Mandarin Chinese : a practical reference grammar for students and teachers Volume 1

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Mandarin Chinese: A Practical Reference Grammar for Students and Teachers (Vol.I)

Y.C.Li, Robert L. Cheng, Larry Foster, Shang H. Ho, John Y. Hou, Moira Yip

The Crane Publishing Co. Chinese Materials Center Publications

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Mandarin Chinese: A Practical Reference Grammar for Students and Teachers (Vol. I)

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PREFACE This

book

was

compiled

to m e e t

the g r o w i n g

reference grammar of spoken Mandarin usable

need for a

in the classroom by

beginners and experts alike. It is broad enough in scope to deal comprehensively with most major grammatical problems encountered in learning the language,

and at the same time rich enough in

detail to be effective as an on-the-spot problem-solving tool. We have tried to avoid highly abstract analyses and the unnecessary use of technical terminology in our explanations of grammar, and to further

as si s t

sentences

wherever

cross-referencing

the

lea rner,

have

appropriate.

not. only

to

the

provided

Ex-tensive existing

illustrative

and major

up-to-date series

of

textbooks but- to linguistics treatments of' special problems will enable readers to refer to and benefit from these other materials as well. This a general

is the first of two volumes of the Grammar. It provides introduction

to the language and discusses

basic sentence patterns,

the verb

phrase,

the more

and m o r p h o l o g i c a l

patterns. Volume II, to be published airter revision in 1984 , will deal with more complex constructions, and furthermore will beyond the immediate sentence to discpss utterances

in d i s c o u r s e ,

as

in

the

reach

the interrelation af

chapter

on C o n t e x t and

Antecedent. Following Grammar:

is

a. g e n e r a l

outline

of. t h e , c o n t e n t s

of

th,e

If

HiBta l

ii VOLUME I: CHAPTERS I-IV

T-------------------- ------ -

Chapter I:

introduction

Chapter II:

Types of Sentences, Order of Elements, Function Words

Chapter III: The Verb Phrase: Its Related Structures and Elements Chapter IV:

Word Formation, Particles, Compounds

VOLUME II: CHAPTERS V-VIII Chapter V:

The Noun Phrase: Its Related Structures and Elements

Chapter VI:

The Adverb Phrase: Its Related Structures and Elements

Chapter VII:

Coordination and Subordination

Chapter VIII: Context and Antecedent: Meaning and Use of the Language Work on this volume was made possible by two generous grants, from the-International Education Office of the US Department of Education,

for which we express our sincere gratitude. Special

thanks are also extended to the Head of the Division of Advanced Training & Research for his guidance and support. Furthermore, that the following

we would

like to acknowledge the contributions

individuals have made to the compilation of

this volume. James Dew, K. Y. Hsu, Timothy Light, C. P. Sobelman, Jam es

Tai,

and

R o nal d

Walton

served

as

field

readers

and

subsequently gave us useful suggestions. Catherine Barale, C. C. Cheng, Jing-heng Ma, Hilda Tao,

and Ronald Walton examined an

iii

early draft and took the time to return extensive comments and valuable criticism to us, much of which has been incorporated into the present edition. We are also grateful

to James Chow,

Robert Sanders, Lynne

Sandsberry, Patricia Wang and Alice Yu, participants in a Graduate Seminar project,

in Chinese L i n g u i s t i c s

who,

for

a collective

class

tested and evaluated the first draft of Volume I and

provided constructive criticism. Thanks are also due to the many students and teachers at the University of Hawaii, especially James Landers, who have read and added to our drafts. j •' Lynne Sandsberry edited the original drafts of this volume; revisions

were

collated

and edited by Cynthia Ning and Jean

Sibley. Shui-hsin Lai finalized

the index,

then James Huang and

Shuan-fan Huang checked over the entire volume again. To all of these individuals we are much beholden, and take this Opportunity to thank them sincerely. Finally,

we also express our gratitude to all the-student

helpers who typed,

photocopied

nitty-gritty clerical minutiae.

and

otherwise

Without

them,

assisted

with;

this work could

never have come to light. In

the

process

of

compiling

the G r a m m a r , we have become

increasingly aware of the difficulties

involved

in compiling a

reference tool which is useful and comprehensible to students and teachers, yet detailed and comprehensive enough to encompass all the e s s e n t i a l s

of C h i n e s e 'grammar

in linguistically accurate

fashion. We would appreciate comments and suggestions from our readers for future editions.

INTRODUCTION

The authors intended this book as a reference tool for both teachers and students of Chinese language courses at any level. Its contents were to be so arranged as to maximize accessibility to the key items and structures o f Chinese, each explained and clarified by an accompanying set o f illustrative sentences. To this end, we first isolated all the patterns and elements that the student is apt to encounter in approximately 4-5 years o f language study. These we delineated, evaluated, and ordered by degree o f complexity and frequency o f use, so that the simpler and more frequently encountered structures are discussed earlier on. Finally, we categorized the elements, grouping, for instance, verb-related structures into one unit and thus arrived at our scheme o f chapters. It is recommended that at the start, the user take time to familiarize her/himself in gross with Qur table o f contents; this will facilitate referral in the future. As an aid to this initiation process, we will give here a brief summary o f each chapter in this volume. Chapter one is a general interest, “ appetite-whetting” introduction to the nature o f the Chinese language. It sets the tone for the rest o f the work, and provides clues to the approach and attitude the student should adopt in tackling a tongue so radically different from her/his own as this one is. In chapter two the reader will find essentially all of the fundamental

structures o f Chinese, corresponding to material normally

covered, in two years o f classroom instruction. Most basic forms o f statements, ques­ tions, imperatives and interjections are explained here pattern by pattern. Chapter three focuses on the most crucial part o f any sentence: the Verb Phrase. It discusses the various types o f verbs and their usage, and lists sample verbs in each category. It also analyzes the time-related functions o f verbal constructions, notably those that mark tense and

aspect.

Chapter four deals with the components o f a Chinese word; it

describes the special characteristics o f word-forming units (called morphemes), o f elements that affect the meaning o f words (particles) and o f compound words that are made up o f two or more independent words or morphemes. A chapter is broken down into several sections. Each section usually contains the following parts in this sequence: we generally begin with an overview o f the section. Often this will consist o f a general definition or description o f the concept or construe-

ticwf iq be. covered. Next we provide a listing o f one or more sentence patterns, followed immediately by illustrative sentences demonstrating the application of, each sentence pattern. As it is usually the case that the same thought may be expressed in several different

ways,

patterns most often occur with several alternate forms. If slightly

different nuances or contexts ot usage exist for these varying forms, such differences will be explained in a discussion o f the patterns and their application. Finally, the reader will be provided a brief bibliography o f other texts that deal with the pattern just dicussed, complete with the relevant page numbers, and perhaps a summary o f the section, especially if it is a particularly complex one. For the further convenience of the user, we have appended an Index at the rear o f the volume. This general Index contains within it a Cross-Index o f terms drawn from the three major textbook series: that by John DeFrancis (Beginning, Intermediate and Advanced Chinese), (BC), by Yale University (Speak Mandarin) (SM) and by the Beijing Language Institute (Elementary Chinese) (EM). Thus although the name o f an item may vary from textbook to textbook, (a “ functive verb” in the Yale series is a “ (non-stative) verb” in DeFrancis’ and an “ action verb” in ours), the user will always be able to find our discussion of it via the Index. To give an example o f how the user may locate a particular item, let us suppose that a student using the DeFrancis series desires explication o f the uses o f the particle “ le” , beyond that which is available to him or her in the textbook. If the student realizes that le indicates the tense (aspect) o f a verb, a glance at the table o f contents will show that chapter three deals with verbs, and that section 3.6 is devoted entirely to Tense, Aspect and Time Relations. Persual o f the forty-odd pages there should provide all the information on le that is necessary in most cases. Alternatively, the user could look up le in the Index and be advised o f every page on which a discussion o f that particle occurs. Entries for le also occur under the head­ ings Marker, Aspect; Particle, Change-of-State; and Tense, Past. It is hoped that this combination of Table o f Contents and Index will thus provide the easy access we aimed to afford the user o f this Grammar.

Contents P R E F A C E .................... : ............................................................................................................. i IN T R O D U C T IO N ...................................

v

CHAPTER

IN T R O D U C T IO N ........................................................................

1

1.0.

General Remarks...........................................................................................

1

1.1.

Characteristics o f Mandarin Chinese G ram m ar.................................... 2

1.2.

Logic and Chinese Gram m ar............. ................................

I.

CHAPTER II.

TYPES

OF

SENTENCES,

ORDER

OF

27

ELEMENTS

A N D FUNCTION W O R D S ..............................................................36 2.1 .

Simple Sentences (Declarative Sentences)...........................................36

2 .1 .0 .

General Remarks................................................

36

2 .1 .1 .

Sentences with State (Non-Action) V erb s.........................

36

2 .1 .2 .

Sentences with Action Verbs..................................................................... 61

2.2 .

Questions (Interrogative Sentences) ...................................................

2 .2 .0 .

General Remarks............................................................................................ 72

2 .2 .1 .

Question Particles (ma, ne, ba, a /y a ) ......................................................72

2 .2 .2 .

Choice-Type (Disjunctive) Questions................................................... 82

2 .2 .3 .

Tag Questions (duibudui, haobuhao, xingbuxing, etc.) . . . . . . . .99

2 .2 .4 .

Negative Q uestions............................

2 .2 .5 .

Question Words (’ what,’ ‘w ho,’ ‘w hy,’ etc.)....................................... 104

2 .2 .6 .

Extended Uses o f Question Words (Indefin ites)............................. 116

2 .2 .7 .

Intonation Questions...................................................................................120

2.3 .

Command/Request (Imperative Sentences)...................................... 122

2 .3 .0 .

General Remarks.............................................

2 .3 .1 .

Auxiliary Verbs in Command/Request: Regular............................. 122

2 .3 .2 .

Auxiliary Verbs in Command/Request: Prohibitive............... .. . .1 2 8

2 .3 .3 .

Adverbs (Quality Verbs) in Command/Request Sentences . . : . 133

2 .3 .4 .

Verbs in Command/Request Sentences............................................. .1 3 9

2 .3 .5 .

Command/Request Particles................................................................... 142

2 .3 .6 .

Intonation in C om m and/R equest......................................................... 144

72

101

122

2 .3 .7 .

Command/Request Pronouns . . . . : ................................................... 145

2.4 .

Comparative P atterns.......................................................................... . .1 4 8

2 .4 .0 .

General Remarks....................

148

2.4 .1 .

Similarity with gen, you, xian g.............................

150

2.4 .2 .

Dissimilarity with bi, bu r u .........................................

157

2.5.

The ba Sentence ................................................................

163

2 .5 .0 .

General Remarks...............................' .........................................................163

2 .5 .1 .

Discussion................................................................................................... . . 1 6 3

2 .5 .2 .

R em arks.........................................................................................................

2 .5 .3 .

Other Discussions....................

170

2.6.

Passive Sentences..............................

171

2 .6 .0 .

General Remarks........................................................................................... 171

2 .6 .1 .

Discussion........................................................

2 .6 .2 .

R em arks............................................................................. .. . .....................179

2 .6 .3 .

Other Discussions..............................................

2 .7 .

Double N om inatives................................................................................... 181

2 .7 .0 .

General Remarks......................................................................................... .1 8 1

2 .7 .1 .

Discussion............................................................................

181

2 .7 .2 .

Other Discussions.............■..............................................................

184

2.8.

Minor Sentences...................................

185

2 .8 .0 .

General Remarks...........................................................................................185

2 .8 .1 .

Vocative Phrases.................

2 .8 .2 .

Exclamatory Phrases................................................................................... 186

2 .8 .3 .

Declarative Phrases ......................................................................................186

2 .8 .4 .

Command Phrases.......................................................................

187

2 .8 .5 .

Interjections........................................

188

2 .8 .6 .

Elliptical Sentences..............................

188

2 .8 .7 .

Other Discussions.......................................................................... .. • • •• 190

171

180

185

CHAPTER III. THE VER B PH RASp: ITS RELATED STRUCTURES AN D E L E M E N T S .............................................................................. 191 3.1

General Remarks..........................................................................................191

3 .1 .2 .

V + O .........................................................................................................- 1 9 2

3 .1 .3 .

Adverbial Phrase + V ........................................................ .............. .. • ■ • 192

3 .1 .4 .

V + Complement. ....................................................................................... 193

3 .1 .5 .

A U X + V .......................................................................................................... 193

3 .1 .6 .

V + S u f f ix + ( 0 ) ............................

194

3 .1 .7 .

V +{(Object)/(Complement)}+ P article........................................

194

3.2 .

Types o f Simple Verbs (Including Adjectives)................................... 196

3 .2 .0 .

General Remarks....................

3 :2 .1 .

196

Action Verbs................................................................................................. 196

3 .2 .2 .

State (Non-Action) Verbs ....................................

3.3 .

Auxiliary Verbs and Related Modal Verbs andA d v e rb s................ 2 2 2

3 .3 .1 .

General Patterns............................

3 .3 .2 .

Permission (Keyi) and Obligation (Bidei, Yinggai)........................... 2 2 4

3 .3 .3 .

Possibility, Probability, and Logical Necessity...................................23 4

3 .3 .4 .

Ability............................................................................................................... 23 7

3 .3 .5 .

Volition....................

3 .3 .6 .

Other Auxiliary Verbs.................................................................................245

3 .3 .7 .

Ziji Auxiliary vs. Ziji Verb......................................................................... 246

3 .3 .8 .

Negation o f Aux vs. Negation o f the Main V e r b ..............................247

3.4 .

Mental Activity and its Content: Verbs That Take a Sentence as Object or C om p lem en t..................................................................

212

222

239

250

3 .4 .0 .

General Remarks...........................................................................................2 5 0

3 .4 .1 .

Statement as O b je c t ................................................

3 .4 .2 .

Question (Q ) as O b je c t .............................................................................. 2 7 0

3 .4 .3 .

Verb Phrase (VP) as O b ject....................

285

3 .4 .4 .

Verb Phrase (VP) as Object C o m p lem e n t.........................

290

3.5 .

Tense, Aspect, Phase, and Time Relation .........................................2 9 4

3 .5 .0 .

General Remarks............... .. . .................................................................. 2 9 4

3 .5 .1 .

Points or Spans o f Time Explicit or Implicit inthe Sentence . . 2 9 4

3 .5 .2 .

Types o f Time Relation.............................................................................. 299

3 .5 .3 .

Retrospective Aspect (Before Narrative Time). . . ........................... 304

3 .5 .4 .

Synchrospective Aspect (During Narrative T i m e ) ............. . . . . 3 2 2

251

3.5 .5 .

Prospective Aspect (After Narrative T i m e ) ....................................... 331

3.6.

N egation......................... , ..................................... ............ ........................ 3 3 4

3.6 .0 .

General Remarks............................................................................................3 3 .

3.6 .1 .

General Negation.........................

335

3.6 .2 .

Aspectual Negation....................................................................

338

CHAPTER IV. W ORD

FO R M A TIO N ,

PARTICLES,

AN D

COM ­

POUNDS........................................ 4.0.

344

General Remarks...........................................

344

4 .0 . 1. Morphemes, Words, and Phrases...........................................................3 4 4 4 .0 .

2. Bound vs. Free Morphemes..................................................................... 360

4 .0 .

3. Derivation vs. Inflection and Affixation vs. Compounding . . . . 363

4 .0 .

4. Productivity o f Word Formation Processes.......................

4 .0 .

5.

367

Parts o f Speech................................................................................ .. • •367

4 .1 .

Morphemes and Words: Productive Derivation.............................373

4 .1 .0 .

General Remarks....................................................................................... 373

4 .1 .1 .

Reduplication...............................................................................

4 .1 .2 .

S uffixation............................................................................

4 .1 .3 .

P refixation................................................................................................. 4 1 6

4 .1 .4 .

In fixation ....................................................................... . . ....................... 4 2 0

4 .1 .5 .

Non-Productive Phonological C han ge.............................................. 4 2 2

4.2 .

Particles and Interjections..........................................

4 .2 .0 .

General Remarks....................................................................................... 425

4 .2 .1 .

Sentence Particles......................

4 .2 .2 .

Phrase Particles......................................................................................... 4 3 8

373 .3 7 9

425

.4 2 6

4 .2 .3 . . Interjections........................................... ............................................ .. • -4 4 2

A

4 .3 .

Compounds.............................................................

445

4 .3 .0 .

General Remarks..............................

445

4 .3 .1 .

N o u n s....................................................................................................... . 4 4 9

4 .3 .2 .

Verbs............................ ........................... : ..................................................... 453

4 .3 .3 .

Quality V e r b s .......... ........................................................................... .. . .459

4 .3 .4 .

Bu C om pounds................................................

SELECTED,

CLASSIFIED

BIBLIOGRAPHY

OF

463 CHINESE

SYN­

T A X A N D S E M A N TIC S............................................................. ......................... 4 6 4 I N D E X ..........................................................................................................................

499

1.0

- 1, -

CHAPTER I.

1.0.

INTRODUCTION

General Remarks Everyone one of us learns to speak at least one language.

We begin uttering its sounds in infancy and grow fluent as we mature. and

We assimilate all aspects of our language naturally

intuitively:

Most of us are unaware of the process by

which we acquire its sounds,vocabulary and grammar, nor do we particularly care

to find out.

our

can

daily

speech

be

We do not even realize that

classified

into

discrete

units

of

sound, and that rules of -grammar govern its every use. As native speakers of any language, including Chinese, we may speak our language well and yet' may not be well-informed about

it.

A Cantonese

speaker once commented,

"Mandarin is

hard because you have to learn those four tones.

We Cantonese

use no tones."

Little did he know that, on the contrary, the

number of tones he utilizes number which

the Mandarin

everywhere,

at

one

in his own speech" is double the

speaker masters.

time

or, another,

Native speakers

are apt, to express

similarly incorrect ideas about thtir own language. While difficulty. is

so

learning English,

A frequently heard comment is, "English grammar

difficult.

grammar."

many Chinese, complain about its

Chinese

is

Simple

because

it

They are surprised when they hear stud

Chinese complain of the problems Chinese grammar.

instance,

ba is

for objects

that

are generally long with arms or handles to be grasped, such as brushes, chairs, knives, scissors, umbrellas, brooms, keys and fans, while ban is for petal-like objects,

such as petals of

flowers and sections of oranges. A third special element in Mandarin is the group of nouns called

localizers:

'bottom') 'book')

indicates

A localizer

shang

'top,'

xia

the position of an object

(e.g.

shu

relative to the noun

precedes that localizer.

(e.g.

(e.g.

zhuo

'table')

which

(In an English prepositional phrase,

the same kind of location is normally indicated by the prepo­ sition in relation to the noun which

follows

it.)

So,

for

example, in the phrase zai zhuo shang 'at the table top' in sentence 9, shang 'top' after zhuo 'table' indicates that the position of 'a few books'

is on 'top' of the 'table.'

In the

English equivalent 'on the table,' the positional information is in the preposition 'on,' which comes before the noun rather than after it as in Mandarin. Fortunately,

there

are

only

a limited number of locali­

zers (fewer than twenty), and in the contexts where physical locations

are

indicated,

a correspondence with English posi­

tional prepositions can be worked out. 'top' corresponds with 'on.' >

For

instance,

There are, however, a few

shang

1.1.4 -

18 -

problem areas in the use of localizers.

One involves figura­

tive speech, where the localizer refers to conceptual situa­ tions and non-physical "locations." localizers.

We

shall

discuss

A second concerns special

these

two

types very briefly

here. Phrases such as trouble,'

'on

the

circumstances,' abstractly

'in politics,' 'on the basis mind,'

'over

indicate

'within

one's

a

head,'

a "location."

context,' etc.

(of) ,' 'in 'under

the

figuratively

and

A correspondence between

Mandarin localizers and English prepositions

in actual

tional indication does not always work here.

In Mandarin, zai

zhengzhi- -shang

'in

normally corresponds

politics' to

'on'

utilizes

in English.

shang

'top'

loca­ which

On the other hand,

zai...jichu shang corresponds to 'on the basis (of)' which are equivalent

phrases.

In many

cases , such phrases

Mandarin and English tend to be idiomatic usages, "over one's head"

anyway

and

.^

usually

need

to

in both

so they are be

learned

individually. Two special localizers need

to be mentioned here:

and nar correspond to the English adverbs They are location nouns place.'

In Mandarin,

that refer

to

'here' and

'this place'

I am,

'there.' or

'that

they often combine with personal nouns

and pronouns to indicate position or location: where

Zher

to me here,'

ta nar

wo zher

'there where he

'here

is,- to him

there,' nanhar nar 'there where the boy is, to the boy there,' and

Zhang xiansheng zher

Zhang (here).' 25.

'here

where

Mr.

Examples follow:

Tade maozi feidao wo zher lai. she-'s-hat-fly-to-I-here-come Her hat came flying to m e .

Zhang

is,

to

Mr.

1.1.4. -

26.

19 -

Ta chang qu Wang jiaoshou nar tingting yijian. he-often-go-Wang-professor-there-listen listen-opinion He often goes over to Professor Wang to hear his opinion.

The English equivalents of 25 and 26 use

'me'

and

fessor Wang' without any explicit place information.

'Pro­

The noun

and the pronoun in English tend to be taken simply as indica­ ting people without any reference to their location.

However,

in Mandarin,

'go'

when verbs' such

used, it usually means is involved.

as

fei

'fly'

and £u

are

that motion from one place to another

Under these circumstances, the nouns or pronouns

following these verbs generally indicate their positions visa-vis the speaker by the use of the two special l o c a l i z e r s , zher .'here' or nar 'there' pronouns.

Therefore,

expresses

the

(which is

'here'

26, the

after

the

the Mandarin

equivalent

of

'Her

respective

sentence hat

and relatively close

Mandarin

states

that

'He

flew

nouns

or

in

25

actually

to

my location

to the speaker).'

often

goes

to

In

Professor

Wang's place (which is 'there' and away from the speaker).' Due to the absence of anything such as 'here,' 'place'

in

similar

easily forget

that

Mandarin to overtly

sentences zher

English,

or nar are

the students

generally

may

necessary

in

indicate the destination of the subject,

'her hatt, ' 'he,' etc. tion verbs

in

'there' or

A good rule of thumb is that if locomo­

(such as mentioned

in 25

and

26)

are followed by

nouns which do not by themselves indicate location or destina­ tion explicitly

(i.e.,

they

are not

considered place

words

such as j ia 'home,' luguan 'hotel' and xuexiao 'school'), then either zher or nar hiust be used with them. ---------------

|

On the other h a n d , zher or nar becomes optional if the nouns are clearly place words, as. seen in 27.

27.

Tamen you dao shrzhengfu (nar) qu*shrweile. they-again-to-city government-(there)-go-demonstrate-le They went to City Hall to demonstrate again.

Notice that nar is placed in parentheses to show that we may or may not use it.

Once again,

equivalent English loca­

tional nouns do not use similar indicators, but Mandarin can. (See 4.1.2.2.2-v for further discussion of localizers.) The

last

but

not least

Mandarin are coverbs.

of

the

special

elements

They have a number of uses,

in

the most

common being in prepositional-type phrases indicating time or place

(i-.e.

derived

zai

in

zai xuexiao

from verbs

and

similar

'at to

school').

Historically

prepositions

coverbs are probably one of the last things

in

English,

that students of

Mandarin will feel at home with in the new language.

However,

good

things often come

that you

have

finally

become

last,

a

and one of

fluent

speaker

the of

signs

Mandarin

is

the

ability to juggle ba- and bei-constructions at will. The Mandarin

grammar

of

language,

throughout

coverbs and

will

this book.

is

a significant

be

discussed

In Chapter

aspect

of

at various

the

points

2, there are two separate

sections (2.5 and 2.6) dealing with coverbs.

Most coverbs are

also discussed in detail again in 3.5 as an aspect of the verb phrase and in Chapter 6 asa subclass of the adverbial phrase.)

We shall only touch on some general areas concerning

coverbs here: Mandarin?

(1) What is the general function of coverbs in

(2)

How are they like English prepositions?

How are they like verbs?

(3)

(4) How are some of the coverbs used

in Mandarin sentences'? There are about sixty coverbs in the present-day Mandarin language.

.They

are

referred

to

as

prepositions

by

Chinese grammarians and as covetbs or verbs by others.

some They

can be grouped into a dozen subclasses, each having a specific

1.1.4. -

21

-

semantic function in the sentence. tional

phrase,

pronoun. notorious

As in an English preposi­

each coverb occurs with a certain noun or

B a , bei and their affiliates make up two of the most groups

of

coverbs in

Mandarin;

the

following

examples will illustrate their functions in the sentence. 28.

Wo bei ta dashangle. I-by-he-hit injure-le I was injured by him.

29.

Wo ba ta dashangle. I-take hold of-he-hit injure-le I injured him.

Coverbs

in

the

bei

group indicate

that

the

nouns

they

precede function mostly as agents (or actors) of the verb, so that in 28, bei t a , like the English 'by him,' indicates that the agent

'him'

dpzen other uses

did

the hitting.

in Mandarin

various applications

of

that

However, do not

the English

bei has

correspond

'by.'

half

a

to

the

In contrast,

the

nouns of coverbs in the ba group function as specific objects of the action verb,

and In 29.,ba ta indicates

that

'he'

is

the recipient of the action rather than the perpetrator. ' The use of ba is much more involved than indicated here, as will be seen later (see 2.5 and 3.5.1.2.8). These' examples

illustrate the

functions

of

two

out

of

about a dozen classes of Mandarin coverbs,

all of which are

much like English prepositions, in function'.

In the following

example, the coverb na. 'take, with,

by'

is used with a noun

which acts as the instrument- in the sentence. 30.

Bu yao na shitou diu ren. not-want-take-rock-throw-person Don't throw rocks at people.

In 30, na before shitou indicates that the rock is the instru­ ment used to carry out the (verb) action of throwing: sense, take,

it is like a preposition. with,

by'

At

the same

In this

time,

na

'to

is one .of those ambiguous coverbs which may

also be analyzed as a verb because it is also used as the verb 'to take' in contemporary speech. Even within one subclass of coverbs, all example, phrase

may

be

'by means

usage.

defined of,'

by

the

same

of

English

which,

prepositional

students must learn differences

In the following example,

the same subgroup of instrumental

the coverb shi belongs coverbs

for

as na

in to

in sentence

28. 31.

Ni shi li ba zhe ge yezi diu gei ta. you-use-strength-take-this-M-coconut-throw-to-he Throw this coconut to him with all your strength.

Although shi 'to use, make, with, by' in 'with strength' seems to be used in the same way as na in

'with a rock,'

the two coverbs are not interchangeable: certain

abstract nouns,

which

shitou

in fact,

Shi is restricted to

'rock'

is not,

only takes concrete instruments, which _li 'strength'

and na is not.

On the other hand, the Mandarin coverb yong 'to use, with, by' may be substituted for na and shi in either sentence, as yong may accompany either concrete or abstract objects.. Besides differences

in the semantic types of nouns cer­

tain coverbs may take, ttfe verb in the sentence may also place restrictions on the kinds of coverbs which may be used with it. These problems, along with that of coverbs for which there are no clear English prepositional equivalents,

are all'

hurdles which the language student must eventually clear, if he

finds

them difficult,

and

at least he can console himself

with the fact that probably nothing else in the language will

1.1.4.

be much harder.

1.1.5.

After knowing the dozen general functions of

Mandarin coverbs,

the remaining task is to study the indivi-

' dual usages for sixty of them.

f 1.1.5.

Special Verb Phrase Constructions

Having predicates, speech,

we

already special have

grammatical

discussed' special

yet

topic to

consider

constructions

phrases -- namely,

tendency --

word and

a very

most

of

order,

special

special

parts

of

important

group

of

them

concerning

verb

such things as resultative verb compounds,

verb-object c o m p o u n d s ,

directional verb and complement-,

verb-in-se^ries and A-not-A constructions.

Since this section

is meant to be only a general sort of introduction to the more prominent features of Mandarin grammar, we will discuss only a few of these special constructions. » The first of these,

the resultative verb compound,

very important syntactic unit in Mandarin.

is a

When we describe a

happening, we often report the event or action that took place and

the result

or consequence,

of that event,

In Mandarin,

this is normally expressed as two verbs in sequence, the first depicting the nature of the action and the second its result, ■

and this two-verb sequence is the resultative verb compound. As

an

L

sentence:

'

open,

example 'The

cleaned

of

this,

burglar

out

the

consider

broke drawers

the and

the

following

window, got

forced

away

English the

with

door

all' the

valuables.' In this sentence, the consequences of a series of events are expressed by (1) the single verb 'broke, ' the past [

tense indicating that, is 'broken';

as a result of the action,

(2) the verb and adjective combination,

open,' the door consequently 'forced'; where

the window

'open' as a result of the action

(3) the verb and adverb combination

'out1' or

'cleaning'; and

'all gone'

'forced

expreisses

the

'cleaned out,'

consequent

of

(4) another verb and adverb combination,

the 'got

away, ' indicating that the burglar has escaped without being caught and is now 'away' somewhere else.

~

.v--

■ i"■

pp

1 .1 .5 . 24 -

In

contrast

to

this variety

of ways

to

express

conse­

quences of events in English, Mandarin consistently indicates actions and their consequences with a series of two-verb com-' binations, as shown below: 32.

Xiaotou dapole chuangzi, cong limian qiaokaile men, - qingchule chouti, nazoule suoyou zhiqiande dongxi. burglar-hit break-le-window-from-inside-pry open-ledoor-clean out-le-3rawer-take go-le-all worth moneyde-thing The burglar broke the window, forced the door open from inside, cleaned out the drawer and got away with all the valuables.

The series of two-verb

compounds

in

the

sentence

above

were: (1) dapo 'hit and broke,' (2) qiaokai 'pried and opened,' (3) qingchu 'cleaned and cleared out' and (4) nazou 'took and left.' Each of the two verbs is an independent verb, and the second verb denotes a natural result of the first.

For

example,

that a window was

da as the first verb relates

'hit'

and

the second verb

the fact

tells

that

the

window was 'broken.' Resultative compounds also have a special construction to indicate whether the action 'can' or 'cannot' bring about the result.

This

is

expressed

de

(for

'can')

elements, first

verb

and

compounds.

the

For

inserting

or bu

second

instance,

by

(for

verb the

in

one of

'cannot')., these

compounds

two

regular

between

resultatiive

nadezou

or

In

resultative verbs present a unique construction

in Mandarin: de

de V,

verb

nabuzou

mean- one 'can take away' or 'cannot take away' something. this manner,

the

[

]

v2

e.g., da

bu ACTION-can/canno t-RESULT

[

] bu

po

Al A^

i w IX

1.1 .5.

-

25 -

The first verb indicates action:

Following this verb is one

of two elements indicating either 'can* or 'cannot1; at the end is a second verb indicating ttle result of the action. In an example such

as da de/bu p o , we are literally

saying 'hit

and can/cannot break.' _

>

We might mention here that this usage of de and bu as and

'cannot'

can

occur

only

in

Elsewhere, the two elements do not all.

(Dq

is

'cannot.') hui and

a

phrase

Normally,

'cannot'

resultative mean

particle and

'can, be able'

'can' bu

'can'

compounds.

or'cannot'

means

at

'not,' not

is indicated by neng or

by buneng or buhui.

These expressions are

used in front of the verb phrase, not in the middle as with resultative compounds. As students gain more exposure to resultative compounds, they will

find

that

some of these second verbs are used much

more frequently than others. verbs depicts manner.

result

or

This small group of resultative

consequence

in a semantically broad

They all indicate that the action is now

'finished,

completed, accomplished, successful, done with, over, etc.' These resultative verbs may be further divided into two classes.

The first class may be called the "go-getter"

resultative verbs, since they inform us that after completing the action of the first verb, some manner.

the goal has been attained in

The second class may be termed the "all done"

resultative v e r b s .

These verbs state that the matter or

object at hand has been

'disposed of' of is

'over and done

with' through the action of the fir-st. v e r b .

The

main

difference between the "go-getter" and the "all done" verbs;is that the former tells us that the goal or target is reached or accomplished

only

whereas the latter

through states

undergoes a transformation.

the that

action

of

the

first

verb,

the' source object or problem

After carrying out the action of

the first verb, for example, the object may disappear.

1.1.5. 26

-

-

Examples of compounds with the "go-getter" second (resu'ltative)

verbs are zuhao

in renting.' accomplish' of

H a o , as

1finish renting' the

second verb here,

and zhao indicates

compounds

with

'throw away, lost

the

"all

'achieve,

done"

1succeed

means

'finish,'

succeed.'

second

verbs

(and gone) ' and diuguang

thing, lost everything.' at hand having

and zuzhao

Examples

are

diudiao

'throw away every­

Diao expresses the idea of something

'gone or disappeared'

from the scene, whereas

guang,indicates that everything is '.completely gone.' There are a total of about

twenty of these verbs which

are frequently used as either "go-getter" or "all done" second verbs. In general, most of the other second verbs, not among the

two

types

mentioned

above,

individual dictionary meanings tive

compounds

as

xiganjing

are used

according

to ‘their

so that we have such resulta-

'wash clean' and

dieshang

'fall

and get hurt. ' The

last

grammatical

feature

we

shall

section is the verb-object (V-0) compound.

mention

in

This is a special

.verb phrase (VP) construction characteristic of Mandarin. the

course

many

of

verbs,

orginally

its

historical

adjectives,

a verb

plus

development,

adverbs its

and

object.

this

nouns

Mandarin from

In

created

what

was

These V-0 compounds can

frequently be used as single units just like other s i m p le VS

verbs or nouns. 'have'

and

an

A comition V-0 compound is made of the verb you object

noun.

For

instance,

in

Sentence

31,

youxingqu 'have interest, be interested (in)' is a verb-object compound used as a single verb unit: 33.

Ta dui xiezi hen youxingqu. he-toward-write character-very-have interest He is very much interested in calligraphy.

1.1.5.

-

Incidentally,

another

V-0

- 1.2.0.

27 -

unit,

xiezi

'write

character

calligraphy,' is-used as a single noun unit in this sentence. There

are

many

kinds

of

V-0

compounds

in

Mandarin

students will encounter in the course of their study. grammatical feature, they are indeed unique to Mandarin.

1.2.

Is

a

General Remarks - A Philosophical Question there

any

rhyme

or

reason

in

the

way. grammatical

)

structures are formed in a particular language?

l

logic does Chinese grammar follow, complex well.

As

Logic and Chinese Grammar

1.2.0.

l

that

philosophical

question

There may be no

if any?

and

definitive

a

What type of

This is indeed a

controversial

answer,

and

one

a’s

the question

itself may not really be a pertinent one in determining how

\

Chinese grammar works. However, for the purpose of trying to "make sense" out of the seemingly \arbitrary set of speech structures for Mandarin which we call its grammar, it may be useful to come up with an "explanation"

.

for

the

various

complex

linguistic

phenomena

that we pbserve. In our approach to the discussion of this topic then; we are going

to make

the

assumption

our brand of sense-making)

that

there is logic-(i.e.,

in Chinese g r a m m a r .

With

this

hypothesis, we will look at some grammatical phenomena and ask these questions: some other order?

Why should words be in this order and not in What would be a reasonable guess?

If the

"reasonable guess" seems at all plausible, it tnay be useful to hang on to it as a "practical crutch" to lead u& out of the >

maze of Chinese isentence structures.

1.2.0

-

We

would

like

to

28 -

suggest,

initially,

that

there is* a

principle that "you say what comes to mind first" operating in the use of the Chinese language.

It was

mentioned

in

1.1.3

that Chinese may be characterized as a topic-oriented language and that, object, first

therefore-,

place,

in

any subject matter

momfent

of

conversation

sentence.

We

think

time,

etc.)

and written

this

of

concern

can

as

the

"topic-first"

be

(person,

brought

first

forth

words

principle

of

a

in Chinese

grammatical structure is due to the meaning-oriented tendency of the Chinese lan g u a g e . constrained agreement,

by the

such

Since

things

freedom

as

from

it

is

a

inflection

language and

these constraints

to

be

expressed).

In

other

words,

first

grammatical

enables

pattern itself more closely to thought content

less it to

(i.e. the idea

we

think

of

the

"topic" we want to talk about, and then we comment on it.

At

least, this is our commonsensical speculation. In a language

such as English,

one can topicalize many

things, but the topic is not normally presented first as it is in

Chinese.

For

example,

in

a

I went

constraint

of

the

place'

to be brought forth in another way,

language

yesterday'

sentence

'That p l a c e , has

there

English,

is

such

that

is a

such

unusual. topic

as, The

as

'that

such as,

'It

was that place that I went to yesterday.' Normally, the unit at the beginning of an English sentence is the subject (not the topic), and only certain noun phrases denoting 'people' or 'things'

tend to be the subject..

For noun phrases referring

to 'place' or 'time' as well as various coverb phrases, English provides special topicalizing constructions such as 'Ic is (topic N P ) that...' In suggesting that the topic-oriented tendency in Chinese is basically describing

"saying what

a more

obvious

comes aspect

to mind first," we are only of

the

functioning

of

our

1.2.0.

-

principle.

1.2.1,

29 -

If we examine the sequence in which various

sen­

tence units are ordered and look into what kinds of semantic elements they are, we can see further "confirmation" of this principle. 1.2.1.

Sequence of Object and Location

English garage'

and

sentences 'He washed

similar in grammatical

such

as,

'He

the

car

in

'He

the

the

parked

the

In Chinese, car

(and)

in

the garage'

follows

in

the

which

are

are ordered

the first sentence parked

garage,' an order which is similar to English. washed the car

car

garage,'

structure on the surface,

quite differently in Chinese. would be:

parked

(it)

in

the

However,

'He

a different

order

in

Chinese, as can be seen below: 34.

Ta ting chezi ting zai chekuli. he-park-car-park-at-garage-inside He parked the car (and) parked (it) in the garage.

35.

Ta zai chekuli xi chezi. he-be at-garage-inside-wash-car He washed the car in the garage.

Presumably

the order of the Chinese words follows closely the

actual order in which semantic units come into play in real time; specifically,

the sequence of the units in the two

sentences depends on whether or not the object was in the location at the time the event took place. 34, the first thing to happen was and then it was

'in the garage';

that

For

instance,

'he parked

in

the car,'

the car (object) was only in

the garage (location) after the parking (event) o c c u r r e d , and here, the object in the sentence comes prior to the location (where the object ends u p ) .

In 35, however, first he went 'in

1 .2 .1 . -

the garage' car

and then he

1 .2 .2 .1 .

30 -

'washed the car.'

In this case,

the

(object) was already in the garage (location) before the

washing

(event) occurred,

and apparently,

this is w h y _ the

location in the sentence occurs before the object.* I In the next two sections, we shall provide further evi­ dence

for

seems

to

some play

typ’e of

conceptual

a

part

major

in

reasoning the

or

ordering

logic of

which

sentence

elements . 1.2.2.

Arrangement of Noun Phrases (NP)

In

the

last

section,

sentence

sometimes

relation

of

an

appear

object

to

we to

saw be

its

how

semantic

arranged

location

units

according

in

a

time

to

in. a the

sequence.

Here, we will suggest other types of logic that appear to be operating in some sentences, logic based upon the functioning of noun phrases, which causes the sentences to be ordered the way they are. 1.2.2.1. 36.

Existence of NP Before/After Event Wo zhongle yi ke mugua zai hou yuanzili. I-plant-le-one-M-papaya-at-back-yard-inside I planted a papaya tree in the backyard.

37.

Hou yuanzili de yi ke mugua, wo kandiao le. back-yard-inside-'s-one-M-papaya-I-chop down-le I chopped down a papaya tree in the backyard.

In tree' In 36,

the

above

examples,

the position

of

the NP

'papaya

is different in relation to the verb in each sentence: it comes after

'planted'

and,

in 37,

it comes before

'chopped down.'

If we think about it, this ordering seems to

be very logical:

Since there cannot be a papaya tree until it

is planted,

'planted' precedes 'papaya tree' in 3 6 ;

whereas,

1 .2.2 .1 . -

-

1 . 2 . 2.2

3t

there must be a papaya tree in existence before it ca n- be chopped down,_a n d s-o , 'pa p a y a t r ee' 'chopped down. ' the existence

Sentences

36 and

(or non-existence)

37,

in 3 7 c omes before then,are examples

of the NP

of

at the time an

event takes place determining its position in relation to the verb. It can also be noted that bther types of logic may come into play in the very same examples.

For instance, just as in

34 and 35, there was the time factor with regard to object and location; the same factor can be regarded as operative in 36, where

the

papaya

actually in

the

tree

(object)

backyard,

and

is plantedbefore

in

37,

it

is

where the topicalized

unit 'a backyard papaya tree' is justified because the papaya tree

(object)

must

already

be

in

the

backyard

(location)

1.2.2.2. 38.

4

before we can speak of chopping it down. Indefinite/Definite NP Wo maile yl ben shu. I-buy-le-a-M-book I bought a book. —

39.

u

Nei ben shu wo maile. that-M-book-I-buy-le I bought that book.

In

these

two

sentences,

results from the fact whereas 38 does topicalized. The

not.

the

difference

word

that 39 has a topicalized NP, Furthermore,'

the

NP

in

38

of

definite

order 'book,'

cannot

be

Why?

answer

indefinite nouns.

lies

in

the

concept

versus

In 39, the listener (or reader) understands

that a particular book is referred t o , i.e. the spe a k er

in

(or w r i t e r)

'that'

book;

so

c a n call attention to it at the

beginning of a sentence, and use the rest of the sentence to

1.2.2.2 .

1 . 2.2

32 -

make a comment about it.

This idea also ties into the topic/

comment concept of the ctopic presenting old or known informa­ tion.

The book,in 38 is indefinite -- it's just 'a book,' and j

because the speaker has not mentioned any particular book yet, he does not put the NP 'a book1 at the beginning of the s e n ­ tence .

Once he has mentioned the book,

sentence

could well, topicalize

(Nei ben) tehu-hen gui! 1.2.2.3. Yet

of course,

the now definite

his next

book,

e.g.,

'It was very expensive!'

Antecedent NP/No Antecedent NP another

type

of

logic which

is

involved

in deter­

mining whether or not an NP can be topicalized is illustrated in the following examples. u

40.

V

\

M

VJ

u

Wo maile yi zhi laohu. I-buy-le-a-M-tiger I bought a tiger.

41.

Wo ba yi zhi laohu maile. I-ba-a-tiger-se,ll-le I sold a tiger.

At first glance, about

the

there appears to be some mistake.

logic of the definite versus

What

the indefinite NP in

determining whether topicalization can occur in Chinese, which was discussed above?

Indeed, a "higher" logic appears to take

precedence. Word order aside, it can be seen that the only,difference between thp two sentences are the verbs This hefe'.

difference We

is

the

clue

to

the

principle

are gt>ing to hypothesize that,

have a tiger before one can sell it, can be assumed by the speaker,

'bought' and in

'sold.'

operation

because one has to

'tiger* is something that'

and so he can put it first in

1 .2 .2 .3 . - 1 .2 .2 .4 . -

the sentence.

33 -

In other words, with a verb like 'sell,' there

is a presupposition that an NP exists before the action of the verb is carried out.

Thus, we

say

that

Sentence 39 has

ah

antecedent N P , or an NP that exists within the agent's sphere of influence, for him to dispose of at will. In the

case

of

40,

'I bought

a

tiger,'

there

doesn't

r

appear to be the same sort of antecedent NP logic operating. Although admittedly there must be a tiger

to buy before o^e

can buy it, the verb 'buy' doesn't appear to operate under the assumption that

'sell'

does.

accounted for in this way:

Perhaps

the difference can be

It is impossible to even consider

selling a tiger unless we own one; however', we might consider buying a tiger,

though we haven't a particular tiger in mind

yet. Thus, sentences in which the NP can be presupposed due to the nature of the ve r b , i.e. sentences with an antecedent NP, allow for topicalization of the NP (positioning it before the ■f / verb) . The circumstance of the antecedent NP appears to supercede some other types of logic which may be operating, such as whether the NP is definite or indefinite. the antecedent NP

is

like

the definite

NP

In

a way,

in that\ it

is a

specific entity and not toally indefinite. 1.2.2.4.

V Analogous to NP

A fourth type of logic which operates in the ordering of certain N P 's in a Chinese sentence concerns a class of verbs and objects which are so wedded to each pther that the objects can only occur in a sentence with a verb-object structure. While the verb and object might be separated by aspect markers following the verb, or by adjectives preceding the object, the object is normally not topicalized or moved to the front of the verb in a ba-construction.

1.2.2 .34

-

The verbs usually

and object's making up

learned

this

special

as verb-object combinations

considered as idioms

class

a?re

and might

be

in that in each cabe it is the combina­

tion (rather than the individual words) meaning the speaker wants to convey.

that expresses the

What is special about these verb-object combinations that results

in their restricted order in a Chinese sentence?

might be said that,

in these combinations,

It

the object must be

understood to be a part of the function of the verb, specifi­ cally, the realization of the action of the ver b .

On

a more

abstract level, we could say that the objects are actually the same thing as the verbs, but in another form. This phenomenon is universal among languages.

Here is a

familiar English sentence, for example: 42.

The bird sings a song.

It might be 'sing,'

said

that

that

'song'

is

'song' the

is

a part

of

the

function

realization

of

'sing,'

or

of

that

'sing' and 'song' are actually two faces of the same reality, except that one is in the form of a verb, noun.

The fact remains

have

a special

that,

relationship,

the other that of a

in English, whether

'sing'

or not we

and

'song'

can put our

finger on it. Unlike

English,

however,

the special

combinations where

the verb is analogous to the noun phrase in Chinese create the grammatical restrictions discussed above.

One common example

is zuo meng which literally means 'to do/make a dream.'

These

two words in combination carry the meaning of the English have a dream,' 'dream' 'to

but each is necessary to the o t h e r :

is an intangible object apart from its verb;

do/make/have' is

conveyed meng.

equally

in zuo me n g , when

it

devoid is

of

the

separated

special from

the

'to meng

and zuo meaning object

1 .2 . 2 .4 . - 35 -

The student of Chinese will learn to develop an intuition about the verb-object combinations tions.

A

'wash-bath

few

of

- take

sleep,' da keshui. get married

the a

most

bath,'

common

y

examples

shui jiao

'take a nap,'

and kai wanxiao

that carry these restric-

j iehun

'sleep-a

are: sleep'

'tie-a marriage

'to play a joke.'

u

xi zao -

to

- to

. .

2 1

2.1.1.1.1.

- 36 -

CHAPTER II.

TYPES OF SENTENCES, ORDER OF ELEMENTS AND FUNCTION WORDS

2.1.

Simple Sentences

2.1.0.

(Declarative Sentences)

General Remarks

In this

first

section,

we will be discussing

sentence structure of spoken Mandarin. following

this

structures

and

will go

assume

on

to

an

Most of the sections

understanding

show how

the basic

they

of

these

basic

can be modified

and

expanded into more complex structures.

2.1.1.

Sentences with State (Non-action) Verbs

There are six major

types

of

state

(non-action)

verbs.

Their characteristics and functions are discussed at length in Chapter

3 which

concentrates

on

the verb

phrase.

Here,

we

will look at the types of declarative sentences in which they occur. 2.. 1.1.1. 2.1.1.1.1.

Existence and Location (zai,‘ you, shi as V or COV) zai ***************************** PT 1

S

zai

(PL)

PT 2

S

zai

PL

VP

PT 3

S

VP

zai

PL

*****************************

2.1.1.1.1 •

37 -

Examples PT 1 a.

Ta 2ai zher. he-be at-here He's here.

b.

Ta zai xuexiao. he-be at-school He's at school.

c.

Nei ge ren bu zai jia. that-M-person-not-be at-home That person is not at home.

PT 2 a.

Tamen zai waitou dengzhe wo. thev-at-outside-wait-zhe-I They're waiting for me outside.

b.

Ta zai Meiguo xue Yingwen. he-at-America-study-English He is studying English in America.

PT 3 a.

Ta zhu zai zher. he-live-at-here He lives here.

b.

Ta q£ zai mashang. he-ride-at-hoise-top He is riding on a. horse.

2 .1 . 1 .1 .1 . - 38 -

2.

Remarks A literal translation of the verb zai would be something

like 'to be located in/at/on.'

Pattern 1 is the most commonly

used pattern for indicating the location of a noun. simplest

form the location

is understood

and omitted,

In its as

in

the following exchange: a.

Q:

Ta zai jia ma? he-be at-home-ma Is he home?

A:

Ta zai. he-be at He is .

In Pattern 2, zai functions' as a coverb.

Here, zai indicates

the location where the action'of the main verb takes place: b.

Ta ziti nar nianshu? he-at-where-study Where does he study?

When negatives

and auxiliary verbs

are used,

zai rather than before the main v e r b : c.

Ta bu zai bangongshili chifan. he-not-at-office-inside-eat He doesn't eat in the office.

d.

Wo xihuan zai jia chifan. I-like-at-home-eat I like to eat at home.

they go before

2 .1 .1 .1 .1 .

- 39 -

If, however,

the main verb

rather

than

zai

is negated, .the

sentence has a different scope: e.

Ta zai bangongshili bu chifan. 'he-at-office-inside-not-eat He doesn't eat when at the office.

Sentence (c) indicates eats (i.e., does not

he

eats

that it is not at the office

elsewhere),

eat his meals

when

whereas

he

is

in

(e)

states

the office

that he that he

(i.e.,

he

works) . Pattern limited to 3.3.1.4.

3

is

only

an

alternative

a small

class

form

of

of "‘2.

Its

use

location-based yerbs

for discussion and lists) such as zhu

is (see

'to live,'

'to ride (straddling)' and liu 'to stdy behind.' In Pattern

3,

negatives

and

auxiliaries

go

before

the

main verb as usual, rather than before zai: f.

Ta bu zhu zai loushang. she-not-live-at-upstairs She doesn't live upstairs.

g.

Ta xiwang liu zai susheli. he-hope-stay on-at-dormit.ory-inside ' He hopes to stay on in the dormitory.

In these patterns,

the nbun being located is normally a

definite one

(this

book,

that

pen,

the man,

they, etc.).

In other words, the sentences refer to specific

objects or persons at certain locations: V

h.

x

W

>



x

Bijiben zai zhuozishang. notebook-be at-table-top The notebook is on the table.

his house,

he,

2.1.1.1.1. -

This

is in contrast

40

-

to Patterns 4 and 5 below,

in which the

object is normally indefinite or unspecified' (a person,

some

books, etc.). The sentences given so far normally form questions by (1) using a question word such as nar or shenme P L , (2) by adding the question particle ma at the end of the sentence or (3) by using zaibuzai. i.

Ta zai nar? she-be a^-where Where is she?

j.

Tamen zai shenme difang gongzuo? they-at-what-place-work Where do they work?

k.

Ta zai xuexiao ma? she-be at-school-ma Is she at school?

l.

Ta zaibuzai xuexiao? she-be at-not-be at-school Is she at school?

3.

Other Discussions BC 17, p. 75.

2.

EC 24, p. 243; 27,

3.

ECC > P . 74. SM, PY. C. Li (1 972).

4. 5.

• C\1

1.

2 .1 .1 .1 .2.

-

.1.1.2,

41

-

You

*******************************'******* PT 4

(zai)

PT 5

you

PL N

you

(zai

N

(VP)

PL)

(VP)

**************************************

Examples PT 4 a.

(Zai) Meiguo youmeiyou hen duo Zhongguo fanguar? (at)-U.S.-there be-not-there be-many-China-restaurant Are there many Chinese restaurants in America? w + \j y Waitou you san ge ren dengzhe ni.

b.

outside-there be-three-M-person-wait-zhe-you There are three people waiting for you outside. s _ + + \j u (Zai) Zhongguo meiyou huoshan.

c.

(at)-China-not-there be-volcano There are no volcanoes in China. d.

Tushuguanli you ren shulzhaole. library-inside-there be-person-fall asleep-le In the library there is someone who has fallen asleep.

PT 5 /

a.

You san jian wofang zai loushang. there be-three-M-bedroom^at-upstairs There are three bedrooms upstairs.

2.1.1.1.2. 42

-

b.

-

You ren zai waitou zhao ni. there be-person-at-outside-look for-you There is someone outside looking for you.

c.

Jintian meiyou ren zai xuexiao daqiu. today-not-there be-person-at-school-hit ball There is nobody playing ball at school today.

d.

U U ^ • >■ _ ^ You laoshu xihuan gen mao war ma? o

there be-rat-like-with-cat-play-ma

3

Are there rats that like to play with cats?

P 2.

VO

Remarks You

sense of have'

in

literally

means

'there is/are.' English,

as

'to

can

also

in

the

question,

'Do

you

inanimate

have have

You is normally existential

to the existence of something or someone)

subject is animate: a.

but

This is similar to the usage of

students in your school?' relating

have,.'

and

possessive

F£ngzili you san ge haizi.

when

its

the 'to many

(i.e.,

when

its

subject

is

(inanimate subjectexistential use of you)

house-inside-there be-three-M-child

q o z

There ate three children in the house. b.

Wo you si ge haizi.

o

(animate subject - w possessive use of you)

I-have-four-M-child I have four children. You can be used instead of (or in conjunction with) an indefinite subject is used.

zai when I k q

2 .1 . 1 . 1 . 2 . -

c.

43

-

Zhuozishang you hen duo dongxi. table top-there be-very-many-thing There are many, things on the table.

d.

Zai zhuozishang you hen duo dongxi. at-table top-there be-very-many-thing There are many things on the table.

Patterns 4 and 5 are used in contexts where locations of objects or persons are specified, similar to Patterns 1, 2 and 3.

The major difference between Patterns 4 and 5 is that, in

Pattern

4,, the

location

is

stressed

by

-being

put

first,

whereas in Pattern 5, the noun is stressed by being put first: e.

(Zai) shuzhuoshang you san ben shu.

(Pattern 4;

(at)-book table top-there be-three-M-book On the desk there are three books. f.

You san ben shu zai shuzhuoshang.

(Pattern 5)

there be-three-M-book-at-book table top There are three books on the desk. Questions are formed with Patterns 4 and 5 in .a variety of ways.

In

Pattern

4,

since

the

location

is

stressed,

a

question may be formed by using a question phrase such as nar or shenme PL at the front of the sentence, generally omitting zai.

Such questions tend to be rhetorical in nature. g.

Nar you ren gan piping wo?

(Pattern 4)

where-there be-person-dare-criticize-I Who would dare to criticize me? In Pattern 4, a question about the existence of objects at a known

location

may

question particle ma.

be

formed

by

using

youmeiyou

or

the

2 .1 . 1 .1 . 2 . 44

h.

Z.•1 •_L•1

-

Loushang youmeiyou ren?

(Pattern 4)

upstairs-there be-not-there be-person Is there anyone upstairs? i.

Loushang you ren meiyou? , upstairs-there be-person-not-there be Is there anyone upstairs?

j.

Loushang you ren ma? upstairs-there be-person-ma Is there anyone upstairs?

w +9 \j For Pattern 5, a question may be formed by using youmeiyou or ma.

With

both

Patterns

4 and

5,

the response

to questions

using youmeiyou or ma could simply be "you" or "meiyou," or a repetition or negation of the statement (see also 2.2.4). 3.

Other Discussions 1.

_BC 7, p . 76.

2.

EC 27, p. 7.

3.

ECC, p. 74-75.

4.

SM, p. 73.

5.

Y. C. Li (1 972).

2.1.1.1.3.

Shi ******************************** PT 6

(zai)

PL

shi

N

********************************

2 .1 .1 .1 . 3 . - 45 -

1.

Examples a.

Wo jia pangbian shi xuexiao. my-house-side-be-school Next to my house is a school.

b.

(Zai) yinhang duimian j iu shi shudian. (at) -bank-opposit§'-just be-bookstore Right across frodi the bank is,, a bookstore.

c.

Beizili shi cha, bu shi jiu. cup inside-be-tea-not be-wine There is tea not wine in the cup.

2.

Remarks The sentences above are normally used in situations when

the identity asserted.

of

the

entity

at

a

certain

location

is

being

Pattern 6 may be used in place of Pattern 5 when

the object being' described

is more or less a permanent one. ]

Compare the following two examples: a.

Men waitou you liang ge ren.

(temporary situation)

door-outside-there be-two-M-person There are two people outside. b.

Cheng waitou shi shan.

(permanent situation)

city-outside-be-mountain There are mountains outside the city. Sentences in Pattern 5 may end in a VP (c), (d) ]

but

since

permanent

structures

bookstores) do not engage in activity, not end in a VP.

[as in Examples 5(b) v (e.g.

mountains,

those in Pattern § do

2.1.1 =1 3 ,- 2.1.1

- 46 -

3.

4.

Other Discussions 1.

ECC, p. 75.

2.

SM, p. 85-86.

3:

Y. C. Li (1972).

Concluding Remarks There are only three verbs used in Chinese to mark exist­

ence and location: that

zai, shi and y ou.

these may be variant

(1972)].

For a fuller

forms

It has been suggested

of the same verb

theoretical

discussion of all

see Y. C.- Li (1 972). 2.1.1 .2.

Uses of the Verb

2.1.1*2.1.

'to be':

Shi

Equative Sentences (shi) **************************** PT 7

NP1

shi

NP2

****************************

Examples a.

Wo shi 2hongguo ren. I-be-China-p^rson I am Chinese.

b.

Nei suo fangzi shi wo jia. that-M-house-be-I-home That house is my home.

c.

[Y.

Ta bu shi zei, shi wo pengyou. he-not-be-thief-be-I-friend He's not a thief, he's my friend.

C.

Li

three,

2.1 .1 .2.1 .

2 . 1.

-

x

d.



w

47

v-»

-

u

Zhei zhi bi shi wode (bi). tzhis-M-pen-be-I-'s- (pen) This pen is mine.

e.

Ta shi yaofande. he-be-want food-de He's a beggar.

f.

Tade nei liang qiche shi hongde. h e - 1s-that-M-car-be-red-de That car of his is red.

2.

Remarks This pattern is one of the simplest in Chinese.

Shi is

> approximately equivalent to the English verb 'to be'; however, l it is used only to express the idea that Noun A is equivalent to or identified with "This is good"

and

Noun

(2)

B.

"This

In English, is my book."

) would only be used in sentences such as l noun is the ) Examples

equivalent

(a)-(c)

above

(or

complement)

illustrate

this

one can say

(1)

In Chinese,

shi

(2) where the second of

the

first

principle.

At

noun. first

[ glance, Examples (d)-(f) are not such clear cases since they l involve noun phrases with deleted objects. That is to say, kj ' v y the phrase wode in (d) is like an abbreviation of wode bi 'my ) pen,' while the phrases yaofande and hongde in (e) and (f) suggest the objects ren (person - yaofande ren 'begging person') and qiche (car - hongde qiche 'red car'). Shi can thus be seen as a marker of equivalence or identification: zhei zhi bi

-

wode (bi)

ta - yaofande (ren) tade nei liang qiche - hongde (qiche)

2 . 1 . 1 . 2.1 48

-

When

used

together

with

a

-

deleted

object,

the

functions as a nominalizer, generally rendered

particle



in English as

'that which...' or 'one who...'

Thus, hongde is 'one which is

red'; yaofande is 'one who begs

(a beggar)' and wode is

'that

which is mine' pr simply 'mine.' In general use, the

fourth

tone

shi

plus

frequently has

a

stress

is

a neutral

used

when

tone,

emphasis

but is

intended, as in (b): a.

Wo shi Zhongguo ren. I-be-China-person •I am Chinese.

b.

Wo shi Zhongguo ren. I-be-(emphasis)-China-person I am Chinese.

Questions may be formed with this pattern by using either shibushi

or

ma

(see

2.1.1

and

2.2.3

for

Typical replies to such a question would be: c.

Shi. be Yes (I am).

d.

Wo shi. I-be I am.

e.

Wo shi Zhongguo ren. I-be-China-person I am Chinese.

f.

Wo bu shi Riben ren. I-not-be-Japan-person I'm not Japanese.

more

on

this).* I

2 .1 .1 .2.1 .

2.1.1 .2 .2.

- 49 -

Other Discussions BC

2.

EC 11, p. ECC .» P • ^ •

3.

*

5.

, p . 15; BC 16, p. 268.

• CM CO

4.

2



1.

00 o

3.

SM 4, p. Marney, p

Focus on Circumstances (shl...de)

2.1.1.2. 2.

*************************************************** PT 8

(S)

(bu)

^shl)

Adjunct

V

de

FT 9

(S)

(bu)

(shi)

Adjunct

V

de

PT 10

(S)

(bu)

(shi)

Adjunct

VO

PT 11

(S)

(bu)

(shi)

Adjunct

V

de

***************************************************

Examples PT 8 a.

Ta shi zuotian lai de. she-shl-yesterday-come-de

(when)

It.was yesterday that she came. (She came yesterday.) .i

b.

_

^

^

1

vj

^

Wo shi gai Meiguo zhangda de.

(where)

I-shl-at-U.S.-grow up-de 1 grew up in the U .S . (It was in the U.S. that I grew up.)

c.

Zhei jian maoyi shi ta mai de. 'this-M-sweater-shr-he-buy-de It was he who bought this sweater. (This sweater was bought by him.)

(by whom)

2 . 1 . 1 . 2 . 2. - 50 -

d.

Wo shi zhao ni lai de.

(for what purpose;

I-shi-look for-you-come-de It was to visit you that I came. (I came to visit y o u .) o

e.

s

^

\J

\J

Wo shi lai zhao ni de. I-shi-come-look for-you-de It was to visit you that I came. (I came to visit y o u .)

PT 9 a.

.Xiao Feng shi gen wo yikuar chi de fan.

(with whom)

Xiao Feng-shi-with-I-together-eat-de-food It was with me that Xiao Feng ate. (Xiao Feng ate with m e .) b.

Tamen shi j intian zhongwu kan de dianyingr.

(when''

they-shi-today-noon-see-de-movie It was today at noon that they saw the movie. (They saw the movie today at noon.) PT 10 a.

Women shi j iuyue likai Shanghai de.

(when)

we-shi-S,ept ember-leave-Shanghai-de It was /in September that we left Shanghai. (We left Shanghai in September.) b.

Wo shi gangcai yujian ta de. I-shi-just now-encounter-he-de It was just now that I encountered him. (I ran into him just a moment ag o .)

(when;

2.1.1.2.2.

-

51 -

PT 11 a.

Keren shi mingtian dao.

(when)

guest-shi-tomorrow-arrive It's tomorrow that the guests are arriving. (The guests will arrive tomorrow.) b.

Ta shf zoulu lai.

(by what means)

he-shi-walk-come It's on foot that he'll come. (He'll be walking here.) 2.

Remarks In these patterns, shi..♦de is used to focus attention on

the

circumstances under which a given action is completed.

Shi...de is generally not used to report the occurrence of the event itself. a.

Ta lai le. she-come-le She has come..

This is a simple SV sentence that reports a completed action. Pattern 8, Example further about

(a) above uses shi. . .de to tell something

the circumstances

time that she came.

of

that

action;

namely,

the

Other sentences can be used to give other

types of circumstantial detail,

i.e. the means, manner,

loca­

tion or purpose of the action. b.

Ta shi qi zixingche lai de.

(b^ what means)

she-shi-ride-bicycle-come-de She came by bicycle. c.

Ta shi cong ,jiali lai de. she-shi-from-house inside-co,me-de She came from home.

(location)

2 . 1 . 1 . 2.2 - 52 -

d.

Ta shl yige r^n lai de.

(manner)

she-shi-one-M-person-come-de She came alone. With completed actions, the shi may be omitted in affir­ mative sentences, but not with negative sentences: e.

Ta zuotian lai de.

(affirmative)

he-yesterday-come-de He came yesterday. f.

Ta bu shi zuotian lai de. he-not-be-yesterday-come-de

(negative)

He didn't come yesterday. In

cases

where

there

is

a verb-object

cans truetion

(Patterns 9 and 10), the de may either go between the verb and the object,

as

in

9,

or after .the object,

as in 10.

Some

general rules apply here: 1.

When the object is a person or a place,

the de

normally comes after it. 2.

With

concrete

objects

especially,

the

de

normally comes between the verb and the object. 3.

In

other

situations,

£here

is

no

preferred

position for the d e . Note

that when

the adjunct

is one of purpose

[Examples

8(d) and (e)], that adjunct may either be placed in its normal position before the verb,

or it may come after

the verb but

before the de, with no effect on the meaning (except that the former may sound slightly more casual).

2 . 1 . 1 . 2 . 2 . - 2.1.1.2.3. > - 53 -

While (Patterns

shi..♦de 8-10),

is normally used with

it

aspects of current

may

also

be

used

completed

lotions

describe

certain

to

or anticipated actions

(Pattern

11).

In

the latter situation, the che is generally omitted (see 8.3.3). 3.

Other Discussions (

1.

BC 11, p. 145; BC 16, p. 261 .

2.

EC 44, p p . 26-27; EC 63, p p . 63-64.

3.

ECC, p. 196.

4.,

SM 12, p . 1 12.

2.1.1.2.3. 1.

Shi Used for Emphasis

Examples a.

Wo shi hen mang. I-emphasis-very-busy I am very busy.

b.

Wang Jian shi bu hui lai de. Wang Jian-emphasis-not-will-come-de Wang Jian w o n 11 be coming.

c.

- u > # > Ta mai de shi feizao. he-buy-de-be-soap It was soap he bought.

d.

Shi ta rang ni qu (bushi wo), be-she-make-you-go-(not-be-I) S h e 's the one who's making you go (not I).

Shi may serve to add stress to a sentence. elements

directly

follow

subject, object, verb, etc.

shi, and

may

take

The stressed the

form

of

a

..

2 1 1.3 -

54

'

-

2.1 .1 .3. . Quality and Status Verbs (Adjectives)

******************************** PT 12

N

Adv. QV

PT 13

N

(Adv)

(le) SV

le

********************************

1~.

Examples PT 12 a.

Ta hen gao. he-very-be tall He is tall.

b.

Ta muqin hen youqian. he-mother-very-be rich His mother is rich.

c.

Ni.de pengyou zhen piaoliang. you-'s-friend-really-be beautiful Your friend is really beautiful.

PT 13 a.

Wo ele. I-be hungry-le I'm hungry (now).

b.

Ta hen lei le. she-very-be tired-le■ She's very tired (now).

. . . .

2 1 1 3 55

-

c.

-

Bie huixin l e ! don't-be discouraged-le Don't be discouraged (anymore)!

2.

Discussion Quality and status verbs in Chinese have much in common.

They both tell something about the state of being of a person or thing;

they

are

descriptive

equivalent to English

verbs

adjectives.

and

in

that

For this

sense

reason,

are

we will

periodically put "adjective" in^parentheses in this book when we make reference

to quality and status verbs. • However,, one

must keep in mind that they function as verbs. sentence,

In the English

'He is tall,' the adjective 'tali' is the complement

of the verb

'to

be':

Chinese equivalent Chinese verb shi

'is.'

of

this

situation.

sentence.

12(a) Note

(see

above that

'to be' is not used, as gao

main verb of the sentence. added stress

Example

is

the

there

the

'be tali'

is the

The addition of shi would indicate

2 .1 .1 .2 .3)

which

is uncalled

for

in

this

It might help to think of quality and status verbs

as equivalent to the phrases

'to be (such 'and such),' so that

gao is 'to be tali' and £ is 'to be hungry,' for instance. The characteristics of quality and status verbs are dis­ cussed in Chapter 3.

At this point, we may note the following

differences between them: 1. a person

Quality verbs refer to lasting, intrinsic aspects of or

thing;

[Example 12(a)],

beauty

youqian 'be rich' the Chinese.

to

stable [Example

qualities 12(c)],

such etc.

as

tallness

Notice

that

in 1 2 (b) is considered a stable quality by

Status

verbs,

on

the

other

hand,

deal

with

temporary conditions that people or things find themselves in, such as hunger [13(c)].

[13(a)]>

fatigue

[13(b)]

and

discouragement

..

2 1 1.3

- 56 -

2.

When the aspect marker la ends a sentence in which

the main verb

is a state

(non-action)

verb,

it

indicates

a

change of status, as illustrated in the following: a.

Wo benlai bu lei, xianzai wo leile. I-originally-not-be tired-now-I-be tired-le I wasn't tired before, but now I am.

As

status

verbs

have

to

do

with

constantly

changing

situations, the change-of-status la is generally used together with them: w

b.

^

Lao Li zuile. Lao Li-be drunk-le Lao Li is drunk (now). Ta bu zuile. he-not-be drunk-le He's not dtunk (anymore).

Le does not occur in most quality verb exception is when there

sentences.

is a change in intrinsic quality,

The as

in the following: c.

Ta da le. she-be big-le She has grown u p .

3. with

Quality verbs, on the other hand, do generally occur

a modifying

adverb hen 'very.'

adverb;

the

one' most

commonly used

is the

This hen is very weak, however, and seldom

carries the same force as its English equivalent 'very' ”nless stressed. is

[Note that in Example 12(a) above,

'He is tall,' not

'He is very tallr.]

the translation

In the choice-type

question form (SV bu SV) , the hen is omitted-.-

It can also be

....

2 1 1 3

57

-

-

left out when

the quality verb

is modified by

particle bu —

unless, of course, one wants

When there is no adverb present,

the negative

'very' for stress.

there is usually an implied

comparison. w

d.

%

Wo da. I-be big I am older.

e.

Ta bu hao. she-not-be good She's not good.

f.

Ta bu hen hao. he-not-very-be good. He's not too good.

g.

Ta hen bu hao. he-very-not-be good He's terrible.

When

adverbs

other

than

hen

precede

the

quality

verb,

they retain their full force [Example 12(c)]. Any adverb may optionally precede a status verb, in which case, it also retains its full force. 3.

Remarks The

first

distinction

delineated

followed his

by

between Y.

R.

Chao

classification

here.

status and quality verbs names:

descriptive

[Zhu Dexi DeFrancis

(1 956)]; (1963)].

Dexi (1956).

quality

and- status

[Chao

verbs

was

We

have •

(1968)].

Other

grammarians

group

together and call them a variety of

verbs stative

[A.

Ha-shimoto

verbs

For a detailed

[Fenn

(1971)];

adjectives

& Tewksbury

discussion,

(1974);

see also flhu

. . . .

2 1 1 3 - 58 i-

4.

Other Discussions 1.

EC 15, p. 125.

2.

SM 1, p. 6 ; SM 2, p. 14; SM 5, p.47; SM 7, p. 6 8 .

3.

EC 18, p. 164.

4.

ECC, pp. 1, 18, 104.

2.1.1.4.

Naming (Classificato-ry) Sentences kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk

PT 14

S

xing

Surname

PT 15

S

(mingzi)

(zuo)

-iiao

\J PT 1 6

S

guan

0

Name

Name

jj-gg

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk

1.

Examples a.

Wo xing Fu. I-be surnamed-Fu My surname is Fu.

b.

Tade mingzi jiao shenme? h e - 's-name-call-what What's his name?

c.

Zheige jiaozuo guozhi. this-M-be called-fruit juice This is called fruit Juice. y j

d.

u

",

%

v

"

,

Women guan ta jiao Xiao Bazi. we-guan-he-call-little-Eighth Boy We call him the little Eighth Boy.

2 . 1.1

2 . 1 . 1.4 -

59 'l

2.

Discussion Naming

(Pattern 5)

sentences

are

similar

to

equative

in that two nouns are being related.

difference is that, usually a name.

in naming

sentences,

sentences The major

the second noun is

The equative sentence can use a name for the

second noun (as well as the first noun) as in: a.

Wo shi Wang Guohua. I-be-Wang Guohua I am Wang Guohua.

Such an equative sentence, without any stress, would be equi­ valent to the warning sentence:' b.

Wo jiao Wang Guohua. I-call-Wang Guohua I am (called) Wang Guohua.

The two most

common verbs used

xing 'to be surnamed' and j iao

in naming sentences

'to be called.'

are

Xing is only

used for the surname: c.

Ta xxng shenme? he-surnamed-what What is his surname?

d.

Ni jiao shenme mingzi? you-be called-what-name What is your name?

The verb j iao 'to be called,' when used with people, may refer to a person's full name or to just his given name.

It

frequently is used together with the word mirigzi 'name,' as an answer to (d) in:

2.1.

- ,6 a -

e.

Wode mingzi jiao Wang Han. I - 's-name-called-Wang Han. My name is Wang Han.

Whereas xing is limited to people (since only people have surnames),

j iao may

be used

to name

any

object,

animate or

inanimate: f.

Zhei ge dongxi jiao shenme? this-M-thing-be called-what What is this thing called?

g.

Nei ge jiaozuo. maobi. that-M-be called-brush pen That is called a Chinese brush pen.

Jiao

is

also

used

in

Pattern

16,

a

variant

form

of

Pattern 15: h.

Women guan ta jiao "Laohu." we-guan-he-called-"Tiger" We call him Tiger.

When this pattern is used for people, the name is usually some sort of nickname, rather than a real given name. When j iao is used in Pattern 15, the name given may be a simple noun [as in (h) above] or it may be a noun phrase: ^

i.

^

^

^

KJ

Zhei .ge jiaozuo "Yi ju liarig de." this'-M-be called-one-swoop-two-get This is called ,•."Killing two birds with one stone."

2 .1 .1 .4.

2 .1 .2 .1 .

61

3.

Remarks There are other verbs used in this pattern such as dang

'to act as,' chenghu 'to be called' and hao 'to be nicknamed.' However, [See Chao

these are not used (1 968),

p.

1 i3o.

71 Iff for more on these .naming verbs.]

According to some sources equational verbs.

as frequently as xirng and

(BC, p. 13), naming verbs are also

Chao, who used to feel the same way, later

separated the two.

2.1.2. 2.1.2.1.

Sentences with Action Verbs Intransitive Action Verbs 1

****************************************** PT 17

S

AV

(Asp)

(Complement)

******************************************

Examples .a.

Shei qu? who-go Who is going?

b.

Ta zoule. she-leave-le She has left.

c.

Ta quguo le. she-go-guo-le She has been there (before).

*4

d.

Ta kule bantian. he-cry-J^e-half day He cried for a long time.

e.

Ta zhan zai menkou. he-stand-at-doorway He's standing at the door.

f.

Ni mingnian qu Beijing ma? You-next year-go-Peking-ma Ate you going to Peking next year?

2.

Discuss ion This

pattern

is

considered

so

simple

that

none

of

the

first-year language texts even discuss it. In Chinese, as in English, there is a class of intransitive action verbs which is distinct from transitive action verbs because they take no objects

and are also distinct

take no degree adverbs

from state verbs

because

(such as geng and hen) .

they

Some of the

verbs in this group are: lai

1 come'

zhan

'stand'

xing

'wake'

zou

'go' 'leave'

ku

'cry'

zuo

'sit'

zhu

'live, dwe 1 1 '

Although followed

by

these

verbs

complements

do not of

take

time

objects,

[Example

they

(d)]

and

may

be

place

[Examples (e) and (f)]. 3.

Remarks Y. R. Chao

(1 968) has delineated ten types of intransi­

tive action verbs intransitive

(pp. 670-672).

action

verbs

do,

He has also suggested that in

fact,

have

objects

or

. . . .

2 1 2 1 -

2 . 1 . 2 . 2 .1 .

63 -

"cognarte objects" as he refers to them (p. 672).

An example

of a cognate object would be quantity words specifying number of time, distance, etc.: a.

Ta bangle yi chang. he-sick-le-one-session He had a bout of illness.

A recent

treatment

of

verb

classification

by

Teng

(1974)

suggests a whole new classification system which would remove many of the discrepancies of the present System. 2.1.2.2.

Transitive Action Verbs

2.1.2.2.1.

With Direct Objects

■k-k-kJck-k-kick-k-kick-k-k-k-k-kjrk-k-k-k-k-k PT 18

S

PT 19

DO

PT 2 0

S

AV

DO

S

AV

DO

AV

**************************

1.

Examples PT 18 a.

Wo mai qiche. I-sell-car I sell, cars (for a living).

b.

Ta jianguo nei ge ren. she-saw-before-that-M-person She saw that person before.

....

2 1 2 2 - 64 -

c.

Wo jiujiu shuo ta bu neng lai. I-uncle-say-he-not-can-come My uncle says he cannot come.

d.

Shei xiexie ni le? who-thanlc-you-le Who thanked you?

PT 19 a.

Chuang wo mei you, danshi wo you chuangdan. bed-I-not-have-but-I-hav.e-bed sheets I don't have a bed, but I do have sheets. / Qiu wo da, pai wo bu da. •

b.

ball-I-play-cards-I-not-play I play ball but I don't play cards. c.

- V — Ji wo. chi. chicken-I-eat I do eat chicken.

PT 20 a.

sj — y *. w Wo gangbi mei you. I-pen-not-have I don't have a pen.

b.

Ta qishui you, pijiu mei you. he-pop-have-beer-not-have He has pop but not beer.

c.

Xiao Ren qingcai bu c h i , guang chi rou. Xiao Ren-vegetable-not-eat-only-eat-meat Xiao Ren only eats meat,-not vegetables. V

. . .

2 1 2 2.1

- 65 -

2.

Remarks Patterns 18 and 19 are simple patterns for most English

speakers since they are similar to English. a little more time to get used to.

Pattern 20 takes

The object can be a simple

noun as in Examples 18(a)yand 18(b), or it can be a clause, as in Example

18(c).

[See

Chao

(1 968),

p.

126

verbs which tend to take clauses as objects.] t6

for the

object

clearly

understood

physical

contexts.

be

omitted

either An

from

through

example

of

the

for a list

of

It is possible it

is

immediate .. linguistic

or

an

sentence immediate

if

linguistic

context would be: a.

Ni youmeiyou xingli?. you-have not have-luggage Do you have any luggage?

b.

Wo me i y o u . I-not-have I don't have any.

An example of a physical context would be if you saw" someone drop a package and you went over and said: c.

Wo lai na. I-come-pick up I'll pick it up.

In Chinese, the object may be moved to a position in front of the subject

or

the verb

Patterns 19 and 20. usually occurs

for stress,

as

in the examples

This movement of the object

for

for stress

in a specific linguistic context in which the

object is the topic of the conversation.

For example,

if you

went intp a store and asked for beer, the. clerk might answer:

2.1; 2.2

-

d.

66 -

Women mei you pijiu. we-not-have-beer We don't have any beer.

or > Pijiu women mei you, keshi women you putaojiu.

e.

beer-we-not-have-but-we-have-grape wine We don't have any beer, but we have wine. Note that in Examples 19(a) and 19(b), the 0

S

V pattern may

trigger another contrastive response. When

the

object

is

moved

in

front

commonly, it is placed before the subject.

of

the

verb,

most

Such sentences may

be seen as examples of the Topic-Comment sentence (see 1.1.3). In these sentences,

the object becomes the topic and the rest

of the sentence is the comment upon that topic. There

are

at

least

four

other

instances

in

which

the

object is moved to a position in front of the verb:. f.

Wo ba zhen fang zai nar.

(See 2.5 on ba sentences.)

I-ba-needle-put-at-there I put the needle there. g.

'Wo lian yi kuai qian ye mei you. I-even-one-doliar-money-also-not-have I don't even have a dollar.

h.

vs

+

\j

+

XJ

\J

Wo shei ye mei you qing. I-who-als o'-not-have-invite I didn't invite anyone at all.

. . . . .

2 1 2 2 1 -

i.

. . . . .

2 1 2 2 2

67 -

Nx Zhongguo hua shuode hen hao. you-China-speech-say-de-very-good You speak Chinese very well.

3.

Other Discussions 1.

BC 1, p. 6 ; BC 10, p. 136; BC 14, p. 218; BC 16, p. 267.

2. 3.

SM 1, p. 3; SM 3, p. 20; SM 9, p. 83. Chao (1968), p p . 76, 127, 312, 701.

'2.1.2.2.2.

With Indirect Objects

*********************************** PT 21

S

AV

PT 22

S

AV

PT 23

S

gei

(gei) 0

gei 10

AV

10

0

10 0

*********************************** 1.

Examples a.

Wo geile ta yx kuai ga o . I-give-le-he-one-M-cake I gave him a piece of cake.

b.

Wo mai gei ta yx kuai gao. I-s^ll-to-he-one-M-cake I sold him a piece of cake.

c.

Wo maile yi kuai gao gei ta. I-sell-le-one-M-cake-to-he I sold him a piece of cake.

. . . ..

2 1 2 2 2 -

68

-

U U V> - U X ' ' Wo xiang gei ta da dianhua.

d.

I-think-to-he-make-phone call I think I'll give him a (phone) call. U \J \J - ,w > Qing ni ger ta xie x m .

e.

please-you-give-she-write-letter Please write her a letter. 2.

Discussion In a normal indirect object sentence, the indirect object

comes between the verb and the direct object. Also, in an indirect object sentence, it is most common to find the prepo­ sition gei

'to'

coming

There are basically

directly before

three kinds

the indirect object.

of verbs which

are used

in

indirect object sentences: (1 ) those which do not use g e i , (2) those which require gei and (3) those which may or may not use gei. w In the first category, verbs which do not use gei to mark the indirect object, we find such verbs as baogao 'to report,' gaosu

'to

tell,'

gei

'to

give,'

wen

answer ,' etc 4 ..

Wo yao gaosu nr yr j ian shi. I-want-tell-you-one-M-thing I want to tell you something.

b.

Wo geile ta wu kuai qian. I-give-le-he-five-M-money I gave him five dollars.

c.

Wo wenle ta hen duo wenti. I-ask-le-he-very-many-question I'asked him a lot of questions.

'to

ask,'

huida. 'to

. .. .,

2 1 2 2 2 - 69 -

In the category

of verbs which

require

gei, there

are

such

verbs as chuan 'to pass on, down , 1 j iao 'to hand over,' ji 'to mail,' mai

'to buy

for,'

mai

'to

sell,'

zu

'to

rent

out,'

etc.: d.

Ta xiang ba tade jishu chuan gei ta erntl. she-want-ba-she-'s-skill-transmit-gei-she-children She wants to pass on her skills to her children.

e.

Qing ni ba dongxi jiao gei wo. please-you-ba-thing-hand over-gei-I Please hand the things over to me.-

f.

Wo ba liang feng xin ji gei tamen le. I-take-two-M-letter-mail-gei-they-le I've mailed them the two letters.

In ,the category of verbs which may or may not use gei, there are such verbs as song

'to send, ' j ie

'to lend, ' 1 iao

'to teach,' shu 'to lose,' etc.: g.

Wo songle ta yi zhang huar. I-send-le-he-one-M-painting I sent him a painting.

h.

Wo song gei ta san ben shu. I-send-gei-she-three-M-book I sent her three books. ■

S 23.

AV

gei

10

0 is the most common form of Patterns 21-

One comment needs

the ba pattern

I object and

to be made here.

It is common to see

(see 2 .5 ) used in many cases where an indirect

object

occur

together

in

the

same

sentence;

in

fact, it-may be said that the ba pattern would be preferable ) wherever possible.

. . .

2 1 2 2.2 -

Note that in Examples

70 -

(d) and

(e) above,

xie xrn and da

dianhua consist of a verb-object compound (not all verb-object verbs can be used in this pattern, however), thus it may still be

said

that such sentences

and a direct object.

contain both an indirect object

There is' a certain amount of ambiguity

in this form of Patterns 21-23 in that gei could also be seen as the coverb gei 'for, as a favor to,' in which case, Example (d) could also be translated as for him.'

This

diate context. also

be

ambiguity

'I think I'll make

the call

is usually clarified by the imme­

While sentences with verb-object compounds can

changed

into

the form of Pattern 22,

Pattern 23 is

more commonplace: i.

Wo xiang da dianhua gei ta. I-think-make-phone call-gei-he I think I'll phone him.

j.

Qing ni xie xin gei ta-. please-you-write letter-gei-he Please write him a letter.

Note that gei is always present in this pattern regard­ less of the verb used. In addition way

to

involves

form

an

the use

to the above indirect of

such

forms,

obj'ect coverbs

there

sentence as

dui

'with' and gei 'for, as a favor to : k.

Ta dur/gen wo shuole hen duo shi. she-to/with-I-say-_le-many-thing She spoke of many things to me.l .

l.

Ta gei women shuole bushao gushi. he-gei-we-say-le-not-few-story He told us quite a few stories-

is still

in 'to,

another

Chinese. towards,'

This geri

71

Of these coverbs, gen and dui are usually only used with the verb shuo 'to tell' to make an indirect object sentence, while gei is

used

with

Patterns 21-23.

a

variety

of

verbs

functioning

as

the

Other Discussions r.

BC 14, p. 200; BC 22 , -p.■398

2.

ECC, p. 143.

3! 4.

However,

indirect

verb in indirect object sentences. 3.

those

for

Technically, what comes directly after g e i ,

gen, and dui are objects of coverbs. be seen as

including

2 , p. 11.

Chao (1 968), pp •’ 311, 316.

objects

they Can also of

the main

2 .2 .1 .1 .

2.2 -

CHAPTER II.

72 -

TYPES OF SENTENCES, ORDER OF ELEMENTS AND FUNCTION WORDS

2.2.

Questions (Interrogative Sentences)

2.2.0.

General Remarks

In

Chinese,

question tag

there

particle

questions,

are

six

questions,

(4)

negative

(2)

types

of

questions:

choice-type

questions,

questions and (6 ) intonation questions.

(1 )

questions,

(5)

question

(3) word

With the exception of

question particle questions, all of these major question types have their counterparts however,

there

may

be

in English. a

few

Within each major type,

subtypes

which

have

no

direct

English equivalent. As we shall soon see,

the$e major types seldom overlap,

as the Use of each is governed by both semantic and syntactic limits.

2.2.1.

Question Particles

Question

particle

question particle statement.

All

(ma, ne, ba, a/ya)

questions

such as ma,

n£,

are ba,

formed a/ya

these question particles

by

adding

to the end of a

except a receive

relatively higher pitch than the rest of the question. 2 .2 .1 . 1

.

ma ******************************* PT 1

Statement

ma

a

?

*******************************

a

2 .2 .1 .1 .

• - 73 -

1.

Examples a.

Ni hao ma? you-be well-ma How are you?

b.

(Are you well?)

Ta hen gao ma? he-very-be tall-ma Is he (yery) tall?

c.

Ni chi Zhongguo fan ma? you-eat-China-food-ma Do you eat Chinese food?

d.

Ni jlntian bu qu ma? you-today-not-go-ma Aren't you going today?

2.

Discussion Pattern 1 is one of the two most common ways of forming a

question in Mandarin (the other is Pattern 9, V-bu-V) .

Ques­

tions in this pattern are formed by adding the question parti­ cle ma to the end of a statement and using a relatively high intonation in the latter part of the sentence. question

is

what

is

referred

to

as

a

The resulting

"yes-no

question,"

meaning that it may be answered by simply saying, 'yes'- (shi, shlde, shi a or dulle) , 'fine, good' verb:

(h a o , xing, keyi)- or the

2 . 2 . 1 .1. 74

-

^

a.

Q:

^

N

-

X

w

Nin shi Wang Fuxiaozhang ma? you-be-Wang-vice principal-ma Are you Vice Principal Wang?

A:

b.

Q:

Shi.

Bu shl.

or

be

not-be

Yes (I am) .

No (I'm not).

Ni ai chi yuebing ma? you-love-eat-mooncake-ma Do you like to eat mooncakes?

A:

Ai chi.

Bu ai chi.

or

love-eat

not-love-eat

Yes (I do) .

No (I don't).

Pattern 1 is normally preferred over Pattern 9, V-bu-V, when the verb of the sentence, is' preceded by an adverb: c.

Nimen dou hao ma? you-all-be good-ma Are all of you well?

The implications of ma (expectations of a positive or negative response) wiTl be discussed in 2.2.1.3 below, where ma and ba are contrasted. 3.

Remarks In those instances when the question particle ma carries

no

expectation

of

either

a negative

or

an

affirmative res­

ponse , it is felt by some [A. Hashimoto (1971), p. 110] to be a contraction of bu and a and, as such,'Stands as a contracted form of the choice-type question (tee 2.2). 67,

feels

that

all

questions

-Rand (1 969), p.

formed with question particles

2 . 2 .1 .1 . -

represent a subtype 2.7).

of

75 -

the intonation question pattern

(see

This is because they all share one constant feature --

a rising intonation towards the end of the sentence. 4.

. . . .

2 2 1 2

Other Discussions 1.

BC 1 , p. 13.

2.

EC 11, p. 81. E C C , p . 1.

3. 4. 5.

Chao (1968), p. 800.

6. 7.

A. Hashimoto (1971), p. 16. Rand (1969), p . 65.

8

.

2 .2 .1 .2 .

SM 1 1 , p . 2.

Elliot (1965), p. 89. ne ■k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-kk-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k

PT 2

NP

ne

PT 3

Question

? (ne)

?

kkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk

Examples PT 2 a.

Nr he? you-ne And you?

b.

(What about you?)

Wode shu ne? I - 's-book-ne And my book?

(How about my book?)

. . . .

2 2 1 2

-

76

-

PT 3 a.

Shei jieshao ta ne? who-introduce-she-ne And who will introduce her?

b.

Ni weishenme bu qu ne? you-why-not go-ne Well, why aren't you going?

c.

Ni zenme haishi bu dong ne? •you-how-still-not-understand-ne Why is it you still do not understand?

d.

Zhang San qu n e , haishi Li Si lai ne? Zhang San-go-ne-or-Li Si-come-ne Should Zhang San go, or should Li Si come?

2.

Discussion The

question particle

ne

question

particle (ma being

commonly

used

questions

or with portions of

full

in what

sentence.

are

For example,

is

the

the most called

second most common).

abbreviated

speech which one would

are

common

It or

is

response

less

than a

find ne used

in the

following way: V;

a.

^

W

>

x

y

Wo ziji bu xiang qu.

Ni ne?

I-self-not-want-go

you-ne

I don't want to go myself. u

b.

\

v

x

x

What about you?

U

v

Wo bidei shang ke le. Wode shu ne? I-must-attend-class-lei I- 's-book-ne I have to be getting to class.

most

Where's my book?

. . . .

2 2 1 2

- 'll -

This kind of

abbreviated

question normally

follows

directly

after a statement. In addition to being able to form a question in itself, ne may also be added to the end of a sentence which is already a question.

It is frequently added to the end of questions

which are formed with such question words as weishenme 'why,' shei ' 1who , 1 shenme questions

formed

'what,' etc. with

question

(See 2.2.5 below for more on words.)

Ne

here

serves x to

express a mild dissatisfaction, as seen in Examples 3(b), (c) and (d) above. The effect is somewhat like introducing a question in English with 'and,'

'but' or 'well.'

In addition to being used with question word questions, ne is also used with choice-type questions (see Patterns 5, 6 and 7 below).

Its use here is optional.

The meaning of the

question is not affected. 3.

Remarks As mentioned under Pattern 1, Rand

that all question, particles

(1 969),

p. 67, feels

form a subtype of the intonation

question (see 2.7). Other■ Discussions 1.

BC 1, p. 11.

2.

EC 29-, p. 44.

3.

ECC, pp. 117, 211.

4.

SM 1, p. 2; SM 14, p. 137.

5.

Chao (1 968), p. 811.

6.

Hashimoto (1971), p. 16ff.

7.

Rand (1 969), p. 65.

2.2.1.3.

- 78 -

2 .2 .1.3.

ba k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k -kit-kick -kick

PT 4

S

VP

ba

?

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk

1.

Examples a.

Ni xianzai hen mang ba? you-now-very-busy-ba I suppose you are pretty busy now, aren't you?

b.

Zhang San shangxue qule ba? Zhang San-attend-school-go-le-ba I suppose Zhang San has gone to school, hasn't he?

c.

Xiao Wang bu laile ba? Xiao Wang-not-come-le-ba I suppose.Xiao Wang isn't coming (after all), is he?

2.

Discussion Ba as a question particle

is somewhat

similar

to ma

in

that it makes a yes-no question out of any statement, but ma and ba differ from each other in implication.

The use of ma

generally implies that the speaker is not sure of the state­ ment preceding the question particle ma either an affirmative or negative answer. the

other

about

the

hand,

statement

The use of ma With ba, expects

indicates

the

and

and ba speaker

that

the

is merely

also

speaker asking

contrasts

presupposes

and thus expects The use of ba, on is

for

fairly

confirmation.

in negative

the negative

a confirmative negative answer,

while,

sure

questions.

statement and with ma,

the

2. 2.1. 3. -

79 -

speaker's presupposition is just

the opposite.

For example,

in (b), the speaker's presupposition is that he is not going, while in (a), the presupposition is that he is going: a.

Ta bu qu ma? he-not-go-ma Isn't he going?

b.

(I think he is.)

Ta bu qu ba? he-not-go-ba He isn't going, I suppose?

The differences between ma and ba are summarized in the table below: TABLE 2.2.1.

3.

Differences Between Ma and Ba

In Affirmative QP Questions

In Negative QP Questions

ma

Expressing doubt and asking for clarifi­ cation

Presupposing the affirmative statement and expecting verification

ba

Presupposing the affirmative state­ ment and expecting agreement

Presupposing the negative statement and expecting agreement

Remarks Chao

(1 968),

identical to ma.

p.

808

However,

says

that

ba

may

form

questions

this is so seldom the case that it

was not mentioned above under

the Discussion.

Chao,

also suggests that ba represents a fusion of bu and a.

p.

81,

2.2.1.3.

-

4.

80 -

Other Discussions 1,

BC 2 , p . 21 .

2.

EC 37, p . 159 • E C C , p . 199.

3. 5.

SM 7., p. 6 6 . Chao (1 968) , p p . 81, 808.

6.

A. Hashimoto (1971) , p. 16 ff

7.

E. Rand (1969), p. 65.

4.

2.2.1.4.

a/ya

PT 5

S

VP

a/ja

?

*****************************

1.

Examples u

a.

u

Ni hao a? you-be good-a How are you?

b.

(Are you well?)

Shei a? who-a

.

Who is it? c

Nr bu qu a? you-not-go-a You're not going?

d.

Wo ya? I-ya Who, me?

2.2.1.4.

2.2.1.4. 81

-

2.

-

Discussion

The question particle

a/ya,

like ne,

can be used

in a

variety of ways. In Example (a) above, it functions like the question particle ba in that there is a strong expectation on the speaker's part of an affirmative reply. This particular use of a is restricted to greetings, however, and there is no real overlap with

the

question particle ba,

as ba is never

used in greetings. A/ya may also be used Example

(b)

above.

Shei

to soften a question, 'who is it'

as seen in

is already a question,

but the addition of a tones down its brusqueness and makes it less harsh

to the ear.

In such cases,

it is normally used

with short abrupt questions, as in: a.

Shenme ren a? what-person-a Who is it?

b.

Jikuai qian a? how much-M-money-a How much is it?

The question particle a/ya may also be used- in what have been called

confirmation

or

echo

questions.

These

are normally

also shorter questions and just serve to clarify or confirm an earlier statement,-as in: —

c.

Q:



>, 0

,Ta shuo shi ni. he-say'-be-you He said it was you.

A:

Wo ya? I-ya Who, me?

2. 2. 1. 4 . -

Such

questions

tend

to

be

. . ..

2 2 2 1

82 -

somewhat

exclamatory

Notice the use of ya in this example.

in

Ya is identical with a

and tends to be used in its place after open vowels "a," "e" and "o" (as in wo).

nature. such as

One further sound characteristic

of a/ya is that it. links freely with the preceding consonant or vowel, without the normal separation between words. 3.

Other Discussions 1. 2.

BC 1, p. 11. ECC

3., 4.

SM 1, p. 2. Chao (1 968), p. 803.

5. 6.

Rand (1969), pp. 68, Elliot (1965), p. 91

2.2.2.

Choice-Type (Disjunctive) Questions

While

question

disagreement

particle

between

questions

speaker

and

involve

addressee,

agreement

or

disjunctive

questions require choosing between two or more given alterna­ tives.

There are four basic types of disjunctive questions.

2.2.2.1.

haishi

■k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k'k-kicklck-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-kickickick-kick-k-kickic-kickic•k-k*-k-k-k-k*-k1ckick'k'k-fc-kic-k-k-k-kii PT 6

S

V

0-|

haishi

PT 7

S

(hai)shi

PT 8

(hai)shi Sent-j (ne) haishi Sent0 (ne) [ haishi Sent0 (ne) ]

VP^

Oq

?

(hai)shi

VPn

[ haishi

VP-, ]

(ne)

?

•^■^ii^ick-k-k-k-k-kick-k-Jrkirk-k-k-kirk-k-k-k-kick-kirk-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-kick-k-k-k-k-k-k-kick-Jck-k'k'kirk^'k-k-kirk-kirk'kb

2 .2 .2.1 .

- 83 -

Examples PT 6 a.

Ta xue Zhongguo shi haishi Meiguo shi? he-study-China-history-or-America-history Is he studying Chinese history or American history?

b.

Nr chi prngguo haishi xiangjiao? you-eat-apple-or-banana Will you have an apple or a banana?

PT 7 a.

Ta qu haishi bu'qu? she-go-or-not-go Is she going or not?

b.

Ta shi kan bao haishi kan shu, haishi kan zazhi ne? ’he-or-read-newspaper-or-read-book-or-read-magazine-ne Is he reading a newspaper, a book or a magazine?

PT 8 a.

Shi gangbi hao haishi maobi hao? or-pen-be good-or-brushpen-be good Which is better, a pen or a Chinese brush?

b.

Zuo feiji kuai haishi zuo huoche kuai? ride-plane-fast-or-ride-train-fast Is it faster to go by plane or by train?

c.

Ni gao, wo gao? you-be tall-I-be tall Am I .caller or are you taller?

2.

Discussion

While question particle questions choice-type

questions

require

are yes-no questions,

choosing

between

(but seldom more than three) given alternatives. choice-type

question would

consist

of

two

or more

A reply to a

repeating

one

of

the

choices offered in the question: a.

Nr xihuan chi Zhongcan haishi xihuan chi Xican?

Q:

you-like-eat-China-food-or-like-eat-West-food Which do you like to eat, Chinese or Western food (Wo xihuan chi) Zhongcan.

A:

(I-like-eat)-China-food (I like to eat) Chinese food. b.

Q:

Shi ni gao haishi wo gao? or-you-be tall-or-I-be tall Are you taller-or am I? Wo gao.

A: *

I-be tall I am taller. c.

Shi ni gao haishi ta gao?

Q:

or-you-be tall-or-he-be tall Are you taller or is he? A:

Haishi wo gao. still-I-be tall I'm still taller (I am the tallest of the three).

Choice-type means

that

questions the

speaker

are

neutral

is not

in

presupposition,

expecting

answer, either affirmative or negative.

any

one

which

particular

2 . 2 . 2 . 1 .’ -

. . . .

2 2 2 2

85 -

In actual use, the optional ne is commonly omitted, as is the hai- in

the

first

occurrence

(see Example (b)Q above).

of haishi

in the sentence

In its most abbreviated form, as in

Example 8(c) above, both ne and, haishi may be omitted. last

form

is

used

infrequently,

and

then only with

sentences. 3.

Other Discussions 1.

BC 7, p. 78; BC 8, p. 96.

2.

EC 19, p. 183.

3. 4.

ECC, p. 269. SM 2, p. 13; SM 4, p. 36; SM 14, p. 136.

5.

Chao (1 968), p. 266.

6.

A. Hashimoto (1971), pp. 109ff.

7.

Rand (1969), pp. 33ff.

8.

Elliot (1965), p. 84ff.

2.2.2.2 . A-not-A ■kkk k k k k k k k k k k k k -k k k k k k k k k -k k k k k k k k k jc k k k

(A-not-A)

V

PT 9

V

bu

PT 10

S

V

bu

PT 1 1

S

V

0

PT 12

S

V

bu

PT 13

,S

0

V

PT 14

A

Aux

(V) bu

(V)

V

0

bu

V

bu

Aux

0

VP

*************************************

This

shorter

2.2.2.2.

-

87 -

PT 14 a.

U

W

— \ u



-V



Ni xihuanbuxihuan changge? you-like not like-sing-song Do you like to sing?

2.

Discussion Questions

formed

with

Patterns

9-14

listed

above

are

normally limited to sentences about the present or future. These patterns are not used to form questions about the past or completed completed

events.

event

(See

2.2.2.3

questions.)

and

Patterns

2.2.2.4 9-14

below

form

for

neutral

questions, which means there is no expectation on the part of the speaker of either an affirmative or negative reply. V bu V questions

are still considered to be choice-type

questions, but the choice here is limited to something and its negative.

The

haishi

choice-type

questions

seen

above

Patterns 6-8 include a variety of things to choose from: referent

of

the

subject,

the

only

verb,

the

the

etc.

In

its negative

form

Patterns 9-14,

however,

are involved:

the subject, verb, object, etc. do not change.

Thus, while with Patterns 'who,' 'what,'

the verb and

object,

in

6-8 one can ask such questions

as

'where' and 'when', with the V bu V pattern one

can only ask whether the action

(or state) does or will take

place. When there is no object in. the sentence,

the pattern is

very simple and can be used with either action verbs or state verbs: a.

Ta gaoxingbugaoxing? she-be happy-not be happy Is she happy?

2 . 2 . 2 . 2,

b.

88

-

Lx Si laibulai? w

' S

Li Si-come not come Is Li Si coming? c.

Tamen maibumai? they'-sell not sell Do they sell (it)?

When

there

Will they sell?

is an object .present,

there are two ways of

forming a question using Patterns 9-14: d.

Ni pabupa gou? you-fear not fear-dog Are you afraid of dogs?

e.

Ni pagou bu pa? you-fear dog-not-fear Are you afraid of dogs?

There is no difference

in meaning here between the two

of the question and neither is preferred over the other, an object is present in a sentence, it may be moved to a tion in front of the verb for emphasis: f.

Ni Zhongguo.fan chibuchi? you-China food-eat not eat Do you eat Chinese food? mm

g.

^

^

W



+



Zhongguo fan ni chibuchi? China food-you-eat not eat Do you eat Chinese food?

main verb:

2 . 2 . 2 .% .

89

h.

Ni yaobuyao qu? you-want not want-go Do you want to go?

i.

Nr genbugen ta jie qian? you-from not from-he-borrow-money Do you want to borrow money from him?

If the

auxiliary

verb

is

disyllabic

(two

syllables) , the

second syllable may or may not be repeated in the question: j.

Nr yinggaibuyinggai gaosu ta? you-should not should-tell-he Should you tell him? v-*

k.

Ni yingbuyinggai gaosu ta? you-should not should-tell-he Should you tell him?

While the V bu V question form cannot refer to the past with verbs, it can with auxiliary verbs: \J

l.

\J

+

W

s

W





+

SJ

Ni yiqian xibuxihuan chi huotui? you-before-like not like-'eat-ham Did you like to eat ham before?

In many cases, the time-reference of the question is dependent solely upon context

since

it may be phrased

in exactly

same way for past, present or future: m.

Nr kenbuken zuo? you-willing not will’ing-do Were you willing to do it? Are you willing to do it^ Would you be willing to do it (in future)?

the

2 . 2 . 2.2

- 90 -

When adverbs appear in a sentence, the V bu V pattern is still used with just the verb alone: n.

Ni hai qubuqu? you-still-go not go Are you still going?

As previously mentioned

(see 2.2.1.1), when an adverb appears

before

of

the

main

verb

preferred to V'bu V.

the

-question,

Nimen dou hen mang ma? you-all-very-be1busy-ma Are you all. (very) busy?

p.

Wo shuode tai kuaile ma? I-speak-de-too-fast-le-ma Am I speaking too fast?

3.

1

ma

is

This is especially true of the adverbs

hen, tai and dou: o.

Pattern

Other Discussions 1.

BC 2, p. 17.

2. 3.

EC 15, p,. 126. ECC, p. 22.

4. 5.

SM 1 , p . 4.. Chao (1 968), p p . 68, 269, 734

6. 7.

A. Hashimoto (1971), p p . 71 ,

8.

Elliot (1965), p. 84ff.

Rand (1969), p. 55ff •

2.2.

-

2.2.3.

91

-

shibushi

****************************************** PT 15

N1

shibushi • N2

PT 16

N1

shi

PT 17

S

shibushi

PT 18

S

shi

PT 19

shibushi

PT 20

shi

S

N2

bushi VP bushi

VP S VP

(n 2)

(VP)

VP bushi

(S

VP)

****************************************** Examples PT 15 a.

Ta shibushi Feizhou ren? he-be not be-Africa-person Is he African?

b.

Nr s“hibushi Ma Jiaolian? you-be not be-Ma-coach Are you Coach Ma?

PT 16 a.

Zhei tiao kuzi shl nide bu shl? this-M-pants-be you - 's-not-be Are these pants yours?

b.

x . W N W ^ N Neizhi xiao huamao shi nide bu shi? that-M-littie-calico cat-you-'s-not-be Is that calico kitten yours?

2.2.2.3.

-

92 -

PT 17 \

\J

a.

\

u

«

\

Ni shibushi hen gaoxing? you-be not be-very-be happy Are you happy?

(Is it the case that you are happy?)

PT 18 a.

Ni shi m m g t i a n qu youyong bu shi? you-be-tomorrow-go-swim-not-be Are you going swimming tomorrow?

PT 19 a.

Shibushi Faguo ren dou hen gao? be not be-France-person-all-very-be tall Is it true that all French people are tall?

PT 20 a.

Shi Zhongguo ren dou yong kuaizi chi fan bu shi? be-China-person-all-use-chops tick-eat-food-not-be Is it (the case) that all Chinese eat with chopsticks?

2.

Discussion The equative verb shi (see 2.1.2 above for more on equa-

tive verb sentences) is also used in the V bu V question form, as seen in Patterns 15 and 16. In some cases, however, shi functions as a state verb with the meaning 'to be true, to be th case' as in Patterns 17-20 (see 2.2.3 below for another instance of shi used as a state verb). There is a difference between questions formed with sh\ as a state verb and most other V bu V type questions. As we saw above, V bti. V ques­ tions

are

normally

neutral

in

nature,

i.e.,

carrying

no'

expectation of either an affirmative or a negative response. In

Patterns

17-20,

however,

there

is

normally

a

expectation that the response will affirm the statement.

strong

2.2*2.3.

-

93

- 2.2.2.4.

-

The shlbushi construction functions almost identically to other V bu V constructions. to 16; in addition,

Pattern 15 is normally preferred

Pattern 15 can also be used for past or

completed events: a.

Ta shlbushr zuotian daole? he-be not be-vesterday-arrive-le Did he arrive yesterday?

3.

Other Discussions 1.

BC 2, p. 17.

2.

EC 67, p. 137.

3.

ECC, p. 22, 39, 282.1 SM 4, P- 36 •

4. 2.2.2.4.

youmeiyou ******************************************* PT 21

S

PT 22

S

U > V youmeiyou 0 W #, V you 0 meryou

PT 23

S

youmeiyou

PT 24

S

VP

PT 25

youmeiyou

PT 26

you

Asp

S

VP

V

(Asp)

(0)

meiyou S

VP

Asp

meiyou

******************************************* 1.

Examples PT 21 a.

V

u

#

v

\J

Ni youmeiyou zhi? you-have npt have-paper Do you have any paper?

>. . .

2 2 2 4

-

SJ

b.



x

V

94

# ’ w

#

Ni shenshang youmeiyou qian? you-body on-have not have-money Do you have any money on you?

PT 22 a.

Ni you shijian mei you? you 7 have-time-not-have Do you have some time?

PT 23 a.

Ta youmeiyou qu? he-have not have-go Did he go?

b.

Ni iyoumeiyou kanguo nei zhang youhuar? you-have not have-see-guo-that-M-oil painting Have you s,een that oil painting (before)?

PT 24 a.

Ta quguole Yindu mei you? she-go-guo-le-India-not-have Has she ever been to India?

b.

Ni maile qiche mei you? you-buy-le-car-not-have Have you bought a car?

PT 25 a.

Youmeiyou ren yao qu? there be not there be-person-want-go Is there anyone who wants to go?

2 . 2.. 2 .4 . - 95 -

PT 26 a.

You ren qule mei you? there be-man-go-le-not there be Did anyone go?

2.

Discussion The verb you ('to

verb in

the V

bu

22(b) and 23(c)

have') can function like anyother main

V construction,

in Examples

21 (a) and

above;

however, you is unique among Chinese

verbs in that it alone present. Other verbs

takes the negative particle mei in the take the negative particle bu in the

present. Mei is also the negative marker for completed action (mei/ pao 'have not run, did not run'). If mei ‘is followed by a verb other than the possessive verb y o u , it puts that verb in a past marker).

or

completed

context

(see

3.6.3

on

mei

as

aspect

As mentioned above, the V bu V question construction

normally is used

for present or future events.

If the con­

struction youm£iyou is used in place of V bu V, however, question

then normally

refers

to

past

or

completed

Observe the following examples a.

«

N -*

>

Ni qubuqu? you-go not go Are you going?

b.

U

N

#

W

Ni qule mei you? you-go-le-not-have Did you go?

c.

Ni maibumai nei srraang xiezi? you-buy not buy-that-M (pair)-shoe Are you going to buy that pair of shoes?

the

events.

«Ni

2 .2 .2 .4 . d.

96

-

Ni maile n M s h u a n g xlezi meiyou? You-buy-le-that-M-shoe-not have? Did you buy that pair of shoes?

There are basically two different forms of the youmeiyou question form.

These are seen in (23) a and b; (2^) a and b;

and the Discussion examples b and d above.

Neither form is

preferred over the other (see Remarks below) and there is no difference in meaning between the two.

In Pattern (23)» the

aspect marker le is not used, but the aspect marker guo ( 'to have done something before') is used if appropriate. e.

Ta you'meiyou qu?

(not appropriate)

She-have no.t have-go? Did she go? f.

Ni youmeiyou k&nguo wode shu?

(appropriate)

You-have not have-see-guo-I-'s-book? Have you read my book before? At least one aspect marker must be used with Pattern (2^)s g.

Tamen zoule meiyou? They-leave-le-not have? Did they leave?

h.

Ni quguole meiyou? You-go-guo-le-not have? Did you go?

The responses to a youmeiyou question are varied.

With Pattern

(2 3 ), a common negative reply would be meiyou ('did not'). In the affirmative, one can say you ('did'), but usually one should use all or part of the original sentences

2.2.2.4.

-

i.

Q:

97

-

Ta youmeiyou qu? he-have not have-go

A:

Meiyou.

(negative)

Ta mei(you) qu. not have he-not (have)-go No. He didn't go. A:

Qule.

(affirmative)

go-le (He) went. With Pattern 24 (S VP Asp mei you) , the most common negative reply would again be mei you 'did not,' while the usual affir­ mative reply would use part or all of the original sentence:v

j.

Q:

Ta zdule mei you? she-leave-le-not-have Has she left yet?

A:

Mei you.

(negative)

not-have N o , (she hasn't). A:

(Ta) zoule. (she)-leave-le

(affirmative)

Yes, she left. The youmeiyou question form can only be used with state verbs if

the aspect marker

le is

there

to indicate changed

status (see 2.1.1.3 above and 3.6.3.1.1 on le).

..

2 2 2.4 98

k.

-

Ta pangle mei you? he-fat^le-not-have Did he get fat?

The youmeiyou question form is not used with auxiliary verbs because, as noted above under Patterns 8 - 1 3 ,

auxiliary verbs

cannot take ajpast tense. As also, discussed above (see 2.1.1.1.2), the verb you can v.

also function as an existential verb sentences,

the

youmeiyou

'there is/are.'

construction

can

In such

indicate

past,

present or future tense, depending oh the context: l.

Zuotian youmeiyou ren lai kan wo? yesterday-there be not there be-person-come-see-I Did anyone come to see me yesterday?

m.

Xianzai youmeiyou ren deng wo? not-there be not there be-person-wait for-I Is anyone waiting for me (now)?

n.

Mingtian youmeiyou shiqing yao zuo? tomorrow-there be not there be-business-must-do Will there be anything that has to be done tomorrow?

3.

Remarks Y.

R.

youmeiyou

Chao VP

(1 968),

question

Southern dialects.

p.

form

This

669, has

has

pointed

entered

out

that

the

Mandarin

from

the

form is still unacceptable

to many

Mandarin speakers and the form VP le mei you is preferred.

2.2.2.4.

-

4.

- 2.2.3.

99

Other Discussions 1.

BC 13, p. 188.

2. 3.

EC 15, p. 126. E C G , p. 124ff.

4. 5.

SM 2, p. 14; SM 11, p. 102. Chao (1968), p. 669, 726.

6.

Rand (1971), p . 58ff.

2.2.3.

Tag Questions (dulbudui, haobuhao, xingbuxing, etc.)

************************************** PT 27

Sentence

Tag-Question

*********************■*"*•***■*"*■**********

1.

Examples \J

a.

j g t

mm

^

V

X

W

Women mingtian qu, haobuhao? we-tomorrow-go-good not good We'll go tomorrow, okay?

b.

Ni ,shi Deguo n e n , duibudul? you-be-Germany-person-right not right You are German, right?

2.

Discussion Tag questions are formed by placing one of .a number of V

bu V or V ma expressions at the end of a statement. common of these expressions are:

The most

2.2.3.

-

100

-

duibudui

'right;

shibushi

'true?'

(EC 53 »' P . 81; ECC, p. 282)

haobuhao

'okay?-'

haoma

'okay?'

(SM 3, P- 19; BC 5, p. 56) (BC 5, P- 56)

xingbuxing

'okay?'

(SM 7, P- 63)

chengbucheng

'okay?'

keyibukeyi

'alright?'

keyima

'alright?'

Questions

(BC 5, P- 56) (BC 5, P- 56)

formed with duibudui and shibushi have a very

strong expectation of an affirmative reply and are frequently rhetorical.

Questions formed with the other expressions tend

to be neutral and carry no expectation of either a negative or an

affirmative

state verbs.

reply.

Note

that

they

are

all

formed

with

Be careful not to confuse a tag question with a

regular V bu V question: a.

Ta gen women yikuar qu, xingbuxing?

(tag question)

she-with-we-together-go-alright not alright Is is alright if she goes with us?

b‘ .

Tade jihua xingbuxing?

(V bu V question)

h e - 's-plan-alright not alright Is his plan alright? 3.

Remarks This pattern is not really treated in any of the language

textbooks as a question pattern. . The expressions used in this pattern are usually .introduced with no explanation. 4.

Other Discussions 1.

Rand (1971), p. 56ff.

2 . 2.4

101

-

2.4.

-

Negative Questions ****************************************** PT 28

S

PT 29

bu/mei

bush!

PT 30

S

V

QP

Sent

ma

bu/mei

V

Tag-Question

****************************************** Examples PT 28 a.

Ni bu qu ma? you-not-go-ma You're not going?

b.

Ni bu qu ba? you-not-go-ba You're not going, are you?

c.

Ni bu gei wo ya? you-not-give-I-ya Oh, aren't you going to give it to me?

PT 29 ^

a.

^

^

^

^

^

^

Bu shi xiaohaizi \ dou. hen ke ai ma? o not-be-small child-all-very-cute-ma Isn't it true that all children are cute?

b.

Bu shi Hunan ren dou xihuan chi la de ma? not-be-Hunan-person-all-like-eat-hote-de-ma Isn't it true that Hunan people like to eat hot food?

2 . 2 .4 . -

102

PT 30 a.

Ni bu qu, durbudui? you-not-go-right not right You aren't going, right?

2.

Discussion Negative

questions

in

Chinese

certain question particles tion.

(ma,

can

only

be

ba and a/ya)

formed

with

or a tag ques­

In Pattern 27 above, we see the most common form of the

negative

question,

in

which

the

verb

of

the

sentence

is

negated by either bu .or mei (see 3.7) and a question particle is added to the end of the sentence. The use of question particles with negative questions was discussed above (2.2.1) under each question particle, but for convenience, we will review the pertinent parts of the' earlier discussion here. Negative questions with the-question particle ma normally, show a strong expectation on the part of the speaker that the reply will confirm the negative proposition, as in (a) below: Ni bu qu ma? you-not-go-ma You're not going? \

w

^

X

Dui, wo bu qu. correct-I-not-go Right, I'm not going.

2 . 2 .4 . -

b.

0:

103 -

Ni bu shi xiaotou ba? you-not-be-burglar-ba I take it you're not a burglar?

A:

Wo dangran bu shl. I-of course-not-be Of course I'm not.

With the question particle ba, there is a similar expectation, but even stronger, as in Example (b) . The question particle a/ya, when used with a negative question, forms what we referred to above as a confirmation or echo question,' a

question

meant

to' clarify

or

confirm

an

earlier statement: c.

Q:

Wo bu gei ni qian. I-not-give-you-money I w o n ’t give you any money.

A:

Ni bu gei wo ya? you-not-give-I-ya So you won't give me any?

The use of a/ya is optional for the purpose of asking a ques­ tion, since this is already indicated by rising intonation in the latter part of the sentence (see 2.2,7 below on intonation questions). Negative

Such questions are usually exclamatory in nature. questions

are

also

formed

using

Here bush!. ♦ .ma forms a rhetorical question: d.

Bu shi n L z i j i shuo de ma? not-be-you self-say-de-ma: Didn't you say so yourself?

Pattern

28.

2 . 2 .4 . 104

-

2 . 2.5

-

A similar rhetorical question may also be formed by placing shibushi

at

the

front

of

to

form

the

sentence

(see

2.2.3

above

on

shibushi) . A

third

way

negative

questions

is

by

simply

adding a tag question to a negative sentence: e.

Ni bu qu, duibudui? you-not-go-right not right You're not going, right?

3.

Other Discussions1 2 1.

EC 48, p. 81; EC 61, p. 35

2.

ECC, p. 202.

2.2.5. 1.

Question Words ('what,' 'who,' 'why,' etc.)

General Remarns One

of

the

most

common

ways

to

form

a

question

in

Chinese, and the one way most familiar to English speakers, is by using a question word. Question words ask such things as 'who,' word

'why,'

is meant

what was

'when,* and 'what.' to ^be replaced

being asked.

As in English, the question

in the reply by

However,

whereas

the answer

to

in English the word

order of a question is different from its reply

(cf.

"Where

are you going?"/"I am going to the beach."), word order for Chinese questions and replies generally remains the same:

2 . 2 .5 . -

a.

Q:

105 -

Ni dao nar qu? you-to-where-go Where are you going?

A:

Wo dao ta jia qq. I-to-he-house-go I'm going to his house.

b.

Q:

Ni xuexi shenme? you-study-what What are you studying?

i

A:

Wo xuexi gongke. I-study-engineering I'm studying engineering.

c.

Q:

Shei shi women de tuanzhang? who-be-we-'s-group leader Who is our group leader?

A:

Zhang Dawei shi women tuauvzhang. Zhang Dawei-be-we-group leader Zhang Dawei is our group" leader.

The exception to this order is when the Chinese question word asked the

'why'

normal

statement

(he b i , ganma, weishenme1, etcl). pattern

(minus

the

for

a

reply

question

would

word)

beginning with yinwei 'because':

and

In such cases,

be then

to

repeat

add

a

the

clause

2 . 2 .5 . 106

-

d.

Q:

-

w \ ^ > x Women weishenme yao qu ne? we-why-must-go-ne Why do we have to go?

A:

(Nimen yao qu) yinwei ta hen xiang kan nimen. (you-must-go)-because-he-very-want-see-you (You must go) because he wants to see you very much

Grammatically,

a question

word

can

replace

and

function

as

nearly any part of speech in a sentence, with the exception of verbs.

For

example,

subject, 'direct object, time,

place,

cause,

a

question

word

indirect object

etc.,

and

occur

could and

in

replace

even

the

adverbs

same

the of

sentence

position as the part of speech which is replaced. e.

Shei yao qu?

(Subject)

who-want-go Who wants to go? f.

Ta gei ni shenme?

(Direct Object)

he-give-you-what What did he give you? g.

Ni ba nei zhi ji gei-shei?

(Indirect Object)

you-ba-that-M-chicken-give-who To whom are you giving that chicken? h.

Ni shenme shihour qu?

(Adverb of Time)

you-what-time-go When are you going? Sfnce question words simply replace already existing sentence pafts, one cannot really speak of question word patterns, but only of how question words adapt to other patterns.

. . .

2 2 5

2.

107

-

Discussion There are a number

most

commonly

used

ones

of question words are

listed

in

In Chinese.

the reference

The chart

below: Table 2.2.5:

QW

English

duo (me)

how SV

duoshao

how many

ganma

why/do what

hebi

why must

w ji '

how many

nar/nali

Common Question Words

BC 8 ,p .101

3 ,p.33



EC

ECC





1 7 ,p.89





p .21

SM 12,p.108; 15,p.141 4,p .28



---





3 ,p .33

17,p.89

p .21

3 ,p. 17

where

5.P.47

25,p.151

p .58

8 ,p .71

which

3,p.24

25,p.151

p .56

3.P-17

( nei/nayi shei/shui

who/whom

5 ,p.48

25,p.151

p .57

1 ,P*2

shenme (N)

what

3,p.33

21 ,p.120

p .26 p .54

1% P •2

_x + weishenme

why

17,p.274

4 0 ,p.36

p .195

8,p.71

9,p .105

44,p.79

p .195

10 ,p.89

17,p.275

25,p.151

p .59

18 ,p.171

zenme (le)

^ X zenmeyang

how/how come how about it/how

2.2.5.1.

-

2.2.5.1.

108

2.2.5.2.

-

du o (m e)

Duo(me)

is

an adverbial

only with status verbs.

question

word

which

functions

It is used to ask questions involving

degree: a.

Nx duo(me) gao? you-how-be tall How tall are you?

b.

Nx jia lx wo jia you duome yuan? you-house-from-I-house-have-how-far How far is your house from mine?

The me is frequently omitted.

2.2.5.2.

duoshao (jx)

Duoshao 'how much, many' is % quantitative question word which is used.to ask questions involving numbersa.

Nx yao duoshao qian? you-want-how much-money How much money do you want?

b.

Waimian you duoshao ren? outside-have-how many-person How many people are there outside?

There is another question word, jjx 'how much, many,' which has the same meaning as duoshao, but the two are used differently. First of all, ten, while

duoshao

suggests

a large number,

suggests less than ten:

usually over

2.2.5.2 .

-

c.

109

-

Ni you jr ge haizi? you-have-how many-M-chiId How many children do you have?

d.

Nei ge xiyuan neng zuo duoshao ren? that-M-theater-can-sit-how many-person How many people can that theater seat?

Secondly,

duoshao

never

stands

before

a measure

word

(see

1.1.4 and 4.0.5 on measure words), while j_i normally does: e.

Ni you duoshao qian? you-have-how much-money How much money do.you have?

f.

Nr you ji kuai qian? you-have-how many-M-money How much money do you have?

Note that Example

(e)

assumes

a large amount of money while

Example 9(f) assumes less than ten dollars. Thirdly,

ordinal sense of 'which day --u month,' 'which month/hour,' etc., only j_i is used: g.

in

the

Jintian j i hao? today-how many-number What day of the month is today?

h.

Xianzai ji dian zhong le? now-how many-M-o'clock-le What time is it now?

of

the

. ...

2 . 2 .5 . 3 . 110

-

2.2.5.3. The

meanings

-

ganm a question

ganma

'why'/'do

some speakers substandard.

nowadays, although therefore

2 2 5 4

somewhat

'in

such, a s :

order

what'

consider It has

to

is

widely

used

it •dialectal and several extended

do what,'

'what

for'

and

'why': a.

Ni ganma? you-do what What are you up to?

b.

Ni ganma lao ku? ♦ you-do what-always-cry Why are you always crying?

Ganma is generally very brusque and thus potentially impolite. It often carries a tone of annoyance.

It is therefore usually

restricted to use between familiars. 2.2.5.4. H£bi which

hebi 'why must'

services

to

is often used

express

a

together with a final ne

slight

dissatisfaction

given proposition or situation (see 2.2.1.2 above): a.

W

# X

>

Women hebi qu ne? we-why must-go-ne Why do we have to go? y

b.

^

X

X

X

v

X

Ni hebi zhei yang xiaoqi? you-why must-this-fashion-stingy Why must you be so stingy?

with

a

2. 2. 5 . 5 .

2 -2 . 5 . 6 .

Ill

..

2 2 5.5

.

Ji

j_i

'how

much, —

many'

was

discussed

in

detail

above,

\ j

together with duoshao (see 2.2.5.2). 2.2.5.6.

nar/nali

Nar/nali 'where' is a question word used to ask questions of location: a.

Ta zai nar? he-be at-where Where is he?

b.

Ni shi zai nali zhangda de? you-be-at-where-grow up-de Where was it that you grew up?

Nar is

more

Beijing

area,

frequently while

nali

used is

by used

Chinese by

difference in meaning between the two. question

'where'

is

to use

speakers

others.

from

There

the

is no

Another way-to ask the

the question word

shenme

'what'

(see 2.2.5.9 below) together with the noun difang 'place': c.

Ta zai shenme difang? she-be at-what-place Where is she?

There is no difference in meaning between nar/nali and shenme difang. o

^

V

4

N^r/nali may also be used as an adverbial question word in the extended sense of 'how' d.

(literally,

'from where'):

Nar you ren neng xuede name kuai? where-there be-person-can-learn-de-that-fast How could anyone learn so fast?

2 . 2 . 5 .8 .

2 . 2. 5 . 6.

-

e.



x

yj

w

112

-

x

Ta nar hui dong zhei ge? he-where-be able-understand-this-M How could he understand this?

Such %questions

are

normally

rhetorical

with

an

anticipated

negative 'reply. Nar/nali, in this extended sense of O

in the two polite expressions

'how,' "V

is also used ^

"Nar de hua" and "N a l i ."

Both

expressions are used in polite reply to compliments and mean approximately

"How

can

you

say

that?",

in

the

English

idiomatic sense of "Oh, not at all." 2.2.5.7.

nei/na(yi)

Nei/na(yi)

'which' is a question word used to ask demon­

strative questionsr a.

Ni yao kan nei yi bpn shu? • you-want-see-which-one-M-book Which book do you want to see? -x

\j

b.

w

x

w

Nei ge fanguar zui hao? which-M-restaurant-most good Which restaurant is the best?

2.2.5.8.

shei/shui

Shei/shui

is

questions 'who,' a.

an

interrogative

'whom,' and 'whose':

Ni shi shui a? you-be-who-a Who are you?

pronoun

used

to

ask

the

2.2.5.8 . - 2.2.5.10. - 113 -

Shei yao gen wo yikuar qu?

b.

who-want-with-I-together-go Who wants to go with me? \ \ % V ^ Zhei ge yao songgei shei?

c.

this-M-must-send to-who To whom should this be sent? Shui has been referred to as the more formal variant of shei [Chao

(1968),

p.

651];

however,

it

seems

to

be

gaining

currency in daily usage in the People's Republic of China and appears in the textbooks published there shenme

2.2.5.9.

question word

The

shenme

is

used

to

ask

the

question

It can be used by itself or together with a noun:

'what.' a,.

Ni kan shenme? , you-look-what What are you looking at?

b.

Ni yao shenmeyang de shu? you-want-what-kind-de-book What kind of book do you want?

c.

Ta shi shenme ren? he-be-what-person Who is he? '

2.2.5.10.

weishenme

Weishenme is an adverbial'question word which asks 'why.' Wei

means

'for

the

sake

of'

and

literal -translation of the term is seen

above,

there

are

two

other

shenme

means

'for what question

'what.'

(reason).'

words

(ganma

A As and

dppj H

2.2.5.10.

114

-

hebl) which

may

be

used

used in with

'why'

it any

.the

is the question word

questions. special

-

in ■ approximately

weishenme, but weishenme

2.2.5.11.

same most

way

as

commonly

Normally, weishenme does not carry

denotation,

as

do

hebi

and

Ranma.

As

mentioned in the opening remarks to the question word section, the word order of a

'why'

question in Chinese

is changed

in

the reply: a.

Q:

Nr weishenme ai ta? you-why-love-she Why do you love her? W X

A:





-

w

w

. ^

Wo ai ta yinwei ta hen youqian, I-love-she-because-she-very-rich I love her because she is rich.

Weishenme

questions

may

also

(see 2.2.1.2 above on ne) .

take

the

question

particle

ne

,Thi's final ne may either express

a slight dissatisfaction or signal a rhetorical question: b.

Ni weishenme bu qu ne?

(dissatisfaction)

you-why-not-go-ne Why aren't you going? c.

Wo weishenme bu qu ne?

(rhetorical)

I-why-no t-go-ne And why am I not going? 2.2.5.11.

zenme(le)

Zenme(le) is an adverbial question word used in questions asking 'how (to)' or 'how come (why)': a.

\,

>

w

tv

Zhei ge zi zenme xie? this-M-character-how-write How do you write this character?

2.2.5.11. - 2.2.5.12.

b.

Yingwen zenme shuo "Srrenbang"? English-how-say-"Four-person-gang"

I

How do you say "Sirenbang" ('Gang of Four') in English? -

c.

u

-

#

n

U

Ta zenme huran jiu zoule? she-how-suddenly-;] us t- leave-le Why did she leave so suddenly?

u When zenme is used in the sense of 'why,' it carries with it a tone of surprise, as if the speaker had not expected something to happen. The question word zenmele is an expression meaning is the matter?'

'What

It can be used by itself or with a simple '' i

subject: d.

w Zenmele? how-le What's the matter?

If e.



u

Ta zenmele? he-how-le What's the matter with him?

2.2.5.12.

zenmeyang

'\J

'N Zenmeyang can function in three ways.

First of all,

it

can function as an adverbial question word in trhd' same manner as zenme 'how' : a.

Ni zeiimeyang zhidao? you-how fashion-know How do you know?

Secondly, it can be used to ask the question,

'how is it?':

- 2 . 2. 6.

2.2.5.12.

116

-

b.

-

Nei ben zazhi zenmeyang? that-M-magazine-how fashion How is that magazine?

c.

Ta shuode zenmeyang? he-speak-de-how fashion How did he speak?

Thirdly,

(How does he speak?)

it is used as an expression meaning

'how about it?'

or 'what do you think about it?'• d.

Such

Ta yao mingtian dai ni qu kan dianying.

Zenmeyang?

he-want-tomorrow-take-you-go-watch-movie

how-fashion

He wants to take you to a movie tomorrow.

How about i

questions

are

similar

to

the

tag

questions

discussed

above in 2.2.3. 3.

Other Discussions 1.

Chao (1 968), pp.-651ff, 580.

2.

Rand (1971), p. 70ff.

3.

Elliott (1965), p. 60.

2.2.6. 1.

Extended Uses of Question Words (Indefinites)

Discussion Question

question. they

can

are:

do

not

always

make

a

sentence

into a

For, in addition to functioning as a question word, also

'anything,' Some

words

function

as

indefinite

pronouns

('someone,;

'somewhere,' etc.).

examples

of question words

as

indefinite

pronouns

. . .

2 2 6

-

a.

117

-

Wo bu zhidao shei shl shei. I-not know-who-be-who. I do not know who is w h o .

b.

Wo yao mai ji ben shu. I-want-buy-several-M-book I want to buy a few books.

c.



v

+

-

w

^ #

Ta mei you duojiu jiu huilaile. she-not have-how long-just-come back-le She returned before too long.

Note that when used in this way, question words take•a neutral tone. Some

question

words

functioning

as

indefinites, (shei,

nar, shenme) are often used together with dou/ye in the sense of 'none',

'all,' -'nowhere' and 'anywhere.' ■k-k-k-k-k-kirkick-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-kidrk-k'k-kick-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-kirk-k-k

PT 31

S

QW-dou/ye

(bu/mei)

VP

•k-k-k-k-k-k-k-kick-k-k'k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k'k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k

1.

Examples a.

Nar dou key!. where-all-permissible Anywhere is fine.

b.

v

^



x

v

Wo shei dou bu qing. I-who-all-not-invite I'm not inviting anyone at all.

c.

Wo shenme ye mei zuo. I-what-also-not-do I didn't do anything at all.

2.2.6.

-

2.

118 "

Discussion When used with dou/ye, the question words normally retain

their original tone.

Dou is preferred in present/future tense

sentences, while either dou or ye can be used

in past

tense

-

(completed action)

sentences.

u

Note also that when dou/ye is

used, the object is always moved to a position in front of the verb. When strong

questions

emphasis

exclusiveness: Without

words

placed

are

on

the

'’all' or 'none'

dou/ye, 'there

is

used

no

with

sense

of

dou/ye,

there

is

inclusiy#ness

or

(each and everyone/not a one). such

emphasis.

Compare

the

following pairs: V

a.

^



V• V

Wo shei.. dou bu qingv I-who-all-not-invite I'm n,ot inviting anyone at all. u

b.

\

V

#

/

Wo bu qing shei. I-not-invite-who I'm not inviting anyone (in particular).

c.

Wo shenme dou bu yao chi. I-what-all-not-want-eat I don't want to eat anything at all.

d.

Wo bu yao chi shenme.. I-not-want-eat-what I don't want anything (much) to eat.

Pattern

32

is related

to Pattern 31

in that

it uses

either

question words or choice-type questions (see 2 .2 . 2 above).

2.2.6.

119 ********************************************************************** VP^

S

dou/ye

VP ^

PT 32

bu guan/bu lun/wu lun

QW

PT 33

bu guan/bu lun/wu lun

Choice-type Question-S

dou/ye

V

**********************************************************************.

1.

Examples PT 32 a.

Bu guan shei qing wo, wo dou bu qu. not-care-who-ask-I-I-all-not-go No matter who asks me, I won't go. ^

b.

\



\

v »



\

W

Bu lun duome da, wo dou bu mai. not-discuss-how-big-I-all-not-buy

c.

it

No matter how big it is, I'won't buy it. Wu lun ruhe, ni dou dei nian daxue. not-diseuss-like how-you-al 1 -must-study-university No matter what, you have to go to the university. PT 33 a.

Bu> lun guibugul, wo' dou yao. not-discuss-expensive not expensive-I-all-want I want it, no matter what the price.

b.

Bu guan ni qubuqu, wo dou qu. not-care-you-go not go-I-all-go I'm going no- matter whether you go or not. —

Notice that in these two patterns, Bu guan is more commonly used or wu lun.

dou is preferable

u

to y e .

in everyday speech than bu lun

When wu lun appears in everyday speech, it is most

< 2. 2. 6.

-

likely to co-occur with ruhe It occurs more

frequently

2 . 2. 7,

-

120 -

'no matter what,'

as

in 32(c).

in writing and formal speech.

Bu

lun is the colloquial counterpart of wu lun. Other Discussions 1.

BC 16, p. 267.

2.

EC 63, p .• 62.

3.

ECC, p. 362ff.

4. 5.

SM 9, p. 82ff. Chao (1 968), pp. 131, 651ff

6.

Rand (1971), p. 82ff. Elliott (1965), p. 71f f .

7.

2.2.7. 1.

Intonation Questions

Discussion There are two kinds

distinct particles

intonation

question indicator. of

question

considered

above)

(2 )

and

question

distinctive

being

at

those

with

question

those

with

no

particle

other

questions

may be

a sub-type of intonation questions

because

they share a common intonation pattern This

in Chinese which have

As mentioned above under our discussion

particles,

to be

(1 )

patterns:

2 .2 . 1

(see

of questions

intonation pattern

a higher-than-normal

[Rand

(1 969),

is usually

pitch.

This

p. 67].

described as

relatively high

pitch can either remain, level throughout the sentence or fall rather

sharply

strongly

with

stressed

a

later

syllable

rise

beginning

[Rand

(1 968),

examples of intonation questions would be: a.

Ta bu qu? he-not-go He's not going?

with p.

the

65].

last Some

b.

Ni fuqin? you-father Your father?

2.

Remarks The small amount of instrumental phonetic data available

on intonation here.

questions

is

too

technical

for

our -purposes

Therefore, a true understanding of the phonetic nature

of the intonation question will have to come from exposure to spoken intonation questions. 3.

Other Discussions 1.

Rand (1968), p. 65ff.

2.3.

2 . 3 . 1 . 1. '

-

CHAPTER II.

122 -

TYPES OF SENTENCES, ORDER OF ELEMENTS AND FUNCTION WORDS

2.3.

Command/Request (Imperative Sentences)

2.3.0.

General Remarks

The

command/reqeust

sentence

covers

a wide

variety of

utterances:

commands, requests, pleas, warnings, etc.

purest form,

it is limited to command/request sentences which

take

an

explicit

(stated)

person subject (you) .

or

implicit

In its

(understood)

second

In our treatment, however, some of the

auxiliary verbs

discussed below may also be used with

person subjects

(he,

she,

it,, they).

third

Those auxiliary verbs

listed below as "regular" tend to require an explicit subject, while those listed "prohibitive" do not. Command/request sentences may be formed with: tain' auxiliary verbs,

(2) certain verbs,

and

There

(4)

intonation.

among these four types.

(1) cer­

(3) certain particles

is also a great

deal of overlap

The most obvious is that all command/

request sentences share a common intonation pattern.

2.3.1.

Auxiliary Verbs in Command/Request:

2 .3.1 . 1 v

.

Regular

bidei

W

X

Bidei

'must'

8

■■

is a close synonym to bixu 'must' and xnyao

'must.'

It is similar in meaning to dei

is more

formal

and

less

frequently

negative form is bu bi 'need not.'

'must, have to7-' but

used.

Its

most

common

2.3.1.1

123

-

a.

V

\ u







2.3.1.3,

-

u

Ni bidei xian tongzhi womefl. you-must-first-notify-us You must first notify us.

b.

V

^

^





w

Ni bu bi tongzhi women. you-not-need-notify-us You needn't notify us.

C.

— VS U X X y t w 7" Ta bidei da dianhua gei ta muqin.

he-must-make-phone call-to-he-mother He, must call up his mother. 2.3.1.2.

iv — bixu

x u Bixu 'must' is a close synonym to bidei 'must.'

It is more formal .than bidei.

v 'must' and xuyao

Its most common nega­

tive form is bu bi 'need ijot.' a.

Women bixu yonggong nianshu. we-must-be diligent-study We must be diligent in our studies.

b.

Ni bu bi name yonggong. you-no t-mus t-tha t-diligent You need not be so diligent.

c.

w s — — >. .\J X * u > Ni bixu duochi yi diar fan cai you liqi. you-must-more eat-little-food-only then-have-strength You must eat more in order to be strong.

2.3.1.3.

dei

D,ei 'have to, must' as a command auxiliary verb is widely used in Northern colloquial speech. both the sense of

'have to'

and

In the affirmative it has

'must,' but

forms (bu bi and bu yong) it only means

in its negative

'need not.'

2 .3 .1 , 3 . -

a.

124

- 2 . 3 . 1.4

-

Wo dei gaosu ta. I-must-tell-she I must tell herv

b.

Wo dei zou. I-must-leave. I must leave.

c.

Ni bu yong zou. you-not need-leave You needn't leave.

2.3.1.4. The indicate

S fei VP bu ke fei. ..bu ke pattern

'must'

is a very strong way

'must' and is also rather formal.

Its negative form

would be bu bl or bu yong 'need not.' a.

Ni fei lianxi bu k e . you-not-practice-not permissible You must practice.

b.

Women fei qu bu ke. we-not go-not-permissible We must go.

c.

y # x n Ni bu yong qu. you-not need-go You don't have to go. W

d.

"

mm

mm

mm

x

to

\J

Wo fei chi Xican bu ke. I-not-eat-Western food-not permissible I insist on eating Western food.

- 2.3.1.6.

2.3.1.5.

125 -

2.3.1.5 . Gai

gai 'ought

to,

should'

is

generally

synonymous

with

yinggai 'ought to, should' and yingdang 'ought to, should,' although yinggai is the more frequently used term. These terms use 'should' in a sense of what is proper or reasonable. a.

Ni yinggai haoharde nian shu. you -shotil d -we 1 1 -de -s tudy You should study hard.

b.

Ni yingdang ting wode hua. you-should lis'ten-l-'s-speech You should listen to me (and do what I say).

Its usual negative forms are bu bl and bu yong 'need not.' Gai,

when

used

alone,

also

has

two

other

extended

meanings,: a.

b.

Gai shei?

Gai ta.

ought-who

ought-he

Whose turn is it?

It's his

turn.

Gai si. ought-die Drop dead!

2.3.1.6. Yao

yao 'must'

is not used

the most common form of gai (2 .3 .1 .5 )', yinggai all mean

as

'must.'

frequently as dei

(2.3.1 .3) ,

It_ is similar in meaning to

(2 .3 .1.9) and yingdang ( 2 .3 .1 .8 > which

’should’ in ..the =sense-of what is reasonable,

or slightly obligatory.

prope

The most commqnly used negative form

for yao is bu yong 'need, not.'

mm

2 . 3 . 1 .9.

2.3.1.6. -

a.

126

-

Ni yao xiaoxin yidian, nei zhi gou changchang yao ren. you-must-careful-a bit-that-M-dog-often-bite-person You must be more careful, that dog is always biting people.

b.

Nian shengci yao zhuyl shengyin. study-new word-must-pay attention-pronunciation You should pay close attention to pronunciation when learning new vocabulary,.

2 .3.1.7.

yingdang

See 2.3.1.5 above. yinggai

2.3.1 . 8 i

See 2.3.1.5 above. ■!» xuyao

2.3.1.9. Xuyao bldei

'must'

(2.3.1.1

'need to.' n o t .' a.

is ■somewhat similar

above).

However,

it

to bixu also

h^s

(2'.3.1.2) the

and

sense of

Its most common negative form is bu xu(yao)

'need

Ta xuyao kan yisheng. she-need-see-doctor She needs to see a doctor.

b.

Xin xuesheng dou xuyao dengjl. new-student-all-need must-register All new students must register.

Table

2.3.1

lists

these

nine

with the degree of formality,

regular

auxiliary verbs

along

frequency of use and forceful­

ness for each, as well as further references.

Hints Aux

Verb

English

Formality

Frequency

bldSi

must

*

bixu

must

**

del

f 61 • • • buke

h a v e to, must

BC

Force

1

1 5 1 p. 211-2

***

*



ought have

yac

must

yingdang

o u g h t to, should

yinggai

o u g h t to, should

must

'*

■***

**

*

***

*

**

15 .





p

.243



3^ip.226

**

15 .

**

1 5 i p.2^3

■JHi

***



(-01 p . 3 6



to, to

References

EC

p .2 k 2

15!

must

gai

xuyao

Other

on Usage

p . 2^3





3^ip.226



Degree of formality/frequency/forcefulness: *

low

** average *** high

EC C

SM

Chao



--

7^3



--

7^3



^3

7^2



--

--



p.122



7^1



737 81



P . 1.23

. . .

7^1



7* U



--

. .

2 3 2.2

2.3.2. 128

2.3.2.

Auxiliary Verbs in Command/Request;

2 .3.2 .1 .

'do not'

and

bu yao

auxiliary verbs

in

ldo

not'

colloquial

that they are limited to direct address an

Pronibitive

bie

Bie command

-

explicit

(stated)

or

implicit

are

the

Chinese

only --

"pure"

"pure"

in

sentences which have

(understood)

second

person

subj ect: a.

Bie zoul do not-leave Don't leave. 0

KJ

b.

mm

>

mm

X

Ni bie gen wo kai wanxiao! you-do not-with-I-make-joke Don't joke with me!

cT

Ni bie shengqi, ta bu shi nei ge yrsi. you-do not-angry-she-not-be-that-M-meaning Don't be angry, that's not what she meant.

Bie is prevalent in northern China.

A common synonym for it

is b'u yao (2.3.2.7-)-. According to some experts [Chao (1 968), p. 747], bie is a fusion of bu ya o . Others [Hashimoto (1968), p.

8 ] say bie

alternate"

is not derived from bu yao and is a "semantic

rather

than a

synonym.

Bie

used by

itself

fatherbrusque, but it can be toned down by using particles (see 2.3.5 below) ots special verbs (see

is

certain 2.3.4.1

below). 2.3.2.2.

bu de

BO. d£ 'may not, must not' has the sense of ted.' writings.

It is

somewhat formal

andis- often

found

'not permit­ in

legal

2.3.2.2. -

a.

129

2. 3

. 2 .4 .

-

Daibiao bu de chaoguo sanshl ren. 'representative-not-can-exceed-thirty-person There can be no more than thirty representatives.

b.

Xianren bu de jinru. loiter person-not-can-enter Non-staff may not enter.

c.

Nimen bu de wugu quexi. you (plural)-not-can-no reason-absent You may not be absent without cause.

2 .3.2 .3.

budebu

v ^ N Budebu

'cannot

(2 .3 .2 .4 ) and

but'

bunengbu

has

two

close

(2 .3.2 .6 ), with

synonyms

in

% V N bukebu

the latter being the

most commonly used of the three in spoken Mandarin. a.

Ni budebu fucong mingling, you-not can not-obey-order You must obey orders.

b.

Women bunengbu hen ta. we-not can not-hate he We cannot but hate him.

c.

Ta budebu xue chi sherou, yinwei meiyou biede dongxi kechi. he-not can not-learh-eat-snake meat-because-not. haveother-thing-can eat. There's nothing else to eat so he'll have to learn to eat snake meat.

2 .3.2 .4.

bukebu

See 2.3.2.3 on budebu above.

ca

2.3.2.5 .

-

•2 .3.2 .5.

130

2 .3 . 2 .7.

-

bukeyi

s v u

Bukeyi 'may not'

is the most common form of 'may not'

in

spoken Mandarin. It is must less formal than bu de (2.3.2.2), ^ u s v bu xu (2 .3.2 .7) and bu zhun (2 .3.2 .9), and carries less sense of authoritv. w

a.

\ u v



w

-v

Ni bukeyi gen wo qu. you-not may-with-I-go You may not go with me. U

b.

X u w

x

\

— —

Ni bukeyi zai zher chouyan. you-not may-at-here-smoke You may not smoke here.

c.

Bukeyi yong shou na dongxi chi. not may-use-hand-take-thing-eat You may not eat with your hands.

2 .3.2 .6 .

bunengbu

See 2.3.2.3 on budebu above. 2 .3.2 .7.

\

bu xu w

Bu xu x

U

x

#

may n o t 1 has the same meaning as bu de (2.3.2.2),

u

bukeyi (2.3.2.5) but is slightly more prohibitive. X X X/ commonly used than bu d e , but less so than bukeyi. +

a

Nimen bu xu zai zher wan. you-not^may^at-here-play You may not play here.

, d

"

.

x

W

# —

Ta bu xu likai. she-not-may-leave She is not allowed to leave.

It is more

. . . .

2 3 2 7 131

-

c.

2 . 3 . 2 . 10 .

-

Shangke de shihour bu xu shuohua. in class-'s-time-not-may-speak There is to be no talking while class is in session.

2 .3.2 .8 .

bu yao

See bie (2.3.2.1) above. 2.3.2.9.

bu zhun

Bu zhun 'may not' has the same sense as- bu de ,(2.3.2.2), bukeyi

(2 .3 .2 .5 ) and bu xu

(2 .3.2 .7) above, but is primarily

used on signs and notices, and not in speech. a.

Bu zhun chouyan. not-allow-smoke No smoking.

b.

Cichu bu zhun youyong. this-place-not-allow-swim No swimming here.

c.

Siren yongdi, bu zhun jrnru. private person-area-not-allow-enter Private property, no admittance.

I d.

Bu zhun tingche. not-allow-park car No parking.

2 .3 .2 .1 0 .

When 92.3.1.8), not.'

bu yinggai yjnggai

'ought

to,

its negative was

should'

was

discussed

given as bu yong or bu bi

above 'need

Its prohibitive form, bu yinggai, means 'should not.

Table 2 .3 .2i =»»■-



-

Auxiliary Verbs in Command/Request 1 Prohibitive

■■■ ---Other References

Hints on Usage English Formality

ble

do not

bu de

may not/ must not

bud£bu

cannot but

bdnengbu

cannot but

bu xu

may not

**

***

bu yao

do not

#

bu zhun

may not

***

bu (yirfg) gai

should not/ ** must not

bukeyi

may not

bukebd

uannot but

*

**

Frequency *■**

»*

*

**

**

**

EG

BG

Force

l6«p.248

747

---



---





741

---















740

##



— »



-- -

***









741



— “n

*•*

*

2 1p .10

Chao





15«p.243

**

SM



#*

**

ECC

***

5 . p



p.123



47 34i226 p.120 1_



741



3 'P •19 —

1 132

Aux Verb

?47

___

740

UJ Degree of formality/frequency/*forcefulness« *

low average

K) H O •

... .

2 3 2 10 133

-

a.

....

2 3 3 1

-

Ni bu yinggai zhei yang ma wo. you-not-should-this-way-curse-I You shouldn't scold me this way.

■b.

Wo bu yjnggai rang ni shengqi. 1-not-Should-let-you-angry 1 Shouldn't make you angry.

c.

Ta gangcai bu yinggai zheme shuo. he-just now-not-should-this way-speak He shouldn't have spekon like that just now.

See Table 2.3.2 for a list of these prohibitive auxiliary verbs, hints on usage and other references. TiiM'ijl 1.

Other Discussions 1.

See chart under 3.0.

2.

Hashimoto (1968).

2.3.3.

Adverbs (Quality Verbs) in Command/Request Sentences

Adverbs used to convey a sense of command/request are all taken from a class of verbs called quality verbs

(see 3 .2 .2 ).

A limited number of these quality verbs function as adverbs in specific

combinations

with

specific, implications.

We

will

present several pattern structures below which are meant to be descriptive rather than prescriptive. acceptable

for

That is, the format is

these particular examples but npt necessarily

fbr new sentences which the student might make up. 2.3.3.?'.

Adv-V 1

Kuai is the only adverb (quality verb) that may freely be placed before an action verb to express an urgent command:

2.3-3.1 -

a.

134

-

Kuai zou! fast-walk/leave Walk quickly!

b.

/ Leave quickly!

Kuai lai! fast-come Come quick!

c.

Kuai shuo y a ! fast-speak-ya Hurry up and speak!

Man this

'slow',

context;

others

in

a

man

duo

'more'

only

limited

in

number

and the of

shao

'less'

sentence

also

appear

in

given below and the

combinations

with

disyllabic

verbs:. d.

Man zou! slow-walk/leave Slow down! Don't leave yet! Take it easy! (said to guests upon their departure)

e.

Shao luosuo! little-small talk Quit your belly-aching! Don't be so fussy! Stop beating around the bush!

f.

Shao chumenr! little-exit door Don't go out (so much)!

g.

Duo yonggong! more-be diligent Work harder!

(as in doctor's orders)

2.3-3- 1 - 2.3-3-3-

h.

135

Duo zuoshi! more-do work Do more work!

2.3.3.2.

Adv!

In the pattern above, kuai is the most often used adverb (quality verb). In cases where the action described by the verb is clear by context, the verb may be left unstated, and the adverb may occur by itself: a.

Kuai! fast Hurry u p !

|0 11

Adverbs other than kuai are not used in this manner. 2.3.3.3.

Adv-Adv-V!

Frequently in command/request sentences, 'slow'

and

hao

'well'

are

imperative mood somewhat.

reduplicated.

the adverbs man

This

softens

the

Note that in Examples

(a) and

(c)

below, the neutral tone of the second reduplicated adverb does not affect the tone of the first, and that the retroflex "r" is added; and

(d)

this

is typical

reflect

Mandarin

of Northern speech.

Examples

spoken

There

elsewhere.

optional adverbal de^ before the verb [Example (d) ] . a.

Haohaor xuexi! good good-study Study properly!

b.

Haohao gongzuo. good good-work Work diligently.

is

(b). an

2 .3 0 -3 . -

c.

136

-

20-3

-

Manmanr chi. slow slow-eat Eat slowly.

d.

Manman de lai. slow, slow-de-come Do it slowly/gradually. Don't worry (it'll come eventually).

20.3.4.

Adv-V-V!

This structure, in which the verb rather than the adverb is redupl'icated, occurs in combinations of the adverb (quality verb)

duo

'more'

and a few select verbs,

such

as xiang

'to

think,' zou 'to walk,' kan 'to see,' and ting 'to listen.'

Yi_

'one' is optional between the reduplicated verbs: a.

Duo xiang(yi)xiang. much-think (yi)xiang Think it over.

2.30.5.

A-Adv-le 1

When parents issue commands to children they sometimes do so using select resultative compounds plus

the aspect iparker le.

(see 1.1.5 and 40.2 . 4 )

These imperatives

are extremely

brusque in nature and should be used by the s.tudent with care. a.

Wen qinchu le! ask-clear-le Find out about it!

b.

Nong zhengqi le! make-orderly-le Tidy up!

2 . 3 •3 •5• - 2 . 3 -3 *6 , 137

-

c.

-

Fang hao le! place-well-le Put it away!

d.

Xi ganj ing l e ! wash-clean-le Wash it clean!

2.3.3.6 .

V-Adv-(yi) diar!

I

This

is by far

the most

sentences with adverbs.

common form of command/request

The addition of (yi) diar

'a little'

implies a .change of state; i.e., the addressee is to act or do something differently

than he/she

(yi) diar originally means measure of amount here, some more' more:

has been

'a little,'

it

doing.

is not used

in the same way that

does not necessarily

Although

'some'

restrict one

in

to only

as

a

'Have 'some'

The addressee may help himself to 'a lot' more. This

type

of

sentence

may

represent

anything

stringent request to well-intentioned coaxing, the context and the speaker's intonation. a.

Shuo man yi diar! speak-slow-some Speak more slowly!

b.

Chi duo diar! eat-more-a little Eat some more!

c.

Chi kuai diar! eat-fast-more Eat (a little) faster!

from

a

depending upon

O * 'wn

i

2 .3 .3 -6 . - 2 .3 .3 -8. -

d.

138

-

Xie da diar! write-big-more Write (a little) larger!

e.

Xi ganjing yi diar! wash.-clean-a little Wash (it) (a little) cleaner!

2.3.3.7.

c

Adv-(yi) diar-V!

1 The adverbs kuai 'fast' and man 'slow' may also appear in 2

this command/request structure: a.

Kuai (yi) diar chi! t

fast-some-eat

t Eat (a little) faster! b.

t

Man diar shuo! slow-some-speak Don't speak yet!

Notice that while these sentences are in one respect identical in meaning to Examples 5(d) and 6 (a) above, i.e,

'do an action

in progress faster or slower,' they have an added sense of !'hurry up and begin an action' or 'wait a while before begin­ ning an action' and may thus be used to hasten on or delay the onset of an action.

T s

2.3.3. 8 .

Adv-V-(yi) diar!

This is a form that duo 'much' and shao 'little' sometime take.

t t T

There is no difference in meaning between the form here

and that of Example 6 (b) above; the two are used interchange­

c

ably and with equal frequency.

a: ('

2.3*3*8. - 2.3*4139

a.

Duo chi diar! much-eat-some Eat some more!

2.3.4.

Verbs in Command/Request Sentences

There

is

a very

limited

number

considered as command/request verbs.

of verbs

which may

be

These are gins 'please,'

rang 'let, allow' and j iao 'have, make.' 2.3.4.1 .

gins

Qing

'please' may be seen as a "polite" command verb in

that it is used in command sentences to tone down the command , to its most

polite

level.

Compare

the

following

two

sen-

! tences: a.

Zuo! sit Sit!

b.

Qing zuo! request-sit Please be seated!

There are, of course,

intonation differences between the two

sentences as well, but the general difference in tone between 1 the two is obvious

even in the written'form.

Qing, when used

I this way, always comes at the very beginning of the sentence. The subject, when not omitted, must come directly after qing. Qing

is

only

used

with

two

of

the

auxiliary verbs

! command/request listed above in 2.3.1 and 2.3.2: , and bu yao

'do not.'

of

bie 'do not'

It may be used with „any of the adverb

(quality verb) command/request sentences.

. - . . - 2 .3-41

2 3 4 1 -

c.

140

*

-

Qing ni bie kai wanxiao. request-you-do not-make-joke Please don't kid around.

d.

Qing ni zaoxie lai. request-you-early some-come Please come a little earlier.

e.

Qing gei wo wu kuai qian. request-give-I-five-M-money Please give me five dollars.

1.

Other Discussions 1.

BC 2, p. 13.

2,

EC 40, p. 205.

3.

ECC, p. 184.

4.

SM 4, p. 29. Thompson (no date), p . 3.

5. .2 .

rang

Rang

'let,

below)

differ

allow'

from

and

jiao

'tell,

in

that

they

qing

person (you) object. a.

Rang wo ti ni zuo. let-I-for-you-do Let me do it for you.

b.

Qing ni rang ta qu. reque s.t-you - 1 e t -h e -go Please let him go.

c*

Rang ta shuo! let-he-speak Let him speak-1

make'

cannot

2 .3.4.3

(see take

a

second

. - . .- 2 .3 -4 .3 -

2 3 4 2 -

141 -

All rang and j iao sentences may be preceded by gins (2.3.4.I) which serves to soften any possible harsh tone. Other Discussions 1.

BC 23, p. 420.

2.

EC 40, p. 205.

3. 4.

ECC, p. 200. SM 20, p. 195.

2.3.4.3.

,iiao

Of the .three command/request verbs, j iao the most blunt. (see 2.3.4.1).

I

This

bluntness

'tell, make'

may modified

is

by using qing

II

1.

The use of .jiao is normally limited to third

person objects (him, her, them). O a.

Jiao ta gei ni zuo. tell-he-give-you-do Have him do it for you.

b,

Qing jiao ta zao yi diar lai. please-tell-she-early-some-come Please have her come a little earlier.

c.

Ta laoshi jiao wo zuo zhe ge zuo na ge. she-always-tell-I-do-this-M-do-’that-M She's always making me do this or that.

d.

Jiao bieren zuo bu ru ziji zuo. tell-other person-do-not-as good as-self-do You are better off doing something yourself than having someone else do it.

'

. - . . - 2 .3 -5.1

2 3 4 3 142

1.

-

Other Discussions1 1.

2.3.5.

ECC, p. 200.

Command/Requ’ est Particles

Many sentences may be made into command/request sentences by simply adding a command/requesfc particle at the end of the sentence. a/ya

and

The two most commonly used particles ba,

which

may

be

used

together

for this are

with most

of

the

command/request auxiliary verbs, quality verbs and verbs. 2 .3.5.1.

ba

The most used the

common command/request particle

is ba.

to give a sentence a mild sense of command, tone

of a request

or

suggestion.

With

a

It is

often with

first

person

plural subject (we), ba has the suggestive sense of 'let's.' a.

Zou ba! go-ba Let's go.

b.

Zanmen chifan ba! we-eat-ha Let's eat!

When ba is used with a second person subject, it has the force of a mild command and may be used to" soften more abrupt commands. C.

Gei wo! give-I Give it to me!

2 3 5 1 -

-

-

-

-

2 3 5 2

143

I

d.

Gei wo ba! give-I-ba

Give to to me (please). e.

Nimen ziji lianxi ba! you-self-practice-ba (Please) practice on your own.

f. Bie isgaosu ba. verbs or auxiliary verbs of command/ When ba used ta with don't-tell-she-ba it also softens the tone, (Please) don't tell her. qing does (see 2 .3.4.1). request,

i

g.

although not

as much as

Kuai shuo ba. quick-say-ba (Please) speak quickly.

I.

Other Discussions 1.

BC 2, p. 21 .

2.

EC 37, p. 159.

3.

ECC, pp. 116, 163.

4.

SM 7, p. 65

5.

Chao (1 968) p. 807.

6.

Hashimoto (1971), p. 80.

I ^

2.3.5.2 .

a/ya

The command/request particle a/ya can give a sentence a sense of petulance and/or insistence: a.

Zou a! go-a Get going, will you!

.

.

*

.

. * * . - 2.3

2 3 5 2 144

-

-

When used together with verbs and auxiliary verbs of command/ request, it has this same sense of petulance and insistence: b.

Kuai shuo ya! fast-speak-ya Hurry up and say it!

c.

Bie pa ya! don't-fear-ya Don't be afraid (don't be a sissy)!

d.

Bu neng da ya! not can-hit-ya Hey, no hitting!

As with all of the command/request sentences, of

such

sentences

their special

must

be

heard

intonation features.

to

be

the true flavor

appreciated,

due

to

A and ya are identical,

but ya tends to be.used after open vowels such as a, e and o. 1.

Other Discussions 1.

Chao (1 968), p. 804.

2.

Hashimoto (1 968), P* 14. Hashimoto (1971), P- 80.

3.

2.3.6.

Intonation in Command/Request

As mentioned above, intonation plays an important role in all command/request sentences.

However, due in part to a lack

of precise data in this area and in part to the scope of this book, we will have to limit ourselves ments on this topic.

to a few brief

state­

. *. - 2 .3 -7 *

2 3 6 -

Command/request alone.

145

sentences

Such sentences

tend

-

can

be made

by

to be very brusque

intonation and

are

the

most impolite form of command/request sentences. a.

Ni guo lai! you-over-come Get over here!

b.

Zhan qilai! stand-up-come You stand up!

If required,

such

sentences

may

be

softened

by

using

qing

(2.3.4.1) or ba (2.3.5.1) as seen above. The intonation pattern of command/request two general characteristics. falling intonation,

with

sentences has

First of all, it tends to have a

the

last

few

sentences being accelerated in tempo.

syllables Second,

in

longer

the intensity

is normally much greater than normal throughout the sentence. 1.

Other Discussions1 2 1.

Chao (1 968), p. 41.

2.

Hashimoto (1 968), p. 13.

2.3.7. As

Command/Request Pronouns mentioned

command/request

above,

sentence

a is

characteristic that

it

person, either implied or explicit,

only

of

takes

as subject.

there are four pronouns which may be used:

m.

the

"pure"

the

second

In Chinese, 'you , 1 nimen

'you (plural),' women 'we, us' and zanmen 'we, us.'

The first

three should be familiar to you, but the last one, zanmen, may be less familiar since it is less frequently used. best explained

by

distinguishing

it

Zanmen is

from women, which

also

2 . 3 - 7.

-

means

'we, us'

in English.

146 -

Women carries the normal English

sense of 'us' or 'we,' while zanmen implies a closer relation­ ship among those included. For example, one would say Women Zhongguo ren. ., 'We Chinese...', but zanmen liangge ren... 'the two of u s ... ' number

'us.'

Also,

Thus,

zanmen

zanmen

implies a much smaller-in-

includes

the

person

addressed,

while women may or may not do so. Thus, women may replace zanmen at any time with no great shift in meaning, but zanmen may only replace women in very specific situations. These jects

four pronouns

with

any

are not,

command/request

however,

sentence.

all used as sub­ There are certain

restrictions as shown in this co-occurrence table: Table 2.3.7(a): Co-occurrence Restrictions for Pronouns as Subjects with Command/Request Verbs X = combination possible VERB

ni(men)

women

zanmen

most aux. verbs

X

X

X

X

X

lai bie

X

SV

X

X

X

qing

X

X

X

rang

X

X

X

j iao

X

X

X

ba, a/ya

X

X

X

intonation

X

X

X

tamen

2 .3 .7 . -

147

There are also restrictions

-

to what kinds of pronouns may

be used as objects of command/request verbs: Table 2.3.7(b): Co-occurrence Restrictions for Pronouns as Objects with Command/Request Verbs X = combination possible VERB

ni(men)

qing

X

wo(men)

zanmen

ta(men)

X

X

X

rang

0* j iao

X

Pronouns the sentences

are used more

mild

in command/request in

tone.

For

sentence of each pair below is milder: a.

b.

1.

Qu.

Ni qu.

go Go •

you-go Go •

Bie qu.

Ni bie qu.

don 1 t-go

you-don't-go

Don't go.

D o n 't go.

Other Discussions 1.

Thompson (no date), p. 4.

sentences

example,

the

to make second

m il '•;

. .-2 .4 .0 .

2 4 148

CHAPTER II.

TYPES OF SENTENCES, ORDER OF ELEMENTS AND FUNCTION WORDS

2.4.

Comparative Patterns

2.4.0.

General Remarks

There Chinese:

are basically two kinds of comparative sentences in (1) Sentences in which

both the obiects which are

being compared are mentioned, and

(2 ) sentences in which only

one of-the

objects which are being compared is mentioned.

first pattern is this type:

-k-k-k'k-klcklck-k'k'klckiclck-k-k'k-klck-kick-k-klck-k-k-k-k-k-kjck-kic-k-k-k-k-k-k-kit'k'k-kirk PT 1

S

(Comparative Adv)

SV

(Degree Adv)

■k-k-k'k-k-k-k-k-kirk-kirkirk-k-k-k-k-k-k-kirk'k-k-k-k-kick-k-k-kicjck-k-k-k-k-k-kjcklck-k-kicjck

Examples a.

Wode da. I-'s-be big Mine is big/bigger (compared to yours).

b.

Wode ye hen da. I - 's-also-very-be big Mine 4-S also very big.

c.

Wode geng da. I-'s-even more-be big Mine is even bigger.

The

2 4 0 .

.

.

149

d.

Wode hai da. I - 's-still-be big Mine is bigger still.

e.

Wode zui da. I - 's-mos t-be big Mine is the biggest.

f.

Wode bu name da. I-'s-not that-be big Mine is not that big.

g.

Wode yiyang da. I-'s-same-be big Mine is just as big.

h.

Tade bu zheme da. h e - 's-not-this-be big His is not this big.

i.

Wode da yidiar. I-'s-be big-some Mine is a little bigger.

2.

Remarks In this pattern,

only one of the objects being compared

is mentioned.

The other object is understood, usually having

been mentioned

in a preceding

sentence,

sequence: a.

(i)

Tade fangzi hen da. h e - 's-house-very-be big His house is very big.

as in the following

. . .-2 .4 .1 .1.

2 4 0 150

(ii)

Wode geng da. I-'s-even more-be big Mine is even bigger.

Most

frequently,

'even

more,'

an

adverb

name/zheme

of

'that

comparison (much)/this

such

as

geng/hai

(much)'

or

zui

'most' is used.

2.4.1.

Similarity with gen, you, xiang

In this section, g e n , you and xiang are coverbs which are placed between two compared objects: 2.4.1 .1.

gen

*** ****************** ******************* ****** ************id PT 2

A

(shi)

gen

B

(shi)

zi Zan£

(SV)

PT 3

A

(shi)

gen

B

(shi)

zi yang

(de)

Aux

V

****************************** ****************************k-k1t

1.

Examples PT 2 a.

Wo gen Lao Bai yi yang gao. I-with-laol Bai-same-be tall Lao Bai and I are the same height.

b.

Ta gen ni shi yi yang congming. he-with-you-be-same-be intelligent He and you are of the same intelligence.

2 .4 .1 .1 . -

c.

151

-

Wo bu shi gen ni yi yang congming. I-not-be-with-you-same-be intelligent You and I are, not equally intelligent.

d.

Wo nuer gen ni yi yang taoqi. I-daughter-with-you-same-be naughty M y daughter is as naughty as you.

e.

Tamen yi yang haokan. they-same-be good-looking They are equally good-looking.

PT 3 a.

Wo gen ta yi yang ai kan dianyingr. I-with-she-same-love-see-movie She and I both love to watch movies (equally much;.

b.

Ta gen wo yi yang de xihuan chi Zhongguo fan. he-with-I-same-de-like-eat-China-food He and I both like to eat Chinese food (equally well).

c.

Women yi yang taoyan zuogong. we-same-hate-work We both hate working (equally much).

2.

Remarks In this pattern,

equal when no listed first.

the objects

being

compared

are always

bu appears. It makes no difference which is Bu before yi yang only indicates that A and B

differ; it cannot tell us-which of1the two is taller, larger, etc. The initial part, A gen B, may be replaced by a plural subject as in Example 2(e) above.

2 4 1 1 .

-

152

.

.

.

-

The negative particle bu can go before the coverb gen or before yi yang.

In the former case,

stress [Example 2(e) implies

there

is slightly more

'I am not as intelligent as you.'

This will be elaborated upon-later]: a.

Wo gen ni bu yi yang. I-with-you-not-same We are different (you and I).

b.

Wo bu gen ni yi yang. I-not-with-you-same I am not like you. I am different from you.

or

Bu seldom occurs before a SV in this pattern (c) below]

since

[as in Example

[as

in Example

the antonym of the SV is usually preferred

(d) ] unless

the bu SV is a compound

such as

bu cuo 'not bad' or bu shu 'unfamiliar': c.

Wo gen ni yi yang buhao.

(possible)

I-with-you-same-not-be good You and I are equally bad. d.

Wo gen ni yi yang huai.

(preferred)

I-with-you-same-be bad You and I are equally bad. However, bu is often found preceding a VP as in this sentence: e.

Wo gen ni yi yang bu xihuan tiaowu. I-with-you-same-not-like-dance You and I equally dislike dancing.

2 4 1 1 .

.

.

.

153

Note,

however,

that

in

Examples

(c)

and

(e) , bu

does

negate the comparison but only the respective SV or VP. other words,

the sentence

does not

say

not (In

'do not equally like

dancing' but rather 'equally dislike dancing'). In all of the above examples, nouns.

A and B have been simple

If we are to compare the manner in which an action is

performed, the following pattern is used: f.

Ta zuo cai zuode gen wo (zuo cai zuode) yi yang hao. he-make-food-make-d£-with-I-(make-food-make-d£)-same -be.good He cooks (equaMy) as well as I do.

The second verb phrase

is most always omitted or abbreviated

(Gen wo zuode yi yang hao) . To

make

a

question

question particle

in

this

pattern,

you

can

-ma to the end of the sentence,

add

the

or repeat

the yi yang with b u : g.

Ta gen wo yi yang da ma? he-with-I-same-be old-ma Is he the same age as I am?

h.

Ta gen wo yi yang bu yi yang da? he-with-I-same-not-same-be old Is he the same age as I am? (cf.

i.

Ta shi bushi gen wo yi yang da?) he-be-not-be-with-I-same-be old

Ta gen wo yi yang (da) bu yi yang da? he-with-I-same-(be old)-not-same-be old Is he the same age as I am?

(For more

on

question

patterns,

see

2.2.)

Ip

answering

a

question which uses this pattern, one need only say, " (Bu) yi Z S 2S >

. . . .-2 .4.1

2 4 1 1 154

3.

-

Other Discussions 1.

BC 17, p. 280.

2. $ 3.

EC 52, p. 144.

4.

SM 18, p. 175.

5.

Chao

6.

Teng

.2.

E C C , p . 333.

you

•k'k-k-k-k-kirk'k-k-ki^irk-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-kirk-k-k-k-k-kic-kirk-k-k-k-kirk-k-k-kirk-k

PT 4

A

(mei)you

B

(name/zheme)

SV/VP

•k-k-k-k-k-k-k'k-k'k-k-k-k-k-ick-k-k-k-k-k-k-klck-k-k-k-k-klck-k-k-k-kic-k-klcklck-klck-k-k-k-k

1.

Examples a.

Wode fangzi you tade name da. I - 's-house-have-he-'s-that-be big My house is just as big as his.

b.

Wode qian mei you tade name duo. I-'s-money-not-have-he-'s-that-be much My money is not as much as h i s .

c.

Shei you ta name xihuan chifan? who-have-he-that-like-eat-food Who likes to eat as much as he does?

d.

Ta mei(you) ni youqian. she-not-have-you-be rich She is not as rich as you are.

2 -

e.

155

. 1 .2 .

-

Zuo chuan mei you zuo feiji name kuai. ride-boat-not have-ride-plane-that-be fast Going by boat is not as fast as going by plane.

2.

Remarks In this pattern,

compared

(remember

equal).

Pattern

B is the standard to which A

that

4

in Pattern

is most

form, as in Examples

(b) and

to

question

inferior

B.

A

2, A

is toeing

and B were usually

frequently .used

in the negative

(d), in which case A is seen as in

Pattern

2

above

is

often

answered in the negatively a sentence in Pattern 3: a.

(i)

Ta gen ni yiyang gao ma? he-with-you-same-be tall-ma Are you and he the same height?

(ii)

Ta mei you wo gao, he-npt-have-l-be tali’ He is not as tall as I am.

In the positive form, as in Examples 4(a) and 4(c), Pattern 4 is essentially

the

same

as Pattern 2_ (A gen B yi yang) , in

which either A or B may be seen as inferior. The same rules for adding bu before the SV/VP apply here as with Pattern 2.

The rrame/zheme element may be omitted, but

usually it is not, especially with a longer VP.

A question is

formed with this pattern by either using youmeiyou or -ma: b.

Ta youmeiyou wo zheme gao? he-have not have-I-this-be tall Is he as tall as I am?

c.

Ta you wo ?heme gao ma? he-have-I-this-be tall-ma Is he as tall as I am?

. . . .-2 .‘4.1

2 4 1 2 -

156

-

In reply to these questions, a simple (mei)you is sufficient d.

Q:

Ni youmeiyou ta name congming? •you-have not have-he-that-be smart Are you as smat’t as he is?

A:

You. have I am.

3.

Other Discussions 1.

BC 17, p. 280.

2.

EC 5) , p p . 121-

3.

ECC^ p . 333,

4.

SM 18, p.' 175.

5.

Chao

.3.

xiang

****************************************************** PT 5

A

xiang

B

(name/zheme/yiyang)

SV/VP

******************************************************

1.

Examples a.

Wo xiede zi xiang ni xiede ma? I-write-'s-word-like-you-write-'s-ma. Are the characters which I write like yours?

b.

Ta bu xiang wo zheme hui changge. he-not-like-1-this-able-sing-song He cannot sing as well as I can.

2 .4 .1 .3 . - 2 . 4 .2.1. 157

c.

Ta bu xiang wo yiyang gao. he-not-like-T-same-be tall He is not as tall as I am.

2.

Remarks This pattern is

less popular a variation of Patterns

2

and 3 above, in which xiang replaces thie coverbs gen (Patterns 2 and 3) and you (Patterns 4 and 6). In response to a question usqng this pattern,

(bu)xiang

is sufficient. 3.

Other Discussions 1.

BC 17, p. 280.

2.

Chao, p. 763.

o

2.4.2. . Dissimilarity with bi, bu ru 2.4.2.1.

bi

■k-k-k'k-k'k-k-k-k'k-k'k'k-k'k'k-k'k-k-k-k-k'k-k'k'k-k-k'k'k-k-k-k-k-k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'kit'k'k'te'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k^'k'k'k'k

PT 6

A

bi

B

(Adv)

SV/Adv

IV/Adv

TV

(Quantifier)

XXIt-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k'k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-k-kit-k-kiz-k-klt'k'k-k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'^'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'k'X'k'''

1.

Examples a.

Wo bi ni gao. I-compare-you-be tall I am taller than you.

b.

Wo bi ni hai gao. I-compare-you-still-be tall I am still (even) taller than yoii>.

2 4 2 1 .

-

c.

158

.

.

.

-

Wo bi ni gao san cun. I-compare-you-be tall-three-inch I am three inches taller than you.

d.

Ta mei bi ni gao duoshao. she-not-compare-you-be tail-how much She is not much taller than you.

e.

Ta bi wo gao hen duo. he-compare-I-be tall-very-much He is much taller than I.

f.

Wo bi ni zao laile yidiar. I-compare-you-early-come-le-some I cam a little earlier than you.

g.

Wo bi ni duo hele san bei jiu. I-compare-you-more-drink-le-three-cup-wine I drank three more glasses of wine than you.

2.

Remarks This pattern mostly occurs

the second mentioned object

in the positive

form,

where

(B) is the standard to which the

first object (A) is compared and found to be superior.

While

this pattern is negated by inserting bu before bi^, it is more common to find Pattern 3 (A mei you B name SV) being used as the negative form, even though the meaning is slightly differ­ ent : a.

Wo bi ni gao ma I-compare-you-be tall-ma Am I taller than you are?

2 4 2 1 .

.

.

.

159

b.

Ni bu bi wo g a o .

(possible)

you-not-compare-I-be tall You are not taller than I am. c.

Ni meiyou wo zheme gao.

(preferred)

you-not have-I-this-tall You are not as tall as I am. Note that in Example (a), B (ni) is the standard and A (wo) is superior, while in Examples

(b) and (c) , B (wo) is the stan^

dard and A (ni) is inferior. In bi_ sentences with IV and TV, adverbs

are

duo

'more,'

'late'

[Pattern 6,

with

SV,

a

shao

Examples

the most

'less,'

(f)

commonly

the most

and

used

zao

(g) ] . adverbs

commonly used

'eafly' In bi

and

wan

sentences

are had.,

haiyao

'both, still, even' and yao which has no significant effect on the meaning,

as well as geng which adds emphasis (as in 'even

bigger'). It is important to remember that if a quantifier is used in this pattern, tence.

it must be positioned at the end of the sen­

Examples of such quantifiers are:

hen duo de duo

'much'

yidiar

'a little'

NU + M + (N)

'specific amount'

duoshao

'how much' in a positive sentence 'not much' in a negative sentence [see Example 6(d)]

A question

[see Example 6(e)] [see Remarks, Example 6(f)] [Examples 6(c) and (g)]

is usually formed in this pattern by adding

the question particle

-ma at the end ofr the sentence.

answer would usually take the following form:

The

. . . .-2 .4 .2.2

2 4 2 1 -

d.

160

-

Ni bi wo gao ma? you-compare-I-be tall-ma Are you teller than I am?

e.

f.

Dui , wo bi ni gao. ■Shi correct , I-compare-you-be tall yes Yes, I am taller.than you.

Bushi Budui

, wo njei you ni name gao.

incorrect no

, I-not-have-you-that-be tall

No, I am not as tall as you. 3.

Other Discussions 1.

BC 10, p. 127.

2. 3.

EC 51, p. 128; ECC, p. 334.

4. 5.

Marney, p. 57., SM 18, p. 176.

6.

Chao, p. 682ff.

2.4.2.2.

bu ru

**************************************1 PT 7

A' bu ru

B

PT 8

S

VP

bu ru

**************************************

....

2 4 2 2 -

1.

161

-

Examples PT 7 a.

Zhei ge fanguar bu ru nei ge. this-M-restaurant-not-as^(gOod as) -that-M This restaurant is not as good as that one.

b.

Zhei ge fanguar bu ru nei ge 'de ganjing. this-M-restaurant-not-as-that-M-de-be clean This restaurant is not as clean as that one.

c.

Ta bu ru ni yonggong. he-not as-you-be diligent He is not as diligent as you.

PT 8 a.

Women bu ru dao lingwai yi ge fanguar qu chifan. we-not-as-(good as)-to-another-one-M-restaurant-go-eat It would be-better if we went-to another restaurant to eat.

b.

Ni bu ru xian chifan zai qu kan xi. you-not-as-(good as)-first-eat-then-go-see-play You had better eat first and then go to the theatre.

2.

Remarks This pattern is not used as frequently in spoken Mandarin

as are the ones above.

It is similar to Pattern 4 (A meiyou B

name SV) in that B is taken as the standard and A is. inferior. In forming a question with this pattern, one, Visually adds the question particle -ma at the end of the sentences

M fc a t t fN

3.

Other Discussions 1.

EC 60, p . 23.

2.

E C C , p . 333.

3.

SM 18, p. 174

2 .3 •- 2 .5



- [163 -

CHAPTER II.

TYPES OF SENTENCES, ORDER OF ELEMENTS, AND FUNCTION WORDS

2.5.

The ba Sentence

2.5.0.

General Remarks

The ba sentence is one of the most studied constructions in

spoken

Mandarin.

This

is

perhaps

due

to the

fact

that

there is no difficulty iti determining which sentences are ba sentences, as any sentence with ba is a ba sentence.

However,

while it is simple enough to recognize a ba sentence,

it is

somewhat more difficult to see why it is a ba sentence (apart from the use of ba) , or more

specifically,

what

the chara/jf

teristics

of

functions.

the

It

ba

sentence

is hoped

that

are the

and

how

following

the

ba

sentel/ce

discussion will

shed some light on these questions. 2.5.1.

Discussion

The-first question one might ask sabotlt ba is, what is it? Is it a word?

A preposition?

A coverb?

Something else?

It

has been called all of the above, but perhaps the best way for us to approach it is as a coverb.

It is different from other

coverbs, however, in that its object is also the object of the main

verb.

A

literal

English

translation

of

ba would

be

'take,' although it is generally best left,, untraslated as seen in the following sentences: a.

Q-ing ni ba zhege fangzai nar. request-you-ba-this-M-put-at-there Please put this over there.

a|

2 5 1 .

-

b.

164

.

.

-

Ta ba tade qiche maile. he-ba-he-'s-car-sell-le He sold his car.

A ba sentence is similar to the topic-comment sentence struc­ ture which sentence, verb,

is

so

common

in

Chinese

the object is transposed

thus

putting

stress

on

(see

1.1.3).

In

a ba

to the front of the main

the main verb.

Take

the two

following sentences, for example: c.

Ta maile tade qiche. she-sell-le-she-'s-car She sold her ear.

d.

Ta ba tade qiche maile. she-ba-she-'s-car-sell-le She sold her car.

The first sentence, which is in the normal word order, answers the general question,

"What did she do?", whereas the second

sentence answers the more specific question, "What,did she do with her car?"

Note,

however,

that the English translations

of both sentences are identical. There are two types of ba sentences, both of which share the same general characteristics: 1.

Most ba sentences have non-ba variants.

As will be

seen below, ba is not always required in a sentence.

However,

there is a general preference for using ba. 2.

The object of a ba sentence

is

specific; that is,

the speaker has a specific object in mind which he is focusing upon by using ba. explicitly

or

In all ba sentences,

implicitly

that a marker such as nei

specific. 'that

ba object and shows specificity.

By

or zhei

the object^-is either "explicit," we mean 'this'

precedes .the

By "implicit," we mean the

2 .5 .1 . -

absence of any such marker.

165 -

The

specific nature

of

the ba

object is best shown in sentences such as Example (b) below, where the specific nature of the object is implicit: a.

Ta maile qiche. she-sell-le-car She sold a car.

b.

Ta ba qiche maile. she-ba-car-sell-le She sold the car.

3. tence.

The verb

phrase, is normally' complex

in

a ba

sen­

By "complex," we mean that the verb in these phrases

is followed by one or more of a variety of things, such as the following:

I

_le

(aspect marker:

See 3.6.3.1 and 3.6.4.2)r

(2)

Certain post verbs (-g e i , -lai, -qu, -dai, -hui, -Izou, -cheng, -z a i , -q ilai, -zu o ,) a.

Ta ba shu na huiqu. he-ba-book-take-go-back He took the book back.

b.

Qing ni ba zhei ge fancheng Yingwenreques t-you-ba-.this-M-transiate-into-English Please translate this into English.

c.

Ba shu fangzai nar. ba-book-put-at-there Put the books there.

M

(1 )

2 5 1 .

-

d.

166

.

.

-

Wo ba ta dangzuo pengyou. I-ba-he-take as-friend I took him for my friend.

(3)

Verbs which normally take indirect objects (g e i , gaosu) a.

Wo ba nei jian shi gaosu ta. I-ba-that-M-matter-tell-he I told him about that matter.

(4)

Adjunct element of manner, duration or extent a.

Wo ba men kail-e hao ji ci, keshi dou mei you ren. I-ba-door-open-le-good-many-times-bu.t-all-no t-have-person I opened the door many times, but no one was ever there.

b.

Ta ba nei ge gushi shuode hen man. he-ba-that-M-story-say-de-very-slow He told the story very slowly.,

c.

Ta ba duzi kude dou tengle. he-ba-s tomach-cry-de-all-hurt-le He cried until his stomach ached.

(5)

V yi V / V le V a.

Ba ta kaiyikai! ba-it-open one open Open it up!

b.

Ba xiaoshuo kanlekan. ba-novel-look le look (Someone) took a look at the novel.

2 5 1 .

.

.

167

Only certain verbs can be used in a ba sentence. used in ba. sentences are all of the same type, following

characteristics:

3.2.1.2);

(2)

they are

they are anaphoric. is that

They

action verbs

are

(see

and have the

transitive

3.3.2.1);

and

(see (3)

An anaphoric verb has a special relation­

ship with its object. tionship

(1)

Verbs

One requisite of this verb/object rela­

the object be

existent and specific in the

mind of the speaker at the time he utters the ba sentence: a.

Ta ba che kaiguolai le. he-ba-car-operate-over-come-le He drove the car over here.

In this example, the speaker obviously has a particular car in mind when he makes the statement.

Kai in this case is an ana­

phoric verb that is closely bound to its object che. On the other hand,

a parent hoping to divert a child by

telling him to "Go draw!" could not do so by using ba; huahuar 'to draw a picture' here would not be anaphoric, as there is no existent, specific object (picture) in the parent's mind yet. Given other circumstances, however, huahuar could become anaphoric: b.

Ba nei zhang huar hua h a o ! ba-that-M-picture-paint-finish Finish painting that picture!

As in Example 3, it is clear that the speaker has a specific object already in mind,

'that picture,' although at this time

it is not finished yet.

[For further discussion on anaphoric

verbs, see Y. C. Li (1974), pp. 208-210.] As with any coverb, negative particles or auxiliary verbs come before the ba rather than the main verb of the sentence,.

2 . 5 .1 . -

c.

168 -

Wo mei ba shu fangzai n a r . I-not-ba-book-put-at-there I did not put the books there.

d.

Wo. henxiang ba huar guazai qlangshang. I-very-1ike-ba-painting-hang-at-wall-surface I really want to hang the painting on the wall.

e.

Ni bie ba tang dou chidiao. you-do not-ba-candy-all-eat-up Don't eat all the candy up.

Adverbs’, with the exception of dou 'all' , also go before ba. f.

Wo shichang ba shu fangzai nar. I-usually-ba-book-put-at-there I usually put the books there.

g.

Wo ba shu dou fahgzai zher. I-ba-book-all-put-at-here I put all the books here.

h.

Ta mei tian zaoshang ba ta meimei songdao youzhiyuanli qu. he-everyday-morning-ba-he-sister-send-tokindergarten-in-go He takes his (little) sister to kindergarten every morning.

There are

two

types

of ba

sentences:

(1)

Those which

have a "retained object"’ and (2) the simple ba sentence.

The

simple, ba sentence is by far the most common type and is the type represented by all of the above examples. The "retained object" ba sentence has what amounts to two separate,

but

sentences are:

closely

related,

objects.

Examples

of ’such

2 5 1 .

-

i.

169

.

.

-

Ta ba juzi bao le pi. he-ba-orange-peel-le-skin He peeled the orange.

j.

Ta ba huaping chale yi ba hua. he-ba-vase-insert-le-one-bunch-flower He put a bunch of flowers into the vase.

In

these

two

examples,

respectively)

the

first

object

the

example, object,

and huaping,

is the regular object, while the second object

(pi and hua) is the "retained object." between

(juzi

two

the

objects

retained

juzi.

In

in

each

object,

the

second

Note the relationship

sentence.

£i,

is

example,

a

part

the

In

the

first

of

the

first

first

object

is

actually the place where the retained object is disposed of. In fact,

there is an optional li

'in'

in this example which

could have come after huaping, thus clearly indicating it is a place word.

These two examples show the most common forms of

the retained object sentence -- whole/part and place/object. While

there

is

retained object ba the following tence,

three

no

corresponding

sentence,

sentences.

The

Ta.diule yi ben shu. He lost a book. Ta ba shu diule. he-ba-book-lose-le He lost the book.

c.

first

of

a

to compare

is a nori-ba sen­

the second is a simple ba sentence and the third is .a

he-lose-le-a-M-book

b.

version

it might be helpful

retained object ba sentence. a.

non-ba

Ta ba shu diule yi bhn. he-ba-book-lose-le-one-M He lost one of the books.

2 5 2 .

170

2.5.2.

.

. -

2 5 3 .

-

.

-

»

Remarks

In spite of the large volome of material on ba/ there are still areas which have not yet been fully studied. be

expected,

there

is

also

the

usual

scholars on the merits of past studies.

disagreement

which is a survey of past works on the subject. i

1

1

she-take-self-go-negotiate-'s-matter-pian-f inishle She has formulated a plan about going to negotiate in person.

ob pai

PT 15 Ta'qu tanpan de shi (bei(ren))

the

(gei) jihua hao le.

he-go-negotiate-'s-matter-(by(someone)) - (gei)hai

plan-finish-le That he is going to negotiate has been planned

(by

is the

someone else already).

3.4.3.2. Discussion i) PT 13.1 S V VP differs

from PT 13.2 S V C 1 in that the

object is a verb phrase instead of a clause.

That a verb phrase

functions very similarly to a clause can be seen from Patterns 14 and 15 in which the verb phrase is moved

forward

in a ba or b£i

construction like a noun clause or like a common noun. ii)

The m i s s i n g

subject

of

the ve r b

phrase

is

alw ays

understood to be identical with the subject of the main verb.

It

cannot appear redundantly unless it is replaced or followed by tl)e reflexive, z 1 j 1 'self.' Z 1 j 1 + VP-can be considered, in fact, as a full clause.

(e. are the

3 .4 .3 -2 . -

iii)

287

-

Verbs of thinking-feeling

and verbs of hope-fear can

also take Patterns 13.1, 13.2 and 13.3. When they do, the subject of the verb phrase is always understood to be identical with that •of the verb. Compare: a.

Ta xlwang q u . he-hope-go He hopes to go.

b.

Ta xiwang wo qu. he-hope-I-go He hopes that I'll go.

iv) Verbs that can take a verb phrase but not a clause as object

ar e

those

that

express

an

intention

to p e r s o n a l l y

participate in the activity denoted by the verb phrase. They are, therefore, called verbs of intention. v) The major difference between verbs of intention on the one land and verbs of thinking-feel ing or hope-fear on the other hand ;s that when the former require participation of a person other than the subject itself, rang 'let', or shi 'make' is used. a.

Ta dasudn rdng ta de didi qu. he-plan-let-he-'s-younger brother-go He plans to let his younger brother go.

b. *Ta dasudn ta de didi qu. he-plan-he-'s-younger brother-go He plans on his brother's going. vi)

Verbs

of

co gn i t i o n

ie.g., xiangxin 'believe')

(e.g.,

'know'),

judgement

and approval (e.g., zancheng 'approve')

Ire concerned with the external world the self) . They,

zh idao

therefore,

(i.e., matters other than

generally take a full clause,

the

-m

3 .4 .3 . •. .

288

-



subject of which is not identical with that in the main clause. Even if there is an identical subject, a change to z 1 j 1

'self'

is

not required. a.

Wo zhidao wo /ziji buneng q u . 1

2

I-know—I-self-not-can-go I know I can't go myself. b.

Ta xiwang ta /ziji q u . 1

2

he-hope-he-self-go He wants him to go (if.jta is chosen)

or

««■

It

He wants to go himself (if ziji is chosen).

£

I V

In Example a, the two subjects, wo

'I,' can be understood to be

identical without using zij 1 'self.' In Example b, the subject of the embedded clause may be understood to be different from that in the main clause unless zij 1 'self' is used.

Verb Phrase as Object

A-not-A as Object

Dislocated Di Interrogative

V-

Higher-Sentence Oriented Interrogative

Statement as Object

Unmarked Direct Ob j .

Summary- of Different Types of Verbs

Direct Quote

Table 3.^’.3.2.

Verbs of Locution Say-type shuo '-say'

+

Tell-type gaosu 'tell'

+

+

+

+

+■

+

+

-

+

+

+

_



Verbs of Cognition zhidao yknow' Verbs of Imagination Judgement rdnwdi 'regard' Approval zanchehg 'approve'

+

+ -

- -

Thinking-Feeling xiang 'think' juede 'feel'

+

+■ -

-

+

+

Ask-type wen 'ask' Test-type_ xian zhidao 'want to know'

+

+

>

Hope-Fear xiwang 'hope' haipa! 'fear' Verbs of Inquiry'

+

+

+ +

+

+

-

(+■)'

i (+ )

+

-

+ +

-

+ +

-

*

3A A .

- 290 3.4,. 4 .

Verb Phrase (VP) as Object Complement

******* ************************** **************************** * * * * * * * * * * *

PT 16 PT 17

S

V

N

bei

PT 18

yinwei N

pT 19

N

*

VP S

V VP 1

*

VP S

V

N 1

yinwei N VP S ba N V (C) 1 1

Thank for-type Verbs

A-----

PT "20

N yinwei VP bei S

V

(C)

* * * * * * *

* * PT 21 S V N VP Cause-Verbs * * Help-Verbs * * * * (N is the subject of VP- and object of V) * ******* ************************************************** * * * * 3.4.4.1 .

Examples

PT 16 a.

Wo ma ta bu huan qian. I-scoId-he-not-return-money I scolded him for not returning the money.

PT 17 a.

Wo bei ta ma bu hua'n qian. I-by-he-scold-not-return-money I was scolded by him for not returning the money.

PT 18 a.

Yfnwe'i ti bii hua'n qia'n wo ma ta. because-he-not-return-money-1- scold-he I scolded him for not returning the money.

PT 19 a.

Yfnwei ta bu huan qian wo ba ta ma de hen xiong. because-he-not-return-money-I-take-he-scold-de-very fierce I scolded him severely for not returning the money.

3A A.

3.4.4.1. -

-

291

PT 20 a.

Ta yinwei bu haa"n qia'n bei wov ma le. he-because- no t-return-money'-by-I- scold- le Because he didn't want to return the money, I scolded him.

PT 21 a.

Wov jiao ta zuo shi*. I-ask-he-do-work I asked him to take a job.

b.

Wov bang le ta ban zhuozi. I-help-le-he-move-desk - helped him move desks. ■a* tSBm

3.4.4.2. Discussion !■ i) Semantically,

N (or N) is the subject of the verb phrase

and the direct object of the verb in the main clause. ii) The verb phrase talks about the object of the verb (i.e.,, N) apd can be deleted. iii) The complement (VP) with a thank for-type verb denotes the reason for the action denoted by the main verb (V) . iv)

The

complement

(VP)

wit h

a cause-verb

denotes the.

intended action instigated by the action of the main verb (V) . v)

Since the verb phrase is a complement and not an object,

jit cann ot

take ba or occur at sentence-initial position as a

topic. For example: a.

*Bu huan qian wo ma ta. not-return-money-I-scold-he

b.

*Zuo shl wo jiao ta. do-work-I-tel1-he

3 . Jj-,4.3* -

202

3.4.^.3.

-

3.4.4.3. List of Thank for-type Verbs, Cause-Verbs and Help-Verbs

3.4 .4.3.1. List of Thank for--type Verbs 1) ganxie 2) guai

'thank for'

ID

'blame for'

12) pei fu

'admire'

3) pa

'fear for'

13) zanmei

'adore'

4) xihuan y > 5) xiai

'like for'

14) xianrau

'envy'

'like'

15) taoyan

'dislike

6) maiyuan 'complain'

16) ai

'like'

7) huaiy 1

'suspect'

17) hen

'hate'

8) caiyi

'guess'

18) yuanhen

'hate'

'be jealous'

19) yanwu

'hate'

9) lPldu 10) xinkao

xiangxin

'believe

'believe and

Ill

trust in' The above verbs are also emotive verbs

(see

Section

3. 2 . 2 . 4

Emotive V e r b s ) . A feature of the emotive verb is the ability to take degree adverbs like hen

'very,'

feichang

'very,'

s h i fen

'extremely,' etc. 20) gao

'accuse'

25) konggao

'accuse'

21) gongj i

'attack'

26) ma

'scold'

22) zeb.e i

'reprimand 1

27) wugao —

'wrongly accuse

V

23) zhize

'repr imand'

28) wuru

'insult'

24) xian •

'dislike'

29) piping

'criticize'

30) pipan

'criticize, repudiate'

31) j ixiao

'ridicule'

32) biaoyang

'praise'

3>>.3.2» - 293 3.4.4.3.2. List of Cause-Verbs 'induce'

1) jiao

'cause, tell'

10) y jvn

2) shi

'cause'

ID

3) rang

'let'

12) sdngyong

'incite'

4) zhun, xu,

'allow'

13) mingling

'order'

5) yao

'want'

14) zhfhui

'command'

6) qing'

'request'

15) pai

'dispatch'

7) quan

'persuade'

16) song

'send'

8) cui

'urge'

*17) yue

'make an agree

gudong

zhvfnxu

'incite'

/

ment with 9) bf

'compel'

18) jiao

'get (someone) to'

3.4.4.3.3. List of Help-Verbs 'lead'

'keep company'

4) 1ing(zhe) 5) fu’(zhe)

'support'

'take along'

6) zhichi

'support'

1) bang(zhe)

'help'

2) pei (zhe) 3) dai (zhe)

- 3A

A

.3 . 3 .

3* 5.

3 - 5.1

- 294 -

CHAPTER III.

THE VERB PHRASE:

ITS RELATED STRUCTURES AND

ELEMENTS

Tense, Aspect, Phase and Time Relation

3.5.

3.5.0.

General Remarks

Time

relation

means

the relation between

two points

spans) of time. Tense and aspect are two special

types of time

»»»

relations.

3.5.1.

Points or Spans of Time Explicit or Implicit in the Sentence

3.5.1.1. Explicitly Expressed Points of TimeI * Time noun = xi^nzai jIntian a.

'now' 'today'

Xihnzai w5 b Markers, that denote various types of aspect are given in the table below:

*

3.5.:

-

302

PAST

TENSE ASPECT

-

( S —5

)

PRESENT

RETRO­ SPECTIVE

+

changed by

N continuation at N N