Nutraceuticals in Brain Health and Beyond 0128205938, 9780128205938

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Nutraceuticals in Brain Health and Beyond
 0128205938, 9780128205938

Table of contents :
Front Cover
Nutraceuticals in Brain Health and Beyond
Nutraceuticals in Brain Health and Beyond
Copyright
Contents
Contributors
1 - Introduction
References
2 - Role of food or food component in brain health
Introduction
Energy status and brain health
Neuroactive in foods
Omega-3 and phytochemicals: potential future therapeutic candidates
Cognition beyond foods: just diet or lifestyle pattern?
Food ``liking'' versus food ``wanting''
Diet, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases
Diet, cognition, and epigenetics
Microbiota-targeted functional foods for brain health
Thinking outside the brain
Conclusion
References
3 - Bacopa monnieri for cognitive health-a review of molecular mechanisms of action
Cognition
Signal transduction, cognition, and cognitive impairment
Factors influencing signal transduction
Neurotransmitters
Receptors
Second messenger system
Genes and their expression
Structural factors and neuronal connections
Cerebral blood flow
Approved drugs as cognition enhancers
Nutraceuticals for cognitive performance
Bacopa monnieri for cognitive performance
Neuronal molecular mechanisms of cognitive benefits of BM in relation to signal transduction
Effect of BM on neurotransmitters
Enzymes/protein regulating neurotransmitters
Transporters
Effect of BM on receptors
Effect of BM on receptor density
Cholinergic receptor
Serotonergic receptors
Glutamatergic receptors
AMPA receptors
NMDA receptors
GABA receptors
Effect of BM on second messenger system
PKC: PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
Effect of BM on regulation of gene expression
Regulation of reelin-dependent NMDAR-BDNF expression
Regulation of miRNA
Gene ontology analysis
Effect of BM on structural factors and neuronal connections
Synaptic plasticity
Neuronal density and dendritic arborization
Beta-amyloid and tau proteins
Effect of BM on CBF
Effect of BM as neuroprotective agent
BM as an antioxidant
BM as antiapoptotic agent
BM as antiinflammatory agent
Summary
References
4 - Indian medicinal plants as drug leads in neurodegenerative disorders
Abbreviations
Introduction
Methodology
Etiopathology of neurodegenerative disorders
Ayurvedic herbs: traditional usages in brain disorders
Role of Indian ayurvedic herbs in neurodegenerative brain disorders
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
5 - Role of nutraceuticals in the management of severe traumatic brain injury
Introduction
Traumatic brain injury
Nutritional management in TBI
Herbs and traditional medicines
Conclusions
References
6 - Understanding the relationship between oxidative stress and cognition in the elderly: targets for nutraceutical ...
The aging population
What is cognitive aging?
What are the biological factors influencing cognitive aging?
Oxidative stress
Reactive oxygen species
Oxidative stress
Antioxidant defenses
Oxidative stress in aging and disease
Oxidative stress and cognition
Potential nutraceutical targets for improving cognition via reducing oxidative stress
Coenzyme Q10
Overview
CoQ10 and oxidative stress
CoQ10 as a potential treatment for cognitive decline
Pycnogenol
Overview
Evidence for effects on oxidative stress
Evidence for effects on cognition
Safety
Vitamins E and C
Overview
Evidence for effects on oxidative stress
Evidence for effects on cognition
Carotenoids
Overview
Evidence for effects on oxidative stress
Evidence for effects on cognition
Safety
Polyphenols
Overview
Flavonoids
Nonflavonoid polyphenols
Evidence for effects on oxidative stress
Flavonoids
Nonflavonoid polyphenols
Evidence for effects on cognition
Flavonoids
Nonflavonoid polyphenols
Safety
Conclusions
References
7 - Brain and mental health in Ayurveda
Ayurvedic principles of brain health
Mana (mind)
Brain type Prakriti (constitution) basis the mental, behavioral, and emotional characteristics
Brain diseases in Ayurveda - Manas roga
Insanity/Psychosis/Mania (Unmada)
Ayurvedic drugs used in management of brain disorders
Ayurvedic herbs in brain health- medhya rasayan herbs
Introduction
Scientific evidences on selected medhya rasayana herbs-pharmacological and clinical studies
Bacopa monnieri linn. (Brahmi)
Centella asiatica (Mandukaparni)
Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy. (Sankhapushpi)
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha)
Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi)
Glycyrrhiza glabra (Yastimadhu)
Nardostachys jatamansi (Jatamansi)
Valeriana wallichii (Tagar)
Celastrus paniculatus Willd. (Jyotishmati)
Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Aparajita)
Acorus calamus (Vacha)
Acknowledgment
References
8 - 10 Persian herbal medicines used for brain health
Introduction
Herbal medicines for brain health
Individual herbs
Brassica nigra (L.) Koch
(Basionym: Sinapis nigra L.)
Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
(Synonym: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume)
Crocus sativus L.
Lavandula stoechas L.
Melissa officinalis L.
Phyllanthus emblica L.
Piper nigrum L.
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry
(Synonym: Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.)
Terminallia chebula Retz
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Polyherbal formulations and synergistic effects
Conclusion
References
9 - Beneficial effects of nutraceuticals in healthy brain aging
Introduction
Brain aging and associated neurodegenerative diseases
Curcumin in healthy brain aging
Gingerol in healthy brain aging
Gingko biloba in healthy brain aging
Ginseng in healthy brain aging
Quercetin in healthy brain aging
Resveratrol in healthy brain aging
Ascorbic acid in healthy brain aging
α-Tocopherol in healthy brain aging
Crocin in healthy brain aging
Ellagic acid in healthy brain aging
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in healthy brain aging
Calorie restriction mimetic in healthy brain aging
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
10 - Investigating the acute effect of pomegranate extract on indicators of cognitive function in human volunteers: ...
Introduction
Methods and materials
Study design
Study participants
Treatment protocol
Pomegranate extract and placebo capsule profiles
Biochemical and physiological measures
Salivary glucocorticoids
Blood pressure
Computerized Mental Performance Assessment System (COMPASS) for cognitive and mood assessment
Task order and cognitive function tested
Calculation of composite domain scores
Domains are created using the following calculations
Statistics
Results
Biochemical and cardiovascular measures
Assessment of cognitive function
Within-group effects
Between-group effects
Discussion
Limitations
Potential mechanisms
Conclusions
References
Further reading
11 - Glucosinolates: paradoxically beneficial in fighting both brain cell death and cancer
Introduction
Background and significance
Antiapoptotic/maternal dietary supplement
Sulforaphane protection pathway (Nrf2/ARE)
Placenta
Perinatal brain injury
FASD
Lung
Malaria
Schizophrenia
Developmental origins of health in adult disease
Proapoptotic/anticancer
Reactive oxidant species generation
Signaling apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway
Redox signaling
Effect on HDAC enzymes
ERK pathway
Activation of tumor suppressor genes: p53, p21, p27, and p73
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress
The effect on cancer stem cells
The effect on SMYD3 genes
NrF2-ARE signaling pathway
AMPK and SFA toxicity and protection
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
12 - Efficacy of dietary polyphenols for neuroprotective effects and cognitive improvements
Introduction
Neuroprotective effects of curcumin
Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol
Neuroprotective effects of EGCG isolated from green tea
Application of other polyphenolic compounds in human central nervous system functions
Conclusion
References
13 - The gut microbiota-brain axis and role of probiotics
Introduction
Gut microbiota
Gut microbiome and the gut-brain axis
Impact of gut microbiota on CNS
Gut microbiota-brain communication
How does gut microbiota affect the brain?
Neuroanatomical pathways
Neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
Neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by intestinal bacteria
Intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier (barrier system)
Microbiota-gut-brain axis and depression
Microbiota-gut-brain axis and autism
Microbiota-gut-brain axis and aging
Microbiota-gut-brain axis and obesity
Role of diet in the microbiota-gut-brain axis
Prebiotics and probiotics
Conclusion
References
14 - The gut microbiome: its role in brain health
Introduction
The human gut microbiome-a new frontier in medicine
The history of microbiome research
The human microbiome project-harnessing modern lab technology
Modern links between microbiome and human behavior
What microorganisms constitute the gut microbiome?
Dysbiosis
Microbiome analysis
Linking the gut microbiome to the brain
The GI tract and its microbiome as an ecosystem
How the microbiota shift rapidly with dietary change
How germ-free animals help elucidate the mechanisms
Shifting the therapeutic emphasis from the probiotic toward the host
The intestinal epithelial cell
Goblet cells
Paneth cells
Enteroendocrine cells
IEC signaling molecules
Dendritic cells
The gut barrier
The blood-brain barrier
The tight junction-effects of exogenous factors
The tight junction-endogenous mechanisms
Redox-inflammation
Alkaline phosphatase
Hyperglycemia
Circadian rhythm
How intestinal microbes communicate with the host
From dysfunctional gut ecology to chronic disease
LPS, neurobehavioral and neurodegenerative diseases
Linking the VN to gut ecosystem communication
Other biochemical influences on neural function in the gut-brain axis
Extending the roles of neurotransmitters
Synthesis of neurotransmitters and effects on the host
Serotonin-unraveling the complexities
Upstream factors in neural function
The role of BH4 in neurotransmitter synthesis
The role of BDNF in neurological function
Nutrition-specific requirements of the host and its microbiota
Nourishing the host cells
Nourishing the microbiota
Dietary fat
Dietary protein
Dietary indigestible prebiotics
How does nature maintain the gut-microbiome-brain axis?
The host cells
The microbiota
Therapeutic interventions
Probiotics as therapy
Antimicrobials as therapy
Is it time for a host-centric model?
Conclusion
References
15 - The psychopharmacology of saffron, a plant with putative antidepressant and neuroprotective properties
Introduction
Traditional and ethnomedicinal uses
Chemical constituents
Stigma
Flowers except stigma
Tepal
Stamen
Mode of action
Antidepressant effect
Neuroprotective effect
Anticonvulsant effect
Clinical applications
Conclusions
References
16 - Comprehensive review of Alzheimer’s disease drugs (conventional, newer, and plant-derived) with focus on Bacop ...
Introduction
Dementia crisis
Scope of the chapter
Alzheimer’s disease
Genetics
Pathogenesis
Clinical features
Current and potential treatments
Nutraceuticals in AD
Historical origin
Scope of the chapter
Plant-derived AD drugs
Bacopa monnieri
Niche and morphology
Isolation, extraction, and patent
Active constituent(s)
Fundamental and clinical research in B. Monnieri in AD
Antioxidant and iron chelation
Cholinergic system
β-Amyloid plaques
Neuroprotectivity (neuronal and glial plasticity)
Cerebral blood flow
Memory impairment and cognitive defects
Clinical trials
Bacopa monnieri clinical practice
Drug development and current practice
Adverse effects and safety
Conclusions
References
17 - Nutraceuticals in neurodegenerative diseases
Introduction
Role of ROS in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases
Nutraceutical
Alzheimer disease
Ameliorative effects of various nutraceuticals against the pathogenesis of AD
Taurine
Curcumin
Vitamin C
Resveratrol
Catechins
Huntington disease
Parkinson disease
Ameliorative effects of various nutraceuticals against the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease
Curcumin
Taurine
Vitamin C
Resveratrol
Catechins
Anthocyanins
Morin
Quercetin
Caffeine
Vitamin A
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Ameliorative effects of various nutraceuticals against the pathogenesis of ALS
Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Curcumin
Conclusion
References
18 - Transforming curry extract-spice to liposome-based curcumin: lipocurc to restore and boost brain health in COV ...
COVID-19 pandemic
Curcumin pharmacology and COVID-19
Nanotechnology, epigenetics, and PK studies of liposome-curcumin
COVID-19 brain rehabilitation: role of epigenetics diet and exercise
Summary
References
19 - Cognitive health and nutrition: a millennial correlation
Molecular signaling of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity
Oxidative damage and cognition
Nutrition and neurotransmitters
Nutrition and brain well-being
Fatty acids n-3 and n-6
Polyphenols
Vitamin B family
Carotenoids
Trace elements
Correlation between metabolic diseases and psychiatric conditions
Diet and cognitive health
Early growth stage
Adulthood
Cognitive enhancers
Active sports and cognitive performance: role of nutritional supplements
Diet and epigenetics
Nutraceuticals as key drivers for brain health
Future recommendations
References
20 - Mediterranean diet and its components: potential to optimize cognition across the lifespan
Diet, cognition, and dementia
Assessment of Mediterranean diet
Mediterranean diet and cognition across the lifespan
Mechanisms and food components
Olive oil
Fish
Nuts
Fruits and vegetables
Practical translation into Western countries
References
21 - Centella asiatica (Gotu kola) leaves: potential in neuropsychiatric conditions
Introduction
Psychological disorders
Efficacy against mood and depressive disorders
Efficacy against anxiety disorders
Efficacy against Stress-related disorders
Cognitive disorders
Efficacy against Alzheimer’s disease
Mechanism through β-amyloid
Mechanism through neuronal outgrowth promoting action
Mechanism through neuronal regeneration
Mechanism through dendritic arborization
Efficacy in animal models of learning and memory
Neurological disorders
Efficacy against epilepsy
Efficacy against neuropathy and spinal cord injury
Neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders
Efficacy against drug or chemical neurotoxicity
Efficacy against cerebral ischemia
Recent advance: nasal delivery of CA extract
References
22 - Big data for clinical trials
Introduction
Role of big data in research
Technology of big data
Life cycle and management of data using technologies
Approach of regulatory agencies
Big healthcare data: security and privacy
Big data=big prospects
References
23 - The multifactorial contributions of Pycnogenol® for cognitive function improvement
Introduction
Pycnogenol® as a herbal medication
Deteriorating cognitive function in the aging brain
Mechanism of action of Pycnogenol®
Pycnogenol® as a cognitive enhancer
References
24 - Advancements in delivery of herbal drugs for cognitive disorders
Introduction
Herbal drugs in neurological health
Factors limiting brain delivery of herbal products
Advancements in the brain delivery technologies
Coadministration of efficacy enhancers
Solid polymeric nanoparticles
Lipid-mediated carrier systems
Miscellaneous nanocarriers
Industrial applicability of these novel technologies and commercial viability
Regulatory challenges
Conclusion
References
25 - Impact of cardiometabolic disease on cognitive function
Introduction
Cardiometabolic disease
The impact of cardiometabolic disease on brain and cognitive health
Altered glucose metabolism and brain health
Insulin resistance and its relationship to brain health
Blood flow, altered platelet function and coagulation, and brain health
Atherosclerosis and brain health
Inflammation and brain health
Oxidative stress and brain health
Thyroid function, cardiometabolic profile, and brain health
The effect of nutritional medicine on cardiometabolic disease and cognitive function
Management aims
Diet
Westernized diet
Mediterranean diet
Low glycemic index diet
Vegetarian and vegan diet
Reduce sugar
Vitamins
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B2
Vitamin B6
Folate
Vitamin B12
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K2
Minerals
Calcium
Iodine
Iron
Magnesium
Selenium
Zinc
Other nutrients
Coenzyme Q10
N-acetyl cysteine
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Conclusion
References
26 - Vitamin B6, B9, and B-12: can these vitamins improve memory in Alzheimer’s disease?
Vitamin B6, B12, and folate
Alzheimer’s disease
B6 (pyridoxine)
Vitamin B9 (folate)
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
Homocysteine
Cognitive decline, dementia, and the homocysteine hypothesis-what is the evidence showing?
Alzheimer’s disease and the effect of vitamin B6, folate, and B12
Clinical recommendations and application
Conclusions
References
27 - Sri Lankan medicinal herbs used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases of the brain
Introduction
Neurodegenerative diseases of the brain
Alzheimer disease
Parkinson’s disease
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration
Primary lateral sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Herbal medicines that could be recommended for the Neurodegenerative diseases of the brain
Therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases
Review on medicinal herbs used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases of the brain
Gotu kola-Centella asiatica (Linn) Urb-(Apiaceae)
Lunuvila (B. monnieri-family: Scropulariaceae)
Amukkara-(Withania somnifera-family: Solanaceae)
Wanduru Me (Mucuna pruriens; family: Fabaceae)
Vishnukranti (Evolvulus alsinoides; family-Convolvulaceae)
References
28 - Management of Alzheimer's Disease with nutraceuticals
Introduction
Alzheimer's disease: the leading cause of dementia
Signs and symptoms of AD
Understanding the origin of AD
Amyloid β (Aβ) hypothesis
Tau protein (microtubule-associated protein Tau, MAPT)
Apolipoprotein E (APOE)
Vascular and mitochondrial hypothesis
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) hypothesis
Social and economic impact
Management and care of patients suffering with AD
Treatment and care
Nutraceuticals: an emerging trend in disease management
Dietary components of nutraceuticals
Vitamins
Phytochemicals
Flavonoids
Flavanols
Tea (Camilla sinensis) leaves extract:
Ginkgo biloba (Gb) extract
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (CZ)
Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Conclusions
References
29 - Nutraceuticals in brain health
Introduction to nutraceuticals
Historical perspective of nutraceuticals
Origin and definition
What all can be considered as nutraceuticals?
Nutraceuticals for brain health from around the globe
Indian traditional medicine
Chinese traditional medicine
Japanese traditional medicine
African traditional medicine (ATM)
Traditional Korean medicine (TKM)
Traditional medicine of Latin America
Nutraceutical and overall brain health: Traditional versus modern outlook
Pathophysiology of neurodegenerative conditions
Effects of nutraceuticals on neurodegenerative conditions
Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi)
Ginkgo biloba
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng)
Convolvulus pluricaulis
Centella asiatica (gotu kola)
Acorus calamus (sweet flag)
Celastrus paniculatus
Hemidesmus indicus
Trapa bispinosa (water chestnut)
Holy basil
Semecarpus anacardium (Bhallaatak)
Nardostachys jatamansi (spikenard or jatamansi)
Panax ginseng (ginseng)
Clitoria ternatea
Coriandrum sativum (coriander or cilantro)
Curcumin
Resveratrol
Lycium barbarum (Wolfberry)
Dietary supplements
Traditional versus modern outlook on nutraceuticals
Mediterranean diet (MD)
Asian diet
Mechanistic insights into nutraceuticals functioning as protectors of brain health
Nutraceuticals targeting mitochondrial dysfunction
Nutraceuticals targeting misfolded protein aggregation
Nutraceuticals targeting oxidative stress
Nutraceuticals targeting neuro-inflammation
Nutraceuticals as neurotransmitter modulators
Nutraceuticals from an evolutionary perspective
Cross-talk between brain and gut
Brain and gastronomic evolutions were simultaneous
Do nutraceuticals have ethnic biasness when it comes to their effectivities?
Mode of nutraceutical consumption: Food versus dietary supplements
Conclusion
References
30 - Ayurveda and Brain health
Introduction - The brain and the nervous system
Ayurvedic perspective of the nervous system-Majja dhatu and Majjavaha srotas
Brain patterns and Dosha type
Brain aging-Modern and Ayurvedic perspective
Neurodegeneration
Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
Parkinson’s disease (PD)
Autism (ASD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Neuroprotective and regenerative strategies
Neuronutrients (Medhyarasayana)
Detoxification (Panchakarma)
Diet (Ahara)
Rejuvenation (Yoga and Nidra)
Discussion and way forward
References
Index
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
V
W
Z
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