796 89 8MB
English Pages [40]
Table of contents :
General Words
Numbers
Sizes
Currency
Shapes
Index
For Teachers, Students & Parents
Fareeda Abbasi MATHS DICTIONARY
Youth Together for Human Rights Education
Youth Together for Human Rights Education The curriculum of Youth Together for Human Rights Education enables application of knowledge to life. It is designed to improve skills and bring about positive attitudes. We train teachers, students and parents on an ongoing basis across schools and universities. We are committed to creating a future where men, women and children grant respect to each other, irrespective of age, gender, race, religion, sect, ethnicity, nationality or class. A future where peace and tolerance prevails. A fair and just society, where students grow up reaching their full potential and are rewarded for their own efforts, skills and contribution. Our series of books forms the start of a journey, directed towards reaching this shared dream with you.
©2015 Fareeda Abbasi. All Rights Reserved. Printed in Pakistan by Youth Together for Human Rights Education
ISBN: 9780993261510 No part of this booklet may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, graphics, electronics, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or by any information storage or retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher. 2
MATHS DICTIONARY
This Book Just as without knowing the alphabet it is impossible to know the language, so, without fully understanding the words used in the subject of Maths, we cannot expect the learner to master the subject. During the process of learning it is important to emphasise an understanding of the concepts of words. Words like “house”, “apple” are understood by the student. There is no need to memorise them. However, for words like “divisor”, “ascending”, “geometry”, the same clarity in understanding may not exist. This book helps to provide that clarity. It helps to build a strong foundation of the subject. It forms part of the resources needed by teachers, parents and students to put the child on the ladder of competence. We believe every student has the potential to master a subject and to be good in all subjects, not in just one or two. Our series of books aims to build a strong foundation of the subject for the learner. It is the duty of teachers and parents to provide the tools, guidance and an environment that enables children to reach their full potential. If you wish for the child to become an independent learner and excel in Maths, then this book belongs in your special toolkit.
MATHS DICTIONARY
3
Dedication This book is dedicated to the teachers, parents and children of the world. Our sincere hope is that this book helps you and those you care about to understand and love the subject. Through a strong basic foundation of the subject and with your competence and imagination, may you help create a better and peaceful world for all. Our best wishes are for you.
Contents Topic Page General Words ..................................................................................... 6 Numbers ................................................................................................ 15 Sizes ......................................................................................................... 28 Currency................................................................................................. 30 Shapes .................................................................................................... 32
MATHS DICTIONARY
5
General Words from
B.
Run from A to B.
A.
The place where we should start. The starting point.
That means that we should start running from A.
to Used to show the end of something. The end or finish point.
missing Something that is lost. Anything which is not there that should be there.
Read pages 10 to 22. This means we should stop reading at page 22. Page 21
Page 22
There were 4 students present in the morning.
There are only 2 students present in the afternoon.
Two students are missing.
6
MATHS DICTIONARY
compare To see or say how things are diﬀerent or the same.
The colours of the balloons are diﬀerent.
The apple and pear are a diﬀerent shape.
The colours of the pencils are the same but the sizes are diﬀerent.
The balls have a diﬀerent colour and a diﬀerent shape.
comparison The diﬀerences in two or more things or how they are the same.
Comparison between a circle and a square. This means that we need to find the diﬀerence in a circle and a square and how they are the same.
Answer: Both a circle and a square are shapes. A circle is round and a square is not. A square has sides and a circle does not.
MATHS DICTIONARY
7
skip
If you jump from the third step to the fifth step, then you skip the fourth step.
To leave something or not do something and go ahead.
If you eat 1 banana a day and 5 in one week, then you can skip Tuesday and Friday.
Mon.
Tue.
Fri.
Wed.
Sat.
Thur.
Sun.
even A number that can be divided exactly by two. Even numbers end with 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8.
(2)
(4)
(6)
(8)
(10)
8
MATHS DICTIONARY
odd A number that cannot be exactly divided by two. Odd Numbers end with 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9.
(1)
(3)
(5)
(7)
(9)
table A list of numbers or things known to be true, that are placed in some order. Example: At the start of this book we have a table of contents which tells us the topics in order of page number.
forward
The boy is going forward.
The man on his bike is going forward.
To go ahead. To move ahead. To move in front of you.
Example: Forward from 20 is 21, 22, 23, 24,…
MATHS DICTIONARY
9
backward To go back. To move back.
The man going from A to B is moving forward. Then going from B to A he is going backward.
A.
B. Example of numbers going backward.
20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 word A combination of letters of the alphabet in a language, which means something and that we can speak or write.
10
We are sometimes asked to write in words the number or amount. Example: If we need to write 250 in words in English, then we would write  two hundred and fifty.
24 25 26 27 28 29
twenty four twenty five twenty six twenty seven twenty eight twenty nine
MATHS DICTIONARY
find
I will find my friend in the playground.
To locate something by looking or searching.
I will find the right piece to solve the jigsaw puzzle.
identify
Can you identify what this is?
Can you identify what this is?
To know or say what something is.
This is a key.
This is an apple.
ascending To go up from low to high.
Can you ascend the steps?
MATHS DICTIONARY
The aeroplane is ascending.
11
descending To come down from high to low.
Can you descend the steps?
order The way that you put people or things together. The way you arrange something.
The helicopter is descending.
I placed the pens in order of their colour.
I placed the dolls in order of their size.
I placed the violins in order of their size.
12
quantity
How many people?
How many  given as a number.
Is the quantity 14?
MATHS DICTIONARY
solve To find an answer to a question, problem or puzzle.
2+3=5
8+2
= 10
2 8
=6
recognize To identify. To know or say what something is. Do you recognise this? She recognised the ball.
It is a pencil. Do you recognise this? It is a penguin.
maths About numbers, quantity and shapes. MATHS DICTIONARY
How many plants?
13
measure
I measured the red paper with the ruler.
To find the number that shows the size or amount of something.
I will measure the milk in this jug.
I will measure my weight on the scale.
14
MATHS DICTIONARY
Numbers number A word or symbol that represents an amount or a quantity. Example: two or 2.
209 Two hundred and nine 1209 One thousand two hundred and nine
count To say numbers in the right order. Example: 1,2,3,4,5.
counting Saying numbers in the right order.
MATHS DICTIONARY
I am counting...... 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18 19, 20, 21.......
15
from number The starting point. The number we should start with.
to number The end number. The last number.
units Numbers from 0 to 9.
16
Example: Count from number 3. This means that we should start counting from the number 3.
3
4
5
6
7
8 ...
Count from number 3 to number 12. This means we should stop counting at number 12.
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
MATHS DICTIONARY
tens Numbers from 10 to 99.
(tens7) Example:
(units8) 78
hundreds Numbers from 100 to 999.
(hundreds 1) Example:
missing number A number which is not there.
(tens 2 )
(units6)
126
In these even numbers find the missing numbers: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 14, 18, 20, 22 Answer: The missing numbers are 10 and 16. Find the missing number: 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38 39, 40, 41 Answer: The missing number is 36
MATHS DICTIONARY
17
ascending order To put or go from the smallest to the largest number.
Arrange in ascending order: 6, 11, 13, 15, 8, 3, 9, 5, 12
This means we should write the smallest number first and then continue to the largest number. 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15
descending order To put or go from the largest to the smallest number.
Arrange in descending order: 13, 7, 4, 8, 3, 10, 9, 12
This means we should write the largest number first and then continue to the smallest number. 13, 12, 10, 9, 8, 7, 4, 3
compare numbers To see or say how numbers are diﬀerent or the same.
Compare 5 and 3
True
False
Are 5 and 3 equal? 5 is greater than 3 by 2.
Are 5 and 3 odd numbers? 5 and 3 are both odd numbers.
18
MATHS DICTIONARY
symbols which show a comparison between numbers
21 4 is greater than 1 3 = 2+1 3 equals 2 plus 1
< >
less than < greater than > equal to =
comparison of numbers To tell what is diﬀerent in the numbers shown. Less than < Greater than >
ordinal number A number that shows a place or position in a series.
MATHS DICTIONARY
= 2 , 50 : 42 , 30 :
2 is less than 50. 42 is greater than 30.
2 < 50 42 > 30
13 + 30 is greater than 21 + 15 13 + 30 > 21 + 15 50 – 43 is less than 9 50  43 < 9
1st, 2nd, 3rd  first, second, third are ordinal numbers. 10th ,22nd, 53rd are ordinal numbers. Arif wanted the third (3rd) book on the bookshelf. 3rd is an ordinal number.
19
cardinal number A number showing quantity.
skipping numbers Counting forwards or backwards by a number other than 1.
Example: 1, 2, 3  One, two three are cardinal numbers.
I see 3 ducks. The cardinal number is 3 in the above sentence.
Can you count forward by skipping 2? Answer: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22
Can you count backward by skipping 5, starting from 80 ending on 45. Answer: 80, 75, 70, 65, 60, 55, 50, 45.
even numbers Numbers that can be divided exactly by two.
20
Even Numbers end with 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8.
8 2 72 134 56 16 10 188 2 616 82
MATHS DICTIONARY
odd numbers
Odd Numbers end in 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9
7 1 71 133 55 19 183 2 619 17 83
Numbers that cannot be exactly divided by two.
place value The place value tells where the digit is in the number, such as is it in units place, tens place, hundreds place, etc.
Example: What is the place value of numbers 1, 4, and 3 in the number 143? Hundreds Units Tens 1 3 4
number 143
addition
+
+
A method by which you put together two or more numbers to get one number.
= 3+2 = 5
2+2 = 4
MATHS DICTIONARY
21
add
+
To put together two or more numbers to get one number.
39 +
41 =
1+1
5
80
=2
10
+
1 = 5
71 + 133=204
subtraction A method by which you take one number away from another to get another number.
75 = 2
21 = 1
subtract

Taking one number away from another to get another number.
15  12 = 3 61 =5
11 =
71  3= 68 11=
22
39 
0
10

28
5 = 5
MATHS DICTIONARY
multiply
x
To make a number bigger by a given number of times.
Example: Each student needs 2 books. I have 3 students. How many books do I need? 2x3=6 2 is made bigger by 3 times. 2+2+2=6
Example: 8 x 9 = 72 8 is made bigger by 9 times. 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 72 1
2
5
6
7
8
9
What is the multiplier in the following?
The number that you are multiplying by.
2x3=6 3 x 5 = 15
The multiplier is 3. The multiplier is 5.
Make 2 bigger by 5 times: 2 x 5 =10
multiplication
Make 6 bigger by 3 times 6 x 3 = 18 10 x 11 = 110 10 is made bigger 11 times. 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 110 1
MATHS DICTIONARY
4
Example: In 2 x 4 = 8 The multiplier is 4.
multiplier x
A mathematical way of making a number bigger by a certain/ given number.
3
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
23
divide
÷ or /
Example: I have 8 balls and want to divide these equally between 2 students. How many does each get?
To split or make something into equal parts.
8 ÷ 2 = 4 8 is split into 2 equal parts 4+4=8
Example: 72 ÷ 8 = 9 72 is divided into 8 equal parts. 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 = 72 1,
divisor
4,
5,
6, 7,
8
Example: In 6 ÷ 3 = 2 The divisor is 2.
The number you divide by.
What is the divisor in the following? 40 ÷ 5 = 8 The divisor is 5. 35 ÷ 7 = 5 The divisor is 7.
division ÷ or /
Split 21 into 7 equal parts. 21 ÷ 7 = 3
The method by which you are splitting or making something into equal parts.
Split 15 into 3 equal parts. 15 ÷ 3 = 5 110 ÷ 11 = 10
110 is split into 11 equal parts.
10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 110 1
24
2, 3,
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
MATHS DICTIONARY
dividend The number you are dividing.
multiplication tables A list of numbers that shows you the results of multiplying one number with a other numbers in sequence. Usually from 1 to 12.
forward counting To say numbers in ascending order. To say numbers by adding 1 to each number.
MATHS DICTIONARY
Example: In 6 ÷ 3 = 2 The dividend is 6. What is the dividend in the following? 40÷ 5 = 8 The dividend is 40. 35 ÷ 7 = 5 The dividend is 35. Multiplication Table of 2
Multiplication Table of 6
2 is multiplied by a sequence of numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4... 12
6 is multiplied by a sequence of numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4... 12
2x1 =2 2x2 =4 2x3 =6 2x4 =8 2 x 5 = 10 2 x 6 = 12 2 x 7 = 14 2 x 8 = 16 2 x 9 = 18 2 x 10 =20 2 x 11 =22 2 x 12 = 24
6x1=6 6 x 2 = 12 6 x 3 = 18 6 x 4 = 24 6 x 5 = 30 6 x 6 = 36 6 x 7 = 42 6 x 8 = 48 6 x 9 = 54 6 x 10 = 60 6 x 11 = 66 6 x 12 = 72
Example: Forward counting from 6.
Example: Forward counting from 90. 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109...
25
backward counting To say numbers in descending order. To say numbers by subtracting 1 from each number.
write in words To write the number or amount in a language using the alphabet.
find missing numbers To look for the number which are not there or not given.
Example: Backward counting from 11.
Example: Backward counting from 90. 90, 89, 88, 87, 86, 85, 84, 83, 82, 81, 80, 79, 78, 77, 76, 75, 74, 73, 72, 71, 70, 69...
Example: if we need to write 250 in words in English, then we would write:
Two hundred and fifty.
Example: if we need to write 97 in words in English, then we would write:
Ninty seven.
Find the missing numbers: 102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 112
The missing numbers are: 105, 109, 110, 111
26
MATHS DICTIONARY
identify odd and even numbers To tell if a number is an odd number or an even number.
digit A number that can be from 0 to 9. It can be part of a number.
Identify odd and even numbers: 2, 49, 80, 13, 6, 5, 78, 3, 20, 9, 83
Answer: Even numbers: 2, 80, 6, 78, 20 Odd numbers: 49, 13, 5, 3, 9, 83
Does the digit 7 occur in any of the following numbers? 17, 109, 65, 47, 653.
The digit 7 occurs only in the numbers: 17, 47
equation In Maths, an equation says that two things are the same by using an equal (=) sign.
MATHS DICTIONARY
Examples: 6÷3 =2 6 x 4 = 24 35 + 7 = 42
27
Sizes size How large or small something is.
object A thing that you can see and touch.
height How far something is from the bottom to the top. The distance of something from bottom to top.
28
MATHS DICTIONARY
weight How heavy somebody or something is.
The box is heavy. To carry the weight a truck is needed to lift it.
length How long something is. The distance from one end to the other end.
You can measure the length with a ruler or tape measure.
width How wide something is. The distance from one end to the other end.
MATHS DICTIONARY
height (h)
width (w)
length (l)
29
Currency money A small round coin or a piece of paper (called a note) that you use to buy something.
currency
The currency used in America is Dollars. Pakistan uses Rupees.
The money that a country uses.
rupees Rupee is the currency of Pakistan. We write rupees in short as Rs.
30
MATHS DICTIONARY
note A piece of paper that you use to buy something.
coin A small round metal thing that you use to buy something.
MATHS DICTIONARY
31
Shapes shape The thing you see when you draw a line around something.
geometry The study about shapes and anything which is related to shapes.
geometric Anything which is in geometry. Anything which is related to shapes.
32
MATHS DICTIONARY
circle A round shape which is always the same distance from the centre.
square A shape with four straight sides and all sides are equal in length.
rectangle A shape with four straight sides and in which opposite sides are equal in length.
triangle A shape with three straight sides.
MATHS DICTIONARY
33
oval A round shape which is not a circle and looks like an egg.
identify shapes
In the shapes given below Identify the oval.
To say which shape you see.
34
MATHS DICTIONARY
Index add
22
find missing numbers
26
addition
21
forward
9
ascending
11
forward counting
25
ascending order
18
from
6
backward
10
from number
16
backward counting
26
geometric
32
cardinal number
20
geometry
32
circle
33
height
28
coin
31
hundreds
17
compare
7
identify
11
compare numbers
18
identify odd and even numbers
27
comparision
7
identify shapes
34
comparision of numbers
19
length
29
count
15
maths
13
counting
15
measure
14
currency
30
missing
6
descending
12
missing number
17
descending order
18
money
30
digit
27
multiplication
23
divide
24
multiplication tables
25
dividend
25
multiplier
23
division
24
multiply
23
divisor
24
note
31
equation
27
number
15
even
8
object
28
even numbers
20
odd
9
find
11
odd numbers
21
order
12
ordinal number
19
oval
34
place value
21
quantity
12
recognize
13
rectangle
33
rupees
30
shape
32
size
28
skip
8
skipping numbers
20
solve
13
square
33
subtract
22
subtraction
22
symbols
19
table
9
tens
17
to
6
to number
16
triangle
33
units
16
weight
29
width
29
word
10
write in words
26
In the making of this book the author acknowledges the efforts of: Staff of Azeem Paradise School, Youth Together for Human Rights Education and Mr. Usaid Ghauri. Your dedicated efforts will create brilliant students. Thank you! Write to the author at [email protected]
Youth Together for Human Rights Education
For Teachers, Students & Parents
www.ythre.org [email protected]
www.ilovewords.org
03112050292
021 34383909
ISBN: 9780993261510
40
www.ythre.org www.ilovewords.org
MATHS DICTIONARY