.7 231.5 191.5 189.0 131.0 165.1 161.3 162.0 167.0 62.0 108.8 134.3 186.9 188.4 183.7 253.5 267.5 282.0 264.1 191.0 201.0 295.0 84.7 114.0 116.0 117.0 −19.5 210.5 100.6 160.0 161.8 170.0 230.0 243.3 257.4 251.0 230.0 303.0 287.0 286.2 217.0 290.0 174.3

115.8 158.2 131.0 255.3 318.3 207.3 74.0 30.6 148.5 108.0 93.5 30.0 154.8 103.0 219.0 112.0 307.8 193.2 190.8 234.3

128.0 173.2 144.0 272.0 333.5 223.0 84.0 41.8 160.0 119.5 102.7 41.3 170.2 116.8 235.5 124.2 323.2 208.5 205.3 251.7

147.8 194.0 162.7 296.5 359.4 247.8 102.0 58.7 179.5 136.6 116.3 58.6 193.3 137.7 258.5 143.1 348.4 231.7 226.8 280.2

168.3 217.0 184.1 323.8 385.0 274.5 125.5 78.0 199.6 155.6 130.7 78.1 217.8 160.0 283.5 163.8 374.6 258.3 250.0 312.7

190.5 240.0 205.0 350.5 410.6 303.0 155.0 98.4 221.5 175.8 145.0 98.5 244.0 184.6 309.4 185.6 399.8 287.5 274.0 344.0

60

Temperature, °C

Formula

1-Ethylnaphthalene Ethyl α-naphthyl ketone (1-propionaphthone) Ethyl 3-nitrobenzoate 3-Ethylpentane 4-Ethylphenetole 2-Ethylphenol 3-Ethylphenol 4-Ethylphenol Ethyl phenyl ether (phenetole) Ethyl propionate Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl salicylate 3-Ethylstyrene 4-Ethylstyrene Ethylisothiocyanate 2-Ethyltoluene 3-Ethyltoluene 4-Ethyltoluene Ethyl trichloroacetate Ethyltrimethylsilane Ethyltrimethyltin Ethyl isovalerate 2-Ethyl-1,4-xylene 4-Ethyl-1,3-xylene 5-Ethyl-1,3-xylene Eugenol iso-Eugenol Eugenyl acetate Fencholic acid d-Fenchone dl-Fenchyl alcohol Fluorene Fluorobenzene 2-Fluorotoluene 3-Fluorotoluene 4-Fluorotoluene Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid trans-Fumaryl chloride Furfural (2-furaldehyde) Furfuryl alcohol Geraniol Geranyl acetate Geranyl n-butyrate Geranyl isobutyrate Geranyl formate Glutaric acid Glutaric anhydride Glutaronitrile Glutaryl chloride Glycerol Glycerol dichlorohydrin (1,3-dichloro-2-propanol) Glycol diacetate Glycolide (1,4-dioxane-2,6-dione) Guaicol (2-methoxyphenol) Heneicosane Heptacosane Heptadecane Heptaldehyde (enanthaldehyde) n-Heptane Heptanoic acid (enanthic acid) 1-Heptanol Heptanoyl chloride (enanthyl chloride) 2-Heptene Heptylbenzene Heptyl cyanide (enanthonitrile) Hexachlorobenzene Hexachloroethane Hexacosane Hexadecane 1-Hexadecene n-Hexadecyl alcohol (cetyl alcohol)

40

52.4 152.6 211.7 115.0 12.0 −34.0 78.0 42.4 34.2 −35.8 64.0 21.0 114.4 32.7 204.0 105.3 101.6 122.7

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47 −118.6 −45 −4 46.5 −30.2 −72.6 1.3 −5.9 −95.5

−99.3

−10 295 19 5 35 113 −42.1 −80 −110.8 −92 8.2

97.5

17.9 −31 97 28.3 40.4 59.5 22.5 −42 −90.6 −10 34.6

230 186.6 56.6 18.5 4 49.3

2-70

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-8

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name

Formula

n-Hexadecylamine (cetylamine) Hexaethylbenzene n-Hexane 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 3-Hexanol 1-Hexene n-Hexyl levulinate n-Hexyl phenyl ketone (enanthophenone) Hydrocinnamic acid Hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid) Hydroquinone 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde α-Hydroxyisobutyric acid α-Hydroxybutyronitrile 4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone 3-Hydroxypropionitrile Indene Iodobenzene Iodononane 2-Iodotoluene α-Ionone Isoprene Lauraldehyde Lauric acid Levulinaldehyde Levulinic acid d-Limonene Linalyl acetate Maleic anhydride Menthane 1-Menthol Menthyl acetate benzoate formate Mesityl oxide Methacrylic acid Methacrylonitrile Methane Methanethiol Methoxyacetic acid N-Methylacetanilide Methyl acetate acetylene (propyne) acrylate alcohol (methanol) Methylamine N-Methylaniline Methyl anthranilate benzoate 2-Methylbenzothiazole α-Methylbenzyl alcohol Methyl bromide 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene Methyl isobutyl carbinol (2-methyl4-pentanol) n-butyl ketone (2-hexanone) isobutyl ketone (4-methyl-2-pentanone) n-butyrate isobutyrate caprate caproate caprylate chloride chloroacetate cinnamate α-Methylcinnamic acid Methylcyclohexane Methylcyclopentane Methylcyclopropane Methyl n-decyl ketone (n-dodecan-2-one) dichloroacetate N-Methyldiphenylamine

C16H35N C18H30 C6H14 C6H14O C6H14O C6H14O C6H12 C11H20O3 C13H18O C9H10O2 CHN C6H6O2 C7H6O2 C4H8O3 C5H9NO C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C3H5NO C9H8 C6H5I C9H19I C7H7I C13H20O C5H8 C12H24O C12H24O2 C5H8O2 C5H8O3 C10H16 C12H20O2 C4H2O3 C10H20 C10H20O C12H22O2 C17H24O2 C11H20O2 C6H10O C4H6O2 C4H5N CH4 CH4S C3H6O3 C9H11NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH4O CH5N C7H9N C8H9NO2 C8H8O2 C8H7NS C8H10O CH3Br C5H10 C5H10 C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C11H22O2 C7H14O2 C9H18O2 CH3Cl C3H5ClO2 C10H10O2 C10H10O2 C7H14 C6H12 C4H8 C12H24O C3H4Cl2O2 C13H13N

1

5

10

20

40

60

100

123.6

157.8 134.3 −34.5 47.2 34.8 25.7 −38.0 120.0 130.3 133.5 −55.3 153.3 153.2 98.5 65.8 69.3 46.7 87.8 44.3 50.6 96.2 65.9 108.8 −62.3 108.4 150.6 54.9 128.1 40.4 82.5 63.4 35.7 83.2 85.8 154.2 75.8 +14.1 48.5 −23.3 −199.0 −75.3 79.3 103.8 −38.6 −97.5 −23.6 −25.3 −81.3 62.8 109.0 64.4 97.5 75.2 −80.6 −72.8 −57.0

176.0 150.3 −25.0 58.2 45.0 36.7 −28.1 134.7 145.5 148.7 −47.7 163.5 169.7 110.5 77.8 81.0 58.8 102.0 58.5 64.0 109.0 79.8 123.0 −53.3 123.7 166.0 68.0 141.8 53.8 96.0 78.7 48.3 96.0 100.0 170.0 90.0 26.0 60.0 −12.5 −195.5 −67.5 92.0 118.6 −29.3 −90.5 −13.5 −16.2 −73.8 76.2 124.2 77.3 111.2 88.0 −72.8 −64.3 −47.9

195.7 168.0 −14.1 70.3 55.9 49.0 −17.2 150.2 161.0 165.0 −39.7 174.6 186.8 123.8 90.7 94.0 72.0 117.9 73.9 78.3 123.0 95.6 139.0 −43.5 140.2 183.6 82.7 154.1 68.2 111.4 95.0 62.7 110.3 115.4 186.3 105.8 37.9 72.7 −0.6 −191.8 −58.8 106.5 135.1 −19.1 −82.9 −2.7 −6.0 −65.9 90.5 141.5 91.8 125.5 102.1 −64.0 −54.8 −37.9

215.7 187.7 −2.3 83.7 67.9 62.2 −5.0 167.8 178.9 183.3 −30.9 192.0 206.0 138.0 104.8 108.2 86.7 134.1 90.7 94.4 138.1 112.4 155.6 −32.6 157.8 201.4 98.3 169.5 84.3 127.7 111.8 78.3 126.1 132.1 204.3 123.0 51.7 86.4 +12.8 −187.7 −49.2 122.0 152.2 −7.9 −74.3 +9.2 +5.0 −56.9 106.0 159.7 107.8 141.2 117.8 −54.2 −44.1 −26.7

228.8 199.7 +5.4 92.0 76.0 70.7 +2.8 179.0 189.8 194.0 −25.1 203.0 217.5 146.4 113.9 117.4 96.0 144.7 100.8 105.0 147.7 123.8 166.3 −25.4 168.7 212.7 108.4 178.0 94.6 138.1 122.0 88.6 136.1 143.2 215.8 133.8 60.4 95.3 21.5 −185.1 −43.1 131.8 164.2 −0.5 −68.8 17.3 12.1 −51.3 115.8 172.0 117.4 150.4 127.4 −48.0 −37.3 −19.4

245.8 216.0 15.8 102.8 87.3 81.8 13.0 193.6 204.2 209.0 −17.8 216.5 233.5 157.7 125.0 129.0 108.2 157.7 114.7 118.3 159.8 138.1 181.2 −16.0 184.5 227.5 121.8 190.2 108.3 151.8 135.8 102.1 149.4 156.7 230.4 148.0 72.1 106.6 32.8 −181.4 −34.8 144.5 179.8 +9.4 −61.3 28.0 21.2 −43.7 129.8 187.8 130.8 163.9 140.3 −39.4 −28.0 −9.9

+22.1 28.8 +19.7 −5.5 −13.0 93.5 30.0 61.7 −99.5 19.0 108.1 155.0 −14.0 −33.8 −80.6 106.0 26.7 134.0

33.3 38.8 30.0 +5.0 −2.9 108.0 42.0 74.9 −92.4 30.0 123.0 169.8 −3.2 −23.7 −72.8 120.4 38.1 149.7

45.4 50.0 40.8 16.7 +8.4 123.0 55.4 89.0 −84.8 41.5 140.0 185.2 +8.7 −12.8 −64.0 136.0 50.7 165.8

58.2 62.0 52.8 29.6 21.0 139.0 70.0 105.3 −76.0 54.5 157.9 201.8 22.0 −0.6 −54.2 152.4 64.7 184.0

67.0 69.8 60.4 37.4 28.9 148.6 79.7 115.3 −70.4 63.0 170.0 212.0 30.5 +7.2 −48.0 163.8 73.6 195.4

78.0 79.8 70.4 48.0 39.6 161.5 91.4 128.0 −63.0 73.5 185.8 224.8 42.1 17.9 −39.3 177.5 85.4 210.1

200

400

760

Temperature, °C

−53.9 24.4 14.6 +2.5 −57.5 90.0 100.0 102.2 −71.0 132.4 121.2 73.5 41.0 44.6 22.0 58.7 16.4 24.1 70.0 37.2 79.5 −79.8 77.7 121.0 28.1 102.0 14.0 55.4 44.0 +9.7 56.0 57.4 123.2 47.3 −8.7 25.5 −44.5 −205.9 −90.7 52.5 −57.2 −111.0 −43.7 −44.0 −95.8 36.0 77.6 39.0 70.0 49.0 −96.3 −89.1 −75.4 −0.3 +7.7 −1.4 −26.8 −34.1 63.7 +5.0 34.2 −2.9 77.4 125.7 −35.9 −53.7 −96.0 77.1 3.2 103.5

272.2 300.4 330.0 241.7 268.5 298.3 31.6 49.6 68.7 119.6 138.0 157.0 103.7 121.8 139.9 98.3 117.0 135.5 29.0 46.8 66.0 215.7 241.0 266.8 225.0 248.3 271.3 230.8 255.0 279.8 −5.3 +10.2 25.9 238.0 262.5 286.2 256.8 282.6 310.0 175.2 193.8 212.0 142.0 159.8 178.8 146.5 165.5 185.0 126.8 147.5 167.9 178.0 200.0 221.0 135.6 157.8 181.6 139.8 163.9 188.6 179.0 199.3 219.5 160.0 185.7 211.0 202.5 225.2 250.0 −1.2 +15.4 32.6 207.8 231.8 257.0 249.8 273.8 299.2 142.0 164.0 187.0 208.3 227.4 245.8 128.5 151.4 175.0 173.3 196.2 220.0 155.9 179.5 202.0 122.7 146.0 169.5 168.3 190.2 212.0 178.8 202.8 227.0 253.2 277.1 301.0 169.8 194.2 219.0 90.0 109.8 130.0 123.9 142.5 161.0 50.0 70.3 90.3 −175.5 −168.8 −161.5 −22.1 −7.9 +6.8 163.5 184.2 204.0 202.3 227.4 253.0 24.0 40.0 57.8 −49.8 −37.2 −23.3 43.9 61.8 80.2 34.8 49.9 64.7 −32.4 −19.7 −6.3 149.3 172.0 195.5 212.4 238.5 266.5 151.4 174.7 199.5 183.2 204.5 225.5 159.0 180.7 204.0 −26.5 −11.9 +3.6 −13.8 +2.5 20.2 +4.9 21.6 38.5 94.9 94.3 85.6 64.3 55.7 181.6 109.8 148.1 −51.2 90.5 209.6 245.0 59.6 34.0 −26.0 199.0 103.2 232.8

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

113.5 111.0 102.0 83.1 73.6 202.9 129.8 170.0 −38.0 109.5 235.0 266.8 79.6 52.3 −11.3 222.5 122.6 257.0

131.7 127.5 119.0 102.3 92.6 224.0 150 193.0 −24.0 130.3 263.0 288.0 100.9 71.8 +4.5 246.5 143.0 282.0

Melting point, °C 130 −95.3 −51.6 −98.5 48.5 −13.2 170.3 115.5 79 −47 −2 −28.5

−146.7 44.5 48 33.5 −96.9 58 42.5 54.5 −59 15 −182.5 −121 102 −98.7 −102.7 −97.8 −93.5 −57 24 −12.5 15.4 −93 −135 −133 −56.9 −84.7 −84.7 −18 −40 −97.7 −31.9 33.4 −126.4 −142.4

−7.6

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-8

2-71

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm* (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound

1

5

10

20

40

130.0 −13.2 −52.1 −28.0 −1.8 −1.4 −137.0 −57.0 125.4 33.7 152.0 +1.3 +2.6 +1.5 +6.7 65.0 66.0 −19.5 −18.1 −55.0 117.9 66.4 −10.0 145.7 146.3 152.3 95.5 166.8 161.6 −41.7 −39.8 38.0 +16.8 43.6 30.0 −96.5 −21.5 89.3 38.4 −54.3 +8.0 −1.0 104.0 81.6 34.0 42.0

145.5 −2.4 −43.3 −17.7 +9.5 +9.9 −131.6 −48.6 141.8 45.3 168.7 12.3 13.3 12.4 17.8 76.7 77.8 −9.1 −7.8 −45.8 133.2 79.7 +1.0 160.8 161.5 168.5 108.9 184.3 178.0 −32.1 −30.1 49.6 27.6 55.5 42.2 −81.9 −11.8 103.8 50.6 −45.4 17.9 +8.3 119.0 95.3 47.1 55.1

161.3 +9.7 −33.4 −6.5 21.7 22.3 −125.9 −39.2 157.7 58.1 186.0 24.4 25.4 24.5 30.4 89.3 90.4 +2.3 +3.6 −35.6 149.0 93.7 11.0 177.8 178.4 185.7 123.1 202.0 196.4 −21.4 −19.4 61.6 38.8 67.7 55.8 −73.4 −1.0 120.2 64.1 −35.4 28.5 18.3 134.0 110.0 61.8 69.2

179.8 23.3 −22.3 +6.0 35.2 36.2 −119.1 −28.7 177.5 72.3 204.8 37.9 38.9 38.0 44.0 102.7 104.0 14.9 16.4 −24.2 166.0 109.5 25.5 195.8 196.8 203.8 139.0

151.5 +9.8 −8.3 117.0 +2.9 −77.7 40.0 132.0 174.1 74.2 184.0 189.7 125.5 128.6 137.7 141.6 91.8 135.7 151.5 177.6 117.7 127.4 71.6 +1.5 167 −7.9 76.8 128.0

167.3 21.6 +5.4 131.8 14.0 −70.0 53.2 148.3 190.8 85.8 196.8 202.8 142.0 145.5 153.8 157.6 107.2 150.4 167.8 194.4 133.4 142.8 84.9 12.5 188 +2.8 90.4 142.0

184.6 34.5 20.4 147.8 26.4 −61.3 67.0 166.2 207.6 101.7 211.2 216.9 158.0 161.8 171.6 175.8 123.7 167.7 185.5 213.2 150.0 159.0 99.3 24.8 210 14.1 105.8 155.8

60

100

200

400

760

191.4 31.6 −15.7 14.0 43.9 45.0 −115.0 −21.9 189.9 81.8 216.3 46.6 47.6 46.6 52.8 111.5 112.8 23.0 24.5 −16.9 176.8 119.3 34.5 207.5 208.6 214.7 148.6

206.0 42.3 −6.3 25.0 55.7 57.1 −109.0 −12.9 205.0 93.7 231.5 58.3 59.4 58.3 64.6 122.6 123.8 34.1 35.6 −7.0 190.8 133.0 47.0 222.6 223.8 229.8 161.0

228.2 58.5 +8.0 41.6 73.6 75.3 −99.9 +0.8 229.1 111.8 254.5 76.0 77.1 76.1 82.3 139.5 140.0 50.8 52.4 +8.0

253.3 79.0 24.1 60.0 94.0 96.2 −89.5 16.0 255.5 131.7 279.8 96.2 97.4 96.3 102.2 156.6 156.6 69.8 71.6 25.3

278.0 98.6 40.7 79.6 115.6 118.3 −78.2 32.0 282.5 151.5 306.5 117.6 118.9 117.7 122.5 175.5 174.3 90.0 91.9 42.4

153.4 63.0 245.3 246.7 251.6 181.2

175.8 82.0 269.8 270.5 275.8 202.3

197.7 101.0 295.8 295.5 301.0 224.0

214.3 −9.7 −7.3 74.7 51.3 81.2 70.7 −63.8 +11.0 138.0 79.4 −24.3 39.8 29.6 150.8 126.2 77.8 85.0

226.7 −1.9 +0.1 83.4 58.8 89.8 80.1 −57.7 18.7 149.3 88.8 −17.4 47.3 36.2 161.7 136.7 88.3 95.0

242.0 +8.1 10.5 94.2 69.2 100.0 93.0 −49.3 29.0 164.2 101.6 −8.1 56.8 45.5 176.2 150.0 102.2 108.6

265.8 24.1 26.5 111.3 85.0 116.1 112.3 −36.7 44.2 187.4 120.5 +6.0 71.0 59.0 197.8 172.6 121.8 128.7

291.7 41.6 44.2 129.8 102.6 133.2 133.8 −22.2 61.8 212.7 141.7 22.5 86.8 73.8 211.7 197.5 143.0 151.2

319.5 60.3 63.3 147.9 121.2 150.2 155.5 −6.9 79.8 238.5 163.0 39.1 103.3 88.9 246.5 223.2 165.4 175.0

203.7 49.0 38.2 165.7 39.8 −51.7 82.6 186.0 223.5 119.3 225.0 231.5 177.8 181.7 191.5 195.7 142.1 186.0 204.2 234.2 168.8 177.7 115.4 38.0 235 27.5 122.1 172.8

215.0 58.1 47.5 176.6 48.2 −45.3 92.6 198.3 237.2 130.2 234.5 241.3 190.0 193.7 203.8 208.1 154.7 197.8 216.5 245.9 180.7 189.5 125.8 46.5 251 35.5 132.6 181.7

230.5 70.4 59.3 191.5 59.8 −37.1 106.0 214.5 250.5 145.5 245.8 252.7 206.0 209.8 220.0 224.3 169.5 213.0 232.1 261.8 196.2 204.3 139.9 57.8

254.4 89.8 77.5 214.0 77.3 −24.1 126.0 240.4 272.3 167.7 263.5 270.3 229.6 234.0 244.9 249.7 193.8 236.3 255.3 284.5 220.0 227.4 161.2 74.8

279.8 110.8 97.8 238.3 96.7 −10.1 148.3 267.9 294.6 193.2 281.4 289.5 255.8 260.6 272.2 277.4 219.8 260.0 280.2 310.2 246.8 252.1 185.8 94.0

307.0 132.9 119.0 262.5 116.7 +5.3 171.5 297.8 318.0 217.9 300.0 308.5 282.5 288.0 300.8 306.1 247.3 284.5 305.7 336.0 273.5 278.3 210.6 114.0

46.6 146.4 194.1

63.5 167.6 213.0

82.0 191.0 233.5

101.2 214.5 253.0

Temperature, °C

Name

Formula

Methyl n-dodecyl ketone (2-tetradecanone) Methylene bromide (dibromomethane) chloride (dichloromethane) Methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) 2-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 3-Methyl-3-ethylpentane Methyl fluoride formate α-Methylglutaric anhydride Methyl glycolate 2-Methylheptadecane 2-Methylheptane 3-Methylheptane 4-Methylheptane 2-Methyl-2-heptene 6-Methyl-3-hepten-2-ol 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-ol 2-Methylhexane 3-Methylhexane Methyl iodide laurate levulinate methacrylate myristate α-naphthyl ketone (1-acetonaphthone) β-naphthyl ketone (2-acetonaphthone) n-nonyl ketone (undecan-2-one) palmitate n-pentadecyl ketone (2-heptdecanone) 2-Methylpentane 3-Methylpentane 2-Methyl-1-pentanol 2-Methyl-2-pentanol Methyl n-pentyl ketone (2-heptanone) phenyl ether (anisole) 2-Methylpropene Methyl propionate 4-Methylpropiophenone 2-Methylpropionyl bromide Methyl propyl ether n-propyl ketone (2-pentanone) isopropyl ketone (3-Methyl-2-butanone) 2-Methylquinoline Methyl salicylate α-Methyl styrene 4-Methyl styrene Methyl n-tetradecyl ketone (2-hexadecanone) thiocyanate isothiocyanate undecyl ketone (2-tridecanone) isovalerate Monovinylacetylene (butenyne) Myrcene Myristaldehyde Myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid) Naphthalene 1-Naphthoic acid 2-Naphthoic acid 1-Naphthol 2-Naphthol 1-Naphthylamine 2-Naphthylamine Nicotine 2-Nitroaniline 3-Nitroaniline 4-Nitroaniline 2-Nitrobenzaldehyde 3-Nitrobenzaldehyde Nitrobenzene Nitroethane Nitroglycerin Nitromethane 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitrophenyl acetate

C14H28O CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 C4H8O C8H18 C8H18 CH3F C2H4O2 C6H8O3 C3H6O3 C18H38 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H16 C8H16O C8H16O C7H16 C7H16 CH3I C13H26O2 C6H10O3 C5H8O2 C15H30O2 C12H10O C12H10O C11H22O C17H34O2 C17H34O C6H14 C6H14 C6H14O C6H14O C7H14O C7H8O C4H8 C4H8O2 C10H12O C4H7BrO C4H10O C5H10O C5H10O C10H9N C8H8O3 C9H10 C9H10

99.3 −35.1 −70.0 −48.3 −24.0 −23.9 −147.3 −74.2 93.8 +9.6 119.8 −21.0 −19.8 −20.4 −16.1 41.6 41.9 −40.4 −39.0

C16H32O C2H3NS C2H3NS C13H26O C6H12O2 C4H4 C10H16 C14H28O C14H28O2 C10H8 C11H8O2 C11H8O2 C10H8O C10H8O C10H9N C10H9N C10H14N2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C7H5NO3 C7H5NO3 C6H5NO2 C2H5NO2 C3H5N3O9 CH3NO2 C6H5NO3 C8H7NO4

109.8 −14.0 −34.7 86.8 −19.2 −93.2 14.5 99.0 142.0 52.6 156.0 160.8 94.0

87.8 39.8 −30.5 115.0 115.6 120.2 68.2 134.3 129.6 −60.9 −59.0 15.4 −4.5 19.3 +5.4 −105.1 −42.0 59.6 13.5 −72.2 −12.0 −19.9 75.3 54.0 7.4 16.0

104.3 108.0 61.8 104.0 119.3 142.4 85.8 96.2 44.4 −21.0 127 −29.0 49.3 100.0

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

Melting point, °C −52.8 −96.7 −85.9 −114.5 −90 −99.8

−109.5 −120.8 −121.1

−118.2 −64.4 5 18.5 55.5 15 30 −154 −118 −103 −37.3 −140.3 −87.5

−77.8 −92 −1 −8.3 −23.2

−51 35.5 28.5

23.5 57.5 80.2 160.5 184 96 122.5 50 111.5 71.5 114 146.5 40.9 58 +5.7 −90 11 −29 45

2-72

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-8

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name

1-Nitropropane 2-Nitropropane 2-Nitrotoluene 3-Nitrotoluene 4-Nitrotoluene 4-Nitro-1,3-xylene (4-nitro-m-xylene) Nonacosane Nonadecane n-Nonane 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanone Octacosane Octadecane n-Octane n-Octanol (1-octanol) 2-Octanone n-Octyl acrylate iodide (1-Iodooctane) Oleic acid Palmitaldehyde Palmitic acid Palmitonitrile Pelargonic acid Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachloroethylbenzene Pentachlorophenol Pentacosane Pentadecane 1,3-Pentadiene 1,4-Pentadiene Pentaethylbenzene Pentaethylchlorobenzene n-Pentane iso-Pentane (2-methylbutane) neo-Pentane (2,2-dimethylpropane) 2,3,4-Pentanetriol 1-Pentene α-Phellandrene Phenanthrene Phenethyl alcohol (phenyl cellosolve) 2-Phenetidine Phenol 2-Phenoxyethanol 2-Phenoxyethyl acetate Phenyl acetate Phenylacetic acid Phenylacetonitrile Phenylacetyl chloride Phenyl benzoate 4-Phenyl-3-buten-2-one Phenyl isocyanate isocyanide Phenylcyclohexane Phenyl dichlorophosphate m-Phenylene diamine (1,3-phenylenediamine) Phenylglyoxal Phenylhydrazine N-Phenyliminodiethanol 1-Phenyl-1,3-pentanedione 2-Phenylphenol 4-Phenylphenol 3-Phenyl-1-propanol Phenyl isothiocyanate Phorone iso-Phorone Phosgene (carbonyl chloride) Phthalic anhydride Phthalide Phthaloyl chloride 2-Picoline Pimelic acid α-Pinene β-Pinene

1

5

10

20

40

C3H7NO2 −9.6 C3H7NO2 −18.8 C7H7NO2 50.0 C7H7NO2 50.2 C7H7NO2 53.7 C8H9NO2 65.6 C29H60 234.2 C19H40 133.2 C9H20 +1.4 C9H20O 59.5 C9H18O 32.1 C28H58 226.5 C18H38 119.6 C8H18 −14.0 C8H18O 54.0 C8H16O 23.6 C11H20O2 58.5 C8H17I 45.8 C18H34O2 176.5 C16H32O 121.6 C16H32O2 153.6 C16H31N 134.3 C9H18O2 108.2 C6HCl5 98.6 C2HCl5 +1.0 C8H5Cl5 96.2 C6HCl5O C25H52 194.2 C15H32 91.6 C5H8 −71.8 C5H8 −83.5 C16H26 86.0 C16H25Cl 90.0 C5H12 −76.6 C5H12 −82.9 C5H12 −102.0 C5H12O3 155.0 C5H10 −80.4 C10H16 20.0 C14H10 118.2 C8H10O2 58.2 C8H11NO 67.0 C6H6O 40.1 C8H10O2 78.0 C10H12O3 82.6 C8H8O2 38.2 C8H8O2 97.0 C8H7N 60.0 C8H7ClO 48.0 C13H10O2 106.8 C10H10O 81.7 C7H5NO 10.6 C7H5N 12.0 C12H16 67.5 C6H5Cl2O2P 66.7

+13.5 +4.1 79.1 81.0 85.0 95.0 269.8 166.3 25.8 86.1 59.0 260.3 152.1 +8.3 76.5 48.4 87.7 74.8 208.5 154.6 188.1 168.3 126.0 129.7 27.2 130.0

25.3 15.8 93.8 96.0 100.5 109.8 286.4 183.5 38.0 99.7 72.3 277.4 169.6 19.2 88.3 60.9 102.0 90.0 223.0 171.8 205.8 185.8 137.4 144.3 39.8 148.0

230.0 121.0 −53.8 −66.2 120.0 123.8 −62.5 −65.8 −85.4 189.3 −63.3 45.7 154.3 85.9 94.7 62.5 106.6 113.5 64.8 127.0 89.0 75.3 141.5 112.2 36.0 37.0 96.5 95.9

248.2 135.4 −45.0 −57.1 135.8 140.7 −50.1 −57.0 −76.7 204.5 −54.5 58.0 173.0 100.0 108.6 73.8 121.2 128.0 78.0 141.3 103.5 89.0 157.8 127.4 48.5 49.7 111.3 110.0

37.9 28.2 109.6 112.8 117.7 125.8 303.6 200.8 51.2 113.8 87.2 295.4 187.5 31.5 101.0 74.3 117.8 105.9 240.0 190.0 223.8 204.2 149.8 160.0 53.9 166.0 192.2 266.1 150.2 −34.8 −47.7 152.4 158.1 −40.2 −47.3 −67.2 220.5 −46.0 72.1 193.7 114.8 123.7 86.0 136.0 144.5 92.3 156.0 119.4 103.6 177.0 143.8 62.5 63.4 126.4 125.9

51.8 41.8 126.3 130.7 136.0 143.3 323.2 220.0 66.0 129.0 103.4 314.2 207.4 45.1 115.2 89.8 135.6 123.8 257.2 210.0 244.4 223.8 163.7 178.5 69.9 186.2 211.2 285.6 167.7 −23.4 −37.0 171.9 178.2 −29.2 −36.5 −56.1 239.6 −34.1 87.8 215.8 130.5 139.9 100.1 152.2 162.3 108.1 173.6 136.3 119.8 197.6 161.3 77.7 78.3 144.0 143.4

C6H8N2 C8H6O2 C6H8N2 C10H15NO2 C11H12O2 C12H10O C12H10O C9H12O C7H5NS C9H14O C9H14O CCl2O C8H4O3 C8H6O2 C8H4Cl2O2 C6H7N C7H12O4 C10H16 C10H16

71.8 145.0 98.0 100.0

131.2 75.0 101.6 179.2 128.5 131.6

74.7 47.2 42.0 38.0 −92.9 96.5 95.5 86.3 −11.1 163.4 −1.0 +4.2

102.4 75.6 68.3 66.7 −77.0 121.3 127.7 118.3 +12.6 196.2 +24.6 30.0

147.0 87.8 115.8 195.8 144.0 146.2 176.2 116.0 89.8 81.5 81.2 −69.3 134.0 144.0 134.2 24.4 212.0 37.3 42.3

163.8 100.7 131.5 213.4 159.9 163.3 193.8 131.2 115.5 95.6 96.8 −60.3 151.7 161.3 151.0 37.4 229.3 51.4 58.1

182.5 115.5 148.2 233.0 178.0 180.3 213.0 147.4 122.5 111.3 114.5 −50.3 172.0 181.0 170.0 51.2 247.0 66.8 71.5

60

200

400

760

60.5 50.3 137.6 142.5 147.9 153.8 334.8 232.8 75.5 139.0 113.8 326.8 219.7 53.8 123.8 99.0 145.6 135.4 269.8 222.6 256.0 236.6 172.3 190.1 80.0 199.0 223.4 298.4 178.4 −16.5 −30.0 184.2 191.0 −22.2 −29.6 −49.0 249.8 −27.1 97.6 229.9 141.2 149.8 108.4 163.2 174.0 118.1 184.5 147.7 129.8 210.8 172.6 87.7 88.0 154.2 153.6

72.3 62.0 151.5 156.9 163.0 168.5 350.0 248.0 88.1 151.3 127.4 341.8 236.0 65.7 135.2 111.7 159.1 150.0 286.0 239.5 271.5 251.5 184.4 205.5 93.5 216.0 239.6 314.0 194.0 −6.7 −20.6 200.0 208.0 −12.6 −20.2 −39.1 263.5 −17.7 110.6 249.0 154.0 163.5 121.4 176.5 189.2 131.6 198.2 161.8 143.5 227.8 187.8 100.6 101.0 169.3 168.0

90.2 80.0 173.7 180.3 186.7 191.7 373.2 271.8 107.5 170.5 148.2 364.8 260.6 83.6 152.0 130.4 180.2 173.3 309.8 264.1 298.7 277.1 203.1 227.0 114.0 241.8 261.8 339.0 216.1 +8.0 −6.7 224.1 230.3 +1.9 −5.9 −23.7 284.5 −3.4 130.6 277.1 175.0 184.0 139.0 197.6 211.3 151.2 219.5 184.2 163.8 254.0 211.0 120.8 120.8 191.3 189.8

110.6 99.8 197.7 206.8 212.5 217.5 397.2 299.8 128.2 192.1 171.2 388.9 288.0 104.0 173.8 151.0 204.0 199.3 334.7 292.3 326.0 304.5 227.5 251.6 137.2 269.3 285.0 365.4 242.8 24.7 +8.3 250.2 257.2 18.5 +10.5 −7.1 307.0 +12.8 152.0 308.0 197.5 207.0 160.0 221.0 235.0 173.5 243.0 208.5 186.0 283.5 235.4 142.7 142.3 214.6 213.0

131.6 120.3 222.3 231.9 238.3 244.0 421.8 330.0 150.8 213.5 195.0 412.5 317.0 125.6 195.2 172.9 227.0 225.5 360.0 321.0 353.8 332.0 253.5 276.0 160.5 299.0 309.3 390.3 270.5 42.1 26.1 277.0 285.0 36.1 27.8 +9.5 327.2 30.1 175.0 340.2 219.5 228.0 181.9 245.3 259.7 195.9 265.5 233.5 210.0 314.0 261.0 165.6 165.0 240.0 239.5

−108 −93 −4.1 15.5 51.9 +2 63.8 32 −53.7 −5 −19 61.6 28 −56.8 −15.4 −16

194.0 124.2 158.7 245.3 189.8 192.2 225.3 156.8 133.3 121.4 125.6 −44.0 185.3 193.5 182.2 59.9 258.2 76.8 81.2

209.9 136.2 173.5 260.6 204.5 205.9 240.9 170.3 147.7 134.0 140.6 −35.6 202.3 210.0 197.8 71.4 272.0 90.1 94.0

233.0 153.8 195.4 284.5 226.7 227.9 263.2 191.2 169.6 153.5 163.3 −22.3 228.0 234.5 222.0 89.0 294.5 110.2 114.1

259.0 173.5 218.2 311.3 251.2 251.8 285.5 212.8 194.0 175.3 188.7 −7.6 256.8 261.8 248.3 108.4 318.5 132.3 136.1

285.5 193.5 243.5 337.8 276.5 275.0 308.0 235.0 218.5 197.2 215.2 +8.3 284.5 290.0 275.8 128.8 342.1 155.0 158.3

62.8 73 19.5

Temperature, °C

Formula

99.8

Melting point, °C

100

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

−45.9 14 34 64.0 31 12.5 85.5 −22 188.5 53.3 10

−129.7 −159.7 −16.6

99.5 40.6 11.6 −6.7 76.5 −23.8 70.5 41.5 +7.5

56.5 164.5 −21.0 28 −104 130.8 73 88.5 −70 103 −55

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-8

2-73

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name

1

5

10

20

87.0 −128.9 17.5 65.0 4.6 20.6 −35.0 50.0 −26.7 −38.3 −15.0 −26.1 −64.4 6.3 54.6 −53.0 −61.8 −1.6 −6.2 −16.3 52.4 −68.3 −78.8 +3.8 9.7 −131.9 45.5 −75.0 −43.0 −52.0 193.0 −36.0 −43.3 59.7 48.0 −56.0 76.0

−7.0 117.4 −115.4 43.8 91.0 28.0 45.3 −13.6 77.9 −5.4 −17.4 +5.0 −7.0 −46.3 31.3 83.8 −33.4 −42.5 +22.1 +16.8 +5.8 77.6 −50.0 −61.1 28.1 32.3 −120.7 70.8 −57.8 −22.7 −32.7 224.2 −13.5 −22.1 86.3 74.5 −36.3 107.9

+3.9 132.0 −108.5 57.0 105.0 39.7 57.7 −3.0 92.2 +5.0 −7.2 14.7 +2.4 −37.2 43.4 98.0 −23.3 −32.8 34.0 28.3 17.0 90.0 −41.0 −52.0 40.2 43.5 −112.1 83.2 −49.0 −12.6 −22.7 240.8 −2.4 −11.7 99.9 88.0 −26.3 123.4

15.8 148.0 −100.9 71.5 119.0 52.0 70.4 +8.8 107.6 16.0 +4.2 25.3 12.7 −27.1 56.8 114.3 −12.4 −22.0 47.0 40.6 29.0 103.2 −31.0 −42.0 53.9 55.6 −104.7 96.4 −39.3 −1.7 −12.1 255.5 +10.0 0.0 114.0 102.4 −15.4 140.3

C5H11N C8H6O3 C3H8 C9H10 C3H7NO C3H6O2 C6H10O3 C3H5N C9H10O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C3H8O C3H8O C3H9N C9H12 C10H12O2 C3H7Br C3H7Br C7H14O2 C7H14O2 C7H14O2 C4H9NO2 C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C5H9ClO2 C5H7ClO3 C3H6 C3H8O2 C3H6O C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C15H16O2 C3H7I C3H7I C8H14O3 C8H14O3 C3H8S C13H14

29.2 165.7 −92.4 87.7 134.8 65.8 85.6 22.0 124.3 28.8 17.0 36.4 23.8 −16.0 71.6 131.8 −0.3 −10.1 61.5 54.3 42.4 117.7 −19.5 −31.0 68.7 68.8 −96.5 111.2 −28.4 +10.8 −0.2 273.0 23.6 +13.2 130.1 118.1 −3.2 159.0

60

100

200

400

760

37.7 177.0 −87.0 97.8 144.3 74.1 94.5 30.1 135.0 37.0 25.1 43.5 30.5 −9.0 81.1 143.3 +7.5 −2.5 70.3 63.0 51.4 126.5 −12.1 −23.5 78.0 77.2 −91.3 119.9 −21.3 18.8 +7.5 282.9 32.1 21.6 140.6 127.8 +4.6 171.4

49.0 191.7 −79.6 111.7 156.0 85.8 107.2 41.4 149.3 47.8 35.7 52.8 39.5 +0.5 94.0 157.4 18.0 +8.0 82.6 73.9 62.3 138.3 −2.5 −13.7 90.3 88.0 −84.1 132.0 −12.0 29.5 17.8 297.0 43.8 32.8 154.0 141.8 15.3 187.6

66.2 214.3 −68.4 132.0 174.2 102.5 127.8 58.2 170.2 64.0 51.7 66.8 53.0 15.0 113.5 180.1 34.0 23.8 101.0 91.8 80.2 155.8 +12.2 +1.3 108.8 104.7 −73.3 149.7 +2.1 45.3 33.6 317.5 61.8 50.0 175.6 161.6 31.5 211.8

85.7 238.5 −55.6 154.7 194.0 122.0 146.0 77.7 194.2 82.0 69.8 82.0 67.8 31.5 135.7 205.2 52.0 41.5 121.7 112.0 100.0 175.8 29.4 18.1 128.0 123.0 −60.9 168.1 17.8 62.6 50.5 339.0 81.8 69.5 198.0 185.2 49.2 238.5

106.0 263.0 −42.1 179.0 213.0 141.1 167.0 97.1 218.0 101.8 89.0 97.8 82.5 48.5 159.2 231.0 71.0 60.0 142.7 133.9 120.5 195.0 46.4 36.5 148.6 150.0 −47.7 188.2 34.5 81.3 68.3 360.5 102.5 89.5 221.2 208.2 67.4 266.0

Temperature, °C

Formula

Piperidine Piperonal Propane Propenylbenzene Propionamide Propionic acid anhydride Propionitrile Propiophenone n-Propyl acetate iso-Propyl acetate n-Propyl alcohol (1-propanol) iso-Propyl alcohol (2-propanol) n-Propylamine Propylbenzene Propyl benzoate n-Propyl bromide (1-bromopropane) iso-Propyl bromide (2-bromopropane) n-Propyl n-butyrate isobutyrate iso-Propyl isobutyrate Propyl carbamate n-Propyl chloride (1-chloropropane) iso-Propyl chloride (2-chloropropane) iso-Propyl chloroacetate Propyl chloroglyoxylate Propylene Propylene glycol (1,2-Propanediol) Propylene oxide n-Propyl formate iso-Propyl formate 4,4′-iso-Propylidenebisphenol n-Propyl iodide (1-iodopropane) iso-Propyl iodide (2-iodopropane) n-Propyl levulinate iso-Propyl levulinate Propyl mercaptan (1-propanethiol) 2-iso-Propylnaphthalene iso-Propyl β-naphthyl ketone (2-isobutyronaphthone) 2-iso-Propylphenol 3-iso-Propylphenol 4-iso-Propylphenol Propyl propionate 4-iso-Propylstyrene Propyl isovalerate Pulegone Pyridine Pyrocatechol Pyrocaltechol diacetate (1,2-phenylene diacetate) Pyrogallol Pyrotartaric anhydride Pyruvic acid Quinoline iso-Quinoline Resorcinol Safrole Salicylaldehyde Salicylic acid Sebacic acid Selenophene Skatole Stearaldehyde Stearic acid Stearyl alcohol (1-octadecanol) Styrene Styrene dibromide [(1,2-dibromoethyl) benzene] Suberic acid Succinic anhydride Succinimide Succinyl chloride α-Terpineol Terpenoline

40

C14H14O C9H12O C9H12O C9H12O C6H12O2 C11H14 C8H16O2 C10H16O C5H5N C6H6O2

133.2 56.6 62.0 67.0 −14.2 34.7 +8.0 58.3 −18.9

165.4 83.8 90.3 94.7 +8.0 62.3 32.8 82.5 +2.5 104.0

181.0 97.0 104.1 108.0 19.4 76.0 45.1 94.0 13.2 118.3

197.7 111.7 119.8 123.4 31.6 91.2 58.0 106.8 24.8 134.0

215.6 127.5 136.2 139.8 45.0 108.0 72.8 121.7 38.0 150.6

227.0 137.7 146.6 149.7 53.8 118.4 82.3 130.2 46.8 161.7

242.3 150.3 160.2 163.3 65.2 132.8 95.0 143.1 57.8 176.0

264.0 170.1 182.0 184.0 82.7 153.9 113.9 162.5 75.0 197.7

288.2 192.6 205.0 206.1 102.0 178.0 135.0 189.8 95.6 221.5

313.0 214.5 228.0 228.2 122.4 202.5 155.9 221.0 115.4 245.5

C10H10O4 C6H6O3 C5H6O3 C3H4O3 C9H7N C9H7N C6H6O2 C10H10O2 C7H6O2 C7H6O3 C10H18O4 C4H4Se C9H9N C18H36O C18H36O2 C18H36O C8H8

98.0 69.7 21.4 59.7 63.5 108.4 63.8 33.0 113.7 183.0 −39.0 95.0 140.0 173.7 150.3 −7.0

129.8 151.7 99.7 45.8 89.6 92.7 138.0 93.0 60.1 136.0 215.7 −16.0 124.2 174.6 209.0 185.6 +18.0

145.7 167.7 114.2 57.9 103.8 107.8 152.1 107.6 73.8 146.2 232.0 −4.0 139.6 192.1 225.0 202.0 30.8

161.8 185.3 130.0 70.8 119.8 123.7 168.0 123.0 88.7 156.8 250.0 +9.1 154.3 210.6 243.4 220.0 44.6

179.8 204.2 147.8 85.3 136.7 141.6 185.3 140.1 105.2 172.2 268.2 24.1 171.9 230.8 263.3 240.4 59.8

191.6 216.3 158.6 94.1 148.1 152.0 195.8 150.3 115.7 182.0 279.8 33.8 183.6 244.2 275.5 252.7 69.5

206.5 232.0 173.8 106.5 163.2 167.6 209.8 165.1 129.4 193.4 294.5 47.0 197.4 260.0 291.0 269.4 82.0

228.7 255.3 196.1 124.7 186.2 190.0 230.8 186.2 150.0 210.0 313.2 66.7 218.8 285.0 316.5 293.5 101.3

253.3 281.5 221.0 144.7 212.3 214.5 253.4 210.0 173.7 230.5 332.8 89.8 242.5 313.8 343.0 320.3 122.5

278.0 309.0 247.4 165.0 237.7 240.5 276.5 233.0 196.5 256.0 352.3 114.3 266.2 342.5 370.0 349.5 145.2

C8H8Br2 C8H14O4 C4H4O3 C4H5NO2 C4H4Cl2O2 C10H18O C10H16

86.0 172.8 92.0 115.0 39.0 52.8 32.3

115.6 205.5 115.0 143.2 65.0 80.4 58.0

129.8 219.5 128.2 157.0 78.0 94.3 70.6

145.2 238.2 145.3 174.0 91.8 109.8 84.8

161.8 254.6 163.0 192.0 107.5 126.0 100.0

172.2 265.4 174.0 203.0 117.2 136.3 109.8

186.3 279.8 189.0 217.4 130.0 150.1 122.7

207.8 300.5 212.0 240.0 149.3 171.2 142.0

230.0 322.8 237.0 263.5 170.0 194.3 163.5

254.0 345.5 261.0 287.5 192.5 217.5 185.0

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Melting point, °C −9 37 −187.1 −30.1 79 −22 −45 −91.9 21 −92.5 −127 −85.8 −83 −99.5 −51.6 −109.9 −89.0 −95.2

−122.8 −117 −185 −112.1 −92.9 −98.8 −90 −112

15.5 26 61 −76

−42 105 133 13.6 −15 24.6 110.7 11.2 −7 159 134.5 95 63.5 69.3 58.5 −30.6 142 119.6 125.5 17 35

2-74

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-8

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name

Formula

1,1,1,2-Tetrabromoethane 1,1,2,2-Tetrabromoethane Tetraisobutylene Tetracosane 1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 1,2,3,5-Tetrachloro-4-ethylbenzene Tetrachloroethylene 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol 3,4,5,6-Tetrachloro-1,2-xylene Tetradecane Tetradecylamine Tetradecyltrimethylsilane Tetraethoxysilane 1,2,3,4-Tetraethylbenzene Tetraethylene glycol Tetraethylene glycol chlorohydrin Tetraethyllead Tetraethylsilane Tetralin 1,2,3,4-Tetramethylbenzene 1,2,3,5-Tetramethylbenzene 1,2,4,5-Tetramethylbenzene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Tetramethylene dibromide (1,4-dibromobutane) Tetramethyllead Tetramethyltin Tetrapropylene glycol monoisopropyl ether Thioacetic acid (mercaptoacetic acid) Thiodiglycol (2,2′-thiodiethanol) Thiophene Thiophenol (benzenethiol) α-Thujone Thymol Tiglaldehyde Tiglic acid Tiglonitrile Toluene Toluene-2,4-diamine 2-Toluic nitrile (2-tolunitrile) 4-Toluic nitrile (4-tolunitrile) 2-Toluidine 3-Toluidine 4-Toluidine 2-Tolyl isocyanide 4-Tolylhydrazine Tribromoacetaldehyde 1,1,2-Tribromobutane 1,2,2-Tribromobutane 2,2,3-Tribromobutane 1,1,2-Tribromoethane 1,2,3-Tribromopropane Triisobutylamine Triisobutylene 2,4,6-Tritertbutylphenol Trichloroacetic acid Trichloroacetic anhydride Trichloroacetyl bromide 2,4,6-Trichloroaniline 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,3-Trichlorobutane 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Trichlorofluoromethane 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

C2H2Br4 C2H2Br4 C16H32 C24H50 C6H2Cl4 C6H2Cl4 C6H2Cl4 C2Cl4F2 C2H2Cl4 C2H2Cl4 C8H6Cl4 C2Cl4 C6H2Cl4O C8H6Cl4 C14H30 C14H31N C17H38Si C8H20O4Si C14H22 C8H18O5 C8H17ClO4 C8H20Pb C8H20Si C10H12 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C8H18 C4H8Br2 C4H12Pb C4H12Sn C15H32O5 C2H4O2S C4H10O2S C4H4S C6H6S C10H16O C10H14O C5H8O C5H8O2 C5H7N C7H8 C7H10N2 C8H7N C8H7N C7H9N C7H9N C7H9N C8H7N C7H10N2 C2HBr3O C4H7Br3 C4H7Br3 C4H7Br3 C2H3Br3 C3H5Br3 C12H27N C12H24 C18H30O C2HCl3O2 C4Cl6O3 C2BrCl3O C6H4Cl3N C6H3Cl3 C6H3Cl3 C6H3Cl3 C4H7Cl3 C2H3Cl3 C2H3Cl3 C2HCl3 CCl3F C6H3Cl3O C6H3Cl3O

1

5

10

20

58.0 65.0 63.8 183.8 68.5 58.2

83.3 95.5 93.7 219.6 99.6 89.0

95.7 110.0 108.5 237.6 114.7 104.1

108.5 126.0 124.5 255.3 131.2 121.6

−37.5 −16.3 −3.8 77.0 −20.6 100.0 94.4 76.4 102.6 120.0 16.0 65.7 153.9 110.1 38.4 −1.0 38.0 42.6 40.6 45.0 −17.4

−16.0 +7.4 +20.7 110.0 +2.4 130.3 125.0 106.0 135.8 150.7 40.3 96.2 183.7 141.8 63.6 +23.9 65.3 68.7 65.8 65.0 +3.2

−5.0 19.3 33.0 126.0 13.8 145.3 140.3 120.7 152.0 166.2 52.6 111.6 197.1 156.1 74.8 36.3 79.0 81.8 77.8 74.6 13.5

32.0 −29.0 −51.3 116.6 60.0 42.0 −40.7 18.6 38.3 64.3 −25.0 52.0 −25.5 −26.7 106.5 36.7 42.5 44.0 41.0 42.0 25.2 82.4 18.5 45.0 41.0 38.2 32.6 47.5 32.3 18.0 95.2 51.0 56.2 −7.4 134.0 40.0 38.4

58.8 −6.8 −31.0 147.8 87.7 96.0 −20.8 43.7 65.7 92.8 −1.6 77.8 −2.4 −4.4 137.2 64.0 71.3 69.3 68.0 68.2 51.0 110.0 45.0 73.5 69.0 66.0 58.0 75.8 57.4 44.0 126.1 76.0 85.3 +16.7 157.8 70.0 67.3 63.8 27.2 −32.0 −2.0 −22.8 −67.6 102.1 105.9

72.4 +4.4 −20.6 163.0 101.5 128.0 −10.9 56.0 79.3 107.4 +10.0 90.2 +9.2 +6.4 151.7 77.9 85.8 81.4 82.0 81.8 64.0 123.8 58.0 87.8 83.2 79.8 70.6 90.0 69.8 56.5 142.0 88.2 99.6 29.3 170.0 85.6 81.7 78.0 40.0 −21.9 +8.3 −12.4 −59.0 117.3 120.2

40

60

100

200

400

760

Temperature, °C

+0.5 −52.0 −24.0 −43.8 −84.3 72.0 76.5

Melting point, °C

+6.7 32.1 46.2 143.7 26.3 161.0 156.0 135.6 170.0 183.5 65.8 127.7 212.3 172.6 88.0 50.0 93.8 95.8 91.0 88.0 24.6

123.2 144.0 142.2 276.3 149.2 140.0 146.0 19.8 46.7 60.8 162.1 40.1 179.1 174.2 152.7 189.0 201.5 81.1 145.8 228.0 190.0 102.4 65.3 110.4 111.5 105.8 104.2 36.8

132.0 155.1 152.6 288.4 160.0 152.0 157.7 28.1 56.0 70.0 175.0 49.2 190.0 185.8 164.0 200.2 213.3 90.7 156.7 237.8 200.5 111.7 74.8 121.3 121.8 115.4 114.8 44.5

144.0 170.0 167.5 305.2 175.7 168.0 173.5 38.6 68.0 83.2 191.6 61.3 205.2 200.5 178.5 215.7 227.8 103.6 172.4 250.0 214.7 123.8 88.0 135.3 135.7 128.3 128.1 54.8

161.5 192.5 190.0 330.5 198.0 193.7 196.0 55.0 87.2 102.2 215.3 79.8 227.2 223.0 201.8 239.8 250.0 123.5 196.0 268.4 236.5 142.0 108.0 157.2 155.7 149.9 149.5 70.2

181.0 217.5 214.6 358.0 225.5 220.0 220.5 73.1 108.2 124.0 243.0 100.0 250.4 248.3 226.8 264.6 275.0 146.2 221.4 288.0 258.2 161.8 130.2 181.8 180.0 173.7 172.1 87.4

200.0 243.5 240.0 386.4 254.0 246.0 245.0 92.0 130.5 145.9 270.0 120.8 275.0 273.5 252.5 291.2 300.0 168.5 248.0 307.8 281.5 183.0 153.0 207.2 204.4 197.9 195.9 106.3

87.6 16.6 −9.3 179.8 115.8 165.0 0.0 69.7 93.7 122.6 23.2 103.8 22.1 18.4 167.9 93.0 101.7 95.1 96.7 95.8 78.2 138.6 72.1 103.2 98.6 94.6 84.2 105.8 83.0 70.0 158.0 101.8 114.3 42.1 182.6 101.8 97.2 93.7 55.0 −10.8 21.6 −1.0 −49.7 134.0 135.8

104.0 30.3 +3.5 197.7 131.8 210.0 +12.5 84.2 110.0 139.8 37.0 119.0 36.7 31.8 185.7 110.0 109.5 110.0 113.5 111.5 94.0 154.1 87.8 120.2 116.0 111.8 100.0 122.8 97.8 86.7 177.4 116.3 131.2 57.2 195.8 119.8 114.8 110.8 71.5 +1.6 35.2 +11.9 −39.0 151.5 152.2

115.1 39.2 11.7 209.0 142.0 240.5 20.1 93.9 120.2 149.8 45.8 127.8 46.0 40.3 196.2 120.8 130.0 119.8 123.8 121.5 104.0 165.0 97.5 131.6 127.0 122.2 110.0 134.0 107.3 96.7 188.0 125.9 141.8 66.7 204.5 131.5 125.7 121.8 82.0 9.5 44.0 20.0 −32.3 162.5 163.5

128.7 50.8 22.8 223.3 154.0 285 30.5 106.6 134.0 164.1 57.7 140.5 58.2 51.9 211.5 135.0 145.2 133.0 136.7 133.7 117.7 178.0 110.2 146.0 141.8 136.3 123.5 148.0 119.7 110.0 203.0 137.8 155.2 79.5 214.6 146.0 140.0 136.0 96.2 20.0 55.7 31.4 −23.0 178.0 177.8

149.8 68.8 39.8 245.0

173.8 89.0 58.5 268.3

197.5 110.0 78.0 292.7

−20 −27.5

46.5 125.8 154.2 185.5 75.4 158.0 77.8 69.5 232.8 156.0 167.3 153.0 157.6 154.0 137.8 198.0 130.0 167.8 163.5 157.8 143.5 170.0 138.0 130.2 226.2 155.4 176.2 98.4 229.8 168.2 162.0 157.7 118.0 36.2 73.3 48.0 −9.1 201.5 199.0

64.7 146.7 177.8 209.2 95.5 179.2 99.7 89.5 256.0 180.0 193.0 176.2 180.6 176.9 159.9 219.5 151.6 192.0 188.0 182.2 165.4 195.0 157.8 153.0 250.6 175.2 199.8 120.2 246.4 193.5 187.7 183.0 143.0 54.6 93.0 67.0 +6.8 226.5 222.5

84.4 168.0 201.0 231.8 116.4 198.5 122.0 110.6 280.0 205.2 217.6 199.7 203.3 200.4 183.5 242.0 174.0 216.2 213.8 206.5 188.4 220.0 179.0 179.0 276.3 195.6 223.0 143.0 262.0 218.5 213.0 208.4 169.0 74.1 113.9 86.7 23.7 251.8 246.0

−38.3

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51.1 46.5 54.5 139 26.5 −68.7 −36 −19.0 69.5 5.5

11.6 −136 −31.0 −6.2 −24.0 79.5 −102.2

−16.5

51.5 64.5 −95.0 99 −13 29.5 −16.3 −31.5 44.5 65.5

−26 16.5 −22 57 78 52.5 17 63.5 −30.6 −36.7 −73 62 68.5

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-8

2-75

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Concluded ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound

1

Name

5

10

20

217.2

231.2

246.7

1,1,1-Trichloropropane 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane Tricosane Tridecane Tridecanoic acid Triethoxymethylsilane Triethoxyphenylsilane 1,2,4-Triethylbenzene 1,3,4-Triethylbenzene Triethylborine Triethyl camphoronate citrate Triethyleneglycol Triethylheptylsilane Triethyloctylsilane Triethyl orthoformate phosphate Triethylthallium Trifluorophenylsilane Trimethallyl phosphate 2,3,5-Trimethylacetophenone Trimethylamine 2,4,5-Trimethylaniline 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane Trimethyl citrate Trimethyleneglycol (1,3-propanediol) 1,2,4-Trimethyl-5-ethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethyl-2-ethylbenzene 2,2,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-pentanone Trimethyl phosphate 2,4,5-Trimethylstyrene 2,4,6-Trimethylstyrene Trimethylsuccinic anhydride Triphenylmethane Triphenylphosphate Tripropyleneglycol Tripropyleneglycol monobutyl ether Tripropyleneglycol monoisopropyl ether Tritolyl phosphate Undecane Undecanoic acid 10-Undecenoic acid Undecan-2-ol n-Valeric acid iso-Valeric acid γ-Valerolactone Valeronitrile Vanillin Vinyl acetate 2-Vinylanisole 3-Vinylanisole 4-Vinylanisole Vinyl chloride (1-chloroethylene) cyanide (acrylonitrile) fluoride (1-fluoroethylene) Vinylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethene) 4-Vinylphenetole 2-Xenyl dichlorophosphate 2,4-Xyaldehyde 2-Xylene (2-xylene) 3-Xylene (3-xylene) 4-Xylene (4-xylene) 2,4-Xylidine 2,6-Xylidine

C18H12Cl3O3 188.2 PS C3H5Cl3 −28.8 C3H5Cl3 +9.0 C2Cl3F3 −68.0 C23H48 170.0 C13H28 59.4 C13H26O2 137.8 C7H18O3Si −1.5 C12H20O3Si 71.0 C12H18 46.0 C12H18 47.9 C6H15B C15H26O6 C12H20O7 107.0 C6H14O4 114.0 C13H30Si 70.0 C14H32Si 73.7 C7H16O3 +5.5 C6H15O4P 39.6 C6H15Tl +9.3 C6H5F3Si −31.0 C12H21PO4 93.7 C11H14O 79.0 C3H9N −97.1 C9H13N 68.4 C9H12 16.8 C9H12 13.6 C9H12 9.6 C7H16 C9H14O7 106.2 C3H8O2 59.4 C11H16 43.7 C11H16 38.8 C8H18 −29.0 C8H18 −36.5 C8H18 −25.8 C8H18 −26.3 C8H16O 14.7 C3H9O4P 26.0 C11H14 48.1 C11H14 37.5 C7H10O3 53.5 C19H16 169.7 C18H15O4P 193.5 C9H20O4 96.0 C13H28O4 101.5 C12H26O4 82.4 C21H21O4P 154.6 C11H24 32.7 C11H22O2 101.4 C11H20O2 114.0 C11H24O 71.1 C5H10O2 42.2 C5H10O2 34.5 C5H8O2 37.5 C5H9N −6.0 C8H8O3 107.0 C4H6O2 −48.0 C9H10O 41.9 C9H10O 43.4 C9H10O 45.2 C2H3Cl −105.6 C3H3N −51.0 C2H3F −149.3 C2H2Cl2 −77.2 C10H12O 64.0 C12H9Cl2PO 138.2 C9H10O 59.0 C8H10 −3.8 C8H10 −6.9 C8H10 −8.1 C8H11N 52.6 C8H11N 44.0

261.7

−7.0 33.7 −49.4 206.3 98.3 166.3 +22.8 98.8 74.2 76.0

+4.2 46.0 −40.3 223.0 104.0 181.0 34.6 112.6 88.5 90.2 −148.0 166.0 144.0 158.1 114.6 120.6 40.5 82.1 51.7 +0.8 149.8 122.3 −73.8 109.0 55.9 50.7 47.4 −18.8 160.4 100.6 84.6 80.5 +3.9 −4.3 +6.9 +7.1 46.4 67.8 91.6 79.7 97.4 197.0 249.8 140.5 147.0 127.3 198.0 73.9 149.0 156.3 112.8 79.8 71.3 79.8 30.0 154.0 −18.0 81.0 83.0 85.7 −83.7 −20.3 −132.2 −51.2 105.6 187.0 99.0 32.1 28.3 27.3 93.0 87.0

16.2 59.3 −30.0 242.0 120.2 195.8 47.2 127.2 104.0 105.8 −140.6 183.6 171.1 174.0 130.3 137.7 53.4 97.8 67.7 12.3 169.8 137.5 −65.0 123.7 69.9 64.5 61.0 −7.5 177.2 115.5 99.7 96.0 16.0 +7.5 19.2 19.3 57.6 83.0 107.1 94.8 113.8 206.8 269.7 155.8 161.8 143.7 213.2 85.6 166.0 172.0 127.5 93.1 84.0 95.2 43.3 170.5 −7.0 94.7 97.2 100.0 −75.7 −9.0 −125.4 −41.7 120.3 205.0 114.0 45.1 41.1 40.1 107.6 102.7

29.9 74.0 −18.5 261.3 137.7 212.4 61.7 143.5 121.7 122.6 −131.4 201.8 190.4 191.3 148.0 155.7 67.5 115.7 85.4 25.4 192.0 154.2 −55.2 139.8 85.4 79.8 76.1 +5.2 194.2 131.0 106.0 113.2 29.5 20.7 33.0 32.9 69.8 100.0 124.2 111.8 131.0 215.5 290.3 173.7 179.8 161.4 229.7 104.4 185.6 188.7 143.7 107.8 98.0 101.9 57.8 188.7 +5.3 110.0 112.5 116.0 −66.8 +3.8 −118.0 −31.1 136.3 223.8 129.7 59.5 55.3 54.4 123.8 120.2

60

100

200

400

760

271.5

283.8

302.8

322.0

341.3

38.3 83.6 −11.2 273.8 148.2 222.0 70.4 153.2 132.2 133.4 −125.2 213.5 202.5 201.5 158.2 168.0 76.0 126.3 95.7 33.2 207.0 165.7 −48.8 149.5 95.3 89.5 85.8 13.3 205.5 141.1 126.3 123.8 38.1 29.1 41.8 41.6 77.3 110.0 135.5 122.3 142.2 221.2 305.2 184.6 190.2 173.2 239.8 115.2 197.2 199.5 153.7 116.6 107.3 122.4 66.9 199.8 13.0 119.8 122.3 126.1 −61.1 11.8 −113.0 −24.0 146.4 236.0 139.8 68.8 64.4 63.5 133.7 131.5

50.0 96.1 −1.7 289.8 162.5 236.0 82.7 167.5 146.8 147.7 −116.0 228.6 217.8 214.6 174.0 184.3 88.0 141.6 112.1 44.2 225.7 179.7 −40.3 162.0 108.8 102.8 98.9 24.4 219.6 153.4 140.3 137.9 49.9 40.7 53.8 53.4 87.6 124.0 149.8 136.8 156.5 228.4 322.5 199.0 204.4 187.8 252.2 128.1 212.5 213.5 167.2 128.3 118.9 136.5 78.6 214.5 23.3 132.3 135.3 139.7 −53.2 22.8 −106.2 −15.0 159.8 251.5 152.2 81.3 76.8 75.9 146.8 146.0

67.7 115.6 +13.5 313.5 185.0 255.2 101.0 188.0 168.3 168.3 −101.0 250.8 242.2 235.2 196.0 208.0 106.0 163.7 136.0 60.1 255.0 201.3 −27.0 182.3 129.0 122.7 118.6 41.2 241.3 172.8 160.3 158.4 67.8 58.1 72.0 71.3 102.2 145.0 171.8 157.8 179.8 239.7 349.8 220.2 224.4 209.7 271.8 149.3 237.8 232.8 187.7 146.0 136.2 157.7 97.7 237.3 38.4 151.0 154.0 159.0 −41.3 38.7 −95.4 −1.0 180.0 275.3 172.3 100.2 95.5 94.6 166.4 168.0

87.5 137.0 30.2 339.8 209.4 276.5 121.8 210.5 193.7 193.2 −81.0 276.0 267.5 256.6 221.0 235.0 125.7 187.0 163.5 78.7 288.5 224.3 −12.5 203.7 152.0 145.4 141.0 60.4 264.2 193.8 184.5 183.5 88.2 78.0 92.7 91.8 118.4 167.8 196.1 182.3 205.5 249.8 379.2 244.3 247.0 232.8 292.7 171.9 262.8 254.0 209.8 165.0 155.2 182.3 118.7 260.0 55.5 172.1 175.8 182.0 −28.0 58.3 −84.0 +14.8 202.8 301.5 194.1 121.7 116.7 115.9 188.3 193.7

108.2 158.0 47.6 366.5 234.0 299.0 143.5 233.5 218.0 217.5 −56.2 301.0 294.0 278.3 247.0 262.0 146.0 211.0 192.1 98.3 324.0 247.5 +2.9 234.5 176.1 169.2 164.7 80.9 287.0 214.2 208.1 208.0 109.8 99.2 114.8 113.5 135.0 192.7 221.2 207.0 231.0 259.2 413.5 267.2 269.5 256.6 313.0 195.8 290.0 275.0 232.0 184.4 175.1 207.5 140.8 285.0 72.5 194.0 197.5 204.5 −13.8 78.5 −72.2 31.7 225.0 328.5 215.5 144.4 139.1 138.3 211.5 217.9

Temperature, °C

Formula

Tri-2-chlorophenylthiophosphate

40

150.2 138.7 144.0 99.8 104.8 29.2 67.8 37.6 −9.7 131.0 108.0 −81.7 95.9 42.9 38.3 34.7 146.2 87.2 71.2 67.0 −7.1 −15.0 −3.9 −4.1 36.0 53.7 77.0 65.7 82.6 188.4 230.4 125.7 131.6 112.4 184.2 59.7 133.1 142.8 99.0 67.7 59.6 65.8 +18.1 138.4 −28.0 68.0 69.9 72.0 −90.8 −30.7 −138.0 −60.0 91.7 171.1 85.9 +20.2 +16.8 +15.5 79.8 72.6

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Melting point, °C

−77.7 −14.7 −35 47.7 −6.2 41

135

−63.0

−117.1 67 −25.5 −44.1 −44.8 −25.0 78.5

−112.3 −107.3 −101.5 −109.2

93.4 49.4

−25.6 29.5 24.5 −34.5 −37.6 81.5

−153.7 −82 −160.5 −122.5 75 −25.2 −47.9 +13.3

2-76

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS UNITS CONVERSIONS

To convert cubic feet to cubic meters, multiply by 0.02832. To convert bars to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 14.504. To convert bars to kilopascals, multiply by 1 × 102.

For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5°C + 32. To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 0.01934.

TABLE 2-9

Partial Pressures of Water over Aqueous Solutions of HCl* log10 pmm = A − B/T, (T in K), which, however, agrees only approximately with the table. The table is more nearly correct. Partial pressure of H2O, mmHg, °C

% HCl

A

B





10°

15°

20°

25°

30°

35°

40°

45°

50°

60°

6 10 14 18 20

8.99156 8.99864 8.97075 8.98014 8.97877

2282 2295 2300 2323 2334

4.18 3.84 3.39 2.87 2.62

6.04 5.52 4.91 4.21 3.83

8.45 7.70 6.95 5.92 5.40

11.7 10.7 9.65 8.26 7.50

15.9 14.6 13.1 11.3 10.3

21.8 20.0 18.0 15.4 14.1

29.1 26.8 24.1 20.6 19.0

39.4 35.5 31.9 27.5 25.1

50.6 47.0 42.1 36.4 33.3

66.2 61.5 55.3 47.9 43.6

86.0 80.0 72.0 62.5 57.0

139 130 116 102 93.5

22 24 26 28 30

9.02708 8.96022 9.01511 8.97611 9.00117

2363 2356 2390 2395 2422

2.33 2.05 1.76 1.50 1.26

3.40 3.04 2.60 2.24 1.90

4.82 4.31 3.71 3.21 2.73

6.75 6.03 5.21 4.54 3.88

9.30 8.30 7.21 6.32 5.41

12.6 11.4 9.95 8.75 7.52

17.1 15.4 13.5 11.8 10.2

22.8 20.4 18.0 15.8 13.7

30.2 27.1 24.0 21.1 18.4

39.8 35.7 31.7 27.9 24.3

52.0 46.7 41.5 36.5 32.0

32 34 36 38 40 42

9.03317 9.07143 9.11815 9.20783 9.33923 9.44953

2453 2487 2526 2579 2647 2709

1.04 0.85 0.68 0.53 0.41 0.31

1.57 1.29 1.03 0.81 0.63 0.48

2.27 1.87 1.50 1.20 0.94 0.72

3.25 2.70 2.19 1.75 1.37 1.06

4.55 3.81 3.10 2.51 2.00 1.56

6.37 5.35 4.41 3.60 2.88 2.30

11.7 9.95 8.33 6.92 5.68 4.60

15.7 13.5 11.4 9.52 7.85 6.45

21.0 18.1 15.4 13.0 10.7 8.90

27.7 24.0 20.4 17.4 14.5 12.1

8.70 7.32 6.08 5.03 4.09 3.28

70°

80°

90°

100° 110°

220 204 185 162 150

333 310 273 248 230

492 463 425 374 345

715 677 625 550 510

960 892 783 729

85.6 77.0 69.0 60.7 53.5

138 124 112 99.0 87.5

211 194 173 154 136

317 290 261 234 207

467 426 387 349 310

670 611 555 499 444

46.5 40.5 34.8 29.6 25.0 21.2

76.5 66.5 57.0 49.1 42.1 35.8

120 104 90.0 77.5 67.3 57.2

184 161 140 120 105 89.2

275 243 212 182 158 135

396 355 311 266 230 195

*Accuracy, ca. 2 percent for solutions of 15 to 30 percent HCl between 0 and 100°; for solutions of > 30 percent HCl the accuracy is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and ca. 15 percent at the higher temperatures. Below 15 percent HCl, the accuracy is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and higher strengths to ca. 15 to 20 percent at the lower strengths and perhaps 15 to 20 percent at the higher temperatures and lower strengths.

TABLE 2-10

Partial Pressures of HCl over Aqueous Solutions of HCl*

log10 pmm = A − B/T, (T in K), which, however, agrees only approximately with the table. The table is more nearly correct. mmHg, °C

% HCl

A

2 4 6 8 10

11.8037 11.6400 11.2144 11.0406 10.9311

4736 0.0000117 0.000023 0.000044 0.000084 0.000151 0.000275 0.00047 0.00083 0.00140 0.00380 0.0100 0.0245 0.058 0.132 0.280 4471 0.000018 0.000036 .000069 .000131 .00024 .00044 .00077 .00134 .0023 .00385 .0064 .0165 .0405 .095 .21 .46 .93 4202 .000066 .000125 .000234 .000425 .00076 .00131 .00225 .0038 .0062 .0102 .0163 .040 .094 .206 .44 .92 1.78 4042 .000118 .000323 .000583 .00104 .00178 .0031 .00515 .0085 .0136 .022 .0344 .081 .183 .39 .82 1.64 3.10 3908 .00042 .00075 .00134 .00232 .00395 .0067 .0111 .0178 .0282 .045 .069 .157 .35 .73 1.48 2.9 5.4

12 14 16 18 20

10.7900 10.6954 10.6261 10.4957 10.3833

3765 3636 3516 3376 3245

22 24 26 28 30

10.3172 10.2185 10.1303 10.0115 9.8763

3125 .0734 2995 .175 2870 .41 2732 1.0 2593 2.4

.119 .277 .64 1.52 3.57

.187 .43 .98 2.27 5.23

.294 .66 1.47 3.36 7.60

.45 1.00 2.17 4.90 10.6

.68 1.49 3.20 7.05 15.1

1.02 2.17 4.56 9.90 21.0

32 34 36 38 40

9.7523 9.6061 9.5262 9.4670 9.2156

2457 2316 2229 2094 1939

5.7 13.1 29.0 63.0 130

8.3 18.8 41.0 87.0 176

11.8 26.4 56.4 117 233

16.8 36.8 78 158 307

23.5 50.5 105.5 210 399

32.5 68.5 142 277 515

44.5 92 188 360 627

42 44 46

8.9925 1800 253 8.8621 1681 510 940

332 655

430 840

560

709

900

B



.00099 .0024 .0056 .0135 .0316



.00175 .00415 .0095 .0225 .052

10°

.00305 .0071 .016 .037 .084

15°

.0052 .0118 .0265 .060 .132

20°

.0088 .0196 .0428 .095 .205

25°

.0145 .0316 .0685 .148 .32

30°

.0234 .050 .106 .228 .48

35°

.037 .078 .163 .345 .72

40°

45°

50°

60°

70°

80°

90°

100°

110°

.058 .121 .247 .515 1.06

.091 .185 .375 .77 1.55

.136 .275 .55 1.11 2.21

.305 .60 1.17 2.3 4.4

.66 1.25 2.40 4.55 8.5

1.34 2.50 4.66 8.6 15.6

2.65 4.8 8.8 15.7 28.1

5.1 9.0 16.1 28 49

9.3 16.0 28 48 83

1.50 3.14 6.50 13.8 28.6

2.18 4.5 9.2 19.1 39.4

3.14 6.4 12.7 26.4 53

4.42 8.9 17.5 35.7 71

8.6 16.9 32.5 64 124

16.3 31.0 58.5 112 208

29.3 54.5 100 188 340

52 94 169 309 542

90 157 276 493 845

146 253 436 760

60.0 122 246 465 830

81 161 322 598

107 211 416 758

141 273 535 955

238 450 860

390 720

623

970

*Accuracy, ca. 2 percent for solutions of 15 to 30 percent HCl between 0 and 100°; for solutions of > 30 percent HCl the accuracy is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and ca. 15 percent at the higher temperatures. Below 15 percent HCl, the accuracy is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and higher strengths to ca. 15 to 20 percent at the lower strengths and perhaps 15 to 20 percent at the higher temperatures and lower strengths.

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VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS

FIG. 2-1 Vapor pressures of H3PO4 aqueous: partial pressure of H2O vapor. (Courtesy of Victor Chemical Works, Stauffer Chemical Company; measurements by W. H. Woodstock.)

TABLE 2-11 g SO2 / 100 g H2O

Temperature, ∞C 10

20

0.01 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

0.02 0.38 1.15 2.10 3.17

0.04 0.66 1.91 3.44 5.13

0.07 1.07 3.03 5.37 7.93

0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 1.00

4.34 5.57 8.17 10.9 25.8

6.93 8.84 12.8 17.0 39.5

8.00 10.00 15.00 20.00

FIG. 2-2 Vapor pressures of H3PO4 aqueous: weight of H2O in saturated air. (Courtesy of Victor Chemical Works, Stauffer Chemical Company; measurements by W. H. Woodstock.)

Partial Pressures of H2O and SO2 over Aqueous Solutions of Sulfur Dioxide* Partial pressures of H2O and SO2, mmHg, °C 0

2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00

2-77

10.6 13.5 19.4 25.6 58.4

30

40

50

60

90

120

0.12 1.68 4.62 8.07 11.8

0.19 2.53 6.80 11.7 17.0

0.29 3.69 9.71 16.5 23.8

0.43 5.24 13.5 22.7 32.6

1.21 12.9 31.7 52.2 73.7

2.82 27.0 63.9 104 145

15.7 19.8 28.3 37.1 83.7

58.6 93.2 129 165 202

88.5 139 192 245 299

129 202 277 353 430

183 285 389 496 602

275 351 542 735

407 517 796

585 741

818

22.5 28.2 40.1 52.3 117

31.4 39.2 55.3 72.0 159

42.8 53.3 74.7 96.8 212

95.8 118 164 211 454

253 393 535 679 824

342 530 720

453 700

955

*Extracted with permission from J. Chem Eng. Data 8, 1963: 333–336. Copyright 1963 American Chemical Society.

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186 229 316 404 856

2-78

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-12 °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Water Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions* Weight percent, H2SO4

10.0 .582E−02 .117E−01 .223E−01 .404E−01 .703E−01 .117 .189 .296 .449 .664

20.0 .534E−02 .107E−01 .205E−01 .373E−01 .649E−01 .109 .175 .275 .417 .617

30.0 .448E−02 .909E−02 .174E−01 .319E−01 .558E−01 .939E−01 .152 .239 .365 .542

40.0 .326E−02 .670E−02 .130E−01 .241E−01 .427E−01 .725E−01 .119 .188 .290 .434

50.0

60.0

.193E−02 .405E−02 .802E−02 .151E−01 .272E−01 .470E−01 .782E−01 .126 .196 .298

.836E−03 .180E−02 .367E−02 .710E−02 .131E−01 .232E−01 .395E−01 .651E−01 .104 .161

75.0

80.0

85.0

.207E−03 .467E−03 .995E−03 .201E−02 .387E−02 .715E−02 .127E−01 .217E−01 .360E−01 .578E−01

70.0

.747E−04 .175E−03 .388E−03 .811E−03 .162E−02 .309E−02 .565E−02 .997E−02 .170E−01 .281E−01

.197E−04 .490E−04 .115E−04 .253E−03 .531E−03 .106E−02 .204E−02 .376E−02 .668E−02 .115E−01

.343E−05 .952E−05 .245E−04 .589E−04 .133E−03 .286E−03 .584E−03 .114E−02 .213E−02 .383E−02

.905E−01 .138 .206 .301 .481 .605 .837 1.138 1.525 2.017

.452E−01 .708E−01 .108 .162 .236 .339 .478 .662 .902 1.212

.192E−01 .312E−01 .493E−01 .760E−01 .115 .170 .246 .350 .489 .673

.666E−02 .112E−01 .183E−01 .291E−01 .451E−01 .682E−01 .101 .147 .208 .291

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.957 1.349 1.863 2.524 3.361 4.404 5.685 7.236 9.093 11.289

.891 1.258 1.740 2.361 3.149 4.132 5.342 6.810 8.571 10.658

.786 1.113 1.544 2.101 2.810 3.697 4.793 6.127 7.731 9.640

.634 .904 1.264 1.732 2.333 3.090 4.031 5.185 6.584 8.259

.441 .638 .903 1.253 1.708 2.289 3.021 3.930 5.045 6.397

.244 .360 .519 .734 1.020 1.392 1.870 2.475 3.233 4.169

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

13.861 16.841 20.264 24.160 28.561 33.494 38.984 45.055 51.726 59.015

13.107 15.951 19.225 22.960 27.188 31.939 37.240 43.116 49.590 56.681

11.887 14.505 17.529 20.992 24.927 29.364 34.334 39.865 45.984 52.715

10.245 12.576 15.287 18.414 21.992 26.056 30.642 35.784 41.514 47.865

8.020 9.948 12.217 14.864 17.929 21.452 25.472 30.030 35.168 40.926

5.312 6.696 8.354 10.322 12.641 15.351 18.496 22.121 26.274 31.003

2.632 3.395 4.331 5.466 6.831 8.458 10.382 12.640 15.269 18.311

1.606 2.101 2.714 3.467 4.381 5.480 6.788 8.333 10.142 12.242

.913 1.220 1.609 2.096 2.699 3.435 4.326 5.395 6.663 8.155

.401 .542 .724 .952 1.237 1.587 2.012 2.525 3.136 3.857

300 66.934 310 75.495 320 84.705 330 94.567 340 105.083 350 116.251

64.407 72.781 81.816 91.518 101.894 112.946

60.081 68.100 76.792 86.172 96.252 107.043

54.868 62.553 70.947 80.077 89.969 100.646

47.346 54.470 62.337 70.988 80.463 90.802

36.360 42.395 49.164 56.721 65.123 74.426

21.808 25.804 30.343 35.473 41.240 47.692

14.665 17.438 20.591 24.153 28.154 32.622

9.897 11.912 14.227 16.867 19.855 23.217

4.701 5.680 6.806 8.093 9.551 11.193

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley.

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VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-12

2-79

Water Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions (Concluded ) Weight percent, H2SO4

°C

90.0

92.0

94.0

96.0

97.0

98.0

98.5

99.0

99.5

100.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.518E−06 .159E−05 .448E−05 .117E−04 .285E−04 .652E−04 .141E−03 .290E−03 .569E−03 .107E−02

.242E−06 .762E−06 .220E−05 .587E−05 .146E−04 .341E−04 .754E−04 .158E−03 .316E−03 .606E−03

.107E−06 .344E−06 .101E−05 .275E−05 .696E−05 .166E−04 .372E−04 .795E−04 .162E−03 .315E−03

.401E−07 .130E−06 .390E−06 .108E−05 .278E−05 .672E−05 .154E−04 .334E−04 .691E−04 .137E−03

.218E−07 .713E−07 .215E−06 .598E−06 .155E−05 .379E−05 .875E−05 .192E−04 .400E−04 .801E−04

.980E−08 .323E−07 .978E−07 .275E−06 .720E−06 .177E−05 .413E−05 .912E−05 .192E−04 .388E−04

.569E−08 .188E−07 .572E−07 .161E−06 .424E−06 .105E−05 .245E−05 .544E−05 .115E−04 .234E−04

.268E−08 .888E−08 .271E−07 .766E−07 .202E−06 .503E−06 .118E−05 .263E−05 .559E−05 .114E−04

.775E−09 .258E−08 .789E−08 .224E−07 .595E−07 .149E−06 .350E−06 .784E−06 .168E−05 .343E−05

.196E−09 .655E−09 .201E−08 .575E−08 .153E−07 .384E−07 .910E−07 .205E−06 .439E−06 .903E−06

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.194E−02 .338E−02 .571E−02 .938E−02 .150E−01 .233E−01 .354E−01 .526E−01 .766E−01 .110

.112E−02 .198E−02 .341E−02 .569E−02 .923E−02 .146E−01 .225E−01 .340E−01 .502E−01 .729E−01

.590E−03 .107E−02 .186E−02 .315E−02 .519E−02 .832E−02 .130E−01 .199E−01 .298E−01 .438E−01

.261E−03 .479E−03 .851E−03 .146E−02 .245E−02 .399E−02 .633E−02 .983E−02 .149E−01 .222E−01

.154E−03 .285E−03 .511E−03 .886E−03 .149E−02 .245E−02 .393E−02 .614E−02 .941E−02 .141E−01

.752E−04 .141E−03 .254E−03 .445E−03 .757E−03 .125E−02 .202E−02 .319E−02 .492E−02 .744E−02

.455E−04 .855E−04 .155E−03 .278E−03 .467E−03 .776E−03 .126E−02 .199E−02 .309E−02 .469E−02

.223E−04 .420E−04 .766E−04 .135E−03 .232E−03 .387E−03 .629E−03 .999E−03 .155E−02 .236E−02

.674E−05 .128E−04 .233E−04 .414E−04 .711E−04 .119E−03 .194E−03 .309E−03 .482E−03 .735E−03

.178E−05 .339E−05 .623E−05 .111E−04 .191E−04 .321E−04 .526E−04 .840E−04 .131E−03 .201E−03

.631E−01 .894E−01 .125 .171 .232 .310 .409 .534 .689 .880

.325E−01 .467E−01 .660E−01 .918E−01 .126 .170 .227 .300 .391 .505

.208E−01 .300E−01 .427E−01 .598E−01 .825E−01 .112 .151 .200 .263 .341

.110E−01 .161E−01 .230E−01 .325E−01 .451E−01 .618E−01 .835E−01 .111 .147 .192

.698E−02 .102E−01 .147E−01 .208E−01 .290E−01 .398E−01 .540E−01 .723E−01 .957E−01 .125

.352E−02 .516E−02 .743E−02 .105E−01 .147E−01 .202E−01 .274E−01 .366E−01 .485E−01 .634E−01

.110E−02 .161E−02 .232E−02 .329E−02 .460E−02 .633E−02 .858E−02 .115E−01 .152E−01 .199E−01

.300E−03 .442E−03 .638E−03 .906E−03 .127E−02 .174E−02 .237E−02 .317E−02 .420E−02 .548E−02

.248 .316 .400 .502 .624 .770

.162 .208 .264 .331 .413 .511

.820E−01 .105 .133 .167 .208 .256

.257E−01 .328E−01 .415E−01 .520E−01 .646E−01 .795E−01

.708E−02 .905E−02 .114E−01 .143E−01 .178E−01 .218E−01

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.154 .213 .290 .389 .514 .673 .870 1.112 1.407 1.763

.104 .146 .201 .273 .366 .485 .635 .822 1.052 1.335

300 310 320 330 340 350

2.190 2.696 3.292 3.990 4.801 5.738

1.676 2.088 2.578 3.159 3.843 4.641

1.112 1.394 1.732 2.133 2.608 3.164

.646 .817 1.025 1.274 1.571 1.922

.437 .556 .701 .875 1.083 1.331

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2-80

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-13

Sulfur Trioxide Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions* Weight percent, H2SO4

°C

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

75.0

80.0

85.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.644E−29 .149E−27 .278E−26 .426E−25 .549E−24 .602E−23 .573E−22 .477E−21 .352E−20 .233E−19

.103E−27 .223E−26 .394E−25 .577E−24 .714E−23 .757E−22 .699E−21 .567E−20 .410E−19 .266E−18

.205E−26 .395E−25 .626E−24 .832E−23 .941E−22 .921E−21 .789E−20 .599E−19 .408E−18 .250E−17

.688E−25 .113E−23 .156E−22 .181E−21 .181E−20 .158E−19 .122E−18 .843E−18 .524E−17 .296E−16

.368E−23 .522E−22 .621E−21 .630E−20 .555E−19 .429E−18 .294E−17 .181E−16 .101E−15 .516E−15

.341E−21 .415E−20 .426E−19 .376E−18 .288E−17 .195E−16 .118E−15 .643E−15 .319E−14 .145E−13

.784E−19 .796E−18 .685E−17 .509E−16 .331E−15 .191E−14 .985E−14 .461E−13 .197E−12 .775E−12

.174E−17 .158E−16 .121E−15 .808E−15 .473E−14 .246E−13 .116E−12 .492E−12 .192E−11 .693E−11

.531E−16 .417E−15 .280E−14 .164E−13 .851E−13 .395E−12 .165E−11 .634E−11 .223E−10 .731E−10

.229E−14 .141E−13 .767E−13 .371E−12 .162E−11 .643E−11 .234E−10 .791E−10 .249E−09 .734E−09

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.139E−18 .756E−18 .377E−17 .174E−16 .743E−16 .297E−15 .111E−14 .393E−14 .131E−13 .415E−13

.157E−17 .844E−17 .418E−16 .191E−15 .815E−15 .325E−14 .122E−13 .430E−13 .144E−12 .458E−12

.140E−16 .719E−16 .340E−15 .150E−14 .615E−14 .237E−13 .862E−13 .296E−12 .967E−12 .301E−11

.153E−15 .730E−15 .323E−14 .133E−13 .517E−13 .188E−12 .649E−12 .212E−11 .622E−11 .197E−10

.242E−14 .105E−13 .424E−13 .160E−12 .569E−12 .191E−11 .608E−11 .184E−10 .532E−10 .147E−09

.606E−13 .236E−12 .858E−12 .293E−11 .943E−11 .287E−10 .833E−10 .231E−09 .610E−09 .155E−08

.283E−11 .961E−11 .307E−10 .922E−10 .262E−09 .710E−09 .183E−08 .453E−08 .107E−07 .246E−07

.232E−10 .729E−10 .215E−09 .601E−09 .159E−08 .403E−08 .974E−08 .226E−07 .505E−07 .109E−06

.223E−09 .641E−09 .174E−08 .446E−08 .109E−07 .256E−07 .575E−07 .125E−06 .260E−06 .527E−06

.204E−08 .538E−08 .135E−07 .324E−07 .745E−07 .165E−06 .351E−06 .725E−06 .145E−05 .282E−05

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.125E−12 .362E−12 .100E−11 .265E−11 .678E−11 .167E−10 .399E−10 .920E−10 .206E−09 .449E−09

.139E−11 .404E−11 .112E−10 .301E−10 .777E−10 .193E−09 .466E−09 .109E−08 .247E−08 .545E−08

.893E−11 .254E−10 .695E−10 .183E−09 .465E−09 .114E−08 .272E−08 .628E−08 .141E−07 .308E−07

.561E−10 .154E−09 .405E−09 .103E−08 .253E−08 .602E−08 .139E−07 .312E−07 .683E−07 .145E−06

.391E−09 .100E−08 .246E−08 .587E−08 .135E−07 .303E−07 .660E−07 .140E−06 .288E−06 .580E−06

.379E−08 .894E−08 .204E−07 .450E−07 .965E−07 .201E−06 .408E−06 .807E−06 .156E−05 .295E−05

.542E−07 .116E−06 .240E−06 .482E−06 .944E−06 .180E−05 .336E−05 .612E−05 .109E−04 .191E−04

.228E−06 .462E−06 .911E−06 .175E−05 .328E−05 .600E−05 .108E−04 .189E−04 .326E−04 .553E−04

.103E−05 .198E−05 .368E−05 .668E−05 .119E−04 .206E−04 .352E−04 .590E−04 .973E−04 .158E−03

.534E−05 .986E−05 .178E−04 .314E−04 .543E−04 .923E−04 .154E−03 .253E−03 .408E−03 .649E−03

300 310 320 330 340 350

.953E−09 .197E−08 .397E−08 .782E−08 .151E−07 .285E−07

.117E−07 .245E−07 .502E−07 .100E−06 .196E−06 .376E−06

.657E−07 .136E−06 .277E−06 .551E−06 .107E−05 .204E−05

.302E−06 .614E−06 .122E−05 .237E−05 .452E−05 .846E−05

.114E−05 .220E−05 .414E−05 .766E−05 .139E−04 .246E−04

.546E−05 .990E−05 .176E−04 .308E−04 .529E−04 .893E−04

.329E−04 .556E−04 .923E−04 .151E−03 .243E−03 .387E−03

.921E−04 .151E−03 .245E−03 .391E−03 .617E−03 .963E−03

.253E−03 .398E−03 .621E−03 .956E−03 .145E−02 .219E−02

.102E−02 .158E−02 .242E−02 .367E−02 .550E−02 .815E−02

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley.

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VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-13

2-81

Sulfur Trioxide Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions (Concluded ) Weight percent, H2SO4

°C

90.0

92.0

94.0

96.0

97.0

98.0

98.5

99.0

99.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.671E−13 .345E−12 .159E−11 .664E−11 .254E−10 .897E−10 .294E−09 .904E−09 .261E−08 .712E−08

.216E−12 .107E−11 .475E−11 .192E−10 .709E−10 .242E−09 .771E−09 .230E−08 .643E−08 .171E−07

.677E−12 .326E−11 .141E−10 .557E−10 .201E−09 .669E−09 .207E−08 .602E−08 .165E−07 .426E−07

.240E−11 .114E−10 .482E−10 .186E−09 .655E−09 .214E−08 .647E−08 .184E−07 .492E−07 .124E−06

.500E−11 .234E−10 .986E−10 .376E−09 .131E−08 .424E−08 .127E−07 .357E−07 .946E−07 .237E−06

.124E−10 .578E−10 .241E−09 .911E−09 .315E−08 .101E−07 .299E−07 .833E−07 .218E−06 .541E−06

.224E−10 .104E−09 .433E−09 .163E−08 .562E−08 .179E−07 .528E−07 .146E−06 .381E−06 .940E−06

.502E−10 .232E−09 .961E−09 .360E−08 .123E−07 .391E−07 .115E−06 .316E−06 .820E−06 .201E−05

.182E−09 .839E−09 .346E−08 .129E−07 .440E−07 .139E−06 .405E−06 .111E−05 .286E−05 .698E−05

.755E−09 .347E−08 .142E−07 .528E−07 .179E−06 .560E−06 .163E−05 .444E−05 .114E−04 .276E−04

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.184E−07 .456E−07 .108E−06 .244E−06 .533E−06 .112E−05 .229E−05 .453E−05 .870E−05 .163E−04

.430E−07 .103E−06 .238E−06 .526E−06 .112E−05 .230E−05 .459E−05 .886E−05 .166E−04 .304E−04

.105E−06 .247E−06 .555E−06 .120E−05 .250E−05 .504E−05 .983E−05 .186E−04 .343E−04 .615E−04

.300E−06 .689E−06 .152E−05 .321E−05 .656E−05 .129E−04 .247E−04 .459E−04 .829E−04 .146E−03

.565E−06 .128E−05 .280E−05 .586E−05 .118E−04 .231E−04 .438E−04 .806E−04 .144E−03 .252E−03

.127E−05 .287E−05 .619E−05 .128E−04 .257E−04 .497E−04 .932E−04 .170E−03 .301E−03 .520E−03

.220E−05 .494E−05 .106E−04 .219E−04 .435E−04 .837E−04 .156E−03 .283E−03 .499E−03 .859E−03

.470E−05 .105E−04 .224E−04 .459E−04 .910E−04 .174E−03 .324E−03 .586E−03 .103E−02 .177E−02

.162E−04 .359E−04 .764E−04 .156E−03 .308E−03 .588E−03 .109E−02 .196E−02 .343E−02 .587E−02

.638E−04 .141E−03 .298E−03 .606E−03 .119E−02 .226E−02 .416E−02 .746E−02 .130E−01 .222E−01

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.297E−04 .528E−04 .919E−04 .157E−03 .261E−03 .428E−03 .690E−03 .109E−02 .170E−02 .261E−02

.543E−04 .946E−04 .161E−03 .269E−03 .441E−03 .708E−03 .112E−02 .174E−02 .266E−02 .401E−02

.108E−03 .185E−03 .309E−03 .508E−03 .819E−03 .130E−02 .202E−02 .309E−02 .466E−02 .694E−02

.251E−03 .422E−03 .694E−03 .112E−02 .178E−02 .276E−02 .423E−02 .638E−02 .948E−02 .139E−01

.429E−03 .714E−03 .117E−02 .187E−02 .293E−02 .453E−02 .688E−02 .103E−01 .152E−01 .221E−01

.878E−03 .145E−02 .235E−02 .373E−02 .582E−02 .891E−02 .134E−01 .200E−01 .293E−01 .423E−01

.144E−02 .237E−02 .383E−02 .605E−02 .939E−02 .143E−01 .215E−01 .319E−01 .465E−01 .670E−01

.296E−02 .486E−02 .781E−02 .123E−01 .191E−01 .291E−01 .437E−01 .646E−01 .943E−01 .136

.981E−02 .161E−01 .258E−01 .405E−01 .627E−01 .955E−01 .143 .212 .309 .444

.370E−01 .603E−01 .965E−01 .152 .234 .356 .532 .786 1.144 1.646

300 310 320 330 340 350

.395E−02 .589E−02 .868E−02 .126E−01 .181E−01 .258E−01

.595E−02 .873E−02 .126E−01 .181E−01 .255E−01 .357E−01

.102E−01 .148E−01 .211E−01 .299E−01 .418E−01 .578E−01

.201E−01 .287E−01 .405E−01 .565E−01 .780E−01 .107

.318E−01 .451E−01 .632E−01 .877E−01 .120 .164

.604E−01 .852E−01 .119 .164 .224 .303

.953E−01 .134 .186 .256 .348 .470

.193 .272 .378 .520 .708 .956

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

.632 .889 1.236 1.703 2.323 3.142

100.0

2.339 3.289 4.575 6.303 8.603 11.640

TABLE 2-14

Sulfuric Acid Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid* Weight Percent, H2SO4

°C

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

75.0

80.0

85.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.576E−21 .634E−20 .588E−19 .468E−18 .324E−17 .197E−16 .107E−15 .526E−15 .235E−14 .960E−14

.843E−20 .874E−19 .769E−18 .584E−17 .389E−16 .229E−15 .121E−14 .581E−14 .254E−13 .102E−12

.141E−18 .131E−17 .104E−16 .721E−16 .441E−15 .241E−14 .119E−13 .535E−13 .221E−12 .844E−12

.344E−17 .276E−16 .193E−15 .119E−14 .649E−14 .320E−13 .144E−12 .592E−12 .225E−11 .798E−11

.109E−15 .769E−15 .474E−14 .259E−13 .127E−12 .562E−12 .228E−11 .851E−11 .295E−10 .956E−10

.438E−14 .273E−13 .149E−12 .725E−12 .317E−11 .126E−10 .462E−10 .156E−09 .492E−09 .145E−08

.249E−12 .135E−11 .649E−11 .278E−10 .108E−09 .380E−09 .124E−08 .373E−08 .105E−07 .279E−07

.200E−11 .101E−10 .447E−10 .178E−09 .643E−09 .212E−08 .646E−08 .183E−07 .485E−07 .121E−06

.161E−10 .743E−10 .305E−09 .113E−08 .379E−08 .117E−07 .334E−07 .888E−07 .222E−06 .522E−06

.121E−09 .490E−09 .179E−08 .594E−08 .181E−07 .513E−07 .135E−06 .336E−06 .786E−06 .175E−05

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.353E−13 .127E−12 .418E−12 .129E−11 .375E−11 .103E−10 .272E−10 .682E−10 .164E−09 .378E−09

.381E−12 .132E−11 .432E−11 .132E−10 .385E−10 .106E−09 .279E−09 .702E−09 .170E−08 .394E−08

.300E−11 .997E−11 .312E−10 .924E−10 .259E−09 .694E−09 .178E−08 .436E−08 .103E−07 .234E−07

.264E−10 .824E−10 .243E−09 .678E−09 .181E−08 .460E−08 .112E−07 .264E−07 .599E−07 .131E−06

.291E−09 .835E−09 .227E−08 .589E−08 .146E−07 .346E−07 .789E−07 .174E−06 .369E−06 .760E−06

.402E−08 .106E−07 .264E−07 .631E−07 .144E−06 .316E−06 .670E−06 .137E−05 .271E−05 .521E−05

.698E−07 .166E−06 .375E−06 .814E−06 .169E−05 .340E−05 .659E−05 .124E−04 .225E−04 .400E−04

.287E−06 .644E−06 .138E−05 .285E−05 .565E−05 .108E−04 .200E−04 .359E−04 .627E−04 .107E−03

.117E−05 .249E−05 .508E−05 .995E−05 .188E−04 .343E−04 .608E−04 .104E−03 .175E−03 .286E−03

.371E−05 .752E−05 .147E−04 .277E−04 .503E−04 .889E−04 .152E−03 .255E−03 .416E−03 .663E−03

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.842E−09 .181E−08 .376E−08 .758E−08 .148E−07 .283E−07 .526E−07 .954E−07 .169E−06 .294E−06

.883E−08 .191E−07 .401E−07 .817E−07 .162E−06 .312E−06 .588E−06 .108E−05 .194E−05 .342E−05

.514E−07 .109E−06 .226E−06 .455E−06 .889E−06 .170E−05 .316E−05 .577E−05 .103E−04 .180E−04

.278E−06 .573E−06 .115E−05 .224E−05 .427E−05 .793E−05 .144E−04 .257E−04 .450E−04 .771E−04

.152E−05 .295E−05 .559E−05 .103E−04 .186E−04 .329E−04 .569E−04 .965E−04 .161E−03 .263E−03

.975E−05 .178E−04 .316E−04 .549E−04 .935E−04 .156E−03 .255E−03 .411E−03 .650E−03 .101E−02

.691E−04 .117E−03 .193E−03 .311E−03 .494E−03 .770E−03 .118E−02 .178E−02 .265E−02 .389E−02

.177E−03 .288E−03 .459E−03 .717E−03 .110E−02 .166E−02 .247E−02 .362E−02 .524E−02 .750E−02

.457E−03 .715E−03 .110E−02 .166E−02 .245E−02 .358E−02 .516E−02 .733E−02 .103E−01 .143E−01

.104E−02 .159E−02 .239E−02 .354E−02 .515E−02 .740E−02 .105E−01 .147E−01 .203E−01 .278E−01

300 310 320 330 340 350

.500E−06 .834E−06 .137E−05 .220E−05 .349E−05 .544E−05

.591E−05 .100E−04 .167E−04 .273E−04 .440E−04 .698E−04

.309E−04 .522E−04 .865E−04 .141E−03 .227E−03 .360E−03

.130E−03 .215E−03 .352E−03 .565E−03 .895E−03 .140E−02

.424E−03 .672E−03 .105E−02 .162E−02 .246E−02 .369E−02

.156E−02 .236E−02 .352E−02 .519E−02 .757E−02 .109E−01

.563E−02 .805E−02 .114E−01 .159E−01 .221E−01 .303E−01

.106E−01 .148E−01 .205E−01 .281E−01 .382E−01 .516E−01

.196E−01 .266E−01 .359E−01 .480E−01 .636E−01 .836E−01

.376E−01 .504E−01 .670E−01 .883E−01 .116 .150

°C

90.0

92.0

94.0

96.0

97.0

98.0

98.5

99.0

99.5

100.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.534E−09 .200E−08 .677E−08 .211E−07 .607E−07 .163E−06 .411E−06 .976E−06 .220E−05 .473E−05

.803E−09 .296E−08 .993E−08 .306E−07 .870E−07 .231E−06 .575E−06 .135E−05 .302E−05 .642E−05

.112E−08 .409E−08 .136E−07 .415E−07 .117E−06 .309E−06 .765E−06 .179E−05 .396E−05 .835E−05

.148E−08 .540E−08 .179E−07 .543E−07 .153E−06 .400E−06 .985E−06 .229E−05 .504E−05 .106E−04

.167E−08 .609E−08 .201E−07 .611E−07 .171E−06 .449E−06 .110E−05 .256E−05 .562E−05 .118E−04

.187E−08 .679E−08 .224E−07 .680E−07 .191E−06 .498E−06 .122E−05 .283E−05 .622E−05 .130E−04

.196E−08 .714E−08 .236E−07 .714E−07 .200E−06 .523E−06 .128E−05 .297E−05 .652E−05 .136E−04

.206E−08 .750E−08 .247E−07 .749E−07 .210E−06 .548E−06 .134E−05 .310E−05 .681E−05 .143E−04

.217E−08 .788E−08 .260E−07 .786E−07 .220E−06 .574E−06 .140E−05 .325E−05 .712E−05 .149E−04

.228E−08 .827E−08 .273E−07 .824E−07 .230E−06 .600E−06 .147E−05 .339E−05 .743E−05 .155E−04

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.973E−05 .192E−04 .366E−04 .672E−04 .120E−03 .207E−03 .348E−03 .572E−03 .917E−03 .144E−02

.131E−04 .256E−04 .482E−04 .879E−04 .155E−03 .266E−03 .444E−03 .723E−03 .115E−02 .179E−02

.169E−04 .328E−04 .614E−04 .111E−03 .195E−03 .332E−03 .550E−03 .889E−03 .140E−02 .217E−02

.213E−04 .412E−04 .767E−04 .138E−03 .241E−03 .408E−03 .673E−03 .108E−02 .170E−02 .262E−02

.237E−04 .457E−04 .849E−04 .153E−03 .266E−03 .449E−03 .740E−03 .119E−02 .186E−02 .286E−02

.261E−04 .503E−04 .935E−04 .168E−03 .292E−03 .493E−03 .810E−03 .130E−02 .204E−02 .312E−02

.274E−04 .527E−04 .977E−04 .175E−03 .304E−03 .514E−03 .844E−03 .135E−02 .212E−02 .325E−02

.285E−04 .549E−04 .102E−03 .182E−03 .316E−03 .534E−03 .876E−03 .140E−02 .220E−02 .336E−02

.298E−04 .572E−04 .106E−03 .190E−03 .329E−03 .554E−03 .909E−03 .145E−02 .227E−02 .348E−02

.310E−04 .595E−04 .110E−03 .197E−03 .341E−03 .574E−03 .941E−03 .150E−02 .235E−02 .359E−02

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.221E−02 .333E−02 .494E−02 .719E−02 .103E−01 .146E−01 .203E−01 .279E−01 .380E−01 .510E−01

.273E−02 .408E−02 .601E−02 .869E−02 .124E−01 .174E−01 .240E−01 .329E−01 .444E−01 .592E−01

.329E−02 .490E−02 .715E−02 .103E−01 .146E−01 .203E−01 .279E−01 .380E−01 .510E−01 .676E−01

.395E−02 .585E−02 .850E−02 .122E−01 .171E−01 .238E−01 .326E−01 .441E−01 .589E−01 .778E−01

.431E−02 .637E−02 .924E−02 .132E−01 .186E−01 .257E−01 .352E−01 .475E−01 .633E−01 .835E−01

.470E−02 .693E−02 .100E−01 .143E−01 .201E−01 .278E−01 .380E−01 .513E−01 .683E−01 .900E−01

.488E−02 .720E−02 .104E−01 .149E−01 .209E−01 .289E−01 .394E−01 .531E−01 .706E−01 .930E−01

.505E−02 .744E−02 .108E−01 .153E−01 .215E−01 .297E−01 .405E−01 .545E−01 .725E−01 .954E−01

.522E−02 .768E−02 .111E−01 .158E−01 .221E−01 .305E−01 .416E−01 .560E−01 .744E−01 .978E−01

.538E−02 .791E−02 .114E−01 .162E−01 .227E−01 .314E−01 .427E−01 .574E−01 .762E−01 .100

300 310 320 330 340 350

.678E−01 .892E−01 .116 .150 .192 .243

.782E−01 .102 .132 .170 .216 .272

.888E−01 .115 .149 .190 .240 .301

.102 .132 .169 .214 .270 .337

.109 .141 .180 .228 .287 .358

.117 .151 .193 .245 .307 .383

.121 .156 .199 .252 .317 .394

.124 .160 .204 .258 .328 .402

.127 .164 .209 .263 .330 .410

.130 .167 .213 .269 .386 .417

Weight percent, H2SO4

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, CA, 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley. 2-82

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

TABLE 2-15

Total Pressure, bar, of Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions* Weight percent, H2SO4

°C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

10.0 .582E−02 .117E−01 .223E−01 .404E−01 .703E−01 .117 .189 .296 .449 .664

20.0

30.0

.534E−02 .107E−01 .205E−01 .373E−01 .649E−01 .109 .175 .275 .417 .617

.448E−02 .909E−02 .174E−01 .319E−01 .558E−01 .939E−01 .152 .239 .365 .542

40.0 .326E−02 .670E−02 .130E−01 .241E−01 .427E−01 .725E−01 .119 .188 .290 .434

50.0 .193E−02 .405E−02 .802E−02 .151E−01 .272E−01 .470E−01 .782E−01 .126 .196 .298

60.0 .836E−03 .180E−02 .367E−02 .710E−02 .131E−01 .232E−01 .395E−01 .651E−01 .104 .161

70.0

75.0

80.0

85.0

.207E−03 .467E−03 .995E−03 .201E−02 .387E−02 .715E−02 .127E−01 .217E−01 .360E−01 .578E−01

.747E−04 .175E−03 .388E−03 .811E−03 .162E−02 .309E−02 .565E−02 .997E−01 .170E−01 .281E−01

.197E−04 .490E−04 .115E−03 .253E−03 .531E−03 .106E−02 .204E−02 .376E−02 .668E−02 .115E−01

.343E−05 .952E−05 .245E−04 .589E−04 .134E−03 .286E−03 .584E−03 .114E−02 .213E−02 .383E−02

.905E−01 .138 .206 .301 .431 .605 .837 1.138 1.525 2.017

.452E−01 .708E−01 .108 .162 .236 .339 .478 .662 .902 1.212

.192E−01 .312E−01 .493E−01 .760E−01 .115 .170 .246 .350 .489 .673

.666E−02 .112E−01 .183E−01 .291E−01 .451E−01 .683E−01 .101 .147 .209 .292

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.957 1.349 1.863 2.524 3.361 4.404 5.685 7.236 9.093 11.289

.891 1.258 1.740 2.361 3.149 4.132 5.342 6.810 8.571 10.658

.786 1.113 1.544 2.101 2.810 3.697 4.793 6.127 7.731 9.640

.634 .904 1.264 1.732 2.333 3.090 4.031 5.185 6.584 8.259

.441 .638 .903 1.253 1.708 2.289 3.021 3.930 5.045 6.397

.244 .360 .519 .734 1.020 1.392 1.870 2.475 3.233 4.169

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

13.861 16.841 20.264 24.160 28.561 33.494 38.984 45.055 51.726 59.015

13.107 15.951 19.225 22.960 27.188 31.939 37.240 43.116 49.590 56.681

11.887 14.505 17.529 20.992 24.927 29.364 34.334 39.865 45.984 52.715

10.245 12.576 15.287 18.414 21.992 26.056 30.642 35.784 41.514 47.866

8.020 9.948 12.217 14.864 17.929 21.452 25.472 30.030 35.168 40.926

5.312 6.696 8.354 10.322 12.641 15.351 18.496 22.122 26.275 31.004

2.633 3.396 4.331 5.466 6.832 8.459 10.384 12.642 15.272 18.315

1.606 2.101 2.715 3.468 4.382 5.481 6.791 8.337 10.147 12.250

.913 1.221 1.610 2.098 2.701 3.439 4.332 5.402 6.673 8.170

.402 .544 .726 .956 1.242 1.594 2.023 2.540 3.157 3.886

300 310 320 330 340 350

66.934 75.495 84.705 94.567 105.083 116.251

64.407 72.781 81.816 91.518 101.894 112.947

60.081 68.101 76.792 86.172 96.252 107.043

54.869 62.553 70.947 80.078 89.970 100.647

47.347 54.470 62.338 70.990 80.466 90.806

36.361 42.398 49.168 56.727 65.130 74.437

21.814 25.812 30.355 35.489 41.262 47.723

14.675 17.453 20.611 24.182 28.193 32.674

9.916 11.939 14.264 16.916 19.920 23.303

4.740 5.732 6.876 8.185 9.672 11.351

Weight percent, H2SO4 °C

90.0

92.0

94.0

96.0

97.0

98.0

98.5

99.0

99.5

100.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.518E−06 .159E−05 .449E−05 .117E−04 .385E−04 .653E−04 .141E−03 .291E−03 .571E−03 .107E−02

.243E−06 .765E−06 .221E−05 .590E−05 .147E−04 .344E−04 .759E−04 .159E−03 .319E−03 .612E−03

.109E−06 .348E−06 .102E−05 .279E−05 .708E−05 .169E−04 .380E−04 .813E−04 .166E−03 .324E−03

.416E−07 .136E−06 .407E−06 .113E−05 .293E−05 .712E−05 .164E−04 .357E−04 .742E−04 .148E−03

.235E−07 .774E−07 .235E−06 .659E−06 .173E−05 .425E−05 .987E−05 .218E−04 .458E−04 .921E−04

.117E−07 .391E−07 .121E−06 .344E−06 .914E−06 .228E−05 .538E−05 .120E−04 .257E−04 .524E−04

.768E−08 .261E−07 .812E−07 .234E−06 .630E−06 .159E−05 .379E−05 .856E−05 .184E−04 .390E−04

.479E−08 .166E−07 .528E−07 .155E−06 .425E−06 .109E−05 .264E−05 .605E−05 .132E−04 .277E−04

.313E−08 .113E−07 .373E−07 .114E−06 .323E−06 .861E−06 .216E−05 .514E−05 .117E−04 .253E−04

.323E−08 .124E−07 .435E−07 .141E−06 .425E−06 .120E−05 .319E−05 .804E−05 .193E−04 .441E−04

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.195E−02 .340E−02 .575E−02 .944E−02 .151E−01 .235E−01 .357E−01 .532E−01 .775E−01 .111

.113E−02 .201E−02 .346E−02 .578E−02 .939E−02 .149E−01 .230E−01 .347E−01 .514E−01 .747E−01

.607E−03 .110E−02 .192E−02 .327E−02 .539E−02 .866E−02 .136E−01 .208E−01 .312E−01 .460E−01

.283E−03 .521E−03 .929E−03 .161E−02 .270E−02 .441E−02 .703E−02 .110E−01 .167E−01 .250E−01

.178E−03 .332E−03 .598E−03 .104E−02 .177E−02 .293E−02 .471E−02 .741E−02 .114E−01 .172E−01

.103E−03 .194E−03 .354E−03 .626E−03 .107E−02 .180E−02 .293E−02 .466E−02 .726E−02 .111E−01

.751E−04 .143E−03 .263E−03 .470E−03 .815E−03 .137E−02 .226E−02 .363E−02 .571E−02 .880E−02

.555E−04 .107E−03 .201E−03 .363E−03 .639E−03 .109E−02 .183E−02 .299E−02 .478E−02 .749E−02

.527E−04 .106E−03 .206E−03 .387E−03 .708E−03 .126E−02 .219E−02 .372E−02 .619E−02 .101E−01

.966E−04 .204E−03 .414E−03 .314E−03 .155E−02 .287E−02 .516E−02 .905E−02 .155E−01 .260E−01

.665E−01 .944E−01 .132 .182 .247 .331 .439 .575 .744 .954

.367E−01 .530E−01 .752E−01 .105 .145 .197 .264 .351 .460 .597

.255E−01 .371E−01 .531E−01 .749E−01 .104 .143 .193 .258 .341 .446

.166E−01 .245E−01 .354E−01 .505E−01 .710E−01 .985E−01 .135 .153 .245 .324

.133E−01 .198E−01 .289E−01 .417E−01 .592E−01 .830E−01 .115 .157 .213 .285

.115E−01 .175E−01 .260E−01 .382E−01 .553E−01 .790E−01 .112 .156 .215 .295

.161E−01 .253E−01 .392E−01 .596E−01 .895E−01 .132 .193 .279 .398 .562

.427E−01 .687E−01 .109 .169 .258 .389 .577 .846 1.225 1.751

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.156 .216 .295 .396 .525 .688 .881 1.141 1.447 1.817

.107 .150 .207 .282 .379 .503 .660 .856 1.099 1.398

300 310 320 330 340 350

2.261 2.791 3.417 4.153 5.011 6.006

1.761 2.199 2.723 3.347 4.084 4.949

1.211 1.524 1.901 2.353 2.889 3.523

.767 .977 1.234 1.545 1.919 2.366

.578 .742 .944 1.191 1.491 1.852

.425 .553 .713 .911 1.156 1.456

.379 .498 .649 .840 1.078 1.374

.399 .536 .714 .944 1.239 1.614

.785 1.085 1.486 2.018 2.718 3.631

2.476 3.465 4.800 6.586 8.957 12.079

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley. 2-83

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2-84

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-16

Partial Pressures of HNO3 and H2O over Aqueous Solutions of HNO3 mmHg Percentages are weight % HNO3 in solution. 20%

°C

25% H2O

HNO3

HNO3

30% H2O

HNO3

35% H2O

0 5 10 15 20

4.1 5.7 8.0 10.9 15.2

3.8 5.4 7.6 10.3 14.2

3.6 5.0 7.1 9.7 13.2

25 30 35 40 45

20.6 27.6 36.5 47.5 62

19.2 25.7 33.8 44 57.5

17.8 23.8 31.1 41 53

0.09

0.11 .17

40%

HNO3

H2O

45%

HNO3

H2O

3.3 4.6 6.5 8.9 12.0 16.2 21.7 28.3 37.7 48

0.09 .13 .20 .28

0.12 .17 .25 .36 .52

50%

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

3.0 4.2 5.8 8.0 10.8

H2O

0.10 .15

2.6 3.6 5.0 6.9 9.4

0.12 .18 .27

2.1 3.0 4.2 5.8 7.9

14.6 19.5 25.5 33.5 43

.23 .33 .48 .68 .96

12.7 16.9 22.3 29.3 38.0

.39 .56 .80 1.13 1.57

10.7 14.4 19.0 25.0 32.5

49.5 62.5 80 100 126

2.18 2.95 4.05 5.46 7.25

42.5 54 70 88 110

50 55 60 65 70

0.09 .13 .19 .27

80 100 128 162 200

.13 .18 .28 .40 .54

75 94 121 151 187

.25 .35 .51 .71 1.00

69 87 113 140 174

.42 .59 .85 1.18 1.63

63 79 102 127 159

.75 1.04 1.48 2.05 2.80

56 71 90 114 143

1.35 1.83 2.54 3.47 4.65

75 80 85 90 95

.38 .53 .74 1.01 1.37

250 307 378 458 555

.77 1.05 1.44 1.95 2.62

234 287 352 426 517

1.38 1.87 2.53 3.38 4.53

217 267 325 393 478

2.26 3.07 4.15 5.50 7.32

198 243 297 359 436

3.80 5.10 6.83 9.0 11.7

178 218 268 325 394

6.20 8.15 10.7 13.7 17.8

158 195 240 292 355

9.6 12.5 16.3 20.9 26.8

138 170 211 258 315

100 105 110 115 120

1.87 2.50

675 800

3.50 4.65

628 745

6.05 7.90

580 690

530 631 755

15.5 20.0 25.7 32.5

480 573 688 810

23.0 29.2 37.0 46

430 520 625 740

34.2 43.0 54.5 67 84

383 463 560 665 785

°C

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

H2O

0 5 10 15 20

0.14 .21 .31 .45

1.8 2.5 3.5 4.9 6.7

0.19 .28 .41 .59 .84

1.5 2.1 3.0 4.1 5.6

0.41 .60 .86 1.21 1.68

1.3 1.8 2.6 3.5 4.9

0.79 1.12 1.58 2.18 3.00

1.1 1.6 2.2 3.0 4.1

25 30 35 40 45

.66 .93 1.30 1.82 2.50

9.1 12.2 16.1 21.3 28.0

1.21 1.66 2.28 3.10 4.20

7.7 10.3 13.6 18.1 23.7

2.32 3.17 4.26 5.70 7.55

6.6 8.8 11.6 15.5 20.0

4.10 5.50 7.30 9.65 12.6

5.5 7.4 9.8 12.8 16.7

50 55 60 65 70

3.41 4.54 6.15 8.18 10.7

36.3 46 60 76 95

5.68 7.45 9.9 13.0 16.8

31 39 51 64 81

10.0 12.8 16.8 21.7 27.5

26.0 33.0 43.0 54.5 68

16.5 21.0 27.1 34.5 43.3

21.8 27.3 35.3 44.5 56

75 80 85 90 95

13.9 18.0 23.0 29.4 37.3

120 148 182 223 272

21.8 27.5 34.8 43.7 55.0

102 126 156 192 233

35.0 43.5 54.5 67.5 83.5

100 105 110 115 120 125

47 58.5 73 90 110

331 400 485 575 685

69.5 84.5 103 126 156 187

285 345 417 495 590 700

55%

60%

9.7 12.7 16.5

65%

103 124 152 181 218 260

70%

80% HNO3

90%

100%

H2O

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

2 3 4 6 8

1.2 1.7 2.4

5.5 8 11 15 20

10.5 14 18.5 24.5 32

3.2 4 5.5 7 9.5

27 36 47 62 80

1 1.3 1.8 2.4 3

57 77 102 133 170

11 15 22 30 42

41 52 67 85 106

12 15 20 25 31

103 127 157 192 232

4 5 6.5 8 10

215 262 320 385 460 540 625 720 820

86 106 131 160 195

54.5 67.5 83 103 125

70 86 107 130 158

130 158 192 230 278

38 48 60 73 89

282 338 405 480 570

13 16 20 24 29

238 288 345 410 490 580

152 183 221 262 312 372

192 231 278 330 393 469

330 392 465 545 640

108 129 155 185 219

675 790

35 42

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VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-17 Partial Pressures of H2O and HBr over Aqueous Solutions of HBr at 20 to 55°C mmHg 20°C

% HBr

HBr

32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60

25°C H2O

0.09 .23 .71 2.2 6.8 21

6.2 4.5 3.3 2.4 1.7 1.3

HBr

50°C H2O

0.0016 .0022 .0033 .0061 .011 .023 .048 .10 .13 .37 1.1 3.2 9.3 27

HBr

8.2 6.1 4.5 3.3 2.4 1.9

1.3 3.2 7.2 17 40 91

TABLE 2-20 Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of CH3COOH Percentages of weight % acetic acid in the solution mmHg

55°C

H2O

HBr

30.2 24.3 19.3 16.0 13.3 10.4

H2O

2.0 4.6 10.2 23.0 51 115 260

2-85

°C

25%

50%

75%

20 25 30 35 40

16.3 22.1 29.6 39.4 51.7

15.7 21.4 28.8 38.3 50.2

15.3 20.8 27.8 36.6 48.1

45 50 55 60 65

67.0 87.2 110 141 178

65.0 85.0 107 138 172

62.0 80.1 102 130 162

70 75 80 85 90

223 277 342 419 510

216 269 331 407 497

203 251 310 376 458

95 100

618 743

602 725

550 666

38 31 25 21 18 14 11.4

TABLE 2-18 Partial Pressures of HI over Aqueous Solutions of HI at 25°C mmHg %HI pHI

4 0.00064

46 0.0010

48 0.0022

50 0.0050

52 0.013

54 0.035

56 0.10

TABLE 2-19 Vapor Pressures of the System: Water-Sulfuric Acid-Nitric Acid For these data reference must be made to the graphs of International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 306–308.

TABLE 2-21

FIG. 2-3 Vapor pressure of aqueous diethylene glycol solutions. (Courtesy of Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp.)

Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of NH3* Pressures are in pounds per square inch absolute Molal concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages (Weight concentration of ammonia in the solution in percentages)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

t, °F

(0)

32 40 50 60 70

0.09 0.084 .12 .115 .18 .17 .26 .24 .36 .34

0.079 .108 .16 .23 .32

0.074 .101 .15 .21 .30

0.070 .095 .14 .20 .28

0.065 .089 .13 .19 .26

0.060 .083 .12 .17 .25

0.056 .076 .11 .16 .23

0.051 .070 .10 .15 .21

0.047 .064 .094 .13 .19

0.042 .058 .085 .12 .17

0.038 .052 .076 .11 .15

0.034 .046 .068 .097 .14

0.030 .040 .059 .085 .12

0.025 .035 .051 .073 .10

0.021 .029 .042 .061 .086

0.017 .023 .034 .049 .069

0.013 .015 .025 .037 .052

0.008 .012 .017 .024 .034

0.004 .006 .008 .012 .017

80 90 100 110 120

.51 .48 .70 .66 .95 .90 1.27 1.20 1.69 1.60

.45 .63 .85 1.14 1.51

.42 .58 .79 1.07 1.42

.40 .55 .74 1.00 1.33

.37 .51 .69 .93 1.24

.34 .47 .64 .86 1.15

.32 .44 .59 .80 1.06

.29 .40 .55 .73 .97

.27 .37 .50 .67 .89

.24 .33 .45 .60 .80

.22 .30 .41 .54 .72

.19 .26 .36 .48 .64

.17 .23 .31 .42 .56

.14 .20 .27 .36 .48

.12 .16 .22 .30 .40

.096 .13 .18 .24 .32

.072 .10 .13 .18 .24

.048 .066 .090 .120 .160

.024 .033 .045 .061 .081

130 140 150 160 170

2.22 2.89 3.72 4.74 5.99

2.10 2.73 3.51 4.48 5.66

1.98 2.57 3.31 4.22 5.34

1.86 2.42 3.11 3.97 5.02

1.74 2.26 2.91 3.71 4.70

1.62 2.11 2.72 3.46 4.38

1.51 1.96 2.52 3.22 4.07

1.39 1.81 2.33 2.97 3.75

1.28 1.66 2.14 2.73 3.45

1.17 1.52 1.95 2.49 3.15

1.05 1.37 1.76 2.25 2.84

.95 1.23 1.59 2.02 2.56

.84 1.10 1.41 1.80 2.28

.74 .96 1.24 1.58 1.99

.63 .82 1.06 1.35 1.71

.53 .69 .88 1.12 1.42

.42 .55 .71 .90 1.13

.32 .41 .53 .67 1.85

.210 .270 .350 .450 .570

.100 .140 .180 .220 .300

180 7.51 7.10 190 9.34 8.83 200 11.53 10.90 210 14.12 13.35 220 17.19 16.25

6.69 8.32 10.27 12.58 15.32

6.30 7.82 9.65 11.82 14.39

5.89 7.32 9.04 11.07 13.48

5.49 6.83 8.43 10.32 12.57

5.10 6.34 7.83 9.59 11.67

4.71 5.86 7.23 8.86 10.78

4.33 5.38 6.64 8.13 9.90

3.94 4.91 6.06 7.42 9.03

3.57 4.44 5.48 6.71 8.17

3.21 3.99 4.93 6.04 7.31

2.85 3.55 4.38 5.34

2.50 3.10 3.81

2.14 2.65

1.77

1.42

1.06

230 20.78 19.64 240 24.97 23.60 250 29.83 28.20

18.51 22.25 26.58

17.40 20.91 25.00

16.29 19.58 23.39

15.19 18.26 21.82

14.11 16.95 20.25

13.03 15.66 18.71

11.97 14.38 17.18

10.91 13.12 15.67

9.87 11.86

(4.74) (9.50) (14.29) (19.10) (23.94) (28.81) (33.71) (38.64) (43.59) (48.57) (53.58) (58.62) (63.69) (68.79) (73.91) (79.07) (84.26) (89.47) (94.72)

*Wilson, Univ. Ill., Eng. Expt. Sta. Bull. 146.

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TABLE 2-22

Mole Percentages of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of NH3* Molal concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages (Weight concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages)

t, °F

0 (0)

5 (4.74)

10 (9.50)

15 (14.29)

20 (19.10)

25 (23.94)

30 (28.81)

35 (33.71)

40 (38.64)

45 (43.59)

50 (48.57)

55 (53.58)

60 (58.62)

65 (63.69)

70 (68.79)

75 (73.91)

80 (79.07)

85 (84.26)

90 (89.47)

95 (94.72)

32 40 50 60 70

100 100 100 100 100

24.3 25.3 26.6 27.9 29.1

13.2 14.1 15.2 16.2 17.4

7.63 8.15 9.09 9.50 10.30

4.43 4.73 5.24 5.69 6.14

2.50 2.74 3.03 3.42 3.65

1.43 1.59 1.78 1.97 2.27

0.856 .943 1.060 1.210 1.390

0.514 .581 .652 .777 .873

0.335 .372 .434 .481 .569

0.216 .248 .290 .331 .383

0.151 .172 .202 .238 .266

0.109 .124 .148 .172 .205

0.0816 .0914 .1095 .1290 .1510

0.0585 .0706 .0838 .0986 .112

0.0457 .0533 .0630 .0754 .0882

0.0345 .0395 .0477 .0566 .0656

0.0249 .0243 .0332 .0406 .0474

0.0146 .0185 .0215 .0251 .0296

0.00689 .00879 .00959 .01125 .0135

80 90 100 110 120

100 100 100 100 100

31.6 32.7 34.4 35.9 37.5

18.5 20.0 21.0 22.2 23.4

11.20 12.00 12.90 13.80 14.70

6.89 7.40 7.92 8.59 9.22

4.08 4.47 4.85 5.29 5.75

2.45 2.73 3.00 3.30 3.63

1.550 1.730 1.890 2.110 2.320

.978 1.100 1.250 1.370 1.520

.659 .742 .834 .932 1.044

.444 .505 .574 .644 .714

.323 .366 .420 .466 .529

.230 .267 .307 .347 .395

.1750 .2020 .2290 .2640 .3020

.130 .157 .179 .208 .233

.103 .115 .135 .157 .180

.0772 .0884 .104 .118 .135

.0528 .0647 .0714 .0846 .0970

.0351 .0408 .0473 .0540 .0619

.0167 .0194 .0226 .0262 .0300

130 140 150 160 170

100 100 100 100 100

39.0 40.7 42.3 44.1 45.6

24.5 25.8 27.1 28.3 29.6

15.60 16.50 17.50 18.40 19.40

9.85 10.50 11.20 11.90 12.70

6.18 6.69 7.19 7.69 8.22

3.95 4.28 4.63 5.01 5.38

2.550 2.790 3.080 3.300 3.580

1.690 1.860 2.040 2.230 2.430

1.160 1.286 1.410 1.550 1.700

.811 .906 1.004 1.110 1.220

.596 .663 .741 .818 .904

.444 .501 .558 .617 .689

.3430 .3840 .4320 .4800 .5300

.263 .297 .334 .372 .414

.205 .232 .257 .287 .320

.154 .175 .197 .218 .242

.1117 .124 .140 .154 .174

.0703 .0786 .0892 .1005 .112

.0339 .0385 .0439 .0499 .0567

180 190 200 210 220

100 100 100 100 100

47.3 48.7 50.4 52.1 53.7

30.9 32.2 33.4 34.7 36.1

20.40 21.40 22.30 23.40 24.40

13.40 14.10 14.90 15.70 16.40

8.76 9.31 9.88 10.45 11.05

5.78 6.18 6.59 7.03 7.48

3.870 4.160 4.470 4.780 5.100

2.640 2.860 3.080 3.310 3.560

1.850 2.020 2.190 2.360 2.540

1.340 1.460 1.580 1.720 1.860

.994 1.087 1.187 1.272 1.390

.756 .830 .907 .983

.5860 .6420 .7010

.456 .501

.352

.268

.192

230 240 250

100 100 100

55.2 56.8 58.4

37.3 38.6 39.8

25.40 26.50 27.50

17.30 18.00 18.80

11.63 12.24 12.88

7.91 8.36 8.82

5.440 5.780 6.120

3.810 4.060 4.340

2.730 2.920 3.120

2.000 2.150

*Wilson, Univ. Ill., Eng. Expt. Sta. Bull. 146.

2-86

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100 (100.00) 0.00

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-23

2-87

Partial Pressures of NH3 over Aqueous Solutions of NH3* Pressures are in pounds per square inch absolute Molal concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages (Weight concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages)

t, °F

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 (4.74) (9.50) (14.29) (19.10) (23.94) (28.81) (33.71) (38.64) (43.59) (48.57) (53.58) (58.62) (63.69) (68.79) (73.91) (79.07) (84.26) (89.47) (94.72)

32 40 50 60 70

0.26 .33 .47 .62 .83

0.52 .66 .89 1.19 1.52

0.90 1.14 1.50 2.00 2.60

1.51 1.92 2.53 3.21 4.28

2.67 3.16 4.16 5.36 6.87

4.27 5.13 6.63 8.48 10.76

6.54 7.98 10.24 13.06 16.33

8.93 11.98 15.24 19.15 23.84

14.13 17.14 21.56 26.92 33.20

19.36 23.33 29.17 36.14 44.25

25.12 30.15 37.46 46.12 56.29

31.13 37.15 45.86 56.22 68.32

36.74 43.69 53.79 65.81 79.42

42.69 49.56 60.82 73.99 89.26

45.92 54.40 66.63 80.90 97.42

49.26 58.31 71.26 86.44 104.01

52.13 61.62 75.22 91.04 109.55

54.89 64.77 79.05 95.67 114.83

58.01 68.31 83.40 100.65 120.61

80 90 100 110 120

1.04 1.36 1.72 2.14 2.67

1.98 2.52 3.20 4.00 4.95

3.34 4.25 5.34 6.65 8.21

5.45 6.88 8.60 10.64 13.09

8.69 10.89 13.53 16.65 20.30

13.52 16.76 20.68 25.21 30.54

20.29 25.04 30.57 37.01 44.56

29.40 35.94 43.57 52.43 62.62

40.69 49.45 59.49 71.20 84.44

53.84 64.99 77.85 92.59 109.40

67.97 81.61 97.27 115.16 135.48

82.36 98.35 116.81 137.62 161.44

95.52 113.79 134.70 158.42 185.14

107.06 127.22 150.23 176.18 205.81

116.42 138.18 162.94 190.85 222.28

124.20 147.02 173.22 203.02 236.05

130.57 154.46 181.97 212.71 247.14

136.35 161.74 190.13 222.22 258.24

143.70 169.73 199.17 232.79 270.02

130 140 150 160 170

3.28 3.97 4.78 5.68 6.75

6.09 7.41 8.92 10.70 12.67

10.05 12.21 14.70 17.57 20.85

15.93 19.23 23.09 27.45 32.41

24.58 29.43 35.09 41.56 48.89

36.74 43.77 51.91 61.03 71.48

53.16 62.97 74.28 86.91 101.09

74.27 87.53 102.51 119.37 138.30

99.69 116.72 136.15 157.71 181.95

128.45 149.93 173.64 200.45 230.36

158.45 184.17 212.91 244.98 280.54

188.16 218.18 251.24 288.38 329.42

215.14 248.70 286.00 327.82 373.61

238.70 275.33 316.24 361.75 411.59

257.87 297.12 340.82 389.08 442.28

272.88 314.45 360.39 411.30 466.67

286.08 328.99 376.57 429.73 487.85

298.46 342.93 392.45 447.35 507.63

311.80 358.46 409.62 466.38 528.50

180 7.90 190 9.23 200 10.70 210 12.26 220 14.02

14.96 17.55 20.45 23.68 27.15

24.56 28.78 33.49 38.76 44.61

38.13 44.49 51.58 59.65 68.43

57.19 66.49 76.90 88.48 101.24

83.07 96.22 110.85 126.83 144.74

116.97 134.89 154.58 176.24 200.46

159.37 182.72 208.56 236.97 268.30

208.66 238.39 270.94 307.08 346.07

263.43 299.86 340.02 383.99 431.43

319.89 363.11 410.17 462.36 518.19

374.25 424.15 478.62 537.56

424.10 479.40 539.79

466.26 526.15

500.63

528.08

551.24

230 15.95 240 17.92 250 20.12

31.09 35.40 40.09

51.06 58.00 65.74

78.14 89.02 100.69

115.45 130.94 147.66

164.17 185.79 209.37

226.67 255.26 286.89

302.53 339.72 380.42

389.29 435.78 486.73

483.53 540.44

*Wilson, Univ. Ill., Eng. Expt. Sta. Bull. 146.

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TABLE 2-24

Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of NH3* Pressures are in pounds per square inch absolute Molal concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages (Weight concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages)

t, °F

0 (0)

5 (4.74)

10 (9.50)

15 (14.29)

20 (19.10)

25 (23.94)

30 (28.81)

35 (33.71)

40 (38.64)

45 (43.59)

50 (48.57)

55 (53.58)

60 (58.62)

65 (63.69)

70 (68.79)

75 (73.91)

80 (79.07)

85 (84.26)

90 (89.47)

95 (94.72)

100 (100.00)

32 40 50 60 70

0.09 .12 .18 .26 .36

0.34 .45 .64 .86 1.17

0.60 .77 1.05 1.42 1.84

0.97 1.24 1.65 2.21 2.90

1.58 2.01 2.67 3.51 4.56

2.60 3.25 4.29 5.55 7.13

4.20 5.21 6.75 8.65 11.01

6.54 8.06 10.35 13.22 16.56

9.93 12.05 15.34 19.30 24.05

14.18 17.20 21.65 27.05 33.39

19.40 23.39 29.26 36.26 44.42

25.16 30.20 37.54 46.23 56.44

31.16 37.20 45.93 56.32 68.46

36.77 43.73 53.85 65.90 79.54

42.72 49.60 60.87 74.06 89.36

45.94 54.43 66.67 80.96 97.51

49.28 58.33 71.29 86.49 104.08

52.14 61.64 75.25 91.08 109.60

54.90 64.78 79.07 95.69 114.86

58.01 68.32 83.41 100.66 120.63

62.29 73.32 89.19 107.6 128.8

80 90 100 110 120

.51 .70 .95 1.27 1.69

1.52 2.02 2.62 3.34 4.27

2.43 3.15 4.05 5.14 6.46

3.76 4.83 6.13 7.72 9.63

5.85 7.43 9.34 11.64 14.42

9.06 11.40 14.22 17.58 21.54

13.86 17.23 21.32 26.07 31.69

20.61 25.48 31.16 37.81 45.62

29.69 36.34 44.12 53.16 63.59

40.96 49.82 59.99 71.87 85.33

54.08 65.32 78.30 93.19 110.2

68.19 81.91 97.68 115.7 136.2

82.55 98.61 117.17 138.10 162.08

95.69 114.02 135.01 158.84 185.70

107.20 127.42 150.50 176.54 206.29

116.54 138.34 163.16 191.15 222.68

124.30 147.15 173.40 203.26 236.37

130.64 154.56 182.10 212.89 247.38

136.40 161.81 190.22 222.34 258.40

143.72 169.76 199.22 232.85 270.1

153.0 180.6 211.9 247.0 286.4

130 140 150 160 170

2.22 2.89 3.72 4.74 5.99

5.38 6.70 8.29 10.16 12.41

8.07 9.98 12.23 14.92 18.01

11.91 14.63 17.81 21.54 25.87

17.67 21.49 26.00 31.16 37.11

26.20 31.54 37.81 45.02 53.27

38.25 45.73 54.43 64.25 75.55

54.55 64.78 76.61 89.88 104.84

75.55 89.19 104.65 122.10 141.75

100.86 118.24 138.1 160.2 185.1

129.5 151.3 175.4 202.7 233.2

159.0 185.4 214.5 247.0 283.1

189.00 219.28 252.65 290.18 331.7

215.88 249.66 287.24 329.4 375.6

239.33 276.15 317.3 363.1 413.3

258.40 297.81 341.7 390.2 443.7

273.3 315.0 361.1 412.2 467.8

286.4 329.4 377.1 430.4 488.7

298.67 343.2 392.8 447.8 508.2

311.9 358.6 409.8 466.6 528.8

330.3 379.1 432.2 492.8 558.4

180 190 200 210 220

7.51 9.34 11.53 14.12 17.19

15.00 18.06 21.60 25.61 30.27

21.65 25.87 30.72 36.26 42.47

30.86 36.60 43.14 50.58 59.00

44.02 51.81 60.62 70.72 81.91

62.68 73.32 85.33 98.80 113.81

88.17 102.56 118.68 136.42 156.41

121.68 140.75 161.81 185.10 211.24

163.7 188.1 215.2 245.1 278.2

212.6 243.3 277.0 314.5 355.1

267.0 304.3 345.5 390.7 439.6

323.1 367.1 415.1 468.4 525.5

377.1 427.7 483.0 542.9

426.6 482.5 543.6

468.4 528.8

502.4

529.5

552.3

230 240 250

20.78 24.97 29.83

35.59 41.52 48.32

49.60 57.65 66.67

68.46 78.91 90.74

94.43 108.60 124.08

130.64 149.20 169.48

178.28 202.74 229.62

239.70 270.92 305.60

314.5 354.1 397.6

400.2 448.9 502.4

493.4 552.3

*Wilson, Univ. Ill., Eng. Expt. Sta. Bull. 146.

2-88

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VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-25 Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Carbonate mmHg %Na2CO3 t, °C

0

5

10

15

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

4.5 9.2 17.5 31.8 55.3 92.5 149.5 239.8 355.5 526.0 760.0

4.5 9.0 17.2 31.2 54.2 90.7 146.5 235 348 516 746

8.8 16.8 30.4 53.0 88.7 143.5 230.5 342 506 731

16.3 29.6 57.6 86.5 139.9 225 334 494 715

20

28.8 50.2 84.1 136.1 219 325 482 697

25

27.8 48.4 81.2 131.6 211.5 315 467 676

30

26.4 46.1 77.5 125.7 202.5 301 447 648

2-89

TABLE 2-26 Partial Pressures of H2O and CH3OH over Aqueous Solutions of Methyl Alcohol* 39.9°C

Mole fraction CH3OH

PH2O, mmHg

PCH3OH , mmHg

0 14.99 17.85 21.07 27.31 31.06 40.1 47.0 55.8 68.9 86.0 100.0

54.7 39.2 38.5 37.2 35.8 34.9 32.8 31.5 27.3 20.7 10.1 0

0 66.1 75.5 85.2 100.6 108.8 127.7 141.6 158.4 186.6 225.2 260.7

59.4°C

Mole fraction CH3OH

PH2O, mmHg

PCH3OH , mmHg

0 22.17 27.40 33.24 39.80 47.08 55.5 69.2 78.5 85.9 100.0

145.4 106.9 102.2 96.6 91.7 84.8 76.9 57.8 43.8 30.1 0

0 210.1 240.2 272.1 301.9 335.6 373.7 439.4 486.6 526.9 609.3

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, McGraw-Hill, p. 290.

TABLE 2-27 Conc. g NaOH/ 100 g H2O 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 500 700 1000 2000 4000 8000

Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Hydroxide mmHg Temperature, °C 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

160

200

250

300

350

4.6 4.4 4.2 3.6 2.9 2.2

17.5 16.9 16.0 13.9 11.3 8.7 6.3 4.4 3.0 2.0 1.3 0.9

55.3 53.2 50.6 44.2 36.6 28.7 20.7 15.5 10.9 7.6 5.2 3.6 1.7

149.5 143.5 137.0 120.5 101.0 81.0 62.5 47.0 34.5 24.5 17.5 12.5 6.3 3.0 1.5

355.5 341.5 325.5 288.5 246.0 202.0 160.5 124.0 94.0 70.5 53.0 38.5 20.5 11.0 6.0 3.5 2.0 0.5 0.1

760.0 730.0 697.0 621.0 537.0 450.0 368.0 294.0 231.0 179.0 138.0 105.0 61.0 35.5 20.5 12.0 7.0 2.0 0.5

1,489 1,430 1,365 1,225 1,070 920 770 635 515 415 330 262 164 102 63 40 25 8 2.7 0.9

4,633 4,450 4,260 3,860 3,460 3,090 2,690 2,340 2,030 1,740 1,490 1,300 915 765 470 340 245 110 50 23 11

11,647 11,200 10,750 9,800 8,950 8,150 7,400 6,750 6,100 5,500 5,000 4,500 3,650 2,980 2,430 1,980 1,620 985 610 380 240 100

29,771 28,600 27,500 25,300 23,300 21,500 19,900 18,400 17,100 15,800 14,700 13,650 11,800 10,300 8,960 7,830 6,870 5,000 3,690 2,750 2,080 1,210 440

64,200 61,800 59,300 54,700 50,800 47,200 44,100 41,200 38,700 36,300 34,200 32,200 28,800 25,900 23,300 21,200 19,200 15,400 12,500 10,300 8,600 6,100 3,300 1,470 150

123,600 118,900 114,100 105,400 98,000 91,600 85,800 80,700 76,000 71,900 68,100 64,600 58,600 53,400 49,000 45,100 41,800 35,000 29,800 25,700 22,400 17,500 11,500 6,800 1,760 120 7

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2-90

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

WATER-VAPOR CONTENT OF GASES CHART FOR GASES AT HIGH PRESSURES The accompanying figure is useful in determining the water-vapor content of air at high pressure in contact with liquid water.

Water content of air, °C = (°F − 32) × 5⁄ 9. (Landsbaum, Dadds, and Stutzman. Reprinted from vol. 47, January 1955 issue of Ind. Eng. Chem. [p. 192]. Copyright 1955 by the American Chemical Society and reproduced by permission of the copyright owner.)

FIG. 2-4

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DENSITIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES

2-91

DENSITIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable:

To convert kilograms per cubic meter to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 0.06243.

°F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32.

TABLE 2-28

Density (kg/m3) of Water from 0 to 100°C* ρ, kg/m3

t, °C

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0 1 2 3 4

999.839 999.898 999.940 999.964 999.972

999.846 999.903 999.943 999.966 999.972

999.852 999.908 999.946 999.967 999.972

999.859 999.913 999.949 999.968 999.971

999.865 999.917 999.952 999.969 999.971

999.871 999.921 999.954 999.970 999.970

999.877 999.925 999.956 999.971 999.969

999.882 999.929 999.959 999.971 999.968

999.888 999.933 999.961 999.972 999.967

999.893 999.936 999.962 999.972 999.965

5 6 7 8 9

999.964 999.940 999.901 999.848 999.781

999.962 999.937 999.897 999.842 999.773

999.960 999.934 999.892 999.836 999.765

999.958 999.930 999.887 999.829 999.758

999.956 999.926 999.882 999.823 999.750

999.954 999.923 999.877 999.816 999.742

999.951 999.919 999.871 999.809 999.734

999.949 999.915 999.866 999.802 999.725

999.946 999.910 999.860 999.795 999.717

999.943 999.906 999.854 999.788 999.708

10 11 12 13 14

999.699 999.605 999.497 999.377 999.244

999.691 999.595 999.486 999.364 999.230

999.682 999.584 999.474 999.351 999.216

999.672 999.574 999.462 999.338 999.202

999.663 999.563 999.451 999.325 999.188

999.654 999.553 999.439 999.312 999.173

999.644 999.542 999.426 999.299 999.159

999.635 999.531 999.414 999.285 999.144

999.625 999.520 999.402 999.272 999.129

999.615 999.509 999.389 999.258 999.114

15 16 17 18 19

999.099 998.943 998.775 998.595 998.405

999.084 998.926 998.757 998.577 998.385

999.069 998.910 998.740 998.558 998.366

999.054 999.894 998.722 998.539 998.346

999.038 998.877 998.704 998.520 998.326

999.022 998.860 998.686 998.502 998.306

999.007 998.843 998.668 998.482 998.286

998.991 998.826 998.650 998.463 998.265

998.975 998.809 998.632 998.444 998.245

998.958 998.792 998.614 998.425 998.224

20 21 22 23 24

998.204 997.992 997.770 997.538 997.296

998.183 997.971 997.747 997.515 997.272

998.162 997.949 997.725 997.491 997.247

998.141 997.927 997.702 997.467 997.222

998.120 997.905 997.679 997.443 997.197

998.099 997.883 997.656 997.419 997.172

998.078 997.860 997.632 997.394 997.146

998.057 997.838 997.609 997.370 997.121

998.035 997.816 997.585 997.345 997.096

998.014 997.793 997.562 997.321 997.070

25 26 27 28 29

997.045 996.783 996.513 996.233 995.945

997.019 996.757 996.485 996.205 995.915

996.993 996.730 996.458 996.176 995.886

996.967 996.703 996.430 996.148 995.856

996.941 996.676 996.402 996.119 995.827

996.915 996.649 996.374 996.090 995.797

996.889 996.622 996.346 996.061 995.767

996.863 996.595 996.318 996.032 995.737

996.836 996.568 996.290 996.003 995.707

996.810 996.540 996.262 995.974 995.677

30 31 32 33 34

995.647 995.341 995.026 994.703 994.371

995.617 995.310 994.997 994.670 994.338

995.586 995.278 994.962 994.637 994.304

995.556 995.247 994.930 994.604 994.270

995.526 995.216 994.898 994.571 994.236

995.495 995.184 994.865 994.538 994.202

995.464 995.153 994.833 994.505 994.168

995.433 995.121 994.801 994.472 994.134

995.403 995.090 994.768 994.438 994.100

995.372 995.058 994.735 994.405 994.066

35 36 37 38 39

994.032 993.684 993.328 992.965 992.594

993.997 993.648 993.292 992.928 992.557

993.963 993.613 993.256 992.891 992.519

993.928 993.578 993.220 992.855 992.481

993.893 993.543 993.184 992.818 992.444

993.859 993.507 993.148 992.780 992.406

993.824 993.471 993.111 992.743 992.368

993.789 993.436 993.075 992.706 992.330

993.754 993.400 993.038 992.669 992.292

993.719 993.364 993.002 992.631 992.254

40 41 42 43 44

992.215 991.830 991.436 991.036 990.628

992.177 991.791 991.396 990.995 990.587

992.139 991.751 991.357 990.955 990.546

992.100 991.712 991.317 990.914 990.504

992.062 992.673 991.277 990.873 990.463

992.023 991.634 991.237 990.833 990.421

991.985 991.594 991.197 990.792 990.380

991.946 991.555 991.157 990.751 990.338

991.907 991.515 991.116 990.710 990.297

992.868 991.476 991.076 990.669 990.255

45 46 47 48 49

990.213 989.792 989.363 988.928 988.485

990.171 989.749 989.320 988.884 988.441

990.129 989.706 989.276 988.840 988.396

990.087 989.664 989.233 988.796 988.352

990.045 989.621 989.190 988.752 988.307

990.003 989.578 989.146 988.707 988.262

989.961 989.535 989.103 988.663 988.217

989.919 989.492 989.059 988.619 988.172

989.876 989.449 989.015 988.574 988.127

989.834 989.406 988.971 988.530 988.082

*From “Water: Density at Atmospheric Pressure and Temperatures from 0 to 100°C,” Tables of Standard Handbook Data, Standartov, Moscow, 1978. To conserve space, only a few tables of density values are given. The reader is reminded that density values may be found as the reciprocal of the specific volume values tabulated in the “Thermodynamic Properties: Tables” subsection.

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2-92

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-28

Density (kg/m3) of Water from 0 to 100°C (Concluded ) ρ, kg/m3

t, °C

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

50 51 52 53 54

988.037 987.581 987.120 986.652 986.177

987.992 987.536 987.073 986.604 986.129

987.946 987.490 987.027 986.557 986.081

987.901 987.444 986.980 986.510 986.033

987.844 987.398 986.933 986.463 985.985

987.810 987.351 986.886 986.415 985.937

987.764 987.305 986.840 986.368 985.889

987.719 987.259 986.793 986.320 985.841

987.673 987.213 986.746 986.272 985.793

987.627 987.166 986.699 986.225 985.745

55 56 57 58 59

985.696 985.219 984.716 984.217 983.712

985.648 985.160 984.666 984.167 983.661

985.599 985.111 984.617 984.116 983.610

985.551 985.062 984.567 984.066 983.559

985.502 985.013 984.517 984.016 983.508

985.454 984.963 984.467 983.965 983.457

985.405 984.914 984.417 983.914 983.406

985.356 984.865 984.367 983.864 983.354

985.307 984.815 984.317 983.813 983.303

985.258 984.766 984.267 983.762 983.252

60 61 62 63 64

983.200 982.683 982.160 981.631 981.097

983.149 982.631 982.108 981.578 981.043

983.097 982.579 982.055 981.525 980.989

983.046 982.527 982.002 981.472 980.935

982.994 982.475 981.949 981.418 980.881

982.943 982.422 981.897 981.365 980.827

982.891 982.370 981.844 981.311 980.773

982.839 982.318 981.791 981.258 980.719

982.787 982.265 981.738 981.204 980.665

982.735 982.213 981.685 981.151 980.611

65 66 67 68 69

980.557 980.011 979.459 978.902 978.339

980.502 979.956 979.403 978.846 978.283

980.443 979.901 979.348 978.790 978.226

980.393 979.846 979.293 978.734 978.170

980.339 979.791 979.237 978.678 978.113

980.284 979.736 979.181 978.621 978.056

980.230 979.680 979.126 978.565 977.999

980.175 979.625 979.070 978.509 977.942

980.120 979.570 979.014 978.452 977.885

980.065 979.515 978.958 978.396 977.828

70 71 72 73 74

977.771 977.198 976.619 976.035 975.445

977.714 977.140 976.561 975.976 975.386

977.657 977.082 976.503 975.917 975.327

977.600 977.025 976.444 975.858 975.267

977.543 976.967 976.386 975.800 975.208

977.485 976.909 976.327 975.741 975.148

977.428 976.851 976.269 975.682 975.089

977.370 976.793 976.211 975.623 975.029

977.313 976.735 976.152 975.564 974.970

977.255 976.677 976.093 975.504 974.910

75 76 77 78 79

974.850 974.250 973.645 973.025 972.419

974.791 974.190 973.584 972.974 972.358

974.731 974.130 973.524 972.912 972.296

974.671 974.069 973.463 972.851 972.234

974.611 974.009 973.402 972.789 972.172

974.551 973.948 973.341 972.728 972.110

974.491 973.888 973.280 972.666 972.048

974.431 973.827 973.218 972.605 971.986

974.371 973.767 973.157 972.543 971.923

974.311 973.706 973.096 972.481 971.861

80 81 82 83 84

971.799 971.173 970.543 969.907 969.267

971.737 971.110 970.479 969.843 969.202

971.674 971.048 970.416 969.772 969.138

971.612 970.985 970.353 969.715 969.073

971.549 970.922 970.289 969.652 969.009

971.487 970.859 970.226 969.587 968.944

971.424 970.796 970.162 969.523 968.880

971.361 970.732 970.098 969.459 968.815

971.299 970.669 970.035 969.395 968.751

971.236 970.606 969.971 969.331 968.686

85 86 87 88 89

968.621 967.971 967.316 966.656 965.991

968.556 967.906 967.250 966.589 965.924

968.491 967.840 967.184 966.523 965.857

968.427 967.775 967.118 966.457 965.790

968.362 967.709 967.052 966.390 965.723

968.297 967.641 966.986 966.324 965.656

969.232 967.578 966.920 966.257 965.589

968.166 967.513 966.854 966.191 965.522

968.101 967.447 966.788 966.124 965.455

968.036 967.381 966.722 966.057 965.388

90 91 92 93 94

965.321 964.647 963.967 963.284 962.595

965.254 954.579 963.899 963.215 962.526

965.187 964.511 963.831 963.146 962.457

965.119 964.443 963.763 963.077 962.387

965.052 964.376 963.694 963.009 962.318

964.984 964.308 963.626 962.940 962.249

964.917 964.240 963.558 962.871 962.180

964.849 964.172 963.489 962.802 962.110

964.782 964.104 963.421 962.733 962.041

964.714 964.036 963.352 962.664 961.971

95 96 97 98 99

961.902 961.204 960.501 959.794 959.082

961.832 961.134 960.431 959.723 959.010

961.762 961.064 960.360 959.652 958.939

961.693 960.993 960.289 959.581 958.867

961.693 960.923 960.219 959.510 958.796

961.553 960.853 960.148 959.438 958.724

961.483 960.783 960.077 959.367 958.653

961.414 960.712 960.006 959.296 958.581

961.344 960.642 959.936 959.225 958.509

961.274 960.572 959.865 959.153 958.431

100

958.365

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DENSITIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-29

2-93

Density (kg/m3) of Mercury from 0 to 350°C* Density, kg /m3

t, °C

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0 10 20 30 40

13595.08 13570.44 13545.87 13521.36 13496.92

0

13592.61 13567.98 13543.41 13518.91 13494.48

1

13590.14 13565.52 13540.96 13516.47 13492.04

13587.68 13563.06 13538.51 13514.02 13489.60

13585.21 13560.60 13536.06 13511.58 13487.16

13582.75 13558.14 13533.61 13509.13 13484.72

13580.29 13555.69 13531.16 13506.69 13482.29

13577.82 13553.23 13528.71 13504.25 13479.85

13575.36 13550.78 13526.26 13501.80 13477.41

13572.90 13548.32 13523.81 13499.36 13474.98

50 60 70 80 90

13472.54 13448.22 13423.96 13399.75 13375.59

13470.11 13445.80 13421.54 13397.34 13373.18

13467.67 13443.37 13419.12 13394.92 13370.77

13465.24 13440.94 13416.69 13392.50 13368.36

13462.81 13438.51 13414.27 13390.08 13365.94

13460.38 13436.09 13411.85 13387.67 13363.53

13457.94 13433.66 13409.43 13385.25 13361.12

13455.51 13431.23 13407.01 13382.84 13358.71

13453.08 13428.81 13404.59 13380.42 13356.30

13450.65 13426.39 13402.17 13378.01 13353.89

100 110 120 130 140

13351.5 13327.4 13303.4 13279.4 13255.4

13349.1 13325.0 13301.0 13277.0 13253.0

13346.7 13322.6 13298.6 13274.6 13250.6

13344.3 13320.2 13296.2 13272.2 13248.2

13341.9 13317.8 13293.8 13269.8 13245.8

13339.4 13315.4 13291.4 13267.4 13243.4

13337.0 13313.0 13288.9 13265.0 13241.0

13334.6 13310.6 13286.6 13262.6 13238.7

13332.2 13308.2 13284.2 13260.2 13236.3

13329.8 13305.8 13281.8 13257.8 13233.9

150 160 170 180 190

13231.5 13207.6 13183.7 13159.8 13136.0

13229.1 13205.2 13181.3 13157.4 13133.6

13226.7 13202.8 13178.9 13155.0 13131.2

13224.3 13200.4 13176.5 13152.6 13128.3

13221.9 13198.0 13174.1 13150.3 13126.4

13219.5 13195.6 13171.7 13147.9 13124.0

13217.1 13193.2 13169.4 13145.5 13121.7

13214.7 13190.8 13167.0 13143.1 13119.3

13212.4 13188.5 13164.6 13140.7 13116.9

13210.0 13186.1 13162.2 13138.3 13114.5

200 210 220 230 240

13112.1 13088.3 13064.5 13040.6 13016.8

13109.7 13085.9 13062.1 13038.3 13014.5

13107.4 13083.5 13059.7 13035.9 13012.1

13105.0 13081.1 13057.3 13033.5 13009.7

13102.6 13078.8 13054.9 13031.1 13007.3

13100.2 13076.4 13052.6 13028.7 13004.9

13097.8 13074.0 13050.2 13026.4 13002.5

13095.4 13071.6 13047.8 13024.0 13000.2

13093.1 13069.2 13045.4 13021.6 12997.8

13090.7 13066.8 13043.0 13019.2 12995.4

250 260 270 280 290

12993.0 12969.2 12945.4 12921.5 12897.7

12990.6 12966.8 12943.0 12919.1 12895.3

12988.3 12964.4 12940.6 12916.7 12892.9

12985.9 12962.0 12938.2 12914.4 12890.5

12983.5 12959.7 12935.8 12912.0 12888.1

12981.1 12957.3 12933.4 12909.6 12885.7

12978.7 12954.9 12931.1 12907.2 12883.3

12976.3 12952.5 12928.7 12904.8 12880.9

12974.0 12950.1 12926.3 12902.4 12878.5

12971.6 12947.7 12923.9 12900.0 12876.2

300 310 320 330 340

12873.8 12849.9 12825.9 12801.9 12777.8

12871.4 12847.5 12823.5 12799.5 12775.4

12869.0 12845.1 12821.1 12797.1 12773.0

12866.6 12842.7 12818.7 12794.7 12770.6

12864.2 12840.3 12816.3 12792.3 12768.2

12861.8 12837.9 12813.9 12789.9 12765.8

12859.4 12835.5 12811.5 12787.5 12763.4

12857.0 12833.1 12809.1 12785.1 12761.0

12854.6 12830.7 12806.7 12782.7 12758.6

12852.2 12828.3 12804.3 12780.2 12756.1

350

12753.7

*From “Mercury—Density and Thermal Expansion at Atmospheric Pressure and Temperatures from 0 to 350°C,” Tables of Standard Handbook Data, Standartov, Moscow, 1978. The density values obtainable from those cited for the specific volume of the saturated liquid in the “Thermodynamic Properties” subsection show minor differences. No attempt was made to adjust either set.

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TABLE 2-30 Cmpd. no.

Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1

C2

C3

C4

Tmin, K

Density at Tmin

Tmax, K

Density at Tmax

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane

Name

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22

74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 110543 142825 111659 111842 124185

16.043 30.070 44.097 58.123 72.150 86.177 100.204 114.231 128.258 142.285

2.9214 1.9122 1.3757 1.0677 0.84947 0.70824 0.61259 0.53731 0.48387 0.42831

0.28976 0.27937 0.27453 0.27188 0.26726 0.26411 0.26211 0.26115 0.26147 0.25745

190.56 305.32 369.83 425.12 469.7 507.6 540.2 568.7 594.6 617.7

0.28881 0.29187 0.29359 0.28688 0.27789 0.27537 0.28141 0.28034 0.28281 0.28912

90.69 90.35 85.47 134.86 143.42 177.83 182.57 216.38 219.66 243.51

28.18 21.64 16.583 12.62 10.474 8.747 7.6998 6.6558 6.007 5.3811

190.56 305.32 369.83 425.12 469.7 507.6 540.2 568.7 594.6 617.7

10.082 6.845 5.011 3.927 3.178 2.682 2.337 2.058 1.851 1.664

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane

C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42

1120214 112403 629505 629594 629629 544763 629787 593453 629925 112958

156.312 170.338 184.365 198.392 212.419 226.446 240.473 254.500 268.527 282.553

0.39 0.35541 0.3216 0.30545 0.28445 0.26807 0.2545 0.23864 0.22451 0.21624

0.25678 0.25511 0.2504 0.2535 0.25269 0.25287 0.254 0.25272 0.25133 0.25287

639 658 675 693 708 723 736 747 758 768

0.2913 0.29368 0.3071 0.30538 0.30786 0.31143 0.31072 0.31104 0.3133 0.31613

247.57 263.57 267.76 279.01 283.07 291.31 295.13 301.31 305.04 309.58

4.9362 4.5132 4.2035 3.8924 3.6471 3.4187 3.2241 3.0466 2.8933 2.7496

21 22 23 24 25 26 27

2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18

75285 78784 79298 107835 565593 560214 540841

58.123 72.150 86.177 86.177 100.204 114.231 114.231

1.0463 0.9079 0.76929 0.73335 0.7229 0.6028 0.5886

0.27294 0.2761 0.27524 0.2687 0.28614 0.27446 0.27373

408.14 460.43 499.98 497.5 537.35 573.5 543.96

0.27301 0.28673 0.27691 0.28361 0.2713 0.2741 0.2846

113.54 113.25 145.19 119.55 160.00 172.22 165.78

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Pentene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene

C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14

74851 115071 106989 590181 624646 109671 592416 592767

28.054 42.081 56.108 56.108 56.108 70.134 84.161 98.188

2.0961 1.4094 1.0972 1.1609 1.1426 0.9038 0.7389 0.63734

0.27657 0.26465 0.2649 0.27104 0.27095 0.26648 0.26147 0.26319

282.34 365.57 419.95 435.58 428.63 464.78 504.03 537.29

0.29147 0.295 0.29043 0.2816 0.2854 0.2905 0.2902 0.27375

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methylpropene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene1

C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8

111660 124118 872059 115117 563462 513359 590192 106990 78795

112.215 126.242 140.269 56.108 70.134 70.134 54.092 54.092 68.119

0.5871 0.4945 0.44244 1.1454 0.91619 0.93322 1.187 1.2384 0.95673

0.27005 0.26108 0.25838 0.2725 0.26752 0.27251 0.26114 0.2725 0.26488

566.65 593.25 616.4 417.9 465 471 452 425.17 484

45 46 47 48 49 50

Acetylene Methylacetylene Dimethylacetylene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne

C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8

74862 74997 503173 598232 627190 627214

26.038 40.065 54.092 68.119 68.119 68.119

2.4091 1.6086 1.1717 0.94575 0.8491 0.92099

0.27223 0.26448 0.25895 0.26008 0.2352 0.25419

51 52 53

1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Hexyne1

C6H10 C6H10 C6H10

693027 764352 928494

82.145 82.145 82.145

0.84427 0.76277 0.78045

0.27185 0.25248 0.26065

639 658 675 693 708 723 736 747 758 768

1.519 1.393 1.284 1.205 1.126 1.060 1.002 0.944 0.893 0.855

12.575 10.776 9.0343 9.2041 7.8746 7.0934 6.9163

408.14 460.43 499.98 497.5 537.35 573.5 543.96

3.833 3.288 2.795 2.729 2.526 2.196 2.150

104.00 87.89 87.80 134.26 167.62 107.93 133.39 154.27

23.326 18.143 14.326 13.895 13.1 11.543 9.6388 8.1759

282.34 365.57 419.95 435.58 428.63 464.78 504.03 537.29

7.579 5.326 4.142 4.283 4.217 3.392 2.826 2.422

0.27187 0.27319 0.28411 0.28186 0.28164 0.26031 0.3065 0.28813 0.28571

171.45 191.78 206.89 132.81 135.58 139.39 136.95 164.25 127.27

7.1247 6.333 5.7131 13.506 11.332 11.218 15.123 14.061 12.205

566.65 593.25 616.4 417.9 465 471 452 425.17 484

2.174 1.894 1.712 4.203 3.425 3.425 4.546 4.545 3.612

308.32 402.39 473.2 463.2 481.2 519

0.28477 0.279 0.27289 0.30807 0.353 0.31077

192.40 170.45 240.91 183.45 167.45 163.83

23.692 19.027 13.767 11.519 12.532 12.24

308.32 402.39 473.2 463.2 481.2 519

8.850 6.082 4.525 3.636 3.610 3.623

516.2 549 544

0.2771 0.31611 0.28571

141.25 183.65 170.05

10.23 10.133 10.021

516.2 549 544

3.106 3.021 2.994

2-94

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54 55 56

1-Heptyne 1-Octyne Vinylacetylene2

C7H12 C8H14 C4H4

628717 629050 689974

96.172 110.199 52.076

0.67366 0.59229 1.2703

0.26003 0.26118 0.26041

559 585 454

0.29804 0.29357 0.297

192.22 193.55 173.15

8.4987 7.478 15.664

559 585 454

2.591 2.268 4.878

57 58 59 60 61 62

C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16

287923 96377 1640897 110827 108872 590669

70.134 84.161 98.188 84.161 98.188 112.215

1.124 0.84798 0.7193 0.8908 0.735 0.55873

0.28859 0.27042 0.26936 0.27396 0.27041 0.25143

511.76 532.79 569.52 553.58 572.19 591.15

0.2506 0.28276 0.2777 0.2851 0.2927 0.27758

179.28 130.73 134.71 279.69 146.58 239.66

11.883 10.492 9.018 9.3797 9.018 7.3417

511.76 532.79 569.52 553.58 572.19 591.15

3.895 3.136 2.670 3.252 2.718 2.222

63 64 65 66

Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Cyclopentene 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene

C8H16 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10

1678917 142290 693890 110838

112.215 68.119 82.145 82.145

0.61587 1.1035 0.88824 0.92997

0.26477 0.27035 0.26914 0.27056

609.15 507 542 560.4

0.28054 0.28699 0.27874 0.28943

161.84 138.13 146.62 169.67

7.8679 13.47 10.98 11.16

609.15 507 542 560.4

2.326 4.082 3.300 3.437

67 68 69 70 71 72 73

Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene

C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12

71432 108883 95476 108383 106423 100414 103651

78.114 92.141 106.167 106.167 106.167 106.167 120.194

1.0162 0.8488 0.69883 0.69555 0.6816 0.6952 0.57695

0.2655 0.26655 0.26113 0.26204 0.25963 0.26037 0.25395

562.16 591.8 630.33 617.05 616.23 617.2 638.32

0.28212 0.2878 0.27429 0.27602 0.2768 0.2844 0.283

278.68 178.18 247.98 225.30 286.41 178.15 183.15

11.421 10.495 8.6285 8.6505 8.1616 9.0568 7.8942

562.16 591.8 630.33 617.05 616.23 617.2 638.32

3.828 3.184 2.676 2.654 2.625 2.670 2.272

74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene p-Isopropyltoluene Naphthalene6 Biphenyl Styrene m-Terphenyl

C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H14 C10H8 C12H10 C8H8 C18H14

95636 98828 108678 99876 91203 92524 100425 92068

120.194 120.194 120.194 134.221 128.174 154.211 104.152 230.309

0.60394 0.604 0.59879 0.51036 0.61674 0.5039 0.7397 0.30826

0.25955 0.25912 0.25916 0.25383 0.25473 0.25273 0.2603 0.23669

649.13 631.1 637.36 653.15 748.35 789.26 636 924.85

0.27716 0.2914 0.27968 0.28816 0.27355 0.281 0.3009 0.29678

229.33 177.14 228.42 205.25 333.15 342.20 242.54 360.00

7.6895 7.9496 7.6154 6.8779 7.7543 6.4395 9.1088 4.5223

649.13 631.1 637.36 653.15 748.35 789.26 636 924.85

2.327 2.331 2.311 2.011 2.421 1.994 2.842 1.302

82 83 84 85 86 87 88

Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 2-Propanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol

CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C3H8O C4H10O

67561 64175 71238 71363 78922 67630 75650

32.042 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 60.096 74.123

2.288 1.648 1.235 0.965 0.966 1.24 0.9212

0.2685 0.27627 0.27136 0.2666 0.26064 0.27342 0.2544

512.64 513.92 536.78 563.05 536.05 508.3 506.21

0.2453 0.2331 0.24 0.24419 0.2746 0.2353 0.276

175.47 159.05 146.95 184.51 158.45 185.28 298.97

27.912 19.413 15.231 12.016 12.57 14.547 10.555

512.64 513.92 536.78 563.05 536.05 508.3 506.21

8.521 5.965 4.551 3.620 3.706 4.535 3.621

89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Hexanol 1-Heptanol Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol

C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C6H14O C7H16O C6H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2

71410 137326 123513 111273 111706 108930 107211 57556

88.150 88.150 88.150 102.177 116.203 100.161 62.068 76.095

0.8164 0.82046 0.837 0.70617 0.60481 0.8243 1.3151 1.0923

0.2673 0.26829 0.27375 0.26901 0.2632 0.26546 0.25125 0.26106

586.15 565 577.2 611.35 631.9 650 719.7 626

0.2506 0.2322 0.22951 0.2479 0.273 0.2848 0.2187 0.20459

195.56 203.00 155.95 228.55 239.15 296.60 260.15 213.15

10.057 10.017 10.204 8.4506 7.421 9.4693 18.31 14.363

586.15 565 577.2 611.35 631.9 650 719.7 626

3.054 3.058 3.058 2.625 2.298 3.105 5.234 4.184

97 98 99 100

Phenol o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol

C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O

108952 95487 108394 106445

94.113 108.140 108.140 108.140

1.3798 1.0861 0.9061 1.1503

0.31598 0.30624 0.28268 0.31861

694.25 697.55 705.85 704.65

0.32768 0.30587 0.2707 0.30104

314.06 304.19 285.39 307.93

11.244 9.5751 9.6115 9.4494

694.25 697.55 705.85 704.65

4.367 3.547 3.205 3.610

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

Dimethyl ether Methyl ethyl ether Methyl-n-propyl ether Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl-n-butyl ether Methyl isobutyl ether1 Methyl tert-butyl ether Diethyl ether

C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C4H10O

115106 540670 557175 598538 628284 625445 1634044 60297

46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 74.123

1.5693 1.2635 1.0124 1.0318 0.8281 0.8252 0.82157 0.9554

0.2679 0.27878 0.27942 0.28478 0.27245 0.27282 0.27032 0.26847

400.1 437.8 476.3 464.5 510 497 497.1 466.7

0.2882 0.2744 0.2555 0.2444 0.2827 0.2857 0.2829 0.2814

131.65 160.00 133.97 127.93 157.48 150.00 164.55 156.85

18.95 13.995 11.696 11.568 9.8068 9.7673 9.7682 11.487

400.1 437.8 476.3 464.5 510 497 497.1 466.7

5.858 4.532 3.623 3.623 3.040 3.025 3.039 3.559

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2-95

TABLE 2-30 Cmpd. no.

Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Continued ) CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1

C2

C3

C4

Tmin, K

Density at Tmin

Tmax, K

Density at Tmax

109 110 111 112

Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ether Methyl phenyl ether Diphenyl ether

Name

Formula C5H12O C5H12O C7H8O C12H10O

628320 625547 100663 101848

88.150 88.150 108.140 170.211

0.7908 0.82049 0.77488 0.52133

0.266 0.26994 0.26114 0.26218

500.23 489 645.6 766.8

0.292 0.30381 0.28234 0.31033

145.65 140.00 235.65 300.03

9.8474 9.9117 9.6675 6.2648

500.23 489 645.6 766.8

2.973 3.040 2.967 1.988

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

Formaldehyde3 Acetaldehyde 1-Propanal 1-Butanal 1-Pentanal 1-Hexanal 1-Heptanal 1-Octanal 1-Nonanal 1-Decanal

CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O

50000 75070 123386 123728 110623 66251 111717 124130 124196 112312

30.026 44.053 58.080 72.107 86.134 100.161 114.188 128.214 142.241 156.268

1.9415 1.6994 1.296 1.0361 0.83871 0.71899 0.62649 0.56833 0.49587 0.46802

0.22309 0.26167 0.26439 0.26731 0.26252 0.26531 0.26376 0.26939 0.26135 0.27146

408 466 504.4 537.2 566.1 591 617 638.1 658 674.2

0.28571 0.2913 0.29471 0.28397 0.29444 0.27628 0.29221 0.26975 0.30736 0.26869

181.15 150.15 170.00 176.75 182.00 217.15 229.80 246.00 255.15 267.15

30.945 21.499 15.929 12.589 10.534 8.7243 7.6002 6.6637 6.0165 5.3834

408 466 504.4 537.2 566.1 591 617 638.1 658 674.2

8.703 6.494 4.902 3.876 3.195 2.710 2.375 2.110 1.897 1.724

123 124 125 126

C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O

67641 78933 107879 563804

58.080 72.107 86.134 86.134

1.2332 0.93767 0.90411 0.8374

0.25886 0.25035 0.27207 0.26204

508.2 535.5 561.08 553

0.2913 0.29964 0.30669 0.2857

178.45 186.48 196.29 181.15

15.683 12.663 10.398 10.565

508.2 535.5 561.08 553

4.764 3.745 3.323 3.196

127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134

Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Pentanone Methyl isopropyl ketone1 2-Hexanone Methyl isobutyl ketone 3-Methyl-2-pentanone1 3-Pentanone Ethyl isopropyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone Cyclohexanone Methyl phenyl ketone

C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C6H10O C8H8O

591786 108101 565617 96220 565695 565800 108941 98862

100.161 100.161 100.161 86.134 100.161 114.188 98.145 120.151

0.70659 0.71791 0.6969 0.71811 0.66469 0.56213 0.8663 0.64417

0.26073 0.26491 0.2587 0.24129 0.24527 0.23385 0.26941 0.24863

587.05 571.4 573 560.95 567 576 653 709.5

0.2963 0.28544 0.2857 0.27996 0.34305 0.2618 0.2977 0.28661

217.35 189.15 167.15 234.18 200.00 204.81 242.00 292.81

8.7505 8.8579 9.1722 10.102 9.0933 8.7779 10.081 8.5581

587.05 571.4 573 560.95 567 576 653 709.5

2.710 2.710 2.694 2.976 2.710 2.404 3.216 2.591

135 136 137 138 139 140 141

Formic acid Acetic acid Propionic acid n-Butyric acid Isobutyric acid Benzoic acid1 Acetic anhydride

CH2O2 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C7H6O2 C4H6O3

64186 64197 79094 107926 79312 65850 108247

46.026 60.053 74.079 88.106 88.106 122.123 102.090

1.938 1.4486 1.1041 0.89213 0.88575 0.71587 0.86852

0.24225 0.25892 0.25659 0.25938 0.25736 0.24812 0.25187

588 591.95 600.81 615.7 605 751 606

0.24435 0.2529 0.26874 0.24909 0.26265 0.2857 0.31172

281.45 289.81 252.45 267.95 227.15 395.45 200.15

26.806 17.492 13.933 11.087 11.42 8.8935 11.643

588 591.95 600.81 615.7 605 751 606

8.000 5.595 4.303 3.440 3.442 2.885 3.448

142 143 144 145 146 147 148

Methyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl propionate Methyl n-butyrate Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Ethyl propionate

C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2

107313 79209 554121 623427 109944 141786 105373

60.053 74.079 88.106 102.133 74.079 88.106 102.133

1.525 1.13 0.9147 0.76983 1.1343 0.8996 0.7405

0.2634 0.2593 0.2594 0.26173 0.26168 0.25856 0.25563

487.2 506.55 530.6 554.5 508.4 523.3 546

0.2806 0.2764 0.2774 0.26879 0.2791 0.278 0.2795

174.15 175.15 185.65 187.35 193.55 189.60 199.25

18.811 14.475 11.678 9.7638 14.006 11.478 9.6317

487.2 506.55 530.6 554.5 508.4 523.3 546

5.790 4.358 3.526 2.941 4.335 3.479 2.897

149 150 151 152 153 154 155

Ethyl n-butyrate n-Propyl formate n-Propyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Vinyl acetate

C6H12O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C4H6O2

105544 110747 109604 123864 93583 93890 108054

116.160 88.106 102.133 116.160 136.150 150.177 86.090

0.63566 0.915 0.73041 0.669 0.53944 0.4883 0.9591

0.25613 0.26134 0.25456 0.26028 0.23519 0.23878 0.2593

571 538 549.73 579.15 693 698 519.13

0.27829 0.28 0.27666 0.309 0.2676 0.28487 0.27448

175.15 180.25 178.15 199.65 260.75 238.45 180.35

8.4912 11.59 9.7941 8.3747 8.2133 7.2924 12.287

571 538 549.73 579.15 693 698 519.13

2.482 3.501 2.869 2.570 2.294 2.045 3.699

156 157 158 159 160

Methylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine Ethylamine Diethylamine

CH5N C2H7N C3H9N C2H7N C4H11N

74895 124403 75503 75047 109897

31.057 45.084 59.111 45.084 73.138

1.39 1.5436 1.0116 1.1477 0.85379

0.21405 0.27784 0.25683 0.23182 0.25675

430.05 437.2 433.25 456.15 496.6

0.2275 0.2572 0.2696 0.26053 0.27027

179.69 180.96 156.08 192.15 223.35

25.378 16.964 13.144 17.588 10.575

430.05 437.2 433.25 456.15 496.6

6.494 5.556 3.939 4.951 3.325

2-96

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161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168

Triethylamine n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine Isopropylamine Diisopropylamine Aniline N-Methylaniline N,N-Dimethylaniline

C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C6H7N C7H9N C8H11N

121448 107108 142847 75310 108189 62533 100618 121697

101.192 59.111 101.192 59.111 101.192 93.128 107.155 121.182

0.7035 0.9195 0.659 1.2801 0.6181 1.0405 0.6527 0.4923

0.27386 0.23878 0.26428 0.2828 0.25786 0.2807 0.24324 0.22868

535.15 496.95 550 471.85 523.1 699 701.55 687.15

0.2872 0.2461 0.2766 0.2972 0.271 0.29236 0.25374 0.2335

158.45 188.36 210.15 177.95 176.85 267.13 216.15 275.60

8.2843 13.764 7.9929 13.561 8.0541 11.176 9.7244 7.9705

535.15 496.95 550 471.85 523.1 699 701.55 687.15

2.569 3.851 2.494 4.527 2.397 3.707 2.683 2.153

169 170 171 172

Ethylene oxide Furan Thiophene Pyridine

C2H4O C4H4O C4H4S C5H5N

75218 110009 110021 110861

44.053 68.075 84.142 79.101

1.836 1.1339 1.2875 0.9815

0.26024 0.24741 0.28195 0.24957

469.15 490.15 579.35 619.95

0.2696 0.2612 0.3077 0.29295

160.65 187.55 234.94 231.51

23.477 15.702 13.431 13.193

469.15 490.15 579.35 619.95

7.055 4.583 4.566 3.933

173 174

CH3NO C3H7NO

75127 68122

45.041 73.095

1.2486 0.89615

0.20352 0.23478

771 649.6

0.25178 0.28091

275.60 212.72

25.488 13.954

771 649.6

6.135 3.817

175 176 177 178 179 180

Formamide5 N,N-Dimethylformamide Acetamide N-Methylacetamide Acetonitrile Propionitrile n-Butyronitrile Benzonitrile

C2H5NO C3H7NO C2H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N

60355 79163 75058 107120 109740 100470

59.068 73.095 41.053 55.079 69.106 103.123

1.016 0.88268 1.3064 1.0224 0.87533 0.73136

0.21845 0.23568 0.22597 0.23452 0.24331 0.24793

761 718 545.5 564.4 582.25 699.35

0.26116 0.27379 0.28678 0.2804 0.28586 0.2841

353.33 301.15 229.32 180.26 161.25 260.40

16.936 13.012 20.628 16.027 13.047 10.009

761 718 545.5 564.4 582.25 699.35

4.651 3.745 5.781 4.360 3.598 2.950

181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189

Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan n-Propyl mercaptan n-Butyl mercaptan Isobutyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Dimethyl sulfide Methyl ethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide

CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S

74931 75081 107039 109795 513440 513531 75183 624895 352932

48.109 62.136 76.163 90.189 90.189 90.189 62.136 76.163 90.189

1.9323 1.3047 1.0714 0.89458 0.88801 0.89137 1.4029 1.067 0.82413

0.28018 0.2694 0.27214 0.27463 0.27262 0.27365 0.27991 0.27101 0.26333

469.95 499.15 536.6 570.1 559 554 503.04 533 557.15

0.28523 0.27866 0.29481 0.28512 0.29522 0.2953 0.2741 0.29363 0.27445

150.18 125.26 159.95 157.46 128.31 133.02 174.88 167.23 169.20

21.564 16.242 12.716 10.585 10.851 10.761 15.556 12.672 10.476

469.95 499.15 536.6 570.1 559 554 503.04 533 557.15

6.897 4.843 3.937 3.257 3.257 3.257 5.012 3.937 3.130

190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197

Fluoromethane Chloromethane Trichloromethane Tetrachloromethane Bromomethane Fluoroethane Chloroethane Bromoethane

CH3F CH3Cl CHCl3 CCl4 CH3Br C2H5F C2H5Cl C2H5Br

593533 74873 67663 56235 74839 353366 75003 74964

34.033 50.488 119.377 153.822 94.939 48.060 64.514 108.966

2.1854 1.817 1.0841 0.99835 1.6762 1.6525 2.176 1.1908

0.24725 0.25877 0.2581 0.274 0.26141 0.27099 0.3377 0.25595

317.42 416.25 536.4 556.35 467 375.31 460.35 503.8

0.27558 0.2833 0.2741 0.287 0.28402 0.2442 0.3361 0.29152

131.35 175.43 209.63 250.33 179.47 129.95 134.80 154.55

29.526 22.347 13.702 10.843 20.64 19.785 16.934 15.833

317.42 416.25 536.4 556.35 467 375.31 460.35 503.8

8.839 7.022 4.200 3.644 6.412 6.098 6.444 4.653

198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205

1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropane1 1,2-Dichloropropane Vinyl chloride Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene

C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C2H3Cl C6H5F C6H5Cl C6H5Br

540545 75296 78999 78875 75014 462066 108907 108861

78.541 78.541 112.986 112.986 62.499 96.104 112.558 157.010

1.087 1.1202 0.91064 0.89833 1.5115 1.0146 0.8711 0.8226

0.26832 0.27669 0.26561 0.26142 0.2707 0.27277 0.26805 0.26632

503.15 489 560 572 432 560.09 632.35 670.15

0.28055 0.27646 0.28571 0.2868 0.2716 0.28291 0.2799 0.2821

150.35 155.97 200.00 172.71 119.36 230.94 227.95 242.43

13.328 12.855 11.03 11.526 18.481 11.374 10.385 9.9087

503.15 489 560 572 432 560.09 632.35 670.15

4.051 4.049 3.429 3.436 5.584 3.720 3.250 3.089

206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217

Air Hydrogen Helium-44 Neon Argon Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Oxygen Nitrogen Ammonia Hydrazine

H2 He Ne Ar F2 Cl2 Br2 O2 N2 NH3 N2H4

132259100 1333740 7440597 7440019 7440371 7782414 7782505 7726956 7782447 7727379 7664417 302012

28.951 2.016 4.003 20.180 39.948 37.997 70.905 159.808 31.999 28.014 17.031 32.045

2.8963 5.414 7.2475 7.3718 3.8469 4.2895 2.23 2.1872 3.9143 3.2091 3.5383 1.0516

0.26733 0.34893 0.41865 0.3067 0.2881 0.28587 0.27645 0.29527 0.28772 0.2861 0.25443 0.16613

132.45 33.19 5.2 44.4 150.86 144.12 417.15 584.15 154.58 126.2 405.65 653.15

0.27341 0.2706 0.24096 0.2786 0.29783 0.28776 0.2926 0.3295 0.2924 0.2966 0.2888 0.1898

59.15 13.95 2.20 24.56 83.78 53.48 172.12 265.85 54.35 63.15 195.41 274.69

33.279 38.487 37.115 61.796 35.491 44.888 24.242 20.109 40.77 31.063 43.141 31.934

132.45 33.19 5.2 44.4 150.86 144.12 417.15 584.15 154.58 126.2 405.65 653.15

10.834 15.516 17.312 24.036 13.353 15.005 8.067 7.408 13.605 11.217 13.907 6.330 2-97

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TABLE 2-30 Cmpd. no. 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231

Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Concluded ) Name

Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Cyanogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide1 Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Water7

Formula N2O NO C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 HF HCl HBr HCN H2S SO2 SO3 H2O

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1

C2

C3

C4

Tmin, K

10024972 10102439 460195 630080 124389 75150 7664393 7647010 10035106 74908 7783064 7446095 7446119 7732185

44.013 30.006 52.036 28.010 44.010 76.143 20.006 36.461 80.912 27.026 34.082 64.065 80.064 18.015

2.781 5.246 1.0761 2.897 2.768 1.7968 2.5635 3.342 2.832 1.3413 2.7672 2.106 1.4969 5.459

0.27244 0.3044 0.20984 0.27532 0.26212 0.28749 0.1766 0.2729 0.2832 0.18589 0.27369 0.25842 0.19013 0.30542

309.57 180.15 400.15 132.92 304.21 552 461.15 324.65 363.15 456.65 373.53 430.75 490.85 647.13

0.2882 0.242 0.20635 0.2813 0.2908 0.3226 0.3733 0.3217 0.28571 0.28206 0.29015 0.2895 0.4359 0.081

182.30 109.50 245.25 68.15 216.58 161.11 189.79 158.97 185.15 259.83 187.68 197.67 289.95 273.16

Density at Tmin 27.928 44.487 18.513 30.18 26.828 19.064 60.203 34.854 27.985 27.202 29.13 25.298 24.241 55.583

Tmax, K

Density at Tmax

309.57 180.15 400.15 132.92 304.21 552 461.15 324.65 363.15 456.65 373.53 430.75 490.85 333.15

10.208 17.234 5.128 10.522 10.560 6.250 14.516 12.246 10.000 7.216 10.111 8.150 7.873 54.703

All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release, July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Thermodynamics Research Center, “Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds,” Thermodynamics Research Center Hydrocarbon Project, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (extant 1994). Temperatures are in kelvins. Liquid densities are in kmol/m3. Density formulas: kmol/m3 × (mol. wt./1E+03) = g/cm3; kmol/m3 × (mol. wt./1.601846E+01) = lb/ft3. C The liquid density equation is C1/C2[1 + (1 − T/C3) 4] unless otherwise noted. 1 The modified Rackett equation, density = (Pc /RTc)/ZRA1 + [1 − (T/Tc)]2/7, was used. See Spencer, C. F., and R. P. Danner, “Improved Equation for Prediction of Saturated Liquid Density,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 17, 236 (1972). 2 Decomposes violently on heating. Forms explosive peroxides with air or oxygen. Polymerizes under pressure and heat. 3 For the hypothetical pure liquid. 4 Exhibits superfluid properties below 2.2 K. 5 Coefficients are hypothetical above the decomposition temperature. 6 Lower limit is for the undercooled liquid. 7 For the temperature range 333.15 to 403.15 K, use the coefficients: C1 = 4.9669E+00, C2 = 2.7788E−01, C3 = 6.4713E+02, C4 = 1.8740E−01. For the temperature range 403.15 to 647.13 K, use C1 = 4.3910E+00, C2 = 2.4870E−01, C3 = 6.4713E+02, C4 = 2.5340E−01.

2-98

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DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS

2-99

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS UNITS AND UNITS CONVERSIONS Densities are given in grams per cubic centimeter. To convert to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43. °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32. ADDITIONAL REFERENCES For more detailed data on densities see International Critical Tables: tabular index, vol. 3, p. 1; abrasives, vol. 2, p. 87; air, moist, vol. 1, p. 71; building stones, vol. 2, p. 52; clays, vol. 2, p. 56; coals, vol. 2, p. 135; compounds, vol. 1. pp. 106, 176, 313, 341; elements, vol. 1, pp. 102, 340; fibers, vol. 2, p. 237; gases and vapors, vol. 3, pp. 3, 345; glass, vol. 2, p. 93; liquids and vitreous solids, vol. 3, p. 22; vol. 1, pp. 102, 340; vol. 2, pp. 456, 463; vol. 3, pp. 20, 35; liquid coolants and saturated TABLE 2-31

Aluminum Sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] d 15 4

%

d 15 4

1 2 4 8 12

1.0093 1.0195 1.0404 1.0837 1.1293

16 20 24 26

1.1770 1.2272 1.2803 1.3079

0°C

5°C

10°C

20°C

25°C

d 15 4

%

0.9943 0.9954 0.9959 0.9958 0.9955 0.9939 0.993 32 0.889 .9906 .9915 .9919 .9917 .9913 .9895 .988 36 .877 .9834 .9840 .9842 .9837 .9832 .9811 .980 40 .865 0.970 .9701 .9701 .9695 .9686 .9677 .9651 .964 45 .849 .958 .9576 .9571 .9561 .9548 .9534 .9501 .948 50 .832 .947 .9461 .9450 .9435 .9420 .9402 .9362 .934 60 .796 .9353 .9335 .9316 .9296 .9275 .9229 70 .755 .9249 .9226 .9202 .9179 .9155 .9101 80 .711 .9150 .9122 .9094 .9067 .9040 .8980 90 .665 .9101 .9070 .9040 .9012 .8983 .8920 100 .618

TABLE 2-33 Ammonium Acetate* (CH3COONH4)

TABLE 2-34 Ammonium Bichromate [(NH4)2Cr2O7]

%

d425

%

d412

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45

0.9992 1.0013 1.0055 1.0136 1.0216 1.0294 1.0368 1.0439 1.0507 1.0540 1.0618 1.0691 1.0760

1 2 4 8 12 16 20

1.0051 1.0108 1.0223 1.0463 1.0715 1.0981 1.1263

*For data at 16°C for 3(1)52 percent see Atack Handbook of Chemical Data, p. 33, Reinhold, New York, 1957. TABLE 2-35

%

°C

d 4t

3.80 10.52 19.75 28.04

20 13 13.7 19.6

1.0219 1.0627 1.1189 1.1707

Ammonia (NH3)

% −15°C −10°C −5°C 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30

TABLE 2-36 Ammonium Chromate [(NH4)2CrO4]

%

TABLE 2-32

vapors are available from WADC-TR-59-598, 1959; plastics are collected in the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.: solid helium, neon, argon, fluorine, and methane data are given by Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960; temperatures of maximum solubility, vol. 3, p. 107; metals, vol. 2, p. 463; oils, fats, and waxes, vol. 2, p. 201; orthobaric, vol. 3, pp. 202, 228, 237, 244; petroleums, vol. 2, pp. 137, 144; plastics, vol. 2, p. 296; porcelains, vol. 2, pp. 68, 75; refrigerating brines, vol. 2, p. 327; rubber, vol. 2, pp. 255, 259; soaps, vol. 5, p. 447; metallic solid solutions, vol. 2, p. 358; solids, vol. 3, pp. 43, 45; vol. 2, p. 456; vol. 3, p. 21; solutions and mixtures, vol. 3, pp. 17, 51, 95, 104, 107, 111, 125, 130; woods, vol. 2, p. 1. Also see the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., 40th ed., etc.

TABLE 2-37

Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3)

%

0°C

10°C

25°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 28.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

1.0043 1.0088 1.0178 1.0358 1.0539 1.0721 1.0905 1.1090 1.1277 1.1371 1.1862 1.2380

1.0039 1.0082 1.0168 1.0340 1.0515 1.0691 1.0870 1.1051 1.1234 1.1327 1.1810 1.2320

1.0011 1.0051 1.0132 1.0297 1.0464 1.0633 1.0806 1.0982 1.1161 1.1252 1.1727 1.2229

0.9961 1.0000 1.0079 1.0238 1.0400 1.0565 1.0734 1.0907 1.1082 1.1171 1.1640 1.2136

0.9870 .9908 .9985 1.0142 1.0301 1.0462 1.0627 1.0796 1.0968 1.1055 1.1515 1.2006

0.9755 .9793 .9869 1.0024 1.0181 1.0342 1.0506 1.0673 1.0844 1.0931 1.1385 1.1868

TABLE 2-38

Ammonium Sulfate [(NH4)2SO4]

%

0°C

20°C

40°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 35 40 50

1.0061 1.0124 1.0248 1.0495 1.0740 1.0980 1.1215 1.1448 1.1677 1.2072 1.2350 1.2899

1.0041 1.0101 1.0220 1.0456 1.0691 1.0924 1.1154 1.1383 1.1609 1.2800 1.2277 1.2825

0.9980 1.0039 1.0155 1.0387 1.0619 1.0849 1.1077 1.1304 1.1529 1.1919 1.2196 1.2745

0.9777 .9836 .9953 1.0187 1.0421 1.0653 1.0883 1.1111 1.1338 1.1731 1.2011 1.2568

0.9644 .9705 .9826 1.0066 1.0303 1.0539 1.0772 1.1003 1.1232 1.1629 1.1910 1.2466

Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl)

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

30°C

50°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24

1.0033 1.0067 1.0135 1.0266 1.0391 1.0510 1.0625 1.0736

1.0029 1.0062 1.0126 1.0251 1.0370 1.0485 1.0596 1.0705

1.0013 1.0045 1.0107 1.0227 1.0344 1.0457 1.0567 1.0674

0.9987 1.0018 1.0077 1.0195 1.0310 1.0422 1.0532 1.0641

0.9910 .9940 .9999 1.0116 1.0231 1.0343 1.0454 1.0564

0.9749 .9780 .9842 .9963 1.0081 1.0198 1.0312 1.0426

0.9617 .9651 .9718 .9849 .9975 1.0096 1.0213 1.0327

TABLE 2-39

Arsenic Acid (H3A3O4)

%

d 15 4

%

d 15 4

1 2 6 10 16

1.0057 1.0124 1.0398 1.0681 1.1128

20 30 40 50 60 70

1.1447 1.2331 1.3370 1.4602 1.6070 1.7811

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2-100

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-40

Barium Chloride (BaCl2)

TABLE 2-46

Chromic Acid (CrO3)

%

0°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

%

d 15 4

%

d 15 4

2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26

1.0181 1.0368 1.0760 1.1178 1.1627 1.2105

1.0159 1.0341 1.0721 1.1128 1.1564 1.2031 1.2531 1.2793

1.0096 1.0275 1.0648 1.1047 1.1478 1.1938 1.2430 1.2688

1.0004 1.0181 1.0551 1.0948 1.1373 1.1828 1.2316 1.2571

0.9890 1.0066 1.0434 1.0827 1.1249 1.1702 1.2186 1.2440

0.9755 .9931 1.0299 1.0692 1.1113 1.1563 1.2045 1.2298

1 2 6 10 16

1.006 1.014 1.045 1.076 1.127

20 26 30 40 50 60

1.163 1.220 1.260 1.371 1.505 1.663

TABLE 2-41

TABLE 2-47

d 18 4

%

d 18 4

2 4 8 12 16

1.0154 1.0326 1.0683 1.1061 1.1468

20 25 30 40 50

1.1904 1.2488 1.3124 1.4590 1.6356

TABLE 2-42 % −5°C 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 40

Cadmium Nitrate [Cd(NO3)2]

%

1.0708 1.1083 1.1471 1.1874

Chromium Chloride (CrCl3) d 18 4

%

Violet

Green

Equilibrium mixture of violet and green

1 2 4 8 12 14

1.0076 1.0166 1.0349 1.0724 1.1114 1.1316

1.0071 1.0157 1.0332 1.0691 1.1065

1.0075 1.0165 1.0347 1.0722 1.1111

Calcium Chloride (CaCl2)

0°C

20°C

30°C

40°C

60°C

1.0171 1.0346 1.0703 1.1072 1.1454 1.1853 1.2376 1.2922

1.0148 1.0316 1.0659 1.1015 1.1386 1.1775 1.2284 1.2816 1.3373 1.3957

1.0120 1.0286 1.0626 1.0978 1.1345 1.1730 1.2236 1.2764 1.3316 1.3895

1.0084 1.0249 1.0586 1.0937 1.1301 1.1684 1.2186 1.2709 1.3255 1.3826

0.9994 1.0158 1.0492 1.0840 1.1202 1.1581 1.2079 1.2597 1.3137 1.3700

80°C 100°C 120°C* 140°C 0.9881 1.0046 1.0382 1.0730 1.1092 1.1471 1.1965 1.2478 1.3013 1.3571

0.9748 .9915 1.0257 1.0610 1.0973 1.1352 1.1846 1.2359 1.2893 1.3450

0.9596 .9765 1.0111 1.0466 1.0835 1.1219

0.9428 .9601 .9954 1.0317 1.0691 1.1080

TABLE 2-48

Copper Nitrate [Cu(NO3)2]

%

d 20 4

%

d 20 4

1 2 4 8

1.007 1.015 1.032 1.069

12 16 20 25

1.107 1.147 1.189 1.248

*Corrected to atmospheric pressure.

TABLE 2-43 Calcium Hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]

TABLE 2-44 Calcium Hypochlorite* (CaOCl2)

TABLE 2-49 (CuSO4)

Copper Sulfate

TABLE 2-50 Cuprous Chloride (Cu2Cl2)

%

d 15 4

d 425

% total salt

d 15 4

%

0°C

20°C

40°C

%

0°C

20°C

40°C

0.05 .10 .15

0.99979 1.00044 1.00110

0.99773 .99838 .99904

2 4 6 8 10 12

1.0169 1.0345 1.0520 1.0697 1.0876 1.1060

1 4 8 12 16 18

1.0104 1.0429 1.0887 1.1379

1.0086 1.0401 1.084 1.1308 1.180 1.206

1.0024 1.0332 1.0764 1.1222

1 4 8 12 16 20

1.0095 1.0387 1.0788 1.1208 1.1653 1.2121

1.0072 1.036 1.0754 1.1165 1.1595 1.2052

1.002 1.0305 1.0682 1.107 1.151 1.1953

*CaOCl2 = 89.15% CaCl2 = 7.31% Ca(ClO3)2 = 0.26% Ca(OH)2 = 2.92%.

TABLE 2-45

Calcium Nitrate [Ca(NO3)2]

TABLE 2-51

Ferric Chloride (FeCl3)

%

6°C

18°C

25°C

30°C

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

30°C

2* 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 68*

1.0157 1.0316 1.0641 1.0979 1.1330 1.1694 1.2168

1.0137 1.0291 1.0608 1.0937 1.1279 1.1636 1.2106 1.260 1.311 1.365 1.422 1.747

1.0120 1.0272 1.0585 1.0911 1.1250 1.1602 1.2065

1.0105 1.0256 1.0565 1.0887 1.1224 1.1575 1.2032

1.741

1.736

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

1.0086 1.0174 1.0347 1.0703 1.1088 1.1475 1.1870 1.2400 1.2970 1.3605 1.4280

1.0084 1.0168 1.0341 1.0692 1.1071 1.1449 1.1847 1.2380 1.2950 1.3580 1.4235 1.4920 1.5610

1.0068 1.0152 1.0324 1.0669 1.1040 1.1418 1.1820 1.2340 1.2910 1.3530 1.4175 1.4850 1.5510

1.0040 1.0122 1.0292 1.0636 1.1006 1.1386 1.1786 1.2290 1.2850 1.3475 1.4115

*Supercooled tetrahydrate (m.p. 41.4°C).

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DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-52 [Fe2(SO4)3]

Ferric Sulfate

TABLE 2-53 [Fe(NO3)3]

17.5

%

d4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 30 40 50 60

1.0072 1.0157 1.0327 1.0670 1.1028 1.1409 1.1811 1.3073 1.4487 1.6127 1.7983

TABLE 2-54 Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) % 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0

Ferric Nitrate

d4

d4

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 25

1.0065 1.0144 1.0304 1.0636 1.0989 1.1359 1.1748 1.2281

5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 100

1.020 1.040 1.080 1.119 1.159 1.198 1.235 1.258 1.259 1.178 1.089 1.0005

1.017 1.035 1.070 1.101 1.130 1.155

1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

1.0022 1.0058 1.0131 1.0204 1.0277 1.0351 1.0425 1.0499 1.0574 1.0649 1.0725 1.0802 1.0880

26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100

1.0959 1.1040 1.1122 1.1327 1.1536 1.1749 1.1966 1.2188 1.2416 1.2897 1.3406 1.3931 1.4465

4

10

25

20°C

%

d4

d4

d4

1.0090 1.0380 1.0790 1.1235 1.1690 1.2150

1.00068 1.00275 1.00645 1.0085 1.0375 1.0785 1.1220 1.1675 1.2135

1.0002 1.0022 1.0062 1.0082

1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 65.0

1.0073 1.0146 1.0295 1.0448 1.0604 1.0764 1.0928 1.1097 1.1272 1.1453 1.1640 1.1832 1.2030 1.2235 1.2446 1.2663 1.3877 1.5305 1.6950 1.7854

1.0068 1.0139 1.0285 1.0435 1.0589 1.0747 1.0910 1.1078 1.1251 1.1430 1.1615 1.1806 1.2003 1.2206 1.2415 1.2630 1.3838 1.5257 1.6892 1.7792

1.0041 1.0111 1.0255 1.0402 1.0552 1.0707 1.0867 1.1032 1.1202 1.1377 1.1557 1.1743 1.1935 1.2134 1.2340 1.2552 1.3736 1.5127 1.6731 1.7613

15

1 2 4 8 12 16 82 90 100

0.998 .996 .993 .984 .971 .956 .752 .724 .691

TABLE 2-57

18

%

18

18°C

d4

18

d4

15°C

%

0

%

TABLE 2-55 Hydrogen Bromide (HBr)

TABLE 2-56 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN)

TABLE 2-59 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

TABLE 2-58 Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) 20

2-101

TABLE 2-60

Hydrofluosilic Acid (H2SiF6) 17.5

% 1 2 4 8 12

1.0080 1.0161 1.0324 1.0661 1.1011

TABLE 2-61

Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)

−5°C

0°C

10°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

1.0048 1.0104 1.0213 1.0321 1.0428 1.0536 1.0645 1.0754 1.0864 1.0975 1.1087 1.1200 1.1314 1.1426 1.1537 1.1648

1.0052 1.0106 1.0213 1.0319 1.0423 1.0528 1.0634 1.0741 1.0849 1.0958 1.1067 1.1177 1.1287 1.1396 1.1505 1.1613

1.0048 1.0100 1.0202 1.0303 1.0403 1.0504 1.0607 1.0711 1.0815 1.0920 1.1025 1.1131 1.1238 1.1344 1.1449 1.1553

1.0032 1.0082 1.0181 1.0279 1.0376 1.0474 1.0574 1.0675 1.0776 1.0878 1.0980 1.1083 1.1187 1.1290 1.1392 1.1493 1.1593 1.1691 1.1789 1.1885 1.1980

0.9970 1.0019 1.0116 1.0211 1.0305 1.0400 1.0497 1.0594 1.0692 1.0790 1.0888 1.0986 1.1085 1.1183 1.1280 1.1376

0.9881 .9930 1.0026 1.0121 1.0215 1.0310 1.0406 1.0502 1.0598 1.0694 1.0790 1.0886 1.0982 1.1076 1.1169 1.1260

0.9768 0.9819 0.9919 1.0016 1.0111 1.0206 1.0302 1.0398 1.0494 1.0590 1.0685 1.0780 1.0874 1.0967 1.1058 1.1149

0.9636 .9688 .9791 .9892 .9992 1.0090 1.0188 1.0286 1.0383 1.0479 1.0574 1.0668 1.0761 1.0853 1.0942 1.1030

d4

16 20 25 30 34

1.1373 1.1748 1.2235 1.2742 1.3162

Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2)

%

0°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

2 4 8 12 16 20 25 30

1.0168 1.0338 1.0683 1.1035 1.1395 1.1764 1.2246 1.2754

1.0146 1.0311 1.0646 1.0989 1.1342 1.1706 1.2184 1.2688

1.0084 1.0248 1.0580 1.0921 1.1272 1.1635 1.2111 1.2614

0.9995 1.0159 1.0493 1.0836 1.1188 1.1552 1.2031 1.2535

0.9883 1.0050 1.0388 1.0735 1.1092 1.1460 1.1942 1.2451

0.9753 .9923 1.0269 1.0622 1.0984 1.1359 1.1847 1.2360

TABLE 2-62

%

17.5

%

d4

Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4)

%

0°C

20°C

30°C

40°C

50°C

60°C

80°C

2 4 8 12 16 20 26

1.0210 1.0423 1.0858 1.1309 1.1777 1.2264 1.3032

1.0186 1.0392 1.0816 1.1256 1.1717 1.2198 1.2961

1.0158 1.0362 1.0782 1.1220 1.1679 1.2159 1.2922

1.0123 1.0326 1.0743 1.1179 1.1637 1.2117 1.2879

1.0081 1.0283 1.0700 1.1135 1.1592 1.2072 1.2836

1.0032 1.0234 1.0650 1.1083

0.9916 1.0118 1.0534 1.0968

TABLE 2-63 Nickel Chloride (NiCl2) 18

TABLE 2-64 Nickel Nitrate [Ni(NO3)2] 20

TABLE 2-65 Nickel Sulfate (NiSO4 ) 18

%

d4

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 30

1.0082 1.0179 1.0375 1.0785 1.1217 1.1674 1.2163 1.353

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 30 35

1.0065 1.0150 1.0325 1.0688 1.1070 1.1480 1.191 1.311 1.377

1 2 4 8 12 16 18

1.0091 1.0198 1.0415 1.0852 1.1325 1.1825 1.2090

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2-102

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-66 %

Nitric Acid (HNO3)

0°C

5°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

40°C

50°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 3 4

1.0058 1.0117 1.0176 1.0236

1.00572 1.01149 1.01730 1.02315

1.00534 1.01099 1.01668 1.02240

1.00464 1.01018 1.01576 1.02137

1.00364 1.00909 1.01457 1.02008

1.00241 1.00778 1.01318 1.01861

1.0009 1.0061 1.0114 1.0168

0.9973 1.0025 1.0077 1.0129

0.9931 .9982 1.0033 1.0084

0.9882 .9932 .9982 1.0033

0.9767 .9816 .9865 .9915

0.9632 .9681 .9730 .9779

5 6 7 8 9

1.0296 1.0357 1.0418 1.0480 1.0543

1.02904 1.03497 1.0410 1.0471 1.0532

1.02816 1.03397 1.0399 1.0458 1.0518

1.02702 1.03272 1.0385 1.0443 1.0502

1.02563 1.03122 1.0369 1.0427 1.0485

1.02408 1.02958 1.0352 1.0409 1.0466

1.0222 1.0277 1.0333 1.0389 1.0446

1.0182 1.0235 1.0289 1.0344 1.0399

1.0136 1.0188 1.0241 1.0295 1.0349

1.0084 1.0136 1.0188 1.0241 1.0294

.9965 1.0015 1.0066 1.0117 1.0169

.9829 .9879 .9929 .9980 1.0032

10 11 12 13 14

1.0606 1.0669 1.0733 1.0797 1.0862

1.0594 1.0656 1.0718 1.0781 1.0845

1.0578 1.0639 1.0700 1.0762 1.0824

1.0561 1.0621 1.0681 1.0742 1.0803

1.0543 1.0602 1.0661 1.0721 1.0781

1.0523 1.0581 1.0640 1.0699 1.0758

1.0503 1.0560 1.0618 1.0676 1.0735

1.0455 1.0511 1.0567 1.0624 1.0681

1.0403 1.0458 1.0513 1.0568 1.0624

1.0347 1.0401 1.0455 1.0509 1.0564

1.0221 1.0273 1.0326 1.0379 1.0432

1.0083 1.0134 1.0186 1.0238 1.0289

15 16 17 18 19

1.0927 1.0992 1.1057 1.1123 1.1189

1.0909 1.0973 1.1038 1.1103 1.1168

1.0887 1.0950 1.1014 1.1078 1.1142

1.0865 1.0927 1.0989 1.1052 1.1115

1.0842 1.0903 1.0964 1.1026 1.1088

1.0818 1.0879 1.0940 1.1001 1.1062

1.0794 1.0854 1.0914 1.0974 1.1034

1.0739 1.0797 1.0855 1.0913 1.0972

1.0680 1.0737 1.0794 1.0851 1.0908

1.0619 1.0675 1.0731 1.0787 1.0843

1.0485 1.0538 1.0592 1.0646 1.0700

1.0341 1.0393 1.0444 1.0496 1.0547

20 21 22 23 24

1.1255 1.1322 1.1389 1.1457 1.1525

1.1234 1.1300 1.1366 1.1433 1.1501

1.1206 1.1271 1.1336 1.1402 1.1469

1.1178 1.1242 1.1306 1.1371 1.1437

1.1150 1.1213 1.1276 1.1340 1.1404

1.1123 1.1185 1.1247 1.1310 1.1374

1.1094 1.1155 1.1217 1.1280 1.1343

1.1031 1.1090 1.1150 1.1210 1.1271

1.0966 1.1024 1.1083 1.1142 1.1201

1.0899 1.0956 1.1013 1.1070 1.1127

1.0754 1.0808 1.0862 1.0917 1.0972

1.0598 1.0650 1.0701 1.0753 1.0805

25 26 27 28 29

1.1594 1.1663 1.1733 1.1803 1.1874

1.1569 1.1638 1.1707 1.1777 1.1847

1.1536 1.1603 1.1670 1.1738 1.1807

1.1503 1.1569 1.1635 1.1702 1.1770

1.1469 1.1534 1.1600 1.1666 1.1733

1.1438 1.1502 1.1566 1.1631 1.1697

1.1406 1.1469 1.1533 1.1597 1.1662

1.1332 1.1394 1.1456 1.1519 1.1582

1.1260 1.1320 1.1381 1.1442 1.1503

1.1185 1.1244 1.1303 1.1362 1.1422

1.1027 1.1083 1.1139 1.1195 1.1251

1.0857 1.0910 1.0963 1.1016 1.1069

30 31 32 33 34

1.1945 1.2016 1.2088 1.2160 1.2233

1.1917 1.1988 1.2059 1.2131 1.2203

1.1876 1.1945 1.2014 1.2084 1.2155

1.1838 1.1906 1.1974 1.2043 1.2113

1.1800 1.1867 1.1934 1.2002 1.2071

1.1763 1.1829 1.1896 1.1963 1.2030

1.1727 1.1792 1.1857 1.1922 1.1988

1.1645 1.1708 1.1772 1.1836 1.1901

1.1564 1.1625 1.1687 1.1749 1.1812

1.1482 1.1542 1.1602 1.1662 1.1723

1.1307 1.1363 1.1419 1.1476 1.1533

1.1122 1.1175 1.1228 1.1281 1.1335

35 36 37 38 39

1.2306 1.2375 1.2444 1.2513 1.2581

1.2275 1.2344 1.2412 1.2479 1.2546

1.2227 1.2294 1.2361 1.2428 1.2494

1.2183 1.2249 1.2315 1.2381 1.2446

1.2140 1.2205 1.2270 1.2335 1.2399

1.2098 1.2163 1.2227 1.2291 1.2354

1.2055 1.2119 1.2182 1.2245 1.2308

1.1966 1.2028 1.2089 1.2150 1.2210

1.1876 1.1936 1.1995 1.2054 1.2112

1.1784 1.1842 1.1899 1.1956 1.2013

1.1591 1.1645 1.1699 1.1752 1.1805

1.1390 1.1440 1.1490 1.1540 1.1589

40 41 42 43 44

1.2649 1.2717 1.2786 1.2854 1.2922

1.2613 1.2680 1.2747 1.2814 1.2880

1.2560 1.2626 1.2692 1.2758 1.2824

1.2511 1.2576 1.2641 1.2706 1.2771

1.2463 1.2527 1.2591 1.2655 1.2719

1.2417 1.2480 1.2543 1.2606 1.2669

1.2370 1.2432 1.2494 1.2556 1.2618

1.2270 1.2330 1.2390 1.2450 1.2510

1.2170 1.2229 1.2287 1.2345 1.2403

1.2069 1.2126 1.2182 1.2238 1.2294

1.1858 1.1911 1.1963 1.2015 1.2067

1.1638 1.1687 1.1735 1.1783 1.1831

45 46 47 48 49

1.2990 1.3058 1.3126 1.3194 1.3263

1.2947 1.3014 1.3080 1.3147 1.3214

1.2890 1.2955 1.3021 1.3087 1.3153

1.2836 1.2901 1.2966 1.3031 1.3096

1.2783 1.2847 1.2911 1.2975 1.3040

1.2732 1.2795 1.2858 1.2921 1.2984

1.2680 1.2742 1.2804 1.2867 1.2929

1.2570 1.2630 1.2690 1.2750 1.2811

1.2461 1.2519 1.2577 1.2635 1.2693

1.2350 1.2406 1.2462 1.2518 1.2575

1.2119 1.2171 1.2223 1.2275 1.2328

1.1879 1.1927 1.1976 1.2024 1.2073

50 51 52 53 54

1.3327 1.3391 1.3454 1.3517 1.3579

1.3277 1.3339 1.3401 1.3462 1.3523

1.3215 1.3277 1.3338 1.3399 1.3459

1.3157 1.3218 1.3278 1.3338 1.3397

1.3100 1.3160 1.3219 1.3278 1.3336

1.3043 1.3102 1.3160 1.3218 1.3275

1.2987 1.3045 1.3102 1.3159 1.3215

1.2867 1.2923 1.2978 1.3033 1.3087

1.2748 1.2802 1.2856 1.2909 1.2961

1.2628 1.2680 1.2731 1.2782 1.2833

1.2377 1.2425 1.2473 1.2521 1.2568

1.2118 1.2163 1.2208 1.2252 1.2296

55 56 57 58 59

1.3640 1.3700 1.3759 1.3818 1.3875

1.3583 1.3642 1.3700 1.3757 1.3813

1.3518 1.3576 1.3634 1.3691 1.3747

1.3455 1.3512 1.3569 1.3625 1.3680

1.3393 1.3449 1.3505 1.3560 1.3614

1.3331 1.3386 1.3441 1.3495 1.3548

1.3270 1.3324 1.3377 1.3430 1.3482

1.3141 1.3194 1.3246 1.3298 1.3348

1.3013 1.3064 1.3114 1.3164 1.3213

1.2883 1.2932 1.2981 1.3029 1.3077

1.2615 1.2661 1.2706 1.2751 1.2795

1.2339 1.2382 1.2424 1.2466 1.2507

60 61 62 63 64

1.3931 1.3986 1.4039 1.4091

1.3868 1.3922 1.3975 1.4027 1.4078

1.3801 1.3855 1.3907 1.3958 1.4007

1.3734 1.3787 1.3838 1.3888 1.3936

1.3667 1.3719 1.3769 1.3818 1.3866

1.3600 1.3651 1.3700 1.3748 1.3795

1.3533 1.3583 1.3632 1.3679 1.3725

1.3398 1.3447 1.3494 1.3540

1.3261 1.3308 1.3354 1.3398

1.3124 1.3169 1.3213 1.3255

1.2839 1.2881 1.2922 1.2962

1.2547 1.2587 1.2625 1.2661

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DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS Nitric Acid (HNO3) (Concluded )

TABLE 2-66 %

0°C

5°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

65 66 67 68 69

1.4128 1.4177 1.4224 1.4271 1.4317

1.4055 1.4103 1.4150 1.4196 1.4241

1.3984 1.4031 1.4077 1.4122 1.4166

1.3913 1.3959 1.4004 1.4048 1.4091

1.3841 1.3887 1.3932 1.3976 1.4019

1.3770 1.3814 1.3857 1.3900 1.3942

70 71 72 73 74

1.4362 1.4406 1.4449 1.4491 1.4532

1.4285 1.4328 1.4371 1.4413 1.4454

1.4210 1.4252 1.4294 1.4335 1.4376

1.4134 1.4176 1.4218 1.4258 1.4298

1.4061 1.4102 1.4142 1.4182 1.4221

1.3983 1.4023 1.4063 1.4103 1.4142

75 76 77 78 79

1.4573 1.4613 1.4652 1.4690 1.4727

1.4494 1.4533 1.4572 1.4610 1.4647

1.4415 1.4454 1.4492 1.4529 1.4565

1.4337 1.4375 1.4413 1.4450 1.4486

1.4259 1.4296 1.4333 1.4369 1.4404

1.4180 1.4217 1.4253 1.4288 1.4323

80 81 82 83 84

1.4764 1.4800 1.4835 1.4869 1.4903

1.4683 1.4718 1.4753 1.4787 1.4820

1.4601 1.4636 1.4670 1.4704 1.4737

1.4521 1.4555 1.4589 1.4622 1.4655

1.4439 1.4473 1.4507 1.4540 1.4572

1.4357 1.4391 1.4424 1.4456 1.4487

85 86 87 88 89

1.4936 1.4968 1.4999 1.5029 1.5058

1.4852 1.4883 1.4913 1.4942 1.4970

1.4769 1.4799 1.4829 1.4858 1.4885

1.4686 1.4716 1.4745 1.4773 1.4800

1.4603 1.4633 1.4662 1.4690 1.4716

1.4518 1.4548 1.4577 1.4605 1.4631

90 91 92 93 94

1.5085 1.5111 1.5136 1.5156 1.5177

1.4997 1.5023 1.5048 1.5068 1.5088

1.4911 1.4936 1.4960 1.4979 1.4999

1.4826 1.4850 1.4873 1.4892 1.4912

1.4741 1.4766 1.4789 1.4807 1.4826

1.4656 1.4681 1.4704 1.4722 1.4741

95 96 97 98 99 100

1.5198 1.5220 1.5244 1.5278 1.5327 1.5402

1.5109 1.5130 1.5152 1.5187 1.5235 1.5310

1.5019 1.5040 1.5062 1.5096 1.5144 1.5217

1.4932 1.4952 1.4974 1.5008 1.5056 1.5129

1.4846 1.4867 1.4889 1.4922 1.4969 1.5040

1.4761 1.4781 1.4802 1.4835 1.4881 1.4952

TABLE 2-67 15

%

d4

1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

1.0050 1.0109 1.0228 1.0348 1.0471 1.0597 1.0726 1.0589 1.0995 1.1135 1.1279 1.1428 1.1581 1.1738

2-103

Perchloric Acid (HClO4) 20

d4

TABLE 2-69

40°C

50°C

d4

%

d4

d4

d4

°C

1%

2%

4%

1.0020 1.0070 1.0169 1.0270 1.0372 1.0475

0.9933 0.9986 0.9906 1.0205 1.0320 1.0440 1.0560 1.0680 1.0810 1.0940 1.1070 1.1205 1.1345 1.1490

28 30 32 34 36 38 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

1.1900 1.2067 1.2239 1.2418 1.2603 1.2794 1.2991 1.3521 1.4103 1.4733 1.5389 1.6059 1.6736

1.1851 1.2013 1.2183 1.2359 1.2542 1.2732 1.2927 1.3450 1.4018 1.4636 1.5298 1.5986 1.6680

1.1645 1.1800 1.1960 1.2130 1.2310 1.2490 1.2680 1.3180 1.3730 1.4320 1.4950 1.5620 1.6290

0 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100

1.0066 1.0064 1.0058 1.0049 1.0024 0.9990 .9949 .9901 .9786 .9653

1.0134 1.0132 1.0125 1.0117 1.0092 1.0058 1.0017 0.9969 .9855 .9722

1.0270 1.0268 1.0260 1.0252 1.0228 1.0195 1.0154 1.0106 0.9993 .9860

1.1697

50

15

20

50

80°C

100°C

6%

8%

10%

1.0396

1.0534

1.0674

Potassium Bicarbonate (KHCO3)

d4

25

60°C

TABLE 2-70 Potassium Bromide (KBr) TABLE 2-68

Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)

°C

2%

6%

14%

0 10 20 30 40

1.0113 1.0109 1.0092 1.0065 1.0029

1.0339 1.0330 1.0309 1.0279 1.0241

1.0811 1.0792 1.0764 1.0728 1.0685

20%

26%

35%

50%

75%

1.1192 1.1167 1.1567 1.221 1.341 1.1134 1.1529 1.216 1.335 1.579 1.1094 1.1484 1.211 1.329 1.572 1.1048

100%

1.870 1.862

%

d 20 4

1 2 6 12 20 30 40

1.0054 1.0127 1.0426 1.0903 1.1601 1.2593 1.3746

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2-104

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-71

Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)

TABLE 2-77

Potassium Nitrate (KNO3)

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50

1.0094 1.0189 1.0381 1.0768 1.1160 1.1562 1.1977 1.2405 1.2846 1.3071 1.3646 1.4244 1.4867 1.5517

1.0089 1.0182 1.0369 1.0746 1.1131 1.1530 1.1941 1.2366 1.2804 1.3028 1.3600 1.4195 1.4815 1.5462

1.0072 1.0163 1.0345 1.0715 1.1096 1.1490 1.1898 1.2320 1.2756 1.2979 1.3548 1.4141 1.4759 1.5404

1.0010 1.0098 1.0276 1.0640 1.1013 1.1399 1.1801 1.2219 1.2652 1.2873 1.3440 1.4029 1.4644 1.5285

0.9919 1.0005 1.0180 1.0538 1.0906 1.1290 1.1690 1.2106 1.2538 1.2759 1.3324 1.3913 1.4528 1.5169

0.9803 .9889 1.0063 1.0418 1.0786 1.1170 1.1570 1.1986 1.2418 1.2640 1.3206 1.3795 1.4408 1.5048

0.9670 .9756 .9951 1.0291 1.0663 1.1049 1.1451 1.1869 1.2301 1.2522 1.3089 1.3678 1.4290 1.4928

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24

1.00654 1.01326 1.02677 1.05419 1.08221

1.00615 1.01262 1.02566 1.05226 1.07963

1.00447 1.01075 1.02344 1.04940 1.07620 1.10392 1.13261 1.16233

0.99825 1.00430 1.01652 1.04152 1.06740 1.09432 1.12240 1.15175

0.9890 .9949 1.0068 1.0313 1.0567 1.0831 1.1106 1.1391

0.9776 .9834 .9951 1.0192 1.0442 1.0703 1.0974 1.1256

0.9641 .9699 .9816 1.0056 1.0304 1.0562 1.0831 1.1110

TABLE 2-72 Potassium Chromate (K2Cr O4)

TABLE 2-73 (KClO3)

Potassium Chlorate

%

d4

d4

°C

1%

2%

3%

4%

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30

1.0073 1.0155 1.0321 1.0659 1.1009

1.0066 1.0147 1.0311 1.0647 1.0999 1.1366 1.1748 1.2147 1.2566 1.2784

0 10 20 30 40 60 80 100

1.0061 1.0059 1.0045 1.0020 0.9986 .9895 .9781 .9646

1.0124 1.0122 1.0109 1.0085 1.0051 0.9959 .9845 .9709

1.0189 1.0187 1.0174 1.0151 1.0116 1.0024 0.9910 .9774

1.0256 1.0254 1.0241 1.0218 1.0183 1.0091 0.9977 .9840

15

TABLE 2-74

18

Potassium Chloride (KCl)

%

0°C

20°C

25°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 28.0

1.00661 1.01335 1.02690 1.05431 1.08222 1.11068 1.13973

1.00462 1.01103 1.02391 1.05003 1.07679 1.10434 1.13280 1.16226

1.00342 1.00977 1.02255 1.04847 1.07506 1.10245 1.13072 1.15995

0.99847 1.00471 1.01727 1.04278 1.06897 1.09600 1.12399 1.15299 1.18304

0.9894 .9956 1.0080 1.0333 1.0592 1.0861 1.1138 1.1425 1.1723

0.9780 .9842 .9966 1.0219 1.0478 1.0746 1.1024 1.1311 1.1609

0.9646 .9708 .9634 1.0888 1.0350 1.0619 1.0897 1.1185 1.1483

%

110°C

120°C

130°C

140°C

3.79 7.45 13.62

0.9733 .9978 1.0388

0.9663 .9899 1.0313

0.9583 .9827 1.0238

0.9502 .9745 1.0159

TABLE 2-75 Potassium Chrome Alum [K2Cr2(SO4)4]

TABLE 2-78 Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7)

TABLE 2-79 Potassium Sulfate (K2SO4)

20

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 6 8 10

1.0052 1.0122 1.0264 1.0408 1.0554 1.0703

1 2 4 6 8 10

1.0063 1.0145 1.0310 1.0477 1.0646 1.0817

TABLE 2-80 Potassium Sulfite (K2SO3)

TABLE 2-81 Sodium Acetate (NaC2H3O2)

15

d 15 4

%

d 15 4

1 2 6 10 14 20 30 40 50

1.007 1.016 1.052 1.089 1.129 1.193 1.315 1.456 1.615

1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 51.7

1.0083 1.0175 1.0359 1.0544 1.0730 1.0918 1.1396 1.1884 1.2387 1.2905 1.3440 1.3991 1.4558 1.5143 1.5355 (sat’d. soln.)

20

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26

1.0073 1.0155 1.0322 1.0667 1.1026 1.1402 1.1793 1.2197 1.2404

1 2 4 8 12 18 20 26 28

1.0033 1.0084 1.0186 1.0392 1.0598 1.0807 1.1021 1.1351 1.1462

TABLE 2-82 Sodium Arsenate (Na3AsO4)

TABLE 2-83 Sodium Bichromate (Na2Cr2O7)

17

15

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 10 12

1.0097 1.0207 1.0431 1.0892 1.1130 1.1373

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50

1.006 1.013 1.027 1.056 1.084 1.112 1.140 1.166 1.193 1.207 1.244 1.279 1.312 1.342

TABLE 2-76 Potassium Hydroxide (KOH)

%

20

%

TABLE 2-84 Sodium Bromide (NaBr)

TABLE 2-85 Sodium Formate (HCOONa)

17

25

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 10 12 20 30 40

1.0060 1.0139 1.0298 1.0631 1.0803 1.0981 1.1745 1.2841 1.4138

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40

1.003 1.009 1.022 1.048 1.074 1.100 1.127 1.155 1.184 1.199 1.236 1.274

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DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-86

Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)

TABLE 2-90

2-105

Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

30°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

%

0°C

15°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 4 8 12 14 16 18 20 24 28 30

1.0109 1.0219 1.0439 1.0878 1.1319 1.1543

1.0103 1.0210 1.0423 1.0850 1.1284 1.1506

1.0086 1.0190 1.0398 1.0816 1.1244 1.1463

1.0058 1.0159 1.0363 1.0775 1.1200 1.1417 1.1636 1.1859 1.2086 1.2552 1.3031 1.3274

1.0022 1.0122 1.0323 1.0732 1.1150 1.1365

0.9929 1.0027 1.0223 1.0625 1.1039 1.1251

0.9814 .9910 1.0105 1.0503 1.0914 1.1125

0.9683 .9782 .9980 1.0380 1.0787 1.0996

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 50

1.0124 1.0244 1.0482 1.0943 1.1399 1.1849 1.2296 1.2741 1.3182 1.3614 1.4030 1.4435 1.4825 1.5210 1.5400

1.01065 1.02198 1.04441 1.08887 1.13327 1.17761 1.22183 1.26582 1.3094 1.3520 1.3933 1.4334 1.4720 1.5102 1.5290

1.0095 1.0207 1.0428 1.0869 1.1309 1.1751 1.2191 1.2629 1.3064 1.3490 1.3900 1.4300 1.4685 1.5065 1.5253

1.0033 1.0139 1.0352 1.0780 1.1210 1.1645 1.2079 1.2512 1.2942 1.3362 1.3768 1.4164 1.4545 1.4922 1.5109

0.9941 1.0045 1.0254 1.0676 1.1101 1.1531 1.1960 1.2388 1.2814 1.3232 1.3634 1.4027 1.4405 1.4781 1.4967

0.9824 .9929 1.0139 1.0560 1.0983 1.1408 1.1833 1.2259 1.2682 1.3097 1.3498 1.3889 1.4266 1.4641 1.4827

0.9693 .9797 1.0009 1.0432 1.0855 1.1277 1.1700 1.2124 1.2546 1.2960 1.3360 1.3750 1.4127 1.4503 1.4690

TABLE 2-87

Sodium Chlorate (NaClO3) 18

18

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

1.0053 1.0121 1.0258 1.0397 1.0538 1.0681 1.0827 1.0977 1.1131

18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

1.1288 1.1449 1.1614 1.1782 1.1953 1.2128 1.2307 1.2491 1.2680

TABLE 2-88

TABLE 2-91

Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

%

0°C

10°C

25°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26

1.00747 1.01509 1.03038 1.06121 1.09244 1.12419 1.15663 1.18999 1.20709

1.00707 1.01442 1.02920 1.05907 1.08946 1.12056 1.15254 1.18557 1.20254

1.00409 1.01112 1.02530 1.05412 1.08365 1.11401 1.14533 1.17776 1.19443

0.99908 1.00593 1.01977 1.04798 1.07699 1.10688 1.13774 1.16971 1.18614

0.9900 .9967 1.0103 1.0381 1.0667 1.0962 1.1268 1.1584 1.1747

0.9785 .9852 .9988 1.0264 1.0549 1.0842 1.1146 1.1463 1.1626

0.9651 .9719 .9855 1.0134 1.0420 1.0713 1.1017 1.1331 1.1492

Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3)

%

0°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45

1.0071 1.0144 1.0290 1.0587 1.0891 1.1203 1.1526 1.1860 1.2204 1.2380 1.2834 1.3316

1.0049 1.0117 1.0254 1.0532 1.0819 1.1118 1.1429 1.1752 1.2085 1.2256 1.2701 1.3175 1.3683

0.9986 1.0050 1.0180 1.0447 1.0724 1.1013 1.1314 1.1629 1.1955 1.2122 1.2560 1.3027 1.3528

0.9894 .9956 1.0082 1.0340 1.0609 1.0892 1.1187 1.1496 1.1816 1.1980 1.2413 1.2875 1.3371

0.9779 .9840 .9964 1.0218 1.0481 1.0757 1.1048 1.1351 1.1667 1.1830 1.2258 1.2715 1.3206

0.9644 .9704 .9826 1.0078 1.0340 1.0614 1.0901 1.1200 1.1513 1.1674 1.2100 1.2555 1.3044

TABLE 2-89 Sodium Chromate (Na2CrO4)

TABLE 2-93

TABLE 2-92 Sodium Nitrite (NaNO2)

18

15

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26

1.0074 1.0164 1.0344 1.0718 1.1110 1.1518 1.1942 1.2383 1.2611

1 2 4 8 12 16 20

1.0058 1.0125 1.0260 1.0535 1.0816 1.1103 1.1394

Sodium Silicates Concentration, % 1

2

4

8

10

14

Na2O/3.9SiO2 Na2O/3.36SiO2 Na2O/2.40SiO2 Na2O/2.44SiO2 Na2O/2.06SiO2 Na2O/1.69SiO2

20

24

30

36

40

45

50

1.445 1.450

1.520

1.594

20

Formula

d4 1.006 1.006 1.007

1.014 1.014 1.016

1.030 1.030 1.034

1.063 1.065 1.071

1.080 1.083 1.090

1.116 1.120 1.130

1.172 1.179

1.211 1.222

1.275 1.290

1.365

1.007 1.007

1.016 1.017

1.035 1.036

1.073 1.077

1.093 1.098

1.134 1.141

1.200 1.210

1.247 1.259

1.309 1.321 1.337

1.387 1.397 1.424

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2-106

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-94 %

0°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24

1.0094 1.0189 1.0381 1.0773 1.1174 1.1585 1.2008 1.2443

TABLE 2-95 Sodium Sulfide (Na2S)

Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) 20°C

30°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1.0073 1.0164 1.0348 1.0724 1.1109 1.1586 1.1915 1.2336

1.0046 1.0135 1.0315 1.0682 1.1062 1.1456 1.1865 1.2292

1.0010 1.0098 1.0276 1.0639 1.1015 1.1406 1.1813 1.2237

0.9919 1.0007 1.0184 1.0544 1.0915 1.1299 1.1696

0.9805 .9892 1.0068 1.0426 1.0795 1.1176 1.1569

0.9671 .9758 .9934 1.0292 1.0661 1.1042

TABLE 2-96 Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3)

TABLE 2-97 Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3)

%

d 18 4

%

d 19 4

%

d 20 4

1 2 4 8 12 16 18

1.0098 1.0211 1.0440 1.0907 1.1388 1.1885 1.2140

1 2 4 8 12 16 18

1.0078 1.0172 1.0363 1.0751 1.1146 1.1549 1.1755

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40

1.0065 1.0148 1.0315 1.0654 1.1003 1.1365 1.1740 1.2128 1.2532 1.2739 1.3273 1.3827

TABLE 2-98 Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate (Na2S2O3⋅5H2O) %

d 19 4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 40 50

1.0052 1.0105 1.0211 1.0423 1.0639 1.0863 1.1087 1.1322 1.1558 1.1676 1.2297 1.2954

TABLE 2-99 Stannic Chloride (SnCl4) %

d 15 4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

1.007 1.015 1.031 1.064 1.099 1.135 1.173 1.212 1.255 1.278 1.337 1.403 1.475 1.555 1.644 1.742 1.851 1.971

TABLE 2-100 Stannous Chloride (SnCl2) %

d 15 4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65

1.0068 1.0146 1.0306 1.0638 1.0986 1.1353 1.1743 1.2159 1.2603 1.2837 1.3461 1.4145 1.4897 1.5729 1.6656 1.7695 1.8865

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DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-101 %

2-107

Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)

0°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

40°C

50°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

1 2 3 4

1.0074 1.0147 1.0219 1.0291

1.0068 1.0138 1.0206 1.0275

1.0060 1.0129 1.0197 1.0264

1.0051 1.0118 1.0184 1.0250

1.0038 1.0104 1.0169 1.0234

1.0022 1.0087 1.0152 1.0216

0.9986 1.0050 1.0113 1.0176

0.9944 1.0006 1.0067 1.0129

0.9895 .9956 1.0017 1.0078

0.9779 .9839 .9900 .9961

0.9645 .9705 .9766 .9827

5 6 7 8 9

1.0364 1.0437 1.0511 1.0585 1.0660

1.0344 1.0414 1.0485 1.0556 1.0628

1.0332 1.0400 1.0469 1.0539 1.0610

1.0317 1.0385 1.0453 1.0522 1.0591

1.0300 1.0367 1.0434 1.0502 1.0571

1.0281 1.0347 1.0414 1.0481 1.0549

1.0240 1.0305 1.0371 1.0437 1.0503

1.0192 1.0256 1.0321 1.0386 1.0451

1.0140 1.0203 1.0266 1.0330 1.0395

1.0022 1.0084 1.0146 1.0209 1.0273

.9888 .9950 1.0013 1.0076 1.0140

10 11 12 13 14

1.0735 1.0810 1.0886 1.0962 1.1039

1.0700 1.0773 1.0846 1.0920 1.0994

1.0681 1.0753 1.0825 1.0898 1.0971

1.0661 1.0731 1.0802 1.0874 1.0947

1.0640 1.0710 1.0780 1.0851 1.0922

1.0617 1.0686 1.0756 1.0826 1.0897

1.0570 1.0637 1.0705 1.0774 1.0844

1.0517 1.0584 1.0651 1.0719 1.0788

1.0460 1.0526 1.0593 1.0661 1.0729

1.0338 1.0403 1.0469 1.0536 1.0603

1.0204 1.0269 1.0335 1.0402 1.0469

15 16 17 18 19

1.1116 1.1194 1.1272 1.1351 1.1430

1.1069 1.1145 1.1221 1.1298 1.1375

1.1045 1.1120 1.1195 1.1271 1.1347

1.1020 1.1094 1.1168 1.1243 1.1318

1.0994 1.1067 1.1141 1.1215 1.1290

1.0968 1.1040 1.1113 1.1187 1.1261

1.0914 1.0985 1.1057 1.1129 1.1202

1.0857 1.0927 1.0998 1.1070 1.1142

1.0798 1.0868 1.0938 1.1009 1.1081

1.0671 1.0740 1.0809 1.0879 1.0950

1.0537 1.0605 1.0674 1.0744 1.0814

20 21 22 23 24

1.1510 1.1590 1.1670 1.1751 1.1832

1.1453 1.1531 1.1609 1.1688 1.1768

1.1424 1.1501 1.1579 1.1657 1.1736

1.1394 1.1471 1.1548 1.1626 1.1704

1.1365 1.1441 1.1517 1.1594 1.1672

1.1335 1.1410 1.1486 1.1563 1.1640

1.1275 1.1349 1.1424 1.1500 1.1576

1.1215 1.1288 1.1362 1.1437 1.1512

1.1153 1.1226 1.1299 1.1373 1.1448

1.1021 1.1093 1.1166 1.1239 1.1313

1.0885 1.0957 1.1029 1.1102 1.1176

25 26 27 28 29

1.1914 1.1996 1.2078 1.2160 1.2243

1.1848 1.1929 1.2010 1.2091 1.2173

1.1816 1.1896 1.1976 1.2057 1.2138

1.1783 1.1862 1.1942 1.2023 1.2104

1.1750 1.1829 1.1909 1.1989 1.2069

1.1718 1.1796 1.1875 1.1955 1.2035

1.1653 1.1730 1.1808 1.1887 1.1966

1.1588 1.1665 1.1742 1.1820 1.1898

1.1523 1.1599 1.1676 1.1753 1.1831

1.1388 1.1463 1.1539 1.1616 1.1693

1.1250 1.1325 1.1400 1.1476 1.1553

30 31 32 33 34

1.2326 1.2409 1.2493 1.2577 1.2661

1.2255 1.2338 1.2421 1.2504 1.2588

1.2220 1.2302 1.2385 1.2468 1.2552

1.2185 1.2267 1.2349 1.2432 1.2515

1.2150 1.2232 1.2314 1.2396 1.2479

1.2115 1.2196 1.2278 1.2360 1.2443

1.2046 1.2126 1.2207 1.2289 1.2371

1.1977 1.2057 1.2137 1.2218 1.2300

1.1909 1.1988 1.2068 1.2148 1.2229

1.1771 1.1849 1.1928 1.2008 1.2088

1.1630 1.1708 1.1787 1.1866 1.1946

35 36 37 38 39

1.2746 1.2831 1.2917 1.3004 1.3091

1.2672 1.2757 1.2843 1.2929 1.3016

1.2636 1.2720 1.2805 1.2891 1.2978

1.2599 1.2684 1.2769 1.2855 1.2941

1.2563 1.2647 1.2732 1.2818 1.2904

1.2526 1.2610 1.2695 1.2780 1.2866

1.2454 1.2538 1.2622 1.2707 1.2793

1.2383 1.2466 1.2550 1.2635 1.2720

1.2311 1.2394 1.2477 1.2561 1.2646

1.2169 1.2251 1.2334 1.2418 1.2503

1.2027 1.2109 1.2192 1.2276 1.2361

40 41 42 43 44

1.3179 1.3268 1.3357 1.3447 1.3538

1.3103 1.3191 1.3280 1.3370 1.3461

1.3065 1.3153 1.3242 1.3332 1.3423

1.3028 1.3116 1.3205 1.3294 1.3384

1.2991 1.3079 1.3167 1.3256 1.3346

1.2953 1.3041 1.3129 1.3218 1.3308

1.2880 1.2967 1.3055 1.3144 1.3234

1.2806 1.2893 1.2981 1.3070 1.3160

1.2732 1.2819 1.2907 1.2996 1.3086

1.2589 1.2675 1.2762 1.2850 1.2939

1.2446 1.2532 1.2619 1.2707 1.2796

45 46 47 48 49

1.3630 1.3724 1.3819 1.3915 1.4012

1.3553 1.3646 1.3740 1.3835 1.3931

1.3515 1.3608 1.3702 1.3797 1.3893

1.3476 1.3569 1.3663 1.3758 1.3854

1.3437 1.3530 1.3624 1.3719 1.3814

1.3399 1.3492 1.3586 1.3680 1.3775

1.3325 1.3417 1.3510 1.3604 1.3699

1.3251 1.3343 1.3435 1.3528 1.3623

1.3177 1.3269 1.3362 1.3455 1.3549

1.3029 1.3120 1.3212 1.3305 1.3399

1.2886 1.2976 1.3067 1.3159 1.3253

50 51 52 53 54

1.4110 1.4209 1.4310 1.4412 1.4515

1.4029 1.4128 1.4228 1.4329 1.4431

1.3990 1.4088 1.4188 1.4289 1.4391

1.3951 1.4049 1.4148 1.4248 1.4350

1.3911 1.4009 1.4109 1.4209 1.4310

1.3872 1.3970 1.4069 1.4169 1.4270

1.3795 1.3893 1.3991 1.4091 1.4191

1.3719 1.3816 1.3914 1.4013 1.4113

1.3644 1.3740 1.3837 1.3936 1.4036

1.3494 1.3590 1.3687 1.3785 1.3884

1.3348 1.3444 1.3540 1.3637 1.3735

55 56 57 58 59

1.4619 1.4724 1.4830 1.4937 1.5045

1.4535 1.4640 1.4746 1.4852 1.4959

1.4494 1.4598 1.4703 1.4809 1.4916

1.4453 1.4557 1.4662 1.4768 1.4875

1.4412 1.4516 1.4621 1.4726 1.4832

1.4372 1.4475 1.4580 1.4685 1.4791

1.4293 1.4396 1.4500 1.4604 1.4709

1.4214 1.4317 1.4420 1.4524 1.4629

1.4137 1.4239 1.4342 1.4446 1.4551

1.3984 1.4085 1.4187 1.4290 1.4393

1.3834 1.3934 1.4035 1.4137 1.4240

60 61 62 63 64

1.5154 1.5264 1.5375 1.5487 1.5600

1.5067 1.5177 1.5287 1.5398 1.5510

1.5024 1.5133 1.5243 1.5354 1.5465

1.4983 1.5091 1.5200 1.5310 1.5421

1.4940 1.5048 1.5157 1.5267 1.5378

1.4898 1.5006 1.5115 1.5225 1.5335

1.4816 1.4923 1.5031 1.5140 1.5250

1.4735 1.4842 1.4950 1.5058 1.5167

1.4656 1.4762 1.4869 1.4977 1.5086

1.4497 1.4602 1.4708 1.4815 1.4923

1.4344 1.4449 1.4554 1.4660 1.4766

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2-108

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-101

Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) (Concluded )

%

0°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

40°C

50°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

65 66 67 68 69

1.5714 1.5828 1.5943 1.6059 1.6176

1.5623 1.5736 1.5850 1.5965 1.6081

1.5578 1.5691 1.5805 1.5920 1.6035

1.5533 1.5646 1.5760 1.5874 1.5989

1.5490 1.5602 1.5715 1.5829 1.5944

1.5446 1.5558 1.5671 1.5785 1.5899

1.5361 1.5472 1.5584 1.5697 1.5811

1.5277 1.5388 1.5499 1.5611 1.5724

1.5195 1.5305 1.5416 1.5528 1.5640

1.5031 1.5140 1.5249 1.5359 1.5470

1.4873 1.4981 1.5089 1.5198 1.5307

70 71 72 73 74

1.6293 1.6411 1.6529 1.6648 1.6768

1.6198 1.6315 1.6433 1.6551 1.6670

1.6151 1.6268 1.6385 1.6503 1.6622

1.6105 1.6221 1.6338 1.6456 1.6574

1.6059 1.6175 1.6292 1.6409 1.6526

1.6014 1.6130 1.6246 1.6363 1.6480

1.5925 1.6040 1.6155 1.6271 1.6387

1.5838 1.5952 1.6067 1.6182 1.6297

1.5753 1.5867 1.5981 1.6095 1.6209

1.5582 1.5694 1.5806 1.5919 1.6031

1.5417 1.5527 1.5637 1.5747 1.5857

75 76 77 78 79

1.6888 1.7008 1.7128 1.7247 1.7365

1.6789 1.6908 1.7026 1.7144 1.7261

1.6740 1.6858 1.6976 1.7093 1.7209

1.6692 1.6810 1.6927 1.7043 1.7158

1.6644 1.6761 1.6878 1.6994 1.7108

1.6597 1.6713 1.6829 1.6944 1.7058

1.6503 1.6619 1.6734 1.6847 1.6959

1.6412 1.6526 1.6640 1.6751 1.6862

1.6322 1.6435 1.6547 1.6657 1.6766

1.6142 1.6252 1.6361 1.6469 1.6575

1.5966 1.6074 1.6181 1.6286 1.6390

80 81 82 83 84

1.7482 1.7597 1.7709 1.7815 1.7916

1.7376 1.7489 1.7599 1.7704 1.7804

1.7323 1.7435 1.7544 1.7649 1.7748

1.7272 1.7383 1.7491 1.7594 1.7693

1.7221 1.7331 1.7437 1.7540 1.7639

1.7170 1.7279 1.7385 1.7487 1.7585

1.7069 1.7177 1.7281 1.7382 1.7479

1.6971 1.7077 1.7180 1.7279 1.7375

1.6873 1.6978 1.7080 1.7179 1.7274

1.6680 1.6782 1.6882 1.6979 1.7072

1.6493 1.6594 1.6692 1.6787 1.6878

85 86 87 88 89

1.8009 1.8095 1.8173 1.8243 1.8306

1.7897 1.7983 1.8061 1.8132 1.8195

1.7841 1.7927 1.8006 1.8077 1.8141

1.7786 1.7872 1.7951 1.8022 1.8087

1.7732 1.7818 1.7897 1.7968 1.8033

1.7678 1.7763 1.7842 1.7914 1.7979

1.7571 1.7657 1.7736 1.7809 1.7874

1.7466 1.7552 1.7632 1.7705 1.7770

1.7364 1.7449 1.7529 1.7602 1.7669

1.7161 1.7245 1.7324 1.7397 1.7464

1.6966 1.7050 1.7129 1.7202 1.7269

90 91 92 93 94

1.8361 1.8410 1.8453 1.8490 1.8520

1.8252 1.8302 1.8346 1.8384 1.8415

1.8198 1.8248 1.8293 1.8331 1.8363

1.8144 1.8195 1.8240 1.8279 1.8312

1.8091 1.8142 1.8188 1.8227 1.8260

1.8038 1.8090 1.8136 1.8176 1.8210

1.7933 1.7986 1.8033 1.8074 1.8109

1.7829 1.7883 1.7932 1.7974 1.8011

1.7729 1.7783 1.7832 1.7876 1.7914

1.7525 1.7581 1.7633 1.7681

1.7331 1.7388 1.7439 1.7485

95 96 97 98 99 100

1.8544 1.8560 1.8569 1.8567 1.8551 1.8517

1.8439 1.8457 1.8466 1.8463 1.8445 1.8409

1.8388 1.8406 1.8414 1.8411 1.8393 1.8357

1.8337 1.8355 1.8364 1.8361 1.8342 1.8305

1.8286 1.8305 1.8314 1.8310 1.8292 1.8255

1.8236 1.8255 1.8264 1.8261 1.8242 1.8205

1.8137 1.8157 1.8166 1.8163 1.8145 1.8107

1.8040 1.8060 1.8071 1.8068 1.8050 1.8013

1.7944 1.7965 1.7977 1.7976 1.7958 1.7922

%

d 5.96 4

%

d 13.00 4

d 18.00 4

0.005 .01 .02 .03 .04

1.000 0140 1.000 0576 1.000 1434 1.000 2276 1.000 3104

0.05 .1 .2 .3 .4

0.999 810 1.000 185 1.000 912 1.001 623 1.002 326

0.999 028 .999 400 1.000 119 1.000 820 1.001 512

.05 .06 .07 .08 .09

1.000 3920 1.000 4726 1.000 5523 1.000 6313 1.000 7098

.5 .6 .8 1.0 1.2

1.003 023 1.003 716 1.005 090 1.006 452 1.007 807

1.002 197 1.002 877 1.004 227 1.005 570 1.006 909

.10 .15 .20 .25 .30

1.000 7880 1.001 1732 1.001 5514 1.001 9254 1.002 2961

1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2

1.009 159 1.010 510 1.011 860 1.013 209 1.014 557

1.008 247 1.009 583 1.010 918 1.012 252 1.013 586

.35 .40 .45 .50

1.002 6639 1.003 0292 1.003 3923 1.003 7534

2.4

1.015 904

1.014 919

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-102

Zinc Bromide (ZnBr2)

%

0°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

2 4 8 12 16

1.0188 1.0381 1.0777 1.1186 1.1609

1.0167 1.0354 1.0738 1.1135 1.1544

1.0102 1.0285 1.0660 1.1046 1.1445

1.0008 1.0187 1.0554 1.0932 1.1320

0.9890 1.0065 1.0422 1.0789 1.1169

0.9751 0.9921 1.0270 1.0629 1.1000

20 30 40 50 60 65

1.2043 1.3288 1.477 1.661 1.891 2.026

1.1965 1.3170 1.462 1.643 1.869 2.002

1.1855 1.3030 1.445 1.623 1.845 1.976

1.1720 1.2868 1.427 1.602 1.822 1.951

1.1560 1.2688 1.406 1.579 1.797 1.924

1.1382 1.2489 1.385 1.555 1.771 1.898

TABLE 2-103

TABLE 2-104 [Zn(NO3)2]

Zinc Nitrate

TABLE 2-105 (ZnSO4)

2-109

Zinc Sulfate

%

18°C

%

18°C

%

20°C

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

1.0154 1.0322 1.0496 1.0675 1.0859 1.1048 1.1244 1.1445

18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

1.1652 1.1865 1.2427 1.3029 1.3678 1.4378 1.5134 1.5944

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

1.019 1.0403 1.0620 1.0842 1.1071 1.1308 1.1553 1.1806

Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2)

%

0°C

20°C

40°C

60°C

80°C

100°C

2 4 8 12 16

1.0192 1.0384 1.0769 1.1159 1.1558

1.0167 1.0350 1.0715 1.1085 1.1468

1.0099 1.0274 1.0624 1.0980 1.1350

1.0003 1.0172 1.0508 1.0853 1.1212

0.9882 1.0044 1.0369 1.0704 1.1055

0.9739 .9894 1.0211 1.0541 1.0888

20 30 40 50 60 70

1.1970 1.3062 1.4329 1.5860

1.1866 1.2928 1.4173 1.5681 1.749 1.962

1.1736 1.2778 1.4003 1.5495

1.1590 1.2614 1.3824 1.5300

1.1428 1.2438 1.3637 1.5097

1.1255 1.2252 1.3441 1.4892

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS* UNITS AND UNITS CONVERSIONS

From International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 115–129. All compositions are in weight percent in vacuo. All density values are d4t = g/mL in vacuo.

Unless otherwise noted, densities are given in grams per cubic centimeter. To convert to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43. °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32 TABLE 2-106

*For gasoline and aircraft fuels see Hibbard, NACA Res. Mem. E56I21 (declassified 1958).

Formic Acid (HCOOH)

%

0°C

15°C

20°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C

20°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C

20°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C

20°C

30°C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 1.0028 1.0059 1.0090 1.0120

0.9991 1.0019 1.0045 1.0072 1.0100

0.9982 1.0019 1.0044 1.0070 1.0093

0.9957 0.9980 1.0004 1.0028 1.0053

25 26 27 28 29

1.0706 1.0733 1.0760 1.0787 1.0813

1.0627 1.0652 1.0678 1.0702 1.0726

1.0609 1.0633 1.0656 1.0681 1.0705

1.0540 1.0564 1.0587 1.0609 1.0632

50 51 52 53 54

1.1349 1.1374 1.1399 1.1424 1.1448

1.1225 1.1248 1.1271 1.1294 1.1318

1.1207 1.1223 1.1244 1.1269 1.1295

1.1098 1.1120 1.1142 1.1164 1.1186

75 76 77 78 79

1.1953 1.1976 1.1999 1.2021 1.2043

1.1794 1.1816 1.1837 1.1859 1.1881

1.1769 1.1785 1.1801 1.1818 1.1837

1.1636 1.1656 1.1676 1.1697 1.1717

5 6 7 8 9

1.0150 1.0179 1.0207 1.0237 1.0266

1.0124 1.0151 1.0177 1.0204 1.0230

1.0115 1.0141 1.0170 1.0196 1.0221

1.0075 1.0101 1.0125 1.0149 1.0173

30 31 32 33 34

1.0839 1.0866 1.0891 1.0916 1.0941

1.0750 1.0774 1.0798 1.0821 1.0844

1.0729 1.0753 1.0777 1.0800 1.0823

1.0654 1.0676 1.0699 1.0721 1.0743

55 56 57 58 59

1.1472 1.1497 1.1523 1.1548 1.1573

1.1341 1.1365 1.1388 1.1411 1.1434

1.1320 1.1342 1.1361 1.1381 1.1401

1.1208 1.1230 1.1253 1.1274 1.1295

80 81 82 83 84

1.2065 1.2088 1.2110 1.2132 1.2154

1.1902 1.1924 1.1944 1.1965 1.1985

1.1806 1.1876 1.1896 1.1914 1.1929

1.1737 1.1758 1.1778 1.1798 1.1817

10 11 12 13 14

1.0295 1.0324 1.0351 1.0379 1.0407

1.0256 1.0281 1.0306 1.0330 1.0355

1.0246 1.0271 1.0296 1.0321 1.0345

1.0197 1.0221 1.0244 1.0267 1.0290

35 36 37 38 39

1.0966 1.0993 1.1018 1.1043 1.1069

1.0867 1.0892 1.0916 1.0940 1.0964

1.0847 1.0871 1.0895 1.0919 1.0940

1.0766 1.0788 1.0810 1.0832 1.0854

60 61 62 63 64

1.1597 1.1621 1.1645 1.1669 1.1694

1.1458 1.1481 1.1504 1.1526 1.1549

1.1424 1.1448 1.1473 1.1493 1.1517

1.1317 1.1338 1.1360 1.1382 1.1403

85 86 87 88 89

1.2176 1.2196 1.2217 1.2237 1.2258

1.2005 1.2025 1.2045 1.2064 1.2084

1.1953 1.1976 1.1994 1.2012 1.2028

1.1837 1.1856 1.1875 1.1893 1.1910

15 16 17 18 19

1.0435 1.0463 1.0491 1.0518 1.0545

1.0380 1.0405 1.0430 1.0455 1.0480

1.0370 1.0393 1.0417 1.0441 1.0464

1.0313 1.0336 1.0358 1.0381 1.0404

40 41 42 43 44

1.1095 1.1122 1.1148 1.1174 1.1199

1.0988 1.1012 1.1036 1.1060 1.1084

1.0963 1.0990 1.1015 1.1038 1.1062

1.0876 1.0898 1.0920 1.0943 1.0965

65 66 67 68 69

1.1718 1.1742 1.1766 1.1790 1.1813

1.1572 1.1595 1.1618 1.1640 1.1663

1.1543 1.1565 1.1584 1.1604 1.1628

1.1425 1.1446 1.1467 1.1489 1.1510

90 91 92 93 94

1.2278 1.2297 1.2316 1.2335 1.2354

1.2102 1.2121 1.2139 1.2157 1.2174

1.2044 1.2059 1.2078 1.2099 1.2117

1.1927 1.1945 1.1961 1.1978 1.1994

20 21 22 23 24

1.0571 1.0598 1.0625 1.0652 1.0679

1.0505 1.0532 1.0556 1.0580 1.0604

1.0488 1.0512 1.0537 1.0561 1.0585

1.0427 1.0451 1.0473 1.0496 1.0518

45 46 47 48 49

1.1224 1.1249 1.1274 1.1299 1.1324

1.1109 1.1133 1.1156 1.1179 1.1202

1.1085 1.1108 1.1130 1.1157 1.1185

1.0987 1.1009 1.1031 1.1053 1.1076

70 71 72 73 74

1.1835 1.1858 1.1882 1.1906 1.1929

1.1685 1.1707 1.1729 1.1751 1.1773

1.1655 1.1677 1.1702 1.1728 1.1752

1.1531 1.1552 1.1573 1.1595 1.1615

95 96 97 98 99

1.2372 1.2390 1.2408 1.2425 1.2441

1.2191 1.2208 1.2224 1.2240 1.2257

1.2140 1.2158 1.2170 1.2183 1.2202

1.2008 1.2022 1.2036 1.2048 1.2061

100

1.2456

1.2273

1.2212

1.2073

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

2-110

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-107 %

Acetic Acid (CH3COOH)

0°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

40°C

%

0°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

40°C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 1.0016 1.0033 1.0051 1.0070

0.9997 1.0013 1.0029 1.0044 1.0060

0.9991 1.0006 1.0021 1.0036 1.0051

0.9982 .9996 1.0012 1.0025 1.0040

0.9971 .9987 1.0000 1.0013 1.0027

0.9957 .9971 .9984 .9997 1.0011

0.9922 .9934 .9946 .9958 .9970

50 51 52 53 54

1.0729 1.0738 1.0748 1.0757 1.0765

1.0654 1.0663 1.0671 1.0679 1.0687

1.0613 1.0622 1.0629 1.0637 1.0644

1.0575 1.0582 1.0590 1.0597 1.0604

1.0534 1.0542 1.0549 1.0555 1.0562

1.0492 1.0499 1.0506 1.0512 1.0518

1.0408 1.0414 1.0421 1.0427 1.0432

5 6 7 8 9

1.0088 1.0106 1.0124 1.0142 1.0159

1.0076 1.0092 1.0108 1.0124 1.0140

1.0066 1.0081 1.0096 1.0111 1.0126

1.0055 1.0069 1.0083 1.0097 1.0111

1.0041 1.0055 1.0068 1.0081 1.0094

1.0024 1.0037 1.0050 1.0063 1.0076

.9982 .9994 1.0006 1.0018 1.0030

55 56 57 58 59

1.0774 1.0782 1.0790 1.0798 1.0805

1.0694 1.0701 1.0708 1.0715 1.0722

1.0651 1.0658 1.0665 1.0672 1.0678

1.0611 1.0618 1.0624 1.0631 1.0637

1.0568 1.0574 1.0580 1.0586 1.0592

1.0525 1.0531 1.0536 1.0542 1.0547

1.0438 1.0443 1.0448 1.0453 1.0458

10 11 12 13 14

1.0177 1.0194 1.0211 1.0228 1.0245

1.0156 1.0171 1.0187 1.0202 1.0217

1.0141 1.0155 1.0170 1.0184 1.0199

1.0125 1.0139 1.0154 1.0168 1.0182

1.0107 1.0120 1.0133 1.0146 1.0159

1.0089 1.0102 1.0115 1.0127 1.0139

1.0042 1.0054 1.0065 1.0077 1.0088

60 61 62 63 64

1.0813 1.0820 1.0826 1.0833 1.0838

1.0728 1.0734 1.0740 1.0746 1.0752

1.0684 1.0690 1.0696 1.0701 1.0706

1.0642 1.0648 1.0653 1.0658 1.0662

1.0597 1.0602 1.0607 1.0612 1.0616

1.0552 1.0557 1.0562 1.0566 1.0571

1.0462 1.0466 1.0470 1.0473 1.0477

15 16 17 18 19

1.0262 1.0278 1.0295 1.0311 1.0327

1.0232 1.0247 1.0262 1.0276 1.0291

1.0213 1.0227 1.0241 1.0255 1.0269

1.0195 1.0209 1.0223 1.0236 1.0250

1.0172 1.0185 1.0198 1.0210 1.0223

1.0151 1.0163 1.0175 1.0187 1.0198

1.0099 1.0110 1.0121 1.0132 1.0142

65 66 67 68 69

1.0844 1.0850 1.0856 1.0860 1.0865

1.0757 1.0762 1.0767 1.0771 1.0775

1.0711 1.0716 1.0720 1.0725 1.0729

1.0666 1.0671 1.0675 1.0678 1.0682

1.0621 1.0624 1.0628 1.0631 1.0634

1.0575 1.0578 1.0582 1.0585 1.0588

1.0480 1.0483 1.0486 1.0489 1.0491

20 21 22 23 24

1.0343 1.0358 1.0374 1.0389 1.0404

1.0305 1.0319 1.0333 1.0347 1.0361

1.0283 1.0297 1.0310 1.0323 1.0336

1.0263 1.0276 1.0288 1.0301 1.0313

1.0235 1.0248 1.0260 1.0272 1.0283

1.0210 1.0222 1.0233 1.0244 1.0256

1.0153 1.0164 1.0174 1.0185 1.0195

70 71 72 73 74

1.0869 1.0874 1.0877 1.0881 1.0884

1.0779 1.0783 1.0786 1.0789 1.0792

1.0732 1.0736 1.0738 1.0741 1.0743

1.0685 1.0687 1.0690 1.0693 1.0694

1.0637 1.0640 1.0642 1.0644 1.0645

1.0590 1.0592 1.0594 1.0595 1.0596

1.0493 1.0495 1.0496 1.0497 1.0498

25 26 27 28 29

1.0419 1.0434 1.0449 1.0463 1.0477

1.0375 1.0388 1.0401 1.0414 1.0427

1.0349 1.0362 1.0374 1.0386 1.0399

1.0326 1.0338 1.0349 1.0361 1.0372

1.0295 1.0307 1.0318 1.0329 1.0340

1.0267 1.0278 1.0289 1.0299 1.0310

1.0205 1.0215 1.0225 1.0234 1.0244

75 76 77 78 79

1.0887 1.0889 1.0891 1.0893 1.0894

1.0794 1.0796 1.0797 1.0798 1.0798

1.0745 1.0746 1.0747 1.0747 1.0747

1.0696 1.0698 1.0699 1.0700 1.0700

1.0647 1.0648 1.0648 1.0648 1.0648

1.0597 1.0598 1.0598 1.0598 1.0597

1.0499 1.0499 1.0499 1.0498 1.0497

30 31 32 33 34

1.0491 1.0505 1.0519 1.0532 1.0545

1.0440 1.0453 1.0465 1.0477 1.0489

1.0411 1.0423 1.0435 1.0446 1.0458

1.0384 1.0395 1.0406 1.0417 1.0428

1.0350 1.0361 1.0372 1.0382 1.0392

1.0320 1.0330 1.0341 1.0351 1.0361

1.0253 1.0262 1.0272 1.0281 1.0289

80 81 82 83 84

1.0895 1.0895 1.0895 1.0895 1.0893

1.0798 1.0797 1.0796 1.0795 1.0793

1.0747 1.0745 1.0743 1.0741 1.0738

1.0700 1.0699 1.0698 1.0696 1.0693

1.0647 1.0646 1.0644 1.0642 1.0638

1.0596 1.0594 1.0592 1.0589 1.0585

1.0495 1.0493 1.0490 1.0487 1.0483

35 36 37 38 39

1.0558 1.0571 1.0584 1.0596 1.0608

1.0501 1.0513 1.0524 1.0535 1.0546

1.0469 1.0480 1.0491 1.0501 1.0512

1.0438 1.0449 1.0459 1.0469 1.0479

1.0402 1.0412 1.0422 1.0432 1.0441

1.0371 1.0380 1.0390 1.0399 1.0408

1.0298 1.0306 1.0314 1.0322 1.0330

85 86 87 88 89

1.0891 1.0887 1.0883 1.0877 1.0872

1.0790 1.0787 1.0783 1.0778 1.0773

1.0735 1.0731 1.0726 1.0721 1.0715

1.0689 1.0685 1.0680 1.0675 1.0668

1.0635 1.0630 1.0626 1.0620 1.0613

1.0582 1.0576 1.0571 1.0564 1.0557

1.0479 1.0473 1.0467 1.0460 1.0453

40 41 42 43 44

1.0621 1.0633 1.0644 1.0656 1.0667

1.0557 1.0568 1.0578 1.0588 1.0598

1.0522 1.0532 1.0542 1.0551 1.0561

1.0488 1.0498 1.0507 1.0516 1.0525

1.0450 1.0460 1.0469 1.0477 1.0486

1.0416 1.0425 1.0433 1.0441 1.0449

1.0338 1.0346 1.0353 1.0361 1.0368

90 91 92 93 94

1.0865 1.0857 1.0848 1.0838 1.0826

1.0766 1.0758 1.0749 1.0739 1.0727

1.0708 1.0700 1.0690 1.0680 1.0667

1.0661 1.0652 1.0643 1.0632 1.0619

1.0605 1.0597 1.0587 1.0577 1.0564

1.0549 1.0541 1.0530 1.0518 1.0506

1.0445 1.0436 1.0426 1.0414 1.0401

45 46 47 48 49

1.0679 1.0689 1.0699 1.0709 1.0720

1.0608 1.0618 1.0627 1.0636 1.0645

1.0570 1.0579 1.0588 1.0597 1.0605

1.0534 1.0542 1.0551 1.0559 1.0567

1.0495 1.0503 1.0511 1.0518 1.0526

1.0456 1.0464 1.0471 1.0479 1.0486

1.0375 1.0382 1.0389 1.0395 1.0402

95 96 97 98 99

1.0813 1.0798 1.0780 1.0759 1.0730

1.0714

1.0652 1.0632 1.0611 1.0590 1.0567

1.0605 1.0588 1.0570 1.0549 1.0524

1.0551 1.0535 1.0516 1.0495 1.0468

1.0491 1.0473 1.0454 1.0431 1.0407

1.0386 1.0368 1.0348 1.0325 1.0299

100

1.0697

1.0545

1.0498

1.0440

1.0380

1.0271

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DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-108

TABLE 2-109

2-111

Oxalic Acid (H2C2O4)

%

d 17.5 4

%

d 17.5 4

1 2 4

1.0035 1.0070 1.0140

8 10 12

1.0280 1.0350 1.0420

Methyl Alcohol (CH3OH)*

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

15°C

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

15°C

%

0°C

10°C

20°C

15°C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 .9981 .9963 .9946 .9930

0.9997 .9980 .9962 .9945 .9929

15.56°C 0.9990 .9973 .9955 .9938 .9921

0.9982 .9965 .9948 .9931 .9914

0.99913 .99727 .99543 .99370 .99198

35 36 37 38 39

0.9534 .9520 .9505 .9490 .9475

0.9484 .9469 .9453 .9437 .9420

15.56°C 0.9456 .9440 .9422 .9405 .9387

0.9433 .9416 .9398 .9381 .9363

0.94570 .94404 .94237 .94067 .93894

70 71 72 73 74

0.8869 .8847 .8824 .8801 .8778

0.8794 .8770 .8747 .8724 .8699

15.56°C 0.8748 .8726 .8702 .8678 .8653

0.8715 .8690 .8665 .8641 .8616

0.87507 .87271 .87033 .86792 .86546

5 6 7 8 9

.9914 .9899 .9884 .9870 .9856

.9912 .9896 .9881 .9865 .9849

.9904 .9889 .9872 .9857 .9841

.9896 .9880 .9863 .9847 .9831

.99029 .98864 .98701 .98547 .98394

40 41 42 43 44

.9459 .9443 .9427 .9411 .9395

.9403 .9387 .9370 .9352 .9334

.9369 .9351 .9333 .9315 .9297

.9345 .9327 .9309 .9290 .9272

.93720 .93543 .93365 .93185 .93001

75 76 77 78 79

.8754 .8729 .8705 .8680 .8657

.8676 .8651 .8626 .8602 .8577

.8629 .8604 .8579 .8554 .8529

.8592 .8567 .8542 .8518 .8494

.86300 .86051 .85801 .85551 .85300

10 11 12 13 14

.9842 .9829 .9816 .9804 .9792

.9834 .9820 .9805 .9791 .9778

.9826 .9811 .9796 .9781 .9766

.9815 .9799 .9784 .9768 .9754

.98241 .98093 .97945 .97802 .97660

45 46 47 48 49

.9377 .9360 .9342 .9324 .9306

.9316 .9298 .9279 .9260 .9240

.9279 .9261 .9242 .9223 .9204

.9252 .9234 .9214 .9196 .9176

.92815 .92627 .92436 .92242 .92048

80 81 82 83 84

.8634 .8610 .8585 .8560 .8535

.8551 .8527 .8501 .8475 .8449

.8503 .8478 .8452 .8426 .8400

.8469 .8446 .8420 .8394 .8366

.85048 .84794 .84536 .84274 .84009

15 16 17 18 19

.9780 .9769 .9758 .9747 .9736

.9764 .9751 .9739 .9726 .9713

.9752 .9738 .9723 .9709 .9695

.9740 .9725 .9710 .9696 .9681

.97518 .97377 .97237 .97096 .96955

50 51 52 53 54

.9287 .9269 .9250 .9230 .9211

.9221 .9202 .9182 .9162 .9142

.9185 .9166 .9146 .9126 .9106

.9156 .9135 .9114 .9094 .9073

.91852 .91653 .91451 .91248 .91044

85 86 87 88 89

.8510 .8483 .8456 .8428 .8400

.8422 .8394 .8367 .8340 .8314

.8374 .8347 .8320 .8294 .8267

.8340 .8314 .8286 .8258 .8230

.83742 .83475 .83207 .82937 .82667

20 21 22 23 24

.9725 .9714 .9702 .9690 .9678

.9700 .9687 .9673 .9660 .9646

.9680 .9666 .9652 .9638 .9624

.9666 .9651 .9636 .9622 .9607

.96814 .96673 .96533 .96392 .96251

55 56 57 58 59

.9191 .9172 .9151 .9131 .9111

.9122 .9101 .9080 .9060 .9039

.9086 .9065 .9045 .9024 .9002

.9052 .9032 .9010 .8988 .8968

.90839 .90631 .90421 .90210 .89996

90 91 92 93 94

.8374 .8347 .8320 .8293 .8266

.8287 .8261 .8234 .8208 .8180

.8239 .8212 .8185 .8157 .8129

.8202 .8174 .8146 .8118 .8090

.82396 .82124 .81849 .81568 .81285

25 26 27 28 29

.9666 .9654 .9642 .9629 .9616

.9632 .9618 .9604 .9590 .9575

.9609 .9595 .9580 .9565 .9550

.9592 .9576 .9562 .9546 .9531

.96108 .95963 .95817 .95668 .95518

60 61 62 63 64

.9090 .9068 .9046 .9024 .9002

.9018 .8998 .8977 .8955 .8933

.8980 .8958 .8936 .8913 .8890

.8946 .8924 .8902 .8879 .8856

.89781 .89563 .89341 .89117 .88890

95 96 97 98 99

.8240 .8212 .8186 .8158 .8130

.8152 .8124 .8096 .8068 .8040

.8101 .8073 .8045 .8016 .7987

.8062 .8034 .8005 .7976 .7948

.80999 .80713 .80428 .80143 .79859

30 31 32 33 34

.9604 .9590 .9576 .9563 .9549

.9560 .9546 .9531 .9516 .9500

.9535 .9521 .9505 .9489 .9473

.9515 .9499 .9483 .9466 .9450

.95366 .95213 .95056 .94896 .94734

65 66 67 68 69

.8980 .8958 .8935 .8913 .8891

.8911 .8888 .8865 .8842 .8818

.8867 .8844 .8820 .8797 .8771

.8834 .8811 .8787 .8763 .8738

.88662 .88433 .88203 .87971 .87739

100

.8102

.8009

.7959

.7917

.79577

*It should be noted that the values for 100 percent do not agree with some data available elsewhere, e.g., American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957. Also, see Atack, Handbook of Chemical Data, Reinhold, New York, 1957.

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2-112

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-110

Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH)*

%

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

35°C

40°C

%

10°C

15°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

35°C

40°C

0 1 2 3 4

0.99973 785 602 426 258

0.99913 725 542 365 195

0.99823 636 453 275 103

0.99708 520 336 157 .98984

0.99568 379 194 014 .98839

0.99406 217 031 .98849 672

0.99225 034 .98846 663 485

50 51 52 53 54

0.92126 .91943 723 502 279

0.91776 555 333 110 .90885

0.91384 160 .90936 711 485

0.90985 760 534 307 079

0.90580 353 125 .89896 667

0.90168 .89940 710 479 248

0.89750 519 288 056 .88823

5 6 7 8 9

098 .98946 801 660 524

032 .98877 729 584 442

.98938 780 627 478 331

817 656 500 346 193

670 507 347 189 031

501 335 172 009 .97846

311 142 .97975 808 641

55 56 57 58 59

055 .90831 607 381 154

659 433 207 .89980 752

258 031 .89803 574 344

.89850 621 392 162 .88931

437 206 .88975 744 512

016 .88784 552 319 085

589 356 122 .87888 653

10 11 12 13 14

393 267 145 026 .97911

304 171 041 .97914 790

187 047 .97910 775 643

043 .97897 753 611 472

.97875 723 573 424 278

685 527 371 216 063

475 312 150 .96989 829

60 61 62 63 64

.89927 698 468 237 006

523 293 062 .88830 597

113 .88882 650 417 183

699 446 233 .87998 763

278 044 .87809 574 337

.87851 615 379 142 .86905

417 180 .86943 705 466

15 16 17 18 19

800 692 583 473 363

669 552 433 313 191

514 387 259 129 .96997

334 199 062 .96923 782

133 .96990 844 697 547

.96911 760 607 452 294

670 512 352 189 023

65 66 67 68 69

.88774 541 308 074 .87839

364 130 .87895 660 424

.87948 713 477 241 004

527 291 054 .86817 579

100 .86863 625 387 148

667 429 190 .85950 710

227 .85987 747 407 266

20 21 22 23 24

252 139 024 .96907 787

068 .96944 818 689 558

864 729 592 453 312

639 495 348 199 048

395 242 087 .95929 769

134 .95973 809 643 476

.95856 687 516 343 168

70 71 72 73 74

602 365 127 .86888 648

187 .86949 710 470 229

.86766 527 287 047 .85806

340 100 .85859 618 376

.85908 667 426 184 .84941

470 228 .84986 743 500

025 .84783 540 297 053

25 26 27 28 29

665 539 406 268 125

424 287 144 .95996 844

168 020 .95867 710 548

.95895 738 576 410 241

607 442 272 098 .94922

306 133 .94955 774 590

.94991 810 625 438 248

75 76 77 78 79

408 168 .85927 685 442

.85988 747 505 262 018

564 322 079 .84835 590

134 .84891 647 403 158

698 455 211 .83966 720

257 013 .83768 523 277

.83809 564 319 074 .82827

30 31 32 33 34

.95977 823 665 502 334

686 524 357 186 011

382 212 038 .94860 679

067 .94890 709 525 337

741 557 370 180 .93986

403 214 021 .93825 626

055 .93860 662 461 257

80 81 82 83 84

197 .84950 702 453 203

.84772 525 277 028 .83777

344 096 .83848 599 348

.83911 664 415 164 .82913

473 224 .82974 724 473

029 .82780 530 279 027

578 329 079 .81828 576

35 36 37 38 39

162 .94986 805 620 431

.94832 650 464 273 079

494 306 114 .93919 720

146 .93952 756 556 353

790 591 390 186 .92979

425 221 016 .92808 597

051 .92843 634 422 208

85 86 87 88 89

.83951 697 441 181 .82919

525 271 014 .82754 492

095 .82840 583 323 062

660 405 148 .81888 626

220 .81965 708 448 186

.81774 519 262 003 .80742

322 067 .80811 552 291

40 41 42 43 44

238 042 .93842 639 433

.93882 682 478 271 062

518 314 107 .92897 685

148 .92940 729 516 301

770 558 344 128 .91910

385 170 .91952 733 513

.91992 774 554 332 108

90 91 92 93 94

654 386 114 .81839 561

227 .81959 688 413 134

.81797 529 257 .80983 705

362 094 .80823 549 272

.80922 655 384 111 .79835

478 211 .79941 669 393

028 .79761 491 220 .78947

45 46 47 48 49

226 017 .92806 593 379

.92852 640 426 211 .91995

472 257 041 .91823 604

085 .91868 649 429 208

692 472 250 028 .90805

291 069 .90845 621 396

.90884 660 434 207 .89979

95 96 97 98 99

278 .80991 698 399 094

.80852 566 274 .79975 670

424 138 .79846 547 243

.79991 706 415 117 .78814

555 271 .78981 684 382

114 .78831 542 247 .77946

670 388 100 .77806 507

100

.79784

360

.78934

506

075

641

203

*For data from −78° to 78°C, see p. 2-142, Table 2N-5, American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957.

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DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-111 % alcohol by weight

2-113

Densities of Mixtures of C2H5OH and H2O at 20°C g/mL Tenths of %

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

0 1 2 3 4

0.99823 636 453 275 103

804 618 435 257 087

785 599 417 240 070

766 581 399 222 053

748 562 381 205 037

729 544 363 188 020

710 525 345 171 003

692 507 327 154 *987

5 6 7 8 9

.98938 780 627 478 331

922 765 612 463 316

906 749 597 449 301

890 734 582 434 287

874 718 567 419 273

859 703 553 404 258

843 688 538 389 244

827 673 523 374 229

10 11 12 13 14

187 047 .97910 775 643

172 033 896 761 630

158 019 883 748 617

144 006 869 735 604

130 *992 855 722 591

117 *978 842 709 578

103 *964 828 696 565

089 *951 815 683 552

15 16 17 18 19

514 387 259 129 .96997

501 374 246 116 984

488 361 233 103 971

475 349 220 089 957

462 336 207 076 944

450 323 194 063 931

438 310 181 050 917

425 297 168 037 904

412 284 155 024 891

20 21 22 23 24

864 729 592 453 312

850 716 578 439 297

837 702 564 425 283

823 688 551 411 269

810 675 537 396 254

796 661 523 382 240

783 647 509 368 225

769 634 495 354 211

756 620 481 340 196

25 26 27 28 29

168 020 .95867 710 548

153 005 851 694 532

139 *990 836 678 516

124 *975 820 662 499

109 *959 805 646 483

094 *944 789 630 466

080 *929 773 613 450

30 31 32 33 34

382 212 038 .94860 679

365 195 020 842 660

349 178 003 824 642

332 161 *985 806 624

315 143 *967 788 605

298 126 *950 770 587

35 36 37 38 39

494 306 114 .93919 720

475 287 095 899 700

456 268 075 879 680

438 249 056 859 660

419 230 036 840 640

40 41 42 43 44

518 314 107 .92897 685

498 294 086 876 664

478 273 065 855 642

458 253 044 834 621

45 46 47 48 49

472 257 041 .91823 604

450 236 019 801 582

429 214 *997 780 560

408 193 *976 758 538

% alcohol by weight

Tenths of % 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

50 51 52 53 54

0.91384 160 .90936 711 485

361 138 914 689 463

339 116 891 666 440

317 093 869 644 417

295 071 846 621 395

272 049 824 598 372

250 026 801 576 349

228 206 183 004 *981 *959 779 756 734 553 531 508 327 304 281

796 642 493 345 201

55 56 57 58 59

258 031 .89803 574 344

236 008 780 551 321

213 *985 757 528 298

190 *962 734 505 275

167 *939 711 482 252

145 *917 688 459 229

122 *894 665 436 206

099 076 054 *871 *848 *825 643 620 597 413 390 367 183 160 137

075 061 *937 *923 801 788 670 657 539 526

60 61 62 63 64

113 .88882 650 417 183

090 859 626 393 160

067 836 603 370 136

044 812 580 347 113

021 789 557 323 089

*998 766 533 300 066

*975 743 510 277 042

*951 *928 *905 720 696 673 487 463 440 253 230 206 019 *995 *972

400 272 142 010 877

65 66 67 68 69

.87948 713 477 241 004

925 689 454 218 *981

901 666 430 194 *957

878 642 406 170 *933

854 619 383 147 *909

831 595 359 123 *885

807 572 336 099 *862

784 760 737 548 524 501 312 288 265 075 052 028 *838 *814 *790

742 606 467 326 182

70 71 72 73 74

.86766 527 287 047 .85806

742 503 263 022 781

718 479 239 *998 757

694 455 215 *974 733

671 431 191 *950 709

647 407 167 *926 685

623 383 143 *902 661

599 575 551 339 335 311 119 095 071 *878 *854 *830 636 612 588

065 *914 757 597 433

050 035 *898 *883 742 726 581 565 416 400

75 76 77 78 79

564 322 079 .84835 590

540 297 055 811 566

515 273 031 787 541

491 467 443 419 394 370 346 249 225 200 176 152 128 103 006 *982 *958 *933 *909 *884 *860 762 738 713 689 664 640 615 517 492 467 443 418 393 369

281 108 *932 752 568

264 091 *914 734 550

247 230 074 056 *896 *878 715 697 531 512

80 81 82 83 84

344 096 .83848 599 348

319 072 823 574 323

294 047 798 549 297

270 022 773 523 272

245 *997 748 498 247

220 *972 723 473 222

196 *947 698 448 196

171 146 121 *923 *898 *873 674 649 624 423 398 373 171 146 120

400 211 017 820 620

382 192 *997 800 599

363 172 *978 780 579

344 325 153 134 *958 *939 760 740 559 539

85 86 87 88 89

095 .82840 583 323 062

070 815 557 297 035

044 789 531 271 009

019 763 505 245 *983

*994 738 479 219 *956

*968 712 453 193 *930

*943 686 427 167 *903

*917 *892 *866 660 635 609 401 375 349 140 114 088 *877 *850 *824

437 232 023 812 600

417 212 002 791 579

396 191 *981 770 557

376 170 *960 749 536

356 335 149 129 *939 *918 728 707 515 493

90 91 92 93 94

.81797 529 257 .80983 705

770 502 230 955 677

744 475 203 928 649

717 448 175 900 621

690 421 148 872 593

664 394 120 844 565

637 366 093 817 537

386 171 *954 736 516

365 150 *932 714 494

343 128 *910 692 472

322 106 *889 670 450

300 279 085 063 *867 *845 648 626 428 406

95 96 97 98 99

424 138 .79846 547 243

395 109 816 517 213

367 080 787 487 182

338 051 757 456 151

310 281 253 224 195 166 022 *993 *963 *934 *905 *875 727 698 668 638 608 578 426 396 365 335 305 274 120 089 059 028 *997 *966

100

.78934

9

673 655 489 471 310 292 137 120 *971 *954 811 658 508 360 215

*Indicates change in the first two decimal places.

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

610 339 066 789 509

8

583 312 038 761 480

9

556 285 010 733 452

2-114

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-112 % alcohol by volume at 60°F 0 1 2 3 4

Specific Gravity (60°/60°F [(15.56°/15.56°C)]) of Mixtures by Volume of C2H5OH and H2O

Tenths of % 0

1

1.00000 *985 0.99850 835 703 688 559 545 419 405

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

*970 820 674 531 391

*955 806 659 516 378

*940 791 645 502 364

*925 776 630 488 350

*910 761 616 474 336

*895 747 602 460 323

*880 732 587 446 309

865 717 573 432 296

176 163 047 035 *923 *911 803 791 684 672

% alcohol by volume at 60°F

Tenths of % 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

50 51 52 53 54

0.93426 230 031 .92830 626

407 210 011 810 605

387 190 *991 789 585

368 171 *971 769 564

348 151 *951 749 544

328 131 *931 728 523

309 111 *911 708 502

55 56 57 58 59

419 210 .91999 784 565

398 189 978 762 543

377 168 956 741 521

357 147 935 719 499

336 126 914 697 477

315 105 892 675 455

294 084 871 653 433

7

8

9

289 270 250 091 071 051 *890 *870 *850 688 667 647 482 461 440

5 6 7 8 9

282 150 022 .98899 779

269 137 009 887 767

255 124 *997 875 755

242 111 *984 863 743

228 098 *972 851 731

215 085 *960 838 720

202 073 *947 826 708

189 060 *935 814 696

10 11 12 13 14

661 544 430 319 210

649 532 419 308 200

637 521 408 297 190

625 509 396 286 179

614 498 385 275 168

602 487 374 264 157

590 475 363 254 147

579 464 352 243 136

567 452 341 232 125

556 441 330 221 115

60 61 62 63 64

344 120 .90893 664 434

322 097 870 641 411

299 075 847 618 388

277 052 825 595 365

255 030 802 572 341

232 007 779 549 318

210 *984 756 526 295

15 16 17 18 19

104 .97998 895 794 694

093 988 885 784 684

083 977 875 774 674

072 967 864 764 664

062 956 854 754 654

051 946 844 744 645

040 936 834 734 635

030 925 824 724 625

019 915 814 714 615

009 905 804 704 605

65 66 67 68 69

202 .89967 729 489 245

179 943 705 465 220

155 920 681 441 196

132 896 657 416 171

108 872 633 392 147

085 848 609 368 122

061 825 585 343 098

038 801 561 319 073

014 *991 777 753 537 513 295 270 048 024

20 21 22 23 24

596 496 395 293 189

586 486 385 283 179

576 476 375 272 168

566 466 365 262 158

556 456 354 252 147

546 446 344 241 137

536 436 334 231 126

526 425 324 221 116

516 415 313 210 105

506 405 303 200 095

70 71 72 73 74

.88999 751 499 244 .87987

974 725 474 218 961

950 700 448 193 935

925 675 423 167 910

900 650 397 141 884

875 625 372 116 858

850 600 346 090 832

825 574 321 064 806

801 549 296 039 780

25 26 27 28 29

084 .96978 870 760 648

073 967 859 749 637

063 957 848 738 625

052 946 837 727 614

042 935 826 715 603

031 924 815 704 591

020 914 804 693 580

010 903 793 682 568

*999 *988 892 881 782 771 671 659 557 546

75 76 77 78 79

728 465 199 .86929 656

702 439 172 902 629

676 412 145 875 601

650 386 118 847 574

623 359 092 820 546

597 332 065 793 518

571 306 038 766 491

545 518 492 279 252 226 011 *984 *957 738 711 684 463 435 408

30 31 32 33 34

534 418 296 170 041

522 406 284 157 028

511 394 271 144 015

499 382 259 132 002

488 370 246 119 *988

476 358 234 106 *975

464 346 221 093 *962

453 334 209 080 *948

441 429 321 309 196 183 067 054 *935 *921

80 81 82 83 84

380 100 .85817 531 240

352 072 789 502 211

324 044 760 473 181

296 015 732 444 152

269 *987 703 415 122

241 *959 674 386 093

213 *931 646 357 063

185 157 129 *902 *874 *846 617 588 560 328 299 270 033 004 *974

35 36 37 38 39

.95908 770 628 482 332

894 756 614 467 317

881 742 599 452 302

867 728 585 437 286

854 714 570 423 271

840 700 556 408 256

826 685 541 393 240

812 671 526 378 225

784 643 497 347 194

85 86 87 88 89

.84944 642 336 025 .83707

914 612 305 *994 675

884 581 274 *962 643

854 551 243 *930 610

824 520 212 *899 578

794 490 181 *867 545

764 459 150 *835 513

734 703 673 428 398 367 119 088 056 *803 *771 *739 480 447 415

40 41 42 43 44

178 020 .94858 693 524

162 004 842 676 507

147 *988 825 660 490

131 *972 809 643 473

115 *956 792 626 455

100 *940 776 609 438

084 *923 759 592 421

068 *907 743 575 403

052 036 *891 *875 726 710 558 541 386 369

90 91 92 93 94

382 049 .82705 351 .81984

349 015 670 315 947

315 *981 635 279 909

282 *947 600 243 871

249 *913 565 206 834

216 *879 529 170 796

183 *845 494 133 757

150 116 083 *810 *776 *741 458 423 387 096 059 022 719 681 642

45 46 47 48 49

351 174 .93993 808 619

334 156 975 789 600

316 138 956 771 581

298 120 938 752 562

281 102 920 733 543

263 084 901 714 523

245 066 883 695 504

228 048 864 676 485

95 96 97 98 99

603 206 .80792 356 .79889

564 165 750 311 841

525 125 707 265 792

486 084 664 219 743

446 042 620 173 693

407 001 577 127 643

367 *960 533 080 593

327 287 247 *918 *876 *834 489 445 401 033 *985 *937 543 492 441

100

389

798 657 512 362 209

210 030 845 657 465

192 011 827 638 446

*Indicates change in first two decimal places.

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

273 062 849 631 410

252 041 827 610 388

231 020 806 588 366

188 165 143 *962 *939 *916 733 710 687 503 480 457 272 249 225

776 524 270 013 754

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS

2-115

TABLE 2-113 n-Propyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) %

0°C

15°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C

30°C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 .9982 .9967 .9952 .9939

0.9991 .9974 .9960 .9944 .9929

0.9957 .9940 .9924 .9908 .9893

20 21 22 23 24

0.9789 .9776 .9763 .9748 .9733

0.9723 .9705 .9688 .9670 .9651

0.9643 .9622 .9602 .9583 .9563

40 41 42 43 44

0.9430 .9411 .9391 .9371 .9352

0.9331 .9310 .9290 .9269 .9248

0.9226 .9205 .9184 .9164 .9143

60 61 62 63 64

0.9033 .9013 .8994 .8974 .8954

0.8922 .8902 .8882 .8861 .8841

0.8807 .8786 .8766 .8745 .8724

80 81 82 83 84

0.8634 .8614 .8594 .8574 .8554

0.8516 .8496 .8475 .8454 .8434

0.8394 .8373 .8352 .8332 .8311

5 6 7 8 9

.9926 .9914 .9904 .9894 .9883

.9915 .9902 .9890 .9877 .9864

.9877 .9862 .9848 .9834 .9819

25 26 27 28 29

.9717 .9700 .9682 .9664 .9646

.9633 .9614 .9594 .9576 .9556

.9543 .9522 .9501 .9481 .9460

45 46 47 48 49

.9332 .9311 .9291 .9272 .9252

.9228 .9207 .9186 .9165 .9145

.9122 .9100 .9079 .9057 .9036

65 66 67 68 69

.8934 .8913 .8894 .8874 .8854

.8820 .8800 .8779 .8759 .8739

.8703 .8682 .8662 .8641 .8620

85 86 87 88 89

.8534 .8513 .8492 .8471 .8450

.8413 .8393 .8372 .8351 .8330

.8290 .8269 .8248 .8227 .8206

10 11 12 13 14

.9874 .9865 .9857 .9849 .9841

.9852 .9840 .9828 .9817 .9806

.9804 .9790 .9775 .9760 .9746

30 31 32 33 34

.9627 .9608 .9589 .9570 .9550

.9535 .9516 .9495 .9474 .9454

.9439 .9418 .9396 .9375 .9354

50 51 52 53 54

.9232 .9213 .9192 .9173 .9153

.9124 .9104 .9084 .9064 .9044

.9015 .8994 .8973 .8952 .8931

70 71 72 73 74

.8835 .8815 .8795 .8776 .8756

.8719 .8700 .8680 .8659 .8639

.8600 .8580 .8559 .8539 .8518

90 91 92 93 94

.8429 .8408 .8387 .8364 .8342

.8308 .8287 .8266 .8244 .8221

.8185 .8164 .8142 .8120 .8098

15 16 17 18 19

.9833 .9825 .9817 .9808 .9800

.9793 .9780 .9768 .9752 .9739

.9730 .9714 .9698 .9680 .9661

35 36 37 38 39

.9530 .9511 .9491 .9471 .9450

.9434 .9413 .9392 .9372 .9351

.9333 .9312 .9289 .9269 .9247

55 56 57 58 59

.9132 .9112 .9093 .9073 .9053

.9023 .9003 .8983 .8963 .8942

.8911 .8890 .8869 .8849 .8828

75 76 77 78 79

.8736 .8716 .8695 .8675 .8655

.8618 .8598 .8577 .8556 .8536

.8497 .8477 .8456 .8435 .8414

95 96 97 98 99

.8320 .8296 .8272 .8248 .8222

.8199 .8176 .8153 .8128 .8104

.8077 .8054 .8031 .8008 .7984

100

.8194

.8077

.7958

TABLE 2-114

Isopropyl Alcohol (C3H7OH)

%

0°C

15°C*

15°C*

20°C

30°C

%

0°C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 .9980 .9962 .9946 .9930

0.9991 .9973 .9956 .9938 .9922

0.99913 .9972 .9954 .9936 .9920

0.9982 .9962 .9944 .9926 .9909

0.9957 .9939 .9921 .9904 .9887

35 36 37 38 39

0.9557 .9536 .9514 .9493 .9472

5 6 7 8 9

.9916 .9902 .9890 .9878 .9866

.9906 .9892 .9878 .9864 .9851

.9904 .9890 .9875 .9862 .9849

.9893 .9877 .9862 .9847 .9833

.9871 .9855 .9839 .9824 .9809

40 41 42 43 44

.9450 .9428 .9406 .9384 .9361

10 11 12 13 14

.9856 .9846 .9838 .9829 .9821

.9838 .9826 .9813 .9802 .9790

.98362 .9824 .9812 .9800 .9788

.9820 .9808 .9797 .9876 .9776

.9794 .9778 .9764 .9750 .9735

45 46 47 48 49

15 16 17 18 19

.9814 .9806 .9799 .9792 .9784

.9779 .9768 .9756 .9745 .9730

.9777 .9765 .9753 .9741 .9728

.9765 .9754 .9743 .9731 .9717

.9720 .9705 .9690 .9675 .9658

20 21 22 23 24

.9777 .9768 .9759 .9749 .9739

.9719 .9704 .9690 .9675 .9660

.97158 .9703 .9689 .9674 .9659

.9703 .9688 .9669 .9651 .9634

25 26 27 28 29

.9727 .9714 .9699 .9684 .9669

.9643 .9626 .9608 .9590 .9570

.9642 .9624 .9605 .9586 .9568

30 31 32 33 34

.9652 .9634 .9615 .9596 .9577

.9551

.95493 .9530 .9510 .9489 .9468

15°C*

15°C*

20°C

30°C

%

0°C

15°C*

15°C*

20°C

30°C

0.9446 .9424 .9401 .9379 .9356

0.9419 .9399 .9377 .9355 .9333

0.9338 .9315 .9292 .9269 .9246

70 71 72 73 74

0.8761 .8738 .8714 .8691 .8668

0.8639 .8615 .8592 .8568 .8545

0.86346 .8611 .8588 .8564 .8541

0.8584 .8560 .8537 .8513 .8489

0.8511 .8487 .8464 .8440 .8416

.93333 .9311 .9288 .9266 .9243

.9310 .9287 .9264 .9239 .9215

.9224 .9201 .9177 .9154 .9130

75 76 77 78 79

.8644 .8621 .8598 .8575 .8551

.8521 .8497 .8474 .8450 .8426

.8517 .8493 .8470 .8446 .8422

.8464 .8439 .8415 .8391 .8366

.8392 .8368 .8344 .8321 .8297

.9338 .9315 .9292 .9270 .9247

.9220 .9197 .9174 .9150 .9127

.9191 .9165 .9141 .9117 .9093

.9106 .9082 .9059 .9036 .9013

80 81 82 83 84

.8528 .8503 .8479 .8456 .8432

.8403 .8379 .8355 .8331 .8307

.83979 .8374 .8350 .8326 .8302

.8342 .8317 .8292 .8268 .8243

.8273 .8248 .8224 .8200 .8175

50 51 52 53 54

.9224 .9201 .9178 .9155 .9132

.91043 .9081 .9058 .9035 .9011

.9069 .9044 .9020 .8996 .8971

.8990 .8966 .8943 .8919 .8895

85 86 87 88 89

.8408 .8384 .8360 .8336 .8311

.8282 .8259 .8234 .8209 .8184

.8278 .8254 .8229 .8205 .8180

.8219 .8194 .8169 .8145 .8120

.8151 .8127 .8201 .8078 .8053

.9642 .9624 .9606 .9587 .9569

55 56 57 58 59

.9109 .9086 .9063 .9040 .9017

.8988 .8964 .8940 .8917 .8893

.8946 .8921 .8896 .8874 .8850

.8871 .8847 .8823 .8800 .8777

90 91 92 93 94

.8287 .8262 .8237 .8212 .8186

.8161 .8136 .8110 .8085 .8060

.81553 .8130 .8104 .8079 .8052

.8096 .8072 .8047 .8023 .7998

.8029 .8004 .7979 .7954 .7929

.9615 .9597 .9577 .9558 .9540

.9549 .9529 .9509 .9488 .9467

60 61 62 63 64

.8994 .8970 .8947 .8924 .8901

0.8829 .8805 .8781

.88690 .8845 .8821 .8798 .8775

.8825 .8800 .8776 .8751 .8727

.8752 .8728 .8704 .8680 .8656

95 96 97 98 99

.8160 .8133 .8106 .8078 .8048

.8034 .8008 .7981 .7954 .7926

.8026 .7999 .7972 .7945 .7918

.7973 .7949 .7925 .7901 .7877

.7904 .7878 .7852 .7826 .7799

.9520 .9500 .9481 .9460 .9440

.9446 .9426 .9405 .9383 .9361

65 66 67 68 69

.8878 .8854 .8831 .8807 .8784

.8757 .8733 .8710 .8686 .8662

.8752 .8728 .8705 .8682 .8658

.8702 .8679 .8656 .8632 .8609

.8631 .8607 .8583 .8559 .8535

100

.8016

.7896

.78913

.7854

.7770

*Two different observers; see International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 120.

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

2-116

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-115

Glycerol* Density

Density

Glycerol, %

15°C

15.5°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

Glycerol, %

15°C

15.5°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

Glycerol, % 15°C

100 99 98 97 96

1.26415 1.26160 1.25900 1.25645 1.25385

1.26381 1.26125 1.25865 1.25610 1.25350

1.26108 1.25850 1.25590 1.25335 1.25080

1.15802 1.25545 1.25290 1.25030 1.24770

1.25495 1.25235 1.24975 1.24710 1.24450

65 64 63 62 61

1.17030 1.16755 1.16480 1.16200 1.15925

1.17000 1.16725 1.16445 1.16170 1.15895

1.16750 1.16475 1.16205 1.15930 1.15655

1.16475 1.16200 1.15925 1.15655 1.15380

1.16195 1.15925 1.15650 1.15375 1.15100

30 29 28 27 26

95 94 93 92 91

1.25130 1.24865 1.24600 1.24340 1.24075

1.25095 1.24830 1.24565 1.24305 1.24040

1.24825 1.24560 1.24300 1.24035 1.23770

1.24515 1.24250 1.23985 1.23725 1.23460

1.24190 1.23930 1.23670 1.23410 1.23150

60 59 58 57 56

1.15650 1.15370 1.15095 1.14815 1.14535

1.15615 1.15340 1.15065 1.14785 1.14510

1.15380 1.15105 1.14830 1.14555 1.14280

1.15105 1.14835 1.14560 1.14285 1.14015

1.14830 1.14555 1.14285 1.14010 1.13740

90 89 88 87 86

1.23810 1.23545 1.23280 1.23015 1.22750

1.23775 1.23510 1.23245 1.22980 1.22710

1.23510 1.23245 1.22975 1.22710 1.22445

1.23200 1.22935 1.22665 1.22400 1.22135

1.22890 1.22625 1.22360 1.22095 1.21830

55 54 53 52 51

1.14260 1.13980 1.13705 1.13425 1.13150

1.14230 1.13955 1.13680 1.13400 1.13125

1.14005 1.13730 1.13455 1.13180 1.12905

1.13740 1.13465 1.13195 1.12920 1.12650

85 84 83 82 81

1.22485 1.22220 1.21955 1.21690 1.21425

1.22445 1.22180 1.21915 1.21650 1.21385

1.22180 1.21915 1.21650 1.21380 1.21115

1.21870 1.21605 1.21340 1.21075 1.20810

1.21565 1.21300 1.21035 1.20770 1.20505

50 49 48 47 46

1.12870 1.12600 1.12325 1.12055 1.11780

1.12845 1.12575 1.12305 1.12030 1.11760

1.12630 1.12360 1.12090 1.11820 1.11550

80 79 78 77 76

1.21160 1.20885 1.20610 1.20335 1.20060

1.21120 1.20845 1.20570 1.20300 1.20025

1.20850 1.20575 1.20305 1.20030 1.19760

1.20545 1.20275 1.20005 1.19735 1.19465

1.20240 1.19970 1.19705 1.19435 1.19170

45 44 43 42 41

1.11510 1.11235 1.10960 1.10690 1.10415

1.11490 1.11215 1.10945 1.10670 1.10400

75 74 73 72 71

1.19785 1.19510 1.19235 1.18965 1.18690

1.19750 1.19480 1.19205 1.18930 1.18655

1.19485 1.19215 1.18940 1.18670 1.18395

1.19195 1.18925 1.18650 1.18380 1.18110

1.18900 1.18635 1.18365 1.18100 1.17830

40 39 38 37 36

1.10145 1.09875 1.09605 1.09340 1.09070

70 69 68 67 66

1.18415 1.18135 1.17860 1.17585 1.17305

1.18385 1.18105 1.17830 1.17555 1.17275

1.18125 1.17850 1.17575 1.17300 1.17025

1.17840 1.17565 1.17295 1.17020 1.16745

1.17565 1.17290 1.17020 1.16745 1.16470

35 34 33 32 31

1.08800 1.08530 1.08265 1.07995 1.07725

Density 15.5°C

20°C

25°C

30°C

1.07455 1.07195 1.06935 1.06670 1.06410

1.07435 1.07175 1.06915 1.06655 1.06390

1.07270 1.07010 1.06755 1.06495 1.06240

1.07070 1.06815 1.06560 1.06305 1.06055

1.06855 1.06605 1.06355 1.06105 1.05855

25 24 23 22 21

1.06150 1.05885 1.05625 1.05365 1.05100

1.06130 1.05870 1.05610 1.05350 1.05090

1.05980 1.05720 1.05465 1.05205 1.04950

1.05800 1.05545 1.05290 1.05035 1.04780

1.05605 1.05350 1.05100 1.04850 1.04600

1.13470 1.13195 1.12925 1.12650 1.12380

20 19 18 17 16

1.04840 1.04590 1.04335 1.04085 1.03835

1.04825 1.04575 1.04325 1.04075 1.03825

1.04690 1.04440 1.04195 1.03945 1.03695

1.04525 1.04280 1.04035 1.03790 1.03545

1.04350 1.04105 1.03860 1.03615 1.03370

1.12375 1.12110 1.11840 1.11575 1.11310

1.12110 1.11845 1.11580 1.11320 1.11055

15 14 13 12 11

1.03580 1.03330 1.03080 1.02830 1.02575

1.03570 1.03320 1.03070 1.02820 1.02565

1.03450 1.03200 1.02955 1.02705 1.02455

1.03300 1.03055 1.02805 1.02560 1.02315

1.03130 1.02885 1.02640 1.02395 1.02150

1.11280 1.11010 1.10740 1.10470 1.10200

1.11040 1.10775 1.10510 1.10240 1.09975

1.10795 1.10530 1.10265 1.10005 1.09740

10 9 8 7 6

1.02325 1.02085 1.01840 1.01600 1.01360

1.02315 1.02075 1.01835 1.01590 1.01350

1.02210 1.01970 1.01730 1.01495 1.01255

1.02070 1.01835 1.01600 1.01360 1.01125

1.01905 1.01670 1.01440 1.01205 1.00970

1.10130 1.09860 1.09590 1.09320 1.09050

1.09930 1.09665 1.09400 1.09135 1.08865

1.09710 1.09445 1.09180 1.08915 1.08655

1.09475 1.09215 1.08955 1.08690 1.08430

5 4 3 2 1

1.01120 1.00875 1.00635 1.00395 1.00155

1.01110 1.00870 1.00630 1.00385 1.00145

1.01015 1.00780 1.00540 1.00300 1.00060

1.00890 1.00655 1.00415 1.00180 0.99945

1.00735 1.00505 1.00270 1.00035 0.99800

1.08780 1.08515 1.08245 1.07975 1.07705

1.08600 1.08335 1.08070 1.07800 1.07535

1.08390 1.08125 1.07860 1.07600 1.07335

1.08165 1.07905 1.07645 1.07380 1.07120

0

0.99913 0.99905 0.99823 0.99708 0.99568

*Bosart and Snoddy, Ind. Eng. Chem., 20, (1928): 1378.

TABLE 2-116

Hydrazine (N2H4)

%

d 15 4

%

d 15 4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28

1.0002 1.0013 1.0034 1.0077 1.0121 1.0164 1.0207 1.0248 1.0286

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

1.0305 1.038 1.044 1.047 1.046 1.040 1.030 1.011

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DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-117

2-117

Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds*

d (resp., dw, ds) = density of the solution (resp., water; resp., the pure liquid solute) in g/mL; ps (resp., pw) = wt % of solute (resp., water) in the solution; range = range of applicability of the equation. Section A Name

Formula

t, °C

Acetaldehyde Acetamide

C2H4O C2H5NO

Acetone

C3H6O

Acetonitrile Allyl alcohol Benzenepentacarboxylic acid Butyl alcohol (n-)

C2H3N C3H6O C11H6O10 C4H10O

Butyric acid (n-)

C4H8O2

Chloral hydrate

C2H3Cl3O2

Chloroacetic acid

C2H3ClO2

Citric acid (hydrate)

C6H3O7 + H2O

Dichloroacetic acid

C2H2Cl2O2

Diethylamine hydrochloride Ethylamine hydrochloride

C4H12ClN C2H8ClN

Ethylene glycol

C2H6O2

Ethyl ether tartrate Formaldehyde Formamide

C4H10O C8H14O6 CH2O CH3NO

Furfural Isoamyl alcohol

C5H4O2 C5H12O

Isobutyl alcohol

C4H10O

5

Isobutyric acid

C4H8O2

5

Isovaleric acid Lactic acid Maleic acid

C5H10O2 C3H6O C4H4O4

Malic acid

C4H6O5

Malonic acid Methyl acetate

C3H4O4 C3H6O2

glucoside (α-)

C7H14O6

Nicotine Nitrophenol (p-)

C10H14N2 C6H5NO3

Oxalic acid

C2H2O4

Phenol

C6H6O

Phenylglycolic acid Picoline (α-) (β-)

C8H8O3 C6H7N C6H7N

Propionic acid

C3H6O2

Pyridine Resorcinol Succinic acid

C5H5N C6H6O2 C4H6O4

Tartaric acid (d, l, or dl)

C4H6O6

5 5

5

5 5 5 5 5

5 5

5

5 5

5

18 15 0 4 15 20 25 15 0 25 20 18 25 0 15 30 20 25 18 20 25 21 21 0 15 20 25 15 15 25 20 25 20 15 20 15 18 25 25 25 25 20 25 20 20 0 30 20 15 0 15 17.5 20 25 15 80 25 25 25 18 25 25 18 25 15 17.5 20 30 40 50 60

d = d w + Aps + Bp s2 + Cp3s Range, ps

A

B

0– 30 0– 6 0–100 0–100 0–100 0–100 0–100 0– 16 0– 89 0– 0.6 0– 7.9 0– 10 0– 62 0– 70 0– 78 0– 90 0– 32 0– 86 0– 50 0– 30 0– 97 0– 36 0– 65 0–100 0– 6 0– 5 0– 4.5 0– 95 0– 40 22– 96 0– 8 0– 8 0– 2.5 0– 8 0– 8 0– 9 0– 9 0– 12 0– 5 0– 9 0– 40 0– 40 0– 40 0– 40 0– 20 26– 51 26– 51 0– 60 0– 1.5 0– 4 0– 4 0– 9 0– 4 0– 4 0– 5 0– 65 0– 11 0– 70 0– 60 0– 10 0– 40 0– 60 0– 52 0– 5.5 0– 15 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50

+0.03255 +0.03639 −0.03856 −0.027648 −0.021009 −0.021233 −0.021171 −0.021175 −0.033729 +0.025615 −0.021651 +0.03414 +0.035135 +0.024489 +0.024455 +0.024401 +0.023648 +0.023602 +0.023824 +0.024427 +0.024427 +0.0334 +0.021193 +0.021483 +0.02133 −0.02221 −0.02221 +0.022367 +0.022518 +0.021217 +0.021827 +0.021664 +0.02155 −0.02146 −0.02169 +0.0352 +0.0345 +0.0337 +0.03253 +0.02231 +0.0234 +0.023933 +0.023736 +0.02389 +0.0340 +0.023336 +0.023151 +0.03642 +0.023216 +0.025898 +0.02494 +0.02494 +0.025264 +0.025108 +0.02111 +0.03462 +0.02207 −0.04386 −0.04683 +0.0395 +0.039245 +0.03229 +0.02201 +0.02304 +0.024482 +0.024455 +0.024432 +0.024335 +0.024265 +0.024205 +0.024155

−0.0516 +0.04171 −0.05449 −0.041193 −0.059682 −0.053529 −0.05904 −0.042024 −0.041232 −0.02117 +0.04285 +0.04131 −0.04166 +0.042802 +0.042198 +0.041887 +0.05302 +0.05552 +0.041141 +0.05537 +0.05537 +0.0676 −0.05307 +0.052992 −0.05108 +0.0448 +0.0435 +0.05358 −0.05658 +0.053199 +0.05366 +0.0421 +0.043 +0.056 +0.0438

*From “International Critical Tables,” vol. 3, pp. 111–114.

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−0.04282 +0.05186 +0.0575 +0.05957 +0.04175 +0.041066 −0.0574 +0.05996 +0.05975 +0.05454 −0.0455 −0.033185 −0.058 −0.058 −0.031996 −0.031607 −0.04283 −0.0686 +0.0423 −0.051405 −0.0513 −0.04172 −0.0599 −0.05204 +0.05519 +0.04185 +0.04185 +0.041837 +0.04185 +0.04185 +0.04185 +0.04185

C

−0.07588 +0.08272 −0.08624 −0.075327 −0.0856 +0.072984

+0.0611 −0.071291 +0.074366 +0.076549 +0.0722 +0.0717 +0.077534 +0.077534 −0.0747 −0.075248

−0.076005 +0.06542 −0.072529

+0.01544 +0.08978 −0.07687 +0.0441 +0.04254 +0.04208

−0.074167 +0.07361 −0.0828 −0.0819

2-118

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-117

Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds (Concluded ) d = d w + Aps + Bp s2 + Cp3s (Cont.)

Section A Name

t, °C

Formula

Tetraethyl ammonium chloride Thiourea

C8H20ClN CH4N2S

Trichloroacetic acid

C2HCl3O2

Triethylamine hydrochloride

C6H16ClN

Trimethyl carbinol

C4H10O

Urea

CH4N2O

Urethane Valeric acid (n-)

C3H7NO2 C5H10O2

Name

5

5

Formula C4H10O C4H8O2 C4H10O

Isobutyl alcohol

C4H10O

Isobutyric acid Nicotine Picoline (α-) (β-) Pyridine Trimethyl carbinol

C4H8O2 C10H14N2 C6H7N C6H7N C5H5N C4H10O

5

Name

Chloral hydrate

C2H3Cl3O2

Ethyl tartrate

C7H14O6

Furfural

C5H4O2

Pyridine

C5H5N

B

C

+0.056 +0.05374 +0.04153 +0.041387 +0.056119 +0.05558 −0.041908 −0.04176 −0.044802 +0.051552 +0.053712 −0.041817 −0.05245 −0.0427

+0.07122

t, °C

Range, pw

A

B

20 25 25 0 15 26 20 25 25 25 20

0–20 0–38 0– 1.1 0–14 0–16 0–80 0–40 0–30 0–40 0–40 0–20

+0.022103 +0.021854 +0.0234 +0.022437 +0.02224 +0.021808 +0.02199 +0.022715 +0.021925 +0.021157 +0.022287

−0.04113 −0.042314 +0.0336 −0.04285 −0.04129 −0.042358 −0.04331 −0.04393 −0.04352 −0.05536 +0.05275

5

+0.061038 −0.0869 +0.07957 +0.07887 +0.051216 +0.072573 −0.072285 +0.051379 −0.073437

d = ds + Apw + Bp 2w + Cp 3w

ds

C

+0.061253 +0.07315 +0.0625 −0.062

dt = do + At + Bt2

ps

do

Range, °C

A

B

76.60 80.95 2.00 10.00 5.00 10.00 25.00 4.62 5.69 6.56 9.34 21.20 29.50 40.40

0.9122 0.8614 1.0094 1.0476 1.0150 1.0270 1.0665 1.0125 1.0140 1.0155 1.0055 1.0115 1.0145 1.0182

0–45 0–43 7–80 7–80 15–80 15–80 15–80 22–74 22–74 22–74 11–73 14–73 12–72 9–74

−0.038 −0.037292 −0.042597 −0.047955 −0.032103 −0.032116 −0.03401 −0.03232 −0.03221 −0.03211 −0.03171 −0.03378 −0.03463 −0.03605

−0.0527 −0.0675 −0.054313 −0.054253 −0.052544 −0.062929 −0.0523 −0.05254 −0.05268 −0.05290 −0.053615 −0.05248 −0.05235 −0.05167

Formula C3H6O C4H10O

A +0.031884 +0.022995 +0.02499 +0.025053 +0.025051 +0.046 −0.02117 −0.021286 +0.023213 +0.022718 +0.022702 +0.022728 +0.021278 +0.0334

0.8097 0.9534 0.7077 0.8170 0.8055 0.9425 1.0093 0.9404 0.9515 0.9776 0.7856 Section C

Allyl alcohol Butyl alcohol (n-)

0– 63 0– 7 0– 61 10– 30 0– 94 0– 54 0–100 0–100 0– 12 0– 51 0– 35 0– 10 0– 56 0– 3

5

Section B Butyl alcohol (n-) Butyric acid (n-) Ethyl ether

Range, ps

21 15 12.5 20 25 21 20 25 14.8 18 20 25 20 25

5 5

5

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DENSITIES OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS

2-119

DENSITIES OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS TABLE 2-118

Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids*

Water at 4°C and normal atmospheric pressure taken as unity. For more detailed data on any material, see the section dealing with the properties of that material.

Substance

Sp. gr.

Aver. weight lb/ft 3

Sp. gr.

Aver. weight lb/ft 3

Metals, Alloys, Ores Aluminum, cast-hammered bronze Brass, cast-rolled Bronze, 7.9 to 14% Sn phosphor

2.55–2.80 7.7 8.4–8.7 7.4–8.9 8.88

165 481 534 509 554

Timber, Air-dry Apple Ash, black white Birch, sweet, yellow Cedar, white, red

0.66–0.74 0.55 0.64–0.71 0.71–0.72 0.35

44 34 42 44 22

Copper, cast-rolled ore, pyrites German silver Gold, cast-hammered coin (U.S.)

8.8–8.95 4.1–4.3 8.58 19.25–19.35 17.18–17.2

556 262 536 1205 1073

Cherry, wild red Chestnut Cypress Elm, white Fir, Douglas

0.43 0.48 0.45–0.48 0.56 0.48–0.55

27 30 29 35 32

Iridium Iron, gray cast cast, pig wrought spiegeleisen

21.78–22.42 7.03–7.13 7.2 7.6–7.9 7.5

1383 442 450 485 468

balsam Hemlock Hickory Locust Mahogany

0.40 0.45–0.50 0.74–0.80 0.67–0.77 0.56–0.85

25 29 48 45 44

ferro-silicon ore, hematite ore, limonite ore, magnetite slag

6.7–7.3 5.2 3.6–4.0 4.9–5.2 2.5–3.0

437 325 237 315 172

Maple, sugar white Oak, chestnut live red, black

0.68 0.53 0.74 0.87 0.64–0.71

43 33 46 54 42

Lead ore, galena Manganese ore, pyrolusite Mercury

11.34 7.3–7.6 7.42 3.7–4.6 13.6

710 465 475 259 849

white Pine, Norway Oregon red Southern white

0.77 0.55 0.51 0.48 0.61–0.67 0.43

48 34 32 30 38–42 27

8.97 8.9 21.5 10.4–10.6 7.83 7.80 7.70–7.73 7.2–7.5 6.4–7.0 19.22

555 537 1330 656 489 487 481 459 418 1200

Poplar Redwood, California Spruce, white, red Teak, African Indian Walnut, black Willow

0.43 0.42 0.45 0.99 0.66–0.88 0.59 0.42–0.50

27 26 28 62 48 37 28

6.9–7.2 3.9–4.2

440 253

Various Solids Cereals, oats, bulk barley, bulk corn, rye, bulk wheat, bulk Cork

Various Liquids Alcohol, ethyl (100%) methyl (100%) Acid, muriatic, 40% nitric, 91% sulfuric, 87%

0.789 0.796 1.20 1.50 1.80

49 50 75 94 112

0.51 0.62 0.73 0.77 0.22–0.26

26 39 45 48 15

Chloroform Ether Lye, soda, 66% Oils, vegetable mineral, lubricants

1.500 0.736 1.70 0.91–0.94 0.88–0.94

95 46 106 58 57

Cotton, flax, hemp Fats Flour, loose pressed Glass, common

1.47–1.50 0.90–0.97 0.40–0.50 0.70–0.80 2.40–2.80

93 58 28 47 162

0.861–0.867 1.0 0.9584 0.88–0.92 0.125

54 62.428 59.830 56 8

1.02–1.03

64

Ashlar Masonry Bluestone Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone Marble Sandstone

2.3–2.6 2.4–2.7 2.1–2.8 2.4–2.8 2.0–2.6

153 159 153 162 143

Rubble Masonry Bluestone Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone Marble Sandstone

2.2–2.5 2.3–2.6 2.0–2.7 2.3–2.7 1.9–2.5

147 153 147 156 137

Monel metal, rolled Nickel Platinum, cast-hammered Silver, cast-hammered Steel, cold-drawn machine tool Tin, cast-hammered cassiterite Tungsten Zinc, cast-rolled blende

plate or crown crystal dint Hay and straw, bales Leather

2.45–2.72 2.90–3.00 3.2–4.7 0.32 0.86–1.02

161 184 247 20 59

Paper Potatoes, piled Rubber, caoutchouc goods Salt, granulated, piled

0.70–1.15 0.67 0.92–0.96 1.0–2.0 0.77

58 44 59 94 48

Saltpeter Starch Sulfur Wool

1.07 1.53 1.93–2.07 1.32

67 96 125 82

Substance

Turpentine Water, 4°C max. density 100°C ice snow, fresh fallen sea water

Sp. gr.

Aver. weight lb/ft 3

Dry Rubble Masonry Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone, marble Sandstone, bluestone

1.9–2.3 1.9–2.1 1.8–1.9

130 125 110

Brick Masonry Hard brick Medium brick Soft brick Sand-lime brick

1.8–2.3 1.6–2.0 1.4–1.9 1.4–2.2

128 112 103 112

Concrete Masonry Cement, stone, sand slag, etc. cinder, etc.

2.2–2.4 1.9–2.3 1.5–1.7

144 130 100

0.64–0.72 1.5 0.85–1.00 1.4–1.9 2.08–2.25

40–45 94 53–64 103 94–135

Portland cement Slags, bank slag bank screenings machine slag slag sand

3.1–3.2 1.1–1.2 1.5–1.9 1.5 0.8–0.9

196 67–72 98–117 96 49–55

Earth, etc., Excavated Clay, dry damp plastic and gravel, dry Earth, dry, loose dry, packed moist, loose moist, packed mud, flowing mud, packed Riprap, limestone

1.0 1.76 1.6 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.3–1.4

63 110 100 76 95 78 96 108 115 80–85

1.4 1.7 1.4–1.7 1.6–1.9 1.89–2.16

90 105 90–105 100–120 126

1.28 1.44 0.96 1.00 1.12 1.00

80 90 60 65 70 65

Asbestos Barytes Basait Bauxite Bluestone

2.1–2.8 4.50 2.7–3.2 2.55 2.5–2.6

153 281 184 159 159

Borax Chalk Clay, marl Dolomite Feldspar, orthoclase

1.7–1.8 1.8–2.8 1.8–2.6 2.9 2.5–2.7

109 143 137 181 162

Gneiss Granite Greenstone, trap Gypsum, alabaster Hornblende Limestone Marble Magnesite Phosphate rock, apatite Porphyry

2.7–2.9 2.6–2.7 2.8–3.2 2.3–2.8 3.0 2.1–2.86 2.6–2.86 3.0 3.2 2.6–2.9

175 165 187 159 187 155 170 187 200 172

Substance

Various Building Materials Ashes, cinders Cement, Portland, loose Lime, gypsum, loose Mortar, lime, set Portland cement

Riprap, sandstone Riprap, shale Sand, gravel, dry, loose gravel, dry, packed gravel, wet Excavations in Water Clay River mud Sand or gravel and clay Soil Stone riprap Minerals

*From Marks, Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook, McGraw-Hill.

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2-120

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-118

Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids (Concluded )

Water at 4°C and normal atmospheric pressure taken as unity. For more detailed data on any material, see the section dealing with the properties of that material.

Substance

Sp. gr.

Minerals (Cont.) Pumice, natural Quartz, flint Sandstone Serpentine Shale, slate Soapstone, talc Syenite Stone, Quarried, Piled Basalt, granite, gneiss Greenstone, hornblende Limestone, marble, quartz Sandstone Shale NOTE:

Aver. weight lb/ft3

0.37–0.90 2.5–2.8 2.0–2.6 2.7–2.8 2.6–2.9

40 165 143 171 172

2.6–2.8 2.6–2.7

169 165

1.5 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.5

96 107 95 82 92

Substance

Aver. weight lb/ft 3

Sp. gr.

Bituminous Substances Asphaltum Coal, anthracite bituminous lignite peat, turf, dry

1.1–1.5 1.4–1.8 1.2–1.5 1.1–1.4 0.65–0.85

81 97 84 78 47

charcoal, pine charcoal, oak coke Graphite Paraffin

0.28–0.44 0.47–0.57 1.0–1.4 1.64–2.7 0.87–0.91

23 33 75 135 56

Substance

Sp. gr.

Aver. weight lb/ft3

Bituminous Substances (Cont.) Petroleum refined (kerosene) benzine gasoline Pitch Tar, bituminous

0.87 0.78–0.82 0.73–0.75 0.70–0.75 1.07–1.15 1.20

54 50 46 45 69 75

Coal and Coke, Piled Coal, anthracite bituminous, lignite peat, turf charcoal coke

0.75–0.93 0.64–0.87 0.32–0.42 0.16–0.23 0.37–0.51

47–58 40–54 20–26 10–14 23–32

To convert pounds per cubic foot to kilograms per cubic meter, multiply by 16.02. °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32.

TABLE 2-119

Density (kg/m3) of Selected Elements as a Function of Temperature Element symbol

Temperature, K*

Al

Be†

Cr

Cu

Au

Ir

Fe

Pb

Mo

Ni

Pt

Ag

Zn†

50 100 150 200 250

2736 2732 2726 2719 2710

3650 3640 3630 3620 3610

7160 7155 7150 7145 7140

9019 9009 8992 8973 8951

19,490 19,460 19,420 19,380 19,340

22,600 22,580 22,560 22,540 22,520

7910 7900 7890 7880 7870

11,570 11,520 11,470 11,430 11,380

10,260 10,260 10,250 10,250 10,250

8960 8950 8940 8930 8910

21,570 21,550 21,530 21,500 21,470

10,620 10,600 10,575 10,550 10,520

7280 7260 7230 7200 7170

300 400 500 600 800

2701 2681 2661 2639 2591

3600 3580 3555 3530

7135 7120 7110 7080 7040

8930 8885 8837 8787 8686

19,300 19,210 19,130 19,040 18,860

22,500 22,450 22,410 22,360 22,250

7860 7830 7800 7760 7690

11,330 11,230 11,130 11,010 10,430

10,240 10,220 10,210 10,190 10,160

8900 8860 8820 8780 8690

21,450 21,380 21,330 21,270 21,140

10,490 10,430 10,360 10,300 10,160

7135 7070 7000 6935 6430

1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

2365 2305 2255

7000 6945 6890 6760 6700

8568 8458 7920 7750 7600

18,660 18,440 17,230 16,950

22,140 22,030 21,920 21,790 21,660

7650 7620 7520 7420 7320

10,190 9,940

10,120 10,080 10,040 10,000 9,950

8610 8510 8410 8320 7690

21,010 20,870 20,720 20,570 20,400

10,010 9,850 9,170 8,980

6260

21,510

7030

9,900

7450

20,220

2000

7460

NOTE:

Above the horizontal line the condensed phase is solid; below the line, it is liquid. *°R = 9⁄ 5 K. †Polycrystalline form tabulated. Similar tables for an additional 45 elements appear in the Handbook of Heat Transfer, 2d ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.

SOLUBILITIES UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32. To convert cubic centimeters to cubic feet, multiply by 3.532 × 10−5.

To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 0.01934. To convert grams per liter to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 6.243 × 10−2.

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its license agreement. Click here to view.

TABLE 2-120

Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures*

This table shows the amount of anhydrous substance that is soluble in 100 g of water at the temperature in degrees Celsius as indicated; when the name is followed by †, the value is expressed in grams of substance in 100 cm3 of saturated solution. Solid phase gives the hydrated form in equilibrium with the saturated solution. Solid phase

Substance

Formula

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Aluminum chloride sulfate Ammonium aluminum sulfate bicarbonate bromide chloride chloroplatinate chromate chromium sulfate dichromate dihydrogen phosphite hydrogen phosphate iodide magnesium phosphate manganese phosphate nitrate oxalate perchlorate† persulfate sulfate thiocyanate vanadate (meta) Antimonious fluoride sulfide Arsenic oxide Arsenious sulfide

AlCl3 Al2(SO4)3 (NH4)2Al2(SO4)4 NH4HCO3 NH4Br NH4Cl (NH4)2PtCl6 (NH4)2CrO4 (NH4)2Cr2(SO4)4 (NH4)2Cr2O7 NH4H2PO3 (NH4)2HPO4 NH4I NH4MgPO4 NH4MnPO4 NH4NO3 (NH4)2C2O4 NH4ClO4† (NH4)2S2O8 (NH4)2SO4 NH4CNS NH4VO3 SbF3 Sb2S3 As2O5 As2S3

27 28 29

Barium acetate acetate carbonate

Ba(C2H3O2)2 Ba(C2H3O2)2 BaCO3

3H2O 1H2O

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

chlorate chloride chromate hydroxide iodide iodide nitrate nitrite oxalate

Ba(ClO3)2 BaCl2 BaCrO4 Ba(OH)2 BaI2 BaI2 Ba(NO3)2 Ba(NO2)2 BaC2O4

1H2O 2H2O

3H2O

39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

perchlorate sulfate Beryllium sulfate sulfate sulfate Boric acid Boron oxide Bromine Cadmium chloride chloride chloride cyanide hydroxide

Ba(ClO4)2 BaSO4 BeSO4 BeSO4 BeSO4 H3BO3 B2O3 Br2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 Cd(CN)2 Cd(OH)2

52 53 54

sulfate Calcium acetate acetate

CdSO4 Ca(C2H3O2)2 Ca(C2H3O2)2

0°C

6H2O 18H2O 24H2O

31.2 2.1 11.9 60.6 29.4

10°C 33.5 4.99 15.8 68 33.3 0.7

10.7825°

24II2O 171 6H2O 7H2O 1H2O

154.2 0.023 118.3 2.2 11.56 58.2 70.6 119.8

163.2

3.1 73.0 144

384.7

8H2O 6H2O 2H2O

20°C 69.8615° 36.4 7.74 21 75.5 37.2

59.5 5.17×10−5 at 18° 59

62.1 63 0.00168°

20.34 31.6 0.0002 1.67 170.2 5.0

1H2O

26.95 33.3 0.00028 2.48 185.7 7.0 0.00168°

205.8 1.15 × 10−4

2.0 × 10−4

19014.5° 13115 172.3 0.052 0 192 4.4 20.85 75.4 170 0.48 444.7 0.00017518° 65.8

4H2O 2aH2O 1H2O

2H2O 1H2O

3.57 1.5 3.4 125.1

50°C

60°C

70°C

80°C

90°C

100°C

46.1 14.88

52.2 20.10

59.2 26.70

66.1

73.0

80.8

89.0 109.796°

91.1 45.8

99.2 50.4

107.8 55.2

116.8 60.2

126 65.6

135.6 71.3

145.6 77.3 1.25

190.5 0.036 0 297.0 8.0 30.58

199.6 0.030

208.9 0.040 0 421.0

218.7 0.016 0.005 499.0

228.8 0.019 0.007 580.0

40.4 47.17 26031° 181.4 241.8 5.9 78.0 207.7 0.84 563.6

81.0

69.5

71.2

1.32

344.0 10.3

39.05

740.0

48.19

88.0 1.78

250.3 871.0 57.01

95.3

103.3

75.1

76.7

3.05 73.0

0.002218° 33.80 35.7 0.00037 3.89 203.1 9.2 67.5 0.002218° 289.1 2.4 × 10−4

5.04 2.2 3.20

75 0.0024 at 24.2° 41.70 38.2 0.00046 5.59 219.6 11.6

79

77

74

74

49.61 40.7

43.6

66.81 46.4

49.4

8.22

13.12

20.94

231.9 14.2

17.1

358.7

426.3

75 84.84 52.4

104.9 58.8

101.4

247.3 20.3

261.0 27.0 205.8

271.7 34.2 300

0.0024 at 24.2° 2.85 × 10−4 52 43.78 6.60

495.2

562.3

60.67 46.74 8.72 4.0

62 11.54

14.81 6.2

16.73

84.76 23.75 9.5

83 98 30.38

100 110 40.25 15.7

3.13 132.1

135.1

76.48 37.4

40.4 10.94 27 83.2 41.4

40°C

71

6H2O 4H2O 2H2O 2.66 1.1 4.22 97.59 90.01

30°C

76.00 36.0

134.5 1.715° 76.60 34.7

135.3

136.5

140.4

147.0

2.6 × 10−4 at 25° 33.8

78.54 33.2

83.68 32.7

63.13

60.77

31.1

29.7

33.5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

*By N. A. Lange. Abridged from “Table of Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures” in Lange, Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961. For tables of the solubility of gases in water at various temperatures, Atack (Handbook of Chemical Data, Reinhold, New York, 1957) gives values at closer temperature intervals, usually 1 or 5°C, than are tabulated here. For materials marked by ‡, additional data are given in tables subsequent to this one. For the solubility of various hydrocarbons in water at high pressures see J. Chem. Eng. Data, 4, 212 (1959).

2-121

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TABLE 2-120

Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures (Continued )

Substance

Formula

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Calcium bicarbonate chloride chloride fluoride hydroxide nitrate nitrate nitrate nitrite nitrite oxalate

Ca(HCO3)2 CaCl2 CaCl2 CaF2 Ca(OH)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO2)2 Ca(NO2)2 CaC2O4

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

sulfate Carbon dioxide, 760 mm ‡ monoxide, 760 mm ‡ Cesium chloride nitrate sulfate Chlorine, 760 mm ‡ Chromic anhydride Cuprio chloride nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfide

CaSO4 CO2 CO CsCl CsNO3 Cs2SO4 Cl2 CrO3 CuCl2 Cu(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4 CuS

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

Cuprous chloride Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride chloride nitrate sulfate sulfate Hydrobromic acid, 760 mm Hydrochloric acid, 760 mm Iodine Lead acetate bromide carbonate chloride chromate fluoride nitrate sulfate Magnesium bromide chloride hydroxide nitrate sulfate sulfate sulfate Manganous sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate Mercurous chloride Molybdic oxide Nickel chloride nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfate Nitric oxide, 760 mm Nitrous oxide

CuCl FeCl3 FeCl2 FeCl2 Fe(NO3)2 FeSO4 FeSO4 HBr HCl I2 Pb(C2H3O2)2 PbBr2 PbCO3 PbCl2 PbCrO4 PbF2 Pb(NO3)2 PbSO4 MgBr2 MgCl2 Mg(OH)2 Mg(NO3)2 MgSO4 MgSO4 MgSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 HgCl MoO3 NiCl2 Ni(NO3)2 Ni(NO3)2 NiSO4 NiSO4 NO N2O

Solid phase

0°C

6H2O 2H2O 4H2O 3H2O

16.15 59.5 0.185 102.0

10°C 65.0 0.176 115.3

20°C 16.60 74.5 0.001618° 0.165 129.3

30°C

40°C

50°C

17.05

60°C

70°C

17.50

80°C

90°C

17.95

18.40

102 0.001726° 0.153 152.6

136.8 0.141 195.9 237.5

0.128

0.116

141.7 0.106

147.0 0.094

152.7 0.085

62.07

2H2O

0.1759 0.3346 0.0044 161.4 9.33 167.1 1.46 164.9 70.7 81.8

2H2O 6H2O 3H2O 5H2O

6.7 × 10−4 at 13° 0.1928 0.2318 0.0035 174.7 14.9 173.1 0.980 73.76 95.28 17.4

74.4

81.9 64.5

6.8 × 10−4 at 25° 0.1688 0.0028 186.5 23.0 178.7 0.716 77.0 125.1 20.7 3.3 × 10−5 at 18° 1.5225° 91.8

9.5 × 10−4 at 50° 0.2090 0.1257 0.0024 197.3 33.9 184.1 0.562

132.6

80.34

14 × 10−4 at 95° 0.2097 0.0973 0.0021 208.0 47.2 189.9 0.451 174.0 83.8

25

159.8 28.5

33.3

77.3

315.1 82.5

73.0

0.0761 0.0018 218.5 64.4 194.9 0.386 182.1 87.44

0.2047 0.0576 0.0015 229.7 83.8 199.9 0.324

151.9

363.6 244.8

0.1966 0.0013 239.5 107.0 205.0 0.274

0.0010 250.0 134.0 210.3 0.219

91.2

99.2

178.8 40

207.8 55

88.7

525.8 100

0.0006 260.1 163.0 214.9 0.125 217.5

71.02 15.65

20.51

83.8 26.5

535.7

210.3

0.029 0.4554 0.6728

6H2O 6H2O 6H2O 7H2O 6H2O 1H2O 7H2O 5H2O 4H2O 1H2O

38.8 0.0028 91.0 52.8

0.060 48.3 0.0035 94.5 53.5

40.2

48.6

0.85 0.00011 0.99 7 × 10−6 0.064 56.5 0.0041 96.5 54.5 0.000918°

40.8 53.23

30.9 42.2 60.01 59.5

53.9 79.58

59.5

27.22

32

1.53

1.94

2.36

3.34

4.75

1.20

1.45

1.70

1.98

2.62

3.34

0.068 66 0.0049 99.2

40.8 45.3

62.9 64.5

67.76 66.44 0.264 68.9

75 0.0056 101.6 57.5

130 56.1

85

95

104.1

107.5 61.0

0.00757 0.1705

115

68.8 0.0007 0.476 73.3 122.2

38.8

50.4

53.5

59.5

64.2 62.9

69.0

74.0 68.3

72.6 58.17

55.0

52.0

48.0

42.5

34.0

0.687 78.3

1.206 82.2

2.055 85.2

113.7 66.0

84.74 45.6

120.2 73.0 137.0

163.1 0.00984

37.3

63.3 0.056

35.5 44.5

0.0002 0.138 64.2 96.31

43.6

67.3 0.04 55.0425° 1.15

171.5 59.6 0.078

66.55

0.00014 2H2O 6H2O 6H2O 3H2O 7H2O 6H2O

32.9

198

3H2O

105.8

165.6 50.9

221.2 82.3

0.1619 0 0 270.5 197.0 220.3 0 206.8 107.9 75.4

105.3 6H2O 7H2O 1H2O

0.077

76.68

14.3

4H2O

159

281.5 358.7

4H2O 2H2O

100°C

2.106 87.6

169.1

235.1

42.46 0.00618 0.1211

0.00517

0.00440

50.15 0.00376

54.80 0.00324

2-122

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59.44 0.00267

63.17 0.00199

0.00114

76.7 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

Potassium acetate acetate alum bicarbonate bisulfate bitartrate carbonate chlorate chloride chromate dichromate ferricyanide hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrite perchlorate permanganate persulfate† sulfate thiocyanate Silver cyanide nitrate sulfate Sodium acetate acetate bicarbonate carbonate carbonate chlorate chloride chromate chromate chromate dichromate dichromate dihydrogen phosphate dihydrogen phosphate dihydrogen phosphate hydrogen arsenate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydroxide hydroxide hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrite oxalate phosphate, tripyrophosphate sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfide sulfide sulfide sulfite sulfite tetraborate tetraborate vanadate (meta)

KC2H3O2 KC2H3O2 K2SO4⋅Al2(SO4)3 KHCO3 KHSO4 KHC4H4O6 K2CO3 KClO3 KCl K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 K3Fe(CN)6 KOH KOH KNO3 KNO2 KClO4 KMnO4 K2S2O8† K2SO4 KCNS AgCN AgNO3 Ag2SO4 NaC2H3O2 NaC2H3O2 NaHCO3 Na2CO3 Na2CO3 NaClO8 NaCl Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4 Na2Cr2O7 Na2Cr2O7 NaH2PO4 NaH2PO4 NaH2PO4 Na2HAsO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 NaOH NaOH NaOH NaOH NaNO3 NaNO2 Na2C2O4 Na3PO4 Na4P2O7 Na2SO4 Na2SO4 Na2SO4 Na2S Na2S Na2S Na2SO3 Na2SO3 Na2B4O7 Na2B4O7 NaVO8

1aH2O aH2O 24H2O

2H2O

2H2O 1H2O



3H2O 10H2O 1H2O 10H2O 4H2O

216.7 3.0 22.4 36.3 0.32 105.5 3.3 27.6 58.2 5 31 97

233.9 4.0 27.7 0.40 108 5 31.0 60.0 7 36 103

255.6 5.9 33.2 51.4 0.53 110.5 7.4 34.0 61.7 12 43 112

13.3 278.8 0.75 2.83 1.62 7.35 177.0

20.9

122 0.573 36.3 119 6.9 7

170 0.695 40.8 121 8.15 12.5

31.6 298.4 1.80 6.4 4.49 11.11 217.5 2.2 × 10−5 222 0.796 46.5 123.5 9.6 21.5

79 35.7 31.70

89 35.8 50.17

101 36.0 88.7

2H2O

163.0

2H2O 1H2O

57.9

1.05 4.4 2.60 9.22

283.8 8.39 39.1 0.90 113.7 10.5 37.0 63.4 20 50 126 45.8 2.6 9.0 7.19 12.97

323.3 11.70 45.4 67.3 1.32 116.9 14 40.0 65.2 26 60 63.9 334.9 4.4 12.56 9.89 14.76

337.3 17.00

350 24.75 60.0

1.83 121.2 19.3 42.6 66.8 34

2.46 126.8 24.5 45.5 68.6 43 66

140 85.5

110.0

133.1 48.3 70.4 52

138

380.1 71.0 4.6 139.8 38.5 51.1 72.1 61

169

396.3 109.0

147.5 54.0 73.9 70

202

6.5 16.89

9 22.2

11.8

14.8

18

16.50

18.17

19.75

21.4

22.8

1.22

669 1.30

300 0.888 54.5 126 11.1 38.8 50.5 113 36.3

376 0.979 65.5 129.5 12.7

455 1.08 83 134 14.45

525 1.15 139 139.5 16.4

48.5 126 36.6

140 37.0

46.4 155 37.3

88.7

95.96

104

114.6

177.8

364.8 40.0

244.8

146

153

172 37.8

45.8 189 38.4

123.0 316.7

124.8 376.2

1.36 161

39.0

121.6 6.95 155.7 57 56.7 75.6 80 82.6104 178 246 412.8 21.8 24.1 952 1.41 170 45.5 230 39.8 125.9 426.3

12H2O 12H2O 7H2O 2H2O

69.9

85.2

106.5

138.2

15.5 3.6

26.5 7.7

37 20.8

47

158.6 7.3 1.67

179.3 65

190.3

207.3 85

225.3

82.9

88.1

92.4

102.9

246.6

51.8 80.2

102.2 4H2O 3aH2O 1H2O

42 51.5 109

119

129

145

174

104 98.4

114 104.1

124

313

12H2O 10H2O 10H2O 7H2O 9H2O 5aH2O 6H2O 7H2O

73 72.1

80 78.0

1.5 3.16 5.0 19.5

13.9

96 91.6

4.1 3.95 9.0 30

88 84.5 3.7 11 6.23 19.4 44

15.42

18.8

22.5

20

26.9

36

20 9.95 40.8

31 13.50

43 17.45

55 21.83

81 30.04

347 180 163.2 6.33 108 40.26

48.8 28.5

46.7

45.3

43.7

42.5

39.82 36.4

42.69 39.1

28.2 10.5

28.8 20.3

28 10H2O 5H2O 2H2O

1.3

1.6

2.7 15.325°

3.9

148 132.6

45.73 43.31

68.4

59.23 57.28

28.3 24.4

30.2

51.40 49.14

31.5

41

52.5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

2-123

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TABLE 2-120

Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures (Concluded )

Substance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Sodium vanadate (meta) Stannous chloride sulfate Strontium acetate acetate chloride chloride nitrate nitrate nitrate sulfate Sulfur dioxide, 760 mm † Thallium sulfate Thorium sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate Zinc chlorate chlorate nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfate sulfate

Formula NaVO3 SnCl2 SnSO4 Sr(C2H3O2)2 Sr(C2H3O2)2 SrCl2 SrCl2 Sr(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2 SrSO4 SO2 Tl2SO4 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 ZnClO3 ZnClO3 Zn(NO3)2 Zn(NO3)2 ZnSO4 ZnSO4 ZnSO4

Solid phase

0°C

10°C

9H2O 8H2O 6H2O 4H2O 6H2O 4H2O 6H2O 3H2O 7H2O 6H2O 1H2O

36.9 43.5

43.61 42.95 47.7

41.6 52.9

52.7 40.1

64.0 70.5

0.0113 22.83 2.70 0.74 1.0 1.50

0.0114 11.29 4.87 1.38 1.62 1.90

145.0

30°C

21.1025° 269.815° 19

83.9 4H2O aH2O 6H2O 2H2O 1H2O 4H2O

20°C

16.21 3.70 0.98 1.25

40°C

50°C

26.23

60°C

70°C

80°C

32.97

36.9

38.875°

36.24

36.10

85.9

90.5

90°C

100°C

18 39.5 58.7

88.6 0.0114 7.81 6.16 1.995

65.3

37.35 72.4

81.8

83.8

97.2

90.1

2.998

5.41

4.5 9.21 5.22

4.04

2.54

2.45

36.4 130.4

100.8 139

93.8

96

98

100

10.92

12.74

14.61

16.53

18.45

6.64 1.63

1.09

86.6

83.7

80.8

152.5 200.3 118.3

94.78

209.2

223.2

273.1

206.9 41.9

47

54.4 70.1

76.8

2-124

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

SOLUBILITIES The H in solubility tables (2-121 to 2-144) is the proportionality constant for the expression of Henry’s law, p = Hx, where x = mole fraction of the solute in the liquid phase; p = partial pressure of the solute in the gas phase, expressed in atmospheres; and H = a proportionality constant expressed in units of atmospheres of solute pressure in the gas phase per unit concentration of the solute in the liquid phase. (The unit of concentration of the solute in the liquid phase is moles solute per mole solution.)

TABLE 2-124

Ammonia (NH3)—Low Pressures

Weight NH3 per 100 weights H2O

0.105

0.244

0.32

0.38

0.576

0.751

1.02

Partial pressure NH3, mm. Hg, at 25°C

0.791

1.83

2.41

2.89

4.41

5.80

7.96

Weight NH3 per 100 weights H2O

1.31

1.53

1.71

1.98

2.11

2.58

2.75

10.31

11.91

13.46

15.75

16.94

20.86

22.38

Partial pressure NH3, mm. Hg, at 25°C TABLE 2-121

Acetylene (C2H2)

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

10−3 × H*

0.72

0.84

0.96

1.08

1.21

1.33

1.46

2-125

“Landolt-Börnstein Physikalische-chemische Tabellen,” Eg. I, p. 303, 1927. Phase-equilibrium data for the binary system NH3-H2O are given by Clifford and Hunter, J. Phys. Chem., 37, 101 (1933).

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 260, McGraw-Hill, 1928. *H. See footnote for Table 2-122. TABLE 2-125

TABLE 2-122

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Weight of CO2 per 100 weights of H2O* Total pressure, atm 12°C 18°C 25°C 31.04°C 35°C 40°C 50°C 75°C 100°C

Air

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10−4 × H*

4.32

4.88

5.49

6.07

6.64

7.20

7.71

8.23

t, °C

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

10−4 × H*

8.70

9.11

9.46

10.1

10.5

10.7

10.8

10.7

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 257. *H is calculated from the absorption coefficients of O2 and N2, taking into consideration the correction for constant argon content.

25 50 75 100 150 200 300 400 500 700

7.03 7.18 7.27 7.59

3.86 6.33 6.69 6.72 7.07

7.86 8.12

7.35 7.77

5.38 6.17 6.28

7.54

2.80 4.77 5.80 5.97 6.25 6.48

2.56 4.39 5.51 5.76 6.03 6.29

2.30 4.02 5.10 5.50 5.81 6.28

7.27 7.65

7.06 7.51

6.89 7.26

1.92 3.41 4.45 5.07 5.47 5.76 6.20 6.58

1.35 2.49 3.37 4.07 4.86 5.27 5.83 6.30

1.06 2.01 2.82 3.49 4.49 5.08 5.84 6.40

7.58

7.43

7.61

*In the original, concentration is expressed in cubic centimeters of CO2 (reduced to 0°C and 1 atm) dissolved in 1 g of water. TABLE 2-123 Weight NH3 per 100 weights H2O 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 25 20 15 10 7.5 5 4 3 2.5 2 1.6 1.2 1.0 0.5

Ammonia (NH3) Partial pressure of NH3, mm. Hg 0°C

947 785 636 500 380 275 190 119 89.5 64 42.7 25.1 17.7 11.2

10°C

20°C

987 1450 780 1170 600 945 439 686 301 470 190 298 144 227 103.5 166 70.1 114 41.8 69.6 29.9 50.0 19.1 31.7 16.1 24.9 11.3 18.2 15.0 12.0

*Extrapolated values.

25°C 30°C

23.5 19.4 15.3 12.0 9.1 7.4 3.4

719 454 352 260 179 110 79.7 51.0 40.1 29.6 24.4 19.3 15.3 11.5

40°C

3300 2760 2130 1520 1065 692 534 395 273 167 120 76.5 60.8 45 (37.6)* (30.0) (24.1) (18.3) (15.4)

50°C 60°C

825 596 405 247 179 115 91.1 67.1 (55.7) (44.5) (35.5) (26.7) (22.2)

834 583 361 261 165 129.2 94.3 77.0 61.0 48.7 36.3 30.2

TABLE 2-126

Carbon Monoxide (CO) 10−4 × H

Partial pressure of CO, mm Hg

17.7°C

19.0°C

900 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

4.77 4.77 4.77 4.78 4.80 4.82 4.86 4.88

4.88 4.91 4.93 4.95 4.97 4.98 5.02 5.08

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 260.

TABLE 2-127

Carbonyl Sulfide (COS)

t °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

10−3 × H

0.92

1.17

1.48

1.82

2.19

2.59

3.04

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 261.

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2-126

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-128 Partial pressure of Cl2, mm Hg

Chlorine (Cl2)

TABLE 2-129

Solubility, g of Cl2 per liter 10°C

20°C

30°C

40°C

50°C

5 10 30 50 100

0.488 .679 1.221 1.717 2.79

0.451 .603 1.024 1.354 2.08

0.438 .575 .937 1.210 1.773

0.424 .553 .873 1.106 1.573

0.412 .532 .821 1.025 1.424

0.398 .512 .781 .962 1.313

150 200 250 300 350

3.81 4.78 5.71

2.73 3.35 3.95 4.54 5.13

2.27 2.74 3.19 3.63 4.06

1.966 2.34 2.69 3.03 3.35

1.754 2.05 2.34 2.61 2.86

1.599 1.856 2.09 2.31 2.53

400 450 500 550 600

5.71 6.26 6.85 7.39 7.97

4.48 4.88 5.29 5.71 6.12

3.69 3.98 4.30 4.60 4.91

3.11 3.36 3.61 3.84 4.08

2.74 2.94 3.14 3.33 3.52

650 700 750 800 900

8.52 9.09 9.65 10.21

6.52 6.90 7.29 7.69 8.46

5.21 5.50 5.80 6.08 6.68

4.32 4.54 4.77 4.99 5.44

3.71 3.89 4.07 4.27 4.62

9.27 10.84 13.23 17.07 21.0

7.27 8.42 10.14 13.02 15.84

5.89 6.81 8.05 10.22 12.32

4.97 5.67 6.70 8.38 10.03

18.73 21.7 24.7 27.7 30.8

14.47 16.62 18.84 20.7 23.3

11.70 13.38 15.04 16.75 18.46

Cl2.8H2O2 separates

3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 Partial pressure of Cl2, mm Hg

70°C

80°C

90°C

1 3 5 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

100°C

110°C

5 10 30 50 100

0.383 .492 .743 .912 1.228

0.369 .470 .704 .863 1.149

0.351 .447 .671 .815 1.085

0.339 .431 .642 .781 1.034

0.326 .415 .627 .747 .987

0.316 .402 .598 .722 .950

150 200 250 300 350

1.482 1.706 1.914 2.10 2.28

1.382 1.580 1.764 1.932 2.10

1.294 1.479 1.642 1.793 1.940

1.227 1.396 1.553 1.700 1.831

1.174 1.333 1.480 1.610 1.736

1.137 1.276 1.413 1.542 1.661

400 450 500 550 600

2.47 2.64 2.80 2.97 3.13

2.25 2.41 2.55 2.69 2.83

2.08 2.22 2.35 2.47 2.59

1.965 2.09 2.21 2.32 2.43

1.854 1.972 2.08 2.19 2.29

1.773 1.880 1.986 2.09 2.19

650 700 750 800 900

3.29 3.44 3.59 3.75 4.04

2.97 3.10 3.23 3.37 3.63

2.72 2.84 2.96 3.08 3.30

2.55 2.66 2.76 2.87 3.08

2.41 2.50 2.60 2.69 2.89

2.28 2.37 2.47 2.56 2.74

1000 1200 1500 2000 2500

4.36 4.92 5.76 7.14 8.48

3.88 4.37 5.09 6.26 7.40

3.53 3.95 4.58 5.63 6.61

3.28 3.67 4.23 5.17 6.05

3.07 3.43 3.95 4.78 5.59

2.91 3.25 3.74 4.49 5.25

3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

9.83 11.22 12.54 13.88 15.26

8.52 9.65 10.76 11.91 13.01

7.54 8.53 9.52 10.46 11.42

6.92 7.79 8.65 9.49 10.35

6.38 7.16 7.94 8.72 9.48

5.97 6.72 7.42 8.13 8.84

0°C

5°C

10°C

15°C

20°C

30°C

40°C

2.00 6.00 10.0 14.0 20.0

1.50 4.7 7.8 10.9 15.5 17.0 18.6 20.3

1.25 3.85 6.30 8.95 12.8 14.0 15.3 16.6 18.0 19.2 20.3

1.00 3.20 5.25 7.35 10.5 11.7 12.8 13.8 14.9 16.0 17.0

0.90 2.70 4.30 6.15 8.80 9.70 10.55 11.5 12.3 13.2 14.2

0.60 1.95 3.20 4.40 6.30 7.00 7.50 8.20 8.80 9.50 10.1

0.46 1.30 2.25 3.20 4.50 5.00 5.45 5.85 6.35 6.80 7.20

Ishi, Chem. Eng. (Japan), 22, 153 (1958).

TABLE 2-130

Ethane (C2H6)

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10−4 × H

1.26

1.55

1.89

2.26

2.63

3.02

3.42

3.83

t, °C

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

10−4 × H

4.23

4.63

5.00

5.65

6.23

6.61

6.87

6.92

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 261.

TABLE 2-131

Solubility, g of Cl2 per liter 60°C

Weight of ClO2, grams per liter of solution

Vol % of ClO2 in gas phase

0°C

1000 1200 1500 2000 2500

Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)

Ethylene (C2H4)

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

10−3 × H

5.52

6.53

7.68

8.95

10.2

11.4

12.7

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 260.

TABLE 2-132

Helium (He)

t, °C

0

10

20

30

40

50

10−4 × H

12.9

12.6

12.5

12.4

12.1

11.5

See also Pray, Schweickert, and Minnich, Ind. Eng. Chem., 44, 1146 (1952).

TABLE 2-133

Hydrogen (H2)—Temperature

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10−4 × H

5.79

6.08

6.36

6.61

6.83

7.07

7.29

7.42

t, °C

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

10−4 × H

7.51

7.60

7.65

7.65

7.61

7.55

7.51

7.45

“International Critical Tables,” vol. 3, p. 256. See also Pray, Schweickert, and Minnich, Ind. Eng. Chem., 44, 1146 (1952).

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SOLUBILITIES TABLE 2-134

Hydrogen (H2)—Pressure

TABLE 2-137

10−4 × H

Partial pressure H2, mm Hg

19.5°C

900 1100 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8200 8250

23°C

7.42 7.75 7.76 7.77 7.81 7.89 8.00 8.16 8.41

7.42 7.43 7.47 7.56 7.70 7.87

2-127

Methane (CH4)

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10−4 × H

2.24

2.59

2.97

3.37

3.76

4.13

4.49

4.86

t, °C

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

10−4 × H

5.20

5.51

5.77

6.26

6.66

6.82

6.92

7.01

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 260.

TABLE 2-138

8.17

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 256.

Nitrogen (N2)—Temperature*

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10−4 × H

5.29

5.97

6.68

7.38

8.04

8.65

9.24

9.85

t, °C

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

10−4 × H

10.4

10.9

11.3

12.0

12.5

12.6

12.6

12.6

“International Critical Tables,” vol. 3, p. 256. See also Pray, Schweickert, and Minnich, Ind. Eng. Chem., 44, 1146 (1952). *Atmospheric nitrogen = 98.815 vol. % N2 + 1.185 vol. % A. TABLE 2-135

Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)

Weights of HCl per 100 weights of H2O

TABLE 2-139

Partial pressure of HCl, mm Hg 0°C

78.6 66.7 56.3 47.0 38.9 31.6 25.0 19.05 13.64 8.70 4.17 2.04

10°C

510 130 29.0 5.7 1.0 0.175 .0316 .0056 .00099 .000118 .000018

Weights of HCl per 100 weights of H2O

20°C

840 233 56.4 11.8 2.27 0.43 .084 .016 .00305 .000583 .000069 .0000117

30°C

399 105.5 23.5 4.90 1.00 0.205 .0428 .0088 .00178 .00024 .000044

Nitrogen (N2)—Pressure

627 188 44.5 9.90 2.17 0.48 .106 .0234 .00515 .00077 .000151

900 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8100 8200

80°C

535 141 35.7 8.9 2.21 0.55 .136 .0344 .0064 .00140

110°C

623 188 54.5 15.6 4.66 1.34 0.39 .095 .0245

760 253 83 28 9.3 3.10 0.93 .280

Oxygen (O2)—Temperature

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10−4 × H

2.55

2.91

3.27

3.64

4.01

4.38

4.75

5.07

t, °C

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

10−4 × H

5.35

5.63

5.88

6.29

6.63

6.87

6.99

7.01

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 257. Pray, Schweickert, and Minnich [Ind. Eng. Chem., 44, 1146 (1952)] give H = 4.46 × 10−4 at 25°C and other values up to 343°C.

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10−2 × H

2.68

3.15

3.67

4.23

4.83

5.45

6.09

6.76

t, °C

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

7.45

9.08 9.15 9.25 9.38 9.49 9.62 9.75 9.91

TABLE 2-141

Oxygen (O2)—Pressure

Partial pressure of O2, mm Hg

10 × H

24.9°C

8.24 8.32 8.41 8.49 8.59 8.74 8.86 9.04

See also Goodman and Krase [Ind. Eng. Chem., 23, 401 (1931)] for values up to 169°C and 300 atm.

TABLE 2-140

Enthalpy and phase-equilibrium data for the binary system HCl-H2O are given by Van Nuys, Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs., 39, 663 (1943).

−2

19.4°C

Partial pressure of HCl, mm Hg 50°C

78.6 66.7 56.3 47.0 38.9 31.6 25.0 19.05 13.64 8.70 4.17 2.04

TABLE 2-136

10−4 × H

Partial pressure of N2, mm Hg

8.14

8.84

10.3

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 259.

11.9

13.5

14.4

14.8

800 900 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8150 8200

10−4 × H 23°C

25.9°C 4.79

4.58 4.59 4.60 4.68 4.73 4.80 4.88 4.98

4.80 4.83 4.88 4.92 4.98 5.05 5.16

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 257. See also Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., 76, 69 (1954) for solubility of O2 for 100°F < T < 650°F, 300 < P < 2000 lb/in2.

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2-128

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-142 t, °C

0

10−3 × H 1.94

Ozone (O3)

TABLE 2-143

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

2.18

2.48

2.88

3.76

4.57

5.98

8.18

40

50

12.0 27.4

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 257.

TABLE 2-144

Propylene (C3H6)

t, °C

2

6

10

14

18

10−3 × H

3.04

3.84

4.46

5.06

5.69

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 260.

Partial Vapor Pressure of Sulfur Dioxide over Water, mm Hg Temperature, °C

g SO2 / 100 g H2O

0

10

0.01 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

0.02 0.38 1.15 2.10 3.17

0.04 0.66 1.91 3.44 5.13

0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 1.00

4.34 5.57 8.17 10.9 25.8

6.93 8.84 12.8 17.0 39.5

2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 15.00 20.00

20 0.07 1.07 3.03 5.37 7.93 10.6 13.5 19.4 25.6 58.4

30

40

50

60

90

120

0.12 1.68 4.62 8.07 11.8

0.19 2.53 6.80 11.7 17.0

0.29 3.69 9.71 16.5 23.8

0.43 5.24 13.5 22.7 32.6

1.21 12.9 31.7 52.2 73.7

2.82 27.0 63.9 104 145

15.7 19.8 28.3 37.1 83.7

58.6 93.2 129 165 202

88.5 139 192 245 299

129 202 277 353 430

183 285 389 496 602

275 351 542 735

407 517 796

585 741

818

22.5 28.2 40.1 52.3 117

31.4 39.2 55.3 72.0 159

42.8 53.3 74.7 96.8 212

95.8 118 164 211 454

253 393 535 679 824

342 530 720

453 700

955

186 229 316 404 856

Condensed from Rabe, A. E. and Harris, J. F., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 8 (3), 333–336, 1963. Copyright © American Chemical Society and reproduced by permission of the copyright owner.

THERMAL EXPANSION UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversion is applicable:

2, p. 93; metals, vol. 2, p. 459; petroleums, vol. 2, p. 145; porcelains, vol. 2, pp. 70, 78; refractory materials, vol. 2, p. 83; solid insulators, vol. 2, p. 310.

°F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32. THERMAL EXPANSION OF GASES ADDITIONAL REFERENCES The tables given under this subject are reprinted by permission from the Smithsonian Tables. For more detailed data on thermal expansion, see International Critical Tables: tabular index, vol. 3, p. 1; abrasives, vol. 2, p. 87; alloys, vol. 2, p. 463; building stones, vol. 2, p. 54; carbons, vol. 2, p. 303; elements, vol. 1, p. 102; enamels, vol. 2, p. 115; glass, vol.

No tables of the coefficients of thermal expansion of gases are given in this edition. The coefficient at constant pressure, 1/υ(∂υ/∂T)p, for an ideal gas is merely the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. For a real gas or liquid, both it and the coefficient at constant volume, 1/p (∂p/∂T)v, should be calculated either from the equation of state or from tabulated PVT data.

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THERMAL EXPANSION TABLE 2-145

2-129

Linear Expansion of the Solid Elements*

C is the true expansion coefficient at the given temperature; M is the mean coefficient between given temperatures; where one temperature is given, the true coefficient at that temperature is indicated; α and β are coefficients in formula lt = l0(1 + αt + βt2); l0 is length at 0°C (unless otherwise indicated, when, if x is the reference temperature, lt = lx[1 + α(t − tx) + β(t − tx)2]; lt is length at t°C). Element

Temp. °C

C × 104

Aluminum Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Bismuth Cadmium Cadmium Carbon, diamond graphite Chromium Cobalt Copper Copper Gold Gold Indium Iodine Iridium Iridium Iron, soft cast wrought steel Lead (99.9)

20 300 20 20 20 0 0 50 50

0.224 0.284 0.136i 0.05 0.014i 0.54i 0.20⊥ 0.012 0.06

20 20 200 20

0.123 0.162 0.170 0.140

40

0.417

20

0.065

40 20 20 20

0.1210 0.118 0.119 0.114

100 280 20

0.291 0.343 0.254

Magnesium Manganese

20

0.233

Molybdenum†

20

0.053

Nickel

20

0.126

Osmium Palladium

40 20

0.066 0.1173

Platinum

20 20

0.0887 0.0893

40 40 0 40 20 20

0.0850 0.0963 0.439 0.0763 0.1846 0.195

Potassium Rhodium Ruthenium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Steel, 36.4Ni Tantalum†

20

Tellurium Thallium Tin

20 40 20 20 27 20‡ 20‡ 20

Tungsten† Zinc

0.065 0.016i 0.302 0.214 0.305i 0.0444 0.643i 0.125⊥ 0.358

Temp. range, °C

M × 104

100 500 20

0.235 0.311 0.080⊥

20 −180, −140 −180, −140

0.103⊥ 0.59i 0.117⊥

20, 100

0.068

100 300 17, 100 −191, 17

0.166 0.175 0.143 0.132

−190,

0.837

17

Temp. range, °C

α × 104

β × 106

0,

500

0.22

0.009

20, 20,

100 100

0.526i 0.214⊥

20, 6, 0,

500 121 625

0.086 0.121 0.161

0.0064 0.0040

0,

520

0.142

0.0022

0.0636 0.0679

0.0032 0.0011

0, 80 1070, 1720 0, 100

20, 100 20, 200 −100, 20, 0, −190, 0, 25, 25, 0,

0, 6,

+ 20 100 100 0 100 100 500 100

0.11

0.291 0.300 0.240 0.260 0.228 0.159 0.052 0.049 0.055 0.130

50 21

0.83 0.0876

0, 100 −3, +18 0, 100

0.660 0.0249 0.197

−190, 20, 20, −78, 0,

−17 260 340 0 100 20

0.622 0.031 0.055 0.059 0.0655 0.272⊥

20 100 −100 100 100

0.154⊥ 0.045 0.656i 0.639i 0.141⊥

0, 0, 0, 100,

750 750 750 240

0.1158 0.1170 0.1118 0.269

0.0053 0.0053 0.0053 0.011

+ 20,

500

0.2480

0.0096

20, 300 −142, 19 19, +305

0.216 0.0515 0.0501

0.0121 0.0057 0.0014

−190, + 20 + 20, +300 500, 1000

0.1308 0.1236 0.1346

0.0166 0.0066 0.0033

−190, 0, −190, 0, 0,

+100 1000 −100 + 80 1000

0.1152 0.1167 0.0875 0.0890 0.0887

0.00517 0.0022 0.00314 0.00121 0.00132

−75, −112

0.0746

−75, −67 0, 875 20, 500 0, 50 260, 500 340, 500 20, 400

0.0182 0.1827 0.1939 0.72 0.144 0.136 0.0646

0.0009

95

0.2033

0.0263

−105, +502 + 0, 400

0.0428 0.354

0.00058 0.010

8, 0, −140, +20, +20,

0.00479 0.00295

*Smithsonian Tables. For more complete tabulations see Table 142, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th ed., 1954; Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., pp. 2239–2245. Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.; Goldsmith, and Waterman, WADC-TR-58-476, 1959; Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960, etc. †Molybdenum, 300° to 2500°C; lt = l300[1 + 5.00 × 10−6(t − 300) + 10.5 × 10−10(t − 300)2] Tantalum, 300° to 2800°C; lt = l300[1 + 6.60 × 10−6(t − 300) + 5.2 × 10−10(t − 300)2] Tungsten, 300° to 2700°C; lt = l300[1 + 4.44 × 10−6(t − 300) + 4.5 × 10−10(t − 300)2] Beryllium, 20° to 100°C; 12.3 × 10−6 per °C. Columbium, 0° to 100°C; 7.2 × 10−6 per °C. Tantalum, 20° to 100°C; 6.6 × 10−6 per °C. ‡Two errors in the data of zinc have been corrected. These values were taken from Grüneisen and Goens, Z. Physik., 29, 141 (1924).

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2-130

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-146

Linear Expansion of Miscellaneous Substances*

The coefficient of cubical expansion may be taken as three times the linear coefficient. In the following table, t is the temperature or range of temperature, and C, the coefficient of expansion. Substance

C × 104

t°C

Amber

0−30 0−09 20−60

Bakelite, bleached Brass: Cast 0−100 Wire 0−100 Wire 0−100 71.5 Cu + 27.7 Zn + 0.3 Sn + 0.5 Pb 40 71 Cu + 29 Zn 0−100 Bronze: 3 Cu + 1 Sn 16.6−100 3 Cu + 1 Sn 16.6−350 3 Cu + 1 Sn 16.6−957 86.3 Cu + 9.7 Sn + 4 Zn 40 97.6 Cu + hard 0−80 2.2 Sn + soft 0−80 0.2 P Caoutchouc Caoutchouc 16.7−25.3 Celluloid 20−70 Constantan 4−29 Duralumin, 94Al 20−100 20−300 Ebonite 25.3−35.4 Fluorspar, CaF2 0−100 German silver 0−100 Gold-platinum, 2 Au + 1 Pt 0−100 Gold-copper, 2 Au + 1 Cu 0−100 Glass: Tube 0−100 Tube 0−100 Plate 0−100 Crown (mean) 0−100 Crown (mean) 50−60 Flint 50−60 III Jena ther- 16 0−100 mometer normal

{

}

0.50 0.61 0.22 0.1875 0.1930 0.1783 to 0.193 0.1859 0.1906 0.1844 0.2116 0.1737 0.1782 0.1713 0.1708 0.657 to 0.686 0.770 1.00 0.1523 0.23 0.25 0.842 0.1950 0.1836 0.1523 0.1552 0.0833 0.0828 0.0891 0.0897 0.0954 0.0788 0.081

Substance

t°C

C × 104

Jena thermometer 59III Jena thermometer 59III Gutta percha Ice Iceland spar: Parallel to axis Perpendicular to axis Lead tin (solder) 2 Pb + 1 Sn Limestone Magnalium Manganin Marble Monel metal

0−100 −191 to +16 20 −20 to −1

0.058 0.424 1.983 0.51

0−80 0−80

0.2631 0.0544

0−100 25−100 12−39 15−100 25−100 25−600 0−16 16−38 38−49

0.2508 0.09 0.238 0.181 0.117 0.14 0.16 1.0662 1.3030 4.7707

40

0.0884

0−100 20−790 1000−1400

0.1523 0.0413 0.0553

0−80 −190 to + 16 0−80 −190 to + 16 16 to 500 16 to 1000 40 0 −160 0−100 25−100 25−600

0.0797 0.0521 0.1337 −0.0026 0.0057 0.0058 0.4040 0.691 0.300 0.1933 0.037 0.136

Paraffin Paraffin Paraffin Platinum-iridium, 10 Pt + 1 Ir Platinum-silver, 1 Pt + 2 Ag Porcelain Porcelain Bayeux Quartz: Parallel to axis Parallel to axis Perpend. to axis Quartz glass Quartz glass Quartz glass Rock salt Rubber, hard Rubber, hard Speculum metal Steel, 0.14 C, 34.5 Ni

Substance

t°C

Topas: Parallel to lesser horizontal axis 0−100 Parallel to greater horizontal axis 0−100 Parallel to vertical axis 0−100 Tourmaline: Parallel to longitudinal axis 0−100 Parallel to horizontal axis 0−100 Type metal 16.6−254 Vulcanite 0−18 Wedgwood ware 0−100 Wood: Parallel to fiber: Ash 0−100 Beech 2.34 Chestnut 2.34 Elm 2.34 Mahogany 2.34 Maple 2.34 Oak 2.34 Pine 2.34 Walnut 2.34 Across the fiber: Beech 2.34 Chestnut 2.34 Elm 2.34 Mahogany 2.34 Maple 2.34 Oak 2.34 Pine 2.34 Walnut 2.34 Wax white 10−26 Wax white 26−31 Wax white 31−43 Wax white 43−57

C × 104

0.0832 0.0836 0.0472 0.0937 0.0773 0.1952 0.6360 0.0890 0.0951 0.0257 0.0649 0.0565 0.0361 0.0638 0.0492 0.0541 0.0658 0.614 0.325 0.443 0.404 0.484 0.544 0.341 0.484 2.300 3.120 4.860 15.227

*Smithsonian Tables. For a more complete tabulation see Tables 143, 144. Smithsonian Physical Tables. 9th ed., 1954, also reprinted in American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957; Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., pp. 2239–2245, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co. For data on many solids prior to 1926, see Gruneisen, Handbuch der Physik, vol. 10, pp. 1–52, 1926, translation available as N.A.S.A. RE 2-18-59W, 1959. For eight plastic solids below 300 K, see Scott, Cryogenic Engineering, p. 331, Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1959. For 11 other materials to 300 K, see Scott, loc. cit., p. 333. For quartz and silica, see Cook, Brit. J. Appl. Phys., 7, 285 (1956).

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THERMAL EXPANSION TABLE 2-147

Cubical Expansion of Liquids*

TABLE 2-148

If V0 is the volume at 0°, then at t° the expansion formula is Vt = V0(1 + αt + βt2 + γ t3). The table gives values of α, β, and γ, and of C, the true coefficient of cubical expansion at 20° for some liquids and solutions. The temperature range of the observation is ∆t. Values for the coefficient of cubical expansion of liquids can be derived from the tables of specific volumes of the saturated liquid given as a function of temperature later in this section. Liquid

Range

α × 103

β × 106

Acetic acid Acetone Alcohol: Amyl Ethyl, 30% by volume Ethyl, 50% by volume Ethyl, 99.3% by volume Ethyl, 500 atm. pressure Ethyl, 3000 atm. pressure Methyl Benzene Bromine Calcium chloride: 5.8% solution 40.9% solution Carbon disulfide 500 atm. pressure 3000 atm. pressure Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Ether Glycerin Hydrochloric acid, 33.2% solution Mercury Olive oil Pentane Potassium chloride, 24.3% solution Phenol Petroleum, 0.8467 density Sodium chloride, 20.6% solution Sodium sulfate, 24% solution Sulfuric acid: 10.9% solution 100.0% Turpentine Water

16−107 0−54

1.0630 1.3240

0.12636 3.8090

− 15−80 18−39 0−39

0.9001 0.2928 0.7450

0.6573 10.790 1.85

27−46

1.012

2.20

γ × 108

C × 108 at 20°

1.0876 1.071 − 0.87983 1.487 1.18458 0.902 −11.87 0.730 1.12

0−40

0.866

0−40 0−61 11−81 0−59

0.524 1.1342 1.17626 1.06218

18−25 17−24 −34−60 0−50 0−50 0−76 0−63 −15−38

0.07878 0.42383 1.13980 0.940 0.581 1.18384 1.10715 1.51324 0.4853

0−33 0−100 0−33

0.4460 0.18182 0.6821 1.4646

0.215 0.0078 1.1405 3.09319

− 0.539 1.6084

16−25 36−157

0.2695 0.8340

2.080 0.10732

0.4446

24−120

0.8994

1.396

0.955

0−29

0.3640

1.237

0.414

11−40

0.3599

1.258

0.410

1.3635 1.27776 1.87714

0.8741 1.199 0.80648 1.237 −0.30854 1.132

4.2742 0.8571 1.37065

0.250 0.458 1.91225 1.218

0.89881 4.66473 2.35918 0.4895

1.35135 1.236 − 1.74328 1.273 4.00512 1.656 0.505

0−30 0.2835 2.580 0−30 0.5758 −0.432 − 9−106 0.9003 1.9595 0−33 −0.06427 8.5053

0.455 0.18186 0.721 1.608 0.353 1.090

0.387 0.558 − 0.44998 0.973 − 6.7900 0.207

*Smithsonian Tables, Table 269. For a detailed discussion of mercury data, see Cook, Brit. J. Appl. Phys., 7, 285 (1956). For data on nitrogen and argon, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. Bromoform1 7.7 − 50°C. Vt = 0.34204[1 + 0.00090411(t − 7.7) + 0.0000006766(t − 7.7)2] 0.34204 in the specific volume of bromoform at 7.7°C. Glycerin2 −62 to 0°C. Vt = V0(1 + 4.83 × 10−4t − 0.49 × 10−6t2) 0 − 80°C. Vt = V0(1 + 4.83 × 10−4t + 0.49 × 10−6t2) 3 Mercury 0 − 300°C. Vt − V0[1 + 10−8(18153.8t + 0.7548t2 + 0.001533t2 + 0.00000536t4)] 1 Sherman and Sherman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 50, 1119 (1928). (An obvious error in their equation has been corrected.) 2 Samsoen, Ann. phys., (10) 9, 91 (1928). 3 Harlow, Phil. Mag., (7) 7, 674 (1929).

2-131

Cubical Expansion of Solids*

If v2 and v1 are the volumes at t2 and t1, respectively, then v2 = v1(1 + C∆t), C being the coefficient of cubical expansion and ∆t the temperature interval. Where only a single temperature is stated, C represents the true coefficient of cubical expansion at that temperature. Substance

t or ∆t

C × 104

Antimony Beryl Bismuth Copper† Diamond Emerald Galena Glass, common tube hard Jena, borosilicate 59 III pure silica Gold Ice Iron Lead† Paraffin Platinum Porcelain, Berlin chloride nitrate sulfate Quartz Rock salt Rubber Silver Sodium Stearic acid Sulfur, native Tin Zinc†

0−100 0−100 0−100 0−100 40 40 0−100 0−100 0−100 20−100 0−80 0−100 −20 to −1 0−100 0−100 20 0−100 20 0−100 0−100 20 0−100 50−60 20 0−100 20 33.8−45.4 13.2−50.3 0−100 0−100

0.3167 0.0105 0.3948 0.4998 0.0354 0.0168 0.558 0.276 0.214 0.156 0.0129 0.4411 1.1250 0.3550 0.8399 5.88 0.265 0.0814 1.094 1.967 1.0754 0.3840 1.2120 4.87 0.5831 2.13 8.1 2.23 0.6889 0.8928

*Smithsonian Tables, Table 268. †See additional data below. Aluminum1 100 − 530°C. V = V0(1 + 2.16 × 10−5t + 0.95 × 10−8t2) 1 Cadmium 130 − 270°C. V = V0(1 + 8.04 × 10−5t + 5.9 × 10−8t2) 1 Copper 110 − 300°C. V = V0(1 + 1.62 × 10−5t + 0.20 × 10−8t2) Colophony2 0 − 34°C. V = V0(1 + 2.21 × 10−4t + 0.31 × 10−6t2) 34 − 150°C. V = V34[1 + 7.40 × 10−4(t − 34) + 5.91 × 10−6(t − 34)2] 1 Lead 100 − 280°C. V = V0(1 + 1.60 × 10−5t + 3.2 × 10−8t2) 2 Shellac 0 − 46°C. V = V0(1 + 2.73 × 10−4t + 0.39 × 10−6t2) 46 − 100°C. V = V46[1 + 13.10 × 10−4(t − 46) + 0.62 × 10−6(t − 46)2] Silica (vitreous)3 0 − 300°C. Vt = V0[1 + 10−8(93.6t + 0.7776t2 − 0.003315t2 + 0.000005244t4) Sugar (cane, amorphous)2 0 − 67°C. Vt = V0(1 + 2.34 × 10−4t + 0.14 × 10−6t2) 67 − 160°C. Vt = V67[1 + 5.02 × 10−4(t − 67) + 0.43 × 10−6(t − 67)2] Zinc1 120 − 360°C. Vt = V0(1 + 8.50 × 10−5t + 3.9 × 10−8t2) 1 2 3

Uffelmann, Phil. Mag., (7) 10, 633 (1930). Samsoen, Ann. phys., (10) 9, 83 (1928). Harlow, Phil. Mag., (7) 7, 674 (1929).

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2-132

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: To convert the Joule-Thomson coefficient, µ, in degrees Celsius per atmosphere to degrees Fahrenheit per atmosphere, multiply by 1.8.

TABLE 2-149

°F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32; °R = 9⁄ 5 K To convert bars to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 14.504; to convert bars to kilopascals, multiply by 1 × 102.

Additional References Available for the Joule-Thomson Coefficient Temp. range, °C

Pressure range, atm Gas Air Ammonia Argon Benzene Butane Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Deuterium Dowtherm A Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen

>200

300

Unclassified 3, 4, 18 2, 3

31

46 48

13

19

29, 42, 47

29, 47

*See also 14 (generalized chart); 18 (review, to 1919); 20–22; 23 (review, to 1948); 27 (review, to 1905); 32, 36, 41, 50. REFERENCES: 1. Baehr. Z. Elektrochem., 60, 515 (1956). 2. Beattie, J. Math. Phys., 9, 11 (1930). 3. Beattie, Phys. Rev., 35, 643 (1930). 4. Bradley and Hale, Phys. Rev., 29, 258 (1909). 5. Brown and Dean, Bur. Stand. J. Res., 60, 161 (1958). 6. Budenholzer, Sage, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 29, 658 (1937). 7. Burnett, Phys. Rev., 22, 590 (1923). 8. Burnett, Univ. Wisconsin Bull. 9(6), 1926. 9. Charnley, Ph.D. thesis. University of Manchester, 1952. 10. Charnley, Isles, et al., Proc. R. Soc. (London), A217, 133 (1953). 11. Charnley, Rowlinson, et al., Proc. R. Soc. (London), A230, 354 (1955). 12. Dalton, Commun. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden, no. 109c, 1909. 13. Deming and Deming, Phys. Rev., 48, 448 (1935). 14. Edmister, Pet. Refiner, 28, 128 (1949). 15. Eucken, Clusius, et al., Z. Tech. Phys., 13, 267 (1932). 16. Eumorfopoulos and Rai, Phil. Mag., 7, 961 (1926). 17. Huang, Lin, et al., Z. Phys., 100, 594 (1936). 18. Hoxton, Phys. Rev., 13, 438 (1919). 19. Ishkin and Kaganev, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R., 26, 2323 (1956). 20. Isles, Ph.D. thesis, Leeds University. 21. Jenkin and Pye, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. (London), A213, 67 (1914); A215, 353 (1915). 22. Johnston, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 68, 2362 (1946). 23. Johnston, Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 70, 651 (1948). 24. Johnston, Bezman, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 68, 2367 (1946). 25. Johnston, Swanson, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 68, 2373 (1946). 26. Kennedy, Sage, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 28, 718 (1936). 27. Kester, Phys. Rev., 21, 260 (1905). 28. Keyes and Collins, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 18, 328 (1932). 29. Kleinschmidt, Mech. Eng., 45, 165 (1923); 48, 155 (1926). 30. Koeppe, Kältetechnik, 8, 275 (1956). 31. Lindsay and Brown, Ind. Eng. Chem., 27, 817 (1935). 32. Noell, dissertation, Munich, 1914, Forschungsdienst, 184, p. 1, 1916. 33. Palienko, Tr. Inst. Ispol’ z. Gaza, Akad. Nauk Ukr. SSR, no. 4, p. 87, 1956. 34. Pattee and Brown, Ind. Eng. Chem., 26, 511, (1934). 35. Roebuck, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 60, 537 (1925); 64, 287 (1930). 36. Roebuck, see 49 below, 37. Roebuck and Murrell, Phys. Rev., 55, 240 (1939). 38. Roebuck and Osterberg, Phys. Rev., 37, 110 (1931); 43, 60 (1933). 39. Roebuck and Osterberg, Phys. Rev., 46, 785 (1934). 40. Roebuck and Osterberg, Phys. Rev., 48, 450 (1935). 41. Roebuck, Murrell, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 64, 400 (1942). 42. Sage, unpublished data, California Institute of Technology, 1959. 43. Sage and Lacy, Ind. Eng. Chem., 27, 1484 (1934). 44. Sage, Kennedy, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 28, 601 (1936). 45. Sage, Webster, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 29, 658 (1937). 46. Ullock, Gaffert, et al., Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng., 32, 73 (1936). 47. Yang, Ind. Eng. Chem., 45, 786 (1953). 48. Zelmanov, J. Phys. U.S.S.R., 3, 43 (1940). 49. Roebuck, recalculated data. 50. Michels et al., van der Waals laboratory publications. Gunn, Cheuh, and Prausnitz, Cryogenics, 6, 324 (1966), review equations relating the inversion temperatures and pressures. The ability of various equations of state to relate these was also discussed by Miller, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 9, 585 (1970); and Juris and Wenzel, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 18, 684 (1972). Perhaps the most detailed review is that of Hendricks, Peller, and Baron. NASA Tech. Note D 6807, 1972.

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JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT

2-133

TABLE 2-150 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus in Reduced Coordinates (Tr = T/Tc; Pr = P/Pc)* Pr

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

4

TrL TrU

0.782 4.984

0.800 4.916

0.818 4.847

0.838 4.777

0.859 4.706

0.880 4.633

0.903 4.550

0.953 4.401

Pr

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

11.79

TrL TrU

1.01 4.23

1.08 4.06

1.16 3.88

1.25 3.68

1.35 3.45

1.50 3.18

1.73 2.86

2.24 2.24

*Calculated from the best three-constant equation recommended by Miller, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 9, 585 (1970). TrL refers to the lower curve, and TrU, to the upper curve.

TABLE 2-151

Joule-Thomson Data for Air* t, °C

P, atm 1 20 60 100 140 180 200

−150

−100

−75

−50

−25

0

25

50

75

100

150

200

250

0.0450 .0185 − .0070 − .0255 − .0330

0.5895 .5700 .4820 .2775 .1360 .0655 .0440

0.4795 .4555 .3835 .2880 .1855 .1136 .0855

0.3910 .3690 .3195 .2505 .1825 .1270 .1065

0.3225 .3010 .2610 .2130 .1650 .1240 .1090

0.2745 .2580 .2200 .1820 .1450 .1100 .0950

0.2320 .2173 .1852 .1550 .1249 .0959

0.1956 .1830 .1571 .1310 .1070 .0829

0.1614 .1508 .1293 .1087 .0889 .0707

0.1355 .1258 .1062 .0884 .0726 .0580

0.0961 .0883 .0732 .0600 .0482 .0376

0.0645 .0580 .0453 .0343 .0250 .0174

0.0409 .0356 .0254 .0165 .0092 .0027

*Free of water and CO2. Extracted from Table 261, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th rev. ed., Washington, DC, 1954. These data are corrected from earlier publications. µ in °C/atm.

TABLE 2-152 P, bar TL, K TU, K

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Air

0 (112)* 653

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

114 641

117 629

120 617

124 606

128 594

132 582

137 568

143 555

149 541

P, bar

250

275

300

325

350

375

400

425

432

TL, K TU, K

156 526

164 509

173 491

184 470

197 445

212 417

230 386

265 345

300 300

*Hypothetical low-pressure limit.

TABLE 2-153

Joule-Thomson Data for Argon* Pressure, atm

t, °C

1

−150 −125 −100 −75 −50

20

60

100

140

180

200

1.812 1.112 0.8605 .7100 .5960

1.102 0.8485 .6895 .5720

−0.0025 .1250 .6900 .5910 .4963

−0.0277 .0415 .2820 .4225 .3970

−0.0403 .0090 .1137 .2480 .2840

−0.0595 −.0100 .0560 .1537 .2037

−0.0640 − .0165 .0395 .1215 .1860

−25 0 25 50 75

.5045 .4307 .3720 .3220 .2695

.4805 .4080 .3490 .3015 .2557

.4210 .3600 .3077 .2650 .2285

.3460 .3010 .2628 .2297 .1993

.2763 .2505 .2213 .1947 .1710

.2140 .2050 .1890 .1700 .1505

.1950 .1883 .1745 .1580 .1415

100 125 150 200 250

.2413 .2105 .1845 .1377 .0980

.2277 .1980 .1720 .1280 .0910

.1975 .1707 .1485 .1102 .0785

.1715 .1480 .1285 .0950 .0665

.1490 .1300 .1123 .0823 .0555

.1320 .1153 .0998 .0715 .0485

.1255 .1100 .0945 .0675 .0468

300

.0643

.0607

.0530

.0445

.0370

.0370

.0276

*Extracted from Table 263, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th rev. ed., Washington, DC, 1954. These data are corrected from an earlier publication. µ in °C/atm.

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2-134

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-154

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Argon

P, bar

0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

TL, K TU, K

94 765

97 755

101 744

105 736

109 726

113 716

118 705

123 694

128 683

134 671

P, bar

250

275

300

325

350

375

400

425

450

475

TL, K TU, K

141 657

148 643

158 627

170 610

183 591

201 569

222 544

248 515

288 478

375 375

TABLE 2-155

Joule-Thomson Data for Carbon Dioxide* Pressure, atm

t, °C

1

20

60

73

100

140

180

200

−75 −50 0 50 100

2.4130 1.2900 0.8950 .6490

−0.0200 − .0140 1.4020 .8950 .6375

−0.0200 − .0150 .0370 .8800 .6080

−0.0232 − .0165 .0310 .8225 .5920

−0.0228 − .0160 .0215 .5570 .5405

−0.0240 − .0183 .0115 .1720 .4320

−0.0250 − .0228 .0085 .1025 .3000

−0.0290 − .0248 .0045 .0930 .2555

125 150 200 250 300

.5600 .4890 .3770 .3075 .2650

.5450 .4695 .3575 .2885 .2425

.5160 .4430 .3400 .2625 .2080

.5068 .4380 .3325 .2565 .2002

.4750 .4155 .3150 .2420 .1872

.4130 .3760 .2890 .2235 .1700

.3230 .3102 .2600 .2045 .1540

.2915 .2910 .2455 .1975 .1505

*Extracted from Table 266, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th rev. ed., Washington, DC, 1954. These data are corrected from an earlier publication. µ in °C/atm.

TABLE 2-156

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Carbon Dioxide*

P, bar

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

TL, K TU, K

243 1290

251 1261

258 1233

266 1205

272 1175

283 1146

293 1111

302 1076

312 1045

P, bar

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

884

TL, K TU, K

325 1015

338 983

351 950

365 914

383 878

403 840

441 796

496 739

608 608

*Interpolated from Vukalovich and Altunin’s interpolation of data of Price, Ind. Eng. Chem., 47, 1691 (1955). TL = lower inversion temperature, and TU = upper inversion temperature.

TABLE 2-157 P, bar TL, K TU, K

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Deuterium

0 (31)* 216

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

194

34 202

38 189

43 178

49 168

56 157

65 146

77 131

108 108

*Hypothetical low-pressure limit.

TABLE 2-158 P, bar

0

TL, K

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Ethane 25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

249

255

262

269

275

282

290

297

306

P, bar

250

275

300

325

350

375

400

425

450

475

TL, K

315

325

335

345

357

370

383

398

415

432

P, bar

500

525

550

575

600

TL, K

453

477

505

545

626

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JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT TABLE 2-159

2-135

Joule-Thomson Data for Helium*

T, K

160

180

200

220

240

260

280

300

µ

−0.0574

−0.0587

−0.0594

−0.0601

−0.0608

−0.0614

−0.0619

−0.0625

T, K

320

340

360

380

400

420

440

460

µ

−0.0629

−0.0634

−0.0637

−0.0640

−0.0643

−0.0645

−0.0645

−0.0643

T, K

480

500

520

540

560

580

600

µ

−0.0640

−0.0636

−0.0630

−0.0622

−0.0611

−0.0587

−0.0540

*Interpolated and converted from data in Table 262, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th rev. ed., Washington, DC, 1954. These data are corrected from those in an earlier publication. µ is in °C/atm. Below about 200 atm, little change in the coefficient with pressure occurs.

TABLE 2-160

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Normal Hydrogen

P, bar

0

25

50

75

100

125

150

164

TL, K TU, K

(28)* 202

32 193

38 183

44 171

52 157

61 141

73 119

92 92

*Hypothetical low-pressure limit.

TABLE 2-161 P, bar

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Methane

25

TL, K

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

300

161

166

172

176

182

189

195

202

209

217

225

P, bar

325

350

375

400

425

450

475

500

525

534

TL, K TU, K

234

243

254

265

277

292

309 505

331 474

365 437

400 400

TABLE 2-162

Joule-Thomson Data for Nitrogen* Pressure, atm

t, °C

1

20

33.5

60

100

140

180

200

−150 −125 −100 −75 −50

1.2659 0.8557 .6490 .5033 .3968

1.1246 0.7948 .5958 .4671 .3734

0.1704 .7025 .5494 .4318 .3467

0.0601 .4940 .4506 .3712 .3059

0.0202 .1314 .2754 .2682 .2332

−0.0056 .0498 .1373 .1735 .1676

−0.0211 .0167 .0765 .1026 .1120

−0.0284 .0032 .0587 .0800 .0906

−25 0 25 50 75

.3224 .2656 .2217 .1855 .1555

.3013 .2494 .2060 .1709 .1421

.2854 .2377 .1961 .1621 .1336

.2528 .2088 .1729 .1449 .1191

.2001 .1679 .1400 .1164 .0941

.1506 .1316 .1105 .0915 .0740

.1101 .1015 .0874 .0732 .0583

.0932 .0891 .0779 .0666 .0543

100 125 150 200 250

.1292 .1070 .0868 .0558 .0331

.1173 .0973 .0776 .0472 .0256

.1100 .0904 .0734 .0430 .0230

.0975 .0786 .0628 .0372 .0160

.0768 .0621 .0482 .0262 .0071

.0582 .0459 .0348 .0168 .0009

.0462 .0347 .0248 .0094 −.0037

.0419 .0326 .0228 .0070 −.0058

300

.0140

.0096

.0050

−.0013

−.0075

−.0129

−.0160

−.0171

*Extracted from Table 264, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th rev. ed., Washington, DC, 1954. These data are corrected from an earlier publication. µ in °C/atm.

TABLE 2-163

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Propane

P, bar

0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

TL, K

(296)*

303

311

318

327

336

345

355

365

374

389

403

P, bar

300

325

350

375

400

425

450

475

500

525

541

TL, K

418

435

452

473

495

521

551

586

628

686

780

*Hypothetical low-pressure limit.

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2-136

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

CRITICAL CONSTANTS ADDITIONAL REFERENCES Other data and estimation techniques for the elements are contained in Gates and Thodos, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 6 (1960):50–54; and Ohse and von Tippelskirch, High Temperatures—High Pressures, 9 TABLE 2-164 Cmpd. no.

(1977):367–385. For inorganic substances see Mathews, Chem. Rev., 72 (1972):71–100; for organics see Kudchaker, Alani, and Zwolinski, Chem. Rev., 68 (1968):659–735; and for fluorocarbons see Advances in Fluorine Chemistry, App. B, Butterworth. Washington, 1963, pp. 173–175.

Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

Tc, K

Pc × 1E-06 Pa

Vc, m3/Kmol

Zc

Acentric factor

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22

74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 110543 142825 111659 111842 124185

16.043 30.070 44.097 58.123 72.150 86.177 100.204 114.231 128.258 142.285

190.564 305.32 369.83 425.12 469.7 507.6 540.2 568.7 594.6 617.7

4.59 4.85 4.21 3.77 3.36 3.04 2.72 2.47 2.31 2.09

0.099 0.146 0.200 0.255 0.315 0.373 0.428 0.486 0.540 0.601

0.286 0.279 0.273 0.272 0.271 0.269 0.259 0.254 0.252 0.245

0.011 0.098 0.149 0.197 0.251 0.304 0.346 0.396 0.446 0.488

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane

C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42

1120214 112403 629505 629594 629629 544763 629787 593453 629925 112958

156.312 170.338 184.365 198.392 212.419 226.446 240.473 254.500 268.527 282.553

639 658 675 693 708 723 736 747 758 768

1.95 1.82 1.68 1.57 1.47 1.41 1.34 1.26 1.21 1.17

0.658 0.718 0.779 0.830 0.888 0.943 0.998 1.059 1.119 1.169

0.242 0.239 0.233 0.226 0.222 0.221 0.219 0.214 0.215 0.215

0.530 0.577 0.617 0.643 0.685 0.721 0.771 0.806 0.851 0.912

21 22 23 24 25 26 27

2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18

75285 78784 79298 107835 565593 560214 540841

58.123 72.150 86.177 86.177 100.204 114.231 114.231

408.14 460.43 499.98 497.5 537.35 573.5 543.96

3.62 3.37 3.13 3.02 2.88 2.81 2.56

0.261 0.304 0.358 0.366 0.396 0.455 0.465

0.278 0.268 0.269 0.267 0.255 0.268 0.264

0.177 0.226 0.246 0.279 0.292 0.289 0.301

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Pentene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene

C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14

74851 115071 106989 590181 624646 109671 592416 592767

28.054 42.081 56.108 56.108 56.108 70.134 84.161 98.188

282.34 365.57 419.95 435.58 428.63 464.78 504.03 537.29

5.03 4.63 4.04 4.24 4.08 3.56 3.14 2.82

0.132 0.188 0.241 0.233 0.237 0.295 0.354 0.413

0.283 0.286 0.279 0.273 0.272 0.271 0.265 0.261

0.086 0.137 0.190 0.204 0.216 0.236 0.280 0.330

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methylpropene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene

C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8

111660 124118 872059 115117 563462 513359 590192 106990 78795

112.215 126.242 140.269 56.108 70.134 70.134 54.092 54.092 68.119

566.65 593.25 616.4 417.9 465 471 452 425.17 484

2.57 2.33 2.21 3.98 3.45 3.38 4.36 4.30 3.85

0.460 0.528 0.584 0.238 0.292 0.292 0.220 0.220 0.277

0.251 0.249 0.252 0.272 0.261 0.252 0.255 0.268 0.265

0.377 0.417 0.478 0.192 0.237 0.272 0.166 0.192 0.158

45 46 47 48 49 50

Acetylene Methylacetylene Dimethylacetylene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne

C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8

74862 74997 503173 598232 627190 627214

26.038 40.065 54.092 68.119 68.119 68.119

308.32 402.39 473.2 463.2 481.2 519

6.15 5.62 4.87 4.20 4.17 4.02

0.113 0.164 0.221 0.275 0.277 0.276

0.271 0.276 0.274 0.300 0.289 0.257

0.188 0.216 0.239 0.308 0.290 0.174

51 52 53 54 55 56

1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Hexyne 1-Heptyne 1-Octyne Vinylacetylene

C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C4H4

693027 764352 928494 628717 629050 689974

82.145 82.145 82.145 96.172 110.199 52.076

516.2 549 544 559 585 454

3.64 3.53 3.54 3.13 2.82 4.89

0.322 0.331 0.334 0.386 0.441 0.205

0.273 0.256 0.261 0.260 0.256 0.265

0.335 0.221 0.219 0.272 0.323 0.109

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CRITICAL CONSTANTS TABLE 2-164

2-137

Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued ) Mol. wt.

Tc, K

Pc × 1E-06 Pa

287923 96377 1640897 110827 108872 590669 1678917 142290 693890 110838

70.134 84.161 98.188 84.161 98.188 112.215 112.215 68.119 82.145 82.145

511.76 532.79 569.52 553.58 572.19 591.15 609.15 507 542 560.4

4.50 3.78 3.40 4.10 3.48 2.94 3.04 4.81 4.13 4.39

C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12

71432 108883 95476 108383 106423 100414 103651

78.114 92.141 106.167 106.167 106.167 106.167 120.194

562.16 591.8 630.33 617.05 616.23 617.2 638.32

1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene p-Isopropyltoluene Naphthalene Biphenyl Styrene m-Terphenyl

C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H14 C10H8 C12H10 C8H8 C18H14

95636 98828 108678 99876 91203 92524 100425 92068

120.194 120.194 120.194 134.221 128.174 154.211 104.152 230.309

82 83 84 85 86 87 88

Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 2-Propanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol

CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C3H8O C4H10O

67561 64175 71238 71363 78922 67630 75650

89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Hexanol 1-Heptanol Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol

C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C6H14O C7H16O C6H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2

97 98 99 100

Phenol o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol

C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Dimethyl ether Methyl ethyl ether Methyl n-propyl ether Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl n-butyl ether Methyl isobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether Diethyl ether Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ether Methyl phenyl ether Diphenyl ether

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde 1-Propanal 1-Butanal 1-Pentanal 1-Hexanal 1-Heptanal 1-Octanal 1-Nonanal 1-Decanal

Cmpd. no.

Name

Zc

Acentric factor

57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Cyclopentene 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene

C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10

0.257 0.319 0.374 0.308 0.368 0.450 0.430 0.245 0.303 0.291

0.272 0.272 0.269 0.274 0.269 0.269 0.258 0.279 0.278 0.274

0.196 0.230 0.271 0.212 0.236 0.233 0.246 0.196 0.232 0.216

67 68 69 70 71 72 73

Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene

4.88 4.10 3.74 3.53 3.50 3.60 3.20

0.261 0.314 0.374 0.377 0.381 0.375 0.440

0.273 0.262 0.267 0.259 0.260 0.263 0.265

0.209 0.262 0.311 0.325 0.320 0.301 0.344

74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

649.13 631.1 637.36 653.15 748.35 789.26 636 924.85

3.25 3.18 3.11 2.80 3.99 3.86 3.82 3.53

0.430 0.429 0.433 0.497 0.413 0.502 0.352 0.768

0.259 0.260 0.254 0.256 0.265 0.295 0.254 0.352

0.380 0.322 0.397 0.366 0.296 0.367 0.295 0.561

32.042 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 60.096 74.123

512.64 513.92 536.78 563.05 536.05 508.3 506.21

8.14 6.12 5.12 4.34 4.20 4.79 3.99

0.117 0.168 0.220 0.276 0.270 0.221 0.276

0.224 0.240 0.252 0.256 0.254 0.250 0.262

0.566 0.643 0.617 0.585 0.574 0.670 0.613

71410 137326 123513 111273 111706 108930 107211 57556

88.150 88.150 88.150 102.177 116.203 100.161 62.068 76.095

586.15 565 577.2 611.35 631.9 650 719.7 626

3.87 3.87 3.90 3.46 3.18 4.25 7.71 6.04

0.327 0.327 0.327 0.381 0.435 0.322 0.191 0.239

0.260 0.270 0.266 0.259 0.263 0.253 0.246 0.277

0.592 0.678 0.586 0.572 0.592 0.371 0.487 1.102

108952 95487 108394 106445

94.113 108.140 108.140 108.140

694.25 697.55 705.85 704.65

6.06 5.06 4.52 5.15

0.229 0.282 0.312 0.277

0.240 0.246 0.240 0.244

0.438 0.438 0.444 0.507

C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C7H8O C12H10O

115106 540670 557175 598538 628284 625445 1634044 60297 628320 625547 100663 101848

46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 74.123 88.150 88.150 108.140 170.211

400.1 437.8 476.3 464.5 510 497 497.1 466.7 500.23 489 645.6 766.8

5.27 4.47 3.77 3.89 3.31 3.41 3.41 3.64 3.37 3.41 4.27 3.10

0.171 0.221 0.276 0.276 0.329 0.331 0.329 0.281 0.336 0.329 0.337 0.503

0.271 0.271 0.263 0.278 0.257 0.273 0.272 0.264 0.273 0.276 0.268 0.244

0.192 0.229 0.264 0.280 0.335 0.310 0.264 0.281 0.347 0.306 0.353 0.441

CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O

50000 75070 123386 123728 110623 66251 111717 124130 124196 112312

30.026 44.053 58.080 72.107 86.134 100.161 114.188 128.214 142.241 156.268

408 466 504.4 537.2 566.1 591 617 638.1 658 674.2

6.59 5.57 4.92 4.32 3.97 3.46 3.18 2.97 2.74 2.60

0.115 0.154 0.204 0.258 0.313 0.369 0.421 0.474 0.527 0.580

0.223 0.221 0.239 0.250 0.264 0.260 0.261 0.265 0.264 0.269

0.282 0.292 0.256 0.278 0.347 0.387 0.427 0.474 0.514 0.582

Formula

CAS no.

Vc, m3/Kmol

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2-138

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-164

Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued ) Mol. wt.

Tc, K

Pc × 1E-06 Pa

67641 78933 107879 563804 591786 108101 565617 96220 565695 565800 108941 98862

58.080 72.107 86.134 86.134 100.161 100.161 100.161 86.134 100.161 114.188 98.145 120.151

508.2 535.5 561.08 553 587.05 571.4 573 560.95 567 576 653 709.5

4.71 4.12 3.71 3.84 3.31 3.27 3.32 3.70 3.34 3.06 4.01 3.85

CH2O2 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C7H6O2 C4H6O3

64186 64197 79094 107926 79312 65850 108247

46.026 60.053 74.079 88.106 88.106 122.123 102.090

588 591.95 600.81 615.7 605 751 606

Methyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl propionate Methyl n-butyrate Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Ethyl propionate

C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2

107313 79209 554121 623427 109944 141786 105373

60.053 74.079 88.106 102.133 74.079 88.106 102.133

149 150 151 152 153 154 155

Ethyl n-butyrate n-Propyl formate n-Propyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Vinyl acetate

C6H12O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C4H6O2

105544 110747 109604 123864 93583 93890 108054

156 157 158 159 160 161

Methylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine Ethylamine Diethylamine Triethylamine

CH5N C2H7N C3H9N C2H7N C4H11N C6H15N

162 163 164 165 166 167 168

n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine Isopropylamine Diisopropylamine Aniline N-Methylaniline N,N-Dimethylaniline

169 170 171 172

Cmpd. no.

Name

Formula

Zc

Acentric factor

123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134

Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Pentanone Methyl isopropyl ketone 2-Hexanone Methyl isobutyl ketone 3-Methyl-2-pentanone 3-Pentanone Ethyl isopropyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone Cyclohexanone Methyl phenyl ketone

C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C6H10O C8H8O

0.210 0.267 0.301 0.313 0.369 0.369 0.371 0.336 0.369 0.416 0.311 0.386

0.234 0.247 0.239 0.261 0.250 0.254 0.259 0.267 0.262 0.266 0.230 0.252

0.307 0.320 0.345 0.349 0.395 0.389 0.386 0.340 0.394 0.411 0.308 0.365

135 136 137 138 139 140 141

Formic acid Acetic acid Propionic acid n-Butyric acid Isobutyric acid Benzoic acid Acetic anhydride

5.81 5.74 4.61 4.07 3.68 4.47 3.97

0.125 0.179 0.232 0.291 0.291 0.347 0.290

0.148 0.208 0.214 0.231 0.213 0.248 0.229

0.317 0.463 0.574 0.682 0.612 0.603 0.450

142 143 144 145 146 147 148

487.2 506.55 530.6 554.5 508.4 523.3 546

5.98 4.69 4.03 3.48 4.71 3.85 3.34

0.173 0.229 0.284 0.340 0.231 0.287 0.345

0.255 0.256 0.259 0.257 0.257 0.254 0.254

0.254 0.326 0.349 0.378 0.282 0.363 0.391

116.160 88.106 102.133 116.160 136.150 150.177 86.090

571 538 549.73 579.15 693 698 519.13

2.94 4.03 3.37 3.11 3.59 3.22 3.93

0.403 0.286 0.349 0.389 0.436 0.489 0.270

0.249 0.257 0.257 0.251 0.272 0.271 0.246

0.399 0.310 0.390 0.410 0.421 0.477 0.348

74895 124403 75503 75047 109897 121448

31.057 45.084 59.111 45.084 73.138 101.192

430.05 437.2 433.25 456.15 496.6 535.15

7.41 5.26 4.10 5.59 3.67 3.04

0.154 0.180 0.254 0.202 0.301 0.389

0.319 0.260 0.289 0.298 0.268 0.266

0.279 0.293 0.210 0.283 0.300 0.316

C3H9N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C6H7N C7H9N C8H11N

107108 142847 75310 108189 62533 100618 121697

59.111 101.192 59.111 101.192 93.128 107.155 121.182

496.95 550 471.85 523.1 699 701.55 687.15

4.74 3.11 4.54 3.20 5.35 5.19 3.63

0.260 0.401 0.221 0.417 0.270 0.373 0.465

0.298 0.273 0.256 0.307 0.248 0.332 0.295

0.280 0.446 0.276 0.388 0.381 0.480 0.403

Ethylene oxide Furan Thiophene Pyridine

C2H4O C4H4O C4H4S C5H5N

75218 110009 110021 110861

44.053 68.075 84.142 79.101

469.15 490.15 579.35 619.95

7.26 5.55 5.71 5.64

0.142 0.218 0.219 0.254

0.264 0.297 0.260 0.278

0.201 0.205 0.195 0.239

173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180

Formamide N,N-Dimethylformamide Acetamide N-Methylacetamide Acetonitrile Propionitrile n-Butyronitrile Benzonitrile

CH3NO C3H7NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C2H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N

75127 68122 60355 79163 75058 107120 109740 100470

45.041 73.095 59.068 73.095 41.053 55.079 69.106 103.123

771 649.6 761 718 545.5 564.4 582.25 699.35

7.75 4.37 6.57 5.00 4.85 4.19 3.79 4.21

0.163 0.262 0.215 0.267 0.173 0.229 0.278 0.339

0.197 0.212 0.223 0.224 0.185 0.205 0.217 0.245

0.410 0.312 0.419 0.437 0.340 0.325 0.371 0.352

181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189

Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan n-Propyl mercaptan n-Butyl mercaptan Isobutyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Dimethyl sulfide Methyl ethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide

CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S

74931 75081 107039 109795 513440 513531 75183 624895 352932

48.109 62.136 76.163 90.189 90.189 90.189 62.136 76.163 90.189

469.95 499.15 536.6 570.1 559 554 503.04 533 557.15

7.23 5.49 4.63 3.97 4.06 4.06 5.53 4.26 3.96

0.145 0.206 0.254 0.307 0.307 0.307 0.200 0.254 0.320

0.268 0.273 0.263 0.257 0.268 0.271 0.264 0.244 0.273

0.158 0.188 0.232 0.272 0.253 0.251 0.194 0.209 0.294

CAS no.

Vc, m3/Kmol

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CRITICAL CONSTANTS TABLE 2-164 Cmpd. no.

2-139

Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Concluded ) Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

Tc, K

Pc × 1E-06 Pa

Vc, m3/Kmol

Zc

Acentric factor

190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197

Fluoromethane Chloromethane Trichloromethane Tetrachloromethane Bromomethane Fluoroethane Chloroethane Bromoethane

CH3F CH3Cl CHCl3 CCl4 CH3Br C2H5F C2H5Cl C2H5Br

593533 74873 67663 56235 74839 353366 75003 74964

34.033 50.488 119.377 153.822 94.939 48.060 64.514 108.966

317.42 416.25 536.4 556.35 467 375.31 460.35 503.8

5.88 6.69 5.55 4.54 8.00 5.01 5.46 6.29

0.113 0.142 0.238 0.274 0.156 0.164 0.155 0.215

0.252 0.275 0.296 0.270 0.321 0.263 0.221 0.323

0.198 0.154 0.228 0.191 0.192 0.218 0.206 0.259

198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205

1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Vinyl chloride Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene

C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C2H3Cl C6H5F C6H5Cl C6H5Br

540545 75296 78999 78875 75014 462066 108907 108861

78.541 78.541 112.986 112.986 62.499 96.104 112.558 157.010

503.15 489 560 572 432 560.09 632.35 670.15

4.58 4.51 4.24 4.23 5.75 4.54 4.53 4.52

0.247 0.247 0.292 0.291 0.179 0.269 0.308 0.324

0.270 0.274 0.266 0.259 0.287 0.262 0.265 0.263

0.228 0.196 0.253 0.256 0.106 0.247 0.251 0.251

206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218

Air Hydrogen Helium-4 Neon Argon Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Oxygen Nitrogen Ammonia Hydrazine Nitrous oxide

H2 He Ne Ar F2 Cl2 Br2 O2 N2 NH3 N2H4 N2O

132259100 1333740 7440597 7440019 7440371 7782414 7782505 7726956 7782447 7727379 7664417 302012 10024972

28.951 2.016 4.003 20.180 39.948 37.997 70.905 159.808 31.999 28.014 17.031 32.045 44.013

132.45 33.19 5.2 44.4 150.86 144.12 417.15 584.15 154.58 126.2 405.65 653.15 309.57

3.79 1.32 0.23 2.67 4.90 5.17 7.79 10.28 5.02 3.39 11.30 14.73 7.28

0.092 0.064 0.058 0.042 0.075 0.067 0.124 0.135 0.074 0.089 0.072 0.158 0.098

0.318 0.307 0.305 0.300 0.292 0.287 0.279 0.286 0.287 0.288 0.241 0.429 0.277

0.000 −0.215 −0.388 −0.038 0.000 0.053 0.073 0.128 0.020 0.037 0.253 0.315 0.143

219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231

Nitric oxide Cyanogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Water

NO C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 HF HCl HBr HCN H2S SO2 SO3 H2O

10102439 460195 630080 124389 75150 7664393 7647010 10035106 74908 7783064 7446095 7446119 7732185

30.006 52.036 28.010 44.010 76.143 20.006 36.461 80.912 27.026 34.082 64.065 80.064 18.015

180.15 400.15 132.92 304.21 552 461.15 324.65 363.15 456.65 373.53 430.75 490.85 647.13

6.52 5.94 3.49 7.39 8.04 6.49 8.36 8.46 5.35 9.00 7.86 8.19 21.94

0.058 0.195 0.095 0.095 0.160 0.069 0.082 0.100 0.139 0.099 0.123 0.127 0.056

0.252 0.348 0.300 0.277 0.280 0.117 0.253 0.280 0.195 0.287 0.269 0.255 0.228

0.585 0.276 0.048 0.224 0.118 0.383 0.134 0.069 0.407 0.096 0.244 0.423 0.343

All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release, July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Ambrose, D. “Vapour-Liquid Critical Properties”, Report Chem 107, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, October, 1979. In order to ensure thermodynamic consistency, in almost all cases these properties are calculated from Tc and the vapor pressure and liquid density correlation coefficients listed in those tables. This means that there will be slight differences between the values listed here and those in the DIPPR tables. Most of the differences are less than 1%, and almost all the rest are less than the estimated accuracy of the quantity in question. The atomic weights used, taken from J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 22(6), 1993, are C = 12.011, H = 1.00794, O = 15.9994, N = 14.00674, S = 32.066, F = 18.9984, Cl = 35.4527, Br = 79.904, and I = 126.90447. The value of the gas constant, R, used here is 8314.51 J/(kmol·K), as given by E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor in J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 17, 1988. K − 273.15 = °C; 1.8 × K − 459.67 = °F; Pa × 9.869233E-06 = atm; Pa × 1.450377E-04 = psia j; m3/kmol × (1E + 03/mol. wt.) = cm3/g; m3/kmol × (1.601846E + 01/mol wt) = ft3/lb.

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2-140

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

COMPRESSIBILITIES reminded that compressibilities can be calculated from the pressure—volume (or density)—temperature tables of the subsection “Thermodynamic Properties.”

INTRODUCTION The increasing ranges of pressure and temperature of interest to technology for an ever-increasing number of substances would necessitate additional tables in this subsection as well as in the subsection “Thermodynamic Properties.” Space restrictions preclude this. Hence, in the present revision, an attempt was made to update the fluidcompressibility tables for selected fluids and to omit tables for other fluids. The reader is thus referred to the fourth edition for tables on miscellaneous gases at 0°C, acetylene, ammonia, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures, and methyl chloride. The reader is also

TABLE 2-165

UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °R = 9⁄5 K. To convert bars to pounds-force per cubic inch, multiply by 14.504. To convert bars to kilopascals, multiply by 1 × 102.

Compressibility Factors for Air* Pressure, bar

Temp., K

1

5

10

20

40

60

80

100

150

200

250

300

400

500

75 80 90 100 120

0.0052 0.9764 0.9797 0.9880

0.0260 0.0250 0.0236 0.8872 0.9373

0.0519 0.0499 0.0471 0.0453 0.8660

0.1036 0.0995 0.0940 0.0900 0.6730

0.2063 0.1981 0.1866 0.1782 0.1778

0.3082 0.2958 0.2781 0.2635 0.2557

0.4094 0.3927 0.3686 0.3498 0.3371

0.5099 0.4887 0.4581 0.4337 0.4132

0.7581 0.7258 0.6779 0.6386 0.5964

1.0025 0.9588 0.8929 0.8377 0.7720

1.1931 1.1098 1.0395 0.9530

1.4139 1.3110 1.2227 1.1076

1.7161 1.5937 1.5091

2.1105 1.9536 1.7366

140 160 180 200 250

0.9927 0.9951 0.9967 0.9978 0.9992

0.9614 0.9748 0.9832 0.9886 0.9957

0.9205 0.9489 0.9660 0.9767 0.9911

0.8297 0.8954 0.9314 0.9539 0.9822

0.5856 0.7803 0.8625 0.9100 0.9671

0.3313 0.6603 0.7977 0.8701 0.9549

0.3737 0.5696 0.7432 0.8374 0.9463

0.4340 0.5489 0.7084 0.8142 0.9411

0.5909 0.6340 0.7180 0.8061 0.9450

0.7699 0.7564 0.7986 0.8549 0.9713

0.9114 0.8840 0.9000 0.9311 1.0152

1.0393 1.0105 1.0068 1.0185 1.0702

1.3202 1.2585 1.2232 1.2054 1.1990

1.5903 1.4970 1.4361 1.3944 1.3392

300 350 400 450 500

0.9999 1.0000 1.0002 1.0003 1.0003

0.9987 1.0002 1.0012 1.0016 1.0020

0.9974 1.0004 1.0025 1.0034 1.0034

0.9950 1.0014 1.0046 1.0063 1.0074

0.9917 1.0038 1.0100 1.0133 1.0151

0.9901 1.0075 1.0159 1.0210 1.0234

0.9903 1.0121 1.0229 1.0287 1.0323

0.9930 1.0183 1.0312 1.0374 1.0410

1.0074 1.0377 1.0533 1.0614 1.0650

1.0326 1.0635 1.0795 1.0913 1.0913

1.0669 1.0947 1.1087 1.1183 1.1183

1.1089 1.1303 1.1411 1.1463 1.1463

1.2073 1.2116 1.2117 1.2090 1.2051

1.3163 1.3015 1.2890 1.2778 1.2667

600 800 1000

1.0004 1.0004 1.0004

1.0022 1.0020 1.0018

1.0039 1.0038 1.0037

1.0081 1.0077 1.0068

1.0164 1.0157 1.0142

1.0253 1.0240 1.0215

1.0340 1.0321 1.0290

1.0434 1.0408 1.0365

1.0678 1.0621 1.0556

1.0920 1.0844 1.0744

1.1172 1.1061 1.0948

1.1427 1.1283 1.1131

1.1947 1.1720 1.1515

1.2475 1.2150 1.1889

*Calculated from values of pressure, volume (or density), and temperature in Vasserman, Kazavchinskii, and Rabinovich, Thermophysical Properties of Air and Air Components, Moscow, Nauka, 1966, and NBS-NSF Trans. TT 70-50095, 1971; and Vasserman and Rabinovich, Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Air and Its Components, Moscow, 1968, and NBS-NSF Trans. 69-55092, 1970.

TABLE 2-166

Compressibility Factors for Argon*

Temp., K

1

5

10

20

40

60

80

100

200

300

400

500

100 150 200 250 300

0.9773 0.9932 0.9972 0.9988 0.9995

0.0183 0.9647 0.9857 0.9935 0.9969

0.0366 0.9273 0.9713 0.9869 0.9941

0.0729 0.8447 0.9419 0.9741 0.9884

0.1449 0.6101 0.8810 0.9494 0.9777

0.2162 0.2249 0.8208 0.9263 0.9686

0.2867 0.2781 0.7624 0.9056 0.9611

0.3567 0.3324 0.7121 0.8877 0.9552

0.6975 0.5934 0.6870 0.8590 0.9533

1.0267 0.8387 0.8360 0.9207 0.9950

1.3470 1.0732 1.0051 1.0262 1.0673

1.6932 1.2995 1.1982 1.1479 1.1786

400 500 600 800 1000

1.0001 1.0002 1.0003 1.0003 1.0002

0.9997 1.0007 1.0012 1.0012 1.0013

0.9998 1.0012 1.0025 1.0023 1.0022

0.9999 1.0034 1.0046 1.0050 1.0050

1.0004 1.0071 1.0094 1.0102 1.0096

1.0018 1.0113 1.0143 1.0151 1.0142

1.0031 1.0154 1.0198 1.0205 1.0193

1.0056 1.0205 1.0250 1.0258 1.0239

1.0280 1.0501 1.0553 1.0532 1.0484

1.0656 1.0874 1.0904 1.0830 1.0736

1.1157 1.1301 1.1291 1.1147 1.0999

1.1976 1.1997 1.1933 1.1707 1.1497

Pressure, bar

*Calculated from PVT values tabulated in Rabinovich (ed.), Thermophysical Properties of Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon, Standard Press, Moscow, 1976. This book was published in English translation by Hemisphere, New York, 1988 (604 pp.).

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COMPRESSIBILITIES TABLE 2-167

2-141

Compressibility Factors for Carbon Dioxide* Pressure, bar

Temp., °C

1

5

10

20

40

60

80

100

200

300

400

500

0 50 100 150 200

0.9933 0.9964 0.9977 0.9985 0.9991

0.9658 0.9805 0.9883 0.9927 0.9953

0.9294 0.9607 0.9764 0.9853 0.9908

0.8496 0.9195 0.9524 0.9705 0.9818

0.8300 0.9034 0.9416 0.9640

0.7264 0.8533 0.9131 0.9473

0.5981 0.8022 0.8854 0.9313

0.4239 0.7514 0.8590 0.9170

0.5891 0.7651 0.8649

0.6420 0.7623 0.8619

0.8235 0.8995

0.9098 0.9621

250 300 350 400 450

0.9994 0.9996 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000

0.9971 0.9982 0.9991 0.9997 1.0000

0.9943 0.9967 0.9983 0.9994 1.0003

0.9886 0.9936 0.9964 0.9989 1.0005

0.9783 0.9875 0.9938 0.9982 1.0013

0.9684 0.9822 0.9914 0.9979 1.0023

0.9593 0.9773 0.9896 0.9979 1.0038

0.9511 0.9733 0.9882 0.9984 1.0056

0.9253 0.9640 0.9895 1.0073 1.0070

0.9294 0.9746 1.0053 1.0266 1.0412

0.9508 1.0030 1.0340 1.0559 1.0709

1.0096 1.0464 1.0734 1.0928 1.1067

500 600 700 800 900

1.0000 1.0000 1.0003 1.0002 1.0002

1.0004 1.0007 1.0010 1.0009 1.0009

1.0008 1.0013 1.0017 1.0019 1.0020

1.0015 1.0030 1.0036 1.0040 1.0041

1.0035 1.0062 1.0073 1.0082 1.0083

1.0056 1.0093 1.0161 1.0122 1.0128

1.0079 1.0129 1.0155 1.0168 1.0171

1.0107 1.0168 1.0198 1.0212 1.0221

1.0282 1.0386 1.0436 1.0458 1.0463

1.0522 1.0648 1.0707 1.0731 1.0726

1.0820 1.0948 1.1000 1.1016 1.1012

1.1165 1.1277 1.1318 1.1324 1.1303

1000

1.0002

1.0009

1.0021

1.0042

1.0084

1.0128

1.0172

1.0218

1.0460

1.0725

1.0725

1.1274

*Calculated from density-pressure-temperature data in Vukalovitch and Altunin, Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide, Atomizdat, Moscow, 1965, and Collet’s, London, 1968, translation.

TABLE 2-168

Compressibility Factors for Carbon Monoxide*

Temp., K

1

4

7

10

40

70

100

200 250 300 350 400

0.9973 0.9989 0.9997 1.0000 1.0002

0.9893 0.9957 0.9987 1.0002 1.0010

0.9813 0.9926 0.9977 1.0003 1.0017

0.9734 0.9896 0.9968 1.0005 1.0025

0.9632 0.9907 1.0042 1.0042

0.9896 1.0112 1.0112

0.9935 1.0216 1.0216

450 500 600 700 800

1.0003 1.0004 1.0005 1.0005 1.0004

1.0014 1.0016 1.0018 1.0018 1.0017

1.0025 1.0029 1.0032 1.0032 1.0030

1.0035 1.0041 1.0045 1.0045 1.0044

1.0152 1.0172 1.0186 1.0183 1.0175

1.0285 1.0314 1.0332 1.0325 1.0309

1.0433 1.0469 1.0485 1.0470 1.0445

900 1000 1500 2000 2500

1.0004 1.0004 1.0003 1.0002 1.0002

1.0017 1.0016 1.0012 1.0009 1.0007

1.0029 1.0027 1.0021 1.0016 1.0013

1.0041 1.0039 1.0029 1.0022 1.0018

1.0166 1.0156 1.0115 1.0088 1.0071

1.0291 1.0273 1.0200 1.0155 1.0124

1.0418 1.0391 1.0286 1.0221 1.0178

3000

1.0002

1.0006

1.0010

1.0015

1.0059

1.0104

1.0148

Pressure, atm

*From Hilsenrath et al., N.B.S. Circ. 564, 1955. Some of the above values have been rounded to four decimal places. Values at 10-K increments below 1000 K and at 50 K increments for higher temperatures appear in the original, also for pressures below atmospheric.

TABLE 2-169

Compressibility Factors for Ethanol

Temp., K

0.1

0.5

1.013

10

20

50

100

250

500

300 350 400 450 500

0.0022

0.0023

0.0024

0.999 1.000 1.000

0.993 0.997 0.997

0.986 0.991 0.994

0.0229 0.0215 0.0204 0.908 0.941

0.0458 0.0411 0.0408 0.874

0.114 0.107 0.101 0.101 0.122

0.228 0.208 0.201 0.198 0.214

0.565 0.509 0.490 0.472 0.473

1.11 1.03 0.95 0.898 0.868

600 700 800 900 1000

1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

0.998 0.999 1.000 1.000 1.000

0.997 0.999 0.999 1.000 1.000

0.972 0.985 0.992 0.996 0.998

0.943 0.971 0.984 0.992 0.997

0.948 0.973 0.988 0.993

0.672 0.902 0.953 0.981 0.990

0.470 0.760 0.890 0.962 1.002

0.868 0.921 0.988 1.04 1.08

Pressure, bar

Rounded and interpolated from Thermodynamics Research Center tables, Texas A&M University.

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2-142

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-170

Compressibility Factors for Ethylene Temperature, K

Pressure, bar

110

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

1 5 10 15 20

0.0047 0.0237 0.0472 0.0710 0.0946

0.0038 0.0189 0.0378 0.0566 0.0754

0.9808 0.0162 0.0323 0.0484 0.0644

0.9902 0.9495 0.8946 0.8320 0.7578

0.9944 0.9717 0.9425 0.9121 0.8804

0.9966 0.9828 0.9659 0.9479 0.9299

0.9979 0.9894 0.9785 0.9679 0.9574

0.9986 0.9935 0.9867 0.9749 0.9734

0.9991 0.9959 0.9919 0.9876 0.9833

30 40 60 80 100

0.1418 0.1889 0.2831 0.3767 0.4702

0.1129 0.1504 0.2251 0.2994 0.3734

0.0963 0.1280 0.1910 0.2533 0.3150

0.0950 0.1251 0.1838 0.2410 0.2968

0.8122 0.7342 0.5235 0.3302 0.3480

0.8936 0.8560 0.7791 0.7023 0.6359

0.9357 0.9144 0.8730 0.9056 0.9220

0.9603 0.9477 0.9231 0.9009 0.8825

0.9754 0.9677 0.9541 0.9428 0.9321

150 200 250 300 400

0.7030 0.9337 1.1636 1.3917 1.8441

0.5567 0.7382 0.9179 1.0960 1.4475

0.4671 0.6161 0.7630 0.9075 1.1910

0.4324 0.5630 0.6904 0.8148 1.0565

0.4528 0.5641 0.6740 0.7816 0.9909

0.5842 0.6347 0.7110 0.7969 0.9726

0.7483 0.7499 0.7895 0.8479 0.9849

0.8523 0.8494 0.8710 0.9095 1.0142

0.9167 0.9184 0.9343 0.9631 1.0450

500

solid

1.7934

1.4679

1.2908

1.1932

1.1468

1.1304

1.1341

1.1436

Calculated from Jacobsen, R.T., M. Jahangiri, et al., Ethylene, Blackwell Sci. Publs., Oxford, 1988 (299 pp.).

TABLE 2-171

Compressibility Factors for Normal Hydrogen* Pressure, bar

Temp., K

1

10

20

40

60

80

100

200

400

600

800

1000

20 40 60 80 100

0.0169 0.9848 0.9955 0.9986 0.9998

0.1680 0.8340 0.9562 0.9776 0.9979

0.3302 0.6311 0.9169 0.9763 0.9976

0.6430 0.5240 0.8608 0.9655 1.0022

0.9434 0.6627 0.8498 0.9676 1.0133

1.2346 0.8118 0.8832 0.9842 1.0280

1.5166 0.9590 0.9432 1.0138 1.0528

2.844 1.650 1.347 1.257 1.225

2.878 2.158 1.834 1.659

3.993 2.902 2.389 2.095

5.034 3.598 2.907 2.512

6.019 4.263 3.404 2.902

200 300 400 500 600

1.0007 1.0005 1.0004 1.0004 1.0003

1.0066 1.0059 1.0048 1.0040 1.0034

1.0134 1.0117 1.0096 1.0080 1.0068

1.0275 1.0236 1.0192 1.0160 1.0136

1.0422 1.0357 1.0289 1.0240 1.0204

1.0575 1.0479 1.0386 1.0320 1.0272

1.0734 1.0603 1.0484 1.0400 1.0340

1.163 1.124 1.098 1.080 1.068

1.355 1.253 1.196 1.159 1.133

1.555 1.383 1.293 1.236 1.197

1.753 1.510 1.388 1.311 1.259

1.936 1.636 1.481 1.385 1.320

800 1000 2000

1.0002 1.0002 1.0009

1.0026 1.0021 1.0013

1.0052 1.0042 1.0023

1.0104 1.0084 1.0044

1.0156 1.0126 1.0065

1.0208 1.0168 1.0086

1.0259 1.0209 1.0107

1.051 1.041 1.021

1.100 1.080 1.040

1.147 1.117 1.057

1.193 1.153 1.073

1.237 1.187 1.088

*Calculated from PVT tables of McCarty, Hord, and Roder, NBS Monogr. 168, 1981.

TABLE 2-172

Compressibility Factors for KLEA 60

Temp., K

1

Pressure, bar 5

10

15

20

25

30

250 260 270 280 290

0.9687 0.9780 0.9803 0.9824 0.9848

0.9099 0.9199

300 310 320 330 340

0.9867 0.9872 0.9884 0.9894 0.9905

0.9284 0.9359 0.9425 0.9484 0.9537

0.8459 0.8637 0.8790 0.8908 0.9026

0.7800 0.8066 0.8299 0.8488

0.7577 0.7888

0.6700 0.7184

0.6305

350

0.9920

0.9582

0.9139

0.8663

0.8145

0.7570

0.6908

Zsat Tsat

0.9712 234.0

0.9022 273.1

0.8361 295.0

0.7777 309.5

0.7224 320.7

0.6677 329.8

0.6118 337.6

Zsat

Psat

0.9494 0.9315 0.9098 0.8839 0.8538

2.08 3.11 4.49 6.30 8.62

0.8175 0.7756 0.7261 0.6666

11.55 15.19 19.66 25.10

Converted and interpolated from “Thermodynamic Properties of KLEA 60,” British units, © ICI Chemicals and Polymers, 1993 (20 pp.). Reproduced by permission. KLEA 60 is R32/125/134a (20/40/40 wt %).

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COMPRESSIBILITIES TABLE 2-173

Compressibility Factors for KLEA 61

Temp., K

1

2-143

Pressure, bar 5

10

15

20

25

30

250 260 270 280 290

0.9746 0.9773 0.9798 0.9787 0.9838

0.9067 0.9185

300 310 320 330 340

0.9854 0.9868 0.9881 0.9892 0.9903

0.9270 0.9348 0.9416 0.9481 0.9529

0.8431 0.8615 0.8772 0.8909 0.9027

0.7755 0.8042 0.8280 0.8484

0.7148 0.7518 0.7934

0.6659 0.7174

0.6312

350

0.9917

0.9577

0.9131

0.8653

0.8134

0.7565

0.6916

Zsat Tsat

0.9686 230.0

0.8944 269.0

0.8237 290.9

0.7602 305.5

0.7003 316.7

0.6399 325.9

0.5780 333.7

Zsat

Psat

0.9381 0.9172 0.8920 0.8622 0.8272

2.46 3.63 5.18 7.19 9.75

0.7868 0.7377 0.6801 0.6087

12.21 16.88 21.68 27.50

Converted and interpolated from “Thermodynamic Properties of KLEA 61,” British units, © ICI Chemicals and Polymers, 1993 (23 pp.). Reproduced by permission. KLEA 61 is R32/125/134a (10/70/20 wt %).

TABLE 2-174

Compressibility Factors for KLEA 66

Temp., K

1

Pressure, bar 5

10

15

20

25

30

250 260 270 280 290

0.974 0.9772 0.9796 0.9838 0.9858

0.9089 0.9209

300 310 320 330 340

0.9872 0.9883 0.9896 0.9907 0.9917

0.9287 0.9359 0.9431 0.9490 0.9540

0.8461 0.8663 0.8786 0.8910 0.9035

0.8056 0.8292 0.8492

0.7551 0.7878

0.7147

350

0.9926

0.9588

0.9137

0.8659

0.8127

0.7542

0.6843

Zsat Tsat

0.9719 236.1

0.9044 275.5

0.8397 297.6

0.7827 312.1

0.7289 323.5

0.6759 332.6

0.6220 340.4

Zsat

Psat

0.9541 0.9374 0.9172 0.8931 0.8645

1.89 2.84 4.12 5.81 7.98

0.8328 0.7920 0.7462 0.6918 0.6255

10.73 14.15 18.37 23.50 29.73

Converted and interpolated from “Thermodynamic properties of KLEA 66,” British units, © ICI Chemicals and Polymers, 1993 (20 pp.). Reproduced by permission. KLEA 66 is R32/125/134a (23/25/52 wt %).

TABLE 2-175

Compressibility Factors for Krypton*

Temp., K

1

5

10

20

40

60

80

100

200

300

400

500

150 200 250 300 350

0.9837 0.9933 0.9966 0.9982 0.9989

0.9155 0.9648 0.9841 0.9899 0.9949

0.0310 0.9278 0.9635 0.9800 0.9897

0.0618 0.8459 0.9265 0.9595 0.9793

0.1227 0.6039 0.8468 0.9197 0.9522

0.1829 0.1870 0.7605 0.8807 0.9415

0.2423 0.2393 0.6680 0.8437 0.9250

0.3012 0.2903 0.5810 0.8097 0.9110

0.5875 0.5313 0.5785 0.7337 0.8774

0.8636 0.7568 0.7461 0.7954 0.8992

1.1315 0.9730 0.9197 0.9302 0.9799

1.3932 1.1820 1.0891 1.0627 1.0664

400 450 500 600 800

0.9993 0.9998 0.9998 1.0000 1.0002

0.9967 0.9985 0.9992 1.0003 1.0010

0.9933 0.9969 0.9984 1.0005 1.0020

0.9867 0.9939 0.9970 1.0012 1.0041

0.9746 0.9886 0.9942 1.0025 1.0079

0.9635 0.9838 0.9921 1.0043 1.0122

0.9539 0.9800 0.9910 1.0064 1.0170

0.9459 0.9774 0.9906 1.0091 1.0214

0.9323 0.9663 1.0019 1.0301 1.0475

0.9570 1.0011 1.0311 1.0618 1.0779

1.0150 1.0543 1.0732 1.1000 1.1112

1.0910 1.1142 1.1258 1.1431 1.1147

1000

1.0002

1.0013

1.0023

1.0045

1.0091

1.0135

1.0184

1.0230

1.0486

1.0767

1.1063

1.1369

Pressure, bar

*Calculated from PVT values tabulated in Rabinovich (ed.), Thermophysical Properties of Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon, Standards Press, Moscow, 1976. This book was published in English translation by Hemisphere, New York, 1988 (604 pp.).

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2-144

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-176

Compressibility Factors for Methane (R50)*

Temp., K

1

5

10

20

40

60

80

100

200

300

400

500

150 200 250 300 350

0.9854 0.9936 0.9965 0.9983 0.9991

0.9225 0.9676 0.9838 0.9915 0.9954

0.8275 0.9339 0.9680 0.9830 0.9911

0.0714 0.8599 0.9352 0.9667 0.9825

0.1411 0.6784 0.8682 0.9343 0.9662

0.2093 0.3559 0.8020 0.9047 0.9520

0.2763 0.3172 0.7386 0.8783 0.9401

0.3423 0.3618 0.6854 0.8556 0.9306

0.6599 0.6141 0.6899 0.8280 0.9227

0.9623 0.8568 0.8554 0.9154 0.9800

1.2537 1.0887 1.0359 1.0432 1.0723

1.5363 1.3122 1.2155 1.1829 1.1804

400 450 500 600 800

0.9995 0.9997 0.9999 1.0000 1.0003

0.9977 0.9989 0.9997 1.0009 1.0017

0.9953 0.9979 0.9995 1.0020 1.0034

0.9912 0.9963 0.9995 1.0039 1.0068

0.9835 0.9935 0.9996 1.0081 1.0130

0.9772 0.9917 1.0005 1.0125 1.0197

0.9726 0.9911 1.0022 1.0171 1.0263

0.9696 0.9916 1.0048 1.0217 1.0330

0.9779 1.0098 1.0285 1.0540 1.0678

1.0245 1.0528 1.0699 1.0969 1.1068

1.0986 1.1152 1.1248 1.1470 1.1496

1.1859 1.1899 1.1899 1.2019 1.1951

1000

1.0004

1.0014

1.0035

1.0071

1.0141

1.0207

1.0274

1.0342

1.0678

1.1033

1.1400

1.1790

Pressure, bar

*Calculated from PVT values tabulated in Goodwin, NBS Tech. Note 653, 1974, for temperatures up to 500 K, and from PVT values tabulated in Zhuravlev. Thermophysical Properties of Gaseous and Liquid Methane, Standartov, Moscow, 1969, and NBS-NSF transl. TT 70-50097, 1970.

TABLE 2-177

Compressibility Factors for Methanol Pressure, bar

Temp., K

0.1

0.5

1.0133

10

20

50

100

150

200

250

300

400

500

200 250 300 350 400

0.0002 0.0002 0.9792 0.9844 0.9872

0.0011 0.0009 0.0008 0.9713 0.9795

0.0022 0.0019 0.0017 0.9551 0.9722

0.0219 0.0185 0.0164 0.0150 0.0142

0.0438 0.0370 0.0327 0.0298 0.0283

0.1091 0.0923 0.0813 0.0742 0.0702

0.2174 0.1837 0.1617 0.1473 0.1386

0.3250 0.2743 0.2413 0.2193 0.2056

0.4319 0.3643 0.3201 0.2904 0.2714

0.5381 0.4535 0.3981 0.3606 0.3362

0.6437 0.5422 0.4755 0.4301 0.4000

0.8531 0.7176 0.6284 0.5671 0.5253

1.6030 0.8909 0.7791 0.7016 0.6478

450 500 600 700 800

0.9890 0.9903 0.9922 0.9934 0.9964

0.9835 0.9859 0.9889 0.9907 0.9920

0.9792 0.9828 0.9867 0.9889 0.9904

0.9145 0.9525 0.9756 0.9816 0.9838

0.7989 0.9081 0.9643 0.9778 0.9818

0.0701 0.6799 0.9042 0.9541 0.9711

0.1366 0.1505 0.7629 0.8932 0.9411

0.2007 0.2110 0.6275 0.8392 0.9156

0.2629 0.2699 0.5255 0.8027 0.9025

0.3238 0.3271 0.4921 0.7797 0.8994

0.3834 0.3829 0.5010 0.7675 0.9026

0.4997 0.4912 0.5606 0.7713 0.9205

0.6128 0.5959 0.6358 0.7993 0.9485

Goodwin, R.D., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 16 (4), 799, 1987.

TABLE 2-178

Compressibility Factors for Neon*

Temp., K

1

5

10

20

40

60

80

100

200

300

400

500

50 100 150 200 250

0.9913 0.9993 1.0002 1.0003 1.0001

0.9472 0.9970 1.0017 1.0023 1.0022

0.9083 0.9949 1.0036 1.0049 1.0045

0.8013 0.9913 1.0078 1.0100 1.0097

0.3810 0.9854 1.0162 1.0204 1.0198

0.4398 0.9245 1.0262 1.0318 1.0295

0.4984 0.9864 1.0375 1.0427 1.0403

0.5850 0.9930 1.0497 1.0551 1.0502

0.9864 1.0796 1.1236 1.1191 1.1057

1.3659 1.2197 1.2131 1.1909 1.1633

1.7289 1.3796 1.3113 1.2655 1.2223

2.0794 1.5473 1.4150 1.3422 1.2822

300 400 500 600 800

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

1.0020 1.0017 1.0014 1.0012 1.0009

1.0041 1.0036 1.0029 1.0024 1.0018

1.0091 1.0074 1.0058 1.0049 1.0043

1.0181 1.0151 1.0124 1.0107 1.0081

1.0277 1.0216 1.0188 1.0160 1.0123

1.0369 1.0301 1.0252 1.0214 1.0163

1.0469 1.0376 1.0316 1.0267 1.0206

1.0961 1.0771 1.0641 1.0542 1.0413

1.1476 1.1172 1.0963 1.0814 1.0622

1.1997 1.1575 1.1291 1.1091 1.0829

1.2520 1.1981 1.1621 1.1369 1.1039

1000

1.0000

1.0007

1.0014

1.0034

1.0068

1.0098

1.0132

1.0165

1.0330

1.0500

1.0670

1.0836

Pressure, bar

*Calculated from PVT values tabulated in Rabinovich (ed.), Thermophysical Properties of Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon, Standards Press, Moscow, 1976. This book was published in English translation by Hemisphere, New York, 1988 (604 pp.).

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COMPRESSIBILITIES

2-145

TABLE 2-179

Compressibility Factors for Nitrogen*

Temp., K

1

5

10

20

40

60

80

100

200

300

400

500

70 80 90 100 120

0.0057 0.9593 0.9722 0.9798 0.9883

0.0287 0.0264 0.0251 0.8910 0.9397

0.0573 0.0528 0.0500 0.0487 0.8732

0.1143 0.1053 0.0996 0.0966 0.7059

0.2277 0.2093 0.1975 0.1905 0.1975

0.3400 0.3122 0.2938 0.2823 0.2822

0.4516 0.4140 0.3888 0.3720 0.3641

0.5623 0.5148 0.4826 0.4605 0.4438

1.1044 1.0061 0.9362 0.8840 0.8188

1.6308 1.4797 1.3700 1.2852 1.1684

Solid 1.9396 1.7890 1.6707 1.5015

Solid 2.3879 2.1962 2.0441 1.8223

140 160 180 200 250

0.9927 0.9952 0.9967 0.9978 0.9992

0.9635 0.9766 0.9846 0.9897 0.9960

0.9253 0.9529 0.9690 0.9791 0.9924

0.8433 0.9042 0.9381 0.9592 0.9857

0.6376 0.8031 0.8782 0.9212 0.9741

0.4251 0.7017 0.8125 0.8882 0.9655

0.4278 0.6304 0.7784 0.8621 0.9604

0.4799 0.6134 0.7530 0.8455 0.9589

0.7942 0.8107 0.8550 0.9067 1.0048

1.0996 1.0708 1.0669 1.0760 1.1143

1.3920 1.3275 1.2893 1.2683 1.2501

1.6726 1.5762 1.5105 1.4631 1.3962

300 350 400 450 500

0.9998 1.0001 1.0002 1.0003 1.0004

0.9990 1.0007 1.0011 1.0018 1.0020

0.9983 1.0011 1.0024 1.0033 1.0040

0.9971 1.0029 1.0057 1.0073 1.0081

0.9964 1.0069 1.0125 1.0153 1.0167

0.9973 1.0125 1.0199 1.0238 1.0257

1.0000 1.0189 1.0283 1.0332 1.0350

1.0052 1.0271 1.0377 1.0430 1.0451

1.0559 1.0810 1.0926 1.0973 1.0984

1.1422 1.1560 1.1609 1.1606 1.1575

1.2480 1.2445 1.2382 1.2303 1.2213

1.3629 1.3405 1.3216 1.3043 1.2881

600 800 1000

1.0004 1.0004 1.0003

1.0021 1.0017 1.0015

1.0040 1.0036 1.0034

1.0084 1.0074 1.0067

1.0173 1.0157 1.0136

1.0263 1.0237 1.0205

1.0355 1.0320 1.0275

1.0450 1.0402 1.0347

1.0951 1.0832 1.0714

1.1540 1.1264 1.1078

1.2028 1.1701 1.1449

1.2657 1.2140 1.1814

Pressure, bar

*Computed from pressure-volume-temperature tables in the Vasserman monographs referenced under Table 2-165. TABLE 2-180

Compressibility Factors for Oxygen* Pressure, bar

Temp., K

1

5

10

20

40

60

80

100

200

300

400

500

75 80 90 100 120

0.0043 0.0041 0.0038 0.9757 0.9855

0.0213 0.0203 0.0188 0.0177 0.9246

0.0425 0.0406 0.0376 0.0354 0.8367

0.0849 0.0811 0.0750 0.0705 0.0660

0.1693 0.1616 0.1494 0.1404 0.1302

0.2533 0.2418 0.2233 0.2096 0.1935

0.3368 0.3214 0.2966 0.2783 0.2558

0.4200 0.4007 0.3696 0.3464 0.3173

0.8301 0.7912 0.7281 0.6798 0.6148

1.2322 1.1738 1.0780 1.0040 0.8999

1.6278 1.5495 1.4211 1.3206 1.1762

2.0175 1.9196 1.7580 1.6309 1.4456

140 160 180 200 250

0.9911 0.9939 0.9960 0.9970 0.9987

0.9535 0.9697 0.9793 0.9853 0.9938

0.9034 0.9379 0.9579 0.9705 0.9870

0.7852 0.8689 0.9134 0.9399 0.9736

0.1334 0.6991 0.8167 0.8768 0.9477

0.1940 0.3725 0.7696 0.8140 0.9237

0.2527 0.2969 0.5954 0.7534 0.9030

0.3099 0.3378 0.5106 0.6997 0.8858

0.5815 0.5766 0.6043 0.6720 0.8563

0.8374 0.8058 0.8025 0.8204 0.9172

1.0832 1.0249 0.9990 0.9907 1.0222

1.3214 1.2364 1.1888 1.1623 1.1431

300 350 400 450 500

0.9994 0.9998 1.0000 1.0002 1.0002

0.9968 0.9990 1.0000 1.0007 1.0011

0.9941 0.9979 1.0000 1.0015 1.0022

0.9884 0.9961 1.0000 1.0024 1.0038

0.9771 0.9919 1.0003 1.0048 1.0075

0.9676 0.9890 1.0011 1.0074 1.0115

0.9597 0.9870 1.0022 1.0106 1.0161

0.9542 0.9870 1.0045 1.0152 1.0207

0.9560 1.0049 1.0305 1.0445 1.0523

0.9972 1.0451 1.0718 1.0859 1.0927

1.0689 1.1023 1.1227 1.1334 1.1380

1.1572 1.1722 1.1816 1.1859 1.1866

600 800 1000

1.0003 1.0003 1.0003

1.0014 1.0014 1.0013

1.0024 1.0026 1.0026

1.0052 1.0055 1.0053

1.0102 1.0109 1.0101

1.0153 1.0164 1.0149

1.0207 1.0219 1.0198

1.0266 1.0271 1.0253

1.0582 1.0565 1.0507

1.0961 1.0888 1.0783

1.1374 1.1231 1.1072

1.1803 1.1582 1.1369

*Calculated from pressure-volume-temperature tables in the Vasserman monographs listed under Table 2-165. TABLE 2-181

Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 32* Pressure, bar

Temp., K

1

5

10

15

20

25

30

40

50

230 240 250 260 270

0.9656 0.9711 0.9755 0.9791 0.9819

0.8865 0.9036

280 290 300 310 320

0.9844 0.9864 0.9880 0.9894 0.9904

0.9180 0.9285 0.9376 0.9453 0.9518

0.8210 0.8476 0.8686 0.8358 0.8998

0.7899 0.8197 0.8436

0.7439 0.7812

0.7089

330 340 350

0.9914 0.9923 0.9932

0.9573 0.9619 0.9655

0.9118 0.9203 0.9296

0.8628 0.8790 0.8932

0.8102 0.8338 0.8534

0.7518 0.7846 0.8115

0.6851 0.7316 0.7671

0.6021 0.6675

0.5312

0.9595 221.2

0.8843 258.8

0.8202 279.8

0.7670 293.8

0.7191 304.6

0.6722 313.5

0.6303 321.1

0.5427 333.9

0.4467 344.3

Zsat Tsat

Zsat

Psat

0.9453 0.9278 0.9062 0.8811 0.8522

1.54 2.40 3.60 5.22 7.34

0.8194 0.7822 0.7401 0.6922 0.6370

10.07 13.51 17.76 22.95 29.21

0.5719 0.4905 0.3702

36.72 45.66 56.35

*Converted and interpolated from British units shown in Thermodynamic properties of KLEA 32, ICI Chemicals and Polymers, 1993. Reproduced by permission.

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2-146

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-182

Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 123

Temp., °C

1

40 50 60 70 80

0.9639 0.9682 0.9717 0.9745 0.9766

0.9248 0.9327 0.9401

100 120 140 160 180

0.9804 0.9839 0.9861 0.9886 0.9908

0.9501 0.9591 0.9650 0.9714 0.9762

0.9197 0.9146 0.9282 0.9406 0.9518

0.8355 0.8667 0.8915 0.9077 0.9254

0.8140 0.8503 0.8747 0.8970

0.8023 0.8398 0.8709

0.7479 0.8026 0.8402

0.6916 0.7600 0.8072

0.7134 0.7712

0.6553 0.7346

200 225 250

0.9924 0.9938 0.9954

0.9806 0.9846 0.9885

0.9602 0.9692 0.9

0.9388 0.9526 0.9651

0.9174 0.9378 0.9528

0.8931 0.9170 0.9382

0.8688 0.8972 0.9229

0.8422 0.8800 0.9101

0.8163 0.8566 0.8930

Zsat T

0.9575 27.5

0.9210 55.4

0.9730 80.8

0.8292 97.9

0.7947 111.1

0.7654 122.0

0.7229 131.4

0.7110 139.7

Pressure, bar 2.5

5

7.5

10

12.5

15

17.5

20

22.5

25

Zsat

Psat

0.9427 0.9294 0.9134 0.8950 0.8727

1.54 2.13 2.96 3.78 4.90

0.6841

0.8262 0.7640 0.6890 0.5820 0.3926

7.87 12.01 17.59 24.92 34.54

0.7882 0.8401 0.8771

0.7539 0.8157 0.8581

— — —

— — —

0.6564 147.2

0.6206 154.0

0.5821 160.2

— —

— —

20

22.5

25

Dashes indicate inaccessible states; blanks indicate no available data. TABLE 2-183

Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 124

Temp., °C

1

Pressure, bar 2.5

−20 −10 0 10 20

0.9573 0.9641 0.9693

30 40 50 60 80

0.9736 0.9675 0.9798 0.9820 0.9854

0.9313 0.9396 0.9473 0.9534 0.9633

100 120 140 160 180

0.9880 0.9899 0.9917

0.9700 0.9749 0.9794 0.9825

5

7.5

0.9468 −12.4

0.9071 11.9

12.5

15

17.5

0.8728 0.8889 0.9017 0.9226

0.8229 0.8462 0.8820

0.8366

0.9370 0.9478 0.9575 0.9645 0.9690

0.9040 0.9206 0.9357 0.9464 0.9536

0.8710 0.8935 0.9138 0.9247 0.9382

0.8314 0.8634 0.8884 0.9061 0.9213

0.7918 0.8329 0.8641 0.8868 0.9056

0.7463 0.8022 0.8391 0.8644 0.8857

0.6950 0.7682 0.8105 0.8489 0.8634

0.6380 0.7285 0.7896 0.8285 0.8574

0.6878 0.7647 0.7868 0.8379

0.9601

0.9471 0.9589 0.9650

0.9338 0.9488 0.9573

0.9211 0.9391 0.9443

0.9042 0.9223 0.9412

0.8951 0.9160 0.9333

0.8783 0.9040 0.9252

0.8647 0.8947 0.9174

0.8185 48.7

0.7830 60.2

0.7488 69.6

0.7157 77.8

0.6825 85.0

0.6484 91.4

0.6279 96.3

0.5788 102.6

200 225 250 Zsat T

10

0.8605 34.0

0.7251

Zsat

Psat

0.9562 0.9431 0.9284 0.9243 0.8920

0.72 1.10 1.63 2.34 3.27

0.8828 0.8427 0.8151 0.7803 0.7024

4.45 5.93 7.75 9.96 15.74

0.5955 0.3912

23.75 34.70

Dashes indicate inaccessible states; blanks indicate no available data. TABLE 2-184

Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 134a Pressure, bar

Temp., °C

1

−10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 satn. sat. T

0.9622 0.9710 0.9752 0.9778 0.9817 0.9839 0.9857 0.9872 0.9886 0.9897 0.9908 0.9916 0.9920 0.9924 0.9927 0.9929 0.9931 0.9567 −26.37

5

10

0.8819 0.8973 0.9098 0.9206 0.9296 0.9376 0.9442 0.9495 0.9543 0.9592 0.9638 0.9673 0.9691 0.9727 0.8741 15.74

0.8005 0.8280 0.8449 0.8678 0.8828 0.8954 0.9062 0.9151 0.9235 0.9308 0.9370 0.9428 0.7989 39.39

15

0.7361 0.7917 0.8137 0.8390 0.8555 0.8630 0.8802 0.8949 0.9040 0.8877 0.7017 55.23

20

0.6853 0.7327 0.7682 0.7965 0.8144 0.8386 0.8553 0.8694 0.8817 0.6704 67.49

25

0.6290 0.6860 0.7335 0.7630 0.7915 0.8165 0.8350 0.8495 0.6094 77.57

30

0.5832 0.6557 0.7046 0.7418 0.7716 0.7964 0.8173 0.5415 86.20

40

0.5732 0.6249 0.6771 0.7169 0.7489 0.4442 100.35

Dashes indicate inaccessible states; blanks indicate no available data.

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50

Zsat

Psat

0.4530 0.4885 0.5645 0.6303 0.6783 — —

0.9316 0.9119 0.8888 0.8621 0.8314 0.7963 0.7560 0.7098 0.6562 0.5911 0.5054 0.3462 — — — — — — —

2.005 2.926 4.144 5.716 7.701 10.17 13.18 16.82 21.17 26.38 32.45 39.72 — — — — — — —

TABLE 2-185 Pressure, lb/in2 abs.

Compressibility Factors for Water Substance (fps units)* Temp., °F 400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

3200

3400

3600

3800

4000

10 15 20 40 60

0.9965 0.9943 0.9930 0.9861 0.9788

0.9989 0.9972 0.9970 0.9940 0.9910

0.9992 0.9986 0.9981 0.9967 0.9951

0.9995 0.9993 0.9991 0.9981 0.9973

0.9999 0.9997 0.9995 0.9990 0.9984

0.9999 0.9998 0.9996 0.9994 0.9991

0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9996 0.9994

1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9997

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999

1.0001 1.0001 1.0001 1.0001 1.0001

1.0006 1.0004 1.0003 1.0003 1.0003

1.0012 1.0012 1.0011 1.0010 1.0009

1.0024 1.0022 1.0020 1.0018 1.0018

1.0053 1.0042 1.0036 1.0028 1.0024

1.0084 1.0072 1.0065 1.0054 1.0048

1.0145 1.0124 1.0112 1.0090 1.0080

1.0211 1.0188 1.0173 1.0139 1.0120

1.0332 1.0295 1.0269 1.0214 1.0186

80 100 150 200 400

0.9714 0.9469 0.9435 0.9216

0.9878 0.9848 0.9770 0.9690 0.9356

0.9935 0.9919 0.9879 0.9839 0.9675

0.9963 0.9954 0.9931 0.9908 0.9817

0.9979 0.9974 0.9960 0.9947 0.9893

0.9987 0.9985 9.9976 0.9968 0.9935

0.9992 0.9990 0.9985 0.9980 0.9960

0.9996 0.9995 0.9993 0.9991 0.9982

0.9998 0.9998 0.9997 0.9996 0.9992

0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998

1.0001 1.0001 1.0001 1.0001 1.0002

1.0003 1.0004 1.0004 1.0005 1.0007

1.0008 1.0007 1.0006 1.0007 1.0011

1.0016 1.0015 1.0014 1.0015 1.0017

1.0023 1.0022 1.0021 1.0021 1.0023

1.0044 1.0042 1.0039 1.0037 1.0033

1.0073 1.0067 1.0059 1.0055 1.0049

1.0108 1.0099 1.0087 1.0080 1.0070

1.0170 1.0157 1.0137 1.0126 1.0105

0.8989 0.8586 0.8138 0.6702

0.9509 0.9336 0.9162 0.8695 0.8188

0.9725 0.9633 0.9540 0.9305 0.9067

0.9839 0.9790 0.9733 0.9600 0.9468

0.9904 0.9872 0.9841 0.9764 0.9687

0.9942 0.9925 0.9905 0.9859 0.9813

0.9973 0.9964 0.9955 0.9932 0.9900

0.9988 0.9985 0.9981 0.9971 0.9958

0.9997 0.9996 0.9994 0.9992 0.9990

1.0002 1.0003 1.0004 1.0007 1.0010

1.0008 1.0010 1.0012 1.0017 1.0023

1.0014 1.0016 1.0019 1.0026 1.0034

1.0019 1.0022 1.0025 1.0033 1.0042

1.0026 1.0029 1.0032 1.0040 1.0049

1.0034 1.0036 1.0039 1.0048 1.0058

1.0048 1.0049 1.0052 1.0059 1.0068

1.0066 1.0065 1.0066 1.0072 1.0082

1.0097 1.0094 1.0092 1.0096 1.0104

0.5608

0.8060 0.7042 0.6185 0.5699

0.8942 0.8442 0.8003 0.7657

0.9392 0.9121 0.8883 0.8693

0.9647 0.9497 0.9371 0.9274

0.9836 0.9771 0.9714 0.9668

0.9930 0.9907 0.9895 0.9890

0.9989 0.9991 1.0004 1.0025

1.0024 1.0048 1.0075 1.0105

1.0050 1.0081 1.0118 1.0158

1.0069 1.0110 1.0152 1.0196

1.0082 1.0128 1.0172 1.0220

1.0093 1.0139 1.0188 1.0240

1.0106 1.0152 1.0204 1.0258

1.0118 1.0165 1.0216 1.0271

1.0132 1.0179 1.0229 1.0284

1.0149 1.0195 1.0242 1.0298

600 800 1,000 1,500 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000

*Calculated by P. E. Liley from various steam tables for the lower temperatures and from Paper B-11 by P. H. Kesselman and Yu. I. Blank, 7th. Int. Conf. Properties of Steam, Tokyo, 1968, for the higher temperatures.

2-147

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TABLE 2-186 Temperature, K

Compressibility Factors of Water Substance (SI units)* Pressure, bar 1

5

10

15

20

25

30

40

50

60

80

100

150

200

250

300

400

500

600

800

400 450 500 550 600 650

0.990 0.993 0.996 0.997 0.998 0.999

0.003 0.003 0.980 0.985 0.990 0.992

0.006 0.006 0.958 0.969 0.979 0.984

0.009 0.009 0.930 0.956 0.970 0.977

0.012 0.012 0.901 0.939 0.961 0.968

0.014 0.014 0.878 0.922 0.948 0.959

0.017 0.016 0.016 0.904 0.935 0.958

0.023 0.022 0.021 0.865 0.910 0.937

0.029 0.027 0.026 0.822 0.885 0.919

0.035 0.033 0.031 0.773 0.858 0.902

0.046 0.043 0.042 0.042 0.798 0.864

0.058 0.054 0.052 0.052 0.726 0.824

0.086 0.080 0.077 0.077 0.082 0.702

0.114 0.107 0.102 0.102 0.107 0.514

0.143 0.134 0.127 0.126 0.131 0.177

0.171 0.159 0.152 0.150 0.155 0.183

0.227 0.206 0.201 0.181 0.201 0.221

0.282 0.255 0.249 0.198 0.246 0.260

0.336 0.304 0.297 0.289 0.290 0.303

0.445 0.402 0.390 0.378 0.375 0.383

1000 0.552 0.498 0.482 0.464 0.457 0.460

700 750 800 850 900 950

1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

0.994 0.996 0.997 0.997 0.998 0.998

0.988 0.991 0.993 0.995 0.997 0.997

0.984 0.988 0.991 0.992 0.993 0.994

0.976 0.981 0.985 0.989 0.992 0.994

0.967 0.975 0.982 0.984 0.989 0.993

0.966 0.971 0.976 0.981 0.986 0.991

0.952 0.961 0.970 0.977 0.982 0.985

0.941 0.955 0.966 0.973 0.979 0.983

0.929 0.945 0.957 0.967 0.974 0.980

0.900 0.927 0.945 0.957 0.965 0.973

0.876 0.907 0.929 0.946 0.958 0.967

0.800 0.856 0.892 0.917 0.936 0.950

0.716 0.801 0.853 0.889 0.915 0.933

0.618 0.743 0.813 0.860 0.893 0.916

0.503 0.682 0.773 0.831 0.872 0.901

0.326 0.557 0.693 0.775 0.830 0.867

0.316 0.465 0.620 0.715 0.792 0.839

0.340 0.435 0.568 0.679 0.760 0.816

0.406 0.456 0.538 0.631 0.714 0.780

0.476 0.509 0.561 0.629 0.700 0.761

1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.001 1.003

0.999 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.001 1.002

0.998 0.999 1.000 1.000 1.001 1.002

0.995 0.998 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.002

0.995 0.998 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.002

0.994 0.997 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.002

0.993 0.997 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.002

0.990 0.995 0.999 1.000 1.000 1.002

0.987 0.994 0.998 1.000 1.000 1.002

0.985 0.994 0.998 1.000 1.001 1.003

0.978 0.992 0.998 1.000 1.002 1.003

0.973 0.990 0.997 1.000 1.003 1.004

0.960 0.986 0.996 1.001 1.003 1.004

0.948 0.982 0.995 1.002 1.004 1.006

0.935 0.975 0.995 1.002 1.005 1.008

0.923 0.968 0.994 1.004 1.008 1.011

0.900 0.961 0.993 1.006 1.011 1.014

0.878 0.957 0.992 1.009 1.014 1.018

0.859 0.949 0.994 1.012 1.017 1.021

0.831 0.942 0.996 1.015 1.021 1.032

0.816 0.937 0.998 1.020 1.031 1.043

*Calculated by P. E. Liley from various steam tables for the lower temperatures and from Pap. B-11 by P. H. Kesselman and Yu. I. Blank, 7th Internal Conference on the Properties of Steam, Tokyo, 1968, for the higher temperatures.

2-148

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COMPRESSIBILITIES TABLE 2-187 Temperature, K

2-149

Compressibility Factors for Xenon* Pressure, bar 1

5

10

20

40

60

80

100

200

300

400

500

200 250 300 350 400

0.9831 0.9911 0.9949 0.9967 0.9977

0.9088 0.9545 0.9736 0.9834 0.9892

0.0293 0.9052 0.9465 0.9669 0.9183

0.0584 0.7887 0.8885 0.9322 0.9562

0.1162 0.1114 0.7517 0.8473 0.9128

0.1733 0.1642 0.5492 0.7840 0.8696

0.2300 0.2158 0.2794 0.7039 0.8278

0.2861 0.2663 0.3016 0.6249 0.7888

0.5601 0.5074 0.5021 0.5645 0.6916

0.8253 0.7355 0.6997 0.7124 0.7642

1.0833 0.9546 0.8886 0.8706 0.8850

1.3356 1.1670 1.0707 1.0269 1.0148

450 500 600 800 1000

0.9989 0.9982 0.9996 1.0000 1.0000

0.9928 0.9951 0.9979 0.9998 1.0004

0.9856 0.9902 0.9957 1.0002 1.0015

0.9714 0.9810 0.9917 1.0004 1.0031

0.9429 0.9623 0.9841 1.0012 1.0144

0.9163 0.9452 0.9772 1.0020 1.0101

0.8911 0.9293 0.9715 1.0034 1.0133

0.8679 0.9156 0.9667 1.0054 1.0172

0.7335 0.8774 0.9596 1.0213 1.0394

0.8331 0.8953 0.9791 1.0476 1.0669

0.9187 0.9572 1.0211 1.0818 1.0979

1.0224 1.0412 1.0799 1.1222 1.1331

*Calculated from PVT values tabulated in Rabinovich (ed.), Thermophysical Properties of Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon, Standards Press, Moscow, 1976. This book was published in English translation by Hemisphere, New York, 1988 (604 pp.).

TABLE 2-188

Compressibilities of Liquids*

At the constant temperature T, the compressibility β = (1/V w0)(dV/dP). In general as P increases, β decreases rapidly at first and then slowly; the change of β with T is large at low pressures but very small at pressures above 1000 to 2000 megabars. 1 megabar = 0.987 atm. = 106 dynes/cm2 based upon the older usage, 1 bar = 1 dyne/cm2. The use of the bar as a pressure unit is not encouraged.

Substance

Temp., °C

Pressure, megabars

Acetone Acetone Acetone Acetone Amyl alcohol alcohol, iso. alcohol, iso. alcohol, n alcohol, n alcohol, n alcohol, n Benzene Benzene Benzene Bromine Bromine Butyl alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso Carbon bisulfide bisulfide bisulfide bisulfide tetrachloride tetrachloride Chloroform Chloroform Dichloroethylsulfide Dichloroethylsulfide Ethyl acetate acetate

14 20 20 40 14 20 20 20 20 20 40 17 20 20 20 20 18 20 20 20 20 20 16 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 32 32 13 20

23 500 1,000 12,000 23 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 12,000 5 200 400 200 400 8 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 21 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 200 400 1,000 2,000 23 200

Compressibility per megabar β × 106

Substance

111 61 52 9 88 84 70 61 46 8 8 89 77 67 56 51 97 81 64 56 46 8 86 57 48 6 86 73 83 70 34 24 103 90

Ethyl acetate alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol bromide bromide bromide bromide bromide chloride chloride chloride chloride ether ether ether ether iodide iodide iodide iodide iodide Gallium Glycerol Hexane Hexane Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Mercury Mercury Mercury Mercury

Temp., °C

Pressure, megabars

Compressibility per megabar β × 106

Substance

20 14 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 15 20 20 20 25 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 22 22 22

400 23 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 23 500 1,000 12,000 23 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 300 5 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 300 500 1,000 12,000

75 100 63 54 8 100 82 70 54 8 151 102 66 8 188 84 61 10 81 69 64 50 8 3.97 22 117 91 55 45 8 3.95 3.97 3.91 2.37

Methyl alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol Nitric acid Oils: Almond Castor Linseed Olive Rapeseed Phosphorus trichloride trichloride trichloride trichloride Propyl alcohol (n) alcohol (n) alcohol (n?) alcohol (n?) alcohol (n?) Toluene Toluene Turpentine Water Water Water Water Water Water Water Xylene, meta meta

Temp., °C

Pressure, megabars

Compressibility per megabar β × 106

15 20 20 20 20 20 0

23 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 17

103 95 80 65 54 8 32

15 15 15 15 20 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 40 40 40 20 20

5 5 5 5

53 46 51 55 59 71 63 47 8 77 67 65 47 7 74 64 74 49 43 41 39 38 33 9 69 60

250 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 13 200 400 500 500 1,000 12,000 200 400

* Smithsonian Tables, Table 106. Scott (Cryogenic Engineering, Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1959) gives data for liquid nitrogen (p. 283), oxygen (p. 276), and hydrogen (p. 303). For a convenient index to the high-pressure work of Bridgman, see American Institute of Physics Handbook, p. 2-163, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957.

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2-150

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-189

Compressibilities of Solids

Many data on the compressibility of solids obtained prior to 1926 are contained in Gruneisen, Handbuch der Physik, vol. 10, Springer, Berlin, 1926, pp. 1–52; also available as translation, NASA RE 2-18-59W, 1959. See also Tables 271, 273, 276, 278, and other material in Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th ed., 1954. For a review of high-pressure work to 1946, see Bridgman, Rev. Mod. Phys., 18, 1 (1946).

LATENT HEATS UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32. To convert calories per gram-mole to British thermal units per

pound-mole, multiply by 1.799; to convert calories per gram to British thermal units per pound, multiply by 1.799. To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 1.934 × 10−2.

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LATENT HEATS TABLE 2-190

2-151

Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds*

Unless stated otherwise, the values have been taken from the compilations by K. K. Kelley on “Heats of Fusion of Inorganic Compounds,” U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 393 (1936), and “The Free Energies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Substances,” U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 383 (1935).

Substance Aluminum Al Al2Br6 Al2Cl6 AlF3·3NaF Al2I6 Al2O3 Antimony Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 SbCl5 Sb4O6 Sb4S6 Argon A Arsenic As AsBr3 AsCl3 AsF5 As4O6 Barium Ba BaBr2 BaCl2 BaF2 Ba(NO3)2 Ba3(PO4)2 BaSO4 Beryllium Be Bismuth Bi BiBr3 BiCl3 Bi2O3 Bi2S5 Boron BBr3 BCl3 BF3 B2H6 B3H10 B5H9 B5H11 B10H14 B2H5Br B3N3H6 Bromine Br2 BrF5 Cadmium Cd CdBr2 CdCl2 CdF2 CdI2 CdO CdSO4 Calcium Ca CaBr2 CaCO3 CaCl2 CaF2 Ca(NO3)2 CaO CaO·Al2O3·2SiO2 CaO·MgO·2SiO2 CaO·SiO2 CaSO4 Carbon C (graphite) CBr4 CCl4 CF4 CH4 C2N2 CNBr CNCl

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole

660.0 97.5 192.5 1000 191.0 2045

2,550 5,420 16,960 16,380 7,960 (26,000)

2057 256.4 180.2c

61,020 10,920 26,750c

385.5 3000

15,360

630.5 97 73.4 4 655 546

4,770 3,510 3,030 2,400 (27,000) 11,200

1440

46,670

219 172d 1425

10,360 11,570 17,820

−185.8

1,590

610c

31,000c

122 −52.8 457.2

7,570 4,980 14,300

−189.3 814 31 −16 −80.7 313

290 (6,620) 2,810 2,420 2,800 8,000

704 847 960 1287 595 1730 1350

(1,400)e 6,000 5,370 3,000 (5,980) 18,600 9,700

1280

2,500e

271.3

2,505

224 817 747

2,600 6,800 8,900

−128 −165.5 −119.8 −46.9

480

99.7 −104 −58

7,800

−7.2 −61.3

2,580 1,355

320.9 568 568 1110 387

1,460 (5,000) 5,300 (5,400) 3,660

1000

4,790

851 730 1282 782 1392 561 2707 1550 1392 1512 1297

2,230 4,180 (12,700) 6,100 4,100 5,120 (12,240) 29,400 (18,200) 13,400 6,700

bp at 1 atm, °C

1638

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole

35,670

1420 461 441

18,020 17,350

91.3 12.5 −100.9 −92.4 16 58 67 f 16 50.4

7,300 5,680 4,620 3,685 6,470 7,700 8,500 11,600 6,230 7,670

58.0 40.4

7,420 7,470

765

23,870

967

29,860

796 1559c

25,400 53,820c

1487

36,580

3600 90 −24.0

11,000e 1,050 644

−182.5 −27.8 52 −5

224 1,938u

77 −127.9 −161.4 −21.1

2,240

13

7,280 3,110 2,040 5,576u 11,010c 6,300

Substance Carbon (Cont.) CNF CNI CO CO2 COS COCl2 CS2 Cerium Ce Cesium Cs CsBr CsCl CsF CsI CsNO3 Chlorine Cl2 ClF ClF3 Cl2O ClO2 Cl2O7 Chromium Cr CrO2Cl2 Cobalt Co CoCl2 Copper Cu Cu2Br2 Cu2Cl2 CuI Cu2(CN)2 Cu2O CuO Cu2S Fluorine F2 F2O Gallium Ga Germanium Ge GeH4 Ge2H6 Ge3H8 GeHCl3 GeBr4 GeCl4 Ge(CH3)4 Gold Au Helium He Hydrogen H2 HBr HCl HCN HF (HF)6 HI H2O H22O (= D2O) H2O2 HNO3 H3PO2 H3PO3 H3PO4 H4P2O6 H2S H2S2 H2SO4 H2Se H2SeO4 H2Te Indium In

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole

−205.0 −57.5 −138.8

200 1,900 1,129 k

−112.0

1,049 l

775

2,120

28.4

500

642 715

3,600 (2,450)

407

3,250

−101.0

1,531m

1550

3,930

1490 727

3,660 7,390

1083.0

3,110

430

4,890

473 1230 1447 1127

(5,400) (13,400) 2,820 5,500

−223 29.8

bp at 1 atm, °C −72.8 141 −191.5 −78.4c −50.2 8.0

5,780c 13,980c 1,444 6,030 c, r 4,423 k 5,990

690 1300 1300 1251 1280

16,320 35,990 35,690 34,330 35,930

−34.1 −101 11.3 2.0 10.9 79

5,890 6,280 7,100 8,480

2475 117

8,250

959 −165 −109 −105.6 −71 26.1 −49.5 −88

(8,300)

1063.0

3,030

−271.4 −259.2 −86.9 −114.2 −13.2 −83.0

28 575 476 2,009i 1,094

−50.8 0.0 3.8 −2 −47 17.4 74 42.4 55 −85.5 −87.6 10.5

686 1,436 1,501s 2,520c 600 2,310 3,070 2,520 8,300 568t 1,805 2,360

58 −48.9

3,450 1,670

156.4

781

*See also subsection “Thermodynamic Properties.”

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4,878 m

1050

27,170

2595 1355 1490 1336

72,810 16,310 11,920 15,940

−188.2 −144.8 1,336

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole

1,640 2,650

2071 −89.1 31.4 110.6 75g 189 84 44 2966

3,580 5,900 7,550 8,000 8,560 7,030 6,460 81,800

−268.4

22

−252.7 −66.7 −85.0 25.7 33.3 51.2

216 4,210 3,860 6,027i 7,460 5,020

100.0 101.4 158

9,729 h,q 9,945 r,q 10,270

−60.3

4,463 t

−41.3

4,880

−2.2

5,650

2-152

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-190

Substance Iodine I2 ICl(α) ICl(β) IF7 Iron Fe FeCl2 Fe2Cl6 Fe(CO)5 FeO FeS Krypton Kr Lead Pb PbBr2 PbCl2 PbF2 PbI2 PbMoO4 PbO PbS PbSO4 PbWO4 Lithium Li LiBO2 LiBr LiCl LiF LiI LiOH Li2MoO4 LiNO3 Li2SiO3 Li4SiO4 Li2SO4 Li2WO4 Magnesium Mg MgBr2 MgCl2 MgF2 MgO Mg3(PO4)2 MgSiO3 MgSO4 MgZn2 Manganese Mn MnCl2 MnSiO3 MnTiO3 Mercury Hg HgBr2 HgCl2 HgI2 HgSO4 Molybdenum Mo MoF6 MoO3 Neon Ne Nickel Ni NiCl2 Ni(CO)4 Ni2S Ni3S2 Nitrogen N2 NF3 NH3 NH4CNS NH4NO3 N2O NO N2O4 N2O5 NOCl Osmium OsF8 OsO4 (yellow) OsO4 (white) Oxygen O2 O3

Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) mp, °C 113.0 17.2 13.9

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole

bp at 1 atm, °C

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole

3,650 2,660 2,270

183 4c

7,460c

1530 677 304 −21 1380 1195

3,560 7,800 20,590 3,250 (7,700) 5,000

2735 1026 319 105

84,600 30,210 12,040 9,000

−157

360e

152.9

10,390

2,310e

327.4 488 498 824 412 1065 890 1114 1087 1123

1,224 4,290 5,650 1,860 5,970 (25,800) 2,820 4,150 9,600 (15,200)

1744 914 954 1293 872

42,060 27,700 29,600 38,300 24,850

1472 1281

51,310 (50,000)

179 845 552 614 847 440 462 705

1,100 (5,570) 2,900 3,200 (2,360) (1,420) 2,480 4,200

1372

32,250

1310 1382 1681 1171

35,420 35,960 50,970 40,770

1177 1249 857 742

7,210 7,430 3,040 (6,700)

650 711 712 1221 2642 1184 1524 1127 589

2,160 8,300 8,100 5,900 18,500 (11,300) 14,700 3,500 (8,270)

1107

1220 650 1274 1404

3,450 7,340 (8,200) (7,960)

2152 1190

557 3,960 4,150 4,500 (1,440)

361 319 304 354

13,980 14,080 14,080 14,260

(6,660) 2,500 (2,500)

(4800) 36 1151

(128,000) 6,000

−38.9 241 277 250 850 2622 17 745 −248.5

1418

32,520 32,690

55,150 29,630

77

−246.0

440e

1455

4,200

2730 987c 42.5

87,300 48,360c 7,000

645 790

(2,980) 5,800 −195.8 −129.0 −33.4

1,336 3,000 5,581n

−88.5 −151.7 30 32.4 −6.4

3,950 3,307 7,040 13,800c 6,140

−210.0 −77.7 146 169.6 −90.8 −163.6 −13

56 42 −218.9

172 1,352n (4,700) 1,460 1,563 550 5,540

4,060 2,340 106

47.4 130

6,840 9,450

−183.0 −111

1,629 2,880

Substance Palladium Pd Phosphorus P4 (yellow) P4 (violet) P4 (black) PCl3 PH3 P4O6 P4O10(α) P4O10(β) POCl3 P2S3 Platinum Pt Potassium K KBO2 KBr KCl KCN KCNS K2CO3 K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 KF KI K2MoO4 KNO3 KOH KPO3 K3PO4 K4P2O7 K2SO4 K2TiO3 K2WO4 Praseodymium Pr Radon Rn Rhenium Re Re2O7 Re2O8 Rubidium Rb RbBr RbCl RbF RbI RbNO3 Selenium Se2 Se6 SeF6 SeO2 SeOCl2 Silicon Si SiCl4 Si2Cl6 Si3Cl8 (SiCl3)2O SiF4 Si2F6 SiF3Cl SiF2Cl2 SiH4 Si2H6 Si3H8 Si4H10 SiH3Br SiH2Br2 SiHCl3 (SiH3)3N (SiH3)2O SiO2 (quartz) SiO2 (cristobalite) Silver Ag AgBr AgCl AgCN AgI AgNO3 Ag2S Ag2SO4 Sodium Na NaBO2

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole

1554

4,120

bp at 1 atm, °C

44.2

615

−133.8 23.8 569

270o 3,360 17,080

1.1

3,110

1773.5

4,700

(4400)

(107,000)

63.5 947 742 770 623 179 897 984 398 857 682 922 338 360 817 1340 1092 1074 810 927

574 (5,700) 5,000 6,410 (3,500) 2,250 7,800 6,920 8,770 6,500 4,100 (4,000) 2,840 (2,000) 2,110 8,900 14,000 8,100 (10,600) (4,400)

776

18,920

1383 1407

37,060 38,840

1324

34,690

1327

30,850

932

2,700

−71 (3000) 296 147

15,340 3,800

39.1 677 717 833 638 305

525 3,700 4,400 4,130 2,990 1,340

217

1,220

10

1,010

1427 −67.6 −1

9,470 1,845

−33

280 417c 453c 74.2 −87.7 174 591 358c 105.1 508

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole

12,520 25,600c 33,100 7,280 3,489 o 10,380 20,670 8,380

−61.8

4,010

362.4

18,060

679 1352 1381 1408 1304 753 736 −45.8c 317c 168 2290 56.8 139 211.4 135.6 −94.8c −18.9c −70.1 −31.5 −111.6 −14.3 53.1 100 2.4 70.5 31.8 48.7 −15.4 2230

18,110 37,120 36,920 39,510 35,960 25,490 20,600 6,350c 20,900

6,860 12,340 8,820 6,130c 10,400c 4,460 5,080 2,960 5,110 6,780 8,890 5,650 6,840 6,360 6,850 5,350

−18.5 −138 −144 −185 −132.5 −117 −93.5 −93.8 −70.0 −126.5 −105.6 −144 1470 1700

3,900

960.5 430 455 350 557 209 842 657

2,700 2,180 3,155 2,750 2,250 2,755 3,360 (4,300)

2212

60,720

1564

42,520

1506

34,450

97.7 966

630 8,660

914

23,120

3,400 2,100

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LATENT HEATS TABLE 2-190

2-153

Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Concluded )

Substance Sodium (Cont.) NaBr NaCl NaClO3 NaCN NaCNS Na2CO3 NaF NaI Na2MoO4 NaNO3 NaOH aNa2O·aAl2O3·3SiO2 NaPO3 Na4P2O7 Na2S Na2SiO3 Na2Si2O5 Na2SO4 Na2WO4 Strontium Sr SrBr2 SrCl2 SrF2 Sr3(PO4)2 Sulfur S (rhombic) S (monoclinic) S2Cl2 SF6 SO2 SO3(α) SO3(β) SO3(γ) SOBr2 SOCl2 SO2Cl2 Tellurium Te TeCl4 TeF6

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole

747 800 255 562 323 854 992 662 687 310 322 1107 988 970 920 1087 884 884 702

6,140 7,220 5,290 (4,400) 4,450 7,000 7,000 5,240 3,600 3,760 2,000 13,150 (5,000) (13,700) (1,200) 10,300 8,460 5,830 5,800

757 643 872 1400 1770

2,190 4,780 4,100 4,260 18,500

112.8 119.2 −75.5 17 32.4 62.2

453

1,769p 2,060 2,890 6,310

3,230

bp at 1 atm, °C

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole

1392 1465

37,950 40,810

1500

37,280

1704

53,260

1378

1384

33,610

444.6

2,200

138 −63.5c −5.0 44.8

8,720 5,600c 5,960p 10,190

139.5 75.4 69.2

9,920 7,600 7,760

1090 392 −38.6c

16,830 6,700c

Substance Thallium Tl TlBr TlCl Tl2CO3 TlI TlNO3 Tl2S Tl2SO4 Tin Sn4 SnBr2 SnBr4 SnCl2 SnCl4 Sn(CH3)4 SnH4 SnI4 Titanium TiBr4 TiCl4 TiO2 Tungsten W WF6 Uranium UF6 Xenon Xe Zinc Zn ZnCl2 Zn(C2H5)2 ZnO ZnS Zirconium ZrBr4 ZrCl4 ZrI4 ZrO2

a

k

b

l

c

m

Values in parentheses are uncertain. For the freezing point or the normal boiling point unless otherwise stated. Sublimation. d Decomposes at about 75°C; value obtained by extrapolation. e Bichowsky and Rossini, “Thermochemistry of the Chemical Substances,” Reinhold, New York (1936). f Decomposes before the normal boiling point is reached. g Decomposes at about 40°C; value obtained by extrapolation. h See also pp. 2-304 through 2-307 on steam table. i Giauque and Ruehrwein, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 61 (1939): 2626. j Giauque and Egan, J. Chem. Phys., 5 (1937): 45.

TABLE 2-191

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole

Alloys 30.5 Pb + 69.5 Sn 36.9 Pb + 63.1 Sn 63.7 Pb + 36.3 Sn 77.8 Pb + 22.2 Sn 1 Pb + 9 Sn 24 Pb + 27.3 Sn + 48.7 Bi 25.8 Pb + 14.7 Sn + 52.4 Bi + 7 Cd Silicates Anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) Orthoclase (KAlSi2O8) Microcline (KAlSi3O8) Wollastonite (CaSiO8) Malacolite (Ca8MgSi4O12) Diopside (CaMgSi2O4) Olivine (Mg2SiO4) Fayalite (Fe2SiO4) Spermaceti Wax (bees’)

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole

302.5 460 427 273 440 207 449 632

1,030 5,990 4,260 4,400 3,125 2,290 3,000 5,500

1457 819 807

38,810 23,800 24,420

823

25,030

231.8 232 30 247 −33.2

1,720 (1,700) 3,000 3,050 2,190

2270

68,000

−149.8 143.5

(4,300)

38.2 −23 1825

(2,060) 2,240 (11,400)

136

3390 −0.4

(8,400) 1,800

(5900) 17.3

(176,000) 6,350

55.1c

9,990c

−111.5 419.5 283 1975 1645

2715

740 1,595 (5,500)

623 113 78.3 −52.3

20,740 8,330 7,320 4,420

8,350

−108.0

3,110

907 732 118

27,430 28,710 8,960

357c 311c 431c

25,800c 25,290c 29,030c

4,470 (9,000)

20,800

Kemp and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 59 (1937): 79. Brown and Manov, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 59 (1937): 500. Giauque and Powell, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61 (1939): 1970. n Overstreet and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc 59 (1937): 254. o Stephenson and Giauque, J. Chem. Phys., 5 (1937): 149. p Giauque and Stephenson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 60 (1938): 1389. q Osborne, Stimson, and Ginnings, Bur. Standards J. Research, 23, 197 (1939): 261. r Miles and Menzies, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 1067. s Long and Kemp, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 1829. t Giauque and Blue, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 831. u Ruehrwein and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 61 (1939): 2940.

Heats of Fusion of Miscellaneous Materials

Material

bp at 1 atm, °C

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

183 179 177.5 176.5 236 98.8 75.5

17 15.5 11.6 9.54 28 6.85 8.4

43.9 61.8

100 100 83 100 94 100 130 85 37.0 42.3

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2-154

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-192

Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds

The values for the hydrocarbons are from the tables of the American Petroleum Institute Research Project 44 at the National Bureau of Standards, with some from Parks and Huffman, Ind. Eng. Chem., 23, 1138 (1931). The values for the nonhydrocarbon compounds were recalculated from data in International Critical Tables, vol. 5. Hydrocarbon compounds Paraffins Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane 2-Methylpropane n-Pentane 2-Methylbutane 2,2-Dimethylpropane n-Hexane 2-Methylpentane 2,2-Dimethylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane n-Heptane 2-Methylhexane 3-Ethylpentane 2,2-Dimethylpentane 2,4-Dimethylpentane 3,3-Dimethylpentane 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane n-Octane 2-Methylheptane 3-Methylpentane 4-Methylheptane 2,2-Dimethylhexane 2,5-Dimethylhexane 3,3-Dimethylhexane 2-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 3-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 2,2,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane Eicosane Pentacosane Tritriacontane Aromatics Benzene Methylbenzene (Toluene) Ethylbenzene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene n-Propylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1-Methyl-2-ethylbenzene

Formula

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C4H10 C5H12 C5H12 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C20H42 C25H52 C33H68

−182.48 −183.23 −187.65 −138.33 −159.60 −129.723 −159.890 −16.6 −95.320 −153.680 −99.73 −128.41 −90.595 −118.270 −118.593 −123.790 −119.230 −134.46 −24.96 −56.798 −109.04 −120.50 −120.955 −121.18 −91.200 −126.10 −114.960 −90.870 −112.27 −107.365 −100.70 −109.210 +100.69 −53.9 −30.0 −25.9 −9.6 +36.4 +53.3 +71.1

14.03 22.712 19.100 19.167 18.668 27.874 17.076 10.786 36.138 17.407 1.607 2.251 33.513 21.158 22.555 13.982 15.968 16.856 5.250 43.169 21.458 23.795 22.692 24.226 26.903 14.9 23.690 22.657 18.061 19.278 3.204 19.392 14.900 41.2 48.3 34.1 51.3 52.0 53.6 54.0

C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12

+5.533 −94.991 −94.950 −25.187 −47.872 +13.263 −99.500 −96.028 −80.833

30.100 17.171 20.629 30.614 26.045 38.526 16.97 19.22 21.13 Heat of fusion, cal/g

Formula

mp, °C

Acetic acid Acetone Acrylic acid Allo-cinnamic acid Aminobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Amyl alcohol Anethole Aniline Anthraquinone Apiol Azobenzene Azoxybenzene

C2H4O2 C3H6O C3H4O2 C9H8O2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C5H12O C10H12O C6H5NH2 C14H8O2 C12H14O4 C12H10N2 C12H10N2O

16.7 −95.5 12.3 68 145 179.5 188.5 −78.9 22.5 −6.3 284.8 29.5 67.1 36

46.68 23.42 37.03 27.35 35.48 38.03 36.46 26.65 25.80 27.09 37.48 25.80 28.91 21.62

Benzil Benzoic acid Benzophenone Benzylaniline Bromocamphor Bromochlorbenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromoiodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromol hydrate Bromophenol (p-) Bromotoluene (p-)

C14H10O2 C7H8O2 C13H10O C13H13N C10H15BrO C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C2H3Br3O2 C6H5BrO C7H7Br

95.2 122.45 47.85 32.37 78 −12.6 −21.2 64.6 21 9.3 90.1 46 63.5 28

22.15 33.90 23.53 21.86 41.57 15.41 15.29 23.41 12.18 10.27 16.60 16.90 20.50 20.86

Nonhydrocarbon compounds

Hydrocarbon compounds Aromatics—(Cont.) 1-Methyl-3-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-4-ethylbenzene 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene Naphthalene Camphene Durene Isodurene Prehnitene p-Cymene n-Butyl benzene tert-Butyl benzene β-Methyl naphthalene Diphenyl Hexamethyl benzene Diphenyl methane Anthracene Phenanthrene Tolane Stilbene Dibenzil Triphenyl methane Alkyl cyclohexanes Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane Alkyl cyclopentanes Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane 1,1-Dimethylcyclopentane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclopentane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclopentane trans-1,3-Dimethylcyclopentane Monoolefins Ethene (Ethylene) Propene (Propylene) 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 2-Methylpropene (isobutene) 1-Pentene cis-2-pentene trans-2-pentene 2-Methyl-1-butene 3-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene Acetylenes Acetylene 2-Butyne (dimethylacetylene) Nonhydrocarbon compounds

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H8 C10H12 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C11H10 C12H10 C12H18 C13H12 C14H10 C14H10 C14H10 C14H12 C14H14 C19H16

−95.55 −62.350 −25.375 −43.80 −44.720 +80.0 +51 +79.3 −24.0 −7.7 −68.9 −88.5 −58.1 +34.1 +68.6 +165.5 +25.2 +216.5 +96.3 +60 +124 +51.4 +92.1

15.14 25.29 16.64 24.54 18.97 36.0 57 37.4 23.0 20.0 17.1 19.5 14.9 20.1 28.8 30.4 26.4 38.7 25.0 28.7 40.0 30.7 21.1

C6H12 C7H14

+6.67 −126.58

7.569 16.429

C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14

−93.80 −142.445 −138.435 −69.73 −53.85 −117.57 −133.680

2.068 19.68 11.10 3.36 3.87 15.68 17.93

C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10

−169.15 −185.25 −185.35 −138.91 −105.55 −140.35 −165.27 −151.363 −140.235 −137.560 −168.500 −133.780

28.547 17.054 16.393 31.135 41.564 25.265 16.82 24.239 26.536 26.879 18.009 25.738

C2H2 C4H6

−81.5 −132.23

23.04 40.808

Formula

Formula

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

Butyl alcohol (n-) (t-) Butyric acid (n-)

C4H10O C4H10O C4H8O2

−89.2 25.4 −5.7

29.93 21.88 30.04

Capric acid (n-) Caprylic acid (n-) Carbazole Carbon tetrachloride Carvoxime (d-) (l-) (dl-) Cetyl alcohol Chloracetic acid (α-) (β-) Chloral alcoholate hydrate Chloroaniline (p-) Chlorobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Chloronitrobenzene (m-) (p-) Cinnamic acid anhydride Cresol (p-) Crotonic acid (α-) (cis-) Cyanamide Cyclohexanol

C10H20O2 C8H16O2 C12H9N CCl4 C10H15NO C10H15NO C10H15NO C16H34O C2H3ClO2 C2H3ClO2 C4H7Cl3O2 C2H3Cl3O2 C6H6ClN C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C6H4ClNO2 C6H4ClNO2 C9H8O2 C18H14O3 C7H8O C4H6O2 C4H6O2 CH2N2 C6H12O

31.99 16.3 243 −22.8 71.5 71 91 49.27 61.2 56 9 47.4 71 140.2 154.25 239.7 44.4 83.5 133 48 34.6 72 71.2 44 25.46

38.87 35.40 42.05 41.57 23.29 23.41 24.61 33.80 31.06 35.12 24.03 33.18 37.15 39.30 36.41 49.21 29.38 31.51 36.50 28.14 26.28 25.32 34.90 49.81 4.19

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LATENT HEATS TABLE 2-192

2-155

Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds (Concluded ) Heat of fusion, cal/g

Formula

mp, °C

Dibromobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dibromophenol (2, 4-) Dichloroacetic acid Dichlorobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dihydroxybenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Di-iodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dimethyl tartrate (dl-) (d-) pyrone Dinitrobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dinitrotoluene (2, 4-) Dioxane Diphenyl amine

C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2O C2H2Cl2O2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H6O2 C6H6O2 C6H6O2 C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C6H10O6 C6H10O6 C7H8O2 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C7H6N2O4 C4H8O2 C12H11N

1.8 −6.9 86 12 −4(?) −16.7 −24.8 53.13 104.3 109.65 172.3 23.4 34.2 129 87 49 132 116.93 89.7 173.5 70.14 11.0 52.98

12.78 13.38 20.55 13.97 14.21 21.02 20.55 29.67 49.40 46.20 58.77 10.15 11.54 16.20 35.12 21.50 56.14 32.25 24.70 39.99 26.40 34.85 25.23

Elaidic acid Ethyl acetate alcohol Ethylene dibromide Ethyl ether

C18H34O2 C4H8O2 C2H6O C2H4Br2 C4H10O

44.4 83.8 −114.4 10.012 −116.3

52.08 28.43 25.76 13.52 23.54

Formic acid

CH2O2

Glutaric acid Glycerol Glycol, ethylene

Nonhydrocarbon compounds

8.40

58.89

C6H8O4 C3H8O3 C2H6O2

97.5 18.07 −11.5

37.39 47.49 43.26

Hydrazo benzene Hydrocinnamic acid Hydroxyacetanilide

C12H12N2 C9H10O2 C8H9NO2

134 48 91.3

22.89 28.14 33.59

Iodotoluene (p-) Isopropyl alcohol ether

C7H7I C3H8O C6H14O

34 −88.5 −86.8

18.75 21.08 25.79

Lauric acid (n-) Levulinic acid

C12H24O2 C5H8O3

43.22 33

43.72 18.97

Menthol (l-) (α) Methyl alcohol Myristic acid Methyl cinnamate fumarate oxalate phenylpropiolate succinate

C10H20O CH4O C14H28O2 C10H10O2 C6H8O4 C4H6O4 C10H8O2 C6H10O4

43.5 −97.8 53.86 36 102 54.35 18 19.5

18.63 23.7 47.49 26.53 57.93 42.64 22.86 35.72

Formula

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

Naphthol (α-) (β-) Naphthylamine (α-) Nitroaniline (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitrobenzene Nitrobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitronaphthalene Nitrophenol (o-)

C10H8O C10H8O C10H9N C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H5NO2 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C10H7NO2 C6H5NO3

95.0 120.6 50 71.2 114.0 147.3 5.85 145.8 141.1 239.2 56.7 45.13

38.94 31.30 22.34 27.88 40.97 36.46 22.52 40.06 27.59 52.80 25.44 26.76

Palmitic acid Paraldehyde Pelargic acid (n-) (β-) Pelargonic acid (n-) (α-) Phenol Phenylacetic acid Phenylhydrazine Propyl ether (n)

C16H32O2 C6H12O3 C9H18O2 C9H18O2 C6H6O C8H8O2 C6H8N2 C6H14O

61.82 10.5 12.35 40.92 76.7 19.6 −126.1

39.18 25.02 39.04 30.63 29.03 25.44 36.31 20.66

Quinone

C6H4O2

115.7

40.85

Stearic acid Succinic anhydride Succinonitrile

C18H30O2 C4H4O3 C4H4N2

68.82 119 54.5

47.54 48.74 11.71

Tetrachloroxylene (o-) (p-) Thiophene Thiosinamine Thymol Toluic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Toluidine (p-) Tribromophenol (2, 4, 6-) Trichloroacetic acid Trinitroglycerol Trinitrotoluene (2, 4, 6-) Tristearin

C8H6Cl4 C8H6Cl4 C4H4S C4H8N2S C10H14O C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C7H9N C6H3Br3O C2HCl3O2 C3H5N3O9 C7H5N3O6 C57H110O6

86 95 −39.4 77 51.5 103.7 108.75 179.6 43.3 93 57.5 12.3 80.83 70.8, 54.5

21.02 22.10 14.11 33.45 27.47 35.40 27.59 39.90 39.90 13.38 8.60 23.02 22.34 45.63

Undecylic acid (α-) (n-) (β-) (n-) Urethane

C11H22O2 C11H22O2 C3H7NO2

28.25 48.7

32.20 42.91 40.85

Veratrol

C8H10O2

22.5

27.45

Xylene dibromide (o-) (m-) dichloride (o-) (m-) (p-)

C8H8Br2 C8H8Br2 C8H8Cl2 C8H8Cl2 C8H8Cl2

Nonhydrocarbon compounds

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95 77 55 34 100

24.25 21.45 29.03 26.64 32.73

TABLE 2-193 Cmpd. no.

Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Compounds Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol wt

C1 × 1E−07

C2

C3

C4

Tmin, K

∆Hv at Tmin × 1E−07

Tmax, K

∆Hv at Tmax

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22

74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 110543 142825 111659 111842 124185

16.043 30.070 44.097 58.123 72.150 86.177 100.204 114.231 128.258 142.285

1.0194 2.1091 2.9209 3.6238 3.9109 4.4544 5.0014 5.5180 6.0370 6.6126

0.26087 0.60646 0.78237 0.8337 0.38681 0.39002 0.38795 0.38467 0.38522 0.39797

−0.14694 −0.55492 −0.77319 −0.82274 0 0 0 0 0 0

0.22154 0.32799 0.39246 0.39613 0 0 0 0 0 0

90.69 90.35 85.47 134.86 143.42 177.83 182.57 216.38 219.66 243.51

0.8724 1.7879 2.4787 2.8684 3.3968 3.7647 4.2619 4.5898 5.0545 5.4168

190.56 305.32 369.83 425.12 469.7 507.6 540.2 568.7 594.6 617.7

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane

C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42

1120214 112403 629505 629594 629629 544763 629787 593453 629925 112958

156.312 170.338 184.365 198.392 212.419 226.446 240.473 254.500 268.527 282.553

7.2284 7.7337 8.4339 9.0539 9.6741 10.1560 10.4730 10.9690 11.6740 12.8600

0.40607 0.40681 0.4257 0.44467 0.45399 0.45726 0.4374 0.44327 0.45865 0.50351

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.32986

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −0.42184

247.57 263.57 267.76 279.01 283.07 291.31 295.13 301.31 305.04 309.58

5.9240 6.2802 6.8015 7.2002 7.6728 8.0225 8.3699 8.7246 9.2185 9.5933

639 658 675 693 708 723 736 747 758 768

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

21 22 23 24 25 26 27

2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18

75285 78784 79298 107835 565593 560214 540841

58.123 72.150 86.177 86.177 100.204 114.231 114.231

3.1667 3.7700 4.1404 4.2780 4.6536 4.9910 4.7721

0.3855 0.3952 0.38124 0.384 0.37579 0.383 0.37992

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

113.54 113.25 145.19 119.55 160 172.22 165.78

2.7927 3.3720 3.6328 3.8495 4.0747 4.3530 4.1565

408.14 460.43 499.98 497.5 537.35 573.5 543.96

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Pentene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene

C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14

74851 115071 106989 590181 624646 109671 592416 592767

28.054 42.081 56.108 56.108 56.108 70.134 84.161 98.188

2.8694 3.2300 3.4190 3.3320 3.7740 4.3236 4.8120

0.3746 0.8375 0.3747 0.3754 0.3736 0.37647 0.3788 0.3685

0 −0.9216 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0.5012 0 0 0 0 0 0

104 87.89 87.8 134.26 167.62 107.93 133.39 154.27

1.6025 2.4031 2.9582 2.9773 2.7684 3.4166 3.8483 4.2478

282.34 365.57 419.95 435.58 428.63 464.78 504.03 537.29

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methylpropene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene

C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8

111660 124118 872059 115117 563462 513359 590192 106990 78795

112.215 126.242 140.269 56.108 70.134 70.134 54.092 54.092 68.119

5.3980 5.9940 6.4898 3.2720 3.9091 3.9121 3.5220 3.2580 3.9310

0.3835 0.3953 0.39187 0.383 0.39866 0.3634 0.395 0.373 0.425

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

171.45 191.78 206.89 132.81 135.58 139.39 136.95 164.25 127.27

4.7013 5.1366 5.5289 2.8262 3.4072 3.4437 3.0540 2.7155 3.4529

566.65 593.25 616.4 417.9 465 471 452 425.17 484

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

45 46 47 48 49 50

Acetylene Methylacetylene Dimethylacetylene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne

C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8

74862 74997 503173 598232 627190 627214

26.038 40.065 54.092 68.119 68.119 68.119

2.3795 3.2775 3.8560 3.7920 3.9540 4.4158

0.375 0.3997 0.3737 0.3565 0.3512 0.44347

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

192.4 170.45 240.91 183.45 167.45 163.83

1.6488 2.6297 2.9557 3.1681 3.4025 3.7321

308.32 402.39 473.2 463.2 481.2 519

0 0 0 0 0 0

51 52

1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne

C6H10 C6H10

693027 764352

82.145 82.145

4.5740 4.9110

0.3698 0.4392

0 0

0 0

141.25 183.65

4.0640 4.1067

516.2 549

0 0

2-156

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53 54 55 56

3-Hexyne 1-Heptyne 1-Octyne Vinylacetylene1

C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C4H4

928494 628717 629050 689974

82.145 96.172 110.199 52.076

4.8080 5.0514 5.6306 3.6490

0.436 0.41163 0.4148 0.4

0 0 0 0.043

0 0 0 0

170.05 192.22 193.55 173.15

4.0831 4.2470 4.7663 2.9876

544 559 585 454

0 0 0 0

57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Cyclopentene 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene

C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10

287923 96377 1640897 110827 108872 590669 1678917 142290 693890 110838

70.134 84.161 98.188 84.161 98.188 112.215 112.215 68.119 82.145 82.145

3.8900 4.3600 4.8288 4.4940 4.7534 5.0402 5.3832 3.8107 4.3541 4.4405

0.361 0.38531 0.37809 0.3974 0.39461 0.4036 0.41763 0.3543 0.36805 0.37479

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

179.28 130.73 134.71 279.69 146.58 239.66 161.84 138.13 146.62 169.67

3.3292 3.9118 4.3604 3.3977 4.2295 4.0862 4.7318 3.4046 3.8769 3.8791

511.76 532.79 569.52 553.58 572.19 591.15 609.15 507 542 560.4

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

67 68 69 70 71 72 73

Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene

C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12

71432 108883 95476 108383 106423 100414 103651

78.114 92.141 106.167 106.167 106.167 106.167 120.194

4.7500 5.0144 5.5330 5.4600 5.3740 5.4640 5.7663

0.45238 0.3859 0.377 0.3726 0.3656 0.392 0.3956

0.0534 0 0 0 0 0 −8.9129E−03

−0.1181 0 0 0 0 0 0

278.68 178.18 247.98 225.3 286.41 178.15 215.03

3.4909 4.3670 4.5826 4.6097 4.2761 4.7811 5.0574

562.16 591.8 630.33 617.05 616.23 617.2 574.54

0 0 0 0 0 0 2.4695E+07

74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene p-Isopropyltoluene Naphthalene Biphenyl Styrene m-Terphenyl

C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H14 C10H8 C12H10 C8H8 C18H14

95636 98828 108678 99876 91203 92524 100425 92068

120.194 120.194 120.194 134.221 128.174 154.211 104.152 230.309

5.9126 5.7950 6.0380 6.3314 7.0510 7.5736 5.7260 10.1230

0.35632 0.3956 0.37999 0.40289 0.4612 0.3975 0.4055 0.3767

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

229.33 177.14 228.42 205.25 353.43 342.2 242.54 360

5.0621 5.0869 5.1010 5.4387 5.2508 6.0420 4.7128 8.4070

649.13 631.1 637.36 653.15 748.35 789.26 636 924.85

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

82 83 84 85 86 87 88

Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 2-Propanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol

CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C3H8O C4H10O

67561 64175 71238 71363 78922 67630 75650

32.042 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 60.096 74.123

5.2390 5.6900 6.3300 6.7390 7.2560 6.3080 7.7320

0.3682 0.3359 0.3575 0.173 0.4774 0.3921 0.5645

0 0 0 0.2915 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

175.47 159.05 146.95 184.51 158.45 185.28 298.97

4.4900 5.0245 5.6460 6.0575 6.1383 5.2807 4.6703

512.64 513.92 536.78 563.05 536.05 508.3 506.21

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Hexanol 1-Heptanol Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol

C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C6H14O C7H16O C6H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2

71410 137326 123513 111273 111706 108930 107211 57556

88.150 88.150 88.150 102.177 116.203 100.161 62.068 76.095

8.3100 7.7839 8.0815 8.5980 9.6900 9.2440 8.2900 8.0700

0.511 0.45313 0.50185 0.513 0.572 0.64825 0.4266 0.295

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

195.56 203 155.95 228.55 239.15 296.6 260.15 213.15

6.7533 6.3619 6.8999 6.7623 7.3822 6.2273 6.8461 7.1374

586.15 565 577.2 611.35 631.9 650 719.7 626

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

97 98 99 100

Phenol o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol

C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O

108952 95487 108394 106445

94.113 108.140 108.140 108.140

7.3060 7.1979 8.0082 8.4942

0.4246 0.40317 0.45314 0.50234

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

314.06 304.19 285.39 307.93

5.6577 5.7135 6.3326 6.3649

694.25 697.55 705.85 704.65

0 0 0 0

101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Dimethyl ether Methyl ethyl ether Methyl n-propyl ether Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl-n-butyl ether Methyl isobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether

C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O

115106 540670 557175 598538 628284 625445 1634044

46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150

2.9940 3.5300 3.9795 3.9305 4.5328 4.2678 4.2024

0.3505 0.376 0.3729 0.3711 0.3824 0.37995 0.37826

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

131.65 160 133.97 127.93 157.48 150 164.55

2.6032 2.9751 3.5184 3.4876 3.9358 3.7232 3.6096

400.1 437.8 476.3 464.5 510 497 497.1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2-157

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TABLE 2-193 Cmpd. no.

Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued ) Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol wt

C1 × 1E−07

C2

C3

C4

Tmin, K

∆Hv at Tmin × 1E−07

Tmax, K

∆Hv at Tmax

108 109 110 111 112

Diethyl ether Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ether Methyl phenyl ether Diphenyl ether

C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C7H8O C12H10O

60297 628320 625547 100663 101848

74.123 88.150 88.150 108.140 170.211

4.0600 5.4380 4.2580 5.8662 6.8243

0.3868 0.60624 0.37221 0.37127 0.30877

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

156.85 145.65 140 235.65 300.03

3.4651 4.4140 3.7556 4.9560 5.8546

466.7 500.23 489 645.6 766.8

0 0 0 0 0

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde 1-Propanal 1-Butanal 1-Pentanal 1-Hexanal 1-Heptanal 1-Octanal 1-Nonanal 1-Decanal

CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O

50000 75070 123386 123728 110623 66251 111717 124130 124196 112312

30.026 44.053 58.080 72.107 86.134 100.161 114.188 128.214 142.241 156.268

3.0760 4.6070 4.1492 4.6403 5.1478 5.6661 6.1299 6.8347 7.3363 7.9073

0.2954 0.62 0.36751 0.3849 0.37541 0.38533 0.37999 0.41039 0.41735 0.4129

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

181.15 150.15 170 176.75 182 217.15 229.8 246 255.15 267.15

2.5863 3.6199 3.5675 3.9797 4.4502 4.7495 5.1353 5.5966 5.9779 6.4201

408 466 504.4 537.2 566.1 591 617 638.1 658 674.2

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134

Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Pentanone Methyl isopropyl ketone 2-Hexanone Methyl isobutyl ketone 3-Methyl-2-pentanone 3-Pentanone Ethyl isopropyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone Cyclohexanone Methyl phenyl ketone

C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C6H10O C8H8O

67641 78933 107879 563804 591786 108101 565617 96220 565695 565800 108941 98862

58.080 72.107 86.134 86.134 100.161 100.161 100.161 86.134 100.161 114.188 98.145 120.151

4.2150 4.6220 5.1740 5.1400 5.6770 5.4000 5.1130 5.2359 5.3880 5.5980 5.5500 6.6104

0.3397 0.355 0.39422 0.3858 0.3817 0.383 0.3395 0.40465 0.40616 0.3774 0.3538 0.37425

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

178.45 186.48 196.29 250 217.35 189.15 167.15 234.18 200 204.81 242 292.81

3.6390 3.9704 4.3663 4.0753 4.7584 4.6294 4.5480 4.2075 4.5154 4.7426 4.7114 5.4166

508.2 535.5 561.08 553 587.05 571.4 573 560.95 567 576 653 709.5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

135 136 137 138 139 140 141

Formic acid Acetic acid Propionic acid n-Butyric acid Isobutyric acid Benzoic acid2 Acetic anhydride

CH2O2 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C7H6O2 C4H6O3

64186 64197 79094 107926 79312 65850 108247

46.026 60.053 74.079 88.106 88.106 122.123 102.090

2.3700 2.0265 2.7290 7.4996 4.4967 10.1900 6.3520

1.999 0.11911 0.06954 2.333 1.1615 0.478 0.3986

−5.1503 −1.3487 −1.0423 −3.8644 −2.4573 0 0

3.331 1.4227 1.1152 2.016 1.5823 0 0

281.45 289.81 252.45 267.95 227.15 395.45 200.15

1.9532 2.3185 2.9964 4.1566 3.6179 7.1277 5.4139

588 591.95 600.81 615.7 605 751 606

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

142 143 144 145 146 147 148

Methyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl propionate Methyl n-butyrate Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Ethyl propionate

C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2

107313 79209 554121 623427 109944 141786 105373

60.053 74.079 88.106 102.133 74.079 88.106 102.133

4.1030 4.4920 5.0080 5.3781 4.5909 4.9330 5.3325

0.3825 0.3685 0.3959 0.39523 0.4123 0.3847 0.401

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

174.15 175.15 185.65 187.35 193.55 189.6 199.25

3.4644 3.8418 4.2231 4.5694 3.7679 4.1490 4.4449

487.2 506.55 530.6 554.5 508.4 523.3 546

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

149 150 151 152 153 154 155

Ethyl n-butyrate n-Propyl formate n-Propyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Vinyl acetate

C6H12O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C4H6O2

105544 110747 109604 123864 93583 93890 108054

116.160 88.106 102.133 116.160 136.150 150.177 86.090

5.6419 4.9687 5.4327 5.7800 6.9650 6.3400 4.7700

0.37985 0.4025 0.407 0.3935 0.4061 0.2911 0.3765

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

175.15 180.25 178.15 199.65 260.75 238.45 180.35

4.9090 4.2162 4.6322 4.8943 5.7500 5.6137 4.0619

571 538 549.73 579.15 693 698 519.13

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

156 157 158

Methylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine

CH5N C2H7N C3H9N

74895 124403 75503

31.057 45.084 59.111

3.8580 4.0900 3.3050

0.404 0.42005 0.354

0 0 0

0 0 0

179.69 180.96 156.08

3.1006 3.2678 2.8216

430.05 437.2 433.25

0 0 0

2-158

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159 160 161

Ethylamine Diethylamine Triethylamine

C2H7N C4H11N C6H15N

75047 109897 121448

45.084 73.138 101.192

4.2750 4.6133 4.6640

0.5857 0.42628 0.3663

−0.332 0 0

0.169 0 0

192.15 223.35 158.45

3.2955 3.5761 4.1011

456.15 496.6 535.15

0 0 0

162 163 164 165 166 167 168

n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine Isopropylamine Diisopropylamine Aniline N-Methylaniline N,N-Dimethylaniline

C3H9N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C6H7N C7H9N C8H11N

107108 142847 75310 108189 62533 100618 121697

59.111 101.192 59.111 101.192 93.128 107.155 121.182

4.4488 5.4280 4.4041 5.0070 7.1950 6.3860 6.7900

0.39494 0.3665 0.43325 0.4362 0.458 0.3104 0.4053

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

188.36 210.15 177.95 176.85 267.13 216.15 275.6

3.6857 4.5500 3.5874 4.1823 5.7710 5.6961 5.5162

496.95 550 471.85 523.1 699 701.55 687.15

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

169 170 171 172

Ethylene oxide Furan Thiophene Pyridine

C2H4O C4H4O C4H4S C5H5N

75218 110009 110021 110861

44.053 68.075 84.142 79.101

3.6652 4.0050 4.5793 5.1740

0.37878 0.3995 0.38557 0.38865

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

160.65 196.29 234.94 231.51

3.1271 3.2647 3.7472 4.3144

469.15 490.15 579.35 619.95

0 0 0 0

173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180

Formamide3 N,N-Dimethylformamide Acetamide N-Methylacetamide Acetonitrile Propionitrile n-Butyronitrile Benzonitrile

CH3NO C3H7NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C2H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N

75127 68122 60355 79163 75058 107120 109740 100470

45.041 73.095 59.068 73.095 41.053 55.079 69.106 103.123

7.3580 5.9217 8.1070 7.3402 4.3511 4.9348 5.2200 6.2615

0.3564 0.37996 0.42 0.38974 0.34765 0.41873 0.165 0.35427

0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6692 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 −0.539 0

275.7 212.72 353.15 301.15 229.32 180.26 161.25 260.4

6.2844 5.0931 6.2386 5.9384 3.5996 4.2005 4.7223 5.3091

771 649.6 761 718 545.5 564.4 582.25 699.35

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189

Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan n-Propyl mercaptan n-Butyl mercaptan Isobutyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Dimethyl sulfide Methyl ethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide

CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S

74931 75081 107039 109795 513440 513531 75183 624895 352932

48.109 62.136 76.163 90.189 90.189 90.189 62.136 76.163 90.189

3.4448 3.8440 4.4782 4.9702 4.7420 4.6432 3.8690 4.4740 4.7182

0.37427 0.37534 0.41073 0.41199 0.40535 0.399 0.3694 0.4097 0.3643

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

150.18 125.26 159.95 157.46 128.31 133.02 174.88 167.23 169.2

2.9825 3.4489 3.8723 4.3505 4.2664 4.1614 3.3042 3.8344 4.1353

469.95 499.15 536.6 570.1 559 554 503.04 533 557.15

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197

Fluoromethane Chloromethane Trichloromethane Tetrachloromethane Bromomethane Fluoroethane Chloroethane Bromoethane

CH3F CH3Cl CHCl3 CCl4 CH3Br C2H5F C2H5Cl C2H5Br

593533 74873 67663 56235 74839 353366 75003 74964

34.033 50.488 119.377 153.822 94.939 48.060 64.514 108.966

2.4708 2.9745 4.1860 4.3252 3.1690 2.7617 3.5240 3.9004

0.37014 0.353 0.3584 0.37688 0.3015 0.32162 0.3652 0.38012

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

131.35 175.43 209.63 250.33 179.47 129.95 134.8 154.55

2.0276 2.4520 3.5047 3.4528 2.7379 2.4089 3.1052 3.3933

317.42 416.25 536.4 556.35 467 375.31 460.35 503.8

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205

1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Vinyl chloride Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene

C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C2H3Cl C6H5F C6H5Cl C6H5Br

540545 75296 78999 78875 75014 462066 108907 108861

78.541 78.541 112.986 112.986 62.499 96.104 112.558 157.010

3.9890 3.8871 4.7740 4.6750 3.4125 4.5820 5.1480 5.5520

0.37956 0.38043 0.39204 0.36529 0.4513 0.3717 0.36614 0.37694

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

150.35 155.97 200 172.71 119.36 230.94 227.95 242.43

3.4862 3.3586 4.0147 4.0997 2.9491 3.7605 4.3707 4.6875

503.15 489 560 572 432 560.09 632.35 670.15

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213

Air Hydrogen Helium-4 Neon Argon Fluorine Chlorine Bromine

H2 He Ne Ar F2 Cl2 Br2

132259100 1333740 7440597 7440019 7440371 7782414 7782505 7726956

28.951 2.016 4.003 20.180 39.948 37.997 70.905 159.808

0.8474 0.1013 0.0125 0.2389 0.8731 0.8876 3.0680 4.0000

0.3822 0.698 1.3038 0.3494 0.3526 0.34072 0.8458 0.351

0 −1.817 −2.6954 0 0 0 −0.9001 0

0 1.447 1.7098 0 0 0 0.453 0

59.15 13.95 2.2 24.56 83.78 53.48 172.12 265.85

0.6759 0.0913 0.0097 0.1803 0.6561 0.7578 2.2878 3.2323

132.45 33.19 5.2 44.4 150.86 144.12 417.15 584.15

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2-159

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TABLE 2-193 Cmpd. no.

Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Concluded ) Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol wt

C1 × 1E−07

C2

C3

C4

Tmin, K

∆Hv at Tmin × 1E−07

Tmax, K

∆Hv at Tmax

214 215 216 217 218

Oxygen Nitrogen Ammonia Hydrazine Nitrous oxide

O2 N2 NH3 N2H4 N2O

7782447 7727379 7664417 302012 10024972

31.999 28.014 17.031 32.045 44.013

0.9008 0.7491 3.1523 5.9794 2.3215

0.4542 0.40406 0.3914 0.9424 0.384

−0.4096 −0.317 −0.2289 −1.398 0

0.3183 0.27343 0.2309 0.8862 0

54.36 63.15 195.41 274.69 182.3

0.7742 0.6024 2.5298 4.5238 1.6502

154.58 126.2 405.65 653.15 309.57

0 0 0 0 0

219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231

Nitric oxide Cyanogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen cyanide2 Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Water

NO C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 HF HCl HBr HCN H2S SO2 SO3 H2O

10102439 460195 630080 124389 75150 7664393 7647010 10035106 74908 7783064 7446095 7446119 7732185

30.006 52.036 28.010 44.010 76.143 20.006 36.461 80.912 27.026 34.082 64.065 80.064 18.015

2.1310 3.3840 0.8585 2.1730 3.4960 13.4510 2.2093 2.4850 3.3490 2.5676 3.6760 7.3370 5.2053

0.4056 0.3707 0.4921 0.382 0.2986 13.36 0.3466 0.39 0.2053 0.37358 0.4 0.5647 0.3199

0 0 −0.326 −0.4339 0 −23.383 0 0 0 0 0 0 −0.212

0 0 0.2231 0.42213 0 10.785 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.25795

109.5 245.25 68.13 216.58 161.11 277.56 158.97 185.15 259.83 187.68 197.67 289.95 273.16

1.4578 2.3803 0.6517 1.5202 3.1537 0.7104 1.7498 1.8817 2.8176 1.9782 2.8753 4.4303 4.4733

180.15 400.15 132.5 304.21 552 461.15 324.65 363.15 456.65 373.53 430.75 490.85 647.13

0 0 915280 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release, July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Thermodynamics Research Center, “Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds,” Thermodynamics Research Center Hydrocarbon Project, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (extant 1994). Temperatures are expressed in kelvins; heats of vaporization, in J/kmol. J/kmol × 2.390E−04 = cal/gmol; J/kmol × 4.302106E−04 = Btu/lbmol. The heat of vaporization equation used is ∆Hv = C1 × (1 − Tr)C2 + C3 × Tr + C4 × Tr × Tr. Tr is the reduced temperature, T/Tc. 1 Coefficients are hypothetical; compound decomposes violently on heating. 2 For the monomer. 3 Equation coefficients are hypothetical above the decomposition temperature. 2-160

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SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS

2-161

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS To convert kilojoules per kilogram-kelvin to British thermal units per pound-degree Rankine, multiply by 0.2388.

UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32 °F = 1.8 K

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

To convert calories per gram-kelvin to British thermal units per pound-degree Rankine, multiply by 1.0; to convert calories per grammole-kelvin to British thermal units per pound-mole-degree Rankine, multiply by 1.0. TABLE 2-194

Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds* Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/deg mol

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

c l c l c l c c c c l c l c c, sillimanite c, disthene c, andalusite c, mullite c c c

4.80 + 0.00322T 7.00 18.74 + 0.01866T 29.5 13.25 + 0.02800T 31.2 76 19.3 50.5 38.63 + 0.04760T − 449200/T 2 142 16.88 + 0.02266T 28.8 22.08 + 0.008971T − 522500/T 2 40.79 + 0.004763T − 992800/T 2 41.81 + 0.005283T − 1211000/T 2 43.96