Martial, Book VII. A Commentary: Translated by J. J. Zoltowsky 9004123385, 9789004123380

This volume is the first comprehensive commentary on the seventh book of Martial's epigrams. The introduction discu

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Martial, Book VII. A Commentary: Translated by J. J. Zoltowsky
 9004123385, 9789004123380

Table of contents :
Title Page......Page 3
Copyright Page......Page 4
Table of Contents......Page 7
Acknowledgements......Page 9
1. The dating of book 7......Page 11
2. The epigrams of book 7: subject-matter and ordering......Page 19
3. Transmission of the epigrams......Page 22
4. The present commentary......Page 27
Text......Page 31
Commentary......Page 55
Bibliography......Page 531
General Index......Page 557
Index Locorum......Page 565
Index Nominum......Page 614

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Die Deutsche Bibliothek - CIP-Einheitsaufnalnne Galim Vioque, Guillermo: Martial, book VII. a commentary / by Guillermo Galan Vioque. Tr. by JJ. Zoltowski.~ Leiden ; Boston; Koln: Brill, 2002 (Mnemosyne : Supplementum ; Vo!. 226) ISBN 90-04-12338-5

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Parentibus optimis


Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..


Introduction 1. The dating of book 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. The epigrams of book 7: subject-matter and ordering 3. Transmission of the epigrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. The present commentary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


....... ....... . . . . . .. . . . . . ..


Text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..


Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..




Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Indices General Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547 Index Locorum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Index Nominum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604


The present work originated as a doctoral thesis presented in the Faculty of Philology of the University of Seville. I would like to express my debt and gratitude to my mentors, Professors Antonio Ramfrez de Verger and Juan Fernandez Valverde, who helped me not only with their Classical learning, but also with their reliance and example. Gratitude is also due to the members of the examining tribunal, who made perceptive corrections and valuable suggestions. I should also mention my debt to my friend and colleague Dr. Fernando Navarro Antolfn, as well as to Sven Lorenz, who read through the whole work in the final stages. I am also very grateful to all my colleagues and students at the University of Huelva, to the professors of the Department of Greek and Latin Philology at the University of Seville, and to the Institute of Classical Studies of the University of London. Finally, I should like to acknowledge the help of the translator of this work, Mr J. J. Zoltowski, classicist and teacher of English, who went beyond the call of duty in making suggestions and improvements. As usually stated, errors and omissions are attributable to me alone. This research has been made possible thanks to the financial support received from the "Consejerfa de Educaci6n y Ciencia de la Junta de Andalucia", the "Proyecto de Investigaci6n Diccionario de topicos amatorios (PB 97-0442-C02-0l)", the "Grupo de Investigaci6n Antonio Jacobo del Barco" (HUM 261), the "Asociaci6n de Industrias Qufmicas Basicas de Huelva" (AIQB) and the "Vicerrectorado de Investigaci6n" of the University of Huelva. Guillermo Galan Vioque Huelva, Campus del Carmen, 2001



The dating of book 7

As is so often the case when dealing with an author of classical antiquity, the

dating of the books of Martial presents a number of problems. The most generally-accepted proposal, and the initial reference for all discussionwhether to support or refute it-, is that put forward by L. Friedlander in his monumental edition and commentary, in which, apart from his own contributions, he picks up on several valuable suggestions by H. F. Stobbe.! L. Friedlander proposes to date Martial's first literary experience to the year 80,2 sixteen years after his arrival in Rome from distant Bilbilis. 3 In June of that year the emperor Titus organized some spectacular public

! For the chronology of the works of Martial, cf. L. Friedlander, De temporibus librorum Martialis Domitiano imperante editorum et Silvarum Statii (Konigsberg 1862), De temporibus librorum Martialis X et XI (Konigsberg 1865), "Chronologie der Epigramme Martials", in M. Valer. Martialis Epigrammaton libri, (Leipzig 1886) (= Amsterdam 1967) (expanded version of his SC III 424-440), H. F. Stobbe, "Die Gedichte Martial's", Philologus 26 (1867) 44-80, Th. Mommsen, "Zur Chronologie Martials", in "Zur Lebensgeschichte desjiingeren Plinius", Hermes 3 (1869) 120-126 (= Ges. Schrift.4 [1906] 452), A. Dau, De Marci Valerii Martialis libellorum ratione temporibusque I (Diss. Rostochii 1887) (with the reviews by W. Gilbert, Wochenschr. fur klass. Philol. 5 [1888] 1068-1075, L. Friedlander, Berl. philol. Wochenschr.9 [1889] 1201-1207). Cr. also M. Citroni, Maia 40 (1988) 3-39, ICS 14 (1989) 201-226, SuIlivan, Unexpected Classic, 6-55· 2 Cf. L. Friedlander 16, F. della Corte 5-6; contra L. Herrmann, "Les Iivres des spectacles", Latomus 21 (1962) 495. See also A. Boethius, "Et crescunt media pegmata ceLsa via", Eranos 50 (1952) 129-137, who brings forward the composition of Epigr. 2 to the year 78 or 79. For the Epigrammaton liber, cf. the excellent critical edition with introduction by U. CarrateIIo (Genova 1980), the commentary by F. della Corte (Genova 1986) and the numerous articles by U. Carratello, especially "L' Epigrammaton liber di Marziale nella tradizione tardo-medievale e umanistica", CIF 5 (1974) 1-77, "Riesame di questioni sull' Epigrammaton liberdi Marziale", CIF 20 (1989) 273-289, "Dell' Epigrammaton liber di Marziale e dei suoi editori", CIF 43 (1991) 315-328. Cr. also L. Friedlander, Martialis Buch der Schauspiele mit Anmerkungen (Konigsberg 1884). A new commentary on the Epigrammaton liber is being prepared by K M. Coleman (Trinity College, Dublin). 3 According to the poet's own testimony, he moved to Rome in 64; cf. 10.103.7-10. On Martial's life, cf. w.]. M. van Stockum, De Martialis Vita et Scriptis (The Hague 1884), A. Brandt, De Martialis poetae vita et moribus (Berlin 1953), V. Scamuzzi, "Contributo a una obiettiva conoscenza della vita e dell' opera di M. Valerio Marziale", RSC 14 (1966) 149,]' P. SuIlivan, Unexpected Classic, 1-55, RE 2.15a.55-85 (Helm), L. Friedlander 3-16. Cf. M. von AIbrecht, Geschichte der romischen Literatur (Miinchen 1992) 2.821-839,]' Fermindez Valverde, "Las fechas de la vida de Marcial", in Arque6logos, historiadores y fi16logos. Homenaje a Fernando Casc6 (Sevilla 1996) 631-633,]. Fernandez Valverde, A. Ramirez de Verger, Marcial. Epigramas I (Madrid 1997) 7-16. On Bilbilis as Martial knew it, cf. F. Eyaralar, Descripci6n de la Augusta Bilbilis y la vida de su hijo el poeta Marco Valerio Marcial (Calatayud 1845), M. Doll; Y Doll;, "Semblanza arqueol6gica de Bilbilis", AEA 27 (1954) 179, M. A. Martin Bueno, Bilbilis. Estudio HistOricoarqueol6gico (Zaragoza 1975),]. P. SuIlivan, Unexpected Classic, 179-184. On the toponym, cf.



games to celebrate the inauguration of the as-yet unfinished Amphitheatrum Flavium, or Colosseum. 4 Martial reflects the festive atmosphere of the Urbs and celebrates the grandeur of both the games5 and the amphitheatre,6 extolling the virtues of the emperor with obviously encomiastic ends,? in a book of epigrams which the evidence suggests has been handed down to us in fragmentary form,8 known as Epigrammaton liber. 9 Martial must already have become known in the literary circles of the Urbs by means of recitationes and the exchanging of libelli or 'fascicules' among friends and patrons,1O particularly after entering the circle of Stoic compatriots who had already triumphed in Rome, among them both Se necas, father and son, and Annaeus Mela, the father of Lucan. 11 He went on to publish Xenia and Apophoreta, two books of epigrams composed almost exclusively in elegiac distichs and used like labels to accompany the presents typically given during the Satumalia. 12 Xenia is limited almost

M. Dol.;;, Hispania, 107-119, "La investigaci6n sobre la toponimia hispana de Marcial", EClds 4 (1957) 68. 4 Cf. RE 6.2516-2525 (Gall.) , Platner-Ashby, TopographicalDictionary, 6-7, E. Nash, Pictorial Dictionary ofAncient Rnme (New York 1968) 17, M. DiMacco, 11 Cowsseo. Funzione simbolica, storica, urbana (Roma 1971). 5 Cf., for instance, Epigr. 6(5), 24(21). For these games, cf. also Suet. Titus 7, D. C. 66.25. Cf. H. Szelest, ANRW 32.4 (Berlin 1986) 2570, n. 11, G.Jennison, AnimalsforShow and Pleasure in Ancient Rnme (Manchester 1937) 22. 6 Cf., for instance, Epigr. 1, 2. 7 Cf., for instance, Epigr. 20(17), 23(20). Cf. O. Weinreich, Studien, 21,74, F. Sauter, Kaiserkult, 27, 153, 166, K Scott, Imperial Cult, 55, 113. 8 Cf. U. Carratello 14, W. M. Lindsay, Ancient Editions, 49, Ma]. MunozJimenez, El manuscrito IO.098, 38-43,]' P. Sullivan, Unexpected Classic, 8-g, F. della Corte 7. 9 The name, adopted by most modern editors since F. G. Schneidewin (with the exception of M. Dol.;;, C. Giarratano and F. della Corte, who prefer De spectaculis) , first appears in the Ferrara edition of 1471, which begins M. Valerii Martialis epigrammaton liber incipit. The collection is also called Spectaculorum liber, a title invented by I. Gruterius (Frankfurt 1602), or De spectaculis libellus, as P. Scriverius preferred in his Leiden edition of 1619. Ms. T contains the title De amphitheatro. On this topic cf. U. Carratello 33-35, Della Corte 42, and especially the comment by W. Heraeus on the generally-accepted title, Epigrammaton liber: Hie liber, (. .. ) a grammaticis non usurpatus, vulgo "de spectaculis" inscribebatur (hodieque commode ita citatur) inde a Gruterio usque ad Schneidewin, qui "epigrammaton liber" titulum fecit fidei non melioris, ut genuinum quaerendum putem

(cf. W. Heraeus XXI) . 10 Cf.]. P. Sullivan, Unexpected Classic, 4-6. On this form of circulation of literature prior to its publication as a book, cf. P. White,jRS 64 (1974) 40-61,jRS 68 (1978) 74-g2, M. Citroni, Maia 40 (1985) 3-4, P. Fedeli, "I sistemi di produzioni e diffusione", in Lo spazio letterario di Rnma antica (Roma 1989) 2'343-378. 11 Cf. E.]. Weinrib, The Spaniards in Rnme from Marius to Domitian (Diss. Harvard 1968). The downfall of this group came when the conspiracy of the Pisones was discovered in 65. Although their relationship with Martial was a brief one, he always held them in high regard; cf. 12.36. For the lasting memory of this circle in Martial's poetry, cf. ad 7.21, especially 4.40, and also 12.36.8-9. Cf. M. Citroni, Maia 40 (1985) 8. 12 For this practice, cf. Petron. 56.7-10, Suet. Aug. 75. Cf. S. L. Mohler, in Classical Studies in honour ofJ. C. Rnlfe (Philadelphia 1931) 248-250. Cf. especially F. Grewing, Prometheus 25 (2000) 259-281.



exclusively to gifts of food, while Apophoreta introduces a great variety of presents, some cheap, others expensive. The dating of these works has been the subject of some debate. 13 The only objective information we have, as a terminus post quem, is the adoption of the cognomen of Germanicus l4 by the emperor Domitian, a question which has been discussed at great length. 15 L. Friedlander posited a joint edition of the two books in December of the year 84 or 85. M. Citroni, in contrast, on the grounds of the differences between the two books, especially the greater complexity of Apophoreta, argues for separate publication of the two works on the occasion of the Saturnalia of two consecutive years: either 83 and 84 or 84 and 85. 16 As date of publication of both, Sullivan proposes December 85.17 Later dating has also been defended, such as 94 or 95,18 or at least after the publication of book 4. 19 According to the dating ofL. Friedlander,20 it was only after 85/86 that Martial, now a well-known and respected author, began to publish his books of epigrams in a numbered series, a process which continued even after his return to Spain in 98. M. Citroni suggests the beginning of 86 as the date of publication of book 1, and the end of the same year or beginning of the following for book 2.21 L. Friedlander, echoing a hypothesis of H. F. Stobbe,22 argued for joint publication, a theory questioned recte by M. Citroni. 23 It has also been suggested that book 2 was published before book 124 and even that both 1 and 2 were published after book 3. 25 In view of the complex chronological problems presented by these first two books of Martial, J. P. Sullivan concludes that both were published around the year 86. 26 It is also possible that what we know as book 1 is not the original but the result of a re-edition supplemented by self-eulogizing epigrams such as poems 1, 2 and 113. 27

13 Cf. A. Martin, "Quand Martial publia-t-il ses Apophoreta?", ACD 16 (1980) 61-64, R A. Pitcher, "The Dating of Martial Books XIII and XIV", Hermes 113 (1985) 330. 14 Cf. 13+ Serus ut aetheriae Germanicus imperet aulae / utque diu terris, da pia tura Iovi. IS On this question, cf. H. Braunert, "Zum Chattenkrieg Domitians", Bonner Jahrbb. 153 (1953) 97-101, R A. Holder, "Domitian and the Title Germanicus", LCM 2 (1977) 151. Cf. Citroni XlII-XN, especially n. 13. Cf. ad 7.61.3. 16 Cf. M. Citroni, Maia 40 (1988) 11-12. 17 Cf. J. P. Sullivan, Unexpected Classic, 12. 18 Cf. A. Dau, De ... ratione temporibusque, 35-56 (especially 54-55)' 19 Cf. RA. Pitcher, "The Dating of Martial Books XIII and XIV", Hermes 113 (1985) 330-339. 20 Cf. L. Friedliinder 53-54. 21 Cf. M. Citroni XIV-XVIII. 22 Cf. L. Friedliinder 16, H. F. Stobbe, Philologus 26 (1867) 62-63. 23 Cf. M. Citroni XIV-XVIII. 24 Cf. H. F. Stobbe, Philologus 26 (1867) 62. Cf. M. Citroni XV, n. 20. 25 Cf. E. T. Sage, TAPhA 50 (1919) 174. 26 Cf. J. P. Sullivan, Unexpected Classic, 15. 27 Cf. A. Dau, De... ratione temporibusque, 77, M. Citroni 11-13 ad 1.1.



As for book 3, which was published, according to Martial himself, during a sojourn in Forum Cornelii, modern Imola,28 L. Friedlander dates it to between 87 and 88. 29 M. Citroni, for his part, would bring the publication date forward to September or October 87. 30 For the dating of book 4 we have the terminus post quem, not only of Domitian's birthday (October), celebrated by the poet in 4.1, but the arrival in Rome of news of the rising of Antonius Saturninus, and as a terminus ante quem the crushing of this rebellion. We know from the Acta fratrum Arvalium that the emperor left Rome to crush the revolt on 12th January 89, and that the news of victory reached the Urbs around the 24th or 25th of the same month. Virtually all historians date the rising to January 1st, when the oath of fidelity to the emperor was sworn. 31 L. Friedlander dated the book to December 88. In view of the dates put forward by the historians, he put the date of publication back to the period between the 10th and 24th of January, arguing that in 4.88 Martial refers to the Saturnalia as already having finished. 32 M. Citroni defends L. Friedlander's chronology in this respect, dating the book to December 88, on the grounds that even if the rebellion materialized on January 1st, rumours ofthe imminent rising could have been circulating in Rome for some time previously.33 Nevertheless, the most widely accepted dating, supported most recently by J. P. Sullivan, is January 89. 34 For the dating of books 5 and 6 our only terminus ante quem is the publication of book 7 in December 92. L. Friedlander dates book 5 to the autumn of 89. 35 M. Citroni puts the date back to December of the same year, following a proposal by S. Gsell,36 not only to make publication coincide with the Saturnalia but also because of the reference to dignos triumphos, in the plural, in 5.19.3, a veiled allusion, according to M. Citroni, to the double triumph held by the emperor after the victory over the Chatti and the Dacians

28 Cf. 3+ For a topographical description of the

town, cf. G. Norcio, "Marziale ad Imola",

Strenna storica bolognese 10 (1960) 185. 29 Cf. L. Friedlander 54-55.

30 Cf. M. Citroni, "Marziale e i luoghi della Cispadana", in Cispadana e letteratura antica, Atti del Convegno di Studi tenuto ad [mola nel maggio I986 (Bologna 1987) 138 (summarized in M. Citroni, [CS 14 [1989] 222-223, n. 38). 31 Cf. Th. Bergk, "Der Aufstand des Antonius", Jahrbucher des Vereins von Altertumsfreunden im Rheinlande 58 (1876) 136, E. Ritterling, "Zur romischen Legionsgeschichte am Rhein, 11", Westdeutsche Zeitschrift fur Geschichte und Kunst 12 (1893) 203. Cf. S. Gsell, L' empereur, 238-261, B. W.Jones, Domitian, 144-150. 32 Cf. E. Ritterling, supra. 33 Cf. M. Citroni,ICS 14 (1989) 219-220. On the possibility that there already was knowledge of the conspiracy of Saturninus in Rome in December 88, cf. G. Waser, "Der Putsch des Saturninus gegen Domitian", in Provincialia. Festschrift fur Rudolf Laur-Belart (Basel-Stuttgart 1968) 497. For the speed at which news spread, cf. A. M. Ramsay, "The Speed of the Roman Imperial Post",JRS 15 (1925) 60-74· 34 Cf.]. P. Sullivan, Unexpected Classic, 33. 35 Cf. L. Friedlander 56. 36 Cf. S. Gsell, L' empereur, 198, M. Citroni, [CS 14 (1989) 220-221.



in December 95, to which the poet was to give considerable attention in the following book. 37 J. P. Sullivan puts back the date of publication of this book to the Saturnalia of the year 90.38 As for book 6, Friedliinder considers it to have been published in the summer or autumn of 90, while J. P. Sullivan defends the later dating of December 91.39 M. Citroni, for his part, insists that we do not have sufficient information to put forward a sure dating, except to state that its publication must have been sometime between December 90, when book 5 was published, and December 92, when book 7 appeared. 40 In the case of book 7, there is external information which enables us to date it with a reasonable degree of certainty. Thus, in the group of epigrams opening the book, Martial makes reference to the ending of a campaign in Sarmatia, calling for and celebrating the imminent return of the emperor. He makes an appeal for his return in 7.2.7-8: I comes et magnis illaesa merere triumph os palmataeque ducem, sed cito, redde togae. 41 He celebrates his return in 7.6.5-8: Publica victrices testantur gaudia chartae, Martia laurigera cuspide pila virent. Rursus, io, magnos clamat tibi Roma triumph os invictusque tua, Caesar, in urbe sonas. and in 7.8.1-8: Nunc hilares, si quando, mihi, nunc ludite, Musae: victor ad Odrysio redditur orbe deus. Certa facis populi tu primus vota, December: iam licet ingenti dicere voce 'venit'. Felix sorte tua! poteras non cedere lano, gaudia si nobis quae dabit ille dares. Festa coronatus ludet convicia miles, inter laurigeros cum comes ibit equos. Later, in 7.80.1-4, when recommending his book of epigrams to a friend who had taken part in the campaign, the poet places great emphasis on the pacification of the region: Quatenus Odrysios iam pax Romana triones temperat et tetricae conticuere tubae, hunc Marcellino poteris, Faustine, libelIum mittere: iam chartis, iam vacat ille iocis. 37 On this much-debated triumph, cf. E. Kostlin, Die Donaukriege Domitians (Diss. Tiibingen 1910) 69, 74-8l. 38 Cf. J. P. SulIivan, Unexpected Classic, 35. 39 Cf. J. P. SulIivan, Unexpected Classic, 37. 40 Cf. M. Citroni, [CS 14 (1989) 223. 41 Cf. also 5.3: redde deum votis poscentibus; and 6.g-1O: sed iam laetitiae quo sit fiducia maim; / Sarmaticae laurus nuntius ipse veni.



In all these epigrams Martial is referring to Domitian's third campaign against the Sarmatians. 42 The first conflict on the north-east frontier of the empire broke out at the end of 85, when the Dacian tribes crossed the Danube and invaded Moesia. Domitian embarked upon a campaign in January 86 and returned to Rome for the Capitoline games, leaving behind the pretorian prefect Cornelius Fuscus, who drove the Dacians out of Roman territory but fell in combat, after his army had been defeated in pitched battle. Hostilities were successfully resumed in 89 and the emperor held a double triumph at the end of the year for his victories over the Chatti and the Dacians. 43 The Senate granted him the title of Dacicus, although Domitian did not include it in his official nomenclature, perhaps realizing that the conflict was not really over.H In May 92, in fact, he undertook a new campaign which lasted eight months, until his return in January 93. 45 Mter his success in this campaign, Domitian received his twenty-second and final salutatio. According to the evidence provided by coins which have been preserved, he received this between 12th September 9246 and 13th July 93.47 The only possible chronology, therefore, is that he left Rome on campaign in May 92 and returned in January 93, after the eight months mentioned by Martial. 48 Book 7 would therefore have seen the light of day in December 92. This dating is confirmed beyond all doubt by the intensification of Domitian's domestic policy after the death of Agricola, which occurred with all certainty on 23rd August 93. 49 It is unlikely that Domitian would have absented himself from Rome again after this date, and even less likely that he would have been welcomed back to the city in a festive atmosphere, since the emperor concerned himself increasingly with domestic matters, using the ever more firmly established system of denunciation to cut off any attempt at conspiracy at the root. This period later became known as an age of terror. 50

42 Cf. K. Strobel, "Der Chattenkrieg Domitians", Germania 65 (1987) 423-452 [cf. bibliography in 423, n. 1], B. W.Jones, Domitian, 226, n. 76. 43 Cf. L. Rossi, "Guerra e vittoria dacica di Domiziano neW 88-89(?). Breve riesame delle fonti", CRDAC 11 (1980/81) 441-445. 44 Martial only uses it in the epistle-preface to book 8: IMPERATORI DOMITIANO CAESARI AVGVSTO GERMANICO DACICO VALERIVS MARTIAL/S. 45 On this conflict, cf. S. Gsell, L' empereur, 202-234, B. W.Jones, Domitian, 135-139; 150-153. 46 Cf. CIL 3 p. 858: Imp. Caes. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr: pot. XI. imp. XXI. cos . .Kw. 47 Cf. CIL 3 p. 859: trib. pot. XII imp. XXII. cos. XVI. 48 Cf. 9.31.1: luna quater binos non tota peregerat orbes. 49 Cf. S. Gsell, L' empereur, 226, 263. Cn. Julius Agricola, consul in 77 (cf. Tac. Agr. 9) and governor of Britain, launched a series of campaigns in this distant province. The bibliography on him is vast; cf., among more recent works,]. G. F. Hind, "Summers and Winters in Tacitus' account of Agricola's campaigns in Britain", Northern History 21 (1985) 1-18, D. Campbell, "The Consulship of Agricola", ZPE 63 (1986) 197-200, W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (London 1987), B. W.Jones, Domitian, 58. 50 Cf. Suet. Dom. 3,10, Tac. Hist. 1-3, Mart. 12.6.11-12, luv. 4.151, Philostr. VA 7.4, Plin. Paneg. 35-95, Oros. 7.10. Cf. S. Gsell, L' empereur, 262-274.



An earlier date has been defended,51 on the supposition that the campaign to which Martial refers is actually a battle in the war against the Dacians in 89, identifying it with the campaign against the Marcomanni in Pannonia;52 the triumphal return that is being celebrated would therefore be that of Domitian with Decebalus in January 91, which would bring the publication date of book 7 forward to 90. According to this theory, these are the festivities alluded to in the epigrams which echo the celebratory atmosphere of the Urbs in book 8 (cf. 26, 30, 49[50], 65, 78). However, this hypothesis has been rejected by H. F. Stobbe on the grounds that it would be somewhat irregular for the same triumph to have been celebrated already in the preceding book. 53 It has also been suggested that book 7 might have been published as late as December 93. 54 However, it is difficult to argue that Domitian could have been absent from Rome after the fall of Agricola. Moreover, after the campaign he was awarded his twenty-second salutatio, and there are extant coins which prove that he had already received it by July 93. 55 Book 7 was therefore published in December 92, since apart from the fact that Martial himself refers to December as the possible month of the emperor's return to Rome,56 there are numerous allusions in the book to the festival of the Saturnalia, held in the Urbs in mid-December.57 Martial mentions the presents which were given during these festivities in poems 53,72,91, and probably 36; and in 28 he invites a patron to read and enjoy his epigrams during the leisure time provided by the Saturnalia. There are also many epigrams in which reference is made to the exchanging of gifts in general,58 and to the proverbial cold of December.59 T. Flav. Domitianus (Halle 1857) 65. Cf. D. C. 67.7. 53 Cf. 6.4, 6.10. Cf. H. F. Stobbe's argument: 'es ist doch nicht moglich sich diese Gedichte des Buch VI in demselbenJahre mit Buch 8,ja spater als 8.8 (januar) geschrieben zu denken' (cf. Philologus 26 [1867] 47). 54 R. Hanslik argues for the year 93, rather than 92, as the date of the Sarmatian expedition, putting forward arguments for the publication of books 8 and 9 in 94 and the spring of 95 respectively (cf. "Die neuen Fastenfragmente von Ostia in ihrer Beziehung zu gleichzeitigem epigraphischem und literarischem Material", WS 63 (1948) 117-135, contra E. Wistrand, De MartialisEpigr. VIII I5 commentatiuncula (Goteborg 1955) 5, n. 5, 9, n. 2. 55 Cf. supra. R. Hanslik changed his view in Kleine Pauly s. v. Domitianus 11 (1975) 124 (Cf. E. Wistrand, "De Martialis epigr. VIII I5 commentatiuncula", Acta Univ. Gotoburg 60 [1954] 5, n. 1). 56 Cf. 7.8.3. 57 This festival is characterized by its liberal atmosphere, one quite suited to light literature of the type represented by Martial's epigrams. On this topic, see M. Citroni, ICS 14 (1989) 201-226. According to this scholar, not only book 7 but others were published to coincide with the Saturnalia, that is, in December: books 13, 14 and 11, books 4 and 5, and perhaps also the first edition of 10 (cf. M. Citroni, ICS 14 [1989] 222). For the Saturnalia, cf. RE 2a.201-211 (Nilson). 58 Cf., for instance, 7.3, 7.16. 59 Cf. 7.28, 7.31, 7.36, 7.37, 7.53, 7.72, 7.91, 7.95. There are also references to the rainy season (cf. 7.61.6: medio ... luto), and to autumn as the time when fruit is picked (7.49,7.91) and roses bloom (7.89).

51 Cf. M. Imhof, 52



As for book 8, in which Martial celebrates the emperor's return and expresses his satisfaction over the offerings made and the games held in his honour, L. Friedlander dated it to the middle of 93,60 reasoning that the epigrams in which Martial celebrated these events would not have been published too long after their occurrence, in January 93. Nevertheless, it seems preferable to put the publication date back to December of the same year or, more plausibly, according to M. Citroni,61 to the beginning of 94, because of references to certain celebrations which could not possibly have materialized immediately after Domitian's return, in particular the construction of the temple of Fortuna Redux and a commemorative victory arch, praised by Martial in 8.65. Moreover, in 8.66 the poet alludes to the consulate of the elder son of Silius Italicus, who is generally identified with L. Silius Decianus, suffectus in 94, and not in 93, as has been argued on the grounds of elL 16.39.62 Silius Decianus came into office on 1st September 94. M. Citroni argues that Martial is not referring strictly to his taking possession of the post but simply to the nomination, which by all accounts took place in January each year. He accordingly stands by January 94 as the date of publication of book 8. J. P. Sullivan prefers the later date of December of the same year. 63 Friedlander dated book 9 to December 94,64 and was supported by M. Citroni,65 although J. P. Sullivan opts for the later date of the spring of 95, in line with his dating of the previous book as a terminus post quem. 66 As regards books 10 to 12, a first version of book 10 which has not been preserved is believed to have appeared in December 95. 67 The following year, after the fall of Domitian, book 11 was published, after which Martial oversaw a joint re-edition of books 10 and 11 as a gift to Nerva, selecting the epigrams that were most in keeping with the new political situation. 68 In mid or late 98 he published the second edition of book 10, suppressing the epigrams which might be considered politically incorrect. Finally, now back in his native Spain and after a silence of over three years, he published his final book, 12, at the end of 101 or beginning of 102, barely two years before his death. 69


Cf. L. Friedliinder 59.

61 Cf. M. Citroni, ICS 14 (1989) 221-222. 62 Cf. A. Degani, Inscriptiones latinae XIII 1 (1947) 222. 63 Cf.]. P. Sullivan, Unexpected Classic, 40. 64

Cf. L. Friedliinder 61-62.

65 Cf. M. Citroni, ICS 14 (1989) 222-223. 66 Cf.]. P. Sullivan, Unexpected Classic, 42. 67 Cf. especially H. F. Stobbe, "Martials zehntes und zwolftes Buch", Philologus 27 (1868) 630-641, Th. Mommsen, "Zur Chronologie Martials", in "Zur Lebensgeschichte des jiingeren Plinius", Hermes 3 (1869) 120-126,]. P. Sullivan, Unexpected Classic, 44-52. 68 Cf. 12 -4- Cf.]. P. Sullivan, Unexpected Classic, 50-51. 69 Cf.]. P. Sullivan, Unexpected Classic, 52-53. On Martial's death, cf. Plin. Epist. 3.21.




The epigrams of book 7: subject-matter and ordering

From the thematic point of view, Martial's work is characterized by variatio, a conscious artistic decision on the part of the poet. 70 Martial deals with a great variety of themes which generally recur, in much the same manner, throughout the twelve books of epigrams. 71 The ordering of the epigrams within each book does not follow predetermined rules or respect a fixed criterion,72 although there is a clear tendency to arrange together, in groups of two or three, those epigrams which deal with a particular topic, even when this is done from varying perspectives. Thus, in book 7 the following subgroups of epigrams can be detected: 73 1. The emperor poems (1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8).74 2. The Lucan poems (21, 22, 23).75 3. The Quintus Ovidius poems (44,45).76 4. The Lausus, or slanderer, poems (81,87,88).

However, there are other epigrams which deal with the same subject-matter and yet appear some distance from each other within the book, such as the poems on the fountain in the garden of Violentilla (15, 50),77 those containing a joke or some other comment on the Jews and circumcision (35,55,82), or the epigrams on the lesbian Philaenis (67,70). The themes which concern the poet in book 7 can be grouped into six main blocks: I. Adulation. 11. Epigrams on a literary theme. Ill. Criticism of vices or character traits while avoiding personal attacks, in line with his well-known poetic principle. 78

70 Cf. 7.go: Iactat inaequalem Matho me fecisse libellum: / si verum est, laudat carmina nostra Matho. / aequales scribit lib-ros Calvinus et Umber: / aequalis liber est, Cretice, qui malus est. 71 For an illustrated account of the different themes in Martial, cf. R. Hofmann, "Aufgliederung der Themen Martials", Wiss. Zeitschr. der Karl-Marx Univ. Leipzig 6 (lg56/57) 433-474, J. W. Duff, "Varied Strains in Martial", in L. W. jones, ed., Classical and Mediaeval Studies in Honor ofEdwardKennardRand (New York 1938) (= Ig68) 87-99. 72 For the ordering of the epigrams within each book, cf. H. Berends, Die Anordnung in Martials' Gedichtbuchern I-XlI (Jena Ig32) (for book 7,31-37)' O. Seel, "Ansatz zu einer Martial Interpretation", A&A 10 (lg61) 53-76, reproduced in G. Pfohl, Das Epigramm, 153-186, and J. Scherf, Untersuchungen zur Buchgestaltung Martials (Miinchen 2001). 73 On the tendency to order the epigrams in cycles or subgroups, cf. O. Weinreich, Studien, 90, K Barwick, Philologus 102 (1958) 284-318, V. Buchheit, Philologus 105 (1961) 90-96, K Willenberg, Hermes 101 (1973) 320-351, W. Bumikel, Witzepigramms,88-95. 74 Cf. W. Bumikel, Witzepigramms, 91; K Barwick, Philologus 102 (1958) 290, E. Sergi, Maia 45 (1993) 248. 75 Cf. K Barwick, Philologus 102 (1958) 296, V. Buchheit, Philologus 105 (1961) 90-96. 76 Cf. K Barwick, Philologus 102 (1958) 296-297. 77 On this Variationspaare, cf. especially W. Bumikel, Witzepigramms, 89-90. 78 Cf. 10.33.10: parcere personis, dicere de vitiis.



IV. The poet's relationship with patrons (epigrams containing requests for gifts, praise of the patron and wishes for a long and happy life). V. Daily life in the Urbs. VI.Jokes or anecdotes on various subjects. Let us consider these categories in greater detail: (I) Adulation of the emperor becomes more frequent from book 4 and reaches a peak between books 7 and 9,79 coinciding with Martial's higher standing in the court of Domitian. In the case of the adulatory epigrams, while it is true that the arrangement is not determined by their subjectmatter, there is certainly a tendency to place them at the beginning and end of books. 80 Thus, book 7 begins with a short cycle of epigrams dedicated to the emperor. This group of encomiastic poems comprises epigrams 1-2 and 5-8.81 Likewise, Martial closes the book with an epigram (99) which is clearly conclusive in character, in which he vindicates his role in the literary life of the time, requesting that Crispinus should intercede on his behalf before the emperor. Also directed to the emperor with adulation in mind are epigrams 56, on the splendour of the domus Flavia, praised through the figure of its architect, who is only known to us through Martial; 60, where he addresses Domitian as Jupiter's right-hand man; and 61, in which he praises a town-planning measure of the emperor's which has restored splendour to Rome. (11) The poet is fully involved in the daily life of the Urbs, as is reflected in a substantial number of epigrams alluding to the contemporary literary scene. One of the features of book 7 is in fact the greater number of epigrams on a literary theme, either epigrams in which Martial deals with his own work-that is, metaliterary epigrams revealing the key principles in his poetic art-(25), or else poems in which he defends himself against criticism (12, 81, 85, 90), or concerns himself with the circulation of his work (29, 51, 52, 68, 88) or simply epigrams in which he dedicates his work to various patrons (26, 80, 84, 97) or appeals to them for protection from his critics (17, 72). Book 7 is also the one with the greatest number of dedicatory epigrams in his whole oeuvre. 82 In addition he deals with the exchange Cf. M. Citroni, Maia40 (1988) 20-21. A thesis defended by E. Merli, Maia 45 (1993) 229-256. Cf. previously some hints in this direction in E. Pertsch, De Valerio Martiale Gracorum Poetarum imitatore (diss. Berlin 191 1 ) . 81 Cf. K. Barwick, Philologus 102 (1958) 290. 82 There are twelve dedicatory epigrams in book 7 (11 [to Aulus Pudens], 17 [to Iulius Martialis], 26 [to Domitius Apollinaris], 28 [to Fuscus], 29 [to Thestylus], 42 [to Castricus], 52 [to Auctus and Celer], 68 [to Istantius Rufus], 80 [to Marcellinus]' 84 [to Caecilius Secundus], 97 [to Caesius Sabinus], 99 [to the emperor]. In the other books we find four dedications in book 1 (4,5 [to the emperor], 52 [to Quintianus], 70 [to Proculus]), two in book 2 (praef [to Decianus], 93 [to Aquilius Regulus]), three in book 3 (2 [to Faustinus], 5 [to Iulius Martialis], 100 [to Rufus]), five in book 4 (8 [to the emperor], 10 [to Faustinus], 14 [to Silius Italicus]' 79




of books (3, 77) and even graphically represents the attacks inflicted on his work (34), jokes with a patron who has suggested he might polish up his poems (1 1), and asks another to cast critical judgement on his compositions (28). (Ill) In addition, Martial satirizes the society around him, ridiculing vices like hypocrisy (cf. 4, 39, 62, 82), excessive wealth (48,73), unbridled ambition for riches (g8), homosexual relationships between adults (71) and other irregular forms of sexual behaviour (41, 94), social climbing (57,64), the practice of wearing full-length togas (33) and the habit of kissing friends (95), as well as condemning reprobates like busybodies (cf. 10), gossips (24, 81, 87, 88), Greek-style sports enthusiasts (32), the grossly greedy (20, 49, 59), the superstitious (54), braggarts (cf. 76), those who show off their wealth with no trace of tact or common sense (78), those who are unable to say 'no' (43, g2), inheritance-seekers (66) and individuals who overdo their perfume in the belief that this will help to hide their vices (41).83 He also condemns women, either for their excessive libido (30,58), or because it is not only excessive but quite unfitting for their age (75), or else because it pushes them to takes the man's place in sexual relationships (67, 70). The poet also censures prudish women (35) and those who attempt to conceal their blemishes by beautifYing themselves contra naturam (13), and ridicules the most intimate female defects (18). Another object of criticism is the legal profession (g, 65) and hairdressers (83).84 (IV) Another series of epigrams is given over to praise of patrons. These are quite possibly private commissions written at the behest of the interested party. In this context the poet praises Argentaria Polla, Lucan's widow, while recalling the injustice of the poet's death (21, 22, 23), Quintus Ovidius (44, 45), Silius Italicus (63), Theophila, his friend Canius Rufus' bride-to-be (6g), the dead father of Etruscus (40), and Licinius Sura, recently recovered from a near-fatal illness (47). Within this group too are epigrams 74, in which the

82 [to Venuleius], 86 [to Apollinaris]), six in book 5 (1,5,6 [to the emperor] (and cf. 15), 18 [to Quintianus], 30 [to Varro], 80 [to Severus and Segundus]), one in book 6 (l [to Iulius Martialis]), four in book 8 (praef, 1,82 [to the emperor], 72 [to Arcanus]), five in book 9 (praef [to Toranius and Stertinius Avitus], 26 [to Nerva], 58 [to Caesius Sabinus], 84 [to Norbanus], 99 [to Atticus and Antonius Primus]), six in book 10 (18 [to Macer], 20 [to Pliny], 64 [to Polla Argentaria], 87 [to Restitutus]' 93 [to Clemens and Sabina], 104 [to Flavus]), five in book 11 (1 [to Parthenius], 15, 17 [to Sabinus], 57 [to Severus], 106 [to Vibius Maximus]), and two in book III (praef., 1 [to Terentius Priscus]' 2 [to Arruntius Priscus]). 83 Cf. also an indirect criticism of an attempt to conceal vices in 7 + 84 Missing from the present book is the typical criticism of doctors; cf. A. Diilderer, iiber Martials Epigramme auf Arzte (Diss. Tiibingen 1933), A. Spallici, I medici e la medicina in Marziale (Milano 1934).



poet complies with the commission of the faithful wife Norbana, praying that the couple may enjoy a long life; 89, where he sends a garland of roses to Apollinaris and wishes him many years of youth, and 96, a heart-felt epitaph dedicated to the son of a patron. In honour of his patrons he also composes epigrams in which he plays with literary or mythological themes. To Stella he dedicates a jest with literary echoes (14) and poems of praise with mythological references (15, 50), while in 38 he jokes with mythological names to refer to the size of Severus' slaves. He also makes fun of the gifts sent to him by his patrons in 36 (Stella), 16 and 31 (Regulus) and 79 (Severus). In turn, he criticizes the patron who has stopped inviting him because he does not receive the gifts he expects (86) and one who is none too prompt when it comes to sending presents (42), or else he rails against the town which is keeping his friend Quintus from seeing him (93). (V) Concerning life in the Urbs, he deals with the typical Saturnalia practice of exchanging worthless gifts between friends in 53, 55, 78, 86 and 91. (VI) Finally, there are other epigrams which do not fall into any particular category, such as 19, 27 and 37. In the first the poet praises a fragment of the ship Argo, comparing it favourably with the vessel as a whole, the second is a recusatio of a boar which is larger than he can afford or cope with, and the third is a satirical epigram in which he comments ironically on the eccentricities of a quaestor rerum capitalium when he is obliged to give the order for execution.

3. Transmission oftke epigrams

Schneidewin was the first to distinguish correctly three different families in the manuscripts of Martial which have come down to US. 85 None of the three offers a truer text, although a case has been made for the first family being more correct,86 even though it has only been preserved in 85 Following W. Heraeus et edd. posteriores, we refer to them as a, ~ and y (Lindsay calls them AA, BA and CA). Cf. F. C. Schneidewin, M. Val. Martialis epigrammaton libri (Crimae 1842) CV and (Lipsiae 1853) V, L. Friedlander 67-108 and especiallyW. M. Lindsay, Ancient Editions, 1-12. On the transmission of the mss. of Martial, cf. M. Citroni XLV-LXX, M. D. Reeve, "Martial", in L. D. Reynolds, Texts and Transmission. A Survey of the Latin Classics (Oxford 1990) 239244, C. Pasquali, Storia delta tradizione e critiea del testa (Firenze 1934) 415-427. Cf. also Ma ]. MuiiozJimenez, El manuscrito IO.098, 6-37, "La tradicion manuscrita y los codices espaiioles de Marcial", in Aetas 2.301, "Conclusiones del estudio de un ms. espaiiol de Marcial (ms. 10033 de B. N.)", CFC(L) 21 (1988) 153-158. 86 Cf. C. Keil, Utrum Martialis codicum prima familia peeuliarem habeat auctoritatem neene quaeritur (Jena 1909), W. M. Lindsay,AncientEditions, 9-12, O. Immisch, Hermes 46 (1911) 488,]. D. Duff, CR 17 (1903) 223·


jlorilegia and its text has been euphemistically censored in the interests of modesty.87

The a family has come down to us in three jlorilegia: 1. H = Hauptii jlori!. Vindobonensis Lat. 277, a miscellany dating from the early 9th c. The text of Martial occupies folios 71 r to 73 v and includes the epigrams Epigr. 21(18).5-6, 22-34,1.3,1.4.1-2.88 2. T = Thuaneus jlar. Parisinus Lat. 8071, dating from the 9th-lOth centuries. 89 The epigrams of Martial begin on folio 24r , book 7 being contained between folios 36v and 41 v. 3. R = Vossianus jlar. Leidensis Lat. Q 86, from the 9th-10th centuries. The excerpta of Martial, written in double columns, with 32 lines per column, are found in folios 99 vto 108v. They contain around 275 epigrams, most of them consisting of a single distich. 90 We also have Bongars' manuscript marginal notes to the edition of Colinaeus (Paris 1539), preserved in the library of Berne (G 152), with variants which L. Friedlander believed were derived from an old codex of family a, although W. M. Lindsay has shown that these variants are of uncertain origin, and might even be personal conjectures. 91 Book 7 is substantially represented in this family, especially in T, which includes complete or partial copies of 30 of the 99 epigrams. R contains only 17. The epigrams in question are the following: In T: 6,3-10, 12 (praeter 5-8), 18, 19, 24, 25, 30, 31.1-3, 5-8, 33, 35.1-6,36,37,4°,42,52 (praeter 3-4),54,59,61 (praeter 5-8 ), 64, 65, 73, 82.5-6,83,88,9°,92,93,94,95.1-5,7-8,17-18,99, In R: 2,3,9,10,12.1-2,16,21,24.1-2,37.5-6,43,46,71,75,77,85, 96. 1 - 6.

87 On the exact nature of this censorship, cf. A. E. Housman, Class. Pap., 1103 (= CR 39 [1925l 202): 'What is termed modesty in a by Mr. Heraeus and elegance by Mr. Lindsay, is mere monkish horror of woman: a will copy down the grossest and filthiest words, such lines as 3.71.1 and 7.10.1, if only they do not call up thoughts of the abhorred sex.' 88 Cf. M. Citroni XLV-XLVI, U. Carratello 21-22, Ma J. MuiiozJimenez, El manuscrito Io.o89, 7-8. 89 Cf. 1. Friedlander, De codice Martialis T (Kiinigsberg 1879). This is an important miscellaneous codex, with excerpta of Catullus, Seneca, Lucan and Juvenal, among others. Cf. M. Citroni XLVII-XLVIII, U. Carratello 22-23, Ma J. Muiioz Jimenez, El manuscrito IO.o89,


90 For its contents, cf. Peiper's edition of Alcimus Avitus in Mon. Germ. Hist. (Berlin 1883) LXVI-LXVII, and Riese's edition of the Anthologia Latina 1.1, XXXVII. Cf. M. Citroni XLVIII-L, U. Carratello 23-24, Ma J. MuiiozJimenez, El manuscrito Io.o89, 9-10. 91 Cf. 1. Friedlander 76-78, W. M. Lindsay prae! [16-17], M. Citroni 1. To the same family also belonged a now-lost codex called K by R. Sabbadini (cf. Le swperte dei codici latini e greci nell' secoli XIV e XV [Firenze 1967l 29; 216-217). Cf. U. Carratello 24-27.


The euphemistic censorship which is present in this family has the following substitutions representing book 7: 92 10·3 18·3 18.6 18.8 18.11 18.13

30 .3

subegit R salitor T monstrum T monstri T nostri T (sic pro monstri) monstro T salitor T

(pro futuit) (pro fututor) (pro cunnus) (pro cunni) (pro cunni) (pro cunno) (pro fututor).

The male sexual organs remain unaffected by this display of modesty; cf., for example, mentula in 30 and 3S. Likewise, sexual activities of the pedicare type also appear quite openly in R; cf. 10.1. 93 The second family (~), which stems from an ancient recension carried out in the Sth c. by Torquatus Gennadius, as he himself indicates in the subscriptiones to each book,94 has come down to us principally in the following manuscripts, all descending from an archetype in minuscule Lombardic script, according to W. M. Lindsay:95 L = Lucensis, nunc Berolinensis Lat. fo1. 612 (12th c.). It consists of a parchment manuscript of S6 folios in double columns, with 48 lines in each. It contains Martial's epigrams up to 14.1S7.1, the last folio having been 10st. 96 2. P = Palatinus Vaticanus Lat. 1696 (lsth c.), a 18o-folio manuscript with 30 lines per pageY7 3. Q = Londiniensis, British Museum, Arunde1 136 (lSth c.), a 141-folio manuscript with 42 lines per page. It contains the Epigrammaton liber and the text is annotated with numerous corrections. 98 1.

92 On this theme, cf. P. Mastrandrea, "Sostituzioni eufemistiche (e altre varianti) nei florilegi carolingi di Marziale", RHT 26 (1996) 103-118, especially 107-108. 93 Cf. E. Montero Cartelle, Eetas 20 (1976) 343-352. 94 For the complete text of Torquatus Gennadius' subscriptiones, cf. W. M. Lindsay, prae! (7), AncientEditions 119-120. Particularly interesting is the subscriptio to book 14, where the mention of consuls enables the recension to be dated fairly exactly to the year 401. The subscriptio in question reads: emendavi ego Torquatus Gennadius in foro Divi Augusti Martis consulatu Vincentii et Fraguitii (Fraugicii L; Frangitii Q). virorum clarissimorum feliciter. Cf. M. Citroni LIII-LIV. Cf. also G. Landgraf, "Uber das Alter del Martiallemnata in den Handschriften der Familie B", ALL 12 (1902) 455-463, w. M. Lindsay, Ancient Editions, 1-7. 95 Cf. w. M. Lindsay, eR 15 (1901) 416. 96 For a description of the codex, cf. W. M. Lindsay, eR 15 (1901) 413-420 and a complete collation in Ancient Editions. Cf. also M. Citroni L-LI, Ma Jose MunozJimenez, El manuscrito Io.o89, 15. 97 Cf. Th. Simar, "Les manuscrits de Martial du Vatican", Mus. Beige 16 (1910) 196. Cf. M. Citroni LI, Ma]. MunozJimenez, El manuscrito IO.o89, 15-16. 98 Cf. W. M. Lindsay, eR 14 (1900) 353-355, 15 (1901) 44-46. Cf. also M. Citroni LI-LII, Ma]. MunozJimenez, El manuscrito Io.o89, 16-17.


4.f = Florentinus, Biblioteca Laurenziana (15th c.), with S folios and between 25 and 30 lines per page. 99 The third family (y), called vulgata, is represented by the following manuscripts, probably descendants of an Sth or gth c. ms. in Carolingian script, a copy in turn of a ms. in capitals: lOO E = Edinburgensis, National Library of Scotland, Ms. IS, 3, 1 (early lOth c.). It consists of a parchment manuscript of 10S folios, written in double columns with 25 lines each.101 2. A = Vossianus Leidensis primus Lat. Oct. 56102 (11 th c.), a 1 71-folio manuscript with 30 lines per page. 3. X = Puteanus Parisinus Lat. S067 (10th c.), a go-folio manuscript in double columns with 30 lines each.103 4. V = Vaticanus Lat. 3294 (10th c.), a parchment manuscript of gg folios in double columns, each of 2S lines. l04 1.

For the reconstruction of the text of Martial other more recent codices have also been used. 105 In the case of book 7 there are very few occasions on which one of the three families has preserved the correct reading in contrast with the other two; by way of example, cf.: 3.2 IS.g


ne P: nec Ry mallem p : vellem Ty

Cf. M. Citroni LII-LIII, Ma J. MunozJimenez, El manuscrito ro.089, 17-18.

lOO Cf. W. M. Lindsay, Ancient Editions, 7-8. 101 Cf. J. G. Dalyell, Some account of an ancient manuscript of Martial's epigrams (Diss. Edinburgh 1811), I. C. Cunningham, "Bibliographie", Scriptorium 27 (1973) 69-70, M. Citroni LVII; Ma J. Munoz Jimenez, El manuscrito ro.089, 23. 102 Cf. M. Citroni LVII, n. 46, Ma J. MunozJimenez, El manuscrito IO.089, 23. 103 Cf. B. Bischoff, MittalterlicheStudien (Stuttgart 1966) 1.55,59, M. Citroni LVIII, MaJ. Munoz Jimenez, El manuscrito IO.089, 23-24. 104 Cf. M. Citroni LVIII-LIX, Ma J. MunozJimenez, El manuscrito 10.089, 24. 105 The codices in question are: F (Florentinus. Biblioteca Laurenziana. A 15th c. parchment with 161 folios and 32 lines per page [cf. Froeben in L. Friendliinder I 89; 96-108]), G (Guelferbytanus Gudianus Lat. 157, a ms. from the end of the 12th c. [Schneidewinl, or from the 13th-14th [0. von Heinemann, Die Handschriften der Herzoglichen Bibliothek zu Wolfenbiittel (Wolfenbiittel 1913) 171]), B (Leidensis Vossianus Lat. Q 121, probably dating from the end of the 13th c.), C (Leidensis Vossianus Lat Q 89, 14th c., and, finally, Y (Mediolanensis. Bibliotheca Ambrosiana H 39, 12th-13th c. [cf. R. Sabbadini, "Spogli ambrosiani latini", SIFC 11 (1903) 325]). Cf. M. Citroni LVI-LVII, LXIII-LXX, Ma J. MunozJimenez, El manuscrito ro.098, 27-28. Cf. also B. L. Ullmann, "Classical Authors in certain mediaeval florilegia", CPh 27 (1932) 22-26, and the same author's general observations in "Tibullus in the mediaeval florilegia", CPh 23 (1928) 128-174. For the mss. in Spanish libraries, cf. L. Rubio Fernandez, Catalogo de Los manuscritos cllisicos latinos existentes en Espaiia (Madrid 1984), and especially Ma J. Munoz Jimenez, "La tradicion manuscrita y los codices espanoles de Marcial", in Actas 2.30 I; "Conclusiones del estudio de un manuscrito espanol de Marcial (ms. 10033 de la Biblioteca Nacional)", CFC (L) 21 (1988) 153-158, El manuscrito 10.098 de la Biblioteca Nacional (Marcial) (Madrid 1982).



18.10 21.1 24·5 31.6 95·5

simul ~ : semel Ty magni quae ~ : quae magni Ry et siculus a : tu siculus ~y missa rure T : rure missa ~y posses ~ : possis Ty

On the other hand, there are several passages in which two families are correct and the third wrong; cf.:

3. 2 6.8 10.1 10.2 10.11 18·5 19·5 24. 1 24·3 24·5 24. 6 35·4 35·5 37. 6 4 0 .6 40 .6 43. 1 4 6 .4 54. 1 56 . 1 61.9 64. 1 71.2 73. 1 75. 1 90 .3 92.1 92 .2 9 2 . 10 94. 1 99·3

mittas R~ : mittis y invictusque ~y : invitusque T linus R~ : pinus y vel ilIe ~y : vel ilIa R hoc ad te ay : hoc ad te quod ~ movemur ~y : movetur T sed ~y: et T quae me ~y : quid tu a pyladen 0- orestes Ty : pylades 0- oresten tu ~y: et T poteras a~ : poteris y nulla ~y : nuda T sed Ty: et ~ madida ~y : media R senas T~ : denas y vixit T~X : vidit y (praeter X) rogabo Ry (rogo E) : -aro QfF: -ato P tacet Ry : placet ~ mera Ty : mihi ~ pia cepisti PQf : pie c- L : prec- y copo ~y : caupo T fueras tota ~y : tota fueras T nepos R~ : socer y N esquil(i)is Ty : esqili(a)e ~ futui gratis Ry : gratis futui ~ calvinus ~y : calvianus T scis Ty : tibi ~ uno bis Ty : bis nobis ~ ne ~y (non E) : nec TVB gerebat ~y : ferebat T legentur ~y : leguntur T


More frequent is divergence between two families, for example: 1. 2 4.2 7.3 13.1

comae ~ : deae y oppianus y : appianus fractus ~ : fractum y solibus ~ : collibus y



14·5 15.1

quas 13: quam y assistit 13 : absistit y

There are also passages in which perfectly plausible conjectures have been put forward, against the evidence of the mss., for example:

5·3 7·3 7·5 14·7 14·9 19. 1 20.2 20.8 20.15 26·4 26-4 27·5 44·7 46.6 47. 8 62.1 (5) 67·3 69·9 92.10 9 6 .4

hosti ~: hostis l3y improbum Shackleton Bailey: -bus 13 : -bo y summe ~ : summi y nec amoribus ~ : neque moribus (em- EA) l3y se nos ~ : denos l3y Victoris ~ : victuri l3y cucurrit ~ : currit l3y buccis placentae Scriverius : buccis plangentem 13 : dulcis placenta y et devorato ~ : et devoratos 13 : indevoratos y hoc ~ : haec l3y facetae Gronovius : facetum l3y laeti ~ : v. l. 13 : laeto y si ~ : sic l3y :n:£~a Palmer : prisce R : pexa 13 : plena yN ruptas Gronovius : raptas l3y Hamille Friedliinder : amille PQf : anulle yL dolat Gruterius : dolet 13 : vorat y laudarit ~ : laudavit y : laudabat 13 si quid opus Gruterius : quid sit opus Tl3y male Hensius: mala Rl3y

Finally, there are places where the three families diverge, for example: 33.3 88.9

deiecto T: delecto vel dil- y : neglecto 13 bland(a)e 13 : blandi y : magnae T

4. The present commentary

Our aim in the commentary has been to offer a philological tool for the student of Martial and Latin literature of the period. In each entry we have accordingly attempted to offer the necessary information for an understanding of the epigrams, and to link them thematically with other Greek or Latin authors who have dealt with the same theme, adding bibliographical information for those interested in studying the topic in greater depth. In some cases we do not offer the specific information but refer to works in which it appears, in the belief that a commentary is never an end in itself but a vehicle, an aid to investigation which should open up doors rather than close them.



The text accompanying this commentary basically follows the edition by D. R. Shackle ton Bailey (Teubner: Leipzig-Stuttgart, 1990), with the following differences: l06

1.3 7·5 7.6 10.15 12·5 12.6 12·9 14. 1 14. 2 17·9 18,4 20.1 20·9 24.6 31.8 32. 12 34·4 44·3 44. 8 51.4 51.5 53. 10 54·7 55. 2 5 8 .9 60.6 60·7 61.9 62·4 63.6 64·4 67. 8 67. 15 68.1 69·5 7 2 .5

Shackleton Bailey


vacat haec te ... et orbis: votis. ad te: videri madent, : scis hoc bene: puellae; suas: munere tdelicata t parvo tibi. Santra. mappam; genus. agelli. caiet. cito. damnavit: mea: sedet: usu Syri. supersunt. remiserisque: cinaedos. superbo. rogare: servant. diens. opus:

vacat, haec te... te orbis, votis: ad te, videri, madent -scis hoc bene-: puellae: suas, , munere tdedicata t parvo, tibi: Santra: mappam genus: agelli: caiet: cito: damnavit, meo, sedet, usu: Syri: supersunt: remiserisque, cinaedos: superbo: rogare; servant: diens: opus.



magistri: puellas. Istanti aures; amicus:

magistri; puellas: Instanti aures: amicus,

106 Note, too, thatwe choose to write a capital after a full stop, in contrast with D. R. Shackleton Bailey's preference for the lower case except at the beginning of a poem.



72.6 74. 2 74·9 74. 10 76 .4 76 .5 78.2 85·3 86.6 87. 8 89·4 95. 13 97. 2 97. 12

capitque, viret: ministret vocet lavari: placere. tibi: admirm scio. dedit: Telesilla sic... Venus marito. Umbriae Sabinum tabernae.

capitque: viret, ministrat vocat lavari, placere: tibi, admiror: scw: facit, Telesina -sic. .. Venusmarito? Umbriae, Sabinum tabernae:



Accipe belligerae crudum thoraca Minervae, ipsa Medusaeae quem timet ira comae. Dum vacat, haec, Caesar, poterit lorica vocari: pectore cum sacro sederit, aegis erit.

Invia Sarmaticis domini lorica sagittis et Martis Getico tergore fida magis, quam vel ad Aetolae securam cuspidis ictus texuit innumeri lubricus unguis apri: 5 felix sorte tua, sac rum cui tangere pectus fas erit et nostri mente calere dei. I comes et magnos illaesa merere triumph os palmataeque ducem, sed cito, redde togae.

3 Cur non mitto meos tibi, Pontiliane, libellos? Ne mihi tu mittas, Pontiliane, tuos.

4 Esset, Castrice, cum mali coloris, versus scribere coepit Oppianus. 5

Si desiderium, Caesar, populique patrumque respicis et Latiae gaudia vera togae, redde deum votis poscentibus. Invidet hosti Roma suo, veniat laurea multa licet: 5 terrarum dominum propius videt ille tuoque terretur vultu barbarus et fruitur.

6 Ecquid Hyperboreis ad nos conversus ab oris Ausonias Caesar iam parat ire vias? Certus abest auctor, sed vox hoc nuntiat omnis: credo tibi, verum dicere, Fama, soles. 5 Publica victrices testantur gaudia chartae, Martia laurigera cuspide pila virent.




rursus, io, magnos clamat tibi Roma triumphos, invictusque tua, Caesar, in urbe sonas. Sed iam laetitiae quo sit fiducia maior, Sarmaticae laurus nuntius ipse veni.

7 Hiberna quamvis Arctos et rudis Peuce et ungularum pulsibus calens Hister fractusque cornu iam ter improbum Rhenus teneat domantem regna perfidae gentis 5 te, summe mundi rector, te, parens orbis, abesse nostris non tamen potes votis: illic et oculis et animis sumus, Caesar, adeoque mentes omnium tenes unus ut ipsa magni turba nesciat Circi 10 utrumne currat Passerinus an Tigris.

8 Nunc hilares, si quando, mihi, nunc ludite, Musae: victor ab Odrysio redditur orbe deus. Certa facis populi tu primus vota, December: iam licet ingenti dicere voce 'venit'. 5 Felix sorte tua! Poteras non cedere lano, gaudia si nobis quae dabit ille dares. Festa coronatus ludet convicia miles, inter laurigeros cum comes ibit equos. Fas audire iocos levioraque carmina, Caesar, 10 et tibi, si lusus ipse triumphus amat.

9 Cum sexaginta numeret Cascellius annos, ingeniosus homo est: quando disertus erit? 10

Pedicatur Eros, fellat Linus: Ole, quid ad te de cute quid faciant ille vel ille sua? Centenis futuit Matho milibus: Ole, quid ad te? Non tu propterea, sed Matho pauper erit. 5 In lucem cenat Sertorius: Ole, quid ad te, cum lice at tota stertere nocte tibi? Septingenta Tito debet Lupus: Ole, quid ad te? Assem ne dederis crediderisve Lupo.





Illud dissimulas ad te quod pertinet, Ole, quodque magis curae convenit esse tuae: pro togula debes: hoc ad te pertinet, Oleo Quadrantem nemo iam tibi credit: et hoc. Uxor moecha tibi est: hoc ad te pertinet, Oleo Poscit iam dotem filia grandis: et hoc. Dicere quindecies poteram quod pertinet ad te, sed quid agas ad me pertinet, Ole, nihil. 11

Cogis me calamo manuque nostra emendare meos, Pudens, libellos. o quam me nimium probas amasque, qui vis archetypas habere nugas! 12



Sic me fronte legat dominus, Faustine, serena excipiatque me os qua solet aure iocos, ut mea nee iuste quos odit pagina laesit et mihi de nullo fama rubore placet. Quid prodest, cupiant cum quidam nostra videri, si qua Lycambeo sanguine tela madent vipereumque vomat nostro sub nomine virus qui Phoebi radios ferre diem que negat? Ludimus in no cui -scis hoc bene-: iuro potentis per genium Famae Castaliumque gregem, perque tuas aures, magni mihi numinis ins tar, lector inhumana liber ab invidia. 13

Dum Tiburtinis albescere soli bus audit antiqui dentis fusca Lycoris ebur, venit in Herculeos colles. Quid Tiburis alti aura valet! Parvo tempore nigra redit. 14


Accidit infandum nostrae scelus, Aule, puellae: amisit lusus deliciasque suas, non quales teneri ploravit arnica Catulli Lesbia, nequitiis passeris orba sui, vel Stellae cantata meo quas flevit Ianthis, cuius in Elysio nigra columba volat:





lux mea non capitur nugis nee amoribus istis nee dominae pectus talia damna movent: bis senos puerum numerantem perdidit annos, mentula cui non dum sesquipedalis erat.

15 Quis puer hie nitidis assistit Ianthidos undis? Effugit dominam Naida numquid Hylas? o bene quod silva colitur Tirynthius ista et quod amatrices tarn prope servat aquas! 5 Securus licet hos fontes, Argynne, ministres: nil facient Nymphae: ne velit ipse cave. 16

Aera domi non sunt. Superest hoc, Regule, solum, ut tua vendamus munera: numquid emis?

17 Ruris bibliotheca delicati, vicinam videt un de lector urbem, inter carmina sanctiora si quis lascivae fuerit locus Thaliae, 5 hos nido licet inseras vel imo septem quos tibi misimus libellos auctoris calamo sui notatos: haec illis pretium facit litura. At tu, munere tdedicatat parvo, 10 quae cantaberis orbe nota toto, pignus pectoris hoc mei tuere, Iuli bibliotheca Martialis.

18 Cum tibi sit facies de qua nee femina possit dicere, cum corpus nulla litura notet, cur te tarn rarus cupiat repetatque fututor miraris? Vitium est non leve, Galla, tibi: 5 accessi quotiens ad opus mixtisque movemur inguinibus, cunnus non tacet, ipsa taces. Di facerent ut tu loquereris et ille taceret: offendor cunni garrulitate tui. Pede re te mallem: namque hoc nee inutile dicit 10 Symmachus et risum res movet ista simul.


Quis ridere potest fatui poppysmata cunni? Cum sonat hie, cui non mentula mensque cadit? Die aliquid saltem clamosoque obstrepe cunno, et, si adeo muta es, disce vel in de loqui.

Fragmentum quod vile putas et inutile lignum, haec fuit ignoti prima carina maris. Quam nee Cyaneae quondam potuere ruinae frangere nee Scythici tristior ira freti, 5 saecula vicerunt: sed quamvis cesserit annis, sanctior est salva parva tabella rate. 20

Nihil est miserius neque gulosius Santra: rectam vocatus cum cucurrit ad cenam, quam tot die bus noctibusque captavit, ter poscit apri glandulas, quater lumbum, 5 et utramque coxam leporis et duos armos, nee erubescit peierare de turdo et ostreorum rapere lividos cirros. Buccis placentae sordidam linit mappam illic et uvae collocantur ollares 10 et Punicorum pauca grana malorum et excavatae pellis indecens vulvae et lippa fie us debilisque boletus. Sed mappa cum iam mille rumpitur furtis, rosos tepenti spondylos sinu condit 15 et devorato capite turturem truncum. Colligere longa turpe nee putat dextra analecta quid quid et canes reliquerunt. Nee esculenta sufficit gulae praeda: mixto lagonam replet ad pedes vino. 20 Haec per ducentas cum do mum tulit scalas seque obserata clusit anxius cella gulosus ille, postero die vendit. 21

Haec est illa dies, magni quae conscia partus Lucanum populis et tibi, Polla, dedit. Heu! Nero crudelis nullaque invisior umbra, debuit hoc saltem non licuisse tibi.



Vatis Apollinei magno memorabilis ortu lux redit: Aonidum turba, favete sacris. Haec meruit, cum te terris, Lucane, dedisset, mixtus Castaliae Baetis ut esset aquae. 23

Phoebe, veni, sed quantus eras cum bella tonanti ipse dares Latiae plectra secunda lyrae. Quid tanta pro luce precer? Tu, Polla, maritum saepe colas et se sentiat ille coli.

24 Cum Iuvenale meo quae me committere temptas, quid non audebis, perfida lingua, loqui? Te fingente nefas Pyladen odisset Orestes, Thesea Pirithoi destituisset amor; 5 tu Siculos fratres et maius nomen Atridas et Ledae poteras dissociare genus: hoc tibi pro meritis et talibus imprecor ausis, ut facias illud quod, puto, lingua, facis.

25 Dulcia cum tantum scribas epigrammata semper et cerussata candidiora cute, nullaque mica salis nec amari fellis in ilIis gutta sit, 0 demens, vis tamen ilIa legi! 5 Nec cibus ipse iuvat morsu fraudatus aceti, nec grata est facies cui gelasinus abest. Infanti melimela dato fatuasque mariscas: nam mihi, quae novit pungere, Chia sapit.

Apollinarem conveni meum, scazon, et si vacabit -ne molestum accedas-, hoc qualecumque, cuius aliqua pars ipse est, dabis: hoc facetae carmen imbuant aures. 5 Si te receptum fronte videris tota, noto rogabis ut favore sustentet. Quanto mearum scis amore nugarum flagret: nec ipse plus amare te possum. Contra malignos esse si cup is tutus, 10 Apollinarem conveni meum, scazon.


Tuscae glandis aper populator et ilice multa iam piger, Aetolae fama secunda ferae, quem meus intravit splendenti cuspide Dexter, praeda iacet nostris invidiosa focis. 5 Pinguescant madido laeti nidore penates flagret et exciso festa culina iugo. Sed cocus ingentem piperis consumet acervum addet et arcano mixta Falerna garo: ad dominum redeas, noster te non capit ignis, 10 conturbator aper: vilius esurio.

Sic Tiburtinae crescat tibi silva Dianae et properet caesum saepe redire nemus, nee Tartesiacis Pallas tua, Fusce, trapetis cedat et immodici dent bona musta lacus; 5 sic fora mirentur, sic te Palatia laudent, excolat et geminas plurima palma fores: otia dum medius praestat tibi parva December, exige, sed certa, quos legis, aure iocos. 'Scire libet verum? Res est haec ardua.' Sed tu 10 quod tibi vis dici dicere, Fusce, potes.

29 Thestyle, Victoris tormentum duke Voconi, quo nemo est toto notior orbe puer, sic etiam positis formosus amere capillis et placeat vati nulla puella tuo: 5 paulisper domini doctos se pone libellos, carmina Victori dum lego parva tuo. Et Maecenati, Maro cum cantaret Alexin, nota tamen Marsi fusca Melaenis erat.

Das Parthis, das Germanis, das, Caelia, Dacis, nee Cilicum spernis Cappadocumque toros; et tibi de Ph aria Memphiticus urbe fututor navigat, a rubris et niger Indus aquis; 5 nee recutitorum fugis inguina Iudaeorum, nee te Sarmatico transit Alanus equo. Qua ratione facis, cum sis Romana puella, quod Romana tibi mentula nulla placet?



Raucae chortis ayes et ova matrum et flavas medio vapore Chias et fetum querulae rudem capellae nee iam frigoribus pares olivas 5 et canum gelidis holus pruinis de nostro tibi missa rure credis? o quam, Regule, diligenter erras! Nil nostri, nisi me, ferunt agelli: quidquid vilicus Umber aut colonus 10 aut rus marmore tertio notatum aut Tusci tibi Tusculive mittunt, id tota mihi nascitur Subura.

Attice, facundae renovas qui nomina gentis nee sinis ingentem conticuisse domum, te pia Cecropiae comitatur turba Minervae, te secreta quies, te sophos omnis amat. 5 At iuvenes alios fracta colit aure magister et rapit immeritas sordidus unctor opes. Non pila, non follis, non te paganica thermis praeparat aut nudi stipitis ictus hebes, vara nee in lento ceromate bracchia tendis, 10 non harpasta vagus pulverulenta rapis, sed curris niveas tantum prope Virginis undas aut ubi Sidonio taurus amore calet: per varias artes, omnis quibus area servit, ludere, cum lice at currere, pigritia est.

33 Sordidior caeno cum sit toga, calceus autem candidior prima sit tibi, Cinna nive: deiecto quid, inepte, pedes perfundis amictu? Collige, Cinna, togam; calceus ecce perit.

34 Quo possit fieri modo, Severe, ut vir pessimus omnium Charinus unam rem bene fecerit, requiris? Dicam, sed cito: quid Nerone peius? 5 Quid thermis melius Neronianis? Non deest protinus, ecce, de malignis




qui sic rancidulo loquatur ore: 'quid? Tu tot domini deique nostri praefers muneribus Neronianas thermas?' Praefero balneis cinaedi.

35 Inguina succinctus nigra tibi servus aluta stat, quotiens calidis tota foveris aquis. Sed meus, ut de me taceam, Laecania, servus Iudaeum nulla sub cute pondus habet, 5 sed nudi tecum iuvenesque senesque lavantur. An sola est servi mentula vera tui? Ecquid femineos sequeris, matrona, recessus, secretusque tua, cunne, lavaris aqua?

36 Cum pluvias madidumque Iovem perferre negaret et rudis hibernis villa nataret aquis, plurima, quae posset subitos effundere nimbos, muneribus venit tegula missa tuis. 5 Horridus, ecce, sonat Boreae stridore December: Stella, tegis villam, non tegis agricolam?

37 Nosti mortiferum quaestoris, Cas trice, signum? Est operae pretium discere theta novum: exprimeret quotiens rorantem frigore nasum, letalem iuguli iusserat esse notam. 5 Turpis ab inviso pen de bat stiria naso, cum flaret madida fauce December atrox: collegae tenuere manus: quid plura requiris? Emungi misero, Castrice, non licuit.

Tantus es et talis, nostri Polypheme Severi, ut te mirari possit et ipse Cyclops. Sed nec Scylla minor. Quod si fera monstra duorum iunxeris, alterius tiet uterque timor. 39 Discursus varios vagumque mane et fastus et have potentiorum cum perferre patique iam negaret,



coepit fingere Caelius podagram. 5 Quam dum vult nimis approbare veram,

et sanas linit obligatque plantas inceditque gradu laborioso, -quantum cura potest et ars doloris!desit fingere Caelius podagram.

Hie iacet ille senex Augusta notus in aula, pectore non humili passus utrumque deum; natorum pietas sanctis quem coniugis umbris miscuit: Elysium possidet ambo nemus. 5 Occidit illa prior viridi fraudata iuventa; hie prope ter senas vixit Olympiadas. Sed festinatis raptum tibi credidit annis, aspexit lacrimas quisquis, Etrusce, tuas.

Cosmieos esse tibi, Semproni Tucca, videris: cosmiea, Semproni, tarn mala quam bona sunt.

Muneribus cupiat si quis contendere tecum, audeat hie etiam, Castrice, carminibus. Nos tenues in utroque sumus vincique parati: inde sopor nobis et placet alta quies. 5 Tarn mala cur igitur dederim tibi carmina quaeris? Alcinoo nullum poma dedisse putas? 43

Primum est ut praestes, si quid te, Cinna, rogabo; illud deinde sequens ut cito, Cinna, neges. Diligo praestantem; non odi, Cinna, negantem: sed tu nec praestat nec cito, Cinna, negas. 44

Maximus ille tuus, Ovidi, Caesonius hie est, cuius adhuc vultum vivida cera tenet. Hunc Nero damnavit, sed tu damnare Neronem ausus es et profugi, non tua, fata se qui: 5 aequora per Scyllae magni comes exulis isti, qui modo nolueras consulis ire comes.




Si victura meis mandantur nomina chartis et fas est cineri me superesse meo, audiet hoc praesens venturaque turba fuisse illi te, Senecae quod fuit ille suo.

45 Facundi Senecae potens amicus, caro proximus aut prior Sereno, hie est Maximus ille, quem frequenti felix littera pagina salutat. 5 Hunc tu per Siculas secutus undas, o nullis, Ovidi, tacende linguis, sprevisti domini furentis iras. Miretur Pyladen suum vetustas, haesit qui comes exuli parentis. 10 Quis discrimina comparet duorum? Haesisti comes exuli Neronis.

Commendare tuum dum vis mihi carmine munus Maeonioque cupis doctius ore loqui, excrucias multis pariter me teque die bus et tua de nostro, Prisce, Thalia tacet. 5 Divitibus poteris musas elegosque sonantes mittere: pauperibus munera nE;a dato.

47 Doctorum Licini celeberrime Sura virorum, cuius prisca gravis lingua reduxit avos, redderis -heu, quanto fatorum munere!- nobis gustata Lethes paene remissus aqua. 5 Perdiderant iam vota metum securaque flebat ttristitia et lacrimis iamque peractus erast: non tulit invidiam taciti regnator Averni et ruptas Fatis reddidit ipse colus. Scis igitur quantas hominum mors falsa querelas 10 moverit et frueris posteritate tua. Vive velut rapto fugitivaque gaudia carpe: perdiderit nullum vita reversa diem.

Cum mensas habeat fere trecentas, pro mensis habet Annius ministros:




transcurrunt gabatae volantque lances. Has vobis epulas habete, lauti: 5 nos offendimur ambulante cena.

49 Parva suburbani munuscula mittimus horti: faucibus ova tuis, poma, Severe, gulae.

Fons dominae, regina loci quo gaudet Ianthis, gloria conspicuae deliciumque domus, cum tua tot niveis ornetur ripa ministris et Ganymedeo luceat unda choro, 5 quid facit Alcides silva sacratus in ista? Tarn vicina tibi cur tenet antra deus? Numquid Nympharum notos observat amores, tarn multi pariter ne rapiantur Hylae?

Mercari nostras si te piget, Urbice, nugas et lasciva tamen carmina nosse libet, Pompeium quaeres -et nosti forsitan- Auctum; Ultoris prima Martis in aede sedet, 5 iure madens varioque togae limatus in usu: non lector meus hic, Urbice, sed liber est. Sic tenet absentes nostros cantatque libellos, ut pereat chartis littera nulla meis: denique, si vellet, poterat scripsisse videri, 10 sed famae mavult ille favere meae. Hunc licet a decima -ne que enim satis ante vacabitsollicites, capiet cenula parva duos; ille leget, bibe tu; nolis licet, ille sonabit: et cum 'iam satis est' dixeris, ille leget.

52 Gratum est quod Celeri nostros legis, Aucte, libellos, si tamen et Celerem quod legis, Aucte, iuvat. Ille meas gentes, Celtas et rexit Hiberos, nec fuit in nostro certior orbe fides. 5 Maior me tanto reverentia turbat et aures non auditoris, iudicis esse puto.



53 Omnia misisti mihi Saturnalibus, Umber, munera, contulerant quae tibi quinque dies: bis senos triplices et dentiscalpia septem; his comes accessit spongea, mappa, calix, 5 semodiusque fabae cum vimine Picenarum et Laletanae nigra lagona sapae; parvaque cum canis venerunt cottana prunis et Libycae fici pondere testa gravis. Vix puto triginta nummorum tota fuisse 10 munera quae grandes octo tulere Syri: quanto commodius nullo mihi ferre labore argenti potuit pondera quinque puer!

54 Semper mane mihi de me mera somnia narras, quae moveant animum sollicitentque meum. lam prior ad faecem, sed et haec vindemia venit, exorat noctes dum mihi saga tuas; 5 consumpsi salsasque molas et turis acervos; decrevere greges, dum cadit agna frequens; non porcus, non chortis ayes, non ova supersunt: aut vigila aut dormi, Nasidiane, tibi.

55 Nulli munera, Chreste, si remittis, nee nobis dederis remiserisque, credam te satis esse liberalem. Sed si reddis Apicio Lupoque 5 et Gallo Titioque Caesioque, linges non mihi -nam proba et pusilla estsed quae de Solymis venit perustis damnatam modo mentulam tributis.

Astra polumque pia cepisti mente, Rabiri, Parrhasiam mira qui struis arte domum. Phidiaco si digna lovi dare templa parabit, has petet a nostro Pisa Tonante manus.

57 Castora de Polluce Gabinia fecit Achillan: JtiJ~ ayU1,}6~ fuerat, nunc erit GtJt6oafw~.



lam sex aut septem nupsisti, Galla, cinaedis, dum coma te nimium pexaque barba iuvat. Deinde experta latus madidoque simillima loro inguina nee lassa stare coacta manu 5 deseris imbelles thalamos mollemque maritum rursus et in similes decidis usque toros. Quaere aliquem Curios semper Fabiosque loquentem, hirsutum et dura rusticitate trucem: invenies; sed habet tristis quoque turba cinaedos: 10 difficile est vero nubere, Galla, viro.

59 Non cenat sine Apro noster, Tite, Caecilianus. Bellum convivam Caecilianus habet.

60 Tarpeiae venerande rector aulae, quem salvo duce credimus Tonantem, cum votis sibi quisque te fatiget et pose at dare quae dei potestis, 5 nil pro me mihi, luppiter, petenti ne suscensueris velut superbo: te pro Caesare debeo rogare; pro me debeo Caesarem rogare. 61 Abstulerat totam temerarius institor urbem inque suo nullum limine limen erat. lussisti tenuis, Germanice, crescere vicos, et modo quae fuerat semita, facta via est. 5 Nulla catenatis pila est praecincta lagonis nee praetor medio cogitur ire luto, stringitur in densa nee caeca novacula turba, occupat aut totas nigra popina vias. Tonsor, copo, cocus, lanius sua limina servant: 10 nunc Roma est, nuper magna taberna fuit.

Redusis foribus grandes percidis, Hamille, et te deprendi, cum facis ista, cupis, ne quid liberti narrent servique paterni et niger obliqua garrulitate diens:



5 non pedicari se qui testatur, Hamille,

illud saepe facit quod sine teste facit.

Perpetui numquam moritura volumina Sili qui legis et Latia carmina digna toga, Pierios tantum vati placuisse recessus credis et Aoniae Bacchica serta comae? 5 Sacra cothurnati non attigit ante Maronis implevit magni quam Ciceronis opus. Hunc miratur adhuc centum gravis hasta virorum, hunc loquitur grato plurimus ore cliens. Postquam bis senis ingentem fascibus annum 10 rexerat asserto qui sacer orbe fuit, emeritos Musis et Phoebo tradidit annos proque suo celebrat nunc Helicona foro.

Qui tonsor fueras tota notissimus urbe et post hoc, dominae munere factus eques, Sicanias urbes Aetnaeaque regna petisti, Cinname, cum fugeres tristia iura fori, 5 qua nunc arte graves tolerabis inutilis annos? Quid facit infelix et fugitiva quies? Non rhetor, non grammaticus ludive magister, non Cynicus, non tu Stoicus esse potes, vendere nec vocem Siculis plausumque theatris: 10 quod superest, iterum, Cinname, tonsor eris.

Lis te bis decimae numerantem frigora brumae conterit una tribus, Gargiliane, foris. Ah miser et demens! Viginti litigat annis quisquam cui vinci, Gargiliane, licet?

66 Heredem Fabius Labienum ex asse reliquit: plus meruisse tamen se Labienus ait.

Pedicat pueros tribas Philaenis et tentigine saevior mariti undenas dol at in die puellas.



Harpasto quoque subligata ludit 5 et flavescit haphe, gravesque draucis

halteras facili rotat lacerto, et putri lutulenta de palaestra uncti verbere vapulat magistri; nee cenat prius aut recumbit ante 10 quam septem vomuit meros deunces, ad quos fas sibi tunc putat redire, cum coloephia sedecim comedit. Post haec omnia cum libidinatur, non fellat -putat hoc parum virile-, 15 sed plane medias vorat puellas: di men tern tibi dent tuam, Philaeni, cunnum lingere quae putas virile.

68 Commendare meas, Istanti Rufe, Camenas parce, precor, socero: seria forsan amat. Quod si lascivos admittit et ille libellos, haec ego vel Curio Fabricioque legam.

69 Haec est illa tibi promissa Theophila, Cani, cuius Cecropia pectora dote madent. Hanc sibi iure pe tat magni senis Atticus hortus, nee minus esse suam Stoica turba velit. 5 Vivet opus quodcumque per has emiseris aures: tarn non femineum nee populare sapit. Non tua Pantaenis nimium se praeferat illi, quamvis Pierio sit bene nota choro. Carmina fingentem Sappho laudarit amatrix: 10 castior haec et non doctior illa fuit.

70 Ipsarum tribadum tribas, Philaeni, recte, quam futuis, vocas amicam.

Ficosa est uxor, ficosus et ipse maritus, filia ficosa est et gener atque nepos, nee dispensator nee vilicus ulcere turpi nee rigidus foss or sed nee arator eget.



5 Cum sint ficosi pariter iuvenesque senesque,

res mira est, fie os non habet unus ager.

Gratus sic tibi, Paule, sit December nee vani triplices brevesque mappae nee turis veniant leves selibrae, sed lances ferat et scyphos avorum 5 aut grandis reus aut potens amicus, seu quod te potius iuvat capitque: sic vincas Noviumque Publiumque mandris et vitreo latrone dusos; sic palmam tibi de trigone nudo 10 unctae det favor arbiter coronae nee laudet Polybi magis sinistras: si quisquam mea dixerit malignus atro carmina quae madent veneno, ut vocem mihi commodes patronam 15 et quantum poteris, sed usque, dames: 'non scripsit meus ista Martialis'.



Esquiliis domus est, domus est tibi coIle Dianae, et tua Patricius culmina vie us habet; hinc viduae Cybeles, illinc sacraria Vestae, inde novum, veterem prospicis inde Iovem. Die ubi conveniam, die qua te parte requiram: quisquis ubique habitat, Maxime, nusquam habitat. 74

CyIlenes caelique decus, facunde minister, aurea cui torto virga dracone viret, sic tibi lascivi non desit copia furti, sive cupis Paphien seu Ganymede cales; 5 maternaeque sacris ornentur frondibus Idus et senior parca mole prematur avus: hunc semper Norbana diem cum coniuge Carpo laeta col at, primis quo coiere toris. Hie pius antistes sophiae sua dona ministrat, 10 hie te ture vocat fidus et ipse Iovi.



75 Vis futui gratis, cum sis deformis anusque. Res perridicula est: vis dare nee dare vis.

Quod te diripiunt potentiores per convivia, porticus, theatra, et tecum, quotiens ita incidisti, gestari iuvat et iuvat lavari, 5 nolito nimium tibi placere: delectas, Philomuse, non amaris.

77 Exigis ut nostros donem tibi, Tucca, libellos. Non faciam: nam vis vendere, non legere.

Cum Saxetani ponatur coda lacerti et, bene si cenas, conchis inuncta tibi, sumen, aprum, leporem, boletos, ostrea, mullos mittis: habes nee cor, Papyle, nee genium.

79 Potavi modo consulare vinum. Quaeris quam vetus atque liberale? Prisco consule conditum: sed ipse qui pone bat erat, Severe, consul. 80 Quatenus Odrysios iam pax Romana triones temperat et tetricae conticuere tubae, hunc Marcellino poteris, Faustine, libellum mittere: iam chartis, iam vacat ille iocis. 5 Sed si parva tui munuscula quaeris amici commendare, ferat carmina nostra puer, non qual is Geticae satiatus lacte iuvencae Sarmatica rigido ludit in am ne rota, sed Mitylenaei roseus mangonis ephebus 10 vel non caesus adhuc matre iubente Lacon. At tibi captivo famulus mittetur ab Histro, qui Tiburtinas pascere possit oyes.



81 'Triginta toto mala sunt epigrammata libro'. Si totidem bona sunt, Lause, bonus liber est.

Menophili penem tarn grandis fibula vestit ut sit comoedis omnibus una satis. Hunc ego credideram -nam saepe lavamur in unumsollicitum voci parcere, Flacce, suae: 5 dum ludit media populo spectante palaestra, delapsa est misero fibula: verpus erat.

Eutrapelus tonsor dum circuit ora Luperci expingitque genas, altera barba subit.

Dum mea Caecilio formatur imago Secundo spirat et arguta picta tabella manu, i, liber, ad Geticam Peucen Histrumque iacentem: haec loca perdomitis gentibus ille tenet. 5 Parva dabis caro sed du1cia dona sodali: certior in nostro carmine vultus erit; casibus hie nullis, nullis delebilis annis vivet, Apelleum cum morietur opus.

Quod non insulse scribis tetrasticha quaedam, disticha quod belle pauca, Sabelle, facis, laudo nee admiror: facile est epigrammata belle scribere, sed librum scribe re difficile est.

86 Ad natalicias dapes vocabar, esse m cum tibi, Sexte, non amicus. Quid factum est, rogo, quid repente factum est, post tot pignora nostra, post tot annos 5 quod sum praeteritus vetus sodalis? Sed causam scio: nulla venit a me Hispani tibi libra pustulati nee levis toga nee rudes lacernae. Non est sportula quae negotiatur;


42 10

pascis munera, Sexte, non amicos. lam dices mihi 'vapulet vocator' .

Si me us aurita gaudet lagalopece Flaccus, si fruitur tristi Canius Aethiope, Publius exiguae si flagrat amore catellae, si Cronius simile m cercopithecon amat, 5 delectat Marium si perniciosus ichneumon, pica salutatrix si tibi, Lause, placet, si gelidum collo nectit tGadillat draconem, luscinio tumulum si Telesina facit, blanda Cupidinei cur non amet ora Labyrtae, 10 qui videt haec do minis monstra placere suis?

88 Fertur habere meos, si vera est fama, libellos inter delicias pukhra Vienna suas. Me legit omnis ibi senior iuvenisque puerque et coram tetrico casta puella viro. 5 Hoc ego maluerim quam si mea carmina can tent qui Nilum ex ipso protinus ore bibunt; quam me us Hispano si me Tagus impleat auro, pascat et Hybla meas, pascat Hymettos apes. Non nihil ergo sumus nec blandae munere linguae 10 decipimur: credam iam, puto, Lause, tibi.

89 I, felix rosa, mollibusque sertis nostri cinge comas Apollinaris; quas tu nectere candidas, sed olim, -sic te semper amet Venus- memento.

90 lactat inaequalem Matho me fecisse libellum: si verum est, laudat carmina nostra Matho. Aequales scribit libros Calvinus et Umber: aequalis liber est, Cretice, qui malus est.

91 De nostro facunde tibi luvenalis agello Saturnalicias mittimus, ecce, nuces.



Cetera lascivis donavit poma puellis mentula custodis luxuriosa dei.

'Si quid opus fuerit, scis me non esse rogandum' uno bis dicis, Baccara, terque die. Appellat rigida tristis me voce Secundus: audis et nescis, Baccara, quid sit opus. 5 Pensio te coram petitur clareque palamque: audis et nescis, Baccara, quid sit opus. Esse queror gelidasque mihi tritasque lacernas: audis et nescis, Baccara, quid sit opus. Hoc opus est, subito fias ut sidere mutus, 10 dicere ne possis, Baccara, 'si quid opus'. 93

Narnia, sulphureo quam gurgite candidus amnis circuit, ancipiti vix adeunda iugo, quid tarn saepe meum nobis abducere Quintum te iuvat et lenta detinuisse mora? 5 Quid Nomentani causam mihi perdis agelli, propter vicinum qui pretiosus erat? Sed iam parce mihi, nec abutere, Narnia, Quinto: perpetuo liceat sic tibi ponte frui.

94 Unguentum fuerat, quod onyx modo parva gerebat: olfecit postquam Papylus, ecce, garum est.

95 Bruma est et riget horridus December, audes tu tamen oscula nivali omnes obvius hinc et hinc tenere et totam, Line, basiare Romam. 5 Quid posses graviusque saeviusque percussus facere atque verberatus? Hoc me frigore basiet nec uxor blandis filia nec rudis labellis. Sed tu dulcior elegantiorque, 10 cuius livida naribus caninis dependet glacies rigetque barba, qualem forficibus metit supinis tonsor Cinyphio Cilix marito?




Centum occurrere malo cunnilingis 15 et gallum timeo minus recentem.

Quare si tibi sensus est pudorque, hibernas, Line, basiationes in mensem rogo differas Aprilem.

96 Conditus hic ego sum Bassi dolor, Urbicus infans, cui genus et nomen maxima Roma dedit. Sex mihi de prima deerant trieteride menses, ruperunt tetricae cum male pensa deae. 5 Quid species, quid lingua mihi, quid profuit aetas? Da lacrimas tumulo, qui legis ista, meo: sic ad Lethaeas, nisi Nestore serior, undas non eat, optabis quem superesse tibi.

97 Nosti si bene Caesium, libelle, montanae decus Umbriae, Sabinum, Auli municipem mei Pudentis, illi tu dabis haec vel occupato: 5 instent mille licet premantque curae, nostris carminibus tamen vacabit. Nam me diligit ille proximumque Turni nobilibus legit libellis. o quantum tibi nominis paratur! 10 0 quae gloria! Quam frequens amator! Te convivia, te forum sonabit, aedes, compita, porticus, tabernae: uni mitteris, omnibus legeris.

98 Omnia, Castor, emis: sic fiet ut omnia vendas.

99 Sic placidum vide as semper, Crispine, Tonantem nec te Roma minus quam tua Memphis amet: carmina Parrhasia si nostra legentur in aula -namque solent sacra Caesaris aure frui-, 5 dicere de nobis, ut lector candid us, aude: 'temporibus praestat non nihil iste tuis, nec Marso nimium minor est doctoque Catullo.' Hoc satis est: ipsi cetera mando deo.



Martial opens the seventh book with a direct address to the emperor. There is no prose preface, as is the case in all of his books except 1, 2, 8,9 and 12, which have short prefaces, a hellenistic practice first attested in Latin literature in Hirtius' De bello Gallico 8 and Seneca's Controversiae. It became fashionable in the second part of the first century AD (note Statius' prose prefaces to his five books of Silvae); on this 'genre', cf. T.Janson, Latin Prose Prefaces (Stockholm 1964) 106-112, Citroni 3-5 and Howell 95-96 ad 1 praef., Grewing 70-71 ad 6.1, Henriksen 47 ad 9 praef The purpose of this first epigram is encomiastic, and this objective is attained by assigning to Domitian military attributes characteristic of a god. In addition, it is Domitian's use of the armour offered to him which gives it its divine nature (cf. 1. 4). This epigram serves, in fact, to dedicate the whole book to Domitian, the poet offering the emperor a cuirass. For the special significance of the cuirass in ancient thought, cf. E. Polito, Fulgentibus armis. Introduzione allo studio dei fregi d' armi antichi (Roma: L' Erma di Bretschneider, 1998) 45: 'La corazza riveste, como 10 scudo e l' elmo, un ruolo di particolare importanza nella concezione antica delle armi. In particolare essa veniva considerata, con il suo aspetto antropomorfo, como una sorta di doppio del suo portatore, dotata quindi di potere evocativo 0 addirittura magico'. The offering here is a fictitious one which the poet hopes will enable him to ingratiate himself with Domitian, and it is presented in the context which was most likely to please him, namely that of war, since at that time Domitian, one of the emperors who spent the longest time away from Rome for military reasons, was involved in a campaign against the Sarmatian tribes (cf. Tac. Hist. 1.2, D. C. 67.5.2; see B. W.Jones, Domitian, 26-27, 150, and for the attitude of Domitian towards the imperial provinces, cf. B. Levick, "Domitian and the Provinces", Latomus 41 [1982] 50-73). The conflict continued for a period of eight months (cf. 9.31, 8.2, 8.8) and the emperor was not to return to Rome until January 93 (cf. 8.11, 8.15; cf. S. Gsell, L' empereur, 225-227 and B. W.Jones, Domitian, 152-153). Formally, this is a variant of the anathematic epigram, a genre covering epigrams and inscriptions destined to accompany an ex voto dedicated to a god. It is a genre widely represented in the Greek Anthology in the form of 'lay' variants of votive epigrams; cf. AP 6.5 (Phi1.), 6.34 (Rhian.), 6.37 (Phi1.). See P. Laurens, REL 43 (1965) 326-328. As far as the nature of the cuirass is concerned, hardly anything can be deduced from the epigram itself, except that it is a piece of armour to cover the chest, giving the wearer not only an air of divinity in the proper sense of the word but a frightening appearance. If we add the information gleaned


from the following epigram, with which it is linked, as we shall see later, it can be deduced that it is a breastplate in the style of the Sarmatian tribes, with interlocking boar hooves (cf. 7.2.3-4), which would undoubtedly inspire dread in the enemy (cf. 1. 2). This epigram opens a cycle devoted to the adulation of the emperor in his military capacity and with the ultimate aim of requesting his return, by way of a Vf.lVOC; xA:rrtLXOc; begging for the epiphany of a god (cf. 7.2.7-8, 7.5, 7.6). The emperor cycle comprises epigrams 1-2 and 5-8. A certain ascending order can be observed: in the first two there is a veiled request for his return (cf. 7.2.8) while the emphasis is on the exaltation of the emperor's military exploits. This is followed by a group of poems in which earnest entreaty is made for his home-coming (7.5 and 7.6), immediately followed by an epigram serving as a vehicle to express the loyalty of the people of Rome towards their supreme leader (7.7), while the final poem in the cycle proclaims with jubilation the great triumph which is soon to be held (cf. 7.8). On this cycle, cf. G. Gal