Organic Reaction Mechanism Through Problem Solving Approach
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  • Commentary
  • Organic Reaction Mechanism Through Problem Solving Approach Nitin D Gaikwad K.T.H.M. College Nashik ISBN 978-93-5267-423-7

Table of contents :
ContentsNitration Reaction......Page 6
default label......Page 13
Nucleophilic Substitution by NGPAromatic Nucleophilic Substitution......Page 14
Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution......Page 15
Halo-hydroxylation Reaction and Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution......Page 16
Neighbouring Group Participation by sigma bond......Page 17
Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution and DiazotizationAromatic Nucleophilic SubstitutionAddition React.........Page 18
Aromatic Nucleophilic SubstitutionAddition ReactionNitration ReactionAromatic Electrophilic Substitut.........Page 19
Addition ReactionNitration ReactionAromatic Electrophilic Substitution......Page 20
Nitration ReactionAromatic Electrophilic Substitution......Page 21
Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution......Page 22
Neighbouring Group Participation by sigma bond......Page 23
Elimination Reaction with RearrangementRearrangementPyrolytic Elimination ReactionGattermann Koch Rea.........Page 24
RearrangementPyrolytic Elimination ReactionGattermann Koch ReactionPinacol Pinacolone Rearrange.........Page 25
Pyrolytic Elimination ReactionGattermann Koch ReactionPinacol Pinacolone Rearrangement......Page 26
Gattermann Koch ReactionPinacol Pinacolone Rearrangement......Page 27
Pinacol Pinacolone Rearrangement......Page 28
Alkylation and Dehydration Reaction......Page 29
Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatom......Page 30
Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution and condensationAromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionAddition Reacti.........Page 31
Aromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionAddition Reaction......Page 32
Addition Reaction......Page 34
Methylation and Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction......Page 35
Elimination and Addition ReactionAromatic Nucleophilic Substitution......Page 37
Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution......Page 38
Neighbouring Group Participation by sigma bond......Page 39
Diazotization Reaction with stereochemistry......Page 40
Friedel Craft Acylation and Condensation ReactionAddition Reaction: BrominationRearrangement......Page 41
Addition Reaction: BrominationRearrangement......Page 42
Rearrangement......Page 43
Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution and Chlorination by SN......Page 44
Aliphatic Nucleophilic SubstitutionJacobson’s Reaction......Page 45
Jacobson’s Reaction......Page 46
NGP by Aryl ring......Page 48
Elimination Reaction by E2 Mechanism......Page 49
Cyclisation by protonation......Page 50
Cyclisation by using PTSA......Page 51
Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution by Elimination –Addition Mechanism......Page 52
Diazotization Reaction with stereochemistry......Page 53
Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatom and Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution......Page 54
Friedel Craft Alkylation Reaction and Aromatization ReactionRiemann Tiemann ReactionSN2 Mechanism......Page 55
Riemann Tiemann ReactionSN2 Mechanism......Page 56
SN2 Mechanism......Page 57
N-Acylation and Nitration ReactionAddition Reaction......Page 58
Addition Reaction......Page 59
Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution by Elimination –Addition Mechanism and Diazo coupling reactionGrig.........Page 60
Grignard Reaction......Page 62
Halogenation Reaction and amide formation......Page 63
Elimination and Addition Reaction......Page 65
Dehydration and Epoxidation Reaction......Page 66
Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution and Chlorination by SN......Page 67
Friedel Craft Acylation and Clemmensons Reduction......Page 68
Nitration ans N-Acylation Reaction......Page 69
Chlorination with stereochemistry and Elimination Reaction by Saytzeff rule......Page 70
Diazotization Reaction with stereochemistry and oxime formationHydroboration – Oxidation ReactionSN......Page 71
Hydroboration – Oxidation ReactionSN......Page 72
SN......Page 73
Nitration and Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution......Page 74
Halogenation and Nitration Reaction Aromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionVilsmeyer Haack Formylation Re.........Page 75
Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation ReactionFriedel Craft Acylation ReactionHunds Dicker Reaction......Page 77
Friedel Craft Acylation ReactionHunds Dicker Reaction......Page 79
Hunds Dicker Reaction......Page 81
Oxidation and Nitration ReactionAldol Condensation Reaction......Page 82
Aldol Condensation Reaction......Page 83
Epoxidation and HydrolysisVilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction......Page 84
Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction......Page 85
Halogenation Reaction and Neighbouring Group Participation by Pi bondHalogenation: Aromatic Electroph.........Page 86
Halogenation: Aromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionHalogenation: Aromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionRea.........Page 87
Halogenation: Aromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionRearrangement......Page 88
Rearrangement......Page 89
Methylation and Nitration Reaction......Page 90
Diazotisation and Diazo coupling ReactionRearrangementPyrolytic Elimination ReactionVilsmeyer Haack F.........Page 91
RearrangementPyrolytic Elimination ReactionVilsmeyer Haack Formylation ReactionDehydration: Eliminati.........Page 92
Pyrolytic Elimination ReactionVilsmeyer Haack Formylation ReactionDehydration: Elimination Reaction......Page 93
Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation ReactionDehydration: Elimination Reaction......Page 94
Dehydration: Elimination Reaction......Page 96
Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitution: ChlorinationCyclisation......Page 97
Cyclisation......Page 98
Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitutionAromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionPhase Transfer Catalyst......Page 99
Aromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionPhase Transfer Catalyst......Page 100
Phase Transfer Catalyst......Page 101
Addition and Elimination Reaction......Page 102
Methylation , Oxidation and Hydrolysis......Page 103
Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitution and Reduction......Page 104
Halogenation: addition Reaction with StereochemistryElimination Reaction (E2)Alkylation Reaction......Page 105
Elimination Reaction (E2)Alkylation ReactionIodination Reaction......Page 106
Alkylation ReactionIodination ReactionAddition Reaction Through RearrangementFriedel Craft Alkylation.........Page 107
Iodination ReactionAddition Reaction Through RearrangementFriedel Craft Alkylation ReactionAromatic E.........Page 108
Addition Reaction Through RearrangementFriedel Craft Alkylation ReactionAromatic Electrophilic Substi.........Page 109
Friedel Craft Alkylation ReactionAromatic Electrophilic Substitution......Page 110
Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution......Page 111
Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction and Bromination reactionPyrolytic Elimination Reaction......Page 112
Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction......Page 113
Sulphonation and Nitration ReactionAromatic Nucleophilic Substitution......Page 114
Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution......Page 116
Nitration and Oxidation ReactionSandmeyer ReactionPyrolytic Elimination Reaction......Page 117
Sandmeyer ReactionPyrolytic Elimination Reaction......Page 118
Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction......Page 119
Diazotization and Neighbouring Group ParticipationDehydration: Elimination Reaction......Page 120
Dehydration: Elimination Reaction......Page 121
Neighbouring Group Participation with StereochemistryBenzyne Formation......Page 122
Benzyne Formation......Page 123
Ortho Nitration reactionGrignard Reaction......Page 124
Grignard Reaction......Page 125
Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction and Clemmensons ReductionElimination ReactionAddition Reaction......Page 126
Elimination ReactionAddition Reaction......Page 127
Addition Reaction......Page 128
Neighbouring Group Participation by Hetero atom and Grignard Reagent......Page 129
Elimination Reaction and Neighbouring Group Participation by Aryl ringCyclisationNitration Reaction......Page 130
CyclisationNitration Reaction......Page 131
Nitration Reaction......Page 132
Dehydration and Elimination Reaction......Page 133
Elimination Reaction with Stereochemistry......Page 134
Methylation and o-Nitration......Page 135
Bromination and Elimination Reaction......Page 136
Elimination and Epoxidation Reaction......Page 137
Addition and Cyclisation Reaction......Page 138
Neighbouring Group Participation by Aryl ringPyrolytic Elimination Reaction......Page 139
Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction......Page 140
Acid Hydrolysis reactionElimination Reaction: E2......Page 141
Elimination Reaction: E2......Page 142
Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitution and Catalytic Reduction......Page 143
N-Acylation and Nitration Reaction......Page 144
Friedel Craft Alkylation, Oxidation and Halogenation......Page 145
Addition and Rearrangement Reaction......Page 146
Dehydration and Hydroxylation Reaction......Page 147
Grignard Reagent and Dehydration......Page 148
Dehydration and Epoxidation Reaction......Page 149
Elimination and Addition ReactionAromatic Nucleophilic SubstitutionFriedel Craft Acylation ReactionDe.........Page 150
Aromatic Nucleophilic SubstitutionFriedel Craft Acylation ReactionDehalogenation ReactionAromatic Ele.........Page 151
Friedel Craft Acylation ReactionDehalogenation ReactionAromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionAliphatic N.........Page 152
Dehalogenation ReactionAromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionAliphatic Nucleophilic SubstitutionCyclisat.........Page 153
Aromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionAliphatic Nucleophilic SubstitutionCyclisation......Page 154
Aliphatic Nucleophilic SubstitutionCyclisation......Page 155
Cyclisation......Page 156
Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatomAromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionAromatic Nucleophili.........Page 157
Aromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionAromatic Nucleophilic Substitution: Elimination Addition Mechanism.........Page 158
Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution: Elimination Addition MechanismGattermann Koch Reaction......Page 159
Gattermann Koch Reaction......Page 160
Benzyne Formation and [4+2] Cyclisation ReactionAromatic Electrophilic Substitution......Page 161
Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution......Page 162
Diazotization and Diazo coupling reactionAromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionVilsmeyer Haack Formylati.........Page 163
Aromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionVilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction......Page 164
Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction......Page 165
Benzyne Formation and Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution......Page 166
Alkylation and selective Reduction......Page 167
Catalytic Reduction and Elimination ReactionAromatic Electrophilic Substitution......Page 168
Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution......Page 169
Wolf Kishner Reduction and Halogenation Reaction......Page 170
Elimination and Ozonolysis Reaction......Page 171
Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatomEsterification......Page 172
Esterification......Page 173
Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution and Reduction......Page 174
Neighbouring Group Participation by Pi bondNitration Reaction......Page 175
Nitration Reaction......Page 176
Nitration, Reduction and N-Acylation Reaction......Page 177
Dehydration, Epoxidation and Grignard reagent......Page 178
Addition Reaction and CyclisationDehydrohalogenation Reaction......Page 180
Dehydrohalogenation Reaction......Page 181
O-Acylation Reaction and Cyclisation......Page 182
Reduction and Sandmeyer Reaction......Page 183
Chlorination and Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction......Page 184
Michael Addition and HydrolysisNitration ReactionFriedel Craft Acylation Reaction......Page 185
Nitration ReactionFriedel Craft Acylation Reaction......Page 186
Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction......Page 187
Halogenation and Amide Formation Reaction......Page 188
Elimiantion and Epoxidation with Stereochemistry......Page 189
Dehydrohalogenation and Bromination Reaction......Page 190
Higher Alkyne Formation and Selective Reduction......Page 191
N-Acylation, Bromination and DeprotectionCyclisation......Page 192
Cyclisation......Page 193
Reduction, Diazotisation and Sandmeyer ReactionAromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionElimination Reactio.........Page 194
Aromatic Electrophilic SubstitutionElimination Reaction......Page 195
Elimination Reaction......Page 196
Halogenation, Alkylation and Elimination Reaction......Page 197
Hydration Reaction and o- alkylation reaction......Page 198
Iodination and CyclisationFriedel Craft Alkylation ReactionFriedel Craft Acylation ReactionNitration .........Page 199
Friedel Craft Alkylation ReactionFriedel Craft Acylation ReactionNitration ReactionAldol Condensation.........Page 200
Friedel Craft Acylation ReactionNitration ReactionAldol CondensationCrossed Aldol Condensation......Page 201
Nitration ReactionAldol CondensationCrossed Aldol Condensation......Page 202
Aldol CondensationCrossed Aldol Condensation......Page 203
Crossed Aldol Condensation......Page 204

Citation preview

Organic Reaction Mechanism : Through Problem Solving Approach

Nitin D. Gaikwad (M.Sc., Ph.D.) Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry, K.T.H.M. College, Nashik-422005 Maharashtra, India email :[email protected]

Organic Reaction Mechanism: Through Problem Solving Approach ISBN : 978-93-5267-423-7

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, byphotostat, microfilm, xerography or any other means or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the copyright owner.

PREFACE

This book aims to teach students how to draw organic reaction mechanism for themselves. Almost all available books, on organic reaction mechanism describe reactions and their conversions. This book confronts the student with the organic reaction mechanism by showing how the reagent and starting molecule act together in the reaction. The reaction mechanism approach is learnt by students from this book who then teaches themselves how to use mechanism by solving a series of problems. It is not a conventional text book with detailed text explanation. In short this book understand quickly and giving information about reaction mechanism. Also the student has planned sequence of problems to demonstrate the use of each new mechanism and to test his understanding of it. Each problem is followed by possible reaction mechanism and short explanation, So that if the student fails to solve a problem he will still understand the answer better for having attempted the problem himself. The student therefore has the possibility of continuous self assessment through the use of large number of problems. There are some excellent books written about organic reaction mechanism but they mostly present complete synthesis not reaction mechanism. I have tried in this book to teach student to speak the language of reaction mechanism themselves. This book is originally written for the first year students. The programme aims to allow students to teach themselves but it shouldn’t mean any less work for them. Because students discover what they don’t know, they should have more sensible questions to ask when they were solving reaction mechanism. My aim is to give you more time for real teaching. The book should do the ground work and you should be able to set suitable programme and discuss then profitably. The book itself has plenty of problems of this sort.

Though the programme may introduce you reaction mechanism, its main aim is to suggest a mechanistic approach to the organic reactions. You therefore need to have a reasonable grounding in organic chemistry so that you are familiar with most basic organic reactions. If you are first year student with no much experience of organic chemistry or limited knowledge of organic reactions in practice you will probably be able to work straight through the book to learn the actual reaction mechanism. The point of book learning is that you learn at your own pace and that you yourself check on your own progress.

Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Nitration Reaction Nucleophilic Substitution by NGP Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution Halo-hydroxylation Reaction and Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Neighbouring Group Participation by sigma bond Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution and Diazotization Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution Addition Reaction Nitration Reaction Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Neighbouring Group Participation by sigma bond Elimination Reaction with Rearrangement Rearrangement Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction Gattermann Koch Reaction Pinacol Pinacolone Rearrangement Alkylation and Dehydration Reaction Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatom Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution and condensation Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Addition Reaction Methylation and Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction Elimination and Addition Reaction Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution

25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Neighbouring Group Participation by sigma bond Diazotization Reaction with stereochemistry Friedel Craft Acylation and Condensation Reaction Addition Reaction: Bromination Rearrangement

30.

Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution and Chlorination by SNi mechanism Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Jacobson’s Reaction NGP by Aryl ring

31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48.

Elimination Reaction by E2 Mechanism Cyclisation by protonation Cyclisation by using PTSA Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution by Elimination –Addition Mechanism Diazotization Reaction with stereochemistry Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatom and Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Friedel Craft Alkylation Reaction and Aromatization Reaction Riemann Tiemann Reaction SN2 Mechanism N-Acylation and Nitration Reaction Addition Reaction Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution by Elimination –Addition Mechanism and Diazo coupling reaction Grignard Reaction Halogenation Reaction and amide formation Elimination and Addition Reaction

49.

Dehydration and Epoxidation Reaction

50.

Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution and Chlorination by SNi

51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72.

mechanism and SN2 Mechanism Friedel Craft Acylation and Clemmensons Reduction Nitration ans N-Acylation Reaction Chlorination with stereochemistry and Elimination Reaction by Saytzeff rule Diazotization Reaction with stereochemistry and oxime formation Hydroboration – Oxidation Reaction SNi Mechanism Nitration and Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution Halogenation and Nitration Reaction Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction Hunds Dicker Reaction Oxidation and Nitration Reaction Aldol Condensation Reaction Epoxidation and Hydrolysis Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction Halogenation Reaction and Neighbouring Group Participation by Pi bond Halogenation: Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Halogenation: Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Methylation and Nitration Reaction Rearrangement Diazotisation and Diazo coupling Reaction Rearrangement

73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84.

Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction Dehydration: Elimination Reaction Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitution: Chlorination Cyclisation Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitution Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Phase Transfer Catalyst Addition and Elimination Reaction Methylation , Oxidation and Hydrolysis Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitution and Reduction Halogenation: addition Reaction with Stereochemistry

85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100.

Elimination Reaction (E2) Alkylation Reaction Iodination Reaction Addition Reaction Through Rearrangement Friedel Craft Alkylation Reaction Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction and Bromination reaction Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction Sulphonation and Nitration Reaction Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution Nitration and Oxidation Reaction Sandmeyer Reaction Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction Diazotization and Neighbouring Group Participation Dehydration: Elimination Reaction Neighbouring Group Participation with Stereochemistry

109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119.

Benzyne Formation Ortho Nitration reaction Grignard Reaction Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction and Clemmensons Reduction Elimination Reaction Addition Reaction Neighbouring Group Participation by Hetero atom and Grignard Reagent Elimination Reaction and Neighbouring Group Participation by Aryl ring Cyclisation Nitration Reaction Dehydration and Elimination Reaction Elimination Reaction with Stereochemistry Methylation and o-Nitration Bromination and Elimination Reaction Elimination and Epoxidation Reaction Addition and Cyclisation Reaction Neighbouring Group Participation by Aryl ring Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction Acid Hydrolysis reaction

120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126.

Elimination Reaction: E2 Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitution and Catalytic Reduction N-Acylation and Nitration Reaction Friedel Craft Alkylation, Oxidation and Halogenation Addition and Rearrangement Reaction Dehydration and Hydroxylation Reaction Grignard Reagent and Dehydration

101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108.

127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153.

Dehydration and Epoxidation Reaction Elimination and Addition Reaction Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction Dehalogenation Reaction Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Cyclisation Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatom Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution: Elimination Addition Mechanism Gattermann Koch Reaction Benzyne Formation and [4+2] Cyclisation Reaction Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Diazotization and Diazo coupling reaction Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction Benzyne Formation and Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution Alkylation and selective Reduction Catalytic Reduction and Elimination Reaction Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Wolf Kishner Reduction and Halogenation Reaction Elimination and Ozonolysis Reaction Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatom Esterification Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution and Reduction Neighbouring Group Participation by Pi bond

154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181.

Nitration Reaction Nitration, Reduction and N-Acylation Reaction Dehydration, Epoxidation and Grignard reagent Addition Reaction and Cyclisation Dehydrohalogenation Reaction O-Acylation Reaction and Cyclisation Reduction and Sandmeyer Reaction Chlorination and Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction Michael Addition and Hydrolysis Nitration Reaction Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction Halogenation and Amide Formation Reaction Elimiantion and Epoxidation with Stereochemistry Dehydrohalogenation and Bromination Reaction Higher Alkyne Formation and Selective Reduction N-Acylation, Bromination and Deprotection Cyclisation Reduction, Diazotisation and Sandmeyer Reaction Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Elimination Reaction Halogenation, Alkylation and Elimination Reaction Hydration Reaction and o- alkylation reaction Iodination and Cyclisation Friedel Craft Alkylation Reaction Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction Nitarion Reaction Aldol Condensation Crossed Aldol Condensation

181. 1. Nitration Reaction

2. Nucleophilic Substitution by NGP

3. Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution

4. Halo-hydroxylation Substitution

Reaction

and

Aliphatic

Nucleophilic

5. Neighbouring Group Participation by sigma bond

6. Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution and Diazotization

7. Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution

8. Addition Reaction

9. Nitration Reaction

10. Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

11. Neighbouring Group Participation by sigma bond

12. Elimination Reaction with Rearrangement

13. Rearrangement

14. Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction

15. Gattermann Koch Reaction

16. Pinacol Pinacolone Rearrangement

17. Alkylation and Dehydration Reaction

18. Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatom

19. Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution and condensation

20. Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

21. Addition Reaction

22. Methylation and Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction

23. Elimination and Addition Reaction

24. Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution

25. Neighbouring Group Participation by sigma bond

26. Diazotization Reaction with stereochemistry

27. Friedel Craft Acylation and Condensation Reaction

28. Addition Reaction: Bromination

29. Rearrangement

30. Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution and Chlorination by SNi mechanism

31. Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution

32. Jacobson’s Reaction

33. NGP by Aryl ring

34. Elimination Reaction by E2 Mechanism

35. Cyclisation by protonation

36. Cyclisation by using PTSA

37. Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution by Elimination –Addition Mechanism

38. Diazotization Reaction with stereochemistry

39. Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatom and Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution

40. Friedel Craft Alkylation Reaction and Aromatization Reaction

41. Riemann Tiemann Reaction

42. SN2 Mechanism

43. N-Acylation and Nitration Reaction

44. Addition Reaction

45. Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution by Elimination –Addition Mechanism and Diazo coupling reaction

46. Grignard Reaction

47. Halogenation Reaction and amide formation

48. Elimination and Addition Reaction

49. Dehydration and Epoxidation Reaction

50. Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution and Chlorination by SNi mechanism and SN2 Mechanism

51. Friedel Craft Acylation and Clemmensons Reduction

52. Nitration ans N-Acylation Reaction

53. Chlorination with stereochemistry and Elimination Reaction by Saytzeff rule

54. Diazotization Reaction with stereochemistry and oxime formation

55. Hydroboration – Oxidation Reaction

56. SNi Mechanism

57. Nitration and Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution

58. Halogenation and Nitration Reaction Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

59. Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction

60. Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction

61. Hunds Dicker Reaction

62. Oxidation and Nitration Reaction

63. Aldol Condensation Reaction

64. Epoxidation and Hydrolysis

65. Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction

66. Halogenation Reaction and Neighbouring Group Participation by Pi bond

67. Halogenation: Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

68. Halogenation: Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

69. Rearrangement

70. Methylation and Nitration Reaction

71. Diazotisation and Diazo coupling Reaction

72. Rearrangement

73. Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction

74. Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction

75. Dehydration: Elimination Reaction

76. Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitution: Chlorination

77. Cyclisation

78. Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitution

79. Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

80. Phase Transfer Catalyst

81. Addition and Elimination Reaction

82. Methylation , Oxidation and Hydrolysis

83. Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitution and Reduction

84. Halogenation: addition Reaction with Stereochemistry

85. Elimination Reaction (E2)

86. Alkylation Reaction

87. Iodination Reaction

88. Addition Reaction Through Rearrangement

89. Friedel Craft Alkylation Reaction

90. Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

91. Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction and Bromination reaction

92. Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction

93. Sulphonation and Nitration Reaction

94. Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution

95. Nitration and Oxidation Reaction

96. Sandmeyer Reaction

97. Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction

98. Diazotization and Neighbouring Group Participation

99. Dehydration: Elimination Reaction

100. Stereochemistry

Neighbouring Group Participation with

101. Benzyne Formation

102.

Ortho Nitration reaction

103.

Grignard Reaction

104. Reduction

Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction and Clemmensons

105.

Elimination Reaction

106.

Addition Reaction

107. Neighbouring Group Participation by Hetero atom and Grignard Reagent

108. Elimination Reaction and Neighbouring Group Participation by Aryl ring

109.

Cyclisation

110. Nitration Reaction

111. Dehydration and Elimination Reaction

112. Elimination Reaction with Stereochemistry

113. Methylation and o-Nitration

114. Bromination and Elimination Reaction

115. Elimination and Epoxidation Reaction

116. Addition and Cyclisation Reaction

117. Neighbouring Group Participation by Aryl ring

118. Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction

119. Acid Hydrolysis reaction

120.

Elimination Reaction: E2

121. Aliphatic Nucleophilic substitution and Catalytic Reduction

122.

N-Acylation and Nitration Reaction

123.

Friedel Craft Alkylation, Oxidation and Halogenation

124.

Addition and Rearrangement Reaction

125.

Dehydration and Hydroxylation Reaction

126.

Grignard Reagent and Dehydration

127.

Dehydration and Epoxidation Reaction

128.

Elimination and Addition Reaction

129.

Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution

130.

Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction

131. Dehalogenation Reaction

132.

Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

133.

Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution

134.

Cyclisation

135.

Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatom

136.

Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

137. Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution: Elimination Addition Mechanism

138.

Gattermann Koch Reaction

139.

Benzyne Formation and [4+2] Cyclisation Reaction

140.

Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

141. Diazotization and Diazo coupling reaction

142.

Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

143.

Vilsmeyer Haack Formylation Reaction

144. Substitution

Benzyne Formation and Aromatic Nucleophilic

145.

Alkylation and selective Reduction

146.

Catalytic Reduction and Elimination Reaction

147.

Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

148.

Wolf Kishner Reduction and Halogenation Reaction

149.

Elimination and Ozonolysis Reaction

150.

Neighbouring Group Participation by heteroatom

151. Esterification

152.

Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution and Reduction

153.

Neighbouring Group Participation by Pi bond

154.

Nitration Reaction

155.

Nitration, Reduction and N-Acylation Reaction

156.

Dehydration, Epoxidation and Grignard reagent

157.

Addition Reaction and Cyclisation

158.

Dehydrohalogenation Reaction

159.

O-Acylation Reaction and Cyclisation

160.

Reduction and Sandmeyer Reaction

161. Chlorination and Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction

162.

Michael Addition and Hydrolysis

163.

Nitration Reaction

164.

Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction

165.

Halogenation and Amide Formation Reaction

166.

Elimiantion and Epoxidation with Stereochemistry

167.

Dehydrohalogenation and Bromination Reaction

168.

Higher Alkyne Formation and Selective Reduction

169.

N-Acylation, Bromination and Deprotection

170.

Cyclisation

171. Reduction, Diazotisation and Sandmeyer Reaction

172.

Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

173.

Elimination Reaction

174.

Halogenation, Alkylation and Elimination Reaction

175. Hydration Reaction and o- alkylation reaction

176.

Iodination and Cyclisation

177.

Friedel Craft Alkylation Reaction

178.

Friedel Craft Acylation Reaction

179.

Nitration Reaction

180.

Aldol Condensation

181. Crossed Aldol Condensation