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L

U

N

I

E)

RARY

OF THL I

VERS ITY

or ILLINOIS

9171

Ll3nE 1905 ILL HIST. SURVfcl

LAHONTAN'S

NEW VOYAGES TO NORTH-AMERICA EDITED BY

REUBEN GOLD THWAITES,

Volume

I

LL.D.

in A. C. McCLURG & CO.'S series of LIBRARY REPRINTS OF AMERICANA THE EXPEDITION OF LEWIS AND CLARK

Volumes

Reprinted from the Edition of 1814. With Introduction and Index by James K. Hosmer, LL.D. In two volumes, with photogravure portraits and maps, $5.00 net.

HENNEPIN'S "A

NEW DISCOVERY"

Exact Reprint of the Second Issue of 1698. With Introduction, Notes, and an analytical Index by Reuben Gold Thwaites, LL.D. In two volumes, with facsimiles of original title-pages and of the seven original full-page illustrations, and two large folding maps. $6.00 net.

GASS'S

LEWIS

JOURNAL OF THE

AND CLARK EXPEDITION

Reprinted from the Edition of 181 1. With an analytiand Introduction by James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D. In one volume, with facsimiles of the original

cal Index,

title-page

and of the

five original illustrations,

reproduction of a rare portrait of Gass.

$3.50

and a net.

LAHONTAN'S NEW VOYAGES

TO NORTH AMERICA Exact Reprint of the English Edition of 1703. With Introduction, Notes, and an analytical Index by Reuben In two volumes, with facGold Thwaites, LL.D. similes of the original title-pages, and of the twentyfour maps and illustrations. ^7-5° "''•

NEW VOYAGES TO

NORTH-AMERICA BY THE

BARON

DE

LAHONTAN

Reprinted from the English edition of ijo^^ with facsimiles of original title-pages^ maps, and illustrations, and the addition of Introduction, Notes,

and Index

By Reuben Gold Thwaites, LL.D. Editor of

"The

and Allied Documents,^' Hennepin's Discovery " etc.

Jesuit Relations

"New

3n

CttJo l^olumeis

Volume

A. C.

I

CHICAGO McCLURG & 1905

CO.

Copyright A. C.

McCLURG &

CO.

1905

Published February 25, 1905

Chicago. Composition by The Dial Press. Press, Cambridge. Press-work by The University

CONTENTS — VOLUME

>

^ -si

— The Editor Bibliography —

I PAGE

Introduction

Lahonton

ix

Victor

Hugo

Paltsits

.

.

Lahontan's "New Voyages to North-America" Volume I.



Title-page (facsimile of original)

Dedication to the

Duke

I

of Devonshire

3

Preface

b J

5

Contents of Letters, Memoirs, Discourses, Dialogue etc., in

Letters

I

both Volumes (November 8, 1683) -XXV (January

13 31

1694)

25

Memoirs of North-America ical

_ '^

"^

;

containing a Geograph-

Defcription of that vaft Continent

Introductory Remarks

the Cuftoms

.... .... ....

A fhort Defcription of Canada A Lift of the Savage Nations of Canada A Lift of the Animals of Canada A Defcription of fuch Animals or Beafts, A

Lift of the

Fowl or Birds

Countries of Canada -J

;

and Commerce of the Inhabitants, &c.

not mention'd in the Letters >5^

li

The

.

.

299 301

339 343

as are

.....

345

that frequent the South

Birds of the North Countries of Canada

.

350 351

Contents

vi

PAGE

A

Defcription of fuch Birds as are not accounted for in

A

my

353

Defcription of the Infects of Canada

The Names from

The

of the

its

Fifti in

Mouth

The

.

357

.

the River of St. Laurence,

to the

Lakes of Canada

Fifh that are found in the

and

A

Letters

358

.

Lakes of Canada,

in the Rivers that fall into

'em

.

.

.

359

Fifh found in the River of Miffifipi

.

.

359

Defcription of the Fifh that are not mention'd

360

in the Letters

The Trees and

Fruits of the South Countries of

Canada

The

3^4

Trees and Fruits of the

North Countries of

Canada

A

3^4

Defcription of the above-mention'd Trees and

366

Fruits

A

Defcription of the Trees and Fruits of the

Northern Countries

A

General view of the

The Names

Commerce

37® of

Canada

.

their Rates

An

379

Account of the Government of Canada

in

3^^

General

A

Difcourfe of the Interefl of the French, and of the Englifh, in North-America

A

373

of the Skins given in exchange, with

.

.

Table explaining fome Terms made ufe of both Volumes

.

394

in

401

"

ILLUSTRATIONS— VOLUME

I

(facsimiles of originals) PAGE

A

the

beaver;

of buffaloes;

hunting

savages

drying their meat

Map Map

Frontispiece

of the Great Lakes of the

"Canows plans

straits

"The Hunting

.



Rackets, and the

of divers Animals"

Difcovery of an Ambufcade "

"A Map that

of y^

fall

Com.

and jj



,,124





15^

o

,,

188



way of

.

.

.



220

.

.

.



254



284

»

3^^

,,

344

»

3^4

Long River and of fome

others

into that fmall part of y^ Great River

of Miflifipi which

is

here laid

down"

— with

sketch-plans of a house, a vessel, and a medal "

The Attack

"

The

Map

oo

call'd

.....

curiofity of the

hunting Elks"

France,

.

.

.

.

.

.

i

,,36

....••••

Canada"

The

— sketches

made of Birch-bark "

M^ De la Barre's camp " "A General Map of New

"

...

of Mackinac

"

"The

Facing

of Quebec

Great bay of Placentia " of Newfoundland

.... .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

INTRODUCTION department of the Basse-Pyrenees, once a INparttheoffrontier the ancient province Beam, gently-undulating of

hillsides

which occupy middle ground between the broadstretching pastures and marshes of the Landes and

ViUageof Lahontan.

over-topping escarpments of the Pyrenees,

^j^g

pleasant

the

village

little

twelve hundred souls, is

on

it

A

of Lahontan.

lies

community of

boasts of an interesting history, but

now almost unknown in its dreamy isolation, save that the may remember that it was once the fief of the illus-

scholar trious

Montaigne.

About

the middle of the seventeenth century,

Lahontan

Lom,

Sieur

d'Arce, the father of our author, was the second baron.

The

was erected into

Lahontan's father.

Sieur d'Arce was famous as a civil engineer, having

made

vessels

a barony, of which Isaac de

(1630-48).

As

military services, Louis

ever (1658) a

Bayonne navigable for sea-going

the port of

recompense for

a

XIV

this

and certain

granted to him and his heirs for-

monopoly of navigation and transportation

in

the harbor of Bayonne, and a pension of three thousand livres

per

annum

for a

dozen years

reformer-general of

Beam,

Navarre, a chevalier of

His

first

St.

;

in later years,

a councillor of the

he was

made

parlement of

Michel, and a bourgeois of Bayonne.

wife (Jeanne Guerin), with

whom

he had lived

for fifteen years, having died in 1663 without issue, he con-

X

Introduction

tracted

in

his old

age a second marriage, this time with

Jeanne-Fran^oise

Birth of

our author,

^^g )^^^^

le

Fascheux de Couttes.

Lahontan, the ninth of June, 1666,

^^

Louis-Armand, whose book of adventurous heart of

North America we

was presented than the sister,

at the

Comte

the

the stage

travel

in

The

are here reprinting.

the

infant

baptismal font by no less personages

de Guiche, then governor of Beam, and his

Marquise de Lons, of

To them

life,

in

—a

distinguished welcome to

strong contrast

to

experiences

the

incident to his departure.

When young at the

age of eighty.

Baron Isaac A

Louis was but eight years old,

shattered

estate.

until

after,

his father died

Honors and wealth had accompanied

about the time of

his son's

he became involved in the

toils of

obligations

incurred by his great engineering operations, and of

the lawsuits incidental thereto.

Le Baron de Lahontan

et

The son

inherited the

title

of

Hesleche (to-day, d'Esleich), and

shattered estate which went from bad to worse.

wonder is

birth; there-

It is

a

small

that one of the characteristic features of his Voyages

an unquenchable bitterness against lawyers and legal pro-

cesses.

After the fashion of the times, the third baron had from his cradle

been destined for the army; and while

still

a child,

family influence secured for him a cadetship in the famous

Bourbon regiment. Later, young noblcmau Dedicated to the army.

the

^^g entered

as a

in

the effort to secure for the

a

more rapid advancement, he

"garde"

in the

marine corps



Department of the Marine being then entrusted with the

Introduction

xi

From earliest boyhood, Louis had heard Canada. From a neighboring seignory had gone

care of colonies.

much

of

forth the Baron de St. Castin, famous in the annals of Maine;

the land of the Basques, on both the Spanish and the French slopes of the Pyrenees, had for nearly two centuries been a recruiting

ground

for adventurers to the

New World;

Louis's relative, Claude Bragelonne, a high

official

and

in

the

French army, had been one of the Company of the Hundred

monopoly long exploited the commerce

Associates, whose

of the king's ambitious colony over seas.

had but

just

France.

Lefebvre de

la

Barre

succeeded Count Frontenac as governor of

His

petition to the court for eight

troops to be used

in

New

hundred regular

proposed chastisements of the death-

dealing Iroquois, had been in part met by sending to his assistance three companies of

of 1683.

Enrolled

among

exactly in what official

Armand de Lorn

French marines

autumn

in the



members of this detachment was Louiscapacity, we do not know the



d'Arce, the youthful Baron de Lahontan,

then seventeen years of age.

Lahontan's outlook on

made

of him a cynic.

The

a life of reverses first

had thus early

Letter in his Voyages^ describ-

ing the trip to America, contains premonitory that caustic

pen

;

humor which was soon

here, as later, description

is

and information with persiflage. late

when

freely

The

the frigate left Rochelle

November, with

;

it

mingled with season was

was already

Lawrence and

scoffing, Arrival in

^^^

France.

its

rugged

when Quebec was reached

after a

drift ice in the St.

shores white with snow,

symptoms of

to be characteristic of his

Introduction

xii

tempestuous voyage.

"I cannot," Lahontan

mous correspondent, "as Country, excepting that

yet give

'tis

anony-

tells his

you any account of the

The day

mortally cold."

ing the arrival of the troops, the great

La

follow-

Salle left the little

wilderness capital on his voyage to France, whence he was to

embark

for the Gulf of

Mexico upon

his

fateful

final,

enterprise.

The marines

at

once went into winter quarters "

Villages or Cantons adjacent."

It fell to

fome

in

Lahontan's share to

be billeted among the habitants of Beaupre, some seventeen miles

down

the river from Quebec.

boors of thofe Mauors

A

winter

at

Beauprd.

convcniency than an

There, he declares, "the live

infinity

with

more

House."

furnifh'd

enormous

all

a well

and the

month

of

Decem-

appears to have been contented with his

frost, the lad

in

meafure, from the

Despite the nipping and protracted

ber, to that of April."

Hunting

good and

fire-places,

wood consumed, "by reafon of the they make to guard themfelves from the Cold,

beyond

there

is

"lives in a

remarks the vast

this "free fort

quantities of

prodigious Fires

which

He

whom

and

of the Gentlemen in

France;" and he has many pleasant words for of People," every one of

eafe

company with

lot.

the Indians, acquiring the dialects

of the tribesmen, and visiting their villages in sledges and

upon snow-shoes, with

now and then hill-top in

a

few

gay assembly

official

duties intermingled, and

at the little colonial

court on the

neighboring Quebec, furnished agreeable diversity

of occupation.

among

a

the

His

letters give us a pleasing picture of life

easy-going habitants in the suburbs; and from

Introduction

them we

xiii

also obtain a vivid notion of the aspect of the little

frontier capital, in this hey-day of

New

France.

In the spring (1684), Lahontan proceeded under orders

Along

to Montreal.

the way, during a leisurely progress, he

picked up odds and ends of information, and cleverly described

accompanied

an

what he saw. expedition

Late

which

in

in brief

June, he

Governor La

phrase

An Iroquois ""^p^'S"-

Barre undertook against the recalcitrant Iroquois, and on the eleventh of the following at

month

arrived with the advance party

Fort Frontenac, where they awaited the main body of the

army; but owing to the delays incident to such enterprises

under primitive conditions, a start

was some

five

weeks

later before

Crossing Lake Ontario the

could be made.

umn took up

it

little col-

near Famine River, being there so

a position

wasted by malarial fever that La Barre was forced to an igno-

minious peace, which soon led to his

The

recall

story of this unfortunate expedition

from the colony.

is

skilfully told

by

Lahontan, who gives the speeches of the governor and of the Iroquois envoys

In

phrases which have become classic examples

of Indian oratory and diplomacy.

The at

following winter, the young baron passed in garrison

With

Montreal.

the opening of spring (1685) he was sent

with a detachment to the frontier fort of Chambly, where the

summer was spent

in the congenial

occupation of accompany-

ing the neighboring habitants and tribesmen .

their •

,

,

1

.

upon

hunting and fishing parties, which he de•

,

,

f

close observer of nature.

sportsman and

fishing

expeditions.

.

scribes with the gusto of a true

Hunting and

.

a

In September he was ordered to

Introduction

xiv

on the habitants

Bouchervllle, to be quartered

of a year and a half



for he was given his at

for the space

a protracted sojourn, but without ennui, fill

of sport, especially of elk hunting,

one tima being absent upon such an excursion for three

months

in

mid-winter.

On

another occasion, he spent an

autumn month "in a Canow upon feveral Rivers, Marflies, and Pools, that difembogue in the Champlain Lake, being accompany'd with

thirty or forty of the Savages that are very

expert in Shooting and Hunting, and perfedly well acquainted

with the proper places for finding Water-foul, Deer, and

He

other fallow Beafts." of the

gives us careful reports not only

chase, but of the habits of the birds

methods of the

and animals, spiced with much humor and keen comment on

men and

things.

Dearly as the baron loved sport, he appears to have

devoted much of his spare time, even when

in forest

camps

amid rude wood-rangers and savages, to study and to mental A

student

of the

growth. °

" Befides the pleafure of fo

forts of Diverfion," he writes,

ciassics.

^^}^5jj j„ tj^g

old Gentlemen that liv'd in

Companions. with us, but

many ti

"I was hkewiie enter-

my

with the

dear Lucian, were

my

infeperable

Ariftotle too defir'd paffionately to

my Canow

was too

age of Peripatetick Silogifms

:

little

We

go along

to hold his bulky Equip-

So that he was e'en

trudge back to the Jefuits, who vouchfaf'd him ourable Reception."

different -r

company of the honeft former Ages. Honeft Homer, the

Woods

amiable Anacreon, and

t

doubtless obtain here a

a

fain to

very hon-

ghmpse of

the source of the Dialogues with Adario, which occupy so

xv

Introduction large a share of the second volume

;

Lucian apparently

fur-

nished the model for those caustic satires on the Christianity civilization of the seventeenth century.

and

The

studies and pleasures of this interesting

at-arms were

by the

occasionally interfered with

He

of the priests about him.

young manausterities

when

indignantly relates that

stationed in Montreal he was "inrag'd at the impertinent Zeal

room in his absence, the Romance of the this over-zealous Table, he fell upon it with Adventures of Petronius upon my Seeking

of the Curate of this City."

his

ecclesiastic " finding

an unimaginable fury, and tore out almoft

This Book caftrated;

I

valued more than

and indeed

wrack, that

if

my

I

was

my

all

Life, becaufe 'twas not

provok'd when

fo

the Leaves.

I

Landlord had not held me,

saw I

it all

in

had gone

immediately to that turbulent Paftor's House, and would have pluck'd out the Hairs of his Beard with as did the Leaves of

St.

was about to try quois, into

mercy

as he

my Book."

In the spring of 1687

tlements on the

little

all

was bustling confusion

Lawrence.

his

hand

at

In the set-

new governor,

Denonville, the

subduing the irrepressible

Iro-

whom Champlain had unwittingly converted The

sworn enemies of the French. ...

.

,

r

^

expedition yet projected was fitted out

largest

11 by

second iroquois

campaign.

the

soldier-governor, and rendezvoused at the island of St. Helen,

opposite Montreal.

Eight hundred regulars had been sent

over from France, doubling the

With

the

number already

new troops came an order from

allow the return of

in the colony.

the

ministry to

young Lahontan, whose tangled

affairs

Introduction

xvi

were sadly

in

need of

his

presence

in Paris; his relatives

much

secured his furlough by the exercise of

But the governor, needing

ence.

compliance, promising

Lahontan had no

it

all

his useful

personal

had

influ-

men, deferred

for the close of the campaign, and

alternative but to advance a second time into

the country of the Iroquois.

This campaign, while more

than the preceding,

fruitful

effected nothing further than an invasion of the land of the

Seneca, the laying waste of their villages and harvests, and the construction at Niagara of a fort designed to check their

aggressions. Iroquois,

It

who

was upon

this expedition that the

few friendly

had, under missionary tutelage, settled around

Fort Frontenac, were captured by the French and sent oners to France to serve in the royal galleys



pris-

a piece

of

arrant treachery, which the wretched and misguided colony

was to expiate two years massacre

at

Lachine.

later in the fire

and blood of the

Lahontan's sympathies were so keenly

aroused by the unmerited sufferings of these innocent prisoners at Fort Frontenac, that he stood in close a victim to the

wrath of the Algonkin

allies,

savage fashion, delighted in maltreating the

whom own

danger of

who,

ill-fated

falling

in their

Iroquois,

the missionaries had segregated from the care of their

people.

The baron had soundly

thrashed some of the

young tormentors, but was immediately infuriated band,

me."

He

dians,

who

who

set

upon by

the

"flew to their Fufees, in order to kill

was saved only by the interposition of the Cana" affur'd 'em

I

was drunk

drunken Perfons are always excus'd

:

(Among

the Savages,

for, the Bottle attones

xvii

Introduction

Crimes), that

for

all

me

either

Wine

all

the French were prohibited to give

or Brandy, and that

fhould

I

certainly be

Campaign were over." The campaign finished, Lahontan hoped to be allowed

imprifon'd as foon as the

return

France,

to

but

reminding Denonville of

his

an

having

before

to

opportunity of

promise of a furlough, the luck-

was summoned to the great man's presence and informed that because of his knowledge

less officer

q^^^^^j^^ the

Upper

of native languages and his skill in forest diplomacy,

he was detailed forthwith to the

command

of a detachment

destined to the upper lakes, in response to the request of the

Huron and Ottawa

wily a

of

Lake Huron, who wished

to " fee

Fort fo conveniently plac'd, which might favour their

treat

upon any Expedition

Iroquefe ... At

againft the

re-

the

fame time he affur'd me, he would inform the Court of the Reafons that mov'd him to detain me in Canada, notwithftanding that he had orders to give

You may

eafily guefs. Sir, that I

News, when

I

had fed myfelf

all

returning to France, and promoting fo

by

much thwarted." The commands of

leave to

go home.

along with the hopes of

my

Intereft,

which

is

now

the governor were not to be questioned

a subordinate, so the disappointed

his grief

me

was thunderftruck with thefe

Lahontan, smothering

with reflections upon his professional advancement,

once more turned his back on home, and hastily made preparations for his journey into the vast and almost

region of the Northwest.

"

The Men

he writes, " are brisk proper fellows, and b

unknown

my Detachment," my Canows are both

of

Introduction

xviii

new and

large.

I

Gentleman, who

is

am a

go along with Mr. Dulhut,

to

a Lions

Perfon of great Merit, and has done his

M. de Company of

king and his Country very confiderable Services.

Tonti makes another of our Company Savages

his assault

the motley war-party which Denonville had led to

on the insolent Iroquois, was

Indians " brought by their commandant, Fort St

^^^ distant post of Mackinac. flotilla

of birch-bark canoes,

his savage forces at the

Huron

to

Lake the

1687, in

a

to follow us."

is

Among

Joseph,

and

;

a

band of the "

far

La Durantaye, from Sweeping down in a

La Durantaye had

halted

strait leading from Lake and there, on " the seventh of June,

head of the

St. Clair;

presence of the reverend Father Angeleran,

superior of the mission of the Outaouas at Michilimachinac, of Ste. Marie du Sault, of the Miamis, of the

Bale des Puans and of the Sioux, of

mandant of the

fort at St.

Louis

M.

de

la

Illinois,

of the

Forest, late com-

at the Illinois,

and of

M.

de

Beauvais, our lieutenant of the fort of St. Joseph at the strait

of Lakes

Huron and

Erie," had erected the arms of France

and taken formal possession of

this vast region in the

name

of the king.i

The

little

fort of St.

Joseph was a bastioned block-house

of logs, built the previous year by Duluth of the governor

— one

upon

the orders

of the long chain of French posts

designed to keep English negotiants from the fur country. ^ Prise de possession (vol.x, fol. 206, Archives du Canada, at Paris), quoted in Roy's excellent paper on " Le Baron de Lahontan," in Can. Roy. Soc. Proceed-

ings, 1894, sec.

i,

p. 79, note.

xix

Introduction

and to control the vagrant coureiirs des bois. This hnportant vantage point, refounded (1701) some miles below by La Mothe de la Cadillac, was the place to which the young

Gascon was designated, and for whose command he was required to abandon the gayeties of Paris, and the more important business regarding his estates. Setting forth from Fort Niagara on the third of August, Lahontan and his companions proceeded westward as fast as the crude transportation facilities of their day

would permit.

The

first

Thejour-

"^y°"'stage was the long Niagara portage, "being oblig'd to tranfport our Canows from a League and a half below the

great Fall of Niagara, to half a League above

it.

Before we

got at any beaten or level Path, we were forc'd to climb up three Mountains,

upon which an hundred Iroquefe might

on the head with Stones." Frequently attacked by these " cruel Fellows," Lahontan was naturally much alarmed at the danger of falling into the hands of such

have knock'd us

all

expert torturers, declaring that " live in the

midft of Fire

is

To

die

is

nothing but to

This constant fear

too much."

apparently paralyzed our author's usual powers of description, for he

dismisses with a scant paragraph the " fearful

Cataract," which nine years before the garrulous Friar

Hen-

nepin had so carefully pictured with both pen and pencil.

The

little

company

the North-Coaft of the fish

of whites and savages " coafted along

Lake of Erie,"

and wild turkeys, and arrived

Huron on

feasting abundantly

at

mouth

the

the fourteenth of September.

"

You

of

on

Lake

cannot im-

agine," he assures his correspondent, " the pleafant

profped

XX

Introduction

of this Strelght, and of the

The

garrison of the

little

Poft very chearfully"

from duty,

relieved

in the

and quickly

fur-traders,

camps of the savages. Duluth and Tonty having in

left

[of St. Clair]

for

log fortress " surrendered their

newcomers and, being now

way of

their kind at once turned

scattered

throughout the distant

tarried for a few days, the former

some supplies

at this station

and being interested

Joseph.

Spring.

Charmed with

the beauty and free

country, the youthful

|.j^g

he had become

the

chase, to which

passionately devoted, and dallying with parties

of tribesmen that passed up and

or hunting.

of

life

commandant passed

autumn agreeably enough, occupied with the

down bent on

war, plunder,

But the ensuing winter was rigorous to

that restricted hunting, is

;

forts of wild Fruit-Trees."

a crop of Indian corn which he had sown the previous

Life at Fort St.

all

the

to

Lake

little

their banks are cover'd with

a

degree

and the consequent short commons

suggested by Lahontan's

remark that the Jesuit Father

sly

Claude Aveneau, who arrived towards the end of November to serve as chaplain, "

found no occafion to trouble himfelf

with preaching Abftinance from

By

the

first

Meat

in the

time of Lent."

of April (1688), the restless

doubt intensely wearied by the long and

commander, no

inactive winter, sought

excuse in his lack of provisions to set out with the majority of Departure for

Mackinac.

his forcc



£qj. ^j^g

— a Small httle

garrison being

left at

the fort

French military and trading station

then on the north shore of the

strait of

Mackinac, to " buy

up Corn from the Hurons and Outaouans."

Soon

after his

Introduction

xxi

arrival at that distant outpost, there

La Salle's austere Texan colony of

Cavelier,

France were

World

desperate

in

brother, and the other survivors

learned also that his

From

straits.

own

the " fagg

" he thereupon addressed a letter to the

three

hundred Crowns

Gaves of by a

Guns

Son of

fifty

Beam Gun Ship, .

.

in

end of the

An

appeal

^°' protection,

Gentleman that fpent

a

affairs in

Marquis de

Seignelay, then powerful at court, craving his protection for the "

Abbe

that ill-fated explorer.

of the lost

At Mackinac Lahontan

appeared there

deepening the Water of the two

rendering the Bar of Bayonne paffable

.

whereas

durft not venture over

in

former times a Frigot of ten

it

.

.

and the bringing down

.

of Mafts and Yards from the Pyrenean Mountains, which

could never have been effected,

if

he had not by his Care,

and by the disburfing of immenfe Sums, enlarged the quantity of

Water

Not

in

the

Gave of Oleron

only, pleads our petitioner,

and fees been cut

to a double proportion."

had the entailed privileges

off at his father's death,

been denied several high

political positions,

but the son had *'

all

which were

mine by Inheritance"; and now there followed "an unjuft Seizure

that

fome pretended Creditors have made of the

Barony of

la

Hontan, of

tiguous to

it,

and of

the hands of the

a

a piece of

Chamber

that his absence in the

of Bayonne."

American wilds

of his creditors, and asks for

Year," that he

"Leave

may confront and

The wander

Ground

that lies con-

hundred thoufand Livres that

is

to

He

is

lay in

confident

the sole justification

come home

the next

rout them.

lust strong within his veins, the

adventurous

Introduction

xxii lieutenant roved

as far afield

neighboring regions, and Rovings

in

as Sault

Ste.

Marie and the

July joined a party of Chippewa

o^ ^^ inglorious raid into the Iroquois country,

in

the Northwest,

Lake Huron, stopping at his fort only to It was upon this excursion, far land a few sacks of corn. removed from his field of duty, that Lahontan was accom^^g^ q£

Huron

panied by the

and immortalized Late

chief.

The

under the

in his Voyages^

summer he returned situation now untenable.

in the

found the

had stopped

at the

whom

Rat,

he has idealized

title

" Adario."

to Fort St. Joseph, but Parties of Indians

who

post for the usual parleying and present-

begging, brought news of the reduction of the garrison at Niagara

joseph

by disease and

destitution, of its

probable abandonment, also of the peace which Denonville was " clapping up " with their common foe, the Iroquois.

Lahontan reasoned that

all

this

rendered his fort

of no value, that he had an accumulation of scarce two months' provisions, and having received neither orders nor supplies

from the governor, was thus thrown upon

He

therefore abandoned his

house and

its

own

command, burned

discretion.

the block-

stockade, and on the twenty-seventh of

embarked with

his

all

men

August

for Mackinac, where he arrived

the tenth of the following month. his

his

on

In the French edition of

work, the commandant elaborately argues that while the

abandonment of officer in

his

Europe,

it

post would be a misdemeanor in an

was

in the

example of military sagacity.

ment on

this

question, there

far interior of

America an

Whatever may be one's judgis

no evidence that Lahontan

xxiii

Introduction

because of this action was either reprimanded or degraded

Doubless Fort

rank.

of

and

affairs,

Upon

at this juncture

destruction certainly resulted in no disad-

its

New

vantage to

Joseph was valueless

St.

France.

reaching Mackinac with his detachment, the baron

found advices to the

effect that

ordered to return with

his

men

he had been relieved, and to

Quebec, provided " the

Seafon and other Circumftances permit; or to tarry here

the Spring

till

if I

ordered

to

^"'=''"-

forefee unfurmountable Dif-

ficulties in the Paffage."

But the convoys for that year had

returned to the lower country, and the inac

in

and the savages united

commandant

at

Mack-

representing to him the

in

diffi-

culties of the journey, the rapids to be run, the hazardous With comparatively inexperienced portages to be made.

soldiers this

was

all

but impossible, and they must perforce

content themselves in the upper country until the arrival of spring.

Lahontan himself has been our guide; his accounts of his own adventures and shortcomings have been recorded in the letters with a naivete and a wealth of detail

Thus

far

that bear the

stamp of

But we now come

verity.

...

that apochryphal relation in the Voyages^

many years

has caused the entire

by historians

Long.

as fiction

Writing to

announces

his

Countries that

my

felf

up here

his friend

intention I

— the

work

which for

this

J

^^

^^.^.^^

to the

River Loag.

to be rejected

alleged journey to the River

under date of September

"to

travel

Winter."

The

i8,

he

through the Southern

have fo often heard of," for "

all

to

following

I

cannot

May

mew

he gives

xxiv to

Introduction

correspondent

his

a particularized

and highly readable

account of the tour which he pretends to have made, accompanied by "

my own Detachment

and

the Outaouas," later supplemented by

five

good Huntsmen of

Fox (Outagami)

guides.

Leaving Mackinac on the twenty-fourth of September, the story goes, the explorers coasted along the northwest

shore of Lake Michigan, visited the Sauk, Potawatomi, and

Menominee

villages

the mile-and-a-half

on Green Bay, ascended Fox River, made

swampy portage

to the Wisconsin (Octo-

ber 16-19), and arrived at the Mississippi four days

Working

their

of the River

way up

that river, the party reached the

Long on

the second of

baron claims to have ascended for its

November.

many leagues,

later.

mouth

This the

visiting

upon

banks the wonderful nations of the Eokoros, Esanapes,

and Gnacsitares, from

whom

he gathered information con-

Mozeemlek and Tahuglauk beyond also of a West that emptied itself into a salt lake of hundred leagues in circumference. At the western

cerning the

;

river in the far

three

limit of this voyage,

Lahontan, as was the custom of French

explorers in that day, set of France done

Upon

up

a

long pole, bearing the

"Arms

a Plate of Lead."

the twenty-sixth of January (1689), the adventurers

set out

upon

ond

March.

of

upon

the return, reaching the Mississippi

Continuing their

trip as far

on the

sec-

down stream

as

mouth of the Ohio, they returned to Illinois River, by means of which and the Chicago portage they entered Lake Michigan, finally arriving at Mackinac the twenty-second of May. Two weeks later, in the company of twelve Ottawa the

xxv

Introduction

Indians, in two canoes, our author set out for Montreal by

the Ottawa River route, after an absence of two years in the

wilderness and

among

"July the 9th

I

the savages of the Northwest.

arriv'd at Montreal, after venturing

feveral fearful Cataracts in the River of the

enduring the hardfhips of

fome of which are above

a

fifteen or

League

down

Outaouas, and

twenty Land-carriages,

Near-

in length."

fhe return '«

ing Montreal, his canoe overturned in the Sault St.

Quebec.

Louis, but he was saved by the adroitness of the Chevalier de

Vaudreuil

— "The only time

I

"through the whole courfe of

was

my

in

danger," he exclaims,

He

Voyages."

found the

colony calmly watching the departure of the unpopular Governor Denonville, but eagerly awaiting the return of the Count

de Frontenac, "for that Governour drew Efteem and Veneration, not only

from the French, but from

this vaft Continent,

who look'd upon him

all

the Nations of

Guardian

as their

Angel."

But when the new governor came on the ber, he "

.

.

.

I

had to go for France,

me a free accefs to his Pocket and am bound to obey." Frontenac made penniless and now disconsolate baron a com-

and has

offer'd

and

of the

countermanded the leave

fo

at the farthest outposts,

and

took counsel of him

desperate condition of

New

;

his

The

Table friend of

f''°°te°3 167, 185,

189, 190, and 191; a folded Signatures. Copies.

— A— K

— ]CB,

Suite |

Du

I

Voyage,

I

— French — Vol. De I'Amerique,

|

Baron de Lahontan

Contenant une defcription I

Peuples Sauvages.

Danemarc, dans

|

|

Avec

lefquels

|

Et d'un

|

Ou Dialogues

|

Sauvage,

exacte des moeurs les

Voyages du

on trouve des

3.

&

meme

parti-

|

|

en Portgugal

|

cularitez tres curieufes,

|

|

Londres, chez David Mortier, Li-

M. DCCIV.

Collation.

& en

enrichi de Cartes

\

|

|

De Mon-

des coutumes de ces

|

1

|

Dans I'Amerique.

& qu'on n'avoit point encore remarquees. Le tout & de Figures. \_Small scrolled ornament^ A Amsterdam, Chez la Veuve de Boeteman, d'Erafme.

p. 5.

LP. 1704

fieur le

"Carte generale de Canada" opp.

in twelves.

— i2mo;

|

Et

fe

vend

|

A

braire dans le Strand, a I'Enfeigne

|

title,

verso blank; " Preface," pp. (12);

"Avis

Lahontan Bibliography

De

I'Auteur

Au

Lecteur," pp. (2); "Dialogues," pp. 1-103;

blank;

half-title:

tugal,

Et en

I

I

"Voyages

and 9th

Plates.

— Opposite pp.

—*

Signatures. is

of

[105];

is

p.

of vols.

1704

I

new

The

118, 149, and 155; a

i,

A— I

— LLQ, 1704

Dialogues Sauvage,

moeurs

du

|

3d, 5th,

ist,

map

of Portugal at

in twelves,

K

This volume

in three.

A

|

— French

De

&

Dialogues issue

:

Monfieur

le

|

&

en

Chez

|

la

|

M. DCCIV.

Collation.

— This

which

as already

original with a

new

— BM,

is

3.

Baron de Lahontan

|

Et d'un

|

Avec

|

Danemarc, dans

lefquels

& qu'on n'avoit & de Figures.

\_Cut,

tout enrichi de Cartes

Amsterdam,

Copies.

— Vol.

des coutumes de ces Peuples Sauvages.

en Portugal

Le

Erafme.

of the Supl'ement ; by the

|

Contenant une defcription exacte des

|

|

|

|

les

Voyages

on trouve des

point encore remar-

Veuve de Boeteman,

Londres, chez David Mortier, Li-

year,

have seen sets of the "Angel issue "

1704 called Dialogues {vide next item).

issue of

cularitez tres curieuses,

I

quees.

|

Supl'e-

NL.

Dans I'Amerique.

|

meme

parti-

We

title-page.

and by the

Suite,

Por-

at p. 145.

and 2 accompanied by the 1703 edition

Copies.

[104]

blank; text of

[106]

mispaged 89.

p.

En

|

merely a reissue of the original sheets of the 1703 edition of the

ment, with a

d'

Baron de Lahontan

of imprint printed in red.

Denmark

in eight,

|

p.

P. 86

and place

lines

107, and a map

p.

Du

|

Danemarc," on

"Voyages," pp. 107-222. 7th,

Ixv

|

a vase offlowers\

Et

fe

braire dans le Strand, a

1'

vend

|

A

Enfeigne

I

a separate issue of the Suite

shown

in loco

is

title-page.

C, JCB,

NL

(two).

Du

Voyage of this

merely the sheets of the 1703

Lahontan Bibliography

Ixvi

— French:

1705

Voyages tentrionale,

y habitent

du Baron

|

nature de leur Gouvernement

la

Coutumes, leur Religion,

&

teret des Franfois

ces Nations I

en Guerre avec

I

Tome

{.Cut,

A

Premier.

La Haye,

Voyages

pp. (8);

— i2mo

"Table

merce

and figures\

&

:

qui leur

L'ln-

|

avec

qu'ils font

de Lahontan ";

Tome

des Lettres du

&

&

title,

de Figures.

augmentee.

|

\

Compagnie.

engraved frontispiece, w^ith 1

Guerre

tout enrichi de Cartes

scene, globe, pillar

;

Commerce,

|

Seconde Edition, revue, corrigee,

|

du Barron

|

Le

|

Chez Jonas I'Honore,

|

|

|

I'Angleterre peut retirer de ce Pais, etant

|

France.

la

Com-

le

Sep-

|

differens Peuples

leur

;

i.

I'Amerique

|

leur maniere de faire la

|

des Anglois dans

with emblematic

Collation. I

&

I'avantage que

;

dans

|

Qui contiennent une Relation des

|

;

La Hontan

de

|

— Vol.

Jonas VHonore

mdccv.

|

title:

"

|

Nouveaux

verso blank; "Preface,"

Premier," pp. (8); "Voyages"

or text, pp. [i]-364; " Explication de quelques Termes," pp. 365-376.

No

The

mispaging.

ist, 3d,

5th, 6th,

nth

place and date of imprint printed in red. in

all,

the paper of signatures

Pto«.

— Opposite

pp.

I,

N—P

I.

The

In some copies,

(pp. 289-360)

is

if

not indeed

browned.

38, 53, 82, 91, 118, 127, 174, 244, 303,

324, and 340; a folded "Carte que

opp. p.

to 14th, and i6th lines and

les

Gnacsitares ont dessine," etc.,

only characteristic variation between the Jonas and

Franfois I'Honore issues of this year seems to be their title-pages. Signatures.

—*

in nine,

Copies.— "QM, JCB,

1

Memoires

|

Voyages de Mr. fcription

Franfois

— French

705 de

|

des

|

|

eight.

|

Anglois, leurs

— VoL.

2.

ou

la

Septentrionale,

Baron de La Hontan:

d'une grande etendue

&

Jonas VHonore

:

I'Amerique

|

le

A — P in twelves, Q in NYHS (imperfect).

NL,

|

|

|

des

la

De-

Suite

Qui contiennent

de Pais de ce Continent, I'interet des

Commerces,

leurs Navigations,

|

les

Lahontan Bibliography

&

Moeurs de

Coutumes

les

Langue du

la

Tome

Second.

|

Pais.

des Sauvages, &c.

Le

|

Avec un

|

petit Dictionaire

&

tout enrichi de Cartes

de Figures.

Seconde Edition, augmentee des Conversations de

I'Auteur avec un Sauvage diftingue.

A

Ixvii

Amsterdam,

|

\_Same cut as in first volume]

|

Pour Jonas THonore

a la

Haye.

|

M DCC v.

|

|

\

|



Collation. i2mo; title, verso blank; "Memoires," pp. 5-196; " Conversations de I'Auteur de ces Voyages avec Adario,"pp. 197-310; half-title:

p.

"Dictionaire

de

|

la

Langue

des Sauvages," on p. [311];

|

"Table Des Matieres

[312] blank; "Dictionaire," pp. 313-336;

principales contenues dans ce II

The

and 14th

6th, 7th, 12th,

1st, 3d,

Volume," lines

pp.

No

(2).

mispaging.

and place and date of im-

print printed in red.

Plates.— Opposite pp. 95, 104, 125, 129, 133, 148, 155, 160, 185, 187,

189, and 191;

frontispiece

"Carte Generale de Canada

a petit

point," and a large folded " Carte Generale de Canada " opp. p. Signatures.

— Title-page, A3 — [A12] B — O ,

P

in twelves,

in

5.

one.

Co^-«.— BM, JCB.NL. 1705

Voyages tentrionale,

|

|

du Baron

Francois

de

|

La Hontan

Coutumes,

leur Religion,

&

&

en Guerre avec

Figures.

mentee.

A M

|

I

Tome

dans

|

I.

I'Amerique

|

Sep-

difierens Peuples

Com-

|

I

|

|

Commerce,

|

leur maniere de faire la le

|

Guerre:

merce

|

qu'ils font

I'Angleterre peut retirer de ce Pais, |

Le

tout enrichi de Cartes

Seconde Edition, revue, corrigee,

&

&

Chez Franfois I'Honore

vis-a-vis

de

la

de

aug-

\_Emblematic cut, a globe with five figures seated near a colutnni

Amsterdam,

D CC V.

|

France.

la

Premier.

|

des Anglois dans

avec ces Nations; I'avantage que |

|

— VOL.

nature de leur Gouvernement; leur

la

L'Interet des Francois

etant

V Honor'e

Qui contiennent une Relation des

qui y habitent; leurs

— French:

Bourfe.

\

|

Lahontan Bibliography

Ixviii Collation.

Voyages pp. (8);

|

— i2mo; engraved frontispiece, with

du Barron

"Table

No

376. lines

title:

"Nouveaux

I

verso blank; "Preface,"

title,

Premier," pp. (8); "Voyages"

364; "Explication de quelques Termes," pp. 365-

The

mispaging.

and place and date

Plates.

Tome

des Lettres du



or text, pp. [i]

de Lahontan";

|

— Opposite

ist,

3d, 5th, 6th,

nth

to 14th, and i6th

of imprint printed in red.

pp.

i,

38, 53, 82 (corrected from 72), 91, 118,

" Carte que les Gnacsitares 127, 174, 244, 303, 324, and 340; a folded

ont dessine,"

etc., opp. p.

The

volume.

Jonas I'Honore issues of Signatures. Copies.

—*

— B,

but often found at some other location in the

|

le

seems to be their

this year

C,

A— P

in twelves,

Q

title-pages.

in eight.

HC.

— French

de

|

Voyages de Mr. fcription

,

in nine,

BM,

1705

Memoires

i

only characteristic variation between the Franfois and

:

Francois VHonor'e

I'Amerique

1

Septentrionale,

Baron de La Hontan

d'une grande etendue

|

— VOL.

:

|

|

ou

2.

suite

la

Qui contiennent

des

|

De-

la

de Pais de ce Continent, I'interet des

& des Anglois, leurs Commerces, leurs Navigations, les Moeurs & les Coutumes des Sauvages, &c. Avec un petit Dictionaire Le tout enrichi de Cartes & de Figures. de la Langue du Pais. Francois

|

I

|

|

Tome

Second.

|

|

Seconde Edition, augmentee des Conversations de

I'Auteur avec un Sauvage diftingue.

A Amsterdam, Collation.

|

|

[_Same cut as in first volume'}

Chez Franfois I'Honore &Compagnie.|

— i2mo;

title,

verso blank;

" Conversations," pp. 197-310;

half-title:

"Memoires,"

Dictionare

|

de

|

|

M DCC v.

|

pp. 5-196; la

Langue

|

des Sauvages," on p. [311]; p. [312] blank; "Dictionaire," pp. 313-

336; "Table Des Matieres principales contenues dans ce pp. (2).

No

mispaging.

The

ist, 3d,

and place and date of imprint printed

II

Volume,"

6th, 7th, 12th, and 14th lines

in red.

Lahontan Bibliography /'/, yijv 6pC): For you muft know that when or twelve days before.^

the Pilots reckon they approach to Land, they ufe the pre-

caution of fending up Sailors to the Top-Maft, in order to

fome difcovery

Night comes,

till

is

and thefe Sailors are

;

at

which time they

not yet defcry'd

:

So that

reliev'd every

furl their Sails

in the

two hours

if

the

Land

Night-time they fcarce

how important it is make any way. From to know the Coaft, before you approach to it nay, the Paffengers put fuch a value upon the difcovery, that they prefent In the mean time, the firft difcoverer with fome Piftoles. this

it

appears

;

you'll

be pleas'd to obferve, that the Needle of the Compafs,

which naturally points to the North, turns upon the bank of Newfound-Land, twenty three Degrees towards the North-

Weft; that

is,

it

points there a degree nearer to the Weft,

than North-North- Weft.

This remark we made by our Com-

pafs of Variation.

We

Cape about Noon and in order to conDifcovery, ftood in upon it with all fails aloft. At

defcry'd the

firm the

;

1 The name Race, applied to the southeastern extremity of Newfoundland, is met under the form " Cap Rogo," on a map of about the year 1500. The name seems to have been given from the French word " ras," bare or flat. See Harrisse, Ed. Decowverte et Evolution cartographique de Terre-Newve (Paris, 1900) p. 43.

first

,



iVor^i-America.

to

29

being affur'd that 'twas the Promontory we look'd

laft,

for,

an univerfal joy was [4] fpread throughout the Ship, and the fate of the

wretches that we had thrown over-board, was quite

Then

forgot.

the Sailors fet about the Chriftening of thofe

who had never made done

it

fooner,

Voyage

the

before, and indeed they had

had not been for the death of our above-

if it

The

mention'd Companions.

Chriftening

I

fpeak

impertinent Ceremony, pradis'd by Sea-faring

humours

are as ftrange and extravagant, as the

upon which they

an

Men, whofe

Element

By

foolifhly truft themfelves.

of, is

it felf,

vertue of a

Cuftom of old ftanding, they profane the Sacrament of Bap-

Upon

tifm in an unaccountable manner.

old Sailors being blacken'd

over, and difguis'd with

Rags

fort that have never pafs'd

fome

down on

their

of Sea Charts, that

upon

all

and Ropes, force the greener

that occafion, the

certain degrees of Latitude before, to fall

Knees, and to fwear upon a all

Book

occafions they will pradtife

mony

that

is

then

made

iftring of this ridiculous

Water upon

their

upon

others, the fame Cere-

ufe of towards them. After the admin-

Oath, they throw

Head,

Belly,

fifty

Buckets

full

and Thighs, and indeed

of all

over their Body, without any regard to times or feafons.

This piece of

folly

is

chiefly pradlis'd

under the Tropicks, under the Polar of Newfound-Land;

and

Sund^ and the Dardanelloes. acter,

in

under the ^Equator,

Circles,

the Streights

As

upon

the

bank

of Gibraltar^ the

for Perfons of

Note or Char-

they are exempted from the Ceremony, at the expence

of five or

fix

bottles of

Brandy for the Ships Crew.

New

Some

30

Three or four days

while

;

Mouth

performance of fo

made up

Solem-

this

to St. Laurence

we were becalm'd for a little Calm, we had a clearer and pleafanter

of which

and during that

we had

day, than any

after the

Cape Raye} and

nity, v/e difcover'd

Bay, in the

Voyages

the Paffage.

feerl in

It

look'd as

that

if

day had been vouchfaf'd us by way of recompence [5] for the

Winds, that we incounter'd by the

Rains, Foggs, and high

There we faw an Engagement between

way.

* Efpadon, a Fijh between 10 and 15 Foot

ihot

iv.g

and having

Snout a fort of IS

be-

four Foot in circum-

ference,

.

long,

in its

Saw which

, r, J ; J four Foot, long, four In-

and

ches broad,

fix

Lines

a

We

from our Frigat.

fedtly

a

Gun-

were per-

charm'd when we faw the Sword-

pj^ j^^p ^^^ ,

^f ^^^ ^^^^^

o

.



mto to dart Its Spear ^ Whale, when oblig'd

1

the

-^^

-n

1

^^der 1

/•

Body of the •'

to take breath.

This entertaining fhow

thick.

Whale and

Sword-Fifh, at the diftance of a

*

lafted at leaft

two hours, fometimes to the Starboard, and fometimes to the Larboard of the Ship. ftition prevails as

a prefage of

much

as

The Sailors, among whom Superamong the Egyptians, took this for

fome mighty Storm

;

but the Prophecy ended

two or three days of contrary Winds, during which time we travers'd between the Ifland of Nezvfound-Land, and that Two days after we came in fight of the of Cape Breton. in

Ifland of Fowls,

by the help of

drove us from the Anticofti, 1

Mouth

a North-Eaft

Wind

;

of St. Laurence Bay, to the

which Ifle

upon the bank of which, we thought to have been

Cape Ray

appeared on a

is at

map

the southwestern extremity of

of 1600.

Harrisse, op.

cit.,

Newfoundland Ed.

p. 285.



;

the

name

of

cafl first

to

away, by nearing

North'h.vnmcdL,

too much.

it

31

Mouth

In the

of that River

we fell Into a fecond calm, which was follow'd by a contrary Wind, that oblig'd us to lye bye for fome days. At laft we made Tadoiijfac^ by gradual approaches, and there came to an Anchor.^

This River twenty two it

four Leagues broad where

is

Mouth

at its

approaches to

fafe

but

fource.

its

ing Eaft, we weigh'd

got

;

Anchor

it

contracts

Two ;

days

after, the

Currents are apt to turn a Veffel on one

the Coafl: of the

caft

laft

lies

Wind

ftand-

Ifland, in

which the

fide, as well as at the

fome Leagues higher.^ But upon

[6] Ifland,

we had

certainly ftruck

upon

we had not drop'd an Anchor. Had the Ship away at that place, we might eafily have fav'd our

the Rocks,

been

which

gradually, as

and being favor'd by the Tyde,

through the Channel of the Red

Ifland of Coudres,

we then rode, and

it felf

if

1 The Island of Fowls is probably the group still known as Bird Rocks, in St, Lawrence Gulf, north of Magdalen Islands. Anticosti is a large island one hundred and forty miles long by about twentyseven in average breadth. It lies in the mouth of St. Lawrence River, and three years before this voyage of Lahontan had been granted as a seigniory of Louis Jolliet, the

Mississippi explorer.

Tadoussac, at the entrance of Saguenay River, is one of the oldest towns in Canada, having been founded before Quebec. It was the favorite resort of the MonThe Recollects tagnais Indians, and the centre of a thriving fur-trade and fishery. and here the hostile English fleet, under Admiral said mass here as early as 1617 The Jesuits began a mission at Tadoussac Sir David Kirk, anchored in July, 1628. Ed. before 1642, and one of their early churches (built 1647-50) is still to be seen. ;



2

Red

Island

is

that

now known

as Isle

Rouge,

in the St.

Lawrence opposite

It was early noted for its seal fishing. See Jesuit Relations, xxxii, p. 93. aux Coudres was so designated for the hazelnut bushes with which it abounded, and appears to have been so named by Cartier. The early voyagers speak of the Ed. number of elk to be found on this island.

Tadoussac. Isle



Some

32 felves

But

:

prov'd

it

New

fo, that

we were more

Next Morning we weighed with the next day after mente,

came

to an

Voyages

a frefh gale

Anchor over

aflfraid

than hurt.

from the

Cape Tour-

againft

where we had not above two Leagues over, tho'

fame time

'tis

a

at the

dangerous place to thofe who are unacquainted

with the Channel.^ failing to the

and

Eaft,

From

thence we had but feven Leagues

Port of Quebec, where we now ride

at

Anchor.

we faw fuch floats of Ice, and fo much Snow upon the Land, that we were upon the point of turning back for France, tho' we were not In our Paffage from the red Ifland to this place,

We

then above thirty Leagues off our defired Port. affraid of

we

being ftop'd by the

Ice,

and

fo loft

;

were

but thank

God

'fcap'd.

We

have receiv'd advice, that the Governor has mark'd

out Quarters for our Troops in fome Villages or Cantons adjacent to this City; fo that afhore,

I

am

oblig'd to prepare to go

and therefore muft make an end of

this Letter.

I

cannot as yet give you any account of the Country, excepting that

'tis

already mortally cold.

give you a it

better.

from

his

more

We

As

ample defcription of

to the River, it,

when

I

I

come

mean to

to

know

Mr. de la Salle is juft return' Travels, which he undertook upon the difcovery of are informed that

a great River that falls into the Gulf of Mexico

;

and that he

1 Cape Tourmente is a lofty promontory on the St. Lawrence, about twenty miles below Quebec, towering nineteen hundred feet above the meadows (Beaupre) at its " however little wind It was so named by Champlain (1608), who noted that base. may blow the sea there is as if it were high tide. At this place the water begins to

be fresh. "

— Ed.

to

North- hxntnc2i.

imbarques to morrow for France}

He

33

is

perfedlly well ac-

quainted with Canada^ and for that reafon you ought to him,

if

you go

to Paris this Winter.

I

vifit

am,

SIR, Tours, &c. 1

Rene Robert

Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, had just returned from his successful

journey into the interior, where he had explored the Mississippi and in Illinois

founded the colony

of St. Louis.

new governor gave

a ready ear to

Frontenac, his patron, had been replaced, and the

La

Salle's detractors.

The

fortunes of the explorer

were desperate, and he was about to embark for France to seek redress at court. This was his farewell to Canada, his final voyage being made to the Gulf of Mexico,

upon whose waters he was assassinated (March

i8, 1687).

— Ed.

New

Some

34

Voyages

LETTER Dated

at the

II.

Canton of Beaupr^,^

May

1684.

2.

Containing a Defcription of the Plantations of Canada, and the

manner

which they were firfl form' d :

in

the Tranfportation of JVhores together with a

view of

its

As

from France

Climate and

alfo to

an account of

that Country

Soil.

SIR,

AS

foon as we landed three

Companies

Neighbourhood

laft

in

of Quebec.

year,

Mr.

de la Barre lodg'd our

fome Cantons or Quarters

The

Planters

call thefe

in the

places Cotes^

no more than the Sea-Coaft tho' in this Country where the names of Town and Village are unknown, that word is made ufe of to exprefs a Seignory or Manour,

which

in France iignifies

;

Houfes of which lie at the diftance of two or three hundred Paces one from another, and are feated on the brink of

the

the River of St. Laurence.-

In earneft.

Sir,

the Boors of thofe

It three companies were quartered at villages in the vicinity of Quebec. Lahontan's lot to pass the winter in the seigniory of Beaupre, which stretched Montfor six leagues along the river and embraced more than the present county of morency. Beaupre was early settled, and as a Jesuit seigniory received much attenAt this time it was considered the most orderly and thrift)' settlement in the tion.

iThe

fell to

colony. 2

— Ed.

Feudalism was established in

New

France by the act

of Richelieu, in his

grant

One Hundred Associates (1627) Seigniorial tenure was not abolOn the influence of this ished in Lower Canada (Province of Quebec) until 1854. Weir, system see Parkman, Old Regime in Canada (Boston, 1874), chap, xv Ed. Administration of the Old Regime in Canada (Montreal, 1896-97). to the

Company

of

.

;



;

A^or^/6- America.

to

Manors

live

with more eafe and conveniency, than an infinity

of the Gentlemen in France.

Boors, for that name

whether

it

is

I

am

as little

out indeed in calling 'em

known

that the eafinefs of their Life, puts

The

'em upon a level with the Nobility.

--, pooreft of them have four in front,

Urpents of

J An Arpent is a fpot .f^,,^^^ containing 100

thirty or forty in

Perches fquare, each of

.

,

depth

and

.

.

,

The whole Country being

:

here as in Spain;

be that they pay no Taxes, and injoy the liberty of

Hunting and Fiihing; or

Ground

35

a con-

tinued Forreft of lofty Trees, the ftumps

which

is

[8] of which muft be grub'd up, before they can a

Plough.

at firft

for

;

'Tis true, this

but

when

in a fhort

is

time after they is

make

ufe of

make up

their Loffes

capable of receiving Seed,

it

Corn

is

yields an increafe to the rate of an

there fown in

Foot

troublefom and chargeable task

a

the Virgin ground

eighteen

'°"^"

May, and reap'd about

hundred

fold.

the middle of September.

Inftead of threfhing the Sheafs in the Field, they convey 'em to Barns, at

where they

lie till

which time the Grain

Ear.

the coldeft feafon of the Winter,

is

more

eafily

difengag'd from the

In this Country they likewife fow Peafe, which are

efteem'd in France. well as Butchers

All forts of Grain are very cheap here, as

The

Meat and Fowl.

price of

almoft nothing, in comparifon with the charge of

which after

all is

remov'd hither from to fet

Wood

its

is

carriage,

very inconfiderable. are a free fort of People that

Moft of the Inhabitants

Money

much

France,

up withal

:

and brought with 'em but

The

reft are

about thirty or forty years ago,

at

thofe

who were

little

Soldiers

which time the Regiment

New

Some

36

Voyages

of Carigtian was broke, and they exchang'd a Military Poft,

Trade of

for the

Neither the one nor the other

Agriculture}

pay'd any thing for the grounds they poffefs, no more than the Officers of thefe Troops,

Continent

vaft

is

nothing

The Governours General Leagues of ground pleas'd

and

;

at the

who mark'd out

to themfelves,

unmanur'd and woody Lands; for

certain portions of

elfe

allow'd the Officers three or four

much depth

front, with as

in

this

than one continued Forreft.

as they

fame time the Officers gave the Soldiers

much ground as they pleas'd, upon payment of a Crown per Jrpent, by way as

the condition of the of Fief.

After the reform of thefe Troops, feveral Ships were fent hither

from France, with

a

Cargoe of

Women

of an ordinary

Reputation, under the diredlion [9] of fome old ftale Nuns, who rang'd 'em in three Claffes. The Veftal Virgins were

heap'd up, different

(if

I

may

Brides, juft as a Butcher do's an

Sheep.

In thefe three

for here was

fatisfie

fome big fome

and fome meagre. ^

Lahontan's chronology

In is

fine,

ordered to America.

Coming

the Iroquois.

A

to

there was fuch variety and

the moft whimfical Appetites;

little,

fome

fair

fome brown, fome

there was fuch

quite inaccurate

since the regiment of Carignan-Salieres, the

Turks.

in three

Ewe from amongft a Flock of

Seraglio's,

change of Diet, as could

fat

one above another,

fo fpeak)

Apartments, where the Bridegrooms fingled out their

first

;

Accommodation,

scarcely twenty years

regular troops in

New

had passed France, was

This command had seen service in France and against the Canada in 1665, the soldiers were effectively employed against

few years

later several companies were disbanded, and urged to Rewards in money and land were given those who married and settled in the province, and the descendants of these soldiers were among the most able and prominent citizens of the colony. See Suite, " Le Regiment deCarignan," in

become

colonists.

Canadian Royal Society Proceedings, 2d

series, viii,

pp. 25-95.

— Ed.

iVo;Y/6-America.

to

might be

that every one

fitted to his

37

Mind

And

:

indeed the

had fuch a run, that in fifteen days time, they were

Market

difpos'd of.

I

am

went

told, that the fatteft

off befl,

all

upon

the apprehenfion that thefe being lefs adive, would keep truer to their Ingagements, and hold out better againft the nipping

cold of the Winter

But

:

after

all,

Adventurers found themfelves miftaken

However,

Remark

;

be as

that

let

will,

it

many

a great

it

in

of the

their

He-

meafures.

affords a very curious

namely. That in fome parts of the World, to which

the vicious European

Women are

tranfported, the

Mob

of thofe

Countries do's ferioufly believe, that their Sins are fo defac'd I

took notice of before, that

as

Ladies of Vertue, of Honour,

by the ridiculous Chriflening, they are look'd

upon ever after

and of an untarnifh'd

condud of Life. The Sparks

to be married,

made

Governefl'es, to

whom

their

Goods and

they were oblig'd to give an account of

Eftates, before they

were allow'd to make

After the choice was deter-

min'd, the Marriage was concluded

upon

prefence of a Priefl, and a publick Notary the Governor-General beftow'd

Cow,

a

Hog,

a

certain

Coat of Arms

call'd

;

the fpot, in the

and the next day

;

upon the married Couple,

Sow, a Cock,

Meat, and eleven Crowns

fait

wanted

their Addreffes to the above-mention'd

their choice in the three Seraglio's.

Bull, a

that

a

a

Hen, two Barrels of

together with [lo] a

by the Greeks

\\

Kipara}

This slanderous and apparently malicious account of the mothers of the Canamuch obloquy upon our author. For a refutation from contemporary documents, see Parkman, Old Regime, pp. 221-230 Roy, " Le Baron deLahontan," Can. Roy. Soc.Proc, 1894, sec. i,pp. 150-162; Suite, " Pretendues Ed. Origines des Canadiens fran(ais," in Id., 1885, sec. i, pp. 13-26. 1

dian population has brought

;



New

Some

38

The

Voyages made

Officers having a nicer tafte than the Soldiers,

their

AppHcation to the Daughters of the ancient Gentlemen of the Country, or thofe of the richer fort of Inhabitants

know

that

hundred

Canada has been

poffefs'd

years.

Houfe

;

is

there

make

beyond

meafure, from the

During

or four foot deep

and the Snow upon the ground,

;

;

which

is

three lies

Latitude of forty feven Degrees, and fome odd Minutes.

Whatever

is in that matter, I

to the

The Weather

longer here than at Paris. ferene, that in three

the Horizon.

I

Weeks

is

number

replenifh'd.

muft take notice of one thing,

Summer

that feems very ftrange, namely, that the

fifteen

is

very ftrange in a Country that

of Mountains, with which this vaft Continent

I

of

that fpace of time, the

Moft People impute the extraordinary Snow

for

from the

Month

always frozen over, notwithftanding the flowing and

ebbing of the Sea

in the

to guard themfelves

all

December^ to that of April. is

a well fur-

Their Chimnies are very large, by reafon of

the prodigious Fires they

Cold, which

good and

and moft of the Houfes are of Wood, and two

Stories high.

River

you

by the French above an

In this Country every one lives in a nifh'd

for

;

time you

is

fhall

days are

then fo clear and

not fee a Cloud in

hope to go to Quebec with the

firft

opportunity;

have orders to be in a readinefs to imbarque within

days for Monreal, which

that lies fartheft

is

the City of this Country,

up towards the Head of the River. I

am,

SIR, Yours,

&c.

to

North- Knitnc2i,

LETTER

[11]

Dated

at

Quebec

39

III.

May

15. 1684.

Containing an ample Defcription of the City of Quebec, and of the Ifland of Orleans.

SIR,

BEFORE

I

fet

the Ifland of Orleans^ which

and three

breadth:

in

I

had the curiofity to view

is

feven Leagues in length,

out for Monreal,

Tourmente, to within a

It

extends from over

League

place the River divides

it

felf

againfl:

Cape

and a half of Quebec, at which

two branches.

into

The

Ships

through the South Channel; for the North Channel is fo foul with Shelves and Rocks, that the fmall Boats can only fail

The Ifland belongs to a General Farmer of Fr^wc^, who would make out of it a thoufand Crowns of yearly pafs that way.

Rent,

if

himfelf had the

management of

with Plantations, that produce Quebec

League grees,

in

is

all

it.

'Tis furrounded

forts of Grain.^

the Metropolitan of New-France, being almofl: a

Circumference

and 12 Minutes.

;

It lies

in the

The Longitude

Latitude of 47 De-

of this place

is

uncer-

iThe island of Orleans, which lies in the St. Lawrence near Quebec, is twentyone miles long by about five in width. It was named by Cartier (1535) Isle of BacThis chus, but subsequently given its present appellation by the same explorer. At the time of Lahontan it was a fief-noble island was granted as a fief in 1636. See Bois, L' Isle d' Orleans (Quebec, in the possession of the family of Berthelot. 189s).— Ed.

Some

40

tain,i as well as that

New

Voyages

of feveral other Countries, with the leave

of the Geographers, that reckon you

up 1200 Leagues from

Rochel to Quebec, without taking the pains to meafure the

However,

Courfe:

I

am

fure that

but

lies

it

at

too great a

from France, for the Ships that are bound hither; For their paiTage commonly lafts for two Months and a half,

diftance

whereas the homeward bound Ships may failing, eafily

make

the Belle

Ifle,

which

is

30 or 40 days

in

the fureft [12] and

moft ufual Land, that a Ship makes upon a long Voyage. reafon of this diflPerence,

100 days of the year, Quebec

is

Merchants

is,

that the

Winds

and Wefterly for 260.

divided into the upper and the lower City.

live in the latter, for the

Houfes, three

fine

Story high, of a fort of Stone that's as hard as Marble.

the lower. ftands

upon

Both

is full

as populous,

Cities are

and

as well

commanded by

the higheft Ground.

The

conveniency of the Har-

bor; upon which they have built very

upper or high City

The

are Eafterly for

This Caftle

is

a

The

adorn'd as

Caftle,

that

the Refidence

of the Governours, and affords them not only convenient Apartments, but the nobleft and moft extenfive Profpe6l in the World.

Quebec wants two effential things, namely, a

and Fortifications

;

Key

though both the one and the other might

be eafily made, confidering the conveniency of Stones lying

upon

the fpot.^

iThe

'Tis incompafs'd with feveral Springs, of the

true latitude of

Greenwich.

Quebec

is

46° 49' north; the longitude, 71° 13' west of

— Ed.

2 Champlain began the fortifications of Quebec by the founding of Fort St. Louis on the citadel rock. This building was replaced in stone by his successor Montmagny, who also laid the foundations for the first Chateau St. Louis, which w-s

^

iVor^^- America.

to

Water

beft frefh

out of Wells

knows how

that not one of 'em

Thofe who upper

order to

to convey the

raife either flat

on the River

live

much

half fo

World, which the Inhabitants draw

in the

for they are fo ignorant of the Hydroftaticks,

;

tain Bafins, in

41

Water

to cer-

or fpouting Fountains.

fide, in the

lower City, are not

pinch'd with the Cold, as the Inhabitants of the

befides that the former have a peculiar conveniency

;

of tranfporting in Boats, Corn, to the very

Doors of

their

Wood, and

Houfes

But

:

other NecefTaries,

as the latter are

more

expofs'd to the injuries of the Cold, fo they injoy the benefit

and pleafure of

a cooler

the one City to the other

Houfes on each

upon

The

a

;

only

from

Houfes

its

Quebec fl:ands

are not uniform.

[13] bottom, at fome fmall difl;ance

fide of a little River,

up the City

Laurence^ coops

a little fl:eep.

'tis ;

in a

leads

pretty broad, and adorn'd with

is

Ground and

Intendant lives

from the St.

fide

very uneven

The way which

Summer.

which by joyning the River of Angle.

in a right

His Houfe

is

the Palace in which the Soveraign Council affembles four times a

Week^; and on one

demolished

during his

in

1694 to

last years.

fide of which,

we

fee great

Magazines

make way for tne finer structure which Frontenac constructed See Gagnon, Le Fort et le Chateau St. Louis (Quebec, 1895).

Quebec's walls were not built until the latter years of Frontenac; again, in 1720, Chassegros de Lery made great improvements in the circumvallation, and enlarged Repairs and improvements were maintained throughout

the area contained therein.

the French rdgime.

See

1903)1 PP- 101-145. 1

For a plan

of

Suite, Histoire des

work, p. 49. 2

The

Doughty and Dionne, ^lebec under Tivo Flags (Quebec,

— Ed. Quebec

at this period, see that of J.

Canadiens fran^ais,

— Ed.

ii,

p. 32

;

B. Franquelin (1683), in of 1700 in the same

and another

sovereign council was established by the king upon the retrocession of the

colony by the

Company

of

New France

(1663).

It

was

first

composed

of the governor,

Some

42 of

Ammunition and

High

the

City

Prebendaries,

New

Voyages There

Provifions.

The Cathedral confifts of a Bifhop, and twelve who live in common in the Chapter-Houfe, the

Priefl:s

are a very

good

is

truly wonderful.

People

fort of

tent themfelves with bare Necefl"aries,

which

Jefuits, flately,

Roman

way.^

The fecond Church

and the number gradually increased

is

a fair,

Later, the intendant %vas added to the council,

to twelve.

Its

functions were mainly judicial,

likewise took cognizance of civil and financial affairs.

it

that of the

and

;

and well lighted Edifice. The great Altar of the Jefuits

bishop, and five appointed councillors.

but

they con-

perform'd

is

is

Center of the City

fl:ands in the

;

and meddle with nothing

but the Affairs of the Church, where the Service after the

in

:

Magnificence and Architedlure of which

Thefe poor

Churches

are fix

Its

records have been

published.

At

first

the council met in the ante-room of the governor's palace, but

complaint of the intendant the ministry ordered the purchase of the

site of

upon the

a brewery

Talon upon St. Charles River. Here the intendant's palace was This was burned in 1713, being rebuilt upon a scale of splendor. The site Ed. once more occupied by a brewery. ^ The cathedral of Notre Dame, now called the " Basilica," was long the only

formerly erected by

begun. is



Begun in 1647, the first mass was said therein three years was consecrated by Bishop Laval in 1666. In the early eighteenth century its was found inadequate, and it was rebuilt after the plans of the chief engineer of

parish church of Quebec. later size

New

;

it

The

France, Chaussegros de Lery (1747-48).

English siege (1759),

all

the

wooden

building suffered

parts being burned.

much during the

Repairs were instituted

when only minor changes have been made. The chapter house, or Seminary, which had been begun in 1678, was considered one of the finest buildings See Tetu, Histoire du palais episcopal de ^lebec (Quebec, 1896). in the country.

in 1769-71, since

The Seminary

priests officiated as secular parish cures.

Lahontan's enconiums are

more remarkable, that his sympathies were seldom with ecclesiastics. It appears that the altar and its columns was a superfluous invention upon his part. The Jesuit historian Charlevoix, writing of this church in 1720 {Journal Historique, letter iii), " One would indicates that there was no such ornament, and indulgently remarks the

:

voluntarily pardon that author [Lahontan] /Mster to churche?."

— Ed.

if

he disfigured the truth only to give

North' hrnQvic^.

to

Church, Stone

;

is

43

adorn'd with four great Cylindrical Columns of one

The Stone being

a fort of

Canada Porphyry, and black Thefe Fathers have

as Jet, without either Spots or Veins.

very convenient and large Apartments, beautify'd with pleafant

Gardens, and feveral rows of Trees, which are fo thick

and bufhy, that an Ice-Houfe: that there

is

Summer one might take their Walks for indeed we may fay without ftretching,

in

And

Ice not far

from 'em, for the good Fathers are

never without a referve in two or three places, for the cooling

Their College

of their Drink.

is

fo fmall, that at the beft

The

they have fcarce fifty Scholars at a time.^ is

Church

third

that of the RecoUedts, who, through the interceffion of

Count

Frontenac^ obtain'd leave of the

Chappel (which ftrances of

Mr.

Jefuits, us'd his

I call

a

King

in concert

The

with the

utmoft Efforts for ten years together to hinder

Before the building [14] of this Chappel, they

it.2

little

Church;) notwithftanding the Remon-

Laval our Bifhop, who,

de

to build a

liv'd in a

Canada

in 1625, and thereafter played a prominent part Their college was founded in 1635, a year before that of Harvard, making it the oldest institution of learning on the North American continent. The church occupied the northeast angle of the college, on the site of the 1

in the

Jesuits

came

development

present Jesuit barracks. college

and

its

and decoration 2

to

of the colony.

The

gardens.

At

now

city hall

covers the larger portion of the

the time of Lahontan's

far superior to the cathedral.

Franfois de Montmorency-Laval,

educated in a Jesuit seminary.

Upon

seigniory in France, but renounced

it

first

visit,

the Jesuit church

site of

was

the

in size

— Ed.

bishop of Canada, was born in 1623 and

the death of his brothers, he for the service of the church.

became

heir of a

In 1658 he was

and sent as vicar apostolic to New France. In 1674 Quebec and Laval made first bishop thereof, a position which he resigned in 1684. Four years later he returned to spend the remainder of his days He supported the Jesuits, and was opposed to in Canada, where he died in 1708. Ed. the re-introduction of the Recollects.

made bishop was

of Petraea

raised to a bishopric,



New

Some

44 little

Voyages

Hofpital that the Bifliop had order'd to be built for 'em;

and fome of 'em continue there

The

ftill.^

fourth Church

is

down two or Advantage. The fifth is

that of the Urfelines, which has been burn'd

three times, and

rebuilt to the

ftill

that of the Hofpital-Order,

who

Sick, tho' themfelves are poor,

The Soveraign Council

is

take a particular Care of the

and but

held at Quebec.

Exphca-

^^^

of

It confifts

Capa y de fpada, who fupreme Judicature, and decide all

twelve Counfellors "^See the

lodg'd.^

ill

^j^g

of *

The Intendant

Caufes without Appeal.

claims a Right of being Prefident to the Council; but in the Juftice-Hall the Governour-General places himfelf fo as to face

him, the Judges being

on both

fet

fides of

them

would think they are both Prefidents. While The

1

Recollects (a branch of the Franciscans) were the

;

fo that

one

Monficiir de Fron-

first

ecclesiastics to enter

During their first occupation they had a small convent called Notre Dame des Anges, on St. Charles River, where the General HosAfter the capture of Quebec by the English (1628) pital of Quebec is now situated. and the order did not return to this field until the friars were sent back to France

New

France, coming over in 1615.

,

;

1670,

they built

were

they were sent out as a counterpoise to the Jesuits. Frontenac favored and gave them a concession of land facing the governor's palace, where the chapel here mentioned by Lahontan, although some of the brothers This church living at their suburban convent, Notre Dame des Anges.

when

this order,

still

of the Recollects

was one

of the

finest

in

New

France, being finished in 1681.

Charlevoix said in the next century, that it was "worthy of Versailles." In 1796 it was burned, the site now being occupied by the Anglican cathedral of Quebec the ;

court house occupies a portion of the convent grounds. 2

The

Ursulines were the

first

they did under the patronage of their convent,

which

still

— Ed.

order of nuns to come to

Madame

de

la Peltrie.

occupies the original

site,

New

Two

France (1639), which years later they began

although the buildings have sev-

been burned, and recently much enlarged. The Hospitalieres came over at the same time as the Ursulines, and founded Hotel Dieu, a great hospital which still exists on the same site where the corner stone was

eral times

laid in 1654.

— Ed.

to

was

tenac

in

Canada^ he laugh'd

of the Intendants as

North- Am^nc^i,

;

pretended Precedency

at the

nay he ufed the

45

Members

of that Afifembly

roughly as Cromwell did the Parliament of England.

Court every one pleads

this

own

his

Barrifters never appear there

Caufe, for Sollicitors or

by which means

;

pafs, that Law-Suits are quickly

At

brought to

it

comes

to

without

a Period,

demanding Court Fees or any other Charges from the con-

The Judges, who have but

tending Parties.

four hundred

Livers a Year from the King, have a Difpenfation of not

wearing the Robe and the Cap. have

in

this

Country

a

Befides this Tribunal,

we

Lieutenant-General, both Civil and

Military, an Attorney-General, the Great Provoft, and a Chief Juftice in Eyre.^

The way Country,

is

of travelling in the Winter, whether in that of Sledges

infenfible of the Cold, that

January and February ^?ind [15] midft of a

Wood,

I

drawn by Horfes have feen

in the

fifty

Snow up

upon

Ice, the

fixty of

are fo

'em

in

to their Breaft, in the

travel

from Quebec to

River being then frozen over; and

that occafion thefe Sledges will run

you

fifteen

Leagues

Others have their Sledges drawn by two Maftiff Dogs,

a day.

but then they are longer by the way. travelling in

when

who

or

without ever offering to go near their

Owner's Houfe. In the Winter-time they

Monreal upon the

or

;

Town

I

^One

come

Summer,

I

fhall

for their

tranfmit you an

to be better inform'd.

of the chief causes of dissension

As

I

am

way of

Account of

it,

told that the People

between Frontenac and the intendant, was

See Parkman, Frontenac, pp. 47-71. On Ed. the officers of justice, see Weir, Administration of Old Regime, pp. 63-67.

the presidency of the supreme council.



Some

46

New

Voyages

Canows of may exped, as foon as I have made ufe of 'em. The Eafterly Winds prevail here commonly in the Spring and Autumn and the Wefterly have the Afcendant in Winter and Summer. Adieu Sir: I muft now of this Country will go a thoufand Leagues in

Bark; a Defcription of which you

;

make an end All

I

can

of

fay,

relates to the

my Letter,

is,

we

now going

to

Command

Days time

I

for in

all

to

to

Memoirs

Thefe you may

Appearance our

Conclufion of the Campaign that

make

mean

Gov-

in the

Country of the

Iroqtiefe,

In feven or

imbark for Monreal ; and

make

in the

Progrefs to the Villages of

a

of Saut de la Chaudiere, and of Lorete^ which are inhab-

Scilleri,

by the Abenakis and the Hurons.

above three or four Leagues eafe next

Week. As

for the

off;

Knowledge

Thefe Places are not

fo that

Manners of

pretend to defcribe 'em fo foon

I

Ecclefiaftical

of Monfietir de la Barre.

mean time am going ited

and

full fatisfadlion. ;

fhort.

better inftru6led in what

Civil

Opportunity

firft

will return after the

eight

am

tranfmit you fuch exadl

I'll

give you

as fhall

Troops

under the

I

Matter begins to run

Commerce, and the

expedl with the

are

my

that as foon as

ernment of the Country, of the fame,

for

;

I

may

return with

the People,

I

cannot

for a juft Obfervation and

of thefe things cannot be compafs'd without time.

have been this Winter at hunting with thirty or [16] forty

young

Jlgonkins,

Defign

which

in

is

who were

well

made

clever Fellows.

accompanying them, was, to learn

mightily efteem'd in this Country

;

their

for

Language,

all

the other

Nations for a thoufand Leagues round (excepting the

and the Hurons) underftand

it

perfedlly well;

My

nay,

Iroqtiefe all

their

to

iVor^Z>-America.

refpedive Tongues come as near to to the Spanifli}

Words

I

have already

this, as

made my

47 the Portuguefe does

felf

Mafter of fome

with a great deal of Facility; and they being mightily

pleafed in feeing a Stranger ftudy their inable pains to inftrudl me.

I

Tongue

take

all

imag-

am,

SIR, Yours,

&c.

1 The Algonquian language was the most wide-spread of the Indian dialects North America, being used by most of the tribes east of the Mississippi and south

of of

The Huron-Iroquois stock were aliens in their midst. See Powell, "Linguistic Families of North America," in U. S. Bureau of Ethnology Report, 1885-86.

Hudson Bay.

The Algonkins Quebec.

proper were a tribe whose original

See Jesuit Relations, index.

— Ed.

home was

in the province of

New

Some

48

Voyages

LETTER Dated

at

IV.

Monreal, June

14. 1684.

Containing a h'ief Defcription of the Habitations of the Savages in the

&€. as far up ^ "^

Of the River of St. Lawrence, Monreal; Of a curious way of fifhing Eels; and of the Cities o/TroIs Rivieres and Mon-

Neighbourhood of Quebec

^

as

,

Coureurs

Bois. See the

de

Ex-

plication Table.

;

-^

-^

r

^^^^

'•

'together with

1

r>

j

ex

an Account of the Londutl

of the * Forrefl Rangers or Pedlers.

SIR,

BEFORE my Departure

from Quebec,

Villages inhabited by the Savages.

I

vifited the adjacent

The

Village oi Lorete

peopled by two hundred Families [17] of Hurons, who were converted to Chriftianity by the Jefuits, though with a great is

deal of Reludancy.^

The

Villages of

Silleri,

and of Saut de

la

Chaudiere, are compos'd of three hundred Famihes oiAbenakis, who are likewife Chriftians, and among whom the Jefuits have

^The

was a mission colony of the Jesuits, founded after the Huron mission by the Iroquois (16+9). Part of the instructed

village of Lorette

destruction of the

Hurons sought

the fathers at Quebec, and were

first

established on the Isle of Orleans

;

during the Iroquois war, the remnant was removed to a less-exposed situation, few years later, and by 1669 settled at Notre Dame de Foye (now Ste. Foye). there Lahonthis colony removed to the village of Lorette (now Ancienne Lorette) and later,

A ,

In 1697, impelled by need of fresh fuel and land, they founded the final home, village of Jeune Lorette, eight miles from Montreal, which became their Ed. found. be still to is race Huron of the and where a remnant

tan visited them.



North'AvciQv\c2i,

to

fetled MifHonaries.^

I

return'd to Quebec time enough, and

imbarqued under the condud: of have had a

49

Winds wafted us in five or fix days which is the name of a fmall City, feated Leagues from hence.

three Rivers, that fpring

The North-

Soldiers.

to Trois Rivieres^

Eaft

thirty

would rather

a Mafter, that

Lading of Goods, than of

at the diftance of

That City derives

its

from one Channel, and

name from

after continu-

ing their divifion for fome fpace re-unite into a joynt Stream, that falls into the River of St. Laurence, about half a quarter of a

Had we

League below the Town.

would have carry'd us thither that the River

ture

upon

in the

it

of

is full

;

fo,

fail'd all

Night, the Tides

two days time

Rocks and

dark

Night, which did not

in

at all difpleafe

me

in

regard

we

durft not ven-

to an

Anchor every

Shelves,

we came

but

;

;

for in the courfe of

thirty Leagues, (notwithfl:anding the darknefs of the Night) it

gave

me

an opportunity of viewing an

infinite

number

of

Habitations on each fide of the River, which are not above a

Musket-Shot

diftant

diverted ^The

me

and

very agreeably with the

mission colony

tagnais, etc.; but

its

The

one from another.

that are fetled between Quebec

at Sillery

fifteen fifiiing

was originally founded

Inhabitants

Leagues higher, of Eels.

for the

At low

Algonkins,

Mon-

inhabitants were decimated by disease and the ravages of intoxi-

cation, so that the converted

Abenaki from Maine, who began coming

to

Canada

about 1680, formed the main body of the colony. The mission was maintained here until 1699, when the land which had been ceded in trust for the Indian converts was retroceded to the Jesuit order.

" Le Saut de la Chaudiere " was a village on the river of that name, opposite Quebec, where was established about the time Lahontan arrived in Canada, the Abenaki mission of St. Frangois de Sales. In 1700 all the scattered villages were collected in one,

which

exists

County, Quebec.

till

— Ed. 4

the present time

— that

of St. Francois

du Lac, in Yamaska

New

Some

50

Voyages Water-M ark;

water they ftretch out Hurdles to the lo weft

and that fpace of ground being then dry by the retreat of the Water,

is

Between

cover'd over, and fhut up by the Hurdles.

the Hurdles they place at certain diftances Inftruments call'd

Ruches^ from the refemblance they bear to a Bee-hive

Baskets and

and

Bouteux,

Then

Bouts de Quievres.

Now

Autumn.

befides

Nets belag'd upon a Pole, which they

little

Months

fafhion for three

;

they

and two

in [i8] the Spring,

as often as the

call

let all ftand in this

Tide comes

in,

in the

the Eels look-

ing out for fhallow places, and making towards the Shoar,

croud

among

in

the Hurdles, which hinder 'em afterwards to

with the Ebb-water; upon that they are forc'd to bury

retire

themfelves in the abovementioned Ingines, which are fometimes fo over-cram'd, that they break.

When

low water,

'tis

the Inhabitants take out thefe Eels, which are certainly the biggeft,

and the longeft

Barrels,

where

And

they'll

in the

keep

a

World.

They

fait

them up

in

whole year without fpoiling

indeed they give an admirable

Sauces

relifh in all

;

nay,

there's nothing that the Council of Quebec defires more, than

that this Fifhery fhould be equally plentiful in Trois Rivieres

of forty Pales.

fix

is

a little paltry

Degrees;

The

'tis

Town,

all

years.

feated in the Latitude

not fortified neither with Stone, nor

River to which

it

owes

its

name, takes

hundred Leagues to the North- Weft, from the of Mountains in the Univerfe.

The

its rife

an

greateft ridge

Algonkins

who

are at

prefent an Erratick fort of Savages, and, like the Jrabs, have

no

fetled

Abode;

that People,

the banks of this River,

I fay,

feldom ftraggle far from

upon which they have

excellent Beaver-

North' Ammc2i,

to

51

In former times the Iroquefe cut off three fourths of

hunting.

but they have not dar'd to renew their Incur-

that Nation

;

fions, fince

the French have Peopled the Countries that

higher up upon the River of ieres a little

itants

though

;

ftately

Town, with at the

Laurence.

fame time they are very has

made

it

Governor, who would die for Hunger, with the Natives for Beavers, Befides, a

Man

that

would

per with a Dog, or at

leaft

when

place

make

I

am

Leagues long, and had

live there,

Mouth

difficulty

Calms oblig'd us to

of which,

Towards

Houfes.2

live in

if

he did not trade out:

is

muft be of the like tem-

more numerous than

inform'd, that the Natives of this

I

caft

defcry'd with

the Evening

St. Peter's

enough

receives three or four Rivers that

the

and

the beft Soldiers in the Country.^

the frequent It

rich,

the Refidence of a

he muft take pleafure in fcratching

Three Leagues higher we enter'd fix

Trois Riv-

his fmall allowance

[19] his Skin, for the Flea's are there the grains of Sand.

I call'd

reference to the paucity of the Inhab-

The King

Houfes.

St.

lie

we

Lake, which

in croffing

Anchor

;

Fifh

;

upon

Telefcope very

fail'd

for

feveral times.

abound with

my

it

is

fine

out of that Lake

^ For the history of Trois Rivieres, on the St. Lawrence at the mouth of Maurice River, see Suite, " La Riviere des Trois Rivieres," Roy. Soc. Proc, 1901, pp. 97-

116.

— Ed.

2

Lake

crossing

it

St.

Peters

on the day

enlargement of the midst of the most

was christened Lac d'AngouIeme by Cartier but Champlain changed the name in the iatter's honor. It is an ;

of the saint,

St.

fertile

Lawrence, twenty-five miles long by about nine broad, in the It receives several rivers, chief of region of Lower Canada.

which are the Du Loup and Maskinonge from the north the Nicoiet, St. Francis, and Yamaska from the south, not including River Richelieu, which enters the St. Lawrence at the upper end of the lake. Ed. ;



UBRARf

Some

52

with a frelh Eafterly Gale Sails,

New ;

Voyages

and though we hoifted up

the Current run fo ftrong againft us, that 'twas three

hours before we could make

Leagues

Sorel

ofiF.^

is

a

Sorely

a certain River

waters of Champlain Lake, to the after having

partly of flack

Laurence^

St.

at Cbambli.^

eight Leagues from Sorel to Monreal,

we fpent three days

in failing

between 'em

by reafon

;

Winds, and partly of the ftrength of the Cur-

In this courfe

fides of the

River of

in front,

conveys the

form'd a Water-fall of two Leagues

Though we reckon but

rents.

which was two fmall

Canton of four Leagues

neighbourhood of which,

in the

yet

our

all

River

all

we faw nothing but Iflands and both along from Quebec to this place, are fo ;

replenifh'd with Inhabitants, that one

may

juflly call

'em two

continued Villages of fixty Leagues in length.

This place, which goes by the name of Monreal,

lies in

Minutes is

about

;

or

Fillemarie,

the Latitude of forty five Degrees, and fome

being feated in an Ifland of the fame name, which

five

Leagues broad, and fourteen Leagues long.

The

Directors of the Seminary of St. Sulpitius at Paris, are the Proprietors of the Ifland, and have the nomination of a

and feveral other Magifbrates

;

Bailifi^,

nay, in former times they

had

Fort Sorel was built by an officer of that

name (Pierre de Saurel), In 1665. he married the daughter of a Canadian seigneur, and in 1672 received a grant of the seigniory of Sorel, where he lived until his death in 1682. Ed, ^

Three years

later



^Chambly was named ment,

whom

Jacques de Chambly, captain in the Carignan regiTracy sent (1665) to build an advance fort against the Iroquois. He for

received the surounding land as a seigniory in 1672, but the next year

command nephew.

In

Acadia.

— Ed.

Later he removed to Grenada, and

was

Chambly passed

sent to to his

;

North' A.m.tv\c2i,

to

53

This

the priviledge of nominating a Governor.^

open without any Fortification [20] either of Stone

lies all

Wood

or

:

But

flanding that that

it

Town

little

might

its

fituation

ftands

it

is

advantageous, notwith-

fo

upon an uneven and fandy Ground,

The

be made an impregnable Poft.

eafily

River

of St. Laurence which runs juft by the Houfes, on one fide of

Town,

this

is

not Navigable further, by reafon of

for about half a quarter of a

has but a

in

of rapid

Mr. Perot the Governor of the Town, who thoufand Crowns a year Sallary has made fhift to

fifty

;

thoufand

in a

Skins and Furs.^

by

'tis full

Eddy's, ^c.

falls,

get

League higher,

rapidity

its

his place,

few years, by trading with the Savages

The

Bailiff of the

no more than

Town

his Officers

chants are the only Perfons that

:

gets but

little

So that the Mer-

make Money

here

;

for

the Savages that frequent the great Lakes of Canada^ come

down

hither almoft every year with a prodigious quantity of

Montreal was a religious colony, founded (1642) by a society

1

who received the island being much diminished, the

of Associates of

In 1663 the number of the Asso-

Montreal,

as a seigniory.

ciates

Sulpitians of Paris agreed to take charge of the

and the seigniory was transferred to them, with the rights here mentioned by Lahontan. The Sulpitians held their seigniorial privileges until the abolition of Ed. they still retain much land in Montreal and vicinity. feudal tenure in 1854 enterprise,



;

2

Francois Marie Perrot came

niece he had married.

Upon

to

Canada with

Talon (1670), whose Sulpitians named him gov-

the intendant

the request of Talon, the

ernor of Montreal, a grant which was later confirmed by the king.

Perrot abused his

and protected the coureurs des bois. Involved in a dispute with Frontenac, the governor arrested Perrot and sent him to France for trial. The ministry, after punishing him by a brief imprisonment in the Bastille, restored privileges to enrich himself,

him

to his governorship,

where he remained

until

1684.

In this year he was ap-

pointed governor of Acadia, which position he held for three years.

After his recall,

he remained in the country as a trader, and in 1690 was captured by the English.

The

date of his death

is

unknown.

— Ed.

Some

54

New

Voyages

Beavers-Skins, to be given in exchange for Arms, Kettles,

Axes, Knives, and a thoufand fuch things, upon which the

Merchants

clear

Commonly

two hundred per Cent.

the

Gov-

ernor General comes hither about the time of their coming

down, that

order to fhare the

in

People.

The

profit,

Pedlers call'd

from hence every year

de Bois, export

Coiirettrs

Canows

feveral

which they difpofe of among

and receive Prefents from

full

of Merchandife,

the Savage Nations of the

all

Continent, by way of exchange for Beaver-Skins. eight days ago,

I

faw twenty

return with heavy Cargoes

Men, and

or three

;

each

Seven or

or thirty of thefe

five

Canows

Canow was manag'd by two

carry'd twenty

hundred weight,

/'.

e.

forty

packs of Beaver Skins, which are worth an hundred Crowns a

Thefe Canows had been

piece.

out.

You would be amaz'd

lers are

when they return

;

if

and eighteen Months*

a year

you faw how lewd thefe Ped-

how

they Feafb and

Game, and

how prodigal they are, not only in their Cloaths, but [21] upon Women. Such of 'em as are married, have the wifdom but the Batchelors a6t juft to retire to their own Houfes for they as our Eafi-India-Nltn, and Pirates are wont to do Lavifh, Eat, Drink, and Play all away as long as the Goods hold out and when thefe are gone, they e'en fell their Em;

;

;

broidery, their Lace, and their Cloaths. forc'd to

The

go upon

a

new Voyage

This done, they are

for Subfiflance.

Dire6tors of the Seminary of

St. Sulpitius,

take care

who live under very much refpeded in

to fend MifTionaries hither from time to time,

the diredlion of a Superiour, that the Country.

is

They have Apartments

allotted for 'em in a

North-Amtncz,

to ftately, great,

Houfe

and pleafant Houfe,

Model

built after the

is

and the Altar ftands by

55 This

built of Free-ftone.^

of that of St. Sulpice at Paris juft like

it felf,

;

Their

that at Paris.

Seignories or Cantons that lye on the South-fide of the Ifland,

produce

a confiderable

Revenue

and the Inhabitants are rich

for the Plantations are good,

;

Corn, Cattle, Fowl, and a

in

thoufand other Commodities, for which they find a Mercat the City:

But the North part of the

Thefe

Ifland lies wafte.

Diredors would never fuffer the Jefuits or Recolledts to play their Banners here

long run a

though

;

League from the Town,

faw

I

Priefts of the

Order of

Siilpitius,^

dif-

conjedlur'd, that at the

be forc'd to confent to

they'll

At

it.

the diftance of

at the foot of a

who

Mountain, a

are infl:ru6led

by two

and I'm inform'd of

a larger

Plantation of Iroqueje Chriftians, *

'tis

in

whose priests were known as Sulpitians, was by Jean Jacques Olier, a young Parisian priest, one of The next year the Seminary was established at Paris, the Associates of Montreal, and by 1657 the first Sulpitian arrived in Canada. At Montreal they were eagerly welcomed, became the cures of the parish, and later seigneurs of the island (see ante, The first superior was Queylus, upon whose retirement (1671) p. 53, note i). Franfois Casson de Dollier succeeded to the position. The latter came to Canada in His first office was chaplain in an expedi1666 after service in the armies of France. later (1669) he accompanied La Salle on his first voyage tion against the Mohawks 1

The Seminary

founded

at

of St.

Vaugirard

Sulpice,

in 1640,

,

;

of

Western exploration.

Returning to Montreal the following spring, he served as

superior of the Sulpitians until his death (1671-1701).

Montreal, his manuscript was 2

The

first

published in 1871,

The

earliest historian of

— Ed.

Sulpitians founded (1677) the Iroquois mission called from

La Montagne, where were an Indian

village, a school for boys,

its

and another

location. for girls,

During Frontenac's War (1691) this village all aided by a pension from the king. was raided and thirty-five prisoners taken. Some years later (1704) the mission was removed to Sault au Recollet, and sixteen years later became the nucleus of the Indian See Canadian village of Oka on the Lake of Two Mountains, which still exists. Ed. Indian Department Report, 1901, p. 49. ,



Some

56

New

Voyages

and more populous Plantation on t'other fide of the River, at the diftance of two Leagues from hence, which is took care of

by Father Bruyas the foon as Mr.

go to Fort

by the fame name. erly in

hope to

fet

upon

the arrival of the

Frontenac^

If I

may

A6lion againft the

out from hence, as

from France ; for he

de la Barre receives advice

defigns to leave Quebec refolve to

I

Jefuit.^

upon

the

credit thofe

Iroquefe,

Lake

firft

Ship.

I

that [22] goes

who have been form-

I fhall

be able upon

my

return from this Campaign, to inform you of fome things that

feem as ftrange to you, as they

will

I

felf.

will

be difagreeable to

my

am,

SIR, Tours, &c.

was known as St. Francois du Sault, from its location on was established at La Prairie de la Madeleine in 1669, and in Father Jacques 1676 removed to this place, which is now known as Caughnawaga. Bruyas came to the Canadian mission in 1666, and labored during the rest of his life 1

The

Jesuit mission

Sault St. Louis.

It

the Iroquois. In 1679 he took charge of the mission at Sault St. Louis, where he lived until his death in 1712. He was superior of Canada missions 1693-98, and linguist of in 1700-01 was instrumental in adjusting peace with the Iroquois. Ed. repute, he prepared the first grammar of the Mohawk language.

among



A

to

North- h.vntnc2.,

LETTER Dated In which of the

is

at

57

V.

Monreal June

18. 1684.

view

contain'd a /hort account of the Iroquefe, with a

War

and

means by which

Peace they

made with

the

French, and of the

zvas brought about.

it

SIR,

WROTE

you but four days ago, and did not think to have heard from you fo foon; but this Morning I met with very agreeable Surprifal, in receiving a Packet addrefs'd to to

I a

me by

You may be

your Brother.

fure

I

was

pleas'd, in

being given to underftand what

Europe fince

I

is

left

it.

The knowledge

infinitely well

has

pafs'd

in

of the Affairs oi Europe

comfortable to one that's doom'd to another World, fuch

as this

is,

and

I

cannot but acknowledge

my

felf infinitely in-

In as

debted to you, for the exa6lnefs of your Intelligence.

much

as

you require of me an account of the

would have me to prefent you with and Government that, or

;

I

would

any other point

:

a juft

view of their

willingly fatisfie

But

in

my

felf

ent, is

Temper

regard [23] that

I

am

morrow,

:

So that

only to acquaint you with what

all I I

can do

in

oblig'd I

of things, or to confult thofe

have been in the Country before

and

and oblige you

to fet out for Fort Frontenac the day after to

not time to inform

Iroquefe,

have

who

at pref-

have learn'd this

Winter, from Perfons that have fojourn'd twenty years

among

New

Some

58 'em.

As

foon as

I

In the

mean

may

a

affure

more immediate converfation with your

felf

Thefe Barbarians are drawn up

in

names, viz. the

Tho'

thefe

one joynt

I'll

it

to you.

what follows. Cantons, not unlike

in five

Cantons are

intereft, yet

impart

all

of one Nation,

they go by different

Tfonontotians, the Goyogoans, the Onnotagues^ the

Their Language

and the Agnies.

Onoyouts,

and the

that

time, be pleas'd to accept of

thofe of the Swijfes.

and united

my knowl-

have an opportunity of inlarging

edge upon that Head, by themfelves, you

Voyages

five Villages

is

almoft the fame

or Plantations in which they

the diflance of thirty Leagues one from another, being feated near the South fide of the nac. Every year Union Feaft, and

Nations.

five

to

fmoak

Each

annuated Men, 4000

Tho' indeed fome 1

in the great Calumet, or

Village or e.

i.

all

Ontario^ or of Fronte-

the five Cantons fend Deputies to

teen thoufand Souls,

loooo or

Lake of

;

live, lie at

alTift

at the

Pipe of the

Canton contains about

four-

1500 that bear Arms, 2000 Super-

Women, 2000 Maids,

will tell you, that

and 4000 Children:

each Village has not above

There has been an Alliance of long

1000 Souls.^

ftanding between thefe Nations and the

Engli/Ji,

and by trad-

ing in Furrs to New-For^, they are fupply'd by the EngUJh 1

"Iroquois" was a title bestowed by the French the tribesmen " People of the Long House "; to the English, they were known ;

selves

Lahontan gives the

Nations."

names

five

called themas the

" Five

confederates of the league in the French form of



them proceeding in the same order, from west to Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk. Among the Onondaga was the principal council house, where each year the " union feast " was held, and Lahontan has greatly exaggerated the numbers the forthcoming policy deliberated. it is doubtful whether they ever mustered more than 2,500 warriors, of these Indians their east

;

the English called

— Seneca,

;

implying a population of 10,000 Ed. Jesuits, p. Ixvi.

to 12,000.

See Jesuit Relations, index

;

Parkman,

;

North-Kvamcdi.

to

with Arms, Ammunition, and

all

59

other Neceffaries, at a cheaper

They have no

other

confideration for England or France^ than what depends

upon

rate than the French can afford 'em at.

the occafion they have for

Nations

;

though

for they pay for

They laugh

after

the

Commodities of

them four times more than they

at the

are worth.

Menaces of our Kings and Governors,

they have no notion of dependence, nay, the very word

They look upon

them infupportable.

from the firft

fettlement of our Colonies in Canada^ to the

firft

Count of

and de

made Head

againft the Agniis

Traci,

upon

;

fome hundred of

the Champlain Lake, in

they could not boaft of any their Villages, p"^ rarry'd

their Children,

of

mention'd Iroquefe Chriftians are fprung. off ninety ^

The

or an hundred Warriours

Iroquois had harassed

New

Mcjfieurs

both of 'em Governors-General,

Summer but They only burnt

as well as in

great Succefs.^

Government.

Frontenac's

de Courfelles,

off

to

themfelves as Sov-

God alone, whom they call They waged War with us almoft always,

Spirit.

years of the

Winter

is

for

none but

eraigns, accountable to

The Great

two

thefe

they [24] give an over-purchafe

all

;

whom

the

above-

'Tis true, they cut

but in compenfation for

France almost from

its

inception.

Alexandre

de Prouville, marquis de Tracy, was chosen (1664) lieufenant-general of French colonies in

America.

An

after

army officer who had served with efficiency in the West was hailed with joy by the distressed colonists. Shortly

old

Indies, his arrival (1665)

came Daniel de Remy,

sieur de Courcelle, the newly-appointed governor,

detachments of the Carignan regiment. quois, in the winter of 1665-66,

matter, and in the

burned the

autumn

Mohawk

of

Courcelle's

was without

success.

first

and

expedition against the Iro-

Whereupon Tracy

took up the

1666 led an expedition via Lake Champlain, which

towns and cowed these savages into an advantageous peace.

The

following year (1667) Tracy returned to France, to die there three years later. Courcelle remained as governor until 1672, when failing health caused his retirement,

he being replaced by Count de Frontenac.

— Ed.

New

Some

6o

that, feveral Canadans,

Voyages

and feveral Soldiers of the Regiment

of Carignan, being unprovided againft the unfuflferable cold loft their

Count

who fucceeded Mr.

Frontenac

their Life

Limbs, and even

of the Climate,

it felf.

perceiving that

Courfelle,^

the Barbarians had the advantage of the Europeans, as to the

waging of

War

in that

Country; upon

this apprehenfion,

I

he declin'd fuch fruitlefs Expeditions, which were very

fay,

chargeable to the King, and us'd

all

his efforts to difpofe the

This judicious Gov-

Savages to a fmcere and lafting Peace. ernor had three things in view

The

;

was to incourage

firft

the greateft part of the French Inhabitants,

who would have

abdicated the Colony, and return'd to France, continued.

His fecond Topick was,

Peace would difpofe an

infinity

if

the

War

had

that the conclufion of a

of People to marry, and to

grub up the Trees, upon which the Colony would be better Peopled and inlarg'd. The third Argument that diffuaded him from carrying [25] on the War, was a defign of purfuing the difcovery of the Lakes, and of the Savages that live upon their banks, in order to fettle a

fame time to ingage them in cafe of a

in

Rupture with the

Commerce with

our

by good Alliances,

interefts,

Iroquefe.

Upon

of thefe Reafons, he fent fome Canadans by

Embaffy 1

'em, and at the

the confideration

way of

a formal

to the Iroquefe Villages, in order to acquaint them,

Louis de Baude, count de Frontenac (born in 1620)

,

had from

his fifteenth year

seen service in French armies, and was also an accomplished courtier. He was made lieutenant-general of New France in 1672, and while the most able of the governors,

The his imperious disposition and autocratic temper involved him in many disputes. Seven years later, the opposition became so great that he was recalled in 1682. This peril of the colony was such that Frontenac was again summoned to defend it. he did vigorously, his expedition of 1696 crushing the Iroquois, and saving Canada to the French.

He

died at Quebec

November

28, 1698.

— Ed.

to

on

At

War

was

car-

him from France to make peace

the fame time the Ambaffadors had orders to

ftipulate all the

the

had

againft them,

with 'em.

fent

6i

that a groundlefs

King being inform'd

that the ried

iVor/^-America.

Commerce.

advantages they could obtain with reference to

The

deal of Satisfadion

Iroqiiefe

;

order'd his Governor

for in

they continu'd to wage

and that they would

heard this Propofal with a great

Charles

II.

New-Tork

War

King

of England^ had

to reprefent to 'em, that

with the French^ they were ruin'd,

by the numerous

find themfelves crufh'd

Forces that were ready to

if

fail

from France.

In effed, they

promis'd to the Ambaffadors that four hundred of their number fhould meet Count Frontenac, attended by an equal number of his

Men,

at

the place where Fort Frontenac

Accordingly, fome Months

after,

now

ftands.

both the one and the other

appointed, and fo a Peace was concluded.

met

at the place

Mr.

de la Salle w^s very ferviceable to this Governor, in giving

him good and feafonable Advices, which

I

cannot

now

upon, being oblig'd to make fome preparations for

When

age.^

from me.

the

In the

Campaign

mean

time,

is I

over,

enter

my Voy-

you may exped to hear

am,

SIR, Tours, &c. Lahontan here refers to Frontenac's expedition of 1673, which built Fort Fronand made peace with the Iroquois. La Salle was one of the messengers sent to Onondaga to summon the chiefs to council. See Parkman, La Salle (Boston, 1892), ^

tenac,

chap.

vi.

Thomas Dongan, governor of New York

(1682-88)

,

was an

Irish

gentleman who

English and French armies in Europe, and had acted as lieutenantgovernor of Tangiers, He attempted to thwart the plans of the French, to control the Iroquois and monopolize the trade with the interior, which conduct brought upon

had served

in both

him reprimands from

the English king, then subservient to the

crown

of France.

— Ed.

New

Some

62

Voyages

LETTER Dated

at

VI.

Monreal June

20. 1684.

Being an ample Defcription of the Canows made of Birch-barky

which the Canadans perform of the

manner

in

all

in

their Voyages; with an account

which they are made and manag'd.

SIR,

THOUGHT

I

to have fet out as this day

our Complement of great Canows

our Voyage time upon

is

fenting you with

a fliort

I

but

regard that

in

not yet brought up,

Having

put off for two days.

my Hands,

is

;

fo

much

have a mind to imploy

it

leifure in pre-

view of thefe flender Contrivances

which the Canadans perform

all

their

Voyages

And

:

in

this will

you with an Idaa of the Voiture of this Country. I faw but now above an hundred Canows, fome great and fome httle; but confidering that the former are only proper for furnifh

Martial Expeditions, and long Voyages, Defcription to that fizes;

fort.

all

Breech, as in a Coffin gers eafily

move

fhall

confine

my

great ones are of different

from ten to twenty eight Foot long.

for they run

Indeed the lead of

Even the

I

;

hold but two Perfons

and are apt to

to one fide or t'other

:

fet

over-fet,

But thofe of

afford ftowage for fourteen Perfons

;

if

upon

their

the Paffen-

a larger fize will

tho' they are

monly mann'd only with three Men, when they

com-

are imploy'd

;:

North-\mtv\c^,

to

in tranfporting Provifions they'll carry

63

and Merchandize

twenty hundred weight.

The

and even then

;

largeft fort are fafe

and [27] fteddy, when they are made of the Bark of the Birchtree, which comes off with hot Water in the Winter time.

The

Trees afford the

greateft

oftentimes the Bark of one Tree

tom of

the Boat

artfully few'd

Barks for Canows

beft is

not

;

The

fufficient.

but bot-

of one piece, to which the fides are fo

is all

by the Savages, that the whole Boat appears

They

one continu'd Bark.

are trimm'd

as

and ftrengthn'd with

wicker Wreaths, and ribs of Cedar- Wood, which are almoft as light as

Cork

;

Wreaths

the

are as thick as a Crown-piece

but the Bark has the thicknefs of two Crowns, and the Ribs

On

are as thick as three.

the two fides of the Boat, there

runs from one end to the other two principal Head-bars, in

which the ends of the Ribs are inchas'd, and Spars are

made

faft,

which the

that run a-crofs the Boat and keep

Thefe Boats have twenty Inches

pa6l.

in

in

depth, that

the upper edge to the Platform of the Ribs

it

com-

is,

from

their length

;

extends to twenty eight Foot, and the width at the middle

Rib

is

computed

to be four

Foot and

a half.

They

are very

convenient upon the account of their extream lightnefs, and the drawing of very brittle

little

Water

and tender Fabrick,

inconveniency

;

for

if

is

an

but

;

Argument

gets

in,

of an equivalent

fly

upon Stone

open, upon which the

and fpoils the Provifions and Merchandize

Every day there over.

fame time their

they do but touch or grate

or Sand, the cracks of the Bark

Water

at the

is

fome new chink or feam to be gumm'd

At Night they

are always unloaded,

and carried on

New

Some

64

made

fhoar where they are

with Pegs,

faft

For they

blow 'em away:

Voyages fhould

Men

two

are fo light, that

'em upon their fhoulders with

Wind

the

left

carry

This conveniency of

eafe.

lightnefs and eafie carriage, renders 'em very ferviceable in

the Rivers of Canada, which are full of Catara6ls, Water-falls,

and Currents

For

:

Rivers

in thefe

we

obhg'd either to

are

tranfport [28] 'em over-land where fuch obftrudions happen,

or

elfe to

and the

tow 'em along where the Current

if

;

Waves would fwallow 'em up, fhoar when a wind arifes.^ 'Tis

for the

they could not reach the

true, the Inhabitants venture in

from one Ifland to another Weather, and nothing

is

'em for four or but then

;

made

the rifque of being over-fet, the

dammag'd by

Goods

are in

Sails

little

;

but

if

the

it, 'tis

When

always in calm for befides

;

danger of being

Wind

the feafon ferves,

be but

impoffible to

without running the rifque of Ship-wrack.

lies diredlly

Leagues,

the Water, efpecially the Furs which are the

tho' they run right afore it

'tis

five

ufe of but Oars

moft valuable part of the Cargoe. they carry

not over-rapid,

Thefe Boats are of no ufe for the

ftioar is accejflible.

Navigation of Lakes

is

South, they cannot put up

fail

a little brisk,

make any If their

ufe of

courfe

without the wind

ftands at one of the eight points, between North-Weft and

North-Eaft (unlefs ^

it

For a

;

and

if

a

wind happens to fpring any where

comes from the Land which they brief description of the

McKenney, Tour of saying that these craft

process

of

making

a

coaft along) they birch bark canoe,

Lakes (Baltimore, 1827), PP- 319. 320. Lahontan were unfitted for the navigation of the lakes he was

the

learn of their usefulness on those waters.

;

— Ed.

elfe,

see

errs in later to

North- AA-ntv\c2i.

to

are obllg'd to put In to the fhoar with

and unload the Boat out of hand,

65 pofTible expedition,

all

fuch time as a calm

till

returns.

As

working of thefe Boats, the Canow-Men ply

for the

fometlmes on their Knees, namely, when they run down the fmall Water-falls

by

rent

fometlmes ftanding, when they ftem a Cur-

Boat along with Poles; and fometlmes

fmooth and ftagnating water.

fitting, viz. in

make

;

fetting the

ufe of are

made

The Handle Egg.

is

When

rents, they

de fond.

ufe of Poles

Boat along with

The Canows

made

is

as a

Pigeons

is

what they

call Piqiier

have neither Stern nor Prow, for they :

Neither have they Keels, Nails Steerfman, or he

who

the Boat, rows without interruption as well as the

reft.

The common do's not

The

purchafe of fuch a Boat

laft

This day

I

above

five

or

fix

is

Crowns

eighty

Governor of

;

but

years.

have received advice, that Mr. de

rals'd the Militia in the

the

Oar

of Pine-wood; and the

thefe, [29]

or Pegs, in the whole Strudture.

it

of the

they have occafion to run up agalnft rapid Cur-

run to a point at both ends

Conns

The Blade

is

Inches broad, and four Lines thick:

about three Foot long, and as big

make

fetting of the

fix

they

of Maple-wood, and their form

reprefented In the annex'd Cutt.

twenty Inches long,

The Oars

la

Barre has

neighbourhood of Quebec^ and that

this Ifland has recelv'd orders to

of the adjacent Cantons in readinefs to march.

SIR, Tours &c. ^

I

have that

am,

Some

66

New

Voyages

LETTER Dated

at

Monreal Novemb.

Defcribing the Coiirfe of the River of to

VII.

St.

2.

1684.

Laurence, /row Monreal

the firfi great Lake 0/ Canada; with the Water-falls Catara^ls, ^

and Navigation

As

of that River :

Advantages that accrue from tial account of the

it.

alfo

For/ Frontenac, and the

Together with a Circumftan-

Expedition of Mr. de la Barre, the Governor-

General^ againft the Iroquefe; the Speeches he made, the Replies

he received, and the final Accommodation of the difference.

SIR,

THANK God

have

I

finifh'd this

Campaign, and am now

return'd in fafety to this place.

To

prefent you with

the Hiftory of our Campaign, be [30] pleas'd to in

two or three days

after the date of

my

laft, I

know

that

imbarqu'd on

a Canow that was work'd by three expert CanowMen. Every Canow contain'd two Soldiers and we all row'd up againft the Current of the River till we arriv'd at Saut de St. Louis, about three Leagues above this Town, which is a little Water-fall, but fo rapid, that our Watermen were forc'd to

board of

;

ftand in the water

Canows

up

againft the

to their Middle, in order to drag the

Stream for

half a quarter of a League.^

1 Sault St. Louis was the name originally given to Lachine Rapids, just above Montreal, by Champlain (1611), apparently in memory of a lad named Louis who

;

North-Avntnc2i,

to

We

reimbarqu'd above

and row'd about twelve

Pafs,

this

6y

Leagues up the River, and thro' the Lake of

half a quarter of a

League.

but there was a Catara6l a le

CataraBe dn

Troii.

difficulty of failing

Land-carriage matter,

I

I

had taken up

I

with fome labour

which they

it,

call

a notion that the only

confifted in the trouble of

came

to be a Spedlator

of the

found that the ftemming of the Currents whether

towing of the Canows, or

was equally laborious.

came

above

little

over-land, about

we might have tow'd

in this place

up the River,

but when

;

Baggage

'Tis true,

our Boats againft the Stream

we

till

where we were forc'd to

arriv'd at a place call'd the Cafcades,

turn out and carry our Boats and

St. Louis^

them along with

in fetting

About

five

or

fix

in

Poles,

Leagues higher we

to the Water-falls call'd Sauts des Cedres, and du Buiffon,

where we were forc'd to tranfport our Boats

Some Leagues above

paces over Land.

Lake of

St. Francis,

which

is

faid to

Circumference; and having crofs'd rents as before, particularly at a

we had recourfe

it,

that,

five

hundred

we enter'd

be twenty Leagues

met with

fall call'd

the in

as flirong Cur-

Long

Saui,

to Land-carriage for half a League.

where

Then

at this place. The head of navigation upon the St. Lawrence, Cartler ascended to this point on his second voyage (1535), and explored the region in 1541. The name " Lachine " commemorates the derision excited among the enemies of La Salle; upon his embarication thither for the West (1669), they said he was headed

was drowned

for

China (La Chine)

,

an allusion to the then prevalent notion that

in the

West might

be found a transcontinental waterway which should prove a short-cut to China. The term " La Chine " was equivalent to our " China-town." The Lachine Rapids are the most dangerous

on the

St.

Lawrence, and are now avoided by the Lachine canal,

eight and a half miles long, on the northern side.

constructed passenger steamers

people of Montreal.

— Ed.

In descending, however, specially-

" shoot the rapids,"

a favorite

amusement among the

New

Some

68

we were and

forc'd to drag

Voyages

up the Boats

after a great deal of fatigue

la Galete^

againft the rapid Stream;

came

Pafs call'd

at laft to a

from whence we had but twenty Leagues This [31] Pafs was the laft for above it the water was as

Fort Frontenac} to furmount

;

Pool, and then our

Watermen

failing to

we had

difficulty ftill

as that of a

ply'd with their Oars in ftead

of Poles.

The

we

Maringouins, which

troublefom

Midges^ are unfufferably

call

Countries of Canada.

in all the

We

were haunted

with fuch clouds of 'em, that we thought to be eat up

fmoaking being the only Artifice that could keep 'em

Remedy was worfe

than the Difeafe

:

People fhelter themfelves from 'em

made

after the following

Stakes or

little

from another,

In the Night-time the in

down

falls

Bowers or Arbours,

form

at a certain diftance

a femicircular

they put a Quilt and Bedcloaths, covering Sheet that

the

manner. They drive into the Ground

branches of Trees,

fo as to

and

;

off,

it

Ground on

to the

Figure

;

all

which

in

above with fides,

one

a large

and

fo

hinders the Infeds to enter.

We landed

at

Fort Frontenac after twenty days

immediately upon our chief,

;

and

Mr. Duta our Commander

in

view'd the Fortifications of the place, and three large

Barques that ^

arrival,

failing

lay at

Anchor

in the Port.^

We

repair'd the

Lahontan here describes in some detail the passage from Montreal to Lake For a similar description in reverse order, with enumeration of the rapids,

Ontario.

see Journal of Father

The Long 2

Bonnecamps (1749),

Sault of the St. Lawrence

Captain

Du Tas

is

(Tartre) was in

provisions to Fort Frontenac.

See

now

in Jesuit Relations, Ixix, pp.

195, 197.

paralleled by the Cornwall canal.

command

New York

of the

advance guard sent

Colonial Documents,

ix, p.

to

— Ed.

convey

234.

He

North-h.vi\tnc2i.

to

Fortifications in a very

little

This Fort was

Barques.

a Square, confifting of large

two Battlements, and the Walls were climb

upon 'em

his

one might

fo low, that

After Mr. de

Iroqueje^ the

Heirs the property of

might have

upon

this place

;

but he was fo

Commerce

oufly for a

may I

Fort

is

fituated very advantage-

five Iroqiiefe

Nations

:

For

their

Neighbourhood of the Lake^ upon which

Canows with more [32] eafe, 'em over-land to New- For/;. In time of

tranfport their Furs in

than they can carry

War

this

Trade with the

Villages lye in the

they

he was confiderably out of pocket

aflForded,

To my mind

it.^

la Salle

King beftow'd upon

negligent, that inftead of enriching himfelf by the it

Cur-

thefe Flanks had but

;

v/ithout a Ladder.

concluded the Peace with the

him and

up the three

time, and fitted

tains flanked with four little Baftions

eafily

69

take

to be indefenfible

it

;

for the Cataradls and Cur-

rents of the River are fuch, that fifty Iroqiiefe

may

there ftop

stopped but a brief time in the colony, but again brought reinforcements in 1690, sent him to guard the St. Lawrence. He served in the English Channel in 1692 went to Hudson Bay (1695), ^^^ ^^^ following year was in the campaign in Acadia. Ed.

when Frontenac

;



1

Courcelle had recommended the

Lawrence in 1673,

Two years

later.

site of

Fort Frontenac (Catarakouy) on his

His successor, acting upon the suggestion, advanced up the

expedition of 1671.

^"^^ built the

La

stockade on the present

Salle, strongly

Versailles a grant of the fort

and

site of

St.

Kingston, Ontario.

endorsed by Frontenac, obtained from the court

district as a seignioiy.

merchant, he would, as Lahontan suggests, have made his

Had La

at

mere fortune therefrom. Using it Salle been a

merely as the base of Western exploration, he became involved in financial

difficulties,

and upon the departure of his patron Frontenac it was seized by his enemies, headed by La Barre (1683). Upon the order of the king, it was restored the following year to

La

Salle's lieutenant.

At

the outbreak of Frontenac's

orders for the destruction of this fort

maintained

it

until its capture

;

War

but Frontenac restored

by the British

in 1758.

— Ed.

(1689), Denonvillegave it

in 1695,

and the French

Some

70 five

Voyages

hundred French^ without any other Arms but Stones.

but confider, is

New

Sir, that

fo rapid, that

fhoar;

Befides,

mated above,

for twenty

we dare not

Leagues together the River

the

fet

Do

Canow

Canada being nothing but

four paces off the a Forreft, as I inti-

impoffible to travel there without falling

'tis

every foot into Ambufcades, efpecially upon the banks of this

Woods,

that render 'em inac-

the Savages can skip

from Rock to Rock,

River, which are lin'd with thick cefTible.

None but

and fcour thro' the Thickets,

as

if

'twere an

open

Field.

If

we were capable of fuch Adventures, we might march five or hundred Men by Land to guard the Canows that carry

fix

the Provifions; but at the fame time

'tis

to be confider'd, that

before they arriv'd at the Fort, they would confume more Provifions than the the Iroqucfe

would

Canows can

ftill

relating to the Fort,

I

Not to mention that out-number 'em. As to the particulars fhall take notice of 'em v/hen I come to carry

;

give a general defcription of Ntw-France.

While we continued at

Ganeoujfe and

at

Qiiente,

Fort Frontenac, the Iroquefe at

^

;

in

of feven or eight

in

In 1668 several Cayugas, asking for a missionary,

settlement recently

live

upon us Harts, Roe-bucks, exchange for Needles, Knives, Powder

Leagues from thence,^ threw

Turkeys and Fifh

the diftance

who

made on Quinte Bay, on

Sulpitians sent out tvvo of their members,

came

to

the north shore of

who maintained

Montreal from a new

Lake Ontario.

The

the mission until 1673,

the Recollects the chaplaincy of his new fort. Hennepin was stationed here, and administered to the mission for several years. See Hennepin, Nenv Disco-very (Thwaites's ed., Chicago, 1903), pp. 47, 97. The mission was abandoned during the Iroquois disturbances just preceding the outbreak of Frontenac's War (or about 1687). Ed.

when Frontenac granted



;

iVo/tZ'-America.

to

and us

Towards

Ball.

;

manner among moft of Companies were

;

ill

de la

Bane

his Militia

;

This Feaver was of the

and the convulfive Motions, Tremblings,

moft of our fick

Men

Their Blood was [33] of

Fit.

our three

fo that only

and frequency of the Pulfe that attended the cold violent, that

ioyn'd

of a Feaver, which rag'd in like

from Sicknefs.

free

intermitting kind

Mr.

the end of Auguft

but he was dangeroufly

71

Fit,

were

fo

dy'd in the fecond or third

brown

a blackifh

colour, and

tainted with a fort of ycllovv'ifh Serum, not unlike Pus or cor-

Mr.

rupt Matter.

knew

as little of the true caufes of

Galen, and a I

fay,

who

my

in

hundred thoufand befides

it

mighty Phyfician,

this

;

I

now fpeak

to the unfavourable qualities of the Air

His plea was,

Aliment.

opinion

Feavers as Hippocrates or

pretending to trace the caufe of the Feaver

imputed

of,

de la Barre's Phyfician,

and the

that the exceflive heat of the feafon,

put the Vapours or Exhalations into an over-rapid Motion that the Air fufficient

was

fo over-rarify'd, that

quantity of

it

;

we did not fuck in a we did receive

that the fmall quantity

was loaded with Infedts and impure Corpufculum's, which the fatal neceflity of Refpiration oblig'd us to

by

this

means nature was put

the ufe of

Brandy and

fait

into diforder

Meat fower'd

fwallow :

He

;

and that

added, that

the Blood, that this

fowernefs occafion'd a fort of Coagulation of the Chyle and

Blood, that the Coagulation hindered

Heart

with a due degree of Celerity

it

;

to circulate thro' the

and that thereupon

there infued an extraordinary Fermentation, which elfe

but a Feaver.

But

after

all,

to

my mind

this

is

nothing

Gentleman's

New

72

Some

Syfteme was too

much upon

Voyages

the Iroquefe ftrain

the DIftemper muft have feiz'd

rate

all

;

for at that

without diftin6lion,

whereas neither our Soldiers nor the feafon'd Canadans were troubled with

it

;

for

raged only among the Militia, who

it

being unacquainted with the way of fetting the Boats with Poles, were forc'd at every turn to get into the water and drag

'em up againft the rapid Stream

Country being naturally

cold,

Now,

:

and the heat being

Blood might thereupon freeze by way of occafion

Maxim,

the Feaver

I

the waters of that

fpeak

of,

Oninis repentina mutatio

excefTive, the

purfuant to the

efl

and

Antiperiflafis^

perkiilofa^

i.

e.

fo

common

All fiidden

changes are of dangerous Confequence.

[34] in

As foon

as

Mr.

de la Barre recover'd, he imbarqu'd

order to continue his march; tho' he might have

known, that

when

after halting fourteen or fifteen days at that Fort,

the feafon was fo far advanc'd, he could not pretend to

compafs the end of

his Expedition.

Weather being very calm, and

the

eafily

We

row'd Night and Day

in five or fix

days came

before the River of Famine^ where we were forc'd to put in

upon the apprehenfion of a Storm.^ Here we met with a Canow that Mr. Dulhiit had fent from Mijfilimakinac, with advice, that purfuant to orders he

had ingag'd the

Htirons,

Onondaga (Oswego) River, was Salmon River, Oswego County, N. Y. See N. Y, Colonial Documents, ix, p. 242. The region was not named for lack of La Barre supplies in La Barre's army, but from some previous Indian famine. encamped on the northwest side of the river, opposite the present Port Ontario. See Ed. Hawley, Early Chapters of Cayuga History (Auburn, 1879). 1

Riviere la

Famine was previously

but later investigations have proven that

identified with

it



,

North-hmtnc2i,

to

fome other People, to joyn

Outaoua'sy and

,

Mr.

to

brave

Army;

his

,

n

de la Barre

1

but

;

was very much perplexed

1

at the ;

in

which

* Foreft

Thefe News were very acceptable

Rangers. , ,

two hundred

above

had

he

73

.

r

,

fame time he

^^^

Coureurs

de Bois cr

in

the

,

for I'm perfwaded

he repented oftner than once, of his entring upon an Expedition that he forefaw

would prove Succefslefs

;

and to aggra-

vate the danger of his Enterprife, the Iroquefe had at that

time an opportunity to

fall

upon

us.

In

fine, after a

mature

confideration of the Confequences, and of the Difficulties that

ftood in the way, he fent back the

Canow

to

Mr. Dulhut, with

orders to difmifs the Foreft Rangers and Savages immediately,

where ever he was, and by

all

means

to avoid the approaching

By good luck Mr. Dulhut had not yet

to his Troops.

Niagara^ when

he

receiv'd

Orders

thefe

Savages that accompany'd him were fo

threw out

As ^

all

manner of Invedlives

foon as Mr. de

la

;

reach'd

with which

diffatisfied, that

the

they

againft the French Nation.^

Barre had difpatch'd this Canow, he

Daniel Greysolon DuLuth (duLhut), " king of coureurs des bois," had been

French army. Coming to Canada before 1674, lie set out four years on an expedition to the Sioux country, and remained in the Northwest for over twelve years, exploring, trading, and securing the Indians in the French interest. He was so powerful that his services were sought by successive governors. He brought an

officer in the

later

Denonville in 1687 and in 1694 was fighting the Iroyears later he was commandant at Fort Frontenac,

an Indian force to the aid

of

quois under Frontenac.

Two

and died

pp. 39-47. cited

McLennan " Gentlemen of the King's Guard," in Harper's and " Death of DuLuth " in Roy. Soc. Proc, 2d series, ix, The Huron and Ottawa who composed his party upon the occasion here

in 1710.

Magazine,

;

See

Sept., 1893

;

by Lahontan, were from those tribes that had under French protection at Fort Mackinac.

settled

fled

from the Iroquois attacks and

— Ed.

New

Some

74 fent

Mr.

le

Moine

Voyages

to the Village of the Onnontagues,

was

which lay

This Mr.

about eighteen Leagues up the River.

le

Moine

Gentleman of Normandy^ and highly efleem'd by the

a

Iroquefe,

who

[35] call'd

him

Akouejfan,

Orders were, to indeavour by

i.

e.

him fome of the old ftanders of that Nation he return'd

in a

His

the Partridge}

means to bring along with

all

;

and accordingly

few days, accompany'd with one of their moft

confiderable Grandees,

who had

a

Train of thirty young War-

and was diftinguifh'd by the Title of the Grangula}

riours,

As foon

debarqued, Mr. de

as he

Barre fent him a Prefent

la

of Bread and Wine, and of thirty Salmon-Trouts, which they fifh'd in that

hundred

at

place in fuch plenty, that they brought

one

caft

of a

Net

:

At

up

a

the fame time he gave the

Grandee to underftand, that he congratulated

his

and would be glad to have an Interview with him

after he

had

that he

had

refted himfelf for

fome days.

You

muft

know

Arrival,

us'd the precaution of fending the fick back to the Colony, ^

Charles Le Moyne, sieur de Longueuil, was a native of Dieppe, born in 1624.

He came

to

settled at

Montreal.

(1668).

His sons distinguished themselves in the history of the colony; the

and after four years among the Huron with the Jesuits, There he acted for many years as interpreter of the colony, and captain of militia. In 1655 he was captured by the Iroquois, who were so impressed by his intrepidity that they adopted him into their tribe, and sent him home unharmed. The value of his ser^'ices to the colony was so great that he was ennobled by the king first

baron

Canada

of

in 1641,

Longueuil, was governor of Canada

founders of Louisiana.

By

;

Iberville

eldest,

and Bienville were the

— Ed.

form Lahontan designates the Iroquois chieftain known by La Grande Gueule (Big Mouth), in allusion to his oratorical ability. His Indian name was Otreouate, and he belonged to the Onondaga tribe. Although not one of their great chiefs, he was a wily diplom.atist, and owed his influence to 2

this Latinized

the French as

skill in

oratory and powers of dissimulation.

clan, see

N. Y. Colon. Docs.,

ix, p.

386.

For

— Ed.

his signature in the totems of his

to

North- hxntx\C2i,

the Iroquefe might

that

the weaknefs of his

perceive

not

75

Forces; and to favour the Stratagem, Mr.

Body

fented to the Grangida, that the

behind

at

left

But unhappily one of the

the General's Guards.

a fmattering of the French

had

Iroquefe that

Tongue, having

the Night-time towards our Tents, over-heard what

ftroul'd in faid,

Moine repre-

Army was

Fort Frontenac, and that the Troops he faw in our

Camp, were

we

le

of the

and

Two

fo reveal'd the Secret.

Grangula gave notice to Mr. de

arrival, the

days after their la

Barre that he

was ready for an Interview; and accordingly an hour being appointed, the whole fents

Company

appear'd as the figure repre-

it.

The Grangula head of

fat

on the Eaft

Men, with

his

his

being plac'd

fide,

He

was very attentive to the

following Harangue, pronounc'd by our Interpreters

you cannot well underftand, without the Calumet^ and the CoUers that [36]

Calumet of Peace

it

is

four or

five

foot long

Inches long, and the is

lodg'd,

is

Hammer. The Savages make Affairs,

and

Calumet

in their is

the

Mouth

body

or

The

which

mentions.

made

of certain Stones, or

The Pipe

of the Calumet

Head

three Inches in length;

that of a

Calumet

;

;

a previous explication of

of Marble, whether red, black, or white. is

the

Pipe in his Mouth, and the great

Calumet of Peace before him.

The

at

in which the

its

or Stalk is

eight

Tobacco

figure approaches to

red Calumets are moft efteem'd.

ufe of 'em for Negotiations and State

efpecially in

Voyages

;

for

when they have

hand, they go where they will in fafety.

trimm'd with yellow, white, and

a

The

p^reen Feathers,

76

Some

and has the fame

effefl

New among

friencKhip has amongft us

the Savages, that the Flag of

for to violate the Rights of this

among them a flaming Crime, that will draw upon their Nations.^ As for the Colters, they

venerable Pipe,

down

;

Voyages

is

mifchief

two or three Foot

are certain fwathes of

Inches in breadth

;

being deck'd with

certain fort of fhells that they find

New-^ory^ and Virginia. as a little

Pea

Their colour

and

fix

Beads made of a

the Sea fhoar, between

Thefe Beads are round, and

as thick

but they are twice as long as a grain of Corn

;

either blew or white

is

jufl like Pearl,

upon

in length,

little

;

and they are bor'd thro'

being run after the fame manner upon ftrings

that lye fideways one to another.

Without the intervention

of thefe Coliers, there's no bufinefs to be negotiated with the

Savages

make

;

for being altogether unacquainted with writing, they

ufe of

them

they keep for an their

for

Age

Mark,

iQn

in

regard that every Colier has

its

they learn from the old Perfons, the Circum-

ftances of the time after that age

Sometimes

the Coliers that they have receiv'd from

Neighbours; and

peculiar

known

Contrads and Obligations.

is

and place

in

over, they are

which they were deliver'd

made

ufe of for

new

but

;

Treaties.^

The red stone is the uses of the calumet, see Jesuit Relations, index. from the artist George Catlin, who was the first to explore

as "catlinite,"



Ed. Minnesota. by the French; the English entitled them " belts") were made of wampum, of which Lahontan has here described the primitive type in Later they were made of beads. See Jesuit Relations, viii, note the form of shells. " Wampum Records " in Popular Science Monthly, February, Indian 70 also Hale, and describe the quarries 2

These "collars"

at Pipestone,

(so called

;

1897.

Belts of

wampum

were always used in the negotiation of Indian

treaties

;

they

were sent with envoys as credentials, preserved by a chief as the ensign of his authority, employed in ransom and atonement for crime, and also as ornament and in place of " porcelain."— Ed. money. The English term was "wampum"; that of the French,

North- PiTCitriQ^.,

to

[37] ^^^'

Barre's Harangue^ was

1'^

The King, my

upon

the meafures of Peace,

Guard, and to fend

tagues, in

in the

being

Mafter,

to this

inform'd

purpofe.

that

the

five

made infradions order'd me to come hither with

have for a long time

Nations

Iroqitefe

a

'^^

77

Canton of the Onno-

Akoiiejfan to the

order to an Interview with their principal Leaders,

Neighbourhood of my Camp.

means, that you and

I

This great Monarch

fhould fmoak together in the great

Calumet of Peace, with the Provifo, that you ingage in the

name of

the Tfonnontouans, Goyoguans, Onnotagiies, OnnoyouteSy

and Agnies^ to make reparation to

Subjeds, and to be

his

guilty of nothing for the future, that

may

occafion a fatal

rupture. '

The

Tfonnontouans, Goyogouans, Onnotagues^ Onnoyoiites and

Agnies^ have ftrip'd, rob'd, that travel'd in the lUineJe^ of the

are

my

and abus'd

way of Trade

all

the Foreft-Rangers,

to the

Country of the

Oumamis^ and of feveral other Nations, who

Now

Matter's Children.^

this ufage

being

violation of the Treaties of Peace concluded with ceffor, ^

I

am commanded

According

to

to

La

Salle's canoes.

this permission to seize several canoes

Parkman, Frontenac, pp.

The

The

Illinois Indians, of

only to have

this

high

Predeat the

about by giving leave to

Indians had taken advantage of

and employes

of the governor himself.

See

86, 87.

Algonquian

stock,

the state to which they have given their name.

among them,

my

demand Reparation, and

Parkman, La Barre had brought

the Iroquois to plunder

in

it

were encountered by the French in

La

raided by the Iroquois.

Salle

had founded

his colony

See Hennepin, Ne-zv Discovery

(Thwaites's ed.), pp. 337-342. The Miami (Oumamis) were first encountered by men in Wisconsin. On their migrations see fris. Hist. Colts., xvi, pp. 41, 99,

white

127, 285, 361, 398.

— Ed.

Some

78 '

fame time to declare, that

'with '

New

War

my

in cafe of their refufal to

comply

demands, or of relapfing into the like Robberies,

pofitively proclaim'd.

is

This Colier makes '

Voyages

The Warriours

my words

good.

of thefe five Nations have introduc'd the

my Mafter, whom my Mafter

'

EngUpi to the Lakes, belonging to the King

'

and

into the

Country of thofe Nations

'

Father

This they have done with a defign to ruine the

'

Commerce

'

depart from their due Allegiance

'

monftrances of the

'

thro the danger that

'

felves to.

'

but

'

exprefs orders to declare

if

:

to

'

At

notwithftanding the Re-

;

Governor [38] of N^w-Tofk, who faw both they and the Engli/h expos'd them-

late

prefent

I

am

willing to forget thofe A6lions

ever you be guilty of the like for the future,

upon

the

Country of the

'They have maffacred

I

have

War. my Words.

The fame Warriours have made

fions

a

of his Subjeds, and to oblige thefe Nations to

This Colier warrants

'

is

barbarous Incur-

feveral

lUineJe,

and the Oumamis.

Men, Women, and

Children; they

number

of the

'

have took, bound, and carried

'

Natives of thofe Countries,

'

in their Villages in a

'

Matter's Children, and therefore muft hereafter ceafe to be

'

your Slaves.

'

and to fend 'em home without delay

I

off

an

infinite

who thought

themfelves fecure

Thefe People are

time of Peace.

my

charge you to reftore 'em to their Liberty, ;

for

if

the five Nations

iVo/tZ?- America.

to

'

refufe to

'

declare

comply with

this

demand,

This

had to

is all I

report to the

'

five

'

commanded me

'

him to fend

my words

prove

'

troubled,

'

He

to make.

them

if it

whom

Army to

:

And

defire to

I

my

Nations, this Declaration, that

a potent

fatal to

good.

fay to the Grangiila,

Mafter

wifhes they had not oblig'd

the Fort of * Cat-

order to carry on

aracouy, in

'

have exprefs orders to

War. This Colier makes

'

I

79

War

a

he will be very

fo falls out, that this

^7-^^ French

that will

call

much

Fort which

a

is

work

'

Peace, muft be imploy'd for a Prifon to your Militia.

'

mifchiefs ought to be prevented by mutual endeavours

*

French

'

will

I

eflfed

'

'

;

wifh

I

for

me

to

my words

they do not,

if

of New-ror/^, afTift

;

who

I

may produce

Nations, fatis-

the defir'd

has orders from the King his Mafter, to

burn the

While Mr. de

The

oblig'd to joyn the Governor

five Villages,

and cut you

This Colier confirms '

:

religious obfervers of their

[39]

am

five

of

Thefe

provided they make the

now demand, and prove

'Treaties. '

and Friends of the

are the Brethren

never difturb their Repofe

faction

'

who

Fort

it

Frontenac.

la

Barrels

off.

my word.

Interpreter

pronounc'd

this

Harangue, the Grangula did nothing but look'd upon the end of his Pipe After the Speech was finifh'd he rofe, and having :

took

five

or

fix

turns in the Ring that the French and the

Savages made, he return'd to his place, and {landing upright

New

Some

8o

Voyages

fpoke after the following manner to the General, who



,.

5fe— ^ This

^ .

,

,

* Onnontio, '

Title they

honour you, and

I

-^

.

give

the

to

'

Warriors that accompany

'

Your

»

Difcourfe, and

Gov-

ernor-General

of

Canada. '

fat in

Chair of State.

his

My Voice '

me do

I

my

glides to your Ear, pray liften to

Onnontio^ in fetting out

the fame

made an end of his come to begin mine.

Interpreter has

now

the

all

'

words.

from Quebec^ you muft needs have

Beams

Sun had burnt down

'

fancy'd that the fcorching

'

the Forefts which render our Country unaccefTible to the

'

French

'

rounded our Cottages, and confin'd us

;

or

of the

Lake had

the Inundations of the

elfe that

was your thought; and

This

as Prifoners.

could be nothing

fur-

but

'

certainly

'

the curiofity of feeing a burnt or drown'd Country, that

'

mov'd you

'

have an opportunity of being undeceiv'd, for

'

like Retinue

'

uans^ Onnontagues, Onnoyoutes cindJgnies, are not yet deftroy'd.

it

But now you

to undertake a Journey hither.

come

to affure you, that the

elfe

I

and

Tjonontouam

my ^

war-

Goyogo-

return you thanks in their name, for bringing into their

'

I

*

Country the Calumet of Peace, that your Predeceffor receiv'd

'

from

At

their hands.

the fame time

'Happinefs, "^

Burying the Axe

.

*

^j^^

^^^.

fignifies Peace.

.

'

'

tell

I

congratulate your [40]

having left under Ground ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^

in

/•

you, Onnontio,

I

am

not afleep,

my Eyes

'

the Sun that vouchfafes the light, gives

'

great Captain at the head of a

«

as

if

t-^

.

dy d with the blood of the French.

he were afleep.

He

Troop

me

are

n

t

muft

I

open

;

and

a clear view of a

of Soldiers,

who fpeaks

pretends that he do's not approach

/.v ^

Stti'a^^s rj/viii^tuiagreacSa770ttj

u±^/v

^f^irc/t 6nr^

cinj Jtaiidm^ iiprtc//it

tZ' it/l

ifjcatj.

'

to iVor^y^- America.

to this

'

8i

view, than to

Lake with any other

fmoak with the

but the Grangida knows

^

Onnotagues in the great Calumet;

'

better things, he fees plainly that the Onnontio mean'd to

'

knock 'em on the Head,

'

much weaken'd. '

perceive

I

if

the French

Arms had

Camp

Onnontio raves in a

that the

not been fo

of fick

'

People, whofe lives the great Spirit has fav'd by vifiting

'

them with

Do

Infirmities.

*

had took up their Clubbs

'

Men, had

'

if

our Warlike

Men

^Jkoueffan your

But

'

I

;

hear, Onnontio^ our

I'll

Camp

Bows and Arrows, and difarm'd 'em, when

with their

had not ftop'd

talk

Women

and the Children and the old

Ambaffadour appear'd before my

have done,

You

'

your

vifited

you

no more of

Village.

that.

muft know, Onnontio, we have robb'd no French-Men,

'but thofe

who

fupply'd the

Iliinefe

and the Oiimamis (our

'Enemies) with Fufees, with Powder, and with Ball: Thefe '

indeed we took care

'

us our

'

that of the

'

are

'

(hould knock them in the Head.

life.

of,

becaufe fuch

Our Condud in that point is Jefuits, who ftave all the barrels

brought to our Cantons,

left

exchange for

'

Beavers to give

'

the French

'

do not think of bearing Arms.

;

and

[41] '

'

*

*

We

Arms might

in

as for the old

have coft

of a piece with of Brandy that

the People getting drunk

all

Our Warriours have no the Arms they take from

fuperannuated People, they

This Colier comprehends my word.

have conducted the EngUPi to our

Lakes, in order to traffick with the Outaouas,

and the Hurons ;

juft

as

the Algonkins

con-

* They pretend '"

^'''

property

Some

82

New

Voyages order to carry on a

'

du6led the French to our

'

Commerce

'

are born Freemen, and have no dependance either upon the

.[.^

''

the

is

in

We

that the Engli/h lay claim to as their Right.

,,

.

,

fCorlar

Cantons,

five

Onnontio or

t\\t

go where we

pleafe, to

Title of the

'

Governor of

'to the places we refort

New-\orVi.

t

where we think

We have

Corlar}

'\

power to '^

condu6l who we

will

and to buy and

to,

fell

If

your Allies are your

treat

'em as fuch, and rob

fit.

you may e'en

a

'

Slaves or Children,

'

'em of the liberty of entertaining any other Nation but your

'

own. This Colier contains '

We

down

cut

'

aries to

'

our Lands

capital to

our Frontiers.

,

Savages,

the Illineje and the Oumamis, becaufe they

the trees of Peace that ferv'd for limits or bound-

'

o

upon

fell

tts

my word.

;

They came

to hunt Beavers

and contrary to the cuftom of

have carried off whole Stocks, ||both Male and

'

Female.

a

They have ingag'd -^

_

^^ their intereft,

all

'

Country.^

i

'

and entertain'd 'em

They

have done

in their

fupply'd 'em with Fire-Arms,

after the concerting of

We

the Chaouanons

.

Crime

the Beavers of

the Savages,

'

'

dejlroy

all

upon

lefs

ill

defigns againft us.

than the Engli/h and the

1 The significance of the word Onontio, by which the Iroquois designated the governor of Canada, was said to be " great " or " beautiful mountain," and to have

been a translation of the name of the second governor, Montmagny. Corlaer, the Indian name for the governor of New York, was derived from Van Curler, an early

Dutch trader who had much 2

The Shawnee

influence

among

the

Mohawk.

— Ed.

(French Chaouanon) were an Algonquian

tribe,

concerning

whose migrations and relations there has been considerable controversy. La Salle found them in the Ohio country, where in the eighteenth century they were a terror See Jesuit Relations, xlvii, p. 316 Ixi, to the Western settlers of the United States. Ed. Ifis. Hist. Colls., xvi, pp. 48, 364; xvii, index. p. 249 ;

;



North-Kmtvicdi..

to

'

'

*

'

who without any right, have ufurp'd the Grounds they are now poffefs'd of; and of which they have diflodg'd feveral Nations, in order to make way for their building of French,

Cities, Villages,

and Forts.

'

give you to know, Onnontio^ that

I

'

of the five Iroquefe Cantons.

'

incline '

your Ear, and

The

my word.

This Colier contains

[42]

*

83

This

liften to v/hat

my

Voice

their

is

they reprefent.

Tfonontouans, Goyogouans, Onnontagues, Onnoyoutes, and

Agnies declare, that

they interr'd

*

the ^'

Axe

the Voice

is

Anfwer, pray

m the prefence of your .

at Cataracouy,

Interring the Axe,

^^,„-^^^ ^^^

^^^;„^

^y

*

Precedeffor, in the very center of the Fort;

a Peace; and the dig-

'

and planted the Tree of Peace

gingofit up imports a

'

place, that

'

that 'twas then ftipulated, that the Fort fhould be us'd as a

'

place of retreat for Merchants, and not a refuge for Soldiers

'

in the

fame

might be carefully preferv'd

it

;

and that inftead of Arms and Ammunition,

^^^•

^^^^«^^^'