Marriage and Family among the Yakö in South-Eastern Nigeria 9780815387138, 9780429488139, 9781138588103, 9780429492440

Originally published in 1951 this book analyses the social values and institutions involved in the establishment and mai

120 2 5MB

English Pages [142] Year 1951

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Marriage and Family among the Yakö in South-Eastern Nigeria
 9780815387138, 9780429488139, 9781138588103, 9780429492440

Table of contents :
Cover page
Halftitle page
Title page
Copyright page
Title page
Copyright page
Dedication
Epigraph
CONTENTS
I introduction
Note on Orthography
Earlier Publications on the Yakӧ
CHAPTER II THE SIGNIFICANCE OF KINSHIP AND AGE SET SYSTEMS
CHAPTER III PRE-MARITAL RELATIONS AND BETROTHAL
CHAPTER IV THE MARRIAGE RITES
The Announcements of the Marrriage
Gathering the Marriage Firewood
Offerings to the Ase
The Clitoridectomy rite
Handing over the Marriage Money
The Wedding Feasts
Marriage Rites for a Pregnant Bride
CHAPTER V ANALYSIS OF MARRIAGE RITES
CHAPTER VI SECLUSION OE THE BRIDE
Circuit of the Akōta
CHAPTER VII RITES DURING THE FIRST PREGNANCY
CHAPTER VIII THE FREQUENCY OF PRE-MARITAL PREGNANCY
CHAPTER IX MARRIAGE MONEY & LIBEMAN
The source of the marriage money
The Nature of 'Bride Wealth' among the Yakö
Changes in the Amounts of Marriage Money
Non-payment of Marriage Money
CHAPTER X THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A HOUSEHOLD
CHAPTER XI DISSOLUTION OF MARRIAGE
Death
Divorce
The Frequency of Divorce
CHAPTER XII
CHAPTER XIII THE RELATIVE AGES OF SPOUSES
Changes in Relative Ages of Spouses
CHAPTER XIV FERTILITY
The desire for offspring
Actual Fertility
CHAPTER XV HOUSEHOLD AND FAMILY
Multiple Households
Domestic Obligations
Adultery
Companionship between Spouses
Foster-Parentage and Adoption
A Household History
The Family
INDEX

Citation preview

AFRICAN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF THE 20TH CENTURY

Volume 23

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY AMONG THE YAKÖ IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY AMONG THE YAKÖ IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

Edited by DARYLL FORDE

First published in 1951 by Percy Lund Humphries & Co Ltd for the International African Institute. This edition first published in 2018 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN and by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 1951 International African Institute All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: ISBN: ISBN: ISBN:

978-0-8153-8713-8 978-0-429-48813-9 978-1-138-58810-3 978-0-429-49244-0

(Set) (Set) (ebk) (Volume 23) (hbk) (Volume 23) (ebk)

Publisher’s Note The publisher has gone to great lengths to ensure the quality of this reprint but points out that some imperfections in the original copies may be apparent. Disclaimer The publisher has made every effort to trace copyright holders and would welcome correspondence from those they have been unable to trace.

Procession for the Clitoridectomy Rite of a pregnant bride. See p. 25

A bride in seclusion after the marriage rites. See p. 36 Frontispiece

A youth bringing to his prospective father-in-law a betrothal bundle of creeper rope for yam tying. See p. 16

MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY AMONG THE YAKÖ IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA by

DARYLL FORDE, Ph.D. Professor of Anthropology in the University o f London Director International African Institute

SECOND EDITION

Published for

THE

INTERNATIONAL

AFRICAN

INSTITUTE

by PERCY LUND HU M P H R IES

& CO LTD

12 Bedford Square, London WC 1

1951

PRINTE D IN

BY

T H E R E P L I KA

GREAT LUND

LONDON

BRITAIN

PROCESS BY

HUMPHRIES •

BRADFORD

To A. L. KROEBER and.

R. H. LOWIE

in g r a te fu l r e c o lle c tio n of a tra n a -A tla n tic n o v itia te

T h is s tu d y w as f i r s t No.

5

p u b lis h e d

in

1941 a s

o f th e London S ch o o l o f E conom ics an d P o l­

i t i c a l S c ie n c e s e r i e s o f

M onographs

on

S o c ia l

A n th ro p o lo g y .

W ith t h e p e r m is s io n o f th e London S c h o o l E conom ics t h i s se c o n d

e d itio n

is

t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f r ic a n I n s t i t u t e .

of

p u b li s h e d by

C O N T E N T S P ag e

C h a p te r I

II III IV

V VI

V II

V III IX

X XI

X II

In tro d u c tio n N o te on O rth o g ra p h y E a r l i e r P u b lic a tio n s The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e K in s h ip an d Age S e t S ystem s

1 4 5 6

P r e - m a r i t a l R e la t io n s and B e t r o t h a l

11

The M a rria g e R i t e s A nnouncem ents o f M a rria g e G a th e r in g t h e M a rria g e F irew o o d O f f e r i n g s t o th e M a t r ic l a n S h r in e s C li to r id e c to m y R it e H an d in g o v e r t h e M a rria g e Money W edding F e a s t s M a r ria g e R i t e s f o r a P re g n a n t B rid e

20 20 22 23 25 26 27 31

A n a ly s i s o f M a rria g e R i t e s

32

S e c lu s io n o f th e B rid e C i r c u i t o f th e A kota

36 37

R i t e s d u r i n g th e F i r s t P re g n a n c y R i t e a t th e B r i d e 's P a t r i c l a n S h rin e R i t e a t th e B r i d e 's M a t r ic l a n S h rin e K e tu k p o li R ite

39 39 40 40

F re q u e n c y o f P r e - m a r i t a l P re g n a n c y

42

M a r ria g e M o n ey : Libeman S o u rc e o f th e M a rria g e Money N a tu re o f 'B r id e W e a lth ' among th e Yakӧ C hanges i n th e Amounts o f M a rria g e Money N on-paym ent o f M a rria g e Money

45 50 52 56 59

The E s ta b lis h m e n t o f a H o u seh o ld

65

D i s s o l u t i o n o f M a rria g e D ea th D iv o rc e F re q u e n c y o f D iv o rc e

69 69 71 75

P olyg y n y

78

C h a p te r X III

XIV

XV

Page The R e l a t i v e Ages o f S p o u ses C hanges i n R e la t iv e Ages o f S p o u ses

83 84

F e rtility The D e s ir e f o r O f f s p r in g A c tu a l F e r t i l i t y

91 91 94 100 100 102 103 104 105 108 113

H o u seh o ld and F a m ily M u l ti p le H o u seh o ld s D o m estic O b lig a t io n s A d u lte r y C om panionship b e tw een S p o u ses F o s t e r - p a r e n t a g e an d Ad o p tio n A H o u seh o ld H is to r y The F a m ily

L is t o f I llu s tr a tio n s F r o n t i s p i e c e , a , P r o c e s s io n f o r t h e c l i t o r i d e c t o m y r i t e o f a p re g n a n t b rid e b , A b r i d e i n s e c l u s io n a f t e r th e m a r r ia g e r i t e s c , A y o u th b r i n g in g a b e t r o t h a l b u n d le to h i s p ro s p e c tiv e f a th e r - in - la w . F ig .l,

S k e tc h map o f th e t e r r i t o r y and s e t t l e m e n t s o f th e Yakö an d t h e i r n e ig h b o u r s fa c in g p .3

F ig .2 ,

The M a rria g e F irew o o d

f a c i n g p .2 2

F ig .3,

The Compound o f Okoi i n 1935

f a c i n g p .107

L i s t o f T a b le s T a b le 1

2 3

4

R e l a t i v e fr e q u e n c y by age s e t s o f c l i t o r i d e c t o m y b e f o r e and d u rin g p re g n a n c y

43

I n c id e n c e o f t r a n s f e r s o f m a r ria g e money to m a t r i l i n e a l k in

48

R e l a t i v e s o f b r i d e r e c e i v i n g m a r ria g e paym ent from b rid e g ro o m a t f i r s t m a r ria g e s

49

M ain p r o v i d e r s o f m a r ria g e money a t f i r s t m a r ria g e s

51

L i s t o f T a b le s ( C o n td .) T able 5 6 7 8 9 10

11

12 13

Page M a r i t a l h i s t o r y o f women by ag e s e t s

76

Humber o f W ives l i v i n g w ith h u sb a n d s by a g e s e t s

79

Humber o f m a r ria g e s c o n tr a c te d by men by a g e s e t s

81

Age s e t s o f w iv e s i n r e l a t i o n to th o s e o f h u sb a n d s

83

The r e l a t i v e a g e s o f f i r s t w iv e s and h u sb a n d s by age se ts

84

The r e l a t i v e age s e t s o f sp o u s e s i n f i r s t an d l a t e r m a r ria g e s

86

The in c id e n c e o f m a r ria g e s w ith u n m a r r ie d , d iv o r c e d , a n d w idowed women.

88

C h ild r e n b o m t o w iv e s who h a v e c o m p le te d th e r e p r o ­ d u c ti v e p e r io d

95

M a r ria g e s and b i r t h s i n th e h o u s e h o ld o f O k o i, 1905-35

111

1 I

introd uctio n

T h is s tu d y o f Yakӧ m a r ria g e sind d o m e s tic r e l a t i o n s h a s aim ed p rim a r­ i l y a t a n a l y s i s o f th e s o c i a l v a lu e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s in v o lv e d i n th e e s ta b lis h m e n t and m a in te n a n c e o f m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h is h a s im­ p l i e d c o n s i d e r a t io n n o t m e re ly o f th e c o n v e n tio n s th r o u g h w h ic h m a r i t a l v a lu e s a r e e x p re s s e d b u t a l s o o f th e r e l a t i o n o f m a r i t a l s t a t u s t o th e g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e o f Yakӧ s o c i e t y . I h a v e a l s o b e e n c o n c e rn e d t o d e­ te rm in e th e e x te n t t o w h ich th e v a lu e s p o s i t e d by t h e Yakӧ th e m s e lv e s a re a c t u a l l y o p e r a t iv e and t o d is c o v e r th e c h a n g in g c o n d i t i o n s w h ich h a v e i n th e p e r i o d a v a i l a b l e f o r s tu d y , nam ely th e p a s t two o r t h r e e g e n e ra ­ t i o n s , b een te n d in g to m o d ify t r a d i t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o f m a r it a l b eh a v io u r. Such c o n d it io n s w i l l be fo u n d to i n c l u d e b o th c ir c u m s ta n c e s in h e r e n t i n th e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and a l s o e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s im p in g in g on Yakӧ s o c ie ty . I am aw are t h a t , a p a r t from t e c h n i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s d e p e n d e n t on th e c h a r ­ a c t e r o f th e m a t e r i a l o b ta i n e d , th e a n a l y s i s p r e s e n te d h e r e i s f a r from c o m p le te , b u t an a tte m p t h a s b e e n made to i n d i c a t e th e e s s e n t i a l c h a r ­ a c t e r i s t i c s o f Yakӧ m a r i t a l s t a n d a r d s and p r a c t i c e s and th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e v a r i a t i o n s and a n o m a lie s o b s e rv e d . P ro b lem s o f th e r e l a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y o r te m p e ra m e n ta l f a c t o r s to s e x u a l b e h a v io u r o r t o th e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s b etw een sp o u s e s h av e n o t, a s su c h , been c o n s id e r e d . My e x p e r ie n c e an d d a t a w ere n o t a d e q u a te f o r th o ro u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e s e m a t te r s w h ic h , a lth o u g h i t would p re s u p ­ pose g ra s p o f th e r e l e v a n t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and s t a n d a r d is e d b e h a v io u r p a t t e r n s i s i t s e l f p s y c h o l o g ic a l n o t s o c i o l o g i c a l i n c h a r a c t e r . My work among th e Yakӧ w as u n d e rta k e n i n two s p e l l s one o f s ix months i n 1935 and a n o th e r o f t h r e e m onths i n 1 9 3 9 . P a r t i c u l a r a tte n tio n was g iv e n t o m a rria g e and d o m e s tic r e l a t i o n s d u r in g th e se c o n d v i s i t . A lthough th e r e s u l t s th e n o b ta in e d d id n o t i n v a l i d a t e th e g e n e ra l n o ti o n s I had form ed d u r in g t h e f i r s t p e r i o d o f f i e l d w ork th e y In v o lv e d some m o d if ic a tio n s o f d e t a i l . P r i o r t o t h i s seco n d v i s i t I had re fe rre d b r i e f l y t o m a rria g e i n p a p e r s p u b li s h e d i n 1938 and 1 9 3 9 . W here, a s o c c a s i o n a ll y h a p p e n s , t h e r e i s some d is c r e p a n c y o f d e t a i l b etw een th e a c c o u n t g iv e n h e r e and th e e a r l i e r s ta te m e n ts t h i s a c c o u n t may b e a c c e p t­ ed a s t h e more a c c u r a t e . I am in d e b te d to th e L everhulm e T r u s t e e s an d t h e i r R e s e a rc h Fellow­ s h ip s C om m ittee f o r th e aw ard o f a F e llo w s h ip an d a l s o t o th e C o u n c il o f th e U n iv e r s ity C o lle g e o f W ales f o r le a v e o f a b s e n c e i n o r d e r t o c a r r y o u t th e f i e l d w ork on w h ich t h i s s tu d y i s b a s e d . My th a n k s a r e a ls o due to th e N ig e r ia n G overnm ent f o r p e r m is s io n to p r o s e c u te t h e s e s t u d i e s and f o r f a c i l i t i e s i n th e f i e l d . The g r e a t e r p a r t o f my tim e was s p e n t i n Umor, t h e l a r g e s t o f th e f i v e Yakӧ v i l l a g e s an d m ost o f th e d a t a a r e d e r i v e d th e r e f r o m . I w a s,

2 h o w ev er, a b le t o a s s u r e m y s e lf d u r in g v i s i t s t o th e o th e r v i l l a g e s and from s t a te m e n ts o f men an d women from th e s e v i l l a g e s who w e re r e s i d e n t i n Um or, t h a t m a r i t a l c o n d it io n s w ere e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r th ro u g h o u t th e Yakӧ c o m m u n itie s. A few m in o r v a r i a t i o n s i n c u sto m a ry s t a n d a r d s an d a c ­ t u a l p r a c t i c e o f s o c i o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e c o n s id e re d a t t h e a p p ro ­ p r i a t e p o i n t s i n th e d is c u s s i o n . The p ro c e d u r e s a d o p te d i n p u r s u in g e n q u i r i e s w i l l he a p p a r e n t from th e e x p o s i ti o n i t s e l f , bu t one e s s e n t i a l p o i n t o f m ethod sh o u ld h e em­ p h a s i s e d h e r e . I n o r d e r t o d e te rm in e th e a c t u a l b e h a v io u r in v o lv e d i n m a rria g e and t h e r e l a t i o n o f su c h b e h a v io u r to n a t i v e i d e a l s i t i s ob­ v i o u s l y e s s e n t i a l to o b ta i n d e t a i l e d a c c o u n ts o f p a r t i c u l a r m a rita l h i s ­ t o r i e s . A few su c h a c c o u n ts d e r iv e d fro m ch a n c e e n c o u n te r s , how ev er ex­ h a u s t i v e , a r e l i k e l y to be in a d e q u a te p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r d e te r m in in g th e d e g re e o f v a r i a t i o n i n r e s p e c t o f p a r t i c u l a r e le m e n ts o f b e h a v io u r . I t i s t h e r e f o r e d e s i r a b l e to o b ta i n a n o u t l i n e o f th e m a r i t a l h i s t o r i e s o f a l l t h e members o f a c o n s id e r a b le g ro u p w h ich can be r e g a r d e d a s a r e ­ p r e s e n t a t i v e sa m p le , and l i k e l y to in c l u d e w ith i n i t s e l f a l l th e ty p e s o f s i t u a t i o n o c c u r r in g i n th e com m unity a s a w h o le . F o r th e Yakӧ su ch a gro u p w as a t hand i n th e h o u s e h o ld s o f th e men o f one p a t r i l i n e a l c la n w hich h ad b e e n s e l e c t e d a t random , and a s c e r t a i n e d t o be i n no m arked d e g re e e x c e p t i o n a l , d u r in g my e a r l i e r p e r i o d o f w ork i n 1 9 3 5 , when I was c o n c e n t r a t i n g a t t e n t i o n on t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n and economy o f th e Yakӧ . I n 1 9 3 9 , w ith th e c o - o p e r a ti o n o f th e p e o p le th e m s e lv e s , I o b ta in e d m a r i t a l h i s t o r i e s o f th e men and women o f a l l th e s e h o u s e h o ld s and i n v e s t i g a t e d more f u l l y th o s e w h ich a p p e a re d to be d i s t i n c t i v e i n r e s p e c t o f any p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t . In t h i s way r e c o r d s f o r o v er a h u n d re d men and o v e r two h u n d re d women o f a l l a g e s w ere o b ta in e d . By m eans o f th e age s e t sy ste m a c h r o n o lo g ic a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f m a r i t a l p r a c t i c e s among th e s e p e o p le c o u ld be c a r r i e d o u t and t h i s h a s made i t p o s s i b l e to d e te r m in e th e p e r i o d and r a t e o f c e r t a i n ch an g e s d u rin g th e p a s t f i f t y y e a r s . The num ber o f o a s e s h a s a l s o b e e n s u f f i c i e n t to a p p ly some sim p le r s t a t i s t i c a l m ethods f o r th e d e te r m i n a ti o n o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n b e h a v io u r , i n c l u d in g th e in c id e n c e o f p o ly g y n y , d iv o r c e and o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f Yakӧ m a r r ia g e . I o b ta in e d i n a d d i t i o n m a r i t a l h i s t o r i e s o f m ost o f th e more em in en t an d w e ll to do men in c l u d i n g th e p r i e s t - h e a d s of th e p a t r i l i n e a l and m a t r i l i n e a l c la n s i n o r d e r t o d e te r m in e th e e f f e c t s i f any on m a r i t a l p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l em inence and w e a lth . The o u t l i n e s o f th e g e n e r a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f Yakӧ s o c i e t y h a v e b e e n i n d i c a t e d i n e a r l i e r p u b l i c a t i o n s and th e r e l e v a n t s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s w i l l be d e s c r ib e d b r i e f l y i n th e c o u rs e o f t h i s e x p o s i t i o n ; b u t th e f o llo w in g d em og rap h ic and econom ic m a t t e r s a r e a l s o n e c e s s a r y f o r u n ­ d e r s ta n d in g th e s o c i a l c o n te x t o f m a r r ia g e . The Yakӧ p e o p le , one o f th e s e v e r a l l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t g ro u p s w h ich occupy th e t e r r i t o r y ex ­ te n d in g e a s tw a rd from th e C ro ss R iv e r t o th e m o u n ta in o u s c o u n tr y o f th e Oban H i l l s , occupy a c o n tin u o u s t r a c t o f c o u n try w h ich r e a c h e s to th e

Fig. I.

3 r i v e r a t i t s n o r t h - e a s t e r n e x tr e m i ty bu t i s f o r m ost p a r t s e p a r a t e d from i t by th e t e r r i t o r i e s o f o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c g ro u p s , Ekum uru, A kunakuna, A b in i e t c . Thus th e Yakӧ a r e n o t a r i v e r t r a d i n g p e o p le and u n t i l th e tw e n tie s o f t h i s c e n tu r y v e ry few o f them p a s s e d beyond t h e b o u n d a r ie s o f t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y o r th o s e o f t h e i r im m ed iate n e ig h b o u r s . T ra d in g e x p e d itio n s t o d i s t a n t c e n t r e s i n c l u d i n g th e p o r t s f o r th e s a l e o f palm p r o d u c ts o r th e p u rc h a s e o f s t o c k s o f t r a d e g o ods a r e a r e c e n t d e v e lo p ­ ment c o n f in e d t o a few y o u n g e r men. Yakӧ women s t i l l l e a v e t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y v e ry r a r e l y sav e f o r d a y tim e v i s i t s to r i v e r s i d e v i l l a g e m ar­ k e ts ( s e e Map, Fi g . l ) . The Yakӧ p ro b a b ly c o m p rise a b o u t 2 0 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s i n a l l a t th e p r e s e n t tim e . They a r e g ro u p ed i n f i v e v il la g e s e ttle m e n ts e a c h s i t u a t e d from t h r e e to s i x m ile s from i t s n e ig h b o u r s . The l a r g e s t v i l l a g e , U m or,l sev en m i le s to th e e a s t o f th e r i v e r i s a l a r g e and com pact s e t t l e m e n t c o v e rin g a n a r e a o f a q u a r t e r o f a s q u a r e m ile w ith a p o p u l a t i o n w h ich I e s tim a te d a t n e a r l y e le v e n th o u s a n d i n 1 9 3 5 . S ix m i le s t o th e n o r t h l i e s E k u r i, somewhat s m a lle r th a n Umor, o f w h ich th e m ain se ttle m e n t a re a s a r e a g a in away from th e r i v e r a lth o u g h one o f i t s d i s p e r s e d w ard s h as a w a te r s id e h a m le t. To th e n o r t h - e a s t o f Umor a r e th e two s m a ll e r and c l o s e l y n e ig h b o u r in g s e t t l e m e n t s o f Nko and N g k p an i, f i v e and e i g h t m ile s away, w h ile l i t t l e more th a n t h r e e m ile s s o u th o f Umor i s th e f i f t h and s m a ll e s t v i l l a g e o f Id o m i. The l i n g u i s t i c u n i t y o f t h e Yakӧ c o rr e s p o n d s to a v e ry h ig h d e g re e o f g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l h o m o g e n e ity m ain­ ta i n e d by a c o n tin u a d flo w fro m one v i l l a g e to a n o th e r o f s m a ll num bers o f v i s i t o r s te m p o ra ry r e s i d e n t s an d m i g r a n t s : B ut t h e r e i s no c e n ­ t r a l i s e d p o l i t i c a l o rg a n is a tio n . A lth o u g h a w e ll r e c o g n i s e d s e n s e o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l u n i t y e x i s t s among th e Yakӧ and th e r e a r e b e tw e e n some o f th e v i l l a g e s t r a d i t i o n s o f f r i e n d s h i p and m u tu a l a i d a g a i n s t e n e m ie s, each v i l l a g e h a s r e t a i n e d a p o l i t i c a l autonom y com m ensurate w ith i t s econom ic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . S p o ra d ic f i g h t i n g b etw een th e v i l l a g e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y betw een Umor and E k u r i, h a s o c c u rr e d i n t h e p a s t w h ile i n t e r - v i l l a g e j e a l o u s i e s h av e b e e n an o b s t a c l e t o th e e s t a b li s h m e n t o f a u n i t a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r l o c a l s e lf - g o v e r n m e n t u n d e r B r i t i s h r u l e . On th e o th e r h and an i n d i v i d u a l Yakӧ who h a s a s p o n s o r and h o s t i s r e a d i l y a d o p te d i n t o th e p a t r i l i n e a l c l a n and t e r r i t o r i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f a n o th e r v i l l a g e . T ie s o f m a t r i l i n e a l k i n s h i p , u n l i k e p a t r i l i n e a l , a r e n o t a b ro g a te d by perm an en t m ig r a tio n t o a n o th e r v i l l a g e and i n f a c t m a t r i l i n e a l k i n s h ip r e l a t i o n s b etw een p e r s o n s o f d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e s a r e c o n ti n u a ll y r e - c r e a t e d by i n t e r - v i l l a g e m a r r ia g e s i n con­ seq u en ce o f w hich a man i n o n e v i l l a g e h a s s i s t e r ' s so n s i n a n o th e r . 1T h is s p e l l i n g i s n o t p h o n e ti c ; th e name was v a r i o u s l y h e a r d a s ume and umo. T h is v i l l a g e i s commonly known to n e ig h b o u r in g p e o p le s by i t s Akunakuna name Ugep and i s so named in m ost Governm ent maps an d r e p o r t s .

4 T h ese i n t u r n lead, t o f u r t h e r m ig r a tio n s o f b o th men and women from one v i l l a g e t o j o i n m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e s i n a n o th e r . Such m i g r a t io n s a re how ever v e ry few i n num ber i n r e l a t i o n to th e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s o f th e v i l l a g e co m m un ities c o n c e rn e d . By f a r th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e fo o d su p p ly o f t h e Yakö i s o b ta in e d from t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f fa rm p l o t s and m ost o f t h e la b o u r f o r e a c h p l o t i s p r o v id e d by a h o u se h o ld u n i t o f w h ich th e p r o d u c t iv e n u c le u s i s a man and h i s w ife o r w iv e s . The e x p l o i t a t i o n o f w ild o i l p alm s w h ic h p r o v id e th e one s u b s t a n t i a l s u r p lu s o f g o o d s s a l e a b l e f o r c u rr e n c y i n e x t e r n a l m a r k e ts i s s i m i l a r l y c a r r i e d on by h o u se h o ld u n i t s i n w h ic h th e man c o l l e c t s f r u i t s from p alm s i n th e fa rm in g a r e a o f h i s p a t r i l i n e a l c la n w h ile th e w if e c a r r i e s o u t th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e p r o c e s s o f o i l ex­ t r a c t i o n and c r a c k s t h e n u t s f o r k e r n e l s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n 1935 o f one p a t r i l i n e a l c la n showed t h a t o f 112 a d u l t m ales 105 w ere h e a d s o f h o u se ­ h o ld s engaged i n fa r m in g and o f th e re m a in d e r o n ly one w as en g ag ed i n t r a d i n g to th e e x c lu s io n o f fa r m in g w h ile th e o t h e r s w ere d e p e n d e n ts i n ­ c a p a b le th ro u g h age o r i n f i r m i t y o f fa rm w o rk . H a lf t h e h o u s e h o ld s i n t h i s g ro u p w ere r e g u l a r l y en g ag ed i n th e p r o d u c tio n o f p alm o i l and k e rn e ls fo r s a l e .l Thus th e m a in te n a n c e o f a fa rm a n d , t o a l e s s e r ex­ t e n t , o f palm o i l p r o d u c t io n a r e b a s i c a c t i v i t i e s o f th e h o u s e h o ld , and th e c o n c e rn o f e v e ry h u sb a n d and w i f e , w h ile m a r r ia g e , a s w i l l b e s e e n , i s th e no rm al means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g o r e x te n d in g a h o u s e h o ld p r o d u c t iv e u n i t . T h e re a r e a s w i l l h e s e e n m u tu a l r e l a t i o n s o f t h e g r e a t e s t s i g n i ­ f i c a n c e b etw een m a r ria g e a s a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n and th e c o n d it io n s o f h o u s e h o ld p r o d u c tio n . N ote on O rth o g ra p h y : Yakӧ te rm s and t e x t s a r e e x p r e s s e d h e r e i n t h e p h o n e ti c sy stem o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f A f r ic a n L anguages and C u l t u r e s a s s e t o u t i n ' P r a c t i c a l O rth o g ra p h y o f A f r i c a n L an g u ag es' (Memo­ randum 1 , 1930 ) w ith th e f o l lo w in g m o d i f i c a ti o n s : ( i ) t h e symbol j , n o t z , h a s b e e n u se d f o r th e F re n c h j e u and by s i n E n g li s h 'p l e a s u r e '

sound i n d i c a t e d by j i n

( i i ) The symbol c i s u s e d f o r th e sound i n d i c a t e d by sh i n E n g lis h 's h o w ! ( i i i ) th e v e l a r n a s i n E n g l i s h 's i n g ’ i s r e p r e s e n te d by n g and i f 'h a r d g ' , i n d i c a t e d by g , s h o u ld anyw here f o llo w v e l a r n t h e c o m b in a tio n w i l l be w r i t t e n ngg. ( i v ) th e s e v e r a l o and u th u s : 1S ee F o r d e , Land & L ab o u r 1 9 3 7 , p p . 2 4 -5 1 .

v o w e ls

in

a re

a

C ro ss

in d ic a te d

by

d ia c r itic a l

m arks

R iv e r V i l l a g e , Geog. J o u m . ,9 0 ,

5

o = open o a s i n E n g lish , h o t ; ō = c l o s e o a s i n E n g lis h h o s t ; ӧ = o b s c u r e o , o r c e n t r a l v o w e l, a p p ro x im a te ly l e s s ro u n d e d ;

as

i n F re n c h j e u b u t

e = m id d le o, a p p ro x im a te ly a s i n E n g li s h la w . u = o pen u , a s i n E n g lis h d uck ū = c l o s e u , a s i n E n g lis h p u l l (v ) O th e r vow el sym bols h av e t h e i r so c a l l e d I t a l i a n v a l u e s ; t o n e s , le n g th a n d s t r e s s h av e n o t b e e n i n d i c a t e d . E a r l i e r P u b l i c a t i o n s on t h e Yakӧ 1.

Land an d L abour i n a C ro s s R iv e r V i l l a g e , G e o g ra p h ic a l J o u r n a l , V o l. 9 0 , 1937.

2.

F i s s i o n and A c c r e tio n i n th e P a t r i l i n e a l C la n s o f a se m i-B a n tu comm unity i n S o u th e rn N i g e r i a , J o u r n a l o f t h e R o y a l A n th r o p o lo g ic ­ a l I n s t i t u t e , V o l.6 8 , 1938

3.

N o te s on some P o p u la tio n D a ta fro m a S o u th e r n N ig e r ia n V i l l a g e , S o c io l o g ic a l R eview , V o l . 3 0 , 1939 ( w ith D r .E .C h a r le s )

4.

K in s h ip i n Umor-Double U n i l a t e r a l O r g a n is a tio n i n a sem i-B a n tu S o c i e t y , A m erican A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , V o l.4 1 , 1939

5.

G overnm ent i n Umor, A f r i c a , J o u r n a l o f th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f A f r ic a n L anguages an d C u l t u r e s , V o l. 1 2 , 1939.

6 CHAPTER I I II

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF KINSHIP AND AGE SET SYSTEMS

The p ro c e d u r e w hereb y a Yakö m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e s t a b l i s h e d o r d i s s o lv e d c a n n o t b e u n d e rs to o d a p a r t fro m k i n s h i p an d a g e s e t s y s ­ tem s w h ich p r o v id e i t s s t r u c t u r a l fram ew o rk . T h ese sy ste m s w i l l be c o n s id e r e d h e r e o n ly i n so f a r a s th e y a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e s o c i o l o g i ­ c a l a n a l y s i s o f m a r ria g e and t h e f a m ily . The Yakӧ k i n s h i p s y s te m , a s h a s b e e n shown e ls e w h e r e , i s d u a l i n c h a r a c t e r . 1 P a t r i l i n e a l k i n s h i p a f f o r d s th e o r g a n i s in g p r i n c i p l e o f a sy stem o f m a jo r t e r r i t o r i a l d e s c e n t g ro u p s known a s y e p ūn ( s i n g . k epū n) w h ich w i l l b e r e f e r r e d t o a s p a t r i c l a n s . 2 E ach v i l l a g e h a s an in d e p e n d e n t and e x c lu s iv e p a t r i c l a n s y s te m , and e a c h o f t h e c la n s c la im s c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s t o r e s i d e n t i a l and fa r m in g a r e a s in a v i l l a g e t e r r i t o r y . The p a t r i c l a n s a r e s t r i c t l y exogamous so t h a t ev ery m a r ria g e in v o lv e s r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n two d i s t i n c t s e t s o f p a t r i k i n , t h o s e of th e groom and th o s e o f t h e b r i d e , and a w if e on m a r ria g e becom es a member o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l g ro u p composed o f h e r h u s b a n d 's p a tr ic la n s m e n and t h e i r h o u s e h o ld s . W ith in a kepū n t h e s e n tim e n t o f p a t r i l i n e a l k in s h ip i s more s t r o n g ly d e v e lo p e d betw een th e members o f su b g ro u p s o r l i n e ­ a g e s known a s yeponam a ( s i n g . epōnama) w hose members t r a c e a c t u a l p a t r i l i n e a l d e s c e n t from a s i n g l e a n c e s t o r f o u r o r f i v e g e n e r a t io n s s e n i o r t o th e y o u n g e r a d u l t s . The c o h e re n c e o f t h e kepū n a s a w hole a p p e a rs t o d epen d a s much on th e i n t e r e s t i n m a in ta in in g common r e ­ s id e n c e and f a n n in g r i g h t s a s on th e s e n tim e n t o f p a t r i l i n e a l d e s c e n t i n te rm s o f w hich i t i s e x p r e s s e d . W ith in a p a t r i l i n e a g e how ever com­ mon d e s c e n t a s su c h i s d o m in an t a n d , i n th e e v e n t o f a d o p tio n i n t o a n o th e r c l a n , c la im s o f p a t r i k i n s h i p may c o n f l i c t w ith t h e fo rm a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r o p e r t o c la n a f f i l i a t i o n . A t th e same tim e a m a t r i l i n e a l k in s h ip re c k o n in g i s d o m in a n t i n d e te r m in in g th e s u c c e s s io n t o p r o p e r t y among th e Yakӧ and r i t u a l v a lu e s u n i f y b o d ie s o f p e r s o n s who c la im common m a t r i l i n e a l d e s c e n t an d c o n 1

K in sh ip i n Umor — D ouble U n i l a t e r a l O r g a n is a tio n S o c i e t y , A m er.A n th r o p o l o g is t , 4 1 , 1 9 3 9 , 523 f f .

2

in

a se m i-B a n tu

The c o n v e n ie n t d e v ic e o f u s i n g p a t r i - a n d m a t r i - a s p r e f i x e s t o i n ­ d i c a t e s u c c i n c t l y t h e uni l i n e a l d i r e c t i o n s o f d e s c e n t and a f f i l i a t i o n h a s b e e n s u g g e s te d an d u s e d by W.E. L aw rence i n S tu d i e s i n t h e Science o f S o c ie t y , e d . G .P . M urdock, New H av en , 1937. I t i s a d o p te d h e r e and a p p li e d g e n e r a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c l a n s , l i n e a g e s an d k i n s f o l k o f p a t r i l i n e a l and m a t r i l i n e a l a f f i l i a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y .

7 s t i t u t e m a t r i c l a n s known a s y a jim a ( s i n g , l e j i m a ) . H ere a g a in l i n e a g e s o r k e ji m a f a t ( s i n g , l e j i m a f a t ) o f m a trik in s m e n who t r a c e a c t u a l common m a t r i l i n e a l d e s c e n t a r e u n i t e d by s t r o n g e r s e n t im e n ts o f k i n s h i p a s d i s t i n c t from common i n t e r e s t s i n p a r t i c u l a r r i t u a l v a lu e s and sym bols. The le j i m a i s n o t s t r i c t l y exogamous a t t h e p r e s e n t tim e a n d n o s p e c i f i c p e n a l t y f o r in f r in g e m e n t o p e r a t e s t o m a i n ta i n m a t r i c l a n exogamy b u t i n t r a - c l a n m a r r ia g e s a r e g e n e r a l l y h e ld t o b e d a n g e ro u s and c o n d u c iv e t o s t e r i l i t y o r th e e a r l y d e a th o f c h i l d r e n . In f a c t th e y v e ry r a r e l y o c c u r. A lth o u g h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p a t r i k i n s h i p d e te r m in e s t h e form ation and m a in te n a n c e o f p rim a ry s e t t l e m e n t u n i t s i n a Yakö v illa g e comm unity t h e g ro u p in g o f t h e s e u n i t s i n l a r g e r d i v i s i o n s o r w a rd s o f th e v i l l a g e known a s yekpatU ( s i n g , k e k p a ta ) ig n o r e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e a n d i s d e te rm in e d by t e r r i t o r i a l p r o x im ity a lo n e . In th e la r g e s t v il la g e , Umor, t h e r e a r e tw e n ty two p a t r i c l a n s g ro u p e d i n f o u r w a rd s , b u t th e c la n s o f any one w ard a r e n o t c o n c e iv e d a s se g m e n ts o f a h ig h e r w ard k i n g ro u p . The t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e c la n s and g e n e a l o g ic a l e v id e n c e o f r e c e n t f i s s i o n s o f c la n s an d m i g r a t io n s o f one seg m en t to a n o th e r w ard a l s o c o n t r a d i c t any su c h n o t i o n . 1 The w ard (k e k p a tū , p i . y e k p a tū ) i s a t e r r i t o r i a l g ro u p w hose c o ­ h e re n c e d e r i v e s from th e common i n t e r e s t s of th e men o f th e c o - r e s i d e n t p a tr ic l ans. A number o f eco n o m ic, r i t u a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s a r e o rg a n is e d w i t h i n e a c h w ard w h ich a l s o h a s i t s in d e p e n d e n t a g e s e t sy ste m . A new a g e s e t o r ekō (p l . n k ō ) o f men i s f o r m a ll y r e c o g n is e d e v ery t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s a t a f e a s t p ro v id e d b y th e new s e t f o r th e b e n e f i t o f a l l th e e x i s t i n g s e t s . The new s e t c o n s i s t s o f t h e young men who hav e m a r rie d o r re a c h e d m a r r ia g e a b le a g e s i n c e t h e p r e v io u s s e t was e s t a b l i s h e d . I t i s c a l l e d i n t o e x i s t e n c e by th e w ard h e a d to whom i t d e c l a r e s i t s two c h o se n l e a d e r s . F o u r y e a r s i s r e g a r d e d a s th e p ro p e r i n t e r v a l b e tw een th e fo r m a tio n o f two s e t s a n d i n t h e p a s t t h i s i n t e r v a l a p p e a rs to h a v e b e e n g e n e r a l l y o b s e r v e d ; b u t i n r e c e n t y e a r s , w ith i n c r e a s i n g p o p u la t io n , th e i n t e r v a l b etw e e n c a l l i n g f o r t h e l e a d ­ e r s o f one s e t and th e n e x t h a s te n d e d to f a l l . I n Umor t h r e e y e a r i n t e r v a l s a p p e a r to h av e o c c u rr e d r e c e n t l y i n U k p ak ap i w ard w h ile one i n t e r v a l o f o n ly two y e a r s was re c o r d e d f o r t h e l a r g e r w ard o f I d j ūm. At th e same tim e th e c e re m o n ia l r e c o g n i t i o n o f an a g e s e t h a s som etim es b een p o stp o n e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s on a c c o u n t o f f a i l u r e by t h e new s e t t o ac c u m u la te i n good tim e t h e fo o d s u p p l ie s n e c e s s a r y f o r th e f e a s t . Thus th e U kpakapi s e t whose l e a d e r s w ere c a l l e d f o r by t h e w ard h e a d a n d re c o g n is e d i n 1936 d id n o t g iv e t h e i r e s t a b li s h m e n t f e a s t u n t i l 1938. 1S ee F o r d e , F i s s i o n and A c c r e tio n i n th e P a t r i l i n e a l C la n s o f a S em iB antu comm unity i n S o u th e rn N i g e r i a , J o u r n . R o y a l A n t h . I n s t . , 6 8 , 1 9 3 8 , 311 f f .

8

A t an y one tim e t h e r e a r e 17 o r 18 s e t a i n e x is te n c e i n e a c h ward, and among them a r e d i s t r i b u t e d men r a n g i n g i n ag e fro m s e v e n te e n o r e ig h t e e n t o o v e r s e v e n ty y e a r s , b u t th e n u m e r ic a l s t r e n g t h o f th e s e t s d im in is h e s s h a r p ly a f t e r m id d le ag e w ith i n c r e a s i n g s e n i o r i t y . I n th e w ard s o f Umor i n r e c e n t y e a r s an a g e s e t o f men h a s b een o f t h e o r d e r o f t h i r t y o r m ore s t r o n g a t th e tim e o f f o r m a tio n . The a g e s e t s in each w ard a r e a l t e r n a t e l y l a b e l l e d o k p rik e an d a g b ia g b a n , te rm s f o r w h ich no c o n v in c in g etym o lo g y was o b ta in e d , and e a c h s e t i s f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e d by th e name o f i t s s e n i o r l e a d e r , b e i n g known a s th e o k p rik e o r a g h ia g b a n o f so and. s o . The s e t s o f th e d i f f e r e n t w a rd s, a lth o u g h th e y a r e fo rm ed i n ­ d e p e n d e n tly an d t h e r e i s no c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f e s t a b li s h m e n t c e re m o n ie s , a r e i n p r a c t i c e e q u a te d . Thus a man o f one w ard i n a v i l l a g e c a n name t h e s e t s w hich c o rre s p o n d w ith h i s own, a n d a r e r e g a r d e d a s e q u iv a l e n t i n a g e , i n th e o th e r w a rd s. I n t h e same w ay, a lth o u g h i t i s l e s s f r e q u e n t l y n e e d e d , a man i n one v i l l a g e c a n d e te r m in e th e ag e s e t o f any w ard i n a n o th e r v i l l a g e w h ich i s h e ld t o c o rr e s p o n d i n s e n i o r i t y w ith h i s own. S h o u ld h e m ig r a te when a d u l t h e w i l l h e re g a r d e d a s a member o f su ch a s e t i n th e w ard o f h i s new r e s i d e n c e . Owing to more f r e q u e n t r e d u c t i o n s o f i n t e r v a l s b e tw een ag e s e t f o r m a tio n s i n th e l a r g e I d j ūm w ard o f Umor two g ro u p s o f two s e t s a r e e q u a te d w ith two s i n g l e s e t s i n th e o th e r t h r e e w a rd s. T h is ag e s e t sy ste m a f f o r d s a means o f d e te r m in in g th e a p p ro x im a te c h r o n o l o g ic a l ag e o f any p e rs o n o f w h ich u s e w i l l h e made l a t e r i n i n ­ v e s t i g a t i n g t r e n d s i n m a r i t a l c u sto m s. The a ss u m p tio n o f a f o u r y e a r i n t e r v a l b etw een s e t s c o rr e s p o n d s v e ry w e ll w ith th e ag e o b ta in e d in d e p e n d e n tly f o r p a r t i c u l a r men by m eans o f d a te d e v e n ts at th e ir b i r t h s l and f i r s t m a r r ia g e s . In r e f e r r i n g t o th e s u c c e s s iv e age s e t s 1T hus f o r exam ple a n Uk p a k a p i man o f age s e t V, th e a p p ro x im a te a g e o f w hose members i s e s tim a te d t o be 6 2 -6 5 i n 1939 was in d e p e n d e n tly e s tim a te d fro m o c c u rr e n c e o f h i s f i r s t m a r ria g e i n t h e y e a r o f a B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y e x p e d itio n th ro u g h th e C ro ss R iv e r c o u n tr y t o he 61 y e a rs o ld . I n th e same w ay, a man o f a g e s e t XVI. ( t h e age o f w hose members i s e s tim a te d a t 2 2 -2 5 i n 1 9 3 9 ) c o u ld b e shown to be 26 y e a r s o f a g e s in c e th e y e a r i n w h ich h e w e n t away t o s c h o ol w as 1925 and t h a t w as a l s o th e y e a r o f t h e se c o n d tim e t h a t h is f a t h e r who fa rm ed a s i x y e a r c y c le o f p l o t s h ad a g a in c l e a r e d a fa rm on th e p a r t i c u l a r la n d (E be) w here h e w as fa r m in g when h i s so n was b o r n . The man was th u s 12 y e a r s o ld i n 1925 and 26 y e a r s i n 1 9 3 9 . S im il a r in d e ­ p e n d e n t a g e e s t im a te s h av e c o n firm e d th e e s t im a te s o f t h e ag e r a n g e s o f o th e r s e t s .

9 i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n rom an n u m e ra ls w i l l h e u s e d t o i n d i c a t e them i n o r ­ d e r o f j u n i o r i t y . The s e n i o r s e t i n U kpakapi w a rd i n Umor, o f w h ich t h e r e w ere o n ly two o r t h r e e l i v i n g members i n 1 9 3 5 , i s l a b e l l e d I and th e m ost j u n i o r w h ich w as fo rm ed i n 1939 i s i n d i c a t e d a s X V III.A g e s e t s o f o th e r w a rd s h a v e b e e n g iv e n c o r r e s p o n d in g n um bers a c c o r d i n g t o th e n a t i v e e q u a tio n s b e tw e e n s e t s . B ut th e p r i n c i p l e o f a g e g ro u p in g o p e r a t e s lo n g b e f o r e t h e fo rm a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f a s e t a n d a m a n 's age s e t m em bership h a s i n f a c t b e e n a lr e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n c h ild h o o d . Thus e v e ry y e a r i n Umor on one day d u rin g t h e v i l l a g e f e s t i v a l o f Lebok ū th e c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n e ach p a t r i ­ c l an a r e a form a num ber o f p a r t i e s e a c h o f a b o u t t h e same a g e , b o y s an d g i r l s fo rm in g d i s t i n c t s e t s o f p a r t i e s . E ach v i s i t s t h e homes o f i t s m em bers' p a r e n t s t o c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s f o r a f e a s t . The p a r t i e s o f young­ e r c h i l d r e n a r e t o l d t h a t th e y m ust ch o o se a l e a d e r ; t h e o l d e r a lr e a d y hav e a l e a d e r o r d i s p u t e o v e r th e l e a d e r s h i p and s e t t l e t h e m a t te r w ith th e en co uragem en t o f t h e i r e l d e r s by w r e s t l i n g c o n t e s t s b e tw e e n r i v a l s . The b o y s ' p a r t i e s o f s i m i l a r ag e fro m th e v a r i o u s y ep ū n o f a w ard com­ p e te w ith one a n o th e r o r i n g ro u p s d u r in g t h e Lebokū f e s t i v a l an d a t o th e r tim e s i n w r e s t l i n g an d o t h e r gam es. T h e re a r e s q u a b b le s a s to w hich p a r t i e s from t h e d i f f e r e n t yepū n a r e e q u iv a l e n t i n a g e an d sh o u ld th e r e f o r e com pete o r j o i n t o g e t h e r in t h e s e games a n d t h e r e a r e also d i s ­ p u te s a s t o t h e a p p r o p r ia t e p a r t y t o w h ich a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d sh o u ld b e lo n g . Thus g r a d u a l ly d u r in g t h e i r c h ild h o o d t h e h o y s o f a w ard s o r t th e m se lv e s o u t i n t o a s e r i e s o f g ro u p s o f i n c r e a s i n g s e n i o r i t y and a s th e members o f e a c h g ro u p r e a c h th e a g e o f m a r ria g e i t i s fo r m a lly e s t a b ­ l i s h e d a s an age s e t . I f how ever a p o t e n t i a l s e t i s to o l a r g e o r to o few in num ber i n t h e o p in io n o f t h e wa r d h e a d i t c a n b e s p l i t o r j o i n e d to i t s n e x t j u n i o r g ro u p a t t h i s tim e . Age g ro u p s a r e s i m i l a r l y fo rm ed among th e g i r l s o f a k ep ū n an d w ard d u rin g c h ild h o o d and t h e s e p a r a t e g ro u p s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h e w ard d a n c in g p a r t i e s w h ic h ta k e p l a c e e s p e c i a l l y d u r in g an d a f t e r t h e Leboku f e s t i v a l . B ut w om en's a g e s e t s s i m i l a r l y fo rm ed by c o m b in a tio n s o f th e s m a lle r g ro u p s ; a lth o u g h th e y c h o o se l e a d e r s and l i k e th o s e o f t h e men a c t c o r p o r a t e l y i n p e rf o rm in g t a s k s su c h a s p a t h w e e d in g a t t h e r e q u e s t o f th e w ard h e a d , a r e n o t f o r m a lly e s t a b lis h e d i n a p u b l i c cerem ony l i k e th o s e o f t h e men. An ag e s e t o f men c o n ti n u e s t o b e d iv id e d w i t h i n i t s e l f i n t o a num­ b e r o f g ro u p s o f c l o s e r f r i e n d s o r com panions known a s lib o m a ( s in g , koboma = f i n g e r s ) . Such a g ro u p o f co m p an io n s, f o r w h ic h th e te rm ag e m ates a s d i s t i n c t from a g e s e t members w i l l b e u s e d , c o n s i s t s o f h a l f a dozen o r m ore men m o s tly , b u t n o t e n t i r e l y , fro m a s i n g l e p a t r i c l a n . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n m u st b e p a i d to th e koboma and i t s c o u n t­ e r p a r t among women s i n c e t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f a m a r ria g e i s th e o c c a s io n f o r d is p la y s o f m u tu a l e ste e m b e tw een th e s p o u s e s a n d t h e i r p a r e n t s on

10 th e one hand and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s e t s o f a g e mat e s on th e o t h e r , w h ile th e c o n d u c t o f th e m a r ria g e r i t e s a n d f e a s t s a r e d i r e c t e d by t h e koboma o f t h e f a t h e r o f th e b r i d e and by t h e c o r r e s p o n d in g g ro u p o f com panions o f h e r m o th e r, known a s a l e t e k ö . The g ro u p o f a g e m a te s i s c o n c e iv e d a s a su b g ro u p o f t h e l a r g e r age s e t and a n a n a lo g y w ith li n e a g e s o f a c l a n i s m ade: "We h a v e lib o m a i n ekō j u s t a s we h a v e y e p ōnama i n k e p ū n . " B u t t h e age m ate g ro u p s a r e n o t s t r i c t l y m u tu a lly e x c lu s iv e and c o m p re h e n siv e s u b d i v i s i o n s o f a n a g e s e t . A man m ay, a lth o u g h i t i s e x c e p t i o n a l , b e lo n g t o more th a n one koboma a t t h e same tim e so t h a t t h e m em b ersh ip s o f th e v a r i o u s g ro u p s o v e r la p t o some e x t e n t . M em bership o f a koboma c a n be te r m i n a te d a t w i l l by sim p le r e f u s a l t o c o n tin u e t o r e c o g n i s e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , b u t , s e c e s s i o n o r v i r t u a l e x p u ls io n a s a r e s u l t o f q u a r r e l s w h ic h w ould r a i d e r th e koboma u n s t a b l e i s s a i d by Yakö t o o c c u r v e r y r a r e l y . The co m p o si­ t i o n o f a koboma a lth o u g h a f f e c t e d by k ep ūn and l i n e a g e a f f i l i a t i o n s i s n o t c o - e x t e n s i v e w ith th e m em bership o f an y one p a t r i - l i n e a g e o r p a t r i ­ c l a n i n an ag e s e t , a n d a koboma i s n o t c o n c e iv e d a s a k i n g r o u p .F u r th e r ­ m ore e v e n t h e w ard b o u n d a rie s o f t h e ag e s e t sy ste m c a n b e o v e rs te p p e d by a c c e p t in g i n an a g e m ate g ro u p a man o f a n e q u iv a l e n t a g e s e t i n a n ­ o t h e r w a rd . Thus a man o f th e l i n e a g e o f K ikungkūl a kepūn i n Id ju m w ard a t Umo r had a s koboma f e l lo w s se v e n men o f h i s own p a t r i c l a n , f i v e o t h e r men o f h i s w ard e a c h fro m a d i f f e r e n t p a t r i c l a n s and t h r e e men o f two d i f f e r e n t p a t r i c l a n s i n a n o th e r w a rd . The koboma o f a man o f U kpakapi w ard in c lu d e d t h r e e men o f h i s own p a t r i c l a n , two o f a n o th e r p a t r i c l an i n U k p a k a p i, one o f a n o th e r w ard and one o r two o t h e r s w hose c la n and w ard a f f i l i a t i o n s w e re n o t r e c o r d e d . An ag e s e t i s c o n c e rn e d i n any m a r r ia g e o r d e a th o f one o f i t s mem­ b e r s o r o f a m em b er's c lo s e r e l a t i v e s , an d i t w i l l be shown l a t e r how con s i d e r a b l e i s t h e p a r t o f th e r e l e v a n t ag e s e t s i n t h e c o n d u c t o f th e r i t e s an d f e a s t s w hereb y m a r i t a l s t a t u s i s e s t a b l i s h e d . B u t th e e n t i r e a g e s e t d o es n o t u s u a l l y f u n c t i o n a s a c o r p o r a te g ro u p on t h e s e o c c a s i o n s , th e ag e m a te s o f th e member c o n c e rn e d a r e t h e m ain p a r t i c i p a n t s t o whom may b e ad d ed l e s s i n t i m a t e age s e t f e l lo w s who h a v e o t h e r t i e s w ith him .

11 CHAPTER I I I IRE-MARITAL RELATIONS AND BETROTHAL As h a s b een i n d i c a t e d ab o v e h o y s and g i r l s a r e e n c o u ra g e d fro m e a r l y c h ild h o o d by t h e i r p a r e n t s an d e l d e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e a n n u a l Le­ boku r i t e s t o form s m a ll p a r t i e s o f a g e m a te s . A g ro u p w i t h common kepū n a f f i l i a t i o n u s u a l l y p r o v id e s t h e n u c le u s f o r e a c h p a r t y bu t m em b ersh ip o f a p a r t y i s n o t s t r i c t l y c o n fin e d t o c h i l d r e n o f one kepū n .T h e g i r l s g ro u p s a r e th e more c o n s p ic u o u s b e c a u s e th o s e o f s u c c e s s iv e a g e s fro m a b o u t n in e t o s i x t e e n y e a r s i n one o r m ore y ep ū n com bine t o fo rm l a r g e d a n c e p a r t i e s w hich d u r in g an d a f t e r th e Lebokū r i t e s v i s i t t h e w ard an d k ep ū n s q u a r e s o f th e v i l l a g e . F o rm in g a c i r c l e o f tw e n ty t o f o r t y p e r f o r m e r s a r r a n g e d i n a d e s c e n d in g o r d e r o f a g e g ro u p s th e y e x e c u te a s h u f f l i n g d a n c e t o the accom panim ent o f a l a r g e r e p e r t o i r e o f so n g s . Age m a te s a l s o j o i n t o g e t ­ h e r i n d a i l y w a te r c a r r y i n g p a r t i e s t o f e t c h w a te r f o r t h e i r p a r e n t s on th e o u t s k i r t s o f th e v i l l a g e . D u rin g th e Lebokū r i t e s m u tu a l d e c l a r a t i o n s o f f r i e n d s h i p a r e made by g i r l s o f a s m a ll p a r t y , h a l f a d o z e n o r so i n num ber, who r e g a r d th e m s e lv e s a s a g ro u p o f i n t i m a t e ag e m a te s . Such a gro u p w i l l u s u a l l y c o n s i s t m a in ly o f members r e s i d e n t i n a s i n g l e p a t r i ­ c l an a r e a . T ak in g th e c o c o n u ts p ro v id e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s o r l a t e r t h e i r lo v e r s a s Lebokū g i f t s th e y m eet t o g e t h e r . One ta k e s th e l e a d a n d s l i c ­ in g h a l f th r o u g h a n u t w ith a m a te h e t c a l l s t h e name o f h e r c lo s e s t f r ie n d . The f r i e n d c o m p le te s t h e c u t c a l l i n g t h e name o f a n o th e r f r i e n d who th e n s l i c e s th e n e x t n u t w h ile c a l l i n g th e name o f a n o th e r g i r l o f th e g ro u p . T h is c o n tin u e s u n t i l a l l th e nam es h a v e b e e n c a l l e d . I t i s fro m th is cerem ony t h a t a g ro u p o f g i r l com panions r e c e i v e t h e name l e t e k ӧ f r i e n d s . T hese d e c l a r a t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y made p u b l i c l y i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f o th e r w ard a g e groups and t h e r e a r e so m etim es q u a r r e l s o v e r th e a d m is s io n o f p a r t i c u ­ l a r g i r l s i n t o one o f th e s e g ro u p s o f a g e m a te s . Thus th e l e t e k ӧ , or s m a ll gro u p o f i n t i m a t e f r i e n d s w ith i n a p o t e n t i a l ag e 3 e t o f w o m en ,is e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l y and i s v e ry c o n s p ic u o u s among th e g i r l s of a Yakӧ v i l l a g e , an d i t fo rm s t h e s e t t i n g i n w h ich i t s members e s t a b l i s h f r i e n d ­ s h ip and s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w ith y o u th s . A lth o u g h g i r l s a r e e x p e c te d t o g iv e t h e i r m o th e rs c o n s i d e r a b l e h e lp i n th e h o u s e h o ld and fa rm fro m an e a r l y a g e , p a r e n t s i n t e r f e r e l i t t l e w ith th e l e i s u r e an d p la y o f t h e i r d a u g h te r s . Boys a n d g i r l s d o n o t p l a y o r move a b o u t t o g e t h e r e i t h e r i n p a i r s o r i n g ro u p s i n th e v i l l a g e , but a boy can o b ta i n a n i n v i t a t i o n fro m a g i r l t o b e h e r p a r t n e r i n n i g h t p a r ­ t i e s o f h e r l e t e k ö . From t h e a g e o f e le v e n o r tw e lv e y e a r s a p a r t y o f g i r l a g e -m a te s n o t m e re ly d a n c e s an d p a s s e s much l e i s u r e tim e a s a g ro u p b u t a ls o sp e n d s n i g h t s t o g e t h e r s l e e p i n g i n one o r o t h e r o f t h e i r m o th ers' h o u s e s . To th e s e n i g h t p a r t i e s known a s yeyom ö, s i n g , keyom ö, e a c h g i r l i s f r e e t o i n v i t e a l o v e r and t h e c o u p le s occupy th e w id e mat c o v e re d flo o r o f a Yako w om an's h o u s e . The m o th e r w ith h e r young c h i l d r e n may re m a in i n th e ho u se o c c u p y in g th e r a i s e d b ed on one s i d e o f th e l a r g e s i n g l e room,

12 b u t sh e i s n o t r e g a r d e d a s a c h a p e ro n e and w i l l o f t e n go t o h e r h u s ­ b a n d ’s h o u se i f h e r d a u g h t e r 's l e t e k ӧ w is h e s t o occupy h e r own. A boy s e e k s an i n v i t a t i o n to become th e p a r t n e r o f a g i r l i n a n i g h t p a r t y by o f f e r i n g h e r a c u sto m a ry g i f t w h ic h i s p r e s e n te d t o h e r by one o r two o f h i s age m a te s . The boy may h av e b e e n a c q u a in te d w ith t h e g i r l s i n c e e a r l y in f a n c y b u t w i l l n o t a p p ro a c h h e r d i r e c t l y . W ith one o r two c lo s e a g e m ate f r i e n d s he g o e s t o a p l a c e w h ere he i s l i k e l y t o e n c o u n te r h e r and s t a n d s a l i t t l e way o f f w h ile h i s f r i e n d s a p p ro a c h h e r . The t r a d i t i o n a l g i f t i s a c o c o n u t b u t to d a y a h a lf p e n n y o r a penny i s u s u a l l y o f f e r e d i n i t s s t e a d . H is f r i e n d s sa y t h a t th e y b r i n g th e co c o n u t from th e boy who h a s a d m ire d h e r when he h a s s e e n h e r i n th e v illa g e . I t i s c u sto m a ry to convey some p a r t i c u l a r com plim ent a b o u t h e r b e a u ty o r g ra c e and sa y t h a t th e s u i t o r w is h e s to j o i n h e r a t h e r n e x t keyomö. A c c e p ta n c e o f t h e g i f t r e q u i r e s th e g i r l t o t e l l th e g o b etw een s when and wh e r e th e s u i t o r may j o i n h e r o r t o se n d a m essag e t o them l a t e r by one o r two o f h e r f r i e n d s . I f sh e w is h e s to r e f u s e th e a p p ro a c h a g i r l u s u a l l y t r e a t s i t a s a jo k e o r p r e t e n d s t h a t sh e d o es n o t j o i n any n i g h t p a r t i e s . A g i r l o c c a s i o n a ll y i n v i t e s a y o u th t o j o i n h e r , b u t su c h an a p p ro a c h m ust be i n d i r e c t and am biguous f o r f e a r o f th e r i d i c u l e t h a t w ould fo llo w b l u n t r e f u s a l . T h e re i s th e r e ­ f o r e u s u a l l y some f l i r t a t i o u s e n c o u n te r b e f o r e a g i r l g iv e s a n i n v i t a ­ t i o n . She th e n a s k s one o f h e r f r i e n d s to ta k e a m essag e to th e y o u th p r e t e n d in g t h a t h e h a s a lr e a d y a p p ro a c h e d h e r . The f r i e n d w i l l say "So and so i s g o in g to be i n su c h an d su c h a h o u se t h i s n i g h t . She w ould l i k e you t o come t o h e r a s sh e h a s h ad so many m e ssa g e s fro m you." I f th e y o u th w is h e s t o come h e p r e t e n d s h e h ad in d e e d made a p p ro a c h e s b u t i f a v e r s e h e may w e ll t e l l th e m e sse n g e r q u i t e b l u n t l y t h a t h e h a s s e n t no m essage an d t h a t h e r f r i e n d i s s h a m e le s s . From t h e i n s t a n c e s known to me i t a p p e a rs t h a t w h ile a p p ro a c h e s a r e made i n t h i s way to men by young widows o r d iv o r c e e s i t i s e x c e p t io n a l f o r a n u n m a rrie d g i r l to sen d a d e f i n i t e m essage o f i n v i t a t i o n t o à y o u th . G i r l s s l e e p t o g e t h e r i n p a r t i e s w ith t h e i r l o v e r s at irre g u la r i n t e r v a l s , o f t e n a f t e r th e y h av e d an ced i n th e e v e n in g , b u t I was n o t a b l e to e s t im a te th e fr e q u e n c y o f t h e s e p a r t i e s . Among t h e y o u n g e r g i r l s o f t e n o r e le v e n y e a r s i t i s p r o b a b ly o c c a s i o n a l and may b e g in w ith th e c o n s e n t o f th e m o th e rs a t th e u r g i n g o f o l d e r g ro u p s who t e l l them i t i s tim e f o r them t o form a n i g h t p a r t y . B ut i t w as g e n e r a l l y a g re e d among my in f o rm a n ts i n Umor t h a t m ost g i r l s j o i n n i g h t p a r t i e s b e f o r e t h e ag e o f f i r s t m e n s tr u a tio n . B e fo re b e t r o t h a l a g i r l i s a t l i b e r t y t o a c c e p t t h e a p p ro a c h e s o f s e v e r a l y o u th s on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s io n s . Boys and g i r l s g o s s ip a good d e a l among th e m s e lv e s o v e r who h a s s e c u r e d th e f a v o u r o f a p a r t i c u l a r g i r l , and w h e th e r so and so i s j e a l o u s o f a n o t h e r . I t i s e x p e c te d o f a boy t h a t h e w i l l b r i n g p r e s e n t s su c h a s c o c o n u ts , n a t i v e ' p e a r s ' , a

13 p o t o f pomade o r a t r i n k e t fro m tim e t o tim e i f h e w is h e s t o r e t a i n th e a ffe c tio n o f a g i r l . A lth o u g h a b oy i s f r e e t o v i s i t more th a n one g i r l , so lo n g a s th e g i r l s b e lo n g t o d i f f e r e n t g ro u p s o f a g e m a te s , and a g i r l may on s e p a r a te o c c a s io n s i n v i t e d i f f e r e n t l o v e r s , i t i s c o n s id e r e d im p ro p e r f o r a boy t o c o u r t m ore th a n one g i r l a t t h e same tim e fro m a s i n g l e group o f a g e m a te s . I f a l a d h a s v i s i t e d a keyomӧ o f one l e t e k ӧ a s th e lo v e r o f one g i r l he c a n n o t q u ic k ly t r a n s f e r h i s a t t e n t i o n s t o a n o th e r w ith o u t b r i n g in g on h im s e l f an d th e seco n d g i r l th e h o s t i l i t y o f th e r e s t o f th e gro u p w hich w i l l i f n e c e s s a r y o s t r a c i s e th e o f f e n d in g g i r l . The l i k e l i h o o d o f t h i s h o s t i l i t y a p p e a r s to be a v e r y e f f e c t i v e d e t e r r e n t t o r i v a l r y betw een g i r l s o f th e same l e t e k ö , and i f a g i r l d o e s a c c e p t th e a d v a n c e s o f a y o u th who h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n th e l o v e r o f one o f h e r i n t i m a t e s sh e w i l l p ro b a b ly be f o r c e d t o le a v e th e g ro u p an d a tt e m p t t o j o i n a n o th e r . On th e o t h e r h an d a g i r l who shows to o openly h e r j e a l o u s y o f a l o v e r 's f r i e n d s h i p w ith g i r l s i n o t h e r g ro u p s w i l l b e la u g h e d a t and t e a s e d . A lth o u g h y o u th s o f a s i n g l e koboma do n o t a s a g ro u p o ff e r th em selv es a s l o v e r s t o a s i n g le l e t e k ö o f g i r l s , t h e r e i s a te n d e n c y f o r th e b o y s t o keep t o g e t h e r so t h a t a y o u th w i l l s e e k l o v e r s f o r h i s f r i e n d s i n a le t e k ö w here he h im s e lf h a s fo u n d f a v o u r . U s u a lly th e l o v e r s who j o i n a p a r t y o f g i r l s a r e b o y s o f t h e i r own a g e b u t a young m a rrie d man may a l s o j o i n a p a r t y o f o l d e r g i r l s . T h ese p a r t i e s a r e t h e o c c a s io n f o r much g e n e r a l g o s s i p , jo k i n g and t e a s i n g . A lth o u g h s e x u a l a t t r a c t i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p a rtn e r u n d e rlie s th e p re s e n c e o f e ach y o u th a l l my in f o r m a n ts a g re e d i n g iv i n g th e im p r e s s io n t h a t a s i n g l e c o u p le c o u ld n o t i s o l a t e i t s e l f fro m th e r e s t o f t h e g ro u p , t h a t lo v e m aking te n d e d t o be c o v e r t and t h a t c o i t u s c o u ld ta k e p la c e o n ly s e c r e t l y when m ost o f th e p a r t y h a d s e t t l e d down t o s l e e p . A ll my o ld e r in f o rm a n ts w ere a g re e d t h a t t h e r e h ad d u r in g t h e p a s t g e n e r a t io n b e e n c o n s id e r a b le change i n p r e - m a r i t a l s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s an d i n th e a t t i t u d e o f b o th p a r e n t s and y o u n g p e o p le to w a rd s th em . I t a p ­ p e a r s t h a t s e x u a l p la y b etw een b oys and g i r l s h a s a lw a y s b e e n r e g a r d e d a s b o th i n e v i t a b l e and d e s i r a b l e , and t h a t th e n i g h t p a r t y i s th e r e c o g ­ n is e d s e t t i n g f o r th e f i r s t p h a s e o f s e x u a l e x p e r ie n c e . To m eet a l o v e r e ls e w h e re on th e o th e r h and w ould b e s h a m e fu l. A t th e same tim e th e e a r l i e r a t t i t u d e , w h ich many o f th e o l d e r p e o p le and e s p e c i a l l y woman r e t a i n , i s t h a t p r e - m a r i t a l p re g n a n c y i s d i s g r a c e f u l and p re g n a n c y b e ­ f o r e b e t r o t h a l s t i l l more so . M o th e rs w ere fo r m e r ly s u c c e s s f u l a s a r u l e i n im p r e s s in g on t h e i r d a u g h te r s b o th b e f o r e an d d u r i n g b e t r o t h a l th e shame o f p re g n a n c y b e f o r e m a r r ia g e , th e y e x h o rte d them t o r e f u s e a c tu a l c o i t u s and to t e l l them i f any y o u th a tte m p te d t o a b u s e f r i e n d ­ s h ip by t r y i n g t o f o r c e i t upon them . A lth o u g h , a s w i l l be s e e n l a t e r ,

14 a b o r t i o n i s re g a r d e d a s a g ra v e o f f e n c e a g a i n s t th e f e r t i l i t y s p i r i t o f th e m a t r i c la n and one f o r w h ich s u p e r n a tu r a l p u n ish m e n t o f th e w hole c la n i s to h e f e a r e d , m o th e rs n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y c a r r i e d o u t o r c o n n iv e d a t s e c r e t a b o r t io n i f t h e i r d a u g h te r s a c t u a l l y becam e p r e g n a n t b e f o r e m a r r ia g e . To g u a rd a g a i n s t p e n e t r a t i o n t h e o l d e r g i r l s w ere e x p e c te d t o w ear a s p e c i a l g i r d l e a t n i g h t p a r t i e s c o n s i s t i n g o f a lo n g n arro w s t r i p o f c l o t h , fo r m e r ly b a rk c l o t h , w h ic h was wound ro u n d th e w a is t a n d b etw een th e t h i g h s . O ld e r women i n s i s t t h a t i n t h e i r c h ild h o o d no young g i r l w ould h a v e d a r e d , b e f o r e b e t r o t h a l a t l e a s t , t o rem ove t h i s g i r d l e l e s t h e r f r i e n d s o r h e r m o th er d is c o v er e d i t an d shamed h e r.T h e y a l s o c la im e d t h a t i t w ould be q u i t e e x c e p t io n a l f o r a y o u th to a tte m p t a c t u a l c o i t u s a t a n i g h t p a r t y . When a f t e r b e t r o t h a l th e young c o u p le w ere a llo w e d t o sp en d th e n i g h t t o g e t h e r i n th e h o u se o f th e g i r l ' s m o th er c o i t u s d id so m etim es o c c u r b u t i t was n o t th e r u l e an d was u s u a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d i n a n e n d eav o u r t o a v o id p re g n a n c y . At th e p r e s e n t tim e , a s i s i n d i c a t e d by th e v e r y h ig h in c id e n c e o f p re g n a n c y b e f o r e m a r r ia g e , c o i t u s g e n e r a l l y o c c u rs d u r in g b e t r o t h a l an d my y o u n g e r in f o rm a n ts s a i d i t was v e r y g e n e r a l b e tw een p a r t n e r s i n th e n i g h t p a r t i e s o f th e o l d e r g i r l s . B ut y o u n g e r p e o p le s a i d t h a t to d a y a g i r l w ould u s u a l l y r e f u s e c o i t u s u n l e s s sh e w is h e s t o h e m a r rie d to h e r l o v e r , and even th e n w ould t r y t o a v o id in s e m in a tio n by i n s i s t i n g on c o itu s i n t e r r u p t u s . On th e o t h e r hand I h e a rd o f c a s e s i n w h ich g i r l s i n v i t e d co m p le te d c o i t u s i n th e hope o f p re g n a n c y w h ich would f o r c e t h e h a n d s o f p a r e n t s who d is a p p ro v e d o f th e y o u th s th e y w ish e d t o m a rry . B e fo re th e f i r s t m a r ria g e o f a g i r l t h e r e i s u s u a l l y a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d , w h ich may b e te rm e d th e p e r io d o f b e t r o t h a l , d u r in g w h ich th e s u i t o r i s r e c o g n is e d by t h e g i r l ' s p a r e n t s a s a p r o s p e c tiv e s o n - in - l a w . I n s e e k in g t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n th e s u i t o r h a s to p r e s e n t h im s e l f f o r m a lly t o th e g i r l ' s f a t h e r , 1 and once g a in e d i t in v o lv e s th e s u i t o r i n o b lig ­ a t i o n s t o p e rfo rm s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s f o r th e b r i d e and h e r p a r e n t s an d t o p r e s e n t g i f t s t o th em , e s p e c i a l l y a t tim e s o f f e s t i v a l . T hese g i f t s an d s e r v i c e s a r e r e f e r r e d to a s kokōl a , a te rm w hich may b e u s e d w ith r e f e r e n c e to any g i f t b u t i n t h i s c o n te x t im p lie s th e w hole s e r i e s o f o b l i g a t i o n s p r e l im in a r y t o th e m a r ria g e r i t e s . I n p r e s e n t i n g h im s e l f t o th e g i r l ' s f a t h e r th e s u i t o r r e l i e s on th e s u p p o r t o f one o r tw o o f h i s age m a te s . H is c l o s e s t f r i e n d may go t o 1I r e f e r to th e f a t h e r th ro u g h o u t b u t a f o s t e r - f a t h e r may a c t i n t h i s c a p a c i ty i n some c ir c u m s ta n c e s even when th e f a t h e r p r o p e r i s s t i l l a l i v e an d i n th e v i l l a g e . A f o s t e r - f a t h e r i s u s u a l l y a s t e p - f a t h e r o r a m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r . I n th e l a t t e r c a s e h i s h o u s e h o ld i s u s u a l l y d i s t i n c t fro m t h a t o f th e g i r l a n d h e r m o th e r.

15 th e f a t h e r ’ s compound i n a d v a n c e t o s a y t h a t th e s u i t o r w i l l come th e n e x t e v e n in g o r on th e n e x t k o k ӧ - th e m ain m a rk e t day when m ost p e o p le re m a in i n th e v i l l a g e - t o o f f e r k o k ōl a t o th e f a t h e r . W ith h i s ag e m a te s , one o f whom c a r r i e s a c a la b a s h o f p alm w in e , t h e s u i t o r a r r i v e s 't o show h i m s e l f '. He u s u a l l y s a y s l i t t l e o r n o th i n g h im s e l f an d one o f th e f r i e n d s a c t s a s sp o k esm an , d e s c r i b i n g th e s u i t o r a s a f r i e n d o f th e g i r l on whose b e h a lf t h e s u i t o r i s a n x io u s to make b e t r o t h a l g i f t s t o h e r p a r e n t s . I d id n o t w itn e s s one o f t h e s e v i s i t s b u t g a in e d th e im p re s s io n from in f o rm a n ts t h a t th e y o c c u r r e d o n ly a f t e r th e w i l l i n g ­ n e s s o f th e p a r e n t s to a c c e p t th e s u i t o r h ad b e e n a s c e r t a i n e d e i t h e r by th e g i r l o r by one o f th e s u i t o r ' s f r i e n d s o r o l d e r r e l a t i v e s . L i t t l e d i r e c t l y c o n n e c te d w ith th e p r o s p e c t i v e m a r ria g e i s u s u a l l y s a i d a t t h i s v i s i t ; th e f a t h e r w i l l h a v e fo u n d o u t e ls e w h e r e w h e th e r th e s u i t o r o r h i s r e l a t i v e s a r e a b le a n d l i k e l y t o make a prom pt m a r ria g e pay m en t i n due c o u rs e and he w i l l a l r e a d y h a v e d is c u s s e d w ith h i s w ife and t h e i r r e l a t i v e s th e e l i g i b i l i t y o f th e s u i t o r . The f a t h e r a l l u d e s t o th e b e t r o t h a l s e r v i c e s w h ich a r e e x p e c te d an d i n d i c a t e s t h a t he w i l l w ant t o s e e them c a r r i e d o u t . The w in e i s p o u re d o u t a n d d ru n k by t h e group and any f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s o f t h e f a t h e r who may b e p r e s e n t i n th e compound, and th e s u i t o r d e p a r t s w ith h i s f r i e n d s . T h e re i s no n e c e s s a r y o r fo rm a l c o m m u n icatio n b e tw e e n th e s u i t o r ' s f a t h e r and h i s p ro s p e c tiv e fa th e r - in - la w a t t h i s tim e .l A f t e r b e t r o t h a l th e s u i t o r i s u s u a l l y f r e e t o v i s i t th e g i r l i n h e r h o u se a t n i g h t a p a r t from p a r t i e s o f h e r a g e m a te s , and e a c h ex ­ p e c t s th e o th e r t o r e f r a i n fro m s e x u a l in tim a c y w ith o t h e r s , an e x p e c t­ a t i o n w hich i s by no m eans a lw a y s f u l f i l l e d . J e a lo u s y o f t e n le a d s t o q u a r r e l s , w h ile on th e o t h e r h a n d a b e t r o t h a l t h a t i s no lo n g e r d e s i r ­ ed by one p a r t n e r i s o f te n ended by f l a g r a n t l y c o n s o r tin g w ith a n o th e r lo v e r. 1In an e a r l i e r r e f e r e n c e to Yako m a r ria g e (K in s h ip in Umor, A m e r.A n th ., 4 1 ,1 9 3 9 ,5 2 3 f f . ) I s t a t e d t h a t a f a t h e r m ig h t e n c o u ra g e a man to s e e k m a r ria g e w ith h i s ( t h e f a t h e r ' s ) s i s t e r ' s d a u g h te r , t h a t i s w ith a woman whose so n w o u ld , i n c o n se q u e n c e o f th e m a t r i l i n e a l i n h e r i t a n c e o f move­ a b le p r o p e r t y , be h e i r to t h e f a t h e r ' s own h e i r ( h i s s i s t e r ' s so n an d a l s o i n su ch a c a s e th e b r o t h e r o f h i s s o n 's w i f e ) I n s ta n c e s o f su c h m a r ria g e w ere e n c o u n te re d and s u c c e s s io n to p r o p e r ty was re c o g n is e d a s a m o tiv e f o r them . B ut f u r t h e r e n q u ir y h a s shown t h a t t h i s fo rm o f c r o s s - c o u s i n m a rria g e i s to be r e g a r d e d a s an i r r e g u l a r an d n o t a s a p r e f e r r e d ty p e o f m a r ria g e . I n a d d i t i o n t o s t r i c t p a t r i c l an exogamy and a l e s s s t r i n g e n t l y e n fo r c e d m a t r i c l a n exogamy c o u s in m a r ria g e i n an y form i s g e n e r a l ly re g a r d e d a s im p ro p e r among th e Y ako. T h e re i s no p ro ­ h i b i t i o n o f o r p e n a lty f o r c o u s in m a r ria g e a s su ch bu t i t i s c o n s id e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e b e c a u se " t h e c h i l d r e n o f b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s a r e so n s and d a u g h t e r s ',

16 The cu sto m ary s e r v i c e s o f t h e s u i t o r t o h i s p r o s p e c t i v e f a t h e r - i n law c o n s i s t i n Umor o f fa r m w ork d u rin g th e f o l lo w in g fa r m in g y e a r.D e c ­ emb e r o r J a n u a r y , t h e tim e b e tw e e n h a r v e s t a n d t h e b e g in n in g o f t h e w ork on th e new fa rm , i s commonly c h o se n by a l o v e r t o 'sh o w h i m s e l f ' t o h i s p r o s p e c tiv e f a t h e r - i n - l a w . When th e f a t h e r - i n - l a w i s r e a d y t o c l e a r hi s new farm i n F e b ru a ry th e s u i t o r h a s t o p r o v id e a w o rk in g p a r t y f o r b u sh c l e a r i n g by m u s te rin g a g ro u p o f h i s a g e - s e t f e l l o w s t o j o i n him t h e r e on a n a p p o in te d d a y . T h is g ro u p u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f th e s u i t o r ' s age m a te s to g e t h e r w ith o t h e r men o r y o u th s o f h i s a g e - s e t and some o l d e r f r i e n d s i n h i s p a t r i c l a n . Nowadays th e g ro u p may n o t b e more th a n a d o zen s t r o n g and v i s i t s t h e fa rm o n ly on one d a y , b u t o ld men s a i d t h a t when th e y w ere young a s u i t o r h ad to p ro v id e a l a r g e p a r t y on s e v e r a l d ay s. The s u i t o r h a s a l s o t o p ro v id e h i s p r o s p e c t i v e f a t h e r - i n - l a w w ith a su p p ly o f s p l i t c r e e p e r ste m s u s e d i n c o n s id e r a b le q u a n t i t y on e v e ry farm f o r l i n e s ru n n in g b e tw een p o le s on w hich t h e yam v in e s a r e t r a i n e d and f o r t y i n g yams on t h e yam s ta c k fra m e s a f t e r h a r v e s t . The s u i t o r a g a in s e e k s th e a id o f h i s ag e m a te s and o t h e r a g e s e t f e l lo w s and r e ­ l a t i v e s i n c o l l e c t i n g t h i s d u r in g th e Bu sh c l e a r i n g p e r i o d an d i t i s th e n c o i l e d i n t o a l a r g e t a p e r i n g b u n d le , n e a r l y a f o o t t h i c k a t th e b a s e and e i g h t o r more f e e t h ig h - th e t r a d i t i o n a l fo rm i n Umor in w hich th e g i f t sh o u ld he p r e s e n t e d t o th e f a t h e r - i n - l a w . The s u i t o r h a s to p r o v id e a m e a l, a c t u a l l y s u p p lie d by h i s p a r e n t s , an d palm w ine f o r h i s a g e -m a te s and o t h e r h e l p e r s when th e y r e t u r n t o t h e v i l l a g e w ith him a f t e r a s s i s t i n g i n p e rf o rm in g any o f th e s e s e r v i c e s . (See F r o n t i s p i e c e . ) Som etim es th e s u i t o r w ith h i s ag e m a te s c o n t r i b u t e s t o th e w ork o f h o u se b u i l d i n g o r r e p a i r i n g i n p la c e o f , o r i n a d d i t i o n t o , fa rm s e r ­ v i c e s . P ro v id in g m a t e r i a l s f o r and m aking new r o o f m a ts , o f w hich se v ­ e r a l h u n d red a r e n e e d e d f o r a Yakö h o u se o f a v e ra g e s i z e , w ere c i t e d i n s e v e r a l b e t r o t h a l h i s t o r i e s t h a t I r e c o r d e d . My im p r e s s io n i s t h a t a s a g ro u p a c t i v i t y r e p l a c i n g fa rm s e r v i c e s t h i s p r a c t i c e i s re c e n t bu t th a t th e f a t h e r - i n - l a w c o u ld a lw a y s by cu sto m , d u r in g th e b e t r o t h a l p e r i o d , c a l l on th e s u i t o r h im s e l f to a s s i s t i n h o u se r e p a i r i n g , a c o n s i d e r a b l e t a s k r e q u i r i n g s e v e r a l p a i r s o f h an d s w h ich i s c a r r i e d o u t i n th e s l a c k p e r i o d b e f o r e th e m ain yam h a r v e s t . A s u i t o r i s , in d e e d , e x p e c te d t o o f f e r h i s h e lp i n any c o n s i d e r a b l e t a s k t h a t th e f a t h e r - i n - l a w undertakes d u r i n g th e p e r io d o f b e t r o t h a l . He w i l l , f o r i n s t a n c e , h e lp i n th e l i f t i n g and ty i n g o f yams a t h a r v e s t , and i t i s w h ile r e n d e r in g su ch a id t h a t th e r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n them become to some d e g re e i n t i m a t e . D u rin g th e a n n u a l Lebokū r i t e s , a t th e tim e when p a r e n t s give special fo o d and o rn am en ts t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n , a s u i t o r s h o u ld make g i f t s n o t o n ly t o h i s b e tr o th e d b u t a l s o t o h e r p a r e n t s . Ite m s w h ich r e c u r i n my r e c o r d s o f Lebokū g i f t s o f s u i t o r s ax e palm w in e , k o l a n u ts (le b ū ), fa th o m s o f c l o t h and m a tch e t s to th e f a t h e r s ; k o l a n u t s an d s e t s of

17 chew ing s t i c k s , made from e tu n g r o o t w h ich b la c k e n s th e t e e t h , t o th e m o th e rs ; and to t h e g i r l s bow ls o f n a t i v e 'p e a r s ' (k o p en g ) th e f r u i t s o f a c u l t i v a t e d t r e e ( p a c h y lo b is e d u l i s ) w h ic h a r e i n s e a s o n a t th e tim e o f t h e Lebokū r i t e s , c o c o n u ts , le n g t h s o f r a p h i a f i b r e f o r m aking g i r ­ d l e s , and bow ls o f l i d ū a o r a l ōwa f r u i t s fro m t h e s e e d s o f w h ich a b la c k dye ( e b l ӧm i) f o r d e c o r a t i v e body p a i n t i n g i s p r e p a r e d w ith c h a rc o a l. When g ro u n d n u ts a r e re a d y f o r h a r v e s t i n g s h o r t l y a f t e r th e Lebokū. r i t e s it i s t h e t u r n o f th e g i r l t o make a c u sto m a ry g i f t o f a bowl o f grou n d n u ts to h e r f u t u r e h u sb a n d . T h is i s b ro u g h t t o him b y h e r c l o s e s t f r i e n d and th e y o u th i s e x p e c te d to p la c e a r e t u r n g i f t i n t h e empty bowl when hand­ in g i t t o th e f r i e n d . At th e p r e s e n t t i me t h e u s u a l r e t u r n g i f t i s a 'v a n i t y ' t r a d e a r t i c l e su c h a s a comb, m i r r o r o r n e c k la c e .T h e s e g ro u n d ­ n u ts s h o u ld have b e e n h a r v e s te d from a c ro p p l a n t e d by th e g i r l h e r s e l f . At th e b e g in n in g o f t h e fa rm in g s e a s o n a f t e r a s u i t o r h a s p r e s e n te d him­ s e l f t o h e r f a t h e r a b e tr o th e d g i r l i s g iv e n a s m a ll p a tc h in h e r m o th er's s e c t i o n o f th e fa rm w h ic h sh e c u l t i v a t e s a n d p l a n t s w ith g ro u n d n u ts f o r t h i s p u rp o s e . T h ere a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n th e c u sto m a ry o b l i g a t i o n s o f b e t r o t h a l b e­ tw een t h e d i f f e r e n t Yakӧ v i l l a g e s . I d id n o t i n v e s t i g a t e th e s e sy ste m ­ a t i c a l l y b u t th e f o llo w in g p r a c t i c e s i n Ng k p a n i w h ic h a r e n o t fo u n d i n Umor w i l l s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e th e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e v a r ia tio n s .A tN g k p a n i when a g i r l i s b e tr o th e d sh e and h e r a g e m a te s , m ost i f n o t a l l o f whom w i l l a l s o be b e t r o t h e d , m ust r e f r a i n fro m e a t i n g k e p l ӧ ( i . e . m ashed yam g e n e r a l l y known b y t h e p id g i n te rm 'f u f u ' i n S o u th e rn N ig e r ia ) d u r in g th e p e r io d from th e o p e n in g o f th e fa rm in g y e a r a f t e r h e r b e t r o t h a l u n ti l t h e second f o llo w in g h a r v e s t tim e w h ich sh o u ld a l s o b e th e tim e o f th e m ar­ r i a g e r i t e s . T h is p e r i o d , known a s k e p lö k e s i ( f u f u p r o h i b i t e d ) , en d s when th e groom b r i n g s th e m a r ria g e paym ent t o t h e f a t h e r and a m eal known a s k e p lö k e n a i ( f u f u made) i s p r e p a r e d by t h e g i r l and h e r f r i e n d s . T hroughout th e p e r i o d o f k e p lӧ k e s i th e f u t u r e h u sb a n d had u n til r e c e n t l y a s a b e t r o t h a l s e r v i c e t o c a r r y w a te r e v e ry d ay f o r th e m o th e r fro m a n e a rb y s tre a m and t o b r i n g th e f a t h e r a d a i l y c a la b a s h o f palm w in e . T h is fo rm e r N gkpani p r a c t i c e i s w e ll known t o Umor men who s a i d i t h ad n e v e r a p p li e d i n t h e i r v i l l a g e w h e re , a lth o u g h g i f t s o f palm wi n e t o th e f a t h e r - i n - l a w a r e m ade, t h e s e h av e alw ay s b e e n o c c a s i o n a l w h ile w a te r c a r r y in g i s re g a r d e d i n Umor a s a w om an's t a s k . T h ere i s b o th an a p p r o p r ia t e age f o r b e t r o t h a l and an a p p r o p r i a t e p e r io d f o r i t s d u r a t i o n b u t t h e s e a r e n o t a d h e re d to r i g i d l y . It is g e n e r a l ly c o n s id e r e d t h a t a g i r l i s re a d y f o r b e t r o t h a l a t th e se c o n d h a r v e s t a f t e r th e b e g in n in g o f p u b e r ty a s i n d i c a t e d by h e r f i r s t men­ s t r u a t i o n , and th e c u sto m a ry tim e f o r th e d e c l a r a t i o n o f a b e t r o t h a l i s a t th e end o f th e m ain yam h a r v e s t i n November o r D ecem ber.T he m a r r ia g e r i t e s sh o u ld th e n be c a r r i e d o u t a t th e end o f th e sec o n d h a r v e s t f o l ­ lo w in g , m aking f o u r y e a r s i n a l l from p u b e r t y . B ut a p a r t fro m o t h e r c o n tin g e n c ie s w h ich may a f f e c t i t s d u r a t io n th e o c c u rr e n c e o f p re g n a n c y

18 d u r in g b e t r o t h a l f r e q u e n t l y , a s w i l l b e show n, r e d u c e s th e le n g th o f th e p e rio d . S ynopses o f two p r e m a r i t a l h i s t o r i e s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e s h o r te n e d and e x te n d e d b e t r o t h a l p e r i o d s . I s ū i n Id jim a n w ard i n Umor w as b e tr o th e d to O b asi a l s o o f Id jim a n i n D ec e m b e r, two h a r v e s t s a f t e r th e tim e when sh e f i r s t m e n s tr u a te d . O b asi re n d e r e d farm c l e a r i n g s e r v i c e s t o h i s p r o s p e c tiv e f a t h e r - i n - l a w d u r in g th e f o llo w in g F e b ru a ry o r M arch an d Isū had become p re g n a n t by t h i s tim e . As a r e s u l t o f h e r p re g n a n c y th e m ar­ r i a g e r i t e s w ere p e rfo rm e d a c c o rd in g to cu sto m b e f o r e t h e end o f th e s i x t h moon o f h e r p re g n a n c y i . e . b e f o r e th e h a r v e s t o f t h a t y e a r and h e r c h i l d w as b o rn d u r in g h a r v e s t tim e . She re m a in e d i n h e r m o t h e r 's h o u se h o ld a s i s c u sto m a ry , u n t i l h e r h u sb an d h ad b u i l t a w om an's h o u se f o r h i s w if e w h ic h w as c o m p le te d o n ly a f t e r a n o th e r se v e n o r e ig h t m onths j u s t b e f o r e th e n e x t h a r v e s t so t h a t th e new h o u s e h o ld d id n o t f u n c t i o n a s a n econom ic u n i t u n t i l th e f o llo w in g fa r m in g y e a r . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e th e m a rria g e cerem ony to o k p la c e a p p ro x im a te ly two and a h a l f y e a rs a f t e r p u b e r t y , and th e f a m ily was e s t a b l i s h e d a s a n in d e p e n d e n t econom ic u n i t w ith th e o p e n in g o f th e fa rm in g y e a r t h r e e an d a h a l f y e a r s a f t e r p u b e r­ t y . A ssum ing th e l a t t e r to h av e o c c u rre d a t b etw een e le v e n and tw e lv e y e a r s o f age th e n t h e b r i d e was l e s s th a n s i x t e e n y e a r s o f age when sh e came to l i v e w ith h e r h u sb a n d . D ja s i o f B iko B iko ward became b e tr o th e d t o O tū o f U kpakapi d u r in g th e p l a n t i n g s e a s o n . She h ad f i r s t re a c h e d p u b e r ty t h r e e h a r v e s t s b e ­ f o r e t h a t tim e . O tū made g i f t s to h e r an d h e r p a r e n t s d u r in g th e Lebokū f e s t i v a l o f th e f i r s t y e a r o f th e b e t r o t h a l , b u t i t was n o t u n t i l th e seco n d y e a r t h a t h e an d h i s ag e m a te s p e rfo rm e d s e r v i c e s f o r h i s p r o s ­ p e c t i v e f a t h e r - i n - l a w . I n t h i s i n s ta n c e th e s e r v i c e s w ere i n h o u se b u i l d i n g an d n o t i n fa rm w o rk . D ja s i p la n t e d a g ro u n d n u t p a tc h i n t h a t y e a r . I n th e p r e v io u s y e a r she h a d n o t done t h i s b u t h a d o b ta in e d from h e r m o th er th e g ro u n d n u ts w h ich sh e p r e s e n te d to Otū . D u rin g p a r t o f th e Lebokū f e s t i v a l o f t h e n e x t y e a r , a tim e when th e lo v e a f f a i r s and n i g h t p a r t i e s o f t h e young g i r l s o f Umor r i s e t o a c re s c e n d o , Otū w ent to C a la b a r w ith an o l d e r man on a t r a d i n g t r i p an d le a r n e d a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t h a t D j a s i h a s a c c e p te d a g i f t from a y o u th U bi o f h i s own p a t r i c l a n i n U kpakapi w a rd , who h ad jo in e d h e r i n a n i g h t p a r t y o f h e r ag e m a te s . Otū a n g r i l y t a c k l e d U b i, a c c u s in g him o f b e t r a y a l o f a n ages e t f e llo w and a k in sm a n , and ab u se d D ja s i f o r h e r u n f a i t h f u l n e s s , n o t o n ly t o h e r f a c e bu t among h i s f r i e n d s and h e r s ! D j a s i r e f u s e d t o r e ­ c e iv e Otū a g a in an d s a i d sh e w ould be b e tr o th e d t o U b i. Otū demanded repaym ent f o r th e p r e s e n t s a n d s e r v ic e s he h a d p e rfo rm e d to h e r and h e r p a r e n t s bu t was r e f u s e d . He w ent t o th e h e a d o f h i s w ard to demand t h a t rep ay m en t sh o u ld b e m ade. Custom was i n h i s f a v o u r h e re f o r a f a t h e r sh o u ld re im b u rs e a s u i t o r who h a s g iv e n th e b e t r o t h a l g i f t s an d s e r v i c e s i f th e g i r l o r h e r p a r e n t s l a t e r w i l f u l l y r e f u s e th e m a r r ia g e . B ut i n t h i s c a s e h e la c k e d th e s u p p o r t o f th e e l d e r s o f h i s own

19 p a t r i c l a n . I t was s a i d t h a t no one g o t t o t h e b o tto m o f l o v e r s ' q u a r r e l s and a s th e g i r l was com ing to l i v e i n th e d w e llin g a r e a o f th e p a t r i ­ cl an a s a w ife i n e i t h e r c a s e i t was n o t good t o c o n tin u e th e q u a r r e l . The v a lu e s e t on c l a n s o l i d a r i t y a p p e a rs t o h a v e o v e r r id e n th e u n d o u b t­ ed m e r i t s o f a c a s e w h ic h w ould i n th e o r d i n a r y way h av e b e e n p r e s s e d by th e c la n h e a d . D j a s i 's m a r ria g e cerem ony, w h ic h w as t o h a v e b e e n p erfo rm ed a f t e r t h e h a r v e s t o f t h a t y e a r , was p o s tp o n e d u n t i l th e f o l ­ lo w in g y e a r when Ub i was th e b rid e g ro o m . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e s i x y e a rs e la p s e d betw een th e o n s e t o f p u b e rty and t h e m a r r ia g e r i t e s w h ile i t w ould b e a f u r t h e r y e a r b e f o r e th e w ife j o i n e d h e r h u sb a n d to fo u n d an in d e p e n d e n t h o u s e h o ld . P reg n an cy b e f o r e B e t r o t h a l . G i r l s r a r e l y becom e p r e g n a n t b e f o r e b e t r o t h a l . I n su c h a s i t u a t i o n t h e r e i s n e a r l y alw a y s a y o u th re a d y to ta k e th e g i r l a s h i s w if e and i f sh e h a s s e v e r a l l o v e r s th e y may d i s ­ p u te o v e r th e r i g h t . T h e re a r e , h o w ev er, o c c a s io n s i n w h ic h th e f a t h e r o f th e g i r l i s l e f t t o d is c o v e r th e i d e n t i t y o f h e r l o v e r , and to v i s i t h i s f a t h e r o r o t h e r p a t r i l i n e a l k in sm an to i n s i s t on th e y o u t h 's o b l i g ­ a t i o n t o p ro v id e m a r ria g e money and ta k e h e r a s a w if e a f t e r th e b i r t h o f th e c h i l d .

20 CHAPTER IV IV

THE MARRIAGE RITES

The f i r s t m a r ria g e o f a Yakö g i r l in v o lv e s a s e r i e s o f d i s t i n c t c e re m o n ia l a c t s w h ich a r e d o v e t a i l e d i n a c o n tin u o u s se q u e n c e .T h e y a r e th e announcem en ts o f th e m a r r ia g e , th e g a t h e r i n g o f th e m a r ria g e f i r e ­ wood (ngbӧ m un), o f f e r i n g s t o th e m a t r i c l a n s h r i n e s , th e c lito r o d e c to m y r i t e (k ūk p o t ) , th e w ed d in g f e a s t s ( e b on k e t a ) , th e t r a n s f e r o f th e m a r ria g e paym ent ( l i b eman) and f i n a l l y t h e s e c l u s i o n o f th e b rid e ( ӧk p ӧl ӧkpӧl ӧ ) . The c h a r a c t e r o f th e s e s e p a r a t e c e re m o n ia l e le m e n ts can be a p p r e c i a t e d o n ly fro m a d e s c r i p t i v e a c c o u n t i n w h ic h t h e i r o v e r­ la p p i n g s t a g e s a r e made c l e a r . They a r e c o n n e c te d o v e r t l y by th e f a c t t h a t t h e o r g a n i s e r s and m ain p a r t i c i p a n t s , nam ely th e age m ates o f th e b rid e , o f h e r f a t h e r , o f h e r m o th e r an d o f t h e b rid e g ro o m , a r e th e same th r o u g h o u t. I t h a s a lr e a d y b e e n p o in te d o u t t h a t th e Yakö c o n s i d e r th e ap ­ p r o p r i a t e tim e f o r th e m a rria g e r i t e s t o b e th e sec o n d h a r v e s t f o llo w ­ in g t h a t a t w h ic h b e t r o t h a l o c c u r r e d . Bu t th e p r o p o s a l t h a t m a rria g e r i t e s sh o u ld be u n d e r ta k e n a t a p a r t i c u l a r h a r v e s t sh o u ld come n o t from th e groom o r th e b r i d e 's p a r e n t s b u t from th e age m a te s o f th e l a t t e r . When a g i r l h a s a l o v e r who h a s d e c la r e d h im s e l f t o h e r p a r e n t s , th e age m ates o f th e m o th e r come to h e r a t th e n e x t h a r v e s t tim e b r i n g in g a c a la b a s h o f palm w ine and sa y 'Y o u r d a u g h te r i s g ro w in g u p .N e x t h a r ­ v e s t i t w i l l h e tim e f o r h e r t o have k ekpopam .' The m o th er sh o u ld by c o n v e n tio n dem ur, s a y in g t h a t h e r d a u g h te r i s to o y o u n g . I n f a c t i f sh e r e a l l y c o n s id e r e d t h i s so sh e w ould n o t have a g re e d to r e c o g n is e t h e b e t r o t h a l . The f a t h e r t e l l s h i s c l o s e s t a g e s e t f r i e n d o f t h i s and h i s ag e m a te s fo llo w s u i t a few day s l a t e r . Kekpopam i s th e te rm f o r one form o f th e c lito r o d e c to m y r i t e , known a s k ūk p o t,w h ic h i s h e ld o n ly a t t h e end o f t h e h a r v e s t s e a s o n . The te rm i s d e r iv e d from k ūk ­ p o t + kepam = e d g e , and i n d i c a t e s t h a t th e o p e r a t io n i s p e rfo rm e d a t s i t e s , e a c h s p e c i a l t o one p a t r i c l a n i n th e u n c u l t i v a t e d la n d a t th e edge o f th e v i l l a g e . Kekpopam i s th e s ta n d a r d and p r e f e r r e d form o f th e r i t e b u t i t c a n n o t be c a r r i e d o u t i f th e g i r l i s a lr e a d y p r e g n a n t. Kūk p o t m ust th e n be p e rfo rm e d i n th e b ush ( l i k ō t ) re m o te from t h e v i l ­ la g e a t a s i t e known a s l i k p ӧb ӧ o f w h ich t h e r e i s i n Umor one f o r e a c h o f th e f o u r w a rd s . The r i t e i s th e n te rm e d l i k p ӧk ō t (k ūk p o t + l i k ō t ) and c a r r i e d o u t d u r in g th e s e v e n th moon o f p re g n a n c y no m a t te r w henin th e y e a r t h a t may f a l l . The A nnouncem ents o f th e M a r r ia g e . A f te r t h e yam p l a n t i n g f o l l o w­ in g th e d e c l a r a t i o n s o f th e p a r e n t s ' a g e m a t e s , i n A p r i l o r May th e f a t h e r g o es o r se n d s to one o f th e f o r e s t v i l l a g e s t o t h e e a s t o f Yakӧ t e r r i t o r y w here game i s a b u n d a n t to buy a smoked a n te lo p e c a rc a s e (kemen) and t e l l s h i s w ife t o a r r a n g e w ith h e r f r i e n d s f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f

21 a l a r g e su p p ly o f f u f u on t h e n e x t k o k ӧ day.1 He c a l l s h i s a g e m a te s i n th e e v e n in g o f a iy o - k o k ö t o i n s p e c t th e m eat and th e y a s k th e g i r l ' s m o th e r to make some o i l s a u c e t o e a t w ith th e n e c k o f th e kem en. On th e same e v e n in g th e y t e l l a l l th e members o f th e f a t h e r ' s a g e - s e t and o t h e r f r i e n d s o f h i s i n a l l f o u r w ard s to come t o h i s compound i n th e m o rn in g on th e n e x t d a y , a f t e r t h e i r r e t u r n from ta p p in g t h e i r p alm t r e e s , e a c h b r i n g in g h i s c a la b a s h o f w in e . The f a t h e r h a s g iv e n a l a r g e s u p p ly o f yam s, f o r t y o r s o , t o h i s w ife and th e s e w i l l be made i n t o f u f u by h e r f r i e n d s on t h a t d a y . F o r th e f e a s t on kokö a l l th e i n v i t e d men a s s e m b le d u rin g th e morn­ in g and t h e r e w i l l b e t h i r t y o r f o r t y p r e s e n t i f t h e f a t h e r i s p o p u la r . L arge c a la b a s h b ow ls o f f u f u a r e s e t o u t t o g e t h e r w ith s m a ll b ow ls o f sa u c e . T h is i s e a te n f i r s t an d th e n a l a r g e w in e p o t i s p ro d u c e d and f i l l e d by th e f r i e n d s from t h e i r c a la b a s h e s .T h e f a t h e r ' s ' t r u e f r i e n d ' ( o t ūmō monowō ) , i . e . h i s c l o s e s t d e c la r e d f r i e n d among h i s age m a te s , who ta k e s c h a rg e o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s , b r i n g s o u t one f r o n t l e g o f th e kemen w ith o i l s a u c e . T h is i s s h a r e d and e a te n b e f o r e d r i n k i n g , l i t e r d r i n k in g th e g u e s t s w i l l a s k t h e f a t h e r to b r i n g o u t t h e r e s t o f th e m eat and he t e l l s h i s 't r u e f r i e n d ' to do s o .T h e l a t t e r th e n a n n o u n ces w hat a l l i n f a c t know a l r e a d y "T he re a s o n I c a l l a l l y o u p e o p le to d a y i s to t e l l you t h a t i n th e com ing h a r v e s t o u r d a u g h te r w i l l h av e k e k ­ popam. She w i l l c o l l e c t fire w o o d and th e n k ūk p o t w i l l b e done f o r her." 1 Kokӧ i s a te rm f o r one o f t h e d a y s i n th e s i x day w eek a t Umor. The days a r e : a iy o - k o k ӧ = b e f o r e k o k ӧ ; kokӧ ; ko k ӧ- b l ӧk ӧ = k o k ӧ p a s s e d ; a i y o - ōp o n g ōb i = b e f o r e ōpongōb i ; ōpongōb i ; ōpongōb i - b l o k ӧ = ōpongōb i p a s s e d . Kokӧ i s th e day o f t h e m ain ma r k e t i n Umor. I t i s a l s o t h e day a p p ro ­ p r i a t e f o r m ost r i t u a l s and c e l e b r a t i o n s w h e th e r f o r th e w h o le v i l l a g e o r f o r s m a ll e r g ro u p s . On t h i s d ay p e o p le l e a v e th e v i l l a g e f o r o n ly s h o r t p e r i o d s i f p o s s i b l e an d v i s i t i n g o f a l l k in d s ta k e s p l a c e . Ōp ӧn gōb i i s th e day o f t h e s m a l l e r w e e k ly m a rk e t and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a s ­ s o c i a te d w ith r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s c o n n e c te d w ith wo m e n . T hus a man m ust be b u r ie d on kok ӧ b u t a woman on ōp ӧn g ōb i . The same c y c le i s fo u n d a t Nkō and N gkpani w h ile th e two o th e r Yakӧ v i l l a g e s E k u ri and Idom i h a v e , i n common w ith th e r i v e r s i d e Ekumuru, a f o u r day week w ith o n ly one m a r k e t. I n t h i s s h o r t e r w eek, h o w ev er, th e kokӧ day h a s th e same s i g n i f i c a n c e a s a t Umor.

22 I f t h e r e a r e n o t to o many p e o p le t h e f a t h e r ' s f r i e n d w ill k eep back one l e g o f m eat to b e e a te n l a t e r by t h e i r a g e m a te s a lo n e . O th e rw is e t h e f a t h e r w i l l have t o buy an e x t r a b a c k l e g f o r them to e a t on th e n e x t day (k o k ö - b lok ö ) when e a c h member b r i n g s one yam, to b e g iv e n to t h e g i r l ' s m o th e r t o make them f u f u , and one b o t t l e o f palm w in e . On t h i s o c c a s io n no fo rm a l s p e e c h e s a r e m ade. L a te r i n th e y e a r a f t e r th e Lebokū r i t e s th e m o th e r g iv e s a s i m i l a r f e a s t f o r h e r f r i e n d s a l s o on a k o k ӧ day w ith a se c o n d f e a s t f o r h e ra g e m a te s . G a th e rin g t h e M a rria g e F ire w o o d . When t h e m ain yam h a r v e s t b e g in s i n e a r l y November t h e b r i d e h a s t o c o l l e c t t h e m a rria g e fire w o o d (mbӧ m un). W ith a la r g e s p e c i a l l y made 'f ir e w o o d h ead p a d ' (le k u m ik a ) and a f l a t p ie c e o f wood to s e r v e a s a fire w o o d c a r r y i n g p la n k (k e m u n tip a )s h e g o es to h e r p a r e n t s ' an d t h e i r f r i e n d s fa rm s t o c o l l e c t yam v in e p o l e s . She sh o u ld h a v e w orked a t h o e in g up yam h i l l s a t p l a n t i n g tim e f o r f r i e n d s o f h e r m o th e r so t h a t th e y w i l l now g iv e h e r some o f t h e i r yam p o le s i n r e t u r n . She s e e k s th e a i d o f h e r age m a te s and o f o t h e r g i r l s i n h e r p a t r i c l an who h av e n o t y e t h ad kūk p o t, and two o r more g i r l s who a r e g o in g to h av e kekpopam a t t h i s h a r v e s t may j o i n f o r c e s . The b rid eg ro o m sh o u ld p ro v id e th e b r i d e w ith a m a tc h e t, f i b r e ro p e and t h e c a r r y in g p la n k and come w ith h i s a g e m a te s and o t h e r f r i e n d s to th e fa rm i n w hich sh e i s c o l l e c t i n g to h e lp chop up th e wood i n t o s u i t a b l e l e n g t h s . T h is fire w o o d c u t t i n g and c a r r y i n g g o e s on i n t e r m i t t e n t l y f o r a b o u t a month a s th e h a r v e s t s a r e g a th e r e d i n u n t i l a h u n d re d o r more s t o u t p o le s t h r e e o r f o u r in c h e s i n d ia m e te r and o v e r f i v e f o o t lo n g h a v e been c o l l e c t e d t o g e t h e r i n a p i l e on th e fa rm in g p a th n e a r th e en­ tr a n c e to th e v i l l a g e . The groom and h i s f r i e n d s now e r e c t a low tim b e r fra m e i n th e com­ pound o f th e b r i d e 's f a t h e r on w h ich th e wood i s to b e p i l e d . The fram e i s t h r e e o r f o u r y a r d s a c r o s s and f i v e o r s i x f e e t d e e p . The b rid e ­ groom h a s t o o r g a n is e a p a r t y f o r p i l i n g th e wood on a k o k ӧ d a y . He an­ n o u n c e s t h i s i n ad v an ce and i s h e lp e d b o th by h i s age s e t a n d a l s o by p a t r i c l an f e l l o w s , in c l u d i n g o l d e r men su c h a s h i s own f a t h e r an d h i s frie n d s . As th e wood h a s a lr e a d y b e e n c a r r i e d t o th e o u t s k i r t s o f th e v i l l a g e i t can b e b ro u g h t i n q u ic k l y w ith a f l o u r i s h on t h i s d a y . The b r i d e ' s age m a te s a l s o a ss e m b le i n t h e compound and a s th e w ork p ro c e e d s i n th e m o rning th e g i r l s t r y t o im pede th e w ork by p l a y f u l l y d ra g g in g wood away. (S ee f i g . 2 ) . When th e jo b i s done th e g i r l go o f f t o f e t c h w a te r fro m a s p r i n g and ta k e i t t o th e compound o f t h e groom , w h ere th e men a l l b a t h e . The g i r l s th e n r e t u r n t o th e b r i d e 's h o u se w h e re th e y s h e ll and b o i l g ro u n d ­ n u t s and a l s o cook yams i n o i l . They f i l l two l a r g e b o w ls w ith t h e s e and ta k e them t o t h e g ro o m 's compound. The yams a r e s u p p l ie d by th e

Fig. 2. The Marriage Firewood

23 b r i d e 's m o th e r; th e g ro u n d n u ts sh o u ld h a v e b een s p e c i a l l y grow n by th e b r i d e i n h e r p a r e n t s ' fa rm . I n th e g ro o m 's compound h i s p a t r i c l a n f e l ­ lo w s h av e m eanw hile b ro u g h t p alm w in e i n th e e v e n in g and h i s f a t h e r p r o ­ v id e s a smoked l e g o f a n te l o p e (k e me n ) f o r him . A ll t h i s fo o d i s s e t o u t a s a f e a s t f o r th e y o u th s a n d men who to o k p a r t i n th e fire w o o d p i l ­ in g . T h is i s th e f i r s t o c c a s io n on w h ic h th e groom and h i s f a t h e r p u b ­ l i c l y i n d i c a t e th e fo rth c o m in g m a r ria g e and t h i s f e a s t i s r e g a r d e d a s an announcem ent t o th e p a t r i c l an o f t h e groom an d h i s f a t h e r . On t h e n e x t a iy o - k o k ӧ t h e f a t h e r o f t h e b r i d e c a l l s h i s age m a te s t o g e t h e r and ann o u n ces "Tomorrow I w ish y o u t o ta k e o u r d a u g h te r t o a l l a s e " , an d th e m o th er c a l l s h e r ag e m a te s t o make th e same an n o u n cem en t. The a s e ( s i n g . y o s e ) a r e t h e s p i r i t s h r i n e s o f t h e m a t r i c l a n s o f w h ic h t h e r e a r e e le v e n i n Um or. B o th t h e g ro u p s a sse m b le i n th e compound n e x t m o rn in g so o n a f t e r dawn and j o i n t o g e t h e r t o e s c o r t th e b r i d e . The p a r e n t s s t a y b e ­ h in d i n t h e i r compound. O f f e r i n g s t o th e A se. The p r i e s t s ( b i ' i n a ) o f th e s e v e r a l a s e w i l l n o t have b e e n w arned i n a d v a n c e , b u t th e y h a v e t o be i n t h e i r com­ pounds on e v e ry k o k ӧ and th e y know t h a t t h i s i s t h e s e a s o n f or s u c h r i t e s . The p a r t y s e t s o u t i n a f i l e w ith th e f a t h e r ' s f r i e n d s g o in g i n f r o n t o f th e b r i d e who i s fo llo w e d by h e r own ag e m a te s w ith some o f t h e age m ates o f t h e m o th e r b e h in d . T h e re may b e tw e n ty o r m ore p e o p le i n t h e p r o c e s s io n . The b r i d e w e a rs a l a r g e c l o t h a rr a n g e d a s a b u s t l e , a n e c k l e t o f p r e c io u s b e a d s and a n iv o r y b a n g le . H er f a t h e r ' s ' t r u e f r i e n d ' c a r r i e s a n arro w n e ck ed 'y id u n s ūwo' p o t o f palm w in e , a n o th e r c a r r i e s a l a r g e r c a la b a s h o f w ine and a t h i r d a p ie c e o f smoked a n te l o p e m eat on a s m a ll wooden m eat p l a t e . The a s e a r e v i s i t e d i n no f i x e d o r d e r sav e th a t th o s e s i t u a t e d i n th e w ard o f th e b r i d e a r e r e a c h e d l a s t . A t f i r s t o n ly t h e f r i e n d s o f th e b r i d e 's f a t h e r go w ith th e p r i e s t i n t o t h e m iniature h o u s e w hich c o n ta i n s th e y o s e s h r i n e . An a s s i s t a n t ( n t a k a t ūm) o f th e p r i e s t c u ts up a p o r t i o n o f th e m eat and p o u rs some o f t h e w in e fro m t h e p o t i n t o a c a la b a s h cu p . A f te r f o u r p i e c e s o f m eat h av e b e e n p la c e d b e f o r e th e y o s e and a d ro p o f w in e h a s b e e n p o u re d i n t o a d r i n k i n g h o rn w h ic h form s p a r t o f i t a l l th e men e a t a p ie c e o f m eat an d d r i n k some w in e . M eanw hile th e p r i e s t a d d r e s s e s th e y o se s: " T h is i s m eat f o r you and t h i s i s palm w in e f o r y o u . T h is g i r l h a s come t o sm ear c h a lk a s sh e w a n ts kūk p o t" b u t h e m akes no v e r b a l r e q u e s t o f t h e y o s e . A f t e r w in e h a s b e e n dru n k th e p r i e s t pow ders a s t i c k o f c h a lk on a s t o n e i n f r o n t of th e y o s e and m ixes w ith i t th e w in e p u t i n th e h o r n . He n e x t sm e a rs h im s e l f an d th e n th e c l o s e f r i e n d s o f th e b r i d e 's f a t h e r on th e c h e s t . T h i s m ix in g o f a p a s t e o f c h a lk an d w in e w h ich i s sm eared on th e body o f th e p r i e s t , th e s u p p l i c a n t s and o t h e r s p r e s e n t , i s c a r r i e d o u t a t e v e ry cerem ony a t

a24 y o se s h r i n e .1 The b r i d e and t h e o t h e r women who h a v e re m a in e d a t th e e n tr a n c e to th e compound a r e now c a l l e d i n t o a p p ro a c h th e y o s e .T h e p r i e s t f i r s t sm ears th e b r i d e v e r t i c a l l y on t h e c h e s t , on t h e f o r e h e a d , on s i d e s o f h e a d , o v e r t h e s h o u ld e r s an d th e n r i g h t ro u n d th e body ab o v e w a is t.S h e th e n p u ts o u t b o th p alm s an d th e p r i e s t b lo w s on them a n d s a y s "B ein good h e a l t h " (w o tӧ l i t a w ō ) . The f r i e n d s o f th e m o th e r th e n e n t e r t h e tin y y o se h o u se by o n es an d tw o s an d th e y a r e sm eared w ith c h a lk i n t h e same way an d th e y a r e fo llo w e d by t h e f r i e n d s o f t h e b r i d e . The b rid e g ro o m i s n o t p r e s e n t and h a s no p a r t i n t h i s cerem ony, s a v e t h a t h e sh o u ld h a v e p r o v id ­ ed t h e palm w in e t o b e ta k e n to th e y o s e . A f t e r a l l th e ase h a v e b een v i s i t e d i n t h i s way t h e p a r t y r e t u r n s to th e b r i d e 's compound w h ere th e f a t h e r g iv e s a l e g o f smoked keman m eat and w ine t o h i s ag e m a te s and t h e m o th e r s i m i l a r l y g iv e s m eat a n d w ine to th e women. B oth t h e s e g ro u p s s a i d f o r m ore w in e and s t a y f o r m o st o f th e m o rn in g t a l k i n g and d r i n k in g . B ut th e b r i d e ' s a g e m a te s do n o t s t a y , and th e b r i d e h e r s e l f , h a v in g c u t a p ie c e o f smoked m eat i n t o v ery sm all p ie c e s w hich sh e p u t s i n a b o w l, g o e s ro u n d th e v i l l a g e o f f e r i n g p i e c e s o f th e m eat t o a l l h e r a c q u a in ta n c e s a n n o u n c in g "The n e x t a iy o - k o k ӧ I s h a l l make kūk p o t ." She sh o u ld go r i g h t ro u n d th e v i l l a g e - a lo n e o r w ith one o r a t m ost two o f h e r f r i e n d s . From t h i s day sh e may n o t b a th e u n t i l a f t e r th e r i t e h a s b e e n p e r ­ form ed f i v e d a y s l a t e r , and i s e x p e c te d t o b e h a v e c a p r i c io u s ly to th e groom, t r y i n g to a v o id h im , w h ile h e f o r h i s p a r t m ust t r y to t r a c k h e r down. The b r i d e i s f r e e to i n v i t e a n o th e r y o u th to j o i n h e r w ith h e r ag e m a te s a t n ig h t i f she c an e sc a p e th e b rid e g ro o m , b u t i t a p p e a re d t h a t , i f sh e i s a n x io u s to m arry t h e groom , sh e wi l l o n ly make a p r e t e n c e o f t h i s . On th e n e x t ōp o n g ō b i o r ōpongōb i - b l ӧk ӧ one o r two o f th e f a t h e r ' s f r i e n d s go t o th e ōmanamana to a s k h e r t o p e rfo rm th e c lito r o d e c to m y t a k ­ in g a g i f t o f a s m a ll p ie c e o f smoked m e a t, sa u c e and palm w in e . I n Umor t h e r e i s an ōmanamana i n e a c h o f th e f o u r w a rd s . They h a v e t o b e c h o se n from th e m a t r i c l a n s c o n n e c te d w ith th e f o u r a s e Ōd jo k ōb i , O b o le n e , E sukpa 1T h is c h a lk i s , a c c o r d in g t o th e Yakӧ , dug by women o f Ngū s ū i n Edda coun­ t r y on t h e w e s t b an k o f th e C ro ss R iv e r . They s e l l i t a t n in e p e n c e a h e a d lo a d a t Ngū sū to women from A fik p o and e ls e w h e r e . The Af i k p o women pound i t u p , m ix i t w ith w a te r an d mould i t i n t o b i c o n i c a l s t i c k s a b o u t two in c h e s lo n g . T h ese s t i c k s a r e s o ld i n t h e A fik p o and r i v e r s i d e m ar­ k e t s , w hence Yakӧ s u p p l i e s come, a t te n t o tw e n ty f o r a p e n n y .E v e ry p r i e s t and m a g ic ia n among t h e Yakӧ an d t h e i r n e ig h b o u r s u s e s t h i s c h a lk to sm ear s u p p l ic a n t s and s a c r e d o b j e c t s .

25 and O bot Lokōn a . The s e n i o r ōmanamana p l a y s a p ro m in e n t p a r t i n th e a n n u a l h a r v e s t f e r t i l i t y r i t e s i n Umor, bu t t h e i r m ain f u n c t i o n i s t h e p e rf o rm ­ ance o f c l i t o r i d e c t o m y . Wh en a new a p p o in tm e n t h a s t o he made t h e v i l l a g e h e a d , t h e v i l l a g e s p e a k e r and th e i n a o f O h o lene make t h e c h o ic e a f t e r con­ s u l t i n g t h e o t h e r yamanamana and a r i t u a l o f i n d u c t io n i s p e rfo rm e d by th e v i l l a g e h e a d a t th e y o se Ōd jo k ōh i o f w h ich he i s p r i e s t . The new ōm­ anamana i s th e n i n s t r u c t e d by one o f th e o t h e r s u n t i l sh e i s s k i l l e d . I f t h e p a r e n t s o f a b r i d e a r e d iv o r c e d th e y a r e e x p e c te d t o come to ­ g e th e r and t o c o - o p e r a te i n f r i e n d l y f a s h i o n a t th e m a r r ia g e o f t h e i r d a u g h te r . The b r i d e w i l l u s u a l l y h a v e p a s s e d h e r c h ild h o o d w ith h e r m ot­ h e r s i n c e t h e d i v o r c e , bu t b o th a r e e x p e c te d t o r e t u r n t o th e f a t h e r ' s compound f o r t h e c l i to r id e c t o m y r i t e and t h e f e a s t s w h ic h f o l lo w . Some­ tim e s , h o w ev er, p a r t i c u l a r l y when th e m o th e r h a s gone to l i v e i n a n o th e r v i l l a g e t h e f a t h e r g o e s w ith h i s a g e s e t f r i e n d s t o t h e m o t h e r 's compound. I n e i t h e r c a s e a r i t e known a s k e w ip i ( w a te r s p i tt in g ) w h ic h e n jo in s f r i e n d l y b e h a v io u r on th e p a r t i e s i s p e rfo rm e d on th e a r r i v a l o f th e d iv o r c e d p a r t y . I n t h e f a t h e r ' s compound t h i s r i t e sh o u ld h e d i r e c t e d by t h e h e a d o f h i s p a t r i l i n e a g e (ūwo womon = o u r f a t h e r ) who b r i n g s a c a la b a s h o f w a t e r , s e t s i t down on th e g ro u n d and po w d ers i n t o i t a s t i c k o f c h a l k . He th e n s u c k s up some o f th e w a te r an d s p r a y s i t o v e r t h e e x te n d e d h a n d s o f t h e br i d e s a y in g " From to d a y , when we s p i t w a te r on h e r , we a r e a l l i n p e a c e t o g e t ­ h e r ." He th e n i n v i t e s th e f a t h e r and th e m o th e r an d t h e i r com panions t o do th e sam e. The C lito r id e c to m y r i t e . On a iy o - k o k ö , t h e day o f t h e c lito r id e c to m y r i t e , a l l t h e h e a d h a i r , s a v e f o r an o c c i p i t a l p a t c h , an d t h e p u b ic h a i r o f th e br i d e a r e sh av ed o f f by a f r i e n d o f t h e g i r l ' s m o th e r a n d a m e s sa g e i s s e n t t o th e ōmanamana o f th e w ard who comes t o th e e n tr a n c e o f t h e com­ pound o f t e n acco m p an ied by one o f t h e o t h e r yamanamana a s a n a s s i s t a n t . They b o th w ear o n ly h a rk c l o t h bu s t l e s , t h e n a t i v e c l o t h i n g f o r t h e o l d e r women, an d s t a n d t h e r e s i l e n t l y , w a i t i n g . The f a t h e r h a s t o l d t h e f r i e n d s o f th e g i r l ' s m o th e r, who w i l l accom pany h e r , w here th e kekpopam s i t e f o r h i s p a t r i c l a n i s an d a p r o c e s s io n i s l e d by t h e b e s t f r i e n d o f t h e b r id e 's m other who i s fo llo w e d by th e two yam anam ana, th e br i d e , m ore f r i e n d s o f th e m o th e r and f i n a l l y th e age m a te s o f t h e b r i d e no m a t t e r w h e th e r th e y th e m s e lv e s h a v e h ad kūk p o t o r n o t . The b r i d e w e a rs a s p e c i a l n a rro w g i r d l e ( e p o n i d ja = m a r ria g e g i r d l e ) o f u n d y ed r a p h i a fro m w h ic h a lo o s e b u n d le o f r a p h i a f i b r e h a n g s down on one s i d e ( s e e F r o n t i s p i e c e ) . On r e a c h i n g th e s i t e a f r i e n d o f th e m o th e r, who h a s b r o u g h t a h o e , c l e a r s a s p a c e i n w h ic h th e b r i d e l i e s on h e r h a c k . She i s h e l d by th e m o th e r 's f r i e n d s ; th e o t h e r s fo rm a c l o s e r i n g ro u n d h e r and th e ōmanamana o p e r a te s im m e d ia te ly w ith a n a t i v e r a z o r (okōw a )l a n d s q u e e z e s o n t o t h e 1A k n i f e w ith a l u n a t e b la d e a b o u t f o u r in c h e s lo n g . The o p e r a t i o n i s n o t u s u a l l y s e v e r e . The s h e a th c o v e r in g t h e c l i t o r i s p r o p e r i s a lo n e rem oved by a s i n g l e t r a n s v e r s e c u t .

26 wound th e j u i c e o f c e r t a i n g re e n le a v e s i n w h ic h g u in e a g r a i n s , w h ic h she h a s chewed th e n and t h e r e , h a v e been p la c e d . No d r e s s i n g i s p la c e d on th e w ound. Two o f t h e m o t h e r 's f r i e n d s h av e b r o u g h t a p o t o f w a te r a n d a bowl; and w a te r i s p o u re d w ith w h ich th e ōmanamana b a th e s t h e b r i d e w h ile a s m a ll h o le i s dug i n w h ich th e c l i t o r i s s h e a th i s b u r i e d . The b r i d e i s th e n ru b b e d a l l o v e r w ith r e d camwood pow der by t h e ōmanamana who a l s o ru b scam ­ wood on h e r own body and on one arm and one l e g o f e a c h o f th e b r i d e 's age m ates and on th e l e g o f o t h e r women p r e s e n t . The p r o c e s s io n i s re - fo rm e d t o r e t u r n t o th e b r i d e 's compound. The c l o s e s t f r i e n d o f t h e b r i d e p r e ­ c e d e s h e r c a r r y i n g a b owl o f camwood from w h ic h sh e s p r i n k l e s th e pow der on th e p a t h . The ōmanamana and h e r a s s i s t a n t le a v e them t o r e t u r n to t h e i r own h o u se s im m e d ia te ly . L a te r i n th e d a y , a f r i e n d o f th e m o th e r b r i n g s th e ōmanamana a g i f t o f one s h i l l i n g - b e f o r e th e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c o in a g e from f i v e t o te n ro d s and l a t e r u n t i l th e r e c e n t d e p r e s s io n s e v e r a l s h i l ­ l i n g s w ere e x p e c te d - tw e n ty yams and a c a la b a s h o f palm w i n e , a l l o f w h ich have been p ro v id e d by th e f a t h e r . On r e t u r n i n g t o th e compound th e b r i d e i s made t o s i t on th e b ed p l a t ­ form i n h e r m o t h e r 's h o u s e . The age m a te s o f th e groom who h a v e b e e n w a it­ in g i n h i s compound a r e th e n summoned and th e y , bu t n o t th e groom , a r r i v e each c a r r y i n g s e v e r a l y o u n g , l i g h t - g r e e n o i l p alm f r o n d s . On a r r i v a l th e y s p l i t th e f r o n d s a lo n g th e m id r ib s and t i e them to p o s t s a c r o s s th e h e a d o f th e p la t f o r m to form a s c r e e n ( y e t ōl o k ō l ӧ ) c l o s i n g i t i n w h ile th e b r i d e re m a in s i n s i d e . They jo k e w ith h e r and among th e m s e lv e s a b o u t th e o p e ra ­ t i o n s a y in g "We h e a rd y o u c ry v e ry lo u d . How i s th e w ound?". On t h e i r r e ­ t u r n t o th e g ro o m 's compound h e h a n d s them a p r e s e n t f o r th e b r i d e known a s k ebō k a l i (= s t o p c r y i n g ) c o n s i s t i n g o f two c a la b a s h e s o f p alm w in e , f o u r c o c o n u ts , two s h i l l i n g s ( f o r m e r ly f o u r o r m ore r o d s ) and a b u n d le o f ra p h ia f i b r e . T h ese th e y g iv e to t h e b r i d e 's f r i e n d s w h ile sh e h e rs e lf peeps th ro u g h th e s c r e e n o f palm f r o n d s . The r a p h i a f i b r e i s to be u sed f o r t h e b r i d e 's g i r d l e . One c o c o n u t i s t o he p la c e d b e tw e e n h e r le g s t o p ro te c t th e wound. The o t h e r s a r e f o r h e r f r i e n d s . H anding o v e r th e M a rria g e Money. The m a r r ia g e paym ent o r " br i d e w e a lth " w h ich t h e Yakӧ c a l l m a r ria g e money’ (lib e m a n , fro m mhӧ = m a r ria g e and l i man = c u rr e n c y ( r o d s o r c o in a g e ) ) i s u s u a l l y s e n t w ith t h e s e g i f t s . U n t i l a d e ­ cad e o r so a g o , i t was c u sto m a ry i n Umor t o make th e m a r ria g e paym ent on a kokӧ day p r e v i o u s to th e day o f kū k p o t when th e b r i d e 's p a r e n t s and h e r ag e m ates w ere t o l d t o a w a it th e b rid e g ro o m 's a g e m a te s i n t h e i r compound. The t r a n s f e r o f th e lib e m a n was th e n m arked b y f o r m a l i t i e s w h ic h a r e n o lo n g e r o b s e rv e d . The g ro o m 's age m ates f i r s t o f f e r e d th e money t o th e b r id e 's mates who r e f u s e d i t p r e t e n d i n g t h a t th e b rid e g ro o m h a d n o t made b e t r o t h a l g i f t s s a y in g "No, w e c a n n o t ta k e m a r ria g e money fro m y o u , y o u h a v e n e v e r g iv e n o u r f r i e n d a n y th in g n o t even th r e e p e n c e , n o r a p en n y n o t a h a lf p e n n y nor even a b u n d le o f r a p h i a f i b r e ( y i t i t a n g p a ) ” . W hereupon th e l e a d e r s o f th e g ro o m 's f r i e n d s p ro d u c e s t h e s e v e ry th i n g s s a y in g s "To show t h a t our f r i e n d i s re a d y to do e v e r y t h in g you e x p e c t h e r e i s th r e e p e n c e and a penny

27 and a h a lf p e n n y and y i t i t a n g p a . " The lib e m a n i s th e n o f f e r e d a g a in and a c c e p te d . The same c o n v e n tio n a l p h ra s e i s u s e d by a w ife a f t e r m a r ria g e when r e p l y i n g a n g r i l y t o a c o m p la in t o r r e p r o a c h . I r r e s p e c t i v e o f th e f a c t s she w i l l sa y s "What do I owe t o y o u ; w h a t h a v e y o u g iv e n me, n o t even th r e e p e n c e n o r a p enny n o r a h a lf p e n n y n o r ev en y i t i t a n g p a . " I n Umor th e e t i q u e t t e i n o f f e r i n g th e m a r ria g e money h a s now ch a n g e d . I t i s r a r e l y i f e v e r o f f e r e d u n t i l t h e day o f k ūk p o t . The c o n v e n tio n now i s t o o f f e r th e k e b ō k a l i on t h a t day a s d e s c r ib e d ab o v e and t h i s i s a t f i r s t r e f u s e d b e c a u s e th e lib e m a n h a s n o t a l r e a d y b e e n g iv e n . The b r i d e 's f r i e n d s sa y "Where i s th e lib e m a n ; you s h o u ld b r i n g i t w ith t h e k e b ō k a l i . T h is palm w ine to o i s n o t en ough, many p e o p le h a v e come h e r e . We s h a l l k e e p t h i s , b u t we w ant f o u r m ore c a la b a s h e s o f w in e ." The spokesm an among th e g ro o m 's f r i e n d s th e n p r o t e s t s t h a t th e lib e m a n w i l l b e b ro u g h t a t o n c e , o r w ith i n su c h an d su c h a tim e a s th e c a s e may b e , an d p r e s s e s t h e k e b ō k a l i g i f t on t h e b r i d e 's f r i e n d s . He th e n g o es b a c k w ith h i s c o m p a n io n s ,to i n ­ form t h e groom and h i s f a t h e r , who know q u i t e w e ll w hat th e y a r e g o in g to say and w i l l u s u a l l y p r o v id e a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h e m a r ria g e money f o r th e y o u th s t o ta k e t o th e b r i d e 's compound. I f , a s som etim es h a p p e n s to d a y , th e y sen d b ack th e y o u th s w ith o n ly a p ro m ise o f f u t u r e p a y m e n t, th e b r i d e 's f r i e n d s w i l l u s u a l l y se n d b a c k th e k eb ō k a l i , sa v e f o r th e w in e , say in g t h a t i t sh o u ld be s e n t l a t e r when th e m a r ria g e money i s a c t u a l l y h an d ed o v e r. When th e m a r ria g e money i s handed o v e r on th e day o f k ūk p o t i t i s g iv e n t o th e b r i d e 's ag e m ates who hand i t to h e r f a t h e r and he m akes them a g i f t o f a few s h i l l i n g s from i t th e n and t h e r e . I f i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d l a t ­ e r i t i s handed d i r e c t to th e b r i d e 's f a t h e r by th e groom h im s e l f o r h i s f a t h e r who i s acco m p an ied by a few f r i e n d s a s w i t n e s s e s . The c h a r a c t e r o f th e Yakӧ m a r ria g e p a y m en t, th e ways i n w h ich i t i s am assed by o r on b e h a lf o f th e groom ,and how i t i s d is p o s e d o f w i l l b e c o n s id e r e d l a t e r . A f te r h a n d in g o v e r th e lib e m a n th e a g e m a te s o f th e b rid e g ro o m r e t u r n to h i s compound w h ere o th e r s o f h i s a g e s e t an d many o f h i s p a t r i c l an f e l ­ low s h av e a ss e m b le d . The b rid e g ro o m , o r h i s f a t h e r , p r o v id e s a b a c k l e g o f smoked m eat w h ile h i s m o th e r h a s cooked o i l s a u c e and s e v e r a l b ow ls o f f u f u . A ll t a k i n g p a r t e i t h e r b r i n g w in e , o r p r o v id e l d f o r i t t o be bought. P a t r i c l a n f e l lo w s o f th e groom a r e e x p e c te d t o g iv e him a p r e s e n t o f yams and money r a n g in g fro m one t o f i v e yams and 3 d . The b r i d e 's age m a te s l a t ­ e r r e t u r n to th e g ro o m 's compound, b r i n g a r e t u r n g i f t f o r th e k e b ō k a l i c o n s i s t i n g o f some m eat an d s a u c e , and one s h i l l i n g p r o v id e d by th e b r i d e . T h is f e a s t o f th e a g e s e t and p a t r i c l an f e l lo w s o f t h e groom i s q u i t e d i s ­ t i n c t from t h e p r o t r a c t e d m a r ria g e f e a s t i n th e b r i d e 's compound. The W edding F e a s t s . I n t h e m eantim e a few f r i e n d s o f t h e m o th e r who d id n o t go w ith t h e b r i d e f o r th e c lito r o d e c to m y o p e r a t io n h av e b e e n p r e ­ p a r in g a l a r g e s u p p ly o f f u f u f o r th e f i r s t o f t h e f e a s t s o f ebon k e t a (= m a rria g e v i s i t i n g ) . F o r t h i s a s t o r e o f yams h a d b e e n se t a s i d e a t h a r v e s t

28 tim e . The b r i d e 's m o th e r sh o u ld h av e a su p p ly o f 100 yams f o r h e r f r i e n d s The f a t h e r s h o u ld h a v e a s i m i l a r su p p ly o f 100 yams f o r h i s f r i e n d s i n h is m an 's h o u s e . The b r i d e 's f r i e n d s a r e a l s o g iv e n a b o u t 50 yams by th e b rid e's f a t h e r f o r t h e i r own u s e . I n a l l a b o u t t e n s t i c k s o f medium s i z e d yams a r e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e m a r ria g e f e a s t s . A ll th e s u p p l ie s of yams a r e b ro u g h t i n and l a i d o u t i n th e h o u se s b e f o r e th e d ay o f th e cerem ony. The th r e e g ro u p s o f a g e m a te s go o u t t o th e fa m ily yam s t a c k f o r t h i s p u rp o s e and c a r r y i n t h e yam s; young b oys o f t h e i r p a t r i c l a n s u s u a l l y a c c ompany th e f a t ­ h e r 's ag e m a te s t o do t h e i r c a r r y i n g . T h is o c c a s io n i s c a l l e d mböngpō (=mbӧ m a r ria g e an d mpō = yam s t a c k ) and on t h i s day t h e f a t h e r p r o v i d e s a smoked back l e g o f a n t e l o p e , and h i s two c l o s e s t f r i e n d s , one f r o n t l e g e a c h , f o r a f e a s t . The m o th e r and two f r i e n d s o f h e r s do th e sam e, an d th e fo o d i s e a te n by t h e two g ro u p s s i t t i n g s e p a r a t e l y a f t e r t h e i r r e t u r n t o t h e com­ pound. B oth s e t s p ro d u c e t h e i r own p alm w in e . The yams a r e s e t o u t i n rows o f n e a t h e a p s o f f i v e on th e i n n e r p la t f o r m o f th e h o u s e s w h ic h a re to be o c c u p ie d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n th e m a r ria g e f e a s t . On th e day o f kū k p o t (a iy o - k o k ӧ ) th e m o th e r 's age m a te s f i r s t m ake f u f u w ith some o f t h e f a t h e r ' s yams f o r h i s f r i e n d s . A f te r t h a t th e y cook some o f th e m o t h e r 's yams f o r th e m s e lv e s . The b r i d e 's a g e m a te s cook f o r them­ s e l v e s from t h e i r own s u p p ly . The f a t h e r an d m o th e r e a c h g iv e one b ack l e g o f a n te l o p e to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f r i e n d s and a s m a lle r p ie c e o f m eat to th e b r i d e 's f r i e n d s w h ic h i s e a te n a f t e r th e f u f u . The a g e m a te s o f th e groom r e c e i v e f o r t y yams and a s t i c k o f d r i e d f i s h from h i s f a t h e r on t h i s day and ta k e t h e s e t o th e g i r l ' s compound and g iv e i t t o h e r f r i e n d s f o r them to make f u f u d a i l y f o r t h e y o u th s u n t i l t h e f o llo w in g kokö b u t o n e , i n se v e n d a y s tim e . T h is f u f u i s coo k ed i n th e n i g h t and c a r r i e d i n two o r more f u f u b ow ls t o th e g ro o m 's compound j u s t b e f o r e dawn. D u rin g t h i s p e r io d th e y o u th s s l e e p i n th e g ro o m 's compound S i m i l a r l y t h e a g e m ates o f t h e b r i d e , o f h e r f a t h e r a n d o f h e r m o th e r a l l s l e e p i n t h e p a r e n t s ' compound u n t i l th e seco n d k o k ӧ . The b r i d e o c c u p ie s h e r m o t h e r 's h o u se w h ich h e r a g e m a te s a l s o u s e . The m o th e r w ith h e r age m ates o b t a i n t h e te m p o ra ry u s e o f a n o th e r w om an's h o u se i n th e compound, w h ile th e f a t h e r and h i s f r i e n d s occupy h i s own h o u se . The m o t h e r 's age m a te s g e t up b e f o r e dawn e a c h m o rn in g and cook f u f u and stew f o r th e m s e lv e s an d th e f a t h e r ' s f r i e n d s ( f r i e n d s o f f a t h e r p r o v id e t h e i r own m eat fo r stew). The b r i d e ' s f a t h e r g iv e s h e r o n e b a c k l e g o f kemen and two s h i l l i n g s when sh e r e t u r n s from th e c l i t o r o d e c tomy r i t e . When on t h i s o r s u b s e q u e n t days th e f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s , t o whom th e b r i d e h a s an n o u n ced th e c e r e ­ mony by g i v i n g p i e c e s o f m e a t, come to g r e e t h e r a f t e r th e r i t e , g iv in g a sm a ll p r e s e n t su c h a s 1/2d . o r l d , sh e c u ts o f f a s l i v e r fro m th e m eat and o f f e r s i t t o them . Towards th e e v e n in g o f t h i s day t h e groom le a v e s th e f u r t h e r a r r a n g e ­ ment o f fo o d d i s t r i b u t i o n i n h i s compound t o h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d and comes

29 t o th e b r i d e 's compound t o s a l u t e h e r , f i r s t a s k in g f o r m a ll y "aw ongke kūk ­ p o t; kūk p o t kow k o d e a ? ” (= you r e t u r n fro m c l i t o r i d e c t o m y ; (y o u r ) c l i t o r i ­ d e ctomy how i s i t ? ) . She i s e x p e c te d t o r e p l y b r i e f l y and w ith o u t c o n c e rn s a y in g f o r exam ple "Bom bom, k ōdӧ " (= so m e th in g , n o th i n g , i . e . I t i s o f no m a t t e r , I am n o t u p s e t a b o u t i t ) o r "k ūk p o t koninom " (= kūk p o t i s p a i n f u l ) . The b r i d e m ust c o n tin u e t o re m a in b e h in d th e s c r e e n a n d when th e groom comes sh e may p u t o n ly h e r h e a d th r o u g h an d h e s t a y s a few m in u te s . He can how ever, r e t u r n l a t e r i n t h e e v e n in g t o sp e n d th e n i g h t w ith h e r , g o in g i n ­ s i d e th e s c r e e n . E a r ly t h e n e x t m o rn in g a s dawn i s b r e a k in g t h e b r i d e 's ag e m a te s make f u f u and ta k e i t t o th e g ro o m 's m a te s and come aw ay, th e m o t h e r 's a g e m a te s s i m i l a r l y ta k e f u f u and stew t o th e ag e m a te s o f t h e b r i d e ' s f a t h e r . I n th e m orning and a g a in i n th e e v e n in g on e a c h d a y u n t i l th e n e x t k o k ӧ th e ag e m ates o f th e groom a n d o f t h e b r i d e 's f a t h e r come t o t h e i r compounds when r e t u r n i n g from ta p p in g t h e i r o i l p alm s f o r w ine and s t o p t h e r e t o d r i n k and g o s s ip . O th e rw is e e v e ry one g o e s a b o u t h i s own a f f a i r s . On th e kokӧ se v e n d ay s a f t e r t h e c l i t o r i d e c t o m y r i t e t h e b r i d e 's age m ates cook f u f u f o r th e g ro o m 's age m a te s f o r th e l a s t tim e bu t th e m other's m ates c o n tin u e t o p r e p a r e i t i n th e e a r l y m o rn in g f o r th o s e o f t h e fa th e r f o r a n o th e r s i x d a y s u n t i l t h e f o llo w in g kokӧ . On t h a t day t h e p re s e n ta tio n o f g i f t s to th e f a t h e r and m o th e r o f th e b r i d e b e g in s . The g i f t s are b ro u g h t by th e age m ates an d o t h e r f r i e n d s o f th e f a t h e r a n d m o th e r on one o r o th e r o f th e d ay s from t h i s kokö t o t h e n e x t. I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e c l o s e s t f r i e n d o f th e f a t h e r h a s b e e n e x p e c te d t o g iv e 2/ - , 40 yams and p a lm w in e .T h e second f r i e n d sh o u ld g iv e l / 6 and 20 o r 30 yams an d palm w in e ; fro m o t h e r members o f h i s kob oma l / 6 t o l / - w ith 20 yams a n d palm w in e i s e x p e c te d ; l e s s in ­ tim a te f r i e n d s b r i n g 6d and 15 yams o r 3d an d 10 yams a n d p alm w in e . From e v e ry g i f t one yam i s s e t a s i d e t o p r o v id e f u f u f o r a f u r t h e r f e a s t . The number o f f r i e n d s b r i n g in g g i f t s t o th e b r i d e 's f a t h e r i n t h i s w a y wil l v a r y from a b o u t tw en ty to o v e r f i f t y w ith h i s p o p u l a r i t y . They w i l l in c l u d e mem­ b e r s o f h i s a g e - s e t , o f h i s p a t r i c l a n , o f h i s m a t r i c l a n an d o t h e r fr ie n d s b o th young and o ld . The am ounts o f th e g i f t s h a v e b e e n f a i r l y s ta b le in re c e n t y e a rs b u t w ere s a i d t o hav e b e e n much h ig h e r a g e n e r a t io n a g o . A lw ay s, h o w e v e r, i f th e b r i d e 's f a t h e r h a s a lr e a d y made a m a r ria g e g i f t o f t h i s k in d t o a f r i e n d on a p re v io u s o c c a s io n t h a t f r i e n d sh o u ld make a l a r g e r money g i f t th a n h e r e ­ c e iv e d . I n th e p a s t h e w ould h av e b e e n e x p e c te d t o g iv e s e v e r a l r o d s more e x p e c te d of th a n he r e c e i v e d . At p r e s e n t fro m 3d t o 1/ - more i n c a s h i s him . The b r i d e 's f a t h e r h a n d s o v e r t h e g i f t s o f money t o h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d who a l s o ta k e s t h e r e s e r v e d yam s. T hese a r e u s e d i n a f e a s t w h ich i s h e ld on th e kokö f o llo w in g t h a t on w h ich th e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f g i f t s h a s en d e d .T h e

30 f r i e n d s o f th e b r i d e 's m o th e r b r i n g p r e s e n t s t o h e r i n th e same way d u r­ in g t h e s e d a y s . I was t o l d t h a t t h e g i f t s by women to t h e m o th e r sh o u ld be l a r g e r th a n th o s e w h ich h i s f r i e n d s g iv e to t h e f a t h e r and t h a t i n t h e p r o s p e ro u s y e a r s o f th e r e c e n t tim e th e m o th e r 's c l o s e s t f r i e n d was e x p e c te d t o g iv e from t e n s h i l l i n g s o r m ore w ith f i f t y t o a h u n d re d yams and t h a t t h r e e o r f o u r s h i l l i n g s was e x p e c te d from a l l h e r ag e m a te s . The a c t u a l am ounts w e re , h o w ev er, c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s d u r in g my s t a y among th e Yakӧ , on a c c o u n t m a in ly o f t h e slump o f palm o i l p r i c e s , and my im­ p r e s s i o n was t h a t w om en's g i f t s t o th e b r i d e 's m o th e r w ere a t t h a t tim e s m a ll e r n o t l a r g e r th a n th o s e to th e f a t h e r . I was n o t a b le to o b ta i n a f u l l l i s t o f w edding g i f t s f o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e r i e s o f m a r r ia g e s , b u t a t th e w edding f e a s t s f o r th e d a u g h te r o f a man o f a b o u t 35 y e a r s o f ag e w ith a medium s i z e d farm w h ich o c c u rr e d d u r in g my l a t e r p e r io d o f f i e l d w ork th e f a t h e r r e c e iv e d a t o t a l o f £ 1 . 2 .0 i n c a s h from about f o r t y f r i e n d s and t h e m o th er a b o u t 1 8 / - fro m a b o u t t h i r t y f r i e n d s . The c l o s e s t f r i e n d o f t h e f a t h e r g av e 2 /6 and t w e n ty - f iv e yams w h ile th e m o t h e r 's c lo s e s t f r i e n d gave l / 6 and f i f t e e n yam s. The yams s e t a s i d e by th e c l o s e s t f r i e n d s o f th e f a t h e r and m o th er a r e cooked an d made i n t o f u f u f o r t h e f e a s t on k ōk ӧ . The c u s t o d ia n s o f th e g i f t s a l s o u s e p a r t o f t h e money r e c e i v e d t o buy m eat f o r th e f e a s t . I n th e c a s e r e f e r r e d to above th e f a t h e r ' s f r i e n d u s e d 7 / - t o buy th r e e l e g s o f smoked a n te l o p e (kem en) and t h r e e l e g s o f smoked b u sh p i g and o t h e r m eat an d te n c a la b a s h e s o f palm w in e . T h is m eat w as s h a r e d by th e f o r t y o r so men f r i e n d s who came to th e f e a s t . The o b l i g a t i o n t o r e c i p r o c a t e t h e s e w edding g i f t s , o r m ore e x a c t ly re s p o n d w ith a g i f t l a r g e r th a n one h a s r e c e i v e d i s v e r y s t r o n g l y m ain­ t a i n e d by th e Yakӧ . Men and women w i l l , i f th e y l a c k th e means them­ s e l v e s , b o rro w money a n d yams from t h e i r m a t r i k in i n o r d e r to make th e a p p r o p r i a t e g i f t s . On th e o t h e r h a n d i f o f two c lo s e f r i e n d s one h a s more d a u g h te r s th a n th e o t h e r th e f a t h e r o r m o th e r w ith many d a u g h te r s w i l l t e l l th e f r i e n d t h a t th e g i f t s h o u ld b e sm a ll s in c e t h e r e w i l l b e s e v e r a l w ed d in g f e a s t s i n t h e i r h o u s e h o ld . The f e a s t f o llo w in g th e o f f e r i n g o f g i f t s t o th e p a re n ts o f th e b r i d e c o n c lu d e s t h e w edding c e re m o n ie s and th e seq u e n c e a n d d u r a t i o n o f th e m a r r ia g e f e a s t s from th e d a y o f kūk p o t a r e t h u s : Kokö

Kokö

A iy o -k o k ö

Kokö

Kūk p o t F i r s t f e a s t to ag e m a te s o f b r i d e and h e r p a re n ts . F e a s t t o age m a te s and p a t r i c l an frie n d s of b rid e g ro o m .

F u fu cooked f o r b r i d e 's p a r e n t s ' age m a te s F u fu cooked f o r g ro o m 's age m ates by b r i d e ' s age m ates

Kokö

G i f t s to p a r e n t s o f b r i d e by ag e m a te s , kinsm en and o t h e r f r i e n d s

Kokö F in a l m a r ria g e fe a s t fo r a ll frie n d s of b rid e ' s p a re n ts .

31 The palm l e a f s c r e e n b e f o r e t h e b r i d e 's bed i s l e f t i n p o s i t i o n u n t i l i t h a s w ith e r e d and i s th e n ta k e n down by th e b r i d e 's a g e m a te s a n d th ro w n away i n th e bu sh n e a r th e v i l l a g e . M a rria g e H ite s f o r a P re g n a n t B r id e . I f , a s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n men­ ti o n e d , a g i r l becomes p r e g n a n t b e f o r e th e h a r v e s t a t w h ic h i t was i n ­ te n d e d t o c a r r y o u t th e c l i t o r i d e c t o m y r i t e t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s an d c h a r ­ a c t e r o f t h e s e c e re m o n ie s a r e m o d if ie d , u n l e s s , a s i s so m e tim e sa tte m p te d , th e g i r l w ith o r w ith o u t th e c o n n iv a n c e o f h e r m o th e r i s a b le t o c o n c e a l h e r p re g n a n c y u n t i l h a r v e s t tim e . The c li to r id e c t o m y r i t e , w h ich i s th e n known a s l i k p ök ō t i s h e ld i n t h e s i x t h moon o f p re g n a n c y a t a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e i n th e bush s e t a s i d e f o r t h i s p u rp o s e o f w h ic h a t Umor t h e r e i s one f o r e v e ry w ard. B e fo re l i k p ök ō t a p r e g n a n t b r i d e i s ta k e n by h e r m o th e r a n d h e r mot­ h e r 's b r o t h e r o r o th e r c lo s e m a trik in s m a n t o th e f e r t i l i t y s h r in e o f th e ir m a t r i c l a n . They b r i n g an o f f e r i n g an d t h e p r i e s t p r a y s f o r h e r h e a l t h d u r in g p re g n a n c y an d s u c c e s s f u l c h i l d b i r t h . T h is i s d i s t i n c t fro m th e r i t e b e f o r e kekpopam i n w hich a l l th e m a t r i c la n s h r i n e s a r e v i s i t e d , and i s a s e p a r a te r i t e o f a p p e a l f o r s a f e d e l i v e r y w h ic h w ould o th e r w is e b e p erfo rm ed , a f t e r th e m a r ria g e when th e b r i d e e v e n t u a l l y becam e p r e g n a n t. The p r e l im in a r y r i t e o f p i l i n g t h e m a r ria g e fire w o o d i s a l s o o m i tt e d , w h ile th e w edding f e a s t s a r e c u r t a i l e d . The l i k p ökō t r i t e i t s e l f m u st b e p e rfo rm e d on a n ōp o n g öb i - b l ök ö n o t a kokö d a y . The f a t h e r and m o th e r o f th e b r i d e g iv e a f e a s t on t h a t day to t h e i r ag e m ates and o t h e r c lo s e f r i e n d s and to th o s e o f t h e b r i d e , b u t th e f r i e n d s o f th e b r i d e and h e r p a r e n t s do n o t s t a y on i n t h e compound. The g ro o m 's age m a te s s h o u ld b r i n g th e k e b ō k a l i g i f t and th e m a r ria g e paym ent a f t e r th e p a r t y r e t u r n fro m th e c l i to r id e c t o m y r i t e , b u t no palm fro n d s c r e e n i s s e t up by t h e g ro o m 's f r i e n d s ro u n d t h e b r i d e ' s b e d , n o r do th e b r i d e 's f r i e n d s d a i l y v i s i t th e groom and h i s f r i e n d s to ta k e f u ­ f u , th e y m erely r e c i p r o c a t e t h e k e b ō k a l i g i f t on th e day o f t h e r i t e . The f r i e n d s o f th e p a r e n t s w i l l come t o t h e i r compound to g re e t them b r i n g ­ in g w ine to d r in k on t h e d a y s f o llo w in g and one by one w i l l o f f e r th e i r m a r ria g e g i f t s . B e fo re two k o k ö d a y s h av e p a s s e d th e seco n d f e a s t is p ro ­ v id e d w ith p a r t of th e g i f t s r e c e i v e d . B ut n e i t h e r th e g i f t s n o r th e f e a s t a r e on so c o n s id e r a b le a s c a l e a s f o r a kekpopam m a r r ia g e . U n le s s th e f a t h e r h a s h im s e lf p r e v i o u s ly g iv e n a p a r t i c u l a r f r i e n d a g i f t f o r a kekpopam m a rria g e and h a s h im s e l f no o th e r d a u g h te r who may b e e x p e c te d t o have a kekpopam w edding i n th e f u t u r e th e f r i e n d i s e x p e c te d t o g iv e o n ly h a l f o f w hat h e w ould h ad i t b e e n a kekpopam an d n o t a l i k o p ök ōt wed­ d in g .

32

CHAPTER V ANALYSIS OF MARRIAGE RITES

The f u l l s e r i e s o f r i t u a l s , f e a s t s an d g i f t s w h ic h lis h m e n t o f m a r i t a l s t a t u s may he sum m arised a s f o l l o w s :

m ark

th e e s t a b ­

FIRST HARVEST AFTER BETROTHAL. P ro p o s a l o f c l i t o r i d e c t o m y t o he h e ld a t n e x t h a r v e s t by m o th e r 's ag e m a te s .

NEXT CULTIVATING TIME. F a th e r 's f e a s t given to h is age mates (koboma) announcing th e forthcom ing c lito rid e c to m y . M o th e r's f e a s t g iv e n li k e w i s e to h e r ag e m a te s. SECOND HARVEST TIME M a rria g e F irew o o d c o l l e c t e d . The b r i d e and h e r ag e m a te s a id e d by th e groom and h i s age m ates c o l l e c t yam p o le s f o r fire w o o d i n fa rm s o f h e r p a r e n t s and t h e i r f r i e n d s . F irew ood s t a c k e d , on a k o k ö by groom , h i s a g e s e t an d p a t r i c l an f r i e n d s , on a fram e i n th e b r i d e 's compound. The b r i d e th e n se n d s a g i f t o f cooked yams a n d g ro u n d n u ts to th e groom and f r i e n d s f o r a f e a s t i n h i s compound. V i s i t to b r i d e 's p a r e n t s ' yam s t a c k ; t o o b ta i n a b o u t t e n s t i c k s o f yams f o r th e m a rria g e f e a s t s t o f o llo w kekpopam , th e c li to r id e c t o m y r i t e . The yams a r e d is p la y e d i n th e p a r e n t s ' h o u s e s . AIYO-KOKÖ. R i t e s a t th e m a t r i c la n s h r i n e s ( a s e ) - p a r e n t s ' a g e m ates ta k e t h e b r i d e t o a l l a s e i n t u r n . M eat i s o f f e r e d , w a te r i s p o u re d on b r i d e ' s h a n d s and h e r h e a l t h i s so u g h t from e a c h s p i r i t b y i t s p r i e s t . B rid e ann o u n ces h e r c l i t o r i d e c t o m y and o f f e r i n g m eat.

v is itin g a ll her

a c q u a in ta n c e s

NEXT KOKÖ. The m a r ria g e money was fo r m e rly h an d ed w ith y i t i t a n g p a g i f t by g ro o m 's f r i e n d s t o b r i d e 's f r i e n d s f o r h e r f a t h e r . NEXT ŌPONGŌB I. The ōnanam ana i s r e q u e s te d to o p e r a t e by t h e f a t h e r ' s f r i e n d s on th e n e x t a iy o - k o k ö . NEXT AIYO-KOKӦ. C lito r id e c to m y p e rfo rm e d . Kebō k a l i ( c r y in g s to p p e d ) . B rid e on r e t u r n i n g fro m t h e c l i t o r i d e c t o ­ my r i t e i s v i s i t e d i n h e r h o u se by some o f g ro o m 's a g e m a te s who e re c t s c r e e n o f young palm f r o n d s ro u n d th e b ed i n w h ich she re m a in s s e c lu d e d .

33 They r e p o r t c o m p le tio n o f kekpopam t o th e groom who s e n d s them w ith th e k eb ō k a l i g i f t to th e br i d e . T h is s h o u ld now h e acco m p an ied o r immed­ i a t e l y fo llo w e d by t h e m a r ria g e p ay m en t. B r i d e 's f r i e n d s demand m a r r ia g e money ( i f n e c e s s a r y ) an d when b ro u g h t th e y hand i t t o th e f a t h e r who m akes them a g i f t .

it

is

Groom g iv e s a f e a s t t o h i s age s e t and p a t r i c l a n f e l l o w s i n h i s com­ pound a l l o f whom g iv e w in e and p a t r i c l an f e l lo w s yams o r a few p e n c e . B r id e se n d s a g i f t t o th e groom o f m eat a n d one s h i l l i n g . G room 's ag e m a te s r e c e i v e 40 yams and m eat o r f i s h fro m g r o o m 's f a t h e r and ta k e s t h e s e to b r i d e 's compound f o r h e r a g e m a te s t o u s e d a i l y i n p r e ­ p a r i n g fo o d f o r them u n t i l th e k ōk ö se v e n d a y s l a t e r . F e a s t s f o r ag e m ates o f b r i d e an d h e r p a r e n t s from yams and smoked meat p ro v id e d by p a r e n t s and cooked by m o t h e r 's and b r i d e ' s m a te s , e a c h g ro u p s i t t i n g s e p a r a t e l y and b r i n g in g t h e i r own w in e . B r i d e 's a g e m a te s p r e p a r e t h e i r own fo o d from yams s u p p l ie d by f a t h e r . A ll t h r e e g ro u p s o f age m a te s spend th e n i g h t i n th e compound, e a c h g ro u p i n a s e p a r a te h o u s e .H e r f a t h e r g iv e s th e b r i d e smoked m eat an d a s h i l l i n g , th e fo rm e r t o b e o f f e r e d to th e r e l a t i v e s a n d a c q u a in ta n c e s who w i l l v i s i t h e r . The groom v i s i t s th e b r i d e i n th e e v e n in g and p a s s e s t h e n i g h t h e r b e h in d t h e fro n d s c r e e n .

w ith

UNTIL THE THIRD KOKӦ AFTER CLITOSIDECTOMY. The b r i d e 's f r i e n d s cook f u f u and stew b e f o r e dawn th e n e x t m o rn in g (k o k ö ) and t a k e i t to th e groom and f r i e n d s . T h is c o n tin u e s d a i l y u n t i l th e n e x t k o k ö i . e . f o r s e v e n morn­ in g s i n a l l . P a r e n t s ' age m ates b r i n g i n w in e i n th e m o rn in g and e v e n in g t o th e b r i d e 's compound and s t a y to j o i n i n d r i n k in g a n d s l e e p i n th e compound. M o th e r 's ag e m a te s cook f u f u and s t ew b e f o r e dawn an d t a k e it to f a t h e r and h i s f r i e n d s . T h is c o n tin u e s d a i l y u n t i l t h e t h i r d k o k ö i . e . f o r t h i r t e e n m o rn in g s i n a l l . The br i d e ' s k i n s f o l k and a c q u a in ta n c e s v i s i t h e r t o b r i n g sm a ll g i f t s o f money an d r e c e i v e a to k e n s l i c e o f m eat from h e r and w in e fro m th e p a r ­ e n ts . FROM THE THIRD TO THE FOURTH KOKӦ. P a r e n t s ' f r i e n d s and k i n s f o l k r e l a t i v e s b r i n g them m a r r ia g e g i f t s , con­ s i s t i n g o f yams and money v a r y in g i n amount a c c o r d in g to c lo s e n e s s o f f r ie n d -

34 s h i p and. th e o b l i g a t i o n to e x c e e d g i f t s p r e v i o u s ly r e c e i v e d fro m th e p a r e n t s a t m a r r ia g e s o f t h e i r own d a u g h te r s . Some tw e n ty t o f i f t y f r i e n d s and r e ­ l a t i v e s w i l l b rin g g i f t s . FIFTH KOKÖ AFTER KŪKPOT. F a t h e r 's and m o t h e r 's l a s t f e a s t s t o t h e i r f r i e n d s u s i n g some o f t h e yams an d money r e c e i v e d a s g i f t s . The fo o d i s p r e p a r e d by th e mother's frie n d s . S e v e r a l o f th e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f e le m e n ts i n t h i s se q u e n c e in c l u d i n g th e t r a n s f e r o f m a rria g e money w i l l be c o n s id e re d l a t e r i n d e t a i l . I t i s in th e m eantim e n e c e s s a r y t o a p p r e c i a t e th e gen eral c h a r a c t e r o f th e s o c i a l r e l a ­ t i o n s t h a t th e y e x p r e s s . The m ost re m a rk a b le f e a t u r e o f th e Yakӧ m a r ria g e c e re m o n ia l i s th e e m p h a sis on th e r e l a t i o n s o f th e c h i e f p a r t i c i p a n t s to th e ir a g e m a te s and th e la c k o f e m p h a sis on t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o e i t h e r kinship groups o r p a r t i c u l a r c i r c l e s o f k in sm e n . The a c t i v i t i e s c e n t r e on th e b r i d e , h e r f a t h e r , h e r m o th e r and th e b rid e g ro o m . A t p r a c t i c a l l y e v e ry s ta g e t h e i n ­ i t i a t i v e i s ta k e n by a n a g e m ate o f one o f t h e s e p a r t i e s to th e m a r r ia g e , w h ile th e o th e r p a r t i c i p a n t s o r s u p p o r te r s c o n s i s t o f o t h e r f r i e n d s m o s tly o f t h e age s e t o f th e p a r t y c o n c e rn e d o f w h ich t h e s m a ll g ro u p o f ag e m a te s ( t h e koboma o r l e t e k ö ) i s a t l e a s t th e n u c le u s . T h is em p h asis a p p l i e s more p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e b r i d e an d h e r p a r e n t s . W hile a g e m ates a r e a g a in p ro m in e n t i n a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r­ ta k e n by o r on b e h a l f o f t h e b rid e g ro o m , members o f h i s p a t r i c l an o f a l l a g e s a r e e x p e c te d to ta k e p a r t i n th e fire w o o d p i l i n g r i t e and a l s o i n th e f e a s t g iv e n by th e groom i n h i s compound on th e day o f k ūk p o t. T h e re may, and g e n e r a l l y w i l l b e , among th e age m ates o f th e groom an d among th o s e o f th e b r i d e ' s f a t h e r , s e v e r a l members o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a t r i l i n e a g e s and c l a n s b u t i t i s a s ag e m a te s and n o t a s kinsm en t h a t th e y a s s o c i a t e w ith th e f a ­ t h e r o r th e groom on th e s e o c c a s i o n s , and t h i s i s a l s o t r u e f o r th e age m a te s o f th e b r i d e and h e r m o th e r. N e ith e r th e m a t r i l i n e a l n o r th e p a t r i l i n e a l k i n o f th e b r i d e o r o f th e groom a r e a s s o c i a l g ro u p s c o n c e rn e d i n th e m a r ria g e r i t u a l s . The p a tr ic l a n s o f th e b r i d e and groom h av e an i n t e r e s t i n m a i n ta i n in g th e exogam ic ru le which w ould b e s u s ta in e d by th e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f th e c l a n h e a d (O bot Kepūn ) and eld­ e r s i f an i n f r a c t i o n t h r e a t e n e d , b u t th e y g iv e no c e re m o n ia l g ro u p a p p ro v a l o f th e m a r ria g e . The m a t r i c l a n s o f th e b r i d e an d th e groom, have no c o r p o r ­ a t e r e l a t i o n w h a te v e r to t h e m a r ria g e c e re m o n ie s w h ile th e mat r i l i n e a g e o f t h e b r i d e a lth o u g h i t h a s , a s w i l l b e s e e n , an i n t e r e s t i n th e m a in te n a n c e o f th e m a rria g e once e s t a b l i s h e d n e v e r t h e l e s s ta k e s no p a r t i n i t s cerem on­ i a l r e c o g n i t i o n . I t i s o n ly a f t e r th e c e re m o n ie s h a v e ended t h a t th e m ot­ h e r ' s b r o t h e r o f t h e b r i d e a p p ro a c h e s h e r f a t h e r t o c la im a p o r t i o n o f th e m a r r ia g e money. I t i s f u r t h e r t o be n o te d t h a t th e r i t u a l a c t s a r e a l l c o n n e c te d

d i-

35 r e c t l y w ith t h e c h a n g in g s t a t u s o f th e b r i d e and n o t w ith t h a t o f th e groom . No r i t u a l a c t s , c o r r e s p o n d in g t o t h e fire w o o d p i l i n g , t h e v i­ s i t s t o th e a s e s h r i n e s , th e b r i d e 's announcem ent o f c li to r o d e c to n y and th e c li to r o d e c to m y r i t e i t s e l f , a r e c a r r i e d o u t to m ark th e ch an g e o f s t a t u s o f th e groom. T h is a p p l i e s , m o re o v e r, n o t m e re ly to th e r i t e s d u rin g t h i s s h o r t p e r i o d i n w h ich th e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n i s e s ta b lis h e d and c e l e b r a t e d . T h ere i s a s u b s e q u e n t s e r i e s o f r i t u a l a c t s to b e co n ­ s i d e r e d l a t e r w hich a g a in mark th e ch an g ed s t a t u s o f th e b r i d e , b u t n o t t h a t o f t h e h u sb a n d . T hese in c l u d e a p e r i o d o f s e c l u s i o n o f t h e b r i d e , d u rin g w hich she i s d i s t i n c t i v e l y co stu m e d , a t t h e end o f w h ich sh e makes a c e re m o n ia l c i r c u i t o f c e r t a i n s a c r e d s i t e s i n t h e v i l l a g e , and a ls o r i t u a l s t o p ro m o te f e r t i l i t y an d s a f e d e l i v e r y o f h e r c h i l d . Yakö m a r ria g e r i t u a l i s th u s p r i m a r i l y a n e x p r e s s io n o f th e p a ssa g e o f a n u b i l e g i r l t o th e s t a t u s o f w if e a n d p r o s p e c t i v e m o th e r, and i t i s fo llo w e d by r i t u a l s to p ro m o te f e r t i l i t y an d a v e r t t h e d a n g e rs o f c h i l d b i r t h . B ut w ith t h i s r i t u a l e x p r e s s io n o f th e m a r i t a l s t a t u s of th e b r i d e a r e com bined s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r . One i s th e t r a n s f e r o f m a rria g e money w h ich e s t a b l i s h e s t h e c o n t r a c t u a l o b l i g ­ a t i o n s o f th e b r i d e to th e groom and w i l l b e a n a ly s e d i n a l a t e r sec­ t i o n . The o t h e r i s th e c e l e b r a t i o n by th e s e v e r a l p a r t i e s to th e m ar­ r i a g e w ith t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e age m a te s , k i n s f o l k an d o t h e r f r i e n d s o f th e p e rfo rm a n c e o f th e s e r i t u a l and c o n t r a c t u a l a c t s . T hese c e l e b r a t i o n s a r e n o t j o i n t b u t s e v e r a l , and th e y d i f f e r i n c h a r a c t e r an d d u r a t io n . E ach p a r t y to th e m a r r ia g e g iv e s f e a s t s to h i s o r h e r own ag e m ates w h ile th e b r i d e 's a g e m a te s p r e p a r e a s e r ie s o f m eals f o r t h e g ro o m 's age m a te s w h ich s y m b o lis e s h e r new o b lig a tio n s . The c e l e b r a t i o n s o f th e b r i d e 's p a r e n t s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by c o n s i d e r a ­ b l e g i f t s to each p a r e n t fro m h i s o r h e r a g e m a te s . The g i f t s a t any p a r t i c u l a r m a rria g e a r e b u t one s e t i n a s e r i e s w h ich th e members o f th is gro u p o f age m ates make t o one a n o th e r i n t u r n a s t h e i r d a u g h te r s m a rry f o r th e f i r s t tim e . They h a v e i n th e p a s t b e e n on an a s c e n d in g s c a l e , each s u c c e s s iv e g i f t b e in g by cu sto m g r e a t e r th a n t h a t w h ic h i t r e c ip ro ­ c a t e s . T h is f e a t u r e o f Yakӧ w ed d in g g i f t s , v a g u e ly r e m in i s c e n t a s i t i s o f c o m p e titiv e g i f t exchange i n o th e r s o c i e t i e s a n d n o ta b l y am ongthe p e o p le s o f th e N o rth W est C o a st o f A m erica, h a s n o t i n f a c t a m a rk e d ly c o m p e titiv e c h a r a c t e r and t h e r e i s no s u g g e s tio n o f h u m i l i a t i n g th e r e ­ c i p i e n t o f th e g i f t s . I t i s p ro b a b le t h a t i t s d e v e lo p m e n t h a s b e e n co n ­ n e c te d w ith an i n c r e a s i n g ab u n d an ce o f c u r r e n c y f i r s t i n r o d s and l a t e r i n c o in a g e d u r in g th e r e c e n t p a s t . On th e o t h e r h an d th e r e d u c t io n o f c u rr e n c y i n c i r c u l a t i o n d u r in g th e l a s t d e c a d e h a v e i n f a c t b ro u g h t i t to an end and w edding g i f t s o f p a r e n t s age m a te s h a v e b e e n f a l l i n g n o t r i s i n g i n am ount.

36 CHAPTER VI SECLUSION OE THE BRIDE A f te r a kekpopam r i t u a l th e b r i d e g o e s i n t o s e o l u s i o n in h e r m other's h o u se u n t i l th e n e x t h a r v e s t tim e o r , i f s h e becom es p r e g n a n t before th e n , u n t i l t h e f o u r t h o r f i f t h moon o f p re g n a n c y . A b r i d e who i s so s e c lu d e d i s known a s ök p ö lö k p ö la ( p l . y a k p ö lӧk p ö l a ) . The s e c l u s i o n i s fa irly s t r i c t ; th e b r i d e i s e x p e c te d t o spend th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e d ay in one o f th e s m a ll c u b ic l e s ( e k p o to , p l . n g p o to ) o th e r w is e u s e d f o r s t o r in g food s u p p l i e s , w hich a r e b u i l t on one o r b o th s i d e s o f a Yakӧ w om an's h o u s e . She may n o t go t o fa rm , w a lk lo n g d i s t a n c e s o r j o i n d a n c in g and o th e r p a r t i e s o f h e r ag e m a te s . She may n o t go t o th e v i l l a g e b a th i n g p l a c e s b u t m ust w ash i n th e h o u s e . She d o es no h a r d p h y s i c a l w ork b u t c a n and d o e s cook fo o d f o r h e r s e l f and th e h o u s e h o ld . H er a g e m a te s and o t h e r f r i e n d s spend tim e w ith h e r g o s s ip in g and p la y i n g w a r r i and sh e may i n p r a c t i c e v i s i t a n e a rb y a g e m ate o r o t h e r f r i e n d who i s a l s o s e c lu d e d . V i s i t s to t h e l a t r i n e on th e edge o f th e v i l l a g e a r e th e o n ly a c c e p ta b le r e a s o n s f o r l e a v i n g th e compound i n w hich h e r m o t h e r 's h o u se i s b u ilt, b u t one h e a r s s t o r i e s o f s e c lu d e d g i r l s who manage to r e c e i v e o th e r lo v ­ e r s s e c r e t l y a t th e h o u se s o f t h e i r f r i e n d s an d t h i s i s s a i d t o b e th e b r i d e 's r e t a l i a t i o n i f she t h i n k s h e r h u sb an d i s n e g l e c t i n g h e r . A s e c lu d e d b r i d e i s e x p e c te d to e a t p l e n t i f u l l y and sh o u ld b e g iv e n more m eat th a n i s o r d i n a r i l y a v a i l a b l e i n a Yakӧ d i e t . U nder t h e s e con­ d i t i o n s o f i n a c t i o n and good f e e d in g a b r i d e u s u a l l y becom es n o t i c e a b l y p lu m p e r a f t e r a few w eeks an d th e E n g lis h p h r a s e u s e d w id e ly i n S o u th e rn N ig e r i a f o r su c h s e c l u s io n , 'g o in g i n t o th e f a t t i n g h o u s e ', may b e a p p li e d q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e l y to th e Yakӧ b r i d e . The h u sb a n d sh o u ld v i s i t h e r r e ­ g u l a r l y and spend m ost n i g h t s w ith h e r . I f h e h a s no o t h e r w ife an d d o es n o t do t h i s h e w i l l b e s u s p e c te d o f o th e r i n t e r e s t s , e s p e c i a l l y i f th e m a r ria g e money h a s n o t b e e n han d ed o v e r. E a r ly p re g n a n c y i s hoped fo r and i t i s e x p l i c i t l y b e li e v e d t h a t th e e a s e and good l i v i n g o f th i s p e rio d o f s e c l u s io n w i l l h e lp t o p ro m o te i t . D u rin g t h i s p e r io d o f s e c l u s io n th e b r i d e w e a rs a d i s t i n c t i v e c o s ­ tum e. H er h a i r i s a llo w e d to grow and i s d r e s s e d i n a s e r i e s o f s p ik e s a l l o v e r h e r h e a d . Camwood p a s t e w hich d r i e s t o a t h i c k r e d pow der cov­ e r s h e r body and i s ren ew ed e v e ry few d a y s . She w e a rs a d i s t i n c t i v e g i r ­ d l e known a s k e d j a l a , a n i n e l a s t i c r i n g a b o u t two in c h e s t h i c k made of p an d an u s r o o t f i b r e bound w ith r a p h i a w hich i s a l s o sm eared w ith re d camwood p a s t e , and sh e c a r r i e s o r k e e p s by h e r s i d e a knobbed s t i c k s t u d ­ ded w ith b r a s s n a i l s a rr a n g e d i n g e o m e tric p a t t e r n s ( s e e F r o n t i s p i e c e ) . I f a g i r l i s a lr e a d y p r e g n a n t a t th e tim e o f t h e c lito r id e c t o n r y and w edding c e re m o n ie s sh e g o e s i n t o s e c l u s io n o n ly u n t i l th e wound is h e a le d w h ich i s u s u a l l y n o t l a t e r th a n th e t h i r d k o k ö a f t e r th e w e d d in g . D u rin g

37 t h i s p e r i o d sh e p a i n t s h e r s e l f w ith camwood b u t d o e s n o t a d o p t t h e f u l l costum e o f ök p öl ökp öl a w e a rin g th e g i r d l e o f lo o s e r a p h i a f i b r e u s e d a t th e c li to r id e c t o m y f o r t h i s p e r i o d . From th e tim e o f t h e m a r ria g e c e re m o n ie s , i f t h e m a r ria g e money o r t h e l a r g e r p a r t o f i t h a s b e e n d u ly han d ed o v e r , t h e h u sb a n d i s r e g u l a r ­ l y g iv e n m eals by h i s w if e i n h e r m o t h e r 's h o u se a lth o u g h h e w orks and p a s s e s m ost o f h is tim e i n h i s own compound. A c tu a ll y th e m o th e r o f t h e w ife p r o v id e s th e m a t e r i a l s and may o f t e n cook t h e f o o d . On m ost d a y s th e husb an d comes to h i s w i f e 's m o th e r 's h o u se f o r an e v e n in g m eal and t h i s i s a r e c o g n is e d r i g h t w h ile on e a c h k o k ö o r ōp o n g ōb i d ay fo o d i s s e n t f o r him i n th e m o rn in g fro m th e w i f e 's h o u se t o h i s own compound. I t i s c a r r i e d by any y oung g i r l a v a i l a b l e , n o t by th e w ife h e r s e l f e v e n i f she i s n o t s e c lu d e d . The h u sb an d g e t s h i s o t h e r fo o d i n h i s p a r e n t s ' h o u se h o ld . T h is p r a c t i c e l i k e th e w edding c e re m o n ie s so f a r d e s c r ib e d applies o n ly whan th e w if e i s m a rry in g f o r th e f i r s t tim e . C i r c u i t o f th e Akō t a . In Umor when th e p e r i o d o f s e c l u s i o n en d s th e b r id e h a s , b e f o r e g o in g f r e e l y a b o u t th e v i l l a g e , t o make a r i t u a l c i r ­ c u i t , v i s i t i n g a num ber o f s a c r e d s i t e s known a s a k ō t a ( s i n g . l i k ōt a ) . T here a r e tw e lv e o f th e s e s i t e s , e a c h an in c o n s p ic u o u s h eap o f s to n e sla b s, d i s t r i b u t e d somewhat u n e q u a lly among th e f o u r w a rd s. The b r i d e i s accom panied by h e r m o th e r o r a n o th e r s e n i o r mat r i l i n e a l kinswom an who car­ r i e s a p o t o f w a te r . On r e a c h in g e a c h s i t e sh e p l a c e s one f o o t on th e s to n e s w h ile the. o l d e r woman s p r i n k l e s w a te r fro m th e p o t on t o th e s to n e s . No th in g i s s a i d and th e p a i r move on a t once t o th e n e x t s i t e . The a k ōt a a r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w ith e i t h e r m a r ria g e o r c h i l d ­ b i r t h . They a r e v i s i t e d by a l l p r i e s t s o f t h e m a t r i l i n e a l c la n s on i n ­ s t a l l a t i o n and a l s o by members o f th e p re m ie r m e n 's s o c i e ty ,I k p u n g k a r a , i n b o th o a s e s a f t e r a p e r i o d o f s e c l u s io n an d when th e o t h e r r i t e s o f a d m issio n hav e b e e n c o m p le te d . The v i s i t s t o th e a k ō t a d u r in g a c i r c u i t o f th e v i l l a g e th u s a p p e a r a s a r i t u a l e n d in g o f s e c l u s i o n and a n i n d i c ­ a t i o n o f t h e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a new s t a t u s , t h a t o f a m a r rie d woman i n w hich n o rm al a c t i v i t i e s o f d a i l y l i f e a r e now t o b e ta k e n u p . I f p re g n an c y d o e s n o t o c c u r d u r in g th e y e a r lo n g p e r i o d o f s e c l u s i o n fo llo w in g a kakpopam m a r ria g e th e p re g n a n c y r i t e s t o b e c o n s id e re d l a t e r w i l l f o llo w an d n o t p re c e d e th e c i r c u i t o f th e a k ō t a b u t o th e r w is e t h i s c i r c u i t c o n c lu d e s th e s e r i e s o f r i t e s f o llo w in g t h e f i r s t m a rria g e o f a Yakӧ g i r l . She may, an d n o rm a lly w i l l , c o n tin u e t o l i v e i n h e r m other's ho u se f o r some tim e a f t e r h e r f i r s t c h i l d i s b o r n , i n f a c t u n t i l h e r husband h a s b u i l t h e r a w om an's h o u se i n h i s kepū n a r e a , b u t h e r s o c i a l s t a t u s i s t h a t o f a m a r rie d woman and she now w e a rs a w a i s t c l o t h , an d n o t th e narrow f i b r e g i r d l e o f a young g i r l o r a b r i d e . M a r ita l s t a t u s o f women w as a l s o m arked u n t i l r e c e n t l y by c h ip p in g and b la c k e n in g th e i n c i s o r t e e t h . T h is m u t i l a t i o n sh o u ld p r o p e r ly be

38 c a rr ie d , o u t to w a rd s th e end o f t h e s e c l u s i o n p e r i o d by Omengka a member o f th e p r i e s t s ' c o u n c il (Y ab o t) who p e rfo rm s t h i s o p e r a t i o n f o r women on m a r ria g e and a l s o f o r t h e p r i e s t s th e m s e lv e s on i n s t a l l a t i o n . From t h e f a t h e r o f a l l b r i d e s Omengkais e n t i t l e d to a paym ent o f two s h i l l i n g s f o r o p e r a t i n g , b u t t h e r e h a s i n p r a c t i c e b e e n much e v a s io n and th e o p e r a t io n h a s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t w ith o u t f e e o r f o r a s m a lle r sum by women o f no s ta tu s . I f i l l i c i t t o o t h c h ip p in g came t o h i s n o t i c e Omengka c o u ld d e­ mand a paym ent from t h e p a r e n t s b u t i n p r a c t i c e t h i s was r a r e l y done i n r e c e n t y e a r s in Umor, p a r t l y , no d o u b t, b e c a u s e th e comm unity w as so la r g e and m a r r ia g e s so f r e q u e n t t h a t one o p e r a t o r c o u ld b a r e l y h av e met th e de­ mand, w h ile th e n o ti o n t h a t th e Omengka sh o u ld become a f u l l tim e s p e c i a ­ l i s t d e p e n d in g e n t i r e l y on th e p ro c e e d s o f t h i s o p e r a t io n was q u ite fo re ig n to th e Yakӧ . C hip p ed t e e t h , a lth o u g h t h e o p e r a t io n i t s e l f i s c a r r i e d o u t w ith o u t accom panying cerem ony, i s a r i t u a l m ark o f th e s t a t u s o f a m a r rie d woman n o t a v a r i e t y o f b e a u ty s p e c i a li s m . A f te r c h ip p in g , w o m e n ,lik e t h e p r i e s t s o f m a t r i l i n e a l c l a n s , h a b i t u a l l y u s e le n g t h s o f a d r i e d r o o t ( e t ū n) a s chew s t i c k s w h ich b la c k e n t h e i r t e e t h . B ut d u r in g th e p a s t te n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s t h e r e h a s b een a r e v o l t a ­ g a i n s t t o o t h c h ip p in g on th e p a r t o f b o th young women an d t h e i r h u sb a n d s . T h is h a s b e e n s t im u la t e d by more f r e q u e n t c o n ta c ts w ith o t h e r p e o p le s who do n o t p r a c t i c e t h i s m u t i l a t i o n and by th e i n d i r e c t i n f i l t r a t i o n o f E u ro ­ pean s t a n d a r d s th ro u g h young m e n 's v i s i t s to C a la b a r and o t h e r b i g t r a d ­ in g c e n t r e s . Thus w h ile a lm o st a l l women o f ag e s e t s XIV and o l d e r in Umor have c h ip p e d t e e t h i t i s e x c e p tio n a l to f i n d a young m a r rie d women o f s e t s XVII and X V III who h a s . T h ro u g h o u t th e f o r e g o in g a c c o u n t o f m a r ria g e c e re m o n ia ls we have b e e n c o n c e rn e d w ith th e f i r s t m a r ria g e o f a young g i r l , o r more p r e c i s e l y w ith th e p a s s a g e o f a fe m a le from th e s t a t u s o f g i r l (mōn a ) t o t h a t o f m a r rie d woman ( y a n e n ) . M a r i t a l s t a t u s i s i n th e c e re m o n ia l s e n s e i r r e v o c a b l e . A woman may b e widowed o r d iv o r c e d b u t sh e d o e s n o t r e v e r t t o th e s t a t u s o f a g i r l and an y su b s e q u e n t m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n i n t o w hich sh e may e n t e r i n t o d oes n o t in v o lv e r e p e t i t i o n o f th e s e r i t e s . T h ere i s no b e t r o t h a l o b l i g ­ a t i o n t o th e p a r e n t s o f a widow o r d iv o r c e e and no fire w o o d r i t e , w edd in g f e a s t o r s e c l u s i o n ta k e s p l a c e . F o r a widow o r d iv o r c e e m a r i t a l s t a t u s i s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d sim p ly by th e a ss u m p tio n o f r e s id e n c e w ith th e new sp o u se and th e a d ju s tm e n t o f th e p o s i t i o n w ith r e g a r d t o m a r ria g e p ay m en t.

39 CHAPTER V II RITES DURING THE FIRST PREGNANCY When a b r i d e becom es p r e g n a n t , o r , i f li k p ö k ōt w as p e rf o rm e d ,s o o n a f ­ t e r th e c lito r o d e c to m y wound i s h e a le d , f u r t h e r r i t u a l s a r e p e rf o rm e d w ith th e avowed p u rp o s e o f e n s u r in g a s a f e an d s u c c e s s f u l b i r t h . P a t r i c l an r i t e o f " P u t t i n g th e N a v e l" . The f i r s t o f t h e s e known a s l e k ö k eg en (= n a v e l p u t t i n g ) , ta k e s p la c e a t th e s h r i n e (e p ū n d e t) o f th e b r i d e 's p a t r i c l a n t o w h ic h h e r f a t h e r ta k e s h e r an d i t i s p e rfo rm e d b y th e p r i e s t - h e a d (O bot Kepūn ) . The b r i d e ' s f a t h e r b r i n g s t h e s u p p l i e s n e e d e d fo r th e r i t e . T hese sh o u ld c o n s i s t o f two le g s o f smoked m eat ( a n t e l o p e and d u i k e r ) , a l i v e c h ic k e n , f o u r c a la b a s h e s o f w in e , two l a r g e b o w ls o f f u f u , f o u r s t i c k s o f c h a lk , a p o t o f w a te r fro m a p a r t i c u l a r s p r i n g i n th e v i l ­ la g e known a s Y ib ö , and some p alm o i l i n a c a la b a s h . A ll t h e s e a r e placed on th e g ro u n d i n f r o n t o f th e c la n s h r i n e w h ile th e h e a d , h i s a s s is ta n t and a few c la n e l d e r s s q u a t on th e s t o n e s . O th e r men o f t h e c l a n o f a l l ag e s s i t i n th e a d j a c e n t a sse m b ly h o u se t o w atc h th e r i t u a l and j o i n i n th e su b s e q u e n t f e a s t . The b r i d e w e a rs o n ly a b a rk c l o t h s t r i p h e ld b e­ tw een th e l e g s by a w a i s t s t r i n g b u t h e r c l o s e s t ag e s e t f r i e n d , th e o n ly o th e r woman t o t a k e p a r t , c a r r i e s a w a is t c l o t h w h ich t h e b r i d e p u t s on and w e a rs f o r th e f i r s t tim e a f t e r t h e r i t e . The Obot Kepū n t e l l s th e b rid e to l i e f l a t on h e r b a c k b e f o r e th e s h r i n e . He c u ts f o u r s m a ll p i e c e s o f th e b u sh n e a t and t a k i n g two o f them , one i n e a c h h a n d , d i p s them i n th e palm o i l , to u c h e s th e g i r l ' s jaw on e i t h e r s i d e an d f i n a l l y th ro w s them on th e s h r i n e . He r e p e a t s t h i s w ith th e o t h e r two p i e c e s o f m e a t.H is a s ­ s i s t a n t now g r a s p s th e c h ic k e n and h o ld s i t o v e r th e f r o n t s t o n e s o f t h e s h r in e w h ile th e p r i e s t b e h e a d s i t w ith a m a tc h e t. The b lo o d i s a llo w e d to d r i p on t o t h e s t o n e s an d some f e a t h e r s p lu c k e d fro m t h e body are d r opped on th e s p l a s h e s o f b lo o d . The c a r c a s e i s th e n p u t on one s i d e t o be cook­ ed and e a te n by th e p r i e s t an d e l d e r s and th e f a t h e r o f th e b r i d e l a t e r i n th e m orning a f t e r th e cerem ony. The p r i e s t now p o u rs a few d ro p s of w a te r from t h e j a r o f L ib ö s p r in g w a te r on to th e c h a lk m ix in g s t o n e of the s h r i n e and a n o th e r on th e b e l l y o f th e b r i d e . T h is i s done f o u r tim e s i n a ll and on th e l a s t o c c a s io n a l l t h e re m a in in g w a te r i s p o u re d o v e r th e b r id e 's bel­ l y . He now makes p a s t e o f c h a lk on t h e m ix in g s to n e w i t h one o f th e s t i c k s , p r e s s e s h i s h a n d s i n t h i s and th e n sm ears them d ia g o n a l ly a c r o s s th e c h e s t o f th e b r i d e . He o f f e r s h e r h i s h a n d s to h e lp h e r to r i s e , a n d t h e b r i d e e x te n d s h e r own h a n d s cupped t o g e t h e r f i r s t t o t h e p r i e s t h im s e l f a n d then t o th e c la n e l d e r s s e a t e d ro u n d t h e s h r i n e . Each i n t u r n b r e a t h e s on them, th e Yakӧ sym bol o f w e l f a r e , and th e p r i e s t th e n t e l l s h e r t o go t o herhom e i n p e a c e . No v e r b a l a p p e a l i s a d d r e s s e d to the, s h r i n e th r o u g h o u t t h e r i t e and once th e g i r l h a s d e p a r te d t h e a tm o sp h e re ch a n g e s t o t h a t o f c h e e r f u l f e a s t i n g . The w ine i s p o u re d i n t o p o t s and t h e fo o d i s e a t e n . T h is r i t e i s c l e a r l y in t e n d e d , and i s re g a r d e d by t h e Yakö a s in te n d -

40 i n g , to e n s u r e t h e b l e s s i n g o f th e p a t r i c l a n s p i r i t on th e b r i d e a s a c la n member a b o u t to b e a r h e r f i r s t c h i l d . I t i s to be o b s e r v e d , h o w e v e r, t h a t t h e c h i l d w i l l n o t b e a memb e r o f t h a t p a t r i c l an w h ile n o s i m i l a r r i t e i s p e rfo rm e d a t t h e s h r in e o f th e groom t o w hose p a t r i c l a n t h e c h i l d when b o rn w i l l , by t h e r u l e o f p a t r i l i n e a l a f f i l i a t i o n , b e lo n g . R i t e a t t h e F e r t i l i t y S h rin e o f t h e B r i d e 's M a t r ic l a n . A s im ila r b u t l e s s e l a b o r a t e r i t e i s p e rfo rm e d a t th e s h ri n e o f t h e m a tric la n o f th e b r i d e t o w h ich sh e i s ta k e n d u r in g h e r p re g n a n c y by h e r m o th e r an d h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r . They hand an o f f e r i n g , u s u a l l y a c h ic k e n , a yam and some w in e , t o t h e p r i e s t ( i n a ) o f t h e y o s e who w h ile b e h e a d in g th e c h ic k e n and p o u r in g w ine b e f o r e th e s h r in e p r a y s f o r a s a f e and s u c c e s s f u l d e l i v ­ e r y an d f i n a l l y , a s i n a l l y o se r i t u a l s , m ix es a c h a lk p astew h ich h e sm ears on th e b r i d e an d th o s e who accom pany h e r . I f th e b r i d e i s p r e g n a n t before m a r ria g e t h i s r i t e w i l l , a s h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d , and u n l i k e th e l e k ö k eg en r i t e , u s u a l l y b e p e rfo rm e d b e f o r e t h e m a r r ia g e r i t e . The K etūk p o l i Ri t e . The t h i r d r i t e , w h ich i s p e rfo rm e d a t th e sh rin e o f a s p i r i t known a s K etū kpöl i b e l i e v e d t o in f lu e n c e th e outcom e o f a f i r s t p re g n a n c y , f o l lo w s th e le k o k e g e n r i t e on t h e n e x t ō pongō b i . T h e re a r e two su c h s h r i n e s i n Umor, one i n Id jim a n an d t h e o t h e r i n U k pakapi w a rd , b u t t h e i r l o c a t i o n s h a v e no p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e and th e b r i d e may go to e i t h e r a t c h o ic e . Each i s i n c h a rg e o f a p r i e s t e s s known a s Ma K etū k ­ p o l i who m ust b e a member o f a p a r t i c u l a r m a t r i c l a n (Yabōn i f o r th e I d j i ­ man s h r i n e , and Yabung f o r th e U k p ak ap i s h r i n e ) i n w hose h o u se th e p a r a ­ p h e r n a lia a r e k e p t. The b r i d e ' s f a t h e r , o r h e r h u sb a n d i f h e w is h e s a n d knows th e p ro ­ c e d u r e , g o e s o u t i n th e e a r l y m o rn in g t o h i s p alm ta p p i n g g ro u n d and b rin g s b a c k a w ine c o l l e c t i n g c a la b a s h w ith a l i t t l e w ine i n i t and a bunch o f l e a v e s known a s l i t ū k p o liw a on a c c o u n t o f t h e i r u s e i n t h i s r i t e . F r o m th e fire w o o d s t a c k i n th e b r i d e 's compound h e ta k e s a p o le o f d e a d koweli. wood some se v e n f e e t lo n g and b in d s t o one end o f i t e i g h t s m a ll e r s t i c k s o f k o w e li. T h is h e g iv e s t o th e b r i d e to c a r r y on h e r h e a d t o t h e h o u se o f Ma K etūk p o l i w h ile h e , a s s i s t e d b y a s m a ll boy o r tw o , b r i n g s th e c o lle c t­ i n g c a la b a s h , a c a la b a s h f u l l c f w in e , th e b u n d le o f l e a v e s , a w a te r yam ( ōb u l ö ) , a bow l o f palm o i l and a bowl o f pounded b la c k d y e ( e b l öm i) ro o t. The b r i d e w e a rs a b a rk c l o t h s t r i p h e ld by a g i r d l e o f u n dyed r a p h i a f i b r e . Ma K etū p o l i p l a c e s on th e b r i d e 's l e f t a n k le and r i g h t arm two f i b r e rin g s w h ich sh e w e a rs th r o u g h o u t th e r i t e . She th e n p e e l s th e yam and s h r e d s p a r t o f i t on t o a few o f th e l e a v e s w h ile th e b r i d e ch o p s th e k o w e li wood w ith a m a tc h e t and ta k e s i t i n t o t h e h o u se t o be p u t on th e f i r e . The s h re d ­ d ed yam w rapped i n le a v e s i s p u t on to b o i l and Ma K etū k p o l i g o e s i n t o an i n n e r c u b i c l e c o n ta i n in g th e s h r i n e to in v o k e th e s p i r i t f o r a p a in le ss and s u c c e s s f u l c h i l d b i r t h . The w ords o f th e i n v o c a t io n a r e n o t h e a r d by th e b r i d e o r h e r f a t h e r . A ll th r e e e a t th e b o i l e d yam and l e a v e s m ixed w ith o i l an d d r i n k some o f th e w in e . Ma K etū k p o l i r e p e a t e d ly a s k s th e b r i d e

41 and h e r f a t h e r how much th e y w a n t o f t h e fo o d and g iv e s them t h e o p p o s i t e . They know t h a t sh e w i l l do t h i s an d r e p l y a c c o r d i n g ly . T h is i s t h e o n ly in s ta n c e o f i n v e r t e d sp e e c h w h ic h I e n c o u n te re d among t h e Yakӧ . Ma K etūk p o l i n e x t p r e p a r e s d y e p a i n t by s q u e e z in g t h e e b lö m i r o o t i n ­ to a l i t t l e w a te r i n w hich i t h a s been s o a k in g and m ix in g i n pow d ered ch a r­ c o a l. She sh av e s th e b r i d e 's h e a d and th e n p ro c e e d s t o p a i n t c ir c u la r b a n d s o f b la c k p a i n t ro u n d th e arm and l e g j o i n t s , th e b u t t o c k s , t h e b e l l y , th e sm a ll o f th e b a c k , th e n e c k , t h e f o r e h e a d and th e to p o f t h e h e a d . She th e n p ro d u c e s bow ls o f pow dered r e d camwood ( e k ö ) , w h ite c h a lk an d y e llo w wood pow der (e d j ün g a ) . M ixing some o f e a c h s e p a r a t e l y w ith w a te r sh e dabs s p o t s o f e a c h c o lo u r i n s i d e th e p a i n t r i n g s . D e c o ra te d i n t h i s h i g h l y c o lo u r e d way t h e b r i d e r e t u r n s to h e r h o u s e ; no n o t i c e sh o u ld b e ta k e n o f h e r by b y s ta n d e r s a s she w a lk s th r o u g h t h e v i l l a g e n o r sh o u ld a n y a u d i b l e comment on h e r a p p e a ra n c e b e m ade. Once home a g a in sh e m ust re m a in i n h e r s e c l u ­ s io n c u b i c l e u n t i l th e n e x t k o k ö when sh e g o es w ith one o r two o f h e r frie n d s to th e b a th i n g p o o l and rem oves th e p a i n t .

42 CHAPTER

V III

THE FREQUENCY OF PRE-MARITAI PREGNANCY The kekpopam r i t e p e rfo rm e d b e f o r e p re g n a n c y , i s r e g a r d e d a s th e s ta n d ­ a r d an d d e s i r a b l e p r e l im in a r y t o m a r ria g e and b e tr o th e d g i r l s a r e fr e q u e n t­ l y u r g e d by t h e i r m o th e rs t o a v o id i n t e r c o u r s e i n o r d e r t h a t th e y may h av e kekpopam . P a r e n t s h a v e d i r e c t p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s i n c e , a s h a s b e e n s e e n , t h e m a r r ia g e c e re m o n ie s a r e more e l a b o r a t e , and so re d o u n d t o t h e i r p re s­ t i g e , w h ile t h e g i f t s t h a t th e y th e n r e c e i v e a r e more s u b s t a n t i a l th a n a f­ t e r l i k p ök ōt . N e v e r th e l e s s , kekpopam o c c u rs i n a m i n o r i ty o f c a s e s a t th e p r e s e n t d a y , f o r th e g r e a t m a j o r i ty o f g i r l s a r e p r e g n a n t b e f o r e c li to r o d e c to m y and t h e w edding f e a s t s ta k e p la c e . I n o r d e r to d e te r m in e c o n d i t i o n s i n th e r e ­ c e n t p a s t and any t r e n d s t h a t m ig h t e x i s t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c l i t o r o ­ dectom y r i t e s p e rfo rm e d f o r 288 w iv e s o f men o f one p a t r i c l a n i n Umar was u n d e r ta k e n . The a g e s e t m em berships o f t h e s e women w e re know n, and th e e n q u ir y r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e h a s b een a c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a n g e d u r i n g th e p a s t f i f t y y e a r s i n th e p r o p o r tio n o f g i r l s who w ere p re g n a n t a t t h e tim e o f t h e i r f i r s t m a r r ia g e . From T a b le 1 i t may be s e e n t h a t among th e 26 o ld women o f a g e - s e t s I V (a g e d a p p ro x im a te ly 60 y e a r s an d o v e r i n 1939) o n ly h a l f w e re p re g n a n t a t th e tim e o f t h e i r c l i t o r i d e c t o m y . A bout th e same p r o p o r t i o n s h o ld f o r th e 42 women o f s e t s V I-IX ( a p p r o x im a te ly 60 t o 48 y e a r s ) an d t h e 47 women o f s e t s X -XI (48 t o 40 y e a r s ) i . e . 50 and 45% r e s p e c t i v e l y . B ut o f t h e 5 9 wo­ men o f s e t s X I I - X I I I (a p p r o x im a te ly 48 t o 30 y e a r s a n d th e 52 women o f s e t s XIV-XV (a p p r o x im a te ly 30 t o 24 y e a r s ) o n ly a t h i r d (31 an d 33% r e s p e c t i v e ­ l y ) h a d t h e kekpopam r i t e w h ile among th e y o u n g e s t women o f s e t s X V I-XV III ( a p p r o x im a te ly 1 7 t o 24 y e a r s ) th e p r o p o r t i o n h a s f a l l e n s h a r p l y t o a b o u t one s i x t h ( l 6 %) . I t i s c l e a r t h a t i n t h e p e r i o d from th e 1 8 7 0 s down to t h e sec o n d d ecad e o f t h i s c e n tu r y p r e m a r i t a l i n t e r c o u r s e was s u f f i c i e n t l y g e n e r a l t o r e s u l t i n p re g n a n c y b e f o r e m a r r ia g e i n a b o u t h a l f th e in sta n c e s. S in c e t h a t tim e , h o w ev er, t h e r e h a s b e e n a s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n t h e in c id e n c e o f p re g n a n c y b e f o r e th e c l i to r id e c t o m y r i t e i s h e l d , w ith th e r e s u l t t h a t t h e o rth o d o x m a r ria g e p ro c e d u r e i s g e n e r a l l y h o n o u re d i n th e b r e a c h . 1 T h is c h an g e i s no d o u b t due t o a num ber o f f a c t o r s , th e r e l a t i v e f o r c e o f w hich

1The i n c r e a s e i s p ro b a b ly g r e a t e r th a n t h e s e f i g u r e s s u g g e s t f o r i n th e e a r l i e r p e r i o d more f o r e i g n fe m a le c h i l d r e n w ere p u rc h a s e d f o r adoption th a n d u r i n g th e p a s t tw e n ty y e a r s and a t t h a t tim e kekpopam c o u ld n o t b e p e r­ form ed f o r t h e s e a d o p te d g i r l s w h ile i n m ore r e c e n t tim e s t h i s d is c r im in a ­ t i o n h a s b e e n d ro p p e d .

57

-

60 y r s .

1876 - 1896

80 48 y r s .

L ik p ök ō t

L

-

Kekpōpam

K =

1896 - 1908

-

T o ta l K + L =288 =100%

L ik p ök ō t 187 = 65%

1916-26

i . e . d u r in g p re g n a n c y

1926-32

1932 - 1939

A pprox. tim e ra n g e

40- 30y r s . 3 0 -2 4 y r s . 24 - 17 y r s . A p p ro x .ag e ra n g e 1939

i . e . b e f o r e p re g n a n c y

190 8- 19 16

48 - 40 y r s

27 = 5 2 . 9% 43 = 7 2 . 9% 35 = 6 7 . 3% 47 = 8 2 . 5%-L

60

3 -

R ite

Age G rade

Kekpopam - - 101 = 3 5 %

K L

2 2 = 5 1 . 2%

52

-

K L

XVII XVIII

27 - 25 - 18 - 4

7

K L

XVI

L - 13 = 50%

59

L

XV

6 - 11 -

KLK

- 24 - 8 -

7 -

K L

XIV

24 = 4 7 . 1% 16 = 2 7 . 15% 17 = 32. 7% 10 = 1 7 . 5%-K

51

- 19

-

L

XIII

21 = 4 8 . 8%

45

11-16

-

7 - 4 - 7 - 4

-

9

K

X II

K - 13 = 50%

26

- - - - -5 - 7

8 -

16 -

XI

10 - 3 - 5 - 3 -

K

X K L

L K L K L K L

V II V III IX L

VI

- 1

V

- - - 1 1 - 4 - 7 -

IV

K

II III

R e la tiv e frequency by Age Sets of C litoridectom y before and, d u ring pregnancy among 288 wives of Ndai men

K L K L K L K L K L

I

TABLE 1

44 i t was n o t p o s s ib le to d e te r m in e . Among t h e s e a r e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n econom ic p r o s p e r i t y a s s o c i a t e d w ith t h e d ev elo p m en t o f an e x t e r n a l m a rk e t. T h e re a re i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t i n r e c e n t tim e s th e l e v e l o f m a r ria g e p ay m en ts h a s n o t r e s ­ p onded im m e d ia te ly to d e c l i n e s i n palm p r o d u c t p r i c e s w i t h a r e s u l t t h a t , a l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e c u r r e n c y h a s in d u c e d y o u th s and t h e i r p a r e n t s to d e la y t h e i r u n d e r t a k in g to m arry and make th e m a r ria g e paym ent a s k e d . S in c e , among t h e Yakӧ , th e p e r i o d of b e t r o t h a l i s n o t o f d e f i n i t e l e n g t h an d p e r m its s e x u a l in tim a c y betw een th e y o u th and h i s in te n d e d b r i d e any e x te n s io n o f th e p e r io d w i l l i n c r e a s e th e l i k e l i h o o d o f p re g n a n c y . T h ese c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d e p e n d , h o w ev er, on a n o th e r c h a n g e f o r w hich t h e r e i s e v id e n c e in th e s t a te m e n ts and a t t i t u d e s o f in f o rm a n ts o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s , nam ely t h a t c o m p le te d c o i t u s b etw een u n m a rrie d l o v e r s i s more f r e q u e n t to d a y th a n i n th e p a s t .

45 CHAPTER I X MARRIAGE MONEY & LIBEMAN We may now t u r n to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s f e r a t m a r r ia g e o f p r o ­ p e r t y w h ich th e Yakö th e m se lv e s te rm 'm a r r ia g e m oney' ( lib e m a n ) . I t h a s b een se e n t h a t a t a w e ll o rd e re d f i r s t m a r ria g e o f a woman t h e m a r r ia g e money i s handed o v e r by th e g ro o m 's a g e m a te s t o th o s e o f th e b r i d e who im m e d ia te ly t r a n s f e r i t t o h e r f a t h e r . B ut t h a t i s by no means th e end o f th e m a t t e r . M a t r i l i n e a l k i n o f t h e b r i d e h av e c u sto m a ry r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s i n con­ n e c ti o n w ith t h i s t r a n s f e r . A f t e r th e l a s t w ed d in g f e a s t g iv e n by th e b r id e 's p a r e n t s to t h e i r f r i e n d s th e f a t h e r sh o u ld g o , o r se n d a m essag e t o , th e c l o s e s t s e n i o r m ale among th e m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e s o f th e b r i d e , o n e who i s h e r 'm o t h e r 's b r o t h e r ', in f o rm in g him t h a t th e w edding f e a s t s h a v e b e e n con­ c lu d e d , t h a t th e m a rria g e paym ent h a s b e e n made and t h a t h e i s re a d y t o h and o ver t h e c u sto m a ry p o r t i o n to him . The 'm o t h e r 's b r o t h e r ' w ith one o r two more o f th e m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e s w i l l come on th e n e x t k o k ö to t h e f a t h e r 's compound w here some o f h i s ag e m a te s w i l l b e p r e s e n t a s w itn e s s e s .T h e f a t h e r o f f e r s palm w in e , th e b r i d e i s s a l u t e d a n d , a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e rn in g t h e amount to be handed o v e r, th e t r a n s f e r sh o u ld b e made. I n r e c e n t y e a r s i n Umor th e t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s w ith r e ­ g a rd to th e m o th e r 's b r o t h e r 's s h a r e o f th e m a r ria g e money h a v e b e e n u n d e r­ m ined. T h ere i s g e n e r a l a g re e m e n t a s t o t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t s b u t t h e s e a re b e in g i n c r e a s i n g l y r e p u d i a te d by f a t h e r s and when r e p u d i a te d a r e n o lo n g e r e n fo r c e d . By custom th e f a t h e r sh o u ld h a n d o v e r to th e 'm o t h e r 's b r o t h e r ' th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e pay m en t. By so d o in g , h o w ev er, h e i s a b s o lv e d from any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o h i s s o n - in - l a w f o r th e r e t u r n o f th e p a y m en t. The b rid eg ro o m and h i s r e l a t i v e s c a n make no c la im on him sh o u ld t h e w if e d e s e rt h e r h u sb a n d . A ll su ch r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t r a n s f e r r e d w ith th e tr a n s fe r re d p o r t i o n o f th e m a r ria g e money to th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r . The p r o p o r t i o n hand­ ed o v e r i n su ch c ir c u m s ta n c e s w i l l ra n g e fro m f o u r - f i f t h s t o t w o - t h i r d s o f th e amount p ro v id e d by o r on b e h a l f o f t h e h u sb a n d . The re m a in d e r w hich th e f a t h e r k e e p s in v o lv e s him i n no l i a b i l i t y . On t h e o th e r h an d t h e l i a b i l i t y o f th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r may, a s w i l l be s e e n , b e h eavy f o r i t i s h i s l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n to com p en sate th e h u sb a n d i f t h e w if e d e s e r t s h im , o r h i s p a t r i ­ l i n e a l k i n i f a s a widow sh e r e m a r r i e s w i t h i n a y e a r o r two o f h i s d e a th . The m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r can i n t u r n c la im a m a r ria g e paym ent from th e new sp o u se o f a widow o r d iv o r c e e . U n d e rly in g a l l t h i s a r e th e Yakö p r i n c i p l e s o f m a t r i l i n e a l k i n s h i p ob­ l i g a t i o n s . T r a n s f e r a b le w e a lth i s i n h e r i t e d by m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e s , a m an's g o o d s, h i s yam s, h i s l i v e s t o c k , h i s money and h o u se h o ld p r o p e r t y , a l l p a s s i n t o th e c o n tr o l o f a c l o s e m a t r i l i n e a l k in s m e n , u s u a l l y a s i s t e r ' s son a t h i s d e a th ; lo a n s to a m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e c a n n o t be r e c o v e r e d b y ac­ t i o n a t la w , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a b a n k r u p t 's d e b ts r e s t s on h i s m a t r i l i n e a l

4k in6. 1

The o b l i g a t i o n o f a woman to s e r v e h e r h u sb a n d d u t i f u l l y i s re g a r d e d i n th e same w ay. I f sh e f a i l s i t i s th e d u ty o f h e r m a t r i l i n e a l k i n i n th e p e rs o n o f th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r t o r e s t o r e an a p p r o p r i a t e p a r t of th e m a r r ia g e money handed o v e r by th e h u sb a n d . I t i s i n v i r t u e o f t h i s o b l i g a t i o n t h a t m a t r i l i n e a l k i n c la im t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n sh o u ld b e t r a n s f e r r e d to them . F a th e r s h a v e , h o w ev er, i n r e c e n t tim e s b e e n r e l u c t a n t t o make t h i s t r a n s f e r and h a v e , when c h a lle n g e d , d e c la r e d t h a t th e y w ould th e m s e lv e s a s ­ sume th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f m e e tin g ' c la im s f o r r e t u r n o f m a r ria g e money. I was t o l d i n Umor t h a t s e v e r a l c a s e s o f t h i s k in d came b e f o r e th e Ya b o t (= th e L e a d e r s ) , th e in d ig e n o u s v i l l a g e c o u n c il2 d u rin g t h e p a s t tw e n ty y e a r s and t h a t i t h a d become c u sto m a ry t o d e c id e t h a t th e f a t h e r m ig h t make o n ly a to k e n paym ent to th e m a t r i l i n e a l kin sm an o f th e b r i d e and b e d e c la r e d to have s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e r e t u r n o f m a r ria g e m oney. I d id n o t l e a r n t h a t to k e n paym ents i n a c t u a l money, a s d i s t i n c t from an o f f e r i n g o f a c a l ­ a b a sh o f w in e , h av e u s u a l l y b e e n made i n su c h c a s e s , b u t th e p r i n c i p l e t h a t th e f a t h e r may r e t a i n th e m a r ria g e money and th e r e w i t h th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s r e t u r n t o th e h u sb an d o r h i s s u c c e s s o r s i n c e r t a i n c ir c u m s ta n c e s i s now g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n is e d . I w as, h o w e v e r, f r e q u e n t l y t o l d t h a t t h i s was u s u a l l y done o n ly by r i c h men (y a s ū , s i n g . o sū ) . T h is may a t f i r s t s i g h t seem s u r p r i s i n g , since to them th e am ount in v o lv e d m ig h t a p p e a r to be o f l i t t l e mom ent, w h ile mo­ t i v e s o f c u p id i ty would b e s t r o n g e r on th e p a r t o f a p o o r f a t h e r . B ut two d i s t i n c t c o n d itio n s o p e r a t e t o l i m i t th e p r a c t i c e i n t h i s s e n s e . In . th e f i r s t p la c e a m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r c a n r e l y on h i s m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm en to a s ­ s i s t him i n p r o v i d in g th e m eans o f r e t u r n i n g a m a r ria g e p a y m e n t,b u t a f a t h e r c a n n o t do t h i s . The m a r ria g e i s n o t th e c lo s e c o n c e rn o f t h e f a t h e r ' s m at­ r i l i n e a l k i n , h i s d a u g h te r i s n o t t o them a wenwa wenamū k a ( = s i s t e r ' s c h ild ) and d o e s n o t b e lo n g to t h e i r m a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a g e ( k e j i m a f a t ) . Nor c a n th e f a t h e r r e a s o n a b ly t u r n t o h i s p a t r i l i n e a l k in s i n c e t h e d a u g h t e r 's c h i l d r e n do n o t b e lo n g t o t h e i r p a t r i l i n e a g e (e p ōn am a). Thus a f a t h e r who r e t a i n s th e m a r ria g e paym ent f a c e s th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h a v in g to r e t u r n a l a r g e p a r t Of i t , p e rh a p s many y e a r s l a t e r , e n t i r e l y from h i s own r e s o u r c e s . T h is r i s k a p o o r man w ould b e r e l u c t a n t to assu m e. F u rth e rm o r e , a man o f m eans among th e Yakӧ , one who h a s many d e p e n d e n t h e l p e r s , a l a r g e fa rm an d a h o a rd o f c u rr e n c y ta k e s p r i d e i n h i s w e a lth and i t i s c u sto m a ry to d i s p l a y i t . U n t i l r e c e n t y e a r s h e w ould h a v e b o u g h t f o ­ r e i g n c h i l d r e n ( y a f o l i ) whom h e a d o p te d i n t o b o th h i s p a t r i l i n e a l an d h i s 1 See F o r d e , K in sh ip i n Umor, Amer. A n th r o p o lo g is t, 4 1 , 1 9 3 9 , 536 f f .

2

See F o rd e , G overnm ent i n Umor, A f r i c a , 1 2 ,1 9 3 9 , 1 3 6 .

47 m a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a g e s . W ith th e i n c r e a s i n g c u r t a i l m e n t o f t h i s p r a c t i c e un­ d e r Governm ent p e n a l t i e s th e o p p o r tu n ity t o d i s p l a y h i s m eans by f r e e l y t a k ­ in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or th e m a r ria g e s o f h i s d a u g h te r s a p p e a r s t o h a v e be­ come i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e . I n an y c a s e o s t e n t a t i o n w as c l e a r l y a co n ­ s i d e r a b l e m o tiv e b e h in d s e v e r a l o f th e c a s e s w h ich I i n v e s t i g a t e d o f r e f u s ­ a l to t r a n s f e r m a r ria g e paym ent to th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r . I n a n i n s t a n c e o f w hich I le a r n e d m ost o f t h e c ir c u m s ta n c e s a w ard h e a d i n Umo r who was a l s o p ro m in e n t i n th e p re m ie r m e n 's s e c r e t, s o c i e t y r e f u s e d i n th e e a r l y tw e n ti e s to hand o v e r th e m a r ria g e paym ent f o r h i s d a u g h te r t o t h e p r i e s t o f h e r ma­ t r i l i n e a l c l a n who w as h e r c l o s e s t s e n i o r m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e . T h e m a r ria g e paym ent o f £ 6. 5 . 0 was b ro u g h t to h i s compound on th e day o f th e l i k p ök ō t r i t e and th e f a t h e r made h i s d a u g h t e r 's age s e t f r i e n d s a c u s to m a ry g i f t o f 5 / - . On th e kok ö f o llo w in g th e m a r ria g e f e a s t s th e i n a o f A t a l i k ūm i, p r i e s t o f th e Y abaye le j im a to w h ich th e b r i d e b e lo n g e d , came t o t h e f a t h e r sa y in g t h a t he h ad le a r n e d t h a t h i s d a u g h t e r 's h u sb a n d h a d made th e f u l l m a r ria g e paym ent an d t h a t h e now c la im e d th e c u sto m a ry p o r t i o n as t h e b r i d e ' s c l o s e s t m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm a n . The ward h e a d r e p l i e d t h a t th e m a r r ia g e paym ent sh o u ld n o t be d i v i d e d , h e w ould k e e p i t a l l s a f e l y h im s e l f a n d i f h i s daughter should le a v e h e r h u sb an d h e w ould make any paym ent w ith o u t a s k i n g an y h e lp from h e r m a t r i l i n e a l k i n . The p r i e s t e x p o s t u la t e d and th e f a t h e r a d m itte d t h a t i t w as r i g h t by custo m to hand o v e r th e g r e a t e r p a r t t o a m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm a n b u t t h a t he was to o b i g a man to do t h i s . He w ould fo llo w th e new way f o r he could r e t u r n th e m a rria g e paym ent o f h i s d a u g h te r many tim e s o v e r . The p r i e s t was v e ry a n g ry and f i n a l l y w arn ed th e f a t h e r t h a t i f h e p e r s i s t e d i n th e b re a c h o f cu sto m h i s d a u g h t e r 's c h i l d w o u ld s ic k e n an d d i e . T h i s w as r e ­ g a rd e d a s a t h r e a t on th e p a r t o f th e p r i e s t who m ig h t b e e x p e c te d t o i n ­ voke t h e s u p e r n a tu r a l pow er o f t h e f e r t i l i t y s p i r i t (y o s e ) A t a l i k ū m i, bu t th e f a t h e r w ould n o t g iv e way. The c h i l d when b o rn w as s i c k l y and a s i t grew w o rse th e h u sb a n d p r o t e s t e d v e h e m e n tly t o h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w t h a t th e l i f e o f t h e c h i l d , w h ich b e lo n g e d t o h i s k e p ūn and n o t t o t h a t o f th e f a t h e r in - la w , was b e in g enda n g e re d by th e r e f u s a l t o r e c o g n i s e th e r i g h t s o f h i s w i f e 's m a t r i l i n e a l k i n . He was s u p p o r te d by t h e h e a d o f h i s k ep ū n an d se v ­ e r a l o l d e r men o f h i s l i n e a g e . A f t e r th e d i s p u t e an d th e c h i l d ' s s i c k n e s s h ad been w id e ly t a l k e d o f and i t was c l e a r t h a t h e an d n o t t h e p r i e s t w as g e n e r a l ly r e g a r d e d a s th e r e a l o f f e n d e r , t h e w i f e ’ s f a t h e r f i n a l l y g a v e way. He w ent w ith t h e h u sb a n d to th e p r i e s t t a k i n g t h e e n t i r e m a r r ia g e paym ent sa y in g s ' I know you a r e h arm in g th e c h i l d b e c a u s e y o u h a v e n o t h a d your p o r t io n o f th e m a r ria g e paym ent. Now you c a n ta k e t h e w h o le o f i t . I have b een k e e p in g i t t o s a v e you t r o u b l e f o r I am a r i c h man (o a ū ) an d c a n lo o k a f t e r my own d a u g h t e r s . ' To o f f e r th e e n t i r e paym ent w as o s t e n t a t i o u s an d c o n tem p tu o u s. The p r i e s t r e p l i e d by d e n y in g t h a t h e h a d in v o k e d t h e s p i r i t o f h i s c l a n t o h arm t h e c h i l d w h ich o f c o u r s e b e lo n g e d t o t h e same l e j i m a . He c la im e d t h a t when t h e f a t h e r - i n - l a w h ad r e f u s e d t o a b id e by c u sto m h e h ad p u t th e d i s p u t e o u t o f h i s mind an d i n s i s t e d t h a t h e w ould no l o n g e r a c c e p t t h e paym ent o r h a v e an y c o n c e rn w ith t h e m a r r ia g e . The h u sb a n d who was s t i l l a n x io u s b o th f o r th e c h i l d 's h e a l t h i n t e r c e d e d an d b e g g ed him to end th e q u a r r e l and r e s t o r e t h e c h i l d 's h e a l t h . F i n a l l y t h e p r i e s t a c c e p te d 4/ - a s

48 a to k e n paym ent t o i n d i c a t e t h a t h e t o r e n o i l l w i l l to h i s s i s t e r ' s d a u g h t­ e r and h e r c h i l d , bu t h e r e f u s e d to a c c e p t h i s f u l l s h a r e o r any r e s p o n s ib il­ i t y f o r l a t e r re p a y m e n t o f th e m a r ria g e money. The h u sb an d who gave me d e­ t a i l s o f t h i s d i s p u t e h im s e lf ad d ed t h a t b o th th e p r i e s t an d ev ery b o d y e l s e knew q u i t e w e ll t h a t th e w ard h e a d was in d e e d a r i c h man and much b e t t e r a ­ b l e t o m eet any c la im f or re p a y m e n t th a n th e p r i e s t who w ould p ro b a b ly d i s ­ s i p a t e i t and f i n d d i f f i c u l t y i n m e e tin g an y c la im l a t e r on. I n o r d e r to d is c o v e r th e fre q u e n c y w ith w hich t h i s a n d o t h e r new p r a c ­ t i c e s h ad o c c u r r e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s I i n v e s t i g a t e d th e c ir c u m s ta n c e s o f th e f i r s t m a r r ia g e s o f a sam ple o f Yakö women o f v a r i o u s a g e s who h ad m a r rie d men of one p a t r i l i n e a l k in g ro u p . On t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t I c o u ld n o t ob­ t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y d a ta f o r women who w e re m ore th a n a b o u t f o r t y y e a r s o f a g e i n 1939 i . e . women o f a g e - s e t s X and s e n i o r , w h ile d a t a f o r th e y o u n g e st wo­ men, i . e . th o s e o f th e m ost j u n i o r s e t , X V III (a g e d fro m a p p ro x im a te ly 1 5 t o 18 y e a r s i n 1 9 3 9 ) w as s c a n ty a s many g i r l s o f t h a t s e t w e re s t i l l u n m a rrie d . TABLE 2

Age S e ts of W ives. XI X II X III XIV XV XVI XVII

I n c id e n c e o f t r a n s f e r s o f m a r r ia g e money to m a t r i l i n e a l k i n a t 157 f i r s t m a r ria g e s o f women t o N dai men

None r e c e i v e d from f a t h e r by m a trilin e a l re la tiv e .

P o r t io n h an d ed o v e r by f a t h e r to m a tr ilin e a l re la tiv e .

A ll r e c e i v e d d i r e c t from groom by m a t r i ­ lin e a l re la tiv e .

T o ta l .

7 3 8 1 9 11 14

6 11 10 4 10 10 6

6 4 5 3 11 12 6

19 18 23 8 30 33 26

53

57

47

157

= 3 6 . 3%

= 3 3 . 8%

= 2 9 . 9% 104 66-2%

100%

As w i l l b e s e e n i n T a b le 2 , among 157 women o f a g e - s e t s X I t o XVII i n ­ c l u s i v e i . e . women o f b e tw een a p p ro x im a te ly f o r t y an d e ig h t e e n y e a r s o f a g e in 1939, f i r s t m a r rie d d u rin g th e p r e v io u s 26 y e a r s , t h e r e w ere 53 i n -

49 s t a n c e s , o r 34% i n w h ich th e f a t h e r , o r someone a c t i n g i n h i s p l a c e o t h e r th a n a mat r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e o f th e b r i d e , r e c e i v e d t h e m a r r ia g e paym ent b u t t r a n s f e r r e d n o n e o f i t t o a m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm a n o f t h e b r i d e . I n 57 c a s e s o r 36% o f t h i s sam ple th e m a r ria g e paym ent was r e c e i v e d by th e f a ­ t h e r and th e m a jo r p a r t han d ed o v e r to th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r w h ile i n 47 c a s e s o r 30% t h e paym ent w as r e c e i v e d by a m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e d i r e c t l y from th e b rid e g ro o m . The d i f f e r e n t s e t s when c o n s id e r e d s e p a r a t e l y show­ ed a p a r t from th e m ost j u n i o r no s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n among th e m s e lv e s so t h a t th e in c id e n c e o f r e t e n t i o n o f t h e m a r ria g e pay m en t by t h e f a t h e r , w hich am ounts to n e a r l y h a l f th e c a s e s i n w h ich th e p aym ent w as r e c e i v e d by th e f a t h e r , seems t o have b een f a i r l y s te a d y d u r in g t h e p a s t q u a rte r o f a c e n tu r y . On t h e o t h e r h and t h e sm a ll sam ple o f m a r r ie d women o f a g e s e t X V III, o n ly 11 i n num ber, showed a much h ig h e r i n c i d e n c e , 9 c a s e s , o r a r a t e o f 81%, o f r e t e n t i o n o f th e p aym ent by th e f a t h e r . T h is may b e th e chance o f a sm a ll sa m p le , b u t t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s i n t h e d a t a f o r set XVII a s w e ll a s i n th e view s o f th e p e o p le th e m s e lv e s t h a t a m arked in ­ c r e a s e i n t h e p r a c t i c e was s e t t i n g i n d u r in g th e p e r i o d o f my f i e l d w ork and t h a t t h i s was c o n n e c te d w ith a g e n e r a l s t r a i n w h ich i n c r e a s i n g i n d i v ­ id u a lis m and t h e d e p r e s s io n o f th e e x t e r n a l m a rk e t f o r p alm p r o d u c t s w ere im posing on th e w hole sy ste m o f m a r ria g e p a y m e n ts. T h is w id e r i s s u e w i l l b e c o n s id e re d l a t e r . TABLE 3

Age S e t of B rid e XI X II X III XIV XV XVI XVII

R e l a t i v e s o f B rid e r e c e i v i n g M a rria g e Paym ent fro m B ridegroom a t F i r s t M a rria g e s o f 157 Women o f S e ts X I-X V II t o Nda i Men

F a th e r

F u ll B ro th e r

12 13 16 5 18 19 16

7 4 5 3 11 11 6

99 63. 1%

47 2 9 . 9%

M o th e r' s B ro th e r

P a te r n a l H a lf B ro th e r

S te p F a th e r

-

-

-

1 2

-

-

1 1

3

2 1 . 3%

3 1 . 9%

-

1 2 6 3 . 8%

T o ta l

19 18 23 8 30 33 26 157 100%

I t was assum ed e a r l i e r t h a t t h e f a t h e r a lw a y s r e c e i v e d t h e m a r ria g e payment b u t i t i s o b v io u s t h a t i n a d i s r u p t e d f a m ily a n o t h e r r e c i p i e n t may be in v o lv e d . I f t h e f a t h e r i s u n a b le , ow ing t o d e a th o r m i g r a t i o n , o r u n ­ w i l l i n g t o p la y h i s p a r t i n th e m a r ria g e o f h i s d a u g h te r th e p e r s o n c o n -

50 s i d e r e d m ost a p p r o p r i a t e i s a f u l l b r o t h e r o f th e b r i d e o f m a tu re y e a r s . I n th e sam ple o f 157 women r e f e r r e d t o ab o v e t h e m a r ria g e paym ent w as r e ­ c e iv e d by th e b r i d e ' s f a t h e r i n o n ly 99 ca s e s o r 63%. D e t a i l s fo r th e se v ­ e r a l a g e - s e t s ax e i n d i c a t e d i n T a b le 3 . I n 47 o r 30% o f t h e c a s e s i t was r e c e i v e d n o t by t h e f a t h e r b u t by a f u l l b r o t h e r . When a s e n i o r f u l l b ro ­ t h e r a c t s i n t h i s way th e f u r t h e r t r a n s f e r o f a p o r t i o n t o a m a t r i l i n e a l k insm an d o es n o t a r i s e , f o r th e f u l l b r o t h e r i s h im s e lf one o f t h e c lo s e s t m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm an o f th e b r i d e and can assum e th e s t a t u s o f a m o th e r 's b r o t h e r a s w e ll a s t h a t o f th e f a t h e r . F a i l i n g th e f a t h e r an d i n th e ab ­ se n c e o f a f u l l y a d u l t f u l l b r o t h e r th e b r i d e 's m o th e r 's b r o t h e r w i l l o f ­ t e n s e e k to r e c e i v e th e lib e m a n d i r e c t from th e groom , e s p e c i a l l y i f th e m o th er h a s a s o c c a s i o n a ll y h ap p e n s j o i n e d h i s h o u s e h o ld , b u t t h e r e we re o n ly s i x c a s e s o r 4% i n t h i s sam p le. O th e rs who o c c a s i o n a l l y a c t in p la c e o f th e f a t h e r a r e t h e p a t e r n a l h a l f - b r o t h e r , o f w hich t h e r e w e re o n ly two i n s t a n c e s i n th e sam ple r e f e r r e d to a b o v e , an d th e s t e p - f a t h e r , o f w hich t h e r e w ere o n ly t h r e e i n s ta n c e s a l l v e r y r e c e n t . The fo rm e r i s o f c o u rs e a c l o s e p a t r i l i n e a l kin sm an o f th e b r i d e an d th e r e b y a j u s t i f i a b l e s u b s ti­ t u t e of th e f a t h e r . The s t e p - f a t h e r , o r ūwo k e p la k ū (= d a y l i g h t f a t h e r ) i n t h e Yakӧ id io m , i s o f c o u rs e n o t a k in sm a n o f th e b r i d e an d c a n a c t i n t h i s way o n ly by v i r t u e o f h i s dom inance i n th e h o u se h o ld i n w h ic h she may hav e b e e n b r o u g h t u p . The l a s t f i v e c a s e s w ere in c lu d e d among t h e 'fa th e rs' i n th e e a r l i e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w h ile t h e f u l l b r o t h e r s w ere c o u n te d as 'm o th er's b r o t h e r s ’ . The s o u r c e o f th e m a rria g e money. I t h a s b een s e e n t h a t th e m a r ria g e money s h o u ld be ta k e n t o t h e b r i d e 's f a t h e r by th e a g e m a te s o f th e groom on o r b e f o r e th e day o f th e c lito r o d e c to m y r i t e . F o r t h i s t o b e done th e f u l l am ount s h o u ld b e a v a i l a b l e on t h a t d a y ; b u t th e a m a s sin g o f t h e m ar­ r i a g e money w i l l h a v e b e e n a m a t te r o f c o n c e rn f o r th e groom an d h i s n e a r k i n lo n g b e f o r e t h i s . I f th e groom i s a y o u th who i s m a rry in g f o r th e f i r s t ti m e , o r even a young man t a k i n g a seco n d w i f e , h e w i l l u s u a l l y be q u i t e u n a b le t o p r o v id e th e am ount h i m s e l f . T r a d i t i o n a l l y a y o u th r e l i e s on h i s f a t h e r t o p r o v id e th e lib e m a n a t h i s f i r s t m a r r ia g e , b u t h e o r th e f a t h e r may a l s o s e e k c o n t r i b u t i o n s fro m h i s o th e r c lo s e k in sm e n an d p a r t ­ i c u l a r l y th e g ro o m 's o l d e r b r o t h e r s and h i s 'm o t h e r 's b r o t h e r s ' . I f h e h a s c a r e o f t h e groom and i s th u s h i s f o s t e r - f a t h e r th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r r e ­ p la c e s th e f a t h e r a s th e m ain c o n t r i b u t o r , b u t o th e r w is e h e i s e x p e c te d to make o n ly a s m a ll g i f t . From T a b le 4 i t w i l l b e s e e n t h a t i n 84 firs t m a r ria g e s o f N dai men to women o f a g e - s e t s XI t o XVII i . e . women b etw een 40 and 18 y e a r s o ld i n 1 9 3 9 , w h ile s m a ll am ounts may h a v e b e e n , an d p r o ­ b a b ly w e re , c o n t r i b u t e d by su ch k i n s f o l k a s th e o ld e r b r o t h e r s , m o th e rs , f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r s and m o th e r 's b r o t h e r s o f th e groom , th e m a r r ia g e money was s u b s t a n t i a l l y p ro v id e d by th e g ro o m 's f a t h e r i n 4 2 , o r 49%, o f th e c a s e s . F u l l o r p a t e r n a l h a l f b r o t h e r s w ere t h e second l a r g e s t c l a s s o f r e l a t i v e s who w ere t h e m ain p r o v i d e r s o f m a r ria g e p a y m e n ts ,a c c o u n tin g f o r 2 5 , o r 28%, o f th e c a s e s o r l i t t l e m ore th a n h a l f a s f r e q u e n t l y a s th e f a ­ t h e r . The d u ty o f a s e n i o r p a t r i l i n e a l b r o t h e r t o u n d e r ta k e th e r e s p o n -

51 s i b i l i t i e s o f a d e c e a s e d f a t h e r i n r e s p e c t o f y o u n g e r b r o t h e r s i s w ell e s ­ t a b l i s h e d among th e Yakӧ an d d e a th s o f f a t h e r s b e f o r e th e m a r r ia g e of t h e i r y o u n g er so n s p ro b a b ly a c c o u n ts f o r th e h ig h p r o p o r t i o n o f c a s e s i n w h ich a b r o t h e r o f th e groom a c t s i n th e f a t h e r ' s p l a c e . O nly one i n s t a n c e o c c u r r e d o f a f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r b e in g t h e m ain p r o ­ v i d e r o f lib e m a n and t h i s i s i n a c c o r d w ith g e n e r a l cu sto m t h a t s e n io rb ro ­ t h e r s o f th e groom , n o t f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r s , h a v e f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in t h i s r e s p e c t . T h ere w ere o n ly t h r e e i n s t a n c e s i n w h ich t h e m oth e r ' s b r o ­ t h e r and two i n w h ich a s t e p - f a t h e r was th e m ain p r o v i d e r . The groom him­ s e l f p r o v id e d th e g r e a t e r p a r t h im s e l f more f r e q u e n t l y th a n any r e l a t i v e s e x c e p t f a t h e r s and o ld e r b r o t h e r s . T h ere w ere 1 2 , o r 14%, o f t h e s e c a s e s w hich o c c u r r e d i n a l l b u t th e m o st s e n i o r o f th e w om en's a g e - s e t s in v o l v ­ e d . I n r e c e n t y e a r s p e t t y t r a d i n g , ro a d m aking and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s open t o a m i n o r i ty o f young men who a r e p re p a r e d t o l e a v e th e v i l l a g e a t in t e r ­ v a l s make i t p o s s i b l e t o a c c u m u la te c u rr e n c y t o make t h e i r own m a r ria g e p a y m en ts. I n th e p a s t b e f o r e su c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t e d pay m en t by th e groom was p ro b a b ly r a r e r b u t even th e n a young man m ig h t i n h e r i t p r o p e r ty from a d e c e a s e d m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r e a r l y enough t o make h i s own paym ent f o r h i s f i r s t m a r ria g e . TABLE 4 . M ain P r o v id e r s o f M a r ria g e Money a t 84 F i r s t M a r ria g e s o f Men t o Young G i r l s b y Age S e ts o f B rid e s Age S e t of B rid e XI X II X III XIV XV XVI XVII S e ts XI-XVI I in c lu s iv e =

F u ll P a te r n a l M o th e r's S te p F a t h e r 's B ro th e r F a th e r B r o th e r F a th e r Groom B r o th e r H a lf B r o th e r 5 8 3 2 11 9 3 41

1 1

3 l 3

1 1 2

3 1 5 l 4 1 4

12

6

19

3

7 . 1%

2 2 . 6%

3 . 6%

2 3

48. 9% 1 4 . 2%

1

N d ai

T o ta l

1

9 12 13 4 20 12 14

2

1

84

2 . 4%

1 . 2%

1 1

1 1

100%

52 B ut a lth o u g h th e f a t h e r o r a p a t r i l i n e a l bro th e r,w h o i s th e f a t h e r ' s c u sto m a ry s u c c e s s o r i n t h i s o b l i g a t i o n , i s i n th e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s (7 9% i n t h i s sam p le) th e m ain p r o v i d e r o f th e lib e m a n t h e r e i s a k in s h ip o b l i g a t i o n on a l l c lo s e a d u l t r e l a t i v e s o f t h e groom t o make a c o n tr ib u ­ t i o n i n c a s e o f n e e d . At t h e p r e s e n t tim e a few s h i l l i n g s a r e sought from s e n i o r b r o t h e r s , m o th e r 's b r o t h e r s , f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r s and a l s o fro m th e m o th e r and h e r s i s t e r s . I t i s t o be o b s e rv e d t h a t t h e s e r e l a t i v e s fa ll i n t o two c l a s s e s : th e p a t r i l i n e a l k in sm e n who b e lo n g t o a l i n e a g e a n d c la n f o r w h ich th e groom may b e e x p e c te d to b e g e t c h i l d r e n , an d th e m a tr ilin e a l r e l a t i v e s t o none o f w hose d e s c e n t g ro u p s p a t r i l i n e a l o r m a t r i l i n e a l w i l l th e c h i l d r e n o f th e groom b e lo n g . B u t, a p a r t from th e f a t h e r ( a c t u a l o r s u b s t i t u t e ) who h a s th e p rim e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , I c o u ld n o t d e te r m in e any c l e a r c u t d i f f e r e n c e i n o b l i g a t i o n o r a t t i t u d e among them . A f a t h e r i f he i s a man o f s u b s ta n c e u s u a l l y ta k e s p r i d e i n m aking th e e n t i r e paym ent h i m s e l f ; b u t i f h e c a n n o t, o r i s u n w i l l i n g t o do s o , h e w i l l t e l l h i s son t h a t he sh o u ld se e k th e a i d o f h i s c lo s e s e n i o r r e l a t i v e s . The p a tr il in e a l r e l a t i v e s w i l l u s u a l l y be n e ig h b o u r s and i n t i m a t e s o f th e f a t h e r , who a l ­ r e a d y know from him o f th e d e s i r e f o r g i f t s . H is m o th e r 's b r o t h e r s and o c c a s i o n a l l y h e r s i s t e r s a r e on th e o th e r hand l i v i n g e ls e w h e re n o t in d a i l y c o n ta c t w ith th e h o u s e h o ld o f th e b rid e g ro o m who m ust a p p ro a c h them h i m s e l f . He may h a v e h i s m o t h e r 's s u p p o r t , b u t h i s f a t h e r d o e s n o t s o l i c ­ i t t h e i r a i d . Any c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s e r e l a t i v e s m a t r i l i n e a l o r p a t r i ­ l i n e a l a r e re g a r d e d a s f r e e g i f t s t o th e groom o r h i s f a t h e r . They may c r e a t e th e e x p e c t a tio n o f l a t e r r e c i p r o c a l g i f t s on s i m i l a r o c c a s io n s from t h e f a t h e r o r th e groom b u t th e y do n o t g iv e th e r e l a t i v e s a c la im t o a s h a r e i n th e m a r ria g e paym ent sh o u ld i t b e r e t u r n e d i f th e m a r ria g e i s l a t ­ e r d is s o lv e d . As h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d above a young man c a n , i f h i s f a t h e r , f o s t e r f a t h e r o r f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r s h a v e th e m ean s, o b ta i n t h e i r s u p p o r t i n p ro ­ v i d i n g t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e amount o f f u r t h e r m a r ria g e p ay m en ts fo r l a t e r w iv e s . B ut by t h e tim e a man h a s r e a c h e d e a r l y m a t u r i t y , a t 30 y e a r s o r s o , h e , a s a r u l e , w i l l b e e x p e c te d t o p r o v id e t h e g r e a t e r p a r t himself. I n d i s c u s s i n g m a rria g e money w ith Yakӧ i t becam e v e ry c l e a r t h a t , a p a rt from th e r e c e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n m a in ta in in g fo rm e r s c a l e s o f p a y m e n t, th e o b l i g a t i o n on th e p a r t o f th e f a t h e r t o p r o v id e th e m eans f o r th e g ro o m 's m a r ria g e i s one w h ich i s a s a r u l e c h e e r f u l l y and even p ro u d ly a c c e p te d . The c y c l i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p r o c e s s i s c o n s c io u s ly r e c o g n i s e d . I h a v e b e e n t o l d : "My f a t h e r g a v e my m a r ria g e money a n d I w i l l do so f o r my so n s and th e y to o w i l l grow up and g iv e f o r my g ra n d s o n s t o m a rry ." The N a tu re o f 'B r id e W e a lth ' among th e Yakö. The e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e m a r ria g e paym ent an d i t s r e l a t i o n to o t h e r Yakö s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s may now be c o n s id e r e d . I t i s c l e a r l y a v a r i e t y o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n o f'b rid e w e a l t h ' commonly fo u n d i n A f r i c a n s o c i e t i e s a n d , w h ile no f a r re a c h in g com­ p a r i s o n s w ith o th e r form s c a n b e u n d e r ta k e n h e r e , i t i s p e r t i n e n t t o con­ s i d e r i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r e l a t i o n to th o s e w hich h a v e b e e n c la im e d f o r

53 'b r i d e w e a lth ' e ls e w h e re . The Yakӧ 'm a r r ia g e m oney' i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y p ro ­ v id e d by one p e r s o n , th e f a t h e r o f th e groom o r t h e groom h i m s e l f . B ut i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d by th e a g e m a te s o f th e groom on h i s b e h a l f a n d n o t b y , o r on b e h a lf o f , h i s f a t h e r . I t i s r e c e i v e d i n th e f i r s t p l a c e b y th e f a t h e r o f th e b r i d e d u r in g th e s e r i e s o f c e re m o n ia l a c t s by w h ich th e s t a t u s o f th e b r i d e a s a m a rrie d woman i s e s t a b l i s h e d an d t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e i s i t s e l f one o f th o s e a c t s . The g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e m a r ria g e money s h o u ld la te r be handed o v e r , i n th e p re s e n c e o f w i t n e s s e s b u t wi t h o u t c e re m o n ia l o b se rv a n c e , by th e b r i d e 's f a t h e r to h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r who th e r e b y a ssu m e s r e s p o n ­ s i b i l i t y f o r r e t u r n i n g t h e e n t i r e amount o r a n a p p r o p r i a t e p o r t i o n o f i t i f th e m a r r ia g e i s d is s o lv e d th r o u g h f a u l t o f th e w if e . Any a s s i s t a n c e i n m aking t h e p aym ent t h a t may b e g iv e n t o th e groom o r h is f a t h e r on th is o ccasio n a re a c ts o f g e n e r o s i t y t o a k in sm a n ,T h e y depend on t h e c irc u m s ta n c e s o f t h e p e r s o n s c o n c e rn e d and c a n n o t h e r e g a r d ­ ed a s s p e c i f i c o b l i g a t i o n s . I t i s m o reo v er to be n o te d t h a t , r e l a t i v e t o th e w i f e 's f a t h e r and m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r , th e m a r ria g e money i s t o h e r e g a r d ­ ed a s p r o v id e d by th e h u sb a n d . I t i s h e , n o t h i s f a t h e r o r a n y o t h e r k in s ­ man, who c a n c la im i t s r e t u r n and th e f a c t t h a t i t i s t h e groom h im s e lf who o f f e r s i t i s em p h asised i n th e t r a n s f e r . The a g e m a te s o f th e groom , n o t h i s f a t h e r o r any o f th e f a t h e r ' s k in sm e n o r f r i e n d s , b r i n g i t t o t h e b rid e's compound and th e g ro o m 's f a t h e r i s n o t p r e s e n t a t th e t r a n s f e r . W hile th e m o th e r 's b r o t h e r o f th e b r i d e i s n o t e x p e c te d t o d i s t r i b u t e th e m a r ria g e money h e r e c e i v e s among h i s r e l a t i v e s m a t r i l i n e a l o r p a tri­ l i n e a l t h e r e i s a n o b l i g a t i o n on h i s c l o s e m a t r i l i n e a l k i n t o a s s i s t him i f n e c e s s a r y sh o u ld th e r e t u r n o f th e paym ent t o t h e groom become n e c e s s ­ a r y . T h is o b l i g a t i o n i s how ever n o t p e c u l i a r t o t h e m a r r ia g e paym ent . It i s bu t a n i n s ta n c e o f a g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e r e c o g n is e d i n Yakӧ law th a t r ig h ts i n and o b l i g a t i o n s c o n c e rn in g m o veable p r o p e r ty p a s s t o m a t r i l i n e a l k i n . I t i s t o be o b se rv e d i n th e f i r s t p l a c e t h a t t h e r e i s n o sym m etry o r d i r e c t r e c i p r o c i t y i n m a r ria g e p a y m e n ts. A f a t h e r p r o v i d in g f o r h i s son does n o t r e c e i v e f o r h i s d a u g h te r o r , m ore p r e c i s e l y , he r e c e i v e s on am uch s m a lle r s c a l e f o r h i s d a u g h te r th a n he g iv e s f o r h i s so n . A m o t h e r 's b ro ­ t h e r r e c e i v i n g f o r a b r i d e d o e s n o t g iv e c o r r e s p o n d in g ly f o r h e r b r o t h e r s . He g iv e s f o r h i s own so n . The u n o rth o d o x p ro c e d u r e w h ereb y a f a t h e r u s u r p s th e r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s o f th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r d o es h o w ev er e s t a b l i s h a p o t e n t i a l sym metry in t h i s r e s p e c t a lth o u g h a c t u a l sym m etry i s l i k e l y to he e x c e p t io n a l even th e n s i n c e few men w i l l h av e m a r r ia g e a b le so n s and d a u g h te r s i n e q u a l n um bers. Nor i s t h e r e sym m etry i n th e s o c i a l g ro u p s in­ v o lv e d ; t h e p r o v i d e r may n o t h e a g ro u p b u t t h e f a t h e r o r t h e groom a l o n e , bu t i f o t h e r kinsm en c o n t r i b u t e th e y a r e l i k e l y to i n c l u d e b o th p a t r i l i n e a l and m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e s o f th e groom who a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r o n ly by th e ir s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t s i n th e w e lf a r e o f th e groom . The g ro o m 's p a t r i l i n e a g e and c la n have no c o r p o r a te c o n c e rn i n th e t r a n s f e r o r i n i t s f u t u r e r e s t i ­ t u t i o n . N or does th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r r e c e i v e th e m a r r ia g e pay m en t a s a

54 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f th e b r i d e 's p a t r i l i n e a l o r m a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a g e s o r c la n s , He r e c e i v e s i t p e r s o n a lly a s a m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e . The f a t h e r and th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r o f th e b r i d e , who s h a r e th e mar­ r i a g e m oney, a r e a f f i n a l r e l a t i v e s b u t th e y r e c e i v e i t i n v i r t u e o f t h e i r k i n s h i p w ith th e b r i d e and th e r e l a t i o n s t o t h e h u sb an d w h ic h t h i s e n t a i l s do n o t conform w ith D r. E vans P r i t c h a r d 's s u g g e s tio n t h a t " i t i s th e r e l a ­ t i o n b etw een a man and h i s b r o t h e r s o r w i f e 's b r o t h e r s t h a t i s b e in g ex­ p r e s s e d ( i n b r i d e w e a lth d i s t r i b u t i o n ) . The d i s t r i b u t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y ,a n d I t h i n k e r r o n e o u s ly , t r e a t e d a s th o u g h i t w ere p r i m a r i l y a r e c o g n i t i o n o f . t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een a g i r l and h e r p a t r i l i n e a l a n d m a t r i l i n e a l u n cles."1 Among t h e Yakӧ i t c l e a r l y i s b e c a u s e h e i s th e b r i d e 's m a te r n a l u n c le n o t b e c a u s e he i s h e r f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w t h a t th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r r e c e iv e s th e g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f th e m a r r ia g e pay m en t. S in c e th e m a r ria g e paym ent i s n o t m a in ly r e t a i n e d b y th e f a t h e r i t c a n n o t b e c o n s id e r e d , and i s n o t r e g a r d e d by th e Yakö, a s p r i m a r i l y an indem­ n i t y f o r t h e l o s s o f th e g i r l when she le a v e s h e r f a t h e r ' s h o u se h o ld a n d th e d w e llin g a r e a of h i s p a t r i c l a n . 2 Nor i s i t an in d e m n ity t o th e m o th e r 's b r o t h e r w h o ,f a r from s u f f e r i n g an y l o s s , e x p e c t s h e r t o b e a r h i s h e i r s and m ig h t on t h e c o n tr a r y be e x p e c te d to owe an o b l i g a t i o n t o h e r h u sb an d f o r e n a b lin g h e r t o b e a r a n d r e a r them . T h ere i s a g a in no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t i s r e g a r d e d , o r a c t u a l l y o p e ra te s, among t h e Yakӧ i n th e m anner f u r t h e r s u g g e s te d by E vans P r i t c h a r d as a "m echanism o f e f f e c t i n g ex ch an g e o f women b etw een exogamous g ro u p s a l t e r n ­ a t i v e t o and m ore f l e x i b l e th a n w if e exchange o r p r e f e r e n t i a l m a tin g ” ; f o r t h e " p r i n c i p l e o f e q u iv a le n c e - i n r e t u r n f o r a w ife you r e c e i v e a w i f e " 3 w h ich i t i s c la im e d u n d e r l i e s b r i d e w e a lth i s h e re c o n s p ic u o u s ly a b s e n t. A­ mong t h e Yakӧ i n r e t u r n f o r m a r r ia g e money th e g i v e r o r h i s son re c e iv e s th e s e r v i c e s o f a w ife and r i g h t s o f c u s to d y an d p a t e r n i t y o v e r h e r c h i l ­ d r e n . I n r e t u r n f o r r e c e i v i n g m a r ria g e money and th e e x p e c t a t i o n o f h e i r s a Yakӧ r e c o g n i s e s th e r e l a t i o n s h i p an d assum es th e o b l i g a t i o n to re f u n d th e money i f h i s s i s t e r ' s d a u g h te r f a i l s th ro u g h h e r f a u l t t o p e rfo rm th o s e se r vic e s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The Yakӧ m a r ria g e paym ent u n l i k e some E a s t A f r ic a n fo rm s o f 'b r i d e ­ w e a lth ' i s n o t c o n tin u e d o v e r a lo n g p e r i o d . I t sh o u ld b e t r a n s f e r r e d com­ p l e t e when t h e m a rria g e i s e s t a b l i s h e d and r e t u r n e d c o m p le te , o r i n su c h p r o p o r t i o n a s i s a p p r o p r ia t e , when th e m a rria g e i s d is s o l v e d th r o u g h d e­ f a u l t o f th e w if e . No f u r t h e r p ay m en ts d u r in g th e p e r io d o f m a r r ia g e , a s 1 E vans P r i t c h a r d , E .E .

Man. 1 9 3 4 , 1 9 4 , p .1 7 4 .

2 R a d c l i f f e Brown, A.R.

Man. 1 9 2 9 , 96.

3 E vans P r i t c h a r d , E .E .

O p .c i t . , p .1 7 5 .

55 f o r i n s t a n c e a t th e b i r t h o f c h i l d r e n , a r e e x p e c te d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d th e p r o p o r t i o n r e t u r n a b l e on d i s s o l u t i o n i s made d e p e n d e n t on th e d u ra tio n and f e r t i l i t y o f th e u n io n . The d e a th o f e i t h e r sp o u se te r m i n a t e s th e l i a b i l i t y o f th e w i f e ’ s mat r i l i n e a l k i n . T h e re i s no d o u b t t h a t i t i s th e t r a n s f e r o f th e lib e m a n w h ic h g iv e s th e h u sb an d l e g a l r i g h t s to h i s w i f e 's s e r v i c e s and to th e s o c i a l f a t h e r ­ hood o f th e c h i l d r e n b o rn to h e r d u r in g th e m a r r ia g e . C o n v e rs e ly i f a man h ad h an d ed o v e r none o r o n ly p a r t o f th e m a r ria g e money b y th e tim e t h a t h is w if e comes t o l i v e w ith him and c o n tin u e s t o d e f e r t h e pay m en t w h ile r e f u s i n g to a llo w th e woman to d e p a r t , a n o r d e r may be o b ta in e d fro m t h e N a tiv e C o u rt r e q u i r i n g t h e r e t u r n o f t h e woman t o t h e c u s to d y o f h e r f a t h e r o r o f a m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm a n . The c o u r t r e c o r d s a t Umor in c lu d e s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s o f such o r d e r s b e in g so u g h t and o b ta in e d b y f a t h e r s o r by m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm e n . B e fo re t h e e s t a b li s h m e n t and g e n e r a l r e s o r t o f th e Yakӧ t o th e N a tiv e C o u rts su c h c la im s o f kin sm en w e re h e a r d a n d , i f e s t a b l i s h e d , e n fo r c e d by e i t h e r th e w ard h e a d s o r th e v i l l a g e c o u n c i l s . The r e t e n t i o n by t h e b r i d e 's f a t h e r o f a p o r t i o n o f t h e m a r r ia g e money, w hich e n t a i l s no f u t u r e o b l i g a t i o n s on h i s p a r t , e s t a b l i s h e s h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f th e m a r ria g e an d h i s c o n s e n t t o th e b r i d e 's d e p a r t u r e fro m h i s h o u s e h o ld ; b u t h e r e a g a in i t i s t o b e d o u b te d w h e th e r i t h a d th e c h a r a c t e r o f an in d e m n ity . A lth o u g h a Yakӧ f a t h e r u n d o u b te d ly re g a rd s t h i s s h a r e o f t h e m a r ria g e money a s a r i g h t , an d m ig h t sa y t h a t i t w as due t o him b e c a u se he had r e a r e d t h e b r i d e fro m c h ild h o o d - a lth o u g h t h i s i s i n f a c t by no means a lw a y s th e a c t u a l c a s e - h e c a n n o t b e c o n s id e r e d to s u f f e r l o s s s i n c e t h e r e i s no e x p e c t a tio n o f econom ic o r o t h e r b e n e f i t s from a d a u g h te r t h a t a r e f r u s t r a t e d by m a r r ia g e . The r e t e n t i o n o f a p o r t i o n o f th e m a r ria g e money by t h e f a t h e r , l i k e i t s i n i t i a l t r a n s f e r by th e groom t o h im , i s t o be a c c o u n te d f o r n o t by any econom ic v a lu e o f a d a u g h te r , n o r b y c o m p e n sa tio n f o r l o s s o f t h e p r e s e n c e i n h i s h o u se h o ld o f a lo v e d c h i l d . I t i s to be e x p la in e d b y th e f a c t o f p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y i n th e h o u s e h o ld . A f a t h e r h a s e s ta b lis h e d rig h t to c o n t r o l th e d o m ic ile o f h i s u n m a rrie d c h i l d r e n . No d a u g h te r may l e g a l l y go o r be rem oved from h i s h o u se h o ld and p a r e n t a l a u th o r it y w ith o u t h i s c o n s e n t. The a c c e p ta n c e o f th e m a r r ia g e money a n d th e r e t e n t i o n o f a p o r t i o n o f i t m arks th e t e r m i n a ti o n o f t h e f a t h e r ' s p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y and p l a c e s him u n d e r a l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n to c o n s e n t t o h i s d a u g h t e r 's d e p a r tu r e from h i s h o u s e h o ld . H is s h a r e o f th e m a r ria g e paym ent i s a con­ s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h a t c o n s e n t. B ut th e husb an d i s s e c u r in g a t m a r ria g e n o t m e re ly t h e c u r ta ilm e n t o f p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y o v e r th e b r i d e . He i s a l s o p l a c i n g th e b r i d e u n d e r o b l i g a t i o n t o p e rfo rm c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s . S h o u ld sh e f a i l c o m p e n s a tio n can­ n o t he s e c u r e d from th e b r i d e h e r s e l f an d th e o b l i g a t i o n t o r e t u r n th e m arriage money to th e h u sb an d d e v o lv e s n o t on t h e f a t h e r b u t on th o s e who i n

56 Yakӧ law h av e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e n s u r in g th e f u l f i l m e n t o r c o m p e n s a tio n o f a l l p e r s o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s nam ely th e m a t r i l i n e a l k i n . I t i s on account o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l o b l i g a t i o n t h a t a m a t r i l i n e a l kinsm an i s c o n s id e r e d e n ­ t i t l e d t o c la im from th e f a t h e r th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e p a y m e n t.I t sh o u ld b e o b s e rv e d t h a t t h i s o b l i g a t i o n c o v e rs th e w hole o f th e m a r ria g e money i n c l u d in g th e p o r t i o n r e t a i n e d by th e f a t h e r . I t i s n o t a n o b lig a tio n to r e t u r n w hat was r e c e i v e d b u t a t o t a l o b l i g a t i o n i n r e s p e c t o f th e payme n t made by th e h u sb a n d . T h at th e k in sm a n to u n d e r ta k e i t an d to r e c e i v e th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e m a r ria g e money i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u ld b e th e mother's b r o t h e r i s c o n so n a n t w ith th e Yakö p r i n c i p l e o f m a t r i l i n e a l tr a n s m is s io n . As th e c l o s e s t m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm an s e n i o r i n g e n e r a t io n t o th e w ife com­ p e n s a t io n w ould b e c la im e d from him i f sh e sh o u ld f a i l i n h e r m a r i t a l o b l i g a t i o n s , w h ile h e r m a t r i l i n e a l b r o t h e r s a r e s u c c e s s o r s t o b o th t h i s o b l i g a t i o n a n d to th e p r o p e r ty o f th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r . Thus Y akö 'b r i d e w e a l t h ' c a n n o t b e s a id to h a v e a s i n g l e value o r so c ia l f u n c t i o n . T h is t r a n s f e r o f p r o p e r t y ta k e s p la c e i n a com plex s o c i a l co n ­ t e x t and i s v a r i o u s l y r e l a t e d to t h e s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t s in v o l v e d . I t ex­ p r e s s e s th e v a lu e o f a w ife t o h e r h u sb a n d an d e n s u r e s h i s i n t e n t i o n to m a in ta in a s t a b l e u n io n . I t re w a rd s th e b r i d e 's f a t h e r f o r th e r e n u n c i­ a t i o n o f h i s p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y w h ile e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s c o n s e n t and t h a t o f th e m a t r i l i n e a l k in t o th e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m a r i t a l r i g h t s b y th e h u s­ b an d . I t r e i n f o r c e s th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f m a t r i l i n e a l k i n f o r e n s u r in g t h a t th e w ife s h a l l f u l f i l h e r m a r i t a l o b l i g a t i o n s by g i v i n g th e c l o s e s t s e n i o r m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm an o f th e b r i d e a p e c u n ia r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r h e r good c o n d u c t. When th e r e i s no s u b s e q u e n t t r a n s f e r o f m a r ria g e money fro m th e f a ­ t h e r t o th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r o f th e b r i d e r e c o g n i t i o n o f th e h u s b a n d 's m a r i t a l r i g h t s i s c o n fin e d t o t h e f a t h e r , an d i t i s a c c e p t e d t h a t th e m a t r i l i n e a l k in o f th e w ife h av e n o o b l i g a t i o n t o c o m p e n sa te th e h u sb an d f o r d e f e c t i o n on h e r p a r t . C o n tra ry t o t h e g e n e r a l Yakö p r i n c i p l e o f th e e x c lu s iv e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f m a t r i l i n e a l k i n s f o l k f o r p e r s o n a l dalinque n c e , th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e f a t h e r f o r th e good c o n d u c t o f th e w ife in su ch c ir c u m s ta n c e s h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d . C hanges i n th e Amounts o f M a rria g e Money. M a rria g e p ay m en ts h av e a lw a y s , so f a r a s Yakӧ memory e x te n d s , alw ay s b e e n made m a in ly i n c u r­ re n c y a lth o u g h i n e a r l i e r d a y s when game was m ore a b u n d a n t an d h u n tin g m ore a c t i v e smoked b u sh m eat w h ich th e b r i d e 's f a t h e r u s e d f o r th e wed­ d in g f e a t s c o u ld b e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r c u r r e n c y . O ld e r men m e n tio n e d smok­ ed l e g s o f a n te l o p e t o th e num ber o f from t e n to tw e n ty a s b e in g custom ­ a r y . T hese c o n v e r te d a t a s t a n d a r d r a t e , o f f s e t a c o r r e s p o n d in g amount o f r o d c u r r e n c y . One a c c o u n t r e f e r r e d t o two o r m ore e n t i r e antelope c a r ­ o a s e s , v a lu e d a t 30 r o d s e a c h , b u n d le s o f s p l i t c r e e p e r f o r fa rm and h a r ­ v e s t s t a c k t y i n g , v a lu e d a t 3 r o d s e a c h a n d 40 c a la b a s h e s o f w in e v a lu e d a t 20 r o d s a s f r e q u e n t ite m s i n th e p ay m ent. B ut th e p r a c t i c e o f m aking

57 p a r t o f th e m a r r ia g e paym ent i n fo o d s u p p l i e s and o t h e r g o o d s h a s now d i s ­ a p p e a re d . F o r t h e l a s t 20 y e a r s o r so m a r r ia g e p ay m en ts i n Umar a t l e a s t have n e a r l y alw a y s b een made i n N ig e r i a n c o in a g e , b e f o r e t h a t b r a s s r o d s w ere u s e d as f a r a s my r e c o r d s o f a c t u a l p ay m en ts e x te n d , a lth o u g h i t was som etim es c la im e d t h a t i n a m ore re m o te p a s t t h e 'h o e money ' ( n k a s e ) , w h ich i s u s e d to d a y o n ly cerem onially, was a medium o f pay m en t. I e n d eav o u re d to o b ta i n d a t a on th e am ounts o f th e p ay m en ts a t t h e m a rria g e s o f th e o l d e s t l i v i n g women, b u t f o r a g e s e t s p r i o r t o V I I I i . e . f o r women 55 y e a r s o ld an d o v e r i n 1 9 3 9 , i . e . l i k e l y to h a v e b e e n firs t m a rrie d f o r t y o r m ore y e a r s a g o , s t a te m e n ts w e re so u n ifo rm t h a t I su sp e c t t h a t a s t a n d a r d am ount, r a t h e r th a n t h e a c t u a l p a y m e n t, was f r e q u e n t l y giv­ en. T h is s t a n d a r d amount was 440 r o d s . Paym ents s t a t e d t o h a v e b e e n made a t th e f i r s t m a r ria g e o f e le v e n women o f a g e s e t a V I I I & IX ( c .4 8 t o 55 y e a r s o ld i n 19 3 9 ) and l i k e l y t o h a v e b e e n f i r s t m a r rie d b e tw e e n t h i r t y to f o r t y y e a r s ag o ra n g e d fro m 440 t o 240 r o d s , n in e o f them b e in g a t th e h ig h e r f i g u r e . Among th e sam ple o f s e v e n te e n women o f s e t X , l i k e l y t o have b e e n f i r s t m a r rie d b e tw e e n 32 a n d 26 y e a r s a g o , f u l l p ay m en t o f 440 ro d s w ere a s s e r t e d i n se v e n i n s t a n c e s , i n f i v e c a s e s o n ly h a l f t h i s a­ mount was p a id w h ile th r e e o t h e r s p ay m e n ts w e re s a i d t o h a v e b e e n made i n N ig e ria n c u r r e n c y c o n s i s t i n g o f s i x g u in e a s i n two o a s e s an d f i v e i n t h e t h i r d . F o r t h e women o f th e n e x t j u n i o r s e t (X I) f i r s t m a r r ie d b e tw e e n a p p ro x im a te ly 22 an d 26 y e a r s a g o , i . e . a ro u n d 1 9 1 5 , pay m en t i n N ig e r i a n c u rre n c y was g e n e r a l . I n o n ly f o u r o f th e n i n e t e e n c a s e s w as paym entm ade in ro d s o f am ou n ts r a n g in g fro m 440 t o 4 2 0 , w h ile a l l th e r e s t w e re i n c u r r e n c y , 9 o f s i x g u in e a s and 2 o f f i v e g u in e a s . From t h a t tim e f i v e t o s ix g u in e a s re m a in e d th e s t a n d a r d am ount o f m a r r ia g e money e x p e c te d f o r n e a r l y two d e c a d e s . B ut th e p ay m en ts a c t u a l l y made w e re c o n s i d e r a b l y le s s i n a m i n o r i ty o f c a s e s a t th e m a r r ia g e s o f women o f s e t s X III-X V (m a r r ie d betw een 8 a nd 24 y e a r s a g o ) whi l e a f t e r th o s e of s e t XVI t h e a m o u n ts d e­ manded by t h e b r i d e ' s p a r e n t s d e c li n e d i n many c a s e s t o b e tw e e n £ 3 .0 1 5 . 0 and £ 1 .1 0 .0 w h ile i t w as r a r e f o r m ore th a n £3 t o be h a n d e d o v e r . D u rin g th e e i g h t y e a r s im m e d ia te ly b e f o r e 1939 p ay m en ts o c c a s i o n a l l y f e l l a s low a s £1 o r 1 0 / - and w h ile £ 5 . 5 . 0 h a s s t i l l b e e n r e g a r d e d a s t h e p r o p e r a­ mount f o r a m a r r ia g e paym ent i t was dem anded i n o n ly a m i n o r i ty o f th e t h i r t y se v e n m a r r ia g e s re c o r d e d and o n ly q u i t e e x c e p t i o n a l l y h a n d e d o v e r . Thus among tw e n ty n in e women o f s e t XVII f i r s t m a r r ie d d u r i n g th e p re v io u s s ix y e a r s , f i v e g u in e a s was a s k e d a s m a r r ia g e paym ent i n s i x t e e n , b u t w as a c t u a l l y p a id i n o n ly se v e n i n s t a n c e s . £ 2 .1 0 .0 o r l e s s w as a s k e d i n t h i r ­ te e n c a s e s and £ 1 .1 0 .0 o r l e s s was a c t u a l l y h a n d ed o v e r i n f o u r t e e n c a s e s . Among e le v e n m a r r ie d women o f s e t X V III t h e r e i s o n ly one i n s t a n c e of f i v e g u in e a s b e in g a s k e d and p a id . The Yakӧ th e m s e lv e s a t t r i b u t e t h i s r e c e n t d e c li n e i n t h e am o u n ts o f m a rria g e p ay m en ts t o a s e v e r e r e d u c t i o n i n th e am ounts o f c u r r e n c y i n lo c ­ a l c i r c u l a t i o n on a c c o u n t o f th e s e r i e s o f s e v e r e f a l l s i n th e p r i c e s paid by th e C ro ss R iv e r and C a la b a r f a c t o r i e s f o r palm o i l p r o d u c t s . T h e re i s

58 no d o u b t t h a t th e f l u c t u a t i o n o f o i l and k e r n e l p r i c e s i n re c e n t y e a r s have r e s u l t e d i n a s e v e r e n e t d e c l i n e . W hile p alm o i l p r o d u c tio n among th e Yakӧ h a s b e e n m a in ta in e d and p e rh a p s s l i g h t l y i n c r e a s e d d u r in g t h e s e y e a r s o f d e p r e s s io n t h e d e c li n e i n p r i c e s h a s c e r t a i n l y n o t s t i m u l a t e d in c r e a s e d p r o d u c tio n s u f f i c i e n t to m a in ta in th e money incom es o f tw e n ty y e a r s ag o . A t th e same tim e th e demand f o r E u ro p ean t r a d e g o o d s h a s b e e n m a in ta in e d , and even i n c r e a s e d . C lo th s , m a tc h e ts an d enam el w are a r e in d e e d n e c e s s i ­ t i e s to d a y . The o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c c u m u la tin g c u rr e n c y h a v e th e r e f o r e been s e r io u s ly c u r t a il e d in re c e n t y e a rs . On th e o t h e r h and th e m arked d ev elopm ent o f p e t t y t r a d i n g by men o f th e y o u n g e r a g e s e t s i n th e l a s t d ec a d e and th e o c c a s io n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r y o u th s to w ork a s la b o u r e r s i n G overnment s e r v i c e h a v e g iv e n a s m a ll m i n o r i ty o f young men m ore opp o rtu n ­ i t i e s f o r a c c u m u la tin g c u rr e n c y th a n th e y w o u ld have h ad a t e a r l i e r tim e s . The i n c r e a s e o f o c c a s io n a l t r a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s among y o u n g e r Yakӧ men who f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t , e i t h e r on t h e i r own a c c o u n t o r a s s e r v a n ts o f t r a d e r s , th e l a r g e c o a s t a l and i n t e r i o r m a rk e ts o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n N i g e r i a , and th e s p e c u l a t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f palm o i l p r o d u c tio n have t o g e t h e r w ith a d e c li n e i n th e s o l i d a r i t y o f th e c l a n s and th e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e i r p r i e s t s and e ld ­ e r s com bined t o e n c o u ra g e econom ic in d i v id u a l is m i n r e c e n t y e a r s . I g a in ­ ed th e im p r e s s io n , w h ic h c o u ld u n f o r t u n a t e l y n o t b e d e m o n s tra te d by a d e ­ q u a te c a s e m a t e r i a l , t h a t th e c i r c l e o f m u tu a l a i d i n econom ic a f f a i r s i n ­ v o lv in g g i f t s o f c u rr e n c y o r p ro d u c e h a d n a rro w e d i n r e c e n t tim e s and t h a t p ro s p e ro u s men w ere re a d y to u s e t h e i r w e a lth o n ly f o r th e b e n e f i t o f th e ir c lo s e s t r e la tiv e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e amount o f m a r ria g e paym ent i s o f c o u rs e r e ­ l a t i v e to th e w e a lth o r r a t h e r th e command o v e r c u rre n c y i n th e community a s a w h o le. S ta te m e n ts by a number o f men who had b e e n p ro d u c in g palm p r o d u c ts f o r a d e c a d e o r m ore i n d i c a t e t h a t th e more r e c e n t s t a n d a r d m ar­ r i a g e paym ent o f £ 5 . 5. 0 w as r a t h e r l e s s th a n th e r e t u r n t o w h ic h a man c o u ld , by t h e la b o u r o f h i s own h o u se h o ld and d e p e n d e n ts , o b t a i n i n one y e a r by th e s a l e o f p alm o i l b e f o r e th e d e p r e s s io n o f p r i c e s i n re c e n t years. The k e r n e l s p ro d u c e d i n su c h a h o u se h o ld p ro d u c e d a f u r t h e r money incom e f o r t h e w ife o r w iv e s , who among th e Yakӧ h a v e th e c u sto m a ry r i g h t t o s e ll them in d e p e n d e n tly f o r t h e i r own b e n e f i t . Thus th e e s t i m a t e s o f p r e - d e ­ p r e s s i o n incom es from p alm p r o d u c ts i n e i g h t h o u s e h o ld s o f men w ith one o r two w iv e s ra n g e d from £5 t o £10 f o r o i l an d fro m £ 2 .1 0 . 0 t o £5 f o r k e r n e l s . R e c e n t a n n u a l incom es f o r p alm p r o d u c ts h ad i n 1939 f a l l e n to l e s s th a n h a l f o f t h e s e f i g u r e s . 1 The r e l a t i v e v a lu e o f t h e m a rria g e 1F a c to r y p r i c e s a t Umuahia i n S. E . N i g e r i a , ( w it h w hich t h e p r i c e s a t E d ib a ­ on th e C ro ss R iv e r se v e n m ile s from Umor an d t h e c h i e f l o c a l w h o le sa le m a r­ k e t f o r p alm o i l u s e d by t h e Yakӧ - a r e known from c o m p a riso n s' made i n 1935 an d 1939 to c o rr e s p o n d c l o s e l y ) p e r 4 g a l l o n t i n o f s e m i-h a r d o i l ( t h e Yakӧ q u a l i t y ) ra n g e d fro m 5 /4 d to 101/2d i n th e p e r io d from A p r i l 1935 t o March 1 939, and was f o r m o st o f t h i s p e r i o d a ro u n d 2 /6 d p e r t i n . I n th e e a r ly tw e n tie s s e m i-h a rd o i l had f e t c h e d m ore th a n 1 0 / - p e r 4 g a l l o n t i n over c o n s id e ra b le p e rio d s .

59 paym ents may a l s o b e e x p re s s e d i n te rm s o f yams th e fo o d s t a p l e o f w h ich c o n s id e r a b le q u a n t i t i e s a r e e v e ry y e a r s o ld f o r e x p o r t down r i v e r . P l a n t ­ in g tim e p r i c e s f o r medium s i z e d yams i n Timor w ere i n t h e y e a r s fro m 1935 to 1939 aro u n d 6 / - p e r 1 0 0 .1 As th e m odal and mean h a r v e s t s o f Yakö fa rm s , b ased on a sam ple o f 97 fa rm s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n 1 9 3 5 , w e re a p p ro x im a te ly 1900 and 2500 u n i t s o f medium s i z e d yams r e s p e c t i v e l y an d a c o n s i d e r a b l e num­ b e r o f th e l a r g e r fa rm s y ie l d e d up to 5 0 0 0 u n i t s o f medium yams2 i t i s c l e a r t h a t a m a r ria g e paym ent o f £ 5 .5 . 0 r e p r e s e n t s i n te rm s o f r e c e n t yam p r i c e s s l i g h t l y l e s s th a n th e modal v a lu e an d c o n s id e r a b ly l e s s th a n th e mean v a ­ lu e o f th e a n n u a l yam h a r v e s t s p e r fa rm nam ely a p p ro x im a te ly £ 5 . 14. 0 and £7. 10. 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t m ust how ever be b o rn e i n mind f i r s t t h a t a h a r ­ v e s t i s th e j o i n t p r o p e r ty o f a man an d one o r more w iv e s and se c o n d ly t h a t a c o n s id e r a b le p a r t o f i t i s r e q u i r e d f o r r e p l a n t i n g in th e f o l lo w in g y e a r . Only a s m a ll p a r t o f th e h a r v e s t o f an o r d i n a r y fa rm i s a v a i l a b l e f o r con­ v e r s io n i n t o c u rr e n c y . These e s t im a te s i n d i c a t e th e r e l a t i o n o f t h e s c a l e o f m a r ria g e paym ents t o th e r e s o u r c e s o f Yakö h o u s e h o ld s b u t th e y c a n n o t be ta k e n to im p ly t h a t a groom o r h i s f a t h e r c a n e a s i l y r e a l i s e th e sum n e c e s s a r y f o r m aking a m a r ria g e paym ent. Non-paym ent o f M a rria g e Money. D u rin g r i a g e paym ents I came a c r o s s a few c a s e s , a though no paym ent o r th e m ost t r i v i a l to k e n e n ts o f th e b r i d e had p e r m itte d h e r t o j o i n in g th e m a r ria g e h ad r e s ig n e d th e m s e lv e s to

my e n q u i r i e s c o n c e rn in g m ar­ l l v e r y r e c e n t , i n w h ic h , a l­ pay m en t h ad b e e n m a d e ,th e p a r ­ h e r h u sb a n d an d w h ile re c o g n is ­ non-p ay m en t o f lib e m a n .

I n very r e c e n t y e a r s , m o s tly s i n c e 1935 and m a in ly ow ing t o th e f a l l o f o i l p r i c e s an d th e s c a r c i t y o f c u rre n c y a num ber o f young men h a v e b een u n a b le to o b ta i n s u f f i c i e n t to make even th e re d u c e d p aym ent o f £1 w h ich h as b een f r e q u e n t l y a c c e p te d i n f u l l s e t t l e m e n t . A t th e same tim e th o s e r e s p o n s ib l e f o r th e rep ay m en t o f m a r ria g e money on b e h a l f o f a wife m a r r ie d s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e who d e s e r te d h e r h u sb an d h a v e o f t e n b e e n p la c e d in d i f f i c u l t y . Where a s i s c u sto m a ry t h r e e - o r f o u r - f i f t h s o f a n o r i g i n a l m a rria g e paym ent o f £ 5 . 5. 0 i s aw ard ed by th e N a tiv e C o u rt t o a d e s e r t e d husband i t h a s become a v e ry s e v e r e ta x on th e m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm an o f t h e w ife t o am ass t h i s am ount. B oth t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e e n c o u ra g in g t h e r e c o g n i ti o n o f m a r ria g e w ith o u t m a r ria g e p a y m en t, a p r a c t i c e w h ic h I h e a rd d e s c r ib e d a s i n t r i n s i c a l l y d e s i r a b l e by some y o u n g e r p a r e n t s an d m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r s a s g iv i n g th e young women f o r whom they' w e re r e s p o n s i b l e m o re fre e ­ dom t o le a v e bad h u sb a n d s. A lre a d y i n a few c a s e s t h e r e h a s b e e n fo r m a l 1The mean f i g u r e o f a number o f s a l e s re c o r d e d o v e r t h i s p e r i o d . 2

F or m ethods w hereby th e s e d a ta w e re o b ta in e d s e e F o r d e , Land and L abour i n a C ro ss R iv e r V i l l a g e , S. N i g e r i a , G eog. J o u r n . , 9 0 , 1 9 3 7 , p p . 2 4 -5 1 .

60 r e c o r d in g o f su c h a m a r r ia g e , o r more p r e c i s e l y o f t h e n o n -p ay m en t o f m ar­ r i a g e money, i n th e p re s e n c e o f th e Ward H ead. The f a t h e r an d th e m o t h e r 's br o t h e r h av e t o l d th e groom t o come w ith them a t an a p p o in te d tim e t o th e Ward Head (O bot K ek p attt) b r i n g in g 2 / - t o d e c l a r e t h a t h e i s m a r ry in g w ith ­ o u t m aking an y m a r ria g e paym ent. The Ward Head c a l l s a w r i t e r t o whom he g iv e s l / - f o r p r e p a r i n g a w r i t t e n s ta te m e n t i n E n g lis h o f w h ic h one copy i s k e p t by th e Ward Head and th e o t h e r by th e w i f e . The t e x t o f one su c h s ta te m e n t r a n ; T h is i s to show t h a t th e in t e n d i n g h u sb an d . . . h a s n o tp a i d dowry t o m e .. . [ f a t h e r ] and she i s a llo w e d t o go f r e e w h en ev er sh e w is h e s t o d iv o r c e . The eye e v id e n c e o f th o s e f o llo w in g s [the names o f two m e s se n g e rs o f th e Ward Head] C h i e f . . . . . . . . . h i s (X) m ark W itn e ss to m ark and w r i t e r . . . . . T h is p r a c t i c e h a s b e e n a d o p te d a s a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t f u t u r e c la im s on th e w i f e 's k i n i n th e N a tiv e C o u rt. The p r e p a r a t i o n o f a w r i t t e n d e c l a r a ­ t i o n i n E n g li s h shows th e i n f lu e n c e o f th e C o u rt p ro c e d u r e i n w h ic h an E n g lis h summary o f c a s e s i s p re p a r e d by th e C le r k a s a r e c o r d s u b j e c t to i n s p e c t i o n by th e A d m in is tr a tiv e O f f i c e r . A lth o u g h r e d u c t io n a n d , i n a few c a s e s o m is s io n , o f m a r ria g e paym ent have e a s e d th e s t r e s s d u r in g th e r e c e n t y e a r s o f sh ru n k e n money in c o m e s, d i s p u t e s o v e r m a r r ia g e p ay m en ts h a v e n o t th e r e b y b e e n e l i m i n a t e d . In d e e d th e y a r e s a i d by th e o l d e r men to be more f r e q u e n t th a n i n th e o ld d a y s when e v e ry one knew how much th e lib e m a n was a n d th e c h i e f s ( i.e . th e v i l l a g e h e a d an d l e a d e r s o f th e mat r i c l a n s c o n s t i t u t i n g th e Yabӧ t ) c o u ld ju d g e q u ic k l y an d com pel paym ent w ith i n a r e a s o n a b le tim e . An exam ple from Umor w h ic h e x te n d e d o v e r my two p e r i o d s o f w ork among th e Yakӧ w i l l s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e th e s e t t i n g and some o f th e c o m p lic a tio n s in v o lv e d i n s u c h d i s p u t e s . A g i r l E n i o f a g e - s e t XVII was l i v i n g w ith a s i s t e r o f h e r m o th e r i n Id jim a n w ard a s h e r own p a r e n t s w e re d e a d . She b e ­ came b e t r o t h e d i n 1933 to a y o u th Us a n i o f Id ju m who made a b e t r o t h a l g i f t o f 1 0 / - i n l i e u o f fa rm s e r v i c e s to h e r m o t h e r 's s e n i o r b r o t h e r O k o i. In 1934 b e f o r e th e Lebokü r i t e s sh e h ad a li k p ö k ō t w edding a s sh e w as a lre a d y p r e g n a n t b u t no m a r ria g e paym ent was m ade. H er c h i l d was b o rn a t th e end o f th e y e a r , w h ile sh e was s t i l l i n h e r m a te r n a l a u n t 's h o u s e , b u t d ie d when o n ly a m onth o ld . A few m onths l a t e r a t th e end o f th e p l a n t i n g s e a ­ son (a b o u t May) i n 1935 h e r j u n i o r m a te r n a l u n c l e , Ūb i - h e rm o th e r' s s e n i o r b r o t h e r h a v in g d i e d i n th e m eantim e - w en t t o th e g ro o m 's f a t h e r to rem in d him t h a t t h e m a r ria g e money h ad n o t b e e n p a i d a t l i k p ӧkōt and i t w as tim e i t sh o u ld b e h an d ed o v e r. The f a t h e r p ro m is e d t o come on t h e n e x t kokö t o s e t t l e th e amount on h i s s o n 's b e h a l f an d make a f i r s t p ay m en t. He came, b u t b ro u g h t o n ly a c a la b a s h o f palm w ine a s k in g Ūb i to be p a t i e n t a s he h ad no money. A bout a m onth l a t e r th e f a t h e r f e l l su d d e n ly i l l and d ie d . A f t e r th e f u n e r a l r i t e s Ūb i w ent t o th e groom , U s a n i, re m in d in g him he w ould h av e to p r o v id e t h e m a r ria g e money. He s a i d h e had no money y e t b u t would pay l a t e r .

61 D u rin g t h i s fa rm in g s e a s o n Ūs a n i bu i l t E n i a h o u se i n h i s l a t e f a t h e r 's compound an d sh e w ent t o l i v e t h e r e a f t e r th e h a r v e s t . The b r i d e ' s m a te r n a l a u n t came t o t e l l h e r b r o t h e r Ūb i o f t h i s s a y in g i t w ould so o n b e tim e f o r E n i t o go and p l a n t h e r h u s b a n d 's f i r s t fa rm . She u rg e d t h a t Ūb i sh o u ld l e t her do t h i s an d s t a y i n th e h o u se Ūs a n i had p ro v id e d a lth o u g h th e m a r r ia g e paym ent h ad n o t y e t b e e n made. As E n i w as a g a in p r e g n a n t and Ūb i h o p ed Ūs a n i wouldmake th e paym ent d u r in g th e com ing y e a r h e a g r e e d . Ūs a n i h a d a s m a ll fa rm p l o t i n w hich he p l a n t e d o n ly 20 t o 25 s t i c k s o f yam s. E n i 's second c h i l d was b o rn b e f o r e th e h a r v e s t o f 1 9 3 6 . T h is s e c o n d c h ild , a b o y , was a ls o s i c k l y and d ie d i n t h e f o llo w in g p l a n t i n g s e a s o n e a r l y i n 1937 w h ile E ni h e r s e l f was v e ry i l l . She came t o Ūb i d u r in g th e fa r m in g s e a s o n i n a b o u t J u l y 1937 t o s a y t h a t sh e w a n te d t o j o i n some f r i e n d s who w ere g o in g to A goi Ib a m i, a v i l l a g e a b o u t tw e lv e m i le s e a s t o f Umor, to c o n s u l t a w e ll-k n o w n m a g ic ia n i n th e hope o f f i n d i n g o u t why h e r c h i l d r e n d i e d .T h i s m a g ic ia n p e r ­ form ed th e I t e n g a d i v i n a t i o n w i t h s t r i n g s o f n a t i v e mango s e e d s h e l l s a n d sh e r e t u r n e d fro m A goi to t e l l Ūb i t h a t th e m a g ic ia n h a d s a i d t h a t i t w as b e c a u s e h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r 's b r e a s t h a d n o t c o o le d from t h e a n g e r a t t h e r e f u s a l o f h e r husb an d t o p ay th e m a r ria g e money t h a t h e r c h i l d r e n h a d d i e d . He h a d t o l d h e r t o t e l l h e r husband t o g iv e h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r a b a c k l e g o f smoked an ­ t e l o p e , an d a 4 s e c tio n e d k o la to t a k e to th e p r i e s t o f h e r m a t r i e l a n cla n shrin e f o r th e p e rfo rm a n c e o f th e 'c o o l i n g ' r i t e i n w h ic h th e p r i e s t a n d e l d e r s of th e c l a n sp ra y w a te r on th e p a t i e n t a t dawn on a kokö d a y . Ūb i c a l l e d th e h u sb a n d U sa n i to h i s h o u s e , a sk e d i f h e h a d b e e n t o l d by h i s w if e o f th e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f th e I t e n g a m a g ic ia n . He s a i d h e h a d , w as w i l l i n g to p r o v id e t h e m eat fo r th e r i t e an d w ould do so when h e n e x t w en t to A goi t o buy b u s h m eat f o r t r a d ­ i n g . B ut a m onth l a t e r Emi came t o h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r a g a in a n d s a i d sh e c o u ld n o t p e rs u a d e h e r h u sb an d t o f u l f i l h i s p ro m ise and when sh e p r e s s e d him he had s a i d he was t i r e d o f h e r an d h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r an d t h e i r c o n tin u a l r e q u e s t s . Ūb i th e n s e n t f o r him a g a in an d h e came o n ly a t a s e c o n d c a l l i n g to deny t h a t h e had r e f u s e d t o p r o v i d e m eat f o r th e cerem ony. E n i w as p re g n a n t a g a in a t th e b e g in n in g o f 1 9 3 6 , h e r h u sb a n d h a d s till b ro u g h t no o f f e r i n g f o r th e 'c o o l i n g ' r i t e . B e fo re th e h a r v e s t o f 1938 Eni b o re a g i r l c h i l d who d ie d i n a few d ay s and Ūb i w ent to Ūs a n i i n g r e a t a n g e r s a y i n g : - " T h is i s th e t h i r d c h i l d t h a t h a s d ie d . You rem em ber w h at th e m a g i­ c ia n s a i d . A ll th e s e c h i l d r e n o f o u r m a t r i c l a n , a r e d y in g b e c a u s e of your g r e e d in e s s and l a z i n e s s . " The h u sb a n d a p p e a re d c o n t r i t e , a sk e d Ūb i t o f o r g i v e him an d p ro m ise d t o make th e o f f e r i n g w ith i n one o r two k o k ӧ s w h ile E n i d e c la r­ ed b e f o r e h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r t h a t he m ust make th e o f f e r i n g b e f o r e th e y h a d i n t e r c o u r s e a g a in . I n a few d a y s , h o w ev er, Ūs a n i t o l d h i s w if e h e h ad n o money to buy th e l e g o f a n te lo p e and t r i e d to s le e p w ith h e r . She came t o Ūb i to t e l l him and h e o rd e r e d h e r to go b a c k and f e t c h h e r b e lo n g in g s from , th e h o u se a t o n ce. She d i d so and Ūb i g a v e h e r a n em pty w om an's h o u se i n h i s own com­ pound to l i v e i n . In a d ay o r two th e h u sb an d came t o Ūb i b r i n g i n g a c a la b a s h o f w ine and accom panied by two m e s se n g e rs o f th e h e a d o f Ūb i ' s w ard an d one o f th e V ill a g e Head to whom h e h ad a p p e a le d . Ūs a n i h a d c o m p la in e d o f th e a l l e g e d

62 d e s e r t i o n o f h i s w ife a t th e i n s t i g a t i o n o f h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r a s s e r t i n g t h a t h e h ad t r e a t e d h e r w e ll b u t c o n c e a lin g b o th th e d is p u te o v e r th e p a y ­ m ent o f m a rria g e money and h i s b re a c h o f p ro m ise a b o u t th e ' c o o l i n g ' r i t e . The m e sse n g e rs u rg e d Ūb i to a llo w h i s w ife t o r e t u r n w h ile Ūs a n i p ro m ise d b e f o r e them t o make th e o f f e r i n g f o r th e 'c o o l i n g ' r i t e a t th e s h r in e of h e r m a t r i c l a n . Ūb i a g re e d t h a t sh e sh o u ld r e t u r n to h e r h u sb an d . A l i t t l e a f t e r th e h a r v e s t E n i t o l d Ūb i t h a t Ūs a n i had s a i d h e w ould n o t make th e o f f e r i n g and h ad a b u se d Ūb i t o h e r . Ūb i th e n w ent w ith h e r to th e V ill a g e Head and th e n t o th e Head o f h i s w ard to t e l l them h i s v e r s i o n o f th e d i s p u t e . They a g re e d t h a t he m ig h t ta k e E n i away from Ūs a n i and he d id so im m e d ia te ly . Ūs a n i came a g a in w ith s e v e r a l f r i e n d s an d c a la b a s h e s o f w in e a s k in g Ūb i to r e l e n t . Ūb i r e f u s e d s a y in g t h a t E n i w ould n o t r e t u r n t o Ūs a n i u n t i l he ha d p ro v id e d th e o f f e r i n g f o r p e rfo rm in g th e cerem ony.H e r e t u r n e d th e n ex t day and a g a in a few d a y s l a t e r to p le a d f o r h i s w i f e 's r e t u r n b u t Ūb i r e f u s e d to budge and on th e l a s t o c c a s io n s a id t h a t Ūs a n i was t o go t o h i s yam s t a c k w ith him and E n i t o p o i n t o u t h e r yams so t h a t th e y m ight be c a r r i e d to th e s t a c k o f o n e o f t h e i r m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm en who fa rm ed on t h a t p a th . Ū s a n i r e f u s e d to do t h i s and Ūb i th e n w ent t o one o f th e s e n i o r e l d e r s of Ūs a n i ' s p a t r i c l an to t e l l him of th e d e c i s i o n o f th e V i l l a g e Head and to co m p lain o f Ūs a n i ' s c o n d u c t. Ūb i was n o t p r e p a r e d to ta k e th e yams w ith o u t h a v in g them p o in t e d o u t l e s t h e be a c c u s e d o f t h e f t o r c a u s e a f i g h t a t th e s t a c k . The o ld men o f Ūs a n i ' s p a t r i c l a n s a i d i t was n o t good f o r E n i to le a v e h e r hu sb an d and t r i e d to p u t Ūb i o f f , p ro ­ m is in g to in f lu e n c e Ūs a n i t o b eh av e p r o p e r ly and s a y in g t h a t th e y w ould send him to comply w ith Ūb i ' s w is h e s and b e g f o r th e r e t u r n o f h i s w if e . Ūs a n i came n e x t day b u t E n i h e r s e l f s a i d sh e w ould n o t r e t u r n t o him un­ l e s s Ūb i to ld h e r t o , w h ile Ūb i i n s i s t e d t h a t Ūs a n i m u st make th e o f f e r i n g firs t. B oth men w ere c o m p le te ly o b s t i n a t e on t h i s p o i n t and Ūs a n i w ent aw ay. T h is was e a r l y i n 1939 when th e new fa rm s w e re b e in g c le a r e d and p l a n t i n g was b e g in n in g so t h a t Ūb i w ish e d to make a rra n g e m e n ts f o r p l a n t ­ in g E n i ' s yam s. He t h e r e f o r e w ent t o th e head o f B iko B iko w a rd , n o t o f h i s own w ard a s he w an ted an in d e p e n d e n t a r b i t r a t o r , t o a s k one of th e h e a d 's m e sse n g e rs to a c t a s a w itn e s s a s he w ish e d to ta k e away E n i ' s yams from Ūs a n i ' s yam s t a c k . The w ard h e a d knew of th e d is p u te and a g re e d t o send h i s man th e n e x t day and s a i d he w ould c a l l th e h u sb an d to go to o . He c a l l e d Ūs a n i and t o l d him t o come th e n e x t m o rn in g and ta k e th e p a r t y to th e s t a c k and s e e f o r h im s e lf t h a t o n ly E n i 's yams w ere ta k e n . Ūs a n i s a i d h e d id n o t w ish to s e p a r a te fro m h i s w ife and t r i e d a g a in to re o p e n th e w hole q u e s t io n a l l e g i n g t h a t h e h ad g iv e n th e d e c e a se d s e n i o r m o th e r 's b ro th e r one pound a s a m a rria g e p ay m en t. Ūb i and h i s f r i e n d s s u c c e s s f u l l y i n s i s t ­ ed t h a t o n ly te n s h i l l i n g s h a d b e e n g iv e n an d t h a t t h i s was i n l i e u o f fa rm s e r v i c e s and n o t mar r ia g e money. I t w as a rr a n g e d t h a t a m e sse n g e r o f th e B iko B iko w ard h ead sh o u ld go th e n e x t day to w itn e s s th e rem o v al o f th e yam s. Ūs a n i w as a t th e s t a c k when th e y a r r i v e d th e n e x t m o rn in g an d made no t r o u b l e e x c e p t to c la im a s h i s one o f E n i 's w a te r p o ts l e f t t h e r e , and th e yams w ere c a r r i e d to a n o th e r p a r t o f th e same yam s t a c k w here a m a t r i -

l i n e a l k insm an o f Ūb i and E n i, who w as a l s o a p a t r i l i n e a l k in sm a n h u sb a n d , s t o r e d h i s yam s.

63 o f th e

A few d a y s l a t e r Ūs a n i w en t t o th e v i l l a g e h e a d c la im in g re p a y m e n t o f o ne pound f o r b e t r o t h a l g i f t s g iv e n to E n i and h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r b e fo re t h e i r m a r r ia g e . The v i l l a g e h e a d s e n t a m e sse n g e r t o summon E n i, t h a t he m ig h t h e a r th e d i s p u t e . Ūb i r e f u s e d t o l e t h e r go s a y in g t h a t i f th e r e w as to b e any f u r t h e r d i s p u t e Ūs a n i c o u ld summon h e r i n th e N a tiv e C o u rt. Ūs a n i n e x t t r i e d t o h a v e E n i summoned b e f o r e th e U kpakapi w ard h e a d f o r t h e same p u rp o s e , b u t Ūb i made t h e same an sw e r to t h e m e s s e n g e r. Ūs a n i made no f u r t h e r a tte m p t to r e c o v e r h i s w ife o r c la im an y re p a y m e n t f o r b e ­ tro th a l g if ts . D u rin g th e l a t e r p h a s e o f t h i s d i s p u t e a f t e r th e h a r v e s t o f 1938 an d b e f o r e Ūb i w ent to th e e l d e r o f Ūs a n i ' s p a t r i c l an a n o th e r man O tū o f B iko B iko w ard ( a g e - s e t X V II) and so u g h t E n i a s a w if e . He f i r s t a p p ro a c h e d Ūb i who t o l d him t h a t E n i w ould n o t r e t u r n t o h e r fo rm e r h u sb a n d who h ad n o t p a id lib e m a n and t h a t h e c o u ld o f f e r m a r ria g e t o E n i. O tū w as one o f s e v e r a l men who had s u g g e s te d m a r ria g e w ith E n i a f t e r sh e h a d a r r i v e d i n Ūb i ' s compound. Ūb i r e f u s e d t h e o th e r s b e c a u se h e th o u g h t th em o f p o o r p ro m ise a s h u sb a n d s. Otū a lr e a d y had one w if e . The n e x t day h e came to Ūb i accom panied by h i s f o s t e r - f a t h e r who s a i d he had b r o u g h t a c a la b a s h o f palm w in e to show t h a t Otū w as e a r n e s t i n h i s o f f e r f o r E n i . Ūb i a g re e d t h a t E n i sh o u ld go t o Otū i f sh e w ere w i l l i n g b u t t h a t a m a r r ia g e pay­ m ent m ust b e made an d h e w ould a c c e p t one pound. The f o s t e r - f a t h e r a g re e d and Ūb i th e n ask ed Otū w hat E n i h a d s a i d when h e (O tū ) h ad a p p ro a c h e d h e r. Otū r e p l i e d t h a t E n i had e x p re s s e d h e r r e a d i n e s s t o a c c e p t him a n d Ūb i th e n c a l l e d h e r . She s a i d sh e w ould a c c e p t any h u sb a n d Ūb i c h o se f o r h e r. Ūb i r e f u s e d t h i s an sw er and a sk e d i f sh e w ish e d to go to Otū . She th e n s a id sh e was w i l l i n g and Otū o f f e r e d t o g e t f r i e n d s t o c a r r y h e r yams fro m th e s t a c k on t h e Idjum s i d e o f th e v i l l a g e to h i s own h o u s e . Ūb i th e n a s k e d f o r paym ent o f th e m a r ria g e money. Otū and h i s f o s t e r - f a t h e r r e p l i e d t h a t th e y w ould pay l a t e r o n , b u t c o u ld n o t do so a t o n c e . Ūb i d id n o t p r e s s f o r im m ed iate paym ent l e s t Otū sh o u ld th i n k h e was n o t r e a l l y w i l l i n g f o r E n i to go t o him , f o r h e w as a n x io u s t h a t she sh o u ld b e s e t t l e d w ith a good h u sb a n d , b u t he t o l d Otū t h a t h e m u st, i n o r d e r t h a t E n i m ig h t b e a r h e a lt h y c h i l d r e n , p ro d u c e th e b a c k l e g o f smoked a n t e l o p e , k o la a n d w ine f o r th e cerem ony a t th e s h r in e a s p r e s e n te d by th e m a g ic ia n . Otū a g re e d to do so on th e n e x t k o k ӧ and th e yams w ere c a r r i e d by Otū an d h i s f r ie n d s t o Otū ' s h o u se .

and th e th e not

On th e n e x t kokӧ Otū d u ly b ro u g h t th e o f f e r i n g to Ūb i ' s compound. E n i Otū w ith Ūb i and two oe t h r e e o f th e l a t t e r ' s ag e m a te s th e n w e n t to p r i e s t ' s compound w here h e was w a iti n g f o r them . The p r i e s t w as of same p a t r i l i n e a g e a s E n i 's fo rm e r h u sb an d Ūs a n i , b u t t h e fo r m e r had in fo rm e d Ūs a n i t h a t th e r i t e was to be h e ld .

64 The p r i e s t was accom panied, by two e l d e r s o f th e m a tr ic la n .H e b ro u g h t o u t a c a la b a s h bowl a b o u t a f o o t d ia m e te r , p o u re d w a te r i n t o i t and in to th e w a te r a few d ro p s o f o i l and some pow dered c h a lk . He f i r s t s p r in k le d w a te r from th e bowl on to th e g ro u n d a l l ro u n d and th e n to o k up a p ie c e o f r a p h i a stem w hich h e s p l i t le n g th w is e i n t o p i e c e s . T a k in g one o f t h e s e he to u c h e d f i r s t h i s l i p s and th e n th e rim o f th e bow l an d s a i d " T h is was bad sp e e c h we hav e b e e n u s in g " an d th re w i t to one s i d e . He th e n r e p e a t e d th e a c t i o n w ith a n o th e r r a p h i a s t i c k s a y in g "T h is i s good sp e e c h we a r e u s in g to d a y " an d dropp ed th e s t i c k i n t o th e w a te r . The same a c t i o n was t h e n r e ­ p e a te d by th e e ld e r s and a l l Ūb i ' s p a r t y who s a t ro u n d th e bow l th r o u g h o u t. The p r i e s t n e x t to o k up th e c a la b a s h and su ck ed some o f th e w a te r i n t o h i s m outh and th e o t h e r men p r e s e n t d id th e same. E n i e x te n d e d h e r h an d s,p alm s u p w a rd s, and a l l s im u lta n e o u s ly sp ra y e d w a te r on them . The men th e n w ent o v e r to th e sh ad e i n th e p r i e s t s compound w here th e m eat and k o la were s h a r ­ ed and w in e d ru n k . T h at n ig h t Otū came and s l e p t w ith E n i i n Ūb i ' s com pound and she be­ came p r e g n a n t two o r t h r e e moons l a t e r . Otū had h e r h e lp i n p l a n t i n g h i s fa rm and sh e to o k some o f h e r yams to p l a n t i n h i s fa rm . The r e s t w ere p l a n t e d i n U b i's fa rm . Otū h a n d e d to Ūb i th e a g re e d m a r r ia g e paym ent d u r ­ in g th e c u l t i v a t i n g se a s o n and was b u i l d i n g E n i a h o u se i n h i s own com­ pound b e f o r e th e h a r v e s t .

65 CHAPTER X THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A HOUSEHOLD I t h a s a lr e a d y b een i n d i c a t e d t h a t a w if e a f t e r h e r f i r s t m a r r ia g e d o e s n o t u s u a l l y come to r e s i d e o r w ork w ith h e r h u sb a n d f o r a c o n s i d e r a ­ b le p e r i o d , and i n g e n e r a l n o t u n t i l a f t e r h e r f i r s t c h i l d h a s b e e n b o r n . W ives f i r s t j o i n t h e i r h u sb a n d s a s a r u l e a t a p a r t i c u l a r tim e of year w h ich i s d e te rm in e d by th e s e a s o n a l se q u e n c e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l o p e ra tio n s an d by th e a p p r o p r i a t e tim e f o r h o u s e b u ild in g w h ic h i s a l s o l a r g e l y de­ p e n d e n t on fa rm in g a c t i v i t i e s . O c c a s io n a lly when a n u b i l e g i r l i s n o t w e ll t r e a t e d i n h e r own h o u se ­ h o ld , sh e may j o i n h e r h u sb a n d soon a f t e r o r even b e f o r e th e c lito ro d ­ ectom y r i t e . Thus a g i r l Otū o f age s e t XVI i n Umor was l i v i n g in h e r f a t h e r ' s h o u s e h o ld i n th e c a r e o f a s te p - m o th e r w ith whom sh e g o t on v e r y b a d ly . When she became p r e g n a n t th e y o u th t o whom sh e was b e t r o t h e d , who was h im s e lf l i v i n g i n th e h o u s e h o ld o f h i s m o th e r 's b r o t h e r , s e c u r e d a h o u se f o r h e r t h e r e . As h e r m o th e r was d e ad one o f h e r m a t r i l i n e a l k i n s ­ women a c t e d i n h e r s t e a d d u r in g t h e m a r r ia g e r i t e s and th e f a t h e r came w ith h i s f r i e n d s to th e h u s b a n d 's compound wh e n l i k p ӧk ō t w as p e rfo rm e d . The b rid e g ro o m h a s t o p r o v id e th e w om an's h o u se re a d y f o r h i s w if e to l i v e i n . He may be o f f e r e d th e h o u se o f a d iv o r c e d o r r e c e n t l y d e c e a s e d w ife o f a p a t r i l i n e a l k in sm a n , b u t o f t e n a new h o u se h a s to b e b u i l t and t h i s c an o n ly be done d u r in g th e s e a s o n o f h o u s e b u ild in g a n d r e p a i r i n g which o c c u p ie s th e m onths b e tw een th e Lebokū r i t e s , i n l a t e Ju n e o r J u l y , and th e m ain yam h a r v e s t w hich b e g in s e a r l y i n Novem ber. At t h i s tim e o f y e a r men have a r e s p i t e from d a i l y w ork on t h e i r fa rm s and g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n it y t o c o l l e c t th e s u p p lie s o f r a p h i a p o le s and o th e r w ood, p u d d le d mud a n d palm f r o n d s r e q u i r e d f o r h o u s e b u ild in g . The t a s k o f c o l l e c t i n g an d f a b r i ­ c a t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s i s n e a r l y a lw a y s c a r r i e d o u t by one o r m ore g ro u p s o f kinsm en and ag e m a te s o f th e h o u s e - b u ild e r a lth o u g h th e w ork o f m o u ld in g th e mud p la t f o r m s and b e n c h e s i n s i d e th e h o u se i s commonly done b y s p e c ia l­ i s t s who to d a y a r e p a id a f e e o f two o r t h r e e s h i l l i n g s f o r t h e i r w o rk . At h i s f i r s t m a r ria g e a y o u th w i l l g e n e r a l l y h a v e th e d i r e c t a i d o f h i s f a t h e r i n o r g a n is in g and o b ta i n in g w o rk e rs f o r th e t a s k o f h o u s e b u ild ­ in g . I n Umor, owing to th e f a c t t h a t m o st o f th e clum ps o f r a p h i a p a lm s , w h ich a r e p l a n t e d t r e e s , a r e owned c o l l e c t i v e l y by g ro u p s o f m a t r i l i n e a l kinsm en r a n g i n g from p a r t o f a l i n e a g e t o a w hole c l a n , p e r m is s io n f o r c u t­ t i n g s u p p l ie s o f th e lo n g r a p h i a m id r ib s f o r th e w a ll fra m e s an d th e r o o f s t r u c t u r e w i l l h a v e to be so u g h t b y t a k i n g a to k e n g i f t o f w in e t o t h e e l d e r s c o n t r o l l i n g th e r a p h i a clum ps b e lo n g in g to th e m a t r i l i n e a l k i n o f th e husb an d o r o f h i s f a t h e r . A p a r t y o f th e h u s b a n d 's p a t r i c l an (k epū n ) fellow s o r a g e m a te s w i l l u s u a l l y h e lp him t o c u t and c a r r y i n th e r a p h i a p o le s and a l s o th e l a r g e b u n d le s o f o i l p alm f r o n d s , c o l l e c t e d i n th e p alm

66 c o l l e c t i n g t e r r i t o r y o f th e h u sb an d o r h i s f a t h e r , "which a r e n e e d e d to make th e h u n d re d o r more m a ts r e q u i r e d f o r r o o f in g a h o u s e . They to o w i l l j o i n i n d ig g in g o u t c la y from a c o n v e n ie n t p i t f o r d a u b in g th e w a l l s and p ro ­ v id i n g m a t e r i a l f o r th e p la t f o r m s an d b e n c h e s . The f a t h e r an d a few o f h i s p a t r i c l an f r i e n d s w i l l d i r e c t th e c o n s t r u c ti o n o f a h o u se f o r a y o u th f u l husb an d and h i s m o th er w ith h e r f r i e n d s and som etim es th e b r i d e 's m o th e r w ith h e r f r i e n d s w i l l c a r r y o u t th e w om an's t a s k o f d a u b in g th e w a l l s . As a r u l e a l l t h i s w ork p r o g r e s s e s b u t slo w ly i n th e i n t e r v a l s b e tw een o th e r o c c u p a tio n s , and i t i s o f t e n two m onths o r more b e f o r e a h o u se i s c o m p le t­ e d . The h o u se s h o u ld , h o w ev er, b e re a d y b e f o r e th e o p e n in g o f th e fa rm in g y e a r i n w h ich th e w ife i s to j o i n h e r hu sb an d i n fa rm w o rk . The p r o v i s io n o f u t e n s i l s f o r th e new h o u s e h o ld i s a s a ru le l e f t t o th e w ife and h e r p a r e n t s who sh o u ld su p p ly a s e t o f p o t s , m o r ta r s , h e a d bow ls and b a s k e t s w h ich sh e w i l l b r i n g w ith h e r on com ing to r e s i d e in h e r h u s b a n d 's compound. T h is eq u ip m en t sh o u ld in c lu d e a t l e a s t one l a r g e i r o n stew p o t and a ls o a s e t o f enam el bow ls w h ic h , w h ile o n ly o c c a s io n a lly u se d , a re r e g a r d e d as an e s s e n t i a l d e c o r a t io n f o r th e b a c k w a ll o f t h e h o u se th e e q u iv a l e n t o f b e s t c h in a d is p la y e d on th e d r e s s e r i n a fa rm k itc h e n .O n th e o t h e r h and i t i s th e d u ty o f th e h u sb an d t o p r o v id e h i s w i f e 's h o e s and o th e r equipm ent f o r fa rm w o rk , such a s s to r a g e b a s k e t s . The p r o v i s io n o f fa r m in g la n d f o r th e new h o u se h o ld now becomes n e c e s s ­ a r y . The f a t h e r o f th e groom w i l l o f t e n be a b le to p r o v id e a p l o t from a p o r t i o n o f h i s own fa r m in g t r a c t f o r t h a t y e a r . I f n o t h e w i l l go a t th e o p e n in g o f th e new fa r m in g se a s o n t o th e p a t r i c l a n e l d e r i n c h a rg e o f th e fa rm p a t h on w h ich h e h im s e l f fa rm s to t e l l him t h a t h e i s s e e k in g a p l o t f o r h i s son t o make h i s f i r s t fa rm . A t th e m e e tin g o f th e fa rm p a t h e l d ­ e r and th e men fa rm in g on h i s p a t h w h ich i s c a l l e d e v e ry y e a r , f o r th e d is ­ c u s s io n o f new c la im s and a d ju s tm e n ts i n h o ld i n g s , a p o r t i o n w i l l b e a l l o t ­ ed t o th e young h u sb a n d and i n th e e a r l y p a r t o f th e d ry s e a s o n , l a t e i n J a n u a r y , he w i l l j o i n b u sh c l e a r i n g p a r t i e s w h ich w i l l h e lp t o c l e a r h i s f i r s t fa rm . The p r o v i s io n o f p l a n t i n g yams f o r th e new fa r m in g u n i t i s a j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e p a r e n t s o f th e h u sb an d and th e w i f e . The p a r e n t s o f b o th sh o u ld g iv e s t i c k s o f yams fro m t h e i r own h a r v e s t s t o r e s when p l a n t ­ in g b e g in s . Among th e Y akö, a lth o u g h th e w o rk in g o f a fa rm i s a jo in t e n t e r p r i s e o f a h u sb a n d and h i s w if e o r w iv e s , e ach r e t a i n s p r o p e r ty r i g h ts i n h i s o r h e r own yam s. The yams o f a h u sb an d and o f e a c h w ife a r e p l a n t ­ ed i n s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s o f th e fa rm and a r e m arked and k e p t s e p a r a te when h a r v e s te d . As th e e a r l y v a r i e t i e s o f yams ( l i d j ōf i ) w h ich p ro v id e fo o d from Ju n e to O cto b er a r e g e n e r a l l y owned o n ly by women a b r i d e w ill be e x p e c te d to r e c e i v e from h e r m o th er and b r i n g t o th e new fa rm an a d e q u a te su p p ly o f t h e s e i n a d d i t i o n to m ain c ro p yam s. Thus a h u sb an d w i l l re c e iv e a b o u t h a l f a dozen s t i c k s o f m ain h a r v e s t yams fro m h i s f a t h e r and two o r th r e e from h i s m o th er w h ile a w if e w i l l e x p e c t two o r t h r e e s t i c k s o f m ain

67 h a r v e s t yams from h e r f a t h e r and one o r two from h e r m o th e r t o g e t h e r w ith two o r more s t i c k s o f e a r l y yam s. A s t i c k o f yam s, so c a l l e d b e c a u se yams a r e t i e d t o v e r t i c a l p o le s to a h e i g h t o f a b o u t t e n f e e t f o r s t o r a g e in th e h a r v e s t s t a c k s , c o n s i s t s o f a b o u t 30 medium s i z e d yam s. The l e s s e r farm c r o p s su ch a s c o rn , b e a n s , o k ra and coco-yam s a r e a l s o w om en's c r o p s . The w ife owns and c o n t r o l s th e h a r v e s t s an d t h e s u p p l ie s f o r new p la n t­ in g s o f t h e s e fo o d s a lth o u g h she i s a t th e same tim e u n d e r o b l i g a t i o n t o p ro v id e h e r husb an d and c h i l d r e n w ith a d e q u a te s u p p l i e s o f them d u r i n g th e th e y e a r . Of a l l th e s e a woman w i l l a sk f o r a su p p ly f o r p l a n t i n g fro m h e r m o th e r a n d /o r o f h e r m o t h e r 's s i s t e r s . W hile t h e v a r i o u s fa rm in g t a s k s a r e c a r r i e d o u t o v e r a fa rm a s a w hole th e yams o f a man and th o s e o f h i s w ife o r w iv e s a r e , a s h a s b e e n s a id , p la n te d and h a r v e s te d s e p a r a t e l y . They a r e t i e d on d i s t i n c t g ro u p s of u p r i g h ts i n th e h u s b a n d 's h a r v e s t s t a c k . E ach h a s a d i s t i n c t i v e mark which i s i n c i s e d on th e b a s e o f th e yams a s th e y a r e dug a t h a r v e s t tim e a n d th e s e p a r a te h a r v e s ts o f e a c h a r e u s e d i n t u r n t o p r o v id e h o u s e h o ld fo o d accord­ in g t o w e ll e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s . Thus d u r in g th e h a r v e s t i n g o f th e m aincrop w hich u s u a l l y e x te n d s o v e r two moons i n November and D ecember th e d ig g in g and ty i n g o f yams i s done by th e h u sb a n d w h ile th e w a sh in g and c a r r y i n g of yams t o t h e s t a c k i s th e t a s k o f th e w if e and f r i e n d s who may h e lp h e r . The husb an d d ig s h i s own yams f i r s t . He th e n g o e s on t o d i g th o s e o f h i s w ife o r i f h e h a s more th a n one w ife f o r e a c h i n t u r n on s u c c e s s iv e d a y s u n t i l th e w ork i s d o n e. D u rin g th e h a r v e s t p e r i o d yams f o r th e d a ily fo o d a r e ta k e n from th e h u s b a n d 's o r th e w i f e 's h a r v e s t a c c o r d in g to w h ic h i s b e in g dug a t th e tim e . When th e yams a r e a b o u t to be t i e d t o th e u p r i g h ts i n th e h a r v e s t b a m a w ife i s e n t i t l e d to ta k e t h e e q u iv a l e n t o f one s t i c k o f medium s i z e d yams e q u a lly fro m h e r own a n d h e r h u s b a n d 's c ro p s a s th e y l i e s p r e a d o u t to d r y o f f i n th e su n . T hese a r e t i e d s e p a r a t e l y fro m th e r e s t o f th e h a r v e s t and a r e u s e d f o r fo o d i n th e p e r io d im m e d ia te ly f o l ­ lo w in g . When th e y a r e e x h a u s te d a w ife i s e x p e c te d to u s e two s t i c k s o f h e r own yams b e f o r e a s k in g f o r more from h e r h u sb a n d . The h u sb an d sh o u ld th e n su p p ly two s t i c k s and th e s e f i v e s t i c k s o r a b o u t 150 medium sized yams i n a l l , a r e c o n s id e r e d to be s u f f i c i e n t f o r o r d i n a r y fo o d s u p p l ie s f o r a w ife and c h i l d r e n and h e r h u sb a n d f o r th e t h r e e m onths from December u n ­ t i l th e new p l a n t i n g s e a s o n h a s b egan i n e a r l y M arch. The b o d i e s o f th e yams whose b a s e s a r e u se d f o r th e new p l a n t i n g a r e th e n a v a i l a b l e f o r fo o d a s th e work p r o g r e s s e s . A f te r p l a n t i n g th e h o u se h o ld w i l l depend on a r e ­ se rv e o f yams n o t u s e d f o r p l a n t i n g w hich i s now c a r r i e d i n t o th e v i l l a g e to be s t o r e d i n th e h ou se and u s e d f o r fo o d from l a t e A p r il u n t i l la te J u l y w hen, a f t e r th e Lebokū r i t e s , th e e a r l y yams o f t h a t y e a r may be dug. To t h i s r e s e r v e a h u sb an d sh o u ld c o n t r i b u t e f o u r o r f i v e s t i c k s an d a w ife two o r t h r e e . The e a r l y yams from w h ic h th e h o u s e h o ld fo o d i s o b ta in e d f o r th r e e o r f o u r m onths from m id -J u ly u n t i l th e m ain h a r v e s t b e g in n in g i n November a r e u s u a l l y , a s h a s b e e n s e e n , p r o v id e d o n ly by th e w ife b u t th e y a r e th e s o le s o u r c e f o r th e h o u s e h o ld i f , a s i s g e n e r a l l y t h e case, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l th e yams o f th e l a s t h a r v e s t h a v e a lr e a d y b e e n e a te n .

68 A h u sb an d w i l l d u r in g th e p e r i o d o f b e t r o t h a l an d i n th e e a r l y months o f m a r ria g e u s u a l l y become an i n t i m a t e o f h i s w i f e 's p a r e n t s ' h o u se h o ld .H e may t a l k f r e e l y t o and b e f o r e h i s m o th e r-in -la w who w i l l g iv e him fo o d and a s k him f o r g i f t s . T h e re i s n e i t h e r a v o id a n c e n o r any e x c e p t io n a l in t im ­ a c y . A man may, i f t h e r e i s n e e d and r e l a t i o n s a r e g o o d , c o n tin u e to g iv e h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w o c c a s i o n a l h e lp i n fa rm c l e a r i n g , h o u s e b u ild in g an d o t ­ h e r w ork a f t e r he h a s ta k e n h i s w ife to l i v e w ith him i n th e a r e a o f h i s own kepūn . The p a t t e r n o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n a f f i n a l r e l a t i v e s d o e s n o t a p p e a r to be s p e c i f i c among t h e Yakӧ . Tow ards t h e i r p a r e n t s - i n - l a w b o th man and w ife beh av e i n g e n e r a l a s th e y w ould to s e n i o r k i n s f o l k and th e c o n s id e r a b le v a r i a t i o n i n th e d e g re e o f in tim a c y and sym pathy b etw een a f ­ f i n e s a p p e a rs t o depend on th e te m p e ra m e n ta l q u a l i t i e s o f th e p e rs o n s i n ­ v o lv e d . S e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w ith an a f f i n a l r e l a t i v e a r e re g a r d e d a s h ig h ly im p ro p e r, b u t m ost in f o r m a n ts s a id t h a t t h e r e w as no s p e c i f i c p e n a l t y f o r i t b e c a u se i t w ould n o t o c c u r , and I d i d n o t i n f a c t e n c o u n te r any in s ta n c e in m a r ita l h i s t o r i e s , c o u rt re c o rd s , o r d is c u s s io n s o f se x u a l i r r e g u l a r i ­ tie s . A w ife h a s n o rm a lly m ore f r e q u e n t c o n ta c t w ith h e r p a r e n t s - i n - l a w than d o e s a h u sb an d . The w i f e - f a t h e r - i n - l a w r e l a t i o n o f t e n becom es one o f con­ s i d e r a b l e a f f e c t i o n . A man may f r e q u e n t l y b e s e e n g o s s ip in g i n h i s daugh­ t e r - i n - l a w 's h o u se and I h av e n o ti c e d a young w if e d u r i n g a d is c u s s i o n i n th e compound s ta n d l e a n i n g an arm o v e r h e r f a t h e r - i n - l a w 's s h o u ld e r a p o s t u r e t h a t a d a u g h te r m ig h t a d o p t i n p u b l i c b u t n e v e r a w i f e . A young w if e may a l s o be a s k e d by h e r m o th e r-in -la w t o h e lp i n a fa rm o r compound t a s k and w i l l g e n e r a l l y b e re a d y t o do s o , b u t su c h h e lp i s an e x p r e s s io n o f re g a rd n o t an o b lig a to r y s e r v ic e .

69 CHAPTER

XI

DISSOLUTION OF MARRIAGE D e a th . A t th e d e a th o f a m a r rie d man o r woman th e yams he o r s h e owns w h eth er s t i l l t i e d i n th e h a r v e s t s t a c k o r g ro w in g i n th e fa rm p a s s to th e h e i r s who a r e s u c c e s s o r s t o m oveable p r o p e r t y , t h a t i s to one o r more ma­ t r i l i n e a l 's o n s o r d a u g h t e r s ' o f th e d e c e a s e d a n d n o t t o th e s u r v iv in g sp o u se. When a w ife d i e s b o th h e r r i g h t s and h e r d u t i e s i n h e r h u s b a n d 's farm f a l l f o r th e r e s t o f th e fa rm in g y e a r to h e r c l o s e m a t r i l i n e a l kinswom en who sh o u ld ta k e h e r p la c e i n c o m p le tin g th e w om an's la b o u r on th e f a r m . I f sh e d i e s b e f o r e th e h a r v e s t h e r h u sb an d g o e s to h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r a n d a s k s to be g iv e n th e s e r v i c e s o f one o r more o f h e r ' s i s t e r s ' t o w ork i n th e farm and c a r r y i n th e h a r v e s t . But when th e yams a r e h a r v e s te d th o s e o f th e d e c e a s e d w ife a r e n o t t i e d i n th e h u s b a n d 's s ta c k .T h e y a r e c a r r i e d away by h e r ' s i s t e r s ' f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n among th e m s e lv e s and t h e i r m a t r i ­ l i n e a l r e l a t i v e s . I f sh e d i e s a f t e r h a r v e s t b u t b e f o r e th e o p e n in g of th e n e x t fa rm in g y e a r h e r yams i n th e h u s b a n d 's s t a c k a r e c la im e d a t p l a n t i n g tim e by h e r m a t r i l i n e a l k in u s u a l l y by a s i s t e r o r grow n d a u g h te r , b u t th e husband may c la im and r e t a i n a s h a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r f e e d i n g any of h e r young c h il d r e n t h a t a r e re m a in in g i n h i s h o u se h o ld . At t h e end o f th e fa rm in g se a s o n th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to h e r h u sb a n d o f th e dead w om an's m a t r i k in a r e e n d ed . T h e re can be no l e g a l c la im f o r r e t u r n o f th e m a rria g e paym ent from th e w i f e 's m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r and no r e ­ t u r n i s u s u a l l y m ade, I w a s, h o w e v e r, t o l d t h a t i f a w if e w ere to d ie w ith­ i n a v e ry s h o r t tim e o f m a r ria g e th e w idow er c o u ld th r o u g h h i s p a t r i k i n s men b r i n g p r e s s u r e on th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r t o make him a s u b s t a n t i a l g i f t o f c o n s o l a ti o n w hich w ould i n f a c t b e p a r t o f t h e pay m en t made. The Yakö have no form o f s o r o r a t e . A man i s f r e e t o m a rry a woman o f th e m a trili n e a g e o f h i s d e c e a s e d w if e , an d may s e e k t o make a s m a ll e r m a r ria g e pay­ m ent i n su c h a c a s e , b u t t h e r e i s no l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n on th e fo rm e r w ife 's k i n to o f f e r a n o th e r sp o u se o r t o a c c e p t l e s s m a r r ia g e money. When a man d ie s h i s h o u s e h o ld u s u a l l y c o n ti n u e s to f u n c t i o n a s an economic u n i t u n t i l th e end o f th e fa rm in g y e a r , b u t h i s w idow , a lth o u g h sh e w i l l c o n tin u e t o w ork on h i s fa rm u n t i l th e h a r v e s t , c a n c la im o n ly a s h a r e o f h i s yams s u f f i c i e n t t o c o n t r i b u t e t o f e e d i n g any o f h i s y o u n g c h i l d r e n t h a t w i l l re m a in i n h e r c a r e . On t h e i r b e h a l f to o sh e c a n ' l a t e r a s k f o r g i f t s o f yams f o r fo o d from h e r l a t e h u s b a n d 's b r o t h e r s and s i s ­ t e r s ' so n s t o whom h i s yam h a r v e s t p a s s e s . O nly i f a woman i s w idowed w h ile s u c k l in g a c h i l d h a s sh e a r i g h t t o re m a in i n h e r l a t e h u sb a n d 's com­ pound and to be g iven, fa rm in g f a c i l i t i e s by one o f h i s p a t r i k i n . She may o r may n o t p r e f e r to r e j o i n h e r p a r e n t s o r o t h e r r e l a t i v e s , b u t i n any c a s e sh e c a n n o t re m a rry u n t i l sh e i s re a d y to wean t h e c h i l d and i s th e re fo re

70 d e p e n d e n t on e i t h e r th e l a t e h u s b a n d 's o r h e r own r e l a t i v e s f a c i l i t i e s and fo o d s u p p l i e s .

fo r

fa rm in g

A widow s i m i l a r l y h a s no p e r s o n a l c la im t o t h e l i v e s t o c k and p e rs o n ­ a l p o s s e s s i o n s o f h e r l a t e h u sb an d a lth o u g h sh e may, a t th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i s goods d u r in g th e f u n e r a l r i t e s , be g iv e n a c l o t h and a few o th e r sm a ll o b j e c t s by t h e m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e o f h e r h u sb an d who i s th e c h i e f h e ir. On th e o t h e r h a n d a c la im i s made on th e widow by th e a g e s e t m a te s (k o b om a)o f h e r l a t e h u sb a n d . The b e s t f r i e n d o f th e dead man r e q u e s t s a money paym ent from th e widow w h ich sh o u ld be g iv e n b e f o r e th e f u n e r a l r i t e s a r e c o m p le te d . The paym ent c la im e d i s s a i d t o v a r y a c c o rd in g to t h e amount o f t h e m a r ria g e money t r a n s f e r r e d a t h e r m a r r ia g e . I t sh o u ld b e a t h i r d t o a h a l f o f t h a t amount and w here t h e r e h av e b e e n d i s p u t e s o v e r th e s e p ay m en ts ju d g m en ts f o r a s much a s a h a l f o f t h e m a r ria g e paym ent have b e e n g iv e n by th e V ill a g e H ead and a l s o by th e N a tiv e C o u rt. But th e p ay m en ts a c t u a l l y made d u r in g r e c e n t y e a r s i n o a s e s known t o me h a v e r a r e l y been more th a n a q u a r t e r o f th e o r i g i n a l m a r ria g e paym ent w h ile fro m e ld e rly widows o f o ld men o n ly to k e n p ay m en ts a p p e a r to b e e x p e c te d . The w id o w 's m a t r i l i n e a g e , and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t k in sm a n , u s u a l l y t h e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r , who r e c e i v e d th e m a jo r p o r t i o n o f th e m a r ria g e p a y m e n t, a r e l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r in g t h e p a y m e n t, i f n e c e s s a r y by p r o v i d ­ in g th e amount a g re e d . But i t i s h e ld t h a t i f t h e w id o w 's f a t h e r h a d r e ­ t a i n e d t h e e n t i r e m a r ria g e paym ent a t th e tim e o f m a r r ia g e , h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r can j u s t i f i a b l y r e f u s e to p r o v id e th e widow w ith th e m eans ofmak­ in g t h e paym ent t o h e r d e a d h u s b a n d 's a g e m a te s on th e g ro u n d t h a t by r e ­ t a i n i n g th e m a r ria g e paym ent th e f a t h e r h ad assum ed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l h i s d a u g h t e r 's o b l i g a t i o n s a s a w if e . I t m ig h t b e th o u g h t t h a t t h i s paym ent i s a t r a n s f e r o f p r o p e r t y which c o m p le te s th e c y c le i n i t i a t e d by th e o r i g i n a l p aym ent o f m a r ria g e m oney, b u t t h i s v iew i s n e i t h e r p r e s e n t i n th e m inds o f th e Yakӧ n o r c o n s i s t e n t w ith t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o m a r ria g e paym ent and t o s u c c e s s io n i n p r o p e r ty r i g h t s . The paym ent t o th e a g e m ates i s d e s c r ib e d by th e Yakӧ a s a con­ s o l a t i o n o f t h e d ead m a n 's a g e s e t f o r t h e i r l o s s . The a g e m a te s h a v e no r i g h t to i n h e r i t any o f th e dead m a n 's p r o p e r ty o r to su c c e e d t o h i s m ar­ i t a l rig h ts . On th e o t h e r hand h i s s i s t e r s ' so n s who a r e h i s h e i r s c la im no paym ent from th e widow or h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r n o r do h i s so n s f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f whose m a r ria g e paym ent s th e dead man h a s b e e n o r w ould l a t e r h a v e b e en r e s p o n s i b l e . I t i s c o n s i s t e n t w ith th e Yakӧ p r i n c i p l e s o f th e o b l i g a t i o n s o f m a t r i l i n e a l k in s h ip t h a t t h e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r o f t h e widow sh o u ld he r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r in g th e p a y m en t, bu t th e paym ent its e lf, a lth o u g h i t i s li n k e d i n amount w ith th e m a r r ia g e p a y m e n t, c a n n o t h e r e ­ g a rd e d a s a l i q u i d a t i o n o f th e o b l i g a t i o n s w h ic h th e l a t t e r in v o lv e d .

71 A man’ s p a t r i k i n h a v e on th e o th e r h and n o c la im on t h e p e r s o n a r s e r ­ v i c e s o f h i s widow a f t e r t h e end o f th e fa rm in g s e a s o n i n w h ic h h e d ie d . The l e v i r a t e i s a s f o r e i g n t o th e Yakӧ a s i s t h e s o r o r a t e . A t t h e d e a th o f h e r h u sb a n d th e widow no lo n g e r k e e p s h e r h a i r c l i p ­ p e d s h o r t i n th e Yakӧ f a s h i o n a d o p te d by women y o u n g a n d o l d , b u t a llo w s i t to grow so t h a t i t c a n b e t w is te d up i n a l a r g e num ber o f s p i k e s a ll o v e r th e h e a d (n g p u n a) i n e x a c t l y th e same f a s h i o n a s t h a t a d o p te d b y a b r i d e who i s i n s e c l u s i o n a f t e r th e kekpopam r i t e a t h e r f i r s t m a r r ia g e . She sh o u ld c o n tin u e t o a d o p t t h i s h a i r s t y l e f o r a y e a r a f t e r h e r h u sb an d 's d e a th . A young widow u s u a l l y r e m a r r i e s w ith i n a y e a r o r tw o . S he l e a v e s h e r l a t e h u sb a n d ’ s compound a f t e r th e h a r v e s t f o l lo w in g h i s d e a th an d jo in s t h e h o u se h o ld o f e i t h e r h e r p a r e n t s o r o f a m a trik in s m a n s u c h a s a b r o t h e r o r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r . O ld e r widows who h a v e a d u l t s o n s l i v i n g i n th e p a ­ t r i c l an a r e a an d u s u a l l y i n th e same compound a s t h e l a t e h u sb a n d , o f t e n rem ain i n t h e i r h o u s e s a n d j o i n th e fa rm in g u n i t s o f t h e s o n s , who a r e o f c o u rs e t h e i r c l o s e s t m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm en . B ut I fo u n d s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s i n w hich woman who w ere widowed l a t e i n l i f e , s e v e r a l y e a r s a f t e r meno­ p a u s e , h ad re m a r r ie d . S u ch women a r e , a c c o r d in g to n a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s , i n ­ c lu d in g th o s e o f men who h a d m a r r ie d widows o f m a tu re y e a r s , s o u g h t as com panions and farm and h o u se h o ld w o rk e rs by o l d e r men who have l o s t w iv e s and no lo n g e r d e s i r e e i t h e r a l o v e r o r b e a r e r o f c h i l d r e n . D iv o rc e o c c u rs f r e q u e n t l y among th e Yakö to d a y a n d , a s w i l l b e s e e n , a v e ry l a r g e p r o p o r tio n o f a d u l t women h a v e p e rm a n e n tly s e p a r a t e d fro m t h e i r f i r s t h u sb a n d s i n r e c e n t tim e s . D iv o rc e r e s u l t s b o th fro m d is m i s s ­ a l o f th e w ife by h e r h u sb a n d and from d e s e r t i o n o f t h e h u sb a n d , o f t e n i n o rd e r t o j o i n a n o th e r l o v e r , on th e p a r t o f th e w i f e . The Yakӧ p a t t e r n o f d o m e stic r e l a t i o n s i s one o f m arked m ale dom inance a n d , w h ile t h i s by no means alw ay s e x i s t s i n p r a c t i c e , d is o b e d ie n c e , v i o l e n t te m p e r an d q u a r r e l­ som eness o f a w ife a r e i n g e n e r a l o p in io n s u f f i c i e n t g ro u n d s f o r d is m i s s ­ in g h e r and c la im in g r e t u r n o f p a r t a t l e a s t o f th e m a r r ia g e money. In p r a c t i c e i t h a s , a t l e a s t i n r e c e n t y e a r s , b e e n d i f f i c u l t i f n o t im p o s s i­ b l e f o r a husb an d to s e c u r e th e r e t u r n o f m a r r ia g e money a f t e r d is m i s s i n g a w ife u n t i l she h a s gone t o l i v e a s a w ife w ith a n o th e r m an, but th e c la im i s h e ld to h e v a l i d and c a n b e s u c c e s s f u l l y made e v e n a f t e r a l a p s e o f s e v e r a l y e a r s when th e woman d o e s j o i n a n o th e r man. A w i f e 's d e l i n ­ q uency, su c h a s a d u l t e r y , r e c u r r e n t t h e f t o f yams fro m fa rm s o r h a rv e st s t o r e s o f th e hu sb an d o r o t h e r s , i s a l s o r e g a r d e d a s a d e q u a te g ro u n d s f a r h e r d i s m i s s a l , b u t much w i l l depend on th e a c t u a l c ir c u m s ta n c e s an d tem ­ p eram en t o f th e m a r rie d p a i r a s t o w h e th e r th e h u sb a n d w i l l i n f a c t d i­ v o rc e h i s w if e i n su c h c ir c u m s ta n c e s . T h ere a p p e a r s t o b e l i t t l e p re s­ s u r e o f o p in io n on th e p a r t o f kinsm en o r f r i e n d s w h ich w ould com pel a man to d is m is s a w ife f o r s e x u a l o f f e n s e s . A d u lte r y e n t i t l e s a man in Yakӧ custom t o c h a s t i s e h i s w if e and to c la im a f i n e , f o r m e r ly a g o a t o r even

72 a cow fro m th e a d u l t e r e r , bu t o f i t s e l f a d u l t e r y a p p e a rs r a r e l y t o r e s u l t i n d iv o r c e . When a man d e te rm in e s on d is m i s s i n g a w if e h e in fo rm s b o th h e r and h e r p a r e n t s o r c lo s e m a t r i l i n e a l k i n t h a t sh e m ust g o . I f sh e d o es not do s o , t a k i n g w ith h e r h e r h o u se h o ld b e lo n g in g s an d h e r yams i n t h e h u s ­ b a n d ’ s s t a c k , h e c a n r e f u s e t o a d m it h e r to h i s fa rm i n th e com ing y e a r . H er p o s i t i o n i s th e n u n te n a b l e . She i s c o m p e lle d to s e e k o t h e r m eans o f p r o v i d in g f o r h e r s e l f and h e r r e l a t i v e s w i l l i n f a c t ta k e h e r away. B ut d iv o r c e s r e s u l t i n th e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s fro m th e v o lu n ta ry d e p a r t u r e o f th e w ife fro m h e r h u s b a n d 's compound. At t h e same tim e th e d e p a r t u r e o f a w ife a f t e r a q u a r r e l w ith h e r h u sb a n d by no means a lw a y s e n d s i n p erm an e n t d iv o r c e . To le a v e h e r h o u se w i t h h e r young c h ild re n and go t o s t a y w ith one o r o t h e r o f h e r c lo s e r e l a t i v e s b r e a k in g o f f a l l r e ­ l a t i o n s w ith h e r h u sb a n d in c l u d i n g w ork on h i s fa r m i s a w eapon f r e q u e n t ­ l y em ployed by a w ife who c o n s i d e r s h e r s e l f u n f a i r l y t r e a t e d and s e e k s to c o e r c e h e r h u sb a n d . The d i s l o c a t i o n w h ic h t h i s i s l i k e l y to c a u se i n h i s h o u s e h o ld and fa rm in g a rra n g e m e n ts a r e o f t e n s u f f i c i e n t to in d u c e th e h u s ­ b and t o s e e k h e r r e t u r n th r o u g h th e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f h e r k i n s f o l k . F o r a w if e t o rem ove h e r b e lo n g in g s from h e r h o u se an d h e r yams fro m h e r h u s­ b a n d 's s t o r e i s , h o w ev er, a d e c l a r a t i o n o f h e r i n t e n t i o n to end th e m ar­ ria g e . T h is i s som etim es done when th e woman h a s a lr e a d y s e c r e t l y a r r a n g ­ ed t o become th e w ife o f a n o th e r man, b u t i n any c a s e sh e w i l l go firs t t o a r e l a t i v e , u s u a l l y a m a trik in s m a n , who w i l l g iv e h e r a w om an's h o u se t o l i v e i n ; and sh e w i l l a s a r u l e ta k e up r e s id e n c e w ith a new m ate o n ly a t t h e b e g in n in g o f a fa r m in g y e a r . I f a woman d e s e r t s h e r h u sb an d a n d , a f t e r a n i n t e r v a l , g o e s t o l i v e w ith a n o th e r m an, h e r new m ate becom es l i a b l e t o make a paym ent t o th e m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm a n who h a s t h e o b lig a ­ t i o n t o r e f u n d w h o lly o r i n p a r t th e m a r r ia g e paym ent o f th e f i r s t husband. I n f a c t d iv o r c e may b e s a i d t o b e e s t a b l i s h e d among th e Yakö o n ly when an a g re e d p o r t i o n o f th e m a r ria g e paym ent i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e e a r l i e r m ar­ r i a g e h a s b e e n r e t u r n e d . T h is i n p r a c t i c e i s , a t t h e p r e s e n t tim e a t l e a s t, r a r e l y done u n t i l th e w ife h a s j o i n e d a new m a te a n d a f t e r p e r s i s t e n t r e ­ q u e s t s have b e e n made by th e h u sb an d w h ich o f t e n end i n e i t h e r a c la im b e ­ f o r e t h e w ard o r v i l l a g e h e a d o r a n a c t i o n i n t h e N a tiv e C o u rt. A w ife may d e s e r t h e r h u sb an d an d s t a y w ith r e l a t i v e s f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s d u r in g w h ich th e o r i g i n a l m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n i s su sp e n d e d b u t n o t a n n u ll e d . A few exam ples o f th e c ir c u m s ta n c e s a t t e n d i n g p a r t i c u l a r d iv o r c e s w ill make t h e s i t u a t i o n more o l e a r . At th e o p e n in g o f th e fa rm in g y e a r i n J a n ­ u a r y 1935 Ūs a n i , a m id d le a g e d man ( a g e - s e t X) o f Ūk p a k a p i w ard i n Timor b r o u g h t t o h i s compound a s an a d d i t i o n a l w ife a woman o f I d j ū m w ard who h a d l e f t h e r f i r s t h u sb a n d two y e a r s b e f o r e an d w as l i v i n g i n t h e compound o f one o f h e r m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm en on w hose fa rm she h ad w o rk ed . The woman b r o u g h t w ith h e r when sh e j o i n e d Ūs a n i , h e r tw o g i r l c h i l d r e n o f s i x an d f o u r y e a r s o ld whom sh e h ad b ro u g h t away when sh e l e f t h e r fo rm e r h u sb a n d .

73 H er o th e r c h il d hoy o f se v e n sh e h a d l e f t w ith h e r h u sb a n d . The h u sb a n d w ent t o th e v i l l a g e h e a d t o g e t h e r w ith h e r m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm a n a b o u t two m onths l a t e r t o demand t h a t Ūs a n i sh o u ld make a paym ent o f £ 4 . 1 0 . 0 , th e amount o f th e o r i g i n a l m a r ria g e p a y m en t. Ūs a n i i n s i s t e d t h a t a s th e woman h ad b o rn e t h r e e c h i l d r e n t o h e r f i r s t h u sb an d and h a d a l s o b e e n away from him f o r two y e a r s w ith o u t h i s s e c u r in g h e r r e t u r n t h e r e w as n o lo n g e r any j u s t c la im f o r r e t u r n o f any o f th e o r i g i n a l p ay m en t. The h u sb a n d s a id h e had alw ay s b een w i l l i n g t o h a v e t h e woman b a c k and o f f e r e d t o do so now. She r e f u s e d , d e s c r i b i n g many a l l e g e d i n c i d e n t s i n w h ich h e h a d n e g le c te d h e r i n t e r e s t s i n fa rm w ork and c la im in g t h a t he h a d i n f a c t a c c e p te d h e r d e p a r tu r e s i n c e h e h a d n o t come t o a s k h e r to r e t u r n to h im . M o reo v er he had s i n c e h e r d e p a r t u r e ta k e n a n o th e r w if e who w as a woman o f h e r own p a t r i l i n e a g e w hich w as b o th an i n s u l t to h e r and a b re a c h o f c u s to m , i f th e fo rm e r m a r ria g e was n o t v o id , s i n c e a man may n o t m a rry a woman o f th e same lin e a g e a s one who i s a lr e a d y h i s w if e . The v i l l a g e h e a d a p p e a r s to h a v e a g re e d t h a t th e fo rm e r h u sb a n d h a d no lo n g e r any c la im on th e woman but h e ld t h a t Ūs a n i sh o u ld make a m a r ria g e paym ent to th e w om an's m a t r i l i n e a l kinsm an. T h is d id n o t how ever s e t t l e th e d is p u te f o r Ūs a n i made no su c h paym ent w h ile th e fo rm e r h u sb an d was s t i l l a g g r ie v e d . The l a t t e r summon­ ed Ūs a n i b e f o r e th e N a tiv e C o u rt w h e re , a c c o r d in g to a p r a c t i c e w h ich th e o ld e r men say i s n o t t r a d i t i o n a l b u t h a s grow n up i n r e c e n t y e a r s , th e fo rm e r h u sb an d c la im e d f o r a r e f u n d o f h i s m a r ria g e p aym ent d i r e c t from Ūs a n i whom h i s w if e h ad j o i n e d . The c o u r t aw arded £ 3 .1 0 .0 t o t h e firs t husband b u t d id n o t f i x a tim e w ith i n w hich i t h a d to be p a i d a n d o n ly a few s h i l l i n g s w h ic h w e re th e n h a n d e d o v e r a s a f i r s t i n s t a l m e n t had in f a c t b e e n p a id f o u r y e a r s l a t e r i n 1939. A man o f Idjum w ard o f a g e - s e t XV h ad a s i c k w i f e . H er a ilm e n t was d e s c r ib e d a s a 's w o lle n h e a r t ' a n d sh e was f o r a tim e u n a b le t o go re g u ­ l a r l y t o work i n th e fa rm . The h u sb a n d w ent to h e r f a t h e r a n d a s k e d him t o ta k e h e r b ack and h a v e th e m a r ria g e money re fu n d e d a s sh e w as no lo n g ­ e r f i t to be h i s w if e . The f a t h e r r e f u s e d b u t s h o r t l y a f t e r th e woman l e f t on h e r own i n i t i a t i v e . A f te r s t a y in g w ith h e r p a r e n t s fo r th r e e m onths sh e j o i n e d a man o f B iko B ik o w ard . H er h u sb an d d is c o v e r e d th is th ro u g h s e e i n g h i s seco n d c h i l d by t h i s w ife p la y i n g i n B iko B iko and ask ­ in g c h i l d w here he and h i s m o th e r w ere s t a y i n g . He th e n summoned b e f o r e th e N a tiv e C o u rt th e man who h a d ta k e n h i s w if e c la im in g a r e f u n d o f h i s m a rria g e paym ent o f £ 5 . 5 . 0 . I n C o u rt t h e w ife a s s e r t e d t h a t o n ly £2 h ad b een p a id and t h a t i n any c a s e h e r fo rm e r h u sb an d had d r i v e n h e r fro m him w ith o u t j u s t i f i c a t i o n . The man t o whom sh e h ad gone s a i d t h a t h i s own fo rm e r w ife h ad d ie d d u r in g fa rm c l e a r i n g tim e an d t h a t h e h a d f a i l e d to g e t s a t i s f a c t o r y h e lp from, h e r m a t r i l i n e a l kinsw om en. He h a d m et th e wo­ man i n th e compound o f a f r i e n d , who a t th e r e q u e s t o f h e r p a r e n t s had giv­ en h e r th e u s e o f an em pty w om an's h o u se h e th e n h a d , and a s k e d h e r to help him on h i s fa rm o f f e r i n g h e r a p l a c e to p l a n t h e r yam s. S he a g r e e d o n ly on c o n d it io n t h a t h e to o k h e r a s a w i f e . A f t e r f i r s t d e n y in g i t h e ad ­ m itte d t h a t he knew t h a t h e r fo rm e r h u sb a n d w as a l i v e and l i v i n g i n Umor.

74 He w as o r d e r e d t o p ay o v e r £ 1 .1 0 . 0 t o th e fo rm e r h u sb an d i n s e t tl e m e n t o f h i s c la im f o r a re f u n d o f m a r ria g e p ay m en t. A young woman from Ūk p a k a p i w ard c o n t r a c t e d l e p r o s y a n d h e r husband w is h in g t o d iv o r c e h e r on t h a t a c c o u n t t o l d h e r to le a v e a n d go b a c k to h e r m o t h e r 's h o u se a n d demanded th e r e t u r n o f th e m a r ria g e p a y m en t. The w ard h e a d o f Ūk p a k a p i, who was a p p e a le d t o by th e h u sb a n d , a p p ro v e d th e c la im and o r d e r e d r e t u r n o f th e m a r ria g e pay m en t t o t h e h u sb a n d . The w ife re fu se d t o l e a v e h e r h u s b a n d 's compound c r y i n g and s t r u g g l i n g when h e a n d o th e r s a p p ro a c h e d h e r . F i n a l l y a f t e r a q u a r r e l sh e r a n o u t o f th e compound and a lo n g a f a m i n g p a t h w here s e v e r a l h o u r s l a t e r sh e was fo u n d w here sh e had h anged h e r s e l f from a t r e e . A rik p o o f I d j ūm w ard , o f age s e t X I I , f i r s t m a r rie d Omini m aking a m a r ria g e paym ent o f £ 6 . 5. 0 on t h e d a y o f h e r lik p ö k ō t r i t e . H er f a t h e r k e p t £3 and gave £3 to h e r a d u l t f u l l b r o t h e r ( h i s so n ) a s m a t r i l i n e a l kins­ man a s w e ll a s th e c u sto m a ry g i f t o f 5 / - to h e r a g e m a te s . Two y e a r s l a t ­ e r A rik p o made a m a rria g e paym ent o f £ 5 . 5 . 0 f o r a seco n d w if e O d je ik a a t h e r kekpopam r i t e . H is f i r s t w if e Omini h ad b een n u r s in g a c h i l d d u rin g h i s b e t r o t h a l t o O d je ik a and w eaned i t s h o r t l y a f t e r O d je ik a w ent i n t o s e ­ c l u s i o n a s a n ökpö lö k p öl a . A rik p o who s p e n t many o f h i s n i g h t s w ith Odjeika i n h e r h o u se s u s p e c te d t h a t Omini w as b e in g u n f a i t h f u l to him and q u a r r e l l ­ ed w i t h h e r f r e q u e n t l y o v e r t h i s . F r ie n d s who saw h e r g o in g a b o u t a t n i g h t c o n tin u e d to t e l l him o f i t and f i n a l l y , when he w ent b a c k t o h i s compound i n th e m id d le o f th e n i g h t on one o c c a s io n t o g e t a g i f t f o r a c lu b w hich w as h o ld i n g a n a l l n i g h t d an c e i n O d j e i k a 's compound, h e fo u n d t h a t Omini w as n o t i n h e r h o u s e . She r e f u s e d n e x t m orning' to t e l l him w h ere sh e had b e e n , t h e r e was a n o th e r a n g ry q u a r r e l and A rik p o t o l d h e r t o l e a v e . T h is sh e d i d g o in g t o s t a y w ith h e r b r o t h e r and t a k i n g th e c h i l d w ith h e r . A f t e r a few d a y s h e w ent to th e b r o t h e r and a s k e d w ith o u t s u c c e s s f o r r e t u r n o f h i s m a r r ia g e p ay m en t. S t i l l l a t e r h e w ent a g a in t h i s tim e i n s i s t i n g t h a t h e s h o u ld r e c e i v e b a c k h i s paym ent o r t h a t Omini sh o u ld r e t u r n t o w ork on h i s fa rm . As Omini r e f u s e d t o r e t u r n t o him and th e b r o t h e r w ould g iv e no u n d e r t a k in g A rik p o w ent t o th e v i l l a g e h e a d o f f e r i n g a f e e o f 2 / a s k in g f o r h i s c la im t o be h e a r d . The v i l l a g e h e a d c a l l e d t o g e t h e r some o f th e Ya b o t , o r v i l l a g e c o u n c il , and summoned Omini and h e r b r o t h e r b e f o r e him . On h e a r i n g th e c a s e th e v i l l a g e h e a d o rd e r e d t h a t Omini m u st r e t u r n to Arikpo o r th e b r o t h e r m ust r e t u r n th e m a r r ia g e paym ent w ith i n t h r e e m oons. A f te r some d e la y and t h r e a t s o f an a c t i o n i n t h e N a tiv e C o u rt t h e b r o t h e r f i n a ll y p a id b ack £5 to A rik p o . The hoy c h i l d o f t h i s m a r ria g e re m a in e d w ith i t s m o th er who i s l i k e l y to m a rry a g a in b u t h e r b r o t h e r in t e n d s t o b r i n g him up a s h i s f o s t e r - s o n and to a d o p t him i n t o h i s p a t r i c l a n . C o n s id e r a ti o n o f t h e s e a n d o t h e r h i s t o r i e s o f m a r i t a l d i s p u t e s , in ­ c lu d i n g c a s e s h e a rd i n th e N a tiv e C o u r t, p e r m it th e f o llo w in g g e n e r a l s ta te ­ m en ts a b o u t d iv o r c e among th e Yakӧ a t t h e p r e s e n t tim e . The o l d e r p r a c tic e w hereby th e m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm e n , o r m ore r e c e n t l y an d i n some o a s e s , th e

75 f a t h e r o f t h e w if e , to o k r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e r e t u r n o f t h e m a r ria g e paym ent i f th e w ife f a i l e d i n h e r m a r i t a l d u t i e s , is g iv i n g p l a c e t o one i n w hich r e t u r n o f m a rria g e paym ent to a h usb an d w hose w if e h a s l e f t him can be s e c u r e d o n ly from a man who ta k e s th e woman t o l i v e w ith him a s a w if e . T h e re i s to d a y r a r e l y any m a r r ia g e paym ent a s su c h when a d iv o r c e d woman j o i n s a new s p o u s e . What i s c la im e d i s a sum w ith w h ic h t o compen­ s a t e th e fo r m e r husband f o r t h e m a r r ia g e paym ent o r i g i n a l l y made b y him . T r a d i t i o n a l l y th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d in g t h i s l i e s w ith th e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r o f t h e woman who i n t u r n w ould demand a m a r ria g e p aym ent o f any man who w is h e s s u b s e q u e n tly t o t a k e th e woman a s a w if e . I n p r a c t i c e th e q u e s tio n o f repay m en t o f m a r ria g e money i s o f t e n r a i s e d o n ly a f t e r th e woman h a s jo i n e d a n o th e r man and th e h u sb a n d i s re im b u rs e d d i r e c t l y by him. I f a m a r ria g e i s d is s o lv e d a f t e r s e v e r a l c h il d r e n h av e b e e n b o rn a husband i s c o n s id e r e d by w ard and v i l l a g e h e a d s and by th e N a tiv e C o u rt bench a s e n t i t l e d to r e t u r n o f o n ly a p o r t i o n o f th e o r i g i n a l m a r ria g e paym ent, u s u a l l y l i t t l e more th a n h a l f . When a woman le a v e s h e r h u sb a n d sh e i s r a r e l y p r e v e n te d i n p r a c t i c e from t a k i n g v e ry young c h il d r e n w ith h e r , b u t sh e i s r a r e l y a llo w e d to ta k e o ld e r boy c h i l d r e n and th e h u sb an d o f t e n demands t h a t y o u n g m ale c h i l d r e n s h a l l r e t u r n t o him when th e y r e a c h p u b e r ty . I f a woman d e s e r t i n g her husband b r i n g s young c h i l d r e n w ith h e r when sh e comes to l i v e w ith a n o th ­ e r man, th e man can c la im a r e d u c t i o n o f th e amount o f pay m en t w h e th e r i t be to h e r fo rm e r h u sb an d o r to h e r m a t r i l i n e a l k insm en on th e g ro u n d t h a t he i s s u p p o r tin g th e s e c h i l d r e n . The F re q u e n c y o f D iv o rc e . T h a t d iv o r c e h a s i n r e c e n t tim e s h ad a h ig h in c i d e n c e among th e Yakö c a n be s e e n from th e sam ple o f m a r i t a l h i s ­ t o r i e s sum m arised i n T ab le 5 . Of th e t o t a l sam ple o f 313 women o f a g e s r a n g ­ in g from 17 t o o v e r 70 y e a r s , 121 h a v e a lr e a d y been d iv o r c e d a t l e a s t o n c e. I f we c o n f in e our a t t e n t i o n to th e 98 women i n th e sam p le who h a v e r e a c h ­ ed l a t e m id d le age and been m a r rie d f o r o v e r tw e n ty y e a r s , i . e . th o s e o f a g e - s e t X I, c .4 0 y e a r s o f a g e i n 1 9 3 9 , o r o l d e r , i t w i l l b e s e e n t h a t 28% w ere d iv o r c e d e i t h e r p r i o r t o o r a f t e r t h e i r m a r r ia g e s t o men o f th e N dai p a t r i c l an from whom t h e d a t a w ere o b ta in e d . T h is i s n o t how­ e v e r a s a t i s f a c t o r y in d e x o f th e p r e s e n t d iv o r c e r a t e s in c e a lth o u g h d i­ v o rc e becom es i n c r e a s i n g l y i n f r e q u e n t w ith ag e some o f th e w iv e s may s t i l l be d iv o r c e d i n th e f u t u r e and i t d o e s n o t in c lu d e d iv o r c e s o f younger w iv e s . I n f a c t o f th e 152 y o u n g e r m a r r ie d women i n t h e sam p le o f age s e t s X II t o XVI i . e . b etw een a p p ro x im a te ly 36 and 22 y e a r s o f age i n 1 9 3 9 , 38 o r 25% h ad a l r e a d y b e e n d iv o r c e d a t l e a s t once i n t h e i r m a r i t a l h i s t o r y . I t t h e r e f o r e a p p e a rs from t h i s sam p le t h a t th e d iv o r c e r a t e h a s b e e n i n c r e a s i n g i n Umor and t h a t a t th e p r e s e n t tim e a t l e a s t 30% o f women a r e d iv o r c e d a t l e a s t o n ce i n t h e i r m a r i t a l h i s t o r y .

76 TABLE 5

S ta tu s

M a r ita l H is t o r y o f Women M a rrie d to Men o f Nd a i P a t r i c l a n . by Age S e ts I - X V III

in

1939

S t a t u s a t M a rria g e t o Nd a i Man * I II III IV V VI V II V III IX X XI X II X III XIV XV XVI XVII X V III

S t i l l m a r rie d to N dai H usband

Y

D W

Widowed

Y

D

D iv o rced

W Y D

W

D eceased

Y

D

W 1 1

2 1 5 l 2 6 7 9 13 7 15 26 25 11

1 2 2 1 2 7 4 9 7 4 6 5

1 4 1 2 3 2 1 4 l

130 49 18 197

* Y = u n m a rrie d ;

1

1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1

6

4 11

1

l 1

3 3 1 3 2 4 8 4 8 2 8 4 1

1

2 1 1 1

l

1

66

B = D iv o rc e e ;

2 1

2

1

1 4 2 4 1

1

4

4 1

51 11

1 4 4 2 3

4

32

2 39

W = Widow

T o ta l

5

1 1 1 10 14 17 7 13 7 27 26 29 34 14 38 37 26 11 313

CHAPTER X II

77

T h ere i s among th e Yakӧ n o l i m i t a t i o n a p a r t fro m i n c l i n a t i o n and th e r e s o u r c e s commanded on th e num ber o f w iv e s t h a t a man may h a v e a t anyone tim e , a n d , a s w i l l b e s e e n , d em o g rap h ic c o n d it io n s h a v e i n r e c e n t tim e s been f a v o u r a b le to a h ig h in c i d e n c e o f p o ly g y n y . P l u r a l m a r r ia g e i s a n u n ­ d o u b ted a d v a n ta g e t o a n e n e r g e t i c man who h a s a c c e s s t o t r a c t s o f la n d ad ­ e q u a te f o r c u l t i v a t i n g a l a r g e fa rm e v e ry y e a r o r i s a c t i v e i n th e col l ec ­ t i o n o f o i l palm p r o d u c ts f o r p r e p a r a t i o n an d s a l e . Many men i n Umor h av e farm s c o n s id e r a b ly l a r g e r th a n c o u ld b e m a in ta in e d w ith t h e a i d o f only one w if e , f o r a lth o u g h th e la b o u r o f v i s i t i n g E zza Ib o y o u th s c a n b e o b ta in e d f o r th e w ork o f h o e in g up yam h i l l s , fe m a le la b o u r i s e s s e n t i a l f o r w eed­ in g th e fa rm , c u l t i v a t i n g se c o n d a ry c r o p s an d c a r r y i n g t h e yam h a r v e s t , I was i n f a c t f r e q u e n t l y to l d by men i n e x p la n a tio n o f c e r t a i n o f t h e i r l a t ­ e r m a r ria g e s t h a t in c r e a s e i n t h e i r yam h a r v e s t s o r th e d e a th o f one w ife made i t n e c e s s a r y f o r them to s e e k a n o th e r w ife w ith o u t d e la y . P l u r a l m ar­ r i a g e i s a l s o v a lu e d a s a means o f r e a r i n g a l a r g e r num ber o f c h i l d r e n and so o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e s t r e n g t h o f a m a n 's p a t r i l i n e a g e an d o f h i s own p r e s ­ tig e w ith in i t . On th e o t h e r h an d t h e r e i s l i t t l e em p h a sis on t h e num ber o f w iv e s a s a d i r e c t e x p r e s s io n o f a m a n 's im p o rta n c e and p r e s t i g e . The p r i e s t l e a d e r s o f th e c l a n s b o th p a t r i l i n e a l and m a t r i l i n e a l f o r exam ple a r e n o t d i s t i n ­ g u is h e d by a m ark ed ly h ig h e r d e g re e o f p o ly g y n y th a n th e a d u l t m ale p o p u l­ a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . Thus i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e h o u s e h o ld s o f t h e p a t r i l i n e a l and m a t r i l i n e a l p r i e s t - c h i e f s o f Umor i n 1935 showed t h a t t h e 23 p a t r i c l an p r i e s t h e a d s h ad 46 l i v i n g w iv e s r e s i d i n g w ith them o r a n a v e ra g e o f two p e r man, w h ile o n ly one had f o u r w iv e s and e i g h t had o n ly one w ife e a c h . Sim­ i l a r l y th e e le v e n a s e ( m a tr i c la n ) p r i e s t s i n c l u d in g th e v i l l a g e h e a d and th e v i l l a g e s p e a k e r ( o k p e b r i) h ad 21 l i v i n g w iv e s i n a l l o r an a v e ra g e o f j u s t u n d e r two p e r h e a d . O nly two o f them h a d t h r e e w iv e s and n o n e had m ore, w h ile th r e e o f them had o n ly one w i f e . 1 T h ese n u m b e rs, a s w i l l be 1 Nor do t r a d e r s , a lth o u g h some h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s o u r s e s an d e n jo y a h ig h ­ e r s ta n d a r d o f m a t e r i a l c o m f o rt, c o n s t i t u t e a d i s t i n c t c l a s s w ith r e g a r d to th e num ber o f w iv e s . T ra d in g a s a s p e c i a l i s t o c c u p a tio n t o th e e x c lu s io n o f fa rm in g i s e x c e p t io n a l among t h e Yakӧ . I n Umor w ith o v e r 1800 a d u l t m a le s th e r e a r e p ro b a b ly n o t more th a n tw o d o zen f u l l tim e t r a d e r s an d m o st of th e s e a re n o t p e rm a n e n tly d iv o r c e d fro m f a r m in g a c t i v i t i e s b u t resu m e i t from tim e to tim e when t r a d i n g r e t u r n s a r e p o o r . The two l a r g e s t s c a l e f u l l - t i m e tr a d ­ e r s i n Umor e a c h h ad two w iv e s i n 1 9 3 9 . One a man o f a g e s e t X I ,c .4 0 y e a r s o ld i n 1 9 3 9 ,who h ad n o t farm ed f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s o r more h a d two w iv e s ,o n e a Yakӧ woman w ith two c h i l d r e n who d i d n o t fa rm b u t h e r s e l f en g ag ed in p e tty t r a d i n g i n th e Umor m a rk e t, and th e o t h e r a f o r e i g n woman o f t h e r i v e r s i d e v i l l a g e o f Adun r e c e n t l y m a r r ie d , who h a d l o s t h e r c h i l d a f t e r b ir th a n d w a s s t i l l l i v i n g w ith h e r p a r e n t s i n Adun. A ll fo o d s u p p l ie s f o r t h i s t r a d e r ' s h o u se h o ld w ere p u rc h a s e d . Yams w e re b o u g h t i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s a t h a r v e s t and p l a n t i n g tim e s and i n s m a lle r am o u n ts d u r in g th e e a r l y yam s e a s o n . The o th e r l a r g e s c a l e t r a d e r a l s o h ad two w iv e s . T hese w iv e s d id how ever fa rm . They w orked i n th e fa rm s o f m a t r i k in sm en a n d i n t h e s e th e y p l a n t e d t h e i r yams and o th e r c r o p s . F u r t h e r yam s u p p l i e s , c o r r e s p o n d in g t o t h e h u s b a n d 's su p p ly i n a norm al h o u se h o ld w ere p u rc h a s e d .

78 s e e n , a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r th a n th e in c id e n c e of p o ly g y n y in th e v i l l a g e i n g e n e r a l a s ju d g e d by a sam p le o b ta in e d fro m t h e a d u l t men o f one s e c t i o n o f a l a r g e p a t r i c l a n i n Umor i n 1939. 1 From T a b le 6 i n w hich TABLE 6

Number o f W ives l i v i n g w ith H usbands o f N dai P a t r i c l a n , 1939

Age S e t and a p p ro x , age o f H ustan d

Number o f W ives 1

2

3

I II III rv V VI V II V III IX X

Y ears 80 76 72 68 64 60 56 52 48 44

3 4 1 4 1 6

XI X II X III XIV XV

40 36 32 29 26

2 7 1 5 5

5 4 2 4 7

2 2 1 2 3

XVI XVII X V III*

23 20 18

7 7 6

5 3 1

60

39

4

T o ta ls Men

W ives

Mean number o f W ives p e r H usband

Men w ith o u t W ives in 1939

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 1 5 6 2 6 1 10

4 2 8 9 3 9 1 16

2 .0 2 .0 1 .6 1 .5 2 .0 1 .5 1 .0 1 .6

9 14 4 12 18

18 25 8 23 40

2 .0 1 .8 2 .0 1 .9 2 .2

2 .0

1 1

13 11 7

20 16 8

1 .5 1 .5 1 .1

1 .4

16

6 121

210

1 .7

1 1 1 1

3

1 1 3

1 .6 1 2 +

2 2 +

1 +

10

* o n ly m a r rie d men o n ly o f t h i s a g e s e t a r e in c l u d e d . + in c l u d in g 1 b a c h e lo r . An 1 e a r l i e r sam ple from t h i s same k in g ro u p o b ta in e d i n 1935 and pub­ l i s h e d i n N o te s on Some P o p u la tio n D a ta from a S o u th e rn N ig e r ia n V i l l a g e , S o c .R e v .,3 0 ,1 9 3 8 g av e s i m i l a r r e s u l t s .

79 th e r e s u l t s a r e a n a ly se d , i t w i l l h e s e e n t h a t among 121 m a r rie d h e a d s o f h o u se h o ld s o f a l l a g e s i n th e N d ai p a t r i c l a n t h e mean num ber o f a c tu a lw ives p e r h o u se h o ld i s 1 . 7 . The p o ly g y n y r a t e te n d s t o b e h i g h e s t among th e men o f e a r l y m id d le a g e , i . e . b e tw e e n c .2 5 an d 42 y e a r s o l d , w here. th e mean num ber o f w iv e s p e r man i n a g ro u p o f 53 men o f th e a g e s e t s XV to XI i n c l u s i v e i s 2 . 0 . Among th e 33 o l d e r men o v e r c .4 2 y e a r s i n 1939 th e f i g u r e i s m ark e d ly lo w e r, v i z . 1 . 6 . The 1 r a t e f o r th e 32 y oung m a r rie d men u n d e r c .2 5 y e a r s o f ag e i s 1 . 4 . I f i t be assum ed t h a t th e s o c i a l c o n te x t o f p o ly g y n y h a s b e e n b ro a d ­ ly s t a b l e o v e r th e p a s t f i f t y y e a r s t h e s e r a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t among th e Yakӧ a man ta k e s f u r t h e r w iv es a c c o r d in g to h i s n e e d s an d o p p o rtu n itie s th ro u g h o u t h i s e a r l i e r l i f e b u t t h a t a s o ld age a p p ro a c h e s he d o e s not m arry a g a in and t h a t w here th e w iv e s o f m a r r ia g e s i n e a r l i e r y e a r s p r e d e ­ c e a se him th e y a r e n o t u s u a l l y r e p l a c e d . The s u b s t a n t i a l c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h i s v iew was co n firm e d i n th e f i e l d by th e in f r e q u e n c y w ith w hich old men w ith more th a n one o r two l i v i n g w iv e s w ere e n c o u n te r e d . In d e e d e l d e r l y w idow ers who, a lth o u g h th e y m a in ta in e d t h e i r own f a r m s , h a d n o t r e m a r r ie d l a t e i n l i f e b u t w ere d e p e n d e n t on th e a i d o f d a u g h te r s o r s o n s ' w iv e s f o r farm w o rk , w ere n o t uncommon. T h e re i s th u s n o te n d e n c y among th e Yakӧ f o r o ld men a s a c l a s s t o s e c u r e a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e num ber o f women as w ives a t th e ex p e n se o f y o u n g e r men. Young men who e i t h e r by th e m s e lv e s o r th r o u g h t h e i r f a t h e r s o r o t h e r kinsm en command th e r e s o u r c e s f o r se c o n d m a r ria g e p ay m en ts may c o n t r a c t a second m a r ria g e v e ry s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t . T h ere i s p a r t i c u l a r i n ­ ducem ent f o r t h i s i f th e f i r s t w if e h a s b o rn e a c h i l d , f o r t h e c h i l d w i l l n o rm a lly b e s u c k le d f o r two y e a r s d u r in g w hich i n t e r c o u r s e b e tw e e n th e p a r e n t s i s f o r b id d e n . I n su c h a s i t u a t i o n th e se c o n d w if e i s , a s h a s been se e n , o f t e n a p r e v i o u s ly u n m a rrie d g i r l . A man o f m id d le age- c a n a l s o i f he w is h e s ta k e a s a l a t e r w ife a g i r l who i s m a rry in g f o r th e f i r s t tim e . But m ost men who c o n t r a c t f u r t h e r m a r r ia g e s i n m id d le ag e m a rry widows o r d iv o r c e e s and I h a v e o f t e n h e a rd them e x p re s s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r s u c h mar­ r i a g e s on v a r i o u s g ro u n d s su c h a s a v o id a n c e o f l a r g e m a r ria g e paym ent an d o f th e e l a b o r a t e cerem ony o f a f i r s t m a r r ia g e , an d a l s o g r e a t e r know ledge o f su ch a w om an's q u a l i t i e s a s a h o u s e k e e p e r and fa rm w o rk e r and o f h e r g r e a t e r e x p e rie n c e i n t h e s e t a s k s . P ro lo n g e d b a c h e lo rh o o d i s v e ry r a r e among t h e Yakӧ and i s a s s o c i a t e d w ith p h y s i c a l d e f e c t o r a b n o rm a lity o f te m p e ra m e n t. The t h r e e f u l ly a d u l t b a c h e lo r s fo u n d among th e 131 men o f th e k i n g ro u p r e f e r r e d t o ab o v e w ere a l l o f t h i s c l a s s . I e n c o u n te re d o c c a s io n a l i n s t a n c e s o f men who h ad r e ­ m ained b a c h e l o r s from c h o ic e . A man known to me i n Timor o f ag e s e t X I,

1 T his le a v e s o u t o f a c c o u n t f o u r fo r m e r ly m a r r ie d men who w e re w idow ers i n 1939.

80 who was n o t d i s a b l e d o r in c o m p e te n t n o r s a i d to b e im p o te n t, was s t i l l un­ m a r rie d i n 1939 when h e was a b o u t 32 y e a r s o l d . I t was s a i d t h a t h e h ad r a r e l y i f e v e r j o i n e d l o v e r s p a r t i e s a s a y o u th and h ad n e v e r b e e n be­ t r o t h e d . He a p p e a r e d , an d w as c o n s id e r e d by h i s k in sm en an d f r i e n d s , to be i n no way abn o rm al a p a r t from h i s s e x u a l i n d i f f e r e n c e t o women, an d I d is c o v e r e d no i n d i c a t i o n s o f h o m o - s e x u a lity . T h is man h a d h i s own h o u se and farm p l o t s an d th e w om an's w ork on h i s fa rm was done b y a w ife o f h i s p a t r i l i n e a l h a l f - b r o t h e r who p la n t e d some o f h e r yams i n h i s farm .W idow ers who a r e s t i l l a c t i v e r a r e l y re m a in w i f e l e s s f o r more th a n a s i n g l e fa r m in g y e a r a s a r u l e an d i t i s e x c e p t io n a l to f i n d an y b u t th e o l d e s t a d u l t men w ith o u t w iv e s f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e tim e . T h e re w e re two v e r y o ld m en in t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n th e p a t r i c l an i n v e s t i g a t e d and t h e s e w e re v i r t u a l l y dependents i n th e h o u s e h o ld s o f s o n s . The num ber o f w iv e s i n h o u s e h o ld s i s o f c o u rs e no i n d i c a t i o n o f th e num ber o f m a r r ia g e s c o n tr a c te d and i n v iew o f th e f r e q u e n c y o f d iv o rce w hich h a s a lr e a d y b e e n i n d i c a t e d i t w i l l b e r e a l i s e d t h a t some men ta k e new wives a t f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s d u r in g t h e i r l i v e s . Thus i n th e k in g ro u p sam p le r e ­ f e r r e d t o above i t w i l l b e s e e n fro m T a b le 7 t h a t th e mean num ber o f m ar­ r i a g e s p e r man f o r a t o t a l g ro u p o f 128 men i s 2 . 5 . The 37 men i n th e o ld ­ e s t s e t s i . e . th o s e o v e r 40 showed a mean o f 2 .9 m a r ria g e s p e r h e a d , th e 60 m id d le ag ed men ( c . 25- 40 y e a r s ) a mean o f 2 .6 and th e 31 young men u n ­ d e r 25 a mean o f 1 . 5 . T hese r a t i o s c o n firm t h e e x is te n c e o f t h e te n d e n c y d is c u s s e d abo v e w hereby men c o n t r a c t few f u r t h e r m a r r ia g e s i n t h e i r l a t e r y e a r s . The men o v e r 40 i n t h i s sam ple show a mean i n c r e a s e o f o n ly 0 .3 p e r head o v e r th e men o f 25 t o 40 y e a r s . TABLE 7

Num ber o f M a r ria g e s c o n tr a c te d by Nd a i Men by Age S e ts

Age S e t

Numb e r o f M a rria g e s A pprox. Age 1 2 3 4 5 6 1939

I II III IV V VI V II V III IX X XI X II X III XIV XV XVI XVII X V III

80 y e a r s 76 72 68 64 60 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 29 26 23 20 18

T o ta l s

7

8

1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 4 5 7 6 34

1 3 4 1 4 3 7 1 5 6 3 1 40

1 1 1 1

1

1

1 1

3 3 5 2 2 8 2 1

1 1 1 1 1 6

32

14

1 1 1 1

5

1

1

Mean num­ b er of 9 Men W ives m arriages None p e r Man 1 2 .0 2 1 3 .0 3 8 2 4 .0 1 4 .0 4 3 .8 5 19 2 .9 6 14 2 .3 8 2 .6 3 l 7 21 1 3 .0 1 2 2 .0 10 28 2 .8 11 2 .6 27 2 .6 1 15 39 12 3 .0 2 .6 4 28 12 2 .3 18 1 52 2 .9 1 .8 13 23 11 16 1 .6 1 .5 8 1 .1 7 l 128 314 2 .5 3

81 The p o ly g y n y r a t e s d is c u sse d , above o b v io u s ly im p ly t h a t i f , a s t h e r e i s no re a s o n t o d o u b t, t h e p a t r i c l a n h e r e ta k e n a s a sam p le i s c h a r a c te r ­ i s t i c o f th e v i l l a g e o f Umor a s a w h o le , th e n t h e r e h a s o v e r t h e p e r i o d a v a i l a b l e f o r s tu d y e x i s t e d a v e ry e x c e p t io n a l s e x r a t i o o f m a r r ia g e a b le m ales and f e m a le s . T h is abnorm al r a t i o c a n n o t, a s h a s b e e n shown e l s e ­ w here,1 be a s c r ib e d to b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s in c l u d i n g s e l e c t i v e m o rta lity . I t i s , on th e c o n t r a r y , a r e s u l t o f one o f t h e m ost s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e e x te r n a l r e l a t i o n s o f t h e Yakӧ i n th e r e c e n t p a s t , nam ely t h e a c q u is i­ t i o n by p u rc h a s e from f o r e i g n t r a d e r s o f young c h i l d r e n m o s tly g i r l s f o r a d o p tio n i n t o th e c la n s o f th e p u r c h a s e r s . T h is p r a c t i c e h a s b e e n c u r ­ t a i l e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s by Governm ent a c t i o n u n d e r th e S la v e D e a lin g Or­ d in a n c e s b u t th e d a t a p r e s e n te d h e re on p o ly g y n y among th e Yakö i n d i c a t e how p ro fo u n d a n e f f e c t i t h a s had on t h e se x r a t i o o f t h e p o p u la t io n . 1 N otes on Some P o p u la tio n D a ta from a S o u th e rn N ig e r ia n V i l l a g e , R e v .,3 0 , 1938.

S oc.

82 CHAPTER X I I I THE RELATIVE AGES OF SPOUSES I n th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e m a r r ia g e s o f th e men o f th e k i n d is c u s s e d i n th e p r e v io u s c h a p te r t h e p o s i t i o n s i n th e ag e s e t o f b o th th e men and women c o n c e rn e d w ere d e te r m in e d , and i t th u s p o s s i b l e t o a n a ly s e th e r e l a t i v e a g e s o f s p o u s e s . TABLE 8

g ro u p sy ste m becam e

AGE-SETS OF WIVES IN RELATION TO THOSE OF HUSBANDS IN NDAI

R e la t io n of W ives' Age S e ts to H u sb an d s' :

E q u iv a le n t

S e n io r b y : -

Ju n io r b y :l

2

3

31

6

37

49 25

80 31

4

5

6

7

8

1

- - - = 28.9%

-

9

7 99

8 =

4 3 2 54.1%

1

15

7 136

8 =

4 3 2 43.7%

1

24

2

3

T o ta l s

4

H u sb an d s' M a r ria g e s F irs t 79 = 61.7% L a te r 60 = 32. 8%

A ll 139 = 44.7%

2 1 12 = 9.4%

128=100% =41.2%

4 4 1 24 =13. 1% 183=100% =58. 8% 6 5 1 36= 11.6%

311=100% =100%

As i s shown i n T a b le 8 th e m a j o r i ty (62%) o f 128 f i r s t m a r r ia g e s o f th e s e men have b e e n w ith women o f a n a g e s e t e q u iv a l e n t to t h e i r o w n.F irst m a r ria g e s w ith women o f a g e s e t s j u n i o r t o th o s e o f th e h u sb a n d s h a v e b een o n ly h a l f a s f r e q u e n t ( 29%) and i n n e a r l y a l l t h e s e c a s e s t h e w if e h as been o n ly one s e t j u n i o r . O nly 9% o f f i r s t m a r r ia g e s h av e b e e n w ith women o f a g e s e t s s e n i o r t o th e h u sb a n d s and i n m ost c a s e s th e w iv e s h av e b e e n only one s e t s e n i o r . B ut o f 183 l a t e r m a r r ia g e s o f th e men o n ly a t h i r d (33%) have b e e n w ith women o f a g e s e t s e q u iv a l e n t to t h e i r own. Over h a l f (54%) w ere w ith women o f j u n i o r age s e t s and h a l f o f th e s e ( 51%) w e re j u n i o r by more th a n one s e t . 13% w ere w ith women o f o l d e r a g e s e t s b u t i n th e g r e a t m a j o r i ty o f t h e s e c a s e s th e women w ere o n ly one s e t s e n i o r . I t i s n o t im­ p o s s i b l e t h a t i n e x c e p t io n a l c a s e s a woman one s e t j u n i o r o r s e n i o r t o a man may d i f f e r fro m him by o n ly a few m onths i n a c t u a l a g e ; b u t i n general su ch a woman i s l i k e l y t o be t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s y o u n g er o r o l d e r th a n th e

83 husband, a s th e c a s e may b e , and - s i n c e one s e t c o v e rs a t h r e e t o f o u r y e a r sp an - th e d i f f e r e n c e may h e a s g r e a t a s se v e n o r e i g h t y e a r s . T h ere i s , t h e r e f o r e , a m arked te n d e n c y f o r young men to m arry g i r l s o f t h e i r own age i n th e f i r s t i n s t a n c e a n d , w here th e w ife o f a f i r s t m a r ria g e is s e n io r o r j u n i o r to th e h u sb a n d i n a g e s e t , th e d i f f e r e n c e i s r a r e l y one o f more th a n a s i n g l e s e t w h ile m a r r ia g e s w ith j u n i o r s a r e t h r e e tim e s a s common a s m a r ria g e s w ith s e n i o r s . On th e o t h e r h an d i n l a t e r m a r r ia g e s some men ta k e women who d i f f e r w id e ly fro m them i n a g e , and th e g e n e r a l te n d e n c y is t o m arry yo u n g er women. So f a r t h i s a n a l y s i s , w h ich i s b a s e d on th e mar­ r i a g e s o f men o f a l l a g e s , t a k e s n o a c c o u n t o f any p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n th e r e l a t i v e a g e s o f sp o u s e s i n th e c a s e or men o f v a r i o u s a g e s . Changes i n R e l a t i v e Ages o f S p o u se s. I t i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t t o know w h e th e r t h e r e h a s b e e n any s i g n i f i c a n t ch an g e d u r in g th e p a s t two g e n e r a tio n s c o v e re d by t h e d a t a p r e s e n te d above i n th e r e l a t i v e a g e s o f hus­ bands and w iv e s. The sam ple a v a i l a b l e i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y s m a ll, a s r e c o r d s o f o n ly 128 f i r s t m a r ria g e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , and t h e s e a r e f o r men r a n g in g w id e ly i n ag e from c .1 8 t o o v e r 75 y e a r s o f a g e i n 1939. The m a t e r i a l i s t h e r e f o r e c la s s e d i n t o o n ly th r e e g ro u p s o f y o u n g , m id d le a g e d and o ld men r e s p e c t i v e l y in T a b le 9 . TABLE 9

The r e l a t i v e a g e s o f f i r s t w iv e s by a g e - s e t s o f h u sb a n d s A G E

A g e-S et of Husband

S E T S J u n io r

E q u iv a le n t

O P

S e n io r

b y :-

One

Two

W I V E S : -

One

Two

by : T h re e 1

1 1

I II III IV V VI

1 4 6

V II V III IX X XI XII X III

1 4 9 8 10 1

1 1 1 1 33=63. 5% 1 12=23. 0% - 3=5.8% 2 5 1 2

1 l -

1 -

XIV XV XVI XVII X VIII

3 14 6 8 4

3 1 4 2 1 35=58.3% 4 13=21.7% 1 4=6.7% 2 1 4 1 -

1 -

A ll Sets

79

1 1 6 = 1 2 .5 % 2 =100$ 5 1 (over 60 y e a r s )

2- 5 = 31.3%

11=68.75?- 1

=617%

30 = 2 3 -$ 37

T o ta l s

7 =5. 5%

9

1 -

4 7 1 5 2 = 4 0 .6 $ - 4=7.% 10 =100% 11 (60- 30 y e a r s ) 15 4 1

2 12 = 9 . 4%

18 60 =46.9% 8=13.3% 13 =100% 14 (29- 18y e a r s ) 4 1

128 100%

84 Among t h e 60 .young men o f s e t s XIV-XVI I I who, b e in g a p p ro x im a te ly b e ­ tw een 18 and. 29 y e a r s o ld i n 1939 an d h a v in g th u s f i r s t m a r rie d w i t h i n th e l a s t tw e lv e y e a r s , c o n s t i t u t e n e a r l y h a l f th e s e r i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a ly ­ s i s , t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e p re p o n d e ra n c e o f f i r s t m a r ria g e s w ith women e­ q u i v a l e n t i n ag e s e t i . e . 58%, b u t 28% o f f i r s t m a r ria g e s w e re w ith women o f j u n i o r g r a d e s and 13% w i t h women o f s e n i o r s e t s . Among t h e 52 men aged b e tw e e n a p p ro x im a te ly 30 and 60 y e a r s ( s e t s X I I I t o V II) i . e . men who f i r s t m a r r ie d b etw een a p p ro x im a te ly 12 and 42 y e a r s a g o , th e p ro p o r tio n o f m a r r ia g e s w ith women o f e q u iv a l e n t ag e s e t s was 5% h i g h e r , v i z . 63% th e p r o p o r t i o n o f m a r ria g e s w ith women o f j u n i o r s e t s re m a in e d a p p ro x im a te ly th e sam e, v i z . 29%, b u t th o s e w ith women o f s e n i o r s e t s w e re o n ly 8% o f th e t o t a l . I n th e sm a ll s u r v iv in g g ro u p o f 16 men a p p ro x im a te ly 60 y e a r s o f a g e o r m ore ( s e t s I t o VI ) i . e . men who f i r s t m a r rie d 42 o r m ore y e a r s ago - th e p e r c e n ta g e o f f i r s t m a r ria g e s w ith women e q u iv a l e n t i n a g e s e t h a s r i s e n t o 69%, w h ile t h e r e m a in in g 31% o f f i r s t m a r ria g e s w e re a l l w i t h women o f j u n i o r by o n ly one s e t , t h e r e b e in g no i n s t a n c e s o f f i r s t m ar­ r i a g e s w ith women s e n i o r i n a g e s e t . I t may, t h e r e f o r e , h e c o n c lu d e d t h a t f i r s t m a r ria g e w ith a woman o f ag e s e t e q u iv a l e n t t o t h a t o f th e h u sb an d i . e . w ith a woman d i f f e r i n g i n ag e from t h e h u sb an d by th r e e o r f o u r y e a r s a t m ost i s an e s t a b l i s h e d and p e r s i s t e n t f e a t u r e o f Yakӧ m a tin g . The p r o p o r tio n o f f i r s t m a rria g e s w ith j u n i o r s h a s rem a in e d a t r a t h e r l e s s th a n a t h i r d o f a l l f i r s t m a r ria g e s th r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d a v a i l a b l e f o r s tu d y ; b u t i n no c a s e h a s a f i r s t w i f e b e e n m ore th a n two s e t s ( a maximum o f a b o u t te n y e a r s ) j u n i o r t o h e r h u s ­ b a n d . At th e same tim e i t i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n a n i n c r e a s i n g te n d e n c y i n th e l a s t 40 y e a r s and e s p e c i a l l y i n th e l a s t t e n y e a r s fo rm en t o t a k e a s f i r s t wiv e s women o f s e t s s e n i o r t o t h e i r own, s i n c e 13% o f th e f i r s t m a r r ia g e s o f th e y o u n g e r men and 8% o f th o s e o f th e m id d le ag e d men a r e o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r , w h ile t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f th e e x i s t e n c e of t h i s p r a c t i c e among th e o l d e s t men. T h is te n d e n c y i s o b v io u s ly l i k e l y t o r e f l e c t a s l i g h t b u t i n c r e a s i n g d e a r t h i n th e l a s t g e n e r a t io n o f young women o f e q u iv a l e n t ag e s e t and a v a i l a b l e a s sp o u se s f o r young men when t h e l a t t e r f i r s t r e a c h th e ag e o f m a r r ia g e . S e v e r a l p o s s i b l e c o n d it io n s a p p l i c a b l e to th e Yakö may b e in v o lv e d in t h i s i n c r e a s i n g d e a r t h o f e q u iv a l e n t age s e t sp o u s e s f o r y o u n g men a t th e i r f i r s t m a r r ia g e s . Of th e s e t h e r e i s f i r s t th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an i n c r e a s e i n th e p r o p o r tio n o f young women who a t t h e i r f i r s t m a r ria g e s become s e c ­ ond o r l a t e r w iv e s o f o l d e r men. The e x i s t e n c e o f su c h a te n d e n c y may h e s o u g h t i n th e d a t a on th e l a t e r m a r r ia g e s o f men o f v a r i o u s s e t s .

=

a) + b)

b) 139 =

60= 3 2 .8

79

a)

A ll G rad es (115 men)

21= 3 1 .3

35



11= 3 2 .3

=

XIV -X V III a) (29 - 19 y r s . ) (5 0 men) b)

33

11

28= 3 4 .1

a)

b)

a)

b)

V II - X I I I (56 - 32 y r s . ) (52 men)

I - VI (78 - 60 y r s . ) (13 men)

A

G

E

37

17

15

5

4 4 .7 136

6 1 .7

58. 4

6 3 .5

6 8 .7

E q u iv a le n t

S

3 1 .3

2 8 .8

2 8 .3

2 8 .9

=

4 3 .7

99 = 54 -1

=

36 = 5 3 .7

=

41 = 50 .0

=

22 = 6 4 .7

=

%

E T S

J u n io r

36

12

8

4

0

24

10

13

1

O F

=

=

7 .7

3 .0

0

1 1 .6

9 -4

1 3 .3 = 15. 0

=

= 1 5 .9

=

=

=

%

WI V E S S e n io r

311

128

60 =

52

16

=

T o ta l s

=

67 = 100

82 = 100

=

34 = 100

183

Age S e ts and a p p ro x im a te a g e s o f H usbands

TABLE 10 R e la tiv e Age S ets of Spouses in (a) F i r s t and ( b ) L ater M arriages of Nda i Men by Age S e ts.

= 100

100

100

100

100

100

%

86 T a k in g t h e ag e g ro u p in g s u s e d above we s e e f r o n T a b le 10 t h a t 13 men o f 60 y e a r s o r more i n 1939 h ad m a r rie d 34 l a t e r w iv e s an d t h a t 2 2 , o r 65%, o f th e s e w ere j u n i o r t o t h e i r h u sb a n d s i n age s e t . The 52 men b e tw een a p p ro x im a te ly 30 and 60 y e a r s o f age h ad m a r rie d 82 se c o n d o r l a t e r wives o f whom 4 1 , o r 50%, w ere j u n i o r , w h ile 60 o f th e y o u n g e r men, u n d e r 30 y e a r s have a lr e a d y m a r rie d 67 seco n d o r l a t e r w iv e s o f whom 3 6 , o r 54%, w ere j u n i o r s . The sec o n d and p a r t i c u l a r l y th e t h i r d g ro u p may b e h e ld n o t t o have co m p le te d t h e i r l a t e r m a r r ia g e s , b u t o n ly th e y o u n g e s t men o f s e t s XVII and X V III can b e re g a r d e d a s l i k e l y t o m arry f u r t h e r young u n m a rrie d women i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e num ber i n th e f u t u r e s i n c e i t i s r a r e f o r men to ta k e a s sec o n d w iv e s p r e v i o u s ly u n m a rrie d women m ore th a n two c l a s s e s j u n i o r th a n th e m s e lv e s and o n ly 20 i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s h a s o c c u r r ­ ed among a l l t h e 183 re c o r d e d seco n d o r l a t e r m a r r ia g e s o f Nda i men. Thus among th e 42 men o f s e t s XIV, XV and XVI (a g e d c .2 9 t o 23 y e a rs ) v e r y few f u r t h e r m a r r ia g e s w ith young g i r l s w i l l ta k e p l a c e . I f we in ­ s p e c t th e l a t e r m a r r ia g e s w h ich t h e s e men h av e a lr e a d y made we f i n d t h a t th e y in c l u d e 34 m a r r ia g e s w ith women o f j u n i o r s e t s o u t o f a t o t a l o f 61, o r 56%, a p r o p o r tio n in t e r m e d i a t e b e tw een th o s e f o r t h e g ro u p s o f m id d le aged and o ld men. T h e re i s t h e r e f o r e e v id e n c e t h a t th e p r o p o r t i o n of l a t e r m a r ria g e s of men w ith women j u n i o r t o them i n ag e s e t h a s b e e n con­ s i d e r a b l e th ro u g h o u t th e l a s t 40 y e a r s b u t t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n th a t i t s in c id e n c e h a s u n d e rg o n e any s u b s t a n t i a l c h a n g e . W hile i t m ust be re c o g n is e d t h a t by no m eans a l l t h e l a t e r w iv e s o f Nda i men who a re j u n i o r t o t h e i r h u sb a n d s i n ag e s e t w e re u n m a rrie d g i r l s b e f o r e th e s e m a r r i a g e s , a c t u a l l y , a s may b e se e n from T a b le 1 0 , 7 0 , o r 71% o f them w ere young u n m a rrie d g i r l s a t th e tim e o f th e m a r ria g e and o n ly 2 9 , o r 33% w ere widows o r d iv o r c e e s . T h is p r o p o r tio n im p li e s a su b sta n ­ t i a l en croachm en t by o l d e r a lr e a d y m a r rie d men on th e su p p ly o f women o f j u n i o r ag e s e t s a s th e y r e a c h n u b i l i t y . Giv e n a n o rm a l se x r a t i o t h e p r a c t i c e o f seco n d m a r r ia g e s w ith young u n m a rrie d g i r l s i s o b v io u s ly i n ­ c o m p a tib le w ith th e Yakö a t t i t u d e t h a t , a s h a s b e e n shown by th e e a r l i e r a n a l y s i s a n d a s th e y th e m s e lv e s s a y , a y o u th sh o u ld s e e k h i s f i r s t w if e among u n m a rrie d g i r l s o f a g e s e t s e q u iv a l e n t to h i s own. T h a t t h e sex r a t i o o f c h i l d r e n b o rn i n Umor an d o f th o s e r e a c h in g m a r r ia g e a b le ages i s l i k e l y to b e n o rm a l among t h e Yakö h a s a l r e a d y b e e n p o in t e d o u t. It i s t h e r e f o r e l i k e l y t h a t th e c o n tin u e d p r a c t i c e o fp olygynous m a r ria g e o f men w ith young g i r l s i s c o n n e c te d w ith th e r e c e n t i n c r e a s e r e f e r r e d t o abo v e i n th e num ber o f f i r s t m a r ria g e s o f young men w ith women s e n io r t o them i n ag e s e t , l and a ls o f o r th e s t i l l more m arked i n c r e a s e i n th e 1I n o n ly 2 o f t h e 8 i n s t a n c e s , h o w ev er, w ere th e m a r r ia g e s d iv o r c e e s : t h e r e s t had p r e v i o u s ly b een f i r s t w iv e s o f m id d le ag ed men who w ere s e n i o r to had b een p r e v i o u s ly u n m a r r ie d , one was a d iv o r c e e

w iv e s o f th e s e f i r s t u n m a rrie d ; among t h e 4 t h e i r h u sb a n d s only one an d two w ere w idow s.

A ll M a r ria g e s of H usbands

L a te r M a r ria g e s of H usbands

F irs t M a r ria g e s of H usbands

102

70

32

J

= 7 0 .4 %

219

107

10

21

= 2 0 .0 %

62

24

3

14

17

= 3 0 . 6%

23

= 4 .6 %

6

1

S

= 5 5 .7 %

19

2

E

56

3

J

D iv o rc e d

102

29

7

S

= 9 1 .4 %

117

78

E

U n m arried J

13

10

3

24

53. 3%

12

S

139 100%

100% = 9 .6 %

100%

36

4 3 .2 % 6 6 .7 %

60

136

9

7 2 . 8%

99

30

8

=13. 7%

25

8

5 6 .8 %

2 7 . 2%

= 4 .0 %

E

79

7

2

J

37

0

S

T o t a l s

5

E

Widows

311=100%

1 8 3 = 58.8%

128 = 41.2%

G rand T o ta l

The I n c id e n c e o f M a rria g e s o f Nd a i Men w ith U n m a rrie d , D iv o rc e d and Widowed women, o f J u n i o r (J ) . E q u iv a le n t ( E) & S e n io r (S ) Age S e ts

R e l . Age G rade o f W ives

TABLE 11

87

88 p r o p o r tio n o f women s e n i o r t o t h e i r h u sb a n d s i n a g e s e t among th e l a t e r w iv e s o f th e y o u n g e r men. W hile t h e r e i s o n ly o n e i n s t a n c e o f a w ife s e n i o r i n a g e - s e t among th e 34 l a t e r m a r ria g e s o f t h e o ld m en (o v er s i x t y i n 1939) , such w iv e s a c c o u n t f o r 15% o f th e l a t e r m a r r ia g e s i n b o th th e y o u n g e r g ro u p s o f men. The p o s i t i o n i s even m ore s t r i k i n g th a n t h i s s u g ­ g e s t s f o r o f th e t o t a l o f 24 l a t e r m a r ria g e s w ith s e n i o r women o n ly f iv e w ere th o s e o f men o f a p p ro x im a te ly 44 y e a r s or m ore i n 1939 ( s e t s X and u p w a rd s ), w h ile 1 9 , o r 79%, w ere m a r ria g e s o f men a p p ro x im a te ly 25 to 40 y e a r s o ld . On th e d a t a a v a i l a b l e t h e r e f o r e l a t e r m a r r ia g e s o f men w ith women s e n i o r to them i n ag e s e t b eg a n t o b e f r e q u e n t a b o u t tw e n ty y e a r s a g o , w h ile f i r s t m a r r ia g e s o f y o u th s w ith g i r l s s e n i o r i n s e t b e ­ came f r e q u e n t s t i l l l a t e r i . e . a b o u t te n y e a r s a g o , among men o f s e t s XIV and l a t e r , ag ed a b o u t 29 y e a r s o r l e s s i n 1 9 3 9 . A s, h ow ever, i t h a s a lr e a d y b een shown t h a t th e p r o p o r t i o n o f l a t e r m a r r ia g e s o f men w ith women ju n i o r to them i n a g e h a s n o t ch anged sub­ s t a n t i a l l y d u r in g t h e p a s t 40 y e a r s , th e p r a c t i c e i s n o t l i k e l y by i t s e l f t o a c c o u n t f o r th e i n c r e a s i n g te n d e n c y o f y o u n g men to m a rry s e n i o r wo­ men a t t h e i r f i r s t m a r r ia g e s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , c l e a r l y n e c e s s a r y in th e f i r s t p la c e t o c o n s id e r how i t e v e r became p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h and main­ t a i n u n d e r c o n d it io n s o f a p p a r e n tly n o rm a l se x r a t i o o f b i r t h s th e ap­ p a r e n t l y in c o m p a tib le p r a c t i c e s o f f i r s t m a r r ia g e s o f men w ith u n m a rrie d g i r l s o f e q u iv a l e n t o r j u n i o r ag e s e t and o f f r e q u e n t l a t e r m a r ria g e s o f men w ith young g i r l s j u n i o r to them i n a g e . The f e a t u r e o f Yakӧ s o c i e t y w h ich w ould a c c o u n t b o th f o r t h e c o n c u rre n c e o f t h e s e p r a c t i c e s i n th e p a s t and f o r th e i n d i c a t i o n s o f a r e c e n t change i n tr e n d h a s a lr e a d y b e e n r e f e r r e d t o . T h is i s th e p r a c t i c e o f p u r c h a s in g f o r e i g n c h i l d r e n , known a s y a f o l i , who a r e p re d o m in a n tly fe m a le . T h ese a c q u i s i t i o n s h av e f o r an i n d e f i n i t e p e r io d i n t h e p a s t h a d th e e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g a t any g iv e n tim e t h e r a t i o o f n u b i l e g i r l s to y o u th s c o n t r a c t i n g t h e i r f i r s t m a r­ r i a g e s and h av e th u s made a v a i l a b l e a s u r p lu s o f n u b i l e g i r l s f o r m ar­ r i a g e t o o l d e r men a s t h e i r l a t e r w iv e s . Bu t , a s h a s b e e n m entioned, th e r e h a s s i n c e B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b eg an i n th e C ro s s R iv e r c o u n try f o r t y y e a r s a g o , b een i n c r e a s i n g g o v e rn m e n ta l c h e c k on t h i s t r a f f i c k i n g in c h il­ d r e n w h ich c u lm in a te d i n t h e e a r l y tw e n ti e s when th e p r a c t i c e was g r e a t ­ l y c u r t a i l e d by in c r e a s e d v i g i l a n c e and s e v e r e p e n a l t i e s . I n t h e N dai p a t r i c l a n i n 1939 o f th e 11 men known to me to h a v e p u rc h a s e d fo r e ig n c h i l d r e n a l l w e re 36 y e a r s o r more i n a g e and m o st o f them w ere o v e r 50. They h ad b etw ee n them p u rc h a s e d 16 f o r e i g n c h i l d r e n , o f whom o n ly one was a m ale and a l l w ere s a i d to be a d u lt i n 1 9 3 9 . None o f th e y o u n g e r men h ad o b ta in e d f o r e i g n c h i l d r e n . The f orm e r e x is te n c e o f t h i s su p p ly o f s u r p l u s fe m a le c h i l d r e n w h ich h a s b e e n s e v e r e ly c u r t a i l e d d u r in g th e p a s t tw e n ty y e a r s o r so would th u s r e a d i l y a c c o u n t f o r th e c h a r a c t e r and ch a n g e s i n th e r e l a t i v e a g e s o f spouses a n a ly s e d a b o v e . The i n c r e a s e among t h e y o u n g e r men o f f i r s t m a r ria g e s to women s e n i o r to them i n age i n c l u d in g some widows and d iv o r c e e s i s l i k e l y

89

to be a n e f f e c t o f t h i s c u r t a i l m e n t w hich h a s r e d u c e d th e r a t i o o f n u b i l e g i r l s to m a r ria g e a b le y o u th s t o more n o rm a l p r o p o r t i o n s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . At th e same tim e i t h a s re m a in e d c u sto m a ry f o r o l d e r men t o se e k la te r w ives from among th e n u b i l e g i r l s . The p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e un­ s t a b l e and u n l e s s a n o th e r e x t e r n a l s o u rc e o f m a r r ia g e a b le women i s f o u n d , w hich i s im p ro b a b le , t h e p o ly g y n y r a t e among th e Yakӧ i s l i k e l y t o de­ c l i n e . I f th e e a r l i e r s i t u a t i o n , i n w h ic h y o u n g men a lm o s t a lw a y s m ated on th e f i r s t o c c a s io n w ith p r e v i o u s l y u n m a rrie d g i r l s , i s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e l a t e r m a r ria g e s o f men w i l l b e fe w e r i n num ber an d i n c r e a s i n g l y w ith d iv o r c e e s and w idow s. I f th e y o u n g men com pete u n s u c c e s s f u l l y w ith o l d e r men f o r th e u n m a rrie d g i r l s a s s p o u s e s th e a g e o f f i r s t m a r ria g e s o f men w i l l te n d t o r i s e . I n th e e a r l i e r d is c u s s i o n o f t h e in c r e a s e i n p r e - m a r ­ i t a l p re g n a n c y i t h a s a lr e a d y b een s u g g e s te d t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s may a l s o b e te n d in g a lr e a d y t o r a i s e th e a g e o f f i r s t m a r r ia g e o f men ow ing to d i f f i c u l t i e s i n th e p r o v i s i o n o f m a r ria g e money. S uch d i f f i c u l t i e s a re l i k e l y t o a f f e c t o l d e r men s e e k in g a d d i t i o n a l w iv e s a s much a s o r evenm ore th a n y o u th s m a rry in g f o r t h e f i r s t tim e s i n c e th e fo rm e r c a n n o t so r e a d ­ i l y o b ta i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s fro m t h e i r s e n i o r r e l a t i v e s f o r th e p u r p o s e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e m ost p ro b a b le t h a t , i f t h e r e c e n t econom ic s i t u a t i o n b o t h i n ­ t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n tin u e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y u n c h a n g e d , th e p a t t e r n o f f i r s t m a rria g e o f young men w ith g i r l s m a rry in g f o r t h e f i r s t tim e w i l l p e r s i s t among th e Yakӧ and t h a t b o th th e p o ly g y n y r a t e and t h e l a t e r m a r ria g e o f o l d e r men w ith y o u n g g i r l s w i l l d e c l i n e .

90 CHAPTER XIV FERTILITY The d e s i r e f o r o f f s p r i n g . The h ig h v a lu e s e t on f e c u n d i t y by th e Yakӧ i s e x p re s s e d an d s tr e n g th e n e d i n many w ays. The f e r t i l i t y c u l t s , p a r ­ t i c u l a r l y th o s e a s s o c i a t e d w ith th e s p i r i t s o f th e m a t r i l i n e a l c l a n s , em­ p h a s is e and make e x p l i c i t th e s e n tim e n t t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e s s i n g an d a sym bol o f p r o s p e r i t y . D u rin g th e L ibokū r i t u a l a t Timor when th e e a r l y yams a r e re a d y fo r d ig g in g e ach y e a r , th e c h i e f o f f i c i a n t s l e d by c e r t a i n o f th e m a t r i l i n e a l c la n p r i e s t s asse m b le f o r a p r e p a r a to r y r i t e i n w h ic h t h e p r a y e r i s : Y a si ōdӧ a i y ō- k ōk ӧ n ōy ō d j i l i d j ōf i Onen wōy ōm ōb ӧ y a n e n a t ō t ӧ k e f a t oman wen o t ūmō Atewa n an l o s e amon n ōy ō d j i l i d j ōf i Onen wō t ō k ū t a n t ō b ӧ Today i s t h e d ay b e f o r e k ōkö (when) we w i l l e a t new yams Anyone who l i e s w ith a woman, l e t h e r c o n c e iv e and b e a r a c h i l d a l i v e A tew al ( m a t r i l i n e a l c la n s p i r i t ) a c c e p t ( t h i s ) o f f e r i n g (a n d ) we w i l l e a t new yams Anyone who h a s a w itc h l e t him d i e . S i m i l a r l y d u r in g th e s u c c e e d in g r i t e a t th e s h r i n e o f th e p re m ie r ma­ t r i l i n e a l c l a n s p i r i t Ōd jo k ōb i th e a p p e a l sp o k e n by th e p r i e s t i s : Amon L e tū Wōt ō Onen

n ōy ō d j i l i d j ōf i mon l e nӧ lep ö m i l i f a e amon tom ana ō t ūmō

We s h a l l e a t new yams Our h e a d ( l e t i t b e ) w ith o u t p a in O u rs e lv e s ( l e t u s b e ) i n h e a l t h Anyone ( b o m , l e t h im ) b e b o rn a l i v e . And i n th e p r a y e r o f th e v i l l a g e s p e a k e r ( o k p e h r i) o c c u rs th e p h r a s e : O bot ōb i : mwo ōb i y a n e n ta y a mana y a t ūmō , y a s ū sū sū The v i l l a g e h e a d s a y s s h e sa y s p e o p le s h o u ld h e b o rn s t r o n g , many many. S im il a r a p p e a ls a r e made d u r in g th e H a rv e s t R i t u a l a t e a c h o f th e ma­ t r i c l a n s h r i n e s when th e s e a r e v i s i t e d by t h e a ss e m b le d m a t r i c l a n p r i e s t s d u r in g th e g a t h e r i n g o f th e m ain yam h a r v e s t .

91 The m ost f r e q u e n t o f th e m inor r i t u a l s i n a Yakö v i l l a g e a r e su p ­ p l i c a t i o n s a t th e in n u m e ra b le s h r i n e s o f m i n o r s p i r i t s ( n d e t , s i n g . e d e t) o n b e h a lf o f women who h a v e so f a r f a i l e d t o b e a r t h r i v i n g c h i l d r e n . For e v ery p a t r i l i n e a g e t h e r e i s one o r more o f t h e s e s h r i n e s and to some of them o f f e r i n g s a r e made o n ly f o r th e p u rp o s e o f s e c u r i n g f e r t i l i t y . New s p i r i t s a r e in tr o d u c e d q u i t e o f t e n by e n t e r p r i s i n g men who buy th e p a r a ­ p h e r n a l i a and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r th e r i t u a l fro m n e ig h b o u r in g p e o p le s . Such a s h r in e b e g in s a s a means o f command o v e r s u p e r n a t u r a l b e n e f i t s and a s a so u rc e o f p r o f i t an d p r e s t i g e to i t s 'o w n e r '. S u c c e s s io n t o c o n t r o l of th e r i t u a l i s u s u a l l y p a t r i l i n e a l , a s a r u l e a so n s u c c e e d s h i s f a t h e r , and g r a d u a l l y th e s h r i n e comes t o be re g a r d e d a s th e a b o d e o f a t u t e l a r y f e r t i l i t y and h e a l t h g iv in g s p i r i t f o r th e e n t i r e p a t r i l i n e a g e o r c l a n t o w hich i t s i n t r o d u c e r b e lo n g e d . W ith in b o th th e p a t r i l i n e a l an d th e m a t r i l i n e a l c l a n s an d s t i l l more w ith in t h e i r com ponent li n e a g e s th e r e i s a s t r o n g s e n tim e n t t h a t i n c r e a s e i n n u m e r ic a l s t r e n g t h i s b o th d e s i r a b l e i n i t s e l f and a m eans o f a t t a i n ­ in g r e l a t i v e p r e s t i g e . The men o f th e p a t r i l i n e a g e ta k e p r i d e f o r exam­ p le i n th e number an d s i z e o f f o r e s t la n d s t h a t th e y and t h e i r f o r b e a r s have opened up and c le a r e d f o r fa r m in g , and a l a r g e a n d g ro w in g lin e a g e w i l l com pare i t s e l f f a v o u r a b ly w ith i t s s m a ll e r f e l l o w s . Need f o r e x p an ­ s io n o f fa rm in g la n d i s c o n s id e r e d a s o u rc e of p r i d e n o t o f em barrassm ent. When f o r in s ta n c e men o f th e I te w a l i n e a g e o f N dai-L ekpangkem p a t r i c l an in Umor r e c e n t l y fo u n d th e m se lv e s i n n e e d o f m ore la n d i t was w i t h p r i d e t h a t a d e p u ta t io n h e a d e d by t h e i r p a t h - e l d e r w en t t o s e e k t h e c o n c u rr e n c e o f N gkpani v i l l a g e i n th e c l e a r i n g o f a t r a c t i n th e f o r e s t w h ich l i e s b e ­ tw een th e farm ed a r e a s o f Umor and N g k p an i. T a k in g a g i f t to th e v i l l a g e head o f N gkpani th e y e x p la in e d why new fa r m la n d was n e e d e d a s a r e s u l t o f an i n c r e a s e i n th e num ber o f t h e i r young men. L a te r th e s e I te w a men,whom a few men o f a n o th e r li n e a g e j o i n e d , so u g h t t h e a i d o f th e O bot Kepū n o f N dai-Lekpangkem who c a l l e d u p o n a l l men o f th e p a t r i c l an t o g o w ith them to h e lp c l e a r th e f o r e s t g ro w th , and i n f a c t a v e r y l a r g e p a r t o f t h e a ­ d u l t m ale s t r e n g t h o f th e c l a n m u s te re d on th e s i t e t o g iv e t h i s a i d t o t h e i r f e l lo w s who w ere e x te n d in g t h e i r f a r m la n d s . The to n e o f th e ac­ c o u n ts I was g iv e n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x p a n s io n u n d o u b te d ly im plied a s e n s e o f w o r th in e s s and s e l f - c o n g r a t u l a t i o n on th e p a r t o f th e Ite w a men an d o f g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n th e p a t r i c l an a s a w h o le . T h e re w as r e c u r r e n t em­ p h a s i s on i t s g ro w in g s t r e n g t h . T h is same p a t r i c l a n w hose d w e llin g a r e a i s s i t u a t e d i n th e i n t e r i o r o f t h e v i l l a g e and i s c ir c u m s c r ib e d b y th o s e o f n e ig h b o u r in g c l a n s , a ls o e s t a b l i s h e d d u r in g t h e i n t e r v a l b e tw e e n my two v i s i t s a new o u tl y in g s e t t l e m e n t a r e a o r k ōwū (pl . l i w ū ) i n a s t r e t c h o f t h e i r fo rm e r fa rm in g la n d on th e o u t s k i r t s o f th e v i l l a g e . The c o n g e s t­ io n i n th e m ain s e t tl e m e n t a r e a t o w hich t h i s move w as due was s i m i l a r l y looked upon n o t a s a n u is a n c e o r m is f o r tu n e b u t on th e c o n t r a r y a s a r e ­ s u l t o f welcome g ro w th o f th e c l a n . To h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d a k ōwū a s many o f th e p a t r i c l an s o f Umor h av e done i n th e p a s t f i f t y y e a r s i s a l s o a so u rc e o f p r i d e .

92 is W ith in th e p a t r i c l a n (kepūn ) th e g ro u p s e n tim e n t f o r f e r t i l i t y f o s te r e d , by th e d e s i r e t h a t f a t h e r s sh o u ld have many so n s t o s u c c e e d them i n t h e i r compounds an d on t h e i r fa r m s . The ma t r i c l a n s (y a jim a ) a r e n o t t e r r i t o r i a l l y com pact g ro u p s b u t th e co m p lem en tary s e n t im e n t, th e d e s i r e f o r th e f e r t i l i t y o f t h e i r women who a r e s c a t t e r e d a s w iv e s th ro u g h th e p a t r i c l an o f th e v i l l a g e i s e q u a ll y s t r o n g . A man lo o k s to h i s s i s t e r s to p r o v id e him w ith h e i r s , men who w i l l b e lo n g to h i s m a t r i l i n e a g e and s u c ­ c e e d t o h i s p r o p e r t y , and to s a t i s f y th e d e s i r e f o r many c h i l d r e n t h a t i s so f r e q u e n t l y e x p re s s e d i n s u p p l i c a t i o n s t o th e s h r i n e s o f th e m a t r i c la n s . C onsonant w ith t h i s em p h asis on f e r t i l i t y i s th e e x a c t io n o f p e n a l­ t i e s f o r a b o r t io n . A b o rtio n i s s a i d t o be r a r e l y a tte m p te d by th e Yakӧ a lth o u g h th e y c la im to know e f f e c t i v e a b o r t i f a c e n t s . I n t h i s c o n te x t th e p o in t o f i n t e r e s t i s t h a t a b o r t i o n i s r e g a r d e d a s a n o ff e n c e a g a i n s t th e s p i r i t o f th e w om an's m a t r i c la n w h ich e n d a n g e rs th e w e llb e in g o f a l l mem­ b e r s o f th e g ro u p . An a l l e g e d a b o r t i o n sh o u ld be i n v e s t i g a t e d by th e v i l ­ la g e h ead and h i s c o u n c il o f Y abot a n d , i f i t i s c o n s id e r e d p ro v e n , th e c lo s e m a t r i k i n r e l a t i v e s o f th e o f f e n d in g women a r e r e q u i r e d to p r o v id e a cow w hich i s c e re m o n ia lly b u tc h e r e d and consum ed by th e Y a b o t, w h ich i n ­ c lu d e s a l l th e m a t r i c l a n p r i e s t s , i n th e c o u rs e o f an o f f e r i n g a t th e s h r i n e o f th e w om an's c l a n . C a t t l e , o f th e d w a rf f o r e s t b r e e d , a r e not num erous among th e Yakӧ and i n r e c e n t tim e s a sum o f s e v e r a l pounds co n ­ t r i b u t e d by m ost members o f th e w om an's m a t r i l i n e a g e would b e r e q u i r e d to p r o v id e th e b e a s t . The e n fo rc e m e n t o f t h i s p e n a l t y , w hich i s one r e s e r v ­ ed f o r g ra v e o f f e n c e s , i s a s s u r e d i f n e c e s s a r y b y r e f u s i n g a c c e s s t o th e s h r i n e o f th e c la n s p i r i t f o r any r i t u a l u n t i l th e cow h a s b e e n han d ed o v e r. I d id n o t o b ta i n a n a c c o u n t o f a r e c e n t i n s t a n c e o f t h i s l e g a l p ro ­ c e s s w h ic h i s p e rh a p s r a r e l y c a r r i e d o u t , s i n c e d is c o v e r y o f a b o r t i o n i s by no means e a s y , b u t t h e r e i s u n d o u b te d ly among th e Yakӧ a s t r o n g s e n ­ tim e n t t h a t a b o r t io n i s an o f f e n c e c a l c u l a t e d t o i n v o lv e s u p e r n a t u r a l pun­ ish m e n t o f th e c u l p r i t and h e r mat r i - k i n s f o l k i f th e c la n s p i r i t b e n o t a p p e a se d . B u t, w h ile th e Yakö s e e k by b o th p r a c t i c a l an d r i t u a l means t o p r o ­ mote c h i l d b i r t h , i t s fr e q u e n c y i s a t th e same tim e r e s t r i c t e d b y a p ro ­ h i b i t i o n o f s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e to n u r s in g m o th e rs . W ith in a few d a y s o f b e a r i n g a c h i l d m ost Yakӧ women resum e d o m e s tic and even fa rm w o rk , but f o r two y e a r s th e c h i l d i s s u c k le d by th e m o th e r, a lth o u g h i t i s g iv e n cooked yam w i t h i n a few m onths o f b i r t h and a f t e r th e f i r s t y e a r i s a l s o f e d w i t h p o r t i o n s o f p r a c t i c a l l y e v e ry d i s h t h a t i s p r e p a r e d . D u r in g tho se two y e a r s th e m o th e r sh o u ld r e f r a i n fro m s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e . T h is p ro ­ h i b i t i o n i s u p h e ld b y th e Yakö n o t on p h y s i o lo g i c a l g ro u n d s su c h a s t h a t , f o r i n s t a n c e , a n o th e r p re g n a n c y by e n d in g th e m o t h e r 's flo w o f m ilk w ould en d a n g e r th e e a r l i e r c h i l d , b u t i n th e b e l i e f t h a t th e a c t o f c o i t u s i t ­ s e l f w ould c a u s e th e c h i l d t o s ic k e n . T h is e f f e c t i s n o t a s s o c i a t e d w ith th e a c t i o n o f any p a r t i c u l a r s u p e r n a tu r a l a g e n c y . When I so u g h t f u r t h e r e x p la n a tio n s I was t o l d on s e v e r a l o c c a s io n s t h a t i t sim p ly was s o . The

93 r u l e i s , how ever, v e ry g e n e r a l l y r e s p e c te d and i t i s b e li e v e d c o i t u s i n ­ t e r r u p t s d u rin g t h i s p e r io d i s d a n g e ro u s . N e v e r th e le s s i n t e r c o u r s e does a d m itte d ly o c c u r q u i t e o f t e n b e f o r e a c h i l d i s w eaned and s e v e r a l men i n ­ s i s t e d on s e v e r a l o c c a s io n s t h a t th e w iv e s and n o t men who w e re u s u a l l y r e s p o n s ib l e f o r th e b r e a c h . D e s ir e o r j e a l o u s y o f t e n l e a d th e w if e to make th e i n d i r e c t a d v a n c e s w h ich a r e a l l t h a t a Yakӧ woman may e v e r d e ­ c e n t l y employ when s e e k in g h e r h u s b a n d 's em b ra c e s. T h a t t h e u r g e to b re a k th e r u l e sh o u ld come fro m th e w if e i s u n d e r s ta n d a b le i n te rm s o f Yakӧ mat­ in g f o r a young h u sb an d may f i n d a l o v e r among th e u n m a r rie d g i r l s w h ile an o l d e r man i s l i k e l y to h a v e a seco n d w ife who i s n o t s u c k l in g a c h il d and i s f r e e t o r e c e i v e him . I e n c o u n te re d a few i n s t a n c e s o f a woman b e a r in g two l i v e c h i l d r e n w i t h i n a p e r i o d of two y e a r s b u t was t o l d t h a t t h i s w as v e ry u n u s u a l, and on th e w hole I am i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e th a t t h i s b an on i n t e r c o u r s e d u r i n g l a c t a t i o n i s n e a r l y a lw a y s m a in ta in e d f o r th e f i r s t y e a r o r p e rh a p s l o n g e r , b u t t h a t s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s a r e f r e q u e n t­ l y resum ed b e f o r e th e e n t i r e p e r i o d o f two y e a r s e la p s e d . The h ig h v a lu e s e t on f e c u n d i t y i s a l s o s e t a s i d e when tw in s a re b a rn . I n th e n a t i v e v ie w , w h ich i s b u t s lo w ly b e in g a f f e c t e d by th e e f ­ f o r t s o f m is s io n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to p r e s e r v e and s a f e g u a r d th e m ,tw in s sh o u ld n e v e r be p u t to th e m o th e r’ s b r e a s t b u t b e ta k e n to t h e b u sh in th e n i g h t and b u r i e d t h e r e . The b i r t h o f tw in s i s c o n s id e r e d t o b e due t o an o f f e n c e on th e p a r t o f th e m o th e r. I t may r e s u l t , f o r exam ple,from a d u lt e r y d u r in g p re g n a n c y and i n Umor i t i s re g a r d e d a s a s u p e r n a tu r a l p unishm ent by K e ta , th e t u t e l a r y s p i r i t o f men w h ich i s im p e rs o n a te d i n a s e c r e t r i t u a l by th e h e a d o f a s o c i e t y i n t o w h ic h al l m a le s a r e i n i t ­ i a t e d i n y o u th . K e ta may be in v o k e d a g a i n s t a n y woman who a c t s m a lic ­ io u s ly to w a rd s a man. A c tu a l F e r t i l i t y . I n o r d e r to d e te rm in e t h e n a t u r a l f e r t i l i t y of Yakӧ women an a tte m p t w as made t o i n v e s t i g a t e th e r e p r o d u c t i v e h i s t o r i e s o f a num ber o f women who had c o m p le te d th e r e p r o d u c ti v e p e r i o d i n 1 9 3 9 . F o r t h i s p u rp o s e women o f age s e t IX o r s e n i o r i . e . who w e re a p p ro x im a te ly 48 o r more y e a r s o ld i n 1939 w ere s e l e c t e d . The num ber o b t a i n a b l e f o r s t u dy among t h e w iv es o f men o f th e N dai p a t r i c l a n 42 i n a l l , w as u n f o r t u n a t e ­ l y sm a ll b u t th e r e s u l t s , w h ich a r e sum m arised i n th e f o l lo w in g ta b le , a r e f u l l y c o n s i s t e n t w ith th e p a r t i c u l a r s o f th e r e p r o d u c t i v e h i s t o r i e s down t o 1939 o f a l a r g e r sam ple o f 210 women.

94 TABLE 12

C h ild r e n b o rn to N dal w iv e s who h av e c o m p le te d t h e r e p r o d u c ti v e p e rio d *

Num ber o f M o th ers Num ber o f l i v e b i r t h s

42 m ale fe m a le

66 58 124

T o ta l Mean num ber o f l i v e b i r t h s " " " " "

b o th s e x e s fe m a le s

...

2 .9 5 1 .3 8 11 0 .2 6

Number o f m i s c a r r ia g e s and s t i l l b i r t h s † Mean num ber o f " " " " Humber o f s u r v iv in g o f f s p r i n g :

A d u lts M in o rs ‡

M ale 38 8

Fema le 41 3

46

44

T o ta l 79 11 90

Mean num ber o f s u r v iv in g o f f s p r i n g

...

2 .1 5

The f r e q u e n c i e s o f b i r t h s among th e 42 women w ere a s f o l l o ws : ( i ) F re q u e n c y o f num bers o f l i v e b i r t h s B ir t h s 1 2 3 4 5 6

C a se s 7 9 12 9 3 2 42

* Women o f a g e - s e t s IX o r s e n io r i . e . ag e d 48 y e a r s o r more i n 1 9 3 9 . † T h is num ber was d i f f i c u l t to c h e c k a n d some c a s e s may h av e b e e n o m itte d . ‡ U n m arried g i r l s , b oys and y o u th s .

95 ( i i ) F re q u en cy o f num bers o f s u r v iv in g o f f s p r i n g B irth s 0 1 2 3 4 5

C a se s 2 13 13 7 5 2 42

( i i i ) F req u en cy o f num bers o f l i v e fe m a le b i r t h s Fem ale B i r t h s 0 1 2 3

4 5

C ases 9 19 8 3 1 2 42

( i v ) F re q u e n c y o f num bers o f s u r v iv in g fe m a le o f f s p r i n g Fem ale S u r v iv o r s 0 1 2 3 4 5

C ases 13 21 4 2 1 1 42

I f t h i s random sa m p le , s m a ll th o u g h i t i s , b e a c c e p te d a s r e p r e s e n t ­ a t i v e f o r th e Yakӧ , a p a r t from th e f a c t t h a t i t i n c l u d e s no c a s e o f a b a r ­ r e n woman, i t w ould appear t h a t th e mean number o f b i r t h s p e r w if e i s 3 ( 2 .9 5 ) . t h a t o n ly one t h i r d o f t h e women h e a r more th a n t h r e e l i v e c h i l d ­ r e n d u rin g t h e i r e n t i r e r e p r o d u c t i v e p e r i o d and t h a t f i v e o r m ore liv e bi r t h s a r e v e ry e x c e p t io n a l. The fr e q u e n c y o f m i s c a r r i a g e s an d s t i l l bir th s i s h ig h and th e m o r t a l i t y o f o f f s p r i n g i s a l s o h ig h .

96 T h is sam ple g iv e s th e g e n e r a l im p re s s io n o f low e f f e c t i v e f e r t i l i t y . The mean num ber o f s u r v iv in g fe m a le o f f s p r i n g o f women who h a v e c o m p le te d th e r e p r o d u c t i v e p e r i o d i s 1 . 0 5 . T h is f i g u r e w i l l l i e b e tw e e n th e g r o s s and n e t r e p r o d u c tiv e r a t e s f o r women. I t i s l e s s th a n t h e g r o s s r a te ( l.3 8 ) b e c a u s e some o f th e d a u g h te r s b o rn t o t h e s e women h a v e a lr e a d y d ie d and h i g h e r th a n th e n e t r a t e s i n c e some o f th o s e s t i l l l i v i n g w i l l th e m s e lv e s d i e b e f o r e c o m p le tin g t h e i r r e p r o d u c ti v e l i f e . We know t h a t o f th e 5 8 l i ve b o rn d a u g h te r s o f t h e s e women 14 o r 24% h ad a lr e a d y d ie d by 1939 so t h a t a t l e a s t a q u a r t e r o f th e fe m a le o f f s p r i n g o f t h e s e women who h a v e com­ p l e t e d th e r e p r o d u c ti v e p e r io d w i l l have d ie d b e f o r e th e y i n t u r n have com­ p l e t e d t h e i r r e p r o d u c ti v e l i f e . A ssum ing a t o t a l l o s s by th e ag e o f f i f t y o f 27% on th e g r o s s r a t e o f 1 .3 8 l i v e fe m a le b i r t h s p e r woman th e number o f fe m a le o f f s p r i n g who w i l l c o m p le te th e r e p r o d u c ti v e p e r io d b o rn to wo­ men who have th e m se lv e s c o m p le te d i t w i l l b e a p p ro x im a te ly u n i t y ( 1 . 007) . T h is s u g g e s ts t h a t i f , a s t h e r e i s no re a s o n to d o u b t, th e c ru d e b irth r a t e h a s b e e n s t a b l e th e n e t fe m a le r e p r o d u c tio n r a t e s o v e r th e p a s t h a l f c e n tu r y h av e b e e n b a r e l y a d e q u a te t o m a in ta in th e p o p u la t io n . T h is c o n c lu s io n w ould a t f i r s t s i g h t a p p e a r to c o n f l i c t w ith th e r e ­ s u l t o f a n a n a ly s is o f e a r l i e r d a t a from Umor i n w h ich i t was c o n c lu d e d t h a t " i n t h i s p o p u la tio n d u r in g a p a r t a t l e a s t o f th e ( p a s t ) f i f t y y e a r s . , f e r t i l i t y and m o r t a l i t y h a v e b e e n su c h a s to a llo w o f a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s ­ i n g p o p u la t io n ."1 F o r t h a t s tu d y th e d a ta a v a i l a b l e w ere p a r t i c u l a r s of th e l i v i n g c h i l d r e n o f th e 112 l i v i n g a d u l t m a le s o f th e N d a i p a t r i c l a n . Prom t h i s i t was fo u n d f i r s t t h a t th e p e rc e n ta g e o f m in o rs i n th e m ale p o p u la t io n was 57% a t a th e s h o ld o f a p p ro x im a te ly 18 y e a r s . S in c e th e m i n o r / a d u lt r a t i o h a s b e e n fo u n d to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to r e p r o d u c tio n r a t e s and 45% o f m in o rs a t a t h r e s h o l d o f tw e n ty y e a r s i s , i n o t h e r pop­ u l a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t e d w ith a h ig h n e t r e p r o d u c tio n r a t e i t a p p e a re d th a t e f f e c t i v e f e r t i l i t y o v e r t h e p a s t 18 y e a r s had b e e n h ig h . T h is was sup­ p o r t e d by an e s t im a te o f 1 .9 to 2 .2 . l i v i n g m ale o f f s p r i n g r e a c h i n g s i x t y y e a r s o f age p e r io d p e r man who h a s h im s e lf re a c h e d t h a t a g e , w h ich c o u ld b e c o n s id e r e d a s "a n a p p ro x im a tio n to th e end r e s u l t o f th e n e t re p r o d u c ­ t i o n r a t e s p r e v a i l i n g f o r th e p r e v i o u s f i f t y y e a r s . " 2 I s t h i s a p p a re n t d is c r e p a n c y to b e a s c r ib e d to th e s m a lln e s s o f th e sam p les w hich m ust i n c o n se q u e n c e b e re g a r d e d a s in a d e q u a te a s a fo u n d a ­ t i o n f o r any i n f e r e n c e s c o n c e rn in g f e r t i l i t y an d th e t r e n d s o f p o p u la t io n among th e Yakӧ ? The sa m p le s a r e a d m itte d ly sm a ll a n d th e r e s u l t s o f th e i r a n a l y s i s m ust b e c o n s id e re d a p p ro x im a te and t e n t a t i v e , b u t i t can be 1 C h a r le s & F or d e , N o te s on Some P o p u la tio n D a ta from a S o u th e r n N ig e r ia n V i l l a g e , S oc. R e v ., 3 0 , 1939, p .1 0 .

2

o p . c i t . p .1 0 .

97 shown t h a t th e y do n o t i n f a c t c o n f l i c t and t h a t l a r g e r s a mpl e s w ould be l i k e l y to l e a d to s i m i la r r e s u l t s . The f i r s t p o i n t t o o b s e rv e is th a t i n th e sam ple i n v e s t i g a t e d i n 1 9 3 5 , 109 m a le s h ad 187 w iv e s a n d , i f th e f u r t h e r th r e e f u l l y a d u lt men w ith o u t w iv e s a r e in c lu d e d we h a v e a r a t i o o f 1 .6 7 wiv e s p e r man. The same g ro u p when i n v e s t i g a t e d i n 1939 in c lu d e d 121 h u sb a n d s who h ad 210 l i v i n g w iv e s and t h e r e w ere te n f u l l y a d u l t w i­ dow ers and b a c h e l o r s . T h is g iv e s a r a t i o o f 1 .6 2 w iv e s p e r man. T h is e x c e s s o f w iv es was n o t d u e t o a b n o rm a lity o f se x r a t i o a t b i r t h among th e Yakӧ . The d a ta o b ta in e d b o th i n 1935 an d i n 1939 i n d i c a t e d t h a t th e s e x r a t i o o f c h il d r e n b o m i n Umor was l i k e l y t o a p p ro x im a te to n o rm a l a t b i r t h and i n l a t e r y e a r s . Thus t h e 1935 d a ta gave a r a t i o o f 1 0 2 .6 fe m a le s to 100 m a le s h o rn to N d ai m en;and among th e l i v i n g c h i l d r e n b o th a d u lt and m inor o f th e s e men, w here t h e e f f e c t o f g r e a t e r a g e o f some mem­ b e r s w ould te n d to in c r e a s e th e p r o p o r t i o n o f fe m a le s , t h e s e w e re 201 f e ­ m ales to 189 m a le s , o r 1 0 6 .3 fe m a le s to 100 m a le s. G iven a r a t i o o f th e o r d e r o f 1 65 w iv e s to 100 men and a n o rm a l sex r a t i o o f b i r t h s a s i t u a t i o n i n w h ich th e women c o m p le tin g th e re p ro d u c tiv e p e r io d a r e r e p l a c e d a t th e r a t e o f 1 .0 w h ile men o v e r s i x t y y e a r s o f age a r e r e p l a c e d a t a r a t e o f a p p ro x im a te ly 2 .0 i s n o lo n g e r a n o m a lo u s. T h ere may b e a somewhat s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e o f m o r t a l i t y among m a le s w ith i n c r e a s i n g ag e bu t we may assum e b r o a d l y t h a t f o r e v e ry fe m a le b o rn who l i v e s to o ld ag e a m ale d o e s th e sam e. S in c e t h e r e a r e 165 fe m a le s in th e p o p u la t io n f o r e v e ry 100 m a le s i t i s c l e a r t h a t w h ile th e b i r t h o f 1 65 s u r v iv in g m a le s w ould r e s u l t i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x c e s s o v e r r e p la c e m e n t o f th e 100 m a le s th e b i r t h o f an e q u i v a l e n t num ber o f s u r v i v i n g f e m a le s would. m erely r e p l a c e th e 165 fe m a le s a n d g iv e no su c h e x c e s s .1 The m ain so u rc e o f th e e x c e s s o f w iv e s among th e Yakö h a s b e e n i n d i ­ c a te d i n an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n . I t i s due t o th e a c q u i s i t i o n o f f o r e i g n f e ­ m ale c h i l d r e n and we a r e a g a in , i n th e f e r t i l i t y d a ta c o n s i d e r e d h e r e co n ­ f r o n t e d w ith th e e f f e c t s o f t h i s f o r m e r ly e x te n s iv e p r a c t i c e o f o b t a i n i n g f o r e i g n i n f a n t s who a re g iv e n s t a t u s a s c h i l d r e n i n th e h o u s e h o ld s and The r a t i o o f men to w iv e s v i z . 1 :1 .6 5 d o e s n o t c o rr e s p o n d e x a c t l y t o th e r a t i o b etw e e n th e e s tim a te d re p la c e m e n t r a t e s of men and wom en v i z . 1 : 2 ; b u t e x a c t c o rre sp o n d e n c e i s n o t to b e e x p e c te d . The r a t i o o f men t o w ives in c l u d e s a d u l t s o f a l l a g e s w h ile th e re p la c e m e n t r a t e s h a v e b e e n e s t im a t­ ed f o r men a t c . 60 y e a r s and f o r women a t c. 50 y e a r s and i n th e a b s e n o e o f m o r t a l i t y r a t e s a t v a r i o u s a g e s i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e to e s t i m a t e c lo s e ly what th e r a t i o o f men o f s i x t y y e a r s to w iv e s o f f i f t y y e a r s w ould b e . F u r t h e r ­ more th e r a t i o o f men to w iv e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s w i l l be d e p e n d e n t n o t o n ly on th e re p la c e m e n t r a t e s d u r in g th e p a s t f i f t y y e a r s bu t a l s o on th e r a t i o o f men to w ives w hich e x i s t e d a t th e b e g in n in g o f t h a t p e r i o d .

98

c la n s o f t h e i r p u r c h a s e r s . The c o m b in a tio n o f a h ig h r a t e o f n a t u r a l i n ­ c r e a s e o f th e m ale p o p u la t io n w ith o n ly m o d e ra te f e r t i l i t y o f women may, t h e r e f o r e , b e r e g a r d e d a s a r e s u l t o f th e a r t i f i c i a l i n c r e a s e i n th e num­ b e r o f fe m a le s by th e a c c e s s io n d u r in g c h ild h o o d o f fe m a le s from o th e r p o p u la t io n s and th e h ig h in c i d e n c e o f p o ly g y n y t h a t t h i s h a s made p o s s i ­ b le . I t h a s r e s u l t e d i n a h ig h i n c r e a s e i n p o p u la t io n o f w h ich t h e r e i s a l s o ab u n d a n t e v id e n c e i n th e e x p a n sio n o f th e o c c u p ie d a r e a o f th e Umor v i l l a g e s i t e d u r in g th e p a s t two o r t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s . B u t, a s h a s been p o in t e d o u t e a r l i e r , i t i s a f a c t o r w hich i s c e a s in g to o p e r a te a t th e p r e s e n t tim e and i f n a t u r a l f e r t i l i t y re m a in s u n ch a n g e d th e r a t e of g ro w th o f p o p u l a t i o n , l i k e th e in c id e n c e o f p o ly g y n y , may b e e x p e c te d to f a l l o f f s h a r p ly i n th e im m e d ia te f u t u r e .

99

CHAPTER XV HOUSEHOLD AND FAMILY When th e f i r s t w ife o f a Yakö comes t o l i v e i n th e w om an's h o u se he h a s p ro v id e d f o r h e r i n th e d w e llin g a r e a o f h i s p a t r i c l a n a new h o u se h o ld i s c r e a t e d and so lo n g a s sh e re m a in s w i t h h e r h u sb an d t h e w if e p a r t i c i ­ p a te s i n i t s m a in te n a n c e . G e n e ra l f e a t u r e s o f d o m e s tic a c t i v i t i e s and th e r e s p e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f h u sb a n d and w ife to th e common e f f o r t h av e a l ­ re a d y b e e n i n d i c a t e d i n th e e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s , b u t some o f t h e c o n s e q u e n t r e l a t i o n s betw een husband and w if e w i l l be c o n s id e r e d h e r e i n g r e a t e r d e ­ ta il. I t h a s b e e n shown t h a t w h ere t h e r e i s p o ly g y n y e v e ry w if e h a s a r i g h t t o occupy a s e p a r a te h o u se p r o v id e d by h e r h u sb a n d and h a s p e r s o n a l p r o p e r ty i n fo o d s u p p l ie s and d o m e s tic e q u ip m e n t. She h a s t h e r i g h t to r e a r h e r own c h i l d r e n and engage i n b o th p r o d u c t iv e and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t ­ i v i t i e s f r e e from th e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f an y o t h e r w i f e . A man w ith h i s s e v e r a l w iv e s n o rm a lly c o n s t i t u t e s a s i n g l e fa rm in g u n i t , b u t h e r e a g a in each w if e h a s h e r s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s , r i g h t s and d u t i e s w h ic h do n o t ex ­ te n d o v e r th e e n t i r e farm p l o t and one w if e d o e s n o t c o n t r o l th e fa rm l a ­ bour of th e o th e r s . M u l ti p le H o u se h o ld s. The te rm 'p o ly g y n o u s h o u s e h o ld ' w h ic h i s o f t e n a p p lie d to su ch a s i t u a t i o n d o e s n o t t h e r e f o r e c o r r e c t l y s u g g e s t th e do­ m e s tic c o n d i t i o n s o f p o ly g y n y among th e Yakӧ . In p o ly g y n y h e r e we h av e s t r i c t l y s p e a k in g a number o f h o u s e h o ld s w h ic h have a s i n g l e h o u s e h o ld head i n common. The c lo s e p r o x im ity o f t h e h o u s e s o f p l u r a l w iv e s and t h e i r common c o n c e rn w ith th e a f f a i r s o f one h u sb an d u n d o u b te d ly l e a d t o m u tu al p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s b etw een t h e w iv e s b u t t h e s e a r e in f o r m a l in c h a r­ a c t e r . They depend on i n d i v i d u a l tem p eram en t an d a c c o r d in g to th e p a r t ­ i c u l a r c ir c u m s ta n c e s may be r e l a t i o n s o f co m p an io n sh ip an d p r o t e c t i o n on th e one hand o r o f je a lo u s y a n d h o s t i l i t y on th e o t h e r . The im p o rta n t s o ­ c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t i s t h a t th e s e a t t i t u d e s a r e n o t d e te r m in e d i n advance e i t h e r by r u l e s o f d o m e stic c o - o p e r a ti o n o r o f r e l a t i v e s t a t u s o f w iv e s . The f i r s t m a r rie d o r th e s e n i o r e x i s t i n g w if e h a s no fo r m a l s u p e r i o r i t y o r p re r o g a tiv e . I n th e n a t i v e v ie w , e a c h w if e h a s an e q u a l c la im o n th e tim e , a t t e n t i o n an d e n e rg y o f th e h u sb a n d . S i m i l a r l y e a c h w ife h a s a n e q u a l ob­ l i g a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n h o u s e h o ld d u t i e s in c l u d i n g e s p e c i a l l y farm w ork and p r e p a r i n g fo o d f o r th e h u sb a n d , a n d i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e w e llb e in g o f h e r own c h i l d r e n . I n p r a c t i c e , ow ing to d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a p t i t u d e s and i n c l i n a t i o n s o f w iv e s and i n th e s e n tim e n ts o f th e h u sb a n d to w a r d s h is w iv e s , t h e r e may be c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een them b o th i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n s i n d o m e stic a c t i v i t i e s and i n t h e i r p r e s t i g e i n th e com­ pound. B ut su c h d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t s u b j e c t to th e c o n t r o l o f th e s e n i o r w if e . On t h e fa rm i t i s th e h u sb a n d who t e l l s e a c h w ife w hat h e w is h e s h e r to d o . A Yakӧ fa rm i s p l a n t e d i n s e c t i o n s , each s e c t i o n b e i n g an a r e a c le a r e d a t one tim e by a c l e a r i n g p a r t y o f men a t th e o p e n in g o f t h e farm ­ in g y e a r . A man w ith two o r m ore w iv e s , who i s l i k e l y to h av e h a d h is fa rm

100 c le a r e d i n h a l f a dozen o r more s e c t i o n s , w i l l i n d i c a t e to e a c h w ife t h e s e c t i o n s i n w h ich sh e i s to make yam h i l l s , p l a n t h e r s e c o n d a ry c r o p s o f m a iz e , b ea n s and so f o r t h and w ork th ro u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f c u l t i v a t i o n . He w i l l a l s o c o n t r o l th e p l a n t i n g o f h e r yam s. Wives d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n o i l p alm p r e p a r a t i o n a n d in p e tty t r a d i n g o f v e g e ta b le p r o d u c ts su c h a s c o c o -y a m s, 's p i n a c h ', o k r a cooked b ean s e t c . , i n th e v i l l a g e m a r k e ts . I t may b e fo u n d t h a t p l u r a l wives have s e t t l e d down to some d e g re e o f s p e c i a l i s a t i o n i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . M utu al h e lp f u ln e s s b etw een w iv e s i n fa r m in g and d o m e s tic a c t i v i t i e s i s by no means a b s e n t among th e Yakö, b u t a t th e same tim e i t i s q u i t e common to f i n d an ag e m ate o f one w ife h e lp i n g h e r i n some t a s k a t home o r i n th e farm w h ile th e o t h e r w ife i s w o rk in g in d e p e n d e n tly . The r e l a t i o n s be­ tw een th e w iv e s o f one man may ra n g e fro m r e a l co m p a n io n sh ip to a minimum o f c o n ta c t p u n c tu a te d w ith o u t b u r s t s o f h o s t i l i t y . The f a i l u r e o f o n ew ife to l i v e a m ic a b ly w ith a n o th e r i n th e compound i s in d e e d a re c o g n is e d ground f o r d is m i s s i n g th e a g g r e s s o r and s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s o f d iv o r c e f o r t h i s r e a ­ son w ere known to me i n Umor. I t was u s u a l l y , b u t n o t a lw a y s th e la te r m a rrie d w ife who was d is m is s e d i n t h i s way. T h e re i s s i m i l a r l y no f i x e d o p in io n among th e Yakö c o n c e rn in g th e r e ­ l a t i v e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f becom ing a f i r s t o r a l a t e r w i f e . I t i s p ro b a b le t h a t th e m a j o r i ty o f young g i r l s p r e f e r t o wed y o u th s who a r e m a rry in g f o r th e f i r s t tim e , b u t t h i s a p p e a rs to b e a s s o c i a t e d r a t h e r w ith y o u th f u l p l e a s u r e s o f c o u r t s h i p an d th e c la im a t t h a t tim e on th e e x c lu s iv e a t t e n ­ t i o n o f th e b rid e g ro o m th a n w ith any c o n v e n tio n a l o r p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e to p o s t - m a r i t a l s t a t u s . I t m ust a l s o be b o rn e i n mind t h a t a m a n 's la te r w iv e s may, s i n c e th e y a r e o f t e n d iv o r c e e s o r w idow s, b e j u n i o r o n ly i n o r ­ d e r o f m a r ria g e and n o t i n ag e s e t o r y e a r s . To b e a m a n 's f i r s t w ife by no means im p lie s t h a t a woman w i l l alw a y s b e th e s e n i o r i n age and th e m ost e x p e rie n c e d woman i n th e compound. F u rth e rm o re th e d o m e stic u n i t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to one ma n may in ­ c lu d e th o s e o f n o t o n ly h i s w iv e s b u t a l s o d iv o r c e d o r widow ed kinswomen among whom m o th e r, s i s t e r s an d s i s t e r s ' d a u g h te r s a r e th e m ost f r e q u e n t l y e n c o u n te re d . A woman widowed l a t e i n l i f e u s u a l l y j o i n s th e h o u se h o ld o f one o f h e r sons i n whose fa rm sh e w i l l p l a n t h e r c r o p s . A y o u n g e r woman who h a s b een widowed or d iv o r c e d may te m p o r a r ily r e j o i n th e h o u se h o ld o f h e r p a r e n t s or go to h e r m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r o r a b r o t h e r . Such women a r e p ro v id e d w ith h o u s e s o f t h e i r own and u n l e s s th e y a r e i n f i r m p ro v id e th e i r own fo o d s u p p l i e s . T h e ir r i g h t s a n d o b l i g a t i o n s to th e h o u se h o ld head a r e i n many r e s p e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y th o s e c o n c e rn e d w ith f a r m in g and dom­ e s t i c s u p p l i e s , s i m i l a r to th o s e o f th e w iv e s and any young c h i l d r e n w ith them w i l l b e re g a r d e d a s h i s f o s t e r - s o n s and d a u g h te r s . E l d e r l y w idow ers a re a l s o t o b e fo u n d a s d e p e n d e n ts i n th e h o u s e h o ld s o f one o f t h e i r so n s; w h ile men who a r e m e n ta l o r p h y s i c a l d e f e c t i v e s u s u a l l y go t o l i v e a f t e r t h e i r f a t h e r ' s d e a th s w ith one o f t h e i r b r o t h e r s . T h e re a r e a l s o i n many

Yakö h o u s e h o ld s y o u n g c h i l d r e n r e l a t e d to o n ly one o f t h e s p o u s e s o r i g i n s an d s u b s e q u e n t s t a t u s w i l l b e c o n s id e r e d l a t e r .

101 w hose

S in c e a s h o r t te rm i s r e q u i r e d t o r e f e r t o a d o m e s tic g ro u p o f t h i s k in d r e s u l t i n g m a in ly fro m p o ly g y n y bu t a l s o i n c l u d i n g d e p e n d e n t k in sw o ­ men and t h e i r o f f s p r i n g i t may b e c a l l e d a m u l t i p l e h o u s e h o ld . D om estic O b l i g a t i o n s . The d o m e stic a rra n g e m e n ts o f t h e Yakӧ a p p e a r­ ed to me v e ry v a r i a b l e . I d id n o t o b ta i n s u f f i c i e n t c a s e m a t e r i a l t o make s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s p o s s i b l e and c a n o n ly i n d i c a t e th e v a r i e t i e s o f dom­ e s t i c b e h a v io u r w h ic h em erge from my s c a t t e r e d r e c o r d s o f p a r t i c u l a r h o u se ­ h o ld s . The m a j o r i ty o f men p r o v id e th e m s e lv e s w ith a s e p a r a t e m an's h o u s e , u s u a l l y a s m a lle r a n d s im p le r d w e llin g th a n a w om an's i n w h ic h th e y keep b e­ lo n g in g s , m eet t h e i r f r i e n d s , r e s t and o f t e n s l e e p . F o r t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f m a rria g e young men f r e q u e n t l y d is p e n s e w ith t h i s p r i v a c y w h ic h o f c o u rs e e n t a i l s e x t r a e f f o r t i n h o u s e b u ild in g . O f te n , t o o , young m en w ill sh a re th e ho u se o f a f a t h e r , e l d e r b r o t h e r o r o t h e r r e l a t i v e l i v i n g i n th e same compound, b u t i t i s g e n e r a l f o r men i n t h e i r t h i r t i e s to b u ild them­ s e l v e s a m a n 's h o u s e . On t h e o t h e r h and I e n c o u n te re d i n s t a n c e s o f men o f l a t e m id d le ag e who l i v e d an d k e p t t h e i r g oods e n t i r e l y i n a w i f e 's h o u s e . Some o f th e s e men had c o n s i d e r a b l e s t a n d in g , one was a p r i e s t - c h i e f , and w ould h av e had no d i f f i c u l t y i n s e c u r in g th e m a t e r i a l s an d a s s i s t a n c e need­ ed f o r b u i l d i n g a s e p a r a t e h o u s e . My im p r e s s io n was t h a t a l l su c h men were m onogam ists, b u t I d id n o t p u rs u e t h e p o i n t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y enough t o e s ta b lis h th i s . T h ere a r e no r i g i d s t a n d a r d s o f d o m e s tic e a t i n g among th e Y akö. A man may come t o e a t i n h i s w i f e 's h o u se and t a k e h i s fo o d a t t h e same tim e a s th e w ife and c h i l d r e n . On th e o t h e r h and fo o d w i l l a t h i s r e q u e s t be c a r r i e d t o him i n h i s m a n 's h o u se and t h i s i s u s u a l l y done f o r th e m ain m eal o f t h e d a y , a t sundow n, i f th e h u sb an d h a s w i t h him o t h e r men, one o r two com panions who h a v e h e lp e d him i n a fa rm t a s k o r a v i s i t o r fro m a n o th e r v i l l a g e f o r ex am p le, to whom h e a l s o w is h e s t o o f f e r f o o d . I n a m u l ti p le h o u se h o ld t h e r e i s li k e w i s e no f i x e d p r a c t i c e w hereby t h e v a r i o u s w iv es p r o v id e fo o d f o r t h e h u sb a n d . E ach w ife f e e d s h e r s e l f an d h e r d e p e n d e n ts . In d e e d fro m t h e p o i n t o f view o f d a i l y fo o d su p p ly th e re a r e a s many h o u s e h o ld s a s t h e r e a r e a d u l t a b le b o d ie d women. Food s h o u ld be p ro v id e d f o r th e h u sb a n d by e a c h w if e i n t u r n , b u t t h e l e n g t h an d r e g u ­ l a r i t y o f t h e p e r i o d s a p p e a r to b e v e r y v a r i a b l e . Some men r e c e i v e food fo r a w eek, from one kokö t o th e n e x t , from e a c h w i f e ; o t h e r s may change fro m day to d a y . Some h u sb a n d s a r e p u n c t i l i o u s , o t h e r s a r e c a s u a l . N ot i n ­ f r e q u e n t l y a man w i l l cook fo o d f o r h im s e lf e i t h e r i n a w i f e 's h o u se when sh e i s away fro m home o r i n h i s own h o u s e , f o r e v e r y man c a n r o a s t and b o i l yams an d make an o i l an d m eat s te w . Some men p r i d e th em selv es on t h e i r s k i l l a s c o o k s a n d th e m eat a t f e a s t s i s u s u a l l y cooked by men. The pounding o f f u f u a lo n e i s r e g a r d e d a s e x c l u s i v e l y a w om an's t a s k .

102 A h u sb an d e x p e c ts h i s w ife to se e t o th e m a in te n a n c e o f h e r own fo o d s u p p l ie s and h o u se h o ld n e e d s . He n e v e r c a r r i e s wood and w a te r a n d , a l ­ th o u g h i t i s l e f t t o th e w ife to p r o v id e t h e se e d an d u n d e r ta k e a l l th e w ork o f c u l t i v a t i n g and p r e s e r v in g th e se c o n d a ry c ro p s su c h a s cor n ,d r ie d o k r a , b e a n s , s p in a c h and th e i n d i s p e n s i b l e p e p p e rs w h ic h a r e much v a lu e d a s i n g r e d i e n t s i n Yakӧ d i s h e s , a man i s c o n s id e re d j u s t i f i a b l y i r a t e i f h i s w ife f a i l s t o m a in ta in a d e q u a te s u p p l i e s . I f a w ife i s f o r an y r e a ­ so n u n a b le to c a r r y o u t a l l th e fa rm w ork t h a t f a l l s to h e r l o t and may re a s o n a b ly b e e x p e c te d i t i s f o r h e r t o f i n d and reco m p en se h e l p e r s fro m among h e r a g e m a te s o r h e r m a t r i l i n e a l k i n . I f a w ife la c k s s u f f i c i e n t yams t o su p p ly h e r s h a r e f o r th e n eed s o f h e r h u sb an d and c h i l d r e n sh e i s e x p e c te d to w ork on o th e r p e o p l e 's farm s a t bu sy tim e s and e s p e c i a l l y a t p l a n t i n g an d h a r v e s t i n g when sh e w i l l be g iv e n yams f o r e a c h d a y 's w ork w h ich may rem edy h e r own d e f i c i t . A h u s ­ band w ith a l a r g e h a r v e s t o f yams w i l l h im s e l f g iv e a w ife e x t r a yams i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f h e r fa rm in g s e r v i c e s t o him i f h e r own c ro p i s s h o r t ; b u t I found i n a d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f fa rm la b o u r and s u p p l ie s t h a t th e women w ith few yams a r e n e a r l y a l wa y s w iv e s o f men who a l s o h a v e h a rv e s ts w hich a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r h o u se h o ld n e e d s . I n su c h c ir c u m s ta n c e s i t i s th e w if e who makes up th e b a la n c e by h e r w ork on th e fa rm s o f o t h e r s , p a r­ t i c u l a r l y o f m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e s and o f h e r own ag e m a te s. A d u lte r y A w ife can p la c e no l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n on th e s e x u a l a c t ­ i v i t i e s o f h e r h u sb a n d , b u t he i s e n t i t l e d t o c la im m o n e ta ry com pensation from a man w ith whom sh e h a s co m m itted a d u l t e r y , to d iv o r c e h e r and r e ­ c e iv e b a c k th e m a r ria g e money. In p r a c t i c e , a s h a s b e e n n o te d , a w ife i s r a r e l y d iv o r c e d u n le s s h e r a d u l t e r y i s p e r s i s t e n t , b u t compensa t i on fo r a d u l t e r y i s f r e q u e n t l y se c u re d an d i s now r e c o g n is e d by t h e N a tiv e C o u rt. Sums up to two pounds have been aw arded i n r e c e n t y e a r s . A d u lte r y o f a w ife w ith a p a tr ic l a n s m a n o f h e r h u sb an d i s r e g a r d e d more s e r i o u s l y th a n a d u lt e r y o u ts id e t h e p a t r i c l a n . I t h a s an in c e s tu o u s c h a r a c t e r w h ich r e q u i r e s r i t u a l e x p i a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to th e c la n gro u p i n a d d i t i o n t o co m p e n sa tio n to th e i n j u r e d h u sb an d an d i s an o f f e n c e which may be h e ld to d i s q u a l i f y a man from p e rfo rm a n c e o f c la n r i t u a l s . I n one p a t r i c l an o f Umor th e a s s i s t a n t ( 'p a lm w ine p o u r e r ') to th e c la n p r i e s t h ead (O bot Kepūn ) was h e ld to have c o m m itted a d u l t e r y w ith a f e l lo w clans­ m a n 's w if e . A f te r a lo n g and a c rim in o u s d i s p u t e he p a id one pound te n s h i l l i n g s a s co m p e n sa tio n to th e i n j u r e d h u sb an d and p ro v id e d a g o a t f o r an o f f e r i n g a t th e c la n s h r in e (e p ū n d e t) i n w h ich a l l t h e e l d e r s to o k p a r t . The e l d e r s o f s e v e r a l l i n e a g e s i n s i s t e d t h a t h e c o u ld no lo n g e r a c t a s a s s i s t a n t t o th e c la n h e a d , b u t w ere n o t a b le to g e t t h e i r way. When how ever th e h ead d ie d some y e a r s l a t e r t h e d i s p u t e f l a r e d up a g a in . I n th e o r d i n a r y way t h e a s s i s t a n t su c c e e d s a s p r i e s t h e a d b u t t h e r e was i n t e n s e o p p o s i ti o n t o t h i s among t h e m ost o f th e e l d e r s an d t h e h e a d o f a n o th e r l i n e a g e w as p u t fo rw a rd a s s u c c e s s o r . At t h i s tim e a young

105 p re g n a n t woman o f th e p a t r i c l an who b e lo n g e d t o th e l i n e a g e o f th e a s s i s ­ t a n t p r i e s t was w a iti n g f o r t h e p e rfo rm a n c e o f t h e 'n a v e l p u t t i n g ' rite a t th e c la n s h r in e . W ith th e c o n n iv a n c e o f h e r f a t h e r and e l d e r s o f th e l i n e a g e th e a s s i s t a n t p r i e s t p e rfo rm e d t h e r i t e w ith o u t l e t t i n g o th e r s know i n advance o f h i s i n t e n t i o n s . The o t h e r e l d e r s w e re f u r i o u s an d a s e r io u s q u a r r e l b e g an w h ic h m ig h t h av e ended i n c la n f i s s i o n by t h e se­ c e s s io n o f th e l i n e a g e o f t h e a s s i s t a n t p r i e s t . W ith in a few d a y s how­ e v e r t h e a s s i s t a n t h im s e l f f e l l i l l and h e d ie d s h o r t l y a f t e r . H is d e a th so so o n a f t e r t h i s a c t c r e a t e d a p ro fo u n d im p re s s io n b o th i n th e c l a n and i n th e v i l l a g e a t l a r g e f o r i t was g e n e r a l l y a c c e p te d a s a p u n ish m e n t o f s a c r i l e g e by th e p a t r i c l an s p i r i t . Men som etim es r e c e i v e women o t h e r th a n t h e i r w iv e s i n t h e i r h o u se a t n i g h t . W hether su c h a l i a i s o n b e a d u lt e r o u s o r n o t n e i t h e r t h e w iv e s n o r th e p a t r i c l an f e llo w s o f t h e man w i l l u s u a l l y i n t e r f e r e u n l e s s t h e r e l a ­ t i o n i s in c e s tu o u s and i n t e r v e n t i o n by a w i f e 's k i n s f o l k w o u ld n o t b e con­ s i d e r e d j u s t i f i e d i f th e h u sb an d h e a t h e r f o r e x p o s in g a c l a n d e s t i n e r e ­ l a t i o n w ith a n o th e r woman. A w ife may a tte m p t to c u r b e x t r a - m a r i t a l se x ­ u a l r e l a t i o n s on h e r h u s b a n d 's p a r t by j e a l o u s b e h a v io u r , and c o m p la in ts to h e r m a t r i l i n e a l k i n t h a t sh e i s n e g l e c t e d , bu t su c h a c o m p la in t may e­ q u a ll y w e ll b e made i n r e s p e c t o f t h e h u s b a n d 's r e l a t i o n s w ith a n o th e r w ife o r w iv e s . C om panionship b e tw een S p o u se s . O u tsid e t h e w om an's h o u se a n d t o a l e s s e x te n t th e fa rm a Yakӧ man and w if e a r e r a r e l y fo u n d t o g e t h e r a s com­ p a n io n s . No t o n ly a r e men and w iv e s s e p a r a te d i n t h e i r m em b ersh ip s o f e­ c onomic g ro u p s su ch a s ag e s e t p a t h c l e a r i n g p a r t i e s and fa rm w o rk in g p a r­ t i e s , a s w e ll a s o f e s o t e r i c r i t u a l g ro u p s i n c l u d in g s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , b u t th e y a ls o te n d to re m a in a p a r t i n b o th ce re m o n ia l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v ­ i t i e s . I t h a s b een s e e n t h a t th e Yakö w ed d in g f e a s t s a r e a c t u a l l y f e a s t s g iv e n by th e b r i d e 's f a t h e r t o h i s f r i e n d s and by h e r m o th e r t o h e r s , n o t j o i n t f e a s t s g iv e n by t h e p a r e n t s t o m u tu a l f r i e n d s o f b o th s e x e s . A sim ­ i l a r a lig n m e n t i s fo u n d i n Yakӧ f u n e r a r y r i t u a l . T h e re i s , a s w as i l l u s ­ t r a t e d i n th e a c c o u n t o f Yakӧ m a r ria g e r i t u a l , c o - o p e r a t i o n b e tw e e n men and w iv e s i n c e re m o n ia l a c t i v i t i e s bu t th e y do n o t c o n s t i t u t e a c o u p le i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r s . T h is s e p a r a ti o n e x te n d s t o m in o r econom ic a c t i v i t i e s e v e n to th o s e o f a s t r i c t l y h o u se h o ld c h a r a c t e r . Thus i t i s v e r y u n u s u a l t o s e e a Yakӧ man and w ife w a lk in g t o g e t h e r on a b u sh p a t h t o t h e i r fa rm . W ives go a ­ lo n e o r i n p a r t i e s o f n e ig h b o u r in g women; h u sb a n d s li k e w i s e go in d e p e n d ­ e n t l y o r w ith t h e i r f r i e n d s . I n t h e fa rm i t s e l f e a c h i s u s u a l l y e n g a g e d i n s e p a r a t e t a s k s som etim es w ith th e a id o f f r i e n d s o f th e same s e x . In th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f o i l p alm p r o d u c t s h u sb a n d s and w iv e s e a c h c a r r y out s e p a r a te cu sto m a ry o p e r a t i o n s ; a h u sb an d w i l l g e t one o r m ore a g e m a te s or y o u th s o f h i s p a t r i c l a n ,b u t n o t h i s w i f e , to h e lp him pound f r u i t s i n th e g r e a t l o g m o r ta r . He on th e o t h e r hand d o e s n o t ta k e p a r t i n b o i l i n g th e

104 f r u i t o r skim m ing th e o i l , w h ile c r a c k in g n u ts to e x t r a c t k e r n e l s is a w om en's t a s k and th e k e r n e l s a r e th e w i f e 's re w a rd f o r h e r s h a r e i n th e w ork. T h e re a r e how ever e x c e p tio n s b o th to th e c u sto m a ry d i v i s i o n o f h o u se ­ h o ld a c t i v i t i e s b e tw een men and w iv e s an d a l s o to th e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e of s e p a r a t i o n betw een sp o u s e s i t s e l f . I n Umor one o l d i s h man whom I knew well was a lm o s t in s e p a r a b l e from h i s w ife on d o m e s tic o c c a s i o n s , I w ould m eet them t o g e t h e r on th e farm p a th and on h i s f r e q u e n t v i s i t s to me h i s w if e n e a r l y a lw a y s accom panied him . He w as a b e n ig n , v ag u e and r a t h e r in e f­ f e c t u a l p e r s o n , c l e a r l y d e p e n d e n t on h i s y o u n g er and more v ig o r o u s w if e . I a l s o n o te d o th e r in s t a n c e s from tim e to tim e o f u n a c c u sto m e d com panion­ s h i p o f man and w if e . Women may a l s o on o c c a s io n p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r i t u a l i n v i r t u e o f t h e i r b e in g th e w ife o f th e p r i e s t o r o f a n o th e r o f f i c i e n t . Thus d u r i n g t h e Lebokū r i t e s o f 1939 th e w if e o f th e v i l l a g e h e a d on se v ­ e r a l o c c a s io n s e n te r e d th e O d jo k o b i s h r i n e h o u se d i n h i s compound a fte r h e and th e o t h e r p r i e s t s h ad c a r r i e d o u t a r i t u a l so t h a t sh e to o m ig h t be sm eared w ith th e s a c r e d c h a lk . On one o c c a s io n sh e b ro u g h t h e r c h i l d ­ r e n w ith h e r . Ko o th e r women p a r t i c i p a t e d and s u b s e q u e n t q u e s t i o n i n g made i t c l e a r t h a t i t was by f a v o u r o f th e p r i e s t s b e c a u s e she, w as a w if e of th e v i l l a g e h e a d t h a t sh e o b ta in e d th e b l e s s i n g o f t h e f e r t i l i t y s p irit o f h e r h u s b a n d 's m a t r i l i n e a l c l a n . Ne v e r t h e l e s s i t re m a in s tru e th a t t h e r e i s by custom a h ig h d e g re e o f s e p a r a t i o n b etw een th e a c t i v i t i e s o f man and w if e w h ich r e s t r i c t s co m p an io n sh ip b e tw een them l a r g e l y t o l e i s ur e h o u rs i n th e h o u s e . Man and w if e a r e r a r e l y se e n t o g e t h e r i n p u b li c and t h e i r w id e r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e fo u n d i n d i s t i n c t and in d e e d m u tu a lly ex­ c l u s i v e g ro u p s . On t h e o th e r hand common i n t e r e s t s and co m p lem en tary a c t i v i t i e s in th e h o u s e h o ld do a f f o r d sp o u s e s am ple o c c a s io n f o r th e g ro w th o f a ffe c ­ t i o n , f o r th e e x p r e s s io n o f e ste e m and a l s o f o r d i s p u t e . To th e o u t s i d e r th e l a t t e r a r e th e more o b s t r u s i v e a n d th e a l l e g e d r e a s o n s f o r d o m e stic q u a r r e l s betw een men and w iv e s a r e v e ry v a r i o u s . They ra n g e from d is ­ p u t e s c o n c e rn in g t h e tr e a tm e n t o f c h i l d r e n , th e p r o v i s i o n o f fo o d and o f o i l p alm f r u i t s to c h a rg e s o f w i t c h c r a f t and o f a d u l t e r y . F o s t e r - P a r e n ta g e and A d o p tio n . As h a s a lr e a d y b e e n p o in t e d out th e r e a r e v e r y f r e q u e n t l y i n Yakӧ h o u s e h o ld s m in o rs o t h e r th a n c h i l d r e n o f th e man by h i s w if e . Such m in o rs may i n c l u d e so n s an d d a u g h te r s o f th e man o r h i s w ife by p r e v io u s m a r r ia g e s , c h i l d r e n o f widowed o r d iv o r c e d r e l a ­ t i v e s , u s u a l l y b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s o f e i t h e r th e man o r h i s w if e and u n ­ t i l r e c e n t l y t h e r e w ere f o r e i g n c h i l d r e n p u rc h a s e d by t h e man o r more r a r e l y h i s w i f e . A c e n s u s o f th e h o u s e h o ld s o f o v e r 100 men w ith n e a r l y 200 w iv e s made i n 1935 i n th e d w e llin g a r e a o f th e N dai p a t r i c l an showed t h a t among t h e s e f o s t e r - c h i l d r e n so n s and d a u g h te r s o f th e w iv e s by form ­ e r h u sb a n d s from whom th e y h a d b e e n d iv o r c e d w ere th e m o st num erous c la s s .

105 Of th e 382 c h i l d r e n i n N dai (1 8 7 b oys and 195 g i r l s ) no fe w e r th a n 113 (5 5 boys and 58 g i r l s ) o r a b o u t w ere n o t c h i l d r e n h o rn t o th e men i n w hose h o u se h o ld s th e y w e re l i v i n g . On th e o t h e r hand 43 o f t h e c h i l d ­ r e n t o r n to N dai men w ere n o t l i v i n g i n t h e i r f a t h e r s h o u s e h o ld s . Of th e 113 in tr o d u c e d c h i l d r e n 57 o r a lm o s t e x a c t ly h a l f w ere c h i l d r e n o f th e w iv es by p r e v io u s h u sb a n d s and o v e r 70% o f t h e s e w ere g i r l s . T hus th e m ost common f o s t e r - p a r e n t i s th e s t e p - f a t h e r - a l a t e r h u sb a n d o f a d i ­ v o rc e d woman o r widow. The o t h e r f o s t e r - c h i l d r e n f e l l i n t o two g ro u p s ,th e l a r g e r c o n s i s t e d o f 37 who w ere m a t r i l i n e a l o r more r a r e l y p a t r i l i n e a l k in o f th e man and o f th e s e n e a r l y a l l i . e . 3 3 . w e re b o y s; w h ile t h e re m a in in g 19 c h i l d r e n w ere k i n o f th e w i f e 's o f whom th e m a j o r i ty ( 13 ) w e re g ir ls . Of th e b oys who w ere th e m a n 's k i n m ost w ere b r o t h e r s ' o r s i s t e r ' s s o n s . The f o r m e r , s in c e th e y h ad come t o th e h o u se h o ld o f t h e i r f a t h e r 's b r o t h e r s , w ere s t i l l l i v i n g i n th e d w e llin g a r e a o f t h e i r p a t r i c l a n o f b i r t h and no q u e s t io n o f t h e i r p a t r i l i n e a l c l a n a f f i l i a t i o n would a r i s e when th e y b e ­ came a d u l t . The s i s t e r s ' so n s on t h e o t h e r hand w ere f o s t e r - c h i l d r e n in p a t r i c l a n s o th e r th a n th o s e o f t h e i r f a t h e r s . I n th e h o u s e h o ld s o f 109 men t h e r e w ere o n ly 9 c h i l d r e n b y d e c e a s e d o r d iv o r c e d w iv e s l i v i n g w ith t h e i r f a t h e r s , an d a l l o f them w e re h o y s , w h ile th e r e w e re 43 c h i l d r e n l i v i n g away w ith a b s e n t m o th e rs o r t h e i r k i n . T h is d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f o s t e r - c h i l d r e n i n c o n se q u e n c e o f t h e d e a th o r d iv o r c e o f p a r e n t s i s a f f e c t e d by s e v e r a l, d i v e r g e n t a t t i t u d e s c o n c e rn in g b o th th e im m ediate n e e d s an d th e u l t i m a t e s t a t u s o f t h e c h i l d r e n . When a m o th er i s d iv o r c e d v e r y young c h i l d r e n n e a r l y a lw a y s go w ith h e r and rem ain i n h e r c a r e i n h e r new home. I f a m o th e r d ie s h e r young c h i l d r e n may b e b ro u g h t up by o t h e r w iv e s o f t h e i r f a t h e r o r by r e l a t i v e s o f e i t h e r th e f a t h e r o r t h e d e c e a s e d m o th e r. The im m ed iate w e lf a r e o f t h e c h i l d an d th e need f o r a woman to lo o k a f t e r i t a r e p a ra m o u n t. No p a r t i c u l a r d o m ic ile i s p r e s c r i b e d . W ith o l d e r c h i l d r e n th e a t t i t u d e to w a rd s th e c u s to d y of hoys and g i r l s d i f f e r s . A f a t h e r u s u a l l y m akes l i t t l e a tt e m p t t o keep young d a u g h te r s i n h i s h o u s e h o ld ; th e y u s u a l l y accom pany a d iv o r c e d m o th er, bu t he w i l l u s u a l l y m a in ta in h i s p a t e r n a l r i g h t to r e c e i v e th e m a r ria g e money when i n due c o u rs e th e d a u g h te r m a r r ie s . B ut t h e f o s t e r - f a t h e r p a r ­ t i c u l a r l y i f he i s t h e m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r may r e p l a c e th e f a t h e r an d r e c e i v e th e m a r r ia g e money i f th e f a t h e r d o e s n o t a s s e r t h i s r i g h t . On t h e o t h e r hand a f a t h e r o f t e n r e t a i n s i n h i s h o u se h o ld a so n who i s m ore th a n f o u r o r f i v e y e a r s o ld when th e m o th e r d i e s o r i s d iv o r c e d . I f a d i v o r c e d w ife a tt e m p t s to s e c u r e c u s to d y o f a so n a g a i n s t t h e f a t h e r ' s w i l l t h e la tte r can e n f o r c e h i s r i g h t by a p p e a l to th e w ard o r v i l l a g e h e a d . I f h e a g re e s t h a t h i s so n s h a l l accom pany h i s m o th e r o r b e f o s t e r e d by a m o t h e r 's b r o ­ t h e r he d o es n o t th e r e b y c o n s e n t t o t h e a d o p tio n o f th e so n i n t o th e p a t ­ r i l i n e a l k i n group o f i t s m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r o r s t i l l l e s s o f h e r l a t e r h u s­ band and he can r e q u i r e th e r e t u r n o f a so n to h i s own h o u s e h o ld l a t e r i n c h ild h o o d . The r e t e n t i o n o f y oung c h i l d r e n i n th e h o u s e h o ld o f t h e f a t h e r a f t e r t h e d e p a r t u r e o r d e a th o f t h e m o th e r i s , h o w ev er, r a r e among the Yakӧ

and i n th e h o u se h o ld s i n v e s t i g a t e d o c c u rr e d i n o n ly one c a s e i n s i x . B ut t h e h ig h in c id e n c e o f f o s t e r - p a r e n t a g e w h ich t h i s im p li e s u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f f r e q u e n t d iv o r c e m ust n o t b e ta k e n t o i n d i c a t e an e q u a l f r e ­ q u en cy o f a d o p tio n . A d o p tio n i s to b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d fro m f o s t e r - p a r e n t age; th e l a t t e r im p lie s a ch an g e i n h o u s e h o ld m em bership d u r in g m i n o r i ty b u tn o t o f p a t r i - c l a n a f f i l i a t i o n ; a d o p tio n d o e s n o t a f f e c t h o u s e h o ld m em bership b u t im p li e s a change i n r e s id e n c e an d p a t r i c l an a f f i l i a t i o n when a d u l t . A f o s t e r - c h i l d i s one who i s p a s s i n g some o f t h e y e a r s o f m i n o r i ty in a h o u s e h o ld o t h e r th a n t h a t o f i t s f a t h e r . Such a c h i l d c o n ti n u e s t o be r e ­ g a rd e d a s a member o f th e p a t r i c l a n o f i t s f a t h e r i . e . th e h u sb an d o f i t s m o th e r a t th e tim e o f i t s b i r t h w h ile a n a d o p te e (owūn e n ) i s one w hose p a t r i l i n e a l a f f i l i a t i o n i s t r a n s f e r r e d from th e c la n o f h i s f a t h e r t o t h a t o f h i s a d o p te r . Among t h e Yakö f o s t e r - p a r e n t a g e and a d o p tio n a r e s u c c e s ­ s i v e s i t u a t i o n s i n th e s e n s e t h a t a d o p tio n may fo llo w f o s te r - c h il d h o o d ,b u t c a n n o t e x i s t s im u lta n e o u s ly , fo r a d o p tio n c a n n o t b e s a i d to e x i s t u n t i l th e p o i n t a t w hich th e a d o p te e e n t e r s on a d u l t l i f e w ith th e e s t a b ­ lis h m e n t o f a s e p a r a te h o u s e h o ld . F o s te r - c h ild h o o d on th e o t h e r hand can b e a c o n d it io n o n ly o f m in o rs . W hile a d o p tio n f r e q u e n t l y f o llo w s f o s t e r - c h i l d h o o d and may j u s t l y be re g a r d e d a s a l i k e l y c o n se q u e n c e o f i t , i t do es n o t n e c e s s a r i l y follow and may o c c u r w ith o u t p r e c e d e n t f o s t e r - c h i l d h o o d . The n a t i v e a t t i t u d e on th e c o n n e c tio n betw een f o s t e r i n g and th e a ss u m p tio n o f p a r e n t a l o b l i g a t i o n s is i n d i c a t e d by th e f o llo w in g n a t i v e s t a te m e n t: " I f y o u l i v e w ith one of y o u r r e l a t i v e s from boyhood to th e a g e o f m a r ria g e t h a t r e l a t i v e o f y o u rs w i l l m arry t h e f i r s t w ife f o r y o u w ith paym ent i n f u l l . When y o u s t a r t a fa rm h e w i l l g iv e you a s h a r e o f yams fro m h i s s t a c k and show a p l o t to fa rm i n , an d a p l a c e i n th e yam s t a c k t o t i e y o u r s t i c k s o f yams an d a p la c e in th e b u sh w ith palm t r e e s t o c o l l e c t palm f r u i t s and ta p p a lm w ine a n d p e a r t r e e s o f h i s from w h ich y o u c a n ta k e th e f r u i t s . He w i l l h e lp to b u i l d you a f i n e h o u se i n h i s kepū n d w e llin g a r e a . T h at i s why y o u h av e to b e s p e c i a l l y f u l l o f r e s p e c t t o t h a t r e l a t i v e . Most men a r e d o in g t h i s a l ­ th o u g h some do n o t . " Thus a d o p tio n i s i n p r a c t i c e e s t a b l i s h e d by th e p r o v i s i o n by t h e fos­ t e r - p a r e n t o f m a rria g e m oney, h o u se s i t e and fa rm in g la n d . A f a t h e r , o r , i f h e h a s d i e d , th e p a t r i l i n e a l k in sm an who s t a n d s i n h i s p l a c e , w i l l u s ­ u a l l y m a in ta in c o n ta c t w ith a y o u th who i s f o s t e r - c h i l d to a n o th e r and en­ c o u ra g e h i s r e t u r n a t manhood to th e p a t r i c l an o f h i s b i r t h . I t i s o n ly when a s a c h i l d h e h a s b e e n e n t r u s t e d to h i s m o th e r’ s b r o t h e r , w hichw oul d r e q u i r e th e f a t h e r ' s c o n s e n t, t h a t h e i s l i k e l y to a s s o c i a t e h im s e lf p e r ­ m a n e n tly w ith th e p a t r i c l a n o f h i s f o s t e r - f a t h e r . I f su c h i s th e c a s e and th e f o s t e r - f a t h e r p r o v id e s th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e m a r ria g e p a y m e n t, a h o u se o r a h o u se s i t e i n h i s c la n d w e llin g a r e a and a r r a n g e s f o r a p l o t i n h i s c l a n la n d to b e p r o v id e d f o r th e f i r s t fa rm , th en th e youth i s re g ard ed as a d o p te d in to th e p a t r i c l an o f t h a t man and r a n k s a s

Fig. 3. The Compound of Okoi in 1935.

107 h i s s o n . I t may o c c a s i o n a ll y h a p p en t h a t a m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r o r more r a r e ­ l y a s t e p - f a t h e r w i l l p ro v id e th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e m a r ria g e p a y m e n t, i f th e y o u th la c k s a f a t h e r o r o t h e r p a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e who h a s th e m eans t o do s o , w ith o u t s e e k in g a d o p tio n o f th e y o u th , who w i l l th e n r e s i d e w ith h i s f a t h e r ' s p a tr ic la n s m e n an d fa rm w ith them . A d o p tio n c h a n g e s t h e p a t r i ­ c l an a f f i l i a t i o n o f a man an d h i s d e s c e n d a n ts b u t n e v e r t h e m a t r i l i n e a l a f ­ f i l i a t i o n t o w h ich th e p r o v i s io n o f m a r ria g e m oney, p la c e of r e s id e n c e and fa rm in g la n d s i s i r r e l e v a n t .

A man may be a d o p te d l a t e r i n a d u l t l i f e i n c ir c u m s ta n c e s w h ich h a v e been d is c u s s e d e ls e w h e r e ; and h e r e a g a in th e t r a n s f e r i s e s s e n t i a l l y one o f p a t r i c l an a f f i l i a t i o n w ith w h ich a r e a s s o c i a t e d r e s id e n c e and r i g h t s to farm l a n d . A d o p tio n among t h e Yakӧ i s p h r a s e d p e r s o n a l l y and t h e r e i s a l ­ ways a p a r t i c u l a r a d o p te r o r sp o n s o r who r e p l a c e s th e f a t h e r b u t i t co n ­ s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y i n th e re p la c e m e n t o f s t a t u s i n one p a t r i l i n e a l k i n group by e q u iv a le n t s t a t u s i n a n o th e r . A do p tio n d o e s n o t e x i s t i n th e same s e n s e f o r fe m a le s f o r th e p a t r i ­ l i n e a l c la n a f f i l i a t i o n o f a woman i s o f l i t t l e s ig n ific a n c e a f t e r m a r ria g e . H er m a r rie d l i f e i s p a s s e d i n t h e d w e lli n g a r e a a n d on th e fa rm ­ la n d s o f h e r h u s b a n d 's p a t r i c l a n , w h ile i t i s not her fa th e r but her m o th e r 's b r o t h e r who i s m a in ly c o n c e rn e d f o r th e s t a b i l i t y o f h e r m a r r ia g e . The f a t h e r o f a g i r l , may, a s h a s been s e e n , c la im to r e c e i v e th e paym ent from h e r sp o u se a t h e r f i r s t m a r r ia g e , a lth o u g h sh e h a s p a s s e d h e r in f a n c y i n th e h o u se h o ld o f a f o s t e r - f a t h e r . The o n ly s e n s e i n w h ich a d o p tio n o f fe m a le s may be s a i d t o o c c u r i s when th e f a t h e r f a i l s t o do t h i s and th e paym ent i s r e c e i v e d i n th e f i r s t p la c e b y a f o s t e r - p a r e n t who i s l i k e l y to be a s t e p - f a t h e r o r a m o th e r 's b r o t h e r . But i n f a c t s in c e h e r p a t r i l i n e a l c la n a f f i l i a t i o n h a s l i t t l e in f lu e n c e on h e r s o c i a l l i f e and i s n o t t r a n s ­ m itte d t o h e r c h i l d r e n th e q u e s t io n o f t r a n s f e r o f p a t r i c l a n a f f i l i a t i o n d o es n o t a r i s e , an d a d o p tio n , i n th e s e n s e o f r e c o g n is e d t r a n s f e r o f c l a n a f f i l i a t i o n , d o es n o t o c c u r. A H ousehold H i s t o r y . The com plexity and h e te r o g e n e o u s c h a r a c t e r o f t h e l a r g e r Yakӧ h o u s e h o ld s c o n se q u e n t on th e v i c i s s i t u d e s o f p o ly g y n y , d e a t h , d iv o r c e and f o s t e r - p a r e n t a g e may b e i l l u s t r a t e d fro m th e d o m e s tic h i s t o r y o f a man o f ag e s e t V III who i n 1935 a t th e a g e o f a b o u t f o r t y - e i g h t was head of a l a r g e h o u s e h o ld , had m a r rie d n in e tim e s an d a t t h a t tim e h a d f o u r w iv es l i v i n g w ith him ( s e e f i g . 3 ) . I n th e compound o f t h i s man, O k o i, i n U k p ak ap i w ard th e r e w e re e i g h t h o u ses b u i l t rou n d an open s p a c e a b o u t f i f t y f e e t s q u a r e ; th o s e o f Okoi and h i s w iv es o c c u p ie d m ost o f th e t h r e e s i d e s . Ūdū mō (a g e s e t X V II) a y o u n g a d u l t son and th e o n ly s u r v iv in g c h i l d o f O k o i' s f i r s t w ife who l e f t him s e v e r a l y e a r s ago s h a r e d , and k e p t h is b e lo n g in g s in , O k o i's own m a n 's h o u s e . Ūdūmō ' s m a rria g e paym ent had j u s t b e e n made a n d h is b rid e ,w h o was p r e g n a n t ,

108 was s t i l l l i v i n g w ith h e r p a r e n t s . She was e x p e c te d to come to a woman's ho u se i n O k o i's compound i n th e com ing y e a r w h ile Ūd ūmō w ould c o n tin u e to s h a r e h is f a t h e r ' s h o u s e . F o r th e two y e a r s b e f o r e h i s m a r ria g e Ūdūmō h ad h e lp e d h i s f a t h e r a good d e a l i n th e fa rm and h a d c o l l e c te d p a lm f ru its f o r him . B ut h e h a d a l s o w orked f o r h i s in te n d e d f a t h e r - i n - l a w i n th e c l e a r i n g and p l a n t i n g s e a s o n and h ad b ro u g h t him th e c u sto m a ry g i f t s . Abam, (a g e s e t X ), th e s e n i o r w if e th e n l i v i n g w ith O k o i, who was two age s e t s j u n i o r to him and a b o u t f o r t y y e a r s o l d , l i v e d i n th e f i r s t h o u se on O k o i's s i d e o f th e compound. She h a d come fro m an a d ja c e n t p a ­ t r i c l an i n Uk p a k a p i w ard a f t e r th e b i r t h o f h e r f i r s t c h i l d o v e r tw e n ty y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y , when sh e was s i x t e e n o r s e v e n te e n . She h a d i n 1935 th r e e young s o n s . Two o t h e r b oy s and two g i r l s h a d d ie d i n in f a n c y and h e r y o u n g e s t c h i l d was f o u r o r f i v e y e a r s o l d . She a l s o lo o k e d a f t e r a y o u th o f a b o u t s i x t e e n , a f o s t e r - c h i l d who b e lo n g e d to O k o i's m a t r i l i n e ­ age and had p a s s e d i n t o h i s c a r e some y e a r s ago when th e b o y 's m o th e r d ie d . Abam h ad O k o i's c o n fid e n c e i n day to d ay a f f a i r s o f th e compound and fa rm , and r e g u l a r l y p ro v id e d Ūdūmō w ith f o o d . H er u n d o u b te d p r e s t i g e i n th e compound w as due to h e r c a p a c i ty and s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r a t h e r th a n to fo rm a l s e n i o r i t y i n m a r r ia g e . Two o f th e l a t e r w iv e s o f Okoi w ere i n f a c t o f th e same age s e t a s Abam. She was a s t r o n g and e n e rg e tic woman and c a re d f o r a l a r g e p a r t o f O k o i's fa rm p l o t s . H er own p e r s o n a l yam h a r v e s t was l a r g e r th a n t h a t o f th e o t h e r w iv es and i n 1935 she h ad tw e n ty s t i c k s o f yams a t th e m ain h a r v e s t . Beyond A bam 's h o u se was t h a t o f A bim a, a l s o a b o u t f o r t y y e a r s o ld (a g e s e t X ) , whom O koi b ro u g h t to h i s compound a b o u t n in e y e a r s b e fo re . She had l e f t a fo rm e r h u sb an d to j o i n Okoi and b ro u g h t w ith h e r a sonw ho was e le v e n o r tw e lv e y e a r s o ld i n 1935 and l i v e d i n h e r h o u se to g e th e r w ith th e t h r e e c h i l d r e n , two g i r l s and a b o y , t h a t sh e h a s b o rn e t o O koi. In th e n e x t h o u s e , a sma l l w om an's h o u se tu c k e d away i n th e c o r n e r , E d ja , o f a b o u t th e same ag e (a g e s e t X) l i v e d a lo n e . Okoi h a d m a r rie d h e r o n ly two y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . She to o h ad l e f t a fo rm e r h u sb a n d to j o i n him b u t had d i s a p p o in t e d Okoi b o th i n c h i l d r e n and i n th e fa rm . O koi's l a t ­ e s t w i f e , O b ia ( 2 ) , 1 (a g e s e t X II) who h ad j o i n e d him o n ly a few m onths b e f o r e , h ad a h o u se on th e o p p o s ite s i d e o f th e compound. Some tim e b e­ f o r e sh e came t o O koi sh e had l e f t a fo rm e r h u sb a n d , who was s a i d t o h a v e been a n e g l e c t f u l fa r m e r who d id n o t g iv e h e r yams enough f o r th e h o u se ­ h o ld , and had b e e n l i v i n g w ith h e r own m o th e r. When sh e came t o O k o i, O bia (2 ) b ro u g h t h e r two i n f a n t d a u g h te r s w ith h e r w h ile h e r so n by h e r

1 I n d i c a te d th u s a s a n e a r l i e r d e c e a s e d w ife o f O koi, t o b e r e f e r r e d l a t e r , w as a l s o named O bia.

to

109 f i r s t m a rria g e h a d re m a in e d w ith a n o th e r w if e o f h i s f a t h e r . She w as p re g n a n t by Okoi when sh e came to h i s compound, b u t t h e c h i l d w as b o rn dead so o n a f t e r . W ith O b ia (2 ) l i v e d a sm a ll so n o f O koi by a n e a r l i e r w if e , I s u , who h ad l e f t h im , t a k i n g two o th e r y o u n g e r b oys w ith h e r , a ­ b o u t th r e e y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . L ik e E d ja , O bia (2 ) h a d n o t y e t b o rn e O koi a s u r v iv in g c h i l d , b u t sh e w orked w e ll on t h e fa rm a n d g o t on w e ll w i t h Abam. Okoi was s t i l l d i s p u t i n g w ith O b ia 's m a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e s an d fo rm e r husband o v e r t h e q u e s t io n o f m a rria g e m oney. He c la im e d t h a t s i n c e she w as n o t young an d h a d b o rn e t h r e e c h i l d r e n t o h e r fo rm e r h u sb a n d , t h e r e w as ho o b l i g a t i o n t o r e t u r n h i s m a r ria g e paym ent a n d a l s o t h a t a f t e r sh e h ad l e f t h e r fo rm e r h u sb a n d sh e l i v e d f o r n e a r l y a y e a r i n h e r f a t h e r ' s compound d u r i n g w h ic h tim e he had made n o r e a l e f f o r t t o s e c u r e h er re tu rn . Betw een O k o i's h o u se and t h a t o f O bia (2 ) t h e r e w as a n em pty woman s h o u se . T h is had b e e n o c c u p ie d u n t i l a y e a r b e f o r e b y a n e a r l i e r w i f e , A sib o n g , who h ad j o i n e d O koi some f o u r t e e n y e a r s e a r l i e r . The o n ly c h i l d she b o re him d ie d , and s h e l e f t O koi a f t e r f r e q u e n t q u a r r e l s i n w h ic h she a c c u s e s him o f n e g l e c t i n g h e r an d c o n c e rn in g h i m s e l f o n ly w ith Abam and Abima. She w ent t o l i v e wi t h h e r b r o t h e r , p l a n t i n g h e r yams i n h i s fa rm , b u t O koi was w i l l i n g a n d ev e n a n x io u s t h a t sh e s h o u ld r e t u r n and h e r h o u se s to o d em pty, c le a n and i n good r e p a i r . He h a d r e f u s e d t o g iv e i t to O bia (2 ) f o r whom h e h a d j u s t p u t a new r o o f on th e o ld h o u se he p ro v id e d . B e s id e s th o s e i n t h e compound t h e r e w ere o t h e r c h i l d r e n o f O koi who li v e d e ls e w h e r e . A m a r r ie d d a u g h te r , th e o n ly s u r v i v i n g c h i l d o f h i s lo n g d iv o r c e d seco n d w i f e , Okwa, h a d gone t h r e e y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y t o j o i n h e r h u sb a n d . B e fo re t h a t sh e h a d b e e n lo o k e d a f t e r b y Abam, b u t s i n c e m a rria g e h ad n o t o f t e n come t o th e compound. O koi a l s o h a d tw o young so n s b y h i s f o u r t h w i f e , O b ia ( 1 ) , who d ie d ab o u t two y e a r s a g o . T h e se b o y s w ere l i v i n g w i t h a c h i l d l e s s m a t r ilin e a l kinswoman o f O b i a 's . T hey h a d gone t o t h i s kinsw om an a p p a r e n t ly b e c a u s e sh e h ad b e e n a com panion o f t h e i r m o th e r w as h e r s e l f c h i l d l e s s and O koi had a t t h a t tim e n o o b v io u s ly p r e f e r a b l e v/ay o f a r r a n g i n g f o r t h e i r c a r e s in c e h i s o th e r w iv e s h a d s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n o f t h e i r own. Okoi w as giv­ i n g yams an d p r e s e n t s t o t h e woman. He d id n o t a n t i c i p a t e t h e i r perm an­ e n t a d o p tio n i n t o th e p a t r i c l an i n w h ich th e y a r e b e in g b r o u g h t u p and th e boys w i l l p ro b a b ly c la im h i s h e lp when th e y a r e re a d y t o m a rry an d b e g in fa r m in g . O k o i's h o u se h o ld th u s i n c l u d e s two a d u l t m en, O koi and h i s grow n u p s o n , f o u r w iv e s , a l l o f them women o f m id d le a g e , an d e le v e n m in o rs o f whom o n ly s i x a r e c h i l d r e n o f b o th O koi an d th e w if e who h a s th e c a r e o f them . I t w i l l how ever b e s e e n fro m a re v ie w o f t h e se q u e n c e o f O k o i’ s m a r ria g e s a s shown d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y below t h a t th e h o u s e h o ld i n 1935 w as v e ry d i f f e r e n t i n c o m p o s itio n from, t h a t o f h i s e a r l y m a r r ie d l i f e .

1905 o.l8 yrs .

1910

1915

1920

1925

1930

2121

Husband

'!'able 13

t

f

f

t

Okwo VIII

(1:9ii9,y,l7)

f

f

!J(

f

As ibong VIII (l910,y,l7 )

V

diad

-

~924'

39

f

f

111

m

m

IX (l9ll,y,l6)

lli Qll.U.

111

f

m

f

m

,I

m



"

"

111 Abima X (Hf~ 1 D,30)

f

X

33

Obia(2) XII (!934,0 32) (l933,o,3e ) [r,rl

b

m•birth of male child alive in 1935 dead 111= " " • " alive f8 " " female " dead ]:child of previous husband with wire

Abam X (l913, y ,l6}

XII (l923,y,l7)

f Isii

.f

m

y D

wife previously unmarried

Divorcee

c c

vrr .--------------------------------------------- t- "

divorced Hl8,3l

pi (1905,y,le Akowa )

pi

pi

f

m

f

diad 1922,29

111

m

I

1 9 05 - 1935

divorced • pi 1932,2 5 m m I

).!e.rrhsea and Births (including stillbirth s) in t h e Household of Okoi

111 Okoi m a rrie d h i s f i r s t w i f e , Akōwa (a g e s e t V II) j u s t b e f o r e th e c e r e ­ m o n ial e s ta b lis h m e n t o f h i s own age s e t i n U kpakapi w ard i n o r a b o u t th e y e a r 1905, when h e w ould h a v e b e e n a b o u t e ig h te e n y e a r s o f a g e . He h a d b e e n b e ­ t r o t h e d to Akōw a, who b e lo n g e d t o an a g e s e t im m e d ia te ly s e n i o r to h i s and came from a p a t r i c l an o f Bi k o -B ik o w a rd , f o r two y e a r s b e f o r e t h i s and h a d g iv e n th e cu sto m ary h e lp t o h e r f a t h e r i n h i s fa rm . A f t e r h e r f i r s t c h i l d was b o rn h e b u i l t a w om an's h o u se f o r h e r i n h i s f a t h e r ' s com pound, w h ich was now h i s own, and he b eg a n to fa rm f o r h i m s e l f . B ut t h i s c h i l d and se v ­ e r a l o t h e r s d ie d d u r i n g th e n e x t f o u r o r f i v e y e a r s i n w h ic h O k o i, who was a v e ry c a p a b le f a r m e r , b u i l t u p a h a r v e s t o f o v e r 100 s t i c k s o f yam s, as la r g e a h a r v e s t a s a man w ith one w if e c o u ld e x p e c t to a c h ie v e . A se c o n d w ife w ould in c r e a s e h i s h a r v e s t and p e rh a p s b e more s u c c e s s f u l i n p ro d u c in g a s t r o n g c h i l d . M a rria g e d o e s n o t e n t a i l w ith d ra w a l o f a y o u n g man fro m l o v e r s ' p a r t i e s and O koi h a d e a r l i e r a s s o c i a t e d a t t h e s e w i t h Okwō (a g e s e t VI I I ) a g i r l o f a d i f f e r e n t l i n e a g e i n th e same p a t r i c l a n a s t h a t o f h is f i r s t w if e and o f an a g e s e t e q u iv a l e n t to h i s own. Okwō ' s f a t h e r a g re e d to t h e i r b e t r o t h a l an d Okwō became p r e g n a n t b e f o r e m a r r ia g e a b o u t f o u r y e a r s a f t e r h i s m a rria g e to Akōwa. I n s e e k in g t o m arry h e r h e c o m p la in e d to h e r f a t h e r , an e l d e r o f th e c l a n , t h a t h i s f i r s t w if e who w as fro m t h a t c la n h a d f a i l e d to b e a r him a s t r o n g c h i l d . T h is w as n o t s t r i c t l y t h e f a t h e r ' s con­ c e r n , b u t Okoi c la im s t o h a v e s e c u r e d some r e d u c t io n o f th e m a r r ia g e money th e r e b y , and h e b u i l t a seco n d w om an's h o u se f o r Okwō i n h i s f a t h e r ' s com­ pound. H er f i r s t c h i l d , a g i r l , E d e t ( th e o n ly one o f f o u r now l i v i n g ) i s to d ay m a r rie d i n U kpakapi w a rd . Akōw a, t h e f i r s t w i f e , e v e n t u a l l y b o re O koi a s o n , Ūdūmō , h i s o n ly a ­ d u l t son to d a y , b u t so o n a f t e r t h i s sh e q u a r r e l l e d w ith h e r h u s b a n d , r e t u m to h e r p a r e n t s and s u b s e q u e n tly m a r rie d a n o th e r man. B e fo re t h i s sep ara­ t i o n O koi had m a r rie d s e v e r a l o t h e r w iv e s . He to o k a t h i r d w if e A sibong(age s e t V I I I ) o f U kpakapi w ard a y e a r a f t e r m a rry in g Okwō . A sib o n g w as b e tr o th ­ e d to a man o f I d j ūm w a rd , who f a i l e d to make th e m a r r ia g e p aym ent a f t e r h e r l i k p ӧk ōt r i t e , and a few m onths a f t e r th e b i r t h o f h e r c h i l d sh e a g re e d to come t o O koi who o f f e r e d a m a r ria g e p ay m en t. He b ro u g h t A sib o n g t o h i s com­ pound a f t e r h a n d in g o v e r t h e a g re e d m a rria g e m oney, and th e r e b y a c q u ir e d t he s t a t u s o f f a t h e r o f h e r c h i l d . B e fo re th e n e x t h a r v e s t O koi m a r rie d a n o th e r y o u n g g i r l O b ia (a g e s e t IX ) a ls o from a p a t r i c l an i n U kp ak ap i w ard to whom h e b a d a l r e a d y b e e n b e ­ t r o t h e d when he m a r rie d A sib o n g . O bia ( l ) h a d s i x c h i l d r e n i n th e tw e lv e y e a r s b e f o r e sh e d ie d , b u t o n ly two w ere a l i v e i n 1 9 3 5 , b o y s who w e re th e n l i v i n g w ith a c h i l d l e s s m a t r i l i n e a l kinswom an o f O b ia i n a n o t h e r p a t r i c l a n o f U kpakapi w ard . W ith in t h r e e y e a r s o f h i s m a r ria g e to O b ia ( l ) O koi m ar­ r i e d Abam (ag e s e t X) a n o th e r y o u n g woman who soon a f t e r b o r e him h e r firs t c h ild . F o r th e n e x t e i g h t o r n in e y e a r s Okoi had f i v e , and a f t e r th e d e p a rtu re o f Akōwa f o u r , w iv e s and d id n o t re m a rry . B ut i n 1922 h i s se c o n d w if e Okwō ,

112 and two y e a r s l a t e r h i s f o u r t h w ife O bia ( l ) d ie d . As he h a d an u n u su a lly l a r g e farm he n e e d e d th e h e lp o f o t h e r women i n t h e i r p la c e and a lth o u g h he w as o v e r t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s o f a g e when Okwō d ie d he becam e b e tr o th e d t o a young- u n m a rrie d g i r l I sū (a g e s e t X II) w ith i n a few m onths o f Okwō ' s d e a th and sh e came t o h i s compound s h o r t l y b e f o r e O bia d ie d . A y e a r or two l a t e r he b ro u g h t to h i s compound a s a w ife an o l d e r woman Abima (a g e s e t X) who h ad d e s e r te d an e a r l i e r h u sb a n d and f o r th e n e x t s i x o r sev en y e a r s O koi a g a in h ad an u n u s u a l ly l a r g e m u l t i p l e h o u s e h o ld o f f o u r w iv e s and o v e r te n c h i l d r e n u n t i l two o f h i s w iv e s d e s e r t e d him . I s ū who g o t on b a d ly w ith e v e ry one i n th e compound l e f t him in 1933 t a k i n g two o f h e r t h r e e young s o n s w ith h e r , and A sib o n g w hose o n ly s u r ­ v i v i n g c h i l d , a y o u th on th e v e r g e o f manhood, h ad j u s t d i e d , a l s o de­ s e r t e d O koi a f t e r a q u a r r e l and w e n t t o l i v e a s a d e p e n d e n t o f one o f h e r m a t r i l i n e a l kinsm en soon a f t e r . O koi now h ad o n ly two w iv e s and t o g e t a l l h i s yams c u l t i v a t e d more h e lp w as a g a in e s s e n t i a l . He b ro u g h t t o h i s compound i n q u ic k s u c c e s s io n two women i n t h e i r t h i r t i e s who ha d l e f t t h e i r fo rm e r h u s b a n d s , Ed j a (a g e s e t X) an d O bia (2 ) (a g e s e t X I I ) , and h e i s a t p r e s e n t in v o lv e d i n a d is ­ p u te o v e r t h e m a rria g e paym ents i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e l a s t m a r r ia g e . The c h i l d r e n o f th e w iv e s who h av e d ie d o r h av e l e f t O koi have some o f them gone t o p a s s t h e i r c h ild h o o d w i t h t h e i r m o th e rs o r w ith r e l a t i v e s o f t h e i r m o th e rs , w h ile o t h e r s h a v e b e e n c a r e d f o r by l a t e r w iv e s . I n th e t h i r t y y e a r s s in c e Okoi f i r s t m a r rie d t h i r t y t h r e e c h i l d r e n h ad b e e n b o rn to h i s h o u s e h o ld , a p a r t from s i x s t i l l b i r t h s ; b u t i n 1935 t h e r e w ere on­ l y e i g h t o f h i s own c h i l d r e n i n th e h o u s e h o ld . One m a r rie d d a u g h te r was l i v i n g w ith h e r h u sb a n d , two m in o rs w e re l i v i n g w ith t h e i r d iv o r c e d mother, two o t h e r s w ere l i v i n g w ith a m a t r i l i n e a l kinsw om an o f t h e i r d e c e a s e d mo­ t h e r , an d tw e n ty had d ie d a t v a r i o u s a g e s . The F a m ily . We a r e now i n a p o s i t i o n t o c o n s i d e r th e c h a r a c t e r and p o s i t i o n i n Yakӧ s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f th e g ro u p to w hich th e te rm fam ily i s g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d , nam ely a g ro u p c o n s i s t i n g o f two p a r e n t s and th e d e­ p e n d e n t o f f s p r i n g . 1 I t w i l l h a v e b e e n c l e a r from th e f o r e g o in g e x p o sitio n t h a t th e f a m ily i n t h i s s e n s e c o n s t i t u t e s th e s ta n d a r d n u c le u s o f th e Yakӧ

W 1 h ile , a s h a s o f t e n b een p o in t e d o u t ( c f .R a g l a n , M an.3l , 1 9 3 1 , 181 ) t h i s u s e o f th e term i s n o t e ty m o to g ic a l l y j u s t i f i e d , i t i s c o n v e n ie n t s i n c e i t c o r r e s p o n d s c l o s e l y w ith t h e m ost u s u a l m eaning o f t h e te r m i n common sp e e c h by E urop ean p e o p le s to d a y w h ile o t h e r m ean in g s a r e c o v e re d by su c h te rm s a s li n e a g e and h o u s e h o ld . T h is g ro u p i s som etim es d is ti n g u is h e d f r om w id e r g ro u p s , form ed by e x te n s io n from i t , a s th e 's i m p l e ' o r 'e le m e n ta r y f a m ily ' .

113 h o u s e h o ld . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e f a c t t h a t th e Yakӧ , l i k e many o th e r p e o p le s among whom th e f a m ily g ro u p e x i s t s , have no d i s t i n c t i v e te rm f o r i t w i l l become c l e a r a s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s g ro u p i s c o n s i d e r e d . The Yakӧ f a m ily i s a d o m e stic a s s o c i a t i o n b e tw e e n a man and a woman w hich c h il d r e n b o rn to them e n t e r a t b i r t h b u t n o rm a lly le a v e a t m a r r ia g e . The f a m ily o r i g i n a t e s i n a p u b l i c l y r e c o g n is e d p a r t n e r s h i p b e tw e e n m a n a ndwife f o r th e b e g e t t i n g and r e a r i n g o f c h i l d r e n . I t i s , a s h a s b e e n s e e n , th e p r e s c r i b e d u n i t o f o r g a n i s a t i o n o f fo o d s u p p ly an d s h e l t e r d e p e n d e n t on a s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , an d p r o v i d e s f o r th e c u s to d y a n d w e l f a r e o f th e c h i l d r e n d u rin g t h e i r m i n o r i t y . The p a r t n e r s h i p in v o l v e s s p e c ific and com plem entary r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s on th e p a r t o f b o th s p o u s e s ,t h e o b se rv a n c e and p e rfo rm a n c e o f w h ich a r e s a n c tio n e d by th e t r a n s f e r o f m ar­ r i a g e money. T h a t th e d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw een bio lo g i c a l an d s o c i o l o g i c a l p a t e r n i t y i s c l e a r l y r e c o g n is e d by th e Yakö may be e x e m p lif ie d fro m th e h i s t o r y of one o f th e m a r ria g e s o f an i n a ( m a t r i c l a n p r i e s t ) i n Umor. When h e was i n h i s l a t e m id d le age th e p r i e s t o f f e r e d b e t r o t h a l g i f t s f o r a y o u n g wo­ man whom he w ish e d t o m a rry , and w ith h e r p a r e n t s c o n s e n t h e f r e q u e n t l y s p e n t th e n i g h t w ith h e r i n h e r m o t h e r 's h o u s e . The g i r l becam e p re g n a n t b u t e a r l y i n th e p re g n a n c y q u a r r e l l e d w ith th e p r i e s t , one f a c t o r i n th e s i t u a t i o n b e in g a p p a r e n t ly h e r ag e m a te s ’ d is a p p r o v a l o f m a r r ia g e w ith so o ld a man. The g i r l now d e c la r e d t h a t sh e w o u ld m a rry a y o u th h e r own ag e who had e a r l i e r jo i n e d h e r i n n i g h t p a r t i e s and ha d w is h e d to b e b e ­ t r o t h e d t o h e r . To t h i s , a f t e r some r e c r i m i n a t i o n , th e p a r e n t s c o n s e n t­ ed and a m a rria g e paym ent w as a c c o r d i n g ly made by th e y o u n g man a t h e r l i k pӧkōt . T h re e o r f o u r y e a r s a f t e r th e b i r t h o f h e r c h i l d and when sh e was l i v i n g w ith h e r h usband she s e n t a m essag e s e c r e t l y to th e p r i e s t to say t h a t sh e w ish ed to come to him . When h e c o n s e n te d t o t a k e h e r sh e l e f t h e r h u sb an d and jo in e d th e p r i e s t who made a m a r ria g e p ay m en t t o one of h e r m a t r i l i n e a l k in sm en from w h ich t h e f i r s t h u sb an d was c o m p e n sa te d .B u t th e c h i l d , a boy whom th e p r i e s t b e l i e v e s he b e g o t d u r i n g h i s b e t r o t h a l to th e woman s ta y e d w ith th e f i r s t h u sb a n d , i t s s o c i a l l y r e c o g n i s e d f a ­ t h e r . The p r i e s t h a s n o t o n ly made no c la im to th e c u s to d y o f th e c h i l d b u t a d m itte d t h a t su c h a c la im w ould n o t be r e c o g n is e d by p u b l i c o p in io n , o r by an y a u t h o r i t y su c h a s th e V il l a g e Head o r th e N a tiv e C o u rt. A f a m ily c a n n o t e n d u re lo n g e r th a n th e p a r t n e r s h i p b e tw e e n t h e two p a r e n t s w h ile c h i l d r e n b o m o f th e m a r r ia g e , who b e lo n g to th e f a m il y a s d e p e n d e n ts , le a v e i t when a d u l t to become one o f t h e p a r t n e r s i n t h e form­ a t i o n o f a n o th e r f a m ily . Thus a Yakӧ i s b o m i n t o one f a m il y , l e a v e s i t to e s t a b l i s h a n o th e r and e x p e c ts t o l i v e t o s e e th e c h i l d r e n b o r n in to t h a t f a m ily d e p a r t from i t to e s t a b l i s h o t h e r s . The f a m ily i s t h e r e f o r e n o t a s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g g ro u p . I t i s on th e c o n tr a r y o n ly a n e p h e m e ra l and c o n t i n u a l l y r e c o n s t i t u t e d o r g a n i s a t i o n o f c e r t a i n d o m e s tic and p a r -

114 e n ta l a c t i v i t i e s . W hile th e n u c le u s o f t h e h o u se h o ld i s u s u a l l y a fa m ily a n d th e p e r ­ s o n n e l o f b o th may he i d e n t i c a l th e two a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y o r even gen­ e r a l l y c o te r m in o u s . The h o u s e h o ld o f t e n in c l u d e s o t h e r p e r s o n s b e sid e th e f a t h e r , t h e m o th e r and t h e i r d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n , w h ile t h e f a m il y g ro u p i t s e l f may he d i s r u p t e d c o m p le te ly by t h e d iv o r c e o f th e w i f e , o r i n p a r t by th e d e p a r t u r e o f young c h i l d r e n to o t h e r h o u s e h o ld s . Owing to th e f r e ­ q u en ce o f d iv o r c e and o f th e f o s t e r i n g o f c h i l d r e n th e f a m ily g ro u p i s i n f a c t v e r y o f t e n d i s r u p t e d and many c h i l d r e n a r e r e a r e d n o t i n th e fa m ilie s i n w hich th e y w ere b o m b u t th e h o u s e h o ld s o f s t e p - o r f o s t e r - p a r e n t s . I t h a s o f t e n b e e n a s s e r t e d t h a t k in s h ip o r i g i n a t e s i n th e fa m ily w h ich i s t o be re g a r d e d a s th e n u c l e a r k in s h ip u n i t from w h ic h o t h e r l a r g e r u n ­ i t s a r e b u i l t u p . T h is , among th e Yakӧ , i s a s s u r e d ly n o t s o ;a n d i t w ould n o t be d i f f i c u l t to show t h a t th e Yakö s i t u a t i o n i s one w h ich i s v e ry gen­ e r a l i n s o c i e t i e s i n w h ic h u n i l i n e a l k in s h ip i s a p r i n c i p l e o f o r g a n is a ­ t i o n o f c o n s id e r a b le g ro u p s . The c o n fu s io n u n d e r ly in g su c h n o ti o n s re ­ s u l t s fro m f a i l u r e to d i s t i n g u i s h b e tw een th e fa m ily a s a g ro u p an d th e two d i s t i n c t k in s h ip r e l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d b etw een a c h i l d and i t s f a t h e r and m o th e r r e s p e c t i v e l y . K in s h ip r e l a t i o n s a d m itte d ly d e r i v e from th e b e­ g e t t i n g , b e a r i n g , and r e a r i n g o f c h i l d r e n and e x p r e s s i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y th e s e n tim e n ts o f p a re n th o o d and s ib lin g h o o d . But th e f a m il y i t s e l f i s n o t a k i n s h i p g ro u p . From th e p o i n t o f view o f k in s h ip i t d i v i d e s i n t o two d is ­ t i n c t g ro u p s o f w hich t h e r e i s p a r t i a l o v e r la p p in g o f p e r s o n n e l.T h e s e two g ro u p s a r e t h e f a t h e r an d th e c h i l d r e n who form a p a t r i l i n e a l u n i t g ro u p and th e m o th e r an d th e c h i l d r e n who form a m a t r i l i n e a l u n i t g ro u p . T h e se , n o t t h e f a m il y , a r e th e b a s i c u n i t s o f th e k in s h ip sy s te m . Among th e Yakö t h e r e i s r a r e l y a l i n e a l k in s h ip r e l a t i o n betw een th e f a t h e r and th e m o th e r. T h e ir r e l a t i o n i s n o t c o n c e iv e d a s one t r a c e d by c h a in s o f d e s c e n t from a common a n c e s t o r . On th e c o n t r a r y m a r r ia g e be­ tw een members o f a common p a t r i l i n e a l d e s c e n t g ro u p i s b a r r e d and b etw een members o f a common m a t r i l i n e a l d e s c e n t g ro u p i s n o t a p p ro v e d , w h ile c lo s e r e l a t i v e s l i n k e d by a m ixed c h a in o f d e s c e n t sh o u ld n o t m a rry . M a rria g e d o e s n o t make th e man and w ife k i n e i t h e r to e a c h o t h e r o r to th e o t h e r 's k i n s f o l k , and t h i s i s e m p h a sise d by th e e x c lu s io n o f one sp o u s e fro m i n ­ h e r i t a n c e o f any o f th e goods o f th e o t h e r . W h ile b o th f a t h e r an d m o th e r c la im k in s h ip w ith th e c h i l d , th e p r i n ­ c i p l e s o f th e k in s h ip and t h e c o m p o s itio n o f th e g ro u p s b a se d th e r e o n a r e e n t i r e l y d i s t i n c t . A c h i l d i s by b i r t h a f f i l i a t e d t o t h e p a t r i l i n e a g e a n d c l a n o f i t s f a t h e r and t o th e m a t r i li n e a g e and c la n o f i t s m o th e r. A man i s a p a t r i l i n e a l s u c c e s s o r o f h i s f a t h e r and a m a t r i l i n e a l s u c c e s s o r of h i s m o t h e r 's b r o t h e r . A woman i s a m a t r i l i n e a l s u c c e s s o r o f h e r m o th e r, b u t t h e r e i s no tr a n s m i s s i o n fro m h e r f a t h e r . The Yakö f a m ily a s a gro u p h a s , i n f a c t , no p la c e i n th e k in s h ip sy ste m . The d i s r u p t i o n o f a fa m ily

115 w hether by d iv o rc e o r by th e d e a th o f one o r bo th p a r e n ts does n o t a f f e c t th e k in s h ip a f f i l i a t i o n o f th e c h ild r e n . Nor o f i t s e l f does th e f o s t e r ­ in g o f c h ild r e n d u rin g m in o rity by p e rso n s o th e r th an t h e i r p a r e n ts . It has a lre a d y been shown th a t a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n should be made betw een th e f o s te r in g o f c h ild r e n and a d o p tio n . The term s f o s t e r - f a t h e r (o r-m o th e r) and f o s te r - s o n (o r -d a u g h te r) a r e p erh ap s m isle a d in g when a p p lie d to th e Yakӧ s i t u a t i o n f o r a f o s t e r - c h i l d does n o t when d o m ic ile d d u rin g m in o rity w ith a p erso n or p erso n s o th e r th a n i t s o r ig in a l p a r e n ts , th e re b y a c q u ire th e form al s t a t u s o f a son or d a u g h te r o f th e f o s t e r e r . In tim a cy and a f ­ f e c tio n may be of th e same o rd e r a s i n p a re n ta g e b u t th e s o c i a l l y re c o g n is e d r i g h t s and o b lig a tio n s a r e n o t. The s ta tu s o f sonhood to a f o s t e r - f a t h e r can o n ly be e s ta b lish e d w h e n th e c h ild has become a d u lt and i s founding w ith a spouse an in d e p en d e n t fam ily group. I f a man th en r e c e iv e s from a f o s t e r e r w ith a t l e a s t t a c i t consent o f h is f a t h e r o r h i s f a t h e r 's p a t r i l i n e a l k in , th e means o f mak­ in g a m arriag e paym ent and adm ission to la n d and d o m ic ile r i g h t s in th e f o s t e r e r 's p a t r i c l an he ra n k s h e n c e f o r th as th e son of th e f o s t e r e r and no lo n g e r as th e son o f h i s f a t h e r a t b i r t h . T his t r a n s f e r , w h ic h may c o r r e c tly be term ed a d o p tio n , i s , a s h as been shown e a r l i e r , e s s e n t i a l l y a t r a n s f e r o f k in s h ip a f f i l i a t i o n w ith r e s p e c t to p a t r i l i n e a l groups and does n o t a f f e c t o nly th e p e rs o n a l r e l a t i o n s of th e a d o p te r and th e s o n . I t i s th e d is r u p tio n of one b a s ic p a t r i l i n e a l k in s h ip u n i t and th e fo rm a tio n o f , or a d d itio n t o , a n o th e r; and w ith i t i s lin k e d a c o rresp o n d in g change in lin e a g e and c la n membership o f th e adopted man. F or a Yakӧ woman ad o p tio n does n o t e x i s t and th e r a r e o c c a s io n s i n which a s t e p - f a t h e r re c e iv e s th e payment a t h e r m arriag e a r e to be re g a rd ­ ed as u s u r p a tio n s of th e r i g h t s o f th e f a t h e r o r h i s p a t r i l i n e a l su c c e s s ­ o r. In th e same way an a d o p tio n can n e v e r fo llo w from th e r e a r in g o f a c h ild by a 'f o s te r - m o th e r ' f o r no t r a n s f e r o f m a tr ilin e a l a f f i l i a t i o n i s rec o g n ised by th e Yakӧ . A woman who f o s t e r s a c h il d cannot i n f a c t assume w ith re g a rd to i t th e fo rm al r e l a t i o n s and r i g h t s o f a m other. F o re ig n c h ild r e n in tro d u c e d by p u rch a se in to Yakӧ h o u se h o ld s have th e s t a t u s o f sons and d a u g h te rs o f th e head of th e h o u s e h o ld o r more r a r e ly o f h i s w ife b u t n ev e r o f b o th . I f th e c h ild was p u rch ased by o r an b e h a lf o f a man i t i s re c o g n ise d when a d u lt a s h is son o r d a u g h te r, but i t i s a ls o re c o g n ise d a s a m a t r i l i n e a l s u c c e s s o r. The p u rc h a se r ra n k s i n f a c t as th e m o th e r's b r o th e r as w e ll a s th e f a th e r o f th e c h i ld . A boy w ill a c q u ire lan d and re s id e n c e r i g h t s th ro u g h h is p u rc h a se r in th e l a t ­ t e r ' s p a t r i c l an o f w hich he i s ac c e p te d a s a member and th e r u l e o f p a­ t r i c l an exogamy w i l l , among o th e r s , ap p ly to him. But he w i l l a ls o ra n k a s a member o f th e p u r c h a s e r 's m a tr ilin e a g e and c la n and a s one o f th e h e i r s to M s moveable goods. To a g i r l who w i l l ran k as a d a u g h te r th e r u le o f kepūn exogamy w i l l s im ila r ly a p p ly , b u t th e f a t h e r w i l l a ls o r e ­ t a i n th e e n t i r e payment a t h e r m arria g e and she w i l l be re g a rd e d a s a mem-

116 b e r o f h i s m a tr ilin e a g e . Married, women, have a l s o , sometimes w ith th e h e lp of a b r o th e r , ac­ q u ire d a purchased c h ild whom they have r e a re d i n t h e i r h o u se h o ld s. Such a woman and h e r b r o th e r th e n have th e r i g h t s and o b lig a tio n s o f p a re n ta g e w ith which th e woman's husband i s n o t concerned. A y o u th i n such a case w i l l be re c o g n ise d a t m a rriag e as a member o f th e p u r c h a s e r 's b r o t h e r 's p a t r i c l an as w e ll as one o f h is m a tr ilin e a l h e i r s . The m arriag e payment w i l l be handed d i r e c t l y to th e b r o th e r and n o t to th e woman's husband. The custom ary a t t i t u d e to th e f o s t e r i n g o f c h ild r e n and th e t r a n s f e r of r i g h t s in v o lv e d i n ad o p tio n se rv e to em phasise th e f a c t t h a t among th e Yakӧ th e fam ily in n o t i t s e l f a k in s h ip group b u t a dom estic a s s o c ia tio n by means o f which th e fo u n d in g p a r tn e r s , th e sp o u se s, produce and r e a r chil­ d re n to whom they in d e p e n d e n tly tra n s m it d i s t i n c t s t a t u s e s and p ro p e rty r i g h t s . I t i s t h i s s e p a r a te tra n s m is s io n from each spouse and n o t the f a ­ m ily as such w hich p e r p e tu a te s th e k in s h ip s t r u c t u r e from g e n e ra tio n to g e n e ra tio n . Yakӧ m arriage i s an i n s t i t u t i o n o r s o c ia l mode w hich r e g u la te s th e m utual r i g h t s and o b lig a tio n s o f men and women c o - o p e ra tin g i n th e p ro ­ d u c tio n o f dom estic s u p p lie s and th e r e a r in g o f c h ild r e n . The tra n s m is ­ s io n o f moveable p ro p e r ty and s t a t u s i n th e m a tr ilin e a l k in s h ip system i s independent of m a rria g e ; b u t as s o c ia l r e c o g n itio n o f fa th e rh o o d n o rm ally depends on a m a r ita l r e l a t i o n to th e m other, m arriag e does d eterm in e p a­ t r i l i n e a l su c c e ssio n .

I N D E X. Abortion; 14, 92 Abini; 3, Fig 1. adoption; 106-7, 115 adultery; 71, 102 Adun; 78, Fig 1. affinal relations; 68 Afikpo; 24, Fig 1. age mates, men (koboma); 9,10,13,16,21,22,26,28,31,34,70,103 women (leteko); 9,12, 22, 25; 28, 30, 34, 113 age set system; 2, 6-8, 10 akota; 37 Akunakuna (=A~va' aguna) 3, Fig 1.

Bachelorhood; 79-80 betrothal (kokola); 14 -,gifts; 16-17 -,period of; 17 -.services; 15, 16, 17, 62-3, 108 births; 94-5

Camwood paint; 26, 36, 41 chalk, ceremonial use of; 23, 104 child purchase; 46, 88, 115-6 chronology; 8 clan; see patriclan and matriclan - fission; 7 clitoridectomy (knkpot); 19, 25, 32 -before pregnancy (kekpopam); 20, 42 - after pregnancy (likpok~t); 20, 31, 36, 42 - officiant (omanamana); 25 cooling rite; 61, 63-4 cousin marriage; 15 crops; 4, 67, 100, 102 Cross river; 2, Fig.l. currency; 26, 29, 46, 59 custody of children; 75

118

Divination; 61 division of labour; 67, 103-4 divorce; 71-6, lOO, 108-9 - rate; 75-7 dye paints; 41

Economic conditions; 29-30, 44, 57-8 Ekuri; 3, Fig l. Edda; 24, Fig 1. Ekumuru; 3, Fig 1. Evans Pritchard, E.E.; 54 exogamy (clan); • G-7, 15, 115 Ezza; 77, Fig 1.

Family; 112 Farming land; 66, 91 - work; 4, 22, 66, 75, 99, 100, 112 fertility cults; 9, 12, effective - 96 fieldwork, methods in; 2 fostering; 52, 104-6, 109, 115 friendship; see true friend. fufu; 17, 28, 39

House, man's; 101 -woman's; 11, 26, 36, 37, 61, 65, 99 House-building; 16, 65-6 household equipment; 66-7 -supplies; 4, 66-7, 69, 102

119

Ibo; 78 Idomi; 3, Fig 1. inheritance; 45, 56, 70 inverted speech; 41

Jealousy; 12-13, 15, 99, 103

Ketiikpoli; 40 kinship; 114-5 kola; 61

Lactation; 79, 92 language; 3 lebok1l; 9,11 lover's night parties

(yeyom~);

11

Marital status; 4, 45, 37, 38, 99 -obligations; 46,56,67,69,71,73,99,101,102,115 -rights; 37, 55, 67, 69, 75, 99 marriage, age of; 17, 44, 89 -feasts; 27, 33, 45 -firewood; 22, 32 - first; 82-4, lOO - gifts; 20, 28, 29, 35 - later; 86, 88 -payment; 26, 32, 45, 62, 63-4, 72-5, 79, 106 - rituals, purpose of; 35, 39 matriclan; 3, 6-7, 34, 40, 45, 58, 92 -priests; 23, 40, 47, 63, 77 -spirits (ase); 23, 24, 31, 40, 104 matrilineage; 7, 34, 45-6, 53, 70 miscarriage; · 94 mother's brother; 45, 49, 50, 53, 70, 106-7

120 Nki5.; 3, Fig 1. Nkpani; 3, Fig 1.

Oil palm products; 4, 58, 65-6, 78, 103 Orthography; 4

Parental rights; 26,45,49,50,54-5 patrician; 2,3,4,6,7,10,23,34,39,58,63,75,77,91-2,102,103,106-7 - priest; 39,102 patrilineageJ 6,10,34,53,71,91,102,103 plural wives; relations between -. 99-100 polygyny; 17,81,88-89 - ratP.s; 79,89 political organisation; 3 population; 3 - changes; 96-8 post-marital residence; 37, 65, 99 pregnancy; 13, 20, 31, 37, 38, 42, 61 premarital pregnancy; 14

Radcliffe Brown, A.R.; 54 raphia palms; 65 reciprocity; 53 relative age at marriage; 83

Sampling; 2 seclusion of brides; 36-7 sex ratio; 81, 86, 89, 97 sexual behaviour; marital, 93 - premarital, 13, 42 sociological paternity; 111, 112 statistical data; 2 step-father; 50 succession; matrilineal, 56, 70 -patrilineal, 52, 56 suicide; 74

Traders; 77 true friend; 21, 26, 28, 70 twins; 93

Umor (=Ugep); 1, 3

Wards; 5, 7 wedding feasts; 21-3, 27-34 week (Yako); 21 widow; 69-71, 79, lOO widower; 69, lOO

Yam

harvest; 28, 59, 65, 66, 69

yellow wood paint; 41

121