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Motives implied by the act of stuttering as revealed by prolonged experimental projection

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MOTIVES IMPLIED BY THE ACT OP STUTTERING AS REVEALED BY PROLONGED EXPERIMENTAL PROJECTION

A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Speech The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy

by Harold Russell Haney June 1950

UMI Number: DP31971

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

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UMI DP31971 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

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( H .

o.

S*>

T h is disserta tio n , w r it t e n by H ^ L D . ; ^ S S j ^ . . H ^ Y ......... u n d e r the g u id a n c e o f h

is



F a c u lt y C o m m itte e

on S tudies, a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m em bers, has been presented to a n d accepted by the C o u n c i l on G r a d u a te S tu d y a n d Research, in p a r t i a l f u l ­ f i l l m e n t o f re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f DOCTOR

OF

P H IL O S O P H Y

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The writer feels deeply grateful to Professor Lee Edward Travis for his stimulating and imaginative guidance during the course of this study. His teachings and personal interest have provided strong motivation during all of the author 1s graduate years. Professor Joseph J. Johnston has contributed both constant support and helpful advice in the gathering and presentation of the data to be studied here. The writer also wishes to express his thanks to the other members of the committee, Professors Milton Dickens, Robert Harrington, Alan Nichols, and Louis Thorpe for their kind acceptance and understanding of this unique exploration. Their suggestions and criticisms have been fruitfully employed. Finally the author appreciation to his wife, patient encouragement and aid in the preparation of

wishes to express his sincere Elizabeth M. Haney, for her understanding, and for technical the manuscript.

It has been the good fortune of this writer to discover many persons who were ready to give generously of their time, their counsel, and their observations in the interest of this investigation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE

THE PROBLEM, HYPOTHESIS AND REVIEW OF THE L I T E R A T U R E ............................... . . •

1

The p r o b l e m ............

1

Statement of the p r o b l e m ...................

1

Importance of the p r o b l e m ............ ..

• •

2

study •

3

Organization of the remainder of the Definitions of terms used

...................

Perception . .............

. . . . . . . . .

4

P r o j e c t i o n ...........................

5

Stuttering ..................................

5

Literature pertinent to the problem

........

6

Studies by projection techniques ...........

6

Counseling techniques

8

.....................

Pencil and paper personality studies

. . . .

10

Summary diseussion of the literature

. . . .

12

The hypothesis

.......................

13

Statement of the h y p o t h e s i s ..............

13

Discussion of the h y p o t h e s i s ..............

13

Literature pertinent to the hypothesis . . . .

16

S u m m a r y ....................................

20

Scope of study IT.

4

..............

EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS AND-ENVIRONMENT........ Experimental r o o m s ............................

21 23 23

CHAPTER

PAGE Room number o n e .....................

23

Objects in the r o o m .......................

23

...................

24

Room number two

Experimental materials:.. the.Thematic.Apper­ ception T e s t

.

Experimental h i s t o r y ................. . • . •

24

Characteristics of the test

27



• • • • • • •

R a t i o n a l e .....................

28

Use of the TAT in this s t u d y ...............

30

Experimental materials:

III.

24

theRorschach • ♦ . .

30

Experimental history .......................

31

Characteristics of the t e s t ..............

34

Rationale

. . . . .

35

Use of the Rorschach in this s t u d y ........

36

EXPERIMENTAL P R O C E D U R E .........................

38

S u b j e c t s .................................

38

Selection criteria .........................

38

Selection of subjects

.....................

39

Verification of s y m p t o m ...................

39

Test administration

• • • •

...............

40

Thematic Apperception T e s t .................

40

Rorschach

41

................

Scheduling for experimental sessions . . . . Experimental sessions

.......................

44 44

V CHAPTER

PAGE Instructions to the s u b j e c t s ...........

44

Role of the experimenter ................

45

Experimental sessions and retest periods • •

46

Discussion of experimental technique ,

46

Summary of experimental procedure IV,

.• .

........

49

R E S U L T S ........................................ . Introduction to the data . . . . . ....... Basic characteristics of primary data



51 51

.. .

52

Evaluation of Thematic Apperception Test data

V.

Evaluation of Rorschach data . ............

84

Pinal comparison of d a t a ..................

97

R E S U L T S .........................

99

Data:

experimental sessions 51-55 . . . . . .

100

Data:

experimental sessions 56-60 . . . . . .

102

Data:

experimental sessions 61-65 ...........

105

Data:

experimental sessions 66-70 ...........

108

Data:

experimental sessions 71-75............

Ill

Data:

experimental sessions 76-80 • • • . . .

115

Data:

experimental sessions 81-85............

120

Data:

experimental sessions 86-90............

124

Discussion of the data . VI.

67

...................

133

RESULTS SUMMARIZED ..............................

137

Perceptions referring to the subjects Primary d a t a .....................

.

., »

137 137

CHAPTER

PAGE Thematic Apperception T e s t .................

138

Rorschach d a t a .......... * .................

139

S u m m a r y ..........

139

Perceptions referring to thesubjects

* symptom

(stuttering) or to the site of their

symptom

(the speech m e c h a n i s m ) .................... •

140

Perception of the site of the symptom

140

• •



Perception of thes y m p t o m ............. ..

.

141

B I B L I O G R A P H Y .......................... ............ ..

.

142

APPENDIX A:

Thematic Apperception T e s t ..............

147

APPENDIX B:

Rorschach Ink B l o t s .....................

162

APPENDIX C:

Primary

d a t a .....................

APPENDIX D:

Letters

from Professor Lee Edward Travis

179 197

LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.

PAGE Total Number of Responses (R Total) to the Rorschach by All Six Subjects for Both Test (Before Experimental Sessions) and Retest (After Fifty Experimental Sessions)

II.

Comparison of M (Human Movement)

.........

86

Responses to

the Rorschach by All Subjects for Both Test and Retest • • • • - * III.

Comparison of F (Form)

.......................... Responses

87

Expressed in a

Percentage of R Total for Test and Retest for All S u b j e c t s ............................. IV,

91

Comparison of Test-Retest Sum C Scores for All S u b j e c t s ......................................

95

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM, HYPOTHESIS AND REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE An attempt was made here to explore the correspondence' between percept and motive. intensively.

Six male stutterers were studied

Each one was presented with the task of reporting

objects, events, and feelings perceived in consciousness. Such perceptions were noted and used as data. material was gathered by the Rorschach Method Apperception Test.

Collateral 1

and the Thematic

2

I.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem.

This study proposed to

describe some motivating forces relative to the speech malad­ justment (stuttering) displayed by the six personalities who served as subjects.

Two questions were conceived.

longed experimental projections

1.

By pro­

Did the perceptions of

the subjects refer to themselves? and 2.

Did the perceptions

of the subjects refer to their symptom (stuttering) or to the site of their symptom (the speech mechanism)?

1 Hermann Rorschach, Psychodiagnostics, A Diagnostic Test Based on Perception, translated by P. Lemkau and B. Kronenburg TBernr Huber, 1942 and New York: Grune and Stratton, 1942). 2 Henry A. Murray, Manual for the Thematic Apperception Test (Cambridge: Harvard University Press^ 1943), 20 pp.

2

Importance of the problem. 5 Most of the published material concerning stutterers describes the act of stuttering / and not the basic motivational implications of the act. ? Even though it is generally agreed that this symptom is a problem of the whole personality, the literature reveals a very meager amount of research describing personality characteristics of stutterers.

Although this clinical group has been subjected

to description by a multitude of laboratory techniques, to date, rno experimental investigation has offered the stutterer

^

an opportunity to study and describe himself through pro­ jection. \ Many theories about the nature of stuttering have been advanced, some without clinical confirmation. I Perhaps crucial evidence is not to be found in a description of a symptom but rather in a study designed to describe those persons who have i 3 it. / In this connection Griffith statest f,The problem is not to characterize the observer first, and then make the studies, but to make^the studies and see what bearing they have upon the nature of the observer.”

The present study was

written in accord with this point of view. Finally, this study which makes extensive use of projection as an exploratory instrument, finds no predecessor in the published literature.

A few studies currently available

3 Coleman R. Griffith, Principles of Systematic Psy­ chology (Urbanat University of Illinois Press, 1 9 4 3 ) , p. 57.

_

3 have made use of the congruency between percept and motive* These studies are discussed in this chapter, section V. Although the experimental periods were of short duration, the results from these studies were promising enough to justify intensive application of the principles of projection for this pursuit. Thus, this study seemed justified in the light of current psychological theory and clinical experimentation* It was further justified by the need for increased clinical evidence regarding people who stutter* Organization of the remainder of the study*

The

present chapter is completed by defining terms, discussing the hypothesis relative to the problem, evaluating literature pertinent to both the problem and the hypothesis, and indi­ cating the scope of the study. Chapter II describes the clinical rooms used for the study.

It also describes the Rorschach Method and the

Thematic Apperception Test. Chapter III describes selection of subjects, test administration, instructions to the subjects for induction of experimental sessions, the nature of the experimental projective technique, arid the role of the experimenter. Chapter IV presents results pertinent to the first question conceived in the stated problem:

f1Did the perceptions

4 of the subjects refer to themselves?”

The chapter studies

primary data and compares these data with test-retest data gathered by the Rorschach and by the TAT* Chapter V presents results pertinent to the second question conceived by the stated problem:

"Did the percep­

tions of the subjects refer to their symptom (stuttering) or to the site of their symptom (the speech mechanism)?”

It

employs only primary data for this purpose. Chapter VI summarizes the results and ventures a single inference in conclusion. II.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED

This section defines three terms crucial to

the study.

Perception.

and funda­

The act of acquiring immediate

mental knowledge through the various sense modalities. Functionally, perception serves as an adjustive process which may be aroused by stimuli from within the organism without.

and from

This phenomenon is a dynamic process chiefly

charac­

terized by change in the organism which is perceiving. Fenichel^ states, "All perceptions, all sensory stimuli, whether they originate without or within the organism, have provocative character,1 provoke a certain urge to action."

4 Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of the Neuroses (New Yorks W. W. Norton and Company, 1945T7 P* 54*

Projection.

flIn strict psychiatric definition, pro­

jection is used to denote the mental process by which qualities, intentions, or features of o n e !s self are ascribed to some object in the outer world in defiance of reality § testing*” This definition has several current applications in psychology.

Sears

points out that with the projective

techniques ”the implication is that the motivational and organizational properties of personality influence the per­ ceptual and judgmental processes.”

The term projection has

also been used from the psychoanalytic point of view.

In

this instance it is described as a defense mechanism in which one attributes to other people the factors or impulses which are motivating his own behavior.

Thus, one may view pro­

jection as a technique used by the human system to expel un­ wanted or confusing psychic matter, i.e. a kind of psycho­ logical homeostatie process.

It is in such a sense that

projection was used in this study. Stuttering.

A speech maladjustment demonstrated as

an alteration of physical coordination of associated mechanisms during the act of speaking and characterized by arhythmical

5 Edoar&o Weiss, Principles of Psychodynamics (New York: Grune and Stratton^ 1950), p. 87* ® Robert R. Sears, editor, Survey of Objective Studies of Psychoanalytic Concepts, Bulletin 51 (New York: Social Science Research Council, 1943), p. 121*

speech, intermittent blocking and convulsive repetition of sounds and/or syllables* III.

LITERATURE PERTINENT TO THE PROBLEM

Personality characteristics of stutterers have not been subjected to extensive study.

The forthcoming review

will present a summary of experimentation closely related to the present investigation. Studies by projection techniques. thirty-eight adult stutterers.

Richardson

7

studied

She matched them by age, sex,

and educational experience with a group of non-stutterers. She also used decile ratings on the Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability for group matching. comparing the groupsr

Three tests were used in

Rorschach, Thematic Apperception Test,

and Guilford1s Inventory of Factor *s STDCR.

Data gathered by

these instruments were submitted to statistical appraisal. From the statistical findings Richardson made several con­ clusions : 1.

On the inventory of Factors STDCR the stutterers appeared to be more socially introverted, more depressed, and less happy-go-lucky.

2.

On the Rorschach test the stutterers were generally more variable than the control group; however, the

7 Lavange H. Richardson, "The Personality of Stutterers, Psychological Monographs. 56, No. 260, 1944.

7 only significant difference was in the dispersion at the median for small detail.

The author con­

cluded that the stutterers tended not to recognize their inner lives but also did not respond im­ pulsively to their outer environment. 3.

On the TAT, there were no significant differences between the groups*

In fact, it was indicated

that the stutterers tended to vary in the same manner as the control group from category to category* Richardson discussed her statistical treatment of data secured by projective devices.

She concluded that both the

Rorschach and the TAT were more effective for individual rather than group analysis.

Tendencies in these tests were

more meaningful when applied to an individual.

In fact, many

of the tendencies were not amenable to quantitative analyses. Further, many of the nuances of interpretation were lost in statistical treatment. Using Rorschach data, Krugman

8

compared fifty stutter­

ing children who were matched with a group of problem children. As in Richardsonfs study no marked differences were found between the groups.

The experimenter expressed the following

opinions regarding stuttering.

It was closely associated with

8 M. Krugman, "Psychosomatic Study of Fifty Stuttering Children, Round Table, IV. Rorschach Study,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 161127-33, 1946.

8 emotional and personality maladjustment.

Rigid personality

and great anxiety were frequently demonstrated by obsessivecompulsive traits, or by obsessional neurosis. Meltzer^ also studied children. Rorschach Method.

He too used the

Stanford-Binet IQ *s, case histories,

educational histories, and other supporting material were obtained.

He studied two comparable groups, fifty stuttering

and fifty non-stuttering children. were given emphasis.

The Rorschach results

The data secured by other means were

used as validating evidence for the Rorschach.

This investi­

gator concluded that the stutterers demonstrated an expressive form of neuroticism, i.e., extratensiveness.

Since few

responses directly symbolic of oral association were noted in 2,500 responses it was concluded that this did not support the psychoanalytic attitude toward stuttering as a manifes­ tation of infantile oral-eroticism.

Compared to the control

group, the stutterers demonstrated less rigidity, fewer repressive responses, were less compulsive, and demonstrated greater acceptance of inner promptings. Counseling techniques. used by Schultz‘S

Non-directive counseling was

as a means of studying some personality

9 H. Meltzer, Personality Differences Between Stutter­ ing and Non-Stuttering Children as Indicated by the Rorschach Test,” Journal of Psychology, 17:39-60, 1938. 10 Donald A. Schultz, ”A Study of Non-directive Counsel­ ing as Applied to Adult Stutterers,11 (unpublished Doctorfs dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1946).

9 characteristics of twenty adult stutterers*

It was his

purpose to compare the responses of adult stutterers in a non-directive counseling situation with those of psycho­ neurotics.

He further proposed to discover important adjust­

ment problems as might be revealed by the counseling situation. Data concerning the psychoneurotic group were obtained from material reported by Strecker and Ebaugh. ^

Schultz made no

attempt to control the number of sessions held with each subject*

This was, of course, in keeping with non-directive

principles as originally described by Rogers.

Categories

used by this experimenter were the same as those employed by Strecker and Ebaugh.

Responses offered by the subjects were

categorized and described statistically*

Only two statisti­

cally significant differences between the groups could be demonstrated. anxiety. sedatives.

The stutterers expressed greater general

The psychoneurotics reported more frequent use of The stutterers presented many problems such as

feelings of submissiveness, hypersensitiveness, a n d .inhibition. Their reports gave evidence of trauma occurring at some times during their lives.

They tended to be anti-social, ambivalent,

and somewhat atypical in general appearance. demonstrated introvertive tendencies.

Most of them

Some of the character­

istics just noted were also evidenced in the California Test 11 Edward A. Strecker, and Franklin G. Ebaugh, Practical Clinical Psychiatry (Philadelphia! The Blackiston Company, 1945), pp. 559-40.

10 of Personality,

Schultz Ts investigation is unique among

studies of stutterers in that it availed itself of a psycho­ logical technique by which the stutterer could attempt to describe himself. Pencil and paper personality studies. type of personality test was used by Bender

12

A questionnaire to compare 249

male stutterers with 303 non-stuttering subjects. individuals studied were college students. proposed two questions:

All of the

This study

(1) Do post-pubertal male stutterers

have more disturbances of personality than non-stutterers? (2) Are post-pubertal male stutterers afflicted character­ istically with certain peculiarities of personality?

The

personality test used was the Bernreuter Personality Inventory. Six personality traits are studied by this instrument: neurotic tendency, self-sufficiency, introversion, dominancesubmission, confidence in self and sociability. findings were reported by Bender. stutterers,

Positive

In comparison t© non­

(1) the stutterers were significantly more neu­

rotic, (2) more introvertive, less sociable.

(3) less dominant,

(4) were

From these factors Bender concluded that

stutterers were likely to have unique personality character­ istics, that is, a "stuttering personality.”

12 James Bender, "The Stuttering Personality,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 12:140-6, 1942.

11 In 1928 McDowell children.

13

studied sixty-one stuttering

In this group the number of boys exceeded girls

in the ratio of 2.2tl.

This was a comparative study.

The

stuttering group was matched with a control group on the basis of chronological age, mental age, intelligence quotient, sex, and language and racial backgrounds. tests were usedr

Three personality

the Woodworth-Mathews and the Woodworth-Cady

Questionnaires and the Kent Rosanoff Free Association Test. None of these tests was able significantly to differentiate the groups compared* The Woodworth-House Mental Hygiene Inventory was used by Johnson

14

stutterers.

to study fifty adolescent and fifty adult This test was standardized on four hundred normal

university students and seventy males diagnosed as psycho­ neurotic.

This test was designed to evaluate adjustment in

Childhood and Maturity.

These terms denote major evaluation

categories in the Woodworth-House Mental Hygiene Inventory. The stutterers were divided into two groups, the 50 per cent most maladjusted on the maturity section of the inventory and the 50 per cent least maladjusted on the maturity section. Johnson found no significant difference between stutterers 13 Elizabeth McDowell, Educational and Emotional Adjustments of Stuttering Children (New"Yorks Bureau of Publi­ cations, Teacher*s College, Columbia University, 1928). 14 Wendell Johnson, Influence of Stuttering on the Personality (Iowa City, Iowaj Published by-the University of Iowa, 1932;•

12 and non-stutterers with regard to maladjustment in either Childhood or Maturity.

However, in both categories, the

stutterers were significantly better adjusted than the psycho­ neurotie group used for standardization*

In fact, as a

group, the stutterers represented relatively normal adjust­ ment*

The psychoneurotics evidenced significantly more

extreme problems in Childhood than did the stutterers.

The

latter were highly similar to normal non-stutterers*

Prom a

study of these findings it was concluded that the stutterers, in general, were not psychoneurotic.

Johnson presented the

possibility that many of the stutterer*s personality problems should be considered the result of the restraining and humiliating aspects of the symptom. Summary discussion of the literature.

It is apparent

by the foregoing review that no marked agreement exists among experimenters with regard to the personality of stutterers. Johnson did not differentiate stutterers from normal non­ stutterers.

Conversely, Bender describes characteristics

■unique to the "stuttering personality."

Perhaps the dis­

similarity in tests used by these investigators would partially account for the laek of consonant results*

However,

even when Meltzer and Krugman used the same testing device (Rorschach) the results were not in agreement.

This may be

explained, in part, by the fact that the stutterers evaluated in these two studies were compared to different groups.

13 Moreover, there was a dissimilarity in the methods used to evaluate and compare the Rorschach data from these groups* Richardson was not able to differentiate significantly between adult stutterers and non-stutterers through pro­ jection techniques*

It was she who indicated the somewhat

unsatisfactory results from quantification of qualitative data.

It is readily apparent that most of pencil and paper

tests are concerned primarily with the way an individual thinks or feels in relation to the environment*

Such tests

do not profess to explore basic personality structure. Further, personality is better described as a problem unique to an individual and thus may offer some opposition to statistical description when attempts are made to describe a group tendency. In contrast to the studies just reviewed, the present investigation attempted an intensive evaluation of a small number of individuals.

The data compiled seemed appropriately

described by discussion and illustration.

These descriptive

measures also seemed advisable in the light of much of the literature just described. IV.

THE HYPOTHESIS

Statement of the hypothesis.

The problem was stated,

experimental procedure designed, and data studied under the assumption that perception is motivationally determined*

It

14 was further assumed that the structural bases for such per­ ception could be studied through projection. Discussion of the hypothesis* here to a psychological phenomenon*

Importance was attached The presence of a

dynamic tendency in a human system may be responsible for perceptual activity related to the tendency*

Such tendencies

as may characterize a given personality structure may be regarded as moving forces which have observable counterparts in consciousness.

Thus, objects observed in the eourse of

consciousness,and without immediate external cause, may appear as motivational products of factors outside of con­ sciousness itself*

The implication is important.

One of the

aspects of perception (the original stimulus) is not available for direct and immediate observation.

It is conceivable,

however, that such original stimuli may be studied by infer­ ence at the level of things observable.

It is further con­

ceivable that techniques may be employed experimentally that may reduce the need for inference.

It was held here that if

such could be accomplished it might be possible to study the forces themselves without the need for interpretation.

In

the present study it was felt that the principles of projection, a unique perceptual activity, would serve the purpose* It is by inference that such projective instruments as the Rorschach and the Thematic Apperception Test are useful in the study of personality.

It is well to indicate, moreover,

15 that the inferences derived from such instruments require interpretation*

In addition to this, an unknown amount of a

given response may partake of the structure of the test objects and thus the response is not necessarily and entirely a function of the subject being studied. In this study projection was used for the study of personality in a more searching manner.

It has long been

recognized, in psychology, that one is able to originate, even without immediate external cause, objects and events in the context of consciousness.

The foregoing statement served

as a basis for the experimental projective technique to be described in Chapter III.

It seems reasonable to assume,

then, that material originated in this manner is character­ istically unique to the nature of its observer.

The subjects

in this study were considered such observers. It was reasoned that if it is true that perception is motivationally determined, then persistent observation and reporting of the context of consciousness through projection should obtain these resultst 1.

The contents of the data should begin to reveal more and more about the functional nature of the one who is observing and reporting them, i.e., motivating forces in the personality structure should become increasingly apparent and thus require less interpretation by inference.

16 2.

Perceptual behavior revealed in these experimental data should also reveal itself in projection test results gathered by a test-retest method* V.

Sears

LITERATURE PERTINENT TO THE HYPOTHESIS IS

has described a projective technique as a

means of analyzing perceptions, assuming that the perception is produced congruent to the motive* been experimentally explored.

This point of view has

Many of the studies available

have described variation in projections as a function of experimentally-induced conflict.

For instance, Beliak

studied this concept using cards from the TAT*

He adminis­

tered this test before and following sharp criticism by the experimenter.

He compared themes in the two sets of stories.

He predicted the appearance of increased hostile or aggressive elements in the retest.

His expectations were supported

statistically with results significant between the one and two per cent levels. Murray

17

also made use of artificially induced conflict.

16 Robert R. Sears, “Psychoanalytic Phenomena,” Vol. I, p. 324, J. McV. Hunt, editor, Personality and the Behavior Disorders, 2 vols. (New York! The Ronald Press Company, 1944J. 16 l * Beliak, ftAn Experimental Investigation of Pro­ jection," Psychological Bulletin, 39*489, 1942. 1*7 Henry A. Murray, "The Effect of Pear Upon Estimates of the Malisciousness of Other Personalities," Journal of Social Psychology, 4*310-29, 1933.

17 He employed contrasting play experiences as a means of study­ ing projections.

This was his procedure.

Two series of

photographs of unfamiliar people were presented to five children.

These subjects rated the maliciousness of the

pictured persons.

Each series was administered twice, once

after a pleasurable situation and once following a game of murder.

Murray reported a marked increase in the malicious­

ness assigned to the pictures following the fear-inducing game.

It was concluded that the change in projections

operated as a function of some motivating preference. A projective storytelling, technique was employed by Wright

18

as a means of studying motive.

The subjects,

children, were placed in a situation requiring generous or selfish toy selection.

Intensity of conflict and degree of

elaboration of destructive or self-justification themes were compared.

Significant correlations were described between

these factors. Using a picture-completion device, Sanford

19

studied

variations in themes as a function of degree of hunger.

He

found that mentions of food varied positively with degree of hunger. IB b . A. Wright, ,fAn Experimentally Created Conflict Expressed in a Projective Technique,” Psychological Bulletin, 385718, 1941. h . N. Sanford, ”The Effects of Abstinence from Food Upon Imaginal Processes: A Preliminary Experiment,” Journal of Psychology, 2:129-36, 1936.

18 Like Wright, inducing conflict*

gO

Posner

gl

used toy play as a means of

Briefly, a.child was given two toys, one

which he was known to prefer and the other not preferred* The experimenter then requested the child to give one of these toys to another child.

When he had complied the child

was asked which toy he thought his friend might have given him.

It was expected that this technique would induce con­

flict between a wish for the preferred toy and a wish to behave generously.

If the child had made a selfish selection

it was expected that he would feel guilty.

A statement by

the child about which toy the friend would have given was the measure of projection.

Posner compared this group with a

control group (no experimentally induced conflict) and found markedly less projected selfishness in the control group* Tomkins

22

studied the congruence between percept and

motive in a longitudinal fashion. projective medium. months.

He also used the TAT as a

A single subject was studied for ten

The experimenter presented the subject with a single

TAT card five days a week for ten months.

During this time

20 Wright, loc. cit* 21 B. A. Posner, t1Selfishness, Guilt Feelings, and Social Distance,” Survey of Objective Studies of Psychoanalytic Concepts (New York: Social Science Research Council, 1943), 51:125-6. 22 Silvan S. Tomkins, ”Limits of Material Obtainable in the Single Case Study by Daily Admission of the TAT,” Psychological Bulletin, 59:491, 1942.

he also administered the complete set of cards four times, the last test being given with the subject under the influence of alcohol.

This study reported a persistent recurrence of

several themes through all of the administrations*

Moreover,

the stories all appeared to be independent of conscious moods. No attempt was made to interpret the meaning of the stories to the subject.

The experimenter felt that this may have

accounted for the relative constancy of themes. The concept under discussion was studied by Sears using an even different technique.

23

Defining projection as a

defense mechanism, he demonstrated lack of insight as an important condition antecedent to a projection.

A group of

fraternity men were asked to rate themselves and each other on four traits, stinginess, obstinacy, disorderliness, and bashfulness.

It was assumed that if some of the subjects

possessed these traits they would perceive that trait in another person to protect themselves from acknowledging such undesirable tendencies.

Further, he assumed that the largest

amount of projection would occur in those who laeked insight. Insight was presumed to exist when a subject rated himself in agreement with his associates on a given trait.

Those who

possessed such insight were compared with those who lacked insight.

It was demonstrated that those subjects who lacked

23 Robert R. Sears, ^Experimental Studies of Projection, I. Attribution of Traits,” Journal of Social Psychology, 20:570-80, 1936.

20 insight had a greater tendency to project than did the other group* Summary.

In the research just described, one fact was

immediately evident--the experimenters were all agreed that there exists an observable and positive relationship between a perception and its antecedent motive*

Further, it appeared

that the phenomenon termed projection provides a suitable technique for studying such perceptions.

It should be noted

that most of the studies cited gathered data as a function of conflict (motive) experimentally induced.

Thus the results

appeared to be more unique to artificial external cause than to motives basic to the personality structure.

It is con­

ceivable, however, that the experimental situations served as precipitants to motives already present in the personality of the subjects.

If this were true the significant changes in

projection which were demonstrated become even more plausible in the light of the hypothesis proposed in this study.

In

the literature just reviewed the experimentally induced con­ flict was presumed to present stimuli upon which certain characteristics of subsequent perceptual projective responses were predicted.

Whether the motives for projections were

artificially induced or were simply precipitated by the experiments does not need discussion.

It is sufficient to

indicate that conflict will provide antecedent cause for

21 changes in projection. presence of

The present study assumed the

conflict (implied by the symptom) and sought to

establish something about its nature. VI.

SCOPE OP STUDY

This study was exploratory and frankly descriptive in nature.

No

categories;

attempt was made to establish preconceived rather, the data were allowed to suggest the ways

in which they could be described.

The experimentally derived

data were discussed only in reference to the questions pro­ posed by the problem.

Rorschach and TAT data were incor­

porated in this investigation as a means of further evaluating the perceptual behavior demonstrated by the primary data. Thus, these projection tests were not used to demonstrate specific dynamics but rather to establish a frame of reference by which the experimental data could better be evaluated.

In

the study of dynamics, emphasis was placed on that material which, by the experimental projective technique, was deemed to be original and indigenous to the subject who produced it. L-The limited number of subjects (six) was not considered sufficient to evolve significant statistical generalities.;. However, it was felt that the prolonged and searching nature of the investigation would allow the experimenter to describe motivating forces significant to the six stutterers who were studied.

Consequently, the investigation made no attempt to

quantify the data in a statistical fashion.

The writer was

aware that the theoretical foundation for the hypothesis was still subject to research and completion. Such dynamic forces as were revealed by the study were simply reported and illustrated.

Interpretation of pro­

jections was not within the scope of this study.

The experi­

ment was designed to reduce the level of inference character­ istic of most projection material and then to report dynamic forces motivating the personalities studied.

CHAPTER II EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS AND ENVIRONMENT This chapter describes physical characteristics of the rooms used in the study.

It also presents a description of

the Rorschach and Thematic Apperception methods. I.

EXPERIMENTAL ROOMS

Room number one.

A small clinic room, measuring 10

feet by 11 feet, was assigned to the experimenter for the duration of the study. windows. sunlight.

Two walls were solid and two contained

The windows were hung with curtains to mask bright No special attempt was made to reduce the light in

the room beyond normal daylight.

No special preparations

were made to reduce intensity of ambient noise.

However, the

room used was in a relatively.quiet part of the clinic building. Objects in the room.

A comfortable overstuffed chair

was provided for the subjects.

The subject!s chair was

placed at right angles to the chair of the experimenter and at a distance of five feet. one wall.

The latter1s chair was close to

A small writing arm was attached to this wall for

the convenience of the experimenter.

The data were kept in

a small filing cabinet in one corner of the room.

24

Room number two.

All of the testing periods for

Rorschach and TAT administration were conducted in another clinic room.

This room contained one small table and two

chairs with writing arms.

It also contained maximum lighting

possibilities, both artificial and natural, II.

EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS:

THE THEMATIC

APPERCEPTION TEST Experimental history. first description of the TAT. In 1938 Murray

2

Morgan and Murray^ offered the This article appeared in 1955.

published Explorations in Personality.

This

text included both a description of the test and a survey of preliminary findings. extensive.

The experimental literature is now

Much of it has been concerned with problems of

reliability and validity.

Reliability among interpreters

evidences marked variability.

Tomkins

3

discusses this situ­

ation rather astutely: This type of unreliability typically disappears In cooperative research when co-workers have the oppor­ tunity of discussing the rationale of their ratings. • • . At the Harvard Psychological Clinic some investigators 1 C. D. Morgan and Henry A. Murray, ”A Method for Investigating Fantasies: the Thematic Apperception Test,” Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 34:289-306, 1935. ® Henry A. Murray, Explorations in Personality (New York: Oxford University Press, 1938), 761 pp. 3 Silvan S. Tomkins, The Thematic Apperception Test (New York: Grune and Stratton, 1947), p. 5.

have been able to achieve inter-interpreter relia­ bilities as high as plus 0*95* But this hard won group achievement will remain an essentially local phenomenon until TAT investigators agree on some mutually acceptable conceptual scheme for rating stories* At the moment each investigator is a law unto himself* Thus it would appear that the problem may be one of estab­ lishing a reliable methodology rather than one of questioning reliability. The history of attempts at validation has been full of uniquely difficult problems*

Most of the interpretation

of the responses has been accomplished by inference based on a projection hypothesis*

To date, many dynamic tendencies

have not yielded well to statistical manipulations.

This is

not to infer that the problem of validation is beyond experi­ mentation. TAT results have been compared with dreams, with ' therapeutic results, and with autobiographies*

Harrison

4

reported a more than adequate amount of agreement between the Rorschach and the TAT.

One of the validation techniques in

current use is the study of the TAT among groups which possess observable differences*

Studies of this kind have been

tributed by such workers as Henry,

5

Renaud,

6

con-

and Balkan and

4 R, Harrison, ’’The Thematic Apperception and Rorschach Methods of Personality Investigation in Clinical Practice,” Journal of Psychology, 15s49-74, 1945. 5 W* E. Henry, ’’The Thematic Apperception Technique in the Study of Culture-Personality Relationships,” (continued)

Masserman.

7

Some of the groups studied were Navaho and Hopi

Indians, hysterics, obsessive-compulsives and brain disease and head injury cases*

In general, tlae studies demonstrated

adequate validity regardless of whether the study was done with or without prior knowledge of the nature of the groups analyzed. Validity studies for the TAT have really only begun. Bell

8

summarizes a current tendency:

To marked extent clinicians have been willing to accept the procedure as valid and reliable without further scientific evidence than their own experience, which to be sure, is a form of measurement. This is by way of indicating the clinical acceptance which the method enjoys.

However, there are indications that

efforts toward complete validation will characterize much of 9 the future work. Tomkins holds a scientist*s point of view. We maintained that validity was a characteristic of inferences based on the TAT rather than a characteristic 5 (continued) Genetics Psychology Monograph, 35:1-134, 1947. 6 H. Renaud, "Group Differences in Fantasies: Head Injuries, Psychoneuroties, and Brain Diseases," Journal of Psychology, 21:327-46, 1946. 7 E. R. Balken and J. H. Masserman, "The Language of Fantasy: III. The Language of the Fantasies of Patients with Conversion Hysteria, Anxiety State and Obsessive Compulsive Neurosis,” Journal of Psychology, 10:75-86, 1940. 8 John E. Bell, Projective Techniques (New York: Longmans, Green, and Company, 1948), p. 226. 9 Tomkins, oj>. cit., p. 20.

of the test itself. We maintained that the validity of such inferences was as dependent on the maturity of the science as an adequacy of the method. We showed in an examination of the experiment that validity could be increased either by the accrument ofdata from other sources or from further study of the test itself. Although the present study did not require statistical support for the TAT, the nature of validation studies lends credence to its use in any investigation. The TAT has found use in many clinical areas, case study work with normals, anthropological investigations, military mental hygiene work-study of the psychoses, evalua­ tion of neurotic states, and child psychology, to name'a few. Interested readers are. referred to Tomkins Bell

11

both of

whom present excellent

surveys

10

/

and/or of the experi­

mental work to date. Characteristics of the test.

The complete test set

consists of thirty-one white cards size 9 x 11 inches. Thirty of the cards contain pictures and one card is blank. Ten of the pictures are used for men, ten for women, and ten for both sexes. Mur ray

12

Concerning original selection of the pictures

wro ter

In estimating the effectiveness of a picture we waited in each case until the personality of the subject 10 Tomkins, ibid., 297 pp. 11 Bell, op. cit., pp. 207-38. 12 Henry A. Murray, Manual for the Thematic Apper­ ception Test (Cambridger Harvard University Press, 1943), p. 2

taking the test had, with the help of other methods, been thoroughly studied and understood; and then we rated the picture according to the amount of infor­ mation contributed to the final diagnosis by the story it had evoked* . . • This is the most dependable method of judging the efficacy of any non-specific diagnostic procedure. All of the pictures are presented in black and gray.

A

description of the cards used in this study will be found in Appendix A., Rationale.

A subject is requested to tell stories

about the pictures on the test cards.

Murray

13

points out

that the stories thus compiled reveal significant aspects of the personality and are based on two dynamic phenomena; the tendency for people to interpret ambiguous human situations in terms of their own experiences and needs, and the tendency for individuals to express these needs whether conscious or unconscious.

Prom such interpretations and expressions the

TAT protocol is constructed.

The evaluator is then permitted

to discover characteristic content of the personality and thus to make certain assumptions about the nature of the subject. In contrast to Rorschach practice the method for scoring the TAT has not yet found any marked degree of agreement among experimenters.

Tomkins

14

in this way: 13 Ibid., p. 1. 14 Tomkins, ©£. cit*, p. 26.

expresses the situation

29 A language of interpretation adequate for all TAT protocols will, we venture, also be adequate for any type of personality analysis. Such a language is still to be achieved. . . • Criteria for inclusion and exclusion of concepts in such inquiry ultimately rest on the power of the complete set of variables rather than the power of any variable in isolation. Actual evaluation of protocol material has followed.several points of view*

Some investigators have studied the data as

dynamic latent content and compared it with psychiatric data. Such a study was conducted by Balken and Masserman. Murrayfs

16

15

original device required consideration of such

items as the hero*s motives and trends, traits such as abase­ ment, aggression and destruction, environmental forces, and outcomes of stories.

Some experimenters have criticized this

kind of analysis as being too atomistic. and compared usual and unusual themes.

Rotter Tomkins

17

18

studied has attempted

to study the material in terms of scientific procedures acceptable to other sciences.

Summarily then, the techniques

range from relatively random analysis to statistically weighted devices which almost obscure the meaning of the data. There is no high degree of agreement as regards scoring cate­ gories for the TAT.

Although agreement is undeniably

15 Balken and Masserman, loc. cit* 16 Murray, op. cit.* 20 pp. 17 J# B. Rotter, ”Thematic Apperception Tests Sugges­ tions for Administration and Interpretation,11 Journal of Personality, 15£70-92, 1946* 18 Tomkins, op*, cit., pp. 26-42.

desirable its present status offers opportunity for empirical experimentation. Use of the TAT in this study.

The TAT was used as a

device to study, by comparison, the experimentally derived data.

It was used as a technique complimentary to the

Rorschach*

White,

19

in his review of the TAT says:

They attach greater importance to those plots that seem relatively free from external determination, that come into the narrators head from he knows not where, and that seem therefore to be the purer instance of projection. The experimental projective technique used in this study aimed at eliciting such material.

This is by way of stating

that if the technique used here was truly an effective pro­ jective device then the trends appearing in such data should be reflected in the TAT and Rorschach.

The TAT was adminis­

tered before and at one interval during the experimental work.

Test and retest protocols were studied and described. III.

EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS:

THE RORSCHACH

This projection test requires interpretation of accidental blots of ink by the subject.

It is a diagnostic

instrument which deals primarily with principles of perceptive processes with primary emphasis upon the visual modality. 19 Robert W. White, “Imaginative Productions,'1 Vol. I, p. 237, J. MeV. Hunt, editor, Personality and the Behavior Disorders, 2 vols. (New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1944).

51 Experimental history.

From 1911 to 1921 a Swiss

psychiatrist, Hermann Rorschach, experimented with ink blots. What began as a study of imagination very quickly became an ingenious method of differential diagnosis.

It is a tribute

to this man's astute creativity that most of the elements conceived by him as basic to the test are still in practical clinical use.

Not only did Rorschach devise the test proper

but also he initiated the painstaking task of validating his own experimental creation. *

published in 1932.

The results of his research were 20

This monograph, Psychodiagnostics,

now in its fourth edition.

is

In addition to the original

material it now contains added information contributed by Emil Oberholzer who was an outstanding exponent of this device following Rorschachfs death. Samuel J. Beck is recognized as the first American psychologist to use the Rorschach.

This experimenter offers

a comprehensive study of the Rorschaeh method in his twovolume work.

21

Bruno Klopfer is also recognized as a leading authority 20 Hermann Rorsehach, Psychodiagnostics, A Diagnostic Test Based on Perception, translated by P. Lemkau and B. Kronenburg TBern: Huber, 1942 and New Yorks Grune and Stratton, 1942). 21 Samuel J. Beck, Rorschachrs Test, I. Basic Processes (New Yorks Grune and Stratton, 1944), 223 pp. _____ , Rorschach!s Test, II, A Variety of Person­ ality Pictures (New York* Grune and Stratton, 1947), 402 pp.

in this work.

Among his many publications is a textbook

which explores and describes the entire Rorschach problem*

22

In recent years this test has been subjected to ex­ tensive clinical and experimental investigation.

Studies to

date indicate that reliability for the Rorschach is quite high.

One interesting summary of these problems was pre-

sented by Posberg.

23

Validity has offered greater resistance to experi­ mentation.

As with the TAT much of this difficulty is a

function of definition by language.

For instance, one of the

validation techniques in current use is that of comparing Rorschach results with ease histories.

Yet many of the

personality concepts used in case histories are poorly defined and thus of little value in a comparative study. Moreover, there is lack of understanding among some clinicians about the processes revealed by Rorschach responses.

Hertz

24

has outlined the techniques thus far used for validation. She lists the techniques as four in number: 1.

Direct experimentation;

test administration under

conditions of experimentally induced shock, hypnosis. 22 Bruno Klopfer and Douglas M. Kelley, The Rorschach Technique (New Yorkl World Book Company, 1946), 475 pp. 23 I. A. Posberg, “An Experimental Study of the Reliability of the Rorschach Psychodiagnostie Technique,“ Rorschach Research Exchange, 5:72-84, 1941. 24 M. R* Hertz, “Rorschach Twenty Years After,“ Psychological Bulletin, 39:529-72, 1942.

2.

Comparative analysis; study of Rorschach responses and intelligence scores.

3*

Rorschach results and case study findings; inten­ sive investigation of a case from many diagnostic approaches and the comparison of such results with Rorschach data.

4.

Study of groups of known differences; this was the technique originally chosen by Rorschach.

At the

present time a large amount of evidence has been compiled by this device. The research is in general agreement that the Rorschach is a sufficiently valid clinical instrument.

Moreover, even the

studies which have not specifically purported to test the validity, nevertheless, lend strong support to its valid nature by assumption of validity followed by positive findings• The ink-blot test has found application in almost every clinical area.

An impressive number of studies have

inquired into the perceptual behavior of groups such as alcoholics, stutterers, psychotics, neurotics, psychopaths, delinquents, sex offenders, organic brain disorders, epilep­ tics and the mentally deficient.

The Rorschach method is

being used increasingly in child guidance, vocational and educational counseling, legal problems and cultural and racial comparisons.

34 Excellent discussions of the material just reviewed are offered by B e l l , ^ H e r t z , a n d S a r g e n t . ^ Characteristics of the test.

Physically, the test

consists of ten white cards, size 7 x 9 ?

inches.

exhibits a bilaterally symmetrical ink form.

Each card

Five of these

cards present stimuli in gray and black and thus are termed achromatic.

The other five cards contain varying amounts

and kinds of colors.

Moreover,

two of the latter mentioned

five contain both gray-black and color.

Rorschach

QQ

explained* The production of such accidental forms is very simple* a few large ink blots are thrown on a piece of paper, the paper folded, and the ink spread between the two halves of the sheet. Not all figures so obtained can be used, for those must fulfill certain conditions. In the first place, the forms must be relatively simple; complicated pictures make the com­ putations of the factors of the experiment too difficult. Furthermore, the distribution of the blots on the plate must fulfill certain requirements of composition or they will not be suggestive. . . . From the method of prepar­ ation it will be apparent that the figures will be symmetrical, with very little difference between the two halves. . . . Symmetry supplies part of the neces­ sary artistic composition. . . • Finally, symmetry makes possible the interpretation of the whole scenes. 25 John E. Bell, Projective Techniques (New York* Longmans, Green and Company, 1948), pp. 132-7. 26 Hertz, loc. cit. 27 H. Sargent, "Projective Methods* Their Origins, Theory, and Application in Personality Research,” Psychological Bulletin, 42*257-93, 1945. 28 Hermann Rorschach, Psychodiagnostics, A Diagnostic Test Based on Perception, translated by P. Lemkau and B. Kronenburg, o£. cit., p. 15.

A description of the standard series of ink-blot cards will be found in Appendix B* Rationale.

This method presumes that the organi­

zational characteristics of a personality can be studied by an analysis of that personality’s perceptual behavior* This test functions, then, as a means of disclosing the structural aspects of the personality*

Rorschach

29

sum­

marized the formal aspect of the test by sayings The problems of the experiment deal primarily with the formal principles (pattern) of the perceptive process. The actual content of the interpretation comes into consideration only secondarily* The clarity of form visualization, the relationships between kinaesthetic and color factors, the manner in which the plates are apperceived, whether as wholes or as parts, and also a number of other factors which may be computed from the protocol of the experiment; all these show typical relationships which are characteristic of the various categories of normal individuals and of the psychoses. Klopfer1s

30

technique for a basic study of the data

gathered by this method may be described in these categories: 1.

One may study the continuum relationship between emotional spontaneity and control ranging in the extremes from disintegration to eompulsive con­ striction*

2*

Another functional concept demonstrated by the Rorschach is termed the experience balance which

29 Ibid., p. 181. 30 Klopfer and Kelley, op. cit*, pp. 221-56.

may be defined as the tendency for the system to respond to inner and outer promptings.

Intellec­

tual functioning is also studied in this category. It is deemed possible to predict not only the amount of intelligence but also the way in which the subject uses this intelligence. 3.

Finally, attention may be given to the emotional behavior demonstrated by a subject.

Both inner

life and environmental realities are considered here. This method is unique in that it may be used, diagnostically, with other clinical data or it can be used as a means of description independent of other clinical techniques. This method provides the experimenter with a structural configuration of the whole personality.

It also allows one

to study the way the various psychic functions of the subjectrs system are integrated and used. Use of the Rorschach in this study.

The ink-blot

results were used in a somewhat unique fashion in this experiment. They were used as a means of further evaluating the experimenter’s observations of the experimental data.

The

experimental projective technique in this study is principally a visual one.

Accordingly, this test was considered suitably

37 conceived to demonstrate any change which might occur in a given subject *s perceptual behavior*

This is to say that

observation of a given function was acceptable but its evaluation by other means was held desirable. The widespread use of the Rorschach implied that results gathered by this method would undoubtedly be better understood than results gathered by other possible projection devices• Finally, its protocol describes the structural or formal pattern of the personality.

This is in contrast to

the data gathered by the TAT which reveals content character­ istics of behavior.

However, when used together these two

devices offer a highly satisfactory means for complete evaluation.

CHAPTER III EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The ensuing chapter describes selection of subjects, test administration, instructions to subjects for induction of experimental sessions, and role of the experimenter* I.

SUBJECTS

This section discusses the techniques by which six subjects were selected for this study.

These subjects were

drawn from a list of applicants at the University of Southern California Speech and Hearing Clinic. Selection criteria.

Prior to an initial interview

with prospective subjects the following criteria were established: 1.

Subject must demonstrate a symptom clinically observable as stuttering.

2.

Subject must be male and between the ages of 20 and 24.

3.

Subject must agree to participate in the experi­ ment in the amount of 75-100 hours at the rate of four hours per week.

4.

Subject must signify willingness to abstain from any extra-experimental endeavor aimed at correction or alleviation of the symptom.

59 5.

Because of the unusual length of the anticipated experimental period, the subject must evidence a strong willingness to participate*

6#

If criteria 1* to 6. select more than the desired six subjects then serial order of application will be employed as a determining factor.

Selection of subjects♦

Twelve prospective subjects

were interviewed, each interview lasting approximately thirty minutes.

These individuals were told that the problem in­

volved was experimental.

The interview served the purpose of

studying the prospective subjects in terms of the established criteria.

By these interviews three of the original twelve

prospects were eliminated.

Of the nine remaining, six were

then selected by serial order numbers on their clinic appli­ cation cards* Verification of symptom.

It was deemed advisable to

verify further the presence and superficial nature of the symptom presented by the subjects.

Accordingly, the six

subjects were interviewed by a recognized clinical authority, Lee Edward Travis•^

He was asked to observe and evaluate,

through conversation, the presence and characteristics of the 1 Lee Edward Travis, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology and Speech at the University of Southern California. He is a recognized authority in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of speech maladjustments.

symptom.

He was also asked to express his opinion of the

willingness and suitability of the subjects for the experi­ ment.

He then submitted, in writing, a short summary of his *

findings.

This authority confirmed the selection of the six

subjects selected by the experimenter.

The letters just

mentioned are reproduced in Appendix D# II.

TEST ADMINISTRATION

Both the TAT and the Rorschach were administered prior to the first experimental session and following the fiftieth experimental session.

All the tests were conducted in the

room described in Chapter II, Section I. administered all tests.

The experimenter

During administration the subject1s

chair was placed at the left of and approximately twelve inches ahead of the chair of the experimenter. faced in the same direction.

Both chairs

This afforded the experimenter

satisfactory opportunity to hear the responses as well as.v' watch the handling of the cards by the subject.

The latter

is, of course, especially important in Rorschach testing. Thematic Apperception Test.

This instrument was

administered individually in the two series for adult males as described by Murray

2

and detailed in Appendix A.

A period

2 Henry A. Murray, Manual for the Thematic Apperception Test (Cambridger Harvard University Press*]! 1943), pp. 3-5.

41 of forty-eight hours was allowed to elapse between adminis­ tration of the first and second series. were those suggested by Murray,

The test instructions

These instructions were

memorized by the experimenter and delivered to the subject orally.

They are as follows, for the first series;

This is a test of imagination, one form of intelli­ gence. I am going to show you some pictures, one at a time; and your task will be to make up as dramatic a story as you can for each. Tell what has led up to the event shown in the picture, describe what is happening at the moment, what the characters are feel­ ing and thinking; and then give the outcome. Speak your thoughts as they come to your mind. Do you under­ stand? Since you have fifty minutes for ten pictures, you can devote about five minutes to each story. Here is the first picture. For the second series: The procedure today is the same as before, only this time you can give freer rein to your imagination. Your first ten stories were excellent, but you confined your­ self pretty much to the facts of everyday life. Now I would like to see what you can do when you disregard the commonplace realities and let your imagination have its way, as in a myth, fairy story, or allegory. Here is picture No, I. Responses to these cards were taken in longhand by the examiner.

The nature of the symptom (stuttering usually

allowed ample writing time.

Although a five minute period

was allowed for each card, the subjects were granted an additional period of thirty seconds following notification of the end of the five minute period. Rorschach.

In each instance this test was administered

twenty-four hours following the second series of the TAT.

These were the instructions memorized by the experimenter and repeated to the subject orallyt People see all sorts of things in these ink-blots. Now tell me what you see, what it might be, whatever comes into your mind as you look at the blots* You may have the card for as long as ten minutes or you may return it whenever you please* Here is the first card. • • • Except for the time limit statement, these instructions are quite similar to those suggested by Klopfer*

s

These

instructions were neither amplified nor amended in response to questions by the subjects*

In all possible instances the

experimenter answered as Klopfer you.*1

4

advises "That is all up to

If this was not a logical answer a suitable portion

of the original instructions was repeated* Two time faetors were recorded, time between presen­ tation of card and first response (initial reaction time) and time used for entire card (response time)*

The experimenter

estimated reaction time by silently counting audible watch ticks.

Response time was calculated by a pocket watch with a

second hand*

Time was computed to the nearest fifteen seconds.

If a given subject had not turned the card by the end of the first card it was suggested that he might do so if he pleased.

Such card turning was indicated by

A > V < , the apex indicating the top of the card as presented to the subject.

For time, note the time when each card is presented and the time when the first response is given. Note the total time for each card and the total time for the performance proper. Time any delays of more than 10 seconds between responses. Indicate on the picture sheet (page 5) the area chosen by outlining the part and numbering it with the same number as the response. If the whole blot is chosen, write “ W ” next to the number of the response. This can be done during or after the inquiry. In case of doubt, ask the subject to outline his concept on the picture sheet. List the scoring of all responses in the form on page 2. Columns are provided for recording the number of the card and the response numbers, the time, the position of the card, and main and additional responses. Additional determinants to a main response are also to be listed in the “ Add ” column, listing these one below the other if there are several. Use the Tabulation Sheet (page 3) for the tallying of all responses. Use a pencil of a different color for this purpose.

Tabulate all additional scores in the “ Add” columns.

Only main responses are used in determining the relationships among factors on page 4. Compute percentages only in the instances where they are specifically called for as indicated by the “ %” symbol. In all other cases, simply record the absolute frequencies of the various categories.

S U M M A R Y OF PERSONALITY DESCRIPTION

Published by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and Chicago, Illinois Copyright 1942 by the Rorschach Institute, Inc. A ll rights reserved, kmp d -15 PRINTED IN U.S.A.

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a.

Total

Main

n

SH EET

+

CL

VIII

+

ol-b
CL Main

4-

B

Cr*

a. Main

+


CL

4-

+

2 c

IIA

4-


Q.

|

T)

[ Main Total

o

DETERMINANTS

CONTENT

EXPLANATION OF SCORING SYMBOLS

LOCATION

DETERMINANTS

W

M

W hole B lo t

Figures in H u m a n -L ik e A ction (h u m an , m y th o lo g ica l, or a n im a l)

intended use of whole blot but part or parts omitted or cut off

FM

A n im als in A n im a l-L ik e A ctio n

W, S

whole blot and white space used (tabulate as main W and additional S)

m

A b stra c t or In a n im a te M o vem en t

DW

a detail interpreted, with its meaning assigned to the whole blot without justification (confabula­ tion)

D

Large U sual D eta il D

m form excluded from consideration mF form indefinite Fm definite form in inanimate motion

k

S h adin g as Three D im en sio n a l Expanse P ro je c te d on a Two D im en sio n a l Plane

W detail interpreted and remainder of blot used as background or W tendency otherwise expressed (tabulate as main D and additional W)

D ,S

white space used in addition to D (tabulate as main D and additional S)

d

S m a ll Usual D eta il

Dd

U nusual D eta il dd

tiny detail

de

edge detail

di

inside detail

dr

large or small detail combined with rare adjacent areas, or parts of usual areas, or unusual combi­ nations of usual areas

k kF Fk

S h adin g as D iffusion (sm oke, clou ds )

K K KF

FK F

F orm O nly, N o t E n liven ed F + F F —

Fc a detail used in addition to S (tabulate as main S and additional D)

CONTENT H* Hd* A* Ad* Aobj At Obj N

Human Figures Parts of Human Figures, not Anatomical Animal Figures Parts of Living Animals Fur Skins, Skulls, and the like Human Anatomy (dissected parts, x-rays,anatomicalcharts) All Kinds of Man-Made Objects Nature (landscapes, mountains, sunsets, rivers, and other scenery)

Geo

Topographical and Outline Maps and Geographical Concepts like Islands, Gulfs, Channels, not seen in vista *Caricatures and mythological figures indicated by parentheses as (H ) or (A)

C'

l

F/C

combination of F and C where the form is definite and the color used merely to distinguish areas

B rig h t Color w ith In defin ite F orm

CF C /F

C

combination of C and F where the color is used merely to distinguish areas and the form indefi­ nite (indefinite anatomical chart, political map)

Color O nly C

Cn Cdes Csym

6 ]

definite form with C' form indefinite form excluded from consideration

D efin ite Form w ith B rig h t Color

FC

Popular Responses Original Responses Found Not More Than Onee in 100 Records

form excluded from consideration form indefinite

A ch ro m a tic Surface Color FC' C/F C'

POPULARITY — ORIGINALITY P 0

S h adin g as T exture (u n d ifferen tia te d ) c cF

Other symbols like Arch (architecture) or PI (plant) are selfexplanatory.

form more accurate than popular form on level of popular response form less accurate than popular

S h adin g as S urface A ppearan ce or Tex­ tu re , D ifferen tia ted

C

N ote.

form excluded from consideration form indefinite

S h adin g as Three D im en sion al Expanse in V ista or P erspective

W h ite Space SD

(x-ray, topograph ical m a p ) form excluded from consideration form indefinite definite form with k

concrete association to bright color;form and con­ text disregarded (blue: sky or water, red : fire or blood) color naming color description color symbolism — abstract association to bright color (Spring, Fall, Gayety)

LOCATION CHART

164

Total F _ R

F%

FK + F + Fc R

Note that this estimate is based mainly on the following: number and quality of W number and quality of M level of form accuracy number and quality of O variety of content succession

%

A + Ad = R

Ac/

Manner o f Approach

Number of P =

w