Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe 8776020657, 9788776020651

Papers from an International Research Project: The HANSA Network 2001–2006. History can be colourful and even very appe

985 171 4MB

English Pages 224 [226] Year 2007

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe
 8776020657,  9788776020651

Table of contents :
Preface 7
Introduction 9
1. Almuth Alsleben / Food consumption in the Hanseatic towns of Germany 13
2. Małgorzata Latałowa, Monika Badura, Joanna Jarosińska, Joanna Święta-Musznicka / Useful plants in medieval and post-medieval archaeobotanical material from the Hanseatic towns of Northern Poland (Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg) 39
3. Ülle Sillasoo and Sirje Hiie / An archaeobotanical approach to investigating food of the Hanseatic period in Estonia 73
4. Terttu Lempiäinen / Archaeobotanical evidence of plants from the medieval period to early modern times in Finland 97
5. Karin Viklund / Sweden and the Hanse – archaeobotanical aspects of changes in farming, gardening and dietary habits in medieval times in Sweden 119
6. Sabine Karg / Long term dietary traditions: archaeobotanical records from Denmark dated to the Middle Ages and early modern times 137
7. Kari Loe Hjelle / Foreign trade and local production – plant remains from medieval times in Norway 161
Synthesis and a mission for the future 181
References 191
Index of the HANSA plant list in English and Latin 217
The authors 223

Citation preview

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe Edited by Sabine Karg

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe Edited by Sabine Karg

PNM Publications from the National Museum Studies in Archaeology & History Vol. 12

Copenhagen 2007

PNM Publications from the National Museum Studies in Archaeology & History Vol. 12 Copenhagen 2007 Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe. Papers from an International Research Project: The HANSA Network 2001 – 2006 Initiated with financial support from the Nordic Council of Ministers. Edited by Sabine Karg Copyright © The National Museum of Denmark and all individual authors All rights reserved Linguistic revision: David E. Robinson Cover design: Marianne Blank and Sabine Karg Published by the National Museum of Denmark ISBN: 87‑7602‑065‑7 ISSN: 0909‑9506 EAN code: 9788776020651 This book is available direct from: The National Museum of Denmark The Museum Shop Frederiksholms Kanal 12 DK-1220 Copenhagen K Fax: +45 33 47 33 30 [email protected] Printed in Denmark by Narayana Press The publication is funded by: The National Museum of Denmark The Danish Research Council Bergen Museum, the University of Bergen, Norway Cover: Drawings of modern achenes of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.). From O. Heinisch: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Edited by Deutsche Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften zu Berlin. Leipzig 1955. Reproduced with the permission of Deutscher Bauernverlag, Berlin.

Table of contents

Medieval Food traditions in Northern Europe

Preface  . . . ............................................................................................. . . . . .   7 Introduction  ............................ ............................................................. . . . . . .   9 1. Almuth Alsleben Food consumption in the Hanseatic towns of Germany  ..................................... . . . . .   13 2. Małgorzata Latałowa, Monika Badura, Joanna Jarosińska, Joanna Święta-Musznicka Useful plants in medieval and post-medieval archaeobotanical material from the Hanseatic towns of Northern Poland (Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg)  ...................... . . . .   39 3. Ülle Sillasoo and Sirje Hiie An archaeobotanical approach to investigating food of the Hanseatic period in Estonia  ... . . . .   73 4. Terttu Lempiäinen Archaeobotanical evidence of plants from the medieval period to early modern times in Finland  .......................... .............................................................. . . . .   97 5. Karin Viklund Sweden and the Hanse – archaeobotanical aspects of changes in farming, gardening and dietary habits in medieval times in Sweden  .............................................. . . .   119 6. Sabine Karg Long term dietary traditions: archaeobotanical records from Denmark dated to the Middle Ages and early modern times  ..................................................... . . .   137 7. Kari Loe Hjelle Foreign trade and local production – plant remains from medieval times in Norway  . ..... . .   161 Synthesis and a mission for the future  ............................................................. . . .   181 References  ............................................................................................. . .   191 Index of the HANSA plant list in English and Latin  .............................................. . .   217 The authors  .......................................................................................... . . .   223



Preface

Preface

History can be colourful and even very appetising when different research disciplines are melted to‑ gether. In this book, botanical data from archaeo­ logical excavations are combined with historical knowledge on the use of plants during medieval and early modern times. The result is a comprehensive account of the introduction of new plant foods, in‑ cluding exotic fruits and spices, into the traditional medieval societies of Northern Europe. One of the prime motivating factors for the authors of this book was a desire to summarize and present, for the first time, the botanical data deriving from ar‑ chaeological deposits excavated in Germany, North‑ ern Poland, Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway; countries involved in the trading activities of the Hanse. The geographical frame is centred on Northern and Central Europe, enclosing primarily the countries delimited by the North Sea and the Baltic. Results are presented from an area stretching from Bergen in the west to Tallinn in the east, from Turku in the north to the cities of the Rhineland in the south. Between the 12th and 17th centuries, this great area had one thing in common, the strict control of trad‑ ing activities exerted by German traders belonging to the Hanseatic League. This comprehensive publica‑ tion deals with finds of plant material arising from the archaeological excavation of sites dating from this period.

Another unique feature of this book is that it in‑ cludes much unpublished data, and that “hidden” information, contained in small reports, has now been made available in English. The individual ar‑ ticles are written by archaeobotanists – experts in archaeo­logical botany – but with the aim of reaching out to a broad audience. We hope we have achieved our aim and that this book will help to promote a better and deeper understanding of the culture and society of the participating nations. The idea of writing such a book arose and was real‑ ized during several meetings and workshops organ‑ ised with financial support from the Nordic Coun‑ cil of Ministers (grant nr. 2001‑2783‑2). CIRIUS administered this support. The final meeting was financed by Bergen Museum, University of Bergen. The authors are also grateful to the Danish Research Council, Bergen Museum, University of Bergen and to the National Museum of Denmark, who financed this publication. Dr. Helmut Kroll (Department of Prehistory, University of Kiel) made the plant list available, Phil Buckland (Department of Archae­ ology and Sami Studies, University of Umeå) de‑ signed the logo, Beate Helle (University of Bergen) produced the maps in the articles and the figures in the Synthesis chapter. Dr. David E. Robinson (English Heritage, Portsmouth) commented on all the chapters and revised the English. Carsten U. Larsen Director of the National Museum of Denmark Copenhagen, December 2006 

Preface



Introduc tion

The HANSA Network Project

Sabine Karg

Introduction The reconstruction of former dietary habits is one of the main aims of archaeobotany. Which plants were cultivated; which plants were collected from the wild? Can we trace imports and trading activities with the aid of plant remains? Seeds and fruits recovered from archaeological excavations are the main source of information in this respect, and these data can be combined or compared with written sources where available. During recent decades, many archaeological exca‑ vations in countries in Northern and Central Europe have brought to light quantities of plant remains dating from the last millennium. These remains have been identified and described in a series of reports and articles. The main aim of the HANSA Network Project, founded in 2001, is to summarize these re‑ search data in order to publish them in one common language, i.e. English. As many of the plant remains derive from former Hanseatic towns and “Kontors” (offices or branches), the Network members decided to limit their activities to archaeobotanical data relat‑ ing to the period when the Hanseatic League was active in this particular geographical region. In some cases material dated to earlier periods and to the early modern times has, however, been included.

The geographical and historical background The Hanseatic League is defined as both a political and an economic union that operated during the Middle Ages over a huge area of Europe. For almost half a millennium, from 1160 to 1650 AD, this organisation of traders, with its commercial prac‑ tices and its cultural exchange, was active in a region stretching from London in the West to Novgorod in the East and from Finland in the North to Cologne in the South. The “Hanse” developed from an alli‑ ance originally forged between towns in Northern Germany. In the second half of the 13th century the “Vendish town alliance” was founded, compris‑ ing the towns of Hamburg, Kiel, Lübeck, Wismar and Rostock. This alliance expanded to become the German Hanse that can be traced back to around 1300 with offices in Bergen, London, Brugge and Novgorod. The expressions “Hansa” or “Hanse” describe a gathering held together by way of the “Hanse Day” – a meeting that was held regularly and at which important decisions were made concerning common business (Westholm 1996). The main means of transport was by ship and mer‑ chant vessels enabled the exchange of the goods. The economic basis of this trade was herring, dried cod (stockfish), sable fur, grain, timber and cloth. But many more goods are documented in the written 

Introduc tion

sources handed down by the merchants and new items are still coming to light during archaeo­logical excavations in the former trading places. Plant re‑ mains such as those of grains of paradise, a special pepper from Africa, are only one example of the new results from the latest excavations (see chapter 1). Due to constraints of time and funding, the geo‑ graphical scope of this book has had to be restricted, which is why England, Flanders and most of Russia have not been taken into consideration.

Background and aims of the project During the last 25 years extensive research has been carried out on plant remains recovered from many different archaeological excavations relating to the medieval period and, more precisely, to Hanseatic times in Germany, Northern Poland, Estonia and the Nordic Countries (Figure 1). Most of this research activity has been carried out in isolation in each individual country and the resulting data have rarely been compared and never synthesized. The need to establish a network and to develop closer collabora‑ tion between researchers working in this field was therefore obvious. The huge datasets arising from archaeobotanical research in each country provide

the basic information about the nutritional habits of medieval society: Which plants were cultivated? Which role did wild plants play in the daily menus? And, which new food elements were imported from abroad? In some cases it is not easy to determine the ex‑ act date when a new herb, spice or fruit species ar‑ rived in a country. During all periods, plants were imported to Northern Europe from regions further south. But with the foundation of monasteries, we definitely know that many introduced plants were cultivated systematically. The archaeological sites that were the focus of our re‑ search are often located close to the coast. Frequently these settlements show great continuity extending far back in time. In some cases, their history can be traced from the early medieval period or Viking Age right up to the present day. Some even have their roots back in the so-called early medieval “wike” which were often located close to a river mouth (Clarke and Ambrosiana 1995). Their strategic lo‑ cation in the transition zone between sea and river ensured their unique potential as centres of transport and trade. The scope of this book is restricted to a study of these pre-urban and urban centres of Northern Europe. Only in special cases are Pre- and PostHanseatic times mentioned, when the individual authors consider it of particular importance to de‑ scribe the first appearance of a new plant. Extensive information concerning the activities of the Hanseatic traders is available from both archaeo­logical and historical research. Whereas written sources concerning food have already been broadly discussed in relation to the Hanseatic League (Wiegelmann and Mohrmann 1996), data from archaeobotanical analyses have often been ignored in the literature. Bringing together both sources is quite a new strategy, and the resulting combination of knowledge definitely clarifies the history of food (Greig 1996; Karg 1996; Wasylikowa and Zemanek 1995; Wiethold 1995b; Willerding 1987).

Figure 1.  Map showing the locations with archaeobotanical data discussed in this book.

10

The main goal of the HANSA Network Project was to combine information from the various available sources and to link the changes in nutrition revealed via archaeobotanical research with the influence of

Introduc tion

imports by the Hanseatic League. This multidisci‑ plinary approach is also able to answer the question of whether changing consumer habits can be traced in the archaeobotanical record. The subject matter of this project is of signifi‑ cance for our understanding of the functioning of medieval society in Central and Northern Europe. We hope to be able to provide concrete evidence on how people interacted with each other, how they collaborated in the past and how the effects of col‑ laboration and interaction were reflected and as‑ similated in society.

Materials and Methods Archaeobotanical finds Given close collaboration between archaeologists and archaeobotanists, it is possible to detect pre‑ served plant remains on almost every archaeological excavation. Seeds and fruits are the most resistant parts of many plants and are generally those parts most read‑ ily identified to species level. In archaeological layers deposited under wet and, therefore, anaerobic condi‑ tions, uncarbonized plant remains can be preserved for thousands of years. Whereas on dry land sites, only those plant remains that have become charred through contact with fire are preserved. The scientific data presented in the following ar‑ ticles all derive from the analysis of seeds, fruits and other plant remains recovered from archaeological features at more then 75 excavated sites (Figure 1). The relevant archaeological literature, as well as the applied method of analyses, is cited and described in each individual article. Written sources By taking into account the many written sources from the Hanseatic period, such as charters, customs registers and accounts from towns, rural manors and individual merchants, the information arising from our archaeological and botanical finds can be expanded and completed. This is the case even if there is not total agreement between the different sources. A small example that demonstrates the level of detail of the written evidence is provided by merchants’

accounts from Lübeck: lists, dated to 1577, itemise merchandise transported to Bergen in Norway. The lists include beer, hops, flour, grain, malt, linen, tex‑ tiles and cloth, hemp and thread, candles and salt. The greatest proportion of cereals was made up of rye (grain and flour), needed by the fishing communities of Northern Norway for baking bread. Rye bread is non-perishable and was therefore preferred by the fishermen during their voyages. Syrup was also car‑ ried on board and often wine and spices for public officials and priests (Dollinger 1998). In this book, all the authors have tried to combine their archaeobotanical data with information from contemporary written sources and illustrations.

Project design and realization In the first project phase, the participants of the HANSA Network Project focused on correlation and standardization of the archaeobotanical data from the individual countries. In the course of two meetings, a computerised standard for the regis‑ tration of archaeobotanical data was defined; this had not existed previously. A standardized data entry form was developed and designed in the computer programme Microsoft/Excel (Figure 2). The archaeobotanical data were registered by each network participant as described: A new form was filled out for each archaeological site, giving relevant data about its location and type, its date and the dating method, followed by feature identification and feature type, and then a minimum of sample identification, sample type, size and treatment of the sample, the preservation state of the plant re‑ mains and the list of plant species. The Latin and English nomenclature of the plants in the standard list and throughout this publication follows Zander (Erhardt et al. 2000). A complete list of all the plant names translated into the national language is added after each chapter, to facilitate “non-bota‑ nists” to gain an easy approach into the world of food plants. The project dealt exclusively with recording remains of plants used for nutritional purposes (both culti‑ vated and collected from the wild), selected arable weeds and some other plants used for ornamental or dyeing purposes. A total of 175 different plant 11

Introduc tion

taxa (156 species) and one fungus were chosen; these were grouped as follows: Cereals (including buckwheat) Legumes Oil and fibre plants Vegetables Arable weeds Fruit and nuts Herbs and spices (including medicinal plants and beer additives) Other useful plants (dyeing, ornamental, etc.)

13 5 4 22 25 49 43

The standardization of the data enables ready com‑ parison and illustration via statistical analysis of the results from the different countries. In the following chapters, the results from the indi‑ vidual countries will be presented. In the Synthesis chapter an attempt has been made to bring these results together and to outline a general picture of food traditions in Northern Europe during this ­period of 500 years.

15

4UBOEBSEJ[BUJPOPG UIFBSDIBFPCPUBOJDBMEBUB 'PSNGPSUIF)"/4"/FUXPSL1SPKFDU JONPTUDBTFTmMMJOBDSPTTY

$PVOUSZ

OBNFOVNCFS

'FBUVSFJEFOUJmDBUJPO

4BNQMFEBUJOH DFOUVSZ

OBNFOVNCFS

UI UIUI UI UIUI UI UIUI UI UIUI UI UIUI UI

OBNF

4JUFJEFOUJmDBUJPO

'FBUVSFEBUJOH DFOUVSZ

OBNFPGUPXOQMBDF OBNFPGTJUF DPPSEJOBUFT 65. *OUFSOBUJPOBM4UBOEBSE

MBUJUVEF MPOHJUVEF

UI UIUI UI UIUI UI UIUI UI UIUI UI UIUI UI

"VUIPS OBNF SFGFSFODFUPQVCMJDBUJPOPGEBUBDPMMFDUJPO

4JUFEBUJOH DFOUVSZDFOUVSJFT

'FBUVSFUZQF %BUJOHNFUIPE BSDIBFPMPHZ $ EFOESPDISPOPMPHZ QPMMFO PUIFST

4JUFUZQF UPXOVSCBOTJUF SVSBMTJUFGBSN DBTUMF NPOBTUFSZ DIVSDI HSBWFCVSJBMTJUF TIJQ PUIFST

DVMUVSBMMBZFS SFGVTFMBZFS CVSOUmSFIPSJ[PO mSFQMBDFPWFO MBUSJOF DFMMBS QJU XFMM EJUDI TUPSBHFmOEHSBOBSZ PUIFST

Figure 2.  Registration form of the HANSA Network Project.

12

4BNQMFJEFOUJmDBUJPO

4BNQMFUZQF FYDSFNFOUT NPTT TPJM XPPEDIJQTCBSL TJOHMFmOE PUIFST

4BNQMFTJ[F XFJHIU WPMVNF

/VNCFSPGBOBMZTFETBNQMFT OVNCFS O

4BNQMFUSFBUNFOU nPUBUJPO XFUTJFWJOH ESZTJFWJOH PUIFST

$POEJUJPOPGUIFQMBOUNBUFSJBM DBSCPOJ[FE VODBSCPOJ[FE NJOFSBMJ[FE PUIFST

Germany

Food consumption in the Hanseatic towns of Germany

Almuth Alsleben

Introduction During the last twenty years, it has been possible to observe an increasing public interest in the daily life of the late medieval period – a time when urban centres blossomed for the first time and social life was controlled or regulated by the strict rules of the class system. This recent interest has manifested itself in many ways: from literary works such as historical crime stories to popular scientific books or television documentaries and the re-enactment of medieval lifestyles by small groups or clubs. The latter enthusiasts are in great demand when the city fathers want to create “events” or when museums want to attract the attention of the public. Along‑ side all these popular scientific resources and activ­ ities there is a rich scientific literature dealing with all aspects of the political, social, legal, religious and individual life of people and communities. Of the pre-industrial periods, the Hanseatic epoch has become of special interest. Dollinger (1998) gave a comprehensive and authoritative representation of the Hanse and Bracker (1989) presented a richly illustrated book and catalogue in connection with the exhibition “Die Hanse, Lebenswirklichkeit und Mythos” in Hamburg. Wiegelmann and Mohrmann (1996) dealt with food and the whole culture of dining in the Hanseatic area. Among other things, they focused on the question of innovation in food production techniques and food consumption, and

the role of the Hanseatic towns as centres for the introduction and distribution of such novelties in the Baltic region. There are several aspects to nutri‑ tion: in addition to being a physical requirement for all human beings, it also has symbolic value within the social and spiritual life of a community. Not least important is the economy of nutrition, which led to it becoming one of the basic pillars of trade in the Baltic region. A system of privi‑ leges – arranged and often hard-won and retained by struggle – organized the purchase and sale of commodities such as cereals, herring, salt and exotic spices, or processed goods such as malt, beer, wine or even butter. All kinds of written sources have been analysed in order to describe the preparation of food (cookbooks: summarized by Wiswe 1970) and its consumption according to different social status and moral codices (daily lists for hospitals, poorhouses, monasteries; descriptions of menus for banquets; instructions for times of fasting and religious holidays; moral remonstrations against the sin of gluttony). Trade in food (tax lists for towns and regions), as well as farming and garden‑ ing (tithe-lists, “Sachsenspiegel” and illustrations) and the use of medicinal herbs (ancient herbals) summarized by Heilmann (1966), have been the subject of investigations. The historical aspects of eating and drinking, customs, attitudes and rules, and how these have been handed down through 13

CHAPTER 1

literary and iconographic works, were all topics at an interdisciplinary workshop held in Gießen in 1987 (Bitch et al. 1990). Among this great abundance of historical written sources, the results of the archaeobotanical inves‑ tigations were hardly perceived, and yet urban archaeological deposits, especially the contents of latrines, offer a rich source of information about the great diversity of plant remains that came into human contact. In Northern Germany, numerous archaeological excavations uncovered culture layers, cesspits and latrines in the old town centres when, during the “Bauboom” in the late sixties and seven‑ ties, West German cities were rebuilt in order to fulfil the standards required by modern traffic and commerce. Knörzer (1967) and Willerding (1978) were the first in Germany to realize the possibilities presented by detailed analysis of the mainly subfossil plant remains preserved in urban latrines. While Knörzer concentrated on Roman impact on the towns of the Rhineland, Willerding and his colleagues directed their attention to the towns of southern Lower Saxony. Most of these had been ei‑ ther Hanseatic towns or had, at least, been closely connected with the Hanseatic League. Palaeobotani‑ cal research groups working in Wilhelmshaven, Kiel and the Netherlands investigated the towns on the coasts of the North Sea and the Baltic. After the unification of Germany in 1989, extensive building activities began in East German cities and made preliminary rescue excavations necessary. Due to a law, which apportions the costs of archaeological excavations partly to the developers, a small amount of money became available for associated archaeo‑ botanical investigations. We have to thank Julian Wiethold’s ceaseless interest in the analysis of plant remains from cesspits and latrines for the richness of the database available to us today. It is not only the actual data he has published, but also his collection of old illustrations of plants and his successful search for ancient recipes, which make his articles so worth reading. For example, the following passage from the famous herbal of Dioscorides (in a German edition from Petro Uffenbach 1610) “Leinsamenmeel mit Pfeffer und Honig vermischt / zum Kuchen gemacht / unnd darvon wol gegessen / reytzet zum ehelichen Werk…” (cited in Mulsow and Wiethold 2004). 14

The Hanseatic League – a short history of its development and its towns “Die Hanse – Lebenswirklichkeit und Mythos” was the title of an exhibition in Hamburg in 1989: it clearly expressed the contrasting nature of myth and reality in which the phenomenon Hanse could be studied (Bracker 1989). Right up until the present day, the citizens of the Hanseatic towns, but espe‑ cially those of Hamburg and Bremen, regard them‑ selves – or are perceived – as the personification of the Hanseatic virtues – being urban, cosmopolitan, rational, trustworthy and more interested in com‑ merce than in culture.

Development of the Hanseatic League But what was the phenomenon “Hanse” in reality? The term “Hanse”, meaning nothing more than “a loose protective group of foreign traders”, was first used in London for the company of Flemish trad‑ ers and was later transferred to the Low German merchants especially involved in the Baltic trade. There was already a lively exchange of goods between Norway and England: fish, hides, fur and wood for wool. Flemish and Friesian people dominated trade along the Channel and the southern coast of the North Sea, and provided these regions with products from the Rhine area and the Continental south. Bal‑ tic trade – both north-south and west-east – was in the hands of the Scandinavians. In the middle of the 12th century the Germans extended their influence within the trade networks. Merchants from Cologne acquired a special position and were allowed to run their own meeting hall, Gildhalla Theutonicorum, in London. By the same time, other Low German groups started to travel to Bergen and Gotland. The moment that Baltic trade became integrated into the West European network, Germans from the Lower Rhine and from Westphalia turned eastwards. The new town of Lübeck became the initial point of colonization in the southern coastal regions of the Baltic Sea. In 1160, German traders established the company “Gotlandfahrer”. Starting from Visby, they engaged in the lucrative trade with the Baltic coun‑ tries and with Russia, where they set up a “Kontor” (branch or office) called Peterhof, next to the older Gotenhof in Novgorod. Over the course of only a century, the Germans had ousted the competition

Germany

in the Baltic and the North Sea and did not even hesitate to forbid other groups passage through the Danish Belts. The final breakthrough in German dominance of the Baltic came in 1293‑1295 when the Court of Appeal was handed over to Lübeck and the seal of the Gotland traders became worthless (1298). By that time Lübeck was already known as the head of the Hanseatic towns. The Hanse, formerly denoting groups of Low Ger‑ man long-distance traders, developed into an alliance of North German Hanseatic towns with a “Kontor” in Novgorod, Bergen, Bruges, Antwerp and London. In 1358, the North German towns merged to form the “Stede van de dudeschen Hanse” (towns of the German Hanseatic League). In order to achieve its commercial goals the League waged war by means of boycott and blockade. These demonstrations of power were very successful in several conflicts with Flanders, Norway and Denmark in the 13th-15th cen‑ turies. In the 14th century, the eastern Vendish towns became embroiled in power struggles between the Danish, Swedish and Mecklenburg nobility. Finally the “Peace of Stralsund” in 1370 brought the naval war with Denmark to an end and Hanseatic privi‑ leges were attested once more. Despite economic and political crises and clashes, the 15th century was a period which saw intensive exchange of goods – through transfer of natural products and those from arable agriculture to the north and west, and by the distribution of fish, salt, wine, beer, cloth and high-quality finished products within the German territory. For a long time Hanseatic trade guaran‑ teed the supply of cereals to Norway and Western Europe. Towards the end of the 15th century the influence of the Hanse decreased. The closure of the “Kontor” in Novgorod, Bruges and London reduced its economic area and with the development of the Trans-Atlantic trade the Baltic trade was no longer in the main stream of products.

Development of German towns Even though the coastal towns and the new cities founded on the Baltic coast are today embedded in our thinking as being typical Hanseatic, the net‑ works of inland towns in the Lower Rhine area, Westphalia and Saxony also played an important role in long-distance trade. The character of the Hanse

was urban, so economic growth in the North Ger‑ man lowlands was closely connected with urban de‑ velopment in Northern Europe. At the beginning of the 12th century the border of German territory, and of Christendom, followed the Rivers Elbe and Saale. For 300 years, pre-urban settlements such as Bremen, Hamburg, Bardowick (close to Lüneburg) and Magdeburg had been gateways to the pagan world. It was first at the beginning of the 12th cen‑ tury, when the pressure of Christianisation increased markedly and Lothar III, Earl of Saxony, established political structures to stabilize the region, that a base was created allowing Germans to settle beyond the River Elbe. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, hundreds of thousands of people from Saxony, West‑ phalia, the Rhine area, the Netherlands and Flanders migrated eastward, all attracted by the promise of being able acquire their own land or run their own businesses. The Hanseatic towns arose in a period when the process of urbanisation had come to an end in the older towns and inland colonisation began. Between the 10th and 13th centuries, urban development in Northwest Germany followed more-or-less the same principle (Steuer 2002). Rural craftsmen had already settled close to older centres of secular or ecclesias­ tical power in the 5th to 7th centuries. In the 8th/9th centuries, traders of various kinds met at these lo‑ cations and eventually became resident. The next step in practical urbanisation was the union of the separate individual quarters to form a single town. The citizens acquired their own rights in questions of trade and property, and eventually also increasing autonomy with regard to the Lords of the Manor. The richest families, the patriciate, took care of the town administration. In Hamburg, the Archbishop of Bremen supported a church and a pre-urban centre on the eastern bank of the River Alster from 831. Firstly, in the course of the colonisation towards the east, a new town grew up on the opposite side of the river. Although a common town hall linked the old and new town, it was not until the 15th century that the old town became integrated into the prospering new one. A distinct division in activities was maintained: longdistance trade and shipping belonged to the western quarters, and all kind of craftwork to the eastern. As 15

CHAPTER 1

it was cut off from the lucrative trade with Scania (salt for herring), Hamburg first blossomed when Trans-Atlantic trade opened up a new commercial region. In Braunschweig, five separate towns retained their municipal autonomy. It was not until the 14th century that the older parts (“Alte Wiek” with the market, “Altstadt” with castle and the merchants’ quarter) and younger parts (“Hagen”, “Neustadt” and “Sack”) situated on both sides of the River Oker, were united. The situation in the towns of Olden‑ burg and Cologne were rather special. The roots of Oldenburg in Lower Saxony extend back to the 8th century. In the 13th century, a settlement with a mar‑ ket grew up under the shelter of the landlord’s castle, but because Oldenburg remained the residence of dukes and earls, the town could never be accepted as a member of the Hanseatic League. Cologne is the only Hanseatic town with origins stretching back to the Romans. With the demise of the Roman Empire, the population and trade and industry clearly broke down. Despite this, at least some contacts with the Mediterranean area remained intact. A new upturn began in the 10th century with a slowly increasing influx of merchants. By the beginning of the 12th century the town’s buildings occupied an area of almost 200 hectares, making Cologne one of the largest towns in Europe at that time. From the end of the 12th century onwards, a network of towns condensed within the country, induced by the inland colonisation of Northwestern Germany (Stoob 1979). However, hardly any of these newly founded towns approached the importance of the older towns. Of the younger towns mentioned in this article (Einbeck, Göttingen, Hannoversch Münden, Northeim), Einbeck became renowned for its beer, something for which it is still famous today. Compared to the demographic situation in the German territory, the coastal Slavonic region was sparsely populated. Contrary to a former view that the Germans had been the first to introduce ur‑ ban life to the Baltic area, pre-urban settlements with concentrations of trade and craft had always already existed in the vicinity of political, military or religious centres. Archaeological finds show the inter-cultural character of the goods distributed via maritime trading settlements along the southern Bal‑ tic coast such as the Scandinavian Haithabu and 16

many of the Slavonic locations such as Alt Lübeck, Groß Strömkendorf (Rerik?), Rostock-Dierkow, Rals­ wiek (on Rügen) and Wolin (Vineta?; Müller-Wille 2002). Local rulers had already invited foreigners to settle here, but it seems that the laws protecting commercial activities were insufficient, so that by the time the influx of western people increased, German rights were promptly accepted. The newly founded urban settlements completely obliterated the older Slavonic traces. The starting point for eastern colonisation was Lübeck, which was founded in 1143 (and a sec‑ ond time in 1158/59) a little upstream from the already well known trading place of Alt Lübeck. It was a fortunate choice because old traditional trade routes crossed here. The lively transport of salt from Lüne­burg and herring from Scania passed through Lübeck, and when the Baltic trade opened towards the west, the short land route to the North Sea via Hamburg made the town a favoured place for transshipment. The prosperity of the town increased rap‑ idly, despite several quarrels with the noblemen of Denmark, Saxony and Holsatia. In 1226, Lübeck acquired all the rights of a “Reichsstadt”, resulting in the far-reaching independence of the regional land‑ lords. Barely 100 years after its foundation, Lübeck’s dominance was obvious, being the biggest and most active town in Northern Europe. Following the routes of the company “Gotland‑ fahrer”, a wave of newly founded towns was created over the eastern coastal region. But whereas in Prus‑ sia, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia the German towns remained exclaves abroad, the acquisition of land in Mecklenburg and Pomerania occurred by way of military conquest, Christianisation and, in particu‑ lar, the settling of farmers. In principle, the proc‑ ess was always the same: local Lords of the Manor invited foreign settlers. Under the protection of the local seat of power and close to older Slavonic sites, a small urban centre developed around a rectangular marketplace with a church and a town hall. Even­ tually it gained autonomy when influential burghers formed a town council. The town of Greifswald did not follow this standard plan as it was established in open countryside. Many towns were founded in the 13th century, but in Northeastern Germany only the Vendish ones, Rostock and Stralsund, achieved

Germany

economic power. Stralsund was the connecting link to the Hanseatic towns of Pomerania, which were economically dependent on the Vendish. An excep‑ tion was Stettin, which came into competition with Lübeck when the town crossed Lübeck’s interests in trade with Scania and cereal exports to Scandinavia. The struggle for domin­ance in the lower River Oder area, a strategic place for controlling all downstream cereal transports, was not without consequences for the economy of Lübeck (Zientara 1983). Far-reaching economic interests led to increasing prosperity of the northern towns. This was dem‑ onstrated to the outside world by the building of churches and town halls, mighty buildings in Gothic brick architecture. Privately, this prosperity was re‑ flected in daily life of the wealthy burghers, and not least in their culture of dining.

Methodological considerations Archaeobotany is, as the name suggests, an archaeo‑ logical science dealing with botanical remains, mostly fruits and seeds – sometimes wood. It focuses on the question of how people used plants in the past; which parts of plants were used, the way in which plants were processed and where and how their or‑ ganic remains have been preserved. An assemblage of fossil and sub-fossil plant remains is defined by the function of an archaeological structure and by human activity, and it is important to mention that it does not follow natural processes. According to phytosociological classification these anthropogeni‑ cally-induced assemblages have been described as thanatocoenose (Hellwig 1990). Only if all infor‑ mation concerning the botanical and archaeological context is combined, can we offer an interpretation which goes beyond the simple proof of presence of a species. Consequently, archaeobotanists enjoy a close relationship with archaeologists, as will be ap‑ preciated from the following: – Archaeobotanical finds are only possible in places which have been excavated; this fact sometimes limits the formulation of specific archaeobotani‑ cal questions. – Exact dating of deposits is often not possible or is so broad that it can cover as much as several centuries.

Archaeobotanists also have their own problems: – Food is a transient product because it is eaten or decomposes with time. – Poor preservation of organic material or the lack of distinctive morphological characters sometimes makes it impossible to identify plant remains to species level. – The kind of preservation, either by charring or waterlogging, often determines the type of or‑ ganic remains which survive: cereals, legumes and their weeds are mostly found in cases of preser‑ vation by charring; fruits, herbs, spices are more likely to occur under waterlogged conditions. Keeping in mind what has been said above, any at‑ tempt to summarize the archaeobotanical data from 18 North German towns, in all their complexity, would easily exceed the limits set for this paper. In‑ stead, a general synopsis will be presented dealing with general aspects of the nutritional economy of Hanseatic Germany and how these are reflected in the archaeobotanical data. Historical sources were consulted to help fill out the framework defined by such data. This compilation includes published re‑ sults from investigations in 18 towns situated in the

Schleswig Stralsund Greifswald Rostock Oldenburg Mölln Bremen Pasewalk Lüneburg Kiel Lübeck

Hildesheim Einbeck Höxter

Braunschweig

Northeim Göttingen Hann. Münden

Figure 1.  Map showing the German medieval towns with archaeobotanical data discussed in this chapter.

17

CHAPTER 1

coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic, and in the northern foothills of the German uplands (Figure 1). The data are summarized and listed in Tables 2‑5 and Figure 2 according to three different groups of towns: a western, a southern and an eastern group. This was done partly for geographical reasons, partly in the light of the history of the urban development. As the focus is on Baltic trade, Cologne and the other Hanseatic towns on the River Rhine are not included in this compilation. Although Lüne­burg’s close rela‑ tionship with Lübeck should not be forgotten, it has been assigned here to the southern group. Compared with the very rich material recovered through the activities of town archaeologists, the excavated mate‑ rial culture of villages is very limited. Investigations of rural settlements have not been an archaeological priority or, at least, they have not resulted in archae‑ obotanical investigations being carried out. This is mainly due to the fact that archaeological features relating to late medieval/early modern times do not exist in villages. Rescue excavations along the planned route of the coastal highway (A 20) in Mecklenburg-

Vorpommern yielded many prehistoric and Slavonic settlements, but none dated to historic periods. The waterlogged organic material and single finds of charred grain originated from urban refuse depos‑ its, mainly latrines or pits. Other features providing anaerobic and, therefore, good conditions for pres‑ ervation were wells or ditches, but these were rare occurrences. In addition to remains of all kinds of cultivated and useful plants, the latter features reveal a rich flora comprising species which prefer damp habitats or are found by ditches. Heaps of charred grain, originating from burnt stores, are very rare occurrences. In order to reduce the risk of houses catching fire, town authorities worked out strict rules for how to handle open fires, such as, for example, in Lübeck where trades making specialized use of fire came under the particular supervision of the town council (Hammel 1981). But fire could not have been avoided in all cases; burnt stores in some eastern towns yielded thousands of grains of the main cereal crops, each describing single specific incidents.

Table 1.  Archaeobotanical investigations from North German towns. Information on samples. Estimate of the representativity of the archaeobotanical data from each town: “++” = well represented by samples and by volume, “+/-” = represented by single samples and small volume. Preservation: “w” = waterlogged, “c” = carbonized. Town

Date

Representative

Century AD

value

Feature

Preservation

Reference

west Oldenburg

13 -17

++

layer

w, c

Kučan 1998

Bremen

13 -16/18

+

latrine

w

Behre 1991

Braunschweig

13 -16

13 ++

latrine, ditch

w

Hellwig 1990

Einbeck

14

+

latrine

w

Wiethold 2002

Göttingen

13 -16

15/16 ++

latrine, pond

w

Arndt and Wiethold 2001; Hellwig 1997

Hann. Münden

16 -18

++

latrine

w

Wolf 1997

Hildesheim

17/18

+/-

latrine

w

Willerding 1990

Höxter

13/14

+/-

latrine

w

Willerding 1986

Lüneburg

14 +16/17

++

latrine

w

Behre 1981; Wiethold 1995b

Northeim

16

+

well

w

Hellwig and Kuprat 1991 Pasternak 1991

south

east Schleswig

13

+

layer

w, c

Kiel

13 -17

13 and 16 ++

latrine, ditch

w

Wiethold 1995a

Lübeck

13 -17

++

latrine, layer

w

Alsleben 1991; Lynch and Paap 1982, 1986

Mölln

16/17

+/-

latrine

w

Wiethold 1992

Rostock

13/14 +16/17

+

latrine, layer

w, c

Mulsow and Wiethold 2004; Wiethold 1999, 2000a

Stralsund

13 -18

+

latrine, layer

w, c

Paap 1982; van Haaster 1989

Wiethold 2000b, 2001, 2003 Ansorge and Wiethold 2002; Fries and Wiethold 2003

Greifswald

13 +14/15

13 +

latrine, layer

w, c

Ansorge et al. 2003; Wiethold and Schäfer 2001; Wiethold and Meyer 2002

Pasewalk

13

+

layer

c

Hoffmann and Wiethold 1999

18

Germany

Not all periods are represented in all the towns, nor have they all been dated in the same way. Only in‑ cidents relating to a written source can be dated to a particular year. In most cases the refuse had been deposited over a longer period of time; dates refer‑ ring to either a particular century or even longer periods are possible. Some authors published sum‑ marized data relating to a historical period, such as “late medieval”, meaning 14th-15th centuries. As a consequence, in all cases of broad dates such as these, the oldest date has always been used in this article. Figure 2 illustrates the abundance of samples over time, divided up into the three areas. As is apparent, the picture is quite variable, but generally speaking material of late medieval age and from the 16th-17th centuries is very well represented.

Basic food “Die allerbeste / gesündeste und edelste Speise ist / wie alle Menschen bekennen und sagen müssen / das liebe Brod …” (Sincerius (1713) cited in Mulsow and ­Wiethold 2004). All human beings need three main food compo‑ nents: carbohydrate, protein and oil/fat. Minerals and vitamins are essential elements too, but are only needed in trace amounts. While protein is a major component of either meat or legumes and oil/fat is provided by nuts and seeds of flax, poppy and vari‑ ous members of the mustard/cabbage family, one main source developed to become the only provider of starch – the cereals. Before the introduction of potatoes to Europe, easy access to cereals guaranteed the development of complex societies, because the

    OVNCFSPGTBNQMFT

In the publications, information concerning the number of plant remains identified differs in qual‑ ity. Sometimes only a subjective classification is given: i.e. one, some or many items. On one hand, this rather vague information appears in a way less reliable, on the other, concrete numbers indicate a non-existent accuracy, because single samples reflect nothing more than a random sub-sample of reality. It is up to the person dealing with archaeological data to interpret and attribute value to these data in an appropriate way. Table 1 gives an overview of the basic data for the towns presented here. For details see the original publications.

    









XFTU TPVUI FBTU

DFOUVSZ"%

Figure 2.  Abundance of samples from western, southern and eastern towns through time: 13th and 13th/14th centuries; 14th and 14th/15th centuries etc.

starch contained in roots or shoots could not satisfy the hunger of an increasing population. Since early medieval times a variety of cereals had been culti‑ vated in the fields. In the Southern Baltic area the moraines of the last glacial epoch created a patch‑ work of soils of different quality which allowed the medieval farmers to cultivate alongside rye (Secale cereale), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oats (Avena sp.) and common wheat (Triticum aestivum), other crops such as the glume wheats, emmer (Triticum dicoccon) and spelt (Triticum spelta), and even the millet spe‑ cies (Panicum miliaceum and Setaria italica; Alsleben 1995; Kroll and Willerding 2004). On soils of the coastal sandy heathlands in the marshy area by the North Sea, undemanding species such as rye and barley and a small quantity of oats were the only successful crops (Behre and Kučan 1994). When the urban centres developed to become rich and mighty Hanseatic towns they had quite different agricultural backgrounds: In the hinterland of Oldenburg and Bremen, both situated at the border of the marshes, the emphasis was on animal husbandry. Butter was exported from Friesland to southern Lower Saxony. In the 16th century, coastal livestock farming increased enormously and cattle from Jutland and Friesland dominated the northwestern markets. Even in Hes‑ sen, imports from the east (Poland, Hungary) could be repelled. The Hanseatic towns on the Baltic coast were situated in an agricultural environment based on both advanced arable farming and cattlebreed‑ ing. Here, in the region between the rivers Elbe and Wistula, cereals became one of the most important export commodities, and in addition to being sold at local and regional markets, also found their way to markets in Scandinavia and the Netherlands. 19

CHAPTER 1

Obviously, urban latrines are not the first place to begin studying all processes relating to basic food‑ stuffs. The chance of finding cereal remains depends very much on the part of the plant involved and this again depends on the way in which the crop has been processed or consumed. Glumes, especially those of millet, have a good chance of surviving in waterlogged culture layers. The same can be said of the preservation potential of glume bases of emmer and spelt, or parts of ears, such as the rachis frag‑ ments of rye, common wheat or barley. Fragments of the pericarp, the thin skin which encloses the cereal grain, are less well preserved and identifiable. As a result, free-threshing cereals such as rye and common wheat are under-represented in urban deposits. In parallel with the development of towns, a marked specialisation took place in the population, leading to a differentiation into producercommunities (the rural hinterland) and consumercommunities (ur‑ ban centres). This means that a more-or-less clean product reached the households in towns, because not only the growing and harvesting of crops had become divorced from the immediate area, but also crop-processing techniques such as threshing, coarse sieving or winnowing. Chaff, comprising thresh‑ ing residues and a large proportion of weed seeds, was not deposited in urban latrines. When we look at burnt storage deposits from some northeastern towns (Greifswald, Pasewalk), we note a quite mod‑ est contamination with the seeds and fruits of wild species. Corn cockle (Agrostemma githago) and rye brome (Bromus secalinus), two of the most important weeds in fields of winter-sown cereals, together reach a value of 1‑3 % in these assemblages, in contrast to values of up to 20 % in corresponding assemblages at Slavonic settlements. The latter are probably com‑ parable to the situation in the rural hinterland of the eastern Hanseatic towns, and this Slavonic material might give us an idea of the situation in the medi‑ eval fields. Only those cereals from which whole grains were used to prepare gruel, porridge and semolina, or which were put into soup, left identifiable remains in urban deposits. Cereals which were used to bake bread had already been processed to flour, a tran‑ sient product and no longer detectable. Neverthe‑ less, heaps of cereals, even those which were used to bake bread such as rye and common wheat, must 20

have been stored in households within the towns, at least up until the 13th century. Many burnt stores had been found in the rubble of destroyed houses or cellars of several Baltic towns (Greifswald, Pase‑ walk). In early modern times, a change must have been taken place in storage practice, large quantities of charred grains are no longer found in any private households. The two recorded burnt cereal deposits from the 17th century are related to a specialized trade, such as a bakery in Rostock (Mulsow and Wiethold 2004) and a brewery in Stralsund (An‑ sorge and Wiethold 2002). The baking of bread was put into the hands of professionals at a very early stage although Hammel (1981) has calculated that professional baking alone could not cover the requirement for bread in Lübeck in the late 14th century. On the other hand, archaeological evidence shows generally that North German households did not have ovens. A single open fireplace in the great hall, where all commercial and private activities took place, was typical (Kaspar 1996). In addition to heating the room, this fire served various pur‑ poses, such as cooking, smoking (for preserving) and brewing. In the course of time, this central open fireplace underwent several changes (a new location against the wall, separation of heating and cooking, a brick-built stove), but it did not allow the production of bread or pastry or the preparation of complicated meals requiring numerous cooking vessels or variable heat. Gruel and stews dominated the daily diet of the ­people. “Pottharst” a kind of stew with boiled meat and “Grapenbraten” (pot roast), prepared in a cooking vessel standing on three small feet (“Grapen”), are typical dishes of the Hanseatic period. Table 2 shows that virtually all the main cereals appear in all three regions during all periods from the 13th-18th centuries. No significant difference in the frequency of a species is observed, which might indicate that there was no principle change in con‑ sumption. Gaps in the table showing the occurrence of crop species are artificial. Barley, common oats (Avena sativa) and millet had been used to prepare all kinds of gruel or soup. Numerous glumes of millet are preserved in waterlogged urban deposits, a strong indication of the storage of this species in private households. Barley became important in the human diet, because it was a basic ingredient

Germany Table 2.  Hanseatic Germany. Presence/absence data for cereals, legumes and arable weeds. Symbols: “” = present in the east. Sorted within the plant groups and alphabetically. Date Number of analysed samples Volume (ml) Group of towns (represented) Cereals (incl. Buckwheat)

13 13/14 14 14/15 15 15/16 16 16/17 17 18 Century AD 102 9 71 5 41 13 74 13 15 1 >54100 -/>39500 >2200 >23200 >700 >74300 >9950 >10600 >3000



v>

>

Avena nuda Avena sativa Fagopyrum esculentum Hordeum vulgare Oryza sativa Panicum miliaceum Secale cereale Triticum aestivum Triticum dicoccon Triticum spelta

v>

Lens culinaris Pisum sativum Vicia faba Vicia sativa

> > v> >

Cannabis sativa Linum usitatissimum Papaver somniferum

v>

v>

v

v> v> v> v> v> v> v> v>

v> > v> v> > v>

>

> > v> v> > > v> > v>

v v>

> >

v>

>

> >

v> > > >

>

v v> v> v>

<


> > > > > >





>

>





v>

> v> v> v> > v> v> v

>

>

> >

> >

> > > > > > >

>

Naked Oats Common Oats Buckwheat Barley Rice Common Millet Rye Common Wheat Emmer Spelt

> > > >

Lentil Pea Bean Common Vetch

Legumes v> v v

<
v>

v v v>

Oil and fibre plants

Arable weeds a: species of general distribution Agrostemma githago Anthemis arvensis Anthemis cotula Camelina sativa/microcarpa Centaurea cyanus Chenopodium album Euphorbia helioscopia Raphanus raphanistrum b: species of more eastern distribution Anchusa arvensis Bromus secalinus Echinochloa crus-galli Fumaria officinalis Galium aparine Galium spurium Neslia paniculata Setaria glauca Setaria italica Setaria viridis c: other species Avena fatua Consolida regalis Lolium temulentum Ranunculus arvensis Valerianella dentata Valerianella locusta Fungi Claviceps purpurea

> >

> > > >

v

> v> v

v

v>



v>

> v> v>



v>







v>



> > >



> > > > > >



>

>



> > >

v> v> v> v> > v>

> > > >

> > > > > >

>

>

v>

>

>


> >

< v v> v

>

v v> v

> >

Hemp Flax Opium Poppy

>

Corn Cockle Corn Chamomile Stinking Chamomile Gold of Pleasure Cornflower Fat Hen Sun Spurge Wild Radish

> > >

> >

>

Small Bugloss Rye Brome Barnyard Grass Common Fumitory Cleavers False Cleavers Ball Mustard Yellow Foxtail Foxtail Bristle Grass Green Bristle Grass Wild Oats Oriental Lakspur Bearded Ryegrass Corn Buttercup Narrowfruit Cornsalad Cornsalad Ergot

300‑400 litres beer was not unusual during the late medieval period (van Uytven 1983). Brewing, which was still carried out in private households in medi‑ eval times, was given into the hands of professionals 21

CHAPTER 1

when the urban centres expanded. Until the 15th century, when hop beer became generally accepted, there were many different alcoholic beverages based on barley, common wheat, millet or mixtures with oats. All kinds of aromatic herbs were used to add spice to the beer, but only two additives, sweet gale (Myrica gale) and hop (Humulus lupulus) at‑ tained commercial importance (Behre 1998). Due to the additives’ antiseptic properties, Myrica beer, which kept a little better, and hop beer, which lasted much longer, could be brewed, making trade in beer possible. Finally, it was hop beer that became an important pillar of trade for the Hanseatic coastal towns and cultivation of hop spread into the whole of Central Europe. Myrica beer was produced only within the natural distribution area for sweet gale and for a long time its main importance was in the Rhineland and the northwestern coastal area (Irsigler 1996; see also ­Table 5). Due to the fact that production and distribution of “Grut” (a preproduct of beer made from sweet gale) was of pro‑ nounced economic interest, it took several decades until hop beer was accepted in the Netherlands and Flanders. During the period of transition, all manner of mixtures of hop and sweet gale beer circulated in this area. But eventually sweet gale beer was replaced, not at least because of its bad reputation as being harmful to drinkers. In several North German towns brewing with sweet gale was forbidden because it was said that excessive drinking led to loss of sight (Behre 1998). Of the cereals used for making bread, rye appears more regularly than common wheat. In all northern regions it seems that dark leavened bread made from rye was consumed on a daily basis and by everybody, whereas white bread baked with flour made from common wheat was mainly restricted to people of a higher social order. Common or private feast days stood out by offering particular foods, and as the whole of medieval life was strictly regulated, fes‑ tive food include particular pastries produced from finely-milled flour. Apart from a few cases in Sweden (Hansson 1997) and some mainly Roman contexts in Central Europe, there is no direct archaeological evidence of bread from this time. Finds of small lumps of charred food remains are not necessarily also proof of burnt bread. We know only from liter‑ ary sources that bread was served at meals, and more 22

often, was crumbled into soup, milk or even warm beer. From the 14th-15th centuries, a new custom of buttering a slice of bread spread across north‑ ern Central Europe. Wiegelmann (1996) identified several factors that may have had a bearing on this distribution, especially in the Hanseatic region. In Northern Europe, only coarse bread was known, with a strong salty taste and lacking any other condi‑ ments or flavourings, such as those commonly used in Southern Germany. On the other hand, the new technique of conservation of butter with salt created a spreadable product with good keeping properties. Around 15 % of the trade in salt flowed into the conservation of milk products such as butter and cheese. Salt was also needed for the conservation of meat and herring, so a functioning salt trade was essential. Changes in the working day made it ne­ cessary to offer sustaining food early in the morning and in between the two main meals. So everyone working far from home, such as mariners or farm labourers, was given bread which could easily be enriched with butter, cheese or meat – a transport‑ able square meal. The glume wheats did not play a major role in the Hanseatic diet. Generally, the period of the emmer cultivation had ended by that time and spelt devel‑ oped into a typical regional crop of Southwestern Germany (Rösch, Jacomet and Karg 1992) although it was frequently cultivated in areas settled by the northwestern Slavs. Just like spelt, foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was a crop cultivated together with mil‑ let in the Slavonic fields, but did not appear in the Hanseatic towns. It had lost its status as a cultivated plant, and scarcely survived as a weed in summer crops. Naked oats (Avena nuda), on the other hand, ap‑ peared as a new cultivated plant in the fields at that time: formerly they grew as a weed among common oats. Although the taste and consistency of naked oats are of inferior quality, people tolerated this weed, and it was able to develop into a crop in its own right. A few burnt stores of common oats have been found in post-13th century deposits in Schles­ wig (Pasternak 1991) and Greifswald (Wiet­hold and Meyer 2002). These were mixed with naked oats, with the latter reaching proportions of up to 30 %. Grains of naked oats may be smaller, but the plant

Germany

is less demanding with regard to soils and was a suc‑ cessful crop on the poor sandy soils of the region. Although the presence of naked oats diminished the quality of such a high-quality foodstuff as common oats (which have a high protein and fat content), people apparently did not pay much attention to this and seem to have accepted the high level of weed infestation. This might have been due, in part, to the fact that oats were fed to animals. This attitude is further underlined by the finding of a vessel with burnt cereals in Lübeck (Alsleben 2002) where the grains were contaminated with a third species of oats, wild oats (Avena fatua). At no time have wild oats been a tolerated species in the fields. The sturdy awns seriously disrupt mechanical crop processing. A lack of care when cleaning fields – the wild oat plants had to be pulled out by hand – helped wild oats to spread out into the arable fields of early recent times. Conspicuous because of its robust black awns, people gave this plant the name “Swatte Düwel” (black devil). The origins of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) lie in Central Asia and the crop was brought to Europe by Mongolian and Turkish tribes (Hegi 1957). It was first cultivated in Northeast Germany in the 14th century. In the Netherlands, finds of the achenes regularly appear in culture layers from the same time. Cultivation spread slowly into the coastal zone of Northwest Germany, but the crop did not become established as an important source of car‑ bohydrates in the southern Hanseatic towns. The name buckwheat is misleading; buckwheat is not a cereal but belongs to the family Polygonaceae. The beechnut-like fruits contain starch and that is why it was always treated as a cereal. It is one of the most undemanding crops, suitable for cultivation on nutrient-poor, sandy soils. Especially in the north‑ western coastal area, intensive cultivation of rye had led to the creation of rather poor soils, which made the use of fertilizer necessary. Farmers took turves from heathland, composted them and then spread them on the fields. Additional sand was brought to the fields with the turves and, even worse, large parts of the former heathland eroded, causing blown sand to cover former arable land. Buckwheat could be sown on these fields and it helped the farmers to eke out an existence. Like millet, it was a suitable plant product to be stored in households to provide food

in times of famine. But this was also the reason for its bad reputation, being “food for the poor”. Rice (Oryza sativa) had quite the opposite image. It was the only provider of starch that could not be cultivated in Central Europe, but was imported from Eastern Asia or the Mediterranean. A very early find of rice appeared in Braunschweig, but it was not until the 14th-15th centuries that this species became part of the luxury diet of mainly wealthy townspeople (Table 6). Meals of rice and millet can be prepared the same way – very often as sweet gruel – which is why rice took the place of millet in various dishes, especially those prepared as festive food and for weddings (Wiegelmann 1967: 112159). There is a remarkable difference in the recipes for rice dishes within the North German regions. While the Northwest preferred sweet gruels with raisins or plums, in Pomerania rice was served with fish and poultry. Nevertheless, millet gruel also kept its position as festive food in Central and Eastern Germany until the beginning of 20th century, which shows that the reputation of certain food depends on their position as either daily or festive food. Legumes are the main provider of vegetable proteins. The seeds of bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lentil (Lens culinaris) contain more-or-less the same amount of protein – around 23 %. But their chance of being preserved in urban deposits was even less than that of cereals. Archaeobotanical in‑ vestigations cannot, therefore, give much informa‑ tion about the consumption of legumes. Ripe seeds were ground or soaked in water and then used to prepare soup; unripe seeds were eaten together with their pods as vegetables. The slightly different de‑ mands of the three species with regard to climate are reflected in the distribution shown in Table 2. Beans prefer lower temperatures; they tolerate salt in the soil and do not like early dry summers. They were a suitable crop for cultivation in the coastal region of the North Sea, a region belonging to the northern agricultural hinterland of Oldenburg and Bremen. Lentils, on the other hand, are a crop of the warm temperate zone and were cultivated in Eastern Germany. The last group of plants supplying an essential ele‑ ment in the human diet are those which contain 23

CHAPTER 1

oil. More than one plant family produces oily seeds, but only a few have been taken into cultivation. Flax (Linum usitatissimum), poppy (Papaver somniferum) and members of the mustard/cabbage family Brassicaceae achieved economic importance. Gold of pleasure (Camelina sativa) was one member of the family which had been an important oil plant in Northern Germany, but which went out of use in the medieval period, although not for climatic reasons. Other species in this family were used, such as black mustard (Brassica nigra) or white mustard (Sinapis alba) and kale or rape (Brassica napus), but there are virtually no indications of large-scale cultivation of these species prior to the 16th century. This is partly due to the nature of the genus of Brassica itself. In most cases, identification to species is not possible because of the absence of distinctive morphological structures on the seeds. The genus is characterized by great variability of the parts of the plant which are used: leaves, inflorescence, roots and shoots. All are eaten in some form, by way of the many different forms of cabbages, turnips etc. So, it was a fortunate event when a small collec‑ tion of charred seeds of oilseed rape was found in Heide, Schleswig-Holstein (Kroll 1994). The find was dated to the 16th century and the find circum‑ stances excluded any possible use other than for oil extraction. Flax and hemp (Cannabis sativa) are both cultivated for their oil-rich seeds and their fibres. Their oc‑ currence in urban latrines indicates consumption rather than the production of fibres. Whereas lin‑ seed has been a cultivated plant in Central Europe since Neolithic times, the first appearance of hemp in the North only dates back to the first millennium AD (Dörfler 1990). In competition with each other, their different demands with regard to soil condi‑ tions decided the choice. Hemp prefers damp but well-aerated soils, whereas flax is cultivated on dry soils. In both cases the technique of fibre production is very arduous, dusty and produces highly combus‑ tible material. It is, therefore, not conceivable that this was carried out within the inner part of a town. Flax fibres can be woven to produce a fine cloth, whereas the fibre of hemp is coarser and was often used to produce canvas and rope, both of which were increasingly needed for the ships transporting goods across the North Sea and the Baltic. 24

Non-essential food as a remedy for dietary monotony “… Saluia, petrocilinus, menta vnd pfefferr, das soll man zustossen mit essig, das ist ein salsen, die macht lustig zu essenn” (Das Kochbuch des Meister Eber‑ hard (15th century) cited in Feyl 1963). Minerals and vitamins are important trace elements that were consumed together with collected and cul‑ tivated plants, and plant medicines were necessary for maintaining healthy bodies. But other plant products were also needed to add variation in taste to daily food, for example seeds, fruits, leaves or roots which could spice up a meal. Even when the cultivation of vegetables, herbs and fruits (Tables 3, 4 and 5) in gardens became an important aspect of urban life, the natural resources of the surroundings were still exploited. We can safely assume that every plant part that was not poisonous or unpalatable found its way into a meal. Collected fruit, leaves and roots of plants of the indigenous flora gave variation in the preparation of daily food. The diversity avail‑ able depended on the morphological richness of the local landscape. Most of the fruit-bearing shrubs, such as raspberry (Rubus idaeus) or blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), and bushes such as common elder (Sambucus nigra), sloe (Prunus spinosa) or hazel (Corylus avellana), belong to plant societies found bordering woods, fields or paths. Other small shrubs, such as bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), cowberry (V. vitisidea), black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) grow on heathland. In modern times, many fruits went out of use because of their acidic and sour taste, but we should not forget that in previous times the availabil‑ ity of exotic fruits was very limited. People therefore tried to find ways of preparing the fruits of common hawthorn (Crateagus laevigata) or of Sorbus species; the service tree (Sorbus domestica) even found its way into the gardens of southern towns. Compared to nutritional habits in settlements of the early medieval period, nutrition in the towns changed markedly in late medieval and early modern times. A greater number of cultivated fruit, vegetables and herbs enriched the tables of the townspeople. The expanded list of cultivated or imported species is naturally due to the excellent preservation condi‑ tions for waterlogged organic material provided by the numerous cesspits and latrines. But already in

Germany Table 3.  Hanseatic Germany. Presence/absence data for fruit and nuts. Symbols: “” = present in the east. Sorted within the plant groups after the oldest records and alphabetically. Date 13 13/14 14 14/15 15 15/16 16 16/17 17 18 Century AD Number of analysed samples 102 9 71 5 41 13 74 13 15 1 Volume (ml) >54100 -/>39500 >2200 >23200 >700 >74300 >9950 >10600 >3000 Group of towns (represented)



v>

> Collected fruit and nuts Corylus avellana



v> > Hazel Crataegus laevigata v> v v v> >

Common Hawthorn Fragaria vesca



v>

> Wild Strawberry Prunus spinosa v



v v


> Rose Rubus caesius v> v v > v> > v> > > > European Dewberry Rubus fruticosus



v>

> Bramble Rubus idaeus



v>

> Raspberry Sambucus nigra

>



> Common Elder Vaccinium myrtillus v>



>

> Bilberry Sorbus aucuparia v v Rowan Sorbus domestica v v v Service Tree Vaccinium uliginosum > Bog Bilberry Physalis alkekengi > v > Strawberry Tomato Vaccinium vitis-idaea > > Cowberry Empetrum nigrum < < Black Crowberry Sorbus torminalis v v Wild Service Tree Cultivated fruit and nuts Cerasus avium v>

v> >

v> > > Sweet Cherry Cerasus vulgaris v>



v>

> Sour Cherry Cydonia oblonga v v v>

> > > Quince Juglans regia v

> v> > > Walnut Malus domestica

>

>

> Apple Malus sylvestris >

> v > Wild Apple Prunus domestica v

< v> > Plum Prunus insititia

> Bullace Pyrus communis

>

>

> Pear Ribes rubrum <
> > Red Currant Ribes uva-crispa > > > > > Gooseberry Cornus mas > > > Cornelian Cherry Ribes nigrum > > > > Black Currant Probably imported fruit and nuts Castanea sativa v v Spanish Chestnut Ficus carica v

>

v>

> Fig Mespilus germanica v < v

Medlar Morus nigra v

v> >

>

> Black Mulberry Prunus persica v v v > v Peach Vitis vinifera



v>

> Grape Vine Prunus dulcis < Almond

the first phase of urban consolidation, in the 13th century, we find a similar suite of species in all towns in northern Central Europe. A certain basic group of cultivated fruit is characteristic of all locations: ­apple (Malus domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), sweet and sour cherries (Cerasus avium, C. vulgaris) and plums (Prunus insititia). Wild apple trees and pear trees were already members of the local flora; the other trees originated from southern regions. Once established as cultivated plants, all of them became common elements in the urban context. For

climatic reasons it was difficult to obtain ripe fruits of black mulberry (Morus nigra), walnut (Juglans regia), medlar (­Mespilus germanicus), almond (Prunus dulcis), fig (Ficus carica) and grape (Vitis vinifera). But warm sheltered corners in gardens offered the possibility to cultivate such fruit trees for domestic use, even in Northern Germany. Although, for ex‑ ample, wine was produced in Lübeck, the produc‑ tion never reached an economic level and could, naturally never satisfy the increasing demand for Communion wine within the Christian world. The 25

CHAPTER 1

imported species are not seen regularly distributed in the cesspits and latrines, so not everybody could have had access to exotic fruits. A different situation pre‑ vailed with grapes and figs; these were common from their first appearance. The hard, resistant fruit stones of grape and fig are present in every urban deposit, the latter often in enormous numbers. Although they were exotic, it seems as if more people were able to afford to buy these goods. Of course, these finds defy further detailed interpretation concerning the frequency and occasion of their consumption.

1957). The oldest fossil records of black currant (Ribes nig­rum) are from Schonen, Southwest Swe‑ den (see chapter 6) and it was later that it appeared in Middle-European urban contexts. From the 16th century onwards, these berries turn up regularly in the latrines of northeastern towns, at a time when the demand for diversity grew enormously. It is also at this time that we can observe an increasing inter‑ est in growing new plants. This development, which began in the early medieval period, exploded in early modern times. The fruit stones of plums that have been excavated differ distinctively in shape revealing the existence of many different types. These were genetically fixed, because the various types have been found at different locations; for example, in Lübeck (Kroll 1980), in Braunschweig (Hellwig 1990) and at a Cistercian monastery in Brandenburg (Lange 1988). Although they cannot really be linked to our modern varieties of plum, their division into defi‑ nitely distinct types clearly indicates that selection processes led to this great diversity.

All the above-mentioned fruits were already known in Roman Germany, but species of the genus Ribes do not appear in written sources prior to the 16th century. However some single finds of red currant (Ribes rubrum, 13th-14th centuries in Oldenburg) show that berries of this species might have been col‑ lected earlier. The original distribution of red currant (Ribes rubrum L. var. sylvestre (Lam.)) was across the floodplain forests of Western Europe and it probably had its eastern limits in Northwestern Germany. It is this species, rather than the closely related genuine Ribes rubrum, which is distributed through the al‑ luvial forests of Scandinavia, that is thought to be one of the parents of cultivated red currant (Hegi

Fossil remains of vegetables and spices appear fre‑ quently in the deposits, but only in small num‑ bers (Tables 4 and 5). Further species of vegetables should surely be added to table 4, but only seeds

Table 4.  Hanseatic Germany. Presence/absence data for vegetables. Symbols: “” = present in the east. Sorted within the plant groups after the oldest records and alphabetically. Date Number of analysed samples Volume (ml) Group of towns (represented) Vegetables Roots Beta vulgaris Brassica rapa Daucus carota Pastinaca sativa Raphanus sativus Cichorium intybus Brassica napus Leaves / Sprouts / Fruits Amaranthus blitum/sp. Atriplex sp. Brassica oleracea Brassica sp. Lepidium sativum Portulaca oleracea Lactuca sativa Spinacia oleracea Atriplex hortensis Cucumis sativus Cucurbita sp.

26

13 13/14 14 14/15 15 15/16 16 16/17 17 18 Century AD 102 9 71 5 41 13 74 13 15 1 >54100 -/>39500 >2200 >23200 >700 >74300 >9950 >10600 >3000



v>

>

v> > v> >

<

v> >


> > v> >

>

> > >

> >

>

> >

> v v > > v

< v v

>


v

> >

>

>

>

>

>

<


v

>

Beetroot Turnip Carrot Parsnip Radish Chicory Kale Purple Amaranth Orache Cabbage Cabbage Garden Cress Purslane Lettuce Spinach Garden Orache Cucumber Pumpkin

Germany Table 5.  Hanseatic Germany. Presence/absence data for herbs, spices and plants used for other purposes. Symbols: “” = present in the east. Sorted within the plant groups after the oldest records and alphabetically. Date Number of analysed samples Volume (ml) Group of towns (represented) Herbs and spices

13 13/14 14 14/15 15 15/16 16 16/17 17 18 Century AD 102 9 71 5 41 13 74 13 15 1 >54100 -/>39500 >2200 >23200 >700 >74300 >9950 >10600 >3000



v>

>

Anethum graveolens Apium graveolens Brassica nigra Carum carvi Coriandrum sativum Foeniculum vulgare Humulus lupulus Myrica gale Origanum vulgare Petroselinum crispum Ruta graveolens Satureja hortensis Sinapis alba Hyssopus officinalis Juniperus communis Nigella sativa Rosmarinus officinalis Thymus sp.

v> > v v>

v

v > >

Elettaria cardamomum Elettaria major Piper nigrum Aframomum melegueta

v v

Aethusa cynapium Chelidonium majus Hyoscyamus niger Nepeta cataria Verbena officinalis Artemisia absinthium Atropa belladonna

v >

v>



>

> > > > > >

v> v>

v>

<

<

v

>

>


v v

v> v>

v>




> > > v> > v>

> >

>

> > > > >

v> >

v v v

Dill Celery Black Mustard Caraway Coriander Fennel Hop Sweet Gale Wild Marjoram Parsley Rue Savory White Mustard Hyssop Juniper Black Cumin Rosemary Thyme

Exotic species




>

>

v>

v



>

v>

> >

>


Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Black Pepper Grains of Paradise

Medicinal plants v v

v

v v v>

v v>

v> v >

>

Fool’s Parsley Greater Celandine Henbane Catmint Vervain Absinthe Deadly Nightshade

>

Dyer’s Chamomile Common Dogwood Dwarf Elder Columbine Boxwood Wild Mignonette Sweet William

>

Other useful plants

v

and fruits are preserved to the present day: other organic material has decomposed so much as to be unidentifiable. Because people are interested in the tender leaves, shoots or roots, many vegeta‑ bles, such as the different varieties of cabbage and salad leaves, are harvested before becoming hard, woody or ripe. This explains why only a very few of their seeds or fruits are preserved. The same ap‑ plies to all the plants used for spicing up food, for example, herbs and other condiments containing aromatic substances in their leaves or shoots. There is virtually no chance of herbs such as (Mentha







.

v >

sp.), thyme (Thymus sp.) and sage (Salvia sp.) or savory (Satureja hortensis) becoming preserved in urban deposits, whereas species with aromatic seeds or fruits are found more frequently. Many spe‑ cies of the Apiaceae belong to the latter category, for example dill (Anethum graveolens), wild celery (Apium graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Originating in the Mediterranean area, they found their way into the gardens of townspeople. Plants used for other purposes are scarcely represented in the macrofossil 27

CHAPTER 1

record – this includes plants used for dyeing or for medicinal purposes. Attention should be drawn to the fact that, in many cases, a division into medici‑ nal plants and spice plants is artificial. Economic plant species mostly originated in the Mediterranean region but could be grown even in the North, given a favourable micro-climate. In ad‑ dition to the remains of these vegetables and herbs, seeds of exotic non-European spices were also found in urban deposits. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) ap‑ peared very early in the 13th and 14th centuries in Bremen, Rostock and in Oldenburg, but finds are rare, generally being restricted to some prominent buildings. Pepper was very expensive at that time and must have been enormously exclusive. Neverthe‑ less, the demand for this spice increased and could be met somewhat more easily when grains of para‑ dise (Aframomum melegueta, Figure 3) were sold at northern markets. Grains of paradise have a similar spicy taste to pepper. As they come from the West African coast they were cheaper and, accordingly, became a suitable replacement for pepper (Hellwig 1995). Another condiment is cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum, Figure 3) which first appeared at the time when exotic products became accessible from Far Eastern markets. Further archaeobotanical investigations of latrines from Hanseatic towns may result in the discovery of more of these very rare spices. Until then, we must rely on written sources. Medieval cookbooks and numerous commercial registers of goods name an abundance of exotic spices, such as allspice (Pimenta dioica), nutmeg and mace (Myristica fragrans), ani‑ seed (Pimpinella anisum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), saffron (Crocus sativa), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) or cinnamon (Cinnomomum zeylanicum). Saffron is an exotic spice that is not detectable by archaeobo‑

1a

28

1b

tanical means, because the parts of the plant used are the tiny stigma branches (threads) of the flowers. Details of numbers vary, but around 100.000 flow‑ ers are needed to produce 1 kg of the spice, which means that saffron was a real luxury. On the other hand, saffron is absent from none of the recipes for sweet dishes and it was needed to give cakes their yellow colour (“… Safran macht den Kuchen gel…” as it says in an old children song). It is easy to imagine how ingenious people found ways to make money by all kinds of deception and strange adulterations.

Luxury food “Bey solchen Mahlzeiten sollen in alles mit dem Gebratens nicht mehr als vier Gerichte gespeist werden. Nach der Mahlzeit soll kein Confect noch Marcepan, sondern Epffel, Birnen, Nüsse, Kuchen und dieser Lande Früchte auffgesetzt werden” (Luxusordnung des Rates von Lübeck (1612) cited in Pietsch 1985). “Non-basic” food plants could have been avail‑ able to everyone, or their use could be restricted to specific people. They may have been part of daily food, or their use was restricted to special occasions. Beyond this, special plant products could be used to construct barriers between the different classes in the hierarchy and they were often luxuries. One of the characteristics of the towns was their rela‑ tive independence of local and regional landlords. It was mainly merchants of the Hanseatic League, and other wealthy persons and craftsmen, who es‑ tablished themselves as the town authorities, creat‑ ing a third class of bourgeoisie alongside noblemen and farmers. Gaining in self-confidence, they sought opportunities to express their position within the social order of the town. Luxury shown through food, the variability of menus and refinement of recipes, was a way to demonstrate a person’s wealth

2

Figure 3.  Exotic spices. Sub-fossil remains. 1 Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum, ventral (a), lateral (b)); 2 Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta). Drawing: 1 Alsleben 1991; 2 Hellwig 1995. Scale 10:1.

Germany

and reputation. The generous use of exotic plant products was an excellent way to demonstrate sta‑ tus. These plants were normally not present in the indigenous vegetation but were imported goods. More importantly, access to them was restricted by price. In contrast to our modern European tastes, all kinds of herbs and spices imaginable must have been added to dishes at the same time. The strange fancies produced by this great passion is ironically expressed in the song about a white swan bemoaning its fate; once it lived on a lake and finally it ended up as a blackened burnt swan on a plate, facing bared teeth. “Olim lacus colueram / olim pulcher exiteram / dum cignus ego fueram. ….. Nunc in scutella iaceo, / et volitare nequeo / dentes fredentes video. Miser, miser! / modo niger et ustus fortiter” (from: Carmina burana, manuscript of the monastery Benediktbeuren 13th century). When official guests were entertained to a meal, this often degenerated into total show: stuffed birds, such as swans and peacocks, had heraldic arms at their breasts and gold-painted dishes were placed on the table. Depending on their opinions, the guests expressed their pleasure or displeasure. As in many other towns, the town authorities in Lübeck passed regulations to restrict luxury excesses in pri‑ vate households (Pietsch 1985).

The consumption of luxury plants, as reflected by the occurrence of organic remains in urban latrines of the Hanseatic period, can shed light on the diet of different social classes. Latrines were mostly con‑ structed on the plots of land owned by members of the higher social ranks. This means that the ar‑ chaeobotanical data generally represent the food consumption of wealthy people. Unfortunately, the deposits in the latrines date to longer periods, ex‑ tending beyond the generation of a single owner. Furthermore, it was not just the owner and family who used the latrine facilities, but also the private and “professional” staff of the household. This makes it difficult to assign the content of a latrine to a spe‑ cific social class. However, it was possible to attempt a hierarchical differentiation of food plants using the material from Lübeck, Braunschweig and Rostock. The owners of the plot Alfstraße in Lübeck could be linked with members of the higher social classes (here defined as soc. I) – perhaps merchants of the Hanseatic League. Whereas the plots in Hundestraße were owned mainly by craftsmen (here defined as soc. II). The same can be said of the inhabitants of Braunschweig and Rostock. Long-distance mer‑ chants, wealthy persons or craftsmen are mentioned in the town annals, and often these different social classes lived in separate quarters of the towns. On

Table 6.  Hanseatic Germany. Presence/absence data for species according to different social classes. Towns: HL = Lübeck, LG = Lüneburg, BS = Braunschweig, HRO = Rostock; social classes: soc.I = upper class, soc.II = middle class. HL, LG BS monastery soc.II Date 13/14 13/14 Number of samples 24 9 Species of high social ranking Oryza sativa Aframomum melegueta Elettaria cardamomum Piper nigrum Cornus mas Cydonia oblonga Mespilus germanica Morus nigra Prunus domestica   Prunus persica Ribes nigrum Ribes rubrum Species of low social ranking Fagopyrum esculentum . Panicum miliaceum     Ficus carica   Vitis vinifera   Juglans regia     Town Social differentiation

HL soc.II 13/14 6

HRO soc.II 13/14 3

BS soc.I 13/14 23

HL soc.I 13 4

HRO soc.I 13 3

 

BS soc.II 15/16 2

HL soc.II 16/17 3

HRO soc.II 16 2

 

BS soc.I 15/16 5

HL soc.I 15/17 10

HRO soc.I 16 3

 

       

     

         

               

             

   

 

 

   

   

     

       

       

     

         

       

       

         

         

       

Century AD

Rice Grains of Paradise Cardamom Black Pepper Cornelian Cherry Quince Medlar Black Mulberry Plum Peach Black Currant Red Currant Buckwheat Common Millet Fig Grape Vine Walnut

29

CHAPTER 1

a closer examination of two social classes (Table 6), plant remains from the latrines show distinct dif‑ ferences, especially in early modern times. A com‑ parison of the datasets demonstrates that exotic and other imported plant products were not available to everyone. This very distinct difference was already indicated during late medieval times, but became even more obvious at the transition to modern times, when changes occurred in trade with Far Eastern and Mediterranean goods. Most of the imported species have an indicator value and characterize the food consumption of the higher social classes. Exceptions to this were grapes and figs, which also occurred in deposits from the lower class. It is not possible to prove this by way of archaeobotanical methods, but it seems certain that these fruits were consumed only on special occasions. If people were somehow able to afford it, even members of the lower classes treated themselves to a little bit of luxury. Conversely, millet and buckwheat, which had the bad reputation of being food for the poor, must have been prepared in rich households, as revealed by the similar occur‑ rence of these two species in all social classes. The differences within garden products, such as veg‑ etables, herbs and cultivated fruit, are less distinct, but the frequency of occurrence and the number of plant remains detected are both less in the latrines of the poor than in those of the wealthy part of the population. Most of the urban population did not have the easy access to garden products enjoyed by the rich. The townspeople’s private gardens lay out‑ side the city walls and here a great variety of vegeta‑ bles were cultivated. Many towns were surrounded by gardens where fruits, vegetables and herbs were cultivated (Janssen 1987). As everybody knows, suc‑ cessful gardening is time-consuming. This time had to be found alongside people’s normal household duties. It was the rich who could afford to have work done in the gardens. So it is not without reason that medieval illustrations of garden scenes put aspects of recreation and amusement at the centre (see a selection of illustrations in Hennebo 1987).

Hanseatic diet – a first step towards international cooking in the North? The Hanseatic culture is an urban culture, and archaeo­botanical data obtained from Hanseatic de‑ 30

posits in Germany mainly reflect the eating habits of wealthy urban dwellers, i.e. the patriciate. Nonessential food plants cultivated in gardens have, in particular, a specific urban character, because they were not present at the preceding pre-urban cen‑ tres. Some early traces of gardening, demonstrated at the seat of Slavonic nobility in Starigard/Oldenburg (Kroll and Willerding 2004), mark the beginning of a development which ended up with the intro‑ duction of exotic plant products to North German households. Due to the lack of material for archaeo‑ botanical analysis, it has not been possible to define the role played by the monasteries in opening up the senses for this new culture. The question of if, how and when such novelties spread out into the coun‑ tryside still remains open. Future investigations of rural communities or abandoned settlements from the high medieval period may shed some light on this matter. Probably the rural population remained more or less uninfluenced by these changes. Late medieval society was strictly sub-­divided according to hierarchical status and mobility within the system was low. On one hand, farmers could escape the feu‑ dal constraints when migrating into town (Epperlein 2003: 152‑159) on the other, strict rules limited the freedom of activity of the farmers in town markets. Although townspeople were dependent on imports of products from the hinterland, this fact did not help the farmers to gain a superior economic posi‑ tion (Fritze 1976: 48-51). Food could, of course, be used as a symbol of status, especially if access to special products was restricted by availability and price. ­People who were not citizens of a town, and that meant all farmers who were irrevocably born to their status and bound to their landlord, were cut off from urban dietary habits. When comparing the archaeobotanical datasets in Tables 2‑5, it is obvious that no principle differences exist between western, southern and eastern towns. By the time urbanisation in Northern Germany and along the southern Baltic coast was complete, a similar food culture must have been established in all of these towns (see also chapters 2 and 3). This culture appeared in all southern Baltic towns at the same time, but did not manifest itself in Novgorod. Recent investigations of waterlogged plant remains from the old centre of Novgorod show that the food economy of the “Bojaren” (the owners of proper‑

Germany

ties in town) was not under western influence (M. Monk, Univ. Cork: pers. comm.). Unfortunately, the German “Peterhof ” in Novgorod has not been the subject of archaeological excavations, so we can only guess as to whether the two different food cultures existed side by side. Was the spread of urban food culture in only one direction? At least one culture plant, buckwheat, with its distinct eastern distribution, may have been introduced to Northern Germany by Slavonic farm‑ ers. But at the time of its first demonstrated cultiva‑ tion in the 14th century, buckwheat appears both in the East and in the West, so it is conceivable also to propose a western route for its distribution. Turk‑ ish and Mongol tribes brought buckwheat to the Black Sea area and from where it was distributed by sea trade via Venice to Northwestern Europe (Hegi 1957). There is a small palynological signal for the early medieval appearance of buckwheat in the area between the Elbe and the Weser, but the pollen curve for buckwheat did not become continuous before the late medieval period in the whole of Northern Germany (Behre and Kučan 1994; Wiethold 1998). With the exception of one single find of a nutlet from Wolin, dated to the 9th-10th centuries (Alsleben 1995), remains of buckwheat have not been found at those western Slavonic settlements investigated to date (Alsleben unpubl.). The direction of introduc‑ tion into Northern Germany remains unresolved. In this respect, linguistic investigations may furnish information on another interesting aspect. It seems that the supply of basic foods was influenced by Sla‑ vonic traditions, because some words borrowed from the Slavonic languages were used in eastern parts of Germany (Wiegelmann 1967: 27-28). Examples of such words in the 15th-16th centuries are “Bemme” –

a buttered slice of bread, “Graupe” – husked barley, “Flinse” – a thin pancake and “Kolatsche” – round pastries. On the whole, there can be no doubt that the culture of non-essential food supply spread from the west to the east. Most species of cultivated fruit, herbs and vegetables are of Mediterranean origin and were cul‑ tivated already in the Roman provinces of Western Germany. The decline of the Roman Empire led to a distinct decline in the frequency of these species, but by the time the process of urbanisation started in the Lower Rhine area these cultivated southern plants appeared in great diversity and the culture of gardening blossomed again (Knörzer et al. 1999). Together with the colonisation of the eastern terri‑ tory, these plants found their way into the northern Hanseatic lifestyle. Further to its economic character, the Hanse was a period of intense migration. It is certain that the Hanseatic bourgeoisie did not invent the urban food culture, but because of their farreaching contacts to both west and northeast, they performed the role of amplifier for these novelties in daily life.

Acknowledgements I would like to thank the initiator and coordinator of the project Dr. Sabine Karg from the Depart‑ ment of Research and Exhibitions, Environmental Archaeology, the National Museum of Denmark for her invitation to take part in the HANSA Net‑ work Project, and all colleagues in the Network, for stimulating discussions in Denmark, Estonia and Norway. Many thanks too to my German colleague Dr. Julian Wiethold, who offered me the use of his unpublished data.

31

CHAPTER 1

Plant names in Latin, German and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000) in alphabetical order Latin names Aethusa cynapium L. Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Agrostemma githago L. Allium cepa L. Amaranthus blitum L. Amaranthus sp. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Anethum graveolens L. Angelica sylvestris L. Anthemis arvensis L. Anthemis cotula L. Anthemis tinctoria L. Apium graveolens L. Aquilegia vulgaris L. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Artemisia absinthium L. Atriplex hortensis L. Atriplex sp. Atropa belladonna L. Avena fatua L. Avena nuda L. Avena sativa L. Avena sp. Beta vulgaris L. Betonica officinalis L. Brassica napus L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Brassica oleracea L. Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Brassica sp. Bromus secalinus L. Bunias orientalis L. Buxus sempervirens L. Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Cannabis sativa L. Capsicum annuum L. Carum carvi L. Castanea sativa P. Miller Centaurea cyanus L. Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller Chelidonium majus L. Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Chenopodium sp. Cichorium intybus L. Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Consolida regalis Gray Coriandrum sativum L. Cornus mas L. Cornus sanguinea L. Cornus suecica L. Corylus avellana L. Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Cucumis sativus L. Cucurbita sp. Cydonia oblonga Mill. Daucus carota L. Dianthus barbatus L. Dianthus sp. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. Elettaria cardamomum Maton Elettaria major Smith Empetrum nigrum L. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

32

German names Hundspetersilie Paradieskorn Kornrade Küchen-Zwiebel Amarant Amarant Acker-Krummhals Dill Wald-Engelwurz Acker-Hundskamille Stinkende Hundskamille Färber-Hundskamille Echter Sellerie Gewöhnliche Akelei Echte Bärentraube Echter Wermut Garten-Melde Melde Echte Tollkirsche Flug-Hafer Sand-Hafer Saat-Hafer Hafer Runkelrübe Echter Ziest Raps Schwarzer Senf Gemüse-Kohl Rübsen Kohl Roggen-Trespe Orientalisches Zackenschötchen Buchsbaum Saat-Leindotter Hanf Paprika Wiesen-Kümmel Marone Kornblume Süßkirsche Sauerkirsche Schöllkraut Weißer Gänsefuß Guter Heinrich Gänsefuß Gewöhnliche Wegwarte Mutterkorn Acker-Rittersporn Koriander Kornelkirsche Blutroter Hartriegel Schwedischer Hartriegel Hasel Zweigriffliger Weißdorn Gurke Kürbis Echte Quitte Wilde Möhre Bart-Nelke Nelke Hühnerhirse Kardamom Kardamom Schwarze Krähenbeere Sonnenwend-Wolfsmilch Echter Buchweizen

English names Fool’s Parsley Grains of Paradise Corn Cockle Onion Purple Amaranth Amaranth Small Bugloss Dill Archangel Corn Chamomile Stinking Chamomile Dyer’s Chamomile Celery Columbine Bearberry Absinthe Garden Orache Orache Deadly Nightshade Wild Oats Naked Oats Common Oats Oat Beetroot Betony Kale Black Mustard Cabbage Turnip Cabbage Rye Brome Warty Cabbage Boxwood Gold of Pleasure Hemp Hot Pepper Caraway Spanish Chestnut Cornflower Sweet Cherry Sour Cherry Greater Celandine Fat Hen Good King Henry Goosefoot Chicory Ergot Oriental Lakspur Coriander Cornelian Cherry Common Dogwood Dwarf Cornel Hazel Common Hawthorn Cucumber Pumpkin Quince Carrot Sweet William Pink Barnyard Grass Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Black Crowberry Sun Spurge Buckwheat

Germany

Ficus carica L. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fragaria vesca L. Fumaria officinalis L. Galium aparine L. Galium spurium L. Genista tinctoria L. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Humulus lupulus L. Hyoscyamus niger L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Hypericum perforatum L. Hyssopus officinalis L. Iris pseudacorus L. Juglans regia L. Juniperus communis L. Lactuca sativa L. Laurus nobilis L. Lens culinaris Medik. Leonurus cardiaca L. Lepidium sativum L. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Lithospermum arvense L. Lolium temulentum L. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sp. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Mespilus germanica L. Morus nigra L. Morus sp. Myrica gale L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nepeta cataria L. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Nicotiana rustica L. Nicotiana sp. Nigella sativa L. Origanum vulgare L. Oryza sativa L. Panicum miliaceum L. Papaver dubium L. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Pastinaca sativa L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Physalis alkekengi L. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Piper nigrum L. Pisum sativum L. Portulaca oleracea L. Prunus domestica L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Prunus insititia L. Prunus padus L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Prunus sp. Prunus spinosa L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Ranunculus arvensis L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Raphanus sativus L. Reseda luteola L. Ribes nigrum L. Ribes rubrum L. Ribes sp. Ribes uva-crispa L. Rosa sp.

Feige Echtes Mädesüß Fenchel Wald-Erdbeere Gewöhnlicher Erdrauch Kletten-Labkraut Acker-Labkraut Färber-Ginster Mehrzeilige Gerste Hopfen Schwarzes Bilsenkraut Geflecktes Johanniskraut Tüpfel-Johanniskraut Ysop Sumpf-Schwertlilie Echte Walnuss Gewöhnlicher Wacholder Garten-Lattich Lorbeer Linse Echtes Herzgespann Garten-Kresse Liebstöckel Flachs Acker-Steinsame Taumel-Lolch Kultur-Apfel Apfel Holz-Apfel Echte Mispel Schwarzer Maulbeerbaum Maulbeerbaum Gagelstrauch Duftende Muskatnuss Gewöhnliche Katzenminze Finkensame Bauern-Tabak Tabak Echter Schwarzkümmel Gewöhnlicher Dost Reis Echte Hirse Saat-Mohn Schlaf-Mohn Pastinak Petersilie Wilde Blasenkirsche Piment Pfeffer Erbse Gemüse-Portulak Zwetschge Mandel Pflaume Traubenkirsche Pfirsich Pflaume Schlehe Kultur-Birne Birne Acker-Hahnenfuß Acker-Hederich Garten-Rettich Färber-Wau Schwarze Johannisbeere Rote Johannisbeere Johannisbeere Stachelbeere Rose

Fig Meadow Sweet Fennel Wild Strawberry Common Fumitory Cleavers False Cleavers Dyer’s Broom Barley Hop Henbane St John’s Wort St John’s Wort Hyssop Flag Iris Walnut Juniper Lettuce Laurel Lentil Motherwort Garden Cress Lovage Flax Corn Gromwell Bearded Ryegrass Apple Apple Wild Apple Medlar Black Mulberry Mulberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg, Mace Catmint Ball Mustard Indian Tobacco Tobacco Black Cumin Wild Marjoram Rice Common Millet Long-headed Poppy Opium Poppy Parsnip Parsley Strawberry Tomato Allspice Black Pepper Pea Purslane Plum Almond Bullace European Bird Cherry Peach Sloe/Cherry Sloe Pear Pear Corn Buttercup Wild Radish Radish Wild Mignonette Black Currant Red Currant Currant Gooseberry Rose

33

CHAPTER 1

Rosmarinus officinalis L. Rubus caesius L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus idaeus L. Rubus saxatilis L. Rubus sp. Ruta graveolens L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sambucus racemosa L. Satureja hortensis L. Secale cereale L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Sinapis alba L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Spinacia oleracea L. Thymus serpyllum L. Thymus sp. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Triticum dicoccon Schrank Triticum sp. Triticum spelta L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Vaccinium sp. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Valeriana officinalis L. Valeriana sp. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Verbena officinalis L. Vicia faba L. Vicia sativa L. Vicia sp. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.)

34

Rosmarin Kratzbeere Moltebeere Brombeere Himbeere Steinbeere Brombeere/Himbeere Wein-Raute Attich Schwarzer Holunder Roter Holunder Sommer-Bohnenkraut Roggen Fuchsrote Borstenhirse Kolbenhirse Grüne Borstenhirse Weißer Senf Vogelbeere Speierling Elsbeere Spinat Sand-Thymian Thymian Saat-Weizen Emmer Weizen Dinkel Heidelbeere Gewöhnliche Moosbeere Heidelbeere Rauschbeere Preiselbeere Echter Baldrian Baldrian Gezähnter Feldsalat Gewöhnlicher Feldsalat Echtes Eisenkraut Ackerbohne Futter-Wicke Wicke Weinrebe

Rosemary European Dewberry Cloudberry Bramble Raspberry Stone Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Rue Dwarf Elder Common Elder Red Berried Elder Savory Rye Yellow Foxtail Foxtail Bristle Grass Green Bristle Grass White Mustard Rowan Service Tree Wild Service Tree Spinach Wild Thyme Thyme Common Wheat Emmer Wheat Spelt Bilberry Cranberry Bilberry/Cowberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Common Valerian Valerian Narrowfruit Cornsalad Cornsalad Vervain Bean Common Vetch Vetch, Bean Grape Vine

Germany

Plant names in German, Latin and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000) in alphabetical order German names Ackerbohne Acker-Hahnenfuß Acker-Hederich Acker-Hundskamille Acker-Krummhals Acker-Labkraut Acker-Rittersporn Acker-Steinsame Amarant Amarant Apfel Attich Baldrian Bart-Nelke Bauern-Tabak Birne Blutroter Hartriegel Brombeere Brombeere/Himbeere Buchsbaum Dill Dinkel Duftende Muskatnuss Echte Bärentraube Echte Hirse Echte Mispel Echte Quitte Echte Tollkirsche Echte Walnuss Echter Baldrian Echter Buchweizen Echter Schwarzkümmel Echter Sellerie Echter Wermut Echter Ziest Echtes Eisenkraut Echtes Herzgespann Echtes Mädesüß Elsbeere Emmer Erbse Feige Fenchel Finkensame Flachs Flug-Hafer Fuchsrote Borstenhirse Futter-Wicke Färber-Ginster Färber-Hundskamille Färber-Wau Gagelstrauch Garten-Kresse Garten-Lattich Garten-Melde Garten-Rettich Geflecktes Johanniskraut Gemüse-Kohl Gemüse-Portulak Gewöhnliche Akelei Gewöhnliche Katzenminze Gewöhnliche Moosbeere Gewöhnliche Wegwarte Gewöhnlicher Dost Gewöhnlicher Erdrauch Gewöhnlicher Feldsalat

Latin names Vicia faba L. Ranunculus arvensis L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Anthemis arvensis L. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Galium spurium L. Consolida regalis Gray Lithospermum arvense L. Amaranthus blitum L. Amaranthus sp. Malus sp. Sambucus ebulus L. Valeriana sp. Dianthus barbatus L. Nicotiana rustica L. Pyrus sp. Cornus sanguinea L. Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus sp. Buxus sempervirens L. Anethum graveolens L. Triticum spelta L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Panicum miliaceum L. Mespilus germanica L. Cydonia oblonga Mill. Atropa belladonna L. Juglans regia L. Valeriana officinalis L. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Nigella sativa L. Apium graveolens L. Artemisia absinthium L. Betonica officinalis L. Verbena officinalis L. Leonurus cardiaca L. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Triticum dicoccon Schrank Pisum sativum L. Ficus carica L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Avena fatua L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Vicia sativa L. Genista tinctoria L. Anthemis tinctoria L. Reseda luteola L. Myrica gale L. Lepidium sativum L. Lactuca sativa L. Atriplex hortensis L. Raphanus sativus L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Brassica oleracea L. Portulaca oleracea L. Aquilegia vulgaris L. Nepeta cataria L. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Cichorium intybus L. Origanum vulgare L. Fumaria officinalis L. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr.

English names Bean Corn Buttercup Wild Radish Corn Chamomile Small Bugloss False Cleavers Oriental Lakspur Corn Gromwell Purple Amaranth Amaranth Apple Dwarf Elder Valerian Sweet William Indian Tobacco Pear Common Dogwood Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Boxwood Dill Spelt Nutmeg, Mace Bearberry Common Millet Medlar Quince Deadly Nightshade Walnut Common Valerian Buckwheat Black Cumin Celery Absinthe Betony Vervain Motherwort Meadow Sweet Wild Service Tree Emmer Pea Fig Fennel Ball Mustard Flax Wild Oats Yellow Foxtail Common Vetch Dyer’s Broom Dyer’s Chamomile Wild Mignonette Sweet Gale Garden Cress Lettuce Garden Orache Radish St John’s Wort Cabbage Purslane Columbine Catmint Cranberry Chicory Wild Marjoram Common Fumitory Cornsalad

35

CHAPTER 1

Gewöhnlicher Wacholder Gezähnter Feldsalat Grüne Borstenhirse Gurke Guter Heinrich Gänsefuß Hafer Hanf Hasel Heidelbeere Heidelbeere Himbeere Holz-Apfel Hopfen Hundspetersilie Hühnerhirse Johannisbeere Kardamom Kardamom Kletten-Labkraut Kohl Kolbenhirse Koriander Kornblume Kornelkirsche Kornrade Kratzbeere Kultur-Apfel Kultur-Birne Küchen-Zwiebel Kürbis Liebstöckel Linse Lorbeer Mandel Marone Maulbeerbaum Mehrzeilige Gerste Melde Moltebeere Mutterkorn Nelke Orientalisches Zackenschötchen Paprika Paradieskorn Pastinak Petersilie Pfeffer Pfirsich Pflaume Pflaume Piment Preiselbeere Raps Rauschbeere Reis Roggen Roggen-Trespe Rose Rosmarin Rote Johannisbeere Roter Holunder Runkelrübe Rübsen Sand-Hafer Sand-Thymian Sauerkirsche Schlaf-Mohn Schlehe Schwarze Johannisbeere

36

Juniperus communis L. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Cucumis sativus L. Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Chenopodium sp. Avena sp. Cannabis sativa L. Corylus avellana L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium sp. Rubus idaeus L. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Humulus lupulus L. Aethusa cynapium L. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. Ribes sp. Elettaria cardamomum Maton Elettaria major Smith Galium aparine L. Brassica sp. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Coriandrum sativum L. Centaurea cyanus L. Cornus mas L. Agrostemma githago L. Rubus caesius L. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Pyrus communis L. Allium cepa L. Cucurbita sp. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Lens culinaris Medik. Laurus nobilis L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Castanea sativa P. Miller Morus sp. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Atriplex sp. Rubus chamaemorus L. Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Dianthus sp. Bunias orientalis L. Capsicum annuum L. Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Pastinaca sativa L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Piper nigrum L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Prunus insititia L. Prunus sp. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Brassica napus L. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Oryza sativa L. Secale cereale L. Bromus secalinus L. Rosa sp. Rosmarinus officinalis L. Ribes rubrum L. Sambucus racemosa L. Beta vulgaris L. Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Avena nuda L. Thymus serpyllum L. Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Prunus spinosa L. Ribes nigrum L.

Juniper Narrowfruit Cornsalad Green Bristle Grass Cucumber Good King Henry Goosefoot Oat Hemp Hazel Bilberry Bilberry/Cowberry Raspberry Wild Apple Hop Fool’s Parsley Barnyard Grass Currant Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Cleavers Cabbage Foxtail Bristle Grass Coriander Cornflower Cornelian Cherry Corn Cockle European Dewberry Apple Pear Onion Pumpkin Lovage Lentil Laurel Almond Spanish Chestnut Mulberry Barley Orache Cloudberry Ergot Pink Warty Cabbage Hot Pepper Grains of Paradise Parsnip Parsley Black Pepper Peach Bullace Sloe/Cherry Allspice Cowberry Kale Bog Bilberry Rice Rye Rye Brome Rose Rosemary Red Currant Red Berried Elder Beetroot Turnip Naked Oats Wild Thyme Sour Cherry Opium Poppy Sloe Black Currant

Germany

Schwarze Krähenbeere Schwarzer Holunder Schwarzer Maulbeerbaum Schwarzer Senf Schwarzes Bilsenkraut Schwedischer Hartriegel Schöllkraut Sommer-Bohnenkraut Sonnenwend-Wolfsmilch Speierling Spinat Stachelbeere Steinbeere Stinkende Hundskamille Sumpf-Schwertlilie Süßkirsche Saat-Hafer Saat-Leindotter Saat-Mohn Saat-Weizen Tabak Taumel-Lolch Thymian Traubenkirsche Tüpfel-Johanniskraut Vogelbeere Wald-Engelwurz Wald-Erdbeere Wein-Raute Weinrebe Weißer Gänsefuß Weißer Senf Weizen Wicke Wiesen-Kümmel Wilde Blasenkirsche Wilde Möhre Ysop Zweigriffliger Weißdorn Zwetschge

Empetrum nigrum L. Sambucus nigra L. Morus nigra L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Hyoscyamus niger L. Cornus suecica L. Chelidonium majus L. Satureja hortensis L. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Sorbus domestica L. Spinacia oleracea L. Ribes uva-crispa L. Rubus saxatilis L. Anthemis cotula L. Iris pseudacorus L. Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Avena sativa L. Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Papaver dubium L. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Nicotiana sp. Lolium temulentum L. Thymus sp. Prunus padus L. Hypericum perforatum L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Angelica sylvestris L. Fragaria vesca L. Ruta graveolens L. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.) Chenopodium album L. Sinapis alba L. Triticum sp. Vicia sp. Carum carvi L. Physalis alkekengi L. Daucus carota L. Hyssopus officinalis L. Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Prunus domestica L.

Black Crowberry Common Elder Black Mulberry Black Mustard Henbane Dwarf Cornel Greater Celandine Savory Sun Spurge Service Tree Spinach Gooseberry Stone Bramble Stinking Chamomile Flag Iris Sweet Cherry Common Oats Gold of Pleasure Long-headed Poppy Common Wheat Tobacco Bearded Ryegrass Thyme European Bird Cherry St John’s Wort Rowan Archangel Wild Strawberry Rue Grape Vine Fat Hen White Mustard Wheat Vetch, Bean Caraway Strawberry Tomato Carrot Hyssop Common Hawthorn Plum

37

Poland

Useful plants in medieval and postmedieval archaeobotanical material from the Hanseatic towns of Northern Poland (Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg) Małgorzata Latałowa, Monika Badura, Joanna Jarosińska, Joanna Święta-Musznicka

Introduction Kołobrzeg (Kolberg), Gdańsk (Danzig) and Elbląg (Elbing), three medieval towns in present-day North‑ ern Poland (Figure 1) have, for nearly a century now, come under the scrutiny of archaeologists and historians. Paradoxically, opportunities for excava‑ tion in all of them were particularly propitious in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War. During the hostilities at the end of the war their historic centres sustained total destruction, and the necessary shifting of soil and rubble during post-war rebuilding uncovered culture layers harking back to the beginnings of these towns. However, only in Gdańsk was a systematic reconstruction of the devastated centre undertaken soon after the end of the war, and it is from this period that the first postwar archaeological (e.g. Jażdżewski 1955a, 1955b, 1958; Zbierski 1958) and archaeobotanical (Lech‑ nicki 1955; Lechnicki et al. 1961; Mądalski 1952; Moldenhawer 1952) publications appear. The ruined town centres of Elbląg and Kołobrzeg were mostly levelled and grassed over, with only a few buildings being erected there. The towns themselves expanded from beyond the confines of their old centres. Only after the political and economic transformation of the early 1990s did these areas attract the attention of businesses in search of city-centre office space. Having decided to invest there, they were dutybound to support archaeological salvage operations.

In Gdańsk too, there are still vacant lots within the boundaries of the medieval Main Town and Old Town that are gradually being bought up. Prior to their “development”, they are subject to archaeologi‑ cal investigation. From the excavations carried out so far, a great deal of information has been obtained regarding the material culture of these towns at various times in their history (e.g. Czaja and Nawrolski 1993a; Gołembnik 2002a; Leciejewicz and Rębkowski 2000; Paner 1998, 1999; Zbierski 1978a). Since the 1990s, studies of plant remains, carried out by the Labora‑ tory of Palaeoecology and Archaeobotany at the Uni‑ versity of Gdańsk, have accompanied the ongoing ar‑ chaeological investigations in the oldest districts. The archaeological culture layers and objects have yielded a great many samples of plant material that are ex‑ ceptionally rich in both taxa and the remains repre‑ senting them. Of particular interest are the remains of cultivated plants, including imported species, and those of plants collected from the wild. Not only have these finds made a contribution to our knowledge of the use of the various species as dietary items and for other functions in people’s everyday lives, they are also a reflection of the standard of living of those communities. Finally, they provide direct evidence for trade in plant resources. This article sets out to discuss a number of questions concerning the plants utilised by the inhabitants of Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and 39

CHAPTER 2

Kolobrzeg

Elblag

Figure 1.  Map showing the Polish medieval towns with archaeobotanical data discussed in this chapter.

Elbląg from the 13th-18th centuries, in other words, during that period of their histories when they were members of the Hanseatic League.

The archaeobotany of medieval and modern urban sites in Poland The state of research In comparison with the enormous scale of archaeo‑ logical excavations being carried out in Polish towns and cities, the investigation of plant remains from urban sites is a rare undertaking. The earliest such work was done by Jaroń from Gniezno (1939), Moldenhawer from Nakło (1961), Moldenhawer (1937) and Klichowska (1961a, 1964a, 1971, 1975) from Poznań, Schubert (1932), Nasz (1948) and Klichowska (1956) from Opole, Klichowska from Wrocław (1961b), Szczecin (1960) and Wolin (1957, 1961c, 1964b), Wasylikowa (1965) and Jedliczka (1965) from Kraków, Mądalski (1952), Molden‑ hawer (1952), Lechnicki (1955) and Lechnicki et al. (1961) from Gdańsk. Most of these papers take the form of short communications containing lists of taxa, usually without any extensive interpretation of the data; sometimes an all-embracing list of species was drawn up for a locality with complete disregard for chronological differentiation. An exception in this respect is the paper on material from Przemyśl by Wieserowa (1967), which presents an analysis of samples of charred cereals – a classic example of a palaeophytocoenosis. Wieserowa’s treatment of this material later enabled an ecological analysis of the 40

weed species found together with the remains of cereals from which inferences could be drawn about the method of their cultivation (Wasylikowa 1981, 1983). The breakthrough came with the work from Kraków by Wasylikowa (1978a, 1978b) and Wi‑ eserowa (1979), which was based on a substantial number of archaeobotanical samples, analysed with great precision down to the very smallest diaspores. The innovative aspect of their work was that the potential of the identified species was utilised to give an indication of contemporary ecological conditions. Interesting data are also available from later studies carried out in Wrocław. These focused principally on charred remains of cereal grain from medieval granaries (e.g. Kosina 1981), to a lesser extent on other groups of useful plants and on environmental reconstruction (Kosina 1995). New papers have re‑ cently been published with respect to Wolin (Alsle‑ ben 1995; Latałowa 1999). They contain informa‑ tion on useful plants and attempt to reconstruct the natural environment and its transformation as brought about by the expanding town and the con‑ comitant spread of settlements. The nature of the archaeological feature types from which plant remains have been examined in Poland differs from that at the majority of urban sites in Europe. The above papers deal mostly with material from culture layers not connected with any particular object. Granaries were investigated prin‑ cipally in Wrocław, whereas at Wolin, the focus was on harbour quaysides. With the exception of the few samples from Kraków (Tomczyńska and Wasylikowa 1999), there are hardly any analyses from latrines. As far as the chronology of these materials is concerned, they have been dated to the early medieval and medi‑ eval periods. Except for the latrines in Kraków (16th century), no plant remains from modern times have been studied. Against this background, the archaeobotani‑ cal projects undertaken in Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg differ as regards the diversity of archaeological features, the number of samples analysed and the chronological range of the material examined.

Research questions in Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg During the 1990s, the Laboratory of Palaeoecol‑ ogy and Archaeobotany at the University of Gdańsk

Poland

started to co-operate with the Research Group of Town Archaeology in Gdańsk, the Institute of Ar‑ chaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Kołobrzeg research group), the Ar‑ chaeological Museum in Gdańsk, the Museum of the History of the City of Gdańsk and the Institute of Archaeology of Warsaw University (the research group in Gdańsk) in order to undertake large-scale archaeobotanical studies in the oldest inhabited dis‑ tricts of Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg. The aims of these studies are two-fold: 1. To pro‑ vide detailed information as determined by the char‑ acter of the particular site and current archaeological questions sought answered by the archaeobotanical data, and 2. To furnish more general information, based on the results of long term projects, requir‑ ing the acquisition of evidence from diverse sites and objects located in various parts of the towns and representing successive historical periods. With regard to the latter the main areas of interest are: • use of cultivated plants and plants collected from the wild for alimentary, medicinal and industrial/ craft purposes at different times in the towns’ development; • trade in plants and plant materials, including the import of luxury goods; • vegetable foods in the diet of different social classes and in different historical periods; • the evolution of anthropogenic vegetation, spreading spontaneously in diverse habitats; • application of the indicator value of plant species to the reconstruction of the ecological conditions of the local environment. The results obtained so far have provided data on the flora and anthropogenic vegetation of Kołobrzeg (Badura 2000) and Elbląg (Jarosińska 1999, 2004) in the 13th and 14th century. Evaluation of the in‑ dicator role played by the species composition of samples from the culture layers in these towns has been used in assessing some elements of the former environment (Latałowa et al. 2003a). Some rare and interesting species have been found among the useful plants of medieval Kołobrzeg and Elbląg (Badura 1999, 2000; Latałowa and Badura 1996; Latałowa et al. 1998), but the small number of samples from latrines and granaries means that this category of species, particularly cereals, is without doubt under-represented.

In Gdańsk, archaeobotanical studies are in progress at a number of sites. The material ranges in date from the Middle Ages to well into the modern period (18th century), which has enabled the evolu‑ tion not only of the environment but also of dietary habits to be reconstructed over a period of several hundred years. Carried out in different parts of the city, these investigations cover a broad diversity of sites in order to ensure that the samples are represent‑ ative with regard to useful plants and species char‑ acteristic of different plant communities. Unlike the situation in Kołobrzeg and Elbląg, a large number of botanical samples in Gdańsk has been obtained from latrines (Latałowa et al. 2001, 2003b). In the case of Gdańsk, the opportunities for comparing archaeobo‑ tanical data with historical evidence seem especially promising. Analyses of the preliminary data on plants used for medicinal purposes, and those grown in local gardens, have been compiled by Pińska (2003) and Macioch (2003) respectively.

An outline history of the towns Location and natural environment as sources of historical and economic success Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg are among the most important towns in Northern Poland. They lie in the southern Baltic coastal zone (Figure 1). Kołobrzeg is situated in the west of this region, on the east bank of the River Parsęta, some 2 km from where it enters the Baltic. In 1255, the own‑ ers of the lands of Kołobrzeg – Duke Warcisław and the Bishop of Kamień Pomorski (Cammin) Herman von Gleichen – jointly issued the act of incorporation of Kołobrzeg under Lübeck law. The town was sited on a previously uninhabited moraine eminence 4.3‑4.8 m above sea level, not far from the 10th-13th century’s stronghold (Old Kołobrzeg), now in the village of Budzistowo. On its west‑ ern side, this higher ground was skirted by the broad terrace of the Parsęta, while in other direc‑ tions it was enclosed by wetlands with much open water (Leciejewicz 1996; Rębkowski 2000). Near the mouth of the Parsęta there were salt springs, a significant landscape feature that may well have encouraged human settlement in the river valley as early as the 7th and 8th century. The working of these springs was crucial to the early develop‑ 41

CHAPTER 2

ment of Kołobrzeg. According to charters granted to Church institutions in the 12th and 13th century, the Kołobrzeg saltworks were located on the site of the present-day town (Leciejewicz 2000). Until the 17th century, salt production was one of the princi‑ pal factors affecting the town’s growth (Leciejewicz 2000; Rębkowski 2000). From the mid-13th to the mid-16th century, Kołobrzeg was the largest urban centre in this part of Western Pomerania. Trade was the most significant item in the town’s economy. It was facilitated by the towns’ position at the junc‑ tion of overland trading routes – the ancient ‘Salt Road’ leading southwards to Wielkopolska (Great Poland), and the road from Szczecin via Kołobrzeg to Gdańsk, by its proximity to the navigable river Parsęta, which connected the town with its agricul‑ tural hinterland, and by its seaboard location, ample reason for constructing a port. Extensive lines of trade passed through the town, stretching as far as the Rhineland, Denmark, Norway, Flanders and Saxony (Rębkowski 2000). Gdańsk lies in the eastern part of the southern Baltic coastal zone, in the vicinity of the Gulf of Gdańsk, on the Motława and Radunia, both tribu‑ taries of the Vistula River, and the Potok Siedlecki stream. The Old Town probably grew up on the place that in the 10th century was occupied by an open settlement adjoining the stronghold. The settle­ ment had been built on one of three areas of higher ground settled in the Early Middle Ages and sur‑ rounded by the wetlands in the forks of the Vis‑ tula and Motława (Gołembnik 2002a; Paner 1999; Zbierski 1978a). Presumably it was in the mid-13th century that the Pomeranian Duke Świętopełk con‑ ferred municipal rights on Gdańsk under Lübeck law. In 1308, along with most of Gdańsk Pomerania, the city came under the occupation of the Teutonic Order. Destroyed by the Order, it was subsequently reincorporated, this time under Chełm (Kulm) law, in 1342‑1346. The city’s location at the confluence of the Motława and the western arm of the Vistula delta, coupled with the fact that it was a district capital of the Duchy of Pomerania, enabled it to grow rapidly as a city and a port (Zbierski 1978b). Already in the Early Middle Ages a sea route ex‑ isted linking Gdańsk with ports on northwestern and eastern Baltic coasts and with towns in Southern Scandinavia. Gdańsk was also the meeting point of important trading routes connecting the city with 42

others to the south – Kraków, Poznań and Wrocław, to name but three. Of no lesser significance were the local routes coming in from the west, from the Kashubian Lakeland, and extending eastwards across the Mierzeja Wiślana (Vistula Spit) to Courland and Prussia (Barnycz-Gupieniec 1998). From the mid15th-17th century Gdańsk was the largest and richest city in the region and one of the largest in Europe (Samsonowicz 1982). Elbląg is situated at the eastern end of the south‑ ern Baltic coastal zone. The town grew up on the east bank of the River Elbląg, in the close vicinity of the Zalew Wiślany (Vistula Lagoon), on the flat, transition zone between the wetlands of the Żuławy Wiślane (Vistula Delta) and the Pleistocene Elbląg Plateau (Szukalski 1961). Like Kołobrzeg, it was sited in a hitherto uninhabited area in the neigh‑ bourhood of Truso (10th-13th centuries), the onetime economic and cultural centre of Prussian tribes, which lay by the shores of Lake Druzno (Jagodziński and Kasprzycka 1982). The foundation of Elbląg was part and parcel of the conquest of Prussia by the Teutonic Order and the economic expansion fostered by German merchants along the southern Baltic coast (Biskup and Labuda 1988; Czacharowski 1993; Czaja 1993). In 1246 the Grand Master of the Order, Heinrich von Hohenlohe, had the town incorporated under Lübeck law (Tandecki 1993a). In the 13th and 14th century Elbląg was the admin‑ istrative centre of the Teutonic State and the most important port in this part of Pomerania (Tandecki 1993b). Two major trading routes passed through the town. One, a branch of the route from the west to Novgorod, led up the Vistula valley, then eastwards across Kujawy (Kujavia) and Mazowsze (Mazovia) to Ruś; the other linked Elbląg with the Baltic, via the Vistula Lagoon and the so-called Baltic Straits (near present-day Baltijsk, once called Pillau), and the most important trading route leading from Lübeck to Novgorod. Also passing through Elbląg was the overland route from the west along the Baltic coast to Livonia and Ruś (Czarciński 1993a; Gierszewski 1978).

Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg in the Hanseatic League Formed in the 12th century, the Hanseatic League was a powerful organisation linking principally the towns and cities of Northern Germany and Baltic ports.

Poland

Its power was based on numerous privileges, which enabled its merchants to trade on more favourable terms. As a result of their advantageous position at the crossroads of numerous trading routes, twenty towns and cities within the present-day territory of Poland became members of the League (Westholm 1996). Gdańsk, Elbląg and Kołobrzeg were among the more important ones. Archaeologic­al investi‑ gations aimed at discovering more about their de‑ velopment and history are in progress in all three towns (Gołembnik 2001, 2002b; Leciejewicz and Rębkowski 2000; Nawrolska 1997; Paner 1997; Rębkowski 1997). Along with the other great towns of Prussia, Elbląg was one of the first to become active in the League. Its commercial and political success was due in large measure to its geographical position and close commercial interests with Lübeck (Nawrolska 1999). It traded with Ruś, Livonia, Prussia, Sax‑ ony, Westphalia and the Rhineland, and in the late 13th century also with France, the Netherlands and England. At this time (1295) the town was operat‑ ing within the framework of the Hansa merchants and, after 1356, as a fully-fledged member of the Hanseatic League. Elbląg’s commercial prosperity reached a peak in the second half of the 14th century, when the town’s merchants participated in negotia‑ tions crucial for the League. The town’s economic successes at this time were due to easy access to goods exported in large quantities to the west, the lack of serious competition, and a sea route whose secur­ ity was guaranteed by the status of the Hansa. The subsequent growth of Gdańsk, the part played by the Teutonic Order, and the heightened activity of English merchants led to a trading crisis in Elbląg and the town’s diminished political activity in the League. A further impediment to growth was the changing natural environment: the River Elbląg had been silting up since the end of the 14th century, resulting in an overall deterioration in navigation conditions towards the open sea (Czarciński 1993a, 1993b). By the 15th century, Gdańsk had become the leading economic power in the region. The city’s development was founded on trade: the import of goods from the catchment areas of the rivers Vistula and Niemen, as well as the export and import of various commodities from the Baltic region and the North Sea. The first fully documented participation

of Gdańsk in a congress of Prussian towns took place in 1373. Within a short time Gdańsk became the leader of the group of Prussian cities in the Hansa, a fact reflected by its rising importance as an economic and financial centre. It traded primarily in forest products, grain, flour, furs and oriental spices. The city’s representatives participated in negoti­ations un‑ dertaken by the League with various political institu‑ tions, particularly in Flanders, Denmark and Sweden (Biskup 1978a). Eventually, however, Gdańsk began to loosen its ties with the Hansa, principally be‑ cause it was developing closer links with Poland and Lithuania and with the Netherlands and England. This led to open conflict with the League, whose commercial links were mainly with Scandinavia; in addition, Gdańsk began to pursue a more independ‑ ent political course (Biskup 1978b). In the early 17th century delegates from Gdańsk took part in a General Assembly of the Hanseatic League for the very last time (Westholm 1996). Kołobrzeg was a member of the Hansa already at the start of the 14th century. Although the town’s representatives had begun to attend meetings con‑ vened to discuss Hansa business in 1304, it was not until 1361, during the first war against Waldemar IV of Denmark, that its membership of the League was formally confirmed (Leciejewicz 1996). The second half of the 14th century saw Kołobrzeg’s involvement in the Hansa at its most intense. The town’s commercial interests were focused on trade in the Baltic region, and also on fishing, the sec‑ ond source – after the saltworks – of its prosper‑ ity. It maintained strong links with Lübeck and Neksø (Bornholm). Extant records show that the merchants of Kołobrzeg enjoyed quite considerable trade with Southern Sweden (Scania). Salt, beer, honey (mead), birch tar, resin, cloth and footwear were exported to towns in Sweden and Norway. Ce‑ reals were a staple exchange commodity. Even with‑ out an extensive agricultural hinterland, Kołobrzeg none-the-less monopolised long-distance trade in cereals in Central Pomerania. The first signs of an approaching crisis appeared on the horizon during the 15th century. The gravest economic threat to the town was the appearance on European markets of cheaper salt from Lüneburg, and also the arrival of English and Dutch merchants in the Baltic. Fol‑ lowing the war between Lübeck and Denmark in 1534, in which Kołobrzeg opted to support the 43

CHAPTER 2

latter in return for commercial privileges in Dan‑ ish towns, Kołobrzeg merchants ceased to play any active part in the Baltic politics of the Hansa. The town’s envoys attended a General Assembly for the last time in 1610 (Lesiński 1965; Marciniak 1965; Rębkowski 2000).

Materials and methods The data presented in this paper are based largely on the results of analyses of 615 botanical samples (Table 1) taken from archaeological excavations in various parts of Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg (Fig‑ ure 2). The analyses were carried out between 1993 and 2003 by the Laboratory of Palaeoecology and Archaeobotany, University of Gdańsk. In the case of Gdańsk, data extracted from papers by Mądalski (1952), Lechnicki (1955), Lechnicki et al. (1961) and Zbierski (1978a, 1978c) have also been used. The archaeobotanical data have been entered in our own database (ARCHBOT-UGDA DATABASE). The samples from Elbląg have been dated to the 13th and 14th century; most of the material from Kołobrzeg is from the same periods, although single samples are from the turn of the 14th century, or from the 15th and 16th century. The Gdańsk samples cover the period from the 13th-18th centuries (Ta‑ ble 1). The botanical samples were obtained from latrines, houses, courtyards, granaries and culture layers of indefinable origin (Table 2). The high level of the water table in all three towns ensured suitable preservation conditions for organic materials. Most of the samples thus contain waterlogged material, sometimes with an admix‑ ture of charred or mineralised remains. Exceptions to this are the large quantities of charred grain recovered on Wyspa Spichrzów (Granary Island) in Gdańsk, and two samples from a granary in Kołobrzeg; in Elbląg, no samples were collected from the charred layers investigated previously by archaeologists. In the case of waterlogged materials, the standard field procedure was to take 1‑2 kg samples; subse‑ quently these were sub-sampled in the laboratory. Circa 300 cm3 sub-samples were soaked for 24‑48 hours in KOH (potassium hydroxide) solution of a strength adapted to the sample type. If the sample contained silt or clay, it was also treated with 10 % HCl (hydrochloric acid). The sub-samples were 44

washed through 2.0, 0.5 and 0.2 mm mesh sieves. Each fraction was examined under a stereoscopic microscope at 16 x magnification and all identifiable plant remains were collected. The remaining material from the sample was passed through a 2.0 mm sieve in order to supplement the list of plants with those taxa producing large diaspores, among them numer‑ ous cultivated plants. The waterlogged remains were stored in a mixture of glycerine, alcohol and distilled water (1:1:1) with added thymol. In the case of charred materials, standard 1‑2 kg samples were taken. These were sometimes pro­ cessed by flotation on site, but more often in the laboratory. After drying, random 100 cm3 subsamples were sorted under the microscope. If not many weed remains were present, further volumes of material were examined only for weeds until a minimum but representative number of diaspores was obtained. Originally small samples were sorted in their entirety. Some of the samples collected by archaeologists in the period before close co-opera‑ tion was established with the Laboratory of Palaeo­ ecology and Archaeobotany (especially from Elbląg and Kołobrzeg) contained single, readily discernible, plant remains, such as nuts, fruit stones or pips, bryophyte stems, or assemblages of these, collected by hand from culture layers. Despite the fact that material acquired in this manner is of limited sig‑ nificance, it has been included in this study because, in some instances, particularly valuable, rare species were encountered.

Useful plants in the archaeobotanical material The list of useful plants recorded in the material from Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg comprises 94 taxa, including cultivated plants, species collected from the wild, as well as imported ones, all of which could have been utilised by the inhabitants of these towns in the past (Tables 3-8). Concerning wild species, only those found in assemblages suggest‑ ing their deliberate gathering, or in latrines, where they may well have been the remains of food, were included. Common species, surely components of the local ruderal flora, were excluded. This selec‑ tion procedure certainly shortens the list of useful plants, but it also prevents the unnecessary addition to the list of species whose presence in archaeobo‑

Poland Table 1. Chronological distribution of the archaeobotanical ­samples from Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg. century 13th

number of samples

Table 2. Distribution of the archaeobotanical samples from Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg according to context/feature type. number of samples

Kołobrzeg

Gdańsk

Elbląg

71

2

129

archaeological features

Kołobrzeg

Gdańsk

Elbląg

13/14th

16

1

44

latrines

9

62

6

14th

63

48

97

houses

2

7

39

14/15th

5

6

-

yards

118

11

178

15th

-

35

-

granaries

2

23

-

-

8

-

32

71

47

15/16th

8

25

-

refuse layers

16th

-

34

-

16/17th

-

5

-

others and indet. culture layers

17th

-

7

-

17/18th

-

11

-

18th

-

8

-

Σ

163

182

270

Figure 2. Location of the archaeobotanical sampling sites in Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg; Kołobrzeg – the town in the 14th century (Rębkowski 1996), Gdańsk – the town in 1650 (Stankiewicz 1982), Elbląg – the Old Town in the 13th century (Czaja and Nawrolski 1993c).

45

CHAPTER 2

Figure 3. Number of taxa in the groups of useful plants in particular periods; K – Kołobrzeg, G – Gdańsk, E – Elbląg, 1 – cereals (including buckwheat), 2 – legumes, 3 – oil and fibre plants, 4 – vegetables, 5 – herbs and spices, 6 – fruit, 7 – nuts, 8 – other useful plants; appearances dated to the turn of a century are assigned to the younger century.

!FRAMOMUMMELEGUETA !LLIUMCEPA !NETHUMGRAVEOLENS !PIUMGRAVEOLENS "ETAVULGARIS #ANNABISSATIVA #APSICUMANNUUM #ARUMCARVI #ERASUSAVIUM #ERASUSVULGARIS #UCUMISSATIVUS #YDONIAOBLONGA &AGOPYRUMESCULENTUM &ICUSCARICA &OENICULUMVULGARE (YSSOPUSOFFICINALIS *UGLANSREGIA ,INUMUSITATISSIMUM -ORUSALBA -YRISTICAFRAGRANS /RYZASATIVA 0APAVERSOMNIFERUM 0RUNUSPERSICA 0IMENTADIOICA 0IPERNIGRUM 0RUNUSDOMESTICA 0RUNUSDULCIS 0RUNUSINSITITIA 2IBESNIGRUM 2IBESRUBRUM 2IBESUVA CRISPA 2UTAGRAVEOLENS 3ATUREJAHORTENSIS 6ERBENAOFFICINALIS 6ITISVINIFERA TH

TH

TH

TH

TH

TH

Figure 4. Occurences of selected species in archaeobotanical material from Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg; dot – single record, dashed line – discontinuous data; solid line- continuous record; appearances dated to the turn of a century are assigned to the younger century.

46

tanical material is not associated with their utilisa‑ tion. In this study, “useful plants” have been divided into the following categories: 1. cereals (including buckwheat), 2. legumes, 3. oil and fibre plants, 4. vegetables, 5. herbs and spices, 6. fruit, 7. nuts, 8. other useful plants. The number of useful plant species recorded in different periods varies considerably (Figure 3). To a large extent, however, this variation is due to the number of samples analysed from each locality and period; it also depends on the character of the ar‑ chaeological feature and the state of preservation of the plant material (charred and uncharred remains, variable exposure to oxidation). An especially large number of samples rich in useful taxa were inves‑ tigated in Gdańsk, where archaeologists explored several latrines. Not many latrine samples have been obtained from Kołobrzeg and Elbląg, so the percent‑ age of useful plant taxa is lower. In the latter two towns, most of the remains are of wild species that were components of the various plant communities developing in and around the towns (Latałowa et al. 2003a). These factors substantially restrict the opportunities for direct comparison of data between the three towns with respect to both the qualitative and the quantitative changes that took place over the centuries. What is significant, however, is the increase in the number of taxa in most categories

Poland

of useful plants, especially from the 15th century onwards, when a whole range of new species ap‑ pears relative to earlier material (Tables 3‑8, Figures 3 and 4) and the distinct increase in the quantitative representation of several species in the 16th and 18th century (Figure 5).

Cereals (including buckwheat) A significant, though unevenly represented group comprises the cereals. Their occurrence in archaeo‑ botanical samples largely depends on the way the plant remains were preserved and on the character of the archaeological features (Table 3). The most important category of finds comprises samples of charred grain from Granary Island in Gdańsk, dated to the 14th-18th centuries. Remains of rye (Secale cereale) predominate in these samples, irrespective of the period. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum) ranks second, and barley (Hordeum vulgare) is rare, while only small amounts of oats (Avena sativa) have been found. Remains of cereals in the form of uncharred testa are much less com‑ mon, although there is a relatively high incidence of oats in the 15th-18th century latrine deposits in Gdańsk. These most probably represent the remains of the oatcakes and porridge, which were a common component of people’s diets in those days (Bogucka 1997). The proportions of particular cereal species in the archaeobotanical material from the Granary Island are consistent with the data on 15th-18th century’s exports from Gdańsk. The first granaries were erected in the late 13th century (Paner 1999), and it is here that grain was stored and handled (Bogucka 1982a; Paner 1993; Samsonowicz 1982; Zbierski 1978b). Both in the Middle Ages and in later ­periods, grain was a major commodity in Gdańsk, accounting for 70‑80 % of the town’s total exports in the 15th-17th centuries. Grain exports grew particularly rapidly in the early 16th century, with a six-fold increase over the preceding century.

Figure 5.  The average number of diaspores of selected useful plants in latrine samples (300 cm3) from Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg in particular periods; number of samples used as a basis for the calculations: 14th century = 4, 15th century = 10, 16th century = 27, 17th century = 4, 18th century = 11; appearances dated to the turn of a century are assigned to the younger century.

47

CHAPTER 2

Customs documents indicate that exports of rye were much greater than those of wheat – twenty times greater in the late 15th century and about seven times greater in the 16th-17th centuries (Bogucka 1982a; Samsonowicz 1960, 1982). As early as the 13th and 14th century, Gdańsk had diverse and regular trading contacts with many European towns, especially in the Baltic and the North Sea (Zbierski 1978b). The Dutch were the major importers of grain from Gdańsk in the early 15th century, but large quantities of grain was also shipped to Sweden (Visby and Åbo – now Turku), Germany (Lübeck, Lüneburg, Wismar) and Flan‑ ders (Bruges). Ships from Gdańsk also sailed up the Seine, reaching Rouen among other places. Grain from Gdańsk was also imported by England, espe‑ cially after the crop failures of the 1540s (Biskup 1978c). Trade with ports in what is today Finland increased in the late 15th century. Documents from 1460‑1499 show Turku (Åbo) ranking fifth as a des‑ tination for ships sailing from Gdańsk (Samsonowicz 1982). At the turn of the 15th/16th century, trade with England increased even further. In return for grain, woollen cloth, among other commodities, was imported, accounting for 60 to 80 % of imports from that country. Trade with Portugal also grew at that time; grain was exported and exotic provi‑ sions travelled in the opposite direction. In the 17th century, Scandinavian ports were among the major consignees of grain shipped in Gdańsk (Samsono‑ wicz 1982). Historical evidence indicates that the port of Gdańsk (Figure 6) was used as a transit port for grain coming not only from the region, but also from more distant areas, mostly the Vistula basin.

Some grain would be sent by land, also from other regions of inland Poland. Tax and trade privilege documentation shows that, in the 13th century, grain was brought to Gdańsk mostly from the region of Kujavia (Zbierski 1978b), while in the 15th century the supply sources were also located in more distant areas, especially Mazovia, Great Poland and Little Poland. Grain in smaller volumes was also brought from Lithuania via the Hanseatic trading house in Kowno/Kaunas (Biskup 1978c). It is significant that grain, probably from Little Poland which has fertile rendzina soils, was detected in the archaeobotanical material acquired on Granary Island, as well as from a few sites within the city itself. This conclusion is supported by the remains of field weeds found with the grain; these are typical of the above type of soil, notably corn cleavers (Galium tricornutum) – a spe‑ cies that, due to specific requirements in respect to climate and soil, does not invade crops in Northern Poland (Figure 7). A 14th century sample of grain from Granary Island contained remains of corn cleavers, and also other weeds typical of more fertile soils, like ball mustard (Neslia paniculata), corn gromwell (Lithospermum arvense) and false cleavers (Galium spurium). Meas‑ urements have demonstrated that rye caryopses in this sample were larger (6.64 x 2.41 x 2.07 mm) than the average for other samples of the same period collected from the same site (6.04 x 2.26 x 2.02 mm), and much larger than for the samples collected in Kołobrzeg (5.4 x 2.0 x 1.7 mm). This indicates that the conditions pertaining when this particular rye was growing must have been especially favourable.

Table 3. Cereals (including buckwheat) from Kołobrzeg (K), Gdańsk (G) and Elbląg (E); imp. – imported, cult./wild – cultivated or wild growing. Date Town Latin names Cereals (incl. Buckwheat) Avena sativa Fagopyrum esculentum Hordeum vulgare Oryza sativa Panicum miliaceum Secale cereale Setaria italica Triticum aestivum s.l.

48

K

13 G E

13/14 K E

K

14 G E

14/15 K G

15   15/16 G K G

16   16/17   17   17/18   18 Century AD G G G G G English names Oats Buckwheat Barley Rice Common Millet Rye Foxtail Bristle Grass Common Wheat

Notes

imp.

cult./wild

Poland

The above archaeobotanical evidence corroborates the information based on historical sources that most of the grain brought to Gdańsk from inland Poland was shipped on sea-going vessels and exported, al‑ though some proportion was bought locally to meet the needs of the city. Occasionally, like during the 13‑year war (1454‑1466), Gdańsk had to import grain by sea, for example from Lübeck, because its own sources of farm produce had been devastated (Samsonowicz 1982). An examination of historical sources on nutrition in Gdańsk (Bogucka 1982b, 1997) indicates that rye and wheat were used to bake all sorts of bread, which was an important component in the diet of both rich and poor. This is why as early as the 14th century, the price of bread was subject to special regulation in order to avoid speculation in times of poor crops (Bogucka 1962). According to 16th and 17th century information, rye was on average 30 to 50 % cheaper than wheat (Bogucka 1982a). Ac‑ cordingly, the poorer part of the population would mainly eat coarse, wholemeal rye bread, while wheat

bread, including its luxurious, sweetened varieties, would find its way to the tables of the wealthier. In the mid-16th century, bread from coarse barley flour – so-called Dutch bread – gained popularity (Bogucka 1997). Unlike in Gdańsk, there is little conclusive ar‑ chaeobotanical evidence on the occurrence of cereals in Elbląg and Kołobrzeg. This is due to the scarcity of available material for analysis. Indirect informa‑ tion is provided by an examination of the field weed species and their frequency in the archaeobotani‑ cal samples from the two towns. This reveals the growing role of winter cultivation of rye in the 13th and 14th century (Badura 2000; Jarosińska 1999; Latałowa et al. 2003a). Historical sources make it clear that both towns played a significant role in the grain trade in the 13th and 14th century (Czaja 2000; Czarciński 1993a). Elbląg had nine granaries and exported grain to Western Europe as early as the 13th century (Zbierski 1978b). An interesting contribution to our knowledge of cereal cultivation in the Middle Ages is made by the content of two

Figure 6.  Granary Island in Gdańsk around 1765 depicted by M. Deisch on the basis of a drawing by F. A. Lohrmann (Gr. Al. 4092, no 35, reproduced with the permission of the Gdańsk Library, Polish Academy of Sciences).

49

CHAPTER 2

Figure 7.  Geographical distribution of Galium tricornutum Dandy in the territory of Poland (from Zając and Zając 2001, reproduced with the editor’s permission).

samples of charred grain (both representing palaeo‑ phytocoenoses) found in Kołobrzeg (14th century). One of these contained summer barley, the other a mixture of equal proportions of winter wheat and rye, which suggests that mixed cultivation was prac‑ tised in this area. The hypothesis regarding winter versus summer cultivation is based on the weed spe‑ cies occurring in the two samples (Badura 1998). Apart from the species discussed above, an im‑ portant cereal in all three towns was millet (Panicum miliaceum); its glumes, which are resistant to decay, are frequent and numerous in waterlogged samples, especially from the 13th-15th centuries. Millet was eaten as coarse groats, and not in the form of flour, giving its remains a greater chance of being preserved in the archaeological deposits. Its abundant occur‑ rence in samples from the backyards of houses may also result from the use of grain that has not been dehusked as feed for poultry (Dembińska 1963). The quantity of millet remains decreases as of the 16th century, a development that is also observed in other parts of Poland. According to Dąbrowski (1962), this was related to the growing intensifica‑ tion of farming and the spread of winter-cultivated rye and wheat. It may also be assumed that millet, being a relatively thermophilous species, did not find favourable growing conditions in the deterio‑ rating climate of Northern Poland during the Little 50

Ice Age. Yet, despite the gradual decline in millet consumption, its remains also appear regularly in the 16th-18th century material. Historical sources tell us that it was a staple food of poorer people, as well as a component of seamen’s food rations (Bogucka 1984, 1997). Foxtail bristle grass (Setaria italica) is among the cereals that are insignificant in terms of total con‑ sumption. Its glumes, from one to a dozen or so spec‑ imens, can occasionally be found in samples dating from the 13th and 14th century (Kołobrzeg, Elbląg), and from the 14th/15th-18th centuries (Gdańsk). The species occurs at archaeological sites along the Baltic coast (between the estuaries of the Vistula and the Oder) from the Early Middle Ages – a few glumes were found in the town of Wolin, in culture lay‑ ers dating from the 10th century (Alsleben 1995; Latałowa 1999). Individual diaspores of this species are often treated as being remains of weed plants. However, if foxtail bristle grass glumes outnumber both millet glumes and those of typical weeds of the genus Setaria, it seems likely that we are dealing with the remains of a crop. According to historical data assembled by Szymański (1993), information on the cultivation and indigenous popular names of foxtail bristle grass in the 15th and 16th century is given by the Renaissance botanist Syrennius (1613), and advice on cultivation of the crop is given in farm‑ ing textbooks already from the 16th century among others, Crescenty 1571 and Kluk 1802 (cited in Szymański 1993). He concludes that cultivation of foxtail bristle grass in Prussia must have begun prior to the early 18th century, though the crop was of little significance and in subsequent periods its role was negligible. In addition to cereals, the term “grains” also in‑ cludes buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum; Plate 2a). Its starch-rich achenes, like millet grains, are chiefly eaten even today as coarse groats. Accumulated re‑ mains of this species were found in Kołobrzeg, in samples dated to the 14th century (Badura 1999). Their incidence is fairly high in the samples from Gdańsk (14th-18th centuries). No buckwheat was found in Elbląg. Ethnographic data show that buck‑ wheat cultivation in the Middle Ages varied from region to region, possibly due to the fact that crop yields could be erratic (Kukier 1981). In European archaeobotanical material, individual buckwheat specimens appear in the Early Middle Ages (e.g.

Poland Table 4. Legumes, oil and fibre plants from Kołobrzeg (K), Gdańsk (G) and Elbląg (E); cult./wild – cultivated or wild growing; cf. – confer, identification of the species is uncertain. Date Town Latin names Legumes Lens culinaris Pisum sativum Vicia sativa Vicia faba var. minor Oil and fibre plants Brassica napus Camelina sativa Cannabis sativa Linum usitatissimum Papaver somniferum

K

13 G

  E

13/14   K E K

14 G

  E

14/15   15   K G G

Körber-Grohne 1988; Opravil 1993; Pals 1988), becoming more frequent in the 12th century (Greig 1996). The earliest Polish record comes from the town of Wolin – dating back to the 9th-10th centuries (Alsleben 1995). Apart from the towns along the Baltic coast, the species was also found in Kraków (16th century; Tomczyńska and Wasylikowa 1999). Historical records from Gdańsk describe how buck‑ wheat was used in the periods in question. It con‑ stituted mainly an important part of poorer peo‑ ple’s diet; it is also mentioned (17th century) among the components of seamen’s food rations (Bogucka 1984). Rice (Oryza sativa) is the only exotic species in this group. Its glumes occur exclusively in Gdańsk, from the 15th/16th century onward (Plate 1a). Records of rice imports appear in trade documentation in Gdańsk at least as early as the 15th century. Rice as a commodity brought by ships is mentioned in cus‑ toms registers: 1460 – from Lübeck, 1469 from Dor‑ drecht and 1471 from Zeeland (Samsonowicz 1956). In the 16th century, rice was sent from Gdańsk to Polish towns and cities, among others to Kraków (Małecki 1968). At other European sites this exotic cereal is found in deposits dating back to the 13th century (Greig 1996; Wiethold 1995b); in Poland we have not yet had such early finds.

Legumes Legumes are not commonly found on archaeological sites (Greig 1996). As in the case of cereals, this is due to the seeds being highly susceptibility to decay, as well as the way legumes are prepared as food. In urban sites they are likely only to be found in the

15/16   16   16/17   17   17/18   18 Century AD K G G G G G G English names

cf.

Lentil Pea Common Vetch Horsebean

Notes

cult./wild

Kale Gold of Pleasure cult./wild Hemp Flax Opium Poppy

charred form. The archaeobotanical material from Kołobrzeg and Elbląg did not contain any pulse re‑ mains at all, and this group is scarcely represented in the samples from Gdańsk (Table 4). Fairly numer‑ ous seeds of horsebean (Vicia faba var. minor) (no longer grown for human food) and several remains of lentil (Lens culinaris) and pea (Pisum sativum) were identified in 13th century samples (Lechnicki 1955; Lechnicki et al. 1961). Peas were also found in 15th and 15th/16th century samples (single speci‑ mens) and in one sample dated to the 16th century (more than 1000 seeds). Single seeds of common vetch (Vicia sativa) have been identified in the 14th and 15th/16th century material. This is in spite of the fact that, both in the Middle Ages and later, leg‑ umes were widely eaten by all social classes (Bogucka 1997; Dembińska 1963; Trzeciecka 2002). Peas are also mentioned as being part of the meals served to seamen on board ships sailing from Gdańsk in 1530, 1547 and 1628 (Bogucka 1982b, 1984). Fifteenthcentury trade documents mention peas, in addition to grain, as produce exported to Scandinavia (Åbo/ Turku; Samsonowicz 1982). There is, however, no direct information on the use of common vetch. It cannot be ruled out that the few seeds of the species found in Gdańsk originate from plants growing as weeds among other crops. Ethnographic sources, on the other hand, mention common vetch seeds as an additive to flour from which bread would be made (Kluk 1811). So it could have been a component of the diet of the poor urban population, especially in times of food shortage prior to the new harvest. Historical sources show that legumes were grown in gardens created on the outskirts of Gdańsk. In 51

CHAPTER 2

the first botanical study of Prussia, Johann Wig‑ and (1590) mentions pea, lentil and broadbean (Vicia faba var. major) and a new bean (Phaseolus sp.) originating from the New World (Schwarz and Żmijewska 1995).

Oil and fibre plants The crops from which oil was pressed in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and subsequently usu‑ ally also had a much wider application. The most important ones, i.e. flax (Linum usitatissimum) and hemp (Cannabis sativa; Plate 3a), were also the main sources of raw materials in fibre production (Table 4). Whole seeds, not only oil, of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum; Plate 3d), black mustard (Brassica nigra) and flax were also widely used as ingredients in food and medicinal preparations, thus they are invariably present in latrine material of all periods. Seeds of these species are also present in archaeobo‑ tanical samples collected from back yards. Of the three, flax seeds are most scarce, as they decay easily. However, there is circumstantial evidence for the earlier presence of flax due to occurrence of diaspores of specific flax weeds, notably Spergula maxima, Cuscuta epilinum and gold of pleasure (Latałowa et al. 2003a). Of these, only S. maxima is frequent in the archaeobotanical material from the three towns, and its seeds appear even in samples where no flax remains persist. Small amounts of kale (Brassica napus) seeds have been found in Elbląg (13th and 14th century) and in Gdańsk (15th-18th centuries). Single seeds of gold of pleasure (Camelina sativa), present in samples from Elbląg (13th century) and in Kołobrzeg (13th and 13th/14th century) cannot be unequivocally regarded as remains of cultivated crops. This species also grows as a weed and it is probably as such that it occurs in the material discussed above. Oil and fibre plants were connected with the de‑ velopment of specific crafts. Oil production was an important agricultural process, becoming of steadily greater significance, especially in the 16th century. There is no information available, however, which would enable an assessment to be made of the scale of oil production from the various species. Olive oil (Olea europaea), imported from the Mediterranean, starts to appear regularly as an item in the customs registers of Gdańsk in the 15th century (Samsono­ wicz 1956), as do olives themselves (Bogucka 1997). 52

They have not, as yet, appeared in archaeobotanical material. Weaving developed already in the Early Middle Ages in the settlements and the stronghold preced‑ ing the emergence of Gdańsk as a city. This is sup‑ ported by a number of archaeological finds dated to the 11th-13th centuries comprising parts of weaver’s looms (Kamińska 1966), and by culture layers full of flax remains – fibre, capsules and seeds (Lechnicki et al. 1961). As the city grew rapidly, the number of craftsmen (and consequently the use of plant mate‑ rial) also grew. It is known, for example, that there were about 100 workshops producing linen in the early 16th century (Bogucka 1982c). The guild of ropemakers, for whom the fibre of hemp was the main raw material, developed in all three cities. In the 14th century, there were special ropemaking fa‑ cilities (ropewalks) in Elbląg, where flax and hemp fibre was twisted into ropes and hawsers (Gierszewski 1978). There was great demand for the product from boat building, transportation and fisheries. The sup‑ ply source was local farms supplemented by crossregional imports. For Gdańsk, the source of supply must have been the flax and the hemp grown in the Kashubian Lakeland – a fact reflected in placenames. The names of many lakes suggest they must have been used for retting fibre in the past. Pollen analysis of sediments from such features usually in‑ dicates that hemp had been retted there from the Middle Ages until modern times (Święta-Musznicka 2005). In Gdańsk and Elbląg, flax and hemp were among the major commodities of the regional and overseas trade. There is historical evidence that, in the 14th century in Elbląg, and in the early 15th century on Granary Island in Gdańsk, flax and hemp quality inspectors had their stands (Biskup 1978c; Czaja and Nawrolski 1993a). Both species were brought to Gdańsk, not only from the local region, but also from Lithuania (via the trading house in Kaunas) and from Livonia (Riga, Revel/Tallinn) (Biskup 1978c; Samsonowicz 1956). In the 15th and 16th century, flax was sent from Gdańsk to Portugal in return for exotic provisions, and to England, from where woollen cloth was mainly imported; at that time flax accounted for 20‑40 % of Gdańsk exports to England (Samsonowicz 1982).

Poland

Vegetables Vegetable remains are usually poorly represented in archaeobotanical material (Table 5). In Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg, like in other European sites, they usually occur as few specimens; a fact true both of latrine samples and those collected from back‑ yard deposits. It is the vegetative parts of the plants that are consumed, often harvested before flower‑ ing and the setting of seed, and therefore there is little chance of preservation. Turnip (Brassica rapa), chicory (Cichorium intybus) and parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) are most frequently found in the material from the towns (Table 5). Their diaspores may, how‑ ever, originate from both cultivated plants and those growing in the wild. Turnip and chicory grow in ruderal habitats, while parsnip is a grassland species. The same applies to single fruits of carrot (Daucus carota) in samples dated to the 14th century from Kołobrzeg and Elbląg. This is a species that can oc‑ cur naturally in meadows. Seeds of cucumber (Cucumis sativus; Plate 2b) and onion (Allium cepa; Plate 2g-h) and fruit fragments of beetroot (Beta vulgaris; Plate 2c) are, beyond any doubt, the remains of plants grown as vegetables. Cucumber seeds were only found in material from Gdańsk. Single specimens appeared in samples dated to the 13th century (Lechnicki 1955) and to the 16th-18th centuries. The result is unimpressive when compared with the number of occurrences at other sites in Poland. The oldest cucumber seeds come from the culture layers in Gniezno, dated to the 8th century (Jaroń 1939). In Poznań (Klichowska 1961a; Moldenhaver 1937) and in Opole (Klichowska 1956) this species occurred in samples dated to the 10th century. Frequent remains of the species are re‑ ported by Klichowska from Wrocław (12th century),

and a number of other sites (Klichowska 1972). A cucumber seed was found in a 16th century latrine in Kraków (Tomczyńska and Wasylikowa 1999). Historical records mention the cucumber as a crop grown in the gardens of Gdańsk in the 16th century (Schwarz and Żmijewska 1995). Onion (Allium cepa) remains were encountered twice. An Elbląg sample dated to the 14th century seems of particular interest, as it contained c. 4000 onion seeds and no other diaspores (Plate 2g). The sample probably represents a remnant of seed in‑ tended to be sown (Jarosińska 1999). A single onion seed was also found in a latrine in Gdańsk. Onion is certainly an under-represented species in archaeo‑ botanical material. According to historical data from the Middle Ages onwards, it was one of the most commonly eaten vegetables (Dembińska 1963). Bogucka (1982d, 1997) mentions it among the species served at the middle-class tables in Gdańsk (16th-17th centuries), while Schwarz and Żmijewska (1995) report it to have been grown in the 16th cen‑ tury gardens in the town. Few beetroot (Beta vulgaris) fruit specimens were found in the samples from Kołobrzeg dated to the turn of the 13th/14th century, and in material from Gdańsk dated to the turn of the 15th/16th century, the 16th and the 17th century. A list compiled by Wigand (1590) of species cultivated in the gardens of Gdańsk indicates that beetroot was grown there in the 16th century (Schwarz and Żmijewska 1995). A sample from Gdańsk dated to the 16th century revealed remains of purple amaranth (Amaranthus blitum); seeds identified by Mądalski (1952) and Jarosińska (1999) as Amaranthus sp. (Early Middle Ages in Gdańsk and 14th century in Elbląg, respec‑ tively) may also represent this species. Records of

Table 5.  Vegetables from Kołobrzeg (K), Gdańsk (G) and Elbląg (E); cult./wild – cultivated or wild growing. Date Town Latin names Vegetables Allium cepa Amaranthus blitum Beta vulgaris Brassica rapa Cichorium intybus Cucumis sativus Daucus carota Pastinaca sativa

K

13 G E

13/14 K E

K

14 G E

14/15 K G

15   15/16 G K G

16   16/17   17   17/18   18 Century AD G G G G G English names Onion Purple Amaranth Beetroot Turnip Chicory Cucumber Carrot Parsnip

Notes

cult./wild cult./wild cult./wild cult./wild

53

CHAPTER 2 Figure 8.  Women selling vegetables in the Długie Ogrody (Long Gardens) quarter in Gdańsk around 1590, a woodcut by A. Möller (Gr. Rp. 5114, no 19, reproduced with the permission of the Gdańsk Library, Polish Academy of Sciences).

amaranth are rare from archaeological sites in Po‑ land; A. lividus cf. var. lividus (blitum) was reported from medieval Kraków (Wasylikowa 1978a), and A. lividus var. ascendens from a medieval layer in Wrocław (Kosina 1974). Its cultivation in Europe probably dates back to antiquity. A. blitum was used as a vegetable and medicinal herb and later (18th century) it was also used to feed pigs (Hanelt 1968). Amaranthus sp. was grown in 16th century gardens in Gdańsk (Schwarz and Żmijewska 1995). Paprika or hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a particularly interesting species. Its seed was found in Gdańsk (18th century), while its garden cultivation in Gdańsk (16th century) is supported by historical sources (Schwarz and Żmijewska 1995). It reached Europe by way of Columbus, soon after the discov‑ 54

ery of America where, like today, it was used as a vegetable and a spice (Rejewski 1992). Archaeobotanical material certainly does not re‑ flect quantitatively or accurately the role of vegeta‑ bles in the diet of the inhabitants of the towns in question. It only confirms, at specific sites, the use of some species in specific periods. There are numerous historical sources for the period, especially concern‑ ing Gdańsk and Elbląg, which mention many more vegetable species. The local vegetable market is de‑ picted by, among others, by Möller in an early-17th century wood-cut (Figure 8).

Herbs, spices and medicinal plants Like that from other European towns, archaeobo‑ tanical material from Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg

Poland

contains fairly large quantities of the remains of spices and medicinal herbs; naturally growing, lo‑ cally cultivated or imported (Table 6). The most difficult problem concerning this group is to select a list of wild plants intentionally gathered from nature, as most naturally growing species were used in ancient medicine or as alimentary supple‑ ment, especially in times of famine. The context in which the remains are found is hardly ever conclu‑ sive – confirming that the plants were intentionally picked; their occurrence can usually be associated with the local urban flora, or with fodder remains. This is why Table 6 does not contain many com‑ mon ruderal or grassland species, such as stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), fat hen (Chenopodium album) or self-heal (Prunella vulgaris), their diaspores; these are frequent and abundant, not only in samples from backyards, but also from latrines, where they may represent litter residue. The species mentioned above

Figure 9.  Betonica officinalis L. – a watercolor in Libri picturati, second half of 16th century, the Netherlands (reproduced with the permission of the Jagiellonian Library).

were all used as medicinal herbs (Compendium 1767; Rosenblum 1855), and also as food, espe‑ cially in times of famine (Kluk 1805, 1808, 1811; Maurizio 1926; Twarowska 1983). A very interesting naturally growing herbal spe‑ cies is betony (Betonica officinalis; Figure 9) numer‑ ous fruits of which were found in some samples from Kołobrzeg and Elbląg – dated to the 13th and 14th century. Its flowers were also found in one sam‑ ple from Elbląg (Badura 2000; Jarosińska 1999). In Pomerania today it is a rare, almost endangered species (Markowski and Buliński 2004). Neither would it have been frequent in the Middle Ages in the areas surrounding the towns under discussion, as it requires a special type of habitat – xerother‑ mic grasslands or clearings and brushwood after fertile oak-hornbeam forests. It can therefore be assumed that gathering it required a good deal of effort. B. officinalis was broadly applied in ancient pharmacy, due to its tranquillising, disinfectant and anti-inflammatory properties. The herb was also an ingredient in the so-called “God’s Grace” plasters (Emplastrum Gratia Dei), commonly used for vari‑ ous conditions (Compendium 1767). Its value has been recognized in many European countries since antiquity (Grieve 1971); this is reflected in an old Italian saying quoted by Kluk (1805): “Sell your coat and buy Betony”. It was also believed to have magic powers and would be worn as an amulet (Grieve 1971). A significant group of herbs occurring in the ma‑ terial discussed here comprises those plants grown in local gardens. The first gardens were set up within or close to monasteries. In Gdańsk, the Cistercians practised horticulture as early as the 12th century; the gardens close to the Dominican monastery were established in the 13th century, and the Franciscans started their’s in the 15th century. Medicinal herbs were among the plants grown in these gardens. The Franciscans in Gdańsk, for instance, grew Jupi‑ ter’s distaff (Salvia glutinosa), rue (Ruta graveolens), curly mallow (Malva crispa), wild angelica (Angelica sylvestris) and absinthe (Artemisia absinthium; Schwarz and Żmijewska 1995). Apothecaries also grew medicinal herbs. In the mid-15th century in Gdańsk, apart from the municipal apothecaries, there were several private ones, where drugs would be prepared from herbs; these were either imported, gathered in the vicinity of the town, or grown in 55

CHAPTER 2 Table 6.  Herbs and spices (including medicinal plants) from Kołobrzeg (K), Gdańsk (G) and Elbląg (E); cult./wild – cultivated or wild growing, imp. – imported, imp./cult. – imported or cultivated. Date 13 13/14 Town K G E K E Latin names Herbs and spices (incl. medicinal plants) Aethusa cynapium Aframomum melegueta Anethum graveolens Angelica sylvestris Apium graveolens Betonica officinalis Brassica nigra Capsicum annuum Carum carvi Chelidonium majus Coriandrum sativum Foeniculum vulgare Humulus lupulus Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum maculatum Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Juniperus communis Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nepeta cataria Origanum vulgare Petroselinum crispum Pimenta dioica Piper nigrum Ruta graveolens Satureja hortensis Thymus serpyllum Valeriana officinalis Valeriana sp. Verbena officinalis

K

14 G E

14/15 K G

15   15/16 G K G

special gardens (Bogucka 1982b). Wigand’s cata‑ logue of plants grown in the gardens of 16th cen‑ tury Gdańsk lists the following herbs and spices: Jerusalem oak (Chenopodium botrys), birthwood (Aristolochia clematitis), peony (Peonia officinalis), black hellebore (Helleborus niger), black cumin (Nigella sp.), black mustard (Brassica nigra), hens and chicks (Sempervivum sp.), mallow (Malva sp.), rue (Ruta graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), fox‑ glove (Digitalis purpurea), sage (Salvia officinalis), sweet balm (Melissa officinalis), mint (Mentha sp.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), lavender (Lavandula sp.), vervain (Valeriana officinalis), chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum), pot marigold (Calendula officinalis), milk thistle (Silybum marianum), blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus), castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), borage 56

16   16/17   17   17/18   18 Century AD G G G G G English names Fool`s Parsley Grains of Paradise Dill Archangel Celery Betony Black Mustard Hot Pepper Caraway Greater Celandine Coriander Fennel Hop Henbane St John`s Wort St John`s Wort Hyssop Juniper Sweet Gale Nutmeg, Mace Catmint Wild Marjoram Parsley Allspice Black Pepper Rue Savory Wild Thyme Common Valerian Valerian Vervain

Notes cult./wild imp. cult./wild

cult./wild imp./cult. cult./wild

cult./wild

cult./wild imp. cult./wild cult./wild imp. imp.

cult./wild

(Borago officinalis), pellitory-of-the-wall (Parietaria officinalis), hollow-root (Corydalis cava), liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), saffron crocus (Crocus sp.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis), Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavicum), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and pars‑ ley (Petroselinum crispum; Schwarz and Żmijewska 1995). Only some of the cultivated species were found in the archaeobotanical material from the towns discussed here (Table 6). From the 13th century onwards, fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens; Plate 2f ), and celery (Apium graveolens; Plate 2i), as well as seeds of black mustard (Brassica nigra), occur in Kołobrzeg and Elbląg; numerous seeds of black mus‑ tard have also been found in Gdańsk. Remains of this species appear frequently and in great abundance throughout all the periods, but especially in the 16th century (Figure 5). Its seeds were pressed to produce

Poland

oil (see oil and fibre plants), but the predominant use was in the production of mustard, as a spice and as a preservative; it also had a medical, mostly anti-­inflammatory application (Rosenblum 1855). Historical sources indicate that in the 15th century large amounts of mustard were eaten, including dur‑ ing ceremonial meals of the Elbląg patricians (Czaja and Nawrolski 1993b). B. nigra is also known to have been part of food rations on 17th-century ships from Gdańsk, where it was probably used to preserve meat during long voyages (Bogucka 1984). Caraway (Carum carvi; Plate 2d) is reported from Kołobrzeg and Gdańsk from the 14th century on‑ wards, hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis; Plate 3g), summer savory (Satureja hortensis; Plate 3e) and vervain (Verbena officinalis; Plate 3h) emerge in Gdańsk at the turn of the 14th/15th century. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum; Plate 2e) appears in the 15th century, while rue (Ruta graveolens; Plate 3f ) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) turn up in the 16th century. It should be noted, however, that the latter is found much earlier at some sites. According to Lechnicki et al. (1961), coriander was found in an early medieval culture layer in Gdańsk, and the find from Wolin (Alsleben 1995) is dated to roughly the same period. The species is often mentioned in Gdańsk-related historical sources, among others as an ingredient of food and flavoured spirits, a food preservative and a trade item (Bogucka 1997). From the 16th century onwards, there is a regular presence of fruits of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), often in considerable numbers. Exotic imported species are interesting, particu‑ larly in the context of Hanseatic trade. The remains of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans; Plate 1b) in the mate‑ rial from Elbląg date back to the 13th century. This species is exceptionally rare in European archaeobo‑ tanical material (Dickson 1996). It originates from Indonesia (the Moluccas), from where it was ex‑ ported to ancient India. It probably reached Europe in the 6th-7th centuries, via Arab merchants. After it was introduced into European markets, nutmeg became one of the most sought after and expensive spices (Rejewski 1992). Black pepper (Piper nigrum; Plate 1c), was found in Elbląg in an archaeobotanical sample dated to the 14th century; in Gdańsk it is rather frequent from the turn of the 14th/15th century onwards. In the Middle Ages, it was not only a well-known and

prized spice, but it was also used by apothecaries as a standard to determine units of basic mass measure‑ ments (Wojciechowska 2000) and as a medium of payment (Długokęcki 1984). In the 16th-18th centuries Gdańsk, grains of para‑ dise (Aframomum melegueta; Plate 1f ) began to ap‑ pear. This expensive spice was imported to Europe from the tropical regions of West Africa as early as the 13th century (Wiethold 1995b). Its dried, sa‑ voury seeds were a match for the very costly pepper and had also medicinal applications. At the royal court in Kraków (14th century), grains of paradise were an ingredient of digestives (Muszyński 1924). Remains of allspice (Pimenta dioica; Plate 1i‑j) have been discovered in latrine samples dated to the 18th century. This species, originating from the rainforests of Central America, was probably first im‑ ported into Europe in the 16th century. Its remains have so far been found only in one site in London, in a layer dated to the 18th century (Giorgi 1997). Its fruit, seeds and characteristic embryos were found in the Gdańsk latrines (Badura 2003). The information given above indicates that the import of exotic spices to the region began in the 13th century at the latest. The development of long distance sea trade within the Hanseatic League made more sources of supply available, expanding the list of species used as spices. In the early 15th century, pepper and other spices were chiefly brought to Gdańsk via the Netherlands (Biskup 1978c). In the late 15th and early 16th century imports of exotic pro‑ visions increased due to direct trade with Portugal. Business correspondence and customs documents from Gdańsk show that this trade grew rapidly in the early 16th century. While exotic provision accounted for 2‑4 % of Gdańsk imports in the late 15th century, this figure rose to 10 % in the early 16th century (Samsonowicz 1982). Inventories from the period include black pepper, nutmeg and saffron (Samsono‑ wicz 1982), and in the 17th century also caraway (Carum carvi), cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.), citron (Citrus medica), clove (Syzyngium aromaticum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), ginger (Zingiber officinalis), bay (Laurus nobilis) and others (Bogucka 1982d). Information on the use of many expensive spice species is also provided by old recipes for food and liquor (Bogucka 1997). The renowned Gdańsk vodkas (17th century) were blended with herbs and spices such as cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), 57

CHAPTER 2

clove, black pepper, anise, rosemary, bay, fennel and coriander.

Beer flavourings Hop (Humulus lupulus; Plate 3b), is one of the most common species in the archaeobotanical material from all three cities and is usually represented by considerable numbers of remains. Hop fruits are found in nearly all backyard samples dated both to the Middle Ages and to modern times. This reflects the great role of brewing in the towns – a fact sup‑ ported by historical information. In this region, beer was the major alcoholic drink both in the Middle Ages and in later periods. The beer itself, as well as its constituent parts – malt, and hops, was an im‑ port and export item (Samsonowicz 1956, 1982). Historical documents show that as early as the 14th

century, on Granary Island in Gdańsk, there was a quality inspector for hops (Biskup 1978d). The most rapid development in brewing in Gdańsk oc‑ curred in the 15th and the early 16th century. In 1416, within the main city alone, there were 378 brewers, some of whom owned more than one brew‑ ery (Biskup 1978d). The remains of sweet gale (Myrica gale; Plate 3c), another species used in European brewing especially in Scandinavia and Northern Germany (Behre 1984, 1999), are negligible. Two fruits were found in Kołobrzeg (13th century); it was also reported from medieval Gdańsk (11th and 12th century), where nu‑ merous leaves and branches were found (Lechnicki et al. 1961). Sweet gale is a species with an Atlantic distribution, the eastern limit of which runs across the Gdańsk region (Zając and Zając 2001). It is a

Table 7.  Fruit and nuts from Kołobrzeg (K), Gdańsk (G) and Elbląg (E); cult./wild – cultivated or wild growing, imp./cult. – imported or cultivated, imp. – imported. Date Town Latin names

K

13 G E

13/14 K E

K

14 G E

14/15 K G

15   15/16 G K G

16   16/17   17   17/18   18 Century AD G G G G G English names

Notes

Fruit Cerasus avium Cerasus vulgaris Cydonia oblonga Empetrum nigrum Ficus carica Fragaria vesca Malus sp. Morus alba Prunus domestica Prunus insititia Prunus persica Prunus spinosa Pyrus communis Ribes nigrum Ribes rubrum Ribes uva-crispa Rosa canina Rosa sp. Rubus caesius Rubus fruticosus Rubus idaeus Rubus saxatilis Sambucus nigra Sorbus aucuparia Vaccinium myrtillus Vaccinium oxycoccus Vaccinium uliginosum Vaccinium vitis-idaea Viburnum opulus Vitis vinifera

Sweet Cherry Sour Cherry Quince Black Crowberry Fig Wild Strawberry Apple White Mulberry Plum Bullace Peach Sloe Pear Black Currant Red Currant Gooseberry Dog Rose Rose European Dewberry Bramble Raspberry Stone Bramble Common Elder Rowan Bilberry Cranberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Guelder Rose Grape Vine

cult./wild imp./cult. imp./cult. cult./wild cult./wild

imp./cult.

cult./wild

cult./wild

cult./wild

imp./cult.

Nuts Corylus avellana Juglans regia Prunus dulcis

58

Hazel Walnut Almond

imp./cult. imp.

Poland

rare species in this part of the Baltic coast and its use must also have been very limited in the past. However, some imports should not be ruled out (cf. van Zeist 1991), for example by Scandinavians coming to live in Kołobrzeg or Gdańsk. Certainly, it was not part of traditional, indigenous recipes for beer making. Sweet gale branches were also used as a disinfectant in houses (Hegi 1957).

Fruit and nuts Edible fleshy fruit and berry remains are abundantly present in Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg through‑ out the 13th-18th centuries (Table 7). They include both naturally growing and gathered species, as well as those cultivated in local orchards and gardens or imported. Nutshell fragments are less common. The 13th century material contains the remains of apples (Malus sp.), pears (Pyrus communis), sour cherry (Cerasus vulgaris), sweet cherry (Cerasus avium), plum (Prunus domestica) and bullace (Prunus insititia). The seeds of figs (Ficus carica; Plate 1g) and grape pips (Vitis vinifera; Plate 1h) are fre‑ quent and occasionally nutshells of walnut (Juglans regia; Plate 1d) can be found. Diaspores of naturally growing fruit, like wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), European dewberry (R. caesius), bramble (R. fruticosus), sloe (Prunus spinosa), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and of hazel (Corylus avellana) are common. The abundance of the re‑ mains of the above species proves that they were a very important part of the diet of the time. Much less frequent are guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), common elder (Sambucus nigra), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), bog bil‑ berry (V. uliginosum) and cranberry (V. oxycoccus). Peach (Prunus persica; Plate 1e) does not appear before the 14th century (Gdańsk, Elbląg), while black currant (Ribes nigrum), red currant (R. rubrum) and gooseberry (R. uva-crispa) start to appear in Gdańsk in the 15th century. The 14th/15th and 18th century samples from Gdańsk also reveal seeds of quince (Cydonia oblonga), while the almond (Prunus dulcis) found there is dated to the 17th century. Fruit cultivation developed in all three towns in the Early Middle Ages, mostly due to the activities of monks. The Cistercians in Gdańsk played a major role, as already in the 12th and 13th century they grew sour cherry, sweet cherry, apple, pear and plum.

Historical documents show that they also planted grape, walnut and apricot (Prunus armeniaca; Biskup and Labuda 1988; Dąbrowski 1975; Schwarz and Żmijewska 1995). There is historical information on the existence of vineyards near Elbląg in the 14th century (Długokęcki 1993). In the 14th century there were already gardens and orchards for rent; in Gdańsk two vast areas emerged, designed for this purpose (Biskup 1978e). In Elbląg too, numerous gardens were started in the 13th and 14th century, owned by merchants and city councillors (Czaja 1992). In later periods, as the cities grew, so did the orchards and gardens (Gawlicki 1997; Schwarz and Żmijewska 1995). Information on the species grown in the orchards of Gdańsk can again be obtained from the work of Wigand (16th century) and from the diary written by a French diplomat, Charles Ogier, during his stay in Gdańsk in 1635‑1636 (Ogier 1950). Apart from common fruit trees, Wigand lists the follow‑ ing: grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), mulberry (Morus sp.), walnut (Juglans regia), giant filbert (Corylus maxima), sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), quince (Cydonia oblonga), pistachio (Pistacia vera), barberry (Berberis vulgaris), gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) and fig (Ficus carica). According to this botanist, cold-sensitive exotic species (e.g. fig trees) were brought indoors for the winter. Grape and fig cultivation is also mentioned by Ogier, who says that carefully tended fig trees produced ripe and tasty fruit, while grapes did not ripen and were of poor quality. It has to be noted that climatic conditions in this part of Europe may have varied in different ­periods, fostering or hampering grape cultivation, yet they probably never ensured a high quality crop. Locally grown grapes were probably eaten as fresh fruit or used to make liturgical wine or vinegar. Unripe grape pips are fairly common in the archaeobotanical material from Gdańsk (Latałowa et al. 2003b). These may be a trace of the locally grown fruits. It is usually difficult to determine, on the basis of archaeobotanical material, whether the remains are of naturally growing plants or cultivated crops. The same applies to the discrimination between locally grown or imported species. It can be assumed that the origin of ample remains of apples, pears and cherries present already in medieval material from 59

CHAPTER 2

Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg, was mainly from orchard-grown species and only marginally from the fruits picked in forests; wild apple, pear and sweet cherry are unlikely to have been common in the area neighbouring all three towns. It is also known (Vaughan and Geissler 2001) that attempts to domesticate the wild strawberry were made in Europe as early as the 14th century, and the raspberry was introduced at the turn of the 15th/16th century. In view of the high level of horticulture and fruit husbandry in Gdańsk, one may assume that these species were cultivated here as well. Archaeobotanical information on Central and North‑ ern Europe indicates that the role of fruits in overseas trade began to grow around the 12th/13th century (van Zeist 1991). The seeds of Ficus carica and Vitis vinifera provide evidence of such imports to the three towns from the 13th century onwards. We may suppose that the consumption of grapes from local vineyards was negligible, and so was the extent of the historically confirmed local fig cultivation in the 16th and 17th century. However, remains of the two species are frequent, and in the case of Ficus ca­rica, also abundant. This suggests their large-scale use. Grapes were imported in the form of several kinds of raisins (Małecki 1968), used in both cooking and baking (Bogucka 1997). Figs were eaten not only in their natural form, but also as an ingredient in medi‑ cines. Such medicinal syrups used to treat stomach conditions and coughs; a milk-soaked fig kept in one’s mouth was recommended against toothache (Compendium 1767; Rosenblum 1855). Historical sources show that the variety of im‑ ported fruits became greater in the 16th century; in addition to figs, raisins and walnuts, customs records of the day also report lemons, oranges and almonds (Samsonowicz 1982). The 17th century

records also mention apples, plums, chestnuts and dates (Bogucka 1982d, 1997).

Other useful plants The inventory of species found in the archaeobo‑ tanical material from Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg contains many plants, which had various applica‑ tions in the past. Their remains were, however, either found as single specimens or in a context that does not justify their classification as useful plants. This latter condition is only met by some species used in handicrafts or as decorative plants (Table 8). Early medieval samples from Gdańsk (11th-13th centuries) contain numerous remains of flag iris (Iris pseudoacorus; Lechnicki et al. 1961). Individual seeds of this species were also found in Elbląg (13th-14th centuries). The plant was used to make dyes: yellow from the flowers and black from the rhizomes (Kluk 1808). The material from all three towns includes sam‑ ples with numerous acorns (Quercus sp.). They served to feed pigs, but were also used for food. They would be ground and added to flour, especially during the pre-harvest food dearth; when roasted, they were used instead of coffee (Kluk 1808). They might, however, have accidentally been brought into town, together with oak bark used for tanning. Species that would be used as decorative plants include strawberry tomato (Physalis alkekengi) and columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris; Plate 3i), found in samples from Gdańsk dated to the 16th/17th, 17th/ 18th and 18th century respectively. Fruit stones of rose (Rosa sp.), similarly found in the Gdańsk sam‑ ples, may also be the remains of plants grown for decorative purposes. All three were also exploited pharmaceutically, and roses were used in the produc‑ tion of cosmetics (Compendium 1767; Kluk 1811). In Poland, the growing of strawberry tomato prob‑

Table 8.  Other useful plants from Kołobrzeg (K), Gdańsk (G) and Elbląg (E). Date Town Latin names Other useful plants Aquilegia vulgaris Cornus sanguinea Iris pseudoacorus Physalis alkekengi Quercus sp.

60

K

13 G E

13/14 K E

K

14 G E

14/15 K G

15   15/16 G K G

16   16/17   17   17/18   18 Century AD G G G G G English names Columbine Common Dogwood Flag Iris Strawberry Tomato Oak

Poland

ably dates back to the 16th century (Piękoś-Mirkowa et al. 2004). On account of its large, swollen, red calyces, the plant is still used today in Poland in dried flower arrangements, but its fruits may also have culinary or medicinal applications (Vaughan and Geissler 2001). Columbine is an indigenous ele‑ ment in the Polish flora. The species grows naturally in shady places in clearings and brushwood in fertile, slightly alkaline habitats in mesophilous forests. The plant was grown for decorative purposes, and was also used in medicine to make anti-inflammatory mixtures (Kluk 1805). As with the previously discussed groups of useful plants, archaeobotanical data on decorative species is rather fragmentary. Historical records, on the other hand, especially those concerning Gdańsk in the 16th-18th centuries, give us copious information on indigenous and exotic decorative plants grown in the local gardens. The list of species made by Wigand includes, among others: boxwood (Buxus sempervirens), dragon’s blood (Calamus draco), cy‑ clamen (Cyclamen sp.), privet (Ligustrum vulgare), grape hyacinth (Muscari neglectum) and poet’s nar‑ cissus (Narcissus poeticus). In the 17th century, a bo‑ tanical garden was founded by botanist Jacob Breyn (1637‑1697), in which collections of rare and exotic species were kept and scientific experiments were conducted. J. Breyn grew such African species as ice plant (Malephora mollis (W. Ait) NE Brown; Figure 10) as well as plants native specifically to the Cape of Good Hope: sea squill (Urginea cf. maritima Bak.) and hairy wachendorfia (Wachendorfia hirsuta L.; Figure 11). In the early 18th century, another naturalist, Jacob Theodore Klein (1685‑1759), set up a garden in which he grew about 340 species and subspecies, including 50 from America, 48 from Africa, 35 from the Mediterranean, 27 from India, 18 from Ceylon, and smaller numbers of species from other parts of the world (Schwarz and Żmijewska 1995). A separate group, not yet identified in the ar‑ chaeobotanical material from Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg, comprises plant species used as stimu‑ lants. This gap is filled by historical data indicating that in the late 17th century, Gdańsk patricians drank coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and tea (Camelia sinensis (L.) Kuntze). Tobacco (Nicotiana sp.) chewing was popular already in the 16th century, and smoking in the 17th century (Bogucka 1982a, 1997).

Figure 10.  Malephora mollis (W. Ait) NE Brown – a watercolour by A. Stech for Exoticarum plantarum centuria prima … by Breyn (1678, Tab. 81, Al. 2), (reproduced with the permission of the Gdańsk Library, Polish Academy of Sciences).

Summary The archaeobotanical research conducted in Kołobrzeg, Gdańsk and Elbląg has produced a list of 94 plant species recognized in sub-fossil material and used by the inhabitants of the three towns at the time of their links with the Hanseatic League. The list contains species that were grown locally as well as those that were imported; naturally growing plants have also been included whenever the quan‑ tity of remains and the archaeological context sug‑ gest gathering. Many useful indigenous species have been excluded if their presence in the fossil material may be related to their role in the ruderal flora or incidental transfer of their diaspores from meadows, pastures and other areas into the cities. Following this selection process, the occurrence of eight cereal species, four legumes, five oil- and fibre species, eight vegetable species, 31 spice and herb species, 30 ed‑ 61

CHAPTER 2

and grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta), or the cultivation of which was negligible when compared with imports, e.g. grape (Vitis vini­fera), walnut (Juglans regia), fig (Ficus carica) and al‑ mond (Prunus dulcis), • 24 species that, in some periods, were gathered from the wild and/or grown, e.g. apple (Malus sp.), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), common valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and archangel (Angelica sylvestris), and • 16 most probably naturally growing species, e.g. bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), cranberry (V. oxycoccus) and common elder (Sambucus nigra) that were gathered exclusively from the wild.

Figure 11.  Wachendorfia hirsuta L. – a watercolor by A. Stech for Exoticarum plantarum centuria prima … by J. Breyn (1678, Tab. 37, Al. 9), (reproduced with the permission of the Gdańsk Library, Polish Academy of Sciences).

ible fleshy fruit and berry species, three nut species and five other useful species has been listed (Tables 3-8) and discussed. Particular species have been as‑ signed to specific groups largely by rule-of-thumb, as most of them were used in more ways than one. The list includes: • 45 species that were grown locally, but at the same time these may also have been import items in regional or overseas trade, i.e. all cereal species, hops, flax and hemp, as well as most commonly grown foreign species, for example fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), parsley (Pe­troselinum crispum) and vervain (Verbena officinalis), • 9 exotic species that were not grown locally: rice (Oryza sativa), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), black pepper (Piper nigrum), allspice (Pimenta dioica) 62

Archaeobotanical research at medieval and modern sites, for which there are historical records on the cultivation and use of plants, offers an opportunity to compare the two types of information (e.g. Greig 1996; Wasylikowa and Zemanek 1995; Zemanek and Wasylikowa 1996). The nature of historical versus archaeobotanical sources is basically different; this is why they are complementary. What they do have in common is the fact that the information they provide on the past is incomplete. In the case of the archaeobotanical material, the scope of infor‑ mation depends not only on the extent of research (number and type of sites, how representative they are of a given area and time, and the number and size of samples), but also on the way in which the material is preserved. This is why cereal grains were preserved on Granary Island in Gdańsk (charred material), while the waterlogged material contains practically no cereal remains, with the exception of millet glumes. The presence of remains of useful plants in the samples also depends on the way the individual plants were used and the level of their diaspore production. In latrine samples, from where most edible species are recorded, remains of vegeta‑ bles are rare as it was their vegetative parts, mostly undetectable in the preserved material, which were used in the kitchen. Species producing only a few fruit or single seeds are also rare. This study is an attempt to show results of ar‑ chaeobotanical research against the background of historical sources concerning the trade in plant material, plant consumption and local cultivation. Historical information dating back to the 13th and parts of the 14th century is relatively scarce, and it

Poland

is the archaeobotanical data that provide unique in‑ formation on, for example, imported exotic species. The presence of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) in Elbląg (13th century), and the numerous fig remains in all three towns in the same period, are of particular in‑ terest. In later periods, historical documents describ‑ ing various aspects of life, especially in Gdańsk, be‑ come more and more abundant. Confronting them with the archaeobotanical material leads to the same conclusions as previously presented by Greig (1996). The list of useful species in the archaeobotanical ma‑ terial is only fragmentary when compared with the species actually used in a given place at a given time. However, the value of this category of information is that it provides the opportunity to establish the presence of a particular species at a specific site, in a specific context and at a specific time.

Acknowledgements First of all the authors would like to thank the following former undergraduate students in the Laboratory of Palaeoecology and Archaeobotany, University of Gdańsk for their work on Masters theses that substantially helped to supplement our archeobotanical database (ARCHBOT-UGDA DATABASE): Aleksandra Frenkel, Anna Obu‑ chowska, Marietta Ziółkowska, Marta Federow‑

icz, Małgorzata Kozłowska, Adrianna Warlińska, Anna Krawczyk, Dagmara ­ Macioch, ­ Katarzyna Pińska, Monika Niewiadomska, Katarzyna Filczek and Jolanta Gawin. Technical help was provided by Karolina Szambelan and Magdalena Jędrzejak. Alicja Zemanek and Adam Zając from the Jagiel‑ lonian University and Maria Pelczar, the Director of the Gdańsk Library, Polish Academy of Sciences helped to access to some illustrations. Our archaeo‑ botanical investigations would be impos­sible with‑ out close co-operation with archaeologists. Major support was given by Henryk Paner, the Director of the Archaeological Museum in Gdańsk, and his collaborators, mainly Zbigniew Borcowski and Bogdan Kościński, Andrzej Gołembnik from the State Center for Research and Documentation of Monuments, Marian Rębkowski from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Acad‑ emy of Sciences (the Kołobrzeg research group), Grażyna Nawrolska and the late Tadeusz Nawrol‑ ski from the Museum of Elbląg and Aleksandra Pudło from the Museum of the History of the City of Gdańsk. Financial support was provided by the above institutions and by grants from the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (P04F 008 10 and P04F 020 12) and the Rector of the University of Gdańsk (BW/1100‑5‑0238; -0079‑5; -0119‑6).

63

CHAPTER 2

Plate 1.  a – Rice (Oryza sativa) glumes (Gdańsk 17/18th century), b – nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) seed (Elbląg, 13th century), c – black pepper (Piper nigrum) fruit (Gdańsk, 17th), d – walnut (Juglans regia) nut shell (Elbląg 13th century), e – peach (Prunus persica) fruitstones (Elbląg, 14th century), f – grain of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) seed (Gdańsk 16th century), g – fig (Ficus carica) seeds (Elbląg, 14th century), h – grape (Vitis vinifera) pips (Elbląg, 14th century), i – allspice (Pimenta dioica) fruit (Gdańsk, 18th century), j – allspice (Pimenta dioica) embryo (Gdańsk, 18th century); if not indicated, scale bars equal 1 mm.

64

Poland

Plate 2.  a – Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) fruit (achene) (Kołobrzeg, 14th century), b – cucumber (Cucumis sativa) seed (Gdańsk, 17th century), c – beetroot (Beta vulgaris) halves of fruits (Kołobrzeg 13/14th century), d – caraway (Carum carvi) fruit (Gdańsk, 16th century), e – parsley (Petroselinum crispum) fruit (Gdańsk, 16th century), f – dill (Anethum graveolens) fruit (Gdańsk, 16th century), g,h – onion (Allium cepa) seeds (Elbląg, 14th century), i – celery (Apium graveolens) fruit (Gdańsk, 16th century); if not indicated, scale bars equal 1 mm.

65

CHAPTER 2

Plate 3.  a – Hemp (Cannabis sativa) fruit (Gdańsk, 16th century), b – hop (Humulus lupulus) fruit (Kołobrzeg, 14th century), c – sweet gale (Myrica gale) fruit (Kołobrzeg, 13th century), d – opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) seed (Kołobrzeg, 14th century), e – savory (Satureja hortensis) fruit (Gdańsk, 18th century), f – rue (Ruta graveolens) seed (Gdańsk, 15/16th century), g – hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) fruit (Gdańsk, 18th century), h – vervein (Verbena officinalis) fruit (Gdańsk, 15/16th century), fruit, i – columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris) seed (Gdańsk, 18th century); if not indicated, scale bars equal 1 mm.

66

Poland

Plant names in Latin, Polish and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000; Mirek et al. 2002) in alphabetical order Latin names Aethusa cynapium L. Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Agrostemma githago L. Allium cepa L. Amaranthus blitum L. Amaranthus sp. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Anethum graveolens L. Angelica sylvestris L. Anthemis arvensis L. Anthemis cotula L. Anthemis tinctoria L. Apium graveolens L. Aquilegia vulgaris L. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Artemisia absinthium L. Atriplex hortensis L. Atriplex sp. Atropa belladonna L. Avena fatua L. Avena nuda L. Avena sativa L. Avena sp. Beta vulgaris L. Betonica officinalis L. Brassica napus L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Brassica oleracea L. Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Brassica sp. Bromus secalinus L. Bunias orientalis L. Buxus sempervirens L. Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Cannabis sativa L. Capsicum annuum L. Carum carvi L. Castanea sativa P. Miller Centaurea cyanus L. Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller Chelidonium majus L. Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Chenopodium sp. Cichorium intybus L. Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Consolida regalis Gray Coriandrum sativum L. Cornus mas L. Cornus sanguinea L. Cornus suecica L. Corylus avellana L. Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Cucumis sativus L. Cucurbita sp. Cydonia oblonga Mill. Daucus carota L. Dianthus barbatus L. Dianthus sp. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. Elettaria cardamomum Maton Elettaria major Smith Empetrum nigrum L. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

Polish names blekot pospolity amonek rajski (pieprz melegueta) kąkol polny czosnek cebula (cebula) szarłat siny szarłat farbownik (krzywoszyj) polny koper ogrodowy dzięgiel leśny rumian polny rumian psi rumia żółty selery zwyczajne orlik pospolity mącznica lekarska bylica piołun łoboda ogrodowa łoboda pokrzyk wilcza-jagoda owies głuchy owies szorstki (o. owsik) owies zwyczajny owies burak zwyczajny (b. pospolity) bukwica lekarska kapusta rzepak kapusta (gorczyca) czarna (k. gorczyca) kapusta warzywna (k. ogrodowa) kapusta (rzepa) właściwa kapusta stokłosa żytnia (s. kostrzeba) rukiewnik wschodni bukszpan zwyczajny lnicznik siewny konopie siewne papryka roczna kminek zwyczajny kasztan jadalny chaber bławatek czereśnia (trześnia) dzika wiśnia pospolita (w. szkliwka) glistnik jaskółcze ziele komosa biała (lebioda) komosa strzałkowata komosa cykoria podróżnik buławinka czerwona ostróżeczka (ostróżka) polna kolendra siewna dereń właściwy dereń świdwa dereń szwedzki leszczyna pospolita (orzech laskowy) głóg dwuszyjkowy ogórek siewny dynia pigwa pospolita marchew zwyczajna goździk brodaty goździk chwastnica jednostronna kardamon malabarski kardamon długi (k. cejloński) bażyna czarna wilczomlecz (ostromlecz) obrotny gryka zwyczajna

English names Fool’s Parsley Grains of Paradise Corn Cockle Onion Purple Amaranth Amaranth Small Bugloss Dill Archangel Corn Chamomile Stinking Chamomile Dyer’s Chamomile Celery Columbine Bearberry Absinthe Garden Orache Orache Deadly Nightshade Wild Oats Naked Oats Common Oats Oat Beetroot Betony Kale Black Mustard Cabbage Turnip Cabbage Rye Brome Warty Cabbage Boxwood Gold of Pleasure Hemp Hot Pepper Caraway Spanish Chestnut Cornflower Sweet Cherry Sour Cherry Greater Celandine Fat Hen Good King Henry Goosefoot Chicory Ergot Oriental Lakspur Coriander Cornelian Cherry Common Dogwood Dwarf Cornel Hazel Common Hawthorn Cucumber Pumpkin Quince Carrot Sweet William Pink Barnyard Grass Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Black Crowberry Sun Spurge Buckwheat

67

CHAPTER 2

Ficus carica L. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fragaria vesca L. Fumaria officinalis L. Galium aparine L. Galium spurium L. Genista tinctoria L. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Humulus lupulus L. Hyoscyamus niger L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Hypericum perforatum L. Hyssopus officinalis L. Iris pseudacorus L. Juglans regia L. Juniperus communis L. Lactuca sativa L. Laurus nobilis L. Lens culinaris Medik. Leonurus cardiaca L. Lepidium sativum L. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Lithospermum arvense L. Lolium temulentum L. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sp. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Mespilus germanica L. Morus alba sp. Morus nigra L. Morus sp. Myrica gale L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nepeta cataria L. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Nicotiana rustica L. Nicotiana sp. Nigella sativa L. Origanum vulgare L. Oryza sativa L. Panicum miliaceum L. Papaver dubium L. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Pastinaca sativa L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Physalis alkekengi L. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Piper nigrum L. Pisum sativum L. Portulaca oleracea L. Prunus domestica L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Prunus insititia L. Prunus padus L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Prunus sp. Prunus spinosa L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Quercus sp. Ranunculus arvensis L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Raphanus sativus L. Reseda luteola L. Ribes nigrum L. Ribes rubrum L. Ribes sp.

68

figowiec pospolity wiązówka błotna fenkuł (koper) włoski poziomka pospolita dymnica pospolita przytulia czepna przytulia fałszywa janowiec barwierski jęczmień zwyczajny chmiel zwyczajny lulek czarny dziurawiec czteroboczny (d. czterograniasty) dziurawiec zwyczajny hyzop lekarski kosaciec żółty orzech włoski jałowiec pospolity sałata siewna wawrzyn szlachetny soczewica jadalna serdecznik pospolity pieprzyca siewna lubczyk ogrodowy len zwyczajny nawrot polny życica roczna jabłoń domowa jabłoń jabłoń dzika (j. płonka) nieszpułka zwyczajna morwa biała morwa czarna morwa woskownica europejska muszkatołowiec kocimiętka właściwa ożędka (orzędka) groniasta tytoń bakun tytoń czarnuszka siewna lebiodka pospolita ryż siewny proso zwyczajne mak wątpliwy mak lekarski pasternak zwyczajny pietruszka zwyczajna miechunka rozdęta korzennik lekarski pieprz czarny groch zwyczajny portulaka pospolita śliwa domowa migdał zwyczajny (śliwa migdał) śliwa lubaszka (lubaszka, damaszka, mirabelka) czeremcha zwyczajna brzoskwinia zwyczajna śliwa śliwa tarnina (tarnina) grusza pospolita grusza dąb jaskier polny (j. odłogowy) rzodkiew świrzepa rzodkiew zwyczajna rezeda żółtawa porzeczka czarna porzeczka zwyczajna porzeczka

Fig Meadow Sweet Fennel Wild Strawberry Common Fumitory Cleavers False Cleavers Dyer’s Broom Barley Hop Henbane St John’s Wort St John’s Wort Hyssop Flag Iris Walnut Juniper Lettuce Laurel Lentil Motherwort Garden Cress Lovage Flax Corn Gromwell Bearded Ryegrass Apple Apple Wild Apple Medlar White Mulberry Black Mulberry Mulberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg, Mace Catmint Ball Mustard Indian Tobacco Tobacco Black Cumin Wild Marjoram Rice Common Millet Long-headed Poppy Opium Poppy Parsnip Parsley Strawberry Tomato Allspice Black Pepper Pea Purslane Plum Almond Bullace European Bird Cherry Peach Sloe/Cherry Sloe Pear Pear Oak Corn Buttercup Wild Radish Radish Wild Mignonette Black Currant Red Currant Currant

Poland

Ribes uva-crispa L. Rosa canina L. Rosa sp. Rosmarinus officinalis L. Rubus caesius L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus idaeus L. Rubus saxatilis L. Rubus sp. Ruta graveolens L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sambucus racemosa L. Satureja hortensis L. Secale cereale L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Sinapis alba L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Spinacia oleracea L. Thymus serpyllum L. Thymus sp. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Triticum dicoccon Schrank Triticum sp. Triticum spelta L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Vaccinium sp. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Valeriana officinalis L. Valeriana sp. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Verbena officinalis L. Vicia faba L. Vicia sativa L. Vicia sp. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.)

porzeczka agrest (agrest) róża dzika róża rozmaryn lekarski jeżyna popielica malina moroszka jeżyna krzewiasta malina właściwa malina kamionka malina ruta zwyczajna bez hebd (dziki bez hebd) bez czarny (dziki bez czarny) bez koralowy (dziki bez koralowy) cząber ogrodowy żyto zwyczajne włośnica sina włośnica ber włośnica zielona gorczyca jasna (g. biała) jarząb pospolity (j. zwyczajny) jarząb domowy jarząb brekinia (brzęk) szpinak warzywny macierzanka piaskowa macierzanka pszenica zwyczajna pszenica płaskurka pszenica pszenica orkisz borówka czarna żurawina błotna borówka borówka bagienna (pijanica) borówka brusznica kozłek lekarski kozłek roszpunka ząbkowana roszpunka warzywna werbena pospolita (w. lekarska) wyka bób (bób) wyka siewna wyka winorośl właściwa

Gooseberry Dog Rose Rose Rosemary European Dewberry Cloudberry Bramble Raspberry Stone Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Rue Dwarf Elder Common Elder Red Berried Elder Savory Rye Yellow Foxtail Foxtail Bristle Grass Green Bristle Grass White Mustard Rowan Service Tree Wild Service Tree Spinach Wild Thyme Thyme Common Wheat Emmer Wheat Spelt Bilberry Cranberry Bilberry/Cowberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Common Valerian Valerian Narrowfruit Cornsalad Cornsalad Vervain Bean Common Vetch Vetch, Bean Grape Vine

69

CHAPTER 2

Plant names in Polish, Latin and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000; Mirek et al. 2002) in alphabetical order Polish names amonek rajski (pieprz melegueta) bażyna czarna bez czarny (dziki bez czarny) bez hebd (dziki bez hebd) bez koralowy (dziki bez koralowy) blekot pospolity borówka borówka bagienna (pijanica) borówka brusznica borówka czarna brzoskwinia zwyczajna buławinka czerwona bukszpan zwyczajny bukwica lekarska burak zwyczajny (b. pospolity) bylica piołun chaber bławatek chmiel zwyczajny chwastnica jednostronna cykoria podróżnik cząber ogrodowy czarnuszka siewna czeremcha zwyczajna czereśnia (trześnia) dzika czosnek cebula (cebula) dąb dereń świdwa dereń szwedzki dereń właściwy dymnica pospolita dynia dzięgiel leśny dziurawiec czteroboczny (d. czterograniasty) dziurawiec zwyczajny farbownik (krzywoszyj) polny fenkuł (koper) włoski figowiec pospolity głóg dwuszyjkowy glistnik jaskółcze ziele gorczyca jasna (g. biała) goździk goździk brodaty groch zwyczajny grusza grusza pospolita gryka zwyczajna hyzop lekarski łoboda łoboda ogrodowa jabłoń jabłoń domowa jabłoń dzika (j. płonka) jałowiec pospolity janowiec barwierski jarząb brekinia (brzęk) jarząb domowy jarząb pospolity (j. zwyczajny) jaskier polny (j. odłogowy) jęczmień zwyczajny jeżyna krzewiasta jeżyna popielica kąkol polny kapusta kapusta (gorczyca) czarna (k. gorczyca) kapusta (rzepa) właściwa kapusta rzepak

70

Latin names Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Empetrum nigrum L. Sambucus nigra L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus racemosa L. Aethusa cynapium L. Vaccinium sp. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Buxus sempervirens L. Betonica officinalis L. Beta vulgaris L. Artemisia absinthium L. Centaurea cyanus L. Humulus lupulus L. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. Cichorium intybus L. Satureja hortensis L. Nigella sativa L. Prunus padus L. Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Allium cepa L. Quercus sp. Cornus sanguinea L. Cornus suecica L. Cornus mas L. Fumaria officinalis L. Cucurbita sp. Angelica sylvestris L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Hypericum perforatum L. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Ficus carica L. Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Chelidonium majus L. Sinapis alba L. Dianthus sp. Dianthus barbatus L. Pisum sativum L. Pyrus sp. Pyrus communis L. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Hyssopus officinalis L. Atriplex sp. Atriplex hortensis L. Malus sp. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Juniperus communis L. Genista tinctoria L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Ranunculus arvensis L. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus caesius L. Agrostemma githago L. Brassica sp. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Brassica napus L.

English names Grains of Paradise Black Crowberry Common Elder Dwarf Elder Red Berried Elder Fool’s Parsley Bilberry/Cowberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Bilberry Peach Ergot Boxwood Betony Beetroot Absinthe Cornflower Hop Barnyard Grass Chicory Savory Black Cumin European Bird Cherry Sweet Cherry Onion Oak Common Dogwood Dwarf Cornel Cornelian Cherry Common Fumitory Pumpkin Archangel St John’s Wort St John’s Wort Small Bugloss Fennel Fig Common Hawthorn Greater Celandine White Mustard Pink Sweet William Pea Pear Pear Buckwheat Hyssop Orache Garden Orache Apple Apple Wild Apple Juniper Dyer’s Broom Wild Service Tree Service Tree Rowan Corn Buttercup Barley Bramble European Dewberry Corn Cockle Cabbage Black Mustard Turnip Kale

Poland

kapusta warzywna (k. ogrodowa) kardamon długi (k. cejloński) kardamon malabarski kasztan jadalny kminek zwyczajny kocimiętka właściwa kolendra siewna komosa komosa biała (lebioda) komosa strzałkowata konopie siewne koper ogrodowy korzennik lekarski kosaciec żółty kozłek kozłek lekarski lebiodka pospolita len zwyczajny leszczyna pospolita (orzech laskowy) lnicznik siewny lubczyk ogrodowy lulek czarny macierzanka macierzanka piaskowa mącznica lekarska mak lekarski mak wątpliwy malina malina kamionka malina moroszka malina właściwa marchew zwyczajna miechunka rozdęta migdał zwyczajny (śliwa migdał) morwa morwa biała morwa czarna muszkatołowiec nawrot polny nieszpułka zwyczajna ogórek siewny orlik pospolity orzech włoski ostróżeczka (ostróżka) polna owies owies głuchy owies szorstki (o. owsik) owies zwyczajny ożędka (orzędka) groniasta papryka roczna pasternak zwyczajny pieprz czarny pieprzyca siewna pietruszka zwyczajna pigwa pospolita pokrzyk wilcza-jagoda portulaka pospolita porzeczka porzeczka agrest (agrest) porzeczka czarna porzeczka zwyczajna poziomka pospolita proso zwyczajne przytulia czepna przytulia fałszywa pszenica pszenica orkisz pszenica płaskurka pszenica zwyczajna rezeda żółtawa

Brassica oleracea L. Elettaria major Smith Elettaria cardamomum Maton Castanea sativa P. Miller Carum carvi L. Nepeta cataria L. Coriandrum sativum L. Chenopodium sp. Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Cannabis sativa L. Anethum graveolens L. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Iris pseudacorus L. Valeriana sp. Valeriana officinalis L. Origanum vulgare L. Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Corylus avellana L. Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Hyoscyamus niger L. Thymus sp. Thymus serpyllum L. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Papaver dubium L. Rubus sp. Rubus saxatilis L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Rubus idaeus L. Daucus carota L. Physalis alkekengi L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Morus sp. Morus alba L. Morus nigra L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Lithospermum arvense L. Mespilus germanica L. Cucumis sativus L. Aquilegia vulgaris L. Juglans regia L. Consolida regalis Gray Avena sp. Avena fatua L. Avena nuda L. Avena sativa L. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Capsicum annuum L. Pastinaca sativa L. Piper nigrum L. Lepidium sativum L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Cydonia oblonga Mill. Atropa belladonna L. Portulaca oleracea L. Ribes sp. Ribes uva-crispa L. Ribes nigrum L. Ribes rubrum L. Fragaria vesca L. Panicum miliaceum L. Galium aparine L. Galium spurium L. Triticum sp. Triticum spelta L. Triticum dicoccon Schrank Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Reseda luteola L.

Cabbage Sri Lanka Cardamom Cardamom Spanish Chestnut Caraway Catmint Coriander Goosefoot Fat Hen Good King Henry Hemp Dill Allspice Flag Iris Valerian Common Valerian Wild Marjoram Flax Hazel Gold of Pleasure Lovage Henbane Thyme Wild Thyme Bearberry Opium Poppy Long-headed Poppy Bramble/Raspberry Stone Bramble Cloudberry Raspberry Carrot Strawberry Tomato Almond Mulberry White Mulberry Black Mulberry Nutmeg, Mace Corn Gromwell Medlar Cucumber Columbine Walnut Oriental Lakspur Oat Wild Oats Naked Oats Common Oats Ball Mustard Hot Pepper Parsnip Black Pepper Garden Cress Parsley Quince Deadly Nightshade Purslane Currant Gooseberry Black Currant Red Currant Wild Strawberry Common Millet Cleavers False Cleavers Wheat Spelt Emmer Common Wheat Wild Mignonette

71

CHAPTER 2

roszpunka warzywna roszpunka ząbkowana róża róża dzika rozmaryn lekarski rukiewnik wschodni rumia żółty rumian polny rumian psi ruta zwyczajna ryż siewny rzodkiew świrzepa rzodkiew zwyczajna sałata siewna selery zwyczajne serdecznik pospolity śliwa śliwa domowa śliwa lubaszka (lubaszka, damaszka, mirabelka) śliwa tarnina (tarnina) soczewica jadalna stokłosa żytnia (s. kostrzeba) szarłat siny szarłat szpinak warzywny tytoń tytoń bakun wawrzyn szlachetny werbena pospolita (w. lekarska) wiązówka błotna wilczomlecz (ostromlecz) obrotny winorośl właściwa włośnica ber włośnica sina włośnica zielona wiśnia pospolita (w. szkliwka) woskownica europejska wyka wyka bób (bób) wyka siewna żurawina błotna życica roczna żyto zwyczajne

72

Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Rosa sp. Rosa canina L. Rosmarinus officinalis L. Bunias orientalis L. Anthemis tinctoria L. Anthemis arvensis L. Anthemis cotula L. Ruta graveolens L. Oryza sativa L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Raphanus sativus L. Lactuca sativa L. Apium graveolens L. Leonurus cardiaca L. Prunus sp. Prunus domestica L. Prunus insititia L.

Cornsalad Narrowfruit Cornsalad Rose Dog Rose Rosemary Warty Cabbage Dyer’s Chamomile Corn Chamomile Stinking Chamomile Rue Rice Wild Radish Radish Lettuce Celery Motherwort Sloe/Cherry Plum Bullace

Prunus spinosa L. Lens culinaris Medik. Bromus secalinus L. Amaranthus sp. Amaranthus blitum L. Spinacia oleracea L. Nicotiana sp. Nicotiana rustica L. Laurus nobilis L. Verbena officinalis L. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.) Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller Myrica gale L. Vicia sp. Vicia faba L. Vicia sativa L. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Lolium temulentum L. Secale cereale L.

Sloe Lentil Rye Brome Amaranth Purple Amaranth Spinach Tobacco Indian Tobacco Laurel Vervain Meadow Sweet Sun Spurge Grape Vine Foxtail Bristle Grass Yellow Foxtail Green Bristle Grass Sour Cherry Sweet Gale Vetch, Bean Bean Common Vetch Cranberry Bearded Ryegrass Rye

Estonia

An archaeobotanical approach to investigating food of the Hanseatic period in Estonia

Ülle Sillasoo and Sirje Hiie

A short history of archaeobotanical research in Estonia The history of archaeobotany in Estonia is insepa‑ rable from the history of Estonian archaeology and palaeobotany (Jaanits 1988, 1991, 1995; Jaanits et al. 1982; Kungur and Selirand 1988; Laasimer 1965; Lang 2000; Lõugas 1988; Rõuk 1992; Soon et al. 2000). The oldest known reference to archaeobotanic­al material in Estonia originates from 1867, when a collection of plant remains, includ‑ ing 32 species of plant seeds, was bought by Tartu University for the Zentralmuseum vaterländischer Alterthümer der Kaiserlichen Universität zu Dorpat (Sillasoo 2005). These plant remains did not, how‑ ever, originate from archaeological excavations in 19th century Estonia, but from the excavations of Robenhausen’s pile dwelling in Switzerland (Cata‑ logue of Archaeological Finds, entry 2635: 2213, Tartu University). In the early stages of its development, archaeo‑ botanical research in Estonia concentrated on the identification of cultivated crops from prehistoric settlements and strongholds (Tõnisson and Lepajõe 1978). In the 1930s, grain impressions were found in pottery from the Asva settlement on the island of Saaremaa, as well as from the Iru hillfort near Tallinn. Charred cereals were found and identified from the 9th-10th century Iru hillfort, including wheat (Triticum aestivum s.l.), rye (Secale cereale)

and barley (Hordeum vulgare). The deposits of cere‑ als and legumes excavated from the 11th century Kuusalu Pajulinn hillfort included barley (Hordeum distichon, H. vulgare), rye, wheat (Triticum compactum) and peas (Pisum sativum). The charred remains of cereals from Iru were identified by Prof. Nikolai Friedrich Rootsi (1888‑1974) from the Department of Agriculture at Tartu University (Lõugas 1988; Moora 1939; Tõnisson and Lepajõe 1978). After the Second World War, research on archaeo‑ botanical material from Estonia effectively moved to Latvia. Alfred Rasinš (1916‑1995), a Latvian bota‑ nist who had worked on archaeo­logical deposits of charred cereals from Latvia and neighbouring coun‑ tries, investigated several old and new cereal samples and impressions from Asva, Iru, Kuusalu and Otepää. The results of these and subsequent investigations of prehistoric cereals and their weeds by Rasinš greatly influenced approaches to the history of agriculture in Estonia and Latvia (Ligi 1978). He also argued strongly that there should be an archaeobotanical laboratory associated with each institution dealing with archaeological excavations (Lõugas 1988). Ar‑ chaeobotanical material was frequently brought to people in charge at various botanical or agricultural institutes. For example, the remains of plants found during the excavations of the 11th century hillfort in Tartu at the end of 1950s were identified by Prof. Heigo Miidla (1919‑1981), head of the Depart‑ 73

CHAPTER 3

ment of Plant Physiology and Geobotany at Tartu University. These finds comprised charred cereals: mainly grains of rye, but also of wheat and barley and charred flour; fragments of lime bast and of hemp ropes were also found (Trummal 1964). Prof. Hugo Richard Sutter (1909‑1974), head of the De‑ partment of Agriculture and Plant Breeding at the Estonian Academy of Agriculture, worked in 1953 on the identification of charred barley (Hordeum vulgare) from the 9th-10th century Rõuge hillfort. Charred cereals, including rye and wheat (Triticum aestivum, T. turgidum), found during excavations of the 11th century Soontagana hillfort in 1966‑1971, were identified by Prof. Jaan Lepajõe (1928‑1999) from the Estonian Academy of Agriculture (Tõnis‑ son and Lepajõe 1978). Until 1986, it is fair to say that no particular care was taken to look for plant material on archaeological sites and there were no

Figure 1.  Livonia in the Middle Ages (after Leighly 1939).

74

Estonian archaeobotanists to take responsibility for this kind of investigation (Lõugas 1988). In 1986, the Laboratory of Geoarchaeology and Ancient Technology was founded at the Institute of History of the Estonian Academy of Sciences in Tallinn. Its main research projects concentrated on the prehistoric natural environment and its develop‑ ment. Occasionally, medieval archaeobotanical ma‑ terial was also identified (Tammet 1988). In 1988, the archaeological unit AGU-EMS Ltd. was founded at the Estonian Heritage Society, and an archaeo‑ botanist appointed a year later. These events marked the beginning of an intensive period of both archaeo­ logical and archaeobotanical research in medieval Es‑ tonian towns. Archaeobotanical sampling was carried out at almost all excavations where significant water‑ logged layers or other deposits were found (Sillasoo 1997). The number of archaeological excavations

Estonia

from Estonian Hanseatic towns is still increasing annually (Alttoa and Tamm 1992; Metsallik 1995; Pärn and Tamm 1999; Tamm 1993;Trummal 1990; Valk 1993, 1995; Vissak 1999; Vunk 1999). There is still much work to be done concerning analysis and publication of the data, including the results of archaeobotanical investigations. Most of the research that has been carried out on medieval archaeobotanical material concerns Tartu (Abakumova 1990; Abakumova and Sillasoo 1991; Hiie 2002; Sillasoo 1995, 1997, 2001, 2002; Tam‑ met 1988). This research concerns both ecology and aspects of everyday life, including food, and it has been carried out primarily during graduate and post‑ graduate studies both at Tartu University in Estonia and at the Central European University in Budapest, Hungary (Sillasoo 1989, 1996; Uudelt 1991). To‑ day, the Department of Archaeobiology and Ancient Technology of the Institute of History at Tallinn University is the only institution in Estonia officially dealing with archaeobotanical investigations.

Livonia in the framework of the Hanseatic League There was no such political or economic unit as Es‑ tonia in the Middle Ages. Estonian was spoken only in the northern part of Livonia (Figure 1). After the German and Scandinavian crusades and colonisa‑ tion in the 13th century (Urban 1994), Livonia – a territory that united Estonians, Livs and Latvians, became divided up between several representatives of power: the Teutonic Order, the Danish King (un‑ til 1346), the Archbishop of Riga, and the Bishops of Dorpat (Tartu), Kurland (Curonia) and ÖselWiek (Saaremaa-Läänemaa). About the same time, many of the merchants who had settled in Livo‑ nian towns became participants in trade with the German Hanse, as intermediaries between Russia, Scandinavia and Germany. These towns also became major marketplaces, often visited by people from near and far. In the 13th-16th centuries, twelve Livonian towns can be considered to be members of the Hanseatic League: the coastal towns of Riga, Reval (Tallinn), Neu-Pernau (Pärnu) and Windau (Ventspils); and the inland towns of Dorpat (Tartu), Fellin (Viljandi) Goldingen (Kuldīga), Kokenhusen (Koknese), Lem‑ sal (Limbażi), Roop (Straupe), Wenden (Cēsis) and

Wolmar (Valmiera). The greatest of these towns was Riga. In addition to the towns, the Teutonic Order participated independently in Hanseatic trade. Dur‑ ing the Hanseatic period, which in Livonia lasted from the 13th century until the middle of the 16th century, the Teutonic Order was the greatest land‑ owner as well as the most active power in Livonia. It had its castles in several towns in its territories, for instance at Reval, Neu-Pernau, Fellin, Windau, Goldingen, Wenden, and Wolmar (Angermann 1985, 1987, 1990; Dollinger 1970; Leighly 1939; Leimus 2001; Tiberg 1995). The social structure of Livonian towns was similar to many other German colonial towns. The colonists divided the urban population into two large catego‑ ries: the Deutsch and the Undeutsch, which in the 15th and 16th century obtained a social rather than ethnic meaning. As the ruling Deutsch consisted of ecclesiastic people, merchants and the representa‑ tives of honourable crafts (for instance goldsmiths, bakers, etc.), this most probably was the smallest group, served by a larger number of Undeutsch, com‑ prising practitioners of not honourable crafts and the town’s poor which largely originated from the hinterlands (Johansen and von zur Mühlen 1973; Niitemaa 1949). Deutsch in the countryside mainly referred to secular or ecclesiastic manorial landlords while Undeutsch comprised the peasants, including yeomen (Landfreie), unrestricted peasants (freizügige Bauern), hirelings (Mietlinge) and serfs (Drellen; Jo‑ hansen 1925a). There certainly was a difference in eating habits between people of these two large social groups. Colonists and merchants brought with them their own ways of production and consumption to‑ gether with a variety of new and expensive food‑ stuffs, contrasting with the local traditional ways of production and consumption. At the same time, the Deutsch and Undeutsch in both the urban and rural populations were under constant mutual influence, conditioned by local natural resources, opportuni‑ ties offered through long distance trade links and the level of their communication (Niitemaa 1952; Põltsam 1996). The contribution of archaeobotanical research to the history of the food of the late medieval and early modern Livonia seems to be unremarkable compared with the information gleaned from written sources. However, it may specify certain aspects and give 75

CHAPTER 3

Tallin Pärnu Viljandi Tartu

Figure 2.  Map showing the Livonian medieval towns with archaeobotanical data discussed in this chapter.

certain information that is unavailable from other sources or by other methods. There are three closelyrelated fields in historical research where archaeobot‑ any may be able to make a particular contribution: agriculture, trade and food consumption. Within this particular framework, the results of archaeobo‑ tanical investigations from the Hanseatic period will be accordingly addressed (Figure 2).

Archaeobotanical evidence in the context of agriculture and horticulture Written sources provide a wide range of evidence concerning taxation of cultivated crops (von Bruin‑ ingk 1908 cited in Põltsam 1999; Johansen 1925a, 1925b; Kahk et al. 1974; Ligi 1968; Moora and Ligi 1970). Taxes paid to landowners, including the church, comprised goods produced in their domains. The church had a canonical right, the iura christianorum, for a tithe to be paid by all Christians on all agricultural products. It may have become as much as a quarter of the harvest, basically grain; until the end of the 16th century, it was delivered to the landlords as sheaves. Bishops also received grain revenues for sustenance during their visitations. In the Tartu Bishopric, for instance, the sustenance 76

norms included ½ peck of rye, ¼ peck of wheat and 1 peck of oats from each plough-land (Ligi 1968). Certain vaku feasts (feasts with tribute collection by the visiting feudal lord) were organised at due times of tax collection. In the written sources, grain is the most impor‑ tant commodity overall for taxes in this period. Rye and barley are represented in the tax lists of peasants everywhere throughout the Middle Ages. They were demanded in equal quantities. Oats are also usually mentioned, but requested in much smaller amounts than rye and barley. Wheat is present in tax lists for West and South Estonia, still almost never reaching one percent of the total harvest. In North and Cen‑ tral Estonia it rarely occurred even in the fields of manorial estates that started to emerge and increase in number from the 15th century onwards (Ligi 1968). The oldest known written evidence about the cultivation of buckwheat in Livonia originates from the end of the 14th century; it was grown in the fields around Riga (von Bruiningk 1908 cited in Põltsam 2002). Buckwheat is mentioned in the tax revenues of Padise friary (North Estonia) from 1567‑1568, forming about 0.7 % of the total grain tithe, and in 1601 in South Estonia, where it was claimed to be a regular crop. The same is true of pea taxes that were collected from South Estonia, but never from the northern part of the country (Kahk and Tarvel 1997; Ligi 1992). In general, agriculture in the Baltic States, including the assortment of cultivated crops, was very similar to that of neighbouring Russian areas (Moora and Ligi 1970). The composition of crops and the ways of their cultivation in manorial fields may have differed from the composition of traditional agricultural products and their cultivation. Agricultural and horticultural changes probably took place first of all in these do‑ mains and then spread, together with increasing number of manorial fields in the country. The old‑ est known peasants’ obligations of corvée, or a legally fixed gratuitous service rendered to the lord of the manor is evidenced in 1267 in Latvia and in 1284 in Estonia. In Estonia, the earliest known manorial estates were founded in the hinterland of Reval, as a result perhaps, of the better trading opportunities available here (Ligi 1968). Here, the lands were of‑ ten donated to vassals by the King of Denmark in order to strengthen his military protection. In the 15th century, similar patterns were followed in the

Estonia

bishoprics of Riga and Tartu. The Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order had its own military force and strongholds, as a result of which its donations were

small and the process slow (Kahk and Tarvel 1997; Ligi 1992). Nevertheless, the Order also owned ma‑ norial estates. The grain income from these fields

Table 1.  List of archaeological excavations and botanical samples referred to in this research. Entry Excavation site nr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

Tallinn, Harju Street Tallinn, Roosikrantsi Street Tallinn, Roosikrantsi Street Tallinn, 2 Vaimu Street Tallinn, 10 Vana-Viru Street Tallinn, 2 Tatari Tallinn, 2 Tatari Tallinn, Aida Street Tallinn, 5 Sulevimägi Street Tallinn, 5 Sulevimägi Street Tallinn, Roosikrantsi Street Tallinn, Kirikuplats Square Tallinn, 4 Tartu Road Tallinn, 5 Rahukohtu Street Tallinn, Corner of Streets Liivalaia and Tatari Tartu, Lossi Street Tartu, Lossi Street Tartu, Lossi Street Tartu, Corner of Streets Rüütli and Küütri Tartu, VII Quarter Tartu, VII Quarter Tartu, Botanical Garden Tartu, Toome Hill (Cathedral Hill) Tartu, VII Quarter Tartu, VII Quarter Tartu, Cellar of H. Treffner’s High Scool Tartu, Cellar of H. Treffner’s High Scool Tartu, Courtyard of 15 Rüütli Street Tartu, VII Quarter Tartu, VII Quarter Tartu, VII Quarter Tartu, 5 Küüni Street Tartu, 5 Küüni Street Tartu, 5 Küüni Street Tartu, 5 Küüni Street Uue-Kastre (Tartu County), Episcopal castle Pärnu, 15 Malmö Street Pärnu, 15 Malmö Street Pärnu, 15 Malmö Street Pärnu, 6 Hospidali Street Pärnu, 15 Malmö Street Pärnu, 15 Malmö Street Pärnu, 15 Malmö Street Pärnu, 15 Malmö Street Pärnu, 15 Malmö Street Pärnu, 6 Hospidali Street Viljandi, Lossi Street Viljandi, Transect of Pikk Street Viljandi, Lossi Street Viljandi, Transect of Munga Street Viljandi, Moat next to medieval gate of Tartu Viljandi, Courtyard of Town Museum Viljandi, Courtyard of Town Museum Viljandi, Transect of Pikk Street Viljandi, Moat next to medieval gate of Tartu Viljandi, Munga Street

Date Deposit type Century AD 13 13-14 14 14 14-15 14-16? 14-16? 15-16 15-16 15-16 15-16 16-17 17 17 17 13-14 13-14 14 14 14 14 14-15 14-15 14-15 14-15 14-15 15 15 15 15 15-16 16-17 16-17 16-17 17-18 13-15 13 13-14 14 14 14-15 15 15-16 16 16 17 13 13 13-14 14 14 15 15 16-17 17 17-18

cultural layer cultural layer refuse layer cultural layer cultural layer refuse pit refuse pit cultural layer latrine latrine well cultural layer grave/burial site cellar cultural layer cultural layers latrine latrine latrine latrine latrine latrine burnt/fire horizon latrine storage find/granary latrine latrine latrine latrine latrine latrine fireplace/oven fireplace/oven fireplace/oven burnt/fire horizon moat bank latrine cultural layer cultural layer latrine latrine cultural layer cultural layer latrine cultural layer cultural layer cultural layer cultural layer moat fill cultural layer moat fill latrine storage find/granary refuse pit moat fill storage find/granary

Sampling Reference

Publication Reference Unpublished (Vilve Ernits, Sirje Hiie,

Sample no 8 and 9 Sample no 6 and 7

Sample no 6 Sample no 7 Sample no 5 and 6 Sample no 2 and 3 Sample no 1 and 2

L Latrine I, sample no 2 and 3 Latrine II, samples no 4-6 Sample from layers no 86 and 69 Sample no 7 K III, sample no 2 and 4-9 Charred cereals Sample no 4a-c Charred cereals Sample no 59 and 61 Sample no 56 and 58 Samples from layers no 28, 29 and 58 Sample no 1a-b and 6a-b K IV, sample no 22-34 K II sample no 2-6 Part IV, Sample no 1 and 2 Part III, Sample no 2 Sample no 6 Sample no 7 G/5 N-profile, layer no 2, 3, 4 and 5 Sample no 4, 6, 7, 10, 19-22, 25, 26, 29-31 G/2 Sample no 3, 5, 23 and 32 G/4: 270-290 E/2 Sample no 2, 9, 11, 15, 16, 24, 27 Sample no 2, 3 and 4 Sample no 6, 7, 8 and 9 Sample no 5, 6, 7, 8, 14 and 15 Sample no 3, 4 and 5 Sample no 1 and 2 Sample no 2 Part I/Sample no 1, 2 and 3 Charred cereals Sample no 17 Sample 5 Charred cereals

Mihkel Tammet) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sillasoo/Piirits 1997) Unpublished (Sillasoo/Piirits 1997) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Tammet 1988 Tammet 1988 Tammet 1988 Sillasoo 1997 (16) Sillasoo 1997 (20) Sillasoo 1997 (20) Sillasoo 1997 (18) Sillasoo 1997 (9) Sillasoo 1997(20) Sillasoo 1997 (20) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Unpublished (Sirje Hiie) Sillasoo 1997 (1) Sillasoo 1997(20) Sillasoo 1997 (20) Sillasoo 1997 (20) Sillasoo 1997 (11) Sillasoo 1997 (11) Sillasoo 1997 (11) Sillasoo 1997 (11) Sillasoo 1997 (5) Sillasoo 1997 (21) Sillasoo 1997 (21) Sillasoo 1997 (21) Sillasoo 1997 (22) Sillasoo 1997 (21) Sillasoo 1997 (21) Sillasoo 1997 (21) Sillasoo 1997 (21) Sillasoo 1997 (21) Sillasoo 1997 (22) Sillasoo 1997 (26) Sillasoo 1997 (28) Sillasoo 1997 (26) Sillasoo 1997 (29) Sillasoo 1997 (27) Unpublished (Sillasoo/Kodar 1995) Sillasoo 1997 (23) Sillasoo 1997 (28) Sillasoo 1997 (27) Sillasoo 1997 (29)

77

CHAPTER 3 Table 2.  Archaeobotanical evidence of food plants from Tallinn (Reval). Numbers in tables indicate archaeological sites listed in Table 1. Date 13 13/14 14 Latin names Entry numbers (see table 1) Cereals (incl. Buckwheat) and legumes Avena sativa Cerealia 2 Fagopyrum esculentum 2 Hordeum vulgare 2 3, 4 Panicum miliaceum Secale cereale 1 Triticum aestivum 1 Pisum sativum Vegetables Brassica rapa 1 Brassica sp. 2 3 Oil and fibre plants Cannabis sativa Linum usitatissimum 2 Papaver somniferum 2 3 Cultivated fruit Cerasus vulgaris Malus sp. 3 Pyrus communis Ribes nigrum Imported fruit Ficus carica 3 Vitis vinifera Wild fruit Empetrum nigrum 4 Fragaria vesca 3 Rubus caesius 2 Rubus chamaemorus 3, 4 Rubus idaeus 2 Sorbus aucuparia 4 Vaccinium myrtillus 4 Vaccinium oxycoccus 4 Vaccinium uliginosum Vaccinium vitis-idaea 4 Vaccinium sp. 2 4 Nuts Corylus avellana 1 2 3, 4 Juglans regia Herbs and spices Anethum graveolens 2 3 Brassica nigra Carum carvi 1 2 Humulus lupulus 1 2 3 Juniperus communis

14 /16?

6 7

6, 7

17

Century AD English names

9 10 9 9 9 8

14

9

14

Common Oats Cereals Buckwheat Barley Common Millet Rye Common Wheat Pea

8, 9, 10 8, 11

16/17

15 14

Turnip Cabbage/Turnip

12

9

Hemp Flax Opium Poppy

12 8, 9,10,11 8 9 8 9

Sour Cherry Apple Pear Black Currant

12

8, 9, 10 8

6, 7

6

6 7 6

may have reached between about 20 and 60 % of the total grain income of the landlords during the Hanseatic period (Ligi 1968). Hops formed an important part of taxes in Southern and Western Estonia (Ligi 1992). Latvian manorial landlords also received beets, radishes and mustard from their peasants (von Bruiningk 1908 cited in Põltsam 1999; Ligi 1992). Estonian peasants at the manorial estate of the Teutonic Order on the island of Muhu had to bring the heads of cabbages 78

15/16

8, 9, 10 8, 9, 10 8, 10 8, 9, 10 8, 9, 10 9, 10 9, 10 8, 9, 10 9, 10 8, 9, 10 8, 9, 10 8, 9

9, 10 9 9 8, 9, 10 9

Fig Grape

12 12 12 12

12

15

Black Crowberry Wild Strawberry European Dewberry Cloudberry Raspberry Rowan Bilberry Cranberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Bilberry/Cranberry/Cowberry Hazel Walnut Dill Black Mustard Caraway Hop Juniper

and turnips for the vaku feast in 1569 (Kahk and Tarvel 1997; Ligi 1968, 1992). Otherwise, turnips are scarcely mentioned in medieval Estonian sources (Põltsam 1999). Perhaps they were counted, together with cabbages, as non-agricultural products, because they were cultivated in gardens and were not subject to regular taxation by means of tithes. In Southern Europe, vegetable gardens were protected from land‑ owners’ demands for tithes and agricultural taxes (Montanari 1996).

Estonia Table 3.  Archaeobotanical evidence of food plants from Tartu (Dorpat) and its surroundings. Uue-Kastre was an area of late medieval Episcopal castle, Warbecke, River Emajõgi, which was founded to collect taxes from ships and to defend late medieval Tartu. Tartu Tartu Tartu Date 13/14 14 14/15 Latin names Entry numbers (see table 1) Cereals (incl. Buckwheat) and legumes Avena sativa 23, 25 Avena sp. Cerealia 26 Fagopyrum esculentum 26 Hordeum vulgare 23, 24, 25 Oryza sativa Panicum miliaceum 19 Secale cereale 18 22, 23, 25 Triticum aestivum 23, 25 Triticum sp. Lens culinaris 23, 25 Pisum sativum 16 23 Vegetables Brassica rapa 19 24 Brassica sp. 26 Cucumis sativus Oil and fibre plants Cannabis sativa 16, 17 18, 19 22, 25 Linum usitatissimum 19 22, 23 Papaver somniferum 19, 21 22, 24, 26 Cultivated fruit Cerasus vulgaris 16 18, 21 Malus domestica 17 18, 20, 21 Malus sp. 19 22, 24 Prunus domestica 16 21 Prunus insititia Pyrus communis 17 18, 19 Ribes nigrum 18, 19, 20 22 Ribes rubrum (cf.) 19 Ribes sp. 17 Imported fruit Ficus carica 19, 20 22, 24, 26 Vitis vinifera 16, 17 18 Wild fruit Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Fragaria vesca 17 18, 19, 20 22, 24, 26 Rubus caesius 19 Rubus chamaemorus 19, 20 26 Rubus idaeus 17 18, 19, 20 22, 24, 26 Rubus saxatilis 17 18, 19 Sambucus racemosa Sorbus aucuparia 17 18, 19, 20 22, 24, 26 Vaccinium myrtillus 17 18, 19 26 Vaccinium oxycoccus 17 18, 19, 21 22, 26 Vaccinium uliginosum 17 18 26 Vaccinium vitis-idaea 17 18, 21 26 Vaccinium sp. 19, 20 22, 24, 26 Nuts Corylus avellana 16, 17 18, 21 23 Juglans regia 16 21 Herbs and spices Anethum graveolens 17 18 26 Apium graveolens 19 22 Brassica nigra (cf.) 19 22 Carum carvi 17 18, 19 22 Coriandrum sativum Elettaria cardamomum Humulus lupulus 17 19 22, 24-26 Juniperus communis 16, 17 18 Myrica gale 17 Petroselinum crispum 19 Piper nigrum 16

Tartu 15

Tartu 15/16

28, 29 28 27 27, 28 28 28 28 28

Tartu 16/17

Tartu Uue-Kastre 17/18 13-15 Century AD English names

32-34

35

32, 33

35

28 29

34

28, 29 27, 28, 29 28 28, 29, 30 28 27, 28, 29

31

28, 29, 30 28, 29 27, 29 30 29

31

35

Common Oats Oats Cereals Buckwheat Barley Rice Common Millet (cf.) 36 Rye Common Wheat Wheat Lentil Pea 36

Turnip Cabbage/Turnip Cucumber

36 36 36

Hemp Flax Opium Poppy Sour Cherry Apple Apple Wild Plum Bullace Pear Black Currant Red Currant Currant

31

28, 29

27, 28, 29 28, 29, 30 29 27-30 27, 28 28, 28 27-30 29 28 27, 28, 29 27, 30 27-30 27 27 27-30 28, 29, 30 29, 30 27, 28, 29 28, 29 (cf.) 28, 29 27, 28, 29 28 28 27, 28, 29

28 29

Fig Grape

31

31 31

32, 33

35

36

35

36

31

36 31 31

35

Bearberry Wild Strawberry European Dewberry Cloudberry Raspberry Stone Bramble Red Berried Elder Rowan Bilberry Cranberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Bilberry/Cranberry/Cowberry Hazel Walnut

36

Dill Celery Black Mustard Caraway Coriander Cardamom Hop Juniper Sweet Gale Parsley Black Pepper

79

CHAPTER 3

Vegetable gardens (Kohlgarten) are repeatedly mentioned in documents from the 14th century. In the first half of this century, peasants of bishopric Ösel-Wiek were liable to punishment if they demol‑ ished the fence of such a garden (Ligi 1992). This record supposedly refers to the gardens of landlords. Later records give additional evidence of what was grown in vegetable gardens in subsequent times, at manorial estates in particular. Carrots, cucumbers, parsley and parsnip are recorded as having been grown on manorial estates near Dorpat in 1592 (Ligi 1992). Many late medieval documents refer to the trade in onion seeds, although onions seem not to have been grown in every peasant’s garden. This is shown by the fact that, in some places, instead of onions, money for purchasing onions was requested from peasants for vakufeasts (Ligi 1968; Põltsam 1999). Archaeobotanical evidence from Estonian towns corresponds with written sources with regard to the predominant cereals; rye (Secale cereale) and bar‑ ley (Hordeum vulgare) prevail in charred deposits. A number of other less significant cereals and leg‑ umes have been discovered, including common oats (Avena sativa), common wheat (Triticum aestivum), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), common millet (Panicum miliaceum), peas (Pisum sativum), lentils (Lens culinaris), and beans (Vicia cf. faba; Tables 1‑5). These records refer to their cultivation in the hinterland, but do not indicate precisely their origin. This might, perhaps, be revealed by an investigation of the weeds represented in charred deposits, car‑ ried out in comparison with similar deposits from neighbouring Baltic countries. Mixed grain deposits are often found. A charred deposit of rye from the 15th century Viljandi (Sil‑ lasoo 1997) also included barley, peas and flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds, presumably surviving in the field from previous years. A sub-sample from this material also contained the seeds and fruits of stinking‑, corn- and dyer’s chamomile (Anthemis cotula, A. arvensis, A. tinctoria), rye brome (Bromus secalinus), cornflower (Centaurea cyanus), fat hen (Chenopodium album), cleavers (Galium cf. aparine), hardy ryegrass (Lolium cf. remotum) and gold of pleasure (Camelina sativa). Another sub-sample from a burnt 14th-15th century horizon on Cathedral Hill in Tartu contained the grains of rye, oats, barley and wheat, mixed together in ratios of 4.2: 2.7: 2.9: 0.2. 80

Individual seeds of lentils, peas and flax were also present, and a few weeds were identified including corncockle (Agrostemma githago), dyer’s chamomile, rye brome, fat hen and cleavers (Sillasoo 1997). A sub-sample from 14th-15th century charred deposits in a district near Tartu Town Hall revealed peas as the predominant legume, mixed with a few cereals such as wheat, common and wild oats (Avena sativa and A. fatua), barley, lentils and hemp (Cannabis sativa). Another sample from the same site con‑ tained wheat besides barley, as well as oats, linseeds and probably rye grains (Sillasoo 1997). In samples of charred cereals from a 16th-17th century deposit rye predominated accompanied by a few grains of barley. Corncockle, rye brome, cornflower, fat hen, wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), grasses and yellow rattle (Rhinanthus sp.) were also found in these samples. The grain deposits from Hanseatic towns in Latvia show a slightly different pattern. In the 12th13th century town of Koknese, the predominant ce‑ reals and legumes were barley, rye, common wheat (T. aestivum) and peas. A few grains of common oats (A. sativa), millet (Panicum miliaceum) and emmer (Triticum dicoccon) were also found. Barley was the predominant cereal from 13th-14th century Riga; oats were less common and only a few grains of wheat and rye were found (Rasinš and Taurina 1983). The best documented period in these investigations is the 12th-13th centuries, from which a few more field crops have been recorded (Table 6). The first archaeobotanical evidence of buckwheat in Estonia originates from the 13th-14th centuries, in contrast to its occurrence in tax lists in the second half of the 16th century (von Bruiningk 1908 cited in Põltsam 2002). It was found in 13th-14th cen‑

Figure 3.  Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) fruits (achenes) from a 16th-17th century latrine in Tartu, 15 Rüütli Street. Scale: 1 mm.

Figure 4.  Common millet (Panicum miliaceum) from a 16th-17th century latrine in Tartu, 15 Rüütli Street. Scale: 1 mm.

Estonia

tury layers in Tallinn, close to the medieval Russian church, and from 14th century Pärnu (Tables 1‑4). In Pärnu, amounts of buckwheat were also found from a 15th-16th century presumed storage deposit, side by side with numerous remains of oats (A. sativa), flax seeds and the remains of hop (Humulus lupulus) and hemp. The seeds and inflorescences of hop formed the upper layer of this deposit, mixed with numer‑ ous remains of oats, wild radish, and weeds (Sillasoo 1997). Since the investigation of the site has not been completed, no specific conclusions could be drawn for these data. Buckwheat was present in the 14th-15th century suburb of Tartu (Hiie 2002) but completely absent in the 14th-15th century central

districts (Sillasoo 2001). In the sub-samples from a 16th-17th century latrine in Tartu, a gradual increase in its amounts was observed in the profile (Figure 3). While in the bottom sample the remains of cereals and wild fruit predominated, the uppermost sample mainly contained remains together with of this crop next to which a few seeds of cucumber and imported spices, and hops, perhaps also imported, were found (Sillasoo 1997). In Latvia, there are finds of buck‑ wheat from 15th-16th century deposits (Rasinš and Taurina 1983), although written documents men‑ tion its cultivation a century earlier (see above). This evidence shows that cultivation and consumption of buckwheat in Estonia might have started in the

Table 4.  Archaeobotanical evidence of food plants from Pärnu (Pernau). Date 13 13/14 14 14/15 Latin names Entry numbers (see table 1) Cereals (incl. Buckwheat) and legumes Avena sativa 39 Fagopyrum esculentum 39 Hordeum vulgare 37 38 39 Secale cereale 39 Triticum aestivum 39 Triticum dicoccon (cf.) 39 Pisum sativum 39 Vicia faba (cf.) 39 Vegetables Brassica rapa 38 39, 40 41 Brassica sp. Lactuca sativa 39 Pastinaca sativa 39 Oil and fibre plants Cannabis sativa 38 39, 40 Linum usitatissimum 38 39, 40 Papaver somniferum 37 38 39 41 Cultivated fruit Cerasus vulgaris 41 Malus sp. 39 41 Ribes nigrum 41 Imported fruit Ficus carica 38 39, 40 41 Wild fruit Empetrum nigrum 39 Fragaria vesca 37 38 39, 40 41 Rubus caesius 41 Rubus chamaemorus 39 41 Rubus fruticosus 41 Rubus idaeus 37 38 39, 40 41 Sorbus aucuparia 37 38 39, 40 41 Vaccinium myrtillus 41 Vaccinium oxycoccus 38 39 41 Vaccinium vitis-idaea Vaccinium sp. 37 38 39, 40 41 Nuts Corylus avellana 37 38 39, 40 41 Herbs and spices Brassica nigra (cf.) 39 (cf.) 41 Humulus lupulus 37 38 39, 40 41

15

15/16

16

42

43 43 43

45

42 42

17

Common Oats Buckwheat Barley Rye Common Wheat Emmer Pea Bean

45

(cf.) 42

42 42

43 43

44, 45

42

43 43

44, 45 44, 45

Turnip Cabbage/Turnip Lettuce Parsnip 46 46 46

45

(cf.) 42

42

43 43

42

43

42

43

42

43

Hemp Flax Opium Poppy Sour Cherry Apple Black Currant

46

42

Century AD English names

Fig

46

Black Crowberry Wild Strawberry European Dewberry Cloudberry Bramble Raspberry Rowan Bilberry Cranberry Cowberry Bilberry/Cranberry/Cowberry

45

46

Hazel

44, 45

46

Black Mustard Hop

44, 45

46

45

46

45 45

46

81

CHAPTER 3

13th-14th centuries, but became more widespread at the end of the Hanseatic period. Initially, it might have been primarily related to the consumption of the Undeutsch.

cultivated as an oil plant in Livonian areas and in neighbouring Sweden during the Early Iron Age. The stems of the plant were found between the wall beams of a 5th-9th century castle on Lake Āraiši.

It is difficult to estimate the role of common millet, the remains of which have been found in latrines, refuse and culture layers (Figure 4). The remains of millet are as frequent in Estonian archaeobotani‑ cal samples as those of gold of pleasure (Camelina sativa). Remains of bristle grass (Setaria sp.) have been found more frequently (Tables 1‑5). It has been considered that millet was only imported to late medieval Livonia, but not cultivated there. The crop is mentioned in the treasure list of a Master of the Order Rutger Wulf of Pernau in 1562 (Põltsam 2002). Gold of pleasure and bristle grass may be considered as old crops which subsequently turn up constantly in samples as field weeds. According to Rasinš and Taurina (1983), gold of pleasure was

13th and 14th century written sources mention fruit trees in the suburbs of Riga. In the first half of the 14th century there was an orchard on the Laoküla (Estonia) manorial estate. There was also an orchard in a yard near the gates of Riga in New-Pernau in 1521 (Põltsam 1997). There is a record of a large orchard of apple, plum and cherry trees from the 16th century manorial estate near Kudina, to the north of Tartu (Hansman 1974). According to audit documents of agricultural products from the late 16th century, pears also grew in orchards (Ligi 1992). Ar‑ chaeobotanical research has revealed remains of wood of wild apple (Malus sylvestris) from about the 13th century in Tartu, at the corner of the streets Rüütli and Lai (Abakumova 1990). The physical evidence of

Table 5.  Archaeobotanical evidence of food plants from Viljandi (Fellin). Date Latin names Cereals and legumes Cerealia Hordeum vulgare Oryza sativa Secale cereale Triticum aestivum Pisum sativum Vegetables Brassica rapa Oil and fibre plants Cannabis sativa Linum usitatissimum Papaver somniferum Cultivated fruit Malus sp. Ribes nigrum Imported fruit Ficus carica Wild fruit Fragaria vesca Rubus caesius Rubus chamaemorus Rubus idaeus Rubus saxatilis Sorbus aucuparia Vaccinium oxycoccus Vaccinium sp. Nuts Corylus avellana Herbs and spices Anethum graveolens Humulus lupulus Petroselinum crispum

82

13 13/14 14 15 Entry numbers (see table 1)

47, 48

49

48 48

(cf.) 49

47

51 50

49

47

50

52 53 52 53

16

17

17/18

54

Century AD English names

53

Cereals Barley Rice Rye Common Wheat Pea

52

Turnip

52 53 52

Hemp Flax Opium Poppy

56 54

56

55

52 52

Apple Black Currant

52

Fig

47 47

49

50, 51

52

47, 48

49

50, 51

47

49

47

49

50

52, 53

Hazel

47

49

50

52 52 (cf.) 53

Dill Hop Parsley

52 52 (cf.) 52 52 52 52

55

54

55

Wild Strawberry European Dewberry Cloudberry Raspberry Stone Bramble Rowan Cranberry Bilberry/Cranberry/Cowberry

Estonia

Figure 5.  Cucumber (Cucumis sativa) from a 16th-17th century latrine in Tartu, 15 Rüütli Street. Scale: 1 mm.

the consumed fruit is mainly found in late medieval towns, including the seeds and endocarp fragments of apples (M. domestica, sometimes Malus sp.) and pears (Pyrus communis), and the stones of sour cher‑ ries (Cerasus vulgaris), plums (Prunus domestica and P. insititia), and supposedly cultivated black currants (Ribes nigrum). Apples might have been of local ori‑ gin, but some written records also refer to them being imported. The apples that were purchased for the bird-shooting festivals of the Guild of Black Heads in Riga in 1548‑54, for instance, supposedly were of Russian origin. Interestingly, hazelnuts (Corylus avellana), provided for their table in 1545, originated from the island of Ösel (Saaremaa; Mänd 2000). The cultivation of herbs and vegetables in me‑ dieval Livonia was certainly promoted by German colonists and the Hanseatic trade. The seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), celery (Apium graveolens), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), carrot (Daucus carota) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) have been found in con‑ nection with excavations of medieval Estonian towns (Tables 1‑5 and Figure 5).

Archaeobotanical evidence in the context of trade Macrofossils of the above-mentioned herbs and vegetables in archaeobotanical material may also be considered as evidence of long-distance trade in late medieval Livonia. The presence of exotic fruit and species shows this definitely to be the case (Tables 1-5). The seeds of fig (Ficus carica) are present in 13th-15th century deposits from Tallinn, Tartu (Fig‑ ure 6) and Pärnu, and in 15th century deposits from Viljandi. A thorough investigation of the 14th-15th century latrine samples from two central districts in Tartu showed that figs were present in all examined samples, meaning it was not such a rare food item in the north as might be thought (Sillasoo 2001). The few seeds of grape (Vitis vinifera), which were found from 13th-16th century deposits in Tartu (Figure 7)

and from 15th-16th century deposits in Tallinn, may have originated from imported raisins. Although the cultivation of grapes in medieval Livonia cannot be completely discounted, there are no written docu‑ ments which refer to it, whereas there are many refer‑ ences to the trade in, and consumption of, raisins. The presence of walnuts (Juglans regia) in Estonian archaeological deposits should also be considered as an indicator of long distance trade, along with the presence of several spices and rice (Oryza sativa), the remains of which have been found in late medieval deposits. Walnuts were present in a 15th century deposit in Tallinn and in 13th-15th century deposits in Tartu, but absent from Pärnu and Viljandi. Ar‑ chaeological evidence of spices that reached Livonia by long distance trade is only available for corian‑ der (Coriandrum sativum) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), present in 16th-17th century deposits in Tartu (Figures 8 and 9). Black pepper (Piper nigrum) has been found in 13th-14th century latrine deposits. Fragments of rice hulls were discovered in a 15th century deposit in Viljandi and in a 16th-17th

Figure 6.  Fig (Ficus carica) seeds from a 16th-17th century latrine in Tartu, 15 Rüütli Street. Scale: 1 mm.

Figure 7.  Grape (Vitis vinifera) pips from a 16th-17th century latrine in Tartu, 15 Rüütli Street. Scale: 1 mm. Figure 8.  Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) fruit from a 16th-17th century latrine in Tartu, 15 Rüütli Street. Scale 1 mm. Figure 9.  Cardamom (Elettaria cardamonum) seed from a 16th-17th century latrine in Tartu, 15 Rüütli Street. Scale: 1 mm.

Figure 10.  Rice (Oryza sativa) glumes from a 16th-17th century latrine in Tartu, 15 Rüütli Street. Scale: 1 mm.

83

CHAPTER 3

century deposit in Tartu (Figure 10). The dating of the 12th century finds of rice from Asote in Latvia (Table 6) should perhaps be treated with caution; the oldest known finds of rice in the Baltic region are the 13th-14th century finds from Braunschweig and Kiel (Wiethold 1995b). Finds of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) also seem to indicate trade with far away places, since there is no known evidence for its cultivation on Livonian soil. The remains of poppy seeds have been found in 13th-14th and 15th-16th century deposits in Tallinn, in 14th-18th century deposits in Tartu, 13th-15th and 17th century deposits in Pärnu and in 15th and 17th century deposits in Viljandi. In Tartu, they were present in all the latrine samples from two thoroughly investigated sites in districts near the Town Hall Square (Sillasoo 2001). Sweet gale (Myrica gale) has turned up in latrine samples from 13th-14th and 14th century Tartu, Lossi Street near the Town Hall (Tammet 1988), perhaps as a conse‑ quence of its use in flavouring beer. It grows only in the western part of Estonia and presumably reached medieval Tartu by way of internal domestic trade. Hop, which nowadays belong to the Estonian wild flora and was subject to taxation, is also recorded as having been imported to Livonian towns from Prussia (Ligi 1992); the Town Council protocols of Dorpat from the middle of the 16th century also mention imports from Russia (Tarvel 1980). Imports of spices are documented in several writ‑ ten accounts from two main Livonian towns, Riga and Reval, since the 14th century. The list of spices mentioned in these records is much longer than that provided by archaeobotanical sources, and includes black pepper (Piper nigrum), cubeb (Piper cubeba), ginger (Zingiber officinale), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans, nuts), mace (Myristica fragrans, aril), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), saffron (Crocus sativus), and melequeta pepper (grains of paradise, Aframomum melegueta). In the 15th century, cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and seseli seeds (cf. Laserpitium siler) appear in the accounts (Mänd 1999, 2005). The Town Council protocols for Tartu from 1528 mention pepper, saffron and cloves (Tarvel 1980). Written sources also refer to the use and import of mustard. These references do not, however, reveal which of the mustard plants is referred to. Remains 84

have been found of black mustard (Brassica nigra). As this plant is presently cultivated in Southern and Western Europe, it might also have been done so during the Middle Ages, when white mustard (Sinapis alba) become known in Central Europe as an important condiment. Interestingly enough, written sources mention a significant trade in onion seeds to Livonia. There is a record from 1533 that refers to about 226 kg of onion seeds arriving in Reval (Koehler 1936 cited in Põltsam 1999). According to an inventory in 1532, the treasure of a Revaler Cort Kappenberg consisted solely of almost 5 kg of onion seeds. In 1444, the Town Council of Reval sent onion seeds to a burgess in Wesenberg (Rakvere) as a token of their grati‑ tude to her for lending a horse to one of its servants (Põltsam 2002). The protocols of the Town Council of Dorpat also indicate trade in other seeds. In ad‑ dition, horseradish, garlic and cabbage were traded; the Russians were allowed to sell them in the town from their boats. The protocols mention that it was prohibited to buy hemp seeds in bulk from them, and from the non-Germans outside the town gate (Tarvel 1980). Parsley seeds, and the seeds of kale, carrots, radishes and onions, were important articles that were sold, for instance, by the great merchant of Reval, Helmich Ficke, in 1538‑42 to the mano‑ rial estates Porkuni and Kiviloo, which belonged to the Bishop of Reval. These records also mention pepper, sugar, raisins, olives (Olea europaea), ginger, saffron, rice, nutmeg and hops (Ligi 1992). Manorial landlords also consumed many other imported food items, such as bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), mustard, almonds (Prunus dulcis) and figs. Apples are also mentioned (Niitemaa 1952). The information gleaned from written sources shows, on the one hand, the import of a variety of luxury goods, such as spices, and, on the other hand, the export of staples. It has been assumed that grain exports from Livonia, for which there is evidence from the 13th century onwards, was, prior to the 15th century, rather limited both with regard to its volume and its importance in foreign markets. Grain was first exported within the territories of the Teutonic Order, occasionally to Finland and Sweden during the 14th century, and from the end of that century onwards also to Flanders. By the end of the 15th century export of grain from the Baltic prov‑ inces extended remarkably to the Netherlands mar‑

Estonia

ket, which in turn began to sell on to other Western European countries (Ahvenainen 1963; Doroshenko et al. 1974; Ligi 1968; Niitemaa 1952). Rye was the most important grain for export. Barley and malt for brewing beer were also sporadically exported. Oats for fodder and wheat are even occasionally men‑ tioned (Ahvenainen 1963). Beside grain, Livonian flax seed (linseed), esteemed in Western Europe, was exported along with hemp seeds. This took place partly illegally in the face of prohibitions in opera‑ tion since the middle of the 15th century (Niitemaa 1952). These goods, grain in particular, originated not only from medieval Livonia. The coastal areas of Finland and Sweden were also part of the hin‑ terland feeding Reval’s trade. Finnish and Swedish merchants tried to make use of the harbour in order to reach the world market. Rye was again the most important article in this grain trade (Ahvenainen 1963; Niitemaa 1952). Reval also served these ar‑ eas as a marketplace were grain was sought in years

of bad harvests (regarding Karelians; Moora and Ligi 1970). Conversely, the Dorpat grain trade was closely related to the Russian hinterland; in years of famine the Russians bought grain from the town, while in years of surplus they sold it in great amounts through the same channels (Sillasoo 2001; Tarvel 1980). The cereals mentioned are wheat, rye and barley.

Archaeobotanical evidence in the context of food consumption Archaeobotanical evidence of traditionally cultivated plants presumably reveals their role and importance in food consumption even if found in very general culture layers. Irregularly cultivated plants are much more complicated to detect. They could be present in specific deposits, such as in storage places or la‑ trines, side by side with plant remains that originate from the local natural and human environments

Table 6.  Archaeobotanical evidence of medieval food plants (12th-16th centuries) discovered from archaeological excavations in Latvia (Rasinš 1958; Rasinš and Taurina 1983). Date Plant species Latin names Avena sp.

(11) 12-13

13

Tērvete, 1952-7; Mežotne, 1938-9; Asote, 1949-54;

Talsi, 1936-8; Tērvete,

Koknese, 1965-6 Tērvete, 1952-7 Koknese, 1965-6 Tērvete, 1952-7 Talsi, 1936-8; Tērvete, 1952-7 Talsi, 1936-8

1952-7 Tērvete 1952-7, Asote, 1949-54 Tērvete, 1952-7 Tērvete 1952-7,

Talsi, 1936-8; Tērvete, 1952-7; Mežotne, 1938-9;

Talsi, 1936-8; Tērvete,

Lipši, 1975; Asote, 1949-54; Koknese, 1965-6 Tērvete, 1952-7; Asote, 1949-54 Talsi, 1936-8; Tērvete, 1952-7 (12th century), Asote, 1949-54 Tērvete, 1952-7; Asote, 1949-54; Koknese, 1965-6 Talsi, 1936-8; Tērvete, 1952-7; Asote, 1949-54;

1952-7

Lens culinaris Linum ussitatissimum Oryza sativa Panicum miliaceum Pisum sativum

Tērvete, 1952-7 Tērvete, 1952-7

Secale cereale

Koknese, 1965-6 Talsi, 1936-8; Tērvete, 1952-7; Mežotne, 1938-9;

Talsi, 1936-8; Tērvete,

Avena fatua Avena sativa Brassica campestris Camelina sativa Cannabis sativa Fagopyrum esculentum Hordeum vulgare

Asote, 1949-54; Koknese, 1965-6 cf. Sesamum indicum Setaria sp. Triticum sp. Triticum aestivum

Tērvete, 1952-7 Tērvete, 1952-7; Koknese, 1965-6 Talsi, 1936-8; Mežotne, 1938-9; Lipši,1975; Asote,

Triticum dicoccon Vicia faba

1949-54; Koknese, 1965-6 Tērvete, 1952-7; Mežotne, 1938-9; Koknese, 1965-6 Talsi, 1936-8; Tērvete, 1952-7; Mežotne, 1938-9;

13-14

Riga, 1978

14-15

Sēlpils, 1965

15-16

Salaspils, 1975

English names Oat

Salaspils, 1975 Salaspils, 1975

Wild Oats Common Oats Turnip Gold of Pleasure Hemp Buckwheat Barley

Salaspils, 1975

Lentil Flax Rice Common Millet Pea

Salaspils, 1975

Rye

Salaspils, 1975

cf. Sesame Bristle Grass Wheat Common Wheat

Riga, 1978 Riga, 1978

Riga, 1978

Riga, 1978

Sēlpils, 1965

Sēlpils, 1965

1952-7 Tērvete, 1952-7 Tērvete, 1952-7 Tērvete, 1952-7 Riga, 1978 Tērvete, 1952-7 Tērvete, 1952-7

Sēlpils, 1965

Century AD

Emmer Bean

Koknese, 1965-6 cf.=confer, identification of the species is uncertain sp.=species, identification to genus level

85

CHAPTER 3

(Greig 1981; Sillasoo 2001). When “traditionally” eaten wild fruit (or others) is found in large amounts amid storage finds, kitchen refuse or faeces, one also presumes their use for food. Estonian archaeobota­ nical material, which mainly originates from towns, concerns urban diet and generally refers to the use of plants by average citizens. Plant remains have not been recorded from medieval rural agricultural settlements. The inhabitants of excavated plots are usually unknown and their social identity can be de‑ duced from the location of these plots in the context of the urban topography. Differences between ordi‑ nary and festive food could not be detected; neither could the seasonality of consumed foodstuffs. One realizes that such evidence is extremely fragmentary and certainly needs to be examined in association with written records. Archaeobotanical evidence first of all highlights the common use of wild fruit in the urban Hanseatic diet. Raspberry seeds (Rubus idaeus) are most com‑ monly found, slightly surpassing strawberries (Fragaria vesca). Berries of Vaccinium species were frequently eaten; current data refer to cranberries (Vaccinium oxycoccus) as the most commonly used of these species. Finds of cranberries are as com‑ mon as those of rowan berries (Sorbus aucuparia) in this peri­od. The seeds of cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus) and brambles (Rubus caesius, fruticosus) are less frequently found, but these berries were also regularly consumed. This cannot be said of the stone bramble (Rubus saxatilis) and black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum; Sillasoo 2001). Cultivated fruit, such as sour cherries, apples, pears, bullaces, plums and black currants, was also regularly consumed. Concerning their frequency of occurrence, apples outnumber all the other culti‑ vated fruit. Sour cherries and black currants appear less frequently; pears, plums and bullaces are of little importance. Simple statistics show that with regard to the kinds of fruits, cultivated fruit was about four times less frequently consumed than wild fruit in the Hanseatic towns in Livonia. Archaeobotanical data show that two kinds of imported cultivated fruit were eaten: figs and raisins from grapes. In comparison, fig seeds are found as often as seeds of cranberries and, theoretically, figs were eaten more commonly than apples. However, it is generally known that the number of seeds in one fig is significantly greater than the number of seeds in an apple. Consequently, 86

the former is more frequently found than the latter, and perhaps over-represented in deposits. Written sources predominantly refer to figs and raisins as being the fruit that was consumed during fast peri‑ ods (Scully 1995; Sillasoo 2001). Archaeobotanical data show that the consumption of nuts, hazelnuts in particular, was as frequent as the consumption of wild fruit. The frequency of hazelnuts is similar to that of strawberries, whereas the importance of walnuts was generally insignificant in the urban diet in medieval Livonia. Walnut shells have only been discovered in archaeobotanical material from Tartu and Tallinn. Oil plants form another very important group of archaeobotanical finds relating to food. Few by number, in terms of species, the remains of these plants are particularly characteristic of the Hanseatic period. The frequency of occurrence of the seeds of hemp, flax (linseed) and poppy is similar to that for cranberries and rowan berries. Their consump‑ tion may have reached a similar level. In medieval German cookery, hemp was used to prepare hemp milk – a substitute for cow’s milk during fasts, and hemp mash. Poppy oil was one of the most favoured vegetable cooking oils in Northern Germany in the later Middle Ages (Scully 1995; Sillasoo 2001). Based on archaeobotanical data, one may con‑ clude that dill and caraway were the most commonly used spices in the Hanseatic diet in Estonia, followed by black mustard, parsley, celery and the fruits of juniper (Juniperus communis). All of these were, how‑ ever, less frequently used than hops – widely used for flavouring beer in medieval Livonia; sweet gale was a rare condiment used for this purpose in medieval Hanseatic towns. As already seen from above, written sources con‑ siderably enlarge our knowledge of the variety of Hanseatic food plants and the ways of their con‑ sumption. The purchase lists of the Town Council and merchants’ guilds of Reval and Riga give an example of food that was consumed during the feasts of the upper and upper-middle classes (Table 7; Mänd 1999, 2005). These lists reveal that mustard or horseradish was purchased to spice fish or meat eaten at small dinners held on the eve of greater feasts. For the latter, ginger, onions, cinnamon, saffron, pepper, cloves and caraway were also bought by the Great Guild. Olives were also purchased only for the great feasts; there are records of them in Livonia from the

Estonia Table 7.  Vegetable food purchases for festival meals in Reval and Riga after Mänd (1999; bread, bear and wine are not included). TC- Town Council, GG- Great Guild, TG- Table Guild, BR-Black Heads of Riga; O-high-status representatives of the Teutonic Order, *- petersillien. TC 1404-28 6 feasts

TC 1477-1547 11 feasts

GG 1509-23 13 feasts

GG 1524-39 12 feasts

GG 1539-52 12 feasts

TG 1482-1534 11 feasts

TG 1535-57 12 feasts

BR 1518-54 8 feasts

Anise Caraway Cardamom Cinnamon Cloves Cubeb Cumin Fennel seeds Ginger Grains of Paradise Mace Mustard Nutmeg Pepper Saffron Sage Seseli-seeds Sugar

0 0 1 2 3 3 0 0 4 4 0 4 0 4 4 0 4 2

1 0 0 6 7 4 0 0 10 7 8 0 5 9 10 0 0 9

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 8 0 11 0 1 0 0

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 11 0 11 2 0 0 1

11 0 0 10 10 0 0 0 11 0 0 7 0 12 12 0 0 6

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 11 0 0 2 0 11 11 0 0 0

0 0 0 5 5 0 8 0 12 0 0 2 0 4 4 0 0 5

7 1 0 1 1 0 0 4 7 0 0 5 0 8 7 5 0 6

0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 4

0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 3 3 0 0 2

Garlic Horseradish Onions Parsley roots

2 0 4 2

1 0 3 2

0 0 0 0

0 2 8 0

0 0 7 0

0 0 11 11

0 0 12 4

0 1 8 6*

0 0 1 0

0 0 2 1

Apples Damson plums Dates Lemons (limonen) Olives Pears Raisins

2 0 2 0 0 0 1

10 0 2 0 1 8 1

12 0 0 0 0 3 0

12 0 0 0 0 3 0

12 0 0 0 3 5 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 11

0 5 0 4 6 0 3

7 0 0 5 6 0 7

3 0 1 0 0 1 0

4 0 0 1 1 0 2

Almonds Hazelnuts Nuts (either hazelnuts or walnuts) Walnuts Other useful plants Rice Poppy-seed oil

0 ? 1 ?

1 8 + 7

0 7 4 9

0 9 2 10

0 11 + 11

9 0 0 0

4 0 0 0

0 6 + 7

0 ? 5 1

2 0 0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 3

0 0

1 0

Group of people Time period Number of feasts/receptions

TC/O TC/O 1438-71 1500-1536 5 receptions 4 receptions

Herbs and spices

Vegetables

Fruit

Nuts

end of the 15th century onwards. When guests and women were invited to the feasts, nuts including hazelnuts and walnuts, apples and baked pears were provided. Sometimes anise and saffron were pur‑ chased for preparing desserts; pepper was regularly bought and used in food preparation (Mänd 1999, 2005). These merchants’ dinners were probably not too different from those of urban ecclesiastics with regard to the use of ingredients of plant origin. In the feast for the Bishop of Reval on his visit to St.

Nicholas church in 1501 onions, raisins or pepper were used to prepare fish dishes, and hemp mash flavoured with saffron, honey and pepper was served to the participants (Põltsam 1999). Regarding spices, the Town Council’s apothecary in Reval is frequently mentioned to have mixed claret and prepared “sweets” for banquets. The same apothecaries also sent “sweets” to the council‑ lors and some other of the town’s representatives for important feasts such as Christmas. In about 87

CHAPTER 3

1430, anise-confects are mentioned in a letter by Reval’s town physician (Gustavson 1972). In 1475, such “sweets” were bought ready-made by the Town Council from the apothecary to serve to the Mas‑ ter of the Teutonic Order and his retinue (Põltsam 2002). The town’s accounts record that in the claret prepared for Christmas 1511 a rare spice in medi‑ eval Livonian cuisine, galingale (cf. Cyperus longus), was used, in addition to cinnamon, ginger, grains of paradise, sugar and saffron. In 1546, the Town Council bought the apothecary sugar, cinnamon, cubebs, cloves, nutmeg, mace, grains of paradise, saf‑ fron and pepper for preparing confect and particular backenkurd (Mänd 1999). Rare and valuable imported foodstuffs were some‑ times prepared by apothecaries and used as gifts for ambassadors. In 1494, the Town Council of Reval sent an ambassador to Moscow who, when travel‑ ling through Novgorod, delivered three baskets of figs and three boxes of spices to the local bishop as a present. When in Moscow, he gave one great box of spices to the Grand Duke, and four baskets of figs and about half a kilogram of herbs to another duke; the wives of certain boyars each received one basket of spices and four pounds of herbs. When visiting Wenden (Võnnu) and Narva in 1498, the ambassadors of the Town Council presented rice, herbs, pepper, saffron, ginger and mustard to the “Lords of Lübeck” (Põltsam 1999). The definition of social status greatly occupied the urban elites, and sumptuary laws were issued by Town Councils in order to demarcate the boundaries between the upper and middle classes. Such laws also referred to food and feasts in particular. In 1540, a sumptuary law was issued by the Town Council of Reval for wedding feasts in the Great Guild: for wedding feasts held at midday, horseradish was to be used instead of mustard for flavouring meat dishes, rice and not almond purée was to be served as the fourth course, and apples and nuts were to be of‑ fered along with cakes as the final course “according to the old custom” (Mänd 1999). The foodstuffs provided for peasants’ feasts were obviously very dif‑ ferent. Prior to the middle of the 16th century each plough-land was obliged to provide food for vaku feasts up to three times a year (subsequently money was requested). A surviving list of such revenues from Ruila, 1565, includes 100 loaves of (rye) bread and two barrels (about 300 litres) of oats. In 1569, 88

4500 loaves of bread, 390 heads of cabbage and 13 pecks (about 200 litres) of turnips were brought by the peasants working on the manorial lands of the Teutonic Order on the island of Muhu (Mohn). In some places, money was demanded from peasants for buying onions and white bread, indicating, perhaps, that their cultivation was not widespread (Ligi 1968, 1992). Some further written evidence confirms the existence of a greater diversity of social groups of consumers and foodstuffs. The Town Council of Reval provided soldiers in Narva with peas in 1480, and a warship travelling to Riga with beans in 1430 (Põltsam 2002). Black Heads, in turn, sent the Do‑ minicans a barrel of peas each year at Advent for the masses held, and the Table Guild distributed peas and a few other items to the town’s poor. Both guilds and wealthy citizens donated either rye bread or rye grain for bread to the poor, as did Gherdt Stromberch in response to the increasing grain prices in 1482. The Town Council of Reval provisioned haymakers in the village of Fäht (Väo) in 1514 with food that included turnips, groats (hulled and crushed cereal grains) and about 2.1 kg of bread per day. The builders of the gate in front of the Nuns’ Gate were sent oats, groats, cabbages and onions in addition to other vegetable foodstuffs by the Town Council of Reval in 1461 (Põltsam 1999). St. John’s poorhouse in Reval, which owned a few villages in the countryside, received revenues from their peas‑ ants. These revenues frequently mention rye, barley and malt (Johansen 1925b). Lack of archaeobotanical evidence from rural set‑ tlement sites does not allow a specific examination of the differences and similarities between urban and rural food consumption in medieval Livonia. This information is present in written sources: ac‑ count books and purchase lists. Moreover, written sources also contain references to series of commu‑ nications and interactions between urban and rural communities. Landlords and peasants may have of‑ fered their goods for sale in the towns’ markets, but Hanseatic merchants also traded actively with mano‑ rial landlords and peasants in the countryside. They developed a system of friends (söbbers), who were the better off representatives of peasantry in villages distant from the towns, but close to the main land routes between Riga and Reval, Reval and Dorpat or Reval and Narva, to gain help in the transportation

Estonia

of their goods. They also learned the local languages in order to be able to trade with the people. A similar system of communication between Hanseatic mer‑ chants and peasants has been recorded for Norway (Niitemaa 1952).

Conclusions The main contribution of archaeobotanical inves‑ tigation to research into Hanseatic food is that it may offer physical evidence of plants actually consumed. This evidence may or may not confirm records found in written sources. It also represents independent results. Both archaeobotanical and historical research confirm the importance of rye and barley as the main staples. In the medieval Es‑ tonian towns, grain storage deposits consist mainly of these grains. Rye was the most important sta‑ ple in cultivation and consumption as it was used for making bread. Barley was as important as rye, partly because of groats that were prepared for food, but primarily because of its use in beer produc‑ tion, both in the towns and countryside. Common wheat, that is known to have grown in the southern and western parts of medieval Livonia, has been identified only in charred mixed deposits. The flour of common wheat was used to produce white bread for the better off, who also consumed dark bread of mixed wheat and rye flour. White bread occurred more commonly on festive tables. Oats in towns might have served as fodder of horses, but in the countryside they were presumably also used for human food. Storage deposits of peas have been found in the suburbs and individual seed fragments in urban latrines highlighting, together with written evidence, their general importance in food during the Hanseatic period. The staples of secondary im‑ portance in Livonia were buckwheat, millet, lentils and beans. Although buckwheat was cultivated in some parts of medieval Livonia already in the 14th century, it did not play a significant role in Livo‑ nian urban food before the end of the 16th century. Millet, which was consumed by the urban middle classes, was presumably imported from southern Baltic regions. The imported and rare food item rice belonged on festive tables. Onions attained great importance during the Hanseatic period. Their cultivation, as well as the cultivation of many Mediterranean vegetables in

medieval Livonia, was apparently promoted by the trading activities of Hanseatic merchants. Carrots, radishes, salad and parsnip occur in cultivation and consumption in medieval Livonia. The cultivation and consumption of cucumbers is evidenced in the 16th-17th centuries. The traditionally cultivated tur‑ nips and cabbages were consumed on a daily basis. They were also provided for the peasants’ festive ta‑ bles in countryside. In the merchants’ feasts parsley roots were consumed. Dill and caraway, found in urban archaeological deposits, were commonly used by the urban population. They may be mentioned in purchase lists for merchants’ feast as “cumins”, but the name allows various interpretations such as dill, caraway and cumin. The use of mustard in the Hanseatic food increases in importance. It had a slightly higher status than horseradish on festive occasions, suggesting that the latter may have been more commonly used by the peasantry. The remains of black mustard have only been found in urban ar‑ chaeological deposits. Garlic was eaten at merchants’ feasts. Black pepper, found in urban deposits, could have become part of the diet of a wide range of the urban middle-class population. The remains of cardamom and coriander have been found; the vari‑ ety and use of spices is well documented in written documents dealing with festive meals. Both locally cultivated and imported hops were used in beer pro‑ duction. The consumption of poppy and hemp seeds in food is something characteristic of the Hanseatic urban population. Urban diet also had a great dependence on wild fruit which, on the basis of the archaeobotanical data, appears to have been consumed three to four times more than cultivated fruit. One may con‑ sider wild fruit as a common seasonal commodity gathered by peasants and sold in town markets, but urban households may also have supplied themselves seasonally, and preserved the products for winter. Wild berries and nuts were presumably somewhat less dependent on bad harvests than cultivated fruit, where cultivation was restricted to small garden areas. This may be an important feature determin‑ ing the cultivation of fruit in Nordic areas. Together with locally cultivated apples and nuts, imported apples and nuts were consumed, particularly during merchants’ feasts. In addition to apples and pears, a few imported dried fruits such as dates and raisins were also provided for these feasts. Urban depos‑ 89

CHAPTER 3

its demonstrate the consumption of a few other fruits. Fig seeds have been found in archaeologi‑ cal deposits, showing the general consumption of this fruit. Although fig seeds are present in nearly every urban deposit, the fruit does not appear on purchase lists for festive occasions. Instead, it is mentioned together with spices as a component of the representative gifts of ambassadors. The lack of evidence from rural sites does not allow archaeo‑ botanical comparisons between rural and urban diet in this period, but one may suppose that the greatest similarities between food in towns and in the countryside occurred in consumption of staples. They were produced in the hinterlands of towns. The differences between these diets were determined by the higher costs of certain foodstuffs and the possibilities of communication, more than anything else. People at a lower economical level, and with a lower level of communication, were more tightly bound to the resources provided by their immediate local area.

90

Acknowledgements We would like to thank Dr. Sabine Karg from the Department of Prehistory, Environmental Archae­ ology at the National Museum of Denmark, for her initiative at and coordinating the HANSA Network Project; the Nordic Council of Ministers for funding the international network and the Estonian Science Foundation for funding the national network of the project (grant nr. 5019, 2002‑3). Many thanks to Dr. Jaan Tamm and the Estonian Institute of Hu‑ manities at Tallinn University for their patronage and interest in this particular research, to medieval‑ ists Dr. Anti Selart from Tartu University and Dr. Inna Põltsam from Tallinn University, for making comments on the manuscript and for references to relevant publications on the Estonian history and food studies, to Dr. Reimo Rivis from the Institute of Ecology at Tallinn University who designed fig‑ ure 1 and to our colleague Dr. Terttu Lempiäinen from Turku University for helping us to produce the photographs of plant remains.

Estonia

Plant names in Latin, Estonian and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000; Index of Estonian Plant Names, http://www.ut.ee/taimenimed) in alphabetical order Latin names Estonian names Aethusa cynapium L. koeraputk Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. melegeti aframon, paradiisiterad Agrostemma githago L. harilik äiakas Allium cepa L. harilik sibul Amaranthus blitum L. tõusev (sinkjas) rebashein Amaranthus sp. rebashein Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. karukeel Anethum graveolens L. aedtill Angelica sylvestris L. harilik heinputk Anthemis arvensis L. valge karikakar Anthemis cotula L. haisev karikakar Anthemis tinctoria L. kollane karikakar Apium graveolens L. seller, aedseller Aquilegia vulgaris L. harilik kurekell Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. harilik leesikas Artemisia absinthium L. koirohi Atriplex hortensis L. aedmalts Atriplex sp. malts Atropa belladonna L. must belladonna, karumustikas Avena fatua L. tuulekaer Avena nuda L. liivkaer Avena sativa L. harilik kaer Avena sp. kaer Beta vulgaris L. harilik peet Betonica officinalis L. harilik tõnnike Brassica napus L. kaalikas Brassica nigra (L.) Koch must kapsasrohi (must sinep) Brassica oleracea L. kapsas Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) naeris (põld-kapsasrohi, naerishein) Brassica sp. kapsasrohi Bromus secalinus L. rukkiluste Bunias orientalis L. harilik tõlkjas Buxus sempervirens L. harilik pukspuu Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz põldtuder Cannabis sativa L. harilik kanep Capsicum annuum L. harilik paprika Carum carvi L. harilik köömen Castanea sativa P. Miller harilik kastanipuu Centaurea cyanus L. rukkilill Cerasus avium (L.) Moench magus kirsipuu Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller hapu (harilik) kirsipuu Chelidonium majus L. harilik vereurmarohi Chenopodium album L. valge hanemalts Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. tervelehine hanemalts Chenopodium sp. hanemalts Cichorium intybus L. harilik sigur Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. harilik tungaltera Consolida regalis Gray põld-varesjalg Coriandrum sativum L. aedkoriander Cornus mas L. kirss-kontpuu Cornus sanguinea L. verev kontpuu Cornus suecica L. rootsi kukits Corylus avellana L. harilik sarapuu Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. tömbilehine viirpuu Cucumis sativus L. harilik kurk Cucurbita sp. kõrvits Cydonia oblonga Mill. harilik küdoonia Daucus carota L. porgand Dianthus barbatus L. habenelk Dianthus sp. nelk Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. tähk-kukehirss Elettaria cardamomum Maton harilik kardemon Elettaria major Smith suur kardemon Empetrum nigrum L. kukemari Euphorbia helioscopia L. harilik piimalill Fagopyrum esculentum Moench harilik tatar

English names Fool’s Parsley Grains of Paradise Corn Cockle Onion Purple Amaranth Amaranth Small Bugloss Dill Archangel Corn Chamomile Stinking Chamomile Dyer’s Chamomile Celery Columbine Bearberry Absinthe Garden Orache Orache Deadly Nightshade Wild Oats Naked Oats Common Oats Oat Beetroot Betony Kale Black Mustard Cabbage Turnip Cabbage Rye Brome Warty Cabbage Boxwood Gold of Pleasure Hemp Hot Pepper Caraway Spanish Chestnut Cornflower Sweet Cherry Sour Cherry Greater Celandine Fat Hen Good King Henry Goosefoot Chicory Ergot Oriental Lakspur Coriander Cornelian Cherry Common Dogwood Dwarf Cornel Hazel Common Hawthorn Cucumber Pumpkin Quince Carrot Sweet William Pink Barnyard Grass Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Black Crowberry Sun Spurge Buckwheat

91

CHAPTER 3

Ficus carica L. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fragaria vesca L. Fumaria officinalis L. Galium aparine L. Galium spurium L. Genista tinctoria L. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Humulus lupulus L. Hyoscyamus niger L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Hypericum perforatum L. Hyssopus officinalis L. Iris pseudacorus L. Juglans regia L. Juniperus communis L. Lactuca sativa L. Laurus nobilis L. Lens culinaris Medik. Leonurus cardiaca L. Lepidium sativum L. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Lithospermum arvense L. Lolium temulentum L. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sp. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Mespilus germanica L. Morus nigra L. Morus sp. Myrica gale L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nepeta cataria L. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Nicotiana rustica L. Nicotiana sp. Nigella sativa L. Origanum vulgare L. Oryza sativa L. Panicum miliaceum L. Papaver dubium L. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Pastinaca sativa L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Physalis alkekengi L. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Piper nigrum L. Pisum sativum L. Portulaca oleracea L. Prunus domestica L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Prunus insititia L. Prunus padus L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Prunus sp. Prunus spinosa L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Ranunculus arvensis L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Raphanus sativus L. Reseda luteola L. Ribes nigrum L. Ribes rubrum L. Ribes sp. Ribes uva-crispa L. Rosa sp. Rosmarinus officinalis L.

92

harilik viigipuu harilik angervaks harilik apteegitill metsmaasikas harilik punand roomav madar põldmadar värvi-leetpõõsas oder harilik humal koera-pöörirohi kandiline naistepuna liht-naistepuna harilik iisop kollane võhumõõk kreeka pähklipuu harilik kadakas aedsalat harilik loorberipuu harilik lääts veiste-südamerohi salatkress harilik leeskputk harilik lina põld-rusuvars (põld-rusujuur) uimastav raihein aed-õunapuu õunapuu mets-õunapuu harilik astelpihlakas must mooruspuu mooruspuu harilik porss lõhnav muskaadipuu harilik naistenõges põld-linnutuder mahorkatubakas tubakas aed-mustköömen harilik pune harilik riis harilik hirss põldmagun unimagun moorputk aedpetersell harilik füüsal harilik pimendipuu must pipar harilik hernes harilik portulak harilik ploomipuu harilik mandlipuu kreegipuu harilik toomingas harilik virsikupuu ploomipuu laukapuu harilik pirnipuu pirnipuu põldtulikas põldrõigas rôigas, redis värvireseeda must sõstar punane sõstar sõstar aed-karusmari kibuvits harilik rosmariin

Fig Meadow Sweet Fennel Wild Strawberry Common Fumitory Cleavers False Cleavers Dyer’s Broom Barley Hop Henbane St John’s Wort St John’s Wort Hyssop Flag Iris Walnut Juniper Lettuce Laurel Lentil Motherwort Garden Cress Lovage Flax Corn Gromwell Bearded Ryegrass Apple Apple Wild Apple Medlar Black Mulberry Mulberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg, Mace Catmint Ball Mustard Indian Tobacco Tobacco Black Cumin Wild Marjoram Rice Common Millet Long-headed Poppy Opium Poppy Parsnip Parsley Strawberry Tomato Allspice Black Pepper Pea Purslane Plum Almond Bullace European Bird Cherry Peach Sloe/Cherry Sloe Pear Pear Corn Buttercup Wild Radish Radish Wild Mignonette Black Currant Red Currant Currant Gooseberry Rose Rosemary

Estonia

Rubus caesius L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus idaeus L. Rubus saxatilis L. Rubus sp. Ruta graveolens L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sambucus racemosa L. Satureja hortensis L. Secale cereale L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Sinapis alba L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Spinacia oleracea L. Thymus serpyllum L. Thymus sp. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Triticum dicoccon Schrank Triticum sp. Triticum spelta L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Vaccinium sp. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Valeriana officinalis L. Valeriana sp. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Verbena officinalis L. Vicia faba L. Vicia sativa L. Vicia sp. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.)

põldmurakas rabamurakas põõsasmurakas harilik vaarikas lillakas murakas aedruut väike leeder must leeder punane leeder aed- piparrohi harilik rukis vesihaljas kukeleib itaalia kukeleib roheline kukeleib valge sinep harilik pihlakas aedpihlakas vahtralehine pihlakas aedspinat nõmm-liivatee liivatee harilik nisu kaheteranisu (polbnisu, emmernisu) nisu spelta nisu harilik mustikas harilik jõhvikas mustikas sinikas harilik pohl harilik palderjan palderjan hambune kännak põldkännak harilik raudürt põlduba suvivikk hiirehernes harilik viinapuu

European Dewberry Cloudberry Bramble Raspberry Stone Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Rue Dwarf Elder Common Elder Red Berried Elder Savory Rye Yellow Foxtail Foxtail Bristle Grass Green Bristle Grass White Mustard Rowan Service Tree Wild Service Tree Spinach Wild Thyme Thyme Common Wheat Emmer Wheat Spelt Bilberry Cranberry Bilberry/Cowberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Common Valerian Valerian Narrowfruit Cornsalad Cornsalad Vervain Bean Common Vetch Vetch, Bean Grape Vine

93

CHAPTER 3

Plant names in Estonian, Latin and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000; Index of Estonian Plant Names, http://www.ut.ee/taimenimed) in alphabetical order Estonian names Latin names aed- piparrohi Satureja hortensis L. aed-karusmari Ribes uva-crispa L. aedkoriander Coriandrum sativum L. aedmalts Atriplex hortensis L. aed-mustköömen Nigella sativa L. aed-õunapuu Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) aedpetersell Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. aedpihlakas Sorbus domestica L. aedruut Ruta graveolens L. aedsalat Lactuca sativa L. aedspinat Spinacia oleracea L. aedtill Anethum graveolens L. habenelk Dianthus barbatus L. haisev karikakar Anthemis cotula L. hambune kännak Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. hanemalts Chenopodium sp. hapu (harilik) kirsipuu Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller harilik angervaks Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. harilik apteegitill Foeniculum vulgare Mill. harilik astelpihlakas Mespilus germanica L. harilik füüsal Physalis alkekengi L. harilik heinputk Angelica sylvestris L. harilik hernes Pisum sativum L. harilik hirss Panicum miliaceum L. harilik humal Humulus lupulus L. harilik iisop Hyssopus officinalis L. harilik jõhvikas Vaccinium oxycoccus L. harilik kadakas Juniperus communis L. harilik kaer Avena sativa L. harilik kanep Cannabis sativa L. harilik kardemon Elettaria cardamomum Maton harilik kastanipuu Castanea sativa P. Miller harilik kurekell Aquilegia vulgaris L. harilik kurk Cucumis sativus L. harilik küdoonia Cydonia oblonga Mill. harilik köömen Carum carvi L. harilik leesikas Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. harilik leeskputk Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch harilik lina Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) harilik loorberipuu Laurus nobilis L. harilik lääts Lens culinaris Medik. harilik mandlipuu Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb harilik mustikas Vaccinium myrtillus L. harilik naistenõges Nepeta cataria L. harilik nisu Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) harilik palderjan Valeriana officinalis L. harilik paprika Capsicum annuum L. harilik peet Beta vulgaris L. harilik pihlakas Sorbus aucuparia L. harilik piimalill Euphorbia helioscopia L. harilik pimendipuu Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. harilik pirnipuu Pyrus communis L. harilik ploomipuu Prunus domestica L. harilik pohl Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. harilik porss Myrica gale L. harilik portulak Portulaca oleracea L. harilik pukspuu Buxus sempervirens L. harilik punand Fumaria officinalis L. harilik pune Origanum vulgare L. harilik raudürt Verbena officinalis L. harilik riis Oryza sativa L. harilik rosmariin Rosmarinus officinalis L. harilik rukis Secale cereale L. harilik sarapuu Corylus avellana L. harilik sibul Allium cepa L. harilik sigur Cichorium intybus L.

94

English names Savory Gooseberry Coriander Garden Orache Black Cumin Apple Parsley Service Tree Rue Lettuce Spinach Dill Sweet William Stinking Chamomile Narrowfruit Cornsalad Goosefoot Sour Cherry Meadow Sweet Fennel Medlar Strawberry Tomato Archangel Pea Common Millet Hop Hyssop Cranberry Juniper Common Oats Hemp Cardamom Spanish Chestnut Columbine Cucumber Quince Caraway Bearberry Lovage Flax Laurel Lentil Almond Bilberry Catmint Common Wheat Common Valerian Hot Pepper Beetroot Rowan Sun Spurge Allspice Pear Plum Cowberry Sweet Gale Purslane Boxwood Common Fumitory Wild Marjoram Vervain Rice Rosemary Rye Hazel Onion Chicory

Estonia

harilik tatar harilik tõlkjas harilik tõnnike harilik toomingas harilik tungaltera harilik vereurmarohi harilik viigipuu harilik viinapuu harilik virsikupuu harilik vaarikas harilik äiakas hiirehernes itaalia kukeleib kaer kaheteranisu (polbnisu, emmernisu) kandiline naistepuna kapsas kapsasrohi karukeel kibuvits kirss-kontpuu koeraputk koera-pöörirohi koirohi kollane karikakar kollane võhumõõk kõrvits kreegipuu kreeka pähklipuu kukemari kaalikas laukapuu liht-naistepuna liivatee liivkaer lillakas lõhnav muskaadipuu magus kirsipuu mahorkatubakas malts melegeti aframon, paradiisiterad metsmaasikas mets-õunapuu moorputk mooruspuu murakas must belladonna, karumustikas must kapsasrohi (must sinep) must leeder must mooruspuu must pipar must sõstar mustikas naeris (põld-kapsasrohi, naerishein) nelk nisu nõmm-liivatee oder õunapuu palderjan pirnipuu ploomipuu põldkännak põld-linnutuder põldmadar põldmagun põldmurakas põldrõigas põld-rusuvars (põld-rusujuur) põldtuder

Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Bunias orientalis L. Betonica officinalis L. Prunus padus L. Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Chelidonium majus L. Ficus carica L. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.) Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Rubus idaeus L. Agrostemma githago L. Vicia sp. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Avena sp. Triticum dicoccon Schrank Hypericum maculatum Crantz Brassica oleracea L. Brassica sp. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Rosa sp. Cornus mas L. Aethusa cynapium L. Hyoscyamus niger L. Artemisia absinthium L. Anthemis tinctoria L. Iris pseudacorus L. Cucurbita sp. Prunus insititia L. Juglans regia L. Empetrum nigrum L. Brassica napus L. Prunus spinosa L. Hypericum perforatum L. Thymus sp. Avena nuda L. Rubus saxatilis L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Nicotiana rustica L. Atriplex sp. Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Fragaria vesca L. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Pastinaca sativa L. Morus sp. Rubus sp. Atropa belladonna L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Sambucus nigra L. Morus nigra L. Piper nigrum L. Ribes nigrum L. Vaccinium sp. Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Dianthus sp. Triticum sp. Thymus serpyllum L. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Malus sp. Valeriana sp. Pyrus sp. Prunus sp. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Galium spurium L. Papaver dubium L. Rubus caesius L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Lithospermum arvense L. Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz

Buckwheat Warty Cabbage Betony European Bird Cherry Ergot Greater Celandine Fig Grape Vine Peach Raspberry Corn Cockle Vetch, Bean Foxtail Bristle Grass Oat Emmer St John’s Wort Cabbage Cabbage Small Bugloss Rose Cornelian Cherry Fool’s Parsley Henbane Absinthe Dyer’s Chamomile Flag Iris Pumpkin Bullace Walnut Black Crowberry Kale Sloe St John’s Wort Thyme Naked Oats Stone Bramble Nutmeg, Mace Sweet Cherry Indian Tobacco Orache Grains of Paradise Wild Strawberry Wild Apple Parsnip Mulberry Bramble/Raspberry Deadly Nightshade Black Mustard Common Elder Black Mulberry Black Pepper Black Currant Bilberry/Cowberry Turnip Pink Wheat Wild Thyme Barley Apple Valerian Pear Sloe/Cherry Cornsalad Ball Mustard False Cleavers Long-headed Poppy European Dewberry Wild Radish Corn Gromwell Gold of Pleasure

95

CHAPTER 3

põldtulikas põlduba põld-varesjalg põõsasmurakas porgand punane leeder punane sõstar rabamurakas rebashein roheline kukeleib rôigas, redis roomav madar rootsi kukits rukkilill rukkiluste salatkress seller, aedseller sinikas sõstar spelta nisu suur kardemon suvivikk tervelehine hanemalts tõusev (sinkjas) rebashein tubakas tuulekaer tähk-kukehirss tömbilehine viirpuu uimastav raihein unimagun vahtralehine pihlakas valge hanemalts valge karikakar valge sinep veiste-südamerohi verev kontpuu vesihaljas kukeleib väike leeder värvi-leetpõõsas värvireseeda

96

Ranunculus arvensis L. Vicia faba L. Consolida regalis Gray Rubus fruticosus L. Daucus carota L. Sambucus racemosa L. Ribes rubrum L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Amaranthus sp. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Raphanus sativus L. Galium aparine L. Cornus suecica L. Centaurea cyanus L. Bromus secalinus L. Lepidium sativum L. Apium graveolens L. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Ribes sp. Triticum spelta L. Elettaria major Smith Vicia sativa L. Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Amaranthus blitum L. Nicotiana sp. Avena fatua L. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Lolium temulentum L. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Chenopodium album L. Anthemis arvensis L. Sinapis alba L. Leonurus cardiaca L. Cornus sanguinea L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Sambucus ebulus L. Genista tinctoria L. Reseda luteola L.

Corn Buttercup Bean Oriental Lakspur Bramble Carrot Red Berried Elder Red Currant Cloudberry Amaranth Green Bristle Grass Radish Cleavers Dwarf Cornel Cornflower Rye Brome Garden Cress Celery Bog Bilberry Currant Spelt Sri Lanka Cardamom Common Vetch Good King Henry Purple Amaranth Tobacco Wild Oats Barnyard Grass Common Hawthorn Bearded Ryegrass Opium Poppy Wild Service Tree Fat Hen Corn Chamomile White Mustard Motherwort Common Dogwood Yellow Foxtail Dwarf Elder Dyer’s Broom Wild Mignonette

Finland

Archaeobotanical evidence of plants from the medieval period to early modern times in Finland

Terttu Lempiäinen

Introduction Before the mid-16th century Finland lay on the pe‑ riphery of the European urban establishment, having only six towns. Turku and Vyborg (today in Russia) were provincial centres, but the four other smaller towns were of local significance. The dense network of small towns, typical of Central Europe, was absent. Finland never belonged to the Hanseatic League, but the practices and trade policies of Hanseatic merchants became, however, an important part of everyday urban life, as in the neighbouring coun‑ tries (see chapter 5). Connections with Europe or, indirectly, with anywhere in the world, were possible through contacts with German towns. Sea routes enabled Finland to establish and strengthen contacts across the Baltic region and to join European mer‑ cantile networks. The Hanseatic period, extending from the 12th-17th centuries (the last Hanse Days were held in 1669), saw great changes in social life, trade and settlement structure. In Finland, the me‑ dieval towns – Turku, Vyborg, Naantali, Porvoo, Ulvila, Hämeenlinna – were founded during this time. Trade with members of the Hanseatic League, especially Lübeck and Gdansk via Riga and Reval/ Tallinn, was very active – especially out of Turku and Vyborg. There was some traffic from Turku to all the major towns in the Baltic – 40 ships annually. New products, raw materials, salt, food, textiles and exotic wares like spices, were carried to Finland by

the Hanseatic ships. The main exported products were fish, hides and furs. Finnish medieval towns were all situated on the coast, with the exception of Hämeenlinna in the South Häme, located about 150 km northeast of Turku and reached by the old road “Hämeen Härkätie” (the Ox Road of Häme). The foundation of the above-mentioned six towns in Finland was closely linked to the German Hanseatic League. Turku (Åbo in Swedish) was the old capital of Finland. It is located on the southwestern coast and was the most important medieval town, with the best connections across the Baltic to Sweden, to Reval/Tallinn and to inland areas (Kuujo 1981; Nikula and Nikula 1987). Urbanisation started in the Baltic region during the 12th century. A signifi‑ cant number of merchants and craftsmen of German origin migrated east to the first Finnish towns, taking with them their mercantile organisations. Written documents concerning cereals and plant foods or the household use of plant material are very late in Finland. There are a few old customs registers listing foreign trade with Turku (Dillner 1897; Kerkkonen 1938; Kuujo 1981). The Missale Aboense, a holy book belonging to Turku Cathe‑ dral and dated to 1488, and the Codex Aboensis (1430‑1450), a medieval law catalogue, both contain some drawings of plants identified as being useful at that time. In Naantali, there was a convent dedi‑ 97

CHAPTER 4

cated to St. Birgit in the 15th century, where a small “herbal” with 27 medicinal plants was written. Some of the species were perhaps also cultivated at the convent; they include rose (Rosa sp.), aloe (Aloe sp.), juniper (Juniperus communis), spruce (Picea abies), pine (Pinus sylvestris), anise (Pimpinella anisum), black mustard (Brassica nigra), absinthe (Artemisia absinthium), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), annual nettle (Urtica urens), Labrador tea (Ledum palustre), sweet gale (Myrica gale), scented mayweed (Matricaria recutita), violet (Viola sp.), oak (Quercus robur), greater celandine (Chelidonium majus), horse-radish (Armoracia rusticana), marjoram (Origanum vulgare), salvia (Salvia officinalis), celery (Apium graveolens), garden cress (Lepidium sativum) and common wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum). Some foreign plants were also described, such as source of myrrh (Commiphora sp.), fig (Ficus carica), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylandicum), rue (Ruta graveolens) and myrtle (Myrtus communis). The Finnish convent had active links with the main St. Birgit monastery in Vadstena, Sweden (Erkamo 1944). Olaus Magnus (1555) also described the conditions of the Finnish people, their food, cultivation methods and everyday work. Some useful plants are also mentioned by Mikael Agricola in his “Prayer book of the bible” (Agricola 1544). The text was translated from German and it is not certain how common these plants were in Finland. The first Flora of Finland was published in 1673 by Elias Tillandz at the oldest University, the Acad‑ emy of Turku (Turum Akatemia). The book com‑ prises 17 pages and is without illustrations. Ten years later this Professor of Medicine published a new vol‑ ume of his book containing 563 plant species, with useful and cultivated plants; here illustrations are included (Figure 1). The plant specimens in Finn‑ ish Herbaria are no older than 300 years and derive from Turku Academy. From a Finnish perspective, the most interesting cen‑ turies in terms of the introduction of foreign plants to the country, and their dispersal, are the Middle Ages and the Hanseatic period. Plant macrofossil investigations have shown that foreign material was brought to the country very early. We also know that it was impossible to cultivate, for example, figs, many spices and even nuts in Finland, although ha‑ zelnuts do grow naturally in the southern part of the country. On the other hand, many plants which 98

Figure 1.  The first Flora of Finland Catalogus Plantarum (Tillandz 1683). Front page and illustration of henbane (Hyoscyamus ­niger).

today grow wild in the Finnish vegetation, and are regarded as native plants, were originally introduced and later became wild. For example, henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and greater celandine (Chelidonium majus) are not native but came from the Mediter‑ ranean area. All the plant macrofossil finds from 27 archaeo­logical localities (Figure 2) dated to the Hanseatic period and after (latest finds date from the 19th century)

Pori

Laukko

Hämeenlinna Lahti Naantali Lieto Perniö Kuusisto Porvoo Turku Tammisaari Helsinki

Valaam Käkisalmi Lappeenranta Vyborg

Figure 2.  Map showing the Finnish/Russian locations with archaeobotanical data discussed in this chapter.

Finland

are summarized in this paper. The sites included lie in Southern Finland (ten towns with 22 differ‑ ent localities and five rural settlements) and on the northwestern coast of Lake Ladoga in Russia (Val‑ aam and Käkisalmi). The investigations were carried out between 1985 and 2002, mostly by the author and her students (see reference list).

The studied sites 1a  Helsinki, Kaisaniemi The material studied was collected in summer 1992 during excavation activities in connection with the construction of the underground railway in the cen‑ tre of Helsinki. Archaeologists of the Helsinki City Museum carried out the work. Under the overbur‑ den, there was a settlement layer about 1 m in thick‑ ness. Soil samples were taken from the layer dated to the 17th-18th centuries (Vuorela and Lempiäinen 1997b). At that time, the site was an area of wet wasteland on the shore of a small lake, with Kluuvi Bay in the vicinity. The lake was used by the inhab‑ itants of the small Helsinki village of Kaisaniemi as a waste dump and was drained at the end of the 17th century, the settlement then quickly expanded (Pehkonen et al. 1986).

measuring 200 x 800 m. At the end of this time, the settlement was moved to the site of the present-day Helsinki city centre, about 5 km to the south. In 1550 the coastline lay close to the investigated area, but it later receded about 300 m eastwards as a result of the accumulation of allochthonous sediment de‑ posited by the River Vantaa and, later still, as a result of land filling (Heikkinen 1989; Lempiäinen 1990, 1991a; Lempiäinen and Vuorela 1992; Vuorela and Lempiäinen 1993).

1d  Helsinki, Old Town, Kellomäki The site studied was the same as 1c and the excava‑ tion was carried out by Helsinki City Museum in 1999 in a cellar. Soil samples were taken from layers dated to the 16th-18th centuries exposed in two sec‑ tions running longitudinally through the cellar, and from pits and a well (Onnela 2000).

1b  Helsinki, Mariankatu The material studied was collected in 1998 from archaeological excavations carried out by Helsinki City Museum. The settlement layers studied were dated to the 16th-18th centuries. At that time, the site of Mariankatu was situated on the shoreline of the Baltic Sea, located about 5 m higher than today. Pollen and geochemical analyses were also carried out (Vuorela and Lempiäinen 1999a).

1e  Helsinki, Snellmaninkatu The city of Helsinki was moved in the 1640s to its present-day site from the Old Town situated at the mouth of the River Vantaa. The site Snellmaninkatu was located directly in the new centre. The number of inhabitants of this new settlement grew rapidly and its area increased. There was a severe fire in the city in 1654, and at the end of the same century there was a serious famine. At the beginning of the 18th century, Snellmaninkatu was inhabited by ten families (Niukkanen 2000). Many houses were built and destroyed at the site before the beginning of the 19th century. The settlement layers were, however, preserved in very good condition, but the amount of material available was very limited. The soil ma‑ terial studied was collected from these layers. They are dated on the basis of the archaeological finds to 1640‑1810 (Niukkanen 2000).

1c  Helsinki, Old Town, Annala Plant macrofossil analyses, together with pollen and phytolith studies, were carried out on culture layers from Helsinki Old Town, also excavated by Helsinki City Museum. The layers studied were dated to the 15th-17th centuries. The site was located at an eleva‑ tion of about 8 m close to the estuary of the River Vantaa. The investigation covered cultural mineral soil layers, a ditch, a well, a waste pit and a waste heap and three house areas. Approximately 500‑600 people lived here between 1550‑1647, on an area

1f  Helsinki, Government House This site is located in the present centre of Hel‑ sinki, approximately 400 m from the site of Snell‑ maninkatu. Excavations were carried out in 1993 and 1995‑1996 by Helsinki City Museum. Plant macrofossils were analysed from a total of 78 soil samples, dated on the basis of archaeological finds to the 16th-18th centuries (Vuorela and Lempiäinen 1997a, 1997b). The soil samples were collected from features associated with old houses, yards, waste pits and a marketplace previously located at the site. 99

CHAPTER 4

2  Hämeenlinna, Varikkoniemi The town of Hämeenlinna is situated on the medi‑ eval road of “Hämeen Härkätie” (the Ox Road of Häme), which ran from Turku to Vyborg in Kare‑ lia (today Russia) through the southern interior of Finland. An old settlement site on the shore of Lake Vanajavesi, the opposite shore to that with the castle of Hämeenlinna, was investigated by the National Museum of Antiquities in the years 1986‑1990 (Lempiäinen 1992; Schulz and Schulz 1992). Soil samples were taken from settlement layers and from structures dated both archaeologically and by ra‑ diocarbon dates to the 11th-14th centuries. It is sug‑ gested that the site was an ancient marketplace and the oldest town in Häme.

5 Lappeenranta, Fortress The site is situated in the southeastern part of Fin‑ land on the road to Vyborg. Excavations were carried out in 1985‑1986 on the west slope of the fortress. The main marketplace of the village Lappee, a small settlement that preceded the founding of the town of Lappeenranta, was located here in the 14th-15th centuries, along with the main buildings (Laakso‑ nen and Immonen 1986; Ranta 1978). Today the area is wasteland. The total excavated area was 342 m2 with three interconnected sub-areas. The depth excavated varied from c. 2‑3 m, comprising moreor-less mixed deposits due to intensive use. More than 70 000 plant remains were studied from the site (Lempiäinen 1991b, 1991c, 1992).

3  Kaarina, Kuusisto Castle The excavations were carried out around the ruins of the old Roman Catholic bishop’s castle, in the years 1985‑1998. The castle was founded at the begin‑ ning of the 14th century and was the residence of the Bishop of Turku. It was demolished as early as 1528 by order of Gustaf Wasa, the King of SwedenFinland. Under the Catholic bishops, the castle had good connections with Turku, especially with the castle at Turku and the convent of Naantali, at the end of the 13th century (Gardberg 1979; Hausen 1881‑1883; Suna 1994; Taavitsainen 1979). The plant macrofossil material studied was dated to the castle’s active period, approximately 1300‑1528 (Lempiäinen 1994).

6 Lieto, Rähälä This rural settlement site was studied in 1993 and was radiocarbon dated to the 13th-14th centuries (Raike 1996). The site is an old village founded al‑ ready during the Viking Age. First mentioned in documents from the 15th century, archaeological finds reveal its origins in earlier times. Soil samples were collected from two waste pits with abundant burnt bone, burnt loam, ceramics and glass. The material comprised mainly charred cereal grains and charcoal, with abundant charred weed seeds (Lem‑ piäinen 1996). The number of plant remains studied was about 10 000.

4 Lahti, Market The site was located in the central market of Lahti, in South Häme (on the same old Ox Road from Turku via Hämeenlinna to Vyborg). The archaeo‑ logical excavations were carried out in 1997‑1998. There was a small village prior to the town being founded on the shore of Lake Vesijärvi. Lahti vil‑ lage is mentioned for the first time in documents in 1445 and many times subsequently. The aim of the archaeological excavations was to find traces of the old village, its houses and the old road to Vyborg. The site studied was very densely inhabited and the settlement layers were as much as 1 m in thickness. More than 70 000 plant macrofossils were studied and identified (Lempiäinen 1999a, 1999b).

100

7a Naantali, Convent Church The convent of St. Birgit was founded in Naantali in 1462. Very few documents exist concerning the convent. Nevertheless, written sources tell that there was a herb garden, in which medicinal plants and herbs were cultivated for the inhabitants and patients in the convent’s infirmary (Suvanto 1976). Archaeo‑ logical excavations were carried out in 1996‑1997 in a cellar of the convent church and outside the south‑ ern walls of the church (Uotila et al. 2001) where the herb garden is supposed to have been situated. Soil samples taken from the cellar and outside the walls were dated to the 13th-16th centuries. About 8000 plant remains were studied and the volume of soil samples was c. 50 litres. 7b Naantali, Mannerheiminkatu Today the site is located in the centre of the town of Naantali and about 700 m from the convent

Finland

church. During the Middle Ages there was a small village around the convent. Archaeological excava‑ tions were carried out in 2000‑2002 and soil sam‑ ples were taken from archaeological contexts dated to 1443‑1648 (Uotila et al. 2001). The settlement layers were up to 1 m in thickness.

8  Perniö, Vanhakartano the Royal Estate The site is situated close to the old King’s Road, the southern road running from Turku to Vyborg along the coast of the Gulf of Finland. Archaeological ex‑ cavations were carried out in 1993‑1995 (SUKKAProject, Department of Archaeology, University of Helsinki). Soil samples for plant macrofossil analysis were taken from the ruins of a building dated to the 14th-15th centuries (Lempiäinen 1997). 9  Pori, Art Gallery The excavated site was the vicinity of the Pori Art Museum in the centre of the town of Pori and was studied in 1998. The site is located some hundred metres from the shore of the Gulf of Bothnia. There had been a small village here in the Middle Ages and archaeologists from Satakunta Museum tried to find traces of that settlement. The soil samples were taken from various structures and layers in burnt buildings, cellars, waste pits and waste heaps, fireplaces, fill deposits, ditches, floor layers and postholes (Vuorela and Lempiäinen 1999a). 10  Porvoo, Jokikatu The town Porvoo, on the coast of the Gulf of Finland, was one of the most important medieval towns in Finland. The old King’s Road from Turku to Vyborg also crossed Porvoo. The site was situated in the centre of the town, on the bank of the River Porvoo; during the Middle Ages this was a very important route to the town from the interior. The excavation was carried out in 1997 (Vuorinen and Hakanpää 1997). Soil samples were taken from an excavated drain, 19 m in length, with abundant ar‑ chaeological finds from the medieval settlement lay‑ ers, under and between the cobblestones, wooden structures, thick waste deposits with pieces of wood and charcoal. These were archaeologically dated to the 16th-17th centuries. The number of plant macrofossils studied was about 13 000 (­Lindroos 1999).

11  Tammisaari, Centre Tammisaari is situated on the coast of the Gulf of Finland, about 100 km west of Helsinki. The town was granted a town charter in 1546 by King Gustav Wasa, but the site was inhabited already in the 13th century. The first documents are the tax registers from 1451 (Ehrstedt et al. 2000). Eight urban sites, mostly buried beneath the streets, were investigated in the centre of the town. On the basis of the ar‑ chaeological finds – dishes, ceramics, pipes, bottles, glass, bones, etc. – the material was dated to the 17th-19th centuries. The number of plant macrofossil finds was about 3500 (Lempiäinen 1999c). 12a  Turku, Castle In connection with the archaeological investigations in Turku Castle (Figure 3), plant macrofossil samples were also analysed. Samples were taken from an area of 237 m2, giving a total of more than 2100 litres of deposits. These came from the yard layers of the castle bailey, from above and underneath the pave‑ ment and between the stones (Aalto 1994; Pihlman 1994; Uotila 1994). According to the archaeological evidence (i.e. wooden dishes, ceramics) and dendro‑ chronological dates, the plant material dates from the 15th-18th centuries (Kykyri 1994; Pihlman 1994; Zetterberg 1994). The thickness of the settlement layers varied from 0.6‑2.0 m. In the thickest layers here were also fill deposits with waste material. 12b  Turku, Julin Quarter The excavation was carried out in 1985 in the old town centre, 400 m southwest of the cathedral. The

Figure 3.  The bailey of Turku castle. Photo: Terttu Lempiäinen.

101

CHAPTER 4

studied area represented the settlement dated from the end of the 16th to the beginning of the 18th cen‑ tury (Gardberg 1966) in the environs of the House of the Holy Spirit (Domus Sancti Spiritus, hospi‑ tal and poorhouse), the Church of the Holy Spirit (never completed) and the medieval cemetery. The studied layers varied very much in composition. The greatest depth of the excavation was 2.17 m and the basal clay layer was dated to c. 1580. 100 samples were analysed and the total number of plant remains comprised more than 35 000 (Lempiäinen 1991b, 1993; Valo 1993).

12c  Turku, Mätäjärvi The ancient Lake Mätäjärvi in Turku was originally situated in the town centre, 200 m southeast of the cathedral. Gradually it became buried under the growing settlement. The excavated area was situ‑ ated partly on the shores of the lake and partly in the area of the lake itself on the outskirts of the me‑ dieval town. The oldest settlement grew up around the cathedral, on the opposite side of the lake, in the late 13th century (Gardberg 1969; Pihlman et al. 1985). The excavations were carried out in 1982. Two sample columns (in total 100 x 12 x 10 cm) were taken (next to those for pollen samples), ex‑ tending from 7.37 ‑ 8.37 m above sea level. The deposits were radiocarbon dated to 1230 – c. 1700. Only the lowermost part of the profile (c. 10 cm) was dated to the 6th century after which there was a gap of seven hundred years prior to 1230. The plant macrofossil material studied consisted of about 300 000 remains (Lempiäinen 1989). 12d  Turku, Old Market The site is located in the medieval centre of Turku on the bank of the River Aura and about 300 m southwest of the cathedral. There was, around the cathedral, a small town-like settlement in the Mid‑ dle Ages, with 500‑600 inhabitants but the site was already inhabited earlier (Kostet 1989). The market brought people together from the hinterland and the harbour – also from abroad. The excavations were carried out in 1986‑1989 and 1996‑1998 by the Provincial Museum in Turku. Altogether 65 soil samples were studied, dated to between 1250 and 1450 (Lempiäinen 1995a; Nurmenniemi 1999). About 20 000 plant remains were identified from six settlement layers and archaeological contexts. 102

The depth of the settlement layer was more than 1 m.

12e  Turku, Åbo Akademi (the Swedish University of Turku) The site was excavated in the years 1998‑1999 by archaeologists of the Turku Provincial Museum. Sev‑ eral hundred soil samples were collected for plant macrofossil analyses. The material was dated on the basis of archaeological finds and contexts to the me‑ dieval period, c. 1200 to 1700. Elina Nurmenniemi carried out macrofossil analyses, but the results have not yet been published. In the report, the author refers to some interesting finds, especially cultivated and useful plants (Nurmenniemi and Lempiäinen unpubl.). 12f  Turku, Qwensel The site is located on the bank of the River Aura in the centre of Turku, about 700 m southwest of the cathedral. Wealthy citizens owned the house between the 17th and the 19th centuries, and it was a self-suffi‑ cient household with outbuildings, brewery, bakery, byre and stable. Thirteen soil samples were analysed from two excavation sites in the yard in the Qwensel house and about 5000 plant macrofossil remains were identified (Lempiäinen 1988). 12g  Turku, Rettig The Rettig quarter is situated in the medieval centre of Turku, only 500 m southwest of the cathedral and the former Lake Mätäjärvi on the eastern bank of the River Aura. During the 14th century this area was densely populated by wealthy merchants and craftsmen (Kivikoski and Gardberg 1971). The two main streets, Yläkatu and Alakatu, dating back to medieval times, led from the cathedral and the Old Market to the rich Dominican convent of St. Olaf. Extensive excavations were carried out in the area in 1994‑1995 before the new museum Aboa Vetus et Ars Nova was built. The settlement layers were very thick, the deepest deposits being located 5‑6 m beneath present ground level. The remains of stone-built houses with cellars, cobbled street levels, wooden house floors and wells – stone and timberbuilt – with a number of artefacts were found. The results of the excavation show that, in the 14th-16th centuries, the burghers of Turku built their houses and lived according to contemporary standards,

Finland

expressing their status in the same way as their counterparts in other Hanseatic towns. Analyses of bones, insect remains, pollen and seeds were carried out and dendrochronological and radiocarbon dates provided distinct chronological fix points for the various building phases. No evidence or indication of the postulated Dominican convent or nunnery of St. Anne was found in the structures or archaeo­ logical artefacts (Hiekkanen 2003). A total of 377 soil samples were taken for plant macrofossil analyses from the very varied archaeological contexts and the number of plant remains studied was about 5000 (Vuorela et al. 1996).

Swedes again occupied the castle, then returned to the Russians in 1595 and again to the Swedes in 1617. The Swedish occupation ended in 1710, when the castle fell again into the hands of the Russians (Vuorela et al. 1992). The material for macrofossil analyses was taken from the archaeological excava‑ tions carried out in co-operation between Finnish and Russian archaeologists (Saksa et al. 1990; Uino 1990) during the years 1989‑1990. The soil samples were taken from the settlement layers of the castle yard dated to the 12th-14th centuries. Plant macro‑ fossil remains were studied by Lempiäinen (1995b) and Vuorela et al. (1992).

13  Vesilahti, the Laukko Estate The Laukko estate lies about 150 km north of Turku, on the shore of Lake Pyhäjärvi. The site is mentioned for the first time in 1416 when Johannes Arundi founded an altar dedicated to Johannes. In order to maintain this he presented a house from Laukko, lo‑ cated on the shore of the Lake Pyhäjärvi (Lagerstam 2000). The estate was founded at the beginning of the 15th century. Its most famous owner was Klaus Kurki – judge for the Satakunta district and bailiff of Turku Castle. The Kurki family inhabited the estate for over 400 years. The archaeological excavations were carried out in 1991‑1999 (Muuritutkimus k.y. and the National Board of Antiquities). The sites studied were near the new main building (from the 1920s), a medieval cellar, remains of the old main house and the garden in front of the cellar. A number of wooden structures from a house, ceramics, also some dated to the Iron Age, burnt wood, fill lay‑ ers, demolition debris, charcoal layers from fires and broken and whole tiles were found during the ex‑ cavations (Uotila 2000). A total of 42 soil samples were taken for plant macrofossil analyses and c. 1000 plant remains, dated to the 15th-18th centuries, were studied (Lempiäinen 2000b).

15  Valamo Island (Karelia; Valaam, Russia) Valamo island, in the northern part of Lake Ladoga, has been known for its monastery since late medi‑ eval times. The site has been a centre for cultural and economic activities throughout its history. The current pollen and macrofossil study was the first palaeoecological work from the island of Valamo (Vuorela et al. 2001; Vuorela and Saarnisto 1997). Samples from four sites were taken in 1996 by Matti Saarnisto (Geological Survey of Finland, Helsinki). The first two sites, Luostarinlahti and Skiitanlahti, are closed bays of Lake Ladoga. Luostarinlahti is closest to the fields adjacent to the monastery. These are considered to be the oldest fields on the island according to historical documents (Vuorela et al. 2001). Niikkananlampi and Igumeeninlampi are small inland lakes in the northwestern part of the island. The sediment samples used for macrofossil analysis were the same as those for pollen analysis. The material was radiocarbon dated (Vuorela et al. 2001). This paper includes the plant macrofossil ma‑ terial from Luostarinlahti and Igumeeninlampi. The number of studied samples was 21 and the number of plant remains about 1500.

14  Käkisalmi Castle (Karelia; Priozersk, Russia) The site lies on the western shore of Lake Ladoga, Russia. The early history of the Käkisalmi Castle is poorly known. According to the old Novgorodian and Swedish (Erik’s) chronicles, Swedes occupied a small Karelian fortress in 1294‑1295, but it was destroyed by Novgorodians in the same year, then rebuilt and fortified in 1310. The fortress was in the hands of Novgorod and Moscow until 1580, when

Plant macrofossil remains dated to the Hanseatic period in Finland The plant species found as macrofossils in Finland are summarized in Tables 1-5; they are arranged ac‑ cording to their function in the settlement economy and by date. The most interesting plant groups con‑ sidered as part of the Hanseatic trade are cereals, other cultivated plants (such as, oil and fibre plants), legumes and vegetables, herbs and spices (including 103

CHAPTER 4

medicinal and decorative plants), fruit and nuts and arable weeds. The dates for these plant remains are largely only indicative. Some remains, for example most of the cereals found, are dated prior to the Hanseatic period. Other remains are later, for ex‑ ample the finds of a decorative plant from the 17th century. However, all foreign plants not belonging to the natural Finnish flora were potentially intro‑ duced and transported to Finland, far away from their original habitats, by traders and merchants. This paper presents all plant macrofossil material found in Finland dated to the Hanseatic period or the preceding and two subsequent centuries.

from Hämeenlinna, accompanied by those from Russian Karelia, Käkisalmi and Valamo Island, all dated to the 11th-13th centuries. The grain finds from several sites in Turku, Naantali convent, the Kuusisto Catholic Bishop’s castle, the rural site of Lieto and the King’s estate of Perniö are dated to the 13th15th centuries. Younger finds included remains from Lahti market, the Laukko estate of Vesilahti and the remains from Pori, Porvoo, Lappeenranta fortress and Helsinki, dating from the 15th-19th centuries. Barley was the oldest cultivated cereal in Finland and charred grain remains were found at Turku Niuskala that have been dated to 3260‑3620 cal BP (Vuorela and Lempiäinen 1988). The oldest finds reveal the long history of cultivation in Finland; barley was the most commonly cultivated cereal in Southern Fin‑ land during the Hanseatic period. According to the customs registers, however, barley was also one of the most common commodities traded via Turku during Hanseatic times, both over the sea to Stockholm and Reval/Tallinn and the Finish interior (Dillner 1897; Kerkkonen 1938; Kuujo 1981).

Cereals – an imported commodity or locally cultivated? The sites and dates of cereal finds (including buck‑ wheat) are presented in Table 1. They comprise six different species and date from the 11th-19th centu‑ ries. Charred grains of common oats (Avena sativa) were found at 14 sites. The oldest records are from Hämeenlinna and the youngest from Helsinki. The macrofossil material from Turku comprises finds dat‑ ing from the 11th-19th centuries. Finds from other sites are all restricted to shorter periods of time: Hämeenlinna from the 11th-14th centuries, Naan‑ tali, Kuusisto and Lieto from the 13th-15th centuries, Lahti and Vesilahti from the 15th-16th centuries, Pori from the 16th-17th centuries and the material from Helsinki from the 17th-19th centuries. The oldest charred grains of common oats come from Salo Ketohaka, about 50 km east of Turku (Aalto 1994; Häkkinen and Lempiäinen 1996).

Rye (Secale cereale) was the most common cereal recorded in Finland during the Hanseatic period. Rye was found at 23 of the 27 sites studied and the finds date from the 11th-19th centuries. The oldest finds again come from Hämeenlinna and from the old Karelian town, Käkisalmi on the northwestern shore of Lake Ladoga. Medieval material was also found at several sites in Turku, Naantali convent, Kuusisto castle and the rural site of Lieto. The late medieval sites with rye finds were Lahti market, the estate of Laukko, Pori and Porvoo. The latest finds are from Helsinki and Tammisaari. Charred grains of rye are very common in deposits from Turku dating to the 13th-19th centuries. Most interest‑ ing uncharred remains of rye straw were found in

Charred and uncharred grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare) were found at 22 sites with the same range of dates as finds of oats. The oldest records also come

Table 1.  Cereals from Finland (including buckwheat) and the oldest written records of each plant. Date Latin names Cereals (incl. Buckwheat) Avena sativa Hordeum vulgare Secale cereale Triticum aestivum s.l. Triticum aestivo-compactum Fagopyrum esculentum

104

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

English names Common Oats Barley Rye Common Wheat Club Wheat Buckwheat

1be,2,3,4,6,7a,9,12abdeg,13 1bef,2,3,4,5,6, 7a,8,9,10,11,12abdefg,13,14,15 1abcef,2,3,4,6,7ab,9,10,11,12abcdefg,13,14 1b,3,4,12deg,13 4,12d,13 12a,d,f

19

Century AD Oldest documentary reference in Finland 17th custom register, Tillandz 1673, Agricola 1544 17th custom register, Tillandz 1673, Agricola 1544 17th custom register, Tillandz 1673, Agricola 1544 17th custom register, Tillandz 1673, Agricola 1544 Elfing 1897 Tillandz 1673

Finland

a

b

esculentum) were found at three sites in Turku: the castle, the Old Market and the district of Åbo Akademi. The oldest remains are from Turku and are dated to the 13th century. The finds from the Turku Castle derive from 15th century layers, and those from Qwensel house date from the 17th cen‑ tury. There are also finds from Häme castle dated to the 16th and 17th centuries (Onnela 2003). The oldest remains are interesting because buckwheat is known from written documents as a cultivated plant in Finland as late as the 18th century (Soininen 1974). The plant was cultivated more in the eastern part of the country and it is possible that mer‑ chants introduced it from Häme or from Eastern Finland.

Other cultivated plants – introduced by merchants or of domestic origin?

Figure 4.  Plant macrofossil finds from Finland: a Carbonized grains of club wheat (Triticum aestivum-compactum Host.) from Turku, Old Market. b Uncarbonized hazelnut shells (Corylus avellana L.) from Turku, Åbo Akademi. Scale: 1mm. Photos: Terttu Lempiäinen.

a woman’s grave in Turku, Katariina, dated to the 11th century (not included in the present material; Lempiäinen 2002). Charred grains of common wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum incl. T. compactum; Figure 4a) were found in Turku, Kuusisto castle, Lahti market, Vesilahti estate and Helsinki. The richest find of club wheat (Triticum compactum-type) comes from the Old Mar‑ ket in Turku, and the youngest finds from Helsinki, dated to the 17th-19th centuries. There are several ear‑ lier (prehistoric) finds, the oldest being from Häme, Sääksmäki Rapola, from an ancient field dated to 140 cal BC (Häkkinen and Lempiäinen 1996). Achenes and fragments of buckwheat (Fagopyrum

Hop (Humulus lupulus) and hemp (Cannabis sativa) The seeds of hop and hemp are very common finds in Finland, the former having been recorded at 15 sites and the latter at 13. Both were recorded at sites dating from the 11th-18th centuries and some finds of hop even pre- or post-date this period (Tables 2 and 3). The oldest remains of both plants are from Hämeenlinna and Valamo island in Russia, dated to the 11th century. In Turku, hops were a very impor‑ tant commodity in the Middle Ages and hop is more commonly found as a macrofossil than hemp. Hops were an important flavouring in beer, and probably more important as a beer preservative (see chapters 2 and 5). According to written sources, hops and hemp were transported to Turku by Hanseatic merchants (Dillner 1897; Kuujo 1981; Soininen 1974; Suominen 1982). Both were a commodity in the 15th and 16th centuries, and can be found in the domestic and as well as the foreign trade records. Hops occur in the accounts of trade between Turku and Gdansk in the 14th century. The inhabitants at that time paid their tithes to the Bishopric of Turku in hops, which also reflects their remarkable com‑ mercial value. According to the law of King Kristofer of Sweden-Finland, it was ordained in 1442 that every farmer and tenant should have 40 hop poles (Suominen 1982). Hop and hemp are also mentioned for the first 105

CHAPTER 4

time in the Finnish botanical literature in 1673, in a small herbal, a catalogue of the plants for the Turku region, Catalogus Plantarum by Elias Tillandz. In Finnish literature, hops occur already in old folk poetry, but dating these references is problematic. In ancient Finnish language the word “tappo” means a hop garden. There is no doubt that hop was an important domestic plant during the Middle Ages especially in Southern Finland, and was mainly used in beer production. Hemp was an important plant for the production of coarse cloth, sails, various ropes and fishing equip‑ ment, especially in harbour towns such as Turku and the many Finnish inland sites on the banks of rivers and on thousands of lakes. The oldest Finnish hemp finds, dated to the Late Viking Age, are from Ahvenanmaa (Åland) Sund, an important trading place near a medieval castle (Nunez and Lempiäinen 1998). Hemp was partly traded in the form of pro­ cessed fibres. In Russian Karelia, both plants, hop and hemp, were used and cultivated and their prod‑ ucts were also commodities as early as the 11th and 12th centuries.

the Migration Period (200‑400 AD; Aalto 1982; Seppä-Heikka 1985). In Southwest Finland, flax was cultivated less than in other parts of the country, mostly in slash-and-burn areas, but also in fields. Merchants brought flax, both seeds and fibres, to Turku from Häme and also from abroad, for ex‑ ample from Tallinn. Neither typical flax weeds nor many fragments of flax capsules have been found in the Finnish macrofossil material. This suggests that flax was traded as more-or-less fully-processed fibres. Only in Russian Karelia, at Käkisalmi, were there both seeds and small capsule fragments of gold of pleasure (Camelina sp.), a typical flax weed (Lem‑ piäinen 1995b). Flax was very important in Finnish folk medicine (Lönnrot 1860) and very common in the countryside until the 20th century, but we have very few excavations from rural sites to provide further information.

Pea (Pisum sativum) Seeds and pod fragments were found in Turku, Hämeenlinna, Naantali and in the castle of Kuu‑ sisto (Table 2). The oldest peas come from Hämeen‑ linna, Varikkoniemi in South Häme. The finds from the centre of Turku (Rettig), Naantali (the convent church) and Kuusisto castle are dated to the 13th14th centuries. The finds from the Turku Castle and the Julin quarter are a little later, from the 15th-17th centuries. These peas are of a small grey variety that was cultivated in Finland as late as the 18th century (Gadd 1751).

Flax (Linum usitatissimum) The oldest records of flax come from Valamo island, Karelia, Russia, dated to the 11th century, and the youngest from Helsinki, Snellmaninkatu dated to the 17th-19th centuries. The other finds are from Turku (Rettig, Mätäjärvi, Old Market) and Lahti market, all dated to the 13th-18th centuries (Table 2). Turku was the most important trading town at that time for both imported and exported fibres such as hemp and flax. Flax was cultivated in Finland. The oldest pollen records are from South Häme (Tolo‑ nen 1978) and the oldest macrofossil finds are from Salo and Paimio in Southwest Finland, all dated to

Vegetables Only a few remains of vegetables have yet been re‑ corded in Finland (Table 2). One seed of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) was found in Helsinki (Onnela 2000), dating from the 16th century. A further seed

Table 2.  Oil and fibre plants and vegetables from Finland and the oldest written records of each plant. Date Latin names Oil/fibre plants and legumes Cannabis sativa Linum usitatissimum Pisum sativum Vegetables Brassica sp. Cucumis sativus Daucus carota Pastinaca sativa

106

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

English names Hemp Flax Pea Cabbage/Turnip/Mustard Cucumber Carrot Parsnip

1b,2,3,4,7ab,12defg,13,14,15 1e,4,12cdg,15 2,3,7a,12abg 1bef,4,6,7a,10,12abcdg,14,15 1d 12e 3

19

Century AD Oldest documentary reference in Finland 17th custom register, Tillandz 1673, Agricola 1544 17th custom register, Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673, Agricola 1544 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673, Agricola 1544 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673

Finland

are dated to the 13th-19th centuries. The oldest me‑ dieval finds come from Turku, the Old Market and Turku Castle (Aalto 1994; Lempiäinen 1995a). The finds from Helsinki were dated to the 16th century. The only find of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) come from Turku, very close to the Turku Cathedral. This is the only find in Finland; the same applies to the find of black pepper (Piper nigrum) from the same site. Both of these are dated to the Middle Ages, approximately 13th century at the earliest (Nurmen‑ niemi and Lempiäinen unpubl.). Seeds of columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris) were found at two sites, Helsinki and Lappeenranta. Both sites are dated to the 17th century, the period when the first University of Finland was founded and the distribution of decorative plants to common people began. The King’s estates and the church bought the seeds of introduced useful plants and from here, seeds and plants were distributed to the inhabitants across the countryside (Lempiäinen 1991a; Vuorela and Lempiäinen 1999a). It is not known from where the first seeds of decorative plants came to Finland, but it seems most probable that they were purchased and brought from Stockholm or Uppsala in Sweden. The professors at Turku Academy had their best links with the west of Sweden-Finland in the 17th-18th centuries, and the scientific and cultural influence from here was most obvious. However, it is also possible that one day medieval finds of decorative plants will be recorded in Finland because many of our monasteries and convents date from the Middle Ages. In Central Europe, the latter were renowned for their excellent gardens growing useful and decorative plants. So far

has been recorded from Turku, on the opposite bank of the Old Market, dated to the 17th century (Nur‑ menniemi and Lempiäinen unpubl.). Carrot (Daucus carota) was found in medieval layers at Turku dated to the 13th-16th centuries (Nurmenniemi and Lem‑ piäinen unpubl.). This is the only find from Finland. The fruits of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) were very frequent in the oldest medieval layers of the Roman Catholic Bishop’s castle at Kuusisto (Lempiäinen 1994). The oldest finds were from the 14th century, but parsnip was recovered in layers extending up to modern times. The plant grows today in large numbers around the ruins of Kuusisto castle.

Herbs and spices (including medicinal and decorative plants) There are very few macrofossil finds of herbs and spices from Finland dated to the Hanseatic period (Table 3). Dill (Anethum graveolens) has been found at two sites, Turku Castle (Aalto 1994) and Kel‑ lomäki, in Helsinki Old Town (Onnela 2000). The oldest seeds are dated to the 15th century (Turku) and the youngest (at both sites) to the 18th century. Cara‑ way (Carum carvi) has only been recorded at Turku Castle, the oldest find dating to the 15th century (Aalto 1994). Lovage (Levisticum officinale) has only been found in Turku, from two sites situated close to each other: the Old Market and Åbo Akademi. The earliest remains are dated to the 13th century and the latest to the 17th century (Lempiäinen 1995a; Nur‑ menniemi and Lempiäinen unpubl.). Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) could be grown in Finland as a decorative, spice and medicinal plant. Five finds

Table 3.  Herbs and spices (including medicinal and decorative plants) from Finland and the oldest written records of each plant. Date Latin names English names Herbs and spices (incl. medicinal and decorative plants) Anethum graveolens Dill Aquilegia vulgaris Columbine Carum carvi Caraway Chelidonium majus Greater Celandine Hyoscyamus niger Henbane Humulus lupulus Hop Juniperus communis Juniper Levisticum officinale Lovage Myrica gale Sweet Gale Papaver somniferum Opium Poppy Petroselinum crispum Parsley Piper nigrum Black Pepper

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

1d,12a 5 12a 1d,3,5,7a,12a,13 1abcdef,3,4,7a,10,11,12abcdefg,13,14 1bef,3,4,7a,12abcdefg,14,15 1df,2,3,4,7b,9,10,11,12bcg,13,14 12de 3,12adg 1df,12adf 12e 12e

19

Century AD Oldest documentary reference in Finland

Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 17th custom register, Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 17th custom register, Tillandz 1673, Agricola 1544 Tillandz 1673, Agricola 1544 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1683 17th custom register, Agricola 1544

107

CHAPTER 4

we have had very few opportunities to excavate and study these sites in Finland.

oldest records are from the Käkisalmi fortress in Rus‑ sian Karelia, dated to the 11th century. In Turku, the finds all come from the old medieval town centre and from the bank of the River Aura, and are dated to the 13th century. The finds from the Roman Catholic castle of Kuusisto, Turku Castle, the King’s estate of Laukko and Lahti market are also among the oldest finds, dated to the 14th-15th centuries. The earliest fig finds from Helsinki date to the 16th century. Grape pips (Vitis vinifera) are very rare in the Finnish macrofossil material. These seeds come from dried fruits, raisins, which were introduced to Fin‑ land during the Hanseatic period. Wine itself was an important merchandise that was imported to Fin‑ land, especially to Turku, already early in the Middle Ages (Dillner 1897; Kuujo 1981). Grape pips were only found at two of the investigated sites: Lahti market (Lempiäinen 1999a, 1999b) and Kellomäki in the Old Town of Helsinki (Onnela 2000). Both are dated to the same period, between the 15th-18th centuries. The oldest record of grape is a pip from a settlement site in Turku, by the River Aura, dated to the Iron Age (Seppä-Heikka 1981).

Cultivated fruit Very few remains of cultivated fruit have been found in Finland (Table 4). The oldest remains of apple (Malus may also be wild apple, Malus cf. sylvestris), come from the convent church at Naantali and from Turku (Nurmenniemi and Lempiäinen unpubl.). Remains of Prunus sp. identified as bullace (Prunus domestica ssp. insititia) come from Naantali, dated to the 15th-17th centuries, and from Lahti market and Pori, dated to the15th-19th centuries. Accord‑ ing to documentary evidence, cultivated fruit was brought to Finland as late as the 17th century after the foundation of the first university, Turku Acad‑ emy (Tillandz 1673, 1683). Customs registers reveal that plums were a traded commodity at least in the 16th century, probably even earlier. Imported fruit Fig (Ficus carica) and grape (Vitis vinifera; Table 4) are fruits of Mediterranean origin brought by merchants to Finland. Remains of both of them were found in layers dated to the Middle Ages. Fig is very common in macrofossil materials from Southern Finland. The

Table 4.  Fruit and nuts from Finland and the oldest written records of each plant. Date

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Latin names English names

19

Century AD Oldest documentary reference in Finland

Cultivated fruit Malus sp. Prunus domestica Prunus sp. Imported fruit Ficus carica Vitis vinifera Local fruit Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Empetrum nigrum Fragaria vesca Malus sylvestris Rosa sp. Rubus chamaemorus Rubus idaeus Rubus saxatilis Sambucus racemosa Sorbus aucuparia Vaccinium myrtillus Vaccinium oxycoccos Vaccinium uliginosum Vaccinium vitis-idaea Vaccinium sp. Nuts Corylus avellana

108

Apple Plum Sloe/Cherry

7a,12e

Fig Grape Vine

1abcdef,3,411,12abcdefg,13,14 1d,4

Bearberry Black Crowberry Wild Strawberry Wild Apple Rose Cloudberry Raspberry Stone Bramble Red-berried Elder Rowan Bilberry Cranberry Bogberry Cowberry Bilberry Hazel

4,7b 9

1df,3,10,12bcd 1acdef,3,7ab,12bcdefg 1abcdef,2,3,7ab,10,11,12abcdefg,14,15 14 3,12ceg 1be,4,12ae 1abcdef,2,3,4,5,6,7ab,8,9,10,11,12abcfefg,13,14,15 7a 2 1acef,3,7a,12deg,14 1be,2,3,7a,10,12acdefg,14 1b,3,7a,12cg,14,15 1b,3,7a,12cdefg,14 1b,3,7a,12acdefg,14,15 1bdf,3,7a,12cg,14,15 1df,3,7ab,11,12acdefg,14

Tillandz 1673, Agricola 1544 17th custom register, Tillandz 1673 17th custom register, Tillandz 1673 17th custom register 17th custom register, Agricola 1544 Tillandz 1683 Lönnrot 1860 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Lönnrot 1860 Tillandz 1673 Lönnrot 1860 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 17th custom register, Tillandz 1673

Finland

Useful plants collected from the natural vegetation Products collected from wild plants growing in the vicinity of settlements were very commonly repre‑ sented in the macrofossil material from many of the sites studied (Table 4). Most of those plants belong to the native Finnish flora. Only greater celandine (Chelidonium majus) and henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) are introduced. The oldest seeds of henbane are from Rapola, near Hämeenlinna, and are dated to the Viking Age (Vikkula et al. 1994). Greater ce‑ landine may be of medieval origin in Finland, the oldest finds date from the 13th century and were found during the excavation of the St. Birgit’s con‑ vent Naantali (Alanko 1998). Sweet gale (Myrica gale) was also used in Finland as a flavouring for beer and in folk medicine, as in other Nordic countries and in Central Europe (Behre 1999). Written references to it in Finland appear very late. Elias Tillandz mentions the plant in his Catalogus plantarum in 1673 as Myrica septentrionalis pumila palustris. In the herbal from St. Birgit’s con‑ vent of Naantali, dated to the 15th century, myrtle is mentioned as a medicinal plant (Masonen 1985). The most common finds of other collected plants are juniper (Juniperus communis), hazel (Corylus avellana), wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and, most common of all, raspberry (Rubus idaeus) at all the sites studied. Juniper was used in the Late Middle Ages as a medicine and to disinfect houses during plague epidemics by burning its branches inside the contaminated dwellings (Nikula and Nikula 1987). It was also used to flavour beer and in folk medicine (Erkamo 1944). The berries (or cones) of juniper and hazelnuts were exported from Finland at least as early as the 16th-17th centuries (Dillner 1897; Kerkkonen 1938). Hazelnutshells (Corylus avellana; Figure 4b) were very common in medieval layers in Turku and in deposits excavated at the coastal settlement sites in Helsinki, Kuusisto Castle, Naantali, Tammisaari and also in Käkisalmi, Karelia, on the northwestern shore of Lake Ladoga. Hazel is a member of the native Finnish flora only in the southern coastal area and in the Karelian Isthmus (Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998). Other common finds were many seeds of Vaccinium species (bilberry, cranberry, bogberry, cowberry) and

of black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum). All of them are already recorded in prehistoric plant macrofossil assemblages from Finland; they constituted an im‑ portant food resource collected from the wild over the whole country. Also included in this group is cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus; Figure 5). The oldest finds are from the medieval centre of Turku dated to the 13th century (Nurmenniemi and Lem‑ piäinen unpubl.). Other finds come from Turku Castle (Aalto 1994) and Lahti market (Lempiäinen 1999a, 1999b) the oldest of these are dated to the 15th century, and from two sites in Helsinki to the 17th century (Lempiäinen 2000a; Vuorela and Lem‑ piäinen 1999b). The remains of some native plant species are, for various reasons, very often found in deposits from the settlement sites. These plants were used as food or for medicinal or some other purposes. They may also have been very common in the natural vegeta‑ tion and spread with other transported plant mate‑ rial. Seeds of stone bramble (Rubus saxatilis) were found at the convent church of Naantali dated to the 13th-16th century. The plant grows wild today on the rocks quite close to the convent church. The seeds of red-berried elder (Sambucus racemosa) are very common in material from the sites in Southern Finland. The oldest seeds come from Hämeenlinna, Varikkoniemi settlement, dated to the 11th century. They were found also in Helsinki, the castle at Kuu‑ sisto, the convent church of Naantali, Pori, Turku

Figure 5.  Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.). A typical berry plant with arctic distribution. Photo: Saini Heino.

109

CHAPTER 4

of them dated to the 16th-19th centuries. In Lieto, the awns were found in a rich cereal grain storage and at the others sites (Helsinki and Tammisaari) within rich settlement waste (Lempiäinen 1999c, 2000a).

and the King’s estate of Laukko. The oldest recorded seeds of red-berried elder date back to the Viking Age and are from Hämeenlinna (Lempiäinen 1992). The shrub was also cultivated in Finland in the 19th20th centuries as a decorative plant and today it is a serious garden escapee.

Weeds introduced by humans are very commonly encountered in Finnish macrofossil material (­Table 5). The most common weeds throughout the cultivated and settled landscape, also during the Hanseatic period, were fat hen (Chenopodium album) and with other goosefoot species (C. suecicum, C. glaucum, C. rubrum, C. polyspermum), all of which are rather rare today. The oldest seeds of fat hen recorded in Finland date back to the 2nd millennium BC. Orache (Atriplex patula), and com‑ mon fumitory (Fumaria officinalis) were also among the most common weeds at that time. Fool’s parsley (Aethusa cynapium) often grew in medieval towns and small villages like Turku, Helsinki, Hämeen‑ linna and Naantali, around the older settlement, but today this plant is very rare. Warty cabbage (Bunias orientalis) was recorded in the fortress at Lappeen‑ ranta (Lempiäinen 1991a, 1991b). The plant was probably introduced by solders to Finland from the eastern borders of Russia together with fodder for their horses. Today this plant has a wide distri‑ bution and is very abundant in the southern part

Arable weeds The remains of arable weeds found in Finland and their dates are presented in Table 5. The most com‑ mon macrofossil records are for seeds and fruits of corn cockle (Agrostemma githago) and cornflower (Centaurea cy­anus) dating from the 13th-19th centu‑ ries. They are both associated with winter rye culti‑ vation which continued from the Middle Ages up into modern times. Both of these weeds have almost completely disappeared today; corn cockle vanished at the end of the 1940s. Cornflower grows as a very rare weed, as is also the case for rye brome (Bromus secalinus) and corn gromwell (Lithospermum arvense). One seed of long-headed poppy (Papaver dubium) was found in Turku. It is possible that this seed was imported together with cereals. The plant has never belonged to the native Finnish flora. Awns and frag‑ ments of grain bases of wild oats (Avena cf. fatua) were found at Lieto, Rähälä dated to the 13th-14th centuries, Helsinki and the Tammisaari centre, both

Table 5.  Arable weeds and fungi from Finland and the oldest written records of each plant. Date

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Latin names English names

19

Century AD Oldest documentary reference in Finland

Arable weeds Aethusa cynapium Agrostemma githago Anthemis cotula Atriplex sp. Avena cf. fatua Bromus secalinus Bunias orientalis Centaurea cyanus Chenopodium album Chenopodium sp. Euphorbia helioscopia Fumaria officinalis Galium aparine Galium spurium Lithospermum arvense Papaver dubium Raphanus raphanistrum Vicia sp.

Fool’s Parsley Corn Cockle Stinking Chamomile Orache Wild Oats Rye Brome Warty Cabbage Cornflower Fat Hen Goosefoot Sun Spurge Common Fumitory Cleavers False Cleavers Corn Cromwell Long-headed Poppy Wild Radish Vetch

1b,2,7b,12adf 1de,4,10,12abcdeg,14 1b,10 1abcdef,2,3,5,6,7a,8,9,11,12bcdg,13,14 1f,6,11 1b,3,4,7a,11,12bd 5 1de,2,7a,10,11,12b 1abcdef,2,3,4,5,6,7ab,8,9,10,11,12abcfefg,13,14,15 1abcdef,2,3,4,5,6,7ab,8,9,10,11,12abcfefg,13,14,15 12ac,14 1abcef,2,3,6,7ab,8,10,11,12abcdefg,14,15 1c,6,12ad,14 1e,2,12d,13 1b,4,7a 12e 1f,4 1bef,3,4,6,7ab,8,9,12cd,15

Lönnrot 1860 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1683 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Lönnrot 1860 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1673 Tillandz 1683 Tillandz 1683 Tillandz 1673 Hiitonen 1933 Tillandz 1683 Tillandz 1683

Fungi Claviceps purpurea Ergot

110

6

Karsten 1873

Finland

of Finland along the main highways and railways (Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998).

Other macrofossil finds – ergot Very rare remains of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) were found at Lieto, Rähälä dated to the 13th-14th cen‑ turies (Lempiäinen 1996). These finds come from a cereal store rich in charred grains of oats, barley and rye. The ergot was probably associated with rye, but there were also smaller sclerotia of ergot present; these are usually seen on wild grasses.

Summary and concluding remarks Tables 1-5 summarize all finds of plant macrofossil remains related to the period from the 11th-19th cen‑ turies in Finland, completed with the oldest docu‑ mentary evidence from the country. More than 55 plant species were identified. Three of the cereals were cultivated in Finland prior to the Hanseatic period. They are, however, also mentioned in cus‑ toms registers, the oldest in Finland being from the 15th-17th centuries (Dillner 1897; Kerkkonen 1938; Kivikoski and Gardberg 1971). According to the written sources, cereals were imported from abroad as also indicated by the presence of typical cereal weeds, as corn cockle, cornflower, rye brome, corn cromwell, wild oats and long-headed poppy, dated to the 13th century and later. Written sources from the 14th century document that rye was imported from abroad because the domestic cultivation of this cereal produced an insufficient crop (Kivikoski and Gardberg 1971). Ergot may have reached the country by the same route. In the medieval and later material ergot finds are rather common. Concerning other cultivated plants, such as oil and fibre plants, legumes, vegetables, herbs, spices, and fruit – there are only few finds dated prior to the 12th century, such as the records of hop, hemp, flax, pea and grape. But this direct evidence is very important, because it precedes the documentary sources. It is very probable that the merchants brought seeds and fruits of useful plants such as dill, caraway, cucum‑ ber, carrot, buckwheat, lovage, apple, poppy, parsnip, pepper, plum and fig to Finland. Greater celandine and henbane possibly also belong to the commodi‑ ties traded by the Hanseatic merchants by virtue of

their medicinal properties. They both appear in the Finnish macrofossil record in the 12th-13th centuries. Columbine and warty cabbage, both dated to the 17th century, were also possibly plants introduced to Finland along with other plant commodities. Most of the wild species included here were found in de‑ posits dated prior to the Hanseatic period. Macrofossils of all the above-mentioned useful plants are absent from deposits earlier than this. Furthermore, the sites where these species have been recorded are all situated in the southwestern coastal medieval centres with the most intensive trading links to Turku, and in the vicinity of Turku, Naantali and Kuusisto castle. Lahti is situated on the medieval main road running to the east, the Häme Ox Road. Käkisalmi was a medieval trading town on the northwest coast of Lake Ladoga, and could very easily be reached on the Hanseatic trade route from Vyborg along the Vuoksi river or over Lake Ladoga. Many plants from the native Finnish flora were col‑ lected from the wild, and have not been explicitly mentioned in the written records. Hazelnuts are an exception; these are listed in customs registers as late as the 17th century (Kerkkonen 1938). Nutshells are found very early in Finland, dated to the Stone Age. Finland was situated on the periphery of the Euro‑ pean trade market during the Hanseatic period. In the Early Middle Ages, Finland’s import and export comprised partly luxury products, but during the 14th century exchange concentrated more on the bulk commodities needed by everyone. In the 16th and 17th centuries, according to the customs registers (Kerkkonen 1938), traded commodities included many kinds of processed goods and raw materials such as ginger, pepper, cinnamon, mace, clove, saf‑ fron, almond, raisins, figs, plums, currant, anise, car‑ damom, horseradish, nuts, tobacco, oranges, apples, pears, peas, barley, flax, hemp, flowers, indigo and many others. There are very few customs registers concerning Hanseatic trade with Finland prior to the 15th century, but the variety of commodities in the 15th-17th centuries shows that very many exotic goods also reached the European periphery. This was mainly via the Finnish Hanseatic ports of Turku and Vyborg, from where they were transported in‑ 111

CHAPTER 4

land. However, due to the limited nature of the plant macrofossil analyses carried out so far, very few of the exotic plant commodities transported by Hanseatic merchants by ship to Finland have yet been detected.

Acknowledgements My sincere thanks to all the Finnish archaeologists who have submitted thousands and thousands of

112

plastic bags filled with soil from their excavations for me to investigate. Without their help these stud‑ ies would not have been possible. Dr. David Earle Robinson and Dr. Sabine Karg checked and revised the text and my Finnish-English. My sincere thanks to both of them!

Finland

Plant names in Latin, Finnish and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000; Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998; Palmen and Alanko 1993) in alphabetical order Latin names Finnish names Aethusa cynapium L. hukanputki Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. melegueta-pippuri Agrostemma githago L. aurankukka Allium cepa L. sipuli Amaranthus blitum L. kohenevarevonhäntä Amaranthus sp. revonhäntä Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. peltorasti Anethum graveolens L. tilli Angelica sylvestris L. karhunputki Anthemis arvensis L. peltosauramo Anthemis cotula L. haisusauramo Anthemis tinctoria L. keltasauramo Apium graveolens L. selleri Aquilegia vulgaris L. lehtoakileija Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. sianpuolukka Artemisia absinthium L. mali eli koiruoho Atriplex hortensis L. tarhamaltsa Atriplex sp. maltsa Atropa belladonna L. belladonna Avena fatua L. hukkakaura Avena nuda L. ukonkaura Avena sativa L. kaura Avena sp. kaura Beta vulgaris L. sokerijuurikas Betonica officinalis L. rohtopäkämö Brassica napus L. lanttu, rapsi Brassica nigra (L.) Koch mustasinappi Brassica oleracea L. kaali Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) nauris, turnipsi, peltokaali, rypsi Brassica sp. kaali Bromus secalinus L. ruiskattara Bunias orientalis L. idänukonpalko Buxus sempervirens L. isopuksipuu Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz ruistankio Cannabis sativa L. hamppu Capsicum annuum L. paprika Carum carvi L. kumina Castanea sativa P. Miller jalokastanja Centaurea cyanus L. ruiskaunokki Cerasus avium (L.) Moench imeläkirsikka Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller hapankirsikka Chelidonium majus L. keltamo Chenopodium album L. jauhosavikka Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. hyvänheikinsavikka Chenopodium sp. savikka Cichorium intybus L. sikuri Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. torajyvä Consolida regalis Gray rikkakukonkannus Coriandrum sativum L. korianteri Cornus mas L. punamarjakanukka Cornus sanguinea L. mustamarjakanukka Cornus suecica L. ruohokanukka Corylus avellana L. pähkinäpensas Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. pyöröorapihlaja Cucumis sativus L. kurkku Cucurbita sp. kurpitsa Cydonia oblonga Mill. kvitteni Daucus carota L. porkkana Dianthus barbatus L. harjaneilikka Dianthus sp. neilikka Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. kananhirssi Elettaria cardamomum Maton kardemumma Elettaria major Smith Ceylonin kardemumma Empetrum nigrum L. variksenmarja Euphorbia helioscopia L. viisisädetyräkki Fagopyrum esculentum Moench viljatatar, tattari

English names Fool’s Parsley Grains of Paradise Corn Cockle Onion Purple Amaranth Amaranth Small Bugloss Dill Archangel Corn Chamomile Stinking Chamomile Dyer’s Chamomile Celery Columbine Bearberry Absinthe Garden Orache Orache Deadly Nightshade Wild Oats Naked Oats Common Oats Oat Beetroot Betony Kale Black Mustard Cabbage Turnip Cabbage Rye Brome Warty Cabbage Boxwood Gold of Pleasure Hemp Hot Pepper Caraway Spanish Chestnut Cornflower Sweet Cherry Sour Cherry Greater Celandine Fat Hen Good King Henry Goosefoot Chicory Ergot Oriental Lakspur Coriander Cornelian Cherry Common Dogwood Dwarf Cornel Hazel Common Hawthorn Cucumber Pumpkin Quince Carrot Sweet William Pink Barnyard Grass Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Black Crowberry Sun Spurge Buckwheat

113

CHAPTER 4

Ficus carica L. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fragaria vesca L. Fumaria officinalis L. Galium aparine L. Galium spurium L. Genista tinctoria L. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Humulus lupulus L. Hyoscyamus niger L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Hypericum perforatum L. Hyssopus officinalis L. Iris pseudacorus L. Juglans regia L. Juniperus communis L. Lactuca sativa L. Laurus nobilis L. Lens culinaris Medik. Leonurus cardiaca L. Lepidium sativum L. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Lithospermum arvense L. Lolium temulentum L. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sp. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Mespilus germanica L. Morus nigra L. Morus sp. Myrica gale L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nepeta cataria L. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Nicotiana rustica L. Nicotiana sp. Nigella sativa L. Origanum vulgare L. Oryza sativa L. Panicum miliaceum L. Papaver dubium L. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Pastinaca sativa L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Physalis alkekengi L. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Piper nigrum L. Pisum sativum L. Portulaca oleracea L. Prunus domestica L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Prunus insititia L. Prunus padus L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Prunus sp. Prunus spinosa L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Ranunculus arvensis L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Raphanus sativus L. Reseda luteola L. Ribes nigrum L. Ribes rubrum L. Ribes sp. Ribes uva-crispa L. Rosa sp. Rosmarinus officinalis L.

114

viikuna mesiangervo fenkoli ahomansikka peltoemäkki kierumatara peltomatara pensasväriherne ohra humala hullukaali särmäkuisma mäkikuisma iisoppi keltakurjenmiekka saksanpähkinä kataja salaatti laakeripuu linssi nukula krassi liperi pellava peltorusojuuri myrkkyraiheinä omenapuu omenapuu metsäomenapuu mispeli mustamulperi mulperi suomyrtti muskotti aitokissanminttu ohraruoho palturintupakka tuppakka ryytineito mäkimeirami riisi hirssi ruisunikko oopiumunikko palsternakka persilja lyhtykoiso maustepippuri mustapippuri herne portulakka luumu manteli kriikuna tuomi persikka luumu oratuomi päärynä päärynä peltoleinikki retikka retiisi värireseda mustaherukka punaherukka herukka karviainen ruusu rosmariini

Fig Meadow Sweet Fennel Wild Strawberry Common Fumitory Cleavers False Cleavers Dyer’s Broom Barley Hop Henbane St John’s Wort St John’s Wort Hyssop Flag Iris Walnut Juniper Lettuce Laurel Lentil Motherwort Garden Cress Lovage Flax Corn Gromwell Bearded Ryegrass Apple Apple Wild Apple Medlar Black Mulberry Mulberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg, Mace Catmint Ball Mustard Indian Tobacco Tobacco Black Cumin Wild Marjoram Rice Common Millet Long-headed Poppy Opium Poppy Parsnip Parsley Strawberry Tomato Allspice Black Pepper Pea Purslane Plum Almond Bullace European Bird Cherry Peach Sloe/Cherry Sloe Pear Pear Corn Buttercup Wild Radish Radish Wild Mignonette Black Currant Red Currant Currant Gooseberry Rose Rosemary

Finland

Rubus caesius L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus idaeus L. Rubus saxatilis L. Rubus sp. Ruta graveolens L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sambucus racemosa L. Satureja hortensis L. Secale cereale L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Sinapis alba L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Spinacia oleracea L. Thymus serpyllum L. Thymus sp. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Triticum dicoccon Schrank Triticum sp. Triticum spelta L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Vaccinium sp. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Valeriana officinalis L. Valeriana sp. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Verbena officinalis L. Vicia faba L. Vicia sativa L. Vicia sp. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.)

sinivatukka hilla, lakka karhunvadelma vadelma lillukka vatukka tuoksuruuta ruohoselja mustaselja terttuselja kesäkynteli ruis sinipantaheinä italianpantaheinä, tähkähirssi viherpantaheinä keltasinappi pihlaja pihlaja etelänpihlaja/tanskanpihlaja pinaatti kangasajuruoho tinjami vehnä emmervehnä vehnä spelttivehnä mustikka karpalo mustikka, karpala, juollukka, puolukka juolukka puolukka rohtovirmajuuri virmajuuri rikkavuonankaali rantavuonankaali rohtorautayrtti härkäpapu rehuvirna papu viinirypäle

European Dewberry Cloudberry Bramble Raspberry Stone Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Rue Dwarf Elder Common Elder Red Berried Elder Savory Rye Yellow Foxtail Foxtail Bristle Grass Green Bristle Grass White Mustard Rowan Service Tree Wild Service Tree Spinach Wild Thyme Thyme Common Wheat Emmer Wheat Spelt Bilberry Cranberry Bilberry/Cowberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Common Valerian Valerian Narrowfruit Cornsalad Cornsalad Vervain Bean Common Vetch Vetch, Bean Grape Vine

115

CHAPTER 4

Plant names in Finnish, Latin and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000; Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998; Palmen and Alanko 1993) in alphabetical order Finnish names Latin names ahomansikka Fragaria vesca L. aitokissanminttu Nepeta cataria L. aurankukka Agrostemma githago L. belladonna Atropa belladonna L. Ceylonin kardemumma Elettaria major Smith emmervehnä Triticum dicoccon Schrank etelänpihlaja/tanskanpihlaja Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz fenkoli Foeniculum vulgare Mill. haisusauramo Anthemis cotula L. hamppu Cannabis sativa L. hapankirsikka Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller harjaneilikka Dianthus barbatus L. herne Pisum sativum L. herukka Ribes sp. hilla, lakka Rubus chamaemorus L. hirssi Panicum miliaceum L. hukanputki Aethusa cynapium L. hukkakaura Avena fatua L. hullukaali Hyoscyamus niger L. humala Humulus lupulus L. hyvänheikinsavikka Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. härkäpapu Vicia faba L. idänukonpalko Bunias orientalis L. iisoppi Hyssopus officinalis L. imeläkirsikka Cerasus avium (L.) Moench isopuksipuu Buxus sempervirens L. italianpantaheinä, tähkähirssi Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. jalokastanja Castanea sativa P. Miller jauhosavikka Chenopodium album L. juolukka Vaccinium uliginosum L. kananhirssi Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. kangasajuruoho Thymus serpyllum L. kardemumma Elettaria cardamomum Maton karhunputki Angelica sylvestris L. karhunvadelma Rubus fruticosus L. karpalo Vaccinium oxycoccus L. karviainen Ribes uva-crispa L. kataja Juniperus communis L. kaura Avena sativa L. kaura Avena sp. keltakurjenmiekka Iris pseudacorus L. keltamo Chelidonium majus L. keltasauramo Anthemis tinctoria L. keltasinappi Sinapis alba L. kesäkynteli Satureja hortensis L. kierumatara Galium aparine L. kohenevarevonhäntä Amaranthus blitum L. korianteri Coriandrum sativum L. krassi Lepidium sativum L. kriikuna Prunus insititia L. kumina Carum carvi L. kurkku Cucumis sativus L. kurpitsa Cucurbita sp. kvitteni Cydonia oblonga Mill. kaali Brassica oleracea L. kaali Brassica sp. lanttu, rapsi Brassica napus L. lehtoakileija Aquilegia vulgaris L. lillukka Rubus saxatilis L. linssi Lens culinaris Medik. liperi Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch luumu Prunus domestica L. luumu Prunus sp. lyhtykoiso Physalis alkekengi L. laakeripuu Laurus nobilis L. mali eli koiruoho Artemisia absinthium L.

116

English names Wild Strawberry Catmint Corn Cockle Deadly Nightshade Sri Lanka Cardamom Emmer Wild Service Tree Fennel Stinking Chamomile Hemp Sour Cherry Sweet William Pea Currant Cloudberry Common Millet Fool’s Parsley Wild Oats Henbane Hop Good King Henry Bean Warty Cabbage Hyssop Sweet Cherry Boxwood Foxtail Bristle Grass Spanish Chestnut Fat Hen Bog Bilberry Barnyard Grass Wild Thyme Cardamom Archangel Bramble Cranberry Gooseberry Juniper Common Oats Oat Flag Iris Greater Celandine Dyer’s Chamomile White Mustard Savory Cleavers Purple Amaranth Coriander Garden Cress Bullace Caraway Cucumber Pumpkin Quince Cabbage Cabbage Kale Columbine Stone Bramble Lentil Lovage Plum Sloe/Cherry Strawberry Tomato Laurel Absinthe

Finland

maltsa manteli maustepippuri melegueta-pippuri mesiangervo metsäomenapuu mispeli mulperi muskotti mustaherukka mustamarjakanukka mustamulperi mustapippuri mustaselja mustasinappi mustikka mustikka, karpala, juollukka, puolukka myrkkyraiheinä mäkikuisma mäkimeirami nauris, turnipsi, peltokaali, rypsi neilikka nukula ohra ohraruoho omenapuu omenapuu oopiumunikko oratuomi palsternakka palturintupakka paprika papu pellava peltoemäkki peltoleinikki peltomatara peltorasti peltorusojuuri peltosauramo pensasväriherne persikka persilja pihlaja pihlaja pinaatti porkkana portulakka punaherukka punamarjakanukka puolukka pyöröorapihlaja pähkinäpensas päärynä päärynä rantavuonankaali rehuvirna retiisi retikka revonhäntä riisi rikkakukonkannus rikkavuonankaali rohtopäkämö rohtorautayrtti rohtovirmajuuri rosmariini ruis ruiskattara ruiskaunokki

Atriplex sp. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Mespilus germanica L. Morus sp. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Ribes nigrum L. Cornus sanguinea L. Morus nigra L. Piper nigrum L. Sambucus nigra L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium sp. Lolium temulentum L. Hypericum perforatum L. Origanum vulgare L. Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Dianthus sp. Leonurus cardiaca L. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sp. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Prunus spinosa L. Pastinaca sativa L. Nicotiana rustica L. Capsicum annuum L. Vicia sp. Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Fumaria officinalis L. Ranunculus arvensis L. Galium spurium L. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Lithospermum arvense L. Anthemis arvensis L. Genista tinctoria L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Sorbus aucuparia L. Sorbus domestica L. Spinacia oleracea L. Daucus carota L. Portulaca oleracea L. Ribes rubrum L. Cornus mas L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Corylus avellana L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Vicia sativa L. Raphanus sativus L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Amaranthus sp. Oryza sativa L. Consolida regalis Gray Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Betonica officinalis L. Verbena officinalis L. Valeriana officinalis L. Rosmarinus officinalis L. Secale cereale L. Bromus secalinus L. Centaurea cyanus L.

Orache Almond Allspice Grains of Paradise Meadow Sweet Wild Apple Medlar Mulberry Nutmeg, Mace Black Currant Common Dogwood Black Mulberry Black Pepper Common Elder Black Mustard Bilberry Bilberry/Cowberry Bearded Ryegrass St John’s Wort Wild Marjoram Turnip Pink Motherwort Barley Ball Mustard Apple Apple Opium Poppy Sloe Parsnip Indian Tobacco Hot Pepper Vetch, Bean Flax Common Fumitory Corn Buttercup False Cleavers Small Bugloss Corn Gromwell Corn Chamomile Dyer’s Broom Peach Parsley Rowan Service Tree Spinach Carrot Purslane Red Currant Cornelian Cherry Cowberry Common Hawthorn Hazel Pear Pear Cornsalad Common Vetch Radish Wild Radish Amaranth Rice Oriental Lakspur Narrowfruit Cornsalad Betony Vervain Common Valerian Rosemary Rye Rye Brome Cornflower

117

CHAPTER 4

ruistankio ruisunikko ruohokanukka ruohoselja ruusu ryytineito saksanpähkinä salaatti savikka selleri sianpuolukka sikuri sinipantaheinä sinivatukka sipuli sokerijuurikas spelttivehnä suomyrtti särmäkuisma tarhamaltsa terttuselja tilli tinjami torajyvä tuoksuruuta tuomi tuppakka ukonkaura vadelma variksenmarja vatukka vehnä vehnä viherpantaheinä viikuna viinirypäle viisisädetyräkki viljatatar, tattari virmajuuri värireseda

118

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Papaver dubium L. Cornus suecica L. Sambucus ebulus L. Rosa sp. Nigella sativa L. Juglans regia L. Lactuca sativa L. Chenopodium sp. Apium graveolens L. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Cichorium intybus L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Rubus caesius L. Allium cepa L. Beta vulgaris L. Triticum spelta L. Myrica gale L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Atriplex hortensis L. Sambucus racemosa L. Anethum graveolens L. Thymus sp. Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Ruta graveolens L. Prunus padus L. Nicotiana sp. Avena nuda L. Rubus idaeus L. Empetrum nigrum L. Rubus sp. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Triticum sp. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Ficus carica L. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.) Euphorbia helioscopia L. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Valeriana sp. Reseda luteola L.

Gold of Pleasure Long-headed Poppy Dwarf Cornel Dwarf Elder Rose Black Cumin Walnut Lettuce Goosefoot Celery Bearberry Chicory Yellow Foxtail European Dewberry Onion Beetroot Spelt Sweet Gale St John’s Wort Garden Orache Red Berried Elder Dill Thyme Ergot Rue European Bird Cherry Tobacco Naked Oats Raspberry Black Crowberry Bramble/Raspberry Common Wheat Wheat Green Bristle Grass Fig Grape Vine Sun Spurge Buckwheat Valerian Wild Mignonette

Sweden

Sweden and the Hanse – archaeobotanical aspects of changes in farming, gardening and dietary habits in medieval times in Sweden Karin Viklund

Introduction – the Hanse in Sweden The Vikings’ sailing trips to the east for trade and looting in Russia, the Baltic States and further, can be seen as the starting point for the creation of the Hanseatic League in the 12th-13th centuries. In this story, Sweden, and especially the strategically lo‑ cated island of Gotland, played an important role already at an early stage. Goods traded between Novgorod and Western Europe were transferred via Gotland and soon, in the 12th century, Visby became one of the Hanseatic towns. On mainland Sweden, Hanseatic influence began in the same pe‑ riod, to be intensified during the 13th century when the exploitation of the prolific herring fishing along the Scanian coast started. Here, the Hanse set up a fishing industry producing salted herring for export which lasted for the next hundred years. The cities of Lands­krona, Malmö, Ystad, Simrishamn and Lödöse on the south and western coast were founded dur‑ ing this time. The League also controlled important towns and ports of trade further north e.g. Stock‑ holm, Kalmar and Söderköping. Apart from salt, Sweden imported textiles and consumer goods of various kinds in exchange for iron, copper, butter, skins and furs, all shipped to the Continent and Western Europe on the Hanse cogs. Eventually, in the 14th-15th centuries, the German influence on Swedish and Scandinavian politics and trade became very strong. Attempts to regain power, for example

by the Danish King Valdemar Atterdag, led to an even stronger Hanseatic control of Southeastern Sweden from 1370 onwards. Another attempt was made in 1429, with taxation of the trade through the Oresund straits. This, however, provoked the League to declare war against Denmark (at the time united with Norway and Sweden-Finland in the Union of Kalmar). For Sweden this conflict meant a decrease in exports of iron and copper at the same time as the herring fishing was in decline, both of which ham‑ pered Hanseatic influence in the country. Around 1530, under the rule of the Swedish King Gustav Vasa, the Hanse was deprived of political power in Sweden, but kept a good grip on trade up to the 17th century. It should be noted that, during most of the medieval period, Gotland with Visby, and also Scania, Öland and the area along the coast of South‑ ern Sweden, were under Danish or Hanseatic rule (Dollinger 1970; Kulturhistoriskt lexikon 1981a; Westholm 1997; Figure 1). The aim of this article is to explore the possible in‑ fluence on farming, gardening, food habits and so on, imparted by the Hanse in medieval Sweden. The Hanseatic ships not only carried various new food products such as exotic fruits to the coun‑ try, but presumably also a great proportion of the rather substantial numbers of immigrants from the Continent and regions around the Baltic, especially 119

CHAPTER 5

Mälaren as well as household debris and latrine material dumped in the water.

Figure 1.  The remains of a medieval storage house at a Gotlandic merchant’s farm (farmannagård) in Bringes, Norrlanda. Photo Karin Viklund.

Germans, coming to Sweden in the Middle Ages. People brought with them – and kept up – their dietary habits and food traditions. The extent to which these were passed on to native people is a major issue in this study.

The archaeobotanical record The plant material on which this article is based derives mainly from various rescue excavations car‑ ried out in Swedish medieval towns during the last three decades, most of which has been retrieved by systematic or random sampling of different lay‑ ers (Figure 2). In many cases additional methods such as pollen analysis and soil chemical analysis have been applied – in order to gain a better un‑ derstanding of the formation of the various layers and contexts. This is in contrast to earlier archaeo‑ botanical investigations, for example concerning Lund, which were to a large extent based on the sampling of specific features and archaeological con‑ texts. The archaeobotanical record from Stockholm discussed here is rather special. It derives from seven sunken boats found during the large Helgeandshol‑ men excavations in the centre of the city (Berggren 1984; Griffin 1982). Some of this plant material is believed to consist of primary deposits, emanat‑ ing from, for example, cargoes of grain, hay and manure. Other plant species presumably reflect the local surroundings around the shores of Lake 120

Most of the material on which this article is based was found in some of the largest and oldest cit‑ ies in Central Sweden – Stockholm, Uppsala and Norrköping. Sigtuna, denoted as the successor of the Viking Age town of Birka, is a much smaller town in the same region. Scania, Gotland and the southwestern coastal area were under Danish rule during most of the medieval period, and the medi‑ eval archaeobotanical finds from these regions, for example Lund, will be dealt with more thoroughly elsewhere (see chapter 6). Further to these sites, there is also archaeobotanical material of relevance to this subject from some medieval castles (Gustafsson 2002 and literature cited therein) and a couple of other medieval towns (Viklund 2002 for a review). The Cistercian monastery of Alvastra, founded in about 1150, and the Hanse town of Visby, should also be mentioned, although the material from these sites is, regrettably, very small (Hjelmqvist 1968). A great deal of the data discussed here derives from Uppsala, where excavations of three different blocks in the city centre during the 1970‑80s yielded bo‑

Uppsala Sigtuna Norrköping

Stockholm

Söderköping Visby

Lund Trelleborg

Figure 2.  Map showing the Swedish medieval towns with archaeobotanical data discussed in this chapter.

Sweden

tanical material, which was examined at the De‑ partment of Quaternary Geology, University of Uppsala, under the supervision of Ingmar Påhls‑ son. In the Kransen block, a drainage ditch dated to c. 1375‑1400 yielded mainly ruderals and plants associated with gardening and also latrine material, e.g. fig (Ficus carica; Sjöberg 1984). In the Kroken block, dated to the same period, samples were taken from culture layers and a wattle-lined ditch. Ruder‑ als and wetland plants dominated this material, but cultivated plants such as hop (Humulus lupulus) and flax (Linum usitatissimum), were also found ­(Norrlin 1983; Viklund 1984). The oldest culture layers from the Svalan block, dated to 1350‑1480, proved to contain, for example, seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens) and carrot (Daucus carota). In the Bryggaren block, samples were also taken mostly from culture layers, but also from a structure believed to have been used in brewing beer. Numerous finds of hop were reported, but also opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and the oldest Swedish find to date of fig seeds, i.e. 1250‑1300 (Påhlsson 1991a). Two other sites in Uppsala that have been examined archaeo‑ botanically are the Örtedalen block (Viklund 2000) and the Disa block (Engelmark 2000). The archaeobotanical material from Sigtuna was ex‑ amined by Engelmark (2002). Sigtuna was founded about 970 and the layers examined date from the end of the 10th to the end of the 13th century, which means that Sigtuna is responsible for the oldest ma‑ terial in this study. All the archaeobotanical material from Norrköping reported here was examined and published by Jens Heimdahl in 2003. Samples were taken from culture layers, of which the earliest showing traces of hu‑ man impact date from the 12th-14th centuries. The most spectacular find comprises seeds of tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) tentatively dated to 1550‑1630 (Heimdahl 2003). Most of the material discussed was preserved by waterlogging. Charred material was found only oc‑ casionally, in most cases in the form of cereal grain. The amount of material is very modest compared to many other countries in Scandinavia and around the Baltic.

Table 1.  Cereals and legumes from Sweden (data from Berggren (1984), Engelmark (2000), Griffin (1982), Heimdahl (2003), Norrlin (1983), Påhlsson (1983, 1991a, 1991b), Sjöberg (1984), Viklund K (2000), Viklund L (1984). Date 13 14 15 16 17 Century AD Latin names English names Cereals Avena sp. Hordeum vulgare Secale cereale Triticum aestivum Legumes Lens culinaris Pisum sativum Vicia faba

   

 

         

             

             

         

Oats Barley Rye Common Wheat Lentil Pea Bean

Cereals and legumes The cereals recorded from these medieval contexts are hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare), oats (Avena sp.), common wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale; Table 1). Barley predominates on most me‑ dieval sites and has been recorded from relatively early parts of the medieval period in Sweden, i.e. the 13th and 14th centuries, as well as later. Oats and rye have been recorded in Uppsala, from excavations at three different sites and blocks in the city centre, at Helgeandsholmen in Stockholm, in Sigtuna and also at many other both urban and rural sites dating to the 13th-16th centuries. The number of finds of rye increases from the 14th century onwards. The oat grains are carbonized, which means that in most cases it has not been possible to establish whether wild oats are present among them. It should be noted, however, that wild oats (Avena fatua), has been identified in many Iron Age finds from Central Sweden; until recent times this plant was considered a troublesome weed in this region. Bean (Vicia faba) was found in Sigtuna in layers dat‑ ing to the 13th century. Hjelmqvist noted both bean, and pea (Pisum sativum) in medieval layers in Dalby in Scania (1968) and both species are mentioned in Swedish medieval laws. Pea was also identified in the Örtedalen block in Uppsala from a feature dating to the 16th century. The first Swedish find of lentil (Lens culinaris) is from Norrköping and dates to c. 1400‑1550. There are no written sources mentioning lentil cultivation in medieval Sweden (Heimdahl 2003). During the 19th-20th centuries 121

CHAPTER 5

lentils were grown on Gotland; the history of this cultivation is little known, but may extend back to medieval times.

800‑500 BC (Viklund 2000). Textiles made of flax were an important item in Baltic trade and written sources reveal imports of linen from Russia and the Baltic countries as well as exports to the west and to the Netherlands (Kulturhistoriskt lexikon 1981b). Also seed (for sowing) and unprocessed or partially processed hemp and flax may have been involved. Swedish production of flax was substantial quite early in the Middle Ages, with the first taxation on the farmers’ flax fields starting already in the 13th century. Written sources of a somewhat later date reveal, however, that flax seeds were imported regularly, preferably from the Baltic countries and Riga since, after a three-year period of sowing, the local production of seed did not suffice in either quantity or quality (Osvald 1944).

Oil and fibre plants This plant group is relatively sparsely represented in the material. However, seeds of flax (Linum usitatissimum), were found in Uppsala at two different sites dating to the 15th/16th century, in a 14th cen‑ tury boat found at Helgeandsholmen in Stockholm, and in layers dating to 1400‑1550 in Norrköping. Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is surprisingly rare in the Swedish archaeobotanical record, but a storage find of hemp seeds is reported from Sigtuna, and also finds of hemp rope (Engelmark 2002). According to written sources both plants were cultivated dur‑ ing medieval times (Myrdal 1985: 68) and both were subject to taxation (tithes), indicating that cul‑ tivation was on a large scale (Hansson and Hansson 2002). Hemp and flax are also known from prehis‑ toric contexts and the oldest radiocarbon (AMS)dated finds of flax in Sweden (Scania) are from c.

Vegetables Orache (Atriplex sp.) was found in culture layers and deposits dated to the 13th-15th centuries in Uppsala, at three different sites (Table 2). It is also recorded from Lund (Hjelmqvist 1963). Good King Henry

Table 2.  Oil and fibre plants, vegetables, herbs and spices (including medicinal and dye-plants) from Sweden (data from Berggren (1984), Engelmark (2000), Griffin (1982), Heimdahl (2003), Norrlin (1983), Påhlsson (1983, 1991a, 1991b), Sjöberg (1984), Viklund K (2000), Viklund L (1984). Date 12 13 14 15 16 17 Century AD Latin names English names Oil and fibre plants Cannabis sativa Linum usitatissimum (incl. Linum sp.) Papaver somniferum

 

   

 

   

 

Hemp Flax Opium Poppy

Vegetables Atriplex sp. Brassica oleracea Brassica rapa (incl. B. campestris) Brassica sp. Chenopodium bonus-henricus Cichorium intybus Daucus carota Pastinaca sativa Spinacia oleracea Herbs and spices (incl. medicinal and dye-plants) Anethum graveolens Anthemis tinctoria Apium graveolens Artemisia absinthium Carum carvi Chelidonium majus Humulus lupulus Hyoscyamus niger Myrica gale Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana sp. Petroselinum crispum Filipendula ulmaria

122

 

       

       

 

   

   

 

 

 

           

       

   

 

 

 

     

           

Orache Cabbage Turnip Cabbage/Turnip Good King Henry Chicory Carrot Parsnip Spinach

 

   

       

     

   

 

   

Dill Dyer’s Chamomile Celery Absinthe Caraway Greater Celandine Hop Henbane Sweet Gale Indian Tobacco Tobacco Parsley Meadow Sweet

Sweden

(Chenopodium bonus-henricus) is recorded from the 15th-16th centuries in Norrköping and Uppsala. In contrast to orache, this plant is not mentioned in Swedish medieval herbals – unless under another Swedish name (Hjelmqvist 1991). Apart from the rather abundant finds of Brassica sp., which may, for example, contain cabbage (Brassica oleracea), the only other green vege­table in the material is spin‑ ach (Spinacia oleracea), recorded from 13th century Uppsala. Brassica sp. seeds have come to light at many of the sites and in many contexts dating to the whole period, 12th-16th centuries. Brassica rapa (including, for example, turnip) was identified by Påhlsson from 13th and 15th century Uppsala (1983, 1991a), and it was also found in the deposits in a boat from Helgeandsholmen, dated to the 14th century. In the Norrköping material it was possible to identify 48 turnip seeds (Brassica rapa), as well as red/green cabbage (Brassica oleracea), from layers dating to 1200‑1400 (Heimdahl 2003). Hjelmqvist lists tur‑ nip from the 14th century Lund (1991). Turnips are generally believed to have been the Swedish staple food before the start of potato cultivation in the mid-19th century. Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) has been found in Uppsala in a 13th century context and carrot (Daucus carota) was identified from another site in Uppsala, in a culture layer dating to the 15th/16th century. It is also recorded from Lund and from a couple of prehistoric sites in Sweden (Hjelmqvist 1991).

Herbs and spices, medicinal and dye-plants Dill (Anethum graveolens), was identified in 14th/15th century contexts, for example, in Uppsala (Engel‑ mark 2000; Påhlsson 1983) and in Norrköping, dated to the early 14th century (Table 2). The culture layers in Sigtuna yielded both caraway (Carum carvi) and greater celandine (Chelidonium majus). Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) seems to have been rather a com‑ mon plant in the medieval period, according to the material described here. It was identified in Upp‑ sala at four different sites, on Helgeandsholmen and Norrköping from the 13th-16th centuries, Sigtuna from the 11th-13th centuries and from Norrköping in the 14th-16th centuries. Chicory (Cichorium intybus) seems less common but has been identified from

Trelleborg, in layers dated to the 13th century (Påhls‑ son 1991b). Two species were identified only in the last part of the period under study, the 15th/16th century. These are parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and absinthe (Artemisia absinthium), both found in Uppsala (Påhls‑ son 1983). In addition to the Uppsala find mentioned above, opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) was also identi‑ fied in Norrköping, in a layer dating to 1550‑1660 (Heimdahl 2003). Dyer’s camomile (Anthemis tinctoria) is the only dye‑ ing plant found at the sites described here. It was, for example, recorded from many of the Uppsala excava‑ tions with dates around the 15th/16th century.

Fruit and nuts The species wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) are by far the most com‑ mon fruit in the medieval layers of early towns in Sweden (Table 3). In the material discussed here, there are finds dating from the whole period, 12th16th centuries. Presumably there were wild stands

Table 3.  Fruit and nuts from Sweden (data from Berggren (1984), Engelmark (2000), Griffin (1982), Heimdahl (2003), Norrlin (1983), Påhlsson (1983, 1991a, 1991b), Sjöberg (1984), Viklund K (2000), Viklund L (1984). Date 12 13 14 15 16 17 Century AD Latin names English names Local fruit Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Fragaria vesca Malus sp. Prunus sp. Prunus spinosa Pyrus sp. Rosa sp. Rubus caesius Rubus chamaemorus Rubus idaeus Rubus saxatilis Sorbus aucuparia Vaccinium myrtillus Vaccinium sp. Imported fruit Ficus carica Vitis vinifera Nuts Corylus avellana

   

     

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

         

 

 

 

                     

Bearberry Wild Strawberry Apple Sloe/Cherry Sloe Pear Rose European Dewberry Cloudberry Raspberry Stone Bramble Rowan Bilberry

   

Fig Grape

 

Hazel

123

CHAPTER 5

of raspberry, and perhaps also of strawberries, in the alleys and on the outskirts of the early towns. Strawberries, in particular, might also have been cultivated in the town gardens. The next most frequent plant in this group to occur in urban contexts is an import – fig (Ficus carica). The earliest finds so far of fig seeds are from a ditch in the Bryggaren block, Uppsala, in layers dating to the 13th century. Apart from Sigtuna, all the other towns yielded fig seeds, with dates throughout the whole of the medieval period and later. A few wild species from the Swedish forests and mires are also represented: cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi). The latter was identified from Uppsala, for example, in 13th cen‑ tury layers, and from Sigtuna (11th-13th centuries;

Figure 3.  Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi). From Lindman’s Nordic Flora at http://www.lysator.liu.se/runeberg/nordflor/.

124

Table 4.  Arable weeds from Sweden (data from Berggren (1984), Engelmark (2000), Griffin (1982), Heimdahl (2003), Norrlin (1983), Påhlsson (1983, 1991a, 1991b), Sjöberg (1984), Viklund K (2000), Viklund L (1984). Date 12 13 14 15 16 17 Century AD Latin names English names Arable weeds Agrostemma githago Anchusa arvensis Anthemis arvensis Centaurea cyanus Chenopodium album Fumaria officinalis Galium spurium Lithospermum arvense Neslia paniculata

 

             

 

 

 

 

 

     

     

 

   

   

   

         

 

Corncockle Small Bugloss Corn Chamomile Cornflower Fat Hen Common Fumitory False Cleavers Corn Gromwell Ball Mustard

Figure 3). Fruit trees are represented only by a 13th century find of apple (Malus sp.) in one of the Helgeand‑ sholmen boats and finds of pear (Pyrus sp.) in Norr­ köping from a somewhat later period. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) has been reported from all sites and from throughout the whole of the medieval period.

Arable weeds The most common summer annuals are present at most of the sites discussed here, e.g. fat hen (Cheno­ podium album), false cleavers (Galium spurium), and common fumitory (Fumaria officinalis); the latter appears to be more frequent than in material from Iron Age settlements. The most striking differ‑ ence compared to prehistoric data, however, is the presence of many species of winter annuals such as corncockle (Agrostemma githago), corn chamomile (Anthemis arvensis), cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) and corn gromwell (Lithospermum arvense). These have been found in many of the sites discussed here, in layers dating from the whole period, 12th-17th cen‑ turies (Table 4). Another winter annual, ball mustard (Neslia paniculata) was found at Trelleborg (Påhls‑ son 1991b) and Helgeandsholmen (Griffin 1982). The least common in this group of weeds is corn‑ flower, which was found at Norrköping, Trelleborg and Helgeandsholmen in contexts dating to the 13th and 15th centuries. According to Hjelmqvist (1968), this plant was not represented in the medieval layers at Visby or at Alvastra, and seems less common in

Sweden

17th century samples from Scania than it was in the fields in subsequent centuries, according to written sources (Hjelmqvist 1972).

Plants associated with beer brewing According to Behre (1999), sweet gale (Myrica gale) was the prevailing beer additive in Northern Europe until the 13th century, whereas hops (Humulus lupulus) dominated outside this region. In Scandinavia, hops were probably introduced as a beer flavour‑ ing plant in the early medieval period (Heimdahl 2003 and literature cited therein). Hop beer was ex‑ ported in large quantities from the Hanseatic towns of Lübeck and Danzig to Scandinavia from the 13th century onwards, particularly in the 14th century when hop beer became common in these countries (Behre 1999). Hops were also exported, but soon local cultivation began on a larger scale, enforced by a royal decree of 1442 in which Christopher II of Bavaria (king of Sweden and Denmark at that time) proclaimed fines for farmers who did not grow 40 poles of hop in their gardens (von Hofsten 1960: 11). Not until 1860 were Swedish farmers relieved of the obligation to grow hop (Zachrisson 1994; Figure 4).

Hop was identified in Uppsala in the blocks Bryg­ garen, Svalan, Kroken and Kransen, Örtedalen and Disa, covering the 13th-15th/16th centuries, in Sigtuna (11th-13th centuries), in all seven boats on Helgeandsholmen and also in Norrköping (14th16th centuries; Table 2). The finds of sweet gale all derive from contexts where hop was also found, in Uppsala (Svalan, Kroken, Disa), Norrköping and Sigtuna. The situation was the same in Lund where Hjelmqvist also noted that sweet gale always sur‑ passed hop in numbers during the whole period, 11th-15th centuries, with a possible slight increase in hop in later finds (Hjelmqvist 1991: 244). In the material discussed here (from Central Sweden), however, hop is the most frequent. In the Uppsala block of Bryggaren (“the brewer”), a series of boxlike wooden constructions were interpreted as having been used for malting. These were dated dendro‑ chronologically to the 12th-13th centuries. The lay‑ ers connected with these structures yielded seeds of hop and small numbers of achenes of meadow sweet (Filipendula ulmaria), but no sweet gale (Påhlsson 1991a).

Figure 4.  Painting of Stockholm 1535 (“Vädersolstavlan” in Storkyrkan) showing the Old Town with the weigh house (marked), outside of which are the city scales, some iron rods and bundles of hops ready to be weighed (after Zachrisson 1994). The king at this time, Gustav Vasa, complained that the yearly import of hops cost 1/9 of the iron production in exchange.

125

CHAPTER 5

Farming and gardening From studies of written sources we learn that there was, in medieval Swedish, no one single all-inclusive word for “garden”. Instead a more varied and pre‑ cise nomenclature was used, presumably based on the plants grown there, e.g. “kvannegård” (Angelica archangelica), “humlegård” (Humulus lupulus), “äp‑ plegård” (Malus domestica), “lökgård” (Allium sp.) and “kålgård” (Brassica sp.). In the archaeobotanical material presented here there are enough data to demonstrate the existence only of the “humlegård” and “kålgård”. The latter word was in use up to the 18th-19th centuries, by which time it meant a place near the house, often fenced-in, where all sorts of vegetables were grown. Residents of medieval Swedish towns are believed to have had gardens in their backyards where they grew vegetables, fruit trees, etc., and also kept some domestic animals such as pigs. These gardens are, however, difficult to identify archaeologically. Ar‑ chaeobotanical analyses can give some idea of what might have grown there and possibly how the plants were cultivated. Judging from the botanical evidence, there may not have been so many fruit trees in Swed‑ ish medieval gardens; remains of apple, pear, plum and cherry are rarely found. Lund has proved to be much richer in this respect than comparable contexts in Central Sweden. It should be noted that these species are also rarely found in prehistoric (mainly carbonized) material. When did Swedish people start to grow (and develop a taste for) fruit? Here the influence of the monasteries is often referred to, and Danish written sources seem to verify apple cultivation and breeding already in the 13th cen‑ tury at Cistercian monasteries. The earliest written evidence of such practices in Sweden dates from c. 1400 and the Bishop of Linköping (Hansson and Hansson 2002). The results of archaeobotanical analyses provide a ba‑ sis for concluding that these medieval town gardens contained cabbage, turnips, carrots and possibly hop, beans and peas – although the latter three were also grown in fields, as evidenced by the medieval county laws. Some wild strawberries, raspberries, henbane and greater celandine probably thrived on the nutri‑ ent-rich soil of the towns’ backyards. Whether they were cultivated or perhaps just encouraged to grow 126

there, we do not know. Contemporaneous Swed‑ ish written sources on the cultivation of herbs, veg‑ etables, fruit etc., are scarce and often extraneous, with medieval herbals seldom being more than mere translations of foreign and antique literature (Hans‑ son and Hansson 2002). Because of the many legal documents on farming kept over the centuries, such as county laws and records from taxation, we know much more about medieval farm production. Cereal cultivation seems to have comprised the same species as recorded in historical and modern times in Sweden – known to Swedish people today as “the four cereals”. We know from the prehistoric archaeobotanical record that barley became the predominant cereal crop in the Early Iron Age and that rye and oats became increasingly important by the end of the Viking Age and subsequently. Wheat was grown during the whole period and up to modern times on a small scale, primarily to be consumed by well-todo people. Together with the breakthrough of rye cultivation in Central Sweden, the most important agrarian development during the Swedish Middle Ages was the introduction of field rotation systems (Myrdal 1985). This probably promoted more largescale cultivation on fallow land, especially of legumes (because of their nitrogen-fixing properties) such as peas and beans, but perhaps also flax and turnips, as evidenced by the taxation of these crops, which started in the Middle Ages (Myrdal 1985).

Trade and imports Four seeds of grape (Vitis vinifera) were found in two samples from Norrköping. The oldest seed is dated to the 14th century, the other three to the 17th cen‑ tury (Heimdahl 2003; Table 3). These most probably derive from imported raisins or possibly badly-sieved wine. The finds of about 50 seeds of Indian tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) and tobacco (Nicotiana sp.; Table 2) from Norrköping also reflect imports of exotic and new plants although the seeds per se indicate that the plant was actually cultivated in the region. The earliest finds in Norrköping date to approximately 1550‑1660 (Heimdahl 2003). According to the ar‑ chaeobotanical finds, fig (Ficus carica) was imported to Sweden from the 13th century onwards (Table 3). A couple of finds of walnut (Juglans regia) recorded

Sweden

from Lund in 12th-13th century layers, should also be mentioned here (Hjelmqvist 1991). It is possible to grow walnuts in Sweden, and in fact there are today some stands of walnut trees that bear fruit on Gotland and in Visby (Figure 5). The tradition of planting walnut trees here may well extend back to the Hanse period. Finally, Hjelmqvist has iden‑ tified rice (Oryza sativa) in layers dating to the be‑ ginning of the 16th century (see chapter 6), and he also presents written evidence for rice and almonds (Prunus dulcis) in Sweden, the earliest being from 1328 (Hjelmqvist 1968). To summarize, there are a few exotic plants, un‑ doubtedly imported, that occur at the beginning of the medieval period in Sweden: fig, walnut and grape. Of these, only grape is known from prehis‑ toric (Viking Age) contexts (Hjelmqvist 1993). Figs may have been imported in larger quantities, as sug‑

gested by the numerous finds (although the consid‑ erable seed content of each individual fig should also be taken into account). None of these species has been identified from rural medieval sites. It should be noted, however, that they were all sub-fossil finds, preserved by waterlogging, i.e. conditions which sel‑ dom exist in rural settlements. Less exotic plants or cultivated plants may also have been imported if domestic supply could not meet the demand, for example hops for flavouring beer, or rye to be used for leavened rye bread. Further‑ more, certain plants with a natural distribution in the country can be considered exotic when they appear in the cities of Central Sweden: bilberry, bearberry and cloudberry. All of these grow in for‑ ested and wetland areas, primarily in the northern part of the country. Why do they appear in medi‑ eval cities in Central Sweden such as Stockholm? Fairly extensive use of the bearberry plant (twigs, stems, leaves) for tanning and hide preparation is recorded from historical times, with some export from Northern Sweden to the leather industries further south. Similarly, cloudberry was picked in the north to be sold in Stockholm: In his Iter Lapponicum (A trip to Lapland) from 1732, Carolus Linneaus writes: “Each year enormous quantities of cloudberry were picked and sent to Stockholm to be used as salad” (Ågren 1976). This “export” may very well go back to medieval times. Whether these products were transported even further south remains to be seen, for example in the archaeobo‑ tanical record from the other Hanseatic ports of trade around the Baltic.

Urban diets

Figure 5.  Visby today, with some stepped-gable medieval houses still intact. Walnut trees grow in some streets and gardens within the city wall. Photo Karin Vikund.

The written sources reveal a remarkable increase in the cultivation of rye between the Viking Age and c. 1500 (Myrdal 1985). The reason behind this, ac‑ cording to both historians and archaeologists, is the massive foreign cultural influence at the time, from Germans in particular, who wanted their traditional rye bread (Gustafsson 2002; Viklund 1998). At the royal castle of Nyköping (near Norrköping) in the 1360s, for example, German mercenaries accom‑ modated there enforced a changeover from the local barley bread to rye bread after only a few months (Myrdal 1985). Presumably the Hanse played an 127

CHAPTER 5

important role in conveying these new food habits. There were perhaps also imports of rye grain as seed corn, at least initially, which may have contributed to the enrichment of the flora with winter annuals, as reflected in the archaeobotanical record. Grain imports perhaps also played a role in bringing some of them to the country. A good example is corn‑ flower (Centaurea cyanus), which is rarely found in earlier contexts and which appears to be more common in Central Sweden than in Scania and Lund (above). Eventually the people of Central Sweden also ac‑ quired a taste for hop-flavoured beer (Figure 6) – here legislation may have speeded up the process. The Hanse provided the hops and the beer, but soon hop was cultivated on every farm and hopped beer brewed locally – for example in Uppsala. Here a difference between Central Sweden and the south‑ ernmost part of the country is even clearer. In Lund, situated much closer to the Continent, sweet gale ap‑ pears to have retained dominance during the whole medieval period, whereas in the towns further north, hops were more often used, and probably also cul‑ tivated, as indicated by the pollen evidence from Norrköping (Heimdahl 2003). The use of lentils in Norrköping in medieval times and Gotland in later periods is another indication of Continental/Ger‑ man? influence.

Figure 6.  The drinking habits of people in the north. From Olaus Magnus’ Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus 1555.

128

Summary and conclusions The introduction of new plants and the changes in cultivation techniques in medieval times in Sweden is generally attributed to the monks and monasteries, appearing for the first time in Sweden in the 12th century. By way of the clergy and nobility, new ideas would eventually have percolated down to ordinary town citizens and peasants (Hansson and Hansson 2002). However, much of this remains to be proven. Written sources that could shed light on the matter are scarce and detailed extensive archaeological and archaeobotanical investigations of monasteries and their gardens have yet to be carried out. Furthermore, the right interdisciplinary methodology still needs to be developed for research aimed at addressing these issues to bear fruit. Indications of a monastery origin appear to be strongest in the case of certain spices and herbs and for the cultivation of fruit. The extensive trade and immigration promoted by the Hanse can also be proposed as agents of change. The influence was strongest in the mining districts, administative centres and towns of Central Sweden, which soon housed a substantial German population. It is also here that we see one of the most far-reaching changes, originating presumably in dietary habits, but with secondary effects on agrarian practice and farming economy. This was the change­over from flat barley bread to leavened rye bread (in Scania this change took place already in the Viking Age), with a subsequent increase in

Sweden

rye cultivation, the introduction of field rotation systems and expansion in the cultivation of legumes, flax and turnips. None of these changes can readily and logically be ascribed to the influence of mon‑ asteries and monks, but may instead be explained by cultural contacts and specifically by German immigration.

The Hanse probably also brought to Sweden the exotic foodstuffs found in medieval archaeobotanical samples. Some of these products are still rather ex‑ otic, which is why, even today, they are eaten almost exclusively at Christmas: figs, walnuts and raisins. Wine and tobacco may also have come to Sweden on those ships. But that is another story…..

129

CHAPTER 5

Plant names in Latin, Swedish and English (after Aldén et al. 1998; Erhardt et al. 2000; Hall and Widén 2004; Mossberg et al. 1992) in alphabetical order Latin names Swedish names Aethusa cynapium L. vildpersilja Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. paradiskorn Agrostemma githago L. klätt Allium cepa L. lök Amaranthus blitum L. mållamarant Amaranthus sp. amarant Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. fårtunga Anethum graveolens L. dill Angelica sylvestris L. strätta Anthemis arvensis L. åkerkulla Anthemis cotula L. kamomillkulla Anthemis tinctoria L. färgkulla Apium graveolens L. selleri Aquilegia vulgaris L. akleja Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. mjölon Artemisia absinthium L. malört Atriplex hortensis L. trädgårdsmålla Atriplex sp. målla Atropa belladonna L. belladonna Avena fatua L. flyghavre Avena nuda L. purrhavre Avena sativa L. havre Avena sp. havre Beta vulgaris L. beta Betonica officinalis L. humlesuga Brassica napus L. raps Brassica nigra (L.) Koch svartsenap Brassica oleracea L. kålrot Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) rova Brassica sp. kålrot Bromus secalinus L. råglosta Bunias orientalis L. ryssgubbe Buxus sempervirens L. buxbom Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz oljedådra Cannabis sativa L. hampa Capsicum annuum L. spanskpeppar Carum carvi L. kummin Castanea sativa P. Miller äkta kastanj Centaurea cyanus L. blåklint Cerasus avium (L.) Moench fågelbär/sötkörsbär Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller surkörsbär Chelidonium majus L. skelört Chenopodium album L. svinmålla Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. lungrot Chenopodium sp. målla Cichorium intybus L. cikoria Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. mjöldryga Consolida regalis Gray riddarsporre Coriandrum sativum L. koriander Cornus mas L. körsbärskornell Cornus sanguinea L. skogskornell Cornus suecica L. hönsbär Corylus avellana L. hassel Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. rundhagtorn Cucumis sativus L. gurka Cucurbita sp. pumpa Cydonia oblonga P. Miller kvitten Daucus carota L. morot Dianthus barbatus L. borstnejlika Dianthus sp. nejlika Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. hönshirs Elettaria cardamomum Maton kardemumma Elettaria major Smith kardemumma Empetrum nigrum L. kråkbär Euphorbia helioscopia L. revormstörel Fagopyrum esculentum Moench bovete

130

English names Fool’s Parsley Grains of Paradise Corn Cockle Onion Purple Amaranth Amaranth Small Bugloss Dill Archangel Corn Chamomile Stinking Chamomile Dyer’s Chamomile Celery Columbine Bearberry Absinthe Garden Orache Orache Deadly Nightshade Wild Oats Naked Oats Common Oats Oat Beetroot Betony Kale Black Mustard Cabbage Turnip Cabbage Rye Brome Warty Cabbage Boxwood Gold of Pleasure Hemp Hot Pepper Caraway Spanish Chestnut Cornflower Sweet Cherry Sour Cherry Greater Celandine Fat Hen Good King Henry Goosefoot Chicory Ergot Oriental Lakspur Coriander Cornelian Cherry Common Dogwood Dwarf Cornel Hazel Common Hawthorn Cucumber Pumpkin Quince Carrot Sweet William Pink Barnyard Grass Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Black Crowberry Sun Spurge Buckwheat

Sweden

Ficus carica L. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fragaria vesca L. Fumaria officinalis L. Galium aparine L. Galium spurium L. Genista tinctoria L. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Humulus lupulus L. Hyoscyamus niger L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Hypericum perforatum L. Hyssopus officinalis L. Iris pseudacorus L. Juglans regia L. Juniperus communis L. Lactuca sativa L. Laurus nobilis L. Lens culinaris Medik. Leonurus cardiaca L. Lepidium sativum L. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Lithospermum arvense L. Lolium temulentum L. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sp. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Mespilus germanica L. Morus nigra L. Morus sp. Myrica gale L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nepeta cataria L. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Nicotiana rustica L. Nicotiana sp. Nigella sativa L. Origanum vulgare L. Oryza sativa L. Panicum miliaceum L. Papaver dubium L. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Pastinaca sativa L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Physalis alkekengi L. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Piper nigrum L. Pisum sativum L. Portulaca oleracea L. Prunus domestica L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Prunus insititia L. Prunus padus L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Prunus sp. Prunus spinosa L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Ranunculus arvensis L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Raphanus sativus L. Reseda luteola L. Ribes nigrum L. Ribes rubrum L. Ribes sp. Ribes uva-crispa L. Rosa sp. Rosmarinus officinalis L.

fikon älggräs fänkål smultron jordrök snärjmåra småsnärjmåra färgginst korn humle bolmört fyrkantig johannesört äkta johannesört isop svärdslilja valnöt en sallat lager lins hjärtstilla smörgåskrasse libsticka lins sminkrot dårrepe äpple äpple vildapel mispel svart mullbär mullbär pors muskot korndådra kattmynta bondtobak tobak svartkummin kungsmynta ris hirs rågvallmo opiumvallmo palsternacka persilja judekörs kryddpeppar svartpeppar ärt trädgårdsportlak plommon mandel krikon hägg persika körsbär/plommon slån päron päron åkerranunkel åkerrättika rättika/rädisa färgreseda svarta vinbär röda vinbär vinbär krusbär ros rosmarin

Fig Meadow Sweet Fennel Wild Strawberry Common Fumitory Cleavers False Cleavers Dyer’s Broom Barley Hop Henbane St John’s Wort St John’s Wort Hyssop Flag Iris Walnut Juniper Lettuce Laurel Lentil Motherwort Garden Cress Lovage Flax Corn Gromwell Bearded Ryegrass Apple Apple Wild Apple Medlar Black Mulberry Mulberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg, Mace Catmint Ball Mustard Indian Tobacco Tobacco Black Cumin Wild Marjoram Rice Common Millet Long-headed Poppy Opium Poppy Parsnip Parsley Strawberry Tomato Allspice Black Pepper Pea Purslane Plum Almond Bullace European Bird Cherry Peach Sloe/Cherry Sloe Pear Pear Corn Buttercup Wild Radish Radish Wild Mignonette Black Currant Red Currant Currant Gooseberry Rose Rosemary

131

CHAPTER 5

Rubus caesius L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus idaeus L. Rubus saxatilis L. Rubus sp. Ruta graveolens L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sambucus racemosa L. Satureja hortensis L. Secale cereale L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Sinapis alba L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Spinacia oleracea L. Thymus serpyllum L. Thymus sp. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Triticum dicoccon Schrank Triticum sp. Triticum spelta L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Vaccinium sp. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Valeriana officinalis L. Valeriana sp. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Verbena officinalis L. Vicia faba L. Vicia sativa L. Vicia sp. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.)

132

blåhallon hjortron björnbär hallon stenbär björnbär/hallon vinruta sommarfläder fläder druvfläder sommarkyndel råglosta grå kavelhirs kolv kavelhirs grön kavelhirs vitsenap rönn äppelrönn tyskoxel spenat backtimjan timjan vete emmervete vete speltvete blåbär tranbär blåbär/lingon odon lingon läkevänderot vänderot sommarklynne vintersallat järnört böna fodervicker vicker vindruva

European Dewberry Cloudberry Bramble Raspberry Stone Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Rue Dwarf Elder Common Elder Red Berried Elder Savory Rye Yellow Foxtail Foxtail Bristle Grass Green Bristle Grass White Mustard Rowan Service Tree Wild Service Tree Spinach Wild Thyme Thyme Common Wheat Emmer Wheat Spelt Bilberry Cranberry Bilberry/Cowberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Common Valerian Valerian Narrowfruit Cornsalad Cornsalad Vervain Bean Common Vetch Vetch, Bean Grape Vine

Sweden

Plant names in Swedish, Latin and English (after Aldén et al. 1998; Erhardt et al. 2000; Hall and Widén 2004; Mossberg et al. 1992) in alphabetical order Swedish names Latin names akleja Aquilegia vulgaris L. amarant Amaranthus sp. backtimjan Thymus serpyllum L. belladonna Atropa belladonna L. beta Beta vulgaris L. björnbär Rubus fruticosus L. björnbär/hallon Rubus sp. blåbär Vaccinium myrtillus L. blåbär/lingon Vaccinium sp. blåhallon Rubus caesius L. blåklint Centaurea cyanus L. bolmört Hyoscyamus niger L. bondtobak Nicotiana rustica L. borstnejlika Dianthus barbatus L. bovete Fagopyrum esculentum Moench buxbom Buxus sempervirens L. böna Vicia faba L. cikoria Cichorium intybus L. dill Anethum graveolens L. druvfläder Sambucus racemosa L. dårrepe Lolium temulentum L. emmervete Triticum dicoccon Schrank en Juniperus communis L. fikon Ficus carica L. flyghavre Avena fatua L. fläder Sambucus nigra L. fodervicker Vicia sativa L. fyrkantig johannesört Hypericum maculatum Crantz fänkål Foeniculum vulgare Mill. färgginst Genista tinctoria L. färgkulla Anthemis tinctoria L. färgreseda Reseda luteola L. fågelbär/sötkörsbär Cerasus avium (L.) Moench fårtunga Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. grön kavelhirs Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. grå kavelhirs Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. gurka Cucumis sativus L. hallon Rubus idaeus L. hampa Cannabis sativa L. hassel Corylus avellana L. havre Avena sativa L. havre Avena sp. hirs Panicum miliaceum L. hjortron Rubus chamaemorus L. hjärtstilla Leonurus cardiaca L. humle Humulus lupulus L. humlesuga Betonica officinalis L. hägg Prunus padus L. hönsbär Cornus suecica L. hönshirs Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. isop Hyssopus officinalis L. jordrök Fumaria officinalis L. judekörs Physalis alkekengi L. järnört Verbena officinalis L. kamomillkulla Anthemis cotula L. kardemumma Elettaria cardamomum Maton kardemumma Elettaria major Smith kattmynta Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. klätt Agrostemma githago L. kolv kavelhirs Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. koriander Coriandrum sativum L. korn Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) korndådra Nepeta cataria L. krikon Prunus insititia L. krusbär Ribes uva-crispa L. kryddpeppar Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.

English names Columbine Amaranth Wild Thyme Deadly Nightshade Beetroot Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Bilberry Bilberry/Cowberry European Dewberry Cornflower Henbane Indian Tobacco Sweet William Buckwheat Boxwood Bean Chicory Dill Red Berried Elder Bearded Ryegrass Emmer Juniper Fig Wild Oats Common Elder Common Vetch St John’s Wort Fennel Dyer’s Broom Dyer’s Chamomile Wild Mignonette Sweet Cherry Small Bugloss Green Bristle Grass Yellow Foxtail Cucumber Raspberry Hemp Hazel Common Oats Oat Common Millet Cloudberry Motherwort Hop Betony European Bird Cherry Dwarf Cornel Barnyard Grass Hyssop Common Fumitory Strawberry Tomato Vervain Stinking Chamomile Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Ball Mustard Corn Cockle Foxtail Bristle Grass Coriander Barley Catmint Bullace Gooseberry Allspice

133

CHAPTER 5

kråkbär kummin kungsmynta kvitten körsbär/plommon körsbärskornell kålrot kålrot lager libsticka lingon lins lins lungrot läkevänderot lök malört mandel mispel mjöldryga mjölon morot mullbär muskot målla målla mållamarant nejlika odon oljedådra opiumvallmo palsternacka paradiskorn persika persilja plommon pors pumpa purrhavre päron päron raps revormstörel riddarsporre ris ros rosmarin rova rundhagtorn ryssgubbe rättika/rädisa röda vinbär rönn råglosta råglosta rågvallmo sallat selleri skelört skogskornell slån sminkrot smultron smörgåskrasse småsnärjmåra snärjmåra sommarfläder sommarklynne sommarkyndel spanskpeppar

134

Empetrum nigrum L. Carum carvi L. Origanum vulgare L. Cydonia oblonga P. Miller Prunus sp. Cornus mas L. Brassica oleracea L. Brassica sp. Laurus nobilis L. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Lens culinaris Medik. Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Valeriana officinalis L. Allium cepa L. Artemisia absinthium L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Mespilus germanica L. Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Daucus carota L. Morus sp. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Atriplex sp. Chenopodium sp. Amaranthus blitum L. Dianthus sp. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Pastinaca sativa L. Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Prunus domestica L. Myrica gale L. Cucurbita sp. Avena nuda L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Brassica napus L. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Consolida regalis Gray Oryza sativa L. Rosa sp. Rosmarinus officinalis L. Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Bunias orientalis L. Raphanus sativus L. Ribes rubrum L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Bromus secalinus L. Secale cereale L. Papaver dubium L. Lactuca sativa L. Apium graveolens L. Chelidonium majus L. Cornus sanguinea L. Prunus spinosa L. Lithospermum arvense L. Fragaria vesca L. Lepidium sativum L. Galium spurium L. Galium aparine L. Sambucus ebulus L. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Satureja hortensis L. Capsicum annuum L.

Black Crowberry Caraway Wild Marjoram Quince Sloe/Cherry Cornelian Cherry Cabbage Cabbage Laurel Lovage Cowberry Lentil Flax Good King Henry Common Valerian Onion Absinthe Almond Medlar Ergot Bearberry Carrot Mulberry Nutmeg, Mace Orache Goosefoot Purple Amaranth Pink Bog Bilberry Gold of Pleasure Opium Poppy Parsnip Grains of Paradise Peach Parsley Plum Sweet Gale Pumpkin Naked Oats Pear Pear Kale Sun Spurge Oriental Lakspur Rice Rose Rosemary Turnip Common Hawthorn Warty Cabbage Radish Red Currant Rowan Rye Brome Rye Long-headed Poppy Lettuce Celery Greater Celandine Common Dogwood Sloe Corn Gromwell Wild Strawberry Garden Cress False Cleavers Cleavers Dwarf Elder Narrowfruit Cornsalad Savory Hot Pepper

Sweden

speltvete spenat stenbär strätta surkörsbär svart mullbär svarta vinbär svartkummin svartpeppar svartsenap svinmålla svärdslilja timjan tobak tranbär trädgårdsmålla trädgårdsportlak tyskoxel valnöt vete vete vicker vildapel vildpersilja vinbär vindruva vinruta vintersallat vitsenap vänderot äkta johannesört äkta kastanj älggräs äppelrönn äpple äpple ärt åkerkulla åkerranunkel åkerrättika

Triticum spelta L. Spinacia oleracea L. Rubus saxatilis L. Angelica sylvestris L. Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller Morus nigra L. Ribes nigrum L. Nigella sativa L. Piper nigrum L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Chenopodium album L. Iris pseudacorus L. Thymus sp. Nicotiana sp. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Atriplex hortensis L. Portulaca oleracea L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Juglans regia L. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Triticum sp. Vicia sp. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Aethusa cynapium L. Ribes sp. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.) Ruta graveolens L. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Sinapis alba L. Valeriana sp. Hypericum perforatum L. Castanea sativa P. Miller Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Sorbus domestica L. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sp. Pisum sativum L. Anthemis arvensis L. Ranunculus arvensis L. Raphanus raphanistrum L.

Spelt Spinach Stone Bramble Archangel Sour Cherry Black Mulberry Black Currant Black Cumin Black Pepper Black Mustard Fat Hen Flag Iris Thyme Tobacco Cranberry Garden Orache Purslane Wild Service Tree Walnut Common Wheat Wheat Vetch, Bean Wild Apple Fool’s Parsley Currant Grape Vine Rue Cornsalad White Mustard Valerian St John’s Wort Spanish Chestnut Meadow Sweet Service Tree Apple Apple Pea Corn Chamomile Corn Buttercup Wild Radish

135

Denmark

Long term dietary traditions: archaeobotanical records from Denmark dated to the Middle Ages and early modern times Sabine Karg

Introduction The geographical position of Denmark is an impor‑ tant factor when considering trading routes between the Baltic area and the rest of Europe. The Oresund, the narrow waters between Denmark and Southern Sweden, is still central in this respect. The markets along the coast of what is now Southern Sweden, were famous for their herring and, up until the late 14th century, also for the extent and diversity of their market activities (Figure 1). From the 13th century onwards, salted Scanian herring was exported to large parts of Europe (Jahnke 2000). In exchange,

Figure 1.  A fisherman meets a Hanseatic trader and orders goods from Lübeck. The Hanseatic Museum in Bergen, Norway. Copy: Bergen Museum, UiB.

beer, cloth and spices were imported. From the early 15th century onwards, the Danish king took his share from the shipping traffic through this stretch of wa‑ ter by way of the Oresund Toll. Transactions with the Danish kingdom took place at about 100 towns and at the Scanian markets.

Written records concerning trade with plants and their use Written sources giving information about imported merchandise to Denmark were revaluated by Poulsen (2000). For the years between 1450‑1540, he could show that an extensive market for a number of basic foreign goods, such as hops, existed in Denmark, but luxury goods, for example wine, were only im‑ ported into very few ports and in limited amounts. Household and merchants’ accounts make it clear that spices, such as saffron and pepper, were almost exclusively consumed by aristocrats. Many written sources are mentioned in Kjersgaard’s book (1978) about food and beer in Denmark’s medieval period, as well as in the illustrative book of Skaarup and Jacobsen (1999). Mention should also be made here of two good examples of such sources in the form of “dietary rules” for the monasteries in Sorø and Lund (Figure 2, location nos. 17 and 27). These texts de‑ tail the clerical diet on special occasions (Blatt 1956; Hjelmqvist 1968). Rice is named in both sources and 137

CHAPTER 6

in the text from Sorø, the much-appreciated North German beer is clearly mentioned as having been served on the first Sunday after Trinitatis in the early 14th century. A very important source concerning both exotic plants from foreign countries and me‑ dicinal plants is provided by the writings of Henrik Harpestreng (✝1244), a Danish canon and doctor (Robinson 2000; Roesdahl 1999). Written sources do not mention grain imports on a grand scale; there was obviously no demand for this staple, at least in Denmark and Southern Sweden, due to an adequate local supply (Hybel 2000; Bill et al. 1997). On the contrary, from the second half of the 14th century to the 16th century, grain was export‑ ed together with cattle to the Dutch and Northern German Hanseatic towns (Enemark 2003). Danish late medieval household and merchants’ accounts indicate that exotic spices and wine were only imported to relatively few places in the country and it was exclusively the nobility who could allow themselves to consume these luxury goods, at least until the middle of the 16th century. However, writ‑ ten sources demonstrate that pepper was known in the country already during the 15th century in cleri‑ cal circles (Poulsen 2000). This present publication focuses on finds from

30

21

11

24 22 8 9 14 20

6 4 2627 2 23 28 25 5 1 15 17 12 29 7

13 18 19 10 16 3

Figure 2.  Map showing the Danish medieval locations with archaeobotanical data discussed in this chapter.

138

archaeological excavations as direct evidence of the consumption or use of plants. Do the plant records from archaeological excavations support all the in‑ formation available from the written sources? The review of plants demonstrated by archaeobotanical investigations aims, in the first instance, to present the huge variety of food elements available during the Middle Ages and early modern times in Denmark.

Archaeobotanical investigations at medieval sites Rostrup described plant remains from archaeological contexts of medieval Copenhagen as early as 1906, and a review of finds published up until the late 1980 was produced by Jensen (1986, 1991). Robin‑ son (2000) has assessed the state of archaeobotanical research concerning urban excavations in Denmark and has recommended a series of priorities. A review of finds of fruits, nuts, vegetables and spices from medieval Denmark is given by Karg and Robinson (2002). The following account comprises archaeobotani‑ cal analyses from archaeological sites at 30 locations in Denmark and Southern Sweden (Figure 2). Spe‑ cialists from the National Museum of Denmark car‑ ried out most of these analyses. The results were up to now unpublished or only available in the form of internal reports produced during the last 10‑15 years. The sites in present-day Sweden were studied by Hjelmqvist (1968, 1991, 1992, 1995), by Engel‑ mark and Linderholm (1998), by Påhlsson (1991a), and recently by Viklund (2001).

Methodological aspects The archaeobotanists at the National Museum of Denmark use standardized sampling procedures and analytical methods. In the case of waterlogged organic deposits, the material most commonly encountered on Danish urban excavations, soil samples of 1‑5 kg are taken directly during the excavation from defined archaeo­ logical features. The sampling points are plotted di‑ rectly on the plans and drawings produced by the site archaeologists. The samples are sub-sampled in the laboratory (Figure 3): in most cases 50‑100 ml of the original sample is washed through sieves with mesh sizes down to 0.5 or 0.25 mm. The sieved material is

Denmark

examined under a stereo microscope (magnification x 0.6 – x 50/100) and the plant remains are identi‑ fied with the aid of a modern reference collection and descriptions and drawings from the archaeo‑ botanical and botanical literature. The results are entered into the National Museum’s archaeobotani‑ cal database, ARBOREG, and the sieving residues, the unanalysed soil samples and the identified plant remains are stored in the museum’s archive.

Archaeological sites (location, site type, feature type, sample preservation) In the following, archaeobotanical data are described from the 30 locations within the realm of medieval Denmark, which also includes Southern Sweden (Scania, Halland and Blekinge). Visby is named as a Danish site, although Valdemar Atterdag first conquered Gotland in 1361 and “solid” Danish gov‑ ernance could first be established during the 15th century, extending until 1645. The map (Figure 2, blue line) shows the former political border between Denmark and Sweden. In the case of seven locations, more than one archaeological excavation has been carried out from which plant remains were studied (Table 1).

Source criticism When creating maps, there are always unknown factors influencing the distribution of the mapped localities. In archaeology, the observed distribution often reflects the activities of individual archaeolo‑ gists based at a particular museum close to the sites shown on the map. In the present case, this can be further qualified in that the distribution is also influenced by the presence of archaeologists who are aware of the importance of plant remains pre‑ served in archaeological deposits and who, as a con‑ sequence, collect soil samples or contact archaeobo‑ tanical specialists. Site type The localities in medieval Denmark have been grouped according to their size and importance, as well as their former political significance, into the following site types: towns, rural sites, churches within towns, abbeys, friaries and a monastery, cas‑ tles and ships (Table 1). The majority of the inves‑ tigations derive from towns.

Figure 3.  Sampling of a sediment profile from an archaeological excavation in the laboratory. Photograph: Sabine Karg.

Archaeobotanical samples from 41 excavations in 18 different towns are described in this article. Three of the sites within these towns are churches. Unfortunately, archaeobotanical data are available from only five rural settlements. Therefore, any com‑ parison between urban and rural sites rests on a very weak statistical base. More research must be done in the future on rural sites. The hull contents (including possible cargo) of two excavated ships were analysed and provided fascinating results. The investigations of the three castles are useful for comparison with the data from the other site types, as are the results from the five clerical sites that were studied.

Feature type and sample preservation Most deposits were described by the excavating ar‑ chaeologist as culture or refuse layers. These layers were often sampled as a whole profile section (Figure 3). In some cases, it was possible to discern dung or excrement during the excavation. This was mostly the case, when an archaeobotanist was present at the excavation. The most common features defined by the archaeologists were drains and drainage chan‑ nels, ditches, pits and wells. Only a few hearths were excavated. Wooden barrels are very useful finds be‑ cause they can often be dated absolutely by dendro‑ chronology. Latrines are also a preferred feature type, which can contain very rich and diverse finds, both of an archaeological and an archaeobotanical nature (see chapter 1). It is also clear that preservation of plant remains by waterlogging, as found in latrines, wells or drainage channels, gives good results, as this 139

CHAPTER 6

Site name

Dating (AD)

Site type

Feature type

1050-1600

rural

culture layers, pit, well

a Admiralgade

1500-1600

town

b Højbroplads

1000-1500

town

1

analysed samples

analysed features

Number on the map

Table 1.  Information about the archaeobotanically investigated sites in the former kingdom of Denmark. The sites are mapped in Figure 2. The dating is given for all the features of one location. Preservation condition of the plant remains: w=waterlogged (uncarbonized), c=carbonized and d=desiccated. The archaeobotanical data of all sites is entered in the National Museum’s archaeobotanical database ARBOREG.

Preservation

References Robinson and Harild 2005

Amager Tårnby Torv

2

9

27

w

c

refuse layers, faeces

2

19

w

Moltsen 1999a, 2000a

refuse layers

11

35

w

Boldsen and Robinson unpubl.

Copenhagen

c Kompagnistræde 28/ Rådhusstræde 6

1050-1250

town

refuse layers

1

9

w

Boldsen 1994

d Kongens Nytorv

1100-1700

town

refuse layers, faeces, drain, pit,

17

32

w

Moltsen and Henriksen 1999

ditch, hearth e Kongens Nytorv 17

1200-1500

town

refuse layers

1

12

w

Robinson unpubl.

f Mikkel Bryggers Gade 11

1200-1500

town

refuse layers

5

5

w

Robinson et al. 1991

g Nina Bangs Plads/Pilestræde 1650-1850

town

refuse layer, faeces

2

2

w

h Prinsessegade

1650-1800

town, church burials

2

4

i Sjæleboderne

1700-1800

town

refuse layer

1

2

w

Moltsen 1999c

1250-1300

ship

refuse layer, faeces

1

3

w

Robinson and Aaby 1994

1550-1750

town, church burials

14

20

1200-1400

rural

pit

1

2

1550-1700

town

well

1

2

w

1200-1400

town

drain, pit, grain store

3

3

w

3

Moltsen 1999b d Moltsen 2000b

Gedesby Ship

4

Helsingør Cathedral

5

d Karg 2001a

Herstedøster Præstegård

6

c

Karg 2000

Hillerød Østergade

7

Karg and Boldsen unpubl.

Holbæk a Ahlgade 15-17

8

c

Boldsen and Robinson 1997

Horsens a Boller Slot

1200-1400

castle

culture layers

2

2

w

b Borgergade

1100-1400

town

pit, culture layers

2

9

w

c Kirketorvet

1400-1500

town

culture layer

1

1

d Nørregade

1250-1500

town

culture layers

3

15

w

Robinson, Harild and Moltsen unpubl.

e Søndergade

1300-1400

town

pit, culture layer

2

6

w

Robinson, Harild and Moltsen unpubl.

1190

ship

refuse layer

1

30

w

Karg unpubl.

1100-1300

rural

pit, well

9

9

w

1100-1200

rural

latrine

1

1

w

9

Robinson unpubl. Robinson, Harild and Moltsen unpubl. c

Robinson, Harild and Moltsen unpubl.

Kolding Cog

10

Lolland Arninge, Hollenæs 83

11

c

Alsleben unpubl.

Mors Skarreborg

12

Robinson unpubl.

Næstved a Gasværket

1700-1800

town

drain channel

2

3

w

Karg and Harild unpubl.

b Kompagnistræde

1100-1600

town

drain channel, latrine, house,

2

9

w

Robinson and Harild 1997

c Lillelunds Have

1250-1550

town

barrels, latrines

2

2

w

Robinson and Brandnes unpubl.

d Susåen I

1000-1400

town

refuse layers, barrel

2

5

w

Karg 2001b, 2005

e Susåen VI

1250-1450

town

refuse layer

1

1

w

Karg 2001b, 2005

a Lotzes Have

1200-1650

town

latrine, ditch

3

8

w

b Sortebrødre Kloster

1250-1550

friary

barrel, drain

2

6

w

1100-1400

friary

well, house, floor, pits,

6

10

w

culture layers

13

Odense

14

Harild and Robinson 1996

Ribe Gråbrødre Kloster

faeces

140

Robinson and Harild 1996c c

Harild 1997

Denmark

15

Roskilde a Algade

1200-1400

town

2

7

w

Robinson and Harild 1996a

b Provstevænget

1300-1450

town, church pit, well, culture layers

3

6

w

Robinson and Harild 1996b

c Sct. Pederstræde

1200-1400

town

pit

1

1

w

Robinson and Harild 1996a

d Skomagergade 19

1100-1300

town

latrine, drain channel, floor

4

4

w

Robinson, Harild and Nansen 2002

1600-1700

town

burnt horizon

1

1

1200-1600

abbey

mill race, pit, refuse layers

3

15

1200-1550

town

barrel

1

1600-1700

castle

drain channel

1200-1500

castle

burnt horizon, refuse layer, drain

16

Sakskøbing

17

Sorø

18

Svendborg

19

Taasinge

20

Tønder

Hotel du Nord Akademi Brogade Valdemar Slot Tønderhus

drain channel, floor

c

Robinson 1991

w

c

Robinson and Harild unpubl.

5

w

c

Robinson and Harild unpubl.

1

5

w

4

8

w

Robinson and Harild 1996d c

Harild and Andreasen 1999

channel, barrel 21

Ålborg

22

Øm

23

Dalby

24

Halmstad

Møllegade

1200-1400

town

culture layers

3

12

w

Robinson and Harild 2002

1200 -1550

abbey

drain channel, refuse layers

2

11

w

Robinson, Harild and Boldsen submitted

1100-1300

monastery

storage finds

1

4

a Kv drottning Kristina 19

1100-1700

town

culture layer

1

1

w

Viklund 2001

b Hantverksgatan

1100-1700

town

culture layer

1

7

w

Engelmark and Linderholm 1998

1200-1300

rural

storage deposits

2

2

c

Hjelmqvist 1992

1450-1550

town

house, storage deposits

1

3

c

Hjelmqvist 1968

Kloster Kloster

25

Ilstorp

26

Landskrona

27

Lund

Village Town

c

Hjelmqvist 1968

a Apotekaren

1400-1500

town

not described

1

1

w

Hjelmqvist 1991

b Glambeck

1100-1500

town

not described

1

1

w

Hjelmqvist 1991

c Kattesund

1400-1500

town

not described

1

1

w

Hjelmqvist 1991

d Maria Magle

1200-1300

town

not described

1

1

w

Hjelmqvist 1991

e Mårtenstorget

1100-1800

town

pond, house

3

5

w

f Sankt Botulf

1100-1400

town

pit, refuse layer

6

6

w

g Sankt Clemens

1100-1300

town

not described

1

1

w

rural

burnt horizon

1

10

1300-1700

town

culture layer, faeces

1

10

1100-1700

town

storage deposit

1

1

28

Malmö

29

Trelleborg

30

Visby

Almgården, Västra Skrävlinge 1600-1700 Town Town

provides optimal conditions for the preservation of organic remains. In Table 1, the preservation of the main plant components within the individual sites is denoted by “w” for waterlogged, i.e. the plant re‑ mains were preserved in an uncarbonized condition, “c” means carbonized, and “d” stands for desiccated. Desiccated plant remains can, obviously, only be pre‑ served under extremely dry conditions; this was only the case in the burials in the two churches dated to early modern times. A total of 423 archaeobotanical samples, deriving from 160 different archaeological features, have been integrated into this present study (Table 1).

Moltsen 1999d c

Hjelmqvist 1991, 1995 Hjelmqvist 1991

c w

Hjelmqvist 1972 Påhlsson 1991a

c

Hjelmqvist 1968

Dating of the sites All the sites presented here are dated to between 1000 and 1850. The date given for a site (Table 1) is a broad date bracketing all the dated features. An individual feature or sample at an individual site may be dated much more precisely. The latter informa‑ tion is included in Tables 2‑8, which means that in case of broad dates, all centuries were marked. Often the dates are based on archaeological evidence only. In Copenhagen, at Kongens Nytorv 17 (Figure 2, location no. 2), it was possible to date a layer (layer 7) with the aid of ceramic vessels imported from the Netherlands (pers. comm. Bi Skaarup, Copenhagen 141

CHAPTER 6

town museum). Wooden barrels from the sites at Næstved and Svendborg (Figure 2, location nos. 12 and 18) were dated by dendrochronology. Radiocar‑ bon dating provided dates for the sites of Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen, Sorø, the Gedesby ship and Trelleborg (Figure 2, location nos. 2, 3, 17 and 29). At the first two of these sites, it was possible to date the seeds themselves. Copenhagen, Kongens Nytorv sample 269 (Morus sp.), AMS-date: 1650 AD (AAR6229, ± 1 standard deviation error limits: 1535‑1785 AD). Sorø, sample 1 (Rubus fruticosus), AMS-date: 1215 AD (AAR-6741, ± 1 standard deviation er‑ ror limits: 1160‑1250 AD). Sorø, sample 7 (Ficus carica), AMS-date: 1530‑1635 AD (AAR-6744, ± 1 standard deviation error limits: 1490‑1645 AD; Heinemeier 2002).

Site background: archaeological excavation and archaeobotanical studies (Figure 2 and Table 1) 1 Amager – Tårnby Torv This rural settlement is situated close to the coast of Amager, an island lying southeast of Copenha‑ gen and opposite present-day Sweden. The archaeo­ logical excavations were carried out in 1993‑1994 in connection with the construction of the bridge that now connects Denmark and Sweden (Kristiansen 2005). The archaeobotanical data from five wells and four buildings, probably different farmsteads, are included here. The features are dated variously to the periods 1050‑1300, 1300‑1400, 1300‑1500, 1400 and 1500‑1600, showing that the site was oc‑ cupied over a long period of time. Accordingly, the archaeobotanical data permit an examination of the continuity of use of specific plants. 2 Copenhagen – Admiralgade, Højbroplads, Kompagnistræde 28/Rådhusstræde 6, Kongens Nytorv, Kongens Nytorv 17, Mikkel Bryggers Gade 11, Nina Bangs Plads/Pilestræde, Prinsessegade, Sjæleboderne Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of Zea‑ land and the first mention of a port here is in the 12th century. Many excavations have taken place within the town of Copenhagen during the last 15 years in connection with the renovation of build‑ ings, installation of various services including sup‑ 142

ply lines and the construction of the underground transport system (Skaarup and Jensen 2002). In most cases, archaeobotanical analyses accompanied the excavations. Specialists were present in the field, taking samples and analysing them promptly in the laboratory. This is the ideal way to carry out environmental archaeological studies. As the results of all these studies have not yet been collated or summarized, it was decided to include the most relevant investigations in this synthesis. The sam‑ ples mostly derive from soil sections from profiles comprising several culture layers, as well as natural marine shore deposits.

3 Gedesby – Ship This shipwreck site was discovered in 1988 on the island of Falster. A plank of the original ship con‑ struction was radiocarbon dated to the second half of the 13th century (Robinson and Aaby 1994). The contents of the hull of this medieval ship were iden‑ tified as primarily deriving from animal dung, most probably from cattle. 4 Helsingør – Cathedral During renovation work in the year 2000 in the cathedral in Helsingør, located on the northeastern edge of Zealand, coffins from the Renaissance, Ba‑ roque and Rococo periods were studied (Hvass et al. 2001). Desiccated plants, in most cases whole bouquets of flowers, had been placed beside and over the deceased. In this special case the names of the de‑ ceased are known and even their professions could be ascertained. These extraordinary finds were included in this study because they reflect the use of plants in the burial customs of early modern times. 5 Herstedøster – Præstegård In 1999, excavations were performed in the vicin‑ ity of the church at Herstedøster. The fill of a well, located close to the church, was sampled. 6 Hillerød – Østergade In 1998, a well was excavated. Layers within this well could be dated to the 16th/17th century on the basis of archaeological finds. 7 Holbæk – Ahlgade 15‑17 Within the medieval heart of Holbæk, archaeo­logical excavations were performed in 1986. A grain store

Denmark

and samples deriving from a drain and a pit were studied.

8 Horsens – Boller Slot, Borgergade, Kirketorvet, Nørregade, Søndergade The medieval town of Horsens is situated on the eastern coast of Jutland. Archaeologists from Hor­ sens Museum have carried out several excavations and samples for archaeobotanical studies were regu‑ larly taken. 9 Kolding – Cog This ship was already discovered in 1943 in Kolding fjord but it was first excavated in 2001 (Dokkedal 2001). Dendrochronologically, the ship can be dated to around 1190. The wreck was found to still contain parts of its cargo. 10 Lolland – Arninge, Hollenæs 83 In 1999 Lolland-Falsters Stiftsmuseum carried out excavations in collaboration with Kiel University. The archaeobotanical results were integrated in this study because Arninge-Hollenæs is one of the rare Danish rural sites from which plant remains have been analysed. 11 Mors – Skarreborg As this site, situated in the northern part of Jutland, belongs to the group of rare Danish rural settle‑ ments, the results from a single sample are presented here. 12 Næstved – Gasværket, Kompagnistræde, Lillelunds Have, Susåen I, Susåen VI Næstved Museum has excavated at a few localities within the medieval borders of this town on Zea‑ land. The archaeological finds show no evidence of far-reaching import/export links (Hansen et al. 2005), neither were exotic spices detected in the archaeobotanical material. 13 Odense – Lotzes Have, Sortebrødre Kloster The Dominican friary, Sortebrødre Kloster, is situ‑ ated on the island of Funen. The samples which were subjected to archaeobotanical analyses derive from a channel dated to the 13th century which connected the kitchen with a watercourse. A further sample comes from ash within a barrel located in the friary’s kitchen.

14 Ribe – Gråbrødre Kloster In the medieval town of Ribe, situated on the south‑ western coast of Jutland, plant remains from several features from the ruins of a frairy of the Franciscan Order were studied. 15 Roskilde – Algade, Provstevænget, Sct. Pederstræde, Skomagergade 19 Within the medieval town of Roskilde on Zealand several archaeological excavations delivered plant remains. 16 Sakskøbing – Hotel du Nord The medieval town of Sakskøbing is situated on Lol‑ land. A single burnt deposit was analysed. 17 Sorø – Akademi This Cistercian abbey, situated on Zealand, is of great importance because there are contemporary written sources concerning the diet of the monks. Archaeobotanical studies support these records. 18 Svendborg – Brogade During an archaeological excavation in 1992, sam‑ ples were taken in this town situated on the island of Funen. The excellent preservation of the plant remains in the two barrels enabled a long list of plant remains to be identified. 19 Taasinge – Valdemar Slot At this 17th century castle on Funen, soil samples from a drainage channel (probably carrying sewage) were studied. 20 Tønder – Tønderhus This medieval castle is located in the Dutchy of Schleswig and is very important because it allows a comparison between the plant spectra from towns, rural settlements and castles. 21 Ålborg – Møllegade Situated in the northern part of Jutland on the Lim‑ fjord, Ålborg was founded during Viking times. Due to its excellent harbour, it became one of the busiest trading centres in Denmark. 22 Øm – Kloster This abbey is situated near Ry in Jutland and be‑ longed to the Cistercian order (1172‑1561). A drain 143

CHAPTER 6

channel and refuse layers were analysed for plant macrofossil finds.

23 Dalby – Kloster Situated close to Lund, in what is now Southern Swe‑ den, this site served as a royal residence in the 11th century. After this time, Dalby became an Augustin‑ ian monastery. Small stores of cereal grain dated to 1100-1300 were excavated during the 1960s. 24 Halmstad – Kv drotting Kristina 19, Hantverksgatan The medieval town of Halmstad is situated at a strategic place where the River Nissan enters the Oresund. Archaeobotanical studies of this important settlement were performed recently. 25 Ilstorp – Village Situated southeast of Lund, Ilstorp provided remains of a grain store which sheds light on the main crops probably cultivated in this area. 26 Landskrona – Town Landskrona is situated on the Swedish coast. The town was founded during the 15th century. A stor‑ age find from a medieval house of the settlement was analysed by Hjelmqvist (1968), and found to include a clump of charred rice grains. 27 Lund – Apotekaren, Glambeck, Kattesund, Maria Magle, Mårtenstorget, Sankt Botulf, Sankt Clemens Founded around 1000, Lund was Denmark’s most important town during the Middle Ages and was also the archbishop’s residence 1103/1104 to 1536. Archaeobotanical samples from several sites in medieval Lund were analysed and summarized by Hjelmqvist (1991). 28 Malmö – Almgården, Västra Skrävlinge Malmö was founded in connection with herring fishing activities during the 13th century. The sam‑ ples analysed by Hjelmqvist (1972) derive from a few huts in a village located in the surrounding of Malmö. The samples are dated to the 17th century. 29 Trelleborg – Town The export of iron, meat and butter, furs, herring and other fish gave rise to new towns on the coastal 144

estuaries of Scania and this was certainly the case for Trelleborg, which became a market town in the mid‑ dle of the 13th century. Archaeobotanical analyses were carried out on a culture layer and on dung.

30 Visby – Town The only town of the island of Gotland is unique because of its geographical position between Swe‑ den and the Eastern European Continent. Germans, mostly from Lübeck, settled in Visby already in the middle of the 12th century. The transit trade with furs from Russia in the 12th and 13th centuries made the island extremely rich. During the 13th century Visby became one of the most modern towns in northern Europe (Westholm 1996). In 1361, the Danish army occupied the island, after which Visby lost its importance. Very fine Hanseatic architec‑ ture is preserved to the present day (see chapter 5, figure 5). Unfortunately, only one archaeobotanical sample has so far been analysed from this impor‑ tant site.

Archaeobotanical finds arranged in plant groups Cereals This group comprises all cultivated grasses, as well as buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), a cultivated species of the botanical family Polygonaceae (Table 2). Buckwheat was, and still is today, exclusively cultivated for its starch-rich seeds that are processed into flour. The most common cereals throughout the whole medieval period were barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rye (Secale cereale), followed by oats (Avena sativa). Rye has often been recorded from medieval archaeological deposits in Denmark in an uncarbonized state (mostly the seed coats of the grain, both whole and fragmented), whereas at Swedish sites the corresponding finds are all charred. The causal relationship between the introduction of new agricultural technologies and the introduction of winter rye, during the 11th and 12th centuries, is illustratively shown by Poulsen (1997), whereas archaeobotanical studies can show that winter cul‑ tivation of rye had already been introduced a few hundred years earlier (Mikkelsen 2003). Rye was most probably used for bread making. Oats provided fodder for horses and were used, like barley, for the

Denmark

production of gruel and groats. Barley was important for brewing beer. Buckwheat has been recorded exclusively from waterlogged sites. The remains (achenes) were found at eight sites, dating from the 14th century onwards. Two of the sites are located on the island of Funen. This is interesting because even today buckwheat is cultivated on the island’s areas of poorer soil. Buck‑ wheat was described as a component of mariners’ food (see chapter 2). Rice (Oryza sativa) was found at two sites. Robinson and Harild identified a small number of uncarbon‑ ized floret bases (husks) in deposits from a drainage channel at the abbey in Sorø (Figure 2, location no. 17 and Figure 4). There is also a written source from the same abbey – dated to 1315: When the Duke Christopher chose Sorø as the place of burial for himself and his wife, he dictated the details of the memorial meal in his will. All the clerics were to be served with suitable food and drink, namely white bread and enough beer from Lübeck, mead, six courses for lunch, namely butter, dried cod, brawn, rice, spiced fish and other foods spiced with pepper (Blatt 1956). The second archaeobotanical record of rice comes from Landskrona in Southern Sweden, where a charred clump of dehusked grains was found en‑ closed in linen. Written sources from 1365 state that rice was kept in the royal treasure house (Hjelmqvist 1968). Millet (Panicum miliaceum) has never been culti‑ vated in Denmark on a major scale, probably due

Table 2.  Cereal finds from Denmark (including buckwheat). The plant species are listed according to the oldest finds and alphabetically. In cases of broad dates, all centuries are marked. Date 12 13 14 15 16 17 Century AD Latin names English names Cereals (incl. Buckwheat) Avena sativa             Common Oats Avena sp.           Oats Hordeum vulgare             Barley Secale cereale             Rye Triticum aestivum s.l.     Common Wheat Triticum sp.     Wheat Panicum miliaceum   Common Millet Fagopyrum esculentum         Buckwheat Oryza sativa     Rice

Figure 4.  Upper left: Uncarbonized flore base of rice (Oryza sativa) from Sorø Akademi and two modern examples. Scale 10:1. Photograph: Jan Andreas Harild.

to the unfavourable climate. The only two medieval finds are from the Gedesby ship (Figure 2, location no. 3) together with other rare plants (such as stone bramble, Rubus saxatilis), and from Copenhagen (Figure 2, location no. 2). Wheat (Triticum sp.) has very rarely been found in archaeological layers from medieval Denmark. No remains of spelt wheat have been identified in deposits later than the Iron Age. This is intriguing because the climatic conditions cannot be used as an argument for this “non-availability”. The reason must lie in dietary traditions and fashions. These must explain why common wheat (Triticum aestivum s.l.) has only been found at a few sites dated to the 13th and 14th centuries. White flour, a much-appre‑ ciated luxury, may have been used to make special bread and cakes (Leed 1999). According to King Valdemar’s cadastre (Jordebog) from 1231, wheat was mainly cultivated in the southern regions of Denmark (Fehmarn, Falster, Møn) and also on the island of Samsø.

Arable weeds For this group, it must be emphasized that not all the species recorded from the individual sites have been included in this study. Only selected weeds (see Introduction chapter), possibly indicating long-dis‑ tance trade, were recorded within the HANSA Net‑ work Project (Table 3). Six species were present in Denmark throughout the whole of the study period: 145

CHAPTER 6

corncockle (Agrostemma githago), corn chamomile (Anthemis arvensis), cornflower (Centaurea cyanus), fat fen (Chenopodium album), ball mustard (Neslia paniculata) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). It was not until the 17th century that wild oats (Avena fatua), cleavers (Galium aparine) and corn gromwell (Lithospermum arvense) re-appeared, these species having been present in Denmark in earlier periods.

Oil and fibre plants and legumes In Denmark, flax (Linum usitatissimum) played an important role in the economy and customs of peo‑ ple from at least the Iron Age onwards (Karg 2002). The plant was valued for its oil-rich seeds, but even more so for the tough fibres within its stems. In the Alpine Foreland, flax was cultivated for the use as a textile plant from the 4th millennium BC (Karg and Märkle 2002). Flax must have been very widespread as it was identified at one third of all the Danish medieval sites studied (Table 4). Hemp (Cannabis sativa) may also have had several uses: firstly for its oil-rich seeds as an ingredient in food, probably for special meals (see chapter 3). All parts of the plant can be used for medicinal purposes and even today fibres from its stems are exploited for the production of textiles and cordage. It seems that hemp was not as widespread in medieval Den‑

Table 3.  Arable weeds from Denmark. The plant species are listed according to the oldest finds and alphabetically. In cases of broad dates, all centuries are marked. Date 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Century AD Latin names English names Arable weeds Agrostemma githago               Corncockle Anthemis arvensis               Corn Chamomile Centaurea cyanus               Cornflower Chenopodium album               Fat Hen Euphorbia helioscopia           Sun Spurge Neslia paniculata               Ball Mustard Raphanus raphanistrum               Wild Radish Anthemis cotula             Stinking Chamomile Bromus secalinus     Rye Brome Fumaria officinalis       Common Fumitory Galium spurium   False Cleavers Setaria viridis   Green Bristle Grass Ranunculus arvensis     Corn Buttercup Avena fatua   Wild Oats Galium aparine   Cleavers Lithospermum arvense   Corn Gromwell

146

Table 4.  Oil and fibre plants and legumes from Denmark. The plant species are listed according to the oldest finds and alphabetically. In cases of broad dates, all centuries are marked. Date 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Century AD Latin names English names Oil and fibre plants Linum usitatissimum               Flax Papaver somniferum             Opium Poppy Cannabis sativa         Hemp Legumes Pisum sativum             Pea Vicia faba     Bean Vicia sp.           Vetch, Bean Vicia sativa       Common Vetch

mark as flax (hemp is recorded from eight features and flax from 89). This may be due to climatic fac‑ tors. In contrast, opium poppy (Papaver somniferum; Figure 5), which also prefers warm climatic condi‑ tions, was found in Denmark during the whole of the medieval period (recorded in 16 features). Its medicinal value is still appreciated today, and it can readily be assumed that the medieval population had a tremendous need for pain relief (Madsen and Robinson 1999). Legumes are not easy to demonstrate in archaeo­ logical layers because they seldom come into con‑ tact with fire in the course of being processed for food and are therefore not often preserved by char‑ ring (see chapter 1). The seeds do not need to be roasted or parched, as is the case, for example, with cereals. Neither is the seed coat easy to recognize when fragmented and preserved in an uncarbon‑ ized state. Nevertheless, the continuous record for peas (Pisum sativum) from the 12th century through to the 17th century shows the importance of this protein-, starch- and mineral-rich crop in the daily menu. The partial lack of evidence for broad bean (Vicia faba) is probably due to the above-mentioned factors. Only a few charred storage finds have been studied from Danish medieval sites. One of these, comprising peas and beans, was found at Dalby (Fig‑ ure 2, location no. 23). Descriptions of everyday food in monasteries reveal that beans and peas were on the menu several times a week. The importance of common vetch (Vicia sativa) may have been pri‑ marily as animal fodder (Karg 1996).

Denmark

Figure 5.  Flower and capsule from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Photograph: Sabine Karg.

Vegetables When attempting to demonstrate the use of vegeta‑ bles in former times, we have to consider that most salad plants, roots etc. are eaten before they flower and set seed – a very good example of this being the onion. It is therefore very difficult to detect the pres‑ ence of these plant species in archaeological deposits. In some cases it has been possible to confirm the presence of vegetables by analysing root fragments. Table 5 shows a modest selection of vegetables dem‑ onstrated by seed finds in the medieval diet of South‑ ern Scandinavia. The most frequent species seem to have been orache (Atriplex sp.), turnip (Brassica rapa) and chicory (Cichorium intybus), although this latter species grew wild and its seeds may have become incorporated into archaeological deposits by chance, like those of good king henry (Chenopodium bonushenricus). Beetroot (Beta vulgaris), kale (Brassica napus) and carrot (Daucus carota), certainly also played a much more important role within the daily diet than reflected in the archaeobotanical records. And it can be assumed that lettuce (Lactuca sativa), garden cress (Lepidium sativum), parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), purslane (Portulaca oleracea), radish (Rapha­nus sativus) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were cultivated throughout the whole medieval period in gardens within the town walls. Fruit and nuts This list contains quite a diversity of species, com‑ prising mostly berries from plants growing wild (Ta‑ ble 6). This corresponds well with the results of other investigations in Central and Northern Europe.

The collection of wild fruits seems to have played a very important role in the daily diet, primarily as a source of vitamins in the winter months. This was the case throughout prehistory and it persisted during medieval and early modern times. Only very few fruit-bearing trees are apparently exotic relative to the Danish flora: fig (Ficus carica) and mulberry (Morus sp.). However, it is still possible to grow these plants today in the southernmost parts of Southern Scandinavia, and even to harvest ripen fruits (Fig‑ ure 6). In this respect, it is astonishing that walnuts (Juglans regia) were apparently not cultivated. There are only two records from two different sites dated to the earlier part of the medieval period (Table 6). Today this tree can easily be cultivated for its oil-rich nuts, at least in southern parts and on the island of Bornholm. A very interesting result is seen in the continu‑ ous records for hazel (Corylus avellana) in half of all the analysed features. The question of whether this plant was systematically planted and managed, or whether nuts were collected from wild trees, is difficult to answer. But the important fact that the nuts can easily be stored throughout the winter and deliver a carbohydrate- and oil-rich food component should not be under-estimated. Nuts may even have played a role as tithe (see Synthesis chapter). Two other species need to be discussed in more details. One is the stone bramble (Rubus saxatilis)

Table 5.  Vegetables from Denmark. The plant species are listed according to the oldest finds and alphabetically. In cases of broad dates, all centuries are marked. Date 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Century AD Latin names English names Vegetables Brassica napus Chenopodium bonus-henricus Cichorium intybus Atriplex hortensis Atriplex sp. Brassica oleracea Brassica rapa Brassica sp. Daucus carota Lactuca sativa Raphanus sativus Pastinaca sativa Portulaca oleracea Lepidium sativum Spinacia oleracea Beta vulgaris

     

                   

   

 

 

 

 

 

       

   

       

 

 

     

         

Kale Good King Henry Chicory Garden Orache Orache Cabbage Turnip Cabbage/Turnip Carrot Lettuce Radish Parsnip Purslane Garden Cress Spinach Beetroot

147

CHAPTER 6 Table 6.  Fruit and nuts from Denmark. The plant species are listed according to the oldest finds and alphabetically. In cases of broad dates, all centuries are marked. Date 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Century AD Latin names English names Local fruit Malus sp. Cerasus avium Prunus sp. Prunus spinosa Pyrus sp. Rubus sp. Sambucus nigra Fragaria vesca Prunus domestica (incl. insititia) Rubus caesius Rubus fruticosus Rubus idaeus Rubus saxatilis Vaccinium myrtillus Vaccinium sp. Vaccinium vitis-idaea Cerasus vulgaris Probably imported fruit Prunus persica Ficus carica Vitis vinifera Morus sp.

             

                             

     

     

       

       

     

 

   

 

 

     

     

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

   

   

     

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apple Wild Cherry Sloe/Cherry Sloe Pear Bramble/Raspberry Common Elder Wild Strawberry Plum European Dewberry Bramble Raspberry Stone Bramble Bilberry Bilberry/Cowberry Cowberry Sour Cherry Peach Fig Grape Wine Mulberry

Nuts Corylus avellana Probably imported nuts Juglans regia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hazel

Herbs and spices, medicinal plants and beer additives Dill (Anethum graveolens) originates from the east‑ ern Mediterranean region and the plant has been used in Central Europe for more than 5000 years

Walnut

found in the Gedesby ship. Together with millet and some “non-endemic” weed species, this berry must certainly have been collected in more northernly parts of Scandinavia. There are only a few places in Northern and Western Jutland where it is possible to find stone bramble today (Hansen 1999). Other plants brought into medieval Copenha‑ gen were bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and cow‑ berry (Vaccinium vitis-idea). Both need acid soils not present in the close vicinity of the town. It is known from written sources that these berries were used for producing wine during the medieval period. They can also readily be stored for several weeks before being used in the kitchen. A very astonishing fact is that the only Danish ar‑ chaeobotanical record of grape (Vitis vinifera) comes from the 14th century. However wine must have played an important role throughout the medieval period, not least in connection with the church. We therefore must assume, that the wine was imported to monasteries and churches in a very clear and fil‑ 148

tered form. Raisins did not play a significant role as imported exotic goods to Southern Scandinavia; otherwise many more grape pips would have been detected, as has been the case in all other countries around the Baltic Sea (see other chapters in this volume). Apples (Malus sp.) and pears (Pyrus sp.) seemed to be considerably more common, although the writ‑ ten sources remind us that apples were as rare as imported wine and white bread (Kjersgaard 1978). The rarity of finds of cherries and plums (Prunus sp.) in the Danish material is a direct consequence of the strategy chosen for analysis. In order to find large fruit stones, it is absolutely essential to analyse a minimum of one litre of material. This was not always the case in the sites from Denmark presented here.

Figure 6.  A fig tree (Ficus carica) with ripe fruits growing on Zealand, Denmark. September 2004. Photograph: Sabine Karg.

Denmark

(Jacomet 1988). Dill can escape into the wild from gardens but is unlikely to survive extensively in the Danish climate. It seems to have been introduced by at least the 13th century and grown continuously in gardens since then (Table 7). Today this herb is part of virtually every Scandinavian fish dish. The origin of celery (Apium graveolens) is also the east‑ ern Mediterranean area. Its use has been known in Europe for more than 5000 years (Jacomet 1988). Celery was cultivated as a vegetable and probably as a medicinal plant, in Denmark at least from the 13th century onwards. Black mustard (Brassica nigra), also a Mediterranean plant, has been a very impor‑ tant spice in Denmark since the 13th century. When studying recipes from the late medieval period, it is clear that mustard was part of the daily diet. Mustard powder was used for sauces and mustard is still ap‑ preciated today for its taste and healing “side effects” (Bureau Hanzesteden 2001). Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) has only been recorded twice, at Tårnby and at Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen (Figure 2, location nos. 1 and 2), both finds dated to the 13th century. Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) was probably more often used as a read‑

Table 7.  Herbs and spices, medicinal plants and beer additives from Denmark. The plant species are listed according to the oldest finds and alphabetically. In cases of broad dates, all centuries are marked. Date 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Century AD Latin names English names Herbs and spices Anethum graveolens           Dill Apium graveolens         Celery Brassica nigra             Black Mustard Coriandrum sativum   Coriander Origanum vulgare     Wild Marjoram Ruta graveolens     Rue Carum carvi     Caraway Juniperus communis       Juniper Laurus nobilis   Laurel Rosmarinus officinalis   Rosemary Hyssopus officinalis   Hyssop Medicinal plants Aethusa cynapium         Fool’s Parsley Hyoscyamus niger           Henbane Hypericum perforatum         St. John’s Wort Chelidonium majus         Greater Celandine Leonurus cardiaca     Motherwort Malva sylvestris           High Mallow Nepeta cataria     Catmint Beer additives Humulus lupulus               Hop Myrica gale       Sweet Gale

ily available herb in day-to-day cooking. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and rue (Ruta graveolens) are both very aromatic plants and it is therefore not surprising that they were given as gravegoods dur‑ ing the 17th/18th century (Figure 2, location no. 4). There is one 14th century find of rue from Copen‑ hagen. Caraway (Carum carvi) has so far only been recorded at two archaeological sites. It may have arrived in the deposits by chance or together with animal fodder. At least one record from the abbey in Sorø (Figure 2, location no. 17) could come from kitchen refuse. Juniper (Juniperus communis) and Laurel (Laurus nobilis) had most probably a culinary use; their presence is demonstrated from the 16th and 17th century. Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) is an imported plant from the Mediterranean, which still plays an important role as a culinary and aromatic herb. The first Danish evidence dates from the 18th century. Within a European context, we know from writ‑ ten sources that the Romans had very extensive know­ledge of plants possessing healing properties. Knörzer (1967) describes the remains of medicinal plants found in association with a Roman pharmacy in the Rhineland in Germany. Medicinal plants are also named in Nordic mythology (Heizmann 1999). Concerning the Viking site of Fyrkat in Denmark, Helbæk (1977) writes, “In one women’s grave (no. 4) a collection of some hundreds of seeds of hen‑ bane (Hyoscyamus niger) were found, about the place where the deceased would have worn a belt”. Hen‑ bane is a highly poisonous plant and was mainly used as a sedative. As this plant is not native to the Scandinavian flora it must have been imported. Further finds, still older than the Fyrkat seeds, have been made in Denmark since the 1970s. In Scandinavia, written sources concerning me‑ dicinal plants are available from the 16th century onwards. One of the most famous is the book by Henrick Smid dating from 1546 in which 218 Dan‑ ish medicinal plants and their uses are described (Olesen 1994). Addressing the species as they are listed in Table 7, fool’s parsley (Aethusa cynapium), is mostly known as a medicinal plant. We have to consider that the seeds may also have entered archae‑ ological deposits from natural habitats as was prob‑ ably also the case with St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum). Both plants grow on cultivated soils and 149

CHAPTER 6

in ruderal habitats. Another very poisonous plant probably introduced to Denmark via the monaster‑ ies was greater celandine (Chelidonium majus; Figure 7). It is still used today to treat and prevent warts. Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) is known as an old medicinal plant; the seeds have been recorded from two sites dated to the 13th and 14th centuries. High mallow (Malva sylvestris) is a very decorative plant but also known as an effective treatment for coughs. A whole fruit was found included as gravegoods in a sarcophagus from the 17th century. Catmint (Nepeta cataria) is known as a medicinal plant, but it might have arrived at the three sites in which the seeds were found by chance because its favoured habitats are in the vicinity of human settlements. Our list also includes hop (Humulus lupulus), which mainly served as flavouring and a preservative in the beer brewing process. Karg and Günther (2002) have mapped all archaeobotanical finds of hop in Den‑ mark. Sweet gale (Myrica gale) was used as a local flavouring for beer before hop beer became popular (Karg and Günther 2002).

Other useful plants This group contains plants that were used for dyeing purposes, such as dyer’s chamomile (Anthemis tinctoria), recorded from the 13th-15th centuries, and wild mignonette (Reseda luteola). Garden plants might be included in this group, as for example pink (Dianthus sp.). Branches of box were found in graves from the 17th century, where they had been placed for a variety of reasons (Karg 2001a). Some of the plants

Figure 7.  Greater celandine (Chelidonium majus) growing in Denmark. Photograph: Sabine Karg.

150

Table 8.  Other useful plants from Denmark. The plant species are listed according to the oldest finds and alphabetically. In cases of broad dates, all centuries are marked. Date 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Century AD Latin names English names Other useful plants Sambucus ebulus         Dwarf Elder Anthemis tinctoria         Dyer’s Chamomile Dianthus sp.   Pink Buxus sempervirens   Box Nicotiana rustica   Indian Tobacco Reseda luteola     Wild Mignonette Iris pseudacorus   Flag Iris

listed in the Tables 7 and 8 had (and in some regions still have) very deep symbolic significance. They are closely connected with a belief in eternal life, with virginity and as a protection against the devil. Table 8 also contains the oldest record of tobacco seeds from Denmark dated to the 17th century (Fig‑ ure 8). The uses of indian tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) were probably quite varied. It could have just been grown as a decorative plant in gardens, but the ethnographic literature tells that Danish farmers smoked the leaves in the same way as those from the real tobacco plant (common tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum; Brøndegaard 1979).

Discussion From the above results it becomes apparent that ar‑ chaeobotanical research can trace a broad spectrum of plants used by the medieval and early modern population in Denmark. Some of the spices men‑ tioned in the written sources, such as pepper, cin‑ namon, cloves, ginger and saffron have not yet been found, but are also difficult to detect with the usual methods. The chance of finding these imported goods will be greatest in upper class residences. These sites have not yet been analysed to the same extent as refuse layers or other features from ordinary civil houses mostly in towns (Figure 9). When considering the differentiation of the fea‑ ture types in which traditional spices appear at Dan‑ ish sites, it is worth to note that the seeds of dill, coriander and black mustard were found in wells, as for example at the rural site of Tårnby Torv (Figure 2, location no. 1). Wells were often used secondarily

Denmark

than other beers. Hop was cultivated in Denmark, but was also imported from Northern Germany on a large scale (Poulsen 2000). Many of the herbs, spices and vegetables, and some of the fruit species, found in Danish archaeological deposits come originally from the Mediterranean region. How and when did these plants come to Denmark? This is a very difficult question to answer and this can only be done through collaboration with historians and archaeologists. We know from gravegoods dated to the 12th and 13th centuries that pilgrims undertook journeys from Denmark to San‑ tiago de Compostela in Spain (Bill et al. 1997). There were also many foreign monks who came to Danish monasteries during the whole medieval period. Did they bring their traditional medicinal plants and grafted fruit-trees with them? It seems that there is a close connection between the cultivation of garden herbs, spices, vegetables and medicinal plants and their first appearance in the clerical gardens (Figure 10). These plants spread from the monasteries or castles to the towns where we frequently see them represented in archaeological deposits dated to later centuries. Written sources also support this as the route of dissemination. One very good example is seen in the mulberry tree. Seeds were found in Co‑ penhagen at Kongens Nytorv in several layers dated to the 15th-17th centuries. One seed (sample 269) was directly dated by the radiacarbon method to 1650 AD (AAR-6229, ± 1 standard deviation er‑

Figure 8.  Left: Uncarbonized seed of indian tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) from Hillerød Østergade. Right: Modern seed. Scale 20:1. Photograph: Ida Boldsen.

to dispose of kitchen refuse, and it therefore seems most probable that these plants had been used as spices. At the present stage of research, it appears that only one aspect of the influence of the Hanseatic League on food traditions of the main population of Denmark in medieval and early modern times is evident. And this is the change from sweet gale to hop-flavoured beer. From written sources we know that the trade in German beer was virtually impos‑ sible to stop for the Danish authorities during the whole of the medieval period (Kjersgaard 1978). Hop-flavoured beer could be preserved much better

0UIFSVTFGVMQMBOUT "SBCMFXFFET /VUT TIJQT 'SVJU

NPOBTUFSJFT DBTUMFT

)FSCTBOETQJDFT JODMNFEJDJOBMQMBOUT

SVSBMTJUFT DIVSDIFTXJUIJOUPXOT

7FHFUBCMFT

UPXOT 0JMBOEmCSFQMBOUT -FHVNFT $FSFBMT JODM#VDLXIFBU











OVNCFSPGQMBOUTQFDJFT





Figure 9.  Graph showing the distribution of plant groups within the investigated site types.

151

CHAPTER 6

must be examined from one defined layer in order to detect plant remains greater than 0.5 cm. It is therefore understandable that large fruits and fruit stones were virtually absent in the dataset presented here. The methods of sampling and analysis must be changed in the future. It is not sufficient to analyse 50‑100 ml per sample as only very small remains (e.g. fig seeds c. 1.5 mm in diameter) are recorded in this way.

Conclusions

Figure 10.  “Wurzgarten im Frühling (15. Jh.)”. A vegetable garden in spring. 15th century. From Hennebo 1987, 131.

ror limits: 1535‑1785 AD; Heinemeier 2002). The oldest written source from Denmark mentioning mulberry trees is dated to 1569 when Frederik II gave the order to plant 20 trees in the garden of Skanderborg Castle situated south of Århus in Jut‑ land. During the following three centuries it was quite common and fashionable to plant mulberry trees in towns (Brøndegaard 1979). The situation was probably very similar in the case of fig trees; all the analysed samples from Copenhagen, dated to after 1600, contained fig seeds.

Danish medieval food traditions of the ordinary population were apparently not much influenced by the trading activities of the Hanseatic League. After having considered the plant remains from 41 archaeological excavations at 30 different locali‑ ties, it seems that the Danish diet remained very traditional throughout the whole of the medieval period. Exceptions to this were special ecclesiasti‑

By the middle of the 17th century, exotic garden plants can be recorded from features such as wells and graves. These plants originated from Southern and Middle America and were imported to Europe by the discoverers of the New World (Figure 11). In general, fruit stones, or other remains of large fruits or vegetables, have rarely been found in ar‑ chaeobotanical samples from Denmark. This is primarily due to the standard sampling strategy employed; the analysed samples were simply too small to allow detection of these remains. In most cases only sub-samples of the soil taken from the archaeological layers have been studied. These subsamples vary in size from only 50 to100 ml. Several studies (e.g. Karg 1996) have shown, with the aid of statistical methods, that at least one litre of soil 152

Figure 11.  The ship of Christopher Columbus facing the five newly discovered islands. From Columbus (1493/1494): The discovery of America.

Denmark

cal festivities celebrated in the course of the year in the monasteries, when rice, white wheat bread and imported beer from Germany were consumed. The diversity of the diet at the royal courts cannot yet be addressed through archaeobotanical data. More analyses must be carried out within this type of site in the future. A few studies of plant remains from early modern times definitely show that exotic plants found their way on to contemporary homes and most probably also into the gardens within the towns by the 17th century at the latest.

Acknowledgements First of all I would like to thank the Nordic Council of Ministers who, through their financial support, enabled the establishment of the HANSA Network (grant nr. 2001‑2783‑2). All the invited Network

partners took part in all of the Network meetings and worked together in a harmonious way, provid‑ ing the author with great motivation and inspiration. Without the goodwill of all those who have been involved in the archaeobotanical analysis of samples from Denmark, this review would not have been pos‑ sible. I am especially grateful to Dr. David Earle Rob‑ inson (English Heritage, Portsmouth) who initiated most of the studies and supervised some of them. Many of the results are being presented here for the first time. Prof. Bjørn Poulsen (Århus University) read and corrected with greatest care the historical formulations within this article. I have to thank him for many bibliographical references. Karin Viklund helped with the Swedish sites and last, but not least, I would like to thank the National Museum of Den‑ mark for its openness towards this project and for giving me the opportunity to ­realize it.

153

CHAPTER 6

Plant names in Latin, Danish and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000; Hansen 1999) in alphabetical order Latin names Aethusa cynapium L. Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Agrostemma githago L. Allium cepa L. Amaranthus blitum L. Amaranthus sp. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Anethum graveolens L. Angelica sylvestris L. Anthemis arvensis L. Anthemis cotula L. Anthemis tinctoria L. Apium graveolens L. Aquilegia vulgaris L. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Artemisia absinthium L. Atriplex hortensis L. Atriplex sp. Atropa belladonna L. Avena fatua L. Avena nuda L. Avena sativa L. Avena sp. Beta vulgaris L. Betonica officinalis L. Brassica napus L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Brassica oleracea L. Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Brassica sp. Bromus secalinus L. Bunias orientalis L. Buxus sempervirens L. Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Cannabis sativa L. Capsicum annuum L. Carum carvi L. Castanea sativa P. Miller Centaurea cyanus L. Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller Chelidonium majus L. Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Chenopodium sp. Cichorium intybus L. Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Consolida regalis Gray Coriandrum sativum L. Cornus mas L. Cornus sanguinea L. Cornus suecica L. Corylus avellana L. Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Cucumis sativus L. Cucurbita sp. Cydonia oblonga Mill. Daucus carota L. Dianthus barbatus L. Dianthus sp. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. Elettaria cardamomum Maton Elettaria major Smith Empetrum nigrum L. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

154

Danish names Hundepersille Paradiskorn Klinte Kepa-Løg Amarant Amarant Krumhals Dild Fjeld-Kvan Ager-Gåseurt Stinkende Gåseurt Farve-Gåseurt Vild Selleri Almindelig Akeleje Hede-Melbærris Have-Malurt Have-Mælde Mælde Galnebær Flyve-Havre Pur-Havre Almindelig Havre Havre Foder-Bede Betonie Raps Sort Sennep Have-Kål Kålroe Kål Rug-Hejre Takkeklap Buskbom Sæd-Dodder Hamp Spansk Peber Kommen Ægte Kastanie Kornblomst Fugle-Kirsebær Sur-Kirsebær Svaleurt Hvidmelet Gåsefod Stolthenriks Gåsefod Gåsefod Cikorie Meldrøje Korn-Ridderspore Koriander Kirsebær-Kornel Rød Kornel Hønsebær Hassel Almindelig Hvidtjørn Agurk Græskar Kvæde Gulerod Studenter-Nellike Nellike Hanespore Kardemomme Kardemomme Revling Skærm-Vortemælk Almindelig Boghvede

English names Fool’s Parsley Grains of Paradise Corn Cockle Onion Purple Amaranth Amaranth Small Bugloss Dill Archangel Corn Chamomile Stinking Chamomile Dyer’s Chamomile Celery Columbine Bearberry Absinthe Garden Orache Orache Deadly Nightshade Wild Oats Naked Oats Common Oats Oat Beetroot Betony Kale Black Mustard Cabbage Turnip Cabbage Rye Brome Warty Cabbage Boxwood Gold of Pleasure Hemp Hot Pepper Caraway Spanish Chestnut Cornflower Sweet Cherry Sour Cherry Greater Celandine Fat Hen Good King Henry Goosefoot Chicory Ergot Oriental Lakspur Coriander Cornelian Cherry Common Dogwood Dwarf Cornel Hazel Common Hawthorn Cucumber Pumpkin Quince Carrot Sweet William Pink Barnyard Grass Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Black Crowberry Sun Spurge Buckwheat

Denmark

Ficus carica L. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fragaria vesca L. Fumaria officinalis L. Galium aparine L. Galium spurium L. Genista tinctoria L. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Humulus lupulus L. Hyoscyamus niger L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Hypericum perforatum L. Hyssopus officinalis L. Iris pseudacorus L. Juglans regia L. Juniperus communis L. Lactuca sativa L. Laurus nobilis L. Lens culinaris Medik. Leonurus cardiaca L. Lepidium sativum L. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Lithospermum arvense L. Lolium temulentum L. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sp. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Mespilus germanica L. Morus nigra L. Morus sp. Myrica gale L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nepeta cataria L. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Nicotiana rustica L. Nicotiana sp. Nigella sativa L. Origanum vulgare L. Oryza sativa L. Panicum miliaceum L. Papaver dubium L. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Pastinaca sativa L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Physalis alkekengi L. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Piper nigrum L. Pisum sativum L. Portulaca oleracea L. Prunus domestica L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Prunus insititia L. Prunus padus L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Prunus sp. Prunus spinosa L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Ranunculus arvensis L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Raphanus sativus L. Reseda luteola L. Ribes nigrum L. Ribes rubrum L. Ribes sp. Ribes uva-crispa L. Rosa sp. Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Figen Almindelig Mjødurt Fennikel Skov-Jordbær Læge-Jordrøg Burre-Snerre Hør-Snerre Farve-Visse Almindelig Byg incl. Toradet Byg Almindelig Humle Bulmeurt Kantet Perikon Prikbladet Perikon Isop Gul Iris Almindelig Valnød Ene Have-Salat Laurbær Linse Almindelig Hjertespand Have-Karse Løvstikke Almindelig Hør Ager-Stenfrø Giftig Rajgræs Sød-Æble Æble Skov-Æble Mispel Sort Morbær Morbær Mose-Pors Muskat Rundskulpe Katteurt Bonde-Tobak Tobak Sortkommen Merian Ris Almindelig Hirse Gærde-Valmue Opium-Valmue Pastinak Persille Jødekirsebær Allehånde Sort Peber Almindelig Ært Have-Portulak Blomme Mandel Blomme Almindelig Hæg Fersken Blomme Slåen Pære Pære Ager-Ranunkel Kiddike Radis Farve-Reseda Solbær Have-Ribs Ribs Stikkelsbær Rose Rosmarin

Fig Meadow Sweet Fennel Wild Strawberry Common Fumitory Cleavers False Cleavers Dyer’s Broom Barley Hop Henbane St John’s Wort St John’s Wort Hyssop Flag Iris Walnut Juniper Lettuce Laurel Lentil Motherwort Garden Cress Lovage Flax Corn Gromwell Bearded Ryegrass Apple Apple Wild Apple Medlar Black Mulberry Mulberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg, Mace Catmint Ball Mustard Indian Tobacco Tobacco Black Cumin Wild Marjoram Rice Common Millet Long-headed Poppy Opium Poppy Parsnip Parsley Strawberry Tomato Allspice Black Pepper Pea Purslane Plum Almond Bullace European Bird Cherry Peach Sloe/Cherry Sloe Pear Pear Corn Buttercup Wild Radish Radish Wild Mignonette Black Currant Red Currant Currant Gooseberry Rose Rosemary

155

CHAPTER 6

Rubus caesius L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus idaeus L. Rubus saxatilis L. Rubus sp. Ruta graveolens L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sambucus racemosa L. Satureja hortensis L. Secale cereale L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Sinapis alba L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Spinacia oleracea L. Thymus serpyllum L. Thymus sp. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Triticum dicoccon Schrank Triticum sp. Triticum spelta L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Vaccinium sp. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Valeriana officinalis L. Valeriana sp. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Verbena officinalis L. Vicia faba L. Vicia sativa L. Vicia sp. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.)

156

Korbær Multebær Brombær Hindbær Fruebær Klynger Rude Sommer-Hyld Almindelig Hyld Drue-Hyld Sar Rug Blågrøn Skærmaks Kolbehirse Grøn Skærmaks Gul Sennep Almindelig Røn Storfrugtet Røn Tarmvrid-Røn Spinat Smalbladet Timian Timian Almindelig Hvede Emmer Hvede Spelt Blåbær Tranebær Bølle Mose-Bølle Tyttebær Læge-Baldrian Baldrian Tandbægret Vårsalat Tandfri Vårsalat Jernurt Hestebønne Foder-Vikke Vikke Ægte Vinranke

European Dewberry Cloudberry Bramble Raspberry Stone Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Rue Dwarf Elder Common Elder Red Berried Elder Savory Rye Yellow Foxtail Foxtail Bristle Grass Green Bristle Grass White Mustard Rowan Service Tree Wild Service Tree Spinach Wild Thyme Thyme Common Wheat Emmer Wheat Spelt Bilberry Cranberry Bilberry/Cowberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Common Valerian Valerian Narrowfruit Cornsalad Cornsalad Vervain Bean Common Vetch Vetch, Bean Grape Vine

Denmark

Plant names in Danish, Latin and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000; Hansen 1999) in alphabetical order Danish names Ager-Gåseurt Ager-Ranunkel Ager-Stenfrø Agurk Allehånde Almindelig Akeleje Almindelig Boghvede Almindelig Byg incl. Toradet Byg Almindelig Havre Almindelig Hirse Almindelig Hjertespand Almindelig Humle Almindelig Hvede Almindelig Hvidtjørn Almindelig Hyld Almindelig Hæg Almindelig Hør Almindelig Mjødurt Almindelig Røn Almindelig Valnød Almindelig Ært Amarant Amarant Baldrian Betonie Blomme Blomme Blomme Blåbær Blågrøn Skærmaks Bonde-Tobak Brombær Bulmeurt Burre-Snerre Buskbom Bølle Cikorie Dild Drue-Hyld Emmer Ene Farve-Gåseurt Farve-Reseda Farve-Visse Fennikel Fersken Figen Fjeld-Kvan Flyve-Havre Foder-Bede Foder-Vikke Fruebær Fugle-Kirsebær Galnebær Giftig Rajgræs Græskar Grøn Skærmaks Gul Iris Gul Sennep Gulerod Gærde-Valmue Gåsefod Hamp Hanespore Hassel Have-Karse

Latin names Anthemis arvensis L. Ranunculus arvensis L. Lithospermum arvense L. Cucumis sativus L. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Aquilegia vulgaris L. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Avena sativa L. Panicum miliaceum L. Leonurus cardiaca L. Humulus lupulus L. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Sambucus nigra L. Prunus padus L. Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Sorbus aucuparia L. Juglans regia L. Pisum sativum L. Amaranthus blitum L. Amaranthus sp. Valeriana sp. Betonica officinalis L. Prunus domestica L. Prunus insititia L. Prunus sp. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Nicotiana rustica L. Rubus fruticosus L. Hyoscyamus niger L. Galium aparine L. Buxus sempervirens L. Vaccinium sp. Cichorium intybus L. Anethum graveolens L. Sambucus racemosa L. Triticum dicoccon Schrank Juniperus communis L. Anthemis tinctoria L. Reseda luteola L. Genista tinctoria L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Ficus carica L. Angelica sylvestris L. Avena fatua L. Beta vulgaris L. Vicia sativa L. Rubus saxatilis L. Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Atropa belladonna L. Lolium temulentum L. Cucurbita sp. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Iris pseudacorus L. Sinapis alba L. Daucus carota L. Papaver dubium L. Chenopodium sp. Cannabis sativa L. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. Corylus avellana L. Lepidium sativum L.

English names Corn Chamomile Corn Buttercup Corn Gromwell Cucumber Allspice Columbine Buckwheat Barley Common Oats Common Millet Motherwort Hop Common Wheat Common Hawthorn Common Elder European Bird Cherry Flax Meadow Sweet Rowan Walnut Pea Purple Amaranth Amaranth Valerian Betony Plum Bullace Sloe/Cherry Bilberry Yellow Foxtail Indian Tobacco Bramble Henbane Cleavers Boxwood Bilberry/Cowberry Chicory Dill Red Berried Elder Emmer Juniper Dyer’s Chamomile Wild Mignonette Dyer’s Broom Fennel Peach Fig Archangel Wild Oats Beetroot Common Vetch Stone Bramble Sweet Cherry Deadly Nightshade Bearded Ryegrass Pumpkin Green Bristle Grass Flag Iris White Mustard Carrot Long-headed Poppy Goosefoot Hemp Barnyard Grass Hazel Garden Cress

157

CHAPTER 6

Have-Kål Have-Malurt Have-Mælde Have-Portulak Have-Ribs Have-Salat Havre Hede-Melbærris Hestebønne Hindbær Hundepersille Hvede Hvidmelet Gåsefod Hønsebær Hør-Snerre Isop Jernurt Jødekirsebær Kantet Perikon Kardemomme Kardemomme Katteurt Kepa-Løg Kiddike Kirsebær-Kornel Klinte Klynger Kolbehirse Kommen Korbær Koriander Kornblomst Korn-Ridderspore Krumhals Kvæde Kål Kålroe Laurbær Linse Læge-Baldrian Læge-Jordrøg Løvstikke Mandel Meldrøje Merian Mispel Morbær Mose-Bølle Mose-Pors Multebær Muskat Mælde Nellike Opium-Valmue Paradiskorn Pastinak Persille Prikbladet Perikon Pur-Havre Pære Pære Radis Raps Revling Ribs Ris Rose Rosmarin Rude Rug

158

Brassica oleracea L. Artemisia absinthium L. Atriplex hortensis L. Portulaca oleracea L. Ribes rubrum L. Lactuca sativa L. Avena sp. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Vicia faba L. Rubus idaeus L. Aethusa cynapium L. Triticum sp. Chenopodium album L. Cornus suecica L. Galium spurium L. Hyssopus officinalis L. Verbena officinalis L. Physalis alkekengi L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Elettaria cardamomum Maton Elettaria major Smith Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Allium cepa L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Cornus mas L. Agrostemma githago L. Rubus sp. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Carum carvi L. Rubus caesius L. Coriandrum sativum L. Centaurea cyanus L. Consolida regalis Gray Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Cydonia oblonga Mill. Brassica sp. Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Laurus nobilis L. Lens culinaris Medik. Valeriana officinalis L. Fumaria officinalis L. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Origanum vulgare L. Mespilus germanica L. Morus sp. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Myrica gale L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Atriplex sp. Dianthus sp. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Pastinaca sativa L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Hypericum perforatum L. Avena nuda L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Raphanus sativus L. Brassica napus L. Empetrum nigrum L. Ribes sp. Oryza sativa L. Rosa sp. Rosmarinus officinalis L. Ruta graveolens L. Secale cereale L.

Cabbage Absinthe Garden Orache Purslane Red Currant Lettuce Oat Bearberry Bean Raspberry Fool’s Parsley Wheat Fat Hen Dwarf Cornel False Cleavers Hyssop Vervain Strawberry Tomato St John’s Wort Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Ball Mustard Onion Wild Radish Cornelian Cherry Corn Cockle Bramble/Raspberry Foxtail Bristle Grass Caraway European Dewberry Coriander Cornflower Oriental Lakspur Small Bugloss Quince Cabbage Turnip Laurel Lentil Common Valerian Common Fumitory Lovage Almond Ergot Wild Marjoram Medlar Mulberry Bog Bilberry Sweet Gale Cloudberry Nutmeg, Mace Orache Pink Opium Poppy Grains of Paradise Parsnip Parsley St John’s Wort Naked Oats Pear Pear Radish Kale Black Crowberry Currant Rice Rose Rosemary Rue Rye

Denmark

Rug-Hejre Rundskulpe Rød Kornel Sar Skov-Jordbær Skov-Æble Skærm-Vortemælk Slåen Smalbladet Timian Solbær Sommer-Hyld Sort Morbær Sort Peber Sort Sennep Sortkommen Spansk Peber Spelt Spinat Stikkelsbær Stinkende Gåseurt Stolthenriks Gåsefod Storfrugtet Røn Studenter-Nellike Sur-Kirsebær Svaleurt Sæd-Dodder Sød-Æble Takkeklap Tandbægret Vårsalat Tandfri Vårsalat Tarmvrid-Røn Timian Tobak Tranebær Tyttebær Vikke Vild Selleri Æble Ægte Kastanie Ægte Vinranke

Bromus secalinus L. Nepeta cataria L. Cornus sanguinea L. Satureja hortensis L. Fragaria vesca L. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Prunus spinosa L. Thymus serpyllum L. Ribes nigrum L. Sambucus ebulus L. Morus nigra L. Piper nigrum L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Nigella sativa L. Capsicum annuum L. Triticum spelta L. Spinacia oleracea L. Ribes uva-crispa L. Anthemis cotula L. Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Sorbus domestica L. Dianthus barbatus L. Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller Chelidonium majus L. Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Bunias orientalis L. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Thymus sp. Nicotiana sp. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Vicia sp. Apium graveolens L. Malus sp. Castanea sativa P. Miller Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.)

Rye Brome Catmint Common Dogwood Savory Wild Strawberry Wild Apple Sun Spurge Sloe Wild Thyme Black Currant Dwarf Elder Black Mulberry Black Pepper Black Mustard Black Cumin Hot Pepper Spelt Spinach Gooseberry Stinking Chamomile Good King Henry Service Tree Sweet William Sour Cherry Greater Celandine Gold of Pleasure Apple Warty Cabbage Narrowfruit Cornsalad Cornsalad Wild Service Tree Thyme Tobacco Cranberry Cowberry Vetch, Bean Celery Apple Spanish Chestnut Grape Vine

159

Norway

Foreign trade and local production – plant remains from medieval times in Norway

Kari Loe Hjelle

Introduction

The Hanseatic League and Norway

The wooden houses along Bryggen in Bergen, West‑ ern Norway, are visible remains of medieval life and are today on the UNESCO list of our common cul‑ tural heritage. Below these houses, another cultural history is hidden; several metres of deposits contain‑ ing archaeological, zoological and botanical data, all telling their own history and together revealing the history of daily life, diet, trade and activity in medieval times. Thousands of botanical remains are present – mosses, fruits, seeds and pollen – plants utilized by people living in the town in the past, and today a protected archive as long as the layers are kept undisturbed. A large fire in Bergen in 1955 destroyed most of the northern Bryggen area and provided the starting point for larger medieval excavations in the town. Bryggen was excavated between 1955 and 1968 (Herteig 1969, 1985), but botanical expertise was not involved in the excavations in the first decades. Botanical samples were collected by chance when visible remains were found, and some of these were later analysed (Fægri 1956; Griffin 1979a). From the end of the 1970s, more formal collaboration between archaeology and botany was established, and since then botanical investigations have been incorporated into excavations in medieval Bergen.

Bergen (Figure 1) was the northernmost trading station of the Hanseatic League, and one of four “Kontor” (or branches) outside Germany. According to written sources, the town was founded in 1070 and during the 12th century Bergen developed into Norway’s main trading centre and capital (Helle 1982). Development of trade with Germany, with the gradually increasing influence of German mer‑ chants in Bergen, took place during the 13th century when Germans also became winter residents in Ber‑

Figure 1.  Bergen c. 1580 by Hieronymus Scholeus. The seal of the Hanseatic Kontor in Bergen: a half eagle and a crowned stockfish are seen to the right of the name “Bergen”. Copy: Bergen Museum, UiB.

161

CHAPTER 7

gen, carrying out their trade throughout the year. In privileges from 1294, German merchants were forbidden to sail beyond Bergen to the northern part of the country. In 1302‑1313 this was extended to include all foreign merchants and the islands in the west (Iceland, Greenland, Shetland, Orkney and the Faeroes). In this way Bergen became a stable port (Bjørsvik and Solberg 1996; Helle 1982; Westholm 1996). The Hansa Kontor was established around 1350‑1360. After the end of the Hanseatic League, the Kontor in Bergen remained German until 1754, when it was replaced by a Norwegian Kontor. The most important German towns with links to the Kontor in Bergen were Lübeck, Rostock, Wismar and Stralsund. Until the 13th century, trade was dominated by luxury products for the king, church and nobility. With the coming of the Hanseatic League, the na‑ ture of trade changed to include a broader range of goods, including food products, cloth and handi‑ crafts, for a larger sector of the population (Bjørsvik and Solberg 1996; Helle 1982). The most important export from Bergen was stockfish (dried fish, mainly cod). This was produced in Northern and Western Norway and transported to Bergen twice a year, in May and August/September, for further transport to Europe. In the early 14th century, c. 3000 tons of stockfish were exported annually from Bergen and around 1650 this had increased to c. 6000 tons (Helle 1982: 308). Due to the many fasting days of the Roman Catholic Church, there was a great need for fish all over Europe. In exchange for the fish, imports of cereals were important for Bergen. In the 14th century, two towns located in Eastern Norway: Oslo and Tønsberg, both became Factories (minor trading stations) of the Hanseatic League. These were trading stations for goods bound for and coming from the catchments of Eastern Norway (Bjørsvik and Solberg 1996).

Archaeobotanical investigations in medieval towns in Norway During the second half of the 20th century, several archaeological excavations took place in Norwegian medieval towns. An increasing interest in including the analysis of plant remains in these investigations resulted in the sampling of huge amounts of mate‑ rial from the excavated sites. Analyses carried out 162

Trondheim

Bergen Oslo

Figure 2.  Map showing the Norwegian medieval towns with archaeobotanical data discussed in this chapter.

from Bergen (e.g. Griffin 1979a; Hjelle 1986, 1987, 1994, 2001, 2002; Hjelle and Hommedal 2002; Hjelle and Schjølberg 1999; Krzywinski 1979, 1982, 1991, 1998; Krzywinski and Fægri 1979; Krzywin‑ ski and Kaland 1984; Krzywinski and Soltvedt 1988; Krzywinski et al. 1983), Oslo (e.g. Danielsen 1991; Griffin 1975, 1977, 1979a, 1979b, 1981a, 1981b, 1988, 1994, 1997; Høeg 1977, 1979), Trondheim (e.g. Griffin 1992; Griffin and Sandvik 1989, 1991; Sandvik 1992, 1994, 2000a, 2000b, 2006; Tallantire 1979) and Tønsberg (e.g. Foldøy and Griffin 1986; Griffin 1984; Griffin and Foldøy 1986; Hjelle 1989; Sandvik 2000c; Sivertssen 1989), show the great importance of plants in the diet and daily life of medieval times. The data also reveal a history of trade and connections between people far beyond the borders of Norway, and a history of trade prior to the advent of the Hanseatic League.

Bergen, Oslo and Trondheim – three towns with different relationships to the Hanseatic League In this paper, useful plants detected in analysed soil samples from dated contexts in Bergen will be pre‑ sented. With the aim of obtaining a more complete

Norway

picture of the utilization of plants in medieval Nor‑ way, published data from the main excavations in Oslo and Trondheim are also included. In contrast to Bergen and Oslo, Trondheim (Nidaros) had no for‑ mal relationship to the Hanseatic League. The town was, however, an important harbour for stockfish from Northern Norway in the 12th century. It was also the first centre of trade with Northern Norway, Iceland and Eastern England, until Bergen, with a more optimal geographical location, developed into the main town. From the beginning of the 14th cen‑ tury, at the latest, the archbishop in Trondheim had his own house in Bergen, indicating the importance of the town in the trade between Trondheim and foreign countries (Helle 1982: 346-353). The material included in the data list from Nor‑ way does not give a complete picture of existing plant material from these towns. It is limited to pre‑ viously published data from Oslo and Trondheim and to published and unpublished analyses from Bergen. Furthermore, all three towns contain plant material from the 11th and 12th centuries, prior to the Hanseatic period and therefore not included in the Norwegian dataset of the HANSA Network Project. Within these limitations, and with focus on Bergen, the plant material from Norway will be presented. Similarities and differences in the pre‑ sented plant material from the three towns will be discussed, and the results will be seen in relation to the contexts and features from which the sampled material originates.

Investigated sites and available plant material Bergen, Oslo and Trondheim represent three ge‑ ographical areas which reflect differences in topo­ graphy and climate, as well as their position relative to foreign countries (Figure 2). Bergen lies on the western coast of Norway. The climate is oceanic, with mild winters and relatively cold summers, whereas in both Oslo and Trondheim, the climate is more continental with warm summers and cold, snow-rich winters. The relatively flat areas around Oslo and Trondheim have resulted in these regions being important for cereal cultivation, whereas on the steeper hillsides in Western Norway the farms are smaller. Cereal cultivation has never had the same importance in Western Norway as in eastern and

central parts of the country, and there has always been a greater reliance here on animal husbandry and fishing. Along the western coast, the heathlands provide winter fodder for animals and the mild cli‑ mate makes it possible to let the animals graze out‑ side all-year-round. Available arable farming land does, however, also exist, and throughout medieval times farmers and fishermen occupied the hinterland of Bergen.

Bergen During medieval times, the different areas of Bergen were dominated by people from different countries. Bryggen was the German area, with the Hanseatic Kontor and around 2000 German inhabitants, com‑ pared to a total population for the town of around 10 000 (Bjørsvik and Solberg 1996; Helle 1982). Other areas of the town were dominated variously by people from England or from the Netherlands or by the Norwegian inhabitants. Not only foreign trade was important in the town. In the town law “Byloven” from 1276, different craftsmen such as shoemakers, tailors, combmakers, jewellers, food traders and cloth traders, each had their own spe‑ cific area along Øvrestretet, the main street behind Bryggen. Shoemakers made up the largest group and dominated the southern part of the town, the Vågsbotn area. German shoemakers were probably present in Bergen already in the 13th century, whereas the presence of German bakers is documented in the 15th century (Helle 1982). The inhabitants of the town had small gardens in the backyard of their houses, as indicated on the drawing by Scholeus (Figure 3). Both herb gardens and cabbage gardens are mentioned in written

Figure 3.  The gardens behind the houses in Bergen are ­illustrated on the Scholeus print from c. 1580. Copy: Bergen Museum, UiB.

163

CHAPTER 7

N

Øvrestretet

200m

Bergenhus

Bryggen

Vågsbotn

Vågen

Sites included in the data-set from Bergen Sea level in early medieval time

Figure 4.  The town of Bergen with the sites included in the HANSA dataset. From north towards south: Veisan (Hjelle 1986, 2002), Kroken 3 (Hjelle 1987), Dreggsalmenning 14‑16 (Hjelle unpubl. a), Dreggen (Krzywinski 1982), Bryggen (Griffin 1979a; Herteig 1969), Svensgården (Hjelle unpubl. b), Rosenkrantzgate 4 (Krzywinski et al. 1983; Krzywinski and Soltvedt 1988), Nedre Korskirkealmenning/Vågsalmenning (Hjelle unpubl. c) and Dom­ kirkegate 6 (Hjelle 1994).

sources from the 14th century and later, and the king had both a herb garden and an apple garden at Hol‑ men (Helle 1982). Also the Hanseatic inhabitants on Bryggen had their own gardens behind the buildings, and from the 16th and 17th centuries the sizes of the gardens are known (Øye 1998). Cereal cultivation, on the other hand, probably took place outside the town, and grain imports made local cultivation less important (Helle 1982). Archaeological excavations, including botani‑ cal investigations, have taken place both within the “German” area of Bryggen and in Vågsbotn, as well as in the surrounding areas where Norwegian people lived. About 3500 samples from Bergen are kept in the stores of Bergen University Museum, of which about 7 % have been analysed. Only one half of these have been included in the HANSA dataset, due to uncertain dating of the remaining samples, includ‑ ing 113 samples from the Bryggen excavations. Plant material from nine different sites is included in the dataset from Bergen. The details of how the analy‑ ses were carried out differ between the sites, and the availability of data also varies with time and space. As a consequence, we are presently not able to carry out detailed comparisons concerning the use of plants in the different regions of the town. The contexts giving the most optimal information concerning food plants are latrines. Detailed data from the analysis of one 164

latrine have been published – the 1250 latrine from Rosenkrantzgate 4 (Krzywinski et al. 1983). Addi‑ tionally, plant remains present in a latrine from the 15th century in Dreggen and latrine deposits from the 16th century at Dreggsalmenning 14‑16 have been investigated, and it is assumed that latrine material is present in several of the refuse layers found at the waterfront in Bergen. These refuse layers represent most of the period when the town was dominated by the Hanseatic League. A total of 146 samples from 39 features and nine sites are included in the plant list from Bergen (Figure 4 and Table 1).

Oslo The plant material from Oslo originates from exca‑ vations in the medieval part of the town “Gamle‑ byen” during the 1970s and 1980s, including the sites of Oslogate 7 (Griffin 1979b), Mindets tomt and Søndre felt (Griffin 1988). Eight phases, cover‑ ing the 11th-16th centuries, were identified at Oslo‑ gate 7, whereas a total of 28 phases, dating from the 11th-17th centuries, were identified during the excavations at Mindets tomt and Søndre felt. This latter area was found to have its maximum build‑ ing density between c. 1225 and 1525, when about half the excavated area was built-up (Schia 1988). The plant material included from Oslo represents a variety of samples collected from different contexts

Table 1.  Data included in the plant list from Norway (number of features – number of samples). When a sample is dated to more than one century or lies at a transition between centuries, it is assigned to the most recent century. * Refers to sum included unknown number of samples from Engelgården and Bugården (Herteig 1969) where five samples are given for each century and species included.   Century AD

Bergen

Oslo

Trondheim

Number of analysed features and samples

13

20 (23*) – 54 (69*)

19 – 35

13 – 29

14

4 (7*) – 20 (35*)

3–4

11 – 23

15

3 – 16

3–4

9 – 16

16

2–8

-

27 – 104

17

3 – 17

2–3

17 – 41

18

1–1

-

9 – 16

Total

33 (39*) – 116 (146*)

27 – 46

86 – 229

Norway

and features, including seven latrine samples from the 13th century and one from the 15th century. Di‑ etary information is, therefore, most comprehensive for the 13th century. A total of 46 samples from 27 features and three sites are included in the plant list from Oslo (Table 1).

Trondheim Archaeobotanical investigations in Trondheim have especially taken place at two sites: Folkebibliotek‑ stomten (Griffin and Sandvik 1989) and Erkebi‑ spegården, the Archbishop’s Palace (Sandvik 2000a), covering the 13th-18th centuries. Trondheim, with the cathedral of Nidaros visited by pilgrims through‑ out medieval time, was the seat of the archbishop. Erkebispegården was the living quarters for the archbishop and his staff for more than 350 years, until 1537 when the Reformation reached Norway. Samples from three latrines, in addition to latrine material mixed in refuse layers, are included from this site, but still there is a time gap from about 1250 to 1450 with no dietary information from Trondheim. A total of 229 samples from 86 features and two sites are included in the plant list from Trondheim (Table 1).

Time periods and features – how representative are the Norwegian data? Data from the 13th-18th centuries, with exception of the 16th and 18th century from Oslo, are repre‑ sented in the analysed material from the three towns (Table 1). There are, however, great differences in the number of samples from each century, with a general tendency towards decreasing number with time. The large number of samples analysed from the 16th-17th centuries from the Archbishop’s Palace in Trondheim is in great contrast to the situation in Bergen and Oslo and results in better representation of Trondheim during this period. With this single exception, the 13th century is the period best rep‑ resented in the plant material listed from the three Norwegian towns. This means that the start of the Hanseatic League and German trade with Norway is better represented than later periods. In Bergen, results of pollen analysis are also in‑ cluded in the dataset, in addition to those for mac‑ roscopic plant remains. Pollen and plant macrofossil

remains are preserved in different ways, they have different intrinsic characteristics, and analyses of these two sources often complement each other. This means that the results from Bergen in the present paper include a wider source dataset than those from the two other towns. On the other hand, the data from Oslo and Trondheim include a larger number of samples where complete analyses of the plant mac‑ rofossils have been carried out. A relatively small number of plant species has been identified in the samples from Norway (see below). This may be due to too few samples having been analysed from relevant contexts, especially latrines, to reflect the variety of species present. The level of identification may also vary from country to country and from one scientist to another. In Norway there seems to be a tendency to group taxa into families or broader groups, whereas identification to species level is more common in investigations on the Continent. Despite these uncertainties, the data reveal a general pattern concerning the plant material identified from these three medieval Norwegian towns.

Relation between towns, features, sample type and plant species In an attempt to investigate the distribution pattern of plant species and their relationship respectively to feature, century and town, as well as illustrating the possibilities of having collected the data in a common database, direct ordination analysis was performed on the data. The samples from each fea‑ ture were then combined and treated as one sam‑ ple, resulting in a total of 152 samples/features. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of the species dataset, gave a gradient length of the first axis of 5.064, which indicates large differences in species composition between samples/features. The long gradient suggests the application of uni-mo‑ dal response models (Ter Braak and Prentice 1988) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used. The significance of the environmental vari‑ ables included in the dataset was tested using Monte Carlo Permutation tests with 499 permutations. The programme Canoco for Windows version 4.5 (Ter Braak and Šmilauer 2002; Lepš and Šmilauer 2004) was used for the analysis and the figures were drawn using the program CanoDraw for Windows 4.0 (Šmilauer 2002). 165

CHAPTER 7 b) single find

0.8

3.0

a) Bergen Oslo

Not significant variables Number of samples

Trondheim

-2.0

-0.4

fire place

-1.5

Significant variables

2.5

14th

13th

cultural uncarbonized carbonized 15th Oslo latrine Trondheim 18th burnt/fire moss wood chips 17th 16th storage soil pit ditch well

-0.6

Bergen

pollen

excrements

1.0

Figure 5.  CCA ordination plot showing a) the distribution of samples/features from the three towns, and b) the environmental variables included in the HANSA formula. Significant environmental variables (P=0.01) explaining the Norwegian dataset are given in coloured symbols.

Figure 5 shows the distribution of the samples from the three towns and their relationship to the different “environmental” variables included in the formula employed for the HANSA Network Project. Eight of the 26 variables included in the analysis were found to have a significant relationship (P=0.01) to the spe‑ cies data using Monte Carlo Permutation test. These are: Pollen, Single find, Storage find, Trondheim, 13th Century, Bergen, Latrine, and Uncarbonized material. The samples from Bergen are connected to pollen analysis, the presence of excrement and samples from the 13th century, and are positively correlated to the first axis. Trondheim is found on the negative side of the first axis, connected to samples dated to the 16th century and a high number of analysed samples. Oslo is found between Bergen and Trondheim, close to the centre of the plot and related to uncarbonized material. Carbonized material and storage finds are found on the positive side of the first axis, whereas moss and latrine samples are connected and found on the negative side of this axis. Close to these are also wood chips and uncarbonized material. The second axis separates single finds which mainly include one species, from the other types of samples and features, containing several species and different combinations. The fact that pollen data were only included from Bergen, separates Bergen from Oslo and Trondheim. 166

Oslo and Trondheim are found closer together and connected to a variety of feature types, such as ditch, fire place and well (Trondheim), which are features not included from Bergen. The distribution of samples from the three towns (Figure 5a) and the distribution of species (Figures 7, 8 and 9) are all related to the variables shown in Figure 5b. The presence of beans (Vicia faba) is highly connected to the pollen record (Figure 9) and is with the exception of one feature from Oslo, only present in samples from Bergen. Furthermore, the large nutshells of walnut (Juglans regia) are related to single finds, whereas fat hen (Chenopodium album) is commonly found in a range of contexts. Berries, figs (Ficus carica) and grapes (Vitis vinifera; Figure 8) are mainly found on the negative side of the first axis, indicating the relationship to uncarbonized mate‑ rial, latrine and moss. These contexts, and especially latrines, seem important for obtaining information on diet. In Trondheim, these species are also found in features like pits, wells and ditches, probably re‑ flecting food remains also in these contexts. Further results will be commented on below.

Plants found in Norway A total of 176 plant taxa have been used in the comparisons carried out by the HANSA Network.

Norway

50

Number of species in different plant groups

Total Norway

30

Other useful plants

Arable weeds

Herbs and spices

Vegetables

Legumes

Oil and fibre plants

Nuts

F ruit

Cereals

10

Figure 6.  Comparison of number of species from different plant groups identified in the three Norwegian towns, compared to the complete species list of the HANSA Network Project.

Of these, only 68 taxa (39%) have been found in Norway. This probably reflects the fact that few of the selected plants were in common use in Norway, compared to countries further south. Furthermore, the difference may reflect a wider range of food plants growing in the local vegetation and being cultivated in Northern Germany, Poland and the Baltic area than in the countries to the north. The differences in species number are especially large in the plant groups “herbs and spices” and “vegetables”, but also a smaller range of “fruit” has been identi‑ fied from Norway than in the total dataset (Figure 6). The absent species may have been difficult to preserve for transportation or they may have been of low or no commercial value. Accordingly, these species never arrived in the countries to the north, or at least not in great quantities. On the other hand, written sources document imports of spices to Ber‑ gen in medieval times (Helle 1982) without these species being recorded in the archaebotanical record. The group best represented in Norway, as in the total dataset, is “fruit species and berries”.

Cereals The best documentation for goods imported to Bergen in medieval times, is found in the laws of the town “Byvedtektene” from 1312, which speci‑ fies where in the town foreign traders should store their goods. Of plants and plant products rye, corn, wheat, malt, flour, beans, beer, mead, wine, honey and spices are all mentioned, in addition to linen cloth and canvas (Helle 1982). Several writ‑ ten sources, especially the English “kanselirullene”

from the 13th century and customs records from the early 14th century onwards, give clear evidence of the large amount of cereals exported from Eastern England to Norway. It seams that wheat was the dominant cereal and, although flour is mentioned, wheat mainly arrived as grain (op. cit.). This is also supported by “Byvedtektene” from 1282 which give taxes for milling of malt, wheat and rye (Helle 1982: 431). From the early 14th century, English custom records indicate that more traders brought malt to Bergen than wheat, but the quantitative relationship between wheat and malt is unknown (Helle 1982: 312). Rye (Secale cereale) was imported to Bergen, especially from the southern Baltic countries, with large quantities from the 13th century onwards. Ac‑ cording to custom records from Lübeck, more than

Table 2.  Cereals, legumes, vegetables, herbs and spices and other useful plants from Norway. When a sample is dated to more than one century or lies at a transition between centuries, it is assigned to the most recent century. Date 13 14 15 16 17 18 Century AD Cereals (incl. Buckwheat) Avena sp.           Oats Avena sativa           Common Oats Fagopyrum esculentum     Buckwheat Hordeum vulgare             Barley Secale cereale       Rye Triticum aestivum s.l.           Common Wheat Triticum sp.       Wheat Legumes Pisum sativum     Pea Vicia faba         Bean Vicia sativa     Common Vetch Oil and fibre plants Linum usitatissimum       Flax Papaver somniferum       Opium Poppy Vegetables Brassica rapa s.l.       Turnip Brassica sp.         Cabbage/Turnip Herbs and spices Brassica nigra       Black Mustard Carum carvi       Caraway Coriandrum sativum     Coriander Foeniculum vulgare   Fennel Hyoscyamus niger         Henbane Juniperus communis       Juniper Beer flavourings Humulus lupulus           Hop Myrica gale           Sweet Gale Arable weeds Agrostemma githago             Corn Cockle Centaurea cyanus             Cornflower Chenopodium album             Fat Hen Neslia paniculata       Ball Mustard Other useful plants Cornus suecica   Dwarf Cornel Genista tinctoria   Dyer’s Broom

167

CHAPTER 7

evidence of cereal import. Several pollen analytical studies from the countryside of Western Norway, and even within cultivated fields, have been carried out the recent years, documenting barley and oat cultivation, but with no indication that cornflower was part of the local weed flora in prehistoric or medieval times (e.g. Hjelle 2005, 2006; Kvamme 1982, 1988; Vikesund 1998). There is, however, one exception; at the medieval farm Høybøen on the island of Sotra west of Bergen, one pollen grain of cornflower was found in a sample from a field (Jan Berge pers. comm.). This may indicate that imported seed grain were used in cereal cultivation in the hinterland of Bergen. In addition to macrofossil remains of cereals, pollen of barley, oats and wheat is also considered as primary evidence for the presence of the cereal in question when recorded in latrine samples and refuse layers. These cereals are self- or insect-pol‑ linated and few pollen grains are dispersed. This is also the case with buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) where pollen has been recorded in two samples from the 16th and 17th century in Bergen, in addition to one macrofossil record from an undated context. Buckwheat was probably also imported to the town and included in the diet of the inhabitants. It is supposed that the cereal imports to Bergen not only supported the inhabitants of the town, but also the population in the countryside around the town (Helle 1982: 316). Imported cereals were relatively cheap and animal husbandry was safer economically

3.0

900 tons of cereal products were exported from Lübeck to Bergen in 1369 (and 1370), providing enough energy for a population of c. 4000 people for one year. The total quantity of imported cere‑ als to Norway is unknown, but it is supposed that there was a general increase from the 13th to the 14th century, and that especially the amount from the Baltic area increased in this period (Helle 1982: 314-316). The archaeobotanical data for barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale) and oats (Avena sativa) in Norway (Table 2, Figure 7), documents storage and use of cereals within the towns, but the data also indicate dif‑ ferences between the towns and from century to century. Several charred storage finds of uncertain date have not been included in the dataset of the HANSA Network Project, but are further evidence of storage in medieval Bergen. Unlike Denmark and Southern Sweden, where the spread of rye (Secale cereale) cultivation in the Late Iron Age and medieval times is reflected in several pollen diagrams and in the archaeobotanical record (Behre 1992; Berglund 1991; Odgaard 1994), rye did not become an im‑ portant crop in Norway during this period and it is rarely documented in the palaeoecological and archaeobotanical data from Western Norway. Stor‑ age finds of rye from medieval Bergen are, therefore, clear evidence of foreign trade. In Bergen, the pres‑ ence of weeds like corn cockle (Agrostemma githago) and cornflower (Centaurea cyanus; Figure 7) is also

Bergen Oslo Trondheim

Centaurea cyanus

Humulus lupulus

Myrica gale

3.0

-2.0

Agrostemma githago

168

Avena sativa

-2.0

Figure 7.  CCA ordination plot showing the occurrences of weeds: corn cockle (Agrostemma githago) and cornflower (Centaurea cyanus), beer flavourings: hop (Humulus lupulus) and sweet gale (Myrica gale) and cereals in samples from Norway.

-1.5

2.5

Hordeum vulgare -1.5

2.5

Secale cereale -1.5

2.5

Triticum aestivum -1.5

2.5

Norway

than arable agriculture in Western Norway. In spite of this, farmers also cultivated their own cereals, as mentioned above and also documented by radiocar‑ bon dates from medieval fields in Western Norway (Øye 2002). Cereals also made up an important part of the taxes paid in Western Norway throughout me‑ dieval times (Helle 1982: 330-332), Norwegian tax “landskyld” was paid in oats to Bergen in the 16th century, and large quantities of oats were also stored in the town (Øye 1998). In Bergen, cereal cultivation probably took place immediately outside the town (Helle 1982: 446; Øye 1998). This has now also been documented by pollen analysis from the earlier basin of Lille Lungegaardsvann, a site located south of the medieval town (Hjelle 1999).

Beer flavourings – local traditions and foreign impulses Beer was a necessity in the daily diet of medieval towns, and imports of beer to Bergen, especially from Lübeck, increased during medieval times. Cus‑ toms registers from Bergen from 1577/78 show im‑ ports of nearly 14 000 barrels of beer, in addition to more than 3000 barrels of malt for home production (Helle 1982: 318). A storage find of sprouted barley at Bryggen clearly reflects the use of that building as

Table 3.  Fruit and and nuts from Norway. When a sample is dated to more than one century or lies at a transition between centuries, it is assigned to the most recent century. Date 13 14 15 16 17 18 Century AD Fruit Arctostaphylos uva-ursi     Bearberry Cerasus vulgaris         Sour Cherry Empetrum nigrum             Black Crowberry Ficus carica             Fig Fragaria vesca             Wild Strawberry Malus sp.         Apple Prunus domestica       Plum Prunus padus       Bird Cherry Prunus spinosa     Sloe Pyrus communis     Pear Rosa sp.           Rose Rubus caesius   European Dewberry Rubus chamaemorus             Cloudberry Rubus fruticosus       Bramble Rubus idaeus             Raspberry Rubus saxatilis     Stone Bramble Sorbus aucuparia       Rowan Vaccinium sp.             Bilberry/Cowberry/Cranberry Vitis vinifera             Grape Vine Nuts Corylus avellana           Hazel Juglans regia           Walnut

a brewery in the 13th and 14th century (Krzywinski and Soltvedt 1988). Sweet gale (Myrica gale) found together with the malt, reflects the wide use of this plant as flavouring for beer and supports the docu‑ mentation of trade in sweet gale during this period (von Hofsten 1960). Hops (Humulus lupulus) were imported to Bergen by way of the Hanseatic traders from the 14th century (Sølvberg 1976), and from the 16th century, several documents from Bergen report imports of hops, including more than 200 kg from Rostock in 1533. The imports were connected with the upper social levels and the German population at Bryggen, whereas the use of sweet gale is described as a Nordic practice (Øye 1998). During medieval times, cultivation of hop was regulated through the laws. Hop gardens “humlehager” are also mentioned in connection with the towns, in written sources from the high and late medieval times. Cultivation of hop is related to brewing, the production and selling of beer is regulated in the laws of Bergen from 1282 (Øye 1998). However, the archaeobo‑ tanical data indicate that beer flavoured with sweet gale was in common use throughout medieval times (Figure 7).

Fruit – a reflection of town – countryside relationships and imported exotics Sour cherry (Cerasus vulgaris), apple (Malus sylvestris and Malus sp.), plum (Prunus domestica) and pear (Pyrus communis) are all present in the archaeobo‑ tanical data and document the utilization of these fruits (Table 3). However, their sporadic appearance in the archaeobotanical record probably underesti‑ mates the importance of fruit cultivation during me‑ dieval times. Large fruit stones of cherry and plum are easily recognized during excavation, and there are several additional undated remains from Bergen. Fruit cultivation was important within the monaster‑ ies (Fægri 1987) and “apple gardens” are mentioned in written sources from the 12th century onwards, indicating cultivation both in the towns and in the countryside (Øye 1998). Wild apples were present in the Oseberg ship from the 9th century (Holmboe 1921), but whether these were naturally grown or cultivated, is not known. It seems, however, clear that monks and monasteries had a major effect on the development and spread of fruit cultivation in Norway (Fægri 1987). Wild berries are commonly found in deposits 169

CHAPTER 7

from written sources may indicate that the berries were collected from wild plants and not cultivated (Lange 1959), although they may both also have been planted. Wild currant (Ribes spicatum) is an‑ other wild species (and perhaps also black currant (R. nigrum; Lid and Lid 1994), not mentioned in written sources from medieval times. In con‑ trast to raspberry, currant (Ribes) is not present in the dataset from Norway presented here. One pollen grain of currant was, however, found in a 12th century layer in Bergen (Hjelle 2002), which is an indication that this plant was used. Similarly, Ribes pollen (Høeg 1979) and seeds (Griffin 1988) have been recorded from earlier periods in Oslo. The absence of Ribes from the present dataset may reflect the lesser importance of this species in the natural vegetation surrounding the towns, relative to raspberry, and, accordingly, that the berries were of less importance in the diet. Although berries common in Norway dominate the food picture, exotics are also found in all three towns. The common presence of fig (Ficus carica) and grape (Vitis vinifera) probably reflects their value as dried fruit. However, in layers from the 13th and 14th centuries at Bryggen, blue and green grapes were found, reflecting imports also of fresh fruit to the town (Herteig 1969). Wine was imported to Bergen in great quantities already in the 12th century and a wine cellar existed in the town at the end of the 13th century. The sale of wine was regulated through the laws and compared to beer and mead, wine was

3.0

from all the relevant centuries in Bergen, as well as in Oslo and Trondheim (Table 3 and Figure 8; Griffin 1994; Sandvik 2000b). This is in contrast to the written sources from medieval times where wild berries are rarely mentioned (Lid 1957), al‑ though a few notes do exist on cranberry (Vacci­nium oxycoccus) and bilberry (V. myrtillus), as well as on the use of black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) for wine production. Several berries were, on the other hand, used for medicinal purposes and are men‑ tioned in medical books (Lid 1957). Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) is a species that could have been exported from Norway in medieval times. It is a common plant in Scandinavia, especially in the north and in the mountains. It is rich in vita‑ min C and its use against scurvy is mentioned in written sources from the 17th century (Schübeler 1888). Arabic sources tell of Norwegians on Sicily who brought barrels of cloudberry on their ships (Fægri 1970). Cloudberries had been exported from Northern Norway to Bergen (Schübeler 1888), and its common occurrence in all the medieval towns may indicate that the berries were traded. It may be important in this respect that cloudberry like cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) does not ferment to the same degree as most berries when stored during winter time (Fægri 1970). Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca) are also commonly found in the sam‑ ples from Norway (Figure 8), without being men‑ tioned in the medieval literature. Their absence

Bergen Oslo

Rubus chamamemorus

Vaccinium sp.

Empetrum sp.

Rubus idaeus

Ficus carica

Vitis vinifera

Figure 8.  CCA ordination plot showing the occurrences of wild berries, fig (Ficus carica) and grape vine (Vitis vinifera) in samples from Norway.

170

-2.0

3.0

-2.0

Trondheim

-1.5

2.5 -1.5

2.5 -1.5

2.5

Fragaria vesca

3.0

Norway

Bergen Oslo

Latrine

Moss

Pollen

Vicia faba

Single finds

Juglans regia

Corylus avellana

Chenopodium

-2.0

3.0

-2.0

Trondheim

Figure 9.  CCA ordination plot showing the distribution of samples from latrines, samples containing moss, samples where pollen data are included in the dataset, single finds and occurrences of four species.

-1.5

2.5 -1.5

2.5 -1.5

considered a luxury product (Helle 1982). Badlysieved wine may have been another source of the grape pips which were found (Griffin 1979a).

Nuts – local production and exotics The most commonly found plant food remains from medieval times, as well as from prehistoric contexts, are nutshells of hazel (Corylus avellana). Excavations in Bergen have revealed thick layers, indicating trade connections from the hinterland to the town. Hazel forests are mentioned in medieval laws – a clear indication of the importance of nuts as a food resource, but also as an economic basis in the country (Fægri 1987). Hazelnuts were, to‑ gether with timber, tar, pitch and resin, among the forest products exported from Bergen in the 14th century (Helle 1982). From 1650 to 1654, 2085 barrels of hazelnuts were exported from the town (Edvardsen 1694). Fragments of walnut shells (Juglans regia) are also regularly recorded in the archaeobotanical data. Several single finds from Bergen are not included in the HANSA tables due to uncertain dating, but these also indicate that the walnuts were widely used within the town. According to written sources, a barrel of preserved walnuts was sent from Esge Bille (in Bergen) to Archbishop Olav (in Trondheim) in the 16th century. Their preservation indicates that the walnuts were immature, and therefore perhaps locally grown in Norway (Fægri 1987). Although walnut trees were probably planted in Norway in

2.5 -1.5

2.5

medieval times, it is likely that most of the walnuts consumed in Bergen arrived through trade with southern countries. 56 barrels were imported to Bergen from 1650‑1654 (Edvardsen 1694).

Archangel – a vegetable and medicinal plant with roots in the Norwegian mountains A plant having long tradition of use in Norway is archangel (Angelica archangelica), linked both with the saga literature from the 12th century – King Olav Tryggvason (995-1000) bought archangel stalks at the market and gave them to Queen Tyra – and to the oldest laws (Fægri 1970, 1987; Øye 1998). In‑ ternationally, archangel is mentioned for the first time by Henrik Harpestreng, a Danish canon and doctor, in the 13th century (Fægri 1987). According to Fægri this is a clear indication that archangel was brought from Norway and introduced to gardens further south, probably by the monks. The stalk was utilized for its sweet taste, whereas the root was used for medicinal purposes. Archangel dies after flowering and the preferred stalks were the young ones taken early in the season; this explains the lack of archangel seeds in the archaeobotanical record. Other vegetables and legumes “If a man goes into another man’s garden and steals cabbage or angelica or onion…”. This sentence from the older “Bjarøyrett” (the town law from the 12th century) for Trondheim (Øye 1998) gives a clear indication of the presence of gardens within the me‑ 171

CHAPTER 7

dieval town and the importance of cultivated vegeta‑ bles for people. In “Landsloven” from the late 13th century, turnip (Brassica rapa) is also mentioned and at this time there was also tax on turnip (Sølvberg 1976). However, documentation of these vegetables in the archaeobotanical record is scarce. Seeds of Brassica rapa and Brassica sp. are recorded from the 13th century onwards, whereas no remains of cab‑ bage (B. oleracea) have so far been identified (Table 2). Cabbage may, however, be included in the record of Brassica sp. “Kålhage/kålgard” or cabbage gar‑ den was the name for a vegetable garden in Bergen in medieval times, and several cabbage gardens are mentioned in written sources from the 14th century onwards (Helle 1982: 446; Øye 1998). Peas (Pisum sativum) and beans (Vicia faba) were important in the diet of medieval times and were imported to Bergen from the 13th century (Sølvberg 1976). They are both mentioned in the laws from the 13th century (Øye 1998), and occur together in a storage find from the 16th/17th century in Oslo (Griffin 1988). Beans are present in several of the investigated samples from Bergen from medieval times, as well as from earlier time periods (Hjelle 2002; Figure 9). So far, beans have not been recorded in any of the existing palaeobotanical investigations from the hinterland of Bergen. This may be an indi‑ cation that beans were more important in cultivation within the town than in the countryside, or it may reflect imports of vegetables to Bergen, or it is an indication of the relatively few investigations in the medieval countryside.

Herbs and spices, medicinal and other useful plants Caraway (Carum carvi), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), black mustard (Brassica nigra) and juniper (Juniperus communis) are recorded in the HANSA dataset from Norway (Table 2), and motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) has also been found in Oslo from the 13th century (Griffin et al. 2004). Altogether, the number of herbs, spices and medicinal plants is low, despite the fact that herb gardens “urtehager” are mentioned already in the Norwegian sagas describing the 9th century (e.g. Fægri 1987). A box containing garden cress (Lepi­ dium sativum) was found in the Oseberg ship from this period, documenting both cultivation and use 172

of the plant already in the 9th century (Holmboe 1921). Another plant found in the Oseberg ship is wood (Isatis tinctoria); this plant is so far absent in the archaeobotanical data from the medieval towns. Pepper (Piper sp.) is mentioned on a stick bearing a runic inscription from the early 13th century from Bryggen, and English customs registers from the early 14th century tell of imports of spices such as ginger and saffron to Bergen (Helle 1982). In “By‑ vedtektene” from 1316, it is said that spices should be stored by Øvrestretet, which is an indication that they also should be sold there (op. cit.). The high value given to herbs and spices in me‑ dieval times is recorded in “Hamarkrøniken” from the 16th century which, in addition to informing on different kinds of gardens, also tells about pilgrims who went to Rome and brought back fragrant herb seeds (Fægri 1987; Hamarkrøniken). The monaster‑ ies are generally supposed to have had a great effect on the development and spread of herb cultivation, including medicinal plants, but both written sources and archaeobotanical data from Norway, relating to this, are scarce. Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris), absinthe (Artemisia absinthum) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) are some of the plants growing in Norway today which may have been introduced through the monasteries (Fægri 1987). These are, however, still absent from the archaeobotanical data. From the 17th century onwards the written sources are more detailed. Receipts for seeds bought for the Barony in Rosendal, south-east of Bergen in 1666/67, reveal knowledge of a large variety of food plants (Dietze 2000). Dill (Anethum grave­ olens), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), carrot (Daucus carota), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), artichoke (Cynara scolymus), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), pump‑ kin (Cucurbita sp.), rue (Ruta graveolens), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), spinach (Spinacia oleraceae) and asparagus (Aspargus officinalis), are among the species mentioned and cultivated at the Barony, together with peas and cabbage known also from earlier peri­ ods. Also boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) was culti‑ vated at the Barony, and further documented in a pollen diagram from a garden at Milde in Bergen, probably from this period (Moe and Salvesen 2005). Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is recorded from the 17th century, in the Archbishop’s Palace in Trond‑ heim (Table 2; Sandvik 2000a).

Norway

Conclusions Plant material from three Norwegian towns has been used for this article. Bergen, Oslo and Trondheim, represent respectively, a town with a Hanseatic Kon‑ tor, a town with a Hanseatic Factory and a town without direct contact with the Hanseatic League. The plant material from all three towns is dominated by locally growing species, e.g. hazelnuts (Corylus avellana), various berries, such as raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca), as well as sweet gale (Myrica gale) used for flavouring beer. This shows the close relationship between the citizens of the towns and their hinter‑ land, as well as trade connections within Norway. In all three towns, remains of grape (Vitis vini­fera), fig (Ficus carica) and walnut (Juglans regia) were also recorded. These seem to have been important and widespread exotics, reflecting the influence of foreign trade in these towns. A difference in records of cere‑ als of foreign origin in Bergen, Oslo and Trondheim may, however, reflect the importance of cereal im‑ ports to Bergen by way of the Hanseatic League. Relatively few plant species have been recorded in Norway compared to the German towns which had strong links with Bergen. This probably results from a strong Norwegian reliance on local food re‑ sources, but may also partly reflect the few detailed investigations that have been carried out and the restricted types of sites that have been investigated. Written sources on cabbage and herb gardens, as well as customs registers documenting imports of spices,

provide evidence of a variation in food plants which is so far unrecorded in the archaeobotanical data. Direct ordination, connecting the species to sample type, feature type, century and town, shows clear relationships between the type of feature investigated and the plant material present. The data also show that pollen analysis can add important information to that obtained from plant macrofossil analyses of deposits in medieval towns and document activities which are not visible in the archaeobotanical record, such as the regular availability of bean (Vicia faba) in Bergen. Both methods should therefore be applied to further investigations.

Acknowledgements I would like to thank Kerstin Griffin and Knut Krzywinski for giving access to unpublished data from Bergen. Kerstin Griffin, Knut Krzywinski, Paula Utigard Sandvik and Eli-Christine Soltvedt are thanked for constructive discussions on archaeobo‑ tanical data from the medieval towns and the results of the HANSA Network, Beate Helle for making the illustrations, Jan Berge for photos, Svein Skare for help with the Scholeus painting, Gitte Hansen for help with the chronology of the Dreggen site, and David Earle Robinson for linguistic corrections. Above all, I would like to thank Sabine Karg for the great organisation of the HANSA Network Project and editing the publication, and all the female net‑ work participants for fruitful discussions.

173

CHAPTER 7

Plant names in Latin, Norwegian and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000; Fægri 1970, 1996; Lid and Lid 1994; Mossberg et al. 1992) in alphabetical order Latin names Norwegian names Aethusa cynapium L. Hundepersille Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Paradiskorn, Guineapepper Agrostemma githago L. Klinte Allium cepa L. Hageløk, Kepaløk Amaranthus blitum L. Blyamarant Amaranthus sp. Amarant Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Krokhals Anethum graveolens L. Dill Angelica sylvestris L. Sløke Anthemis arvensis L. Hvit Gåseblom Anthemis cotula L. Tappgåseblom Anthemis tinctoria L. Gul Gåseblom Apium graveolens L. Hageselleri Aquilegia vulgaris L. Akeleie Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Mjølbær Artemisia absinthium L. Ekte Malurt Atriplex hortensis L. Hagemelde Atriplex sp. Melde sp. Atropa belladonna L. Belladonnaurt Avena fatua L. Floghavre Avena nuda L. Busthavre Avena sativa L. Havre Avena sp. Havre sp. Beta vulgaris L. Bete Betonica officinalis L. Betonie Brassica napus L. Raps Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Svartsennep Brassica oleracea L. Kål Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Åkerkål Brassica sp. Kål sp. Bromus secalinus L. Rugfaks Bunias orientalis L. Russekål Buxus sempervirens L. Buksbom Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Dodre Cannabis sativa L. Hamp Capsicum annuum L. Paprika, Spansk Pepper Carum carvi L. Karve Castanea sativa P. Miller Edelkastanje Centaurea cyanus L. Kornblom Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Morell, Søtkirsebær Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller Surkirsebær Chelidonium majus L. Svaleurt Chenopodium album L. Meldestokk Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Stolt Henrik Chenopodium sp. Melde sp. Cichorium intybus L. Sikori Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Meldrøye Consolida regalis Gray Åkerridderspore Coriandrum sativum L. Koriander Cornus mas L. Bærkornell Cornus sanguinea L. Villkornell Cornus suecica L. Skrubbær Corylus avellana L. Hassel Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Parkhagtorn Cucumis sativus L. Agurk Cucurbita sp. Gresskar sp. Cydonia oblonga Mill. Kvede Daucus carota L. Gulrot Dianthus barbatus L. Busknellik Dianthus sp. Nellik sp. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. Hønsehirse Elettaria cardamomum Maton Kardemomme Elettaria major Smith Kardemomme Empetrum nigrum L. Krekling Euphorbia helioscopia L. Åkervortemjølk Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Bokhvete

174

English names Fool’s Parsley Grains of Paradise Corn Cockle Onion Purple Amaranth Amaranth Small Bugloss Dill Archangel Corn Chamomile Stinking Chamomile Dyer’s Chamomile Celery Columbine Bearberry Absinthe Garden Orache Orache Deadly Nightshade Wild Oats Naked Oats Common Oats Oat Beetroot Betony Kale Black Mustard Cabbage Turnip Cabbage Rye Brome Warty Cabbage Boxwood Gold of Pleasure Hemp Hot Pepper Caraway Spanish Chestnut Cornflower Sweet Cherry Sour Cherry Greater Celandine Fat Hen Good King Henry Goosefoot Chicory Ergot Oriental Lakspur Coriander Cornelian Cherry Common Dogwood Dwarf Cornel Hazel Common Hawthorn Cucumber Pumpkin Quince Carrot Sweet William Pink Barnyard Grass Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Black Crowberry Sun Spurge Buckwheat

Norway

Ficus carica L. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fragaria vesca L. Fumaria officinalis L. Galium aparine L. Galium spurium L. Genista tinctoria L. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Humulus lupulus L. Hyoscyamus niger L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Hypericum perforatum L. Hyssopus officinalis L. Iris pseudacorus L. Juglans regia L. Juniperus communis L. Lactuca sativa L. Laurus nobilis L. Lens culinaris Medik. Leonurus cardiaca L. Lepidium sativum L. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Lithospermum arvense L. Lolium temulentum L. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sp. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Mespilus germanica L. Morus nigra L. Morus sp. Myrica gale L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nepeta cataria L. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Nicotiana rustica L. Nicotiana sp. Nigella sativa L. Origanum vulgare L. Oryza sativa L. Panicum miliaceum L. Papaver dubium L. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Pastinaca sativa L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Physalis alkekengi L. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Piper nigrum L. Pisum sativum L. Portulaca oleracea L. Prunus domestica L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Prunus insititia L. Prunus padus L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Prunus sp. Prunus spinosa L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Ranunculus arvensis L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Raphanus sativus L. Reseda luteola L. Ribes nigrum L. Ribes rubrum L. Ribes sp. Ribes spicatum Robson Ribes uva-crispa L. Rosa sp.

Fiken Mjødurt Finkel Markjordbær Jordrøyk Klengemaure Linklengemaure Fargeginst Bygg Humle Bulmeurt, Villrot Firkantperikum Prikkperikum Isop Sverdlilje Valnøtt Einer Hagesalat Laurbærtre Linse Løvehale Matkarse Løpstikke Dyrka Lin Åkersteinfrø Svimling Dyrka Eple Eple sp. Villapal, Villeple Ekte Mispel Svartmorbær Morbær sp. Pors Muskat Legekattemynte Finkefrø Bondetobakk Tobakk sp. Svartkarve Kung, Bergmynte Ris Hirse Brakkvalmue Opiumsvalmue Pastinakk Persille Jødekirsebær Allehånde Pepper Ert Portulakk Plomme Mandel Kreke Hegg Fersken Slåpetorn/Kirsebær/Plomme Slåpetorn Pære Pære sp. Piggsoleie Åkerreddik Reddik Fargereseda Solbær Hagerips Rips sp. Villrips Stikkelsbær Rose sp.

Fig Meadow Sweet Fennel Wild Strawberry Common Fumitory Cleavers False Cleavers Dyer’s Broom Barley Hop Henbane St John’s Wort St John’s Wort Hyssop Flag Iris Walnut Juniper Lettuce Laurel Lentil Motherwort Garden Cress Lovage Flax Corn Gromwell Bearded Ryegrass Apple Apple Wild Apple Medlar Black Mulberry Mulberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg, Mace Catmint Ball Mustard Indian Tobacco Tobacco Black Cumin Wild Marjoram Rice Common Millet Long-headed Poppy Opium Poppy Parsnip Parsley Strawberry Tomato Allspice Black Pepper Pea Purslane Plum Almond Bullace European Bird Cherry Peach Sloe/Cherry Sloe Pear Pear Corn Buttercup Wild Radish Radish Wild Mignonette Black Currant Red Currant Currant Wild Currant Gooseberry Rose

175

CHAPTER 7

Rosmarinus officinalis L. Rubus caesius L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus idaeus L. Rubus saxatilis L. Rubus sp. Ruta graveolens L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sambucus racemosa L. Satureja hortensis L. Secale cereale L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Sinapis alba L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Spinacia oleracea L. Thymus serpyllum L. Thymus sp. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Triticum dicoccon Schrank Triticum sp. Triticum spelta L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Vaccinium sp. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Valeriana officinalis L. Valeriana sp. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Verbena officinalis L. Vicia faba L. Vicia sativa L. Vicia sp. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.)

176

Rosmarin Blåbringebær Molte Bjørnebær Bringebær Tågebær Bringebær/Bjørnebær/Molte Vinrute Hagehyll Svarthyll Rødhyll Sar Rug Blå Busthirse Stor Busthirse Grønn Busthirse Hvitsennep Rogn Eple Rogn Tarmvrirogn Spinat Timian Timian sp. Hvete Emmer Hvete sp. Spelt Blåbær Tranebær Bærlyng Blokkebær Tytebær Legevendelrot Vendelrot Brakksalat Vårsalat Jernurt Bønnevikke Fôrvikke Vikke sp. Vin

Rosemary European Dewberry Cloudberry Bramble Raspberry Stone Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Rue Dwarf Elder Common Elder Red Berried Elder Savory Rye Yellow Foxtail Foxtail Bristle Grass Green Bristle Grass White Mustard Rowan Service Tree Wild Service Tree Spinach Wild Thyme Thyme Common Wheat Emmer Wheat Spelt Bilberry Cranberry Bilberry/Cowberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Common Valerian Valerian Narrowfruit Cornsalad Cornsalad Vervain Bean Common Vetch Vetch, Bean Grape Vine

Norway

Plant names in Norwegian, Latin and English (after Erhardt et al. 2000; Fægri 1970, 1996; Lid and Lid 1994; Mossberg et al. 1992) in alphabetical order Norwegian names Latin names Agurk Cucumis sativus L. Akeleie Aquilegia vulgaris L. Allehånde Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Amarant Amaranthus sp. Belladonnaurt Atropa belladonna L. Bete Beta vulgaris L. Betonie Betonica officinalis L. Bjørnebær Rubus fruticosus L. Blokkebær Vaccinium uliginosum L. Blyamarant Amaranthus blitum L. Blå Busthirse Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Blåbringebær Rubus caesius L. Blåbær Vaccinium myrtillus L. Bokhvete Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Bondetobakk Nicotiana rustica L. Brakksalat Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Brakkvalmue Papaver dubium L. Bringebær Rubus idaeus L. Bringebær/Bjørnebær/Molte Rubus sp. Buksbom Buxus sempervirens L. Bulmeurt, Villrot Hyoscyamus niger L. Busknellik Dianthus barbatus L. Busthavre Avena nuda L. Bygg Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Bærkornell Cornus mas L. Bærlyng Vaccinium sp. Bønnevikke Vicia faba L. Dill Anethum graveolens L. Dodre Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Dyrka Eple Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Dyrka Lin Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Edelkastanje Castanea sativa P. Miller Einer Juniperus communis L. Ekte Malurt Artemisia absinthium L. Ekte Mispel Mespilus germanica L. Emmer Triticum dicoccon Schrank Eple Rogn Sorbus domestica L. Eple sp. Malus sp. Ert Pisum sativum L. Fargeginst Genista tinctoria L. Fargereseda Reseda luteola L. Fersken Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Fiken Ficus carica L. Finkefrø Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Finkel Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Firkantperikum Hypericum maculatum Crantz Floghavre Avena fatua L. Fôrvikke Vicia sativa L. Gresskar sp. Cucurbita sp. Grønn Busthirse Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Gul Gåseblom Anthemis tinctoria L. Gulrot Daucus carota L. Hagehyll Sambucus ebulus L. Hageløk, Kepaløk Allium cepa L. Hagemelde Atriplex hortensis L. Hagerips Ribes rubrum L. Hagesalat Lactuca sativa L. Hageselleri Apium graveolens L. Hamp Cannabis sativa L. Hassel Corylus avellana L. Havre Avena sativa L. Havre sp. Avena sp. Hegg Prunus padus L. Hirse Panicum miliaceum L. Humle Humulus lupulus L. Hundepersille Aethusa cynapium L.

English names Cucumber Columbine Allspice Amaranth Deadly Nightshade Beetroot Betony Bramble Bog Bilberry Purple Amaranth Yellow Foxtail European Dewberry Bilberry Buckwheat Indian Tobacco Narrowfruit Cornsalad Long-headed Poppy Raspberry Bramble/Raspberry Boxwood Henbane Sweet William Naked Oats Barley Cornelian Cherry Bilberry/Cowberry Bean Dill Gold of Pleasure Apple Flax Spanish Chestnut Juniper Absinthe Medlar Emmer Service Tree Apple Pea Dyer’s Broom Wild Mignonette Peach Fig Ball Mustard Fennel St John’s Wort Wild Oats Common Vetch Pumpkin Green Bristle Grass Dyer’s Chamomile Carrot Dwarf Elder Onion Garden Orache Red Currant Lettuce Celery Hemp Hazel Common Oats Oat European Bird Cherry Common Millet Hop Fool’s Parsley

177

CHAPTER 7

Hvete Hvete sp. Hvit Gåseblom Hvitsennep Hønsehirse Isop Jernurt Jordrøyk Jødekirsebær Kardemomme Kardemomme Karve Klengemaure Klinte Koriander Kornblom Kreke Krekling Krokhals Kung, Bergmynte Kvede Kål Kål sp. Laurbærtre Legekattemynte Legevendelrot Linklengemaure Linse Løpstikke Løvehale Mandel Markjordbær Matkarse Melde sp. Melde sp. Meldestokk Meldrøye Mjødurt Mjølbær Molte Morbær sp. Morell, Søtkirsebær Muskat Nellik sp. Opiumsvalmue Paprika, Spansk Pepper Paradiskorn, Guineapepper Parkhagtorn Pastinakk Pepper Persille Piggsoleie Plomme Pors Portulakk Prikkperikum Pære Pære sp. Raps Reddik Rips sp. Ris Rogn Rose sp. Rosmarin Rug Rugfaks Russekål Rødhyll Sar

178

Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Triticum sp. Anthemis arvensis L. Sinapis alba L. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. Hyssopus officinalis L. Verbena officinalis L. Fumaria officinalis L. Physalis alkekengi L. Elettaria cardamomum Maton Elettaria major Smith Carum carvi L. Galium aparine L. Agrostemma githago L. Coriandrum sativum L. Centaurea cyanus L. Prunus insititia L. Empetrum nigrum L. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Origanum vulgare L. Cydonia oblonga Mill. Brassica oleracea L. Brassica sp. Laurus nobilis L. Nepeta cataria L. Valeriana officinalis L. Galium spurium L. Lens culinaris Medik. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Leonurus cardiaca L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Fragaria vesca L. Lepidium sativum L. Atriplex sp. Chenopodium sp. Chenopodium album L. Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Rubus chamaemorus L. Morus sp. Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Myristica fragrans Houtt. Dianthus sp. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Capsicum annuum L. Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Pastinaca sativa L. Piper nigrum L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Ranunculus arvensis L. Prunus domestica L. Myrica gale L. Portulaca oleracea L. Hypericum perforatum L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Brassica napus L. Raphanus sativus L. Ribes sp. Oryza sativa L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Rosa sp. Rosmarinus officinalis L. Secale cereale L. Bromus secalinus L. Bunias orientalis L. Sambucus racemosa L. Satureja hortensis L.

Common Wheat Wheat Corn Chamomile White Mustard Barnyard Grass Hyssop Vervain Common Fumitory Strawberry Tomato Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Caraway Cleavers Corn Cockle Coriander Cornflower Bullace Black Crowberry Small Bugloss Wild Marjoram Quince Cabbage Cabbage Laurel Catmint Common Valerian False Cleavers Lentil Lovage Motherwort Almond Wild Strawberry Garden Cress Orache Goosefoot Fat Hen Ergot Meadow Sweet Bearberry Cloudberry Mulberry Sweet Cherry Nutmeg, Mace Pink Opium Poppy Hot Pepper Grains of Paradise Common Hawthorn Parsnip Black Pepper Parsley Corn Buttercup Plum Sweet Gale Purslane St John’s Wort Pear Pear Kale Radish Currant Rice Rowan Rose Rosemary Rye Rye Brome Warty Cabbage Red Berried Elder Savory

Norway

Sikori Skrubbær Sløke Slåpetorn Slåpetorn/Kirsebær/Plomme Solbær Spelt Spinat Stikkelsbær Stolt Henrik Stor Busthirse Surkirsebær Svaleurt Svarthyll Svartkarve Svartmorbær Svartsennep Sverdlilje Svimling Tappgåseblom Tarmvrirogn Timian Timian sp. Tobakk sp. Tranebær Tytebær Tågebær Valnøtt Vendelrot Vikke sp. Villapal, Villeple Villkornell Villrips Vin Vinrute Vårsalat Åkerkål Åkerreddik Åkerridderspore Åkersteinfrø Åkervortemjølk

Cichorium intybus L. Cornus suecica L. Angelica sylvestris L. Prunus spinosa L. Prunus sp. Ribes nigrum L. Triticum spelta L. Spinacia oleracea L. Ribes uva-crispa L. Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller Chelidonium majus L. Sambucus nigra L. Nigella sativa L. Morus nigra L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Iris pseudacorus L. Lolium temulentum L. Anthemis cotula L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Thymus serpyllum L. Thymus sp. Nicotiana sp. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Rubus saxatilis L. Juglans regia L. Valeriana sp. Vicia sp. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Cornus sanguinea L. Ribes spicatum Robson Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.) Ruta graveolens L. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Raphanus raphanistrum L. Consolida regalis Gray Lithospermum arvense L. Euphorbia helioscopia L.

Chicory Dwarf Cornel Archangel Sloe Sloe/Cherry Black Currant Spelt Spinach Gooseberry Good King Henry Foxtail Bristle Grass Sour Cherry Greater Celandine Common Elder Black Cumin Black Mulberry Black Mustard Flag Iris Bearded Ryegrass Stinking Chamomile Wild Service Tree Wild Thyme Thyme Tobacco Cranberry Cowberry Stone Bramble Walnut Valerian Vetch, Bean Wild Apple Common Dogwood Wild Currant Grape Vine Rue Cornsalad Turnip Wild Radish Oriental Lakspur Corn Gromwell Sun Spurge

179

Synthesis and a mission for the future

Synthesis and a mission for the future

The HANSA Network Members

The foundation of Hanseatic towns is contempora‑ neous with the general growth of urbanism and the development of markets and craftsmanship. New cultural trends gained acceptance and, as shown in the previous chapters, this is not only reflected in the material culture but also in food traditions. In Hanseatic, as well as in other European socie‑ ties the same cultural mechanisms – distinguishing oneself from the lower class and imitating the class above – stood behind efforts to obtain exclusive sta‑ tus symbols. This endeavour can also be transferred to the subject of food consumption (Wiegelmann and Mohrmann 1996). From the 14th century on‑ wards, citizens (merchants and businessmen) and their families removed themselves and stood apart from the “ordinary people” by serving special food and drinks. In Northern Germany it is obvious that a great variety of cultivated fruits and herbs, but especially exotic spices, were mainly found in la‑ trines of richer households (see chapter 1). Next to personal status, food became an important economic aspect. Due to improvements in agricultural tech‑ niques a surplus of agricultural products could be achieved (e.g. Enemark 1994; Karg 1995; Müller 2002; Myrdal 1999; Rösener 1987). Between 1300 and 1500, trade in domestic animals and crops be‑ came one of the important pillars in trading activi‑ ties between the Baltic countries and neighbouring regions.

Although written documents give ample in‑ formation on useful plants for historical periods, the archaeobotanical data remain among the most significant primary sources of knowledge on past plant food and specific usage of plant material. Both types of source are fragmentary; as a result they complement each other. According to the ex‑ tensive comparison made by Greig (1996) for the British Isles, written sources provide good docu‑ mentation of, for example, certain imports (espe‑ cially the most important or rare and exotic plants), food eaten in noble households and plants grown in some gardens. On the other hand, very little is known about the food, medicines and gardens of ordinary people. The selective character of docu‑ mentary records has been shown by comparison of archaeobotanical data and written sources on plants in Kraków (Southern Poland). It has been calcu‑ lated that 50 % of the plant species known from archaeological ex­cavations are mentioned in the old documents. Among those not included, 39 species were noted in 25 % of the archaeobotanical samples and 10 species appeared in more than 50 % of the studied samples (Wasylikowa and Zemanek 1995; Zemanek and Wasylikowa 1996). Even in the case of vegetables and herbs – all plants with a reduced potential of being preserved – archaeobotanical records were more numerous than written ones, as Willerding (1987) could demonstrate when com‑ 181

Synthesis and a mission for the future

paring the species mentioned in a toll register from 1410 with the finds from culture layers dated to the 13th-16th centuries in Göttingen (Germany). A second problem concerns correct identifica‑ tion of plant species mentioned in old documents. Sometimes serious confusion arises due to differ‑ ences in nomenclature (Greig 1996; Zemanek and Wasylikowa 1996). Archaeobotanical data can help to clarify some of these inconsistencies and verify identifications. This compilation of archaeobotanical data, focusing on food plants dating to the period between the 12th and 17th century, confirms the knowledge provided by written records concerning trade in cereals and spices. It also offers new information concerning the presence of many other plants used in medieval and early modern urban households. The standardiza‑ tion of our data into one database opens up pos‑ sibilities for the identification of major patterns in the dataset, not only regarding food consumption and trade links, but also archaeobotanical data and archaeological contexts (see chapter 7). This enables evaluation of the data, permitting identification of optimal contexts and sample sizes (see chapter 6), and an assessment of the representativity of various time periods within the archaeobotanical records of different countries. Written sources, for example medieval cook books, are often representative of a larger region, whereas archaeobotanical records re‑ flect more local usage of plants. What are the main trends in the diet – and do the existing data help to separate local from foreign food traditions? These questions will be discussed in future papers from the HANSA Network. Here we aim to present a first compilation of our results concerning food plants in the Baltic and neighbouring regions during the Middle Ages and early modern times. Although archaeobotanical studies of comparable contexts in rural settlements are still lacking from most of the countries, the abundance of imported plant species in urban cultural deposits shows that imported goods were probably first present in towns. Rural sites still had the function of production and support within the hinterland. In Estonia (see chapter 3), it is obvious that Hanseatic trade influenced food consumption in towns, but it also left its mark in the rural popula‑ 182

tion, through manorial landlords and the network of “friends” among peasants.

Staple foods: cereals (including buckwheat), legumes and vegetables At urban sites, archaeobotanical remains of this most important category of plant foods are usu‑ ally under-represented and only exceptionally offer more detailed information. This results from generally very poor preservation of cereal remains and also of pulses if they are not charred. In both cases, the best material may be obtained from burnt granaries or other storage places which, in towns, do not very often become available for archaeo‑ botanical investigation. In the dataset presented here, a series of samples has been obtained from granaries in Northern Poland (see chapter 2) and from Northern Germany storage finds of charred grains have been recorded from the 13th century in some towns (see chapter 1). But these are related to both storage practices and trading purposes. The later German finds from the 17th century, prob‑ ably belong to specialized trades, such as bakers or brewers, rather than to ordinary households. This was also the case for a storage find from Norway, dated to the 13th-14th centuries, and discovered in a former brewery (see chapter 7). Further to the problems of preservation, the other factor limiting archaeobotanical data on this group of plants is the ways in which they were prepared for food. Here again, pulses have practically no chance of being traced in archaeobotanical mate‑ rial as they were eaten mostly in form of mash or gruel. Similarly, cereals stored and used as flour do not leave distinct traces unless special methods of identification are applied. This problem also applies to vegetables – their leaves or roots usually do not survive, while their fruits or seeds appear only very rarely with the exception of the fortunate finds of seed stocks, mentioned earlier. In this respect, the archaeobotanical material is always very fragmentary relative to historical sources. The archaeobotanical data presented here from Northern Germany, Northern Poland, Estonia, Fin‑ land, Sweden, Denmark and Norway concur with historical sources, indicating that, during the Middle Ages, only a limited selection of cereal species was cultivated in these countries in such an efficient and

Synthesis and a mission for the future Table 1.  Archaeobotanical records of cereals, legumes and vegetables dated to the 12th-17th centuries.

Onion Purple Amaranth Amaranth Garden Orache Beetroot Kale Cabbage Turnip Cabbage Good King Henry Chicory Cucumber Pumpkin Carrot Lettuce Garden Cress Parsnip Purslane Wild Radish Radish Spinach

productive manner, that a surplus and export, were possible. Barley and rye were the crops of primary importance, both in local cultivation and as trading commodities (Table 1). In Northern Germany and Northern Poland, the spectrum of cereals was broader, allowing variability within the basic diet and different recipes or menus for both daily and festive meals. Here too it is obvi‑ ous that rye was the main bread cereal; barley was important for brewing and millet and oats were used to prepare gruel. Oats may also have served as animal fodder. Bread wheat on the other hand seems to have

 

 

     

 

             

Norway

             

       

 

             

 

 

 

 

 

     

     

Sweden

       

 

Denmark

Lentil Pea Bean Common Vetch

               

Estonia

   

Finland

Naked Oats Common Oats Oat Buckwheat Barley Rice Common Millet Rye Foxtail Bristle Grass Common Wheat Emmer Wheat Spelt

English names

N. Poland

Latin names Cereals (incl. Buckwheat) Avena nuda Avena sativa Avena sp. Fagopyrum esculentum Hordeum vulgare Oryza sativa Panicum miliaceum Secale cereale Setaria italica Triticum aestivum s.l. Triticum dicoccon Triticum sp. Triticum spelta Legumes Lens culinaris Pisum sativum Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vegetables Allium cepa Amaranthus blitum Amaranthus sp. Atriplex hortensis Beta vulgaris Brassica napus Brassica oleracea Brassica rapa (incl. B. campestris) Brassica sp. Chenopodium bonus-henricus Cichorium intybus Cucumis sativus Cucurbita sp. Daucus carota Lactuca sativa Lepidium sativum Pastinaca sativa Portulaca oleracea Raphanus raphanistrum Raphanus sativus Spinacia oleracea

Germany

The HANSA plant list

     

 

 

                                     

       

     

 

   

   

     

   

   

 

 

 

 

         

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

               

   

               

had no regular place in the daily diet of the ordinary people. Due to the impossibility of quantifying original yield on the basis of single cereal finds, and due to the small number of specific archaeological contexts such as granaries (the granaries in Gdansk, Poland are rare exceptions, see chapter 2), archaeobotany does provide the means of answering questions about trade in crops. In Bergen, Norway it was possible to trace cereal imports with the aid of one specific weed. The records of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) prove distinct evidence of trade with cereals because 183

Synthesis and a mission for the future

this plant does not grow naturally in Norway (see chapter 7). Generally speaking, however, we have to study written sources in order to obtain more information about the provenance and importance of cereal imports and exports within the Hanseatic networks. From these sources we know that the re‑ gions east of the River Elbe up to Livonia, in par‑ ticular, developed into Northern Europe’s “granary”, i.e. main cereal-producing area, during the Middle Ages. One change in diet, probably partly related to the influence of the Hanseatic traders, is visible in Cen‑ tral Sweden, where rye cultivation increased during the Middle Ages, and flat barley bread was replaced by leavened rye bread (see chapter 5). In Western Norway, on the other hand, imports of rye to Bergen by way of Hanseatic trade did not result in a change to rye cultivation in the countryside. Here, especially barley, but also oats, continued to dominate local cereal production (see chapter 7). Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) appeared as early as the 13th century in Northern Poland, during the 14th century in Northern Germany, Estonia and Denmark, the 15th century in Finland and the 16th century in Norway. Millet (Panicum miliaceum) is especially frequent in the material from Northern Poland, where its glumes are present throughout all the periods studied. It also appeared in Northern Germany and Estonia (13th-17th centuries), indicat‑ ing that it was stored in urban households, whereas it is practically absent in material from the Scandina‑ vian countries. The only Scandinavian record of mil‑ let derives from 13th century Denmark. This might indicate that millet did not play an important role in long-distance trade. In Northern Poland, archaeo‑ botanical data seem to illustrate higher consumption of millet and buckwheat by the lower classes (also by prisoners, see chapter 2). Whoever might have eaten it, millet and buckwheat were found in North‑ ern Germany in the latrines of both the poorer and the richer households, whereas the archaeobotanical data reveal that rice was only served by wealthier people. Vegetables are clearly under-represented in the archaeobotanical record, due to the time and stage at which they are harvested and the methods used in their preparation. The dataset seems to illus‑ trate differences in the staple foods between coun‑ 184

tries with a northern and a southern location. The number of plant species is greatest for Northern Germany, Denmark and Northern Poland, whereas in other countries the numbers are generally very small (Figure 1 showing the 13th century and the 16th century).

Oil and fibre plants Flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum) were commonly used for oil production. From the 13th century, Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) became wide‑ spread in Northern Poland, Northern Germany, Denmark, Estonia and Southern Finland. In Nor‑ way and Sweden, poppy was only present from the 15th-16th centuries and probably mainly used as a condiment (chapters 7, 5 and Table 2). The evidence of poppy and hemp (Cannabis sativa) may bear the features of foreign trade on the one hand, and the spread of new ways of consump‑ tion on the other. Although hemp had always been cultivated for the fibres, the use of its seeds as food is difficult to demonstrate. However, its seeds are typical finds in archaeobotanical deposits from two archaeological sites in Estonia dated to the 13th-14th centuries (see chapter 3), and there are small but regular occurrences in the urban deposits of North‑ ern Germany and Poland (see chapters 1 and 2).

Fruit and nuts Although cultivated fruit offered new possibilities for the preparation of medieval dishes, wild col‑ lected fruit still played a significant role in the diet in all the countries (Figure 2, showing the 13th cen‑ tury and the 16th century). In particular, wild fruit was consumed more than cultivated fruit in all the Nordic countries, both with regard to the variety of species and the frequencies of their occurrence (Table 3). Whereas strawberries (Fagaria vesca), raspberries (Rubus idaeus) and blackberries (Rubus fruticosus) and bilberries (in most cases Vaccinium myrtillus) were common in the deposits from all the countries, a particular berry, the cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), typically only grows in Northern Europe. This species can probably shed light on a special aspect of the relationship between town and hinterland. Cloudberries grew and were collected far from towns, and the berries can be preserved

Synthesis and a mission for the future Figure 1.  Map showing the number of archaeobotanical records of vegetables, herbs and spices dated to the 13th and 16th century in Northern Europe.

25 20 15 10 5 0

13th century AD Herbs and spices Vegetables

25 20 15 10 5 0

16th century AD Herbs and spices Vegetables

for a long period of time without the addition of sugar or honey. This is one reason why these much appreciated and vitamin C-rich berries found their way from the hinterland to the towns, for example to Bergen (see chapter 7). Fruit of other species growing in natural habitats, like the black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) and bil‑ berry (Vaccinium sp.), were found in town deposits, for example in Copenhagen (see chapter 6) and in

Bergen (see chapter 7). Some of the more perishable berries might have even reached the towns already processed, either as jam or fermented into a berry wine. Black currant (Ribes nigrum) is frequently present in the 14th century deposits of Livonian Hanseatic towns (see chapter 3) and there are also early finds recorded from Sweden (see chapter 5) and Northern Poland (see chapter 2). Nowadays, this cultivated

Table 2.  Archaeobotanical records of oil and fibre plants dated to the 12th-17th centuries.

     

Norway

     

Sweden

       

Denmark

       

Estonia

Gold of Pleasure Hemp Flax Opium Poppy

Finland

English names

Germany

Latin names Oil and fibre plants Camelina sativa Cannabis sativa Linum usitatissimum (incl. Linum sp.) Papaver somniferum (incl. subsp. setigerum)

N. Poland

The HANSA plant list

     

     

   

185

Synthesis and a mission for the future Table 3.  Archaeobotanical records of fruit and nuts dated to the 12th-17th centuries.

Spanish Chestnut Hazel Walnut Almond

plant is essential for the production of juice and jam. It is striking that this fruit first appeared in the towns of Northern Germany very late, contemporary with the Hanseatic activities (see chapter 1). Obviously the collection of the Ribes species had not been of any 186

         

 

 

 

Norway

Sweden

   

Denmark

                 

Estonia

Bearberry Sweet Cherry Sour Cherry Cornelian Cherry Common Hawthorn Quince Black Crowberry Fig Wild Strawberry Apple Apple Wild Apple Medlar White Mulberry Black Mulberry Mulberry Strawberry Tomato Plum Bullace European Bird Cherry Peach Sloe/Cherry Sloe Pear Pear Black Currant Red Currant Currant Gooseberry Dog Rose Rose European Dewberry Cloudberry Bramble Raspberry Stone Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Common Elder Rowan Service Tree Wild Service Tree Bilberry Cranberry Bilberry/Cowberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Grape Vine

Finland

English names

Germany

Latin names Fruit Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Cerasus avium Cerasus vulgaris Cornus mas Crataegus laevigata Cydonia oblonga Empetrum nigrum Ficus carica Fragaria vesca Malus domestica Malus sp. Malus sylvestris Mespilus germanica Morus alba Morus nigra Morus sp. Physalis alkekengi Prunus domestica Prunus insititia Prunus padus Prunus persica Prunus sp. Prunus spinosa Pyrus communis Pyrus sp. Ribes nigrum Ribes rubrum Ribes sp. Ribes uva-crispa Rosa canina Rosa sp. Rubus caesius Rubus chamaemorus Rubus fruticosus Rubus idaeus Rubus saxatilis Rubus sp. Sambucus nigra Sorbus aucuparia Sorbus domestica Sorbus torminalis Vaccinium myrtillus Vaccinium oxycoccus Vaccinium sp. Vaccinium uliginosum Vaccinium vitis-idaea Vitis vinifera (incl. subsp. sylvestris Vitis sp.) Nuts Castanea sativa Corylus avellana Juglans regia Prunus dulcis

N. Poland

The HANSA plant list

   

 

         

   

 

         

   

   

 

   

       

           

   

 

 

   

         

   

 

 

 

   

     

 

 

 

 

     

   

   

   

         

       

 

   

     

 

           

   

     

         

         

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

           

 

     

           

 

   

 

       

     

   

 

 

   

   

   

         

 

interest prior to this and their cultivation came into fashion much later than that of many other fruits. Was the spread of fruit to Central Europe in any way linked with Hanseatic trade and communication activities? Our dataset is not representative enough

Synthesis and a mission for the future Figure 2.  Map showing the number of archaeobotanical records of cultivated and collected fruit and nuts dated to the 13th and 16th century in Northern Europe. The red column represents a summary of all the imported plant records (herbs, spices, fruit and nuts).

25 20 15 10 5 0

13th century AD Fruit and nuts, cultivated Fruit and nuts, collected Import (luxury)

25 20 15 10 5 0

16th century AD Fruit and nuts, cultivated Fruit and nuts, collected Import (luxury)

to answer a question such as this, but the results do clearly show that fruit played a significant role in the medieval diet of all of the countries. Concerning the role of fruit in indicidual countries, the results illustrate the differences in species richness, and the relationship between the number of species that were imported, or probably cultivated locally, and those that were gathered from the wild (Figure 2). In Northern Germany, the number of cultivated spe‑ cies generally exceeds, or is equal to, those collected in the wild for the 16th century. In other countries, these proportions differ in particular periods. In Northern Poland, the number of cultivated species clearly increased through the centuries, whereas in Estonia and Denmark, the numbers decreased dur‑ ing the 16th and 17th centuries. It is apparent that cultivated fruit was of minor importance in Finland, Sweden and Norway, whereas wild berries were obvi‑ ously much appreciated in these countries. Intensive gardening of fruit seems, in general,

first to begin in early modern times. A good example of this is the great variety of plum stones (Prunus insititia) found in the urban deposits of Northern Germany (see chapter 1). In addition to collected or cultivated fruit, some imported fruits enriched the daily menu of the me‑ dieval population (Figure 2). The most common imported fruit, fig (Ficus carica) occurred in all coun‑ tries (Table 3). Another abundant species is grape (Vitis vinifera). Surely the main consumption was in form of wine, and this esplains the few finds of grape pips in most archaeobotanical materials. Walnut shells (Juglans regia) are rarely recorded in the archaeobotanical samples, probably as a result of sampling techniques. The few finds of walnuts are a clear indication of trading activities. Almonds (Prunus dulcis) have, so far, not been found, with the 187

Synthesis and a mission for the future Table 4.  Archaeobotanical records of herbs and spices dated to the 12th-17th centuries.

Norway

Sweden

Denmark

         

Estonia

     

Finland

Germany Latin names Herbs and spices Aethusa cynapium Aframomum melegueta Anethum graveolens Angelica sylvestris Apium graveolens Artemisia absinthium Atropa belladonna Betonica officinalis Brassica nigra Capsicum annuum Carum carvi Chelidonium majus Coriandrum sativum Elettaria cardamomum Elettaria major Filipendula ulmaria Foeniculum vulgare Humulus lupulus Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Juniperus communis Laurus nobilis Leonurus cardiaca Levisticum officinale Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nepeta cataria Nigella sativa Origanum vulgare Petroselinum crispum Pimenta dioica Piper nigrum Rosmarinus officinalis Ruta graveolens Satureja hortensis Sinapis alba Thymus serpyllum Thymus sp. Valeriana officinalis Valeriana sp. Verbena officinalis

N. Poland

The HANSA plant list

English names Fool’s Parsley Grains of Paradise Dill Archangel Celery Absinthe Deadly Nightshade Betony Black Mustard Hot Pepper Caraway Greater Celandine Coriander Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Meadow Sweet Fennel Hop Henbane St John’s Wort Hyssop Juniper Laurel Motherwort Lovage Sweet Gale Nutmeg, Mace Catmint Black Cumin Wild Marjoram Parsley Allspice Black Pepper Rosemary Rue Savory White Mustard Wild Thyme Thyme Common Valerian Valerian Vervain

                 

           

   

 

 

   

 

   

 

   

   

   

   

Herbs and spices (including medicinal plants and beer additives)

 

 

     

   

           

                   

           

                 

 

   

 

 

 

   

   

 

               

     

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

     

exception of one small fragment of almond stone from Oldenburg (Northern Germany) dated to the 13th/14th centuries and a record from Northern Po‑ land dated to the 17th century. Almonds are men‑ tioned in written documents associated with festival purchases (see chapter 1). Written sources from Norway, dated to the 14th century, reveal that nuts, most probably hazelnuts 188

(Corylus avellana), formed part of the church-tithe, in other words were subject to taxation (Ågotnes 1987). This clearly demonstrates that a common everyday nut acquired a special value at the limits of its northern natural distribution area (see chapter 7). Hazelnut shells are frequently found at all medieval sites and were probably also used as merchandise in all the countries.

Plant species containing aromatic substances in their fruits or seeds have quite a good chance of being rep‑ resented in archaeological layers, especially if these are waterlogged, for example, in latrines. Latrine deposits have not been analysed, or even located, in all of the countries. This is an important fact to con‑ sider when comparing the present/absence data from the different countries (Table 4). Nevertheless, our knowledge concerning transient condiments must be supplemented by written sources which provide ad‑ ditional data on the entire variety of spices. There are clear differences between the countries concerning the use of herbs and spices, both locally grown and collected from the wild, as well as imported species (see figures 1 and 2). This probably illustrates the general variety of diet, reflecting foreign contacts and the economic power of the inhabitants of particular regions. The most significant species richness within this category was found in Northern Germany and Northern Poland, while in other countries, espe‑ cially Norway and Sweden, spices are only rarely recorded. This means that, even if some spices and herbs were known in Scandinavia, they were not very commonly used. Archaeobotanical data il‑ lustrate that imports of these luxury goods to the towns along the central southern Baltic coast started during the 13th century at the latest; Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is recorded in archaeobotanical mate‑ rial from the 13th and 14th century (see chapters 1, 2 and 3). The earliest, and quite remarkable, finds of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) were discovered and identified in Poland (see chapter 2). Other spices, such as cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum), seem to have been introduced later (16th/17th centuries). They occur occasionally already in the 14th/15th centuries, but only in North‑

Synthesis and a mission for the future

ern Germany (see chapter 1). Further developments in long-distance sea trade expanded the list of im‑ ported species. An important increase is observed particularly for the 16th century; in agreement with the historical data. During both periods, the Middle Ages and early modern times, luxury spices were much more common in Northern Germany and Northern Poland than in Scandinavia. On the other hand, some species growing in the natural vegeta‑ tion, for example juniper (Juniperus communis), were more commonly used in the northern countries than in the southern ones. The most frequently occurring herbs in all the countries were dill (Anethum graveolens) and caraway (Carum carvi; Table 4). Dill, of Mediterranean ori‑ gin, grows very well even in Scandinavia. In north‑ ern cooking this condiment is today still strongly connected with dishes incorporating cucumber and fish (Küster 1987). Written sources mention the use of mustard. In the archaeobotanical material, we can demonstrate the use of the seeds of black mustard (Brassica nigra) since the 14th century (see chapter 3). It is difficult to demonstrate the direct use of plants for medical purposes by archaeobotanical methods. Written sources are more reliable in this respect. These sources underline that exotica were essential products on the tables of the bourgeoisie. Refining dishes by using all kinds of vegetable, herb, spice and fruit fulfilled their wish to stress the rep‑ resentative character of the meal and the status of the host (Turner 2004). The more this non-mate‑ rial aspect of food was brought to the foreground, the more such plant products gained in economical importance. The food preferences of colonists and the Hanseatic merchants might have played a role in introducing new spices to North European coun‑ tries. But exotic spices were, at that time, considered more as an obligatory sign of the social status of certain people. The average customer began to use spices much later. By the time that beer production passed into the hand of professionals and brewing was subject to strict regulation, trade in beer or the raw materi‑ als for its manufacture (additives i.e. flavourings, malt) became an important pillar of Hanseatic trade. Shortages in the supply of wine supported this development.

We know from a written source that, during the 15th century, wine became too expensive in the Rhineland and was therefore replaced by beer (Irsigler 1996). The generally increasing importance of beer influenced, of course, not only trade con‑ nections between wine-producing regions and the more northerly regions of Europe, but also resulted in the hop trade achieving greater significance. Up until the 13th century, many different plants had been used as beer additives, for example wild rosemary (Ledum palustre) and sweet gale (Myrica gale). During the 14th/15th centuries, hop beer at‑ tained first place as the daily beverage in the whole of Central Europe. The competitive character of the two beer additives, hops and sweet gale, is im‑ pressively demonstrated by an example from the Netherlands and Flanders. Here, people were not able to adjust to the taste of hop beer for a period of several decades. Therefore, sweet gale beer was mixed with hop beer and vice versa (Irsigler 1996). But generally speaking, one plant, hop (Humulus lupulus), took over the scene completely, both in Scandinavia and in most other parts of Europe. The history of this revolution is rather well known from written records and botanical finds (Behre 1999 and literature cited therein, for Denmark see Karg and Günther 2002). Archaeobotanical finds of remains of hop clearly reinforce the evidence from written records. In Fin‑ land, Sweden, Denmark and Norway, records of hop increase in number during the medieval period (see chapters 4, 5, 6, and 7). The records from Sweden show that the transition is earlier in regions where the Hanseatic influence was stronger (see chapter 5).

Are long-distance trading activities visible in the archaeobotanical material? It is not easy to determine, within the archaeobotani‑ cal dataset, which plants were imported and which grew or were cultivated locally. Concerning cereals finds, the written sources do provide much better information (see chapters 2 and 4), but data from Norway (chapter 7) demonstrates, by the presence of an introduced cereal weed (cornflower, Centaurea cyanus), that these crops could not have been grown in Norway, i.e. they must have been imported. Based on historical sources, it has to be assumed that a large proportion of the remains of cultivated 189

Synthesis and a mission for the future

plants present in archaeobotanical material, even of those species which, to some extent, were grown locally or even in the towns themselves (for example apples, cherries, hazelnuts etc.) were also products of long-distance trade. When comparing the diversity of the plant species found in the individual countries, two main regions can be defined. In Northern Germany, Northern Poland and Estonia, the newly introduced foods seem, however, to have been quickly integrated into the daily diet of the citizens (see chapters 1, 2 and 3). The countries on the northeastern border of the Baltic Sea, together with Norway, seem to be much more conservative with regard to new food elements. There are virtually no finds of rice or luxury condi‑ ments, such as pepper (see chapters 4, 5 and 7), except in Finland, where there is a very early record (see chapter 4). The only exotic species to appear in all countries are grape, fig and walnut. Written sources mention the use of imported dried fruit, such as dates and raisins, in festive meals. Conversely,

190

figs were, together with spices, used as representative gifts for ambassadors (Turner 2004). Indeed, it seems that exotic plant products were not affordable by ordinary citizens of the northern countries. Future studies of plant remains, especially from waterlogged deposits of well defined social context, may modify this picture.

A mission for the future The original proxy data gathered by the HANSA Network is currently administered by the individual authors. As the impressive dataset is already entered in a standardized electronic form, the setting up of a joint database can be realized very easily. Various analyses of the resulting dataset could then be car‑ ried out. In addition, gaps in our knowledge which pre‑ vent detailed interpretation in some areas, and the answering of specific questions in others, could more easily be filled.

References

References

Aalto M (1982) Archaeobotanical studies at Kata‑ jamäki, Isokylä, Salo, South-West Finland. PACT 7: 137‑147

Alsleben A (2002) Ein verkohlter Getreidefundkomplex aus dem mittelalterlichen Lübeck. Lübecker Schriften zur Archäologie und Kulturgeschichte 26: 544‑550

Aalto M (1994) Turun Linnan esilinnan kasvillisuus. Tut‑ kimuksia Turun Linnasta [Flora and vegetation of the medieval Turku Castle Bailey]. Turku Provincial Museum, Report 16: 21‑38

Alttoa K and Tamm J (1992) A glimpse at Research into Historic Towns in Estonia: Current Results and Per‑ spectives. PACT 37: 63‑76

Abakumova M (1990) Taimseid ja loomseid leide Tartu vanalinnast [Botanical and zoological finds from the Old Town of Tartu] pp 22‑30. Tartu ja kultuur [Tartu and culture]. Tallinn Abakumova M and Sillasoo Ü (1991) Taimseid leide arhe‑ oloogilistes proovides [Plant remains in archaeological samples]. Botaanilised uurimused/Scripta Botanica 6: 197‑215 Agricola M (1544) Rucousciria Bibliasta [Prayer book of the bible]. Aboae Ahvenainen J (1963) Der Getreidehandel Livlands im Mittelalter. Dissertation. Societas Scientiarum Fen‑ nica. Commentationes Humanorum Litterarum 34/2. Helsinki Alanko T (1998) Arkeobotaaninen tutkimus Naantalin Luostarikirkosta [Archaeobotanical studies in the me‑ dieval Convent Church of Naantali]. Thesis, Univer‑ sity of Turku Aldén B, Engstrand L, Iwarsson M, Jonsson L, Nilsson Ö and Ryman S (1998) Natur o Kultur. Lund Alsleben A (1991) Archäobotanische Untersuchungen in der Hansestadt Lübeck. Landschaftsentwicklung im städtischen Umfeld und Nahrungswirtschaft während des Mittelalters bis zur frühen Neuzeit. Offa 48: 329‑362 Alsleben A (1995) Nutzpflanzen aus dem mittelalterli‑ chen Wolin. Zwei ausgewählte Gruppen: Getreide und Lein. Offa 52: 185‑217

Angermann N (1985) Livland im ausgehenden Mittel­ alter. In: Angermann N (ed) Wolter von Plettenberg. Der grösste Ordensmeister Livlands. Norddeutsches Kulturwerk Lüneburg. Schriftenreihe Nordost-Archiv 21: 10‑21 Angermann N (1987) Die Hanse und Russland. Schrif‑ tenreihe Nordost-Archiv 86‑87: 58‑92 Angermann N (ed) (1990) Die Hanse und der deutsche Osten: Beiträge einer Tagung zum Thema “Die Hanse und der deutsche Osten” vom 11. bis 13. September 1987 in Lüneburg. Lüneburg Ansorge J, Igel K, Schäfer H and Wiethold J (2003) Ein Holzschacht aus der Baderstraße 1a in Greifswald. Aus der materiellen Alltagskultur einer Hansestadt in der zweiten Hälfte des 14. Jahrhunderts. Bodendenk‑ malpflege Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Jahrbuch 50: 119‑157 Ansorge J and Wiethold J (2002) Frankenstraße 57a – zur Geschichte eines Stralsunder Grundstücks mit Brauund Mälzgerechtigkeit. Archäologische Berichte aus Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 9: 164‑189 Arndt B and Wiethold J (2001) Pflaume, Pfeffer, Paradieskorn. Archäologie in Niedersachsen 4: 35‑39 Ågotnes A (1987) … med en skje at æde… Hushold i Bergen ca 1100‑1700 [… eating with a spoon… Household in Bergen c. 1100‑1700]. Bryggens Mu‑ seum 1987. Bergen

191

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

Ågren K (1976) Skrivet och berättat om vilda växters använding [Written and oral sources about the use of wild plants]. Västerbotten 3: 97‑183 Badura M (1998) Przyczynek do historii upraw zbożowych w sąsiedztwie średniowiecznego Kołobrzegu [A con‑ tribution to the history of cereal cultivation in the vicinity of medieval Kołobrzeg]. Pomorania Antiqua 17: 305‑320 Badura M (1999) Szczątki gryki (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) ze średniowiecznego Kołobrzegu [Remains of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) from medieval Kołobrzeg]. Polish Botanical Studies Guide‑ book Series 23: 219‑231 Badura M (2000) Środowisko przyrodnicze i gospodarka średniowiecznego Kołobrzegu w świetle badań archeo‑ botanicznych [Natural environment and economy of medieval Kołobrzeg in the light of archaeobotanical studies]. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Gdańsk Badura M (2003) Pimenta officinalis Lindl. (myrtle pep‑ per) from early modern latrines in Gdańsk (Northern Poland). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 12: 249‑252 Barnycz-Gupieniec R (1998) Badania nad wczesnoś­ redniowiecznym Gdańskiem [Investigations in early medieval Gdańsk] pp 5‑11. In: Paner H (ed) Gdańsk średniowieczny w świetle najnowszych badań archeo‑ logicznych i historycznych [Medieval Gdańsk in the light of the latest archaeological and historical stud‑ ies]. Gdańsk Behre KE (1981) Pflanzenreste der Zeit um 1400 n. Chr. aus dem Lüneburger St. Michaelis Kloster. Nachrich‑ ten aus Niedersachsens Urgeschichte 50: 321‑327 Behre KE (1984) Zur Geschichte der Bierwürzen nach Fruchtfunden und schriftlichen Quellen pp 115‑122. In: van Zeist W and Casparie WA (eds) Plants and Ancient Man, Proceedings of the 6th Symposium of the International Work Group of Palaeoethnobotany in Groningen. Rotterdam Behre KE (1991) Die ersten Funde von Nahrungspflan‑ zen aus dem Mittelalter Bremens. Bremisches Jahr‑ buch 70: 207‑227 Behre KE (1992) The history of rye cultivation in Europe. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 1: 141‑156 Behre KE (1998) Zur Geschichte des Bieres und der Bierwürzen in Mitteleuropa. Archäologische Mit‑ teilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland 20: 49‑88

mer Flögeln, Niedersachsen, seit der Jungsteinzeit. Probleme der Küstenforschung 21. Oldenburg Berggren G (1984) Utgrävningen på Helgeandsholmen, fröanalysrapport [Excavations at Helgeandsholmen, botanical analysis]. The Central Board of National Antiquities, Report UV 41. Stockholm Berglund BE (ed) (1991) The cultural landscape during 6000 years in southern Sweden – the Ystad project. Ecological Bulletins 41. Copenhagen Bill J, Poulsen P, Flemming R and Ventegodt O (1997) Fra stammebåd til skib [From dugout to ship]. Copenhagen Biskup M (1978a) Rola Gdańska w Związku Miast Hanzeatyckich [The role of Gdańsk in the Hanseatic League] pp 428‑436. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska. Tom I do roku 1454 [History of Gdańsk Vol 1 till 1454]. Gdańsk Biskup M (1978b) Gdańsk a Hanza w połowie 15‑tego stulecia [Gdańsk and the Hansa in the mid-15th century] pp 541‑553. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska. Tom I do roku 1454 [History of Gdańsk Vol 1 till 1454]. Gdańsk Biskup M (1978c) Handel [Trade] pp 397‑416. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska. Tom I do roku 1454 [History of Gdańsk Vol 1 till 1454]. Gdańsk Biskup M (1978d) Ludność [Population] pp 382‑396. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska. Tom I do roku 1454 [History of Gdańsk Vol 1 till 1454]. Gdańsk Biskup M (1978e) Układ przestrzenny miasta [The spatial lay-out of the Gdańsk urban group] pp 364‑381. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska Tom I do roku 1454 [History of Gdańsk Vol 1 till 1454]. Gdańsk Biskup M and Labuda G (1988) Dzieje Zakonu Krzyżackiego w Prusach [History of the Teutonic Order in Prussia]. Gdańsk Bitch I, Ehlert T and Ertzdorff X (eds) (1990) Essen und Trinken in Mittelalter und Neuzeit. Vorträge eines interdisziplinären Symposions Gießen 1987. Sigmaringen Bjørsvik E and Solberg P (1996) Hanseatene og Norden [The Hansa and the Nordic Countries]. Bergen Blatt F (ed) (1956) Diplomatarium Danicum. 2 ser., 1313‑1317. Vol 7. Copenhagen

Behre KE (1999) The history of beer additives in Eu‑ rope – a review. Vegetation History and Archaeo‑ botany 8: 35‑48

Bogucka M (1962) Z zagadnień spekulacji i nadużyć w handlu żywnością w Gdańsku w 15‑17 wieku [Zur Frage der Spekulation und der Missbräuche im Lebens­ mittelhandel in Danzig (Gdańsk) im 15.-17. Jh.]. Zapiski Historyczne 27: 7‑22

Behre KE and Kučan D (1994) Die Geschichte der Kul‑ turlandschaft und des Ackerbaus in der Siedlungskam‑

Bogucka M (1982a) Gdańsk – największy port bałtycki [Gdańsk – the biggest Baltic port] pp 465‑507. In:

192

References

Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska Tom II, 1454‑1655 [History of Gdańsk Vol 2, 1454‑1655]. Gdańsk

Clarke H and Ambrosiani B (1995) Towns in Viking Age. London, New York

Bogucka M (1982b) Życie codzienne w Gdańsku w 15‑16 wieku [Everyday life in Gdańsk in the 15‑16th centuries] pp 330‑351. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska Tom II, 1454‑1655 [History of Gdańsk Vol 2, 1454‑1655]. Gdańsk

Columbus C (1493/1494) Brief über die Entdeckung Amerikas. Johann Bergmann von Olpe. Faksimile. Basel

Bogucka M (1982c) Rozwój rzemiosła [The development of crafts] pp 176‑207. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska Tom II, 1454‑1655 [History of Gdańsk Vol 2, 1454‑1655]. Gdańsk Bogucka M (1982d) Kultura materialna i obyczajowość [Material culture and customs] pp 658‑685. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska Tom II, 1454‑1655 [History of Gdańsk Vol 2, 1454‑1655]. Gdańsk Bogucka M (1984) Gdańscy ludzie morza w 16‑18 wieku [Sea-people from Gdańsk 16‑18th centuries]. Gdańsk Bogucka M (1997) Żyć w dawnym Gdańsku [Life in Old Gdańsk]. Warszawa Boldsen I (1994) Plantemakrofossilanalyse fra det tidlig‑ ste København: Kompagnistræde 28/Rådhustræde 6 [Plant macrofossil analysis from the early Copenha‑ gen: Kompagnistræde 28/Rådhustræde 6]. NNU Re‑ port 11. The National Museum. Copenhagen Boldsen I and Robinson DE (1997) Arkæobotaniske analyser af materiale fra Ahlgade 15‑17, Holbæk [Archaeobotanical analyses of material from Ahlgade 15‑17, Holbæk] pp 215‑224. In: Asmussen E (ed) Ahlgade 15‑17, Holbæk: En arkæologisk og historisk undersøgelse fra 1200 til nutiden [Ahlgade 15‑17, Holbæk: Archaeological and historical research from 1200 AD until the present day]. Aarbøger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie 1994‑1995. Holbæk Bracker J (1989) Die Hanse. Lebenswirklichkeit und My‑ thos 1. Eine Ausstellung des Museums für Hambur‑ gische Geschichte in Verbindung mit der Vereins- und Westbank. Hamburg Breyn J (1678) Exoticarum Aliarumque Minus Cognitarum Plantarum Centuria Prima, Cum Figuris Arneis Summo Studio Elaboratis Gedani. Gdańsk Bruiningk H von (1908) Zur Geschichte des Anbaues von Feldfrüchten in Livland im Mittelalter. Sitzungs‑ berichte der Gesellschaft für Geschichte und Alter‑ tumskunde der Ostseeprovinzen Russlands. Riga Brøndegaard VJ (1979) Folk og Flora [People and plants]. Dansk Etnobotanik [Danish Ethnobotany]. Tønder Bureau Hanzesteden (ed) (2001) Hanzekookboek. De lekkerste gerechten uit Europese hanzesteden. Warnsveld

Compendium (1767) Compendium Medicum Auctum. Czacharowski A (1993) Znaczenie okresu 1237‑1466 w dziejach miasta [The importance of the period 1237‑1466 for the history of the town] pp 276‑280. In: Gierszewski S and Groth S (eds) Historia Elbląga Tom I do 1466 r. [History of Elbląg Vol 1 till 1466]. Gdańsk Czaja R (1992) Socjotopografia Elbląga w średniowieczu [Die Sozialtopographie der Stadt Elbing im Mittel­ alter]. Toruń Czaja R (1993) Powstanie miasta [Origin of the town] pp 60‑70. In: Gierszewski S and Groth A (eds) Historia Elbląga Tom I do 1466 r. [History of Elbląg Vol 1 till 1466]. Gdańsk Czaja R (2000) Miasta pomorskie w Hanzie w średniowieczu [Pommersche Städte in der mittelal‑ terlichen Hanse] pp 117‑126. In: Leciejewicz L and Rębkowski M (eds) Salsa Colbergiensis – Kołobrzeg w średniowieczu [Salsa Colbergiensis – Kolberg im Mittelalter]. Kołobrzeg Czaja R and Nawrolski T (1993a) Tworzenie miejskiego zespołu osadniczego [Development of the urban set‑ tlement] pp 71‑102. In: Gierszewski S and Groth A (eds) Historia Elbląga Tom I do 1466 r. [History of Elbląg Vol 1 till 1466]. Gdańsk Czaja R and Nawrolski T (1993b) Kultura materialna i życie codzienne [Material culture and everyday life] pp 204‑226. In: Gierszewski S and Groth A (eds) Historia Elbląga Tom I do 1466 r. [History of Elbląg Vol 1 till 1466]. Gdańsk Czaja R and Nawrolski T (1993c) Pierwotny Elbląg [Early Elbląg] pp 60‑130. In: Gierszewski S and Groth A (eds) Historia Elbląga Tom I do 1466 r. [History of Elbląg Vol 1 till 1466]. Gdańsk Czarciński I (1993a) Elbląg jako ośrodek handlowo-por‑ towy państwa krzyżackiego [Elbląg as the trade-port centre in the Teutonic State] pp 147‑155. In: Giersze‑ wski S and Groth A (eds) Historia Elbląga Tom I do 1466 r. [History of Elbląg Vol 1 till 1466]. Gdańsk Czarciński I (1993b) Elbląg w związku Miast Hanzeaty‑ ckich [Elbląg in the Hanseatic League] pp 156‑169. In: Gierszewski S and Groth A (eds) Historia Elbląga Tom I do 1466 r. [History of Elbląg Vol 1 till 1466]. Gdańsk Dąbrowski H (1962) Rozwój gospodarki rolnej w Polsce od 12 do połowy 14 wieku [Development of the agri­

193

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

cultural economy in Poland 12th-14th centuries]. Stu‑ dia z Dziejów Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego 5 (1) Dąbrowski K (1975) Opactwo cystersów w Oliwie od 12 do 16 wieku [Cysterian Abbey in Oliwa 12th-16th century]. GTN, I Wydział Nauk Społecznych i Hu‑ manistycznych, Ser. Mon. 53, Gdańsk Danielsen R (1991) En undersøkelse av makro- og mikro‑ fossiler, Oslogate 4 [An investigation of macro- and micro fossils, Oslogate 4]. In: Schia E and Wiberg T (eds) De arkeologiske utgravninger i Gamlebyen, Oslo 10: 63‑74 Dembińska M (1963) Konsumpcja żywnościowa w Polsce średniowiecznej [Food consumption in medieval Po‑ land]. Instytut Historii Kultury Materialnej, PAN. Warszawa Dickson C (1996) Food, medicinal and other plants from the 15th century drains of Paisley Abbey, Scotland. In: Behre KE and Oeggl K (eds) Early farming in the Old World. Recent advances in archaeobotanical research. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 5: 25‑32 Dietze A (2000) 1600‑talls kjøkkenhagetradisjon på Baroniet Rosendal, Kvinnherad, Norge [17th century kitchen garden tradition at the Barony of Rosendal, Kvinnherad, Norway]. In: Moe D, Salvesen PH and Øvstedal DO (eds) Historiske hager [Historical gar‑ dens]. Bergen Museums skrifter 5: 40‑45 Dillner TS (1897) Studier rörande Finlands handel un‑ der tidrymden 1570‑1622 [Investigations of trade in Finland during 1570‑1622]. Helsinki Długokęcki W (1984) Świadczenia w pieprzu i szafranie w państwie krzyżackim w 14‑15 wieku [The profits made by pepper and saffran in the Teutonic Knights State during the 14th and 15th centuries]. Zeszyty Naukowe Wydziału Humanistycznego UG. Historia 14: 19‑36 Długokęcki W (1993) Gospodarka. Rolnictwo, hodowla, rybołówstwo i leśnictwo [Economy, agriculture, fish‑ ery and forestry] pp 185‑203. In: Gierszew­ski S and Groth A (eds) Historia Elbląga Tom I do 1466 r. [His‑ tory of Elbląg Vol 1 till 1466]. Gdańsk Dokkedal L (2001) Kolding Kogge [The Kolding cog]. Skalk 5: 9‑13 Dollinger P (1970) The German Hansa. Bristol Dollinger P (1998) Die Hanse. Stuttgart Doroshenko V, Kahk J, Ligi H, Piirimäe H and Tarvel E (1974) Trade and agrarian development in the Baltic provinces 15th-19th centuries. Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R. Tallinn Edvardsen E (1694) Bergen. Første part [Bergen. First part]. Bergens Historiske Forening Skrifter 55/56: 1‑526

194

Ehrstedt G, Karjalainen M, Lempiäinen T, Majantie K and Mikkola T (2000) Kaupunkiarkeologisia tut‑ kimuksia Tammisaaressa [Archaeological investiga‑ tions in Tammisaari]. SKAS 2/2000: 24‑45 Elfing F (1897) Anteckninger om kulturväxterna i Fin‑ land [Notes on cultivated plants in Finland]. Acta Soc. Pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 14/2: 1-116 Enemark P (1994) Danmarks handel i senmiddelalderen. En niche i europæisk økonomisk udvikling [Den‑ marks trading activities during the late Middle Ages. A niche in the European economy]. In: Ingesman P and Poulsen B (eds) Danmark og Europa i Sen‑ middelalderen [Denmark and Europe during the late medieval period]. Aarhus Enemark P (2003) Dansk oksehandel 1450‑1550: fra efterårsmarkeder til forårsdrivning [The Danish trade with oxes 1450‑1550: from autumn markets to spring livestock]. Aarhus Engelmark R (2000) Makrofossilanalys Kv Disa Upp‑ sala pp 226‑228. In: Anund et al (eds) I skuggan av Domkyrkan [In the shadow of the Dome of Uppsala]. The Central Board of National Antiquities, Report UV. Uppsala Engelmark R (2002) The Black Earth of Sigtuna. In: Viklund K and Engelmark R (eds) Nordic Archaeo‑ botany – NAG 2000 in Umeå. Archaeology and En‑ vironment 15: 49‑59 Engelmark R and Linderholm J (1998) Analys av jord­ prover från Hantverksgatan i Halmstad. Rapport av Miljöarkeologiskalaboratoriet Umeå Universitet [Analysis of sediment samples from Hantverksgatan in Halmsted. Report of the Laboratory for Environ‑ mental Archaeology Umeå University]. Umeå Epperlein S (2003) Bäuerliches Leben im Mittelalter. Schriftquellen und Bildzeugnisse. Köln, Weimar, Wien Erhardt W, Götz E, Bödeker N and Seybold S (2000) Zander. Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. Stuttgart Erkamo V (1944) Vanhin Suomesta tunnettu lääkeopil‑ linen kirjoitus [The oldest medical document in Fin‑ land]. Duodekim 60: 210‑222 Feyl A (1963) Das Kochbuch Meister Eberhards. Recipe 3. Dissertation, University of Freiburg i. Br. Foldøy O and Griffin K (1986) Paleobotaniske analyser fra Øvre Langgate 65/67, Tønsberg [Palaeobotani‑ cal analysis from Øvre Langgate 65/67] Bilag 5. In: Blohme M and Runeby C (eds) Innberetning over de arkeologiske utgravningene i Øvre Langgate 65/67. 1985. Tønsberg

References

Fries H and Wiethold J (2003) Bemerkenswertes aus Stralsunds Altstadt – die Grabung Apollonienmarkt 6 und ihre Ergebnisse. Archäologische Berichte aus Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 10: 220‑247 Fritze K (1976) Bürger und Bauern zur Hansezeit. Stu‑ dien zu den Stadt-Land-Beziehungen an der südlichen Ostseeküste vom 13. bis zum 16. Jahrhundert. Ab‑ handlungen zur Handels- und Sozialgeschichte 16. Weimar Fægri K (1956) Naturvitenskapelig arkeologi på Bryggen. Fra Bryggens fortid. Omkring de arkeologiske un‑ dersøkelser [Environmental archaeology at Bryggen. From the past of Bryggen. About the archaological investigations] pp 31‑32. Det Hanseatiske Museum. Bergen

Gołembnik A (ed) (2001) Badania archeologiczne terenu przyszłego Centrum Dominikańskiego w Gdańsku. Sezon 2000 [Archaeological investigations in the area of the prospective Dominican Centre]. ŚWIATOWID Supplement Series P, Prehistory and Middle Ages 6 Gołembnik A (2002a) Narodziny Gdańska [Origin of Gdańsk] pp 25‑33. In: Gołembnik A (ed) W cieniu klasztoru dominikanów [Overshadowed by the Do‑ minican Monastery]. Gdańsk Gołembnik A (ed) (2002b) Dominikańskie Centrum św. Jacka w Gdańsku. Badania archeologiczne. Tom II [The St. Jack Dominican Centre. Archaeological in‑ vestigations Vol 2]. ŚWIATOWID Supplement Series P, Prehistory and Middle Ages 9

Fægri K (1970) Norges planter. Bind 1 [The plants of Norway. Vol 1]. Oslo

Greig J (1981) The investigation of a medieval barrellatrine from Worcester. Journal of Archaeological Sci‑ ence 6: 265‑282

Fægri K (1987) Klostervesenets bidrag til Norges flora og vegetasjon [The monasteries contribution to the flora and vegetation of Norway] pp 225‑238. Foreningen til norske fortidsminnesmerkers bevaring. Årbok

Greig J (1996) Archaeobotanical and historical records compared – a new look at the taphonomy of edible and other useful plants from the 11th to the 18th cen‑ turies AD. Circaea 12: 211‑247

Fægri K (1996) Krydder. På kjøkkenet og verdenshisto­ rien [Spices. In the kitchen and in the world history]. Oslo

Grieve M (1971) A Modern Herbal. New York

Gadd PA (1751) Försök til en Oekonomisk Beskrifning, ofwer Satakunta Häraders Norra Del [Economical circumstances in the northern Satakunta, W Finland, in the 18th century]. Stockholm Gardberg CJ (1966) Pyhän Hengen talo, Pyhän Hen‑ gen kirkko ja Julinin tontti [The house of holy spirit, the church of holy spirit and the Julin district]. The Historical Museum of Turku, Annual report 32‑33/1964‑1965. Turku Gardberg CJ (1969) Turun keskiaikainen asemakaava [The medieval plan of Turku]. The Historical Museum of Turku, Annual report 33‑42/1968‑1969. Turku Gardberg CJ (1979) Kustö bishopsborgs första bygg­ nadsskede [The first buildings of the Bishop Castle of Kuusisto]. Taidehistoriallisia tutkimuksia 4: 43‑50 Gawlicki M (1997) Podmiejskie dwory mieszczan Gdańskich od 16 do 18 wieku [Suburban estates of Gdańsk townspeople during the 16th-18th centuries] pp 67‑80. In: Salmonowicz S (ed) Mieszczaństwo Gdańskie [Gdańsk townspeople]. Gdańsk Gierszewski S (1978) Elbląg. Przeszłość i teraźniejszość [Elbląg. Past and present]. Gdańsk Giorgi J (1997) Diet in late medieval and early modern London: the archaeobotanical evidence. The Society for Medieval Archaeology Monograph 15, Oxbow Monograph 98: 197‑213

Griffin K (1975) Macrofossils from Gamlebyen, an ar‑ chaeological site in Oslo, Norway: a preliminary re‑ port. Folia Quaternaria 46: 63‑67 Griffin K (1977) Plant remains from Medieval Oslo. Uni‑ versitetets Oldsaksamling Årbok (UOÅ) 1975/76: 151‑163 Griffin K (1979a) Fossil records of fig, grape and walnut in Norway from Medieval time. Archaeo-Physica 8: 57‑67 Griffin K (1979b) Plant remains from “Oslogate 7”. In: Schia E (ed) De arkeologiske utgravninger i Gamle‑ byen, Oslo 2: 124‑133 Griffin K (1981a) Plant remains from archaeological sites in Norway: a review. Zeitschrift für Archäologie 15: 163‑176 Griffin K (1981b) Planterester fra Revierstredet 5 og 7 [Plant remains from Revierstredet 5 and 7]. Riksan‑ tikvarens Skrifter 4: 273‑282 Griffin K (1982) Utgrävningen på Helgeandsholmen. Analyser av jordprover från sju båtar [Excavations at Helgeandsholmen. Botanical analysis of samples from seven boats]. The Central Board of National Antiquities, Report UV 2. Stockholm Griffin K (1984) Botanisk prøvemateriale 1: Analyse av 12 jordprøver fra utgravningene i Storgaten 24/26, Tønsberg, 1979 [Botanical material 1: Analysis of 12 soil samples from the excavations in Storgaten 24/26, Tønsberg, 1979] Bilag 10. In: Lindh J (ed) Innberet‑

195

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

ning over de arkeologiske utgravningene i Storgaten 24/26, 1979. Tønsberg

Hundestraße 9‑17. Lübecker Schriften zur Archäolo‑ gie und Kulturgeschichte 16: 233‑290

Griffin K (1988) Plant remains. In: Schia E (ed) De arkeo­ logiske utgravninger i Gamlebyen, Oslo 5: 15‑108

Häkkinen K and Lempiäinen T (1996) Die ältesten finn‑ ischen Getreide und ihre Namen. Finno-Ugrische Forschung 53/1‑3: 115‑182

Griffin K (1992) Bær og nøtter, frukt og frø [Berries and nuts, fruits and seeds] pp 155‑158. In: Christophersen A (ed) I kongers kaupang og bispers by – arkeologi forteller byhistorie. Trondheim Griffin K (1994) The usage of wild berries in the medieval and postmedieval household in Norway. Botanical Journal of Scotland 46: 521‑526

Hall R and Widén M (2004) Biologisk artlist – svenska, engelska och latinska (vetenskapliga) namn [Biological species list – Swedish, English and Latin (scientific) names]. Studentlitteratur Lund Hamarkrøniken. Ny utgave ved [New edition by] Pet‑ tersen E (1986). Øvre Ervik

Griffin K (1997) The usefulness of fossil plant remains in the reconstruction of environment and interpretation of the early town. PACT 52: 123‑136

Hämet-Ahti L, Suominen J, Ulvinen T and Uotila P (1998) Retkeilykasvio [The flora of Finland]. Helsinki

Griffin K and Foldøy O (1986) Botaniske analyser av jordprøver fra Baglergaten 2/4 [Botanical analysis of soil samples from Baglergaten 2/4] Bilag 11. In Brendalsmo J (ed) Innberetning over de arkeolo‑ giske utgravningene i Baglergaten 2‑4, 1981‑1982. Tønsberg

Hammel R (1981) Vermögensverhältnisse und Absatz‑ möglichkeiten der Bäcker in hansischen Seestädten am Beispiel Lübeck. Ein Beitrag zur hansischen Gewer­ begeschichte des späten 14. Jahrhunderts. Hansische Geschichtsblätter 99: 33‑60

Griffin K and Sandvik PU (1989) Frukter, frø og andre makrofossiler. Funksjoner og aktiviteter belyst gjen‑ nom analyser av jordprøver [Fruits, seeds and other macrofossils. Functions and activities documented through analysis of soil samples]. Fortiden i Trond‑ heim bygrunn: Folkebibliotekstomten. Meddelelser nr. 19. Riksantikvaren, Utgravningskontoret for Trondheim Griffin K and Sandvik PU (1991) Plant remains from medieval Trondheim, Norway. Acta Interdisciplinaria Archaeologica 7: 111‑115 Griffin K, Sandvik PU and Hansson AM (2004) Hva jorden gjemmer. Naturvitenskapelige undersøkelser i forbindelse med hagearkeologi [What is hidden in the earth] pp 80‑89. In: Espeland E (ed) Spor i jord. Parken og hagen restaureres. Oslo Gustafsson S (2002) “My Lord here is your rye-bread”. Archaeobotanical investigation of a medieval castle in the lower Ångermanälven valley, northern Swe‑ den. In: Viklund K and Engelmark R (eds) Nordic Archaeobotany – NAG 2000 in Umeå. Archaeology and Environment 15: 59‑67 Gustavson H (1972) Tallinna vanadest apteekidest kuni 1917 [About the old apothecaries of Tallinn until 1917]. Tallinn Haaster H van (1989) Spätmittelalterliche und früh‑ neuzeitliche Pflanzenreste aus der Grabung in der Hundestraße 9‑17 in Lübeck. In: Mührenberg D (ed) Archäologische und baugeschichtliche Untersu‑ chungen im Handwerkerviertel zu Lübeck. Befunde

196

Hanelt P (1968) Bemerkungen zur Systematik und An‑ baugeschichte einiger Amaranthus Arten. Die Kul‑ turpflanze 16: 127‑149 Hansen Borby B, Christensen K and Jensen Fløe B (2005) Middelalderens havnefronter i Næstved – bolværks­ konstruktioner fra 1200‑1600 tallet [Seasides from the Middle Ages in Næstved – Wharf constructions from 1200‑1600 AD] pp 115-130. In Roland T (ed) Bolværker – fra middelalderen og nyere tid [Wharfs – from the Middle Ages and the early modern times]. Næstved Hansen K (1999) Dansk feltflora [The Danish Flora]. Copenhagen Hansman G (ed) (1974) Eesti pomoloogia [Estonian pomology]. Tallinn Hansson AM (1997) On plant foods in the Scandinavian Peninsula in early medieval times. Thesis and Papers in Archaeology 5. Stockholm Hansson M and Hansson B (2002) Köksträdgårdens his‑ toria [The history of the kitchen garden]. Lund Harild JA (1997) Arkæobotaniske analyser af materi‑ ale fra Ribe Gråbrødrekloster [Archaeobotanical analysis of material from the Greyfriars Monastery in Ribe]. NNU Report 7. The National Museum. Copenhagen Harild JA and Andreasen ER (1999) Arkæobotanisk og pollenanalytiske undersøgelser af prøver fra voldstedet Tønderhus [Archaeobotanical and pollenanalytical investigations of samples from the castle mound of Tønderhus]. NNU Report 5. The National Museum. Copenhagen

References

Harild JA and Robinson DE (1996) Arkæobotaniske analyser af prøver fra Sortebrødre Kloster, Odense [Archaeobotanical analyses of samples from the Do‑ minican Monastery in Odense]. NNU Report 4. The National Museum. Copenhagen Hausen R (1881‑1883) Kuustö Slott I-II [The Castle of Kuusisto I-II]. Helsingfors Hegi G (1957) Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. Vol 3/1. München Heikkinen M (1989) Vaasa-ajan kaupungit I, Helsinki [The towns of the King Gustaf Wasa period I, Hel‑ sinki]. Helsinki Heilmann KE (1966) Kräuterbücher in Bild und Ge­ schichte. München Heimdahl J (2003) Environmental reconstructions at a medieval and post-medieval urban settlement in Norrköping. Licentiate Thesis, Department of Physi‑ cal Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University Heinemeier J (2002) AMS 14C dateringer, Århus 2001 [AMS 14C datings, Aarhus 2001] pp 263‑292. Arkæo­ logiske udgravninger i Danmark 2001 [Archaeological excavations in Denmark 2001]. Det Arkæologiske Nævn. Copenhagen Heizmann W (1999) Heilmittel und Heilkräuter. In: Beck H et al (eds) Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 14: 208‑230 Helbæk H (1977) The Fyrkat grain. A geographical and chronological study of rye pp 1‑41. In: Olsen O and Schmidt H (eds) Fyrkat. En jysk vikingeborg [Fyrkat. A castle from the Viking Age in Jutland]. Nordiske Fortidsminder. Serie B, Vol. 1. Copenhagen Helle K (1982) Bergen bys historie I. Kongssete og kjøp‑ stad. Fra opphavet til 1536 [The history of the town of Bergen I. Kings residence and trading place. From the foundation to 1536]. Bergen Hellwig M (1990) Paläoethnobotanische Untersuchun‑ gen an mittelalterlichen und frühneuzeitlichen Pflan‑ zenresten aus Braunschweig. Dissertationes Botanicae 156. Stuttgart Hellwig M (1995) Paradieskörner Aframomum melegueta (Roscoe) K. Schum. Ein Gewürz aus Westafrika im frühneuzeitlichen Göttingen pp 39‑47. In: Kroll H and Pasternak R (eds) Res archaeobotanicae. Interna‑ tional Work Group for Palaeoethnobotany. Proceed‑ ings of the 9th Symposium Kiel 1992. Kiel Hellwig M (1997) Plant remains from two cesspits (15th and 16th century) and a pond (13th century) from Göttingen, southern Lower Saxony, Germany. Vegeta‑ tion History and Archaeobotany 6: 105‑116

Hellwig M and Kuprat B (1991) Paläoethnobotanische Befunde aus einem frühneuzeitlichen Brunnen in Northeim. Northeimer Jahrbuch 56: 96‑107 Hennebo D (1987) Die Gärten des Mittelalters. München, Zürich Herteig AE (1969) Kongers havn og handels sete. Fra de arkeologiske undersøkelser på Bryggen i Bergen 1955‑1968 [The harbor of kings and the seat of trade. From the archaeological investigations at Bryggen in Bergen 1955‑1968]. Oslo Herteig AE (1985) The Archaeological excavations at Bryg­ gen, “The German Wharf ”, in Bergen, 1955‑1968. Bryggen Papers. Main Series 1: 9‑49 Hiekkanen M (2003) The convent of St. Olav and its architectural remains. Dominicans in Finland and around the Baltic Sea during the Middle Ages. Turku Provincial Museum, Report 18: 89‑104 Hiie S (2002) An example from the archaeobotanical investigations of medieval Tartu, Estonia. Abstract. In: Viklund K and Engelmark R (eds) Nordic Ar‑ chaeobotany – NAG 2000 in Umeå. Archaeology and Environment 15: 203 Hiitonen I (1933) Suomen kasvio [The Flora of Finland]. Helsinki Hjelle KL (1986) Paleobotanisk undersøkelse av marine sediment og avfallslag i Veisan – et bidrag til bosetnings­ historien i Bergen [Palaeobotanical investigations of marine sediments and refuse layers in Veisan – a con‑ tribution to the settlement development in Bergen]. Cand. Scient. Thesis, University of Bergen Hjelle KL (1987) Rapport Kroken 3, botaniske under‑ søkelser [Report Kroken 3, botanical investigations] pp 61‑66. In: Dunlop AR (ed) Rapport BRM 223 Kroken 3, Riksantikvaren. Bergen Hjelle KL (1989) Pollenanalytiske undersøkelser av jord­ prøver fra Storgaten 18, Tønsberg [Pollen analytical investigations of soil samples from Storgaten 18, Tøns‑ berg] Bilag 5. In: Nordman AM (ed) De arkeologiske undersøkelsene i Storgaten 18 og Conradis gate 5/7, Tønsberg 1987 og 1988. Arkeologiske rapporter fra Tønsberg. Riksantikvaren, Utgravningskontoret for Tønsberg Hjelle KL (1994) Botaniske undersøkelser [Botanical in‑ vestigations] pp 158‑181. In: Komber J, Dunlop AR, Sigurdsson JV and Hjelle KL (eds) Innberetningen om utgravningene i Domkirkegaten 6, 1987. Riksan‑ tikvarens Utgravningskontor for Bergen Hjelle KL (1999) Paleobotanisk undersøkelse av avset‑ ninger under Musikkpaviljongen i Bergen [Palaeobo‑ tanical investigation of deposits below “Musikkpavil‑

197

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

jongen” in Bergen]. Paleobotanisk rapport fra Bergen Museum, Botanisk avdeling, Universitetet i Bergen Hjelle KL (2001) Eksisterte det et tettsted i Bergen i vikingtiden? Bosetningsutvikling basert på botanisk materiale [Did there exist a village in Bergen during the Viking Age? Settlement development based on bo‑ tanical data]. Bergen Museum Årbok 2000: 58‑63 Hjelle KL (2002) Palaeobotanical investigations in Bergen, Norway – development of an urban settle‑ ment and the use of plants in the medieval town. In: Viklund K and Engelmark R (eds) Nordic Ar‑ chaeobotany – NAG 2000 in Umeå. Archaeology and Environment 15: 85‑94 Hjelle KL (2005) Pollenanalyse – en nødvendig metode for forståelse av jernalderens jordbrukslandskap [Pol‑ len analysis – a necessary method for understanding the Iron Age agricultural landscape]. In: Bergsvik KA and Engevik A jr (eds) Fra funn til samfunn. Jernal‑ derstudier tilegnet Bergljot Solberg på 70‑årsdagen [From finds to society. Iron Age studies dedicated Bergljot Solberg at her 70‑anniversary]. Universitetet i Bergen Arkeologiske Skrifter Nordisk 1: 91‑103 Hjelle KL (2006) Botaniske analyser av prøver fra dyr­ kingslag på Kyrkjeeide, Stryn, Sogn og Fjordane [Bo‑ tanical analysis of samples from cultivation layers at Kyrkjeeide, Stryn, Sogn og Fjordane]. Paleobotanisk rapport fra Universitetet i Bergen. De naturhistoriske samlinger 3. Bergen Hjelle KL (unpubl. a) Archaeobotanical analysis from Dreggsalmenning 14‑16 (BRM 237) Hjelle KL (unpubl. b) Archaeobotanical analysis from Svensgården (BRM 578) Hjelle KL (unpubl. c) Paleobotaniske undersøkelser Ned­re Korskirkealmenning/Vågsalmenning, Vågsbunnen i Bergen, 1998 [Palaeobotanical investigations Nedre Korskirkealmenning/Vågsalmenning, Vågsbunnen i Bergen, 1998]. Report from Bergen Museum, Uni‑ versity of Bergen Hjelle KL and Hommedal AT (2002) Holmen og Veisan – ei kjelde til Bergen si tidlege historie [Hol‑ men and Veisan – sources of the early history of Ber‑ gen]. Arkeo 2: 18‑26 Hjelle KL and Schjølberg E (1999) Planterester fra Vågs‑ bunnen i Bergen [Plant remains from Vågsbunnen in Bergen]. Arkeo 1: 47‑51 Hjelmqvist H (1963) Frön och frukter från det äldsta Lund [Seeds and fruits from the oldest part of Lund] pp 233‑270. Archaeologica Lundensia. Investigationes de antiqvitatibus urbis Lundae II, Kulturhistoriska Museet Lund

198

Hjelmqvist H (1968) Einige mittelalterliche Pflanzen‑ funde. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia. Res Medievales 3: 179‑194 Hjelmqvist H (1972) Ett sädeskornsfynd från Skånes 1600‑tal [A cereal find from 17th century Scania]. Malmö Fornminnesförenings Årsskrift 1972: 109‑112 Hjelmqvist H (1991) Några trädgårdsväxter från Lunds medeltid [Some garden plants from medieval Lund]. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 85: 225‑248 Hjelmqvist H (1992) Some economic plants from the prehistoric and medieval periods in southern Scania. In: Larsson L, Callmer J and Stjernquist B (eds) The archaeology of the cultural landscape. Acta Archaeo‑ logica Lundensia 4/19: 359‑367 Hjelmqvist H (1993) Ett bidrag till vinrankans histo‑ ria i Norden [A contribution to the history of wine in Northern Europe]. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 87: 275‑281 Hjelmqvist H (1995) Cayennepeppar från Lunds medel‑ tid [Red pepper from medieval Lund]. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 89: 193‑201 Hoffmann V and Wiethold J (1999) Pasewalks bren‑ nend interessante Geschichte. Archäologische und archäobotanische Untersuchungen in Pasewalk, Lkr. Uecker-Randow, Ueckerstraße 28‑37. Archäologische Berichte aus Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 6: 84‑100 Hofsten N von (1960) Pors och andra humleersättnin‑ gar och ölkryddor i äldre tider [Bog Myrtle (Myrica gale) and other substitutes for hops in former times]. Uppsala Holmboe J (1921) Nytteplanter og ugræs i Osebergfun‑ det [Useful plants and weeds in the Oseberg find]. Osebergfundet Vol 5, Kristiania Hvass L, Bill-Jensen T, Madsen LB, Jensen Rysgaard P and Aagaard K (eds) (2001) Skt. Olai Kirke. Restau‑ ringen af Helsingør Domkirke 2000‑2001 og under‑ søgelserne af de borgerlige begravelser [St Olai church. Restoration of Helsingør Cathedral 2000‑2001 and investigations of the civil graves]. Helsingør Hybel N (2000) Dansk eksport på det nordeuropæiske marked ca. 1200‑1350 [Danish export to the North‑ ern European market c. 1200‑1350] pp 183‑197. In: Ingesman P and Poulsen B (eds) Danmark og Europa i Senmiddelalderen [Denmark and Europe during the late Middle Ages]. Aarhus Høeg HI (1977) En pollenanalytisk undersøkelse på “Mindets tomt”, Gamlebyen [A pollen analytical in‑ vestigation on “Mindets tomt”, Gamlebyen]. In: Schia E (ed) De arkeologiske utgravninger i Gamlebyen, Oslo 1: 225‑232

References

Høeg HI (1979) Pollenanalyse [Pollen analysis]. In: Schia E (ed) De arkeologiske utgravninger i Gamlebyen, Oslo 2: 140-148 Irsigler F (1996) “Ind machden alle lant beirs voll”. Zur Diffusion des Hopfenbierkonsums im westlichen Hanseraum pp 377‑397. In: Wiegelmann G and Mohrmann RE (eds) Nahrung und Tischkultur im Hanseraum. Münster Jaanits L (1988) Eesti sooarheoloogiast [Peatland archae‑ ology in Estonia] pp 217‑221. In: Valk U (ed) Eesti sood [Estonian peatlands]. Tallinn Jaanits L (1991) Nõukogude Eesti arheoloogia Tartuperiood [The Tartu-period in the archaeology of Soviet Estonia] pp 20‑44. In: Jaanits L and Lang V (eds) Muinasaja teadus I, Arheoloogiline kogumik [The science of prehistory, archaeological contributions]. Tallinn Jaanits L (1995) Muinasteadus Tartu Ülikoolis 1920‑1940 [The science of prehistory at Tartu University 1920‑1940] pp 9‑53. In: Lang V (ed) Muinasaja teadus 3. ETA Ajaloo Instituut, Töid arheoloogia alalt 3. Tallinn Jaanits L, Laul S, Lõugas V and Tõnisson E (1982) Arhe‑ oloogia ajaloost Eestis [About the history of archaeol‑ ogy in Estonia] pp 9‑23. In: Eesti esiajalugu [Estonian prehistory]. Tallinn Jacomet S (1988) Pflanzen mediterraner Herkunft in neolithischen Seeufersiedlungen der Schweiz. In: Küster H (ed) Der prähistorische Mensch und seine Umwelt. Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte in Baden-Württemberg 31: 205‑213 Jagodziński M and Kasprzycka M (1982) Zarys prob‑ lematyki badawczej wczesnośredniowiecznej osady rzemieślniczo-handlowej w Janowie Pomorskim (gmina Elbląg) [An outline of the research problems concerning the early-medieval artisan-trade settlement at Janowo Pomorskie (Elbląg parish)]. Pomorania Antiqua 14: 9‑49 Jahnke C (2000) Das Silber des Meeres. Fang und Ver‑ trieb von Ostseehering zwischen Norwegen und Ita­ lien (12.-16. Jahrhundert). Köln, Wien, Weimar Janssen W (1987) Mittelalterliche Gartenkultur. Nahrung und Rekreation pp 225‑243. In: Herrmann B (ed) Mensch und Umwelt im Mittelalter. Stuttgart Jaroń B (1939) Średniowieczne szczątki roślinne z wykopalisk z Gnieźnie [Medieval plant remains from Gniezno] pp 273‑316. In: Kostrzewski J (ed) Gniezno w zaraniu dziejów (od 7 do 12 wieku) w świetle wykopalisk [Gniezno (7th-12th centuries) in the light of archaeological excavations]. Biblioteka Prehistoryczna 4. Poznań

Jarosińska J (1999) Kształtowanie się flory antropogen‑ icznej oraz użytkowanie roślin w średniowiecznym Elblągu [Development of the anthropogenic flora and the use of plants in medieval Elbląg]. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Gdańsk Jarosińska J (2004) Szczątki roślin dziko rosnących w materiałach archeobotanicznych z Elbląga jako źródło wiedzy na temat warunków przyrodniczych i działań gospodarczych w okresie od 13 do 14 wieku [Remains of wild plants in the archaeobotanical material from Elbląg, as a source of data on environmental condi‑ tions and the economy of the town in the 13th and 14th centuries] pp 295‑303. Archaeologia et Historia Urbana. Elbląg Jażdżewski K (1955a) Gdańsk wczesnośredniowieczny w świetle badań z lat 1953 i 1954 [Early medieval Gdańsk in the light of studies in 1953 and 1954]. Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 1: 137‑156 Jażdżewski K (1955b) Charakterystyka wczesnoś­ redniowiecznych warstw kulturowych w wyko‑ pie głównym na stanowisku 1 w Gdańsku [The main features of early medieval cultural layers from the main trench site 1 in Gdańsk]. Studia Wczesnośredniowieczne 3: 164‑211 Jażdżewski K (1958) Gdańsk 10-13 w. na tle Pomorza wczesnośredniowiecznego [Gdańsk in 10th-13th c. against a background of early medieval Pomerania Region] pp 73‑120. In: Labuda G (ed) Pomorze Średniowieczne [Medieval Pomerania]. Warszawa Jedliczka A (1965) Wczesnośredniowieczne szczątki roślinne z wykopalisk na placu Wita Stwosza w Krakowie [Early medieval plants from the excava‑ tions on the Wit Stwosz Place in Cracow]. Materiały Wczesnośredniowieczne 6: 181‑182 Jensen HA (1986) Seeds and other diaspores in soil sam‑ ples from Danish town and monastery excavations, dated 700‑1536 AD. Biologiske Skrifter 26: 1‑107 Jensen HA (1991) Macrofossils recovered from Danish town and monastery excavations, dates AD 700‑1536, pp 307‑313. In Renfrew J (ed) New Light on Early Farming. Edinburgh Johansen P (1925a) (ed) Das älteste Wackenbuch des Revaler St. Johannis-Siechenhauses, 1435‑1507. Pub‑ likationen aus dem Revaler Stadtarchiv 4. Reval Johansen P (1925b) Siedlung und Agrarwesen der Esten im Mittelalter. Verhandlungen der Gelehrten Est‑ nischen Gesellschaft 23. Dorpat Johansen P and von zur Mühlen H (1973) Deutsch und Undeutsch im mittelalterlichen und frühneuzeitlichen Reval. Köln

199

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

Kahk J, Ligi H and Tarvel E (1974) Beiträge zur marx‑ istischen Agrargeschichte Estlands der Feudalzeit. Tallinn Kahk J and Tarvel E (1997) An economic history of the Baltic countries. Acta Universitatis Stockholmensis. Studia Baltica Stockholmiensia 20. Stockholm Kamińska J (1966) Z zagadnień gospodarczo-społecznych Gdańska w 10‑14 wieku [Economic-social problems in Gdańsk during the 10th-16th centuries]. Archeolo‑ gia Polski 11: 174‑212 Karg S (1995) Plant diversity in late medieval cornfields of northern Switzerland. Archaeobotany and Vegeta‑ tion History 4: 41‑50 Karg S (1996) Ernährung und Agrarwirtschaft in der spät‑ mittelalterlichen Stadt Laufen (Schweiz). Paläoethno‑ botanische Funde aus der Holzhäuserzeile am Rathaus‑ platz. Dissertationes Botanicae 262. Stuttgart Karg S (2000) Medieval plant remains from a well near Herstedøster Kirke in Herstedøster, Københavns Amt. NNU Report 27. The National Museum. Copenhagen Karg S (2001a) Blomster til de døde. Urter og blom‑ ster fra 14 renæssance-, barok- og rokokobegravelser i Helsingør Domkirke [Flowers for the dead. Herbs and flowers from 14 renaissance, baroque and ro‑ coco graves from Helsingør Cathedral] pp 133‑142. In: Hvass L, Bill-Jensen T, Madsen LB, Jensen Rys‑ gaard P and Aagaard K (eds) Restaureringen af Hel­ singør Domkirke 2000‑2001 og undersøgelserne af de borgerlige begravelser [Restoration of Helsingør Cathedral 2000‑2001 and investigations of the civil graves]. Helsingør Karg S (2001b) Tværfaglige undersøgelser af middel­ alderlige aflejringer og anlæg ved Susåen i Næstved, Sydsjælland (NÆM 1998: 113, NNU j. nr. A8163) [Interdisciplinary investigations of medieval depos‑ its and features close to the Suså river, Næstved on Southern Sealand]. NNU Report 28. The National Museum. Copenhagen Karg S (2002) Friggas hellige plante – hør i offerkar fra jernalderen [The holy plant of Frigga – flax in a sacri‑ ficial vessel from the Iron Age] NYT (News from the National Museum of Denmark) 100: 10‑13 Karg S (2005) Tørskoet langs Susåen? Tværfaglige un‑ dersøgelser af middelalderlige aflejringer og deres tolk­ ning [Dry-shod along the Suså river? Interdisciplinary investigations of medieval deposits and features in Næstved, Southern Sealand] pp 131‑138. In: Roland T (ed) Bolværker – fra middelalderen og nyere tid [Wharfs – from the Medieval Age and the Early Mod‑ ern Times]. Næstved

200

Karg S and Günther D (2002) Der Einfluss der Hanse auf mittelalterliche Ernährungsgewohnheiten. Preprinted Papers. Medieval Europe Basel 2002, 3rd International Conference of Medieval and Later Archaeology Basel (Switzerland) 10.-15. September 2002: 140‑146 Karg S and Märkle T (2002) Continuity and changes in plant resources during the Neolithic period in western Switzerland. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 11: 169‑176 Karg S and Robinson DE (2002) Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegeta‑ bles, herbs and spices. In: Viklund K and Engelmark R (eds) Nordic Archaeobotany – NAG 2000 in Umeå. Archaeology and Environment 15: 133‑142 Karsten PA (1873) Mycologi Fennica II, Pyrenomycetes. Helsingfors Kaspar F (1996) Die Herdstelle als Indikator von Nahrungsgewohnheiten pp 69‑94. In: Wiegelmann G and Mohrmann RE (eds) Nahrung und Tischkultur im Hanseraum. Münster Kerkkonen V (1938) Suomen kauppatilastoa 1600‑lu‑ vulla [Trade in Finland during the 17th century]. Historiallinen Arkisto 44: 86‑114 Kivikoski E and Gardberg CJ (1971) Turun kaupungin historia I: Kivikaudesta vuoteen 1366 [The history of Turku I. From the Stone Age to the year 1366]. Turku Kjersgaard E (1978) Mad og øl i middelalderen [Food and beer in the Middle Ages]. Copenhagen Klichowska M (1956) Materiał roślinny z Opola z 10‑12 wieku [Plant materials from Opole 10th-12th centu‑ ries]. Materiały Wczesnośredniowieczne 4: 179‑208 Klichowska M (1957) Rośliny uprawne ze stanowiska 4 w Wolinie [Agricultural plants in site 4 at Wolin]. Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 4: 208‑215 Klichowska M (1960) Szczątki roślinne z wykopalisk archeologicznych w województwie szczecińskim [Ar‑ chaeological plant remains from the province Szc‑ zecin]. Przyroda Polski Zachodniej 4: 11‑18 Klichowska M (1961a) Materiały botaniczne ze stanow‑ iska Ostrów Tumski 17 w Poznaniu [Botanical materi‑ als from Ostrów Tumski 17 in Poznań]. Poznań we Wczesnym Średniowieczu 3: 106‑108 Klichowska M (1961b) Wyniki badań materiałów bo‑ tanicznych z prac wykopaliskowych na Ostrowie Tumskim we Wrocławiu w latach 1950‑1955 [The results of the examination of the botanical materi‑ als encountered during excavation work at Ostrów Tumski in Wrocław, in 1950‑1955]. Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 12: 111‑117

References

Klichowska M (1961c) Wczesnośredniowieczne szczątki roślinne odkryte w Wolinie na stanowisku wyko‑ paliskowym 4 w latach 1953‑1955 [Early medieval plant remains from the excavated area 4 in Wolin, 1953‑1955]. Materiały Zachodniopomorskie 7: 457‑461 Klichowska M (1964a) Szczątki roślinne zachowane w podziemiach katedry poznańskiej [Plant remains preserved in the basement of the Poznań cathedral]. Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 16: 418‑423 Klichowska M (1964b) Wyniki badań próbek botanic‑ znych ze stanowiska 5 w Wolinie Pomorskim z 1958 roku [Examination of botanical samples collected from site 5 at Wolin Pomorski in 1958]. Sprawozda‑ nia Archeologiczne 16: 410‑412 Klichowska M (1971) Szczątki roślinne z osady średniowiecznej przy ulicy Szewskiej 6 w Poznaniu [Plant relicts from the medieval settlement in Poznań, Szewska Street 6]. Fontes Archaeologici Posnanienses 22: 168‑171 Klichowska M (1972) Rośliny naczyniowe w znaleziskach kulturowych Polski północno-zachodniej [Vascu‑ lar plants in the cultural finds from NW Poland]. Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, Prace Komisji Biologicznej 35 (2): 1‑73 Klichowska M (1975) Poznań. Z Otchłani Wieków 5: 291‑292 Kluk K (1805) Dykcyonarz roślinny [Dictionary of plants]. Vol 1. Warszawa Kluk K (1808) Dykcyonarz roślinny [Dictionary of plants]. Vol 2. Warszawa Kluk K (1811) Dykcyonarz roślinny [Dictionary of plants]. Vol 3. Warszawa Knörzer KH (1967) Untersuchungen subfossiler pflanz­ licher Großreste im Rheinland. Archaeo-Physika 2. Köln, Graz Knörzer KH, Gerlach R, Meurers-Balke J, Kalis AJ, Tegt‑ meier U, Becker WD and Jürgens A (eds) (1999) PflanzenSpuren. Archäobotanik im Rheinland: Agrar‑ landschaft und Nutzpflanzen im Wandel der Zeiten. Materialien zur Bodendenkmalpflege im Rheinland 10. Bonn Koehler B (1936) Das Revalgeschäft des Lübecker Kaufmanns Laurens Isermann (1532‑1535). Opladen, Rheinland Körber-Grohne U (1988) Nutzpflanzen in Deutschland. Kulturgeschichte und Biologie. Stuttgart Kosina R (1974) Uwagi o zawartości botanicznej wrocławskiego spichrza z 13 wieku [Bemerkungen über den botanischen Gehalt eines Wrocławer Spei­

chers aus dem 13. Jh.]. Śląskie Sprawozdania Archeo‑ logiczne 16: 84‑87 Kosina R (1981) Cultivated plants, weeds, and wild plants from the early medieval granaries on Ostrów Tumski in Wrocław. Zeitschrift für Archäologie 15: 177‑190 Kosina R (1995) Botanical synopsis of medieval Wrocław. In: Kroll H and Pasternak R (eds) Res archaeobo‑ tanicae. International Workgroup for Palaeoethno‑ botany. Proceedings of the 9th Symposium Kiel 1992: 101‑116 Kostet J (1989) Mätäjärven seutu historiantutkimuksen valossa [History of the lake Mätäjärvi district]. Turku Provincial Museum. Report 10: 12‑41 Kristiansen MS (2005) Tårnby – gård og landsby gen‑ nem 1000 år [Tårnby – farm and village over 1000 years]. Højbjerg Kroll H (1980) Mittelalterlich/frühneuzeitliches Steinobst aus Lübeck. Lübecker Schriften zur Archäologie und Kulturgeschichte 3: 167‑163 Kroll H (1994) Ein archäologischer Rapsfund des 16. Jahrhunderts, entdeckt in Heide in Holstein, Nord‑ deutschland. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 173: 17‑21 Kroll H and Willerding U (2004) Die Pflanzenfunde von Starigard/Oldenburg pp 135-184. In: Starigard/ Oldenburg. Hauptburg der Slawen in Wagrien 5. Naturwissenschaftliche Beiträge. Offa-Bücher 82. Neumünster Krzywinski K (1979) Preliminær undersøkelse av plan‑ terester i latrine [Preliminary investigations of plant remains in a latrine]. Arkeo 1: 31‑33 Krzywinski K (1982) Sanking av plantemateriale, spesielt mose og matplanter, til middelalderens bysamfunn, Bryggen i Bergen [Collecting plant remains, espe‑ cially mosses and food plants, for the citizens of the medieval towns]. Tromsø Museums rapportserie. Kul‑ turhistorie 1: 78‑91 Krzywinski K (1991) Botanikk i byarkeologisk sammen‑ heng. Pollenanalyse før og etter de store bygravnin‑ gene: arkeopalynologisk metode og tolkning [Botany in connection with town archaeology]. Norsk byarke‑ ologi inn i 1990‑årene. Nytt fra Utgravningskontoret i Bergen 1: 137‑153 Krzywinski K (1998) Deposit analysis. Fingerprints of former town activities. The case of Vetterlidsalmen‑ ning, Vågsbunnen, Bergen, Norway. Hikuin 25: 35‑44 Krzywinski K, Fjelldal S and Soltvedt EC (1983) Recent palaeoethnobotanical work at the medieval excava‑ tions at Bryggen, Bergen, Norway. In: Proudfoot B

201

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

(ed) Site, environment and economy. BAR Interna‑ tional Series 173: 145‑169 Krzywinski K and Fægri K (1979) Etnobotanisk bi­ drag til funksjonsanalyse. Eksempler fra middel­ alderundersøkelser i Bergen [Ethnobotanical con‑ tribution to the analysis of functions. Examples of investigations from medieval Bergen]. Arkeo 1: 33‑39 Krzywinski K and Kaland PE (1984) Bergen – from farm to town. The Bryggen Papers. Supplementary Series 1: 1‑39 Krzywinski K and Soltvedt EC (1988) A Medieval brew‑ ery (1200‑1450) at Bryggen, Bergen. The Bryggen Papers. Supplementary Series 3: 1‑68 Kučan D (1998) Zur Ernährungsgeschichte des Spätmit‑ telalters und der frühen Neuzeit in Oldenburg anhand der botanischen Untersuchungen der Altstadtgrabun‑ gen. Probleme der Küstenforschung 25: 243‑279 Kukier R (1981) Uprawa gryki i jej znaczenie w kulturze ludowej ziem Pomorza [Cultivation and importance of buckwheat in the culture of the Pomerania region]. Materiały Zachodniopomorskie 28: 161‑193 Kulturhistoriskt lexikon för nordisk medeltid (1981a) [Encyklopedia of the Nordic Middle Ages] Vol 6. Malmö Kulturhistoriskt lexikon för nordisk medeltid (1981b) [Encyklopedia of the Nordic Middle Ages] Vol 10. Malmö Kungur V and Selirand J (eds) (1988) Nõukogude Eesti arheoloogia bibliograafiline nimestik 1940‑1985 [Archaeological bibliography of Soviet Estonia 1940‑1985] Vol 1; Nõukogude Eesti arheoloogia bibliograafiline nimestik 1940‑1982 [Archaeological bibliography of Soviet Estonia 1940‑1982]. ENSV Teaduste Akadeemia Ajaloo Instituut, Tallinn Küster H (1987) Wo der Pfeffer wächst: Ein Lexikon zur Kulturgeschichte der Gewürze. München Kuujo E (1981) Turun kaupungin historia 1366‑1521 [The history of Turku 1366‑1521]. Turku Kvamme M (1982) En vegetasjonshistorisk undersøkelse av kulturlandskapets utvikling på Lurekalven, Lindås hd., Hordaland [Vegetation historical investigation of cultural landscape development at Lurekalven, Lindås hd., Hordaland]. Cand. Real. Thesis, University of Bergen Kvamme M (1988) Lokale pollendiagram og bosetnings­ historie. Undersøkelser av ressursutnyttelse og kul‑ turlandskapsutvikling i Vest-Norge gjennom de siste 3000 år [Local pollen diagrams and settlement history. Investigations of resource exploitation and cultural landscape development in western Norway the last

202

3000 years] pp 75‑113. In: Näsman U and Lund J (eds) Folkevandringstiden i Norden. En krisetid mel‑ lem ældre og ynre jernalder [The migration period in the North. Times of crisis between the older and the younger Iron Age]. Aarhus Kykyri M (1994) Turun linnan esilinnan pihanalaiset rakenteet. In: Drake K (ed) Turun linnan tutkimuk‑ sia [The investigations in the Turku Castle]. Turku Provincial Museum, Reports 16: 81‑88 Laaksonen L and Immonen O (1986) Lappeenrannan linnoitus [The fortress of Lappeenranta]. A report of excavations 1985‑1986. National Board of Antiquities in Finland. Helsinki Laasimer L (1965) Eesti NSV floora ja vegetatsiooni koos‑ seis ja kujunemine [The composition and formation of flora and vegetation of the Estonian S.S.R.] pp 41‑47. In: Eesti NSV taimkate [Vegetation of the Estonian S.S.R.]. Tallinn Lagerstam L (2000) Kurkien Laukko [Laukko manor of the Kurki family] pp 15‑30. In: Uotila K (ed) Vesilah‑ den Laukko. Linna, kartano, koti [The Laukko manor of Vesilahti castle, estate, home]. Kaarina Lang V (2000) Eesti arheoloogia 20. sajandi teisel poolel [Estonian archaeology in the second half of the 20th century]. Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri/Journal of Esto‑ nian Archaeology 4: 72‑77 Lange E (1988) Obstreste aus dem Zisterzienserkloster Seehausen, Kreis Prenzlau. Gleditschia 16: 3‑24 Lange J (1959) Frugt [Fruit] pp 663‑665. Kulturhistor‑ isk leksikon for nordisk middelalder [Lexicon for the cultural history of the Middle Ages in the North]. Vol 4. Oslo Latałowa M (1999) Palaeoecological reconstruction of the environmental conditions and economy in early medieval Wolin against a background of the Holocene history of the landscape. Acta Palaeobotanica 39: 183‑271 Latałowa M and Badura M (1996) Szczątki roślinne [Plant materials] pp 385‑416. In: Rębkowski M (ed) Archeologia średniowiecznego Kołobrzegu Tom I [Archaeology of medieval Kołobrzeg Vol 1]. Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN. Kołobrzeg Latałowa M, Badura M and Jarosińska J (2003a) Archaeo‑ botanical samples from non-specific urban contexts as a tool for reconstructing environmental conditions. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 12: 93‑104 Latałowa M, Badura M and Święta J (2003b) Szczątki roślin ze stanowiska archeologicznego przy zbiegu ulic Piwnej i Kaletniczej na terenie Głównego Mia‑ sta w Gdańsku [Plant remains from an archaeological site at the junction of Piwna and Kaletnicza Streets

References

in Gdańsk Main Town]. Pomorania Antiqua 19: 261‑284

Mätäjärvi]. Turku Provincial Museum. Report 10: 193‑208

Latałowa M, Jarosińska J and Badura M (1998) Elbląg średniowieczny w świetle dotychczasowych materiałów archeobotanicznych [Medieval Elbląg in the light of present archaeobotanical material]. Archeologia Polski 43: 147‑166

Lempiäinen T (1990) Helsingin Vanhankaupungin makrofossiilit [Plant remains from the Helsinki Old Town] pp 1‑33. In: Vuorela I (ed) Helsingin Van‑ hankaupungin siitepöly- ja makrofossiilitutkimukset [Pollen and macrofossil investigations in Helsinki Old Town]. Geological Survey of Finland, Report KA43/90/3. Espoo

Latałowa M, Jarosińska J and Kozłowska M (2001) Szczątki roślin [Plant remains]. In: Gołembnik A (ed) Badania archeobotaniczne terenu przyszłego Centrum Dominikańskiego w Gdańsku. Sezon 2000 [Archaeo‑ logical investigations on the area of the prospective Dominican Centre]. ŚWIATOWIT Supplement Se‑ ries, P: Prehistory and Middle Ages 6: 185‑195 Lechnicki F (1955) Szczątki roślinne z wykopalisk gdańskich w latach 1950‑1952 [Plant remains from the excavations in Gdańsk 1950‑1952]. Studia Wczesnośredniowieczne 3: 252‑259 Lechnicki F, Klichowska M and Gupieniec R (1961) Szczątki roślinne ze stanowiska 1 w Gdańsku (wykop główny) [Plant remains from the site 1 in Gdańsk (main trench)]. Gdańsk Wczesnośredniowieczny 4: 5‑25 Leciejewicz L (1996) Kołobrzeg lokacyjny w perspektywie archeologicznej [Location Kołobrzeg in the archaeo‑ logical perspective] pp 7‑12. In: Rębkowski M (ed) Archeologia średniowiecznego Kołobrzegu. Tom I [Archaeology of medieval Kołobrzeg Vol 1]. Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN. Kołobrzeg Leciejewicz L (2000) Wczesnośredniowieczne początki [Frühmittelalterliche Anfänge] pp 5‑72. In: Leciejewicz L and Rębkowski M (eds) Kołobrzeg – średniowieczne miasto nad Bałtykiem [Kołobrzeg – Eine mittelalter‑ liche Stadt an der Ostsee]. Kołobrzeg Leciejewicz L and Rębkowski M (2000) Kołobrzeg – średniowieczne miasto nad Bałtykiem [Eine mittel­ alterliche Stadt an der Ostsee]. Kołobrzeg Leed B (1999) Danskernes mad i middelalderen – smag selv [Danish food in the Medieval Age period – taste it yourself ]. Horsens Leighly J (1939) The Towns of Medieval Livonia. California Leimus I (2001) Eesti majandusajaloo historiograafiast [About the historiography of Estonian economic his‑ tory]. Ajalooline ajakiri 1/2: 25‑45 Lempiäinen T (1988) Pflanzliche Makroreste von dem Innenhof des Qwenselschen Anwesens in Turku, SW Finnland vom 17.-19. Jh. Annales Botanici Fennici 25: 47‑54 Lempiäinen T (1989) Turun muinaisen Mätäjärven kasvijäänteet [Plant remains from the ancient lake

Lempiäinen T (1991a) Lappeenrannan linnoituksen kasvillisuus 1600‑luvulla [The vegetation of the Lap‑ peenranta fortress in the 17th century ] pp 28‑32. In: Hikipää A (ed) Lappeenrannan Linnoitus. Lappeenranta Lempiäinen T (1991b) Past occurrence of Hyoscyamus niger L. (Solanaceae) in Finland according to the mac‑ rofossil finds. Annales Botanici Fennici 28: 261‑272 Lempiäinen T (1991c) Helsingin Vanhankaupungin makrofossiilitutkimukset [Macrofossil investigations in the Helsinki Old Town] pp 1‑14. In: Vuorela I (ed) Arkeometrisia tutkimuksia Helsingin Vanhassakau‑ pungissa [Archaeometrical investigations in Helsinki Old Town]. Geologian Tutkimuskeskus, Tutkimus‑ raportti P34.4.101. Espoo Lempiäinen T (1992) Pflanzliche Makroreste aus der wikingerzeitlichen – frühmittelalterlichen Siedlung Varikkoniemi in Hämeenlinna, S Finnland. Suomen Museo/Finsk Museum 1992/93: 109‑128 Lempiäinen T (1993) Macrofossil finds of henbane (Hyos­ cyamus niger) in the old settlement layers in southern Finland. Palaeobotany and Palynology 73: 227‑239 Lempiäinen T (1994) Kuusiston linnan kasvijäännetut‑ kimukset [Plant remains from the castle of Kuusisto]. National Board of Antiquities in Finland, Report 8: 80‑99 Lempiäinen T (1995a) Macrofossil plant remains from the Medieval Turku pp 149‑164. In: Kroll H and Pasternak R (eds) Res archaeobotanicae. International Work Group for Palaeoethnobotany. Proceedings of the 9th Symposium Kiel 1992. Kiel Lempiäinen T (1995b) Medieval plant remains from the fortress of Käkisalmi, Karelia (Russia). Fennoscandia Archaeologica 12: 83‑94 Lempiäinen T (1996) Liedon Rähälän keskiaikaisen asuinpaikan viljavarasto – lisää tietoa Aurajokilaak‑ son viljanviljelystä [A medieval cereal store in Lieto Rähälä – more information of the cultivation on the banks of the Aura river]. Kentältä poimittua. National Board of Antiquities, Department of Prehistory, Pub‑ lication 3: 110‑119

203

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

Lempiäinen T (1997) Makrofossiilitutkimuksia Perniön kartanoissa [Macrofossil investigations in the medieval estates of Perniö] pp 55‑60. In: Niukkanen M (ed) Perniö – Kuninkaan ja kartanoiden pitäjä [A village of the kings and estates]. SUKKA- Project, University of Helsinki Lempiäinen T (1999a) Kasvijäännetutkimuksia Lahden torilta [Plant macrofossils from the Lahti market]. Report, Lahti City Museum. Lahti Lempiäinen T (1999b) Hiiltyneitä perunoita ja kadon‑ neita rikkaruohoja – kasvijäänteet kertovat Lahden kylän historiasta [Charred potatoes and ancient weeds of the Lahti village] pp 169‑192. In: Poutiainen H (ed) Nuoren kaupungin pitkä historia [The long his‑ tory of the young town]. Lahti City Museum. Lahti Lempiäinen T (1999c) Tammisaaren keskiaikaisia kas‑ vijäänteitä [Medieval plant remains of Tammisaari]. Report, National Board of Antiquities in Finland. Helsinki Lempiäinen T (2000a) Helsingin Snellmaninkadun (4‑6) makrofossiilitutkimukset 1999 [Macrofossil investi‑ gations in Snellmaninkatu 4‑6, Helsinki]. Report, National Board of Antiquities in Finland, Department of Monuments and Sites. Helsinki Lempiäinen T (2000b) Makrofossiilista kasviaineistoa Laukosta [Macrofossil plant material from Laukko] pp 43‑59. In: Uotila K (ed) Vesilahden Laukko, Linna, kartano, koti [The Laukko Manorin Vesilahti, castle, estate, home]. Kaarina Lempiäinen T (2002) Plant macrofossils from graves and churches. In: Viklund K and Engelmark R (eds) Nordic Archaeobotany – NAG 2000 in Umeå. Archae­ ology and Environment 15: 144‑161 Lempiäinen T and Vuorela I (1992) Helsingin Van‑ hankaupungin vuoden 1992 kaivauksiin liittyvät paleoekologiset tutkimukset [Palaeoecological inves‑ tigations in the Helsinki Old Town in 1992] GTK Raportti P34.4.105, Geological Survey of Finland. Espoo Lepš J and Šmilauer P (2004) Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. Cambridge Lesiński H (1965) Pod przewagą feudalnego państwa za‑ chodniopomorskiego (1534‑1653) [Under a suprem‑ acy of the feudal East-Pomeranian state] pp 54‑76. In: Lesiński H (ed) Dzieje Kołobrzegu (10‑20 wiek) [History of Kołobrzeg (10th-20th centuries)]. Poznań Libri picturati A (16th century) pp 16‑31. Jagiellonian Library. Krakow Lid N (1957) Bær [Berries] p 485. Kulturhistorisk lek‑ sikon for nordisk middelalder [Lexicon for the cul‑

204

tural history of the Middle Ages in the North]. Vol 2. Oslo Lid J and Lid DT (1994) Norsk flora [Norwegian flora]. Oslo Ligi H (1968) Talupoegade koormised Eestis 13. sajandist 19. sajandi alguseni [Taxation of peasants in Estonia from the 13th until the beginning of the 19th century]. Tallinn Ligi H (1978) Maaviljelussüsteemid Eestis 13.-16. sajandil [Systems of land cultivation in Estonia in the 13th-16th centuries] pp 35‑45. In: Jaagosild IA (ed) Tootmis-teadusliku konverentsi “Taimekasva‑ tussaaduste kvaliteedi tõstmine ja teraviljakasvatuse ajaloo küsimusi” ettekannete materjale [Proceedings of the symposium “The improvement of quality of plant production and the questions about the history of cereal cultivation”]. Tartu Ligi H (1992) Põllumajanduslik tootmine [Agricultural production] pp 148‑163. In: Kahk J and Tarvel E (eds) Eesti talurahva ajalugu [The history of Estonian peasantry]. Vol 1. Tallinn Lindroos T (1999) Palaeobotanical study of Jokikatu in medieval Porvoo. Thesis, University of Turku Lönnrot E (1860) Flora Fennica, Suomen Kasvisto [The flora of Finland]. Helsinki Lõugas V (1988) Loodusteaduslike meetodite kasutamis‑ est Eesti arheoloogias [About the exploitation of natural-scientific methods in Estonian archaeology] pp 9‑25. In: Rõuk AM and Selirand J (eds) Loodu‑ steaduslikke meetodeid Eesti arheoloogias: artiklite kogumik [Natural-scientific methods in Estonian archaeology: collected articles]. Tallinn Lynch A and Paap N (1982) Untersuchungen an bota‑ nischen Funden aus der Lübecker Innenstadt. (Ein Vorbericht). Lübecker Schriften zur Archäologie und Kulturgeschichte 6: 339‑360 Lynch A and Paap N (1986) Botanische Untersuchungen zur Grabung an der Untertrave 97 in Lübeck. Ein Beitrag zu den naturräumlichen Voraussetzungen mit‑ telalterlicher Siedlungsgeschichte. Lübecker Schriften zur Archäologie und Kulturgeschichte 12: 15‑25 Macioch D (2003) Ogrody i sady Gdańska w okresie od 15 do 18 wieku w świetle danych archeobotanicznych i historycznych [Gardens and orchards in Gdańsk from the 15th-18th centuries in the light of archaeo‑ botanical and historical data]. M.Sc.Thesis, University of Gdańsk Mądalski J (1952) Szczątki roślinne z wykopalisk w Gdańsku [Plant remains from the excavations in Gdańsk]. Studia Wczesnośredniowieczne 1: 97‑99

References

Madsen PK and Robinson DE (1999) Sygdom og sund‑ hed [Sickness and health] pp 208‑219. In: Ingesman P, Kjær U, Madsen PK and Vellev J (eds.) Middelal‑ derens Danmark. Kultur og samfund fra trosskifte til reformation [The Medieval Age in Denmark. Culture and society from the change of religion until the Age of the Reformation]. Copenhagen Magnus Olaus (1555) Pohjoisten kansojen historia [Discription of the Northern peoples] Otava 1977. Helsinki Małecki JM (1968) Związki handlowe miast polskich z Gdańskiem w pierwszej połowie 17 wieku [Trade connections between Polish towns and Gdańsk during the 17th century]. Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk. Wrocław, Warszawa, Kraków Mänd A (1999) Festive food in medieval Riga and Reval. Medium Aevum Quotidianum 41: 45‑46 Mänd A (2000) The urban festival in late medieval Livo‑ nia: norm, practice, perception, Ph.D. Thesis. Central European University, Department of Medieval Stud‑ ies, Budapest Mänd A (2005) Urban Carnival: Festive culture in the hanseatic cities of the eastern Baltic, 1350-1550. Medieval texts and cultures of Northern Europe 8. Turnhout Marciniak R (1965) Miasto biskupie (1255‑1534) [The bishop’s town (1255‑1534)] pp 26‑53. In: Lesiński H (ed) Dzieje Kołobrzegu (10‑20 wiek) [History of Kołobrzeg (10th-20th centuries)]. Poznań Markowski R and Buliński M (2004) Ginące i zagrożone rośliny naczyniowe Pomorza Gdańskiego [Endan‑ gered and threatened vascular plants of Gdańskie Pomerania]. Acta Botanica Cassubica Monographiae 1. Gdańsk Masonen J (1985) Naantalin luostarin yrttikirja [The herbal of the Naantali Convent]. Thesis, University of Tampere Maurizio A (1926) Pożywienie roślinne i rolnictwo w rozwoju dziejowym [Food plants and agriculture in history]. Warszawa Metsallik R (1995) Tartu arheoloogilisest uurimisest [About the archaeological investigation of Tartu] pp 15‑35. In: Valk H (ed) Tartu arheoloogiast ja vanemast ehitusloost [About archaeology and the building his‑ tory of Tartu]. Tartu Ülikooli arheoloogia kabineti toimetised 8. Tartu Mikkelsen PH (2003) Jernalderens afgrøder [Harvest‑ ing products from the Iron Age] pp 145‑169. In: Mikkelsen PH and Nørbach LC (eds.) Drengsted. Be‑ byggelse, jernproduktion og agerbrug i yngre romersk

og ældre germansk jernalder [Drengsted. Settlement, iron production and farming during the early Roman and late Germanic Iron Age]. Højberg Mirek Z, Piękoś–Mirkowa H, Zając A, Zając M (2002) Flowering plants and Pteridophytes of Poland, a checklist. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Acad‑ emy of Sciences. Kraków Moe D and Salvesen PH (2005) Levende kulturminner i Gamlehagen på Store Milde: Buksbom [Living cul‑ tural heritage monuments in the old garden at Store Milde: Box]. Årringen 9: 24‑48 Moldenhawer K (1937) Szczątki roślinne z 10 wieku z wykopalisk na Ostrowiu Tumskim w Poznaniu [Plant remains dated to the 10th century from Ostrów Tum‑ ski in Poznań]. Przegląd Archeologiczny 6: 222‑231 Moldenhawer K (1952) Kotewka czyli orzech wodny (Trapa muzzanensis Jäggi) z wykopalisk z średniowiecza w Gdańsku [Trapa muzzanensis Jäggi aus der mittel­ alterlichen Ausgrabung von Danzig]. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 21: 733‑734 Moldenhawer K (1961) Analiza botaniczna roślinnego materiału wykopaliskowego z 1958 roku z Nakła nad Notecią [Botanical analysis of the excavated plant ma‑ terial from Nakło on the Noteć in 1958]. Sprawozda‑ nia Archeologiczne 12: 107‑110 Moltsen AS (1999a) Lag- og makrofossilanalyser fra Admiralgade i København [Deposit and macrofossil analyses from Admiralgade in Copenhagen]. NNU Report 58. The National Museum. Copenhagen Moltsen AS (1999b) Rester af gammelt staldmiljø fra Ninna Bangs Plads/Pilestræde i København [Re‑ mains of old stable milieu from Ninna Bangs Place/ Pilestræde in Copenhagen]. NNU Report 11. The National Museum. Copenhagen Moltsen AS (1999c) Arkæobotanisk undersøgelse af prøver fra vådområde i Sjæleboderne, København [Archaeobotanical investigations of samples from a wetland at Sjæleboderne, Copenhagen]. NNU Report 15. The National Museum. Copenhagen Moltsen AS (1999d) Makrofossilanalyse af jordprøver fra Mårtenstorget i Lund [Macrofossil analyses of soil samples from Mårtenstorget in Lund]. NNU Report 14. The National Museum. Copenhagen Moltsen AS (2000a) Admiralgade, København [Admi‑ ralgade, Copenhagen] pp 357‑358. Arkæologiske udgravninger i Danmark 1999 [Archaeological exca‑ vations in Denmark 1999]. Det Arkæologiske Nævn. Copenhagen Moltsen AS (2000b) Planterester fra to kister fra Prinsesse‑ gade på Christianshavn [Plant remains from two cof‑

205

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

fins found in Princessegade at Christianshavn]. NNU Report 8. The National Museum. Copenhagen

Kolloquium zur Stadtarchäologie im Hanseraum Vol 1. Stand, Aufgaben und Perspektiven. Lübeck

Moltsen AS and Henriksen PS (1999) Kongens Ny‑ torv, København [Kongens Nytorv, Copenhagen] pp 401‑403. Arkæologiske udgravninger i Danmark 1998 [Archaeological excavations in Denmark 1998]. Det Arkæologiske Nævn. Copenhagen

Nawrolska G (1999) Archaeological evidence for trade in Elbląg from the 13th to the 17th centuries pp 373‑385. In: Gläser M (ed) Lübecker Kolloquium zur Stadtarchäologie im Hanseraum Vol 2. Der Han‑ del. Lübeck

Montanari M (1996) The culture of food. Oxford

Niitemaa V (1949) Die undeutsche Frage in der Poli‑ tik der livländischen Städte im Mittelalter. Suoma‑ laisen Tiedeakatemian Toimituksia. Series B, Vol 64. Helsinki

Moora H (ed) (1939) Muistse Eesti linnused, 1936.1938. a. uurimiste tulemused [Estonian prehistoric hillforts, the results of archaeological investigations]. Tartu Moora H and Ligi H (1970) Wirtschaft und Gesell­ schaftsordnung der Völker des Baltikums zu Anfang des 13. Jahrhunderts. Tallinn Mossberg B, Stenberg L and Ericsson S (1992) Den nor‑ diske floran [The Nordic flora]. Turnhout Müller U (2002) Innovation und Professionalisierung – Handwerkliche Tätigkeiten in den mittelalterlichen Städten der südlichen Ostseeküste. Preprinted Pa‑ pers. Medieval Europe Basel 2002, 3rd International Conference of Medieval and Later Archaeology Basel (Switzerland) 10.-15. September 2002: 318‑323 Müller-Wille M (2002) Zwischen Kieler Förde und Wis‑ marbucht. Archäologie der Obodriten vom späten 7. bis zur Mitte des 12. Jahrhunderts. Berichte der Römisch Germanischen Kommission 83: 243‑264 Mulsow R and Wiethold J (2004) “… so zu des Men‑ schen Nahrung und Lebens Unterhaltung eine höchst­ nöthige Speise ist” – Verkohlte Vorräte von Getreide und Leinsamen vom Alten Markt 18 in der Hanse­ stadt Rostock. Archäologische Berichte aus Mecklen‑ burg-Vorpommern 11: 175‑193 Muszyński J (1924) Warzywa, owoce i przyprawy ko‑ rzenne w Polsce w wieku 14 [Vegetables, fruits and spices in Poland in the 14th century]. Warszawa Myrdal J (1985) Medeltidens åkerbruk. Agrarteknik i Sverige ca. 1000 till 1520 [Medieval farming. Agrarian techniques in Sweden c. 1000‑1520]. Stockholm Myrdal J (1999) Jordbruket under feodalism 1000‑1700 [Agriculture during the feudalism 1000‑1700]. Stockholm Nasz A (1948) Osada staropolska w Opolu w świetle do‑ tychczasowych prac wykopaliskowych [The old Polish settlement in Opole in the light of present excava‑ tions]. Biblioteka Archeologiczna 1: 18‑20 Nawrolska G (1997) Stand, Aufgaben und Perspektiven der Archäologie und Perspektiven der Archäologie in Elbing (Elbląg) pp 91‑303. In: Gläser M (ed) Lübecker

206

Niitemaa V (1952) Der Binnenhandel in der Politik der livländischen Städte im Mittelalter. Suomalaisen Tie‑ deakatemian Toimituksia. Series B, Vol 76. Helsinki Nikula O and Nikula S (1987) Turun kaupungin his‑ toria 1521‑1600 [The history of Turku 1521‑1600]. Turku Niukkanen M (2000) Helsinki, Snellmaninkatu 4‑6. Kaupunkiarkeologinen kaivaus 1999‑2000 [Archae‑ logical excavation in Snellmaninkatu 4‑6, Helsinki in 1999 – 2000]. Report, National Board of Antiquities in Finland. Helsinki Norrlin J (1983) Undersökning av fossila frön och frukter från Kv Kroken Uppsala [Examination of fossil fruits and seeds from the Kroken-block]. Report No. 94, Department of Quaternary Geology, University of Uppsala Nunez M and Lempiäinen T (1998) A late Iron Age farming complex from Kastelholms kungsgård, Sund, Ålans Islands. PACT 36: 125‑142 Nurmenniemi E (1999) Turun Vanhan Suurtorin kasvil‑ lisuus [Plant remains from the medieval old market place of Turku]. Thesis, University of Turku Nurmenniemi E and Lempiäinen T (unpubl.) Åbo Akademin arkeologisten kaivausten kasvijäännetut‑ kimus [Macrofossil investigations in the quarter of Åbo Akademi, Turku]. Centre for Biodiversity, Uni‑ versity of Turku Odgaard BV (1994) The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland, Denmark. Opera Botanica 123. Copenhagen Ogier K (1950) Dziennik podróży do Polski 1635‑1636. Część I [Diary from a journey to Poland 1653‑1636. Part I]. Gdańsk Olesen A (1994) En skøn lystig ny Urtegaardt prydet met mange atskillige urter som tiene Menniskens Legems sundheds opholdelse disligest huorledis Electuaria, Syruper, Conserua, oc Olier skulle ret konstelige giøris og beredis aff denne Urtegaards Urter, deris Røder oc Blomster oc andre saadanne subtilige nyttelige ting aldrig tilforn seet paa vort danske Tungemaal / til hobe

References

samlet oc fordansket aff Henrick Smid udi Malmø 1546 [A beautiful merry new garden decorated with many different herbs which serve to keep the human body in good health and moreover how excellent vict‑ uals, syrups, preserves and oils could be prepared from the plants in this garden, their roots and flowers as well as other such useful things never seen before in our Danish language / collected and made into Dan‑ ish by Henrick Smid in Malmö 1564]. Århus Onnela J (2000) Helsingin Vanhankaupungin Kellomäen makrofossiilitutkimukset [Macrofossil investigations of Kellomäki, Helsinki Old Town]. Report, Centre for Biodiversity, University of Turku Onnela J (2003) Crop plants in Häme Castle in the 16th and 17th century. Archaeologia Medii Aevi Finlandiae 8: 151‑164 Opravil E (1993) Z historie pohanky [The history of buckwheat]. Živa 41(79): 61‑62 Osvald H (1944) Spånads- och oljeväxter [Textile and oil plants]. Stockholm Øye I (1998) Middelalderbyens agrare trekk [The medi‑ eval town’s trait of agriculture]. Bergen Øye I (ed) (2002) Vestlandsgården – fire arkeologiske undersøkelser. Havrå – Grinde – Lee – Ormelid [The west Norwegian farm – four archaeological investiga‑ tions. Havrå – Grinde – Lee – Ormelid]. Arkeologiske avhandlinger og rapporter fra Universitetet i Bergen 8 Paap N (1982) Haus Engelsgrube 56. Botanische Großreste. In: Meyer D and Neugebauer W (eds) Archäologisch-baugeschichtliche Beobachtungen und Teiluntersuchungen im Haus Engelsgrube 56 und seinen Nachbarhäusern in Lübeck. Lübecker Schriften zur Archäologie und Kulturgeschichte 6: 163‑183 Palmen A and Alanko P (1993) Viljelykasvien nimistö [The names of cultivated plants]. Julkaisuja 271. Helsinki Pals JP (1988) Akkerbow in het Middeleeuwse Dom‑ melen. Phyto-Archeologische Studien. Ph.D. Thesis, The Free University of Amsterdam (VU) Paner H (1993) Wyspa Spichrzów w Gdańsku [Granary Island, Gdańsk]. Pomorania Antiqua 15: 155‑188 Paner H (1997) The Archaeology of Danzig (Gdańsk) pp 277‑289. In: Gläser M (ed) Lübecker Kolloquium zur Stadtarchäologie im Hanseraum Vol 1. Stand, Aufgaben und Perspektiven. Lübeck Paner H (1998) Problematyka badań nad średniowiecznym Gdańskiem w świetle prac archeologicznych prowad‑ zonych w latach 1987‑1997 [Early medieval Gdańsk in the light of archaeological studies in 1987‑1997] pp 184‑204. In: Paner H (ed) Gdańsk średniowieczny w

świetle najnowszych badań archeologicznych i histo‑ rycznych [Medieval Gdańsk in the light of the latest archaeological and historical studies]. Gdańsk Paner H (1999) The harbour topography of Gdańsk. In: Bill J and Clausen BL (eds) Maritime topography and the medieval towns. Paper from the 5th Inter‑ national Conference on Waterfront Archaeology in Copenhagen, 14‑15 May 1998. Publications from the National Museum PNM Studies in Archaeology and History 4: 45‑54 Pärn A and Tamm J (1999) Estonia pp 73‑79. In: Re‑ port on the situation of urban archaeology in Europe. Strasbourg Pasternak R (1991) Hafer aus dem mittelalterlichen Schles­wig. Offa 48: 363‑380 Pehkonen M, Tuomi ML and Pakarinen R (1986) Klu‑ uvi – sadan vuoden työmaa [Kluuvi – the building site of hundred years]. Narinkka 1986‑1987: 2‑36 Piękoś-Mirkowa H, Bzowska B and Kuciel H (2004) Gatunki obce w Polsce. Baza danych [Alien species in Poland. Database]. Instytut Ochrony Przyrody PAN. http://www.iop.krakow.pl/ias/default.asp Pietsch U (1985) Die Speisen der Lübecker Küche. Hefte zur Kunst und Kulturgeschichte der Hansestadt Lübeck 7: 107‑146 Pihlman A (1994) Turun linnan esilinnan pihan kult‑ tuurikerrosten kuvastamat vaiheet ja niiden ajoitus keramiikan perusteella [Different phases represented by the dwelling layers in the courtyard of the Turku Castle and their age according to ceramics]. In: Drake K (ed) Turun linnan tutkimuksia [Investigations of the Turku Castle]. Turku Provincial Museum, Report 16: 71‑80 Pihlman A, Ikäheimo M and Tuovinen T (1985) Archae‑ ology of the lake Mätäjärvi. ISKOS 5: 233‑235 Pińska K (2003) Szczątki roślin leczniczych w materiałach archeobotanicznych z Centrum Dominikańskiego w Gdańsku [Medicinal plant remains in the archaeobo‑ tanical material from the Dominican Centre]. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Gdańsk Põltsam I (1996) Essen und Trinken in den livländischen Städten im Spätmittelalter pp 118‑127. In: Kivimäe J and Kreem J (eds) Quotidianum Estonicum, Medium Aevum Quotidianum. Special Vol 5. Krems Põltsam I (1997) Reformatsioonist Uus- ja Vana-Pärnus [About the Reformation in New- and Old-Pärnu] pp 63‑73. In: Vunk A (ed) 100 aastat Pärnu Muinasu‑ urimise Seltsi: artiklite kogumik [100 years of the Pärnu Society of Antiquities: collection of articles]. Pärnumaa ajalugu [The history of Pärnu county]. Vol 1. Pärnu

207

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

Põltsam I (1999) Söömine ja joomise keskaegses Tallin‑ nas [Eating and drinking in medieval Tallinn]. Vana Tallinn 9 (13): 10‑124 Põltsam I (2002) Söömine-joomine keskaegses Tallinnas [Eating-drinking in medieval Tallinn]. Tallinn Poulsen B (1997) Agricultural technology in medieval Denmark pp 115‑145. In: Astill A and Langdon J (eds) Medieval farming and technology. The impact of agricultural change in Northwest Europe. Leiden, New York, Köln Poulsen B (2000) Krydderier og klæde. Statusforbrug i senmiddelalderens Danmark [Spices and cloth. Status consumption in late medieval Denmark] pp 64‑94. In: Ingesman P and Poulsen B (eds) Danmark og Europa i Senmiddelalderen [Denmark and Europe during the late medieval period]. Aarhus

pp 13‑24. In: Rębkowski M (ed) Archeologia średniowiecznego Kołobrzegu Tom I [Die Archäolo‑ gie des spätmittel­alterlichen Kolbergs Vol 1]. Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN. Kołobrzeg Rębkowski M (1997) Change or continuity. The origins of the late medieval town of Kołobrzeg in Pomerania pp 19‑27. In: de Boe G and Verhaeghe F (eds) Ur‑ banism in medieval Europe. Papers of the “Medieval Europe Brugge 1997” Conference Vol 1. Zellik Rębkowski M (2000) Miasto hanzeatyckie [Eine Hansa Stadt] pp 73‑137. In: Leciejewicz L and Rębkowski M (eds) Kołobrzeg – średniowieczne miasto nad Bałtykiem [Kołobrzeg – Eine mittelalterliche Stadt an der Ostsee]. Kołobrzeg Rejewski M (1992) Rośliny przyprawowe i używki roślinne [Spices and plant condiments]. Warszawa

Påhlsson I (1983) Växtlämningar i medeltida avlagringar från Kv Svalan, Uppsala pp 113‑141. In: Mogren M (ed) Svalan ett medeltida Uppsalakvarter [Svalan, a medieval Uppsala block]. The Central Board of Na‑ tional Antiquities, Report UV 1. Stockholm

Robinson DE (1991) Analyse af forkullet korn og frø fra en 1600‑tals brandtomt ved Hotel du Nord, Saks­ købing [Analyses of charred seeds and fruits from a burnt patch at Hotel du Nord, Sakskøbing]. NNU Report 10. The National Museum. Copenhagen

Påhlsson I (1991a) Makrofossilanalys av gödselprover [Macrofossilanalysis of samples from manure] pp 105‑114. In: Wallin L (ed) Kvarteret Kråkvinkeln, medeltida stadsgrävningar [Excavations of the medie‑ val Kråkvinkeln block, Trelleborg]. The Central Board of National Antiquities, Report UV 2. Stockholm

Robinson DE (2000) Archaeobotanical investigations at Danish urban sites: Planning and priorities. Hikuin 25: 45‑54

Påhlsson I (1991b) Makrofossilanalys [Macrofossilanaly‑ sis] pp 199‑207. In: Carlsson R et al (ed) Bryggaren ett kvarter i centrum [Bryggaren – a block in the city center]. The Central Board of National Antiquities, Report UV 1. Uppsala Raike E (1996) Lieto Rähälä Ryökäs [Archaelogical exca‑ vation in Rähälä Ryökäs, Lieto]. Kentältä poimittua 3: 99‑109 Ranta R (1978) Lappeenrannan kaupungin historia 1743‑1811 [The history of Lappeenranta 1743‑1811]. Lappeenranta Rasinš A (1958) Materialy k istorii kulturnyh i sornyh rastenii na territorii Latv. SSR do XIII v. n. e [About the history of cultivated plants and weeds in the ter‑ ritory of the Latvian S.S.R. until the 13th century] pp 125‑144. In: Rastitelnost Latv. SSR [The vegetation of the Latvian S.S.R.]. Vol 2. Riga Rasinš A and Taurina M (1983) Übersicht über den Artenbestand der Kulturpflanzen und Unkräuter aus archäologischen Ausgrabungen in der lettischen SSR. Arheologia un etnogrāfija 14: 175‑176 Rębkowski M (1996) Wprowadzenie do archeologii średniowiecznego Kołobrzegu [Einführung in die Archäologie des spätmittelalterlichen Kolbergs]

208

Robinson DE (2000) Lokumskasser og affaldslag – hvad siger arkæobotanikken om middelalderens Roskilde? [Latrines and refuse layers – what can archaeobotany tell us about medieval Roskilde?] pp 111‑120. In: Christensen T and Andersen M (eds) Civitas Ros‑ cald – fra byens begyndelse [Civitas Roscald – from the outset of the town]. Roskilde Robinson DE and Aaby B (1994) Botanical analyses from the Gedesby Ship – a medieval shipwreck from Falster, Denmark. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 3: 167‑182 Robinson DE and Harild JA (1996a) Arkæobotaniske analyser af jordprøver fra Algade og Sct Pedersstræde, Roskilde [Archaeobotanical analyses of soil samples from Algade and Sct Pedersstræde, Roskilde]. NNU Report 8. The National Museum. Copenhagen Robinson DE and Harild JA (1996b) Arkæobotaniske analyser af jordprøver fra Provstevænget, Roskilde [Ar‑ chaeobotanical analyses of soil samples from Provste‑ vænget, Roskilde]. NNU Report 9. The National Mu‑ seum. Copenhagen Robinson DE and Harild JA (1996c) Arkæobotaniske analyser af jordprøver fra Lotzes Have, Odense LH 95 – NNU j. nr. A7729 [Archaeobotanical analyses of soil samples from Lotzes Have, Odense LH 95 – NNU j. nr. A7729]. NNU Report 16. The National Museum. Copenhagen

References

Robinson DE and Harild JA (1996d) Arkæobotanisk analyse af prøver af fylden fra en formodet kloak v. Valdemar Slot, Taasinge [Archaeobotanical analyses of samples from the fill of a supposed drain at Valde‑ mar Castle, Taasinge]. NNU Report 11. The National Museum. Copenhagen Robinson DE and Harild JA (1997) Arkæobotaniske analyser af jordprøver fra Kompagnistræde, Næstved [Archaeobotanical analyses of soil samples from Kom‑ pagnistræde, Næstved]. NNU Report 6. The National Museum. Copenhagen Robinson DE and Harild JA (2002) Plantemakrofos‑ silanalyse af materiale fra middelalderlige lag (c. 1200‑1600) fra Møllegade 8‑10 Aalborg [Plantmacro‑ fossil analyses of material from a medieval deposit (c. 1200‑1600) from Møllegade 8‑10 in Aalborg]. NNU Report 3. The National Museum. Copenhagen Robinson DE and Harild JA (2005) Agrarøkonomi og omgivende landskab [Agrarian economy and the surrounding landscape] pp 423‑445. In: Kris‑ tiansen MS (ed) Tårnby – gård og landsby gennem 1000 år [Tårnby – farm and village over 1000 years]. Højbjerg Robinson DE, Harild JA and Boldsen I (submitted) Dan‑ ish medieval monastery gardens – the archaeobotani‑ cal evidence from Blackfriars Monastery, Odense and Øm Abbey near Ry. Journal of Danish Archaeology Robinson DE, Harild JA and Nansen P (2002) Plante‑ makrofossil- og parasitanalyse af materiale fra et lo‑ kum og en formodet skelgrøft fra 1100‑tallet samt fra et lag med smedeaffald fra 1200‑tallet ved Sko­ magergade 19, Roskilde [Plantmacrofossil- and para‑ site analyses of material from a toilet and a supposed boundary ditch from the 12th century and a deposit with refuse of a smith’s work from the 13th century in Skomagergade, Roskilde]. NNU Report 1. The National Museum. Copenhagen Robinson DE, Boldsen I, Nicholsen R, Schiøtte T and Ejbye-Jakobsen D (1991) Naturvidenskabelige ana‑ lyser af prøver fra udgravningen ved Mikkel Bryggers Gade 11, København (KBM 250) [Scientific analyses of samples from excavations at Mikkel Bryggers Gade 11, Copenhagen (KBM 250)]. NNU Report 16. The National Museum. Copenhagen Roesdahl E (ed) 1999 Dagligliv i Danmarks middelal‑ der – en arkæologisk kulturhistorie [Everyday life in medieval Denmark – archaeological cultural history]. Århus Rösch M, Jacomet S and Karg S (1992) The history of cereals in the region of the former Dutchy of Swabia (Herzogtum Schwaben) from the Roman to the Postmedieval Period: results of archaeobotanical research. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 1: 193‑231

Rosenblum (1855) 900 najlepszych środków domowych przeciw rozlicznym chorobom i cierpieniom człowieka z przyłączeniem niektórych ważniejszych przypisów lekarskich (doświadczonych od kaszlu, kataru…) tudzież skład apteczki domowej przez Hufelanda na wzór dzieła niemieckiego zebrane, ułożone i dwoma traktatami o cholerze i cudownych skutkach zimnej wody pomnożone [The best 900 remedies against human illness with medical information, content of Hufeland’s medicine-chest and two tracts about chol‑ era and cold water]. Warszawa Rösener W (1987) Bauern im Mittelalter. München Rostrup O (1906) Frø resp. frugter og andre plantelev‑ ninger [Seeds and fruits and other plant parts] pp 96‑146. In: Rosenkjær HN (ed) Fra det underjordiske København. Copenhagen Rõuk AM (1992) Interdisciplinary Research on Environ‑ mental History and Archaeology. In: Estonia: Nature, Man and Cultural Heritage. PACT 37: 51‑61 Saksa A, Kankainen T, Saarnisto M, Taavitsainen JP (1990) Käkisalmen linna 1200‑luvulta [The fortress of Käkisalmi from the 11th century]. Geologi 3: 65‑68 Samsonowicz (1956) Handel zagraniczny Gdańska w drugiej połowie 15 wieku (rejonizacja handlu na pod‑ stawie ksiąg cła palowego) [Foreign trade in Gdańsk during the 15th century based on customs registers]. Przegląd Historyczny 47: 283‑352 Samsonowicz H (1960) Badania nad kapitłem mieszczańskim Gdańska w 2. połowie 15 wieku [Stud‑ ies on the townspeople’s capital goods in Gdańsk in the second half of 15th century]. Warszawa Samsonowicz H (1982) Dynamiczny ośrodek handlowy [Dynamically expanding trade centre] pp 93‑175. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska Tom II, 1454‑1655 [History of Gdańsk Vol 2, 1454‑1655]. Gdańsk Sandvik PU (1992) Utgravningen i Erkebispegården delfelt 1A og 1B. Botaniske analysar [The excavation in Erkebispegården section 1A and 1B. Botanical analysis]. Arkeologiske undersøkelser i Trondheim 8 Sandvik PU (1994) Erkebispegården, The Archbishop’s Place, Trondheim, Norway, through late medieval and postmedieval time. Botanical Journal of Scotland 46: 527‑532 Sandvik PU (2000a) Utgravningene i Erkebispegården i Trondheim. Aktivitet og plantebruk belyst ved bota‑ niske analysar [The excavations in the Archbishop’s palace in Trondheim. Activity and utilization of plants documented through botanical analysis]. NIKU tema‑ heft 13 Sandvik PU (2000b) The vegetarian part of a late me‑ dieval diet. An example from Erkebispegården – the

209

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

Archbishops Palace – in Trondheim, Norway. In: Selsing L (ed) Norwegian Quaternary Botany 2000. AmS-Skrifter 16: 85‑92 Sandvik PU (2000c) Analysar av plantemakrofossilar i jordprøver frå Nedre Langgate 40, Tønsberg com‑ mune, Vestfold [Analysis of plant macroremains in soil samples from Nedre Langgate 40, Tønsberg, Vest‑ fold]. AmS Oppdragsrapport 5. Stavanger Sandvik PU (2006) Frå Nidarosen til Nidarneset: Ein integrert naturvitskapleg – arkeologisk – historisk rekonstruksjon av framveksten av Trondheim [From Nidarosen to Nidarneset: An integrated scientifi‑ cal – archaeological – historical reconstruction of the emergence of Trondheim]. Doktoravhandlinger ved NTNU 65 Schia E (1988) Introduction. In: Schia E (ed) De arkeolo‑ giske utgravninger i Gamlebyen [The archaeological excavations in the Old Town]. Oslo 5: 7-14 Schubert C (1932) Botanisch-zoologische Ergebnisse aus dem frühmittelalterlichen Opolen. Der Oberschlesier 1932: 11‑15 Schübeler FC (1888) Norges væxtrige. Et bidrag til NordEuropas natur- og culturhistorie [Norway’s plants. A contribution to the history of nature and culture in Northern Europe]. Vol 2. Christiania Schulz HP and Schulz E (1992) Hämeenlinna Varik‑ koniemi – eine späteisenzeitliche-frühmittelalterliche Kernsiedlung in Häme. Die Ausgrabungen 1986‑1990. Suomen Museo/Finsk Museum 1992/93: 41‑86 Schwarz Z and Żmijewska E (1995) Ogrody Gdańska i okolic [Gardens in Gdańsk and surroundings]. Gdańsk Scully T (1995) The art of cookery in the Middle Ages. Rochester Seppä-Heikka M (1981) Paleoetnobotaanisia makrofos‑ siileita Aurajoen laaksosta [Palaeoethnobotanical mac‑ rofossils from the valley ot the River Aura]. Thesis, University of Oulu Seppä-Heikka M (1985) Grains and seeds from younger Roman Iron Age excavations in Spurila. ISKOS 5: 460‑461 Sillasoo Ü (1989) Taimsed leiud Tartu vanalinna arhe‑ oloogilistes proovides, diplomitöö [Plant remains from archaeological samples from the Old town of Tartu, graduation work]. Tartu Riiklik Ülikool, Botaanika ja ökoloogia kateeder. Tartu Sillasoo Ü (1995) Tartu 14.-15. sajandi jäätmekastide taimeleidudest [Plant remains in latrine samples of Tartu in the 14th and 15th centuries]. In: Valk H (ed) Tartu arheoloogiast ja vanemast ehitusloost [Zur Archäologie und älteren Baugeschichte Tartus].

210

Tartu Ülikooli Arheoloogia Kabineti Toimetised 8: 115‑28 Sillasoo Ü (1996) Daily food and meal traditions in late medieval Tartu, Estonia (14th and 15th centuries). M.A. Thesis in Medieval Studies. Central European University of Budapest Sillasoo Ü (1997) Eesti keskaegsete linnade ja nende lähiümbruse arheobotaanilisest uurimisest 1989‑1996 [About the archaeobotanical investigation of Estonian medieval towns and their surroundings in 1989‑1996]. In: Valk H (ed) Arheoloogilisi uurimusi/Archaeologi‑ cal investigations, Tartu Ülikooli arheoloogia kabineti toimetised 9: 109‑119 Sillasoo Ü (2001) Ecology and food consumption of late medieval Tartu, Estonia (14th-15th centuries). Medium Aevum Quotidianum 44: 6‑40 Sillasoo Ü (2002) Gardens and garden products in me‑ dieval Tartu. In: Viklund K and Engelmark R (eds) Nordic Archaeobotany – NAG 2000 in Umeå. Ar‑ chaeology and Environment 15: 181‑192 Sillasoo Ü (2005) Mis saab arheobotaanikast Eestis? [What will be with archaeobotany in Estonia?]. Eesti Arheoloogiaajakiri/Estonian Journal of Archaeology 9: 73‑81 Sivertssen S (1989) Vegetasjonshistoriske undersøkelser Storgt. 18/Conradisgt. 5‑7, Tønsberg [Investigations in vegetation history at Storgt. 18/Conradisgt. 5‑7, Tønsberg] Bilag 5. In: Nordman AM (ed) De arkeolo‑ giske undersøkelsene i Storgaten 18 og Conradis gate 5/7, Tønsberg 1987 og 1988. Arkeologiske rapporter fra Tønsberg. Riksantikvaren, Utgravningskontoret for Tønsberg Sjöberg K (1984) Undersökning av fossila frukter och frön från en medeltida ränna i Kv Kransen Uppsala [Examination of fossil fruits and seeds from a medi‑ eval ditch in the Kransen block, Uppsala]. Dept of Quaternary Geology, University of Uppsala Skaarup B and Jacobsen H (1999) Middelaldermad. Kulturhistorie, kilder og 99 opskrifter [Medieval food. Cultural history, sources and 99 recipes]. Copenhagen Skaarup B and Jensen J (2002) Arkæologien i metro‑ ens spor [Archaeology on the track of the metro]. Copenhagen Šmilauer P (2002) CanoDraw for Windows 4.0 Soininen AM (1974) Vanha maataloutemme, Maatalous ja maatalousväestö Suomessa perinnäisen maatalouden loppukaudella 1720‑luvulta 1870‑luvulle [Old tradi‑ tional agriculture in Finland in the 18th and 19th cen‑ turies]. Journ. Scient. Agric. Soc. Finland 46: 1‑459

References

Soon L, Luik H and Tamla Ü (eds) (2000) Eesti arheoloo‑ gia bibliograafia/Estonian archaeological bibliography 1986‑1996. Ajaloo Instituut. Tallinn

Tallantire P (1979) Late Viking and Early Medieval plant material from Trondheim – a problem in interpreta‑ tion. Archaeo-Physica 8: 295‑302

Stankiewicz K (1982) Plan Gdańska z ok. 1650 [Map of Gdańsk from c. 1650]. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska Tom II, 1454‑1655 [History of Gdańsk Vol 2, 1454‑1655]. Gdańsk

Tamm J (1993) Of the Older Settlement of Tallinn pp 205‑211. In: Drake K (ed) Castella Maris Baltici 1. Stockholm

Steuer H (2002) Zur Archäologie der Städte in Nord­ deutschland westlich der Elbe. Grundlagen und An‑ fänge der Stadtentwicklung. Zeitschrift für Archäolo‑ gie des Mittelalters, Beiheft 14: 9‑35 Stoob H (1979) Die hochmittelalterliche Stadt im Okzi‑ dent pp 131‑156. In: Stoob H (ed) Die Stadt. Gestalt und Wandel bis zum industriellen Zeitalter. Köln, Wien Suna A (1994) Maanalaisten rakenteiden jäännökset lin‑ nan alueella [The ruins of the underground construc‑ tions of Kuusisto Castle] pp 10‑23. In: Suna A (ed) Kuusiston linna. Tutkimuksia 1985‑1993. National Board of Antiquities in Finland. Turku Suominen J (1982) Suomen luonnonvarainen humala (Humulus lupulus L.) [Wild hop in Finland]. Alko Central Laboratory, Report 8174. Helsinki Suvanto S (1976) Naantalin historia I [The history of Naantali]. Turku Święta-Musznicka J (2005) Rekonstrukcja paleoekolog‑ iczna historii wybranych jezior lobeliowych w ciągu ostatniego tysiąca lat, na tle zmian zachodzących w ich zlewniach [Palaeoecological reconstruction of the last thousand-years history of the selected Lobelia lakes against changes in their catchments]. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Gdańsk Syrennius S (1613) Zielnik Herbarzem z języka łacińskiego zowią (…) [The herbal Herbarium from Latin called (…)]. Kraków Szukalski (1961) Krajobraz geograficzny Elbląga [The geographical landscape of Elbląg]. Rocznik Elbląski 1961: 179‑198 Szymański A (1993) Reliktowe uprawy zbóż [Relict corn growing]. In: Bohdanowicz J (ed) Komentarz do Pol‑ skiego Atlasu Etnograficznego. Tom I. Rolnictwo i hodowla – część 1 [Comments on the Polish Ethno‑ graphic Atlas Vol 1, Agriculture and breeding – part 1]. Wrocław Sølvberg IØ (1976) Driftsmåter i vestnorsk jordbruk ca. 600‑1350 [Landuse practises in west Norwegian ag‑ riculture c. 600‑1350]. Bergen Taavitsainen JP (1979) Kuusiston linnan kaivauslöydöt [Archaeological finds of the castle of Kuusisto]. The Historical Museum of Turku, Report 3. Turku

Tammet M (1988) Tartu keskaegsete jäätmekastide karpoloogilise analüüsi tulemusi [The results of car‑ pological investigation of medieval latrine samples in Tartu] pp 97‑101. In: Rõuk AM and Selirand J (eds) Loodusteaduslikke meetodeid Eesti arheoloog‑ ias. Artiklite kogumik [Natural-scientific methods in Estonian archaeology: collected articles]. ENSV TA Toimetus – ja Kirjastusnõukogu. Tallinn Tandecki J (1993a) Ustrój i administracja średniowiecznego Elbląga [Organization and administration in the medieval Elbląg] pp 131‑146. In: Gierszewski S and Groth A (eds) Historia Elbląga, Tom I do 1466 r. [History of Elbląg Vol 1 til 1466]. Gdańsk Tandecki J (1993b) Elbląg a zamek krzyżacki w 13‑14 wieku [Elbląg and the teutonic castle in the 13th-14th centuries] pp 237‑244. In: Gierszewski S, Groth A (eds) Historia Elbląga Tom I do 1466 r. [History of Elbląg Vol 1 till 1466]. Gdańsk Tarvel E (1980) Tartu hansalinnana XIII sajandist Liivi sõjani [Tartu as a town of the Hanseatic League from the 13th century until the Livonian war] pp 27‑60. In: Pullat R (ed) Tartu ajalugu [The history of Tartu]. Tallinn Ter Braak CJF and Prentice IC (1988) A theory of gradi‑ ent analysis. Adv. Ecol. Res. 18: 271‑317 Ter Braak CJF and Šmilauer P (2002) Canoco for Win‑ dows version 4.5. Biometrics – Plant Research Inter‑ national. Wageningen Tiberg E (1995) Moscow, Livonia and the Hanseatic League 1487‑1550. Acta Universitatis Stockholmien‑ sis, Studia Baltica Stockholmiensia 15. Stockholm Tillandz E (1673) Catalogus Plantarum. Petro Hansonio. Aboae/Turku Tillandz E (1683) Catalogus Plantarum. Joh L Wallius AT. Aboae/Turku Tolonen M (1978) Palaeoecology of annually laminated sediments in Lake Ahvenainen, S Finland, I. Pollen and charcoal analyses and their relation to human impact. Annales Botanici Fennici 15: 177‑208 Tomczyńska Z and Wasylikowa K (1999) Rośliny znalezi‑ one w 16‑wiecznej latrynie w Krakowie [Plants found in a 16th century cesspit in Kraków]. Polish Botanical Studies, Guidebook Series 23: 279‑316

211

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

Tõnisson E and Lepajõe J (1978) Teraviljakasvatusest Eestis 11.-13. sajandil [About the cultivation of ce‑ reals in Estonia in the 11th-13th centuries] pp 28‑34. In: Tootmis-teadusliku konverentsi “Taimekasvatus‑ saaduste kvaliteedi tõstmine ja teraviljakasvatuse aja‑ loo küsimusi” ettekannete materjale [Proceedings of the symposium “The improvement of quality of plant production and the questions about the history of cereal cultivation”]. Tartu Trummal V (1964) Arheoloogilised kaevamised Tartu lin‑ nusel [Archaeological investigations on the hillfort of Tartu]. In: Eringson et al (eds) ENSV Ajaloo küsimusi 3 [Questions of the history of ESSR]. Tartu Riikliku Ülikooli Toimetised 161. Tartu Trummal V (1990) Über den Forschungstand der mittel­ alterlichen Archäologie in Tartu. In: European Sym‑ posium for Teachers of Medieval Archaeology, Lund 11‑15 June, 1990: 59‑64 Trzeciecka A (2002) W cieniu klasztoru dominikanów [Overshadowed by the Dominican Monastery] pp 103‑113. In: Gołembnik A (ed) W cieniu klasztoru dominikanów [Overshadowed by the Dominican Monastery]. Gdańsk Turner J (2004) Spice. The history of a temptation. London Twarowska E (1983) Zdobywanie pożywienia (zbier‑ actwo wczesnośredniowieczne w Polsce) [Collected food (early medieval collecting)] pp 218‑232. In: Kozłowski JK and Kozłowski SK (eds) Człowiek i środowisko w pradziejach [Men and environment in the past]. Warszawa Uino P (1990) Luovutetun Karjalan arkeologisesta tut‑ kimuksesta [Archaeological excavations in the Russian Karelia]. Kotiseutu 3: 17‑20 Uotila K (1994) Turun linnan esilinna – keskiaikainen rakennushistoria [Medieval parts of the bailey of Turku Castle]. In: Drake K (ed) Turun Linnan tut‑ kimuksia [Investigations of the Turku Castle]. Turku Provincial Museum, Reports 16: 59‑70 Uotila K (2000) Kadonneen kivilinnan etsintä – Lau‑ kon kaivaukset vuosina 1989‑1999 [A search for a stone castle – archaeological excavations in Laukko in 1989 – 1999] pp 31‑42. In: Uotila K (ed) Vesi‑ lahden Laukko Linna, kartano, koti [Laukko manor in Vesilahti, castle, estate, home]. Kaarina Uotila K, Tulkki C and Lempiäinen T (2001) Kaivauksia Naantalin vanhassa kaupungissa – ja vielä keskellä Mannerheiminkatua [Archaeological excavations of Mannerheiminkatu, in the Old Town of Naantali]. SKAS 2/2001: 2 -10

212

Urban W (1994) The Baltic crusade (2nd edition, re‑ vised and enlarged). Lithuanian Research and Studies Center. Chicago Uudelt M (1991) Arheobotaanilised leiud Tartu ja Vil‑ jandi vanalinnas, Diplomitöö [Archaeobotanical finds from the Old towns of Tartu and Viljandi, gradu­ation work]. Tartu Riiklik Ülikool, Botaanika ja ökoloogia kateeder. Tartu Uytven R van (1983) Bier und Brauwesen pp 135‑140. In: Lexikon des Mittelalters Vol 2. München, Zürich Valk H (1993) About the role of the German castle at the town-genesis process in Estonia: the example of Viljandi pp 219‑223. In: Drake K (ed) Castella Maris Baltici 1. Ekenäs Valk H (1995) Keskaegse Viljandi sünni – ja arengu‑ loost: Arheoloogiliste kaevamiste tulemusi 1989‑1992 [About the foundation and development of medieval Viljandi: the results of archaeological excavations in 1989‑1992] pp 173‑174. Õpetatud Eesti Seltsi Aas‑ taraamat 1988‑1993. Tartu Valo O (1993) Kasveja 1600‑luvun Turusta: paleoetno‑ botaaninen tutkimus Julinin tontilta [Plants from the 17th century – the palaeoethnobotanical studies of the Julin quarter in Turku]. Thesis, University of Turku Vaughan JG and Geissler CA (2001) Rośliny jadalne [Food plants]. Warszawa Vikesund L (1998) Øydegarden i Kikedalen – ein vegeta­ sjonshistorisk studie av kulturlandskapet [The deserted farm in Kikedalen – a study of the cultural landscape development]. Cand. Scient. Thesis, University of Bergen Vikkula A, Seppälä SL and Lempiäinen T (1994) The ancient field of Rapola. Fennoscandia Archaeologica 11: 41‑59 Viklund K (1998) Cereals, weeds and crop processing in Iron Age Sweden. Methodological and interpretative aspects of archaeobotanical evidence. Doctoral Thesis, Department of Archaeology, University of Umeå Viklund K (2000) Makrofossilanalys Kv Örtedalen Upp‑ sala [Macrofossilanalysis, the Örtedalen block, Upp‑ sala] pp 197‑202. In: Carlsson R et al (eds) På vägen in till staden del I och II [On the way to town, Vol 1 and 3]. Upplandsmuseet. Uppsala Viklund K (2001) Arkeobotanisk analys av jordprov Kv drotting Kristina 19, Halmsted, Halland [Archaeobo‑ tanical analyses of a soil sample from Kv drotting Kris‑ tina 19, Halmsted, Halland]. Rapport av Miljöarke‑ ologiskalaboratoriet Umeå Universitet [Report of the Laboratory for Environmental Archaeology Umeå University]. Umeå

References

Viklund K (2002) Issues in Swedish archaeobotany – a guide through twenty years of archaeobotanical re‑ search at the University of Umeå. In: Viklund K and Engelmark R (eds) Nordic Archaeobotany – NAG 2000 in Umeå. Archaeology and Environment 15: 193‑202 Viklund L (1984) En flätad rännas funktion i det medel‑ tida Kvarteret Kroken, Uppsala [The function of a wicker-work coated ditch in the Kroken bloc, Upp‑ sala]. Report No 104, Department of Quaternary Geology, University of Uppsala Vissak R (1999) The condition of archaeological research in Tartu after 20 years of rescue excavations pp 33‑42. In: Vissak R and Mäesalu A (eds) The Medieval Town in the Baltic: Hanseatic History and Archaeology. Proceedings of the first and second seminar in Tartu, Estonia. Tartu Vunk A (1999) Archaeological surveys and the topogra‑ phy of medieval Pärnu pp 43‑48. In: Vissak R and Mäesalu A (eds) The Medieval Town in the Baltic: Hanseatic History and Archaeology. Proceedings of the first and second seminar in Tartu, Estonia. Tartu Vuorela I, Grönlund T and Lempiäinen T (1996) Paleo­ ekologisia tutkimuksia Rettigin tontilta, Turusta [Palaeoecological investigations of Rettig quarter in Turku]. Geological Survey of Finland, Report P 34.4.114. Espoo Vuorela I and Lempiäinen T (1988) Archaeobotany of the site of the oldest cereal grain find in Finland. Annales Botanici Fennici 25: 33‑45 Vuorela I and Lempiäinen T (1993) Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the late medieval Helsinki Old Town. Vegetation History and Archaeo‑ botany 2: 101‑123 Vuorela I and Lempiäinen T (1997a) Valtioneuvoston linnan pohjamaan paleoekologinen tutkimus [Palaeo­ ecological investigation in the centre of Helsinki]. Geological Survey of Finland, Report P 34.4.116. Espoo Vuorela I and Lempiäinen T (1997b) Palynology and palaeobotany of a cultural layer in the centre of Hel‑ sinki. Annales Botanici Fennici 34: 1‑13 Vuorela I and Lempiäinen T (1999a) Porin kaupungin paleoekologiaa [Palaeoecology of Pori]. Geological Survey of Finland, Report P34.4.017. Espoo Vuorela I and Lempiäinen T (1999b) Maaperän siitepö‑ lyistä ja kasvijäänteistä Päävartion tontilla korttelissa Mariankatu 1, Helsinki [Pollen and macrofossil in‑ vestigations in Mariankatu 1, Helsinki]. Geological Survey of Finland, Report P34.4.122. Espoo

Vuorela I, Lempiäinen T and Saarnisto M (2001) Land use pollen record from the island of Valamo, Russian Karelia. Annales Botanici Fennici 38/2: 139‑165 Vuorela I and Saarnisto M (1997) Introduction of agri‑ culture in Valamo, Russian Karelia. Palaeoecology of Lake Niikkananlampi. ISKOS 11: 140‑151 Vuorela I, Saksa AI, Lempiäinen T and Saarnisto M (1992) The pollen data of the cultural layer of the wooden fortress of Käkisalmi, dated to approx. AD 1200‑1700. Annales Botanici Fennici 29/3: 187‑196 Vuorinen JM and Hakanpää P (1997) Porvoon Jokikatu 20‑22‑kaukolämpökaivannon valvonta [Archaeologi‑ cal excavation in Jokikatu 20‑22, Porvoo]. Report, Muuritutkimus ky. Kaarina Wasylikowa K (1965) Makroskopowe szczątki roślinne znalezione w warstwie średniowiecznej na Rynku Głównym w Krakowie [Macroscopic plant re‑ mains found in the medieval layer from the Rynek Główny (Main Market Place) in Cracow]. Materiały Wczesnośredniowieczne 6: 191‑196 Wasylikowa K (1978a) Plant remains from Early and Late Medieval time found on the Wawel Hill in Cracow. Acta Palaeobotanica 19: 115‑198 Wasylikowa K (1978b) Early and late medieval plant remains from Wawel Hill In Cracow (9/10th-15th centuries AD). Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 91: 107‑120 Wasylikowa K (1981) The role of fossil weeds for study of former agriculture. Zeitschrift für Archäologie 15: 11‑23 Wasylikowa K (1983) Antropogeniczne zmiany roślinności w holocenie [Anthropogenic disturbance of the veg‑ etation during the Holocene] pp 53‑72. In: Kozłowski JK and Kozłowski SK (eds) Człowiek i środowisko w pradziejach [Man and environment in the past]. Warszawa Wasylikowa K and Zemanek A (1995) Plant and Man in the Medieval Cracow. Materiały Archeologiczne 28: 37‑47 Westholm G (1996) Hanseatic sites routes and monu‑ ments. A traveller’s guide to the past and present. Uppsala Westholm G (1997) Hansan och Europa [The Hanse and Europe] pp 19‑47. In: Radhe B (ed) Gotländskt Arkiv 1997. Västervik Wiegelmann G (1967) Alltags- und Festspeisen. Wandel und gegenwärtige Stellung. Atlas der deutschen Volks­ kunde N.F. Beiheft 1. Marburg

213

Medieval Food Traditions in Northern Europe

Wiegelmann G (1996) Butterbrot und Butterkonser­ vierung im Hanseraum pp 463‑499. In: Wiegelmann G and Mohrmann RE (eds) Nahrung und Tischkultur im Hanseraum. Münster Wiegelmann G and Mohrmann RE (eds) (1996) Nahrung und Tischkultur im Hanseraum. Münster Wieserowa A (1967) Wczesnośredniowieczne szczątki zbóż i chwastów z Przemyśla [Early medieval remains of cereals and weeds from Przemyśl, SE Poland]. Folia Quaternaria 28: 1-25 Wieserowa A (1979) Plant remains from the Early and Late Middle Ages found in the settlement layers of the Main Market Square in Cracow. Acta Palaeobotanica 20: 137‑212 Wiethold J (1992) Pflanzenreste aus einem Brunnen von Mölln, Kreis Herzogtum Lauenburg. Archäologische Nachrichten aus Schleswig-Holstein 3: 47‑66 Wiethold J (1995a) Plant remains from town-moats and cesspits of Medieval and post-Medieval Kiel (Schles­ wig-Holstein, Germany) pp 359‑384. In: Kroll H and Pasternak R (eds) Res archaeobotanicae. International Work Group for Palaeoethnobotany. Proceedings of the 9th Symposium Kiel 1992. Kiel Wiethold J (1995b) Reis, Pfeffer und Paradieskorn: Pflan‑ zenreste des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts aus der Kloake der Patrizierfamilie von Dassel aus Lüne­burg. Archäo­ logie und Bauforschung in Lüneburg 1: 129‑166 Wiethold J (1998) Studien zur jüngeren postglazialen Vegetations- und Siedlungsgeschichte im östlichen Schleswig-Holstein. Universitätsforschungen zur Prähistorischen Archäologie 45. Bonn Wiethold J (1999) Pflanzenreste des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit aus zwei Kloaken in der Hansestadt Rostock. Die Ausgrabungen Kröpeliner Straße 34‑36/ Kleiner Katthagen 4. Bodendenkmalpflege Mecklen‑ burg-Vorpommern Jahrbuch 46: 409‑432

Archäologische Berichte aus Mecklenburg-Vorpom‑ mern 5: 104‑131 Wiethold J (2002) Giff in de schottele. Strowe dar peper up… Botanische Funde als Quellen zur mittelalter‑ lichen Ernährungs- und Umweltgeschichte in Ein‑ beck. In: Heege A (ed) Einbeck im Mittelalter. Eine archäologische Spurensuche. Studien zur Einbecker Geschichte 17: 240‑246 Wiethold J (2003) Kohl, Kümmel und Kornblume: Pflan‑ zenreste des 18. Jahrhunderts aus einer Ziegellatrine vom Neuen Markt 14 in der Hansestadt Stralsund. Archäologische Berichte aus Mecklenburg-Vorpom‑ mern 10: 297‑309 Wiethold J and Meyer J (2002) Getreidevorräte und Verarbeitungsabfälle aus einer Brandruine des 13. Jahrhunderts auf dem Grundstück Kuhstraße 23 in Greifswald. Bodendenkmalpflege Mecklenburg-Vor‑ pommern Jahrbuch 50: 77‑118 Wiethold J and Schäfer H (2001) Ein 1263/64 verkohlter Roggenvorrat vom Markt 10 in Greifswald. Archäo­ logische Berichte aus Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 8: 180‑193 Wigand J (1590) Vera historia de Succino Borussico. To‑ biasz Steinman. Jenae Willerding U (1978) Paläo-ethnobotanische Befunde an mittelalterlichen Pflanzenresten aus Süd-Nieder‑ sachsen, Nordhessen und dem östlichen Westfalen. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 91: 129‑160 Willerding U (1986) Paläo-ethnobotanische Befunde zum Mittelalter in Höxter/Weser. Neue Ausgrabungen und Forschungen in Niedersachsen 17: 319‑346 Willerding U (1987) Zur paläo-ethnobotanischen Er‑ forschung der mittelalterlichen Stadt. Jahrbuch der Braunschweigischen Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft 1987: 35‑50

Wiethold J (2000a) Ernährung und Umwelt im spätmit‑ telalterlichen Rostock. Archäobotanische Ergebnisse der Analyse zweier Kloaken in der Kröpeliner Straße 55‑56/Kuhstraße. Bodendenkmalpflege MecklenburgVorpommern Jahrbuch 47: 351‑378

Willerding U (1990) Botanische Befunde aus der Kloake Domhof 15/16 in Hildesheim pp 96‑106. In: Küche. Keller. Kemenate. Alltagsleben auf dem Domhof um 1600 [Catalogue of the Exhibition in Hildesheim]. Hildesheim

Wiethold J (2000b) “So nym dat ryß und wasche id reyne unde wriff de hulsen alle wech…” – Bota‑ nische Ergebnisse zur Ernährung und Umwelt im frühneuzeitlichen Stralsund am Beispiel der Kloake Mühlenstraße 10. Archäologische Berichte aus Meck‑ lenburg-Vorpommern 7: 221‑239

Wiswe H (1970) Kulturgeschichte der Kochkunst. Koch‑ bücher und Rezepte aus zwei Jahrtausenden mit einem lexikalischen Anhang von Eva Hepp. München

Wiethold J (2001) Von Heidenkorn und Mandel­milch. Botanische Analysen an einem frühneuzeitlichen Kloakeninhalt von der Mühlenstraße 17 in Stralsund.

214

Wojciechowska W (2000) “O purgowaniu w ziołach, prochach i korzeniach”, czyli o lekach i ich dozow‑ aniu w Polsce w 15 i 16 wieku [Über Arzneimittel und ihre Dosierung in Polen des 15. und 16. Jh.] pp 195‑208. In: Irańczyk W and Bracha K (eds) Człowiek i przyroda w średniowieczu i we wczesnym

References

okresie nowożytnym [Man and nature in medieval and early modern times]. Warszawa Wolf G (1997) Nutzpflanzen aus einer Kloake in Hann. Münden. Erste Ergebnisse der paläo-ethnobotanischen Untersuchung. Göttinger Jahrbuch 45: 45‑53 Zachrisson S (1994) Humle – läkeört, krydda och kon‑ serveringsmedel [Hops – medicinal plant, spice and preservative]. Sörmlandsbgden, Södermanlands hem‑ bygdsförbunds årsbok. Vingåker Zając A and Zając M (2001) Atlas rozmieszczenia roślin naczyniowych w Polsce [Distribution Atlas of Vascular Plants in Poland]. Pracownia Chorologii Komputer‑ owej Instytutu Botaniki UJ. Kraków Zbierski A (1958) Dotychczasowe wyniki badań archeo‑ logicznych kościoła św. Mikołaja i św. Katarzyny w Gdańsku [Recent results of archaeological investiga‑ tions in St. Nicholas’ and St. Catherine’s church in Gdańsk]. Rocznik Gdański 15/16 (1956/1957) Zbierski A (1978a) Rozwój przestrzenny Gdańska w 9‑13 wieku [The spatial development of Gdańsk during the 9th-13th centuries] pp 71‑125. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska Tom 1 do roku 1454 [History of Gdańsk Vol 1 till 1454]. Gdańsk

Zbierski A (1978c) Rybołówstwo, łowiectwo i zajęcia rolniczo-hodowlane [Fishery, hunting and agricul‑ tural-breeding occupations] pp 173‑193. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska Tom 1 do roku 1454 [History of Gdańsk Vol 1 till 1454]. Gdańsk Zeist W van (1991) Economic aspects pp 109‑130. In: van Zeist W, Wasylikowa K and Behre KE (eds) Progress in Old World Palaeoethnobotany. Rotterdam Zemanek A and Wasylikowa K (1996) Historia botaniki i archeobotaniki w poszukiwaniu danych o użytkowaniu roślin w średniowiecznym Krakowie [History of bot‑ any and archaeobotany in search of data on the uses of plants in medieval Cracow]. Studia i Materiały z Dziejów Nauki 1: 123‑138 Zetterberg P (1994) Dendrokronologiset tutkimukset Turun linnassa [Dendrochronological investigations of the Turku Castle] pp 39‑48. In: Drake K (ed) Tu‑ run linnan tutkimuksia [Investigations of the Turku Castle]. Turku Zientara B (1983) Die Entwicklung der Städte im Nieder‑ oderraum im 13. Jahrhundert im Zusammenhang mit den Anfängen des Kornexports. Lübecker Schriften zur Archäologie und Kulturgeschichte 7: 147‑157

Zbierski A (1978b) Ośrodek handlowy i portowy [The trade and port centre] pp 194‑223. In: Cieślak E (ed) Historia Gdańska Tom 1 do roku 1454 [History of Gdańsk Vol 1 till 1454]. Gdańsk

215

Index of the hansa plant list

Index of the HANSA plant list

The HANSA plant list (after Erhardt et al. 2000) in alphabetical order Latin names Aethusa cynapium L. Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Agrostemma githago L. Allium cepa L. Amaranthus blitum L. Amaranthus sp. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Anethum graveolens L. Angelica sylvestris L. Anthemis arvensis L. Anthemis cotula L. Anthemis tinctoria L. Apium graveolens L. Aquilegia vulgaris L. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Artemisia absinthium L. Atriplex hortensis L. Atriplex sp. Atropa belladonna L. Avena fatua L. Avena nuda L. Avena sativa L. Avena sp. Beta vulgaris L. Betonica officinalis L. Brassica napus L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Brassica oleracea L. Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Brassica sp. Bromus secalinus L. Bunias orientalis L. Buxus sempervirens L. Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Cannabis sativa L. Capsicum annuum L. Carum carvi L. Castanea sativa P. Miller Centaurea cyanus L. Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller Chelidonium majus L. Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium bonus-henricus L.

English names Fool’s Parsley Grains of Paradise Corn Cockle Onion Purple Amaranth Amaranth Small Bugloss Dill Archangel Corn Chamomile Stinking Chamomile Dyer’s Chamomile Celery Columbine Bearberry Absinthe Garden Orache Orache Deadly Nightshade Wild Oats Naked Oats Common Oats Oat Beetroot Betony Kale Black Mustard Cabbage Turnip Cabbage Rye Brome Warty Cabbage Boxwood Gold of Pleasure Hemp Hot Pepper Caraway Spanish Chestnut Cornflower Sweet Cherry Sour Cherry Greater Celandine Fat Hen Good King Henry

217

Index of the hansa plant list

Chenopodium sp. Cichorium intybus L. Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Consolida regalis Gray Coriandrum sativum L. Cornus mas L. Cornus sanguinea L. Cornus suecica L. Corylus avellana L. Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Cucumis sativus L. Cucurbita sp. Cydonia oblonga Mill. Daucus carota L. Dianthus barbatus L. Dianthus sp. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. Elettaria cardamomum Maton Elettaria major Smith Empetrum nigrum L. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Ficus carica L. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fragaria vesca L. Fumaria officinalis L. Galium aparine L. Galium spurium L. Genista tinctoria L. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Humulus lupulus L. Hyoscyamus niger L. Hypericum maculatum Crantz Hypericum perforatum L. Hyssopus officinalis L. Iris pseudacorus L. Juglans regia L. Juniperus communis L. Lactuca sativa L. Laurus nobilis L. Lens culinaris Medik. Leonurus cardiaca L. Lepidium sativum L. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Lithospermum arvense L. Lolium temulentum L. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sp. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Mespilus germanica L. Morus alba L. Morus nigra L. Morus sp. Myrica gale L. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nepeta cataria L. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Nicotiana rustica L. Nicotiana sp. Nigella sativa L. Origanum vulgare L. Oryza sativa L. Panicum miliaceum L. Papaver dubium L. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Pastinaca sativa L. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Physalis alkekengi L.

218

Goosefoot Chicory Ergot Oriental Lakspur Coriander Cornelian Cherry Common Dogwood Dwarf Cornel Hazel Common Hawthorn Cucumber Pumpkin Quince Carrot Sweet William Pink Barnyard Grass Cardamom Sri Lanka Cardamom Black Crowberry Sun Spurge Buckwheat Fig Meadow Sweet Fennel Wild Strawberry Common Fumitory Cleavers False Cleavers Dyer’s Broom Barley Hop Henbane St John’s Wort St John’s Wort Hyssop Flag Iris Walnut Juniper Lettuce Laurel Lentil Motherwort Garden Cress Lovage Flax Corn Gromwell Bearded Ryegrass Apple Apple Wild Apple Medlar White Mulberry Black Mulberry Mulberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg, Mace Catmint Ball Mustard Indian Tobacco Tobacco Black Cumin Wild Marjoram Rice Common Millet Long-headed Poppy Opium Poppy Parsnip Parsley Strawberry Tomato

Index of the hansa plant list

Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Piper nigrum L. Pisum sativum L. Portulaca oleracea L. Prunus domestica L. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Prunus insititia L. Prunus padus L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Prunus sp. Prunus spinosa L. Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Ranunculus arvensis L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Raphanus sativus L. Reseda luteola L. Ribes nigrum L. Ribes rubrum L. Ribes sp. Ribes uva-crispa L. Rosa sp. Rosmarinus officinalis L. Rubus caesius L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus idaeus L. Rubus saxatilis L. Rubus sp. Ruta graveolens L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sambucus racemosa L. Satureja hortensis L. Secale cereale L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Sinapis alba L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Spinacia oleracea L. Thymus serpyllum L. Thymus sp. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Triticum dicoccon Schrank Triticum sp. Triticum spelta L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Vaccinium sp. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Valeriana officinalis L. Valeriana sp. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Verbena officinalis L. Vicia faba L. Vicia sativa L. Vicia sp. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.)

Allspice Black Pepper Pea Purslane Plum Almond Bullace European Bird Cherry Peach Sloe/Cherry Sloe Pear Pear Corn Buttercup Wild Radish Radish Wild Mignonette Black Currant Red Currant Currant Gooseberry Rose Rosemary European Dewberry Cloudberry Bramble Raspberry Stone Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Rue Dwarf Elder Common Elder Red Berried Elder Savory Rye Yellow Foxtail Foxtail Bristle Grass Green Bristle Grass White Mustard Rowan Service Tree Wild Service Tree Spinach Wild Thyme Thyme Common Wheat Emmer Wheat Spelt Bilberry Cranberry Bilberry/Cowberry Bog Bilberry Cowberry Common Valerian Valerian Narrowfruit Cornsalad Cornsalad Vervain Bean Common Vetch Vetch, Bean Grape Vine

219

Index of the hansa plant list

The HANSA plant list (after Erhardt et al. 2000) in alphabetical order English names Absinthe Allspice Almond Amaranth Apple Apple Archangel Ball Mustard Barley Barnyard Grass Bean Bearberry Bearded Ryegrass Beetroot Betony Bilberry Bilberry/Cowberry Black Crowberry Black Cumin Black Currant Black Mulberry Black Mustard Black Pepper Bog Bilberry Boxwood Bramble Bramble/Raspberry Buckwheat Bullace Cabbage Cabbage Caraway Cardamom Carrot Catmint Celery Chicory Cleavers Cloudberry Columbine Common Dogwood Common Elder Common Fumitory Common Hawthorn Common Millet Common Oats Common Valerian Common Vetch Common Wheat Coriander Corn Buttercup Corn Chamomile Corn Cockle Corn Gromwell Cornelian Cherry Cornflower Cornsalad Cowberry Cranberry Cucumber Currant Deadly Nightshade Dill Dwarf Cornel Dwarf Elder Dyer’s Chamomile

220

Latin names Artemisia absinthium L. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb Amaranthus sp. Malus domestica Borkh. (incl. M. pumila Mill.) Malus sp. Angelica sylvestris L. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Hordeum vulgare L. (incl. Distichon Grp) Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Pal. Beauv. Vicia faba L. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Lolium temulentum L. Beta vulgaris L. Betonica officinalis L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium sp. Empetrum nigrum L. Nigella sativa L. Ribes nigrum L. Morus nigra L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Piper nigrum L. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Buxus sempervirens L. Rubus fruticosus L. Rubus sp. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Prunus insititia L. Brassica oleracea L. Brassica sp. Carum carvi L. Elettaria cardamomum Maton Daucus carota L. Nepeta cataria L. Apium graveolens L. Cichorium intybus L. Galium aparine L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Aquilegia vulgaris L. Cornus sanguinea L. Sambucus nigra L. Fumaria officinalis L. Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Panicum miliaceum L. Avena sativa L. Valeriana officinalis L. Vicia sativa L. Triticum aestivum L. (incl. T. compactum Host and T. durum Desf.) Coriandrum sativum L. Ranunculus arvensis L. Anthemis arvensis L. Agrostemma githago L. Lithospermum arvense L. Cornus mas L. Centaurea cyanus L. Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Cucumis sativus L. Ribes sp. Atropa belladonna L. Anethum graveolens L. Cornus suecica L. Sambucus ebulus L. Anthemis tinctoria L.

Index of the hansa plant list

Dyer’s Broom Emmer Ergot European Bird Cherry European Dewberry False Cleavers Fat Hen Fennel Fig Flag Iris Flax Fool’s Parsley Foxtail Bristle Grass Garden Cress Garden Orache Gold of Pleasure Good King Henry Gooseberry Goosefoot Grains of Paradise Grape Vine Greater Celandine Green Bristle Grass Hazel Hemp Henbane Hop Hot Pepper Hyssop Indian Tobacco Juniper Kale Laurel Lentil Lettuce Long-headed Poppy Lovage Meadow Sweet Medlar Motherwort Mulberry Naked Oats Narrowfruit Cornsalad Nutmeg, Mace Oat Onion Opium Poppy Orache Oriental Lakspur Parsley Parsnip Pea Peach Pear Pear Pink Plum Pumpkin Purple Amaranth Purslane Quince Radish Raspberry Red Berried Elder Red Currant Rice Rose Rosemary Rowan Rue

Genista tinctoria L. Triticum dicoccon Schrank Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Prunus padus L. Rubus caesius L. Galium spurium L. Chenopodium album L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Ficus carica L. Iris pseudacorus L. Linum usitatissimum L. (incl. Linum sp.) Aethusa cynapium L. Setaria italica (L.) Pal. Beauv. Lepidium sativum L. Atriplex hortensis L. Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Ribes uva-crispa L. Chenopodium sp. Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Vitis vinifera L. (incl. subsp. sylvestris (C.C.Gmel.) Hegi and Vitis sp.) Chelidonium majus L. Setaria viridis (L.) Pal. Beauv. Corylus avellana L. Cannabis sativa L. Hyoscyamus niger L. Humulus lupulus L. Capsicum annuum L. Hyssopus officinalis L. Nicotiana rustica L. Juniperus communis L. Brassica napus L. Laurus nobilis L. Lens culinaris Medik. Lactuca sativa L. Papaver dubium L. Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Mespilus germanica L. Leonurus cardiaca L. Morus sp. Avena nuda L. Valerianella dentata (L.) Poll. Myristica fragrans Houtt. Avena sp. Allium cepa L. Papaver somniferum L. (incl. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Corb.) Atriplex sp. Consolida regalis Gray Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. Pastinaca sativa L. Pisum sativum L. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Pyrus communis L. Pyrus sp. Dianthus sp. Prunus domestica L. Cucurbita sp. Amaranthus blitum L. Portulaca oleracea L. Cydonia oblonga Mill. Raphanus sativus L. Rubus idaeus L. Sambucus racemosa L. Ribes rubrum L. Oryza sativa L. Rosa sp. Rosmarinus officinalis L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Ruta graveolens L.

221

Index of the hansa plant list

Rye Rye Brome Savory Service Tree Sloe Sloe/Cherry Small Bugloss Sour Cherry Spanish Chestnut Spelt Spinach Sri Lanka Cardamom St John’s Wort St John’s Wort Stinking Chamomile Stone Bramble Strawberry Tomato Sun Spurge Sweet Cherry Sweet Gale Sweet William Thyme Tobacco Turnip Valerian Vervain Vetch, Bean Walnut Warty Cabbage Wheat White Mulberry White Mustard Wild Apple Wild Marjoram Wild Mignonette Wild Oats Wild Radish Wild Service Tree Wild Strawberry Wild Thyme Yellow Foxtail

222

Secale cereale L. Bromus secalinus L. Satureja hortensis L. Sorbus domestica L. Prunus spinosa L. Prunus sp. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Cerasus vulgaris P. Miller Castanea sativa P. Miller Triticum spelta L. Spinacia oleracea L. Elettaria major Smith Hypericum maculatum Crantz Hypericum perforatum L. Anthemis cotula L. Rubus saxatilis L. Physalis alkekengi L. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Myrica gale L. Dianthus barbatus L. Thymus sp. Nicotiana sp. Brassica rapa L. (incl. B. campestris (L.) Claph.) Valeriana sp. Verbena officinalis L. Vicia sp. Juglans regia L. Bunias orientalis L. Triticum sp. Morus alba L. Sinapis alba L. Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Origanum vulgare L. Reseda luteola L. Avena fatua L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz Fragaria vesca L. Thymus serpyllum L. Setaria glauca (L.) Pal. Beauv.

The authors

Address and Profession of the HANSA Network Members

Germany Dipl. biol. Almuth Alsleben Researcher Institute of Prehistory and Medieval Archaeology Christian-Albrechts University D-24098 Kiel Germany e-mail: [email protected] Poland Prof. Dr. hab. Małgorzata Latałowa Professor for Palaeoecology and Archaeobotany Dr. Monika Badura Lecturer and Researcher in Archaeobotany Dr. Joanna Jarosińska Lecturer and Researcher in Archaeobotany Dr. Joanna Święta-Musznicka Lecturer and Researcher in Palaeoecology and Archaeobotany Laboratory of Palaeoecology and Archaeobotany Department of Plant Ecology Institute of Biology University of Gdańsk Al. Legionów 9 PL-80‑441 Gdańsk Poland e-mail: [email protected]

Estonia Dr. Ülle Sillasoo Researcher in Palaeoecology and Archaeobotany Department of Landscape Ecology Institute of Ecology at Tallinn University Uus-Sadama 5 EE-10120 Tallinn Estonia e-mail: [email protected] Sirje Hiie Senior Engineer (Archaeobotanist) Department of Archaeobiology and Ancient Technology Institute of History at Tallinn University Rüütli 6 EE-10130Tallinn Estonia e-mail: [email protected] Finland Dr. Terttu Lempiäinen Adjunct Professor for Botany and Curator of the Herbarium Botanical Museum (TUR) Centre for Biodiversity University of Turku FI-20014 Turku Finland e-mail: [email protected]

223

The authors

Sweden Dr. Karin Viklund Associate Professor and Lecturer in Environmental Archaeology Environmental Archaeology Laboratory Department of Archaeology and Sami Studies University of Umeå S-90187 Umeå Sweden e-mail: [email protected] Denmark Dr. Sabine Karg Senior Researcher and External Lecturer in Envir­ onmental Archaeology National Museum of Denmark Department of Research and Exhibitions Ny Vestergade 11 DK-1471 Copenhagen K Denmark e-mail: [email protected]

224

Norway Dr. Kari Loe Hjelle Associate Professor in Palaeoecology and ­Environmental Archaeology Bergen Museum, Natural History University of Bergen Allégaten 41 N-5007 Bergen Norway e-mail: [email protected]

In front of the Hanseatic Museum in Bergen, Norway: February 2006. From left to right: Kari Loe Hjelle, Terttu Lempiäinen, Sirje Hiie, Ülle Sillasoo, Małgorzata Latałowa, Almuth Alsleben, Sabine Karg and Karin Viklund. Photo: Siri Jansen