Modern Construction Case Studies: Emerging Innovation in Building Techniques [2 ed.] 9783035617795, 9783035617719, 9783035617726

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Modern Construction Case Studies: Emerging Innovation in Building Techniques [2 ed.]
 9783035617795, 9783035617719, 9783035617726

Table of contents :
Contents
DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE
Foreword
How to use this book
Comparison of projects
Current and emerging technologies
Design method and project management
Analysis method and scientific foundations
Design implementation and research method
Steps to build a working prototype
Steps to build a working prototype
01 HQ Building, SF Bay Area
02 Transport Hub, Jeddah
03 Workshop Tower, Los Angeles
04 Conference Center, Miami
INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION
05 Technology Center, Las Vegas
06 Innovation Campus, Houston
07 Entertainment Complex, Los Angeles
08 International Terminal, Houston
ENHANCED PERFORMANCE
09 Laboratory Tower, Riyadh
10 Mixed-use Design District, Hong Kong
11 Domestic Terminal, Las Vegas
12 Baku Airport, Baku
Index
Authorship and validation
Bibliography

Citation preview

MODERN CONSTRUCTION CASE STUDIES Emerging Innovation in Building Techniques Second Edition

ANDREW WATTS

Birkhäuser Basel

COMPLEX GEOMETRY MODERN CONSTRUCTION CASE STUDIES

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE

Since the turn of the 21st century, the linear relationship between architecture/engineering/ construction has been slowly dissolving and interweaving into an entirely new workflow, requiring a new kind of relationship between architect, engineer and construction teams in order to achieve the great built works of our age.

Foreword

4

How to use this book

5

Comparison of projects

6

Building design has evolved from hand–drawings, hand– calculations and construction– in–the–field to a new process of digital design, engineering analysis/simulation and digital (BIM) construction models. This is not merely a change in medium from paper to computer. It is an entirely new paradigm.

Design implementation and

Building envelopes are no longer the exterior wall of the building. The line between facade, structure, lighting, climate–response and mechanical systems begins to blur and suggest new evolutions. The exterior envelope can evolve to also be the structure – it can be an intelligent membrane that not only separates inside from outside but can also engage it.

01 HQ Building SF Bay Area, CA, USA Architect: Newtecnic

52

02 Transport Hub Jeddah, KSA Architect: Newtecnic

66

03 Workshop Tower Los Angeles, CA, USA Architect: Newtecnic

80

04 Conference Center Miami, FL, USA Architect: Newtecnic

94

Current and emerging technologies

12

Design method and project management

15

Analysis method and scientific foundations research method

18 23

Steps to build a working prototype

28

END

220

Index

220

Authorship and validation

222

Bibliography

223

CONTENTS INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE

05 Technology Center Las Vegas, NV, USA Architect: Newtecnic

108

09 Laboratory Tower Riyadh, KSA Architect: Newtecnic

164

06 Innovation Campus Houston, TX, USA Architect: Newtecnic

122

10 Multi–use Design District Hong Kong Architect: Newtecnic

178

07 Entertainment Complex Los Angeles, CA, USA Architect: Newtecnic

136

11 Domestic Terminal Las Vegas, NV, USA Architect: Newtecnic

192

150

12 Baku Airport Baku, Azerbaijan Architect: Newtecnic

206

08 International Terminal Houston, TX, USA Architect: Newtecnic

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Foreword

I am writing this introduction as the new edition of ‘Modern Construction Case Studies’ is about to go to print in April 2019, nearly 20 years into the 21st century. It arrives during a moment of tremendous change in the history of architecture, engineering and construction. During the 20th century, architecture, engineering and construction were seen as distinct professions – divided into 3 linear steps in the process of making a building: (20th c.) – Architectural design and documentation. (20th c.) – Engineering design and documentation. (20th c.) – Construction. Since the turn of the 21st century, this linear relationship between architecture/engineering/construction has been slowly dissolving and interweaving into an entirely new workflow, requiring a new kind of relationship between architect, engineer and construction teams in order to achieve the great built works of our age. Building design has evolved from hand–drawings, hand–calculations and construction–in–the– field to a new process of digital design, engineering analysis/simulation and digital (BIM) construction models. This is not merely a change in medium from paper to computer. It is an entirely new paradigm: (21st c.) – Design/engineering/building a digital version of the building simultaneously. (21st c.) – Integrated, multi–disciplinary documents for construction. (21st c.) – Construction. In this age of digital design and construction, new minds and new mind–sets are emerging. Our new digital tools allow us to explore design forms of greater complexity and simultaneously be informed of the technical issues involved. The result is that as designers, we are able to be more creative, ambitious and intelligent. Buildings made this way allow for a fully–integrated design that thoroughly considers the architecture, engineering and construction equally from the conceptual stage through construction completion. This holistic, multi–disciplinary approach to design is the engine under the hood of the book that you are holding.

MCCS_4

Andrew Watts, as a practicing engineer and architect, has been operating at this high level of design for numerous internationally acclaimed, iconic buildings. With the help of his team at Newtecnic, he is generously sharing his experience and integrated design methods for 12 projects in order for us to better understand this new design workflow for architecture of the 21st century. Prepare to be immersed in a visually rich and intelligent conversation about state–of–the–art skyscrapers and groundscrapers, ambitious transportation buildings, office buildings, cultural buildings and multi–family housing. The building envelope for each project is the primary focus of the book, as this is where the technical meat of the conversation lies. Andrew Watts shows us that building envelopes are no longer the exterior wall of the building. The line between facade, structure, lighting, climate–response and mechanical systems begins to blur and suggest new evolutions. The exterior envelope can evolve to also be the structure – it can be an intelligent membrane that not only separates inside from outside but can also engage it. For the past 20 years I have been leading university–level design courses in the U.S. and the U.K. – teaching design to architecture and architectural–engineering students. It is a rare gift to find a technical book that can communicate content not only clearly but in a manner that is visually compelling and intuitively understandable to both students and experienced designers. ‘Modern Construction Case Studies’ – in particular, this new edition, is indeed one of these rare gifts to us as designers and helps pave the way deep into the 21st century.

Gregory Brooks The University of Texas at Austin Faculty Director, Emerging Technologies program Associate Professor of Practice, Architectural Engineering program

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE How to use this book

Modern Construction Case Studies focuses on the interface between the design of facades, structures and environments of 12 building projects. In all cases, Newtecnic have developed innovative aspects of the facade design as architects and engineers. The primary aim of the book is to compare facade technologies, particularly in the way they interface with structure and MEP (mechanical, electrical, plumbing services) in complex projects, and to provide insights into the design process for building envelopes, by exploring specific themes through case studies of live projects. Each envelope technology is described with a particular emphasis on one of three aspects: • Complex geometry • Innovative construction • Enhanced performance For each case study presented in the book, only one aspect is investigated in more detail, although all 12 case studies show strong components of all three aspects of facade technology. The comparative analysis, which follows this introduction, links the 12 case studies by comparing their structural and environmental performance through tables and graphs. These comparisons are used to illustrate trends across complex projects, for which each design is significantly different. This aim is achieved by analysing typical bays which are representative of each project and which illustrate the implications of using different building envelope technologies. The design methodology, developed by Newtecnic, and used to design each of the case studies, is explained through the introductory essays. These texts explore core themes. The principles described in this book are presented as a palette of design tools which are applicable to the design process for building projects with external envelopes of complex geometry. The application of this approach to each new design is project–specific and inherently dependent upon the specific function and spatial organisation of each building, and consequently cannot be generalised to a simple set of steps. Newtecnic hopes that the reader will find the content of use in

their own engineering design work, as well as benefiting from the project comparisons which are also set out in this book. Steps to build a working prototype The purpose of this section is to show the reader how to engage with a fabricator in order to build a working prototype of a facade assembly. This prototype could be used for performance testing in order to obtain certification for its use on a specific building project. The procedures for the fabrication and testing of a working prototype are set out as a series of sequential steps. Such a prototype will typically be made when the contract has been awarded for the construction of the facades, but the prototype can be used during the design development stage in order to eliminate risk of exceeding the budget. The method of ‘steps’ described later in this chapter is essential for ambitious or cutting–edge projects in order to remove the uncertainties inherent in the use of current technologies which are combined to form an emerging technology for a building project. At Newtecnic, warranties provided by contractors for pre–tested current technology systems are not relied upon for their combination in an emerging technology. Cross–referencing MCE3 Specific references to materials in this book are to be found in the companion volume Modern Construction Envelopes, 3rd Edition (MCE3). Since it is good practice to not duplicate information across multiple sources, technical information for the specific materials shown on inventory model pages is contained in MCE3 only. As a result, this case studies book is linked directly to MCE3: The case studies featured here are a development of the current technologies set out in MCE3. The prototypes shown in this book are larger in scope than those in MCE3 as the examples here are more suited for performance testing. The prototypes in MCE3 are visual mock–ups that assist the design process. The steps to achieve a small–scale mock–up are set out in MCE3 and those steps should be followed prior to the steps shown in this book. A development in this new edition is the addition of examples of both structural and environmental engineering analysis that allows the advancement of the systems, shown as prototypes and typical bays, to go beyond the architecture–led approach of MCE3. MCCS_5

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Comparison of projects

A primary objective of the Modern Construction Case Studies is to provide a comparative analysis of different facade technologies used for complex geometry building envelopes, in relation to the climate and environment where they have been implemented on each project. The 12 case studies illustrated in the book have been compared in the tables and graphs below in terms of the environmental and structural performance of their building envelope.

Project

Facade system

Facade zone

Panel thickness

1

HQ Building

Opaque composite rainscreen with glazing insets

200mm

38mm

2

Transport Hub

Metal rainscreen with full height stick glazing

500mm

4mm

3

Workshop Tower

Opaque and glazing unitized panels

450mm

35mm with 120mm ribs

4

Conference Center

Unitized glazing with UHPC cladding

1000mm

25mm with 100mm ribs

5

Technology Center

Monolithic open–joined GRC rainscreen

425mm

20mm with 90mm ribs

6

Innovation Campus

Metal rainscreen with unitized glazing units

500mm

6mm

7

Entertainment Complex

UHPC open–joint rainscreen with full height stick glazing

Up to 1350mm

40mm

8.a

International Terminal

GRC rainscreen with full height cable–glass facade

300mm

25mm

8.b

International Terminal

UHPC rainscreen with glazing unitized panels

Up to 3000mm

50mm

9

Laboratory Tower

FRP open–joint rainscreen with double skin facade

850mm

25mm

10

Multi–use Design District

Timber boards with stick glazing

270mm

65mm

11

Domestic Terminal

Sprayed GRC used as permanent formwork

375mm

40mm

12

Baku Airport

Precast GRC rainscreen with stick glazing

535mm

50mm with 120mm ribs

Weight of facade vs. facade zone

Weight (kN/m²)

Weight of facade vs. facade zone

The area of each circle is proportional to the thickness of opaque panels in each facade system, and represents the complexity of the assembly utilised.

2.75 2.75

Weight of facade (kN/m2)

2.25 2.25

12 9

7

1.75 1.75 5

8.b

11

1.25 1.25

3

4

8.a

1

2 6

0.75 0.75

10

0.25 0.25

0 0

200 200

400 400

600 600

800 800

1000 1000

1200 1200

1400 1400

1600 1600

1800 1800

-0.25

Facade zone (mm) Facade zone (mm)

MCCS_6

The numerical result used for the comparison have been obtained from the analysis performed on each project. Each facade technology, designed to suit all project conditions, has been assessed on a representative typical bay in order to compare facade systems across projects. The numerical values provided in this book are for comparison only and are not directly applicable to other projects.

Number of opaque panels

Number of glazing unit

Number of non–flat panels

Total area of panels requiring unique moulds

Total weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m²)

2076

1026

620

2356

0.88 kN/m²

1

9631

1157

5631

13582

0.76 kN/m²

2

15120

9249

0

0

1.14 kN/m²

3

4488

1527

3141

4909 Panel types distribution1.03 kN/m²

4

1543

7547

1.57 kN/m²

5

89

214

0.74 kN/m²

6

73025000

2208 589

222 40220000

340

973

1.78 kN/m²

7

3844

720

700

467

0.95 kN/m²

8.a

1920

290

200

1091

1.48 kN/m²

8.b

Number of panels

3858

15000

11885

363

1285

5730

1.89 kN/m²

9

1680

240

672

518

0.35 kN/m²

10

10000

1470

424

0

44

1.29 kN/m²

11

3443

260

344

1032

2.18 kN/m²

12

5000

Panel Types Distribution

Panel types distribution

0

1

25000 25000

2

3

4

5

Total number of panels

6

7

8

Number of non‐flat panels

9

10

Number of glazing unit

15000 15000

Number of panels

Number of panels

20000 20000

10000 10000

5000 5000

00

1

1.

HQ

2

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10 12 9. 11 8b .M .B La .D . In Number of glazing unit . In bo ak ult om er te te u r i rn ta – r a es na Ai to us inm at rp tic ry tio e i o or en na De To na Te t tC lT we lT sig rm er er om r n i n m m a D ple l ina ist ina x ric l l t

. In .E Number of non‐flat panels yC

Ce

7

6

.T .C Total number of panels

W

nt

8a

MCCS_7

11

12

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Comparison of projects

A primary objective of the Modern Construction Case Studies is to provide a comparative analysis of different facade technologies used for complex geometry building envelopes, in relation to the climate and environment where they have been implemented on each project. The 12 case studies illustrated in the book have been compared in the tables and graphs below in terms of the environmental and structural performance of their building envelope.

Project

Primary structure type

Span of primary structure

Secondary structure type

1

HQ Building

Steel gridshell

8800 mm

RHS steel sections

2

Transport Hub

Concrete slab and column

10500 mm

CHS steel sections

3

Workshop Tower

Steel frame

12000 mm

RHS steel sections

4

Conference Center

Steel tensegrity core



Steel T profiles

5

Technology Center

Steel shell





6

Innovation Campus

Steel moment frame

7500 mm

Cold formed steel sections

7

Entertainment Complex

Concrete frame

5000 mm

Extruded aluminium profiles

8.a

International Terminal

Steel arches and cables

Up to 102000 mm

Cable

8.b

International Terminal

Steel arches and cables

Up to 102000 mm

RHS steel sections

9

Laboratory Tower

Bundled tube

3750 mm

RHS steel sections

10

Multi–use Design District

Structural timber frame

1325 mm

Timber battens

11

Domestic Terminal

Steel diagrid

10000 mm

Extruded aluminium profiles

12

Baku Airport

Steel space frame

3500 mm

Extruded aluminium profiles

Facade weight VS bracket weight

Facade weight VS bracket weight

The area of each circle is proportional to the number of components in each facade fixing system, and represents the complexity of the assembly utilised.

Weight of bracket Weight of Bracket (kN )

1.25 1.25

12

0.75 0.75

4 1

MCCS_8

9

10

0.50 0.50

8.a 1.00 1.00

1.50 1.50

Total weight of facade (kN/m²) -0.25

5

7

6 2

0.00 0.00

11

8.b

0.25 0.25

0

3

Total weight of facade

2.00 2.00

2.50 2.50

The numerical result used for the comparison have been obtained from the analysis performed on each project. Each facade technology, designed to suit all project conditions, has been assessed on a representative typical bay in order to compare facade systems across projects. The numerical values provided in this book are for comparison only and are not directly applicable to other projects.

Weight of secondary structure

Facade bracket type

Number of components in fixing systems

Weight of bracket

0.18 kN/m²

Spider bracket with four adjustable arms

14

0.45 kN

1

0.4 kN/m²

Spider bracket with two adjustable arms

5

0.12 kN

2

12

0.63 kN

3

0.28 kN/m²

Serrated plates; welded and bolted

0.14 kN/m²

Standard bolted pieces

9

0.58 kN

4

Spider bracket with four adjustable arms

8

0.31 kN

5

0.13 kN/m²

Cast aluminium brackets, bolted through unitised joints

6

0.21 kN

6

0.08 kN/m²

Serrated plates; post drilled anchorages

8

0.37 kN

7

0.07 kN/m²

Spider bracket with four adjustable arms

4

0.11 kN

8.a

0.35 kN/m²

Serrated plates; welded and bolted

5

0.29 kN

8.b

0.35 kN/m²

Spider bracket with two adjustable arms

10

0.42 kN

9

0.04 kN/m²

Serrated plates

2

0

10

0.08 kN/m²

Spider bracket with four adjustable arms

8

0.51 kN

11



Weight of facade vs. weight of secondary structure

Spider bracket with two adjustable arms 22 0.76 kN 12 Weight of secondary structure (kN/m²) Weight of facade vs. weight of secondary structure

Weight 0.11kN/m² (kN/m²)

Weight of facade vs. weight of secondary structure

Total weight of façade(kN/m²) Weight of secondary structure (kN/m²)

Weight (kN/m²) Weight

Weight of facade vs. weight of secondary structure

Weight of secondary structure (kN/m²)

(kN/m²)

Total weight of façade(kN/m²)

2.5

Total weight of façade(kN/m²)

2.5

Weight of facade (kN/m2)

2 2.00

2.5 2

1.50 1.5

2 1.5 1.5

1.00 1

1 1

0.50 0.5

0.5 0.5

0 0

1.

HQ

02 .

Bu ild in

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0

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MCCS_9

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Comparison of projects

Project

U–value of system envelope (W/m2K)

Linear thermal bridging effect for system typical detail (W/mK)

Insulation thickness (mm)

Total glazed area (m2)

1

HQ Building

0.69

0.12

125

2727

2

Transport Hub

0.67

0.11

75

15043

3

Workshop Tower

0.93

0.25

50

55860

4

Conference Center

0.44

0.32

125

5705

5

Technology Center

0.39

0.18

145

1010

6

Innovation Campus

0.48

0.11

150

674

7

Entertainment Complex

0.22

0.09

180

961

8

International Terminal

0.20

0.23

140

5613

9

Laboratory Tower

0.32

0.15

100

1545

10

Multi–use Design District

0.38

0.06

120

585

11

Domestic Terminal

0.53

0.28

105

7479

12

Baku Airport

0.57

0.18

80

2671

U–value of system envelope vs thickness of insulation layer 1.20

The area of each circle is proportional to the percentage of the envelope system U–value determined due to framing elements.

U–value of system envelope (W/m2K)

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Thickness of insulation layer (mm)

The relationship of inverse proportionality between U–value of each envelope system and thickness of the main insulating layer is illustrated in the graph, which also shows the potential effects of thermal bridging within more complex system assemblies.

MCCS_10

140

160

180

200

Geometry of external shading (I/L)

Annual cumulative radiation – Total on glazed area (MWh)

Annual cumulative radiation – Average on glazed area (MWh/m2)

1909

0.7

0.29



58

1

16548

1.1

0.16



13

2

55860

1

0.17



20

3

5135

0.9



0.23

39

4

1313

1.3

0.16



31

5

539

0.8



0.23

43

6

1346

1.4



0.27

51

7

4491

0.8



0.34

44

8

2009

1.3

0.66



40

9

351

0.6

0.08



12

10

9723

1.3



0.42

34

11

1335

0.5

0.15



21

12

Reduction in annual solar gain by shading system (%)

Effectiveness of external solar shading systems

High reduction

70

High effectiveness

60

Reduction in annual solar gain (%)

50

40

30

Low reduction

20

10

0

Expected effectiveness 0.00

0.10

0.20

Smaller shading elements

0.30

0.40

Geometry of external shading (I/L)

0.50

0.60

0.70

Larger shading elements

The linear relationship between the geometry of external shading and the reduction in annual solar gain illustrates the expected effectiveness of external shading systems and allows to identify areas on the graph that represent shading systems with high effectiveness.

MCCS_11

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Current and emerging technologies

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STRUCTURAL STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING ENGINEERING SERVICES SERVICES // MEP MEP ENGINEERING ENGINEERING FACADE FACADE ENGINEERING ENGINEERING

SENIOR SENIOR SENIORTEAM TEAM TEAM

Current design methodology STRUCTURAL STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING ENGINEERING FACADE FACADE ENGINEERING ENGINEERING SERVICES SERVICES // MEP MEP ENGINEERING ENGINEERING These various sources of information cannot be used directly in the The application of current and emerging technologies for the design 5.695 5.695 envelopes, which require an in–depth underengineering of facades is linked to the 1.00 information available in estab- design of complex building 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.136 principles behind each technology; principles which lished technical publications. These sources focus on providing an standing of the first5.136 4.142 4.142 design with its accompanying cost certainty. understanding of the main components within a given building assem- form the basis of the -27.4 -27.4 -27.6 -27.6 -27.6 -27.6 -27.4 -27.4 -27.6 -27.6 -27.6 -27.6 bly and illustrate the different choices available for the construction of assemblies for the building 67.7 envelope, as64.5 well as construction methods Newtecnic’s methodology 67.7 64.5 64.5 64.5 In order to develop an understanding of the first principles underused for the interior of the building. Specific technologies or materials pinning the design of current and particularly emerging technologies, can be selected by the architect or designer as a point of departure in -2.42 -2.42 -3.08 -3.08 -2.86 -2.86 -0.88 -0.88 -0.88 -0.88 -0.88 -0.88 order to select a construction system based on visual, performance or a primary source of information is scientific papers published in jourcost criteria. The details contained in these publications are often used nals and proceedings from specialist conferences, which are peer by the facade engineer as a point of departure for facade system draw- reviewed by the engineering community. Peer–reviewed publications ings. These publications typically require an experienced facade engi- are concerned with methods of analysis using a given technology, not neer to be able to extract relevant knowledge for use on real projects. on the relative merits of one technology against another. The objective The information available from these primary sources is also used by of these publications is to fill in the current gaps in knowledge of the architects as a library of visual references and precedent built projects. members of the engineering community in the application of current Beyond these primary sources, a mix of standards, codes and and emerging technologies. This technical information is combined with project–specific design handbooks are used for the specific design of components and assemblies, such as those used for connections in steel frames or research, in order to assess the appropriateness of each technology concrete frames, for example. These design handbooks do not provide and to develop an understanding of constraints related to their fabriguidance for the reader to evaluate the appropriateness of the technol- cation. For emerging technologies, this typically requires physical proogy nor do these publications provide a means of validating the choice totyping and testing to validate their project–specific application, which of a specific technology for a design application. Technical sheets and cannot be validated through desktop analysis only. For the case studies in this book, the design methodology applied is informal advice from fabricators are also a source of information for current technologies, which are often used as the basis for calculations focused on ensuring the appropriateness of the technology in relation during the design stage. The design is also often informed by informa- to a series of parameters that go beyond its technical application. In the approach used for the case studies, the technology deployed is linked to tion provided by a specialist contractor and is specific to the project. the values and culture determined by the geographic location of the project and the common aspirations of that culture; linked to sustainability, Limitations of current methodology These primary sources of information present information which justification of the use of resources, local skills in fabrication, but with is focused on the application of current and emerging technologies to the global reach of these shared values taken into account. The techspecific materials or to specific projects. From the project–specific nology utilised meets the expectations of the client and increases the application of each technology, it is often impossible to extract infor- value of the product delivered. A detailed understanding of local markets mation about the first principles driving its behaviour. Technical sheets and associated fabrication methods builds confidence in the project and from manufacturers rarely provide sufficient data with the given tech- ensures its realisation. As part of project–specific research, Newtecnic nology to design from first principles and to verify their suitability for a ensures that for each given project there are always at least two comspecific application. Often technical information is presented to satisfy panies that are both capable and interested in realising the project. An commercial objectives and there is no method in place for the facade important aspect is to generate interest in the design through the conengineer to ensure the correctness or completeness of the informa- struction of proof–of–concept mock–ups and by providing a high level of design resolution, which shows direct engagement with the fabrication tion utilised. Direct contact with specialist fabricators, manufacturers or con- process. Part of this approach is to ensure that smaller local companies tractors does not often result in the designer developing an under- are able to realise and are willing to construct the design. The technical standing of the general principles and common methods used, as man- publications which are used at the primary sources of information on ufacturers tend to guard such technical information as being key to the building technology do not typically seek to engage with specific issues commercial value of their specific product. Fabricators are also often of resolution of any completed building but instead make comparisons not willing to provide design advice as a result of similar commercial with other specific design solutions which are based on the adaptation considerations. DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR

ANDREW ANDREW ANDREWWATTS WATTS WATTS

DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR

YASMIN YASMIN YASMINWATTS WATTS WATTS

MIED MIED MIEDMIET MIET MIETRIBA RIBA RIBAARB ARB ARBFRSA FRSA FRSAMIOD MIOD MIOD RIBA RIBA RIBAARB ARB ARBMIOD MIOD MIODBARCH BARCH BARCHBSC(HONS) BSC(HONS) BSC(HONS) BA(HONS) BA(HONS) BA(HONS)DIPARCH DIPARCH DIPARCHMST(CANTAB) MST(CANTAB) MST(CANTAB)

Z2Z2 Z2

X3X3 X3

Y3Y3 Y3

Z3Z3 Z3

30.297 30.297 266.415 266.41530.297 266.415 266.415 266.415266.415 29.475 29.475 265.134 265.13429.475 265.134 265.134 265.134265.134 34.567 34.567 273.307 273.30734.567 273.307 273.307 273.307273.307 31.442 31.442 268.305 268.30531.442 268.305 268.305 268.305268.305 31.442 31.442 268.305 268.30531.442 268.305 268.305 268.305268.305 34.062 34.062 273.077 273.07734.062 273.077 273.077 273.077273.077 33.384 33.384 271.747 271.74733.384 271.747 271.747 271.747271.747 33.384 33.384 271.747 271.74733.384 271.747 271.747 271.747271.747 33.953 33.953 272.919 272.91933.953 272.919 272.919 272.919272.919 33.950 33.950 272.904 272.90433.950 272.904 272.904 272.904272.904 32.739 32.739 270.637 270.63732.739 270.637 270.637 270.637270.637 32.739 32.739 270.637 270.63732.739 270.637 270.637 270.637270.637

PANEL PANEL PANEL IDIDID

S21_JJ_014 S21_JJ_014 S21_JJ_014 S21_NN_039 S21_NN_039 S21_NN_039 E28_020_A E28_020_A E28_020_A S21_EE_014 S21_EE_014 S21_EE_014 S21_EE_013 S21_EE_013 S21_EE_013 S21_E_034 S21_E_034 S21_E_034 S21_X_020 S21_X_020 S21_X_020 S21_X_021 S21_X_021 S21_X_021 S21_H_032 S21_H_032 S21_H_032 S21_G_034 S21_G_034 S21_G_034 S21_Z_016 S21_Z_016 S21_Z_016 S21_Z_017 S21_Z_017 S21_Z_017

3 33

2 22 AREA AREA AREA (m(m (m ) ))

IDIDID S21_T_012 S21_T_012 S21_T_012 TYPE TYPE TYPEOPAQUE OPAQUE OPAQUE RAINSCREEN RAINSCREEN RAINSCREEN

2 22

3 33

2 22 AREA AREA AREA (m(m (m ) ))

IDIDID S21_T_012 S21_T_012 S21_T_012 TYPE TYPE TYPEOPAQUE OPAQUE OPAQUE RAINSCREEN RAINSCREEN RAINSCREEN

SENIOR SENIOR SENIORASSOCIATE ASSOCIATE ASSOCIATE

ANDY ANDY ANDYWATTS WATTS WATTS

MARCH MARCH MARCHBSCARCH BSCARCH BSCARCHLEED® LEED® LEED®AP AP APBD+C BD+C BD+C ARB ARB ARBMARCH MARCH MARCHBA(HONS) BA(HONS) BA(HONS)

LOADCASE: LOADCASE: LOADCASE: SELFWEIGHT SELFWEIGHT SELFWEIGHT

SENIOR SENIOR SENIORASSOCIATE ASSOCIATE ASSOCIATE

SENIOR SENIOR SENIORASSOCIATE ASSOCIATE ASSOCIATE

MSCENG MSCENG MSCENGING ING INGBSC(HONS) BSC(HONS) BSC(HONS)

BSC(HONS) BSC(HONS) BSC(HONS)DMSCENG DMSCENG DMSCENGING ING INGCENG CENG CENG MCIBSE MCIBSE MCIBSE

CHIARA CHIARA CHIARATOSI TOSI TOSI

MCCS_12

CARMELO CARMELO CARMELOGALANTE GALANTE GALANTE

4 44

2 22

1 11

3.960m 3.960m 3.960m

4 44

1 11

3.926m 3.926m 3.926m

4 44

1.33 1.334m 1.334m 4m

LOADCASE: LOADCASE: LOADCASE: THERMAL THERMAL THERMAL LOAD LOAD LOAD INCREASE INCREASE INCREASE

SENIOR SENIOR SENIORASSOCIATE ASSOCIATE ASSOCIATE

JOSEPH JOSEPH JOSEPHSHAW SHAW SHAW

2 22

3 33

2 22 AREA AREA AREA (m(m (m ) ))

IDIDID S21_T_012 S21_T_012 S21_T_012 TYPE TYPE TYPEOPAQUE OPAQUE OPAQUE RAINSCREEN RAINSCREEN RAINSCREEN

4.067m 4.067m 4.067m

1.603m 1.603m 1.603m

Y2Y2 Y2

1.335 m 1.335 1.335m m

X2X2 X2

30.515 30.515 195.093 195.09330.515 266.362 266.362 266.362195.093 29.693 29.693 202.148 202.14829.693 265.079 265.079 265.079202.148 34.567 34.567 157.349 157.34934.567 273.367 273.367 273.367157.349 31.661 31.661 185.041 185.04131.661 268.255 268.255 268.255185.041 31.661 31.661 185.041 185.04131.661 268.255 268.255 268.255185.041 34.284 34.284 159.523 159.52334.284 273.037 273.037 273.037159.523 33.604 33.604 166.627 166.62733.604 271.704 271.704 271.704166.627 33.604 33.604 166.627 166.62733.604 271.704 271.704 271.704166.627 34.172 34.172 160.914 160.91434.172 272.868 272.868 272.868160.914 34.171 34.171 160.903 160.90334.171 272.864 272.864 272.864160.903 32.959 32.959 173.245 173.24532.959 270.591 270.591 270.591173.245 32.959 32.959 173.245 173.24532.959 270.591 270.591 270.591173.245

1.15 6m 1.15 1.156m 6m

Z1Z1 Z1

3.723m 3.723m 3.723m

FABIO FABIO FABIOMICOLI MICOLI MICOLI

Y1Y1 Y1

3.423m 3.423m 3.423m

LOADCASE: LOADCASE: LOADCASE: THERMAL THERMAL THERMAL LOAD LOAD LOAD DECREASE DECREASE DECREASE

30.612 30.612 195.100 195.10030.612 266.338 266.338 266.338195.100 29.790 29.790 202.155 202.15529.790 265.055 265.055 265.055202.155 34.568 34.568 157.445 157.44534.568 273.393 273.393 273.393157.445 31.758 31.758 185.047 185.04731.758 268.232 268.232 268.232185.047 31.758 31.758 185.047 185.04731.758 268.232 268.232 268.232185.047 34.382 34.382 159.528 159.52834.382 273.020 273.020 273.020159.528 33.702 33.702 166.633 166.63333.702 271.684 271.684 271.684166.633 33.702 33.702 166.633 166.63333.702 271.684 271.684 271.684166.633 34.269 34.269 160.909 160.90934.269 272.846 272.846 272.846160.909 34.269 34.269 160.909 160.90934.269 272.846 272.846 272.846160.909 33.056 33.056 173.251 173.25133.056 270.571 270.571 270.571173.251 33.056 33.056 173.251 173.25133.056 270.571 270.571 270.571173.251

3.524m 3.524m 3.524m

MENG MENG MENG(CANTAB) (CANTAB) (CANTAB)BA(HONS) BA(HONS) BA(HONS)MIOD MIOD MIOD

X1X1 X1

325mm 325mm FP21_1681 FP21_1681 FP21_1681 325mm 325mm 325mm FP21_1682 FP21_1682 FP21_1682 325mm 325mm 325mm FP21_1683 FP21_1683 FP21_1683 325mm 325mm 325mm FP21_1684 FP21_1684 FP21_1684 325mm 425mm 425mm FP21_1685 FP21_1685 FP21_1685 425mm 425mm 425mm FP21_1686 FP21_1686 FP21_1686 425mm 425mm 425mm FP21_1687 FP21_1687 FP21_1687 425mm 325mm 325mm FP21_1688 FP21_1688 FP21_1688 325mm 700mm 700mm FP21_1689 FP21_1689 FP21_1689 700mm 700mm 700mm FP21_1690 FP21_1690 FP21_1690 700mm 700mm 700mm FP21_1691 FP21_1691 FP21_1691 700mm 700mm 700mm FP21_1692 FP21_1692 FP21_1692 700mm

1.60 1.603m 1.603m 3m

ASSOCIATE ASSOCIATE ASSOCIATEDIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR

FIXING FIXING FIXING IDIDID ZONE ZONE ZONE

1.8 1.820m 20m 1.8 20m

ASSOCIATE ASSOCIATE ASSOCIATEDIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR

MARCH MARCH MARCHBA(HONS) BA(HONS) BA(HONS)MIOD MIOD MIOD

HOWARD HOWARD HOWARDTEE TEE TEE

LOADCASE: LOADCASE: LOADCASE: WIND WIND WIND PRESSURE PRESSURE PRESSURE

1 11

of available industrial processes to building construction. Emerging technologies are often based on new methods of fabrication. For the case studies presented in this book, the applied technology aims to increase the value of both product and process. New processes for fabrication can only be developed by linking design from first principles, academic research, physical testing and prototyping. The facade assemblies shown in this book were conceived as a ‘product’; a specific design solution with a high degree of resolution. For most projects, the facade assemblies were documented to provide a ‘set of instructions’ for the construction of those facades, which include a proposed sequence for assembly and installation. As a set of instructions to be followed by a contractor, these designs required validation of the method and outputs that underpin the design for each project. This essay sets out the key issues in the use of current and emerging construction technologies as applied to building envelopes of complex geometry. Designs of this type require a high level of integration between structure, facade and MEP (mechanical, electrical, plumbing services), which often comprises an external envelope with an integrated self–supporting structure that is independent of the building structure that supports floors and service areas, combined with high thermal performance. The design of complex building envelopes with a high level of integration requires a careful selection of suitable technology and its adaptation to project specific facade assemblies, in order to meet a set of different performance requirements for structure, facades and environmental systems. In the context of this book, technologies are tools for generating facade assemblies. In turn, the assemblies generated for a specific facade design determine the components and the connections within each assembly, and therefore affect the assumptions for 3D modelling and associated engineering analysis tasks, such as hand calculations and computational simulations. A facade assembly is made from a set of materials, the fabrication of which will be based on either current or emerging technology, or a mix of the two, as the term ‘technology’ can apply to both an assembly and the materials used in that assembly. At Newtecnic, complex building envelopes are designed from the point of view of the technology for the assembly, with the specific material used being chosen at a later stage of design development, once the required performance and physical properties of a material have been determined. The choice of a specific material for a facade assembly, such as that used for a solar shading device, is determined later in the design process. The material that will meet the performance criteria of this specific function will often have its own material technology. Consequently, the technology used or developed for the assembly should be interdependent with the materials used in the assembly as well as the technology used for their fabrication. This approach allows ‘material selection’ to be finalised later in the design process, with the possibility

of introducing significant value engineering possibilities without fundamental design changes at that later stage of the project. The alternative approach of using assemblies that are material–specific introduces higher interdependence in the design at an early stage of design development, which would limit the ability of the design to respond to later changes in the design of the external envelope. Consequently, the selection of facade materials is made at a later stage of design development. Current technologies in facade assemblies Current technologies are used in facade assemblies where the project design criteria are typically well–understood, and where alternatives can be provided to the solution proposed by the design team, while still meeting the same project–specific requirements. This approach can lead to facade designs which are more ‘generic’ in their level of resolution; an approach that allows contractors to propose alternative facade solutions at a very late stage in the design development of the project. Typically, a contractor’s alternative solution will be adopted if proven to be substantially cheaper than that proposed by the architect’s design team, while still providing the same overall performance as defined in the performance specification for the project. A potential hazard introduced by late design changes from a contractor is the unexpected effects on coordination with other trades or construction packages. Current technologies require only project–specific performance testing for final validation. Consequently, the expected performance of a well understood technology is validated through physical testing for the specific configuration proposed for the project. Typically, current technologies are optimised for one specific function or a narrow range of functions. For facades, current technologies are typically offered by specialist fabricators and manufacturers as proprietary products which suit the fabricators’ own fabrication capabilities. The use of different current technologies across a single project typically leads to a high number of interfaces between each of the facade systems. This approach often leads to a laborious construction methodology which is both difficult to achieve on site and time–consuming to design. Current technologies are typically unable to respond to widely varying conditions of geometry on a single project, making it difficult to enclose the complete external envelope with a single facade system. Current technologies offer fewer opportunities for optimisation and associated cost reductions from reducing the number of interfaces. This makes current technologies less suitable for novel building forms. Typically, current technologies for facades are suited to a ‘loose fit’ design approach, where a more generic solution is used to provide support to the architect rather than serving to help drive the design forward with innovation. The alternative approach of using emerging technologies allows a project–specific MCCS_13

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Current and emerging technologies

technology to be brought to the facade design, where it is adapted in a process which resembles that of ‘product development’. Emerging technologies in facade assemblies Typically, an emerging technology used in facade design is formed by the relationship between a set of novel components within an innovative assembly. Despite associations with the word ‘emerging’, the engineering basis of an emerging technology must already be demonstrated successfully on previous similar built applications when applied to large–scale projects. Therefore, as part of the design development process, project–specific prototyping and physical testing is required for any facade assembly where an emerging technology is used. This is because an emerging technology requires both proof–of–concept performance testing and final compliance testing, which follows standard procedures. Consequently, emerging technologies are not experimental technologies, but cutting edge applications of proven facade technology. Experimental technologies are considered to be technologies linked to a high degree of uncertainty in their performance and which require further research and development in order to become emerging. Emerging technologies offer opportunities for significant cost reductions through project–specific design development, while maintaining the high value of the specific technology utilised. These technologies also provide opportunities to innovate for a specific building project, in order to reduce costs of the construction of that project. This approach allows an external envelope to be delivered with both high value and high performance at a cost lower than that of an older technology. However, an emerging technology for a facade system requires a higher level of design development at an earlier stage than a current technology, and consequently is developed as a ‘product’, for which the emerging technology is tailored to the specific requirements of the project. This approach is key to the design methodology developed by Newtecnic. Use of current and emerging technologies in facade design Both current and emerging technologies require a similar level of documentation when applied to facades for a specific project. For emerging technologies, documentation and supporting outputs is provided earlier in the design process as a tool for problem–solving rather than ‘recording choices’ in order to provide the same level of cost–certainty as would be expected for an equivalent current technology. The use of a current technology often leads to project–specific design requirements being set out in a performance specification. The use of an emerging technology usually leads to a specification which sets out a project–specific solution as well as determining the required performance. The use of emerging technology in facade design directs the designer to achieve a set of clear design and performance objecMCCS_14

tives at an earlier stage of a project, while allowing the choice of key materials within the facade assemblies to be determined at a later stage in design development. This approach allows assemblies that respond directly to project–specific design priorities to be identified, resolved and costed at a much earlier stage of design. For current technologies used in facade assemblies, a key consideration in the process is the design of interfaces and movement joints between adjacent facade systems. For emerging technologies used in envelope designs, a key consideration is the selection and project–specific development of a single facade system that is optimised to suit all conditions of geometry in the facades. The design of interfaces in facades, which are associated with the junction of current technologies, are slower to implement during the site installation phase than a single system that uses an emerging technology. The design of interfaces between facade systems is also slower to resolve as a result of design changes during design development, as current technologies are not usually optimised for connectivity with other technologies. Consequently, the design development of facades which use a current technology is generally confined to the later stages of a design process when the final design, and associated performance criteria, are determined. The experience of Newtecnic is that the use of current technologies in facade design results in a low level of facade system development for the first 75% of the design time. The remaining 25% of the design time requires an accelerated approach in order to provide the required documentation, but only after the design has been largely determined by the architect. In addition, the documentation of the facade design will be ‘generic’, almost entirely based on stating the performance requirements of the system, in order to allow for proprietary products to be proposed by contractors to meet the stated performance criteria. The implementation of both current and emerging technologies in facade design are required to follow a disciplined process of documentation during the early stages of the design process. At the concept design stage, examples of existing assemblies (or existing technologies) are proposed with the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of each assembly independently. In this process of ‘differentiation’ of assemblies, options are identified for different technologies that may be applicable to the facade design. At the schematic design stage, precedents of current and emerging technologies applicable to the proposed facade design are brought together as a synthesis, and compared again with the precedents proposed at the concept design stage. The purpose of this process is to clearly distinguish the aspects of the facade design that involve current technology from those that use emerging technology. This method allows the design priorities for the following stage of design development to be determined for necessary prototyping and physical testing.

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Design method and project management

Current design methodology For large–scale building envelopes of complex geometry, the design method is often driven by the design of the facade assembly, and with the current or emerging technologies that are associated with that facade assembly. The design method for a building envelope includes all the steps and iterations required to deliver the final design from concept to delivery of a tested and validated physical prototype. The current method for the engineering design of facades for buildings is based on a sequence of steps which attempt to integrate design and manufacturing to ensure continuity from design to construction. This approach attempts to implement an effective project management method in order to control the process in terms of people, time and resources. The project management method facilitates the application of known solutions to supporting tasks in the design process. The current project management method for the design of buildings is based on a linear approach which makes use of Gantt charts to regulate the progress of both tasks and deliverables, as well as to define specific interdependencies between tasks. The assumption of this method is that the time required for each task is well understood from experience of previous projects, and that tasks can be prioritised in terms of amount of time assigned to each task. The regulation of the design process through a linear project management method is applicable to projects where the design focus is the optimisation of current knowledge, where most of the design aspects are known and where design components which require optimisation can be pre–established. The standard design method for buildings is generally led by an architect, following procedures set out in the work stages of internationally oriented organisations such as the AIA (American Institute of Architects) and the RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects). On many design projects the role of the building engineer or facade engineer is typically one of providing technical support to the architect rather than one of partnership in the generation of the building design. This approach is based on the building engineer providing a ‘service’ to support the architect’s outputs with knowledge of structural and MEP engineering (mechanical, electrical and plumbing), which is well–established and is provided throughout the duration of the project on a day–to–day basis. Limitations of current methodology The current approach focuses on the time taken to develop and document a design solution which uses current technology. The current method assumes that current technologies are validated, and attempts to identify, at the outset of the project, the aspects that require a greater effort to be validated. The limitation of using the current method for both design and project management is that only current technologies

can be implemented for well–understood applications. This design approach does not apply to complex building projects where the relationship between the parts is not determined. The limitation of the linear approach applied to project management can be a reduction in the ability of the building engineer or facade engineer to provide innovative designs which match the innovation suggested by the architect. This comes as a result of the limited time available to inform the architect’s concept with a project–specific facade technology. An innovation by an architect may be based on a novel spatial arrangement in relation to the required function of that space, or may be a visually–driven concept for the form of the building. The engineering design, at the interface of structure, facade and MEP, will not necessarily reach the level of accomplishment anticipated by the architect, as the time scale expected for an innovative architectural design is less than that required for innovation in the corresponding facade engineering design, which typically requires research and development through testing. Consequently, the level of technical ambition in the facade engineering design of a project is reduced to suit the critical path of technical development of the architectural design. This leads to the current trend in facade engineering design of using proprietary systems selected through competitive tender, a process supported by a performance specification and associated drawn or 3D modelled outputs, such as a BIM (building information model). Newtecnic’s methodology The method applied for the case studies in this book is driven by problem–solving, an approach which is applied at each step of the design process. No step in the design sequence is allowed to produce only ‘documentation’; the primary output must be a working design which is quantified and costed through 3D models and physical prototypes. This design approach is non–hierarchical as there are no priorities set on the design criteria or on specific aspects of the design to be innovated or optimised. This method is based on a design engineering approach as applied across other engineering disciplines which are based on the design, fabrication and manufacture of ‘products’ and is applied to tasks involving the structural, facade and environmental engineering of buildings. This design approach suits engineers who are trained across several building engineering disciplines or, alternatively, have a global understanding of building design beyond their speciality. This design method assumes that the parts of the design that require innovation emerge as the design develops, the innovation ranging from that of individual components, to creating novel relationships between components that lead to innovative assemblies and a corresponding enhanced performance. This approach to building design is strongly based on first principles and is open from the start of the project to the innovation of any MCCS_15

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Design implementation and research method

of the constituent parts of the design. As the design develops, it becomes clear which aspects drive the design and which aspects require innovation to achieve the required enhanced performance. The approach also allows a clear assessment of which parts of a design will most benefit from the application of either a current technology or an emerging technology. This design method focuses on generating quantified, comparable outputs within a short time–frame which will allow the design to progress through a sequence of steps, where the immediate consequences of each step are clearly understood before the next step is taken. This method is founded on three key principles, which aim at overcoming any restrictions in delivering innovative design solutions: • Research: University–based research of technologies which integrate facade, structures and MEP, conducted in–house and through academic partnerships. This process is independent of project–specific time scales and is aimed at both gathering knowledge on emerging technologies and developing new knowledge on experimental technologies. This aspect is discussed in the essay ‘Design implementation and research method’. • Digital tools for design and analysis: The use of high performing and calibrated digital tools to perform complex analysis at the early design stages, which is aimed at understanding behaviour. The capabilities of the commercially–available tools are often developed with the software provider as the design progresses. This aspect is discussed in the essay ‘Analysis method and scientific foundations’. • ‘Agile’ management: ‘Agile’ techniques provide a method of delivering successful innovation in building design if projects are developed as a ‘product’ rather than being a process with drawn and written outputs only. This aspect is discussed in the following paragraphs. On any project, these three aspects enable a set of working facade prototypes to be developed, physically tested and approved through consecutive steps and completed before the stage of competitive tender. These three aspects also allow the design engineering process to generate new knowledge and innovation, which can be applied to subsequent projects. ‘Agile’ management applied to facade projects In the delivery of facades of complex geometry for large–scale projects, the design methodology usually drives the management method used by the facade design team. Newtecnic has found ‘agile’ management techniques to be highly effective in achieving a high level of design resolution within the time constraints typically expected of a building design that would otherwise produce more generic outputs. Agile management techniques have recently spread outwards from the software development industry and are now widely applied across several fields in engineering that require innovation for both design and manufacMCCS_16

ture. ‘Agile’ management is highly suited to facade design work on high profile–projects, as the method supports four key aspects of facade design for large–scale projects of complex geometry: • A multi–disciplinary engineering design approach. • Short, intense iterations for a team of 8 to 10 engineers with different specialisations. • Continuous innovation through all stages of design development. • The creation of new knowledge at all stages of design development. This ‘Agile’ approach allows facade design outputs to be communicated and delivered to customers as a highly evolved design ‘product’, rather than by providing a design ‘service’ with more generic outputs. This approach allows the focus of a facade engineering team to deliver, quickly, an innovative product which is cheaper, better or easier to construct than an existing product, rather than that team providing a design ‘service’. Agile management in facade design provides a method for delivering high quality, innovative ‘products’, in which the ability to adapt to evolving customer requirements during the course of the design development stages is an essential requirement. The design engineering of facades of complex geometry is output– oriented and is based on producing design proposals as quickly as possible; increasing the scope and quality of the design with succeeding iterations. The design process is typically ‘kick–started’ through linear iterations where engineers may be required to work in isolation or in small teams on explorative tasks. These tasks are typically analytical with the aim of identifying the driving design parameters for each discipline. As soon as key design objectives are identified, a large team is tasked with focusing on one specific issue at a time, which ensures that each task benefits from an effective team dynamic. A tangible longer–term outcome of the application of this method is the production of the following outputs: • Templates for reports. • Technical notes for procedures and new knowledge. • Example outputs of innovative solutions for facade engineering. Templates and procedures provide the basis for the planning of future tasks of a similar nature. Agile management for facade engineering is based on the following core values: • Collaboration and self–organisation of an engineering design team. • Empowerment and continuous improvement of an engineering design team. The principle of continuous improvement is essential for improving design outputs with each new iteration. An essential aspect of the design methodology for complex facades is ensuring that engineers are able to explain, at any given point, the design process to others within the team and to the customer. Every member of the facade engi-

neering team should be responsible for the content of their outputs, ensure the success of the task, and improve the quality of outputs for the next iteration in a process of continuous improvement. Generating innovation Innovation is at the heart of this design method for the facade engineering of complex forms. The method aims at generating new knowledge which adds value to the product delivered to the customer, and is usable by facade engineers on other projects. This is achieved through: • Technical notes: processes developed in–house for projects are documented through technical notes, which are peer–reviewed by external research partners. • Visible outputs: making outputs visible at every iteration and making the work visible at every stage of the process. This allows gaps in knowledge that require further research to be identified. Knowledge creation, which is specific to the project, is part of the value the customer gains from this design approach. The customer is able to take ownership of the project–specific part of the technology if they so wish, together with the knowledge and innovation embedded in the design and documented in the project–specific outputs. This means that the client can at any time use the design documentation produced up to that point and continue independently with the design development. This design methodology generates new knowledge through prototyping and physical testing; activities which have seen a greater development in other industries but are not yet conceived as part of the mainstream of design processes for building construction. The creation of key links between building engineers and contractors is an essential step towards collaborating directly with leading fabricators in the construction field and acting as a bridge between design research and project–specific applications. The approach to optimisation in innovative facade projects is driven primarily by the need to bring facade, structure and MEP together into an integrated solution. Optimisation of specific components cannot be done in isolation, as this can result in the sub–optimisation of other parts of the facade assembly. Components within facade assemblies are not optimised in isolation, but are instead evaluated as part of a matrix of optimisation. Optimisation is not specifically an ‘agile’ process; it is an iterative process of searching for the removal of unwanted complexity, with the benefit of reducing costs and improving quality for a building project. Optimisation is the ‘calibration for economy’ of any given facade design. In order to avoid sub–optimisation, an understanding of the cost of individual components is required. For example, the cost of glass in a given assembly can be lowered by reducing glass thickness as a result of decreasing the span of its supporting frame, but the increase in cost of the frame should be no greater than the cost saving achieved from the glass. Innovation in facade engineering

design, as distinct from optimisation, is generated through establishing new links between components and facade assemblies. Application of design method and project management The aim of this design method for large–scale projects of complex geometry is to bring ambitious concepts to life without basing the design on specific solutions supplied by specialist contractors. This method of project management allows the delivery of facade engineering packages with a high level of technical resolution. These packages are able to be optimised for value and installation time, and would already have received approval for their fabrication and installation. The level of design resolution permits a high level of cost certainty. As part of this approach, each facade assembly deployed on a given project can be conceived as a facade ‘system’, which can be described in two parts: • System architecture: The arrangement of functions at the small scale or large scale of a single facade assembly type. • System engineering: The analysis and performance of a single facade assembly type. Both ‘system architecture’ and ‘system engineering’ are developed through two phases: 1. ‘Differentiation’, where each system component is firstly analysed and designed in isolation. 2. ‘Integration’, where all components are finally made to converge into one design solution. At the schematic design stage, robust concepts and strategies are established and deployed across the scope of the facade design project by exploring in full their applicability to project–specific conditions. The primary objective of outputs at this stage – beyond the design itself – is to obtain preliminary costs based on providing initial quantities, preliminary structural weights and number of components, expected performance criteria and preliminary MEP loads. At the detailed design stage, or design development stage, analysis is undertaken in order to inform an understanding of each building technology proposed for the project. Outputs are derived from analysis at this stage, rather than from the general considerations of assembly investigated in the schematic design stage. During this stage the facade technology being proposed is developed to suit the visual language of the design as generated from the architect’s concept. The following specific analysis tasks are undertaken at this stage: • Understanding of secondary effects. • Dimensioning of secondary elements. • Refining of sizes of primary elements. • Design of connections. At the construction documentation stage, drawing outputs are finalised and coordinated with coordination and dimensioning of drawings. MCCS_17

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Analysis method and scientific foundations

Current design methodology Analysis is the tool used to demonstrate the validity of a given design concept and is based on the application of a given set of scientific foundations. The current approach to analysis in facade engineering design is to conceive the analysis as a numerical quantification of a proposed design, which is generally conceived by the architect. This approach is based on keeping the scope of the design within codes and standards which provide the scientific foundation for the analysis. Generally, both national and international codes and standards integrate mathematical engineering foundations with empirical data, calculation formulae and procedures. The approach taken aims to ensure an agreed level of design safety for any given facade assembly. The engineer using codes and standards does not have direct access to experimental results or raw empirical data, which are already interpreted in the calculation formulae provided. Codes and standards provide calculation templates for the numerical quantification of current technologies, and ensure that the performance expectations for a current technology are met for a specific design. Calculation procedures from codes and standards are often integrated within design tools provided by specialist manufacturers in order to size specific components for their proprietary products. These tools include tables, software packages and design guides; these are typically provided for commercial purposes and allow the facade engineer to safely integrate proprietary products within the facade design. With the current approach, analysis is based on independent studies that take separate aspects of the design into consideration. Limitations of current methodology When using codes and standards, it is difficult to interrogate the first principles behind the calculation formulae utilised. The physical behaviour synthesised through the formulae is often not apparent. The derivations of the empirical factors describing the relative importance of different aspects affecting the behaviour described by the formula are also not apparent. In the current approach, the design process is not informed by digital finite element (FE) tools, which are instead used to provide final numerical validation or as a labour–saving tool. These tools are not in general use for the exploration of design options. This approach suits buildings of rectilinear geometry, for which the analytical basis of the design is well understood. The consequence of the current approach is the generation of separate calculation packages, where the assumptions considered for the analysis are not required to be coordinated in order to ensure a ‘loose– fit’ design outcome.

MCCS_18

Newtecnic’s methodology In the method used for this book, the design approach aims to understand the first principles behind the analysis, following the academic approach taught at universities with leading engineering departments. In addition, the approach followed is applied by academic research teams attached to these engineering departments, who provide technical support to design engineers. The combination of first principles and physical testing becomes the basis of the scientific foundations when standards are not directly applicable to a design concept, as in the case of emerging technologies. The results are compared with standards and codes which are used to set expectations to verify experimental outputs. The analyses for a complex facade design are of two kinds: geometric and numerical. Geometrical analysis is performed at the beginning and throughout the evolution of the design. This analysis engages with the geometry of the complete building to establish the required complexity of the models required for the numerical analysis. Geometry analysis also ensures that all aspects of the design are tested and integrated into a final design solution following the numerical analysis which splits the design into parts that are calculated following different rules (the ‘integration’ phase of the design following the ‘differentiation’ phase). For complex building designs, the use of first principles through finite element analysis tools is calibrated by physical testing. This approach requires a high level of engagement with institutions that are specialised in the application of first principles to testing of materials, components and assemblies to generate empirical data, which are shared and reviewed by peers. Physical testing is performed in order to calibrate digital models as well as to integrate safety factors into the design. As part of the approach proposed, openness and the sharing of technical knowledge for peer review and evaluation is critical to ensure best practice in the design methods applied, which are validated by the engineering community. In order to be able to effectively share information for peer review, an infrastructure is needed for facade engineering specialist advice, physical testing and peer review of outputs. In order to develop a design, a partnership between the building engineer, or facade engineer, and the architect is required, which is enabled though multidisciplinary team members who also have architectural training. The building engineer should draw a clear boundary around the engineering design, intended as the assistance provided to the technical development of the design concept. This is about realising the design rather than conceiving it: the nature and motivations behind the design concepts are not questioned, and the focus is on finding solutions to a technical problem. The design process allows changes to be absorbed quickly and is used as a tool to develop a deeper understanding of the design and its behaviour. The design of complex geometry buildings typically requires emerging technology to be deployed in order to construct high performance envelope systems. A complex geometry envelope typically involves an interde-

pendency between supporting structure, enclosing layer and environmental control. These building forms are often conceived as ‘wraps’ for the internal spaces through a changing relationship between the facade and the floors and voids behind the external wall. Such envelopes are typically self–supporting, as the form of the facades is often independent of the arrangement of floor slabs behind the facade and often forms the external wall of large–scale spaces within the building. The complex geometry facades shown in the case studies within this book are supported either by a self–supporting frame or by load–bearing panels. Where the facade is load–bearing, the structure takes the form of shell structures which are realised with a mix of beam, plate and shell modules, and are distinct from braced frames or load–bearing boxes, as the geometry drives their behaviour. The specific nature of these structures is set out in the Modern Construction Handbook, which forms part of this book series. The envelope regulates directly the flow of heat energy through the building skin, a factor which determines both peak heating/cooling values used to size mechanical equipment, and the total energy consumptions, which drive the running costs of the heating/cooling installation. Complex facade forms often make use of doubly–curved geometry, which can be exploited to achieve thinner envelope build–ups through shell action. Analysis method and scientific foundations The analysis method described here was used to generate early stage engineering designs for the case studies described in this book for the interface of structure, facade and MEP (mechanical, electrical and plumbing services). Through a process of integration of the constituent parts of the facade design, coordination between these components provides an opportunity for optimisation of the facade design. This process of ‘integration’ aims to achieve material savings, minimise the depth of the facade, and reduce the time required for fabrication of facade components and assemblies. A current facade engineering approach, based on providing a design ‘service’ within a strict time–frame, requires the building engineer or facade engineer to apply well–understood technology to specific project conditions and to provide numerical validation of the appropriateness of their use through analysis. An alternative method of analysis for facades of complex geometry, as used in the case studies in this book, is based around the design of the ‘assembly’, which is developed like a design ‘product’ that meets project–specific requirements. The ‘assembly’ is conceived as the fabric of the building envelope where structure, facade and MEP are integrated. Assemblies respond to specific performance requirements which vary across the building envelope. The numerical analysis involved is a function of the design of the assemblies, which must respond to both structural and environmental performance requirements. This approach results in, for example, varying structural strength and stiffness in adjacent struc-

tural members, varying air permeability and solar transmittance, and varying acoustic mass and thermal transmittance. The facade assembly is analysed at different scales by examining local effects at the scale of a typical structural bay, together with global effects at the scale of the entire building. The design of each component in an assembly can be equally driven by local or global effects, and requires a ‘multi–scale’, ‘multi–physics’ analysis to identify a global optimum solution. The analyses are typically undertaken in parallel using specialised software packages and the results are compared on the basis of their effect on the design. Sensitivity analyses are conducted on each relevant parameter in order to identify the factors that drive the design. The scientific foundations for the engineering analysis of complex geometry envelopes are mostly grounded in the finite element, finite volume or finite difference methods, for both structural and environmental design. This approach is implemented in a range of digital tools which allows complex shapes or components to be discretised and analysed. Finite element digital analysis looks primarily at the equilibrium of forces in structural analysis and the flow of energy in environmental analysis and analysis of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning). These are investigated through 3D models in both wireframe and surface format, as a method of capturing the geometry of the building form or components. From these models, meshes are generated in order to interface with finite element software platforms. Numerical accuracy in finite element analysis is linked to mesh density and mesh density is linked to computational time. The objective of numerical analysis at the early design stages is to understand behaviour through a simplified but thorough approach. This ensures that robust design concepts are generated which do not depend on a very high level of accuracy of analytical models, which is not achievable within limited project time–scales. For facade envelopes that integrate structure and skin, optimisation is mainly achieved by reducing the time required for installation on–site, rather than specifically reducing the weight of each assembly. This aim is achieved typically by reducing the complexity of the assembly and the number of components, which attracts a longer installation time and higher costs associated with more time on site. This approach requires a higher level of design input than would be expected for a less ambitious facade design, in order to develop components which are multi–functional rather than having a single function in a facade assembly. The optimisation for weight reduction of each assembly, undertaken in isolation, is of secondary importance in the process of optimisation. Finite element methods are well–established but, being dependent on the computational power available, have only recently been fully integrated within powerful analytical tools. This has allowed analysis to become a tool for exploring behaviour rather than simply a tool for the numerical quantification of a given design. Numerical analysis during the early stages of the design of facades of complex geometry should be robust MCCS_19

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Analysis method and scientific foundations

and ensure that the design is functional across a sufficiently wide range of input values. Finite element tools are primarily used to assess behaviour and establish which components can be analysed independently and which cannot be dissociated and must therefore be analysed together. The first iterations of analysis aim at establishing relationships between individual components as well as the magnitude of combined effects. Finite element analysis (FEA) is based on static equations that resolve the equilibrium of forces, fluxes of fluids or energy in 1D, 2D or 3D. The basic implementation of these equations makes use of the mathematical balance present in an equilibrium steady–state condition. Differential equations are required when analysis is time–dependent and quantities vary over time. The use of FE tools represents an inherent mathematical approximation, which implies a trade–off between accuracy and time in any given analysis. The objective of the analysis is to identify a set of calculation models which are representative of real world behaviour to a sufficient degree of accuracy. The different level of resolution of each design parameter, particularly during early design stages, inherently limits the accuracy of the analysis. Considerations of constructability, construction tolerances and material safety factors are equally important in establishing a design concept. Seen in isolation, the analysis results are not sufficient to ensure the robustness of a design concept. The compatibility between the degree of geometric approximation, the accuracy of input values and the specific use of the analysis outputs, sets the level of accuracy required for numerical analysis. Hand calculations are performed on simpler models in order to set order–of–magnitude values which typically include lower and upper boundaries for the analysis. A comparison of strategies of analysis is an essential basis of early stage facade design. Comparison between two results is only meaningful if the two terms show the same the level of accuracy. During the concept design stage, a broad range of studies is undertaken and the implications of the design concept for each set of results are assessed against one other. Requirements for design are prioritised on this basis and are directed towards ‘convergence’ as a single design concept. The prioritisation of requirements is an exercise of judgment by the designer, a judgment which is reviewed in the light of associated costs of fabrication and installation. A basic implementation of the finite element method is in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software and structural analysis software packages. CFD is used primarily to explore global behaviour of external and internal flow, in order to understand key relationships between ‘parts’ and ‘quantities’ (e.g. between temperature and velocity distributions). CFD is also used to design specific ‘parts’ of an assembly in order to enhance its global behaviour (modify a diffuser design or external louvres to facilitate air flow). This use of finite element tools during concept design suits ‘agile’ thinking as applied to project management: the relationship between components may change as a result of decisions made MCCS_20

by the customer, resulting in a high level of adaptability required in the process of design. Consequently, the tools must be in place to allow for quick analysis iterations, and the design should be sufficiently robust to have an adequate degree of interdependency between individual components. This allows changes by the customer to be absorbed in the design without impacting the whole concept. The aim of the design method used in the case studies of this book is to reach a level of 80% cost certainty for the facades and their resolution at the interface with structure and MEP design by the end of the schematic design stage; a level of certainty which would be expected for facade designs that use current technologies rather than the emerging technologies used in innovative facade designs. This approach requires robust design concepts to be in place which integrate the requirements of structural stability, energy consumption and thermal comfort. These concepts inform directly the architectural design; they do not provide only numerical validation. At the concept design stage, a matrix of design recommendations is provided for the customer. This matrix allows different configurations of structure, facade and environmental control system to be assessed against each other. The matrix is used as a decision–making tool to establish the strategies to be developed in the following schematic design stage. Method for structural analysis of complex facades The method described here is for the design of structures for facades of complex geometry, which typically follow the structural primitive of a shell. These structural forms typically create large scale enclosures around a more standardised internal structure, made from reinforced concrete or steel, whose purpose is to support floor slabs. The internal structure typically follows the structural primitive of a braced frame or a load–bearing box. The analysis of braced frames and load–bearing boxes is well understood and progresses from the structural design of a typical bay that establishes preliminary sizing, to a final global structural model that allows member sizes to be adjusted and which can account for global static or dynamic effects. The relationship between the internal structure and the external enclosure can vary, primarily as follows: • The two structures are completely independent, or • The external enclosure is partially restrained or propped at intermediate locations against the internal structure which requires a high level of coordination between the two, and usually implies a combined analytical/numerical model of the two structures, or • The external enclosure supports directly the internal structure: the two structures are effectively one and must be considered together. The first step in the design of a complex geometry structure is to establish a strategy that responds to the architectural programme. The strategy is subsequently deployed across different parts of the building

237 7

. - SOLAR STUDIES:

QUANTITY OF ELEMENTS

SUN PATH ANALYSIS MAPPING SOLAR PENETRATION INTO THE BUILDING. GLAZING SPECIFICATION AND SIMULATION WITH GLARE ANALYSIS. INCIDENT SOLAR RADIATION ON FACADES WITH SHADING OPTIMISATION. PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFICIENCY CALCULATIONS AND DESIGN SPECIFICATION AND OPTIMISATION

The energy efficiency of the facade depends on the U-value, defined in the following way: U-value = Q tot/(A*(T out - Tin)) For the double-skin facade considered it is:

INNER PAIN TEMPERATURE PROFILE

HEAT FLUX

Temperature [degC]

Top of inner layer 3.58 m

50 232

Air Outlet

PANEL QUANTITY U-VALUE CALCULATIONS THROUGH MATERIALS. DOUBLE SKIN FAÇADE SIMULATIONS AND TESTING. DYNAMIC THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WHOLE BUILDINGS.USE OF THERMAL MASS TO CONTROL INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTS. DESIGN OF PASSIVE SYSTEMS AND NATURAL VENTILATION AREA (m2)

y - coord.

Bottom of inner layer 0m

TECHNOLOGY

AIR FLOW IN MAIN CAVITY [M/S]

DECONSTRUCTED FACADE BUILD-UP COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CLADDING WIND PRESSURES WIND TUNNEL TESTING FOR ES10.02 UHPC RAINSCREEN VERIFICATION AND CALIBRATION WITH CFD CLADDING OUTPUTS.

- THERMAL SIMULATIONS:

ELEMENTS

U-Value < 0.3 W/m^2*K

- WIND ANALYSIS:

SOLAR ANALYSIS ECOTECT Outlet Area

TEMPERATURE PROFILE [DEGC]

Outlet Area

Internal Blinds

Air Inlet Velocity = 1 [m/s]

Qtot

- SYSTEM DESIGN Tout - SPECIFICATION - MATERIAL SAMPLES - COST CONTROL AND QUANTITIES - APPROVALS

STRUCTURAL - STRUCTURAL DESIGN - SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS - OPTIMISATION OF STRUCTURES - PHYSICAL TESTING

4 188 PANEL QUANTITY

AREA (m2)

MATERIAL SYSTEMS Tin

ES20.06 STEEL MESH

ES.30.05 GUTTERS

47 157

88 31

Solar Radiation

ES10.05 UHPC LOUVRES

LINEAR LENGTH (m)

4.2 m 0.245 m

PANEL QUANTITY

QUANTITY OF OUTLETS

LINEAR LENGTH (m)

ASSEMBLIES - INTEGRATED DESIGN - COORDINATION - SHOP DRAWINGS - MANUFACTURING

y coordinate [m]

.

PROCESSES

- DIGITAL FABRICATION - MOCK-UPS - TESTING - ACCESS, MAINTENANCE, CLEANING

The energy efficiency of the facade depends on the U-value, defined in the following way: U-value = Q tot/(A*(T out - Tin)) For the double-skin facade considered it is:

237 7

Air Inlet

Outlet Area

TEMPERATURE PROFILE [DEGC]

ES20.06 STEEL MESH

Outlet Area

PANEL QUANTITY

behaviour of each part of the facade, or building, structure is controlled by a distinct structural primitive. Each structural primitive is combined 88 to the archiwith the general strategy for the envelope that responds 31to be generated. tectural programme, in order for a structural concept A structural concept for a facade of complex geometry addresses the following primary aspects: • Structural stability at global and local building scale. • Robustness of the design proposed. • Integration of primary, secondary and facade structure. The structural design of a complex geometry structure follows a process of ‘differentiation’ and ‘integration’: all components (connections, constitutive components, modules, etc.) are designed and analysed in isolation but are ultimately assessed in their global behaviour by establishing the load path through the structural elements. For complex geometry structures the ‘integration’ usually reveals the final structural behaviour, which is driven by the overall geometry. The step of differentiation is nonetheless required in order to integrate the technology required at the level of an assembly. The general strategy established at the outset of the design is driven by the technology of the proposed facade assembly. To this aim, current and emerging technologies are assessed to establish the strategy for the envelope by examining existing built precedents. These precedents are used to demonstrate the suitability of the technology proposed in relation to either a specific building type, or the project location, climate, etc. During ‘differentiation’, each assembly is examined independently through simplified calculation models, which range from hand calculations to a finite element assessment of a typical structural bay, whose size is representative of local effects. This is aimed at assessing the robustness of the assembly and its local stability. During ‘integration’, the structural concept for the load–bearing envelope is analysed through a global finite element model. This is aimed at assessing global stability and support reactions. The stiffness of the building is assessed primarily by estimating natural frequencies and global displacements. Stiffness is typically the driving parameter for the structural design of large–scale enclosures for facades of complex geometry. Global displacements are required to be linked back to local effects in order to obtain preliminary estimates of movement that will have to be accommodated within envelope assemblies, whilst still ensuring weather tightness. The interaction of the structure with the surrounding structures is investigated through support reactions, which are the basis of establishing load paths. The global model allows to assess areas of stress concentrations in order to establish strategies to redistribute internal forces and stresses. ‘Integration’ and ‘differentiation’ are developed through iterative loops, where strategies for the technology of the assembly are tested by examining their impact on a global finite element model. This approach AREA (m2)

ES.30.05 GUTTERS

Solar Radiation

LINEAR LENGTH (m)

0.245 m

QUANTITY OF OUTLETS

Double Glazing Units (90% Ar + 10% Air)

Low-e coating Insulation Aluminium

N/A

Inlet Area

Insulation

N/A

THERMAL ANALYSIS: COMSOL

Inlet Area

STEEL STRUCTURE BY OTHERS

Inlet Area

Aluminium

QUANTITY OF ELEMENTS

4 and is the starting point for the generation of structural concepts. The 188

Internal Blinds

Low-e coating

ELEMENTS

U-Value < 0.3 W/m^2*K

AIR FLOW IN MAIN CAVITY [M/S]

Double Glazing Units (90% Ar + 10% Air)

FS02.06 ROOF VENTILATION STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

Inlet Area

STEEL STRUCTURE BY OTHERS

DIGITAL WIND ANALYSIS COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

captures the geometry–driven behaviour of the envelope. Typically, the behaviour of large steel enclosures is expected to be driven by its global displacements at serviceability. Large concrete shells are likely to be driven by maximum stresses at ultimate limit states. Analytical/numerical models are simplified in order to represent the essence of the object analysed. This is valid from small–scale components to large–scale structures. This ensures that analytical models are robust and do not produce misleading results, in which potential analytical errors are of the same order of magnitude of the results. Following this design approach, the envelope fabric is optimised in terms of structural stiffness and strengths to match the performance required by the geometry at different locations. The structural optimisation is done through digital analysis, where the global effect of changing the stiffness of one part of the envelope is examined in real time. In this way the assembly is conceived as a flexible set of sub–assemblies and components, so that a single facade system can be used across the project to match the performance required by the envelope geometry. This approach is driven by a thorough understanding of current and emerging technologies used for facades of complex geometry, which inform both materials and assemblies. Assembly technologies are brought into the design process when establishing the general strategy for the load– bearing envelope. The approach in designing complex geometry structures is assembly–driven. WIND TUNNEL TESTING

Method for MEP/environmental analysis of complex facades The approach used to analyse the case studies in this book is based on establishing a balanced set of environmental performance criteria. A commonly used approach sets environmental criteria based on ‘best practice’. However, this approach, where each criterion is derived independently, does not allow for an assessment of combined effects, nor for any subsequent optimisation. The objective of this design method is to produce a balanced set of studies that are coordinated and that document a robust design concept by demonstrating a global understanding of all the implications when choosing a given environmental strategy. This method aims at gaining a basic understanding of the order of magnitude of all the environmental phenomena and their relative importance in the design within a very short time–frame. It departs from a more typical approach where one specific aspect of the design is optimised on the basis of an intuitive ‘fit’ with the proposed architectural concept. Environmental design covers a wide range of variables. Embedding interdependency between variables is necessary to ensure design robustness, which is achieved by establishing an equilibrium between all the design criteria rather than allowing one criterion to dominate. The case studies shown in this book have been examined primarily by looking at eight aspects of environmental design (listed below) which MCCS_21

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Analysis method and scientific foundations

affect the performance of both the external and internal environment. Each aspect of an environmental design can be divided into three essential components: • Natural phenomena. The natural phenomena linked to the specific project climate. • Analysis type. The effect of natural phenomena can be assessed by means of digital tools and hand calculations, which evaluate specific quantities. • Design solution. The objective of the analysis is the selection of an assembly or material technology. Different design solutions are able to meet the same performance requirements. These three categories can be divided further into the following primary categories of environmental study: Natural phenomena 1. Thermal transmission and condensation. 2. Solar gain. 3. Daylighting. 4. Movement of air inside and outside the building. 5. Heating and cooling loads in relation to external heat gains. 6. Acoustic transmission. 7. Rainwater evacuation. 8. Material design life/fire resistance/corrosion resistance. Analysis type 1. U–value calculation and calculation of condensation risk internally/ interstitially/externally. 2. Calculation of peak solar gain across the year. Calculation of peak radiation, annual cumulative and solar exposure across the year. 3. Calculation of daylight levels (lux) and risk of glare across the year. 4. For the main wind directions, external CFD for cladding pressures (wind speed from codes for structural design) and pedestrian comfort (wind speed from wind rose for a typical year). 5. Estimation of each thermal load (solar gain/losses, conduction gain/losses, internal gain/losses, ventilation gains/losses). Environmental performance simulation tools (e.g. IES–VE) can be utilised for final assessment of the interaction of the thermal loads for the entire building across the whole year. 6. Sound attenuation index calculation for each assembly, by using digital analysis where each material and component can be modelled to assess the overall assembly performance. 7. Water flow digital analysis tracking the direction of water under gravity on curved surfaces. Preliminary 3D drainage layout including gutters and outlets. Preliminary gutter sizing. 8. Material research and selection. Proof–of–concept fire testing if required. Design solution 1. Selection of insulation material, thickness and position of waterproofing. Design of framing and interfaces to meet requirements on linear thermal bridges. 2. Selection of glass type and external shading strategy in order to meet level of solar control required for peak solar gain. 3. Selection of glass light transmission levels and internal shading MCCS_22

strategy to meet internal daylight levels for internal visual comfort. 4. Preliminary cladding pressures for structural and facade design. Velocities around the building at pedestrian level for main wind directions. Internal velocities and temperature profiles for thermal comfort assessment. 5. Breakdown of component values of cooling/heating loads in order to assess the relative importance of each component. Establish environmental zones. Duct and AHU layout and sizes. 6. Amount of acoustic mass required from each assembly to provide the required sound attenuation, establish how mass is distributed across the assembly and which layers provide sound attenuation. 7. Design of drainage system (selection between gravity or siphonic types). Sizing and integration of drainage within facade build–up. 8. Material selection. Material specification. Testing specification. The undertaking of environmental analysis in a facade design project is essential in order to establish a close relationship between envelope performance and requirements of mechanical ventilation (HVAC). The envelope performance regulates the main thermal gains or losses which require heating or cooling: solar, conduction and ventilation. The following design process is aimed at linking the two together: a. Thermal loads assessment for a typical bay. Before undertaking any environmental analysis, a basic understanding of HVAC requirements is obtained by means of an estimation of thermal loads for each representative typical bay of the building. This initial assessment uses benchmark values which are based on best practice. b. Preliminary duct sizes for a typical bay. The thermal loads computed for a typical bay are used to estimate the amount of air and the duct sizes required. As ventilation ducts typically occupy a significant volume of space within a building, this estimate allows zones for both facade and ceiling to be established. c. Preliminary assessment of global loads. The global loads for the whole building are assessed by scaling–up the loads obtained from the representative typical bays proportionally to surface area. d. Preliminary estimate of number of air handling units (AHUs). By using the global loads, the amount of air to be provided can be estimated, together with the required number, capacity and size of the AHUs, incorporating the required level of redundancy/back– up. e. Specialist environmental studies. These studies are aimed at understanding the implications on user comfort of varying envelope performance parameters in relation to HVAC requirements. f. Final environmental/envelope/HVAC strategy. This is based on a matrix of recommendations where different design solutions are combined to form options. The matrix is used as a decision–making tool. g. Refinement of calculations. Calculations are refined for thermal loads, energy consumption costs for the building, for determining both the sizes of AHUs and the sizes of ducts for air supply and return.

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Design implementation and research method

Current design methodology The outputs generated through analysis and design require a method of design implementation in order to be transformed into a set of instructions, which is how the design is delivered for construction. Following the current approach in building construction, the building envelope design is delivered through a set of drawings, which represent the design intent, and a performance specification, which contains the performance requirements for the facade systems illustrated in the drawing set. These two outputs can be disengaged from one other. The use of performance specifications originally comes from other industries where the project requirements are set out at the outset of the project, with limited change expected during the design process. In building construction, this approach assumes that contractors will complete all the detailing of systems and interfaces using the tender drawings as a visual guideline, in order to optimise for cost and ease of construction. The building engineer will check tender returns from bidding contractors based on compliance with what was issued at tender. Since aspects of the design are not described in the tender documentation, the contractor is allowed to propose design changes on the basis of their technical appropriateness. Different tender returns are compared on the basis of their ‘quality’. After tender, the engineer is involved primarily in the assessment of visual benchmark mock–ups as well as maintaining a limited involvement during fabrication and construction phases. The role of the ‘site inspection’ for a building designer is usually limited to checking the visual quality of the construction only. Project specific research allows the facade engineer to gather all the necessary information to ensure the design can be implemented. Research for most facade design projects is focused on project–specific procedures, mainly in order to unlock approvals and avoid delays in the programme. This approach is structured through a Gantt chart that sets out a series of sequential steps. The research is aimed specifically at understanding the full implications of building regulations, local standards and approval procedures. Research into design topics is limited to the understanding of all the technical requirements for the project. Regarding facade assemblies, the approach is based on obtaining, from specialist contractors, specific information about their products which is understood to be common to all competing manufacturers. This information is added to the performance specification as a way of determining a set of ‘benchmark’ criteria for assessment at the time of competitive tender. This usually leads to products or specific contractors mentioned in the specification, with the mention of ‘or equivalent’, in order to define that benchmark.

Limitations of current methodology The limitations of the current method are that the performance specification does not capture how the various parts of the design are coordinated across the various disciplines. Consequently, there is no method to ensure that all design requirements are both compatible and coordinated. In the drawings, the specific method of assembly is not described. The drawings are organised as a hierarchy of general arrangement drawings, general assembly drawings and typical details, which describe only general design requirements at different scales. These do not engage with interfaces and illustrate only representative parts of the envelope. Similar to specifications, drawings do not validate coordination and compatibility between envelope systems or between different trades. Often, this specific information is thought to be unnecessary, as contractors are considered to possess the required experience in implementing well–known solutions. This approach suits projects where known solutions are implemented and is based on the fact that embedding coordination in the design documentation would increase cost as it would mean being overly prescriptive for certain parts of the design. With the current approach there is no real mechanism to compare specific parts of the design with alternative proposals, made by contractors, which are not described in the tender package. For these parts, the assessment is limited to a visual comparison with the design intent. The technical aspect of the design does not need to be scrutinised, as the final engineering design is the contractor’s responsibility in most construction contracts. In this context, any project specific research is aimed at defining the scope of the design problem and limiting the opportunities for competing contractors to provide alternatives which do not meet the agreed design criteria. The process is one of collating technical information which is readily available and which is deemed to be relevant to ‘define’ the requirements of a design solution rather than provide a specific solution to these requirements. The lack of the availability of a specific solution can lead to unexpected consequences for the design if no specific alternatives are available. Newtecnic’s methodology When the consequences of the proposed design are required to be fully understood at an early stage of project development, the emphasis turns to achieving a high level of design resolution. Early stage design documentation allows costs to be obtained from contractors as the design progresses. In the following design phases that lead to tender, value is added to the design process by undertaking detailed analysis of specific design aspects. The following additional outputs are provided at tender for design implementation: MCCS_23

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Design implementation and research method



A full 3D model of the building envelope, which provides a full description of the detailed design, coordination between the envelope and the other trades and a tool for a direct take–off of quantities. The 3D model is developed at an early stage for cost certainty and then developed as the design evolves. • Results for proof–of–concept physical tests and documented testing procedures to be used by the contractor to validate specific design aspects. • Procedures for contractors to respond to the design at tender. These procedures include the documentation of any non–standard analysis process which is part of the proof–of–concept calculations, and is also provided as part of the design documentation. This high level of design resolution can be achieved whilst avoiding the increased costs associated with being more prescriptive, as high cost certainty is already achieved at early stages through cost estimates obtained from contractors rather than by a cost consultant, who does not usually provide specialist knowledge for non–standard projects. Factory visits, and the construction of performance mock–ups to validate fabrication, construction sequence and assembly performance, are an integral part of the design implementation method. This method includes the background research which is required to gather a set of project–specific information in order to define the most effective way to implement the facade design concept, generated by the facade engineer in response to the architectural brief. In order for the design to be implemented, a series of steps is required to validate the design proposed in in relation to the specific fabrication constraints of the appointed contractor. Newtecnic’s method of research is focused on generating new knowledge which is used to design material systems and assembly technology. The method of research serves as the basis for project implementation. The research required for an innovative facade design is driven by specific gaps in knowledge which are required in order to implement the facade design. These gaps in knowledge are typically: • Physical properties of a primary material (material selection). • Selection of a technology for a primary facade assembly (assembly technology). The objective of the research method is to transform useful knowledge into design constraints/drivers for a given facade design project. Material selection Research associated with material selection considers how the facade engineer can design with a given material, in order to establish design constraints and analysis methods. Research is often focused on establishing the need for physical testing in order to calibrate finite element (FE) models or to provide validation for the use of a given material MCCS_24

system. Research identifies the limits of analysis and need for testing. A second part of the research into material selection looks at constraints of manufacturing or fabrication, in order to set constraints on their use in a facade design. For example, the maximum size of a sheet material, the minimum thickness of an aluminium extrusion, the minimum radius of curvature for hot bending process of steel sections, can be determined. Visits to factories to identify the fabrication processes, and associated production costs, contribute significantly in the selection of materials. This is because the limiting factor in a material is often the ability of an individual fabricator or manufacturer to achieve the desired level of quality, complexity or precision, often as a result of the production cost of those processes. Assembly technology Research associated with assembly technology is concerned primarily with the identification of design constraints which are determined by the combination of components and materials within a facade assembly. The research may lead to physical testing to assess the performance of the assembly in terms of structural stability or weatherproofing. The main topics of investigation are: • Durability. The durability of the assembly is linked to the design life of the project and the frequency of cleaning and maintenance cycles planned for the completed installation. • Fire and corrosion resistance. Fire resistance typically requires bespoke testing of a 1:1 scale mock–up in order to be able to meet the overall performance requirements of the full facade build–up. • Maintenance and repair. The ability to repair local damage to a material is particularly appealing for heavyweight assemblies, which avoids replacing entire facade modules by mobilising equipment or causing disruption to the building occupants. One of the primary purposes of the research conducted at an early stage is to compare examples of the application of the assembly technology with other built projects, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of specific aspects of the design. Design validation The first set of steps for design implementation after tender is aimed at validating the design concept proposed. The following steps are applicable to different degrees depending on the specific project: 1. Geometry definition. The coordination between facade, structure and HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) requires a strategy for the dimensional setting–out of each facade system. This setting–out is documented through drawings and through a fully coordinated digital 3D model, from which fabrication drawings can be extracted through a partially automated process.

2. Material properties and testing. In order to validate the design of each assembly, the mechanical properties of each material are confirmed by each fabricator. For non–standard materials, such as advanced composites which are fabricator–specific, material testing is required. Material testing for non–standard materials is undertaken during the design phase in order to set minimum performance requirements to be met by the proposed fabricator. This preliminary testing provides both a proof–of–concept design, and a validated set of mechanical properties to be used as inputs for the structural analysis. This process significantly reduces uncertainty in the properties of the materials utilised and sets clear boundaries for contractor–specific variations on the materials, by imposing lower boundary values for the mechanical properties that drive structural sizes. Each specialist fabricator re–runs the same material tests after tender award in order to confirm compliance with the minimum requirements set during the preliminary testing. 3. Structural design and safety factors. The mechanical properties of a given material are the basis of the structural design of a facade system. Structural calculations are also based on the structural loads, including the weights of facade assemblies, wind loads obtained from wind tunnel testing, thermal loads, seismic loads, maintenance loads, impact loads, etc. Material and load safety factors assumed during the design stage are based on minimum values imposed by structural standards. In order to confirm these assumptions, safety factors include – at this stage – considerations of the expected precision of workmanship during both fabrication and installation. When standards and codes do not directly apply to the design due to its innovative nature, these considerations assume even more importance in confirming the safety factors. 4. Project–specific testing. As part of the implementation of the design, critical items that require validation through physical testing are identified. Physical testing is required when designing outside standards and codes. It is conducted alongside calculations, which are based on first principles and generate the hypothesis that is tested. The purpose of physical testing is typically to establish the design capacity of a structural component, assembly or connection between components used in a facade assembly. The design capacity is typically compared against the most unfavourable design scenario in order to verify compliance with design safety factors, which must be appropriate for the application and are determined prior to testing. Similar proof–of–concept tests can include impact tests or water tightness tests, and are used to validate specific parts of the assembly rather than verify the general compliance of the system (which is covered in ‘performance testing’). These tests are not covered by standards and codes, and are required to be designed from first principles. These are usually small–scale tests

which are representative of the real project conditions. Typically, digital finite element analysis is used to establish the size and shape of representative samples, by comparing the performance of the sample with the real component through numerical simulation. Numerical simulations are only used for general comparison, as physical testing is required in order to ensure the safe behaviour of the assembly or component, which cannot be determined by numerical analysis. These bespoke tests are typically undertaken during the design stage as a proof–of–concept in order to establish the viability of both design outputs and process. Project–bespoke testing typically requires the laboratory performing the testing to validate through peer reviews the procedure devised for the specific test as part of their own research activities. In order to carry out ambitious design tasks, a network of expertise is required in which methodologies are peer–reviewed. Consequently, design activities that lead to physical testing cannot be carried out in isolation. 5. Prototyping. A final validation of the assembly design may be required through a 1:1 physical mock–up or a scaled mock–up, where all the critical components are fabricated and installed according to the final design. This typically demonstrates the feasibility of critical design aspects and their visual appearance and is constructed before the performance mock–ups. The prototype is also typically used for informal structural testing, where the structural stability of the prototype is tested under project loads. This provides an effective method of validating complex assemblies before final compliance testing, described in the following paragraph. 6. Performance mock–up and testing. The final validation of the assembly design is required through a 1:1 physical mock–up, where all the components are fabricated and installed according to the final design. This mock–up validates the following aspects: a. Fabrication time. This is used to test the fabrication process and time required to fabricate each component. b. Assembly performance. Sufficient adjustment is provided, ease of fabrication of components, ease and sequence of assembly of components. c. Installation sequence. The proposed installation is tested and timed. d. Testing of structural and environmental performance. The performance mock–up must withstand a series of tests which are performed following standard procedures set by codes, such as air and water tightness and impact resistance. The failure of any of these tests may require changes in the original design or in the fabrication techniques. After successful testing, fabrication can begin.

MCCS_25

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype This section sets out preliminary specification information for the prototypes described on the third angle projection pages described in this book. The standards and norms can be used in early stage design work only, with a view to deriving preliminary costs for project–specific use of the facade and roof systems set out in this book.

STEP 1.0

Naming of facade systems as prototypes

STEP 1.1

Scope of the prototyping task

1.1.1

1.1.2

2.5

The scope of the prototypes is subject to this document which defines the nature of the works, their procurement and their installation, In addition to the requirements of other documents in tender documents,

Tender Return is the submission by the Contractor to the Client for the completion of design, fabrication and installation of the prototypes at the end of the period of tender, for evaluation.

2.6

The Contractor shall provide implicitly all services described or necessary for the full execution of the works and its completion.

Detailed Design is that prepared by the Contractor represented by the Working Drawings and the contractors Written Documents.

2.7

Working Drawings of the contractor include all the graphical outputs produced by the Contractor after winning the bid for the fabrication and installation of the prototypes. These drawings are prepared by the Contractor based upon the Design Drawings of the Project Architect and which are included in this bid. The contractor must produce plans, elevations, sections and full size details of fabrication, assembly, installation and fixings of the prototypes. The Working Drawings are submitted in their entirety to the Project Architect for approval as mentioned above for checking before fabrication and installation.

2.8

As–built Drawing Prototypes are drawings produced by the Contractor, which show the Works as finally constructed on completion of the works. These as–build Drawings documents are to be submitted in 2 printed copies before acceptance of completed work.

2.9

Contract Documents are drawings listed in the Contract, comprising Design Drawings, written documents, and Contractor’s Proposals as approved by the Project Architect.

2.10

Evaluation refers to the reviews carried out by the Project Architect The project architect will study the Tender Returns for the prototypes and to discuss options, materials, typical details and critical interfaces to ensure that the proposal is consistent with what is expected from the Design.

1.1.3

The Contractor should be informed of all the requirements of other trades.

1.1.4

The prototypes are to be installed at a location to be agreed with the Project Architect.

1.1.5

The Contractor for this package of prototypes is responsible for the fabrication and installation of the following [example] prototype assemblies: • ES.01 [External System] • ES.02 [External System] • ED.01 [External Door] • ED.02 [External Door] • FS.01 [Facade Structure] • FS.02 [Facade Structure] • RS.01 [Roof Structure] • RS.02 [Roof Structure]

STEP 2.0 2.1

Definitions Contractor’s outputs include drawings, method statements, risk assessment, calculations and any other relevant information, maintaining the design and visual intent, functional, performance criteria and technical requirements as stated in the documentation provided by the Project Architect.

2.2

Design should be interpreted as an understanding of the visual intent as represented by the Design Drawings and Specifications.

2.3

Working Drawings of the Project Architect are detailed drawings provided by Project Architect.

2.4

The Project Architect’s Drawings are the drawings and documents produced by the project architect, which include coordination between The Project architect and consultants in structural, electrical and MEP.

MCCS_26

2.11

2.12

2.13

Inspection is the action carried out by the Project Architect, in the evaluation of materials, components, equipment and installation of the prototypes produced by the Contractor. Such inspection shall be limited to an inspection of the visual appearance only and not to the selection of materials or the Detailed Design or construction of components and equipment, which shall remain the sole responsibility of the Contractor. Such inspections by the Project Architect shall not relieve the Contractor from compliance with the drawings and written documents set in the Tender Documents. An Inspecting Authority is a competent independent body or association, which verifies compliance with the Design. A testing authority is a qualified independent organization or association employed by the Contractor, accredited in testing, that provides equipment and facilities for the performance of appropriate tests, and issues results of independent tests in relation to graphical and written parts of this document. The choice of the testing authority is subject to acceptance by the Project Architect. A testing authority is an organization employed by the Contractor, qualified independent accredited testing or association that provides equipment and facilities for the performance of appropriate tests, and issues results of independent tests in relation to graphics and written elements of this document. The choice of the supervisory authority is subject to acceptance by the Project Architect.

2.14

The Works is the scope of work covered by the graphical and written elements of this document.

2.15

Fabrication and Installation Program: Produced by the Contractor during the process of submission, indicating the dates of submission of Working Drawings of the Company designs, submission dates samples, prototypes and testing procedures before fabrication conforming to the Design.

2.16

2.17

Detailed Fabrication and Installation Program: the detailed planning of implementation of the Project, established by the Contractor during the preparation period following the order to start construction, and validated by the Project Architect and Client. This program is contractual after validation by the Project Architect. Drawings to be read in conjunction with the prototype geometry models to be issued by Project Architect and panelisation 3D models are issued for information only.

2.18

Contract Documents include Design Drawings and written documents of the Design Team, as well as the Contractor’s Proposals as submitted for approval by the Design Team, and the Approval Authority. The Design drawings of the Design Team are provided in a PDF version and in a digital version. Refer to the Drawing Register for the list of drawings and documents.

STEP 3.0

Reference documents

STEP 3.1

Scope of this document

3.1.1

These documents must be considered carefully by the Contractor during the development of its shop drawings, in order to ensure compliance with the design and required visual appearance. However, the Contractor may present alternative solutions to limit costs in line with Step 5.0 of this document. When the Contractor has alternatives and solutions that are considered not to be traditional then the Contractor must provide a strategy for certification.

3.1.2

The Contractor shall retain full responsibility for the production drawings of the Contractor and works in accordance with the performance criteria specified in this document.

3.1.3

The Contractor should never have a lesser standard of material or manufacturing process as specified in the articles of this document. Performance criteria when specified must be considered as minimum standards that the Contractor will necessarily achieve. All requirements in this document have to be taken into account in the submission of the Contractor.

3.1.4

The submittals that are required from the contractor and the process for their review and validation are set out in Step 7.0 of this document.

STEP 4.0

Methodologies during fabrication

4.1

Supporting Concrete and Steel Structure is expected to deflect under self–weight and will deflect further under load of prototype assemblies.

4.2

Facade Contractor to take into account weight already occurring and to calculate and submit conditions to the Project Architect for approval.

4.3

Facade Contractor’s method statement to include a survey on how to create adjustment to what is constructed and to supporting structure to accommodate the installation of the prototypes.

MCCS_27

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype STEP 5.0

Alternatives proposals and substitutions

5.1

The contractor is responsible for the production of all documentation including drawings and written documents relating to alternative proposals and substitutions.

5.2

All alternatives proposed by the contractor must be validated by the Project Architect

5.3

At Tender the Contractor may present alternative solutions for all systems, including: fixing systems for panels, support systems for panels, fixing systems for balustrades, and handrails. In the Contractor’s submission, a report must be produced on this subject.

5.4

Any alternative proposals should be made during the tender stage.

5.5

Substitutions are admissible after contract signature for the prototypes.

STEP 6.0 6.1.1

6.1.2

6.1.3

6.1.4

MCCS_28

6.1.5

The Contractor shall demonstrate the skills of its team in 3D BIM modelling by presenting document geometrically complex projects previously undertaken. In addition, the Contractor shall employ 3D consultants who can prove by documents their experiences with projects with complex geometry.

6.1.6

The Contractor shall establish the basis of 3D data points for 3D reference, and the name of the model.

6.1.7

The naming convention is also described in Section 8 of the “AEC BIM Protocol v2.0” available for download on http://aecuk. wordpress.com/ documents/ and a common origin site as an entry point to all data relating to the site.

6.1.8

The Contractor of the Facade package will be responsible for the receipt, management and assimilation of all 3D project information in the central database.

6.1.9

A comprehensive strategy will be subject to the approval of the Prime Contractor and the Owner prior to commencement of work.

6.1.10

The Contractor will be responsible for related equipment (including all fees), responsible for the project team and sub–contractors (approved by the Project Architect and the Client) and staff to assist the Project Architect in the use of the 3D BIM model.

6.1.11

The Contractor of the prototypes package is responsible for all other costs associated with the provision of a 3D model manager system, license fees, hardware, software, installation, maintenance, operation, training, coordination and technical support.

Contractor–generated 3D BIM model The Contractor is required to build an accurate 3D model to enable effective 3D coordination geometry of the prototypes. The 3D BIM model will integrate structural and facade components. The Contractor will fully produce a 3D BIM model as described below. The Project Architect shall provide a copy of the model for information only. The 3D BIM model produced by the Contractor is to use same origin point as that of the Project Architect. This requirement allows the import and export of 2D and 3D data to the required location of the prototypes through the different platforms. The contractor must establish and implement the basic 3D data points, 3D reference points, the name of the model and distribution protocols, and a common site origin point as an insertion point for all data related to the site. The 3D BIM model will be part of the implementation record of the Contractor and will be submitted to the Project Architect for review. The Contractor shall present the 3D BIM model, as well as 2D working drawings and shop drawings. The obligation to provide a 3D model does not remove / does not diminish the other requirements concerning the content of the construction documents as indicated in this document. The Contractor and other sub–contractors appointed shall provide updates to the 3D BIM model weekly and shall perform overall coordination and 3D collision detection with other packages and with the Project Architect.

STEP 6.2

Licences, authorship rights

6.2.1

All plans, drawings or figures containing copyright information shall display the appropriate authorization for the use of data.

6.2.2

The model shall be returned to the Project Architect at the end of the task.

STEP 6.3 6.3.1

Production of working drawings and shop drawings The Project Architect will not approve shop drawings and other documents submitted by the Contractor of the prototypes package if they are not integrated in the 3D BIM model maintained by the Contractor. To avoid confusion, the Contractor is solely responsible for the accuracy of the model. The Project Architect will approve only 2D shop drawings in conjunction with 3D information.

6.3.2

STEP 6.4 6.4.1

6.4.2

6.4.3

STEP 6.5

6.6.3

The Contractor shall provide the coordinated outputs in 2D and 3D based on the Project Architect’s drawings and those of associated primary structure.

2D computer files for this project are produced with a suitable 2D CAD drawing package. If the Project Architect decides to change the common 2D CAD drawing package platform, the Contractor shall allow two weeks preparation time. The Contractor and Project Architect will conduct the change of software at the same time.

6.6.4

The Contractor shall ensure that all outputs in 2D and 3D, that form the basis of submittals, are generated from the BIM model and all changes resulting from the 3D BIM coordination model are incorporated into the shop drawings 2D and 3D are not automatically generated by the 3D BIM process.

The 3D computer data consists of the 3D model and contract documents, showing the design, location and dimensional position of key point’s 3D descriptive lines and surfaces of the structure. The 3D database for this project will be incorporated into the 3D model.

6.6.5

As most 3D modelling software is not compatible with other earlier versions, this requires that all design team works with the same version.

6.6.6

Database files and 2D drawings are created from information taken from 3D data files, and as such are subject to the geometrically and dimensionally files 3D database that have a role of control of dimensions and of geometric verification.

6.6.7

For these items, the setting out, information for geometry and dimensions contained in the 3D database takes precedence over the information contained in the other contract documents. All 2D information should be linked dynamically to 3D information directly and not form a separate set of information.

6.6.8

Files of digital electronic data that form the basis of two–dimensional and three– dimensional data shall be updated weekly and distributed through a secure file sharing site implemented by the Contractor and approved by the Project Architect.

The BIM model to be completed ahead of fabrication of the prototypes in order to avoid any delays to program for fabrication and installation. Coordination drawings: 2D plans and 3D model

Additional plans are not created from the 3D model shall be designated as such by the Contractor. Level of detail of the 3D model

6.5.1

The Contractor will be responsible for the preparation, coordination, management and update of the 3D BIM model.

6.5.2

The Contractor shall construct a BIM model on the basis of 2D DWG formatted information for primary structure files and facade. This DWG information will be provided in a compatible format. The complexity of primary structure and of the facades shall be taken into account by the Contractor when creating its own 3D model.

6.5.3

STEP 6.6 6.6.1

6.6.2

The Contractor shall create native 3D BIM model elements size greater than 50 mm in any direction. Items smaller than this size shall be imported from 3D software used for manufacturing of facade components, thereby adequately describing the geometry part at small scale.

STEP 6.7 6.7.1

The Contractor shall coordinate files 2D data and plans for 3D data files. In case of conflict between the 3D data files, plans and specifications or other documents, the anomalies identified will be reported to the Project Architect, who will assist in resolving the conflicting requirements.

6.7.2

The Contractor shall also verify the dimensions and construction conditions on the site, and report to the Project Architect, in writing, of the differences between the actual conditions, plans and 3D models to make possible decisions and receive the instructions of the Project Architect prior to overcome these differences.

Digital databases The computer database includes 2D digital computer files that describe graphically or by listing or location of work parties. These files may include plans, sections and details. These files are produced by geometrical extractions / derivatives 3D database and as such will follow the principles of the geometrically 3D database.

Coordination requirements for geometry data

MCCS_29

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype 6.7.3

6.7.4

In case of discrepancies or conflicts between plans, 3D models, specifications or errors on existing plans, 3D models, prescriptions, the situation shall be reported to the Project Architect in writing and it will issue a clarification. The Contractor shall report any discrepancies between the dimensions shown on the drawings on paper and dimensions shown on the drawings in electronic format to the Project Architect for resolution format. The Contractor will be held liable if it fails to coordinate, verify dimensions and report anomalies to the Project Architect for resolution.

STEP 6.8

Use of 3D database

STEP 6.9

Data ownership

6.9.1

STEP 6.10

The 3D model, 3D databases, electronic media, electronic forms and other similar terms are subject to the terms and conditions of use documents provided by the Project Architect.

The Project Architect has developed a 3D model and can distribute data using computer database and dimensional inspection. Its use by the Contractor is limited by the Project Architect as follows:

6.10.1.1

To establish certain elements of work, as described by the 3D BIM model and the geometry of the project according to plan.

6.10.1.2

To make use of the dimensional control elements recognized as needing dimensional inspection and / or having a geometric authority.

6.10.1.3

For use as a basis for the development of the arrangement, coordination and production, plans and databases of these elements represented. The Contractor shall use all the technology available and applicable methods to monitor, locate and identify the elements of on–site construction, check tolerances and quality of surface and geometric continuity, execute plans workshop three–dimensional and two–dimensional with the approval of the Project Architect and the Client.

6.10.1.4

The Contractor shall use all the technology and methods available and applicable to continuously monitor the conditions requiring adjustment on site, check tolerances of surfaces and geometric continuity, execute shop drawings in three dimensions and in two dimensions with the approval of the Project Architect and the Client.

Conditions of use

6.11.1

Using these databases 3D model, the Contractor agrees to the following provisions:

6.11.2

Authorized use of 3D data: The Project Architect grants to the Contractor the non– exclusive right to use the 3D database for the prototypes in accordance with the terms and conditions of this document. The 3D database should be used to establish the geometry of three–dimensional surfaces and elements represented and their relationship with the digital 3D setting information, as (x, y, z) coordinates set out in the tender documents.

6.11.3

The Contractor and their respective sub– contractors, agents or representatives are not entitled to rely on the details or specifications contained in the 3D database for other purposes.

6.11.4

The Contractor acknowledges the limited completeness of data in the 3D database and these data are intended to complement other contract documents, and understands that the model is not transmitted produced for the construction or manufacturing purposes.

6.11.5

Unauthorized use of 3D data: 3D data should not be used by the Contractor, or transferred to another party, for use in other projects, or for any other purpose not provided for Project Architects, without the express written permission of Project Architects. Unauthorized modification or reuse shall be at the sole risk of the Contractor and the Contractor shall accept sub–contractors these conditions for access to 3D databases shall take the Project Architect out of all claims for injuries, damages, losses, costs and legal fees resulting from modification or unauthorized use of such information. The 3D database developed by the Project Architect is provided only to provide a service to the Contractor and is protected by copyright laws and conventions. In providing the 3D database, the Project Architect and the Contractor shall not change the scope of their service to which each was assigned under its contractual arrangements with the Client, and shall not modify the division of responsibilities between the Project Architect, the Contractor and the Client as defined in their respective agreements.

6.11.6

Compatibility and Interoperability: The Project Architect acknowledges that the good compatibility of the 3D database to other programs may be necessary to use some or sub–contractors. Compatibility is the responsibility of the Contractor, unless otherwise agreed.

Using 3D Models

6.10.1

MCCS_30

STEP 6.11

6.11.7

The Architect and the Contractor will review the software compatibility tests before the planned issue of the 3D model to the sub–contractor for use. The Contractor is responsible for ensuring that all Master 3D models are perfectly coordinated with each other and their sub–contractors, use common point settings, they are in the correct units and scales. To clarify, all models shall operate fully as if they were created as native elements in the 3D software.

6.11.8

If problems are encountered with 3D models provided by the Contractor or any of their sub–contractors, the Project Architect or the Client has the right to ask the Contractors to rebuild their models, within a two week period.

STEP 6.12 6.12.1

6.12.2

6.12.3

6.12.4.

Control of geometry The objectives of the design of the outer surface of the prototypes are shown in 3D model provided by the Project Architect. The Architect’s 3D model represents the basis for determining the size, shape and configuration of the surfaces of the prototypes and / or related elements, and for the definition of the geometry for dimensional control of the finished shape surface location, common axis and of setting out points. Changes in the 3D database: configuration, sizes and profiles of the prototype geometry cannot be changed after it has been fully documented in the files and plans developed with the express written permission of the Project Architect. Changes and adjustments details may be made to the design of the Project Architect for the structure, materials, attachment and seals, provided that the general design and intent of performance described in this document are maintained or exceeded, in the judgment of the Project Architect only. Such changes and modifications are to be shown and identified on 3D files developed and described in the proposal and submission to the Project Architect for approval.

STEP 6.13

Maintain the design concept and elements of the assemblies shown as base profiles, joint design, and alignment of the elements and distance from the finished surface meeting at the surface of the primary structure. Do not change without the express written consent of the Project Architect. All these changes require modification by the Contractor related 3D files. Dimensions, sizes and spatial relationships of components or assemblies that are not exposed to the view can be modified by the Contractor, but will always be subject to 3D files linked by the Contractor and submitted to the Project Architect for approval. All 3D electronic files submitted to the Project Architect shall be formats to match the version of the original files of the Project Architect. Requirements for coordination by the Contractor

6.13.1

Before using the information contained in the dimensional control 3D database for the development of working drawings and shop drawings, the Contractor shall:

6.13.2

Review and verify the conditions, dimensions and data from 3D data prior to the development plans of manufacture, control management plans, equipment manufacturing CNC, or other applications that define and / or regulates the manufacture and assembly of a prototype element;

6.13.3

Take all reasonable measures to prevent unauthorized access or loss of the 3D database;

6.13.4

Keep an independent record of all changes to the database of 3D data that can be processed by the Contractor, sub–contractors and their employees and agents;

6.13.5

Ensure that its sub–contractors are solely and exclusively responsible for the accuracy and relevance of all subsequent 3D data models or other electronic media developed by these sub–contractors. The Project Architect is not a party and has no control over the use of media generated by other parties;

6.13.6

Take appropriate measures, through training or otherwise, with its sub–contractors, employees and agents who have access to this 3D database to ensure compliance with these conditions;

MCCS_31

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype 6.13.7

STEP 6.14

Send copies of 3D data models or other electronic media generated by the Contractor or sub–contractor to the Project Architect for review prior to commencement of manufacturing operations. Project Architect may review and comment on these media at its discretion. This information is added to the submission of shop drawings.

In using the 3D database, the Contractor also agrees to the following conditions:

6.14.2

To check the location of critical elements during and after installation, such as points of connection between the various materials and systems. Notify the Project Architect items that range from 3D database. Update the database with location data corrected.

6.14.4

To import and overlay data for points, surfaces and field lines manufactured and installed in the 3D database, and place them in separate files, as agreed with the Project Architect. If translations of software are required, verify the data after the translation process and certify the accuracy in writing to the Project Architect and consultant architect. Transmit copies of data files to the Project Architect to partial completion. Coordinate with documents and statements of the prototypes.

6.14.5

At the request of the Project Architect, make the basis of original 3D data and all other paper documents, materials and other property of the Architect held by the Contractor, sub– contractors, employees and agents in the project.

6.14.6

Data ownership of the Project Architect. Because the information stored in the database of 3D data can be modified by other parties, intentionally or otherwise, without prior notice or indication of the said amendment, the Project Architect reserves the right to remove all indications of ownership and / or participation in the 3D database from each electronic medium that is not in its possession. The Project Architect does not provide, and the Contractor does have receive, rights or recognition in ownership of the 3D database from computer programs, the specifications or information provided or developed by the Project Architect.

MCCS_32

6.15.1

Additional requirements

6.14.1

6.14.3

STEP 6.15

STEP 6.16

Data integrity and deterioration The Contractor recognizes that the design, plans and data stored on electronic media such as CD, DVD may be subject to undetectable alterations or uncontrollable deterioration. The Contractor therefore agrees that the Project Architect will not be responsible for the completeness or accuracy of any materials provided electronically. The database in three dimensions and other contract documents are intended to be complementary to each other, and do not necessarily supersede the information contained in the other contract documents. Paper documents with electronic data files form the basis of the scope of work. Submission of 3D coordination plans

6.16.1

The Contractor shall prepare coordination plans if the limited availability of space requires maximum utilization of space for efficient installation of different components, or if coordination is required for installation of products and materials fabricated by separate entities.

6.16.2

The Contractor shall also indicate the sequences necessary for the installation.

STEP 6.17

Quality of geometry

6.17.1

The 3D database describes the geometric relationships between the different prototypes. It also contains the geometric definitions of these elements which form the geometric continuity of the surface between the individual elements of the prototype panels. The Contractor shall ensure that the geometric definitions surface quality and continuity are implemented as described below:

6.17.2

Surfaces: The 3D database defines the geometric shape of each element of the prototype panels. Some elements are geometrically either flat, singly curved or doubly curved. Each area is defined as a smooth continuous geometry, without bumps, blocks or folds, with the exception of the edge panels. The Contractor shall ensure that the shape of the surface of each panel follows the overall geometric form as defined in the 3D database.

6.17.3

Continuity of the geometric surface: The 3D database describes the geometric continuity between the panels at each joint and edge. The continuity of the surface is described mathematically by the geometry of the model itself. The Contractor shall ensure the production of panels and the assembly on site ensures the geometric continuity between the panels at each point where the tangent or curvature continuity is described in the 3D database between panels.

6.17.4

Quality Control Process: The Contractor shall provide a set of quality control / quality assurance procedures for the 3D design, engineering, manufacturing, and corresponding geometric alignment of the installation on site. This methodological note shall be submitted to the Project Architect for approval.

6.17.5

Checking the implementation of the Master 3D model geometry of the surface: The Contractor shall verify the geometric quality of each panel of the Facade in the shop fabrication and the correct geometric continuity between the panels on the site. The Contractor shall assist the Project Architect in inspecting the geometrical conformity of the work performed to the geometry defined in the 3D database.

STEP 6.18

Tolerances

6.18.1

In addition to the dimensional tolerances specified for manufacture and installation described elsewhere in this document, the Contractor shall comply with the following tolerances:

6.18.2

Geometric continuity: Where the continuity of tangency between the panels is defined in the 3D database, the angle between the planes tangent to a common joint between two panels executed tangent continuous shall not exceed ± 0.1 degrees

6.18.3

Deviation from the geometry of 3D database: The deviation of the geometry of 3D database should not exceed + / –10 mm panel and the geometric positioning of the location (dot) provided.

6.18.4

The alignment of the joints: The angle between two adjacent edges of the panels to any joint shall not exceed ± 0.1 degrees or + / –10mm. The deviation from the geometric database, the alignment direction of the 3D edge shall not exceed ± 0.1 degrees or + / –10mm compared to the given point and anywhere given geometry.

STEP 7.0

Contractor’s responsibilities

STEP 7.1

General procedures

7.1.1

The contractor is responsible for the shop drawings, the manufacture work in factory or on site, the supply of all elements, the supervision of installation, prototypes of the works whilst complying with the visual intent indicated on the Design Drawings and criteria stated in this document.

7.1.2

Where no material, product or supplier is indicated in this document, propose suitable materials and systems prior to Contract award which comply with the visual intent and performance criteria stated and remain fully responsible for the Detailed Design of the prototypes.

7.1.3

Where a particular material, product or supplier is indicated in this document, such material, product or supplier shall be deemed indicative representing the project architect’s design intent only. The Contractor may complete the installation using that product, or such other confirmed as acceptable by the project architect in writing, but shall remain fully responsible for the Detailed Design and performance of the works.

7.1.4

Coordination Register. In the absence of coordination being undertaken between prototype package documentation and the documentation of other packages, due to information not being available, a coordination register is provided in this document. The Contractor is to undertake and complete all the coordination tasks set out in the Coordination Register. Following coordination with the contractors of the other packages, the Prototype Contractor shall be responsible for implementing the works in accordance with the written and graphic parts of this document, together with the documents listed in this document.

STEP 7.2

General responsibilities

7.2.1

The Contractor is to take responsibility for the Contractor Design Works as identified within this document as follows:

7.2.2

Undertake the Detailed Design maintaining the function, visual requirements, and performance of the Design.

7.2.3

Provide detailed proposals, demonstrating compliance with the visual intent and confirm the provision of fully warranted systems in accordance with the Contract conditions.

7.2.4

The Contractor’s proposals shall include drawings, calculations, methods, technical specifications and risk assessment detailing the proposed materials and systems in order that a technical appraisal can be made by Project Architect.

MCCS_33

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype 7.2.5

7.2.6

7.2.7

A Tender based on the Contractor’s own preferred design solution may be offered for acceptance by the Project Architect provided the performance and visual requirements are fully satisfied. Any alternative solutions shall not alter the performance requirements, appearance or design intent of the Design Drawings and this document. An associated risk assessment shall be submitted as part of the proposed design solution documentation. This document and Design Drawings may be modified and amended prior to Contract award to reflect the agreed final scope of the Works, materials and systems selected to reflect the visual intent. The Detailed Design shall reflect the Contract Specification and Drawings. The design and visual character of the prototypes is important and shall be maintained. Hence, there shall be no variation in the final surface finish of similar materials, which shall remain visually consistent, including colour and texture, regardless of orientation or natural grain within agreed tolerances and agreed samples by the Project Architect. The choice of colour and texture are left to the Project Architect and this choice can be modified at any moment after signature of the deal, if modified before production.

7.2.8

Provide submittals outlined within each section of this document.

7.2.9

Provide Working Drawings and technical information to demonstrate compliance with the Design Drawings and Specification. The Contractor’s final Detailed Design shall be based on the Design Drawings which indicate generic solutions and may not cover all conditions. Associated risk assessment shall be submitted as part of the documentation.

7.2.10

Where proprietary products are to be installed, be responsible for providing any modification, additional bracing, reinforcing, suitable fixings, etc. to ensure that the products meet the requirements of this document for the circumstances and situation in which they shall be expected to perform. Be responsible for conveying any concerns that the manufacturers may have expressed regarding the suitability of products for the purpose intended.

7.2.11

No portion of the Works shall commence without acceptance of the required submittals by the project architect.

7.2.12

Comply with health and safety requirements including the production and submission of system risk assessment analysis reports.

MCCS_34

7.2.13

Be responsible for ensuring that items specified are installed correctly such that the performance requirements specified are fully satisfied for the service life required. All fixings and other aspects not fully detailed or specified shall be regarded as the Contractor’s responsibility.

7.2.14

Be responsible for the final selection of products and associated components, which shall be used solely for the purpose intended by the manufacturer; which shall satisfy the requirements of this document.

7.2.15

Be responsible for the carrying out of all testing required by this document.

7.2.16

Coordinate with the work of others including all interfacing as required.

7.2.17

Provide warranties as required by this document.

7.2.18

Provide warranties as required by the project.

7.2.19

Submit relevant documents to statutory authorities as required to comply with the requirements of this document.

7.2.20

Provide details, calculations and any other relevant information to the project architect for submission to and approval by the local authorities. Make any adjustments required by the local authorities, following submissions, to the satisfaction of the project architect.

7.2.21

In addition to submissions for the local authority be responsible for submitting structural, deflection and other calculations and technical information, where required (as requested in this document) for review by the Project Architect. Such submissions shall demonstrate compliance with this document.

7.2.22

Set out the prototypes and accurately coordinate all related Works.

7.2.23

The Contractor shall submit to the acceptance of the design team and the Client, the identity of the approved organization that will approve the contractor’s documentation for construction which will be carried out by the contractor and validate the tests and the mock–up which will be carried out by the contractor.

STEP 7.3 7.3.1

Contractor’s proposal The Contractor’s Proposals for the prototypes will be reviewed during the Evaluation by the Project Architect. Attend evaluation meetings as required and make adjustments and alterations to the Contractor’s Proposals to agree the main design principles to the satisfaction of the Project Architect prior to the possible Contract award. The contractor is to provide the Project Architect with access to the design office and personnel during the Design Evaluation.

7.4.2

Comply with all relevant codes of practice, standards, fire regulations, local building codes, safety regulations and any other regulations applicable to the installation, together with all relevant statutory rules, regulations applicable to both the design and execution of the prototypes.

7.4.3

Prepare a programme for the Detailed Design showing all tasks and submissions and submit for acceptance by the Project Architect.

7.4.4

Produce Working Drawings, supported by calculations for review by the Project Architect.

7.4.5

Submit to the Project Architect 3 copies of all design/ production information, in accordance with the Contract Conditions,

7.3.2

The Contractor’s Proposals as a minimum shall include:

7.3.2.1

Full details of systems, materials and suppliers.

7.3.2.2

Details of any specialist involvement such as provisions for accommodation of the accepted building maintenance system.

7.4.6

The Working Drawings shall finalise all manufacturing, interface and installation details.

7.3.2.3

Details of Working Drawings programme.

7.4.7

7.3.2.4

Mock–ups of systems and samples available in the same way as those indicated in this document materials.

7.3.2.5

Technical statements confirming performance compliance.

Ensure that any necessary amendments are made until the Project Architect confirms that resubmission is not required, submit copies of amended drawings and related documents, and ensure incorporation of necessary amendments.

7.4.8

This document shall not be altered without the Project Architect’s prior written consent.

7.4.9

Select suitable materials, sizes, thicknesses, types and locations of fixings and sealants, all in accordance with specified standards and ensure that they are used for the purpose intended by the manufacturer.

7.4.10

Any necessary support structure shall incorporate all movements and tolerances to which it is subjected.

7.4.11

Submit descriptions of relevant structural performance principles of the prototypes, including how and where loads are transmitted to the primary structure and the accommodation of tolerances.

7.4.12

Show details of all fixing requirements to interfacing elements of the Works, which shall be agreed with the Project Architect prior to commencement of the installation.

7.4.13

Coordinate all interfaces.

7.3.2.6

Independent test certification.

7.3.2.7

Details of guarantees and warranties including details of predicted service lives for primary and secondary components.

7.3.2.8

Summary of deviations from the Design Drawings and Specification.

7.3.2.9

Commissioning information as relevant.

7.3.2.10

Health and Safety design risk assessment.

7.3.3

The Contractor shall establish an ongoing relationship with the Project Architect of the period of production of the Contractor’s working drawings.

STEP 7.4 7.4.1

Contractor’s working drawings Although the Design Drawings show considerable detail and dimensions, no warranty or representation is given by the Project Architect as to the accuracy of such dimensions or the adequacy or buildability of such details. Should the Contractor adopt the details or arrangements indicated on the Design Drawings, it shall be deemed that he has checked their buildability and performance in terms of this document, all relevant regulations and codes of practice, and manufacturers’ recommendations for any products referred to.

STEP 7.5 7.5.1

Systems and materials The components of the entire assembly shall be covered by a single source warranty. Therefore, approval shall be obtained from the manufacturer for all materials to be used.

MCCS_35

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype 7.5.2

7.5.3

7.5.4

7.5.5

The works shall be designed and installed as complete integrated systems, including all necessary support structure, bracketry, fixing rails and plates, angles, cleats, grouting, fixings and fastenings, rivets, clips, vapour control barriers, insulation, damp–proof membranes, breather and other membranes, intumescent firestops and cavity barriers, acoustic breaks, pressed metal components, closures, seals and sealants, gaskets, fillers, tapes, spacers, packers, shims, isolators and all other accessories and components necessary to complete the installation. Where this document identifies preferred systems and materials, these shall be confirmed as being suitable for their specified and intended purpose with the Tender return. If no such specific confirmation is received, then the submission of the Tender return itself shall constitute such a confirmation. If the preferred systems and materials are considered unsuitable, advise at the time of Tender. Acceptance of alternative proposals by the Project Architect shall not relieve the Contractor from responsibility to provide suitable systems, materials, components and assemblies, which shall be used as intended by the manufacturer and in compliance with the Contract Documents. If, with the Tender return, the Contractor submits no such alternative proposal to any of the preferences indicated in the Tender Documents, then those proposed in this document and on the Design Drawings shall be deemed to be acceptable and be warranted by the Contractor.

7.5.6

The works shall accommodate all architectural and functional features indicated on the Design Drawings, whilst maintaining the specified performance.

7.5.7

Dimensions indicated on the Design Drawings are nominal and indicative of the design intent. The Contractor shall maintain these dimensions and clearly state them on the Working Drawings. Any deviations to the indicated dimensions shall be stated with the Tender return.

7.5.8

Rain–screen systems shall perform through back draining and ventilation with pressure equalisation principles.

7.5.9

An air gap shall be provided to the rear of the cladding panels to form a cavity to suit rain– screen principles.

MCCS_36

7.5.10

Finishes:

7.5.10.1

All metal components shall be corrosion protected.

7.5.10.2

Visible aluminium components shall be either powder coated or anodised as indicated on the Design Drawings or as described.

7.5.10.3

Colour(s) shall be to the acceptance of the Project Architect. The choice of colour and texture is left to the Project Architect and this choice can be modified at any time before the beginning of fabrication.

7.5.11

Additional integrated components that may be required, such as lightning protection, shall be concealed.

STEP 7.6

Detailed design, fabrication and installation tolerances

7.6.1

This document together with the corresponding Design Drawings indicate the dimensional tolerances (referred to as tolerances to which the Contractor shall work for the Detailed Design, manufacture, sub– assembly, setting out and installation of the Works.

7.6.2

The Working Drawings shall clearly demonstrate how manufacturing and construction tolerances are to be accommodated.

7.6.3

Take account of various specified tolerances and their effect on the Works. Inform the Project Architect of any apparent tolerance omissions, inconsistencies or incompatibilities.

7.6.4

Maintain the tolerances as defined and demonstrate, upon request by the Project Architect, the means by which specified tolerances shall be assured and, where appropriate, which specialist equipment and/ or methods shall be used.

7.6.5

All dimensions shall be checked at the agreed location for installation, confirming all dimensions critical to the prototypes. Measurements shall be taken, agreed location for installation, in sufficient time to enable corrective action to be taken to the prototypes, to ensure an accurate fit within agreed or implied tolerances.

7.6.6

Refer to and take account of the Structural Engineer’s Movements and Tolerances information.

7.6.7

Confirm common reference points and agree with the Project Architect. Carry out dimensional checks prior to the commencement of manufacture as necessary.

7.6.8

Ensure that any dimensions are compatible and consistent with other relevant design dimensions and accumulated tolerances and movements. State and/ or show, on the Working Drawings, the provisions made which are intended to accommodate the accumulated tolerances of adjoining or adjacent trades.

7.6.9

Inform the Project Architect of any work that does not meet the specified tolerances.

7.6.10

The Works shall be free from deformation outside of specified tolerances and shall not be subject to warping, twisting and/ or perishing but remain stable, firm, free from vibrations, knocking, rattles and/ or whistles, squeaks or other such noises, taking into account known or specified conditions.

7.6.11

7.6.12

7.6.13

STEP 7.7 7.7.1

Details shall be provided for acceptance by the Project Architect of the Contractor’s proposed methods for achieving and constantly monitoring the fabrication and erection tolerances during all stages of the prototypes. Detailed records of the constant control and tolerance achieved shall be submitted to the Project Architect. In the event of there being any discrepancy in the values of existing datum reference points, datum levels, buildings, foundations or other features to which the Works are related, determine and report such a discrepancy to the Project Architect and obtain written instructions before proceeding.

7.7.2

A request for a substitution shall be deemed to be a warranty by the Contractor to the client that such substitutions meet the requirements of this document and as such must be confirmed in writing as equal by the Contractor and accepted in writing by the Project Architect. Admissibility of any request for substitution after Tender shall be at the sole discretion of the Project Architect and may be rejected without reason given.

7.7.3

In the case that any substitution alters the specified requirements, submit sufficient information on substituted materials to allow evaluation by the Project Architect on any deviations from this document.

STEP 7.8 7.8.1

Complete the Detailed Design of all interfaces with adjoining trades prior to commencement of manufacture.

7.8.2

Ensure that all interfaces are fully co– ordinated prior to commencement.

STEP 8.0

Submittals

STEP 8.1

Submittals generally

8.1.1

No portion of the Works shall commence without acceptance of the required submittals by the Project Architect. All submittal replies at Tender should be verified by the Project Architect.

8.1.2

A schedule of submittals shall be provided for agreement with the Project Architect. Schedule to indicate the dates on which the Project Architect shall receive the required submittals. The schedule shall be correlated with the master programme and allow a reasonable amount of time for the review of each submittal. Critical decision dates shall be indicated for selection of finishes and colours. The schedule of submittals shall be revised and resubmitted as necessary.

8.1.3

Provide submittals in accordance with the following:

8.1.3.1

Addressing of Submittals: Submittals shall be delivered to the premises of the Project Architect.

The permissible tolerances stated in this document shall be progressively checked up to handover. Where two or more different tolerances can be derived by calculation and/ or from the Design Drawings for the same dimension, the least tolerance shall apply which shall be confirmed by the Contractor to the Project Architect. Tolerances shall not be cumulative. Substitution during tender Should the Contractor, after consideration of all the criteria which in his specialist knowledge are relevant to the design and construction of the Works, wish to make proposals for changes in any details, dimensions or materials shown in the Design Drawings or referred to in this document, then such proposals shall be provided as separate alternative options and returned with the Tender. In no way shall any proposal fail to meet the minimum performance requirements herein specified.

Interfaces

MCCS_37

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype 8.1.3.2

8.1.3.3

8.1.3.4

Identification of Submittals: Each submittal shall be individually identified with the project name, respective specification reference, supplier’s/ manufacturer’s name and product reference as appropriate. Each submittal shall be accompanied by a transmittal form containing similar information; together with the purpose for which the submittal is being made. Space shall be provided on each item submitted for stamping by the Project Architect.

Tender return

8.2.1

Provide Tender submittals in accordance with the requirements of this document.

8.2.2

Submit a design response with the Tender proposal, to include all profiles of typical conditions, with dimensions.

8.2.3

The Tender design response shall include:

8.2.3.1

Samples where specified.

Numbering of Submittals: Submittals shall be numbered consecutively and that numbering system shall be retained throughout all revisions and re–submittals.

8.2.3.2

QA/ QC programme.

8.2.3.3

List of proposed Working Drawings.

8.2.3.4

Summary of deviations from this document.

Completeness of Submittals: All relevant information shall be included within each submittal to define completely and explain each separate system of work. Submittals may be combined from various sections as necessary and furnished at one time as a single submission.

8.2.3.5

Outline technical specifications reflecting proposed materials/ systems.

8.2.3.6

A list of proposed suppliers and sub– Contractors intended to be used.

8.1.3.5

Variations and Substitutions: Submittals that differ from the requirements of the Design Drawings and this document shall be so identified.

8.1.4

Submission and Return of Working Drawings/ Documents:

8.1.4.1

Allow for a sufficient period (a minimum of 5 working days) between the first submission of a drawing/ document and receipt of comments. Allow for resubmissions for each item to achieve an ‘A’ or ‘B’ status.

8.1.4.2

Provide a list of Working Drawings proposed.

8.1.4.3

Information specifically requested for each element of the Works shall be provided. Additional information may be required by the Project Architect on inspection of the Contractor’s submittals to allow for accurate comments to be made.

8.1.4.4

Initial reviews of submittals from the Contractor shall made using the following proformas:

8.1.5

The Contractor’s submittals shall be reviewed by the Project Architect during the Evaluation, and any alteration and/ or agreements reached shall be incorporated into the Contract documentation.

8.1.6

Provide submittals at the time of Tender as listed in this document.

8.1.7

After Contract award provide Working Drawings, samples, quality benchmarks, calculations and test reports as requested in this document and other relevant data.

MCCS_38

STEP 8.2

STEP 8.3

Review of submittals

8.3.1

The Project Architect shall review submittals for general and practical conformance with the requirements of the Design. Submittals which meet these requirements shall be stamped or marked in accordance with the procedure described herein. Submittals which are incomplete or erroneous, or which are not required, will be returned and a new submittal made as necessary. The Project Architect’s review shall not be exhaustive and shall not relieve the Contractor of the responsibility for any omission or deficiencies or from the responsibility to coordinate the work with that of others (which includes the taking of relevant site dimensions as necessary).

8.3.2

Submittals which provide supplementary information to substantiate the technical performance of building systems, components and materials including, but not necessarily limited to, supplementary product literature, certifications, statements of manufacturer’s review and pre-assembled testing and inspection reports, will be stamped ‘Record Document’ by the Contractor before submission.

8.3.3

Re–submittals shall be made under the procedure for initial submittals; identifying changes made since previous submittals.

STEP 8.4 8.4.1

Working drawings Following Contract award, the required number of Working Drawings, and where specifically requested in writing, relevant structural, thermal and acoustic calculations and other data, shall be submitted to the Project Architect for review in accordance with the Conditions of Contract.

8.4.2

The Project Architect will review the Working Drawings for compliance with this document and the Design Drawings in visual and overall functional matters only. The Detailed Design and construction of components shall remain the responsibility of the Contractor.

8.4.3

The Project Architect’s review of the Working Drawings shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for errors, or for supplying components and materials to the full satisfaction of the Project Architect.

8.4.4

The Working Drawings shall be fully dimensioned in metric, to an agreed scale appropriate to the detail, and include:

8.4.4.1

Full size details and graphic representation describing materials, components and equipment, construction, finishes, provision for movements, fabrication and installation tolerances.

8.4.4.2

Layouts, locations and assemblies of all types of construction detail and junctions, details of materials, method of jointing, details of all connections and fixing and sealing methods, finishes and all pertinent information related to: • Method of fabrication and construction. • Proper relation to adjoining work. • Finishes. • Amplification of details. • Minor changes to the Design to suit actual conditions.

8.4.5

Submit Working Drawings in accordance with the Conditions of Contract and do not commence fabrication of components until formally returned by the Project Architect with either ‘A’ or ‘B’ stamped on each of the Working Drawings. Ensure that space is left clear on each of the Working Drawings for stamping by the Project Architect.

8.4.5.1

Drawing stamped ‘A’: Fabrication, manufacture or construction may proceed in accordance with the drawing submitted.

8.4.5.2

Drawing stamped ‘B’: Fabrication, manufacture or construction may proceed in accordance with the drawings submitted subject to the Contractor taking necessary action based on the Project Architect’s comments and all annotations added to the returned drawings. Unless indicated to the contrary on such drawings, the work shall comply with the Contract Documents. To achieve ‘A’ status, the required number of copies of amended drawings shall be sent to the Project Architect.

8.4.5.3

Drawings stamped ‘C’ – No work shall be fabricated, manufactured or installed. Submit new drawings to the project architect for review until re–submission is not required.

8.4.6

The Project Architect’s final comment on the Working Drawings (‘A’) shall be conditional upon receipt of all documentation, certification, acceptances in respect of anchorages, fire stop assemblies, samples and test reports, etc. as defined in this document.

8.4.7

The receipt of Working Drawings by the Contractor from the Project Architect marked A or B shall not constitute agreement of a variation.

8.4.8

When preparing the Working Drawings consult the current Architectural, Structural and Services Design Drawings, adjusting the Working Drawings to allow for any changes to site tolerances and/ or discrepancies where applicable.

8.4.8.1

If, before commencing or during the preparation of the Working Drawings the design intent of the Design Drawings and/ or Specification may be affected, or where other elements of the Works may be affected, notify the Project Architect immediately.

8.4.9

Where applicable, the Working Drawings may utilise the manufacturer’s standard details provided that they comply with the design intent.

8.4.10

The Project Architect shall have the right at all reasonable times to visit the Contractor’s (or his specialist sub–Contractors) design office to check on progress.

8.4.11

The Working Drawings shall be annotated in English and titled in the manner determined for the Contract, with the title block fully indicating the part of the Works to which they apply.

8.4.12

Information contained in any of the Design Drawings shall be treated as confidential and shall not be utilised for any purpose other than for the Works. Such information shall not be communicated to third parties for other purposes without the specific acceptance of the Project Architect.

8.4.13

Maintain on site a full set of Design Drawings, Working Drawings and technical specifications.

8.4.14

Upon completion of the design, manufacture and installation phases, provide the Project Architect the appropriate number of As–built Drawings, in accordance with the Conditions of Contract.

MCCS_39

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype 8.4.15

No Working Drawings shall be accepted if produced to a reduced size.

8.4.16

The Working Drawings shall be coordinated with interfacing trades.

STEP 8.5 8.5.1

Other Submittals to be provided by the Contractor after Contract Award Product Data: All relevant technical data that documents the primary performance of each system, system component and/ or material in the Works. Primarily, product data shall consist of a material schedule, together with manufacturer’s literature, which is necessary to identify clearly the primary function, quality and performance of each product. The schedule shall include the specific location(s) of use and any related Working Drawings. Product data shall be custom prepared for the project and made specific for the Works. Certifications: Provide independently certified reports verifying compliance of each element or component with the requirements of the Design Drawings and Specification. These reports shall include the chemical and physical properties of various building materials.

8.5.3

QA/ QC Programme: Provide a programme to satisfy the requirements of this document, the Contract conditions or any other documents referred to in the Contract Documentation.

8.5.4

Pre–construction Testing Reports:

8.5.4.1

Provide technical reports recording test results systems, components and materials as required by the Design Drawings, this document, the Project Architect or a testing laboratory, prior to commencement of installation.

8.5.4.2

These reports shall state compliance with the technical requirements of this document and include, where appropriate, test certificates.

8.5.6

MCCS_40

Technical Calculations: These shall consist of technical engineering calculations which document technical performance of various systems, system components and/ or materials, as required by the Design Drawings and Specifications.

8.5.8

Guarantees and warranties: Provide copies of all relevant example guarantees and warranties available for installed materials and products.

8.5.8.1

Prepare and submit health and safety design risk assessments for review.

8.5.8.2

All submittals provided shall be written in the English language.

fully

8.5.2

8.5.5

8.5.7

Maintenance/ Operation Manuals: Manuals prepared by the Contractor for Client / building user’s maintenance and operation of the various prototypes and/ or components thereof. Supplementary Product Literature: Such literature may include manufacturer’s catalogue information, product specifications, standard illustrations, diagrams and standard details. The supplementary product literature shall describe physical characteristics such as size, weight, finish, material analysis, electrical requirements and other information such as load tables, test results, assessments and industry quality standards.

STEP 8.6

As–built Drawings and manuals to be provided by the Contractor at project completion

8.6.1

Upon completion of the Works and when deemed necessary by the Project Architect, provide As–built Drawings in a computer format, agreed with the Project Architect, showing the Works as finally fabricated and erected in accordance with the ‘A’ status Working Drawings.

8.6.2

The As–built Drawings referred to above shall include any site variances or installation adjustments or variations and any actual site or setting out dimensional modifications as installed.

8.6.3

As–built Drawings shall be produced to a relevant and agreed scale and shall be used to complement the example Maintenance Manual for the specific purpose of locating the elements within the overall structure.

STEP 8.7

Project specific requirements: Information to be provided with tender Submit the following information:

8.7.1

Typical plan, section and elevation drawings at suitable scales.

8.7.2

Typical detailed drawings at large scales for all elements of the system.

8.7.3

Technical information and example certification demonstrating compliance with specification of proposed incorporated products and finishes.

8.7.4

Example certification, reports and calculations demonstrating compliance with Specification of proposed composite rain–screen.

8.7.5

Proposals for connections to and support from the building structure and building components.

8.7.6

Proposals for amendments to primary supporting structure and for secondary supporting structure additional to that indicated on preliminary Design Drawings.

8.7.7

Schedule of builder’s work, special provisions and special attendance by others.

8.7.8

Examples of standard documentation from which a future project quality plan will be prepared.

8.7.9

Preliminary fabrication and installation method statements and programme.

8.7.10

Schedule of products and finishes with a design life expectancy less than that specified, with proposals for frequencies and methods of replacement.

8.7.11

Proposals for replacing damaged or failed products.

8.7.12

Areas of non–compliance with this document.

8.7.13

Reference to work of a similar nature carried out by the tenderer on other contracts, particularly those carried out in the region, with relevant dates, and project addresses sufficient to enable inspections to be made.

8.7.14

The typical detailed drawings at large scales, referred to in sub clause above, shall include, as a minimum, the Contractor’s proposals for the junctions indicated on the following drawings:

8.7.14.1

Project Architect’s drawings as listed on the drawing register.

8.7.14.2

The technical information and certification, referred to in sub clause c) above, shall include, as a minimum, details of the time/ temperature regime for the heat soaking of toughened glass, with information on the method for the control and monitoring of the regime.

STEP 8.8

Samples, Mock–ups, prototypes and quality benchmarks

8.8.1

Information to be Provided Before Testing or Fabrication Submit the following information:

8.8.1.1

Detailed drawings to fully describe fabrication and installation.

8.8.1.2

Detailed calculations to prove compliance with design/ performance requirements.

8.8.1.3

Project specific fabrication, handling and installation method statements.

8.8.1.4

Certification for incorporated components manufactured by others confirming their suitability for proposed locations.

8.8.1.5

Recommendations for spare parts for future repairs or replacements.

8.8.1.6

Recommendations for safe dismantling and recycling or disposal of products.

8.8.2

Contractor’s Working Drawings To be submitted, as per Drawing Register provided by Project Architect.

8.8.2.1

Setting–out and control points.

8.8.2.2

Toleranced dimensions indicating both the location of components and the width of all joints.

8.8.2.3

Identification of components.

8.8.2.4

Details of isolation, packing and shimming.

8.8.2.5

The locations of all sealants, with details of position, type, and size of backing rods, bond– release tapes, and the like.

8.8.2.6

Embedment, spacing and edge distances for fixings.

8.8.2.7

The type, size, and spacing of all welds.

8.8.3

Detailed Calculations To include, as a minimum:

8.8.3.1

Structural Calculations: For all sections, connections, anchorages, support assemblies.

8.8.3.2

Thermal Calculations: To support the claimed insulation values of all vision panels, spandrel panels, frame sections, and other insulated components.

8.8.3.3

Condensation Prediction Calculations: To identify the probability of internal, external, or interstitial condensation forming and, where the calculations indicate that condensation is likely to occur, the quantitative rate of formation together with an explanation as to how the proposed design eliminates any damage or inconvenience caused by the condensation so formed.

8.8.3.4

Acoustic Calculations: To support the claimed acoustic values of vision panels, spandrel panels, frame sections, and other components.

8.8.4

Project–Specific Method Statements

8.8.4.1

To include, as a minimum:

8.8.4.2

Manufacturer’s recommendations for the use of proprietary fixings.

MCCS_41

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype 8.8.4.3

Information on all bolts and fixings requiring specific torques together with details of the required torque levels.

8.8.4.4

Information on the location and use of locking nuts and washers, engagement of serrations.

8.8.4.5

Information for glazing procedures, including the position of setting blocks, orientation of glass, and any specific requirements of the glazing supplier.

8.8.4.6

Information on the cleaning and, if required, priming procedures for all sealants.

8.8.4.7

Details of points which are susceptible to damage, or which should not be loaded during installation.

STEP 8.9

8.9.2

MCCS_42

Calculations are to be submitted by the Contractor as follows: All the calculations submitted by the Contractor for individual systems shall comply with, but are not limited to, the checklists below. All the calculations submitted shall follow the template outlined below and be presented in the same way, using the headings below. If one item is not applicable to a certain calculation, specify that it is not applicable under the heading.

8.9.4

Checklist for Structural Calculations to be submitted by the Contractor:

8.9.4.1

Structural system description: The Contractor is to provide a brief text description of the system and its structural behaviour explaining clearly the structural concept and the support conditions.

8.9.4.2

Materials: The Contractor is to provide list of materials used and mechanical properties.

8.9.4.3

Summary of results: The Contractor is to provide the summary of the calculation results in tabulated format, comparing the values found to the design criteria set and establishing whether the system is suitable or not.

8.9.4.4

Structural system and support conditions: The Contractor is to provide diagram illustrating the static structural scheme used, only including the necessary information (please omit from the diagram all the details of the system that are not relevant to the specific calculation)

8.9.4.5

Design criteria: The Contractor is to provide design criteria used to evaluate the system (e.g. maximum allowed stress and maximum allowed deflection values) and how these have been established, providing references to standards used.

Scope of checking of Contractor’s submittals by the Project Architect This article applies to any submission made by the contractor at any point either during tender or following contract signature.

8.9.1

8.9.3

The scope of contractor’s submittals for prototypes that will be checked by the Project Architect (in addition to samples) is as follows: • Working drawing submittals: General arrangement sections, elevations • Working drawing submittals: General arrangement plans • Working drawing submittals: System drawings and calculations • Drawings of prototypes and typical junction/interface details • Checking compliance with coordination drawings • Submittals: Test mock–ups Upon receipt of the submittals as listed above, the following items will be checked by the Project Architect for compliance with the tender documents as follows: • Compliance with the scope of the project set out in the tender documents. • Compliance with the methodology set out in this specification for both design of the components/assemblies and for accompanying structural/environmental calculations that support the design. The calculation methodology adopted for each system would be checked in terms of: standards applied, inputs considered, compliance of design criteria with specification, transparency in the procedure adopted for calculations, compliance of the procedure to standards considered, compliance of results obtained with design criteria assumed.

8.9.4.6

Load cases: The Contractor is to provide the design values for all the load cases utilised in the calculation and specify how these have been obtained (reference sources, such as standards, wind tunnel test report, etc.). The Contractor is to show graphically how these have been applied to the system and provide a load path diagram for each load case. In the load path diagram (to be provided for each load case applied) the Contractor is to show the main forces acting on each component involved in transferring the loads to the supports shall be clearly shown and labelled. The following load cases are generally expected: dead loads, live loads, wind loads, snow loads, thermal loads, seismic loads. The Contractor is to specify the design value for all these loads for each system analysed, providing appropriate sources.

8.9.4.7

Load combinations: The Contractor is to specify all the load combinations used for both Serviceability Limit States and Ultimate Limit States (according to Eurocode 1). The Contractor is to specify the load safety factors and combination factors used for each load case considered.

8.9.4.8

Analysis: The Contractor is to provide calculations including all the steps required and writing down the expressions using letters (algebraic formula) before converting those into the corresponding numbers.

8.9.4.9

If a FEA Software package is used for structural calculations, the Contractor is to provide the following in addition to the items above: • brief introductory text describing the methodology used • name of software utilised and version • graphical output from the software showing the how the system has been set up and how the meshing has been defined • graphical output from software illustrating clearly how each load case has been applied to the component analysed •graphical output from the software showing outputs for deflections and stresses for each load case considered and for all the load combinations. For frames and metal structures, please also provide graphical outputs for bending moment, shear force and axial force diagrams for each load case applied and for all the load combinations. The results shall include clear legends with readable values (High–resolution images).

8.9.5

Checklist for Environmental Calculations:

8.9.5.1

System description: The Contractor is to provide a brief text description of the system and its environmental / thermodynamic behaviour explaining clearly how the concept proposed meets the performance required.

8.9.5.2

Materials: The Contractor is to provide list of materials used and appropriate thermal properties.

8.9.5.3

Summary of results: The Contractor is to provide the summary of the calculation results in tabulated format, comparing the values found to the design criteria set and establishing whether the system is suitable or not.

8.9.5.4

Thermodynamic system and boundary conditions: The Contractor is to provide diagram illustrating the system analysed and the boundary conditions set for the system, providing appropriate substantiation and only including only the relevant details affecting the thermal performance of the system (please omit from the diagram all the details of the system that are not relevant to the specific calculation).

8.9.5.5

Design criteria: The Contractor is to provide design criteria used to evaluate the system and how these have been established, providing references to standards used.

8.9.5.6

Scenarios analysed: The Contractor is to provide the design values for all the scenarios analysed in the calculation and specify how these have been obtained (reference sources, such as standards, MEP Engineer report, etc.). Any design scenario must be substantiated, illustrating how this has been obtained. The Contractor is to provide clear diagrams showing the inputs and boundary conditions considered for each calculation scenario.

8.9.5.7

Analysis: The Contractor is to provide calculations including all the steps required and writing down the expressions using letters (algebraic formula) before converting those into the corresponding numbers. The Contractor is to refer to appropriate chapters in the standards used for the calculation methodologies (Eurocodes or US standards).

MCCS_43

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype 8.9.5.8

8.9.6

8.9.7

8.9.8

If a FEA Software package is used for environmental calculations, the Contractor is to provide the following in addition to the items above: • Brief introductory text describing the methodology used • name of software utilised and version • Graphical output from the software showing how the system has been set up and how the meshing has been defined. • Graphical output from software illustrating clearly how each calculation scenario has been considered • Graphical output from the software showing outputs for relevant thermodynamic quantities (e.g. temperature distributions, relative humidity values, heat flows, etc.). The results shall include clear legends with readable values (high–resolution images). The Contractor is to not include results in tabulated form as these are generally not clear, extremely lengthy and awkward to check. All graphical outputs are to be provided to a high level of resolution. Any anomaly or modelling assumptions in the FE model shall be clearly stated in the introduction or annotated on the output diagrams.

8.9.9

STEP 8.10

Verification of submittals in relation to tender documentation.

8.10.1

No portion of the prototypes shall commence without verification of the required submittals by the Project Architect

STEP 9.0

Samples In this section two types of samples are required: • Samples provided during tender. • Samples provided after award of tender.

The correctness of the numerical results of the calculations for components/assemblies will not be checked by the Project Architect. It is the responsibility of the Contractor to ensure that components and assemblies are sized adequately to meet the performance requirements of this specification.

STEP 9.1 9.1.1

Samples shall include various products, fabricated items, equipment, devices, appliances or components thereof, as may be required to satisfy the visual appearance and technical requirements of the Design.

The Contractor is to ensure that the sizing of all components and assemblies take into account all issues of workmanship associated with the specific techniques and methods used by the Contractor in the fabrication and installation of the prototypes. Appropriate factors of safety should be applied to calculations to ensure that the Contractor’s own expectations of methods and techniques, including but not limited to workmanship, fabrication and installation are met in the prototypes.

9.1.2

Samples shall be reviewed for their visual characteristics only and where moving or operating elements are involved, the Project Architect shall be given the opportunity to review working samples.

9.1.3

Ranges of samples shall be provided where a considerable range of colour, graining, texture, smoothness and other characteristics may be anticipated in the Works.

9.1.4

Where custom colours are specified, samples shall be submitted illustrating precise colours, textures, patterns and finishes for review by the Project Architect and the Client. The choice of colour and texture is left to the project architect and the client this choice can be modified at any moment after signature of the deal, if modified before production.

STEP 9.2 9.2.1

MCCS_44

Should a full set of checks for calculations for the detailed design of the works, as undertaken by the Contractor, be required by the Client, in order to ensure not only general compliance with scope and methodology set in the specification but also the correctness of the results, then a third party checking engineer will be appointed by the Client to undertake this task. The checking task may be undertaken for a single system, or several systems, as required by the Client. Checks for this task would be undertaken on a line by line basis of all calculations required for the structural design of the complete scope of each system.

Samples generally

Samples before award to tender Samples provided with the Tender or during the Evaluation prior to Contract award.

9.2.2

9.2.3

9.2.4 STEP 9.3 9.3.1

9.3.2

9.3.3 STEP 9.4

Samples shall be as described on the Design Drawings and Specification which are required to verify the visual appearance of such items for compliance with the requirements of the Design Drawings and Specification.

9.4.4.5

All proposed gasket types, extrusions, caps, trims and flashings.

9.4.4.6

Integrated required.

Pre–contract samples shall be labelled and kept by the Project Architect as a record of materials agreed for Contract until completion/ handover.

9.4.4.7

All visible fixings (where visible fixings form part of the design intent).

9.4.4.8

Proposed ironmongery and hardware.

9.4.4.9

Operating mechanisms, switches controls, including mounting.

9.4.5

Balustrade samples:

9.4.5.1

1000mm length of each type of balustrade and handrail.

9.4.5.2

All visible fixings.

Samples shall include relevant trade literature and technical specifications. Samples after award to tender Samples provided during the Detailed Design shall be checked against the Pre–contract samples, where applicable, and this document to ensure that quality and type have been maintained. At the appropriate time provide the Project Architect with samples listed in particular Specification sections, which shall be kept as a record of materials to be incorporated in the Works and used as references for controlling consistency throughout the Works.

where

and

Samples after tender award In accordance with Section 5.3, post contract award samples of the following shall be provided: Rain–screen samples:

9.5.1.1

Samples of size 300mm x 200mm sample(s) of accepted rain–screen tiles/ panels in specified finish and texture, as applicable, and indicated joint relationship with adjacent tiles/ panels.

Pre–contract Samples

9.5.1.2

Samples of rain–screen support system.

In accordance with Section 5.2, pre–contract samples of the following samples shall be provided:

9.5.1.3

All visible fixings (where visible fixings form part of the design intent).

9.5.2

Glazing samples:

9.5.2.1

300mm length of each type of framing, with accepted finishes and colours, including the interface method of attachment) with the glazing and solid infill panel and joints. The choice of colour and texture is left to the project architect and the client, this choice can be modified at any moment after signature of the deal, if modified before production.

9.5.2.2

All accepted gasket types, extrusions, caps, trims and flashings, including at least one joint and one corner joint and including accepted finishes and colours where applicable.

9.5.2.3

Integrated blinds and mechanisms, where required.

9.5.2.4

Accepted ironmongery and hardware.

9.5.2.5

Glass samples 300mm x 300mm of all proposed glass types.

All visible fixings (where visible fixings form part of the design intent).

9.5.2.6

Samples of fastening devices and anchors.

All fixings.

9.5.2.7

Operating mechanisms, switches controls, including mounting.

Post contract samples shall materials in their final form.

comprise

Project specific requirements:

9.4.1

The samples to be of size 300mm x 200mm; the rain–screen panels to have finishes and textures as specified and also at least one visible joint with the adjacent panel.

9.4.2

The samples shall incorporate the support system of the rain–screen.

9.4.3

All visible fixings (fixings are visible when they should be part of the design and be approved by the Project Architect).

9.4.4

Glazing samples:

9.4.4.1

Examples of proposed types of finish and colours.

9.4.4.2

300mm length of each type of proposed framing.

9.4.4.4

mechanisms,

9.5.1

Rain–screen samples:

9.4.4.3

STEP 9.5

opening

and

MCCS_45

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype 9.5.2.8

Certification for incorporated components manufactured by others confirming their suitability for proposed locations in the facade system.

9.5.3

Balustrade samples:

9.5.3.1

Sample of 1000mm length of each type of balustrade and handrail.

9.5.3.2

All visible fixings.

STEP 10.0

Prototypes General In this section there are two types of prototypes required: Visual mock–ups provided prior to tender award. Performance prototypes provided after tender award.

STEP 10.1 10.1.1

10.1.2

10.1.3

10.1.4

STEP 10.2 10.2.1

MCCS_46

10.2.2

Where necessary, the prototypes shall be tested fully to ensure that the systems meet the performance requirements of this document by application of the maximum applied loads, climatic conditions and structural movements, and/ or be used as a Quality Assurance/ Quality Control standard. Manufacture of materials/ products for inclusion in the Works shall not commence until the Project Architect’s written acceptance of the prototypes has been received.

10.2.3

Working Drawings for the prototypes shall be submitted in accordance with the requirements of this document.

10.2.4

Any modifications required to the prototypes shall be recorded to show their final construction.

10.2.5

Programme tests to enable any necessary adjustments without delay to the Works programme.

Visual prototypes During the phase of submission of tender, as described in this document, the Contractor will provide a 1: 1 samples, for evaluation by the Project Architect. The samples are to be provided to an agreed location. The samples are required to use the materials and fixing system proposed by the contractor. All materials and components must meet the requirements of this document. The prototype must be completed at the agreed location. After contract award, as described in this document, the Contractor will provide material samples and connection samples for approval / validation by the Project Architect. Some prototypes will be produced either on–site or off–site, not necessarily using the prescribed material in this document, but representing the design intent. Other prototypes will be produced to confirm the general visual intent including colour, size and texture. The choice of colour and texture is left to the Project Architect. This choice can be modified at any moment before the start of fabrication.

STEP 10.3

Prototype requirements after tender award: Provide prototypes as follows: 10.3.1

ES.01

10.3.2

ES.02

10.3.3

Etcetera

STEP 10.4

Prototype requirements for testing after tender award Prototypes shall be provided which combine the following types into a single mock–up where possible:

10.4.1

ES.01

10.4.2

ES.02

10.4.3

Etcetera

STEP 10.5

Quality benchmark requirements Provide quality benchmark samples, in location(s) to be agreed with the Project Architect, as follows:

Performance prototypes Prior to manufacture of elements of the prototypes, construct off site, full scale three– dimensional sections where described in the particular Specification sections and/or indicated on the Design Drawings utilising final specified materials but not necessarily final production techniques. The Contractor will provide 1: 1 scale prototypes, for approval/ validation by the Project Architect.

Project–specific requirements:

10.5.1

First panel installed on the prototypes.

10.5.2

For balustrades, the first panel installed of each prototype.

STEP 11.0

Testing

STEP 11.1

Testing generally

11.1.1

Provide independently certified tests that demonstrate that the proposed systems meet the performance requirements of this document.

11.1.2

Independently certified test data for off– site testing shall include static and dynamic results.

11.2.9

Details of the testing procedures shall be provided to the Project Architect for review and comment.

11.1.3

Where data from previous independently certified tests demonstrate that the proposed systems meet the performance requirements of this document, off–site independent testing need not be undertaken.

11.2.10

If the testing data submitted is not deemed to be satisfactory by the Project Architect, project specific laboratory tests shall be carried out to satisfy the requirements of this document; to be agreed with the Project Architect.

11.1.4

Include for all on–site testing specified in this document, which shall be carried out by an accredited independent testing body.

11.2.11

The exact nature of the prototype shall be agreed with the Project Architect.

11.2.12

11.1.5

The works shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of the CWCT Standard Test Methods for Systemised Building Envelopes.

Test certificates shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibilities regarding the performance and service life requirements of the prototypes.

STEP 11.2 11.2.1

11.2.2

11.2.3

Testing of performance prototypes The prototypes shall be mounted in test rigs, which have the same conditions of attachment and support as elements of the works, with a supporting structure similar in stiffness to that supporting the works. The prototypes to be tested shall not be influenced by the test chamber. Provide details of all jointing, sealing and glazing techniques, materials used, type, number and size of drainage/ ventilation apertures and section properties of the framing members. The Project Architect shall be given at least 7 days notice prior to the erection and dismantling of the prototype construction, as the Project Architect may elect to observe the assembly and dismantling of the test prototypes.

11.2.4

Tests shall not be carried out without prior notice of at least 7 days being given to the Project Architect.

11.2.5

Prior to testing, sufficient time shall be allowed to permit all chemically curing sealants to achieve their proper cure as recommended by the sealant manufacturer.

11.2.6

Before the test is begun, the external face of the specimen shall be thoroughly washed using a mild additive–free detergent and then rinsed.

11.2.7

Testing shall be carried out by an independent laboratory acceptable to the Project Architect.

11.2.8

The prototypes shall be tested for air permeability, water leakage, and wind load resistance, plus additional structural loading tests as necessary to demonstrate through calculations/ drawings that the works are capable of accommodating the building movements without degrading the performance of the works.

STEP 11.3

Standard test apparatus and calibration Submit details of the following equipment intended for use in the testing process:

11.3.1

Test chamber.

11.3.2

Air system.

11.3.3

Water sprays system.

11.3.4

Pressure measuring apparatus.

11.3.5

Air flow–metering system.

11.3.6

Water flow–metering system.

11.3.7

Deflection measuring devices.

11.3.8

Calibration.

STEP 11.4 11.4.1

Testing of performance prototypes Performance prototypes test sequence

11.4.1.1

The Testing Authority shall witness the installation and dismantling of the prototypes, record any variations to the agreed details on a set of the prototype assembly drawings prepared by the Contractor and shall also record the extent of water penetration into the system.

11.4.1.2

Test Sequence:

11.4.1.2.1 Preliminary testing: Prior to the full test sequence, the prototypes shall be pre–tested under static pressure at 50% maximum design wind load, followed by water penetration test at 50% of the pressure specified for final tests. Deficiencies observed in the samples during testing shall be recorded, and appropriate corrections made. 11.4.1.2.2 The testing sequence shall be followed in accordance with the CWCT Standard for Systemised Building Envelopes procedures.

MCCS_47

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype 11.4.1.2.3 Further tests shall be carried out in accordance with the CWCT Standard for Systemised Building Envelopes Discretionary Test procedures as necessary. 11.4.1.3

No test shall be carried out unless all previous tests in the sequence have been passed to the satisfaction of the Testing Authority.

11.4.1.4

If any modification is made to the prototype, repeat testing shall be undertaken as detailed in the relevant CWCT procedures. However, if any modification is undertaken that, in the opinion of the independent testing authority or witness, invalidates earlier test results, the sequence shall commence again at the first test. This requirement is not applicable to glass breakage during the wind resistance safety test when replacement of a pane of glass may be carried out without re–starting the whole sequence.

11.4.2 11.4.2.1

11.4.2.2

Resistance to water penetration when tested shall be in the test pressure class 600Pa or 0.25 the design wind pressure, whichever is the greater, in accordance with the requirements of the CWCT Standard for Systemised Building Envelopes for testing for water penetration by the static and dynamic test method. 11.4.3.2

11.4.3.2.1 There shall be no leakage into the internal face of the works at any time during the test or within 15 minutes of completion of the test. 11.4.3.2.2 At the completion of the test there shall be no standing water in locations intended to drain. 11.4.4

Testing shall be carried out in accordance with EN 12153 (ASTM E283–04) for cladding to a test pressure of [insert figure] Pa or 0.25 the design winds pressure, whichever is the greater.

Wind resistance tests

11.4.4.1

A serviceability test shall be carried out in accordance with EN 12179 (ASTM E1233 / E1233M–14) for cladding, and EN 12211 (ASTM E1233 / E1233M–14) for windows and doors, as modified by the CWCT Standard for Systemised Building Envelopes.

11.4.4.2

A safety test shall be carried out in accordance with the CWCT Standard for Systemised Building Envelopes.

11.4.4.3

Test pressure: The peak test pressure shall be 1.5 times the design wind pressure for the Safety test, and 1.0 times the design wind pressure for the Serviceability test.

11.4.4.4

Performance under Testing:

Air permeability tests The prototypes shall be tested to determine the air infiltration. A check for regions of concentrated air leakage shall be made after the air permeability test has been completed and such areas marked upon the prototype drawings.

Performance under Testing

11.4.2.3

In addition, an air exfiltration test shall be carried out on the prototype to check the performance in relation to the whole building’s air leakage test requirements.

11.4.3

Weatherproofing and water tightness tests

11.4.3.1

Tests shall be carried out adopting either the static or the dynamic procedures, as appropriate to the system type and expected conditions, set out below:

11.4.4.4.1 At both positive and negative applications of the peak test pressure there shall be no permanent damage to the cladding system. Framing members shall not buckle, panels shall remain securely held, glass and glazing shall not be damaged and gaskets shall not be displaced. The glass itself shall not deflect such that edge cover is insufficient to restrain the glass under peak test pressure or such that spacers become visible

11.4.3.1.1 The static test method is to be carried out in accordance with EN 12155 (ASTM E331 – 00) for cladding, EN 1027 (AAMA 501.1 – 05) for windows and doors, and the requirements of the CWCT Standard for Systemised Building Envelopes.

11.4.4.4.2 After loading to the positive and negative peak test pressure, permanent deformation to wall framing members shall not exceed 1/ 500 of the span measured between points of attachment to the building one hour after the loading has been removed.

11.4.3.1.2 The dynamic Test Method is to be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the CWCT Standard for Systemised Building Envelopes or acceptable equivalent European Standard EN 13050 (or XP ENV 13050, ASTM E547 – 00), for testing for water penetration.

11.4.4.4.3 The loads created by specified test conditions shall be accommodated safely, without detriment to the overall design, structural integrity and performance of the works.

MCCS_48

11.4.4.4.4 The permanent fixings of any component shall be capable of resisting the combined dead load and maximum wind load with a factor of safety of at least 1.5.

11.4.5

Impact testing

11.4.5.1

Protection from manual attack is to be to EN 1627 Level WK2 (ASTM F588).

11.4.5.2

The extent of any damage determined through testing shall be recorded and, where possible, quantified. Samples shall also be submitted to the Project Architect.

12.4.5.3

A soft body impact test to glazed elements shall be carried out in accordance with EN 12600 (ASTM F3007–13), conforming to the category requirements specified.

11.4.5.4

11.4.5.5

11.4.6

A soft body impact test to non–glazed elements shall be carried out in accordance with EN 13049 (ASTM E1996–14 / 1886–13a), conforming to the category requirements specified.

11.4.7.1

Testing for flanking transmission shall be undertaken in accordance with EN ISO 10848–2 (ASTM E336–14). The test method is designed for suspended ceilings but may for this purpose and in the absence of any other International Test Standards, be adapted to establish the flanking performance of a cladding system. The simulated wall and floor constructions shall not influence the results of these junction tests.

11.4.7.4

Any acoustic tests shall commence at a time agreed with the Project Architect, in a recognised independent laboratory, with a comprehensive test report being submitted, in writing, to the Project Architect within three weeks of completion of the tests.

11.4.7.5

Where existing test data is available from a recognised independent laboratory, it shall be considered acceptable providing the tests have been carried out for the exact system being offered. Test data for similar constructions may be accepted if supporting computations are offered to account for any differences between the proposed and tested construction.

11.4.8

Structural silicone testing and maintenance generally:

11.4.8.1

The requirements of this document with respect to the testing of the structural silicone application shall be complied with.

11.4.8.2

The Project Architect shall be provided with documentary evidence that the selection of sealant takes into account any relevant recommendations by the sealant manufacturer as to the use of the sealant.

11.4.8.3

Compatibility: Test certificates shall be submitted to the Project Architect to confirm compatibility of the sealant used with all substrate materials including aluminium, finishes, glass, glass coatings, and gaskets, setting blocks and backing rods. These certificates shall relate to tests carried out by the sealant manufacturer.

11.4.8.4

Adhesion test data of production samples as tested in accordance with ASTM C 794 shall be submitted to the Project Architect. These shall establish adhesion performance over the temperatures specified in this document.

A large body impact test to roof–lights/ overhead/ horizontal/ inclined systems shall be carried out in accordance with EN 1873 (ASTM E2112–07), conforming with the specified requirements. Thermal cycling The prototypes shall be tested in order to determine the effects of thermal movements on the performance of the works, in particular the joints.

11.4.7

11.4.7.3

Acoustic testing Initial Advance Test:

11.4.7.1.1 The glass configurations shall be identified and any acoustically enhanced configurations that may be necessary shall be incorporated to meet this document. 11.4.7.1.2 Immediately following the appointment of the Contractor, laboratory acoustic tests of the proposed glass configurations shall be arranged, using similar framing to that intended with similar dimensions and mass per metre run of framing. These prototypes shall not be used as visual samples and shall not include glass coatings or heat treatments but shall be used to confirm compliance with the specified acoustic data. 11.4.7.1.3 From initial results of acoustic testing, a detailed acoustic assessment shall be provided of each cladding type for review. 11.4.7.2

The works shall achieve the specified requirements when tested in accordance with EN ISO 10140–3 (ASTM A805M–09).

MCCS_49

DESIGN TO PROTOTYPE Steps to build a working prototype 11.4.8.5

Where the structural silicone bonds glass to the cladding framework, the weakest element in the line of stress shall have a minimum strength of 600kPa or 6 times the design strength, whichever is the greater in accordance with ETAG 01/ 015 or ETAG 002 documents which set out the requirements for use of structural silicone. This criterion shall be proven with a statistical confidence of 99%. For each combination of substrate and design conditions, a report from the sealant manufacturer shall be provided for the tests performed in the following manner:

11.4.8.5.1 Assemble and fully cure under production conditions (not laboratory conditions) a minimum of 12 samples. Each sample shall be a minimum of 150mm long. The sample shall be made of actual substrate material, i.e. glass with actual coating (low E and/ or fritting), aluminium sections with finishes. The joint geometry shall be as accepted by the Project Architect 11.4.8.5.2 Double–sided tape or other spacer material shall be installed such that it does not add to the silicone joint strength. 11.4.8.5.3 After full cure the samples shall be totally immersed in tap water at room temperature for 7 days. 11.4.8.5.4 Samples shall be tested in a tensometer 25 hours after removal from the water immersion tank. 11.4.8.5.5 Each sample shall be subjected to a tensile load test. The crosshead speed shall be 50mm per minute. Testing shall continue until failure occurs or until 830kPa or 6 times the design load, whichever is the greater, is applied to the samples. The maximum stress and mode of failure shall be reported, including percentage area of cohesive failure and any area of voids in the sealant for each sample. Adhesive failure area or void cross section area parallel to the substrate face greater than 20% shall be unacceptable. 11.4.8.5.6 A statistical analysis of results shall indicate a design stress of not less than 600kPa or 6 times the design stress of the sealant, whichever is the greater, with a confidence of 99% over the temperature range as described in this document. 11.4.8.5.7 If the sample set does not meet the requirements of the above criteria, the design of the failed element shall be revised and subjected to a re–test. This procedure shall continue until the above requirements have been met.

MCCS_50

11.4.8.5.8 A report of the above testing shall be prepared. No fabrication shall commence until the results have been accepted by the Project Architect 11.4.8.5.9 All test results shall be retained with regard to the structural silicone glazing for a minimum period of 15 years from project completion. These shall be made available to the Project Architect on request. 11.4.8.6

Maintenance An on–going inspection/ maintenance programme for the structural silicone shall be documented and accepted Testing Authorities shall be employed to carry out these inspections which shall include the following:

11.4.8.6.1 Cleaning: Specify acceptable detergents and methods to be used. 11.4.8.6.2 Inspection: Provide forms to be filled out periodically, each pre–dated with the inspection date and an adequate quantity for the design life of the building. The form shall state the full procedure for the inspection. 11.4.8.6.3 Sample Cut–out: Provide forms for periodic cut–out of structural seals and weather seals to check shore hardness and tensile properties of the seal. 11.4.8.6.4 Each of the procedures shall clearly state pass/ fail criteria and indicate action required when a failure is obtained as a result. The Testing Authority shall be required to produce a report based on its findings and recommendations for any remedial works to the Project Architect. 11.4.9 11.4.9.1

Seismic building movement test A mid–height support beam is displaced horizontally and then back to its original position. At each stage, visual observations are made, with the test being conducted three times. Displacements, in terms of mm, are determined as ‘probable’ or ‘credible’ displacements. In the ‘credible’ test, there must be no permanent damage to the framing members, panels or fixings. Glazing beads and cappings must be held securely and gaskets not be displaced. In the probable test, no racking or distortion of members occurs. The panel must then pass the subsequent air and water penetration tests.

11.4.10

Inter–storey movement test

11.4.10.1

The mid–span point of the mid–height support beam is displaced by a fixed distance vertically downwards then back to the centre, tested three times, during which no racking or distortion of the members is allowed to occur. The panel must pass the subsequent air and water penetration tests.

STEP 11.5

Testing of installed works

11.5.1

Air permeability (exfiltration)

11.5.1.1

Provide actual air exfiltration results from tests undertaken that comply with the ‘Air– tightness Fan Test’ of the building envelope.

11.5.1.2

Air exfiltration rates shall be within the limits specified. Any areas of excessive air leakage identified shall be rectified at the Contractor’s expense.

11.5.2

Waterproofing and water–tightness testing

11.5.2.1

Test the weather–tightness of the works using the Site hose test carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the CWCT Standard for Systemised Building Envelopes.

11.5.2.2

If a different method is proposed details of the testing system and a proposed method statement shall be submitted to the Project Architect for acceptance at least one month prior to the proposed testing on Site.

11.5.2.3

Prior to testing ensure that the works have been completed to a stage where the integrity of the system can be tested, that obvious defects have been made good and that the works have been cleared of all materials, debris and dust.

11.5.2.4

Testing shall be carried out when all works are complete including that of all associated trades and interfacing trades.

11.5.2.5

Performance under testing:

11.5.2.5.4 At completion of the test there shall be no standing water in locations intended to remain dry. Certify the waterproof integrity of the works. 11.5.2.5.5 Invite the Project Architect to witness the tests. 11.5.3

Testing of fixings

11.5.3.1

As the work proceeds, allow for the bolts to be proof load tested as required and witnessed by the Structural Engineer.

11.5.3.2

Tests for composite samples: Provide test results for flexural strength of composite to be used in facade panels in accordance with EN 1570–5 (no ASTM equivalent).

11.5.3.3

Tests for shear resistance and tensile resistance of fixings in composite panel: Provide test results for tests for shear resistance and tensile resistance of fixings.

11.5.3.4

During the execution of the prototypes, make a torsion test on the bolts according to the requirements of the standards and in the presence of structural engineers involved in the project.

11.5.4

Thermal performance testing

11.5.4.1

Thermography testing shall be carried out to ensure that insulation is continuous using a suitable thermal imaging method to be proposed by the Contractor. The testing method shall be subject to acceptance by the Project Architect.

11.5.4.2

Insulation shall be proven to be continuous. Any areas of excessive cooling energy loss identified shall be rectified at the Contractor’s expense.

11.5.2.5.1 There shall be no leakage through the works at any time during the test. 11.5.2.5.2 If any leaks/ defects occur, mark the location on the works, water shall be drained completely. Prepare a report to be submitted to the Project Architect together with proposals for remedial measures. Any part of the works that is adversely affected shall be replaced or repaired; the design intent shall be maintained. 11.5.2.5.3 After making good any defects, retest locally to verify integrity of repair.

MCCS_51

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 01 HQ Building, SF Bay Area

MCCS_52

HQ BUILDING SF BAY AREA, CA, USA

37°46’29.75’’ 122°25’9.9”

N W

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

ENVIRONMENTAL

FACADE ZONE (mm)

200

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

0.18

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

0.88

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.69

TESTING

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE STEEL GRIDSHELL

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE RHS STEEL SECTIONS

FACADE BRACKET TYPE SPIDER BRACKET WITH FOUR ADJUSTABLE ARMS

MCCS_53

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 01 HQ Building, SF Bay Area

MCCS_54 MCCS_54

MCCS_55 MCCS_55

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 01 HQ Building, SF Bay Area 3385 mm [11'-1 14 "]

255 mm [0'-10"]

2070 mm [6'-9 12 "]

1060 mm [3'-5 34 "]

Top view

14

13

1060 mm [3'-5 34 "]

690 mm [2'-3"]

4

13

4

3 11

3

5795 mm [19'-0"]

375 mm [1'-2 34 "]

365 mm [1'-2 14 "]

8 9

11

1050 mm [3'-5 14 "]

430 mm [1'-4 34 "]

420 mm [1'-4 12 "]

5

845 mm [2'-9 14 "]

Front view

3380 mm [11'-1 14 "]

6

2

Side view 2290 mm [7'-6 14 "]

Bottom view Third angle projection. Scale 1:50. MCCS_56

2065 mm [6'-9 12 "]

305 mm [1'-0"]

110 mm [0'-4 12 "]

1080 mm [3'-6 12 "]

405 mm [1'-4"]

Details Concrete upstand External floor finish GRC panel Glass balustrade Extruded aluminium frame forming unitised panel 6 Double glazed unit 7 Extruded aluminium section 8 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 1 2 3 4 5

6

5

3D view of detail 3385 mm [11'-1 14 "]

560 mm [1'-10"]

2280 mm [7'-5 34 "]

4 13

530 mm [1'-8 34 "] 13

4

9

450 mm [1'-5 34 "]

11 9

5960 mm [19'-6 34 "]

3

8

1200 mm [3'-11 14 "]

2190 mm [7'-2"]

8

11

260 mm [0'-10 14 "]

2320 mm [7'-7 14 "]

5

610 mm [2'-0"]

6

2

Back view Side view

Fixing bracket Fixing for lateral restraint Waterproof membrane Extruded aluminium pressure plate 13 Silicone seal 14 Thermal break 15 Extruded aluminium clip 9 10 11 12

11 3 8

6

5

3D views of typical bay MCCS_57

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 01 HQ Building, SF Bay Area 2350 mm [7'-8 12 "]

3

1510 mm [4'-11 1"] 4

1500 mm [4'-11"]

9

400 mm [1'-3 34 "]

5 450 mm [1'-5 43"]

8

a Elevation. Facade build-up

2115 mm [6'-11 14 "]

3

400 mm [1'-3 34 "]

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

450 mm [1'-5 34 "]

11 5

9

630 mm [2'-0 34 "]

900 mm [2'-11 12 "]

250 mm [0'-10"]

8

6000 mm [19'-8 14 "]

b Horizontal section. Panel connection with primary structure

Details Concrete upstand External floor finish GRC panel Glass balustrade Extruded aluminium frame forming unitised panel 6 Double glazed unit 7 Extruded aluminium section 8 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 1 2 3 4 5

Fixing bracket Fixing for lateral restraint Waterproof membrane Extruded aluminium pressure plate 13 Silicone seal 14 Thermal break 15 Extruded aluminium clip 9 10 11 12

3

4

c

Exterior view

MCCS_58

d

Interior view

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

2000

200

300

8

3 9

m 200 m3 "] [0'-7 4

11

m 900 m 1 "] [2'-11 2

11 100 mm 3 [0'-3 4 "]

m 1540 m1 "] [5'-0 2

m 450 m3 "] [1'-5 4

1535 mm 1 [5'-0 2 "]

900 mm 1 [2'-11 2 "]

200 mm 3 [0'-7 4 "]

1:10 scale

m 630 m3 "] [2'-0 4

3 8

1:50 scale

m 100 m [0'-4"]

9

mm

500 mm

400

m 1450 m [4'-9"]

1450 mm [4'-9"]

2500

450 mm 3 [1'-5 4 "]

Horizontal section. Rainscreen assembly at curvature

400 mm [1'-3 34 "]

3 245 mm [0'-9 12 "]

3

60 mm [0'-2 12 "]

3

f

35 mm [0'-1 14 "]

e Horizontal section. Rainscreen assembly at curvature

9

9 7

7

8

100 mm [0'-4"]

70 mm 11 [0'-2 34 "]

8

10

8 11

440 mm [1'-5 14 "]

11

10

300 mm [0'-11 34 "]

200 mm 3 [0'-7 4 "]

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

245 mm [0'-9 12 "]

75 mm [0'-3"]

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

g Horizontal section. Connection

j

h Horizontal section. Connection

Horizontal section. Rainscreen supporting system

13 4

13

4

9

8 3

8 11

11

5 6

k

Typical bay. 3D view

m Vertical section. Typical bay

n

Typical bay. Back view

MCCS_59

265 mm 1 [0'-10 2 "]

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 01 HQ Building, SF Bay Area

1450 mm [4'-9"]

3 355 mm [1'-2"]

3

8 200 mm 3 [0'-7 4 "]

1360 mm [4'-5 21 "]

505 mm 8 [1'-7 34 "]

555 mm 3 [1'-9 4 "]

100 mm 3 [0'-3 4 "]

8 11

1450 mm [4'-9"]

9

11

900 mm 1 [2'-11 2 "]

630 mm 3 [2'-0 4 "]

830 mm 3 [2'-8 4 "]

900 mm 1 [2'-11 2 "]

9

450 mm 3 [1'-5 4 "]

450 mm 3 [1'-5 4 "]

a Vertical section. Rainscreen with drainage system

b Vertical section. Rainscreen with drainage system 45 mm [0'-1 34 "]

mm 50 "] 14 [4'-9

m 0 m 3 "] 63 '-0 4 [2

410 mm [1'-4"]

560 mm [1'-10 14 "]

355 mm [1'-2"]

8

m 0 m 3 "] 45 '-5 4 [1

8

10

m 5 m "] 55 '-10 [1

8 10 m 0 m 3 "] 10 '-3 4 [0

Structural analysis

11

45 mm [0'-1 34 "]

8

Vertical section. Rainscreen withTotal drainage system utilization

90 mm 1 [0'-3 2 "]

d Vertical section. Parapet

m ] 0m 1 " 90 '-11 2 [2

c

8

140 mm [0'-5 12 "]

m 0 m "] 20 0'-8 [

3

11

9

1 Concrete upstand 2 External floor finish 3 GRC panel 4 Glass balustrade 5 Extruded aluminium frame forming unitised panel 6 Double glazed unit 7 Extruded aluminium section 8 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall

65 mm 1 [0'-2 2 "]

8

Details

11

e Vertical section. Parapet Solar radiation Thermal analysis

Compression -0.35

Tension 0.35

f Finite element model of a typical bay

MCCS_60

g Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements

Facade system

Opaque composite rainscreen with glazing insets

Facade zone

200mm

Primary structure type

Steel gridshell

Secondary structure type

RHS steel sections

Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2)

0.18

Facade bracket type

Spider bracket with four adjustable arms

Number of components in fixing system

14

Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2)

0.88

1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

200

2500

300

mm

1:50 scale

500 mm

400

1:10 scale

175 mm [0'-7"]

3

1450 mm [4'-9"]

2000

65 mm 1 [0'-2 2 "]

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale

8 11

8

8 8

410 mm [1'-4"]

9

8

270 mm [0'-10 12 "]

270 mm [0'-10 12 "]

100 mm [0'-3 43 "]

3

9

10

9

630 mm [2'-0 34 "]

410 mm [1'-4"]

11 450 mm [1'-5 34 "]

h Vertical section. Gutter detail

j

Vertical section. Gutter detail

3 8

2450 mm 1 [8'-0 2 "]

9

3

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

8 410 mm [1'-4"]

11

9

45 mm [0'-1 34 "]

100 mm 3 [0'-3 4 "]

8

8 270 mm [0'-10 12 "]

8

80 mm 1 [0'-3 4 "]

900 mm 1 [2'-11 2 "]

8

11 450 mm 3 [1'-5 4 "]

Horizontal section. Connection with frame 8

-0.2 3 -0. 16 0

12

0.21 -0.33

-6000.

-0.0 8

3 -0.12

0.16

-8000.

-0.78

-0.29

0.37

0.15

-0.44 -0.65 -0.34

0.26

0.32

0.24

-0.0

-0.39

-0.21

2 -0.2

-4000.

0.14

-0.0 6

0.3 4

-0. 25 0.2 4

-0.

5 -0.1 8 -0.0

-0.0 3

0.12 0.17 -0.0 3

0.08

0.03

-0.1 2

-2000.

6

-0. 1 0.22

0.05

0.02

0.08

-0.0

-0.1 2

0.22

0.05

-2000.

-0.2 0

4000.

12000.

6000.

14000.

8000.

0.70

mm

0.53

0.48

10000. 2000.

0.36

0.07

8.3 8

-4000. -6000.

0.08

1

20.11

-0.0

8000. 0. 14000.

-0.20

-0.783

-0.38

-0.776

0.60

1.67

0.19

Sector of system Group 2:Diagrid

-0.739

12000.

8

10000.

0.79

-0.0

8000.

0.15

-0.702

6000.

1.24

0.23

Sector of system Group 2:Diagrid

6000.

4000.

2.79 0.49

0.46

4000.

2000.

1.07

0.30

2000.

-0.665

0.50

1.10

0.88

5 -0.2

0.1

-0.628

23.59

1.73

0.75

0.79 0.68

0.13

0.3

1.3

2.11

0.48

2.29

01 -0.07 0.

2.0

2.85

-0.591 1.34

25.42

0.5

2.7

-0.554 0.81

0.83

3.27

0.81

0.07

2.51

-0.517

1.32 3.03

6

26.57

0.8

3.4

Y

26.37

1.69 -0.480

20.18 20.16

23.72

1.94

-0.5

1.1

25.45

2.39

1.24 1.02

5

1.3

-0.443

0.21

2

-0.8

4.0

6.70 .7 3

15.08

-0.406

1.06

1.63

8

0.8

4.7

11

23.49

76 16.

0.8

5.4

1.6

25.41

-0.370

0.36

19.13

23.24

23.01

2.42

-0.2

1.9

1.03

3.19

1.88

-0.2

2.2

7.4 6.0

24.87

0.70

7 -0.2

2.4

8.0

23.67

23.41

2.7

8.7

6.7

3.27

3.017.68

-0.5

1.07

-0.333

6 -0.4

2.8

-0.296

1.40

0.27

9.4

18.72

2.87

3.35

7 -0.3

7.6

10.1

21.25

3.04

1.68

6

3.2

10.7

23.51

3.50

3.33

-0.259

0.54

0

11.4

7.09

5.65

5.75 10.83

9

3.5

23.72

-0.222 0.48 2.32

2.37 4.19

-0.0

3.8

12.1

5.63

4.19

1.59

-0.1

4.0

20.17

5.38

2.83

-0.185

1.80

1.42

0.14

-0.2

5 .9

12.7

0.85

-0.148

10.89

20

14.5 4.9

13.4

X

23.26

4.3

14.1

19.95

10.77

0.89

-0.111

1.09

24.08

0.68

6.01

0.14

14.7

0.91

20.52

21.29

19.67

4.6

1.46

1.05

2.73

3.00

0.14

4.8

0.16

-0.0

5.1

5.93

8.87

-0.074 1.36

1.08

5.11

5.92

1.38

-0.1

0.2

15.4

-0.037

5.91

2.38

0.60

1.07

2.42

1.34

0.17

16.1

0.32

24.93

20.58

5.74

1.13

0.000

1.32

3.39

1.03

0.54

0.08

21.3 6.9

16.8

0.037

0.15

0.08

5.4

1.42

0.82 1.42

-0.30

18.1

31.72 28.53

5.0 3

1.27

0.10

5.6

0.074

1.06 1.34

0.16

-0.19

18.8

0.51

0.111 0.12

1.64

17.62

0.148

0.99 0.33

-0.08

5.9

2.65

28.35

20.11

6.2

0.185

0.94

0.15

0.5

19.4

0.222

1.44 1.27

1.14

8

28.2 9.0

20.1

1.80 0.259

0.93

31.57

24.91

20.02

6.5

1.55

0.2960.16

30.07

31.51

1.01

-0.0

6.7

0.333

34.30 33.63

9.22

0.87

1.28

0.09

0.09

7.0

22.1 20.8

0.84

7.3

22.8 21.5

16.61

0.26

1.20

0.27

8

23.5

7.5

0.443

0.60 0.406

0.3700.68

25 14. 5 20.9

7.8

35.0 11.0 0.8

24.1

2.37

31.24

8.1

1.08

1.46

1.01

-0.42

8.3

25.5 24.8

17.58

34.07

33.44

3

26.1

30.06

0.82 0.480

-0.0

26.8

8.6

2.64

1.17

0.13 0.517

-0.21

27.5

8.9

0.554

1.96

6 22.

p q r MPa MPa kNm

28.2

34.11

8 .0

9.1

28.8

15

9.4

19.31

Thermal analysis

79

9.7

0.591

8.38

-0.19

9.9

29.5

Z

34.19

Solar radiation

30.2

0.8

0.695 0.628

5.03

21.

30.8

10.2

Structural analysis

n Vertical section. Parapet

-0.16

32.8 31.5

m Vertical section. Parapet

10.8 10.5

33.5 32.2

9

-8000.

34.3

11

45 mm [0'-1 34 "]

Fixing bracket Fixing for lateral restraint Waterproof membrane Extruded aluminium pressure plate 13 Silicone seal 14 Thermal break 15 Extruded aluminium clip 9 10 11 12

10 300 mm 3 [0'-11 4 "]

k

8

mm 10000.

12000.

M 1 : 62 q Zvalues r Bending Principal Sector oftension system Beam stress Elements,Quadrilateral Elements shear stress pZX Y Principal Maximum principal tension stress indistribution Node ,Absolute maximum of Loadcase 302 Wind pressure 303 Wind suction, from 0.0738 to 10.8 step moment distribution M 1 to :distribution 62

Y Beam Elements , Bending moment My,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 300 Self X * 0.502 0.269 Principal shear stress max.tau-xy (maximum membrane shear stress) fromN/mm2 middle of element,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 300 weight X Self Y * 0.906 (Min=-0.783) (Max=0.695) to 305 negative thermal load, from 0.785 to 34.3 step 0.838 N/mm2 Z * 0.962

in glazing panels (MPa)

in glazing panels (MPa)

X * 0.502 * 0.906 weight YZto 608 -0.30Ex * 0.962

in steel frame (kNm)

14000.

- 0.30Ey - Ez, 1 cm 3D = 0.500 kNm

MCCS_61

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 01 HQ Building, SF Bay Area

6

490 mm [1'-7 14 "]

275 mm [0'-10 34 "]

205 mm [0'-8"]

5

30 mm 8[0'-1 14 "] 490 mm [1'-7 14 "]

mm 235 1 "] [0'-9 4

3

10

6 275 mm [0'-10 34 "]

555 mm [1'-9 34 "]

555 mm [1'-9 34 "]

1

7

30 mm b Vertical section. Junction between double [0'-1 14 "] glazed units205 at mm slab edge [0'-8"]

mm 235 1 "] [0'-9 4

10

7

600 mm [1'-11 34 "]

mm 150 "] [0'-6

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

7

70 mm [0'-2 34 "]

70 mm [0'-2 34 "]

1

a Vertical section. Glass balustrade

c

600 mm [1'-11 34 "]

d 3D view. Connection of opaque glass spandrel connecting to slab edge

1130 mm [3'-8 12 "]

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

mm 150 "] [0'-6

1130 mm [3'-8 12 "]

9

Details

Vertical section. Balustrade connection detail

30 mm [0'-1"]

1 2 3 4 5

30 mm [0'-1"]

6 7 8

6 30 mm [0'-1"]

60 mm [0'-2 14 "]

30 mm [0'-1"] 185 mm 5[0'-7 1 "] 13 4

14 185 mm [0'-7 14 "] 12

14

7

30 mm [0'-1 14 "]

8 185 mm [0'-7 14 "]

185 mm [0'-7 14 "]

8

9 10 11 12

60 mm [0'-2 14 "]

30 mm [0'-1 14 "]

6

10

13 14 15

8

e Vertical section. Curtain wall glazing connecting to concrete slab

f

Concrete upstand External floor finish GRC panel Glass balustrade Extruded aluminium frame forming unitised panel Double glazed unit Extruded aluminium section Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Fixing bracket Fixing for lateral restraint Waterproof membrane Extruded aluminium pressure plate Silicone seal Thermal break Extruded aluminium clip

Vertical section. Curtain wall glazing connecting to concrete slab

Period Total utilization

1 year

With shading Without shading Solar reduction Structural 8.3 analysis MWh

Solar radiation 19.6 MWh

58%

kWh/m2 700 583 467 350 233 117 g Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system

MCCS_62

h Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

Thermal ana

5”

10”

1’- 3”

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

j

445 mm [1'-5 12 "]

Vertical section. Balustrade connection to insulated metal panel

k

1:10 scale

1840 mm [6'-0 12 "]

4

65 mm [0'-2 12 "] 275 mm [0'-10 34 "]

8

500 mm

400

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

1

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

7

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

275 mm [0'-10 34 "]

10

1:50 scale

80 mm [0'-3"]

4

1

445 mm [1'-5 12 "]

mm

1840 mm [6'-0 12 "]

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

8

2500

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

[0'-3 2 "]

1840 mm [6'-0 12 "]

300

65 mm 90 mm12 "] [0'-2 1

11

2000

6

275 mm [0'-10 34 "]

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

200

80 mm [0'-3"]

90 mm [0'-3 12 "]

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

1500

100

1’- 8”

165 mm [0'-6 12 "] 1840 mm [6'-0 12 "]

1000

445 mm [1'-5 12 "] 8

7

445 mm [1'-5 12 "]

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

1:10 scale

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale

Vertical section. Balustrade connection to double glazed units

5

Structural analysis

Structural analysis

m

7

3D view. Balustrade floor buildup with connection to extruded aluminium frame

EXT: 40°C

EXT: 0°C Solar radiation

Solar radiation

INT: 22°C

INT: 22°C

40 °C

n Thermal performance analysis of a unitised curtain wall mullion Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

0

10

22 °C

Thermal analysis

30

Thermal analysis

22

Total utilization

Total utilization

6

p Thermal performance analysis of a unitised curtain wall mullion Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

MCCS_63

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 01 HQ Building, SF Bay Area

7 4

8 9 3 11 8

5 6

2

a 3D exploded view showing composite panels fixed to steel frame

4 7

11 3 5

6

6

5

2

b 3D view showing composite panels fixed to steel frame

MCCS_64

c 3D view of a typical bay

MAT07 - ALUMINIUM

MAT08 - GLAZING MAT11 - GASKETS MAT13 - SEALANTS

MAT07 - ALUMINIUM

MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

MAT03 MILD STEEL MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL

MAT03 MILD STEEL MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL

MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE d 3D exploded view showing facade components with material specification references 7 4

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Concrete upstand External floor finish GRC panel Glass balustrade Extruded aluminium frame forming unitised panel Double glazed unit Extruded aluminium section Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Fixing bracket Fixing for lateral restraint Waterproof membrane by others Extruded aluminium pressure plate Silicone seal Thermal break Extruded aluminium clip

9 3

11 8

6 5

2

e 3D view showing composite panels fixed to steel frame

MCCS_65

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 02 Transport Hub, Jeddah

MCCS_66

TRANSPORT HUB JEDDAH, KSA

21°32’36” 39°10’22”

N E

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

ENVIRONMENTAL

FACADE ZONE (mm)

500

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

0.40

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

0.76

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.67

TESTING

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE CONCRETE SLAB AND COLUMN

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE CHS STEEL SECTIONS

FACADE BRACKET TYPE SPIDER BRACKET WITH TWO ADJUSTABLE ARMS

MCCS_67

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 02 Transport Hub, Jeddah

MCCS_68

MCCS_69

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 02 Transport Hub, Jeddah

1460 mm [4'-9 12 "]

1460 mm [4'-9 12 "]

2210 mm [7'-3"]

1

Top view

1

1820 mm [5'-11 34 "]

4000 mm [13'-1 12 "]

1495 mm [4'-11"]

1

2

1820 mm [5'-11 34 "]

6865 mm [22'-6 14 "]

6865 mm [22'-6 14 "]

9

1825 mm [5'-11 34 "]

4495 mm [14'-9"]

6865 mm [22'-6 14 "]

4

2245 mm [7'-4 14 "]

Side view

Front view

645 mm [2'-1 14 "]

4000 mm [13'-1 12 "]

Third angle projection. Scale 1:50 MCCS_70

4

Bottom view

2

1460 mm [4'-9 12 "]

1460 mm [4'-9 12 "]

715 mm [2'-4"]

1

Details GRC rainscreen cladding panel Adjustable fixing bracket Steel frame Steel support structure Rubber based sheet Metal strap Aluminium support structure Waterproof membrane with 1mm protective aluminium sheet above 9 Thermal insulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4 2

1495 mm [4'-11"]

3D view of detail

4

2350 mm [7'-8 12 "] 1

1820 mm [5'-11 34 "]

6865 mm [22'-6 14 "]

2

1815 mm [5'-11 12 "]

9

6865 mm [22'-6 14 "] 1515 mm [4'-11 34 "]

1820 mm [5'-11 34 "]

6865 mm [22'-6 14 "]

4

2

Side view

645 mm [2'-1 14 "]

Back view

4000 mm [13'-1 12 "]

2

10 11 12 13 14 15

Vapour barrier Waterproof membrane Profiled metal deck Steel purlin Steel channel Steel structure 4

3D views of system MCCS_71

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 02 Transport Hub, Jeddah

500 mm [1'-7 34 "]

2160 mm [7'-1"]

1

15

13

3 2

5730 mm [18'-9 12 "]

7 1515 mm [4'-11 1"] 2

2

a Elevation. Facade buildup

5980 mm [19'-7 12 "]

2

1

2

3

4

900 mm 1 [2'-11 2 "]

1225 mm 1 [4'-0 4 "]

10

8

13 360 mm [1'-2"]

9

260 mm [0'-10 14 "]

290 mm 1 [0'-11 2 "]

4

12 1500 mm [4'-11"]

450 mm 3 [1'-5 4 "]

15

b Horizontal section. Panel connection with primary structure

1

c

Exterior view

MCCS_72

d

Typical bay. 3D view

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

200

2000

300

2500 mm

400

500 mm

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

2450 mm [8'-0 12 "]

1 3 2

13

10

9

8

630 mm [2'-0 34 "]

12

900 mm [2'-11 12 "]

2

2

75 mm [0'-3"]

290 mm [0'-11 12 "]

4

15

e Horizontal section. Rainscreen assembly

5980 mm [19'-7 12 "]

260 mm [0'-10 14 "]

2

8

15

10

9

900 mm [2'-11 21 "]

13

12

2

630 mm 3 [2'-0 4 "]

4

890 mm [2'-11"]

f

Horizontal section. Rainscreen assembly at curvature

330 mm [1'-1"]

2

80 mm [0'-3"]

4

155 mm [0'-6"]

1

3

450 mm 3 [1'-5 4 "]

Details 1 GRC rainscreen cladding panel 2 Adjustable fixing bracket 3 Steel frame 4 Steel support structure 5 Rubber based sheet 6 Metal strap 7 Aluminium support structure

8 Waterproof membrane with 1mm protective aluminium sheet above 9 Thermal insulation 10 Vapour barrier 11 Waterproof membrane 12 Profiled metal deck 13 Steel purlin 14 Steel channel 15 Steel structure

1

4

g

Interior view

h

Typical bay: 3D view

MCCS_73

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 02 Transport Hub, Jeddah 50 mm [0'-2"]

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

1 150 mm [0'-6"]

150 mm [0'-6"]

1

3

6

6

220 mm [0'-8 34 "]

3

2

6

6

290 mm [0'-11 12 "]

5

310 mm [1'-0 14 "]

320 mm [1'-0 12 "]

325 mm [1'-0 34 "]

490 mm [1'-7 14 "]

2

260 mm [0'-10 14 "]

a Horizontal section. Structure at panel joints

b Horizontal section. Detail of panel fixing system

310 mm [1'-0 14 "]

290 mm [0'-11 12 "]

6

5 4

2

220 mm [0'-8 34 "]

2

2 6 3

1 50 mm [0'-2"]

c Horizontal section. Detail of secondary structure

d 3D view. Connection of opaque panel to secondary structure

e Vertical section. Connection of opaque Total utilization panel to secondary structure

Compression Facade system

Metal rainscreen with full height stick glazing

Facade zone

500mm

Primary structure type Secondary structure type Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2) Facade bracket type Number of components in fixing system Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2)

-0.47

Concrete slab and column CHS steel sections 0.4 Spider bracket with two adjustable arms 5

0.76 Tension 0.47 f

MCCS_74

Finite element model of a typical bay

g Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

1000

1500

100

1’- 8”

2000

200

2500 mm

300

510 mm [1'-8"]

4 2

10

500 mm

400

15

2

1

1500 mm [4'-11"]

310 mm [1'-0 14 "]

2

8

h Vertical section. Rainscreen assembly 350 mm [1'-1 34 "]

290 mm [0'-11 12 "]

4 500 mm [1'-7 34 "]

500 mm [1'-7 34 "]

4

3

9

5

70 mm [0'-2 34 "]

6

1 360 mm [1'-2 14 "]

9

m Vertical section. Connection between panel and steel tube

10

4 1175 mm [3'-10 14 "]

500 mm [1'-7 34 "]

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

90 mm [0'-3 12 "]

12

8

3 1

3

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

75 mm [0'-3"]

n Vertical section. Panel joints

Vertical section. Rainscreen assembly

Thermal insulation Vapour barrier Waterproof membrane Profiled metal deck Steel purlin Steel channel Steel structure Total utilization

Structural analysis

141.8 137.2

23000. 22000.

22000.

23000. 21000.

21000. 20000. 17000.

5. 54

3.4 6

85 4.

21000. 20000. 19000. 18000.

1

22000.

mm

in Quadrilat, from 1.10 to 141.8 step 3.52 N/mm2

X

Beam Elements , v.Mises stress, Design Case 901 GlobalMAX SIGMA, Material : Absolute maximum value of all (Max=134.6)

X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Z * 0.962

in glazing panels (MPa)

X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Z * 0.962

in steel frame (MPa)

0.0

5

Y

1.1

22.6

X

in glazing panels (MPa)

Y

0.0

17000.

6

2.08

3.4

2.77

7

64.19

49.96

36.1

21000.

26000.

17.1

49.95

20000.

25000.

38.74

19000.

24000.

27.82

4.15

16.41

9.09

31.31

18000.

23000.

134.56

8.7160e-05 to 27.7 step 0.692 N/mm2

Z

12.5 26.2

119.75

17000.

mm 22000.

23.82

3.46

78.74

65.69

34.70

23000.

q Principal r weight s Von Mises stress distribution Principal tension stress distribution shear stressmaximum distribution Maximum principal tension stressvalues in Node,Absolute of Loadcase 2101 MAX-MXX QUAD Forces in Quadrilat to 2316 MIN-NXY QUAD Forces M 1 : 48 Z middle u-xy (maximum membrane shear stress) from of element,Absolute of Loadcase maximum 300 Selfvalues M 1 : 48 1.1

5.5

105.64

26000.21000.

102.02

16000.

106.57

25000.20000.

76.55

24000.19000.

38.94

88.01

122.49

23000.18000.

31.66

118.87

22000.17000.

107.38

21000.16000.

3.4 0.0

89.17

19.70

6.7

15000.

100.58

10.1

76.22

106.36

4.21

104.38

20000.15000.

94.54

82.03

34.22

17.71

100.34

13.5

70.79

3.5

56.18

16.8

26.52

30.54

59.82

0.23

22.54

49.10

2.95

20.2

13.51 8 .3 10

7.0

17.41

19000.

9. 69

16.07

23.5

39.81

15.78

15.64

26.9

4.94

22.34

14.32

24.63

38.64

10.6

0.73 0.6 9

35.45

28.42

14.1

10.38

19.89

30.3

61.37

18.42

21.1

79.08

24.6

1.82 17.6

14.07

35.46

35.44

11.1 23.9 52.5

37.11

12.76

104.52

1.85

47.02

37.0

45.74 33.6

5.10

38 1.

4.08

3.39

35.45 35.45

28.1

40.4

106.57

35.46

0.79

79.40

0.20

35.2 0.72

2.55

88.09

78.22

16.6 35.4 78.8

33.11

13.05

113.11

3.58

69.12

49.30

0.00

31.7

43.7

11.17

12.54 102.43

41.50

3.91

47.1 53.35

33.84

0.00

38.7

0.00

57.18 50.5

26.32

0.00

0.00

1.55

42.2

18000.

1.47

52.77

53.8

18.92

17.01

45.7

57.2

11.85

131.2

31.57

11.65

49.3

3.06

21.06

14.62

27.32

60.6

4.00

23.40

1.67 0.53

28.98

63.9

51.14

35.46

25.18

52.8

29.42

56.3

24.66

4.08

4.46

1.01

59.8

67.3

17.59

56.94

23.87

63.3 1.07

35.18

70.6

12.73

0.96

66.8

s MPa

22.2 46.8 105.0

37.74

28.15

7.04

74.0

73.9 70.4

118.27

9.86

11.48 29.65

77.4 52.50

10.63

116.82 113.51

6.98

3.50

3.52

76.22

12.54

77.4

1.38

118.54

84.1

27.7 58.2

41.18

87.5

r MPa

39.31

18.15

20.72

13.30

11.12

14.07

90.8

80.7

21.60

38.70 28.17

17.59

31.66

94.2

2.85

23.12

0.84

47.15

9.39

19.94

1.74

25.24

80.9

97.6

49.26

38.70

35.84 37.65

141.83 15.26

84.4

21.11

3.77

1.09

91.5

122.63

100.9

0.42

95.0

88.0

2.91

57.08

2.25

104.3

31 8.

98.5

15 4.

107.7

10.52

103.33

9.25

91.44

22000.

3.65

14.49

113.17

111.0

17.59

6.01

105.5

4.49 102.0

117.7

10.62

109.1

120.15

121.1

114.4

24.52

1.13

23.68

86.65

98.44

3.87

1.87

24.14

112.6

27.69

12.53

1.34

105.42

6.81

3.32

6.14

q MPa

89.21

88.28

49.83

59.98

124.5

18.31

26.55

96.31

48.70

40.31

127.8

20000.

8.31

116.1

35.97

91.69

19000.

8.56

119.6

134.6 131.2

10.67

6.39 00 9. 25.60

6.61

11.77

18000.

126.7 123.1

6.65

7.21

130.2

17000.

133.7

6.40

Solar r

23000.

k

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

p Vertical section. GRC shadow gap panel

19000.

Details 1 GRC rainscreen cladding panel 2 Adjustable fixing bracket 3 Steel frame 4 Steel support structure 5 Rubber based sheet 6 Metal strap 7 Aluminium support structure 8 Waterproof membrane with 1mm protective aluminium sheet above

1

500 mm [1'-7 34 "]

75 mm [0'-3"]

18000.

j Vertical section. Rainscreen assembly

90 mm [0'-3 12 "]

50 mm [0'-2"]

260 mm [0'-10 14 "]

2

12

500 mm [1'-7 34 "]

145 mm [0'-5 34 "]

9 10

3.95

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

3

15

6.97

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

3 1745 mm [5'-8 34 "]

1545 mm [5'-1"]

12

7.53

1:10 scale

90 mm [0'-3 12 "]

290 mm [0'-11 12 "]

1

15

1:50 scale

3

8

500 mm [1'-7 34 "]

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

24000.

, 1 cm 3D = 100.0 N/mm2

25000.

26000.

mm

M 1 : 49 X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Z * 0.962

MCCS_75

390 mm [1'-3 12 "]

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 02 Transport Hub, Jeddah 1 7 2

1555 mm [5'-1 14 "]

7 8

9

12

450 mm [1'-5 34 "]

885 mm [2'-10 34 "]

75 mm [0'-3"]

14

6770 mm [22'-2 12 "]

15

a Horizontal section. Flat panel connection with secondary structure 150 0 [4'- mm 11" ]

2 12

9

8

14

15 0 [4 0 m '-1 m 1" ]

7 1

5 [5 0 m '-1 m "]

2

14

m 0m 150 '-11"] [4

15

mm 500 7 34"] [1'-

m 0m 156 1 12"] [5'-

156 0 [5'- m m 1 1 2 "]

14

1

1

50 [1 0 m '-7 m 3 4" ]

7

7

2 15

450 [1'- m3 m 5 4 "]

b

28 [0 0 m '-1 m 1" ]

15

885 [2'- mm 10 3 4 "]

15 12

9

mm 265 0 12"] 1 [0'-

8

12

9 8

Horizontal section. Facade secondary structure

c

Horizontal section. Facade secondary structure

d Horizontal section. Facade secondary structure

8 9 12

2

14

1

e

15

Horizontal section. Facade secondary structure

f

9

1

g Horizontal section. Facade secondary structure

Thermal analysis

kWh/m2 1100 917 733 550 367

MCCS_76

Period

With shading

1 year

26.7 MWh

183

Without shading Solar reduction 30.8 MWh

13%

1

m 0m 150 '-11"] [4

Solar radiation

h Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system

8

7

Horizontal section. Facade secondary structure

Structural analysis

12

2 m 0m 155 '-1"] [5

15 0 [4 0 m '-1 m 1" ]

7

Total utilization

14 m m ] 50 '-1" 5 1 [5

7

8

2

150 0 [4'- mm 11" ]

155 0 [5'- mm 1"]

75 m [0'- m 500 3"] [1'- m3 m 7 4 "]

m m 3 "] 0 4 50 1'-7 [

15

9 12

mm 500 7 34"] [1'-

15

14

j

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

1000

100

1’- 8”

200

300

m m 3 "] 4 0 50 1'-7 [

1555 mm [5'-1 14 "]

2000

12

1:50 scale

500 mm

400

1:10 scale

14 15

12 9

8

9

2500 mm

2

1 7

2

1500

m m "] 50 0'-2 [

1500 mm [4'-11"]

6’ - 3”

75 [0 mm '-3 "]

1:50 scale

8

75 [0 mm '-3 "]

m m "] 50 0'-2 [

885 mm [2'-10 34 "]

14

m m ] 0 1" 28 0'-1 [

15

7

k

Horizontal section. External corner

1

m Horizontal section. External corner

8

9

m m 3 "] 4 0 50 1'-7 [

50 [0 mm '-2 "]

8

9

12

m m 1 "] 5 0 2 26 '-1 [0

14

12 m Total utilization m 1 "] 4 0 36 1'-2 [

15

Total utilization

500 mm [1'-7 34 "]

m m 1 "] 5 0 2 26 '-1 [0

50 mm [0'-2"]

2

15 7

Details 1 GRC rainscreen cladding panel 2 Adjustable fixing bracket 3 Steel frame 4 Steel support structure 5 Rubber based sheet

2

p

Horizontal section. External corner

6 Metal strap 7 Aluminium support structure 8 Waterproof membrane with 1mm protective aluminium sheet above 9 Thermal insulation

EXT: 40°C

EXT: 0°C

10 11 12 13 14 15

Vapour barrier Waterproof membrane Profiled metal deck Steel purlin Steel channel Steel structure

INT: 22°C

40 °C

q Thermal performance analysis of rainscreen cladding on steel frame Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

0 r

10

22 °C

Thermal analysis

30

Thermal analysis

22

Solar radiation

Solar radiation

INT: 22°C

1 Structural analysis

n Horizontal section. External corner

Structural analysis

1500 mm [4'-11"]

7

14

1

Thermal performance analysis of rainscreen cladding on steel frame Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

MCCS_77

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 02 Transport Hub, Jeddah

2

1

4

a 3D exploded view showing rainscreen cladding fixing to backing wall

1

1

4

b 3D view showing louvre screen facade and rainscreen cladding

MCCS_78

c 3D view of a typical bay

MAT07 - ALUMINIUM

MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

MAT10 - THERMAL INSULATION MAT03 - MILD STEEL MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL

MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

ALTERNATIVE: MAT15 REINFORCED CONCRETE

MAT08 - GLAZING MAT13 - SEALANTS MAT11 - GASKETS

d 3D exploded view showing facade components with material specification references

1

4 2

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

GRC rainscreen cladding panel Adjustable fixing bracket Steel frame Steel support structure Rubber based sheet Metal strap Aluminium support structure Waterproof membrane with 1mm protective aluminium sheet above Thermal insulation Vapour barrier Waterproof membrane Profiled metal deck Steel purlin Steel channel Steel structure

e 3D view showing louvre screen facade and rainscreen cladding

MCCS_79

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 03 Workshop Tower, Los Angeles

MCCS_80

WORKSHOP TOWER LOS ANGELES, CA, USA

34°3’8.0460” 118°14’37.2588”

N W

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

ENVIRONMENTAL

FACADE ZONE (mm)

450

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

0.28

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

1.14

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.93

TESTING

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE STEEL FRAME

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE RHS STEEL SECTIONS

FACADE BRACKET TYPE SERRATED PLATES; WELDED AND BOLTED

MCCS_81

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 03 Workshop Tower, Los Angeles

MCCS_82

MCCS_83

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 03 Workshop Tower, Los Angeles

7

1920 mm [6'-3 1122 "]

6

3

1 4 2

Top view

1920 1920 mm mm [6'-3 [6'-3 3434"]"]

4000 4000 mm mm [13'-1 [13'-1 1212"]"]

3 1 4

2

2

3

4

2010 mm [6'-7 411"] 4

7000 mm 1 [22'-11 122 "]

2000 mm [6'-6 4433 "]

1

6

7

Side view

Front view

mm 295 295 mm [0'-11 [0'-11 1212"]"]

m m mm 11 224400--99 22""]] [[00''

4

1

8 7

2

Third angle projection. Scale 1:50 MCCS_84

6

Bottom view

1 8

4 2

535 535 mm mm [1'-9"] [1'-9"]

425 425 mm mm [1'-4 [1'-4 3434"]"]

3D view of detail

100 mm [0'-4"]

100 100 mm mm [0'-4"] [0'-4"]

4 6

7

2 2 3 1

55 mm [0'-2"]

1

Side view

110 mm mm 110 [0'-4 1414"]"] [0'-4

Back view

Details GRC shadow gap panel Double glazed unit Extruded aluminium frame with metal faced panel GRC shading louvre Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Fixing bracket Extruded aluminium section Extruded aluminium support bracket for GRC shading louvre 9 Thermal break 10 Extruded aluminium cover capping 11 Waterproof membrane 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2

7

3D views of system MCCS_85

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 03 Workshop Tower, Los Angeles

580 mm [1'-10 34 "]

580 mm [1'-10 34 "]

1020 mm [3'-4 14 "]

7

7

5

5

410 mm [1'-4 14 "]

6 8

6

8

5

890 mm [2'-11"]

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

340 mm [1'-1 14 "]

11

2

2

1

1245 mm [4'-1"]

1515 mm [4'-11 12 "] 1

170 mm [0'-6 12 "]

1

2455 mm [8'-0 12 "]

170 mm [0'-6 34 "]

840 mm [2'-9"]

a Horizontal section. GRC louvre fixed to inside of glazing frame

60 mm [0'-2 14 "]

2 1

b Horizontal section. External corner 255 mm [0'-10"] 2490 mm [8'-2"]

60 mm [0'-2 14 "]

1

5 250 mm [0'-9 34 "]

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

1245 mm [4'-1"]

2 5

6

11 7

415 mm [1'-4 14 "]

930 mm [3'-0 34 "]

250 mm [0'-9 34 "]

500 mm [1'-7 12 "]

6

260 mm [0'-10 14 "]

335 mm [1'-2 12 "]

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

2

c

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and opaque panel

d Horizontal section. External corner

2

4

e

Exterior view

MCCS_86

f

Typical bay. 3D view

1

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

7

4’ - 2”

1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

Details

500

8’ - 4”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

200

2000

300

2500 mm

1:50 scale

500 mm

400

60 mm [0'-2 14 "] 655 mm [2'-1 34 "]

2490 mm [8'-2"]

1155 mm [3'-9 12 "]

580 mm [1'-10 34 "]

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

6

2

6 930 mm [3'-0 12 "]

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

1

1

5

1245 mm [4'-1"]

5

1:10 scale

940 mm [3'-1"]

810 mm [2'-8"]

11

340 mm [1'-1 12 "]

8

3

6

4

7

1605 mm [5'-3"]

250 mm [0'-9 34 "]

1 GRC shadow gap panel 2 Double glazed unit 3 Extruded aluminium frame with metal faced panel 4 GRC shading louvre 5 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 6 Fixing bracket 7 Extruded aluminium section 8 Extruded aluminium support bracket for GRC shading louvre 9 Thermal break 10 Extruded aluminium cover capping 11 Waterproof membrane

6’ - 3”

1090 mm [3'-7"]

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale

g Horizontal section. External corner

h Horizontal section. External corner

8 170 mm [0'-6 34 "]

10

10

2

100 mm [0'-4"]

7

4

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

1 2

410 mm [1'-4 14 "]

2

8 4 80 mm [0'-3 14 "]

j

Horizontal section. GRC louvre fixed to inside of glazing frame

k

3D view. External louvre

4

m Interior view

n

Typical bay. 3D view

MCCS_87

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 03 Workshop Tower, Los Angeles 1

5

mm ] 30 1 " 13 4'-4 2 [

2250 mm [7'-4 12 "]

1390 mm [4'-6 34 "]

1

595 mm [1'-11 12 "]

5

m 0m ] 20 0'-8" [

9

6 m 5 m 1 "] 16 '-6 2 [0

2

a Vertical section. Curved external corner panel

b Vertical section. Connection of unitised panel and structure

35 mm [0'-1 14 "]

270 mm [0'-10 34 "]

270 mm [0'-10 43 "]

50 mm [0'-2"]

mm 45 34"] 1 [0'-

c

130 mm [0'-5"]

130 mm [0'-5 41 "]

205 mm [0'-8"]

5

Total utilization Structural analysis Solar radiation d Horizontal section. Curved double glazed unit at corner Horizontal section. Connection of unitised panel and structure Compression -0.41

0.41 e Finite element model of a typical bay

MCCS_88

Facade system

Opaque and glazing unitized panels

Facade zone

450mm

Primary structure type

Steel frame

Secondary structure type

RHS steel sections

Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2)

0.28

Facade bracket type

Serrated plates; welded and bolted

Number of components in fixing system Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2)

Tension f

Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements

Thermal analysis

12 1.14

1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

1500

100

1’- 8”

2000

200

2500 mm

300

1:50 scale

500 mm

400

1:10 scale

1 5

m 0 m 1 "] 17 '-6 2 [0

m 5 m 1 "] 13 '-5 4 [0

5 m m ] 0 1 4" 16 0'-6 [

9 4

8

1

6

2

m 0 m "] 43 1'-5 [

7

g Vertical section. Connection of unitised panel and structure

h 3D view. Curtain wall unit with external GRC louvre

Details

m 5 m 1 "] 16 '-6 2 [0

5

GRC shadow gap panel Double glazed unit Extruded aluminium frame with metal faced panel GRC shading louvre Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Fixing bracket Extruded aluminium section Extruded aluminium support bracket for GRC shading louvre 9 Thermal break 10 Extruded aluminium cover capping 11 Waterproof membrane 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

5 mm1 "] 55 '-2 4 0 [

2 m 5 m 1 "] 13 '-5 4 [0

1

Vertical section. Junction between double glazed unit and spandrel panel

m 5 m 1 "] 33 '-1 4 [1

m 0 m 1 "] 17 '-6 2 [0

m 0 m 3 "] 53 '-8 4 1 [

m 0 m 1 "] 42 '-4 2 1 [

7 2

m Vertical section. Panel to panel connection

k Vertical section. Double glazed unit connecting to thin frame

207 .

57. 9

1

6000.

489.0 370.5

4

344 .9

252.0

83

5

134.6 2000.

86

13

15.1

65 528 .

10000.

607.4

38 328 .87

6

192 . 44

8000.

.10

4000.

18 8. 71

93 188 . 35

183 .

329 .32

23 8. 63

59.0 0

.64

346

155.81

33 2. 76

86 .6 3

213.40

21 7. 11 18 7. 73

694000. .4 4

306 .44

10000.

95 .1 9

8000.

186.12

202.73

162.97

204.36

6000.

169.29

184.04

195.62

166.86

173.51

173.42

174.08

2000.

6 -5 27 .1

169.89

172.54

171.29

.88 111

66 4. 92

52. 63

-25 1

49 5. 93 42 3. 76

-2 04 .8 9

32

0.

20 5. 03

169.50

162.86

166.58

51 0. 54

1

-10 5.8

-518.54

-534.28

.33

-8 3. 57 -1 52 .9 5 -1 52 .9 5

564.72

520.41

53 6. 20 41 2. 44

508.52

473.05

545.78

494.05

556.22

539.95

-435.58

-464.75

-499.17

-408.92 420.00 -478.14

-509.50

434.41 -437.93

-440.51

-428.51

MPa

66

138

494.72

102.89

-161 .44 -161 .44

459.77

42

34

430.06

. 165

415.23

607 .

91

147.94

157.97

310.33

295.

94

178.36

74.97

-397.98

174.85

330.

215.49

70.

67.

19. 55

139 .

136 .

112.43

198.19

17. 8

155.87

.76

33.

.27

86 9. 12 .08 164.11 111 6 .3 97

197.45

166.13

174

173

Structural analysis

44. 30 85. 07 47. 12 120 .67

26. 6

265.02

.47

.77 192 .43

192.94

.49

141.52

168.86

119.30

66.80

69.24

421.91

155.30

.07 237

75.59 106.62

.13 556

136.81

87

212 204.55

149.44

44.71

85.80

14 175. 52

151.44

158.40

175.39

.13 145

180.68

220.

179.55

204.89 172.24

185.17

59 88.

175.60 176.77

296.24

186.51 133.62

171.12

104.44

194.46

405.66

41.36

30.33

51.29

36.31

26.01

4.6

165.56

56.29

34.44

34.75

30.90

29.03

15.1

2000.

79.36

43.38

30.59

30.97

264.79

2.

43

30.1

-8000.

178.52 219.18

181.38

177.38 170.46

175. 81 148. 34

21

158.33

158.53

208.83

152.40

.88 253.51

531.31

427.17

-350.80

-330.81

9.8 9

155.59

179.78

174.18

160

223

41.33

179.99

184.12

215.55

121.50

179.82

181.

213

-559.10

-387.80

-12 1

147.15

338.24

184.12

261.27 .92 353

144.75

187.09

40.57

26.28

171.72

68.36

267.66

193.92 220.23

.46 327 36.51

.35

.52

195.72

201

11.85

188.80

-62 2

44.24

201.19

190.73

191.90

.49

38.44

201.58

115.17

412

21.84

191.00

39.99

66.05

58

215.95

.13

62

-415.87

45.2

193.96

69.46

.56

318.58

206

17.68

41

120.6

16 90.4 1. 37 -41 01 0.6 75.3 5. 8 23 447.70 60.3

.11

16.46

135.6

105.5

194.89

28.23

-376.24

-331.55

200.07

45.59

214 .27 -36 6.5 8

180.8

.98 165.8 -613.74 16 150.7 -475.90

269

286.71

208 .

185.64

43 7. 26

138.39

191.62

-467.65

224.70

-430.51

603

195.9

-409.39

211.0

144.39

182 .63

198 .

181.16

37 5. 32 31.96

425 .70 468 .60

Total utilization

99.52

67.59

214.12

213.08

418 .39 384 .66 319 .07 -65 2.5 7 -10 03. 98 209 .95

210 .

.57 525 .20 452

142

226.0

3.7 2

31

487.89

451.34

256.2

330.82

271.3 -535.9 3

500.

349.

-457.61

51 9. 3 -377.54 -25 .5 59 -2

301.4

-424.01

-447.95

316.5

431.81

74 32. 74 32.

-560.26

331.5

241.1

105

-550.15

-503.36

224.70 -503.36

-520.12

-419.91

-431.99

467.59

-242.66

.49

-232.62

0.

-475.49

361.7

286.3

05

-605.89

376.7

346.6

-243.13

4

-479.81

391.8

-506.3 5

-471.9

-402.56

406.9

-506.6 0

.65

-503.36

422.0

-504.0 5

-499

255.38

452.1 437.0

-514.6 4

73.92

-496

467.2

.19

630 .

-13.70

482.2

-513.2 1

-503.4 5

-82.04

-2000.

1 6.4 -22

-79.90

-4000.

-79.90

541.28

0 -163.0

-236.41

526.81

497.3 -183. 71

-183.78

-507.1 9 -510.1 6

0 6.4 -22

-82.03

-82.03

6

9 9.7

7 1.6

-0.30

4 6.9 -55 4 0.8 -53

-36

1.2 -49

-54

-0.00

458.77

-398.39 -542.16

-82.03

-448.42

-0.30

502.77

.67

-517.59

512.4

-499.8 3

62.08

9

-541.54

528.97

527.55

1 -54

6.8 -50

-547.75

481.55

450.10

-440.11 -545.97

484.44

2

-470.17

-0.30

-79.90

-79.89

-79.90

-522.28

453.46

-79.90

-544.45

.08

-549.16

.56

-547.42

468.96 475.80

505.08

545

504

455.98

-99.69

-497.16

-529.41

139 9

527.4

-489.3 4

-99.69

-99.69

-509.31

-0.28

9 8.

545.38

-541.77

-417.08

0.09

-548.66

444.24

1 -1

512.60

372.97

36

381.17

0.19

430.69

444.74

79.75

4

4

79.7

79.7

3

.38

79.7

384.96

422.57

531

.52

. 410

503

404.09

0.28 297.30

557.6 542.5

87.00

572.7

23 6. 75 41 .8 3

607.4 587.7

195.00

j

mm3 "] 65 '-2 4 [0

000.

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale

-6000. 4000.

-4000. 6000.

-2000. 8000.

0. mm

2000.

4000.

6000.

p maximum Beam Elements , v.Mises stress,Absolute of Design Case 901 GlobalMAX SIGMA, to , 1 (MPa) cm 3D = 500.0 N/mm2 (Max=607.4) n Axial force distribution in steel frame (kN) Vonvalues Mises stress distribution in Point steel___1frame Z

Y ments , Normal force Nx,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 2121 MAX-N BEAM Forces X in Beam Elemen to 2336 MIN-MT2 BEAM Forces in Beam cm 3D = 1000. kN (Min=-1220.) (Max=1399.)

M 1 : 67 X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Z * 0.962

8000.

mm

M 1 : 69 X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Z * 0.962

MCCS_89

So

alysis

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 03 Workshop Tower, Los Angeles 3

7 125 mm [0'-5"]

425 mm [1'-4 34 "]

2

205 mm [0'-8"] 205 mm [0'-8"]

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and opaque panel 130 m m [0'-5" ]

530 mm [1'-8 34 "]

560 mm [1'-10 14 "]

60 mm [0'-2 41 "]

250 m m [0'-10 "]

7

4480 mm [14'-8 21 "]

250 mm [0'-9 43 "]

a

250 m m [0'-10 "]

1

3

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and opaque panel at external corner

3

3 7

45 mm [0'-1 34 "] 25 mm [0'-1"]

9

9

5

135 mm [0'-5 12 "]

305 mm [1'-0"]

5

2

115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

b

195 mm [0'-7 34 "]

2

190 mm [0'-7 12 "]

270 mm [0'-10 34 "] 210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

c

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and opaque panel Thermal analysis

Solar radiation

d

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and opaque panel

kWh/m2 1000 833 667 500 333 167 Period

1 year

With shading

22.4 MWh

Without shading

28 MWh

Solar reduction

20%

MCCS_90

e Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system

f Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

10”

1’- 3”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

200

2000

300

2500 mm

400

500 mm

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

Details GRC shadow gap panel Double glazed unit Extruded aluminium frame with metal faced panel GRC shading louvre Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Fixing bracket Extruded aluminium section Extruded aluminium support bracket for GRC shading louvre 9 Thermal break 10 Extruded aluminium cover capping 11 Waterproof membrane 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2

7 1

3 6

g 3D view. Exploded components showing balcony detail 340 mm [1'-1 12 "]

2

EXT: 0°C

180 mm [0'-7"]

INT: 22°C

40 °C

Thermal performance analysis of a unitised curtain wall mullion Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

0 m

10

22 °C

Thermal analysis

30

Thermal analysis

k

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed units and inward opening window

Solar radiation

INT: 22°C

Structural analysis

Solar radiation

EXT: 40°C

j

Total utilization

135 m m [0'-5 1 4 "]

h Horizontal section. Junction between fully interlocked double glazed units

22

3

9

Structural analysis

210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

100 mm [0'-4"]

2

Total utilization

3

45 mm [0'-1 34 "]

9

45 mm [0'-1 34 "]

115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

2

200 mm [0'-7 34 "]

Thermal performance analysis of a unitised curtain wall mullion Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

MCCS_91

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 03 Workshop Tower, Los Angeles

2 3

6 1

4

a 3D exploded view showing louvre and rainscreen panel fixed to secondary structure

7

8

2

1

4

4

2

c 3D view of a typical bay

b 3D view showing louvre and rainscreen panel fixed to secondary structure

MCCS_92

MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

ALTERNATIVE: MAT15 REINFORCED CONCRETE

MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE MAT03 - MILD STEEL

MAT08 - GLAZING MAT07 - ALUMINIUM MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL MAT10 - THERMAL INSULATION MAT03 - MILD STEEL MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL

d 3D exploded view of facade components with material specification references

7

Details

1 3

GRC shadow gap panel Double glazed unit Extruded aluminium frame with metal faced panel GRC shading louvre Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Fixing bracket Extruded aluminium section Extruded aluminium support bracket for GRC shading louvre 9 Thermal break 10 Extruded aluminium cover capping 11 Waterproof membrane 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2

e 3D view showing louvre and rainscreen panel fixed to secondary structure

MCCS_93

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 04 Conference Center, Miami

MCCS_94

CONFERENCE CENTER MIAMI, FL, USA

25°45’42.0516” 80°11’30.4368”

N W

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

ENVIRONMENTAL

FACADE ZONE (mm)

1000

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

0.14

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

1.03

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.44

TESTING

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE STEEL TENSEGRITY CORE

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE STEEL T PROFILES

FACADE BRACKET TYPE STANDARD BOLTED PIECES

MCCS_95

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 04 Conference Center, Miami

MCCS_96

MCCS_97

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 04 Conference Center, Miami

2000 mm [6'-6 34 "]

2000 mm [6'-6 34 "]

1

4180 mm [13'-8 12 "]

4000 mm [13'-1 12 "]

Top view

1570 mm [5'-1 34 "]

1

1

3

11

1485 mm [4'-10 12 "]

7020 mm [23'-0 12 "]

4

2

2

3

Side view

3730 mm [12'-2 34 "]

3740 mm [12'-3 14 "]

Front view

2000 mm [6'-6 34 "]

2475 mm [8'-1 12 "]

3

1

Third angle projection. Scale 1:50 Bottom view MCCS_98

1625 mm [5'-4"]

2

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Composite panel Double glazed unit External UHPC louvre Internal FRP cladding Thermal insulation Cement board Aluminium glazing frame Waterproof membrane

4 3

4180 mm [13'-8 12 "]

3D view of the assembly

1

5

3

11

7020 mm [23'-0 12 "]

4

765 mm [2'-6"]

1770 mm [5'-9 34 "]

2

7

5

Side view

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

3730 mm [12'-2 34 "]

Pressed steel backing structure Mild steel primary structure Aluminium secondary structure Stainless steel fixing bracket Stainless steel fixing clip EPDM gasket Rubber based seal

Back view

1 10

3D view of the assembly MCCS_99

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 04 Conference Center, Miami

1 12 8 5

10

2

a Vertical section. Panel connection with primary structure

1

5 12

11

b Horizontal section. Panel connection with primary structure

1

c

Exterior view

MCCS_100

3

d

Typical Bay. 3D view

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

10”

6’ - 3”

1’- 3”

500

8’ - 4”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

200

2000

300

2500 mm

400

1:50 scale

500 mm

1:10 scale

5

1

10

10 1

5

12

e Vertical section. Panel connection with primary structure

f

3D view. External corner assembly

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Composite panel Double glazed unit External UHPC louvre Internal FRP cladding Thermal insulation Cement board Aluminium glazing frame Waterproof membrane

Pressed steel backing structure Mild steel primary structure Aluminium secondary structure Stainless steel fixing bracket Stainless steel fixing clip EPDM gasket Rubber based seal

3 4 11

g

Typical bay. 3D view

h

Interior view

MCCS_101

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 04 Conference Center, Miami

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

12 180 mm [0'-7"]

360 m m [1'-2 1 4 "]

9

c b Vertical section. Connection between panel and secondary steel tube

335 m m [1'-1 1 4 "]

115 mm 1 [0'-4 2 "]

9 215 mm 1 [0'-8 2 "]

a Horizontal section. Panel fixing system assembly

1

1

mm 180 7"] [0'-

m 240 m1 "] [0'-9 2

6 295 mm 1 [0'-11 2 "]

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

Vertical section. Connection between panel and secondary steel tube

75 mm [0'-3"]

130 mm 1 [0'-5 4 "]

10 120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

1 85 mm 1 [0'-3 2 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

10

10 175 m m [0'-7"]

195 m m [0'-7 3 4 "]

13

11

250 mm [0'-9 43 "]

205 m m [0'-8"]

25 mm [0'-1"] 80 mm [0'-3 41 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

55 mm [0'-2 41 "]

45 mm 3 [0'-1 4 "]

115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

6

14 [0' 0 mm -5 1 2 "]

145 m m [0'-5 3 4 "] 110 m m [0'-4 1 2 "]

140 mm 1 [0'-5 2 "]

120 mm [0'-4 43 "]

14

1 11 [0' 0 mm -4 1 4 "]

mm 175 '-7"] [0

85 mm [0'-3 21 "]

1

mm 115 1 "] [0'-4 2

1

10

e Vertical section. Connection between panel and secondary steel tube

f

Vertical section. Connection between panel and secondary steel tube

Details

12

11

Composite panel Double glazed unit External UHPC louvre Internal FRP cladding Thermal insulation Cement board Aluminium glazing frame Waterproof membrane

10

4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

170 mm [0'-6 43 "]

1

g Vertical section. Connection between panel and secondary steel tube

Facade system

Unitized glazing with FRP cladding

Facade zone

1000mm

Primary structure type Secondary structure type

Steel tensegrity core

5.

23

24 6. -2

96 4. 56 4.

-2

4 4.1

3.2

20 4. -1

6.

. -14

68

0

-28.

2.52

Facade bracket type Number of components in fixing system

-5.16 -5.72

-6.23

9

Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2)

X

Y

43000.

44000.

45000.

j

-9.05

-9.64 -10.16

-76.

-45.

09

91

-1

46000.

-11. 07 -76. 35

-1 .0 2

-0 .9 -1 9 .3 1 .6 3

47000.

-10.63

2. 21 1. 79 1. 4 1. 2 08

2. 17 1. 7 1. 6 4 1. 0 06

1. 07 0. 76 -0 .9 -1 7 -1 .29 .6 1

42000.

-8.36

-43.42

-45.46

-7.23

Z

-17.16

-41.87

-45.76

2. 15 1. 75

1.03

-16.83

-44.37

-6.96

19

-16.50

-44.93

-6.63

98

-16.

13

-40.06

-4.50

72

-15.

-27.00

-3.80

Standard bolted pieces

-15.

09

-27.81

-3.12

0.14

44 -15.

-28.

2.75

71

.12 -15

.11 -27

.4 8 -27 .82 -27

8 3.6

Steel T profiles

Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2)

MCCS_102

6

155 mm [0'-6"]

d Horizontal section. Panel fixing system assembly

h Finite element model of a typical bay

20 0 [0'- mm 8"]

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

345 mm [1'-1 12 "] 11 [0 5 m '-4 m 1 2" ]

13

180 mm [0'-7 1"]

105 mm [0'-4 41 "]

-1 .3 -1 4 .6 8

48000.

49000.

50000.

Axial force distribution in steel frame (kN)

51000.

52000.

Beam Elements , Normal force Nx,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 2121 MAX-N BEAM Forces in Beam Elemen to 2336 MIN-MT2 BEAM Forces in Beam Elem, 1 cm 3D = 50.0 kN (Min=-76.4) (Max=5.23)

1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

2000

200

300

2500 mm

500 mm

400

1

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

m 90 m 1 "] [0'-3 2

Pressed steel backing structure Mild steel primary structure Aluminium secondary structure Stainless steel fixing bracket Stainless steel fixing clip EPDM gasket Rubber based seal

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

m 5 m "] 15 0'-6 [

1

115 m [0'-4 1m 2 "]

10 1 70 m m [0'-6 3 4 "]

m m 3 4"] 95 '-3 [0

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale

455 m m [1'-6"]

10

265 m m [0'-10 1 "] 4

12

Vertical section. Connection between rainscreen facade and steel frame

k

2 m 1155 m1 [3'-9 2"]

880 mm [2'-10 3"] 4

m 185 m1 "] [0'-7 4

775 m1m [2'-6 2 "]

2 10

1 3

6

960 mm [3'-1 43 "]

m 150 m [0'-6"]

90 mm 3 [0'-3 4 "]

n

m 140 m1 "] [0'-5 2

1

Vertical section. Connection between rainscreen facade and steel frame

155 mm [0'-6"]

m 5 m "] 15 0'-6 [

1230 mm 1 [4'-0 2 "]

1

10

6

75 mm [0'-3"] 455 m m [1'-6"]

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

8.88

1.19

0.2

0.4

0.7

1.1

1.5

1.9

2.2

2.6

3.0

3.3

3.7

4.1

33.74

3.48

264000.

263000.

262000.

261000.

260000.

259000.

Maximum principal tension stress in Node,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 1 prova to 2033 1.2D+1.6Lr4+0.5w4, from 0.197 to 15.0 step 0.370 N/mm2

0.28

0.23

0.27

0.10

1.89

1.49 3 0.9

1.21

0.54

56 0.

0.80

2.41

0.13 6.47

0.10 1.53

1.14

2.23

3.98

0.39

1.30

2.40

1.64

0.92 5.58

0.12

0.74

0.10

0.29

0.09

0.09

5.32

2.04 2.23

2.39

1.13

0.10 0.45

0.12

0.93

0.41 6.35

r

Z

263000.

262000.

0.10

0.17 1.24

261000.

1.91

2.48

2. 41

2. 2

3

1. 86

1.69

6.0

4.5

3.0

2.2

0

0

Tension

0.62

0.32

1.55

1.67

260000.

Principal shear stress distribution in GFRP louvres (MPa)

Principal shear stress max.tau-xy (maximum membrane shear stress) from middle of element,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 1 prova to 2033 1.2D+1.6Lr4+0.5w4, from 0.0356 to 11.2 step 0.186 N/mm2

1.23 0. 37

0.09

0.11 0.37

5.84

1.11

0.17

1.61

0.88

6.11 0.15

Y X

6.7

1.32

2.31 0.91

0.56

1.26

264000.

9.0

5.95

0.09

0.39

1.01

0.11

0.14 1.11

265000.

9.0

1.56 0.19

0.14 0.98

12.0

-0.32

-21000.

1.86

1.11

0.52

11.2

-19000.

0.96 0.09

0.51

11.18

15.0

Compression

1.25 3.44

2.22

mm

M 1 : 26

3.89

0.69

o MPa

5.55

-20000.

265000.

Z

n MPa 14.15

q Principal tension stress distribution in GFRP louvres (MPa) Y X

Thermal analysis

9.99

0.7

0.9

11.84

1.1

1.6

1.3

1.8

4.2

4.7

4.5

4.9

5.1

5.4

5.6

5.8

6.0

6.2

6.5

6.7

6.9

7.1

7.4

7.6

8.0

7.8

8.2

8.5

8.7

8.9

9.1

9.4

9.6

9.8

10.0

34.31

2.0

12.71 0.88

3.03

0.79

1.11

98.53

3.92 10.3

1.53

1.72

31.14

1.85 1.01

4.81

1.01

0.74

3.61

10.5

5.23

1.11

38.59

2.80

0.67

0.72

2.2

1.67

1.34

33.56

2.5

0.83

53.03 2.52

1.02

2.7

0.69 127.86

6.03 1.19

0.91

10.51 1.50

Solar radiation

-21000. 0.84

3.8

1.25

1.48 4.07

7.03

9.99

4.0

1.16

3.18

10.7

4.4

-22000. 1.11

71.13

1.37

35.96 16.10

0.65

2.9

30.00

3.1

2.65

32.95

3.53

-20000.

3.79 0.74

1.77

1.45

4.10

1.46

0.85

-19000.

22.79

0.0

2.80

5.96

0.2

0.51

1.37

0.4

24.77

1.63

Structural analysis

26.68

-22000.

3.96

11.85

1.75

11.2 10.9

4.8

Total utilization

5.91

3.3

0.37

1.85

3.6

23.58 10.75

1.48

1.27

1.65

Totalfacade utilization Vertical section. Connection between louvre screen and steel frame

1.41

24.50

5.18

p

5.07 0.37

0.67

4

Vertical section. Connection between rainscreen facade and steel frame 5.2

5.6

5.9

6.3

6.7

7.0

7.4

7.8

8.1

8.5

8.9

9.3

9.6

9.9

10.4

10.7

11.1

11.5

11.8

12.2

m

0.48

1.79

98.84

265 m m [0'-10 1 "]

5

12.6

13.0

13.3

13.7

14.1

14.4

127.9 15.0

155 mm [0'-6"]

40.34

10

6 170 m m [0'-6 3 4 "]

115 m [0'-4 1m 2 "]

259000.

mm

M 1 : 26

s Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements

MCCS_103

Stru

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 04 Conference Center, Miami

10 1

12 1

12

10

b Vertical section. Rainscreen facade assembly at panel joints 1 12

10

a Vertical section. Connection between louvre screen facade and steel frame

c

Vertical section. Rainscreen facade assembly at external corner

Total utilization

Structural analysis

Thermal an

Solar radiation

kWh/m2 900 750 600 450 300 150

d Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system

MCCS_104

e Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

Period

1 year

With shading

15.3 MWh

Without shading

25.2 MWh

Solar reduction

39%

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

200

2000

300

mm 1570 3 "] [5'-1 4

2 0 5 mm [0'-8"]

1:10 scale

m ] 5m 1 " 26 '-10 2 [0

14 [0 5 m '-5 m 3 4" ]

335 m1m [1'-1 4"]

1:50 scale

500 mm

400

2

3

2500 mm

mm 1600 "] [5'-3

12

2

mm 195 3 "] [0'-7 4

145 mm 3 [0'-5 4 "]

1 195 mm [0'-7 34 "] 145 mm [0'-5 43 "]

205 mm [0'-8"]

10

365 mm [1'-2 41 "] 480 mm [1'-6 43 "]

1 5

h Vertical section. Supporting system at facade junction

g Vertical section. Supporting system at facade junction

m 145 m3 "] [0'-5 4

1

mm 205 8"] [0'-

mm 155 6 14"] [0'-

12

295 mm [0'-11 12 "] m 120 m3 "] [0'-4 4 m 195 m3 "] [0'-7 4

9

5

f

j

Vertical section. Facade section showing louvres and rainscreen panel

10

5 1

395 mm [1'-3 12 "]

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

k

Vertical section. Supporting system at facade junction

Vertical section. Supporting system at facade junction

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Composite panel Double glazed unit External UHPC louvre Internal FRP cladding Thermal insulation Cement board Aluminium glazing frame Waterproof membrane

Structural analysis

Structural analysis

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

195 mm [0'-7 34 "]

200 mm [0'-7 34 "]

195 mm [0'-7 34 "]

5 1 "] 10 '-4 4 [0

mm 190 12"] [0'-7

Total utilization

Total utilization

mm1 ] 895 11 4" [2'-

mm

13

Pressed steel backing structure Mild steel primary structure Aluminium secondary structure Stainless steel fixing bracket Stainless steel fixing clip EPDM gasket Rubber based seal

EXT: 0°C

EXT: 40°C

Solar radiation

Solar radiation

30

40 °C

m Thermal performance analysis of panels supported by secondary steel Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

INT: 22°C

0

11

22 °C

Thermal analysis

22

Thermal analysis

INT: 22°C

n Thermal performance analysis of panels supported by secondary steel Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

MCCS_105

COMPLEX GEOMETRY 04 Conference Center, Miami

3 2

7

4

11

a 3D exploded view showing louvre and glazed facade fixed to steel frame

1

2

3

1 11 4 4 2

1

b 3D view showing louvre and glazed facade fixed to steel frame

MCCS_106

3

c 3D view of a typical bay

MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE MAT07 - ALUMINIUM MAT08 - GLAZING MAT13 - SEALANTS MAT11 - GASKETS

MAT03 - MILD STEEL MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL

d

3D exploded view of facade components with material specification references

2

Details 3

9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Composite panel Double glazed unit External UHPC louvre Internal FRP cladding Thermal insulation Cement board Aluminium glazing frame Waterproof membrane Pressed steel backing structure Mild steel primary structure Aluminium secondary structure Stainless steel fixing bracket Stainless steel fixing clip EPDM gasket Rubber based seal

e 3D view showing louvre and glazed facade fixed to steel frame

MCCS_107

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 05 Technology Center, Las Vegas

MCCS_108

TECHNOLOGY CENTER LAS VEGAS, NV, USA

36°6’52.7292” 115°10’22.1268”

N W

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

ENVIRONMENTAL

FACADE ZONE (mm)

TESTING

425

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

N/A

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

1.57

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.39

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE STEEL SHELL

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE N/A

FACADE BRACKET TYPE SPIDER BRACKET WITH FOUR ADJUSTABLE ARMS

MCCS_109

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 05 Technology Center, Las Vegas

MCCS_110

MCCS_111

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

360 mm [1'-2 14 "]

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 05 Technology Center, Las Vegas

2

Top view 385 mm [1'-3 14 "]

4000 mm [13'-1 12 "] 200 mm [0'-8"]

275 mm [0'-11"]

2

7000 mm [22'-11 12 "]

2

8

100 mm [0'-4"]

10

Side view

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

8

100 mm [0'-4"]

Front view 900 mm [2'-11 12 "]

8

Third angle projection. Scale 1:50 MCCS_112

50 mm [0'-2"]

10

Bottom view

30 mm [0'-1 14 "]

60 mm [0'-2 14 "]

200 mm [0'-8"]

Details Glass balustrade GRC panel Fixing bracket Thin GRC rainscreen panel on proprietary fixing system 5 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 6 Waterproof membrane strip bonded to adjacent concrete slab 7 Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab 1 2 3 4

2

11

8

10

350 mm [1'-1 34 "]

3D details of glazing system

130 mm [0'-5"]

440 mm [1'-5 14 "]

100 m m [0'-4" ]

11

2

2

8

8

2590 mm [8'-6"]

2295 mm [7'-6 14 "]

11

10

Side view

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Back view

Double glazed unit Aluminium faced insulated panel with decorative finish Extruded aluminium frame forming unitised panel Extruded aluminium section Concrete slab Concrete upstand Silicone seal Extruded aluminium clip Thermal break

2

10 8

3D details of glazing system MCCS_113

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 05 Technology Center, Las Vegas

580 mm [1'-10 34 "]

365 mm [1'-2 12 "]

7 1

3

2185 mm [7'-2"]

435 mm [1'-5"]

1325 mm [4'-4"]

2

5

4

7

1325 mm [4'-4"]

3

50 mm [0'-2"]

270 mm [0'-10 34 "]

4

6 5

6

630 mm [2'-0 34 "]

255 mm [0'-10"]

335 mm [1'-1 14 "]

660 mm [2'-2"]

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

1360 mm [4'-5 12 "]

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

8

b Vertical section. Glass balustrade a Horizontal section. Rainscreen cladding at external corner 6

1

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

3

13

5

13

4

8 2

670 mm [2'-2 12 "] 5

c

d 3D view. Glass balustrade

Horizontal section. Connection between rainscreen cladding to primary structure

8

2

8

2 8

e

Exterior view

MCCS_114

f

Interior view

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

200

2000

300

2500 mm

400

500 mm

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

8 9 10 11

635 mm [2'-1"]

1180 mm [3'-10 12 "]

g Horizontal section. External corner showing insulated panels and unitised double glazed panels

6

3

370 mm [1'-2 12 "]

12 13 14 15 16

6

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

7

2

5

30 mm [0'-1"]

6

3

75 mm [0'-3"]

5

Glass balustrade GRC panel Fixing bracket Thin GRC rainscreen panel on proprietary fixing system Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Waterproof membrane strip bonded to adjacent concrete slab Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab Double glazed unit Aluminium faced insulated panel with decorative finish Extruded aluminium frame forming unitised panel Extruded aluminium section Concrete slab Concrete upstand Silicone seal Extruded aluminium clip Thermal break

370 mm [1'-2 12 "]

1 2 3 4

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

Details

8

215 mm [0'-8 12 "]

255 mm [0'-10"]

5

14

635 mm [2'-1"]

2

h Horizontal section. Small cladding panel and shadow gap

4

4

8

j

Typical bay. 3D view

k

Typical bay. 3D view

MCCS_115

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 05 Technology Center, Las Vegas

8

3

315 mm [1'-0 12 "]

10

340 mm [1'-1 14 "]

10

14

6

665 mm [2'-2 14 "]

6

8

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

55 mm [0'-2"]

14

3

b Vertical section. Connection of unitised double glazed panels to structure

a Vertical section. Unitised double glazed panels at external corner

Details

14

12

7

10 8

6 6

7 4

6

12

10

10 4

10

11

35 mm [0'-1 14 "]

3

Vertical section. Inclined unitised double glazed unit

e Vertical section. Curved unitised double glazed unit 1.

1.

Total utilization

97

2.1

0.4 2

1.12

13.9 1

13.1

9.74

4.31

-0.68

1.48

1.20

5.89

8.37

7.38

17.18

14.50

0.60

0.50

8

9.61

11.72

7.16

4.52

4

1.48

5 1.2

9

20.21

425mm

0.26 0.24 0.19

-

Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2)

-

Facade bracket type

Spider bracket with four adjustable arms

Number of components in fixing system

8

Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2)

1.57

23.07

-60000.

-58000.

-56000.

-54000.

Nodal displacement in local z,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 1471 MAXP-UX NODE Nodal Displacements to 1494 MINP-URB NODE Nodal

Y X

MCCS_116

Steel shell Thermal analysis

Secondary structure type

0.23

0.11

17.8

Facade zone

0.40 0.31

12.04

0.60

15.1

0.7 0

0.08

Z g Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements Displacement, 1 cm 3D = 30.0 mm

8

0.36

0.68 -62000.

6

23.91

19.76

5.82

24

Monolithic openjoined GRC rainscreen

19.28

-64000.

24. 9 24.8

0.7

76

1.81

-66000.

24.

22.21

3.20

9.44

9

8.52

Tension

22.

53

12. 66

2.55

3.00

Compression

Finite element model of a typical bay

12.

5

Facade system

Primary structure type Solar radiation

Structural analysis

0.78

f

71

79

1. 0. 03 94 0. 40 3. 4. 90 0. 18 04 2. 31 0. 0. 91 0. 20 26 1. 1. 76 41 0. 1. 0. 4 4. 70 3.2 1 41 54 9 1. 4. 6. 86 0. 89 69 63 6. 1. 9. 07 79 33 0. 7. 80 11 52 2. . 57 93 9 .3 3.3 0. 4 15 88 2 .1 0.5 1 9 9. 85 0. 17 2.7 89 .9 7 9 12. 0.8 4.5 02 20. 5 64 5

1. 12

1.

12 13 14 15 16

10000.

275 mm [0'-10 34 "]

d

8 9

8000.

7

8

115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

3 415 mm [1'-4 14 "]

14

6000.

Vertical section. Inclined unitised double glazed unit

4000.

c

5 12

Glass balustrade GRC panel Fixing bracket Thin GRC rainscreen panel on proprietary fixing system Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Waterproof membrane strip bonded to adjacent concrete slab Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab Double glazed unit Aluminium faced insulated panel with decorative finish Extruded aluminium frame forming unitised panel Extruded aluminium section Concrete slab Concrete upstand Silicone seal Extruded aluminium clip Thermal break

2000.

7

415 mm [1'-4 14 "]

3

415 mm [1'-4 14 "]

6

14 8

1 2 3 4

h Nodal displacements distribution in GRC panels (mm)

(Min=-23.1) (Max=25.0)

-52000.

mm

M 1 : 68

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

1500

100

1’- 8”

2000

200

2500 mm

300

1:50 scale

500 mm

400

1:10 scale

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

330 mm [1'-1"]

6 12

12

7 35 mm [0'-1 14 "]

16

55 mm [0'-2"]

7

415 mm [1'-4 14 "]

14

495 mm [1'-7 12 "]

35 mm [0'-1 14 "]

1590 mm [5'-2 12 "]

275 mm [0'-11"]

515 mm [1'-8 14 "]

3

10 8

10 8

3 14

k

250 mm [0'-9 34 "]

5

14

11

660 mm [2'-2"]

250 mm [0'-9 34 "]

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

6

50 mm [0'-2"]

2

l 170 mm [0'-6 34 "]

8

8

11

6

Vertical section. Connection between Inclined unitised double glazed panels to slab

55 mm [0'-2"]

Vertical section. Connection between Inclined unitised double glazed panels to slab

55 mm [0'-2"]

j

Horizontal section. Connection between unitised double glazed unit

675 mm [2'-2 12 "]

12

14 8

8 25 mm [0'-1"]

16 3

10

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

12

11 6

n

Horizontal section. Unitised double glazed unit assembly at parapet level with insulated cladding Solar radiation

30.97

16.06

42.7

31

-20000. -22000.

4

3. 39

.1 3

1 .7 6

-2 .9 5

0. 4

-4 .6 3

-6 .6 9

-9

.1

-24

3

-21.13

5

-18.94

-20. 25

-15.71

-26000.

-12.38

-11.61

18 . 54

-71.2

.18

-22. 82

9 7.0

-67.6

.5

0 .1 56 4 .0 46

-5 .7 8

-1 2

02 6. -1

-64.1

5 .3 17

-60.5

-81.5

-2

39

-57.0

0.76

87 8.

-49.8

11

-1 8. 72

-1 3.

26

26

2.28 -53.4 1.52

1

4.39

51

41 .6

3.81-46.3

22.65

-3 7. 49

6. 45

4.2 4

-4 0.

-42.7

5.14

-9 .5 8 -3 .9 6

3. 14

52

7. 1

8

6 .9 26

60.

-2 -1

.1

9. 20 34 33 .2 .1 9 5

. 36

41. 04

.4 2 -9 .2 0

24 .8 4

3 .0 6 18 .8 9

0

-5 5. 16

.9 4

72 4. -2

X

Y

.2

53

05 5.

Z

15

89

11 .

-6

0.5

79

-39.2

6.85

1.5 0.8

49.

.9 5

03

49

3 .6 11

2.3

-2 4

2.

10 .

13 .8 9

17 .8 6

48 1. -8

-35.6

4.6

3.0

-2

-1 4

-3 2.

13 12 .6 .9 9 0

-79 .

-32.0

5.3

5.5

-4 3

55

-24.9 -28.5

6.1

3.8

35

-21.4

12.18

4.57

-52.8

14

84

1 .7 14

6.9

-17.8

7.61

8.4 7.6

-10.7

9.13

9.1

-1 5. 95

-14.2

9.89

-24.1

9.9

6.6

19.03

11.42

12.2

10.7

16.75

-7.1

19 .

03 9. -2

3.81

-3.6

19.79

1

4.5

18.27

16 .8 1

-1 5. 27

.6 2

-0

1 2.

13.70

-1 4

60 .9 4

-2

15.98

28.26

0.0

-1 7. 44

6.

77

5.09

12.9

11.4

-1

7.1

21.54

13.7

12.7

10.7

7.

6.

14.5

14.2

3.6

16.0 15.2

17.8

20.57

4.57

16.7

18.8

-1

-1 -7 6. .7 57 1

-1 6.

-1

33.2

1.52

24.9

16 0. -5

17.5

20.93

6.85

28.5

21.4

20.42

6.85

19.8

18.3

19.79

32.0

95 7. -7 50 6. -6

20.6

24.9

17.51

6.09

6 .2 14

61.9

12.18

9.89

7.61

21.3

19.0

3.81

9.89

12.18

2

31.0 22.1

9.13

.4 26

22.8

35.6

10.66

23.6

5

24.4

kNm

.9

25.1

16

39.2 3.04

25.9

MPa

0.76 0.99

5 .6 11

46.3

0 .7 -3

49.8

-20000.

53.4

15.22

0 .9 10

6.09

4.57

5

7.91

3.83

60

26.6

60.9 57.0

3.04

r

27.4

Thermal analysis 3.76

3.81

7.

q

5.06

9 9.

28.2

-22000.

1.52

28.9

-24000.

31.0 29.7

-26000.

Structural analysis

p 3D view. Inclined unitised double glazed unit Horizontal section. Connection between unitised double glazed unit

-24000.

m

-74.8

-354000.

-352000.

q

-350000.

-348000.

-346000. -78.3 -81.5

Principal tension stress distribution in GRC panels (MPa)

-344000. -354000.

r

mm -352000.

-350000.

-348000.

-346000.

Bending moment distribution in steel frame (kNm)

-344000.

Maximum principal tension stress in Node,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 2101 MAX-MXX QUAD Forces in Quadrilat to 2616 MINE-NXY QUAD , Bending moment My,Absolute M 1 : 55 maximum values of Loadcase 2121 MAX-N BEAM Forces in Beam Elemen to 2636 MINE-MT2 BEAM Forces in Beam Elements Z X * 0.502 Forces in Quadrila, from 0.522 to 31.0 step 0.761 N/mm2 Y Beam Ele, 1 cm 3D = 50.0 kNm (Min=-81.5) (Max=60.9) Y * 0.906 X Z * 0.962

MCCS_117

mm

M 1 : 55 X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Z * 0.962

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 05 Technology Center, Las Vegas

10

4590 mm [15'-0 34 "]

315 mm [1'-0 14 "]

11

115 mm [0'-4 12 "] 50 mm [0'-2"]

5

235 mm [0'-9 14 "]

430 mm [1'-5"]

825 mm [2'-8 12 "] 580 mm [1'-10 34 "]

10

10

6 7

11

160 mm [0'-6 14 "]

3

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

8

10

825 mm [2'-8 12 "]

16 12

11

b Horizontal section. Double glazed unit

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

1

8

8

16

15

8

14

3

5

16

75 mm [0'-3"]

a Vertical section. Glass balustrade

c

Horizontal section. Double glazed unit

d Horizontal section. Double glazed unit

14 16

1 8

3

130 mm [0'-5 14 "]

10

16 5

760 mm [2'-6"]

7

12

7

6

75 mm [0'-3"]

10 50 mm [0'-2"]

12

140 mm [0'-5 12 "]

e Vertical section. Bottom detail of double glazed unit Structural analysis Total utilization

f

Vertical section. Connection of unitised double glazed unit to slab edge Thermal analysis

Solar radiation

kWh/m2 1300 1083

Period

With shading

Without shading

Solar reduction

1 year

25.2 MWh

36.4 MWh

31%

867 650 433 217

g

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system

MCCS_118

h

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

200

2000

300

2500 mm

400

1:50 scale

500 mm

1:10 scale

10 5 115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

660 mm [2'-2"]

315 mm [1'-0 12 "]

8

3 14

1

5 6

8

410 mm [1'-4 14 "]

10

910 mm [2'-11 34 "]

8

7 6

8 6

4

12

10

295 mm [0'-11 34 "]

3

k

Vertical section. Glass balustrade

m Vertical section. Junction of double glazed unit to slab edge

Horizontal section. Double glazed unit

3 16

14 255 mm [0'-10"]

5

Vertical section. Double glazed unit

Structural Solar radiation analysis

6

7

130 mm [0'-5 14 "]

10

9 Aluminium faced insulated panel with decorative finish 10 Extruded aluminium frame forming unitised panel 11 Extruded aluminium section 12 Concrete slab 13 Concrete upstand 14 Silicone seal 15 Extruded aluminium clip 16 Thermal break

1

Structural analysis

Structural Total utilization analysis

8

n

12

Total utilization

j

8

Total utilization

7

Glass balustrade GRC panel Fixing bracket Thin GRC rainscreen panel on proprietary fixing system Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Waterproof membrane strip bonded to adjacent concrete slab Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab Double glazed unit

115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

1 2 3 4

7

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

Details

340 mm [1'-1 14 "]

8 12

11

p 3D view. Parapet level

EXT: 40°C Solar radiation

22

30

40 °C

EXT: 0°C

Thermal Solar radiation analysis

INT: 22°C

0

10

22 °C

Thermal analysis

INT: 22°C

16

2 33 W/m

Thermal analysis

0 q

Left: Thermal performance analysis of a unitised curtain wall mullion Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

r

Top: Thermal performance analysis of a bracket connection Total energy flux across assembly varies at different build-ups

MCCS_119

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 05 Technology Center, Las Vegas

4

8 8 14

a 3D exploded view showing composite rainscreen fixed to steel frame

4

2

8

8

14

14

b 3D view showing composite rainscreen fixed to steel frame

MCCS_120

c 3D view of a typical bay

MAT03 - MILD STEEL MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL

MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

MAT08 - GLAZING MAT13 - SEALANTS MAT11 - GASKETS d 3D exploded view of facade components with material specification references

2

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Glass balustrade GRC panel Fixing bracket Thin GRC rainscreen panel on proprietary fixing system Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Waterproof membrane strip bonded to adjacent concrete slab Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab Double glazed unit

9 10 8

14

11 12 13 14 15 16

Aluminium faced insulated panel with decorative finish Extruded aluminium frame forming unitised panel Extruded aluminium section Concrete slab Concrete upstand Silicone seal Extruded aluminium clip Thermal break

e 3D view showing composite rainscreen fixed to steel frame

MCCS_121

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 06 Innovation Campus, Houston

MCCS_122

INNOVATION CAMPUS HOUSTON, TX, USA

29°44’59.6652” 95°21’30.3156”

N W

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

FACADE ZONE (mm)

ENVIRONMENTAL

TESTING

500

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

0.13

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

0.74

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.48

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE STEEL MOMENT FRAME

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE COLD FORMED STEEL SECTIONS

FACADE BRACKET TYPE CAST ALUMINIUM BRACKETS, BOLTED THROUGH UNITISED JOINTS

MCCS_123

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 06 Innovation Campus, Houston

MCCS_124

MCCS_125

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 06 Innovation Campus, Houston

2000 mm [6'-6 34 "]

150 mm [0'-6"]

200 mm [0'-7 34 "]

815 mm [2'-8"]

250 mm [0'-9 34 "]

250 mm [0'-9 34 "]

Top view

2000 mm [6'-6 34 "]

335 mm [1'-1 14 "]

2

1000 mm [3'-3 14 "]

2

13

90 m [0'-3 1m 2 "]

125 mm [0'-5"]

125 mm [0'-5"]

11

875 mm [2'-10 12 "]

6

14

10 mm 10 mm [0'-0 1 "] 4 [0'-0 14 "]

Side view

Front view

2550 mm [8'-4 12 "]

55 mm [0'-2"]

300 mm [0'-11 34 "]

340 mm [1'-1 14 "]

4000 mm [13'-1 12 "]

4

Third angle projection 1:50 MCCS_126

Bottom view

215 mm [0'-8 12 "]

3

Details 6

1 Anodised aluminium rainscreen wall panel 2 Anodised aluminium panel 3 Galvanised primary steel bracket 4 Galvanised steel supporting structure 5 Stainless steel bolts 6 Thermal insulation 7 Waterproofing membrane 8 Vapour barrier 9 Thermal break

15 13

3D view of assembly

4000 mm [13'-1 12 "]

1200 mm [3'-11 14 "]

105 mm [0'-4 14 "]

6

895 mm [2'-11 14 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

11

935 mm [3'-1"]

13

6540 mm [21'-5 12 "]

2

50 mm [0'-2"]

25 mm [0'-1"] 360 mm [1'-2 14 "]

11

11

575 mm [1'-10 43 "]

14

300 mm [0'-11 34 "]

Side view

10 11 12 13 14 15

Back view

2605 mm [8'-6 34 "]

13

Cement board Pressed steel backing structure Acoustic board Double glazed unit Aluminium glazing frame Galvanised steel connecting bracket

4

3D views of assembly MCCS_127

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 06 Innovation Campus, Houston 105 mm [0'-4"]

185 mm [0'-7 14 "]

390 mm [1'-3 1"] 2

60 mm [0'-2 12 "]

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

3 240 mm [0'-9 12 "]

6

135 mm [0'-5 12 "]

15

7

1

5 100 mm [0'-4"]

4

60 mm 1 [0'-2 2 "]

8 375 mm [1'-2 34 "]

1

195 mm [0'-7 12 "]

60 mm 1 [0'-2 2"]

m m 3 "] 20 '-0 4 [0

945 mm [3'-1 14 "]

3

105 mm [0'-4"]

145 mm [0'-5 34 "]

d Horizontal section. Panel connection detail with vertical joints

2

13

1

MCCS_128

150 mm [0'-6"]

1

Horizontal section. Rainscreen wall with vertical joints

Exterior view

7 4

13

e

8

120 mm [0'-4 34 "] 715 mm [2'-4 14 "]

50 mm [0'-2"]

4

655 mm [2'-1 34 "]

12

8

135 mm [0'-5 12 "]

5

6

7

1

175 mm [0'-6 34 "]

11

175 mm [0'-6 34 "]

6

185 mm [0'-7 12 "]

945 mm [3'-1 14 "]

c

105 mm [0'-4"]

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

1250 mm [4'-1 14 "]

5

125 mm [0'-4 34 "]

b Vertical section. Rainscreen wall with semi-interlocking horizontal joints

a Elevation. Rainscreen panel with fixing layout

f

Typical bay. 3D view

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

5”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

500

10”

50

750

100

1000

1250

150

mm

1:25 scale

250 mm

200

1:5 scale

Details 1 Anodised aluminium rainscreen wall panel 2 Anodised aluminium panel 3 Galvanised primary steel bracket 4 Galvanised steel supporting structure 5 Stainless steel bolts 6 Thermal insulation 7 Waterproofing membrane

5 3

4

g 3D view. Secondary steel tube section connecting to primary steel I beam

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Vapour barrier Thermal break Cement board Pressed steel backing structure Acoustic board Double glazed unit Aluminium glazing frame Galvanised steel connecting bracket

6

5 80 mm [0'-3 14 "]

80 mm [0'-3 14 "]

4

160 mm [0'-6 14 "] 3

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

150 mm [0'-6"]

5 mm [0'-0 14 "]

1655 mm [5'-5 14 "]

180 mm [0'-7 14 "]

15 7 8

11

6 5

11

3

4

140 mm [0'-5 12 "] 5

m Vertical section. Steel connection

375 mm [1'-2 34 "]

1565 mm [5'-1 12 "]

4

Horizontal section. Panel connection detail

j

140 mm [0'-5 12 "]

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

1

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

100 mm [0'-4"]

h 3D view. Exploded detail showing connection between secondary and primary structure

5

840 mm [2'-9"]

3

30 mm [0'-1 14 "]

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

11

565 mm [1'-10 14 "]

k

Horizontal section. Panel connection detail with vertical joints

2 2

13

13

13

n

Interior view

p

Typical bay. 3D view

q

Typical bay. 3D view

MCCS_129

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 06 Innovation Campus, Houston

m 0 m 3 "] 17 '-6 4 [0

13

m 0m ] 10 0'-4" [

6

m 680 m33 "] [2'-2 44

7

5

mm 1040 "] [3'-5

m 90 m 1 "] [0'-3 2

m 135 m1 "] [0'-5 2

15

4

m 455 m "] [1'-6

1 m 190 m1 "] [0'-7 2

m 200 m "] [0'-8

13

Vertical section. Corner junction of unitized glazing unit and opaque panel

b Vertical section. Junction between double glazed units

m 170 m33 "] [0'-6 44

3

4

13

5

14 270 mm [0'-10 34 "]

100 mm [0'-4"]

6

50 mm [0'-2"]

55 mm [0'-2"]

7

45 mm [0'-1 3434"]

11

5

30 mm [0'-1"]

40 mm [0'-1 1212"]

m 30 m ] [0'-1"

25 mm [0'-1"]

9

50 mm [0'-2"]

10 mm [0'-0 1212"]

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

13

7

250 mm [0'-9 3434"]

6 100 mm [0'-4"]

a

14 mm 100 "] [0'-4

11

11

15 mm [0'-0 1212"]

c Vertical section. Inclined double glazed unit connecting to slab edge

5 355 mm [1'-2"]

d Vertical section. Inclined double glazed unit connection at slab edge Total utilization Structural analysis

Solar radiatio

Compression -0.57 Facade system

Metal rainscreen with unitized glazing units

Facade zone

500mm

Primary structure type

Steel moment frame

Secondary structure type Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2)

Cold formed steel sections

Facade bracket type

Tension 0.57 e Finite element model of a typical bay

MCCS_130

f Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements

Number of components in fixing system Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2)

0.13 Cast aluminium brackets, bolted through unitised joints 6 0.74

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

5”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

500

10”

50

750

1000

100

1250

150

mm

250 mm

200

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

110 mm [0'-4 1414"]

m 80 m ] [0'-3"

e Horizontal section. Louvre fixed to glazing frame

m 10 m 11 "] [0'-0 22

Details 1 Anodised aluminium rainscreen wall panel 2 Anodised aluminium panel 3 Galvanised primary steel bracket 4 Galvanised steel supporting structure 5 Stainless steel bolts 6 Thermal insulation 7 Waterproofing membrane 8 Vapour barrier 9 Thermal break 10 Cement board 11 Pressed steel backing structure 12 Acoustic board 13 Double glazed unit 14 Aluminium glazing frame 15 Galvanised steel connecting bracket

m 75 m ] [0'-3"

4

m 5 m 1 "] [0'-0 4

m 95 m 3 "] [0'-3 4

6

5

14

9

11

m 15 m 11 "] [0'-0 22

m 20 m 33 "] [0'-0 44

m 20 m 33 "] 13 [0'-0 44

f

m 10 m 11 "] [0'-0 44

Vertical section. Junction between double glazed unit and insulated metal panel 13

11 m 45 m 33 "] [0'-1 44

14

3

m 100 m "] [0'-4

m 90 m 1 "] [0'-3 2

15 mm 1 "] [0'-0 2

5 4

m 165 m11 "] [0'-6 22 m 30 m ] [0'-1"

m 45 m 33 "] [0'-1 44

g

Vertical section. Double glazed units fixed to supporting frame with toggle connection and silicone sealed 9.4

7.19

9.2

6.79

8.9

6.39

8.7

5.99

8.4

1.20 0.80

48.86

0.40

48.78

0.00

-49.70 -49.78 -49.86 -49.95 -55.12 -55.21 -55.29 -55.37 -60.54

-0.40

-49.78 -49.86 -49.95 -50.03 -55.21

-60.73

-60.63

18000.

50.67 50.58 50.50 50.42

19000.

-5.69

-7.

-51.48

-51.56

-57.04

-3.20

-57.13 -57.21

-4.00

-57.29

-4.40

-62.61

-5.19

-62.70

-5.59

-62.79

-6.39

8.0

1.9

6.0

-1.1

4.0

81 -4. 2.5

-57.21 -57.29

8.73

-4.2

2.0

-62.70 -62.79

0.7

-3000.

23000.

-2000.

24000.

0.2

-1000.

0.1

15000. 2.23

4.59

3.49

2.98 0.99

7.56

4.17 133.53

0.50

6.20

4.71 6.70

6.54

3.01

4.63

-7.2

0.0

7.25 5.95

5.74

2.48

0.83

4.59

2.35

1.0

0.5

7.37

4.53

1.2

3.53

7.19

8.77

1.5

132.79

0.27

8.07

-4.82

1.7

4.18

0.64 8.68

4.49

2.0

-57.38

8.06

7.38

6.48

2.2

6.20 3.22

-7.03

2.7

7.19

8.65

7.53

3.0

5.95

6.30

-7.21

3.2

-57.13

14000.

21000. -6.88

3.5

-51.81

22000. -4000.

4.5

3.7 -7.02

-62.89

21000. -5000.

-6.53

4.0

-51.73

-51.73

-2.80

20 4.7 4.2

-51.65

-51.65

-2.40

20000. -6000.

5.0 4.59

0.83

132.76

0.27

-5.05 -5.69

-7.10 5.0

-51.56

-2.00

-7.21

5.5

3.37

1.74

4.18

0.64

-4.29

5.7

-6.52

-6.875.2

50.50

-1.60

6.30

6.0

50.58

7.17

4.71

-2.39

6.2 05

50.67

-1.20

-7.19

10.0

25000.

-5000.

0.

mm

1000. -4000.

2000. -3000.

3000. -2000.

4000.

-1000. 5000.

6000. mm 0.

1000.

2000.

3000.

Normal force Nx,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 2121 MAX-N BEAM Forces in Beam Elemen to 2336 MIN-MT2 BEAM Forces in Beam M 1 : 44 Beam Elements , Bending moment My,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase MAX-Nof BEAM Forces in 2Beam M 1 : 50 Z Sector system Group 10 Elemen to 2336 MIN-MT2 BEAM Forces in 50.0 kN (Min=-62.9) (Max=56.5) Z 2121 * 0.502 Y Beam Elem, 1 cm 3D = 6.00 kNm (Min=-7.21) (Max=8.77) Y Maximum principal tension stress in Node ,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 2101X MAX-MXX QUAD Forces in Quadrilat to 2316 MIN-NXY QUAD X Y * 0.906 X Z * 0.962 Forces in Quadrilat, from 0.0804 to 10.0 step 0.248 N/mm2

n Axial force distribution in steel frame (kN)

p

13000.

-5.

50.75

4.22

-1.26

29 6.4 -4.

56.07

-0.80

-6.79

40 -3. 6.7

56.16

-60.73 -5.99 -60.82

17000.

55.99

56.24

-55.46 -4.80

-60.64

16000.

56.07

-55.29 -3.60 -55.37

8.0

132.89

0.27

12000.

1.60

48.95

q MPa

11000.

2.00

49.03

56.16

4.18

0.99

-2.39

6.9

13000.

2.40

p kNm

10000.

48.70

2.80

54.19

-1.26

7.2

12000.

48.78

3.20

54.28

7.4

11000.

48.86

54.36

56.24

10000.

48.95

3.60

7.7

56.32

9000.

54.11

4.00

7.9

20000.

54.19

54.44

56.32

56.49 56.41

19000.

54.28

4.40

56.41

18000.

54.36

4.80

17000.

54.44

5.19

54.53

Structural analysis

8.2

5.59

54.61

Total utilization

16000.

133.5 10.0 9.7

7.59

22000.

8.77 7.99

14000.

m 20 m 33 "] [0'-0 44

9

54.53

14

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

50 mm [0'-2"]

13

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

135 mm [0'-5 14 "]

385 mm [1'-3 1414"]

Bending moment distribution in aluminium frame (kNm)

q

Principal tension stress distribution in aluminium louvres (MPa)

MCCS_131

4000.

mm

M 1 : 39 X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Z * 0.962

6 8

3 235 mm [0'-9 14 "] 230 mm [0'-9"]

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

680 mm [2'-2 34 "]

135 mm 1 [0'-5 2 "]

14

11

13

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

14 9 55 mm [0'-2 14 "] 195 mm [0'-7 34 "]

11

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

185 mm [0'-7 14 "]

mm 705 3 "] [2'-3 4 mm 280 "] [0'-11

mm 120 3 "] [0'-4 4

185 mm 1 [0'-7 4 "]

100 mm [0'-4"]

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 06 Innovation Campus, Houston

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

125 mm [0'-4 34 "]

13

a Vertical section. Junction with window

b Vertical section. Curtain wall connection to secondary structure

75 mm [0'-3"]

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

4

5

13

Total utilization

Structural analysis

460 mm [1'-6 14 "]

50 mm [0'-2"]

6 3

105 mm [0'-4"]

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and insulated metal panel

265 mm [0'-10 12 "]

c

11 13 20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

9

6

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

135 mm [0'-5 14 "]

1195 mm [3'-11"]

280 mm [0'-11"]

Thermal analysis

Solar radiation

d Vertical section. Curtain wall connection at slab edge kWh/m2 800 667 533 400 267 133

e

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system

MCCS_132

Period

1 year

With shading

12.8 MWh

Without shading

22.4 MWh

Solar reduction

43%

f

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

5”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

10”

500

50

750

100

1000

1250

150

mm

1:25 scale

250 mm

200

1:5 scale

Details

125 mm [0'-4 34 "]

14

100 mm [0'-4"]

9

90 mm [0'-3 12 "]

13

55 mm [0'-2 14 "] 20 mm [0'-0 34 "] 20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

1 Anodised aluminium rainscreen wall panel 2 Anodised aluminium panel 3 Galvanised primary steel bracket 4 Galvanised steel supporting structure 5 Stainless steel bolts 6 Thermal insulation 7 Waterproofing membrane 8 Vapour barrier 9 Thermal break 10 Cement board 11 Pressed steel backing structure 12 Acoustic board 13 Double glazed unit 14 Aluminium glazing frame 15 Galvanised steel connecting bracket

g Vertical section. Double glazed units fixed to supporting frame with toggle connection and silicone sealed

80 mm [0'-3"]

6

9

100 mm [0'-4"]

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

180 mm [0'-7 14 "]

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

14

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

13

125 mm [0'-4 34 "]

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

h Vertical section. Junction between double glazed unit and insulated metal panel

13

Horizontal section. Connection to external louvre

k

EXT: 40°C

Structural analysis

Structural analysis

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

5

Vertical section. Curtain wall connection at slab edge

EXT: 0°C

m Thermal performance analysis of a rainscreen cladding connection Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

INT: 22°C

0 n

10

22 °C

Thermal analysis

40 °C

Thermal analysis

30

Solar radiation

Solar radiation

INT: 22°C

22

55 mm [0'-2"]

6

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

9

100 mm [0'-4"]

3 10 mm [0'-0 14 "]

j

6 30 mm [0'-1"]

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

9 5 mm [0'-0 14 "]

10 m [0'-0 1m 4 "]

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

14

5

Total utilization

30 mm [0'-1 14 "]

Total utilization

m 15 m 3 "] [0'-0 4

70 mm [0'-2 34 "]

13

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

Thermal performance analysis of a rainscreen cladding connection Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

MCCS_133

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 06 Innovation Campus, Houston

14

11

13 2

15

a 3D exploded view showing louvre and glazing units fixed to secondary structure

c 3D view of a typical bay

13

14 2 14 13 2

b 3D view showing louvre and glazing units fixed to secondary structure

MCCS_134

MAT11 - GASKETS MAT08 - GLAZING

MAT01 ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

d 3D exploded view of facade components with material specification references

Details 1 Anodised aluminium rainscreen wall panel 2 Anodised aluminium panel 3 Galvanised primary steel bracket 4 Galvanised steel supporting structure 5 Stainless steel bolts 6 Thermal insulation 7 Waterproofing membrane 8 Vapour barrier 9 Thermal break 10 Cement board 11 Pressed steel backing structure 12 Acoustic board 13 Double glazed unit 14 Aluminium glazing frame 15 Galvanised steel connecting bracket

14 13

e 3D view showing louvre and glazing units fixed to secondary structure

MCCS_135

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 07 Entertainment Complex, Los Angeles

MCCS_136

ENTERTAINMENT COMPLEX LOS ANGELES, CA, USA

34°3’8.0460” 118°14’37.2588”

N W

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

FACADE ZONE (mm)

ENVIRONMENTAL

TESTING

Up to 1350

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

0.08

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

1.78

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.22

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE CONCRETE FRAME

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE EXTRUDED ALUMINIUM PROFILES

FACADE BRACKET TYPE SERRATED PLATES; POST DRILLED ANCHORAGES

MCCS_137

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 07 Entertainment Complex, Los Angeles

MCCS_138

MCCS_139

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 07 Entertainment Complex, Los Angeles INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION

35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

2000 mm [6'-6 34 "]

6 Third angle projection

3

Top view 4000 mm [13'-1 12 "]

18 [0 5 m '-7 1 m 4 "]

740 mm [2'-5 14 "]

740 mm [2'-5 14 "]

2125 mm [6'-11 34 "]

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

235 mm [0'-9 14 "]

12

3

50 mm [0'-2"]

15 mm [0'-0 34 "]

1965 mm [6'-5 14 "]

1

2180 mm [7'-1 34 "] Front view 110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

305 mm [1'-0"]

1520 mm [5'-0"]

400 mm [1'-3 34 "]

Side view

1

Third angle projection 1:50. MCCS_140 MCCS_140

Bottom view

Details Ultra high performance concrete panel Galvanised primary steel bracket Galvanised steel supporting structure Stainless steel bolts Thermal insulation Waterproofing membrane Vapour barrier

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

3

1

2200 mm [7'-2 12 "]

220 mm [0'-8 34 "]

175 mm [0'-7"]

3D detail view

220 mm [0'-8 34 "]

3

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

10

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

305 mm [1'-0"]

Side view

8 9 10 11 12 13 14

115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

Thermal break Cement board Pressed steel backing structure Acoustic board Double glazed unit Aluminium glazing frame Galvanised steel connecting bracket

Back view

12

3D detail view MCCS_141 MCCS_141

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 07 Entertainment Complex, Los Angeles

5115 mm [16'-9 12 "]

9

12

14

350 mm [1'-2"]

1315 mm [4'-3 34 "]

210 mm [0'-8 41 "]

5

a Horizontal section. Panel connection with primary structure 1

5

1410 mm [4'-7 12 "]

mm 1250 1 "] [4'-1 4 660 mm [2'-2"]

10

b Elevation. Facade buildup

1

10

c

Typical bay. 3D view

MCCS_142

d

Exterior view

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

200

2000

300

2500 mm

1:50 scale

500 mm

400

1:10 scale

1 460 mm [1'-6"]

280 mm [0'-11"]

215 mm [0'-8 12 "]

1

30 mm [0'-1"]

150 mm [0'-6"]

14

5

5 12 9

175 mm [0'-7"]

9

150 mm [0'-6"]

e Horizontal section. Panel supported on carrier rail

f

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and opaque panel

1

200 mm [0'-7 34 "]

9

9 185 mm [0'-7 14 "]

250 mm [0'-9 34 "]

30 mm 1 [0'-1 4 "]

85 mm 1 [0'-3 2 "]

5

15 mm 1 [0'-0 2 "]

13

12

335 mm [1'-1 14 "]

g Vertical section. Junction between double glazed unit and opaque panel

12

j

Interior view

225 mm [0'-9"]

Details 8 Thermal break 9 Cement board 10 Pressed steel backing structure 11 Acoustic board 12 Double glazed unit 13 Aluminium glazing frame 14 Galvanised steel connecting bracket

50 mm [0'-2"]

1 Ultra high performance concrete panel 2 Galvanised primary steel bracket 3 Galvanised steel supporting structure 4 Stainless steel bolts 5 Thermal insulation 6 Waterproofing membrane 7 Vapour barrier

5

h

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and opaque panel

k

Typical bay. 3D view

MCCS_143

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 07 Entertainment Complex, Los Angeles 615 mm [2'-0"]

5

10 9

125 mm [0'-5"]

330 mm [1'-1"]

5

170 mm [0'-6 34 "]

200 mm [0'-7 34 "]

7

14

1

100 mm [0'-3 34 "]

13

470 mm [1'-6 12 "]

a Horizontal section. Rainscreen panel supported by backing wall

b Horizontal section. Internal corner

320 mm [1'-0 12 "]

10

205 mm [0'-8"] 125 mm [0'-5"]

c

Ultra high performance concrete panel Galvanised primary steel bracket Galvanised steel supporting structure Stainless steel bolts Thermal insulation Waterproofing membrane Vapour barrier Thermal break Cement board Pressed steel backing structure Acoustic board Double glazed unit Aluminium glazing frame Galvanised steel connecting bracket

Total utilization

105 mm [0'-4 14 "]

5

180 mm [0'-7"]

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

5

215 mm [0'-8 12 "]

Structural analysis

Solar radiation

d Horizontal section. External corner

Vertical section. Rainscreen panel supported by backing wall Compression -0.31

Facade system

UHPC open-joint rainscreen with full height stick glazing

Facade zone

Up to 1350mm

Primary structure type

Concrete frame

Secondary structure type Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2)

Extruded aluminium profiles

Facade bracket type

Tension 0.31

e Finite element model of a typical bay

MCCS_144

f Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements

Number of components in fixing system Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2)

0.08 Serrated plates; post drilled anchorages 8 1.78

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

100

1’- 8”

1500

200

2000

300

2500 mm

1:50 scale

500 mm

400

1:10 scale

12

110 mm [0'-4 12 "]

m m 1 "] 4 0 16 0'-6 [

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

5

13

12

5 265 mm [0'-10 12 "]

200 mm [0'-7 34 "]

460 mm [1'-6"]

200 mm [0'-7 34 "]

7

9

j

Horizontal section. External corner

45 mm [0'-1 34 "]

13 25 mm [0'-1"]

13

145 mm [0'-5 34 "]

12

g Horizontal section. Panel connection

12

h Horizontal section. Double glazed unit connection

k

Vertical section. Double glazed units

115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

8 45 mm [0'-1 34 "]

1.08

0.

92 7.9 0.

98

1.06

7.4 0.89

1. 01 1.07

5

0.3 3

4

-3.8

4.1

0.50

2.9

1.0

2 0.9

98

0.

1.2

19000. 14000.

1.10 1.01

20000. 15000.

0.83

21000. 16000.

1.06

04

18000.

1.7

9.51

5.79

1.00

22000. 17000.

5.97 -6.7 -7.2 -7.7

5.88

-8.1

23000. 18000. -8.6

16.97

6.29

6.13

-8.09

1.40

24000. 19000. 0.

5.92

52 -0.

6000. 64

1

-6.37 -5.14

10.34

10.2 2.9

0.5

6.8

-0.9

0.2

3.4

-4.8

0

0

-8.6

0. 0.0

-7.35

1.65

0.7

5000.

3 0.6 -0.

13.6 6.8

-3.67 -1.96

6.33

2.48 5.60

-8.58

6.09

1.0

-2000.

4000.

1.93 6.17

5.37 4.13

47 -0. -7.16

7.44

-6.2

1.

17000.

2.1

-5.3 -5.8

2.5

0.89

12.82

-5.47

5.97

2.06

13.64

-4.8

83 0.

8.27

6.61

1.75

14.47

-4.3

0. 59 0. 71

0. 27

0.4

53 0.

0.27

5.0 24 0.

1.60

14.88

1.85 -2.9 -3.4

6.08

16.92 15.71

-1.9

5.4

3.3

1.06

5.71

-2.4

3.7

0.98

-1.0 6.41 -1.4

0.04

6.44

2.48

-0.5

5.8

4.5

4.55

6.45

0.94

-3.49

9.92 6.20

0.0

0.126.2

0. 71

11.16

4.33

0.5

0.09

0. 06 6.6

-1.24

1.0

1.05 0.9

0.13

7.0

1.30

2.89

17.0 10.6

-4000.

1.04 0.96

11.99

1.4

0.77

0.86

8.7 8.3

13.23

1.9 4.96

9.1

0.89

9.92

6.61

1.2

25000. 20000.

mm

6.31

3.72 5.90

5.97

21000. 2000.

6.11

-6000.

9.5

2.4

4000.

0.21

62 0.

9.9

2.9 3.31

59 0.

7.21 4.12

3000.

15 0.

0.18

10.3

0.8 6

1.95

3.4

47 0.

10.7

10.59

1.65

3.8

11.2

15.71

s q r MPa MPa kNm

4.22

1.15

14.88

4.3

11.6

1.91

5.20

16.54

1.24

4.8

4.99

17.57

1.03

5.3

4.97

1.72

4.55

5.57

1.28

1.17

0.10

0. 74

4.97

17.51

6.7

1.09

12.0

2

1.72

2.89

7.2 5.56

5.8

12.4

0. 30

7.7

6.2

0.49

12.8

0. 4

0.08

3.47

3.51

4.97

Solar radiatio

2000.

13.2

1.21

06 0.

3.48

4.96

4.90

0.39

13.6

6.61

3.52

Structural analysis

4.77

9.68

0.

1.21 0.07

14.1

8.1

8.27

3.72

5.12

9.68

6000.

1

14.5

0.03

6

0.98

1.0

1.16

0.74

0.39 14.9 0.0

8.6

1.04

15.3

0.12

9.6 9.1

15.7

1.21

5.13

3000.

59

0. 16.1

Total utilization 10.6 10.1

5000.

39

16.5

0.29

1000.

50 0.

0.72

n Horizontal section. Double glazed units fixed to supporting frame

2000.

17.6 16.9

0.72

0.

36 0.

Horizontal section. Connection between unitized double glazed units with glazing fixed from outside

Vertical section. Unitised panel hung from top of slab

12

0.

m

p

8

12

180 mm [0'-7 14 "]

12

1000.

13

13

13

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

145 mm [0'-5 34 "]

180 mm [0'-7 14 "]

5

5.96

22000.

4000. 23000.

24000.

6000. 25000.

mm

8000.

10000.

r BeamPrincipal s 305 tension distribution Bending moment q Principal shear stress distribution Sector of system Group 6...9 11 Elements , Bending moment maximum values of Loadcase Wind suction on frame todistribution 1121 M 1stress : My,Absolute 47 M 1MAXP-N : 47 BEAM Forces in Beam Eleme, 1 cm Z Z Y maximum (maximum membrane shear stress) fromY middle of element,Absolute principal tension maximum stress values in Node of Loadcase ,Absolute 2101 3D = 10.0 QUAD values kNm (Min=-8.58) of Loadcase (Max=10.6) 2101 MAX-MXX QUAD Forces in Quadrilat to 2316 MIN-NXY QUAD X Maximum X MAX-MXX in glazing panels (MPa) in aluminium frame (kNm) in glazing panels (MPa) Y QUAD Forces in Quadrilat, from 0.0268 toForces 1.21 step in Quadrilat, 0.0297 N/mm2 from 1.03 to 17.6 step 0.413 N/mm2 MCCS_145

mm

M 1 : 53 X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Z * 0.962

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 07 Entertainment Complex, Los Angeles

45 mm [0'-1 34 "]

12

Details

11

180 mm [0'-7 14 "]

12

13

9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

m 5 m 3 "] 24 '-9 4 [0

45 mm [0'-1 34 "]

mm 25 '-1"] [0

25 mm [0'-1"]

13 5

Ultra high performance concrete panel Galvanised primary steel bracket Galvanised steel supporting structure Stainless steel bolts Thermal insulation Waterproofing membrane Vapour barrier

115 mm [0'-4 12 "] 60 mm [0'-2 12 "] 315 mm [1'-0 12 "]

b Horizontal section. External corner

1075 mm 1 [3'-6 4 "]

3

1

9

1

15 mm [0'-0 34 "]

d Horizontal section. Double glazed unit connection at external corner

1405 mm [4'-7 41 "]

14 900 mm [2'-11 14 "]

m 5 m 1 "] 28 11 4 [0'

5

13

25 mm [0'-1"]

mm 25 '-1"] [0 mm1 ] 80 -3 4" [0'

m 0 m 3 "] 78 '-6 4 [2

2995 mm [9'-9 34 "]

m 5 m 1 "] 28 11 4 [0'

a Horizontal section. Double glazed units fixed to supporting frame

9

12

5

675 mm [2'-2 12 "]

c

Horizontal section. Panel supported by secondary structure

Total utilization

e

Vertical section. Junction between double glazed Thermal analysis Solar radiation unit and opaque panel

Structural analysis

kWh/m2 1400 1167 933 700 467 233

f

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system

MCCS_146

g

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

Period

1 year

With shading

19.4 MWh

Without shading

39.2 MWh

Solar reduction

51%

1:10 scale

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 5”

10”

6’ - 3”

1’- 3”

500

8’ - 4”

100

1’- 8”

2960 mm [9'-8 12 "]

1500

200

265 mm [0'-10 12 "]

12 1

2000

300

8 9 10 11 12 13 14

470 mm [1'-6 12 "]

1030 mm [3'-4 12 "]

1000

2500 mm

400

1:50 scale

500 mm

1:10 scale

Thermal break Cement board Pressed steel backing structure Acoustic board Double glazed unit Aluminium glazing frame Galvanised steel connecting bracket

h Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and outward opening window

130 mm [0'-5"]

12

1

125 mm [0'-5"]

12

1655 mm [5'-5 14 "]

14

185 mm [0'-7 14 "]

1020 mm [3'-4 14 "]

EXT: 40°C

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

k

INT: 22°C

Vertical section. Junction between double glazed unit and opaque panel

EXT: 0°C

INT: 22°C

Solar radiation

Solar radiation

40 °C

Thermal performance analysis of a unitised curtain wall mullion Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

0 n

10

22 °C

Thermal analysis

m

30

Thermal analysis

22

350 mm [1'-1 34 "]

Structural analysis

Structural analysis

Elevation. Rainscreen facade buildup

Total utilization

Total utilization

1040 mm [3'-5"]

j

675 mm [2'-2 12 "]

3275 mm [10'-9"]

400 mm [1'-3 34 "]

1

Thermal performance analysis of a unitised curtain wall mullion Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

MCCS_147

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 07 Entertainment Complex, Los Angeles

5

3

1

13

12

a 3D exploded view showing louvre screen facade fixed to aluminium frame

1

1

12 12

b 3D view showing louvre screen facade fixed to aluminium frame

MCCS_148

c 3D view of a typical bay

MAT10 - THERMAL INSULATION

MAT07 - ALUMINIUM MAT07 - ALUMINIUM MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

MAT07 - ALUMINIUM

MAT08 - GLAZING MAT13 - SEALANTS MAT11 - GASKETS MAT07 - ALUMINIUM

d 3D exploded view showing facade components with material specification references

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Ultra high performance concrete panel Galvanised primary steel bracket Galvanised steel supporting structure Stainless steel bolts Thermal insulation Waterproofing membrane Vapour barrier Thermal break Cement board Pressed steel backing structure Acoustic board Double glazed unit Aluminium glazing frame Galvanised steel connecting bracket

5

1

12

e 3D view showing louvre screen facade fixed to aluminium frame

MCCS_149

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 08 International Terminal, Houston

MCCS_150

INTERNATIONAL TERMINAL HOUSTON, TX, USA

29°44’59.6652” 95°21’30.3156”

N W

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

FACADE ZONE (mm)

ENVIRONMENTAL

TESTING

Up to 3000

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

0.35

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

1.48

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.20

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE STEEL ARCHES AND CABLES

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE CABLE / RHS STEEL SECTIONS

FACADE BRACKET TYPE SPIDER BRACKET WITH FOUR ADJUSTABLE ARMS SERRATED PLATES; WELDED AND BOLTED

MCCS_151

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 08 International Terminal, Houston

MCCS_152

MCCS_153

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 08 International Terminal, Houston

1210 mm [3'-11 12 "]

160 mm [0'-6 12 "]

175 mm [0'-7"] 5

5

8

Top view

3840 mm [12'-7 14 "]

235 mm [0'-9 14 "]

3310 mm [10'-10 14 "]

5

6830 mm [22'-5"]

8

Side view

Front view

5

Third angle projection. Scale 1:50 MCCS_154

Bottom view

995 mm [3'-3"]

8

Details 1 Metal parapet flashing 2 Double glazed unit with integrated blind 3 Slab edge 4 Aluminium faced insulated panel 5 Extruded aluminium section set into unitised frame 6 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall

5

8

265 mm [0'-10 14 "]

235 mm [0'-9 14 "]

3D view of detail

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

8

300 mm [0'-11 34 "]

5

Side view

7 Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab 8 Double glazed unit 9 Unitised glazing frame 10 Thermal break 11 Extruded aluminium pressure plate 12 Rubber based seal 13 Ceiling finish

Back view

8

5

3D views of assembly MCCS_155

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 08 International Terminal, Houston 1165 mm [3'-9 34 "]

1155 mm [3'-9 21 "]

1 1

6 210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

735 mm [2'-5"]

365 mm [1'-2 12 "]

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

6

5

285 mm [0'-11 14 "]

5

685 mm [2'-3"]

1545 mm [5'-1"]

8

205 mm [0'-8"]

665 mm [2'-2 14 "]

8

210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

b Vertical section. Metal parapet flashing and louvre

a Vertical section. Metal parapet flashing and louvre 900 mm 1 [2'-11 2 "]

1 895 mm [2'-11 14 "]

1

4 565 mm [1'-10 14 "]

210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

665 mm [2'-2 14 "]

6

340 mm [1'-1 12 "]

8

250 mm [0'-10"]

665 mm [2'-2 14 "]

c

d

Vertical section. Parapet

Vertical section. Parapet

4

e

Exterior view

MCCS_156

f

Interior view

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

7’ - 1/2”

5”

1

10”

500

50

60 mm [0'-2 12 "]

80 mm [0'-3 14 "]

2’ - 1/2”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

750

100

1000

150

1250

200

mm

250 mm

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

1 4

6

4

365 mm [1'-2 12 "]

5

g Vertical section. Metal parapet flashing and louvre

70 mm [0'-2 34 "]

30 mm [0'-1"]

6

8

j

15 mm [0'-0 21 "]

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

h 3D view. Connection between aluminium panel and secondary structure

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

Vertical section. Metal parapet flashing

Details 1 Metal parapet flashing 2 Double glazed unit with integrated blind 3 Slab edge 4 Aluminium faced insulated panel 5 Extruded aluminium section set into unitised frame 6 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall

7 Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab 8 Double glazed unit 9 Unitised glazing frame 10 Thermal break 11 Extruded aluminium pressure plate 12 Rubber based seal 13 Ceiling finish

8

3

k

Typical bay. 3D view

m

Typical bay. 3D view

MCCS_157

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 08 International Terminal, Houston 40 mm [0'-1 34 "] 210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

5

125 mm [0'-5"]

7

3

285 mm [0'-11 14 "]

3

8

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

275 mm [0'-11"]

275 mm [0'-10 34 "]

7

500 mm [1'-7 12 "]

13 8

13 5

5

3

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

b Vertical section. Facade profile at floor slab level

345 mm [1'-1 12 "]

160 mm [0'-6 14 "]

a Vertical section. Facade profile at floor slab level

3 280 mm [0'-11"]

500 mm [1'-7 12 "]

8

8

mm1 ] 35 -1 2" [0'

13

13

5

Total utilization c

Vertical section. Facade profile at floor slab level

Structural analysis

Solar radiat

d Vertical section. Facade profile at floor slab level Compression -0.67 Facade system

UHPC rainscreen with glazing unitized panels

Facade zone

Up to 3000mm

Primary structure type

Steel arches and cables

Secondary structure type Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2) Facade bracket type

Tension 0.67 e Finite element model of a typical bay

MCCS_158

f Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements

Number of components in fixing system Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2)

RHS steel sections 0.15 Serrated plates; welded and bolted 5 1.48

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

5”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

10”

500

750

50

1000

100

150

1250

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

250 mm

200

160 mm [0'-6 12 "]

8

mm3 ] 95 -3 4" [0'

11

h Vertical section. Extruded aluminium section set into unitised frame

j

Vertical section. Extruded aluminium section set into unitised frame

75 mm [0'-3"]

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

mm 75 '-3"] [0

11

g 3D view. Rainscreen cladding

k

mm

5

m

Vertical section. Extruded aluminium section set into unitised frame

Vertical section. Extruded aluminium section set into unitised frame

Details 1 Metal parapet flashing 2 Double glazed unit with integrated blind 3 Slab edge 4 Aluminium faced insulated panel 5 Extruded aluminium section set into unitised frame 6 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 7 Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab 8 Double glazed unit 9 Unitised glazing frame 10 Thermal break 11 Extruded aluminium pressure plate 12 Rubber based seal 13 Ceiling finish

8

665 mm [2'-2 14 "]

5

5

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

4

4

35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

8

13

13

p

18000.

5

87000.

0.

88000.

3 2. 1

17000.

2.6

182.3

-2.9

138.1

-8.4

94.0

-13.9

50.0

-19.4

5.7

89000.

-10000.

71 .0 0

16000. 15000. 14000.

40 .6 6

7

13000.

6. 3

22

2000.

-14000.

12000. 40

6

2.

-2000.

86000.

226.4

-8000.

5 2. 8

58.37 99.72

7.

85000.

0

127.27 158.27

r Axial force distribution in steel frame (kN)

8.1

97 .5 4 60 .4 4

57 .6

5. 4

-2.92

0

74 .5 2

2

13 6.

110.95 135.39

s MPa

91 34 1. 3. 10 18

66.33 47.71

163.37

q kNm

01

151.80

-2.91

Solar rad

2. 8

8

119.24

-2.89

49

5. 7

89.47

-2.87

02 5. 13

0.02

-14.09

13

-8000. -10000. -12000.

0.86

8 -0.0

0.04

0.94

-14000.

-13.99

-14.18

64.00

-1.13

-10.67

-4000. mm

37.71

-1.08

0.00

84000.

-1.05

-10.76

56.02

38 .7

181.65

-14.04 -14.13

-2.60

0.01

-6000.-4000. 0.0 83000.

-2.58

0.01

-17.38

5.7 -17.47

-2.57

0.02

11.3

-17.43

58.36

39.30

75.97

-13.95

22.6 -17.28

-10.58

53.67

59.48

-10.71

-9.19 -9.29

-9.34

60.53

.9 8

57.06

-10.63

-13.02 -13.11

-2.55

Structural analysis

104.91

-10.54

-12.93

0.02

0.00

81000.

-2000. 82000.

0.01

79000.

q Bending moment distribution in steel frame (kNm)

28.3

-9.24

-9.29

-17.24

-17.3317.0

-10.38

0. 80000.

39.6

-1.46

-11.48

-0.84

55.78

201.84

0.16

0.11

0.16

-0.24

-0.31

-10.34

45.3

-12.98 -13.07 34.0

-11.33 -11.43

-9.14

58.67

79.01

2

78000.

-10.29

0.17

-10.25

-3.66

59.58

-0.80

-2.46

50.19 54.98

63.46

58.31

-0.78

-2.41

-3.65

-2.97

5.61

72

9 .5

.3

-7.23 -10.20

-10.48

2000.

56.6

-12.89 50.9

-2.31

-3.63

53.05

60.56

55

-0

4000.

67.9

62.3 -11.43

-6.26 -7.14

73.6

-11.38

-6.16

77 2.

51 4.

79.2

-11.28

2.55

48.67

29.53

8 53.71 .6 96 124.61

-6.06

22 0 3. 7 .9 .7 -0 -1 6 .3 5 -5 .5 -1 4 0 .7 7 9 9 6 . 7 2. -4 .4 34 -1 3 4. .8 -1 2 -9 .6 14 -4 9. 50 -1 4. 4 -1 .7 8 25 -9 3 . . 0 9 40 -1 4. -1 3 28 .0 9. -0 -1 52 4.

07 6.

-1.78

-1.24

5.86 5.76

149.59

0 .7 -0 7 .7 -2

2.56

-3.62

-2.87

84.9

2.58

58.78

43.19

5.71

2.59

-1.21

-2.77

-1.7790.5

0.66

179.74

19 0.

-1.7596.2

-1.14

7.08

-1.18

3.62

-1.70101.9

-1.04

14 1.

3.63

107.5

0.70

-1.13

3.64

113.2

0.75

7.13

69.27

64.05

50 4.

53 1.

3.65

118.8

-1.64

1.42

7.08

7.03

3.67

-1.62

1.45

1.43

67 1.

68 0.

4.44 0.46 124.5

7.28 7.18

7.23

37.41

14.52

137.62

73 5.

0.57

108.63

45.20

23 6.

65 6.

0.61

135.8

149.05

54.55

7.05

7.00

2.85

156.77

76.45

43.72

93 6.

7

147.1

4.59 141.5 4.49

7.20

15.94

14.72 14.62

7.15

7.10

2.86

8.70

8.65

3.88

17.77

2.88

141.36

79.47

09 7.

3.89

152.8 5.52

14.52

Total utilization

16.04

15.99

76.95

74 7.

59 7.

5.56 158.5

14.62

2.89

8.80

8.75

3.90

15.89

17.97

8.85

8.80

3.92

164.1

15.99

17.87

17.77

130.2

84 1. 84 16 1. -0.

17.87

3.93

169.8

5.66

1.47

19.34

19.50

19.45

2.03

00 8. 00 8.

7 .3

175.4

5.70

19.40

124.65

12 8. 15 8.

0.12

86 7.

84 7.

90 7. 84 7.

0.41

19.45

0.00

53 7. 96 7.

9.67 186.8

9.58 181.1 9.58

0.90

64 1.

55 7. 0.10

51 6. 46 7.

0.95

10 1.

0.47

192.4

0.00

54 6.

9.67

0.95

49 1.

0.01

31 5.

49 5. 64 6.

0.12

65 3.

30 5.

10.60198.1 9.75

0.93

0.90

10.70

203.7

0.91

7 .2 -0 63 1.

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.01

-0.22

-0.08

-0.31

58 2. -1 09 8. 78 -1 6 2. .1 -1 1 -8 .7 2 -1 1 0 13 .0 .1 01 -8. -5 -0 0. -1 0 6 .0 .3 -2 -4 13 7 . 5 -6 0. 1 0 .7 .5 76 -0 -2 0. 67 1. 79 0. 0 59 4 . 8 .2 1 -0 3.

10.75 209.4

10.70

85 .9

215.1

94 7. -1

Vertical section. Facade profile at floor slab level

11000.

226.4 220.7

68 3.

3

-12000.

365 mm [1'-2 21 "]

5

n Vertical section. Facade profile at floor slab level

15 8. -1

80 mm [0'-3 14 "]

3

345 mm [1'-1 12 "]

275 mm [0'-10 34 "]

5

mm

4000.

6000.

8000.

, 1 cm 3D = 250.0 N/mm2 (Max=226.4) s Von Mises stress distribution in steel frame (MPa)

Beam Elements stress,Absolute maximum values of Design Case 901 GlobalMAX SIGMA, Point ___1 to Z Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 2121 MAX-N BEAM Forces in Beam Elemen to 2636 MINE-MT2 BEAM Forces in M 1 , : v.Mises 58 Beam Elements , Normal force Nx,Absolute maximum values of LoadcaseY 2121 MAX-N BEAM Forces in Beam Elemen to 2636 MINE-MT2 BEAM Forces in Beam M 1 : 49 X * 0.502 -19.4) (Max=8.15) Z X Y * 0.906 Y X Ele, 1 cm 3D = 10.0 kN (Min=-17.5) (Max=19.5) Z * 0.962

mm

M 1 : 58 X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Z * 0.962

MCCS_159

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 08 International Terminal, Houston 16 [0 5 m '-6 m 1 2" ]

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

5

17 [0 5 m '-6 m 3 4" ]

165 mm [0'-6 21 "]

35 mm [0'-1 1"] 2

7 3

345 mm [1'-1 34 "]

a Horizontal section. Unitised double glazed panels assembly

35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

45 mm [0'-1 34 "]

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

8

8

5

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

b Horizontal section. Unitised double glazed panels assembly

8

1145 mm [3'-9"]

8

1

6

220 mm [0'-8 34 "]

665 mm [2'-2 14 "]

210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

c Vertical section. Unitised double glazed at floor slab

8

d Horizontal section. Unitised double glazed panels assembly 8

145 mm [0'-5 34 "]

3

470 mm [1'-6 12 "]

7

225 mm [0'-8 34 "] 290 mm [0'-11 12 "]

8 8

8

120 mm [0'-4 34 "] 7

7 120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

235 mm [0'-9 14 "]

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

3

3

g

f

e Vertical section. Unitised double glazed at floor slab

40 mm [0'-1 34 "]

95 mm [0'-3 34 "]

Vertical sections. Unitised double glazed at floor slab and parapet level Total utilization

3D view. Curved and folded glass corner detail

Structural analysis

Thermal analysis

Solar radiation

h Vertical section. Unitised double glazed at floor slab kWh/m2 800 667 533 400 267 133

j

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system

MCCS_160

k

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

Period

1 year

With shading

12.6 MWh

Without shading

22.4 MWh

Solar reduction

44 %

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

5”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

10”

500

50

750

100

1000

150

1250

mm

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

250 mm

200

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

5

10

8

17 [0 5 m '-6 m 3 4" ]

9

30 mm [0'-1"]

125 mm [0'-5"]

m m 1 4"] 80 '-3 [0

12

13

10 35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

50 mm [0'-2"]

8

5

5

4 3 8

13

Horizontal section. Unitised double glazed m m 1 4"] 80 '-3 [0

9

16 [0 5 m '-6 m 1 2" ]

10

30 mm [0'-1"]

n Horizontal section. Unitised double glazed p

9

m 3D view. Typical bay of louvre panel facade 5

q 3D view. Glazing mullion detail 8

9

r 10

Horizontal section. Unitised double glazed

Details 1 Metal parapet flashing 2 Double glazed unit with integrated blind 3 Slab edge 4 Aluminium faced insulated panel 5 Extruded aluminium section set into unitised frame 6 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall

8

3D view. Glazing mullion detail

EXT: 40°C

EXT: 0°C

Thermal performance analysis of a unitised curtain wall mullion Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

INT: 22°C

0 u

10

22 °C

Thermal analysis

40 °C

Thermal analysis

t

30

Solar radiation

Solar radiation

INT: 22°C

22

7 Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab 8 Double glazed unit 9 Unitised glazing frame 10 Thermal break 11 Extruded aluminium pressure plate 12 Rubber based seal 13 Ceiling finish Structural analysis

Structural analysis

s

12 Total utilization

Total utilization

10

Thermal performance analysis of a unitised curtain wall mullion Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

MCCS_161

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION 08 International Terminal, Houston

6

9

8

5

a 3D exploded view showing louvre with glazed facade fixed to steel frame

5 5

b 3D view showing louvre with glazed facade fixed to steel frame

MCCS_162

c 3D view of a typical bay

MAT07 - ALUMINIUM MAT07 - ALUMINIUM SHEET MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

MAT10 - THERMAL INSULATION

MAT07 - ALUMINIUM MAT08 - GLAZING MAT13 - SEALANTS MAT11 - GASKETS MAT03 - MILD STEEL MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL d 3D exploded view of facade components with material specification references

Details 1 Metal parapet flashing 2 Double glazed unit with integrated blind 3 Slab edge 4 Aluminium faced insulated panel 5 Extruded aluminium section set into unitised frame 6 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 7 Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab 8 Double glazed unit 9 Unitised glazing frame 10 Thermal break 11 Extruded aluminium pressure plate 12 Rubber based seal 13 Ceiling finish

e 3D view showing louvre with glazed facade fixed to steel frame

MCCS_163

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 09 Laboratory Tower, Riyadh

MCCS_164

LABORATORY TOWER RIYADH, KSA

24°46’27.3540” 46°44’18.9096”

N E

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

ENVIRONMENTAL

FACADE ZONE (mm)

850

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

0.35

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

1.89

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.32

TESTING

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE BUNDLED TUBE

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE RHS STEEL SECTIONS

FACADE BRACKET TYPE SPIDER BRACKET WITH TWO ADJUSTABLE ARMS

MCCS_165

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 09 Laboratory Tower, Riyadh

MCCS_166

MCCS_167 MCCS_167

2000 mm [6'-6 34 "]

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 09 Laboratory Tower, Riyadh

200 mm [0'-7 34 "]

11

2

Top view

4000 mm [13'-1 12 "]

60 mm [0'-2 14 "]

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

360 m [1'-2 1 m 4 "]

600 mm [1'-11 12 "]

2 2

340 mm [1'-1 12 "]

500 mm [1'-7 34 "]

4

700 [2'- m1 m 3 2 "]

460 mm [1'-6"]

11

1

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

1

10

1940 mm [6'-4 12 "]

Third angle projection 1:50 MCCS_168

60 mm [0'-2 12 "]

Front view

2

Bottom view

1

610 mm [2'-0"] 130 mm [0'-5"]

1085 mm [3'-6 34 "]

50 mm [0'-2"]

Side view

Details GRC panel Double glazed unit Fixing bracket for GRC panel Extruded aluminium section Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab 6 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 7 Waterproof membrane strip bonded to adjacent concrete slab 8 Toggle fixed glazing system 1 2 3 4 5

4

2

3D view of detail

1400 mm [4'-7"]

100 mm [0'-4"]

2

275 mm [0'-10 34 "]

1085 mm [3'-6 34 "]

1

7000 mm [22'-11 12 "]

11

345 mm [1'-1 34 "]

320 mm [1'-0 12 "]

2

1530 mm [5'-0 14 "]

130 mm [0'-5"]

Side view

Back view

mm 700 3 12"] [2'2

9 10 11 12

Column (size varies) Concrete upstand Concrete backing wall Extruded aluminium threshold strip 13 Extruded aluminium pressure plate 14 Thermal break

1

3D view of detail MCCS_169

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 09 Laboratory Tower, Riyadh 610 mm [2'-0"]

610 mm [2'-0"]

mm 360 2"] [1'-

210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

6

415 mm [1'-4 14 "]

1

mm 625 34"] [2'-0

25 mm [0'-1"]

2 85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

c

Vertical section. Junction of double skin glazing

6 2

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

345 mm [1'-1 34 "]

10

6 3

2

340 mm [1'-1 14 "]

1

a Vertical section. Rainscreen cladding at parapet level

b

Vertical section. Rainscreen cladding and glazing system parapet level

6

d Vertical section. Rainscreen cladding at floor slab details

255 mm [0'-10"]

275 mm [0'-10 34 "]

2 340 mm [1'-1 14 "]

5

1 345 mm [1'-1 34 "]

9 350 mm [1'-1 34 "]

350 mm [1'-1 34 "]

590 mm [1'-11 14 "]

1

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

2

590 mm [1'-11 14 "]

6

f

g 3D views. Double glazed unit

Vertical section. Double glazed unit connecting to slab edge

e Vertical section. Rainscreen cladding at floor slab level

1

8

1

8

h

350 mm [1'-1 34 "]

10 405 mm [1'-4"]

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

315 mm [1'-0 14 "]

40 mm [0'-1 34 "]

3

Typical bay: 3D view

MCCS_170

j

Typical bay: 3D view

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

5”

10”

210 mm 8 [0'-8 14 "]

1

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

750

50

100

1000

150

30 mm [0'-1 14 "]

1250

mm

2

30 mm [0'-1 14 "]

6

495 mm [1'-7 12 "] 525 mm [1'-8 34 "]

11

11

330 mm [1'-1"]

11

1

100 mm [0'-4"]

85 mm 1 [0'-3 4 "]

11

6 85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

30 mm [0'-1"]

1

370 mm [1'-2 12 "]

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

330 mm [1'-1"]

580 mm [1'-10 34 "]

1:5 scale

485 mm [1'-7 14 "]

6

2

1:25 scale

250 mm

200

8 30 mm [0'-1"] 210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

6

470 mm [1'-6 12 "]

210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

k

500

Vertical section. External corner m

n Vertical section. External corner

Vertical section. External corner

p

1

Vertical section. External corner

Details GRC panel Double glazed unit Fixing bracket for GRC panel Extruded aluminium section Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab 6 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 7 Waterproof membrane strip bonded to adjacent concrete slab 8 Toggle fixed glazing system 1 2 3 4 5

9

8

1

25 mm [0'-1"]

6 9

r

3D view. Connection between GRC panel and insert window 30 mm [0'-1"]

100 mm [0'-4"]

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

220 mm [0'-8 34 "]

1

6

6

245 mm [0'-9 34 "]

9

570 mm [1'-10 12 "]

1 270 mm [0'-10 12 "]

11

6 305 mm [1'-0"]

2 75 mm [0'-3"]

280 mm [0'-11"]

8

235 mm [0'-9 14 "]

1

Vertical section. Connection between GRC panel and double glazed unit

230 mm [0'-9"]

q

8

9 10 11 12

Column (size varies) Concrete upstand Concrete backing wall Extruded aluminium threshold strip 13 Extruded aluminium pressure plate 14 Thermal break

1 2

s

t

Horizontal section. External corner

Horizontal section. Junction between glazed units and GRC panel

u Vertical section. External corner

11

8 1

v

Typical bay: 3D view

w Interior view

MCCS_171

430 [1'- mm 5"]

315 mm [1'-0 12 "]

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 09 Laboratory Tower, Riyadh

3

11

3

6

6

420 mm [1'-4 12 "] 230 m [0'- m 9"]

1 370 mm [1'-2 34 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

85 [0'- m1m 3 4 "]

1

15 [0'- mm 0 3 4 "]

8

6

104 5 [3'- mm 5"]

2

11

445 [1'- mm 5 1 2 "]

6 1

a Vertical section. Assembly of double glazed unit

mm 235 1 "] [0'-9 4

1 6

mm 225 9"] [0'-

265 mm [0'-10 14 "]

b Vertical section. Assembly of inclined double glazed unit

1 6

mm 600 34"] 1 [1'-1

mm 455 6"] [1'-

11

10 5 [3' 5 mm -5 1 2 "]

6

28 0 [0' mm -11 "]

77 0 [2' mm -6 1 4 "]

8

36 0 [1' mm -2 1 4 "]

345 mm [1'-1 34 "]

1

2 1125 mm [3'-8 12 "]

3

6

1

1 3 mm 365 1 "] [1'-2 4

c

Total utilization

Horizontal section. Assembly of double glazed unit

Facade system

FRP open-joint rainscreen with double skin façade

Facade zone

850 mm

Primary structure type Secondary structure type

MCCS_172

Compression -0.57

Bundled tube RHS steel sections

Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2)

0.35

Facade bracket type

Spider bracket with two adjustable arms

Number of components in fixing system Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2) e Finite element model of a typical bay

d Horizontal section. Assembly of double glazed unit

10 Tension 1.89

0.57

f Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements

S

1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

5”

10”

500

750

50

1000

100

150

1250

mm

250 mm

200

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

Details

75 mm [0'-3"]

2

40 mm [0'-1 34 "]

14

6

25 mm [0'-1"]

g Vertical section. Double glazed unit 25 mm [0'-1"]

70 mm [0'-2 34 "]

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale

14

5

2

70 mm [0'-2 34 "]

6

1 GRC panel 2 Double glazed unit 3 Fixing bracket for GRC panel 4 Extruded aluminium section 5 Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab 6 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 7 Waterproof membrane strip bonded to adjacent concrete slab 8 Toggle fixed glazing system 9 Column (size varies) 10 Concrete upstand 11 Concrete backing wall 12 Extruded aluminium threshold strip 13 Extruded aluminium pressure plate 14 Thermal break

1

j

3D view. Exploded view of facade system

h Vertical section. Double glazed unit

25 mm [0'-1"]

415 mm [1'-4 12 "]

1

1

2 1125 mm [3'-8 12 "]

64 5 [2' mm -1 1 2 "]

6 6

3 465 mm [1'-6 14 "]

3.7

4 59.1

65.5

31.0

57.5

23.7

49.5

16.5

41.5

9.2

33.5

1.9

25.5

9000.

9000.

4.09

65.53

62.33 66.80

57.71

28.74

58.02 51.14

113.37

56.78

111.15

-1.84

29.83

65.09

4000. -1000.

5000.

0.

4.03 52.74

6000.

51.14

60.69

1000. -4000. 7000. 51.05

2000. -3000.

111.86

mm

73.60

58.65

54.34

3000. -2000.

4000. -1000.

5000.0.

66.15

6000. 1000.

70.96

4000.

55.94

4000.

57.54

-0.44

8000.

6000. 58.66

60.73 59.14

7000.

8000. 7000.

63.65

57.91

30.49

63.93

81.80 130.96

5000.

67.13

56.49

6000.

62 .3 3

57.79

60.48

108.38

7000. 2000.

mm

3000.

4000.

5000.

6000.

Sector of system Group 1:NT_glazing Sector of system Group 1:NT_glazing 1 : 47 p PrincipalZ shear q Principal tension Mstress stress distribution Axial force distribution distribution M 1 : 48 Z Principal stress max.tau-xy membrane shear stress) from Maximum of element,Absolute principal tension maximum stress values from middle of Loadcase of element 2101 MAX-MXX ,Absolute QUAD maximum values of Loadcase 2101 MAX-MXX QUAD Forces in Quadrilat to 2616 mal force Nx,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 1121 BEAMshear Forces in Beam Eleme to(maximum 1136 MINP-MT2 BEAM Forces in Beam Y X MAXP-N Y Xmiddle Forces in Quadrilat to 2616 MINE-NXY QUAD Forces in Quadrila, from 3.68 panels toMINE-NXY 76.6 step QUAD 1.82 Forces N/mm2in Quadrila, from 51.1 to 131.0 step N/mm2 in glazing (MPa) in steel frame (kN) in1.60 glazing panels (MPa) kN (Min=-24.7) (Max=28.7)

oup 6:Frame

10000.

10000.

62.33

10000.

2

65.60

29.30

68.72

68.45

3000. -2000.

38.3

5000.

70.32

66.34

61.46

58.36

30.47

75.12 71.92

51.92

57.63

91

-0.30

80 -4.

-3.47

-3.47

30.99

76.72

115.25

59.14

3 27.3

6

71.99 62.92

3 .9 63

73.52

-7 .8 9

2000. -3000.

2 .3 70

79.

4.4

q MPa

116.11

94.00

60.58

2 .3 70

n

5.8

1000. -4000.

2 18.2

110.59

73.13

108.61

72.63

1 .7

0.

89 0.

p MPa

59.10

53.03

116.11

64.18

84

-1.48

7.3

60.43

3 .1

10.2

59.04

67

11.7

28.91

3

2

0 .0

13.1

-5

14.6

3.68

78.31

-7.8 0

16.0

-24.73

9.1

32.98

60.54

43.21

84.71

79.91

36.64

29.23

6.22

70.00

86.31

81.51 2

7

-6.5 8

19.0

Structural analysis 58.95

2

20.4

-22.27 17.5 -23.50

58.98

13 67. 68.07

.5 73

-4.2

-5.4 0

23.3

8.7

-1000.

-3.0

24.8

-19.81 21.9 -21.04

-0.05

-3.47

1.48

27.7

-18.58 26.2 -19.81 -21.04

8

87.90

83.11

-1.8 5

-23.50

2.89

14.5

91.10

107.79

76.57

26.98

92.70

4.56

66.45

29.2

-22.27

4.12

4.05

-0.6

7.81 6.58 5.35

94.30

8.01

0.51

32.1

6.57

95.90

-16.12 30.6

53.03

110.26

1 79.9

-14.8933.5

100.69 63.37 97.49

1.70

-13.66 35.0

102.29 99.09

2.89

36.4

-17.35

5.47

9.16

37.9 -12.43

22.46

0

9.04

40.8 -2.52

69.05

32.8

12.73 11.50 10.27

-1.39 42.3

105.48 69.05

56.74

103.89

62.11

7 .2 38

15.19 13.96

43.7

-0.25

-0.25

-11.88 -13.00

4.20

107.08

2

-0.27

4.20

118.08

53.47

58.99

.9

45.2

-10.75

66.38

10.26

0.85 -0.32

46.6

19.13

21.87

-9.63

3.09 1.97

48.1

17.94

108.68

71

49.6

-0.34

51.0

-0.86

-0.86

-0.86

52.5

-8.51

19.13

18.33

1 .3

25.51

110.28

1 .5 81

-0.86

17.13

58.99

111.88

54 2.

18.33

53.9

78

68.07

113.48

21.52 20.32

118.08

53.47

59.06

32.45

115.07

22.71

21.52 20.32

-2.52

55.4

-2.54

-0.86

-0.86

-0.86

0.96

21.90 20.71 19.52

116.67

32.45

19.94

9000.

19.52

56.9

7.92

8000.

20.71

58.3

22.71

118.27

7000.

59.8

23.90

119.87

108.18 29.18

6000.

61.2

3.39

-0.31

4.61

21.90

123.07

9.05

29.25

71.34

4.10

121.47 27.33

26.28 25.09

23.90

23.09

-2.54

62.7

27.48

26.28 25.09

2 .6 34

5000.

23.09

64.1

2.17

26.67 25.48 24.29

71.34

124.66

98

24.29

4.10 126.26

30 .

25.48

67.1 65.6

5.82

-0.26

68.5

-3.14

70.0

127.86

64.09

28.67

27.48

63.93

9.47

27.86

26.67

7 .8 21

71.4

-5 .0 0

72.9

8.26

Total utilization

130.96

74.3

7.04

3D view. Exploded view of facade system

70 .3

76.6

10.69

-2000.

m

Horizontal section. Connection between GRC and double glazed unit

4000.

k

7000.

mm

M 1 : 47

MCCS_173

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 09 Laboratory Tower, Riyadh

40 mm [0'-1 34 "]

40 mm [0'-1 34 "]

125 mm [0'-5"]

420 mm [1'-4 12 "]

2 1

6

4 165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

6

415 mm [1'-4 14 "]

1

1

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

1

570 mm [1'-10 12 "]

6

745 mm [2'-5 14 "]

4

535 mm [1'-9 14 "]

2

6

505 mm [1'-8"]

210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

a Horizontal section. Junction of double glazed unit and GRC panel

b Horizontal section. GRC panel

c

Vertical section. Double glazed units at ground level

35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

415 mm [1'-4 14 "]

145 mm [0'-5 34 "]

370 mm [1'-2 34 "]

495 mm [1'-7 12 "]

4

335 mm [1'-1 14 "]

Details 1 2 3 4 5

1

605 mm [2'-0"]

6 1 305 mm [1'-0"]

4

575 mm [1'-10 12 "]

3

6

345 mm [1'-1 12 "]

6 125 mm [0'-5"]

1

7

6 35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

580 mm [1'-10 34 "]

d Horizontal section. External corner

8 9 10 11 12 13 14

GRC panel Double glazed unit Fixing bracket for GRC panel Extruded aluminium section Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Waterproof membrane strip bonded to adjacent concrete slab Toggle fixed glazing system Column (size varies) Concrete upstand Concrete backing wall Extruded aluminium threshold strip Extruded aluminium pressure plate Thermal break

100 mm [0'-4"]

e Horizontal section. GRC cladding at floor slab

Total utilization

Structural analysis

Period

1 year

With shading

21.8 MWh

Without shading

36.4MWh

Solar radiation

Solar reduction

kWh/m2 1300 1083 867 650 433 f

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system

MCCS_174

g Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

217

40%

Thermal analysis

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

5”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

10”

500

50

750

100

1000

150

1250

200

mm

250 mm

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

575 mm [1'-10 12 "]

1

530 mm [1'-8 34 "]

11

415 mm [1'-4 41 "]

580 mm [1'-10 34 "]

6

1

125 mm [0'-5"] 295 mm [0'-11 12 "]

3 110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

j

h Horizontal section. Junction of GRC panel at external corner

3D view. External corner

11

1

6

105 mm [0'-4 14 "]

Total utilization

Total utilization

215 [0'- m1 m 8 2 "]

mm 675 1 "] [2'-2 2

Total utilization

6

m 450 m3 "] [1'-5 4

3

455 mm [1'-6"]

110 [0'- m1 m 4 4 "]

Vertical section. External corner

k

m

210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

270 mm [0'-10 34 "]

165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

6

Horizontal section. Junction of GRC panel and aluminium cladding

n 3D view. External corner

EXT: 0°C

EXT: 40°C

10

Thermal performance analysis of UHPC panels supported by concrete Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

22 °C q

0

10

2 20 W/m

Thermal analysis

0

Thermal analysis

40 °C

Thermal analysis

p

30

Solar radiation

Solar radiation

Solar radiation

INT: 22°C

INT: 22°C

22

Structural analysis

7 11

Structural analysis

6

Structural analysis

475 mm [1'-6 43"]

1

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

1

Thermal performance analysis of panels supported by concrete. Total energy flux across assembly varies

MCCS_175

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 09 Laboratory Tower, Riyadh

6 11 8 2

1

a 3D exploded view showing glazing panel fixed to aluminium frame

2

11 1 2

c 3D view of a typical bay

1

b 3D view showing glazing panel fixed to aluminium frame

MCCS_176

MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

MAT08 - GLAZING MAT11 - GASKETS MAT13 - SEALANTS

ALTERNATIVE: MAT15 REINFORCED CONCRETE

MAT07 - ALUMINIUM

d 3D exploded view of facade components with material specification references

8 11 6

Details 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

GRC panel Double glazed unit Fixing bracket for GRC panel Extruded aluminium section Bracket supporting unitised panel fixed to top of slab Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Waterproof membrane strip bonded to adjacent concrete slab Toggle fixed glazing system Column (size varies) Concrete upstand Concrete backing wall Extruded aluminium threshold strip Extruded aluminium pressure plate Thermal break

e 3D view showing glazing panel fixed to aluminium frame

MCCS_177

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 10 Mixed-use Design District, Hong Kong

MCCS_178

MIXED-USE DESIGN DISTRICT HONG KONG

22°18’9.7596” 114°10’37.9776”

N E

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

ENVIRONMENTAL

FACADE ZONE (mm)

270

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

0.04

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

0.35

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.38

TESTING

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE STRUCTURAL TIMBER FRAME

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE TIMBER BATTENS

FACADE BRACKET TYPE SERRATED PLATES

MCCS_179

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 10 Mixed-use Design District, Hong Kong

MCCS_180

MCCS_181

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 10 Mixed-use Design District, Hong Kong

2000 mm [6'-6 12 "]

445 mm [1'-5 12 "]

120 mm [0'-5"]

2

Top view 65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

4000 mm [13'-1 12 "]

m m 0 1 2"] 2 2 '-8 [0

3180 mm [10'-5"]

185 mm [0'-7 12 "]

220 mm [0'-8 21 "]

535 mm [1'-9"]

10

13

11

14

2

Side view

2000 mm [6'-6 12 "]

125 mm [0'-5"]

Front view 2795 mm [9'-2"]

565 mm [1'-10"]

2

Third angle projection 1:50 MCCS_182

Bottom view

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Metal parapet flashing Timber boards Plywood sheathing Timber studs Timber rail Breather membrane Window flashing Damp proof course Vapour barrier

13

7000 mm [22'-11 12 "]

510 mm [1'-8"]

565 mm [1'-10 12 "]

535 mm [1'-9"]

10

455 mm [1'-6"]

3D view of the assembly

13

155 mm [0'-6"]

255 mm [0'-10"]

14

455 mm [1'-6"]

11

150 mm [0'-6"] 255 mm [0'-10"]

Side view

125 mm [0'-5"]

Back view

2

10 Structural timber frame 11 Internal plaster finish or dry lining/dry wall 12 Thermal insulation quilt set within timber frame 13 Timber framed window/ door 14 Timber sill 15 Air gap

10

3D view of the assembly MCCS_183

920 mm [3'-0 1212"]

320 mm [1'-1"]

550 mm [1'-9 12 "]

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 10 Mixed-use Design District, Hong Kong

12

12

m 0 m 1 "] 19 '-7 2 [0

mm ] 80 1 " 27 '-1 2 [9

m 0 m "] 58 '-11 1 [ mm 00 11 "] 25 8'-2 22 [

13

a Horizontal section and 3D view. Connection between glazing and primary structure Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Metal parapet flashing Timber boards Plywood sheathing Timber studs Timber rail Breather membrane Window flashing Damp proof course Vapour barrier Structural timber frame Internal plaster finish or dry lining/dry wall Thermal insulation quilt set within timber frame Timber framed window/door Timber sill Air gap

2

13

b

3D view. Exploded view showing louvre and supporting system

2

13 13

14

c

Interior view

MCCS_184

d

Typical bay. 3D view

100

1’- 8”

260 mm [0'-10"]

750 mm [2'-5 12 "]

750 mm [2'-5 12 "]

1010 mm [3'-3 12 "]

380 mm [1'-3"]

560 mm [1'-10"]

13

1:10 scale

3500 mm [11'-6"]

13

e Vertical section. Rainscreen assembly

f

490 mm [1'-7"]

310 mm [1'-0 12 "]

490 mm [1'-7"]

420 mm [1'-4 21 "]

810 mm [2'-8"]

690 mm [2'-3"]

12

730 mm [2'-5"]

1000 mm [3'-3 12 "]

1190 mm [3'-10 12 "]

630 mm [2'-0 12 "]

1

500 mm

13 3490 mm [11'-5 12 "]

3690 mm [12'-1"]

4

400

1:50 scale

3690 mm [12'-1"]

620 mm [2'-0 12 "]

300

2500 mm

1190 mm [3'-11"]

170 mm [0'-6 12 "]

200

2000

500 mm [1'-7 12 "]

1’- 3”

10”

1500

300 mm [1'-0"]

5”

1000

490 mm [1'-7"]

1:10 scale

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

490 mm [1'-7"]

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale

Vertical section. Glazing system g Vertical section. Glazing and panel at floor slab

2 10

3 13

11 2

15

h

Typical bay. 3D view

j

Exterior view

MCCS_185

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 10 Mixed-use Design District, Hong Kong

750 mm [2'-5 12 "]

40 mm [0'-1 12 "] 90 mm [0'-3 12 "]

6

710 mm [2'-4"]

12

200 mm [0'-7 12 "]

3

13

15

2

740 mm [2'-5"]

a Horizontal section. Facade assembly of panel and glazing system

80 mm [0'-3"]

6 12

15

120 mm [0'-4 12 "]

180 mm [0'-7"]

3

100 mm [0'-4"]

2

b Horizontal section. Rainscreen assembly

6 12

12

3

13

13

Total utilization c

Horizontal section 1:5. Connection between insulated panels

d Horizontal section 1:5. Connection between panel and glazing

e Horizontal section 1:5. Unitised double glazed unit

f

Horizontal section 1:5. Unitised double glazed unit Compression -0.46

Facade system

Timber boards with stick glazing

Facade zone

270mm

Primary structure type Secondary structure type Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2)

Structural timber frame

Facade bracket type

Serrated plates

Number of components in fixing system Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2)

Timber battens 0.04

2 0.35

Tension 0.46 g Finite element model of a typical bay

MCCS_186

h Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements

S

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

5”

1’- 3”

10”

500

8’ - 4”

6’ - 3”

1000

1500

100

1’- 8”

2000

200

2500 mm

300

1:50 scale

500 mm

400

1:10 scale

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

Metal parapet flashing Timber boards Plywood sheathing Timber studs Timber rail Breather membrane 13 380 mm [1'-3"]

750 mm [2'-5 12 "] 680 mm [2'-2 12 "]

Horizontal section. Rainscreen assembly of cladding and window system 7 8 9 10 11

12

Window flashing Damp proof course Vapour barrier Structural timber frame Internal plaster finish or dry lining/dry wall

Thermal insulation quilt set within timber frame Timber framed window/door Timber sill Air gap

13 14 15

13

12

-0 .7

-3 .0 -1 .7 6 4

4.58

6

-500.

2500.

0. 14

0.

11

0.80

2000.

1500. 1000. 500. 0.

1500.

0.05

32

-0.31

1500.

-1.82

4 .7 -3

-1.49

1000.

0.16

2000.

-1.33

500.

2 .9 -0 0 .1 -1 7 .2 -1 5 .4 -1 2 .6 -1 9 .7 1 -

-1.63

0.78

0.49

0.61

-1.00

-1.34

0.

0.53

13 1.

2500.

5 3.5

0.

mm

5.61

3000.

2

-0.90

3000.

0.17

0

25 0.

-0.72

-500.

2500.

0.31

0.45

-0.97

-1000.

0.45

-0.79

0.16

32

.9

-0.36

0.29

0.57 0.

15 2.

-0

-0.18

0.16

0. 16

0.37

-0.61

0.14

0.05

0.01

0. 21

0.09

1.93

0.13

-0.24

0. 59

0.43

0.47

-4.7

21 2. 04 2. 87 1. 69 1. 52 1. 34 . 1 17 1. 00 1. 2 8 0. 65 0. 47 . 0 30 0. 13 0.

8 .5 -0

0.37

0.53

0.11

0.12

2000.

82 1.

0.10

0.59

-1500.

0.09

.1 4

0 .4 -0

34 1.

0.73

1500.

16

0.48

-2000.

0.10

02 1.

0.92

1000.

0.09

11 0.

-2500.

0.09 0.09

0.85

02 -0.

0.00

0.07

1.76

0.62

0. 05

0.06

0.03

0.59

70 0.

0.27 0.19

2.29

0.71

1.00

0.95

0.88

1.06

1.05

8

1.00

1.05

0.89

.6

0.72

-0

0.49

0.33

0.12

0.38

0.

1.21

0.43

0.19

0.48

0.38

-0 0. .0 14 3 -0 .2 7

0.54

0.27

0.18

2.61

0. 26

0.59

-0.75

0. 45

0.64

0.20

2.93

0.70

0.19

0.19

0. 53

0.75

0.19

0.19

0. 65

0.80

0.21

500.

0.00

1.39

0.29

0. 70

0.86

7 .0 -1 5 .7 -0 9 .5 -0

0.07

0.09

-1

-0.56

0.91

5 .5 -1 3 .2 -1

-0.38

05 0.

0. 76

0. 75

0.96

0.05

0.12

5 -0.3

3 .0 -2 1 .7 -1

0.40

-0.19

1.02

0.05

0.

0.20 0.70 1.61

0.06

0.21

0.11

-500.

0.59

0.07

0. 75

0.16

-1000.

0.62 0.06

1.49

1.07

1.80

0.05

0.09

1.13

7 0 .6

1.18

0.27

0.09

0. 69

1.23

2.15 39 1. 1.02

1.15

27 0.

0. 16

0.12

0. 58

1.29

0.32

0.32

0.12

0.40

0.22

0.73

0.67

0. 41 0. 32 0. 21

0

-0.7

0.59

0.8

-0.3

1.14

0. 43

1.34

0. 68 0. 67 0. 64 0. 61 0. 55

0.02

0.27

0.07

1.54

1.13

38 0.

0.28 0.05

0.02

1.39

0. 67

0.47 0.47

0.59

0.44

1.45

0. 28 0. 37 0. 46 0. 53 0. 59 0. 63

0.09

0.14

0.12

1.5

0.1

1.55

1.09

0.06

0.50

1.50

-0 .1 7

2.3

0.5

1.61

0.82

3

0.9

1.66

0.80

-0 .4 2 -0 .2 5 -0 .1 0

1.72

0.82

27 1. 0.60

0.55

0.19

1.77

0.69

3.8

1.82

0.78

1.3

1.88

0.53

n MPa 0.16

m kNm

1.13

1.16

0.20

1.93

1000.

Thermal analysis

1.95 1.55

0.46

1.98

7.40

Solar radiation

2.04

0.94

2.15 2.09

Structural analysis

2000.

Horizontal section. Rainscreen assembly of cladding and glazing system

0.27

k

500.

j

740 mm [2'-5"]

1500.

1000.

mm

500.

0.

-500.

shear stress max.tau-xy (maximum membrane shear stress) from middle of element,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 2101 MAX-MXX QUAD M 1 : 18 m Bending moment distribution n Shear stress distribution p values Shear force2121 distribution in timber frame (kN) inPrincipal timber frame (kNm) in cladding (MPa) maximum Beam step Elements , N/mm2 Shear force Vz,Absolute of Loadcase MAX-N BEAM Forces in Beam Elemen to 2636 MINE-MT2 BEAM For 0.0536 X Y Forces in Quadrilat to 2616 MINE-NXY QUAD Forces in Quadrila, from 0.0043Zto 2.15 Z

ments , Bending moment My,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 2121 MAX-N BEAM Forces in Beam Elemen to 2636 MINE-MT2 BEAM Forces in

, 1 cm 3D = 1.00 kNm (Min=-0.679) (Max=1.27)

Y

X

20 = 5.00 kN (Min=-4.70) (Max=7.40) Ele, M1 1cm: 3D X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Z * 0.962

MCCS_187

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 10 Mixed-use Design District, Hong Kong

2

13

a Elevation view of facade buildup

Total utilization

Structural analysis

Solar radiation

Thermal analysis

kWh/m2 600 500 400 300 200 100

Period

With shading

Without shading

Solar reduction

1 year

14.8 MWh

16.8 MWh

12%

MCCS_188

b Top left: Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system c Top right: Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

5”

Details

12

100

1’- 8”

1500

200

2000

300

2500 mm

400

500 mm

1:50 scale 1:10 scale

160 mm [0'-6 12 "]

4 80 mm [0'-3"]

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

100 mm [0'-4"]

8

170 mm [0'-7"]

1

200 mm [0'-8"]

80 mm [0'-3"]

20 mm [0'-1"]

Metal parapet flashing Timber boards Plywood sheathing Timber studs Timber rail Breather membrane Window flashing Damp proof course Vapour barrier Structural timber frame Internal plaster finish or dry lining/dry wall Thermal insulation quilt set within timber frame Timber framed window/door Timber sill Air gap

1000

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

4 120 mm [0'-5"]

13 14 15

1’- 3”

500

8’ - 4”

20 mm [0'-1"]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

6’ - 3”

10”

160 mm [0'-6"]

1:10 scale

4’ - 2”

2’ - 1”

1:50 scale

90 mm [0'-3 12 "]

3

12

d Vertical section. Junction at stagged level 12 4

8

Total utilization

Total utilization

3

13

Structural analysis

Structural analysis

e 3D view. External view of balcony

f

EXT: 40°C

Vertical section. Junction at stagged level EXT: 0°C Solar radiation

Solar radiation

INT: 22°C

INT: 22°C

40 °C

g Thermal performance analysis of a timber panel fixing system Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

0 h

10

22 °C

Thermal analysis

30

Thermal analysis

22

12

Thermal performance analysis of a timber panel fixing system Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

MCCS_189

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 10 Mixed-use Design District, Hong Kong

10

2 12

5

6

13

a 3D exploded view showing rainscreen cladding and window assembly

12

2 13

13

c 3D view of a typical bay b 3D view showing rainscreen cladding and window assembly MCCS_190

MAT10 THERMAL INSULATION

MAT14 TIMBER

MAT07 ALUMINIUM MAT14 - TIMBER MAT10 THERMAL INSULATION

MAT09 MEMBRANE

MAT14 TIMBER

d 3D exploded view of facade components with material specification references

Details

12 11

13

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Metal parapet flashing Timber boards Plywood sheathing Timber studs Timber rail Breather membrane Window flashing Damp proof course Vapour barrier Structural timber frame Internal plaster finish or dry lining/dry wall Thermal insulation quilt set within timber frame Timber framed window/door Timber sill Air gap

e 3D view showing rainscreen cladding and window assembly MCCS_191

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 11 Domestic Terminal, Las Vegas

MCCS_192

DOMESTIC TERMINAL LAS VEGAS, NV, USA

36°6’52.7292” 115°10’22.1268”

N W

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

ENVIRONMENTAL

FACADE ZONE (mm)

375

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

0.08

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

1.29

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.53

TESTING

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE STEEL DIAGRID

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE EXTRUDED ALUMINIUM PROFILES

FACADE BRACKET TYPE SPIDER BRACKET WITH FOUR ADJUSTABLE ARMS

MCCS_193

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 11 Domestic Terminal, Las Vegas

MCCS_194

MCCS_195

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 11 Domestic Terminal, Las Vegas

825 mm [2'-8 12 "]

4000 mm [13'-1 12 "]

14

15

50 mm [0'-2"]

100 mm [0'-4"]

25 m [0'- m 1"]

Top view

250 mm [0'-9 34 "]

15

12

15

3720 mm [12'-2 12 "]

14

10

30 mm [0'-1 14 "]

m ] 0 m1 1 4" 9 5 '-1 [1 15

9

Side view

Front view 475 mm [1'-6 34 "]

Third angle projection. Scale 1:50 MCCS_196

15

100 mm [0'-4"]

475 mm [1'-6 34 "]

1710 mm [5'-7 14 "]

275 mm [0'-10 34 "]

Bottom view

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

GRC handrail Glass balustrade GRC parapet panel GRC shadow gap panel Fixing bracket for GRC panel Toggle fixed glazing system Thin GRC rainscreen panel on proprietary fixing system

170 mm [0'-6 12 "]

10 14

mm1 ] 290 11 4" [0'

3D view of detail

470 mm 1 [1'-6 2 "]

7000 mm [22'-11 12 "]

12

10

15

15

9

440 mm [1'-5 14 "]

Side view

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

565 mm [1'-10 14 "]

Back view

Waterproof membrane by others Fixing for lateral restraint Double glazed unit Concrete upstand Slab edge Ceiling finish Extruded aluminium section GRC shading louvre

14

15

3D views of system MCCS_197

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 11 Domestic Terminal, Las Vegas 1

65 mm [0'-2 21 "]

1

9 11

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

15 [0' mm -0 1 2 "]

125 mm [0'-5"]

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

12 [0' 0 m -4 3 m 4 "]

950 mm [3'-1 12 "]

9 135 mm [0'-5 12 "]

2

13 205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

11

1

10 0 [0' mm -4 "] 60 mm [0'-2 14 "]

9

80 mm [0'-3"]

b Vertical section. Glass balustrade

12 [0' 0 m -4 3 m 4 "]

13

a Vertical section. Glass balustrade connection to slab edge

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

11

2

7

20 [0' mm -0 3 4 "]

5 [0' mm -0 1 4 "]

9

5 [0' mm -0 1 4 "]

14

13

4

c

3D view. Soffit detail of glass balustrade

e

Exterior view

MCCS_198

d Vertical section. Balustrade with thin GRC panels

f

Interior view

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

5”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

10”

500

50

750

1000

100

150

1250

mm

250 mm

200

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

45 mm [0'-1 43 "]

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

1

5 15 mm [0'-0 34 "]

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

5 20 [0' mm -0 3 4 "]

60 [0' mm -2 1 4 "]

5 [0' mm -0 1 4 "]

5 [0 mm 12 '-0 1 [0' 0 m 4 "] -4 3 m 4 "]

2

g Vertical section. GRC handrail detail

70 [0' mm -2 3 4 "]

15 [0' mm -0 1 2 "]

5

25 mm [0'-1"]

65 [0' mm -2 3 4 "]

7

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

60 mm [0'-2 14 "]

30 mm [0'-1 14 "]

15 [0' mm -0 3 4 "]

h

Vertical section. Soffit detail of glass balustrade

j

Vertical section. Soffit detail of glass balustrade

Details 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

k

Typical bay. 3D view

GRC handrail Glass balustrade GRC parapet panel GRC shadow gap panel Fixing bracket for GRC panel Toggle fixed glazing system Thin GRC rainscreen panel on proprietary fixing system Waterproof membrane by others Fixing for lateral restraint Double glazed unit Concrete upstand Slab edge Ceiling finish Extruded aluminium section GRC shading louvre

10

7

m

Typical bay. 3D view

MCCS_199

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 11 Domestic Terminal, Las Vegas 85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

1

1 1

mm 40 1 12"] [0'-

mm 120 4 34"] [0'-

2 mm 35 12"] 1 [0'-

125 mm [0'-5"]

mm 115 4 12"] [0'-

mm 20 0 34"] [0'-

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

4 2

b

Vertical section. Balustrade with thin GRC panels

85 mm [0'-3 14 "] mm 30 1 14"] [0'-

7

mm 20 0 34"] [0'-

1

8

4

15 mm [0'-0 21"]

1

6

2 mm 20 0 34"] [0'mm 60 2 14"] [0'-

Facade system

Sprayed GRC used as permanent formwork

Compression

Facade zone

375mm

-0.69

MCCS_200

Structural analysis

Steel diagrid Extruded aluminium profiles

Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2)

0.08

Facade bracket type

Spider bracket with four adjustable arms

Number of components in fixing system Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2)

GRC handrail Glass balustrade GRC parapet panel GRC shadow gap panel Fixing bracket for GRC panel Toggle fixed glazing system Thin GRC rainscreen panel on proprietary fixing system Waterproof membrane by others Fixing for lateral restraint Double glazed unit Concrete upstand Slab edge Ceiling finish Extruded aluminium section GRC shading louvre

mm 65 2 34"] [0'-

e Vertical section. GRC handrail detail Total utilization

Primary structure type Secondary structure type

f Finite element model of a typical bay

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

5

d Vertical section. GRC handrail detail

5 mm [0'-0 14 "]

Vertical section. Glass balustrade connection to slab edge 25 mm [0'-1"]

a

1 2 3 4 5

115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

13

13

Details

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

40 mm [0'-1 34 "]

mm 95 3 34"] [0'-

80 mm [0'-3 14 "]

495 mm [1'-7 12 "]

c 3D view. Exploded components of glass balustrade

21 [0' 0 m -8 1 m 4 "]

8

1.29

Tension 0.69

g Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements

Solar ra

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

5”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

500

10”

mm 15 0 12"] [0'-

50

750

1000

100

1250

150

mm

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

250 mm

200

mm 20 0 34"] [0'-

mm 15 0 12"] [0'-

80 mm [0'-3 14 "]

1 m 5 m 14"] 0 [0'-

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

2

k 12

j

Vertical section. Junction between GRC handrail and glass balustrade

15 m m [0'-0 1 2 "]

Vertical section. Soffit detail of glass balustrade 40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

h Vertical section. Bottom detail of glass balustrade

20 m m [0'-0 3 4 "]

15 m m [0'-0 1 2 "]

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

35 mm [0'-1 41 "]

10 mm [0'-0 14 "]

mm 10 0 12"] [0'-

mm 65 2 34"] [0'-

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

60 mm [0'-2 14 "]

50 mm [0'-2"]

mm 65 2 34"] [0'-

14

14 12

mm 25 1"] [0'-

8 mm 30 1 14"] [0'-

25 10 mm [0'-1 "]

m

5

Vertical section. Junction between glass balustrade and double glazed unit mm 15 0 12"] [0'-

4

5

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

40 mm [0'-1 34 "]

mm 65 2 12"] [0'-

0.01

34

33

0 -0.

8000.

3.4 -17 .60

.63

.66

.66

7

-17

.75

.5

9

-9

.4

.69 -17 .72 -17

-9

.6 -10

.63

-17

8

-17

.72

.69 -17

-17

-17

-17

.4

5

2

-1 2

-1

.3

.3 7

-1 .5

4

-1

.4

0 -2 9

-2

.4

4

-2

.4

5000.

5

6

4

.4

9 .5 -9

5 .5 -9

6

3 .9 -9 8 .9 -9

10000.

1 2 3.4

3.3

9 3.3

3.3

7000.

14000.

9000.

2

. -10

.3 -10

31

.35

12000.

. -10

.30 -10

29 -10.

-10

. -10

-9

51

5 .5 -9

. -9

1

.7 -9

9 .6 -9

4 .6 -9

2 .7

5 .6 -9

0 .6 -9

-9 1 .8 -9

.0 -0

24 2.

.5

4000.

7 .7 -2

3 .8 8 -2 .8 -2

8 .0 -0

58 2 0. .0 -0 53 0.

1 .7 -2

5 .8 -0 -5

36 0.

42 0.

48 0.

4 .9 -2

49 0.

8000.

5

0 .6 -2

6

6 .6 -2

.5 -2

86 0.

7 .6 -0

1 .6 -0

25 0.

9 .4 -0 4 .5 -0

5

00 1.

31 0.

.1

03 1.

6 .3 -1

-20000. -26000.

.64 -10

-9

1 0.0

47 0. 91 1.

20 0.

-21000. -4000.

12 1. 78 0.

-22000.

33

1 3.3

7 .5 7 -3 .9 -1 2 .6 -0 32 1.

00 2.

-23000. -6000.

7

46 -2.

40 -2.

9 1.3 43 -2.

60

57

-2.

53

- 2.

-2.

2 .1 -7

6 0.4

49 -2.

01 -0.

8

30 -2. 34 -2. 37 -2.

2

05

4 -0.

-1.

3

5 2.1

3 1.0 0 0.8

00 2.

1.82 2.25

-24000.

1.4

4 -2.

8

0.86

1.6

3 79 1.

0.60

. -10

-1.3

.37 -10

03 -4.

0 1.1

2.75 4.22

2 1.0 0.6

5 0.7

8 1.1

6 1.0

-25000. -8000.

4 -0.7

38

8 0.9

-26000.

4 0.8

-7.12

7 .8

-7.09

-27000. -10000.

-12000.

2.31 2.44 2.92

-6.81

-14000.

0.12

-2

5.82

-6.52

4.84 0.62 0.92

1 .6 -0

-6.24

29.68

2.08

4.93

5

-5.95

1.4

-5.67

-7.2

2 1.5

2.79

-5.39

0

2.30

1.49

80 1.

6.48

-5.10

77 0.

4.79

0.62

-4.82

3

0.70 1.41

38 1.

26.55

0.48 -4.54

1.27

3 .3 -2

-4.25

16.98

0.60 0.61

9 .0 -1

-5

0.60

8.49

6.14

11.62

2 .4 -5

4

-3.97

3.66

0.30

2.19

5 .2 -0

-3.69

15.48

0.9

0.32

10

-3.40

1.

3.02

-3.12

1.18

-2.84

21.82

3.49

37 0.

5.49

4.45

83 0.

7.99

-2.55

-2.8

9.79

8.99

-2.27

8

1.49

10.48

-1.98

5 0.6

-1.70

0.10

3.64

11.98

8 .2

-0.6

0.34

-0

12

17.18

5.32

33 -0. 57 -0.

-1.42

12.77

4

1.17

-1.13

3.48

0.44

3 2.8

14.36

-0.85

5.30

51 -1.

4.74

.9 -4

1.6

2.79 -0.57

3.30

68

16

-0.28

1.42

3.99

-2.

2.38

0.006.62

2.29

3.16

0.71

0.28

2.10

6.85

2.48

0.68

2 0.7

4.75

0.57

7 0.1

0.85

4.59

1.76

-1.

1.00

4.99

1.13

0.46

4.51

81 -0.

1.42

2.46

8.20

41

5.72

1.48

3.49 8.45

-1.

1.70

4.58

4.13

3.99

1.98

88

4.2

7.33

2.27

-1.

20

2.55

33 -4.

r kNm

.34 -10

2.00

2.84

q Mpa

Thermal analysis

2.78

3.12

0 -5.0 8 -2.7

Solar radiation

3.40

Vertical section. Soffit detail of glass balustrade

3000.

4.22 3.69

Structural analysis

p

6000.

n Vertical section. Thin GRC panel on proprietary fixing system

-19000. -25000. mm

-18000. -24000.

-17000. -23000.

-16000. -22000.

-15000. -21000.

mm -20000.

-19000.

-18000.

-17000.

-1600

of system Elements,Quadrilateral Elements,Supporting Lines M 1 : 51 aximum principal tension stress in Node,Absolute maximum ZvaluesSector of Loadcase 2101Beam MAX-MXX QUAD Forces in Quadrilat to 2616 MINE-NXY QUAD Sector of system Elements,Quadrilateral Elements,Supporting Lines M 1 : Beam 52 Z BEAM Forces inX Beam Elemenforce to 2636 MINE-MT2 maximum BEAM Forces in of Loadcase 2121 MAX-N BEAM Forces in Beam Elemen to 2636 MINE-MT2 BEAM Forces i * ,0.502 orces in Quadrila, from 0.0314 to 20.0 step 0.499 N/mm2 Y X Beam Elements , Bending moment My,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 2121 MAX-N Normal Nx,Absolute values Y X Beam Elements Y * 0.906 Beam Ele, 1 cm 3D = 5.00 kNm (Min=-7.12) (Max=4.22) Ele, 1 cm 3D = 10.0 kN (Min=-17.8) (Max=3.45)

q

Principal tension stress distribution in glazing and opaque panels (MPa)

r

Bending moment distribution in Aluminum frame (kNm)

s Axial force distribution in steel frame (kN)

Z * 0.962

MCCS_201

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 11 Domestic Terminal, Las Vegas

1

40 [0'- mm 1 1 2 "]

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

105 mm [0'-4"]

5 mm [0'-0 14 "]

230 mm [0'-9"]

120 mm [0'-4 34 "] 15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

95 mm [0'-3 34 "] 40 [0'- mm 1 1 2 "]

1

70 mm [0'-2 34 "]

5 mm [0'-0 14 "] 11 205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

580 mm [1'-10 34 "]

35 mm [0'-1 14 "]

13

13

b Vertical section. Glass balustrade

a Vertical section. Glass balustrade

80 mm [0'-3"]

70 mm [0'-2 34 "] 20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

910 mm [2'-11 34 "]

35 mm [0'-1 12 "] 580 mm [1'-10 34 "]

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

105 mm [0'-4"]

11

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

85 mm [0'-3 14 "] 205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

6

3

3

13

c

Vertical section. Parapet 1

5 mm [0'-0 14 "] mm 35 1 12"] [0'-

2 11

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

mm 10 0 12"] [0'-

25 mm [0'-1"]

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

5

5 mm [0'-0 14 "]

15 mm [0'-0 34 "]

7

14

e 3D view. Glass balustrade

d Vertical section. Soffit detail of glass balustrade Total utilization

Structural analysis

Thermal analysis

Solar radiation

kWh/m2 1300 1083 867 650 433 217

f

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system

MCCS_202

g Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

Period

1 year

With shading

24.1 MWh

Without shading

36.4 MWh

Solar reduction

34%

1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

5”

50

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

160 mm [0'-6 14 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

250 mm

200

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

6

10 mm [0'-0 12 "] 5 mm [0'-0 14 "]

15 mm [0'-0 34 "]

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

70 mm [0'-2 34 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

7

7

k

Vertical section. GRC handrail detail

580 mm [1'-10 34 "]

Vertical section. Thin GRC panel on proprietary fixing system

1

13

60 mm [0'-2 12 "]

2 25 mm [0'-1"]

n Vertical section. GRC handrail detail

Details

13

2

5 mm [0'-0 14 "]

p

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

10 mm [0'-0 12 "]

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

Vertical section. Thin GRC panel on proprietary fixing system Waterproof membrane by others Fixing for lateral restraint Double glazed unit Concrete upstand Slab edge Ceiling finish Extruded aluminium section GRC shading louvre Structural analysis

EXT: 40°C

Structural analysis

3D view. Glass balustrade

GRC handrail Glass balustrade GRC parapet panel GRC shadow gap panel Fixing bracket for GRC panel Toggle fixed glazing system Thin GRC rainscreen panel on proprietary fixing system Structural analysis

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

25 mm [0'-1"]

Total utilization

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

10 [0'- mm 0 1 2 "]

Total utilization

Total utilization

1

10 mm [0'-0 14 "]

30 mm [0'-1 14 "] 7

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

2

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

10 [0'- mm 0 1 2 "] 20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

40 mm [0'-1 34 "]

150

mm

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

35 mm [0'-1 14 "]

Vertical section. Parapet

EXT: 0°C

30

40

0

10

q Thermal performance analysis of a unitised curtain wall mullion Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

0

22 r

12

2 24 W/m

Thermal analysis

Thermal analysis

Thermal analysis

°C

°C

Solar radiation

Solar radiation

Solar radiation

INT: 22°C

INT: 22°C

22

100

1250

1

65 mm [0'-2 34 "]

m

1000

40 [0'- mm 1 1 2 "]

j

h

750

15 mm 1 [0'-0 2 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

10”

500

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

80 mm [0'-3"]

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

100 mm [0'-4"]

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale

Thermal performance analysis of a unitised curtain wall mullion Total energy flux across assembly varies at different sections

MCCS_203

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 11 Domestic Terminal, Las Vegas

8 4

14

10

15

a 3D exploded view showing louvre and double glazed facade fixed to steel frame

4

10

15

b 3D view showing louvre and double glazed facade fixed to steel frame

MCCS_204

c 3D view of a typical bay

MAT07 - ALUMINIUM

MAT07 - ALUMINIUM

MAT08 - GLAZING MAT13 - SEALANTS MAT11 - GASKETS COMPOSITE

MAT03 - MILD STEEL MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL

MAT07 - ALUMINIUM

d 3D exploded view showing facade components with material specification references

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

14

GRC handrail Glass balustrade GRC parapet panel GRC shadow gap panel Fixing bracket for GRC panel Toggle fixed glazing system Thin GRC rainscreen panel on proprietary fixing system Waterproof membrane by others Fixing for lateral restraint Double glazed unit Concrete upstand Slab edge Ceiling finish Extruded aluminium section GRC shading louvre

10

e 3D view showing louvre and double glazed facade fixed to steel frame

MCCS_205

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 12 Baku Airport, Baku

MCCS_206

BAKU AIRPORT BAKU, AZERBAIJAN

40°24’ 33.3504” 49°52’1.5312”

N E

ARCHITECT NEWTECNIC STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC MEP ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC FACADE ENGINEERING NEWTECNIC

STRUCTURAL

FACADE

MEP

ENVIRONMENTAL

FACADE ZONE (mm)

535

WEIGHT OF SECONDARY STRUCTURE (kN/m2)

0.11

TOTAL WEIGHT OF FACADE (kN/m2)

2.18

U-VALUE (W/m2K)

0.57

TESTING

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TYPE STEEL SPACE FRAME

SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE EXTRUDED ALUMINIUM PROFILES

FACADE BRACKET TYPE SPIDER BRACKET WITH TWO ADJUSTABLE ARMS

MCCS_207

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 12 Baku Airport, Baku

MCCS_208

MCCS_209

8

195 mm [0'-7 34 "] 200 mm [0'-7 34 "]

185 mm [0'-7 14 "]

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 12 Baku Airport, Baku

30 mm [0'-1 41 "]

Top view

485 mm [1'-7"]

190 mm [0'-7 12 "]

1985 mm [6'-6 14 "]

1370 mm [4'-5 34 "]

6

6830 mm [22'-5"]

6 5

80 mm [0'-3 14 "]

8

Side view

Front view

2500 mm [8'-2 21 "]

1945 mm [6'-4 12 "]

9

Third angle projection. Scale 1:50 MCCS_210

Bottom view

3D view of detail Details 1 GRC panel 2 Aluminium faced insulated panel Fixing bracket 3 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 4 Double glazed unit 5 Unitised glazing frame 6 Toggle fixed glazing system 7 Waterproof membrane by others 8 Extruded aluminium section

5

6

410 mm [1'-4"]

4000 mm [13'-1 12 "]

6 5

5

80 mm 1 [0'-3 4 "]

6

m 50 m "] 2 '0 [

Back view

Side view

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Concrete upstand Drainage system Silicone bond Polymer fibre based brush seal Thermal break Extruded aluminium cover Capping Internal finish

1

6 5

3D view of detail MCCS_211

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 12 Baku Airport, Baku

1 4 50 mm [0'-2"]

3

8 4

15 0 [0' mm -6 "]

185 mm [0'-7 14 "]

10

16

mm1 "] 85 -3 4 [0'

1450 mm [4'-9"]

290 mm [0'-11 12 "]

1

340 mm [1'-1 14 "]

2 [0 65 '-1 m 0 1m 2" ]

b Horizontal section. Precast panel connecting to secondary steel

a Horizontal section. Panel junction at corner 27 [0' 0 m -1 m 0 1 2 "]

1 3

1

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

16

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

52 [1' 0 m -8 1 m 2 "]

495 mm [1'-7 12 "]

8 4

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

4

d 3D view. Precast concrete panel with ribs

10

c

3

Horizontal section. Precast panel connecting to secondary steel

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

f

Vertical section. Panel connection detail

e 3D view. Precast concrete panel with secondary structure

1

5

h

Typical bay. 3D view

MCCS_212

j

Interior view

g 3D view. Precast concrete panel with secondary structure

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

5”

7’ - 1/2”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

10”

500

50

750

100

1000

150

mm

1:25 scale

250 mm

200

1:5 scale

4

5

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

30 mm [0'-1"]

15

1250

335 mm [1'-1 14 "]

6 4 4 75 mm [0'-3"]

14

170 mm [0'-6 34 "]

1

5

3D view. Precast panels fixed to secondary structure

10 mm [0'-0 21 "]

125 mm [0'-5"]

1 16

4

1 8

420 mm [1'-4 12 "]

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

4

4

2

4

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

2

40 mm [0'-1 34 "]

80 mm [0'-3"]

15

6 1 110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

9 3

1 12

r

Horizontal section. Connection between GRC cladding and insulated metal panel

s

3

q Vertical section. Corner junction of GRC cladding

3D view. Precast panels fixed to secondary structure 35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

p

Vertical section. Junction between double glazed unit and GRC panel 35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

k

170 mm [0'-6 34 "]

80 mm [0'-3 14 "]

Horizontal section. Corner junction of double glazed unit with GRC cladding

115 mm [0'-4 12 "]

n

35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

100 mm [0'-3 34 "]

35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

25 mm [0'-1"]

m

Horizontal section. Connection between GRC cladding and insulated metal panel

Details 1 GRC panel 2 Aluminium faced insulated panel 3 Fixing bracket 4 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 5 Double glazed unit 6 Unitised glazing frame 7 Toggle fixed glazing system 8 Waterproof membrane by others 9 Extruded aluminium section 10 Concrete upstand 11 Drainage system 12 Silicone bond 13 Polymer fibre based brush seal 14 Thermal break 15 Extruded aluminium cover capping 16 Internal finish

7

1

t

Exterior view

u

Typical bay. 3D view

MCCS_213

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 12 Baku Airport, Baku

85 m '-3 m 1 4 "] [0

140 mm [0'-5 12 "]

4

85 mm [0'-3 1"]

3

1

105 mm [0'-4 14 "]

4

4

a Horizontal section. Wall with precast concrete cladding panels

Details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

GRC panel Aluminium faced insulated panel Fixing bracket Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Double glazed unit Unitised glazing frame Toggle fixed glazing system Waterproof membrane by others Extruded aluminium section

m 0 m 1 "] 11 '-4 4 [0

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Concrete upstand Drainage system Silicone bond Polymer fibre based brush seal Thermal break Extruded aluminium cover capping Internal finish

1

m ] 0m 1 " 27 '-10 2 [0

4

1035 mm [3'-4 34 "]

1

2

845 mm [2'-9 14 "]

6 5

Horizontal section. Wall with precast concrete cladding panels

Precast GRC rainscreen with stick glazing

Facade zone

535 mm

04 0.

02 0.

Primary structure type Secondary structure type

02 0.

03 0.

02 0.

Weight of secondary structure (kN/m2)

00 0.

Facade bracket type

03 0.

02 0.

Number of components in fixing system Weight of facade, including secondary structure (kN/m2)

10000.

Facade system

Steel space frame Extruded aluminium profiles

8000.

03

0 0.0

0.

12000.

04 0.

2 0.0 1 0.0 0. 01 0.0 8 1 0.0 1 0.0 7 0.0 4 00 06 0. 0.1 0. 13 2 0. .0 0 00 1 0. 0.2 11 19 0. 0 .0 0. 2 7 4 0 2 0 0. 0. .2 0 6 2 0 7 0. 0. 04 0. 19 24 0. 0. 2 7 0.0 .1 4 0 10 4 0. 0.0 0.0 4 0. 0 00 0. 5 0. 0.0 00 .12 3 0 4 0.0 6 0. 1 13 0.1 0. 2 1 9 0. 0.1 01 0.0 0.00 24 0. 0. 1 0. 00 0. 26 00 0. 9 2 .2 0 0 1 . 0 0 0. 0. 2 3 00 01 0. 4 0. 0.0 2 3 0. 6 27 0. 0.0 0. 18 00 0. 6 0 0.0 .0 0 5 16 0. 0.0 0.0 13 1 0. 8 0 . 1 0 19 0. 0.0 01 0. 00 0. 0. 11 02 0. 19 0. 0 0. 00 0.0 5 0 .1 2 1 0 0 . 0 0. 0. 00 06 4 0. 0. 4 3 0.0 00 0 0 . . 0 0 5 8 0.0 0. 0.0 00 6 0.0 08 2 0. 0. 05 0.1 0. 00 0.0 5 1 0.1 8 0 . 0 17 0. 07 00 0 3 0. 7 .0 0. .0 4 .1 0 0 0 0 . 0 0.0 3 13 0. 0. 00 11 0. 0.15 07 0. 0 .0 03 0 7 0. 0.0 01 . 0 00 0. 01 0.

4 0.0 5 0.0

Spider bracket with two adjustable arms 0.11

6000.

c

00 0.

22

04 0.

14 0.

2.18

03 0.

1 0.0

4000.

b 3D view. Parapet

01 0.

-14000.

-12000.

d Finite element model of a typical bay Z X

MCCS_214

Y

-10000.

-8000.

-6000.

-4000.

-2000.

e Nodal displacement distribution in glazing panels (mm)

Sector of system Quadrilateral Elements Group 1 8

Nodal displacement in local z,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 1471 MAXP-UX NODE Nodal Displacements to 1494 MINP-URB NODE Nodal Displacement, 1 cm 3D = 0.200 mm

(Min=-0.324) (Max=0.150)

0.

mm

M 1 : 67 X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Z * 0.962

-14000.

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

2’ - 1/2”

7’ - 1/2”

500

10”

50

750

100

1000

150

1250

mm

250 mm

200

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

105 mm [0'-4 14 "]

26 [0' 5 mm - 10 1 2 "]

11 0 [0' mm -4 1 4 "]

5”

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

4

1

6

f

25 m [0' m -1" ]

5 1315 mm 3 [4'-3 4 "]

7

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and GRC panel

6 4 3

h 3D view. Full height glazed facade

25 m [0' m -1" ]

12 5 [0' mm -5" ]

1

5

10

g Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and GRC panel 16

5 5

6 6

1

25 m [0' m -1" ]

76 5 [2' mm -6" ]

4

Total utilization j

k

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and GRC panel

3D view. Full height glazed facade

15.05

37.3

-10000.

1.0 0.0

-8000.

-12000.

12000. 26.22

18.88

13.27

16 .5 0

6.88

11.06

5.41

39.30 9.82

15.93

5.30

-6000.

3.65 0.03

14.55

11.66

18.69

10.08

9.11

15.02

0.50

21.40 19.59 5.95

0.42

20.62 21.48

2.17

10.91

9.50

0.46

6.88

9.73

12.59

-10000.

-4000.

-8000. -2000.

11.42

2.46

19.95

10000.

3.83

0.29

6.56

10.76

12.29

3.81

2.47

0.64

2.97

14.74

19.08

9.82

0.39

18.90

6000.

2.28

18.52

19.05

2.99 9.87

2.97

8000.

8.84

1.96

6000.

5.95

5.61

4.95

91 .8 5

2.9

24.56

8000.

10 .2 9

11 7

3.9

2.0

-12000.

13 .0 5

.6 6 99

4.9

29 .9 3

5.9

0

1.08

.3 4

52 .3 .6 6 0

6.9

0

9

7.9

30 .3 5

7.9

33

25.5

8.8

13 .6 0

9.8

6.14

12 .2 34 8 .0 8

10.8

20.63

7.13

12.73

3.67

18.53 5.11

33 .5

11.8

1.26

33 .7 8

15.7

12.8

11 53 9. .4 15 8

51

13.8

4.48

0.97 0.49

5.92

18.77

2.95

19.81 15.72

4.90

0.49

4000.

26 .3 5

38 11 5. 36

14.7

11.79

3.73

4.62

1.34

8.98

0.16

19.09

12.65

10 8. 05

15.7

.1 5

23.6

16.7

33

76.5

17.7

6.78

34 .6 4 34 .2 4

18.7

37 .9 4

19.6

19.27

16.70

2.50

7.51

20.90

19.01

3.93

37 .3 8

20.6

118 5 .35 3.19

31.4

21.6

5.89

2.98

3.30

Tension

12.90 8.13

-6000. 0.

mm

-4000.

-2000.

0.

Sector of system Quadrilateral Elements Group 1 8 Mises stress,Absolute maximum values of Design ZCase 901 GlobalMAX SIGMA, Point ___1 to , 1 cm 3D = 100.0 N/mm2 (Max=127.5) M 1 : 74 Forces in Quadrilat to 2616 MINE-NXY QUAD Y X Maximum principal tension stress in Node,Absolute maximum values of Loadcase 2101 MAX-MXX QUAD X * 0.502 Y * 0.906 Forces in Quadrila, from 0.0037 to 39.3 step 0.982 N/mm2

m Von Mises stress distribution in steel frame (MPa)

Compression -0.65

0.98

19.09

4.91

.2 6

22.6

102

0.98

41 .3 7

116

23.6

13.10

15.72

2.19

10.23

.1 3

28

51 . 40 .7 1

24.6

.3 9 34 .8 6

13. 9

25.5

.94

39.3

6.79

35

27.5

11 9. 81

28.5

6.75

6.88

10.81

Thermal analysis 17.68

78

38 .

53

.1

51

29.5

26.5

127.5

1.29

6.91

21.41

2.95

9

57. 37 51 127 .

n MPa

30.5

31.4

1

m MPa

32.4

6.99

19.14

6.88

Solar radiation

33.4

21.07

4000.

34.4

Structural analysis

1.96

5.89

35.4

10000.

36.3

12000.

39.3 38.3

n Principal tension stress distribution (MPa)

mm

0.65

M 1 : 62

p Utilization distribution within quadrilateral elements

Z * 0.962

MCCS_215

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 12 Baku Airport, Baku

420 mm [1'-4 12 "]

1

1

635 mm [2'-1"]

4 165 mm [0'-6 12 "]

295 mm [0'-11 12 "]

10 210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

125 mm [0'-5"]

4

125 mm [0'-5"]

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

4

370 mm [1'-2 34 "]

345 mm [1'-1 12 "]

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

3

30 mm [0'-1"]

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

m 110 m1 "] [0'-4 4

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

4 2

5

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

a Vertical section. Junction of GRC panel at ground level

b Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and insulated panel

295 mm [0'-11 34 "]

4

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

210 mm [0'-8 14 "]

4

35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

9

11

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

13 25 mm [0'-1"]

290 mm [0'-11 12 "]

4

340 mm [1'-1 14 "]

c

4

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

1

35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

3

100 mm [0'-4"]

15

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

Vertical section. Concrete wall with GRC panel, junction with gutter

Period

1 year

With shading

11.1 MWh

Without shading

14.0 MWh

Solar reduction

21 %

d Horizontal section. Junction with shadow gap

Total utilization

Structural analysis

Thermal

Solar radiation

kWh/m2 500 417 333 250 167 83

e Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade with shading system

MCCS_216

f

Annual cumulative solar radiation analysis on glazed facade without shading system

7’ - 1/2”

5”

10”

50

4

1:25 scale 1:5 scale

250 mm

200

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

1

60 mm [0'-2 14 "]

145 mm [0'-5 34 "]

55 mm [0'-2 14 "]

3 40 mm 3 [0'-1 4 "] 125 mm [0'-5"]

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

j

Vertical section. Parapet

Horizontal section. Junction between double glazed unit and GRC panel

Details

16

60 mm [0'-2 14 "]

145 mm [0'-5 34 "]

9

4

4

n Vertical section. Parapet

EXT: 0°C

INT: 22°C

Thermal performance analysis at connection with concrete slab Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

0

10

22 °C

Thermal analysis

40 °C

Thermal analysis

p

30

Solar radiation

Solar radiation

22

65 mm [0'-2 12 "]

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

Concrete upstand Drainage system 5 Silicone bond Polymer fibre based brush seal Thermal break Extruded aluminium cover capping m Vertical section. Parapet Internal finish

INT: 22°C

EXT: 40°C

35 mm [0'-1 14 "]

1 4

Structural analysis

10 11 12 13 14 15

1

3

9

Structural analysis

GRC panel Aluminium faced insulated panel Fixing bracket Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall Double glazed unit Unitised glazing frame Toggle fixed glazing system Waterproof membrane by others Extruded aluminium section

3

255 mm [0'-10"]

60 mm [0'-2 41 "] 30 mm [0'-1"]

5

370 mm [1'-2 34 "]

4

255 mm [0'-10"]

40 mm [0'-1 34 "]

Total utilization

Total utilization

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

9

90 mm [0'-3 12 "]

4

40 mm 1 [0'-1 2 "]

60 mm 1 [0'-2 2 "]

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

4

85 mm [0'-3 14 "]

4

h Vertical section. Parapet with gutter

15

9

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

g Horizontal section. Junction with shadow gap

35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

125 mm [0'-4 34 "]

11

120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

1

4

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

1

14

5 6 7 8 9

mm

40 mm 3 [0'-1 4 "]

40 mm [0'-1 34 "]

4

1 2 3 4

1250

150

370 mm [1'-2 34 "]

35 mm [0'-1 12 "]

40 mm [0'-1 12 "]

15 mm [0'-0 34 "]

4 120 mm [0'-4 34 "]

100

1000

15 mm [0'-0 12 "]

110 mm [0'-4 14 "]

k

750

410 mm [1'-4 14 "]

2’ - 1/2”

500

20 mm [0'-0 34 "]

1:5 scale

250

4’ - 2”

3’- 1 1/2”

205 mm [0'-8 14 "]

2’ - 1”

1’- 0 1/2”

1:25 scale

q Thermal performance analysis at connection with concrete slab Isotherms showing temperature distribution across assembly

MCCS_217

ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 12 Baku Airport, Baku

1 1

5

6

9

a 3D exploded view showing floor to ceiling stick glazing with louvre

9

1

5

6 6

5 7

b 3D view showing floor to ceiling stick glazing with louvre

MCCS_218

c 3D view of a typical bay

MAT01 - ULTRA HIGH PERFORAMNCE CONCRETE

MAT03 MILD STEEL MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL MAT03 MILD STEEL MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL

MAT03 MILD STEEL MAT04 - ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION FOR MILD STEEL

MAT08 - GLAZING MAT11 - GASKETS MAT13 - SEALANTS

ALTERNATIVE: MAT15 REINFORCED CONCRETE

d 3D exploded view showing facade components with material specification references

1

7 6

e 3D view showing floor to ceiling stick glazing with louvre

Details 1 GRC panel 2 Aluminium faced insulated panel 3 Fixing bracket 4 Closed cell thermal insulation fixed to backing wall 5 Double glazed unit 6 Unitised glazing frame 7 Toggle fixed glazing system 8 Waterproof membrane by others 9 Extruded aluminium section 10 Concrete upstand 11 Drainage system 12 Silicone bond 13 Polymer fibre based brush seal 14 Thermal break 15 Extruded aluminium cover capping 16 Internal finish

MCCS_219

Index

A

Current and emerging technologies

Airport Terminal

12

192

Current design methodology

12

Perspective view

194

Limitations of current methodology

12

Third angle projection

196

Newtecnic’s methodology

12

2D details

198

Current technologies in facade assemblies

13

200

Emerging technologies in facade assemblies

14

Environmental analysis of typical bay

202

Use of current and emerging technologies

Inventory of typical bay

204

in facade design

Structural analysis of typical bay



15

18

D

Current design methodology

18

Design implementation and research method

Limitations of current methodology

18

Current design methodology

23

Newtecnic’s methodology

18

Limitations of current methodology

23

Analysis method and scientific foundations

19

Newtecnic’s methodology

23

Method for structural analysis of complex facades

20

Material selection

24

Assembly technology

24

Design validation

24

Analysis method and scientific foundations

Method for MEP / environmental analysis of complex facades

21

Natural phenomena

22

Analysis type

22

Design solution

22

Design method and project management

23

15

Current design methodology

15

Limitations of current methodology

15

Newtecnic’s methodology

15

206

‘Agile’ management applied to facade projects

16

Perspective view

208

Generating innovation

17

Third angle projection

210

Application of design method and project

2D details

212

management

Structural analysis of typical bay

214

Environmental analysis of typical bay

216

E

Inventory of typical bay

218

Entertainment Complex

B Baku Airport

17

136

Perspective view

138

Third angle projection

140

2D details

142

Structural analysis of typical bay

144

94

Environmental analysis of typical bay

146

Perspective view

96

Inventory of typical bay

148

Third angle projection

98

C Comparison of projects Conference Centre

6

F

2D details

100

Structural analysis of typical bay

102

Environmental analysis of typical bay

104

H

Inventory of typical bay

106

Houston Airport

Foreword

Perspective view

MCCS_220

4

150 152

Third angle projection

154

S

2D details

156

Steps to build a working prototype

Structural analysis of typical bay

158

Step 1: Naming of facade systems

26

Environmental analysis of typical bay

160

Step 2: Definitions

26

Inventory of typical bay

162

Step 3: Reference documents

27

Step 4: Methodologies during construction

27

122

Step 5: Alternatives proposals and substitutions

28

Perspective view

124

Step 6: Contractor-generated 3D BIM model

28

Third angle projection

126

Step 7: Contractor’s responsibilities

33

2D details

128

Step 8: Submittals

37

Structural analysis of typical bay

130

Step 9: Samples

44

Environmental analysis of typical bay

132

Step 10: Mock-ups and prototypes

45

Inventory of typical bay

134

Step 11: Testing

47

Houston Tech Campus

How to use this book

5

T Timber port

HQ Building

26

178

52

Perspective view

180

Perspective view

54

Third angle projection

182

Third angle projection

56

2D details

184

2D details

58

Structural analysis of typical bay

186

Structural analysis of typical bay

60

Environmental analysis of typical bay

188

Environmental analysis of typical bay

62

Inventory of typical bay

190

Inventory of typical bay

64 Tower

L

80

Perspective view

82

164

Third angle projection

84

Perspective view

166

2D details

86

Third angle projection

168

Structural analysis of typical bay

88

2D details

170

Environmental analysis of typical bay

90

Structural analysis of typical bay

172

Inventory of typical bay

92

Environmental analysis of typical bay

174

Inventory of typical bay

176

Laboratory Tower

Transport Hub

66

Perspective view

68

108

Third angle projection

70

Perspective view

110

2D details

72

Third angle projection

112

Structural analysis of typical bay

74

2D details

114

Environmental analysis of typical bay

76

Structural analysis of typical bay

116

Inventory of typical bay

78

Environmental analysis of typical bay

118

Inventory of typical bay

120

Las Vegas Tech Campus

MCCS_221

Authorship and validation

As an engineering design company ranked in the top three UK firms of the NCE 100 List, Newtecnic have produced a number of volumes on contemporary building technology which provide reference material for engineering and architecture students, and professionals around the world. The Modern Construction Series is published by Birkhäuser Verlag GmbH. In addition, the Facades Technical Review, from RIBA Publications was published in spring 2007. All contents shown in this book, including photographs, have been created entirely by Newtecnic. Drawings and models were created and rendered by the Newtecnic team. The book was designed by Yasmin Watts. The text is by Andrew Watts. The text and overall content of the book was updated with contributions from Howard Tee, Ross Kunchev, Andrew Watts and Yasmin Watts. David Marold is Acquisitions Editor at Birkhäuser Verlag GmbH in Vienna. He has driven this book from a set of basic layouts to a completed book. He has a passion for books and their design, ranging from their wider content to the quality of print paper, to the overall reader experience. Newtecnic is an international world leader in the engineering design and architectural design of complex, highly ambitious construction projects and advanced building envelope systems. The company undertakes the engineering and architectural design of building structures, facades and MEP installations in partnership with leading international developers and large contractors. Newtecnic is a building technology company that provides paths to construction to create a new generation of building forms and internal spaces. The company applies its own technologies using state-of-the-art project management practices, supported by high levels of innovation generated through cutting-edge research at leading universities. The company is a champion of near-future design, achieved through extensive rapid prototyping and in-depth construction simulations. Founded in 2003, Newtecnic’s design professionals team is completely and solely dedicated to the design and engineering of structures, facades and MEP. In partnership with the Engineering Departments of Cambridge University and the University of Houston. Newtecnic’s R&D team analyses, develops, tests, validates and specifies new building products, technologies and methods. Newtecnic is certified for the ISO 9001 and ISO 27001 quality standards. Newtecnic has offices in the US, the UK, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Hong Kong. The company is owned, directed and managed by longestablished and experienced engineers and architects. The building engineering design of Newtecnic is based on strong technical and visual concepts that are supported by analysis, modelling, geometry and coordination. Newtecnic’s ability to develop design solutions iteratively within short time frames is crucial in delivering complex building projects on time and budget. Newtecnic’s design work is based on an intensive use of the latest digital tools, such as Catia, Rhino, Revit, Maya, Sofistik, SAP2000, Comsol Multiphysics and Phoenics. The use of these tools links design to digital manufacturing as used by building contractors and fabricators. MCCS_222

Led by author Andrew Watts, Newtecnic is a world-leading firm of engineer-architects, with the Modern Construction series forming an essential part of their current work and research. The Newtecnic approach, based on research from first principles, allows the company to achieve design excellence for the complete building, from concept to production information, including engineering and architectural design for structure, facades and the internal environment. With 3D BIM, Newtecnic designs models that become highly evolved during the design process. Components of these BIM models, with accompanying text and images to illustrate design processes, form the basis of Modern Construction Envelopes. The engineering and architectural design skills of Newtecnic allows the firm to communicate, through the Modern Construction series, the key issues of 21st century building engineering and design. Newtecnic are holders of The Queen’s Award for Enterprise and is ranked in the top three of New Civil Engineer 100 Companies of the Year 2019. Newtecnic see the Modern Construction series of textbooks setting a legacy of technical expertise becoming available to the global engineering community. Andrew Watts is the author of the Modern Construction series of textbooks. He is an engineer-architect who specialises in the engineering and architectural design of large-scale complex buildings. Andrew is a Fellow of three UK engineering institutions which represent his set of interests in engineering design: structures with the Institution of Civil Engineers; facades with the Institution of Engineering Designers; mechanical and electrical assemblies with the Institution of Engineering and Technology. He holds charterships in the UK for engineering and for architecture from the Institution of Engineering Designers and the Royal Institute of British Architects. In the US, where he is based in Texas, Andrew is a member of the American Institute of Architects and the American Society of Civil Engineers. Before establishing Newtecnic, Andrew and Yasmin Watts worked extensively both in the UK and abroad. During this time they were involved in a range of significant projects including Federation Square, Melbourne with LAB Architects, the Millennium Bridge, London, for Foster and Partners, Euralille and Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris for Jean Nouvel, and Cite Internationale, Lyon and the New Caledonia Cultural Centre for Renzo Piano Building Workshop. They have produced a number of volumes on contemporary building technology for students and professionals.

Bibliography

The following bibliography is suggested for further reading, based on the themes of the introductory essays. Emerging technologies Constructing Architecture: Materials, Processes, Structures; a Handbook by Andrea Deplazes Birkhäuser, 2013 Facade Construction Manual Thomas Herzog / Roland Krippner / Werner Lang Birkhäuser, Edition Detail, 2012 Modern Construction Series by Andrew Watts: Modern Construction Handbook, Modern Construction Envelopes, Modern Construction Facades, Modern Construction Roofs, Springer / Ambra / Birkhäuser, 2001–2016 Design method Change by Design Tim Brown Harper Collins, 2009 Design Engineering: A Manual for Enhanced Creativity W. Ernst Eder, Stanislav Hosnedl CRC Press, 2008 Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach, Edition 3 Gerhard Pahl, W. Beitz, Jörg Feldhusen, Karl-Heinrich Grote Springer, 2007 Handbook of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety in Engineering Design Rudolph Frederick Stapelberg Springer, 2009 The Future of Design Methodology Herbert Birkhofer Springer, 2011 The Ten Faces of Innovation Tom Kelley Profile Books, 2006

Systems Engineering Agile Design Methodologies James A. Crowder, Shelli A. Friess Springer, 2013 When Professionals Have to Lead Thomas J DeLong Harvard Business School Press, 2007 Analysis and scientific foundations Finite Element Analysis and Design of Metal Structures Ehab Ellobody, Ran Feng, Ben Young Elsevier, 2013 Introduction to Finite and Spectral Element Methods Using MATLAB, Second Edition: Edition 2 Constantine Pozrikidis CRC Press, 2014 Introduction to Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics: Edition 2 Constantine Pozrikidis Oxford University Press, 2011 MATLAB Codes for Finite Element Analysis: Solids and Structures A. J. M. Ferreira Springer Science & Business Media, 2008 Multiphysics Modeling with Finite Element Methods William B J Zimmerman World Scientific, 2006 Design implementation and research method Building Engineering and Systems Design Frederick S Merritt, James Ambrose Springer, 2012 Design Engineering Manual Mike Tooley Elsevier, 2010 Modern Construction, Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices Lincoln H Forbes, Syed M Ahmed Taylor and Francis, 2011

Project management Agile Management: Leadership in an Agile Environment Ángel Medinilla Springer, 2012

Project Quality Management, Critical Success Factors for Buildings Sui Pheng Low, Joy Ong Springer, 2014

Managing Agile Alan Moran Springer, 2015

Standards of Practice in Construction Specifying Dennis J Hall, Nina M Giglio Wiley, 2013

Project Management for Environmental, Construction and Manufacturing Engineers Nolberto Munier Springer, 2013

Sustainability in Engineering Design and Construction J K Yates, Daniel Castro-Lacouture Taylor and Francis, 2016

MCCS_223

Author Andrew Watts London, England Acquisitions Editor: David Marold, Birkhäuser Verlag, Vienna, Austria Project and Production Editor: Angelika Heller, Birkhäuser Verlag, Vienna, Austria Layout and Cover Design: Yasmin Watts, London, England Cover image: Newtecnic Ltd Proofreading: Alun Brown, Vienna, Austria Printing and binding: Holzhausen Druck GmbH, Wolkersdorf, Austria

Library of Congress Control Number: 2018957755

Bibliographic information published by the German National Library The German National Library lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at http://dnb.dnb.de This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in other ways, and storage in databases. For any kind of use, permission of the copyright owner must be obtained. ISBN 978-3-0356-1771-9 Hardcover edition ISBN 978-3-0356-1772-6 Softcover edition e-ISBN 978-3-0356-1779-5

© 2019 Birkhäuser Verlag GmbH, Basel P.O. Box 44, 4009 Basel, Switzerland Part of Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

98765432 www.birkhauser.com

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