Outline of the Principles of History

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OUTLINE OF THE PRINCIPLES OF HISTORY BY JOHANN GUSTAV DROYSEN

OUTLINE OF THE

PRINCIPLES OF HISTORY (GRUNDRISS DER HISTORIK)

BY

JOHANN

GUSTAV

DROYSEN,

LATE PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN.

WITH A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OP THE AUTHOR.

TRANSLATED BY E.

BENJAMIN P&BSIDKNT OF BBOWN

ANDREWS, UNIVERSITY.

BOSTON, U . S . A . GrINN

&

COMPANY. 1897.

COPYRIGHT, BY

E.

BENJAMIN

A L L RIGHTS

1893, ANDREWS.

RESERVED.

$tnn & Company Gbe atbenarum press JSoston

TRANSLATOR'S TREFACE.

I BECAME interested in Professor D r o y s e n as a n his­ torian so early as 1 8 8 2 . I n real grasp u p o n t h e n a t u r e a n d m e a n i n g of history he seemed to me t h e superior of R a n k e . T h i s view I have n o t changed. T o assist myself in c o m p r e h e n d i n g his v e r y deep t h o u g h t s I soon began a translation of t h e Historik. A t first I h a d no idea of publishing, b u t as t h e value of t h e little work impressed me more a n d more deeply, I a t last deter­ mined to E n g l i s h it for others. I s u b s e q u e n t l y laid t h e m a t t e r before Droysen, receiving his approval in the genial l e t t e r which appears u p o n a p r e c e d i n g page. I expected to finish t h e w o r k in a few m o n t h s from the date of this letter, b u t more pressing labors came and became p e r m a n e n t , so c o m m a n d i n g m y time t h a t I h a v e never since been able to devote to t h e transla­ tion more t h a n now a n d t h e n an hour. A t last, how­ ever, after so m a n y years, it is completed, a n d I give it to t h e public, appendices a n d all. T h e s e greatly elucidate t h e " O u t l i n e " proper, a n d m a y v e r y appro­ priately be read first. Those w h o k n o w Droysen's cum­ brous y e t nervous a n d abbreviated style of w r i t i n g will not estimate t h e e x t e n t of m y toil b y t h e n u m b e r of pages in this book. S u c h was m y reverence for D r o y s e n that, after his d e a t h in 1 8 8 4 , I cherished t h e hope of p r e p a r i n g a

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PREFACE.

brief b i o g r a p h y of him. I relinquished this half-formed purpose p a r t l y for lack of time, a n d p a r t l y because several excellent sketches of h i m p r e s e n t l y appeared. M a x D u n c k e r himself wrote t w o of these, one in I v a n M u l l e r ' s Biographical Year-Book for t h e Knowledge of A n t i q u i t y , also published separately, a n d a more e x t e n d e d one in t h e P r u s s i a n Year-Book for A u g u s t , 1884 ( L I V , Heft 2 ) , edited b y von T r e i t s c h k e a n d Delbriick. D u n c k e r was Droysen's close friend, a n d h a d access to m u c h helpful material in manuscript. I in­ clined to translate one of his pieces for use in this volume, b u t u p o n reflection t h o u g h t t h e biography of Dr. H e r m a n n Kriiger l i k e l y to be more i n t e r e s t i n g to A m e r i c a n readers. Professor G. Droysen, son of the a u t h o r of t h e " O u t l i n e , " considers Kriiger's account on the whole b e t t e r t h a n a u g h t else w h i c h was w r i t t e n u p o n his father's life a n d work. T h i s biography first came o u t in the form of articles in t h e M e c k l e n b u r g Anzeiger, the last one appearing on Saturday, A u g u s t 2, 1884. Kriiger, too, was an intimate friend of Droy­ sen's. I could n o t have hoped to write a n y t h i n g better t h a n w h a t these t w o c o m p e t e n t a n d privileged biogra­ phers h a d presented. Besides, it was i n t i m a t e d t o me t h a t Professor G. Droysen w o u l d sometime publish a still ampler history of his distinguished father's life. I t is a reflection upon our times t h a t such a m a n as Droysen should so soon even seem to be forgotten. I say this n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g certain reasons for a p a t h y toward h i m g r o u n d e d in t h e n a t u r e a n d habits of t h e man. O w i n g to his intense application, a n d also to his simple honesty, forbidding in h i m those arts by which some G e r m a n professors are popular, D r o y s e n founded,

TRANSLATOR'S

PREFACE.

vii

properly speaking, no school, t h o u g h several of the G e r m a n historians w h o earned fame d u r i n g his last years a n d after his d e a t h were his pupils, inspired by his spirit a n d impressing u p o n t h e i r works t h e s t a m p of his m a n n e r . A m o n g these m a y be m e n t i o n e d Griinhagen, of Breslau, who has w r i t t e n so well on t h e first two Silesian W a r s ; R e i n h o l d Koser, of Berlin, w h o has edited several volumes of t h e Political Correspondence of F r e d e r i c k t h e G r e a t ; a n d S. Isaacsohn, a u t h o r of t h e excellent Greschickte des preussischen Beamtenthums. Of these Koser is perhaps t h e ablest, t h o u g h Griinhagen is famous for his fairness. I n this he excels Droysen, who was often too controversial a n d always too favorable to Prussia. B u t n o t one of these y o u n g e r historians so m u c h as approaches t h e master in t h a t wonderful wealth a n d control of materials exhibited by h i m in his Geschichte der preussischen Politik. T h e " O u t l i n e " as it appears in E n g l i s h is i n certain points somewhat more t h a n a reflex of the original. I n those paragraphs of Droysen's, a n d t h e y are n o t few, which he so painfully abbreviated, l e a v i n g t h e m h a r d l y more t h a n strings of catch-words for lecture-room amplification, t h e s t a t e m e n t s have been carefully pieced o u t into a fullness t h a t will, it is hoped, give t h e m clear meaning. F o r t h e Greek, L a t i n , F r e n c h , a n d I t a l i a n w i t h which t h e a u t h o r loved to i n t e r l a r d his discourse, E n g l i s h has in most cases been substituted, t h e origi­ nal being given either in brackets or in t h e margin. A few brief explanatory notes have been added a t points where t h e y seem most necessary. I consider Droysen's Historik t h e weightiest book of its size composed in our c e n t u r y , weightier t h a n a n y

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PREFACE.

other, small or great, save certain treatises by H e g e l . Y e t I k n o w t h e p r e s e n t t e n d e n c y of historical s t u d y too well to expect t h a t all t h e E n g l i s h a n d A m e r i c a n historical scholars will read this book who, in m y j u d g ­ ment, w o u l d g r e a t l y profit b y r e a d i n g it. I n most directions one finds a s t r o n g e r zeal for t h e k n o w l e d g e of history t h a n for t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of history. We are so b u s y a t g a t h e r i n g facts t h a t no time is left us t o reflect u p o n t h e i r deeper meanings. Too many who wish to be considered historians seem h a r d l y less enthusiastic over t h e history of some t o w n p u m p , pro­ vided it is " f r e s h " a n d " w r i t t e n from t h e sources," t h a n over t h a t of t h e rise of a constitution. Happily this fault is less p r o n o u n c e d t h a n it was. W i t h increas­ i n g clearness is it seen t h a t history is rationally inter­ esting only as m a n ' s life is interesting, a n d that, t o u c h i n g man's life, t h e element in w h i c h one may most legiti­ mately fe.el deep interest is its moral evolution. T h i s is emphatically Droysen's view, a n d in the " O u t l i n e " he sets i t forth in a more inspiring a n d convincing m a n n e r t h a n is done b y a n y other writer w h o m it has been m y privilege to read. M a y this translation enable m a n y t o derive from his profound conceptions even more profit t h a n t h e y h a v e b r o u g h t me. E. B E N J . BROWN UNIVERSITY, September 6, 1892.

ANDREWS,

AUTHOR'S

PREFACE.

L E C T U R E S u p o n t h e Encyclopedia a n d Methodology of H i s t o r y w h i c h I delivered from time to time, begin­ n i n g w i t h 1 8 5 7 , led me to w r i t e o u t t h e skeleton of t h e same in order t o give m y auditors a basis for m y oral amplification. I n this way, as manuscript, first in 1858 a n d t h e n again in 1 8 6 2 , t h e following " O u t l i n e " was p r i n t e d . N u m e r o u s requests, some, of t h e m from foreign lands, d e t e r m i n e d me, w h e n t h e little volume h a d to be p r i n t e d anew, to give it to the public. H i n ­ drances a n d scruples of m a n y k i n d s have delayed the publication u n t i l now, w h e n a t last, according to m y provisional j u d g m e n t a t a n y rate, t h e w o r k is ripe. T o the first impression, in order to give a general idea of t h e questions discussed in t h e body of t h e work, I h a d prefixed an introduction. T h i s still stands at t h e b e g i n n i n g . A couple of articles are appended to t h e treatise, w h i c h will, I t r u s t , serve to illustrate certain points t o u c h e d therein. T h e first, entitled " T h e E l e v a t i o n of H i s t o r y to the R a n k of a Science," was occasioned by t h e appearance of B u c k l e ' s wellk n o w n work, a n d p r i n t e d in von SybePs " Zeitschrift" for 1 8 5 2 . T h e second, on " N a t u r e a n d H i s t o r y , " was evoked b y a discussion in which all t h e advantages of t h e metaphysical point of view were on m y opponent's side. I n t h e t h i r d article, u n d e r the title of " A r t and M e t h o d , " I have collected w h a t is h a r d l y more t h a n a ix

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PREFACE.

succession of aphoristic remarks, i n t e n d e d to b r i n g to memory t h e p a r t l y forgotten limits between dilletantism and science. Some of t h e m have already found place in an academic lecture. See t h e Monatsberichte of the Royal A c a d e m y of Sciences, J u l y 4 t h , 1 8 6 7 . I hesi­ t a t e d w h e t h e r or n o t to add a fourth discussion, some copies of which I had p r i n t e d as a n introduction to the second p a r t of m y " H i s t o r y of H e l l e n i s m " in 1 8 4 3 . I wished on t h e basis of this to investigate w i t h scienti­ fic friends precisely this problem of the principles of history, a problem from w h i c h t h e point of view be­ t w e e n theology a n d philology h e l d by me in the H i s t o r y of H e l l e n i s m and branches of l e a r n i n g related thereto, seemed t o me to derive justification. This discussion I have preferred to postpone, because it ap­ peared u n l i k e l y t h a t readers w o u l d be as m u c h inter­ ested as myself in k n o w i n g t h e p o i n t whence I set o u t a n d t h e roads I traveled t o reach t h e conclusions presented in t h e following pages. T h e purpose of this publication will be attained if it serves to incite further i n q u i r y into t h e questions w h i c h it treats, t o u c h i n g t h e n a t u r e a n d task of History, its m e t h o d and its competency. BERLIN, November, 1867.

PEEFACE TO THE THIED EDITION.

I N this n e w impression of t h e " O u t l i n e " t h e arrange­ m e n t has been in some points altered, into a form which repeated delivery of t h e lectures indicated as b e t t e r a n s w e r i n g m y purpose. I n t h e somewhat n u m e r o u s paragraphs which have double figures, those in brackets refer to t h e order in the editions of 1867 a n d 1 8 7 5 . T h e " O u t l i n e " itself makes it clear t h a t it does not p r e t e n d to be a " Philosophy of H i s t o r y , " a n d also w h y it does n o t look for t h e essence of H i s t o r y in t h a t which has opened so splendid a career to n a t u r a l science. 1

JOH. GUST. DROYSEN. BERLIN, July 18, 1881. 1

Not reproduced in this translation. — Tr. xi

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.

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JOHANN GUSTAV DROYSEN. B Y D R . H E R M A N N KRUGER.

O N the m o r n i n g of J u n e 1 9 , 1 8 8 4 , in t h e Villa a t Schoneberg, near Berlin, w h i t h e r he h a d removed u p o n medical advice, died J o h a n n G u s t a v Droysen, in w h o m G e r m a n y lost one of its best m e n a n d one of its greatest historians. T o the a u t h o r of these lines, a grateful p u p i l of his, it is no less a necessity of the h e a r t t h a n a d u t y of p i e t y to lay a crown of honor u p o n this man's grave. L e t us begin b y briefly s k e t c h i n g t h e o u t w a r d course of Droysen's life. Born on the 6 t h of J u l y , 1 8 0 8 , a t T r e p t o w , on t h e Rega, as son of a minister, a n d early left an orphan, he obtained his preparation for t h e university at t h e Marienstift- Gymnasium in S t e t t i n . H e t h e n studied philology in Berlin, a n d obtained there his first position as teacher, in the G y m n a s i u m of t h e G r a y Cloister. I n 1 8 3 3 , h a v i n g already published some studies in t h e domain of G r e e k history, he habilitated as privat-docent at the Berlin University, where he delivered philological and historical lectures w i t h g r e a t acceptance, a n d also advanced very soon to t h e position of professor extra­ ordinary. I n 1 8 4 0 he accepted a call to become ordinary ( f u l l ) professor of history in t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Kiel, where he worked w i t h great success till 1 8 5 1 . A t the same time he took an influential p a r t as a politician XV D i g i t i z e d by

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in t h e agitations to which d u r i n g t h e forties t h e popula­ tion of Schleswig-Holstein h a d recourse in view of D e n m a r k ' s t h r e a t to take possession of these duchies byforce. I n 1848 D r o y s e n was sent from Kiel by the provisional g o v e r n m e n t of t h e duchies as t h e i r repre­ sentative to t h e D i e t of the Confederation, a n d later as d e p u t y to t h e G e r m a n National Assembly. I n the year 1 8 5 1 D r o y s e n was called to t h e University of J e n a , to w h i c h he belonged as one of its first ornaments t h r o u g h t h e e i g h t following years. F r o m there h e accepted in 1859 a call to t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Berlin, where he h a d b e g u n his academic career, and where from this time on for a n o t h e r q u a r t e r c e n t u r y he w r o u g h t w i t h a success which was g r e a t a n d which continued t o t h e last. H i s lectures were a m o n g the most frequented a t t h e university. P a r t i c u l a r l y those upon modern history drew t o g e t h e r in his auditorium, besides n u m e r o u s s t u d e n t s , also m a n y h i g h civil a n d military officers a n d m a n y savam. F o r Droysen was not merely a n e m i n e n t savant a n d historical investigator, b u t also an extraordinary teacher. A s savant a n d historian h e published, from every one of the universities to which he successively belonged, one or more works which have e x a l t e d his name as a m o n g t h e most brilliant in the scientific world. T o his first Berlin period belongs t h e translation of j E s c h y l u s t h a t appeared in 1832, which D r o y s e n , — as a y o u n g philologist, also as an enthusiast for the most powerful a m o n g t h e G r e e k d r a m a t i s t s , — u n d e r t o o k at first in t h e interest of a friend n o t adequately a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the Greek, a n d only subse­ q u e n t l y gave to t h e press. H i s appreciation of the

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DROYSEN.

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G r e e k n a t u r e , his poetic e n d o w m e n t , a n d his u n u s u a l mastery of t h e speech, begot by their u n i o n a translation which stands forth masterful in its k i n d a n d has n o t been surpassed even to this day. T o be sure, t h e philologists of' strict o b s e r v a n c e ' most violently a t t a c k e d this free poetic imitation, which is t r u e r a t h e r t o the spirit a n d t h o u g h t s of the writer t h a n to t h e letter. B u t D r o y s e n was n o t d r a w n astray. Convinced t h a t he w h o will b r i n g a G r e e k poet like j E s c h y l u s or Aristophanes pleasurably t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a G e r m a n reader m u s t u t t e r l y renounce t h e literal mode of rendering, he immediately followed w i t h his trans­ lation of Aristophanes. T h i s , like t h a t of ^Eschylus, speedily found t h e favor of t h e public a n d has k e p t it even to our own days. B o t h translations, on w h i c h Droysen, as is proved by t h e r e n d e r i n g of certain verses a n d t h e change of various expressions, has been w o r k i n g r i g h t along, exist now in t h i r d editions. W h a t power t h e y have to afford h i g h satisfaction a n d d e l i g h t even to t h e most rigid philologists, t h e w r i t e r of these lines learned w h e n , d u r i n g his time in Leipzig, he listened t o t h e exposition of t h e K n i g h t s of Aristophanes b y Ritschl, a n d more t h a n once heard t h a t e m i n e n t critic express his a d m i r i n g approval of Droysen's version. M e a n t i m e there unfolded itself in Droysen, side b y side w i t h his philological genius, still more emphatically the t a l e n t a n d the inclination for historical investigation a n d exposition; a n d h a v i n g once pressed his w a y into the sphere of H e l l e n i c t h i n g s , he saw in t h e t h o r o u g h investigation of Grecian a n t i q u i t y the principal task of his scientific calling. A fruit of these H e l l e n i c studies D i g i t i z e d by

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was t h e H i s t o r y of Hellenism, b e g u n in Berlin, finished later in Kiel, to which w o r k of several volumes the H i s t o r y of A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t serves in a w a y as introduction. ' I t is,' says t h e a u t h o r in his preface, ' a h i g h l y significant y e t almost forgotten development of political a n d national relations w h i c h we have endeavored to fathom, a n d e x p o u n d . ' T h e r e s u l t was a satisfactory presentation of an epoch till t h e n little k n o w n , y e t h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t , — wherein, amid t h e violent a n d often confused s t r u g g l e s of A l e x a n d e r ' s generals a n d successors, those diadoehi a n d epigoni, t h e G r e e k spirit was b r o u g h t into connection w i t h t h e Oriental n a t u r e , so as, b y a process of fermentation, de­ composition, a n d illumination, to cause a m i g h t y trans­ formation in t h e t h i n k i n g a n d feeling of the ancient world, by which, withal, t h e p a t h was leveled for Christianity. Droj^sen apprehends his problem from elevated points of view a n d solves it, b r i n g i n g clearness into t h e t a n g l e d chaos of overpowering material, w i t h undeniably g r e a t d e x t e r i t y . Leo, in his Universal History, names this w o r k ' an excellent t r e a t m e n t of the subject.' U p o n this, too, however, sharp attacks were n o t w a n t i n g , and t h e y were p a r t l y well founded. For Droysen, still a t t h a t time a t h o r o u g h Hegelian, h a d in his h a n d l i n g of the epoch allowed q u i t e too m u c h play to t h e H e g e l i a n m e t h o d of constructing history, t h u s t h r u s t i n g m u c h , particularly respecting A l e x a n d e r a n d his plans, into incorrect perspective a n d false lights. S u b s e q u e n t l y h e saw this himself, a n d in t h e preface to t h e second edition of this work, w i t h t h e perfect honor peculiar to his character, he confessed his error.

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H e r e in Kiel, where Droysen completed his remark­ able work, t h e H i s t o r y of Hellenism, he completed also his transition from ancient to modern history. I n 1846 he published his lectures on t h e H i s t o r y of t h e W a r s for F r e e d o m . I n a n ingenious manner, w i t h an almost perfect a r t of l u m i n o u s construction a n d rich coloring in his presentation, such as h e e q u a l e d nowhere else in his works, t h a t period so excessively a b o u n d i n g in struggles, transformations, developments, a n d results, is unfolded a n d depicted in speech t h a t is fresh, resonant, often o u t a n d o u t ravishing. W h o e v e r wishes a per­ fectly clear consciousness of t h e difference between the born a n d schooled historian a n d t h e dilettante, should compare this H i s t o r y of t h e W a r s for Freedom, which for a long time has n o t in our j u d g m e n t been sufficiently appreciated, w i t h Beitske's m u c h l a u d e d w o r k u p o n t h e same period. A l t h o u g h in m a n y parts left behind by more r e c e n t investigations, this work of Droysen's still presents such a fullness of spirited remarks and incisive historical observations, t h a t t h e perusal of it even affords g e n u i n e enjoyment. A second w o r k w h i c h D r o y s e n b e g u n a t Kiel b u t finished later in J e n a , was the famous B i o g r a p h y of F i e l d Marshal Y o r k of W a r t e n b u r g , a t present in its n i n t h edition. T o say a n y t h i n g at so late a day in praise of this book, which in its classic completeness stands forth simply u n i q u e in biographical literature, would be carrying owls t o A t h e n s . W e will only remark t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e occasion for t h e composition of the book was an o u t w a r d one, D r o y s e n nevertheless seized u p o n i t w i t h joy, in t h e conviction t h a t in t h a t lax period of peace n o t h i n g was b e t t e r adapted to D i g i t i z e d by

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s t r e n g t h e n t h e people's patriotic a n d moral conscious­ ness t h a n t h e example of a g r e a t personality like York, energetic, y e t r u l e d b y the most rigid sense of d u t y . T h e portrayal of this hero's character was especially i n t e n d e d t o be an example t o s t r e n g t h e n in t h e simple service of d u t y t h e y o u n g P r u s s i a n army, exposed in its long a n d often tedious garrison life to t h e d a n g e r of laxity. I t was i n t h e time of deep political excitement a n d exhaustion w h i c h n a t u r a l l y followed t h e stirring period of t h e later forties, w h e n Droysen b e g a n his labors a t J e n a . A condition of almost entire discourage­ m e n t h a d come in as t o t h e vigorous reconstruction of G e r m a n y . T h e national dreams, wishes a n d strivings lay upon t h e g r o u n d like a sea of blossoms. D r o y s e n understood this general despair b u t did n o t share it. I t was his irrefragable conviction t h a t a l t h o u g h this first a t t e m p t to erect t h e G e r m a n E m p i r e again h a d failed, it w o u l d be followed b y others, a n d t h a t a t last, pro­ vided P r u s s i a w o u l d only, in proper recognition of her historical calling, brace herself u p to a n energetic policy, t h e loosely connected G e r m a n states w o u l d u n i t e u n d e r her lead into a firm whole, a n d t h u s realize after all t h e p e r p e t u a l dream of a n e w G e r m a n E m p i r e . Borne on by this firm hope a n d conviction, Droysen began his colossal work, t h e H i s t o r y of P r u s s i a n Policy, the first volume appearing in 1 8 5 5 . I n this path-break­ i n g work, which furnishes evidence no less of t h e author's unwearied l u s t for toil t h a n of his prodigious power for toil, D r o y s e n introduces us into t h e history of the origin of t h e P r u s s i a n state, a n d shows h o w this state, amid p e r p e t u a l struggles w i t h i n n e r a n d o u t e r D i g i t i z e d by

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difficulties, w i t h labor most intense a n d efforts often in vain, in ever new, energetic onsets, toiled its w a y u p , furthered a n d utilized all t h e powers necessary for t h e subsistence a n d prosperity of t h e modern state, so as a t last to enter, a G e r m a n state w i t h full credentials, into the r a n k of E u r o p e ' s g r e a t powers. A prodigious plen­ i t u d e of material from t h e archives was for t h e first time w r o u g h t i n t o form a n d published in this work. I n con­ sequence, m a n y views previously accepted as certain have been g i v e n u p , some facts placed in n e w lights, a n d m u c h else b r o u g h t to t h e day as absolutely new. However, this epoch-making work, which we peruse n o w in t h i r t e e n t h i c k volumes, will h a r d l y prove popular i n t h e sense in w h i c h Mommsen's R o m a n History, for instance, or R a n k e ' s H i s t o r y of t h e Refor­ mation, has become so. S u c h a result is p r e v e n t e d not only by t h e g r e a t compass of t h e treatise b u t more t h a n all b y t h e circumstance t h a t i t does n o t present a history of t h e P r u s s i a n state, embracing a n d unfolding in richly colored view t h e entire b r e a d t h a n d manifoldness of the state's life, b u t simply, as t h e title says, a history of Prussia's ' p o l i c y , ' to follow o u t w h i c h in its pro gressive realization of exalted ideals is for one n o t an historian often wearying. W e m a y r e g r e t t h a t D r o y s e n did n o t choose to writes a comprehensive history of t h e P r u s s i a n s t a t e ; we may blame him for falling, in this w o r k too, here a n d there, t h o u g h less frequently t h a n before, into t h e H e g e l i a n habit of historical c o n s t r u c t i o n ; y e t the H i s t o r y of P r u s s i a n Policy remains forever a standard treatise, path-breaking, foundation-laying, epoch-mak­ i n g . N o s u b s e q u e n t historian h a v i n g to explore the D i g i t i z e d by

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same domain, will be p e r m i t t e d w i t h i m p u n i t y t o slight Droysen's labors. T h a t t h e a u t h o r was awarded for it by t h e scientific commission appointed to m a k e the award, t h e g r e a t prize of a t h o u s a n d T h a l e r s founded b y F r e d e r i c k W i l l i a m I V , to be g i v e n every five years for the best historical work appearing d u r i n g t h e same, was only t h e proper recognition of the astonishing industry, g r e a t critical acumen a n d scientific thorough­ ness characterizing the elaboration of this w o r k ; a w o r k w h i c h insures Droysen for all time t h e glory of being reckoned a m o n g G e r m a n y ' s most remarkable historians. I t ends, a t present, w i t h t h e account of the first t w o Silesian wars. O n t h e basis of private information which has come to me to the effect t h a t the r e m a i n d e r was found in his desk ready for the press, q u i e t l y a n d peacefully closed, as w h a t he wished to give to the public, we m a y cherish t h e hope t h a t a f o u r t e e n t h volume will follow, b r i n g i n g us to t h e begin­ n i n g of t h e Seven Years' W a r . 1

D r o y s e n has been n o t only an historical investigator especially favored of heaven, b u t also a p r e e m i n e n t l y remarkable teacher of history. H e brought great inborn t a l e n t to the teacher's c a l l i n g ; y e t this w o u l d perhaps n o t have a t t a i n e d so full activity h a d h e n o t learned before his entrance upon his academic career, n a m e l y as teacher a t the G r a y Cloister, to exercise and develop this t a l e n t practically in minor relations. T h i s first period of teaching was a decided advantage to h i m in his entire later activity as university in­ structor. 1

This has since been published, and reaches to the opening of the Seven Years' War. — Tr.

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M a s t e r l y was Droysen's k n a c k of g r o u p i n g his his­ torical material in his lectures so as t o r e n d e r it visible clearly a n d visible all together, a n d of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e essentials thereof in harmohicms relation w i t h m i n o r historical details. T h e m a t t e r did n o t press itself u p o n t h e a t t e n t i o n in a too massive manner, nor on t h e other h a n d was it swamped by historical observations. I n his portrayal of given epochs, in his characterization of t o w e r i n g personalities, in his definite grasp of lead­ i n g points of view, h e possessed t h e art of a g r e a t master. Y e t t o go further a n d p o r t r a y historical per­ sonalities in their o u t w a r d manifestation, as R a n k e loves to do a n d does in such a brilliant manner, D r o y s e n invariably refused. W h e t h e r a n y one has yellow hair a n d blue eyes,' he once said derisively, is a question on w h i c h n o t h i n g d e p e n d s ; in devoting a t t e n t i o n t o t h a t sort of t h i n g an historian descends to m i n i a t u r e p a i n t i n g . ' I t w o u l d certainly have been welcome to m a n y of his hearers a n d readers if h e h a d n o t so completely r e n o u n c e d this means of concrete represen­ tation. 6

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Droysen h e l d you spell-bound in his lectures, which moved u p o n t h e middle line between free utterance a n d literal delivery from manuscript. H e did this b y his splendid diction, b y his sharp a n d ingenious exposi­ tion, b y his extraordinary a r t of l e t t i n g , a t t h e r i g h t time a n d place and often only by a brief, hint-like remark, a surprising blaze of l i g h t flash u p o n special personali­ ties. G r e a t also was t h e effect of the powerful, m a n l y spirit w h i c h g o t expression in all these ways. H e n c e Droysen's lectures could n o t b u t convoke a g r e a t company of listeners. T h e y did this even to

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his last days, a l t h o u g h other a n d y o u n g e r l i g h t s w i t h equally g r e a t power of attraction later arose a t his side as colleagues. T o h e a r D r o y s e n was, as one often h e a r d said, a delight, a n d for t h e sake of this d e l i g h t m a n y of his hearers neglected t a k i n g notes. Y e t a n y one who, like t h e undersigned, in spite of t h e g r e a t t e m p t a t i o n merely t o listen, consistently practiced t a k i n g notes, k n o w s h o w durable a n d precious a treasure h e possesses in a Heft w r i t t e n down from Droysen's deliverances. B u t w h a t so p e r m a n e n t l y chained his pupils a n d made t h e m hearken to t h e i r teacher's words, almost as if in worship, a n d w h a t d r e w t h e m always again s t r a i g h t to his lectures, was a t bottom, if I see rightly, Droysen's peculiar, m i g h t y personality, which, w i t h its powerful t e n d e n c y to t h e ideal, h a d its roots deep in the moral. S u c h a personality ever exercises u p o n academic y o u t h , so susceptible to t h e ideal, an irresistible magical effect, n o t to be u n d e r v a l u e d . F o r t h e best t h a t a teacher w h o is, besides, an ethical personality, can give to his pupils, is a n d remains in t h e last analysis, himself. T h i s is as t r u e in a certain sense of t h e university teacher as of any. Droysen was a personality full of h i g h moral earnestness, a n d h e always energet­ ically asserted even in his lectures t h e point of view of t h e moral j u d g m e n t . T h e moral,' so he expressed himself on one occasion,' is t h a t which constitutes every m a n ' s final worth, t h a t is, his only w o r t h . ' H o w m u c h s y m p a t h y he has therefore (compare t h e first volume of t h e H i s t o r y of P r u s s i a n P o l i c y ) w i t h H e n r y V I I , of L u x e m b u r g , a n d h o w little for t h e t a l e n t e d T a l l e y r a n d in his u t t e r frivolousness ! N o t rich talent, or p r e e m i n e n t genius w i t h its egoistic tendency, b u t unselfish sur4

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render t o t h e idea of t h e good, he viewed as alone w o r t h y of respect a n d admiration. ' W h a t , ' he once asked, ' i s t h e t r u l y g r e a t in h i s t o r y ? I t is controlled, ennobled, glorified p a s s i o n ' ; b u t yet, so it reads further in his Principles of History, ' e v e r y t h i n g historically g r e a t is only a sun-mist in t h e manifestation of God.' N o t in t h e sphere of t h e G r e e k world — as people have supposed, a n d as H a n s P r u t z has again recently asserted a n d emphasized in t h e National-Zeitung — n o t in t h e sphere of t h e G r e e k world did Droysen's moral view of t h e universe have its roots, b u t in the soil of Christianity. I n his t h o u g h t t h e development of h u m a n i t y — whose preparatory stages he characterizes as recognition of self a n d recognition of t h e world (see his Principles of H i s t o r y ) — completes itself in t h e recogni­ tion of God. H i s t o r y itself is to him ' n o t t h e l i g h t a n d t h e t r u t h b u t only a witness a n d a conservation of them, a sermon u p o n t h e m ; as J o h n was n o t himself t h e L i g h t b u t s e n t t o bear witness of t h e L i g h t . ' T h e w a r m t h a n d luminousness of this deep moral view streamed o u t t h r o u g h his lectures, a l t h o u g h it was n o t Droysen's m a n n e r t o repeat or t o express i t in definitely formu­ lated utterances or propositions. D u r i n g his e x u b e r a n t activity Droysen delivered over t w o h u n d r e d courses of lectures, before assemblies always n u m e r o u s , of academic y o u t h . T h e y embraced as well ancient as modern a n d t h e most recent history. Besides, he lectured over a n d over again upon t h e Encyclopedia and Methodology of H i s t o r y . This course presented an infinite abundance of instructive a n d inspiring matter, and, in t h e opinion of t h e under­ signed, was for t h e prospective historian simply D i g i t i z e d by

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indispensable. P e r h a p s n o t too s t r o n g was t h e recent assertion t h a t i t is doubtful w h e t h e r a course like t h a t of Droysen's on t h e Encyclopedia of H i s t o r y will ever be delivered again b y a n y university teacher. M a n y placed his course of lectures on G r e e k history at t h e head. T h i s certainly combined Droysen's compre­ hensive k n o w l e d g e of t h e ancient world w i t h his deep u n d e r s t a n d i n g of G r e e k affairs, his sympathetically reproductive sense for G r e e k t h i n k i n g a n d action, a n d for t h e c h a n g i n g forms of G r e e k political life and of G r e e k national art, in such wise as to r e n d e r it a h i g h l y i n t e r e s t i n g a n d instructive course. What Droysen presented was n o t mere d r y information, t h a t pains had h u n t e d u p a n d collected; b u t , supported by t h e t h o r o u g h and many-sided k n o w l e d g e t h a t he h a d won b y l o n g years of study, he reconstructed from t h e fullness of his living vision t h e G r e e k world in its political a n d social development, in its aspects of l i g h t a n d shade, in its rise a n d its decadence. Years after, there came back to me a vivid recollection of those lectures. I was temporarily residing in Berlin and was t a k i n g a w a l k w i t h Droysen in t h e Thiergarten one fine A u g u s t evening. I t was, if I mistake not, in the s u m m e r of 1 8 7 7 . O u r conversation led to the contests of t h e diadochi, a n d from these back to A l e x a n d e r a n d Demosthenes. K n o w i n g Droysen's derog­ atory j u d g m e n t of the statesman Demosthenes, I found it easy by an u t t e r a n c e of a contrary tenor t o evoke his contradiction and t o lead him on to a fundamental justification of his view. I n speech t h a t was all life and motion Droysen n o w n o t only unfolded in t h e most various directions an astonishing abundance of ready D i g i t i z e d by

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information, b u t s w e p t forwards a n d backwards, w i t h so deep a grasp of G r e e k relations, t h a t a wish more lively t h a n ever came over m y s o u l : O h t h a t this m a n had chosen to t h i n k o u t a G r e e k history for us ! O h t h a t he in preference to so m a n y others h a d been called to fill u p this painful g a p so long f e l t ! Still l a r g e r t h a n Droysen's classes in ancient history were those which h e a r d h i m u p o n m o d e r n a n d the most recent periods. T h e lectures upon t h e l a t t e r were of even more universal i n t e r e s t t h a n t h e others. I n t h e m h e took his hearers from about t h e middle of the fifteenth c e n t u r y on t o t h e fifties of t h e p r e s e n t cen­ t u r y , s e t t i n g d o w n a n d m a i n t a i n i n g as l a n d m a r k s to his separate b u t continuous lectures t h e T h i r t y Years' W a r , t h e Seven Years' W a r , t h e W a r s for Freedom, and t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y time of 1848 w i t h its proxi­ mate results. T h e s e lectures bore, like t h e others, a t h o r o u g h l y spirited, inspiring a n d a t t h e same time strongly scientific c h a r a c t e r ; b u t t h e y h a d an incom­ parably greater practical effect u p o n t h e immediate present, m a n y securing t h r o u g h t h e deeper understand­ i n g which these lectures afforded of G e r m a n history, a b e t t e r insight into the p r e s e n t a n d its tasks, so t h a t t h e power of t h e political shibboleth, which especially in t h e first half of t h e sixties dominated so m u c h the musings a n d aspirations of our y o u t h , was more a n d more broken. I t is e q u a l l y t r u e t h a t Droysen e x t r e m e l y seldom allowed himself, near as t h e t e m p t a t i o n often lay, an allusion t o p r e s e n t political revolutions, a n d w h e n he did i n d u l g e it was done in a brief a n d definite word. T h u s , once, in the w i n t e r of 1864, w h e n t h e constituD i g i t i z e d by

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tional conflict was a t its h e i g h t , he closed a lecture w i t h these w o r d s : I t was t h e curse of this p a r t y t h a t it, precisely like our p a r t y of progress to-day, ended by placing party-interest above interest in t h e F a t h e r l a n d . ' I n consequence of this concluding u t t e r a n c e , his entire academic audience, w h i c h was t h e n in g r e a t p a r t feeling the touch of progressist breath, became excited. T h e s t u d e n t s determined, against t h e n e x t evening, should Droysen in his customary brief recapitulation again be g u i l t y of a r e m a r k so deeply injurious to progressist feelings, to raise the, cry of s c a n d a l ' a n d t o make an infernal racket. A p p r i s e d of this plot, Droysen came on t h e following e v e n i n g into t h e large auditorium, this time full even to suffocation, ascended t h e platform w i t h easy step, and, g l a n c i n g over the assembly w i t h a firm look o u t of his large d a r k eyes, b e g a n : W e con­ cluded yesterday evening, gentlemen, w i t h t h e w o r d s ' : and t h e n followed exactly t h e final words of t h e pre­ ceding lecture. A l l was s i l e n t ; n o t a person stirred. E v e r y one h a d t h e feeling t h a t he who stood u p o n t h a t platform was a man. 4

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A s in his lectures, Droysen's special t a l e n t for teach­ i n g showed itself also in t h e historical society con­ d u c t e d by him, whose members assembled a r o u n d h i m every S a t u r d a y in his s t u d y . T h e r e a d i n g of t h e paper t h a t h a d been prepared on t h e assigned t h e m e was followed by a debate, Droysen leading? in w h i c h he, in a fashion open a n d free y e t of e x t r e m e forbearance, criticised w h a t h a d been presented, a n d t h e r e b y set forth t h e m e t h o d of historical investigation in a m a n n e r a t once t h o r o u g h a n d inspiring. H i s efforts progress­ ively t o form his pupils to scientific, i n d e p e n d e n t D i g i t i z e d by

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investigations a n d u n d e r t a k i n g s , h a d g r e a t a n d enduiv i n g s u p p o r t in his ability q u i e t l y a n d surely t o find his w a y i n t o every one's individuality. D u r i n g t h e time of conflict in t h e sixties, w h e n , a m o n g others, his colleague, H e r r von Sybel, fought boldly in t h e r a n k s of t h e t h e n p a r t y of progress against Bismarck a n d t h e P r u s s i a n g o v e r n m e n t , D r o y s e n de­ clined participation by speech or w r i t i n g , a n d only occa­ sionally indicated his position, w h i c h was n o t t h a t of the opposition. Subsequently, too, w h e n those g r e a t events a n d transformations l e a d i n g t o t h e erection of the national state were t a k i n g place, h e g r e e t e d t h e m r a t h e r w i t h silent joy t h a n w i t h l o u d acclaim, and, in general, the older he grew, he h e l d himself more a n d more aloof from the political contests of t h e day, in order b y silence a n d solitude t o live more entirely in his scientific labors. Y e t Droysen, too, had his time in which d u t y and conscience seemed to command him t o come forward publicly w i t h a manly word. I t was d u r i n g his period of labor a t Kiel. T h e decrees of t h e provisional estates-assembly held a t Roeskild in t h e year 1844, t h r e a t e n e d the r i g h t s of t h e duchies, Schleswig a n d Holstein, a n d w o u l d have been dangerous h a d t h e D a n i s h crown followed t h e m . T h e s e acts called Droysen into the political arena. H e composed w h a t has become celebrated as t h e Kiel A d d r e s s , ' which m e t w i t h a storm of approval a n d was i n s t a n t l y covered w i t h thousands of subscriptions. A s in this w r i t i n g , so subsequently, in a second, n a m e l y w h e n F r e d e r i c k V I I a n n o u n c e d t h e consolidated-constitution of D e n ­ mark, Droysen came o u t w i t h noble manliness, a n d 4

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g l o w i n g t h r o u g h a n d t h r o u g h w i t h patriotic w r a t h , in opposition t o D a n i s h arrogance. ' W h a t business,' a passage of i t reads, ' h a s D e n m a r k w i t h u s ? W h a t we w i t h D e n m a r k ? W e have no m i n d for a n y price what­ ever t o be g u i l t y of treason t o ourselves a n d t o Ger­ many.' ' H e e d , ' he further warns t h e Danes, ' h e e d the s o l v i n g t i m e . Disdain y e w h a t w e have spoken, fill k i n g ' s ear w i t h adverse counsel a n d y o u r h e a r t w i t h t h e u n r i g h t e o u s p l u n d e r ; t h e n see to it w h a t sort of advice y e are g i v i n g yourselves ! W e are t h e wards of a g r e a t people, a g r e a t F a t h e r l a n d . ' 1

Droysen's intervention in this patriotic way for the cause of t h e duchies in those evil days, his accurate knowledge of t h e relations in question, a n d his sharp political vision, specially qualified h i m t o represent the cause of t h e duchies elsewhere as well. H e was there­ fore sent b y t h e provisional g o v e r n m e n t s u b s e q u e n t l y established, as its confidential a g e n t to t h e D i e t of t h e Germanic Confederation a t F r a n k f o r t . W h e n , t h e n , in consequence of t h a t m o v e m e n t w h i c h shook G e r m a n y in t h e s p r i n g of 1 8 4 8 , t h e N a t i o n a l Assembly convened at Frankfort, D r o y s e n was chosen to this also. H e joined the so-called hereditary-imperial party, and, as member of t h e c o m m i t t e e on t h e constitution, d r e w u p its protocol. Afterwards, w h e n m e n ' s hope-filled dreams of a new, u n i t e d G e r m a n y h a d m e l t e d like snow, Droysen, w i t h D a h l m a n n , E . M . A r n d t a n d others, in M a y 1 8 4 9 , left t h e National Assembly. ' P a l e as a corpse,' so Droysen once told t h e story in after years, ' D a h l m a n n e n t e r e d t h e hall in order to set his name to t h e notification of d e p a r t u r e . 1

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were u p o n him. D e e p l y moved and scarcely master of himself, h e seized t h e p e n a n d subscribed. W h a t he suffered was for h i m notification of t h e d e a t h of all his patriotic hopes.' D r o y s e n was less destitute of courage, t h o u g h he, too, was bowed to t h e very earth. E v e n in those most evil days he could n o t a n d would n o t let go t h e hope of a renewal of t h e G e r m a n E m p i r e . Henceforth, as before, he placed his entire reliance on Prussia, whose calling to advance to t h e pinnacle of a n e w l y u n i t e d F a t h e r l a n d he viewed as irrefutably demonstrated b y her history. A s a n historian he conceived to be e q u a l l y certain his d u t y t o s t a m p this historical calling of Prussia fast a n d deep u p o n t h e soul of t h e despairing race of his days — a promise, as i t were, of a b e t t e r future. H e accord­ ingly b e g a n t h a t w o r k of his, p l a n n e d in t h e broadest style, t h e H i s t o r y of P r u s s i a n Policy. I n this h e n o w espied t h e principal task of his life, a n d t o it h e hence­ forth consecrated his entire s t r e n g t h . After his service a t F r a n k f o r t D r o y s e n never again came forward as member of a political body. I t was, we have already remarked, n o t w i t h o u t hope in his h e a r t t h a t he bade farewell to F r a n k f o r t . H e h a d looked upon t h e business of t h e first G e r m a n p a r l i a m e n t as simply a first, t h o u g h unsuccessful effort, t o be followed by others w i t h happier r e s u l t ; and in t h e album pro­ vided for its members — characteristically e n o u g h of his t h e n view of t h i n g s — he wrote, slightly a l t e r i n g the V e r g i l i a n verse : Tantae molis erat Grermanam condere gentem! B u t he w o u l d n o t again accept a commission to public political activity, a n d h e declined w i t h emphasis a n election t o t h e parliament a t E r f u r t . ' A n y D i g i t i z e d by

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one who has made such a fiasco as we did a t F r a n k f o r t , ' he expressed himself on a later occasion in his open, honest w a y , ' o u g h t to give these t h i n g s once for all a wide b e r t h a n d relegate t h e m to other a n d more artful hands.' However, in his scientific labors a n d in p u s h i n g for­ ward his masterpiece, he continually nourished his own hope a n d t h a t of his nation. A n d w h e n t h e m i g h t y events of t h e year 1866 a n n o u n c e d t h e break of a n e w day, and in the a u t u m n of t h a t year t h e a u t h o r of these lines again visited h i m at his home, almost his first words, spoken w i t h joyful confidence, were, ' N o w the m o v e m e n t will go t h r o u g h a n d w h a t we have been so l o n g striving for will succeed.' A few years more and he saw his prediction, boldly spoken in a time of discouragement, t h a t t h e Hohenzollern would sometime take t h e place of t h e Hohenstauffen, fulfilled to t h e letter. T h e splendor of t h e E m p i r e , fresh from its resurrection, glorified t h e e v e n i n g of his declining life. Droysen's n a t u r e h a d t h e build of g e n i u s . H i s ability was many-sided. T o a sharp, deeply p e n e t r a t i n g intel­ lect he joined a lively, mobile imagination, along w i t h a fine feeling for form a n d a decided sense for t h e realities of life a n d for t h e i r w o r t h . H i s poetic sensibility, which qualified him beyond m a n y others for t h e translation of an A e s c h y l u s and an Aristophanes, did n o t h i n d e r h i m from becoming a n d remaining, as a p u p i l of Boeckh's, likewise a philologist in the best sense of t h e word. F u l l as h e was of ideal elevation, i t was n o t in t h e circle of t h o u g h t s p r e v a l e n t in t h e H e l l e n i c world, whose deep shadows h e recognized beyond almost every other historian, b u t in t h e real sphere of Christianity, t h a t he found full a n d e n d u r i n g satisfaction for the D i g i t i z e d by

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JOHANN GUSTAV DROYSEN.

XXxiii

moral need of his n a t u r e . Once an enthusiastic p u p i l of H e g e l , h e later became a t h o r o u g h connoisseur a n d admirer .of Aristotle. Indeed, a decided inclination to philosophic t h i n k i n g formed a strongly p r o m i n e n t feature of his character. T o t h e e n d of his days D r o y s e n applied himself t o philosophical studies w i t h a persist­ ence a n d a thoroughness h a r d to be m a t c h e d b y any modern historian, a l t h o u g h t h e results of this are n o t immediately manifest in his writings, unless we take into account his tendency, w h i c h increased w i t h his years, t o w a r d abstract expressions. A m i d this abundance of richest e n d o w m e n t Droy­ sen did n o t dissipate his power, b u t w i t h t h e un­ usual e n e r g y characteristic of him, was able to limit himself to t h e realm for w h i c h i t was manifest he was peculiarly adapted, t h a t of history. A master in investi­ g a t i n g details, as is shown by his minor b u t t h o r o u g h l y classical treatises u p o n Pufendorf, E b e r h a r d W i n d e c k , t h e Marchioness of B a y r e u t h , t h e Strahlendorf Opinion, and others, h e was at t h e same time an historical investigator on a larger scale, w h o n e v e r in v i e w i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r lost from his eye its connection w i t h t h e g r e a t whole. H i s i n n a t e d r a w i n g to Universal H i s t o r y led h i m t o cultivate d e p a r t m e n t s farthest removed from one another, t h e w o r l d of a n t i q u i t y n o less t h a n t h a t of t h e closing Middle A g e a n d m o d e r n times. Y e t these different periods appeared t o h i m n o t as disconnected fragments, b u t as a n historic t o t a l i t y organically united. T h i s susceptibility of his for universal history, as well as t h e sharpness and t h o r o u g h n e s s w i t h which he investigated, a n d e q u a l l y w i t h these t h e g r e a t variety of his scientific works, assure to D r o y s e n for all time D i g i t i z e d by

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.

his place a m o n g t h e Coryphcei of G e r m a n historians, p u t t i n g h i m a m o n g moderns in immediate connection with Ranke. A n d he is, indeed, so far as I have observed, as y e t t h e only historian w h o m a n y one, as Professor Maurenbrecher essayed to do in discussion some years a g o — h a s v e n t u r e d to compare w i t h R a n k e . T h e relation b e t w e e n these t w o g r e a t historians, who for years w o r k e d side by side a t t h e same university, was u n f o r t u n a t e l y n o t t h e best. T h e causes of this m a y here so m u c h t h e b e t t e r be left unexplained, in t h a t t h e undersigned, t o tell the t r u t h , is unable clearly to assign t h e u l t i m a t e reason for t h e phenomenon. Meanwhile let u s all the more r e j o i c e — r e m e m b e r i n g a w o r d from Goethe — in t h e fact t h a t we can call t w o such m e n w i t h their m i g h t y creations forever our own.' T h e aged R a n k e s t i l l works away w i t h t h e s t r e n g t h of y o u t h u p o n his Universal History, for whose com­ pletion all a d h e r e n t s a n d admirers of this g r e a t his­ torian heartily wish h i m u n d i m i n i s h e d m e n t a l as well as bodily freshness. Droysen, some t h i r t e e n years younger, to t h e g r e a t pain of his n u m e r o u s pupils a n d reverers, is m u c h earlier t h a n m a n y expected re­ moved from temporal scenes. W i t h a constitution ten­ der on the whole, Droysen long ago felt his power de­ clining, a n d n o t h i n g b u t t h e g r e a t e n e r g y w i t h which he bore u p in spite of increasingly morbid conditions made it possible for h i m to continue his lectures till just before last W h i t s u n t i d e . E v e n t h r e e days before this festival h e delivered in his customary m a n n e r his carefully elaborated p a p e r in the A c a d e m y of Sciences, a member of w h i c h h e h a d been for years. 4

1

1

July, 1884.

Ranke died on May 23, 1886. D i g i t i z e d by

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JOHANN

GUSTAV DROYSEN.

XXXV

O n l y a l i t t l e while before his end, u p o n t h e pressing advice of his physician, h e saw himself neces­ sitated t o announce b y a notice u p o n t h e blackboard a cessation of his lectures for t h a t Semester. H e was destined never t o resume t h e m . H i s s t r e n g t h sank rapidly. H i s children h u r r i e d anxiously t o his side, to ease b y their devoted a n d loving care t h e last days of their father, w h o since t h e d e a t h of his dearly loved second wife h a d been alone. M e a n t i m e his weakness increased, unconsciousness a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h conscious­ ness. Once more, however, four days before his end, Droysen's s t r o n g love for w o r k came back. H e h a d himself carried to his writing-desk a n d his pen h a n d e d him. B u t t h e fingers t h a t h a d so often g u i d e d i t now refused t h e service. D e e p l y moved, Droysen laid down the pen, tears s t r e a m i n g from his eyes. H e k n e w it n o w ; h e was a t t h e goal. H e proceeded to arrange e v e r y t h i n g w i t h care, even in respect to his funeral. O n t h e e v e n i n g of J u n e 1 8 t h t h e shadows of d e a t h sank d o w n a r o u n d him deeper a n d deeper. B u t yet, clear to the last, h e h a d for every t e n d e r service of love, b r i n g i n g its brief alleviation, its t r a n s i e n t coolness to t h e h e a t e d head, a mild, friendly smile of t h a n k s . T h u s , s u r r o u n d e d by t h e faithful, ministering love of his children, he fell softly a n d calmly asleep. W i n d a n d clouds now play over t h e spot which con­ ceals w h a t of D r o y s e n was m o r t a l ; b u t the b r e a t h of immortality also sighs above t h a t grave a n d sweeps w i t h a l t h r o u g h the works w h i c h h e created. Have, pia

anima. DR.

HERM.

KRUGER.

BOLTENIIAGEN, July, 1884. D i g i t i z e d by

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OUTLINE

THE PRINCIPLES OF HISTORY.

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D i g i t i z e d by

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Outline of the Principles of History.

N o one will w i t h h o l d from historical studies t h e recognition of h a v i n g , like others, their place in t h e living scientific m o v e m e n t of our age. N e w historical discoveries are busily m a k i n g , old beliefs are e x a m i n e d afresh, a n d t h e results presented in appropriate form. B u t if we d e m a n d a scientific raison