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Losses of skill in performing the standard Mashburn task arising from different amounts of learning of the reversed task

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LOSSES Of SKILL IB PERFORMING THE STABDARD MSHBURN TASK a r i s i n g m om m m m m m am ounts o f le a r n in g o f t h e r e v e r s e d ta s k

by A lfre d Henry Shephard

A d i s s e r t a t i o n su b m itte d in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e d eg ree o f D octor o f P h ilo so p h y , in th e D epartm ent o f P sychology in th e G raduate C o lle g e o f th e S ta te U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa A ugust 1950

ProQuest Number: 10598602

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality o f this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon th e quality o f th e c o p y subm itted. In th e unlikely e v e n t th at th e author did not se n d a c o m p le te m anuscript an d th ere are missing p a g e s , th e s e will b e n o te d . Also, if m aterial had to b e rem o v ed , a n o te will ind icate th e d eletion .

uest ProQuest 10598602 Published by ProQuest LLC (2017). Copyright o f th e Dissertation is held by th e Author. All rights reserved. This work is p r o tec te d again st unauthorized c o p y in g under Title 17, United States C o d e Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

T n ’oO "bW Cop. 3l

ACMGWL1MMT The w r i t e r I s in d e b te d to P r o f e s s o r Don Lewis f o r th e f o r m u la tio n o f t h i s p ro b lem , and f o r h i s in v a lu a b le d is c u s s io n s and s u g g e s tio n s .

table of

c o m s

Chapter I

II III

page

In tro d u c tio n . . . . . . . .



.

S ta te m e n t o f th e Problem* • Method o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n . .

14 ..........................•

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A p p a ra tu s . ................... * * » . . « * • • Subject® ■ , * • * . * * » ♦ • * * * « * • The E x p e rim e n ta l C o n d itio n s . ................... I¥

B e s u its . .

t

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The C o m p a ra b ility o f th e Groups# • * • C hanges in P erfo rm an ce from O rig in a l le a r n i n g to R e le a rn in g * . . # • * « Number o f M atches a® a M eashre o f Performance in R e le a rn in g . .................. Errors a s a M easure o f P erfo rm an ce i n R e le a rn in g # * » « * ............................ Irro r^ M a to h R a tio s a s a M easure o f P erfo rm an ce i n B e le a rn in g . • • • * • The lum ber o f T r i a l s Bequhed to Beach th e P erfo rm an ce c r i t e r i a * . . . * * The p erfo rm an ce o f C o rresp o n d in g C o n tro l and E x p e rim e n ta l C ro u p s. . • The E rro r-M atcli R a tio s in B e le a rn in g T r i a l s f o r Each A p p aratu s C o n tr o l• « The E rro r-M a tch R a tio s f o r th e In te rp o la te d T a s k . • . ?

D is c u s s io n o f R e s u lts Appendix*A* 9 . • . * A ppendix B. . . . . . . .

......................

IS 1*7 18 22 22 25 32 37 39 45 51 55 58

79

...............................

............................................

References,

IS

61

A ppendix Q. * ..................................................... A ppendix D« * .

1

* •

91 94 97

..........................100

iii

table o f f v a m m

F ig u re 1

page The R e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e Bfean D ecrem ent I n M atch es, th e ’ Mean I n c r e a s e in E r r o r s , th e Mean I n c r e a s e In E rro r* Mat ch. R a tio s and th e Number o f M atches made on th e G r i t e r i a l T r i a l o f I n t e r p o l a t e d L earn in g # « « » « • • • *

30

Z

The R e la tio n s h ip s betw een th e Mean Humber o f M atches, th e Mean Humber o f E r r o r s , th e Mean M rror-M atch R a tio s on th e F i r s t R e le a rn in g T r i a l and th e C r l t e r i a l T r i a l o f I n t e r p o l a t e d L earn in g * 9 • *. #. 31

3

The Means o f Number o f M atches made fey th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups on Each o f th e R e le a rn in g T r i a l s * « * • * * # « « « * * * • *

34

The Means o f T o ta l E r r o r s 'Mad® fey th e E x p e rt* m e n tal G roups on S aeh o f th e R e le a rn in g T r ia ls * ..................

36

4

8

The Means o f I r r o r- M a tc h R a tio s f o r th e E x p erim e n tal G roups on Bach o f th e R e le a rn in g T r i a l s . * * . # * * * # * * * * . * * 4 3

§

The Means o f H rror*M ateh R a tio s f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups on Each o f th e A p p aratu s C o n tro ls on Each o f th e B e le a rn in g T r i a l s * ♦ . 5?

7

The D ec re ase i n N rro?«M ateh R a tio w ith th e I n c r e a s e in Number o f M atches made on th e C r l t e r i a l T r i a l o f I n t e r p o l a t e d L earn in g * « * * 60

Iv

TABLES

Of

TABLES

T a b le I II

III

IV

V

VI

V II

T ill

IX

page O u tlin e o f th e E x p e rim e n ta l C o n d itio n s*

* * *

19

A n aly ses o f V a ria n c e o f M atches S c o re s o f th e th e E x p e rim e n ta l C roups f o r T r i a l s 1 and Bl o f O r ig in a l l e a r n i n g and f o r T r i a l 1 o f I n t e r ­ p o la te d l e a r n i n g * ...............................................

£4

A n aly ses o f V a ria n c e o f Humber o f M atches on T r i a l s IB and 18 o f O r ig in a l l e a r n i n g and 'T r ia ls 6 and 16 o f I n t e r p o l a t e d L earn in g # * .

£6

The Means o f Humber o f M atch es, E r r o r s , an d I r r o r - M a te h R a tio s on th e L a s t ' T r i a l o f O ri­ g i n a l L e a rn in g and on th e f i r s t T r i a l o f B e le a r n in g and D if f e r e n c e s b etw een them f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l C roups * • « « * # • * * • *

B7

A n aly ses,'o f'-/V arian ce o f t h e D if f e r e n c e s b e ­ tw een th e L a s t T r i a l o f O r ig in a l L e a rn in g and th e f i r s t T r i a l o f B e le a rn in g f o r M a tch e s, E r r o r s and I r r o r - M a tc h R a tio s f o r th e E x p e r i­ m e n ta l C roups » ' * * « * » * • * , « « » # *

£9

A n aly ses o f V a ria n c e o f M atch es, E r r o r s , and E rro r-M a tc h R a tio s f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups o n - th e F i r s t T r i a l o f B e le a rn in g * * * * ♦ ♦ ♦

33

The Mean D ecrem ent i n Humber o f M atches d u r in g B e le a rn in g f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups F o llo w ­ in g an I n t e r v a l o f One Day W ith o u t P r a c t i c e •

35

A n aly ses o f V a ria n c e o f D ecrem ents in M atches F o llo w in g an I n t e r v a l o f One Day W ithout P r a c t i c e Betw een T r i a l s 5 and 6 and Between T r i a l s £0 and £1 o f B e le a rn in g * * • • # * « •

36

The Mean In c re m e n t i n T o ta l E r r o r s f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups F o llo w in g an i n t e r v a l betw een B e le a rn in g T r i a l s o f One Day W ithout P r a c tic e * « , * * * • * * * * • * . • * * • «

40

v

TABLES OF TABLES T ab le

page

X A n a ly se s o f Variance o f th e In c re m e n ts I n T o ta l E r r o r s f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups F o llo w in g an I n t e r v a l b etw een Belearning T r i a l s o f One Bay W ith o u t P r a c tic e * *. * 41 XI

The Mean In c re m e n t i n T o ta l Bmor*M ate& R a tio s f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups F o llo w in g an la** t e r v a l Between B e le a r n in g T r i a l s o f Oneto y W ith o u t P ra ctic e* '. * *- ** * * . * , * * • « «> +

44

X II

A n aly ses o f V a ria n c e o f th e In c re m e n ts i n T o ta l I r r o r - M a tc h R a tio s f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups F o llo w in g an I n t e r v a l b etw een th e . B e le a rn in g T r i a l s o f One Bay W ith o u t P r a c t i c e * 46

X III

The Mean Humber o f T r i a l s t o Beach th e Original* th e I n t e r p o l a t e d and th e B e le a rn in g C r i t e r i a f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups « * # * * * # * » 47

X II

Analyse® o f V a ria n c e o f th e Humber o f T r i a l s f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups to R each th e O r ig in a l and th e I n t e r p o l a t e d C r i t e r i a * * « *

48

XI

A n aly ses o f V a ria n c e o f th e Humber o f T r i a l s B e o e ssa ry f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l Group® to R e g a in a n O r ig in a l L e a rn in g P erfo rm an ce Level* * * * 50

XIX

The Means o f M atch es, E r r o r s , and E rro r-M a tc h R a tio s f o r th e C o n tro l G roups on th e L a s t T r i a l o f O r ig in a l L e a rn in g and th e F i r s t T r i a l o f B e le a r n in g and D if f e r e n c e s Betw een Them * » *. 8B

X III

w in

The Means o f Humber o f M atch es, E r r o r s and E rro r-M a tc h Ratio® f o r th e L a s t T r i a l o f O ri­ g i n a l L e a rn in g and th e F i r s t T r i a l o f Relearn** lu g and t h e D if f e r e n c e s b etw een O r i g in a l L e a rn in g and R e le a rn in g f o r C o n tro l G roups 6 and 3 and C o rre sp o n d in g E x p e rim e n ta l G roups B and 2 and th e S t a t i s t i c a l S ig n if ic a n c e o f th e D if f e r e n c e s betw een them . . * • « . * • •

53

The Means o f Humber o f T r i a l s to B each th e O r i g in a l, th e I n t e r p o l a t e d and th e B e le a rn in g C r i t e r i a f o r th e C o n tro l G r o u p s »

54

vi

T4SLS3 OF m S S T able XIX

pm ® Th© [email protected] o f M mber o f,M a tc h e s , T o ta l E r r o r s , and E rr o r *Ma to ll R a tio s on th© l a s t T ria l o f In te rp o la te d le a r n in g * * * * *

ir il

m

f

C h a p te r I IHTB01XJCTI0M S t a t e s o f r e t e n t i o n a s a f u n c tio n o f a c t i v i t y in te r v e n in g b etw een o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g and l a t e r t e s t t r i a l s a r e commonly c a l l e d s t u d i e s o f r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n . MeGeoch (19) d e f in e s r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n a s "a d ecrem en t i n r e t e n t i o n r e s u l t i n g from a c t i v i t y , u s u a l l y a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y , I n t e r p o l a t e d b etw e en an o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a l a t e r m easu re o f r e t e n t io n * n

I t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed

t h a t a d ecrem en t i n a b i l i t y to p e rfo rm a ta s k a t some tim e a f t e r i t i s o r i g i n a l l y le a r n e d i s th e r e s u l t o f scans a c t i v e in te r v e n in g p r o c e s s and n o t due to d is u s e o r g e n e r a l d e t e r i o r a ­ t i o n o f th e e s t a b l i s h e d bonds o r c o n n e c tio n s .

F o rg e ttin g ,

o r l o s s o f r e t e n t i o n , i s r e l a t e d to th e n a tu r e and m o u n t o f a c t i v i t y d u rin g th e p e r io d o v e r w hich r e t e n t i o n i s m e asu red , fh© s tu d y o f r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n th u s p r o v id e s a m ethod f o r I n v e s t i g a t i n g r e t e n t i o n a s a f u n c tio n o f th e k in d and amount o f a c t i v i t y d u rin g th e r e t e n t i o n I n t e r v a l .

A sub­

j e c t l e a r n s one ta s k t h a t i s to be t e s t e d f o r r e n t e n t i o n a t some l a t e r tim e .

By v a r y in g th e k in d and amount o f m a t e r i a l

le a r n e d d u r in g t h i s r e t e n t i o n i n t e r v a l , i t 1® p o s s i b le to s tu d y th e d i f f e r e n t i a l l o s s o f r e t e n t i o n a s a f u n c tio n o f th e i n t e r p o l a t e d m a t e r i a l .

2

The t r a d i t i o n a l r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n s tu d y u t i l i z e s an e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p and a c o n t r o l g ro u p ,

fh©

u s u a l d e s ig n i s a s fo llo w s* O r i g in a l

In te rp o la te d .xrn, .

B e le a ra i

C o n tro l Group

T ask A

H ea t

T ask A

E x p e rim e n ta l Group

T ask A

T ask B

T ask A

F o r th e s tu d y o f t h e e f f e c t 'o f amount o f i n t e r * p o in te d l e a r n i n g on r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n f o r a g iv e n amount o f o r i g i n a l le a r n in g # b o th g ro u p s m ust h a v e e q u iv a le n t am ounts o f o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g and th e same tim e i n t e r v a l betw een o r i g i n a l le a r n i n g and r e l e a r n i n g .

The i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t

p e r io d g iv e n th e c o n t r o l g ro u p i s a p e r io d d u rin g w hich th e r e i s no fo rm a l p r a c t i c e .

The r e s p o n s e s made b y th e s u b je c t i n

t h i s i n t e r v a l may be p a r t i a l l y u n d er l a b o r a t o r y c o n t r o l a s i n su ch t a s k s a s s o r t i n g c a r to o n s and r e a d in g m agazines# o r th e more g e n e r a l r e s p o n s e s o f erery d ay l i f e made o u ts i d e th e la b o ra to ry .

The i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k p r a c t i c e d by th e expert**

m e n ta l g ro u p is- d e s ig n e d to in f lu e n c e th e r e t e n t i o n o f th e o r ig in a l ta s k .

The i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y f o r th e c o n t r o l

group i s In te n d e d to p ro v id e l i t t l e o r no change in th e r e t e n t i o n o f th e o r i g i n a l ta sk *

However# s in c e th e c o n t r o l

group f r e q u e n tly shows a d ecrem en t i n r e t e n t i o n a f t e r th e

3 rest i n t e r v a l » i t m ust b© aa su m e t t h a t the s t a t e o f a f f a i r s

e s t a b l i s h e d i n o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g h a s b ee n d is r u p te d i n some fa s h io n #

The e f f e c t o f t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d p r a c t i c e i s d e te rm in e d

by com paring th e p e rfo rm a n c e o f th e c o n t r o l g ro u p w ith t h a t o f th e e x p e rim e n ta l group# E v id en ce o f th e in f lu e n c e o f in te r v e n in g a c t i v i t y on r e t e n t i o n i s ab u n d a n t f o r v e r b a l m a t e r i a l s , and th e q u es­ t i o n o f how a [email protected]©[email protected] r e s u l t s from th e in te r v e n in g a c t i v i t y h a s l e d to a number o f q u i t e d i f f e r e n t e x p la n a tio n s * ( 19)

MoGtooeh

s u g g e s ts t h a t d ec re m en ts i n r e t e n t i o n a r e a f u n c tio n o f

t h r e e fu n d a m e n ta l c o n d i t i o n s t

(1 ) i n t e r f e r e n c e by in te r v e n ­

in g a c t i v i t i e © | (3) a l t e r e d s t i m u l a t i n g c o n d i tio n s ; and (3) in a d e q u a te s e t a t th e tim e o f m easurem ent o f r e te n tio n * He s a y s : I n th e l i v i n g o rg a n ism in te r v e n in g a c t i v i t i e s a r e alw ay s p r e s e n t ; a s h i f t o f v i s u a l f i x a t i o n o r p o s tu r e may change th e s t i m u l a t i n g c o n te x t} and th e s e s h i f t s o f f i x a t i o n o r o f p o s t u r e , o r ch an g es i n th e flow o f th e su b je c t* © sym bolic p r o c e s s e s , may a l t e r s e t# T hus, a s M elto n (21) p o in ts o u t, McOeoch e x p la in s f o r g e t t i n g .i n te rm s o f Interference -and/or changes o f c o n te x t* In o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g th e s u b j e c t l e a r n s to make

a re s p o n s e w hich may b e term ed th e o r i g i n a l re sp o n se *

A

new re s p o n s e l a le a r n e d during.interpolated p r a c t ic e *

Mc&eoch

(1 9 ) assume® t h a t in th e i n t e r f e r e n c e s tu d y t h e r e 1© a *♦

p redom in an ce o f n e g a tiv e t r a n s f e r from th e i n t e r p o l a t e d ta s k to th e o r i g i n a l ta s k *

He s t a t e s t h a t th e amount o f n e g a tiv e

t r a n s f e r i s d e te rm in e d b y th e s i m i l a r i t y b etw een t h e o r i g i n a l and i n t e r p o l a t e d m a te r ia ls *

{Gibson (5 ) (8) h a s a com p arable

th e o r y b u t u s e s th e c o n c e p t o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and d is o rim in * a b i l i t y o f th e o r i g i n a l and i n t e r p o l a t e d m a te r ia l s * )

th is

e f f e c t would be o b s e rv e d a© a d ecrem en t i n p erfo rm a n ce from o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g to r e le a r n in g *

The d ecrem en t may b e

accom panied by i n t r u s i o n s , t h a t is # r e s p o n s e s w hich a r e a p p r o p r ia te to th e i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k b u t n o t th e r e l e a r n i n g ta s k *

th e n i n t r u s i o n s o c c u r th e y p r o v id e e v id e n c e f o r th e

t r a n s f e r h y p o th e s is i n t h a t th e y a r e th e o c c u rre n c e o f th e i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s p o n s e a t a p o in t i n t h e e x p e rim e n t w here th e o r i g i n a l r e s p o n s e i s a p p r o p r ia te #

T h is i n d i c a t e s th e

p r e s e n c e o f th e e f f e c t s o f i n t e r p o l a t e d l e a r n i n g i n r e l e a r n * ing# and th u s i n c r e a s e s th e p l a u s i b i l i t y o f th e t r a n s f e r v iew . McGeoch s a y s t h a t th e b e s t e v id e n c e s u p p o r tin g a n e g a tiv e t r a n s f e r e x p la n a tio n comes from e x p e rim e n ts i n w hich th e r e i s a r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n d ecrem en t and i n t r u s i o n s o f th e i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s p o n s e d u rin g r e le a r n in g *

{SO) (2£) (£3)

M elto n (22) (2 3 ) r e g a r d s l o s s o f r e t e n t i o n a© due n o t o n ly to th e c o m p e titio n o f th e o r i g i n a l and th e i n t e r ­ p o la te d r e s p o n s e te n d e n c ie s a t th e tim e o f r e l e a r n i n g , b u t a l s o to th e u n le a r n in g o f th e o r i g i n a l r e s p o n s e d u rin g

.

5 in te rp o la te d p r a c tic e .

The t r a n s f e r f o rm u la tio n assum es

t h a t th e d ecrem en t in r e t e n t i o n i s th e r e s u l t o f th e oom peti* t i o n o f th e o r i g i n a l and th e i n t e r p o l a t e d re s p o n s e s a t th e tim e o f r e l e a r n i n g .

The s t r e n g t h o f th e o r i g i n a l re s p o n s e

te n d e n c y i s assum ed to [email protected] th e same a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e r e l e a r n i n g a s i t was a t th e end o f o r i g i n a l p r a c t i c e ,

Melton*©

view i s t h a t th e o r i g i n a l re s p o n s e te n d e n c y i s red u ce d d u rin g in te rp o la te d p r a c tic e .

He r e g a r d s i n t r u s i o n s o f th e inter*

p o in te d r e s p o n s e s i n r e l e a r n i n g a s an in d e x o f th e d e g re e o f c o m p e titio n betw een th e o r i g i n a l and th e i n t e r p o l a t e d re s p o n s e te n d e n c i e s ,

He shows t h a t th e fre q u e n c y o f i n t r u s i o n s

d u rin g r e c a l l and r e l e a r n i n g i s c o r r e l a t e d w ith th e amount o f r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y treasured* and h en ce he r e g a r d s th e o v e r t t r a n s f e r o f re s p o n s e ( i n t r u s i o n s ) a s th e b e h a v io r a l c o r r e l a t e o f th e m easured r e t r o a c t i v e in h i b i t i o n * However* M elton n o te s a d is c re p a n c y betw een th e t o t a l amount o f r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n a s m easured in term s o f r e c a l l and th e am ount a© m easured by o v e r t I n t r u s i o n s o f th e i n t e r p o l a t e d re s p o n s e s #

McKinney and KcGeoch (£0) a c c o u n t

f o r th e d i f f e r e n c e between th e s e two m easu res on the b a s i s o f s u b lim in a l o r i m p l i c i t i n tr u s io n s #

M elto n a c c o u n ts f o r th e

d i f f e r e n c e by p o s t u l a t i n g a w eakening o r u n le a r n in g f a c t o r ( F a c to r X) w h ich reduce® th e o r i g i n a l re s p o n s e te n d e n c y d u rin g

6 in te rp o la te d le a rn in g .

The McKinney and McGeoch f o rm u la tio n

s u g g e s ts t h a t s t r e n g t h o f th e o r i g i n a l re s p o n s e h a s n o t been re d u c e d due to th e p r a c t i c e o f th e i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k .

The

f u l l s t r e n g t h o f th e i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s p o n s e ten d en cy i s n o t i n d i c a t e d d u rin g r e l e a r n i n g by th e o v e r t i n t r u s i o n s , b u t s u b lim in a l o r i m p l i c i t i n t r u s i o n s ( i n t r u s i o n s w hich o ccu r s u b v o c a lly , b u t a r e i n h i b i t e d b e c a u se th e y a r e re c o g n iz e d a s i n c o r r e c t ) w i l l a c c o u n t f o r th e r e s i d u a l in tr u s io n s * T hus, f o r McKinney and McGeoch, c o m p e titio n o f th e unred u ced o r i g i n a l and i n t e r p o l a t e d re s p o n s e te n d e n c ie s i s s u f f i c i e n t to account fo r r e tr o a c tiv e in h ib itio n e f f e c ts .

M elton sa y s

t h a t th e r e s p o n s e te n d e n c y f o r th e o r i g i n a l t a s k i s red u ce d by p r a c t i c e on th e i n t e r p o l a t e d ta sk *

As a r e s u l t o f th e

d e c re a s e o f th e o r i g i n a l r e s p o n s e te n d e n c y d u rin g i n t e r p o l a t e d p r a c t i c e , c o m p e titio n a t th e b e g in n in g o f r e l e a r n i n g i s betw een a re d u c e d o r i g i n a l r e s p o n s e te n d en cy and th e e s ta b ­ l i s h e d i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s p o n s e tendency* Underwood (£ 6 ) (£7) (£8) (29) c o n c lu d e s t h a t w h ile M e lto n ’ s ’’o r i g i n a l f o r m u la tio n o f th e u n le a r n in g th e o ry may hav e been b a s e d on q u e s tio n a b le a s s u m p tio n s , th e p r i n c i p l e o f u n le a r n in g a p p e a r s t o be e s s e n t i a l l y sound*”

He p r o v id e s

e v id e n c e to show t h a t i n t r u s i o n s a r e n o t a r e l i a b l e m easure o f th e amount o f c o m p e titio n betw een th e i n t e r p o l a t e d and th e o r i g i n a l re sp o n s e s *

He s u g g e s ts a re fin e m e n t i n M elto n ’ s

f o r m u la tio n by lik e n i n g u n le a r n in g to e x p e rim e n ta l e x t i n c t i o n .

7 McGeoch 1X9} s u g g e s ts t h a t M e lto n ’ s c o n c e p t o f u n le a r n in g seem s to he th e same i n p r i n c i p l e a s C u l l e r ’ s (4 ) c o n c e p t o f e x t i n c t i o n o f c o n d itio n e d r e s p o n s e s by neg a­ t i v e c o n d itio n in g *

n e g a tiv e c o n d itio n in g f o r C u lle r i s th e

e x t i n c t i o n o f a p r e v io u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d c o n d itio n e d re s p o n s e by non~ r e i n f o r e emexit o f t h a t r e s p o n s e and by r e in f o rc e m e n t o f an a n t a g o n i s t i c re s p o n se * Jam es (14) u s e s P a v lo v ’s c o n c e p ts o f e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l i n h i b i t i o n to e x p l a in i n t e r f e r e n c e e f f e c t s *

A

change in th e s tim u lu s s i t u a t i o n s from o r i g i n a l to i n t e r p o l a t e d l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s i n e x t e r n a l i n h i b i t i o n o f th e o r i g i n a l re s p o n s e t o th e I n t e r p o l a t e d s tim u li*

D if f e r e n c e s in i n s t r u c t i o n s

a r e in c lu d e d a s p a r t o f th e changed s tim u lu s s i t u a t i o n *

T h is

p h a s e , w hich d o es n o t alw a y s o c c u r , i s su c cee d ed by one In w hich th e i n t e r p o l a t e d s tim u lu s s i t u a t i o n e l i c i t s th e o r i g i n a l re sp o n se *

He te rm s t h i s th e "p h ase o f g e n e r a l i s a t i o n * "

As t h e o r i g i n a l re s p o n s e t o th e I n t e r p o l a t e d s t i m u l i i s n e v e r r e i n f o r c e d , I n t e r n a l i n h i b i t i o n w i l l g r a d u a lly be s e t up f o r th e o r i g i n a l r e s p o n s e d u r in g i n t e r p o l a t e d p r a c t ic e *

D uring

I n t e r p o l a t e d p r a c t i c e " th e i n t e r f e r e n c e due to g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s p e rm a n e n tly rem oved by means o f i n t e r n a l i n h i b i t i o n * " A cc o rd in g t o t h i s f o r m u la tio n , th e a p p r o p r i a t e re s p o n s e can now b e made to th e i n t e r p o l a t e d s t i m u l i w ith o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e from th e in a p p r o p r ia t e o r i g i n a l r e s p o n s e .

A s im ila r p ro cess

8 o p e r a t e s i n c h a n g in g from I n t e r p o l a t e d l e a r n in g to r e l e a r n ­ in g .

Thus, a c c o rd in g to Jam es, a t the b e g in n in g o f r e l e a r n ­

in g , th e te n d e n c y to make th e o r i g i n a l r e s p o n s e i s red u ce d fey v i r t u e o f th e i n t e r n a l i n h i b i t i o n d e v e lo p ed d u r in g i n t e r ­ p o la te d p r a c t i c e # A seco n d f a c t o r im p o r ta n t i n th e s tu d y o f lo s s o f r e t e n t i o n i s a l t e r a t i o n o f th e s tim u lu s s i t u a t i o n from th e tim e o f l e a r n i n g to th e measurement o f r e t e n t i o n *

McGeoch

(19) s a y s t h a t e d ecrem en t I n r e t e n t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i f a l l o f th e s ti m u li n e c e s s a r y to e l i c i t th e o r i g i n a l re s p o n s e a re n o t p r e s e n t o r i f new s t i m u l i a r e in tr o d u c e d w hich ©voice competing responses strong.enough to b lo c k th e o r i g i n a l l y

le a r n e d re s p o n s e s *

The s ti m u l a t i n g c o n d itio n s a r e composed

o f s t i m u l i from th e e x t e r n a l e n v iro n m e n t, in tr a o r g a n i o s t i m u l i , and s t i m u l i i n i t i a t e d by th e s u b j e c t ’ s sy m b o lic o r i d e a t i o n a l p ro c e s s e s *

Bemoval o f any o f th e o r i g i n a l s tim u lu s s i t u a t i o n

w i l l be c o r r e l a t e d w ith a d e c re a s e in r e t e n t i o n * A s p e c i a l c a s e o f an a l t e r e d s tim u lu s s i t u a t i on /

i s c o n c e rn e d w ith l o s s o f r e t e n t i o n when a d i f f e r e n t s e t acco m p an ies o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g th a n r e le a r n in g *

Sine© i t M s

b een shown t h a t le a r n i n g i s a f u n c tio n o f th e s e t in d u ced in th e s u b j e c t , i t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t a change in s e t from o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g to r e l e a r n i n g w i l l b r in g a b o u t a change I n performance#

The term " s e t* h a s b een u sed to convey a number

9 o f q u i t e d i f f e r e n t id e a s , in c lu d in g a g e n e r a l i n t e n t i o n to re sp o n d i n a c e r t a i n way, o r a s o r t o f e x p e c ta n c y w ith r e s p e c t t o th e s t i m u l i t o be p r e s e n te d *

A c r i t i c a l rev iew o f

th e c o n c e p t o f s e t i s p r e s e n te d by G ibson (7) *

MoGeoeh (19)

p o i n t s o u t t h a t i f s e t i s r e g a rd e d a s p r im a r ily m u sc u lar in c h a r a c t e r , i t r e d u c e s to p r o p r io c e p ti v e s tim u la tio n #

A

change o f s e t th e n becom es a change o f s ti m u la tin g c o n d itio n s . Ammons (g) (5) in h i s t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f m o to r le a r n i n g on th e p u r s u i t r o t o r u s e s s e t a s th e b a s i s f o r th e w arm ing-up phenomena n o te d i n h i s d a ta #

A ccording to

Ammons, warm-up i s a s s o c i a t e d w ith th e r e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f o p tim a l p o s t u r a l and a t t e n t i v e a d ju s tm e n ts w hich have been l o s t d u r in g th e p e r io d o f n o n - p ra c tic e *

T hese a p p r o p r ia te

m u sc u la r a d ju s tm e n ts in c r e a s e to a maximum d u rin g o r i g i n a l p r a c t i c e an d - d is s ip a te d u rin g th e p e r io d o f n o n - p r a c tic e * I r i o n (11) (13) (13) a l s o u s e s th e term ws e t« to e x p l a in th e n eed f o r w arm ing-up*

However, he i n d i c a t e s

t h a t l o s s o f s e t i s a f u n c tio n o f th e a c t i v i t y o f th e sub­ j e c t betw een th e tim e o f o r i g i n a l le a r n i n g and l a t e r r e c a l l , w h ile Ammons m e re ly s a y s t h a t s e t d i s s i p a t e s w ith tim e* I r i o n s a y s o f th e in te r v e n in g a c tiv ity ® I f t h i s a c t i v i t y sh o u ld b e o f su ch a n a t u r e a s t o d i s r u p t th e s e t o f th e s u b je c t to p e rfo rm , r e t e n t i o n sh o u ld be d e c re a s e d , and th e w arm ing-up e f f e c t th e re b y enhanced* On th e o th e r h a n d , sh o u ld th e i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o f th e s u b j e c t be o f su c h a n a t u r e a© to m a in ta in th e

10 set to perform*. the amount o f retention should be re la tiv e ly greater* m& the w*mln$»tip effect should be decreeset# Thu#* i n the example* u m ® t period a c tiv ity w h ic h Involved the naming of colors or of figure* presented on the exposure apparatus a t the rate of presentation of the material® to be learned -would serve to maintain the subject*# set to

situ atio n , f m

perform more adequately than a more dissim ilar a c tiv ity m&k as cartoon read lug*

The a s s u m p tio n i s made t h a t such preliminary

a c t iv it y doe® not in flu en ce the habit stru ctu re Involve! in performing w ith th e experiment*i m a teria ls, but serve* only

t o m a in ta in s e t * I r i o n f u r t h e r s t a t e s th a t* It should be noted that the type of experimental design employed in the study of retroactive Inhibition may tend to minimi** the difference between the work and rest eon&itieii** Although Interpolated learning may be shown to lead to the formation of specific conflicting responses* this learning also tend* to favor the maintenance of the necessary postural and attest tire adjustment, whereas the r m t activities may* quite possibly., bo more disruptive of such adjust* men to*

II# differentiates two g ro u p s o f f a c t o r s o p e ra tin g , l a r e t e n t i o n least

(1 ) l o s s of set and (9 ) residual f a c t o r s *

The r e s i d u a l f a c t o r s may b© identified a s co m p etl t t m

of

in c o m p a tib le responses, a l t e r e d s tim u lu s c o n d itio n s * e tc * On th e b a s i s ©f th e h y p o th e s is t h a t X m m of r e t e n t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o l o s s o f s e t* I r i o n predicts t h a t ^ r e t e n t i o n sh o u ld b e g r e a t e r f o llo w in g the p e rfo rm a n c e d u rin g th e r e s t p e r io d o f a s e t ^ M l n t e l n i n g a c t i v i t y th e n fo llo w in g th e p erfo rm a n ce of

a set*&isturbing a c t i v i t y * *

11 I n summary, a c c o rd in g to I r i o n th e r e a r e p o s t u r a l an d a t t e n t i v e a d ju s tm e n ts w hich a r e o p tim a l f o r p erfo rm an ce on a g iv e n ta sk * s e t#

The t o t a l o f th e s e a d ju s tm e n ts c o n s t i t u t e s

O p tim al a d ju s tm e n ts a r e m a in ta in e d w h ile th e s u b je c t

i s p r a c t i c i n g th e t a s k , b u t a r e l o s t * a c c o rd in g to a decrees** in g f u n c tio n o f ftme* a f t e r p r a c t i c e s t o p s .

S in c e s e t i s

c o n s id e r e d a s a n o n - a s s o c ia t lv e f a c t o r , i t n eed n o t be s p e c i f i c to a p a r t i c u l a r t a s k , b u t may, f o r exam ple, be th e same f o r b o th th e o r i g i n a l and th e i n t e r p o l a t e d ta s k s *

I r i o n (11)

i n d i c a t e s t h a t o p tim a l a d ju s tm e n ts ( s e t ) on one ta s k i n th e u s u a l r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n s tu d y te n d to f a v o r o p tim a l a d ju stra e n ts on th e o th e r*

T here w i l l th u s b e no l o s s in

r e t e n t i o n ( a s i n d i c a t e d by a d e c re a s e d p erfo rm a n ce ) a t t r i b ­ u t a b l e to l o s s o f s e t i n a r e t r o a c t i v e I n h i b i t i o n s tu d y p ro v id e d t h e r e a r e no a p p r e c ia b le tim e i n t e r v a l s in ch an g in g from one ta s k to th e o th e r*

However, i f an a p p r e c ia b le amount

o f tim e (p e rh a p s 5 m in u tes to 24 h o u rs o r g r e a t e r ) la p s e s a f t e r th e c e s s a t i o n o f p r a c t i c e on one ta s k and th e b e g in n in g o f p r a c t i c e on th e n e x t ta s k will show an a d d i t i o n a l d e c re ­ m ent i n p e rfo rm a n c e a t t r i b u t a b l e to l o s s o f s e t and n o t to a s s o c i a t i v e f a c t o r s e s t a b l i s h e d in p r e v io u s p r a c t ic e * A cc o rd in g to t h i s fo rm u la tb n i n i t i a l r e l e a r n i n g p e rfo rm mane© sh o u ld be b e t t e r when I t o c c u rs im m ed ia tely fo llo w in g i n t e r p o l a t e d le a r n i n g th a n when i t o c c u r s , f o r exam ple, 24 h o u r s a f t e r I n t e r p o l a t e d le a r n in g *

The d i f f e r e n c e would be

a t t r i b u t e d to th© l o s s o f s e t o v e r th e 2 4 -h o u r tim e in te r v a l*

12

P re v io u s s t u d i e s oh th e Mashburn (IS ) (17) (18) h av e shows so c o n s i s t e n t d ec re m en ts in o r i g i n a l p erfo rm an ce o v e r a p e r io d o f M h o u rs#

I t was a l s o shown (18) th a t

th e r e was no d ecrem en t in p erfo rm a n ce a f t e r a p e r io d o f 5 d ay s o f no p r a c t ic e *

The r e s t i n t e r v a l s w ere g iv e n a t both

r e l a t i v e l y low and h ig h l e v e l s o f p erform ance#

The t r i a l s

and i n t e r - t r i a l i n t e r v a l s w ere th e same f o r a l l o f th e s e s tu d ie s *

These f i n d i n g s a r e n o t c o n s i s t e n t w ith Irio n * s

l o s s o f s e t h y p o th e ls *

Ho in f o rm a tio n i s a v a i l a b l e w ith

r e s p e c t to th e e f f e c t o f th e tim e i n t e r v a l betw een i n t e r ­ p o la te d l e a r n i n g and r e l e a r n i n g on th e r e l e a r n i n g p e r f o r ­ mance f o r th e M ashburn A pparatus* R e le v a n t to t h i s s tu d y i s on© by Lew is and M c A llis te r (16) on th e e f f e c t s o f v a ry in g am ounts o f i n t e r ­ p o la te d l e a r n i n g on amount o f d ecrem en t i n r e te n tio n * Using th e M ashburn a p p a r a tu s , th e y found t h a t r e t e n t i o n d e c re a s e d and th e n a p p e a re d to in c r e a s e a s th e amount o f i n t e r p o l a t e d p r a c t i c e was in c r e a s e d .

I n t h e i r s tu d y amount

o f le a r n i n g on th e o r i g i n a l and i n t e r p o l a t e d ta s k s was d e f in e d in te rm s o f number o f t r i a l s .

T h is c r i t e r i o n p ro v ed

to be a co n fo u n d in g f a c t o r s in c e random ly s e le c te d sam ples o f s u b j e c t s showed d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f o r i g i n a l l e a r n in g f o r th e same number o f p r a c t i c e t r i a l s .

I n a n o th e r s tu d y by

Lewis, M c A llis te r , and Adams (1 7 ), l e v e l o f o r i g i n a l le a r n in g

was shown to be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to th e amount o f d ecrem en t In r e t e n t i o n when th e amount o f i n t e r p o l a t e d p r a c t i c e was h e ld c o n s ta n t*

When amount o f d ecrem en t i s to be s tu d ie d

in r e l a t i o n to amount o f i n t e r p o l a t e d l e a r n i n g , i t I s n e c e s s a r y to m inim ize th e d i f f e r e n c e s i n d ecrem en t a t t r i b ­ u ta b le to d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f o r i g i n a l le a r n in g *

T h is c a n n o t

be r e a d i l y acco m p lish ed u s in g number o f t r i a l s a s a c r i t e r i o n o f le a rn in g .

T h ere i s no way o f a s s u r i n g t h a t s m a ll ran d o m ly

s e le c te d g ro u p s o f s u b j e c t s w i l l r e a c h th e same p erfo rm an ce l e v e l a f t e r a p r e s c r ib e d number o f t r i a l s *

14 C h a p te r 11 B M M I

Of THE PROBLEM

The r e s e a r c h was d e s ig n e d to i n v e s t i g a t e th e manner i n w hich d i f f e r e n t am ounts o f i n t e r p o l a t e d le a r n i n g a f t e r a c o n s ta n t am ount o f o r i g i n a l l e a r n in g a f f e c t e d su b se q u e n t p erfo rm a n ce on th e M ashburn a p p a r a tu s .

I t was in te n d e d t h a t

th e d a t a o b ta in e d be u se d to exam ine th e adequacy o f e x i s t ­ in g e x p la n a tio n s o f decrem en t in r e t e n t i o n (a s d ev elo p ed w ith v e r b a l m a t e r i a l s ) I n e x p la in in g such d ec re m en ts i n m otor ta s k s a s r e p r e s e n te d on th e M ashburn a p p a r a tu s .

In

a d d i t i o n , an a tte m p t was made to o b ta in f u r t h e r e v id e n c e r e l a t i v e to s e t a s a f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g l o s s o f r e t e n t i o n . D e s c r ip tio n s o f th e a p p a ra tu s and o f g e n e ra l e x p e rim e n ta l p ro c e d u re a r e g iv e n i n th e fo llo w in g s e c t i o n s .

u Oh&pter i l l m t HOP OF XJTOSTXGATIOSf A p p aratu s The M o d ified M ashburn A p p a ra tu s ( 1 8 ) p ro v id e d b o th th e o r i g i n a l and th e i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k s f o r th e stu d y #

On

a p a n e l i n f r o n t o f th e s u b j e c t w ere t h r e e d o u b le b an k s o f lig h t© s

a s l i g h t l y cu rv ed u p p e r b a n k , a v e r t i c a l b an k , and

a lo w e r h o r i z o n t a l bank#

Bach d o u b le bank c o n ta in e d a row

o f r e d and a row o f g re e n p i l o t lam p s, 13 p e r row*

The

r e d la m p s, when l i g h t e d i n v a r io u s c o m b in a tio n s , s e rv e d a s & im u li,

The th r e e row© o f g re e n l i g h t s co u ld be s e p a r a t e l y ■f

m a n ip u la te d by a s u b j e c t th ro u g h th e movement ©f t h r e e t c o n t r o l s — e l e v a t o r , a i l e r o n , and r u d d e r —w hich s im u la te d th e c o n t r o l s o f th e o ld - f a s h io n e d a i r p la n e * A s u b j e c t , when p e rfo rm in g on th e a p p a r a tu s , was p r e s e n te d w ith t h r e e r e d l i g h t s , one i n ea ch o f th e th r e e d o u b le banks*

H is t a s k w as to m a n ip u la te th e s t i c k and

ru d d e r b a r (w ith p r e f e r r e d hand and f e e t ) u n t i l a g re e n l i g h t w as s h in in g o p p o s ite e a c h o f th r e e r e d l i g h t s .

In

s h o r t , he m atched th e r e d l i g h t s w ith g re e n l i g h t s .

When

a m atch was made, a s te p p in g r e l a y o p e r a te d a u t o m a tic a lly t© b r i n g up a new c o m b in a tio n o f r e d lig h t® .

The m a tch in g

p ro c e d u re c o u ld be c o n tin u e d f o r any d e s ir e d l e n g th o f tim e .

The s c o r e made by a s u b je c t was th e number o f th re e -w a y m a tch e s accomplished d u rin g a t r i a l p e r io d o f g iv e n le n g th # W hile i t was p o s s i b l e to c o n n e c t any one o f th e t h r e e c o n t r o l s to th e a r r a y o f g r e e n l i g h t s I n any on© o f th e th r e e banks* o n ly two such c o n n e c tio n s w ere used*

F or

th e norm al o r s ta n d a r d ta sk * th e g r e e n l i g h t s i n th e cu rv ed bank a t th e to p earn© on in o r d e r from l e f t to r i g h t a s th e s t i c k w as moved from left to r ig h t*

th e g re e n l i g h t s in th e

v e r t i c a l ban k came on s u c c e s s iv e l y from above downward a s th e s t i c k was p u sh ed forw ard* and th e .g reen l i g h t f i n th e b o tto m row l i t i n s u c c e s s io n from l e f t to r i g h t when th e ru d d e r b a r w as push ed fo rw a rd w ith th e r i g h t fo o t*

W ith th e r e v e r s e d

ta sk * th e above n o te d movements o f e a c h c o n t r o l ca u se th e g re e n l i g h t s t o l i g h t in a seq u en ce w h ich w as e x a c tl y o p p o s ite t h a t f o r th e s ta n d a r d ta s k * I n a d d i t i o n to th e number o f m atches co m p leted d u rin g a p r a c t i c e p e rio d * an e r r o r c o u n t was o b ta in e d *

When

th e s u b je c t made a th re e -w a y m atch th e r e was a d e la y o f *50 se co n d s b e f o r e th e s te p p in g s w itc h w as a c t i v a t e d to g iv e th e n e x t c o m b in a tio n o f th r e e re d s tim u lu s l i g h t s *

T h is d e la y

a s s u r e d t h a t th e s u b j e c t w ould h o ld th e green l i g h t s i n th e m atched p o s i t i o n f o r th e d e la y p e rio d *

The s w itc h to th e

n e x t d is p l a y o f r e d lig h t© was so r a p i d t h a t th e s u b je c t s t i l l had th e c o n t r o l s a d ju s te d to th e p re v io u s p a t t e r n o f r e d lig h t© when th e n e x t p a t t e r n ap p eared #

T h ere was o n ly

one d i r e c t i o n t h a t a g re e n l i g h t c o u ld be moved to ap p ro ac h th e new r e d l i g h t i n t h a t bank*

I f th e c o n t r o l s w ere

a d j u s t e d so a s to move th e g re e n l i g h t i n any bank i n a d i r e c t i o n away from th e n e x t r e d l i g h t , a n e r r o r was co u n ted f o r t h a t bank*

A new r e d l i g h t a p p e a re d in e a c h o f th e

th r e e b an k a when a new p a t t e r n was p re s e n te d * an d hence th r e e e r r o r s w ere p o s s i b le f o r ■each match#

t h e c i r c u i t was con*

© tru s te d so t h a t o n ly one e r r o r p e r ban k o r a t o t a l o f th r e e e rro r® c o u ld be made f o r each -match*

E r r o r s w ere r e l a t e d to

m atch es i n th e s e n s e t h a t th e t o t a l e r r o r s c o u ld n o t be more th a n t h r e e tim e s th e number o f matches:*

Seven g r o u p s .o f m ale s u b j e c t s {from 9 to XI p e r g ro u p ) w ere s e l e c t e d on a v o lu n te e r b a s i s from th e e le m e n ta ry p sy ch o lo g y c l a s s a t th e S t a t e U n iv e r s it y o f Iowa#

Each sub*

j e c t was a s s ig n e d a t random to one o f th e groups*

Mon© o f

th e s u b j e c t s had p r e v io u s e x p e rie n c e w ith th e a p p a ra tu s * 1 Of th e s u b j e c t s v o lu n te e r in g , o n ly th o s e re a c h in g th e p r e s c r ib e d o r i g i n a l le a r n in g ' c r i t e r i o n o f 35 match©© w ith in th r e e d ay s w ere r e t a i n e d in th e ex p erim en t*

T h ir te e n

s u b j e c t s w ere d ro p p ed b e c a u se o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to re a c h th e o r i g i n a l le a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n i n th e p r e s c r ib e d tim e*

A ll

s u b j e c t s m e e tin g th e o r i g i n a l l e a r n in g c r i t e r i o n p r a c t ic e d

18 u n t i l th e I n t e r p o l a t e d c r i t e r i o n was r e a c h e d * One s u b j e c t was l o s t i n an a u to a c c id e n t# The K x u e rim e n ta l C o n d itio n s Bach s u b j e c t w as I n s t r u c t e d In th e m anner o f o p e ra ­ t i o n o f t h e a p p a r a tu s , and t o l d t h a t h i s ta s k was to make a s many m atch es a s p o s s i b le d u r in g th e p r a c t i c e p e rio d # copy o f th e i n s t r u c t i o n s i s g iv e n in A ppendix A#

Ho in fo rm a­

t i o n w as o f f e r e d w ith r e f e r e n c e t o th e e r r o r m easure# d i f f e r e n t c o n d itio n ® a r e sum m arised i n T a b le I#

A

The

F iv e r e l e a r n ­

in g t r i a l ® w ere g iv e n Group® Xp z $ 4 , 5 , and ? t alm o st a t once a f t e r th e i n t e r p o l a t e d c r i t e r i o n was reac h ed #

A

tw o -m in u te r e s t p e r io d w as g iv e n im m ed ia tely a f t e r th e c r i t e r i o n was a t t a i n e d , d u r in g w hich tim e th e e x p e rim e n te r r e s e t th e c o u n te r s and changed th e c o n t r o l s f o r th e r e l e a r n ­ in g ta s k #

R e le a r n in g th e n began#

These group® w i l l h en ce­

f o r t h b e r e f e r r e d to a® th e e x p e rim e n ta l g roups#

G roups 3

and 6 c e a s e d p r a c t i c e when th e i n t e r p o l a t e d c r i t e r i o n was re a c h e d and r e tu r n e d th e n e x t day to b e g in th e r e l e a r n i n g tria ls #

T hese g ro u p s w i l l be r e f e r r e d to a s th e c o n t r o l

groups#

The term® *e x p e rim e n ta l” and " c o n t r o l ” a r e u sed

m e re ly a s a m a tte r o f c o n v e n ien c e and n o t in th e more g e n e ra l s e n s e in w h ich th e c o n t r o l g ro u p r e p r e s e n t s a group w hich r e s t s d u rin g th e i n t e r p o l a t e d p r a c t i c e p e rio d #

19 Tafcl© I O u tlin e o f th e E x p e rim e n ta l C ondition©

Group

H

OL

JL

M atches i n 2~min* p e r io d

M atches in B~min. p e r io d

HI T rial®

1

10

35

39

5 f 15 4 5

B

11

35

35

5 4 15 4 5

3

9

35

35

4

4

10

35

31

5 4 15 4 5

5

10

55

2?

5 4 15 4 5

6

10

35

27

20 4 5

7

10

35

23

5 4 15 4 5

20 th e n th e a p p a r a tu s c o n t r o l s w ere changed from th e o r i g i n a l t o th e i n t e r p o l a t e d ta s k and from th e in te r p o l a te d ta s k to r e l e a r n i n g , d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s a s to th e movement o f c o n t r o l s n e c e s s a r y to move a l i g h t w ere g iv e n ,

c a r e was

ta k e n to e n s u re co m p lete u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e re s p o n s e s r e q u ir e d b y each ta s k ( s e e A ppendix A ).

The s ta n d a r d ta s k

was u s e d f o r o r i g i n a l p r a c t i c e and th e r e v e r s e d ta s k f o r i n t e r p o l a t e d p r a c t ic e * T r i a l s w ere two m in u tes i n le n g th ,

A r e s t o f 15

se co n d s was g iv e n betw een each t r i a l , and a lo n g e r r e s t o f two m in u te s w as g iv e n betw een b lo c k s o f f iv e t r i a l s *

A

maximum o f 20 t r i a l s was g iv e n each s u b je c t on any s in g l e day*

S u b je c ts p r a c t i c e d u n t i l 55 m atches w ere made on an

o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g t r i a l and r e tu r n e d th e n e x t day to b e g in p r a c t i c e on th e i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k .

The c r i t e r i a f o r th e

i n t e r p o l a t e d ta s k a r e shown i n T able I ,

A re d w arn in g l i g h t

was shown f i v e se co n d s b e f o r e th e b e g in n in g o f a t r i a l *

The

le n g th o f th e t r i a l and 1 5 -seco n d r e s t i n t e r v a l a s w e ll a s th e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f th e re a d y s ig n a l w ere a u to m a tic a lly tim ed by s p e c i a l tim in g u n i t s d esig n ed a t th e S t a t e U n iv e r s ity by H u n te r and Brown { 1 0 ), A s y n t h e t i c n o is e h av in g a th e rm a l component and a low fre q u e n c y component from a r e l a x a t i o n o s c i l l a t o r p ro v id e d a g e n e r a l m asking f o r o u ts id e s ti m u li w hich m ight

s e r v e a® d i s t r a e t o r s *

The n o is e l e v e l was ab o u t 55 d b . a t

th e s u b j e c t 1s e a r s and was sounded c o n tin u o u s ly th ro u g h o u t e a c h eacp erim en tal s e s s i o n . E x cep t f o r C o n tro l Group 5, each s u b je c t r e c e iv e d a t o t a l o f 85 r e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s *

The e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p s

co m p leted f i v e t r i a l s im m ed ia tely a f t e r I n t e r p o l a t e d p r a c t i c e , f i f t e e n t r i a l © th e fo llo w in g d ay , and th e l a s t f i v e t r i a l s on th e n e x t d a y .

C o n tro l Group 5 had o n ly 4 r e le a r n in g t r i a l s ;

i t w as rum a t an e a r l i e r d a te th a n th e o th e r groups*

C o n tro l

Group 6 had tw en ty r e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s on th e f i r s t day and f i v e t r i a l s on th e f i n a l day*

zz C h a p te r IV RESULTS The C q m p a ra b llity o f th e G roups On® o f th e draw backs o f a p erfo rm an ce c r i t e r i o n was d e m o n s tra tin g t h a t th e g ro u p s w ere com parable in ?Tl e a r n ­ in g a b i l i t y ” and * l e v e l o f l e a r n i n g ” when th e y w ere ru n to th e same c r i t e r i o n .

I n t h i s s tu d y i t was n e c e s s a ry t h a t th e

g ro u p s be co m p arab le In a b i l i t y to p e rfo rm th e o r i g i n a l and in te rp o la te d le a rn in g ta s k s .

W ith a n u m b e r - o f - tr ia l s c r i t e r i o n !

e q u a l i t y o f p erfo rm a n c e may be d e m o n stra te d by com paring th e mean p e rfo rm a n c e o f th e d i f f e r e n t g ro u p s f o r th e same t r i a l s . T h is m ethod c a n n o t be u sed when a p erfo rm an ce c r i t e r i o n i s em ployed.

Some s u b j e c t s re a c h e d th e c r i t e r i o n In few er

t r i a l s th a n o t h e r s , and h en ce w h ile th e f i r s t few t r i a l s in c lu d e d a l l o f th e s u b j e c t s o f th e g ro u p , th e number o f s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n te d in e a c h l a t e r t r i a l d e c re a s e d a s a d d i­ t i o n a l s u b j e c t s m et th e p erfo rm a n ce c r i t e r i o n .

A cu rv e

composed o f t r i a l means w ould in no way r e p r e s e n t th e p e r ­ form ance o f th e g ro u p s from th e b e g in n in g o f p r a c t i c e to th e c r i t e r i o n .

A n o th er p o s s i b le method f o r c o n s tr u c tin g a

group c u rv e f o r a p erfo rm a n ce c r i t e r i o n i s th e te c h n iq u e d e s c r ib e d by V in c e n t ( 3 0 ) , m o d ifie d by K je r s ta d (1 5 ), and d is c u s s e d by H ilg a rd ( 8 ) .

W ith t h i s method th e l e v e l o f

p e rfo rm a n c e re a c h e d by d i f f e r e n t s u b je c ts i n e q u a l

S3 f r a © tio n s o f th e t o t a l l e a r n i n g p e r io d a r e summed to p ro v id e a v a lu e f o r w hat i s term ed a "Vincent T r i a l * ”

W hile such

a te c h n iq u e i s u n d o u b te d ly u s e f u l i n p ro v id in g group c u rv e s f o r d a t a in v o lv in g a p erfo rm a n ce c r i t e r i o n , i t was n o t u sed i n t h i s s tu d y b e c a u s e o f th e te n d e n c y f o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r i a l and in ter* tria l phenomena to be o b scu red by i t * To show t h a t th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p s w ere a p p ro x i­ m a te ly e q u a l i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to p e rfo rm on th e ta s k th e u s u a l mean p e rfo rm a n c e was com puted f o r ea ch t r i a l f o r w hich a l l members o f th e g ro u p w ere represented*

From th e ta b l e o f

means shown i n A ppendix ©, i t c a n be seen t h a t a l l e x p e rt* m e n ta l g ro u p s r e t a i n e d a l l su b je ct® u n t i l T r i a l 21 in o r i g i n a l learning and u n t i l T r i a l 3 in i n t e r p o l a t e d le a rn * lag*

The means o f th e number o f m atch es f o r th e e x p e rt*

m e n ta l group© w ere n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t on e i t h e r T r i a l 1 ( 1 $ 1*40, d f * 4 and 4 d ) , o r T r i a l SI (F * 1*77, d f st 4 and 46) o f o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g , n o r on T r i a l 1 {F # 0*86, a t * 4 and 46) o f i n t e r p o l a t e d le a rn in g *

A

summary o f th e a n a ly s e s o f v a r ia n c e a p p e a rs in T ab le I I* The g ro u p s w ere p resu m a b ly com parable in p erfo rm an ce on th e o t h e r t r i a l © o f o r i g i n a l and i n t e r p o l a t e d le a r n in g *

A com pari­

son o f th e means o f number o f m atches f o r th e groups i n t h i s s tu d y w ith th o s e o f a group r u n to a t r i a l © c r i t e r i o n u n d er the ©am© p r a c t i c e c o n d itio n s (18) showed com parable mean m atches values f o r T r i a l s 1 th ro u g h S I f o r o r i g i n a l learning*

The l e v e l o f

24 T ab le I I A a a lfs e a o f V a ria n c e o f Match©® S c o re s o f th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups f o r T rial® X and 21 o f O r ig in a l L ea rn in g and f o r T r i a l 1 o f I n te r p o la t e d L e a rn in g

S o u rce

Sum o f Square®

df*

Mean Sum o f Square®

1 3 -A S lI £ • W ith in Group® Betw een Group®

4 5 6 ,8 84*9

46 4

9*50 1 3 ,7 3

T o ta l

4 9 1 ,7

SO

9*83

JH i t * &* W ith in Group® B etw een Group®

8 0 3 ,9 123*8

46 4

17*48 3 0 .9 5

T o ta l

9 2 7 .7

50

18*55

* * m I i* i* W ith in Group® Betw een Group®

414*6 31*0

46 4

9 .0 1 7*75

T o ta l

448 .'6

SO

8*91

p e rfo rm a n c e o f th e c o n t r o l and e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p s was com-* p a r a b l e m t r i a l 12 {F a X*73f d f * 6 an a 63) and T r i a l IS (F - E.X 8, d f a 5 and 54)* the l a s t t r i a l s o f o r i g i n a l l e a r n ­ in g on w hich a l l s u b j e c t s o f C o n tro l Groups 6 and 3 w ere re p r e s e n te d *

A summary o f th e a n a ly s e s o f v a r ia n c e i s g iv e n

l a T a b le I I I *

l i k e w i s e th e c o n t r o l and e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p s

w ere co m p arab le on T r i a l 6 ( ? - 1.05* d f s 4 and 45) and T r i a l 16 (F $ 1*59* d f * 2 and 2 7 ) , th e l a s t t r i a l s o f i n t e r p o l a t e d l e a r n i n g f o r w hich a l l su b je ct® o f Groups 6 and 5 w ere r e p r e s e n te d *

From th e s e t e s t s o f th e s i g ­

n i f i c a n c e o f th e d i f f e r e n c e s in th e mean number o f m atches and from th e g e n e r a l tr e n d o f th e a v a ila b le mean® i t was c o n c lu d e d t h a t the g ro u p s w ere com parable i n " le a r n in g a b i l i t y C hanges i n P erfo rm an ce from O r ig in a l L e a rn in g to R e le a rn in g The l o s s o f r e t e n t i o n was m easured by th e decrem ent 1 from o r i g i n a l le a r n i n g to r e le a r n in g * T able IV sum m arizes th e mean p erfo rm a n ce o f th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p s f o r m a tch e s, e r r o r s * and e r r o r - m a tc h r a t i o s on th e f i n a l o r i g i n a l l e a r n ­ in g and th e f i r s t r e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s , and th e l o s s o f r e t e n ­ t i o n a s in d ic a t e d by th e d if f e r e n c e b etw een th e o r i g i n a l and r e l e a r n i n g v a l u e s .

The mean d i f f e r e n c e s betw een th e

1* A c o n t r o l g ro u p was n o t u sed in com puting th e decrem ent s in c e i t h ad b ee n shown (17) t h a t th e r e was a n e g l i g i b l e d ec re m en t in m atches a f t e r 5 days o f non p r a c tic e #

T ab le I I I A n a ly se s o f V a ria n c e o f Humber o f M atehes on T r i a l s IS and 18 o f O r ig in a l L e a rn in g and T r i a l s 6 and 16 o f I n t e r p o l a t e d L e a rn in g

S o u rce

sum o f S q u a re s

S im

df #

Mean Sum o f S q u ares

M 5* £*

W ith in Group® Betw een G roups

7 88.80 124-80

63 6

12*04 20*80

T o ta l

883*30

69

12*80

T r i a l 18 0 . 1 . W ith in Group® Betw een G roups

673*3 138*7

54 5

12*47 27*14

T o ta l

809*0

59

13*71

s z m k i * &* W ith in G roups Between G roups

290*00 27*20

45 4

6 *45 6 *80

T o ta l

317*50

49

6*48

27 2

1 2 .5 5 19*95

T ria l, 16 I* 1* W ith in G roups Between G roups

338*80 39*90

T o ta l

378,70

13.06

27 S a b le XV She Means of dumber of Matches, Errors, and Brror-fcatoh Ratios on the Last Trial of Original Learning and on the first Trial o f Relearning and Differences between them for the Experimental Groups

Group

7

5

4

2

1

I

10

10

10

11

10

In te rp o la te d M&tehas c r i t e r i o n

23

27

31

35

39

Moan M atches F in a l O r ig in a l T r i a l F i r s t R e le a rn in g T r i a l

3 5 .9 29 f 3

35*2 3 7.7

3 5 .7 2 5 ,4

36*0 a& 3

35*8 2 2.9

6 .0

7 .8

1 2 f7

M il

1 5 .7 10 ».i

1 3 .4 15 »5

15*8 22*1

14*4 26 .,8

13,6 26. S

,3 4

8 .5

1 2 .4

13.6

Oeerem ent

Mean T o ta l E r r o r s F in a l O r ig in a l T r i a l F i r s t R e le a rn in g T r i a l In c re m e n t

M em T o ta l E rro r^ M ateh R a tio F in a l O r ig in a l T r i a l F i r s t R e le a rn in g T r i a l In c re m e n t

.*,7

.

*44 *M ♦12

ll(r.

.3 8 *60

*39 *87

*40 1 .1 5

.38 1 .1 4

. .#,2J&

.4 8

*75

.76

28 l a s t o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g t r i a l and th e f i r s t r e l e a r n i n g t r i a l f o r th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p s w ere s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r m atch es (If - 4 .8 6 , d f » 4 and 4 6 } , t o t a l e r r o r s (F « 12*V I, d f m 4 and 46) and e r r o r - m a tc h r a t i o s (F * 19*46, d f & 4 and 46)*

The summary o f th e a n a ly s e s o f v a r ia n c e i s

p r e s e n te d in T ab le ?♦

As th e i n t e r p o l a t e d le a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n

was in c r e a s e d from 23 to 39 m a tc h e s, th e d ecrem en t i n number o f m atch es in c r e a s e d and in c re m e n t i n e r r o r s and e rro r~ m a tc h r a t i o s in c re a s e d * i n F ig u re 1*

T hese r e l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n te d g r a p h i c a l l y

The f u n c tio n s r e l a t i n g th e t h r e e m e asu res o f

change o f p erfo rm a n c e from o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g t o r e l e a r n i n g to p erfo rm a n ce l e v e l i n i n t e r p o l a t e d le a r n i n g a p p e a re d t o b© g e n e r a l l y S -sh a p e d f o r th e s e d a ta * I t m ight be assum ed t h a t a l l g r o u p s , e x c e p t f o r sam p lin g d i f f e r e n c e s , p erfo rm ed e q u a lly w e ll a t th e end o f o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g , and t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e s i n p erfo rm a n ce a t th e b e g in n in g o f r e l e a r n i n g w ere due to d i f f e r e n t am ounts o f I n t e r p o l a t e d le a r n in g *

T h is a s su m p tio n p e r m its a d i r e c t

co m p ariso n o f th e f i r s t r e l e a r n i n g s c o r e s f o r g ro u p s r e c e i v i n g d i f f e r e n t am ounts o f i n t e r p o l a t e d p r a c t ic e *

F ig u re 2 shows

th e r e l a t i o n betw een th e mean p erfo rm a n ce m easu res on th e f i r s t r e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s and th e i n t e r p o l a t e d le a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n * The f u n c tio n s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r to th o s e b a s e d on d ec re m en t m e a s u re s , a lth o u g h th e t o t a l e r r o r s and th e e r r o r - m a tc h r a t i o s

89

T a b le r A n a ly se s o f V a ria n c e o f th e D if f e r e n c e s b etw een th e l a s t T r i a l o f O r ig in a l l e a r n i n g and th e F i r s t T r i a l o f B e le a r a in g f o r M atch es, E r r o r s and E r r o r M atch B a tio s f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups

Sum o f S q u ares

S o u rce

d f.

Mean Sum o f S q u ares

816*10 3 4 4 *78

46 4

1 7 ,7 4 8 6 ,1 8

1160 *82

50

2 3 ,3 3

D ecrem ent i n M atches W ith in G roups Betw een G roups T o ta l

In c re m e n t i n E r r o r s W ith in G roups Betw een G roups

1061*70 1 1 7 3 ,0 0

46 4

35*0© 395,36

T o ta l

2234*75

50

4 4 .7 0

In c re m e n t i n E rror-M & toh B a tio s W ith in G roups Between G roups

3*020 3*417

46 4

.0439 .8543

T o ta l

5 ,4 3 7

50

.1087

1

o n v a

Figure

H o iv w -ao aaa

saoya3

S3H01VW ni

ni asv^aoM i

3SV3aoNi

NI l N 3 l A l 3 i d 3 3 Q nvbia

NVBlflJ

n v 3 im UJ

r

LU

2

The Relationships between the Mean Decrement in Matches, the Mean Increase in Errors, the Mean Increase In Error— Match Ratios and the lumber of Matches made on the Criterial Trial of Interpolated Learning

30

31

J i 8532 ,© © S3 gj *03 W js; &-p u o mo

" iv ia j. * v y

is a u

ouva

H O iv iA i-a o a a a n v i o i

nv

3 in

to UJ

© *d £3 g .r s a 3 8 8*3 ©■ •H T J u © &4 4*

32 sh©w a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e w ith th e h ig h e s t c r i t e r i o n o f i n t e r ­ p o la te d le a r n in g *

Mean v a lu e s f o r th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p s

on th e f i r s t r e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s w ere s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r m atch es (I* & 4*51, d f g 4 and 4 6 ) , e r r o r s (F m 11*74, d f » 4 and 4 6 ) , and e r r o r - m a te h r a t i o s (F * 1 5 .9 7 , d f - 4 and 46)*

A summary o f th e a n a ly s e s o f v a r ia n c e i s g iv e n

i n T ab le T I . Number o f H a tc h e s a s & Measuye o f P erfo rm an ce in B e l e a rn in g The mean number o f m atches made by th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p s d u r in g r e l e a r n i n g a r e shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n F ig u re 3* T r i a l s 1 -5 w ere g iv e n im m ed ia tely a f t e r i n t e r p o l a t e d p r a c t i c e , T r i a l s 6-BO on th e n e x t d ay , and T r i a l s 21-25 on th e day f o llo w ­ ing*

T a b le FIX shows th e mean d ecrem ent in m atches f o r each

o f th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p s from th e end o f on© day o f p r a c t i c e to th e b e g in n in g o f th e n e x t* in c re m en t*

4 m inus valu e, i n d i c a t e s an

The d i f f e r e n c e s betw een th e gro u p d ec re m en ts i n

number o f m atch es betw een T r i a l s 5 end 6 {F - 1 7 0 , d f « 4 and 46) and T r i a l s 20 and 21 { f - 1*56, d f » 4 and 46) w ere n o t s ig n ific a n t.

A summary o f th e a n a ly s e s o f v a r ia n c e i s shown in

T able T U I*

The d i f f e r e n c e i n g ran d mean® o f number o f m atches

'b e tw e e n T r i a l s 5 and 6 was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ( t & 0*132, d f » 5 0 ) , b u t th e d if f e r e n c e ;- 'in g ran d means o f number o f m atches betw een T r i a l s 20 and 21 was s i g n i f i c a n t {t * 3*61, d f » 50) The c u rv e s f o r th e mean number o f m atch es show t h a t th e g ro u p w hich made th e fe w e s t m atches a t th e b e g in n in g o f r e l e a r n i n g (Group 1) c o n tin u e d to im prove more r a p i d l y

53 f a b l e YX A n aly ses o f Variance o f M atch es, E r r o r s , an a E rro r-M a tc h R a tio s f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l G roups on th e F i r s t T r i a l o f R e le a rn in g

S ource

Sum o f S q u a re s

df

Mean Sum o f s q u a re s

7 9 9 ,7 0 313#63

46 4

1 7 ,3 8 7 8 ,4 1

1115*35

50

£ £ ,£ 7

M atches W ith in G roups Betw een G roups T o ta l

B r r o re W ith in G roups Betw een G roups

1 0 1 3 ,6 0 X 033.08

46 4

£ £ ,0 3 2 5 8 ,3 8

T o ta l

£ 0 4 6 ,9 8

50

4 0 ,9 4

i r r o r - i a t c h B a tio s W ith in G roups B etw een G roups

a. z m 3 ,1 6 3

46 4

,0493 ,7907

T o ta l

8*443

m

,1089

3

AWG

S3H 01VIAI N V 3 IN

Figure

I

The Means of Humber of Matches made b y the E xperim ental Groups on Each of th e E elearning T r i a l s

34

im m w

35 T a b le V II The Mean D ecrem ent i n lu m b er o f M atches d u rin g R e le a r n in g f o r th e l& p e rim e n ta l G roups F o llo w in g an I n t e r v a l o f One Bay W ith o u t P r a c t i c e

Group

Betw een T r i a l s 5 and 6 *> 1*0 1 .4 0*8 M K 0 .4 0 .^

1 2 4t 5 7

Betw een T r i a l s BO and 01 3 .3 2 .5 0 .8 0 .3 l.f £ * -S iS

* * T„, 0 .5 0 Mz

M JB 1 .7 6

F *jj

F g 1 .3 6

d f z*#

0 .7 0 4 and 46

d f g 4 and 46

36

‘T able T i l l A n aly ses o f T arian c© o f D ecrem ents l a M atches F o llo w in g an I n t e r v a l o f One Bay W ith o u t P r a c t i c e Between T rial® 5 and 6 and Between T ria l® 20 and 21 o f R e le a rn in g

S ource

Sum o f S q u ares

df

Mean Sum o f S q u ares

Betw een T r i a l s p and 6. W ith in G roups Between G roups

387*23 23*48

46 4

8*42 5*87

T o ta l

410*71

80

8 .2 1

Between T r i a l # 20 and 31 W ith in G roups Between G roups

505*43 5 9 ,7 5

46 4

10*99 14*94

T o ta l

5 6 5 .1 8

50

11*30

th a n th a gro u p w h ich made th e g r e a t e s t number o f m atches ©t th e b e g in n in g o f r e l e a r n i n g (Group 7 ) .

A ll g ro u p s re a c h e d

a p p ro x im a te ly th e same l e v e l betw een T rial© 7 and 8*

The

mean number o f m atch es f o r th e o th e r g ro u p s re a c h e d a p p ro x i­ m a te ly th e same l e v e l b etw een T r i a l s 7 and 8 and th e n r e v e r s e d t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s a s th e r e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s w ere c o n tin u ed *

The o v e r a l l r e s u l t o f th e i n i t i a l m atches d i f ­

f e r e n c e , th e d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t e o f im provem ent and th e a p p ro x i­ m ate e q u a l i t y o f p erfo rm a n ce b etw een T r i a l s 7 and 8 was t h a t th e ra n k o rd e r o f th e g ro u p s was r e v e r s e d from th e b e g in n in g to th e end o f r e le a r n in g * F ig u re 3 .

T h is may be r e a d i l y seen from

F o r exam ple, Group 1 b egan

r e l e a r n i n g w ith th e

lo w e s t mean number o f m atch es and ended r e l e a r n i n g w ith th e h ig h e s t l e v e l o f perform ance*

The r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f th e

g ro u p s a r e n o t c l e a r l y d e f in e d f o r a l l r e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s , b u t th© g e n e r a l tr e n d i© a p p a re n t* J r r o r a a s a M easure o f B srfo rm an ce i n H e le a rn in g The means o f th e e r r o r s mad® by th e e x p e rim e n ta l group on th e t h r e e c o n t r o l s d u rin g th e r e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s a r e shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n F ig u re 4*

Th® mean o f th e t o t a l

e r r o r s was o b ta in e d by summing th® e r r o r s mad® by a s u b je c t on a p a r t i c u l a r t r i a l and com puting th© mean v a lu e o f th e s e to ta ls fo r

ea ch group*

Between T rial© 5 and 6 and betw een

T r i a l s 20 and 2 1 , an i n t e r v a l o f one day w ith o u t p r a c t i c e

30

GROUP

C R IT E R IO N

39

25

o

-o

35

27

b—a.

MEAN

T OTAL

ERRORS

23

20

0

5

10 RELEARNING

F ig u re

15

20

25

TRIALS

The Mean® o f T o ta l B r r o rs Made "by th e E x p e ri­ m e n ta l Group® on Each o f th e R e le a rn in g T ria l®

m i s shown#

In c re m e n ts i n th e means o f th© t o t a l e r r o r s a f t e r

ea c h one day i n t e r v a l a r e ta b u l a t e d i n T ab le IX# v a lu e i n d i c a t e s an in crem en t*

A m inus

from T r i a l 5 to T r i a l 6 th e r e

was a mean in c re m e n t in t o t a l e r r o r s f o r a l l e x p e rim e n ta l group® o f .OS e r r o r s (F 9 1*40! d f g 4 and 46)*

A mean

in c re m e n t o f 1*92 e rro r© o c c u rre d from T r i a l 20 t o T r i a l 21 (F » 1*38, d f * 4 and 46)*

n e i t h e r o f th e s e d iffe re n c e © was

s ta tis tic a lly s ig n ific a n t.

A summary o f th e a n a ly s e s o f

v a r ia n c e i s g iv e n i n T able X. The mean number o f t o t a l e r r o r s d e c re a s e d d u rin g th e f i r s t 20 t r i a l © o f r e l e a r n i n g , te n d in g to l e v e l o f f b etw een 13 and 14 e r r o r s *

The r a t e o f d e c re a s e i n e r r o r s

was g e n e r a l l y more r a p id f o r th e g ro u p s r e a c h in g a h ig h e r in te r p o la te d le a rn in g c r ite r io n *

I t i® d i f f i c u l t t$ i n t e r p r e t

th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e e r r o r s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n to m atches*

H ot more th a n th r e e e r r o r s c o u ld be made f o r ea ch

m atch* &rror~&iatgh B a tio s a s a M easure &g P erfo rm an ce in R elearn in g ; B ecau se o f th e r e s t r i c t i o n p la c e d on th e nuirfcer o f e r r o r s by th e number o f m a tc h e s, th e err© rem atch r a t i o was com puted, r e l a t i n g th e number o f e r r o r s t o th e number o f m atch es on a g iv e n t r i a l *

T h is m easure m ig h t be more

c o r r e c t l y d e s c r ib e d a s " e r r o r s p e r m atch" f o r each t r i a l . The t o t a l number o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e r r o r s was t h r e e tim e s

40 T a b le XX The Mean In c re m e n t i n T o ta l E r r o r s f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l Group® f o llo w in g an I n t e r v a l b etw een R e le a rn in g T r i a l s o f On® Ray W ith o u t P r a c t i c e

Group

Betw een T r i a l s 5 and 6

im 8*1 0*0 m 0*2

1 a

4 5 7

1*0

1.4 ^ at , 0.1

Between T r i a l s BO and 81 2 .9 0 .4 2 .0 3 .? 0*6

M ts

0*02

i =_M H 9 1*92

W z

1*40

F « 1 .3 S

df s

4 and 46

df a 4 and 46

41 T ab le I

Analy*** o f V a ria n c e o f the In c re m e n ts i n T o ta l E r r o r s f o r th e E x p e rim e n ta l Group© F o llo w in g an I n t e r v a l b etw een Relearning T r i a l s o f One Bay Without P r a c t i c e

S o u rc e

Sum o f S q u a re s

At

Mean B m o f sq u a re *

s ts s o B ® pam s asa i W ith in G roups Between G roups

6 0 8 ,0 0 74»098

46 4

13* 04 1 6 .5 2

T o ta l

6 8 2 .9 9 8

50

1 3 .6 6

le tw een t r i a l s 20 and. 21 W ith in G roups Betw een Groups

7 3 6 .0 5 0 7 .9 9

46 4

16 *00 22*00

T o ta l

8 2 4 .0 4

60

16*48

42 th© a m b e r o f m atch es f o r a g iv e n t r i a l .

I n th e n u m e ra to r

o f th© r a t i o was th e number o f © rro rs co u n ted on a t r i a l , and o n e - t h i r d o f th© number o f e r r o r s p o s s i b le on t h a t t r i a l was in th© d e n o m in a to r.

A ll r a t i o s w ere im m ed iately com­

p a r a b l e , r e p r e s e n tin g th e t o t a l number o f i n i t i a l wrong r e s p o n s e s made to a s t a t e d number o f p a t t e r n s o f r e d l i g h t s * The r a t i o was alw ay s p o s i t i v e and co u ld ran g e from 3*00 t o 0*00.

The l a r g e r th e r a t i o , th e g r e a t e r was th e te n d e n c y

to make w rong o r in a p p r o p r ia t e re s p o n s e s *

To th© e x te n t t h a t

th e in a p p r o p r ia t e r e s p o n s e f o r th e r e l e a r n i n g ta s k was th® a p p r o p r ia te re s p o n s e f o r th e i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k , i t r e p r e s e n te d an "in tru sio n * * from i n t e r p o l a t e d l e a r n i n g .

However, s in c e

e r r o r s w ere n o t c o m p le te ly e lim in a te d in o r i g i n a l le a r n i n g , a co m p ariso n la® mad© betw een th e in c r e a s e s i n th e e r r o r mat eh r a t i o s from o r i g i n a l le a r n in g to r e l e a r n i n g and a ls o betw een th e ©rror-raatoh r a t i o s o b ta in e d on th e f i r s t r e l e a r n ­ in g t r i a l * The means o f th e e r r o r- m a tc h r a t i o s a r e p l o t t e d i n F ig u re 5 f o r each o f th e e x p e rim e n ta l g ro u p s f o r th© re le a rn in g tr ia l® .

A day in te r v e n e d betw een T r i a l s $ and

$ and a l s o b etw een T r i a l s 20 and 31.

The means o f th e

in c re m e n ts in th e r a t i o s fo llo w in g a day o f no p r a c t i c e i s shown in T ab le X I.

A m inus v a lu e I n d i c a t e s a d e c re m e n t.

The d i f f e r e n c e s betw een th e change© in e r r o r- m a tc h ra tio ® b etw een T r i a l s 5 and 6 and betw een T r i a l s 30 and 21 w ere n o t

45

GROUP

O

CRITERION •

39

3

35

0.9 27

I -