Neurobiology of Alcohol and the Brain 0128196807, 9780128196809

According to the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 14.4 million adults aged 18 and older had alcohol use diso

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Neurobiology of Alcohol and the Brain
 0128196807, 9780128196809

Table of contents :
Front-Matter_2021_Neurobiology-of-Alcohol-and-the-Brain
Front Matter
Copyright_2021_Neurobiology-of-Alcohol-and-the-Brain
Copyright
Preface_2021_Neurobiology-of-Alcohol-and-the-Brain
Preface
References
1---Journey-from-responsible-alcohol-drinkin_2021_Neurobiology-of-Alcohol-an
Journey from responsible alcohol drinking to alcoholism
Scope of alcohol abuse
Alcohol responsive brain regions and networks
Alcohol-responsive brain regions
Neuronal networks of the alcohol-responsive brain regions
Structure and function of receptors associated with alcohol-response
Opioid receptors (OPRs)
Opioid receptor subtypes and structure
Synthesis and trafficking of opioid receptors
Pharmacological aspects of opioid receptors
Dopamine receptors (DARs)
Basic structure of DARs
DAR polymerization
GABA, Glutamate, and glycine receptors
Ionotropic receptors-GABA type-A receptor
Ionotropic receptors-Excitatory glutamate receptors
Metabotropic GABAB receptors
Metabotropic-glutamate receptors
Opioid receptor coupling to the G-protein activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels
Serotonin (5-HT) receptors
Binding of ethanol to synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors
Modulation of Cl- channels by ethanol
Effects of ethanol on receptor internalization and tolerance
Positive/negative reinforcements of acute alcohol drinking
Alcohols euphoric (reward) effects during rising BAC
Alcohols aversive effects during declining BAC
Brain reward circuitry and the concept of trigger zone
Hangover and tolerance
Hangover
Tolerance
Development of alcohol addiction (alcoholism)
Genetic predisposition to alcoholism
Gene-environment (GxE) interaction
ADH/ALDHxenvironment
5HT transporter genexenvironment
GABRAxenvironment
Dopamine transporter 1 genexenvironment
Anatomical changes in alcohol-addicted brain
Permanent brain damage
Transient brain damage
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome
Conclusions
References
2---Interaction-of-alcohol-with-drugs-of-abu_2021_Neurobiology-of-Alcohol-an
Interaction of alcohol with drugs of abuse and medicines
Alcohol-Drugs-of-abuse (DOA) interaction
Introduction
Common mechanisms of alcohol-DOA interactions
Pharmacokinetic mechanisms of alcohol-drug interactions
Pharmacodynamics of alcohol-drug interactions
Specific alcohol-drug interactions
Alcohol-cocaine interaction
Alcohol-methamphetamine interactions
Nicotine
Alcohol-opioid interactions
Alcohol-cannabis interactions
Alcohol-GHBA interactions
Conclusion
Alcohol-medicine (prescription/over the counter) interaction
Alcohol-Interactive (AI) and alcohol-noninteractive (ANI) medicines
Mechanisms of alcohol-medicine interaction
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)
Structure and function of p450 (CYP) enzymes
Effects of ethanol on p450-medicine interaction
Acute and chronic effects of ethanol on CYP-medicine interaction
Induction via protein stabilization
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated induction
Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) mediated induction
Acute and chronic effects of ethanol on medicine metabolism
Alcohol-CYP3A4 interaction-Implications in HIV treatment
Conclusions
References
3---Mental-health-and-alcohol-use-disorder--_2021_Neurobiology-of-Alcohol-an
Mental health and alcohol use disorder (AUD) comorbidity
Introduction
Homeostasis, allostasis, and allostatic load
Homeostasis
Allostasis
Stress: Primary mediators of mental illness?
Interaction between the brain and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis
Acute stress
Chronic stress: Mechanisms and consequences
Stress-alcohol interaction
Neurobiology of mental disorders and comorbidities
General considerations
Neurotransmitters (NTs)
Mental disorder and alcohol use disorder comorbidity
Epidemiology
Comorbidity mechanisms
Schizophrenia-Epidemiology, mechanisms, and comorbidity
Epidemiology and mechanisms
Schizophrenia and alcohol use disorder
Bipolar disorders
BD epidemiology and pathophysiology
The genetic factors for BD
Gene-environment interaction hypothesis
The neurotransmitter interaction hypothesis
The glutamate and GABA hypothesis
Connectome and the hypothesis of interoception
Bipolar disorder and alcohol use comorbidity
BD alcohol comorbidity epidemiology
Genetic mechanisms of comorbidity
Nitric oxide mediated synaptic plasticity
Fear and anxiety disorders
Neurobiology of anxiety disorders
The brain regions
A transition from prefrontal cortex to amygdala
Inflation of the threat
The neurotransmitters
The comorbidity of anxiety disorders and AUDs
Epidemiology
Neurotransmitters
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Symptom clusters
Causality in PTSD neural abnormalities
Comorbidity of PTSD and alcohol use disorder
Epidemiology
PTSD and AUD (or SUD) comorbidity
References
4---Traditional-treatment-strategies-for-alcohol_2021_Neurobiology-of-Alcoho
Traditional treatment strategies for alcoholism and the withdrawal symptoms
Introduction
Management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms
Pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms
Benzodiazepines
Carbamazepine
Chlormethiazole
Buspirone, a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic
Adjuvant treatments
Application of herbal remedies in withdrawal management
Management of alcoholism and relapse
Nonpharmacological psychosocial management of alcoholism
Involvement of a social worker
Biopsychosocial (BPS) therapy/interventions
Pharmacological management of alcohol addiction
Herbal therapy of alcoholism
Pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, and genomic therapy of alcoholism
Pharmacogenetics
Pharmacogenomics
Gene transfer therapy of alcoholism
Neurosurgical methods: Lobotomy and brain stimulation
The brain lobotomy
Deep brain stimulation
Therapeutic potentials of DBS
How does DBS effectively manage the etiologically diverse brain disorders?
DBS stimulates as well as inhibits neuronal firing.
DBS propagates antidromic current that blocks the orthodromic current in neurons
DBA disrupts abnormal disease-encoding information flow
Basic concept of information flow in biological systems
Direct protective effects of DBS
Adverse effects of deep brain stimulation
Treatment strategies for psychiatric-Alcohol use disorder (AUD) comorbidity
Risk factors and comorbidity
Conclusions and future research
Appendix
References
5---Novel-nanoparticle-based-treatment-a_2021_Neurobiology-of-Alcohol-and-th
Novel nanoparticle-based treatment approaches
Introduction to nanoparticles
Structure of nanoparticles
Metal nanoparticles
Micelle, liposomes, solid-lipid nanoparticles:
Polymeric nanoparticles
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
Dendrimers
Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles
Common properties of all ENPs
The surface reactivity
Size-dependent thermodynamic properties
Electronic properties
Optical properties
Mechanical properties
Particle-specific physicochemical properties
Dendrimers
Properties of carbon nanotubes-Metals or semiconductors
Magnetic ENPs
Surface functionalization-A critical step for NP functionality
Application of nanoparticles in addiction treatment
Gene silencing using delivery of nanorod-siRNA-nanoplex in Dopamineergic neurons
Synthesis of the nanoplexes
Knockdown of DARPP-32 gene expression
Relevance to addiction treatment
Programmable transdermal therapeutic agents delivery through voltage-gated carbon nanotube membranes
Cerium oxide nanoparticle (CNP), anti-oxidation and promotion of neurogenesis
Anti-oxidative properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles
Promotion of neurogenesis by CNP
Relevance to alcoholism treatment
3D-printed gold nanocomposite channels-Neural differentiation and regeneration
Application of nanoparticles in development of sensitive sensors
Principles of nanosensors
Application of nanosensors in alcoholism research
Plant-extract synthesized gold nanoparticles-Application in sustained therapy of alcoholism to prevent relapse
Nanoparticle toxicity
Toxicity principles
Mechanisms of nanoparticle toxicity
Novel applications of nanoparticles
Application of nanoparticles in stem cell tracking in live rats
On-demand release of drugs into the brain
Nanorobots in medicine and surgery
Conclusions
References
6---Conclusions_2021_Neurobiology-of-Alcohol-and-the-Brain
Conclusions
Index_2021_Neurobiology-of-Alcohol-and-the-Brain
Index
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