Logic, language, and meaning vol.2: Intensional logic and logical grammar [1 ed.] 0226280888

Chapter 1 provides a background to the systems of intensional logic presented in chapters 2 and 3. The nature and limits

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Logic, language, and meaning vol.2: Intensional logic and logical grammar [1 ed.]
 0226280888

Table of contents :
Foreword
Preface
1 The Origins of Intensional Logic
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The Correspondence Theory of Meaning
1.3 Naturalism versus Conventionalism
1.4 Variants of the Correspondence Theory of Meaning
1.5 Logical Semantics as a Referential Theory of Meaning
1.6 Problems with the Referential Theory of Meaning
1.7 Frege's Theory of Meaning
1.8 Context Dependence
2 Intensional Propositional Logic
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Possible Worlds Semantics
2.3 Modal Propositional Logic
2.3.1 Historical Background
2.3.2 Syntax and Semantics
2.3.3 The Syntactic Approach to the Notion of Validity
2.3.4 Alethic and Epistemic Modalities
2.3.5 An Application
2.4 Propositional Tense Logic
2.4.1 Syntax and Semantics
2.4.2 Now: An Extension
2.4.3 Other Approaches
2.5 Tense and Modality Combined
3 Intensional Predicate Logic
3.1 Opaque Contexts: Modalities de Dicto and de Re
3.2 Proper Names and Definite Descriptions: Rigid Designation
3.3 The Semantics of Modal Predicate Logic
3.3.1 Formulas without Variables
3.3.2 Identity
3.3.3 Variables and Quantifiers
3.3.4 One Domain: The Existence Predicate
3.4. Other Kinds of Contexts
3.5 A Methodological Note
4 The Theory of Types and Categorial Grammar
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Theory of Types
4.2.1 Type Distinctions in Natural Language
4.2.2 Syntax
4.2.3 Semantics
4.3 Categorial Grammar
4.3.1 Introduction
4.3.2 Characteristics of Categorial Grammar
4.3.3 The Descriptive Adequacy of Categorial Grammar
4.3.4 Categorial Grammar and the Theory of Types
4.4 λ-Abstraction.
4.4.1 The λ-Operator
4.4.2 λ-Conversion
4.4.3 The λ-Operator and Compositionality
5 The Intensional Theory of Types
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Intensional Constructions and Intensional Concepts
5.3 Syntax
5.4 Semantics
5.5 The Operators ∧ and v
5.6 λ-Conversion
5.7 Temporal Operators
5.8 Two-Sorted Type Theory
6 Montague Grammar
6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 Compositionality of Meaning and Syntax
6.1.2 Object Language and Metalanguage: Semantic Closure
6.1.3 Semantics and Truth Theory
6.2 The Organization of a Montague Grammar
6.3 A Montague Grammar for a Fragment of English
6.3.1 Categories and Basic Expressions
6.3.2 Terms, Intransitive Verbs, Sentences
6.3.3 The Organization of the Translation Process
6.3.4 The Translation of Terms
6.3.5 Transitive Verbs
6.3.6 The Function of Meaning Postulates
6.3.7 Meaning Postulates for the Fragment
6.3.8 Scope Ambiguities, de Re Readings, and Rules of Quantification
6.3.9 The Transitive Verb Be
6.3.10 Conjunction Rules, Disjunction Rules, and Negation Rules
6.4 Individual Concepts
6.4.1 Arguments for the Introduction of Individual Concepts
6.4.2 Consequences of the Introduction of Individual Concepts
6.4.3 Some Examples
6.4.4 Meaning Postulates
6.5 Compositionality, Logical Form, and Grammatical Form
6.6 Concluding Remarks
7 Recent Developments
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The Theory of Generalized Quantifiers
7.2.1 Principal Objectives
7.2.2 NPs as Generalized Quantifiers in Montague Grammar
7.2.3 Determiners: Two Perspectives
7.2.4 Some Fundamental Properties ofNPs and Quantifiers
7.2.5 Global Constraints
7.2.6 Logical Determiners
7.2.7 Further Developments
7.3 Flexible Categorial Grammar and Type Theory
7.3.1 Category Change
7.3.2 A Logical Point of View
7.3.3 Further Developments
7.4 Discourse Representation Theory
7.4.1 Introduction
7.4.2 Some Problems with Anaphoric Relations and Indefinite Terms
7.4.3 An Informal Introduction to DRT
7.4.4 Formal Definitions
7.4.5 DRT and Compositionality
7.4.6 Conclusion
Solutions to Selected Exercises
Bibliographical Notes
References
Index

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