Ordering the World: Approaches to State and Society in Sung Dynasty China 0520076915, 9780520076914

These essays examine the relation of society and the state or, more broadly, the place of political action in society an

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Ordering the World: Approaches to State and Society in Sung Dynasty China
 0520076915, 9780520076914

Table of contents :
Ordering the World - Robert Hymes and Conrad Schirokauer_Page_001
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Citation preview

This volume and the conference from which it resulted were sponsored by the Joint Committee on Chinese Studies, of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council, with funds provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Ford Foundation.

Ordering the World Approaches to State and Society in Sung Dynasty China

EDITED BY

Robert P. Hymes and Conrad Schirokauer

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS Berkeley

Los Angeles

Oxford

University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. Oxford, England © 1993 by The Regents of the University of California

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ordering the world : approaches to state and society in Sung Dynasty China I edited by Robert P. Hymes and Conrad Schirokauer. cm.-(Studies on China; 16) p. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-520-07691-5 (cloth) i. China-History-Sung dynasty, 960-1279-Congresses. I. Hymes, Robert P. II. Schirokauer, Conrad. III. Series. DS751.073 1993 951'.02-dc20 91-43492 CIP

- -.

Printed in the United States of America 123456789

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984.8

STUDIES ON CHINA

.... -

A series of conference volumes sponsored by the joint Committee on Chinese Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council. l. The Origins of Chinese Civilization edited by David N. Keightley University of California Press, 1982

2. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1979 edited by Bonnie S. McDougall University of California Press, 1984 3. Class and Social Stratification in Post-Revolution China edited by James L. Watson Cambridge University Press, 1984 4. Popular Culture in Late Imperial China edited by David Johnson, Andrew]. Nathan, and Evelyn S. Rawski University of California Press, 1985 5. Kinship Organization in Late Imperial China, 1000-1940 edited by Patricia Buckley Ebrey and James L. Watson University of California Press, 1986 6. The Vitality of the Lyric Voice: Shih Poetry from the Late Han to the T'ang edited by Shuen-fu Lin and Stephen Owen Princeton University Press, 1986 7. Policy Implementation in Post-Mao China edited by David M. Lampton University of California Press, 1987 8. Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern China edited by James L. Watson and Evelyn S. Rawski University of California Press, 1988 9. Neo-Confucian Education: The Formative Stage edited by Wm. Theodore de Bary and john W. Chaffee University of California Press, 1989 10. Orthodoxy in Late Imperial China edited by Kwang-Ching Liu University of California Press, 1990 11. Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance edited by Joseph W. Esherick and Mary Backus Rankin University of California Press, 1990

12. Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society edited by Rubie S. Watson and Patricia Buckley Ebrey Universi!J of California Press, 1991 13. Chinese History in Economic Perspective edited by Thomas G. Rawski and Lillian M. Li Universi!J of California Press, 1991 14. Bureaucracy, Politics, and Decision Making in Post-Mao China edited by Kenneth G. Lieberthal and David M. Lampton Universi!J of California Press, 1992 15. Pilgrims and Sacred Sites in China edited by Susan Naquin and Chiin-fang Yu Universi!J of California Press, 1992 16. Ordering the World: Approaches to State and Society in Sung Dynasty China edited by Robert P. Hymes and Conrad Schirokauer Universi!J of California Press, 1993

for Debora and Lore and lo the memory of E. A. Kracke

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS CONTRIBUTORS INTRODUCTION

xi

/

xiii

/

I

1

Conrad Schirokauer and Robert P. Hymes 1. Su Hsun's Pragmatic Statecraft George Hatch

/

59

2. State Power and Economic Activism during the New Policies, 1068-1085: The Tea and Horse Trade and the "Green Sprouts" Loan Policy I 76 Paul]. Smith 3. Government, Society, and State: On the Political Visions ofSsu-ma Kuang and Wang An-shih Peter K. Bol 4. Chu Hsi's Sense of History Conrad Schirokauer

/

/

128

193

5. Community and Welfare: Chu Hsi's Community Granary in Theory and Practice Richard von Glahn

/

221

6. Charitable Estates as an Aspect of Statecraft in Southern Sung China Linda Walton

I

7. Moral Duty and Self-Regulating Process in Southern Sung Views of Famine Relief / 280 Robert P. Hymes

ix

255

x

CONTENTS 8. The Historian as Critic: Li Hsin-ch'uan and the Dilemmas of Statecraft I in Southern Sung China I 310 John W. Chaffee 9. Wei Liao-weng's Thwarted Statecraft

I

James T. C. Liu

10. Chen Te-hsiu and Statecraft Wm. Theodore de Bary

I

GLOSSARY WORKS CITED INDEX

I

381 393 415

I

/

349

336

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This book grows out of the conference on Sung Dynasty Statecraft in Thought and Action, held at Scottsdale, Arizona in January 1986, ,with funds provided by a grant from the American Council of Learned Societies. Thanks are owing to Jason Parker, Executive Associate of the Council, for his aid and advice in the planning of the conference and for his active and very helpful participation at Scottsdale. We owe thanks also to Frederic Wakeman, Jr., and Tu Wei-ming, who as successive chairs of the Joint Committee on Chinese Studies of the Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council gave us important guidance and feedback on our proposal and on our later planning. Wm. Theodore de Bary, whose contribution to the conference is represented in this volume, and John Langlois, not present at the conference, were prime movers in putting forward the idea of a series of conferences on Chinese statecraft. The idea was further elaborated at a planning meeting held at Columbia University in October 1981, also under the sponsorship of the Council of Learned Societies. As yet ours has been the only statecraft conference to grow out of this planning process; we hope there will be others. Many others who did not participate in the conference aided us in planning it, in particular Hok-lam Chan, Herbert Franke, Klaus Flessel, Mira Mihelich, and Charles Peterson. Our conference was a large one, and it was obvious from the start that of the many excellent papers presented there not all could possibly find their way into a single volume. Our deep appreciation goes to the participants whose work we would wish to have included but could not: Hao Chang, Peter Golas, Chiin-chieh Huang, Thomas Lee, Winston Lo, Michael McGrath, Hoyt Tillman, Monika Obelhor, and Allan Wood. All, through their contributions at the conference and afterward, have affected in imporxi

xii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

tant ways the content of the volume. William Atwell gave us crucial help and insight as intellectual envoy from the world of the Ming and Ch'ing. In him and in our ambassador from points west, John Pocock, we had discussants of extraordinary quality, who made us think at every moment about the foundations and implications of our thoughts and claims. The conference could not have proceeded as smoothly as it did without Marie Guarino, who performed the demanding and exhausting role of sole rapporteur with unfailing intelligence, efficiency, and good cheer. In the preparation of the volume Francine Ovios, systems analyst and programmer at the Center for Computing Activities at Columbia University, provided services well beyond the call of duty without compensation and without complaint. We are in her debt. For extremely helpful readings of earlier versions of the manuscript we thank Patricia Ebrey and another, anonymous reader. Our debt to Robert Hartwell in our introduction is obvious. Finally, we offer thanks to the management and employees of the Hungarian Pastry Shop at 1030 Amsterdam Avenue, whose patient hospitality and excellent hot chocolate (which we nursed far longer than was really fair) carried us through hours, days, weeks, and months of productive talk, excited argument, and extraordinarily harmonious editing and writing.

cs RPH

CONTRIBUTORS

Peter K. Bot is professor of Chinese history at Harvard University. His recent publications include "This. Culture of Ours": Intellectual Transitions in T'ang and Sung China. John W. Chaffee is associate professor and chairperson of history at Binghamton University, the State University of New York. He is the author of The Thorny Gates of Leaming in Sung China: A Social History of Examinations and coeditor with Wm. Theodore de Bary of Neo-Confucian Education: The Formative Period. His current research focuses on the history of the Sung imperial clan. Wm. Theodore de Bary is the John Mitchell Mason Professor and Provost Emeritus of Columbia University. His more recent books are The Trouble with Confucianism and Leaming for One's Self. George Hatch is associate professor of history at Washington University in St. Louis. His interests include Sung literati and Chinese historical thought. Robert P. Hymes is professor o(Chinese history at Columbia University. He is the author of Statesmen and Gentlemen: The Elite of Fu-chou, Chiang-hsi, in Northern and Southern Sung and is currently completing a book on Taoist saints' cults. James T. C. Liu is professor of East Asian studies and history, emeritus, at Princeton University. A founding figure in the study of Sung history in this country, he is the author of numerous articles and books, including biographies of Wang An-shih and Ou-yang Hsiu and, more recently, China Turning Inward: Intellectual-Political Changes in the Early Twelfth Century ( 1988).

xiii

xiv

CONTRIBUTORS

Conrad Schirokauer accepted early retirement from the City College of the City University of New York (1991) to concentrate on research in Sung intellectual history. He is the author of articles on Chu Hsi and Hu Hung as well as of a textbook. Paul]. Smith, a student of Sung and Yuan social and economic history, is associate professor of history at Haverford College. He is the author of Taxing Heaven's Storehouse: Horses, Bureaucrats, and the Destruction of the Sichuan Tea Industry, 1074-1224 (1991). Richard von Glahn is associate professor of history at the University of California at Los Angeles. He is the author of The Country of Streams and Grottoes: Expansion, Settlement, and the Civili Ch'ang-t'an :!i!:Ja ch'ang-wu !l;J;lj Chao (family) tfl Chao (state) tfl Chao Chung-chien MlJi!;', f!ij Chao Hsien tf!J91t Chao Hsiung tfll;ft Chao Ju-yii ilfti'k !II Chao K'uei ~~ Chao Shan-yii tfl'iff Chao Ting tfl W Chao Yen-tuan tfl~*'l Che-tsung Che-tung chen-chi ~ ffef Chen-chiang il1tlI Chen-chiang-fu £11tlIJf.f chen-tai ~it Chen Te-hsiu A~~ chen-t'iao ~!Ill chen-t'iao-ch'ang ~Jilli; Chen-tsung ~ Ch'en !!*

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381

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GLOSSARY

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383

GLOSSARY

Chun-yen i-lai ch'ao-yeh tsa-chi

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Chun-yen i-lai hsi-nun yao-lu ~ ~ t). *~:¥Ji!'.~ Ch'ien ~ Ch'ien Mu ~f.t Ch'ien-tao $l;Jli: chih ib!J chih ch'ang chih-cheng chih chih-kao chih-chih san-ssu t'iao-li ib!Jit.::=.: l'i'] ~{YI] chih-chih san-ssu t'iao-li ssu $11 fl.::=.: l'i'] ~ chih-fen Ill 71chih kuo frl l!llil chih luan frl jjL chih ts'ai frl lit Chin (dynasty) ~ Chin (state) fit Chin-ch'eng if llit Chin-chou ~ fli Chin-hua ~~ Chin-ling Chen ~liUA chino ti ~~WI chin-shih ~ ± Chin-ssu Lu ~.Ii!!,~ Chin-t'an ~II Ch'in • Ch'in-chou •t1i Ch'in-feng ch'in-k'an !11..j' Ch'in Kuan •Ill. Ch'in Kuei $~ ch'in-mu ti!.~ ching (constant, warps) @ ching (reverence) Ii& Ching-chilei-pien ii! j'jff m~ ching-chieh fa m! W?'* ching-chih m! itJJ Ching-hsi Ji\ i!§ ching-hsueh-che ~ !!J! :if Ching-bu ;lft]li)lj ching i chii ~~ii!i Ching-k'ang YJ!J ~ ching-shih ~ t!!: ching-shih chih kuei m! t!!: tfl.

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Ching-shih pa-pien lei-tsuan

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ching shih-wu @t!!: ~ ching shu m! ~ Ching-tung Ji\* ching-yen ii!~ Ching-yen it' litf ch'ing l;Jl Ch'ing ft!i ch 'ing-chung ~ :i: ch 'ing-i mill Ch'ing-li ~)ff ch 'ing-miao M ch'ing-miao ch'ien wM~ ch'ing-miaofa 'Pr"M"i* Ch'ing-miao shu WM@ ch'ing-t'an m~ Ch'ing-yuan §j[; Chiu-huang huo-min shu ti Jit i% ~ii Chiu-wen cheng-wu § iifl IE~ Ch'iu Ch'ung fr~ Ch'iu Chun tr~ ii chou tli Chou (dynasty) }!] Chou (last Shang ruler) 1,1 Chou-i pen-i }!] fit::