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Magistrates and Assemblies. A Study of Legislative Practice in Republican Rome
 9525323013

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-

A C TA I N S T I T U T I R 0 M A N I F I N L A N D I A E V o I. 24

ROME200l

MAGISTRATES AND ASSEMBLIES A Study of Legislative Practice in Republican Rome

Kaj Sandberg

ACTA INS TITUTI R O M ANI FINLAN DIAE Vol. 24

MAGISTRATES AND ASSEMBLIES A Study of Legislative Practice in Republican Rome by

KAJ SANDBERG

ROME 2001

Editor of the Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae

H EIKKI SOLIN Institutum Classicum, PL 4 (Vuorikatu 3 A) FIN-00014 Universitas Helsingiensis

Vol. 24 edited by

K AJ SANDBERG

ISBN 952-5323-01-3 ISSN 0538-2270

artment of

Htstory,

A bo

Akademi University 1991; Curiae. cemuriae och 1ribus. Komitial legislation i repub/ikem Ram fOre

Gracchmw. ibid. 1997. Pubhcauons: 'The concilium plebis as a Legislative Body during the Republic·. SPQR ( 1993).

74-96 and 'Tnbunic1an and Non-Tribunician Legislation in Mid-Republican Rome , Tile Middle Republic (2000), 121140

iii

grateful for their extensive conunents which helped me to finish my work. In addition to my own teachers and referees, there is a host of other scholars who have helped me along the way . I am particularly indebted to Prof. Andrew W. Lintott (Worcester College, Oxford), who read many of my early drafts. His role has been decisive in the shaping of my thoughts; we actually disagree on a number of central issues, but his critical remarks have inspired me to sharpen my arguments. Drafts of earlier versions of this work, or parts thereof, have been read also by Mr. Jaakko Aronen (University of Helsinki), Prof. Charles L. Babcock (Ohio State University), Prof. Fergus Millar (Brasenose College, Oxford), Prof. Paivi SetiiHi (University of Helsinki), Prof. Eva Margareta Steinby (All Souls College, Oxford) and Prof. T . Peter Wiseman (University of Exeter), all of whom have given me feedback in some form or another. Dr. Mika Kajava (University of Helsinki) has provided a lot of invaluable help in my work with the epigraphic evidence, whereas Ms. Marjo Lehtinen and Ms. Marja Vierros (University of Helsinki) kindly verified my observations in the papyrological material. I am most grateful to Mr. Janne P616nen (University of Oulu), and also to Mr. Simo O rmii of the lnstitutum Romanum Finlandiae, who - especially in the final stage of my work with this study - have assisted me in various ways in the libraries of Rome. I also thank Prof. Toivo Viljamaa for his permission to use

CD-ROM

discs

and other computer facilities at his department at University of Turku. It would be impossible, or at least impracticable, to specify in which particular ways I have re(:eived help from all the other persons I must thank. The following list includes the names of persons who, inter alia, have assisted me in finding material, scholars I have consulted on specific points as well as people who - in seminars, informal discussion and the like - have pointed out problems, notified me of new publications or provided useful remarks: Or. Antti Arjava (University of Helsinki), Prof. Michael H. Crawford (University College, London), Prof. Erich S . Gruen (University of California at Berkeley), Dr. Michel Hunun (Paris), Prof. Maarit Kaimio (University of Helsinki), Prof. Robert C . Knapp (University of California at Berkeley), Prof. Elio Lo Cascio (Universit3 degli studi Federico 11, Napoli), Prof. Silvio Panciera (Universit3 di Roma, La Sapienza), Prof. Ronald T. Ridley (University of Melbourne), Mr. Timo Saastamoinen (University of Turku), Prof. Olli Salomies (University of Helsinki), Mr. Pekka Tolonen (University of Turku), Mr. Kaius Tuori (University of Helsinki), Prof. Jtirgen van Ungem­ Sternberg (Universitiit Base!) and Dr. Alexander Yakobson (Hebrew U niversity, Jerusalem). Mr. Ream Barclay BA ( A bo Akademi) read my English and suggested several improvements; any extant errors are due to later alterations of the text. Last, but certainly not least, I thank my wife Pauliina Sandberg (University of Turku), herself a classical scholar, for helping me with the proofreading and for checking references and readings in the various text editions. Proceeding with the various institutions that have made my research possible, I owe the greatest debt to the Institutum Romanum Finlandiae Foundation, which has enabled me to spend altogether

iv

five happy years in Italy, on scholarships and as the assistant of the Finnish Institute. Being able to work in Rome, wilh ils superb libraries (and good restaurants), has been indespensable. Moreover, I am most grateful to the Foundation - and to Prof. Solin in his capacity as the editor of the Acta lnstituti Romani Finlandiae - also for its decision to publish my dissertation. It should be duly recorded that I have received financial support for my work also from the Ella and Georg Ehrnrooth Foundation, the Reinhold Ekholm Foundation, the Waldemar von Frenckell Foundation, the Thure Gallen Foundation, the Ingrid, Margit and Henrik HOijer Fund, the Research Institute of the A bo Akademi Foundation, the Wihuri Foundation and the Oskar bflund Foundation. I also thank the Finland- U . S . Educational Exchange Commission (FUSEEC) for the Fulbright Grant which enabled me to spend the academic year of 1994-95 as a graduate student at University of California at Berkeley. Due to the heavy work load at the AHMA-group (Ancient History and Mediterranean Archaeology) I had little time to pursue my own research, but my year there taught me skills that have been most useful in my work with this study . Finally, I dedicate this work to the memory of my father, Sven-Erik Sandberg ( 1 946- 1 999). Turku, July 200 1

K. S .

1. INTRODUCTION

1 . 1 . THE THEME: POPULAR ASSEMBLIES, LEGISLATION AND LAWS The Popular Assemblies The sovereignty of the populus Romanus was, at least in theory, the very foundation of the republican constitution. 1 Exactly to what extent this notion was more than a mere ideological conception is still a matter for debate, but it remains an indisputable fact that the popular vote was essential to the operation of the Roman state. Only the people could confer magistracies (and bestow imperium), pass judgement on capital crimes and , indeed, make law. 2 The popular will found expression in the decisions of the popular assemblies, which could be summoned only by a magistrate duly invested with the ius cum populo agendi or the ius cum plebe agendi. There was a basic distinction between the comio, a mere meeting summoned for announcements or public debate, and the comitia, a voting assembly making a formal decision. 3 The voting was carried out by units, that is, by groups of citizens. On the basis of the voting units - curiae, centuriae and tribus - it is possible to distinguish several popular assemblies: the comitia curiata, the comitia cemuriata and the comitia tributa. 4 The curiate assembly, reflecting a primitive clan society, is clearly the oldest of these assemblies. There is no doubt that it was in existence already in the regal period. The origins of the curiae - which were subdivisions of the three original tribes Tities, Ramnes and Luceres - may in fact predate the emergence of Rome as a political community. 5 By the Late Republic the curiate assembly had lost whatever political importance it had formerly possessed, something which is ret1ected in the fact that the participation of the people was no longer needed; the 30 curiae were each represented by a lictor whenever it was necessary to obtain a curiate decision.6 It remained formally throughout the Republic for the transaction of certain formalities; these included the passage of the lex curiata de imperio (which

' Cic. har. resp. lt: populus Romanus, cuius es1 summa pmesws omnium remm. 1

Cf. Cic. dil'. 2.74 and leg. 3.33.

'For the co/1/io, as oppos�:d to comiria, see Messalla ap. Gcll. 13.16.2-3: manijes/1/m est aliud esse 'cum populo agere',

a/iutf 'co/1/iunem ho/Jere '. Nom 'cum populo agen!' est rogare quid populum, tJIIOd su.!Jragiis Sit is all/ iubeat aut veter,

'comtonem' till/em 'habere' est verba facere ad populwn sine ltlla rogmio11e. For modern discussions, see G. W. B01srord, The Roman Assemblies, New York 1909, 139-t51 and L. R. Taylor, Romtm Voting Asumblies, Ann Arbor 1966. t5-33

' Laelius Felix ap. Gell. 15.27.5: Cum ex generibus lwminum su.!Jragium ferawr, 'curiata' comi/i(l esse; cum ex censu et aewre, 'cussion at p. 1 30 � App. dl'. t.59. 1" Scager 1 989, 172. Sulla's consulship of 88 and his tirst capture of Rome are discussed in B . R. Katz, 'The First Fruits of Sulla's Mardl', L 'Amitfllilt C/assitJIIe 44 ( 1 975), 100- 1 25 : Keavcncy 1 982, 56-77: B. M. Lcvick, 'Sulla's March on Rome m 88 u c ' , Histuriu 31 { 1 982), 503-508; A . Keavcney, 'What Happened in 88'? ' , Eirene 20 ( 1 983b), 53-86; Hinard 1985. 57-77 and Seagcr t 989, 165-173. � 1

38

KAJ SANDBERG

at Rome during Sulla 's absence; we proceed by noting that he returned to Italy with his army in 83. 1 1 In the end of the following year, by his viciOry at the Porta Collina, Sulla regained control of the capital. This time the opposition was drenched in blood; hundreds, if not thousands of his opponents lost their lives in the notorious proscriptions.12 But eager to legalize his position Sulla had himself appointed dictator, an office that had been in abeyance since the late third century BC. However, it re-emerged in a new form, since there was no precedence for a dictator legibus scribendis et rei publicae constiruendae. 1 3 This new office, which was not (as in former times)

limited to six months, was created by a law of the interrex L . Valerius Flaccus. 14 By virtue of his dicatorship Sulla initiated a legislative programme designed to put the Senate in firm control of the state machinery. 1 5 Again, Appian provides the only continuous account of these reforms, 16 but additional details emerge from other sources. The Sullan reforms were, above all, directed against the tribunate. As we have seen, Sulla had already in 88 made an attempt to curtail the tribunician power. At this point it was reduced to such an extent that, in Appian's words, it seemed to be destroyed. However, he gives no details, except that the dictator debarred by law former tribunes from further offices, thus making the tribunate unattractive to men of reputation or family. Livy, or his epitomator, states that Sulla reduced the potesras of the tribunes and deprived them altogether of their right of introducing legislation.

According to Velleius Paterculus, the dictator lefl the tribunicia potestas a mere form without substance. The author of the De viris illusrribus, a late source, merely states that Sulla diminished the tribunician power. 11 The exact implications of these statements are still a matter for debate, 18 but it seems clear - even if the full details remain irrecoverable - that the activity of the tribunes became subject to senatorial control. 19 It is often asserted that Sulla put restrictions on the ius 11

For a study of Roman politics during Sulla's absence from Rome, sec E. Badian. 'Waiting for Sulla'. JRS 52 ( 1 962b).

47-61

App. civ. 1 .95; Yell. Pat. 2.28.3-4. ' 1 App. civ. 1 .99: i:11t OCotl v61-1wv ... t:ai t:a"t"aotiiotl t"iJll Cic. dom. 83: cum de eo tribmms plebis promufgasset. Broughton, MRR 11, 33. _w Lex Alii. Tem1 .. praescr. : C. Amonius M. f Cn. Comellius --- 1 I C. Fundonius C. f lr(ibuni) pl(ebis) tie s(enmus) J(ememia) plebem ' 1·-·J I •>< preimus scil-it. Th�: qualilication in the i11dex: de Termesi(bus) Pisld(is) Mai(oribus). For the date, see J . - L . Ferrary, ' La Lex Amonia de Termessibus' , Athenaeum 73 ( 1 985), 439 ff. (cf. RS l, 332).

MAGISTRATES AND ASSEMBLIES

55

the text the rest of the tribunician college is sometimes added, since the colleagues of Antonius, Cornelius and Fundanius are known from another inscription.40 Two of the tribunes of 67 are connected with legislation by technical terminology. C. Cornelius is recorded as the promulgator of a law that l imited the right of the Senate to grant dispensation from the laws,41 but it is known that he was responsible for the promulgatio of a number of other laws as well.42 His colleague A. Gabinius passed the law by which Pompey received his unprecedented proconsular conunand against the pirates. Gabinius is connected with the promulgatio of this measure.4 3 In the consular elections for the year 65 P. Cornelius Sulla and P. Autronius Paetus were elected, but having been convicted of ambitus both were not only disqualified, but also expelled from the Senate. In December of 64, that is, soon after entering office, the tribune L. Caecilius Rufus proposed a law that would have cancelled part of the penalty prescribed by the lex Calpumia, the applicable law concerning the crime in question. Caecilius is attested as the promulgator of the bill. 44 The famous agrarian bill which was opposed by Cicero in his three

speeches De lege agraria comra Rullum was proposed by one of Caecilius' colleagues, P. Servilius Rullus, immediately upon entering office in December of 64. The tribune is recorded as the promulgator of the Jaw by both Cicero and Pliny the Elder. 45

In 61 M. Autidius Lurco enacted a lex de ambitu. This measure, for which the tribune is recorded as the promulgator, decriminalized a mere promise to bribe, but provided that a candidate convicted of having fulfilled such a promise should be liable for life of an annual fine.46 In the following year the tribune L. Flavius proposed an agrarian law, by which public land would have been assigned to Pompey's veterans. This initiative failed due to strong opposition

""' C/L I� 744 = JURP 465a . Tht: names of tht: (:olleagues, provided by this inscription, arc: Q. Mardus, L . Hostilius, C. Popilius, M . Valerius. C . Antius, Q. Caedlius, and a 'enain Lu,ius (whose gemilicium begins with the letter V). However, it is not ct:nain whether all or, indeed, any of these names appeared in the prescript of the law, set: Ft:rrary \985 , 454 note 122 (cf. RS I , 337). " Ascon. Com. p . 58: promu.lgavitqu.e legem quo auctoriratem senalllS mimubat; Aswn. Cum. p . 72: diximus iam .. Comeliwn . . legem promulgasse ne quis per senarum lege soh·eretur. As�:on. Cam. p. 59: Alias fJIIOQilt' compl11res leges Come/ius promulgavit. quibus pleri:itflle wllegae intercesserum. Cic. Manil. 52: A. Gabinium, . . . cum is de uno imperatore comra praedones constiflle/1(/o legem promulgasset. IIfil.

62

KAJ SANDBERG

blows which came to mark the beginning of the decline of the once so important island . In the prescript of the law, which represems an anempt to provide for the recovery of Delos , the consuls of 58 - A . Gabinius and L . Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus - appear as its rogatores. -w As we saw in the previous section of this chapter. numerous efforts were made by various tribunes to pass a law recalling Cicero from his exile in the period 58-57. Among curule magistrates working on his recall we find the praetor L. Caecilius Rufus, who together with almost the entire praetorian college promulgated a bill to that effect in 57.81 The law that eventually restored Cicero from his exile was promulgated by the consul P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther in the same yearY Cicero was later proud of the fact that almost all magistrates had promulgated bills calling for his return.H1 Pompey the Great, who was consul for the first time already in 70. is attested as promulgator of statutes in his second and third consulships, that is, in 55 and 52. In 55 he promulgated a judicial Jaw affecting the composition of the criminal juries.c lilllnd in the Appendix 11: those memioncU by Cicero before 43 BC - in the end of which year he was killed - must rder to laws cnacted by Caesar. For a discussion of the problem of distinguishing between laws of Caesar and Augustus. see D. ClouU. "/.ex lufia de w l-11' , Athenaeum 16 ( ] 988), 579-595 and 77 ( 1 989). 427-465 (which is a case study with relevance li>r the general issue) .., Lrses Pompeiae: Diu Cass. 40.55 .2: i:"' �wv flo)Jltlliwv vO)Jwv. Lex Pompeia: Ascon. Mil. p. 54; Caes. civ. 3 . 1 .4: Cic. All. 10.4.8, 1 3 .49. 1 , Bml. 324, Pili/. 1 .20; Dig. 48.9.3 pr.: Sdwf. Bob. pp. 62. 70, 7 1 (rogatio Pompeia). Le.t Pumpriu de parricidiis: Dig. 48.2 . 1 2.4. (lex PomJJeia purricidii); 48.9 1 . , 48.9. I pr.; lnJt. lust. 4. 18.6; Paul. sem. 5.24 t.. 5.24 . 1 . There arc also, in the letters of Pliny the Younger, references to a municipal /ex Pompeia. This law, which was not a kx rugma. was gp,:en to the Bithynians in 63 HC: Plin. t•piJI. 10.79. I: Pompeit1 lege tllwe Birltyuis duta e.fl, 10.7\JA. 10.80. 1 . 1 0. 1 1 2 . 1 . 10. 1 1 4 . 1 . 1 0. 1 1 5 . I '"' Cic . .fimr. 1 2 . 14.6 (leges AlliOIIiat•); Le.\· rot. Gen . , ciiii. line 12 (/ex An/lmia) ��

80

KAJ SANDBERG

In the 80's the passage of two leges Valeriae is recorded. However, it must be noted that these statutes were passed by different persons. The law of L . Valerius (RE 1 78) Flaccus, consul suffectus in 86, cancelled three�quarters of all debts. 101 The second lex Valeria - which we

encountered already in chapter 2 . 3 - is remarkable, in the constitutional history of the Republic, as it is the only known instance of interregnal legislation. In 82 the interrex L . Valerius (RE 1 76) Flaccus, who had been consul in 100 rogether with C. Marius, passed a law creating the office of dicraror legibus scribendis er reipublicae constituendae. This law also contained provisions confirming many of Sulla 's previous actions. 100

It is clear that L. Cornelius Sulla (cos. 88 and 80, dictator 82-8 1 ) introduced a number of laws, that is, other than the constitutional measures we have already discussed. There are in the sources a vast number of references to leges Corneliae. w3 He is not attested as the promulgator or the rogator of any law, but he seems to have carried a law depriving some rebellious cities of their Roman citizenship, along with part of their territories, in the cemuriate assembly . 1().1 He may also have passed a sumptuary law himself in a popular assembly, 105 but there is no need to postulate that all of his legislation was comitial . 106 By virtue of a law of the imerrex L. Yalerius Flaccus he was dicwwr legibus scribendis e1 reipublicae consriruendae in which capacity he had powers to introduce any legislation he saw tit . 107

"" Cic. Fom. I . 1m Cic. leg. agr. 3.6, 3.8, Rose. 1 25 ; Sclwl. Gron. p. 3 1 4 . 10J Th�rc are innum�rablt: r�fcr�nces to leges Comeliae, particularly in th� legal sources. Here only laws with a qualifying annbU!e are listed (for a full inventory, see Appendix 11): Lex Comelia de conjirmandis eorum testamemis, qui in lwstium poles/ate den.'ssissem: Dig. 28.3 . 1 5 pr. Lex Comelia defalsis: C. lust. 9 . 1 6 r . , 9.22 r.; C. Th. 9 . 1 9 1.; Dig. 48.10 1 . . 4 8 . 1 0 . 1 .4 . ; Inst. lust. 4 . 1 8 .7; Paul. sellf. 4.1. I, 5.25 . 1 1 . Lex Comelia iniuriarum (or de iniuris): Dig 47. 1 0.5.pr., 47. 10.37. 1 , 48.5.23.3. Lex Comelia maieswtis (or de maiestate): Ascon. Com. pp. 59, 62; Cic. Pis. 50. Lex Comelicl tW/1111/aria (= de folsis = testamemaria): Cic. Verr. 2 . 1 . 108. Lex Comelia de proscriptione: Cic. Rose. 125. Lex Comefia de sicariis (et ve11ejicis): Col/. Mos. 1 . 2 . 1 . . 1 . 3 . 1 , 1 .8 . 1 , 2.7. 1 , 3.2. 1 , 4.9. 1 , 7.2. 1 , 8.4. 1 ; C. lust. 9. 1 . 1 1 , 9. 16.5, 9 . 1 6.6; C. Tll. 9 . 1 4 t . ; Dig. 47.9.3.8, 48.5.39.8, 48.8 1., 48.8. 1 pr., 48.8.3 pr., 48.8.3.5, 48.8.4 pr., 48.9. 1 pr.; Inst. lust. 4 . 1 8 .5, 4 . 1 8.6; Paul. se/11. 5.23 t . ; Sen. flpoco/. 1 4 . 1 . Lex Cornelia sumptuaria: Macr. Sat. 3 . \ 7 . 1 1 ; Lex Comelia tesllmlei/Wria (cf. Lex Comelia nummaria above): Ps.-Ascon. p. 248; Cic. Verr. 2 . 1 . 108; C. lust. 9. 3 1 . 1 . 1 ; Coli. Mos. 8.2. 1 , 8.5. 1 , 8 . 7 . 1 ; C. Th. 9.20. 1 ; Dig. 43.5.3.6, 48.2.2 pr, 48. 10.30 pr.; hw. lust. 4 . 1 8 .7: Paul. m u . 5.25 t . , 5.25 . 1 . IIJol Cic. dom. 79: Populus Romm111s L. Sui/a dictatore fereme comitiis cetllllriatis mtmicipiis rit'ita/eltl ademit: ademit eisdem agroJ. IOj

cr. Gdl. 2 . 24 . 1 1 :

Posteo L. Sui/a dictator . . . legem

lld populum tlllit,

quo C0/11/1111 est, Ill Kalend/S, ldibus. No/liS

diebltSlf/11! ludorum et feriis quibusdtlm sol/emnibus sestertios tret·enos in t"f!tiOm itiSIIII/ere ius pote.flaSlflle esse/, ceteris 01111.'111 diebus ollmibus 11011 amp/ius tricet1os. 1""

Watson 1 974, 1 7 . Cf. Mommsen,

Staa/Sreclit l l ,

125 nme I .

107 App. civ. 1 .99: «�rtOv nipoiv"to OtKtinopa bd et:o�:t vOI-'WV, W v aUtO.; i:jO

Lex (Papiria) de dedicationc templi araevc

* Lex (?) Papiria de libcrtinorumque suffragiis •

novorum

civium

Lex Papiria scmunciaria

* Lex Papiria tabellaria * Rogatio Papiria de tribunis plebis reficiendis * •

Lex Papiria de ii iviris capitalibus Lex Papiria de viatoribus aediliciis

Rogatio Peducaea de inccstu

Cic. nat. deor. 3 . 74. * Lex Peducaea de incestu virginum Vestalium Lex Pesolania de cane

Paul. sellf. 1 . 1 5 . Rogatio Pctillia

Liv. 38.55 . 1 , 38.60. 1 , 39.6.4 (lex Petillia) . •

Lex Peti l i a de pecunia regis Antiochi

Lex Pctronia

AE 1 978 no. 1 00, lines 4 f. C/L IX 2666 a-b = JLS 65 1 8 , lines 5 f. C/L X 858 = ILS 6359, line 2: lege Perron(ia). C/L X 5405 = JLS 6 1 25 (Fasri Jmeramnares), lines 7- 1 5 (4): Ill/vir p(raefecms) l(ege) P(etronia). C/L X 5655, line 4: l(ege) P(etronia) C. Ju.1·t. 9.9. 1 6 . 2 . Dig. 48.8. 1 1 . 2 . •

Lex Petronia de praefcctis municipiorum



Lex Petronia de servis

BGU 11 378 = M iueis, Chrest. 60, lines 21 f. : toU Aaltwpiou v6j.LOU.

... Lex Papiria d e civitatc Acerranorum

BGU 11 6 1 1 = Miueis, Cl!rest. 370, i , line 6: legis Laetoriae. Cic. nat. dear. 3 . 74, off. 3 .6 ! . C/L I � 804 = /LS 40 1 9 , line 3 . CIL F 27 1 1 = JURP 1 2 1 , lines I f.

c. Th. 8 . 1 2 . 2 . 0 . Ux /m. , c a p . lxxxiv, lines 1 1 f. : lege Laetoria. P. Oxy. X 1 274, lines 13 f. : toU Aa1twpiou V6j.LOU.

P. 0.\)'. XVII 2 1 1 1 , i, line 15: toU AaL't'wpiou V6j.LOU.

P. Oxy. LXIV 4435 ( + VII 1 020): [I( V6j.LOU Ar;t�[t)�piou.

SHA Marc. Aur. 1 0 . 1 2 . Tab. Heracl. , lines I l l f. : lege {P}Laetoria. Varro ling. 6.5. •

Lex Plaetoria de circumscriptione adolescentium



Lex Plaetoria (de dcdicatione)



Lex Plaetoria de prac10re urbana

Lex Plautia/Piotia

Cic. Aft. 1 . 1 8 . 6 , Mil. 35, orat. deperd. frr. 7 fr. 54 (ap. Ascon. Cam. p . 79). Dig. 4 1 . 3 . 3 3 . 2 . Gaius inst. 2 . 4 5 . ORF C. Licinius Macer Calvus fr. 25 ( a p . Quint. inst. 9 . 3 . 56) (bis). Sai l. Cat. 3 1 .4, Cic. 3. Sclwl. Bob. p. 1 9 . Rogatio Plautia

Cacs. orat. fr. 27 (ap. Gell. 1 3 . 3 .5). Suet. Jul. 5 . •

Lex Plautia agraria

MAGISTRATES AND ASSEMBLIES * Lex PlaUiia iudiciaria

1 69

"' Rogatio (?) Pompeia de repetundis

* Lex PlaUiia de reditu Lepidanorum

"' Rogatio Pompeia sumptuaria

Lex Plautia/Piolia de vi

* Lex Pompeia de transpadanis

Ascon. Mil. p. 55. Cic. jam. 8 . 8 . 1 .

"' Lex Pompeia de vi

* Lex PlaUiia Papiria d e civitatc sociis danda

"' Lex Pompeia Licinia de provincia C. lu1ii Caesaris

* Rogatio Poetelia agraria * Lex Poetelia de ambitu * Lex Poetelia Papiria de nexis Lex Pompcia

Ascon. Mi/. p. 54. Caes. civ. 3 . 1 .4 . C i c . All. 1 0 . 4 . 8 , 1 3 .49. 1 , Brut. 324. Phi/. 1 .20. Dig. 48.9.3 pr. Plin. nat. 3 . 1 38 . P l i n . episr. 1 0.79. 1 , 1 0.79.4, 1 0 . 80. 1 , 10. 1 1 2 . 1 , 10. 1 1 4. 1 , 1 0. 1 1 5 . 1 . Schof. Bob. pp. 62, 70. Rogatio Pompeia

* Lex Pompcia Licinia de tribunicia potcstatc Lex Porcia

Cic. oral. deperd. frr. 7 fr. 50 (ap. Ascon. Com. p. 78), Rab. perd. 8, 12 (3), Verr. 2 . 5 . 163 (cf. Gell. 1 0 . 3 . 1 3 , Quint. inst. 9 . 2 . 38). Lex Am. Term. , col. ii, line 16. Sail. Cat. 5 1 .22, 5 1 .40, Cic. 5 . Lex Porcia (de provocatione)

Liv. 10.9.4. Leges Porciae

Cic. rep. 2.54. * Lex Porcia (fenebris?)

Schof. Bob. p. 7 1 .

* Lex Porcia frumentaria?

Leges Pompeiae

Diu Cass. 40.55 . 2 : t..- tWV no�nfjiWV v6�wv.

* Rogatio Porcia de imperio L. Cornelio Lentulo abrogando

* Lex Pompeia de ambitu

* Leges Porciae de provocatione (de tergo civium)

* Lex (Pompeia) de civitate equitibus Hispanis danda

* Rogatio Porcia de quaestiune extraordinaria instituenda

* Lex Pompeia de iure magistratuum

* Lex Porcia de sumptu provincia1i

* Lex Pompcia iudiciaria

* Rogatio Porcia Pumpeia de Q. Caecilio Metello revocando

"' Lex Pompeia municipal is Bithyniae data Lex Pompcia de parricidiis

Dig. 48.9 r., 48.9. 1 pr. Inst. Just. 4 . 1 8 . 6 . Paul. sent. 5 .24 r . , 5.24. 1 . Lex Pompeia parricidii

Dig. 48 . 2 . 1 2 . 4 .

* Lex Pompeia de provinciis * Lex Pompeia de quaestione cxtraordinaria instituenda

Lex Publicia

Dig. 1 1 . 5 . 3 pr.

* Lex Publicia de aleatoribus * Lex Publicia de cereis * Rogatio Publicia de imperio M. Claudio Marcello abrogando Lex Publilia

Gaius insr. 3 . 1 27, 4.22. * Lex Pub! ilia de sponsu

1 70

KAJ SANDBERG

"' Lex Pub! ilia Philonis de censorc plebcio creando

Lex Rupilia

*

Lex Publilia Philonis de patrum auctoritatc

*

Cic. Verr. 2 . 2 . 3 2 , 2 . 2 . 3 4 , 2 . 2 . 3 7 (bis). 2 . 2 . 3 8 . 2 . 2 . 3 9 (bis), 2 . 2 .42 (3), 2 . 2 .44. 2 . 2 .59, 2 . 3 .92.

Lex Publilia Philonis de plebiscitis

* Lex Pub! ilia Voleronis de plebcis magistratibus Lex Pupia

Leges Rupiliae

Ps.·Ascon. p. 1 9 1 . Cic. Verr. 2 . 2.40.

Cic. ati Q. fr. 2 . 1 3 . 3 , /am. 1 .4 . 1 .



"' Lex Pupia d e senatu diebus comitialibus non habendo

"' Lex Rupilia de cooptando senatu Heracliotarum

* Lex Pupia Valeria de inccstu Clodii * Lex Quinctia de aquaeductibus * Leges (Quinctiae) Thessalis datac Lex Rcmmia

Cic. Rose. 55. Dig. 2 2 . 5 . 1 3 pr. * Lex Remmia de calumniaiOribus Lex Roscia

Cic. All. 2 . 1 9 . 3 , oral. deperd. frr. 7 fr. 53 (ap. Ascon. Corn. p. 78), Phi/. 2 .44. Hor. episl. 1 . 1 . 62. Porph. epist. 1 . 1 .62, epod. 4 . 1 5- 1 6 . Tac. am1. 1 5 . 3 2 . * Lex Roscia theatralis Lex Rubria

Lex agr. , line 59 (cf. lines 55, 60, 6 1 , 79). Lex Gall. Cis. , cap. xx, lines 29, 38 f. Lex repel. , line 22: /(ege) Rubr(ia.

"' Lex Rubria de colonia Canhaginem deducenda "' Lex Rubria (de praefecto pro duoviro/de damno infecto) Lex Rubria Acilia

se. de Astypal. , lines 1 1 f. : Kcml) I tOv V6f!OV [t6v tc] " P6jlp10v Kai tOv " A Ki.hov. Lex Rufrena

AE \ 982 no. 149, line 3 . CIL 11 797 = ILS 73, lines 3 f. CIL IX 5 1 36 = !LS 73a, line 3: lege (Rufrena]. •

Lex Rufrena de Cacsaris nomine

Lex Rupilia de iure Sicu\orum

"' Lex Rupilia de re frumcntaria "' Rogatio Rut ilia de locatione ccnsoria "' Lex Rutilia de tribunis militum Lex Sacnia

Tac. ann. 1 1 .25. •

Lex Saenia de plebeis in patricios adlegendis

Lex Saufcia (agraria)

CIL 11, p. 1 99 elog. xxx = /LS 49 (cf. CIL X 1 509), line 4 : Vvir a. d. a. lege Sauje[i)a. Lex Scantinia

Cic . fam. 8 . 1 2 . 3 , 8 . 1 4 . 4 . Suet. Dom. 8 . 3 .

"' Lex Scantinia (o Scatinia) de nefanda Venere Lex Scribonia

Dig. 4 1 .3.4.28.

"' Rogatio Scribonia de agro Campano "' Rogatio (?) Scribonia alimentaria "' Rogatio Scribonia de C . Menunio restituendo (?) "' Rogatio (?) Scribonia de intercalando •

Rogatio Scribonia de itineribus (?)

"' Rogatio Scribonia de Lusitanis "' Lex (?) Scribonia de regno lubae publicando •

Lex Scribonia de usucapione servitutum

"' Rogatio Scribonia viaria Lex Sempronia

Ps.·Ascon. p. 2 1 8 .

MAGISTRATES AND ASSEMBLIES Cic. Balb. 6 ! , Car. 4 . 1 0 (bis), Cluem. 1 54 , dom. 24,fam. 1 . 7 . 1 0 , leg. agr. 2 . 3 1 (bis). prov. cons. 3, Tusc. 3.48, Verr. 2 . 3 . 1 2 . Gram. (De sepulchris) p. 2 7 1 f. Hyg. grom. limit. p. 169. Lex agr. , line 82. Lib. col. pp. 210, 2 1 6, 2 1 9, 228, 229, 230, 237, 238, 255. 260. Liv. per. 58. Sail. lug. 27.3. Scllol. Bob. p. 133. Schol. Gron. pp. 287, 289 (bis). Leges Scmproniae

Cic. Phi/. 1 . 1 8 , Verr. 2 . 5 . 163 (cf. Quim. inst. 9 . 2 . 3 8 and Gell. 1 0 . 3 . 1 3) . Rogationcs Scmproniae

Tac. ann. 1 2 . 60. •

Lex Sempronia de abactis



Lex Sempronia agraria

* Lex Sempronia agraria ahera •

Lex Sempronia agraria



Lex Sempronia de pecunia credita



Rogatio Sempronia de pecunia regis Auali

171

* Lex Sempronia de P. Popillio Laenate •

Lex Sempronia de provincia Asia



Lex Sempronia de provinciis consularibus



Rogatio Sempronia de provocatione

* Lex Sempronia de sicariis et veneficiis? * Rogatio Sempronia de suffragiorum confusione * Lex Sempronia de triumpho L. Aemilii Paulli. Cn. Octavii , L. Anicii Galli * Lex Sempronia viaria? Lex Servilia

Cic. Ba/b. 54 (bis). Brill. 1 6 1 . 296, Cluem. 140. de oral. 2.223, Rab. Posr. 9 , Samr. 2. ORF L. Licinius Crassus fr. 24 (ap. Prise. 8.73). Quim. insr. 6.3 .44. Val . Max. 8 . 1 . 8 . Leges Serviliae

Tac. ann. 1 2 . 60.

* Lex Sempronia de capite civis Romani

* Rogatio Servilia agraria

* Rogatio (?) Sempronia de civitate sociis danda

* Lex Servi1ia iudicaria

* Rogatio Sempronia de civitate sociis danda

* Lex Servi1ia repetundarum

"' Lex Sempronia de coloniis Tarentum et Capuam deducendis

* Rogatio Sextia de agris dividendis et de colonia Bolam dcducenda

* Lex Scmpronia de duoviris at.>di dedicandae

* Rogatio Sextia de reditu Ciceronis

Lex Semp['Onia frumenlaria

* Rogatio Sicinia de agro Pomptino

Cic. Brul. 222. * Rogatio Sempronia iudiciaria * Rogatio Sempronia iudiciaria ( = de senatu)

* Rogatio Sicinia de pane civium Vcios dcducenda * Rogatio (?) Sicinia de tribunicia potestate restituenda

* Lex Sempronia iudiciaria

Lex Silia

* Lex Sempronia de magistratu M. Octavio abrogando

Gaius insr. 4 . 1 9 (bis).

* Rogatio (?) Sempronia militaris

* Lex Silia de mensuris et pondcribus

* Lex Sempronia militaris

Lex Sulpicia

* Lex Sempronia de navis ponoriis

Val. Max. 9.7. 1 .

* Lex Silia de legis actione

1 72

KAJ SANDBERG

Rogatio Sulpicia

Vir. ill. 67 .4, 75.8.

* Lex Sulpicia de acre alieno senatorum * Lex Sulpicia de bello Mithridatico C. Mario decernendo * Lex Sulpicia de novorum civium libcninorumque suffragiis * Lex Sulpicia de revocandis vi eit.'Ctis "' Lex Sulpicia rivalicia * Lex Sulpicia de triumpho C. Pomptini Lex Tarpeia

Fcst. p. 270. Lex Terentia

Cic. Verr. 2 . 3 . 173. * Lex Tercntia de libertinorum libcris Lex Terentia et Cassia frumentaria

Cic. Verr. 2 . 3 . 1 63 , 2.5.52 (lex Teremia el Cassia). Lex Tcrcntilia

Liv. 3 . 1 0 . 5 . * Rogatio Tcremilia de quinqueviris lcgibus scribundis Lex Thoria

* Lex Titia de lllviris reipublicae constituendae * Lex Titia de tutela Lex Trebonia

Liv. 5 . 1 1 . 1 , 5 . 1 1 . 2 , 5 . 1 2 . 2 . •

Lex Trebonia d e provinciis consu1aribus

* Lex Trcbonia de tribunorum plebis creatione •

Lex Tullia de ambitu

* Lex (?) Tullia de legationibus liberis Lex Valeria

Cic. Font. 1, leg. agr. 3 . 6 , 3 . 8 . Sclwl. Gron. p. 3 1 4 . Plebiscitum Valerium

Liv. 38.36 . 10. •

Lex Valeria de aere alieno



Lex Valeria de candidatis



Lex Valeria de civitate Calliphanae Veliensi danda * Lex Va1eria de civitate cum suffragio Fonnianis et Allli natibus danda •

Lex Valeria de domo publica

* Lex Valeria militaris

Cic. de oral. 2.284.

* Lex Valeria de mu !lac dictione

* Lex Thoria agraria

Lex Valeria de proscriptione

Lex Titia

Cic. leg. 2 .3 1 , Mur. 1 8 . Dig. 1 1 . 5 . 3 pr. Frg. Si11ait. 20 = 54: Titiu v61J.OU. Leges Titiae

Cic. leg. 2 . 1 4 .

Cic. Rose. 125. L e x Valeria d e provocatione

Liv. 1 0 . 9 . 3 (de provocalione lex), 10.9.5 ( Valeria lex). •

Lex Valeria de quacstoribus

* Lex Titia d e agris dividundis

* Lex Valeria de sacrando cum bonis capite cius qui rcgni occupandi consilium inisset

* Lex Titia de alcatoribus

* Lex Valeria de Sulla dictatore

* Lex Titia de magistratu P. Servilio Cascae abrogando * Lex Titia de nefanda Venerc? * Lex Titia de provincia aquaria? (de provinciis quaestoriis)



Lex Valeria de vectigalibus?

* Lex Valeria Fundania de lege Oppia sumptuaria abroganda •

Lex Valeria Horatia de plebiscitis

MAGISTRATES AND ASSEMBLIES "' Lex Valeria Horatia de provocatione "' Lex (?) Valeria Horatia de senatus consultorum cuswdia *

Lex Valcria Horatia de tribunicia pmcstate

Lex Vallia

Gaius insr. 4.25. *

Lex Vallia de manus iniectione

Lex Varia

Ascon. Corn. p. 73. Cic. Brur. 205. 304, Scaur. 3 , Tusc. 2 . 57. ORF Q. Scrvi\ius Caepio fr. 6 . Lex Varia d e maiestatc

Cic. oral. deperd. frr. 7 fr. 54 (ap. Ascon. Com. p . 79). Lex Vatinia

Suet. Jul. 22. 1 . Rogatio Vatinia

Suet. /11/. 2 8 . 3 .

1 73

C. lusl. 9 . 2 1 r . , 9. 2 1 . 1 pr. , 9.2 1 . 1 . 1 , 9 . 3 1 . 1 . 1 . C. Th . 9.20. 1 . Gaius i11s1. 1 . 32b. U\p. reg. 3 . 5 . *

Lex Visellia d e cura viarum

*

Lex Visel\ia de libeninis

Lex Voconia

Ps.·Ascon. p. 248. Augustin. civ. 3 . 2 1 . Cato orar. fr. 1 5 8 . C i c . fi n . 2.55 (bis), rep. 3 . 1 7 , Wlect. 1 4 , Verr. 2 . 1 . 1 06, 2 . 1 . 107. 2 . 1 . 108, 2 . 1 . 1 09, 2 . 1 . 1 10. Dio Cass. 56.10.2: napit 't0v OUoKWvetov v611ov. Fes1. p. 356. Gaius insl. 2 . 226. 2 . 274. Gell. 6. 1 3 . 3 , 1 7 . 6 . 1 . Inst. lusl. 2.22 pr. Quint. decl. min. 264 r. St:rv. Aen. 1 .573 . Leges Voconiae

* L e x Vatinia de co\onia Comum deducenda

Plin. pan. 42. 1 .

"' leges Vat iniac de foederibus (?)

Plcbisscilum Voconium de cocrcendis mulicrum

*

Lex Vatinia de provincia Caesaris

Lex Vatinia de rciecUone iudicum

Schol. Bob. p. 120.

* Lex Vatinia de Veuii iudicio Lex Vell(a)ea

C. Jus!. 3.28.34, 6.28.2. Dig. 28. 2 . 29.5 (bis), 28. 2 . 29 . 6 (bis), 28.2.29.7,

28.2.29.8, 28.2.29 . 1 1 , 2 8 . 3 . 3 . 1 , 28.5.6. 1 , 28.6.2 pr. * Lex (?) (Veturia Postumia) de colonia Ca\es deducenda *

Lex Vibia de actis Caesaris confirmandis

* Lex Vibia de coloniis deducendis * Lex Vibia de dictatura tollenda *

Lex Vi Ilia annalis

Lex Viscllia

CIL 1 2 744 = ILS 5800, line 3 .

heredilatibus

Ge\1. 20. 1 . 23. *

Lex Voconia de mulicrum hereditatibus

ABBREVIATIONS, SOURCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

ABBREVIATIONS AE AJPh ANRW BEFAR BGU Bilancio critico

L 'Amu!e £pigraphique, Paris 1 888- . American Journal of Philology Aufstieg und Niedergang der rOmi�-chen Welt, Berlin 1970-- . Bibliothi!que ties Ecoles fran(aises d 'Athenes et de Rome Aegypri�·che Urkunde11 aus den Staatlicl!en Museen zu Berlin, Griecltische Urktmden , Berlin 1 895- . Bilancio critico su Roma arcaica fra monarchia e repubblica. Convegno in memoria di Ferdinando Castagnoli, Roma, 3-4 giugno 1991 (Ani dei convegni

Lined 1 00). Roma 1993. BMC(E)

Broughton, MRR Bruns1 CAH C/L

Cohen

CPL

De Manino, Storia Di:. epigr. FIRA Flach, GFRR

Girard /GRR IURP /LS lnscr. Ita/. Jacoby, FGrllist

H . Mauingly & R. A. G . Carson, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum I-VI, London 1 923- 1 962. T. R. S. Broughton, Tile Magistrates of the Roman Republic 1-11, New York 1 95 1 - 1 952; Supplememum. Atlanta 1 986. C. G . Bruns & 0. Gradcnwitz, Fomes iuris Romani amiqui\ Ttibingcn 1 909. The Cambridge Anciem Hiswry Th. Mummscn et al. (edd . ) , Corpus inscriptionum Latinarum, Berlin 1863-. H . Cohen, Description llistorique des monnaies frappies sous / 'Empire romain communemem appellees medailles imperiafd· I-VIII, 1 880- 1 892 (repr. Graz 1 955). R. Cavenailt: (ed . ) , Corpus Papyrorum Latinarmn, Wicsbaden 1 958. F. De Maninu, Storia de/la costituzione romana I-V, Napoli 1 95 1 -67 (secunda edizione Napoli 1 972- 1 975). E. De Ruggiero et al . , Di:.ionario epigrafico di amichiul romane, 1 886--. S. Riccobono et al . , Fomes iuris Romani ameiustiniani 1-111, Firenze 1940- 1 943. D. Flach, in Zusanunenarbeil mit S. von der Lahr, Die Gesetze der friilren rOmisclmr Republik. Text wul Kommemar, Darmstadt 1 994. P. F. Girard, Les texte.s de droit romain, Paris 1937. R. Cagnat et al. (edd. ) , lnscriptiones Graecae ad res Romatws pertinemes I , IJI­ IV, Paris 1 90 1 - 1 927. A. Degrassi, lnscriptiones Latitwe liberae rei publicae Jl.IJ, Fircnzc 1 9651 1 963. H . Dessau, lnscrip1iones Larinae selectae I-V, Berlin 1 892- 1 9 1 6 . lmcriptiones lialiae, Roma 1 93 1 - . F. Jacoby, Die Fragmeme der griechischen Historiker 1-lll ( 1 1 vull.), Berlin ­ Lcidcn 1 923- 1 958.

Miueis, Chres/.

Joumal of Roman Siudies F. Serrau (a cura di), Legge e �·odetii nella repubblica romana I, Napoli 1 98 1 . F. Serrao ( a cura di), Legge e societiJ nella repubblica romana I I , Napoli 1 988. Melanges d'arcl1iologie et d'llistoire de l 'Ecole franraise de Rome. Amiquiti. C. Bruun (ed.). nre Roman Middle Republic. Politics, Religion, and Hisroriograpliy, c. 400-133 BC (Acta lnstituti Romani Finlandiae 23), Rome 2000. L. M iueis & U. Wilckcn, Grund:;Uge und Clireswmalhie der Papymsurkunde I­

Mommsen, Swatsrechr

IV, Leipzig - Berlin 1 9 1 2 (Neudr. Hildeshcim 1 963). Th. Mummsen, ROmisches Staarsrecht Jl·II1, Ill, Leipzig 1 887- 1 888.

JRS Legge e �·ocietil I Legge e societil 11 MEFRA The Middle Republic

MAGISTRATES AND ASSEMBLIES

1 75

NP

H. Cancik & H. Schneider (Hrsg.), Der Neue Pau/y. Enzykfopiidie der Alllike, Stuugan 1 996--- .

NSc OCD1

Norizie degli scavi di amichiril

OGIS ORF P. Cairo Masp.

Peter, HRR P. Hamb. I Plamer - Ashby P. Mic/1. P. Oxy. PP

Preisigke, WOrterbucll

P . Ryl. P. Vindob. Boswinkel P. Wise. RE RIC

Richardson, Diclionary Rotondi, LPPR RRC RS SB SDHI SEG

Sherk, RDGE Social Sil"llggles

S. Hornblowcr & A. Spawfonh (eds.), TI1e Oxford Classical Dicrionary:l , Oxford 1 996. W. Dittenberger, Oriemis Graeci imcriprione!>' selecwe 1-11, Leipzig 1903-05. E. Malcovati (ed.), Orawrum Romanorumfragmema liberae rei publicae, Torino 1 953. J. Maspero (ed.), Catalogue giniral des amiquitis igyptiennes du Musie du Caire. Papyrus grecs d'ipoque byzamine 1-III (Cat. vols. 5 1 , 54, 73), Le Caire 191 1-16. H. Peter, HiJtoricorum Romanorum reliquiae 12-11, Leipzig 1 9 1 4 / 1 906. P. M. Meycr (Hrsg.), Griecllische Papyrusurkunden der Hamburger Slaats- tmd Universiliilsbibliolllek I. Leipzig - Berlin 1 9 1 1 -24. S. B. Plamer & Th. Ashby, A Topographical DicLionary ofAnciem Rome, London 1 929 (repr. Rome 1 965). C. C. Edgar et al. (eds.), Papyri in Lhe University of Miclligan Collection, Ann Arbor et al. 1931- . B. P. Grenfell et al. (eds.), 111e Oxyrllynchus Papyri, London 1898- . Parola del passato WOrrerbucli der gricliischen Papyrusurkunden mit Einschluft der griechischen " lnschri[ten, Aufschriften, Ostraka, Mumienschilder, usw. aus Ag_vpten 1-111, Berlin

1 925-3 1 ; IV fasc. 1-5, Berlin et al. 1944-93; Suppl. I , Amsterdam 1 97 1 ; Suppl. 11, Wiesbaden 1 99 1 . A. S. Hum et al . , Cmalogue of the Greek and Lalin Papyri in the Jolm Ryland Library, Manchester I-IV, Manchester 1 9 1 1 -52. E. Boswinkel (Hrsg.), Einige Wiener Papyri, Lciden 1 942. P. J. Sijpcsteijn (ed.), 111e WiJConsin Papyri 1-11, Leiden - Zutphen 1967- 1 977. A. Pauly et al. (Hrsg.), Reai-Encyclopiidie der classischen Alrenumswissenschaft , Stuttgart - Miinchen 1 894- 1 980. H. Maningly et a l . , 111e Roman Imperial Coinage !-X, London 1 923- 1 994. L. Richardso n j r . , A New Topographical Dicrionary of Ancielll Rome, Baltimore - London 1 992. G. Rotondi, Leges publicae populi Romani, M ilano 1 9 1 2 (repr. Hildesheim 1 990). M. H. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage 1-11, Cambridge 1 974. M . H. Crawford (ed.), Roman Stalules 1-11 (Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, Supplement 64), London 1 996. F. Preisigke et al . , Sammelbuch griechischer Urkunden aus Ag)pten, Straflburg et al. 1 9 1 5- (Wiesbaden 1958- ). Studio el documema historiae el iuris Supplememum epigraphicum Graecum, 1 923- . R. K. Shcrk, Roman Documems from tile Greek East. Senatus consul/a and episw/ae ro the Age of Augustus, Baltimore 1 969. K. A. Raallaub (ed.), Social Struggles in Archaic Rome. New Perspeclives on tile Conflict of the Orders, Berkcley - Los Angdes 1 986.

1 76 SPQR Staat und Slaat/iciJkeir Sroria di Roma I Storia di Roma 11 . 1 TAM ZPE ZSS

KAJ SANDBERG U. Paananen et al . , Senallls popufusque Romanus. Studies in Roman Republican Legislmion (Acta lnstituti Romani Finlandiae 1 3 ) , Helsinki 1 993. W. Eder (Hrsg.), Sraa/ utrd Staallichkeit in der frUhen rdmischen Republik. Akten eines Symposiums 12. -15. Juli 1988. Freie Universitiit Berlin, Stuttgan 1990. A. Momigliano & A. Schiavone (a cura di), Storia di Roma I. Roma in /talia, Torino 1 988. G . Clemente et al. (a cura di), Storia di Roma 1 1 . L 'impero medirerraneo I . lA repubblica imperiale, Torino 1 990. Tiru/i Asiae minoris, Wien 1 90 1 - . Zeirschrift fiir Papyrologie und Epigraphik ZeiBcllrift der Savigny-Sliftwrg fiir Rechtsgeschichte, Romanistische Abreilung

PRIMARY SOURCES A . Literary Sources Ace. Urb. COli(I".

Ampel.

Accennius Urbicus De col/lroversiis agrorum, ed . K. Lachmann 1 848.

L. Ampelius Liber memorialiJ, ed. E. Allmann 1 935.

App. civ. Pun.

Apu l . met.

Ascon.

Com. Mit. Pis. Scaur. rog. cand.

Appianos Bella civilia,