Meeting the in-service growth needs of the Downey elementary teachers

194 37 5MB

English Pages 167

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Meeting the in-service growth needs of the Downey elementary teachers

Citation preview

MEETING THE IN-SERVICE GROWTH NEEDS OF THE DOWNEY ELEMENTARY TEACHERS

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Thomas Austin Gallagher August, 1950

UMI Number: EP56180

All rights reserved INFO RM ATIO N TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP56180 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

e j

'tD

&■/'}.

T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em b ers o f the C o m m itte e , has been p re se n te d to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f the U n iv e r s it y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f S cience in E d u c a t io n . Date....

Dean Guidance Committee

Chairman

...

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE

THE PROBLEM AND METHOD OF P R O C E D U R E ...........

1

Statement of the p r o b l e m ....................

1

Need for the s t u d y ........................

1

Definitions Procedures

2 ..................................

3

................................

3

Decision to use questionnaire .............

4

Construction of the questionnaire ........

4

Interviews

Selection of the areas of training for in­ clusion in the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ...........

5

Sources of classification of procedures for promoting the growth of teachers in service for inclusion on the question­ naire ....................................

12

Judgment of the value of the procedures . .

16

Method of securing answers to the ques­

II.

tionnaire ................................

19

Limitations of the s t u d y ...................

19

Organization of the remainder of the thesis .

20

SURVEY OF THE RELATED L I T E R A T U R E ............

22

Desirability of a program for in-service growth of t e a c h e r s ....................... Possible plan for faculty organization

...

22 25

iii CHAPTER

PAGE Specific functional activities of professional agents . . . * ......

28

Survey of literature related to the procedures for meeting the growth needs of teachers in service

.........................

30

Teachers meetings . 1 ............ Kinds of teachers meetings

.

Criteria for teachers meetings: Planning personnel

31 ........... length . .

...............

31 32

. . . .

33

Frequency of meetings .....................

33

Attendance at meetings

3A

...................

Time and p l a c e .................... Objectives of teachers meetings

35

. . . . . .

36

Guiding principles for planning teachers ............

37

special function .................

38

Advantages of workshops ...................

AO

Outcomes of workshops . . . . . . . . . . . .

Al

meetings . . . Workshop:

Group conferences and committee work: p r i n c i p l e s .........................

A2

Kinds of group c o n f e r e n c e s .......

AA

Projects for committee study and group c o n f e r e n c e s ...................... Observation and inter-visitation:

A5

check list

A7

iv CHAPTER

PAGE Techniques of observation .................

50

Values and purposes of observation

. . . .

52

........

54

Supervisory bulletins:

advantages

Types of b u l l e t i n s ..................

55

Principles of guidance in preparation of 56

bulletins ............. purposes ...........

57

Forms of demonstration teaching ...........

58

Procedures for conducting a demonstration .

6l

Demonstration teaching:

Supervisory visits and individual conferences: p r o c e d u r e s ............................. Types of supervisory conferences

62 63

. . . . .

Procedures for the supervisory conference .

64

Use of records in the supervisory confer­ ence and form for recording the confer­ 65

ence ..................................... Use of questions in the supervisory con­ ference ..................................

66

Time and place of the individual supervisory c o n f e r e n c e ..........................

67

Guiding principles for planning the . . . .

67

need .................

69

individual supervisory conference Professional library:

V

CHAPTER

PAGE Sources of books for a professional l i b r a r y ................................

70

Location and management of the profes­ sional l i b r a r y .......................

72

Kinds of books in the professional

III.

l i b r a r y ...............'................

74

College courses . . . . •...................

75

S u m m a r y ....................................

75

TEACHERS' SUBJECT MATTER NEEDSAND THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR MEETING THESE NEEDS

. . . .

76

IV.

METHODS N E E D S ................................

V.

R O U T I N E S ......................................

110

COMMUNITY RELATIONS

....................

115

VII.

CHILD STUDY AND G U I D A N C E ....................

125

VIII.

PROFESSIONALIZATION OF THE T E A C H E R .........

135

VI.

IX.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......... ..

96

.

140

Recommendations ............................

140

C o n c l u s i o n s ................................

141

BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................

148

LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.

PAGE Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Physical Education ........................

II.

77

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satisfying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Physical Education ........................

III.

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of R e a d i n g ...................................

IV.

78

79

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satisfying the Desire for Growth in the Area of R e a d i n g ..................................

V.

Nature of the. Desire for Growth in the Area of A r i t h m e t i c ............................

VI.

80

8l

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satisfying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Arithmetic ................................

VII.

Nature of the Desire for Growth in the Area of Language A r t s ............................

VIII.

82

83

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satisfying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Language A r t s ............................

IX.

84

Nature of the Desire for Growth in the Area of Music

............................

85

viI ' TABLE X.

PAGE Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Music . . .

XI.

.........................

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Social Studies . . . .....................

XII.

86

87

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Social S t u d i e s .......................

XIII.

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of A r t .......................................

XIV.

88

89

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of A r t ..........

XV.

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of S c i e n c e ..................................

XVI.

90

91

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of S c i e n c e ................................

XVII.

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of H e a l t h ....................................

XVIII.

92

93

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of H e a l t h .................... ."..........

94

viii TABLE XIX.

PAGE Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Using Community Resources ...............

XX.

97

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Using Community Resources

XXI.

98

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of the Activity Program

XXII.

...........

..................

99

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of the Activity Program .

XXIII.

.............

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Control of the Learning Situation . . . .

XXIV.

100

101

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Control of the Learning Situation

XXV.

. .

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Lesson Planning ..........................

XXVI.

102

103

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Lesson P l a n n i n g .............

XXVII.

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Individualization of Instruction

XXVIII.

104

. . . .

105

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Individualization of Instruction .

. .

106

ix TABLE XXIX.

PAGE Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Use of Visual A i d s ..........................

XXX.

107

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Use of Visual A i d s .....................

XXXI.

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Keeping Records ...........................

XXXII.

108

Ill

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Keeping R e c o r d s ..........................

XXXIII.

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Keeping Daily Schedule .....................

XXXIV.

112

113

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Daily S c h e d u l e ........................

XXXV.

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Parent Conferences . .. . ; .................

XXXVI.

114

116

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Parent Conferences

XXXVII.

.....................

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of P. T. A. W o r k ...............................

XXXVIII.

117

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area

118

X

TABLE

PAGE of P. T. A. W o r k ........ ' ................

XXXIX.

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Teacher Personality

XL.

119

. .....................

120

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Teacher Personality .....................

XLI.

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Controversial Issues ........................

XLII.

121

122

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Controversial Issues

XLIII.

.................

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Child Psychology and Development ...........

XLIV.

123

126

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Child Psychology and Development

XLV.

. . .

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Methods of Child Study .....................

XLVI.

127

128

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Methods of Child S t u d y .................

XLVII.

129

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of the Teacher’s Role in G u i d a n c e .............

130

xi TABLE

PAGE

XLVIII.

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of the Teacher's Role in Guidance . . . .

XLIX.

131

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Evaluation and Guidance of Pupil Accomp­ lishment

L.

................................

132

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Evaluation and Guidance of Pupil Ac­ complishment .............................

LI.

Nature of Desire for Growth in the Area of Improving Staff Relations ...............

LII.

133

136

Judgment of the Best Procedures for Satis­ fying the Desire for Growth in the Area of Improving Staff Relations

...........

137

LIII. Membership in Educational Organizations . .

138

LIV. LV.

Professional Ambitions Held by the Teachers Number of Books of a Professional Nature Read During the Past Y e a r ...............

LVI.

138

139

Summary Table on Nature of Desire for Growth in Twenty-Six Areas .....................

1A3

xii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE

PAGE

1.

Areas of In-Service Growth . . . . . . . . . .

2.

Teacher Professionalization

3.

Procedures for Furthering In-Service Growth

.............

10 .

11 16

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND METHOD OF PROCEDURE I.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem.

It was the purpose of

this study:

(l) to discover the needs for growth in ser­

vice felt by

the teachers of the Downey elementary schools,

(2) to find the degree of need felt in the various areas of teaching,

and (3) to find the procedures through which

the teachers

felt that these heeds could best be met.

Need for the study.

The in-service growth of

teachers is the joint responsibility of the teachers them­ selves and of the supervisory staff consisting of the sup­ erintendent, the curriculum coordinator, the principals, and the special subject supervisors.

In order to bring

their teamwork to bear upon the problem the opinions of all were collected.

The supervisory staff in interviews

agreed that a need for such a study existed, and gave several reasons. One reason was to assure efficient and economical expenditure of supervisory time and effort.

A second

reason was the well-known psychological fact that the best growth takes place when the individual joins as a partici-

2 pant in initiating and planning the conditions that in­ spire growth and continues to participate in all the processes.

A third reason was the practical considera­

tion that there is necessity for growth within a teach­ ing staff in order to keep pace with the rapidly chang­ ing and expanding concepts of practice and theory in education.

The fourth reason was the possibility that

teacher turnover and a somewhat unfavorable percentage of non-regular teacher credentials held might indicate a condition in need of correction by in-service help. Forty-six per cent of Downey Elementary School District teachers held Regular General Elementary Credentials during the school year of 1949-1950* while fifty-four per cent held Emergency or Provisional Credentials during the same year. II. Supervision.

DEFINITIONS The meaning of the word, super­

vision, as it applied in this paper, was that of Barr, Burton and Brueckner:^ Supervision is in general what it has been in modern times; an expert technical service primar­ ily concerned with studying and improving the

1 A. S. Barr, William Burton, and Leo Brueckner, Supervision. (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1947), p. 11.

conditions that surround learning and pupil growth. Everything in a school system is designed, of course, for the ultimate purpose of stimulating learning and growth. Supervision deals with those items whiqh primarily and rather directly condition learning and growth. Supervisor.

The term supervisor as used in this

paper meant the members of the administrative staff as they performed supervisory activities.

The superintend­

ent, curriculum coordinator, principals, and special subject supervisors were included.

Areas of growth in service.

The phrase, "areas

of growth in service," designated the divisions into which the practice of teaching was divided. isions were:, routines,

(l) subject matter,

These div­

(2) methods,

(4) community relations,

(3)

(5) child study and

guidance, and (6) teacher professionalization. Procedures for promoting growth in service.

By

these procedures were meant the media whereby the needs discovered by the survey could be met. III. Interviews.

PROCEDURE

The problem was located by inter­

views with the superintendent and the.curriculum coor­ dinator.

During these interviews the question of

district-wide problems was discussed.

The one upon

which study was most urgently needed was settled upon. This was the problem of providing a program for in-ser­ vice growth. Decision to use questionnaire.

The problem of

securing the opinions of the teachers of Downey on their in-service growth needs involved asking pertinent ques­ tions, obtaining a fairly standard interpretation of the questions on the part of the respondents, organizing the questions into logical divisions, and providing for a simple and efficient method of recording responses. Further requirements were those of anonymity and free­ dom to make any response felt to be accurate rather than a response chosen from a selection without deviate pos­ sibilities.

It was to meet these varied purposes that

the construction of a questionnaire was deemed advis­ able.

The questionnaire contained both organized ques­

tions and lists of responses, besides many blank spaces for write-ins. Construction of the questionnaire. tionnaire consisted of two major parts.

The ques­

One part was

designed to discover the areas in which training of teachers in service was needed.

The other part was

intended to discover the procedures by which the teachers

5 of the Downey Elementary School District felt that they could hest obtain the help toward further growth that they desired. Selection of the areas of training for inclusion in the questionnaire.

The preparation of the first

part of the questionnaire entailed examining the clas­ sifications heretofore utilized by writers in the field, and selecting from these classifications a composite, representative list for the respondents to check.

One

of the widest lists available was that of Doak S. Camp­ bell.

Other such lists follow his, in order as they

made original additions. 2 areas of training: (l) records,

Teaching methods,

(3) schedule of the school day,

bulletin board,

(5) home visitations,

munity relationships, sanitation, fession,

Campbell suggested twelve such (2) keeping

(4) use of the

(6) general com­

(7) school health, hygiene and

(8) public programs,

(9 ) ethics of the pro­

(10) professional magazine readings,

bership in educational associations,

(11) mem­

(12) dealing with

individual problems of children in school work or dis­ cipline.

2

Campbell did not include four areas which

Doak S. Campbell, Problems in Teacher Education. (Nashville: George Peabody College,~T93&), mimeographed, Volume i, p. 73-

6 were used as major divisions in the historic Common­ wealth Teacher-Training Study.

Charters and Waples, in

reporting the study, used seven major divisions under which they classified 1 3 0 0 different teacher activities which were gleaned from 212,000 teachers' statements. Of the seven divisions, the four not already mentioned in one way or another by Campbell were: (of the classroom), vancement,

(l) Management

(2) professional and personal ad­

(3) activities in connection with plant and

supplies (this was not included on the questionnaire because the subject of supervisory aid in meeting the needs of teachers hardly fits it),

(4) administrative

relationships. Seven additional divisions were set forth by Overn in his book entitled The Teacher in the Modern If School. These were: (l) Motivation, (2) morals, (3 )

citizenship training, agencies,

(4) guidance,

(6) curriculum,

of the schools.

(5 ) use of service

(7 ) school plant and support

This latter did not bear directly on

3

W. W. Charters and Douglas Waples, The Common­ wealth Teacher-Training Study. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1929;* 666 pp. 4

Alfred V. Overn, The Teacher in Modern Educa­ tion. (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1935)» PP. 5-235.

7 the topic of this thesis. Still further areas of teaching were outlined by a seminar group in the summer of 1936 at the Curriculum Laboratory of George Peabody College.

The seminar mem­

bers noted two trends which were developing then:^

(l)

The trend toward increasing use of activities to promote the learning of prescribed subject matter, and (2) to­ ward adjusting instruction to individual needs, inter­ ests and abilities in such a way as to provide for con­ tinuous growth or development.

The activities program

was also stressed by Myers and Kifer teacher's work. of:

(l)

as an area of the

They went on to contribute the divisions

Specific subject problems,

(2) visual education,

(3) controversial issues. Prom the areas suggested by the authorities cited in the preceding paragraphs the list of areas of growth in service was prepared and placed on the questionnaire. This list included:

the subjects of the California

State curriculum, using community resources, the activ­ ity program, control of the classroom, lesson planning, 5

Campbell, o£. cit., p. 49.

£

Alonzo P. Myers and Louise M. Kifer, Problems in Public School Supervision. (New York: PrenticeHall , Inc., 1939), pp. 1Ob-179.

8 teaching of controversial issues, individualization of instruction, evaluation and guidance of pupil accom­ plishment, keeping records, daily schedule, use of vis­ ual aids, parent conferences (in connection with the system of parent conferences as reports to supplement the report card in the Downey Elementary Schools), P-T. A. work, methods of child study, child psychology and development, the teacher!s role in guidance, and improving staff relations. In illustration, Figure 1 lists a part of the questionnaire which surveyed the nature of the teachers' desire for growth in service.

Will you please place a check in the appropriate column indicating your desire for growth in service in any of these areas? j

V

£

»v

/'JJ t



f

Area SUBJECT MATTER: Physical Education Reading Arithmetic Language Arts Music

Desire very much

Desire

Do not Desire

9

Area Social Studies Art Science Health METHODS: Use of community resources Activity program Control of the learning situation Lesson planning Individualization of instruction Use of visual aids ROUTINES: Keeping records Daily schedule COMMUNITY RELATIONS: Parent conferences P-T.A. work Teacher personality Controversial issues CHILD STUDY AND GUIDANCE: Child psychology and development Child study

Desire very much

Desire

Do not Desire

10

Desire very much

Area

Desire

Do not Desire

Role in guidance Evaluation and guidance of pupil accomplishment TEACHER PROFESSIONALIZATION Improving staff relations * See also Figure 2. FIGURE 1 AREAS OF IN-SERVICE GROWTH

Extent of the teachers1 efforts toward self-•improvement and professional improvement was judged by three ques­ tions asking respectively for:

(l) extent of membership

in professional organizations,

(2) nature of professional

ambitions, and (3) amount of reading in the professional field during the past year. The section of the questionnaire which gathered material on the professionalization of teachers is given herewith in Figure 2:

11

To what educational associations do you currently belong?

2.

(a)

C. T. A. _________

(d)________________

(b)

N. E. A. _________

(e)________________

(c)

D. E. A. _________

(f)________________

What professional ambitions do you have? (a)

To be an administrator __________

(b)

To be a supervisor ______________

(c)

To be a college teacher

(d)

To be a critic teacher

(e)

(f) 3.

How many books of a professional nature have you read during the past year? (a)

One to three __________

(b)

Pour to six

(c)

Seven to nine_

(d)

Ten or more

(e)

_________________

__________

FIGURE 2 TEACHER PROFESSIONALIZATION

12

Sources of classification of procedures for pro­ cedures for promoting the growth of teachers in service for Inclusion on the questionnaire.

The procedures placed

on the questionnaire for the teachers to choose or add to were selected as representative of those which have been and are being used to promote the growth of teachers in service.

The broadest list of such classifications was

the one by Whitney, arranged in rank order of preference: (1)

Personal conference,

ature,

(2) reading educational liter­

(3) visitation of superior officer,

teachers’ meetings,

7

(4) general

(5 ) group conferences on specific

problems,

(6) visiting other teachers,

teaching,

(8) supervisory bulletins,

(7 ) demonstration' — x

(9 > 10, and 11 omitted

since all did not apply to the subject of this thesis), (12) curriculum making,

(1 3 ) omitted, and (14) attendance

at teachers' associations. Beyond those offered by Whitney, Charles Russell 8 , x proposed five such procedures: (1) Extension activities, (2) Summer schools (These were not included in the ques­ tionnaire since they are outside the scope of the activ­ ities of supervision in a given school system except for 7

P. L. Whitney, The Growth of Teachers in Service. (New York: The Century Company, 1927)1 308 pp.

8

Charles Russell, The Improvement of the City Ele­ mentary Teacher in Service. (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1922), pp. 47-85-

13 the encouragement that such supervision might give its teachers to attend),

(3) teachers' professional library,

(4) visiting days, (5) self-rating cards. The Curriculum Laboratory at the George Peabody College in 1937 called attention to nine procedures by which professional organizations could contribute to the 9

in-service training of teachers:

(l)

Publications,

(2) professional meetings, conferences and educational clinics,

(3) committee work and research projects,

cooperation in curriculum programs, circles,

(6) enriched living,

sional activities,

(4)

(5) aids to reading

(7) encouraging profes­

(8) professional ethics,

(9) teachers'

councils. Further means available for promoting teacher 10 growth were suggested by Ruediger: (l) Correspondence study,

(2) four types of summer schools,

teaching,

(3) extension

(4) county superintendent's conferences,

(5)_

certification of teachers (These means were not included in the questionnaire but were included in this section

^

to illustrate the scope of activities that normally fall 9

Campbell, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 100-106.

William C. Ruediger, Agencies for the Improvement of Teachers in Service. (United States Bureau of Educa­ tion, Bulletin No. 3» Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1911)* pp. 42-155*

14 under the category of improvement devices.

The following

means taken from Ruediger were cited as suggestions which might possibly be followed by a district, but which, again, are not properly supervisory in nature:), years,

(6) sabbatical

(7 ) special funds for improvement of teachers,

merit system of promotion,

(8)

(9 ) participation of teachers

in determination of educational policies. The Commissioner of Education saw fit in 1914 to include in his report recommendations of desirable procedures then in use: reading,

11

(l)

Systematic direction of

(2) endorsement and adoption of mutually under­

stood standards of teaching by supervisors and recogni­ tion of teachers’ attempts at self-improvement. More recently a report in the National Elementary Principal described actual procedures for promoting the growth of teachers in service as: summer workshop, school year, activities,

12

, N

(1)

An independent

(2) workshop carried on through the

(3) cooperative planning of professional (4) professional meetings, teacher-planned

and directed,

(5 ) short professional courses for teachers

and principals,

(6) cooperative curriculum construction,

11 Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year Ended June 3^7 1913 » Vol. I. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1914, pp. 542-43. 12 In-Service Growth of School Personnel, Twenty-

15 (7 ) community contacts. The procedures selected from the above to form a representative list of feasible methods for meeting the needs of the teachers in -the Downey Elementary Schools were:

(l)

Committee study, (2) workshops,

(3 ) bulletins of instruction,

(4) demonstration teach­

ing, (5 ) individual conferences between the supervisor and the teacher,

(6 ) professional library,

visor’s classroom visitation, ulty meetings,

(7 ) super­

(8 ) teacher-planned fac­

(9 ) college courses, and (1 0 ) visits

to other teachers.

The respondents were asked to write

in any others they wished, but none were written in. Naturally, college courses could not be offered by way of help directly by the supervisory staff, but this was included because teachers might reasonably feel that some of the needs for growth which they expressed could only be met by such courses. The procedures selected from the above listing to form a representative list of feasible methods for meeting the needs of the teachers in the Downey Ele­ mentary Schools were presented in this form on the questionnaire:

First Yearbook of the Department of Elementary School Principals. (Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1942), pp. 256-80.

16

Will you please place a check beside the most valuable procedure listed below for obtaining inservice growth in any of the areas for which you expressed a desire? Committee study Workshops Bulletins of instruction Demonstration teaching Individual conferences Professional library Supervisors 1 classroom visitation Teacher-planned faculty meetings College courses Visits to other teachers

FIGURE 3 PROCEDURES FOR FURTHERING IN-SERVICE GROWTH

Judgment of the value of the procedures.

The

relative merits of procedures such as those cited in the preceding paragraphs has already been investigated many times.

The most frequently cited investigation in recent

literature was that of C. A. Weber, who found that the most promising techniques in the estimation of the teachers

17 who were consulted in the study were:

x3

, v

(1)

Having

teachers organize themselves into committees to study problems, (2 ) having teachers, rather than the principals or department heads, plan faculty meetings (it was for this reason that the procedure in the questionnaire was worded "teacher-planned faculty meetings"),

(3 ) provid­

ing an adequate professional library in a room used ex­ clusively by teachers and fitted as a comfortable, home­ like browsing room (An effort will definitely be made in Downey to provide such a professional library),

(4)

having teacher panels discuss recent articles in period­ ical literature,

(5 ) giving special financial awards

for participation in cooperative attacks upon school problems,

(6 ) encouraging an evaluation of the school,

(7 ) organizing a well-planned cooperative attack on problems of curriculum development,

(8 ) holding forums

where pupils, teachers, parents, and board members can discuss their common problems,

(9 ) attending summer

schools— more particularly, summer workshops, visiting other teachers.

13

(1 0 )

It will be noted that oppor-

C. A. Weber, A Summary of the Findings of the Sub-Committee on In-Service Education of the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, reported in Journal of Educational Research, V o l . 3h, (May, 1943), PP. 694-7057

18 tunity to choose all of these methods * except numbers five and eight, were put upon the questionnaire in one way or another. Supervisors and teachers do not always agree on the effectiveness of these techniques. Agreement has 14 , been shown to be closest on: (1) Supervisors 1 visits to classrooms,

(2 ) inter-visitation of teachers,

individual conferences. be widest on:

(l)

(3 )

Disagreement has been shown to

Demonstration teaching (teachers

ranked it third in importance, while supervisors ranked it sixty-first),

(2 ) reading educational literature,

(3) membership in professional organizations,

(4) teach­

er self-rating (teachers ranked it tenth in importance, while supervisors ranked it sixty-fifth). Weber said in summary, "Teachers 1 technics which are supervisory and inspectorial and which originate with administrators and supervisors and which are individualistic rather than cooper­ ative in character are of doubtful value, but they are the most frequently used. Technics which involve teacher participation in all phases of the in-service program, which encourage teacher initiation and action as well as planning are con­ sidered most valuable, but these technics are the least used.”

14 Barr, o£. clt., p. 708. 15 Ibid., p. 707.

19 Method of securing answers to the questionnaire. Every teacher, administrator, and supervisor in the Downey Elementary Schools filled out a questionnaire. The one hundred per cent return was possible because of the relatively small number of people involved (fortyone) and because of excellent cooperation from the staff. Small groups of teachers met with the person who developed the questionnaire.

An explanation of the purpose of the

questionnaire was made at these meetings, and the ques­ tionnaire filled out at that time so that any questions of interpretation or of any other kind could be answered. Any one wishing to take more than the meeting time for the questionnaire tefes encouraged to take it, study it, and return it at the end of three days. Limitations of the study.

This study in the

general field of teacher education limited itself to the problem of in-service training and growth.

While the sub­

ject is closely related to the improvement of instruction it was concerned solely with the element of the teacher and no other element which enters the wider area of the improvement of instruction.

Specifically excluded were:

Salary study (such a study is already under the study of a teacher committee in Downey), the school plant and equipment, instructional supplies, selection and placement

20

of teachers, certification of teachers, tenure of teachers, and teachers 1 institutes. Another sort of limitation of the study was the subjectivity of the basis of the data.

Basing the pro­

gram of in-service growth on no more objective a found­ ation than opinions checked on a questionnaire could not be considered entirely defensible.

Reduction in

the extent of this subjectivity was attempted by:

(l)

the expedient of having the person who made up the ques­ tionnaire present while each questionnaire was being filled out, for the purpose of explaining the intent of any item questioned, so that a fairly standard inter­ pretation of the items was achieved, and (2 ) the use of wording for the items that was commonly found in the literature, which might have had^ the effect of securing a more universally understood denotation and connotation than original wording might have had. Organization of the remainder of the thesis. The chapters which follow contain, in order:

Chapter II,

a survey of the related literature, covering especially the common practices in using training media and best recommended practice in the opinions of experts; Chap­ ters III to VIII, tables and their interpretations, re­ porting the responses of the teachers to the question­

21

naire; and Chapter I X , conclusions and recommendations made on the hasis of the data presented and the statements of authorities cited in Chapter II.

CHAPTER I I

SURVEY OF THE RELATED LITERATURE The literature surveyed in this chapter was exam­ ined from the standpoint of reporting the general prin­ ciples and practices that have been established in im­ plementing programs of growth in service for teachers. This background information might be valuable to a school staff contemplating the institution of such a program, the reorganization of such a program, or the inception of one or more of the various techniques used in such a program.

It includes statements on the desirability

of a program of growth in service, an outline of the specific functions of the different agents on a school staff in the program, a possible organization of a fac­ ulty to promote such a program, and reference to several sources each on the various procedures for promoting growth in service.

The latter references outline the

elements of the various procedures and state the recom­ mendations of selected authorities as to what is best practice. I.

DESIRABILITY OF A PROGRAM FOR IN-SERVICE GROWTH OF TEACHERS

The fact that teachers expressed a feeling of need

23 for growth in service and that the best interests of the children will be served by meeting thoee needs argue for a program for in-service growth.

The rapid rate of prog­

ress in education argues further for such a program. authors of Paths to Better Schools said in part:

The

16

No teacher will be good enough to teach the children of America in the next decade in this changing, throbbing world that we live in unless he has a series of experiences which will keep him alive as a growing and expanding individual and member of the teaching profession . . . If we are to improve as a professional group, and we believe we must, then the more extensive growth and development of a fine teacher must go on con­ tinuously over the entire period of his active professional experience. This growth should come as the result of stimulation that can be created and carried on in the local community. /This thesis had exactly this intentJ The most desirable program for in-service growth Is not one imposed by the leaders to whom the teacher is responsible.

In fact, these leaders must themselves

be included within the scope of the word "teacher," and themselves participate in the growth.

Stoddard insisted

that: . . . there is little to be gained in thinking about the growth of classroom teachers in ser­ vice unless everyone concerned either directly

16

Paths to Better Schools, Twenty-third Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators. (Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 19^5)* p. 179. 17 Alexander J. Stoddard, Growth of Teachers in

24 or indirectly with the processes of instruction is growing also . . . Another concept that is even more important is that people do not grow in service because of something that is done to them by someone else. They grow as a result of what they are able to do of, by, and for them­ selves . . . In fact, there is something contrary to the dignity of teaching in a democracy in the idea that growth comes as the result of outside imposition. The essential elements of a desirable program of in-service education were named in a report of the National Education Association.

18

This list might serve

as a standard by which to judge the quality of the ef­ fort made by a given school district. A desirable program of in-service education: (1) Begins with an inventory, or survey, to determine the current local needs. /The question­ naire used in connection with this thesis was de­ signed to make such an inventory/7 (2) Starts where the teacher actually Is and leads by moderate steps toward higher professional standards. (3)

Sets up specific objectives.

(4)

Involves specific and cooperative planning. (June, 1935)* pp. 29-32.

67 are a valuable aid to the supervisor in discovering which points to cover.

Stone

103

pointed out that the

supervisor will do well to manage the conference so that the teacher will do at least as much of the talk­ ing as he, and so that she will be stimulated to ask questions. Time and place of the individual supervisory conference.

The teacher's classroom was the place for

holding the individual conference stipulated by Con104 105 nette. Kyte concurred in this judgment. The latter explained that the time for such a conference is generally after school and the time is from fifteen to forty minutes duration.

Rarely should this type of

conference take more than forty minutes. Guiding principles for planning the individual supervisory conference.

Pour principles for guidance

of the supervisor in planning the post-teaching conference were laid down by Anderson, Barr and Bush:

106

.

.

(1)

Conferences to be effective should follow a well-thought-

103

104 1°5

106

Stone, op. cit. , pp. 6 7 -6 9 * Connette, loc. cit. Kyte, op. cit., p. 2 5 8 . Anderson, Barr and Bush, op. cit., Chapter 8.

68 out program for the improvement of teaching.

(2)

Follow-up conferences should be the outgrowth of a definite instructional policy.

(3)

Follow-up confer­

ences should be characterized by definiteness of pu r­ pose.

(4)

Follow-up conferences should be character­

ized by continuity of action.

Other valuable prin107 ciples presented were those formulated by Stone who said in part: ^The supervisory7 should be prepared to offer some very definite suggestions, to place in the t e a c h e r ’s hand literature that will be suggestive and definitely helpful, to do whatever may be possible in providing needed materials, and to work with the teacher to the fullest extent in any reas­ onable suggestions or requests which she may make. He should be well prepared for the conference with facts to support his judgments, and with specific aid for the teacher. Kyte

108

made the comment that visitation may be

made on schedule or on call.

However, many teachers

will be found doing better work if a supervisory visit is made unannounced.

Where there are several special

supervisors in a school system confusion is prevented and effectiveness of supervisory effort furthered if the major part of their time devoted to the classroom visitation is on schedule.

107

Planning supervisory visits

Stone, op. cit., pp. 6 7 - 6 9 .

10^ Kyte, op. cit., pp. 137- 165 .

includes:

(l)

The selection of sound objectives,

the analysis of teacher personnel, learning conditions, ficulties,

(2)

(3) the survey of

(4) the diagnosis of teaching dif­

(5 ) the determining of teacher needs and (6)

the choice of supervisory aid.

It was with these two

latter activities that this thesis concerned itself. Professional library:

need.

Several statements

have been made on the need for a professional library 109 for the use of the teaching staff. Fred Engelhardt reasoned that tools are essential to good workmanship in any craft, and that books, bulletins, and printed documents are the tools of the educational profession. In his judgment it is impossible to improve instruction, to plan curriculum revision, or to train teachers in service, without a modern professional library.

Ob­

viously, each member of the teaching force will be ex­ pected to have a professional library, but the profes­ sional library of the school system should have an ex­ tensive collection in all fields and should be avail­ able to all.

Provision for such a library has not al­

ways been adequate.

109

O t t o ^ ^ maintained that few ele-

Fred Engelhardt, Public School Organization and Administration. (New York: Ginn and Company, 1931) p. 4TW.

70 mentary schools have provided, to say nothing of having exploited the possibilities of a professional library for teachers within each elementary school.

If teachers

are to render maximum professional service of a high type, they must be provided with the materials which are the tools of the profession so that educational thought and practice may keep abreast of the changes which are rapidly taking place in public education. Ill Barr, Burton and Brueckner put heavy stress on the amount and kind of reading done as r,one of the best in­ dices of an individual's probable growth in service.” Lack of facility in the utilization of reading as a tool by which new knowledges and appreciations may be had must be laid at the door of institutions educating teachers and the failure of school officials to provide an adequate professional library. Sources of books for a professional library. 112 Reavis et al presented several ideas for financing a collection of books for a professional library.

110

For

Henry J. Otto, Elementary School Organization and Administration. (New York: Appleton-Century Com­ pany, 1§44)', p. 3&1 • 111 Barr, Burton and Brueckner, cp. cit., p. 729* 112

Reavis et al, op. cit., p. 3*1-5•

example, very successful professional libraries in local schools have been launched on subscriptions of one dollar per year for each teacher, with a reduction to fifty cents yearly after the first two years.

Frequently

teachers club together to buy and exchange professional books or to subscribe to certain professional magazines. In many school systems it is possible for the principal to apportion a certain part of the budget each year to supplying new professional books for the use of his staff.

Even a small sum, such as fifty dollars, will

purchase from ten to twenty new books during the year. This means a great addition to the professional liter­ ature available for a teaching staff during a given year.

In some instances it may be suggested that each

teacher submit a book as a nucleus for the professional library.

This plan is sometimes utilized in school

systems where the board of education does not furnish professional books.

One hundred and ninety-one prin­

cipals and one hundred and sixty-seven teachers in Detroit, Michigan, offered two answers to the question: (l)

Let the board of education provide a shelf of In­

teresting material for each school library, and (2)

■^3 National Education Association, Department of Elementary School Principals, op. cit., pp. 426-429-

113 ^

72

Have a professional library center, supported by small fees from teachers. Location and management of the professional library.

The place of this library depends upon the sit­

uation of the schools in geographic location to each other and on the type of control.

According to Fargo,

1

provision should be made somewhere in the school system or in the public library for a professional collection for teachers.

A central school library department, if

one exists, may undertake the administration of such a collection.

To do so is one of the best devices for

securing the cooperation of teachers in school library work.

More than that, it is a sound arrangement from

the administrative point of view, because the profes­ sional resources of the system are gathered together in one place, and made useful through expert reference service, while at the same time extension and deposit station service through the schools is provided.

Af­

filiation of the teachers’ library with a municipal or county library has the like advantage of concentrat­ ing educational reading material in one place and

11A (Chicago:

Lucille Fargo, The Library in the School. American Library Association, 1939), P- ^53*

73 giving it close physical relationship to allied fields of reading.

No matter where located, the teachers’

library should be in charge of an expert--someone who is at home in both the library and the school field. 115 On this matter of physical location, Engelhardt thought that the professional workroom should be attractive and well-arranged for individual study and for conference work#

He further noted that the teacher should be able

to work in this library during free periods or whenever it is convenient.

In the small school system a profes­

sional library adjoining the superintendent’s office is desirable. Reavis

116

proposed that teachers should be very

active in the management of their professional library. He felt that interest in the professional library would be stimulated if the teachers had a direct voice and share in the organization and direction of the library. A committee of teachers should act with the supervisor in selecting books, formulating regulations for con­ ducting the library, cataloguing books, and planning the methods of financing the project.

The teacher

Engelhardt, op. cit. , p. 415. Reavis, op. cit., pp. 362- 365.

74 selected to head this committee should have the right professional attitude, be a willing worker, and possess influence and leadership among the teachers. Fargo

117

insisted on library knowledge also.

Librarian This com­

mittee could select the books and magazines, arrange the mechanics of circulation, survey the special read­ ing needs of teachers, and encourage library reading. Kinds of books in the professional library.

A

rather well-balanced summary of the variety of printed matter which should be found in a teachers * professional library was made by Engelhardt.

113

He believed that the

books in this library should include a complete histor­ ical file of all textbooks which have been used in that particular public-school system, and also samples of the most modern instructional materials in the various subject fields.

Also, there should be found in it the

yearbooks and publications of the learned educational associations and societies and the significant bulletins and reports of the state department of education, of the United States Office of Education, and of the sup­ erintendents of schools of comparable school districts. Teachers and other staff members should have available

Fargo, op. cit. , p. 454. Engelhardt, op. cit., p. 4l4.

75 for use a selection of the best books on method, tech­ nique, supervision, and administration. College courses.

College courses for teachers

were not dealt with in this chapter since the teachers of the Downey Elementary School District and the ad­ ministration would be able to do little in changing the existing facilities and policies of the institutions available. SUMMARY This chapter presented a possible faculty organ­ ization suitable to a program for the in-service satis­ faction of the teachers' needs for growth, an outline of the specific functions of the various agents on the school staff, and a collection of data on general prin­ ciples in employing the procedures for meeting the growth needs of teachers in-service, common practices in employ­ ing them, some of the research on their effectiveness and some recommendations of experts regarding their use.

CHAPTER I I I

TEACHERS’ SUBJECT MATTER NEEDS AND THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR MEETING THESE NEEDS This chapter, and the next five chapters which follow, contains tables and comments thereon reporting the responses of the teachers of the Downey Elementary School District to a questionnaire which asked them what needs they felt for growth in service, and what they felt the best procedures might be for meeting those needs. The tables presented in this chapter show by per­ centages in rank order the popularity with the teachers of the various procedures by area.

Also in tabular form,

but not in rank order, will be found the percentages in­ dicating the nature of desire on the part of the teachers for in-service growth in specific areas.

This desire

was not reported in rank order of percentage, since a clearly-defined order was already present in the three divisions for the teacher to check; namely: very much,

(2) Desire,

(3 ) Do not desire.

(l) Desire The no-responses

were not included in the tables because of the extremely subjective nature of the interpretation of them.

In a

few instances a comment was made on the number of no­ responses where this number was very high and might

77

therefore have had some significance that would permit an acceptable interpretation. Teachers* responses.

In Table I, the fact that

45 per cent of the teachera expressed a desire to know more about the area of physical education, argues for a careful consideration of providing ways for meeting such a strong need.

Plans for meeting this need might well

take into account the active feeling among 30 per cent of the teachers against learning more in this area.

The

number of teachers registering a negative feeling in this area was so high that it was equalled in only one other area (lesson Planning:

27 per cent), and exceeded 38 per cent).

in only one other (Controversial Issues:

Furthermore, eighteen.of the twenty-six areas were found to be areas in which the teachers expressed a greater total need than in the area of Physical Education. TABLE I NATURE OF DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Teachers’ responses*

Total

Desire very much

# # # #

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not desire

# # # # #

# # # #

12$

* One figure (#) stands for 3 per cent.

#

33 27

78 Table II shows plainly that the teachers believed the workshop to be the best procedure through which they could learn more in the area of Physical Education. Every teacher has a ready outlet for workshop-prepared materials and plans.

This outlet is the playground per­

iod which she must supervise as part of her routine du­ ties.

The teachers in question might understandably look

upon this procedure as best. Those who do not believe that teachers pay much attention to instructions written for them may be sur­ prised that nearly one in every six of the total number of respondents checked "Bulletins of Instruction" as their choice for the best way for them to find out what they wished to know in the area of Physical Education.

TABLE II JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Teachers' responses

Total

Workshops

# # # # #

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # # #

15

Demonstration Teaching

# # # #

12

Visits to Other Teachers

# #

# # # # #

30$

6

79 As can be seen in Table III, the desire for growth in the area of Reading was very strong.

Only

two other areas were checked in the first two categories by a higher percentage of the teachers.

Those two areas

were Social Studies (which was checked in the two cate­ gories of desire by seventy-six per cent of the respond­ ents), and Art (seventy-five per cent of the respondents checked the first two categories).

Furthermore, the

ratio of checks in the first category to checks in the second category was one of the highest ratios in any of the twenty-six areas.

TABLE III NATURE OF DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF READING

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

# # # # #

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not desire

# #

30$ # # #

38 6

According to Table IV, there was greater unanimity of opinion on the procedure of Demonstration Teaching for this area than for any other procedure for any of the other

80

areas except that of the Language Arts (exclusive of Reading).

In this area the percentage went three points

higher on the same procedure.

That these two areas are

closely related goes without saying.

This might be taken

as evidence of consistency in the teachers’ ratings of the suitability of demonstration teaching for instruction in the areas of language subjects in school. One teacher asked specifically by write-in that the Curriculum Coordinator make the demonstrations in Reading.

TABLE IV JUDGMENT OP THE BEST- PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF READING

T e a c h e r s ’ responses

Total

Demonstration Teaching

# # # # #

Visits to Other Teachers

#

Professional Library

##

# # # # #

# # #

m

# # #

24

# # # # #

# #

21

Workshops

# # # # #

#

17

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # #

College Courses

# # #

9

Committee Study

# #

6

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

# #

6

# #

12

81 As can be seen in Table V, nearly sixty per cent of the teachers desire to know more about the teaching of Arithmetic.

The strength of the desire for growth

in the area of Arithmetic was not as great as that shown in many other areas.

A lesser degree of desire was

shown in the first category than the corresponding cate­ gory in such other areas as Music, Art, Language Arts, Evaluation and Guidance, and Using Community Resources. Still a need that exists for as many as sixty per cent of the teachers, while not as urgent as some of the other needs expressed, deserves attention in the program of in-service training for which this thesis made the pre­ liminary survey.

TABLE V NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF ARITHMETIC

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

# #

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not desire

# # # # #

21# # # #

38 15

82 Of the ten procedures available for checking (space was provided for write-ins and the teachers were encouraged by both verbal and written instructions to use the space), eight different ones were chosen altogether by the teachers.

As in six other tables out of a total

of twenty-six on the procedures, the demonstration proved to be the most popular.

Efforts to meet the teachers’

needs in this area should not necessarily all be concen­ trated on the single procedure, because Workshops and Bulletins of Instruction were favored. TABLE VI JUDGMENT OP THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF ARITHMETIC

Teachers* responses

Total

Demonstration Teaching

# # # # #

# # #

24^

Workshops

# # # # #

# #

21

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # # #

#

17

Professional Library

# # #

9

Visits to Other Teachers

# # #

9

College Courses

#

3

Individual Conferences

#

3

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

#

3

83 The figures of Table VII show that nearly twothirds of the teachers are sensitive to a need for growth in the area of the Language Arts.

A further investiga­

tion might be valuable if it checked the extent to which this need grew from the necessity to fulfill college re­ quirements toward a credential, or whether this need could be shown to have a direct relationship to the need for the improvement of instruction as shown by pupil achievement, or whether the supervisors felt that the teachers needed growth in this area.

A comparison of

this estimate and that provided here for the teachers might well serve to help align the thinking of the two groups, or to strengthen mutual respect and confidence between the two groups if their estimates are not at variance.

One essential condition for a good program of

in-service may in this case be the existence of a felt nee d . TABLE VII NATURE OP THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OP LANGUAGE ARTS

Total

Teachers 1 responses Desire very much

# # # # #

# # # #

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not desire

# #

27$ ##

35 6

84 The largest single percentage of responses to any of the ten procedures was the 4l per cent recorded in Table VIII for Demonstration Teaching.

Visiting Other

Teachers, another way of seeing how someone else handles a subject, was placed third.

The teachers expressed

some faith in working out their own problems in this area through workshops and through reading of a profes­ sional nature. TABLE VIII JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF LANGUAGE ARTS

Teachers’ responses

Total

Demonstration Teaching # # # # #

#.# # # #

Workshops

# # # # #

#

Visits to Other Teachers

# # # # #

15

Professional Library

# # # #

12

Bulletins of Instruction

# # #

9

Teacher-planned. Teacher Meetings

# #

6

College Courses

#

3

Individual ' Conferences

#

3

# # # #

41* 17

85

The respondents to the -questionnaire have the services of a special supervisor in Music.

Desire in

this area (see Table IX) closely approximated that in the area of Language Arts.

Resistance was a little

higher for Music than for Language Arts, however, the percentage being 15 per cent as against 6 per cent in Language Arts.

Thus, the responses to the area of Music

suggest a rather selective or special program for fur­ thering in-service growth since there was a rather high ratio of strong de&ire (27 per cent) and "Desire11 (33 per cent), coupled with only a moderate amount of re­ sistance.

This would indicate that of those who wished

it, the need for growth in the Music area was keenly felt.

TABLE IX NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF MUSIC

Total

Teachers 1 responses Desire very much

# # # # #

# # # #

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not desire

# # # # #

27^ #

32 15

86

A variety of opinions left only one procedure un­ checked in the area of Music.

Supervisor's classroom

visitations received one of its infrequent mentions. The pattern of response shown in Table X indi­ cated that the teachers liked to be shown how to teach Music (’’Demonstration Teaching” and ’’Visits to Other Teachers”), and that they believe that they can help themselves through workshops and reading. TABLE X JUDGMENT OP THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF MUSIC

Teachers' responses

Total

Demonstration Teaching

# # # # #

# # # # #

29^

Workshops

# # # # #

# # # #

2h

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # #

Visits to Other Teachers

# # #

9

College Courses

# #

6

Professional Library

# #

6

Individual Conferences

#

3

Supervisor’s Classroom Visitation

#

3

Faculty Meetings

#

3

12

87

One of the two instances in which more teachers checked the category of "Desire very much" a greater num­ ber of times than that of "Desire" occurred in the area of Social Studies.

(The other instance was in the area

of Parent Conferences, which were initiated during the same year in the school district in which this study was made.)

If the teachers themselves were to establish the

order of priority for areas in which service in training was to be given, the area of Social Studies clearly would come first.

Not only was the strength of desire expressed

remarkably high, but the total percentage of teachers re­ cording such a desire (7 6 per cent) was the greatest of all the areas.

TABLE XI NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF SOCIAL STUDIES

Teachers T responses Desire very much Desire Do not desire

###.##

Total # # # # #

# # # #

' # # # # # # # # # # # # #

41# 35 3

88

Table XII was the only table which contained responses for every procedure mentioned.

While the "Dem­

onstration Teaching” ranked highest (as in six other such tables), the next six procedures were all of the type in which the teacher is an active participant rather than a passive agent.

This teacher-participation is a highly v

valued characteristic in any program of teacher growth in service (see discussion in Chapter II).

TABLE XII JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF SOCIAL STUDIES

Teachers' responses

Total

Demonstration Teaching

# # # # #

# # # # #

Professional Library

# # # # #

# #

21

Visits to Other Teachers

# # # # #

# #

21

Bulletins of Instruction

#.####

#

17

Workshops

# # # # #

15

Committee Study

# # # #

12

College Courses

# # #

9

Supervisor's Visitations

# #

6

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

# #

6

Individual Conferences

#

3

# #

,

36$

89 Of the special subjects to which a supervisor is commonly assigned in the elementary schools, Art is the one in which the teachers of the Downey system do not have access to such a specialist.

Desire on the part of

the teachers for growth in this area, as shown by Table XIII, was second in total percentage only to that in Social Studies.

It is not suggested here that the solu­

tion to the problem of in-service training in the area of Art is the hiring of an Art supervisor.

In fact, pre­

senting solutions is not within the scope of the present thesis.

The procedures found in alternate tables sheds

some light upon the teachers1 opinions as to what some solutions might be, and perhaps the solution of the prob­ lem of this need might be found among these opinions. TABLE XIII NATURE OP THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OP ART

Teachers 1 responses Desire very much

Total # # # # #

Desire Do not desire

# # # # # #

# # # # # # # # # #

#

32$

# # # #

^3 3-

90 As in three other areas out of the total of twenty six, workshops were selected (see Table .XIV) as the best procedure for helping the teachers to grow in service in the area of Art.

The other procedures which commanded a

good following were:

seeing how others teach, and read­

ing in the bulletins issued by supervisors, and through materials from the professional library.

The three pro­

cedures which are shown in this table to be very low in favor with the respondents were among the highest and most favored ones cited in the discussion of the litera­ ture, in Chapter II. TABLE XIV JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF ART Teachers 1 responses Workshops

Total # # # # #

# # # # #

# # #

3Wo

Bulletins of Instruction # # # #

# #

21

Demonstration Teaching # # # # #

#

IT

Visits to Teachers

# # # # #

Professional Library

# # #

9

College Courses

# #

6

15

Individual Conferences #

3

Supervisor’s Visits

#

3

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings #

'3

91 While the area of Science is a permissive rather than a mandatory one under the laws of the State of Cal­ ifornia, enough of the teachers felt a desire to know more about that area to bring the percentage of those checking the first two categories of desire to a total of sixty-seven per cent (see Table XV).

The emphasis

on Science in the curriculum and the quality of science instruction might well be influenced by some work in the *

program of in-service training.

Meeting the individual

needs of teachers through such a program is likely to be as effective a way of teaching by the supervisors as meeting individual needs among her pupils is for the teacher. TABLE XV NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF SCIENCE

Total

Teachers * responses Desire very much # # # # #

#

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not desire

# #

Ufo # # # # #

# #

50

While the participatory workshops ranked first in Table XVI, the more academic procedures, such as reading

6

92 and college courses took the next three places.

In

keeping with this academic trend, the less formal, part­ icipatory procedures such as committee study, ranked low. This rank was not in keeping with practice recommended by the experts whose findings were reported in Chapter II. They described faculty meetings and committee study as useful procedures for promoting growth in service. TABLE XVI JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF SCIENCE

Teachers' responses

Total

Workshops

# # # # #

# # # # #

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # # #

# # #

Professional Library

# # # # #

15

College Courses

# # # #

12

Visits to Other Teachers

# # # #

12

Demonstration Teaching•

# # #

9

Committee Study

#

3

Supervisor’s Visitations

#

■ .3

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

#

3

#

32^ 24

93 Table XVII shows a low ratio of strong desire for growth in this area as signified by the first category percentage to the desire expressed by fifty per cent of the teachers in the second category.

As compared with

other areas, growth was desired more in seven other areas and less in eighteen areas than in the area of Health. Altogether, this reflects an active feeling of need for growth in the -area that merits recognition for Health when plans are being made to serve the teachers' needs. Beyond the teachers' needs, some weight should be allowed the area because of the basic nature of Health consider­ ations in the scheme of pupil welfare and efficiency. TABLE XVII NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF HEALTH

Teachers' responses Desire very much

# # # #

Desire

# # # # #

Do not desire

# # #

Total 12$ # # # # #

# # # # #

##50 9

In Table XVIII It can be seen that bulletins of instruction were selected by the teachers as the single best procedure for promoting their in-service growth.

In

94 three other areas— Lesson Planning, Keeping Records, and Individualization of Instruction— this procedure was again chosen as the most popular.

This is a curiously

assorted list of areas for such a procedure to serve in. The close

.-grouping of the next four procedures

in rank would militate against a ready decision by those who were constructing an in-service training program as to which lead to follow. TABLE XVIII JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF HEALTH

Teachers

1

responses

Total

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # # #

# # #

2.b%

Workshops

M IT £ 7r & Tt Jt T Mi ft

#

17

Demonstration Teaching

# #

#

17

Professional Library

# # # # #

Visits to Other Teachers

#

College Courses

# #

6

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

#

3

# #

# #

#

#

15 13

95 SUMMARY This chapter has shown in turn the nature of the teachers' needs in the subject matter areas and the pro­ cedures which the teachers selected as best-suited,, in their opinions, to meeting those needs.

Social Studies

and Art were the areas of greatest need, and Demonstra­ tion Teaching and the Workshop were the most popular selections among the procedures.

Noticeably absent from

the top rankings were the more common-used procedures of the Supervisory Visit and the Faculty Meeting.

CHAPTER I V

METHODS NEEDS The purpose of this chapter is to report, through the medium of twelve tables, the answers of teachers to inquiries put to them as to the strength of their desires to grow in ability to use various methods, and to grow in knowledge of what methods exist for achieving their own purposes in the course of their daily work.

Not all

methods were mentioned in the section of the question­ naire upon which this chapter is based, but rather, a sampling of broad general categories, such as "control of the learning situation" and the "activity program." A glance through this chapter will reveal the other cate­ gories . "Methods needs" was presumed to mean the needs felt by the teacher that might be met through a deep understanding of, or new insight Into, or greater grasp of, through being shown how in the course of practicable sessions for learning provided by the staff of the Downey schools, with the cooperation and participation of the teachers. Teachers 1 responses.

Prom Table XIX it can be

97 seen that the teachers of Downey are very strongly in­ clined toward achieving growth in the use of community resources.

This area was one of only three areas in

which no resistance was shown, as is indicated by the absence of responses in the line marked "Do not desire." The other two areas were "Improvement of Teacher Person­ ality," and "Improvement of Staff Relations."

Supervis­

ory efforts to meet this condition of readiness to learn might well be bent toward organizing or facilitating the organization of units of work in this area for the prim­ ary level or collection of data and information on the community for the use of teachers and classes at higher grade levels.

Since two-thirds of the teachers ex­

pressed a common need in this area, united attention in faculty meetings might prove profitable. TABLE XIX NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF USING COMMUNITY RESOURCES

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

# # # #

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not desire

27$ # # #

38 0

98 The teachers -were evenly divided between reading about using community resources and being shown how to do it.

The first four items in Table XX show this by re­

flecting even percentages for alternating pairs of con­ trasting methods.

However, about one teacher in eight

was willing to work out her own solution to this problem by tackling it at close quarters in the workshop or in company with others on a committee.

This trend is

strengthened somewhat by the hint that faculty meetings might meet the issue. TABLE XX JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF USING COMMUNITY RESOURCES

Teachers' responses

Total

Bulletins of Instruction

# # #

9$

Demonstration Teaching

# # #

9

Professional Library

# #

6

Visits to Other Teachers

# #

6

Committee Study

# #

6

Workshops

# #

6

Individual Conferences

#

3

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

#

3

99 Just over one-half of the teachers marked a response in Table XXI that could be taken to indicate a feeling of desire for growth in the area of the Act­ ivity Program.

Resistance was low in this area, amount­

ing to only six per cent of the total possible responses. According to modern thinking on method this might seem like a listless response, but it could just as readily be interpreted as a token of a feeling of adequacy in the area on the part of the teachers.

The appreciable

difference between “Desire” and “Desire very much," (33 and 21 per cent, respectively) might reinforce the latter interpretation, especially in the light of the low resistance already noted. TABLE XXI NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF THE ACTIVITY PROGRAM

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

# #

Desire

.####■#

# # # # #

Do not desire

# #

21$ #

32

Selection of the workshop in Table XXII marks the highest preference expressed by teachers (except for two

6

'100 instances), who agreed upon this medium during the course of the survey.

The natural appropriateness of such a

method for learning more about *the activity program will not escape the reader's notice.

Closely approximating

this figure was the seventeen per cent given to the pop­ ular demonstration method.

The three per cent who checked

"Supervisory Visit" created here one of the very rare oc­ casions of its mention. TABLE XXII JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DE­ SIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF THE ACTIVITY PROGRAM

Teachers' responses

Total

Workshops

# # # # #

# #

21$

Demonstration Teaching

# # # # #

#

17

Individual Conference

# # #

9

Professional Library

#

3

Supervisor's Classroom Visitations

#

3

Committee Study

#

3

The sort of growth expected in the area covered by Table XXIII is growth both in grasp of subject matter and in mastery of the skill required to run a schoolroom

101 in a planned and orderly manner.

That growth in this

area was wished for by over half of the teachers re­ sponding speaks well for their alertness to an ever­ present problem in teaching, and signifies that efforts by the supervisory agents to facilitate growth in this direction would undoubtedly be met with a receptive spirit on the part of the teachers.

Since teaching

can scarcely take place without a measure of control on the part of the teacher, the importance of this area in the instructional program is surpassed by few others.

TABLE XXIII NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF CONTROL OF THE LEARNING SITUATION

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # # .

Desire

# # # # #

Do not desire

#

15% # # # # #

# # #

38 3

By their answers as presented in Table XXIV, the teachers summarily chose Demonstration Teaching as the outstanding medium for helping them to learn about con­ trol of the learning situation.

Apparently they believe

102 that if they were shown how to achieve control in a specific situation they could use the methods thus dem­ onstrated to achieve control in the learning situation of their own classrooms.

This conclusion would undoubt­

edly be a good starting point for an investigation into the truth of such an inference.

Being of a more delib­

erate nature, the Library, Committee Study, and the Work­ shop were also cited as possibilities.

The totals of

these last three responses do not equal the single total for the Demonstration Teaching technique.

TABLE XXIV JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF CONTROL OF THE LEARNING SITUATION

Teachers 1 responses

Total



Demonstration Teaching

# # # # #

Workshops

# # # #

Committee Study

# #

6

Professional Library

# #

6

Bulletins of Instruction

#

3

# # # # #

#

32$ 12

103 The third highest total of resistance to an area among all the twenty-six areas cited, is shown in Table XXV.

After showing a low degree of enthusiasm on the

positive side, as shown by the first two categories, the teachers put heavy emphasis on their rejection of the idea of making further efforts in the direction of growth in the area of Lesson Planning.

Furthermore, the total

of "no-responses" to the item, while not necessarily sig­ nificant, was also third highest, as compared with the same category in the other twenty-six areas. There was a close parallel between the number of "no-responses" to the survey questions, and the totals on "Do not desire" responses.

It would seem, from the

%

responses herein indicated, that requiring lesson plans from teachers might be an action which would meet headon resistance from them.

TABLE XXV NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF LESSON PLANNING

Total

Teachers' responses Desire very much

# # #

Desire

# # # # #

Do not desire

# # # # #

9% 15 # # # # #

30

104 While there is a meagre response to the area of Lesson Planning, the largefet proportion of the respondents, as shown by Table XXVI, favored the Bulletins of Instruc­ tion as the best way to achieve results in this area. Clarity is lacking in the response of the 9 per cent who chose Demonstration Teaching as their idea of the best way to attain growth in Lesson Planning.

Workshop and

Committee Study could probably be seen more readily as feasible means of accomplishing the purpose set for this area.

The total for these two is as great as that for

the leading method--the Bulletins of Instruction.

Using

these methods would plase as many teachers as would the use of the Bulletins.

TABLE XXVI JUDGMENT OP THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF LESSON PLANNING

Teachers’ responses

Total

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # #

12 %

Demonstration Teaching

# # #

9

Committee Study

# #

6

Workshops

# #

6

105 The reason for low total response In the area of the Individualization of Instruction is not evident. While teachers, in general, are probably becoming more aware of the need to individualize instruction, and are better-informed about ways of doing it, an explanation of what might be called a poor response to the item is not readily apparent. this point.

More study would be advisable at

The assumption might be made that the teach­

ers felt that they were entirely adequate in their per­ formance of the duties involved in individualizing in­ struction.

Another possible interpretation is that the

meaning of the item was not altogether clear to the re­ spondents.

Wo data exists to validate either of these

assumptions, and therefore no explanation will be attempted. TABLE XXVII NATURE OP THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA: METHODS OP INDIVIDUALIZATION OP INSTRUCTION

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

# # #

Desire

# # # # #

Do not desire

# #

9$ # # #

2b 6

There was no general agreement on method of satis­ fying their desire expressed by the thirty-three per cent

106 of respondents who wanted to make progress In growth in the direction of individualizing instruction.

A reading

of Table XXVIII will uncover a rather well-balanced form­ ation of two groups of thought, one group being those who saw individualization as an inert but orderly, factual matter to be taken care of in Bulletins or in a college classroom, and the other being those who in their think­ ing conceived of individualization as a problem to be worked out in committee study, or set forth and solved by the demonstration method. TABLE XXVIII JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF INDIVIDUALIZATION OF INSTRUCTION

Total

Teachers 1 responses Bulletins of Instruction

# # # # #

15$

Demonstration Teaching

# # # #

12

College Courses

#

3

Workshops

#

3

Desire for growth in the use of Visual Aids ranked third highest among the twenty-six areas.

Adding the

totals for the first two categories of Table XXIX gives the total of sixty-four per cent.

A thoughtful supervisor

107 might well avail himself of the opportunity presented by this condition of readiness to set in motion the means of training these teachers in the use of audio-visual aids.

Some credit might be given by those who wished to

the alertness of the teachers as demonstrated by their sensitivity to the need for mastery in this rapidly expanding and very fruitful area.

In view of recent

state requirements in this regard, the feasibility of obtaining college credit for training in this area might well be investigated. TABLE XXIX NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF USE OF VISUAL AIDS

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

#

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not desire

# # #

17$ # # # # #

#

^7 9

The importance to teachers of reading as the best procedure for growing in the area of using audio-visual aids may puzzle one, upon inspection of Table XXX.

How­

ever, in point of total percentage, watching someone show how to use these aids and actually working with them out­

108 weighs reading by several percentage points.

The spread

of opinion here is interesting, not only from the stand­ point of dir.eet^conflict between methods, but also from the standpoint of variety.

The individual conference

merited one of its infrequent selections here.

College

courses, although necessary for credential credit in audio-visual aids, seems to have little drawing power among this group of teachers. TABLE XXX JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF USE OF VISUAL AIDS

Teachers f responses

Total

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # # #

15$

Demonstration Teaching

# # # # #

15

Professional Library

# # # #

12

Workshops

# # # #

12

Committee Study

# #

6

Individual Conferences

# #

6

Visits to Other Teachers

# #

6

College Courses

#

3

109 SUMMARY This chapter has contained twelve tables which have presented the Downey Elementary District teachers 1 statements of their desires for growth in the area of methods, together with their opinions of the best pro­ cedures for meeting these needs.

The "Bulletins of

Instruction" method stood out as the procedure which was most priminently-desired, and the strength of the teach­ e r s ’ desire for growth in this area was hot pronounced.

CHAPTER

V

ROUTINES The mechanical tasks of record keeping and of meeting the daily schedule are considered in this chap­ ter.

While such tasks frequently may be reduced to a

well-organized and smoothly-running system by a skill­ ful teacher, failure to see their wide influence on more creative work or to appreciate how to make the ad­ justments necessary when the need is seen may bring about the condition under which they assume an import­ ance out of proportion to the contribution which they make.

If a need was felt by the teachers participating

in the survey to improve their abilities in this respect, they were given an opportunity to express this need under the items marked: Daily Schedule." low in this area.

"Keeping Records," and "The

Teachers1 responses were comparatively The following tables contain their

responses. Teachers 1 responses.

The most salient point

which appears in the first table, Table XXXI, is the strong resistance registered by the teachers toward the occupation of their time and attention with additional training in the keeping of records.

The second out-

Ill standing point is the diminutive size of the percentage representing "Desire very much.”

Only one other of the

twenty-six areas showed a smaller percentage in this category.

That area was the work with the Parent-Teacher

Association, where a zero percentage was found. flicting currents of resistance from

The con­

one direction, and

the desire from another direction of nearly one-third of the teachers, presents a neat problem for the supervisory staff who are working to meet the needs of all and to keep up the morale of the teaching personnel. TABLE XXXI NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF KEEPING RECORDS

Teachers' responses

Total

Desire very much

#

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not desire

& S i t W & it £ 11 W IT

# # #



3% 30

The percentages given in Table XXXII leave little doubt that the teachers were in substantial agreement on the opinion that growth in the keeping of records can come best through media that are for the most part explanations in written form.

A low percentage would use the faculty

112 meeting (teacher-planned) as a means of disseminating information of this kind.

A curious inconsistency in

the thinking of the respondents can be seen in the in­ clusion of ’’Visits to Other Teachers” as a means for growth in record keeping.

The main direction for super­

visory help that would best fit in with the expressed opinions of the teachers is that of the development or acquisition of written aids on the subject. TABLE XXXII JUDGMENT OP THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF KEEPING RECORDS

Teachers’ responses

Total

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # # #

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

# #

6

Professional Library

# #

6

Visits to Other Teachers

#

3

Workshops

#

3

#

17$

With only three per cent greater desire shown in the totals, the area of the Daily Schedule, as shown in Table XXXIII, reveals just as great a resistance as was shown in the area of Keeping Records.

The reason for this

113 resistance is left to the judgment of the reader at this point, since no investigation has as yet been made of this issue.

Slightly more than one-third of the teachers

did express a desire for more opportunities to grow in this area, and if such a number is great enough to war­ rant attention, the task remaining to supervision is that of satisfying this desire.

At the same time care

must be taken not to jeopardize the morale of those in whom resistance is present.

It must be pointed out that

this survey was conducted with anonymous responses, and the two groups were not identified; so that a program of voluntary study in this area would be one way of meeting the situation. TABLE XXXIII NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF DAILY SCHEDULE

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

# #

Desire

# # # # #

M £t & At & it i it i it

30

Do not desire

# # # # #

# # #

24

6$

The small selection of best procedures represented by Table XXXIV seems to indicate a preference for a well-

114 unified and logically related set of specific media. Plainly, the Bulletin of Instruction is the favorite of the teachers for the accomplishment of this parti­ cular purpose; but Committee Study, Individual Confer­ ences, and the Professional Library also were noted as having value.

Committee Study might be a worthwhile

medium for development, since it would conceivably give a broader base of participation and therefore under­ standing upon which to build whatever recommendations or conclusions were devised, and also because the feel­ ing of representation in such matters would increase teacher morale.

Willingness to accept such decisions

or conclusions might be augmented by such representation. TABLE XXXIV JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF THE DAILY SCHEDULE

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # # #

Committee Study

# # #

9

Individual Conferences

#

3

Professional Library

#

3

# #

21$

CHAPTER V I

COMMUNITY RELATIONS One of the most rapidly expanding areas of in­ vestigation, thought and research in education today is that of community relations.

The present chapter is di­

vided into four parts which take into account some of the facets of the teacher’s work in this area.

Whatever

the teacher does with the children in the classroom or on the playground may have some public relations value or may work to the detriment of good public relations. The more obvious duties which have a strong community relations implication are Parent-Teachers Association work, the handling of controversial issues, and the carrying on of conferences with parents on a planned basis at the regular reporting intervals.

The eight

tables presented in this chapter report the responses of Downey teachers to questions on their desires for growth in this area, and their responses to questions as to how they would like to have these' desires ful­ filled.

Few of the school’s purposes will be well ac­

complished without good community rapport. Only one area of the twenty-six areas collected a total percentage of "Desire very much" responses which

116 exceeded the percentage shown in Table XXXV (32 per cent).

Although the total percentage of the two cate­

gories was exceeded in many instances,, the high percent­ age indicates that those who wish to know more about this area feel an acute and pressing need and might therefore be expected to be anxious to receive what­ ever supervisory assistance that may be planned for them.

The method of using parent conferences having

been experimented with recently on a large scale in the Downey Elementary Schools, the teachers1 reaction might be said to be an expected one.

There may be some sig­

nificance in the fact that six per cent of the teachers felt adequate in this area or are opposed to it, and therefore registered a "Do not need" response. TABLE XXXV NATURE OP THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OP PARENT CONFERENCES

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

# # # # #

Desire

# # # # #

# # #

Do not desire

# #

#

32% 24 6

Nearly one-quarter of the teachers taking part in this survey felt that the best procedures for stimulating

117 growth in the area of parent conferences is the Bulletin of Instructions, and the teacher-planned faculty meeting. As set forth in Table XXVI, 18 per cent of the teachers wanted to get first-hand experience in learning about this area through the conference and through committee study.

The trend running through these responses is

for the teachers to think of the problem as being pri­ marily an administrative one for whose solution they are willing to look, but in whose solution they also expect to get needed help from supervision through bulletins and library materials. TABLE XXXVI JUDGMENT OP THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF PARENT CONFERENCES

Teachers f responses

Total

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # #

12$

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

# # # #

12

Committee Study

# # #

9

Individual Conferences

# # #

9

Professional Library

#

3

Workshops

#

3

118 While the data presented in Table XXXVII are not astounding, two remarkable conditions are laid bare.

One

is that here is the only instance in the series of tables in which a zero response was recorded for the category, "Desire very much."

The other condition is the opposite

method of recording what may be the same fact— that one of the highest percentages of the survey was piled up beside the category,

"Do not desire."

Two valuable guid­

ing points might be taken from the results here presented. One is that an investigation into the causes for this vig­ orous anti-P.T.A. feeling could be defended and the other is that supervisory programming for growth in this area might well occupy itself first with the task of softening up the ground before planting any seed which is expected to grow. TABLE XXXVII NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF P. T. A. WORK

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

0%

Desire

# # # #

Do not desire

# # # # #

12 # # # # #

# # #

38

The responses collected in Table XXXVIII represent the opinions of only about one in seven of the teachers who responded to the questionnaire, so that the data here presented may be of dubious value.

As will be seen, the

teacher-planned faculty meeting leads the others in pop­ ularity.

However, in view of the over-all unpopularity

of this area, the feasibility of making it the subject of study at a faculty meeting could well be viewed from the standpoint of preparation, breadth of acceptance, timing, purpose and projected outcome. TABLE XXXVIII JUDGMENT OP THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF P. T. A. WORK

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

$ $

6$

Bulletins of Instruction

#

3

Individual Conferences

#

3

Professional Library

#

3

From an inspection of Table XXXIX, the reader will get an impression of the unmixed quality of the teachers' desire to know more about the improvement of teacher per-

120 sonality.

One of a total of three Instances in which

no resistance was shown to an area is this instance in which the figure, zero, represents the response to the category, "Do not desire."

The total percentage of the

two "Desire" categories, added together, is fifty-seven per cent.

This indicates that well over one-half of

the teachers who participated in the survey expressed the desire for growth in this area.

Such a substantial

demand on the part of the teachers merits consideration for this area when provision is being made for in-ser­ vice assistance to teachers by the supervisors and other planners in the system. 'SABLE X X X I X

NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF TEACHER PERSONALITY

T e a c h e r s ’ responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

# # # #

21%

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

30

Do not desire

The teachers displayed sensitivity to the highly individualized and subjective nature of the improvement of personality when they chose, as can be seen in Table

0

121 XL, the individual conference followed by reading from the professional library as the two most suitable meth­ ods for furthering growth in this area.

Practice in

situations which bring personality sharply into focus was also seen as valuable by those who together make up the third largest group of responses.

Of course,

these groups are not mutually exclusive, since in some cases the teacher marked two, or even three, media as being ,rbest procedures;"

college courses again won

but a weak response from the teachers. TABLE XL JUDGMENT OP THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DE­ SIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF TEACHER PERSONALITY

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Individual Conferences

# # # # #

# #

21#

Professional Library

# # # # #

#

17

Workshops

# # # # #

Bulletins of Instruction

#

3

College Courses

#

3

Committee Study

#

3

The work with the Parent-Teachers Association, alone among the twenty-six areas, drew a more feeble

15

122 response in the two "desire" categories than is shown by Table XLI, for Controversial Issues.

As might be ex­

pected, resistance was high where desire was low, and again the number of "no responses” (not shown in the Table) was unusually high.

No investigation was made of

what the teachers meant by this statement on Controver­ sial Issues.

They may have meant that they did not wish

to handle such issues in their classrooms, or they may have meant that they did not wish to know more about either side of controversial issues, or they may have meant that they felt that the study of such issues was not profitable.

An investigation to clear up the reasons

behind this attitude would serve to illuminate what appears to be an interesting reaction. TABLE XLI NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

#

Desire

# # # #

Do not desire

# # # # #

3% 12 # # # # #

# # #

38

123 No clear-cut pattern can be Identified in Table XLII as to how the teachers believe they could grow in the handling of Controversial Issues.

Not much prefer­

ence was expressed between the media listed, but there might be some significance in the fact that the profes­ sional library was not selected at all, and that bulle­ tins of instruction have a very small percentage of ac­ ceptance.

Rather than reading about the matter, the

teachers seem to want to use a variety of first-hand attacks, such as the workshop and committee study, the faculty meeting and the viewing of an actual demonstra­ tion of someone at work handling a controversial issue with a group of children In a classroom. TABLE XLII JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Committee Study

# #

6%

Demonstration Teaching

# #

6

Bulletins of Instruction

#

3

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

#

3

Workshops

#

3

124 SUMMARY This chapter has revealed the presence of two of the areas which most intrigued the teachers’ inter­ est (Parent Conferences* and Teacher Personality)* and also revealed two of the areas which called forth the greatest degree of resistance on the part of the teach­ ers (Controversial Issues* and P. T. A. Work).

The

latter response suggests the need for further Investi­ gation in the areas of greatest resistance.

CHAPTER V I I

CHILD STUDY AND GUIDANCE The chapter here presented devotes itself to four divisions of the subject of child study, namely: (l) Child Psychology and Development * (2) Methods of Child Study,

(3) the Teacher's Role in Guidance, and

(4) the Evaluation and Guidance of Pupil Accomplish­ ment.

No pretense of a definitive coverage is intended 4

by these four headings, but rather, the two tables under each of the headings give in summary form the opinions of the teachers of Downey as to the areas in which they feel that supervisory efforts could prof­ itably be applied in promoting growth.

A second type

of opinion is the teachers' opinions on which methods of supervisory assistance would be most suitable for use.

Much interest in the problem of child study and

guidance was evidenced by the respondents and the tables therefore contain material which should prove valuable in guiding efforts of an in-service training nature within the school system. Teachers 1 responses.

The teachers have revealed

no desperate feeling of need for growth in the area of child psychology and development by their responses, as

126 recorded In Table XVIII.

The total of fifty-five per

cent is just about in the middle in the distribution of percentages within the various areas.

In terms of use

these figures might guide the supervisory staff to delay the planning of provision to meet this need until some more urgent needs have been met.

Another possibility is

that no effort need be made in this direction, since the table which follows shows that teachers believe college courses and reading on their own are among the best ways for growing in this area. TABLE XLIII NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT

Teachers r responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

#

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not desire

# # #

17% 38

# # #

9

While college courses were for the most part se­ lected only rarely by the teachers as best procedures for other areas, in the area of child psychology and development It is to be found among the top three.

This

total of twenty-one per cent was the highest percentage

127 rolled up for that medium on any of the tables.

The

media in the top three brackets of popularity, each with twenty-one percentage points, were paralleled in Table XXXII, in which the media selected as most suitable gave rise to the thought that the teachers conceived of that area of record-keeping, and the present area of psychol­ ogy as being fairly neat academic packages which may best be understood through reading or the college course. TABLE XLIV JUDGMENT OP THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT Teachers 1 responses

Total

Bulletins of Instruction

# # # # #

# #

21$

College Courses

# # # # #

# #

21

Professional Library

# # # # #

# #

21

Individual Conferences

#

3

Visits to Other Teachers

#

3

Workshops

#

3-

Little enthusiasm for methods of child study seems to be evidenced in the data shown in Table XLV.

The total

of slightly over two-fifths of the teachers, indicating some desire, is not remarkable in view of such proportions

128 as three-quarters indicating desire in Social Studies and in Art.

Resistance, as evidenced by fifteen per cent

which marked the category, "Do not desire," was exceeded in only five other areas.

The lack of enthusiasm, coupled

with the presence of some resistance, complicates the problem of stimulating growth in this area among these teachers.

Investigation of the efficiency of the teach­

ers in this area, or of the nature and variety of the methods currently being used might give more insight, and is recommended before programming in this area should be undertaken. TABLE XLV NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF METHODS OF CHILD STUDY

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

#

17£

Desire

# # # # #

# # #

24

Do not desire

# # # # #

15

The usefulness of a professional library was appre­ ciated by the teachers whose thoughtful selections of media are recorded in Table XLVI.

Plans are being made

in Downey as this survey is being written to give more

129 organization to this medium and to enlarge its facil­ ities.

In no other area was a greater proportion of the

teachers agreed on the suitability of this means for furthering growth.

Reading was implied as the major

avenue to accomplishment in the second and third selec­ tions of media for learning about methods of child study. A minority had the feeling that growth in the area could be achieved by cooperative effort in the channels of the teachers’ meetings and the workshop. TABLE XLVI JUDGMENT OP THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF METHODS OF CHILD STUDY

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Professional Library

# # # # #

College Courses

# # #

9

Bulletins of Instruction

# #

6

Workshops

# #

6

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

#

3

# #

In line with what has been seen as a growing inter­ est in elementary education in the possibilities for guid­ ance work at this level, the strong interest expressed by

130 the Downey teachers in the matter bespeaks an alertness to the ever-changing currents in the profession.

As

compared with other areas the amount of resistance re­ gistered as six per cent in this case is low.

The sys­

tem does not employ at this time a specialist in the field and consequently stimulation in the area, and resources, would have to be furnished by the existing supervisory and teaching staff, if an immediate program were to be contemplated.

In this case, the desire would

find fulfillment sometime in the future, in order to allow for careful planning. TABLE XLVII NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF THE TEACHER'S ROLE IN GUIDANCE

Teacher's responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

# # #

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not desire

#

# #

35 3

According to Table XLVIII, the teachers are most confident that their growth will be assured in the area of the teacher’s role in guidance if a close personal touch

131 is given to the information on the subject.

This was

one of the very few cases in which the teachers took the initiative in asking for a personal conference with some­ one on the supervisory staff.

In the case of Downey, and

by the definition of supervision as set forth early in this thesis, the person with whom the teachers might have this conference is the principal of the school, the cur­ riculum coordinator, the special subject supervisors, or the superintendent.

Skill in the technique of the con­

ference and mastery of this area are assumed for this supervisory person. TABLE XLVTII JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF THE TEACHER1S ROLE IN GUIDANCE

Teachers1 responses

Total

Individual Conferences.

# # # # #

# #

21$

Professional Library

# # # #

12

College Courses

# # # #

12

Bulletins of Instruction

# # #

9

Committee Study

# #

6

Workshops

# #

6

132 The third strongest desire discovered among the teachers during this survey was the desire for growth in the area of evaluation and guidance of pupil accomplish­ ment.

This area covers testing, recording progress, and

promotion and retardation policies so it has some natural interest for the teacher by its very nature.

The fact

that the teachers questioned were just finishing the first year in which they had tried an organized system of con­ ferences to try to explain these very matters to the patrons of the school may account for some of the feeling of need expressed on this point.

In rank order of any

priority established by percentages, this desire would come early in the schedule of a planned growth program. TABLE XLIX NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF EVALUATION AND GUIDANCE OF PUPIL ACCOMPLISHMENT

Teachers’ responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

###.##

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

Do not. desire

# #

# # #

38 6

Only rarely did the teachers combine to present so strong a united front of opinion on one type of medium as

133 they did on individual conferences for the area of eval­ uation and guidance of pupil accomplishment.

Table

L

displays this remarkable unanimity, and also reveals a wide divergence of opinion on the other less-desired media.

Next in preference were the workshops and com­

mittee study, both of which require the cooperation of a group of teachers.

TABLE

L

JUDGMENT OF THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF EVAL­ UATION AND GUIDANCE OF PUPIL ACCOMPLISHMENT

Teachers' responses

Total

Individual Conferences

# # # # #

Workshops

# # # # #

Committee Study

# # #

9

Bulletins of Instruction

# #

6

Professional Library

# #

6

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

# #

6

Demonstration Teaching

#

3

Visits to Other Teachers

#

3

# # # 15

13^

SUMMARY The teachers of the Downey Elementary Schools revealed a keen Interest In child study and guidance through the tables of this chapter.

Furthermore, they

expressed a willingness to give time and attention to the matter through reading, committee study, and conferences.

CHAPTER V I I I

PROFESSIONALIZATION OF THE TEACHER One of-the prime duties of supervisors is to do their share in lending more and more of the professional character to teaching.

In this regard their work with

their teaching associates might well have as one of Its functions the promotion of professionalization within the district.

Four aspects of the existing condition

which might help to sample progress so far achieved in Downey were made a part of the questionnaire. These four aspects were: to improve staff relations,

(1)

Nature of desire

(2) the number of organiza­

tional memberships in the field of education held by the teachers,

(3) the professional ambitions held by

the teachers, and (4) the number of professional books read during the past year by the teachers.

The assump­

tion was made at this point, as throughout the thesis, that a survey of the current situation is the logical starting-point for future planning.

What should be

done with the ambitions uncovered in the survey, for example, is not strictly within the scope of this work. Teachers 1 responses.

As a glance at Table LI

will reveal, just over three-fifths of all the teachers

136 in the Downey Elementary School District are desirous of growing professionally in the area of the improvement of staff relations.

Besides the responses shown in the

table, an additional twelve per cent of the teachers used a write-in space to request more social affairs for the teachers to improve staff relations.

The resistance

to growth in this area was recorded as non-existent.

This

was one of only three such instances in the total of twenty-six areas.

The single quality of the response

and the fact that this was one of the very few areas which drew write-ins argues for early attention to this area in future supervisory planning. TABLE LI NATURE OF THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF IMPROVING STAFF RELATIONS

Teachers 1 responses

Total

Desire very much

# # # # #

# # # #

Desire

# # # # #

# # # # #

29^ #

Do not desire

32 0

Responses in Table LII would seem to indicate that the teachers feel strongly that they are capable of taking the initiative in satisfying their desire for growth in

137 Improving staff relations.

About one teacher of every

five in the system elected the teacher-planned faculty meeting over the alternative methods as being in their opinion the best procedure for leading them toward fuller understanding In the area.

Reading helps in the process

were next most highly prized.

The bulletin of instruc­

tions and the professional library together were chosen by nearly one-fifth of the teachers responding. TABLE LII JUDGMENT OP THE BEST PROCEDURES FOR SATISFYING THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN THE AREA OF IMPROVING STAFF RELATIONS

Teachers’ responses Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings Bulletins of Instruction

Total

# # # # #

# #

~# # # #

2.Vfo

12

Professional Library

# #

6

Committee Study

#

3

Individual Conferences

#

3

Workshops

#'

3

The tables which follow (Tables LIII, LIV, AND LV), show in somewhat different form the state of pro­ fessionalization as measured by three aspects of that area.

138 TABLE LIII MEMBERSHIP IN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Organization

Total

California Teachers Association

§5%

Downey Education Association

76

National Education Association

32

Association for Childhood Education

3

TABLE LIV PROFESSIONAL AMBITIONS HELD BY THE TEACHERS

Ambition

Total

To be a good or better classroom teacher

38%

To be a critic teacher

17

To be an administrator

12

To be a college teacher

12

To be a supervisor

12

To be a counsellor

3

To be a music teacher

3

139 TABLE LV NUMBER OP BOOKS OF A PROFESSIONAL NATURE READ DURING THE PAST YEAR

Number of Professional Books

Total

Four to six

32%

One to three

24

Ten or more

17

Seven to nine

15

SUMMARY This chapter revealed that the teachers of Downey wish to learn more about improving staff relations, and that they favor highly the teacher-planned faculty meet­ ing as the best method for learning in that area.

Pro­

fessional organization memberships, numbers of books read, and professional ambitions all indicate that the teachers are making consistent efforts to grow in this area.

CHAPTER IX

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations.

(l)

That a plan for meeting

the needs of the teachers be worked out. (2)

That members of the planning committee should *

represent as many groups of people In the district as are interested in the improvement of instruction. (3)

That the planning committee make provision

for meeting the most urgent desires first, where this is feasible. (4)

That further investigations be made in those

areas where it is felt that the reasons for some of the responses should be uncovered.

For example, clarifica­

tion is needed on the reasons why P. T. A. work was the least-wished-for area of growth. (5 )

That the data collected here as to which

methods were most acceptable to the teachers in further­ ing their growth be given due consideration by the dis­ trict in implementing its plans for supervisory assist­ ance. (6)

That the planning committee consult the

sources cited in Chapter II of this thesis, or the data collected there for guidance in the use of such procedures

141 as the teachers* meeting, supervisory visitation and conference, workshops, professional library, demonstra­ tion teaching and bulletins of instruction. Conclusions.

The relative urgency of the needs

for growth felt by the teachers can be determined from the following table: TABLE LVI SUMMARY TABLE OK THE NATURE OP THE DESIRE FOR GROWTH IN TWENTY-SIX AREAS

Subject

Percent of teachers regist­ ering desire

Social Studies

76

Art

75

Evaluation and guidance of pupil accomplishment

68

Reading

68

Science

67

Using community resources

65

Visual Aids

64

Language Arts

62

Health

62

Staff Relations

6l

Arithmetic

59

142 TABLE L V I

( c o n t in u e d )

Subject

Percent of teachers regist­ ering desire

Teacher's role in guidance

59

Music

59

Parent conferences

56

Teacher personality

56

Child Psychology

55

Control of the learning situation

53

Activity program

51

Physical Education

43

Child Study

41

Daily schedule

35

Individualization of instruction

33

Keeping records

33

Lesson planning

24

Controversial issues

15

P. T. A. work

12

Table LVI could well be used to establish a priority list of topics to be developed in the supervisory program for meeting the needs of the teachers. Table LVII shows the rank order of the number of

times in the twenty-six areas that a procedure was selected as the best for satisfying the desire for growth in that area.

The total of these numbers ex­

ceeds twenty-six because in many instances two or more procedures were selected by the same percentage of teachers and these occasions were also counted.

TABLE LVII SUMMARY TABLE OP JUDGMENT OP THE BEST PROCEDURES

Procedures

Number of times chosen as best

Bulletins of Instruction

9

Demonstration Teaching

9

Workshops

4

Individual Conferences

3

Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings

3

Professional Library

2

College Courses

1

Committee Study

0

Supervisory Visits to Classroom

0

Visits to Other Teachers

0

144 The following list indicates the areas in which each procedure was rated as the most suitable for pro­ moting the growth desired: Committee Study: None. Bulletins of Instruction: Child psychology and development. The daily schedule. Health. Individualization of instruction. Keeping records. Lesson Planning. Parent conferences. Using community resources. Use of Visual Aids. (if the thinking of the teachers is to be accepted, the above list could well be a list of the titles of nine bulletins to be developed or procured for the teachers of Downey.) Workshops: The activity program. Art. P h y s ic a l E d u c a t io n .

Science.

(These might well be the topics for successive workshops sponsored by the Downey School District.

The

order should not be the alphabetical one given here, but rather the order of degree of desire as expressed by the teachers.) Demonstration Teaching: Arithmetic. Control of the learning situation. Controversial issues. Language Arts. Mus i c . Reading. Social Studies. Using community resources. Use of visual aids. Individual Conferences: Evaluation and guidance of pupil achievement. Improvement of teacher personality. Teacher's role in guidance. Professional Library: Child psychology and development. Methods of Child Study. Supervisor's Classroom Visitation: None.

146 Teacher-planned Faculty Meetings: Parent conferences. Parent-Teacher Association work. Staff relations. College Courses: Child Psychology. Visits to Other Teachers: None. The meeting of teachers 1 needs in order to improve instruction has swung full-circle from the time when Horace M a n n ’s “lecturer” was paid out of M a n n ’s own pocket, to the participation by the teacher in efforts to locate her own greatest needs, in making decisions as to the best proced­ ures for meeting those needs, and finally, in implementing the program for professional growth in service.

The data

collected in this thesis, and the policies set forth by the authorities cited, should combine to help in the con­ struction of a far-reaching program contemplated to pro­ vide opportunities for in-service growth by the leaders of the Downey school system.

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A.

BOOKS

Anderson, C. J., A. S. Barr, and Maybell G. Bush, Visit­ ing the Teacher at Work. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1925* "382 pp. Barr, Arvil S., William H. Burton, and Leo J. Brueckner, Supervision. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc . , 1938'* 981 PP* California, State of, Education Code. Printing Division, 1949* 941 PP*

Sacramento:

Campbell, Doak S., Problems in Teacher Education. Nash­ ville: George Peabody College, 1936T 136 pp. Charters, W. W . , and Douglas Waples, The Commonwealth Teacher Training Study. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1929* 666 pp. Cooke, Dennis, Problems of the Teaching Personnel. New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1933• 384 pp. Cubberley, Elwood P . , The Principal and His School. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1923* 571 pp. _______ , Public School Administration. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1929* 710 pp. Engelhardt, Fred, Public School Organization and Admin­ istration. New York: Ginn and Company, 1931* 595 PP. Fargo, Lucille, The Library in the School. Chicago: American Library Association, 1939* 552 pp. f

Koopman, Robert G . , Alice Miel, and Paul J. Misner, Democracy in School Administration. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1943. 330 pp. Kyte, George C., How to Supervise. Boston: Mif flin Company, 193CL 468 pp.

Houghton-

149 Kyte, George C., The Principal at W ork. Ginn and Company, 1941. J$9&~pp.

New York:

Maxwell, C. R . The Observation of Teaching. Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1917* 118 pp.

Boston:

Myers, Alonzo P., and Louise M. Kifer, Problems in Public School Supervision. New York: PrenticeHall, Inc., 1939^ 473 pp. Otto, Henry J., Elementary School Supervision and Administration. New York: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1929* 571 pp. Overn, Alfred Victor, The Teacher in Modern Education. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1,985* 374 pp. Reavis, William C., Paul Pierce, and Edward Stullken, The Elementary School. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1931* 571 pp. Reavis, William C . , and Charles H. Judd, The Teacher and Educational Administration. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1942. 604 pp. Ruediger, William Carl, Agencies for the Improvement of Teachers in Service. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1911* 157 PP* Russell, Charles, The Improvement of the City Elementary School Teacher in Service; New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1922. 139 PP* Stone, Clarence R . , Supervision of the Elementary School. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1929* 573 PP* .Whitney, Frederick Lamson, The Growth of Teachers in Service. New York: The Century Company, 1927* 308 pp. B.

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

Barr, A. S., ’’Every School a Workshop,” Journal of Educational Research, XXXIV, No. 8, (April, 1 9 ¥ l K

150 Beechel, Edith E. , "A Supervisory Conference," Journal of Educational Method, V, (September, 1925). 21-24. Boggess, F. A., "The Principal and His Faculty Meet­ ings ," Educational Administration and Supervision, XX, (January, 193*0 . 64-72. Burr, S. E., "Mimeographed Bulletin as a Supervisory Device," Nations Schools, IX, (June, 1932), 43-48. Connette, Earle, "The Technique of the Individual Con­ ference in Supervision and Critic Teaching," Edu­ cational Administration and Supervision, XXIV, (May, 1938), 3 6 8 -8 1 . Dunnan, Donald W . , "The Participatory Workshop on the Local Level," American School Board Journal, CIX, (December, 1944), 20. Eginton, Daniel P., "Criteria for Teachers’ Meetings," Journal of Education, CXV, (January, 1932), 43Ervine, P. H . , and W. G. Fordyce, "The Workshop and In-Service Teacher Training," Educational Research Bulletin, XXII, (March, 1943), 59-62. Fowlkes, A., "The Personal Conference as a Teacher Training Device," American School Board Journal, IX, (March, 1932), “80-84. Goslin, Willard, "When We Work Together," Educational Leadership, I, (January, 1944), 221-29. Hawkes, Franklin P., "Educational Guidance Through Teachers 1 Meetings," Journal of Educational Method, VI, (March, 19277:, 297-305. : Hildreth, Gertrude H . , "Evaluation of a Workshop in Education," XLVI, (February, 1945). 310-319Kelley, Earl C., "Why All This Talk about Workshops?" Educational Leadership, II, (February, 1945). 200-204. Kullman, N.E., "What About Faculty Meetings?" Nations . Schools, XXIX, (February, 1942), 26.

151 Kyte, George C., "When Supervisor and Teacher Talk," American School Board Journal, XV, (June, 1935)* 29-32. Minor, Ruby, "Improvement in the Technique of Teaching Through a Recognition of Principles, in Demonstra- ' tion Teaching," Elementary School Journal, XXVI, (March, 1926), 519-23. Nietz, John A . , "What the Supervisor Looks for in Classroom Supervision," American School Board Journal, LXXXI, (August, 1930), 41-42. Olander, Herbert T . , "How to Measure Classroom Teaching," School Executive, LVI, (August, 1937)* 470. Pratt, 0. C., "The Technique of Visitation and Confer­ ence with Teachers," American School Board Journal, LXXX, (May, 1930), 49Shannon, J. R., "Demonstration Teaching and Directed Observation," Educational Method, XIV, (April, 1935)* 355-61. Stoddard, Alexander J . , "The Growth of Teachers in Service," Educational Record, XX, (October, 1939)* 500-507. Weber, C. A., "A Summary of the Findings of the Sub­ committee on In-Service Education of the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools," Journal of Educational Research, XXXVI, (May, 1943), b9b-7W. C.

PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS

Anderson, C. J., "Use of the Bulletin as an Agency in Supervision," Addresses and Proceedings, National Educatipn Association, LXV, 1927* pp. 524-527. Bogardus, Emory S., Democracy by Discussion. Wash­ ington, D.C.: American Council on Public Affairs, 1942. 59 PP.

152 George Peabody College for Teachers, In-Service Educa­ tion of Elementary Teachers. Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1945114 PPNational Education Association, Department of Element­ ary School Principals, Activities of the Principal , VIII. Washington, D.C.: National Education Asso­ ciation, 1*929• 5 2 8 pp. National Education Association, Department of Super­ visors and Directors of Instruction, Group Plan­ ning in Education. Washington, D .C.: National Education Association, 1945* 153 PP____ , Department of Elementary School Principals, ' In-Service Growth of School Personnel, XXI. Wash­ ington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1942. 5 7 6 pp. _______ , Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Leadership Through Supervision. Wash­ ington, D . C . : National Education Association, 1946. 1 6 3 pp. _______ , Department of Elementary School Principals, Newer Practices in Heading in Elementary Schools, XVII. Washington, D.C.: National Education Asso­ ciation, 1 9 3 8 . 594 pp. _______ , American Association of School Administrators, Paths to Better Schools, XXIII. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1945415 pp. _______ , Department of Elementary School Principals, The Principal and Supervision, X. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1931. 6 5 2 pp. D.

UNPUBLISHED WORKS

Fauskin, Arnold Lester, Faculty Meetings. Unpublished Project. Los Angeles: University of Southern Cal­ ifornia, 1947. 51 leaves. Graves, Mentor E . , Training Needs of Emergency Teachers in Tulare County. Unpublished Thesis. Los Angeles University of Southern California, 1949. 110 leaves.

U niversity of S o u th e rn California Llfrrarj

153 Satterburg, Walter Roy* The In-Service Training of Fresno County Elementary Teachers. Unpublished Thesis. Los Angeles: University of Southern Cal­ ifornia, 19^ 1 * 78 leaves.