Official TOEFL iBT Tests [1] 9780071771269, 0071771263, 9780071771238, 0071771239, 2012938189

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Official TOEFL iBT Tests [1]
 9780071771269, 0071771263, 9780071771238, 0071771239, 2012938189

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  • 460, 94 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm + 1 CD-ROM (digital ; 4 3/4 in.)

Table of contents :
Introducing the TOEFL
Official TOEFL iBT Test 1
Reading • Listening • Speaking • Writing
Answers and Audio Scripts
Official TOEFL iBT Test 2
Reading • Listening • Speaking • Writing
Answers and Audio Scripts
Official TOEFL iBT Test 3
Reading • Listening • Speaking • Writing
Answers and Audio Scripts
Official TOEFL iBT Test 4
Reading • Listening • Speaking • Writing
Answers and Audio Scripts
Official TOEFL iBT Test 5
Reading • Listening • Speaking • Writing
Answers and Audio Scripts
TOEFL Test Prep Planner

Citation preview

The People

Sets)

Each

Who Make the Testl

test includes:



Answer keys



Audio transcripts



Self-scoring guides

with Audio Volume

1

Real Past TOEFL® Tests from ETS

All

TOEFL audio passages on disc

@ TOEFL

Go Anywhere From Here.

Prepare, practice and prove you're ready for success. Prepare Sign up for the TOEFL Journey® program, a customized online resource that helps you plan your study-abroad journey.

Download The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test as you prepare yourself for test day. Read and

listen to actual

TOEFL® test questions and responses, and learn test tips

and

strategies.

Practice For the real

TOEFL testing experience,

visit

Practice Online, the only official practice

Improve your

skills

TOEFL® test.

anytime, anywhere by receiving

same-day scores and performance feedback. TOEFL® Value Packs provide the ultimate way the TOEFL test while saving

to practice for

you up to 40 percent.

Prove Performing well on the TOEFL test can help you

Get started now! r

ETS



Copyright

Listening. Learning. Leading .•

© 2012 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reser

ETS, the ETS logo, LISTENING. ; ,

LEARNING. LEADING., TOEFL and

rOEFL JOURNEY are registered trademarks of Educational Testin' Service (ETS) in the United States and other countries. 21139

go anywhere

Official

TOEFL iBT Tests with Audio

Me

Graw Hill

New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

2013 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act may be reproduced or distributed in any form or Copyright

©

of 1976, no part of this publication

by any means, or stored

in

a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written

permission of the publisher.

23456789

10

19876543

QVR/QVR

Domestic Edition ISBN: 978-0-07-177126-9 (book and CD 0-07-177126-3 MHID: ISBN:

978-0-07-177123-8 of set (book

MHID:

set)

for set)

0-07-177123-9 of set

Library of Congress Control Number:

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iBT,

Educational Testing Service (ETS)

in

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and TOEFL JOURNEY are registered trademarks of the United States of America and other countries

throughout the world. Copyright

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export. This

2013. Exclusive rights by McGraw-Hill Education, for manufacture and to which it is consigned by

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McGraw-Hill products are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums

and sales promotions or

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corporate training programs. To contact a

representative, please e-mail us at [email protected]

Audio CD Insert the disc into your computer. Double-click on the

CD

icon.

The default audio

player for your computer will open. From there, you can either listen to the audio files or

This

import them into the audio program.

book

is

printed on acid-free paper.

Contents Introduction About the

How to

1

TOEFL

iBT® Test

Use This Book

TOEFL iBT Test

2 5

1

9

TOEFL iBT Test 2

71

TOEFL iBT Test 3

135

TOEFL iBT Test 4

195

TOEFL iBT Test 5

259

Appendix

A:

Speaking and Writing Scoring Rubrics

325

Appendix

B:

Audio Track Transcripts

335

TOEFL Test Prep Planner

Introduction

Introduction

About the TOEFL iBT® Test The

TOEFL iBT® test measures your ability to use and understand the English

language as

it is

read, heard, spoken,

and written

in the university classroom.

More

than 8,500 universities, agencies, and other institutions in more than 130 countries accept TOEFL® scores as part of their admissions criteria, making the TOEFL iBT

most accepted English-language .test in the world. Each TOEFL iBT test contains four sections: Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing. The questions in these sections measure how well you read, listen, speak, and write in English. They also measure how well you use these skills together, so in some cases you will be asked to integrate your skills. For example, you may read a passage or listen to a lecture, and then write or speak about what you learned. Here are brief descriptions of each section, including what the section measures and the types of questions it contains. test the

Reading Section This section measures your ability to understand academic passages in English. The passages are excerpts from university-level textbooks and similar academic materials.

You do not need any background knowledge about the

topics contained in the

passages in order to successfully answer the questions. All the information you

need to answer the questions can be found in the passages. The questions cover your ability to find and understand basic information, make inferences, and read to learn.

Here are the types of Reading questions, with an explanation of each type: Factual Information

These questions ask you

Questions

that

Negative Factual Information Questions

These questions ask you to distinguish information that is true from information that is not true or not

Inference Questions

These questions ask about information that

was

included

to identify factual information

explicitly stated in the

in

passage.

the passage.

but not explicitly stated

in

is

implied

the passage.

Rhetorical Purpose

These questions ask about the

Questions

specific information presented in a passage.

rhetorical function of

These

questions ask whythe author mentioned or included a specific piece of information in the passage.

Vocabulary Questions

These questions ask you to identify the meanings of individual words or phrases as they are used in the passage.

2

Introduction

Reference Questions

These questions measure your

ability to identify rela-

tionships between ideas mentioned

in

the passage and

expressions that refer to the ideas. For example, an idea could be presented and another sentence could refer to "This idea."

A

question might ask what the

phrase "This idea" refers

Sentence Simplification Questions

Insert Text

Questions

to.

These questions ask you to choose a sentence that has the same essential meaning as a particular sentence from the passage. These questions provide

a

new sentence and ask you

to place that sentence into the

best

Summary

Prose

Questions

passage where

it

would

fit.

These questions ask you

to identify

the passage and distinguish or from ideas that

major ideas from

them from minor ideas

were not presented

in

the pas-

sage. To select the correct answers, you need to both

understand the

relative

importance of various pieces

of information from the passage and identify the

answer choices

bination of

presented Fill

in

a Table Questions

in

com-

that covers the major ideas

the passage.

These questions ask you to select which answer choices belong in a table containing two or three categories. You will need to organize or categorize major ideas or points from the passage into the correct categories.

Listening Section This section measures your ability to understand conversations and academic lectures in English.

two conversations. One conversation takes place in a proand may include discussion of academic material or course requirements. The other conversation takes place on a university campus and includes discussion of nonacademic content that is related to university life. Each

You

will listen to

fessor's office

conversation

You

is

followed by

five

questions.

will also listen to four lectures

on a variety of topics. In two

lectures, only

the professor speaks. In the other two lectures, students contribute to the discussion; the professor may ask students questions about the topic being discussed or

may answer students’

questions. Each lecture is followed by six questions. Each conversation and lecture is heard only once. Each contains a context photograph depicting the speaker(s). Some conversations and lectures contain other visuals,

such as blackboards that present technical vocabulary or

uncommon

names.

3

Introduction

Here are the types of Listening questions, with an explanation of each type:

Questions

These questions ask about the main idea or main purpose of a conversation or lecture, or they ask about

Connecting Information

These questions ask you

Questions

information

Basic

Comprehension

important details that were discussed.

in

to identify the organization of

a conversation or lecture, to

make con-

nections between important points that were discussed, or to

make

inferences based on important points that

were discussed. Understanding

These questions ask you to identify a speaker's purpose in making a statement or asking a question or to iden-

Questions

tify a

Pragmatic

speaker's attitude, opinion, or degree of certainty.

Most questions are multiple choice with one correct answer. Some questions more than one answer. You may also encounter questions that ask you to place the steps of a process in order, place checkmarks in a grid, or listen again to require

a portion of a conversation or lecture.

Speaking Section This section measures your ability to speak in English about a variety of topics.

For each question, you will be given a short time to prepare your response. the preparation time is up, answer the question as completely as possible in the time indicated for that question. For the tests in this book, you should record

When

your responses on a recording device. That way, you can review them later and compare them with the answer key and rubrics. For Speaking question 1, you will speak about a familiar topic, such as a person you know, a favorite place, an important object, or an enjoyable event. You should base your response on personal experience or what you know about the familiar topic.

For Speaking question 2, you will give your opinion about a familiar topic. to explain what your opinion is and explain the reasons you have for

You will need

holding that opinion.

For Speaking question 3, you will first read a short passage and then listen to or read a transcript of a conversation on the same topic. You will then be asked a question about both. You will need to combine appropriate information from the passage and the conversation to provide a complete answer to the question. Your response is scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently and on your ability to

accurately convey information about the passage and the conversation. For Speaking question 4, you will first read a short passage on an academic subject and then listen to or read a transcript of a talk on the same subject. You will then be asked a question about both. Your response is scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently and on your ability to integrate and convey key information from the passage and the talk.

4

Introduction

For Speaking question

5,

you

will listen to or read a transcript of a conversaYour response is scored on your ability to

tion about a campus-related problem.

summarize the problem, state which solution from the conversation you and explain the reasons for your preference. For Speaking question 6, you will listen to or read a transcript of part of a lecture. You will then be asked a question about it. Your response is scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently and on your ability to accurately convey information from the lecture. Speaking responses are scored in terms of three important dimensions: delivery, language use, and topic development. When raters evaluate responses, they consider all three dimensions equally. No one dimension is weighted more heavily briefly

prefer,

than another.

Writing Section This section measures your ability to write in English to communicate in an academic environment. For Writing question 1, you will read a passage and listen to or read a transcript of a lecture. Then you will respond to a question that asks you about the relationship between the reading passage and the lecture. Try to answer as completely as possible using information from both the reading passage and the lecture. The question does not ask you to express your personal opinion. You may consult the reading passage again when it is time for you to write. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words. Your response is judged on the quality of your writing and on the completeness and accuracy of the content. For Writing question 2, you will write an essay in response to a question that asks you to state, explain, and support your opinion on an issue. Typically, an effective essay will contain a minimum of 300 words. Your essay is judged on the quality of your writing. This includes the development of your ideas, the organization of your essay, and the quality and accuracy of the language you use to express your ideas.

How to Use This Book Official

TOEFL

iBT® Tests with Audio can help you prepare for the test. It TOEFL iBT tests. All the test questions are real

includes five complete actual

TOEFL iBT

questions given to test takers at worldwide test administrations, but

some questions are presented differently than on the real test. The audio portions of the Listening, Speaking, and Writing sections are provided on the audio disc that

accompanies

this book.

In the Reading and Listening sections of each

test,

you may mark your answers

in the spaces provided. In the Writing section of each test, spaces are provided for

you

to write

your responses.

5

Audio Portions to

In the Listening, Speaking, and Writing sections, whenever you need to listen an audio portion, you will see the headphones icon: (^). Each audio track is numbered. Click on the number on the disc main menu to

hear that audio track. Written transcripts of the audio portions are located in Appendix B. not have access to the audio

pronunciation, ask transcripts

them

files,

transcripts to you,

make

you do

to read the transcripts aloud to you. Listening to the

better practice than reading

is

If

but do have access to people with good English

them

to yourself. If

someone reads the

sure you see the pictures.

Listen to each audio track only one time. As in the real

test,

you may take notes

while you listen and use your notes to help you answer the questions.

Answers An Answers the

section for each test

is

provided immediately following the end of

test.

For the Reading and Listening sections, Answer Keys are provided.

For the Speaking and Writing sections, there

is

no

single correct

answer

for

each question. The Answers section has descriptions of what you need to do to get a high score.

You can

also evaluate your responses using the scoring rubrics pro-

vided in Appendix A. if you have recorded your responses on a recording you can compare them with the descriptions in the Answers section and

In the Speaking section, device,

with the rubrics.

Rubrics Rubrics are used to guide raters in evaluating Speaking and Writing section TOEFL iBT rubrics can be found in Appendix A.

responses. All

Speaking scores represent an overall judgment of how well a response communicates its intended message. Delivery and language use are two key characteristics that raters consider when scoring responses to Independent Speaking questions (questions 1-2) and Integrated Speaking questions (questions 3-6). Topic development is a third key characteristic. For Independent Speaking questions, topic development is characterized by the fullness of the content provided in the response as well as its overall coherence. For Integrated Speaking questions, topic development is characterized by the accuracy and completeness of the content provided in the response as well as its overall coherence. Writing scores also represent an overall judgment of how well a response communicates its intended message. The quality of the writing is a key characteristic that raters consider when scoring responses to the Integrated Writing question (question

writing

is

1) and the Independent Writing question (question 2). High-quality characterized by good organization, as well as appropriate and precise

use of grammar and vocabulary. For an Independent Writing question, highquality writing also effectively addresses the topic and task and is well developed.

6

Introduction

is another key characteristic of scoring responses to an Integrated Writing complete and accurate response presents the relevant main points

The completeness and accuracy of the content responses that raters consider question.

A

from both the of these tion

lecture

main

when

and the reading, demonstrates the relationship between each and does not include informa-

points, includes supporting details,

from sources other than the

lecture

and the reading.

The TOEFL® Test Prep Planner Included with this book

is

TOEFL® Test Prep Planner. This concise guide is how to prepare for the test effectively and how to

the

designed to help you understand

build the English skills you need to succeed.

It

includes general information about

and the different question types, as well as a test-preparation plan to use in the eight weeks leading up to your test date. You will also find skill-building activities, sample TOEFL iBT test questions, and information on what to do on and after the test

test day.

More Official Resources TOEFL

iBT

test,

For information about these resources and more, and to register for the visit www.toeflgoanywhere.org.

test,

ETS has many

official

resources to help you prepare for the

including:



• • •

The Official Guide to the TOEFL® TOEFL® Practice Online The TOEFL Journey® Program "Inside the

TOEFL

Test

Test” Videos

7

TOEFL iBT Test

1

READING This section measures your ability to understand academic passages

in

English.

the section. Give yourself 20 minutes to read each passage and answer the questions about it. The entire section will take 60 minutes to

There are three passages

in

complete.

You may look back at a passage when answering the questions. You can go back to them later as long as there is time remaining.

tions and

skip ques-

Directions: to

complete

Read the passage. Then answer the questions. Give yourself 20 minutes this practice set.

DEER POPULATIONS OF THE PUGET SOUND Two

in the Puget Sound area of Washington Northwest of the United States. The black-tailed deer, a lowland,

species of deer have been prevalent

state in the Pacific

west-side cousin of the mule deer of eastern Washington,

The other species, the Columbian white-tailed the

(

(K) Chlorosis on leaves

(D Change in leaf pigmentation to a dark shade CD Short, stunted appearance of stems CD Reddish pigmentation on the leaves or stem according to paragraph

iaves of

2,

a

symptom

of green

of iron deficiency

is

the presence

in

young

02

deep red discoloration between the veins

CD CD CD

white or yellow tissue between the veins

dead spots between the veins characteristic dark green veins

Much

of the research

on nutrient deficiencies

based on growing plants hydro-

ponically, that

a

to create solutions that selectively omit certain nutrients

«

ing effects

h 3

is,

in soilless liquid

and then observe the

result-

Hydroponics has applications beyond basic research, since it facilitates the growing of greenhouse vegetables during winter. Aeroponics, a technique in which plants are suspended and the roots misted with a nutrient solution, is

on the

plants.

another method for growing plants without

/

The word

"facilitates" in the

(A) slows

down

CD

affects

(JD'makes easier

CD 76

is

nutrient solutions. This technique allows researchers

p

focuses on

passage

is

soil.

closest

in

meaning

to

f

6.

Aicording

to paragraph 3,

what

the advantage of hydroponics for research on

is

utrient deficiencies in plants?

t-

(A)

It

allows researchers to control what nutrients a plant receives.

(D

It

allows researchers to observe the growth of a large

number

of plants

simultaneously.

CD CD

^

is

possible to directly observe the roots of plants.

It

is

unnecessary

to

Vpe word "suspended"

keep misting plants with nutrient solutions.

in

the passage

is

closest

in

meaning

to

grown

CD protected CD spread out CD hung

Scientists have lators,

known

for

some time

can concentrate minerals

that certain plants, called

at levels a

hyperaccumu-

hundredfold or greater than normal.

A

a

survey of known hyperaccumulators identified that 75 percent of them amassed nickel; cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of

p

R

choice. Hyperaccumulators run the entire range of the plant world.

h

herbs, shrubs, or trees.

5

family,

Many members

of the

mustard family, spurge

They may be legume

family,

and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many are found in tropical and where accumulation of high concentrations of metals

subtropical areas of the world,

may

afford

some

protection against plant-eating insects and microbial pathogens.

hy does the author mention "herbs," "shrubs," and "trees"? t§) To provide examples of plant types that cannot tolerate high levels of harmful minerals

(D (D

To show

why

so

many

plants are hyperaccumulators

To help explain why hyperaccumulators can be found

in

so

many

different

places

CD 9.

To emphasize that hyperaccumulators occur

Tne word "afford"

in

the passage

is

closest

in

in

a

wide range of plant types

meaning

to

tA) offer

CD prevent CD increase CD remove

77

TOEFL iBT Test 2 Only recently have investigators considered using these plants to clean up sites that have been contaminated by toxic levels of heavy metals

soil

— an

and waste

environmentally friendly approach known as phytoremediation. This scenario begins with the planting of hyperaccumulating species p

a R

in

the target area, such as an aban-

doned mine or an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff. Toxic minerals would first be absorbed by roots but later relocated to the stem and leaves. A harvest of the shoots would remove the toxic compounds off site to be burned or composted to

h

recover the metal for industrial uses. After several years of cultivation and harvest,

e

the site would be restored at a cost

field trials,

much lower than

the plant alpine pennycress removed zinc and

zinc smelter,

and Indian mustard, native

to Pakistan

reducing levels of selenium salts by 50 percent

Ijx

Which

the price of excavation and

standard practice for remediation of contaminated

reburial, the

of the sentences

highlighted sentence

in

in

and

soils.

For example,

cadmium from India,

soils

has been effective

contaminated

in

near a in

soils.

below best expresses the essential information in the paragraph 6? Incorrect choices change the meaning in

important ways or leave out essential information.

1

(A) Before considering phytoremediation, hyperaccumulating species of plants local to the target area

(B)

The

must be

identified.

investigation begins with an evaluation of toxic sites

in

the target area to

determine the extent of contamination.

The

first

plants

in

step

in

phytoremediation

is

(D) Mines and irrigation

ponds can be kept from becoming contaminated by

planting hyperaccumulating species

41.

It

the planting of hyperaccumulating

the area to be cleaned up.

in

targeted areas.

can be inferred from paragraph 6 that compared with standard practices for

remediation of contaminated

soils,

phytoremediation

(A) does not allow for the use of the

removed minerals

for industrial

purposes

(B) can be faster to implement (€) ^

X/l.

is

equally friendly to the environment

is

less suitable for soils that

Why does the (A) To

(C) To

illustrate

be used within

a short period of

time

risks involved in

phytoremediation

the potential of phytoremediation

show that hyperaccumulating plants grow in many how zinc contamination can be reduced

(D) To explain

78

to

author mention "Indian mustard"?

warn about possible

To help

need

regions of the world

known for some time that certain plants, called hyperaccumucan concentrate minerals at levels a hundredfold or greater than normal. survey of known hyperaccumulators identified that 75 percent of them amassed Scientists have

lators,

A p

manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of They may Hyperaccumulators run the entire range of the plant world. be herbs, shrubs, or trees. Many members of the mustard family, spurge family, legume family, and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and microbial nickel; cobalt, copper, zinc,

£

choice.

g p 5

pathogens.

13. Ljbok at

[]

the four squares

that indicate

where the following sentence can be

{

V^^added to the

passage.

Certain minerals are

more

be accumulated

likely to

in large

quantities than

others.

Where would

the sentence best

(A) Scientists have

known

for

fit?

1

some time

that certain plants, called

hyperaccumulators, can concentrate minerals at levels a hundredfold or

more likely to be accumulated known hyperaccumulators identified that 75 percent of them amassed nickel; cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of choice. greater than normal. Certain minerals are in large

quantities than others.

A survey

of

Hyperaccumulators run the entire range of the plant world.

Many members

herbs, shrubs, or trees. family,

legume

are found

in

of the

mustard

They may be

family,

spurge

and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation

family,

tropical

of high concentrations of metals

may

afford

some

protection against

plant-eating insects and microbial pathogens.

(B) Scientists have

known

for

some time

that certain plants, called

hyperaccumulators, can concentrate minerals greater than normal.

A

at levels a

hundredfold or

survey of known hyperaccumulators identified that

75 percent of them amassed

nickel; cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of choice. Certain minerals are more likely to be accumulated in large quantities than others. Hyperaccumulators run They may be herbs, shrubs, or trees. the entire range of the plant world.

Many members

of the

mustard family, spurge

grass family are top hyperaccumulators. subtropical areas of the world, of metals

may

afford

some

Many

family,

legume

are found

where accumulation

and and

family,

in tropical

of high concentrations

protection against plant-eating insects and

microbial pathogens.

79

TOEFL iBT Test 2 (C) Scientists have

known

some time

for

that certain plants, called

hyperaccumulators, can concentrate minerals greater than normal.

A

at levels a

hundredfold or

survey of known hyperaccumulators identified

them amassed nickel; cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, and cadmium are other minerals of choice. Hyperaccumulators run the entire range of the plant world. Certain minerals are more likely to be that 75 percent of lead,

They may be herbs, shrubs, or legume family, and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and accumulated

in

large quantities than others.

Many members

trees.

of the mustard family, spurge family,

microbial pathogens.

(D) Scientists have

known

some time that

for

certain plants, called

hyperaccumulators, can concentrate minerals greater than normal. that 75 percent of lead,

A

at levels a

hundredfold or

survey of known hyperaccumulators identified

them amassed

nickel; cobalt, copper, zinc,

and cadmium are other minerals of choice.

manganese,

Hyperaccumulators run

They may be herbs, shrubs,

the entire range of the plant world.

or trees.

more likely to be accumulated in large quantities than others. Many members of the mustard family, spurge family, legume family, and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and

Certain minerals are

microbial pathogens.

Directions:

An

introductory sentence for a brief

provided below. Complete the that express the

belong

in

the

summary by

most important ideas

in

the passage.

summary because they express

passage or are minor ideas Write your answer choices

in

in

summary of the passage is THREE answer choices

selecting the

Some

sentences do not

ideas that are not presented

in

the

the passage.

the spaces

where they belong. You can

either write

the letter of your answer choice or you can copy the sentence.

Plants need to absorb certain minerals from the soil for

.

80

normal growth and development.

6

in

adequate quantities

Readim Answer Choices [a]

/

N/[b]

Some

plants can tolerate comparatively low levels of certain minerals, but

such plants are of

When

plants

little

use for recycling nutrients back into depleted

do not absorb

sufficient

amounts

soils.

of essential minerals,

characteristic abnormalities result. [Cl

Mineral deficiencies

v/ Jfrf Though (T|

many plants can be cured by misting their roots with by transferring the plants to a soilless nutrient solution,

in

a nutrient solution or

beneficial in lower levels, high levels of salts, other minerals,

and

heavy metals can be harmful to plants. Because high concentrations of sodium chloride and other salts limit growth in most plants, much research has been done in an effort to develop salt-tolerant agricultural crops.

sf [F]

Some

plants are able to accumulate extremely high levels of certain minerals

and thus can be used to clean up

soils

contaminated with toxic levels of

these minerals.

81

TOEFL iBT Test 2 Read the passage. Then answer the questions. Give yourself 20 minutes

Directions: to

complete

this practice set.

THE ORIGIN OF THE PACIFIC ISLAND PEOPLE The greater

Pacific region, Traditionally called Oceania, consists of three cultural

areas: Melanesia, Micronesia,

tains the large islands of

and Polynesia. Melanesia,

New

in

the southwest Pacific, con-

New

Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, and

Caledonia.

Micronesia, the area north of Melanesia, consists primarily of small scattered islands.

Polynesia Island,

the central Pacific area

is

and

New

largest cultural areas, Polynesia

mated

in

the great triangle defined by Hawaii, Easter

the

two

and Micronesia, together contained a population

esti-

Zealand. Before the arrival of Europeans, the islands

in

at 700,000.

Speculation on the origin of these Pacific islanders began as soon as outsiders

encountered them; data,

many

fanciful

the absence of solid linguistic, archaeological, and biological

in

and mutually exclusive theories were devised.

Pacific islanders

were variously thought to have come from North America, South America, Egypt, Israel, and India, as well as Southeast Asia. Many older theories implicitly deprecated the navigational abilities and overall cultural creativity of the Pacific islanders. For example, British anthropologists G. Elliot Smith and W. J. Perry assumed that only Egyptians would have been skilled enough to navigate and colonize the Pacific. They inferred that the Egyptians even crossed the Pacific to found the great civilizations of the New World (North and South America). In 1947 Norwegian adventurer Thor Heyerdahl drifted on a balsa-log raft westward with the winds and currents across the Pacific from South America to prove his theory that Pacific islanders were Native Americans (also called American Indians). Later Heyerdahl suggested that the Pacific was peopled by three migrations: by Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest of North America drifting to Hawaii, by Peruvians drifting to Easter Island, and by Melanesians.

In

1969 he crossed the Atlantic

Egyptian influences

in

evidence of physical anthropology, islanders

in

an Egyptian-style reed boat to prove

the Americas. Contrary to these theorists, the overwhelming

came from Southeast

linguistics,

and archaeology shows that the

Pacific

Asia and were skilled enough as navigators to

sail

against the prevailing winds and currents.

The basic

cultural

requirements for the successful colonization of the Pacific

islands include the appropriate boat-building, sailing, and navigation skills to get to

the islands

in

the

first

place; domesticated plants

and gardening

skills

suited to often

marginal conditions; and a varied inventory of fishing implements and techniques. is

now

Austronesian languages to

It

generally believed that these prerequisites originated with peoples speaking

emerge

in

(a

group of several hundred related languages) and began b.c.e. The culture of that time, based on

Southeast Asia by about 5000

archaeology and

linguistic reconstruction,

is

assumed

to

have had

a

broad inven-

tory of cultivated plants including taro, yams, banana, sugarcane, breadfruit, coconut,

sago, and

rice. Just as important, the culture also possessed the basic foundation for an effective maritime adaptation, including outrigger canoes and a variety of fishing techniques that could be effective for overseas voyaging.

82

Contrary to the arguments of

some

that

much

was settled by seems reasonable

of the Pacific

Polynesians accidentally marooned after being lost and

adrift,

it

was accomplished by deliberate colonization expeditions that set out stocked with food and domesticated plants and animals. Detailed studies of the

that this feat fully

winds and currents using computer simulations suggest that drifting canoes would have been a most unlikely means of colonizing the Pacific. These expeditions were likely

driven by population growth and political dynamics on the

well as the challenge and excitement of exploring

Polynesians, Micronesians, and

home

islands, as

unknown waters. Because

all

many Melanesians speak Austronesian languages

and grow crops derived from Southeast Asia, all these peoples most certainly derived from that region and not the New World or elsewhere. The undisputed pre-Columbian presence in Oceania of the sweet potato, which is a New World domesticate, has

sometimes been used to support Heyerdahl's "American Indians in the Pacific" theories. However, this is one plant out of a long list of Southeast Asian domesticates. As Patrick Kirch, an American anthropologist, points out, rather than being brought by rafting South Americans, sweet potatoes might just have easily been brought back by returning Polynesian navigators who could have reached the west coast of South America.

Directions:

Now answer the

The greater p

questions.

Pacific region, traditionally called Oceania, consists of three cultural

areas: Melanesia, Micronesia,

and Polynesia. Melanesia,

New

the southwest Pacific, con-

in

Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, and

New

£

tains the large islands of

g

Micronesia, the area north of Melanesia, consists primarily of small scattered islands.

p

Polynesia

"

Island,

is

and

the central Pacific area

New

15.

the great triangle defined by Hawaii, Easter

Zealand. Before the arrival of Europeans, the islands

largest cultural areas, Polynesia

mated

in

and Micronesia, together contained

in

the two

a population esti-

at 700,000.

According to paragraph

1, all

of the following are true statements about

Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia EXCEPT: (A) Collectively, these regions are traditionally (B)

Caledonia.

The islands

of Micronesia are small

(C) Hawaii, Easter Island, and (D) Melanesia

is

£)

known

and spread

as Oceania.

out.

New Zealand mark the

boundaries of Polynesia.

situated to the north of Micronesia.

83

TOEFL iBT Test 2 Speculation on the origin of these Pacific islanders began as soon as outsiders the absence of solid linguistic, archaeological, and biological and mutually exclusive theories were devised. Pacific islanders were variously thought to have come from North America, South America, Egypt, Israel, and India, as well as Southeast Asia. Many older theories implicitly deprecated the navigational abilities and overall cultural creativity of the Pacific islanders. For

encountered them; data,

many

example,

in

fanciful

British anthropologists G. Elliot

Smith and W.

J.

Perry

assumed

Egyptians would have been skilled enough to navigate and colonize the a

inferred that the Egyptians

g

of the

a

Heyerdahl drifted on a balsa-log



the Pacific from South America to

New World

Americans

even crossed the

found the great

Pacific to

(also called

America

Melanesians.

In

In 1947 Norwegian adventurer Thor westward with the winds and currents across prove his theory that Pacific islanders were Native

raft

American

Indians). Later

drifting to Hawaii,

Heyerdahl suggested that the Pacific

in

Pacific

Northwest

by Peruvians drifting to Easter Island, and by

1969 he crossed the Atlantic

Egyptian influences

in

an Egyptian-style reed boat to prove

the Americas. Contrary to these theorists, the overwhelming

evidence of physical anthropology, islanders

They

civilizations

(North and South America).

was peopled by three migrations: by Native Americans from the of North

that only

Pacific.

came from Southeast

linguistics,

and archaeology shows that the

Pacific

Asia and were skilled enough as navigators to

sail

against the prevailing winds and currents.

16. i£y stating that

(A)

CD (D (D

the theories are "mutually exclusive" the author

one of the theories is true, then all the others must be the differences between the theories are unimportant if

taken together, the theories cover

all

means

that

false

possibilities

the theories support each other

The word "overwhelming"

in

the passage

is

closest

in

meaning

to

(^Tpowerful

CD CD CD

favorable current

reasonable

18/According to paragraph

2,

which of the following led some early researchers to came from Egypt?

believe that the Pacific islanders originally

;

were known to have fotfhded other great civilizations. ^TSailors from other parts of the world were believed to lack the skills needed CA) Egyptians

to travel across the ocean.

C By 1800, significant numbers of them were produced outside of Britain. They were used in factories before they were used to power trains.

CD They were

used

in

the construction of canals and turnpikes.

13/ According to paragraph

4,

involved combining which

providing a machine to take the place of the horse

two previously separate ingredients?

^ ^ ^

CAX-Turnpikes and canals

Stationary steam engines and

CD CD

142

Metal

rails in

wagons with flanged wheels

roadbeds and wagons capable of carrying heavy loads

Canal boats and heavily laden

wagons

Watt's steam engine soon showed what it could do. It liberated industry from dependence on running water. The engine eliminated water in the mines by drivThe ready ing efficient pumps, which made possible deeper and deeper mining.

Murdoch during the 1790s

develop the

p

availability of coal inspired William

a

new form

«

lamps and flickering candles, and early in the new century, grew accustomed to gaslit houses and even streets. Iron manufacturers, which had starved for fuel while depending on charcoal, also benefited from ever-increasing supplies of coal; blast furnaces with steam-powered bellows turned out more iron and steel for the new machinery. Steam became the motive force of the Industrial Revolution, as coal and iron ore were the raw materials.

h 3

of nighttime illumination to be discovered

gas rivaled smoky

in a

to

millennium and a

half.

first

Coal

oil

well-to-do Londoners

>ok at the four

squares

[]

that indicate

where the following sentence can be

Ided to the passage.

The

factories did not

have to go to the streams when power could come to the

factories.

Where would (A)

The

the sentence best

fit?

factories did not have to

go to the streams when power could come

to the factories. Watt's steam engine soon It

liberated industry

eliminated water

in

it

The ready

Murdoch during the 1790s oil

lamps and

century, well-to-do Londoners streets. Iron manufacturers,

new form

to develop the first

flickering candles,

grew accustomed

which had starved

made

availability of coal

of nighttime illumination to be discovered in a millennium

gas rivaled smoky

could do.

The engine

the mines by driving efficient pumps, which

possible deeper and deeper mining. inspired William

showed what

from dependence on running water.

and

and early

to gaslit

a half. Coal

the

in

new

houses and even

for fuel while

depending on

charcoal, also benefited from ever-increasing supplies of coal; blast furnaces

with steam-powered bellows turned out

more

iron

and

steel for the

new

machinery. Steam became the motive force of the Industrial Revolution, as coal

and

iron ore

were the raw

materials.

showed what it could do. The factories did when power could come to the factories. industry from dependence on running water. The engine

Watt's steam engine soon

(D

not have to go to the streams It

liberated

eliminated water

in

the mines by driving efficient pumps, which

possible deeper and deeper mining.

The ready

made

availability of coal

the 1790s to develop the

first

new form

of nighttime illumination to be discovered in a millennium

and

a half. Coal

inspired William

Murdoch during

gas rivaled smoky

oil

lamps and flickering candles, and early in the new grew accustomed to gaslit houses and even

century, well-to-do Londoners streets. Iron manufacturers,

which had starved

for fuel while

depending on

charcoal, also benefited from ever-increasing supplies of coal; blast furnaces

with steam-powered bellows turned out more iron and steel for the

new

143

TOEFL iBT Test 3 machinery. Steam became the motive force of the Industrial Revolution, as coal and iron ore

(g)

were the raw

Watt's steam engine soon

materials.

showed what

it

could do.

It

liberated industry

from dependence on running water. The factories did not have to go to the streams when power could come to the factories. The engine eliminated water

in

the mines by driving efficient pumps, which

The ready

and deeper mining.

during the 1790s to develop the

be discovered

and

in

a millennium

grew accustomed

to gaslit

which had starved for

first

and

and early

flickering candles,

in

new form

a half. Coal

the

new

possible deeper

Murdoch

of nighttime illumination to

gas rivaled smoky

oil

lamps

century, well-to-do Londoners

houses and even

fuel while

made

availability of coal inspired William

streets. Iron manufacturers,

depending on charcoal, also benefited from

ever-increasing supplies of coal; blast furnaces with steam-powered bellows

turned out more iron and steel for the

new machinery. Steam became

the

motive force of the Industrial Revolution, as coal and iron ore were the raw materials.

(D)

Watt's steam engine soon

showed what

it

could do.

It

liberated

The engine eliminated water in the mines by driving efficient pumps, which made possible deeper and deeper mining. The factories did not have to go to the streams when power could come to the factories. The ready availability of coal inspired William Murdoch during the 1790s to develop the first new form industry from dependence on running water.

of nighttime illumination to be discovered in a millennium

gas rivaled smoky

oil

lamps and

century, well-to-do Londoners streets. Iron manufacturers,

flickering candles,

grew accustomed

to gaslit

which had starved for

and

and early

in

a half. Coal

the

new

houses and even

fuel while

depending on

charcoal, also benefited from ever-increasing supplies of coal; blast furnaces

with steam-powered bellows turned out

more

iron

and

steel for the

new

machinery. Steam became the motive force of the Industrial Revolution, as

~\

coal and iron ore

were the raw

materials.

14. [directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is ^/provided on the next page. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some

sentences do not belong presented

in

in

the

summary because

the passage or are minor ideas

Write your answer choices

in

in

they express ideas that are not

the passage.

the spaces where they belong. You can either write

the letter of your answer choice or you can copy the sentence.

144

Readim

The

Industrial Revolution

source of power that

.

was

would not have been possible without a new efficient, movable, and continuously available

P

Answer Choices

s

In

the early eighteenth century, Savery and

expanding steam could be used In

&

the mid-1700s,

m

James Watt transformed an

fast, flexible, fuel-efficient

In

all

discovered that

inefficient

steam

pump

into a

engine.

Watt's steam engine played a leading role

production of

Newcomen

to raise a piston in a cylinder.

in

greatly increasing industrial

kinds.

the 1790s, William

Murdoch developed

a

new way

of lighting

houses and

streets using coal gas.

n

Until the 1830s, Britain

was

the world's major producer of steam engines.

S' The availability of steam engines was a railroads,

major factor

in

the development of

which solved a major transportation problem.

145

Read the passage. Then answer the questions. Give yourself 20 minutes

Directions: to

complete

this practice set.

WILLIAM SMITH

A*

In

1769

in

a

little

of William Smith

X

town

in

was born

Oxfordshire, England, a child with the very ordinary into the

rudimentary village schooling, but mostly he roamed

were so abundant

fossils that

in

name

poor family of a village blacksmith. He received his uncle's

the rocks of the Cotswold

farm collecting the

When

hills.

he grew

older,

William Smith taught himself surveying from books he bought with his small savings,

and

at the

age of eighteen he was apprenticed to a surveyor of the

then proceeded to teach himself geology, and

work

for the

company

that

was excavating

when he was

local parish.

He

twenty-four, he went to

the Somerset Coal Canal

in

the south of

England.

v This was before the steam locomotive, and canal building was at ,

its height. The companies building the canals to transport coal needed surveyors to help them find the coal deposits worth mining as well as to determine the best ppurses fpr the canals. This job gave Smith an opportunity to study the fresh rock outcrops cheated by the newly dug canal. He later worked on similar jobs across the length and breadth of England, all the while studying the newly revealed strata and collecting all the fossils he could find. Smith used mail coaches to travel as much as 10,000 miles per year. In 1815 he published the first modern geological map, "A Map of the Strata of England and Wales with a Part of Scotland," a map so meticulously researched that it can still

be used today. In

1831

when Smith was

finally

as the "father of English geology,"

it

recognized by the Geological Society of London

was

not only for his

maps

but also for something

even more important. Ever since people had begun to catalog the strata outcrops, there had been the hope that these could

somehow

in

particular

be used to calculate

more and more accumulations of strata were cataloged in became clear that the sequences of rocks sometimes difregion and that no rock type was ever going to become a reliable

geological time. But as

more and more

places,

fered from region to

it

time marker throughout the world. Even without the problem of regional differences, rocks present a difficulty as unique time markers. Quartz

surrounded by four oxygen ions

—there's no difference at

is

all

quartz

—a

silicon ion

between two-million-

year-old Pleistocene quartz and Cambrian quartz created over 500 million years ago.

As he collected

fossils

from

strata

throughout England, Smith began to see that

the fossils told a different story from the rocks. Particularly

in

the younger strata, the

rocks were often so similar that he had trouble distinguishing the strata, but he never

had trouble

telling the fossils apart. While rock between two consistent strata might one place be shale and in another sandstone, the fossils in that shale or sandstone were always the same. Some fossils endured through so many millions of years that in

in many strata, but others occur only in a few strata, and a few species had their births and extinctions within one particular stratum. Fossils are thus identifying markers for particular periods in Earth's history.

they appear

146

Not only could Smith identify rock strata by the

fossils they contained,

while others begin to be seen as the strata

in

Smith was able to put all the strata sequence. About the same time, Georges Cuvier made the same discovery while

fossils, ral

he could

more ancient sediments, become more recent. By following the of England's earth into relative tempo-

also see a pattern emerging: certain fossils always appear

studying the rocks around Paris. Soon mal) succession

was

valid not only in

it

was

realized that this principal of faunal (ani-

England or France but

virtually

everywhere.

It

because plants showed the same transformation through time as did fauna. Limestone may bejgund in the Cambrian or 300 million years later in the Jurassic strata, but a trilobite the ubiquitous

was

actually a principle of floral succession as well,







marine arthropod that had nor

strata,

a

1769

in

a

in

little

town

in

Smith was born

of William

birth in the

Cambrian



never be found

in

Jurassic

questions.

Oxfordshire, England, a child with the very ordinary into the

were so abundant

in

name

poor family of a village blacksmith. He received

rudimentary village schooling, but mostly he roamed fossils that

will

the Cambrian.

Now answer the

Directions:

In

dinosaur

its

his uncle's

the rocks of the Cotswold

hills.

farm collecting the

When

he grew older,

William Smith taught himself surveying from books he bought with his small savings,

and

at the

age of eighteen he was apprenticed to a surveyor of the

then proceeded to teach himself geology, and

work

for the

company

that

was excavating

when he was

local parish.

He

twenty-four, he went to

the Somerset Coal Canal

in

the south of

England.

15.

The word "rudimentary"

in

the passage

is

closest

in

meaning

to

thorough (B) strict

©

basic

(D) occasional

a

ccording to paragraph mith

is

1,

which of the following statements about William

NOT true?

(A) Smith learned surveying by reading and by apprenticing for a local surveyor. (B) Smith's family lived

in

town and possessed little wealth. borrowed from his uncle. work on the excavation of an English

a small English

(C) Smith learned about fossils from books he (0) Smith eventually

left his village

to

canal.

147

This was before the steam locomotive, and canal building was at its height. The companies building the canals to transport coal needed surveyors to help them find the coal deposits worth mining as well as to determine the best courses for the canals. p

a

This job gave Smith an opportunity to study the fresh rock outcrops created by the

g

newly dug canal. He

£

England,

all

he could

find.



later

worked on

similar jobs across the length

and breadth of

the while studying the newly revealed strata and collecting

Smith used mail coaches to

1815 he published the

first

modern geological

and Wales with a Part of Scotland,"

a

map

much as map, "A Map

travel as

the fossils

all

10,000 miles per year.

In

of the Strata of England

so meticulously researched that

it

can

still

be used today.

I^Which )

of the following can be inferred

Canals were

built primarily in

from paragraph 2 about canal building?

the south of England rather than

in

p

other

^regions.

Canal building decreased after the steam locomotive was invented. )

Canal building

damaged )

/

18.

in

made

it

difficult to

Canal builders hired surveyors

According to paragraph

^^/vVilliarn Smith?

study rock strata which often became

the process.

2,

like

Smith to examine exposed rock

which of the following

is

true of the

map

published by

/

(A)

It

indicates the locations of England's major canals.

d£)

It

became most valuable when

the steam locomotive

made

rail

travel

possible.

(D The )

19.

It

is

data for the

map were

no longer regarded as

the word "meticulously" (A) carefully

(D (D CD

quickly

frequently

obviously

strata.

in

collected during Smith's

work on

canals.

a geological masterpiece.

the passage l\

is

closest

in

meaning

to

Readim when Smith was

1831

In

finally

as the "father of English geology,"

p

a

it

recognized by the Geological Society of London

was

not only for his

maps

but also for something

even more important. Ever since people had begun to catalog the strata in particular outcrops, there had been the hope that these could somehow be used to calculate geological time. But as more and more accumulations of strata were cataloged in

sequences of rocks sometimes

R

more and more

h

fered from region to region and that no rock type

3

time marker throughout the world. Even without the problem of regional differences,

places,

it

became

clear that the

was ever going

to

become

dif-

a reliable



rocks present a difficulty as unique time markers. Quartz is quartz a silicon ion surrounded by four oxygen ions there's no difference at all between two-millionyear-old Pleistocene quartz and Cambrian quartz created over 500 million years ago.



0.

Which

of the sentences

highlighted sentence

in

below best expresses the essential information in the paragraph 3? Incorrect choices change the meaning in

important ways or leave out essential information. (A)

The discovery

of regional differences

in

0

the sequences of rocks led

geologists to believe that rock types could

some day become

reliable

time

^markers. C®3 Careful analysis of strata revealed that rocks cannot establish geological time

©

because the pattern of rock layers varies from place to place. Smith's catalogs of rock strata indicated that the sequences of rocks are different from place to place

and from region

to region.

Because people did not catalog regional differences

was Zfl.

Why

in

sequences of rocks,

it

believed that rocks could never be reliable time markers.

does the author use the phrase "Quartz

(A) To describe howjtB&^eHffeZences

is

quartz"? fa

between Pleistocene and Cambrian quartz

reveal information about dating rocks

(D

To point out that the chemical composition of quartz makes

it

more

difficult

to date than other rocks

(D

To provide an example of how regional differences

/make

in

rock sequences can

a particular rock difficult to date

(f; To explain that rocks are difficult to use for dating because their chemical

compositions gjways^er^^

149

As he collected

fossils

from

throughout England, Smith began to see

strata

the fossils told a different story from the rocks. Particularly p

in

that

the younger strata, the

rocks were often so similar that he had trouble distinguishing the strata, but he never

h

telling the fossils apart. While rock between two consistent strata might one place be shale and in another sandstone, the fossils in that shale or sandstone were always the same. Some fossils endured through so many millions of years that

«

they appear

a B

had trouble

in

had

in

many

their births

strata, but others *occur only in a few strata, and a few species and extinctions within one particular stratum. Fossils are thus identi-

fying markers for particular periods

:.

According to paragraph

4,

was

it

in

Earth's history.

difficult for

Smith to distinguish rock

strata

because ^gfthe rocks from different

CD (D

strata closely

he was often unable to find fossils

in

made

it

their similarity to

each other

resembled each other

the younger rock strata difficult for

him to distinguish one rock

type from another the type of rock between

(D

word "endured"

Tfye

in

two consistent

the passage

is

strata

closest

was always

meaning

in

the

same

to

A) vanished (D developed

(D (D

varied

survived

Not only could Smith identify rock strata by the

fossils they contained, he could

also see a pattern emerging: certain fossils always appear

while others begin to be seen as the strata

Smith was able to put

fossils,

all

in

become more

more ancient sediments, By following the

recent.

the strata of England's earth into relative tempo-

p

£ §

ral

sequence. About the same time, Georges Cuvier

studying the rocks around Paris. Soon

£

mal) succession



was

was

valid not only in

it

was

made

— 300

million years later

marine arthropod that had strata,

nor a dinosaur

24.Yhe word

150

absolutely surprisingly

nearly

in

its

may be found

the Jurassic strata, but a trilobite

birth in the

passage C\

is

Cambrian



closest

meaning

in

It

because plants showed the same

will

in

the Cambrian

— the

never be found

the Cambrian.

"virtually" in the

(A) possibly

CD (D H Go purchase

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COMPLETED

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Reading as

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English

in

Read Planner Chapter



See sample Speaking questions Appendix 1.



Review Speaking Scoring Guides in Planner Appendix 3 to understand what score levels

Speaking.

Speaking section

your reading

View and experience

sample Speaking questions

in

is

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3:

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level

TOEFL iBT®

the Planner website

www.ets.ora/toefl/Dlanner your current

vou

to helD

skill levels.

identify

and understand what a

response at your desired

level is like.

Refer to

the Scoring Guides as you listen.

Practice your Speaking



Pick three general activities and three targeted activities

skills



skills.

1

Activity 2

Use the Speaking chapter Guide

Activity

from Chapter 3 (pages 17-20) to work

on your Speaking

to the

TOEFL ® Test (Chapter

in

The

4) for

V

Official

more

Activity

3

Activity

4

Activity

5

Activity

6

practice.

WEEK

3 COMPLETED

TASKS AND RESOURCES

OBJECTIVES Learn about the Reading



Read Planner Chapter



nutili Review sample Reading questions

4:

Reading.

section

View and experience

!

in

and experience them on the

1

Planner website www.ets.ora/toefl/Dlanner.

questions Practice your Reading

1

Planner Appendix

sample Reading



Pick three general activities and three targeted activities

skills



skills.

WHOM Use the Reading chapter Guide

Activity

1

from Chapter 4 (pages 23-25) to work

on your Reading

to the

8

TOEFL Test (Chapter

Activity 2 in

The

2) for

Official

more

Activity

3

Activity

4

Activity

5

Activity

6

practice.

Go anywhere from

here.

9

Chapter

TOEFL PLANNER

1:

Using the Planner

Test Prep

WEEK 4 TASKS AND RESOURCES

OBJECTIVES Learn about the

COMPLETED



Read Planner Chapter



flJIM'l Review sample Listening questions

5: Listening.

Listening section

View and experience

Planner Appendix

sample Listening

in

and experience them on the

1

Planner website www.ets.ora/toefl/Dlanner.

questions Practice your Listening



Pick three general activities and three targeted activities

skills



Activity

1

Activity

2

from Chapter 5 (pages 28-30) to work

on your Listening

skills.

K19 Use

the Listening chapter

Guide

TOEFL Test (Chapter

to the

8

in

The

3) for

Official

more

Activity

3

Activity

4

Activity

5

Activity

6

practice.

WEEK

5 TASKS AND RESOURCES

OBJECTIVES Learn about the Writing



Read Planner Chapter

COMPLETED

6: Writing.

section

View and experience



questions

See sample Writing questions Appendix

sample Writing •

Planner

in

1.

Review Writing Scoring Guides

in

Planner

Appendix 4 to understand what score levels

mean. •

nHJiiL Read sample responses and 1

!

comments

in

your current

Appendix level

1

raters’

to help you identify

and understand what a

response at your desired

level is like. Refer to

the Scoring Guides as you read.

Practice your Writing



Pick three general activities and three targeted activities

skills



skills.

liU1 Use the Writing chapter Guide

Activity

1

Activity

2

from Chapter 6 (pages 34-37) to work

on your Writing

to the

8

in

TOEFL Test (Chapter

The

5) for

Official

more

Activity

3

Activity

4

Activity

5

Activity

fi

practice.

10

Go anywhere from here.

)

1

.

Chapter

WEEK

Using the Planner

1:

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

6 TASKS AND RESOURCES

OBJECTIVES Planning for test day



Take a complete TOEFL



COMPLETED

Read Chapter 7: Test Day and Beyond and gather the documents you will need to take with you.

practice test to

measure

EH9 Take a complete The

Official

Guide

My

practice test in

TOEFL*

to the

Test.

Reading

instructions in the Guide to calculate your

your progress

scores:

Use the

Reading and Listening scaled scores. Listening



Time yourself

each section and

for

try to

simulate the test setting.

Get evaluations for



Ask a teacher or tutor

to evaluate your

Speaking

My

scores:

responses to the practice test using the Scoring

Speaking and Writing

Guides

in

Appendix 3 of the Planner. Use the

conversion charts

in

Speaking

Appendix 6 to convert the

ratings to a scaled score.



Ask a teacher

Writing

or tutor to evaluate your Writing

responses to the practice test using the Scoring Guides

in

Appendix 4 of the Planner. Use the

conversion charts

in

Appendix 6

to convert the

ratings to a scaled score.

Practice

more on your

weakest

skills



Compare your scores Decide which



to the

to

activities for

each of

Activity 1

skills.

E3I Use Chapters 2 through 5 Guide

1

skills.

Complete three additional your weakest



Week

focus on.

Review the Planner chapters that correspond your weakest



to your first test in

skills to

TOEFL* Test for more

of

The

Activity

2

Activity

3

Official

practice.

WEEK 7 Take a second complete

TOEFL practice



MiUiB Take

a second complete practice test

online at www.ets.ora/toeflDractice.

test to

Add

My

scores:

all

of your section scores to calculate your total

establish your readiness for test

COMPLETED

TASKS AND RESOURCES

OBJECTIVES

Reading

score. Convert your ratings on the Speaking and

day

Writing sections to scaled scores by using the

conversion chart

in

Appendix

Listening

6.

Speaking Writing

Total



Stay

in

Timed Mode as much as possible

to

simulate the test setting. •

Review the directions through the practice



each section as you go

for

test.

Compare these scores

to the scores

online practice test from

Week

Decide which of the four

skills to

2 to

on your

Week

7.

focus on.

Go anywhere from

here.

1

TOEFL

Test

Chapter

1

:

Using the Planner

Prep

PLANNER



Continue preparing

Focus on improving your weakest

skills

using

the Planner and The Official Guide to the 8

TOEFL

WEEK

Test.

8 TASKS AND RESOURCES

OBJECTIVES Continue preparing



Focus on improving your weakest

COMPLETED

skills

using

the Planner and The Official Guide to the 9

TOEFL Test

Take another practice



BUS Take another complete in

test

The

Official

Guide

the instructions

in

to the

My

practice test

TOEFL®

Test.

scores:

Use

the Guide to calculate your

Reading

Reading and Listening scaled scores. 1



Time yourself

for

each section and

istoning

try to

simulate the test setting.

Get evaluations for



Ask a teacher

or tutor to evaluate your Speaking

Guides

in

Appendix 3 of the Planner. Use the

conversion charts

in

Appendix 6



Ask a teacher

Writing

or tutor to evaluate your Writing

responses to the practice test using the Scoring Guides

in

Appendix 4

conversion charts

in

of the Planner.

Use the

Appendix 6 to convert the

ratings to a scaled score.



Review Planner Chapter



need a photo

You’ll

ID

7: Test

and

Day and Beyond.

your Registration

Confirmation. Check with your

TOEFL Test

Resource Centre or www.ets.ora/toefl/id ID





requirements

in

Go anywhere from here.

)

for

your country.

Return to your online registration profile and print out

your confirmation. Check for any

changes

in

your testing details.

Get directions to your testing transportation plans.

12

scores:

Spanking

to convert the

ratings to a scaled score.

Gather your documents

My

responses to the practice test using the Scoring

Speaking and Writing

site

and make

iTest Prep

PLAN NER

About the

TOEFL The TOEFL iBT® communication

measures the English language

test in

an academic

setting.

Speaking and Writing. The entire test the

same

is

It

iBT' Test

skills

important for effective

consists of four sections: Reading, Listening,

about four hours long, and

all

sections are taken on

day.

The TOEFL iBT

test

uses integrated tasks that require test takers to combine

they would

real

academic

in

a



read, listen



listen



read, listen

setting.

and then speak

and then speak

in

in

The integrated questions ask

skills just

as

test takers to:

response to a question

response to a question

3-

and then write 4-

in

response to a question

Test Format The following chart shows the possible number of questions and the timing of the test.

The time

limit for

for

each section

each section varies according to the number of questions.

Every test contains either a longer Reading section or a longer Listening section.

Test Section

Number

of Questions

Timing

Reading

4 passages, 12-14 questions each

60-80 minutes

Listening

6 lectures, 6 questions each

60-90 minutes

2-3 conversations, 5 questions each

BREAK Speaking Writing

10 minutes

6 tasks: 2 independent and 4 integrated

20 minutes

1

integrated task

20 minutes

1

independent task

30 minutes

Go anywhere from

here.

1

3

Chapter

TOEFL PLANNER

2:

About the TOEFL iBF Test

Test Prep

Test Administration •

The TOEFL

iBT® test

is

administered via computer from a secure Internet- based

network. •

Instructions for answering questions are given with

notes throughout the entire

test.

each section. Test takers can take

At the end of testing,

all

notes are collected and

destroyed to ensure test security. •

For the Speaking section, test takers wear headphones and speak into a microphone.

Responses are three to six •

digitally

human

recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network where

raters score the responses.

For the Writing section, test takers type their responses. Responses are sent to the

ETS Online Scoring Network, where they are rated by four raters— two human raters for human rater and one e-rater ® for the independent task. (With

the integrated task, one e-rater,



All

your responses are scored by the computer.)

human

raters are trained

and

certified

throughout the day each time they •

by ETS and are continuously monitored

rate.

Scores are reported both online and by

mail.

About Test Scores Score Scales The TOEFL iBT

test provides scores in four

Reading

0-30

Listening

0-30

Speaking

0-30

areas:

0-30

Writing

Total

skill

Score

0-120 (The

total

score

is

the

sum

of the four section scores.)

Score Reports The score reports provide information about your readiness academic studies

14

Go anywhere from here

.



four



total

)

skill

in

scores

score

to participate

an English-speaking setting. Score reports include:

and succeed

in

Chapter

2:

About the TOEFL iBT® Test !

Scores are reported online approximately ten days after the

test.

You can view your

scores online free of charge. Paper copies are mailed shortly after the scores are posted online

if

you opted to receive a hard copy. Please see Appendix 2

for

a sample examinee

score report. Colleges, universities

score reports

and agencies also can view your scores online and/or receive paper

when you have

selected them as score recipients. You can do this free of

charge for up to four score recipients

when you

register, or

you can do

it

after the test for

a small fee. See Chapter 7 for more information.

Score Requirements Each

institution sets its

own requirements

depend on factors such as the applicant’s or graduate), offers English

whether the applicant

will

for

TOEFL

ETS has collected the score requirements in

of

the

its

many TOEFL®

TOEFL

.

score requirements.

at

institution

students. Destination institutions. For

Destinations Directory at

www.toeflaoanvwhere.ora However, we advise you program or department

These minimums

the level of study (undergraduate

be a teaching assistant and whether the

as a Second Language support for

your convenience, these are included

iBT® scores.

field of study,

to

check with your

your target destination to find out

if

particular

they have any special

TOEFL

pJ

PLANNER

iTest Prep

PLANNER

Academic Speaking

Skills

The Speaking section measures your settings, during class

the

ability to

speak English

effectively in

as well as outside the classroom. The tasks

real-life situations that

in this

academic

section resemble

students encounter:

During a class, students are expected to respond to questions, participate



academic discussions, summarize what they read and

hear,

and express

in

their

views

on topics under discussion. Outside the classroom, students participate



opinions and communicate with people

in

in

casual conversations, express their

such places as the bookstore, the

library,

the cafeteria and the housing office.

Speaking Section Description In

the Speaking section, you

will

be asked to speak on a

variety of topics that

draw on

personal experience, campus-based situations and academic content. The Speaking section

The to

is

first

draw

approximately 20 minutes long and includes six questions.

two questions are entirely

called Independent

Speaking Tasks because they require you

on your own ideas, opinions and experiences when you respond.

The other four questions are

called Integrated Speaking Tasks

to integrate your English-language skills— listening

because they require you

and speaking, or

speaking— just as you must during class and outside the classroom.

listening, reading

and

7

Chapter

3:

Speaking

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

Speaking Task Types TASK TYPE

TASK DESCRIPTION

TIMING

Independent Tasks 1

.

Personal Preference

This question asks you to express and defend a

personal choice from a given

category—for example,

Preparation time:

15 seconds

important people, places, events or activities that you enjoy.

Response time: 45 seconds

2.

This question asks you to

Choice

make and defend a

personal

choice between two contrasting behaviors or courses

Preparation time:

15 seconds

of action.

Response time: 45 seconds Integrated Tasks Read/Listen/Speak 3.

Campus

Situation



A

reading passage (75-100 words) presents a

campus-related issue. Topic: Fit

and Explain



A

listening

passage (60-80 seconds; 150-180

words) comments on the issue

in

the reading

passage. •

Preparation time:

30 seconds

The question asks you

to

Response time: 60 seconds

summarize the

speaker’s opinion within the context of the reading passage. 4.

Academic Course



A

reading passage (75-100 words) broadly

defines a term, process or idea from an academic

Preparation time:

30 seconds

subject.

Topic: General/Specific



An excerpt from a lecture (60-90 seconds; 150-220 words) provides examples and specific

Response time: 60 seconds

information to illustrate the term, process or idea

from the reading passage. •

The question asks you

to

combine and convey

important information from the reading passage

and the lecture excerpt. Listen/Speak 5.

Campus

Situation



The

listening

words)

is

passage (60-90 seconds; 180-220

a conversation about a student-related

Preparation time:

20 seconds

problem and two possible solutions.

Topic: Problem/Solution



The question asks you

to

demonstrate an

understanding of the problem and to express an

Response time: 60 seconds

opinion about solving the problem. 6.

Academic Course



The

listening

passage (90-120 seconds;

230-280 words) Topic:

is

an excerpt from a lecture that

Preparation time:

20 seconds

explains a term or concept and gives concrete

Summary

examples •

to illustrate that term or concept.

The question asks you to summarize the lecture and demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the examples and the

Response time: 60 seconds

overall topic.

TOTAL

20 minutes

Go anywhere from

here.

1

Chapter

3:

Speaking

Test Prep

PLANNER

Speaking Responses Like

all

section

the other sections of the is

TOEFL

delivered via computer. For

all

iBT® test, the Speaking

Speaking tasks,

you’ll

use a

headset with a microphone.

For Speaking questions that involve listening,

you’ll

hear short spoken

passages or conversations. For Speaking questions that involve reading, you’ll read short written

passages on your computer screen.

You can take notes throughout the Speaking section and use your notes

when you respond

Your responses

to the questions.

be recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring

will

Network where they

will

be scored by experienced

raters.

How Speaking Responses Are Scored Your responses listen for

will

be scored

various features

in

score based on the overall scoring criteria vary generally •

will

Delivery:

be

holistically.

This

means

skill

you display

in

your answer. Although

somewhat depending on the

question, the raters

listening for the following features in

How

clear

that raters

your response and assign a single

and

fluid

your speech

is,

your answer:

including

good

pronunciation, natural pacing and natural-sounding intonation patterns. •

18

Language Use: How to

Go anywhere from here.

convey your ideas.

effectively

you use grammar and vocabulary

Chapter



Topic Development:

How fully you answer the

all

or

most

of the time allotted,

question and

Good responses

coherently you present your ideas.

and the

3:

how

generally use

and the progression from one idea to the next

C~~-

Complete these Week 2

between ideas clear and easy to

is

tasks and update the checklist on page 9.

more detailed criteria, see the Speaking Scoring Guides in Appendix 3. These will help you better understand how responses are For



See sample Speaking questions Planner Appendix

evaluated.

1

www.ets.ora/toefl/Dlanner

and high-scoring responses may contain occasional errors in any of the three areas described above.



and minor lapses

in

and experience

them on the Planner website

important to note that raters don’t expect your response to be

perfect,

Test Prep

relationship

follow.

It’s

TOEFL PLANNER

Speaking

at .

Review Speaking Scoring Guides

in

Planner Appendix 3 to understand

what score

Speaking Skills Practice



Listen to

view

The best way to practice speaking

some

In

to help If

countries,

you can

that, find

skills

and

overall

communication

skills.

raters’

mean.

sample responses and

comments on

the Planner

website to help you identify your current

with native speakers of English.

find English-speaking tutors or assistants

you with conversation

you can’t do

is

levels

level

and your desired

level.

V

a friend to practice speaking with every day.

Targeted Activities

General Speaking Practice

)



Practice using language for giving opinions, language for describing problems

Independent Speaking

and

solutions,

and language

compare

to

and contrast. Try the following activities to build the skills you’ll

need

for the

Independent Speaking tasks:



Learn to use idiomatic and informal speech naturally





Make a

you and practice speaking about them. The topics can be academic or nonacademic (sports, hobbies, travel, etc.). list

and appropriately by

listening

of topics that are familiar to

Think for 20 seconds about what you did yesterday, then recount

to native English

mimic •

their expressions.

Practice using contractions, such as there’s, I’m

one minute. Remember to use the past tense of verbs and use connecting words and phrases, such as “first,” “then” and “while was.”

your experiences

in

speakers and trying to

more

and so on,

natural

when

in

it’s,

order to sound

speaking.

I

• •

Think for 20 seconds about what you plan to do tomorrow, then talk

about

it

for

one minute.

Work on

pronunciation, including

stress, intonation patterns

word

and pauses.

There are a number of products and websites that can help you develop



Think of a story with which you are

familiar. Tell

the story to pronunciation

several different people. Try to

tell

skills,

including

the story faster each time. Pronunciation in English from



number

magazines and newspapers. it in one minute. Describe the same thing more than once, using different adjectives and Collect a

Look

at

adding

each

of pictures from

AmEnglish.com® and ETS.

picture, then describe

details.

Go anywhere from

here.

1

9

Chapter

XO E F PLANNER

3:

Speaking

Llest Prep



State an opinion or a preference for something familiar and

present clear, detailed reasons for your choices. Use connecting

words or phrases -

About note

s

reason

permitted to take notes on the reading

Make

you and explain why your idea •

is

me

the best

Because the reading and

Think about topics related to student

because”).

of classes

materials are very

brief,

life

way

(for

to proceed.

example, the types

you enjoy taking or the best place to

study). For

listening

topic, write

may

important to

is

a recommendation about a topic of concern or interest to

listening material in the Integrated

Speaking tasks on the TOEFL iBT® test.

to help explain your opinion (for example, “the

prefer” or “this

taking: You are •

and

I

taking notes

speak on

down two reasons

this topic for

to explain your preference

each

and

one minute.

not be necessary. However, note•

taking practice will help you prepare

Write

down

topics on slips of paper. Each day, choose one

randomly and practice giving a one-minute response. Repeat your for the test.

responses to each topic two or three times to build fluency.

(

Targeted Activities

)

Integrated Speaking These

activities

can help

build the skills you’ll

need

for the Integrated

Speaking tasks: •

Listen to a talk

on the National Geographic website

at

www.nationalqeoqraphic.com/ and take notes. Then use your notes to give a

summary

of the talk to a friend

and eventually

record a one-minute oral summary. •

Read an

article or listen to

a

talk

on an issue that interests you

example, the environment). Prepare an outline opinion speech about the article or

talk.

for a

(for

one-minute

Your outline should

include your opinion, two points to support your opinion and one detail/reason to support each point. •

campus newspaper

Find

articles, •

articles

on the

Internet. After reading the

express your opinions about them to a

friend.

Read a short article from a newspaper or a textbook. Write down two or three questions and then answer them orally. Eventually, record your answers to the questions.



Find a textbook

end

of

Start later

20

Go anywhere from

here.

in

English that includes study questions at the

each chapter. Practice answering the questions

by reading about subjects with which you’re

move on

to less familiar subjects.

orally.

familiar

and

Chapter



Find listening and reading material on the

can contain

material

can be a news report on a current topic on TV or

similar or different views.

The

and the reading material can be a newspaper or

and reading - Do separate

and reading

lists

listening

of important points

on the

listening

oral

summaries

of the information

in

the listening

material. Practice paraphrasing using different

and explain it

radio,

Internet report.

structures.

- Combine the information from the reading and

explaining

in

writing

orally using only

how

they

listening

relate. Later, practice

your notes for reference.

- State an opinion about the ideas and information presented the reading and listening material and explain

-

If

Test Prep

material.

words and grammatical

material

TOEFL PLANNER

Speaking

same topic. The

material

- Take notes or create

3:

how

they

in

relate.

the reading and/or listening material describes a problem,

suggest and explain your own solution to the problem. n

Practice Tips for the Speaking Section •

When you

practice for the

TOEFL

iBT® Speaking section, take 15

going to say before you speak. Write

your response. Don’t attempt to write

and •



raters will

be able to detect responses that are read and

Record your responses and replay them. Evaluate your - Did

I

- Did

I

- Did

I

- Did

I

- Did

I

- Did

I

- Did

I

- Did

I

seconds

to think about

what you’re

down a few key words and ideas and plan how you will organize down exactly what you’re going to say. It’s a waste of your time,

effort

will

give

them a lower

rating.

by asking yourself these questions:

complete the task?

speak clearly?

make grammatical

errors?

use words correctly? organize

my

ideas clearly and appropriately?

use the time effectively?

speak too quickly or too slowly? pause too often?

Record your response another time a few days

later.

Compare these responses

with your earlier

responses. •

Ask an English teacher or tutor Scoring Guides from Appendix

to evaluate your recordings using the appropriate

TOEFL

iBT Speaking

3.

V

J

^ Go anywhere from

here.

21

Chapter

TOEFL, PLANNER

3:

Speaking

Prep

Group Speaking

Complete these Week 2 tasks and update the checklist on page 9. •

work on your Speaking

mm The

17-20

trying these activities to practice your

speaking

skills

with

friends or a study group: •

Pick three general activities and three

targeted activities from pages



Have fun

Activities

Make

cards” with description prompts. For example,

“jnote

describe your favorite restaurant, your best friend or an ideal

to

house. Put the cards face down, choose one and respond

skills.

in

45 seconds. Use the Speaking chapter

Official

Guide

to the

in



TOEFL® Test

Join a club

whose members meet

movies, music and

(Chapter 4) for more practice.

travel.

to converse

in

a club doesn’t exist

If

English about

in

your area,

start

one. Invite native English speakers to join you.

J •

With a group,

list

opinion topics and write these on cards. Topics

might include research papers vs. oral presentations, laptops

vs.

desktops, school uniforms vs. wearing regular clothes to school,

and so on. Each person chooses a card, prepares a one-minute presentation and then presents to the group.

The speaker must

support his or her opinion with reasons. The group then can



debate each

topic.

Divide group

members

into pairs.

Have each

pair of partners

choose a common problem college students face and brainstorm two solutions

to the problem.

They should prepare

role-plays

in

which one person describes the problem and the other provides the solutions and indicates which solution he or she prefers

and why. •

Practice using transition words and phrases such as however, first,

on the other hand and

in

contrast to help listeners follow your

speech. With a group, write as of

many transitions as you can

think

on cards. Each person must randomly choose one card and

then create two sentences connected by the transition word on the card. You can use a timer and allow each person 30 seconds to respond. •

Set up a discussion club with a group of friends. Each week, one

member chooses a talk or video form)

or a

and everyone

speech in

group gets together, the leader

(available online or in audio

the group listens to for that

talk/speech and leads a discussion on the topic.

22

Go anywhere from

here.

j

it.

When

week summarizes

the

the

Test Prep

PLANNER

Academic Reading

Skills

The Reading section measures your and passages.

In

many academic

ability to

understand university-level academic texts

settings around the world, students are expected to

read and understand information from textbooks and other academic materials written English.

The following are three purposes

for

in

academic reading:

Reading to Find Information scanning text for key facts and important information



Effectively



Increasing reading fluency and rate

Basic Comprehension •

Understanding the general topic or main idea, major points, important facts and details,



vocabulary

in

context,

Making inferences about what

ana pronoun usage is

implied

in

a passage

Reading to Learn •

Recognizing the organization and purpose of a passage



Understanding relationships between ideas



Organizing information into a category chart or a

summary

in

order to recall major

points and important details •

Inferring

how

ideas connect throughout the passage

Reading Section Description The TOEFL iBT® Reading section includes three to four reading passages. There are 12 to 14 questions per passage. You have 60 to 80 minutes to answer

all

the questions

in

the

section.

Go anywhere from

here.

23

^ Chapter

TOEFL. PLANNER

4:

Reading

Prep

—— Complete these Week 3 tasks and update the checklist on page 9.



Reading Passages TOEFL

The excerpts are changed as assess



Planner Appendix

1

and experience

them on the Planner website www.ets.ora/toefl/Dlanner

at .

J

|

how

well

introductions to a discipline or topic.

in

as possible because the goal is to you can read the kind of writing that is used in an little

academic environment.

Review sample Reading questions in

iBT® Reading passages are excerpts from university-level

textbooks that would be used

The passages will cover a variety of different subjects. You don’t need to be familiar with the topic of a passage. All the information you need to answer the questions will be in the passage itself. Often passages present information about the topic from more than

one perspective or point of view. This is something you should note as you read because you’ll usually be asked at least one question that allows you to show that you have understood the general organization of the passage.

You must read through or scroll to the end of each passage before receiving questions on that passage. Once the questions appear, the passage appears on the right side of the computer screen. The questions are on the left. (To see how they appear on screen, download the sample questions on the Planner website.)

Reading Question Formats There are three question formats •

in

the Reading section:

Questions with four choices and a single answer

in

traditional

multiple-choice format •

Questions with four choices and a single answer that ask you to “insert a



sentence” where

it

fits

best

in

a passage

“Reading to learn” questions with more than four choices that ask

you to select more than one answer

Each passage

is

accompanied by a “reading

questions test your

and

ability to

to learn” question.

These

how the passage is organized among facts and ideas in different

recognize

to understand the relationships

parts of the passage.

For these questions, you’re asked to sort information and place

summary. The two points each. The chart

the text options provided into a category chart or

summary questions

are worth up to

questions are worth up to three points presented, and up to four points

Reading

if

if

there are five options

there are seven options presented.

Skills Practice

You can improve your reading

skills in

English by reading regularly,

especially university textbooks or other materials that cover a variety of subject

_ 24

Go anywhere from here.

and are

^

)

areas— such as sciences, social sciences, in an academic style.

written

arts,

business—

Chapter

The

Internet

is

one

best to include material that in

more academic

is



in style,

Test Prep

It’s

the kind that

'

in

Go

building your reading skills. of

TOEFL PLANNER

university courses.

£ Reading as much as possible list

Reading

of the best resources for reading material, but

books, magazines or journals of any kind are very helpful as well.

would be found

4:

English

to

is

^

an essential part of

www.lexile.com/toefl

books that are associated with TOEFL iBT®

for a

skill levels.

General Reading Activities You might •

try

these general

activities to practice

your reading

Increase your vocabulary by keeping a journal of

- Group word

lists

skills:

new words:

by academic subject areas— such as biology,

geology, psychology— and create flash cards to review the

words

frequently.

- Learn to recognize the meanings of

common •

prefixes, suffixes

and

roots of words.

Study the organization of academic

texts:

- Look for the main ideas and the supporting details and pay attention to the relationship between them. Notice how the end of one sentence relates to the beginning of the next sentence.

- Make a

list

of the important points of the

passage and then

summary of If the text is a comparison, be sure your summary reflects that. If the text argues two points of view, be write a

it.

sure both are reflected •

Work

article article.



your summary. skills.

You read an

from a journal or magazine and your friend reads a different

Each person makes up

(who, what, where, when, the

in

with a friend to improve your reading

new

article

five

how and

and answer each

basic information questions why).

Exchange

articles,

read

other’s questions.

Read a Reading passage from The Official Guide to the TOEFL8 academic text. Think about the main idea of each paragraph and then write a “headline” for each paragraph. The “headline” should be short (five to eight words) and it should capture the main idea of the paragraph. Then write a five- to sixTest or from any

sentence summary of the entire passage. •

Make a copy text.

together.

newspaper or from an academic try to put the text back words that give you clues about the ordering of help you put the text back together.

of an article from a

Cut the text

Look

into

for

the paragraphs to

paragraphs and then

Go anywhere from

here.

25

Chapter

TO E F PLANNER

4:

Reading

Lriest Prep



Work on

done by Read a short text (article or short reading from a text) once and record the time takes you to read it. Then read it again and try to improve your reading speed. increasing your reading speed. This can be

timing yourself as you read.

it



Set up a book club with your classmates or friends. Have each

persoQ choose something for everyone to read. Set up a schedule and discuss one reading at each meeting. •

Keep a reading texts

log

in

which you write summaries or responses to

you read.

The TOEFL iBT® Reading section does not measure summarizing skills,

but learning to summarize reading passages

will

help you

on the Speaking and Writing sections.

(

Targeted Activities

)

Reading to Find Information Try these activities to practice for “Reading to Find Information”

questions: •

Scan passages

to find

and

highlight key facts (dates,

terms) and information. Look for capital

letters,

symbols, and special formatting (such as •

C

numbers,

numbers and

italics)

as you scan.

words in a passage that have the same meaning. Highlight each one with the same color marker. Then look at the way the writer used these words with similar meanings. Look

for

Targeted Activities

)

Reading for Basic Comprehension Try these activities to practice for “Reading for Basic Comprehension”

questions: •

Practice skimming a passage quickly to get a general impression of the

main idea instead of

carefully reading

each word and each

sentence. Practice reading the introductory paragraph, the

first

sentences of paragraphs and the concluding paragraph to get the gist of

26

Go anywhere from

here.

)

a passage.

Chapter



Develop the ability to skim quickly and identify major points. After skimming a passage, read it again more carefully and write down the main idea, major points and important facts.



Choose some

unfamiliar words in a passage and guess the meaning from the context (surrounding sentences). Then look the words up to confirm their meaning.



Underline



pronouns (for example: he, him, they, them, nouns to which they refer in the passage.

all

identify the

Paraphrase individual sentences

in

etc.)

4:

TOEFL PLANNER

Reading

Test Prep

and

a passage. Then paraphrase

entire paragraphs.

Targeted Activities

)

Reading to Learn •

Whenever you

Complete these Week 3

read, identify the

passage type

tasks and update the

(cause/effect,

compare/contrast, classification, problem/solution, description,

checklist on page 9.

narration). •

Organize the information

in



the passage:

Pick three general activities and three

targeted activities from pages

- Make a

of the major points of the

list

passage and the minor

work on your Reading

23-25

to

skills.

points that support them.

-

If



the passage categorizes information, create a chart and

place the information

in

IU3 Use the Reading chapter The

appropriate categories.

Official

Guide

to the

in

TOEFL® Test

(Chapter 2) for more practice.

- Create an charts,

summary

oral or written

lists

and

of the

passage using the

outlines.

About charts and the TOEFL iBT® Reading section: You won’t be asked to create charts on the

answer choices

will

test. Instead,

be provided and

you’ll

a chart with possible

be asked to

fill

in

By creating practice charts, however, you can practice categorizing information, and soon

the chart with the correct choices.

will

\

be able to do so with ease.

1

J

Go anywhere from

here.

27

iTest Prep

PLANNER Listening Academic Listening The

Listening section

measures your

settings,

you must be able to

typically

done

for

one

Skills ability to

listen to lectures

understand spoken English.

academic

In

and conversations. Academic

listening

is

of the three following purposes:

Listening for Basic Comprehension •

Comprehend the main

idea,

major points and important details related to the main idea

Listening for Pragmatic Understanding' •

Recognize a speaker’s attitude and degree of certainty



Recognize a speaker’s function or purpose 2

Connecting and Synthesizing Information •



Recognize the organization of information presented Understand the relationships between ideas presented cause/effect or steps

in

(for

example: compare/contrast,

a process)



Make



Make connections among



Recognize topic changes in lectures and conversations, and recognize introductions and conclusions in lectures

inferences and draw conclusions based on what

pieces of information

in

is

implied

in

the material

a conversation or lecture

Listening Section Description Listening material

in

speech sounds very

the test includes academic lectures and conversations natural.

You can take notes on any

listening material

entire test.

'Pragmatic understanding: To understand a speaker’s purpose, attitude, degree of certainty, etc. "Synthesize: To

combine information from two or more sources

in

which the

throughout the

Chapter

5: Listening

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

Most of the questions that follow the lectures and conversations are questions with four answer choices and a single correct answer. There are, however, some other types of

traditional multiple-choice

questions: •

Multiple-choice questions with

more than one answer

(for

example: two answers out of four or more choices) •

Questions that require you to put

in

order events or steps

in

a process •

Questions that require you to match objects or text to categories in

a table

Number

Listening Material 4-6

lectures,

3-5 minutes long

Timing

of Questions

6 questions per lecture

60-90 minutes 2-3 conversations, about 3 minutes long

5 questions per conversation

Academic Lectures The lectures

in

the

TOEFL

speaking that occurs professor

does

all

in

iBT® test reflect the kind of listening

the classroom.

or almost

all

some

In

and

of the lectures, the

of the talking, with an occasional

may engage

comment by a

student.

the students

discussion by asking questions that are answered

in

In

other lectures, the professor

by the students. The photos that

accompany

whether one person or several people

Conversations The conversations office

in

in

will

the lectures indicate

be speaking.

an Academic Setting

the

TOEFL

iBT test

may

take place during an

meeting with a professor or teaching assistant, or during a

service encounter with university staff.

conversations are generally academic

The contents in

of the office

nature or related to course

requirements. Service encounters could involve conversations about

a housing payment, registering for a class or requesting information

The photos that accompany the conversations help you imagine the setting and the roles of the speakers.

at

the

library.

Complete these Week 4 tasks and update the checklist on page 10. •

Listening Skills Practice

BSSEl Review sample in P/a/?r?er Appendix 1

Listening questions

and experience

them on the Planner website Listening to the English language frequently variety of

academic materials

and improve

is

the best

and reading a wide

way

www.ets.oro/toefl/planner

at .

to increase vocabulary

listening skills.

Watching movies and television shows and

listening to the radio

skills. You are more engaged when you listen to entertaining material. Movies, television shows and live interviews are especially useful because they also provide visual reinforcement and cues.

provide excellent opportunities to build listening typically

Go anywhere from

here.

29

Chapter

TOEFL PLANNER

5: Listening

Test Prep

Audiotapes and

CDs

of books, lectures

and presentations are

equally valuable and are available at libraries and bookstores. Also,

many

and most

public libraries

universities

have

their public lectures

available online. Lectures with transcripts are particularly helpful.

The

Internet is a great resource for listening material— visit websites such as www.npr.org www.cnn.com/services/podcastinq .

.

www.audtobooksforfree.com www.vouthradio.org www.bbc.co.uk/radio and .

www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learninqenqlish

.

.

General Listening Activities You might •

try

these general

activities to build

Listen to different kinds of material

increasing length and

on a

your listening

skills:

variety of topics, of

difficulty.

- Start with recordings on familiar topics and gradually progress to topics that are

-

First, listen

and then NPR and

new

to you.

shows and movies, programs with academic content, such as broadcasts. Start with short segments and

to conversations, television

listen to

BBC

progress to longer segments.

- Listen several times to each recording: o For beginners,

listen first with English subtitles,

available. Then, without subtitles, listen for the

and key

if

they are

main ideas

details.

o Listen again to understand the connections between ideas, the structure of the talk and/or the speakers’ attitudes and to distinguish fact from opinion.

- Listen

actively:

o Take notes as you details. Write

listen for

main ideas and important

down key words

only, not

every word.

o Keep a log of the new words and expressions you hear.

Check the

The Listening section does not measure summarizing

skills,

summarizing

is

tasks

in

but practicing

spelling

and meaning

in

a dictionary.

o Ask yourself about the basic information presented

useful for the integrated

recording

the Speaking and Writing

the

in

(Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?).

o Make predictions about what you

will

hear next,

sections.

/

o Use your notes to summarize what you’ve heard.

- Copy a

script

from an online news

or podcast. Delete or cover every Listen to the recording,

30

Go anywhere from here.

)

and

story, lecture or talk,

fifth

word on the

try to write in

movie

script.

the missing words.

1

Chapter

5:

Listening

TOEFL PLANNER

- Listen to the news or a lecture online and read the script at the

same

words

in

time. Listen closely

and

the script. Try to identify

highlight the stressed

why the

speaker stresses

specific words.

- Listen to a portion of a lecture or

and create a list of summary. Gradually listen to the entire lecture and combine the summaries for each part into a summary of the whole lecture. important points.

Use the

list

talk

to write a brief

Listening for Pragmatic Understanding •

As you

movies, television shows and lectures:

listen to

- Think about what each speaker hopes to accomplish. What is

the purpose of the lecture or conversation? For example,

is

the speaker apologizing, complaining, inviting or making

suggestions?

- Notice each speaker’s

How

style. Is

the language formal or casual?

does each speaker sound? Is the speaker’s voice calm or emotional? What does the speaker’s tone of voice tell you? certain

- Notice the speaker’s degree of

certainty.

How

sure

is

the

speaker about the information? Does the speaker’s tone of voice indicate something about his/her degree of certainty?

- Pay attention to the way stress and intonation patterns are

used to convey meaning. Replay segments multiple times, listening for shades of meaning. This will help you understand a speaker’s point of view.

- Listen

for

changes

in

topic.

What

transitions are

- Listen for repetitions of ideas and paraphrases.

speakers reinforce

Vocabulary

tip:

used?

How do

their points?

Don’t memorize low-frequency technical

vocabulary. These words are usually defined within a text or listening

passage. Focus on learning high-frequency language

that crosses

all

disciplines.

Go anywhere from

here.

3

Chapter

TOEFL PLANNER

5: Listening

Test Prep

Targeted Activities ")

Listening to Connect and

Synthesize Ideas As you

are listening to recorded lectures or talks:

- Think about

Complete these Week 4

how what

you’re hearing

is

organized. Listen for

the signal words that indicate the introduction, major steps or

tasks and update the

ideas,

examples and the conclusion or summary.

checklist on page 10. •

Pick three general activities and three

targeted activities from pages

work on your •

B9 The

Listening

17-20

Identify the relationships

to

steps

- Listen Guide

ideas. Possible

in

and

a process.

skills.

Use the Listening chapter

Official

between

relationships include cause/effect, compare/contrast

to the

in

for transitions that

between

ideas.

How do

show connections and

relationships

speakers introduce and organize

8

TOEFL Test

their points?

(Chapter 3) for more practice.

J

- Predict what information or idea - Stop the recording

will

at various points.

be expressed

next.

Summarize what you

just

heard or what you’ve heard up to that point.

- Practice

listening for

viewpoints. is

against

and comparing two speakers’

Which speaker supports the idea and which

it?

What words do speakers use

to support their

ideas? Are the words mainly positive or negative?

x

-

Vocabulary idioms test

will

tip:

Understanding phrasal verbs and

common

help you with the Listening section of the

TOEFL

because phrasal verbs and idioms are often used

in

iBT®

informal

conversations.

V

32

Go anywhere from

here.

)

iJP

Academic Writing

Skills

The Writing section measures your academic situations where ideas

in

a

writing

ability to write in in

English

is

English

required,

in

setting. In

all

well-organized manner.

clear,

Often you’ll need to write a paper or an essay response on an

been learning

an academic

you must be able to present your

in

class. This requires

what you’ve read

in

exam about what you’ve

combining information you’ve heard

textbooks or other materials. For

this

in

lectures with

type of writing— often referred to

as integrated writing— you must be able to:

Take notes on what you hear and read, and use your notes to organize information



before writing •

Summarize, paraphrase and



Write about the

ways the

cite information accurately

from source material

information you heard relates to the information you read

You also must be able to write essays that express and support your opinions. of

on your

own knowledge and

For example, you

type

In this

writing— known as independent writing— you express an opinion and support

it

based

experience.

may be asked

to write an

essay about a controversial issue. You would

use past personal experience to support your position.

x Planning before you write college,

you

will

is

an important

skill

to develop. In your university or

have to write papers and essay exams that

will

require such

skills.

J

lfc_

Writing Section Description The

total

time for the Writing section

tasks: an Integrated Writing

The Integrated Writing Task comes wearing headphones. minutes, you

may

50 minutes.

is

You’ll write

responses to two writing

Task and an Independent Writing Task.

When you

first

finish

because

it

requires

some

listening

and

you’ll

be

the Integrated Writing Task, which takes about 20

take the headphones

off to

work on the Independent Writing Task.

You’ll

then have 30 minutes to complete the Independent Writing Task.

Go anywhere from

here.

33

Chapter

TOEFL PLANNER

6:

Writing

Test Prep

You’ll

type your responses on the computer keyboard, and then your responses

sent to the

be

will

ETS Online Scoring Network.

Task Type Task

Description

1

Integrated Writing Task



You read a short text of about 230-300 words (reading time: three minutes) on an

Read/Listen/Write



You



The reading passage disappears from the screen during the

academic

may

topic.

take notes on the reading passage.

reappears

when you

begin writing so you can refer to



You



The



You write a summary

listen to

in

a speaker discuss the

passage

listening

listening

is

same

lecture that follows.

topic from a different perspective.

about 230-300 words long

(listening time:

may

to points

made

take notes on the listening passage.

passage and explain how these

passage. Suggested response length penalty for writing

The

two minutes).

connected English prose of important points made

in

It

as you work.

passage provides additional information that relates

the reading passage. You

listening

it

more as long as

it

is

relate to the

is in

in

the

key points of the reading

150-225 words; however,

there

is

no

response to the task presented.

Task 2 You write an essay that states, explains and supports your opinion on an issue. An



Independent Writing

effective essay will usually contain a

write

Writing from Experience and

Knowledge

more

if

minimum

of

300 words; however, you may

you wish.

You must support your opinions or choices rather than simply



list

personal

preferences or choices. •

Typical essay questions begin with statements such as:

-

Do you agree

or disagree with the following statement? Use reasons

and

specific details to support your answer.

-

Some

people believe

Other people believe

[X],

[Y],

Which

do you prefer/agree with? Give reasons and specific

of these

two positions

details.

How Writing Responses Are

Scored

Your responses to

ETS Online Scoring Network. The

all

writing tasks are sent to the

responses are rated by four raters— two human raters

human

rater

and one e-rater ®

for the

for the integrated task

independent task. (With

e-rater,

and by one

your responses are

scored by the computer.) Your responses are rated on a scale of zero to

Appendix

in

4.

five

according to the Writing Scoring Guides

Your average score on the two writing tasks

of 0 to 30. (See

Appendix 6

for a chart that helps

is

converted to a scaled score

you convert the average score on your

responses to a scaled score.) Your response to the Integrated Writing Task



(organization, appropriate

and precise use

of

is

scored on the quality of your writing

grammar, and vocabulary) and the

completeness and accuracy of the content.

The independent



writing

essay

is

scored on the overall quality of your writing:

development, organization, and appropriate and precise use of grammar and vocabulary.

34

Go anywhere from

here.

It

doesn’t matter whether you agree or disagree with the topic— the

raters are trained to

.

)

accept

all

varieties of opinions.

Chapter

6:

TOEFL PLANNER

Writing

Test Prep

For both of the writing tasks, the raters recognize that your response is

a

You’re not expected to produce a comprehensive essay

first draft.

about a specialized topic. You can receive a high score with an essay that contains

some

errors.

Complete these Week 5

Writing Skills Practice

tasks and update the checklist on page 10.

General Writing Activities •

Be sure you have developed fundamental writing skills before you progress to more targeted practice. Check to see if you can do the

See sample Writing questions Appendix



following:

Review Writing Scoring Guides Appendix 4



Learn the conventions of spelling, punctuation and paragraph

levels

Planner

in

1.

to

in

Planner

understand what score

mean.

creation.

Read sample responses and

• •

Study the organization of good paragraphs and essays. paragraph discusses in



the

first

ONE

main

sentence, which

is

idea. This idea

is

A good

usually written

called the topic sentence.

In

essay

comments identify

like.

idea of the essay.

read.

topic.

Are you writing about something

in

fit

Appendix

your current

what a response

writing, each paragraph should discuss one aspect of the main

Before you write, think about verb tenses that logically

in

1

level

to help

raters’

you

and understand

at your desired level

is

Refer to the Scoring Guides as you

your

the past? Then you

might use the simple past, present and past perfect, past

continuous— tenses that •

Read your

naturally

fit

together.

writing three or four times;

different thing.

Make a

each time, check

checklist of errors

for

a

you commonly make

(for

example: verb tenses, run-on sentences, subject-verb agreement). •

Reread your writing and (for

example:

circle

common,

get, nice, things, stuff). In

these with stronger words and phrases pleasant, objects, possessions).

you can come up •

uninteresting expressions

your second (for

draft,

replace

example: obtain,

See how many

alternate

words

with.

show the relationship between Use words and phrases such as “on the one hand” or

Practice using transitions to ideas.

“in

conclusion” to create a clear structure for your response. •

Practice typing on a

keyboard used from the

in

QWERTY

keyboard, the type of computer

English-speaking countries. The

first six letters in

name comes

the top row of the keyboard.

Go anywhere from

here.

35

Chapter

6:

Writing

iTest Prep

PLANNER

J Vocabulary

tip:

Expand your vocabulary by doing crossword

puzzles and other word games. These are available on sites

like

http://www.vourdictionarv.com This website also has a “Word .

of the Day.”

V

Independent Writing Try the following activities to build the skills you’ll

need

for the

Independent Writing tasks: •

Make a

list

of familiar topics

and write essays about them.

Practice taking 30 minutes to plan, write and revise each essay.

- Think about and writing. This

is

list all

ideas related to a topic or task before

also called “prewriting.”

- Identify one main idea and create a to support that idea.

list

of

some major

points

Develop the essay by using appropriate

explanations and details.

-

When

your essay

Make

sure your supporting ideas are clearly related to your

is

complete, reread what you have written.

main point and are developed •

in detail.

Read a sample essay response from Appendix 1 or in The Official to the TOEFlL® Test and make an outline of the essay.

Guide

Include the main idea and supporting points for each paragraph.

Paraphrase the key points

in

your

own words and summarize

the

essay you read. •

Read

articles

and essays

written by professional writers that

express opinions about an issue, such as a social, environmental or educational issue. Identify the writer’s opinion(s). Notice

the writer addresses possible objections to the opinion(s).

36

Go anywhere from here.

j

how

Chapter

6:

TOEFL se PLANNER

Writing

P

Practice Tips for the Writing Section •

Use the sample Independent Writing topics in Appendix 5 of the Planner and Chapter 5 of The Official to the TOEFL® Test to practice writing for the TOEFL iBT® test. Time yourself, taking 30 minutes to read the question, plan your work and write your essay. Review your essay and ask yourself these Guide

questions:

- Did



I

- Did

I

- Did

I

- Did

I

- Did

I

- Did

I

When

complete the task? write clearly?

make grammatical

errors?

use words correctly? organize

my

ideas clearly and coherently?

use the time effectively?

practicing the Integrated Writing response:

- Plan your time minutes to

example, two to three minutes to plan, 15 minutes to

carefully (for

- Start your response with a strong topic statement that -

Show how

the points

made

in

clearly

shows the main

the lecture relate to specific points

summarize the reading and the •

write,

two

to three

edit).

made

in

point of the lecture.

the reading.

Do

not simply

writing.

Ask an English teacher or tutor to evaluate your essay using the appropriate Writing Scoring Guides from Appendix 4 and to give you feedback.

Paraphrasing In

your academic classes, you must be careful never to plagiarize

(copy another writer’s words without acknowledging the source).

Paraphrasing

is

an important

skill

because you are expressing ideas

about something from source material

in

your

own words.

Practice

paraphrasing words, phrases, sentences and entire paragraphs frequently using the following activities: •

Learn to find synonyms. Pick 10-15 words or phrases

passage and quickly think in

of

synonyms without

in

looking

a

them up

a dictionary or thesaurus.

Go anywhere from

here.

37

TOEFL PLANNER

Chapter

6:

Writing

Test Prep



Practice writing a sentence using the noun form of a word and

same meaning

then convey the

using the verb form.

two or three sentences. Later, move on paraphrasing paragraphs and longer passages.



Try paraphrasing



Write a paraphrase of a reading passage using only your notes. If

to

you haven’t taken notes, write the paraphrase without looking

at the original text.

factually accurate

Check your paraphrase

and

that you’ve

used

make

to

different

sure

it’s

words and

grammatical structures.

Vocabulary log.

words with

C

Randomly choose a word from your vocabulary

tip:

Define the word, use similar

it

in

a sentence, and see

meanings you can

Targeted Activities

how many

list.

)

Integrated Writing You can do these

activities to build

the

skills you’ll

need

for the

Integrated Writing tasks: •

Find a textbook material at the

English that includes questions about the

in

end

of a chapter

and practice

writing

answers to

the questions. •

Read academic - Take notes in

articles in

your

and

listen to related lectures.

own language and

then take notes

English.

- Make a

list

- Use your

of the major points

list

to write a

and important

summary

details.

of the major points

and

important details. Be sure to paraphrase using different words

and grammatical

structures.

- Ask your teacher to review your writing and help you correct your errors.

- Gradually decrease the time

it

takes you to read the material

and write these summaries. •

Practice finding main points by listening to recorded lectures or talks online.

out a short

Stop the recording about every 30 seconds to write of what you heard. Replay the recording to

summary

check your summary.

38

Go anywhere from

here.

Chapter



Read two

articles

6:

TOEFL PLANNER

Writing

Test Prep

on the same topic. Write a summary of each, in which they are similar and the ways

and then explain the ways in which they are different. •

Listen to a recorded

news

read another story on the

story online.

same news

In

a newspaper or online,

item.

The

Complete these Week 5

material can

provide similar or different views.

tasks and update the

- Take notes on the material.

checklist on page 10.

- Summarize both the written and spoken portions. Clearly identify

which source you are



throughout your

referring to

Pick three general activities and three targeted activities from pages

summary.

work on your Writing

- Combine the information and discuss how the materials relate. Explain how the ideas are similar, how one idea

expands upon another, or how the ideas each other. •

Watch a movie with a

friend or

go

differ or



contradict

34-37

to

skills.

Kldl Use the Writing chapter in The

Official

Guide

to the

9

TOEFL Test

(Chapter 5) for more practice.

to a restaurant together.

your friend’s opinion of the movie or restaurant; take

some

Ask notes.

Read an online review of the same movie or restaurant. Write a response comparing your friend’s opinions with the online review. •

Read an opinion or friend,

editorial

classmate, family

piece from a newspaper. Interview a

member or teacher on

the

same topic.

Write a response comparing your interview with the written

response.

Be sure

On the TOEFL iBT®

to paraphrase!

score of zero

if

test,

you

will

receive a

you copy words from the reading passage.

J •

Practice integrating

four language

all

skills.

- Listen to an online lecture and take notes. Then prepare both an oral and a written summary. Find and read a text on the same topic. Take notes. Then prepare both an oral and a written

summary

of the lecture

and reading.

Later,

discuss the

reading and lecture with a friend. Prepare a vocabulary

list

of

the important words on the topic.

- Read an essay from an academic text or from The

Guide

to the

TOEFL®

supporting details. orally.

make

Record your summary. Then sure you have included

Finally, write

your

Official

Take notes on the main and Use your notes to summarize the essay Test.

all

own essay on

listen to

your

summary

to

the main points of the essay.

the

same

topic.

Go anywhere from

here.

39

iTest Prep

PLANNER

Test Day and

Beyond now you’re ready to take make your test day go smoothly:

You’ve registered and practiced, and are •



some

tips that will help

the

TOEFL

Set your alarm early. Give yourself plenty of time to get ready. getting up, ask a friend to give

you a

Get plenty of

up

rest. Don’t stay

If

iBT® test. Here

you have trouble

call.

late,

and avoid caffeine the night before the

test.

Try to stay relaxed. •

Eat a good meal. Don’t skip a meal on test day. Eat something with protein and a piece of

fruit

to help your

mind stay

alert.

Chapter

7:

Test Day and Beyond

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

TOEFL Test Day Tips You’ve practiced hard and Here

is

some

Plan your trip to the testing

Check the

U

now you

are ready for your big day.

information to prepare you for the testing experience

itself.

site:

identification (ID) requirements for your testing location at

www.ets.org/toefl/id.

Plan Your Trip

Determine the best way to

You need to

arrive

I fo3cn3(n3r7T]r77ifo3~n

travel

and how long

The day before your test, check your online have changed, such as testing room or

Make

it

takes to get to the testing

30 minutes before your scheduled

sure to bring your photo ID

and

site.

start time.

profile for

any

details that

may

start time.

registration confirmation with you.

£7 Arriving at the testing

The Testing

You

Site

will

site:

need to present acceptable ID and your

enter the testing

A photo

registration confirmation to

site.

opportunity:

Your picture

will

be taken and displayed at your test station

and on your official score

report.

Your testing station:

You

will

be assigned a seat a few minutes before your

start time.

Your Testing Station No electronic devices or food

are allowed in the testing room.

For other restrictions, check the website at www.ets.org/toefl.

You can use the restroom

at

any time, but remember

the clock does not stop for your

Reading

Listening

r_J\

The TOEFL Test 60 - 80 minutes, 36-56 questions.

60 - 90 minutes. 34-51 questions.

Read passages,

Listen to lectures

then respond to questions.



test.

or a classroom discussion, then

Break

© Mandatory

10-minute break for

all

Speaking

tv

test takers.

20 minutes,

For more information,

50 minutes,

6 tasks.

2 tasks.

Read a passage,

speak about familiar

listen to a

topics,

and discuss

material

you read

questions.

recording and

then write your response

about and

4 hours

Writing

Using a microphone,

respond to

Total length of the test:

tv

&

H>

listen to.

(keyboard typing).

visit

www.ets.org/toefl.

^

Go anywhere from here

.

41

Chapter

7:

Test

Day and Beyond

Test Prep

PLANNER What To Expect on

Test Day

General Test-Taking Tips Here are •

some

Know the

test-taking strategies to follow during the test:

directions

in

each section before the

test

by taking a practice

This

test.

will

help you avoid wasting time during the test. •



when

Click Help to review the directions only

doesn’t stop

when Help

Carefully read

is

absolutely necessary— the test clock

used.

each question. Some questions ask

for

more than one answer. Some

questions have “not,” so they ask about a negative situation. •

Don’t panic. Concentrate on the current question

only. Don’t think

about how you

answered or should have answered other questions. •

Avoid spending too question and you possible.



Then

still

much time on any one don’t

know

limit for

If

you’ve thought about a

many answer choices as

select the best remaining choice.

Pace yourself so you have enough time time

question.

the answer, eliminate as

to

answer every question. Be aware

of the

every section/task and budget enough time for each. You can hide the

time clock, but check the clock periodically to monitor your progress. The clock automatically alert you

when

five

minutes remain

in

Listening

and Reading as

will

well as

in

Writing.



The toolbar tells you how many questions you’ve answered and how many Use this information to decide whether you need to go faster or slower.



Review

in

Reading. You can go back to review and change your responses

Reading section by clicking Review.

It’s

remain.

in

the

best to do this only after you’ve answered

all

the questions.

After the Test After

you take the

test

take the test again. in

If

and receive your scores, you can determine whether you need

you do,

we recommend

the Planner, reviewing the practice tests

practice tests on

TOEFL®

in

you prepare with additional

that

The

Official

to

activities

Guide and taking additional

Practice Online (www.ets.ora/toeflpracticeL

Score Reports Scores are reported online approximately ten days

after the test.

You can view your scores

online free of charge. Paper score reports are mailed shortly after the scores are posted online. Please

see Appendix 2

for

a sample examinee score report.

Chapter

7:

Test Day and Beyond

Sending Your Scores You can select up to four TOEFL® Destinations as score recipients

for free

when you

register.

In

addition to the destinations

to as

many

your online

you select with your

registration,

you can send your scores

other institutions as you choose for a small fee. You can order by logging into profile,

by mail or by

fax.

Go to

www.ets.org/toefl

for

more

information.

Performance Feedback Score reports also include feedback that indicates whether your performance was high,

medium

or low

and describes what

test takers in these score

ranges typically know and

can do with the English language.

Lexile®

Measures

You can build your English-language reading

skills

by matching your TOEFL iBT® Reading

score with a Lexile® measure. Your Lexile measure allows you to find books that reflect your reading ability and interests and are challenging reading

skills.

MetaMetrics®, Inc. and

ETS

out of choosing the right materials for you to read.

more information.

enough

to help strengthen your

offer this free service to take the

Go to

guesswork

www.lexile.com/toefl

for

TOEFL. PLANNER

Test Prep

PLANNER

Sample Questions Following are print versions of sample questions from each of the four

skills

sections.

You can access these questions on the Planner website (www.ets.org/toefl/planneh along with sample responses for the Speaking and Writing sample questions. These

sample questions are

in

addition to the free

with online test registration.

TOEFL® Questions.

See page 3

for

TOEFL

iBT® Online Sampler that you receive

a

all

list

of

the Sources for Authentic

Appendix

1:

TOEFL PLANNER

Sample Questions

Test Prep

Reading Section

These sample questions in the Reading section measure your ability to understand academic passages in English. You will read one passage and answer questions about it. In a real test, you would have 20 minutes to read the passage and Directions:

answer the questions. Candidates with

disabilities

may

request a time extension.

Meteorite Impact and Dinosaur Extinction

There

is

increasing evidence that the impacts of meteorites have

had important

effects

on

Earth, particularly in the field of biological evolution. Such impacts continue to pose a natural hazard to

known

life

on Earth. Twice

in the twentieth century, large meteorite objects are

to have collided with Earth.

5

10

15

If an impact is large enough, it can disturb the environment of the entire Earth and cause an ecological catastrophe. The best-documented such impact took place 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period of geological history. This break in Earth’s history is marked by a mass extinction, when as many as half the species on the planet became extinct. While there are a dozen or more mass extinctions in the geological record, the Cretaceous mass extinction has always intrigued paleontologists because it marks the end of the age of the dinosaurs. For tens of millions of years, those great creatures had flourished. Then, suddenly, they disappeared.

The body that impacted Earth at the end of the Cretaceous period was a meteorite with a mass of more than a trillion tons and a diameter of at least 10 kilometers. Scientists first identified this impact in 1980 from the worldwide layer of sediment deposited from the dust cloud that enveloped the planet after the impact. This sediment layer

is

enriched in

and other elements that are relatively abundant in a meteorite but very rare in the crust of Earth. Even diluted by the terrestrial material excavated from the crater, this component of meteorites is easily identified. By 1990 geologists had located the impact site itself in the Yucatan region of Mexico. The crater, now deeply buried in sediment, was originally about 200 kilometers in diameter. the rare metal iridium

20

25

This impact released an enormous amount of energy, excavating a crater about twice as large as the lunar crater Tycho.

The explosion

lifted

about 100

trillion

tons of dust into

the atmosphere, as can be determined by measuring the thickness of the sediment layer

formed when 30

this dust settled to the surface. Such a quantity of material would have blocked the sunlight completely from reaching the surface, plunging Earth into a period of cold and darkness that lasted at least several months. The explosion is also calculated

produced vast quantities of nitric acid and melted rock that sprayed out over starting widespread fires that must have consumed most terrestrial forests and grassland. Presumably, those environmental disasters could have been responsible for the mass extinction, including the death of the dinosaurs. to have

much of Earth,

35

^

Go anywhere from

here.

45

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

iTest Prep

PLANNER Several other

mass extinctions

in the geological record

have been tentatively identified

with large impacts, but none is so dramatic as the Cretaceous event. But even without such specific documentation, it is clear that impacts of this size do occur and that their

can be catastrophic. What is a catastrophe for one group of living things, however, opportunities for another group. Following each mass extinction, there is a sudden evolutionary burst as new species develop to fill the ecological niches opened by results

40

may create the event.

45

50

Impacts by meteorites represent one mechanism that could cause global catastrophes and seriously influence the evolution of life all over the planet. According to some estimates, the majority of all extinctions of species may be due to such impacts. Such a perspective fundamentally changes our view of biological evolution. The standard criterion for the survival of a species is its success in competing with other species and adapting to slowly changing environments. Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to survive random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts. Earth is a target in a cosmic shooting gallery, subject to random violent events that were unsuspected a few decades ago. In 1991 the United States Congress asked NASA to investigate the

55

hazard posed today by large impacts on Earth. The group conducting the

study concluded from a detailed analysis that impacts from meteorites can indeed be

hazardous. Although there study shows that this risk

1

46

.

The word “pose” on a.

claim

b.

model

c.

assume

d.

present

Go anywhere from

here.

is

is

always some risk that a large impact could occur, careful

quite small.

line 2 is closest in

meaning

to

Appendix

2.

1

Sample Questions

:

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

In paragraph 2, why does the author include the information that dinosaurs had flourished for tens of millions of years and then suddenly disappeared?

a.

To support

the claim that the

Cretaceous

is

mass extinction

at the

end of the mass

the best-documented of the dozen or so

extinctions in the geological record

b.

To

explain

why

as

many as

half of the species

the time are believed to have

become

on Earth at end of

extinct at the

the Cretaceous

c.

To explain why paleontologists have always been the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous

d.

To provide evidence

that

intrigued by

an impact can be large enough to and cause an

disturb the environment of the entire planet ecological disaster

3.

Which of

the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about the

location of the meteorite impact in Mexico?

a.

The

location of the impact site in

geologists

4.

from 1980

Mexico was kept

secret

impact had occurred in the

b.

It was a well-known Yucatan region.

c.

Geologists

d.

The Yucatan region was chosen by

geologists as the

probable impact

climate.

fact that the

knew that there had been an impact knew where it had occurred.

site

because of

According to paragraph 3, how did meteorite had impacted Earth? a.

They discovered a

b.

They found a unique

c.

They were

alerted

by

to 1990.

its

scientists

large crater in the

before they

most

determine that a large

Yucatan region of Mexico.

layer of sediment worldwide.

by archaeologists who had been excavating

in

the Yucatan region.

d.

They located a meteorite with a mass of over a

trillion tons.

Go anywhere from

here.

47

Appendix iTest

1

:

Sample Questions

Prep

PLANNER 5.

6.

7.

8.

The word “excavating” on a.

digging out

b.

extending

c.

destroying

d.

covering up

The word “consumed” on a.

changed

b.

exposed

c.

destroyed

d.

covered

25

is

closest in

meaning

to

line

32

is

closest in

meaning

to

According to paragraph 4, all of the following statements are true of the impact at the end of the Cretaceous period EXCEPT: a.

A large amount of dust blocked sunlight from Earth.

b.

Earth became cold and dark for several months.

c.

New elements were formed in Earth’s crust.

d.

Large quantities of

The phrase “tentatively meaning to a. identified after

nitric acid

identified”

careful study

b.

identified without certainty

c.

occasionally identified

d. easily identified

48

line

Go anywhere from here.

)

were produced.

on

line

36

is

closest in

Appendix

9.

10.

The word

“perspective”

a.

sense of values

b.

point of view

c.

calculation

d.

complication

on

line

46

is

1

:

TOEFL PLANNER

Sample Questions

closest in

meaning

Test Prep

to

Paragraph 6 supports which of the following statements about the factors that are essential for the survival of a species?

a.

The most important factor for the survival of a species ability to compete and adapt to gradual changes in its

is its

environment.

b.

The

ability of a species to compete and adapt to a gradually changing environment is not the only ability that is essential

for survival.

c.

Since most extinctions of species are due to major meteorite impacts, the ability to survive such impacts

important factor for the survival of a d.

The

factors that are

most important

is

the

most

species.

for the survival of a species

vary significantly from one species to another.

Go anywhere from here.

49

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

iTest Prep

PLANNER 11.

Which of

the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the

following sentence?

Earth

is

a target in a cosmic shooting gallery, subject to random violent

events that were unsuspected a few decades ago.

Incorrect choices change the

meaning

in

important ways or leave out essential

information.

a.

Until recently,

nobody

realized that Earth

is

exposed to

unpredictable violent impacts from space.

b.

In the last few decades, the risk of a

random violent impact from

space has increased.

c.

Since

most violent events on Earth occur randomly, nobody can when or where they will happen.

predict

d.

A few decades ago, Earth became the target of random violent events originating in outer space.

12.

50

According to the passage, who conducted investigations about the current dangers posed by large meteorite impacts on Earth? a.

Paleontologists

b.

Geologists

c.

The United

d.

NASA

Go anywhere from

here.

States Congress

1

Appendix

13.

Look

at the four letters (A, B, C,

1

:

and D)

that indicate

is

Test Prep

where the

following sentence could be added to the passage in paragraph

This

TOEFL PLANNER

Sample Questions

6.

the criterion emphasized by Darwin’s theory of

evolution by natural selection.

Where would

the sentence best

fit?

Impacts by meteorites represent one mechanism that could cause global catastrophes and seriously influence the evolution of

over the planet. (A) According to extinctions of species

may be due

some

life all

estimates, the majority of

to such impacts. (B)

all

Such a

perspective fundamentally changes our view of biological evolution.

(C)

The standard

criterion for the survival of a species

is its

success

competing with other species and adapting to slowly changing environments. (D) Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to survive random global ecological catastrophes due to in

impacts.

Choose the place where

the sentence

fits best.

A

a.

Option

b.

Option B

c.

Option

C

d.

Option

D

Go anywhere from

here.

5

Appendix

TOEFLs PLANNER

1

:

Sample Questions

Prep

14.

An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. provided below. Complete the

Write your answer choices in the spaces where they belong. write in the

number of

You can

the answer choice or the whole sentence.

Answer choices (1)

Scientists

had believed for centuries on Earth.

that meteorite activity

influenced evolution

(2)

The

site

of the large meteorite impact

at the

end of the Cretaceous

period was identified in 1990.

(3)

There have also been large meteorite impacts on the surface of the

Moon, (4)

leaving craters like Tycho.

An iridium-enriched sediment layer and a large impact crater in the Yucatan provide evidence that a large meteorite struck Earth about 65 million years ago.

(5)

Large meteorite impacts, such as one

at the

end of the Cretaceous and

period, can seriously affect climate, ecological niches, plants,

animals.

(6)

Meteorite impacts can be advantageous for some species, which thrive,

52

Go anywhere from

here.

)

and disastrous

for other species,

which become

extinct.

Appendix

1 : 1:

Sample Questions

TOEFLesmep

PLANNER

1. Key

to

Reading Section:

d 7. 2.

c

3.

c

4.

b

5.

a

6.

c

8.

10.

b b b

11.

a

12.

d d

c

9.

13.

14. 4, 5,

6

Go anywhere from

here.

53

Appendix iTest

1

:

Sample Questions

Prep

PLANNER Listening Section

Directions:

The Listening

section measures your ability to understand conversations

lectures in English. In this sample,

you

and

read one conversation and one lecture and

will

answer questions after each conversation or lecture. The questions typically ask about the main idea and supporting details. Some questions'ask about a speaker’s purpose or attitude. Answer the questions based on what is stated or implied by the speakers. Most questions are worth one point. If a question is worth more than one point, it will have special directions that indicate how many points you can receive. •

In an actual

you

test,

will

be able to take notes while you

listen

and use your notes

to

help you answer the questions. Your notes will not be scored.

CONVERSATION TRANSCRIPT (Narrator) Listen to a conversation between a student and her basketball coach and then

answer the questions.

(Male coach) Hi, Elizabeth. (Female student) Hey, Coach.

I

just thought I’d stop

by to see what

I

missed while

I

was gone. I’ve (Male coach) Well, we’ve been working real hard on our plan for the next game asked Susan to go over it with you before practice this afternoon, so you’ll know what .

.

.

we’re doing.

(Female student) Okay.

(Male coach) By the way, how did your brother’s wedding go? (Female student) Oh, uncles

and cousins

(Male coach) So (Female student) about that.

it

I

it

was

beautiful.

And

the whole family

was

there. I

saw aunts and

hadn’t seen in years.

was worth the

Oh definitely.

trip.

I’m sorry

I

had to miss

practice, though.

I

feel

(Male coach) Family’s very important. (Female student) Yep. Okay,

54

Go anywhere from

here.

I

guess

I’ll

see

you

this

afternoon

at practice, then.

bad

.

Appendix

1

TOEFL PLANNER

Sample Questions

:

(Male coach) Just a minute. There are a couple of other things

I

Test Prep

need to

tell

you.

(Female student) Oh, okay.

(Male coach)

Uh

.

.

everybody’s getting a

First,

.

(Female student) Wow.

new team jacket.

How did that happen?

(Male coach) A woman who played here about 20, 25 years ago came through town a few weeks ago and saw a game, and said she wanted to do something for the team, so

.

.

(Female student) So she’s buying us new jackets?

(Male coach) Yep. (Female student)

Wow,

that’s really nice

of

her.

(Male coach) Yes, it is. It’s great that former players still care so much about our school and our basketball program Anyway you need to fill out an order form. I’ll give it to you now, and you can bring it back this afternoon. I’ve got the forms from the other players, so as soon as I get yours we can order. Maybe we’ll have the jackets by the .

.

next game.

(Female student)

OK.

(Male coach) Great.

And

the next thing

half of the season.

And the

is,

someone

college next week, so we’ll need

you know Mary’s transferring to another

to take over her role as captain for the second

other players unanimously picked you to take over as captain

when Mary leaves. (Female student)

Wow.

I

saw everybody

(Male coach) They wanted (Female student)

this

me to tell you.

Of course! But

Susan’s a

morning, and nobody said a word.

So,

do you accept?

much better player than I am. I’m

really

surprised they didn’t pick her.

(Male coach) They think you’re the (Female student)

make

sure

we

(Male coach)

Okay

... I guess

right one. You’ll have to ask

one of the

first

things

I’ll

them

their thoughts.

have to do as captain

is

get a thank-you card out to the lady who’s buying us the jackets.

Good idea.

(Female student)

I

have her address here somewhere.

And I’ll make

sure the whole

team

signs

it.

Go anywhere from

here.

55

.

Appendix

TOEFL. PLANNER

1

:

Sample Questions

Prep

(Male coach) Good. That’s you that order form.

1

2.

3.

What are the

all

the news there

is. I

think that’s

it

for now.

Oh,

let

speakers mainly discussing?

a.

How the woman should prepare for the next game

b.

The woman’s

c.

Things that happened while the

d.

The

style

responsibilities as

of the

team captain

woman was away

new team uniforms

Who is buying new jackets for the team? a.

The coach

b.

The captain of

c.

A former player

d.

A group of basketball fans

the

team

There are two answers for the next question.

Mark two

answers.

Why is the woman surprised to learn that she has been chosen as the new team captain?

56

not the best player on the team.

a.

She

b.

Her teammates did not

c.

She does not have many friends on the team.

d.

She has missed a

Go anywhere from

is

D

here.

lot

tell

her about the decision.

of practices.

me get

Appendix

4.

Read part of

1

the conversation again.

(Female student) I’m sorry about that.

I

had

:

TOEFL PLANNER

Sample Questions

Then answer

Test Prep

the question.

to miss practice, though.

I

feel

bad

(Male coach) Family’s very important.

What does

5.

the

man mean when he says:

“Family’s very important.”

a.

He hopes

b.

He would like to meet the woman’s family.

c.

The woman should spend more time with her family.

d.

The woman had a good reason

the

woman’s family

Why does the coach say: “Good. that’s

it

for

is

doing

well.

for missing practice.

That’s

all

the news there

is. I

think

now.”

a.

He wants to know if the woman understood his point.

b.

He wants the woman to

c.

He

is

preparing to change the topic.

d.

He

is

ready to end the conversation.

act immediately.

Go anywhere from

here.

57

— Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

Test Prep

PLANNER

LECTURE TRANSCRIPT (Narrator) Listen to part of a lecture in a literature class.

(Male professor) Today

I’d like to

some

introduce you to a novel that

finest detective novel ever written. It

was

also the

first.

critics

consider the

We’re talking about The

Moonstone by Wilkie Collins. Now, there are other detective stories that preceded The Moonstone historically Um, notably the work of Poe Edgar Allen Poe’s stories, “The Purloined Letter.” Now these such as “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” and uh, probably the first to do that. But The were short stories that featured a detective Moonstone which follows them by about twenty years it was published in 1868 this



.

.

.

.

the

Now,

first





what’s interesting

is

uh, come to it as a contemporary reader if you read it as most of the features you find in almost any detective novel are Uh, its hard at this juncture to read this novel and realize that no

one had ever done that wonderful novel and

Um,

.

.

.

that

in fact already present.

it.



full-length detective novel ever written.

The Moonstone

in

.

.

,

is

.

.

.

I

before, because

recommend

so in The Moonstone as ,

I

it,

it

all

seems so strikingly

familiar.

even just as a fun book to read,

said, Collins did

much

It’s, it’s

really a

you’ve never read

if

to establish the conventions of

gonna go into the plot at length, but, you know, the basic setdiamond of great ... of great value, a country house, the diamond

the detective genre. I’m not

up

is ..

there’s this

.

mysteriously disappears in the middle of the night, uh, the local police are brought

an attempt to solve the crime, and they mess the

book

arrives. That’s

it

up completely, and then

in, in

the true hero of

Sergeant Cuff.

well, let me try to give you a by first describing the regular police. And this is the dynamic that you’re going to see throughout the history of the detective novel, where you have the regular cops who are well-meaning, but officious and bumblingly inept and they are countered by a figure who’s eccentric, analytical, brilliant, and and able to solve the crime. So, first the regular police get called in to solve the mystery Um, in this

Now,

Cuff, this extraordinarily important character

sense of

who

Sergeant Cuff

.

.

.

is,





.

.

.



case, detective, uh,

Superintendent Seegrave.

When

Superintendent Seegrave comes

in,

he orders his minions around, they bumble, and they actually make a mess of the investigation,

which

you’ll see repeated

particularly in the Sherlock

Holmes

Lestrade, this well-meaning idiot,

is

—um,

stories

you’ll see this pattern repeated,

of a few years

later where, uh, Inspector

always countered, uh, by Sherlock Holmes, who’s

a genius.

now Cuff arrives. Cuff is the man

who’s coming to solve the mystery, and again he of the characteristics that future detectives throughout the history of this genre in this ... in his will have. He’s eccentric. He has a hobby that he’s obsessive about case, it’s the love of roses. He’s a fanatic about the breeding of roses; and here think of So,

has a

lot



Nero Wolfe and

his orchids, Sherlock

Holmes and

his violin, a lot

detective heroes have this kind of outside interest that they

antidote to the evil and misery they encounter in their daily

58

Go anywhere from here.

)

.

.

.

of those

later classic

they go to as a kind of

lives.

At one

point, Cuff says

Appendix

he

likes his roses

1:

TOEFL PLANNER

Sample Questions

Test Prep

because they offer solace, uh, an escape, from the world of crime he

typically operates in.

Now,

these detective heroes

.

.

.

they have this characteristic of being smart, incredibly And most importantly, from a kind of existential

smart, but of not appearing to be smart.

point of view, these detectives see things that other people do not detective

is

such an important



figure, I think, in

our

see.

And that’s why the

modem imagination.



In the case of

The Moonstone I don’t want to say too much here and spoil it for you but the clue that’s key to the solving of the crime is a smeared bit of paint in a doorway. Of course, the regular police have missed this paint smear or made some sort of unwarranted assumption .

.

.



about it. Cuff sees this smear of paint this paint, the place where the paint is smeared and realizes that from this one smear of paint you can actually deduce the whole situation ... the whole world. And that’s what the hero in a detective novel like



this

.

.

.

brings to

it



that the other characters don’t

where others see no meaning and to bring order

6.

7.

What

is

this ability to, uh, see

it’s

... to

where

it

is

meaning no order.

the lecture mainly about?

a.

A comparison of two types of detective novels

b.

Ways

c.

The Moonstone as a model for

d.

Flaws that can be found in the plot of The Moonstone

In what

seems there

in

which detective novels have changed over time

way is The Moonstone

a.

In

its

unusual ending

b.

In

its

unique characters

c.

In

its

focus

d.

In

its

greater length

on a

later detective novels

different

from

earlier

works featuring a detective?

serious crime

Go anywhere from

here.

59

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

Test Prep

PLANNER 8.

According to the professor, what do roses

The Moonstone represent?

a.

A key clue that leads to the solving of the mystery

b.

A relief and comfort to the detective

c.

Romance between

d. Brilliant ideas that

9.

in

the

main characters

occur to the detective

Why does the professor mention a smeared bit of paint in a doorway in The Moonstone ?

10.

a.

To

b.

To show how

c.

To exemplify a

d.

To

describe a mistake that Sergeant Cuff has

realistically the

What can be

author describes the crime scene

pattern repeated in

illustrate the superior

made

many

other detective stories

techniques used by the police

inferred about the professor

when he

says this:

“Uh,

it’s

hard

at this

juncture to read this novel and realize that no one had ever done that before,

because

60

it all

seems so strikingly familiar.”

a.

He is impressed by the novel’s originality.

b.

He is concerned that

c.

He is bored by the novel’s descriptions of ordinary events.

d.

He

Go anywhere from here.

is

eager to write a

students

may find

book about a less

the novel difficult to read.

familiar subject.

1

Appendix

1:

Sample Questions

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

v 1 1

What does the professor imply when he says this: well, let me try to sense of who Sergeant Cuff is. by first describing the regular police.*’ .

.

give

a.

Sergeant Cuff

b.

The

c.

Sergeant Cuff learned to solve crimes by observing the regular police.

is

unlike other characters in The Moonstone.

author's description of Sergeant Cuff

d. Differences

you a

is

very

realistic.

between Sergeant Cuff and Sherlock Holmes are hard to describe.

8.

Key

to Listening section:

1.

c

2.

c

3. a.

5.

d d

6.

c

4.

7.

b

d b

9.

c

10.

a

11.

a

Go anywhere from

here.

6

Appendix iTest

1

Sample Questions

:

Prep

PLANNER

Speaking Section

Directions:

The Speaking

section in the test measures your ability to speak about a

variety of topics.

In questions



1

and

2, in

an actual

test,

your response

speak clearly and coherently about familiar

will

be scored on your

ability to

topics.

you will first read a short text and then listen to to combine appropriate information from the text and the talk to provide a complete answer. Your response will be scored on your ability to accurately convey information, and to speak clearly and coherently. In this sampler, you will read both the text and the talk. In questions 3 and 4, in an actual



a talk on the same topic.



test,

You will have

will

and 6, in an actual test, you will listen to part of a conversation or Then, you will be asked a question about what you have heard. Your response be scored on your ability to accurately convey information, and to speak clearly

and

coherently. In this sampler,

In questions 5 lecture.

In an actual



test,

the conversations

you

will

read the conversation.

you will be able to take notes while you read and while you listen to and talks. You may use your notes to help prepare your responses.

Preparation and response times for an actual



with

disabilities

may

test are

noted in

this text.

Sample candidate responses and score explanations can be found



Candidates

request time extensions.

in the online version

of the sampler. The scoring rubric used to score actual responses can be found on the

TOEFL® website’s “Download

1

.

Library” page.

Talk about a pleasant and memorable event that happened while you were in school. Explain why this event brings back fond memories. Preparation Time: 15 seconds

Response Time: 45 seconds 2.

it is more fun to spend time with friends in restaurants or cafes. more fun to spend time with friends at home. Which do you

Some people

think

Others think

it is

think

is

better? Explain why.

Preparation Time: 15 seconds

Response Time: 45 seconds

62

Go anywhere from here.

Appendix

3.

Read

the following text

1:

TOEFL PLANNER

Sample Questions

and the conversation

that follows

it.

Test Prep

Then, answer the

question.

The Northfield College Student Association recently decided to make a new purchase. Read the following announcement in the college newspaper about the decision. (Reading time in an actual test would be 45-50 seconds.)

Good News

for

Movie Fans

The Student Association has just purchased a new sound system for the Old Lincoln Hall auditorium, the place where movies on campus are currently shown. By installing the new sound system, the Student Association hopes to attract more students to the movies and increase ticket sales. Before making the purchase of the new equipment, the Student Association conducted a survey on campus to see what kind of entertainment students liked best. Going to the movies ranked number one. “Students at Northfield College love going to the movies” said the president of the Student Association, “so we decided to

make what

they already love even better. We’re confident that the investment into the

sound system

will translate into increased ticket sales.”

(Male student)

I

really think the

(Female student) Really?

(Male student) Sure (Female student)

I

do.

Student Association

made

Why? Don’t you like going to But

this

a bad decision.

the movies?

new purchase is just a waste of money.

What do you mean?

It’s

supposed to sound

really

good.

(Male student) Yeah, well, I’m sure it does, but, in Old Lincoln Hall? I mean that building must be 200 years old! It used to be the college gym! The acoustics are terrible. (Female student) So you’re saying

there’ll

be no improvement?

(Male student) That’s right. And also, I seriously doubt that going to the movies number one social activity for most students. (Female student) Yeah, but

that’s

(Male student) Well, of course (Female student)

what students

that’s

what they

is

the

said.

said.

What

else is there to

do on campus?

What do you mean?

Go anywhere from

here.

63

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

Test Prep

PLANNER

(Male student) I mean, there isn’t much to do on campus besides go to the movies. If there were other forms of, uh recreation, or other social activities, you know, I don’t think most students would have said that going to the movies was their first choice. Question:

The man

expresses his opinion of the Student Association’s recent purchase.

State his opinion

and explain the reasons he

gives for holding that opinion.

Preparation Time: 30 seconds Response Time: 60 seconds

4.

Read a passage from a psychology textbook and the lecture that follows it. Then answer the question. (Reading time in an actual test would be 45-50 seconds.)

Flow In psychology, the feeling of complete and energized focus in an activity

People

who

enter a state of flow lose their sense of time

and have a

is

called flow.

feeling of great

They become completely involved in an activity for its own sake rather than what may result from the activity, such as money or prestige. Contrary to expectation, flow usually happens not during relaxing moments of leisure and entertainment, but satisfaction.

for

when we

are actively involved in a difficult enterprise, in a task that stretches our mental

or physical

abilities.

(Male professor) I think this will help you get a picture of what your textbook is describing. I had a friend who taught in the physics department, Professor Jones, he this was a few years ago ... I remember retired last year. Anyway, I remember passing by a classroom early one morning just as he was leaving, and he looked terrible: his clothes were all rumpled, and he looked like he hadn’t slept all night. And I asked if he was OK. I was surprised when he said that he never felt better, that he was totally happy. He had spent the entire night in the classroom working on a mathematics puzzle. He didn’t stop to eat dinner; he didn’t stop to sleep ... or even rest. He was that involved in solving the puzzle. And it didn’t even have anything to do with his teaching or research; he had just come across this puzzle accidentally, I think in a mathematics journal, and it just really interested him, so he worked furiously all night and covered the blackboards in the classroom with equations and numbers and never realized that time was passing by. .

.

.

.

Question: Explain flow and

how

Preparation Time: 30 seconds

Response Time: 60 seconds

64

Go anywhere from

here.

.

.

the example used by the professor illustrates the concept.

.

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

TOEFL,.

Prep

PLANNER

5.

Read

the following conversation between two students

and then answer

the question.

(Female student) How’s the calculus class going? You’re doing better?

(Male student) Not really. I just can’t get the hang of it. There’re so many functions and formulas to memorize, you know? And the final It’s only a few weeks away. I’m really worried about doing well. .

(Female student)

Oh

.

.

.

You know, you should go

.

.

to the tutoring

program and ask

for

help.

(Male student) You mean,

Mathematics building?

in the

(Female student) Ya. Get a tutor there. Most tutors are doctoral students in the math

program. They tell

you what to

(Male student)

know what they’re talking about, and study, how to prepare, all of that.

I

(Female student)

know about that program

Of course. You

.

.

.

for the final test,

but doesn’t

it

cost

you know, they’d

money?

have to register and pay by the hour

.

.

.

But they’ve got

all

the answers.

(Male student)

Hmm

.

.

(Female student) Another option, That won’t cost you any money.

guess,

I

is

to

form a study group with other

students.

(Male student) That’s a thought although once I was in a study group, and it was a big waste of time. We usually ended up talking about other stuff like what we did over the weekend. .

.

.

class, right? I’ve actually had some pretty good experiences with study groups. Usually students in the same class have different strengths and weaknesses with the material ... if they’re serious about studying, they can really help each other out. Think about it.

(Female student) But that was for a different

Question: Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. solution

you would recommend. Explain the reasons

for

Then

state

which

your recommendation.

Preparation Time: 20 seconds

Response Time: 60 seconds

Go anywhere from

here.

65

a

.

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

Test Prep

PLANNER 6.

Read part of a

lecture in a biology course

and then answer the question.

Human beings aren’t the only animals that use tools.

(Female professor)

It’s

generally

recognized that other animals use tools as well ... use them naturally, in the wild,

without any human instruction. But when can we say that an object is a tool? Well, it depends on your definition of a tool. J^nd in fact, there are two competing definitions narrow definition and a broad one. The narrow definition says that a tool is an object but not iust any object. To be a tool, according that’s used to perform a specific task to the narrow definition, the object’s gotta be purposefully changed or shaped by the animal, or human, so that it can be used that way. It’s an object that’s made Wild chimpanzees use sticks to dig insects out of their nests but most sticks lying around they might be too thick, for example. So the sticks have to be won’t do the job sharpened so they’ll fit into the hole in an ant hill or the insect nest. The chimp pulls off the leaves and chews the stick and trims it down that way until it’s the right size. The chimp doesn’t just find the stick it you could say it makes it in a way.



.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

But the broad definition says an object doesn’t have to be modified to be considered a tool. definition says a tool is any object that’s used to perform a specific task. For example, an elephant will sometimes use a stick to scratch its back it just picks up a stick from the ground and scratches its back with it ... It doesn’t modify the stick, it uses it just as it’s found. And it’s a tool, under the broad definition, but under the narrow definition it’s not because, well, the elephant doesn’t change it in any way.

The broad

.

.

.

Question: Using points and examples from the talk, describe the two different definitions of tools given

Preparation Time: 20 seconds

Response Time: 60 seconds

66

Go anywhere from here.

by the professor.

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

TOEFL,.,

J

PLANNER

Writing Section

Directions:

These sample tasks

in the

Writing section measure your

ability to write in

English in an academic environment. There will be 2 writing tasks. •

For the first task in this sampler, you will read a passage and part of a lecture about an academic topic. Then you will write a response to a question that asks you about the relationship between the lecture and the reading passage. Try to answer the question as completely as possible using information from the reading passage and the lecture. The question does not ask you to express your personal opinion. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture



and

their relationship to the reading passage.

For the second task, you

will

demonstrate your

ability to write

an essay

in response to

a question that asks you to express and support your opinion about a topic or

issue.

be scored on the quality of your writing. This includes the development of your ideas, the organization of your essay, and the quality and accuracy of the language you use to express your ideas.

Your essay





will

At

the end of the writing section, in this sampler you will find two sample essays for each question, the score they received, and an explanation of how they were scored. In an actual

test,

you

will

be able to take notes while you

help you answer the questions.

listen

and use your notes to

Appendix

1:

Sample Questions

Test Prep

PLANNER 1

.

Read

the following passage

and the

lecture

which

follows. In

an actual

test,

you

will

have 3 minutes to read the passage. Then, answer the question. In the test, you will have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.

READING PASSAGE Critics say that current voting systems used in the United States are inefficient and often lead to the inaccurate counting of votes. Miscounts can be especially damaging if an election is closely contested. Those critics would like the traditional systems to be replaced with far more efficient and trustworthy computerized voting systems. In traditional voting, one major source of inaccuracy is that people accidentally vote for the wrong candidate. Voters usually have to find the name of their candidate on a large sheet of paper containing many names the ballot and make a small mark next to that name. People with poor eyesight can easily mark the wrong name. The computerized voting machines have an easy-to-use touch-screen technology: to cast a vote, a voter needs only to touch the candidate’s name on the screen to record a vote for that candidate; voters can even have the computer magnify the name for easier viewing. Another major problem with old voting systems is that they rely heavily on people to count the votes. Officials must often count up the votes one by one, going through every ballot and recording the vote. Since they have to deal with thousands of ballots, it is almost inevitable that they will make mistakes. If an error is detected, a long and expensive recount has to take place. In contrast, computerized systems remove the possibility of human error, since all the vote counting is done quickly and automatically by the computers. Finally some people say it is too risky to implement complicated voting technology nationwide. But without giving it a thought, governments and individuals alike trust other complex computer technology every day to be perfectly accurate in banking transactions as well as in the communication of highly sensitive information.





LECTURE TRANSCRIPT (Narrator)

Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.

(Female professor) While traditional voting systems have some problems, it’s doubtful that computerized voting will make the situation any better. Computerized voting may

what about people who aren’t? them on a regular basis these people will have trouble using computerized voting machines. These voters can easily cast the wrong vote or be discouraged from voting altogether because of fear of technology. Furthermore, it’s true that humans make mistakes when they count up ballots by hand. But are we sure that computers will do a better job? After all, computers are

seem easy People

68

for people

who

Go anywhere from

here.

who

are used to computers. But

can’t afford computers, people

who

don’t use



Appendix

programmed by humans, so “human

1

TOEFL PLANNER

Sample Questions

:

error” can

show up

in

Test Prep

mistakes in their programs.

And the errors caused by these defective programs may be far more serious. The worst a human official can do is miss a few ballots. But an error in a computer program can result thousands of votes being miscounted or even permanently removed from the record. there is no physical record of the votes, so a computer recount in the case of a suspected error is impossible! As for our trust of computer technology for banking and communications, remember one thing: these systems are used daily and they are used heavily. They didn’t work flawlessly when they were first in

And in many voting systems,

introduced.

They had

to be

improved on and improved on

until they got as reliable as

they are today. But voting happens only once every two years nationally in the United States

and not much more than twice a year

for us to develop confidence that

Question:

2.

Read

in

many local

the question below. In a real

test,

you

will

your essay. Candidates with disabilities Typically, an effective response will contain a

is

hardly sufficient

fully trusted.

Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure oppose specific points made in the reading passage.

revise

Question:

areas. This

computerized voting can be

to explain

how

they

have 30 minutes to plan, write, and

may request a time extension. minimum of 300 words.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

A teacher’s ability to relate well with students is more important than excellent

Use

knowledge of the subject being taught.

specific reasons

and examples

to support your answer.

Go anywhere from

here.

69

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

Test Prep

PLANNER

Sample responses Below are candidates’ responses exemplifying scores of 5 and 4 to score actual responses can be found

The scoring guides used

for in

both Writing

Appendix

3

tasks.

and

4.

QUESTION 1, RESPONSE A, SCORE OF 5 The

lecture explained

why

the computerized voting system can not replace the traditional

voting system. There are the following three reasons. First of

all,

not everyoen one can use computers correctly.

access to computers,

scared of this

new

you expect them

some people

technology. If

Some people do

not have

and some people are even the voters do not know how to use a computer, how do are not used of computers,

to finish the voting process through computers? This directly refutes the

reading passage which states that computerized voting

is

easier

by just touching the

screen.

may make mistakes as the people do. As computers are human beings, thus erros are inevitable in the computer system. Problems caused by computer voting systems may be more serious than those caused by Secondly, computers

programmed by people.

the

A larger number of votes might be miss counted or even removed from the

system. Furthermore, contradicts what

is

it

would take more energy to recount the votes. Again this which stated that only people will make mistakes

stated in the reading

in counting.

Thirdly, computerized voting system status.

is

not reliable because

it

has not reached a stable

People trust computers to conduct banking transactions because the computerized

banking system

is

being used daily and frecuently and has been

stable.

How ever, the

voting does not happen as often as banking thus the computerized voting system has not

been proved to be

totally reliable.

all, not everyone can use a computer properly, computer cause mistakes and computerized voting system is not reliable are the main reasons why computerized voting system can not replace the traditional voting system.

All in

Score explanation This response points

made

is

well organized, selects the important information

in the lecture,

and explains

its

relationship to the claims

made

from

all

three

in the reading

passage about the advantages of computerized voting over traditional voting methods. First, it counters the argument that computerized voting is more user-friendly and prevents distortion of the vote by saying that

some voters may end up not voting

70

Go anywhere from

here.

j

at

all.

many voters find computers

unfamiliar and

1

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

Second, it challenges the argument that computerized voting will result in fewer miscounts by pointing out that programming errors may result in large-scale miscounts and that

some

errors

may

result in the loss

of voting records.

comparison of computerized voting with computerized banking by pointing out that the reliability of computerized banking (“reached a stable status”) has been achieved though frequent use, which does not apply to voting. There are occasional minor language errors: for example, “people not used of computers”; “miss counted”; “computer cause mistakes”; and the poor syntax of the last Third,

it

sentence (“All in

rejects the

all

errors, however, are

.

.

.

”).

not at

Some all

spelling errors are obviously typos: “everyoen.”

The

frequent and do not result in unclear or inaccurate

representation of the content.

The response meets

all

the criteria for the score of

5.

Go anywhere from

here.

7

Appendix iTest

1

:

Sample Questions

Prep

PLANNERJ QUESTION

1,

RESPONSE B, SCORE OF 4

The leture disgreed with the article’s opinions. computerized voting systems.

It’s

not a better solution to use the

might be hard for the voters wlio don’t use the computer so often, or the users some of voters can not aford a computer. Touch screen may also be hard to use for people who is not familiar with computers. Secondly, computer is programmed by human beings, which means it can also have errors. Instead of human being’s counting error, which only results one or two counting error in number, an errror in the program code could cause tramendous error in number. In case of the computer crash or disaster, it may lost all the voting information. We can not even to make a re-count. Lastly, our daily banking or other highly sensitive infomation system, is actually improved as time goes by. They were also problematic at the beginning. As we use them so often, we have more chances to find problems, and furturemore, to fix and improve them. However, for the voting system, we only use them every 2 years nationally and some other rare events. We just don’t use it often enough to find a bug or Firstly,

who

test

is

it

it

fear of the technology, even

thoroughly.

Score explanation

The response indicates that

it

selects

most of the important information from the lecture and main argument in the reading passage about the

challenges the

advantages of computerized voting systems First, the

friendly; however,

it

fails to relate this clearly

computerized voting is

(“it’s

not a better solution”).

response explains that some people will not find computers to be userwill

to the point

made in

prevent distortion of the vote. That

is

the passage that

clearly

an omission, but

it

minor.

Second, the response does a good job of pointing out

how programming and

errors can cause greater problems than miscounts cause in the traditional voting system.

how the frequent use of banking system has contributed to such systems’ reliability, and then it contrasts that with the computerized voting system. There are more frequent language errors throughout the response for example, “users who is fear”; “some of voters can not aford”; “people who is not familiar”; “it may lost”; and “can not even to make.” Expressions chosen by the writer occasionally affect the clarity of the content that is being conveyed: “results one or two counting error in number ... an errror in the program code could cause tramendous error in number” and “use them every 2 years nationally and some other rare events.” However, it should be noted that in these cases, a reader can derive the intended meaning from the context. Due to the more frequent language errors that on occasion result in minor lapses of clarity and due to minor content omission, especially in the coverage of the first lecture point, the response cannot earn the score of 5. At the same time, since the language errors are generally minor and mostly do not interfere with the clarity of the content and since most of the important information from the lecture is covered by the writer, the response deserves a higher score than 3. It meets the criteria for the score of 4. Third, the response provides a nice explanation of

systems

like the



72

Go anywhere from

here.

)

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

TOEFL. PLANNER Prep

QUESTION 2, RESPONSE A, SCORE OF 5 I

remember every teacher

friend wants to

that has taught

know who our first grade

me since I was in

Kindergarten. If a

teacher was in elementary school,

all

they have

looked very kind and understanding in my eyes as a child. They had special relationships with nearly each and every one of the students and were very nice to everyone. That’s the reason I remember all of them. A teacher’s primary goal is to teach students the best they can about the things to

do

is

ask me. The teachers

that are in our textbooks

teach us

how to

live

all

and more important, how to show respect for one another. They life by getting along with everyone. In order to do that, the

a better

teachers themselves have to be able to relate well with students.

My parents are teachers too. One teaches Plant Biology and one teaches English, but that’s not the reason I’m calling them “teachers.”

They

are teachers beacuse they

me how to act in special situations and how to cooperate with others. I have a brother, and my parents use different aproaches when teaching us. They might scold my

teach

much self-control and own and is always either

brother for surfing the internet too long because he doesn’t have they need to restrain him.

He almost never studies on

drawing, playing computer games, or reading.

his

On the other hand,

they never

tell

me off

computer too long. I do my own work when I want and need to because that brings me the best results and my parents understand that. They know that I need leisure time of my own and that I’ll only play until needed. My parents’ ability to relate well with my brother and I allows them to teach, not just the subject they teach but also their excellent knowledge on life. Knowlegde of the subject being taught is something taken for granted, but at the same time, secondary. One must go through and pass a series of courses and tests in order to become a teacher. Any teacher is able to have excellent knowledge of their subject but not all teachers can have the ability to relate well with students. A teacher’s primary goal is to teach students the best they can about how to show respect for one another, so teachers use different approaches when teaching, and knowledge of the subjet being taught is secondary. For these reasons, I claim with confidence that excellent knowledge of the subject being taught is secondary to the for using the

teacher’s ability to relate well with their students.

Score explanation This essay conveys the idea that as important as teaching knowledge is, it is as if not more important for teachers to possess other qualities, all of which the

important

writer classifies as necessary for being able to relate well with students.

Those other

qualities include having “special relationships” with students; the teaching of respect (in

the

first

two paragraphs); and taking

different

approaches for different individuals. The

and whose special qualities in raising the writer and the writer’s brother had to do more with taking varied approaches. The writer then goes on to convey that knowledge is a given “something

writer develops the last idea primarily by using a clearly appropriate extended

complex example of the

writer’s

own

parents,

who

are teachers but



Go anywhere from

here.

73

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

Test Prep

PLANNER

taken for granted” but not

—because

all

teachers take course

work and pass

tests to

have the qualities the writer considers more important. This response very effectively addresses the topic and the task.

gain their jobs

all

It is

true that this

from most essays: the overall idea is stated explicitly but only at the end of the essay. However, because of very good language structure and good conceptual transitions between ideas, the reader is able to follow the writer’s development of ideas without becoming confused. The response is thus seen to be well organized. Errors in language are almost nonexistent here. This response meets all of the 5-level criteria from response

is

different

the Scoring Guide.

74

Go anywhere from

here.

)

Appendix

1

:

Sample Questions

TOEFLes,

Prep

PLANNER

QUESTION 2, RESPONSE B, SCORE OF 4 I

disagree with the idea that the possessing the ability to relate well with student

more important than excellent knowledge of the are several reasons why I disagree with that idea. First, teachers’ job is to

is

subject being taught for a teacher. There

educate their student with their knowledge.

The

ability to

something a counselor should possess, not a teacher. That’s why the board of education gives an award to a teacher with an excellent knowledge of the subject they teach. Teachers who can get along with their students but have no knowledge can be popular and be liked by his or her students, however I don’t consider a teacher with no knowledge a good teacher. Second, Students go to schools because they want to learn knowledge from their relate well

with their student

is

I knew a math teacher who was well known Some students always complained how he never entertains his students which made many of his students to fall asleep. Nevertheless, all of his classes were all full even before the semester began because many students who were eager to learn already booked in. He won the Apples prize (it’s given to a noticed

teachers not to get along with their teachers.

among other mathematics

teachers.

teacher annually) a couple of times and that enabled students to firmly believe in his

way

of teaching.

knowledge to their next had an experience of getting advantaged education from college. Teachers should not let that previlege become useless and workless. We all learn because we want to become the better person that this world needs. Students will also eventually grow up to be influencing other people and teachers should volunteerily be Thirdly, teachers are responsible for conceding their

generation. Teachers already

their students’ role models.

excellent

For conclusion, I think the most important quality a teacher must have is an knowledge of the subject they teach, not an ability to relate well with their

students.

Score explanation This is a more traditional-looking essay that is organized with a point of view in paragraph stating the writer’s disagreement with the writing prompt, followed by three pieces of supporting reasons and examples. the

first

The second paragraph makes the point that counselors are the ones who are relate to students and that teachers with no knowledge are not worthwhile

supposed to

as

teachers.

In the third paragraph the writer tries to describe the fact that knowledge is important by stating that students wanted to take courses from a teacher who was known

knowledge even though they knew the teacher was not entertaining. The fourth paragraph contains the very interesting idea that teachers have the obligation to pass on what they have had the privilege of learning, but this paragraph in particular has a few problems with somewhat unclear expression of concepts: (1) errors of word choice in the word “conceding” (not clear exactly what word is intended here) and in the term “‘advantaged’ education” (advanced education or advantages of to possess special

Go anywhere from

here.

75

Appendix

TOEFL PLANNER

1

:

Sample Questions

Test Prep

education?) and (2) a problem with unclear connection of ideas (why is it said that all learn because we want to become the better person that this world needs?”). Overall, this essay

and the language chosen, rising

76

above the 4

Go anywhere from here.

j

level.

is

“We

well organized, but the slightly unclear connection of ideas

especially in the final paragraph, prevent this response

from

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

Sample Score Report Here’s a

sample score

report.

also provide performance

It

includes scaled scores for

feedback on

all

four

skills.

all

The reports shows only the

four sections.

Note: This sample

performance feedback for Reading and Listening.

^

Go anywhere from

here.

77

Appendix

TOEFL

2:

Sample Score Report

PLANNER Speaking

Speaking about Familiar Topics

Your Performance

Limited

Your responses indicate some difficulty speaking in English about everyday experiences and opinions. Listeners sometimes have trouble understanding you because of noticeable problems with pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. While you are able to respond partially to the questions, you are not able to fully develop your ideas, possibly due to limited vocabulary and grammar.

(1

.5-2.0)

Fair

Speaking about

Campus

Level

Skills

Situations

(2. 5-3.0)

Your responses demonstrate an ability to speak in English about reading material and experiences encountered by university students. You are able to convey relevant information about conversations, newspaper articles, and campus bulletins; however, some details are missing or inaccurate. Limitations of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation at times cause difficulty for the listener. However, they do not seriously interfere with overall communication.

typically

your responses, you are able to use English to

talk about the basic ideas from academic reading or you include few relevant or accurate details. It is sometimes difficult understand your responses because of problems with grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. Overall, you are able to respond in a general way to the questions, but the amount of information in your responses is limited and the expression of ideas is often vague and unclear. In

Speaking about

Limited

Academic Course

lecture materials, but, in general,

for

listeners to

(1. 5-2.0)

Content

Your Performance

Level

Writing Skills

You responded

based on Reading and

Writing

Fair (2. 5-3. 5)

Listening

to the task, relating the lecture to the reading, but your response indicates weaknesses such as • an important idea or ideas may be missing, unclear, or inaccurate; • there may be unclarity in how the lecture and the reading passage are related; and/or grammatical mistakes or vague/incorrect uses of words may make the writing difficult to understand. •

You expressed Fair (2. 5-3.5)

Experience

you may not provide enough specific support and development for your main points; your ideas may be difficult to follow because of how you organize your essay or because of the language you use to connect your ideas; and/or grammatical mistakes or vague/incorrect uses of words may make the writing difficult to understand.

• •



THIS

ideas with reasons, examples, and details, but your response indicated weaknesses such

as

based on Knowledge and

Writing

IS

THE ONLY PERSONAL RECORD YOU WILL RECEIVE. PLEASE RETAIN FOR YOUR RECORDS.

This score report provides both section scores and a total score. An analysis of your strengths and weaknesses in English is included. The level pertaining to each skill should not be generalized beyond the performance on this test. Skill levels and their associated descriptions are not intended for b^|i^|£l ffl^s |ou hfPfTanted permission. use by colleges as part of their admission criteria

Code Numbers: The code numbers on this score Tepof^re the ones you selected at the time you registered. If any of the numbers you indicated are not shown, they were incorrect Td the TOEFL office was unable to send those score reports. To

Information About Scores: The following seal* score is not reported when one"oT more sect not been administered. These scores have the followingg ranges:

TOEFL iBT. A total

tl

ONLY!

Scaled Scoi

Sections

0-30

Reading

fave

official

score reports sent, follow the directions on the Request Form.

ittached Score Report

Listening

Speaking

DEPT.

Writing

02

WHERE THE REPORT WAS SENT Admissions

office of a

management

Total Score

a graduate school of law

Admissions

office of

01, 04-99

Admissions

office for

00

Admissions

office for

institution or

agency

than

graduate school of

(business)

03

management

graduate study in a field other (business) or law according to the

codes marked on your answer sheet

Scaled Score

undergraduate study or an is not a college or university

that

Scaled Score

Score of Zero

Further information about

TOEFL

iBT scoring

is in

the Learners and Test Takers section of the

IMPORTANT NOTE TO INSTITUTIONS: Scores are valid ONLY

TOEFL Web

site at

www.ets.org/toefl.

received directly from ETS. Photocopies should never be accepted. If you received this score report directly from an examinee, please provide your official TOEFL institution code to the examinee so he/she can request that an official score report be sent to you. If you need to contact ETS, use the toll-free number on the back of the official score report.

Scores more than two years old cannot be reported or validated.

78

Go anywhere from

here.

D

if

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

r^j

Scoring Guides-

Speaking These are the Scoring Guides

for the

Speaking section.

Go to the Planner website

www.ets.ora/toefl/planner for sample Speaking questions and responses. As you view and

the Scoring Guides to better understand the score levels.

listen, refer to

Scoring Guide for Independent Speaking (Questions

Score 4

1

&

2)

General Description The response

demands at

fulfills

flow

of the task, with

most minor lapses

completeness. intelligible

It

is

highly

and exhibits

sustained, coherent

A response

discourse.

level is characterized

at this

by

all

of

the following:

3

(fluid

Speech

in

expression).

is clear.

high degree of automaticity with

structures (as appropriate).

is

generally

intonation patterns,

minor

noticeable, but do not obscure

meaning.

minor

is

generally

some

with

fluidity

though with

difficulties

(or

systemic) errors are

The response demonstrates fairly automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary and fairly coherent expression of relevant

Response may

pronunciation, intonation,

ideas.

fluidity of

or pacing are noticeable

some imprecise

and may require

use of vocabulary or grammatical

expression, though

it

exhibits

noticeable lapses

in

the expression of ideas.

A response

at this level

is

listener

exhibit

or inaccurate

structures used. This

may

overall intelligibility is not

overall fluency, but

does not

significantly affected).

seriously interfere with the

times (though

effort at

characterized by at least two

communication

it

of the

Response and

is

sustained

sufficient to the

task.

It

is

generally well

developed and coherent;

between

relationships

ideas are clear (or clear

progression of ideas).

Response

is

mostly

coherent and sustained

and conveys relevant ideas/information, Overall

development

and coherent,

some

some

Some

intelligibility.

Speech

It

and complex

of basic

which do not affect

of expression,

intelligible

exhibits a fairly

good control

clear,

developed.

It

include minor lapses

may

with

vocabulary.

with pronunciation or

The response addresses short of being fully

may

It

The response demonstrates effective use of grammar and

or minor difficulties

the task appropriately, but fall

Topic Development

Language Use

Delivery Generally well-paced

the

affect

is

somewhat

limited; usually lacks

elaboration or specificity.

Relationships between

ideas

may

times not be

at

immediately

clear.

message.

of the following:

2

The response addresses the task, but development of the topic

is limited.

intelligible

It

contains

speech, although

Speech

is

basically

intelligible,

though

listener effort

because

articulation,

intonation or

meaning may be obscured places.

A response

level is characterized

least

two

needed

of unclear

problems with delivery and/ or overall coherence occur;

in

is

awkward choppy

The response demonstrates

limited

The response

range and control of grammar and

to the task,

vocabulary. These limitations often

number

prevent

full

expression of ideas. For

or the

is

connected

though the

of ideas presented

development

of

limited. Mostly

the most part, only basic sentence

ideas

structures are used successfully

basic ideas are expressed

is

with limited elaboration

rhythm/pace; meaning

and spoken with

at this

may be obscured

and vocabulary may express

(details

by at

places.

mainly simple (short) and/or

times, relevant substance

general propositions, with simple or

may be

of the following:

in

fluidity.

unclear connections

them

Structures

made among

(serial listing, conjunction,

and support). At vaguely expressed

or repetitious. Connections of ideas

may be

unclear.

juxtaposition).

Co anywhere from here.

79

Appendix

TOEFL PLANNER

3:

Scoring Guides-Speaking

Test Prep

The response

Consistent pronunciation,

very

is

stress and intonation

limited in content and/or

coherence or

only

is

difficulties

minimally connected to the task, or

speech

unintelligible.

is

largely

A response

at

this level is characterized

at least

two

Language Use

Delivery

General Description

Score 1

by

of the following:

cause

Topic Development

Range and control of grammar and vocabulary severely limit (or prevent expression

of)

among

Limited relevant content

expressed. The response

ideas and

generally lacks substance

Some

beyond expression

considerable listener

connections

effort; delivery is

low-level responses

choppy, fragmented or

heavily on practiced or formulaic

may be unable

telegraphic; frequent

expressions.

speech

ideas.

may

of

very basic ideas. Speaker

rely

to

and may

pauses and hesitations.

to sustain

complete task

rely heavily

on

repetition of the prompt.

Speaker makes no attempt to respond

0

OR response

is

unrelated to the topic.

|

Scoring Guide for Integrated Speaking (Questions 3, 4, 5 and 6) Score 4

General Description The response

demands at

fulfills

of the task, with

most minor lapses

completeness. intelligible

It

is

in

highly

and exhibits

sustained, coherent discourse.

is

level is characterized

at this

by

all

of

the following:

generally clear,

fluid

and sustained.

may

include minor lapses

It

by the task.

Contains generally effective word

appropriate detail, though

choice.

attempts to

systematic) errors or imprecise

recall

remains

with

may fall

expression, but

with

is

generally

A response

30

Go anywhere from

minor

it

it

exhibits in

at this level

difficulties

require listener effort (or obscure

coherent expression of relevant

task. However,

require

some

may

listener

remains

good, however.

ideas.

Response may

some

imprecise or inaccurate

in

somewhat

limitations

interfere with the

communication

exhibits

specificity with respect to

limited

content or choppiness

in

the progression of ideas.

do not seriously

the message.

it

inaccuracy, lack of

the range of structures used.

Such

information required by the

some incompleteness,

exhibit

use of vocabulary or grammatical structures or be

of the following:

)

errors

or minor omissions.

noticeable, they do not

characterized by at least two

here.

includes

with

effort at times. Overall intelligibility

is

It

may have minor

The response is sustained and conveys relevant

or pacing, and

noticeable lapses

it

exhibits

fluidity of

fluidity of

the expression of ideas.

may be

(or

The response demonstrates fairly automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and fairly

generally clear,

pronunciation, intonation

expression, though

some

is

some

and coherent,

some

use

information required

meaning).

Speech

the task appropriately, but

It

Though some minor

vary at times as speaker

The response addresses

intelligible

and conveys the relevant

clear progression of ideas

expression of relevant ideas.

Pace may

high.

developed.

grammatical structures that allow

with pronunciation or

information. Overall

short of being fully

The response presents a

for coherent, efficient (automatic)

intelligibility

3

Topic Development

The response demonstrates good control of basic and complex

or minor difficulties

intonation.

A response

Language Use

Delivery

Speech

the

of

1

Appendix

3:

Scoring Guides-Speaking

TOEFL PLANNER

Test Prep

General Description

Score 2

The response to the task,

though

be missing

some

it

may

inaccuracies.

It

exhibits

or pacing,

speech,

A response

level is characterized

least

two

Speech

listener effort.

may

and/or overall

coherence may obscure meaning.

and so may

require significant

but at times problems with intelligibility

it

problems with

pronunciation, intonation

contains

intelligible

clear at

times, though

relevant

information or contain

some

is

by at

The response is limited in the range and control of vocabulary and grammar demonstrated (some complex structures may be used,

The response conveys

but typically contain errors). This

incomplete

results in limited or inaccurate

key ideas, makes vague

connections. Automaticity of

not be sustained

expression

at a consistent level

at this

may

the phrasal

be evident only at

intelligibility

relevant information

but

clearly incomplete

is

or inaccurate.

may

It

if it

is

omits

reference to key ideas, or demonstrates limited

information.

of important

An inaccurate

response demonstrates

obscure meaning in

some

development

level.

throughout. Problems with

of the following:

Topic Development

Language Use

Delivery

Speech

connected

is

misunderstanding of

key ideas from the

places (but not

stimulus. Typically, ideas

throughout).

expressed

may

not be well

connected or cohesive so that familiarity with the

stimulus

is

necessary

order to follow what

in

is

being discussed. 1

The response is very limited in content or coherence or is

only minimally connected

to the task.

be largely

Speech may at this level

Range and

and intonation problems

and vocabulary severely

prevents) expression of ideas and

listener effort

and

meaning. Delivery

is

control of

connections

frequently obscure

unintelligible.

A response

grammar

Consistent pronunciation

cause considerable

among

very low-level rely

is

characterized by at least two

choppy, fragmented

of the following:

or telegraphic.

limits (or

Some responses may ideas.

on isolated words or short

utterances to communicate ideas.

Speech

The response provide

much

fails to

relevant

content. Ideas that are

expressed are often inaccurate or limited to

vague utterances or

repetitions (including repetition of prompt).

contains frequent pauses

and hesitations.

0

Speaker makes no attempt

to

respond

OR response

is

unrelated to the topic.

Go anywhere from here.

8

A

TOE PLANNER Fii»Test

Prep

r XlScoring Guides^^Writing These are the Scoring Guides

Go to the Planner website

for the Writing section.

www.ets.org/toefl/planner for sample Writing questions and responses. As you view

and

Guides to better understand the score

to the Scoring

listen, refer

levels.

Scoring Guide for Integrated Writing Here

is

the

Scoring Guide used by raters

official

Score

the Integrated Writing Task.

Task Description

A response

5

when they read

at this level successfully selects the important information

presents this information

in

from the lecture and coherently and accurately

relation to the relevant information presented in the reading.

organized, and occasional language errors that are present do not result

in

The response

is

well

inaccurate or imprecise presentation of

content or connections.

A response

4

at this level

is

and accurately presenting

generally good

in

selecting the important information from the lecture

the reading.

A response

is

and

this information in relation to the relevant information in the reading, but

omission, inaccuracy, vagueness or imprecision of also scored at this level

some content from if it

the lecture or

in

in

it

coherently

may have minor made in

connection to points

has more frequent or noticeable minor language errors, as long

as such usage and grammatical structures do not result

in

anything more than an occasional lapse of

clarity or in

the

connection of ideas.

A response

3

at this level contains

the reading, but •

it

is

some

marked by one

Although the overall response

or is

important information from the lecture and conveys

more

imprecise connection of the points

made

The response may omit one major key



Some key

points

made

in

relevant connection to

of the following:

definitely oriented to the task,



some

in

it

the lecture to points

point

made

in

conveys only vague, global, unclear or somewhat

made

in

the reading.

the lecture.

the lecture or the reading, or connections between the two,

may be

incomplete,

inaccurate or imprecise. •

Errors of

usage and/or grammar may be more frequent or may

meanings

A response

2

in

some

relevant information from the lecture, but

is

marked by

by significant omission or inaccuracy of important ideas from the lecture or

the lecture and the reading. •

vague expressions or obscured

conveying ideas and connections.

at this level contains

difficulties or

result in noticeably

The response

A response

at this level

is

marked by one

or

more

in

significant language

the connections between

of the following:

significantly misrepresents or completely omits the overall connection

between the lecture and the

reading.

• •

The response

significantly omits or significantly misrepresents important points

The response contains language

made

in

the lecture.

errors or expressions that largely obscure connections or

meaning

at key

junctures, or that would likely obscure understanding of key ideas for a reader not already familiar with the

reading and the lecture.

82

Go anywhere from

here.

)

Appendix

Scoring Guides-Writing

4:

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

Task Description

Score 1

0

A response

at this level

marked by one or more

is



The response provides



The language

A response

at this level

topic, is written in

or no meaningful or relevant coherent content from the lecture.

little

level of the

of the following:

response

is

so low that

is difficult

it

meaning.

to derive

merely copies sentences from the reading, rejects the topic or

a foreign language, consists of keystroke characters or

is

is

otherwise not connected to the

blank.

Scoring Guide for Independent Writing Task Description

Score 5

An essay

at this level largely

all

of the following:

addresses the topic and task



Effectively



Is



Displays unity, progression and coherence



Displays consistent facility

well organized

idiomaticity,

4

accomplishes

An essay • •

and well developed, using

though

it

in

accomplishes

Addresses the topic and task Is

the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice and

may have minor

at this level largely

clearly appropriate explanations, exemplifications and/or details

well,

lexical or

all

grammatical errors

of the following:

though some points

may

not be

fully

elaborated

generally well organized and well developed, using appropriate and sufficient explanations, exemplifications

and/or details •

Displays unity, progression and coherence, though

it

may

contain occasional redundancy, digression or unclear

connections •

Displays

facility in

the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety and range of vocabulary, though

probably have occasional noticeable minor errors interfere with

3

An essay

in

structure,

word form

at this level

is

marked by one or more

will

of the following:



Addresses the topic and task using somewhat developed explanations, exemplifications and/or details



Displays unity, progression and coherence, though connection of ideas



it

or use of idiomatic language that do not

meaning

May demonstrate

inconsistent facility

in

may be

occasionally obscured

sentence formation and word choice that

may

result in lack of clarity

and

occasionally obscure meaning •

2

May

An essay

display accurate but limited range of syntactic structures at this level

may

reveal

one or more

of the following

and vocabulary

weaknesses:



Limited development



Inadequate organization or connection of ideas



Inappropriate or insufficient exemplifications, explanations or details to support or illustrate generalizations



A



An accumulation

in

response to the topic and task

in

response to the task

1

An essay •

0

noticeably inappropriate choice of

at this level

of errors in

is

words or word forms

sentence structure and/or usage

seriously flawed by

one or more

of the following

weaknesses:

Serious disorganization or underdevelopment



Little



Serious and frequent errors

An essay written

in

or no detail, irrelevant specifics or questionable responsiveness to the task in

at this level merely copies

sentence structure or usage

words from the

topic, rejects the topic or is

a foreign language, consists of keystroke characters or

is

otherwise not connected to the topic,

is

blank.

Go anywhere from here.

83

Test Prep

PLANNER

Sample Independent Writing Topics The

following

of the

is

TOEFL®

a

list

of

some

test. You’ll

of the actual Independent Writing topics

see topics very

requires specialized knowledge.

experience of people

in

similar to these

on the

test.

on former versions

None

of the topics

Most topics are general and are based on the common

general and students

in particular.

Whatever the

topic, you’ll

be

asked to give your opinion and to support your opinion with specific reasons

and examples.

Sample Writing Topic •

List

has been said, “Not everything that

It

is

learned

is

contained

in

books.”

Compare

and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In

your opinion, which source

is

more important? Why? Use

specific reasons

and

examples to support your answer. •

Choose one

of the following transportation vehicles

changed people’s

and explain why you

think

it

has

lives:

- automobile - bicycle

- airplane

Use •

specific reasons

Some

and examples

to support your answer.

people prefer to work for a large company. Others prefer to work for a small

company. Which would you prefer? Use

specific reasons

and

details to support

your choice. •

Should a

city try to

preserve

its

old, historic buildings or

them with modern buildings? Use your opinion.

specific reasons

destroy them and replace

and examples

to support

Appendix

5:

Sample Independent Writing Topics iTest Prep

PLANNER If

you were an employer, which kind of worker would you prefer to

an

hire:

inexperienced worker at a lower salary or an experienced worker at a higher salary?

Use

specific reasons

Do you agree

and

details to support your answer.

or disagree with the following statement? Technology has

the world a better place to

Use

live.

specific reasons

made

and examples to support

your opinion. If

you could go back to some time and place

go? Why? Use In

your opinion, what

intelligence,

and

specific reasons

is

in

the past,

the most important characteristic

and examples from your experience

The government has announced think that your

that

it

specific details

in

in life?

Use

new

university.

Some

to locate the university.

new

university

in

people

Compare

your community.

your discussion.

Imagine that you have received

Use

example, honesty,

to explain your answer.

plans to build a

community would be a good place

the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a

land?

(for

a sense of humor) that a person can have to be successful

specific reasons

Use

when and where would you

details to support your choice.

some

land to use as you wish.

How would

you use

this

specific details to explain your answer.

Go anywhere from

here.

85

Test Prep

PLANNER

Speaking and Writing Score

Conversion Charts The responses on both the Speaking and Writing sections are sent

to the

ETS Online

Scoring Network.

Speaking Responses

for

each of the

six tasks in

Speaking are rated by three to

six raters

on a scale

from 0 to 4 according to the Scoring Guides on pages 77-79. The mean (average) of tasks

is

all

six

then converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30.

Writing Responses

for the

two tasks

in

Writing are rated on a scale from 0 to 5 according to the

Scoring Guides on pages 80-81 The .

mean

(average) of the scores on the

two tasks

is

then converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30. Following are the conversion charts for Speaking and Writing.

When you have

or tutor, evaluate your responses to questions from The Official Guide.

charts to convert your average scores on

all

a teacher

You can use these

the tasks to a scaled score.

Appendix

6:

Speaking and Writing Score Conversion Charts

TOEFL

Test

Prep

PLANNER

Converting Rating Averages to Scaled Scores for the Writing and Speaking Sections of the TOEFL iBT Test

WRITING RATING AVERAGE

SCALED SCORE

SPEAKING RATING AVERAGE

SCALED SCORE

5.00

30

4.00

30

4.75

29

3.83

29

4.50

28

3.66

28

4.25

27

3.50

27

4.00

25

3.33

26

3.75

24

3.16

24

3.50

22

3.00

23

3.25

21

2.83

22

3.00

20

2.66

20

2.75

18

2.50

19

2.50

17

2.33

18

2.25

15

2.16

17

2.00

14

2.00

15

1.75

12

1.83

14

1.50

11

1.66

13

1.25

10

1.50

11

1.00

8

1.33

10

7

1.16

9

5

1.00

4 0

8

6 5

4 3 2

0

Note: Performance on the Speaking and Writing sections of the TOEFL iBT® test is evaluated based on ratings of 0 to 5 for each of the two Writing tasks and 0 to 4 for each of the six Speaking tasks. The tables above show how the mean scores of the two Writing tasks and the average ratings of six Speaking tasks are converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30.

Go anywhere from

here.

87

Notes

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

Go anywhere from

here.

89

TOEFLes.

Notes Prep

PLANNER

90

Go anywhere from

here.

)

Notes

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

Go anywhere from here.

91

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

92

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Notes

Notes

TOEFL PLANNER Test Prep

Notes

TOEFL PLANNER

Test Prep

94

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here.

)

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