Natural Hazards & Disasters [4 ed.] 9781133590811, 1133590810

Cengage Learning's Natural Hazards and Disasters brings course concepts to life with interactive learning, study, a

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Natural Hazards & Disasters [4 ed.]
 9781133590811, 1133590810

Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Half Title......Page 2
Title......Page 4
Statement......Page 5
Copyright......Page 6
Dedication......Page 7
About the Authors......Page 8
Brief Contents......Page 9
Contents......Page 10
Preface......Page 16
Living in Harm’s Way......Page 23
Catastrophes in Nature......Page 24
Predicting Catastrophe......Page 27
Relationships among Events......Page 28
Mitigating Hazards......Page 29
Living with Nature......Page 32
Key Points......Page 33
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 34
The Big Picture......Page 35
Earth Structure......Page 36
Plate Movement......Page 38
Hazards and Plate Boundaries......Page 39
Development of a Theory......Page 48
Key Points......Page 52
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 53
A Deadly Earthquake in a Very Poor Country......Page 54
Faults and Earthquakes......Page 55
Tectonic Environments of Faults......Page 58
Earthquake Waves......Page 65
Earthquake Size and Characteristics......Page 69
Ground Motion and Failure During Earthquakes......Page 73
Critical View......Page 79
Key Points......Page 81
Questions for Review......Page 82
A Missed Prediction......Page 83
Predictions and Short-Term Forecasts......Page 84
Earthquake Probability......Page 87
Populations at Risk......Page 90
Minimizing Earthquake Damage......Page 95
Critical View......Page 112
Key Points......Page 114
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 115
Swept Away......Page 116
Tsunami Generation......Page 117
Tsunami Movement......Page 122
Tsunami on Shore......Page 123
Tsunami Hazard Mitigation......Page 126
Future Giant Tsunami......Page 130
Critical View......Page 141
Key Points......Page 142
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 143
Cascade Range Volcanoes Are Active......Page 144
Introduction to Volcanoes: Generation of Magmas......Page 145
Tectonic Environments of Volcanoes......Page 149
Volcanic Eruptions and Products......Page 150
Types of Volcanoes......Page 155
Key Terms......Page 168
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 169
Mt. St. Helens Erupts......Page 170
Volcanic Hazards......Page 171
Predicting Volcanic Eruptions......Page 182
Mitigation of Damage......Page 184
Populations at Risk......Page 185
Critical View......Page 202
Key Terms......Page 204
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 205
Unstable Hills......Page 206
Forces on a Slope......Page 207
Slope Material......Page 208
Causes of Landslides......Page 211
Types of Downslope Movement......Page 214
Hazards Related to Landslides......Page 225
Mitigation of Damages from Landslides......Page 228
Critical View......Page 239
Key Points......Page 241
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 242
Shrinking Ground......Page 243
Sinkholes......Page 244
Land Subsidence......Page 249
Thaw and Ground Settling......Page 255
Swelling Soils......Page 256
Critical View......Page 263
Key Terms......Page 265
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 266
A Deadly Tornado......Page 267
Basic Elements of Weather......Page 268
Regional Cycles or Oscillations......Page 274
Regional Winds......Page 278
Drought, Dust, and Desertification......Page 280
Snow, Blizzards, and Ice Storms......Page 287
Thunderstorms......Page 290
Tornadoes......Page 296
Safety during Tornadoes......Page 304
Critical View......Page 312
Key Points......Page 314
Key Terms......Page 315
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 316
Melting Arctic Ice......Page 317
Principles of Climate......Page 318
Earth’s Climate History......Page 324
Consequences of Climate Change......Page 332
Mitigation of Climate Change......Page 342
Key Points......Page 350
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 351
Too Close to a River......Page 352
Stream Flow and Sediment Transport......Page 353
Channel Patterns......Page 356
Groundwater, Precipitation, and Stream Flow......Page 360
Flooding Processes......Page 361
Flood Intensity......Page 363
Flood Frequency and Recurrence Intervals......Page 365
Mudflows, Debris Flows, and Other Flood-Related Hazards......Page 370
Key Points......Page 383
Questions for Review......Page 384
Lessons Learned?......Page 386
Development Effects on Floods......Page 387
Levees......Page 390
Dams and Stream Equilibrium......Page 394
Reducing Flood Damage......Page 397
Reducing Damage from Debris Flows......Page 401
Critical View......Page 412
Key Terms......Page 414
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 415
Coastal Cliff Collapse......Page 416
Waves and Sediment Transport......Page 417
Beaches and Sand Supply......Page 421
Erosion of Gently Sloping Coasts and Barrier Islands......Page 424
Sea-Cliff Erosion......Page 429
Human Intervention and Mitigation of Coastal Change......Page 430
Critical View......Page 438
Key Points......Page 440
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 441
Introduction......Page 442
Hurricane Formation and Movement......Page 443
Storm Damages......Page 447
Hurricane Prediction and Planning......Page 458
Managing Future Damages......Page 461
Extratropical Cyclones and Nor’easters......Page 464
Critical View......Page 480
Key Points......Page 482
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 483
A Fast-Spreading Wildfire......Page 484
Fire Process and Behavior......Page 485
Secondary Effects of Wildfires......Page 489
Wildfire Management and Mitigation......Page 491
Critical View......Page 504
Key Terms......Page 505
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 506
The Ultimate Catastrophe?......Page 507
Projectiles from Space......Page 508
Evidence of Past Impacts......Page 510
Consequences of Impacts with Earth......Page 516
Evaluating Impact Risks......Page 517
What Could We Do about an Incoming Asteroid?......Page 519
Key Terms......Page 523
Critical Thinking Questions......Page 524
We Are the Problem......Page 525
Hazard Assessment and Mitigation......Page 526
Societal Attitudes......Page 528
Different Ground Rules for the Poor......Page 531
Worse Problems to Come?......Page 533
Key Points......Page 535
Questions for Review......Page 536
Conversion Factors......Page 537
Glossary......Page 539
Index......Page 552

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