Once Upon A Time - Using Stories in the Language Classroom
 0521252695,  9780521252690,  0521272629,  9780521272629

Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Contents......Page 5
To the teacher......Page 9
Section 1 Telling a story......Page 13
Section 2 Stories and follow-ups......Page 21
Section 3 Retelling......Page 53
Section 4 Before I begin.........Page 66
Section 5 Co-operative telling......Page 75
Section 6 Students' stories......Page 93
Section 7 From the past......Page 108
Section 8 Vanishing Stories......Page 116
Section 9 Revision......Page 120
Section 10 Story pool......Page 123
Postscript......Page 139

Citation preview

CAMBRIDGE  HANDBOOKS  H1R  IANGt:i\GE  TEACHERS 

Once Upon a Tillle 

General Editors:  Michael Swan and Roger Bowers  This is a series of practical guides for  I"eachns of  English and other  languages. Illustrative examples are  usually drawn from  the field of English  as a foreign or second language, but the  ideas and techniques described can  equally well be used in the teaching of any  language. 

Using stories in the  language classroom 

In this series:

Drama Techniques in Language Learning ­ A resource book of  communication activities for language teachers  by Alan Matey and Atan Duff

]ahnMargan and Maria Rinvalucri

Games for Language Learning  by Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby Discussions that Work ­ Task­centred fluency practice by Penny Ur Once Upon a Time ­ Using stories in the language classroom  by John Morgan and Mario Rinvolucri Teaching Listening Comprehension by Penny Ur Keep Talking ­ Communicative fluency activities fot language teaching  by Friederike Ktippel Working with Words ­ A guide re teaching and learning vocabulary  by Ruth Cairns and Stuart Redman Learner English ­ A teacher's guide to interference and other problems  edited by Michaet Swan and Bernard Smith Testing Spoken Language ­ A handbook of oral testing techniques  by Nic Underhitl Literature in the Language Classroom ­ A resource book of ideas and  activities  by Joanne Collie and Stephen Slater Dictation ­ New methods, new possibilities  by Paul Davis and Mario Rinvolucri Grammar Practice Activities ­ A practical guide for teachers  by Penny Ur

The dgh, 0l,he Unipe,s;ty 0/ Com})"dge 10

prult and ulJ

all manner of ooakt "';03' granted. by GスイiAセh   V/I! irt }JJf.   The -Ulllrns/ly Im.r plinr e4 wld I'lIhli.fhCd COrtflntlously ,Iill(,(

.11111,,111 1 .1'

JJ8.f.

HャjQivlG セ[ゥャケ

"1\1.".1·,  I

セゥL



, ,,' i

  11"  I,,,.

  Press  . 

I;, n'  U." I or  "" 

', .. 1", \

CAMBRIDGE  HANDBOOKS  H1R  IANGt:i\GE  TEACHERS 

Once Upon a Tillle 

General Editors:  Michael Swan and Roger Bowers  This is a series of practical guides for  I"eachns of  English and other  languages. Illustrative examples are  usually drawn from  the field of English  as a foreign or second language, but the  ideas and techniques described can  equally well be used in the teaching of any  language. 

Using stories in the  language classroom 

In this series:

Drama Techniques in Language Learning ­ A resource book of  communication activities for language teachers  by Alan Matey and Atan Duff

]ahnMargan and Maria Rinvalucri

Games for Language Learning  by Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby Discussions that Work ­ Task­centred fluency practice by Penny Ur Once Upon a Time ­ Using stories in the language classroom  by John Morgan and Mario Rinvolucri Teaching Listening Comprehension by Penny Ur Keep Talking ­ Communicative fluency activities fot language teaching  by Friederike Ktippel Working with Words ­ A guide re teaching and learning vocabulary  by Ruth Cairns and Stuart Redman Learner English ­ A teacher's guide to interference and other problems  edited by Michaet Swan and Bernard Smith Testing Spoken Language ­ A handbook of oral testing techniques  by Nic Underhitl Literature in the Language Classroom ­ A resource book of ideas and  activities  by Joanne Collie and Stephen Slater Dictation ­ New methods, new possibilities  by Paul Davis and Mario Rinvolucri Grammar Practice Activities ­ A practical guide for teachers  by Penny Ur

The dgh, 0l,he Unipe,s;ty 0/ Com})"dge 10

prult and ulJ

all manner of ooakt "';03' granted. by GスイiAセh   V/I! irt }JJf.   The -Ulllrns/ly Im.r plinr e4 wld I'lIhli.fhCd COrtflntlously ,Iill(,(

.11111,,111 1 .1'

JJ8.f.

HャjQivlG セ[ゥャケ

"1\1.".1·,  I

セゥL



, ,,' i

  11"  I,,,.

  Press  . 

I;, n'  U." I or  "" 

', .. 1", \

Published by the Press Syndicate of till" 1ヲャvセj   .... If  .d ( .11I1I11I1I1,  ,c   The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, ( ':JJIIlll ji セHG   I '" lit I' 32 East 57th Street, New York, NY  I ODn, 1J:,,\   10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourn'  \ 1/'1,.1\11'.1] "h:l  

Contents

© Cambridge University Press 1983   First published 1983   Fifth printing 1988   Printed in Great Britain  at the University Press, Cambridge 

Techniques

Stories

To the Teacher 

1  

Section 1 

Telling a story 

Section 2  2.1 

Stories and follow­ups  Revenge questions 

2.2  2.3  2.4  2.5  2.6 

Theme pictures  For beginners  Taking roles  Theme words  Discussion 

2.7  2.8 

Shapes and characters  Completion 

2.9 

Story to poem 

2. J()  2.1  J

2..12 

In new clothes  Birth order  Problem stories 

.2..1'\ 

A serial story 

2.1  /1 

Story ro picture 

Library of Congress catalogue card number:  83­5356  

British Library cataloguing in publication data

Morgan, John  Once upon a time ­ (Cambridge handbooks for  language teachers)  1.  English language ­ Study and teachingForeign students  n. Rinvolucri, Mario  I. Title  428.2'4'091  PE1128  ISBN 0521252695  hard covers   ISBN 0 521 272629  paperback  

sciZセゥッョ

 3  '..1 

Once Upon a Time was  originally  published  in  pilot  form  by  Pilgrims  Publications, Canterbury, England. This Cambridge Univcrslly  Press echtlOn  セ。ィ   been  extensively revised  and  cxpandcd. 

hャGエゥョセ

1'.\1  ;.11('1 G cャBiQセ

Page

The hunchback The river

The inventor King Caliban Kacuy MrsPeters The bear that wasn't Jack and the beanstalk Peacocks Freyfaxi Rumpelstiltsk in The two sons Yvonne Willow The singing mushrooms Th.epiperofRome The Billy Goats Gruff The two doors Unexpected The sign ofthe broken sword An anecdote

   

Seguin 's goat TIll:' (:{It that wal1ud by itself

n

If'

,Inee bears

1,,1',11'11­' 

5   12  

13   13   16   18   20   23   25   27   28   29   31   32   32   34   35   36   37   38   38   40   41   41   42   43   44   47  

Itl'" I""'I1'/S 1I1I1"/"',II,!

4S 

1/"/'1,,1'1}1/

\ I

Published by the Press Syndicate of till" 1ヲャvセj   .... If  .d ( .11I1I11I1I1,  ,c   The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, ( ':JJIIlll ji セHG   I '" lit I' 32 East 57th Street, New York, NY  I ODn, 1J:,,\   10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourn'  \ 1/'1,.1\11'.1] "h:l  

Contents

© Cambridge University Press 1983   First published 1983   Fifth printing 1988   Printed in Great Britain  at the University Press, Cambridge 

Techniques

Stories

To the Teacher 

1  

Section 1 

Telling a story 

Section 2  2.1 

Stories and follow­ups  Revenge questions 

2.2  2.3  2.4  2.5  2.6 

Theme pictures  For beginners  Taking roles  Theme words  Discussion 

2.7  2.8 

Shapes and characters  Completion 

2.9 

Story to poem 

2. J()  2.1  J

2..12 

In new clothes  Birth order  Problem stories 

.2..1'\ 

A serial story 

2.1  /1 

Story ro picture 

Library of Congress catalogue card number:  83­5356  

British Library cataloguing in publication data

Morgan, John  Once upon a time ­ (Cambridge handbooks for  language teachers)  1.  English language ­ Study and teachingForeign students  n. Rinvolucri, Mario  I. Title  428.2'4'091  PE1128  ISBN 0521252695  hard covers   ISBN 0 521 272629  paperback  

sciZセゥッョ

 3  '..1 

Once Upon a Time was  originally  published  in  pilot  form  by  Pilgrims  Publications, Canterbury, England. This Cambridge Univcrslly  Press echtlOn  セ。ィ   been  extensively revised  and  cxpandcd. 

hャGエゥョセ

1'.\1  ;.11('1 G cャBiQセ

Page

The hunchback The river

The inventor King Caliban Kacuy MrsPeters The bear that wasn't Jack and the beanstalk Peacocks Freyfaxi Rumpelstiltsk in The two sons Yvonne Willow The singing mushrooms Th.epiperofRome The Billy Goats Gruff The two doors Unexpected The sign ofthe broken sword An anecdote

   

Seguin 's goat TIll:' (:{It that wal1ud by itself

n

If'

,Inee bears

1,,1',11'11­' 

5   12  

13   13   16   18   20   23   25   27   28   29   31   32   32   34   35   36   37   38   38   40   41   41   42   43   44   47  

Itl'" I""'I1'/S 1I1I1"/"',II,!

4S 

1/"/'1,,1'1}1/

\ I

Techniques

Section 4 

4.1 

Before I begin...   Grammar practice  

4.2  4.3 

Theme sentences   A picture starter  

4.4 

Picture rose  

Section 5 

5.1  

Co­operative telling   In the language lab 

5.2  5.3 

Group story   Dictation  

5.4  5.5  5.6  5.7  5.8  5.9  

Scene to story   A story from four words   Three item stories   Random story  Picture composition  Dictogloss 

St"" ....

(;oM duI' ;,>.,' 'I 'f!/'l'I' 1I'lshl's "Un' tIJlI'I' ャゥエ セ   pigs HreJllfslm'l'lJr'Silent (;dert The IJigl'oll The qllilrrymall

The unicorn Two brothers The ghost The seventh rose No name wom,m The dragon ofNara

Techniques

Page

54   54   55   56   57   59   59   60   63  63  65   65   66  68   69  

Stories

7.5  7.6  7.7  7.8  7.9 

Fire stories   Hiding things   Heroes and heroines   Stories from jobs   Shame  

The wrpark attendant The orchard

97 

Section 8 

Vanishing stories  

God in a matchbox

98 

Section 9 

Revision  A story you really liked  Music   Doodlestrip review 

9.1  9.2  9.3 

94   95  95

Snow The pullover Honour The figtree E  Ivar F  In the cellar G  The donkey H  Oogledeboo I The man, the snake, and the stone The baby J K The husband L  Enkidu M  Ophir N A horse race o  The wisdom ofthe world P  The princess and the pea Q Thepaem R Analdman S  Ants T  The magic barrel

A  B C  D 

72

77 77

96  

102   103   104  

Section 10  Story pool  

73   74   75   Solomon's judgement The forced burglar

Page

105   105   105  106  106  107  107   108   108   109  

Section 6  Students'stories   Mumble, listen, tell   6.1  Comprehension questions   The giant tortoise 6.2  6.3   Spoof stories  Cambodian soupstone Air travel 6.4  Story of the film   6,5  Love stories  Rapunzel 6.6  From beginnings ...   Frog in a well Grandpa Three-wheeler 6.7  ... to endings   Wild cat 6.8  Objects tell stories   6.9  Doodlestrips   6.10  Triple stories 

79   79   80   80  81   82   82  83   84   84   85  86  87   88 

PI"""  I ipl  

119  

Section 7 

From the past  Photos 

l)() 

\. ),,1,,\\,11"111:'  111"111'.  

120  

yh、イ」 セ y

 

')2 

Tilll"-! ravl'llllil'1'l'!  I1 h''!'!Il'IL,·,lllI nil'

qi

7.1  7.2 7.. セ   .LI 

l)() 

'I

j

NI,I,". Bhエi セGLゥ HG ャゥi s

 

110  110  110  111   112  112   113   114  114   115  116   117  

Techniques

Section 4 

4.1 

Before I begin...   Grammar practice  

4.2  4.3 

Theme sentences   A picture starter  

4.4 

Picture rose  

Section 5 

5.1  

Co­operative telling   In the language lab 

5.2  5.3 

Group story   Dictation  

5.4  5.5  5.6  5.7  5.8  5.9  

Scene to story   A story from four words   Three item stories   Random story  Picture composition  Dictogloss 

St"" ....

(;oM duI' ;,>.,' 'I 'f!/'l'I' 1I'lshl's "Un' tIJlI'I' ャゥエ セ   pigs HreJllfslm'l'lJr'Silent (;dert The IJigl'oll The qllilrrymall

The unicorn Two brothers The ghost The seventh rose No name wom,m The dragon ofNara

Techniques

Page

54   54   55   56   57   59   59   60   63  63  65   65   66  68   69  

Stories

7.5  7.6  7.7  7.8  7.9 

Fire stories   Hiding things   Heroes and heroines   Stories from jobs   Shame  

The wrpark attendant The orchard

97 

Section 8 

Vanishing stories  

God in a matchbox

98 

Section 9 

Revision  A story you really liked  Music   Doodlestrip review 

9.1  9.2  9.3 

94   95  95

Snow The pullover Honour The figtree E  Ivar F  In the cellar G  The donkey H  Oogledeboo I The man, the snake, and the stone The baby J K The husband L  Enkidu M  Ophir N A horse race o  The wisdom ofthe world P  The princess and the pea Q Thepaem R Analdman S  Ants T  The magic barrel

A  B C  D 

72

77 77

96  

102   103   104  

Section 10  Story pool  

73   74   75   Solomon's judgement The forced burglar

Page

105   105   105  106  106  107  107   108   108   109  

Section 6  Students'stories   Mumble, listen, tell   6.1  Comprehension questions   The giant tortoise 6.2  6.3   Spoof stories  Cambodian soupstone Air travel 6.4  Story of the film   6,5  Love stories  Rapunzel 6.6  From beginnings ...   Frog in a well Grandpa Three-wheeler 6.7  ... to endings   Wild cat 6.8  Objects tell stories   6.9  Doodlestrips   6.10  Triple stories 

79   79   80   80  81   82   82  83   84   84   85  86  87   88 

PI"""  I ipl  

119  

Section 7 

From the past  Photos 

l)() 

\. ),,1,,\\,11"111:'  111"111'.  

120  

yh、イ」 セ y

 

')2 

Tilll"-! ravl'llllil'1'l'!  I1 h''!'!Il'IL,·,lllI nil'

qi

7.1  7.2 7.. セ   .LI 

l)() 

'I

j

NI,I,". Bhエi セGLゥ HG ャゥi s

 

110  110  110  111   112  112   113   114  114   115  116   117  

Thanks

To the teacher

Among both practising language teachers and applied linguists there 

We wish  to  thank the following people: 

セウ   an IOcreasmg awareness that successfu.l second­language learning 

Students with whom we have learnt to  tell  stories. 

is  far more a  matter of unconscious acquisition than of conscious,  systemaric study. Stephen Krashen  (Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning, Pergamon  1981)  goes so far  as  to  say that 'the major function of the second­language classroom is  to  provide intake for  acquisition'.  It セウ   ッセイ   view that the 'intake' required to facilitate language  セ」アuャsQエャoョ  w dl be very different from the materials currently provided  m the dassroom as part of systematic structural or notional courses.  If ,unconscious processes are  to  be enlisted, then the whole person  Will  need  to  be  engaged:  we shall no longer  be able to rely on the  learner's general 'motivation' or on the intrinsic charms of the target  bnguage to sustain him or her through the years of monotonous  drilling and bland role­play,  Classroom activities will have to be  slructurcd to serve immediate rather than long­term needs, to promote  I'atl!cr than practise communication and expression,  This book is  offered as a step in that direction. Within the frame of  srofytelling­that most ancient and compelling of human activities­we  Ill' >])OSC  a \vide range of classroom exercises and more than  70  story  ol1dil1cS ('skeletons')  for you and your students to work from.  The  1''1: 'rcist's range honl introspective to highly i.nteractive; from beginner   to  1,)  advanced;  many are offered as communicative  。 ャ エ ・ ュ 。 エ ゥ カ ・ セ I r:lditiollal  language­teaching activities;  all,  we hope, arc engaging  ,lllll fL'w:ll'dlng  Hl rhcl11,'dves. 

Both sceptical and enthusiastic colleagues, in  particular .lane  Lockwood, Katya Benjamin, Paul Davis, Mo Stcll1gcman, Cynthia  Beresford, .lan Aspeslagh, Charles Williams, .lames Dixey, Michael  Swan, Margaret Callow, Carlos Maeztu, Richard and Marjorie  Baudins, Elena Morgan, Lindsay Brown, Loren McGrail, Sarah  Braine.  Bernard Dufeu who opened our eyes  to  the psychodrama use of  tales.  The artistic oral tradition we know best is  that of the Greek shadow  puppeteers and we particularly want to  acknowledge the insights  gained from working with Giorgos Charidimos.  Books that have helped us in our thinking about the oral story  include:   '  Bruno Bettelheim,  The Uses of Enchantment, Penguin  1978  Iona and Peter Opie,  The Classic Fairy Tales, OUP  1974  V1adimir Propp,  Morphology of the Fo/ktale, Austin  1968  Gianni Rodari,  Grammatica de/la Fantasia, Einaudi  1973  Finally, this  book owes a heavy debt to  the various oral traditions of  which it 1S  a curious continuation, and to individuals whose written  stories we have 'skeletonised' in preparation for many oral  tellings. 



].M. M.R. 

,I セ、Zi LG

YOLlcouldberight,butifsoyou'rein    very few teachers of English can  IlIll  ,111110,';(  ,dl 11;1\1(':1  hidd  '11 talcr)! as story',\\,1\",  II1  ",,'hid, \,(111  Cln  work from  a  bare 

(i\N'IIFl.l. ST01UIS'

  lllillorily, III \1111' セGエャiHゥ QGMZ

/"",/ ,tlnll,I,It!nlll.lll'l " 11'111'1'...  ャゥGHセ

 

I

'011,1'.;':[" 

1111111T1i'  III  111.1,,1,  '1"'111 

HI,I,

1111  '111.1  Gliセ

  Idlll'!', 11.  '1".111,1)  ,111i',II'Jlilll',I!l:11

• ',llll\

rlllll\'III,·,1  \',,"  1l'11 1.11111'1 

1'''111  dill  ,1111111" 

"11  '111I"ll.d 

Thanks

To the teacher

Among both practising language teachers and applied linguists there 

We wish  to  thank the following people: 

セウ   an IOcreasmg awareness that successfu.l second­language learning 

Students with whom we have learnt to  tell  stories. 

is  far more a  matter of unconscious acquisition than of conscious,  systemaric study. Stephen Krashen  (Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning, Pergamon  1981)  goes so far  as  to  say that 'the major function of the second­language classroom is  to  provide intake for  acquisition'.  It セウ   ッセイ   view that the 'intake' required to facilitate language  セ」アuャsQエャoョ  w dl be very different from the materials currently provided  m the dassroom as part of systematic structural or notional courses.  If ,unconscious processes are  to  be enlisted, then the whole person  Will  need  to  be  engaged:  we shall no longer  be able to rely on the  learner's general 'motivation' or on the intrinsic charms of the target  bnguage to sustain him or her through the years of monotonous  drilling and bland role­play,  Classroom activities will have to be  slructurcd to serve immediate rather than long­term needs, to promote  I'atl!cr than practise communication and expression,  This book is  offered as a step in that direction. Within the frame of  srofytelling­that most ancient and compelling of human activities­we  Ill' >])OSC  a \vide range of classroom exercises and more than  70  story  ol1dil1cS ('skeletons')  for you and your students to work from.  The  1''1: 'rcist's range honl introspective to highly i.nteractive; from beginner   to  1,)  advanced;  many are offered as communicative  。 ャ エ ・ ュ 。 エ ゥ カ ・ セ I r:lditiollal  language­teaching activities;  all,  we hope, arc engaging  ,lllll fL'w:ll'dlng  Hl rhcl11,'dves. 

Both sceptical and enthusiastic colleagues, in  particular .lane  Lockwood, Katya Benjamin, Paul Davis, Mo Stcll1gcman, Cynthia  Beresford, .lan Aspeslagh, Charles Williams, .lames Dixey, Michael  Swan, Margaret Callow, Carlos Maeztu, Richard and Marjorie  Baudins, Elena Morgan, Lindsay Brown, Loren McGrail, Sarah  Braine.  Bernard Dufeu who opened our eyes  to  the psychodrama use of  tales.  The artistic oral tradition we know best is  that of the Greek shadow  puppeteers and we particularly want to  acknowledge the insights  gained from working with Giorgos Charidimos.  Books that have helped us in our thinking about the oral story  include:   '  Bruno Bettelheim,  The Uses of Enchantment, Penguin  1978  Iona and Peter Opie,  The Classic Fairy Tales, OUP  1974  V1adimir Propp,  Morphology of the Fo/ktale, Austin  1968  Gianni Rodari,  Grammatica de/la Fantasia, Einaudi  1973  Finally, this  book owes a heavy debt to  the various oral traditions of  which it 1S  a curious continuation, and to individuals whose written  stories we have 'skeletonised' in preparation for many oral  tellings. 



].M. M.R. 

,I セ、Zi LG

YOLlcouldberight,butifsoyou'rein    very few teachers of English can  IlIll  ,111110,';(  ,dl 11;1\1(':1  hidd  '11 talcr)! as story',\\,1\",  II1  ",,'hid, \,(111  Cln  work from  a  bare 

(i\N'IIFl.l. ST01UIS'

  lllillorily, III \1111' セGエャiHゥ QGMZ

/"",/ ,tlnll,I,It!nlll.lll'l " 11'111'1'...  ャゥGHセ

 

I

'011,1'.;':[" 

1111111T1i'  III  111.1,,1,  '1"'111 

HI,I,

1111  '111.1  Gliセ

  Idlll'!', 11.  '1".111,1)  ,111i',II'Jlilll',I!l:11

• ',llll\

rlllll\'III,·,1  \',,"  1l'11 1.11111'1 

1'''111  dill  ,1111111" 

"11  '111I"ll.d 

To the teacher

To  the teacher listening comprehension frolll  1;'11('. TIH' 1.1l1l"l" is  always third­person  listening, a kind of eavesclroppill1',lI1.l1  i·. iセ   r:\llgely  uncompelling. To  be told a stOry by a live storyteller, Oil  1l1l'  l'Olllrary, involves onc in  'I­thou' lisrening, where the  IiSll'IllTS  t ';111  Ji reedy  influence the  telling. Even if you arc  a  non­native Il':lt her of English, the communicative gain will more than outwl'igh thl' 'un-Englishness' you may hear in your telling. 'Compn'hL:l1sion ql1'estions' and paraphrase exercises are standard classroom follow-ups to listening work: after a story they at best dilute, at worst de-stroy, its effect on the listener. In Section 2 you will find a variety of alternative follow-up exercises. 2.1, for example, gives the student all opportunity to decide for himself or herself which questions (if any) he or she wants answered, and to hear the answers from a classmate. 2.4 uses roleassignment to explore the group's feelings towards characters in a story; 2.14 uses a drawing exercise to help students 'cap' one story with another. All the exercises encourage the recycling of new language.

FOLLOWING UP A STORY

shows the teacher modelling vocahulary from within a group; in 5.1 a use IS found for the language lahoratory. ORAL PRODUCTION There are stories hidden inside everyone. Elementary students will bring them out in dramatic, excited half-sentences; advanced speakers will reach out for ever more vivid or exact expression. For all, adequate communication is an attainable miracle if the teacher is prepared to allow it. Section 6 provides frames for ' the recal,l or creation of students' own stories; Section 7 goes a little deeper-m to one's real or imaginary past. PICTURE s t o r i セ s   We arc all familiar with the 'picture story' as a deVice for provokll1g narrative work. Unfortunately, anyone with ョッセュ。ャ  eyeSight produces much the same story, which robs the エ・セャ Qァ   of any ーセゥョエN   In 6,9 -v:e provide symbolic pictures to provoke a WIde range of dIfferent stones, Once they have created their own story, students are keen to tell them and to find out what others have made of the 'doodlestrip':

RETELLING Being required to retell a story to someone who has just heard it is a pleasure few of us would willingly repeat: yet this is often what we force upon our students. Section 3 suggests activities in which retelling is both necessary and enjoyable. STORIES AND GRAMMAR Many traditional stories abound in powerful repeated phrases (e.g. 'Who's been sleeping in MY bed?). For elementary and intermediate students, such stories (suitably chosen) can be used as an almost subliminal grammar input. 4.1 gives some examples of this. It is also a fairly simple matter to angle your telling and/or follow-up exercises in such a way that particular structures are demanded of the student: ftom common strong verbs to third conditionals. In Section 8 you are introduced to the Silent Way reduction technique which has the students working intensively on grammar, syntax, intonation and meaning all at the same time. After 20 minutes intensive work the story they started out from has vanished! FROM I.ISTENINC TO OI{AI. I'ROIHI(TI()r-!

suggest セ[ャ イゥ GB

W:lys

  セ   GL[ィッキセN[Q

of t'oll:lhor;llilll'. willl   11.111.111,1,11',"

I I"

,,,,I 11" ""1,1,, ,1'101" 1111,1,,,,1

/

,llld

I

ill

1]('

jWil

'''1'\\1111111111

',11111111 1.1',11 I

I

,111.1

! ',I,,"

1111l"!H'II:HI:lhllll1p 1>111.111'1.1" ,Ill\, Ic':d

I" 1,,1 111,11"'11,,1. \ 1',1" ',', I" 111l' 1111>'" 11',1 "1",1111. I.. 1\1·,110>11,11., 1111111/' \ ' I

Telling a story

Telling a story

had a bean field on the edge of the desert / and one of the daughter's jobs was to go and watch the beanfield / and make sure no animals or people stoic beans from.it / one evening she was there / as night was falling / in this part of the world night falls quickly / and as she was preparing to go home suddenly some fairies appeared on the edge of the beanfield / and they came over / and one of them said to her / we're hungry / pick us some beans and make us a bean soup / but the girl looked at them sadly / and said / I can't bend down to pick the beans / but the fairy / came close behind her and lifted / the hump from off her back / and she could stand upright and walk straight / she smiled / and began to pick beans / she made a fire / and she made the fairies a bean soup / which they ate greedily / and then disappeared / across the edge of the field back / into the desert / and the girl / ran home / but as she was running / suddenly / she felt the hump / coming back onto her shoulders / and by the time she got home she was stooped forward / and could only walk slowly / and she told her father everything that had happened / and her father said to her / you acted wrong my daughter / you should have run away as soon as the fairies took the hump off your back / they couldn't have found you to put it back on again / I'm sure they'll come back tomorrow / when it happens run away / before they can put the hump back on your shoulders / and so the next evening / the girl went to the bean field again and sure enough the fairies / appeared over the edge of the field / and they asked her to make them a bean soup again / and a fairy lifted rhe bump from off her back / and quickly she ran out of the field aud ran back home to the viJlage / she hid in her father's house / and she could walk straight / and she realised that she could dance / for that evening there was going to be n dance / at the house of some ncighbours where there was a wedding / and she / later on in the evening she crept out / and w('nl 10 th(' ィヲャ セエZ / fo the ncighbour's house / and joined I hl' J:lIH'illg / ;llld Ihl'n she saw / on the edge of the / d;III' 1111', 1'I'lll'Il' / 1111' f:lirics / suddenly / her hump was 111('1" 1111111'1 11,1< I. ''11,1111 / ;,h(' stooped f()[\vard / she could

who would ("(1111" .111\\ 111'11111.1" ,,,,, ',I ,Hound / ol1e (bv she wentouttotlll·fit'l.I 1111,1 whikshewastherc'sotnt fairies came oul ut 1111' "',,' ,.1 I ,Ill' I ,hked her for / beans / they walll... .1 111'1 '" I ""I 1111'111 / and make them a meal/she said ;,he 'lllIl.11l 1 I",. ,1I1'.C' ;,Ill' couldn't bend to pick the beans / SOIIIII',dllll"IIIJI"; ,UIH'uptoherputhis hand on her back and lili11'> Ilr 1111, 1"llIII01I11I hy di·; ..'o\,(·ril1g It'IW differently other people saw the story. 1'1,,11111' .1'.'•• ", i.lll'''! ,11 ,lW', (1111 LGセ|ャェ i .... oft pOlU'll with four others. The reasoll for proposing picture association is tha t l'("e,lll'S ;1 story vcry much of his or her own. Explaining J' I \111'1' ,l'>';I)l'j:lliollS to:1 p,lITncr allows the individual student to I' i1I""lllIW ,pn'j;ll ;ll1d p ャ G B ウ ッ ャ セ Q ゥ the story he or she heard or internally ,I' 1Il'd I',> hy di·; ..'o\,(·ril1g It'IW differently other people saw the story. 1'1,,11111' .1'.'•• ", i.lll'''! ,11 ,lW', (1111 LGセ|ャェ i .... oft ,onlcrhing we must love I LャゥセI

., lllll iセャG_ 11" セt

.1

2.9

I 1"II..IJ"ll loved 11\' 'J

Story to poem

i1ll'luVl' 11l;1l!e life

ill'" lit" W,I";1 wife 1\ '" ,'hild n'lI ..

Skeleton

,dW,I\'" セi

Willow

One day villagers decide to build bridge over river They come to cut down willow for its wood Heitaro: 'No, take my trees but spare the willow' Villagers accept Next night Heitaro sits under willowappears Tlwy nwc)!, ninlll ,If!HI Iliqlll III!y IllOlfly

j

I

n,'(

Il't' "IIII""I"'H kill,'d I I1\' trcl'

In a vi'llage - a green willow, centuries old For the villagers - shade from heat, meeting place For Heitaro, young farmer, place to sit and think

:

tree

;1

Ill'

「・セオエゥヲオャ

nirl

I"

1ll,I,k,ljl:lhn'

, I,·d.lll" w,llltHI! It)\'!' 1s;1 dC:ld

tTCl'

'I" I ,I 11011-.,'

I Ill'

I I ,','

h, I

' ""

"I

1111 \l'd"I',I', ,1",,1 1111 r 1t,,1 Ill" 1"\,,

f"

iセ it'll

,11'"

I 11, " Ill' "1.11 1 I, 11.111),

11" I

11"

d,

1,1 GセQi

It ,

lit 111 ,d 11"

t

Ill.llr

,

I

I.

l,d,lr, I1 \\ dlll\' ri' ,

'".,"

,11.. 11111111111

"I

tit,

11"1,

I

Story to poem

Stories and follow-ups

Years later Messengers arrive - announce Emperor wants to build a temple Villagers feel honoured - want to give wood for temple Offer willow Heitaro has no trees of his own now - cannot save willow Thinks 'I will lose the willow -I still have my wife' Villagers chop down willow

Skeleton B

Yvonne Gloomy town in Amazon forest Crocodiles in river Men come to search for gold: gringos Raven-haired Yvonne in bar, meets men leaving bar, many never seen again 20th disappearance Police from la Paz cross Andes to investigate.. ,

Heitaro's wife is found dead

In

(newspaper account, June 1982)

I, [セZI I ,,11

I

In class

"ll'

students the story, working alone, to respond to the story with a poem: that they are not expected to retell the story in poem form.

t11\;til,

1,1.1111

1 Tell the students one of the stories, breaking off abruptly. 2 Ask the students, in pairs or small groups, to work out endings for the story. 3 If the class is not too large, ask each group to nominate a storyteller to tell the group's proposed ending.

A lower-inrermedia te student produced this poem:

11,'1 I

I 'he WiLLow Tree >,onlcrhing we must love I LャゥセI

., lllll iセャG_ 11" セt

.1

2.9

I 1"II..IJ"ll loved 11\' 'J

Story to poem

i1ll'luVl' 11l;1l!e life

ill'" lit" W,I";1 wife 1\ '" ,'hild n'lI ..

Skeleton

,dW,I\'" セi

Willow

One day villagers decide to build bridge over river They come to cut down willow for its wood Heitaro: 'No, take my trees but spare the willow' Villagers accept Next night Heitaro sits under willowappears Tlwy nwc)!, ninlll ,If!HI Iliqlll III!y IllOlfly

j

I

n,'(

Il't' "IIII""I"'H kill,'d I I1\' trcl'

In a vi'llage - a green willow, centuries old For the villagers - shade from heat, meeting place For Heitaro, young farmer, place to sit and think

:

tree

;1

Ill'

「・セオエゥヲオャ

nirl

I"

1ll,I,k,ljl:lhn'

, I,·d.lll" w,llltHI! It)\'!' 1s;1 dC:ld

tTCl'

'I" I ,I 11011-.,'

I Ill'

I I ,','

h, I

' ""

"I

1111 \l'd"I',I', ,1",,1 1111 r 1t,,1 Ill" 1"\,,

f"

iセ it'll

,11'"

I 11, " Ill' "1.11 1 I, 11.111),

11" I

11"

d,

1,1 GセQi

It ,

lit 111 ,d 11"

t

Ill.llr

,

I

I.

l,d,lr, I1 \\ dlll\' ri' ,

'".,"

,11.. 11111111111

"I

tit,

11"1,

I

Stories and follow-ups OTHER STORIFS AllY ZMNエャIセ III I1 llll'\'()\'arive scenes or actions will serve well for rhi' excrciSL'. I kll" I', .1l1111hn you may like to try:

In new clothes

2.10

In new clothes

,...· keleton

The piper of Rome

Skeleton

Cars everywhere, piazzas, streets, pavements, blind alleys St Peter's Square - some parked on dome of St Peter's Mayor - gold chain - called council together 'What can we do? It's impossible' Council chorused 'It's impossible. What can be done?'

The singing mushrooms A widow - three sons: Ogun, Oja and Little Brother They go off to war. Each promises to kill seven men, take seven captives O,gun and Oja laugh at Little Brother

Enter Piper Offers to free Rome of cars Mayor offers all the deposits in the banks and daughter's hand in marriage Piper also demands freedom of streets for children to play in Agreed

Each does as promised Little Brother also kills enemy king and wins treasure Ogun and Oja angry On way home pass through desert Thirsty Little Brother fi nds strea m Ogun drinks first, then Oja Little Brother bends to drink - they cut off his head Bury him in desert

Piper plays sweetly - everywhere motors start up Piper leads cars, buses, lorries to remote spot on River Tiber Mayor's car first to plunge into yellow waters Mayor and councillors cry 'Stop!' Beg the piper to send their cars underground

Brothers Tell mother Little Brother killed in war She mourns Life continues

And now the cars, buses, lorries in Rome go underground Children play in the streets and piazzas

One day she crosses desert Sees mushrooms Picks them - they sing story of Little Brother's death Return to village - vengec,nce Brothers hide in corners of house They turn to bronze - become household gods (after 'The Story of the Singing Mushrooms', in Folk Tales and Fables, ed. p, ltayemi & P. Gurreyl

(after G. Rodari)

I

1./·.... ! 1I

rill'

.1 1111' ,Ill GjQ セ IIV.

:-.lory, ',llIdcIIIS .dV\";lVS

if rhey know any stories like this one. Someone in knows the original story.

work in pairs, bringing old stories back dl·,'idil\.I'.ltoW to ll)od('f'llisc' them. ',llld"II1s 11110 IOllI'S. '1"1)(' p:1irs r('por!.

1,,1. rlH' \;[TIc!I'II(S 1'0

11111111111 ,lllll,

,""11'

rill

111"1111"

1111I,lllIlIl.ll willII11l'11l'1)',ill:1I

story, scc story

(1)

Stories and follow-ups OTHER STORIFS AllY ZMNエャIセ III I1 llll'\'()\'arive scenes or actions will serve well for rhi' excrciSL'. I kll" I', .1l1111hn you may like to try:

In new clothes

2.10

In new clothes

,...· keleton

The piper of Rome

Skeleton

Cars everywhere, piazzas, streets, pavements, blind alleys St Peter's Square - some parked on dome of St Peter's Mayor - gold chain - called council together 'What can we do? It's impossible' Council chorused 'It's impossible. What can be done?'

The singing mushrooms A widow - three sons: Ogun, Oja and Little Brother They go off to war. Each promises to kill seven men, take seven captives O,gun and Oja laugh at Little Brother

Enter Piper Offers to free Rome of cars Mayor offers all the deposits in the banks and daughter's hand in marriage Piper also demands freedom of streets for children to play in Agreed

Each does as promised Little Brother also kills enemy king and wins treasure Ogun and Oja angry On way home pass through desert Thirsty Little Brother fi nds strea m Ogun drinks first, then Oja Little Brother bends to drink - they cut off his head Bury him in desert

Piper plays sweetly - everywhere motors start up Piper leads cars, buses, lorries to remote spot on River Tiber Mayor's car first to plunge into yellow waters Mayor and councillors cry 'Stop!' Beg the piper to send their cars underground

Brothers Tell mother Little Brother killed in war She mourns Life continues

And now the cars, buses, lorries in Rome go underground Children play in the streets and piazzas

One day she crosses desert Sees mushrooms Picks them - they sing story of Little Brother's death Return to village - vengec,nce Brothers hide in corners of house They turn to bronze - become household gods (after 'The Story of the Singing Mushrooms', in Folk Tales and Fables, ed. p, ltayemi & P. Gurreyl

(after G. Rodari)

I

1./·.... ! 1I

rill'

.1 1111' ,Ill GjQ セ IIV.

:-.lory, ',llIdcIIIS .dV\";lVS

if rhey know any stories like this one. Someone in knows the original story.

work in pairs, bringing old stories back dl·,'idil\.I'.ltoW to ll)od('f'llisc' them. ',llld"II1s 11110 IOllI'S. '1"1)(' p:1irs r('por!.

1,,1. rlH' \;[TIc!I'II(S 1'0

11111111111 ,lllll,

,""11'

rill

111"1111"

1111I,lllIlIl.ll willII11l'11l'1)',ill:1I

story, scc story

(1)

Stories and follow-ut).'

2.11

Problem stories

Birth order

, Ask people to take a partner from another group and compare '. '·xpenences.

Skeleton ( ) 1'1:,

The Billy Goats GrlJ Three goats in mountain valley Bridg1e over river - under brid(JQ troll- ate people Goats wanted to eat grass other side - greener and sweeter

\1"

Other stories in this book which are suitable for this exercise

Three Pigs and Kacuy.

We learnt the birth-order exercise from M oskowitz, Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language !oI",.room, Newbury House, 1978.

\ i J'NOWLEDGEMENT I

One day smallest goat onto bridge, trip-trap, trip-trap Troll's ugly head appeared 'Who's that trip-trapping over my bridge?' 'Only me, the littlest Billy Goat Gruff' 'Then I'm going to eat you up' 'No, don't eat me, eat my brother - he's bigger and fatter than me' 'Mmmm, OK, off you go' Littlest goat crossed bridge, began to eat grass Next day middle-sized goat trip-trapped onto bridge (same sequence as above, substituting 'middle-sized') Biggest goat -long beard, sharp horns TRAP TRAP TRAP onto bridge 'Who's that trap-trapping over my bridge?' 'It's me, the biggest Billy Goat Gruff' 'Then I'm going to eat you up' 'Oh no you're not' Big goat lowered horns - ran at troll- tossed him into river Since then bridge safe to cross

In class

1 Tell the story. 2 Ask who are: a) only children b) firstborns c) lastborns d) between-borns Ask the students to split lip illto their hirrh-ord('J' ",141111'" :lIld 、ゥウ」ャ セ what it's like b GゥAャセ[| lirslhnl"lI, !:IstbOII\, ('I'

Problem stories I

,'/1'11111 A

The two doors TIlH king never condemned cr,imjnals to death - this is what he did: 1110 crilllindl was led into an arena with 2 doors /lIJllirHI olle a ravenous tiger iャヲセ ゥイャ、 tho oth Jr 'beautiful girl 11,1 111.111 did '101 kr owwhich doorwaswhich 11.,d III dlllCi .• O ィセZ I)'lten or marry the girl 1111'. W,I', 1.111 JJl.1II'H f It: in his own hands 1.111 ,Ii"d d,lllqlllol ',Ill ",11111 IIlV(' wHir p'lll" セャァ 、ゥh 11,111111111',

yllllfl

Q iェャ L iイャセ [エ イQ

hi """,1111' I" IセNイ 、 Ill' " I