North Carolina land of contrasts
 9781567331899, 1567331890

Table of contents :
Chapter 01 - The Lay of the Land
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Chapter 02 - Natives and Newcomers
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Chapter 03 - The Proprietors and their Problems
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Chapter 04 - A Royal Colony Struggles
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Chapter 05 - The Struggle for Independence
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Chapter 06 - A Fledgling State in a New Nation
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Chapter 07 - North Carolina Finally Awakens
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Chapter 08 - An Agrarian Society
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Chapter 09 - Civil War and Reconstruction
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Chapter 10 - Towns, Trains, and Transitions
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Chapter 11 - The Patterns of Progress
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Chapter 12 - The Great Depression and the Big War
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Chapter 13 - Postwar Choices and Freedoms
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Chapter 14 - Stars on the National Stage
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Chapter 15 - A Work in Progress
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The Lay of the Land

Chapter Preview Terms: region, sound, barrier island, inlet, Gulf Stream, wetland, estuary, pocosin, savanna, crossroads hamlets, tobacco towns, Carolina bays, fall line, headwaters, sectionalism, mill village, NASCAR, monadnock, elevation, bald, cove, weather, climate, westerlies, humidity, precipitation, tornado, hurricane Places: Tidewater region, Outer Banks, Jockey’s Ridge, Coastal Plain region, Sandhills, Fort Bragg, Piedmont region, Research Triangle Park, Uwharrie Mountains, Piedmont Crescent, Blue Ridge, Mountains region, Appalachian Mountains, Mt. Mitchell, Black Mountains, Great Smoky Mountains, Balsams, Fontana Lake

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L

indsay McCloy made the whole state of North Car-

olina proud when she competed in the National Geography Bee in Washington, D.C., in 2004. At the time Lindsay was an eighth grader in Jacksonville, which is on the coast near Camp Lejeune. Her father, Marine Lt. Col. Darin McCloy, was serving in Iraq. He called her all the way from Baghdad to wish her luck. He was particularly proud that his daughter knew so much about people and places around the world. No one can make sense of North Carolina’s history, heritage, and culture unless, like Lindsay, he or she learns the lessons of geography. Although you live in a global society, you still have local ties. The physical and social shape of North Carolina helps develop those ties. A central theme of this book is that North Carolinians have always been greatly influenced by particular geographic conditions. These geographic conditions have produced historical problems, as you will learn in later chapters. That is why we should all become more like Lindsay. Our understanding of history depends upon

North Carolina: Land of Contrasts

our knowledge of geography. There is a traditional saying in North Carolina: You have to know “the lay of the land” to know where you are going. The key lesson in North Carolina geography is to learn that North Carolina is one state but has several distinct parts called regions. A region is a specific area where the lay of the land and the habits of the people are much the same. Two of North Carolina’s regions are relatively flat—the Tidewater and the Coastal Plain. There the people have traditionally raised large crops of tobacco, cotton, and foodstuffs. These two regions make up the eastern section of the state. The other two regions— the Piedmont and the Mountains—look like their names imply; they are hilly. These two regions make up the western section. Its people traditionally herded livestock and used the water power of its streams to run factories and make manufactured goods. Each region has distinctive characteristics that continue to help shape the state.

Below: The granite top of Pilot Mountain, north of Winston-Salem, has been a landmark for more than a thousand years. Opposite page: Okracoke Lighthouse is one of the oldest on the Atlantic coast.

Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

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SIGNS OF THE TIMES

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Area: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________52,712 _____________________________________miles ______________________________largest) _________________________________ ____________________________________square _________________________________(28th __________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Land: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________49,412 __________________square _________________miles ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Water: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________3,570 __________________________________miles __________________________________________________________________ _______________________________square ____________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______East-west _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________length: __________________________________________________________________________________ _______________503 ___________________________greater ________________________________any ________________________east _________________ ___________________________miles, _____________________________________than _______________________state ________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________of ______the _________Mississippi _____________________________River ________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________North-south _______________________________length: ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________187 ____________miles ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Number ___________________________bordering ________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________of _________________________________states: ________________________________________________________ ______________4______________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Lakes __________________________ponds: _________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________and ____________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________Over ____________50,000 __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________River _______________basins: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________17 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Number __________________________land ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________of __________________regions: ____________________________________________________________________ _______________4____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Number ___________________________counties: ________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________of ______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________100 ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Highest _____________________point: __________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________Mount ________________Mitchell, _____________________________________feet _________________________________________ _______________________________________________________6,684 ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________point: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Lowest _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________Atlantic ___________________coastline, ________________________________level ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________sea _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

VITAL STATISTICS

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Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Latitude: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________Between ________________________________________degrees _____________________________37 _________________________ _____________________________________33-1/2 _________________________________________and _____________________________________ _______________degrees _____________________north ______________latitude _________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Longitude: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________Between _____________________75 ________degrees ___________________and __________84-1/2 ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________degrees _____________________west ____________longitude ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Location _______________________________________United ____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________within __________________________________States: ___________________________________________________ _______________Southeast ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Location _______________________________________South: ____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________within ________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________Eastern ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________East-west _________________________divider: __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________Fall ___________line _____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________center ______________________the ___________________________________________________ ________Geographic ______________________________________________of _______________state: ______________________________________________ _______________In ______Chatham ________________________County, ____________________10 __________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________miles ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________northwest __________________________of ______Sanford ____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LOCATION

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TARGET READING SKILL Reading Maps

Defining the Skill A map provides information in a graphic manner. There are many types of maps, including topographical, physical/ political, historical, and satellite. Some common forms of maps that are found in textbooks include weather, waterways, natural resources, land regions, road, and population. To properly read a map, you should • read the title to find the subject or purpose, • determine the type of information that is displayed, • look at any key or legend to determine the meaning of symbols or colors,

• look at the scale and compass rose to determine distance and direction.

Practicing the Skill Look at the map of North Carolina’s counties below. As you examine the map, answer these questions. 1. What is the subject of the map? 2. What type of information is found on the map? 3. Is there a scale? If yes, what does it tell you? 4. Is there a legend? If yes, what does it tell you?

Target Reading Skill

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The Tidewater Region As you read, look for:

Map 1 North Carolina’s Regions Map Skill: In which region do you live?

• the features of the Tidewater region • the barrier islands • North Carolina’s five major sounds • major rivers in the Tidewater region • vocabulary terms sound, barrier islands, inlet, Gulf Stream, wetland, estuary, pocosin, savanna

Water, water, everywhere! That describes the Tidewater. This narrow strip of land extends along the Atlantic Ocean. In the southern part of the state’s coast, the Tidewater is no more than thirty miles wide, but in the north, where inland bodies of water are large, it goes back more than fifty miles in places. Throughout the region, the land is influenced by the daily movement of the ocean’s tides. The tides alter currents in streams and sounds. Sounds are the inland bodies of mixed water found through much of the Tidewater. The resulting mix of salt and fresh water distinguishes the Tidewater from the other regions of the state.

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Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

Barrier Islands The islands off the North Carolina coast form the beach for much of the Tidewater. They have influenced life in the state from the first explorations to the present. Only a few islands, like Roanoke, where the first English attempt at settlement was made, sit alone. Most are part of a long chain of sand spits called barrier islands, the most famous of which, along the northern half of the state coastline, are called the Outer Banks. The barrier islands are really just a very long ridge of sand, spread along the ocean floor, ever shifting in the tides and storms that come off the Atlantic. Like the tips of icebergs, only the tops of the barrier islands show above the waterline. Most of the barrier islands are less than two miles across. In some places, a visitor can actually see from shore to sound. The size of the sand can vary considerably. At Cape Hatteras, the barrier island is wide enough to still support a considerable maritime forest, made up of bay, holly, and live oak trees. The highest point along the barrier islands is at Jockey’s Ridge, located not far from Kitty Hawk, where the Wright Brothers first flew. Although the winds shift the sand daily, Jockey’s Ridge averages about 114 feet in elevation, making it the highest natural point on the eastern seaboard. Where

Top: The Outer Banks are accessible to all state residents at the Cape Hatteras National Seashore. The sea oats shown are an important preserver of the sand dunes on the barrier islands. Above: Hang gliding on Jockey’s Ridge imitates the earlier flights of the Wright Brothers on nearby Kill Devil Hill.

Section 1: The Tidewater Region

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Map 2 North Carolina’s Barrier Islands and Sounds Map Skill: What are the three capes identified on the map?

the sand has low places, inlets allow the seawater to come in and out with the tides. Because the ocean is endlessly churning the sand and the water, different inlets have opened and closed at various times. For example, Roanoke Inlet, which English explorers used in the 1500s, is long gone. Today, North Carolinians in that vicinity use Oregon Inlet, which was carved out by a hurricane in 1846. The very eastern nose of our state, Cape Hatteras, is the peak of a huge spit of sand that projects out for miles into the ocean. The ocean current running by it, heading north, is the Gulf Stream, one of the principal influences in the world’s weather. It carries warm water from the Gulf of Mexico across the Atlantic to the British Isles. Cooler water is then pushed south toward Africa, to be warmed once again near the equator. Before airplanes, this was the “road” ships took back from the New World to the Old World. Relatively speaking, then, North Carolina is located at the place where the warm water began to move toward the colder north. In fact, Cape Hatteras for centuries was known as the “graveyard of the Atlantic” because frigid Arctic water, known as the Labrador Current, collided with the warmer Gulf Stream just offshore. The turbulence made for unexpected storms. That is why the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse has become so legendary. It served a vital purpose in world commerce. The only true break in the barrier islands along the state’s shoreline is Cape Fear, where the Cape Fear River flows directly into the sea. Otherwise, all the other rivers in the eastern half of the state flow into the sounds behind the islands.

The Sounds North Carolina has five major sounds. Almost half of the Tidewater area is made up of these mixed bodies of water that are just behind the barrier islands. The largest ones are Currituck Sound, in the north, followed, as one goes south, by Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Core Sound, and Bogue Sound. Pamlico is the deepest and largest, at least twenty feet deep much of the year. Each of the major sounds is fed fresh water by a river coming from the Coastal Plain. Near the mouths of these rivers are located some of the oldest towns in North Carolina. These towns were trading centers where goods could be transferred from river flatboats onto the schoo-

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Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

ners that would take goods into the ocean. The town of Washington, for example, sits just upstream from the mouth of the Pamlico River, which feeds into the Pamlico Sound. The Trent and the Neuse rivers come together at New Bern and also feed into the Pamlico. In addition to the sound towns are small fishing villages like Wanchese, Englehard, Atlantic, and Oriental, all of which front onto Pamlico Sound. The southernmost fishing villages are Southport and Calabash. Sedimentation (the depositing of clay or silt or gravel) through time has kept the sounds from being deep enough for large oceangoing vessels. Thus, towns located where rivers run into the sounds, like Edenton, Bath, or New Bern, never grew into ports the size of Savannah, Georgia, or Norfolk, Virginia. The direct outlet to the sea enjoyed by the city of Wilmington, in the southeast corner of the state, is why that seaport was North Carolina’s largest town through most of the state’s history. A large portion of the land in the Tidewater is wetland most of the year, meaning that the soil is soaked or flooded with water. All along its shores are salt marshes where shellfish breed and live. These mucky estuaries serve as incubators for a variety of sea life, such as shrimp.

Above: The Bodie Island Lighthouse was one of several on the Outer Banks that helped ships from becoming victims of the “Graveyard of the Atlantic.” Left: The fishing village of Oriental is a popular destination for sailboat enthusiasts.

The first lighthouse along the North Carolina coast was erected in 1793 on Bald Head Island. Bald Head Island is located at the mouth of the Cape Fear River.

Section 1: The Tidewater Region

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Swamps and Lakes

Below: The Green Swamp is one of the largest in the state and is home to unique vegetation like the Venus Fly Trap. Bottom: Lake Waccamaw, one of the largest in the state, covers almost 9,000 acres.

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The most common type of wetland away from the estuaries are pocosins. The term is an old Indian name for a particular type of swamp. It means “a swamp on a hill,” made up of peat that fills with water when the water table is high. Pocosins are found from the Albemarle Sound all the way to the Cape Fear. They are distinguished by their vegetation, most often having a mix of laurel, bay, and scrub oak trees as their foliage. Alligator Pocosin makes up the bulk of the land between the Albemarle and Pamlico sounds. Big Pocosin is located near the town of Washington. Another Tidewater habitat is the savanna, where tall grass mixes with scattered longleaf and other types of pine. Parts of the Green Swamp, the most extensive wetland at the southern end of the Tidewater, become savannas in the drier times of the year. The Green Swamp is the habitat for one of North Carolina’s unique plants, the Venus Fly Trap, a type of trumpet plant that catches a variety of bugs with its hair-lined “pitchers.” The vital parts of the bugs are gradually absorbed into the plants for nourishment. Most of the natural lakes in North Carolina are in the Tidewater. Lake Mattamuskeet, the largest, is fifteen miles across at its longest, but averages only about six feet in depth. It is a major land-

Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

ing point for migratory birds along the Atlantic coast and is today a wildlife refuge. Not far from Mattamuskeet are Pungo and Phelps lakes, smaller but similar in appearance. On the edge of the southern part of the Tidewater, adjacent to the Green Swamp, is Lake Waccamaw. Its longest stretch is five miles, but, like the others, it is very shallow. Through time, the Tidewater has been one of the least populated portions of the state. Many of the early families either fished or supplied goods to the fishing trade. Some families today can trace their ancestry all the way back to the 1600s. Some residents of Ocracoke, one of the Outer Banks islands, still speak with an accent that sounds like their distant ancestors. This “hoi toide” brogue uses words similar to the English spoken in the days of William Shakespeare. For example, Ocracokers might “call over the mail” instead of get the mail. They might say they “had a gutful of food” when they were full from a meal. If they got nauseous they would become “quamished in my gut.” If they met someone from another region of North Carolina, like the Coastal Plain, they would call that person not an outsider, but “a dingbatter.”

Map 3 North Carolina’s Rivers and Lakes Map Skill: What is the westernmost river on the map?

It’s Your Turn 1. What are the Outer Banks? 2. What ocean current flows off the eastern coast of North Carolina? 3. What is a wetland? 4. What is the largest natural lake in North Carolina?

Section 1: The Tidewater Region

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The Coastal Plain Region As you read, look for:

• the features of the Coastal Plain region • types of traditional communities in the Coastal Plain • the Carolina bays and the Sandhills • vocabulary terms crossroads hamlets, tobacco towns, Carolina bays The richest soil in the state is to be found in many areas of the Coastal Plain. The region takes up about a third of the area of North Carolina. It slants from the northeast to the southwest, going all the way from the Virginia border to the South Carolina line. The Plain averages about a hundred miles in width. It has two central characteristics: (1) its flat-

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ness and (2) its soil, both of which contribute to its role as the chief farming region of the state. The rivers of the Coastal Plain generally flow southeasterly. Most flow into the sounds of the Tidewater region. The Roanoke, Tar, and Neuse are the major rivers that do so. The Cape Fear River, which rises in the Piedmont, is the longest river entirely in North Carolina. The river flows past Fayetteville and Elizabethtown before it reaches Wilmington and the Atlantic Ocean. Great stretches of the Coastal Plain seem to go on forever, since in many areas large fields, sometimes several miles across, have been cleared for farming. Through most of the region’s history, farms were scattered out across the landscape a half mile or more apart. This has made the area seem the most rural in the state. Traditionally, its residents have lived in two types of communities, the rural crossroads and the small tobacco town. Crossroads hamlets dot the region. Often they have had a store or two, or a school or church, that provide goods and services to the nearby farmers, who have neither the time nor the money to go to town frequently. These community centers are generally named for local residents, like Ballard’s Crossroads near Farmville or Hill’s Crossroads near Wallace.

Opposite page, above: The Neuse River at Smithfield. Below: Ballard’s Crossroads is a typical gathering place on the Coastal Plain. Bottom: Cotton has recently made a rebound as a moneymaker for farmers on the Coastal Plain. This field is near Jackson in Northampton County.

Section 2: The Coastal Plain Region

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Tobacco Towns

Top: Railroads still run down the middle of Main Street in Rocky Mount, a famed tobacco town of the twentieth century. Above: Bright-leaf tobacco has a distinctive golden hue. Opposite page, below: Singletary Lake State Park is located around a Carolina bay.

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Tobacco towns have been a part of the Coastal Plain since it was first settled in colonial days. In the twentieth century, the popularity of cigarette smoking caused these towns to grow. People in the towns focused their activities around the raising of tobacco. Rocky Mount, Greenville, Wilson, and Goldsboro provided marketing outlets for the largest tobaccogrowing region in the world. Each of these towns had more than a half dozen tobacco warehouses— large cavernous sheds where harvested tobacco was stored until purchased by cigarette companies. Everyone from bankers to farm equipment dealers scheduled their business around the tobacco harvest. On the special market day, an auctioneer sang out the bids as he and the buyers went up and down the rows of tobacco stacks. At the height of tobacco production in the mid-1900s, almost every town in the Coastal Plain, from Fairmont on the South Carolina border to Henderson near Virginia, had at least one warehouse. The traditional tobacco barn, a tall, thin square of logs or planks, was to be seen everywhere on the Coastal Plain. This tobacco was flue-cured, dried for the market with low levels of heat that made it mild enough for

Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

cigarette smoking. Recently, however, computer-controlled “barns” made of insulated metal and plastic are used for drying. The old tobacco barn is becoming as much a thing of the past as the log cabin. Recent hurricanes have damaged thousands of them; only a few have been repaired. In addition, every year fewer and fewer Coastal Plain residents grow tobacco. Two factors are the cause of that decline: (1) health risks associated with smoking and (2) the cutoff of government payments that guaranteed farmers they would eventually be able to sell their leaf at a profit. Before there were tobacco fields, the longleaf pine was the most common sight on the Coastal Plain. Geographers think that more than ten million acres of pine forest covered the region. The tree gradually disappeared from the landscape. At first it was cut down for lumber and for making tar; later the land was cleared for growing tobacco and other crops. In the twenty-first century, better management of resources has stabilized the tree. Today it is mostly found in the southern part of the Coastal Plain, particularly in the Bladen Lakes State Forest near the Cape Fear River. Because of its historical importance to North Carolina, the longleaf pine is the state tree. The tree that often grows in the midst of pine forests, the dogwood, provides the blossom that is the state flower.

The longleaf pine was so named because its needle can be as long as fifteen inches.

Carolina Bays The longleaf pine grows around some of the biggest curiosities in the state. In the southern part of the Coastal Plain are hundreds of elongated depressions in the ground called Carolina bays. They range in size from a half mile to two miles long and about a mile wide. No one can figure out exactly why they are there or how they were created. Some, like White Lake or Singletary Lake, are filled with water. Others resemble the surface

Section 2: The Coastal Plain Region

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Below: The sandy soil of the Sandhills lies between the sandy loam of the Coastal Plain and the clay of the Piedmont. Bottom: Vast longleaf pine forests once covered the Coastal Plain. These woods are at Weymouth Woods-Sandhills Nature Preserve near Southern Pines.

of pocosins—mucky part of the year, dry the other. Quite a few have been drained and plowed up to make rich farmland. Scientists still argue about their origin. For a long time, it was argued that an ancient shower of meteors fell from outer space and made the holes. This idea came from the fact that the bays are all lined up, as if some giant flung water into the sand of a huge beach. The problem with that idea is that no one has found evidence of meteorites—what’s left after the meteor explodes. The other idea is that the bays are sink holes. That is, they are areas of ground that are above bodies of water and thus sink down when the water table changes. But no one has proven that idea, so it is still an open question. What is unquestionable is that they provide some of the richest soil and best animal habitats in the state.

The Sandhills To the northwest of the Carolina bays are the Sandhills. These concentrations of rolling sand ridges are left over from an ancient change in the shoreline of the Atlantic Ocean. They have, by far, the poorest soils in the state, since the sand allows all the topsoil nutrients to drain away. Where they are the most concentrated, the Sandhills shine whiter than the whitest beach on a summer day. They were put to two good uses during the twentieth century: (1) golf courses in places like Pinehurst, where the World Golf Hall of Fame is located;

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Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

and (2) Fort Bragg, the huge military installation near Fayetteville, originally designed to be a training ground for artillery. It was thought during the world wars that the missiles would land without much damage in the deep sand. Today, Fort Bragg is home to one of the most important units in the United States Army, the 82nd Airborne Division. The Coastal Plain has long attracted people of different ethnic backgrounds who came to take advantage of its dark soil and other resources. Many white residents are descendants of colonial settlers from Virginia or South Carolina. The first concentration of African American slaves was in the area along the Cape Fear River. When tobacco became important, African Americans from other parts of the state moved into the region. Many recent migrants from Mexico and other parts of Latin America have moved to the Coastal Plain to work the land. The most distinctive people of the Coastal Plain are the Lumbee of Robeson County. They form the largest population of Native Americans in the state.

Above: Golfers from around the world come to Pinehurst. The Golf Hall of Fame is located in the village.

It’s Your Turn 1. What are the two types of traditional communities in the Coastal Plain? 2. What are the Carolina bays? 3. Where are the poorest soils in the state?

Section 2: The Coastal Plain Region

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The Piedmont Region As you read, look for: • the features of the Piedmont region • the significance of the fall line • vocabulary terms fall line, headwaters, sectionalism, mill village, NASCAR, monadnock North Carolina’s Piedmont region is a place almost anyone can recognize immediately, for it has an unforgettable feature— its red clay. These iron-rich clods show up wherever a field is plowed or a lawn reseeded, and their stain is hardly ever removed from soiled laundry. One finds this distinctive color from Oxford near the Virginia line to Shelby near South Carolina, and in almost all places in between. The red clay is actually the subsoil in most places, meaning that, at one time, trees and forests covered it with black woods dirt. The widespread timbering and cropping of the region made it bleed red in the rain as early as the 1800s.

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Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

Kudzu was brought to the United States in 1876 for the Centennial Industrial Exposition in Philadelphia. It was on display at the Japanese pavilion.

To control the erosion of red clay, state officials planted millions of kudzu plants in the 1930s, hoping the fastgrowing vine would save the soil. Instead, the big-leafed kudzu—a native plant of Asia—turned out to be the monster that almost ate North Carolina. On a hot, wet day it can grow several inches. Its tendrils will reach anywhere, all the way up power poles and over the tops of abandoned buildings. By the late twentieth century, kudzu was common as a weed throughout the Piedmont.

The Fall Line The Piedmont’s red clay erodes so easily because the region is hilly. The landscape is pocked with hills and hollows that twist and curve in all directions. Technically, most of the Piedmont—which in Latin means “foot of the mountains”—is a plateau, a step up from the Coastal Plain, a step below the Blue Ridge. In fact, the line that divides the Piedmont from the Coastal Plain is called the fall line. This is the place where rivers flowing out of the Piedmont, like the Tar or the Neuse, actually go down their last hill. At these points, the rivers usually become flatter and smoother, allowing boating. The fall line extends from the north near Roanoke Rapids southwest past Raleigh and Fayetteville. A state park near Raleigh is called Falls of the Neuse. Historians generally use the fall line to divide North Carolina into east and west sections. Similarly, the western side of the Piedmont, often called the foothills, is bounded by the ridge line, where the Blue Ridge Mountains rise up on the horizon. The two principal rivers of the Piedmont region are the Yadkin-Pee Dee and the Catawba. These rivers do not run to the fall line. These rivers have their headwaters (the springs from which they first flow) on the side of the Blue Ridge and head east until being turned sharply south when their currents encounter very hard rock layers. After the rivers bend—the Catawba west of Statesville, the Yadkin west of Winston-Salem—the two parallel one another into South Carolina, where they flow into the Atlantic north of Charleston. One of the key reasons sectionalism (excessive concern for local interests and customs) developed in the state

Opposite page, above: The rich clay soil of the Piedmont nourishes a variety of crops. Opposite page, below: The Pee Dee River, seen here near Albemarle, is one of the major rivers of the Piedmont. Below: The Catawba River flows south into South Carolina just west of Charlotte.

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was the lack of connection between the rivers of the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain. More than half the Piedmont is covered in forests. Where there are extensive pine trees, it usually means that they were planted years ago for erosion control on an abandoned farm. Biological succession—where coniferous trees like pines give way to hardwoods like oak or hickory—occurs all over the region.

Farms and Factories

Top: Farming in the Piedmont has not always been easy. This abandoned farm is in Moore County. Above: These dairy cows on a Piedmont farm are going in for milking.

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Farming has been as much a tradition in the Piedmont as the Coastal Plain. However, except for certain rich areas with unusually rich brown soils, like the area around the Lowe’s Motor Speedway near Charlotte, farming has always been a struggle in the Piedmont. Early on, farmers depended upon livestock to make their living; since the end of World War II, they have returned to dairying. This too has been in decline in recent times. Only in western Iredell County and eastern Alamance County are a significant number of dairies left in the region. The decline in farming was countered by the building of factories, as people made a living processing and manufacturing raw materials produced elsewhere in the state. In the area stretching from Kannapolis to Gastonia, textile mills began to make cloth of all types for an international market. Durham, Winston-Salem, and Reidsville were home to

Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

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CAROLINA CURIOSITIES

The Mysterious Devil’s Tramping Ground

Most North Carolinians know that Wake Forest University students can be “demon” deacons and that Duke University students paint themselves blue because they are “devils.” These athletic nicknames are one of the funnier parts of our state culture. So too is the folk belief that the Devil himself shows up in North Carolina every night to think about his wicked plans. The Devil’s Tramping Ground—an actual place south of Siler City—is world famous. People have been going there for more than a century, ever since a Wilmington newspaper first published a story about it in 1882. The story goes like this: Supposedly, Satan paces all night just about every night around a strange circle of dirt in Chatham County. Mysteriously, nothing will grow in a near-perfect circle that is about forty feet in diameter. Folks in the neighborhood say that objects that fall into the circle during the day, like sticks or rocks or even heavy logs, are gone by the next morning. Hunters swear that their dogs will not cross over the space, and that they yip and howl if they are taken near it. People who have stayed there during the night have often had strange dreams. More than one group of brave college students has abandoned its camp during the night. No one, however, has ever claimed to have seen the Devil. There are other explanations for the place. One old tradition says that an Indian chief was killed on the spot, and his blood tainted the soil forever. More recently, advocates of Unidentified Flying Objects say that a space ship must have landed there and scorched away the grass.

Scientists have another idea. Recently, a soil specialist from out of state took samples of dirt from the track of the circle, from the center of the circle, and from the nearby woods. He then put seeds in each sample and carefully watered them. The seeds in the soil from the center of the circle and from the woods sprouted. The seeds put in the “doughnut” soil—that is, the dirt from the place where the Devil supposedly paces—did not. Tests then showed that the doughnut soil is totally lacking in carbon, a necessary element for plant growth.

Above: Leaves often cover the “devil’s path,” despite legends to the contrary. So, the mystery has been solved . . . or has it? Scientists still scratch their heads over the fact that the soil changes completely in its fertility just an inch from the edge of the path. And, there is still the question: Why such a near-perfect circle? Why is this the only place where it happens? Why is it not found anywhere else?

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Top: This photograph of a loom was taken around 1980 at the Fieldcrest-Cannon Mill in Kannapolis. Above: Cooleemee has retained much of its textile heritage. These are two of over three hundred former mill houses that have been preserved.

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the leading cigarette makers in the world in the early twentieth century. High Point, Lenoir, and Hickory built chair factories, using hardwood from nearby forests. A traveler in the Piedmont in this period would expect to see a factory in every town. Textiles, tobacco, and furniture were regarded as the three principal industries in the state. Many of the workers in these factories lived on the edges of town in clusters of housing called mill villages, like the Proximity neighborhood in Greensboro. The company owned the houses, provided stores and schools, and generally influenced the lives of workers both inside and outside the factory. All three principal industries went into sharp decline in the 1990s, as foreign competition cut into their shares of the market. Most notably, textile factories have been closed in recent years in one Piedmont town after another. Fieldcrest-Cannon Company of Kannapolis was the largest closure, in 2003, when more than 5,000 people lost their jobs in one day. In contrast, Phillip Morris Tobacco Company continued to do well with a cigarette factory in Concord, marketing a lot of its product to the factory workers in Asia that were now making textiles and furniture.

Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

Banking and Racing Most Piedmont cities have worked hard to find other economic outlets. Over the past two decades, Charlotte has become a center of international banking, with both Bank of America and Wachovia headquartered there. Charlotte has also become the support center for stock car racing. Companies that build and maintain cars on the NASCAR circuit are concentrated in the triangle from Charlotte to Concord to Mooresville. NASCAR is an acronym (an abbreviation that itself seems to be a word) meaning National Association of Stock Car Automobile Racing. In the spring of 2007, ground was broken for the NASCAR Hall of Fame in Charlotte. In Winston-Salem and Durham, community leaders have attempted to turn around the decline of industrial jobs with the growth of medical services. Wake Forest University in Winston and Duke University in Durham both have world-class medical schools that staff regional hospitals. Smaller towns have also turned to innovative businesses. Salisbury is headquarters for the grocery chain Food Lion, the largest private employer in the state. The Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area continued to develop ways to use their resident universities. Since the 1960s, the Research Triangle Park, located in a finger of the Sandhills between the three cities, has been a leader in technology innovation, particularly in pharmaceuticals and computers.

More banking activity is concentrated in Charlotte than anywhere else in the United States, except for New York City.

Below: The start of the 2004 Coca-Cola 600 at the Lowe’s Motor Speedway in Concord. The Charlotte area is home to most NASCAR teams.

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The Uwharries

Top: The monadnock Pilot Mountain rises above the surrounding farmland. Pilot Mountain was named a National Natural Landmark in 1976. Above: Salisbury, a city in the Uwharries, is a national trendsetter in the restoration of its Main Street.

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The most distinctive natural landmarks of the Piedmont are its monadnocks. This hard-to-pronounce word refers to a geological condition where a point of land stands out because all of the land around it has been eroded. The most famous monadnock is Pilot Mountain north of Winston-Salem. This handsome spire has a distinctive cap of granite that makes it recognizable from as far as forty miles away. It has served as a landmark for North Carolinians for centuries, from the first Indian paths to the laying of interstates. One important cluster of monadnocks is often overlooked by North Carolinians, but its location influenced the shaping of the state almost as much as did the barrier islands. The Uwharrie Mountains are located south of Greensboro and east of Salisbury. Although most scientists believe that the Uwharries are older than the Appalachian Mountains, they do not look the part. They resemble miniature mountains from a distance, their elevations seldom reaching more than 2,000 feet. The bestknown Uwharrie “peak” is Morrow Mountain near Albemarle. Because of their slopes and because of the slate found in their soils, the Uwharries were not as thickly settled as other areas in the Piedmont.

Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

This is why, in large measure, there is the Piedmont Crescent, the curved necklace of small towns, one after another—Burlington, Greensboro, High Point, Lexington, Salisbury, and Concord—that stretch from Raleigh to Charlotte. First the buffalo, then the Indians followed a trail that became known as the Trading Path. Travelers on it from the coastal areas of Virginia kept the Uwharrie “peaks” like Occaneechi, near today’s Hillsborough, and Caraway Mountain, near Asheboro, to their right as they headed south toward the Catawba and Cherokee Indian towns in South Carolina. White settlers gradually moved the network of trails northward, since the soil was more fertile as one got away from the Uwharries. When the first railroad was built in the Piedmont, it was routed around the Uwharries to the north and west, to save money on grading and to bring it closer to the center of farming. Later highways, then interstates, followed the same route.

Below: This view of the Uwharrie horizon draws thousands each year to Morrow Mountain State Park near Albemarle. The area shown was home to the some of the ancient inhabitants of the region.

It’s Your Turn 1. What is the most unforgettable feature of the Piedmont region? 2. What divides North Carolina into east and west? 3. What were the three principal industries in the Piedmont region?

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CAROLINA PLACES

Mayberry

Perhaps the best-known place in North Carolina is not actually in the state, but on television. “Mayberry, North Carolina” became famous because of “The Andy Griffith Show,” a 1960s comedy series. Since that time, the show has been rerun just about every day for a half century, courtesy of cable television. Mayberry was “founded” by North Carolina native Andy Griffith, who grew up in Mt. Airy in Surry County. He attended the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, where he became interested in acting. Griffith also tried his hand at stand-up comedy. After teaching for a year at Goldsboro

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High School, Griffith hit the big-time with a monologue titled “What It Was . . . Was Football.” That was based upon the idea of a country boy coming to Chapel Hill for the first time. In the 1950s, Griffith did comedy in clubs and then began to get acting jobs. His next break was playing a naive mounBelow: There really was a Floyd’s Barber Shop on Main Street in Mt. Airy. It is the inspiration for the same shop on the television show. The real Snappy Lunch still serves up its famous pork chop sandwiches almost every day.

Above: Mt. Airy has preserved Andy Griffith’s boyhood home. Below: Three of the most popular characters in the show were played by Andy Griffith (Sheriff Andy Taylor), Don Knotts (Deputy Barney Fife), and Ron Howard (the son Opie Taylor).

tain boy in the movie No Time For Sergeants. By 1960, Griffith had earned enough fame to have his own television show. In the show, Griffith portrayed Andy Taylor, the town sheriff. Griffith and a group of television writers, including Duke University graduate Harvey Bullock, created a mythical town full of characters that any North Carolinian would recognize as real. Otis Campbell, the Scots-Irishman who drank too much but had a heart of gold; Barney Fife, whose superstitious habits followed the traditions of Piedmont Germans; and Gomer Pyle, whose parents could have worked in the cotton mill villages; all rang true to viewers. One character in the show, Emmett Clark, was named for Griffith’s childhood best friend. Part of the show’s popularity was its sense of kindness toward all people, regardless of who they were. Mayberry was a place full of odd people who often did foolish and silly things, but no one ever hated them for their behavior or their weaknesses. Usually, a lesson was learned and a value taught, as in the episode when Opie, the son of the sheriff, killed a bird with his slingshot. Opie had to learn to take care of the orphaned baby bird and then let it fly away. The show even slyly called attention to race relations in the South. The show had no black characters, but in many episodes black “residents” were on the streets. The closest real town to Mayberry in North Carolina is Mt. Airy, which has proudly claimed its heritage as an inspiration for Andy Griffith’s career. Visitors to Mt. Airy can see a mock-up jail, a barber shop, and even the “Snappy Lunch,” a diner actually depicted in the show. Most folks who eat there have the Mayberry Special, a pork chop sandwich. Even into the twenty-first century, Mt. Airy residents continue to visit their downtown, walking, talking, visiting, and even going to the movies on a weekday night. Mt. Airy was honored in 2003 with a statue of “Andy and Opie” given to the town by the cable channel TV Land. Griffith himself went on to other television and movie roles. He came back to North Carolina when he retired, building a home in Manteo.

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The Mountains Region As you read, look for:

Opposite page, above: The Blue Ridge Parkway, begun during the New Deal era of the 1930s, takes tourists to most of the famous sites in the Mountains region. It has a 45 mile-per-hour speed limit. Below: The views of the nearby mountains from parkway overlooks can be spectacular.

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• the features of the Mountains region • vocabulary terms elevation, bald, cove

Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

Travelers from the east see North Carolina’s mountains long before they cross into them. The mountains begin at the Blue Ridge, which sometimes towers from than 1,000 feet over the nearby Piedmont hills.

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The Mountains Region As you read, look for:

Opposite page, above: The Blue Ridge Parkway, begun during the New Deal era of the 1930s, takes tourists to most of the famous sites in the Mountains region. It has a 45 mile-per-hour speed limit. Below: The views of the nearby mountains from parkway overlooks can be spectacular.

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• the features of the Mountains region • vocabulary terms elevation, bald, cove

Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

Travelers from the east see North Carolina’s mountains long before they cross into them. The mountains begin at the Blue Ridge, which sometimes towers from than 1,000 feet over the nearby Piedmont hills.

The Blue Ridge forms the eastern boundary of the Appalachian Mountains, some of the oldest in the world. Running along the ridge top is the Blue Ridge Parkway, a national highway that has some of the best views in the United States. The Blue Ridge divides the Piedmont from the Mountains region in the state. To the east are the foothills, a series of progressively higher hills, and to the west are different ranges of mountains that make up the western third of the state. The Continental Divide runs along the Blue Ridge. Streams flowing down its eastern slopes eventually became part of the Atlantic Ocean. Streams on the west side send water into the tributaries of the Mississippi River.

The Blue Ridge The Blue Ridge gets its name from the fact that, at a distance, the mist evaporating off its slopes shimmers an aqua blue. The Blue Ridge runs from New Jersey into the Deep South. In North Carolina’s western area, the Blue Ridge curves westward before nipping the very western edge of South Carolina. Like the barrier islands, the Blue Ridge is really just one long landform, with peaks of various heights and gaps that, like inlets, both allowed and discouraged travel back and forth. For years, places west of the Blue Ridge were even more isolated than the barrier islands. Early settlers to the state had to cross lower points of elevation like Deep Gap

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in Watauga County (to the east of the town of Boone today) to venture into the mountains. Until the building of railroads in the late 1800s, travel over the Blue Ridge was expensive and laborious. One of the greatest feats in state history was the long effort in the 1870s to grade and tunnel through the Blue Ridge at Swanannoa Gap. More than 100 men died in the effort. The long wind of Interstate 40 up and down the Blue Ridge from Old Fort to Black Mountain parallels that route.

The Appalachians

Below: This view from Craggy Gardens on the Blue Ridge Parkway shows the dark shadows on the mountainsides that gave the Black Mountains their name.

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The Appalachian range runs from New York to Alabama but spreads out the most and has its highest peaks in North Carolina. Forty-three mountaintops in the state are more than 6,000 feet above sea level. The highest elevation (height above sea level) east of the Rocky Mountains is Mt. Mitchell at 6,684 feet, although a half dozen other peaks are just about as tall. There are more than a dozen different mountain ranges within North Carolina. Among the more notable are the Black Mountains, located just to the west of the Blue Ridge. The Black Mountains get their name from the dark shadows the mountains cast when summer thunderstorms threaten. Mt. Mitchell is the highest point of the Black Mountains. Even more notable are the world-famous Great Smoky Mountains. They get their name from the evaporation of resin-filled dew off the needles of spruce and fir trees. When the mist rises, the resin makes

Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

the mist look like smoke. The Smokies have one of the greatest variety of plants found anywhere in the world outside of the rain forest. More than four thousand different species have been identified. Two of the highest mountains in the state, Clingman’s Dome and Mt. Guyot, are located in the Smokies. South of the Smokies are the Balsams, home to a large number of the most mysterious places in the mountains, the balds. Balds are places, usually above 6,000 feet in elevation, where few trees ever grow. The ones that do take root never rise far above the ground. The bald habitat includes many of the flowers and shrubs found throughout the mountains, including the rhododendron and the mountain laurel. No one has ever explained why trees fail to grow on the balds. Some scientists believe it has something to do with the rocky soil. Others say the cold winds keep the plants from thriving. North Carolinians once believed that the Cherokee kept livestock on the mountain tops, which in turn kept plants from growing. But the Cherokee are long gone from parts of the mountains, and the balds have stayed the same. One of the best-known balds is Wayah Bald, just off the Blue Ridge Parkway. Wayah is a Cherokee word for “wolf.”

Above: The bluish haze that gives the Great Smoky Mountains their name can be seen from the Blue Ridge Parkway.

Geologists believe the New River is actually very old; in fact, it may be the oldest river in the United States.

Mountain Streams and Rocks The Mountains, like the rest of the state, has interesting waterways. Where rivers on the Coastal Plain run east, and the Piedmont rivers turn south, mountain rivers run north and west. The New River starts just west of the Blue Ridge and flows straight north out of the northwestern corner of the state. Also flowing north is the French Broad River, which starts in the Balsams and meanders its way across a broad valley between

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CAROLINA CELEBRITIES Dr. Elisha Mitchell

Most North Carolinians know that the highest point in the state, and the highest in the eastern half of the United States, is Mt. Mitchell. Some state residents remember that the mountain is 6,684 feet above sea level. Often, North Carolinians do not know just how hard it was to figure out that number, and how Elisha Mitchell, for whom the mountain was named, literally gave his life in the effort. In 1817, Mitchell came to the University in Chapel Hill to be its mathematics and natural philosophy professor. At that time, “natural philosophy” meant anything connected to science, so Mitchell had to teach a wide range of subjects. He also conducted religious services on Sundays (he was also a Presbyterian minister) and during the week kept the books and groomed the grounds of the University. Mitchell also worked to connect the two sections of the state—east and west. In 1846, Mitchell surveyed a route that would connect Raleigh to Asheville. Although the road was not immediately built, North Carolinians today enjoy its more modern version: Interstate 40. While in the west in the 1840s, Mitchell put his math and geology skills to work studying the Black Mountains. He soon concluded that the highest part, then known as “the Black Mountain,” was higher than Mt. Washington in New Hampshire. Three times he made measurements with surveying instruments and calculations by hand. He believed the peak was 6,708 feet above sea level. Not every North Carolinian believed Mitchell. Residents around Asheville believed that the Great Smokies might be higher. Like a good scientist, Mitchell went back to the Black Mountain to recheck his results. In June 1857, he was alone on a lower slope of a mountain and was caught in a

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thunderstorm. His companions found him drowned in a pool at the bottom of a waterfall. Apparently, he had slipped on wet rocks and fallen to his death. Professor Mitchell was buried at the top of Black Mountain in 1858. Soon after, North Carolinians began to call the peak “Mt. Mitchell.” In 1882, government scientists used better instruments to prove that Mt. Mitchell was the highest peak in the eastern United States. In the early 1900s, North Carolina made the mountain a state park. It also remains a place where education never ends, as Professor Mitchell would have liked. Scientists are currently studying its trees to learn the effects of acid rain on the environment.

Top: Dr. Elisha Mitchell. Above: These dead trees on the peak of Mt. Mitchell may be due to beetles. Opposite page: Oscar M. Lewis’s lithograph of the falls where Dr. Mitchell fell to his death shows his ghost standing nearby.

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the Black and Balsam Mountains. Asheville, the largest city in the Mountains, is located in this basin. The tributaries of the Tennessee River, in particular the Little Tennessee and the Nantahala, form a river system that flows all the way to the Mississippi River. The long-time inhabitants of the mountains, the Cherokee, built most of their villages along the Tennessee River tributaries. More than one hundred lakes are to be found in the Mountains, but almost all of them are manmade. Lake Lure, constructed in the 1920s, is considered to be one of the most beautiful lakes in the world. It has been the setting for a number of motion pictures. Fontana Lake is one of the deepest lakes in America, having been built in steep mountain valleys during the 1930s in an effort to produce cheaper electric power. Fontana has the highest dam in the eastern United States. The Mountains region is also full of scenic wonders, natural formations that are interesting just to see. Blowing Rock is a cliff so high above the nearby hills that updrafts of wind sometimes make rain and

Above: The Oconaluftee River flows through the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Right: Beautiful Lake Lure is ringed by mountains, providing a favorite destination for many.

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Asa Gray and Andre Michaux From early days, North Carolina has been renowned for the variety of its plants. Some of the pioneers of botany have visited the state, particularly the mountains in the Grandfather Mountain area. Andre Michaux came to locate plants to take back to his native France as proof of the greatness of the new United States. Asa Gray, the first Harvard College botanist, followed in his footsteps a half century later. Below: View of Grandfather Mountain, showing how it got its name.

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snow reverse course. Chimney Rock, a towering granite spire above Hickory Nut Gorge in the southern mountains, has been a great attraction for almost a century. Grandfather Mountain, in the northwestern corner, has habitats that attract thousands of tourists each year. Sometimes the natural wonders are helped by humans. There is an elevator deep inside Chimney Rock to help tourists get to the top, and Grandfather Mountain is noted for its “mile-high swinging bridge” that connects its twin peaks. The Nantahala River Gorge features some of the best rafting anywhere, which is made possible by the daily discharge of water from a power dam upstream.

The Mountains Economy

Above: Chimney Rock sticks out over the Hickory Nut Gorge south of Asheville. It has recently become a state-owned tourist site.

The Mountains region historically was never as populated or developed as the other regions of the state. The first settlers generally lived in coves, valleys where streams cut out swathes wide enough for farming. In coves like Valle Crucis, west of the town of Boone, little communities had schools, churches, stores, and mills. Yet, it was hard to get from one cove to the next, and even harder to get goods in and out of the mountains. Early on, farmers grazed livestock on lush mountain grass and then drove the cattle to coastal markets each fall. Because the mountains had a variety of plants, mountain families made money selling “roots, barks, berries, and herbs,” plants with medicinal properties. More than two thousand “yarbs,” as they were called, could be found. Ginseng, used as a spring tonic in China, was the best seller. In more recent times, tourism has become the largest part of the Mountains economy, with an increasing part given to people who actually retire to the region. Both retirement and vacation homes seem to be sprouting up everywhere. The most distinctive recent economic development has been the Christmas tree industry. This has been concentrated in Ashe and adjoining counties in the northwest corner of the state. The leading seller has been Fraser firs. Some tree farms even allow customers to cut their own and take them directly home during the holidays.

It’s Your Turn 1. What is the significance of the Continental Divide? 2. What is the highest point in the state? 3. What are balds?

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North Carolina’s Weather and Climate As you read, look for: • the difference between weather and climate • average temperatures and precipitation in the state • types of severe weather • vocabulary terms weather, climate, westerlies, humidity, precipitation, tornado, hurricane

North Carolinians live in different regions, but they all breathe the same air. Or, as scientists describe it, they have a common atmosphere. Scientists refer to short-term atmospheric conditions as weather and to longterm conditions as climate. In general, everywhere in North Carolina has a temperate climate, which means there are no extremes in temperature and precipitation. There is, however, a lot of variation in the weather.

Below: Thundershowers are a frequent occurrence each summer day in the Mountains region. Moist air coming from the west rises when it hits the Blue Ridge and often condenses into rain as it cools. The rapid change in temperature can produce long zigzags of lightning.

Section 5: North Carolina’s Weather and Climate

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“It’s Not the Heat; It’s the Humidity”

Map 4 Average January Temperatures Map Skill: What is the average January temperature of Raleigh?

Winston-Salem Asheville Charlotte

Degrees Fahrenheit Above 44 40–44 36–40 Below 36

Degrees Celsius Above 7 4–7 2–4 Below 2

Winston-Salem Asheville ap 4 Average January Temperatures rd proof Charlotte

Degrees Fahrenheit Above 80 78–80 76–78 Below 76

Degrees Celsius Above 27 26–27 24–26 Below 24

Map 5 Average July Temperatures Map Skill: What is the average July temperature of Wilmington?

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North Carolina’s temperatures run about the same from Jockey’s Ridge to Blue Ridge. In most places in the state, many winter days get decently warm in the afternoon, and many summer days start out okay in the morning. This is because North Carolina receives westerly winds most days. These westerlies bring warmer air in the winter and cooler air in the summer. For example, the average temperature each year at Wilmington is only eight degrees higher than the average in Asheville. This is true whether it is January or July. More extreme temperatures tend to occur in particular places. Fayetteville and the surrounding Elizabeth City Sandhills tend to have more days with a temperature above 90 deRaleigh grees than any other place in the state. On the highest mountain peaks, like Mt. Mitchell and Grandfather Mountain, the thermometer is most likely to dip well below Wilmington zero. The most extreme night in state history was on January 21, 1985, when Grandfather Mountain recorded –32˚F (Fahrenheit) and Mt. Mitchell –34˚F. That same night, the whole state was below Elizabeth City zero, except for Cape Hatteras, which was the “hottest” place at Raleigh 6˚ above zero. The temperature does not feel very temperate on hot, humid days. Humidity is a measure of the amount of moisture in the air. Wilmington In most places of the state, the humidity is often above 50 percent. This makes most state residents less comfortable, regardless of what the temperature is or where they are. For example, Cape Hatteras and Charlotte each have the highest average humidity across the state, 65 percent.

Different Storms in Different Places The rate of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, hail) varies considerably from place to place across the state. The highest levels of rain occur in the southwest mountains, because the westerlies bring summer storms from the Great Plains. Because there is so much precipitation in the mountains, the Piedmont is the driest part of the state. This is because

Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

most of the rain in the Piedmont comes from clouds that first have to cross the mountains, where they drop most of their moisture. Anywhere in North Carolina can get snow, but the mountains get the bulk of it. The northwestern mountains get the highest levels of snowfall, because they are the first lines of high peaks that polar air reaches. Although there are very high peaks in the Smoky Mountains, they get less snow on average. There is also less snow east of the Blue Ridge, Map Skill: About how much because the heavy snow clouds have already dumped their moisture, precipitation does Asheville receive each year? just like the rain clouds. Sometimes, everywhere in western North Carolina that is at least 1,000 feet above sea level gets some snow, but it rains at lower levels. On days like Elizabeth City that, Hickory or Rutherfordton will Winston-Salem see flakes, but Asheboro and Raleigh Albemarle will see drops. Asheville Some of the worst weather in Charlotte the state occurs when the temperature is just around freezing, and the rain turns to ice. These ice Inches Centimeters Wilmington storms happen most often in the More than 52 More than 132 48–52 122–132 Piedmont. Sometimes the ice will 44–48 112–122 be as thick as an inch around tree Below 44 Less than 112 limbs and power lines, breaking both of them. Even more dangerous are smaller storms that lay thin layers of ice on roads and streets. Motorists at night often cannot tell where this “black ice” is, and frequent wrecks occur. When moist air coming up from the Gulf of Mexico collides with drier, colder air from the polar regions, blizzards result. In 1993, “the storm of the century” in the state dumped fifteen inches of snow on the Coastal Summer is the wettest Plain, while the mountain areas got a lot less. season, and July is the The whole state experiences thunderstorms during the summer. Some wettest month. of these intense bursts of heavy rain showers pour down on just one or two places in a region. Other times, a whole front of storms—where the downpour is usually in a line that runs north to south—sweep across the state. These fronts most often come from the west and bring hail (rain that freezes high up in the atmosphere). Sometimes tornadoes come with the storm fronts. (Tornadoes are funnel-shaped storms whose rotating winds can reach as much as 250 miles an hour or more.) Compared to the Great Plains states, North Carolina does not have frequent tornadoes. When tornadoes do occur, they tend to hit the Sandhills and certain counties in the southern half of the Coastal Plain. Duplin and Onslow counties have had more tornadoes touch down than any other place in the state in the last fifty years. The worst tornado in state history hit March 25, 1985. It touched down in at least fifteen eastern counties. Forty people died, and 400 more were injured.

Map 6 Average Annual Precipitation

Section 5: North Carolina’s Weather and Climate

39

Figure 1 Enhanced Fujita Scale for Tornadoes Category Wind Speeds (mph) Potential Damage _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EF0 65–85 Light damage _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EF1 86–110 Moderate damage _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EF2 111–135 Considerable damage _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EF3 136–165 Severe damage _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EF4 166–200 Devastating damage _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EF5 Over 200 Incredible damage _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

North Carolinians are far more likely to die from being struck by lightning than from tornadoes. Our state ranks third in the nation in the number of citizens killed by lightning, just behind Texas and Florida.

The Path of Hurricanes

Map 7 Hurricane Paths Map Skill: What area seems to be the most active for hurricanes?

40

Hurricanes are tropical storms that bring high winds and heavy rains. North Carolina’s hurricanes most often develop over the Atlantic Ocean, where they pick up enough moisture to create a huge vortex (rotation) of water high in the atmosphere. The rain rotates very rapidly around a center known as “the eye.” If the “wall” at the edge of the eye is strong enough to hold together, the force of the wind and rain can do very heavy damage when the storm hits land. Hurricanes generally damage North Carolina in three ways. First, the wind and rain create a “storm surge” that brings a huge tide onto the beach, wiping out the sand, plants, and manmade structures in its path. A hurricane that hit the Outer Banks in 1845 actually cut two inlets, Hatteras and Oregon, in the sand. Second, the swirling winds can do great damage. This occurred in 1954 when Hurricane Hazel’s winds pounded the state’s Coastal Plain for thirty-six hours. In some places, the winds exceeded 150 miles an hour, enough to tear up houses in less than a minute. Third, hurricanes usually slow up and weaken over land, since they can no longer suck up water from the ocean. They end up dumping their water onto the state, causing widespread flooding. This was the case in 1999, when Hurricane Floyd caused un-

Chapter 1: The Lay of the Land

Figure 2 Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Scale Number or Class 1 2 3 4 5 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Wind Speeds (mph) 74–95 96–110 111–130 131–155 Over 155 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Storm Surge (in Feet) 4.0-4.9 5.0-7.9 8.0-11.9 12.0-18.0 Over 18.0 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Expected Damage Minimal Moderate Extensive Extreme Catastrophic _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

precedented flooding on the rivers of the Coastal Plain. Princeton, a small suburb of Tarboro on the Tar River, was destroyed by the flood. Hurricanes can also enter the state from other states, most often coming from the south. Hurricane Hugo did major damage in 1989 after almost wiping out the South Carolina coast. Electric power was off in the Charlotte area for weeks. Even the mountains can be affected by these tropical storms. Two groups of clouds converged near Grandfather Mountain to cause the “1916 Flood,” which swept away houses and bridges all along the Catawba River. Witnesses saw a six-foot-high wave go downriver near where the Interstate 40 bridge crosses the river today. The frequency of hurricanes comes and goes in cycles. There were twice as many major hurricanes in the 1950s as in the 1960s. No significant storms came along in the 1970s, but the frequency of the storms coming to North Carolina increased dramatically in the 1980s and 1990s. Although North Carolinians cannot predict which part of their state will be hit when a hurricane develops, they can plan for the likelihood of a storm. Most develop during the hurricane “season” that starts in June, peaks in September, and lasts until the end of November. North Carolinians then worry about other types of storms as the weather cools.

It’s Your Turn

Above: Hurricane Floyd flooded much of the Coastal Plains. Thousands of residents lost their cars, animals, and houses.

The U.S. National Weather Service started naming hurricanes in 1953, using women’s names. In 1979, it began including men’s names.

1. What is the difference between weather and climate? 2. What are the four types of precipitation? 3. Which is a “tropical” storm—a tornado or a hurricane?

Section 5: North Carolina’s Weather and Climate

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Natives and Newcomers

Chapter Preview Terms: archaeologist, atlatl, pemmican, culture, ceremonial center, dialect, clan, matrilineal, consensus, conjurer, immunity, expedition, colony, Lost Colony People: Archaic people, Woodland people, Mississippian people, Tuscarora, Catawba, Cherokee, Giovanni da Verrazano, Hernando de Soto, Juan Pardo, Walter Raleigh, Philip Amadas, Arthur Barlowe, Ralph Lane, Thomas Harriot, John White, Francis Drake, Virginia Dare, Lumbee Indians Places: Town Creek Indian Mound, Fort Raleigh

44

C

arolina’s native people greatly

interested John Lawson. In 1700, the English explorer visited Waxhaw, near present-day Charlotte. There, the women danced nonstop in a circle for six hours, until “a white lather” of sweat covered their bodies. Musicians accompanied them with drums made of deerskin stretched over clay pots and gourd shakers full of corn kernels. Earlier, the Waxhaw men had gyrated and gestured for two hours—“a way of dancing nothing short of a stamping motion,” Lawson reported back to England. Their shrieks echoed off the walls and pyramid roof of their council house. Villagers crowded into benches along the walls, each spectator also listening to the stories the dancers chanted. Just like everyone else, Lawson snacked on stewed peaches and smoked venison as he watched. Unusual sights, sounds, and tastes were the highlights of the trip Lawson took across the Carolinas. At Kadapau—near today’s Carowinds—he ate “barbakue,” meat roasted over coals just like today. Near Kadapau, Lawson watched thousands of pigeons fly over in one afternoon. While at Sapona (where I-85 crosses the Yadkin River today), a “fierce wind came up” and almost blew down the village. The conjurer, who was supposedly able to cast spells on people and nature, rushed from his hut, muttered phrases into the air, and “in two minutes the wind ceased.” When Lawson returned to England, he published the account of his adventure. It was the first book

North Carolina: Land of Contrasts

written about North Carolina. Some readers recognized that the miracle performed by the Sapona chief was really caused by the passing overhead of a tornado. Even so, the “delicious country” that Lawson explored was filled with wonders. “None I have ever seen exceeds it,” Lawson said of the region’s natural resources and human accomplishments. Lawson was one of the first white explorers to come into contact with a culture that had been a thousand years in the making. Native Americans had lived in the Carolinas since the beginnings of civilization, and their lifestyles were the product of the many lessons learned about their bountiful environment. What had taken so long to perfect, however, was soon displaced and all but destroyed by the early explorations of Europeans. First, the Spanish, then the English came to claim Carolina as their own. They, too, would suffer in the exchange of germs, habits, and ideas between the natives and the newcomers.

Below: This painting imagines the voyage of Christopher Columbus’s ships the Niña, Pinta, and Santa Maria to the New World. Opposite page: This Clovis spear point is characteristic of the earliest human inhabitants of North Carolina.

Chapter 2: Natives and Newcomers

45

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Corn _____________was ___________grown _________________as ______early _____________as _______7000 _______________B.C. ___________in _______________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Central _________________America, ______________________the ________same _____________time ____________that _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________The ____________________________in ____________________________________Mexico ___________________________________________ _______agriculture _______________________________________appeared _____________________________western ________________________________________ __________________Aztecs ________________________present-day _________________________________________________played ________________________ ____________________________________first ____________________________________in __________________________Asia _____________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________a____form ____________of ______one-on-one ____________________________basketball. __________________________The ________________________ with crops of lentils, barley, and wheat. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________hoop ______________was ___________made _______________of ______stone _______________and ___________the _________ball __________of ________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________solid ____________rubber. __________________The _________loser _____________was __________beheaded. _________________________At _____________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________the __________same _______________time, _______________football ____________________was ____________popular _____________________in __________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________England. _______________________Sometimes _____________________________they ____________used ____________the __________head _____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________an ________________________________criminal _____________________________kick ___________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________of _____________executed __________________________________________to ________________around. _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Europeans ______________________________________used ____________________________________in _________________________________ ____________________________________first _________________________fractions ______________________________1585, ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________the ________same ______________time ___________that ___________Thomas ___________________Harriot, ___________________an __________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________English ____________________mathematician, _________________________________________was ____________exploring ______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Roanoke _______________________Island ________________for _________Sir ________Walter __________________Raleigh. _________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________John ______________________________an ___________________________watercolorist, __________________________________________________ _____________________White, _________________________English _____________________________________________________________________ _________was ___________painting ______________________scenes ___________________of ______Native _________________America ___________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________villages ____________________near _____________Roanoke _______________________Island ________________in ______1585, _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________when ______________Michelangelo, _________________________________one __________of ______the ________greatest _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________European __________________________________________of _____________time, ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________artists ________________________all ______________________was _______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Pyramids _______________________were ____________part ___________of ______many ______________early __________________________________ ________still ___________serving ___________________an _______apprenticeship ______________________________________in ______Italy. __________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________religious _______________________sites ____________across _________________the _________world, ______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________including _______________________________Egyptian ______________________________________of _______________________________ ________________________________the ________________________________culture _________________________about __________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2700 B.C. and the Mayan culture _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _of _________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Central ___________________America ______________________about _______________500 ____________A.D. _______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Men ___________________Persia ______________________________________pants _______________________________500 ___________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________in ________________________invented ______________________________________about ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________B.C. ___________Buttons ___________________for ________pants ______________and __________shirts ______________first ________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________appeared _________________________in ______France __________________about ________________1200 _______________A.D. ______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________During ____________________________same ____________________________Native ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________the _______________________time, _______________________________Americans __________________________________ _ _ ______The _________Gothic _________________cathedrals _________________________of _____Europe __________________first __________________________ ______________________without ____________________________________although ____________________________________wore _________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________went _______________________________both, ___________________________________men __________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________appeared _________________________around ____________________1100 _______________A.D., ______________about ________________the _____________________ ________leggings ______________________and ___________breechcloths. __________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __serpent _______________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ same time that the biggest of the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________mounds ______________________were ______________being _______________built _____________by ________Native _______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Americans. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SIGNS OF THE TIMES SCIENCE

SPORTS

MAT H E MAT I C S

ART

RELIGION

EVERYDAY LIFE

ARCHITECTURE

46

North Carolina: Land of Contrasts

Figure 3 Timeline: 10,000 B.C. – 1600 A.D. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1590 John White returned to Roanoke; colonists missing 1587 White colony arrived at Roanoke 1585 Lane colony arrived at Roanoke 10,000 B.C. People first came to the North Carolina area

1584 First Raleigh expedition to Roanoke

7000 B.C. Archaic period

1569 Juan Pardo explored North Carolina 1200 A.D. Mississippian period 1000 A.D. Woodland period

10,000 B.C. 5000 B.C.

1524 Verrazano explored North Carolina coast 1492 Columbus arrived in New World

0 1000 A.D. 1450

1500

1550

1455 Johannes Gutenberg printed the first Bible 1492 Columbus arrived in New World (San Salvador) 1507 New World named after navigator Amerigo Vespucci

1600 1588 English fleet defeated the Spanish Armada

1538 “America” used for first time on map 1558 Elizabeth I became queen of England

Chapter 2: Signs of the Times

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_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

TARGET READING SKILL SQ3R

Defining the Skill The reading material in social studies textbooks is usually structured and includes detailed information. Because of the amount of reading required, it is beneficial if you can skim or read the material quickly in order to recall prior knowledge, locate specific information, and predict the content of the reading. SQ3R, which stands for survey, question, read, recite, and review, is a reading strategy that will help you do this.

Practicing the Skill Practice the SQ3R strategy by skimming Section 1 of Chapter 2.

48

North Carolina: Land of Contrasts

Survey: As your read, survey the section to determine its title as well as the main idea found in the first paragraph. Question: After your survey, make a list of questions you think will be answered in the section. Read: Read the section, noting any unfamiliar vocabulary words. Recite: Write the answers to any of the questions you posed in your survey. On a separate sheet of paper, write down the main ideas in the section and then summarize the section in your own words. Review: Finally, on a separate sheet of paper, rephrase your notes into questions. Then, answer your questions from memory.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The First Inhabitants As you read, look for: • the various periods into which scientists divide prehistoric cultures • vocabulary terms archaeologist, atlatl, pemmican, culture, ceremonial center

This section will help you meet the following objective:

8.1.02 Identify and describe American Indians who inhabited the regions that became Carolina and assess their impact on the colony.

When people first settled what later became North Carolina, they were often cold. Archaeologists (scientists who discover and explain the evidence of human habitation found buried in the ground) believe that the first inhabitants of this area came from Asia during the last great Ice Age. Many scientists believe the first people came to North America across a land bridge at what is now the Bering Strait. This was at least 12,000 years ago. That climate was much colder than today’s. Winters lasted longer, and temperatures dropped a lot lower. Much of the land was covered by spruce and fir trees, which today only thrive in the high mountains. Huge mastodons and other nowextinct animals roamed the Uwharries. The beach was closer to the fall line than to the Outer Banks. In fact, there were no

Figure 4

Prehistoric Cultures

Culture Time Period _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Paleolithic

10,000 B.C. - 7000 B.C.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Archaic

7000 B.C. - 500 B.C.

Woodland

1000 B.C. - 1000 A.D.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Mississippian

Map 8 Bering Land Bridge Map Skill: What two continents were connected by the Bering Land Bridge?

800 A.D. - 1500 A.D.

Section 1: The First Inhabitants

49

Top and above: Using only stonetipped weapons and their ingenuity, the Paleolithic hunters killed mammoth and other large animals.

Outer Banks 12,000 years ago, but there were the first formations of what later became the Sandhills. Very little remains of these first people. They are called Paleolithic— Latin for “old stone,” a reference to the make-up of their tools. Most of the first people spent some of their time foraging in the Uwharrie Mountains, since the slate there could be easily turned into weapons for hunting. Some of the oldest known spear points have been found near Morrow Mountain in Stanly County. It was the use of the first tools that led to the first real grouping of people, as they learned to feed and house themselves in common. Their habits and patterns are classified as the Archaic period, another reference to a long ago age.

The Archaic Period When warmer weather returned about 9,000 years ago, people formed foraging communities to help one another hunt game and gather nuts and berries from the forests. As hickory nuts, black walnuts, and oak acorns became more plentiful, people grew healthier. Their flint tools became more complex. Scrapers made from sharp flint could take the fur off a bear or deer skin and provide clothing. Elongated river rocks were made into the first hammers, some of which were used to open the hard shells of the nuts. The foragers would move from place to place according to the season. They would spend spring along the coast, where

50

Chapter 2: Natives and Newcomers

they learned to trap and spear fish; in the winter they would move closer to the fall line, hoping to find more fish in the rapids of the nearby streams. Some time about 6,000 years ago (give or take a thousand), the Archaic people developed an improved spear. Archaeologists have found these tools up and down the fall line. The points were more fluted (had more grooves), and hunters had learned that they could fling their spears a longer distance if they used a launcher that extended their throw. The atlatl was a carved stick that had a base at right angles to the shaft. The hunter could set a spear on the atlatl and then fling the spear forward with more force and speed. Hunting improved; in fact, for the first time, smaller groups could succeed. It was no longer necessary to use a lot of people to corner the prey before killing it. Once again, life improved, diet became more satisfactory, and population tended to increase. About 5,000 years ago, the climate warmed more, and people began to live together in larger communities. People set up small clusters of huts on floodplains near creeks and rivers. For the first time, people had the technology to survive in the mountains. Hearths (permanent stone formations for campfires) have been discovered on the Swannanoa River near Asheville. During this time, the inhabitants made the first known clay pottery shaped by pounding with hands and rocks. They also carved out soft soapstone to make bowls they could heat directly on the fire. For the first time, people planted seeds and harvested crops, most often

Top: After the large animals died out, the Archaic people relied on gathering local food and hunting smaller animals. Above: These stone arrowheads reflect the smaller prey hunted during the Archaic period.

Section 1: The First Inhabitants

51

Top and above, left: These two photographs depict ceremonial stones with petroglyphs (art carved into the stone) at the Schiele Museum of Natural History’s outdoor Stone Age Heritage Exhibit in Gastonia. Above, left: This hut is part of the same exhibit.

52

squashes, gourds, and sunflowers. They improved their tools as well, using axes to chop trees and long rocks in bowls to grind meat, nuts, and grease together. This mixture, pemmican, was a long-lasting and nourishing food. There is also the first evidence during this time of ceremonial burials, where the bodies of the dead were carefully stored and preserved. Even dogs received burials, an indication of their importance to a community that still depended on hunting. Survival got even more likely about 1,500 years ago with the introduction of the bow and arrow, which made it easier to hunt smaller game.

Chapter 2: Natives and Newcomers

The Woodland Period Life for the first inhabitants took another great leap in quality, sometime about 3,000 years ago, when corn arrived in the area. Maize, the real name for what Americans call corn, had originated in Mexico. The first kernels were smaller than popcorn seeds; over time, the plant grew larger and more fruitful. It was carried to what later became the United States by traders making their way up the Mississippi River. Eventually, it was introduced to the Atlantic Coast, drastically altering life among the peoples there. The corn grew well in stream bottoms, particularly when it was grown together with its “sisters” beans and squash. As a result, the level of nutriArchaeologists who have tion once again increased, and people constructed and tried the were able to stay in one place longer. atlatl have found that a What archaeologists call “a village traman using one can pierce dition” became the normal way of liva 4-inch target from 40 ing. Potters learned to roll clay between yards away. their hands—like American children would later play with colored clay then coil the rolls into the shape of a pot. They tempered (mixed) the surfaces with sand and cooked the pots in a huge fire. This made the pottery stronger. Some villages even had an underground storage pit. The oldest known villages were centered in the Uwharries on the tributaries of the Pee Dee River. These were the ancestors of the Catawba. Other

Below: The atlatl allowed hunters to throw spears or darts a greater distance. The hunters no longer had to get so close to their prey.

Did You Know?

Below: Circular houses, probably of pole, wickerwork, and bark construction, characterized Woodland settlements.

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villages have been found in the deep mountains, along the Little Tennessee River. These people were likely the ancestors of the Cherokee. Because the Indians of that day depended so much upon the forests for shelter and hunting, scientists have called them the Woodland culture.

Mississippian Influence

Top: The reconstructed ceremonial center at Town Creek is surrounded by a palisade fence of pine poles for protection. There was also an underground tunnel leading into the center from the river. Above: Across the plaza from the temple mound stands a reconstructed minor temple. It is thought that the priests lived here.

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For several centuries, the original inhabitants were influenced by a culture that came into the country from the southwest. (A culture includes the beliefs, traditions, music, art, and social institutions of a group of people who share common experiences.) Historians call this particular influence the Mississippian culture because its principal towns were located along the Mississippi River. The Mississippians, in turn, had been influenced by traders who came north from present-day Mexico and taught them new ideas. In particular, the Mississippians built ceremonial centers wherever they lived, areas that allowed them to come together for religious worship, recreation, and fellowship. The Mississippians believed that such ceremonies helped them grow better crops and live in better harmony with the earth. Their ceremonies were led by priests who had great control over their lives. The farthest advance of Mississippian culture into North Carolina was along the Pee Dee River. About 800 years ago (around 1200 A.D.), outsiders set up villages along the creeks that fed into the Pee Dee. It is unclear whether they ran away the inhabitants and took over their fields and forests or just convinced the inhabitants to live like they did. Most

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of these newcomers were farmers and hunters, just like the people they replaced. They were also traders, looking for minerals, flints, and other valuable materials that were needed back in the larger towns on the Mississippi. The proof they were traders comes from items like copper from Michigan, which archaeologists have found on the site. To create community among the settlers, the priests ordered them to spend the autumn months erecting a square mound in the middle of the settlement. A large, level field surrounded the mound, and a palisade (a fence of sharpened logs) was erected to keep out intruders. Today, North Carolinians call this ceremonial center Town Creek Indian Mound, with the word town designating its place as the ceremonial center. On top of the mound, the settlers built a house with a pyramidal roof, where the priest lived with his family and where he conducted religious activities before crowds packed into the palisade area. Because the mound area was the center of life for the people, their leaders were brought there for burial. The remains of more than five hundred people have been found here.

Above: The temple was the most important structure at the Town Creek Indian Mound. The mound itself was built by people from the surrounding area who carried the dirt for the mound in baskets.

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Below: This illustration of a Mississippian village shows a temple mound to the right rear.

Did You Know? Maize is not a simple crop. Today, there are over three hundred kinds of corn.

The people came several times a year to celebrate. The most important festival was the Green Corn Ceremony. Since maize had become such an essential food, Native Americans rejoiced each year when the corn grew ripe enough to eat. It was like the European Christmas, New Year’s, and Mardi Gras rolled into one celebration. Families in each village cleaned out their houses, bathed themselves, put on new clothes, and extinguished their fires before coming to the ceremony. They would also take the “black drink,” a tea made of strong herbs that would help them purge the toxins from their bodies. The priest did the same. Before the assembly, he would relight his own fire on the mound. The people then feasted on roasting ears (boiled corn on the cob) and watched a ball game that resembled lacrosse. When they returned home, they took embers from the sacred fire to rekindle the flame in their homes, thus starting the new year. The Town Creek culture seems to have survived for several hundred years. However, by the 1500s, when the first whites came into the area, it had lost influence. Its customs, however, had become daily habits for most of the native peoples of what became North Carolina.

It’s Your Turn 1. Why were the first people in America called “Paleolithic”? 2. Why was pemmican important to the early people? 3. What did the Green Corn Ceremony celebrate?

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Judaculla Rock

The markings on Judaculla Rock in Jackson County have never been translated. No one is sure if the Cherokee or their ancestors made the strange “power lines” that crisscross the soapstone. Some scientists think they are 3,000 years old. Legend says it was Judaculla, the slant-eyed giant, that scratched the marks with his seven-fingered claws as he crawled over the rock. At one time, there were other similar stones in the area.

Left: The markings on Judaculla Rock have been filled with sand to make them easier to see.

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Indian Life at the Time of European Contact This section will help you meet the following objectives: 8.1.02 Identify American Indians who inhabited Carolina and assess their impact on the colony. 8.1.04 Evaluate the impact of the Columbian Exchange on the existing cultures.

As you read, look for: • the tribes that lived in early North Carolina • how people of the Woodland culture lived • how contact with Europeans affected Native American life • vocabulary terms dialect, clan, matrilineal, consensus, conjurer, immunity The Indian cultures that would play important roles in the history of North Carolina had been well organized by the 1500s. Most would be renamed by the Europeans who first encountered them, but the groups had developed customs and values that withstood many of the problems that came with white contact. The same basic groups still live in North Carolina in the early twenty-first century. Archaeologists think that more than thirty different groups lived on the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Mountains in the 1500s. Some were no larger than one or two villages, like the Eno, who gave their name to a river near Durham. Other nations numbered in the thousands, the largest being the Cherokee in the westernmost mountains.

Algonquin Tribes Along the coast lived small groups that spoke various versions of the Algonquin language. This particular language was shared by villages and tribes all along the Atlantic Coast from what is today Maine down to North Carolina. These groups included the Chowanoc and Pasquotank Indians who lived north of the Albemarle Sound, each of whom was the namesake for a county. One Chowanoc village had more than one thousand people in the late 1500s. The Waccamaw, the largest group on the Cape Fear, gave their name to one of the largest of the Carolina bays. Like all native peoples, these groups took particular advantage of their environment, depending heavily on fish taken from the sea and sounds. In addition, reported a white visitor in the 1500s, they ate many “kindes of fruits, melons, Walnuts, Cucumbers, Gourdes, Pease, and divers roots.” It was also said that their corn “was very white,

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Did You Know? Before the arrival of the first Europeans, more than thirty thousand Native Americans and 30 tribes were living in present-day North Carolina.

faire, and well tasted.” The Algonquins are the Indians North Carolinians see when they view the famous watercolor paintings done by John White of the Lost Colony.

The Tuscarora The Coastal Plain was dominated in the 1500s by one tribe, the Tuscarora. This group had about fifteen large villages, each with about 300 to 500 people, concentrated near the Neuse and Tar rivers. The name Tuscarora means “hemp gatherers.” (The Indians used hemp to make rope and binding cord.) The Tuscarora were kin to the famous

Opposite page: John White’s paintings provide much information on early Native Americans of the Roanoke region. This painting shows how some Native Americans painted their bodies before hunting or feasting. Above left: This is John White’s painting of Secoton, on the Pamlico River. Above right: This is a chief, or “Herowan,” from Roanoke.

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Map 9 Indian Tribes in North Carolina Map Skill: To which language group did the Catawba belong?

Iroquois nation of New York and possibly came south in the 1400s. One Iroquois chief said of the Tuscarora, “They were of us and went from us long ago.” One early explorer noted that the Tuscarora had flat bodies. Tuscarora children “were laced down hard to a board in their infancy” to give them the correct form of posture later. They ended up with “exceedingly wellshaped limbs.” One English explorer claimed their legs and feet were “the handsomest in the world.”

The Catawba

Above: The Catawba Reservation Cultural Center, near Rock Hill, South Carolina, features Catawba artifacts like this log drum.

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Beyond the fall line, more than a dozen different groups lived in the rolling hills of the Piedmont. They had many names, which have survived as places in North Carolina, including Waxhaw and Saxapahaw. The largest group came to be called the Catawba—a name given them by Juan Pardo—because he heard them say something that sounded like ka pa tu, meaning that they lived “where the river divides.” This was a reference to a group of towns where the southern and northern forks of the Catawba River came together, south of today’s Charlotte. Some of the Catawba actually called themselves is wa, “the people who lived on the river.” They were distinguished by the burnt-black pottery they made out of the various clays found in the area. A lot of groups moved back and forth across the hilly Piedmont in the 1500s. The Sapona, who had lived in Virginia for a time, spent several decades concentrated on the Yadkin River at one of its fords. This was the tribe visited by John Lawson in 1700. The Occaneechi lived near the present site of Hillsborough and were known to be miners in the Uwharries. Regardless of what name they went by, the tribes in the Piedmont spoke languages that sounded much alike. They spoke various versions of the Sioux language. At some point in their past, the Sioux had lived in the northern areas of what became the United States. When

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a lack of resources forced the Sioux to migrate, some headed south, others west. The Catawba, in fact, were distantly kin to the more famous Sioux tribes of the Great Plains.

The Cherokee The Cherokee have been the most famous Indian group in North Carolina history, both for their size and their location. Originally, the ancestors of the Cherokee lived in the upper stretches of the Ohio River. Like the Tuscarora, they were kin to the Iroquois. The Cherokee, however, did not have the same good relations with their northern kinfolk that the Tuscarora had. The Cherokee had been driven from their original homes after long years of fighting with the Iroquois. The Cherokee first settled in the deep mountains during the height of the Woodland period. Like the Catawba, the Cherokee called themselves another name—yun wi ya, “the people” or “the principal people.” The word Cherokee may be a variation of a Mississippian word for “people who live in caves,” a reference to their mountain homes. When whites first arrived, the Cherokee controlled a mountain region of 40,000 square miles, including parts of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, northern Alabama and Georgia, and western Virginia. The Cherokee were one of the largest tribes in what became the United States. They may have numbered more than 30,000 during the late Woodland period. So numerous were they that they had three distinct divisions.

Top: The Schiele Museum of Natural History has a reconstructed stockaded Catawba village. The council house (left) is just as John Lawson described it in 1700. Above: The interior of the bark house.

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Above: This 1797 lithograph shows a “middle Cherokee” village on the Tellico River, now part of Tennessee.

Did You Know? According to the United Nations, the four staples of diets around the world are wheat, rice, corn, and potatoes. Two of the four —corn and potatoes— were developed by Native Americans.

The villages on the upper reaches of the Savannah River in South Carolina and Georgia were the “lower Cherokee.” Those who lived in the Tennessee River valley in what became the state of Tennessee were the “upper Cherokee.” The most important villages, in terms of size and prestige, were often located among “the middle Cherokee.” These villages were concentrated on the Little Tennessee River in the very western part of North Carolina. One, Nikwasi, was located at the present site of the town of Franklin and was a ceremonial center similar to Town Creek. Disputes within the Cherokee community could be resolved by discussions at this “sacred town.” Each of the three principal groups spoke a different dialect (a variation in the pronunciation of words) of the Cherokee language. The Cherokee lacked clay to make much pottery. Instead, they stored many items in intricately woven baskets made of green strips of tender branches, often from oak trees. Through the centuries, Cherokee baskets have been some of the most beautiful works of art made by North Carolinians.

Native American Habits and Beliefs The Woodland culture had become so common by the 1500s that the tribes shared many beliefs, habits, and customs. For example, all tribes hunted, with deer being the most valuable prey, both for its meat and its skin. All depended upon the same products from the forest, including grapes and berries in season and nuts like chestnuts, black walnuts, and hickories. Often, Indians would supplement their diets during the cold

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depths of winter by finding holes in trees where squirrels had hidden their supplies. If they could catch the squirrel as well, they ate it too. All tribes planted the “three sisters”—corn, beans, and squash—all of which were dried and preserved. The vegetables balanced the Indians’ diet in winter when game was scarce. Algonquin groups, for example, mixed corn and beans with meat and grease for a dish they called succotash. Today, a variation on that meal, Brunswick stew, is served in barbecue restaurants across the state.

Village Life Village life was the norm for all Native American groups by this time. The coastal tribes often built bark longhouses, but the more common form of shelter was a wattle-and-daub hut. For this, tree branches were bent from one side of the hut to the other. Smaller green vines or twigs were woven like cloth among the larger branches. The family then filled in the air spaces with wet clay. The structure had the advantage that, if it fell down or burned, it could be as easily replaced as repaired. Because their climate was the coldest, the Cherokee often had two houses for each family group, a sturdy one in winter and a open-air one in summer.

Below: This John White painting depicts the village of Pomelooc, located to the southwest of Lake Mattamuskeet. Note the palisade and the bark longhouses.

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Each village followed rules and customs that helped individuals find their way through life and have a sense of belonging and accomplishment. Because a growing population meant competition for resources, most villages had palisades around them, to keep out bears, wolves, and braves from rival tribes. Woodland Indians established their kinship ties through the women of the tribe. All children belonged to the clan (an extended family of people with a common ancestor) of their mothers. (Today we call this a matrilineal society, where the “line” is traced through the “matri,” or mother.) Children were raised by members of the mother’s family. The grandmother had great influence over all her grandchildren. Uncles acted almost like fathers to the boys of the group. The father, by rule, came from another clan, to ensure the physical diversity of the tribe. When a man married, he came to live in the household of his mother-in-law. He might be kind and loving to his children, but he actually had duties back in his own mother’s house, where he was an uncle to young members of his own clan.

Above: John White made this painting of the wife of the chief at Pomelooc carrying a child on her back. Right: White painted the ways the coastal Indians fished, using gigs, nets, spears, and a weir (upper left).

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Above: As Native Americans developed agriculture, corn became their most important crop, a symbol of life. Left: This replica of a Cherokee council house at Oconoluftee Village in Cherokee provides seating for representatives of the seven clans.

The Woodland culture divided work up fairly cleanly between men and women. Men helped clear the ground in the spring for planting, but women owned the seeds and planted and nurtured them. Men spent long periods hunting, usually after planting and after the harvest. The men groomed their hunting areas with the same care that the women did their gardens. For example, every year Catawba men burned off their best hunting grounds across the Piedmont, to help them see their prey. This kept much of the Piedmont a grassy savanna land for hundreds of years. Most tribes governed by consensus, meaning they discussed their problems until almost everyone agreed to the same action. Older men and women were often consulted in major decisions, and it was considered very impolite to interrupt elders until they were completely finished talking. Often, tribes had two different sets of leaders, one who governed in peace time, and another whose role was to lead the tribe in warfare.

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GROWING UP...

Cherokee

Above: Cherokee boys were taught how to hunt each different kind of animal by one of their maternal uncles. Demonstrating hunting skills was one of the requirements for a boy’s passage into manhood.

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According to Cherokee tradition, just as there are four seasons in a year, so a person goes through four stages of life. Being in the womb is the first, childhood is the second, family is the third, and being an elder is the last. Childhood, then, was part of the natural order of things. All Cherokee children identified with the extended family of their mother. Cherokee organized their society around kin groups called clans. A Cherokee’s identity was determined by his or her mother’s mother.The maternal grandmother organized food and shelter and made sure that all of her grandchildren were properly cared for and taught respect and duty. A council of grandmothers ruled each village.Their word was law, and no one easily crossed them. Cherokee children followed clearly stated rules. Girls learned valuable lessons from their mothers, grandmothers, and aunts who lived within the clan. Boys learned about being a man from their mother’s brothers—in other words, their maternal uncles. A father in Cherokee society had an important position as a provider and protector of the village, but he shared in the training of his children. For example, a boy often learned about how to kill each type of animal from an uncle.The lesson included teaching respect for the spirit of the prey, since the Cherokee believed that all living things had a spirit shared through the whole world, and to disturb the spirit would be unhealthy for both the individual and the whole clan. Both boys and girls were expected to learn about the traditions of their clan. Each Cherokee clan had a name that explained its function in the greater nation. For example,

the Long Hair Clan, also known as the Twister Clan because of the braids the grandmothers wore, were the keepers of religious traditions taught through dance and song. The Deer Clan taught boys to be hunters and tanners, and each boy learned which parts of the deer’s insides could be used as medicine. Members of the Blue Holly Clan kept special mixtures to cure children, which they had gathered from plants in the woods. Each Cherokee child came to understand how interdependent the whole village was. One person’s skill, taught to him or her by the elders, could save and sustain others. Both boys and girls changed their behavior when they became teenagers. When a girl reached puberty, her hair was twisted and braided in a certain way to announce the event. Boys passed into manhood when they were able to demonstrate that they could use the skills taught them by their uncles. This involved survival in the woods and their first successful hunt. When it was time to become an adult, one had to find a companion outside the clan. Every boy and girl had to seek the permission of the grandmothers to be together. If a boy wanted a girl to marry him, he went out and killed a deer, following the sacred habits that respected its spirit. He brought the meat to the girl at the home of her parents. If she cooked it, they became engaged. The day of the wedding, the young man built a fire in the woods and asked his clansmen to join him. When the fire died down, he bid his friends farewell and took the embers to the sacred circle, where the priest used them to start the “marriage fire.” During the same time, the bride bathed and dressed her hair with corn pollen, to make the marriage fertile. When the marriage fire was ready, the couple approached from opposite sides. After the two clans present

Above: Basketmaking was an important skill for Cherokee girls to learn. The Cherokee did not make much pottery and used baskets for storage. exchanged gifts, the couple entered the sacred circle, and the priest announced to all the guests and spirits present that “Ni go di sge s di” continued. The Cherokee phrase is loosely translated, “This is the way it is.” The newly married couple then moved into the house of the bride’s mother, and the cycle of village life continued.

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Belief Systems

Top: Today’s Cherokee practice Christianity and sometimes engage in ancient religious rites. Above: This “buffalo man” mask was worn in ceremonies to depict the existence of ghosts, witches, and evil spirits.

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All Native Americans respected nature as much as they did their elders. They knew that their very survival depended upon their interaction with their environment. In significant ways, their religion was about nature. At the core of their beliefs was a reverence for the spiritual qualities of all things, from rocks to plants to animals to the very sky above. Native Americans believed a spirit could be found in all things. A hunter, for example, would pray for forgiveness to the spirit of a deer just before he killed it, to help the spirit escape the animal and find a home elsewhere in the natural order. A conjurer, what white people would later often call a medicine man, might ask the wind to spread the heat of a sick person’s fever into the nearby woods, giving the patient relief. Participants in the Booger Dance wore fearsome masks made from a variety of natural materials. The whole design used the spirit of each ingredient like a compound to ward off any evil that had come into the village. All Native Americans also told stories over and over again to gain an understanding of how nature worked. The stories often involved monsters and beasts, much the way Europeans told “fairy tales” about strange things that happened in the woods. The Cherokee, for example, said that both hunting and farming came from the cave where Kanati the Hunter and his wife Selu Cornwoman lived. Kanati hunted by letting one animal at a time out of the cave and then killed it. Selu hoarded all the seeds

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deep inside the cave, and everyone went hungry. One day, the Little People, who lived under rocks and roots, came and killed Kanati and Selu. They let the animals out and spilled the blood of Kanati and Selu on the ground, which freed the animals and seeds for others to use. The Cherokee believed that the Little People could help them in times of trouble. During one battle at Nikwasi, it is said the Little People came flying out of a burial mound and defeated the invaders. Another time, a white minister reported he saw the Little People flying around Chimney Rock, a famous spot in the mountains. The Cherokee respected the mountains around them and believed that they struggled against the powers living on the ridges. In a cave in a river bend, near today’s Fontana Lake, lived Uktena, a huge serpent with horns who shook the earth as he slithered. On the mountain top above lived Tlanuwa, a great hawk “larger than any who lives now” who was said to be “very strong and very savage.” These fearsome creatures kept people from living their daily lives until some wise medicine men stole hawk eggs from the nest and fed them to the giant snake. The two animals then fought each other and left the people alone.

The Columbian Exchange The various tribes were flourishing at the time of white contact in the 1500s. But the meeting of the Native Americans and the Europeans brought drastic changes to both. Over millions of years, different forms of plant and animal life had developed in different places around the world. When Europeans came to the Americas, they brought with them animals such as horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and chickens and traded them to the Indians. The Indians, in turn, traded various birds and small animals, one of which was the turkey. Food stuffs were also exchanged. Plant foods native to the Americas included corn, potatoes, beans, cacao (chocolate), tomatoes, and peppers. The Europeans brought beets, rice, peaches, coffee, and oats. Europeans also brought something that was far deadlier to the Indians— diseases. The Native Americans had never been exposed to these diseases and so had no immunity, or resistance. The most deadly diseases were smallpox, measles, chicken pox, and influenza. Soon, disease and warfare with the white intruders decreased the Native American population. A century later, half as many Indians inhabited North Carolina.

Above: The Cherokee avoided most snakes, but they found ceremonial uses for the fangs and rattles of the rattlesnake.

Did You Know? The Columbian Exchange —the exchange of plants, animals, foods, people, diseases, and ideas between the Old World and the New World—was named after Christopher Columbus, whose “discovery” of America began the changes.

It’s Your Turn 1. What was the largest group of Native Americans in North Carolina when the Europeans came? 2. Why did the Cherokee make woven baskets instead of pottery? 3. How did the Woodland Indians govern by consensus?

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CAROLINA PLACES

Lake Mattamuskeet

Mattamuskeet is more than just the largest natural body of fresh water in North Carolina. The lake, which stretches eighteen miles east to west and six miles north to south, is also one of the most shallow lakes around. Long before the white people arrived, the lake fascinated the first Indians. The name of the lake is Algonquin for “dry dust.” That must mean that during long-ago droughts, the wetland dried up. An Algonquin tradition even suggests how the water got in the lake. At a time long before Columbus, the people lived happily in harmony with nature. Then, a

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drought lingered for several years, and the people and animals almost starved. The people decided to build a great bonfire with all the dry wood they had.They hoped the brightness of the fire would attract the attention of the Great Spirit. It did, but something must have been wrong with the people. A great wind blew the fire out of control, and it caught in the nearby, dried-out woods. It burned great holes in the ground for more than a year. To save themselves, the people offered to sacrifice their strongest young brave. At the critical moment, a beautiful

Above: Theodore de Bry made this engraving of an Indian mother and her son on the shore of Lake Mattamuskeet, based on one of John White’s paintings. Below: Lake Mattamuskeet is North Carolina’s largest natural lake, and one of its shallowest.

maiden threw herself in front of the executioners and prayed to the rain gods to save her beloved and the rest of the people. The people looked up and saw a shooting star. Soon, rain followed, for days on end. The fires were put out, the lake filled with water, and the people were rescued. Lake Mattamuskeet may well have been created by fire, although romance likely had little to do with it. The earth under the lake is peat, which will burn when it is dry. It is possible that lightning started a fire that burned for a long while and carved out the shallow saucer that later filled with water. In the early 1800s, some state leaders wondered if draining the lake would open up some of the richest soil around. Draining it, however, was a problem, for the bottom of the lake is actually three feet below sea level. Once steam-powered engines came along, the idea was renewed. In 1915, the New Holland Company built the world’s largest set of pumps to get rid of the water. The four machines could take out more than a million gallons of water a minute! To keep new water from seeping in, hundreds of miles of canals were dug in all directions. In 1925, the company built a new town, called New Holland, on the dried lake bed to house hundreds of workers to grow the crops. In 1928, the New Holland families grew a variety of crops that had the best yields in state history. The achievement gained widespread attention. One agricultural scientist said the lake bed was “the finest farm land in the world.” Then, in 1932, one of the great disasters in state history occurred. The pumps failed after a huge rainstorm. The lake began to fill up again with floodwaters. The mud was knee deep in places.The lake filled in, covering much of the town. In 1934, the federal government bought the property to return it to the birds. The refilled Mattamuskeet has been a wildlife refuge for more than seventy years. Almost one-fifth of all the migratory birds who fly over the eastern United States stop each fall at Mattamuskeet. They fatten up for winter on the abundance of fish in the lake. The old pumping station was for years used as a hunting lodge. The lodge and its tall observation tower, which resembles a lighthouse, have survived into the twenty-first century.

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European Explorers Come and Go

This section will help you meet the following objective:

8.1.03 Compare and contrast the relative importance of differing economic, geographic, religious, and political motives for European exploration.

As you read, look for: • the first European explorers in North Carolina • vocabulary term expedition A little more than thirty years after Christopher Columbus discovered the New World, the first Europeans known to set foot on what became North Carolina waded ashore near Cape Fear in 1524.

Below: This mural in the United States Capitol commemorates Christopher Columbus’s first voyage to the New World.

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Giovanni da Verrazano and the French Giovanni da Verrazano was an Italian explorer working for the king of France. Verrazano hoped to find for the French what Columbus had

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not found for the Spanish. He was looking for a shorter water route to China and the riches of Asia. Verrazano was under orders to find “a strait to penetrate to the Eastern ocean.” Verrazano and his men found native peoples—most likely from either the Waccamaw or Cape Fear groups—stoking huge fires on the beach. The Europeans later told people back in France that the natives “resemble the Orientals.” Verrazano thought that the color of the Carolina beaches meant that gold had to be nearby, but that was a false hope. He also failed to find the route to China, although he went back to Europe and claimed that he had. His ship had dropped anchor off Portsmouth Island, near Cape Hatteras, and the explorer came to believe that the water on the other side of the island led to Asia. He was actually looking at Pamlico Sound. Maps drawn in Europe for the next fifty years, however, identified “the sea of Verrazano” and showed it extending from Cape Hatteras to what is today California. Verrazano was simply the first of many Europeans to be fooled and disappointed by encounters with what became North Carolina. The others looked just as eagerly as he had for a road to easy riches. None of the early explorers was successful.

Above: Because of Spain’s success in the New World, Francis I of France supported Giovanni da Verrazano’s search for a route to the Orient. Verrazano was the first European to explore the coast of North Carolina.

Did You Know? Explorers called the hoped-for all-water route through the North American continent the “Northwest Passage.”

Hernando de Soto and the Spanish Columbus did not find the road to China. He did, however, help establish a vast New World empire controlled by the Spanish. By the 1520s, the Spanish had conquered native peoples from Cuba to Mexico, discovered the real Pacific Ocean, and lucked into huge gold and silver mines in South America. Having found gold, they looked for more, from the deserts of New Mexico to the mountains of North Carolina.

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Above: Hernando de Soto explored much of the southeastern United States. He marched across Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina in 1539-1540. Eventually, he reached the Mississippi River.

Hernando de Soto and six hundred soldiers began to explore the area that became the southeastern United States in 1539. By the middle of 1540, his expedition (a journey for a specific purpose) crossed into the Carolinas. De Soto and his men made their way into the North Carolina mountains, generally following the course of the Catawba River to its headwaters at the Blue Ridge. There they found an extensive village they called Xuala whose people were likely the forerunners of the Catawba. The Spanish then crossed the mountains and moved into Tennessee where they met the Cherokee. From there, they trekked all the way to the Mississippi River, where de Soto died and was buried in the river itself. Other than a few ornaments worn by natives, he never found the gold he sought. De Soto treated the native peoples very badly during his expedition. His men demanded favors from the tribal leaders and stole their goods and animals at will. So hated was de Soto that the Cherokee for centuries mocked him in their Booger Dance. He came to represent someone who did not respect the earth or other human beings.

Juan Pardo and More Spaniards The second group of Spanish explorers stayed longer. Juan Pardo was a Portuguese soldier in the Spanish army. His expedition left a base camp on the South Carolina coast in 1569 and followed the rivers to much of the same area earlier explored by de Soto. Pardo’s group included Catholic priests who tried to convert the natives to Christian beliefs and habits. Along the way, Pardo left behind small groups of soldiers who were to set up camps for future exploration. One was in the foothills near

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present-day Morganton. Another was at Guatari, the name given to the Sapona village on the Yadkin River near presentday Salisbury. Early residents of Lincolnton later discovered “the Spanish well” next to old house foundations of dressed and squared stone, indicating that a base had been set up there. Apparently, Pardo hoped to find gold and other riches in the mountains and then use the camps as stopping-off points on the way back to the coast. Maybe as many as a hundred Spanish stayed in the foothills region for several years before giving up, just as others had.

Walter Raleigh and the English Not just the French and Spanish were fooled by the future site of North Carolina. By the late 1500s, the English had grown in strength and power to become Protestant rivals of the Catholic Spanish. The English wanted part of the New World riches for themselves. At the time, a small group of influential men became close to the English Queen, Elizabeth I. The group included two half-brothers, Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh. The two men had studied the Verrazano reports and believed they could find the route to China. In 1578, Raleigh and Gilbert convinced the Queen to plan an expedition to find the Northwest Passage so that England would benefit and grow rich by trade with other nations. The expedition was turned back the first year by heavy storms and Spanish attacks. The two received permission for a second expedition. However, the Queen would not let Raleigh leave, for she had dreamt that he would die if he sailed away. Gilbert did go, but he was lost at sea in 1583. The next year, Raleigh gained permission to try again, and he sent the first of several expeditions to the New World. The Raleigh expeditions were the first English attempts to settle in the New World. They would become famous in North Carolina history, for they resulted in what came to be known as the Lost Colony.

It’s Your Turn

Map 10 De Soto’s Expedition Map Skill: Why do you think de Soto’s route was so complex?

Did You Know? In 1578, Sir Humphrey Gilbert received a six-year patent, or license, to explore North America. His 1583 expedition, undertaken just before his patent was to run out, landed in Newfoundland.

1. What was the Northwest Passage? Why was it important? 2. What was the goal of the early Spanish explorers?

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ This section will help you meet the ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Story of the Lost Colonists

following objectives:

8.1.01 Assess the impact of geography on the settlement and developing economy of the Carolina colony. 8.1.02 Identify American Indians who inhabited Carolina and assess their impact on the colony.

As you read, look for: • the first English attempts to settle North Carolina • the Lost Colony • vocabulary terms colony, Lost Colony July 13, 1584, might easily be considered the birthday of North Carolina. On that day, Englishmen first spied the shore they would call “the goodliest land under the cope of heaven.” The commanders of the two small ships sent by Raleigh—Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe—held a ceremony to claim the land in the name of Queen Elizabeth. They found an inlet across the Outer Banks and dropped anchor in the sound that “the Indians call Roanoak.” The Englishmen rowed their small boats across the sounds and walked up and down the coast for more than six weeks, taking notes about how suitable the land was for settlement. They returned to England by autumn with notebooks, samples of plants, and two Indians named Manteo and Wanchese. So happy was Queen Elizabeth about the expedition that she quickly made Raleigh a knight and allowed him to call the area “Virginia,” after her title as the Virgin Queen. Raleigh moved to set up a permanent English presence on the coastline.

The Lane Colony Above: Queen Elizabeth I granted patents first to Sir Humphrey Gilbert and then to Walter Raleigh to discover “remote” lands for colonization.

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In the spring of 1585, Raleigh sent a second expedition to Roanoke. Richard Grenville commanded the ships, and Ralph Lane was sent to erect a fort for protection and settlement. In addition, two very talented men went along to learn more about the New World. Thomas Harriot was noted as a poet, a mathematician, and a scientist. He helped develop algebra and experimented with an early version of the telescope. Harriot spent almost a year on Roanoke

Chapter 2: Natives and Newcomers

Top: Sir Richard Grenville, who led an expedition from England to Roanoke Island in 1585, fought the Spanish Armada in 1588 and died in a naval engagement with Spain. Above: Thomas Harriot was a brilliant scientist who published his observations of the New World in 1588. Left: John White’s map of “Raleigh’s Virginia,” probably drawn in 1585-1586, appears remarkably accurate even today.

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Above: The 1585 colony commanded by Ralph Lane built a fort on Roanoke Island. The site, now called Fort Raleigh, was excavated and reconstructed between 1947 and 1950.

Did You Know? The Sea Dogs were English sea captains who attacked Spanish treasure ships (with the Queen’s approval) and stole their cargo.

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recording his impressions and collecting plant specimens. Accompanying him was John White, an artist. White’s watercolors of natives and their village life became some of the most significant pieces of art in early American history. Between Harriot and White, the Lane expedition became one of the most important scientific journeys ever made. Much of their information is still stored and studied in British museums. While Harriot and White explored the sounds and the Outer Banks, Ralph Lane and about one hundred soldiers built a base, which they called Fort Raleigh. Unfortunately, they caught a dose of the Spanish fever for gold and wasted a lot of time digging and searching for it, without luck. They also fought among themselves and, soon after, antagonized the nearby natives. Eventually, lack of success and shortages of food pushed the English soldiers to violence. They murdered the local chief and killed a number of inhabitants in nearby villages. A year after its arrival, the Lane colony was in peril, as the natives turned against them and the food supplies dwindled. (A colony is a group of people who settle in a distant land but who are still under the rule of their native land.) In summer 1586, Francis Drake, the most famous of the so-called English Sea Dogs, arrived with a small fleet of ships. Drake, the most notorious foe of the Spanish in the Caribbean, had just completed a successful raid on Spanish ports, taking away plunder and prisoners. Drake put in at Roanoke Inlet to replenish the Fort Raleigh soldiers. When a hurricane threatened, all the Englishmen decided to abandon Roanoke and head

Chapter 2: Natives and Newcomers

home. To make room for the Lane company, Drake left behind a number of his prisoners, a mix of slaves and Europeans who had worked for the Spanish. (What exactly happened to them has gone unrecorded. John Lawson later wrote that their descendants were the Hatteras Indians.) Soon after Lane left, Richard Grenville arrived from England to resupply Fort Raleigh. Finding no one around (perhaps the Spanish prisoners were hiding), Grenville decided to sail to the Caribbean and, like Drake, plunder and pillage. He left fifteen soldiers to guard Fort Raleigh. They too were never seen again.

The White Colony Despite the failure of the Lane colony, Walter Raleigh was determined to continue English settlement. But this next time, Raleigh sent women and children with the soldiers, in an attempt to make the natives think that better relations would follow. Since John White had been to Roanoke, he led the group of 110 settlers. Since Roanoke had proven to be unsuitable for settlement, the expedition aimed to land at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, where the deeper water allowed ships to go and come more safely. However, the pilot, Simon Fernandez, got his own bout of gold fever. He left White and the others at Roanoke and sailed toward the Caribbean. The settlement quickly ran into many of the same difficulties experienced previously. Despite the help of Manteo, the colony ran short of

Above: In 1588, Sir Francis Drake was too busy defending England and helping defeat the Armada to worry about the Roanoke colony. Below: This painting imagines the baptism of Virginia Dare.

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Above: A visit to the Elizabeth II in Manteo gives an idea of what shipboard life was like in the sixteenth century.

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supplies. White left to return to England to bring back needed supplies. He left behind a new granddaughter, Virginia Dare, born August 18, 1587. Virginia Dare was the first baby born to English settlers in the New World and, in a sense, the very first native white North Carolinian. John White did not return for three years. England was desperately defending itself from a major Spanish invasion. The Spanish Armada—one of the largest fleets ever assembled in Europe—was intended to end for all time any English threat to Spanish control of the New World. The Spanish, however, met disaster as leaders like Raleigh and Drake helped scatter the Spanish ships all over the seas surrounding the British Isles. White was finally able to return to Roanoke, and he arrived one day after Virginia’s third birthday in 1590. No one was at Roanoke. White blew a trumpet to alert the settlers of his approach. He then sang silly English songs to show he was not a disguised Spaniard. Still, as he later reported, “we had no answere.” He was not immediately alarmed. Since Roanoke was such a bad location, the settlers had often talked of moving elsewhere. But they had promised that if they did move they would carve their destination on a tree, so White could find them. The settlers also promised to carve a cross above the name of their destination if they were in danger. White found two clues at Roanoke, both of which suggested the destination of the colonists. On one tree near the shore were the letters CRO; on a post near the gate was the word CROATOAN. The letters referred to the village on Ocracoke Island where Manteo lived, so White assumed the Roanoke colonists had gone there for safety. Neither had a cross above it. White wanted to go immediately to Croatoan, where he thought the refugees likely were. But the other members of his party had other ideas. Then a storm damaged their ship, and the season for hurricanes was approaching. White was forced to sail back to England without going the fifty miles to Hatteras to find his colony. No Englishman ever saw the Roanoke colony again.

Chapter 2: Natives and Newcomers

The Fate of the “Lost Colony” The missing Roanoke residents became known in North Carolina history as the Lost Colony. No one can pinpoint their exact fate. One early speculation was that the Spanish had raided the settlement, but no records ever appeared to prove this. It is possible that the nearby natives, who were still angry about the Lane colony, killed the colonists. White, however, found no evidence of violence. So, the likely story is that the colonists did what they promised to do. They went to live with the Croatoans, just as the message on the tree said. They may well have been alive when White left for England. A century later, the natives who lived at Cape Hatteras told John Lawson that their ancestors “could Today, visitors to Roanoke talk from a book.” Some later Island can see the story of moved inland to escape white The Lost Colony on summer settlements. They likely settled nights. The Lost Colony near the Cape Fear region on the is the oldest and longestLumber River. In the 1700s, white running outdoor drama settlers were startled to find that in the country. Indians living on the Lumber had blue eyes, built houses, and had English names. At one time, these Indians called themselves Croatoans and claimed the Lost Colony as their ancestors. In the twentieth century,

Above: North Carolina’s most famous outdoor drama tells the story of the mysterious disappearance of the Lost Colony.

Did You Know?

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Above: The internationally famous actress Lynn Redgrave played Queen Elizabeth in the 2006 production of the outdoor drama The Lost Colony. In this scene, John White is presenting one of his paintings to the Queen. The play is put on each summer on the actual site of the Roanoke settlement.

they took the name Lumbee, derived from the swampy river that is their homeland. There is one other known story about the fate of the Roanoke settlers. When the English came back to the New World in 1607 and established Jamestown on the Chesapeake Bay, their leader, John Smith, and others searched for the Lost Colony. Smith thought that the Roanoke residents attempted to move to the original destination, the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. Smith was told by several Indians that some white people had come to the Chesapeake and lived among the Indians there. They had died of various causes. Some were caught in the middle of tribal wars. Others were murdered at the approach of the whites because the Indians expected to be punished for holding them in captivity. According to a record found in the British record office in London, Powhatan (most famous for being the father of Pocahontas) “miserably slaughtered . . . men, women, and children of the first plantation at Roanoke.” There was also a story told that some were taken to Occaneechi to work in the Uwharrie mines there, but no one could prove that was true. The mention of children begs the question: What was the fate of Virginia Dare? Did she grow up to be a successful adult? Did she adopt the ways of the natives? Did she get to have a family of her own? No one knows. However, North Carolinians have never forgotten the story of the first European baby born in their state. One story that residents of the Coastal Plain told for years was the occasional sighting of a white doe, a perfectly formed deer that could be seen on moonlit nights. A legend grew that the deer was the spirit of Virginia Dare, still present in “the goodliest land.” The disaster at Roanoke kept the English away from what became North Carolina for more than fifty years. Only after the second attempt to create “Virginia” was successful did whites return to the area along the Outer Banks.

It’s Your Turn 1. What name was given to the land explored by Amadas and Barlowe? 2. What caused Lane to abandon his colony at Roanoke? 3. Why did it take John White so long to return to his colony at Roanoke?

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____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C a r o l i n a Celebtities______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

CAROLINA CELEBRITIES

Sir Walter Raleigh

Although the state capital is named for Sir Walter Raleigh, that English aristocrat never set foot on our soil. Raleigh was responsible for the three attempts to establish an English colony at Roanoke, and he was eager to find out about the fate of the Lost Colony. But he never came to look himself. In fact, Raleigh only crossed the Atlantic once, to lead a military expedition to South America. Although it is possible he spied the shore of Cape Hatteras from out in the Gulf Stream, no record suggests it. Raleigh rose to fame and temporary fortune by being part of the group of Englishmen who helped keep Elizabeth I on the throne in the 1570s. Raleigh and a number of his friends came from the “West Country,” to the west of London. They worked together to further their aims and those of the “Virgin Queen.” Elizabeth never married, but she and Raleigh were said to have flirted a lot. One famous story is that, early in her monarchy, the Queen was walking down a street and Raleigh spread his cloak over a mud hole to keep her dress clean. Raleigh later had the cloak drawn on his coat of arms, to commemorate the incident. Elizabeth clearly cared about him. When he later fell in love with one of the Queen’s ladies-in-waiting, she jealously threw him in jail. Raleigh helped Elizabeth conquer Ireland. She rewarded him with a huge plantation there. Raleigh is said to have introduced the potato, a plant native to South America, to

Ireland while he was living there. The white-fleshed tuber is known to this day as the “Irish potato.” Raleigh’s fortunes changed drastically when Elizabeth died in 1603. The new king, James (of King James Bible fame) distrusted Raleigh and accused him of treason. He imprisoned Raleigh in the Tower of London. While there, Raleigh wrote The History of the World, a very ambitious work that was incomplete when he was beheaded in 1618. On the way to his execution, Raleigh, one of the best wits in England, looked at the axe held by the henchman and remarked, “This is sharp medicine, but it is a cure for all diseases.” After his execution, Raleigh’s head was embalmed and given to his wife, the former lady-in-waiting. She carried it almost everywhere she went for the rest of her life. Raleigh was regarded as one of the best poets of his day, as good at times as his contemporary, William Shakespeare. As was the custom of that day, there was a variety of spellings for words, including Raleigh’s name. In fact, he never once is known to have spelled it the way North Carolinians do. He often preferred “Rawley.” Raleigh’s last act was to create a custom that lasted a long time in England and America. Since he had been one of the first Englishmen to popularize tobacco, he asked to delay his execution until he had a last smoke. In this way, he helped establish the popularity for one of North Carolina’s best-known products.

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The Proprietors and their Problems

Terms: neck, speculate, customs duty, charter, Lord Proprietor, quitrent, General Assembly, Navigation Acts, Culpeper’s Rebellion, governor, treason, county, refugee, cede, naval stores, bounty, royal colony People: George Durant, Quakers, Thomas Miller, Thomas Eastchurch, Seth Sothel, John Harvey, John Gibbs, Huguenots, John Archdale, Anglicans, Thomas Cary, Edward Hyde, Maurice Moore, George Burrington Places: the Albemarle, Carolina, Great Dismal Swamp, Pamlico, Bath, New Bern, the Cape Fear

G

eorge and Ann Marwood Durant were the most notable

first settlers of what became North Carolina. The Durant house was more than a family farm. It was also a tavern and a store, and host to some of the first important political events in our early history. So important were the Durants to the founding of North Carolina that each new governor is given the chance to take the oath of office on the Durant family Bible. George was a man of many talents. He often referred to himself as a “mariner.” He was often at sea, carrying to market the very goods that he and his neighbors grew to make a living. He farmed as well and held a variety of public offices—including speaker of the Assembly and attorney general. Ann too lived a remarkable life. Ann was a partner in the family’s business, which was essential when her husband was away at sea or preoccupied with the concerns of the new colony. She was a clothes maker, at one time a funeral director, and once was a jail keeper. Ann even hosted the meeting of the Assembly. Several times she appeared in an official capacity before the General Court, representing her absent husband. This makes her the first practicing female attorney in state history. Together the Durants managed a farmstead of more than 2,000 acres. They had nine children, eight of whom lived to adulthood, and six of whom had families of their own. This occurred at a time and in a place where it was typical for less than half of the children born to live to old age. George and Ann Durant demonstrated a tendency to want to govern their own affairs and run their own lives. That was a trait that many North Carolinians after them shared.

Opposite page: The Newbold-White House is the oldest remaining structure on the Albemarle Sound. Its style was popular in Tidewater Virginia in the late 1600s. Its likely construction date, 1730, indicates how early settlers were slow to change their habits. Above: These fragments of gold were recovered from the wreck of Blackbeard’s ship, The Queen Anne’s Revenge.

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North Carolina: Land of Contrasts

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SIGNS OF THE TIMES

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________Isaac ________________________________developed _____________________________________________________________ ________Sir ______________________Newton _______________________________________________the ______________________________________ ________reflecting ________________________telescope ________________________about ________________________________soon ___________________________ __________________________________________________________________________1668, _____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________after _____________the _________Lords _______________Proprietors _____________________________received ______________________the ___________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Carolina _______________________charter. _____________________North ________________Carolinians ______________________________did _____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________not ______________________such _______________________________telescope _____________________________________the _________________ _________________have __________________________a____large ______________________________________until ______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______twentieth _______________________century. ______________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

TECHNOLOGY

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________166l, ____________________________the ____________________Ann _____________________George __________________________ ________In ____________________about _________________________time ________________________and ______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Durant ___________________came _______________to _______the _________Albemarle ____________________________Sound, _________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________women ___________________were _____________allowed _____________________to ______appear __________________on ______________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________the ______________________ ________stage _______________in ______London, ______________________in _______female __________________roles ______________that _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________men ____________had __________previously ___________________________played. __________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

THEATER

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___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________after ________________________Lawson ______________________________________the __________________________ ________Soon ___________________________John ________________________________became ______________________________first __________________ ________North _______________Carolinian ___________________________to ______publish ___________________a _____book, ___________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________England _____________________in ______1709 _______________adopted _____________________the _________first ___________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________copyright _________________________law. ____________Lawson _____________________never _______________got __________the ____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________benefit. ____________________Indians ___________________executed _______________________him ___________in ______1711 ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______because ____________________his ________book _____________had __________encouraged ____________________________whites ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________to ______settle _______________on _______their _____________land. __________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

BOOKS

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________people _________________________________new ___________________________ ________English-speaking _____________________________________________________________gained ______________________________________________ ________household __________________________items _______________during __________________the _________Proprietary _______________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________period: __________________minute ___________________hands ________________on ________clocks ________________and ______________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________watches ______________________(1670), _____________________checks __________________for _________holders _________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________of ____________________accounts ___________________________________________toilet ____________________________________________ ______________bank _____________________________________(1681), ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______commodes ___________________________(1700), __________________and __________mercury ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________thermometers ____________________________________(1714). _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

EVERYDAY LIFE

Chapter 3: The Proprietors and Their Problems

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______The __________first ___________Carolinians ___________________________were ____________still __________living ______________in _________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________plank _______________huts ____________in ______1653 ______________when _______________the _________Taj ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Mahal—believed ________________________________________________many ____________________be _______________most __________________ ___________________________________________________by ______________________to ______________the ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________beautiful ________________________building ______________________in ______the __________world—was _________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________started __________________in ______India. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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ARCHITECTURE

MUSIC

Figure 5 Timeline: 1660–1730 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1705 Bath established

1663 Carolina Charter

1729 North Carolina became royal colony 1711 Tuscarora War

1669 Fundamental Constitutions 1701 Law passed establishing Anglican Church

1712 Carolina split into two colonies

1673 Culpeper’s Rebellion

1660

1670

1680

1690

1700

1673 Marquette and Joliet explored the Mississippi River

1710

1720

1730

1718 New Orleans founded by French

1681 City of Philadelphia founded 1699 Yellow fever epidemic in Charles Town, South Carolina

1707 United Kingdom of Great Britain formed (England, Wales, Scotland)

Signs of the Times

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TARGET READING SKILL Finding the Main Idea

Defining the Skill You should always read to find main ideas.The main idea, which is often the first sentence in a paragraph, is usually a single sentence that describes specific ideas or details. The main idea is followed by supporting details that explain, describe, prove, or clarify. Supporting details may tell who, what, where, when, or why. Supporting details may also provide examples, facts, or statistics. The main idea is easy to locate if it is the first or last sentence in a paragraph. It is more difficult to identify the main idea, however, when it is located in the middle of the paragraph or is inferred instead of actually being stated.

territory west to “the South Seas,” another name for the Pacific Ocean. Although no one at the time knew just how much land was involved, the Carolina colony claimed most of what became the southern half of the United States, extending all the way to California. (So, in a way, Los Angeles was once part of Carolina, although the Spanish owned it then and would not have given it up without a fight.)

Practicing the Skill Read the following paragraph and identify the main idea and the supporting details. You can use a graphic organizer like the one to the right to organize your ideas. On March 24, 1663, eight Lords Proprietors received the Carolina Charter. The recipients of the charter were called “Lords” because they were to be the “true and absolute” rulers of the colony and called “Proprietors” since they were the owners of the property. In 1665, the king expanded their charter to include all the territory that is North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia and part of Florida today. And, the Proprietors were given claim to all

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Settling the Albemarle Sound As you read, look for:

• how North Carolina’s geography affected settlement • why Virginians moved south to North Carolina • vocabulary terms neck, speculate, customs duty

This section will help you meet the following objective: 8.1.01 Assess the impact of geography on the settlement and economy of the Carolina colony.

One of the more unusual places to live in North Carolina is on a “neck.” Necks are peninsulas located only in the northeastern corner of the state. These peninsulas—where the land is surrounded by water on three sides—are found on the northern shore of the Albemarle Sound. There the colony of Carolina had its origins, on places like Durant’s Neck. These neighborhoods were the first European-based communities in what became North Carolina. For a half century—from the 1650s to the early 1700s—the people of the Albemarle made homes for themselves and their families, fought over who would rule them, and developed some of the feisty attitudes about government and authority that later North Carolinians would imitate. During this time, the Carolina colony was owned by English aristocrats called the Lords Proprietors. The Proprietors and their colonists seldom got along.

Settlers from the North The Durants were among the first whites to settle what would become North Carolina. Sometime in the 1650s, George Durant was a partner in exploring the land with two other Virginians, Richard and Nathaniel Batts. They had originally been partners in trading with the local Indians. A “Batts House” is on a map of the Albemarle Sound region drawn in 1657. Their trading and shipping might have induced them to buy land. While Richard stuck to the sea, Nathaniel

Above: The Perquimans River bounds Durant’s Neck on the west. In the distance is the Albemarle Sound.

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The name Carolina was a Latin reference to the name of the King, Charles I.

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and George took out some of the earliest deeds in the area. Batts bought land from the Yeopim Indians in 1660, and Durant bought land in 1661. Why were these people settling on the Albemarle? After the failure of the Roanoke colony, the English waited until 1607 to establish their first permanent base in the New World, at Jamestown. A prosperous, tobaccogrowing colony of Virginia grew up around the James River. In contrast, few settlers came south into “Carolina” (the name given the former Roanoke colony). The Chesapeake Bay was deeper and easier to navigate than the shallow Roanoke Sound. In addition, the overland way was hindered by the Great Dismal Swamp—a stretch of cypress, cedar, and standing water that extended more than thirty miles along what would later be the border between the colonies of Virginia and Carolina. The profits to be made from tobacco eventually spurred interest in the lands beyond the Dismal. Tobacco leached (pulled the nutrients out of) the Virginia soil so badly that, after seven years, a field had to be abandoned. As a result, farmers were always on the lookout for more land. In 1622, a Virginia official, John Pory, waded through the swamp and went all the way to the “South River Chawonock some sixtie miles” where he found “a Very fruitful and pleasant Countrie.” In 1629, King Charles I gave a vast tract of land south of the Dismal to his attorney general, Sir Robert Heath. The Heath patent went unused, however, as Englishmen concentrated their efforts on the more accessible lands of the Chesapeake. By the 1650s, the best Virginia lands had been taken, and tobacco prices had fallen. This made it harder for newcomers to make a living there.

Chapter 3: The Proprietors and Their Problems

What brought George Durant and others to the Albemarle was the chance to grow more tobacco with less effort and expense. Durant and his neighbors were also speculating on land, buying the land in the hopes that prices would rise as other farmers needed new areas for their crops.

Carolina “Rogues” There was another reason the Albemarle Sound beckoned the new settlers. Tobacco was a huge source of revenue for the king. Tobacco taxes, collected as customs duties (fees paid when a good was shipped out of a port) had become a way England could afford the expense of its colonies in the New World. Virginians were constantly watched to make sure that they paid their taxes. The first settlers to the remote necks of the Albemarle soon developed a reputation for being “rogues,” a term used back then for cheaters. That was because they often shipped their tobacco and other products through back channels without paying the tax collector. In this way, someone like George Durant could profit even though he did not live in the richer sections of Virginia. Durant could grow his own tobacco, buy up the leaf grown by his neighbors, then arrange to ship the tobacco on small boats that came down the coast from New England. Unlike the large English ships that sailed the Chesapeake, the two-masted Yankee sloops could go across the shallow sounds. They then returned north along the edge of the Gulf Stream with small cargoes of tobacco, corn, and wheat (which did not grow well in the colder northern colonies) and found ready markets there. A Boston merchant could buy up several boatloads of produce and combine them into a larger shipload that would bring a profit in England. For several years, the Durants and their neighbors did well, and others joined them. By 1665, for example, a government official noted that “fortie miles square will not comprehend the Inhabitants already seated.” Their ability to succeed was helped by the fact that the status of their property was uncertain. Were they part of Virginia, or did they belong to the new colony of Carolina? It would take years to decide the matter, and the contentious character of the colony would be established.

Above: Sir Robert Heath was not able to plant a colony in Carolina. In 1638, Heath gave the patent to Henry, Lord Maltravers. He too could not settle a colony in Carolina. During the 1640s and 1650s, unrest in England put a stop to colonizing efforts. Opposite page, above: The navigable rivers flowing southward from Virginia brought perhaps five hundred settlers to the area above the Albemarle Sound by the 1660s. The settlers were looking for more lands on which to plant tobacco.

It’s Your Turn 1. Where were the first settlements in what is today North Carolina? 2. Why were North Carolinians considered to be “rogues”?

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CAROLINA PLACES

The Great Dismal Swamp

When the Albemarle area was being settled, about the only way to get to it by land was to go through or around the Great Dismal Swamp. In 1728, Virginian William Byrd said, “This swamp is a mere quagmire, trembling under the feet of those who walk upon it.” The place was so lush with vegetation that Byrd thought it “makes each season look like spring, and every month like May.” But many residents of the early Albemarle were afraid of going very far into the swamp. The Dismal Swamp is not like most other swamps. The typical swamp is a low-lying part of the earth where water stands much of the year. It stays swampy because the water creates muck in the earth, which in turn fosters more growth of plant and animal life.The Dismal, in contrast, is more like a big pocosin, one of those “swamps on a hill.” The Dismal is actually higher in elevation than the surroundingTidewater area.The foundation of the swamp is peat, a spongy form of decayed plant life that is a forerunner to coal. What is really strange about the Dismal Swamp is that water flows out of it, but not into it. Thousands of springs of water come up through the peat, and seven short, but significant, rivers flow out of it and into either the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia or the Albemarle Sound in North Carolina. No one is exactly sure where the water comes from. Near the middle of the swamp is Lake Drummond, full of fresh water. The Dismal’s water itself is some of the most famous water in American history. Because the water percolates up through the peat, it is sterile and clean. Plus, the juniper and cypress trees give it a bit of tannic acid, which keeps it fresh.

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During the colonial period, Dismal Swamp water was barreled and taken on oceangoing ships. American sailors who took Admiral Matthew Perry to Japan in the 1850s drank fifty barrels of it. Coastal residents thought the brown “Juniper water” would keep a person from getting malaria.The Dismal also became famous because slaves escaping on the

Chapter 3: The Proprietors and Their Problems

Left: The Dismal Swamp was noted for its cypress trees and its water, which was barreled for use by sailors all over the world. Above: The Great Dismal Swamp Canal dates to the early 1800s. Today it is part of the Intracoastal Waterway. Underground Railroad could hide there as long as needed and not get sick from drinking the water. During the history of North Carolina, people of all types have tried to get a piece of the swamp. Most of all, it has been timbered. A company was formed during the colonial period to cut into the swamp, make money from its timber, and turn its peat into farmland. One of the chief investors was George Washington. Although Washington’s company dug a lot of drainage ditches, it did not level the forest. In the later 1790s, Washington and others started to dig a canal through the swamp from the Chesapeake to the Albemarle. This was completed in the early 1800s, and North Carolinians in the northeastern section of the state were able to take advantage of an outlet to the sea.The canal was a major reason that the richest North Carolinians of that day lived on the nearby Roanoke River. It also spurred the growth of Elizabeth City. The canal is still in use today. In the early twenty-first century, the swamp is one-third the size it was when the first white settlers came to the Albemarle. It is preserved as either a state park or a wildlife refuge. About half of it is in Virginia, the other half in North Carolina.

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The Chartering of Carolina

This section will help you meet the following objective:

8.1.03 Compare and contrast the differing motives for European exploration. 8.1.05 Describe the factors that led to the founding and settlement of the American colonies.

As you read, look for: • how Carolina came to be a separate colony • why the Lords Proprietors wanted the Carolina colony • conditions that shaped the early settlers • vocabulary terms charter, Lord Proprietor, quit-rent Every one of Great Britain’s

Map 11 The Carolina Charter Map Skill: What southern states were not included in the Carolina charter?

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American colonies was eventually organized by a charter, a contract granted by the king to individuals or groups who were to be in charge of settlement and then govern the settlers. Virginia, for example, was established when the king gave a charter to a group called the London Company. The new company established Jamestown in 1607 and ran the colony to make a financial profit. Despite the popularity of tobacco, early Virginia did not succeed very well, so the company sold its interest back to the king in 1622. These legal transactions canceled out the old rights to Roanoke held by the Raleigh interests. Thus, when the Durants and others moved south of the Dismal Swamp, they still lived in Virginia. Everything changed in 1663, when the king of England at that time, Charles II, created the new Carolina colony. Charles II had gone into exile during a long civil war in which the monarchy was abolished and his father, King Charles I, executed. Charles II was “restored” in 1660 by Englishmen who still wanted a king to rule the country. Charles II owed favors to those who had put him back in charge. So, he gave a group of English aristocrats the southern part of Virginia.

Chapter 3: The Proprietors and Their Problems

On March 24, 1663, eight Lords Proprietors received the Carolina charter. The recipients of the charter were called “Lords” because they were to be the “true and absolute” rulers of the colony. They were called “Proprietors” since they were the owners of the property. In 1665, the king expanded their charter to include all the territory that is North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia and part of Florida today. The Proprietors were also given claim to all territory west to “the South Seas,” another name for the Pacific Ocean. Although no one at the time knew just how much land was involved, the Carolina colony claimed most of what became the southern half of the United States, extending all the way to California. (So, in a way, Los Angeles was once part of Carolina, although the Spanish owned it then and would not have given it up without a fight.)

Above: The original Carolina Charter of 1663 is housed at the State Archives Building in Raleigh. The state bought the document in 1949 for $8,000. North Carolina is one of only seven states that has its original charter.

The Lords Proprietors The Lords Proprietors were some of the most powerful men in England. For example, George Monck, the Duke of Albemarle, was “master of the king’s horse,” which meant he commanded the English army. Anthony Ashley-Cooper was “chancellor of the exchequer,” which meant he was national treasurer. The proprietors would later name the Albemarle Sound for the Duke and two rivers for Sir Anthony. The Ashley and Cooper

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Figure 6

The Thirteen English Colonies

Colony Year Settled English Colony Reasons for Settlement __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ New England Colonies __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Massachusetts Bay 1620 1630 Religious freedom __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Connecticut 1633 1636 Religious freedom, agriculture __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Rhode Island 1636 1644 Religious freedom __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ New Hampshire 1623 1679 Commercial venture __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Middle Colonies __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ New York 1626 1664 Trade, agriculture __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ New Jersey 1626 1664 Trade, agriculture __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Pennsylvania 1642 1681 Religious freedom __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Delaware 1638 1701 Trade __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Southern Colonies __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Virginia 1607 1607 Commercial venture __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Maryland 1634 1632 Religious freedom; __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ buffer against Dutch __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

North Carolina 1650s 1712 Agriculture __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ South Carolina 1669 1729 Agriculture __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Georgia 1733 1732 Debtor colony; __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ buffer against Spanish __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

rivers come together to form the great harbor where the Proprietors built Charles Town, South Carolina. Why would these men want a colony, since they lived in great comfort in London and did not plan to move? Money was the answer. Like a real estate developer of today, they wanted to sell the land and make their money through financing the deal. To encourage settlers to come to Carolina, the Proprietors almost gave the land away, charging mostly for surveying (measuring) the property and filing the land deed. But the Proprietors expected each year to receive a quit-rent. This was an old form of payment that had existed for centuries in Europe. The owner actually held title to his land, but he had to pay an annual land tax to the Proprietors. This would have gone on forever, even as the descendants of the original owner took over the property. Since it was assumed that only a portion of the quit-rents would go for the maintenance of the colony, the Proprietors hoped to reap a great profit over the coming years. The Proprietors saw the arrangement as a good deal for all concerned. In return for the revenue from the quit-rents of “their fair and prosperous

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province on the continent of America,” they were obligated to govern the colony fairly for everyone. They were to give the colonists the same “liberties, franchises, and privileges” that were given in England itself. They also had to protect the colonists from invasion and attack. These rules were put into place with “the Concessions of 1665.” A key phrase in that document was that all taxes were to be “reasonably assessed . . . by and with the consent of the free people” living in the colony. To ensure that government would work and to make certain the quit-rents and other taxes would be collected, the Proprietors approved the Fundamental Constitutions in 1669. This document established a form of government run by men with an elaborate series of titles and ranks. The “Grand Model,” as the constitution was more commonly called, was copied from the English aristocratic model. Each settler would know where he stood in the social order and, therefore, know who to listen to when the taxes were to be paid. The Fundamental Constitutions gave people titles like caciques, landgraves, and yeomen. At the top rank was the palatine, who came from the ranks of the Proprietors but who ran the colony from England. The Proprietors hoped that the order they gave to the colony would help everyone involved. But, as it turned out, regular people like George Durant had very different views about society than aristocrats like Sir Ashley-Cooper. A “rogue” and a “landgrave” were not exactly the same sort of thing. The Albemarle region turned out to be the least profitable and governable part of Carolina. In comparison, the settlement of Charles Town in the 1680s proved a benefit when residents there made a fortune growing rice. In contrast, the poor access to the sea hindered the Albemarle Sound’s prosperity, stunting the economic development of the region. And, the social attitudes of the early settlers often blunted the efforts of the Proprietors to get results from the northern necks of their colony.

Social and Economic Conditions Most of the Albemarle settlers were not nearly as wealthy as their counterparts in Virginia. Most Carolina settlers lived in wood frame huts that rested upon cypress piles driven into the ground. Since it was expensive to haul in nails, they used wooden pegs in the construction. Most houses were one- or two-room cottages, with a loft above and a chimney at the end of the larger room. The chimney heated the room and provided a space for cooking. Families used the main room as an all-purpose gathering place, where they mixed work and play on a daily basis. Farming was by no means advanced, even for that day. Most of the early farmers did not own a plow; instead they dug their gardens and fields with hoes and shovels. They laboriously placed each tobacco plant in a heaped mound of dirt and dung. The tobacco, along with corn or

Above: George Monck, the Duke of Albemarle, was one of the original Lords Proprietors. His royal title was used for the naming of the Albemarle Sound in the 1660s.

The eight original Lords Proprietors were Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon; George Monck, Duke of Albemarle; William, Earl of Craven; John Lord Berkeley; Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury; Sir George Carteret; Sir William Berkeley; and Sir John Colleton.

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Above: George Fox, the founder of the Quaker faith, never lived in North Carolina, but he made visits to other Quakers during the Proprietary period. Fox’s plain dress suggests how most Albemarle residents might have looked.

any other crop, could be sold at a small profit to the New England ship captains who came to the Albemarle each summer. Most of the early Albemarle families did the labor themselves. Only about one in ten settlers was an African slave. Still, it was not an exhausting life for many, who got by with the least they needed. William Byrd, a rich Virginia planter, said that many men “make their Wives rise out of their beds early” while “at the same time they lye and Snore.” While the women cared for children and did chores, “they stand leaning with both arms upon the cornfield fence.” More than one prosperous Virginian who came to the region called the people “lubbers,” a derogatory term of the day that referred to someone with lazy habits. “Thus, they loiter away their lives,” observed Byrd. Some Virginians came to call the Albemarle “Lubberland.” Nor were there churches and schools in the first neighborhoods. People worshipped in homes, especially among settlers who professed to be Quakers, a new religious faith that had recently originated in England. The Society of Friends, as Quakers called themselves, emphasized the ability of every individual to have a genuine religious experience, even without the leadership of a preacher or a priest. In 1672, the founder that that new faith, George Fox, made a journey to “the north of Carolina” to hold “meetings among the people.” Four years later, hundreds of settlers had joined the Quakers. Since Quakers did not have to have a minister to conduct a service, no clergyman was a resident of the Albemarle for years, and no meetinghouse was erected until after 1700. The growth of the Quaker faith added to the independent attitude of the settlers. For example, some men who attended the first church service in the colony, in 1672, “shocked the sensibilities of some . . . by smoking their pipes . . . during the devotional exercises.” They wanted to show they could make up their own minds about religion, since men in that day often smoked a pipe while they thought about something. The same Albemarle “lubbers” who seemed lazy most days reacted energetically to any effort by the Proprietors to impose order on them. They had little desire to pay the quit-rent required of them and little use for the fancy titles given to a few rich people in their midst. In fact, the Albemarle settlers were very assertive of their independence from the start.

It’s Your Turn 1. Who were the Lords Proprietors? 2. What was a quit-rent? 3. Why was the Fundamental Constitutions unsuccessful?

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Culpeper’s Rebellion As you read, look for: • the conditions that led to Culpeper’s Rebellion • the results of Culpeper’s Rebellion • vocabulary terms General Assembly, Navigation Acts, Culpeper’s Rebellion, governor, treason

This section will help you meet the following objectives: 8.1.06 Identify reasons for the creation of a distinct North Carolina colony and evaluate the effects on its government and economics. 8.1.07 Describe the contributions of diverse groups to life in colonial North Carolina and other colonies.

Albemarle settlers from the start showed their independence in political matters. When the Proprietors convened the first General Assembly (the law-making body made up of representatives from the various necks), one of the first laws it passed was a declaration that land deeds already held by the inhabitants be respected. The representatives also insisted that they pay quit-rents at the same rate as in Virginia. The Proprietors, wanting to make a good first impression, approved these ideas in 1668 with the Great Deed of Grant. Albemarle citizens showed their independence again in 1673, when the Proprietors took steps to get more money from the colonists. The Proprietors decided to enforce the Navigation Acts. England had passed these laws in the 1660s. They listed which colonial goods—such as tobacco, dried fish, flour, or shingles—would be subject to customs duties. The whole idea was to have England benefit from the sale of colonial products. The collection of those “duties” meant that many Albemarle residents who sold to New England shippers could no longer avoid the duties. Most of the Albemarle residents wouldn’t pay. To keep in the good graces of the king, and to keep him from taking back their charter, the Proprietors tried to stop the tax evasions. But the first person they put in charge of collecting the duties simply let most of the ships leave the sound without checking their cargo. Some residents of the Albemarle, however, sided with the Proprietors. Thomas Miller, an apothecary, had selfish motives in mind. Since the tax collector got a portion of the duties as the fee for his work, Miller wanted the job. Also, tax evaders might eventually forfeit (lose) their property and their power in the colony. So, people who sided with Miller could then buy up the forfeited land and resell it for a profit. Miller’s ally was Thomas Eastchurch, a surveyor, who likely saw that he would collect more fees if a lot of land was sold. Miller and Eastchurch brought about Culpeper’s Rebellion, an event so complicated that it rivaled the best soap opera on television today.

Above: Tobacco was one of the colonial goods subject to custom duties under the Navigation Acts.

An apothecary was something like today’s druggist. But an apothecary also often provided medical treatment, prescribed medicine, performed surgery, and delivered babies.

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The story was as much a comedy as it was a political struggle over the control of the Albemarle. Even the name was confusing. John Culpeper was only a minor player in all the drama.

The Beginnings In 1676, Miller and Eastchurch went to England to tell the Lords Proprietors of “the deplorable situation” in the colony. To counter them, George Durant set sail for England and presented the other side of the argument—that the problem of access to the sea kept the settlers too poor to pay the duties. Since the Proprietors wanted to please the tax-loving king, they appointed Eastchurch governor (leader) of the colony and made Miller the tax collector. Durant then defiantly told the Proprietors he and others like him “would turn Rebel.” Eastchurch’s real desires were proven during his voyage back to Carolina. When the ship docked in a Caribbean port, Eastchurch met “a woman that was of a considerable fortune” and immediately married her. He then stayed behind for a honeymoon and sent Miller on to the Albemarle to take charge without him.

Miller the Tyrant Above: William Drummond was the very first governor of what became the Albemarle Sound region. The Proprietors called him a “Scotch gentleman of good repute.” Drummond, however, took part in Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia at about the same time as Culpeper’s Rebellion in the Albemarle. Drummond was executed for his role in the rebellion.

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Miller sailed into Albemarle Sound in 1677 with a small ship he had armed to help collect the duties. Residents soon accused him of “many extravagant things” including baseless arrests and heavy fines imposed on anyone he disliked. When George Durant returned from London, Miller tried to arrest him. Miller’s timing was bad, for Durant had returned to the Albemarle with weapons that he distributed up and down the various necks. When Miller thrust a cocked pistol into Durant’s ribs and called him a traitor, forty other residents of Durant’s Neck came to the rescue. Within days, Miller and his followers were “clapt in irons” in a prison built just for them. Most of the rebel meetings were held at the Durant home. In the midst of the chaos, Eastchurch finally arrived. Since Eastchurch could legally claim the Proprietors had put him in charge, the rebels faced being charged with treason (the act of trying to overthrow the government). But Eastchurch got sick and died, and the fight resumed. Again, the two sides sent written complaints back across the Atlantic to plead their cases before the Proprietors. One of Miller’s imprisoned friends sawed himself free of chains, escaped, and traveled all the way to London. There he denounced Durant and his neighbors. The Proprietors were afraid that the king would think they could not manage the situation and take the colony back. They sent one of their own, Seth Sothel, to be governor. Surely, they thought, the surly Albemarle would listen to one of the Lords. But on the way Sothel’s ship was overtaken by Turkish pirates, and Sothel was taken away as a prisoner! The Proprietors, wanting very much to quiet the Albemarle, turned to John Harvey to be governor. Respected by almost everyone, Harvey calmly

Chapter 3: The Proprietors and Their Problems

began to send some quit-rents and customs duties back to England, for the first time in six years. Then, Harvey died. Thomas Miller escaped and went to London and once again told the Proprietors he was the real leader of the Albemarle.

Durant and Friends Win By 1680, so many Albemarle residents were in London, each telling a different story, that the king had to step in to fix the problem. A hearing was conducted about whether to revoke the Carolina charter. The desperate Proprietors decided to blame Miller for the whole matter, since Durant and others were the taxpayers. Unfortunately, the Albemarle did not get to settle down. The colony of Virginia claimed that the Albemarle was still part of Virginia and, therefore, the quit-rents belonged to Virginia. To pressure the Albemarle settlers into paying, Virginians passed a law barring the sale of Albemarle tobacco in Virginia. In 1683, four years after being kidnapped by pirates, Seth Sothel finally arrived in the Albemarle. Sothel acted as if the colony was his private estate. He took land titles away from residents who angered him and threw in jail anyone who disagreed with him. The chief victim was George Durant, who was thrown out of his house. Sothel believed that Durant “was always a discontented man and the most active of the rebels.” Angry Albemarle residents came to Sothel’s house and “clappt him into a logg house.” They then set up their own court to “abjure” Sothel to leave “this country.” The Albemarle continued to have troubles even after the Sothel affair. A resident of the Currituck neck, John Gibbs, led a small rebellion that tried to stop the new governor from taking office, promising to continue the fight “as long as My Eyelids shall wagg.” This “Gibbs Rebellion,” however, was shortlived. Gibbs’s neighbors made him flee into Virginia. In 1691, the frustrated Proprietors split their colony into two. They told the governor to live in Charles Town, where customs duties on rice were substantial. A deputy governor of “north” Carolina was sent to the Albemarle. That governor, John Archdale, was a Quaker and largely left the Albemarle region alone.

Above: Anthony Ashley-Cooper, a Proprietor, lent his name to the two rivers that come together at Charles Town. Ashley-Cooper hired John Locke, an English philosopher, to write the Fundamental Constitutions designed to govern the colony.

After Sothel was banished from the Albemarle, he went to Charles Town, where he became a governor for South Carolina.

It’s Your Turn 1. What was the purpose of the Navigation Acts? 2. Why did the settlers say they could not pay the customs duties?

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Settling the Pamlico Sound

to the founding and settlement of the American colonies. 8.1.07 Describe the contributions of diverse groups to life in colonial North Carolina and other colonies.

Above: The Proprietors tried to develop the Pamlico Sound area after 1700. Bonner Point was chosen to be the wharf area for the new town of Bath. The current wharf is on the same site as the original wharf.

As you read, look for: • the first towns in North Carolina • the problems that led to Cary’s Rebellion • reasons why tensions increased between the settlers and the Tuscarora • vocabulary terms county, refugee, cede After 1690, the Lords Proprietors—always on the lookout for new sources of quit-rents—made special offers on cheap land to refugees from religious wars in Europe. The Proprietors hoped that victims of such terrible wars would want a more peaceful existence in Carolina and would, therefore, be good citizens. In 1696, a group of French Huguenots, thrown out of their own country because they refused to be Catholics, located on the northern edge of the Pamlico Sound, not far from the mouth of the Tar River. That year, Governor John Archdale convinced the General Assembly to divide the Albemarle into two counties, an old English jurisdiction that allowed for local government. The two counties were Albemarle, which was all the land north of that Sound, and Bath, which included all the land south on the Pamlico. Others saw the advantages of living nearer Ocracoke Island, where inlets provided shipping lanes into the Atlantic. The settlers hoped to raise cattle on the rich grass that grew among the longleaf pines of the nearby forests. They could slaughter the cows and pigs, cure the meat and put it in barrels, and ship those barrels to the nearby Caribbean Islands. The newcomers “at vast labour and expense recovered and improved vast quantities of land,” noted one visitor. So many Virginians headed for the Pamlico that Virginia actually tried to pass laws forbidding them to leave. One older Pamlico resident noted that the new settlers were “much taken with the Pleasantness of that Country.”

First Towns So fast did the Pamlico grow that some newcomers ambitiously started Bath, the colony’s first town, in 1705. A 1709 visitor wrote to friends in England that “they have begun to build a town called Bath. It consists of

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Map 12 Early Towns of North Carolina Map Skill: Which of these towns were not established on necks?

Left: The town of Bath did not grow into the large seaport intended by the Proprietors. It did, however, generate enough trade for prosperous homes to be built, like the Palmer-Marsh House, completed in 1751.

The first counties in Carolina were more like the states of later times in that each had a governor, a legislature, courts, and other departments of government.

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about twelve houses.” Soon, more settlers from Virginia moved about thirty miles south of Bath. In 1711, the Proprietors approved the establishment of New Bern, the colony’s second town, where the Trent and Neuse rivers come together. Where Bath was named for a city in England, New Bern referred to the original home of its first residents. Baron Christoph von Graffenried led a group of Germans and Swiss from Bern, Switzerland. The refugees (those fleeing danger or persecution) turned up in London, where Queen Anne sympathized with their plight and helped pay for their trip across the Atlantic. Von Graffenried soon had the town of New Bern laid out. For a while, he reported, “There was a fine appearance of a happy state of affairs.” The settlement of the Pamlico caused a new round of troubles for the North Carolina colony. The Lords Proprietors again tried to instill order, but many settlers again resisted.

Cary’s Rebellion

Above: Work on St. Thomas Episcopal Church in Bath was begun in 1734. It is the oldest church still standing in North Carolina.

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This time, the Proprietors turned to religion as a way to organize the colony. England was organized very successfully into parishes, which meant that everyone who lived in a particular place, like a village or manor, was to be baptized, worship, marry, and be buried in the same church. In addition, the Anglicans (as members of the Church of England were called) also provided educational and welfare services for the people. In contrast, North Carolina was notable for its lack of churches. The Quakers, who still gathered in someone’s home for “monthly meetings,” were a minority of the people. According to an Englishman visiting in 1704, there “were a great many who have no religion.” Since, the Lords Proprietors reasoned, people in England were more likely to pay their taxes and mind those in authority better than the Carolina “lubbers,” introducing the Church of England might make Carolinians better citizens—and better taxpayers. In 1701 and 1703, the General Assembly passed laws “establishing” the Anglican Church in the colony. Establishment meant that all colonists officially belonged to the Anglican faith, whether they wanted to or not. All citizens were expected to pay church taxes in addition to the hated quit-rents.

Chapter 3: The Proprietors and Their Problems

In 1704, the General Assembly passed the Test Act, which said that anyone who held public office had to take “the test.” He had to put his hand on a Bible and swear to uphold the principles of the Anglican Church, not any other. This law was intended to be as political as it was religious. This hit hardest on the Quakers, since their faith kept them from swearing any sort of oath. Thomas Cary, appointed governor in 1706, used the Test Act to keep Quakers from holding office. Cary “so nettled the Quakers” that they quickly protested to the Proprietors, sending someone to remind the Lords that they had been the best taxpaying citizens of the colony for years. The Proprietors, however, were intent upon a new way of doing things. They just sent another governor to Bath, who then tried to require an oath. Just as in Culpeper’s day, Carolinians prepared for a fight. Angry men in Bath threatened to shoot one another when attempts were made to build an Anglican church. Cary, the former governor, soon sided with the Quakers in order to get his job back. The General Assembly then held elections to let the voters decide which side had a majority. After much dispute, the “Cary faction” took control. Cary made himself governor for three years, from 1708 to 1711, and let Quakers hold office without requiring them to take the test. The frustrated Proprietors again found that their ideas had not worked. In 1711, they sent Edward Hyde to be the official governor. Hyde spread a lie about himself to gain respect; he claimed he was a cousin of the popular Queen Anne. As a result, many Carolinians bowed to his authority and followed him. Hyde then quickly had the General Assembly pass new laws aimed at restoring the established church and the political rule of the Anglicans. Cary gathered a crowd armed with “great Guns and other warlike stores” and attacked the Anglicans, but the arrival of English soldiers from Virginia—requested by the Proprietors—so “frighted the Rebellious party” that Cary and his followers fled the colony. In the midst of these troubles, the whole colony was almost lost in an Indian war.

The church taxes were to be used to build Anglican churches and pay Anglican clergymen.

Above: The interior of St. Thomas Church at Bath was like other Anglican churches of the day. The Church of England was the established church of the colony after 1700, which meant that all residents were officially members.

The Tuscarora War As Cary’s Rebellion kept the colony in an uproar, the Tuscarora Indians attempted to destroy the Pamlico settlements. In 1711, they attacked when the colonists were tired and had their guard down. Several hundred colonists were murdered, as many as eighty of them young children. Refugees cowered in fortified buildings in both Bath and New Bern. The most notable victim was John Lawson, the colony’s surveyor, who

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CAROLINA CELEBRITIES Blackbeard

By far, North Carolina’s Spanish ships on their own and take anything they most celebrated early resiwanted from them. After dent was Blackbeard, the the war, some privateers most famous pirate of hiscouldn’t stop, and they betory. Though he only lived gan to raid ships of all nawith us a short while, North tions, even England. Carolinians have claimed Blackbeard operated him as our own. For the last out of the island of Jamaica. several years, the state of He raided ships all over the North Carolina has been Caribbean until the English excavating the remains sent their navy to stop the of Blackbeard’s ship, The piracy. In 1717, the English Queen Anne’s Revenge, in offered all pirates a pardon. Beaufort harbor. In 1718, Blackbeard sailed Recently, however, reinto Pamlico Sound and searchers in Beaufort Counsurrendered to the North ty have come up with a new Carolina government. He idea. They believe the histhen bought a house in torical records show that Bath, got married, and supBlackbeard might have posedly settled down. Howgrown up in Bath. In fact, ever, he was unable to stop they think that when Blackpirating, went out again, beard took refuge in the and soon was caught plotNorth Carolina sounds from ting his next move. The his days of pirating, he was pirate literally lost his head coming home. on November 22, 1718, at To understand this, the Ocracoke Inlet. traditional story needs tellThe real “Black-Beard” ing: It has always been beAbove: Blackbeard was well known for carrying a pair (note the hyphen) might lieved that Blackbeard was of pistols, which he could pull out one after another have been an original resian alias for Edward Teach, and get off six shots in less than a minute. dent of Bath when it was or Thatch. This Englishman founded in 1705. James Beard, a sea captain, lived right got involved in pirating after Queen Anne’s War against the across a creek from the town. Records show that Beard’s Spanish. During that war, the English licensed men as ships went up and down the Atlantic Coast from New York privateers, which meant that they were allowed to attack

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and Philadelphia to the Caribbean. He died during Queen Anne’s War, which could mean he was a privateer. There is mention of a son, who is known to have died between 1718 and 1721, right about the time that Black-Beard was killed. The Beard house, researchers have found, was right at the same location where Blackbeard was said to have had a tunnel, in which he hid his loot. The tunnel went 180 feet from the creek to the house of Governor Charles Eden, who some thought was in league with pirates. The researchers also point out that Edward Teach, or Thatch, cannot be found in any records in England, Jamaica, or Carolina.There is no record of an EdwardTeach buying a house or getting married in Bath. In fact, that name was not recorded as Blackbeard’s until five

years after Blackbeard’s death. They also point out that Blackbeard was known to have a sister named Susie, and James Beard had a daughter Susannah. Finally, they observed that in the earliest stories, the pirate’s name was hyphenated, Black-Beard, which they think is a clue about his last name. If the new story is true, then a boy grew up in Bath, sailed with his father as a privateer, got caught up in pirating, and used Bath as a base for his treasure all along. He just came home once too often. Above: Regardless of who he really was, the pirate Blackbeard was killed in combat in November 1718. Below: In 1996, researchers discovered the remains of The Queen Anne’s Revenge in Beaufort Inlet.

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Above: Governor Edward Hyde had to call on the neighboring colonies of Virginia and South Carolina for help during the Tuscarora War. He died within a year of taking office. Opposite page: The Tuscarora War began in 1711 with the capture of John Lawson and Baron Christoph Von Graffenried, who were exploring the Neuse River.

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was scouting for new land when he and Baron von Graffenried were captured. The Tuscarora demanded that von Graffenried promise to take his settlers and leave the Pamlico (which he later did). They then proceeded to torture and execute Lawson, since he was the one most responsible for white intrusions. The Tuscarora were angry about more than lost land. They had been complaining for years that “the English are very wicked people.” Indians believed they could hunt wherever they wanted, since by tradition all the land belonged to everyone. White farmers, in turn, did not like Indians in their planted fields and often drove them away. White traders cheated Indians with poor quality goods and threatened them physically when they protested. Most of all, whites were known to kidnap Indians and sell them into slavery in the Caribbean. (At this time, Indians as well as blacks were slaves.) The Pamlico was “totally wasted and ruined.” Governor Hyde acted quickly to defend the colony, but only a few men were readily armed. The disgruntled Quakers and their friends were not going to fight, given both their pacifist faith and their anger over their loss of power. Unable to defend itself, North Carolina turned to nearby colonies for help. Virginia, however, would not send troops unless Carolina ceded (transferred) back the land north of the Albemarle Sound that had been disputed since 1665. The fate of the Pamlico depended upon the Charles Town settlers. South Carolina sent troops immediately, mostly Indians from its region who were longtime enemies of the Tuscarora. Colonel John Barnwell, later to be nicknamed “Tuscarora Jack,” was the commander. The South Carolinians defeated the Tuscarora in a series of battles along the Neuse River. But, like most things in the early history of the colony, the struggle did not end. When Barnwell compromised with the Indians—allowing them to stay on the Neuse in order to save the lives of hostages—the General Assembly refused to reimburse his expenses. Barnwell then took Tuscarora hostages back to Charles Town, intending to sell them into slavery to recover his losses. Barnwell so angered the Tuscarora that they attacked the Pamlico again in 1712. This time, the Indians had an advantage because many whites were sick with yellow fever, including Governor Hyde who died from his illness. James Moore, another South Carolina commander, came from Charles Town and once again defeated the Tuscarora in 1713. This time, the peace terms were not generous, and what Indians were not forced into slavery generally decided to leave the region. Since the Tuscarora were kin to the Iroquois of New York, many moved up there. A few Tuscarora who lived near the Roanoke River had not participated in the war; they later moved to a reservation near the Albemarle Sound. That reservation was indentifiable well into the 1800s. Tom Blunt,

Chapter 3: The Proprietors and Their Problems

the leader of that Tuscarora band, became a hero to some people on the Albemarle because he had warned them of the impending attacks. By the summer of 1714, the colony had its first “peace and quietness” since 1700. In 1712, the Proprietors had officially separated the two areas of the colony into the provinces of North Carolina and South Carolina. In 1715, the newly established colony of North Carolina rewrote all its laws and added sixty new ones. The code included the requirement that all public officials be bonded. The officials had to file a document that guaranteed they would repay any monetary damage they caused while in office. The Church of England remained the established faith, but Quakers and others could “Act for Liberty of Conscience” and avoid oaths and other hated obligations. The new laws still required a quit-rent each year.

In 1710, to escape enslavement, the Tuscarora asked the colony of Pennsylvania for permission to settle there. They were refused.

It’s Your Turn 1. Name the first two towns established in North Carolina. 2. How was Cary’s Rebellion different from Culpeper’s Rebellion? 3. Describe the effects of the Tuscarora War on that tribe.

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Settling the Cape Fear

This section will help you meet the following objective:

8.1.06 Identify reasons for the

As you read, look for:

creation of a distinct North Carolina colony and evaluate the effects on its government and economics.

• what led settlers to the Cape Fear area • North Carolina becoming a royal colony • vocabulary terms naval stores, bounty, royal colony The defeat of the Tuscarora opened up new lands to white

Above: Maurice Moore, Jr., was born on the Cape Fear and grew up in the 1730s at Rocky Point, north of Wilmington. His father was one of the leaders of “the Family” who settled the region after the Tuscarora War. The Moores made a fortune producing tar and other products. The son grew up to be one of the first judges of the state.

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settlement in the years after 1715. Most significantly, the Cape Fear region (which included the lands on both sides of the Cape Fear River from its mouth to fifty miles inland) became the most prosperous area of the colony. Settlers pushed into that area to take advantage of its economic opportunities. Some settlers hoped to make a good living growing rice, as had hundreds in the Charles Town area. More settlers, however, turned to the production of naval stores. The longleaf pines of Carolina gave the British much-needed pitch, turpentine, and tar, all vital to seal ships and keep them from leaking on oceangoing voyages. During the early 1700s, the British paid bounties for naval stores, which meant they made sure producers got a good price for the products as a way to supply their growing fleet. The potential profits from naval stores soon drew settlers to the Cape Fear, for millions of acres of land near the river were full of longleaf pine. The first settlers were led by Maurice and James Moore. The Moore family had settled in South Carolina from the sugar island of Barbados. They knew how important rice and tar were in the Caribbean economy. About 1723, they tried to move to the Cape Fear. The Lords Proprietors considered the Cape Fear to be part of South Carolina. As a result, they had restricted who could live in the area. To deal with this problem, the Moores used their family’s reputation to become friends with George Burrington, the governor of North Carolina. Burrington wanted to open up new areas for settlement to deal with the old problem of too little tax money. So, Burrington granted land to the Moores (once they paid their quit-rents in advance), in spite of the instructions from the Proprietors.

Chapter 3: The Proprietors and Their Problems

Blank Patents Like a real estate developer, Governor Burrington left the Albemarle in 1724 and set up an office at the mouth of the Cape Fear. Burrington took some land deed forms (called blank patents in that day), sold them to the Moores and others, and let them fill in the blanks as to the location of the land later. The Moores quickly took advantage of the terms. Maurice Moore acquired more than 9,000 acres; his brother Roger took 2,000 more. Other in-laws of the Moores picked up a few thousand more acres. The Proprietors eventually dismissed Burrington, for “his illegal proceedings.” Some of the Proprietors were afraid that Burrington would join with the Moores and convince the king to take the North Carolina colony away from them. The Moores had already been part of a successful effort to wrest the government of South Carolina away from the Proprietors just after the Tuscarora War. But, as the smarter Proprietors realized, Burrington had already turned the Cape Fear into North Carolina territory; therefore, the Proprietors would more easily receive their quit-rents. While all these matters were being argued, a select group of South Carolinians moved into the Cape Fear. So many of the settlers were related either to the Moores or their in-laws that they became known as “the Family.” They used the blank patents to gain more than 80,000 acres of land. So encouraged was Maurice Moore that he built a wharf at the mouth of the Cape Fear River and called the tiny cluster of buildings there the Town of Brunswick. Governor Burrington even granted himself 10,000 acres of good forests. The real estate scandal on the Cape Fear pleased no one but “the Family” that got all the land. South Carolina leaders were angry that land

Above: No one lives in the town of Brunswick any more, but it is a state historic site. The foundations of several buildings can be seen, including this house, which used ballast stones taken from ships that docked there in the 1730s.

By 1725, four-fifths of the tar and pitched used in England came from the American colonies.

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Inglis Fletcher

The early Albemarle was the setting for a series of novels Inglis Fletcher wrote about the first settlers. She mixed real people with imagined characters to capture the struggle and flavor of life—from the failure at Roanoke to the success of the American Revolution. Actual events like the Lost Colony and Culpeper’s Rebellion were the focus of the stories. Each had a love story. They sold millions of copies and were translated into seven languages.

South Carolina had become a royal colony in 1719.

they claimed was being given away. Albemarle leaders were angry that the Cape Fear interests were getting lots of land for very little money. British King George I was unhappy that Carolina continued to be such an impossible place to govern and control. As Burrington told officials in London when he returned to England, “These people were always very troublesome.” Finally, the Proprietors were fed up with the unending troubles that their investment brought them. The Proprietors determined to sell out and get what money they could from a bad deal.

The End of the Proprietorship

After some negotiation, the Crown bought back its interest in the lands that had become the colonies of North and South Carolina. Each Proprietor got £2,500 (a considerable fortune in those days) for the value of the real estate and a share of back quit-rent payments. In 1729, North Carolina went from being a proprietary colony to a royal colony. It now belonged directly to the king. Just as nothing had gone smoothly in the establishment of the Carolina colony, so something jolted the transfer of the province to royal rule. One proprietor, Lord Granville, a grandson of one of the original eight Lords Proprietors, refused to give up his one-eighth ownership of the land. Granville was happy to let the king run the troublesome place, but he still wanted to collect his share of quit-rents. Since English tradition did not allow a king to confiscate (seize) property under such circumstances, the British Crown got the whole colony to rule, but only seven-eighths of the land to tax. The question, which took years to resolve, was which one-eighth did Lord Granville get? Not surprisingly, that dispute led to even more rebellions and fights.

It’s Your Turn 1. How did the early settlers to the Cape Fear earn their living? 2. Why were the South Carolinians angry over the settlement of the Cape Fear? 3. When did North Carolina become a royal colony?

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CAROLINA CURIOSITIES

When Did We Become Tar Heels?

History is more than just had tar on their heels from an what happened when. Why some early date. event turned out the way it did, Yet, we are not sure when rather than the opposite result, other Americans began to kid us keeps historians arguing. about “the pine woods that In the case of North Caroabound in that tar and turpenlina’s nickname—the Tar Heel tine state.” At first, they deState—we know what it means scribed us as “tar burners” in the and why we got it, we just don’t early 1800s. know when folks started calling Another story was first told in us by it. 1901 about North Carolinians in The “why” dates back to the the Civil War. During one battle, early days of the North Carolina North Carolina troops stood firm colony. When England began to while others took off. After one become a world power in the of the retreating Virginians asked early 1700s, it needed to exif “there was any more tar down pand its shipping fleet, both in the Old North State,” he was commercially and militarily. To told Virginia had bought it all do so meant finding new sup“to put it on you’ns’ heels to plies of tar, which was used to make you stick better in the next caulk the hulls of ships to ensure fight.” Another version of the they would not spring a leak.Tar story says that Mississippians comes from boiling down the once chided retreating North resin of pine trees, and North Carolinians for “forgetting to tar Carolina in the early 1700s had your heels this morning.” It an abundance of longleaf pine seems that “Tar Heel” soon beAbove: Tyler Hansborough of the University of trees. Coastal residents of the came the nickname of the state’s North Carolina Tarheels. colony responded to the bounty Confederate troops. One general paid for naval stores and quickly began the task of turning in a later battle was said to have congratulated “you Tar out thousands of barrels of tar. The industry continued in Heels” for fighting so hard. the Coastal Plain for more than a hundred years. The nickname began to appear in print soon after the Tar was collected from a iron pot at the bottom of a Civil War. Although other states continued to laugh about hole in the ground, once the pine trees were burned out. the name, North Carolinians said it with pride. By the twenSomeone had to go down into the hole to retrieve the pot. tieth century, the University in Chapel Hill had logically Feet quickly got sticky with the tar, hence North Carolinians adopted “Tar Heel” as its historically based nickname.

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A Royal Colony Struggles

Terms: immigrant, boycott, Granville District, frontier, French and Indian War, ranger, backcountry, prairie, girdling, drover, grist mill, toll, capital, appropriate, Regulator, extortion, militia People: Gabriel Johnston, Arthur Dobbs, Scots-Irish, Germans, Moravians, Highland Scots, Saura, Reverend Alexander Craighead, David Caldwell, William Tryon, Edmund Fanning, Herman Husband, Josiah Martin Places: Fort Dobbs, Cross Creek, Halifax, Hillsborough, Salisbury, Charlotte, Wachovia, Alamance Creek

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H

enry Weidner came to North Carolina from Pennsylvania at an early age. His widowed mother had joined other Germans in a community where everyone wore the same kind of clothes and slept on the floor with a wooden block for a pillow. Henry, not wanting that life, ran away. As his mother later complained, he “went from me and made himself his own master.” In 1734, Henry made for the southern wilderness to become a hunter and trapper. He set up camp on what became known as the Henry River, near today’s city of Hickory. For ten winters, he hunted with his six-foot-long rifle; each spring, he walked back all the way to Philadelphia to sell his skins and pelts. At age thirty, having saved his money, Henry decided to start a farm and a family. He picked out a spot on the Catawba River near the Blue Ridge. However, his hunting companion, a young Irishman named John McDowell, wanted the same land. So, the two wrestled for it. For more than an hour they tussled. Finally, McDowell threw Henry to the ground and claimed the land for himself. Pleasant Gardens in McDowell County is still one of the most beautiful places in the state.

North Carolina: Land of Contrasts

Henry went back to Pennsylvania and married sixteen-year-old Katherine Mull. In 1750, he brought her to Henry River. They selected a home site, built a log house with a huge stone chimney, and lived there for the next forty years. The Weidners, McDowells, and many others moved to North Carolina after it became a royal colony. The colony’s population doubled from 1730 to 1750, then doubled again from 1750 to 1770. Most of these immigrants settled west of the fall line. The newcomers spoke different languages and kept different customs than had the settlers of the Proprietary period. These backcountry families tried to take their place in the affairs of the colony, but they only partially succeeded. Coastal residents were no better able to get along with anyone in the 1700s than they had been in the 1600s. In fact, the resulting ruckus led to one of the momentous events in state history, the Regulation.

Opposite page, above: The pediment (triangular area below the roof line) on Tryon Palace in New Bern displays the British royal coat of arms. Below: This is the main street of Old Salem, a living history museum of the main Moravian settlement in North Carolina.

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SIGNS OF THE TIMES

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________What ______________________________Carolinians _____________________________________________come ________________________________ _______________________North ______________________________________________would __________________________________________________ _______to ______know ______________as _______classical ____________________music _______________was __________at _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________its ________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________peak. _______________George ____________________Frederick _________________________Handel’s ___________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________“Messiah,” ______________________________________________________in _______________________later ______________________________ ____________________________________completed _________________________________1741, ______________________________________________ ________became _____________________a_____favorite _____________________event _______________in ______churches ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________across _________________North _______________Carolina, ________________________including ___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Duke _____________University _________________________Chapel. _______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

MUSIC

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________thirteen _______________________________________were _____________________________up _____________a _________ ________The _______________________________colonies ___________________________________caught __________________________in _______________ ________great _______________religious ______________________revival __________________known _________________as _______the ____________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Great _______________Awakening. ______________________________From ______________this ___________movement _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________came _______________the _________Methodist ___________________________and ___________Baptist ___________________denomi_____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________nations ____________________that ___________would ________________later _____________be _______popular _____________________in ___________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________North ______________Carolina. ______________________George __________________Whitefield, __________________________the ____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________leading ____________________minister _____________________of _______the _________movement, _____________________________would _____________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________inspire _________________Billy ___________Graham, ______________________a____North ______________Carolinian ________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________who ____________became _____________________the __________world’s ___________________leading ________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________preacher _______________________in ______the __________twentieth ________________________century. ____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

RELIGION

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________The _________religious ______________________movement _________________________known _________________as ______the _____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Great _______________Awakening ____________________________created ____________________a____need ______________for __________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________ministers. _________________________________College ________________________New ___________________________________________ _________________________________The ______________________________of ___________________Jersey, _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________created _____________________by _______Presbyterians ____________________________________in ______Princeton, _________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________became ______________________________college _________________________choice _________________________new ___________________________ _____________________________the ___________________________of ________________________for ___________________________________ ________settlers ____________________in _______the _________Carolina _______________________backcountry. ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Princeton _________________________graduates __________________________became ____________________the _________leading ___________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________educators _______________________of ______early _____________North _______________Carolina. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

EDUCATION

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________The ______________________of _______________________________in _____________________refused _________________________________ ___________________Earl __________________Sandwich _________________________________1760 _________________________________________________ ________to ______quit __________playing __________________cards ______________when _____________he _______was ________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________hungry. _____________________He ________ordered _____________________his _________servant ____________________to _______bring _________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________meat ______________and __________cheese __________________stuffed __________________between _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________pieces ________________________bread. ____________________________________of ________________________________________ ________two _________________________of ______________________Lovers ______________________North _______________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Carolina ______________________barbecue ________________________sandwiches ______________________________have _______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________been ____________grateful ___________________ever ___________since. __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

FOOD

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________literally _____________________________________thousands ________________________________________ ________Electricity _____________________________________________thrilled _____________________________________________in _________________ ________Europe __________________and ___________America. _______________________People __________________lined _____________________in ________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________up ________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________human __________________chains _________________to _______“get ___________a_____charge.” ______________________In ___________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________1752, _________________Benjamin __________________________Franklin’s _________________________kite ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________experiment _______________________________________________that __________________________________was __________________________ _____________________________________proved _____________________________lightning _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______electricity. _________________________His _________fame _____________later ____________led ________the __________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________University __________________________in ______Chapel __________________Hill __________to ______name _______________its __________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______main _____________street _______________in _____Chapel __________________Hill _________after ____________him. _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SCIENCE

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________rubber,” _____________________________________was __________________be ____________________for ________________ ________“India _______________________________________which ____________________________to ______________used ______________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________everything ___________________________from _____________raincoats ________________________to ______erasers, _____________________was ________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________brought ______________________to ______Great ________________Britain ___________________in ______1736. __________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Englishman ______________________________________________Watt ___________________________________a_____steam _____________________ ______________________________________James _____________________________invented ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______engine _________________in ______1764 ______________and __________improved ______________________it _____in ______1775. _____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________North _______________Carolina ______________________was ___________the _________fastest __________________growing ________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________of ______the __________thirteen _____________________colonies. ________________________The __________population ________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________was ______________________________in _______________________It_____doubled _________________________________________________ ___________________50,000 _________________________1730. ___________________________________________by ____________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______1750, ________________then ___________doubled ____________________again ______________by _______1770. _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

TECHNOLOGY

POPULATION

Figure 7 Timeline: 1730–1775 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1754 Arthur Dobbs became royal governor; Bethania established

1734 Gabriel Johnston became first royal governor

1753 Bethabara and Salisbury established 1744 Granville District granted

1730

1770 Tryon’s Palace completed 1766 First meeting of Regulators

1752 Moravians arrived in colony

1762 Charlotte founded

1750

1760

1740 1732 Colony of Georgia founded

1771 Battle of Alamance

1741 Captain Vitus Bering discovered Alaska 1754 French and Indian War began

1770 1765 James Watt invented the steam engine 1763 French and Indian War ended

1757 First street lights appeared in Philadelphia

Signs of the Times

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_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

TARGET READING SKILL Comparing and Contrasting

Defining the Skill Comparing and contrasting is a reading strategy that enables you to identify similarities or differences between two or more events, people, places, or periods of time. When comparing or contrasting, most often writers describe one event, person, place, or thing and then write about a second similar or different event, person, place, or thing. Sometimes, however, you might see words like and, same as, as well as, not only. . . but also, like, also, both and at the same time used to describe two things that are similar. When contrasting two or more items, authors may use words like

however, on the other hand, but, on the contrary, in contrast, as opposed to and different from.

Practicing the Skill After reading Section 3, make a list of characteristics of life on the Carolina frontier. Then, draw a Venn diagram like the one shown here. Under “Carolina Frontier,” list characteristics of the area during the period of early settlement. Under “Carolina Today,” list characteristics of life in North Carolina today. In the middle section, list common characteristics of then and now.

Carolina Frontier

Carolina Today Similarities

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ This section will help you meet the ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Continuing Political Troubles As you read, look for: • North Carolina’s first royal governors • the problems faced by the royal governors • vocabulary terms boycott, Granville District, frontier, French and Indian War, ranger

When the king of England bought North Carolina in 1729, the colonists hoped life would get better in the colony. Gabriel Johnston, sent by the king in 1734 to govern the colony, saw some hopeful signs. For one, the first formally trained physician to live in North Carolina, Armand de Rosset, had helped establish Wilmington. However, Governor Johnston would not find much peace during the eighteen years he was in North Carolina. The handicaps of geography continued to plague the colony. Because it was Gabriel Johnston was the so difficult to navigate the longest-serving governor, Outer Banks, goods cost from colonial to 50 percent more to ship contemporary times. from North Carolina than from ports like Philadelphia or Charles Town. Although the top 10 percent of North Carolina families were wealthy, they did not live as well as rich people elsewhere. For example, fewer of their sons went to college than was the case for the wealthy families of Virginia. Even North Carolina’s poor seemed poorer. Many of the farmers who pushed into the richer areas of the Coastal Plain in the 1730s went there without plows.

following objective: 8.1.01 Assess the impact of geography on the settlement and developing economy of the Carolina colony. 8.1.06 Identify reasons for the creation of a distinct North Carolina colony and evaluate the effects on its government and economics.

Above: George II was king of England when North Carolina became a royal colony.

Sectional Conflicts The settlement of the Cape Fear continued to cause conflict. The Albemarle resented the wealth and power that Cape Fear residents had gotten selling naval stores. Albemarle residents wanted their area to

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Map 13 The Granville District Map Skill: Would present-day Raleigh be located in the Granville District?

Lord Granville

continue to rule the colony. Albemarle leaders tried to stop the Cape Fear planters from taking advantage of blank patents. Because the The Granville District land deeds did not indicate how began at the Virginia much land was being claimed, border and extended some planters got very rich very fast. When the Cape Fear demandsouth for 70 miles. ed equal representation in the General Assembly, the Albemarle boycotted the Assembly from 1746 to 1754; nothing got done. (To boycott is to refuse to participate in or to buy something until certain conditions are met.) To make a bad situation worse, in 1744 the king finally figured out what to do with the claim of Lord Granville, the one Proprietor who had refused to sell his share in the colony. The king granted him what amounted to the northern half of the colony. Granville could sell this land and still collect the quit-rent each year. Since the Granville District was inside the colony, the colony was still responsible for its government. The people in the Cape Fear would be taxed to help the people in the Albemarle govern the Granville District. When it later turned out that Lord Granville’s agents demanded bribes for their services, people all across North Carolina were angry.

A New Royal Governor After the death of Governor Johnston, Arthur Dobbs was sent to govern the colony in 1754. He faced a dire situation. Only half the revenue that could be collected was actually being put into the treasury. Public expenses were higher than ever, because there were so many new settlers west of the fall line. Settlement of the frontier (the area at the edge or just beyond a settled area) was moving closer to the Cherokee. The

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Cherokee were beginning to threaten the settlers. They would kill cattle left in the woods or come to the doors of cabins and ask for food or presents. They seemed to arrive most often when the father was not home, often frightening the rest of the family.

The French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754-1763) made matters worse in North Carolina. This war, which started in America and spread to Europe, was part of a long struggle between the British and the French. This particular war was over which European kingdom would control North America. Because the French controlled the territory west of the Appalachians, they and their Indian allies could attack along the borders of the thirteen colonies. The Cherokee sided with the French. To counter this threat, colonial leaders met in Albany, New York, to discuss how to protect themselves. Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania proposed the “Albany Plan of Union.” Under this plan, a central government, headed by a “presidentgeneral,” would provide defense for all the colonists. A majority of the colonies, however, rejected the idea because it would weaken their authority. North Carolina did not even send a delegate to Albany. Although North Carolina did not become part of a colonial union, it did act to protect itself. Governor Dobbs got the feuding Cape Fear and Albemarle to do a better job collecting taxes. The colony used the money

Above: Royal Governor Arthur Dobbs. Below: North Carolinians were part of the Braddock expedition that invaded French territory in present-day Pennsylvania. General Braddock was killed in this ambush.

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Above: These are the surviving walls of St. Philip’s Church in Brunswick. Arthur Dobbs was married in the church while it was the colonial capital.

In Europe, during the same time, the fighting was referred to as the Seven Years War.

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to erect Fort Dobbs near the present site of Statesville. An elaborate log “blockhouse” that was both fort and barracks, Fort Dobbs served as headquarters for defending the backcountry. From the fort, Captain Hugh Waddell of Wilmington patrolled the frontier with companies of rangers, forerunners of the North Carolina’s Highway Patrol in the twentieth century. The rangers quickly rode to wherever trouble occurred. They often covered hundreds of miles each week. The Treaty of Paris ended the war in 1763. The French lost all their land in America. This left Great Britain in control of all the land east of the Mississippi River. Dobbs tried to unify the colony by setting up a permanent place for the General Assembly to meet, upriver from New Bern. No one, however, agreed to that location. He did set up more courts, making it easier for citizens to settle their disputes without having to travel too far. Dobbs’s policies put the colony in debt. There were other problems. He was accused of giving friends financial advantages. Dobbs tried to gain favor with the Cape Fear faction by living in Brunswick, but it only angered the Albemarle. He also angered the officials of the Granville District by giving away land within the district, even though he had no right to do so. To hide what he had done, Dobbs accused the Granville agents of wrongdoing. Dobbs kept the colony in an uproar. In the early 1760s, the leaders of the General Assembly sent the king fifteen different charges related to Dobbs’s leadership. Dobbs, however, held onto his office until his death in 1765.

It’s Your Turn 1. Who did the king appoint as royal governor in 1734? 2. Why did the Albemarle boycott the General Assembly from 1746 to 1754? 3. How did the Granville District come into being?

Chapter 4: A Royal Colony Struggles

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Peopling the Backcountry

Until 1730, almost every resident of North Carolina, aside from the In-

This section will help you meet the following objective: 8.1.05 Describe the factors that led to the founding and settlement of the American colonies. 8.1.07 Describe the contributions of diverse groups to life in colonial North Carolina and other colonies. 8.3.04 Describe the development and impact of slavery in the state and nation.

dians, lived east of the fall line. Only a few settlers had even ventured onto the Coastal Plain. The Battle family, for example, came to the falls of the Tar River after Edgecombe County was formed in 1734. Their plantation was one of the first in the neighborhood called Rocky Mount. In the Cape Fear, most of the newcomers were black slaves, as the planter families pushed up the river from Wilmington and continued to establish tar pits. A Welsh settlement was established on the upper Cape Fear,

Below: The Britt-Sanders House in Southern Pines gives a sense of the space that families had to share in the first houses built in the colonial backcountry.

As you read, look for: • early towns in the backcountry • the different groups of immigrants who came to North Carolina • vocabulary term backcountry

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Map 14 Early Backcountry Towns Map Skill: In what year was Charlotte founded?

bringing the first non-English group into the colony since the Swiss had built New Bern in 1710. After 1730, however, settlers filled in the Coastal Plain and moved west of the fall line. By the 1750s, enough settlers had arrived so that backcountry towns could be created to serve as market and government centers. Cross Creek (later to be named Fayetteville) on the Cape Fear and Halifax on the Roanoke served as river ports near the fall line to help farmers get their products to the seacoast. Hillsborough, Salisbury, and Charlotte were founded primarily to be the seats of Orange, Rowan, and Mecklenburg counties. By 1766, a South Carolina resident

The Conestoga wagon, invented in Pennsylvania, became the “covered wagon” that thousands of Americans used to go west. A Conestoga wagon.

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reported, North Carolina had experienced as “rapid and sudden increase of inhabitants” as any other place in the ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ colonies. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Most of the newcomers were from ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ the northern colonies, particularly _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Pennsylvania. The lower cost of land ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ in North Carolina drew them south. These people did not come into the The Trading Path was the first colony through the ports on the coast, path that actually crossed through but rather followed old Indian trails North Carolina. It likely dated to through Virginia. The name backIndian trails that predated Columcountry was new to the colony at the bus, but it was widened and time. The word referred to the land that straightened in the 1670s when was “back” of the real “country,” the Virginians came to trade with the land near the coast. Catawba and Cherokee Indians. Many newcomers followed an Later, white settlers pushing into Iroquois warpath down the great valthe backcountry used it.There are ley along the Shenandoah River. This fifteen historical markers tracing the route 731-mile trail was gradually widened of the Trading Path. This one is in Salisbury. and took the popular name the Great Wagon Road. As the name implies, the trail soon was wide enough to fit a Conestoga wagon in its ruts. Benjamin Franklin, the most famous journalist in the colonies, estimated that a thousand wagons a month went down the Great Wagon Road after harvest in the fall. Travelers knew they had left Virginia and entered North Carolina when they could see the craggy top of Pilot Mountain.

H HIISSTTO ORRY Y BBY Y TTH HEE H HIIG GH HW WA AY Y

Trading Path

The Scots-Irish The first people to settle the backcountry were the Scots-Irish. The people who went by that name were actually descendants of Scots who had been transplanted to northern Ireland during the 1600s. The Scots were Protestants and were sent as part of an English plan to conquer the Irish Catholics. Within a generation or two, the lands of Ulster became too crowded. When the English began to tell them how to worship, many left. They looked for new land and religious freedom in Pennsylvania, which welcomed people of all types. Pennsylvania, however, was so popular that it too grew crowded. Because the Iroquois to the north did not like intruders, the Scots-Irish headed south. The Scots-Irish scattered themselves from one end of the backcountry to the other. A few took up farms in what became known as Orange County. Most settled between the Yadkin and Catawba rivers. They were most concentrated in what is today the area bounded by the cities of Salisbury, Statesville, and Charlotte. George Davidson, for example, owned much of the creek valley that became a principal part of Lake Norman in the 1960s.

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Above: John Haley, a blacksmith, sheriff, tax collector, and road commissioner, bult this brick house on the Petersburg (Va.)-Salisbury road, now in High Point, in 1786. The house is built on the Quaker plan, with three rooms and three interior chimneys, uncommoon in the southern Piedmont at the time.

The Germans Coming right on their heels were Germans from Pennsylvania. Since their language was called “Deutsch” in German, they came to be called “Dutch,” even though few of them had ever been to Holland. The Pennsylvania Dutch had first come to Philadelphia in 1690. They filled up the hills to the north and west of the City of Brotherly Love in less than fifty years. Then great numbers of them, like Henry Weidner, headed south for new homes on the western edge of North Carolina. The largest “Dutch Settlement” was in what is today eastern Rowan and Cabarrus counties. John Lippard, for example, left Pennsylvania with his father’s and his own household after the harvest of 1754. They had first come to Philadelphia in 1739 on a ship from Rotterdam on the Rhine River. Their new home was on a branch of Dutch Buffalo Creek in what became Cabarrus County.

English Quakers Mixed into the backcountry by the 1760s were people who were English in their background. Many were Quakers. These families belonged to a religious movement started in England in the 1600s that challenged some of the usual ways people worshipped and lived together. Because the Society of Friends, as they called themselves, rebelled against some English customs, many took refuge in Pennsylvania. Some came to North Carolina. Some Quakers like the Boones settled among the Germans and

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became a part of that community. Others settled in the Uwharries southwest of Hillsborough.

African Slaves Quite a few of the early Scots-Irish households brought along one or two slaves with them. Twins Paul and Saul, owned by Adam Sherrill, became the first backcountry settlers to cross the Catawba River in 1747. When their master told them to lead the oxen and wagons into the rocky stream, they were the westernmost residents of North Carolina. Only a few Germans owned slaves, and Quakers had already begun to question the idea of humans as property within their faith.

The Moravians The most unusual group to come to the North Carolina backcountry was the Moravians, a close-knit German-speaking community who first arrived in 1752. The group originally came from Moravia, an area that is today part of the Czech Republic in Europe. They continued to live in tightly organized villages where they worked and worshipped with one another, just like back home. Their official name, the United Brethren, described their approach to living. They practiced brotherhood, and sisterhood for that matter, every day, all day. Like most other immigrants who sought religious freedom, the Moravians came first to Pennsylvania. As with all the other immigrants,

Today’s Wachovia Bank was founded by a Moravian family in the 1900s.

Below: Gemeinhaus is one of the buildings at Historic Bethabara. Gemeinhaus is the last surviving 18th-century Moravian church with attached minister’s living quarters.

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land grew scarce and expensive within a generation’s time. So, in 1752, the Moravians petitioned Governor Dobbs for permission to send some of their members to the backcountry. Dobbs, delighted that such an industrious people would move there, quickly got Lord Granville to give them a land grant of 100,000 acres. The area came to be called Wachovia, which means “little meadow” in German. Their first village was Bethabara, constructed in 1753. A second village, Bethania, was set up the next year. By 1766, the Moravians had established their principal town, Salem.

The Highland Scots The last of the many ethnic groups to come to the backcountry were the Highland Scots, who wedged themselves into the Sandhills. Most were victims of a rebellion against the British in 1745. To punish the Scots, the British laid waste to much of the Highlands, reducing thousands to poverty. Then British real estate agents tricked thousands into coming to North Carolina in the 1770s, promising fine land. The immigrants found that the sandy slopes were not what they had been promised. Most stayed, however, for going home was not a better option.

Native Americans

Top: The annual Highland Games at Grandfather Mountain are sponsored by the McRae and Morton families, descendants of some of the original Highland Scots to come to the colony in the 1770s. Above: The Schiele Museum has a reconstructed Catawba home showing how they adapted the log cabin style.

Finally, a few remnants of Indian groups were still to be found in the backcountry of the 1760s. North of Wachovia lived the Saura, part of the Siouan people who had once controlled the region. Settlers who came down the Great Wagon Road near the Pilot Mountain passed both Upper and Lower Saura Towns. South of Irish Settlements, near the South Carolina line, lived the Catawba, the largest native group left in the backcountry. By the 1750s, the Catawba had only about 100 warriors, one-tenth their previous strength. Periodically present, however, were the numerous Cherokee, who resented any intrusion into their mountain hunting grounds. Most whites did not venture that far. An exception were Daniel and Rebecca Bryan Boone, who built a house on the upper Yadkin, west of the present site of Wilkesboro, about 1760.

It’s Your Turn 1. Name three backcountry towns established in the early 1700s. 2. Who were the “Pennsylvania Dutch”?

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CAROLINA CELEBRITIES Flora MacDonald

One of the most remarkable came the most noted celebrity in women in North Carolina history London, the very place where was only here for a couple of George II lived. years. Flora MacDonald lived an After marrying Allan MacDonadventurous life full of danger ald, Flora moved with her family and twists of fate. She is rememto North Carolina in 1774. Allan bered as a hero of the American and Flora and their six children Revolution, but she was on the joined several thousand Highland wrong side. Although she twice Scots, some of them veterans of committed treason, even her the Battle of Culloden, in the upenemies adored her. per Cape Fear. Great crowds Flora grew up on the Hebgreeted the MacDonalds when rides, the windy islands in the they arrived in Wilmington and north of Scotland. When she was Cross Creek. They started a farm in her early twenties, she met in present-day Montgomery and befriended Charles Stuart. County. When the Revolution beStuart claimed that his ancestry gan, Flora and her neighbors entitled him to be king of both sided with the king. They feared Scotland and England instead of that a second act of rebellion German George II who was then would lead to their deaths. on the throne. In 1746, Stuart After her husband was capstarted an armed rebellion to tured by Patriots and deported, Above: Flora MacDonald, famed for helping free Scotland from English conFlora went back home to Scot“Bonnie Prince Charlie” escape his pursuers, trol. The Scots were slaughtered land. She was able to leave belived for a time in Cross Creek. at the Battle of Culloden, and cause she charmed a North Stuart fled for his life. Carolina officer into getting her At some point, he met the lovely Flora. Although she to a British ship. But adventure followed her, even then. On hesitated because of the danger, she helped him escape. After the way back, the French attacked. Flora left her cabin and several near disasters—including one where she coolly enstood before the sailors urging them to fight with her. She tertained British officers while the prince hid in a nearby broke her arm during the battle. room—she got him out of Scotland disguised as her female Once home, the sixty-year-old Flora retired to a quiet life servant. “Bonnie Prince Charlie,” as he was called, escaped with her children. Five sons later went into the British army. to France, but Flora was imprisoned in the Tower of London But she did not forget Prince Charlie. As she lay dying, she and faced execution. Stories about her bravery created symasked to be buried wrapped in one of the sheets the Prince pathy for her, and she was released. About 1750, she beslept under in 1746.

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Life on the Carolina Frontier

This section will help you meet the following objective:

8.1.05 Describe the factors that led to the founding and settlement of the American colonies. 8.1.07 Describe the contributions of diverse groups to life in colonial North Carolina and other colonies.

As you read, look for: • reasons why immigrants came to North Carolina • the daily life on the North Carolina frontier • vocabulary terms prairie, girdling, drover, grist mill, toll Why would anyone want to come

Above: This one-room log cabin is typical of the first homes built by settlers moving to North Carolina’s frontier.

to the North Carolina backcountry? After all, North Carolina had a bad reputation in the rest of the colonies because it could not govern itself well. It was also costly to live here, since shipping was so expensive. Land and liberty are the answers. The Appalachian Mountains angle close to Philadelphia, and the area was too small to hold all the people wanting to live there. For these colonists, access to land was essential. Landowners could be their own bosses, and families could draw upon the land, in both good times and bad, for fuel, food, and shelter. Those who lacked land had to depend upon someone else for a job, a house, or tomorrow’s meal. So, many immigrants eagerly left crowded Pennsylvania.

Carving Out Homes The earliest settlers to the Carolina backcountry found exactly what they wanted. The land near the Great Wagon Road had long stretches of prairie, meaning that there was more open grassland than there were woods. The prairies had been managed by the Indians, who burned off the grasses each hunting season. The prairie grass stood as high as five feet on some ridge tops. The woods in the bottomlands near the streams had trees as wide across as a Conestoga wagon.

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All a backcountry farmer had to do was first burn off the grass (which, of course, added valuable minerals back into the soil). Then came the backbreaking task of cutting into the roots and soil with a plow and a hoe. Everywhere there were trees, the settlers cut down enough for houses and fences, then practiced girdling on the rest. As Governor Dobbs described the process, “the others in the bounds of the field they bark for about two or three feet around the tree, so they die the next year.” Over time, the severing of the sap lines dried out the wood. When the dried trunks fell over, they were easily chopped for firewood. Because of these practices, the area had dark, black soil, not the red clay that so many later North Carolinians would be familiar with. One of the German families said that in the early days, when it rained, “the streams ran black,” an indication of the rich soil. These open spaces provided the earliest settlers with two ways to make a living, grazing cattle and growing grain. Cattle were allowed to roam free in the open spaces. Each family registered a “mark,” actually a notch on the ear, that identified an animal as theirs. Cattle were free to graze about all summer. When summer drought dried up the prairie, the cattle could eat the honeysuckle and other undergrowth in the shadier forest. Each fall, the younger sons of families gathered the cattle together. These drovers then took surplus cows to the seaports and sold them for slaughter. Some families did the same with hogs, which lived off acorns and grubs in the woods. Since livestock had the run of the woods, even poorer families could make some money without owning very much land. Growing grain was just as important as raising livestock. The Germans in particular planted wheat and rye in the fall, let it grow slowly over the winter, and reaped it in the spring. Herman Husband, one of the early Quaker settlers, had a 600-acre farm in the Uwharries. A visitor said it had “as fine a wheat as perhaps ever grew.” Farmers like Husband stored the kernels in barrels, then had them ground at a nearby grist mill as they needed them for bread. One of the first ways any settler could become wealthy in the backcountry was to build such a mill. A miller took a toll (a payment of a portion of the grain) each time the mill was operated. The smart miller then sold his collected flour locally or loaded it on wagons and shipped it to the coast. Husband operated a grist mill for himself and his neighbors. So did Henry Weidner on a branch of Henry River.

Above: Girdling deprived the trees of nutrients. Over time, the trees died, dried out, and fell over. The settlers could then cut them up.

Removing the stump of a tree was difficult, given the tools of the time. It could take as much as a month to remove just one stump. Frontier farmers often planted around tree stumps.

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Above: The Allens, a Quaker family, lived in this small, one-room log house for more than a century. It was originally located at Snow Camp, a Quaker settlement, but was moved to the Alamance Battleground to show the typical housing of backcountry families.

Everyone planted corn, for it could be planted among the girdled trees in the bottomlands and left to grow on its own. Corn was left to dry on the stalk in the fall, put in a crib in the winter, and shucked and shelled as needed. It could last for years, properly stored. Corn also fed both person and beast, from the green fodder of the shucks to the grits that make breakfast easy to cook.

The Home Front Most settlers quickly worked to improve their places. The smart ones put up zigzag split rail fences around their grain fields, to keep out hogs, deer, and any other unwanted varmints. Almost all the families built double pen barns. These log storage sheds had “pens” or stalls separated by a passageway. The structure was roofed over with wooden shingles. John Lippard built a barn over sixty feet long not far from Dutch Buffalo Creek sometime about 1765. Most backcountry families lived in log houses that resembled the size and shape of their barns. The Allens were Quakers who settled in Snow Camp in today’s Alamance County. Their large family squeezed into a windowless twenty-by-twenty space, where cooking, cleaning, and other activities all took place. The Allens had a wide fireplace, off center on the side of the house, to allow a closet and stairwell to the loft above. A few families came south with enough money to build large homes for themselves. Michael Braun, a German, erected an immense stone house for his family in 1764 right off the Great Wagon Road, not far from the new village of Salisbury. Hezekiah Alexander, a Scots-Irishman, built another to the east of the village of Charlotte, which he helped found in 1762.

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The Braun house had fireplaces in corners that sent heat into several rooms at a time. It even had a square hollow box that ran from the cellar to the attic, allowing cooler air in summer to help vent hot spaces. The kitchen was in a side room and had a fireplace that was six feet wide. The wide hearth allowed the cook to rake coals into different piles, almost like a multiburner stove of today. All families kept kitchen gardens not far from the door, where vegetables, herbs, and flowers were grown inside a tall picket fence that kept the animals out. The kitchen gardener, usually the mother of the family, could draw from it all year long. Even in winter, carrots and other root vegetables were stored in the root cellar under the house. The Allens had their cellar organized by shelves under their small cabin.

Building Communities All the settlers of the backcountry brought with them their culture. Almost all valued religious expression, and most neighborhoods soon started to teach their values. The Scots-Irish built both a church and a school everywhere they settled. The first resident Presbyterian minister, Reverend Alexander Craighead, settled at Sugar Creek Church in Mecklenburg County in 1755. He established the first two schools in the backcountry. Craighead’s assistant, David Caldwell, soon married Craighead’s daughter Rachel, became a minister, and moved up to Orange County to teach and preach there. In 1767, the Caldwells built a house and school near the new Guilford County courthouse. David was said “to make the teachers, Rachel the preachers.” (A Greensboro park is now maintained on the Caldwell farm site.)

Above: Backcountry farmers used logs to build their barns. This one has been rebuilt at the Schiele Museum.

Five students at David Caldwell’s school became governors of different states—including John Motley Morehead of North Carolina.

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Above: The Moravians made churches a central part of their life. When Home Moravian Church was completed in 1800, it held the town clock, which told the people of Salem when to rise, work, and worship.

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Germans often built union churches. In those churches, people of their two principal denominations, the Lutherans and the Reformed, could worship together whenever a minister who spoke their language came by. Henry and Katy Weidner and their neighbors started St. Paul’s Union Church in 1762. The English Quakers who moved into the Uwharries started meeting houses at Cane Creek in today’s Chatham County and at New Garden in today’s Greensboro. Deeper into the Uwharries, a group of sixteen Baptists from New England settled on Sandy Creek. By 1756, they were holding very enthusiastic church services led by two brothers-in-law, Shubal Stearns and Daniel Marshall. Stearns and Marshall took their religious message back and forth along the paths and trails of the backcountry. By 1765, they had established more than a dozen new churches. Thousands of backcountry people became Baptists because of their work. The most active religious community in the backcountry was Wachovia. The Moravians lived in a more organized and structured environment than anyone else. They went about their daily chores in a very set manner. Each Moravian belonged to a choir (a kind of grade or group) at different stages of his or her life. One worked and worshipped daily within the choir. On special occasions, the whole community came together to celebrate their faith. Music was always part of each Moravian service. Everyone in the congregation sang the hymns, and the musicians accompanied them with horns and organ. Some visiting Cherokee who heard the organ played for the first time in Bethabara went and looked behind it. They wanted to know where the singing children were hiding. Wachovia’s dedication to hard work and religious order paid off. It was the most prosperous place in the backcountry. People journeyed as much as a hundred miles to go there to buy needed goods, including stoneware pottery made of the bright red clay of the area. One shopper referred to Bethabara as “the pantry” of the backcountry. The Moravians, in turn, bought up farm goods from their neighbors, combined them with their own produce, and shipped wagonloads of grain and other goods to Wilmington or Charles Town. The Moravians did so well that many neighbors resented their prosperity and religion.

Chapter 4: A Royal Colony Struggles

That jealousy was reported in the Moravian records in 1772, the year the colony was reeling from the effects of a political controversy known as the Regulation. Strife The Moravians were and anger were evident everyamong the first to create where in the backcountry after a pottery industry in years of conflict between the new North Carolina. backcountry settlers and the more established areas on the coast. The Regulation magnified some of the colony’s old problems and created new ones, problems with which North Carolina struggled for a long time.

Above: Every Moravian learned a craft, a skill that helped the whole community. At Salem, the Winkler Bakery provided fresh bread daily, just as had been the case back in Europe. Old Salem still sells Moravian favorites like sugar cake.

It’s Your Turn 1. How had the Indians “managed” the prairies? 2. How did girdling kill a tree? 3. What were the two things that the Scots-Irish built in their communities?

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GROWING UP... Moravian

Perhaps one of the first sounds a newborn baby heard in Wachovia was a song, for the Moravians were always musical, and they used song to worship and celebrate their lives together. Moravians were especially noted for their hymns and their horns, a distinctive sound found nowhere else in North Carolina. Moravians lived in communities that shared some property and many tasks. A person could only do a job approved by the whole community, and advancement through life was as much a group as an individual effort. Although Moravians generally lived in families in their own houses, all believers belonged to different choirs (social groups based upon age and gender) at different stages of their lives. This way of life was part of the Moravian childhood. When children reached the age of schooling, they were separated into boys and girls choirs. Both boys and girls went to school in Wachovia. At some point, they graduated into Single Brothers and Single Sisters choirs in Salem, the central town. Each young person left his or her home and moved into new quarters with other unmarried people. As teenagers, each Moravian acquired some sort of skill. A young man might become a tanner or a brewer or a tinsmith. Most girls learned spinning and weaving. Choirs ate together and, during the week, held short worship services together. Sometimes these services were “love feasts” where each worshiper drank coffee and ate a special potato bun; the act of eating together was their version of traditional communion. Life in choirs helped Moravians create a “general economy.” They shared their worldly burdens to ease the way to religious celebration.The whole community came together for religious holidays like Christmas Eve and Easter Morning. Moravians also believed in the “lot.” They made major decisions for the whole community and for individuals by drawing one of two pieces of paper out of a box. They be-

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Above: Moravian girls were sent to school, then taught a skill like weaving or spinning. lieved that the color—white for yes, black for no—of the paper directed them to take the right action. The members of the community required that anyone wanting to marry had to agree to what the lot said. Since the sexes were separated at an early age, most young men and women only saw one another at certain work and worship events, like snitzing bees—where apples were cut and dried in an oven. They

seldom could talk to one another and were not allowed to be alone together. The lot, then, determined if someone should marry another person he or she barely knew. Sometimes a young man simply asked the male elders to select a bride for him. If a black piece of paper was drawn, however, that marriage could not happen. The young people had to wait for another person to come along.Young women could refuse the match even if the paper was white. But they had to live in the Single Sisters house until the next lot determined their marriage status. Most Moravian marriages seemed to have been as happy as any in other communities. It was considered the best part of one’s life to have a home and family and continue the religious ways of sharing and obeying the needs of the community. When widowed, a man or women joined a new choir, where their needs were taken care of until their death. Moravians were buried in “God’s Acre” with identical stones over their graves, a symbol of the equality they practiced with one another. Left: Young boys played on the village common until they were old enough to join the Single Brothers choir. Below: They then spent their teenaged years learning a craft like carpentry, shown here.

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William Tryon and the Regulation

creation of a distinct North Carolina colony and evaluate the effects on its government and economics.

8.2.01 Trace the events leading up to the Revolutionary War and evaluate their significance.

As you read, look for: • the reasons for the Regulator movement • vocabulary terms capital, appropriate, Regulator, extortion, militia When Arthur Dobbs died in 1765, his assistant, William Tryon, was appointed the new royal governor. Tryon and his wife (the former Margaret Wake for whom Wake County was named) were already influential residents of the Cape Fear. Tryon had more of a military background than had his predecessors, Johnston and Dobbs. He soon combined his organizational skills with his professional ambitions to bring change to North Carolina. In fact, Tryon did more in a decade to alter life in the colony than anyone else had done in the previous century. Tryon’s goals for the colony were straightforward. He wanted North Carolina to be better organized to take advantage of its economic resources. He also wanted the people of the colony to be more respectful of authority, particularly toward the government officials in charge of the colony. Tryon wanted to please his boss, the king back in England, by making North Carolina finally pay its own way.

Tryon’s Reforms

Above: This costumed guide plays the part of Royal Governor William Tryon at Tryon Palace in New Bern.

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Tryon quickly moved the colony toward his goals. First, he convinced the General Assembly to have a permanent capital (seat of government). The Assembly agreed upon New Bern as the best central place along the coast. It appropriated (set aside) a large sum of money for a building that would house both the royal government and its governor. The capitol—later in North Carolina history called Tryon Palace—was completed in 1770. Its wide halls and impressive meeting rooms made it the finest structure ever seen in the colony, one that rivaled the public buildings in New York, Charles Town, or Williamsburg.

Chapter 4: A Royal Colony Struggles

Second, Tryon got the General Assembly to reorganize the Church of England in North Carolina. He tried to make residents accept it as the established religion of the colony. At the time, only port towns like Edenton, New Bern, Bath, and Wilmington had strong churches, and even they had a problem keeping pastors. By 1769, Tryon had repaired old churches and built six new ones, including small chapels for worship out in the farming areas. Third, Tryon was able to stimulate growth in the economy. He increased customs collections in the ports of the colony, despite the beginnings of protests about British taxation that would lead to the American Revolution. He helped merchants like James Hogg, a Highland Scot, set up a store in Wilmington with branches in Cross Creek and Hillsborough. He even encouraged the expansion of the wharves on Portsmouth Island on the Outer Banks to ease shipping through the Outer Banks. Fourth, Tryon gained more control over the colony by having his allies appointed to local offices in the backcountry counties. He helped well-educated Englishmen get these positions, the most important of whom were Edmund Fanning in Hillsborough and John Frohock in Salisbury.

One of the new chapels was New Hope Chapel on a hilltop about ten miles south of Hillsborough. It would give name to the town of Chapel Hill after the American Revolution.

The Regulator Movement All of Tryon’s measures improved the organization of North Carolina, but each came with a cost that was borne by the average taxpayer in North Carolina. Residents near the coast could easily see a return for their higher taxes, since town life in the ports improved during Tryon’s day. But the newcomers to the backcountry were not so sure. They claimed, rightly, that a palace in New Bern was so far away that few of them would ever see it. Why build such an extravagant building, especially when the money could be used to improve the roads from the backcountry to the coast? Few of the backcountry residents were Anglican, and they had little desire to pay taxes for a minister they would not listen to. In Salisbury, the Anglican minister sent by Tryon never got paid because the members elected to the the church council (called the vestry) were Presbyterians. Since these Irishmen never took an oath of allegiance to the Church of England, they could not collect the taxes owed to the preacher. Most of all, the backcountry settlers were angry that Tryon had done little to stop bad government. It was commonly believed that backcountry

Above: St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in Edenton is the second-oldest church still standing in North Carolina.

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CAROLINA PLACES Tryon’s Palace

No one had ever seen a house like it in North Carolina. When the governor’s residence was completed in 1770 in the newly designated capital of New Bern, it rivaled any government building in the British Empire.The message was clear:The British were in charge of the colony, and this house was to be the seat of power. As Governor Tryon noted at the opening celebration, the building was to be “an honor to British America.” Tryon brought to the colony his own architect, John Hawk. Hawk employed both North Carolinians and craftsmen from other colonies for the fine interior woodwork. Some of the finely carved features of the house came directly from England.The most important decoration was the carved “arms of George III,” the official symbol of the king’s authority, that was put into place above the front door. That was one reason critics throughout the backcountry disliked the haughty Tryon and his “palace.” The house had three floors. Servants worked in the basement storerooms.The official business of the colony was con-

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Above: The heavy gates at Tryon Palace at New Bern were intended to remind North Carolinians of the king’s authority over the colony. ducted on the first floor. The governor had his office there, and the Provincial Council, made up of the leading men, met in the large room next to it. The governor also hosted official ceremonies in the council room. The governor and his family lived on the second floor.Two small buildings flanked the main structure. One building was a kitchen; the other, a stable. Tryon moved into the house in 1770 and stayed there for only a couple of years. While in residence, theTryons gave very popular receptions and parties for the members of the Assembly. After the Battle of Alamance, Tryon was named governor of New York, and he went to live in Manhattan. Tryon’s successor, Josiah Martin, lived there until he had to flee the colony at the start of the American Revolution. After the War for Independence, Richard Caswell, the first governor of the state of North Carolina, lived and worked in

the Palace. When state government was moved inland to cope with the war in 1779, the palace lost its official status. For a while, it was used as a school. When President George Washington visited New Bern in 1791, he described the building as “hastening to ruins” because no one was keeping it up. The building burned down to its foundations after hay stored in it caught fire in 1798. Eventually, only one of the service buildings remained. It was used as an apartment. During the 1940s, North Carolina citizens who wanted to reveal more about the state’s history became determined to rebuild the palace, using Hawk’s original plans. After World War II, they raised enough money to pay for the reconstruction.The Palace opened in 1959, and has been one of the leading tourist destinations in the state since then. Right: The Tryons entertained quite a bit and had one of the best kitchens in the colony. The slate floors were easier to clean up than wood. Below right: The main meal of the day was served in the early afternoon. Below left: The Tryon family had their living quarters on the upper floor.

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Above: To the Regulators, Edmund Fanning represented the corruption and unfairness of government. In 1770, they beat him severely and wrecked his house.

officials were just as corrupt as in the Proprietary period. One backcountry resident described court hearings as “more obscene than learned.” The problem had grown worse since 1763. When Lord Granville died, thousands of his land grants were involved in the settlement of his estate. People were not even sure that they owned their property. Moreover, many newcomers to the Granville District who had surveyed their land claimed that courthouse officials would only register the title if they were paid a bribe. These bribes angered many people. Residents of Orange County believed that Edmund Fanning, in particular, was guilty of lining his pockets with unearned coins. The backcountry residents began to protest the same year Tryon became governor. In the summer of 1766, Uwharrie residents gathered at Quaker meeting houses to talk about their grievances. Hundreds signed petitions calling for “honester regulation.” The petitioners soon took the name Regulators, and their principal spokesman was Herman Husband. The Orange County miller had complained about conditions as early as 1755. “All we want,” Husband claimed, “is to be governed by law, and not by the will of officers.” Despite the promise by Governor Tryon to deal with the injustices, the Regulators were unable to get much relief. For example, the sheriff of Orange County no longer went house to house to collect taxes, as was the custom. Instead, people had to pay their taxes at selected places that were often far from home. If they failed to come on time, the sheriff increased their tax bill.

Tensions Mount Matters worsened in 1768. When one Regulator’s mare was seized to pay off a debt, citizens marched on Hillsborough to get it back. While there, some of them fired shots into Edmund Fanning’s house. Other Regulators threw John Frohock out of the courtroom in Salisbury. Fanning had Husband thrown in jail, accusing him of being behind all the disorder. Hundreds of people from all walks of life marched on Hillsborough to get him released. Fanning was forced to let Husband go and promise to have Governor In the backcountry, taxes Tryon deal with the problem. were supposed to be paid Even though two Regulators, in money, not in trade Rednap Belk, a schoolteacher, and goods. There was little James Hunter, a small farmer, cash money in the walked all the way to New Bern backcountry. with evidence of corruption, Tryon did little. Instead of trying to get the

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Assembly to take action, Tryon held military parades in Hillsborough, Salisbury, and Charlotte to show he was the real power in the colony. Fanning was tried for extortion Judge Richard Henderson (charging illegal fees) and found was the man who later guilty, but he was fined only a financed Daniel Boone’s penny. Husband, tried for inciting settlement of Kentucky. a riot, was found not guilty. Frustrated backcountry settlers saw little being done about their grievances in 1769 and 1770. In September 1770, Regulators again marched on Hillsborough. Some waved cow whips; others, pitchforks. They took over the courtroom and attacked a number of public officials. The next day, they learned that Judge Richard Henderson had fled town. Furious and frustrated, the Regulators dragged Fanning out of his house and tore it down, board by board. Later, someone burned down Judge Henderson’s farm in nearby Granville County. The mayhem in Hillsborough prompted Governor Tryon to take strong measures. He got the Assembly to pass the Johnston Riot Act, named for Samuel Johnston, a nephew of former governor Gabriel Johnston. The new law called for strict punishment for all public acts of disorder. It was passed over the objections of Herman Husband, who was a representative from Orange County. Tryon then used the Riot Act to arrest

Above: In the fall of 1768, Governor Tryon confronted the Regulators at Hillsborough. He ordered them to disband, demanded payment of taxes, and warned public officials against charging illegal fees.

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Husband, and he called out the militia (citizen soldiers) to prevent the Regulators from rescuing him. Fearful that they too might be assaulted by angry backcountry residents, the Assembly passed several laws better regulating the collection of public fees. Later, a New Bern grand jury refused to indict Husband under the Riot Act, and he was allowed to return home.

The Battle of Alamance

Above: General Hugh Waddell tried to march to Hillsborough, but he was greatly outnumbered and turned back.

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Governor Tryon, assuming that the Regulators would rise again, gathered militia from across the Coastal Plain and marched on Hillsborough “against the insurgents.” Fanning joined him with a few Orange County soldiers. Hugh Waddell, who had been in command at Fort Dobbs, tried to march from Charlotte with others in an effort to surround the Regulators. Thousands of shouting Regulators kept Waddell from crossing the Yadkin River. Tryon continued marching west from Hillsborough. The Regulators gathered at Alamance Creek, about fifteen miles southwest of Hillsborough. On May 16, 1771, Tryon ordered them to disperse. When they did not, he ordered the militia to fire upon them. The Battle of Alamance lasted a couple of hours. The Regulators, who had no commander and no organization, ran out of ammunition and fled through the woods. At least 20 were killed and another 150 wounded. Husband, at the first shot, fled all the way to Pennsylvania. Tryon made sure that every backcountry resident knew never to challenge the authority of the Crown. He executed one Regulator even before

Chapter 4: A Royal Colony Struggles

the battle, ordering him shot right in front of the other protestors. The day after the battle, he hanged another without a trial. Tryon then marched his small force toward Salisbury. His troops demanded loyalty oaths from everyone they met along the way. To show they meant business, Tryon’s troops dismantled Herman Husband’s farm down to the lowest fence railing. Eventually, more than six thousand backcountry men came into Salisbury and Bethabara to gain a pardon. After returning to Hillsborough, twelve more Regulators were tried and condemned. Tryon pardoned six of them and hanged the rest. By English tradition, all condemned people are entitled to last words. When a Regulator with a noose around his neck started to criticize Fanning, the villain knocked over the barrel that held the man up, choking him in mid-sentence. The end to the Regulation did not solve any of the problems North Carolina faced in the 1770s. The king promoted Tryon to governor of New York. Fanning went along as Tryon’s secretary. He eventually became a general in the British Army. Herman Husband never returned to North Carolina. As an old man, he helped lead a similar fight against unfair taxes in Pennsylvania, the Whiskey Rebellion of 1792. He went to jail during that rebellion as well. Like Husband, many other Regulators fled. Some went to the westernmost part of South Carolina, others over the Blue Ridge to the upper tributaries of the Tennessee River. Those who stayed often faced poverty. Jemima Merrill, whose husband had been hanged at Hillsborough, stayed at her Abbot Creek farm, near today’s Lexington, with eight children and “a large barn . . . that is completely empty.” She told a passing Moravian minister that she felt “hard-hearted and unbelieving” about the promise of life. Josiah Martin, who became royal governor after Tryon, was surprised at Tryon’s reaction to the Regulation. Although he tried hard to make amends and once again get North Carolina on the path to government and commerce, he could do little. The sheriffs of the various counties still owed the colony more than £66,000, equal to millions of dollars today. To make matters worse, within two years of Martin’s arrival, the American Revolution broke out.

Above: This granite monument marks the site of the Battle of Alamance. Opposite page, below: This fanciful depiction of the Battle of Alamance shows Regulators hiding behind rocks that are not on the battlefield. It does show however, how much better organized the Coastal Plains militia (shown in the distance) were during the battle.

It’s Your Turn 1. North Carolina had no established capital until the 1760s. Where was North Carolina’s first capital? 2. Who were the Regulators? 3. Why did the General Assembly pass the Johnston Riot Act?

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The Struggle for Independence

Terms: Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act, Provincial Congress, Committee of Safety, Tory, Whig, Mecklenburg Resolves, Halifax Resolves, Declaration of Independence, constitution, bicameral, Declaration of Rights, amendment, Confiscation Act, Overmountain Men, neutral, pacifism, pardon People: Penelope Barker, John Harvey, Cornelius Harnett, Richard Caswell, William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn, William R. Davie, Nathanael Greene, John Hamilton, David Fanning Places: Moore’s Creek Bridge, Ramsour’s Mill, Kings Mountain, Cowpens, Guilford Courthouse

R

obert Henry was the

youngest sentry on the Catawba River that cold, wet night in February 1781. The fifteen-year-old student had joined other North Carolinians in defending their homes from British invasion. In 1775, Robert had cheered the signing of the Mecklenburg Resolves, which prodded North Carolina on the road to independence. When the British came to North Carolina in 1781, Robert and his classmates had volunteered to fight alongside their schoolmaster, James Beatty. The sentries heard the British splash into the flooded river well before dawn. By the time the North Carolinians could get into position, British troops were marching up the riverbank behind them. Some defenders fled immediately, but Robert stood to fire his musket. Mr.

Above: This tea pot monument in Edenton commemorates the famous Edenton tea party. Opposite page, above: Reenactors portray North Carolinians at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse. Right: This monument at Guilford Courthouse National Military Park honors General Nathanael Greene, the American commander.

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Beatty, next to him, was shot in the leg. “Save yourself, Robert!” he shouted. As Robert stumbled up the hill, he saw General William Davidson shot off his horse. Both General Davidson and Mr. Beatty died that morning. Robert Henry, no coward, found his way up the road from the river and took a position with other American soldiers behind a rail fence. He again fired and fled when the British scattered the refugees at Torrence Tavern. Determined to fight for liberty, Robert stayed with the American army. He fought at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse and helped send the British on the road to defeat at Yorktown in Virginia. Years later, Robert Henry became the first lawyer in the new town of Asheville across the Blue Ridge. He lived to be eighty-five. For more than a half century, he was hailed as a true patriot when Asheville celebrated the great struggle that gained independence and created the state of North Carolina.

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SIGNS OF THE TIMES

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Joseph ________________________________________an __________________________preacher, _________________________________________ ________________________Priestley, ____________________________English ________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________discovered __________________________oxygen ___________________in ______1774, ________________and __________Antoine ______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Lavoisier, _______________________a____French ________________chemist, ____________________concluded ______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________animals _______________________________________in _________________________and ________________________________ ________that ________________________________breathe ___________________________oxygen _____________________________exhale _______________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________carbon __________________dioxide. ____________________The __________Reverend _______________________James ________________Hall ____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________taught _________________these _______________ideas ______________in _______1784 ______________at _______Clio’s _____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Nursery __________________________Rowan _____________________________________the ____________________school ________________________ ____________________________in ________________________County, ____________________________first ___________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______to ______teach ______________science _________________in ______North ______________Carolina. ____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________was __________________________________that ________________________than ______________________________________ ________It ________________estimated _____________________________________more __________________________200,000 ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________people ___________________lived _____________in ______the __________colony __________________by _______1775. _________________The _____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________proportion ___________________________of _______slaves ________________grew _____________from _____________one-fifth _______________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________the ______________________________________to ____________________________________Only ______________________________ _______of _______________population ________________________________one-fourth. ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________New ____________Bern _____________and ___________Wilmington ______________________________had __________more _______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______than ____________1,000 _______________people. __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SCIENCE

POPULATION

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________In ______________________Adam ________________________________a_____Scottish ________________________________________________ _______________1776, ________________________________Smith, ___________________________________________college _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________professor, ________________________wrote _______________The _________Wealth __________________of _____Nations, ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________argued ___________________________a_____market ______________________________________free _________________________ _______which ________________________________for _____________________________system ___________________________of _____________ ________the _________king’s _______________control. ___________________The __________same _______________year, ____________North ___________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Carolina _____________________helped ________________lead ___________the ________effort _____________to ______have ____________the ______________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________thirteen ____________________colonies _____________________break _______________away _____________from _____________the _________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________and ___________________________their ______________________markets. ____________________________________ ________Crown ___________________________control _______________________________own _________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

ECONOMICS

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________the ____________________________of ______________War ________________________________________ ________Despite _____________________________dangers ___________________________the _____________________for ______________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Independence, ______________________________________Presbyterian __________________________________ministers _______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________like __________________________Caldwell ____________________________Greensboro _____________________________________________________ __________________David ______________________________________of ____________________________________and _______________________ ________James _________________Hall ___________of _______Statesville ___________________________continued _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________to ____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________teach ______________in _______“academies,” _________________________________schools ____________________that _________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______prepared ______________________________________men ___________________college. ____________________________________________ _______________________________young _____________________________for ____________________________In ___________________________ ________Wachovia, ___________________________the _________Moravians ___________________________continued ____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________schools ___________________for _________both ____________boys _____________and ___________girls. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________During ___________________________American ______________________________________________________English __________________________ __________________________the __________________________________Revolution, _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______miller _______________Edward ___________________Cartwright __________________________invented _____________________the ____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________“power ___________________loom,” __________________a____machine _______________________that ___________harnessed ________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______water ______________________________to _________________yarn ______________________cotton ________________________________ _______________________power _______________________turn ________________________into _____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________cloth. ________________Cartwright’s ________________________________invention _________________________helped ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________launch __________________the _________Industrial ________________________Revolution. ______________________________North __________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Carolina’s ___________________________first ___________cotton __________________mills ______________would ________________use _________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________the _____________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________same ______________machine. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

INVENTIONS

EDUCATION

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________Golf ______________________first ____________________________in ___________________________at ____________________________ _____________________was ______________________played _______________________America ___________________________a______________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________course ________________established ___________________________in ______Charleston, ___________________________South _______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________Carolina, _______________________in ______1786. ________________Pinehurst ________________________was ___________not _________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________up _____________the ______________________________for ___________________________________ __________dreamed ______________________________in _______________Sandhills ________________________________more ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________than ____________a _____century. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SPORTS

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________men _____________________women ________________________the ___________________________________________ ________Both _________________________and ______________________________in _______________state _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________continued ___________________________to ______dress _______________as _______close _______________to ______European ___________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________style _____________as _______they ___________could. ________________Tri-cornered ________________________________hats ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________were ______________worn ______________by ________gentlemen, ______________________________and ___________wealthier __________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________women ___________________had ___________their _____________hair ___________curled _________________and __________stacked __________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________in _____the _________“French ___________________manner.” ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

FASHION

Figure 8 Timeline: 1760–1785 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1776 Halifax Resolves; state constitution written

1765 Stamp Act 1763 Proclamation of 1763

1775 Mecklenburg Resolves

1777 Confiscation Act passed; Llewellyn Conspiracy 1780 Battles at Camden, Ramsour’s Mill, Kings Mountain

1774 Rowan Resolves; Edenton Tea Party; Provincial Congress established

1760

1765

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1775

1770 Boston Massacre 1773 Boston Tea Party 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord

1781 Battles at Cowpens, Guilford Courthouse

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1776 Declaration of Independence 1783 Treaty of Paris ended Revolutionary War and guaranteed American independence

Signs of the Times

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TARGET READING SKILL Sequencing

Defining the Skill

1. 2. 3. 4.

Sequencing is the ordering of events. In history, sequencing often addresses the order in which events occurred. Creating a timeline is one useful way to illustrate a number of events that took place over a given period of time.

Practicing the Skill Look at the timeline on page 155. Using the information on the timeline, answer the questions that follow.

How many years does the timeline cover? What happened in 1765? When did the Boston Massacre take place? Which came first, the Edenton Tea Party or the Battle at Concord?

After you have answered the questions, copy the timeline found here on blank notebook paper. Then, read Sections 1 and 2 in Chapter 5 and record at least six events found in the reading on your timeline.

Timeline _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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1775

1780

1785

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The Road to Independence As you read, look for:

• ways in which Great Britain tried to tighten its control over the American colonies • vocabulary terms Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act

This section will help you meet the following objective:

8.2.01 Trace the events leading up to the Revolutionary War and evaluate their significance.

North Carolinians were caught up in more than just the troubles of the Regulation during the 1760s and the 1770s. The British Parliament (governing body) began to change the way the thirteen American colonies were governed. The new policies were designed to make Americans pay heavier taxes and be more under the control of the British. Residents of each of the colonies began to protest how the British went about changing rules without consulting them. In particular, the colonists were angry that the British would pass laws without having the colonists’ representatives be part of the process. “No taxation without representation” became the slogan used to protest against this unfairness. Over the course of twelve years—from 1763 to 1775—these protests led to greater arguments and, ultimately, violence. The result was the War for Independence that was part of the greater American Revolution. The British passed two policies in the 1760s that particularly hindered North Carolina’s ability to grow and develop. King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763. This ruling forbade settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. The king had a good reason for the proclamation. He wanted to stop the fighting between the Indians and the settlers. Some North Carolinians, however, already had plans to move over the mountains. Daniel Boone and others actually explored all the way into what became the states of Tennessee and Kentucky in the late 1760s. Boone set up a base camp for his trips at the site where the town of Boone is today. After the Battle of Alamance, hundreds of Regulator families ignored the Proclamation Line and moved into the valleys of the Tennessee River. That area had been designated an Indian reserve.

Map 15 The Proclamation Line of 1763 Map Skill: Which colonies did not border the Proclamation Line?

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CAROLINA CELEBRITIES Daniel and Rebecca Boone

One of the celebrated marriages in U.S. history began in North Carolina on August 14, 1756. On that day in present-day Davie County, Daniel Boone and Rebecca Bryan were married.Their marriage lasted more than a half century.Their love story took them repeatedly to the edges of the early American frontier, as they became the prototypes for the male and female pioneers. Daniel and Rebecca met in 1754. She was fifteen; he was nineteen. Both of their families had come to the backcountry on the Great Wagon Road. Their fathers were among the first public officials of Rowan County. It was love at first sight. After the wedding, Daniel’s hunting took him away for months at a time. In the 1760s, he became one of the first Anglo-Americans to cross the Appalachian Mountains and explore Kentucky. He was gone for two years. A Moravian missionary from Wachovia visited Rebecca during this time. He described her as “a quiet soul” who nevertheless had “fear in her heart” about the safety of her husband. She had good reason. At one point during Daniel’s trip, he had to jump off a cliff to escape Indians. While Daniel hunted through the years, Rebecca stayed home, farmed, and raised a lot of children. From the ages of seventeen to forty-one, Rebecca had ten children—four daughters and six sons. In addition, she raised six orphans from her family and another child that Daniel rescued from Indians.Two of her sons were killed by Indians, and a daughter was kidnapped. Daniel rescued the daughter, but later was himself captured and thought for months to be dead. The Boones lived in one log house—located near today’s Farmington—for ten years, the longest they lived in any

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Above: This lithograph, created in 1874, is entitled “Daniel Boone Protects His Family.” It shows Boone as an Indian fighter defending Rebecca and their child from Indian attack. one house during their marriage. For a while, they lived in a cabin on the upperYadkin River west of the future town of Wilkesboro. Then, in 1773, the Boones ignored the Proclamation Line and led a group of families toward Kentucky. The death of their son turned them back, but the Boones tried again after Daniel cut the Wilderness Road in 1775. The Boones moved around a lot, as Daniel tended to be restless. Once they operated a tavern on the Ohio River, and Rebecca cooked for whoever was passing by. After they moved to Missouri, Rebecca died in 1813, having made apple butter just days before. Daniel passed away seven years later, but, as a family member said, “After Grandmother Boone died, he was never contented.”

Chapter 5: The Struggle for Independence

Stamp Act Riots The second new British policy was the Stamp Act, passed in 1765. Since the British needed more money to pay for the French and Indian War, they took steps to increase the taxes they collected from the colonists. The Stamp Act required stamps be used on all kinds of documents. During the 1700s, ships often sailed without paying customs duties. The Stamp Act required all ships to have their records “stamped” with an official seal, and those stamps had to be bought from a customs official. The purchase of the stamps was like a departure announcement. Customs officers knew they should visit the ship to verify that the cargo was what the captain said it was. Cheating on buying the stamps or paying the customs duties would lead to the ship being seized. The captain would be taken to a court in Nova Scotia, Canada, where he would be charged and tried by a panel of judges, not a jury. No jury? This meant being treated like a pirate! And this violated “the rights of Englishmen” that colonists up and down the Atlantic Coast had come to expect. Mobs protested the Stamp Act in every colonial port. They often threatened the stamp agents with bodily harm unless they resigned and burned the stamps. In North Carolina, reported one royal official, “Not one advocate[d] for the stamp duty.” When the General Assembly protested the new law, Governor Tryon sent the representatives home. Soon Edenton, New Bern, and Wilmington passed petitions condemning the governor. When the first ship with stamps from London arrived at Brunswick, local leaders—including Hugh Waddell, a hero of the French and Indian War—told the captain they would not allow the stamps to be sold. When the British seized two ships because their captains sailed without Some of the documents stamps, Waddell and five hundred that were supposed to be men destroyed the documents that stamped were newswould be used in court against the papers, playing cards, ship captains. The situation almost checks, deeds, contracts, led to open rebellion in the Cape insurance policies, Fear. At the last moment came permits, and wills. news that the British Parliament had cancelled the Stamp Act.

Above: As a warning to those who might import tea, Boston patriots tarred and feathered tax collector John Malcolm, forced him to drink tea, and threatened to hang him.

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THE ART OF POLITICS

Violent opposition in the colonies to the Stamp Act led Parliament to repeal it in March 1766. This cartoon, entitled “The Repeal or the Funeral Procession of Miss Americ-Stamp,” makes fun of British reaction to the repeal.

The cancellation of the stamp duty in 1766 quieted matters for a while, but the colonists and the British continued to quarrel. While North Carolina was swept up in the Regulation, leaders in Virginia, Massachusetts, and other colonies continued to assert the political rights that colonists had come to expect. When the North Carolina General Assembly protested that the king was not doing enough to help the colony develop economically, a member of Parliament claimed that North Carolinians were “derogatory to his Majesty’s honor.” In 1769, Governor Tryon once again sent the Assembly home because it was too critical of the British. Even though the Regulation showed that the British would use force to get what they wanted, some North Carolinians continued to disobey. Daniel Boone joined with Judge Richard Henderson to start the Transylvania Company, a group designed to settle farmers west of the Appalachians. When the king would not charter Queen’s Academy in Charlotte (a Presbyterian attempt to open a college in the colony), the Scots-Irish opened the school anyway. By the time the War for Independence started, it had eighty students, including Robert Henry.

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Figure 9

Steps Toward Revolution

Legislation Date What It Did __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Proclamation of 1763 1763 Set boundaries for western settlement __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Sugar Act 1764 Lowered tax on sugar, molasses, and other __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ products, but tightened customs enforcement __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Stamp Act 1765 Taxed certain types of documents __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Declaratory Act 1766 Stated that Great Britain had the right to tax __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ the colonies __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Townshend Acts 1767 Taxed glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Tea Act 1773 Gave East India Tea Company the sole control __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ of tea trade __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ “Intolerable” Acts 1774 Closed port of Boston __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The two sides continued to disagree. Violence broke out in occupied Boston in 1770, the same year Regulators rioted in Hillsborough. When the British announced new steps to control the colonists, North Carolinians joined in the protests. Matters came to a head in 1773, when Bostonians disguised themselves as Iroquois Indians and dumped hundreds of boxes of tea into their harbor. They were protesting the exclusive right to sell tea given the East India Company by the British Crown. Bostonians and other colonists believed such controls went against their rights to a free marketplace. The event has been known ever since as the Boston Tea Party.

The Edenton Tea Party When the British closed down the port of Boston to punish the city for the loss of the tea, the other colonies agreed to buy nothing from the British or send any of their goods to England until matters improved. In 1774, Salisbury’s leaders passed the Rowan Resolves, a series of statements in which their citizens pledged not to import British goods. Rowan County citizens were encouraged to use their own homemade products. The same year, North Carolina leaders sent a ship to Massachusetts full of corn, wheat, and salted pork to help the citizens of Boston.

Above: Patriots at the Boston Tea Party in December 1773 crudely disguised themselves as Native Americans. In fact, they were farmers, merchants, artisans, and apprentices.

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Above: North Carolina had its own tea party. Penelope Barker (left) organized an “Association” of fifty-one women who pledged not to drink tea. A British cartoonist drew this unflattering picture of the Edenton Tea Party (right).

In October 1774, fifty-one women from around the Albemarle Sound met at the home of Mrs. Elizabeth King on the village green in Edenton. Under the leadership of Penelope Barker, they promised they would drink no more British tea or use other imported materials. Mrs. King served herbal tea that day, and the event was reported all the way back to England. Since that time, North Carolinians have remembered it as their own Edenton Tea Party. By 1775, Boston and the British were so hostile to one another that fighting broke out when soldiers were sent to seize weapons and ammunition the leaders of the rebellion were hiding in the town of Concord. Shots fired in Lexington led to a battle at Concord that started the American War for Independence. Those shots were said to be “heard round the world.” Very soon, North Carolinians heard about them and took action to join in the struggle for independence.

It’s Your Turn 1. Why did the king want to keep the colonists east of the Proclamation Line? 2. What did the Stamp Act require?

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ This section will help you meet the ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

North Carolina in the War for Independence As you read, look for: • how North Carolina reacted to Great Britain’s tightening controls • the Mecklenburg Resolves and the Halifax Resolves • the state government created in 1776 • vocabulary terms Provincial Congress, Committee of Safety, Tory, Whig, Mecklenburg Resolves, Halifax Resolves, Declaration of Independence, constitution, bicameral, Declaration of Rights, amendment, Confiscation Act

following objectives: 8.2.02 Describe the contributions of key personalities from the Revolutionary War era. 8.2.03 Examine the role of North Carolina in the Revolutionary War. 8.2.05 Describe the impact of various significant documents on the formation of the state and national governments.

Even before the battles of Lexington and Concord, North Carolinians had taken steps to separate themselves from the clutches of the British. When first Governor Tryon, then his successor, Josiah Martin, tried to shut down the Assembly, Speaker John Harvey continued to correspond with protestors in other colonies. Harvey, who was five times elected speaker of the Assembly, stood up to the royal governors for the interests of North Carolinians. In 1774, Governor Martin refused to call the Assembly together to elect representatives to attend a Continental Congress. (The Congress was meeting in Philadelphia to protest what was going on in Boston.) Harvey set up a new body, a Provincial Congress, that chose the delegates anyway. When news of the battles John Harvey was the at Lexington and Concord arrived great grandson of the in North Carolina, Governor Marfirst John Harvey of tin fled. Harvey ordered CommitCulpeper’s Rebellion. He tees of Safety to be set up in each was carrying on a family county to keep order and provide tradition of protesting government. Most committees what he believed to be immediately demanded that men unfair treatment. suspected of siding with the British—called Tories—had to sign a

Above: Alexander Martin had aided the Regulators, then served in the Provincial Congresses. He was a patriot leader at the Battle of Moore’s Creek Bridge. After the War for Independence, he became a governor.

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0

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200 Miles

0 100 200 Kilometers

Map 16 The Thirteen Colonies in 1776 Map Skill: Which colony is farthest north?

loyalty oath. In turn, members of the Committees called themselves Whigs, a name borrowed from the political opponents of the Tories back in London. The Committee of Safety in Mecklenburg County went farther in protesting the British attacks than any other. Mecklenburg’s leaders came together at Queen’s Academy to discuss recent events. The Committee announced a series of statements that have collectively been called the Mecklenburg Resolves. The resolves stated that, because of British aggression, “the king’s commissions” were “null and void.” Local leaders were directed to elect new leaders themselves. As cheering residents realized, this amounted to Mecklenburg being “free and independent” of British authority. Later, Mecklenburg residents counted their “years of liberty” from 1775 and what came to be called the “Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence.” The date it was said to have been signed—May 20, 1775—was later included on North Carolina’s state flag.

The Battle of Moore’s Creek Bridge After the death of John Harvey in 1775, other leaders like Cornelius Harnett and Richard Caswell led the province. The Provincial Congress set up defense measures, created a loyalty oath for everyone to take, authorized the enlistment of soldiers to fight in the war, and issued paper money to pay for everything. The province raised two regiments (groups of soldiers) for General George Washington’s Continental army. James Moore of Wilmington and Robert Howe of Brunswick commanded the regiments. (Both later became generals in the army.) North Carolina

Tories were also called loyalists, British Royalists, and “King’s friends.” The Whigs were also called Patriots, Liberty Boys, colonials, and Sons and Daughters of Liberty. A Revolutionary War-era two-pound cannon on display at Moore’s Creek.

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CAROLINA CURIOSITIES Was There a Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence?

North Carolina has a distinctive state flag. Not only is it red, white, and blue, but it also has two important dates on it. One is May 20, 1775, when the people of Mecklenburg County declared themselves free of British authority. The other is April 12, 1776, when the state legislature voted to support the growing national movement for independence. The Halifax Resolves, as they are called, are an accepted state tradition.The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence—or “Meck/Dec” as it has been called—is another matter. Since the early 1800s, many Americans and some North Carolinians have doubted it ever happened. Thomas Jefferson, the author of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, was one of the first to question the Meck/ Dec. Backcountry settlers in Charlotte, he said, could not have written something that sounded so much like his great essay. Jefferson’s doubts were strengthened by the fact that no original copy of the document existed. It was lost in a house fire near Charlotte about 1800. Only copies written from memory by John McKnitt Alexander, who had been the secretary at the Charlotte meeting in 1775, were available. Plus, the leaders of Mecklenburg had approved a second document—called the Mecklenburg Resolves—on May 31, 1775, that sounded a lot like the earlier declaration. Since an actual copy of the Resolves existed and one of the Declaration did not, historians have wondered whether Alexander mixed the two up in his old age. For years, however, the people of Charlotte asserted that both documents were real. Former students of Queen’s Academy, where the meetings had been held, testified that they

had been present when residents cheered at hearing the word independence. And, several land deeds recorded in the courthouse after the American Revolution were dated “such and such year of our liberty,” with the math pointing back to 1775, not 1776. For years, Meck/Dec Day was a Charlotte holiday. Historians, however, want more evidence. Like Jefferson, they often wonder how folks in the backcountry could be so out in front of the rest of the colonies. But, a few historians point out that the original people of Mecklenburg County were descendants of the Scots-Irish who suffered at the hands of the British. And, the first Mecklenburg settlers were preached to by the Reverend Alexander Craighead, the son of one of the ministers who was harassed in Ireland. One colonial governor noted that the Mecklenburg Scots-Irish wanted “a Solemn League and Covenant teacher among them.” The “League” referred to a Scottish independence movement, and the “teacher,” Craighead, numbered among his students many of the later signers of the Meck/Dec. If the Meck/Dec really happened, then Craighead was its inspiration. Several of those signers had graduated from the College of New Jersey (today’s Princeton University). At the time, the New Jersey school was considered a better place of higher education than the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, which Thomas Jefferson attended. They, like Jefferson, had read the Scottish and English documents that included phrases like “life, liberty, and property” and “sacred honor.” Like most of the Carolina curiosities, the Meck/Dec remains arguable from both sides.

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Above: This is a reconstruction of the Moore’s Creek Bridge. Inset is a swivel gun of the type that fired on the British troops as they struggled to cross the bridge.

militiamen (civilians called up to serve the military for short periods of time) were sent into South Carolina and Virginia to fight Tories. By early 1776, North Carolinians were fighting among themselves about the war against the British. Governor Martin had fled to a ship off the Cape Fear coast. Nevertheless, he encouraged the recently arrived Highland Scots to march on Wilmington to join a British invasion of the two Carolina colonies. Since many of the Highlanders had signed an oath of personal loyalty to the king, they kept their word and gathered to fight. In February, the Highlanders marched from Cross Creek toward Wilmington. Colonel James Moore ordered several groups of militia to cut them off. The Whig forces blocked the Tories’ path at Moore’s Creek Bridge, about twenty miles north of Wilmington. The Whigs removed the planks from the bridge and greased the support beams. For fifteen minutes, the Highlanders tried to slip and slide across the bridge. More than fifty were shot. They soon retreated. Colonel Moore chased them, seizing their arms and money. The Battle of Moore’s Creek Bridge was as celebrated an American victory in the southern colonies as the 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill had been in Boston.

Halifax Resolves The British attempt to invade the province convinced many North Carolinians that their conflict could not be settled peacefully. William Hooper, a delegate to the Continental Congress, wrote home that “it would be Toryism to hint [at] the possibility of future reconciliation.” In April 1776, the Provincial Congress decided that the whole province should follow the example of Mecklenburg County. “Independence seems to be the word,” Robert Howe told friends back in Brunswick.

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On April 12, 1776, the Provincial Congress passed the Halifax Resolves, which put together all the feelings about liberty and freedom that North Carolinians had been discussing for years. (This is the second date on the state flag.) The Resolves authorized the delegates in Philadelphia to join other colonies in seeking independence. North Carolina became the first of the thirteen colonies to endorse the independence movement. Later, in July 1776, William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, and John Penn were the three North Carolinians who signed the Declaration of Independence. Within months, the great document was read publicly in front of every courthouse in North Carolina.

Above: This mural shows the Declaration of Independence being presented to John Hancock (seated). The men standing before the table were those charged with writing the document. The painting hangs in the U.S. Capitol Building.

State Constitution Once independence was declared, and the United States created by an act of the Continental Congress, North Carolina officially went from being a colony to a state. As a state, North Carolina had to come up with its own rules to govern itself. With the encouragement of the Continental Congress, each of the thirteen new states wrote a state constitution, a set of rules and procedures for government. To make sure the new government truly connected to the people, the Provincial Congress chose delegates for a special constitutional convention. The delegates wrote the first state constitution at a convention in Halifax in November and December 1776. Although the delegates used many of the old colonial ideas of governing, they did make innovations. Everyone who wrote the North Carolina constitution agreed upon one principle: The legislature made up of the representatives of the people should be the strongest part of the government. They continued the General Assembly, but made it bicameral (having two bodies): the House of Commons (an old English term for people who weren’t aristocrats)

The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, with the help of John Adams of Massachusetts and Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania.

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Above, left to right: The three North Carolina signers of the Declaration of Independence were William Hooper, a Wilmington lawyer; Joseph Hewes, an Edenton merchant; and John Penn, a Granville County farmer. Hooper was absent on July 4, 1776, when the Declaration was approved, but later signed it. Penn had just been appointed to the Congress to represent the North Carolina backcountry but served longer in the Continental government than any other state delegate. Hewes helped establish the United States Navy and helped John Paul Jones, the first great naval hero, get his commission.

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and the Senate (an old term that went back to ancient Rome, referring to older, wiser leadership). Each county in the state was to send two delegates to the house and one to the senate. The representation was equal no matter how big or small the county was, whether in size or population. House members had to own 100 acres, and senators 300 acres, as a way to ensure that people with the means to take time off from their farms and businesses could afford to govern. Similarly, all eligible men (no women or slaves could vote at that time) could elect a house member, but only those who owned at least 50 acres could vote for senators. While North Carolinians gave a lot of power to the General Assembly, they kept watch on them. All General Assembly members were to run for office on an annual basis. That way, unhappy voters could replace them frequently, or reward them often. The fact that North Carolinians could be guarded about giving too much power to government officials was seen in the creation of the office of governor. He was to be chosen by the legislature each year, and he had very little power. North Carolinians did not quickly forget the abuses William Tryon had committed. The governor could only act upon the advice of a council and the consent of the legislature. William Hooper joked that the governor’s only power was “to sign a receipt for his salary.” Most importantly, North Carolinians included a Declaration of Rights in their constitution. This list set out the rights and protections citizens had, such as the right to a trial with a jury. The Declaration of Rights was a legacy of the Regulation and the other controversies with the British. It was written by the delegates from Mecklenburg, Rowan, and Orange counties, the very places where people’s rights and property had been literally trampled. The constitution also set up a court system. Amazingly, the delegates included no rule about amendments, additions or changes to the state constitution.

Chapter 5: The Struggle for Independence

Governing the New State The new legislature in the new state faced many challenges in its early years. Under the first governor, Richard Caswell, it had to protect its citizens from Tories and other potential threats. Some of the Native Americans in the state saw the War for Independence as a way to regain their lands. In the spring and summer of 1776, the Cherokee attacked along the frontier. The state sent backcountry militia over the Blue Ridge to attack the Cherokee. Dozens of Cherokee towns were destroyed, including the sacred town of Nikwasi, and many of the Cherokee were left hungry and homeless. The state also had to find sources of revenue to pay for the war. In 1777, the state passed a Confiscation Act, which said that Tories who refused to take the oath of allegiance to the new state could have their property taken away. Eventually, the lands of hundreds of North Carolina residents were seized, including the thousands of acres still belonging to the descendants of Lord Granville. With each seizure, the state made money by reselling the land. In addition, strictly religious people like the Quakers and Moravians, who would not say an oath or take up arms, had to pay more taxes than other citizens. One of the major expenses was the raising of troops to fight in the Continental army. North Carolina sent several regiments north to fight with General Washington in 1777. Some of these troops fought bravely at the Battles of Brandywine and Germantown just outside of Philadelphia. General Francis Nash of Hillsborough was killed. He would later be remembered in the naming of both Nashville, North Carolina, and Nashville, Tennessee. The state’s troops had to endure the harsh winter at Valley Forge in 1777 and 1778 before they were sent back south to defend the Carolinas. By the end of the war, more than 7,000 North Carolinians had done Continental service. The strict measures the new government took against the Cherokee and the Tories kept the state safe and relatively secure for the first three years of the war. In 1779, however, the British invaded the southern states again, and this time North Carolina was almost destroyed.

Above: Richard Caswell, who lived near present-day Kinston, became the first governor once North Carolina became a state.

Richard Caswell was the unanimous choice for governor. He held the office for three years.

It’s Your Turn 1. Who were the Tories? the Whigs? 2. What is the significance of May 20, 1775? 2. What was the strongest part of the government established by the first North Carolina constitution?

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CAROLINA PLACES Halifax

During the War for Independence, Halifax may have been the liveliest town in the new state. It certainly was the most important in the year 1776, when North Carolina became the first state to go on record urging the United States to seek independence. Later that same year, the new state’s leaders returned to write the first state constitution. Later in the war, Lord Cornwallis camped there as his British army moved toward Virginia, and, as Cornwallis would find out, disaster at Yorktown. Halifax was founded in 1757 to handle shipping from nearby plantations on the Roanoke River. Halifax remained very small in the colonial period because most of its prominent citizens lived outside of town on their plantations. People from all around the area, however, came to town to have parties, watch horse races, attend the Church of England, and hold the county court four times a year. During the War for Independence, Halifax made uniforms for North Carolina Continentals.

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Above: The Owens House is the oldest house in Halifax. It was North Carolina’s first entry on the National Register of Historic Places. The best-known early resident was Willie (pronounced “why-ley” in the speech of the day) Jones. Jones, a successful tobacco and wheat planter, threw the biggest parties in town. He kept some of the fastest racehorses and had his own private racetrack. Jones had a hand in the passage of the Halifax Resolves in April 1776 and became acting executive of the state during the time between the Declaration of Independence in July 1776 and the writing of the state constitution in November. He then had a major role in the writing of the North Carolina constitution. During the War for Independence, Jones went to Philadelphia to be a member of the Continental Congress. Jones had a very strict view of what liberty was. He believed no government should be very strong. When it came time to write the United States

Chapter 5: The Struggle for Independence

Constitution in 1787, Jones opposed the idea of a strong federal government. He refused to go to Philadelphia to represent the state at the constitutional convention, then worked to keep North Carolina from ratifying the Constitution in 1788. His last public act was to help establish the site for the capital city, Raleigh. “Historic Halifax” is now a state historic site within the small town of Halifax. The state has restored a number of buildings to depict life in the early history of the town. The best known of the buildings is the Owens House, built around 1760. The Constitution-Burgess House was, at one time, thought to be where the first state constitution was written. However, later evidence shows that the constitution was actually written at Eagle Hotel. After the Declaration of Independence was passed, Halifax was one of the first places in the state where it was read aloud. Townspeople carried members of the Assembly on their shoulders in an impromptu parade.

Above: The Constitution-Burgess House is furnished as an early 1800s law office would be. Below: The Eagle Tavern was built in the late 1700s. Halifax did not grow very much during the 1800s. It particularly lost influence after the railroads helped develop Roanoke Rapids. In the twentieth century, it remained a small county seat town in the northern Coastal Plain.

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The British Invade the Carolinas

Carolina in the Revolutionary War. 8.2.04 Examine the reasons for the colonists’ victory, the impact of military successes and failures, the role of foreign interventions, and ongoing domestic issues.

Above: Gen. Robert Howe was North Carolina’s highest-ranking Continental officer during the Revolutionary War. He commanded the Southern Department for almost two years.

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As you read, look for: • the fighting that took place in the Carolinas • the end of the War for Independence • vocabulary term Overmountain Men North Carolinians did not always earn praise during the southern phase of the War for Independence. Robert Howe of Brunswick had been made the ranking American general in the Carolinas by the Continental Congress. Howe, however, lost Savannah, Georgia, to the British in late 1778. He was replaced. During early 1779, General John Ashe of Wilmington was unable to retake Augusta, Georgia, from the British. After a long struggle, the southern American army was trapped in Charles Town, South Carolina, and surrendered in May 1780, including almost all the North Carolina Continentals. A second southern army was raised in a month, including militia called out from across North Carolina and commanded by former Governor Caswell. That army marched into South Carolina and collided head on with one commanded by Lord Charles Cornwallis, one of Great Britain’s most experienced generals. The Americans were routed at Camden on August 16, 1780. Most of the North Carolina troops fled after the first shots were fired. Some ran all the way back into North Carolina, more than fifty miles. The American defeat at Camden meant that South Carolina was in the control of the British and that North Carolina was open to invasion.

North Carolinians Defend Their Homeland Faced with an enemy at their doorsteps, North Carolinians gathered their courage and their resources and fought back. Even before the battle at Camden, Whigs along the Catawba River had attacked a large contingent of Tories gathered to go join Cornwallis. On June 20, 1780, more than a thousand Tories were defeated at Ramsour’s Mill, at the site of present-day Lincolnton. After Camden, Cornwallis split his army into two, sending Tories into the North Carolina mountains to force the settlers there to join with the

Chapter 5: The Struggle for Independence

British. He then took the main army into Charlotte. Both intrusions (invasions) into North Carolina proved to be disastrous for the British. At Charlotte, William R. Davie held up the British for hours, then retreated to Salisbury. Cornwallis stayed in Charlotte for a month, but the people of Mecklenburg County did not treat him well. The Scots-Irish made as much trouble for the invaders as possible. One Whig militia captain even burned down his own farm rather than let the British use it. Once, several hundred British soldiers were sent to forage, which meant they took whatever they wanted from nearby farms. The residents in the neighborhood started firing at the soldiers from hiding places in the woods. One wounded British soldier knocked over a beehive in a barnyard. The angry swarm chased the British all the way back to Charlotte. Ever since, Mecklenburg County has had a reputation as the “hornet’s nest” of the Revolution. One officer serving with Cornwallis called Charlotte the most “rebellious country” in all America. Meanwhile, the Tories sent to the mountains were wiped out. When the settlers there were told to come fight for the British or suffer the consequences, they chose to make their own consequences. Overmountain Men, as they came to be called, crossed the Blue Ridge and trapped the Tories on October 7, 1780, at the Battle of Kings Mountain. Patrick Ferguson, the Tory commander, had bunched his thousand troops at the top of a ridge on the border between North and South Carolina and dared anyone to dislodge him. The Overmountain Men surprised the Tories,

Map 17 The Revolutionary War in the Carolinas Map Skill: Which battle took place closest to where you live?

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Above: Patrick Ferguson, the British commander at Kings Mountain, was shot off his horse as he tried to escape the Overmountain Men’s trap. Several North Carolinians claimed to have fired the fatal shot, including a son of Henry Weidner, the backcountry pioneer, who was using his father’s rifle.

The Battle at Kings Mountain has been called the turning point of the war in the South.

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killed Ferguson, and took the survivors off as prisoners. The loss at Kings Mountain forced Cornwallis to retreat into South Carolina.

The British Chase the American Army With Cornwallis in retreat, the small group of American troops left in Salisbury advanced to Charlotte. In the winter of 1780, their new commander, Nathanael Greene, arrived. Greene found the army almost starving to death. To find supplies, he split it in two, sending one division west under General Daniel Morgan and taking the other east himself. The British immediately went after Morgan, thinking that was the weaker force. Morgan, however, was joined by several groups of militiamen. On January 17, 1781, he turned and made a valiant stand at Hannah’s Cowpens, not far from Kings Mountain. On the open pastures where drovers gathered cattle for shipment to market, Morgan gave the British one of their biggest defeats of the war. The Americans captured many British soldiers in the fight. Morgan, knowing that Cornwallis would come after him, beat a hasty retreat toward Salisbury. Greene, too, retreated toward the Yadkin River, hoping to put his army back together before it was too late. Wet weather slowed Cornwallis so much that he burned his extra baggage and pushed his troops faster. Morgan had barely gotten across the Catawba River when the British destroyed General William Lee

Chapter 5: The Struggle for Independence

Davidson’s militia at Cowan’s Ford. So badly were the Americans scattered that General Greene spent an entire night, woefully alone, at the rally point near Salisbury. The Americans barely escaped with their soldiers and their supplies across the Yadkin River; the British appeared on the ridge above as the last boats made it across. Cornwallis then occupied, in turn, Salisbury, Salem, and Hillsborough, while Greene and the Americans crossed the Dan River into Virginia to gain reinforcements and supplies. General Greene returned to North Carolina, outnumbering the British two to one. He carefully chose a battleground similar to the one that had worked at Cowpens. The two armies met on March 15, 1781, at Guilford Courthouse (where Greensboro is today) and fought viciously for one and one-half hours. Early on, the North Carolina militia panicked and ran away, just as it had at Camden. Greene, however, had put more experienced troops from Virginia in a second line, and they stood their ground. At one point, the fighting became the fiercest of the entire War for Independence. Cornwallis, knowing his army was near total defeat, actually ordered grapeshot (small metal balls and jagged fragments that do great damage) to be fired into a spot where his own troops were mixed up with the Americans. It worked, at great human cost. Greene chose to pull back, and the British held the field. Cornwallis lost one-fourth of his army, Greene about the same, if the five hundred North Carolina militiamen who fled are counted. When the result was announced back in London, one British official suggested that

The state’s first paper mill was built in 1777 in Hillsborough to reduce the paper shortage brought on by the war.

Below: Reenactors annually “portray” the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in Greensboro. The author of this textbook “fought” with the Scots Guards in the original depiction in 1981, the 200th anniversary of the original fight. Some reenactors always hold a moment of silence at the spot where Lord Cornwallis fired cannon shot into his own troops.

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Above: This painting of the British surrender at Yorktown hangs in the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol. Few North Carolinians were serving with Washington at the time, but a whole regiment of Tories commanded by John Hamilton of Halifax was surrendered by Lord Cornwallis.

When the British laid down their arms at Yorktown, a British band supposedly played “The World Turned Upside Down.”

“another such victory would be the ruin of the British army.” The British then limped across the Coastal Plain to Wilmington and, after resting, marched straight north into Virginia. Cornwallis hoped to have better luck in that richer state, but Washington trapped him in Yorktown, effectively ending the war. Meanwhile, Greene moved the American army into South Carolina to dislodge the British from a number of forts. North Carolina recruits did somewhat redeem their state’s battlefield reputation with bravery at the Battle of Eutaw Springs. By the end of 1782, the last British had left Wilmington and Charles Town, ending the war in the South. The two years of war left its mark on the North Carolina landscape. Kings Mountain, Cowpens, and Guilford Courthouse are national military parks. General Greene had Greenville, Greensboro, and Greene County, North Carolina; Greenville, South Carolina; and Greeneville, Tennessee named for him. For most of the twentieth century, the professional athletic teams in Charlotte were named the Hornets, until the National Basketball Association moved the team to New Orleans in the 1990s.

It’s Your Turn 1. Why was Robert Howe replaced as the ranking general for the army in the Carolinas? 2. Why was Mecklenburg County called a “hornet’s nest”? 3. Where did the War for Independence end?

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North Carolinians Fight Each Other As you read, look for: • the civil war between Whigs and Tories in North Carolina • vocabulary terms neutral, pacifism, pardon

Revolutionary War era. 8.2.03 Examine the role of North Carolina in the Revolutionary War. 8.2.04 Examine the reasons for the colonists’ victory, the impact of military successes and failures, the role of foreign interventions, and ongoing domestic issues.

The British army was just one enemy in the War for Independence. Up and down the Atlantic coast, some colonists sided with the Whigs, wanting independence for the new United States. Others identified with the Tories, hoping that the king’s armies would triumph. None of the original thirteen states was as divided in its loyalties as North Carolina. Because land titles had been jeopardized by the Regulation, state residents gambled their futures, sometimes their very lives, on the choices they made.

Taking Sides Whigs and Tories were to be found from one end of North Carolina to the other. Yet there were pockets of Whig support and areas of Tory resistance that were notable. Many coastal residents sided with the Whigs. They had been early participants in the rebellion against British rules that restricted their access to trade. In the west, the greatest supporters of the Whigs lived in Presbyterian neighborhoods, particularly in Mecklenburg and Rowan counties. There, the Scots-Irish vented their traditional hostility to English control over their lives and property. Many of the soldiers in the first regiments sent to the Continental army were from these two areas. In contrast, Tories were often concentrated in the central area of the state, often in the very neighborhoods that had supported the Regulators just a few years before. Many of these residents still resented what the people on the coast had done to their homes and communities. It was not so much that the ex-Regulators loved the king, but they hated the leaders of the coastal area more. Some Regulators who had fled to the mountains (such as those who settled on Mills River near today’s Hendersonville) felt the same way. Finally, the strongest Tories were the Highland Scots, recent immigrants into the Sandhills. They had yet to

Above: This Revolutionary War reenactor is dressed as a Highland Scot Tory.

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Top: Tory soldiers at a reenactment of the skirmish at the House in the Horseshoe demonstrate the firing of a Revolutionary War-era cannon. In the actual battle, the Tories had no cannon. Above: The House in the Horseshoe was the home of Whig Colonel Philip Alston.

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gain a new identity in their new home and likely thought, if the Whigs were defeated, the king would punish them more severely than had been the case back in Scotland. At least some North Carolinians tried to be neutral (not take sides) in the war. They may not have cared which government held sway over them, so long as they were left alone to live their lives. Moravians fit into this group. They did not oppose the new Whig government that created the state. However, their natural pacifism (a belief that no one should fight or resort to violence for any reason other than self-defense) made them oppose the war. The Moravians stayed out of the war as soldiers and were forced to pay triple the taxes of other state residents because of their position. Many Quakers were also pacifists and, since they would not swear an oath or serve in the militia, were forced to pay the triple tax. So long as the British were not present to force the issue, North Carolina remained relatively peaceful. Still, there was Tory activity across the state. In 1777, state officers put down the Llewellyn conspiracy. That was a Tory plot to capture the guns and ammunition at Halifax and then use those guns to kidnap Governor Richard Caswell. The same year, a group of Tories “drank to the King’s health” at a secret gathering in Guilford County. About the same time, disgruntled residents of the Uwharrie Mountains marched on Cross Creek to demand that salt be sold at a reasonable price. In 1778, more than five hundred men (out of 5,000) refused to take the oath of allegiance to the state and therefore were charged four times the taxes paid by the other state residents. When some of these men did not pay their taxes, their lands were seized, often by greedy Whigs out to both punish them and make money.

Chapter 5: The Struggle for Independence

A Civil War Whig control of the state was all but lost when Lord Cornwallis swept through North Carolina with his army in 1781. Some Tories had become bolder during the first British invasion in 1780 and had joined with the invaders. John Hamilton, a merchant from Halifax, became one of the state’s leading Tories when he organized the North Carolina Regiment for the British. It marched with Lord Cornwallis all the way to Yorktown. The most famous Tory—or infamous, depending upon who told the story—was David Fanning. Although he was no relative of Edmund Fanning of Regulator fame, David Fanning became just as notorious. Fanning had been abused and beaten by Whigs early in the war, and he swore revenge. When the British army invaded in 1781, Fanning raised a second regiment for them and became its colonel. Fanning’s regiment did not join the British but operated independently. Fanning recruited most of his troops from among the unhappy residents of the Uwharries. As the British retreated from Guilford Courthouse to Wilmington, Fanning attacked and harassed American units whenever and wherever he could find them. In addition, Fanning and his men terrorized the backcountry neighborhoods that sent men to the North Carolina militia. Fanning’s men were accused of theft, murder, and more than one rape during this time. Fanning’s most astounding feat was to surprise the town of Hillsborough while it was the temporary capital of the state. Fanning’s men literally ran the Assembly out of town, captured lots of supplies, and kidnapped the governor of the time, Thomas Burke. Despite being attacked along the way, the Tories delivered Burke and other prisoners to the British in Wilmington.

Neighbor Killing Neighbor Losing the governor was symbolic of the terrible times North Carolinians faced in the years 1780-1782. With so many men either in the American army or a Charles Town prison, many families were left without protection. Sometimes the British set a bad example, as when they angrily burned down four houses after the hard fight at Cowan’s Ford. After the battle of Guilford Courthouse, British soldiers went to the log college run by David Caldwell and burned and ruined all his books. Some Tories attacked families because of the politics of the day; others simply took advantage of the situation to loot (take goods illegally) farms. When Whigs stood in the way, they were often tortured or murdered. A dozen Tories surrounded the house of Thomas Hadley on the Cape Fear River. Hadley looked out his upstairs window to warn his neighbors, but he was shot to death. Three of his four sons got away, but the youngest, only a teenager, was taken to a nearby pocosin, stripped of his clothes, and tied to a tree in the middle of a swarm of mosquitoes. Another man, taken from his Cape Fear house and imprisoned in Wilmington, escaped. He ran eighty miles in less than twenty-four hours, then hid in the woods near his house for the rest of the war.

Above: David Fanning’s harsh treatment at the hands of some Whigs resulted in Fanning organizing Tory groups that committed their own atrocities upon the Whigs. This lithograph is entitled “Fanning’s Atrocity: Murder of an American Planter.”

Governor Burke was imprisoned on James Island near Charles Town, South Carolina. He escaped in January 1782.

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Above: This monument at Guilford Courthouse National Military Park honors Mrs. Kerenhappuch Turner who came to nurse her seriously wounded son after the battle. It is one of only two monuments in the park dedicated to women.

Women often showed their bravery in the conflict. Elizabeth Wiley Forbis had no time to mourn when she learned her husband had been killed at Guilford Courthouse. She and a young son took their only horse out to plow and plant corn. When two Tories demanded the animal, Mrs. Forbis stood in front of both of them. “I will split your head with this hoe,” she threatened. They left. Young Maggie McBride was so eager to help her mother tell the Whigs where the local Tory hideout was that the commander insisted she show him. She rode along on the back of the commander’s horse. When she whispered, “yonder they are,” she slid off the horse and hurried home by a back path. Mrs. Colin McRae, who lived on the Deep River, had her farm repeatedly looted. She had used her last sheet to wrap her baby. A robber came in and yanked the sheet out of her hands, rolling the baby onto the floor. So dangerous was the neighborhood that Mr. McRae hid in a swamp for a year, coming out at night to work his fields to feed his family. Whigs could be just as cruel as Tories. During Cornwallis’s march to Hillsborough, more than four hundred Tories under the command of Colonel John Pyle marched to join him. Near the site of present-day Burlington, American cavalrymen tricked the Tories into believing that they were British soldiers. (During the war, cavalrymen of both sides wore the same green color.) Colonel Henry Lee’s men rode up to the Tories and, without any warning, began to cut them down with sabers. At least ninety were killed before they could flee. Colonel Pyle managed to jump into a nearby pond. The man for whom Pyle’s Massacre was named stayed under water all day, only raising his nose up when he had to breathe. One of the Tories, Drury Honeycutt, suffered a dozen saber wounds and was shot twice. He survived, but only as an invalid. In August 1781, Whigs along the Cape Fear struck back at three hundred Tories gathered in Elizabethtown, in Bladen County. After their commanders had been shot, the Tories fled, many of them into a deep ravine that covered their retreat. The spot has been known ever since as “Tory Hole.” On the Yadkin River, Kings Mountain veteran Benjamin Cleveland hanged five suspected Tories. The tree, located where Wilkesboro would be built, became famous as the Tory Oak, surviving into the twentieth century.

The War Ends The Tory-Whig war in North Carolina stopped after the British withdrew from Wilmington in 1782. David Fanning and many of his men left with them, resettling in Nova Scotia. Almost immediately, the Whigs tried to calm the state. County courts continued to try Tories charged with crimes, but Tories who had simply fought for the king in battle were generally allowed to return home. John Hamilton, for example, returned

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William Bartram

William Bartram, for a time a merchant in the Cape Fear, made several trips into the mountains of Cherokee country looking for plants that he could preserve and take back with him to his botanical garden in Philadelphia. His father was the official botanist to King George III for a time. After the War for Independence, Bartram set up a celebrated garden outside the city of Philadelphia. He was lucky this day in Swain County. The Cherokee were on the warpath and could have done him harm.

to the state and resumed his successful career as a merchant. He became one of the more popular men in the state and often had dinner with former Whigs, where they traded war stories. In 1784, the state legislature issued a pardon, an act forgiving Tories for their actions in the war. The war left all of North Carolina destitute for several years after the British left. Ports had been closed, and farms had been ruined. The money the state had issued to pay for the war was worthless. It took a lot of currency to buy a few goods or services. The state had no permanent capital, and its leaders had only marginal influence with the national government that met in Philadelphia. In 1784, the year peace was completely restored, North Carolina seemed as divided and torn as it had been at the start of the Revolution.

After the war, David Fanning was one of three men in North Carolina to whom the government did not grant a pardon for offenses committed during the war.

It’s Your Turn 1. What part of the state was a Tory stronghold? 2. Which two groups of North Carolinians did not serve in the militia during the war?

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A Fledgling State in a New Nation

Terms: Articles of Confederation, precedent, judicial review, compromise, United States Constitution, veto, ratify, Federalists, Antifederalists, Bill of Rights, state’s rights, republican simplicity, War of 1812, recession, internal improvements, canal, common school, Literary Fund People: Mrs. Elizabeth Bayard, James Iredell, Samuel Ashe, John Sevier, Hugh Williamson, John Steele, Thomas Jefferson, Nathaniel Macon, Benjamin Forsythe, Johnston Blakely, Otway Burns, Dolley Madison, Andrew Jackson, Archibald Murphey Places: State of Franklin, Portsmouth, Raleigh, Fayetteville, Chapel Hill

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S

ometimes a small decision leads

to bigger and better accomplishments. This was certainly the case for early North Carolina’s most famous bully. Andrew Jackson might well have been acting out his sorrow. The Waxhaws native had been orphaned during the war. He had also been scarred for life after the British took him prisoner. When he refused to clean the boots of a British officer, the cavalryman slashed his forehead with a saber. A teenaged Jackson came to Salisbury in 1784 to study law, but instead he ran races in the street, played cards all night, and pulled pranks at parties. One Salisburian remembered him as “the most roaring, rollicking . . . mischievous fellow that ever lived in Salisbury.” He was asked to leave town. After getting his law license, Jackson moved west of the Blue Ridge to get a new start. But his continued reckless behavior there almost got him killed. Jackson unwisely insulted a respected attorney who liked to say “I side with Bacon,” a reference to a famous law textbook. When Jackson made fun of the remark, a duel resulted where the two men were to fire at each other with pistols at close range. Friends convinced both men to fire into the air, which they did. To help ease the tension, Jackson then put “a side of bacon” in the saddlebags of his former opponent. The two became lifelong friends.

North Carolina: Land of Contrasts

Although Jackson still had a temper, he began to use his energy more wisely. He became a leader in Tennessee: the new state’s first congressman at age twenty-nine, a senator at thirty, a judge at thirty-one, and a general at thirty-five. It was the fastest rise to prominence seen anywhere on the American frontier. After helping win the War of 1812 at the Battle of New Orleans, Jackson ran for president in 1824, lost, but was elected in 1828. Jackson was soon followed as president by another North Carolinian who had also moved to Tennessee, James K. Polk. While states like Tennessee helped lead the new United States, North Carolina continued to struggle to get ahead in the early years of the nation. Its geographic disadvantages continued to plague it, and its lack of unity hindered any progress it could make. It was no wonder that the most famous North Carolinians of the period often went elsewhere to make a better life.

Below: This lithograph depicts General Andrew Jackson’s victory at the Battle of New Orleans. Opposite page, above: The first North Carolina capitol building in Raleigh.

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SIGNS OF THE TIMES

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________While _______________the __________waltz ______________was ___________being _______________introduced ____________________________in ______________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Europe, _____________________North ________________Carolinians ______________________________still ___________danced _________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________“scampers,” ______________________________________early ___________________________of __________________________________________ _______________________________________an _____________________form ___________________square ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______dancing. _____________________String ________________bands, ________________often _____________made _______________up _______of _____________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________slaves, _________________played __________________at ______“subscription __________________________________balls,” ________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______where _______________________________________________sold ___________________________for ___________________________ ________________________a_____community ________________________________________tickets __________________________a____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________series ________________of _______Saturday ________________________night ______________events. __________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________The __________state ______________had __________the _________slowest ____________________growth __________________rate ____________in ______________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________the __________new ___________nation. ___________________There ________________were ______________about _________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________100,000 _________________________________________________residents ______________________________________ten ____________________ _______________________________additional _________________________________________________every ___________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______years. _______________The __________state ____________population __________________________was __________478,000 ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________in ______1800 _______________and __________737,000 _______________________in ______1830. ________________Only _______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______2 _______________________lived __________________a____sizable ________________________________only ________________________ _____________percent ________________________________in _____________________________town; _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Wilmington _______________________________and ___________Fayetteville _____________________________even ________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________resembled ___________________________cities. ________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

MUSIC

POPULATION

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________When _______________North ______________Carolinians ____________________________got _________together, __________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________they ___________often ______________made _______________Brunswick ___________________________stew, ______________a_____dish ____________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________that ___________originated _________________________in _____Virginia. _____________________Huge _____________iron _________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________pots ____________were ______________used _____________to _______simmer _____________________potatoes, ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________onions, ___________________and ___________beans _______________with _____________squirrel ____________________meat. ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

FOOD

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________North ___________________________________________if ________________went _____________________________ ________Most _____________________________Carolinians, ___________________________________they _________________________to __________________ ________school _________________at ______all, _________attended _______________________“old ___________field _____________schools” ____________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________built ____________in ______abandoned _____________________________farm _____________fields. ________________Sons ______________of _________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________richer ________________families ______________________were ______________often ______________sent ____________to _________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________“military ______________________________________________which _____________________________popular ________________________________ _______________________________schools,” _______________________________________were _____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______across ________________the _________state ____________in ______the _________early _____________1800s. ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

EDUCATION

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________Webster ___________________________Massachusetts ___________________________________________out __________________ ________Noah ____________________________________of ___________________________________________put ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________his _________first ____________dictionary __________________________in _______1803 _______________and ___________a_____larger __________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________one __________in ______1828, _________________using ______________many _______________“American _____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________for ___________________first __________________________like _______________________________________________ _______words” __________________________the ___________________time, _______________________bunkum, _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________coined _________________by ________a____North ________________Carolinian __________________________to _______describe _____________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______a_____political ___________________speech _________________that ___________had __________little ___________value. ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________The ________________________came ____________________________Buncombe _______________________________________________________ ___________________word _____________________________from __________________________________________County. _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Americans ___________________________still __________use __________the _________slang _______________word ______________bunk. ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LITERATURE

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________The __________Second ___________________Great ______________Awakening ____________________________encouraged ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______people _________________of _____the _________new __________nation ________________to _____join __________churches. _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________It_____was ___________started __________________in _______Kentucky _______________________by ________people _________________who __________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________had __________moved __________________there ______________from _____________North ________________Carolina. ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________The ___________revival __________________quickly ___________________spread ___________________back ______________to ______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________North ______________________ ________Carolina ______________________and __________led _________to _______the _________growth __________________of _______the _________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Baptist __________________and __________Methodist ________________________churches. _________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

RELIGION

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Rich _____________white _______________men ____________sometimes ____________________________settled __________________their ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________disputes ______________________by ________dueling. _____________________Andrew _____________________Jackson, _______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______who _________________________became ______________________________________________fought _____________________________________ ___________________later _________________________________president, ___________________________________________a____________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______duel ___________in ______1788 ______________with ___________Waightstill __________________________Avery, _______________for __________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______whom _________________Avery _______________County ___________________was ___________named. ______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Horse _______________racing _________________took ____________the __________state _____________by _______storm ________________in _________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______the _________early _____________1800s. _________________Every ______________town _____________had __________a_________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________racecourse; ______________________________________most __________________________________were ___________________________________ ______________________________________the ________________________popular ___________________________________in ______________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Halifax, ____________________Raleigh, _____________________and ___________Fayetteville. _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

FADS

SPORTS

Figure 10 Timeline: 1780 –1820 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1788 Hillsborough Convention rejected U.S. Constitution; Raleigh named capital

1789 North Carolina ratified U.S. Constitution and ceded western lands; State University established 1790 James Iredell appointed to U.S. Supreme Court

1787 Bayard v. Singleton case

1794 Legislature moved to Raleigh

1785 State of Franklin formed

1795 State University opened

1784 North Carolina ceded western lands for first time

1780 1781 Articles of Confederation ratified

1799 William R. Davie appointed ambassador to France; gold discovered in Cabarrus County

1790

1800

1810

1820

1795 Jay’s Treaty 1791 U.S. Bill of Rights ratified 1788 U.S. Constitution ratified

1812 War of 1812

1787 Constitutional Convention

Signs of the Times

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TARGET READING SKILL

Distinguishing Fact from Opinion

Defining the Skill Not everything you read in a textbook is fact. Sometimes authors weave facts, inferences, and opinions into their writing to make it more interesting. This writing style, however, makes it more difficult to separate facts from opinions. A fact may be defined as something that can be proved or verified. Facts may be verified by observation or by research. “Eighteen-year-olds have the right to vote” is a statement of fact. An opinion, on the other hand, is something a person thinks, believes, or feels is true. Opinions are open to debate and cannot be verified. Opinion statements often include words like bad, good, probably, believe, feel, think, greatest, worst, best, most, least, always, never, all, none, and may. For example, “A person should not be allowed to vote until he or she is twenty-one years of age” is a statement of opinion.

Practicing the Skill Read the following statements. On a separate sheet of paper or a form like that below, write the statements and identify each as a fact or an opinion. STATEMENT

FACT

1. Most of the Federalists in North Carolina after the American Revolution lived along the coast. 2. North Carolinians gambled with their future by delaying the ratification of the United States Constitution. 3. Americans who came to distrust the Federalists rallied to the leadership of Thomas Jefferson. 4. The best citizens in a republic lived as simply and independently as possible in the country. 5. The best government was to be local, where people knew one another and could work out what needed to be done. 6. Conditions grew worse in North Carolina after the War of 1812. 7. North Carolinians elected representatives who would not raise the already low tax rate. 8. North Carolinians were proud people with close families, but they knew little beyond the habits and values of their locality. 9. North Carolinians tried to put the Revolutionary War behind them. 10. Some prominent North Carolinians tried to make the state better. OPINION

WHY?

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The State in the Confederation As you read, look for:

• the first government set up by the new United States • the problems faced by North Carolina after the war • vocabulary terms Articles of Confederation, precedent, judicial review

This section will help you meet the following objective: 8.2.05 Describe the impact of various significant documents on the formation of the state and national governments.

During the War for Independence, the Continental Congress adopted the country’s first constitution, called the Articles of Confederation. The Articles created a one-house national legislature—Congress—in which each state had one vote. There was no president and no court system. The Confederation, as that government was called, provided for national defense and foreign policy during those years. (Foreign policy refers to a nation’s international relations.) The Confederation Congress did succeed in signing a peace treaty with the British and securing new lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. However, the Confederation was most often ineffective because it lacked money and resources. Its difficulties were much the same, but on a larger scale, as those of North Carolina.

North Carolina After the War North Carolina only slowly recovered from the hate and destruction left over from the War for Independence. The state was so disorganized that the General Assembly moved from place to place after the war. Some host towns, like Tarboro, Smithfield, or Wake Court House, had fewer houses than there were legislators. There was even less money for the state to spend than there were places to meet. The paper money issued to pay for military expenses was worthless, and state residents did not want to accept it. Trade suffered at ports like Ocracoke. New towns like Kinston on the Neuse River were slow to grow. To raise money, the state continued to sell the confiscated lands of Tories, even though the Treaty of Paris of 1783 said that was illegal. The state also could not make up its mind whether to give its lands west of the Appalachians to the Confederation. In 1784, the state decided to cede those lands. Then it reversed that decision when it thought it could raise money from their sale. Some North Carolinians also wanted to get rich by being

Above: Samuel Johnston of Edenton was a member of the Continental Congress. In the government formed under the Articles of Confederation, he was chosen the first “President of the United States in Congress Assembled.” However, he chose not to serve. He was North Carolina’s first U.S. senator.

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189

the agents for the sales. As William Hooper, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, observed, what some North Carolinians called “political zeal” was really “avarice clothed in the cover of patriotism.”

A Landmark Case

Above: James Iredell, an Edenton lawyer, helped the state supreme court develop the idea of judicial review, where a court can void a legislative act as unconstitutional. Iredell went on to become one of the first justices of the United States Supreme Court.

In her court case, Mrs. Bayard was represented by Samuel Johnston and William R. Davie. Spyers Singleton was represented by Abner Nash and Alfred Moore.

Since Tories could show that the Treaty of Paris protected their property, they sued to recover their possessions in the new state courts. The General Assembly then passed a law that said no one could sue that way. What resulted was one of the most important court cases in state history. Mrs. Elizabeth Bayard, a resident of England, challenged the new law. She took her case to the state’s supreme court. She wanted the property willed to her by her father, a Tory merchant in New Bern. Spyers Singleton had bought it after the state confiscated it. In 1787, the very best lawyers in the state gathered in the courthouse in New Bern to participate in the case. Among them were William R. Davie and James Iredell. Singleton’s lawyers asked for the case to be dismissed, because the law clearly stated that suing was not permitted. The state court refused, even though the legislature made clear what to do. The court, led by Chief Justice Samuel Ashe, argued that the Declaration of Rights in the state constitution guaranteed a trial by jury. The state legislature had no authority to take away that right. Thus, they argued, the Confiscation Act was “unconstitutional.” It violated one of the rights that protected every North Carolinian. But, the justices continued, since Mrs. Bayard was a British citizen and her father was dead, she was not entitled to the same right. They dismissed Mrs. Bayard’s case, as well as twenty-seven similar ones. Samuel Ashe in particular was honored by North Carolinians for his brave stand. The cities of Asheville and Asheboro and the county of Ashe were named for him. Ashe was eventually the second North Carolinian named to the U.S. Supreme Court. Bayard v. Singleton became an important legal precedent, that is, a case used later as a guide to judge other disputes. It was the first time a court had so strongly challenged what a legislature had done. This idea of judicial review (that a court could judge the constitutionality of a law) became part of the checks-and-balances approach to government in the United States. In 1803, the case was also a precedent for the first judicial review by the United States Supreme Court.

The State of Franklin While North Carolinians in the east argued over Tory rights, residents west of the Blue Ridge wanted more control over their own rights. Most of these settlers lived on the tributaries of the Tennessee River like the Holston or the Watauga. Some had moved to this fertile, but remote, area to escape the Regulation. Others were veterans of the War of Independence who went west to claim lands the state owed them for their military service. They did not particularly like the leaders from the Coastal Plain who had beaten them at Alamance and deserted them after Camden.

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One eastern legislator returned the scorn. The Watauga settlers, he claimed, were “the offscourings of the earth.” When North Carolina’s General Assembly in 1784 ceded its western lands to the Confederation government, the leaders of the Watauga area immediately petitioned Congress to set up a new state. They wanted to name the state Franklin, after Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia, one of the great leaders of the Revolution. When North Carolina took back the land, the organizers of the state of Franklin went ahead anyway. In 1784, they met in Jonesborough, wrote a constitution, and elected John Sevier, one of the commanders of the Overmountain Men, as their governor. Like most other events in North Carolina history, the state of Franklin was controversial. Both the Confederation Congress and the North Carolina General Assembly refused to recognize the new state. Soon Franklin’s residents began to fight among themselves. Some people were actually killed over the issue. Split from within, and scorned elsewhere, the “state of Franklin” ceased to exist by 1787. The fight over Franklin, however, did help create the state of Tennessee. The long distance to the mountains made it impractical for North Carolina to provide a fair government. After North Carolina joined the new United States in 1789, the lands were once again ceded. The territory of Tennessee was set up in 1794, and statehood was granted in 1796.

Map 18 The State of Franklin Map Skill: Approximately how far was the State of Franklin from New Bern?

There is a bank based in Johnson City, Tennessee, called the “State of Franklin Savings Bank.”

It’s Your Turn 1. What was the Articles of Confederation? 2. What is a precedent? 3. Why did the settlers in western North Carolina want to form their own state?

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191

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

North Carolina Joins the New Union As you read, look for:

This section will help you meet the following objective:

• the first government of the United States • the writing of the United States Constitution • North Carolina’s ratification of the Constitution • vocabulary terms compromise, United States Constitution, veto, ratify, Federalists, Antifederalists, Bill of Rights

8.2.05 Describe the impact of various significant documents on the formation of the state and national governments.

In the years after the War for Indepen-

Figure 11 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

•_______Confederation __________no ________way ___________to ______tax _________the __________states. ___________________ ___________________________________Congress _______________________had •_______Each __________only ____________one __________vote, _____________regardless ___________________________of ______size. ___________________________ _____________state _____________had •_______Nine _____________law. _________________ ____________of ______the _________thirteen _____________________states ________________had __________to ______approve _____________________each •_______The ___________to ______enforce ____________________laws ____________that ___________were ____________________ __________Congress _______________________had __________no ________way ______passed. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

•_______Confederation ________________to ______regulate _________________________________ ___________________________________Congress _______________________had __________no ________power __________________________________________________________________________________ ______foreign ___________________or _______interstate ________________________trade.

•_______Amending _________________________the _________Articles ____________________required ______________________a____unanimous ____________________________vote ___________of ____________ ______the __________states. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

• No judiciary or executive branch.

dence, North Carolina was not the only state to have problems. Americans generally suffered during the period because the British refused to abide by some of the terms of the 1783 treaty. In 1784, the British closed off trade to its Caribbean islands. This trade had provided North Carolinians with more than half of their income. The British also refused to leave the military bases they had built west of the Appalachians. From forts like Detroit, the British encouraged the Indians to attack white settlers who were moving into the valleys of the Kentucky and Tennessee rivers. More than once, the Watauga settlers—led by John Sevier—fought off Cherokee attacks.

North Carolina and the Constitutional Convention The new United States seemed shaky on many fronts in 1786 and 1787. North Carolinians were fighting each other in Franklin. Massachusetts mobs were marching on their courthouses to keep farmers from having their property seized for unpaid debts, just as the Regulators had done

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years before. These rebellions convinced many American leaders that a stronger government was needed in every state. Since the Confederation Congress lacked the resources and power to do much, prominent citizens took action to protect their lives and investments. In Virginia, George Washington was having problems selling the crops grown at his home at Mt. Vernon. He called for the leaders of nearby states to meet and discuss new ways to improve trade and government. This led to a meeting in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1786 that called for the reform of the Confederation. (North Carolina appointed delegates but no one attended the meeting.) The Annapolis group then put out an invitation to every state to come to Philadelphia in 1787 to decide what to do. All thirteen states sent representatives to the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention in summer 1787. Soon, most delegates had agreed that the Articles could not be fixed and that a new government was needed. They began to write a constitution to organize it. The Virginians, led by James Madison, proposed a more powerful national government that would oversee most activities of citizens and states. This plan called for a Congress with two houses. Representation in each house would be based upon population. Thus, North Carolina, which was the fifth most populous state at the time, would benefit. The smaller states, like Connecticut, objected, since they would lose power under that plan. They countered with a plan that gave each state an equal vote on every issue, regardless of its size. This followed the organization of the Confederation. When it became apparent that the two sides could not agree, the leaders of the convention came up with a compromise (an agreement where each side gives up something and gets something it wants).

Above: This mural of the signing of the United States Constitution can be seen in the Capitol in Washington, D.C.

North Carolina’s delegates to the Constitutional Convention were William R. Davie, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Richard Caswell, Alexander Martin, and Hugh Williamson. William Blount later replaced Governor Caswell as a delegate.

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Above: William R. Davie helped forge the Great Compromise that led to the writing of the U.S. Constitution. Below: Davie lived in this house in Halifax in the 1780s.

194

The “Great Compromise,” as it was called, set up the government Americans have today. In the House of Representatives, members are elected every two years. The number of representatives a state has is based on its population. That way, states with a lot of people get more representatives. The Senate, in turn, consists of two members from each state, giving each state an equal role in that branch of the legislature. Senators were given six-year terms of office. Only a third would be elected at one time. This meant that elections could be held every two years for Congress, but someone with experience would still be in office, even if all the representatives and senators up for reelection lost. Once a balanced scheme for representation was agreed to, most of the rest of the United States Constitution was logically thought out. For example, the chief executive, called the president, was given veto power over laws passed by Congress. (To veto is to refuse to sign a bill.) However, Congress could override the veto by a twothirds majority. The president was to serve a four-year term, as a balance between the terms of the two houses in Congress. North Carolinians had only a small role in the drafting of the Constitution. William R. Davie, a Halifax lawyer, was on the committee that came up with the Great Compromise. Davie also spoke to the convention more often than any other North Carolina delegate. Hugh Williamson, an Edenton physician, proposed the six-year term for senators as a way to balance how long different representatives would serve. Williamson also suggested that two-thirds be the proportion of congres-

Chapter 6: A Fledgling State in a New Nation

sional votes needed to override a president’s veto.

Because North Carolina had not yet ratified the United States Constitution, it could not take part in the election of George Washington as president.

North Carolina Hesitates to Ratify

The writers of the Constitution decided to ask the people in the various states to ratify (agree to) the “new form of government.” Before the end of 1787, several states had ratified the document; by 1788, enough states had joined the Union that the United States held its first elections and chose George Washington as president. North Carolina was not among them. Although leaders like William R. Davie and Hugh Williamson assured people that the U.S. Constitution was superior to the Confederation, many residents distrusted the plan. The state was divided between Federalists (those in favor of the new government) and Antifederalists (those who distrusted its ideas). Most of the Federalists lived along the coast. They included, for example, James Iredell of Edenton, who urged that “local interests give way to the general good.” Federalists stood to benefit from the new powers over business and money that the new government would have. For example, coins were to have the same value anywhere in the nation. North Carolina, the Federalists said, would be better organized and protected to make more money in overseas trade. Antifederalists often came from the backcountry. They included the Reverend David Caldwell of Guilford County, the state’s most respected educator. They worried about how powerful the new government would become, remembering how Governor Tryon had taken advantage of them before the Revolution. One Antifederalist feared that the Federalists would act just like the British had, sending out armies and “crushing the liberties of the people.” People across North Carolina debated the merits of the Constitution. Sometimes they were louder than they were logical. One Federalist called the opposition “a set of fools and knaves.” An Antifederalist declared that even George Washington was a “rascal and traitor” for being a Federalist. Since so many people in the backcountry had suffered in the Regulation and the Revolution, and since they were the majority, the Antifederalists were able to stop the first attempt to ratify the Constitution.

Above: Hugh Williamson, an Edenton physician, had witnessed the Boston Tea Party in 1773. During the War for Independence, he was surgeon general of the state. After signing the Constitution, he helped get it ratified in North Carolina.

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The Hillsborough Convention

Originally, twelve amendments to the U.S. Constitution were proposed. The two that were not ratified concerned the payment for congressmen and the number of constituents for each representative.

The delegates met in July 1788 at Hillsborough. They voted overwhelmingly—184 to 83—to delay ratifying the Constitution. The majority believed the new government would be too powerful. Since the new government was about to be put into effect anyway, the delegates did agree that they would accept the Union if some changes were put into the Constitution. The Antifederalists particularly wanted a Bill of Rights that would protect them. The members of the Hillsborough convention proposed more than twenty amendments to safeguard “the Great Principles of civil and religious liberty” that were “unalienable rights of the People.” North Carolinians were gambling with their future by refusing to join the rest of the United States. Their state would be surrounded by the new nation and denied its promised benefits, like real money and reliable markets. Rhode Island had been the only other state to turn down the Constitution. Since Rhode Island and North Carolina had poor records managing their money, business leaders expected to pay high prices to trade with the new country. To encourage North Carolina to join the Union, Congress delayed any special taxes on North Carolina goods until 1790. In addition, James Madison, the leader of the new Congress, worked to have a Bill of Rights approved by the other states. Both the friendliness of the new Union and the disadvantages of not joining became apparent to many North Carolinians.

The Fayetteville Convention

Above: John Sevier had been a commander at the battle of Kings Mountain, had been the governor of the ill-fated State of Franklin, and became one of the first congressmen elected to the U.S. House of Representative once North Carolina joined the federal Union. When Tennessee was established in 1796, he was its first governor.

196

In November 1788, the North Carolina legislature called for a second vote on the Constitution. A year later, in November 1789, another convention met in Fayetteville. This time the vote was as overwhelmingly for the Union as the previous vote in Hillsborough had been against it. The vote was 194 to 77. Only a few counties full of former Regulators continued to oppose ratification. Supporters of ratification were particularly pleased by growing national support for a Bill of Rights. North Carolina sent its first representatives and senators to the new government in 1790. They were mostly Federalists. The representatives included Hugh Williamson of Edenton and John Sevier of Jonesborough. Sevier’s election showed just how up and down state politics could be. He had been the governor of the rebel state of Franklin, but the voters and the state had long forgiven him.

It’s Your Turn 1. Name three weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. 2. What is a veto? Who has veto power in the national government? How can it be overcome? 3. How did the Federalists and Antifederalists differ?

Chapter 6: A Fledgling State in a New Nation

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North Carolina’s Role in the New Nation As you read, look for: • North Carolina’s shift from Federalist to Antifederalist • causes and results of the War of 1812 • vocabulary terms state’s rights, republican simplicity, War of 1812

following objectives: 8.3.01 Describe the causes of the War of 1812 and its impact on North Carolina and the nation. 8.3.02 Investigate the conditions that led to North Carolina’s decline and assess the implications for the future development of the state. 8.3.08 Examine the impact of national events on North Carolina.

North Carolina had been a backwater colony before the Revolution. Little changed, relatively speaking, once the Constitution was written. Much of the political power remained in richer states like New York and Virginia. Although North Carolina was large in area and people, it only marginally shaped the early nation. Its tradition of distrusting political power of any type, however, reflected the governing approach that dominated the nation after 1800.

North Carolina and Federalism North Carolina’s defiant character came out soon after the state joined the Union. Congress had passed a law to organize the United States Supreme Court. The law said that any dispute between a state and people in another state would be decided in the federal court, not the state courts. North Carolinians once again remembered how William Tryon had tried to take away their ability to govern themselves. They objected to this measure so strongly that the state legislature, meeting in 1790, refused to take an oath of allegiance to the new federal government. North Carolinians were happy to see the ratification of the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. It reserved all power to the states not directly stated in the Constitution itself. North Carolina, thus, became one of the first proponents of state’s rights, the political position that the states could assert their independence when they believed the federal government was doing something wrong. James Iredell of Edenton argued this position in 1794. His dissent against the

Above and right: James Iredell, Sr., bought this house in Edenton in 1778. He lived in the house until he died in 1799.

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Above: The sitting room of the James Iredell House in Edenton was part of the original house, built in 1759. Right: The dining room of the Iredell House was part of a 1776 addition.

President George Washington appointed James Iredell to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1790. He was the sixth justice appointed.

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rest of the Court helped pave the way for the passage of the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution. It restrained the Supreme Court from taking over cases brought Jay’s Treaty resolved by a citizen of one state against some old issues between another state. the United States and During the 1790s, the FederalGreat Britain. The most ists who wrote the Constitution important concession continued to run the new nation. was that the British Only a few North Carolinians had agreed to leave western a role in running the government. forts. The United States In addition to James Iredell on was also named a “most the Supreme Court, John Steele of favored nation” in trade Salisbury became the comptroller of with Great Britain. the treasury, which meant that he made sure the accounts were accurate and honest. William R. Davie became ambassador to France in 1799. North Carolinians tried as hard as they could to follow Federalist policies, but state leaders often disagreed with what was going on in the nation. Some congressmen objected to plans to pay off all the war debts of the various states. They did not want poor North Carolinians to help pay off other states’ debts. When the French Revolution caused France and England to go to war in 1794, President Washington declared the United States to be neutral in the conflict. North Carolinians, however, still resented the British for what they had done during the Regulation and Revolution. Many openly sided with the French. French ships were even supplied in ports like Beaufort and New Bern. Many North Carolinians condemned the Federalists when Jay’s Treaty was approved in 1795. One part of that treaty restricted the size of cargoes shipped to British islands in the Caribbean. Since much of the profit gained from North Carolina products came from such islands, this hurt the state. As a result, North Carolinians voted for Antifederalist Thomas Jefferson for president, instead of Federalist John Adams, in the 1796 presidential election. Only in 1798, when France threatened the United States with war because Jay’s Treaty helped the British, did the state vote for Federalists.

North Carolinians Become Jeffersonians Americans who came to distrust the Federalists rallied to the leadership of Thomas Jefferson. The Virginian, who had been the author of the Declaration of Independence, believed the Constitution did not give the Federalists the power to do all the things they wanted to do. Many Antifederalists in North Carolina agreed, and their leaders soon controlled the state. William R. Davie, the state’s leading Federalist, was so disheartened by this

Above: Antifederalist Thomas Jefferson had the support of North Carolinians in the 1796 presidential election (which he lost to Federalist John Adams) and in the 1800 election (in which he defeated Adams).

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Above: Nathaniel Macon’s views reflected North Carolina’s strict Republican values.

Map 19 The Louisiana Purchase Map Skill: What formed the eastern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase?

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that he moved to South Carolina. Replacing him as the state’s most influential leader was Nathaniel Macon. Nathaniel Macon is the Macon lived in Warren County in a only North Carolinian, so small house on a large plantation near far, ever to hold the office the Roanoke River. He had fought at the of Speaker of the House. Battle of Guilford Courthouse, attended Princeton University, and been an Antifederalist congressman through the 1790s. While Jefferson was president from 1801 to 1807, Macon served as Speaker of the House of Representatives in Washington, one of the most powerful positions in the nation. Macon stayed in Congress, in the House or Senate, for more than twenty years. Macon became North Carolina’s leading spokesman for “republican simplicity.” The phrase meant something very particular to him and many of his fellow North Carolinians. The best citizens in a republic lived as simply and independently as possible in the country. They believed Americans should be self-sustaining farmers, who depended upon themselves, their family, and their neighbors—in that order—to provide for their needs. Government was to stay out of the way, except to promote defense and other matters essential to the nation’s survival. Education and religion, especially, were family matters. The best government was to be local, where people knew one another and could work out what needed to be done. Macon was very frugal himself. Although he was a prosperous man, he lived his whole adult life in a two-room house, with a nearby kitchen. When he died, he ordered his family not to put a tombstone above his grave. Such extravagance contradicted “simplicity.” Instead, he asked his neighbors to each bring a rock from their farm and cover his grave. While in Congress, he was so against government spending that he voted against the government paying for furniture in the White House. He believed each president should be responsible for his own furnishings. When President Jefferson doubled the size of the nation with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, Macon and other North Carolinians did not support him. Control of the Mississippi River basin would greatly help people who went into farming in the future. When President James Madison, Jefferson’s friend and ally, continued to oppose the British attempts to control American development, Macon helped sponsor some of the bills in Congress that led to the War of 1812.

Chapter 6: A Fledgling State in a New Nation

THE ART OF POLITICS

During the War of 1812, the British invaded and set fire to Washington, D.C. This British cartoon entitled “The Fall of Washington or Maddy in full flight” shows President James Madison and probably John Armstrong, his secretary of war, with bundles of papers, fleeing from Washington, with burning buildings behind them.

North Carolina in the War of 1812 In the War of 1812, Americans fought the British to ensure that Americans could settle the West and be safe from interference on the high seas. Aside from Macon, North Carolinians did not have much of a role leading the nation during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison. During the War of 1812, North Carolinians continued to follow more than lead. The war hardly impacted the state. The British did land at Portsmouth, but they looked around and decided that the state was too insignificant to invade. More than 10,000 North Carolina men were called into militia service during the three-year conflict. Most went to the Outer Banks or the Cape Fear to guard the state’s coastline. Others were sent to fight Indians in Georgia but arrived just “in time to look on” as the campaign ended. Three state residents became heroes in the war. Benjamin Forsyth served in the U.S. Army. He rose to be a lieutenant colonel before being

The War of 1812 has been called America’s “second war for independence.”

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Figure 12 Causes of the War of 1812 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

•_______British _____________________________________________________________ _________________blockade _______________________of ______American ________________________shipping •_______British ______American ________________________sailors ____________________________________________________ _________________impressment ________________________________of •_______British _______American ___________________________ _________________encouragement ______________________________________of ______Indian _________________attacks ___________________on ______settlers ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

•_______Election _______War ___________Hawks—westerners _________________________________________________who ___________wanted ___________________to ______________ ____________________of ____________________________________________________ ______declare ___________________war ___________on _______Great _______________Britain—to ____________________________Congress

Top: Captain Johnston Blakeley won fame for his naval victories over the British in the War of 1812. Blakeley disappeared with his ship, the Wasp. Above: During the War of 1812, Otway Burns commanded The Snap Dragon.

killed in action in 1814 in Canada. Forsyth County was later named for him. Johnston Blakeley was a captain in the U.S. Navy. He won a number of sea battles against British warships and boldly disrupted traffic in the English Channel. In 1814, his ship disappeared at sea. Congress awarded Blakely’s family a gold medal for his service. Otway Burns, a Beaufort ship captain, became a privateer during the war. Congress commissioned him to capture enemy merchant ships to damage their supply lines. Burns sailed back and forth from Canada to Brazil and took so many prizes that he became one of North Carolina’s wealthiest men. Later, the mountain town of Burnsville was named for him. Two former North Carolinians became national heroes for the courage they showed during the war. Guilford County native Dolley Payne Madison was First Lady during the war. Andrew Jackson became the leading military hero of the war. After the war, many North Carolinians moved west. During the tumultuous years of the nation’s youth, North Carolina once again found itself on the backbench of achievement. It continued to have the same problems that had hindered it during colonial days. There was one key difference, however. The problems of the colony had not kept people from moving in. After 1800, however, more people moved out than came in. By the 1820s, for example, on a typical fall day more than a dozen wagons passed through Asheville on the way west.

It’s Your Turn 1. What is the state’s rights position? 2. Were North Carolinians basically Federalists or Antifederalists? 3. Name two North Carolina heroes of the War of 1812.

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CAROLINA CELEBRITIES Dolley Payne Madison

Dolley Madison, the only First Lady of the United States from North Carolina, was born in North Carolina but did not stay here for long. Her parents, John and Mary Coles Payne, moved to the New Garden Quaker community (at present-day Greensboro) in 1765. As the New Garden Quakers recorded, “Dolley their daughter was born ye 20 of ye 5 mo. 1768.” Eleven months later, her parents returned to Virginia. Why is not certain. Dolley grew up in a prosperous family in Virginia. She attended the nearby Quaker school during the Revolutionary War. When the war ended, her father freed his slaves —one of the first Quakers to do so in the United States—and moved to Philadelphia. In 1791, at age twenty-three, Dolley married John Todd, a lawyer and a fellow Quaker.Two years into their marriage, yellow fever killed both her husband and her younger son, on the same day. Because she still had family wealth, Dolley continued to live in Philadelphia. Within a year she met James Madison; they were married in six months. Madison, a fellow Virginian, was one of the most important men of the new nation. He had been one of the principal writers of the United States Constitution. As the first leader of the U.S. House of Representatives, he had steered to passage the ten Constitutional amendments that became known as the Bill of Rights. At the time he met Dolley, Madison was the major opposition leader in the government. He opposed the strong government measures of President George Washington and was

working to elect his friend, Thomas Jefferson, to be the next president. Jefferson lost the election of 1796, but he won in 1800. Jefferson made Madison the secretary of state. Jefferson, a widower, asked Dolley to host his social events. She threw the biggest party in the nation’s history to celebrate the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. When Jefferson finished his two terms, Madison was elected president in 1808. Since Dolley was a Quaker, she did not dance, yet she encouraged visitors to the executive mansion to have a good time. She was said to always be “unassuming” and behaved with “dignity, sweetness, and grace” to everyone she encountered. When the executive mansion was open to the public, Mrs. Madison often greeted any visitor, then carried his or her concern to the president. She became a national hero after she saved the portrait of General Washington when the British invaded the capital during the War of 1812. When the war was ended, she was the most popular person in the country. The Madisons lived in retirement at their Virginia plantation for twenty years. After Madison died, she moved back to the District of Columbia to be part of the social scene. No one who was anyone in Washington dared to have a party and not invite her. Everyone expected to see her. They could recognize her immediately, for in those years she wore flashy turbans. The wife of an important congressman of the day noted, “Everyone loves Mrs. Madison, because Mrs. Madison loves everyone.”

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Efforts to Improve North Carolina

8.3.02 Investigate the conditions that led to North Carolina’s decline and assess the implications for the future development of the state. 8.3.03 Identify and evaluate the impact of individual reformers and groups and their programs. 8.3.06 Evaluate the implications of the North Carolina Gold Rush. 8.3.08 Examine the impact of national events on North Carolina.

As you read, look for: • North Carolina’s new capital • conditions that led to North Carolina’s decline • proposals made by Archibald Murphey to improve conditions in the state • vocabulary terms recession, internal improvements, canal, common school, Literary Fund Two children were left at their home in Cabarrus County when their parents went to church. Conrad Reed, 14, and his sister, Elizabeth, 12, decided to go wading in the nearby stream. Conrad was poking around in the water with a stick when he turned up a large shiny rock. Its yellow gleam was brighter than anything the two children had ever seen. Their father, John, had never seen untreated gold. When he took the nugget to a silversmith in Fayetteville, the jeweler gave him $3.50 for it. Only later, when he found more gold and opened the state’s first mine, did he learn he had been cheated. The Reed family story symbolized the many handicaps North Carolinians faced during the founding of the nation. They were proud people with close families and solid neighborhoods. But they knew little beyond the habits and values of their locality. Not only were schools lacking for most residents after the War of Independence, so were easy links to the outside world. The towns of the state, with minimal access to ports, continued to be small. There was virtually no statewide effort to build roads, and the quality of transportation varied considerably from county to county.

Above: Joel Lane, whose plantation was the site for the new capital city of Raleigh, built this house in 1770. It is the oldest house in Raleigh.

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The State Establishes a New Capital North Carolina made a major effort to get organized and move forward during the debate over the Constitution. The 1788 Hillsborough Convention had agreed to a site for a permanent state capital. The con-

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Efforts to Improve North Carolina

8.3.02 Investigate the conditions that led to North Carolina’s decline and assess the implications for the future development of the state. 8.3.03 Identify and evaluate the impact of individual reformers and groups and their programs. 8.3.06 Evaluate the implications of the North Carolina Gold Rush. 8.3.08 Examine the impact of national events on North Carolina.

As you read, look for: • North Carolina’s new capital • conditions that led to North Carolina’s decline • proposals made by Archibald Murphey to improve conditions in the state • vocabulary terms recession, internal improvements, canal, common school, Literary Fund Two children were left at their home in Cabarrus County when their parents went to church. Conrad Reed, 14, and his sister, Elizabeth, 12, decided to go wading in the nearby stream. Conrad was poking around in the water with a stick when he turned up a large shiny rock. Its yellow gleam was brighter than anything the two children had ever seen. Their father, John, had never seen untreated gold. When he took the nugget to a silversmith in Fayetteville, the jeweler gave him $3.50 for it. Only later, when he found more gold and opened the state’s first mine, did he learn he had been cheated. The Reed family story symbolized the many handicaps North Carolinians faced during the founding of the nation. They were proud people with close families and solid neighborhoods. But they knew little beyond the habits and values of their locality. Not only were schools lacking for most residents after the War of Independence, so were easy links to the outside world. The towns of the state, with minimal access to ports, continued to be small. There was virtually no statewide effort to build roads, and the quality of transportation varied considerably from county to county.

Above: Joel Lane, whose plantation was the site for the new capital city of Raleigh, built this house in 1770. It is the oldest house in Raleigh.

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The State Establishes a New Capital North Carolina made a major effort to get organized and move forward during the debate over the Constitution. The 1788 Hillsborough Convention had agreed to a site for a permanent state capital. The con-

Chapter 6: A Fledgling State in a New Nation

vention chose an area in Wake County “within ten miles” of Isaac Hunter’s tavern. They chose Raleigh as the capital’s name. The site was just about equal distance for people in the backcountry, the Cape Fear, and the Albemarle to travel. After a commission found a location at the Joel Lane plantation, the legislature moved to Raleigh in 1794. Not everyone accepted the Raleigh location. The newly created town of Fayetteville made a real effort to gain the capital. Fayetteville was the result of two colonial towns—Cross Creek and Campbelltown—growing together on the Cape Fear River. The town was named for the Marquis de Lafayette, a Revolutionary War general. Even after the 1788 decision, Fayetteville built a “new state house” to host the 1789 convention, hoping for a reversal. It did not get the right number of votes, and Raleigh’s streets were soon laid out. The new capital grew very slowly, however. One early visitor said that every street “ended in the woods.”

Above: The first capitol of the state of North Carolina was completed in 1796. It was used until it burned down in 1831.

The First State University The legislature that met in Fayetteville in 1789 also established a state University. William R. Davie, who led the effort, later chose a location for the school south of Hillsborough, near the New Hope Chapel of Governor Tryon’s day. Soon after the University was opened in 1795, school officials also established the village of Chapel Hill.

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CAROLINA PLACES Reed Gold Mine

In the early 1800s, when most North Carolinians struggled to get by, a few state residents got rich. None was richer than the Reeds of Cabarrus County. They literally found gold in their own backyard. John Reed had been a Hessian soldier in Cornwallis’s army during the Revolution. He deserted and came to live with other Germans on Dutch Buffalo Creek. Reed was said to be “honest, but unlearned” and something of “a primitive character.” He was soon married to Sarah Kiser. For twenty years, they eked out a living on meager soil, just like most folks in the backcountry. One Sunday in 1799, John’s son Conrad spied a shiny rock in Little Meadow Creek and pulled it out. It was unusually yellow. The Reeds, unaware it was gold, decided to use it as their front door stop. It lay on the front porch for two years.

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Above: Little Meadow Creek was where gold was first discovered in the state by Conrad Reed. Like most farm folks in the state, John Reed went to market every fall. In 1802, he went to Fayetteville. While there, he showed the rock to a silversmith. The craftsman knew it was gold. He also knew that he had a country bumpkin before him, so he shrewdly asked Reed to name his price for the rock. Reed asked for $3.50, the most money he had ever gotten for any one thing in his life. The Reed children later recalled that their excited father splurged and bought coffee for the first time in his life. Meanwhile, the silversmith sold the 17-pound gold nugget for $3,600. Word soon got back to the Reeds that they had been cheated. They and some neighbors went looking for more

Chapter 6: A Fledgling State in a New Nation

gold. In 1803, Peter Love, a neighbor’s slave, dug down six inches into the stream and came up with a 28-pound nugget! The Reeds sent the nugget to the federal mint in Philadelphia and made a big profit. For the next several years, the Reeds, their slaves, and their neighbors continued to dig holes up and down Little Meadow Creek. They found that most of the gold was about four feet deep, level with the nearby streambed. Sometimes they “dug up gold like potatoes,” finding as much as 20 pounds in a day. When they did not turn up nuggets, they sifted the soil with “rockers” to separate the heavier gold from the lighter dirt. The Reeds and their partners expanded the mine in 1821. By this time, more than fifty mines had been started in that area of the backcountry. Farmers looked for gold from Greensboro all the way south to Charlotte. During this time, John Reed continued to live like the typical North Carolinian. His house was larger than that of his neighbors, but he still farmed his own fields. Reed even forbade his sons from digging holes for gold in planted fields. When John Reed died in 1845, the family’s fortunes began to change. His children agreed to share what they would find in the mine. However, the family began to argue about who would get how much. The mine was closed down for a decade, as family members sued one another. Above: This man is looking up a shaft at the Reed Gold Mine, which is now a state historic site. Left: Visitors to the state can still pan for gold at the Reed Gold Mine. Notice the small nugget and other flecks in the pan. Eventually, the mine was sold, first in 1846, then again in 1853. Although the new owners sank deep shafts into the ground and tried to use new technology to extract more gold, they did not make a profit.The Reed Mine passed from owner to owner after the Civil War. The last real nugget was found in 1896. The mine was closed during the first half of the twentieth century. Its last private owner donated the land to the state in 1962, and the state made it a historic site in 1976. Since that time, it has been one of the most visited places in the state.

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The founding of the University was twenty years in the making. The leaders of Queen’s Academy in Charlotte had made sure that the state promised to start “one or more universities” when the 1776 state constitution was written. Davie and several of the other University founders had been either teachers or students at Queen’s.

The Poor Shape of the State

Above: The Old East, shown here, was the first building, and the only one for two years, at the University of North Carolina. It was opened to students in 1795.

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is the nation’s oldest state university.

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Despite the best efforts of some leaders in the state, North Carolina only slowly built itself up in the years after the Revolution. Wilmington, New Bern, and Beaufort all vied to be the leading port, but the shallow sounds and the capes kept many ships away. There was some growth in the backcountry towns, but when President Washington visited the state in 1791, he found Charlotte to be “a trifling place” and Salisbury at best to be “a pleasant village.” Low levels of trade meant less money to go around. Although the United States established a national bank in 1791, no branch was opened in North Carolina for years. In fact, every state in the Union had a bank before North Carolina got its first one. Banks in New Bern and Wilmington were privately opened in 1804. The legislature tried to open a state bank in 1805, but it took until 1810 to find enough investors. During the War of 1812, investment did increase, but that was because businessmen in the state were afraid to take their money elsewhere. North Carolina even had continuing problems with its boundaries. In the early 1800s, state officials—among them Robert Henry, the former sentry at Cowan’s Ford—set the western boundary line along the ridges of the Smokies. The state’s southern boundary, however, ran into trouble in the mountains. South Carolina had once claimed a twelve-mile-wide strip of land that extended all the way to the Mississippi River. In 1803, Georgia and North Carolina each claimed an overlapping piece of it. Georgia created Walton County there, and soon rival settlers started the Walton War. The gun-toting feud eventually involved thousands of mountain residents in both states. By 1807, the national government had intervened and decided that North Carolina had the better case. But it was not until 1819 that Georgia officially agreed. Conditions grew worse across the state after the War of 1812. By that time, two or three generations of farmers had plowed the best land over and over. Because little was done to preserve the land, the topsoil eroded away in heavy rains. Over time, the size of harvests went down. Soil washed into nearby streams, clogging them and increasing the chance

Chapter 6: A Fledgling State in a New Nation

of flooding. There was a major flood in the western part of the state in 1816. Down east, the sediment carried by the Roanoke, Tar, and Neuse rivers gradually flowed into the sounds, making them even more shallow and harder to navigate. North Carolinians tried to put the war behind them. Several partners started a cotton mill at Lincolnton to make yarn. Otway Burns used some of his wartime profits to run a steamboat from Wilmington to Fayetteville. Newly cleared land, however, just increased the erosion problem. Then, a national recession (economic slowdown) in 1819 caused many farmers to go into debt. Land values in the state fell by one-third in five years. Only Wilmington shipped more than $1 million in goods during the period. The state did little to help. Most of the legislators were followers of Nathaniel Macon, who continued to argue that most problems could be solved without government direction. North Carolinians elected representatives who would not raise the already low tax rate. Most years, the state barely had enough money to pay the salaries of state officials. Sometimes sheriffs did not even bother to send tax collections to Raleigh. Many of the academies founded in the state closed when students could not keep up payments. In 1826, a governor observed that it had been easier to be educated in North Carolina before the Revolution than it was after 1815. There were only a few hopeful developments in the state during the 1820s. The best was the construction of the Buncombe Turnpike from

Above: The Schenck-Warlick cotton factory near Lincolnton was built in 1813 to help the state become more economically self-sufficient.

The Buncombe Turnpike charged tolls for users. The tolls were 2 cents for each hog or sheep, 4 cents for each beef cattle, 5 cents for pack horses, 12.5 cents for each person on horseback, and 50 cents to $1.50 for horse-drawn carriages.

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the Tennessee valley to Charleston, South Carolina. The pike made Asheville a prosperous town. North Carolinians increasingly left their state. They headed across the Appalachians to the newer states on the Mississippi River. In 1817, a legislator estimated that more than 200,000 natives had left in the previous twenty years. Some who left were among the most talented leaders of the new nation, like future presidents Andrew Jackson and James K. Polk. Five of the early governors of Tennessee were born in North Carolina, as were three of the first governors of Alabama. Levi Coffin, one of the founders of the Underground Railroad, left Guilford County for Indiana and later Ohio. Nathaniel Rochester, for whom Rochester, New York, was named, had gone there to take advantage of the new Erie Canal after the War of 1812.

Murphey’s Proposals Top: North Carolina’s bad roads made it difficult for farmers to get their crops to market. Above: Archibald D. Murphey was the leading voice of reform in the state. His broad program for internal improvements gave the state a blueprint for the future.

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Some prominent North Carolinians tried to make the state better. Their leader after the War of 1812 was Archibald D. Murphey, one of the more renowned leaders in the history of North Carolina. Murphey grew up in Caswell County near the Virginia border. He attended David Caldwell’s academy, then the University in Chapel Hill. He became a lawyer and judge and started a large farm west of Hillsborough. Murphey’s allies in a program of reforms included William Gaston, a New Bern lawyer; Charles Fisher, a Salisbury newspaper editor; and Joseph Caldwell, the president of the University. Murphey’s group eventually presented a series of ideas to the legislature for funding. The two principal plans focused on internal improvements and public education. Internal improvements, a phrase popular at the time, referred mostly to transportation. For Americans after the War of 1812, that meant water-borne travel. In states like Tennessee or New York, a resident could

Chapter 6: A Fledgling State in a New Nation

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Slink Shoal Sluice

Despite the failures of the Murphey Plan for internal improvements, some efforts were made to make North Carolina streams navigable in the early 1800s. The most promising area was the Roanoke River and its tributary, the Dan (pictured right).The hope was that the wing dams would allow enough water to build up to allow boats to float over the shoals at the town of Madison, in Rockingham County. The completion of the sluice (a controlled waterway) allowed flatboats to carry goods from plantations upriver.

take a boat from one end of the state to the other. This was not so in North Carolina, where residents in the backcountry continued to be separated from the coast by their rivers. And, eastern residents increasingly were hemmed in by clogged sounds. Murphey’s proposals attacked both problems. He recommended the state deepen channels through the inlets and sounds to enable ports like Edenton, Beaufort, and New Bern to receive larger ships. In the west, the state would remove all the rocks that made navigation of the Catawba and Yadkin rivers difficult. Then, Murphey proposed two canals, manmade water channels that allowed a horse or mule to pull flatboats with one-fourth the effort needed on the roads. One canal would connect the Roanoke, Tar, and Neuse rivers with the channel that went out at Beaufort. The other would connect the backcountry to the one sizable river in the state, the Cape Fear. The backcountry canal was to be dug from the Charlotte area to Fayetteville, opening the Catawba from Morganton and the Yadkin from Wilkesboro all the way to Wilmington. The second part of the plan dealt with public education. Murphey, Caldwell, and others urged the state to fund in every county at least one common school, a school where even the most “common” family could send a boy to learn “the rudiments of education.” Statewide taxes were to help pay the teachers. Students would pay according to their family’s

The common schools were to teach three years of reading, writing, and arithmetic. These schools were like the primary schools of today.

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Above: The New Bern Academy had been founded in 1766 and was one of the oldest private schools in the new state. This building was erected in the early 1800s. By that time, dozens of private academies had been built across the state.

income. In addition, academies would be built across the state for the better students to continue their education. The brightest students would be allowed to go to the academies with a scholarship. Finally, the brightest graduates of the academies would be sent on to the University. If a student from a poor family got that far, then he would go at reduced cost. In this way, the educational reformers hoped to keep the smartest students in the state, to provide the leaders for the next generation. Schooling was to be for all white boys—slave children would not be in the plan. Girls could go only to the common schools. However, among males, the plan was to be offered on an equal basis to “the rich and poor, the dull and the sprightly,” Murphey argued. The leaders of North Carolina were still under the control of the frugal Maconites of the east. As a result, they were very slow to fund the Murphey proposals. A national recession after 1819 made it hard for the state to pay its bills for a number of years. In 1825, however, the state legislature set up a Literary Fund, where revenues from stocks the state held in banks and canals could be used to help build schools. Little money was raised, however, since the state was so poor. Plus, the state kept borrowing from the fund, which stopped the growth of schools. The same course was taken with the Board of Internal Improvements. It scattered what little money it had for minor projects in different places in the state, to little effect. Murphey himself did not live to see the fulfillment of his plan. He died in 1832, broke but not forgotten by his admirers, the very year that North Carolina began to take steps to do the right things.

It’s Your Turn 1. Why was Raleigh chosen as the location for the state capital? 2. What caused the poor harvests after the War of 1812? 3. What was the purpose of the Literary Fund? How successful was it?

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CAROLINA CURIOSITIES Who Was Peter Stuart Ney?

North Carolina had a few notable schoolteachers in its early days. For sixty years, David Caldwell in Greensboro ran the famous “log academy” that prepared students for the University. John Chavis’s Raleigh school helped start the careers of a number of famous citizens. The best-known, and most mysterious, teacher in the western half of the state in the 1800s was Peter Stuart Ney. Why? Because no one really knew if Ney was the Scottish schoolmaster he claimed to be or someone else. P. S. Ney arrived in North Carolina in the early 1820s. At one point, he was a research assistant to Archibald Murphey. Ney went on to teach in private schools in the Piedmont, particularly in Davie and Iredell counties. Ney was an excellent teacher. He was so skilled at mathematics that his students turned his notes into their own textbook. Ney could be very tough in the classroom. He would line the students up against the wall to recite their lessons. If anyone even got their toes out of line, Ney would be in the student’s face. Yet, his students loved him. He was so compassionate that if a student lacked the fees to pay the school, Ney would pay them out of his own meager salary. No one really believed Ney was just a simple schoolteacher. People all across the state speculated that he really was a famous French general in exile. Michel Ney had been one of Napoleon Bonaparte’s best generals. Ney—whom Napoleon once called “the bravest of the brave”—was with the emperor in most of the great battles in the early 1800s. Ney even saved the French army when Napoleon unwisely invaded Russia in 1812. After Napoleon was exiled in 1815, the French government ordered Ney shot as a traitor, for having helped

Napoleon escape from exile. Ney was taken to a Paris street and shot dead by a firing squad. After the body was put on display at a nearby hospital, it was buried. Well, at least, some body was buried. By 1816, French refugees living in North and South Carolina buzzed with rumors that a Scottish schoolmaster looked just like the old

Above: Peter Stuart Ney’s grave is enclosed by this brick mausoleum in the graveyard of the Third Presbyterian Church in Cleveland, North Carolina. general. Some people in Paris believed that Ney’s execution had been faked, that he had crushed a bag of red ink when he fell “dead.” Although the official report said that Ney had been shot in the head, descriptions of the body noted that the face was still recognizable, which was unlikely for someone who took round balls into his face at close range. It was claimed that French and English soldiers who had admired his bravery had covered his face with false wounds, then sneaked him out of France.

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North Carolina Finally Awakens

Terms: Rip Van Winkle state, suffrage, credit, Trail of Tears, Democratic Party, Whig Party, curriculum, plank road, superintendent of public instruction, literate, free suffrage People: George Moses Horton, David L. Swain, William Gaston, William H. Thomas, John Motley Morehead, Edwin M. Holt, Christopher Bechtler, Calvin H. Wiley, Mary Bayard Clarke, William W. Holden Places: Qualla, Goldsboro, High Point, Rocky Mount, Gold Hill, Morehead City

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tudents at the University

in Chapel Hill liked it when George Moses Horton came to campus. The young vegetable seller from Chatham County was unusual, even for a slave who had defied the law and learned to read and write. Horton could take words, just about any set of words, and turn them into poems. He had learned rhyming by listening closely to the hymns sung at church. His gift for verse was handy for the students and lifechanging for him. George bought his freedom with the skills of his mind. University students fell into two categories: those who had a girlfriend and those who wanted a girlfriend. The all-male school could get pretty lonely at times, and most students wrote long, and often boring, letters to females of their acquaintance. George could make the letters lively and, for a small fee, provide a poem tailored for the lady. George was particularly good at creating acrostics, poems where the first letters of each line spelled out the name of the lady. More than one heart may have been won for Carolina students during the 1820s and 1830s because of George.

North Carolina: Land of Contrasts

George split the money he earned in Chapel Hill with his master. He was then allowed to do with his time as he wanted. With the help of whites who admired his poems, he was able to publish them in a series of books. The slave became North Carolina’s first famous literary figure when a collection of his poems was published. George Horton, like many North Carolinians of the early decades of the 1800s, started off small and gradually improved his life. During that time, the state finally began to see improvement in the way it governed its citizens, in the education it offered its young people, and in the economic opportunities it supported with public money. After centuries of frustration, North Carolina finally began to make its own “goodliest land.” Not everyone shared in the new bounty, however, for North Carolina continued to support a society where some were free and others bound.

Below: This is the amphitheatershaped House of Representatives chamber in the State Capitol. It was used until 1961. Opposite page, above: These gold coins were minted at the Charlotte Mint.

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___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Braxton _______________________________________attended ___________________________________Garden _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________Craven __________________________________________New _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Academy _______________________near ____________Greensboro. _____________________________He ________went _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________The ________________________hardly ______________________________at ______________during _______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________state _______________________________grew _____________________all _________________________the _______________________ ________to _______the _________Quaker ____________________boarding ________________________academy _________________________with __________________________ _______1830s. _________________________the ___________________of ______________1850s, ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________By __________________end ________________the _______________________________________________________ ________one __________“loose _________________coat,” ________________a____pair ____________of ______“baggy __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________however, ________________________there ______________were ______________over _____________900,000 ______________________________________________ ___________________________several _________________________________________________shirts,” ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______jeans,” ___________________________________“homespun __________________________________________________________________ ________residents. _________________________Slaves _________________made _______________up ________about _______________one___________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________and __________two ___________pairs _____________of _______shoes. _________________One ___________pair ___________of ___________________________ ____________________of ________________population. _____________________________________________________________and ______________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______fifth _________________the ____________________________________Wilmington ________________________________________________ _______shoes _______________was __________“welted,” ______________________good _____________enough ___________________to ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________New ____________Bern _____________were ______________the _________largest __________________towns. _________________________________________ ________wear _____________to _______church. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SIGNS OF THE TIMES FASHION

POPULATION

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Farming ________________________________________________________often _______________________parties _____________________ ______________________________neighborhoods ____________________________________________________had _________________________________ _________where ________________the _________only ____________refreshments _________________________________were ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________persimmon _____________________________beer ____________and ___________baked ________________sweet ______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________potatoes. _________________________Generous _________________________hosts _______________might ________________supply _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________butter ________________for _________the _________potatoes. _______________________A ______traveler ____________________said _______________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________he ____________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________ate _________fried ____________pork, _____________grits, _____________eggs, ______________and __________coffee _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________Tarboro ___________________________the ______________________line.” __________________________________________ _________“from _____________________________________to ________________state _________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

FOOD

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______During _________________the _________1840s, __________________Henry ______________Wadsworth ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Longfellow ____________________________wrote _______________about ________________escaped ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______slaves __________________________hid _______________the _______________________Dismal _____________________________________ ________________________who _____________________in _______________Great _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Swamp. ______________________Some ________________North ________________Carolinians _________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________claimed ____________________that ____________Edgar _______________Allen ______________Poe ______________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________wrote ___________________________________ ________his _________most ______________famous ____________________poem, _________________“The ______________Raven,” _____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________after _____________visiting ___________________the _________area. __________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________the ____________________________set ________________during __________________________period _______________________ ________All _________________colleges ______________________________up _________________________this ___________________________________ ________in ______North _______________Carolina ______________________were ______________for ________men ____________or _______for _______________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________women. _____________________None ______________allowed ____________________blacks _________________to ______be _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________anything _______________________but __________servants _______________________on ________campus. ______________________Only _________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________New ____________Garden ___________________Boarding ________________________School, ____________________run _________by _______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Quakers, ______________________admitted ______________________both ____________men ___________and __________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________women. _____________________Even _____________there, _______________men _____________and __________women ___________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______met ___________in _____separate _____________________classrooms. ________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

EDUCATION

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LITERATURE

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________William _____________________________Talbot _______________________England ________________________________Louis _______________________ _____________________________Fox ___________________________in ____________________________and ___________________________________ _______Daguerre _______________________in ______France ________________each ____________developed _________________________the ___________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________science ____________________of ______photography __________________________________in ______the __________late ___________1830s. ________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________It_____took ____________until _____________about _______________1850 _______________for ________“daguerreo_______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________to _______________________to _________________________in ___________________________________________ _______typists” _________________________begin ____________________appear _______________________North _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Carolina. _______________________The __________person __________________having __________________a____portrait __________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______taken ______________often _____________had __________to ______sit _______perfectly _____________________still ______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________for _____________________ ________more ______________than ____________a_____minute. ____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

TECHNOLOGY

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________William ____________________Gaston, ____________________a_____New ____________Bern _____________attorney, _____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______moved _________________to ______Raleigh ___________________to ______be _______a____judge ______________in ____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________the _______________________ ________1830s. __________________He _________and __________a_____sister ______________composed ___________________________“The ________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Old __________North _______________State” _________________to ______create _________________state _____________loyalty _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________after _____________a_____series ________________of _______political ______________________reforms. ______________________It __________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________was __________________ ________first ___________sung _____________at ______a_____political _____________________rally ____________in ______1842. ________________In _________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______1926, ________________it____became ____________________the ________state _____________song. ________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

MUSIC

Figure 13 Timeline: 1830 –1860 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1831 Fires in Raleigh and Fayetteville

1852 Alamance Plaid first produced; Calvin Wiley became superintendent of public instruction

1835 State constitution revised

1855 Egypt Mine opened

1837 U.S. Mint established in Charlotte

1856 North Carolina Railroad completed; Hospital for the Insane opened

1840 New Capitol completed

1830

1835

1840 1838 Cherokee Trail of Tears

1834 Whig Party formed 1830 President Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act

1845

1850

1855

1860

1849 California gold rush began 1847 Adhesive postage stamps first used 1844 James K. Polk elected president

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TARGET READING SKILL Cause and Effect

Defining the Skill Everything that happens does so because something makes it happen. What happens is the effect. The person, condition, or event that makes it happens is the cause. The connection between what happens and what makes it happen is called the cause/effect relationship. Not all cause/effect relationships are clearly defined; as a result, it is sometimes difficult to determine the actual relationship. Often an event may have more than one effect, and an effect may have more than one cause. At other times, an effect may not even appear in a reading for a long time. To help you recognize cause and effect, look for • cue words or phrases such as because, as a result of, in order to, effects of, consequently, for this reason, since, as a consequence, therefore.

• the word and or a comma instead of a cue words. • a longer text passage to read, because it may take several paragraphs to illustrate a cause/effect relationship.

Practicing the Skill In Section 1 of Chapter 7, you will read how the loss of population in North Carolina hurt the state’s economy and political power. This event in turn caused the state to revise its state constitution, which resulted in new constitutional amendments and increased government spending.The new amendments, in turn, resulted in a boom in the state’s standard of living. Read Section 2 and describe how the invention of the railroad affected North Carolina’s development. You can use a graphic organizer like the one below.











➠ EVENT

CAUSES

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EFFECTS

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Murphey’s Dreams Fulfilled As you read, look for:

• what prompted the constitutional reform of the 1830s • the changes made by the 1835 constitutional convention • vocabulary terms Rip Van Winkle state, suffrage, credit

This section will help you meet the following objectives: 8.3.03 Identify and evaluate the impact of individual reformers and groups and their programs. 8.3.07 Explain the reasons for the new State Constitution in 1835 and its impact on various groups.

Sometimes a long wait is followed by a quick resolution. After more than a century of agitation by western leaders, North Carolina embarked upon a number of reforms. The changes began in the 1830s, when the loss of population hurt both the economy and the political position of the state. After long debate, the legislature allowed the people of the state to decide if a change in the constitution would lead to better government. The people spoke, and the leaders responded with an improved constitution and increased government spending. That helped produce a boom to the state’s standard of living.

Catalysts for Reform In 1831, the capitol building in Raleigh burned down. The fire destroyed almost all the contents of the 1795 structure, including a statue of George Washington. People were so discouraged that some suggested it was not worth keeping Raleigh as the capital. Residents of Fayetteville encouraged such talk, for they argued that moving the capital to their busy town would help everyone. Then, in 1831, much of Fayetteville burned down. That was the last time Fayetteville had a chance to become the state capital. The state laid a cornerstone for a new capitol in Raleigh in 1833,

Above: Governor David L. Swain, a founder of the Whig party in North Carolina, promoted the Constitutional Convention of 1835.

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In the “Great Fire of Fayetteville,” the town lost 600 homes, 125 businesses, several churches, and the state house.

Above: At the Constitutional Convention of 1835, William Gaston, a Roman Catholic, fought to end religious tests for officeholding. He was a justice on the state supreme court.

and workers roofed it in 1840. The handsome granite building, with its copper dome, is still the state capitol. The double disasters caused many state leaders to rethink North Carolina’s situation. Citizens were leaving because of lack of opportunity and disgust with state leadership. The old 1776 constitution set up representation by county, regardless of how big or small or how populated a county was. Since the east had always had more counties, it had more votes in the legislature. What’s more, only men who owned at least 50 acres of land could vote for the candidates for state senate. In some counties, the land ownership provision eliminated one-third of the voters. Since the governor was elected by the legislature, he had little power and little to do. The east wanted to keep the control it had gained during the Regulation period. Its citizens were more prosperous because they lived closer to markets on the coast. They liked low taxes and made fun of efforts by western leaders like Murphey to get the state to do more. This continued even after the census of 1830 showed that the east had fewer people than the west but many more representatives in the legislature. Sectionalism still mattered more than state to many North Carolina leaders. It was no wonder that little was accomplished. Legislator David L. Swain of Asheville argued that the state needed “a radical change in the form of representation.” Swain was so powerful a voice for change that the legislature elected him governor three years in a row, quite an accomplishment for someone barely above the age of thirty. And, he was from the west. Governor Swain was the first to say that the state had become like Rip Van Winkle, the character in a popular story of the day, who went hunting, fell asleep for twenty years, and woke up to find out all around him had changed. Some North Carolinians winced at being called the “Rip Van Winkle state.” After more than a half dozen attempts to get the legislature to call for constitutional change, the west rebelled. As Charles Fisher of Salisbury promised, “We of the west” would follow the example of the state of Franklin and create another state. Fisher gained allies in some eastern counties when the free black men there began to vote in larger numbers. Black voters sometimes were the margin of victory in places like New Bern and Halifax. Tidewater leaders, in particular, wanted to change that particular loophole in the old form of government.

The Constitutional Convention of 1835 The state’s voters went to the polls in 1835 to decide whether to hold a constitutional convention that would address the problems. Almost to a voter, the west said yes, and almost to a voter, the east said no. In fact, the votes changed dramatically from one side of the fall line to the other. However, since the west by that time had more people, the “ayes” had it. The best leaders from both east and west came to Raleigh in 1835 to amend the 1776 constitution. They honored the aging Nathaniel Macon

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by making him chairman. However, the real leaders of the constitutional convention were westerner David Swain and easterner William Gaston. Swain was from Asheville, and Gaston was from New Bern. The greatest need was to make representation fair across the state. After long debate, the delegates compromised. Each county would still have at least one representative in the house, but more populous counties would have multiple representatives. The more people a county had, the more legislators it sent to Raleigh. This immediately cheered the west. In return, the west agreed that the state senate would be apportioned by wealth. In other words, the wealthier a county, the more senators it got. The east was happy with this, since the east contained most of the expensive land and the majority of the slaves. The compromise set up a balance of power between the two sections of the state for the first time. As for the governor, the new amendments allowed the voters to elect him directly, instead of letting the legislature choose him. The governor was to serve a two-year term and could be reelected once every six years. Gaston and others argued that the governor would become more of a voice of the people at large, bringing them closer to state government. Not all of the reforms, however, resulted in more people getting to vote. Because the writers of the 1776 constitution never considered that free black men might vote, such men of color had been able to go to the polls. This was forbidden in the 1835 amendments. Suffrage (the right to vote) was also taken away from Native Americans such as the Lumbee. Because

Above: In the early 1800s, many states expanded who could vote and what state offices would become elective. The actions of the 1835 constitutional convention made the governor’s office an elective one. All eligible men could now vote for the governor. As a result, voting became more important, and more people began to vote.

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Map 20 The Vote on the 1835 Amendments Map Skill: Did your county support or oppose the 1835 amendments?

This, by the way, is a key reason why so many North Carolina families left the state during the 1830s. There was more opportunity in the West.

the senate continued to be set up according to wealth, the 50-acre provision for voting for that office was kept. The convention did open up political leadership to more religious groups. The 1776 constitution had allowed only Protestant Christians to hold office. The new amendments removed the restriction from Catholics, but still denied Jews and atheists (those who did not believe in God) the right to hold office. The new amendments were submitted to the state’s voters for approval. They passed by a vote of 26,771 to 21,606. The vote continued to follow sectional lines. Only 2,327 easterners supported the changes; only 3,280 westerners opposed them. Since the balance of population had shifted more to the west, the amendments were approved. With the 1836 election, North Carolina was governed in the new way.

Reform and the Nation The reforms passed in North Carolina were part of a broader national movement to change how government worked. State after state in the 1830s tried different ways to better the lives of more of its citizens. So did the federal government in Washington, D.C. The former North Carolinian Andrew Jackson was president during this time, from 1829 to 1837. He strongly supported families who moved west to farm. Jackson, for example, made it easier for families to buy federal lands and worked to lower their federal taxes. He also used federal money to help banks get started in western states, so families would have an easier time getting credit. Credit is the ability to buy something now and pay for it over time. The reformers, however, did little to help nonwhite families. Jacksonians strongly supported slavery and cared little for the welfare of Native Americans. In fact, to increase the amount of federal land available to whites, Jackson forced almost all the Native Americans who lived between the Blue Ridge and the Mississippi River to move to Indian Territory (what is today the state of Oklahoma). This caused a crisis in western North Carolina, where white families pressured the Cherokee for their land. Some of the Cherokee were made to leave, but others escaped.

It’s Your Turn 1. Why was North Carolina called the “Rip Van Winkle state”? 2. How were the 1835 amendments a victory for political democracy?

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____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C a r o l i n a Celebtities______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

CAROLINA CELEBRITIES Kit Carson

In many ways, North Carolina was a gateway to the exploration of the great American West. Three of the nation’s greatest explorers had, in some way or another, a North Carolina connection. Daniel Boone, the famous pathfinder, was born in Pennsylvania but spent his teenaged years in what is today Davie County. David Crockett, the celebrated frontiersman of the early 1800s, claimed that he had been born in North Carolina. Most historians, however, say he came into the world on aTennessee hill. Kit Carson, the third famous explorer, also had a North Carolina connection. Although tradition says that Carson was born in Kentucky and raised in Missouri, the Carson family has always claimed that he was a North Carolina native. The Carsons settled near the present town of Harmony in Iredell County just after the War for Independence. Lindsey and Mary Carson moved to Kentucky after 1800, but they came back to visit relatives occasionally. Folks in Harmony still say that the Carsons came back in 1809 and went to a dance to see their old neighbors on Christmas Eve. Christopher Houston Carson was born that day and named for the relative who hosted the party for the expectant parents. Kit (the family nickname for Christopher) was orphaned as a child and put to work as a saddle maker. He ran away at age fifteen and became a cook and errand boy on the Santa Fe Trail, the route taken by Americans to get to the Rocky Mountains. Barely five feet tall, Kit soon became one of the most famous hunters and trappers in the nation. Writers equated his feats with those of Boone and Crockett. In a career that often attracted bad behavior, Kit was known to be fair and gentle. His “word was as sure as the sun com-

Above: Carson knew several Indian languages and was an interpreter for wagon trains on the Santa Fe Trail. ing up,” said one acquaintance. He was married twice to Indian women, but both died early in the marriages. During the Mexican War, Carson helped lead Americans into California. He then became a rancher and Indian agent in New Mexico Territory. He was married the third time to a Hispanic woman and settled in the town of Taos. Carson’s last action for the nation was his least admirable. He drove many of the Navaho off their land and onto a reservation. Many suffered because of the action, a sad end to the career of one white man who had long been a friend of Indians. He died after the Civil War.

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CAROLINA PLACES State Capitol

All North Carolinians have to learn one thing about spelling in their state. Raleigh the city is the state capital, spelled with an “a.” The building that has housed the state government for more than a century is “the State Capitol,” spelled with an “o.” The first refers to the community, the second to the building. North Carolinians have had only one capital since the legislature first met in Raleigh in 1794, but state government has had two capitols. The first state capitol, then called the State House, was completed in 1796.The State House was relatively spacious with a small rotunda on top. Most of the state government operated inside that one building for the next forty years. The building, however, burned to the ground in 1831.

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Raleigh residents rushed to the fire, but it was too hot to save much of anything.They watched in horror as the building came tumbling down around a famous statue of George Washington. For a brief moment, they saw the white marble “untouched in the ruins,” right before the timbers crashed down onto it. When the embers cooled, they found the statue dismembered. North Carolina was more fortunate in the building of its second state capitol. The legislature laid the cornerstone in Above: The North Carolina State Senate met in this room in the State Capitol until 1961. The window coverings feature olive wreaths, a symbol of honor.

Chapter 7: North Carolina Finally Awakens

1833. The granite for the building came from a quarry outside of town. To get the stone to the building site, the state constructed the first railroad in the state.The locomotive power was provided by “an old horse.” This “experimental” road was so amazing to nearby residents that they came to take rides on it, which slowed the work on the capitol. Hundreds of workers from around the nation were employed for years in building the capitol. Stonecutters were brought all the way from Scotland. Some of the finest work was done by craftsmen from Philadelphia.The imposing structure was completed in 1840. When the work was done, state leaders were shocked to find out it had cost a half million dollars. At that time, when North Carolina was so poor, a half million dollars was six times the amount of taxes the state collected. It took a major effort to pay off the debt. Since 1840, the State Capitol—North Carolinians always capitalize it—has served the state well. At first, the legislature, the governor, the state supreme court, the secretary of state, and even the state library and Above: The state library was once housed in this room on the third floor of the State Capitol. Beginning with 2,000 books, the library outgrew the space in 1859. The room has been restored to its 1856-1857 look. Left: Some fourteen statues grace the grounds of the State Capitol building, including this one of the three U.S. presidents born in North Carolina. the state geologist were crowded into it. More office space for the government became available when an administration building was completed across the street in 1913. In 1962, the state legislature moved into its own building a block away. Since then, the governor and the secretary of state have continued to use the first floor of the State Capitol. The upper floors have been restored to the appearance they had in the 1800s. On Capitol Square are more than two dozen different varieties of trees from around the state, plus a number of statues.The most notable statue honors the three presidents that the state claims as natives: Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, and Andrew Johnson.

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The Cherokee Removal

This section will help you meet the following objective: 8.3.05 Compare and contrast different perspectives among North Carolinians on the national policy of Removal and Resettlement of American Indian populations.

As you read, look for: • reasons why the government wanted to move the Native Americans west of the Mississippi River • vocabulary term Trail of Tears In the early 1800s, North Carolina actually included part of another nation, the area where the Cherokee lived. The largest Native American group in the state still had a sizable population, despite the destruction of its villages during the War for Independence. About 4,000 Cherokee lived in the deepest part of the North Carolina mountains. The rest of the 16,000 members of the Nation lived in Tennessee and northern Georgia.

The Cherokee in the Southeast

Above: Cherokee Chief John Ross fought the federal government’s plan to remove the Cherokee from their lands. He lost that fight, but he became chief of the united Cherokee when the tribe finally reached Indian Territory.

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The Nation adapted to the times of the new nation. Many Cherokee in Georgia had begun to farm and live in frame houses, like the white settlers of the region. Some of the wealthiest Cherokee owned slaves. Many Cherokee became educated to read in their own language. Sequoyah, a member of their Nation, invented an syllabary (alphabet) that imitated their spoken sounds. The Cherokee in the North Carolina mountains, however, kept many of the old traditions of hunting, gathering, and village life. These Cherokee also claimed to be citizens of North Carolina. In 1817 and 1819, the state had signed treaties with them, and they had given up large tracts of their land in return for reservations. At the end of the War of 1812, residents of southern states rushed to get the best lands available west of the Blue Ridge. They found that Native Americans still owned many of those lands. Beginning in the 1820s, whites began to harass the Cherokee and other Native American groups to give up their property. Many whites argued that all Indians should be moved

Chapter 7: North Carolina Finally Awakens

By 1830, over 90 percent of the Cherokee could read and write.

across the Mississippi River, away from white settlement. Some Cherokee even took up that offer and moved to what became the state of Arkansas.

Above: President James Monroe recommended the removal of all Native Americans to west of the Mississippi River. Andrew Jackson carried out the policy, resulting in the Trail of Tears.

The Trail of Tears

Most of the Cherokee, led by Chief John Ross of Georgia, did not want to be sent away from their traditional lands. Ross and others fought the idea in the United States courts. By the 1830s, however, President Andrew Jackson had convinced some Cherokee to sign a treaty calling for removal to the West. Jackson then arbitrarily ordered that “the Cherokee removal” begin, even though most of the Nation did not want to go. This federal policy, started in 1838 after Jackson left the presidency, forcibly pulled families out of their homes and fields and sent them on their way. Some Cherokee were actually taken away with only the clothes on their backs, with no provisions to help them on the journey west. In one case, an old woman stunned the soldiers by demanding that she be allowed to feed her dog before she would walk away. They let her do it, but refused to let the dog come along. Because many of the Cherokee in North Carolina lived deep in the mountains, they hid in caves and eluded the soldiers. These Cherokee

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Map 21 The Trail of Tears Map Skill: Through which states did the Cherokee have to travel to reach their new home?

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suffered greatly. The wife and children of Yonaguska, the chief, starved to death on the Nantahala mountainside. Despite Cherokee claims that the treaties with North Carolina allowed them to stay in the state, federal soldiers continued to corral the Cherokee in wooden stockades on the Tennessee River. In the midst of the removal, however, an incident occurred that helped some of the mountain Cherokee stay in their traditional homes. A Cherokee named Tsali and his sons escaped and hid in the mountains. But while escaping, they killed a soldier and mortally wounded another. The general in charge of the removal decided that continuing to search for so many Cherokee was not working. Instead, he proposed a compromise. The soldiers would stop looking if Tsali and his sons would surrender and admit to committing murder. Other Cherokee who wanted to stay in the mountains actually brought Tsali in. One tradition among the Cherokee is that Tsali willingly gave himself up to allow his people to stay in their homes. Tsali and all of his sons, except one who was very young, were executed by their fellow Cherokee. During 1838 and 1839, more than 15,000 Cherokee were forced to move to the west, to what was being called Indian Territory (later the state of Oklahoma). So brutal were the methods of the soldiers that Chief John Ross convinced the federal authorities to allow the Cherokee to police themselves on the journey. There was not enough food or shelter along the way. Some Cherokee were forced to sleep outside in the snow without cover. No one is exactly sure how many of the Cherokee died, but estimates go as high as 8,000. The Cherokee would remember this ordeal as the Trail of Tears.

Chapter 7: North Carolina Finally Awakens

The Eastern Cherokee With the help of William H. Thomas, a white who had been adopted into the Cherokee Nation, about 1,000 Cherokee were allowed to remain in North Carolina. Because North Carolina refused to recognize the Cherokee as citizens, Thomas spent both federal and personal funds to buy land for them. Thomas continued to hold the property in his name to protect the Native Americans from whites who wanted the land. He became the chief of the settlement along the Oconaluftee River, at the edge of the Smoky Mountains. The principal Cherokee community there was the Qualla village. Later in the 1800s, this became the reservation of the Eastern Cherokee Nation. Most of North Carolina had only indirect knowledge, or concern, with the Cherokee removal. During the late 1830s, state leaders generally worked to promote the almost forgotten plans of Archibald Murphey. Since the mountains were still isolated from much of the state, development was centered east of the Blue Ridge.

Above: The outdoor drama Unto These Hills tells the story of the estimated 1,000 North Carolina Cherokee who managed to escape into the mountains of western North Carolina. The escapees and others known as the Qualla Indians formed the Eastern Band of Cherokee, which exists to this day.

It’s Your Turn 1. About how many Cherokee lived in North Carolina in the 1830s? 2. What was Sequoyah’s great contribution to the Cherokee Nation? 3. How did North Carolinians react to the Cherokee removal?

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Whigs Support Development

This section will help you meet the following objectives: 8.3.03 Identify and evaluate the impact of individual reformers and groups and their programs. 8.3.08 Examine the impact of national events on North Carolina.

Above: Governor John Motley Morehead understood that better roads and transportation, including railroads, would be necessary to improve economic conditions for all North Carolinians.

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As you read, look for: • the improvements supported by the Whigs in the early 1800s • the coming of the railroad to North Carolina • vocabulary terms Democratic Party, Whig Party, curriculum, plank road While Andrew Jackson was president, he made as many enemies as friends. Jackson built up the Democratic Party during the 1830s and made it a powerful part of the nation. Those who disliked Jackson—who often called him “King Andrew” because he was so assertive as president—formed the Whig Party to oppose him. In North Carolina, Nathaniel Macon and his allies were strong supporters of Jackson, since they wanted farm families to be left alone to make their own opportunities wherever possible. Because Macon had the support of the east, that section mostly voted Democratic in the 1830s and 1840s. In contrast, those who opposed Macon became Whigs, because they wanted to use government money and other financial resources to build up the state. The followers of Archibald Murphey soon formed the North Carolina Whig Party. Because they had the support of the west (and parts of the Tidewater that liked Murphey’s call for dredging the sounds), the Whigs controlled the state in the 1830s and 1840s. The Whigs took their The first Whig leader in the state was name from the old word in John Motley Morehead. The Virginia the War for Independence native had been one of David Caldwell’s that meant an opponent of last students at the log college. After King George. graduating from the University, Morehead studied law with Murphey. He

Chapter 7: North Carolina Finally Awakens

then became a planter and a cotton mill owner in Spray, on the Dan River where the town of Eden is today. Morehead helped with the constitutional reforms of 1835. He was elected governor in 1840 and again in 1844. Morehead and other Whigs pushed forward both parts of Murphey’s plan: public education and internal improvements.

THE ART OF POLITICS

The Start of Public Education In 1839, the Whigs created the state’s first public school system. The plan called for each county to hold an election to decide if it wanted to tax itself to build common schools that any white child—girl or boy—could attend free. If local taxes were raised, the state would supplement the plan with money from a rejuvenated Literary Fund. Once a county provided the funds, each neighborhood was to get a school. Rockingham County opened the first common school in 1840. This was Governor Morehead’s home county. Five years later, every county had at least one school. More than two thousand were in operation by 1850. During the same period, the University in Chapel Hill also grew. Former Governor David Swain became its president, and enrollment tripled under his leadership. Swain also broadened the curriculum (the courses offered) to include the study of law and agricultural chemistry, two subjects with great practical benefit for a farming state. The University’s best-known professor was mathematician Elisha Mitchell, who used his skills to discover the altitude of the highest mountain in the Appalachians.

This political cartoon of “King Andrew” reflects the belief that Andrew Jackson was arrogant and uncompromising in his actions as president.

The Coming of the Railroads Despite Murphey’s efforts, North Carolina had fewer canals than almost any other state. The state had learned that the terrain was too rough for canals to be built at a reasonable cost. In addition, an effort to drain Lake Mattamuskeet and other swampy areas in the Tidewater—aimed at increasing farmland—came to nothing. By the 1830s, however, a new form of transportation had been developed. Engineers had successfully connected a steam engine to the gears and wheels of what they called a locomotive, an apparatus that could propel itself on a rail. The invention of the railroad was one of the most important things ever to happen to the state. A railroad could be built where a canal could not. The steam engine could be fueled with wood, which was easy to obtain. At last, North Carolina had a way to connect easily to the rest of the world.

Children ranging from six to twenty-six could attend the common schools. School terms were held after fall harvest and generally lasted two months.

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High Point got its name from it being the highest elevation along the NCRR’s route.

Below: The North Carolina Railroad began operation in 1856. The 223-mile line between Goldsboro and Charlotte opened up the Piedmont to commercial agriculture. Pictured is a North Carolina Railroad stock certificate issued in 1854 and signed by former Governor Morehead.

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Railroads, however, were very expensive. Often private businesses could not raise the funds needed for construction. That was especially true in places as poor as North Carolina. The Whigs, however, quickly decided to use state funds to build railroads. These were the first ventures on which the state spent more than $1 million. The question was, where should the first railroads be built? Joseph Caldwell, the University president, proposed that a track be laid from New Bern by way of Raleigh all the way to Tennessee. Several towns in the state tried to build railroads but found the cost too high. For example, an effort was made to build a track from Wilmington to Raleigh, but Raleigh was unable to raise enough money. The Wilmington company redirected the route to Weldon, on the Roanoke River, where it could connect with a Virginia line. Raleigh then tried to build its own railroad to Gaston, another town on the Roanoke. Neither of these lines could raise all the money needed for completion. Despite protests from some Democrats, the Whigs used public money to complete the railroads. In 1837 and 1841, the legislature invested in the construction of the two lines. The Wilmington & Weldon Railroad soon began to return profits to the state. The Raleigh & Gaston line, however, went bankrupt and had to be reorganized. The original railroads helped only the east. Soon, the west wanted its own railroad. Because the Raleigh & Gaston cost so much and had so little return, it took years for the state to invest once again. In 1848, however, western leaders convinced the legislature to establish the North Carolina Railroad (NCRR). To ensure that the state would control the venture, two of the three million dollars needed was provided by the state.

Chapter 7: North Carolina Finally Awakens

The other million was raised privately. The NCRR was routed from Raleigh through Greensboro and Salisbury to Charlotte, skirting the Uwharries much of its way. Former Governor Morehead, who had become the largest private investor, was chosen to be its president. The tracks were completed in 1856, with additional miles laid to Goldsboro, where a connection was made with the Wilmington & Weldon. What a change the railroads brought! For the first time since the settlement of Roanoke, North Carolina was on the map, gaining the attention of the whole world. When they were new, first the Wilmington & Weldon (at 161 miles), then the NCRR (at 223 miles) were the longest railroads in the world. North Carolinians believed that they had finally caught up with progress elsewhere. As one supporter argued, the rest of the country would “come to see and appreciate the enterprise and talents of Old Rip!” North Carolinians immediately saw economic gain in the railroads. The cost of shipping all kinds of goods was cut in half, compared to hauling them by wagon. Moreover, farmers could time when they shipped their produce to get the best price. For example, when it was learned that prices were high in Petersburg, Virginia, farmers all over the Coastal Plain rushed to their nearest depot to send their harvest to Petersburg. There were also secondary effects. The towns of Goldsboro and High Point grew up around important railroad sidings. The largest town not to get a railroad, Fayetteville, resorted to a cheaper innovation. It supported the construction of plank roads, often called “farmer railroads,” made out of planks laid out like a deck across the roadbed. The plank road enabled farmers to keep their wagons above the mud and ruts that had slowed travel in the past. Plank roads extended from Fayetteville across the Uwharries all the way to Taylorsville. The longest one connected Fayetteville with Salem, crossing the NCRR at High Point. These toll roads worked well for a few years, but high maintenance costs, due to rain and rot, led to their abandonment.

Map 22 Early North Carolina Railroads Map Skill: Which line went through Henderson?

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Social Improvements

Top: Dorothea Dix convinced North Carolina legislators that the state must take better care of its mentally ill. Above: The legislature incorporated the North Carolina Institute for Education of the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind in 1845.

The spirit of development spread across the state. To care for North Carolina’s impaired citizens, the state set up several welfare institutions. Governor Morehead convinced the legislature to set up a school for the deaf and blind. What would later be called the Governor Morehead School was opened in Raleigh during the 1840s for citizens from across the state. In 1849, after a special plea from Dorothea Dix of Massachusetts (a pioneer in the proper care of the mentally ill), the state established the Hospital for the Insane in west Raleigh. The site was opened in 1853. It soon came to be called Dix Hill, to honor Mrs. Dix. The Whig legislature also encouraged the chartering of private academies and colleges. The principal Christian denominations in the state during the 1830s soon established schools to train their young men to be ministers and lay leaders. In 1834, the Baptist Literary Institute was opened twenty miles north of Raleigh. It later became Wake Forest College. (The college did not move to Winston-Salem until the 1950s.) Quakers opened New Garden Boarding School in 1837. A half-century later, it grew into Guilford College. Presbyterians north of Charlotte set up Davidson College in 1837, naming it for the fallen hero of the Battle of Cowan’s Ford. In 1838, Methodists established a small school to train teachers at the village of Trinity in Randolph County. Originally called the Normal Institute, it was later reorganized as Trinity College. It later moved to Durham and grew into Duke University. Support for educating women became more widespread once the trains brought prosperity. The Moravians had started Salem Female Academy in 1802. That school offered the best higher education for women in the state for decades. During the 1840s, each of the major denominations also set up schools for young women: Greensboro Female College for Methodists; St. Mary’s in Raleigh for Episcopalians; and Chowan Baptist Female Institute in Murfreesboro. All three still exist but have changed through the years.

Industrial Beginnings The Whigs also chartered cotton mills, setting the stage for the later growth of that industry in the state. There had been a few mills before the 1830s reforms, most notably the cotton mill at the falls of the Tar River owned by the Battle family. The town of Rocky Mount grew up around it. More than a dozen factories were set up in the 1840s. Most of them were located on tributaries of the Cape Fear River, since the marketing of

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the cloth was most easily done in Fayetteville. The largest factory was at Rockfish, near the site of today’s town of Hope Mills. Edwin M. Holt ran the best-known mill, the Alamance Factory near the site of the Regulator battlefield. The Holts produced the first dyed cloth in the state in 1852. They called their product “Alamance Plaid.” Soon other factories made their own brands of plaid. As Alamance Plaid became North Carolina’s first famous product, the state itself was becoming well known for moving ahead in many social and economic areas. The telegraph was first installed in the state in 1848, which helped North Carolinians communicate more closely with the rest of the nation. In fact, the 1850s was the first decade when North Carolina seemed as caught up in growth and change as any other American state. “They cannot call us Ole Rip anymore,” said one state leader.

Above: Thomas Michael Holt, son of Edwin M. Holt, was the one who actually invented the Alamance Plaids. Thomas later served as governor of North Carolina from 1891 to 1893.

It’s Your Turn 1. Which political party controlled the state in the 1830s? 2. Why were few canals built in North Carolina? 3. For what was the factory run by Edwin M. Holt best known?

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“The Rainbow of Promise”

This section will help you meet the following objectives: 8.3.03 Identify and evaluate the impact of individual reformers and groups and their programs. 8.3.08 Examine the impact of national events on North Carolina.

As you read, look for: • North Carolina’s own gold rush • improvements in transportation and education • the shift of power from the Whigs to the Democrats • vocabulary terms superintendent of public instruction, literate, free suffrage North Carolina’s awakening was notable in ways other than just education and economics. The number of people who lived in towns doubled. Between 1835 and 1850, the number of newspapers published in the state more than doubled. After 1850, Raleigh and Fayetteville had daily newspapers. By that time, there was much more to read about, for North Carolinians had begun to move forward in their daily lives. They began to brag that “the Old North State” was no longer asleep. They had “the first state university in the nation,” the “most elegant state capitol in the country,” a “plentiful and varied” soil, and “a steady, sober, industrious population.” Mary Bayard Clarke, one of the first poets in the state, extolled, “Old Rip is awakening . . . his years of slumber, at last have gone by, and the rainbow of promise illuminates the sky.”

Above: Christopher Bechtler opened a private mint in 1831.

A mint is a place where coins are made. Coins were made at the Charlotte Mint until the state seceded in 1861.

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Mining The discovery of gold in California in 1849 excited the whole nation, and a few North Carolinians headed west to seek their fortune. Others, however, stayed home to do the same thing. North Carolina had been known as a gold-producing state ever since the Reeds opened their mine in Cabarrus County in the early 1800s. Prospectors rushed to the area to pan for gold in Uwharrie streams. By the 1830s, mine owners were sinking shafts deep into the ground. At one time, fifty mines were in operation. Several mines were dug under the town of Charlotte. So much gold was found in the state that the federal government established a branch of the United States Mint here in 1837. West of Charlotte, so much gold was found in streams that Christopher Bechtler, and later his son and his nephew, ran a private mint near Rutherfordton from 1831 to 1849.

Chapter 7: North Carolina Finally Awakens

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Bechtler’s Bechtler’s Mint Mint

Evidence that North Carolina had the first “gold rush” in the nation can be seen at the Mint Museum in Charlotte. Some of the choicest coins are those stamped by the private Bechtler Mint in Rutherfordton. For more than twenty years, Christopher Bechtler, a German immigrant, made $2.50 and $5.00 gold pieces for miners from all over the foothills. He minted the first gold dollar in the nation. In ten years, he processed more than $3 million in gold into coins and bullion. The opening of the Mint in Charlotte in 1837 cut down on his trade, and the business soon closed after his death. Below: This is Christopher Bechtler’s house in Rutherfordton. He did some of his minting here.

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The most famous mine site became Gold Hill, started in 1842 at the edge of the Uwharries in Rowan County. At the height of activities during the 1850s, Gold Hill had fifteen mines in the space of a square mile. Shafts were dug down eight hundred feet. More than three thousand people worked the mines in rotating shifts. The gold was processed out of the ore using seven steam engines. Many of the miners were immigrants from Europe, including experienced miners from Cornwall, England. North Carolinians tried to mine other valuable products. Iron ore was taken out of the Cranberry Mine, located in the mountains, west of the present town of Spruce Pine. Several iron furnaces were operated near the “Ore Bank” on the South Fork of the Catawba River. These furnaces produced iron plugs that blacksmiths could use to make tools and household items. The largest operation was at the Vesuvius Furnace in Lincoln County. North Carolina’s first coal mine opened in 1855 at Cumnock, in what became Lee County. The Egypt Mine, as it was called, operated through the Civil War.

Top: The U.S. Mint in Charlotte was moved to its present location in 1933, where it is part of the Mint Museum. Above: The discovery of gold in Cabarrus County brought miners to the state.

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Railroad Fever Everyone became caught up in the excitement over railroads. The decision by the legislature to fund the North Carolina Railroad benefited the whole state. When the line was completed from Goldsboro to Charlotte, farmers and millers in the west could for the first time send their goods all the way to Wilmington at a reasonable cost.

Chapter 7: North Carolina Finally Awakens

By the late 1850s, the state had chartered the Western Railroad, which was to go from Salisbury to Asheville. Within five years, the line was open all the way to Morganton. A line from Wilmington was laid through Charlotte to Lincolnton and Rutherfordton. One ambitious company hoping to lay a line from Charleston through North Carolina and across the Appalachians named itself the Atlantic, Tennessee, and Ohio Railroad. The line never got beyond Taylorsville in Alexander County. Former Governor Morehead headed an effort to run a rail line from Goldsboro to a site near Beaufort. He called the new community at the end of the line Morehead City. The completion of the line encouraged Beaufort fishermen to ship oysters on ice to Raleigh and other towns. The impact of the railroads could be seen in the fields. Planters on the Coastal Plain more than tripled the amount of cotton they grew during the decade. Tobacco farms multiplied in counties along the Virginia line, especially when a railroad reached Danville. Caswell County in particular grew so much tobacco during the 1850s that it became the richest county in the state. In the Uwharries, farmers learned that their flinty soil could grow very fine wheat. Since the depots in Greensboro and Salisbury could ship barrels of grain every day, the productivity of the west grew as well. In 1850, only the counties along the state lines with South Carolina and Virginia were very prosperous. By 1860, counties in the middle of the state had “entered the market” to make more money. In Wayne

Left: With the discovery of a new curing process by a Caswell County slave, tobacco production nearly tripled in the 1850s. Above: Slaves picking cotton.

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Above: The University of North Carolina almost doubled its campus during the decades of reform. To the left is the New West building, to the right the New East. Each housed one of the debating societies of the university on the top floor. They are still there to this day.

County, for example, the nearness of Goldsboro encouraged farmers to grow cotton. Their productivity went from 300 bales in 1850 to 4,000 bales by 1860. In Davidson County, wheat production increased from 80,000 to 250,000 bushels.

Education and Literacy

In 1860, North Carolina had the best school system in the South. Nearly 120,000 students attended more than 3,000 schools staffed by more than 2,700 licensed teachers.

By the 1850s, every county developed common schools. In addition, the state had developed a school system to make sure as many white children as possible received a decent education. In 1852, Calvin H. Wiley of Guilford County became the first superintendent of public instruction. Wiley introduced standards for teachers and published a magazine to help teachers improve their skills. He also wrote the first textbook on North Carolina history. In addition to the common schools, there were more than four hundred private academies scattered across the state during the 1850s. Colleges were started in Oxford, Louisburg, Newton, and Raleigh. The Presbyterians started a college for women in Statesville. Among its first teachers were the daughters of Dr. Elisha Mitchell, the University geolo-

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gist who had measured the altitude of the highest peak in the Appalachians. The University in Chapel Hill doubled its size with the completion of New West and New East halls. By the 1850s, more North Carolinians were literate (could read and write) than ever before, and they had more of their own literature to read. Many of the early books printed in the state had a religious theme. They were either collections of sermons or a short history of a particular denomination. One of the most popular was a biography of the Reverend David Caldwell. Calvin H. Wiley, the superintendent of public instruction, published novels with the well-known titles of Alamance and Roanoke. Mary Bayard Clarke in 1854 edited the first collection of North Carolina poetry. Sixty poets were included. In 1857, Hinton R. Helper of Salisbury published The Impending Crisis of the South, the first national bestseller by a North Carolinian. Helper’s book criticized the politicians of North Carolina and the rest of the South for their defense of slavery.

Two-Party Politics North Carolina’s two political parties went through changes in the 1850s. The once-dominant Whigs lost control of the state when their national organization fell apart over the growing slavery controversy. Folks in the west and the Tidewater still voted for former Whigs, but the Democrats generally ran the state during the 1850s. They developed a majority once William W. Holden, the leading Democratic newspaper ediWhen the free suffrage tor, convinced them to become amendment was ratified, supporters of railroads and schools. about 125,000 voters The Democrats took advantage received the right to vote of the resentment felt by poor votfor their state senators. ers that they could not vote in state senate elections. Democrats came to champion free suffrage, the ability of all white males age twenty-one or over to vote in all state elections. This reform did away with the 50-acre land ownership requirement to vote. Western Whigs unwisely opposed the free suffrage amendment to the state constitution, which helped the Democrats in the east.

It’s Your Turn 1. Where was a branch of the U.S. Mint established in North Carolina? 2. What impact did the railroads have on agriculture?

Top: The poet Mary Bayard Clarke was a descendant of early Albemarle families. She grew up in Raleigh and lived for a while on a Louisiana sugar plantation. She returned to Raleigh during the Civil War. Above: Hinton Rowan Helper of Davie County made southerners angry. His book, The Impending Crisis of the South (1857), charged that slavery held back the economic progress of the South. The book was banned in North Carolina.

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An Agrarian Society

Terms: agrarian, yeoman, subsistence farming, spinning wheel, loom, blacksmith, cooper, neighborhood, barter, clubbing, muster day, court week, justice of the peace, camp meeting, plantation, staple crop, artisan, emancipation, slave code, quarters, free black People: “Elder” Ralph Freeman, John Chavis, John C. Stanly, Thomas Day Places: Rock Spring, Somerset, Fairntosh

G

eorge M. Yoder lived a

long time. A member of the German settlement on the South Fork of the Catawba River, Yoder was born when James Monroe was president in the 1820s. He was an elderly man when World War I was fought. George Yoder never had much money, but he acquired a wealth of knowledge about his family, his farm, his neighbors, and his environment. He listened to stories told by relatives and friends and soon acquired a whole history of his neighborhood in his head. He never stopped learning. He wrote letters to friends and newspapers every week for thirty years. He exercised both his body and his mind. He claimed through much of his life that he was

Above: Replica of a slave child’s doll from Somerset Place State Historic Site. Slave dolls were made with no legs, symbolic of the inability of slaves to leave their masters. Left: Bennehan House, located at Stagville State Historic Site, was the home of Duncan and Rebecca Cameron. They lived here until they built Fairntosh Plantation. Opposite page, above: This is the dining room at Bennehan House.

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so healthy because he did not smoke or drink, worked hard but not all the time, and kept in motion. Yoder seemed always in motion. When he was not plowing or harvesting his own fields, he was helping a neighbor chop wood, or writing a letter for a widow, or going to town to trade, talk, and visit. He lived in the same log house for much of his life. He only left the state twice, once to visit relatives in Missouri and once to fight in the Civil War. In many ways, almost every North Carolinian of the early 1800s imitated George Yoder. Most were not as active as he, but they practiced the same habits and shared the same values. Yoder was an agrarian—a person who farmed to make a living, who also believed that farming made life worth living. As the least urban state in the Union, all of North Carolina was in some form or another agrarian. Even slaves, although denied the freedoms whites had, lived in the agrarian manner.

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________As _______________________Carolina ___________________________________more _________________________________________________ ________________North _______________________________________grew ________________________________________________________________ _______prosperous, _____________________________more _____________of ______its _______wealthier ______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________citizens _________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________gave _____________up ________“homespun” _________________________________and ___________began _________________to _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________wear ________________________________clothing ____________________________________in _______________________________________ _____________________fancier ________________________________________made _____________________northern _________________________________ ________cities. ________________By _________the _________1850s, ___________________ladies _________________in ______Raleigh ___________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________and __________Charlotte ________________________were ______________wearing _____________________hoop ______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________Gentlemen _______________________________________top _____________________silk _________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________skirts. ____________________________________________wore _______________________hats, ________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________vests, _______________and __________cutaway ______________________coats. ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________One ___________of ______the __________most _____________popular ____________________American _________________________songs ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________written ____________________during __________________the _________early ______________1800s __________________was ___________“The _____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Old __________Folks _____________At _______Home,” ____________________by ________Stephen _____________________Foster. _________________It ___________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______starts _______________with ___________the _________line, ___________“Way _____________down ______________upon _____________the _______________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _______________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Sewanee ________________________River.” __________________Foster _________________originally __________________________wrote __________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________the _________line, ____________“Way ______________down _______________upon ______________the _________Peedee __________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______________ ________The __________________________________residents ______________________________the ___________________________________________ ________River.” __________________The ___________North ________________Carolina _______________________stream ___________________lost ________________________ __________________wealthier ________________________________________________of _______________Coastal __________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________out _________because _____________________it _____did __________not _________sound ________________as _______smooth. ______________________________ _______Plain _____________were _____________the ________first ___________North ______________Carolinians ____________________________to ______________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______go ________to _______the _________coast ______________for _________pleasure. _______________________A _____number _____________________of ____________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______residents ____________________________the _________________________________Sound ________________________________________ _______________________________in _______________Albemarle ____________________________________________region _________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________summered ____________________________in ______cottages _______________________at _______Nags ______________Head. _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Some ____________________________________still ______________________those ____________________________Head _____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________families _______________________________own __________________________Nags ___________________________________ _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________150 ___________________________later. _________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______houses ____________________________years _________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________In ______the _________mid-1800s, ______________________________North ________________Carolinians ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________played __________________“fives,” ____________________a____simpler _____________________version ____________________of ____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________tennis. __________________Participants ______________________________used _____________solid _____________wooden _________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______rackets __________________that ___________looked ________________more ______________like _________paddles. _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________“Bandy” _____________________was ___________a_____game _______________like __________golf ___________where __________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______curved _________________sticks ______________were _____________used ____________to ______knock _______________tiny ________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _________________________ ______________________________Law _________________________________the ____________________________first _________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Frederick ___________________________________Olmsted, _________________________________nation’s _______________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____with _____________________ balls—covered in leather and filled ________“landscape _______________________________________________________toured __________________________state __________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________architect,” ______________________________________________the ____________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________goose ________________feathers—into _____________________________________holes ______________scattered ________________________________________ ________several __________________times _______________during __________________the _________1850s. ___________________Olmsted ____________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______about _______________a____field. __________________________________________________________________________________ ________returned _______________________to _______the _________state ______________during __________________the __________1890s _________________to _____________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________help ____________design _________________both _____________the _________Biltmore _______________________Estate ________________and _________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______the _________village ________________of ______Pinehurst. ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SIGNS OF THE TIMES

FASHION

MUSIC

FADS

SPORTS

ARCHITECTURE

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___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________before _________________________Civil _______________________a____new ___________________________________ ________Right ________________________________the _____________________War, ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________writer _________________emerged, _________________________Mark ______________Twain. __________________Samuel _____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Clemens ______________________took ____________that ____________name _______________from _____________a____reference _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________to _______the _________way ____________riverboat ________________________pilots ________________measured ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________the _________depth _______________of _______the _________water. ________________Clemens ______________________was ___________not __________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______the _________first ___________to ______use _________the ________name, ________________however. __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Isaiah ___________________________________a_____native ______________________Iredell _____________________________________________ _________________________Sellers, _________________________________________of ________________________County, _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________used _____________the _________name _______________while ______________writing ___________________for _________a____New ________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Orleans _____________________newspaper. __________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LITERATURE

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________The ___________________________of ________________railroad _________________________________________a______________________ __________________arrival ______________________the ____________________________brought ________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________greater ___________________variety __________________of ______food _____________to ______state _____________residents _______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________who ___________could ______________afford _______________to ______shop ____________in ______stores. ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________and ________________________________became ______________________________________________________ _________Lemons ________________________________oranges ___________________________________________popular, ___________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________and, ____________at ______some _______________point ______________in ______the _________1800s, ___________________the _________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________tomato ____________________became _____________________popular _____________________in ______the __________state. ________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________Residents _______________________________the ________________________used ___________________________________________________ __________________________________of _______________coast ___________________________tomatoes, _______________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________potatoes, _______________________and __________whatever ______________________fish __________was __________avail_________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________able ____________to ______make _______________a____stew _____________called ________________“muddle.” __________________________It ______________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________survives ____________________into __________the _________twenty-first ____________________________century. _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

FOOD

Figure 14 Timeline: 1825–1850 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1828 Buncombe Turnpike completed

1829 Somerset Place built

1849 First bridge across Catawba River built

1830 Rock Spring Camp Meeting started

1825

1830

1835

1840

1831 Nat Turner led unsuccessful slave revolt in Virginia

1845

1850

1846 Elias Howe patented the sewing machine 1834 Cyrus McCormick patented the mechanical reaper

1849 Safety pin patented

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_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

TARGET READING SKILL Using Context Clues

Defining the Skill

Practicing the Skill

In order to understand a reading passage, you should know the meanings of all the words. Occasionally, you might find a word whose meaning is unfamiliar. What do you do when that happens? Some students ignore the word and continue reading; other students look up the definition in a dictionary. While looking up definitions of unfamiliar words is a good idea, it is time consuming and, sometimes, impossible. Using context clues within a reading is a better and more efficient way to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. A context clue is a word (or words) that come before or after the unfamiliar word. Context clues include • examples that may be preceded by cue words, e.g., such as, like, or including. Examples may be set apart by colons, dashes, or parentheses. • synonyms and definitions. Sometimes an author will include a synonym (a word with the same meaning) for the unfamiliar word. At other times, the unfamiliar word will actually be defined. • antonyms, which are words that are the opposite of the unfamiliar word.

Read the following sentences found in Chapter 8 and identify what clues (examples, synonyms, antonyms, definitions) help you to define the words in bold. 1. Sometimes, when a service could not be paid for immediately, one neighbor gave a “note” to another neighbor. With these “I owe you’s,” the holder could expect payment at a future time. 2. Most of the state’s citizens were yeomen, farmers who tilled the land they or some family member owned.Yeoman farmers organized their lives around three things: their families, the seasons, and their neighborhoods. 3. That one field could yield (produce) more than one thousand bushels of hulled, dried corn. 4. The status of a slave was based upon these two conditions, and without a visible act of emancipation (where a slave was legally freed by a master), a slave was a slave for life. 5. North Carolinians spent a lot of their energy planting grains—mostly corn, wheat, and oats—for they had to feed their families first before doing anything else.

The Bennett Place near Durham is an example of a yoeman farmer’s house

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

A State of Yeoman Farmers As you read, look for:

• what life was like in North Carolina’s rural neighborhoods • the economy of rural neighborhoods • events that brought scattered neighborhoods together • vocabulary terms yeoman, subsistence farming, spinning wheel, loom, blacksmith, cooper, neighborhood, barter, clubbing, muster day, court week, justice of the peace, camp meeting

This section will help you meet the following objective:

8.3.02 Investigate the conditions that led to North Carolina’s decline and the implications for the future development of the state.

Most white North Carolinians lived on their own farms. Only one in four families owned slaves, and only the top tenth of families could be considered wealthy. Most of the state’s citizens were yeomen, farmers who worked the land they or some other family member owned. These yeoman farmers organized their lives around three things: their families, the seasons, and their neighborhoods. Marriage was the accepted starting point for making a family and a farm. Most men were in their early twenties when they married, for they often had to wait until they had the resources to acquire land and “settle down,” as it was called. Women often married in their late teens. Weddings were simple and almost always held at the home of the bride. The groom would arrive with his attendants and give the father of the bride a present. The minister then conducted the service. Family and neighbors were present; after the ceremony, they stayed to eat, dance, and party. All wore their best clothes. The bridal couple took no honeymoon and either lived with parents or immediately went to their own house.

Above: Although this painting depicts a wedding west of the Appalachians, it is faithful to the custom of North Carolina grooms riding away with their brides to the accompaniment of gunfire. North Carolinians would later tie tin cans to the backs of cars to imitate the same sound.

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Subsistence Farming

Green beans were strung on a thread and hung to dry. The beans, which turned brown when dried, were called “leather britches.”

Below: The Garner family house, built around 1800 in Southern Pines, is about the right size for the typical subsistence farming family.

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All couples had the daunting task of making a farm work. Some had to “start from scratch,” literally using axes and hoes to chop and scrape at the forest and soil to clear land for a house, a barn, and fields. North Carolinians spent a lot of their energy planting grains—mostly corn, wheat, and oats—for they had to feed their families first before doing anything else. This was known as subsistence farming. Whenever possible, farmers planted tobacco. That crop could always be sold, at least the part that was not smoked by the family. All fields had to be fenced in, for animals ran wild over the landscape. One of the biggest expenses any family faced was erecting and maintaining a split rail fence. Many farmers spent much of the winter months splitting rails. To save on fencing, many farmers combined crops and planted squashes, pumpkins, and green beans among the corn stalks, just as the Indians had. All of these vegetables could be dried and used all winter. Although many poor families did not grow a great variety of vegetables, those with means could. One farm woman reported to a friend in 1848 that she planted “celery seed, potatoes, beets, cabbages, mustard, peas, and radishes” in her kitchen garden that year. The larger farms also had pear, peach, and apple trees. Germans like George Yoder dried apples, calling them “schnitz.” Food was seasonal for everyone. Not all of it was grown in the fields. One young North Carolinian remembered that on his family farm “hickory and walnut trees . . . favored us with fruit. . . . Those who lived on the

Chapter 8: An Agrarian Society

farm visited these trees at the proper time.” Later, “when the first frost came around the persimmons begin to get ripe.” Persimmons could be made into food and drink. Families were often large in the early 1800s. Many couples often had five or six children. Sometimes the youngest brother or sister was born after the oldest had moved away. Large families made sense at the time, since each child could work at the varied chores demanded on the farm. Farm families had many needs for tools, implements, and clothing that went beyond their own abilities and resources. A single farmer was seldom a jack-of-all-trades, since equipment could be too expensive. For example, almost every family had a spinning wheel, which was used to turn cotton, flax, or wool into yarn. Women often spun yarn all winter. Some could then knit socks or caps. Most women, however, could not afford or find space for a loom—the very complex machine that wove yarn into cloth. They would turn to some family in the neighborhood who spent their time weaving for others. A weaver could be male or female. Since everyone had horses or mules, a blacksmith was needed to make shoes for the animals and repair iron tools. Since blacksmithing tools were an expensive investment,

Above: Looking at the size of this mid-1800s loom, it’s no wonder that there was little space in a home for one. Left: A blacksmith performed the important role of placing shoes on horses and mules so their hoofs would not wear down too quickly.

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In modern times, coopers are in demand at wineries, where aging wine is stored in huge barrels.

only a few could make a living in each neighborhood. The same was true for coopers, skilled workers who could turn wood and iron into barrels, which were used to store everything from vinegar to flour. The most important tradesman was the miller, who ground the corn and wheat families needed each week to make cornbread and biscuits in the home. Because North Carolina had only scattered and small towns in the early 1800s, agrarian families depended upon their neighbors to provide goods and services they themselves could not provide. As a result, much of life in agrarian North Carolina revolved around neighborly activities. The neighborhood, an identifiable place where a small group of people spent most of their time, was as important as the family.

The Neighborhood Economy

Above: The Old Mill of Guilford, located near Greensboro, has been in continuous operation since 1820. Most neighborhoods had at least one mill. A county might have as many as twenty at one time.

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During the early 1800s, rural neighborhoods dominated the landscape of North Carolina. Because most North Carolinians still needed to walk most places they went, neighborhoods could be no more than five to eight miles across. This was about the distance a person could walk in a day and still get back home. One 1820s resident of the Beaver Dam neighborhood near Greenville remembered that thirty-eight houses were part of his community. Homes were scattered across the landscape, often spread a half mile apart. All neighborhoods had a central point, however, where everyone could at some time come together. The neighborhood of Bunn’s Level, in what is today Harnett County, was started in the 1820s. Joseph and Nancy Bunn were married in 1815 and through their thirty-one years of marriage had ten children. They built their house on “a flat plot of land” on the road from Raleigh to Fayetteville. As other people settled nearby, the neighborhood became focused there. The Bunns donated land for a church in 1832, then in 1846 their house was the site of the first post office. (Much later the small village of Bunnlevel grew up nearby.) Neighbors generally knew one another by sight. In some cases, they were relatives, since sons and daughters of nearby farm families often married one another. If the young people did not move west, they settled near their original homes, just increasing the size of their neighborhoods. Much of the business conducted in North Carolina during the early 1800s was done within the neighborhood. A farmer might pay for the repair of his wagon by helping the wagon maker harvest his corn. A farm wife might pay for a barrel of molasses by sending a son to chop firewood for a period of time. Such bartering (trading one item for another) was very important, because most North Carolinians lacked a lot

Chapter 8: An Agrarian Society

of cash. As the Beaver Dam resident recalled, with such a system “the people were not rich, but they were independent of want or care.” Sometimes, when a service One Methodist member could not be paid for immediately, was “suspended from one neighbor gave a “note” to anfellowship” for a year other neighbor. With these “I owe because he had picked up you’s,” the holder could expect a bolt of cloth off the road payment at a future time. Since a and kept it, instead of promise was a promise, and since returning it to its owner. neighbors knew who everyone was, the note could actually be traded around like a check. Whoever held the piece of paper at the time payment was due could collect. The person who owed the money paid in cash or started bartering all over again. This made the neighborhood work together. It was part of a whole series of obligations neighbors performed for one another. Each neighborhood could have one or two churches, most often a Baptist church on the Coastal Plain or a Methodist church in the backcountry. By the 1830s, at least half the population of the state went to church about once a month, when a minister visited. Quite often, the builders of common schools put them next to churches. This occurred at Bunnlevel in the 1840s, at the Baptist church near the Bunn residence. Churches were also part of the neighborhood obligation system. Church members were subject to church disciplinary trials if they violated the codes

Above: Third Creek Presbyterian Church in Cleveland is the oldest rural church still in use in North Carolina. It was built in 1835. Peter Stuart Ney is buried in its cemetery.

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of conduct prescribed by their faith. For example, church members were disciplined if they regularly abused alcohol or if they cheated or harmed someone else in the neighborhood. Some Baptist congregations (local worship groups) would not even hold services until any disputes among neighbors had been settled to the satisfaction of the congregation. Presbyterians could not take communion (one of the key rituals of Christianity) unless they had a token, a metal tab given them by the elders of the congregation that confirmed they were in good standing. Another way neighbors cooperated was in the marketing of crops. Since farming was mostly subsistence, families and their livestock ate or wore most of what they grew. Any surplus could be bartered to neighbors or, more profitably, sold in nearby markets to merchants. Most farm-

Above and left: The Malcolm Blue Farm is typical of the homesteads built by Scottish settlers in the early 1800s. The barns and farm buildings (top), wooden water tower (above), and home (right) are all part of this historic farm.

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ers did not grow enough to go to distant markets like Charleston or Wilmington by themselves. The horses would eat up all the profits if the wagon was half full. So, neighborhoods practiced clubbing and drovering.

Clubbing and Drovering In clubbing, a neighborhood combined their surplus crops into one large load and trusted neighbors to go to market for them. Neighbors might ship anything from flour to beeswax to goose feathers to ginseng. These trips were always in the fall, after harvest, and took weeks to complete. The clubbers made the best bargain they could and came back with needed cash and items like fine cloth, books, coffee, spices, and fruit, all things which could not be grown or easily made in the neighborhood. Rufus Barringer remembered that his neighborhood in Cabarrus County thought clubbing was so important it “would have a frolick” (a party like a harvest festival) when the market trip was over. One of the best returns on farming was the sale of livestock. They were cheap to raise, since the animals had the run of the woods to forage on acorns and sprouts like honeysuckle. In autumn, neighbors rounded up the animals, sorted them by the mark found on their ear, and then embarked on a market trip. Drovers took the livestock all the way to the coast. The Buncombe Turnpike, completed in 1828, went from eastern Tennessee to Charleston and was the most used drover’s route. It was famous for its “hog hotels.” James Alexander ran the largest one ten miles north of Asheville. The drovers penned their animals at night and slept in a dry shed. Alexander provided a store, repair shops, a post office, and an outdoor bowling alley for the drover. These service centers were very similar to the truck stops of the twenty-first century. The first bridge built across the Catawba River, in 1849, had a special rate for hogs. People had to pay more.

Life Outside the Neighborhood

Above: Most farmers had livestock of some sort, like cattle. Extra animals were driven to market in the east.

While agrarian North Carolinians spent most of their time on their own and their neighbors’ farms, they did venture out for holidays and special occasions. Clubbing, of course, meant that a few residents got to visit ports like Wilmington, New Bern, or Charleston once a year. Most members of a farm family, however, never left the neighborhood except on special occasions. Twice a year, almost every family in a section of each county came together for muster day. Since each able-bodied man was expected to be available to defend the state, they trained twice a year, once in the spring

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Above: During court week, county residents might make their way to courthouses such as these in Northampton County in Jackson (top) and Yancey County in Burnsville (above).

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just before planting and again in the fall just after harvest. These events were forerunners of the county fair of later days, since families would bring the best of their produce and wares to show and trade. Four times a year, families in each county of the state went to court week. Each county in that day was governed by justices of the peace, men who in each neighborhood did exactly what their title suggested. These judges tried petty crimes and small disputes among neighbors. In the middle of each season, selected justices came to the county seat and tried cases that needed a jury trial. The justices would also put their official seal on legal documents like deeds and wills. Outside the courthouse, people were festive and social, often having what George Yoder called “a jollification.” Farm women sold their best baked goods, often dried fruit pies or gingerbread. Men gathered to swap stories and trade livestock. Teenagers literally “courted,” that is, got together, possibly with romance in mind. Two events occurred in August each year. Throughout the state, Christian churches held camp meetings, a long weekend of religious services where people came and camped. At first, people slept in tents or in their wagons. Over time, many families erected some cabins, a forerunner of the vacation home. The largest of the campgrounds was at Rock Spring in Lincoln County, which was started in 1830. Also in August, North Carolina held election day. The federal government scheduled congressional and presidential elections for November, but North Carolinians chose their leaders in late summer. Since an eligible man could vote anywhere in the county, many chose to take a trip to the county seat. Elections, too, were festive occasions, and turnout to vote was high. Both camp meetings and election day were scheduled in August because farmers celebrated laying-by season that month. This was the short period of time when the crops were in the ground and had to be left alone until harvest. This and Christmas (when the ground was most likely to be frozen) were really the only times farmers could leave the neighborhood and not jeopardize the well-being of the family. Christmas was “kept” mostly at home, with families who could afford it enjoying an extensive meal. Some neighborhoods, particularly the Ger-

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man ones, kept “double Christmas,” where, on December 26, neighborhoods got together to feast and play. Horseracing was one popular activity. These community events attracted North Carolinians of all levels of society. Even the richest residents of the state came to public occasions, often bringing their slaves. Although the richest and poorest North Carolinians lived agrarian lives just like everyone else, the extremes of their conditions meant that they had different experiences.

It’s Your Turn 1. What was subsistence farming? 2. Why were neighborhoods no more than 5-8 miles across? 3. What was clubbing? 4. Name two occasions for which a farm family might leave the neighborhood.

Top: Court week attracted a variety of people and their wares. Some came for legal business; some came for the opportunity to get together with other people. Still others, young people mostly, came to do some actual “courting.” Above: Quakers held their annual meeting at the New Garden Quaker Meeting House in Guilford County.

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CAROLINA PLACES

Rock Spring Camp Meeting Ground

In the years before the Civil War, North Carolina actually had, for one weekend a year, one large city. Every August, Methodists along the Catawba River gathered at Rock Spring, in Lincoln County, to worship and socialize. For four days, Rock Spring was twice as big as Fayetteville or New Bern and a little bigger than Wilmington. Most years more than 10,000 people clustered around the arbor used for worship services. It even had its own temporary mayor and police force to keep folks in line. Camp meetings had been started by Methodists soon after the War for Independence as a way to better spread their religious message. Since most churches were small, preaching outside reached more people at one time. The first outdoor meeting was held in 1795 very near the site of Rock Spring. After 1800, the idea spread to the Presbyterian and Baptist churches, but Methodists were the masters of the gathering. Camp meeting soon developed into an annual ritual. Each August, farm families “laid by” their crops, letting them alone until harvest. They then had time to get away. Families that came to camp meeting each summer built “tents” in a square around the arbor. Originally, the tents were tiny log huts;

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over time, they evolved into frame huts with dirt floors. The families also brought all the food they would need, particularly chicken and fruit pies, along with country ham and biscuits that would “keep” even in warm weather. Some even brought beds and bed frames. Worship services were held in the covered arbor three times a day: morning, afternoon, and night. The most respected preachers in the two Carolinas were invited to Below left and below: People have met at the Rock Spring Camp Meeting Ground every year for the last century, except for when there was a polio epidemic in 1944. The meeting lasts for one week.

Above: Most families spent days at the camp meeting praying, singing, and listening to sermons. They brought food and stayed in tents. Later, those tents became cabins.

preach, often two or three at a time. At the end of each sermon, worshippers were invited to come forward to announce they had made a religious decision about their lives. Most of those who came forward were teenagers, for “going to the altar” was part of the process for growing up in most rural neighborhoods of the day. Camp meeting was as much a social occasion as a religious one. Men traded horses, women told stories about their families, and young people quite often courted. Dozens of Methodist families were actually started with a courtship at camp meeting. After all, it was one of the few times all year when a person could meet “people from all over.” Rock Spring was so large and popular that some of its worshippers split off and made up their own campgrounds. The largest was Ball’s Creek, up the river in Catawba County. The slaves at Ball’s Creek set up their campgrounds at two places, McKenzie’s Chapel and Mott’s Grove. After the Civil War, the former Rock Spring slaves moved off and set up Tucker’s Grove. By the early 1900s, there were more large Methodist campgrounds concentrated along the Catawba River than anywhere else in the United States. All five of these campgrounds—located within a dozen miles of each another—have survived into the twenty-first century. Thousands still come each summer, most of them direct descendants of the original worshippers more than a century ago.

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Masters and Slaves

This section will help you meet the following objective:

8.3.04 Describe the development and impact of slavery in the State and nation.

As you read, look for: • slavery as it existed in North Carolina • what life on a plantation was like • how free blacks lived in North Carolina • vocabulary terms plantation, staple crop, artisan, emancipation, slave code, quarters, free black

North Carolina was a slave state, but compared to other places in the South, slavery did not seem as dominant. During the first half of the nineteenth century, in any given year, about one in four North Carolina families owned slaves. About one-fourth of the population was slave. In contrast, in Virginia, one in three families owned slaves; in South Carolina, one in two. In addition, those North Carolinians who actually owned slaves most often owned only one, another indication of how hard it was for white families just to survive. Yet, at all times, slavery made a significant impact on North Carolina’s economy and its society.

Slavery in North Carolina

Above: Slaves labored from sunup to sundown to produce such crops as cotton and tobacco.

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Slaves were found in every North Carolina county. Even mountain counties, where poor soil and remote location hindered any kind of economic growth, had slaves as part of their population. Some areas, however, had many more slaves than others. The greatest concentration of slaves was along the belt of counties where the Tidewater met the Coastal Plain, from Hertford south through Pitt and Wayne counties. These counties had two advantages that promoted the growth of slavery. First, the soil just above the level of swamps was some of the best in the state. Second, the good lands were located close enough to ports to make marketing cost very little. The old Albemarle Sound counties, for example, had large numbers of slaves because the Dismal Swamp Canal allowed

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Figure 15 North Carolina Population, 1830-1860 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Year

White

Slave

Total

1830

492,386

245,601

737,987

1840

507,602

245,817

753,419

1850

580,491

288,548

869,039

1860

661,563

331,059

992,622

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the cheap transportation of a variety of goods. Back of the tidal line, only a few counties had large numbers of slaves. The largest concentration was along the Roanoke River. Here the sandy soil, in places like Warren or Caswell, allowed a variety of crops to be grown. In a similar way, the counties along the South Carolina line, which were close to markets like Cheraw and Camden, combined the same two factors found on the tidal line. Otherwise, slaves were scattered across the landscape, one or two in small areas where the soil was above average in its fertility. For example, only a minority of families owned slaves in Davidson County, but most families in the small neighborhood of Cotton Grove were slave owners. So were most farmers at Poplar Tent in Cabarrus County, in the area where the Concord Mills Mall is today. Although most slave-owning North Carolinians owned only one or two slaves, a significant number of slaves lived on plantations, farms large enough to be strictly organized to produce both enough food for subsistence and large amounts of surplus staple crops that made money for the owners. Staple crops were primarily tobacco and cotton, but sometimes they included grains like corn, wheat, and even rice or tar on the Cape Fear River. In each case, much more of the crop was grown than could be consumed on the farm. Fewer than one in ten farmers in the state ever owned a plantation. Those who did, however, reaped the rewards of slavery.

In 1860, slaves made up 68 percent of the population of Warren County, the state’s largest slaveholding county.

Map 23 Slave Population in 1860 Map Skill: What region of the state had the fewest slaves?

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Life and Labor on a Plantation

Top: Hope Plantation, near Windsor, was the home of Governor David Stone. Stone owned more than 100 slaves. Above: Ebenezer Pettigrew allowed his slaves to raise their own crops and trade them at a plantation store for needed items or a few luxuries.

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Usually a white family with more than twenty slaves operated a plantation. About one in a hundred North Carolina families owned more than fifty slaves, enough to make them among the richest people in the entire nation. Nathaniel Macon, for example, owned about seventy slaves and farmed two thousand acres. In comparison, the average yeoman farmer had about two hundred acres. Although the objective of a planter was similar to that of a yeoman farmer—to feed his big family and make money off what was left over—a plantation differed dramatically in scale from the typical farm, in several ways. First, a plantation used its slave labor to clear off and cultivate huge areas of land and graze large numbers of livestock. One Onslow County plantation was said to have cornfields a half mile long and a quarter mile wide. That one field could yield (produce) more than one thousand bushels of hulled, dried corn. Large plantations regularly produced enough corn and wheat to feed all the people on site and still send surplus amounts to market. Second, a plantation that wisely used its slaves taught some of them to be artisans. (An artisan is a skilled craftsperson, such as a carpenter or blacksmith.) Slave Haywood Dixon, a carpenter, was so valued by his Greene County owners that he and his family were buried in the white cemetery on the plantation. A large plantation might have a cobbler, a

Chapter 8: An Agrarian Society

weaver, a cooper, or a blacksmith on the plantation itself. That way, the planter cut his costs of operation, since he did not have to pay slaves as he would his white neighbors. Third, planters often organized gang work to cultivate and harvest the fields. Twenty-two slaves were once seen working together in a twentyfive-acre potato patch, which meant that each was to clear an acre in a day. Slaves were sent into the fields early in the morning, and their work was regulated all through the day. This made most plantations more efficient. Even in winter months, most slaves had assigned tasks that they were to do together in gangs. A plantation, or two or three plantations within sight of one another, could be a neighborhood unto itself. This was the case at Locust Hill in Caswell County. More than a dozen planters lived within walking distance of Jacob Brown’s Store. Everything could be located within the range of the plantation, even schools for the children of the family or a grist mill that ground both the plantation’s flour and that of others nearby. A few of the largest planters in the state even kept a doctor on call for all its families, both white and black. The Pettigrew family, who had a plantation in the pocosin south of the Albemarle Sound, kept a store for their slaves. In it, slaves could buy items with money that they earned by working harder than was expected in the fields.

Slaves worked in gangs under black “drivers” and white “overseers.” Their jobs were to make sure slaves performed their assigned tasks.

Below: An overseer on horseback watches over slaves working in a cotton field. Cotton was a demanding crop. To harvest cotton required more than one picking.

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Prominent Plantations

Top: The Collins Home on Somerset Place Plantation. In the lower right corner are the remains of the canal dug by slave labor. Above: Here are some of the outbuildings at Somerset Place. They are, left to right, dairy/ cheese storage, laundry, kitchen.

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Plantations stood out in what was often described as a dull North Carolina landscape of log cabins and zigzag fences. Two of the most notable built in the early 1800s were Somerset in Washington County in the Tidewater and Fairntosh in Durham County. (Parts of each of these plantations are today state historic sites.) Somerset Place, close to the Pettigrew farms, was carved out of a pocosin by slaves brought directly from Africa. The Collins family of Edenton—headed successively by Josiah Collins I, II, and III—prospered at the site for a half century. The first Josiah Collins had a private canal cut into the Albemarle Sound, which linked him by water to the Dismal Canal. This allowed him to take his own barges all the way to markets in Norfolk, Virginia. He also used the current in the canal to operate mills. The Collinses made most of their money most years by growing corn, which did well in the drained soils. They became so wealthy that they could spend part of the year in the northern states, to escape the heat. More than twenty slave cabins extended in a row back of the plantation house.

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Top: The Collins Home at Somerset had 14 rooms. This is the drawing room. Left: Josiah Collins and his wife Mary entertained in the dining room. Above: This is one of the bedrooms in the Collins Home.

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Fairntosh may well have been the largest plantation in the state. Fairntosh was actually a cluster of six distinct farms, among them Stagville, which dated back to the time of the Regulation. Each butted up against another and totaled about 20,000 acres, about one-tenth the size of a small county. The farms were all owned by the Cameron family, who were descendants of some of the early merchants in nearby Hillsborough. First Duncan Cameron, then his son Paul ran the operations. They had their own chapel and school on the grounds near their house. One of their slaves ran a grist mill that was kept busy with just their grain. They sent wagon trains of goods to markets like Petersburg, Virginia, each fall. (Cameron Indoor Stadium, where Duke University plays basketball today, was named for a later member of this family.)

The Condition of African Americans

Top and above: The Great Barn at Historic Stagville was built in 1860 by slave labor. Built to house mules, it was the largest agricultural building in the state. The beams of the building (above) were hand carved and cut by slave craftsmen.

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What made a person a slave in early North Carolina? In the colonial era, there was a period when Native Americans were enslaved. But after the War for Independence, almost all slaves had an African heritage. Two conditions could make a person a slave. He or she had to be at least partially African American, and his or her mother had to have been a slave. The status of a slave was based upon these two conditions, and without a visible act of emancipation (where a slave was legally freed by a master), a slave was a slave for life.

The Slave Code The slave code defined the social, economic, and physical place of slaves in North Carolina. A lot of things that white Americans took as their natural right were denied slaves. Slaves were not allowed “the pur-

Chapter 8: An Agrarian Society

suit of happiness” promised in the Declaration of Independence, because a lot of things were not allowed to happen for them. First, they lacked freedom of movement. They could not just go where they wished, unless their master gave permission. When a slave was sighted on a road, a white person could ask to see the slave’s pass, a written note that allowed such travel. Slaves did have free time. They could attend church on Sunday, go to muster day or militia day, or even court week. But, they could only do so if the master gave permission. The one time some slaves could pretend to be free came at Christmas. During the holiday, slaves in the Cape Fear would perform John Canoe parades, where they dressed as lavishly as they could. The procession would arrive at the door of the master and demand presents. The master’s family was expected to provide clothing and treats, like fruit. Quite often, the head slave would be given the master’s top hat and be allowed to “boss ole massa” as the presents were being handed out. Second, a slave was denied most forms of advancement. A slave could not legally learn to read or write. He or she could learn counting, for that was understood to be a skill needed on the plantation. A slave could not marry under state law, either to another slave or to a free person. The law also prohibited marriage between someone who was white and any black person. Slaves did have their own ceremonies of marriage when they decided to live together, but the arrangements were not legally recognized. Quite often, a slave man and woman became married even though they lived on different plantations. They could only see each other after chores were done on Saturdays, and they had to be back at work on Monday morning. Sometimes, slaves could earn money on their own, during hours when they were not assigned tasks or duties by their master. One plantation in the Cape Fear was said to provide slaves “5 or 6 acres each, for rice, corn, potatoes, tobacco &c., for their own use and profit.” Quite a number of slaves kept their own gardens and their own livestock. Some of the smarter masters allowed slaves to sell the produce of their own labor, which eased in some ways the poverty that went with slavery. However, the case of George M. Horton, the vegetable seller turned poet, was rare. Few slaves ever were allowed control of their time.

The first slave code was written between 1715 and 1741. Later changes to the code made life much harsher for slaves.

Above: Slave marriages were not recognized by law, but many slaves married anyway. Most slaves exchanged vows at a prayer meeting presided over by a slave who served as a preacher in the quarters.

Life in the Slave Quarters A slave’s material condition varied considerably, depending upon the attitude of the master. Only a few plantations, like Fairntosh or Panola in Edgecombe County, had really solid housing. Most slave homes were

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GROWING UP... A Slave

A slave was a slave because of the status of his or her mother. Slave women gave birth to slave children. Since the vast majority of slave women in North Carolina lived on plantations and farms, most children grew up expecting to work in the fields for the rest of their lives. A notable exception was Harriet Jacobs, who later wrote a memoir about her struggle to survive and escape bondage. Jacobs recalled that her father, a skilled carpenter in Edenton, paid his mistress an annual fee from his wages and managed his own affairs.“I was born a slave,” Jacobs said, “but I never knew it until six years of happy childhood had disappeared. I never dreamed I was a piece of merchandise.” She was even taught to read.

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The idea that a slave was “merchandise” was true of any child in bondage. He or she could be bought or sold depending on the needs of the master. One good day could be followed by a really bad one, without warning. More than once in the state’s slave records is a note that a mother “together with her increase” was to be sold like an investment. The very first known slave family in the Albemarle Sound area, “Manuell and Frank his wife,” had five children. All were divided among the children of their owner when he died in Below: A slave family could, and often was, broken apart when the slaves were sold.

Above: At Somerset Place, some of the slaves lived in one-room apartments. 1709. Harriet Jacobs, orphaned at a young age, was sold to a master who abused her. After a comfortable town life during her teen years, she was sent to work in the fields at a nearby plantation; her young children stayed behind. Most slave children did not have the same privileges enjoyed by Harriet Jacobs in her early years. Only a fraction were ever taught to read or write because state law did not allow that. State law also forbade marriage, although many black couples lived in what would have been called “common law arrangements” had they been white. That meant that the couple had proven their devotion and duty to one another over such a long period that they were almost as good as married. But it also meant that almost all slave children were illegitimate, by law. Slave children grew up in crowded conditions. On larger plantations, like Somerset in Washington County and Stagville in Orange County, slave children were raised in the first “apartments” built in the state. Josiah Collins, master at Somerset, built a row of two-storied cottages near his plantation. More than one hundred slaves lived in the ten rooms he built, meaning that as many as ten people shared one of the 20-by-20 foot rooms.Young children on plantations like Somerset often played and helped grandparents around the slave quarters while their parents worked in the

fields. At Somerset, children might hoe the family garden plots, tend the chickens, or help with carrying items in and out of the farm buildings. On almost every plantation, black children were used for minor tasks. Sarah, an Orange County slave, told her family about being a “house maid” as a child. “I was kept at the big house to wait on Miz Polly,” one of the master’s young daughters. Sarah’s “dresses and aprons was starched stiff. I had a clean apron every day.” It was common for slave children assigned to white children to sleep in the bedroom of the white child, most often on the floor so that they would be at beck and call all night. Once slave children reached their teens, they were put to work pretty much as if they were adults. Most became field hands. Louisa, a slave from Richmond County, recalled later that work started “at the time the chicken crowed, and we went to work just as soon as we could see how to make a lick with the hoe.” It was “just work, and work, and work,” remembered Sarah, who grew up in Buncombe County, “in any kind of weather, rain or snow, it never mattered.” Boys were soon made into men as full-time workers.Young women too worked in the fields. “Women plowed and done other work as the men did,” recalled Jacob, who grew up in Warren County. Pregnancy reduced a woman’s load somewhat. It was not unusual for a slave woman to give birth on the same day she was in the fields. She was expected to return soon after, leaving the baby in the care of older women in the quarters.

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made of logs or poles, and the slaves had to fill in the cracks to keep out the cold air. Each family unit made do with a one-room space smaller than that of poor white families. Within the room was all the cooking equipment, all beds, and any other furniture the family might have acquired. In back of the cabin, there was usually a small garden plot, for slaves were expected to work on their own time to supplement the basic food given them by the masters. Often slaves received about three pounds of meat and two gallons of cornmeal a week to eat, roughly the equivalent of two hamburger patties and a half loaf of bread a day. Slaves generally formed close bonds, like those of any other neighborhood, in the quarters, the area where their housing was. Slaves often had their own religious services in the quarters or in a nearby barn. Sometimes they would dance and sing in ways that reminded them of their African heritage. These rituals helped slaves work together to survive the rigors of bondage. At Fairntosh, the Camerons scattered their slaves around their plantations and let them be in charge of the daily work chores. Mr. Cameron made the rounds each week. If he met a slave

Above: A hospital at Somerset Place separated those who were ill. Slaves were also treated in this outbuilding. Right: Some slaves lived in separate houses, such as this one at Somerset Place. Originally, there were 26 houses in a row.

Slaves were not allowed to keep or use drums in religious ceremonies. Slave owners were afraid that the drums could be used to send messages or to signal a slave uprising.

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on the road and did not recognize him, he would demand to know which quarters he lived in and why he was out and about. All slaves faced two horrors. They could be beaten, even for a minor infraction against a white, and they or members of their families could be sold and sent away. Slaves were often separated when the master died, and some slaves had to be sold to pay off debts on the plantation. Although only a minority of slaves were ever beaten or sold, no slave ever escaped the threat of that happening. Beatings occurred most often when a slave tried to escape, especially if it happened more than once. Those who ran away, for whatever reason, also faced the possibility of being declared outlaws. That meant that they could be shot on sight by a white person.

Free People of Color A few blacks in North Carolina were free, but still suffered from prejudice and ill treatment. In towns like Fayetteville, free blacks wore a label on their sleeve that identified their condition. Most worked as day laborers for whites on farms or, quite often, became tradesmen in towns. “Elder” Ralph Freeman, a freed slave, became one of the more notable preachers in the Uwharries during the 1820s. When the state passed laws in the 1830s to restrict how much blacks could preach, almost 100 whites came to Freeman’s support to allow him to continue. (The state legislature turned them down.) John Chavis, born free in Halifax County, became a noted schoolteacher of wealthy young white men. He also conducted a school for free black children in Raleigh.

Top: At Horton Grove, part of Historic Stagville, Paul Cameron built sturdy two-floor, four-room slave quarters. Five to seven people probably lived in each room. Above: In 1860, Paul Cameron was considered the richest man in the state. He owned over 900 slaves and some 30,000 acres of land.

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Top: Bellamy Mansion in Wilmington was built largely by Elvin Artis, a free black carpenter. Above: The slave quarters at Bellamy was a brick, two-story building, typical of urban quarters.

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Almost two hundred free blacks owned slaves. In many cases, the slaves were relatives bought to keep them from being owned by whites. John C. Stanly, a New Bern barber, skillfully invested in land and became a planter. His family owned more than twenty slaves. In New Bern, Wilmington, and Halifax, the free black community was sizable during the early 1800s. A few free blacks in towns became prosperous. One well-known free black was Thomas Day, a cabinetmaker, who ran his own shop with both black and white workers. Day was a native of Virginia, where his parents had been free. His family first came to North Carolina in the 1820s as part of a group of free blacks who settled at Hillsborough. Day worked in Hillsborough until the development of tobacco farming in Caswell County opened a new market for fine furniture. He moved to the town of Milton on the Dan River.

Chapter 8: An Agrarian Society

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Sir Archie

One resident in the early 1800s said the Roanoke River was “the race-horse region of America.” It rivaled Virginia and Maryland in enthusiasm. Warrenton, Halifax, and Hillsborough all had well-attended races each fall and spring. During the 1820s, Sir Archie became the first “thoroughbred” horse in the country. Sir Archie won many races, but eventually was retired because he had little competition. He was hired out to breed other race horses. For that, he made his owner, William Amis of Halifax, very wealthy. Sir Archie’s descendant, Man O’War, is considered the greatest racer of all time. Below: This is a painting of Sir Archie, the first American thoroughbred.

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Below: This statue of Thomas Day stands outside the North Carolina Museum of History. Right: Thomas Day produced some of the finest furniture in the state. This chair was owned by Governor David S. Reid.

Day was one of the most skilled craftsmen in the state. His fine mahogany and walnut furniture, with surfaces so smooth they shown like glass and turnings as delicate and precise as watch gears, became some of the most prized possessions of planters in Caswell County. The Day family was so prominent in Milton that Thomas was able to sit with his wife and daughters in the same pews as whites in the local Presbyterian church. Day’s rise to prosperity from the 1820s to the 1850s paralleled that of the state of North Carolina. Technological and social change finally came to “poor North Carolina.” For the first time, the people of the state could realize their dream of better times.

It’s Your Turn Just before the Civil War, there were 30,463 free blacks living in North Carolina.

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1. On what type of farm did the greatest number of slaves live in North Carolina? 2. How long was a slave’s period of servitude? 3. How did slaves add to the rations they received from their masters? 4. Who was Thomas Day?

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CAROLINA CELEBRITIES The Original Siamese Twins

Two men who lived out their tire near Wilkesboro, in sight of the lives in the North Carolina foothills Blue Ridge. were the originators of a famous The twins fell in love not just with medical term: Siamese twins. Eng North Carolina, but also with two and Chang Bunker were not the first pretty North Carolinians. The Buntwins to be born conjoined at some kers stayed at an inn run by the fapart of their bodies, but they were ther of Adelaide and Sarah Yates. the first to become famous for it. Soon, Adelaide became interested in In the case of the Bunkers, the Chang and Sarah in Eng.To the horconnection was at the navel, a rare ror of the people of Wilkesboro, each event. couple decided to get married. At Eng and Chang were born in first, the four shared a house near 1811, the sons of a Chinese father Trap Hill in Wilkes County. The and a Malay mother. Since they couples eventually moved to two grew up in Siam (today’sThailand), farms near Mt. Airy. There they folthey gained the “Siamese” nicklowed a strict schedule, alternately name. When born, their condition living with one wife for three days, left them looking at each other face Above: Chang and Eng Bunker settled in then the other for three more. Chang to face. Their mother insisted that North Carolina in the 1840s. and Adelaide had eleven children; doctors work to stretch the tissue Eng and Sarah ten. Several times, that connected them. It eventually grew to be about five the wives delivered their babies within days of each other. inches long. By the time they were teenagers, they could The brothers lived off the savings they had gained from stand at a 45-degree angle to one another.This allowed them touring. When times were hard on the farm, they resumed to walk in concert and get around very steadily. They could touring. They even went all the way to California to take even swim. Since surgery could only be done experimenadvantage of the gold rush there. Over time, the strain of tally, the twins did not allow anyone to cut into them, for the odd relationship had an adverse effect on the health of fear they would die during the operation. the four Bunkers. In addition, the Civil War ruined their forAt age 17, an American promoter took them to Boston. tunes. The two brothers died within hours of each other in They immediately became sensations in America and Eu1874. There was a plan to separate them once one of them rope and toured for a number of years. The twins enjoyed died, but a doctor was not present at the time of death. A their celebrity but found out their promoter had grown rich later autopsy suggested that one died of a blood clot, the at their expense. In 1832, the twins switched to the P. T. other of the shock of losing his other half. Barnum Circus, at that time the most famous in the United Hundreds of descendants of the Bunkers live in the westStates. They toured for another decade. Then, after visiting ern half of the state today. None have had a second set of the rural backwoods of North Carolina, they decided to reconjoined twins.

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Civil War and Reconstruction

Terms: Missouri Compromise, abolitionist, North Carolina Manumission Society, manifest destiny, annex, secession, Compromise of 1850, Republican Party, Confederate States of America, Unionist, naval blockade, blockade runner, conscript, price gouging, buffalo, outlier, Home Guard, Peace Movement, Reconstruction, freedmen, Black Codes, carpetbagger, universal manhood suffrage, segregate, Ku Klux Klan, martial law, Kirk-Holden War, impeach, Freedmen’s Bureau, sharecropper People: Hinton Rowan Helper, James K. Polk, Zebulon B. Vance, Braxton Bragg, Henry L. Wyatt, William W. Holden Places: Fort Sumter, Fort Fisher, Bentonville, Bennett Farm

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H

enry K. Burgwyn, Jr., son of one

of North Carolina’s richest planters, knew early in his life what he wanted to be: a soldier. At age 15, he studied at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. At age 16, he graduated from the University in Chapel Hill. He continued his training at the Virginia Military Institute at 17. His VMI cadet group guarded the condemned John Brown, the famous abolitionist whose attack on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, helped bring on the Civil War. When the Civil War began, Burgwyn became an officer in the Confederate army. He was a major at 19, a colonel at 20. Burgwyn’s drills led to complaints from many of his soldiers. But at his regiment’s first fight, the soldiers’ ability to follow orders helped them escape a northern trap. His “great coolness and efficiency” in combat made his troops twice elect him their commander, even though their generals did not want “boy colonels.” His regiment, the 26th North Carolina, became one of the very best in the state. For two years, it fought to defend North Carolina’s Coastal Plain. In the summer of 1863, the 26th was part of the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania. On the first day of the battle of Gettysburg, the regiment went head-to-head with the Iron Brigade, the toughest unit in the Union army. The 26th sent eight hundred men into the fight. Twenty minutes later, almost six hundred had

North Carolina: The History of an American State

been killed or wounded. Eleven soldiers who carried the regimental flag that day were taken down. Colonel Burgwyn became the twelfth. Within seconds of taking up the flag, he took a bullet through his lungs. He died two hours later. Just as Colonel Burgywn died at the beginning of his adulthood, so North Carolina seemed to take a mortal blow just as it was becoming the state it wanted to be. The Old North State reluctantly joined the Confederate cause, then suffered some of the greatest losses of any southern state. Courage was not confined to the battlefield. Slaves fled to freedom, farm wives stood up to cheating neighbors, and some men in the west defied the Confederacy, believing like their Regulator ancestors that their government was not acting in their best interests. This debate, fueled once again by sectionalism, continued after the war, during the period called Reconstruction.

Opposite page, above: Sculptures like this Wilmington example of a Confederate soldier are in most cities of the state. Below: Fort Fisher near Wilmington was one of the last Confederate strongholds to fall in the Civil War. It was named for Charles Fisher of Salisbury, president of the North Carolina Railroad before the war.

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Richard ____________________Gatling ___________________of ______Northampton ___________________________________County ___________________________ _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______perfected _______________________the _________first __________machine _____________________that __________could ______________fire ______________ _ _ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ bullets in rapid sequence. The Gatling _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______Freed ______________black ______________children ____________________were ____________first ___________educated ______________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________gun, ____________which ________________had __________a_____rotating _____________________barrel ________________with ____________a_______________ ________in ______small ______________schools ____________________run __________by _______northern _______________________groups. ___________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________cylinders, _____________________________________first _________________________by _________________________________ _______Often, ________________college-educated ________________________________________women __________________from ___________________________ _______dozen ______________________________________was _____________________used ___________________the _______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Union _______________army _______________during _________________the _________Civil ____________War. _____________It _____was _____________________ ________New _____________England ______________________taught _________________at _______schools ____________________such ________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______the _________forerunner __________________________to ______the ________twentieth-century ____________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______________________________ as the one at James City, just outside ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________of ________________ ________machine ______________________gun. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______New ____________Bern. _____________After _____________the _________war, ___________Scotia ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Seminary _________________________was ___________set ________up ________by _______northerners ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______in ______the _________town ____________of ______Concord. ______________________It _____survived _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________________________________________ as Barber-Scotia College through ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________the __________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ twentieth century. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______One ___________of _____the _________innovations ___________________________of _____the _________Civil ___________War ________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________was __________the _________use __________of ______the _________ironclad, ______________________a_____ship ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______protected _______________________by ______thick _____________iron __________armor. ________________The _________first __________of ______________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________the _________ironclads, _________________________the __________U.S.S. ________________Monitor, ______________________was ___________lost __________________ _ _ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________off _______Cape ______________Hatteras _____________________in ______a_____storm _______________in ______1862. ________________One _________________ _ _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Massachusetts-born _____________________________________________________________________James ______________________________________ ________of ______North ________________Carolina’s __________________________ironclads, _________________________the _________C.S.S. _____________________________ _ _ _____________________________________________________painter _________________________________M. ____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____________________ Whistler completed a portrait in ________Nuese, _________________was ___________abandoned ____________________________at ______Kinston. _____________________It_____is ___________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________________ 1871, “Arrangement in Grey and Black,” _______still ________________________at ______________________historic _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________there, _____________________a____state ________________________________site. ________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________that ____________later _____________brought _____________________him ____________worldwide ___________________________fame. __________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________The __________better-known __________________________________name _______________for _________the _________painting ______________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________is ______“Whistler’s _____________________________Mother.” _______________________His __________mother ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________had ________________________born ___________________Wilmington. ________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________been ___________________________in _____________________________________Anna _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______McNeill ___________________Whistler ____________________was ___________trapped ___________________in ______the ________Cape __________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Fear ____________during _________________the _________Civil ____________War. _____________She ___________escaped _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______on __________________________________runner ______________________be ___________________her __________________________ ________Union ________________soldiers ____________________introduced ____________________________the _________game _______________of ___________________ _______________a_____blockade _________________________________________to ______________with ______________________son __________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________baseball _______________________in ______occupied ________________________New _____________Bern _____________and ___________at _____________________ ________in ______England. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________the _________Salisbury ________________________prison. ___________________Professional _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______baseball ____________________________________soon _________________________the ___________________in _____________________ ______________________________began _____________________________after ______________________war _________________the _________________ ________North. _________________Charley ____________________Jones ______________was ___________the __________first ___________North ________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________Carolina ______________________major ________________leaguer ____________________in ______1876. ________________He ___________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________played __________________for _________the _________Boston ___________________team _______________that ___________much ______________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________later _________________________________the ____________________________Braves. ______________________________________________ ____________________became ______________________________Atlanta _________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SIGNS OF THE TIMES

INVENTION

EDUCATION

TECHNOLOGY

ART

SPORTS

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___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________state ____________________________grew _____________________________the __________________________________ ________The _______________________hardly _______________________________during __________________________Civil ___________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________War ____________period. ___________________About _________________990,000 ________________________people __________________lived _____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________in ______the _________state _____________in ______1860, _________________only ___________8,000 _________________more ______________in ______________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________1870. _________________One ___________significant ____________________________change ____________________was ___________the ________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______status _________________of ______the _________black _______________population; _____________________________it_____went ___________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______from ____________enslaved ______________________to ______free. _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

POPULATION

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________What ___________________________coffee ___________________________could ______________________obtained ______________________________ ______________________little ___________________________that ________________________be ___________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________during _________________the _________war ___________went _____________to _______the _________soldiers. ______________________Back __________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________home, ________________North ______________Carolinians ____________________________made ______________do _______with ___________a__________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________of ____________________________________including _________________________________root ___________________ _________variety _________________________substitutes, _______________________________________________________the ______________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________of ______the _________chicory ___________________plant ______________and ___________“parched” _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________(slightly ______________________burned) _____________________sweet ________________potato __________________skins. _________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

FOOD

Figure 16 Timeline: 1860–1880 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1861 North Carolina seceded and joined the Confederacy; Battle at Bethel

1865 Battle of Bentonville; Black Codes instituted 1867 Republican Party established in state

1862 Zebulon Vance elected governor; North Carolina coast under Union control

1860

1868 State constitution rewritten 1870 Kirk-Holden War 1871 Governor Holden impeached and removed

1865 1861 Confederate States of America formed; Civil War started

1860 Abraham Lincoln elected president

1876 Conservatives regained control of state

1870

1875

1880

1870 Christmas declared federal holiday 1865 Civil War ended at Appomattox Court House; Freedmen’s Bureau created

1869 Transcontinental railroad completed

1877 Federal troops withdrawn from the South, ending Reconstruction

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283

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

TARGET READING SKILL “Reading” Photographs

Defining the Skill Have you ever heard the expression, “A picture is worth a thousand words”? Pictures can add meaning to written text. Pictures help poorer readers with comprehension while they serve to enrich the meaning of printed words for good readers.Yet, some students look at pictures in textbooks passively, if at all. The following suggestions will help you examine photographs effectively. When you look at a photograph, answer the following questions. 1. Who or what is depicted in the photo? 2. When was the photo taken?

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3. Where was the photo taken? 4. Is the photo a candid shot (like a news photo), or was it posed? 5. Why do you think the photographer emphasized certain features? 6. What might have happened right before or right after the photo was taken?

Practicing the Skill Look at the photograph below taken at Fort Fisher and use the questions above to guide your “reading.” Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Sectionalism and Secession

This section will help you meet the following objectives: 8.3.04 Describe the development and impact of slavery in the State and nation. 8.3.08 Examine the impact of national events on North Carolina. 8.4.01 Identify and assess the causes of secession, and compare state reactions to those in other regions.

As you read, look for: • the growing antislavery movement in the country • the issues that led to North Carolina’s secession • vocabulary terms Missouri Compromise, abolitionist, North Carolina Manumission Society, manifest destiny, annex, secession, Compromise of 1850, Republican Party, Confederate States of America, Unionist

The prosperity of the 1850s aggravated the divisions over slavery. Areas in western North Carolina grew less cotton and more wheat, which meant that those areas needed slaves less than they had in the past. In turn, the huge increases in cotton production turned easterners into defenders of slavery. Henry K. Burgwyn, Sr., the father of the “boy colonel,” had been a critic of slavery before 1830. He wrote a pamphlet defending it in 1860.

Maine Admitted as Free State

Oregon Country

Unorganized Territory Closed to Slavery in 1820 Missouri Compromise Line

Spanish Territory

Michigan Territory

Missouri Admitted as Slave State, 1821

Arkansas Territory Opened to Slavery in 1820

Florida Territory Free States Slave States

North Carolinians and Abolition After the War of 1812, North Carolinians and other Americans argued the great question of the day: Should slavery be continued? In 1820, North Carolina’s leadership supported a compromise that allowed slavery to spread across the South but not the North. The Missouri Compromise resulted in a line being drawn westward from the southern border of Missouri. Below the line, slavery could continue in new states like Arkansas. Above the line, in places like Wisconsin, it could not. The line pleased southerners more than northerners. By the 1830s, the number of opponents to slavery had grown in the North. These abolitionists wanted to abolish slavery in the United States as soon as possible.

Map 24 The Missouri Compromise Map Skill: Where were all of the free states located?

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285

Above: Antislavery Quaker Richard Mendenhall built Mendenhall Plantation around 1811. It was a stop on the Underground Railroad.

One North Carolina Quaker who opposed slavery was Levi Coffin of Guilford County. In 1826, he moved to Indiana and became active in the underground railroad. It is estimated that Levi helped some 3,000 slaves escape to freedom.

286

As with everything else, North Carolinians disagreed among themselves about abolition. North Carolina was notable for having more of its citizens speak out against slavery than any other southern state. Most of the antislavery sentiment was in the west. This was logical since slaveholding was far less widespread west of the fall line. One group consistently worked to end slavery. In 1816, Quakers in the Uwharries had formed the North Carolina Manumission Society, which raised money to buy slaves from their masters. (Manumission is the act of releasing someone from slavery.) The society helped more than one thousand blacks in the fifteen years of its operation. Some Quakers also joined the North Carolina Colonization Society, which worked to pay the ship passage back to Africa for free blacks who wished to move there. Other Quakers moved to Indiana to get away from slavery and its effects. Many became involved with the Underground Railroad, a series of roads, houses, river crossings, and people who helped southern slaves escape to the North or Canada. After 1830, however, most North Carolinians strongly supported slavery. They were following the lead of citizens in other southern states, who were beginning to profit from the growing demand for cotton. Southerners believed that cheap slave labor was the key reason cotton was so profitable. As North Carolina grew prosperous after 1835, the defenders of slavery gained a stronger hold on the state. A newspaper declared in 1837 that the state’s support was “unalterable, firm, fixed, and decided.” Citizens who thought otherwise did so at their peril. Soon after missionaries of an abolitionist-friendly church, the Wesleyans, came into Randolph County to set up congregations, they were run out of the state. One Uwharrie native, Benjamin Hedrick, lost his job as a professor at the University when he admitted that he agreed with the abolitionists. Hedrick barely escaped being tarred and feathered by a mob in Salisbury. One opponent of slavery was Hinton Rowan Helper, a native of Davie County. Helper spent his young adulthood traveling the country, even going to California to look for gold in 1849. He concluded from his travels that places without slavery provided more prosperity for more people. While working in Salisbury in 1857, Helper wrote a long essay called The Impending Crisis of the South, where he argued that slavery worked against the interests of many North Carolinians. “It makes us poor,” wrote Helper of farm families like his. “Poverty makes us ignorant; ignorance makes us wretched; [and] wretchedness makes us wicked.” Once Helper’s book was published, he too had to leave the state.

Chapter 9: Civil War and Reconstruction

North Carolinians and the Mexican War While North Carolina worked hard to shed its Rip Van Winkle image in the 1830s and 1840s, many Americans rushed to the American West to settle new lands and set up new lives. Americans came to believe in the idea of manifest destiny, a term coined by a New York journalist, that the United States had been “chosen” to control all the land between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The president who strongly supported manifest destiny in this period was a native North Carolinian. James K. Polk had been born near Charlotte and educated at the University. He, like Andrew Jackson, had moved to Tennessee at an early age. Polk had been elected president in 1844. To fulfill manifest destiny, Polk moved to annex (add) Texas to the United States and acquire other western territory. Mexico was angry about the annexation and cut ties with the United States. There were several skirmishes between the two countries, and in May 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico. Although several thousand North Carolinians volunteered to fight in the war, some western leaders spoke out against the conflict. One congressman called the Mexican War “an unjust war against a weak neighbor.” One reason the Whigs lost control of the state after 1850 was the impression that they had been against the war with Mexico. The nation came close to civil war in 1850 because of the dispute over what to do with the lands taken from Mexico. Worshippers at the Rock Spring camp meeting that year held special services to pray for peace. Some North Carolinians advocated joining the rest of the South in forming a new, separate nation. The state, however, failed to send delegates to a convention in Nashville, Tennessee, where secession, the action to be taken if a state decided to leave the Union, was under consideration. No war occurred, however. Congress passed the Compromise of 1850, which allowed California to enter the Union as a free state. It also guaranteed the protection of slavery with a stronger fugitive slave law that ordered every American citizen to return escaped slaves.

Above left: The Battle of Chapultapec was the final battle of the Mexican War. Above: During the presidency of James K. Polk, the United States acquired more than 50,000 square miles of land.

Braxton Bragg, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, Ulysses S. Grant, and William T. Sherman were among the Civil War military leaders who served in the Mexican War.

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Figure 17 The 1860 Election North Carolina

National Totals

Electoral Votes

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

John Bell

45,129 (46.7%)

590,901 (12.6%)

39

John Breckinridge

48,846 (50.5%)

848,019 (18.1%)

72

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Stephen A. Douglas

2,737 (2.8%)

1,380,202 (29.5%)

12

Abraham Lincoln

Not on ballot

1,865,908 (39.8%)

180

96,712

4,685,030

303

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Totals

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The 1860 Election Although North Carolina was divided over slavery, the state would not side with the North. In 1860, the Republican Party, a new political organization that replaced the Whig Party, nominated Abraham Lincoln of Illinois as its candidate for president. There were, however, no Republicans in North Carolina to support him. In fact, Lincoln was not even on the ballot in North Carolina or any other southern state. The other canMap Skill: How many states didates in the election were John Bell of Tennessee, the Constitutional remained in the Union? Union Party; John Breckinridge of Kentucky, the southern Democratic Party; and Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, the northern Democratic Party. Washington ME Territory John Breckinridge carried VT Dakota Territory MN NH OR North Carolina, but Abraham MA NY WI CT RI MI Lincoln got more votes across PA IA Nebraska Territory NJ the country. After Lincoln won Nevada OH MD DE IL IN Territory Utah WV the election, his outspoken Colorado VA Terr. CA Territory KS MO KY opposition to the growth of NC TN Indian slavery convinced southerners SC New Mexico Territory AR Territory that they had to act to protect GA AL MS the means of their livelihood. TX LA South Carolina and seven Union states FL Confederate before Ft. Sumter southern states seceded from Confederate after Ft. Sumter the Union. In early 1861, they Border states Territories formed the Confederate States of America.

Map 25 The Union and the Confederacy

The Failure of Unionism North Carolina, however, hesitated to join the Confederacy. Since cotton and slaves were not as widespread in the state, Unionists (those leaders who wanted to stay in the Union) were more influential. To oppose

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Chapter 9: Civil War and Reconstruction

them, secessionists called for an election to choose delegates to a convention to discuss what to do. The February 28 vote on the convention showed just how much North Carolina was divided. The people voted 47,323 to 46,672 against holding the convention. The highest Unionist returns were in counties like Randolph and Wilkes in the west. In turn, the largest turnouts for secession were in places like Edgecombe and Wayne counties in the east. Since only thirty of eighty-six counties voted for secession, no convention was held. Unionists, however, only “conditionally” supported the Union. They did not want any military action taken against their fellow southern states. When Confederates fired upon Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor on April 12 and President Lincoln called for volunteers to “put down the rebellion,” the die was cast for many Unionists. As Zebulon B. Vance of Asheville remembered, he learned of Fort Sumter while he was “pleading for the Union” with hand upraised. “When my hand came down,” he recalled, “it fell slowly and sadly by the side of a secessionist.” On May 20, the state held another convention to discuss secession. The delegates to that convention voted unanimously to secede. Zeb Vance, who was to become North Carolina’s wartime governor, was not the only sad person. Four years of Civil War impacted every state resident, rich or poor; free or slave; white, black, and even red.

Map 26 The February 1861 Vote on Secession Map Skill: Which way did your county vote on the convention?

North Carolina joined the Confederacy on May 21, 1861.

It’s Your Turn 1. Which group in North Carolina particularly worked to end slavery? 2. What did Hinton Rowan Helper have to say about slavery? 3. What is the idea of manifest destiny? 4. Who won the presidential election of 1860?

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CAROLINA CELEBRITIES Elizabeth Hobbs Keckley

“I was born a slave,” Elizabeth Hobbs Keckley once wrote. “I came upon the earth free in God-like thought, but fettered in action.” This Virginia native who lived part of her life in North Carolina, however, did something about her life. She eventually gained her freedom and became a littleknown but important contributor to the great fight to free the slaves during the Civil War. How? Early in life, Elizabeth found her talent and turned it into her passion. She could sew expertly, and she used her abilities as a seamstress to advance through life. Elizabeth lost her father at an early age when he was moved to the west with his master. Her mother, however, remained a strong influence in her life. As a teenager, she was separated from her mother for a time while she served as a domestic maid at a girls’ school in Hillsborough. Elizabeth was made to do the work of three slaves “but scolded and treated with distrust” for five years. More than once she was beaten for “her stubborn pride.” Things got worse when Elizabeth and her mother were taken to Missouri, and her mother made to work even though she was too old. Elizabeth said later that she decided she “would work my fingers to the bone” to care for her mother. She used the sewing skills her mother had taught her to make enough money to buy a substitute. In fact, she was such a good seamstress that soon she was making enough money to support her bankrupted master. She continued to struggle, however, even after she bought her freedom. She and her husband, James Keckley, sepa-

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Above: This portrait of Elizabeth Hobbs Keckley appeared in her book Behind the Scenes, written in 1868 about her life with the Lincolns. rated. She moved to Washington, D.C., to support her son as a single parent and made dresses for the wives of Robert E. Lee and Senator Jefferson Davis, the later president of

Above: Elizabeth Keckley lived in the Burwell House in Hillsborough for five years. Left: Elizabeth Keckley designed this inaugural dress for Mrs. Lincoln, which is on display at the Smithsonian. the Confederacy. She was so successful, she was able to send her son to one of the first colleges to take black students, Wilberforce University in Ohio. During the Civil War, Elizabeth’s reputation gained her a really famous client: Mary Todd Lincoln. She made more than a dozen dresses for her, including Mrs. Lincoln’s 1861 inaugural gown.The First Lady soon found Mrs. Keckley to be a good friend as well as a good employee. Both women lost sons during the war, and, during the tense times in the White House, Elizabeth gave counsel both to the President and Mrs. Lincoln. She even sometimes brushed the president’s hair before he went to give speeches. Unfortunately, after the assassination of the president in 1865, Mrs. Lincoln became ill and broke off the friendship. Elizabeth, however, kept a picture of the former First Lady with her until her death. Although Mrs. Keckley was one of the most celebrated black women of the Civil War, she died in a home for the destitute in Washington, D.C., in 1907.

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Sticking with the Confederacy

political and military developments on the outcome of the war. 8.4.03 Assess North Carolina’s role in the Civil War and the war’s impact on the state. 8.4.04 Assess the roles played by individuals at the state and national levels during the Civil War and Reconstruction.

As you read, look for: • North Carolinians’ participation in the war • how North Carolina troops earned the slogan “first at Bethel, farthest at Gettysburg, and last at Appomattox” • vocabulary terms naval blockade, blockade runner

During the American Civil War, North Carolinians acquired the nickname

Above: General Braxton Bragg was the highest-ranking officer from North Carolina. Opposite page, above: This Henry L. Wyatt statue is at the State Capitol. Opposite page, below: At Gettysburg, North Carolinians accounted for onefourth of the Confederate losses.

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of Tar Heels. Tar Heel bravery cost the state dearly during the war. North Carolinians provided one-sixth of all the Confederate soldiers, even though the state had only one-ninth of the South’s population. In all, North Carolina provided more than 125,000 troops to the Confederacy and suffered one-fourth of all Confederate casualties. About 20,000 died from battle wounds. Another 20,000 died of disease. Moreover, a lot of things short of death happened during the Civil War. Sickness was common, and a soldier sometimes was wounded more than once. A soldier could also be captured. Or he could desert. At least 23,000 North Carolina troops deserted during the war, the highest number for any southern state. Some deserted more than once. Some of those deserters were executed. Although North Carolina provided large numbers of soldiers, the state was no more the military leader of the Confederacy than it had been a political force in America’s earlier history. Thirty-seven North Carolinians were generals, but only one led whole armies. Warrenton native Braxton Bragg, after whom Fort Bragg was later named, commanded Confederates west of the Appalachians, with only mediocre success.

Fighting on the Virginia Front Much of the early fighting in the Civil War took place in Virginia. North Carolinians fought bravely in just about every major engagement in Virginia. North Carolinians ever since have been taught to remember that their troops were “first at Bethel, farthest at Gettysburg, and last at Appomattox.”

Chapter 9: Civil War and Reconstruction

At Bethel, Virginia, in summer 1861, the first North Carolinian was killed in combat, Henry L. Wyatt of Edgecombe County. He was also the only Confederate solIt was the 1st Regiment dier killed in the battle. In 1863, North Carolina Volunteers North Carolinians under General that fought in the first J. J. Pettigrew formed part of battle of the Civil War at Pickett’s Charge at the three-day Big Bethel. Battle of Gettysburg. Some North Carolinians have always called it the “Pickett-Pettigrew Charge,” since almost as many North Carolinians were in it as Virginians. The frontal assault took thousands of Confederates across open ground for more than a mile under heavy Union fire. Despite taking horrendous casualties, Tar Heels pushed through the Union line. Their actions, however, did not carry the day, for the Confederacy was forced to retreat. Tar Heels stayed with the Confederacy until the end. When the Confederate army laid down its arms at Appomattox Court House in 1865, one-fourth of those who surrendered were North Carolinians. Men from the Old North State were at the forefront of the fighting at other times during the war. In September 1862, Confederate General Robert E. Lee invaded Maryland, hoping to capture

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The capital of the Union— Washington, D.C.—and the capital of the Confederacy—Richmond, Virginia—were only 100 miles apart.

Washington, D.C. Lee was almost trapped in a battle at Sharpsburg. His Army of Northern Virginia was on the brink of being destroyed when a fast-moving column of North Carolinians came onto the battlefield just in time to stem the tide and break the Union advance. North Carolinians also committed one of the greatest mistakes of the war. At Chancellorsville in May 1863, North Carolinians marched with General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson around the Union army and surprised it from behind. After the attack, General Jackson got caught between the lines and was mistaken for a Union general. North Carolinians accidentally wounded him, and he later died from his wounds.

Defending the North Carolina Coastline

Below: Fort Macon on Bogue Banks guarded the approach to Beaufort. Union forces bombarded the fort, and Confederate forces surrendered it in April 1862.

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Although the Civil War was fought mostly in Virginia and Tennessee, considerable fighting took place along coastal North Carolina. Once the war began, the North planned to attack Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederacy, from several directions. One way was through the Albemarle Sound. In the summer of 1861, the Union began to capture Confederate forts on the Outer Banks. By 1862, the North controlled the sounds. The North had a second objective in mind with its invasion of North Carolina. Since the start of the war, the North had maintained a naval blockade, where a fleet of ships patrolled the ocean outside all southern ports. The intent was to keep the Confederacy from receiving supplies

Chapter 9: Civil War and Reconstruction

from other nations. By 1863, most southern ports had been cut off. Eventually, only Wilmington remained open. The North was kept away from the mouth of the Cape Fear because of the sand bars and shallow water. In addition, a nearby post, Fort Fisher, guarded the mouth of the river. Ironically, the coastline that had been such a disadvantage throughout North Carolina’s history was turned into an advantage for the South. The Confederates used the currents, tides, and shoals to outmaneuver the North’s ships. Blockade runners, low-lying steamships that were painted gray to match the ocean and fool pursuers, were able to slip in and out of Cape Fear waters. These ships went to British ports in the Bahamas and Bermuda to load up on supplies for the Confederate military. They came back with foodstuffs, ammunition, uniforms, and firearms. The most famous blockade runner was the Ad-vance owned by the state of North Carolina. By 1864, most supplies supporting General Lee’s army came through Wilmington and were transported to Virginia along the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad. This track became so vital to the war effort that southerners came to call it “the lifeline of the Confederacy.” The North wanted to cut off the Confederate supply line. For more than two years, North Carolina troops kept them away. More than a dozen small battles were fought at various points in the Tidewater. Generals Daniel H. Hill and Robert F. Hoke, both Tar Heel natives, made several unsuccessful efforts in 1864 to retake New Bern, Washington, Plymouth,

Above: Fort Fisher’s guns kept the Union’s blockading ships away from the mouth of the Cape Fear River until its fall in January 1865. It is now a state historic site.

Union ships finally captured the Ad-vance in September 1864 after her twelfth voyage.

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and other coastal towns. These Confederate counterattacks, however, kept the Union from the state’s vital rail line until the end of the war.

The End of the War As the war raged on elsewhere in 1865, invaders closed in on North Carolina from all sides. A Union naval force took Fort Fisher, closing Wilmington’s port, in January. Union General William T. Sherman, after completing his infamous “March to the Sea” in Georgia, turned north into the Carolinas. After burning Columbia, South Carolina, Sherman’s army headed toward the key railroad depot at Goldsboro, to cut off “the lifeline of the Confed-

Top: Union prisoners of war play baseball at Salisbury prison. Right: Confederate troops under General Joseph Johnson surrendered at the farm that is known today as Bennett Place. Above: The surrender agreement was signed at this table.

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eracy.” Along the way, Sherman destroyed an arsenal at Fayetteville and battled makeshift Confederate forces at Bentonville in Johnston County. Bentonville was the largest battle fought in the state during the war. Sherman took possession of central North Carolina. He spared Raleigh the fiery fate of Columbia. Some of his troops camped on the University campus in Chapel Hill, where they stabled their horses in the library. As Sherman’s army advanced into the state, northern cavalrymen under General George Stoneman invaded through the mountains of Tennessee. Stoneman soon occupied most of the towns in the west, most notably Salisbury, where he burned a large amount of supplies and a Confederate prison. On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Soon after Appomattox, the last remnants of Confederate troops under General Joseph Johnston surrendered in a ceremony held at the Bennett farm, located near the train depot called Durham Station. By the end of April 1865, most North Carolina soldiers were on their way home.

It’s Your Turn

Map 27 The Civil War in North Carolina Map Skill: When was the battle at Plymouth fought?

At Greensboro, General Stoneman’s cavalry narrowly missed capturing Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his cabinet who were retreating to Charlotte.

1. Describe North Carolina’s participation in the war in terms of troops, casualties, and military leaders. 2. What was the purpose of a naval blockade? 3. What was “the lifeline of the Confederacy”? Why was it given that nickname? 4. Where was the largest battle in the state fought?

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CAROLINA PLACES Bentonville Battlefield

The Battle of Bentonville was the last major fight between the North and the South in the Civil War. It was also the largest battle fought in North Carolina during the war. For that reason, the state has preserved the battlefield and offers a fourteen-mile guided tour to tell visitors what happened. In the last months of the Civil War, North Carolina was one of the last “unconquered” Confederate states.The Union armies in the spring of 1865, however, came into the state from several directions. After Wilmington was lost, the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad continued to transport what few supplies were still available to Confederate soldiers. Because of this, General WilliamT. Sherman pushed toward the vital railroad crossing at Goldsboro.

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Remnants of several Confederate armies had gathered north of Fayetteville to try to stop Sherman. General Joseph Johnston, who had been living in retirement in Lincolnton, commanded the ragtag southern forces. The three highestranking North Carolina generals—Braxton Bragg, Daniel H. Hill, and Robert F. Hoke—joined him with whatever troops they had. Wade Hampton, a South Carolina general who would later live in the mountain town of Cashiers, was also present. Johnston lay in wait in the longleaf pine forests and farm fields on the road from Fayetteville to Goldsboro. He had Below: Confederate troops at a reenactment of the Battle of Bentonville.

Above and right: During the Battle of Bentonville, the Harper House served as a hospital. The lower floor has been restored to the way it was in 1865. 16,000 troops. Sherman could call upon 60,000. Nearby was the hamlet of Bentonville, which lent its name to the battlefield. For three days—March 19, 20, and 21, 1865—the Confederates hung on to their position. Johnston shifted his outnumbered troops around a lot to meet new threats by the Union army. On the first day, the Confederates had the advantage of surprise. They attacked the North before the Union troops could get into position.The second day of fighting was a series of small fights, which Sherman initiated to keep the enemy occupied. By the third day, the Union had moved its army around until part of its troops got on the other side of the Confederate line. The Union attack pushed the southerners out of their shallow trenches. General Johnston was almost captured in the quick retreat. More than a half dozen North Carolina regiments were involved in the battle. In addition, the state had drafted regiments of “Junior Reserves,” young teenagers from different communities across the state. For many, this was their one

and only battle. One of their commanders, 17-year-old Walter Clark of Halifax County, had just graduated from the University in Chapel Hill. He later became the chief justice of the North Carolina supreme court. John A. Foil from Cabarrus County was part of the 70th Reserves. Foil went on to become a minister and a professor of mathematics at Catawba College.

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Conflicts on the Home Front

following objectives: 8.4.02 Analyze the effect of political and military developments on the outcome of the war. 8.4.03 Assess North Carolina’s role in the Civil War and the war’s impact on the state. 8.4.04 Assess the roles played by individuals at the state and national levels during the Civil War and Reconstruction.

As you read, look for: • how the war affected families on the home front • those who resisted the war • the Peace Movement in the state • vocabulary terms conscript, price gouging, buffalo, outlier, Home Guard, Peace Movement

The Civil War, like the American Revolution,

Above: During the Civil War, the Confederate government in Richmond issued paper money. Most of the Confederate notes were hand-numbered and hand-signed. This $10 note was issued in February 1864. By that time, Confederate money had lost much of its value.

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bred conflict within the state. Not every citizen willingly marched off to war. Almost 20,000 North Carolinians were conscripted; that is, they were made to join the Confederate army. With so many men gone, some citizens took advantage of the soldiers’ families. One woman along the Western Railroad sent a new hat to her husband in the army. When it did not arrive, she went to the nearby train depot to investigate. She found the stationmaster wearing the hat! Price gouging (charging a higher price than is “fair”) was a constant fact of the war, as money in North Carolina lost value. For example, a barrel of flour cost thirty times in 1864 what it had cost in 1861.

Women in the War The cost of war particularly strained families. To keep the army in the field, the state required every family to provide a “tax-in-kind,” a portion of all the produce grown on the family farm. This was difficult. In North Carolina, the men in more than half of the farming households had gone off to war. If the soldier was the husband, then the wife had the burden of doing both her job and his in planting, harvesting, and feeding the rest of the family. As one young woman in the west later recalled, “When the war commenced, this was our hard time.” By 1863, many soldiers’

Chapter 9: Civil War and Reconstruction

wives had to seek financial help from their communities. In some counties, 25 percent of families received goods like cornmeal, bacon, or salt from the state. Women worked hard to preserve their families and protect their children during the war. When prices began to rise steeply in 1863, women participated in flour riots. A “mob of females and a number of men” in Salisbury demanded flour at a reasonable cost. When a merchant refused, the women broke down his door and took ten barrels. Another group did the same thing in High Point. In Newton, Lavinia Wilfong, who had six sons in the Confederate army, emptied barrels of whiskey to stop the disorder that drunkenness was causing in her town.

Deserters and Fugitives Disorder spread across the state by 1863. In the Tidewater, groups of buffaloes (so called because they were said to “go about in gangs like buffaloes”) hid in the swamps to avoid fighting for the Confederacy. Many citizens regarded them as thieves. A group of buffaloes broke into the Somerset Plantation and took clothes and other belongings. Some of the buffaloes actually went over to fight for the North. Once the Union had captured New Bern, it set up a new state government there and made Edward Stanly the Union governor for eastern North Carolina. He soon recruited both whites and blacks to fight for the North. Throughout the east, slaves left the plantations and fled to the Union lines. When a Union force moved through the Albemarle region in 1862, more than 2,000 refugees came under Union protection. Thousands of escaped slaves crowded the streets of New Bern by 1863. Some of the escaped men then joined the Union army. The west was even more disorderly than the east. In the Uwharries, a majority had opposed secession. There, groups similar to the buffaloes went by the name outliers because many of them were “lying out in the woods” to avoid being conscripted into the Confederate army. Outliers were soon “going from house to house,” said one Randolph County farmer, “killing dogs and chickens and stealing eggs.” These groups sometimes numbered in the hundreds. They often fought skirmishes with the Home Guard, the older men of a county who were charged with defending their neighborhoods.

Above: With their men gone to war, many families suffered. Here southern women in an occupied area are forced to ask Union troops for food.

During the war, the state built a factory at Wilmington to get salt from sea water.

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Top: Once Union forces captured the coastal areas, slaves streamed toward the Union lines. Above: Pro-Union sentiment and rugged terrain made the mountains a safe place for outliers.

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In the Uwharries, many unhappy citizens joined the Heroes of America, a society organized by former UNC professor Benjamin S. Hedrick to help men desert the Confederate cause. Since membership was treason, members kept the fact secret, revealing themselves to one another by sewing a thin red thread in their jacket collars. The “red strings” were so numerous in the Uwharries that more than 10,000 people attended a rally on the day after the battle of Gettysburg. They celebrated July 4, 1863, by running a United States flag up a pole. Disorder was so bad by late 1863 that General Hoke came with Confederate troops to arrest the “bushwhackers.” He rounded up more than 4,000 men and sent them back to the army. Fighting among North Carolinians was the most vicious in the mountains. Outliers controlled the Brushy Mountains for most of the war. In Yadkin County, a group of conscripts barricaded themselves in a schoolhouse and fought off the Home Guard. A band of five hundred outliers roamed Wilkes County. They were “organized” and “drilled regularly.” When the Home Guard tried to stop them, more than one battle was fought.

Chapter 9: Civil War and Reconstruction

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Egypt Coal Mine Coal was not found often in the North Carolina mountains. The best vein ever tapped in the state was in Lee County, northeast of Sanford.The Egypt Mine was later renamed the Cumnock after the Civil War. Almost its entire production was used by locomotives during the nineteenth century.

Right: Coal mining in the 1800s was a hazardous occupation.

The area around Asheville was deeply divided. The worst episode came in Madison County where Confederate troops shot thirteen old men and boys believed to be outliers, the “most brutal mass murder of prisoners” in state history. This made resistance to the Confederacy even stiffer in some mountain coves. The fierce fighting in the mountains continued until the war ended.

The Peace Movement As the Confederacy struggled to continue, some North Carolinians concluded that secession had been a bad idea. They rallied around the leadership of William W. Holden, a prominent newspaper editor. Holden had originally favored secession. When he saw the suffering in North Carolina, he changed his mind. Holden was particularly angry that North Carolina provided so many resources to the war effort, yet had little role in the leadership of the Confederacy. After the battle of Gettysburg, Holden began to urge the state to seek a separate peace with the North. The proposal soon grew into a Peace Movement. Holden became such a critic of the Confederacy that Georgia soldiers passing through Raleigh came to his office and destroyed his printing press. Opposing Holden throughout the war was Zebulon B. Vance, who had been elected governor in 1862. Vance, who grew up near Asheville, had

William Holden called the war “a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight” because those who were wealthy enough could hire substitutes to serve for them.

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Above: Zebulon B. Vance was elected governor in 1862. A Whig Unionist, he opposed many of Jefferson Davis’s policies.

Confederate President Davis urged Governor Vance to arrest William Holden and charge him with treason. Vance refused.

been the rising star of North Carolina politics during the 1850s. He was said to have been the best speaker ever heard in North Carolina. Early in the Civil War, Vance became the first commander of the regiment trained by Henry Burgwyn. He was so popular in the state that he was elected governor while still in the army. He was the “soldier’s candidate.” As governor, Vance sympathized with those who thought North Carolina was being unfairly treated. He particularly quarreled with the president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis. Vance insisted that all supplies raised in the state go only to North Carolina troops. He worked as hard as he could to make the state’s soldiers comfortable. He led an effort to use the resources of all the state’s factories and foundries (places where iron and steel are made into useful items) to supply state regiments. Vance adamantly opposed the Peace Movement. He argued to citizens across the state that a separate peace meant submission to the North. The consequences could include the execution of public officials, confiscation of slaves, and higher taxes. And, North Carolina would have to fight off a new enemy, for the other southern states would turn against their former ally. In the election of 1864, Vance and Holden were the two candidates for governor. Vance won majorities across the state. Holden received most of his votes in the Uwharries and Brushy Mountains, where anger at the Confederacy was the highest. Fewer than half of the eligible men actually voted. Although Vance got most of the soldier vote, only one-third of them bothered to cast their ballots. Low turnout may have indicated just how upset North Carolina was over the war. Governor Vance, thus, continued to lead a very divided state until the North put an end to resistance in 1865.

It’s Your Turn 1. Why were there flour riots in the state? 2. In what part of the state was resistance to the Confederacy the strongest? 3. Who was the leader of the Peace Movement in North Carolina?

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Reconstruction in the State As you read, look for:

• how the Black Codes affected the freedmen of North Carolina • the steps taken by North Carolina to rejoin the Union • the changes made by the Republicans, including the constitution of 1868 • the problems caused by the Ku Klux Klan in the state • how the Conservatives regained power in the state • vocabulary terms Reconstruction, freedmen, Black Codes, carpetbagger, universal manhood suffrage, segregate, Ku Klux Klan, martial law, Kirk-Holden War, impeach When the Civil War ended in spring 1865, many North Carolinians were on the move. Almost all the state’s soldiers had to walk home, some all the way from Union prisons in Maryland and New York. Thousands of former slaves, who had been freed by the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, moved too. They wanted to live anywhere but on their former plantations. Zeb Vance, the Confederate governor, went off to prison, the only state citizen jailed because of the war. William W. Holden, the Peace Movement leader, moved into Vance’s former home, the Governor’s Mansion. Andrew Johnson, the North Carolina native who became president after Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in 1865, named Holden temporary governor of the state in April. President Johnson’s appointment of Holden was part of his Reconstruction plan. Reconstruction refers to the steps taken to restore the southern states to the Union and rebuild the South. During the five years just after the war, 1865 to 1870, Holden was the most important individual in the state. He worked diligently to reorganize and reform the state, to great opposition from the leaders who had taken North Carolina into the Confederacy. In the end, Holden’s reforms were compromised by violence and intimidation.

This section will help you meet the following objectives:

8.4.04 Assess the roles played by individuals at the state and national levels during the Civil War and Reconstruction.

8.4.05 Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on the state and identify why it came to an end.

Above: President Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh but ran away to Tennessee at age 16.

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Black Codes

The proposed constitution of 1865-1866 was rejected by the people in a vote of 21,770 to 19,880.

Above: North Carolinian Walter Hines Page called William W. Holden “one of the foremost men in intellectual power and daring that were ever born here.”

In the election in November 1865, William W. Holden was defeated for governor by Jonathan Worth, who had been the state treasurer. The legislature elected in November ratified the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (as instructed by the national government) and drafted a new state constitution. The legislature also passed a series of laws that defined the social status of the newly freed slaves, or freedmen as they were called. The laws, soon called Black Codes, allowed the freedmen to be married, to educate their children, and to own property. However, the same laws denied freedmen many rights that whites took for granted. Black families could not move from one county to another without a pass from the sheriff. Black men could not own firearms, and they could not serve on juries. Most of all, freedmen were required to sign an annual contract with an employer, which meant they could not change jobs more than once a year. The contract also required them to pay for all expenses they owed their employer before they could move to another job. As most freedmen knew, this was really just slavery rewritten, despite the claims of the Thirteenth Amendment. By 1866, other southern states had also written Black Codes, and the federal government, dominated by the Republican Party, moved to stop this. They told North Carolina its laws for freedmen were invalid. Congress reinstated a military occupation in the South. Congress told North Carolina that it would not be readmitted to the Union until it rewrote its laws and passed a new constitution to recognize freedmen as citizens. William W. Holden organized the Republican Party in North Carolina to do what Congress required. When a federal official ruled that freedmen could vote in the election for the constitutional convention, Holden and other white leaders welcomed blacks into the Republican Party. With the help of black votes, the Republicans won the election of 1867, electing 107 delegates to the Conservative Democrats 13.

State Constitution of 1868 Delegates from across the state came to Raleigh in 1868 to write a new state constitution. Twenty-three of the delegates were former slaves, and half of the white Republicans had never before held significant political office. A few of the whites were carpetbaggers, men from north-

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ern states who had come to North Carolina to gain power and fortune. Together, they formed a government in tune with the needs of the common people. AMENDMENT XIII The new constitution differed Ratified December 6, 1865 from the 1835 constitutional reSection 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishforms in a number of ways. ment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist First and foremost, the constiwithin the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. tution established the idea of universal manhood suffrage. In other AMENDMENT XIV words, all men over the age of 21 Excerpt could vote regardless of their color or their economic status. Before, Ratified July 9, 1868 slave men had been excluded from Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject all voting, and poor white men to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State could not vote for state senators. wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall Second, the constitution greatly abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor increased the number of public ofshall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due fices chosen by the people. Before, process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal prothe counties were run by aptection of the laws. pointed justices of the peace. The new constitution created the AMENDMENT XV county commission, where comRatified February 3, 1870 missioners were elected. The governor’s term of office was inSection 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be creased from two years to four denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, years. color, or previous condition of servitude. Third, the constitution required that the state provide more services for its people. Most importantly, public education was no longer optional for the counties. Every community had to provide schools for its children. Both black and white children were to be provided with schools, although the constitution allowed them to be segregated (separated by race). With the passage of the 1868 constitution, the many new poor voters North Carolina voters were able to elect a Republican government. After several failed attempts, ratified the new William W. Holden was finally elected governor. He immediately started constitution in April to improve conditions within the state.

Figure 18 Reconstruction Amendments

by a vote of 93,086 to 74,046.

Radical Republicans in Control The first step of the new legislature was to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. With that ratification and the new state constitution, North Carolina was readmitted to the Union in July 1868. The Republicans in the legislature also passed laws that allowed the state to borrow money to rebuild and expand the state’s railroads. The same legislature expanded institutions for the handicapped and created

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Central Prison in Raleigh, where criminals from across the state were to be jailed. The idea was to take hardened convicts and get them away from overcrowded and haphazardly run county jails. Despite being the majority, Republicans faced great opposition from the former supporters of the Confederacy, who called themselves Conservatives. Building all the rail lines, schools, and other institutions had led to increased taxes. The basis for taxes remained land, and former Confederates owned most of the land. The Conservatives were particularly upset with the mismanagement of railroad construction. In most cases, the contractors cheated the state out of money and failed to complete the job on time. The Conservatives faulted carpetbaggers for misleading the former freedmen into making bad decisions for the state. Holden and his allies, they said, were too “radical” and took the state too far in a new direction.

White Conservatives Regain Control The Conservatives worked hard to regain control of the state. Influential newspapers in Raleigh and Charlotte exposed every wrongdoing on the part of the radicals. Some of the reporting was fair, and some wasn’t. Most of all, the white-run newspapers highlighted any mistake made by a freedman legislator. The Conservatives also organized a variety of groups to intimidate Republicans. During 1869, the Ku Klux Klan became an active arm of the Conservative resistance. As many as 40,000 white North Carolinians may have belonged. The purpose was clearly stated by one member: “to provide an intelligent white man’s government.” The Klan had originated in Tennessee right after the Civil War as a social organization for Confed-

Right: Starting as a social group, the Ku Klux Klan became a secret political terrorist organization. It tried to stop Republicans, mostly blacks, from voting. Above: This costume was typical of KKK dress.

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erate veterans. It soon developed into a secret, racist organization and spread across the South. “Ku Kluxers,” as they were first called, generally wore horned masks and red gowns to conceal their identity. These “night riders” made more than 250 “visitations” to Republicans in twenty-five counties. More than two-thirds of those visited were black residents. Sometimes they just warned a freedman not to be active with the Republicans. Other times, the Klansmen whipped their victims for some alleged offense. One white Republican near the town of Hickory was whipped because he supposedly encouraged his daughter to date a black man. The Klan was accused of having committed at least fifteen murders, mostly in the area of Caswell, Alamance, and Orange counties. In 1870, for example, a long procession of robed horsemen took Wyatt Outlaw, a freedman who had been brave enough to speak out against the Klan, to a tree at the courthouse in the town of Graham and hanged him. Later that year in Caswell County, John Stephens, a white Republican who dared the Klan to come for him, was stabbed to death.

Above: During Reconstruction, “provost marshals” (today’s military police) were charged with keeping order. This group of provost marshals operated in the Morganton area.

The Kirk-Holden War To stop the Klan from taking over key places in the state, Governor Holden declared martial law, which occurs when military forces are used to keep order. Suspected Klan members in Caswell and Alamance counties were arrested and held without charge or trial. To make the arrests, Holden sent state militia from the western counties under the command

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THE ART OF POLITICS

This 1876 cartoon depicting the burial of radicalism in North Carolina uses a collage technique to combine drawing with cutout photographs of North Carolina politicians. Can you find Zeb Vance and William Holden? What was radicalism? What caused its death?

of Colonel George Kirk, who had been a Union officer during the war. Some of Kirk’s men were black, and some were from Tennessee. Conservatives across the state severely criticized Holden for making so many arrests with so little evidence. Conservatives called this the Kirk-Holden War, since it seemed as if the Civil War was still being fought. In the legislative election of 1870, fifteen counties that had voted Republican in 1868 switched to the Conservatives. The Klan had been active in ten of those counties, an indication that its terrorism had worked. The Klan continued to do mischief and mayhem until a federal act outlawing it generally ended its activities after 1872.

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Redemption in North Carolina The Conservative legislature increased its control of the state by getting rid of Governor Holden. In 1871, Holden was impeached. That is, charges were filed against him for wrongdoing while in office, specifically for the way he arrested so many people without charge. Holden was convicted in part because he was not allowed to enter testimony about the Ku Klux Klan. The Conservatives ruled that since the Klan did not exist, it was not to be discussed. Holden was removed from office, the first governor in United States history to whom this happened. The Conservatives then worked to “redeem” the state by undoing as many of the radicals’ reforms as they could. They could do nothing about the fact that freedmen were now citizens and that black men could vote. This was guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution. But the Conservatives could amend the state constitution to change the way state government worked. Because the Conservatives held a one-vote majority over the Republicans at the constitutional convention of 1875, they amended the Holden reforms. The most important amendments gave the legislature more control over the freedmen in the state. The legislature was given the power to choose the justices of the peace that were in each neighborhood across the state. Often, these justices of the peace had been black Republicans in areas with a large freedman population. The convention also required that schools be segregated. And, the convention made it tougher for poor men who moved around a lot to register to vote. The amendments proposed by the convention of 1875 were hotly debated in the election of 1876. Conservatives, who had begun to rename themselves Democrats, argued that they were bringing “redemption” to the state, that they were saving it from the trouble caused by the radicals. Zeb Vance, the old Civil War governor, led the Conservatives to victory. Vance was elected governor, all the amendments were passed, and Democrats once again were in control.

Before the impeachment verdict was announced, Governor Holden left the state to avoid being arrested.

Above: Lieutenant Governor Tod R. Caldwell of Burke County became governor when William Holden was removed. Caldwell was elected governor in his own right in 1872.

It’s Your Turn 1. What was the purpose of the Black Codes? 2. How did universal manhood suffrage differ from free suffrage? 3. How did the Ku Klux Klan intimidate black voters? 4. Why was Governor Holden impeached?

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